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Full text of "Handy farm devices and how to make them"

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COEMCLL^MWCWITT 





Cornell University 
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There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924080109832 




A TIME-HONORED HANDY DEVICE 



Handy 
Farm Devices 

and 
How to Make Them 



By Rolfe Cobleigh 

Associate Editor American Agriculturist 



ILLUSTkATED 



NEW YORK 

ORANGE JUDD COMPANY 

1912 



Copyright, 1909) by 
ORANGE JUDD COMPANY 



All Rights Reserved. 



Feinted in U. S. A. 



By Way of IntrodacUon 

SUCCESS comes to the man who so works 
that his efforts will bring the most and the 
best results — not to the man who simply 
works hard. It is the know-how, things-to- 
do-with and economy that count. Labor-saving 
machinery has revolutionized many a trade and 
industry. It has made farming an industry and a 
science of possibilities undreamed of and unattain- 
able a hundred years ago. But it is not enough for 
the modern farm to be equipped with the best tools 
and machinery that shops and factories turn out, to 
know how to use them and keep them in repair. 
There are many handy devices, not made in any 
factory and not sold in any store, that every intel- 
ligent man can make himself, which save money 
and labor and time. Inventive men are constantly 
contriving simple but valuable things to meet the 
needs of their own practical experience. We are all 
the time hunting after and gathering these ideas. 
Now we are putting a lot of the best ones into this 
book. We are trying, by words and pictures, to 
explain clearly Just how to make each device. 
Everything described is tried and practical. Some 
are old, many are new, alF are good for the purpose 
intended. They represent the practical, successful 
experience of farmers and other wide-awake 
workers all over the United States, 



4 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

This book is broader than its title. The over- 
flow of good measure includes a valuable chapter 
on the steel square and its uses. Nowhere else has 
this subject been handled in a way so easily under- 
stood, with confusing mathematics cut out. We 
especially commend this chapter to our readers. 
We also present some good house and barn plans, 
that will be appreciated by those who contemplate 
building. 

In addition to the direct benefit to be derived 
from doing what the book tells how to do, we have 
in mind the larger purpose of education toward 
putting more thought into our work and doing 
what we have to do the easiest, the cheapest and 
the quickest way. Out of it all, we trust our 
readers will make progress toward greater pros- 
perity, greater happiness and greater usefulness. 



CONTENTS BY CHAPTERS 



Page 

Workshop and Tools ..... 7 

The Steel Square . . . », . 19 

In and Around the House . ;. « ;. 37 

Barns and Stock . . . . , 83 

Poultry and Bees • .; :« «, , 115 

Garden and Orchard . :., w w .: 131 

Field and Wood . . . m ;« .154 

Gates and Doors . x cj m . I74 

When We Build . ,., . », ;. 189 

Worth Knowing . . . ..1 «; 233 




"VNTORK • Sff OP 
•AND ■ TOOLS • 



THE FARMER'S WORKSHOP 

"■n^^^'lHERE is no doubt that of all the 

» H handy farm devices good tools 

*RJ^ H head the list. So, in this book, we 

QmK JI^ are going to start with carpenter 

tools and the place to keep and use 

them. Every farmer ought to have 

a workshop in which he can do odd 

jobs and make things when the weather prevents 

out-of-door work, or at times when there is little to 

do on the form. Economy and thrift demand that 

a farmer should have and keep in good condition 

a few essential carpenter tools. First of all he 

should have a long, strong, smooth-top bench and, 

either on racks above the bench or in a tool chest, 

he should keep in order, and where he can easily 

find them when wanted, his stock of carpenter 

tools. Some of the tools that will be found useful 

are the following: 

A rip saw, a crosscut saw, a back saw, and a 
compass saw; a jack plane, a fore plane, and a 
smoothing plane; a shave or drawing knife; two 
or three chisels of different sizes for woodworking 
and a cold chisel for metal ; a gouge or two ; a good 
hatchet; two or three hammers, including a tack 
hammer and a bell-faced claw hammer; a brace 
or bit stock with a set of half a dozen or more bits 
of different sizes ; one or more gimlets ; a mallet ; a 
nail set, a large screw driver and a small one; a 
gauge; a spirit level; a miter box; a good car- 
penter's square — No. loo is a good standard size; 



8 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

compasses or dividers ; cut nippers, a pair of small 
pincers and a pair of large ones; a rasp; a large, 
flat file; at least one medium-sized three-cornered 
file and a half-round file. 

It is poor economy to buy cheap tools. Of course 
extravagance is to be avoided, but be sure that you 
get first-class material in every tool you buy. It is 
a good plan to get a good practical carpenter to 
assist you in selecting your tools. Keep on hand in 
the shop a variety of nails, brads and tacks, screws, 
rivets, bolts, washers and nuts, and such small 
articles of builders' hardware that are likely to be 
needed occasionally, including hinges, hasps and 
staples and some sand-paper. Have a good plumb 
line, chalk and pencils. Keep in a handy place a 
jar of a good liquid glue, and some cement. See to 
it that the shop contains a good stock of well-sea- 
soned lumber, both hard wood and soft. 

Attached to the bench should be a bench screw 
or vise. This need not be an expensive one, but 
should be of good size and strong. There should 
also be a pair of carpenter's saw benches, a shaving 
horse, a small anvil and a grindstone. Every 
farmer has a grindstone somewhere about the 
buildings, but it is a great convenience to have a 
good one in the workshop. 

A corner of the shop should be devoted to paint- 
ing supplies, including several colors of good 
Standard ready-mixed paints and stains, raw linseed 
oil, boiled linseed oil, turpentine, varnish, putty, 
points for setting glass, several brushes of different 
sizes, a good putty knife and panes of glass of dif- 
ferent sizes ready for emergency. 

A farmer ought to be able to do occasional little 
jobs of soldering. He needs soldering iron, a bar 
of solder, resin, a little bottle of soldering fluid. 



WORKSHOP AND TOOLS 9 

which can be purchased already prepared, also a 
small sheet-iron furnace in which to heat the sol- 
dering iron. 

It would cost quite a tidy sum to buy all these 
things at once, but they can be gradually accumu- 
lated as one is able to purchase them, and then the 
outfit should be kept complete. Whenever any- 
thing in the shop is broken, worn out, or disappears 
it should be replaced. 

Whenever farm implements or anything about 
the barn or house are broken or out of order, they 
should be properly fixed. Often a few minutes 
spent at the right time will make a thing almost 
as good as new, while, if neglected, it may soon get 
beyond repair and have to be thrown away. A 
thrifty farmer always keeps his farm implements 
well housed and in repair. It is not what we earn, 
but what we save, that makes us rich. It is quite 
as important to stop the leaks as it is to figure on 
big profits directly. 

RUNNING THE GRINDSTONE 

If the face of the grindstone is hard and glazed 
pour a little sand on the stone every few minutes 
until the glaze is worn off and the stone will cut 
like a new one. This condition is caused by ex- 
posing the stone to the weather. It is best to keep 
the stone in a shed under cover, but if this is not 
possible, set it under a tree and put a box over it 
when not in use. It is surprising how easy a little 
oil on the bearings will make the stone run. A few 
drops of kerosene will cut the gum if it runs hard 
and then some oil or axle grease will make it go 
easy. 

It is hard to stand on one foot and work the 



10 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

treadle with the other. The job can be made easy 
by bolting two boards to the grindstone frame, and 
extending it 2 feet, on which place a seat as shown 




HANDY GRINDSTONE RIG 



in the cut. An uneven stone needs to be cut down 
and toned up. This can be done by grinding against 
the end of a piece of pipe, having the stone dry. 



Good nature is as contagious as the measles. Put 
on your best smile when you get up in the morning 
and observe how everybody will greet you with a 
sunny face. 



A HOMEMADE ANVIL 

A homemade anvil can be constructed from a 
4-foot piece of railroad rail mounted on a trestle, as 
shown in the sketch. This affair will stand a lot 



WORKSHOP AND TOOLS 



II 



of heavy pounding, and comes in handy in many 
ways. The rail is just about the right shape to 
make an anvil. 




RAIL ANVIL 

MAKING A NEW TOOL 



A very handy wrench for many kinds of work, 
such as making gates and con- 
trivances, where small bolts are 
used, is shown in the cut. From 
4 small monkey wrench remove 
the wooden handle, and weld the 
metal part to an old bit-stock, 
as shown in the cut. This per- 
mits of very rapid work in screw- 
ing up small bolts. Where there 
are so many things to do as there 
are on a farm, it pays to do 
things in the easiest and quickest ^"'^"STOCK wrench 
way. This is one of the real time-savers. 




Learn to live, and live to learn, 

Ignorance like a fire doth burn, 

Little tasks make large return. — Bayard Taylor- 



12 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

HOW TO MAKE A SHAVING HORSE 

One of the most useful devices on a farm is a 
shaving horse. Make a bench i8 feet high of a 
good 2-inch plank, c, level oflf the edges so that it 
will make a comfortable seat. Upon this place a 
slanting platform, b, through which is cut a hole 
in which the clamp, a, works. 

The clamp must be made of heavy hard wood 
that is tough and will not split. The shank, /, must 




SHAVING HORSE 

be an extension of the clamp, a. Several holes in 
the plank will allow the clamp to be raised so as 
to take in larger pieces of wood. The treadle, g, is 
kept in place by a peg at h. To operate this horse 
the workman places his foot upon the treadle, 
inserts the wood to be clamped under the edge of a, 
and pushes backward upon the treadle. This 
clamps the wood and the drawing knife can be used 
readily and much more rapidly than with a vise. 

A CONVENIENT FARM HORSE 

On the farm there is continual use for such a 
horse as is shown in the drawing. Not only when 



WORKSHOP AND TOOLS 1$ 

doing little jobs of carpentering, but also in many 
other operations, such a support is found neces- 
sary. This little horse is an improvement over the 
ordinary sti£E affair, in that it shuts together when 
not in use, and so can be packed out of the way. 




HORSE READY FOR USE 



It is made of boards cut in strips, the two hori- 
zontal boards at the top being hinged together, as 
shown herewith. While in use the legs are kept 
apart by long hooks, as may be plainly seen in the 
picture. 



When tillage begins, other arts follow. The farm- 
ers, therefore, are the founders of human civili- 
zation. — Daniel Webster. 



A WIRE SPLICER 

The neatest and strongest splice can be made 
with this little instrument. It is a strip of iron I 
inch wide and }i inch thick. One end is cut nar- 
row and is bent into a hook large enough to fit 



14 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 





■neatly the largest wife to be spliced. At the sides 
of this two notches are filed, as shown at the left. 
-At the right the splicer is seen in position on the 
wire. The splicer 
should be turned ( (f \ 
backward, as it ap- 
pears in the right- 
hand drawing, to 
make the splice. A 
pair of large pin- 
cers or a vise 
should be used 
to hold the two 
wires between the 
coils while turning 
the splicer. The 

splice as finished appears above. The length of 
the handle may vary. If the splicer is to be used 
for net wire, of course the handle cannot be longer 
than the width of the mesh. Otherwise, 6 or 7 
inches is about right for No. 8 wire. If it is to be 
used only for small wire, the length of the handle 
should be reduced for the sake of convenience. 



WIRE SPLICING 



SERVICEABLE HOMEMADE LEVEL 

A serviceable level is shown in the illustration. 
Take two i-inch boards of rather hard wood, well- 
seasoned, 2 to 3 feet long, bolt or screw them 
together at right angles. This 
union must be so strong as never 
to be moved by ordinary pressure. 
At the top of the perpendicular 
piece cut a slit and insert a piece 
of strong thread. To the bottom 
LEVEL of the thread tie a thin circular 




WORKSHOP AND TOOLS 



15 



weight. Lay the device across two trestles of nearly 
the same level. Just above the weight mark the 
place where the string hangs. Reverse the posi- 
tion of the instrument by turning it end for end, 
and again mark the position of the string. Half 
way between the two marks place a third. When 
the string hangs over this mark the lower board 
will be level. A shield of tin may be placed over 
the weight. A nail on each side of the string, just 
above the weight, will keep it from swinging far 
out of place. It must be allowed to swing freely. 
A simple level may be improvised by filling a 
small flat bottle with water, so that only a bubble 
of air remains, and attaching it lengthwise and 
near the middle of a straight stick or narrow 
board. 

TO MAKE A HANDLE STAY ON 



To secure the handle of a hammer or ax is often 
quite a bothersome problem. A special wedge made 
with a piece of wood as at a, in 
the sketch, held in place by a 
fence staple, b, has been devised 
to meet the need for a wedge 
that really holds. The prongs of 
the staple should be bent slightly 
outward before it is driven in, so 
that they will spread in the han- 
dle. There is little danger of 
handles coming loose when they 
are attached in this manner, and 
it is little more difficult to set a handle as indicated 
than in the old-fashioned way. 




HOLDS WEDGE 



1 6 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

A TOOL BOX REQUISITE 

Among the handiest things to have in the tool 
box are some small bolts about 2 inches long with 
thumb nuts. A dozen or so of these will prove 
their, value many times over in the course of a year. 
In making tables for fairs or suppers or in any sort 
of knock-down arrangement, or temporary con- 
venience where strength is essential, nothing sur- 
passes a bolt of this description. With a brace 
and a bit the right size, one may be entirely inde- 
pendent of nails and screws. 

A farmer friend of ours was once called upon to 
make a fence about a child's crib without any mar- 
ring nails. A slot in the fence post with a thumb 
bolt just above the crib line gave an alligator jaw 
result which was very satisfactory. On another 
occasion a knock-down stage was carried from the 
storeroom in pieces and put together by two men 
in 20 minutes. An actual computation of its 
strength showed that a locomotive might safely 
run over it. 

The man referred to above has 100 feet of tables 
for hall purposes, depending entirely upon the 2- 
inch bolt and thumb nut for their fastenings and 
braces. There is never any trouble about knock- 
ing out nails. To one having a brace and bit these 
handy things will suggest of themselves many satis- 
factory uses. A supply of iron washers should be 
kept in hand, and in time a collection of various 
sizes of wooden washers will accumulate. 

SOLDERING 

Soldering may be done by anyone having a very 
simple outfit. All that is required is a copper sol- 



WORKSHOP AND TOOLS I7 

dering iron, some solder, a vial of muriatic acid 
and some resin. A fairly successful job of solder- 
ing a tin dish may be done by scraping the surface 
bright where the hole is, sprinkling on a little finely 
powdered resin, laying on a bit of solder and hold- 
ing the dish over a flame, which may be from an 
alcohol lamp, until th* solder melts. It will cover 
the hole and stick. If the dish is rusty or badly 
tarnished use muriatic acid in place of resin. 
Resin works best when tin is bright, but usually 
solder sticks most successfully when the acid is 
used. 

For soldering large breaks or doing important 
jobs of soldering the iron must be used. In order 
to work well the iron has to be kept coated with 
solder. When it gets blackened it should be filed 
until bright and then rubbed upon a smooth board 
while hot in a mixture of melted solder and resin. 
When the hot iron is taken from the fire wipe it on 
a damp cloth before trying to use it to lift the 
melted solder. A soldering iron is best heated in 
charcoal or the coals of a wood fire. The copper 
should never get red hot, as that causes the coating 
of the point to be burned ofJ. The metal to be 
soldered must always be heated before the solder 
will unite it. 

Solder may be obtained in bars at any tin shop. 
It can be made by melting together 2 parts of lead 
and I of bar tin. This is the usual proportion for 
most purposes. Soft solder that will melt quickly 
and can be easily used for mending tinware can be 
made of pure lead and tin in equal parts. A hard 
solder is made by melting together 2 parts of cop- 
per to I of tin. Brazing solder is made by melting 
together brass and one-sixth its weight of zinc. 
When cool it should be granulated by pounding 



1 8 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

with a hammer. For soldering steel and iron to 
brass the following combination of metal is melted 
together, 3 parts tin, 39J4 copper, and 7^ zinc. 
Before it is applied, all the metals to be jointed 
together must be heated to the same temperature 
as the soldering alloy. Gold solder is made of 24 
parts gold, 2 parts silver and i part copper. A 
hard silver solder is made of 4 parts silver to i of 
copper. A soft silver solder is made of 2 parts 
silver to i of brass. 



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Use of the Steel Square 

BY J. HAMILTON ELLIOT 






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A steel square, often 

called a carpenter's 

square, can be found in 

almost any kit of me- 
chanic's tools and a 

little knowledge of 

this instrument will 

aid the user to perform 

many problems easily 

and quickly that other- 
wise might prove dif- 
ficult. Squares of dif- 
ferent kinds and mate- 
rials have been used by 
mechanics in all ages. 
The first were made of 
wood and were used 
in the construction of 
the earliest buildings of which we 
have historic record. The squares 
of today are made of steel, finely 
polished and stamped with many 



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20 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

figures, tables and rules, according to the taste of 
the manufacturer and the special mechanic for 
whom they are designed. 

We will not attempt to deal with the several 
special kinds or makes, taking up only a few of 
the possibilities of the standard 2-foot square. This 
is 2 feet long on the blade, which is two inches 
wide, and it is i6 or i8 inches on the tongue or 
angular leg. The latter is 15^ inches wide. Be- 
ginning at the heel or corner of the square, inches 
and fractions of inches are marked. It is neces- 
sary that the marking be in this way, in order to 
form the different combinations desired in connec- 
tion with the different problems which have to be 
solved. A few of these problems are explained in 
the following pages. 

LUMBER RULE 

On the side of the blade of the square that is 
divided into inches and eighths is placed the lum- 
ber rule or scale. This is used for computing the 
number of feet in board measure contained in a 
given board or piece of lumber. We show a 
picture of a section cut from the center of 
the lumber rule. The space running length- 
wise of the blade between the parallel lines, 
contains the number of feet board measure 
for a given width of board. The first space is for 
boards 8 inches wide, the second for those 9 inches 
wide, the third for those 10 inches wide and so on. 
To determine the space which should be used for 
any given width, look under the 12-inch mark on 
the outside edge of the blade. These numbers 
give the width of the board, also the number of feet 
board measure. If a board is 10 inches wide and 
12 feet long, it contains 10 feet board measure. 



USE OF THE STEEL SQUARE 



21 



Now let it be required to find the number of feet 
board measure in a board 13 inches wide and 11 
feet long. Find the space for boards 13 inches 
wide under the 12-inch mark on the square, follow 
this space to the left and under the ii-inch mark 
on the square will be found the answer desired: 
II — II. This is read li feet and ^Yiz, and is the 
number of feet board measure contained in a board 



ill III Mill II II 11 II II II III II II III II II 
111 12 13' 'l4 


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LUMBER RULE 



13 inches wide and 11 feet long. With a little 
practice, anyone can measure lumber or timber and 
check up his bills for this kind of material. 

Do not confound foot board measure with square 
feet. Square feet are in surface measure, with no 
reference to thickness, while a foot board measure 
is the equivalent of a foot square and i inch in 
thickness. The square feet of a 3-inch plank would 
contain 3 feet board measure. 

After becoming familiar with the use of the lum- 
ber rule, as described above, you will discover that 
the space may be taken to contain the amounts for 
a. given width and the different lengths in feet as 
represented in the different columns, or the space 
may be taken as containing the amounts for a 



22 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



given length and the different widths arranged in 
columns; therefore, find either length in feet or 
width in inches under the 12-inch mark and follow 
this space until under the inch mark representing 
the other measurement. In this space will be 
found the feet board measure. 




BRACE RULE 



USE OF THE STEEL SQUARE 



23 



THE BRACE RULE 

The brace rule is on the tongue of the square, 
and has a series of figures representing the rise or 
vertical height, the run or horizontal reach and the 
true length of a brace. For example, they are 
written 2%^ 38 19 and 4%g 63 64. These would be read 
27 inches run, 27 inches rise and a length of 38 and 
i%oo inches, and 45 inches run, 45 inches rise and a 
length of 63 and ^Yioo inches. 

A glance at the illustration on page 22 will give 
a good idea of the application of the brace rule 
as it appears on almost any modern make of square. 




FIGURE I 

THE OCTAGON SCALE 

There is an octagon scale on one side of the 
tongue of the square, but we will not attempt to 
explain its use, as there are easier and simpler 
methods of obtaining the same result. 



24 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



One method is shown in Figure i. To obtaiti 
the lines on a square stick where the corners should 
come when converted into an octagon or eight- 
sided stick: Lay the square on the one side of 
the square stick at such an angle that the end of 
the square will come exactly at the edges or cor- 
ners of the stick, make a dot on the 7-inch mark 
and at the 17-inch mark. Through these dots 
gauge or mark a line parallel with the edge of the 
stick. Continue this operation on all of the four 
sides. This gives the lines for the corners of an 
octagon. In making a flag-pole or spar for a boat 
or to round any large stick this is the operation 
used by all mechanics doing the work by hand. 

THE MITER BOX 

Of all homemade devices, one of the most fre- 
quently used in the shop is the miter box. After 

the box is put to- 
gether it is a sim- 
ple problem, with 
the use of a steel 
square, to make 
the cuts necessary 
to intersect two 
pieces of wood, as 
shown in Figure 
2. First, the box 
must be straight 
and true and the 
sides form a 
perfect right 
angle or square 
with the bottom. 
Lay the steel 
FIGURE 5A square on the top 




USE OF THE STEEL SQUARE 



25 



of the box so that the 12-inch mark on the blade 
and the 12-inch mark on the tongue will both come 




FIGURES S AND 4 



26 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



exactly on the edge of the box. This gives the 
miter cut of the intersection of the angle of a per- 
fect square, as shown in Figure 2. Figure 3 shows 
the manner of placing the square on the box to give 
the desired angle. 

A sprung molding, which is a molding not solid 
■on the back, as shown in Figure 4, must be placed 
in the box bottom side up as shown in Figure 5, so 
as to get a solid bearing to hold it. Cuts in the 
box to miter around an eight-sided figure or an octa- 
gon, as shown in 5A, can be obtained by using 7 
inches and 17 inches, marking the cut on the 7-inch 
side, as shown in Figure 5. 



TRUING THE SQUARE 

After obtaining a steel square, the first and most 
essential thing is to test or prove it to see that it is 
accurate, forming the angle of a perfect square. 




FIGURE 6 



Take a board planed on one side and straighten one 
edge of it. perfectly as described under Making a 
Straight Edge. Make a mark across this board 



USE OF THE STEEL SQUARE 



27 



with the square, as shown in Figure 6, Position A, 
then reverse the square to Position B. If the 
square is true it should exactly fit the mark made. 
It is necessary to work very accurately, making 
the mark with the point of a knife and having the 
edge of the board absolutely straight. 

If the square is found to be out or inaccurate, it 
is not necessary to throw it away; it can be made 
true by a simple method by any handy mechanic. 
If you do not possess an anvil, make a substitute \3y 




FIGURE 7 



sticking the ax into a chopping block, lay the 
square on the head of the ax so that the bearing 
will come from the throat or inside angle to the 
heel or outside of the square. To close up the 
angle, strike with a hammer a sharp blow at a 
point near the heel; to open the angle, strike near 
the throat at a point indicated in Figure 7. Don't 
strike too hard. Use a bell-face nail hammer and 
the dent will not be noticed. 



28 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



A STRAIGHT EDGE 

In connection with the work with the steel 
square a straight-edged board is necessary to have 
ready for immediate use. Procure a board 8 or 
10 feet long of good, dry pine, free from knots and 
6 to 8 inches wide. Plane the edge until it seems 




FIGURE 8 

straight to the eye, then lay it on the bench or on 
another board and make a mark along the edge, 
just straight with a fine lead pencil; reverse it or 
turn it over and fit it to the other side of the pencil 
line. This multiplies any inaccuracy or deviation 
from a straight line. Make a new line each time 
you plane the edge. Work with as long a plane 
as you have and set the blade to take a fine shav- 
ing. When the edge will fit both sides of the line 
made from it while in one position, it is straight. 
Figure 8 will give a clear idea of this operation. 



RAFTERS 

The common rafter for a pitch roof is easily laid 
out with the steel square. There are many methods. 



USE OF THE STEEL SQUARE 29 

but the easiest and most simple is by spacing. Two 
dimensions, half the width of the building and the 
height of the roof, are divided into an equal number 
of parts. The width of half the building is called 
the run and is usually divided into parts of 12 
inches or a foot for convenience. The height is 
called the rise, and is divided into an equal number 
of parts. A glance at Figure 9 tells us that the run 
there shown is 10 inches rise to 12 inches run. 




FIGURE 



When the square is laid on the stick to be cut 
into a rafter, the lo-inch mark on the tongue and 
the 12-inch mark on the blade are held so that they 
come exactly even with the outside edge. The 
blade then takes a level position and the tongue a 
vertical position or plumb position. This gives the 
proper level for the cut at the top of the rafter and 



30 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

the level cut at the top of the plate. As the square 
now lies on the stick make a fine mark and move 
the square along, marking another space. Mark 
as many of these spaces as the parts into which 
the rise and run were divided. This gives the 
length of a rafter from the ridge to a point exactly 
over the outside of the plate. 

Where the rafter overhangs the plate, it is neces- 
sary to square down or in to form the notch for the 
plate. By studying Figure 9 you can readily see 
the different positions taken by the square, also, 
how and why the rise and run are divided into an 
equal number of spaces. By this method the length 
of the rafter is obtained without use of mathe- 
matics. 

STAIR STRINGER 

The stair stringer is laid out in much the same 
manner as the common rafter. The total rise of 
height to go up is divided into parts of about 7j4 
inches, as near as possible. This makes the easiest 
step. The run is always divided into one less space 
than the rise. The reason for this can be easily 
understood by examining Figure 10. Lay the 
square on the stick to be used as a stair stringer, 
taking the numbers into which the rise and run 
have been divided, mark, and slide the square along 
until the required number of spaces are marked. 
A little experience, with allowance made for the 
surrounding conditions, and any handy mechanic 
can lay out stringers for an ordinary flight of stairs. 
To get an easy flight of stairs for the person of 
average size where plenty of room can be used, 
experience teaches that 7J^ inches rise and 10 
Inches run or tread makes an easy flight. 



USE OF THE STEEL SQUARE 



3i 



From this some stair-building experts have put 
together the following rule, which works very well 
for the average stair: When the rise multiplied 
by the tread equals 75, the run will be an easy 
one, as 75^ inches rise by iQi/^ inches tread 
equals 75 ; 8% inches rise by 9 inches tread equals 




tiGURE 10 

75; 8 inches rise by 93^ inches tread equals "jf),. 
which is very near the desired result. When the 
rise is 9 inches or over, the rule is not good, as the 
tread must be shortened up much more, and the 
rise should never be more than 11 inches — that is- 
about the rise in an ordinary ladder leaning against. 
a house. 



32 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



" 






« 






" 




VVOOc* 


















xjfV^V^ 


















^^•cSry 


















^^\^^j 


















A 


«\>A 




































.- x> 




















H 


y 


^ 


















































































_ 



FIGURE XI 



THE 47TH PROBLEM OF EUCLID 

The problem shown in Figure 11 is known as the 
47th Problem of Euclid, and is an invention by an 

ancient Greek ge- 
ometer who sought 
many years for a 
method of finding 
the length of the 
hypothenuse of a 
right angle triangle 
in mathematics, and 
when the method 
was discovered, his- 
tory tells us there 
was great rejoicing. 
Pythagoras is 
credited with hav- 
ing first proved the rule successfully applied to the 
-problem. 

The rule is that the square of the base 
added to the square of the altitude equals the 
square of the hypothenuse. The base of a 
right angle triangle is the side on which it rests, 
■marked B in Figure li. The altitude is 
the height and is marked A in Figure 11. The 
hypothenuse is the connecting side of the triangle, 
marked H in Figure 11. The base, 6, squared or 
multiplied by itself, equals 36. The altitude, 8, 
squared, equals 64. By adding these together we 
have 100, which is the square of the hypothenuse. 
It femains but to extract the square root of 100, 
which we know is 10, therefore 10 is the length of 
the hypothenuse or third side of this right angle 
triangle. All right angle triangles can be figured 
in the same manner, but only multiples of the 




' THE BIG BROTHER TAKES A HAND 



H^'s a city chap now, but when he conies home, he 
proves! ihat his early training has not been forgotten. Teacb 
your tfey to use tools and use them right. 




KEEP THE HAMMER BUSY 




A NAIL IN TIME 



USE OF THE STEEL SQUARE 33 

length of the three sides come even — such as 3, 4, 
5 and 12, 16, 20, as shown in Figure 12 ; and many 
others, of course. 




THE RULE OF 6, 8 AND 10 

This is a rule so extensively used in the building 
trades and others that it has finally come to be 
known by the above name. It is derived from the 
47th Problem of Euclid, and is used in the manner 
shown in Figure 13. 

Measure 6 feet on the end sill of a building and 
.8 feet on the side sill. If it measures 10 feet across 
the angle the building is square. This is a very 
•useful rule and easily remembered. It is always 
available in running lines for batter boards for 
masonry or lines for walks. By starting from a 
corner stake into which a nail is driven, measure 
off on the string or line used and insert a stake to 
anark the place. Drive a nail into this stake and 



34 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

proceed in like manner on the other side. With a 
little care and practice, quite a job of surveying 
can be done by using a few stakes, a ball of string 
and a tape or lo-foot pole. 




FIGURE 13 

ANGLES 

An angle is the opening between two lines meet- 
ing at a point. Angles are usually spoken of as being 
of a number of degrees. The degrees are measured 
on the circumference, the center of which is on the 
point of the angle. There are 360 degrees of the 
circumference of a circle. The surface of the-earth 
is so divided north and south by the parallels of 
latitude, which are numbered from the equator each 
way; also east and west by the meridians of longi- 



USE OF THE STEEL SQUARE 



35 



tude, which are numbered from Greenwich, Eng- 
land. They can be seen on any map. 

By the use of a protractor, the number of degrees 
of any angle can be obtained. Figure 14 shows 
one-half of a circle or 180 degrees. 




FIGURE 14 



PLOTTING ANGLES 

To strike an angle in a field on a large scale 
where one line is given or can be obtained, measure 
off from the point of the angle 57%o feet; lay one 



FIGURE IS 




end of a lo-foot pole at this point. The other end 
should' be swung around so that it also will be 
57%o feet from the starting point. Each foot marks 



36 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

off I degree on the circumference of a circle whose 
radius is S7%o feet. If more than 10 degrees are 
required, continue as before, keeping the ends of the 
lo-foot pole always on the circumference of the 
circle from the starting point. A clear idea of this 
operation can be obtained from Figure 15. 



Labor is rest from the sorrows that greet us; 
Rest from all petty vexations that meet us. 
Rest from sin-promptings that ever entreat us. 

Rest from world-sirens that hire us to ill. 
Work — and pure slumbers shall wait on thy pillow ; 
Work — thou shalt ride over Care's coming billow; 
Lie not down wearied 'neath Woe's weeping willow 1 

Work with a stout heart and resolute will ! 

— Frances S. Osgood. 



^AROUND 





THE STEP-SAVING DUMB WAITER 

NE may save many steps in every 
house where the kitchen is situ- 
ated over the cellar, to say noth- 
ing of other considerations, 
with a small outlay of time, 
and perhaps, without the ex- 
penditure of a single dollaf, by 

means of a dumb waiter, 

which may be placed in 

any convenient corner out of 

the way. A handy size for 

an ordinary family is 2 feet 

square with four shelves, 

counting the top, i foot apart. 

These shelves may be hung 

from the corners, the center or 

the middle of the sides, by 

means of manila sash cord 

over pulleys placed close to the .^ 

ceiling of the kitchen and 

nearly balanced with weights, 

which should be confined in a 

little case. They should be 

guided in ascending and de- 
scending by means of grooves 

in the middle of the sides ex- 
tending from top to bottom 

of the inclosed case. In the 

cellar the case may have a fine 

37 




DUMB WAITER' 



38 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

wire screen door and in the kitchen an ordinary 
cupboard door or one with a glass front, as desired. 

The doors should slide upward and be balanced 
like an ordinary window with sash weights and 
pulleys. In order to prevent the waiter from de- 
scending when, being overloaded a pivoted wooden 
latch, as shown on the right-hand side, should 
engage with the ends of the shelves, and to pre- 
vent any shock from too quick descent some coiled 
springs should be placed at the bottom of the case. 
If desired a small cupboard may be built at the top 
of the case for storing little-used articles. 

Some advantages of such a waiter are that food 
may be placed on the shelves and lowered into the 
cool cellar and either allowed to stay there or re- 
moved to the refrigerator. Thus it will be unneces- 
sary to carry anything to or from the cellar, and 
this will often mean a saving of several trips up 
and down. If the cellar is clean and cool there 
may be no need to use a refrigerator or an ice box. 

RACK FOR PRESERVES 

A convenient rack for preserves may be made 
just at the turn of the cellar stairs in a house, so 
that the housewife need not step off the stairs, 
when she descends for a can of preserves. Several 
circular pieces of wood are pierced through the 
centers and nailed to a kind of wooden shaft that 
runs through the entire rack. Nail barrel hoops of 
the thick, wide variety around the edge of the 
shelves, so that the contents cannot fall off. The 
barrel hoops are soaked in water for several hours to 
make them pliable, so they can be fitted around the 
shelves. 

In a socket at the bottom, the middle shaft slips, 



IN AND AROUND THE HOUSE 39 

the upper end working in a socket in the end of a 
stout piece of wood nailed to the beam overhead. 
The sockets may be purchased at the hardware 
store. The glass cans are arranged on the shelves, 
and the housewife can stand in one spot and turn 
the rack around until she finds the jar for which 
she is looking. 

From the covers of large cheese boxes anyone 
could make a similar rack, using it in attic or 
kitchen, anywhere where one wants a rack which 
will hold an extra large number of articles for tfie 
amount of space involved. 



Ill husbandry braggeth 

To go with the best : 
Good husbandry baggeth 

Up gold in his chest. — Tusser. 



TRANSFORMING A WASHSTAND 

The kitchen cabinet here shown was made from 
an antiquated washstand and table, using old lum- 
ber, odds and ends of varnish, nails and screws, the 
finished article costing less than 50 
cents. The only tools used were a 
saw, hammer, plane and square, 
such as can be found in any ^_______ 

farmer's collection. \ 



First, the shelf shown in Figure 
I was made, it being wide enough 
to reach each end of the table and 
deep enough for the washstand to 
set on it flush. To the right end figure i 
was screwed a board of the same width, the shelf 
being so placed that it would be 2 feet above the 



40 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 




WASHSTAND AS 

of the shelf, and the 
gether. This left a 
right end of the 
washstand and the 
right support of 
the shelf. A board 
was then nailed on 
top from one end 
to the other, and a 
back added. 

The drawer of 
the washstand had 
to be fixed so that 
it would slide the 
other way, as it 
was now upside 
down. That ne- 
cessitated a shelf 
inside the wash- 
stand above the 
drawer. Old lum- 
ber was used, and 



table. A board of 
equal width form- 
ed the support at 
the other end. 

Then the wash- 
stand, from which 
the top had been 
removed, was 
placed upside 
down on the shelf 
(bbb), one end of 
the washstand 
reaching to the 
IT WAS extreme left end 

two were securely fastened to- 
narrow open space between the 




THE COMPLETED CABINET 



IN AND AROUND THE HOUSE 4I 

this was smoothed with a plane, then sandpapered 
and holes and cracks filled with putty. When the 
putty was dry it was sandpapered again. 

A support was then nailed to the back of the 
recess for a spice cabinet. This left the cabinet 
about 4 inches from the table. This support also 
did for two shelves, one in each corner of the 
recess. The spice cabinet contained eight small 
drawers and added riiuch to the whole. A door 
with a glass sash (e) was then made for the nar- 
row space to the right of the washstand above the 
recess. This made a little china closet with two 
shelves and containing over a dozen brass cup 
hooks. The space near the top on the left-hand 
side, between the short legs of the washstand, was 
left open for the crumb and draining trays. A 
piece of batten was nailed around the top as a fin- 
ishing touch. 

A leaf, which could be raised when required, 
added to the table room. The cabinet being placed 
in a corner left the front and one end free. On this 
end or side were placed two salt boxes, one for salt, 
and the other for kitchen cloths. Directly above 
these and reaching the length of the end was a shelf 
(/) for the clock, etc. Finally, walnut varnish stain, 
two coats, was applied. In each side of the recess 
were screwed two large cup hooks. Similar hooKs 
were screwed on the inside of the washstand doors, 
to hang up biscuit cutter, corkscrew, nutmeg grater, 
etc. 

HOMEMADE DRESSER 

Sometimes it is necessary to use homemade 
makeshifts in the house furnishing, and sometimes 
it is done through a desire to exercise one's in- 



42 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



genuity in fashioning simple affairs. The accom- 
panying illustration shows a plan for making a 
simple dresser that when finished will not only 
be very useful in itself, but will also add a useful 
bit of furnishing to the room. 



/M7 ^ 


m 


M 


"/////.' 




"// 






ym 




^W 




'-.,' 




DRESSER MADE FROM A BOX 



IN AND AROUND THE HOUSE 43 

Select a drygoods box of the right size to fit well 
into the space to be utilized, then fit two shelves 
to the interior, as suggested. The whole box should 
be covered on the outside with some pretty cloth, 
the edges being drawn over and around the front 
edges of the box, and neatly tacked inside. Make 
a shelf with a length equal to the width of the box 
and fasten it to the wall above the box with some 
pretty nickel brackets, as shown in illustration. 
Cover the shelf with cloth, also. Now place a look- 
ing-glass above the shelf and have a curtain like the 
covering in front of the opening. This curtain can 
have little brass rings sewed to the upper edge, 
which will slide on a small brass rod. 



Dost thou love life? Then do not squander time, 
for that is the stuff life is made of. — Benjamin 
Franklin. 

Earth is here so kind, that just tickle her with 
a hoe and she laughs with a harvest. — Douglas 
Jerrold. 

Blest is the man whose wish and care 
Is just to be happy anywhere. 



KITCHEN WINDOW CABINET 

Nothing lightens labor so much as cheerfulness, 
and cheerfulness may often be secured by very 
simple means. In the accompanying picture is 
shown one way that works well. Instead o.f the 
usual kitchen table a cabinet is built below and at 
the sides of the kitchen window and the top made 
large enough to serve as a table. In this way the 



44 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



wife may have a pleasant view when she looks up 
from her kitchen work. It is not necessary to go 
into details concerning the construction of sucE a 
cabinet, because no two people would be satisfied 




with the same plan. The plan shown is merely 
suggestive for the thoughtful wife and the handy 
man to work out to suit their own particular needs. 

TO LET IN MORE LIGHT 



Many farm kitchens and dining rooms are dark 
and gloomy. It is not an easy matter to cut new 
windows in the outside wall, though this can often 



IN AND AROUND THE HOUSE 45 

be done to great advantage; but where there is an 
outside door in a dark room, conditions can very 
easily be improved, and that, too, at small expense. 
Doors vary greatly in the manner of construction, 
some having wide panels at the top and some hav- 
ing two narrow ones of varying lengths. But 
almost every panel door that was ever constructed 
can be treated in the way which we will describe. 
The two upper panels can be removed, and their 
place filled with two lights of glass. If the door is 
of modern make it will be found that the wooden 
panel is held in place by a narrow molding all about 
it, both inside and out. Remove the molding on one 
side, and take out the panel. Put in the glass and 
replace the molding, and the work is done. If, 
however, the door is of older manufacture the 
molding on either side may be found to be a part of 
the door frame. In this case, cut the molding away 
on one side, neatly and evenly, and remove the 
panel. Then insert the glass, and having made, or 
boug'ht, a little strip of molding, fasten it neatly 
in place arOund the glass with brads. 

In the case of some doors the two panels could be 
removed, and also the upright between them, leav- 
ing a large rectangular opening, into which a single 
sash of four, or nine, lights could be inserted, the 
joints being made tight about it with putty and 
white lead. Then tack a narrow bit of molding 
about the sash, both inside and out, and a door that 
will give light to the room will be the result. An 
outside door looks better with glass in the upper 
half, and the interior will certainly be made more 
cheerful and healthful because of it. 



We know what we are. but know not what we 
may be. — Hamlet. 



46 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 

A BARREL CRADLE 



Anyone who can use a hammer and nails and 
needle and thread can make this inexpensive, ac- 
cessible, easily moved," and cool yet sheltering 
cradle. 

Secure a nice white sugar batrel, clean it thor- 
oughly and remove half of both heads. Place the 
barrel on its side, removing half the staves, and 
leaving the other half to form the bed of the cradle. 




BARREL READY TO TRIM 



Next remove the hoop that is second from the 
bottom, and then two hoops will be left at the top 
to form the frame for the hood, and one hoop at the 
bottom to form the foot. (See illustration.) Care- 
fully nail the reinaining staves to the hoops, clinch- 
ing each nail securely. 

Now cover the frame thus formed, as shown in 
the accompanying illustration. Any thin cotton 
goods that may be laundered can be used. Fig- 
ured lawn would be very pretty, and if economy 
is an item, a worn bleaching sheet will do. Place 
a little mattress or pad and a tiny pillow within, or 



IN AND AROUND THE HOUSE 



47 



the usual cradle furnishings may be used. One yard 
of mosquito netting stretched over the opening of 
the cradle will prevent insects from bothering, and 
the netting itself cannot touch and awaken the 
baby. 




FINISHED CRADLE 



TO PROTECT BABY FROM HOT STOVE 



Winter months mean extra care for the mother 
of a baby, but possibly the greatest of the addi- 
tional cares that winter brings in this regard is that 
of keeping the curious tot from the hot stove. 
Build a pen around the stove to protect him from 
it. The pen is a simple affair. It consists of four 
little gates, made just large enough to surround the 
stove, and covered with netting. The wire netting 
does not interfere with the free passage of heat and 
is very effective in keeping baby from getting 
burned. The gates are made of i^-inch strips, 
mortised or neatly fitted. For netting use ordi- 
nary poultry wire of 2-foot width. The gates are 
held in place by hooks and screw eyes. This ar- 
rangement is better than hinges, as it makes the 



48 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



taking down of the affair, for sweeping or clean- 
ing the stove, much easier. 

In the summer you may use the gate at the foot 
of the stairs, across the porch door, and in other 
places where baby is determined to go, and where 
he is in danger of falling and getting hurt unless 
protected in this way. For this pen, the lumber 
costs 25 cents, the netting 25 cents, and the hook 
and screw eyes 15 cents, making a total of only 
65 cents. 

A BOX FOR CLOTHES 

In many of the furniture stores one may see pretty 
cloth-covered boxes that are used in bedrooms as a 
receptacle for various articles of apparel, the inside, 
as well as the outside, being covered with pretty 
figured cloth*. The inside of the cover is fitted 
with pockets for slippers and slumber shoes. 
These little chests are so light that they may be 
lifted about with one hand. 

To make such a chest, select one of the very 
light and well-made grocery boxes in which cereals 
and various brands of breakfast foods are shipped, 
which may be had at any grocery store. See that 
the corners and the bottom are nailed securely. 
The top will be composed of at least two pieces of 
board, and these can be made into a solid cover by 
nailing two cleats beneath them. But these will 
not look very attractive when the covering is being 
put on, so a more workmanlike plan will be to saw 
off a couple of inches from each end of the top 
boards and supply the place of the wood removed 
by nailing along the ends a 2-inch strip of the same 
thickness. This gives a cleat at each end, but the 
cleats in this way form part of the cover itself. 



IN AND AROUND THE HOUSE 49 

Use long wire nails to secure these end pieces in 
place. 

It will be a simple matter to cover and line the' 
box when the covering material is at hand. Use 
very small tacks and carry the outside covering up 
over the top and down over the inside, which will 
make the use of tacks along the top unnecessary. 
The lower edge of the cover can be tacked on the 
bottom of the box, so the tacks will not be seen on. 
the outside at all. 

SCOOPS FROM TIN CANS 

Scoops for handling sugar and flour are among 
the most convenient utensils that one can have 
about the pantry; and in a short time a good sup- 
ply may be made from materials that are going 
to waste about almost every home. 

Take an ordinary tin can and either melt or cut 
off the top. With a pair of tinner's shears (a 
strong pair of household shears may be used), 
begin at the open end and split the side of the can 
to within about an inch of the bottom. Opposite 
this one make a similar slit. Parallel to the bottom 
of the can, cut from the lower end of one slit to- 
that of the other. Round the corners of the re- 
maining half, and the body of your scoop is fin- 
ished. 

For a handle, about 4 inches off the end of an 
old broomstick is just the thing. If this is not 
available, a handle may easily be shaped with a 
knife from a piece of soft wood. To attach the 
handle, from the inside drive a small nail through' 
the center of the bottom of the can and into the 
center of the handle. 



50 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



Some additional strength is obtained by planning 
so that the seam of the can will run down the mid- 
dle of the lip of the scoop, thus stiffening it. A 
salmon or corn can makes a very convenient sized 
scoop for the sugar, while tomato cans serve very 
nijcely for flour and meals, and half-gallon paint 
buckets may be thus utilized for handling light ma- 
terials. 

A HOMEMADE FOLDING TABLE 

A handy game or sewing table may be made as 
follows: Take two planed boards 12 inches wide 
and 3 feet long. Fasten them together with two 




SIMPLE HANDY TABLE 



strips 2 inches wide and 24 inches long. Fasten 
these strips by strong screws in upright position. 
Now take two similar strips and fasten them by 



IN AND AROUND THE HOUSE 5 1 

hinges to the pieces screwed on the boards. Fasten 
four stout legs to these in the manner shown in the 
cut. Take two three-cornered boards large enough 
to hold the legs stiff when dropped into position, and 
fasten them by hinges, as shown. 

The same general plan may be followed in mak- 
ing a much larger and heavier table or a lighter one. 

A HOMEMADE BUTTER WORKER 

A butter worker is one of the handy devices that 
should be upon every farm. A good type is shown 
in the drawing. It is made of close-grained hard- 
wood — maple or birch are recommended — tight- 
jointed, free from knots and perfectly smooth in 
size. It slopes enough to drain readily at the nar- 
row end through a short piece of lead pipe inserted 




BUTTER WORKER 



at the bottom. The working bar has a strong, 
smooth iron rod or spike at its lower end, which is 
easily inserted into or removed from the hole in 



52 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



which it works. The part of the bar that comes 
in contact with the butter is half-round on one side 
and two flat sides meet at a right angle. Of course, 
it must be as smooth as possible. 

HOME CHEESEMAKING 

Nearly every farm home contains, or may easily 
be supplied with, the necessary appliances to make 
cheese, and it is not a difficult task when one is 
once familiar with the process. For a small batch 
of about 12 gallons of milk the following method 
is a good one: Take about 6 gallons of the even- 
ing's milk and leave it covered with a cloth in a 




CHEESE PRESS 



temperature of 65 to 70 degrees until morning and 
then mix 6 gallons of morning's milk with it in a 
large tub or boiler. All milk may then be heated 
together to 80 to 90 degrees. Care must be used 
not to get it too hot or to expose it to a draft so 
that it will cool quickly. 

Another good method preferred by some is to 
use 1 1 gallons of perfectly sweet morning's milk and 



IN AND AROUND THE HOUSE 53 

to this add i gallon of milk that has soured and 
thickened. The sour milk should be stirred well 
to get out all the lumps and left for about 15 
minutes before the rennet is put in. The easiest 
way to heat the milk is to place it in a wash boiler 
right on the stove until it gets up to 86 to 90 de- 
grees and then raise it from the stove by placing it 
on two bricks. The stove must not be too hot. 

Rennet in the form of tablets is most convenient 
and useful for home cheesemaking. Dissolve one 
tablet in half a glass of cold water and add to the 
milk after it has been heated and stir well for two 
minutes. Some cheesemakers use two or three 
tablets, as it saves time, but for beginners two are 
usually enough. If you have liquid rennet extract, 
use about two tablespoonfuls. 

Cutting the Curd 

The rennet will curdle the milk and the curd/will 
be ready to cut in 20 to 40 minutes. This can be 
determined by noting if the curd breaks clean like 
jelly when raised on a knife blade. The cutting can 
be done with a wire toaster, a long knife or a heavy 
wire. Cut lengthwise of the vessel and then crosswise 
until the curd is in nearly uniform pieces of j4-inch 
squares. After cutting, leave the curd on for five 
minutes, then heat slowly to 100 degrees, stirring 
all the time. Cook for about 40 minutes at as near 
90 degrees as possible, stirring occasionally to pre- 
vent the curd from sticking together. Keep the 
heat up and do not allow the mass to cool. 

To determine when the curd is ready, take a 
handful and squeeze it in the hand firmly and if it 
feels elastic and does not stick together, it has been 
cooked long enough. If the milk is good, the curd 



54 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

should have a pleasant, slightly acid odor. As soon 
as the curd is cooked, draw off the whey or dip off 
the curd with a sieve and place in another vessel. 
After the curd is well drained and before it sticks 
together, add J4 pound of fine salt and mix well. 
After salting, let it cool for 15 minutes, stirring 
occasionally, when it is ready for the hoop. 

Pressing and Curing 

For a cheese hoop, one can use a tin hoop 7 
inches in diameter and 12 inches deep or an old 
peck measure without a bottom if holes are punched 
in the sides for drainage. For a press a device 
shown in the sketch will serve well, the pail at the 
end of the lever being filled with stones. Before 
the curd is placed in the hoop, line it with 
cheesecloth, one piece the size of the bottom 
and another around the side. Turn the upper 
ed^ of the cloth over the edge of the hoop 
and fasten it tight. When the curd is packed 
firmly, put a piece of cloth on the upper end and 
fold it over tight. Make the pressure slight at 
first, but after an hour rearrange the cloth and 
make the pressure heavier. The pressing should 
be finished by the next day. Do not press in too 
cool a place, but keep the temperature about 50 
degrees. 

For curing, set the cheese in a damp room or 
cellar which has an even temperature. Turn it 
around daily, and if it shows signs of molding, rub 
occasionally with butter. It should be ready to eat 
in three or four weeks. Cheese will cure at 40 
degrees, but it takes longer than when warmer. 
Twelve gallons of milk should make about 10 
pounds of cheese, according to richness of milk. 



IN AND AROUND THE HOUSE 55 

After one or two attempts any housekeeper should 
be able to make good cheese by this method. It is 
necessary to keep all utensils very clean and the 
liberal use of boiling water with a little soda will 
accomplish this purpose. 

WASHES WHILE READING 

Here is a way of making play of wash day. Per- 
haps some of our bright boys will try this to help 
mother. A friend of ours had an old bicycle unfit 
for use. He made a frame to raise the hind wheel 
from the floor, wound the rim with twine (tire 
being off) and reversed the seat. In place of the 
form he inserted a piece of pipe (a stick would do 
as well). Then he took some old belting, cut it 




PEDAL POWER DEVICE 

to i^ inches wide and about lo feet long, and with 
that he runs the washing machine for his wife. He 
can read the paper while he washes, and he does 
not lose much time from field work either. An 
emery wheel can also be run with it by bolting 
i-inch strips to the top part of the frame extending 
over the wheel and mounting a polishing head on 
same. 



Knowledge is power. — Bacon. 



$6 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

TREAD POWER IN THE DAIRY 

While the small gasoline engines adapted to run- 
jiing cream separators have been hailed with delight 
by many dairymen, the old tread power is still a 
very economical and reliable source of power. 
With a heavy sheep, dog or the dairy herd bull 




SEPARATOR RUN BY RAM POWER 

enough power can be produced to run the sep- 
arator and churn at practically no cost except for 
the tread. 

One difficulty has beeti to secure a uniform rate 
of speed, but this is solved if a heavy flywheel is 
attached to the tread. While the sketch shows a 
direct drive from tread to separator, a more desir- 
able arrangement is to have the tread located in a 
room adjoining the separator room, where the milk 
will not be exposed to the breath of the animal. 



A great many men wear themselves out devising 
schemes to sidestep honest work. 



IN AND AROUND THE HOUSE 

A LAMP FOR COOKING 



57 



A lamp may be utilized for cooking purposes in 
the following way : Make a tripod by taking three 
strips of wood of equal length, putting in one end 
a headless nail and making slightly slanting holes 
in the corners of a 6-inch 
triangular piece of board in 
which to fit them. A screw 
hook in the center of the 
board, on the under side, 
completes the device, which 
has only to be stood over a 
lighted lamp to be ready for 
work. A small stew kettle, 
or tin pail, hung on the hook, 
within a half inch of the 
lamp chimney, enables one 
to have a " pot boiling " in 
short order. If you have a 
large lamp, with a round 
wick, it will give the heat of 
two or three common ones, and you can cook almost 
as rapidly as over a stove. 

With an ordinary lamp, food can be heated, eggs 
boiled, or coffee made very quickly, helping won- 
derfully in the getting of a meal. This is also an 
easy and convenient way to heat baby's milk, or 
water, in the night, in case of sickness. Stood on a 
chair by the table, the device can be used to keep 
the coffee or chocolate hot during meal time. A 
round piece of sheet iron, with chains attached to 
suspend it from the hook, is an additional help, to 
hold a steeper for tea. 

As this tripod can be taken apart readily, when 
not in use, it will be found a good adiunct to a 




LAMP HEATER 



S8 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

camping outfit, even though you carry a camp 
stove, for there will be times when nothing will 
be wanted but a hot drink, which can be made over 
the lamp with less trouble than it would be to 
make a fire in the stove. 

HOT WATER ALL NIGHT 

One of the things that must be had quickly when 
medicine is needed, and still more often for a bottle 
baby, is hot water at night. The following con- 
trivance has been found to be worth many times 
the trouble to make it, for it saves annoyance at a 
time when baby's worrying may mean hours of 
sitting up. 

Place the socket of a wall bracket lamp just high 
enough above a table so that the top of a hand lamp 
chimney will be 5 or 6 inches below it. Make an 
arm of round iron or small piping long enough to 
extend out over the lamp and to this hang a hook, on 
which hang a small teakettle or pail. In this enough 
water for the needs of a night. can be kept hot with- 
out boiling, and will be ready at an instant's notice. 
As a night lamp is a necessity in a house where 
there is a youngster, the cost of this device will be 
nothing, for the blaze of a small burner will pro- 
vide sufficient heat. The proper height for the 
socket on the wall can be determined by measuring 
the hook and the kettle to be used. The lamp 
chimney should not be nearer than 2 inches to the 
bottom of the kettle, or the water will boil and 
steam away. 

HOW TO CUT BREAD EVEN 

Here is one of the most useful devices to which 
the handy man can give his attention. It is very 



IN AND AROUND THE HOUSE 



59 



rarely that a housekeeper can cut even and hand- 
some slices of bread, however much she may desire 
to have the bread plate look attractive. One slice 
will be thin, another thick, while another will be 
thick on one edge and thin on the other. The 
drawing shows a simple arrangement by which all 
the slices of bread can be cut of an even thickness 
without any slant. 

Cut a piece of pine board to about 9 x 13 inches. 
Near one end, on either side, insert firmly two 




BREAD CUTTING BOARD 



pieces of very stout wire, bent double, as suggested 
in the cut. These wire supports should be at least 
7 inches high, and should have another inch of 
length firmly inserted in the wood. The wire 
should be as stout as No. 12, or larger still, and 
■should stand exactly at right angles to the board. 
Put them far enough apart so the largest loaf will 
readily go between them, and have the opening in 
each wire standard just wide enough so the knife 
will slide up and down without " wobbling " The 
dotted lines show the position of the knife when 



6o 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



in place. Screw a little strip of wood in front of 
the wire, just far enough ahead to make the slice 
of bread the right thickness. Press the loaf up 
against this guide and cut off a slice, then press 
the shortened loaf up again, and repeat the process. 

HOMEMADE WATER COOLER 

It's a mighty nice thing to have a good supply 
of cold water at the barn when threshers, corn 

buskers, or hay 
harvesters are at 
work. A simple 
and effective ar- 
rangement can be 
made by using a 
flour barrel and a 
lo-gallon stone jar. 
Place the jar in- 
side the barrel and 
surround it with 
charcoal, sawdust, 
or chaff, if nothing 
else is available. . 
With a tight lid 
and a wet cloth 
spread over the 
top, water will 
keep ice cold in 
WATER COOLER this arrangement. 

The uses of such a cooler may be multiplied to in- 
clude keeping many things cool in the house. 

KEEP FOOD COOL IN SUMMER 

A very convenient and serviceable place to keep 
dairy products may be formed by sinking a large 




IN AND AROUND THE HOUSE 



6l 



barrel in the ground. A shady spot should be 
chosen, or the heat of the sun will affect the tem- 
perature. Fill in around the barrel with small 
stones, gravel and sand, dampened in order to 
maintain coolness. 

Construct a box around and above the top of the 
barrel, and bank up with solid earth, preferably 




FOOD COOLER 



clay. This drains off the water when it rains. It 
also makes th^ bottom of the barrel farther down 
from the top of the opening, which further pro- 
motes coolness. Next shape a light, inner lid to 
place on top of the barrel, and then make a strong, 
hinged lid for the box, and arrange it so it may be 
fastened down tightly. 



62 HANDY FARM DEVICES " 

Sprinkle a little dampened sand on the bottom 
of the barrel, and your little barrel cellar is ready 
for use. By being careful several vessels may be 
arranged one above the other in this handy little 
receptacle. Air out occasionally to prevent mold 
and odors from collecting. 

A COOLER DUMMY 

Where a deep, cool well is located near the house 
an arrangement may be devised that will serve the 
purpose of a refrigerator. Construct a frame of 
strong boards with a groove in which a board on 
the side of the box of shelves can run. Attach a 
rope to the top of the box of shelves, pass it over 
a wheel on the crank shaft and balance with a 
counter weight. 

If the frame is i6 feet long and extended down 
near to the surface of the water the lowest tem- 
perature may be secured. A nice looking top may 
be constructed for the arrangement, with a door 
opening into the shelves when they are drawn to 
the top. Most wells are almost as cool as a refrig- 
erator, and this sort of an arrangement serves the 
purpose with a great deal less expense. 

A wire clothesline will serve as a cable. Any 
old pieces of iron will do for the counter weight, 
and it is well to have a ratchet wheel, such as are 
found on old chain pumps, to prevent the elevator 
dropping when it is well filled. Make as many 
parts as possible of wood to prevent rusting. One 
such elevator is 42 inches high and 18 inches 
square. 



Turning the grindstone is hard work ; but if you 
use it as a muscle developer it will help out. 



- IN AND AROUND THE HOUSE 63 

AN OUTDOOR CLOSET 

When the housewife has baked a pie or a pud- 
ding for dinner and wishes to cool it quickly in 
winter it has to be set out of doors; but there the 
trouble begins. It cannot be set upon the snow, 
since that would melt and engulf the hot dish. 
Moreover, the cat or dog, or some neighbor's cat 
or dog, is likely to be lurking about the door, ready 
for pie. Let the handy man make a little out-of- 
door cupboard for the use of the housekeeper, locat- 
ing it beside the kitchen door. Get an empty 
grocery box of the right size and hinge the cover 
to the top, placing a knob on the other edge. Make 
a support for this closet by driving two strips of 
wood into the ground and screwing two crosswise 
strips of board to the tops. Lay the grocery box 
on its side on these supports and nail it to them> 
from the inside. 

Here anything hot can be placed to cool quickly, 
and with the cover down there will be no danger 
from cats or dogs or hens. If desired to give a 
freer access to the cold air, several holes can be 
bored in each end and in the bottom before putting 
the box in position on the supports. If the ground 
is frozen too hard to insert the strips of board, the 
closet can be placed against the side of the house,, 
close to the kitchen door, and supported in place by 
two wooden brackets. Another plan to secure the 
same result would be to make the ploset and screw 
a wooden handle to the middle of the top, with- 
holes bored in ends and back. When it is to be 
used put the dish, or dishes, inside and set the 
closet out onto the snow beside the door. 



Taste the joy 
That springs from labor. — Longfellow. 



64 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



HOMEMADE REFRIGERATOR 

Take two largfe boxes, one 2 inches smaller than 
the other every way, and bore two i-inch holes in 
the bottom of each box for drainage. Fill up 2 
inches in the large box with powdered charcoal or 
coal ashes. Put the smaller box inside and fill the 
space all around with the charcoal or ashes. Fix 
the lids to both boxes to fit tightly. Put shelves 
on both sides of inner box. Leave a place in the 
center of the box of ice. A rack, made of lath, 
can be laid at the bottom for ice to rest on. 



ICELESS BUTTER AND MILK COOLER 

The accompanying picture shows how a well may 
be utilized during the warm months for cooling 

butter, milk and 
other perishable 
articles. It will 
be found very 
handy as a sub- 
stitute for a re- 
frigerator when 
the farmer has no 
ice supply. Any- 
one can make a 
triangular - shaped 
frame for the 
windlass, which is 
placed above the 
well; and anyone 
can also put the 
trap doors in the 
platform of the 
well. These doors 
should be pro- 




COLD STORAGE FOR MILK 



IN AND AROUND THE HOUSE 65 

vided with a lock, so children cannot fall in. A 
pin may be placed on the handle side of the wind- 
lass to prevent the crank from turning around when 
the box is lowered to the desired depth. 

The picture is only suggestive. The shape and 
size of the various parts will depend upon the style 
of the well. Preferably, the box should be made 
of galvanized iron and have perforations in the bot- 
tom, so it may be lowered right into the water. Of 
course, this would not be feasible if the materials 
to be kept cold were not first placed in sealed 
receptacles. Where a well with a bucket pump or 
the ordinary wooden pump is the only available 
place to put such a cooler, the cooler may be at 
one side of the well. If necessary, the position of 
the pump may be shifted. 



Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject 
ourselves, or we know where we can find informa- 
tion upon it. — Samuel Johnson. 

Every addition to true knowledge is an addition 
to human power. — Horace Mann. 

But now my task is smoothly done, 
I can fly, or I can run. — Milton. 



A VENTILATED PUMP PLATFORM 

Here is a way to keep the well clean and pure at 
all times. Make the frame of the platform of 2 x 4's, 
allowing a space 2 to 6 inches between the top and 
bottom parts of the sides. This space is covered 
on the inside with a fly screen to keep out dirt and 



66 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



insects, and outside of this with a larger meshed 
screen to keep out large vermin. This gives good 
ventilation to the well, which never becomes foul. 
In the winter cover the platform with straw and 
snow. 




HELPS TO KEEP WATER PURE 



CLEANING A WELL 



To remove floating litter from a well, take an 
ordinary sand sieve, and, after marking off the rim 
into three parts, attach a wire to any of the two 
points and to this improvised handle attach a rope. 
Fasten the end of the rope to the third point in the 
rim and a weight to the sieve, so that it can be 
lowered into the well and will sink. When used, 
sink the sieve edgewise into the water and pull the 



IN AND AROUND THE HOUSE 



&7 



rope with a single attachment and it may be lifted 
out with all the floating sticks and timber on the 
surface of the water. 

DOG POWER FOR PUMP 

This sketch shows an arrangement for making 
use of the dog for carrying water. It simply con- 
sists of a wheel 8 feet in diameter and i8 inches 




DOG POWER PUMPING DEVICE 



wide, with room enough inside for the dog to walk 
around, where he acts as a tread power, which 
causes the pump to revolve. In southern Califor- 



68 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

nia there are a number of these dog-power pumps, 
which cost less than $15. A good-sized dog can 
easily earn his living in an arrangement of this 
kind. 

FILTER FOR CISTERN WATER 

The problem of keeping water in a cistern clean 
is most easily solved by not allowing it to get 
dirty, as can be done by the device shown in the 
drawing on page 69. Two barrels, each with 
a perforated false bottom, are set side by side be- 
neath the water spout from the roof and connected 
with a pipe leading to the cistern. Above the false 
bottoms fine gravel and then sand are packed to 
the depth of 8 or more inches. On top of the sand 
rest stout floats as large as can be let down into the 
barrels. From near the margin of the floats two 
heavy wires extend vertically upward about 2 feet 
to engage loosely near their centers with a tilting 
spout by means of knobs on both the ends of the 
spout and the wires. 

When the barrels are empty the floats rest on 
the sand. As the water begins to pour in one 
barrel it strikes the float, but is prevented from 
gouging a very deep hole at the outside of the 
barrel by striking a strip of wood about i inch high, 
2 inches wide arid i foot long. This spreads the 
flow. A layer of gravel at this place would also 
help prevent gouging. If the flow is too great to 
filter away readily, the float will rise and the knob 
on the wire will engage with the spout, which will 
be tilted until the flow will suddenly start into the 
other barrel. If the delivery pipe to the cistern be 
large enough there should be no danger of either 
barrel overflowing. When the sand becomes dirty 



IN AND AROUND THE HOUSE 



69 



a few minutes will serve to remove it and put in 
fresh. This will insure clean water in the cistern, 
and greatly reduce the number of times the dis- 
agreeable job of cleaning out the cistern must be 
done. 




TWO-BARREL FILTER 



70 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

A HANDY WATER FILTER 

Nearly every farm can boast of good water, but 
no water, either from well, spring or stream, is 
pure, as it all contains more or less animal of 
vegetable matter. The only way to make it pure 
is to filter it, just as is done in city supply reser- 
voirs, or private filtering tanks. 

A simple water filter is very easily made that 
answers all purposes for domestic use. The plan 
of its operations is identical with that employed 
in large reservoirs where water is filtered on a 
large scale for general distribution. This filter 
consists, primarily, of two flower pots, set one 
above the other. In the bottom of the upper pot 
is stuffed a large sponge. A sponge is also stuffed 
in the bottom of the lower pot, but it is more ade- 
quately supplied with filtering material by placing 
above the sponge a layer of smooth pebbles, then 
a layer of coarse sand, and still above this a layer 
of pounded charcoal 3 or 4 inches in depth. It is 
also best to place another layer of smooth pebbles 
above the charcoal, to prevent it from being stirred 
up during the circulation of the water. 

The upper pot should be the largest, and if the 
lower one is strong, the upper one may stand in it, 
or two strips of wood will serve as a base support. 
The two pots thus arranged are placed on a three- 
legged stool with a hole in it, through which the 
water drips through the bottom of the lower pot 
into the mouth of a jug set underneath. The upper 
pot serves as a reservoir, and its sponge stops the 
coarser impurities, and thus the filtering layers of 
the lower one may be used for a year without being 
renewed, though it is necessary frequently to clean 
the sponge of the upper pot. 



IN AND AROUND THE HOUSE 



71 



The layers of sand and charcoal of the lower pot 
are positively efifective in stopping all animal and 
vegetable matter, as well as many smaller impu- 
rities in the water. The only trouble one may ex- 
perience with it is in neglecting the upper sponge 
for too long a time, or in stuffing it in too loosely, 
thus allowing the water to pass from the upper pot 
faster than it can filter through the lower one. 
Only a little attention, once or twice a month, is 
sufficient to keep this simple filter in perfect run- 
ning order. 

DELIVERING MAIL BY TROLLEY 



Where the house stands some distance back from 
the highway a trolley can be rigged up to save 
steps in getting the 
mail. The box is 
hung on two pulley 
door hangers, as 
shown in cut. A 
strong post, with a 
bent arm, is set 
next the highway, 
a, suspended be- 
tween it and the 
house, on which 
the box runs. A 
pulley is fastened 
in or to, the post, 
and over it runs a 
cord, h, c, to pull the box back and forth between 
the house and the road. The box is sent down to 
meet the carrier, who places the mail in it, and 
then it is quickly pulled back to the house. 




TROLLEY MAIL BOX 



72 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 

BEAUTY IN A BARREL 



A very nice ornamentation for the lawn is shown 
in the picture. It is made by sawing an oil barrel 

in two as shown, 
and mounting it on 
legs. Paint it and 
set one-half of the 
barrel on each side 
of the walk and use 
them for growing 
flowers in during 
the summer. Care 
should be taken to 
have the hoops 
thoroughly nailed 
to the staves and 
to have the heads 
solid. Dark green 
or dark red are 
good colors for the 
painting. If pre- 
ferred, the barrel may rest upon the ground, but 
should be securely braced or blocked to prevent 
rolling. 

STORAGE BIN FOR VEGETABLES 




HALF-BARREL PLANT HOLDER 



Instead of keeping the vegetables in barrels or 
boxes scattered all over the cellar, have a set of 
storage bins. Take six drygoods boxes and bolt 
them together as shown in the drawing. Put legs 
on them to hold them oflf the floor and a cover on 
the top. Then paint on the boxes the names of the 



IN AND AROUND THE HOUSE 



73 



vegetables. It is most convenient to have the 
vegetables most frequently used in the upper hoxes, 
which would not be true of the bin shown in the pic- 
ture. If the upper row of boxes is attached to each 
other, but not to the lower ones, the top section can 
easily be moved enough to make filling the lower 
boxes a simple matter. Otherwise, the vegetables 




VEGETABLE BIN 

would have to be put in through the openings at 
the top of each box a few at a time by hand, instead 
of pouring them in. 

Many people would not care to keep their pota- 
toes in such a sectional bin, preferring a large sep- 
arate bin. It certainly is all right for other root 
vegetables, and many other products of the farm 
that are stored might well be kept handy for use in 
such a labeled sectional bin. 



74 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

AN INEXPENSIVE CELLAR 

A temporary cellar is sometimes necessary in 
cold countries where that under the house is not 

sufficient for stor- 
ing vegetables. A 
very effective and 
useful temporary 
cellar may be con- 
structed after the 
following method, 
as shown by the 
drawings : Dig a pit 
15 feet long, 10 feet 
wide, 4 feet deep 
in a solid, dry place where the drainage is good. 
Put a gable roof of i-inch board over the hole, sup- 
ported by 2 X 4-inch strips at the eaves, gable and 
half way up the sides. Strengthen by crossbeams 
and a central support if the lumber is not first 
class. Over this place 8 to 10 inches of dry straw 




CROSS-SECTION' 




TEMPORARY CELLAR 



well packed and over the entire structure, except- 
ing one end, pack earth 12 to 14 inches deep. The 
surface should be smooth to shed water. It is 
better if plastered with mud covered with sods. 



IN AND AROUND THE HOUSE 



75 



The door end must be double-walled and the space 
filled with straw. The door must also be double and 
its margin packed with cloth strips, so as to be 
practically airtight. If possible, the pit should be 
drained by a tile, the end of which is covered with 
a piece of wire netting to prevent the entrance of 
rodents. Such a cellar will prevent freezing dur- 
ing usual winter weather. The door should be 
opened on mild days and the interior aired thor- 
oughly. The size and depth of the pit may be 
varied according to needs. 

CLOTHESLINE UP AND DOWN 



Heavy posts should be set for the ends, 3 feet in 
and 3 feet out of the ground. It is not necessary 
for the center post to be as heavy as the end ones. 
Have the posts clean and smooth, so they will not 
soil the clothes when blown against them. Take a 




.^^rm^^^^ 



ELEVATED CLOTHESLINE 



piece of 2 x 4-inch hard wood 5 feet long for the 
lever. Fasten to the post near the top with a ^- 
inch bolt, 2 feet next to the line and 3 feet for the 
lever. A block holds the lever in position while 
the clothes are being put on. A button holds the 
lever upright when the line is hoisted. 



76 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

A CLOTHES HORSE 

There is no little thing that will save the house- 
hold so much as a revolving clothes horse, so near 
the back stoop that the clothes may be hung on it 
without stepping out in the snow. A solid post 
should have a hole bored in the top and the arms 
may be beveled and spiked to a piece of plank 
through which a bolt passes into the post, or each 
arm may be bored to let the bolt pass through it. 
Three, four or five arms may be used as desired, 
and of any length, provided all are of one length. 
No skill is required in making it, as the rope holds 
the arms up simply by being tight enough. It is 
well to set the post before measuring for the arms, 
so that they may be sure to reach the veranda. 
Some laths may be nailed together at first to make 
a model, if you are not sure of your ability as a 
carpenter. 

A TOILET CLOSET 

A small closet in a home, for keeping medicines 
and toilet articles, is a great convenience. One 
consists of ^-inch pine, 4 inches wide, planed and 
put together so as to be 2 x 3 feet. It has four 
shelves. The door is of thin pine, free from knots, 
planed, hinged and with a back catch. The out- 
side of frame and door is varnished. Being in the 
toilet room, it is indeed a very useful as well as 
ornamental piece of furniture. It has no back cas- 
ing or boards ; simply rests against the wall. It is 
held in place by four short pieces of band iron, one 
end of each band being fastened to back of frame, 
the other end fastened to the wall by a screw. All 



IN AND AROUND THE HOUSE "J"] 

kinds of medicines, shaving materials, soaps, wash 
rags, can there be kept. If there is no other look- 
ing-glass in the room, one may be fastened on the 
otitside of door. 

REVOLVING CELLAR SHELF 

A handy cellar shelf that will save the house- 
keeper many steps may be arranged at the side of 
the cellar stairs, within easy reach upon descend- 
ing a few steps. The shelf is contrived from an 
old axle and wheel. The axle is fastened to hang 
from the nearest beam to the stairway. The wheel 
is covered with thin, smoothly planed boards and 
the axle is kept well oiled, so the wheel will revolve 
readily, bringing all parts of the shelf within reach 
at need. 

WATER SUPPLY FOR FARMHOUSE 

Farmers can have running water, hot or cold, 
in their dwelling houses at a cost of fifty dollars 
and up, depending upon the size of the house and 
the kind of equipment needed. This makes pos- 
sible the bath and toilet room, protection from fire, 
the easy washing of windows and walks, the sprin- 
kling of lawns, the irrigating of gardens, and all 
the other conveniences which a few years ago were 
thought possible only in cities, where big water 
systems were available. This is one of the things 
that makes farm life attractive. It lessens the work 
in the house, insures a fine lawn and garden, re- 
duces danger from fire, adds greatly to comfort and 
convenience in every direction. 

The way to secure this is to install a water sup- 
ply system, with a pressure tank in the basement. 



78 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



This pressure tank is so arranged that by pumping 
it full under strong air pressure the water is forced 
all over the house, and is available for the bath- 
room, toilet room and the garden or fire hose. The 
water is distributed about the house exactly as it 
is in city homes, by means of galvanized iron pipes. 
[Where a small building is to be supplied and the 




HOUSE WATER SYSTEM 

amount of water to be used is not large, the sys- 
tem can be installed for $50. For the average 
house $90 is a better figure. Where the house is 
large, and where considerable amounts of water 
are needed for the lawn and garden, and possibly 
also for washing carriages, automobiles and horses, 
a larger system should be installed, costing up to 
$150. 

Installation and Operation 

Its installation is easy, and its operation is ex- 
ceedingly simple. Any pipe fitter or plumber can 



IN AND AROUND THE HOUSE 79 

put in the plant so that it will work perfectly. All 
that is needed for operating is to keep the tank 
pressure up to the desired point. This may be 20, 
40, 60 or 100 pounds. A few strokes of the pump, 
if the work is done by hand, is sufficient. If a lot 
of water is used, of course the amount of pumping 
will increase. By being economical irt the use of 
water, that is to say, wasting none, this matter 
of pumping is not at all a serious problem. 

The most satisfactory, method of pumping, how- 
ever, is to use a windmill, or what is much better, 
a gasoline engine. Every up-to-date farm ought 
to have a small gasoline engine, which can be 
utilized not only for operating this water supply 
system, but for churning, sawing wood, cutting 
feed and doing a dozen and one other jobs about the 
farm. It would take only a few minutes of pump- 
ing to raise the pressure in the tank the desired 
height. With the engine it will not be necessary 
to be economical in using water, provided the well 
is a good one, and the supply of water large. 

Experience with Water Supply System 

C. A. Shamel of Illinois, editor of the Orange 
Judd Farmer, has a system of this kind in his coun- 
try home. It cost $75. He put in a bathroom, a 
toilet, has a hot water tank in connection with 
the kitchen range, and no money ever expended 
on that farm has given anything like the amount 
of satisfaction and comfort as that paid for this 
water supply system. Arrangement is made to 
take care of the waste water and sewage by run- 
ning a large tile from the bathroom, one-quarter 
of a mile distant, to a large cistern, located in the 
center of a big field. This is disinfected about 



80 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

twice a year, and is easily handled. There is never 
any trouble with the water pipes, even during the 
coldest weather. Neither has there been any dif- 
ficulty with the waste system. In fact, the water 
supply is practically perfect, and the people on that 
farm don't see how any farmer who can get to- 
gether $75 or $ioo can afford to be without it. 

Up to date all the pumping has been done by 
hand. With the pump in perfect condition, this is 
not a laborious problem. On two occasions the 
pump valve became slightly defective through 
wear, and it was not convenient to fix it for a few 
weeks, being somewhat distant from the factory. 
With this condition it required a great deal more 
labor to do the pumping, but even with this dis- 
advantage, it was not a serious proposition. 

The illustration indicates the arrangement of a 
water supply system, and, as can be readily seen, 
it is very simple. Notice the hand force pump tank 
in the basement to hold the water under pressure, 
and the arrangement of lavatories, bath and kitchen 
hot water service. The system can also be used 
for supplying water to stock tanks, and these may 
be located anywhere on the farm. The pressure 
developed in the tank is sufficient to force the water 
anywhere wanted. This use will, of course, depend 
entirely upon the wishes of the owner and is simply 
a matter of cost of pipes. It can very readily be 
used for delivering water to dairy or other stock 
barns, where it can be run into water troughs in the 
stalls, or elsewhere, as desired. 

WARNING AGAINST FIRE 

A handy device that will give an alarm in case 
the roof catches fire close to the chimney is shown 



IN AND AROUND THE HOUSE 



8i 




O 



L 



a 



1 

II 
II 
II 




A FIRE ALARM 



82 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

on the opposite page. Drive a nail in two rafters 
on a line with the face of the chimney, to which 
stretch a cord close to the chimney, so that, in case 
of fire, the cord will burn off and release the weight 
hanging to it, which in turn will drop on an electric 
button and ring a bell. A dry battery will cost 
20 cents and a bell 50 cents. Place these on a shelf 
above the fireplace. Place a piece of heavy wire, b, 
10 inches long, as shown, and fasten to the wall or 
chimney for the weight, a, to slide on. The weight 
need be suspended only an inch or two above the 
bell. 

WHERE TO HANG A FIRE LADDER 

A necessity on all farms and near all farm build- 
ings are ladders and other means of getting on the 
roofs, and in and out of upper story windows in 
time of emergency. A scuttle should be left or 
made in the highest part of the house roof and a 
ladder should be at hand that will reach the eaves 
of the highest roof. A good place to store a ladder 
of this kind is under the eaves of the L or along 
the rear wall of the house. Have two hooks to 
hang it on. Make a good ladder and keep it 
painted. 



-f your cellar is dark, there is danger of accidents 
when going down the stairs. Have the last step 
whitened so that you may easily know when you 
are at the bottom. You can see this step plainly 
even in a dim light. 




MEN<^(^<rroeB 




A HANDY FEED BASKET 




ROVIDE a feed basket like this to 
strap upon the nose of a horse 
when giving the animal feed while 
away from the stable. It is simpler 
to make than the round basket, 
and has an added advantage. When 
not in use, the two sides press to- 
gether and occupy scarcely any room. Cut out two 
semi-circular pieces of wood from a ^-inch board 
in the shape suggested in 
the cut. Setting them at 
the proper distance apart, 
tack a strip of canvas, or 
other stout cloth, around 
the curved partition, as 
shown in the accompany- 
ing picture. Nail a strap 
and a buckle at the sides, 
to go over the head, and 
the feed basket will be 
complete. 

The form of this basket 
more nearly fits the shape 
of a horse's head, and be- 
sides, because of its oblong shape, gives the horse 
more freedom in opening his mouth than does the 
close-fitting round basket. 




FEED BASKET 



He who will not be counseled cannot be helped 

83 



84 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

MAKE THE HORSE EAT SLOWLY 

If your horse has the habit of bolting his feed you 
can easily remedy it by making a self-feeder on his 
box. The accompanying drawing 
shows how a feeder may be made 
similar to a poultry feed hopper. 
The contrivance may be made of 
inch boards large enough to hold 
one feed. The horse can get the 
HOLDS ONE FEED grain only in small quantities and 
so cannot eat it more rapidly than 
he should. The bottom must be made with enough 
slant to insure all of the feed coming out in the 
trough. 




I am only one, 

But I am one. 

I cannot do everything, 

But I can do something. 

What I can do I ought to do; 

And what I ought to do 

By the grace of God I will do. 



STALLS BETTER THAN STANCHIONS 

The only point in favor of stanchions is that they 
take up less room than stalls, but the increase in 
milk is a reward for allowing more space and con- 
venience to each cow. The cut shows one kind of 
stall. The rack, a, is of hardwood 30 inches high, 
with the slats wide enough so the cow can thrust 
her nose through up to her eyes. 

The bottom of the rack is 18 inches wide, ex- 
tending into the stall toward the cow. The feed 



BARNS AND STOCK 



85 



box, b, slides through an opening in the stall on the 
barn floor. It can be drawn into the feedway, 
cleansed out and a new feed put in without being 
disturbed by the cow. The halter strap, c, is just 
long enough to allow the cow to lie down comfort- 
ably. The gutter, d, is 8 inches lower than the 




PLAN OF cow STALL 

stall floor. When she lies down she will put her 
head under the rack in kneeling* and when she gets 
up, she will move backward so that she can look 
through the rack. The length and width of stall 
can be made to suit the cows. Small breeds, like 
Jerseys and Ayrshires, will need about 6 inches 
less each way than Holsteins and Shorthorns. 



Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much; 
Wisdom is humble that he knows no more. 

— Cowper. 

The man who is always poking his nose into 
other folks' business rarely has any of his own 
worth attending to. 

There is no knowledge that is not power. — 
Emerson. 



86 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



GOOD TIES FOR COWS 

The merits of stanchions and other forms of cow 
ties have been debated by dairymen for a long time. 
_ The mass of expe- 

rience is in favor of 
the tying arrange- 
ment which will 
give the cow the 
most freedom of 
movement. The 
old-fashioned solid 
stanchion fails in 
this respect. In 
many cases it is 
difficult for the cow 
to lie down or get 
up with her head 
fast in one of these 
stanchions. 

The heavy swing- 
ing stanchions have 
advantages over 
this, but it also 
must be criticised in many cases, because of its 
weight and of the consequent lack of freedom on the 
part of the cow. A very light swinging stanchion is 
the best type of that form. It is easy to fasten, as the 
cows will in most cases put their heads in position 
as they go into the stall. There is not so much 
danger of the dairyman being struck by the horns 
of the cow in fastening these stanchions. Many 
modern barns are equipped with this kind. 

The chain tie is favored in many sections. This 
consists simply qf a crosschain with consider- 
able slack, attached to a ring at each end which 
runs over a perpendicular iron rod about i8 




SWINGING STANCHIONS 



BARNS AND STOCK 



87 



inches long. In the 
center of this chain 
is a loop with a snap 
which goes around 
the cow's neck. This 
arrangement gives 
the greatest free- 
dom, and allows the 
cow to lie down and 
get up without dif- 
ficulty. If light par- 
titions are used be- 
tween the heads of 
the cows no difficulty 
will be experienced 
in their striking 
each other with their „^^„ ^„,,„ 

, rr^, ■ ■ , NECK CHAIN 

horns. Ihis is by 

far the least expensive of cow ties, and is at the 

same time one of the most satisfactory. 




HANDY CALF-FEEDING DEVICE 

To feed a half-dozen calves at once is entirely 
possible if one uses the device shown here. A man 




STANCHIONS FOR CALVES 



who has one reports no more trouble with calves 
since he has used this. He rattles a couple of 



88 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

buckets together, the calves come running up to 
the fence and soon have all their heads through the 
stanchions, to which they are easily fastened by 
throwing down lever, a, which draws the bar, b, 
into position. Then one may feed each calf with- 
out difficulty. 

Leave a 4-inch space for the calves' heads. Make 
the rack of i-inch lumber and it can be moved from 
one pasture to another and attached to the fepce 
or a couple of posts. It can also be used for hold- 
ing ewes at lambing time. 

MANAGEMENT OF KICKING COWS 

Make a slatted stall just high enough so the cow 
can't jump out, and wide enough to hold her com- 
fortably, with nothing to spare, and narrower at 
the end, where her feed box should be placed as 
high from the ground as is comfortable for her to 
eat out of. This slatted stall should be long 
enough to have cleats through which a bar or two 
should be run behind the cow to keep her from 
backing out, and also places to run a bar in front 
of her hind legs about the hock joint, or as high 
up as possible so as not to interfere with milking. 
A hole about 18 or 20 inches wide is left open for 
this purpose from the ground up to the cow's flank, 
which allows easy and safe access to the udder, 
while the cleat and post prevent the cow from kick- 
ing outwardly at the milker, thus insuring safety. 

A HANDY MILKING STOOL 

Milkers who have trouble with restless cows that 
invariably either upset the pail or get a quantity of 



BARNS AND STOCK 



89 



dirt in it will find the stool 
shown here a remedy for 
their troubles. It is also 
very serviceable in fly time. 
The upright pieces form- 
ing the legs and ends of 
stools are made of 2 x 8- 
inch pieces about i foot 
long. The supports for the 
bucket and the seat are 
made of inch boards. To secure rigidity it is well 
to put three-cornered blocks under the seat and 
bucket board as brace stays. The most restless cow 
is not likely to upset the bucket from this stool. 




STOOL TO HOLD PAIL 



THE EVER READY STOOL 

A very convenient stool for use in milking the 
cow in yard or field is shown in the cut. It is 
merely a one- 
legged stool to 
which is attached 
four straps con- 
n e c t i n g with a 
broad strap that is 
buckled around the 
waist. The stool is 
quickly fastened to 
the milker and is 
always in a posi- 
tion so one can sit 
down anywhere. 
Such a stool with 
a short leg would 
also be useful in 
the garden. Of 
course, if one pre- milking stool 




go HANDY FARM DEVICES 

ferred four legs instead of one, the stool could be so 
made, but experience proves that the one-legged 
kind serves well. 

CHEAP MILKING STOOL 

A cheap and very useful milking stool is made 
of the reel from which barbed wire has been re- 
moved. Saw off the ends so it will set level and 




REEL STOOL 

cut a board to fit on top. Make a hand hole through 
the board as shown in the illustration and the stool 
is ready for use. 

KEEP STOOLS CLEAN 

Much milk contamination is undoubtedly due to 
the careless handling of the milk stools. When the 
milker is through milking one cow he gives the 
stool a toss, then he picks it up again when he 
starts to milk the next cow and his hands become 
more or less contaminated from the stool and from 



BASNS AND STOCK 



91 



them the dirt drops into the milk pail during the 
milking. 

When the milking is over, the stool is left in the 
yard or on the barn floor. It is so easy to make a 
small rack and to bore holes in the legs of the 




STOOL RACK 

stool, so that they may be hung up. This keeps 
them out of the dirt and it is only necessary to 
brush them off carefully once in a while to keep 
them scrupulously clean. 



The man who -is constantly changing his mind 
usually has little to change. 



A USEFUL STOCK CART 

Here is a handy transfer cart, made with wheels 
and crossarch of an old corn plow to carry a hog 



92 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



or sheep, pigs or a calf. Raise the tongue, which 
lets the rear end on ground, then drive in the animal, 




TRANSFER CART FOR SMALL ANIMALS 

shut the gate, pull tongue down and you have your 
load ready to fasten to a wagon. 

HOW TO STAKE OUT STOCK 

A convenient and simple contrivance so that no 
harm can come to the animal is to drive two stakes 
several feet apart and stretch a rope or wire on 




cow TIED OUT TO FEED 



which a ring is placed. To this ring fasten haltef 
strap. . The animal can graze up and down on both 
sides without tangle or injury. The ring slides, 
and the stretched wire will give some. 



BARNS AND STOCK 93 

FEED BOX FOR FIELD 

A handy feed box for use in open lots or when 
steers are being fed upon grass is shown in the 

cut. Cut a barrel in 
two and strengthen 
the halves by plac- 
ing a frame of two 
boards across the 
inside, as shown in 
this sketch. This 
will prevent the tub 
being" smashed and 
will allow four 
animals to eat out 
of the trough with- 
out bothering each 
" -' — ' ' '"" other unnecessarily. 

TUB FEED BOX Ti • • ^ ^ ^i / 

It IS important that a 
very strong barrel be selected and that the hoops 
be nailed to each stave. 




Be advis'd; 
Heat not a furnace for your foe so hot 
That it do singe yourself: we may outrun, 
By violent swiftness, that which we run at. 
And lose by over-running. — Henry VHI. 

Have more than thou showest. 

Speak less than thou knowest. 

Lend less than thou owest. 

Ride more than thou goest. 

Learn more than thou trowest. 

Set less than thou throwest. — King Lear. 

Use or practice of a thing is the best master. 



94 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

CHEAP SHEDS OF STRAW 

It would pay every farmer to put up in the pas- 
tures some kind of protection for his sheep, hogs 
and cattle. Where labor is scarce and hay and straw 
is plentiful and cheap, a condition which prevails 
in many large sections, straw sheds and barns are 
very profitable. Put up a framework of posts 8 
feet high, i6 feet wide and as long as needed; 30 
feet is a good length. 

The posts are hewed evenly on two sides and set 
so that a bale of straw will fit snugly between them. 
They are cut off at a uniform height and a 2 x 6 
spiked securely on top. Rafters are nailed to this 
and covered loosely with poles. Baled straw is 
used for the sides. 

After the sides are up the roof is covered 2 feet 
deep with loose straw held in place with a few 
poles that are tied together in pairs and placed over 
the ridge. Several of these sheds have been built 
for five years and have not needed any attention. 



Life is made up not of great sacrifices or duties, 
but of little things, in which smiles and kindness, 
and small obligations given habitually, are what 
win and pre.=erve the heart and secure comfort. — 
Sir H. Davy. 

You must cut your coat according to your cloth. 



FEED TROUGH FOR SHEEP 

For a sheep trough procure two 6-inch boards, 
a, about 3 feet long and at the bottom of each fasten 
another board, b. Make a flat trough and let the 



BARNS AND STOCK 



95 



ends project above the top. Bore a hole through 
each end and also through the standards, a, and 
hang the trough on bolts. After the sheep eat and 




SWINGING SHEEP TROUGH 



leave the cobs, or if it rains, the trough can be 
turned bottom side up and quickly cleaned. 



The luck that I believe in 

Is that which comes with work. 

And no one ever finds it 

Who's content to wish and shirk. 

The men the world calls lucky- 
Will tell you, every one. 

That success comes, not by wishing, 
But by hard work, bravely done. 



A NOVEL FEED RACK 

An overhead manger, as shown in the sketch, 
is excellent for sheep or calves. It should hang 
just high enough so that they will pass under with- 



90 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



out rubbing their backs. When filled with hay 
from above they will eat of it at their pleasure, and 
at the same time it will not take up floor space. 




HANGING RACK 



Such a manger is not suitable for grains or fine 
•cut fodders, as too much may be wasted. 



A WHEELBARROW SHEEP TROUGH 

It very often happens that one wishes to run 
the sheep on several different pastures during the 




PORTABLE RACK FEEDER 



BARNS AND STOCK 



97 



season. If heavy feed racks are used it is quite a 
task to move them. The drawing shows a rack 
that can be easily moved from one field to another 
by one person. It is simply mounted upon a pair 
of wheels and has handles on the other end. 

If the rack is made very large, it can be easily 
attached to a wagon, and thus drawn from place to 
place. The one shown is mounted on old cultivator 
wheels. 

PACKING THE FLEECE 

One of the best ways to pack a fleece is to lay it 
upon a table, turn in the head and tail, then the 




FLEECE TYING BOX 



flanks. After this roll it up into a neat roll and tie 
firmly, using such a device as here illustrated. 

The tying box is made from light lumber with 
slots, as shown, through which the rope is passed. 
The fleece is placed upon this rope and the roll 
easily tied. Wool buyers prefer to have the fleece 



98 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



loose, light to handle and elastic and tied up so 
that it can be opened if needed. 

EASY TO HANDLE HEAVY HOGS 

The old fashion of having a lot of help around 
at hog-killing time is going out, owing to the use 
of better appliances for handling the animals after 
killing. You may rig up a simple arrangement so 




ONE-MAN BUTCHERING RIG 



that you can handle heavy hogs without assistance. 
Build a fire box with a flue, b, of three joints of old 
stovepipe. The vat is made of heavy galvanized 
iron 4 feet long by 2 feet vvide and 18 inches deep. 
Over this erect a frame of 2 x 4-inch strips, upon 
which place an old traveler from a hay carrier, or 
construct one similar to d. With the windlass ar- 
rangement, o, and the tackle, e, to which are at- 
tached the four feet of the hog, you can convey it 
from the vat to the bench. A rope, c, passing over 
the pulley at g, serves to pull the carrier, d, over the 
bench from the vat. 



BARNS AND STOCK 99 

HEATING WATER FOR HOG KILLING 

A device which is superior to the old iron kettle 
for heating water is shown in this sketch. Take a 
piece of 2-inch iron pipe 8 feet long and have it 
securely screwed into the bottom of a stout vinegar 
barrel. In the other end of the pipe screw a large 
wooden block. 




SIMPLE WATER BOILER 

By arranging the affair as shown in the sketch 
water in the barrel will be heated rapidly and can 
be removed as desired without bothering the fire. 
Do not make the mistake of putting a metal cap 
on the end of the pipe, or the steam may sometimes 
burst the piping before the cap will come off. The 
wooden block acts as a safety valve and will fly out 
if pressure is too great. 

A FARM SLAUGHTERHOUSE 

If one butchers his own stock on the farm he 
would do well to fix up a small building for a 
slaughterhouse. This can be done so easily and 
at such small expense that almost any farmer can 
afford one. It is generally most convenient to have 



100 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



it near the hog yard, for then the refuse can be 
easily conveyed to the hogs. Indeed it would not 
be a half bad idea to have it in some instances a 
part of the hog house. The room in which to kill 



isLV'. 




CARCASS DERRICK 



cattle and hogs should not be less than 15 feet 
square. This will give plenty of space for the 
work. As much of the room should be kept cleat 
from fixtures as Dossible. 



BARNS AND STOCK lOI 

The floor should be made of concrete graded 
so that it will all drain to a central opening. A 
pipe should carry the liquid from this opening to a 
trough in the hog yard. The ideal way would be 
to make the walls of concrete for about 3 feet from 
the ground. This will make it much easier to keep 
the place clean. It is quite necessary that a good 
supply of water be close at hand. If possible, a 
water pipe with hose attached should be in the 
house. This will enable one to flood the floor at 
any time. 

On page 99 is a picture of a very good device 
for handling the carcasses. It is made of a heavy 
roller, r, 5 to 6 inches thick, and long enough to 
reach across the width of the room. It is sup- 
ported in the middle by a bracket, d, detail of which 
is shown in the drawing. This makes it possible 
to lift a carcass of any weight. A drum, b, is at- 
tached to the roller at one end, over which is run 
the rope that communicates with the crank, a, at 
the floor. Any man handy with tools can make 
this derrick. 

In order to simplify matters one may use a barrel 
cart water heater. This barrel has a valve attached 
at the bottom. To this is fastened a rubber hose 
that communicates with a small coil of pipes. This 
coil of pipes in turn communicates with the top of 
the barrel by another rubber hose. The coil of 
pipes is placed over a fire built in a hole in the 
ground, and the valve is opened. 

As soon as the water in the coils becomes hot it 
is forced through the rubber hose, and a circulation 
is started. This device will heat water very rapidly 
and easily. When the water is heated the rubber 
hose is detached and the barrel wheeled under the 



I02 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



derrick on which the hog is hung. By means of a 
crank the carcass is let into the water to be scalded. 
With simple devices one man can very easily do 
the butchering alone. It will be found convenient 
to have a table that folds up against the side of the 
building on which to cut up the meat. 

KEEP PIGS OUT OF FEED TROUGH 

To prevent hogs crowding and getting in the 
trough with their feet the accompanying plan will 
be found practical. You can nail the Vs, or rick- 




PARTITIONED HOG TROUGH 

rack work, on any shaped trough. They fit on a 
pointed qr flat-bottomed trough equally well. Nail 
a strip lengthwise along the top of the Vs to 
strengthen them. Stakes driven at intervals and 
nailed securely to the angles will hold the Vs and 
trough both solid. 

MOVABLE HOUSE FOR BREEDING SOWS 



Individual hog houses may be constructed with 
four upright walls and a shed roof, as shown beloW. 
The walls and the roof are separate and can be 
easily taken down and replaced. These small 



BARNS AND STOCK IO3 

houses can be moved about very easily. The size 
of the house will depend upon conditions. The 




CONSTRUCTION OF THE HOUSE 

construction is shown, so that any farmer with tools 
can easily put up one of these houses. With the 
individual houses the sow at farrowing time may be 
kept alone and away from all disturbance and 
there will not be too large a number of pigs in a 




THE HOUSE SET UP 



J04 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

small lot if kept in this way. The danger of spread- 
ing diseases among the animals is also reduced to 
a minimum where swine are kept more isolated. 
When properly bedded and cared for no disastrous 
disease need be feared. Much depends upon the 
sanitary conditions. 

WELL-ARRANGED HOG LOTS 

An Indiana farmer keeps his pigs in long houses 
which are divided into compartments opening into 
small lots. The sketch shows how they stand. 
Breeding hogs and fattening shotes are allowed 
the run of their own lots, as well as occasional 




PIG HOUSES AND PENS 



changes into the larger field, shown at the bottom 
of the sketch, which is a timothy and clover pas- 
ture. It is better to have pigs in separate quarters 
in small bunches, for in this way they can be better 
attended to and the growths are more uniform. 



BARNS AND STOCK 



105 



HANDY PIG CATCHER 

Here is a homemade device for catching small 
pigs which saves much time and annoyance. The 
net may be made from a 
discarded lawn tennis 
net, the rim from a 
bicycle wheel, and the han- 
dle is a heavy rake handle. 
The net is securely fas- 
tened to the rim with some 
copper wire, while the rim 
is fastened to the handle 
with two pieces of 
band iron. Small pigs 
caught in the net will not 
squeal and struggle as 
when chased around the 
pen and caught by one leg. 
The element of excitement 
is greatly reduced by use of 
the net, and some would 
find less fun in the net 
method. On the whole, however, we recommend it. 




PIG NET 



The weakest arm is strong enough that strikes 
with the sword of justice. 

Our knowledge is the amassed thought and ex- 
perience of innumerable minds. — Emerson. 



STAIRS FOR THE BARN 

A lot of time is saved if one has handy stairs 
which can be used for throwing down hay as well 
as a passageway. These steps are made of light 



lOO 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



material and instead of putting on a lower step, use 
a block, c, and attach the stringers of the stairs to it 
at each end with a pin. A rope passes over the 




CROSS-SECTION WITH STAIRS 

pulleys at d, to a weight, which allows the stairway 
to be held upright while the hay is being put down. 
The rope, e, is handy to pull the stairs into position. 

HANG UP THE LANTERN 



Here is a good idea for hanging a lantern over 
the barn floor. Get two pulleys with screw stems, 
and screw on in beam over head, the other at top of 
post. Have a bracket lower on the same post. 
Take a piece of small but strong cord, and at 



BARNS AND STOCK 



107 



one end fasten a snap and pass 



Put 



your 



the other 
lantern on 



end 
the 



through the pulleys 
snap and draw it 
high enough so it 
will be out of reach 
of forking hay, and 
you can see all over 
the barn floor. You 
can raise the lan- 
tern high enough 
to pitch hay from 
the top of the mow 
with no danger of 
turning the light 
over and burning 
the building and 
contents. 

The end of the 
cord opposite the 
lantern may be 
fastened with a snap, or more length may be al- 
lowed for adjusting the height of the lantern, and 
the cord may be secured by a hitch or a few turns 
around a button or two spikes driven halfway in 
and bent over in opposite directions. 




PULLEY-HUNG LANIERN 



ARRANGEMENT FOR WEIGHING 

A homemade balance may be constructed with a 
joist loosely attached, so as to just balance over the 
rounded top of a heavy block. It will be useful in 
weighing hay and other bulky substances for feed- 
ing purposes. For weights, use small wooden 
boxes or bags of stone and sand which have been 
weighed on other scales. Place the required weight 
upon the balance and then place feed on the other 



io8 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



end until it balances the weight, and it will be ac- 
curate enough for all ordinary purposes. 

A BARN WINDLASS 

It is easily made of iron pipe or a bar fastened 
to the ladder or other suitable support by means 

of eyebolts or stout sta- 
ples, as shown at a in the 
drawing. It may be used 
for raising grain, wagon 
boxes and other heavy 
things to the upper part 
of the barn, and, if desired, 
may be rigged with block 
and falls, so as to increase 
the power without increas- 
ing the effort. A loose bolt 
placed in a hole will pre- 
vent unwinding. The pic- 
ture shows how simple this device is. Every farmer 
knows how useful a barn windlass may be. 

GRAIN BOX EASY TO EMPTY 







WINDLASS 



The trouble with most grain boxes is to get out 
the last third of the grain. Bending over the edge 
jackknife fashion is neither pleasant nor healthful. 
A box or bin may be made with half its front on 
hinges, so that it can be let down and all the con- 
tents scooped out without difficulty. The bin may 
be made from a piano box with a partition in the 
middle for two kinds of grain. 



Leave your son a good reputation and an ems 
ployment. 



BARNS AND STOCK lOQ 

EASILY CONSTRUCTED GRAIN BINS 

Grain bins with compartments for different kinds 
of feed are handy in barn or stable. By procuring 
a number of dry-goods boxes, all of the same size 
and shape, and nailing them together side by side, 
so that they will appear as one, the bin is easily 
made. The cover should extend the entire length 
of the bin, and though leather hinges will answer, 
it is better to attach it with iron ones, for then, with 
a good staple and hasp, the contents can be kept 
under lock and key if desired. 

A CONVENIENT BARN TRUCK 

No dairyman can afford to ignore that which 
will lighten his labor in any way whatever. Be his 
stable ever so conveniently constructed, he has 
enough to do. Hence the importance of his con- 
sidering a feeding truck or car if he does not have 
one. Made of good lumber, the only iron about it 
need be the handle at each end, by which to push or 
pull it along the feeding alley in front of the cows 
which are to be fed, and the small trucks on which 
it is mounted. The wheels procured, any good 
blacksmith can make these, so that the truck is by 
no means difficult to construct. The box body 
should be about 2 feet wide, 20 inches deep and 
4j4 feet long. Silage can be conveyed in it from 
the silo to the mangers very readily. If the silo 
is some distance away, it will save much hard 
work. 



If little labor, little are our gaines : 

Man's fortunes are according to his paines. 

— Herrick. 



no 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



TAKES A MAN'S PLACE 



In most cases it takes two men to fill a sack of 

grain, but by using 
the sack holder 
one man can do it 
alone. Make a 
platform, b, 20 
inches square, and 
fasten to it a 2 x 4, 
c, with notches cut 
in. The arms, a, 
should be 18 inches 
long. Make the 
upright piece 3 
feet long so that 
long bags can be 
handled. Some 
bags will require a 
still longer upright 
piece. A device that 
takes the place of a 

man or enables a man to work twice as fast as he 

could without it is worth while. 




SACK HOLDER 



A wise old owl sat on an oak, 

The longer he stayed the less he spoke. 

The less he spoke the more he heard. 

Why are not more of us like that wise old bird? 

There are but two ways of paying debt : increi 
of industry in raising income, increase of thrift 
lavinf out. — Carlvle. 



laying out. — Carlyle. 



increase 
in 



If it were done, when 'tis done, then 'twere well 
It were done quickly. — Macbeth. 



BARNS AND STOCK 



III 



A HANDY BAG HOLDER 



It is constructed with two good boards I inch 
thick and 15 inches wide. The perpendicular one 
is 3>4 feet long, and the horizontal one 2 feet 
long. These are joined together and braced as 
shown in the draw- 
ing, and the hopper 
is attached, wedged 
out from the per- 
pendicular board so 
the bag may wrap 
it all the way 
round. The hooks 
for holding the bag 
in place can be se- 
cured at a hardware 
store. As the whole 
affair, if composed 
of thoroughly sea- 
soned lumber is 
light to handle, it 
can easily be 
carried to any 
spot where grain 
is to be put up. 

Here is another scheme that saves time and labor 
and makes it possible for one man to do the work 
that usually requires two. This one is as good and 
perhaps better than any device that has been in- 
vented in the bag-holder line. In making it, an 
important point is to attach all parts very securely 
where they come together, especially the hopper and 
the braces. Otherwise, with hard usage the holder 
will get loose and break down. 




BAG HOLDER 



112 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

A CORN HUSKING RACK 

Many who husk their corn by hand find it very 
tiresome to sit on the floor or ground in a cramped 
position. A rack made as shown in the drawing 




RACK FOR CORN HUSKING 

will hold two or three shocks and gives a better 
place for the husker to sit. Place the stalks cross- 
wise of the bench in front of you. 

A HOMEMADE FEED CUTTER 

An old lawn mower can be arranged to make a 
fairly satisfactory straw or feed cutter. One must 




WORKING THE LAWN MOWER 



BARNS AND STOCK 



"3 



rig up a hopper, as shown in the sketch, and at- 
tach the mower to the lower end of it so that the 
straw or grain will just strike the knives where 
the grass usually comes into the mower. A crank 
and a belt arrangement makes it easy for one man 
to feed and turn the cutter. This is a good use for 
a lawn mower in the winter time when it is not 
working outdoors. 



SAW ROOT CUTTER 

Those who have cut roots in the winter time 
with a butcher knife or hatchet will fully appreciate 

something better 
ll.J for a root cutter. 
A Wisconsin 
farmer has found 
a serviceable 
homemade lever 
cutter very efS- 
cient for all roots. 
For hard ones, 
like rutabagas, it 
is about the best 
thing available. 
His is made out of an old hand saw, sharpened on 
the back, fastened by means of a bolt passing 
through a hole punched at the small end, and held 
by a guide formed of two pieces of wood secured 
upright, so as to have a slit for the saw to work in. 
This contrivance is a success, and with a little prac- 
tice the roots may be cut very rapidly. See accom- 
panying illustration. The cutter may be mounted 
upon the wall wherever it will be most convenient. 
The bench or platform should be at about the height 
of a common table. 




ROOT CUTTER 



114 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

HOMEMADE CABBAGE CUTTER 

A cheap and easily made cabbage and root 
cutter is shown in the drawing. Take two 

12-inch boards and 
nail them strongly- 
together. With di- 
viders mark around 
a circle, then saw 
out and mark in 
quarters. Cut four 
slots 7 inches long 
on a slant, as shown 
by dotted lines, so 
the cabbage will fall 
through easily. Next 
cut two circles 4 
inches in diameter. 
Nail one to the large 
wheel on the back 
and leave the other 
loose on the shaft 
to act as a bearing. 
Make a frame to 
admit the wheel, leaving 2 inches clear, and just 
wide enough so the knives do not strike the side. 
Make a top over the wheel and put a hopper on the 
opposite side from the crank. The knives are 8 
inches long and can be made from an old bucksaw 
and ground down sharp, with a bevel on one side. 
"Screw these on the wheel at a slant according to the 
thickness the cabbage is wanted. A square hole 
should be cut through the center of the wheel for 
the shaft. 




CABBAGE CUTTER 



Kindle not the fire that you cannot extinguish. 



TARMS AND STOCK 1 15 

A SUBSTANTIAL DRIVEWAY 

A plank driveway to the barn is usually made 
steep in order to save planks. It is continually 
wearing out and breaking. A substantial driveway 
with an easy grade can be made by driving down 
stakes close together on either side, and filling in 
between with stones, rubbish and earth, packing all 
down firmly. When full to the top, pack some 
earth against the outside of the stakes and sod over 
the sides. This driveway will form an easy rise 
and will prove very durable. 









FEEDING DRY GROUND GRAIN 

OME of our friends have found that 
a poultry feed hopper for feeding 
ground grain has proved very- 
satisfactory. Malte a box i8 x i8 
inches and 6 inches deep, then take 
off one end and fasten to the back 
with hinges, which forms the cover. 
Nail a strip, a, 3 inches wide across the open side 
at bottom, which forms the box for the poultry to 
eat from. Take a board, h, the width of inside of 
box, 14 inches long, and insert in front of box, nail- 
ing as shown in cut, with the upper end even with 
front edge of box and slanting in until a space of 
2 inches is left between bottom of 
board and back of box to allow the 
feed to pass through. 

The feed is poured into this hop- 
per and runs down into the box at 
the bottom as fast as needed. The 
size of the hopper can be varied to 
suit the size of the flock. It should 
be screwed to wall of poultry 
house about 12 inches from floor. By using this 
hopper one may keep a dry mixture consisting of 
wheat bran and middlings and occasionally corn 
meal, or a small amount of linseed meal, always 
before the fowls. In addition, some people feed a 
mixture of whole corn, oats and wheat in the litter 
morning and evening, also ground green bone and 
beef scraps. 

116 




FEED HOPPER 



POULTRY AND BEES II7 

KEEPING THE WATER CLEAN 

Few drinking fountains are more successful than 
a large bottle or jug filled with water and inverted. 
It can be fastened wherever convenient with straps. 
If a small pan is placed close beneath it the water 
will flow out as it is used and will remain clean and 
cool. Place it high enough above the floor of the 
house so the fowls will not scratch litter into the 
pan. 

A WATERING RACK FOR HENS 

Build a crate of lath 2 feet square, 3 feet high, 
with a slanting cover to keep the hens off the top. 
Then tack an 8-inch 
board in front, level 
with floor of crate. 
Nail the rack to post 
or side of henhouse 
about 2>4 feet from 
floor, and put your 
water pan in crate. 
The hens will quickly 
learn to fly up and 
drink by putting corn 
on the lighting board. 
This contrivance 
keeps the hens from 
spilling their water 
or scratching dust or 
chaff into it. Be sure 
to nail the rack securely to the wall or post where 
it is put up. 




RACK 



PLACE 



Keep your shop and your shop will keep you. 



Ii8 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



DRINKING FOUNTAIN 



The best drinking fountain, in that it is impossible 
for small chicks to get drowned, and they cannot 
stand in the water 
to befoul it, is made 
by inverting a can 
or pail in a pan a 
trifle larger. To- 
mato cans with the 
edges pounded 
down, leaky pails 
with the ears bent 
up, in fact anything 
with a smooth top 
and in which a hole 
can be made, can 
be used. Punch a hole or holes in the side just a 
little less distance from the top than the depth of 
the pan to be used. Fill with water, invert the 
pan over the top, and turn over quickly. 




CHICKEN FOUNTAIN 



FOLDING CHICKEN ROOST 



This roost is made of 3-inch boards cut any de- 
sired length. A small bolt fastens the upright 




MOVABLE ROOST 



POULTRY AND BEES 



1191. 



pieces at their top ends, and the horizontal pieces 
are fastened on with nails. This roost can be kept 
at any angle, and may be quickly taken out of the 
house when it is time to clean up. This sort of 
roost will accommodate more fowls in the same 
space than the flat kind, but it should not be made- 
very high. 

A GOOD POULTRY NEST 



A useful trap nest can be made of grocery boxes. 
They should be at least 12 inches each way. The 
illustration shows 
how they are made. 
In the cut the trap 
is set ready for the 
hen to enter. A 
cleat, c, is fastened 
to a small piece of 
cord, which is tied 
to a nail on the 
side of the box. 
Set the trap by 
raising it and rest- 
ing the cleat on the 
nail, with the other 
end under the arm marked a. This leaves an open- 
ing from 4 to 6 inches wide, which is not enough 
for the hen to enter. In going into the nest she 
will be obliged to raise the trap door, which will let 
the cleat fall, thus closing the trap after the hen 
has gone in. 

The trap door, the arms and the cleats may be 
made out of lath. Leave a little space between the 
boards in the walls, so the heat can escape, other- 
wise it will be too warm in summer. The bottom 




TRAP NEST 



120 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



board, b, in front should be 3 or 4 inches wide, and 
the lower piece of the trap door should rest against 
this so the hen cannot get her head through, raise 
the trap and get out. 

TWO COOPS FROM A BARREL 

Very good coops can be made at small cost from 
empty barrels, as shown in this picture. First, 
drive shingle nails through the hoops on both sides 
of each stave and clinch them down on the 
inside. Then divide the barrel in halves, if it is 
big enough, by cutting through the hoops and the 




BARREL CHICKEN COOP 



bottom. Drive sticks into the ground to hold the 
coop in place, and drive a long stick at each side 
of the open end just far enough from coop to allow 
the front door to be slipped out and in. The night 
door can be made of the head from the barrel or 
any solid board, and the slatted door, used to con- 
fine the hen, by nailing upright strips of lath to a 
■crosslath at top and bottom. 



Weak men wait for opportunities; strong men 
make them. — Harden. 



POULTRY AND BEES 

A BOX CHICKEN COOP 



121 



The diagram shows a convenient way to make a 
coop for the poultry yard, of which the special fea- 
ture is its door. Procure a box of the right 
dimensions and saw a hole, d, in one end. Then 
strengthen the box with narrow strips of wood, 
i, c, on each side of the hole h, c. This acts as a 




HINGELESS DOOR IN COOP 

groove for the door, a, to slide in. Thus you have 
a sliding door, which opens and shuts with the 
greatest ease. The front of the coop is inclosed 
with lath, or narrow strips, placed 2^ to 3 inches 
apart. The top should be covered with a good 
grade of roofing paper to make it waterproof. A 
coop of this sort should be 2 to 23^ feet long, 16 
inches deep and 2 feet high. 

A LOW POULTRY RUN 

A safe and secure run that requires less material 
than a high pen can be made from laths sawed in 
two, which would make the sides 2 feet high, mak- 
ing the frame of scantlings and the top of sawed 
laths, box boards or similar material. The top of 



122 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



the run should consist almost entirely of trap doors, 
using bits of old harness for hinges, which will look 
well if cut neatly. The picture shows one of the 
doors propped up to show the construction more 
plainly. The doors are 4 feet long, the lengfth of 
a lath, and may be 8 to 10 feet the other way and 
still not be clumsy, being constructed of such light 
material. This trap door is an important feature. 




TRAP-DOOR POULTRY COOP 



as it permits the tender to enter easily for remov- 
ing top soil and replacing with fresh earth, or 
otherwise caring for the birds. The frame material 
is of 2 X 2-inch scantling at the corners, while the 
side strips are made of inch boards sawed 2 inches 
wide. The earth under this run should be slightly 
mounded for the sake of dryness. 



Whatever is worth doing at all is worth doing 
well. — Earl of Chesterfield. 



POULTRY AND BEES I23 

A PORTABLE CHICKEN COOP 

One of the annoyances about an ordinary chicken 
coop is that it is not easily moved from place to 
place, nor provided with a yard. To obtain a yard 
the coop must be moved separately, and thus re- 
■quire the loss of more or less time. In the draw- 
ing shown herewith is a simple, homemade coop, 




COOP EASILY MOVED 

which can very easily be moved by the aid of the 
handles at the apex at each end. The coop is built 
•of ordinary material on a base frame, and with a 
V-shaped roof and side frames. The ridge pole is 
extended, as shown at each end, to form a handle. 
A convenient length is about 2 feet for the coop 
and 3 or 4 feet for the yard. If desired, the hen 
may be allowed the freedom of the yard or may be 
held in by slats, as shown in the drawing. 

A HOMEMADE BROODER 

The material costs about $2 and a handy person 
can build one in a day. The gas from the lamp 
'does not go into the chick apartment at all, but 
filters around under the floor, making it dry and 
mrarm. The lamp flame is about 3 inches from the 



124 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



sheet iron. The heat flows up gently through the 
drum, /, which is perforated with holes in the side, 
thus letting part of the heat out into the hover 
and the balance in the brooder above. The 
heat reservoir, g, between the sheet iron, k, and the 
floor, c, is about i inch deep. The tube, /, should 
not touch the sheet iron, merely extending through 
the floor, c. It takes very little oil. 







fJ^f^^J^^^/^^/77 



v///^^^^/^7rh 



4' 



DETAILS OF BROODER 

In the cut, a, is the paper roofing over inch- 
matched boards, b; c is board floor of same material ; 
d are small windows, e is the hover, h are holes in 
each side of the brooder for the escape of gas and 
fumes, / shows door to reach the lamp, n air space 
below the floor. 

MOVABLE BROODER HOUSE 



The type of house shown in the cut is one of the 
best for raising poultry. It may be built on run- 
ners, with a tight board floor of matched boards. 
A convenient size is 6 feet wide and lo feet long, 
6 feet high in front and 4 feet at the rear. The 



POULTRY AND BEES 



125 



■door is in the middle, and there is a window on each 
side, with two openings below. The roof should 
be covered with a good quality of prepared roofing. 




HOUSE ON RUNNERS 



The same material used to cover the sides will 
make the house warmer. Roosts may be put in 
after the brooders are taken out, and the chickens 
easily protected from foxes and other animals. 

A VERY CHEAP HENHOUSE 

It was built by a " down east " Yankee. The 
studs and rafters were made of two pieces of i x 2- 
inch stuff nailed together T shape. These were set 
up 2 feet ID inches apart on centers and covered 
with wire netting drawn taut. This was then cov- 
ered with tarred paper, which made the only ma- 
terial between the fowls and the outside air. They 
have wintered in these houses without discomfort, 
and gave a good egg yield. The wire netting pre- 
vented the paper from sagging when the house was 
covered with snow. 



They can who think they can. 



126 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

A DAYLIGHT CHICKEN CATCHER 

Do you, when you want fried chicken on short 
notice, run it down, provided it doesn't run you 
down? Here is a better way. Fasten a barrel hoop' 
securely to a handle about 6 feet long, and to it 
fasten a bag about 3 feet deep. A piece of an old 
hammock is fine for a bag, or horse net or fish net 
— anything the chicken cannot get out of. Lay it 
on the ground, call the chicken and throw the com 
over the bag, and when one suitable goes on lift 
up the hoop and you have it. If the bag is made 
not over i foot deep it can be dropped down over 
the chicken while eating. 

A SIMPLE HAWK TRAP 

Make a box 4 inches deep, 6 inches square and nail 
to a 4-foot pole with cleats at the bottom to keep 
from turning over. Cover top of box with i-inch 
mesh wire. Place a little chicken in the box; then 
put a steel trap on top of box and set it out under 
the trees where the hawks lodge to watch for the 
chickens. If there are hawks around, it is pretty 
sure to catch them. 

SCARE AWAY CROWS AND HAWKS 

For keeping hawks and crows away from the 
poultry yards, get a few bright tin shingles, link 
them together with wire, and hang upon an arm 
extending from the top of a high pole, where sun 
and wind strike fairly. The jingle and glitter is 
sufficient to keep these pests at a safe distance. 
You will also find them useful in the corn and 
melon fields where crows are troublesome. 



POULTRY AND BEES 



127 



Wi 


5« 







PRACTICAL HIVES AND HIVE MAKING 

^VERY apiarist knows that there is 
no item in bee keeping of more 
practical importance than the hive 
and brood frame. The Langstroth, 
or Simplicity size of frame has be- 
come almost standard, for there 
are more frames of this size in use 
than all others combined. The frame proper is 
17^ inches long, g}i inches deep, and the top bar 
is 19 inches long. There are several styles made, 
but many prefer what is known as the Hoffman. 
This has a heavy top bar in depth, as well as width. 
The ends, or end bars, are made 1% inches wide 
for about 3 inches down and one side is worked off 
to a knife edge, which comes against the square 
edge of the next frame, making them self-spacing, 
but not a closed-end frame, and allowing the proper 
bee space between the top bars. This works fairly 
well without the use of the honey board, though 
one is preferable. 

The hive for this frame, to be best adapted 
to the production of comb or extracted honey, 
should contain 10 frames, the in- 
side dimensions being 15 inches 
wide, 10 inches deep and i8}i 
inches long. A follower can be 
used at one side to assist in re- 
moving frames by first removing 
the follower or division board. 
This arrangement leaves % inch 
between the top of the frames 
and the top of the brood nest, so , 




that when the surplus cases are double-wallei> 
put on the proper bee space is hive 



128 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



preserved. This hive is made of scant ^^-inch lum- 
ber for the outside, ship-lapped together in a man- 
ner to make a perfect joint. It is 20 inches wide, 
24 inches long, about 20 inches high to the eaves, 
or roof, outside measurements, and weighs complete 
about 50 pounds. The inside dimensions of the brood 
nest should be the same as any 8 or lo-frame hive, 
as the bee keeper may prefer. The brood nest is 
raised sufficiently to admit of packing between it 
and the hive proper, also a space for packing at 
ends and sides. 




DOVETAILED HIVE 



The lower portion of the hive being well pro- 
tected against the cold, the warmth of the bees 
will care for the upper portion. To avoid conden- 
sation cover the brood nest after removing the 
surplus cases with a porous substance, or chaff 
cushion. Make a wooden rim about 4 inches deep, 
covering the top and bottom with burlap and fill- 
ing with wheat chaff or cut straw. Many prefer 
the cut straw both for cushions and packing the 



POULTRY AND BEES 



129 



hives. This rim should be made a little smaller 
than the inside of the hive. 

In extremely warm v^reather the cover can be 
raised a few inches in front, giving a circulation 
of air all around the surplus department, and shad- 
ing it at the same time. The cover is hinged at 
the back end, and when raised, as shown in cut, 
makes two shelves for the use of the operators, 
which are highly appreciated; besides, there is no 
lifting on or off of covers, as is the case in other 
liives. The alighting board is hinged and can 
touch the ground, which is of great advantage to 
the bees during a heavy flow of honey. 

Perhaps there are more single-walled hives used 
in the United States than double-walled or chaff 
hives, but in northern states a double-walled hive 
is preferable. 

DEVICE FOR EXTRACTING BEESWAX 

Wax, as produced by the bees and worked into 
comb, is almost pure white, but, on being melted 




SOLAR WAX EXTRACTOR 



and cooled, is yellow. A man who knows advises 
every beekeeper to use the solar wax extractor. 



130 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

All that is necessary is to have a box with glass to 
fit over it, as shown in the drawing. To melt 
combs, put in the box an old dripping-pan, having 
a hole at one corner, and that corner the lowest, 
with some kind of a dish set under to catch the 
wax. Set in the sun. To get the most out, break 
up the combs into fine pieces, then soak in water 
for a day or two Iqnger before rendering. 

SELF-FEEDER FOR BEES 

A very simple device for feeding bees on syrup 
may be made if you take an ordinary fruit can, fill 
it full of syrup and over the top tie a thick rag with 
a string. Then invert the can in a small pan or 
dish. The syrup will seep out through the rag 
around the edges of the jar just fast enough for the 
bees to keep it cleaned up. 



r^. 


GARDEN AND 
ORCHARD 


r \ 



AN IRON HOOP TRELLIS 




HIS trellis is made of the iron 
hoops that are now used so com- 
monly upon sugar and other bar- 
rels. They are of stout wire, 
welded into a complete circle, and, 
as barrels are constantly going to 
pieces, one can get together quite 
a collection of these, when they can be assorted 
into uniform sizes. 

An attractive trellis is shown. Three strips of 
wood, pointed at the lower end 
and finished with a knob at the top, 
are provided, the length being a 
matter for individual taste. A 
trellis for tomato plants will need 
not more than two hoops, 
while one for sweet peas may re- 
quire a half dozen. The strips of 
wood should be of inch board, 2 
inches wide. The hoops are se- 
cured to the uprights by small 
staples made for putting up wire 
fencing. The wooden posts may 
be oiled or painted some attrac- 
tive color. This trellis will be 
greatly appreciated both in the vegetable and 
flower gardens, for its strength and attractiveness. 




w-v-ii^x^'krv 



THE TRELLIS 



Diligence is the mother of good luck. — Franklin. 

131 



J32 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

PLANT SUPPORTS OF BARREL HOOPS 

The ordinary wooden hoops from barrels may be 
made into an attractive trellis for grapes or a sup- 
port for smaller twining plants by being arranged 




HOOP TRELLISES 

as shown in the sketch. Attach them firmly to 
heavy stakes with some No. 7 smooth wire and you 
have an arrangement which will last for several 
years and is not unattractive to the eye. 

A FOLDING TRELLIS 

A good way to pole beans is to make a folding 
trellis out of plastering lath, as shown in the cuts. 
Bore three small holes through 
each lath, as shown in the first cut 
and fasten them together with 

TRELLIS FOLDED ■ -i n i- i. j 

common wire nails well clinched. 



GAEDEN AND ORCHARD 



133 



Five-foot posts are set i foot in the ground and a 
wire strung at top and bottom. The lath are fastened 
to the wires with string, as shown in the second 
cut. The trellis is made in sections so as to be 




TRELLIS IN PLACE IN THE GARDEN 



easily handled. When not in use it is folded up 
and laid away under shelter. The posts are spaced 
evenly so that one section of trellis will just go be- 
tween two posts. 

EASY WAY TO POLE BEANS 

Set posts at convenient distances apart and 
stretch a wire at the top. This may be done as- 
soon as ground is plowed. Plant and cultivate one 
row each side of line until beans begin to vine, then 




TRELLIS FOR BEANS 

set poles slanting, tying them together where they 
cross at the wire. This braces the whole row and 
beans can be cultivated with hoe. Hills 3 feet apart 
in row with one vine to hill are better than two' 
vines. 



134 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 




TRELLIS THAT STANDS ALONE 

A plant support or garden trellis, such as shown 
in the drawing, is very handy in the garden. This 

double form of 
trellis can be fold- 
ed up and takes 
very little room in 
storage. All trel- 
lises and stakes 
should be gath- 
ered as soon as 
the crop is har- 
vested and stored 
under cover until 
the next season. 
' They are useful 

for tomatoes, beans, peas, cucumbers and other 
plants that need some support. The double trellis 
is built of narrow ^-inch slats and pieces of 2 x 3, 
which are bolted together for the legs. The top 
may be held in place by pieces of string or wire 
attached at the points indicated in the drawing. 
The length, width and height of this trellis should 
depend upon the use to be made of it. A large one 
will be wanted for a large spreading plant and a 
small one for a small plant. It is important to 
have trellises just the right size to give proper 
support. 

PROTECTING NEWLY SET PLANTS 



DOUBLE FORM OF TRELLIS 



Plants newly transplanted always demand more 
or less protection from the blighting effects of too 
much sun and wind. It is best achieved by inak- 
ing a shelter such as is shown in the cut. Two 10- 



GARDEN AND ORCHARD 



135 



foot poles and two 3'foot pieces of any convenient 
thickness for the crosspieces, with four 14-inch 
weather-strips for the legs, constitute the frame. 
In the middle of it two hooks should be inserted on 
each side, and upon these the covering fastened, 
which can thus be adjusted very quickly. The cov- 
ering may consist of burlap or any kind of rough 
sacking. 




FRAME OPEN AND COVERED 



Being so simple and economical to make, it is 
advisable to have enough frames to protect the 
number of tender plants that are set out in a gar- 
den at one time. They possess other advantages 
than sheltering the young things from the direct 
rays of the sun. They allow slow evaporation, and 
so keep newly watered ground moist for hours, 
whereas if exposed to the sun and wind it would 
soon become dry and caked. On windy days it is 
only necessary to let the sacking down on the wind- 
ward side of the shelter. In case of frost the pro- 
tection that they afford is of inestimable value. 



Love thy neighbor, yet pull not down thy hedge. 



136 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

MAKING THE HOTBED 

The value of every vegetable garden can be 
greatly increased and the time during which a 
supply of fresh vegetables may be secured for the 
table greatly lengthened by the use of the common 
manure hotbed and the cold frame. These indis- 
pensable adjuncts of the good garden are so easily 
made and cost so little that it is surprising they 
are not more common. A good hotbed made the 
latter part of February or in March can be made 
to yield an abundant supply of lettuce, radishes, 
spinach, etc., for table use by the time such crops 
are being planted out of doors, and the supply of 
cabbage, tomatoes and other plants for the home 
garden can be secured ready to transplant several 
weeks earlier than if plants grown in the open were 
depended upon. 

As a source of heat fresh horse manure is used. 
About half manure and half fine straw mixed to- 
gether should be piled in square piles 2 or 3 feet 
in depth, and 4 or 5 feet in width and long enough 
to contain the amount necessary for the beds de- 
sired. After heating has well started, the piles 
should be forked over, turning the outside of the 
old pile to the inside of the new, and when heating 
again is well under way the material is ready for 
use. In the meantime select a well-drained spot, 
sloping to the south, if possible. 

Dig a trench 6J^ feet wide, 2 feet deep and as 
long as desired, running east and west. Now place 
the manure in the trench, tramping and packing in 
thin, even layers until level with the surface. Make 
a frame 6 feet wide and as long as desired, but 
some multiple of three, because the hotbed sash are 
always made 3 feet wide. The end piece should 



GARDEN AND ORCHARD 137 

be 9 inches high in front and 15 inches high in the 
back. The front side board should be 9 inches 
wide and for the rear it will require two boards, 
preferably 12 and 3, with the wide one at the top. 

A frame 12 or 15 feet in length will be quite large 
enough for the ordinary farm garden. Set this 
frame on top of the manure with the slope facing 
the south and secured by stakes. On top of the 
manure put 6 inches of good garden soil and cover 
the frame with common sash or windows 6 feet long 
by 3 feet wide. At first the heat will run very 
high, but in a few days it will fall to 80 or 90 
degrees, when it is safe to plant the seeds. 

MAKING PERMANENT HOTBEDS 

Hotbed sash should be constructed of white pine 
or of cypress, and the sash bars should run in one 
direction only, and that lengthwise of the sash. The 
bars may be braced through the middle by a trans- 
verse bar placed through the long bars below the 
glass. The two ends of the sash should be made 
of sound timber, 3 inches wide at the top and 4 
inches wide at the bottom end, mortised to receive 
the ends of the sash bars, and with a tenon at the 
ends to pass through the side pieces, which should 
be 2j4 inches wide. 

A permanent hotbed should be so constructed as 
to be heated either with fermenting manure or by 
radiating pipes from the dwelling or greenhouse 
heating plant. For a permanent bed, in which 
manure is to supply the heat, a pit 2 to 2j^ feet 
deep, according to the latitude in which the work 
is to be done, should be provided. 

The sides and ends may be supported by a lining 
of plank supported by posts 4 feet apart, or, what 



138 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



is better still, a brick wall 9 inches thick, as shown 
in the drawing, may be used. In either case the 
pit lining should come flush with the surface of the 
soil. The site for the pit should be on naturally 
well-drained land, and a tile drain from the bottom 
of the excavation should be provided to prevent the 







■i^5#4!& SOIL ^':;m?&M^: 







HOTBED WITH BRICK WALLS 



water from accumulating in the pit and stopping 
the fermentation of the manure during the period 
the hotbed is in use. 

Standard hotbed sash are 3 by 6 feet. The pit, 
therefore, should be some multiple of 3 feet in 
length, and the width should be the same as the 
length of the sash, 6 feet. The plank frame, or the 
brickwork of the pit, may be extended above the 
surface of the ground sufficiently to allow for plac- 
ing the sash immediately upon these permanent 
structures. 

HEAT FOR HOTBEDS 

Make an excavation 5 x 16 feet on the surface, 
and about a foot deep. Lengthwise along this 



GARDEN AND ORCHARD 1 39 

space lay three rows of tiling, one along the center 
and one about a foot from each side. The tiles 
should be 4 inches inside measure, and i foot long. 
These are placed end to end so as to fit closely, 
and earth is pressed around them so as to hold 
every piece exactly in place. Then the excavation 
is filled with rich soil until level with the surface, 
excepting at the end the tiles are left bare for 
a few inches. The board frame, 5 x 15 feet, is 
next put in place so as to leave 6 inches of each 
row of tiles projecting beyond the ends of the 
frame. 

At the east ends of the bed, a hole should be dug 
3x4 feet on surface and 2 feet deep; in this hole 
a crude fireplace may be made of loose brick and 
the flue connected with the three ends of projecting 
tile. At the west end of the frame a brick cham- 
ber should be made into which the three tiles 
enter, giving them a common flue for outlet. 
Cover the top of this chamber closely, excepting a 
6-inch circular hole, into which a single length of 
stovepipe is fitted. A sloping door is hung over the 
fireplace cavity to keep out the rain ; and the earth 
raised high enough around to prevent surface water 
from running into the hole. Bank soil about the 
frame. You may happen to have on hand six old' 
storm window sashes of that size. Of course the 
sashes slope to the south in the usual way. 

When the fire is kindled in the fireplace the 
smoke comes freely from the stovepipe. The tiles 
are covered with soil to a depth of aljout 6 inches. 
With a good fire, you can quickly warm vtp the 
earth on the coldest days of spring. And when 
once well heated, the earth and tiling hold the heat 
for a long time, provided the draft is closed. Unlike 
beds heated with manure, the heat supply can thus 



140 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

be regulated to suit the demand of the prevailing 
weather. 

COLD FRAMES AND THEIR MANAGEMENT 

In the South cold frames are in use all winter. 
The principal winter crops grown are lettuce, 
radishes, beets, cauliflower and occasionally cab- 
bage, while these crops are commonly followed in 
spring by cucumbers, cantaloups and sometimes 
Irish potatoes. The frames are easily made. 
Rough inch lumber (heart pine is best in the South, 
and hemlock in the North) and 2 x 4 or 2 x 3-inch 
scantling are all that is required. For the double 
frames, strips 3 inches wide and % or J/^ inch thick, 
long enough to extend across the frame, should be 
provided for rafters. The back or north side of the 
single frame should be 12 or 15 inches high, while 
the front should slope down to 8 inches. In South- 
ern practice, where canvas covers are used, the back 
should be 2j4 feet and all cracks should be well 
covered with building paper, held in place by laths 
tacked over it. 

Good treatment for the posts used in construc- 
tion is to dip them in kerosene over night. This 
will preserve them indefinitely. Drive the posts 
into the ground 18 inches and let them extend up- 
ward to the top of the boards, putting a post at the 
union of each pair of boards and nailing them to it. 
All ends and rafters may be made so that they 
can be quickly removed, so that the frames can be 
plowed and the ground prepared with a mule. The 
sides of the double frames are best made i foot 
high, with the ends sloping upward to 2j^ feet 
Down the center of the frame, a row of 2 x 4-incff 
posts 2^ feet above ground are set 8 feet apart. 



GARDEN AND ORCHARD 14! 

Over each one of these a rafter is bent and fastened 
to the sides of the frames. 

For cold frames in the North, glass is the only 
covering to be thought of. By all means, put the 
frames up facing the south or southeast and to 
afford protection against the north and northwest 
winds, cold the country over, a high wall, a thick 
hedge, or a piece of thick woodland should be close 
at the back of them. 

The soil in the frames should be thoroughly pre- 
pared, rich and pulverized thoroughly. An abun- 
dance of well-rotted stable manure should be used- 
if thoroughly decomposed, at the rate of 75 to loo 
tons an acre is not excessive, unless the soil is 
already very rich. Whether glass or canvas is used, 
as a covering great attention must be given to 
water and ventilation. The land should be well 
drained that no water will stand, or the soil become 
water logged ; that is one side of the water ques- 
tion, but in addition, the plants should be carefully 
watered from time to time to provide sufficient for 
their needs. 

If the coverings are kept down too constantly, 
the growth of the plants will be weak and spindling 
and such diseases as damping off, Botrytis and drop 
will work havoc with them. Careful attention to 
watering, ventilation and keeping the surface of 
the ground stirred are the genuine secrets of con- 
trolling these pests. Watch the temperature, do 
not let it rise too high, lower it by raising the sash 
or drawing back the covers. The canvas covers 
should be drawn back a portion of every day when 
the temperature is not too low, and at other times 
the ends may be raised, to allow the air to circulate 
under them. A sharp eye must be kept on the 



142 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

frost item. Sometimes steam heat is provided, oil 
stoves may be used and glass covered frames should 
be covered with burlap or straw mats, securely held 
down either by tying them in place or by weighting 
them down. Both canvas and the glass covering 
should be well fastened to prevent their being lifted 
off by strong winds. 

The upper end of glass sash may be held down 
with a hook and staple, a hook being placed on the 
back of the frame at the center of each sash with 
the stEtple in the end of the sash. Canvas covers 
are best held down by nailing along the center to a 
board run lengthwise on the center of the rafters, 
in the case of double coverings, or along the 
back in the case of single ones and by placing 
marbles or small pebbles in the cloth and tying 
about these every 4 or 5 feet, along the ends and 
sides, slipping the looped ends of the twine used 
in tying them over nails driven into the ends and , 
sides of the frame. 

A HAND GARDEN CULTIVATOR 

Now that garden crops are planted almost ex- 
clusively in rows a tool that will clean out the 
weeds, stir the soil around the plants, and, by mak- 
ing a good surface mulch, prevent the loss of 
moisture to some extent, is essential for the proper 
care of the garden. The wheel hoe of our cultiva- 
tor is usually used for this purpose by the pro- 
fessional gardener, but the price is generally 
considered rather high by the ordinary farmer or 
amateur. 

This machine, although homemade and not very 
handsome in appearance, does the work as well as 
.a $6 or $8 tool, and cost not more than 40 cents 



GARDEN AND ORCHARD I43 

to make. For a wheel, take the fly wheel of an old 
sewing machine, about i foot in diameter, and put 
a round bolt tightly through the axle. Then a 
piece of plank, a, 20 x 10 inches, and cut as shown, 
boring holes for the axle where marked. After the 
wheel is set in place, it should turn easily and 
steadily, if balanced properly. For the handle, c c, 
cut out and round from a piece of plank two pieces, 
or use any that may be otherwise obtained. Thea 
get a blacksmith to make three teeth, b, out of a 




HAND CULTIVATOR 

piece of spring steel i inch wide and 8 inches long, 
bent as shown. Two-inch holes are drilled through 
them for screws. 

One tooth should be placed about 6 inches behind 
the wheel and directly in the center, the other two 
being 4 inches behind the first, and the same dis- 
tance from the center tooth. When this cultivator 
is pushed through the rows it should run with 
little pressure from the operator, clearing out the 
weeds and stirring the soil at the same time. This 
contrivance does the work well, and if given two 
coats of brown and green paint it will be improved 
in appearance. 



Know thy opportunity. — Pittacus. 




144 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

A CONVENIENT GARDEN STOOL 

This device will prove useful in doing hand work 
in the garden. It is made from two barrel staves 
upon which is mounted a low stool. 
This, should be narrow, so that it 
may be drawn between the rows of 
vegetables. The holes in the seat 

WEEDING STOOL °, u r ^i, c ^,„ <.^ 

are large enough for the fingers to 
go through and render the stool more easily han- 
dled. The device is especially convenient for the 
women. 

WATERING SEED SOIL MADE EASY 

To avoid disturbing small seeds by watering, 
when planted in forcing boxes, a plan has been 
devised which not only insures against the dis- 
turbance of the seed, but keeps the soil of the en- 
tire box in a moderate state of moisture, which is 
an essential feature in early growth. 

Make a box of any desired size to suit the occa- 
sion, and about 3 inches deep. Then get a few 
small unglazed flower pots and place same on stove 
until quite hot. With a short piece of candle, seal 
drain hole in bottom of pots, taking care not to put 
wax over the entire bottom of pot. Place pots in 
box about 9 inches apart on a thin layer of sand, and 
overlap pieces of broken pots, to convey by capillary 
attraction the water to the entire soil of the box, 
which soil should be sifted and box filled to within 
}i inch of the top of the pots. 

Cover the box with glass, and heat from above 
will draw the water up to the roots. By this method 
you will not have surface baking, which is so 
troublesome with surface watering. If so desired. 



GARDEN AND ORCHARD 



145 



you can cover the pots with circular pieces of paste- 
board or tin, and avoid surface evaporation from the 
pots. Always fill pots with warm water. 

CATCHING OWLS AND HAWKS 



A friend of ours captured a large owl and fas- 
tened him securely with a small chain to a stake 
in the middle of an open field. He 
set three posts 5 feet tall and 4 to 
5 inches in diameter 20 to 30 yards 
from the owl, and on each post 
placed a small steel trap with a 
bunch of hay or grass tied to the 
post just under the trap, to hide it, 
as shown in cut. At night, the 
owl called. Others came, and see- 
ing nothing near, alighted in the 
trap on the post. During the day 
hawks came, and were caught in 
the same way. In two months two 
owls and 17 hawks were caught. 
In some places a bounty is paid, 
§0 there is a profit in two ways. 
The owl may be fed on the hawks 
caught and on rabbits or chickens 
that may die around the premises. 
The most difficult part of this scheme is often the 
capture of the first owl, but if you are a good hunter 
you will find a way. 




TRAP ON POST 



Make no absolute promises, for nobody will help 
you to perform them. 

Money is a good servant, but a bad master. 



146 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

MOVING A LARGE TREE 

To move a large tree one may find it very satis- 
factory to use a rig similar to that shown in the 
picture. Make a three-sided standard of 2 x 4-inch 
stuff. Loosen the dirt around the roots of the tree 




RIG FOR MOVING TREE 



and wrap the tree firmly at the base with old 
carpet or burlap to prevent injury. Place the 
standard firmly in the ground and tie the cross- 
piece to the body of the tree with strong rope to 
each side of the standard and hitch a horse to the 



GARDEN AND ORCHARD 



147 



Other end. With a slow pull the tree can be drawn 
onto the drag and then hauled to the new location. 
It can be placed in the ground ^gain by using the 
standard in the same way it was used to load it 
upon the drag. 



A penny saved is two pence clear, 

A pin a day's a groat a year. — Benjamin Franklin. 

The man who builds, and wants wherewith to pay, 
Provides a home from which to run away. — Young. 



TRANSPLANTING TREES 



Here is a way to transplant large trees that is not 
so difficult as such transplanting is by many sup- 
posed to be. The 
first move to make 
is to dig all round 
the tree, leaving a 
large ball of soil, 
which is carefully 
wrapped in sacking 
or canvas to hold 
it on the roots and 
prevent drying. 
When this is well 
tied in place a 
chain is passed 
round the ball two 
or three times and 
hooked, as shown 
in Figure i. 

Then with a pair figure i — ^balled 




148 



HAiNDY FARM DEVICES 



of heavy wheels on a short axle and a strong pole 
laid across it, with a massive iron hook fastened to 

the pole, it is easy 
to back up to the 
tree. The sketch. 
Figure 2, shows the 
truck with its lever 
raised ready to 
hook into the 
chain. The rope 
at the end of the 
pole brings it down 
and the tree up, 
when the pole is 
fastened under a 
second pair of 
wheels. The young 
trunk must be 
kept from contact 
with the machinery 
by the free use of 
blankets and bags. 
The secret of suc- 
cess in transplanting trees is to injure the roots 
as little as possible. 




FIGURE 2 HOOK AND TRUCK 



The manly part is to do with might and main 
what you can do. — Emerson. 

Many things difficult to design prove easy to 
performance. — Samuel Johnson. 



HOMEMADE FRUIT PICKER 

This is a device that is hard to beat for reach- 
ing fruit at the top of tall trees. After a little 



GARDEN AND ORCHARD 



149 



practice, a man can operate it rapidly, far out- 
stripping hand piclcers and at the same time not 





WIRE DETAILS 

injuring the fruit. 
The construction is 
shown in the upper 
drawing. The main 
frame is of heavy 
copper wire, to 
which is attached 
the strong spring, d. 
The end, a, is in- 
serted into a wooden 
handle as long as 
needed. When the muslin sack is attached, as 
shown in the picture of the picker in use, the jaws 
of the picker are easily closed by pulling slightly 
on the cloth. The fruit falls through the sack or 
long cloth tube into the hand of the operator. Many 



THE PICKER IN USE 



•ISO 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



devices have been made for this sort of service, but 
it will be hard to find one that works better than 
this one if constructed in the exact shape indicated. 

A TRUSS LADDER 



For a 14-foot ladder select four pieces of i x 2 
hard wood, using two pieces for each side. Place 
rungs of I X 2 between the side 
pieces. Make ladder 12 inches 
wide at top, 14 inches at center, 
and 30 inches at the bottom. Put 
a j4-inch bolt through the side 
pieces just below the rungs, and 
a 6d nail through the end of each 
rung to prevent them from slip- 
ping out. Keep all bolts tight. 
A ladder made as above, of Ore- 
gon pine, 14 feet long, supported 
on trestles at each end, deflected 
but I inch when 150 pounds were 
placed on the center. It is light, 
yet strong, and it is almost im- 
possible to spring it. The special 
advantage of a truss ladder is 
lightness, which is a very great 

THE LADDER 7 . , ^ _ii • 

advantage, when strength is com- 
bined, as in the case of this particular ladder. 




Let us have faith that right makes might ; and in 
that faith let us to the end do our duty as we under- 
stand it. — Lincoln. 

Never spend your money before you've earned 
it. Never buy what you do not want; it is not 
cheap. 



GARDEN AND ORCHARD I5I 

ORCHARD LADDER ON WHEELS 

The accompanying sketch shows the manner of 
construction. Any farmer or orchardist can build 
it. Secure two old 
mower wheels and 
one piece of 2 x 4 
scantling for an 
axle. Place the 
ladder upon this 
scantling. To keep 
it upright use 
poles, two at the 
bottom and one 
near the top of the 
ladder, extending 
to the ground. 
The upper one 
should be forked at 
the top so as to 
hold the ladder 
firmly. This ladder 

n r , , . , , LADDER FOR FRUIT TREES 

IS 18 feet high, and 

as the foundation is broad, there is no danger of it 
falling over. The brace is so made that it can be 
adjusted, thus enabling one to place the ladder at 
any angle. 

CONVENIENT SORTING TABLES 

Where fruit is packed from the trees a sorting 
table will always be found convenient. It generally 
saves time and labor to do the packing right in the 
orchard. A handy table is one mounted on wheels 
which may be of any size desired and should be 
large enough to hold at least four barrels. The 




152 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



wheels can be picked up from discarded machinery 
or quickly made by nailing together crosswise two 
boards to prevent them from splitting, boring a 
hole in the center for the axle and rounding them 
off with a key hole saw. One end of the table 
should be made several inches higher than the 
other, so that the culls will roll into a pile at the 
lower end. 




0^ 



OREGON SORTING TABLE 



In the Hood river district of Oregon a table such 
as shown here is commonly used. This is made to 
accommodate two packers. To make such a table 
take four standards about 3 feet high. It is made 
3x4 feet in size, the top covered with strong bur- 
lap or canvas and allowed to hang rather loosely. 
Saw off the tops of the legs on a bevel so as not to 
have the sharp corners push into the burlap, and 
make points that will bruise or cut the fruit. 



GARDEN AND ORCHARD 153 

A piece of old garden l^ose is generally nailed 
around the top of the table to protect the fruit. 
Besides the braces shown in the cut it is also well 
to wire the legs and braces together firmly, as 
there is a heavy load to support. The shelves on 
each side are for holding the boxes, as all the good 
fruit in this region is boxed. The height is only 
relative, the point being to construct it so each 
packer can work with the greatest comfort, avoid- 
ing back bending in all cases. The top should not be 
greater than 3x4 feet, as anything larger would 
not allow two packers to reach all points of it 
without unnecessary stretching. 



FIELD^ANIVWOOD 





feet long. We put 
an iron band 
around the base 
and insert the peg 
upon which it 
turns. About half- 
way to the top is 
an iron collar, 
which has three 
loops to it that 
form an attach- 
ment for the 
braces, which are 
fastened about 15 
feet from the bot- 
tom of the central 
pole. This allows 
the pole to turn 
readily when in 
upright position. 
The top frame- 
work is made of 
2 X 6-inch pieces 



PORTABLE HAY DERRICK 

VERY satisfactory derrick for 
stacking hay is shown in the 
sketch. The base pieces are 6x6 
inches by 16 feet. For the center 
pole we use a straight round pole 
7 inches in diameter at the base 
and 5 inches at the top about 24 




HAY DERRICK 



U4 



FIELD AND WOOD 



155 



12 feet long. The rigging, consisting of three 
pulleys and the hay rope, is attached as shown 
in sketch. By having the lower pole attached near 
the base of the upright the arms will make half a 
turn when the hay fork is lifted, thus swinging 
around from the ground or wagon onto the stack. 

A WIRE TIGHTENER 



Here is a device easily made and very convenient 
to use in tightening barbed wire when stringing it 
upon the posts. Cut 
out a piece of inch 
board in the shape 
shown in the pic- 
ture with a notch 
to let in the face of 
a hammer. Insert 
a long bolt at the 
point indicated by 
the light dotted 
lines, to prevent 
splitting. Fasten on 
the hammer with 
leather straps. The 

sharp brads should stick out about half an inch. 
Carefully finish the handle so that it will be smooth 
and not hurt the hands when you are using the 
device. It should be made of tough hardwood. 

FENCE WIRE REEL 

Here is a device on which one can wind barbed 
wire that is much better than an old barrel. The 
reel is mounted on a truck made of old buggy 
wheels with short shafts. The cart may be drawn 




TIGHTENER IN USE 



156 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

along by a man while a boy steadies the reel to keep 
it from unwinding too rapidly. For winding up 
wire, the machine is best pushed just fast enough 




WIRE REEL ON WHEELS 



to keep up with the wire as it is being wound on 
the reel. A crank placed upon the reel proves 
serviceable in winding up. 



Never sign a writing till you have read it; 
neither drink water till you have seen it. 

One part of knowledge consists in being ignorant 
of such things as are not worthy to be known. 

Get the work habit. 



SAFE WAY TO STRING BARBED WIRE 

One of the most satisfactory ways to unreel 
barbed wire is to make a contrivance similar to 
the one shown on page 157. Fasten a short 
piece of plank to the front end of a stone boat. 
Bore a 2-inch hole in this plank and set the spool 



FIELD AND WOOD 



157 



of barbed wire on top. Run a piece of gas pipe 
about 5 feet long through the spool and let the 
bottom end rest in the hole made in the plank. 

Attach the stone boat to the rear end of the 
wagon and have an assistant sit in the wagon and 
hold the top end of the pipe. If the wire becomes 
kinked the assistant simply lets go of the pipe and 
the spool rolls off the boat without breaking the 
wire. 




WIRE REEL ON BOAT 



A BOXED STONE BOAT 

A flat stone boat or drag is convenient for many 
purposes, but its uses are limited because it has no 
great capacity. On page 158 is shown an arrange- 
ment for increasing the utility of a stone boat 
100 per cent. It is made of plank and has sides 
I foot high. It may be used for the purpose for 
which the ordinary drag is employed, and in ad- 
dition is very convenient for hauling apples, pota- 
toes, or other root crops from the field. 

By increasing the size of the box, manure can be 



158 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



hauled out from stables as it is dumped into it from 
wheelbarrows without having to reload or wheel up 
an incline. It is low on the ground and very con- 
venient for loading. All light, bulky articles, as 
vrell as heavy stones, bags of fertilizers and seed, 
can easily be haulfed on this contrivance. 




CAPACIOUS DRAG 

A HOMEMADE ROAD ROLLER 

If you need a road roller get a heavy sheet iron 
cylinder, stand it on end and place a length of i^ 




ROAD ROLLER 



or 2-inch pipe through the center. The end should 
be placed on planks which are well soaked or are 



FIELD AND WOOD 159 

well oiled, knd the pipe braced to keep it exactly 
in thfe center. Fill the cylinder with good concrete, 
and when it has set tip it over and build a frame 
for it, so you can hitch a removable tongue at 
either side. The frame should be made of good 
strong hardwood well braced. The cuts show 
plainly just how the roller is made and put 
together. 

AN OLD-FASHIONED DROGUE 

Drogue is an old-fashioned word applied to a low 
drag or sled, something like the stone boat in gen- 
eral use now. The word is seldom heard today. 



HOMEMADE HANDY DROGUE 

So accustomed are we to the regulation stone boat 
that most of us do not know that there is still a 
more handy arrangement that is fully as easy to 
build and better to use, because it cannot slide 
sidewise on a hill. Select a small tree that has a 
bend in it the shape of a sled runner and split it 
with a sharp saw while it is green. It saws fastest 
and easiest while frozen. Saw or hew the bottom 
and top flat, so planks about 4 feet long may be 
pinned to it. Bore the front ends so a heavy .stake 
with a shoulder may be inserted to prevent the 
runners from drawing together, and the drogue is 
done. It is handy for all work, but may need side 
rails spiked to it, if small stones are to be drawn. 



l6o HANDY FARM DEVICES 

Regular boat planks are not easy to obtain now 
that the old up and down saws are not in use. 

A DITCHING SCRAPER 

There should be a ditching scraper on every 
farm. They can be purchased made of steel, but 
a homemade one costs little and is quite service- 
able. Take two planks, each lo inches wide and 
3 feet long, of good 2-inch hardwood. Bolt to them 
securely a pair of old plow handles. To the bot- 
tom bolt an old crosscut saw blade which will 
make a sharp edge. Let this project about an inch 
at the bottom. Attach two singletree hooks near 
each end of the lower board and your scraper is 
ready to use. With this scraper and two men a- 
ditch can be cut one-quarter mile long and as deep 
as it could be plowed with a turning plow in two 
days' time. It is also very useful in filling holes in 
the highway. 

BRIDGE FOR A SMALL STREAM 

For crossing a small creek or deep ditch a cheap 
bridge can be built as shown in the illustration. 
The lumber used is 6 inches wide and 2 inches 
thick, except for the floor and four side braces. 







A BRIDGE OF TRIANGLES 




SAVE THE BARRELS 

Barrels, barrel hoops and barrel staves may be worked 
into many useful things upon a farm. From the few 
described in this book your ingenuity will lead you to others. 




AS IN DAYS OF YORE 



Modern harvesting machinery has come to take the place 
of old-time hand tools on the big farms; but many a reaper 
of the ancient type still swings through the golden grain, a 
relic of the days when men worked harder and accomplished 
less than they do today. 



FIELD AND WOOD 



i6i 



Saw II pieces the length required for each of the 
two sides, then bore bolt holes ij4 inches from each 
end. Use ^-inch bolts 8^ inches long where four 
pieces come together and 6j4-inch bolts where 




FRAMEWORK OF BRIDGE 



three pieces meet. The A-shaped supports and the 
pieces for the approaches are bolted on at once, 
and then the side braces are put on. The sides of 
the bridge are made entirely of triangles. The first 
triangle is made of pieces, a, h and c. The second 
triangle of the pieces, b, d and e. The piers may 
be posts, stone or concrete. 

DAM FOR FARM POND 

A small pond held by a good-sized hydraulic 
dam supplies water for house, barn and two acres 




EASILY BUILT DAM 



1 62 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

of garden and fruit, also floods a cranberry meadow 
when needed. A section of the dam is placed 6 
feet apart and covered with plank fitted tight. The 
apron is of i2'foot plank spiked to the sills so as to 
break joints. The bottom is made tight with 
brush and clay. Stofies ate piled in behind the 
plank coverings, as shown in cut. 

SOWING SEED EVENLY 

These drawings show thfe construction of a wheel 
seeding device that can be easily made at home. 

The axle is tightly 
fitted into the 
wheels so that it 
turns whfen the 
wheels do. This 
agitates the grain 
or other seed and 
THE SEED BOX helps to keep the 

seed running out of the holes at the lower back 
side of the box. The quantity of flow , may be 
regulated at pleasure by making the holes large 
or small and increasing or diminishing the number 
of holes. 





A SOWING MACHINE 



FIELD AND WOOD 



163 



It may be found desirable to have a considerable 
number of holes and then having plugs, for alter- 
nate ones, perhaps, which may be removed to 
make the seeding thicker. From 4 to 6 feet is sug- 
gested for the length of the box. Any old wheels 
will do if they are not too heavy to be easily drawn 
by hand. 

BERRY CRATE CARRIER 



One of the most convenient appliances for use in 
the strawberry field is illustrated in the picture 
shown herewith. It showB a novel use for the 
old-fashioned yoke used so commonly on the old- 
time farms. The 
picture is so 
readily under- 
stood that no 
description need 
be given. This 
also suggests the 
many purposes 
for which a yoke 
may be used on 
a farm. Every 
farmer ought to 
have one, to 
make more easy 
the task of car- 
rying things. In 
some places yokes may be found for sale, but if 
you cannot buy one, make one yourself. Take a piece 
of strong, tough wood, shape it out to fit around 
the neck and shoulders and taper off the ends to 
what you consider the right size. Usually a groove 
is cut around about ij^ inches from each end and 




YOKE CRATE CARRIER 



l64 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



a rope is securely tied. At the other end of the rope 
a hook is attached the rfght size to go around the 
bail handle of any ordinary pail. The hook may 
be iron or may be formed from a strong, branched 
stick. 

HANDY LOADING DEVICE 

Here is a rig simple and strong that works well 
for loading corn in the field. The picture shows 




LOADING RIG IN USE 



the construction of the rack and hoisting device 
with pulley attachment. Such a rig will be found 
useful for loading many things on a farm. 

RACK FOR HAULING FODDER 



A handy rack for hauling fodder from the field 
is shown in the drawing. It may be used for any 
kind of corn, of course, for sorghum, and may be 
found useful in moving brush. Each end of the 



FIELD AND WOOD 



165 



rack is hung from the axles by two straps of iron 
that can be obtained from any blaclssmith at very 
little expense. 




FODDER RACK 

PULLING FENCE POSTS 

An easy and practical method of pulling fence 
posts, by which all digging and hand labor is elim- 
inated, is here shown. Take a plank 4 feet long, 




POST PULLER IN POSITION 






I foot wide and make a V-shaped notch in one end, 
nailing on several crosspieces to prevent splitting. 
This plank is used to change the horizontal draft 
to the vertical. 



I66 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



Place one end of chain around the post close to 
ground. Incline the plank against the post so the 
lower end of the plank will be about i^ or 2 feef 
from the base of the post. Place the chain in the 
notch of the plank, start the team and the post in 
a few seconds will be clear of the ground. 

In moving fences the chain should be attached 
to the rear axle of the wagon, so the posts may at 
once be loaded and hauled to the new location oi 
the fence. 

ONE WAY TO PULL STUMPS 

A Connecticut man has a very handy device foi 
pulling peach stumps from old orchards, and can 




TACKLE FOR STUMP-PULLING 



pull 200 or more a day by this means. The limbs 
are cut oflf and the stumps, E, left as long as pos- 
sible. A short rope or chain with a single pulley 
is attached to the top of the stump. The anchor 
rope, B, which runs through the pulley, is fastened 
to the bottom of a stout stump, A. 

A pair of steady horses is attached to the rope 
and always pull toward the anchor stump. With 



FIELD AND WOOD I67 

a steady pull there is no jumping or jerking, and 
they will walk right oflF as if pulling a loaded 
wagon. Use about 60 feet of i-inch rope, which 
costs $2.40, and the pulley, $1.75, making a total 
cost of $4.15. 

SIMPLE LAND MEASURE 

Having much land measuring to do that requires 
^^reater accuracy than just " stepping it off," make 
a simple affair like this. 
The manner of construc- 
tion is made plain. Use 
hardwood pieces; ^ or 
^ X I inch is heavy 
enough. Have lower 
points exactly 5 feet 6 
inches apart. Make a 
round head on the han- 
die Grasp the top lightly the measure 

in hand, holdmg at the 

side, whirl handle to bring rear point to front, mov- 
ing off in direction tq be measured. Continue to 
revolve measure, changing points in advancing. It 
takes three lengths to the rod. 

STORING WATER 

An easy way to make a reservoir at the spring 
is to throw up a bank, perhaps laying a wall first, 
founding it below the surface. Should the soil be 
such that water percolates through it, face the soil 
with loam on top and puddle.it well. If this leaks, 
face it with clay and puddle the clay. These rules 
apply to all dams made of stone and earth. 

Pipes entering reservoirs should enter at the 
bottom and the soil be well puddled around them 




Ib8 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

to prevent the water working through beside the 
pipe. Each pipe must have a strainer over its sup- 
ply end and have no air holes in its entire length. 
A good strainer can be made from a piece of large 
lead pipe punched full of holes. One end may be 
flattened or turned over and the other drawn on 
over the end of the water pipe. Let nobody sup- 
pose that simple, inexpensive arrangements are 
faulty because primitive. If constructed correctly 
and in line with natural laws, they are not only all 
right, but are preferable to fancy, complicated 
devices that get out of order easily or in a year or 
two and require a master mechanic to put them 
into working condition again. 

GETTING A SUPPLY OF FUEL 

PLAN for getting up the year's 
supply of fuel is suggested as fol- 
lows : Fell the trees on the ground 
with a small sapling under them, 
so a log chain can be passed 
beneath. Then a logging bob 
(Figure i) is tipped up on its side 
near the end of the log; a chain is hooked to the 
bolster near the ground, passed under the log and 
over the top runner of the bob and the team hitched 
to the end of the chain. A quick pull of the team 
and the bob comes down on both runners, with the 
log on the top of the bolster. 

The log is now drawn to some sheltered place 
near the woodhouse and sawed into stove lengths 
with a 6-inch crosscut saw on the skidway shown in 
Figure 2. The limbs are trimmed in the woods, 
drawn on a pair of bobs to the shop, where there 




FIELD AND WOOD 



169 



is a three-horse power boiler and two-horse power 
engine, and are sawed at the rate oi ij4 cords an 




FIGURE I — LOGGING BOB 



hour with a buzz saw. A handy device can be 
made of two crotched limbs, as shown in Figure 3, 
to saw large limbs on. A 2-inch auger hole is 




FIGURE 2 SKIDWAY 



bored where the limbs branch, and a hardwood 
limb driven tightly into the hole. 

The following described device (Figure 4) is 
very handy to hold and lower the tree after sawing 



170 



HANDY FAKM DEVICES 



the stuii!tp off. [a, pilanks with holes boTed hi thetn ; 
fe> log ; c, chain ; S, crotche'd limb ; ee, lever ; /, iron 
pins.] It is made of two hardwood planks about 
8x5 inches and ij4 inches thick bolted together 
at the top and bottom, with a 2-inch space between 




FIGURE 3 — iSANDY SAWHORSE 



i6)r the lever to work in. One-inch holes are bored 
through the sides of both planks, in which iron pins 
art plfeced for the lever to pry over. The lever is 
made of white ash, and has two notches near the 
large end, with a chain link attached midway be- 




FIGURE 4 — LOG JACK 



FIELD AND WOOD 



171 



tween notches. A stout chain is hooked in the 
link, passed under the log, and attached to a 
crotched limb leaning slightly against the opposite 
side of the log. By working the small end of the 
lever up and down and moving the pins up one 
hole at a time, a good-sized tree can be raised from 
the ground high enough to be sawed easily with- 
out a backache. 

SIMPLEST OF ALL CAMPING TENTS 

The great trouble with camping-out tents is the 
weight of the frame, but the weight of the latter in 



IJIUirilUJinUUIUIf/JlllUIIMtMMMMtUMmM* 



T.^ 1 




the case of the tent figured herewith will hardly 
prove a burden to anyone, as only two light sticks 
are used, such as are shown in Figure i. These 



172 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



are pressed into the ground 8 or 10 feet apart, ac- 
cording to the size of the tent, and brought to- 
gether and fastened at the upper ends with such 
a joint as is shown, or with a string pasaing through 
a screw-eye in each pole, if a simpler method is 
preferred. 

The tent is made from four triangular pieces of 
cloth, as suggested in Figure 2. One of these is 
cut up. the center and hemmed, to afford an en- 
trance to the tent. The triangular pieces are sewed 
together at the edges and at two of the opposite 




THE TENT SET UP 



corners pieces of stout cord are sewed into the 
corners of the cloth, the cloth being reinforced as 
suggested in the cut. 

Two stout pegs of wood and two lighter ones 
are provided. To pitch the tent, put up the two 
frame poles A-fashion and draw the tent cloth over 
them, opposite seams and corners fitting over the 
poles. Draw out the other two corners and tie 
by the ropes to the stout pegs which have been 
driven into the ground. The two lighter pegs are 



FIELD AND WOOD 173 

used to fasten back the flaps of the front. It may 
be found well to hem a light cord into the bottom 
of the side having the opening, leaving the flaps 
free from the cord. The position of the cord is 
shown by the dotted line. It will not be in the way 
when lying across the opening of the tent on the 
ground and will strengthen the whole when the 
outer corners are drawn tightly up to the stout 
pegs. 

This makes a practically square tent and the 
size can be as large or small as may be desired. 
To cut the side pieces, decide on the width of the 
sides and the height you wish the tent to be. Then 
draw a triangle (Figure 2), having the base as 
long as desired for the side of the tent, and a per- 
pendicular 2 feet longer than the height desired for 
the tent, since the four sides of the tent are to be 
inclined, and must, therefore, be enough longer to 
make up for this. 

This will prove a very satisfactory tent for boys 
who are camping out, and it has the merit of being 
easily made and very easy to carry about. 




GATO^r AND 



KEEPING A GATE FROM SAGGING 

HE average farm gate is heavy, and 
after a little time it sags. When 
they get this way it takes a strong 
man to open and shut one. Here 
is a remedy. Get a wheel, either 
big or little, from an old piece of 
machinery, and bolt it to the front 
end of the gate in such a way that the gate will 
be held level. Now the smallest child can open 





OLD PLOW WHEEL DOES THE TRICK 



the gate for you. Try it, for it is a saver- 
your patience, your back and the gate. 

174 



-saves 



gate;s and doors 
AN EASILY OPENED GATE 



^7S 



Take an old buggy wheel and fasten it as shown 
in. the drawing to the gates, that are opened often. 
The piece of board indieated by c drops between 




GOOD USE FOR A WHEEL 



the spokes of the wheel and holds the gate either 
open or closed. A child can easily operate the 
heaviest gate with this attachment. 

A GATE THAT NEVER SAGS 

A farmer has used' this gate for many years and 
never spent five minutes repairing it. Countersink 
two pieces and pin them together. 
Then set up two 2x4 pieces 2 
feet higher than the gate so it can 
be raised in winter. Mortise 
and set in between the cross- 
pieces, which are 12 inches apart, the board, a, and 
fasten a cap to the top of the frame. The gate is 
16 feet long, 12 feet being for the gateway and 4 
feet for the weights to balance it. The frame is of 
2 X 4s. Cover the 4-foot end with boaords and fill 
with enough stones to balance it wheti hung. 



&" 



1' 



CROSSPIECE 



176 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 







BALANCED WIRE GATE 



Cover the gate with wire fencing and hang by a 
chain. Put a bolt through the lower part of the 
frame into the crosspiece, o. 




WIRE GATE THAT SPEAKS FOR ITSELF 




A CHEAP GATE 



A light, useful and durable gate can be made of 
sassafras poles and barbed wire, as shown in the 



GATES AND DOORS 



177 



cut. Set a strong post 4 feet in the ground in the 
middle of the gateway and balance the gate on it. 




POLE AND WIRE GATE 

The lower rail is made of two forked sassafras poles 
securely nailed together so as to work around the 
post. 

A SIMPLE FARM GATE 



Many like such a gate as that shown in the cut. 
Material to be used depends largely on the purpose 
for which the gate is made. For a paddock or pas- 
ture gate, make it out of seasoned boards 1x6 
inches, 12 or 14 feet long. The posts supporting 




xio: 



• >'*,*'''^*w*3i 




GATE SIMPLE AND STRONG 



178 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



the gate are about 5 inches apart, the one on the 
inside being about 8 inches ahead of the pther. 
They are joined together by cleats or rollers which 
support the gate and allow it to be pushed back and 
sw^ing open. If rollers are not obtainable, cleats 
made of any hard wood are good. They need not 
be heavier than 1x4 inches. If the gate is to be 
used for a hog pasture, the lower cleats on both 
sets of posts should be placed just above the lower 
board to prevent the hogs from lifting it up. 

AN EASILY REGULATED GATE 



The gate hanger illustrated in the drawing is 
very handy for use where it is desired to let hogs 

pass from one pasture to 
another while cows are 
confined to one. As 
shown, the hanger is a 
piece of strap iron bent 
around the post and sup- 
> ". \ ported by pegs. These 

* — ^~- "— ^ pegs may be inserted in 

holes at varying heights. 
1 " '1 Raise the gate to let the 

" °'' hogs through and lower 

it to keep them in, of 
course. This is also a 
good device for raising 
the gate above the snow 
in winter. Many would 
find this use of the ad- 
justable hanger prefer- 
able to the gates made to raise only one end for 
snow. Of course it is desirable that there should 
be the least play as possible while the hanger 




ADJUSTABLE HANGER 



GATES AND DOORS 



179 



slides up and down freely, and special care should 
be taken to set the post firmly. Otherwise the gate 
would sag. 

GATE TO OVERCOME SNOWDRIFTS 

In the picture is shown a gate which can be 
readily adjusted to swing over snowdrifts. It is 
easily made from ordinary lumber. A i x 6-inch 
upright is used for the lower boards, i x 4 for the 
upper ones. The uprights at the hinge post are 
double 1x4, one piece outside and the other inside 




GATE SHUT AND OPEN 



the bars. The upright at the latch side may be the 
same weight of stuff or slightly lighter, and fas- 
tened in the same way. Instead of nailing the bars 
to these uprights, bolts are used, one for each bar 
at each end. The lowest board is notched as 
shown, and the double brace used from the top 
of the latch post to the bottom of the hinge post. 
For the brace, 1x3 stuff is strong enough. They 
are joined near the bottom with a bolt, which en- 
gages with the notches when the gate is raised, as 
shown at the right. 



i8o 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



A TIME SAVER 

To open and close gates that stock may be kept 
within bounds the year round is one thing which 
uses up a great deal of time, and makes no rjeturn. 
Every gate should be so made that it will fall into 




TURNSTILE GATE 



place of its own weight and stay closed and open 
without hitch or bother. The cut illustrates a con- 
venient thing that should be in larger use on farms. 
It is always open and always closed against stock. 
Put up and well painted, it will last for many years. 



He who keeps company with great men is the 
last at the table and the first at any toil or danger. 



GATES AND DOORS 

KEEP THE GATE OPEN 



i8i 



A simple and handy device which serves to hold 
the gate open is shown in the cut. To make it, 
procure a board, o, i x 4 x 12 inches 
and saw out a portion in the cen- 
ter, leaving a space on each- side 
Yz inch wide, and bore holes for a 
bolt. Next get an 8-inch stick, &, 
and bore a hole through it 3 inches 
from the top. Bevel the top so , , 
that the gate will pass over it, and H 
it will then fall back and hold the 
gate open. When one's hands and 
arms are full of things, as they 
often are on a farm, it is a great 
convenience to have a gate or door 
held open automatically. No sim- 
pler or more effective device for the 
purpose can be found. A similar device can 
adapted to use as a latch to catch and keep a gate 
or door closed. 




GATE CATCH 



be 



GOOD BARS FOR THE FARM 



It is an important matter to the farmer that his 
farm should be well equipped with good, substan- 
tial bars. Some farmers go to as much trouble in a 
year's time in moving a poor gate or bars back and 
forth as they drive in and out of fields, and in chas- 
ing cattle about, as making dozens of such bars as 
are represented here. Use round poles about 2j^ 
or 3 inches in diameter. Set two good-sized posts 
one on either side of the barway, and to each one, 
an equal distance apart, nail large horseshoes, al- 



lS2 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



lowing the round part to stand out far enough from 
posts to admit the bar poles easily. 




.•IV'**'] 



BAR WITH HORSESHOE CATCH 



DURABLE FLOATING FENCE 



This is a cheap and easy way to make a good, 
strong cable on which to hang a water gate, when 
it becomes necessary to have a fence cross a stream : 
Set two good, large posts about 3 feet deep in the 
ground and about 6 feet from the banks of the 
stream. -Get a piece of wire (barbed wire will do, 
but smooth wire makes a much better looking job), 
long enough to go from one post around the other 
and back again about six times, being careful to 
fasten each end securely at the proper height from 
the ground. Then get a strong piece of wood about 
1x3 inches and about 4 feet long, stand as near the 
ttiiddle of the space between the two posts as pos- 
sible, and place the stick between the two sets of 
wires. Turn around until all the wires are well 
twisted together, being careful not to twist too much. 

On withdrawing the stick, the wires will only 
untwist two or three times. After the gate is hung, 
the stick may be again inserted in the same place 



GATES AND DOORS 



183, 



and several more twists given to take up the sag 
caused by the weight of the gate. Then fasten one 
end of the stick to the top of gate and it will be im- 




SUSPENDED GATE 

possible for the cable to untwist any more. This- 
has been found to answer all the purposes of an 
expensive cable and looks and lasts just as well. 

FENCE ACROSS A STREAM 

To construct a fence across a creek or small 
stream, set a post on each bank and brace well. 
If a tree happens to be near at the right place, so 
much the better. Then fasten wire securely on 
posts, leaving enough slack so a weight in the 
middle will draw the wires toward the bed of the 
stteam, thus making it impossible for stock of any 
size to get through. A large stone makes a good 
weight. It can be blocked up to desired height and 
fastened in position with smooth wire. 

TEMPORARY SHEEP FENCE 



One of the best portable fences for use in soiling 
sheep is made in panels with supports, as shown on 
next page. Panels are 10 feet long, made of 4-incIi 
board solidly nailed together. After this fence is 
once' put up, sheep are not likely to overturn it. A 
fence 3j^ feet high will turn most flocks. 



l84 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 







U | l U 

C- l, 'r1 




MOVABLE FENCE AND PARTS 

FASTENING HEAVY DOORS 

There is little diiference in the effectiveness of 
these two locks for heavy doors. The left-hand 



1 1 


J 1 


T 


• • o 


, . 

ISO 










o • O 

o a • 


^- f|T 


1 








e o o * ''1 1 


3 




^U 


^ 



1 1 1 M J 


■.-.•. •.-.•.•.I 




i" 


V.-.-.-4-«.i 




^ 


• o » O 6 • 

• A • « ' ^ 


'„ II 



TWO BIG DOOR LOCKS 



GATES AND DOORS 



185 



device is extremely quick and handy; the other 
very neat and substantial. The lock to the left 
has both bars pivoted to a lever handle, which is 
pivoted to the door midway between the ends of 
the arms. Moving the lever handle up moves both 
arms out of slots above and below the doors. The 
fastening may be also worked from the inside by 
cutting a slot through the door and setting a pin 
in one of the arms, so that it can be moved in 
the slot. 

The right-hand fastening is worked by raising, 
the lower arm so that the notch incloses the middle 
staple at d. Then the upper arm can be pulled 
down. Both arms stay firm and snug whether the 
door is shut or open. 

HOLD THE BARN DOORS SHUT 



A latch that will hold double doors shut is showm 
in the cut. This is put on the inside of the door 
that is closed first. It is made of hardwood 4. 




LATCH FOR DOUBLE DOORS 



i86 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



inches wide and i inch thick. To open the door, 
turn the piece, o, to the right and pull down on the 
crosspiece which is fastened to the door by a bolt 
in the middle. This will raise the latch, c, and 
lower the latch, d, as shown in the cut to the right. 



Open your doors to a fine day, but make yourself 
ready for a foul one. 

Prosperity is the thing in the world we ought to 
trust the least 



« 



CSp3> 



FASTENING THE STABLE DOOR 

A handy stall door fastener is shown in Figure I. 
It consists of a piece of oak or other hard wood 

4 inches wide by % 
inch thick and 2 
inches, longer than 
the width of the 
door. It is fastened 
to the door by a ^- 
inch bolt through 
the middle and it 
■works like a button. 
Cleats, b, are sawed 
out and fastened to 
the door jamb on 
each side to hold 
the fastener in place. 
Another handy 
fastener that can be 
worked from either 
side of the door is 
shown in Figure 2. 



a 



FIGURE I LONG FASTENER 



GATES AND DOORS 



187 



There are three upright pieces, a, two of which 
are on the door and one on the door jamb or casings. 
Another piece, b, 



a 



B 



SPRING 



II 



I 



slides through 
these and holds 
the door shut. A 
pin, c, goes 
through the bolt 
and through the 
door to open or 
shut it from the 
opposite side. 
The bolt is kept 
shut by the 
spring, which can 
be made from a 
piece of hickory, 
or other tough 
hardwood, whit- 
tled down to the 
proper thickness. 
The spring fea- 
ture is the chief 
advantage, and a 
very important one it is, of this excellent fastener. 
It is also a good point that the fastener works 
nicely from the opposite side of the door. 




-O. 



'W^ 



3 



FIGURE 2 — SPRING FASTENER 



Sell cheap and you will sell as much as four 
others. 

They must hwnger in frost that will' not work in 
heat. 

'Tis easier to build two chimneys than to main- 
tain one. 



i88 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



HOMEMADE DOOR LATCH 



This consists of three pieces of oak or other 
good hardwood, as shown in the drawing. For 

the handle use a piece 
8x2x1 inches. Shape 
a flattish knob on one 
end 3 inches long. Work 
down the rest so as to 
pass through a i-inch 
auger hole. Shape a 
knob on the other end 
by flattening the sides. 
The latch is made of a 
The catch is 8 x 2 x ^ 




(aTCH 
DETAILS OF LATCH 



piece 5 X I X % inches 
inches. Bore a i-inch hole for the handle 3 inches, 
from the edge of the 
door. Push the handle 
through the hole and 
mark on it the thick- 
ness of the door; then 
bore in the handle a 
^-inch hole for the 
latch. Now assemble 
the parts according to 
the finished figure, 
which shows the latcK 
thrown back. A little 
peg may be used to 
keep the latch from 
falling down when the 
door is open. By tak- 
ing pains to shape and 
finish this latch nicely it will look well enough to 
please the artistic eye of the most fastidious. 





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y 

.(. 




^m" 




LATCH IN PLACE 




^ Tl' 






IMPORTANT POINTS IN HOUSE BUILDING 

HE following points in building a 
house are considered of the greatest 
importance by a well-known archi- 
tect: Carefully watch that the 
foundation walls are substantially 
laid, and accurately leveled on their 
upper surfaces, so that the doors 
shall not strike the floor or carpets in opening, nor 
the tables, chairs, or other furniture be obliged to 
stand on three legs. 

The framework, when raised, should be plumb, 
so that all on or in the building can be cut square, 
and applied without tedious fitting. The siding 
should be thoroughly seasoned in the open air be- 
fore using, and carefully applied with close joints, 
and well nailed. The edges of all water tables, 
corner boards, and window frames should be 
painted before setting. 

The shingles should be carefully laid, breaking 
their joints at one-third of their width and double 
nailed. The flooring should be dry, close laid, and 
nailed with two nails to each beam. The parti- 
tions should be set with studding of selected width, 
and their angles or corners should be anchored 
firmly together to prevent the walls from crack- 
ing in those parts when finished. The chimneys 
should be carefully constructed, all points between 
the brickwork should be well filled with mortar 
to prevent sparks from passing through to the 
framework. 



190 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



AH mortar for plastering should be properly 
mixed, and allowed sufficient time (at least a week) 
for the thorough slacking of the lime, and a com- 
plete permeation of the caustic properties. Thin 
coats of plastering are better than heavy ones. 
A mortar that does not cradk in setting or drying 
is sure to be good. 

The interior wood finish should not be begun 
Hiffltil the plastering is completely dried out, and all 
loose mortar is remioved from the building. All 
woodwork usually painted should be primed as soon 
as in position. 

A VERY CONVENIENT HOUSE 

The accompanying picture and plans show the 
outside and interior arrangements of a very con- 
venient home built the past year by one of our 




AN ATTRACTIVE HOME 



agricultural editors. It is 34 feet wide by 30^^ feet 
deep, with a 7-foot cellar underneath. The house 



WHEN WE BUILD 



191 



contains 10 rooms, including two in the attic, be- 
sides a storeroom in addition to those shown. All 
the rooms are of good size and have two or more 
large windows, which make them light and sunny 
and supply plenty of good air. 























¥-^^ II 




PLAN OF FIRST FLOOR 



Ecoliomy of construction, as well as o'f doin|; the 
<^Ork, was kept in mind in the planninig. the 
location of the stairs is somewhat unusual in a 
house of this sort, but is such that only one light 



192 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



is necessary from first to second floor. There are 
plenty of large closets on the second floor, which 
are greatly appreciated. 

The porch is not roofed except over the door, but 




PLAN OF SECOND FLOOR 



an awning, which is taken down in the fall, makes 
it cool and shady in summer, and allows the sun- 
shine to reach the living room in winter. The 
first story is 9 feet from floor to ceiling, the second 
8 feet and the third 7 feet 6 inches. The house 




TO KEEP THE WHEELS GOING AROUND 

If your wagon jack Isn't a good one, make a good one. 
You can do it yourself. Have the right kind of things to 
take care of the wagons easily, and use them often. 




COSTS LITTLE AND SAVES MUCH 

If you can't afford an expensive spraying outfit, rig one up 
like this. 




A HANDY DEVICE OF THE ORIENT 




QUICK DELIVERY FROM THE FARMS 

Hundreds of farmers are today making profitable use of 
automobiles, although their first appearance upon country 
roads caused only fear and anger. 



WHEN WE BUILD 



193 



is piped with gas and wired for electricity, pro- 
vided with the best quality of sanitary plumbing 




DINING ROOMi 

la'xiz' 



SITTING ROOM 

is'xia' 



COAT „ALL 
ICLOS. 



VERANDA 
6^6'wiDE 



FIRST FLOOR COTTAGE PLAN 



194 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



and heated with hot air furnace. A similar house 
can be built for about $4,000, more or less, accord- 
ing to finish and locality. Occupancy proves it to 
be a model of convenience. 

If a bigger kitchen is desired, it can be obtained 
by going back farther. Many would prefer a 





ROOF 


BED R( 


DOM 

I 


J BED ROOM 



U-6 X9 



iixie 



.'X, 



CLOS. I HALL 



y 



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ICLOS. 



BED ROOM 
I5'XI2 



CLOSET 



ROOF 



SECOND FLOOR COTTAGE PLAN 



WHEN WE BUILD 



19S 



wider bathroom. A foot taken from the back cham- 
ber on the right would greatly improve the bath- 
room and still leave a large chamber. If desired, a 
large roofed piazza can be added. 

BUILDING A BLOCK HOUSE 



A Kansas farmer needed a house on his farm, but 
had very little money. He found that only a little 
was needed for a cement block house. He ordered 
a cement block machine and bought 12 boards 10 
inches wide and 12 feet long, which were cut in 
seven pieces of equal length. Two cleats were 




$400 CEMENT BLOCK HOUSE 

nailed on each, about 3 inches from the ends. These 
were for pallets and cost about 7^2 cents each. The 
cement blocks were 8 x 9 x 18. As the block ma- 
chine had no attachments, some contrivances were 
made for making half stone, three-quarter and 
others. 

For caps and sills for doors and windows 9-inch 
boards were taken, using three for each mold, and 



196 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



two holes 2 inches from the edges and 3 or 4 inches 
from the ends of two of them were bored. Then 
the farmer made cement blocks for the ends 9x8 
inches, laid the other board on the ground, placed 
one of the others on each side of it edgewise, put in 
the end blocks, and through the holes put long 
bolts and bolted it tight together. Then it was 
ready to fill with concrete. These boards were as 
long as were needed to make the caps or sills. A 
sprinkler, sand shovel, plasterer's trowel, and a 
wire sieve of j4-inch mesh were obtained. 








ix,a' 




HACL 




lo'xii ' 



FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR PLANS 



The sand cost nothing except hauling. The 
machine was set up near a spring. A box some- 
thing like a wagon bed with both ends out was 
made of boards, the block machine placed in one 
end and the pile of sand at one side. Three shovels 
of sand and one of cement were placed in a tub 
and mixed thoroughly. Then a boy took the 
sprinkler and sprinkled it while another mixed, 
until it was dampened evenly all through. Then 
they spread 35 shovels of sand in the mixing box 
and shook one sack of cement over it, which made 
a five-to-one mixture. This was thoroughly mixed 



WHEN WE BUILD I97 

by shoveling and sprinkling until it was good and 
damp, but not wet. This quantity made ten blocks. 

A pallet was placed on the open machine, the 
machine closed, and some of the richer mixture of 
concrete placed on the face about i inch thick. 
iThe mold was then filled with the five-to-one mix- 
ture, while one of the boys tamped it, put in the 
core, and smoothed off the top with a trowel. The 
core was then carefully lifted out, the machine 
opened, and the pallet with the stone on it placed 
on a level piece of ground. 

In three or four hours the blocks were ready to 
sprinkle. When 30 hours old they were placed on 
end and the pallets used for more stone. After 
standing for two days, during which time they 
were sprinkled frequently to keep them damp, they 
were dumped in the creek, where they were left 
until ready for use. The foundations were made 
by first putting into a trench about 6 inches of 
broken rock, then 4 inches of concrete. 

The house is 26 feet square, the walls 12 feet 
high, with gables north and south. The picture of 
the house and arrangement of the two floors are 
shown in the illustrations. We used 12,400 pounds 
of cement, which cost 6oc per 100, or $74.40. Doors 
and windows were brought at a cost of $33.75. Chim- 
ney, plastering and lumber for floors, roof, parti- 
tions and finishing, all of the best, cost $240. The 
hardware was $30, making the total cost of house 
$378.15, not counting cement machine or labor, all 
of which was done by the family. 



Art imitates nature, and necessity is the mother 
of invention. — Richard Franck. 

Consider the end. — Chilo. 



igS HANDY FARM DEVICES 

A PRACTICAL ROUND BARN 

There is no economy in building a round barn, 
that is, strictly round. The barn here illustrated has 
26 sides nearly 12 feet long, making a barn 94 feet 
in diameter. The sills, plates and roof in a strictly 
round barn are very expensive, and the work will 
not last as well as when built as shown. The floor 
space of the first floor is nearly the same as if 
round, and the hay loft is very little smaller. If 
the building is round, the walls should be lathed 




CROSS-SECTION OF BARN 

with metal lath, over rough boxing, and plastered 
with two coats of portland cement. In fact, this 
finish is to be preferred in building any shaped 
barn, as it requires no paint and practically no 
repairs. 

The floor plan of the barn shown is self-explan- 
atory. It has stalls for 40 milch cows, three bull 
peiis, two hospital stalls, pen for baby beef that will 
accommodate about 2j^ cars of calves, stalls for 
seven horses, including the two box stalls, and the 
feeding room and silo. The silo is 16 x 34 feet, 
will hold about 140 tons of silage, and requires 
about ten acres of average corn to fill. 



WHEN WE BUILD 



199 



The hay loft has 166,500 cubic feet of space, and 
deducting the silo and bins for ground feed will 
hold 300 tons of loose hay. The ground feed is 
stored in hopper-shaped bins above the feed room, 
and drawn down through small spouts as wanted. 
The hay is handled with hay forks, and to locate 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



the trolleys as near the roof as possible, trap doors 
are left in the loft, floor, and the hay hoisted from 
the driveways. A circle trolley may be installed, 
or two straight ones. Several large hay doors are 
also built in the outside walls above the loft floor. 
The silo, the floors of the cow stalls, including 



200 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

the gutters and mangers, also the 8-foot driveway 
around the silo, are of cement, and, while it is iii- 
tended to install litter and feed carriers, it is also 
intended to drive around the entire barn, or the feed 
floor with a cart if desired. The interior arrange- 
ment of first floor may, of course, be changed in 
several ways, and the cows faced in the opposite 
direction, etc., or stalls and other equipment ar- 
ranged for different stock. 

The barn, as shown, has about the same floor 
space as a barn would have 36 feet wide and 180 
feet long. The ventilation is always much better 
in the round barn, the work of caring for and feed- 
ing may be accomplished with less labor, there are 
never any drafts on the stock, the building may be 
built for less money, and is much stronger. As 
shown, the barn has a stone foundation, the roof is 
covered with asbestos roofing felt, and the walls 
covered with 6-inch drop siding. Everything is of 
the best, and all exposed woodwork painted two 
coats. This building would cost about $4700 with- 
out the cow stanchions. Where home labor is 
used, and the lumber can be secured for less than 
$30 per thousand, the barn may, of course, be 
erected for less. 

A WELL-ARRANGED BARN 

This Kentucky barn has a frame of oak, 6x6 
inches. Center posts 23 feet 9 inches; shed posts 
16 feet tall; studding and braces 2 x 6-inch poplar; 
joists 2 X 10-inch poplar, oak and pine. The sheet- 
ing is of poplar, beech and ash. The bevel siding 
is select poplar. Cornice and base, white pine. 
All doors are two thicknesses, front is dressed 
cypress and the back dressed white pine. The 



WHEN WE BUILD 



20 1 



lower windows are 10 x 12-inch, 12 lights and upper 
ones inside the building. The joists are set 20 
inches from center to center. The loft is 8}^ feet 
from lower floors. 

The floor plan shows the arrangement as follows : 
Number i, icehouse, 18 feet deep, walled up with 
stone; 2, carriage house, 16 x 18 feet; 3, stairs,, 
leading to lumber room over carriage room ; 4, corn 





« 






a 1 5 1 a 


48 


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1 JIMJI 




a 



i^ 



H\Si6r7--+ /2 fT. 




GROUND PLAN OF A KENTUCKY BARN 



crib, 8 X 16 feet, over which are the grain bins for 
wheat and oats. These bins have chutes running 
down into the corn crib, from which grain is filled 
into sacks. Numbers 5, 5, are box stalls, 8 x 12 
feet ; 6, driveway, 12 x 38 feet ; 7, 7, 7, 7, box stalls, . 
6^2 X 12 feet; 8, harness room, 6x8 feet; 9, feed 
mixing room, 6x8 feet, with spouts running frpm, 
cutting box and bran bins overhead; 10, alleyway, 
running from driveway to feed alley; 11, 11, 11, hay; 



202 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

chutes, with openings near the bottom, 1x2 feet. 
These openings are directly over the feed boxes and 
any hay that falls while horses are feeding goes 
into the boxes and none is wasted. Number 12, 
feed boxes, 1x2x2 feet ; 13, feeding alley, 4 x 38 
feet. 

Overhead at X is an opening from the hay loft 
where alfalfa, clover, cowpeas and hay are kept for 
the cows; 14, cow shed, 8 x 38 feet. Cows are 
fastened with stanchions and fed out of boxes on 
alley floor. The cow shed has concrete floor, with 
a fall of 2 inches from stanchion to Number 15, 
the drain basin, which is i foot 2 inches wide and i 
foot deep at A, where it runs into a basin made of 
concrete, 6x6 feet and 2 feet deep; 16, driveway 
into carriage room; 17, openings in which siding 
doors hang when open; 18, windows. 

The roof is of tin, standing seams, with Yankee 
gutters made on the lower edge of the roof. An 
opening 10 x 10 feet in the center of the driveway 
loft is allowed for hay and other feed taken up by 
an unloader that runs on a track in comb of roof. 
The barn will cost about $1500 — more or less, ac- 
cording to cost of building material where it is 
erected. 

A HANDY SMALL BARN 

This barn is arranged to meet the needs of a 
small farm. It can be built in most localities at a 
cost not to exceed $500, and if a farmer has his 
own timber, at even less cost. The outside dimen- 
sions are 36 x 48 feet, and it is 16 feet to the eaves, 
with a curb roof. The stables should be about 8 
feet high, which allows plenty of loft room above 
for hay. 



WHEN WE BUILD 



203 



In the floor plan the cow stalls, A, can be made 
of any width desired, 3^/2 feet being best for gen- 
eral purposes. At B are two large box stalls for 
cows with young calves. The mangers, C, are 18 
inches wide, with a rack for hay or fodder above. 
At D is the feed room and alley, which is 8 feet 
wide. At E are the mangers for the horses, with 



\ 


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r 


r 


■ M 


■■ 


A aIaIa 


B 


B 




L 


c cicic 


P 


c 


/ 


1 


] 
J 

] 

L 


E 


^1 


e| 


E 


H 




F 


F 


F 


G 


/_ 




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1 




■ M 





GROUND PLAN 



a feed box at the right side. At F are three horse 
stalls 4 feet wide, in which horses can be tied. At 
G is a large box stall for mares and colts. 

At H is provided the granary, which can be sub- 
divided into bins as necessary. The portion I is 
the driveway, which affords ample storage space 
for tools, wagons, etc., and is used as a driveway 
when hay is being elevated into the loft above. 

There is a large corn crib, J, at the end, which 
can be filled from the outside and emptied from 
the inside. It is narrow and so arranged that the 



204 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



•corn will dry out quickly. Chutes from this bin 
should be provided at L. A ladder to the hay loft 
at K is a convenience which should not be omitted. 




VIEW OF COMPLETED BARN 



THE FARMER'S ICEHOUSE 



In a properly constructed icehouse, and when 
the ice is properly packed and cared for, no waste 
should take place from the inside of the pile of ice. 
The melting from the sides, bottom and top is 
caused by insufficient insulation. The waste from 
the bottom is generally the greatest. The amount 
of ice melted in the bottom of the icehouse varies 
from I to 6 feet during the year, depending upon 
the construction of the floor. If the icehouse is 
provided with an airtight iloor, with the ice laid on 
at least i8 inches of dry sawdust, the bottom waste 
rarely exceeds 12 inches during the year; on the 
■other hand, if the ice is piled in the icehouse on the 
bare ground without any insulation under it, or 
any provision made for drainage, the meltage fre- 



WHEN WE BUILD 205 

quently is 6 feet. The side and top meltage is not 
so great, but it frequently ranges from i to 3 feet, 
depending upon the insulation. 



Location and Building 

The location should be where the ice can be re- 
moved and delivered with the least amount of labor ; 
however, it is very important that the icehouse 
should be located in the coolest place, in as dry a 
place as possible, and always above ground. The 
lowest layer of ice should always be at least 6 
inches above the outside level of ground. 

The size of the building must be determined by 
the amount of ice used during the year. For in- 
stance, a dairy farm upon which 35 cows are kept,, 
and from which the milk is sold, needs an icehouse 
16 X 16 and 14 feet high. If the cream is to be sold 
and skim milk fed to the calves, immediately from- 
the separator, an icehouse 14 x 14 and 12 feet high 
is of sufficient size. In both cases we make allow- 
ance for the use of 25 pounds of ice per day during 
the summer months for household purposes. For 
a man who keeps about 20 cows and sells, the milk,, 
an icehouse 14 x 14 and 12 feet high is of sufficient 
size; however, in no case should an icehouse be 
smaller than 12 x 12 and 10 feet high, because the 
outside surface is too great, compared with the 
volume, and, therefore, too much ice is wasted in 
proportion to the amount used. 

The building should be as near the shape of a 
cube as possible, for the cube contains the greatest 
amount of volume with the least amount of surface 
exposed other than circular forms. It is not air- 
ways practical to build as high as we build square. 



206 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



owing to the amount of labor and the inconven- 
ience of storing the ice; therefore, the dimensions 
given are really the most practical. 

If the icehouse is not built upon a sandy 
surface and where rapid drainage is natural, it is 




^^' ■...-■....J.. . .. . L..-Ji. . ...J.^vv 'P 




CROSS-SECTION OF ICEHOUSE 



necessary to cut a space to a depth of 12 to 18 
inches, where the icehouse is to be located, lay a 
tile drain to drain this, and fill it with sand or 
finely crushed stone. Put a 6-inch foundation of 
concrete of the size you wish to build your ice- 
house in this pit, and fill around the outside. 



WHEN WE BUILD 207 

Framing the Icehouse 

The framework is made by laying 2 x 4-inch sill 
on the concrete foundation ; fasten this to the foun- 
dation by cementing a few bolts into the concrete 
and allowing them to extend through the sill ; 2 x 4 
studding are then placed upon the sill, 16 inches 
apart from center to center. The rafters for the 
roof are likewise made of 2 x 4's, placed the same 
distance apart as the studding, but the purlin plate 
upon the studding should be at least 6 inches wide. 
The outside of studding may be boarded either 
with common sheeting and paper, upon which 
poplar siding is nailed, or with patent siding or 
ship-lap siding, the latter being the cheapest and 
requiring only a single thickness of board. 

The roof should be made with not less than one- 
half to one-third pitch, and preferably covered with 
shingles, for shingles are better insulators than 
either slate or metal. Paper may sometimes be 
used to good advantage. A cupola or flue should 
be built upon the roof to allow for the removal 
of the warm air from the top of the ice. A ven- 
tilator may be placed in the gable end, 

A continuous door should be cut in one end to 
allow the ice to be put in. This door may extend 
from the gable down to within 5 feet of the bottom. 

Before putting in the ice place from 18 inches to 
2 feet of sawdust or dry peat upon the floor. The 
ice should be harvested in regukr shape, oblong, 
rather than square, and not less than 18 inches in 
width and 30 inches in length. 

Ice and Milk Houses Combined 

The side elevation of an icehouse with milkhouse 
attached is presented in the drawing. It shows the 



208 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



advantage of utilizing the water from the icehouse 
for cooling the milk. No ice needs to be removed 
from the icehouse. It operates automatically. If 
the weather is warm the ice melts more rapidly and 
keeps water in the tank at the required temperature. 




A GOOD COLD COMBINATION 



SMALL GREENHOUSES 

The farmer who would make his crops of vege- 
tables rnost profitable, or the small gardener who 
would have an early supply of early vegetables for 
home use or market must employ some kind of 
glass structures to hasten these crops. The hot- 
bed or cold frame have been much in use in the 
past, but the cost of sash, shutters and mats is 
nearly as much as the materials needed for a per- 
manent structure, while the labor of caring for 
cold frames or hotbeds is often much more than 
that of the small greenhouse. In the latter one 
may work with comfort no matter what the 
weather may be outside. It requires much more 
skill to run hotbeds successfully. 



WHEN WE BUILD 



209 



Small greenhouses may be built against the south 
side of the house or stable. Figures i and 2, or they 
may be built entirely away from other buildings,, 
but the shelter of larger buildings on the north or 
west will be found of great advantage. If one has 
a basement to the house or stable, a lean-to house 
may be built, and heat from the open cellar in a 
large measure will heat the greenhouse in the mild 
weather of fall and spring. 

Material for Construction 

A cheap and efficient house may be made by 
setting chestnut or cedar posts in the ground, cov- 
ering the sides with lining boards, then two thick- 
nesses of tarred building paper and sheathing 



FIS^ 




FIG. I. Tia.z. 

DETAILS FOR SMALL GREENHOUSES 



outside. Figure 3. Cement, stone or brick will be 
cheaper in the end. The durability of glass struc- 
tures will depend much upon the form of the ma- 
terials. Clear cypress is now more used than any 
other material. Sills should be of the form shown 
in Figure 4. Plates may be made of plank as in 



2IO HANDY FARM DEVICES 

Figure 3, or as in Figure 5. Sash bars should have 
grooves along the sides to catch the drip from the 
glass, as in Figure 6. 

The glass for ordinary work may be No. 2 double 
thick, large sizes, 16 x 20 inches or 20 x 24 inches, 
being much used. Smaller sizes will be cheaper in 
price, but more sash bars will be needed, and they 
cut off much of the sunlight. The glass should be 
put in with putty, made with about one-third white 
lead in it, and firmly tacked with triangular zinc 
tacks of large size, or the double-pointed tacks, 
which are so bent as to prevent the glass from 
slipping down. 

Set Glass in Warm Weather 

Glazing should be done during the summer or 
early fall, as putty will soon become loose if frozen 
before well hardened. 

In building there should be no mortises, but all 
Joints be made by toeing in with long, slender nails. 
All woodwork should be thoroughly painted before 
fitting, and all joints filled with white lead paint. 
After all is done the frame should be painted before 
the glass is put in. 

The most important and expensive feature of the 
small greenhouse is the heating. If one has a hot 
water or steam heater in the house, to which the 
glass house is attached, it will be a very simple 
matter to carry pipes through, as at a, a, Figures i 
and 2. Hot air also may be let into such houses, 
or a small kerosene heater in very cold weather 
may be used, if the house is built opening into the 
cellar. 

Ventilators must be located as shown in Figures 
I and 2, at b, b. Very small structures may be 



WHEN WE BUILD 211 

run without much heat if opening into cellars or 
other heated rooms by, having shutters or curtains 
to draw down at night and in very cold, cloudy 
weather. 

Covering with Hotbed Sash 

Houses of small size may be made by building 
a frame upon which hotbed sash may be screwed. 
If one has the sash this is a cheap way of build- 
ing, and such a house has the advantage that tKe 
sash may be entirely removed during the summer, 
but it is very difficult to make a close house with 
such sash. 

The woodwork of greenhouses and hotbed sash 
should have a coat of thin linseed oil paint every 
second year. Much of the success to be obtained 
from any glass structure will depend upon the skill 
of the operator, and the thermometer, both outside 
and in, must be watched very closely. The tem- 
perature should be maintained as nearly as possible 
like that in the open air under which the plants 
grown thrive the best. 

WIRE FENCE CORN CRIB 

In the drawing is shown a handy, inexpensive 
corn crib, which possesses several advantages not 
possessed by the ordinary slat corn crib. It is 
made on 4 x 4-inch posts, with pans at their tops, 
to prevent rats from climbing in. The sills are 4x4- 
inch, the scantlings 2x4, and 2 feet apart. The 
fencing is nailed to these on all sides, and the door 
frame is similarly covered. The roof is made wide, 
so as to shed all possible water. The height, length 



212 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

and width may suit the farmer's convenience. A 
convenient width is about 5 feet at the floor, widen- 
ing to 7 feet at the eaves. Owing to the very open 




THE CORN CRIB 



nature of this crib, corn dries more quickly than in 
a slat crib, and as there is less chance for water to 
lodge in the cracks, the crib will be more durable 
than if built entirely of wood. 



Want of cure does us more damage than want of 
knowledge. 




WHEN WE BUILD 2I3 

HOW TO LAY A FLOOR 

To lay a floor or board ceiling just right, and do 
the work fast, use a good lever, as in the illustra- 
tion, taking for 
the supports two 
I X 4-inch pieces 
as long as the 
width of the room. 
The upright arm 
is 4 feet long with 
a hole 4 inches 

r ,, , FLOORING LEVER 

irom the lower 

and through which it is pinned loosely between the 
ends of the supports. With a little practice, a good 
carpenter's job can be done on floor or ceiling. 

AN INEXPENSIVE VERANDA 

A vine-covered veranda is a great comfort, but 
in many cases the expense seems greater than the 
owner of the plain little farmhouse feels able to 
stand. A farmer in Arkansas wanted one, and he 
set to work in this fashion. First he went to the 
woods and got a load of straight poles about i^ 
inches in diameter and from 8 to 12 feet long. He 
next procured a number of nice, smooth boards for 
the flooring of the veranda, making it about 6 feet 
wide and 10 feet long and strengthening it with 
the necessary timbers. He securely nailed the 
poles about 8 inches apart around the flooring to 
form an inclosure, leaving an opening in front about 
5 feet wide. 

The poles in front were 7 feet from the floor to 
the roof and 12 feet at the house. About midway 
of their height the poles were straightened by a row 



214 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

of poles nailed horizontally and another row was 
placed at the top. To make all secure against rain, 
the slanting roof poles were next carefully covered 
with overlapping rows of bark. AH this required 
but small outlay of cash and even less of work. It 
was then ready for the vines. 

Being in haste for immediate results, the builder 
planted some roots of the hard native woodbine, 
which will soon cover any space with its rapid 
growth. It is an easy matter to sow seed of the 
morning glory, hardy annual gourd, or any one of 
several hardy climbers and the result will soon be a 
mass of shade and lovely blossoms besides, all of 
which makes the summer evenings pass far more 
pleasantly. 

CONCRETE ON THE FARM 

The progressive farmer must not overlook the 
economic value of portland cement concrete. To- 
day is the age of concrete. It is crowding wood 
and steel into the background, and bids fair to 
become the most universal of building materials. 
Concrete is extensively used by the largest land- 
holders, and can be used by the men of more 
moderate means to equal advantage. It is to be 
recommended for general use by reason of its 
durability, sanitary qualities and moderate cost. 
Molded solid, it has no joints nor seams to afford 
a lodging for dirt and foster the growth of noxious 
fungi; it can be swept, washed, scrubbed and 
scalded, without injury to its texture. Further, it 
does not possess the disagreeable quality of absorb- 
ing gases and odors. Add to these qualities, cool- 
ness in summer, warmth in winter and we have one 



WHEN WE BUILD 215 

of the most logical building materials in present- 
day use. 

Concrete is not expensive when compared with 
other materials of construction, such as stone, brick 
and wood. To be sure, the initial cost of wood is 
less than that of concrete, but when we consider 
the life and quality of the finished product, con- 
crete is easily cheaper than wood. 

Portland cement of the most approved brands 
costs about $i.6o per barrel, Ij4 barrels of cement 
being required for each cubic yard of concrete. 
Sand and gravel may be had from the farm or 
bought nearby at lo cents a load. Add the cost 
of the forms and the labor of mixing and laying the 
concrete, which should be done at an expense not 
exceeding 75 cents per yard, and we have a 
total expense ranging from $2.75 to $3 per cubic 
yard, but under very favorable circumstances the 
cost may be reduced close to $2. Experience both 
in practical work and in the laboratory has proved 
beyond a doubt that the best brands of cement, as 
in all other goods, are the cheapest in the end, and 
should be insisted upon by all prospective purchas- 
ers. Atlas, Alpha, Saylor's, Edison and Giant 
cements are among the leading brands. The sand 
should be clean, coarse and sharp and free from all 
foreign matter that would in any way tend to 
weaken the concrete. Broken stone with sand and 
cement makes an ideal, mixture, but it is objected 
to on account of the cost of the broken stone. 
Gravel may be substituted for the stone, however, 
with excellent results. The gravel should be washed 
and cleaned, and, if very coarse, passed through a 
screen. The gravel should range from J4 inch to 
2.y2 inches in diameter, but should not exceed 2>$ 



•2l6 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

feiches and to obtain the very best results the major 
portion should be between the limits of i and i^ 
inches. 

MIXING THE CEMENT 

In mixing concrete for general use the following 
proportions are perhaps the best : One barrel cement 
to 3 barrels sand and 5 barrels gravel. In this mix- 
ture the spaces between the stones are entirely 
filled and when hardened the concrete virtually 
becomes a solid monolith. 

To secure the best results mix the concrete as 
follows: Have the gravel washed and in readi- 
ness, usually on a platform of planking or boards, 
to permit easy shoveling and insure against waste. 
Add enough water to the cement and sand, which 
have been thoroughly mixed in a mortar bed, to 
make a thin mortar, not too thin, however, to per- 
mit easy shoveling. Spread the mortar on the 
gravel and thoroughly mix by turning with shovels. 
Then, without delay, shovel the batch of concrete 
into the forms or spread it on the floors as the case 
may be, being careful not to exceed layers of 8 
inches at each filling. Each layer must be tamped 
and rammed till water flushes to the top. 

Proceed in this manner till the forms are filled. 
In hot weather damp cloths or boards should be 
placed over the top of the concrete to keep it from 
checking after the final layer has been placed in 
the forms. The forms must necessarily be water 
tight and the concrete worked back from the boards 
with a spade, so the softer material may flow to the 
outside and insure a smooth surface. If this last 
is not done holes will surely result and the work 
will be disappointing. Let the concrete rest four 
to six days before removing the planking, concrete 



WHEN WE BUILD 217 

being somewhat brittle until thoroughly hardened, 
and while in the " green " state easily broken. 

MAKING CONCRETE BLOCKS 

Concrete building blocks are ideal as building 
material on the farm. The cost to purchase these 
blocks has been beyond the reach of the farmer 
who desired to use them for all purposes; but by 
the use of the simple machine or mold described 
anyone can make the best quality of hollow con- 
crete building blocks at an average cost of less than 
6 cents each, the mere cost of sand and cement. 

As the standard size block is 20 x 8 x 7J^ inches, 
instructions are given for making the machine to 
build that size, but it can be constructed to turn 
out any size of block by changing the dimensions 
accordingly. 

Take two boards 20 inches long by 7J^ inches 
wide and i inch thick. These are for the sides. 
For the ends use lumber 10 inches long by 7>4 
inches wide. Care must be used to have the boards 
free from large knots and with an even grain, so as 
to avoid warping. 

The above four boards were joined at three 
corners with six hinges; two hinges at top and 
bottom of each corner. In putting together have 
the two end boards set up against the sides as 
shown in Figure i. At the fourth corner place a 
strong hook and eyelet to hold the machine together 
when making block, and by unhooking this allows 
the machine to be folded back away from the fin- 
ished work, etc. 

This makes a mold or form that is, inside meas- 
urements, 20 inches long, 8 inches wide and 7J4 
inches high, with top and bottom open. 



2l8 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 




For the core, take two boards of i-inch lumber, 
cutting them 13 inches at the top and slanting to 
iiyi inches at the bottom with a 
width of 7^ inches. These make 
the sides of core. For the ends, 
use 2-inch strips cut yyi inches 
long. These are fastened together, 
FIGURE I — CORE as shown in Figure i. This makes 
a slanting box which is set inside of 
the machine, as illustrated in Figure 2, and forms 
the hollow in the block. To the top of the core a 
round stick is fitted into place the length of the 
core, so it will set down level with the top for a 
handle to lift the core from the block when oper- 
ating the same. 



To Operate the Machine 



First set it on a board somewhat larger than the 
machine, as shown in Figure 2. This makes the 
bottom of machine and holds the block until dry. 
Enough of these boards must be provided for the 




FIGURE 2 — CEMENT BLOCK MACHINE OPEN 



WHEN WE BUILD 2ig 

blocks made each day. Close the machine and 
fasten catch, then set the core in the center and fill 
the space around the same with the concrete mix- 
ture, tamping it in thoroughly. When full level 
off the top with a flat stick and carefully lift out the 
core, setting it on another board ready for the next 
block, unhook the catch and fold the machine back 
away from the finished block and you have the com- 
pleted block ready to dry and cure. This method 
requires no handling and so has no danger of 
breaking while the block is yet " green," as it re- 
mains on the board or " pallet " until dry enough 
to be piled up, which they will be in three or four 
days. 

When the blocks are to be laid in a side wall, 
between corners, take two ij4-inch strips 7J/2 
inches long and attach with screws to the center 
of each end of machine on the inside. This molds 
a groove in the block, which is filled with mortar 
when laying the block in the wall and so securely 
ties it. By fastening with screws these strips can 
be easily removed when molding corner blocks. 

Blocks of Different Shapes 

A neat panel block can be molded by taking the 
common half-round strips, cutting to the right 
lengths and fastening to the outside of the face of 
machine, as shown in Figure i. For corner blocks 
they can be attached to either end of machine. By 
using small screws these can be removed when not 
desired and also enable you to panel either right 
or left end of block as needs require. 

For making half-size blocks, have a piece of 
board that is exactly 8 inches wide and 7J^ inches 
high, or so it will just fit into machine when core 



'220 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

is removed. Set this in place in the middle half- 
way , between the ends and fill with material. This 
will make two half-size blocks for use in breaking 
joints when laying wall. If desired to have these 
hollow, two small cores of proper size can be made 
to set in place when molding blocks of this size. 

Rock face effects can be produced very easily by 
taking a 2-inch plank the size of the face of ma- 
chine or the end as desired. On this draw a border 
1)4 inches all around, then take several irons, heat 
them red-hot and burn out the center in irregular 
shape, at least ij4 inches deep. By making ridges 
and hollows in this burning process of different 
depths and as broken as possible, you will secure 
a face plate that will mold a very excellent imita- 
tion of a rock face. This, of course, can be made 
to suit any fancy. 

One may follow the practice of making several 
faces and ends from plain and panels down to dif- 
ferent rock effects, having these extra face plates 
the same size as given for the machine above. 
Then by using hinges as used on doors or any pin 
hinge, you can easily change the style of block by 
putting one face plate or end on machine in a 
moment's time. One machine, can thus be used for 
any style of block and a great amount of time be 
saved in changing from one style to another. 

This machine, in addition to being simple in con- 
struction and operation, is very rapid. With but 
little practice one man can make from 75 to 100 
blocks daily and have each one perfect, as he does 
not break any by handling them after they are 
molded 



According to her cloth she cut her coat. — Dryden. 



WHEN WE BUILD 



221 



ANOTHER STYLE OF MOLD 

All the lumber necessary to make this mold 
should be selected white pine or hardwood, free 
from knots and sap. The platform on which this 
mold rests should be 14 x 24 inches and be well 
battened together. The sides are made as shown 





^ 



S-r 



/6' 



s2?eJYl>m-^'"*^'^- 



THE FINISHED MOLD 



by the drawings, with a cleat on each end, which 
overlaps the end pieces and holds them in place. 
Both ends and sides are fastened to the platform 
as shown, with hinges, which permit them to be 
turned down to take out the completed block. 

On each end is placed a flat iron bar with a 
notch in to fasten the whole mold together. "These 



222 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



bars are the same as hooks, only tne ends are pro- 
longed to act as handles for convenience. 

Regulating the Height of the Blocks 

The bottom board is intended to be fitted in the 
bottom of the mold loosely and should be blocked 
up from the bottom to give the required height of 




J 
e 

JJJ 






7>luf OK Ct 



ore 



ia= 



PARTS OF MOLD 



the finished block. The end pieces of mold have a 
thin piece of board running up and down to form 
a key between blocks and should run down to top 
of bottom board. 

The plugs are made as shown, with a taper both 
sides, so that when they are removed they clear all 
the way out. The pins in the bottoms of the plugs 



WHEN WE BUILD 223 

are to fit in the holes in the bottom board, which 
will steady them and hold them in place. 

When the plugs are removed the board with the 
two square holes is placed over the top of mold and 
the handle of tamper is run through the rings in 
top of plugs and they are lifted up. This board is 
used as a guard and prevents the block from being 
broken when plugs are removed, and should not be 
used until the block is finished and ready to take 
out of mold. The tamper is made of a large iron 
nut and a piece of iron rod about i8 inches long. 

Filling the Molds 

To make these blocks use one part of portland 
cement and three parts of good sharp sand, mix 
well and put enough water on to simply dampen 
the whole. Now close up the mold, put plugs in 
place, fill the mold one-fourth full and tamp down 
hard. Repeat this until the mold is filled. Scrape 
ofif surplus material, remove the plugs, then turn 
down sides and lift out finished block which is to 
remain on the bottom board until hard enough to 
lift off. 

It will be necessary to have a number of these 
bottom boards. After a number of blocks are 
made they should be sprinkled from day to day for 
from 15 to 20 days to properly cure them before 
using. A barrel of cement will make about 50 
blocks and one man can make a block in 12- 
minutes. 

MIXING CEMENT FOR BRICK 

Many have found mixing the sand and cement 
the hardest part of cement brick making. An old 



224 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



Vinegar barrel may be put to use by placing a grind- 
stone crank on one end and a pinion on the other. 
Two strong posts are set in the ground and the 
barrel hung over two pieces of round iron driven 
into the posts. ' A square hole is cut on side of 
barrel and covered with a piece of sheet iron hinged 
and a bottom to fasten. 

The sand and cement are dampened, shoveled 
into the barrel and a boy may turn the crank. The 
mixing is done as fast as two men can mold, with 
a boy to sprinkle the brick to prevent drying too 
iast. 

REINFORCEMENT FOR CONCRETE 

For heavy construction work involving beams 
and columns, reinforcement with steel rods is 
needed. Reinforced concrete is rapidly coming to 
i>e the mos^ approved kind of construction of large 




sccTioa or FLsnt sub 

FOOTING 0ETAIi5 

DETAILS OF REINFORCEMENT 



WHEN WE BUILD 225 

buildings. Our own great building is one of the 
most noteworthy examples, being of reinforced con- 
crete throughout. For any building where rein- 
forcement seems desirable the following details will 
be found useful: 

Plan of the footing or foundation of each column 
is shown in /; g, side view of footing and part of 
column above. The steel rods that run up through 
column are shown by dots in h, and the wire spiral 
by diagonal lines in g. h is cross-section of column 
filled with cement, the shaded part being the con- 
crete, a, section of floor slab, 4)4 inches thick; it 
is also shown on top of the floor girder and floor 
beam (crossbeams between girders), b, girder; c, 
cross-section of girder, the dots showing twisted 
steel bars that take up the tensile stress — compres- 
sion stress is carried by the concrete. The steel 
bars, d, stuck into the column at an angle, are to 
prevent the girders from breaking off or " shear- 
ing" at column. 

MAKING A FROSTPROOF CELLAR 

Some farmers build their own concrete cellar 
walls and chimneys with inexperienced help. Lay 
out your foundation the same way you would for 
any building. Have outside line of excavation 
plumb. Then use 2 x 4-inch studs the length re- 
quired. Point one end, drive in ground, on line of 
inside of cellar wall, brace top of stud by driving 
stake in ground, and nail brace to stake and each 
stud. You must make everything firm. Then take 
square edge boards and place horizontally against 
the studs. (See illustration.) 

Do not try to go around the whole cellar wall, 
take one side at a time to the height of earth sur- 



226 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



face, but turn your corner. Pay no attention to 
outside, let the stone and cement push up against 
the earth. It is the best plan to finish the whole 
wall up to the earth surface line before making the 
elevation above the ground line. 

Above the earth surface line do just the same on 
the outside as you have been doing on the inside, 
but now you must use boards and studs, as up to 




VIEM 



CONCRETE CELLAR WALL 



this point the earth took the place of them. Plumb 
every stud you drive, and place them 24 inches 
apart. Have cellar window frames ready and place 
them as you come to them. Be sure and make 
extension for hatchway when building your main 
wall. For the corners use baled hay wire in wads, 
bending it around the center of wall, and a rein- 
forced concrete corner will be the result. 

Get cobblestones or any stone from the size of 
a goose egg to the size of your head, and put them 
in bottom of walfto depth of i foot. Make a mix- 
ing bed, say, about 12 x 36 x 72 inches. One man 



WHEN WE BUILD 227 

used an old wooden sink as near watertight as 
possible. Use one water pail of cement to three 
of fine gravel sand. Put one and one-half pails 
water in the mixing bed, then add the cement. Be 
sure and mix water and cement well before using 
sand. Throw sand in one shovelful at a time. 
Have one person mixing with a good-sized hoe, 
while another throws in the sand. Mix well. 

Have it about the same as thin mortar, so it will 
leave the pail easily when pouring into the foun- 
dation. Cover the stones and then put in another 
lot and do the same to height of wall up to within 
a couple of inches. Do not put stones to full height 
of wall. To bring wall up to line, mix cement and 
water together (or one part sand and one cement) 
so it will run, and after wall is hard pour it on top 
and it will find its own water level and your sills 
will fit exactly. It is a good plan to have wall 
thicker at bottom than at top — perhaps i8 inches 
at bottom and 12 inches on top. 

Now for hatchway steps. Put in the stones, as 
they save cement. Before the cement gets hard, 
drive in some large spikes, leaving them projecting 
about 2 inches on line of hatchway sills. Your 
hatchway doors will stay in place if sills are well- 
fitted on to spikes. One of the most important 
things is to be sure of the sand you use. If there 
is more than 10 per cent loam in the sand, your 
work will be a failure. 

A SUMMER COOL ROOM 

A simple method of constructing a cool, outdoor 
cellar in localities where the common house cellars 
are too warm for use during the summer time, is 
shown in the accompanying sketch. It is a cellar 



228 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



made under the pump, so that the water pumped 
by the windmill has a very cooling effect. In 
places where it is difficult to obtain ice, it will prove 
indispensable to the dairyman who keeps a few 
cows. Another important item is the fact that a 
man does not have to pull up all of the pipes every 




CONCRETE OUTDOOR CELLAR 



time that he finds it necessary to repair the pipes 
and pump. 

It is constructed of concrete. The top is rein- 
forced with 5^-inch steel rods placed i foot apart 
each way and the concrete work is about 6 inches 
thick. The sides are made by using a form, and the 
stairs are also made of concrete and are reinforced 
by small steel rods. The cost, including the labor, 
is about $50. In the west and southwest it will 
also answer the purpose of a storm cave, which is 
considered a fixture on all farms. 



WHEN WE BUILD 229 

A CONCRETE SMOKEHOUSE 

The structure is about 8 x lo feet and 7 feet high. 
It will keep the meat inside and thieves out. 
For a building of this sort 8-inch walls will be thick 
enough. Excavate to the proper depth below frost, 
which will be two feet or less, and use a mixture of 
one part portland cement, three parts sand and six 
parts gravel or broken stone. 

Make the forms of matched boards, although 
square-edged boards could be used for this pur- 
pose. The forms must be well braced and may be 
raised as the work of laying the wall progresses. 
Space for a doorway must be left and two eye- 
bolts inserted in the concrete for the door to swing 
on. The door jamb can be molded in cement if it 
is desired. An eyebolt for the lock and latch should 
also be placed in the wall. 

The roof will no doubt be of boards or shingles. 
The plates should be placed on the concrete and 
held to it with bolts properly imbedded. An 
arched concrete roof can be made if desired, in 
which case it will be necessary to leave suitable 
vents in each end, or build a small flue to allow the 
smoke to escape. To make the house absolutely 
proof against fire a steel or iron door should be 
used. 

LAYING A CONCRETE FLOOR 

A concrete floor should be level with the top of 
the sill, where there is much passing in and out 
with stock or wagons. There should be about 4 
inches of concrete. If the earth is leveled off and 
tamped down hard, it would be unnecessary to put 
any crushed stone under the concrete in a building 



230 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

where frost or water does not get underneath. It 
is generally recommended to put several inches of 
stones, gravel or cinders on top of the earth, but 
many floors are laid without such a bottom. Par- 
titions for horse stalls and cattle stanchions can be 
held in place on a cement floor by putting down 
iron belts or pieces of gas pipe, when the floor is 
laid. Let them project 2 or 3 inches above the floor. 

MAKING A CONCRETE WALK 

The best way is to dig a trench 16 inches deep, 
put in a foot of loose gravel or stone, leveling it off 
with fine material. On top of this spread 3 inches 
of concrete made of one part portland cement, two 
parts sand and four parts crushed stone or gravel. 
On this put a granolithic finish I inch thick mixed 
in the proportions of 1-2-3. Trowel it down smooth 
and hard. Joints J^ inch thick and filled with sand 
should be left every 5 feet to prevent walk from 
cracking 

CEMENTING A CISTERN WALL 

In making a surface waterproof, a mixture of 
about one part portland cement to two of sand will 
shed water from a roof or wall, but to make a sur- 
face perfectly watertight, so that it will keep out 
standing water, it is better to use neat cement only, 
that is, cement with no other material but the 
water with which it is mixed, and it will cost less 
to put on a coat J4 inch thick of neat cement than 
one I inch thick, one-half or two-thirds sand, as 
the neat cement mixed with plenty of water is 
waterproof. 



WHEN WE BUILD 23 1 

SPECIAL USES FOR CEMENT 

A sack of Portland cement is a very useful thing 
to have for making quick repairs about the farm. 
A hole in a drain pipe can be stopped in a few min- 
utes with a little cement, mixed with water, thick 
as putty. A crack in a barrel can be stopped this 
way. Hardwood floors may be patched and nail 
holes filled so they will not leak. 

A waterproof floor can be laid over an old board 
floor in a short time. Sweep the old floor clean and 
dry and nail down all loose boards. Cover with a 
layer of heavy wire netting, tacking it down occa- 
sionally. Over this lay a layer of concrete of one 
part Portland cement, three parts clean sand, mixed 
with water to a thin paste. 

Smooth thoroughly, but if it is to be used by 
stock, brush with an old broom to make it rough, 
then let it dry thoroughly before using the floor. 
Gutters may be put in where necessary. Holes in 
an old shingled roof can be quickly stopped by forc- 
ing a little cement putty under the shingle where 
the leak appears. 

Some special uses to which cement is being put 
are the making of bee hives, brick for pavement and 
ordinary foundations, cement shingles for roofing, 
grain bins in the form of square boxlike and 
round barrel-like receptacles. The use of this ex- 
cellent material for farm structures is only just 
opening up and it is destined to become the most 
important material for general farm building. 



A wooden reinforcement in the center of a con- 
crete fence post is worse than useless. It does not 
make a bond with the concrete, and thus weakens. 



232 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

instead of strengthens, the post. Of course, the 
same is true of wooden reinforcement of any con- 
crete work. 



A TIME-HONORED HANDY DEVICE 

(see frontispiece) 

How dear to my heart are the scenes of my child- 
hood, 
When fond recollection presents them to view ! 
The orchard, the meadow, the deep-tangled wild- 
wood. 
And every loved spot that my infancy knew ! 
The wide-spreading pond and the mill that stood 
by it; 
The bridge, and the rock where the cataract fell ; 
The cot of my father, the dairy-house nigh it ; 

And e'en the rude bucket that hung in the well — 
The old oaken bucket, the iron-bound bucket. 
The old moss-covered bucket that hung in the 
well. 

How ardent I seized it with hands that were glow- 
ing. 
And quick to the white-pebbled bottom it fell ! 
Then soon, with the emblem of truth overflowing. 
And dripping with coolness, it rose from the well. 

— Samuel Woodworth. 




WORTH KNOWING 




FREEZING ICE IN BLOCKS 

HERE a pond or stream is not 
handy from which to get the year's 
supply of ice, blocks can be frozen 
in forms with comparatively little 
labor. A supply of pure water is 
essential. The forms are best made 
of galvanized iron of any size de- 
sired. A convenient size is i6 inches wide, 24 
inches long and 12 inches deep inside measure. The 
sides and ends should be made to taper J4 inch, so 





HOMEMADE ICE MOLDS 



that the frozen block will drop out easily.. The 
top of the mold should be reinforced with wire for 
the sake of strength and durability. 

With a dozen or 20 forms one can put up quite a 
supply of ice during the winter. The forms should 



234 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



be set level on joists or boards and placed a few 
inches apart. Fill them nearly full with pure water 
and let them freeze, which they will do in one or 
two days and nights in suitable weather. When 
frozen solid, turn the forms bottom side up and 
pour a dipper of warm water on them, which will 
release the cake of ice. The form can then be lifted 
off, the ice put away in the icehouse and the form 
filled with water again. 

SAVING THE SEED CORN 



Here is a handy device for preserving select 
ears of seed corn. It consists of a wide board 

fastened between 
two supports 
nailed to the edges. 
The board stands 
upright on one end 
and may be as long 
as desired. Drive 
heavy spikes 
through it from 
the opposite side 
and stick an ear of 
corn upon each 
spike. This allows 
for the passage of 
air, and the ears can 
be examined with- 
out removing them 
from the rack. It 
is much to be preferred to expensive wire racks, as 
each nail may be numbered and a record kept of 
the ears in this way. This rack was designed at 
the Idaho experiment station. 




SEED CORN RACK 



WORTH KNOWING 

RACK FOR SEED CORN 



235 



Here is a simple arrangement for keeping choice 
ears of seed corn. Take a 2-inch square timber 
for the upright, and make a solid 
base by boring a hole through the 
two base pieces, then drive the 
timber into it. Drive 4-inch spikes 
through the upright at intervals of 
6 inches from four sides, and stick 
the ears of corn on these spikes by 
thrusting the same into the butt of 
the cob. Numbers may be placed 
above each spike, so that records 
can be kept of all of the corn. The 
corn should be placed on this rack 
as soon as picked and husked, and 
may be left there until planting 
time if the rack is placed in a dry 
room where rats and mice cannot 
get at it. A large post strongly 
mounted on a heavy pedestal may 
be used in a manner similar to the 
small upright described above. The 
bigger the post and the larger the 
number of spikes used, the greater the capacity of 
the rack, of course. It is a good plan to make the 
pedestal heavy and strong in order that it may not 
be tipped over too easily. 




SACK 



The first years of man must make provision for 
the last. — Samuel Johnson. 

Put your trust in God, my boys, and keep your 
powder dry. — Colonel Blacker. 



236 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

DRYING AND KEEPING SEED CORN 

Never let it freeze before it is dry. Farmers 
have had seed corn exposed to a temr)erature of 

30 degrees below 
zero without in- 
juring its vitality, 
and have had it 
ruined at 10 de- 
grees above zero. 
We would not 
recommend kiln- 
drying for the 
general farmer, as 
this is only prac- 
ticable where a 
grower is in the 
seed business. A 
very convenient 
way is to take 
four pieces 4x4 
6 feet long, set them up in a square, and nail laths 
on them two and two opposite. Leave a 6-inch 
space between the laths, so the corn will have 
plenty of ventilation. Lay your corn on this to 
dry, and if thoroughly dry it can lay there all 
winter. 




CORN DRYING RACK 



Knowledge is worth nothing unless we do the 
good we know. 

It is better to give one shilling than to lend 
twenty. 



Keep your mouth shut and your eyes open. 



WORTH KNOWING 



237 







FIG. 1 






e e a e e 
e e e 


1"^ l^> 




FIG.Z 




-& 




= •==-==„ -„«-.^ 




1^ 




— _ _ - 1 i/v 


1/ 




FIG. 3 




IZ 


^ 




" 




WEIGHT LIFTER AND DETAILS 



The drawings show the different parts and one 
of the many uses of this device. 



238 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

STRONG AND SIMPLE WAGON JACK 

Here is a good, practical wagon jack suited to 
almost all kinds of vehicles. The whole thing is 

made of wood with 
the exception of 
the curved piece, b, 
which is of iron 
and hooks over an 
iron bolt, e. It is 
well to have a 
strong J^-inch bolt 
at /, so as to sup- 
port the heavy 
weight on the lever, 
a. The bottom, d, 
WAGON JACK and the piece, c, 

are each 2 inches thick. In using the jack, the axle 
is lifted by simply pressing down on the handle of 
the lever. The teeth of b catch and hold on e auto- 
matically. The height of lever is regulated by mov- 
ing / up and down. 




Write down the advice of him who loves you, 
though you like it not at present. 



A JACK FOR HEAVY WAGONS 

Many lifting jacks which are designed for light 
vehicles would not work well in the case of a heavy 
log wagon. Here is one that will stand a lot of hard 
usage and is simple and effective. Make the base 
and upright of heavy 2-inch oak plank and insert a 
%-inch bolt through the lever for a support. Have 
a good, strong hemp rope attached to the base, pass- 



WORTH KNOWING 



239 



ing over the >jandle end of the lever, so that as it is 
drawn down and the wagon is lifted it can be hooked 
in a notch to hold it in position. 




HOMEMADE WAGON JACK 

A CHEAP WHEELBARROW 

The construction of this barrow is very simple. 
Get a pair of old plow handles, two gate hinges 
about I foot long, and a wheel, which may be found 
at the junk dealer's. The legs of the wheelbarrow 




MADE FROM OLD MATERIAL 



240 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

are those of an old chair, braced with a piece of 
iron. These articles in themselves are worthless, 
but in their combination we create something very 
useful. 

A WHEELBARROW CHEAP AND STRDNG 

Here is a picture of a handy, strong wheelbarrow 
that any farmer can make on a rainy day. Take a 
dry-goods box 30 inches long, 24 or 26 inches wide 
and 20 inches deep, and two sticks ^Yz to 6 feet 
long and 3 x 3^ inches for handles. Nail or screw 




BOX WHEELBARROW 

on crossbrace in front and rear, and pieces with 
brace as shown for legs. Cut four half circles from 
inch hardwood board and a notch in center to fit 
around axle. Nail these securely together for the 
wheel. 

For the axle, take a stick 3j^ inches square. Trim 
and band each end or wrap with wire. Bore holes 
and drive a 6d. wire nail in each end. Just 2 inches 
apart in center, bore two i-inch holes on opposite 
sides to hold the wheel in place. A band of hoop 
iron around the wheel will make it last longer. 
When it is put together, you have a very substan- 
tial wheelbarrow that cost but little. 



WORTH KNOWING 24I 

HOW TO HANG A KETTLE 

Using stones for a kettle support seems handiest 
oftentimes, but let the heat crack one of the stones 
and tip the kettle 
over, as it frequently 
will, does not tend 
to improve a man's 
language, let alone 
the loss sustained. 
It is much better to 
make a support such 
as is presented in 
the cut. The three 
uprights, of suitable 
length to correspond 
with the size of the 
kettle, may consist 
of any good wood. 
Through the top of 
these a hole is bored 
for the bolt to hold 
them together, which 
must be long enough so they will have play to set 
up easily. All that is necessary then is to suspend 
two chains from the top and letting them extend 
downward to the proper distance, attach the ears 
of the kettle into the hooks on them. When not in 
use, the device can be folded together and laid away. 

A SNOW PLOW 

No person not owning a snow plow can appreci- 
ate how useful one is after every storm. A horse, 
or if the snow be a heavy one, a span or a yoke of 
cattle and this simple homemade arrangement, and 




TRIPOD-HUNG KETTLE 



2^2 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



in less time than is required to tell it there is a patK, 
and no back-breaking work either. It is only a big 
V braced so the snow is pushed both ways by it. 
It must be made of 2-inch planks at least I foot 
wide and not less than 6 feet long. If shorter it 
wobbles and does not stay on the ground well. 

To make a good road for teams, chain it to one 
side of the wood sled and drive up and down. It 
spreads 2 feet, and will make your farm front look 
as if somebody of pluck lives there. For foot- 
paths draw it from a ring at the top of the front so 
it will root. 




SMOKEHOUSE SUBSTITUTE 



WORTH KNOWING 243 

TEMPORARY SMOKING DEVICE 

If one butchers only once a year it is not neces- 
sary to build an expensive smokehouse, for almost 
as good results can be obtained from a device such 
as that shown on page 242. It is made by taking 
both ends out of a barrel and mounting it upon a 
box or above a fireplace in the ground. The meat 
to be smoked is hung from the sticks laid across the 
top of the barrel, the fire built underneath and the 
lid put on. 

HOMEMADE HEATER AND COOKER 

A cheap and economical heater may be of home 
construction. Make a frame of 2 x 8-inch pine 7 
feet long and 27 inches wide. Put a bottom on 




TANK AND COOKER 

this of No. 18 galvanized iron, letting it project 
Yi inch on each side and 14 inches at one end for a 
stovepipe fitting. Spike the frame together and 



244 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

cover the corners with heavy tins to prevent any 
leaking. Nail the bottom on with two rows of nails. 

Make a fireplace on the ground of stone and blue 
clay or brick and cement of mortar if preferred, 2 
feet wide by 3 feet long and 18 inches high. Pile 
up dirt I foot high and 3 feet wide at the end of the 
fireplace for a flue, put stone on the earth the 
length of the galvanized iron, place the tank on 
this foundation and bank it up with dirt. In cut- 
ting a hole for the stovepipe, turn up strips of the 
galvanized iron for a collar, then drive an iron ro3 
into the ground, put on two lengths of stovepipe 
and wire it fast to the rod. 

A piece of sheet iron should be set up before the 
fireplace to control the draft and keep the fire. Such 
a heater, on one farm, is located near the windmill 
and storage tank and can be filled from either. The 
water can be heated quickly with cornstalks, straw, 
cobs or brush. One may boil pumpkins and small 
potatoes for fattening the pigs, and cook ground 
feed by pouring scalding water on the meal in 
barrels and covering with old blankets or carpets. 
A light fire will take the chill from ice water for 
the milch cows. 

USE FOR A TOUGH LOG 

Most farm wood piles have two or three old logs 
lying about which nobody cares to tackle with an 
ax or blasting powder, and are too short for the 
sawmill. If straight, they will make good water 
troughs. Square the ends, mark off about 10 inches 
from each end, chop out the inside and trim the 
edges. An inside coat of oil or pitch tar will in- 
crease wearing qualities. 



WORTH KNOWING 245 

A HANDY WOOD SPLITTER 

For splitting wood a farmer in eastern Massa- 
chusetts uses a device as shown in the cut. Take 
a 2 X 8-inch plank about 3 feet long and an upright 
of the same material about 20 inches long. Set this 
upright at an angle of 20 degrees and use a brace of 




WOOD SPLITTING DEVICE 



the same material. The sharp points shown in the 
cut are 4od wire nails. Set the wood against these 
spikes in splitting it. 

HOW TO SPLIT WOOD 

Wood splits much more readily in the direction 
up from the root of the tree than when the blow of 
the ax is downward. In other words, to split a 
chunk place it upside down — contrary to the direc- 
tion in which it grew. It is much easier to split 
by slabs than to try to cleave through the center. 
This means to split off pieces near the edge. 



246 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



A PULLING HAMMER 

If you want to make your old claw hammer 
do more work and do it better and easier, 
have the handle projecting a 
little beyond the head. You 
will find it much more conven- 
ient in drawing a nail, as it 
makes a right angle for pulling 
the nail without bending it to 
one side. It takes the place of 
a block and is always on hand 
and ready in the right place for 
immediate use. The handle is 
simply whittled a little more 
than usual and driven through 
to the required distance. Don't drive it through too 
far, but about as shown at a in the picture. If it 
sticks out too much, it will be in the way when 
driving nails. Whittle it off rounding, and give it 
a finished appearance. 




MOUNTING THE FARM ANVIL 

To make a solid foundation for an anvil, build a 
form of boards 14 x 18 inches square at the base, 
18 inches high, tapering to 8 x 10 inches at the top. 
Fill this mold with rich concrete and fix a bolt in 
the center of the top of it to fasten the anvil. After- 
ward, melted lead can be poured around the base 
of the anvil, completing a very nice pedestal. 



SORTING POTATOES QUICKLY 

The sketch shows a homemade potato cleaner 
and sorter. It consists of a number of hoops to 
which are fastened J4-inch slats so as to make holes 



WORTH KNOWING 



247 



xYz inches square. Two heavy pieces, a, are placed 
inside the cylinder to hold the axle, 6, which ex- 
tends entirely through the machine and is turned 
by a crank, c. The frame made is 4 inches lower 
at the opening end of the cylinder so that the pota- 
toes will run through freely. 

At the crank end is a hopper, /, into which the 
potatoes are poured. The cylinder is 2^ feet long 




POTATO SORTER AND CLEANER 

and 3 feet in diameter. It will not bruise the pota- 
toes, and the dirt and small ones run through on to 
the floor or crate and the marketable ones run out 
at the open end of the cylinder into another crate. 
With one man to turn the crank and another to fill 
the hopper, from 700 to 800 bushels can be sorted 
in a day. 



An indiscreet man is more hurtful than an ill- 
natured one; for as the latter will only attack his 
enemies, and those he wishes ill to, the other in- 
jures indifferently both friends and foes. — Addison. 



248 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

HANDLING POTATOES EASILY 

A bushel crate is often more convenient to use 
in handling ear corn, potatoes or other vegetables 

than a basket. 
Crates that will 
hold a bushel when 
level full may be 
lljli piled upon one an- 
il other and thus 
stored in less space 
than baskets. At 
the same time they 
can be just as easily 
and just as quickly 
moved. They may be of light material. Pieces of 
wood 2 inches square are used for the corner posts. 
The slats may be made of j4-inch boards 3 inches 
wide nailed securely to the corner posts. There 
should be just room enough between the two upper 
slats so that the fingers can be inserted when lift- 
ing the box. The box will be more durable if the 
upper slats are an inch thick. A handy size for 
the completed box is 16 inches long, 14 inches wide 
and 12 inches deep, outside measurements. 




STORAGE BOX 



CUTTING SEED POTATOES 



In the prmcipal potato growing sections, medium 
to large seed is used for planting and cut to two 
eyes. In the famous Greeley district of Colorado, 
cutting is done by hand. Potatoes are shoveled 
into a bin or hopper, made of a dry-goods box 
raised on legs. The back is made higher than the 
front, so that potatoes will run down to the open- 



WORTH KNOWING 



249 



ing and the bottom is slatted to let out the soil 
shoveled up with the potatoes. 

The cutting is simple. An old case knife, a, is 
fastened to the end of a plank or board, b, in such 




SEED POTATO CUTTER 



a way that potatoes can be pushed against the knife 
and fall from it into the basket beneath. The oper- 
ator sits on the box to which the board is fastened 
and can work very rapidly. 

ANOTHER SEED POTATO CUTTER 

A wide bench is boxed in on both ends and one 
side. It is divided into two or three compartments, 
these being open in the front which corresponds to 
the side boxed in. To each of the compartments 
is attached a sack on hooks, and along one side of 
the bench in the middle of each compartment and 
right over the opening of the sack is fixed, in an 
upright position, a shoemaker's or common steel 
table knife. 

Potatoes to be cut for planting are shoveled into 
the compartments of the box and in front of each 
compartment a man takes his position, being seated 



250 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

on a box or stool for comfort's sake. He seizes the 
tubers in rapid succession and by pulling them 
against the blade quickly cuts each one into as 
many pieces as desired; the pieces are then 
dropped into the open sack. It is claimed that by 
this indirect method of using the knife two fairly 
good cutters can cut each day all the potatoes or- 
dinarily required for the use of one planter. 

HOW TO TEST SEED CORN 

Of the different methods for testing seed corn, 
the most convenient and satisfactory is a shallow 
box provided with wet sawdust to furnish 
the moisture and a marked cloth on which to lay 
the kernels. The most convenient box is one 2 feet 
square. This will accommodate lOO ears. It is 
best to make it about 6 inches deep. Fill a sack 
half full of clean sawdust and soak it for three or 
four hours in water. Then spread this sawdust in 
the bottom of the test box to the depth of i inch. 
Take a smooth brick and pack the sawdust down 
all over the box, making it as level as possible. Be 
sure to get it packed firmly around the edges and 
in the corners. 

Then take a piece of white muslin 25 inches 
square. Stretch this tight on a table so that it can 
be marked. Rule off on this cloth with a heavy 
blue pencil 100 squares 2 inches each way. Be- 
ginning at the upper left-hand corner number these 
squares in rotation from left to right. When the 
ruling is done, pack the cloth in the germination 
box so that it will rest firmly on the sawdust. This 
can be done by pointing the tacks in the edge of the 
box downward, and as the tack is driven in it will 
draw the cloth tight over the sawdust. 



WORTH KNOWING 



251 



Of course, there is no advantage testing any ears 
that are of undesirable shape or conformation, 
therefore the first step is to pick out those nearest 
to the type wanted. Lay these out in rows upon 
a plank or upon the floor, separating each ten ears 
with a nail driven into the plank or floor. Starting 
at the left-hand end of the row call the first ear No. 



^^^S 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 


1 


1 


eeo 

000 


erf 


- i 


iii 


ceo' 
ooe 


000' 

C<bO 


a 00 


060 


060' 

eeo 


oe^iii 


■oed 


000 


0P« 
6W 


OCX!; 

060 


00(f 

000 


0(^ 
000 


cod' 
000 


ootf 

000 


ood" 
000 


oo| 
oaC 


I 


1 


















1 


























j 






































































1 


j 






















1 
























1 
























J 




j 


L^ 


i^-^--- - -=^^^^^^^^1 



GERMINATION BOX 



I, then the first ear beyond the first nail will be No. 

II, the one beyond the second nail No. 21 and so on. 
Remove six kernels from ear No. i and place 

them in square No. i in the test box. Put six 
kernels from ear No. 2 in square No. 2 and so on 
through the row. In removing the kernels from the 
ear take a pocketknife in the right hand and the 
ear m the left. Place the blade at the side of the 



252 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

kernel you wish to remove and pry it gently. The 
kernel will come out easily and should be caught 
in the palm of the left hand. First remove a ker- 
nel from near the butt of the ear; turn the ear a 
quarter turn in the hand and remove a kernel from 
the center; turn the ear another quarter turn and 
remove a kernel from near the tip ; another quarter 
turn and remove a second kernel from near the 
butt; another quarter and remove the second ker- 
nel from the center; another quarter turn and 
remove a second kernel from the tip. This makes 
six kernels from six different rows and representing 
the butt, middle and tip. 

In placing the kernels in the box it will be found 
of advantage to point the tips all in the same direc- 
tion, and also to lay the kernels with the germ 
uppermost. If the kernels are laid in the squares 
promiscuously, they may be thrown out of their 
places when the sprouts begin to grow. When the 
kernels are all in place, take a second piece of white 
cloth fully 24 inches square, moisten it and lay it 
carefully over the kernels. This will hold them in 
place while the top layer of sawdust is being put 
on. Take a third piece of cloth about 48 x 30 
inches and lay it over the box so that the edges lap 
about equally. Then in this cloth put another inch 
of wet sawdust and pack it down firmly, especially 
around the edges. When this is done turn the 
edges of the cloth over the sawdust to keep it from 
drying out too rapidly and place the test box where 
it will not be subjected to cold below a living-room 
temperature. 

Reading the Results 

After seven days carefully roll back the cloth 
containing the top layer of sawdust and lift the 



WORTH KNOWING 253 

second cloth off the kernels. This must be done 
with care, because sometimes the sprouts grow 
through the cloth and the kernels will cling to it. 

Observe the results in square No. i. If all six 
of the kernels have vigorous sprouts, from ^ to 2 
inches long, you can be sure that ear No. I is 
thoroughly good. If in square No. 2 only two of 
the kernels have sprouted, you may know that ear 
No. 2 will make much better hog feed than seed 
corn. As soon as you have determined that ear 
No. 2 is really bad, pull it out from the row about 
half its length, leaving the other ears in place. 
After you have gone through the whole line, you 
may then go back and pick out the bad ears and 
discard them. 

Of course, we would all prefer to use only those 
ears that gave a perfect germination, and if one has 
enough, that is the thing to do. But experience 
has taught that it is quite safe to use an ear, four 
of whose kernels grow strong sprouts. Or, if seed 
corn is scarce, one should not hesitate to use one 
that gave three strong sprouts and two weaker 
ones. 

This testing may be done at any time after the 
ears are dry. It is generally more convenient to 
do it in winter, when there is not much outside 
work to be done. The box may be set behind the 
stove or any other convenient place, where it is 
sufficiently warm; in many cases, where there is 
an attic above the kitchen that room is a sufficiently 
warm place for testing. 

Some put sand in an ordinary dinner plate, flood 
with water, and then drain the excess water off, 
place the seed on top of the sand, and cover with 
another dinner plate. Others use a saucer made 



254 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

of porous clay. The seeds are placed in this, the 
saucer set in a pan of water, and the pan covered. 

These methods may be used for other grains as 
well as corn. In case of sowing grasses, alfalfa or 
wheat, it is often of great advantage to test the 
seed. 



Every man has two educations — that which is 
given to him and the other, that which he gives to 
himself. Of the two kinds, the latter is by far the 
most valuable. Indeed, all that is most worthy 
in a man he must work out and conquer for him- 
self. It is that that constitutes our real and best 
nourishment. What we are merely taught, seldom 
nourishes the mind like that which we teach our 
selves. — Richter. 



KILLING INSECTS IN GRAIN 

If one has not time to make a substantial box 
for fumigation of seed grain for insect destruction, 
barrels may be utilized for the purpose. Get two 
tight, strong barrels, such as coal oil barrels, and 
make water tight. Put in the seed to be fumi- 
gated, cover with a blanket and close-fitting cover. 
Before covering pour carbon bisulphide, which is 
explosive, over the grain, at the rate of 3 to 4 
ounces for 5 bushels of grain. If it is not de- 
sirable to pour this poison on grain, set a 
saucer on it, and pour the poison in the saucer. 
Place a small block near the saucer to hold up the 
blanket i or 2 inches higher, lay blanket over the 



WORTH KNOWING 



255 



barrel, and place cover securely in place and weight 
with stone." This will kill the weevil in peas and 
beans. 

BINDING PINS FOR HAY 

Every person moving hay ought to have a set of 
binding pins. They are made in a minute and 
serve an excellent purpose for a lifetime. The 
sketch shows a rope stretched over the top of a 
load of hay or straw. The upright pin is worked 
down into the load and the other twisted in the 
rope and turned around the upright until the load 




BINDING LOAD OF HAY 

is tightly bound. Then a small rope that is kept 
tied in end of the horizontal pin is tied to the bind- 
ing rope and the pressure is held. Each pin is 3J^ 
feet long. One is sharpened and the other has a 
^-inch hole bored through one end. Old fork 
handles are just the thing to make them of. One 
pin only may be made and a fork used to bind in 
the manner shown after the load is on. 



Nothing is impossible to industry. — Periander, 



256 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

COMBINED DRAG AND HARROW 

This road drag is all right. The front piece con- 
sists of a 4 X 4 oak strip, b, 10 feet long, through 
which are driven ordinary harrow teeth about 3 
inches apart. This is attached to the rear piece, a, 
which is a 2 X 6 oak timber 10 feet long faced with 



HARROWS AND LEVELS AT ONCE 

3 inches of j4-inch metal on the bottom, e, which 
projects I inch. These pieces are kept apart by 
wooden blocks, d, upon the bolts, /, and by the top 
strips, c, each 2x6. This makes a fine level road, 
as it harrows it and scrapes it at the same time. 

HOW TO HANDLE A ROPE 

A rope is one of the most useful articles that are 
constantly needed about the farm; but too many 
farmers are not familiar with the many uses to 
which the rope may be put. The various sailors' 
knots may often be used to great advantage. To 
sling a plank for painting or other purposes make 



WORTH KNOWING 



257 



a bight of rope as shown in Figure i, bringing the 
rope entirely around the plank, so as to prevent its 
turning and throwing the workman down. One- 
half to ^-inch rope is usually sufficient for all prac- 
tical purposes. A hemp rope is more generally; 
used and stands wear better than other kinds. 




N9 I 






^sz=y!r3s=;«^=2 



N?3 ^ 





N95 



N9 6 



SOUE ROPE HITCHES 



2S8 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

A useful way to sling a can or pail from the end 
of a rope is shown in Figure 2. Prepared in this 
■way the vessel is secure so long as the rope is not 
slipped off from the bottom. Secure the knot 
firmly at the top to allow no slipping and so that 
the pail may not become lopsided. 

Scaffolding may often be erected by tying poles 
together as shown in Figure 3. This sort of lash- 
ing will not slip if made tight. In many cases a 
chain may be used as shown in Figure 4, in which 
case the weight should be on the side of the up- 
right where the chain is lowest. All of these lasK- 
ings must be drawn very tight so as not to allow 
any play, which may result disastrously. 

An excellent hitch knot is shown in Figure 5, 
readily made, easily loosened and valuable for many 
purposes on the farm. This knot is readily untied 
by slackening up the drawing strand. It does not 
become tight and hard as many ordinary knots 
after heavy usage. 

In many cases where heavy hooks are used they 
are liable to come unfastened unless a cord is 
affixed, as shown in Figure 6. A few turns of 
heavy twine or light wire in the middle will fre- 
quently prevent any loosening of the chain. 

A ring hitch, shown in Figure 7, is a very effective 
and safe method, which may be made on short 
notice. The loose end of the rope is allowed to 
hang free or may be tied with a slip knot to the 
drawing strand. 

TYING SOME USEFUL KNOTS 

A sailor judges knots for their holding qualities 
and also their ability to be quickly unfastened, 
without regard to the strain they have been sub- 



WORTH KNOWING 



259 



jected to. A knot's main office is to hold, without 
working loose or slipping, yet they do occasionally 
fail absolutely to accomplish this, when made by 
inexperienced hands. The accompanying diagrams 
show some of the simpler knots that may be of 
everyday use. In these, the mode of formation 
can be readily discerned, because the rope's posi- 
tion is shown before tightening. The overhand 
knot, Figure i, is probably the simplest of all. It 
is used only for making a knot at the end of a rope 
to keep it from fraying or to prevent another knot 
from slipping. If a slight change in formation is. 




A FEW GOOD KNOTS 



made, as in Figure 5, it develops into a slip knot or, 
as it is sometimes called, a single sling, and its 
purposes are obvious. A double sling is repre- 
sented in Figure 6, and though it is slightly more 
complicated, it is considerably more useful for any 
purpose where a rope is to be attached to a bar or 
beam and stand a steady strain. 

Probably for convenience and emergencies no 
knots equal the bow-line, Figure 7, because it will 
not slip or give, no matter how great the tension; 
in fact, the rope itself is no stronger, and the in- 
stant the strain ceases it can be untied as easily as 



260 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

a bow. When the end of a rope is to be secured, 
the two half-hitches or clove hitch, Figures 2 and 
3, are of great importance, for either of these bends 
can be attached instantly to almost anything, and 
their holding powers are exceeded by none. The 
square knot. Figure 4, can be used for infinite pur- 
poses, from reefing a sail to tying a bundle, the 
advantage being, if made properly, of resisting any 
separating strain on either cord, and yet can be 
untied immediately by pulling one of the short 
ends. 

One of the best and safest slip knots is shown in 
Figure 9, made with the overhand at the end, 
which, until loosened by the hand, maintains its 
grip. When a rope requires shortening temporarily 
the sheep shank, Figure 8, affords a means of so 
doing. This knot can be applied to any part of the 
rope without reducing its strengfth of rectilineal 
tension. 

CARRYING A BARREL MADE EASY 

In the cities the ash collectors use a simple device, 
which farmers might make and often find handy, as 
barrels often become dried, weak and will not stand 
rough handling. The device is made of six pieces 
of wood; four pieces are about 2 feet long and 4 
inches in thickness and width. Handles may be 
whittled on one end of each. About 10 inches from 
the other end, boards about 2 feet long and 8 inches 
wide are nailed as shown at c, c, in figure. Pieces 
c, c, are then cut in circular form so as to fit the out- 
side of a barrel. 

An old wheel tire may be straightened and four 
pieces cut to be fastened to the ends of each of the 
four handle pieces, as at d. These are then riveted 



WORTH KNOWING 



261 



together so as to make hinges as shown at d, d. The 
tire need be only long enough to fasten securely to 
the handle pieces. Of course, the blacksmith should 
drill holes in them, that they may be securely 
riveted. 

To use this device, drop it over the barrel. One 
man lifts on the two front handles and another 




BARREL CARRIER 

man on the rear handles. Boards c, c, close up in cir- 
cular form, just beneath the lowest hoop round the 
upper end of the barrel, and cling tightly. The 
barrel is then lifted and readily carried without 
jar to its contents or straining the barrel. Of 
course, if all the barrels on the farm are of uniform 
size, the device could be made without hinges, and 
the barrels headed up could be rolled on pieces c, c. 



The best part of one's life is the performance of 
his daily duties. All higher motives, ideals, con- 
ceptions, sentiments, in a man are of no account if 
they do not come forward to strengthen him for 
the better discharge of the duties which devolve 
upon him in the ordinary affairs of life. — Henry 
.Ward Beecher. 



262 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



HARNESS CLAMP 

The accompanying drawing represents a very 
handy harness mender which anyone who can use 

a saw and ham- 
mer can make in 
a few minutes. It 
is made of lumber 
of the dimensions 
indicated in the 
drawing. The 
clamp is tightened 
by the worker 
sitting upon the 
seat, which should 
extend at least 2 
feet from the 
clamps. The 
drawing shows 
the device with a 
shorter seat than 
that. It would 
doubtless be bet- 
ter to have the seat extended to twice the length 
shown from the left of the clamps and to have the 
base extended in a similar manner, so that the 
device will not tip over too easily. The joint at fhe 
upper right-hand corner may be hinged with 
heavy wire run through holes and twisted together 
underneath, or real strap hinges of iron may be 
attached. 




THE CLAMP 



They who provide much wealth for their chil- 
dren, but neglect to improve them in virtue, do like 
those who feed their horses high, but never train 
them to the manage. — Socrates. 



WORTH KNOWING 



263 



SUBSTITUTE FOR PIPE WRENCH 

The drawing shown here illustrates a useful de- 
vice for twisting pipe off or on its connections. 
Three or 4 feet of new rope is 
frayed out at both ends, which are 
put together and wound tightly 
around the pipe to be turned, so 
that the first coil twists over the 
loose ends and continues around 
the pipe, two or three times, end- 
ing in a loop, through which a bar 
of iron is slipped, to be used as a 
lever. This simple plan will be 
found very efifective in ordinary 
requirements for the pipe wrench, 
and is worth a trial. A more dur- 
able wrench may be made by using 
wire instead of rope. The loop 
can be formed by closely twisting the ends of the 
wire with pincers. The rope is rather easier to 
handle because more flexible. 




PIPE TWISTER 



MARKET WAGON CONVENIENCES 

Farmers who regularly haul produce to market 
or deliver direct to customers will find the con- 

O veniences described to be of much 

^ t|7 value. They save much time and 
P^taT_/ considerable trouble and cost but 
'w «* little effort to make them. Instead 
REIN CLIP of wrapping the reins about the 
whip, or letting them lie over the dashboard, a hook, 
such as shown in the first sketch, may easily be 
made of stiff fencing wire and secured to the top 
of the wagon or the dashboard. 



264 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 



Two Other hooks may be arranged at the sides 
of the wagon to hold an umbrella, which would be 
kept there rain or shine, and never forgotten and 
left at home. This will save a drenching some time 
and perhaps some valuable produce. 

Another convenience is a rear curtain of oilcloth 
stretched over a light board frame and hinged at 




REAR SHADE FOR WAGON 



the top, as illustrated. Two old stays from a buggy 
top will serve to support it, when it must be left 
open, and it will protect the driver from sun and 
rain while taking things from the wagon. 



CARRYING BUTTER TO TOWN 

A refrigerator that one farmer uses in which he 
takes butter to town nine miles away in hot weather 



WORTH KNOWING zS^ 

is made thus : Get two clean, tight boxes of some 
odorless wood, one 12x15x13 inches deep, and 
the other 9 x 12 x 10 inches deep. Slip one inside 
the other with a notched block in each corner 
to hold the inside box in place. Fasten the covers 
together so as to leave an air space of about i inch 
between them all around. The inner box will hold 
20 pounds of butter nicely. It will carry butter 
solid in wagon all day in 90-degree weather. 

TO SHARPEN SCISSORS 

Do you know that you can sharpen scissors, and 
easily, by passing the blades over glass jars? Take 
a bottle or jar, make believe you are trying to cut it 
(have one blade in and the other outside of the top 
of the bottle) and then allow the scissors to glide 
ofif the hard surface naturally, just as if you were 
trying to cut the glass. Use firm but not too hard 
pressure, and repeat the operation several times. 

HOW TO PAPER A ROOM 

If a room has been papered several times, tear 
off all the loose parts you can and with a sponge 
and water loosen what remains on the walls, re-' 
moving as much as possible, so as to have a smooth, 
even surface. If the room has never been papered, 
first go over it and fill all large cracks and holes 
with a paste made of whiting and water, or plaster 
of paris and water. When using the latter, mix 
only a little at a time, have it rather thin, and use 
quickly. Then, give the room a coat of sizing, 
which is made of common glue, three or four hand- 
fuls dissolved in a pail of boiling water. The siz- 
ing is applied with a large brush and should be 
allowed to dry overnight. 



266 



HANDY FARM DEVICES 

Choose Judiciously 



For very sunny rooms, select cool-looking papers, 
such as blues, greens and browns in various shades^ 




HANGING WALLPAPER 



while for dark rooms pinks, reds, terra cottas and 
yellows are best. When selecting papers, pay carer- 



WORTH KNOWING 267 

ful attention to the color scheme of your room, and 
don't have an inharmonious mixture, which will 
offend good taste. Small, plain patterns are the 
most economical, and the easiest to match. The 
cheap, trashy papers, costing only a few cents a 
roll, are not worth the trouble of putting up. Gold 
paper is not to be recommended for wear. 

No borders should be used for rooms having a 
low ceiling. For such, a striped paper of pretty 
design running right up to the ceiling is best. The 
ceiling may be papered in a plain or very small- 
patterned design, to harmonize with the side walls, 
or treated with several coats of tinted kalsomirie or 
paint. A picture molding of appropriate color is 
used to finish the side walls, being placed scarcely 
I inch from the ceiling. The ceiling whether 
papered, painted or kalsomined, should be done 
first. It is a very difficult matter to paper the ceil- 
ing, and, unless you can have help, it would be 
better not to attempt it. Plain tints in paint or 
kalsomine are always pretty and in good taste. If, 
however, you want to risk papering the ceiling 
yourself, get some handy body to help you. 



Paste and Tools 

The paste is made by simply boiling flour and 
water together, and adding a very little alum, salt 
and glue — about a tablespoon of each to a pound 
of flour. It should be of a consistency thick enough 
to apply easily, and not so thin that it will run. 

Provide yourself with a good-sized paste brush, 
another one (a whitewash brush will do) to use 
dry over the paper, sharp scissors and a knife,. 



268 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

plenty of clean rags, two barrels, two long, smooth, 
clean boards, each about lo inches wide, and a step- 
ladder. 

Make a long table by placing the two barrels 
about 8 or 9 feet apart and on top of these the 
boards. 

Trimming and Cutting 

The first thing to do is to cut the necessary num- 
ber of strips of paper long enough to allow for 
waste in matching, and lay them all face downward 
on the "operating" table, one on top of the other. 
Next spread the paste evenly over the top or first 
strip of paper, being very sure to have the edges 
well pasted. Then turn top and bottom parts 
down, bringing pasted sides together, so that they 
meet, and none of the paste part is exposed, and 
carefully trim off edge on one side, with large, 
sharp scissors. Lift up the part thus trimmed and 
folded, and mount the ladder, which should pre- 
viously have been placed convenient to the place 
where you intend to begin operations — the largest 
wall space is best, next to a door or window. 

Hanging the Paper 

Now take hold of the top end which was doubled 
over (it will open and hang by its own weight) and 
adjust to its proper place on the wall. Then, with 
a large clean rag in your hand, rub downward, 
never up or sideways, and take great care to keep 
the edge straight. If you find that you didn't start 
straight from the top, loosen paper and do it over 
again. A " straight eye " is needed to do the work 
neatly. Don't rub too hard and always rub down- 



WORTH KNOWING 269 

ward, doing a little part at a time, and lifting paper 
occasionally, so that no air bubbles are left under 
it. When the upper part is done, dismount from 
ladder, undo the folded part at the bottom of the 
width, and proceed in the same manner to adjust 
to the wall. When you are sure it is on straight 
and smooth, trim with a sharp knife along the base- 
board. Then give the strip another smoothing by 
going all over it again with a dry, clean brush. 
Proceed in this way until all the full length parts 
are covered, and then match in the small spaces 
over and below windows and doors. All the match- 
ing must be done with great care. 

Practical and Economical 

Wainscoting in living or dining rooms are nice, 
and very practical, especially where there are small 
children. For this purpose burlap, or the less ex- 
pensive dark, heavy papers that come in wood-grain 
imitation are good. Matting is sometimes used 
with very good effect, too. A narrow wooden 
molding is used to finish the top of the wainscoting, 
and in that case the work of papering the side walls 
is so much easier, the lengths being short. 

THE FARM BLACKSMITH SHOP 

A blacksmith shop is of immense practical value 
on a farm. To those who have one it is almost as 
essential as live stock, farm tools and crops. One 
does not need to be a professional blacksmith. The 
elementary practice in welding, upsetting and tem- 
pering is easily learned with a little practice. Nor 
is it necessary to have many tools. An entire equip- 
ment may cost but a few dollars. 



270 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

An old railroad rail will do for an anvil. But 
after getting the real article one is better satisfied 
and can do the work with greater ease. The forge 
should be obtained at the start. With it almost 
anyone can heat any small iron to welding point 
with as much ease as a regular blacksmith. 

In the equipment of an Ohio farmer are a pair 
of tongs that he made himself, two other tongs 
and a large pair of pinchers picked up in a junk 
shop. He got the hammer and sledge from a hired 
man who had worked in a car shop. The anvil 
and vise also came from the junk shop, and both 
were in good repair. These cost $8, the hammer 
and sledge, $1.15, and an old, second-hand forge, 
$1.80. Not a large outlay to be sure, but a wise 
expenditure. If purchased at first hand the cost 
would be greater, but cheap at any price when you 
consider what you can do in the way of making and 
repairing with such a list of blacksmith tools. 

In addition to the above list this man, Frank 
Ruhlen, has chisels, pinchers, fullers and other small 
tools, all of which he has made out of old pieces 
of steel taken from old worn-out machines. By 
figuring and planning just a little, any farmer can 
make the greater part of his own tools and at a 
very small cost for materials and labor. 

Why the Shop Pays 

Mr. Ruhlen says: My shop was not started to 
replace the town blacksmith shop ; and it will never 
do so. But it does serve for repair work, and it 
saves many trips to town. It is helpful in other 
ways, also. Last winter a sudden ice spell came 
on, so severe that I could not get the horses out to 
the field to feed the flock. Only one thing was 



WORTH KNOWING 27I 

possible: to have sharpened shoes put on the 
horses. But it was a disagreeable trip ahead to 
walk and lead the horses to town; so I decided to 
do the work myself. I had never set a shoe my- 
self, but that trip before me quickly decided. The 
horses were brought into the shop, the old shoes 
pulled off and sharpened, and within an hour the 
feeding was done. Had I gone to town for the 
work it would have required time going and com- 
ing, and then, maybe a long wait ahead for my turn 
at the shop. 

Last year I sharpened the shoes on the corn 
planter, and both cultivators, six shovels each. 
,We wore out a steel point or shear, and never had it 
to shop but once, and then it was to get a new nose 
or point. I do not try to put steel points on anyr 
thing, as it is too particular work for anyone who 
just picks tools up when something breaks. A 
sharp harrow is a luxury on most farms, because 
the average smith does not draw the teeth out 
enough, and they are dull in a few days. 

And I do not believe the average smith can 
harden the farm tools as good as a farmer who has 
had some experience in tempering, as the farmer is 
the one who works with the tools, and soon learns 
when they are too hard or not hard enough. I 
sharpened my smoothing harrow last year before 
we commenced on our corn crop of 64 acres, used 
it on all the land, on some more than once, and my 
harrow is sharper now than my neighbor's, who 
paid $1.50 at the shop for the same work. We 
never use a dull mattock or pick now as we did 
before we had a forge. Welding chains, making 
chain hooks, open rings, clevises, are all easy to do 
on rainy days. I could not tell all the different uses 
I make of my shop. 



272 HANDY FARM DEVICES " 

Blacksmithing Not Hired Man's Work 

i do the work in the shop myself, fimding other 
chores for hired men. You cannot afford to break 
them in, for the reason that they may soon leave and 
all the teaching and trouble would be for nothing. 
By doing the work myself, I have learned a little 
more each year, have acquired the knack of it, and 
really enjoy doing what is to be done. Had we 
had a shop when I was a boy all of the repair work 
could have been done by the boys, and I would at 
the same time have had splendid training for my 
own needs now. 

My experience is all in favor of the shop on the 
farm. It pays well. Get the forge first, and then 
gradually add other tools as you can. I used a 
claw hammer for some time before getting a smith's 
hammer. I did not equip my shop all at once. 
Start in a small way, build up gradually, learn 
slowly, and the shop will develop itself. Get a 
shop, and you will believe in it because of its help 
to you. 

HORSESHOE LEVER 

A handy lever for prying up boxes or barrels 
may be made by nailing an old horseshoe on the 
end of a 2 X 4, letting the ends of the horseshoe 
extend about an inch or two beyond the end of the 
timber. A more finished device may be constructed 
by cutting the upper part of the lever down to the 
form of a rounded handle. A horseshoe should be 
selected with fairly long and well-sharpened heel 
calks. 



WORTH KNOWING 273 




HORSESHOE FOR A TOOt 

HOW TO PAINT TIN ROOFS 

Remove all rosin and other loose substances 
from seams and have roof clean. Paint immedi- 
ately after laying is finished; do not allow 
the tin to rust — you coat the base plate with tin 
and lead to prevent rust, and paint the finished 
goods to prevent oxidation of the coating. Use 
only the best red or brown oxide of iron, mixed 
with pure linseed oil all raw, or half raw and half 
boiled. Use litharge only as a drier. Litharge 
makes paint adhere hard to coating, so that when 
thoroughly dry you cannot scrape it off. Don't use 
any turpentine or patent driers. 

Apply all paint with hand brushes and rub in 
well. This is very important. Don't put paint on 
thick — one coat that covers well, and is thoroughly 
rubbed in, is better than three put on thick. Let 
roof stand two weeks to a month before applying 
second coat. Six months or so after applying 
second coat put on a third coat. After this you do 
not have to paint roof more than once every two 
or three years. Too much paint injures a tin roof. 



274 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

Keep paint well stirred up; put on thin and rub 
well in. By following these directions you will 
have a roof that will last many years. 

PRESERVING WOOD 

Creosote, or sulphate of copper or iron, are effec- 
tive for preserving wood. There are objections, 
however, to their use for floorings or ornamental 
woodwork. Creosote leaves a permanent, dis- 
agreeable smell. The sulphates discolor the wood. 
Borax is excellent for keeping wood from decay. 
The preparation of it is simple, and consists in im- 
mersing the wood in a saturated solution of borax, 
which is then heated to 212 degrees Fahrenheit. The 
wood is left for 10 or 12 hours, the time depending 
upon the density and size of the pieces of wood. 
When taken out, the wood is stacked until dry, ■ 
then reimmersed in a weaker solution of the borax 
for a brief time, dried again, and are then ready for 
use. Boards thus prepared are practically inde- 
structible from rot, and are nearly incombustible. 

Another preservative is a compound of one part 
silicate of potassa and three of pure water — the 
wood to remain in the solution 24 hours, then dried 
for several days, then soaked and dried a second 
time and afterward painted twice with a mixture 
of one part water-cement and four of the first- 
mentioned mixture. Thus prepared, it will not 
decay in the ground, and will be incombustible out 
of it. 

Another process for preventing decay of wood is 
by use of a paint which possesses the advantages 
of being impervious to water. It is composed of 50 
parts of tar, 500 parts of fine white sand, 4 parts 



WORTH KNOWING 275 

of linseed oil, i part of the red oxide of copper in 
its native state, and i part of sulphuric acid. The 
tar, sand and oil should be first heated in an iron 
kettle; the oxide and acid are then added very 
•carefully. The mass is thoroughly mixed and ap- 
plied while hot. When dry, this paint is as hard 
as stone. 

Decay in wood may be prevented by the follow- 
ing method: Take 20 parts of resin, 46 parts of 
finely powdered chalk, some hard sand, and a little 
linseed oil and sulphuric acid; mix and boil for a 
short time. If this is applied while hot, it forms a 
kind of varnish, thereby preserving the wood. 

TO PRESERVE SHINGLES 

Following is an effective method to prevent the 
•decay of shingles: Take a potash kettle or large 
tub and put into it one barrel of lye of wood ashes, 
5 pounds of white vitriol, 5 pounds of alum, and as 
much salt as will dissolve in- the mixture. Make 
the preparation quite warm, and put as many 
shingles in it as can be conveniently wet at once. 
Stir them up with a fork, and, when well soaked, 
take them out and put in more, renewing the pre- 
servative solution when necessary. Then lay the 
shingles in the usual manner. 

After they are laid, take more of the preserva- 
tive, put lime enough into it to make whitewash, 
and, if any coloring is desirable, add ocher, Span- 
ish brown, lampblack, or other color, and apply to 
the roof with a brush or an old broom. This wash 
may be renewed from time to time. 

Salt and lye are excellent preservatives of wood. 
Leach tubs, troughs and other articles used in the 



2y(i HANDY FARM DEVICES 

manufacture of potash never rot. They become 
saturated with the alkali, turn yellowish inside and 
remain impervious to the weather. 

TO RENDER WOOD FIREPROOF 

Rendering the woodwork of houses secure 
against catching fire can be done at an insignificant 
cost, and with little trouble. Saturate the wood- 
work with a very delicate solution of silicate of 
potash as nearly neutral as possible, and when this 
has dried, apply one or two coats of a stronger 
solution. 

Another method is simply to soak the wood with 
a concentrated solution of rock salt. Water-glass 
will act as well, but it is expensive. The salt also 
renders the wood proof against dry rot and the 
ravages of insects. Still another method is to im- 
merse the wood in a saturated solution of borax, 
heat being gradually applied until the solution 
reaches 212 degrees Fahrenheit. It is then left for 
10 or 12 hours, according to the nature and size 
of the wood. 

FIREPROOF WASH FOR SHINGLES 

A preparation composed of lime, salt and fine 
sand or wood ashes, put on like whitewash, ren- 
ders the roof 50 per cent more secure against tak- 
ing fire from falling cinders, in case of fire in the 
vicinity. It pays the expense a hundredfold in its 
preserving influence against the efifects of the 
weather. The older and more weather-beaten the 
shingles, the more benefit derived. Such shingles, 
generally become more or less warped, rough and 
cracked; the application of the wash, by wetting 



WORTH KNOWING 27/ 

the Upper surface, restores them at once to fheir 
original form, thereby closing up the space between 
the shingles, and the lime and sand, by filling up 
the cracks and pores in the shingle itself, prevents 
warping. 

PETRIFIED WOOD 

Mix equal parts of gem salt, rock alum, white 
vinegar, chalk and Peebles' powder. After the 
mixture becomes quiet, put into it any wood or 
porous substance, and the latter becomes like stone. 

HOW TO SEASON WOOD 

Boiling small pieces of non-resinous wood will 
season them in four or five hours — the process tak- 
ing the sap out of the wood, which shrinks nearly 
one-tenth in the operation. Trees felled in full leaf 
in June or July, and allowed to lie until every leaf 
has fallen, will then be nearly dry, as the leaves 
will not drop off themselves until they have drawn 
up and exhausted all the sap of the tree. The time 
required is from a month to six weeks, according to 
the dryness of the weather. 

BLEACHING WOOD 

Sometimes it is more feasible to bleach a small 
part of a wood surface, especially in repairing, than 
to darken a larger portion of the work. This can 
be done by brushing over the wood a solution com- 
posed of I ounce oxalic acid in a pint of water, 
letting it remain a few minutes and then wiping 
dry. The operation may be repeated if necessary. 
A few drops of nitric ether, or a quarter of an 
ounce of tartaric acid, will assist the operation; or 



1878 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

a hot solution of tartaric acid may be used 
alone. Lemon juice will also whiten most woods. 
Cut the lemon in half and rub the cut face upon 
the wood. 

When the bleaching has been done and the wood 
is dry, give a thin coat of shellac or French polish, 
as the light and air acting upon the bare wood will 
bring back the original color. 

If the wood obstinately resists bleaching, it may 
be lightened by mixing a little fine bismuth white,, 
flake white or ball white (the cleansing balls sold 
by druggists) with the. shellac, and give it a thin 
coat. This whitens, but it also somewhat deadens 
or obscures the grain and is, therefore, not so good 
as the bleaching method. 

WOOD POLISH 

Rub evenly over the wood a piece of pumice 
stone and water until the rising of the grain is cut . 
down; then take powdered tripoli and boiled lin- 
seed oil and polish to a bright surface. 

FURNITURE POLISH 

Take equal parts of sweet oil and vinegar, mix,, 
add a pint of gum arabic finely powdered. This 
will make furniture look almost as good as new 
and can be easily applied, as it requires no rubbing. 
The bottle should be shaken, and the polish poured 
on a rag and applied to the furniture. 

SIZE STAINS 

By the aid of glue in the solution, the colors are 
fixed in size stains. They are employed for the 



WORTH KNOWING 279;' 

purpose of giving a color to cheap work in soft 
woods, such as chairs, bedsteads and common tables, 
and ordinary bookcases. The colors usually wanted 
are walnut, mahogany, cherry color, oak and even 
a rosewood. 

For Mahogany — Dissolve i pound of glue in a 
gallon of water, and stir in J4 pound Venetian red,, 
and J4 pound chrome yellow, or yellow ocher. 
Darken with the red and lighten with yellow, as. 
desired. If the Venetian red does not give a suf- 
ficiently dark look put in a pinch of lampblack. 
Apply hot. 

For Rosewood — Same as mahogany, omitting the 
yellow, and using % pound Venetian red (or more) 
instead of J^ pound. Give one coat of this and 
then add lampblack, one pinch, or more, to the 
color; with the latter put in the figure or dark 
parts of the rosewood. 

For Oak — In a gallon of glue size (as above) 
put % pound powdered burnt umber. Lighten 
with yellow (chrome or ocher), if need be. Hot. 

DARK WOOD STAIN 

White woods may be given the appearance of 
walnut by painting or sponging them with a con-, 
centrated warm solution of permanganate of 
potassa. Some kinds of wood become stained 
rapidly, while others require more time. The per- 
manganate is decomposed by the woody fiber; 
brown peroxide of manganese is deposited, which 
afterward may be removed by washing with water. 
The wood, when dry, may be varnished, and will 
be found to resemble very closely the natural dark 
woods. 



280 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

RED STAIN FOR WOOD 

Boil chopped Brazil wood thoroughly in water, 
strain it through a cloth. Then give the wood two 
or three coats, till it is the shade wanted. If a deep 
red is desired, boil the wood in water in which is 
dissolved alum and quicklime. When the last coat 
is dry, burnish it with the burnisher and then 
varnish. 

LIQUID GLUE 

Dissolve I pound of best glue in ij4 pints of 
water, and add i pint of vinegar. It is ready for 
use. 

CEMENT FOR METAL AND GLASS 

Take 2 ounces of a thick solution of glue, and 
mix it with i ounce of linseed-oil varnish, and half 
an ounce of pure turpentine; the whole is then 
boiled together in a close vessel. The two bodies 
should be clamped and held together for about two 
days after they are united to allow the cement to 
become dry. The clamps may then be removed. 

CEMENT FOR BROKEN CHINA 

Stir plaster of paris into a thick solution of gum 
arable till it becomes a viscous paste. Apply it 
with a brush to the fractured edges, and draw the 
parts closely together. 

CEMENT FOR CROCKERY AND GLASS 

Take 4 pounds of white glue, ij^ pounds of dry 
white lead, J4 pound of isinglass, i gallon of soft 
water, i quart of alcohol, and ^ pint of white 



WORTH KNOWING 281 

varnish. Dissolve the glue and isinglass in the 
water by gentle heat if preferred, stir in the lead,, 
put the alcohol in the varnish and mix the whole 
together. 

MENDING GLASSWARE 

Broken dishes and glassware may be easily 
mended as follows: Fit the pieces in their proper 
places and tie a string around the vessel to keep 
the parts from slipping out. Then boil the entire 
dish for two or three hours in sweet milk. This, 
will firmly glue the vessel together and it will last 
for years with proper care. 

ARMENIAN CEMENT 

This will strongly unite pieces of glass and 
china, and even polished steel, and may be applied 
to a variety of useful purposes. Dissolve five or 
six bits of gum mastic, each the size of a large pea, 
in as much rectified spirits of wine as will sufSce 
to render it liquid; and, in another vessel, dissolve 
as much isinglass, previously a little softened in 
■water (though none of the water must be used), in 
French brandy or good rum, as will make a two- 
ounce vial of very strong glue, adding two small 
bits of gum galbanum of ammoniacum, which must 
be rubbed or ground till they are dissolved. Then 
mix the whole with a sufficient heat. Keep the glue 
in a vial closely stopped, and when it is to be used 
set the vial in boiling water. 

JAPANESE CEMENT 

Thoroughly mix the best powdered rice with a 
little cold water, then gradually add boiling water 
until a proper consistence is acquired, being par- 



:282 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

ticularly careful to keep it well stirred all the time ; 
lastly it must be boiled for one minute in a clean 
^saucepan or earthen pipkin. This glue is white, 
almost transparent, for which reason it is well 
adapted for fancy paper work, which requires a 
strong and colorless cement. 

ROOFING PREPARATION 

Take i pint of fine sand, 2 of sifted wood-ashes, 
and 3 of lime ground up with oil. Mix thoroughly, 
and lay on with a painter's brush, first a thin coat, 
and then a thick one. This composition is not only 
-cheap, but it strongly resists fire. • 

FIRE KINDLERS 

Take i quart of tar and 3 pounds of resin, melt 
them, bring to a cooling temperature, mix with as 
much sawdust, with a little charcoal added, as can 
be worked in; spread out while hot upon a board, 
when cold break up into lumps of the size of a 
'large hickory nut, and you have, at a small expense, 
kindling material enough for one year. They will 
easily ignite from a match and burn with a strong 
blaze, long enough to start any wood that is fit 
to burn. 

MENDING PIPES WITH WATER ON 

Many farmers have had trouble in repairing pipes 
where the water could not be shut off conveniently. 
A lead pipe which has been cut off accidentally in 
making an excavation, for instance, may be re- 
paired by the following plan: The two ends of 
the pipe are plugged, and then a small pile of 
"broken ice and salt are placed around them ; in five 
minutes the water in the pipe will be frozen, the 



WORTH KNOWING 283 

plugs removed, a short piece of pipe may then be 
inserted and perfectly soldered. In five minutes 
the ice in the pipes may be thawed and the water 
set to flowing freely again. 

TO JOIN WATER PIPES 

Water pipes may be united by using a prepara- 
tion made by combining four parts of good port- 
land cement and one part of unslaked lime mixed 
together in small portions in a stout mortar, adding 
enough water to permit it to be reduced to a soft 
paste. 

WELDING METALS 

Welding together two pieces of metal of any kind 
can be accomplished only when the surfaces to be 
joined are equally heated, and both surfaces must 
be brought to such a temperature that the par- 
ticles will form a perfect continuity between tKie 
pieces united. This embraces the entire theory of 
welding, soldering or brazing metallic substances 
of any kind. In addition, however, to the equal 
and adequate heating of the surfaces to be united, 
every particle of coal dust, cinders or scales of 
oxide must be removed, so as to present two per- 
fectly clean surfaces at the very moment when the 
union is to be effected. 

The piece of metal that would fuse at the lower 
temperature must be the guide, when bringing the 
surfaces of conjunction up to the proper heat. If, 
for example, two pieces of wrought iron are to be 
welded, the part that will melt at the lower tem- 
perature must be brought just to a welding heat, and 
the surface of the other priece must be heated quite 



284 HANDY FARM DEVICES 

as hot, or a trifle hotter than the first piece. Then, 
if the surfaces are clean when the parts are brought 
together, the union will be satisfactory. The de- 
gree of heat aimed at must be, not to produce a 
fluid, but simply to bring the metal into a condi- 
tion between the fluid and plastic. 

GRINDING TOOLS 

All steel is composed of individual fibers running 
lengthways in the bar and held firmly together by 
cohesion. In almost all farm implements of the 
cutting kind the steel portion which forms the edge, 
if from a section of a bar, is welded to the bar 
lengthwise, so that it is the side of the bundle of 
fibers hammered and ground down that forms the 
edge. So, by holding on the grindstone all edge- 
tools, as axes, scythes and knives of strawcutters, 
in such a manner that the action of the stone is at 
right angles with the edge, or, this is to say, by 
holding the edge of the tools square across the 
stone, the direction of the fibers will be changed, 
so as to present the ends instead of the side as a 
cutting edge. By grinding in this manner a finer, 
smoother edge is set, the tool is ground in less 
time, holds an edge a great deal longer, and is far 
less liable to nick out and to break. 

Plane irons should be ground to a level of about 
35 degrees— chisels and gouges to 30. Turning 
chisels may sometimes run in an angle of 45. 
Molding tools, such as are used for ivory and for 
very hard wood, are made at from 50 to 60 degrees. 
Tools for working iron and steel are beveled at an 
inclination to the edge of from 60 to 70 degrees, 
and for cutting gun and similar metal range from 
80 to 90. 



INDEX 



Page 
A 

Angles, Meastuing 34 

Angles, Plotting 3S 

Anvil, Mounting 246 

Anvil, Rail 10 

Ax Handle, How to Secure 15 

B . 

Bag Holder 110, 111 

Balance for Weighing 107 

Bam Driveway 115 

Bam Plans 200 

Bam, Round 198 

Bam, Small 202 

Bam Stairs 105 

Bam Tmck 109 

Bam Windlass 108 

Barrel Carrier 260 

Barrel Coolers 60 

Barrel Coop 120 

Barrel Cradle 46 

Barrel Hoop Trellis 132 

Barrel Plant Holder 72 

Bars with Horseshoe Support ... 181 

Bee Feeder 130 

Bee Hives 127 

Beeswax Extractor 129 

Bench, Com Husking 112 

Bicycle for Power 55 

Binding Pins for Hay 255 

Bin for Vegetables 72 

Bins, Grain 109 

Bin, Hinged Grain 108 

Blacksmith Shop, Farm 269 

Bleaching Wood 277 

Boat, Boxed Stone 157 

Bolts, Use for 16 

Box for Clothes 48 

Box for Potatoes 248 

Box for Tying Fleece 97 

Box Whedbarrow 240 

Brace Rule 23 

Bread Cutting Board 59 

Brooder 123 

Brooder, House 124 

Bridge, Small 160 

Building, House 189 

Butchering Derrick 100 

Butchering Rig 98 

Butter Wagon Refrigerator 264 

Butter Worker 51 

C 

Cabbage Cutter 114 

Calf Stanchions S7 

CampingTent 171 

Cans, for Scoops 4 49 



Carrier, Barrel 260 

Carrier, Yoke 163 

Cart for Stock 91 

Catch, Gate 181 

Catcher, Pig 105 

Cellar, Concrete Outdoor 227 

Cellar, Temporary 74 

Cellar Shelf, Revolving 77 

Cellar Stairs, Hint for 82 

Cellar Wall, Concrete 225 

Cement Block House 195 

Cementing Cistern Wall 230 

Cements for Mending. 280 

Cement, Mixing for Brick 223 

Cement, Specif Uses for 231 

Chain Tie 87 

Cheese Making 52 

Cheese Press 52 

Chicken Catcher 126 

Chicken Coop, Box 121 

Chicken Coop, Portable 123 

Chicken Fotmtain 118 

Chicken Roosts 118 

China Cement 280 

Cistern Wall, Cementing 230 

Clamp, Harness 262 

Cleanuig a Well 66 

Closet for Toilet Articles 76 

Closet, Outdoor 63 

Clothes Box 48 

Clothes Horse 76 

Clothes Line Elevator 75 

Cold Frames 140 

Concrete Anvil Foundation 246 

Concrete Block Machine 218 

Concrete Blocks 217 

Concrete Cellar Wall 225 

Concrete Mixing 216 

Concrete Floor 229 

Concrete On the Farm 214 

Concrete Outdoor Cellar 227 

Concrete Reinforced with Wood. 231 

Concrete Reinforcement 224 

Concrete Smokehouse 229 

Concrete Walk 230 

Cooker, Tank 243 

Cooler in Well 62,64 

Cooler, Water 60 

Coop, Barrel 120 

Coop, Box 121 

Coop, Portable Chicken 123 

Coop, Trap Door 121 

Cora Crib, Wire 211 

'Com Drying Rack 236 

Com Husking Rack 112 

Cottage Plans 193 

Cow Stall 84 



286 



INDEX 



Page 

Cow Stanchions 86 

Cows, How to Stake Out 92 

Cows, Stalls for Kicking 88 

Cradle, Barrel 46 

Crate, Vegetable 248 

Crows, How to Scare 126 

Cultivator, Hand Garden. ...... 142 

Cutter, Feed 112 

Cutter, Seed Potato 248 

Cutter, Root 113 

Cutter, Vegetable 114 

D 

Dam 161 

Derrick, Carcass , 100 

Derrick, Portable Hay 154 

Ditching Scraper 160 

Dog Power for Pump 67 

Door Fastener, Stall 186 

Door Fasteners 184 

Door Latch 188 

Doors, Glass Panels for 44 

Doors, Double Latch for 185 

Drag and Harrow Combined 256 

Dresser ,. 41 

Drinking Fotmtain for Chicks .... 118 

Drinking Fountain, Poultry 117 

Drogue , 159 

Dumb Waiter 37 

E 

Euclid, 47th Problem of 32 

Extractor, Solar Wax. . , 129 

F 

Fastener, Stall Door 186 

Fasteners for Doors 184 

Feed Basket 83 

Feed Box 84 

Feed Box, Partitioned 93 

Feed Cutter 112 

Feed Hopper, Poviltry 116 

Feed Rack 95 

Feed Rack, Portable 96 

FeederforBees 130 

Fence, Movable 183 

Fence, Over Stream 182 

Fence Wire Reel 155 

Filter 70 

Filter for Cistern 68 

Fire Alarm 80 

Fire Kindlers 282 

Fire Ladder 82 

Fireprooflng Shingles , . 276 

Fleece Tying Box 97 

Floating Fence 182 

Floor, Concrete 229 

Floor, How to Lay 213 

Flowers in Barrel 72 

Fodder Rack 164 

Folding Table 50 

Food Cooler 60 

Fruit Picker 148 

Fruit Sorting Table. , ISl 

Fuel, How to Haul 168 

Fumigating Seed Grain 254 

Furniture Polish 278 



Page 
G 

Garden Stool 144 

Gate, Adjustable 179 

Gate, Balanced Wire 175 

Gate Catch 181 

Gate Hanger, Adjustable 178 

Gate, Pole and Wire 176 

Gate, Sliding 177 

Gate. Suspended 182 

Gate, TumstUe 180 

Gate with Wheel 175 

Germination Box 250 

Glass Cement 280 

Glass in Doors 44 

Glue, Liquid 280 

Grain Bins 109 

Grain Box, Hinged 108 

Grain, Killing Insects in. ...... . 254 

Grain Sack Holder 110, 111 

Greenhouses 208 

Grinding Tools 284 

Grindstone Rig 9 

H 

Hammer, Pulling 24^ 

Harness Clamp . . . . , 262 

Harrow and Drag Combined. . . . 256 

Hay Derrick 154 

Hay Bmding Pins 255 

Hawks, How to Scare 126 

Hawk Trap 126. 

Hawks, Trap for 14* 

Heat for Hotbed Ija 

Heater, Lamp 57 

Heating Water 99 

Hen House 125 

Hitches, Rope 256 

Hives, Bee 127 

Hog Butchering Rig ' 98 

Hog House, Movable 102 

Hog Pens 104 

Hog Trough, Partitioned 102 

Holder, Grain Sack 110, 111 

Hoop Trellis 131 

Horse, Feed Basket 83 

Horse Feed Box 84 

Horse, Folding 12 

Horse, Shaving 12 

Horseshoes for Bars 18L 

Horseshoe Lever 272 

Hotbed, Heat for 138 

Hotbed, How to Make 136 

Hotbed, Permanent 137 

House Building, Hints for 189 

House, Cement Block 195 

House, Plans for 190 

Houses, Hog 104 

I 

Ice House 204 

Ice House and Milk House. . . . 207 

Ice Molds 233 

Jack, Log 170 

Jack, Wagon 238 



INDEX 



287 



Page 
K 

Kettle Tripod 241 

Kindlers, Fire 282 

^Kitchen Cabinet 39 

Kitchen Cabinet at Window 43 

Knots, How to Tie 2S8 

L 

Ladder on Wheels 151 

Ladder, Place for 82 

Ladder, Truss 150 

l^amp Heater 57 

Land Measure 167 

Lantern Hanger 106 

Latch, Door 188 

Latch for Double Doors 185 

Lawn Mower Feed Gutter 112 

Level, Homemade 14 

Light, More for Rooms 44 

Liquid Glue 280 

Loading Rig 164 

Logging Bob 169 

Log Jack 170 

Log WaterTrough 244 

Logging, Rig for 168 

Lumber Rule 20 

H 

Mail Box, Trolley 71 

Market Wagon Conveniences. ... 263 

Measure, Land 167 

Measuring Angles 34 

Medicine Closet 76 

Mending Water Pipes 282 

Metal Welding 283 

Milk and Houses Combined 207 

Milking Stool 88, 89, 90 

Miter Box 24 

Mold for Concrete Blocks 221 

Molds, Ice 233 

N 

Neck Chain for Cattle 87 

Nests, Trap 119 

O 

Octagon Scale 23 

Old Oaken Bucket 232 

Outdoor Closet 63 

P 

PaintmgTin Roof 273 

Papering a Room 265 

Petrified Wood 277 

Picker, Fruit 148 

Plans, Bam 200 

Plans for Cottage 193 

Plans for House 190 

Plant Protector 134 

Platform for Pump 65 

Porch, Vine-Covered 213 

Preserving Wood 274 

Pig Net 105 

Pipe Twister 263 

Plotting Angles 35 

Plow, Snow 241 

Pde and Wire Gate 176 



Page' 

Polish, Furniture 278' 

Post Puller 165* 

Potato Cutter 249- 

Potato Sorter 246- 

Poultry Coop 121 

Poultry Feed Box 11& 

Poultry House on Runners 124 

Power for Pump 67 

Puller, Post 165 

PuUey-Hung Lantern 106» 

Ptdling Stumps 166' 

Pump, Dog Power for 67 

Pump Platform, Ventilated 65 

R 

Rack, Com Husking 112" 

Rack, Fodder Haulmg 164 

Rack tor Com 236 

Rack, Hanging Feed 95 

Rack for Milking Stool 90- 

Rack for Preserves 38 

Rack fof Seed Com 235 

Rack, Portable Feed 96 

Rack, Water for Hens 117 

Rafters, How to Lay Out 28- 

Reel, Clothes 76 

Reel, Wire on Boat '. . 156- 

Reel| Wire on Wheels 155 

Refrigerator 64 ■ 

Rein Clip 263 

Reinforced Concrete 224 

Reservoir. Storage 167 

Right Angles, How to Figtire. ... 32 

Roller, Road 158 

Rope, How to Handle 256 

Roof, PaintingTin 273- 

Roofing Preparation 282 

Roosts, Folding 1 1&. 

Root Cutter, Saw 113 

Round Bam 198 

S 

Saw Horse 170 

Seasoning Wood 277 

Seed Com Rack 234 

Seed Com Testing 250 

Seed Potato Cutter 248 

Seed Sower 162 

Seed, Watering 144 

Separator, Run by Tread Power 56 

Scissors, How to Sharpen 265 

Scraper, Ditching 160.' 

Scoops from Tin Cans 49 

Sharpening Scissors 265 

Shavmg Horse 12 

Sheep Fence, Movable 183 

Sheep Feed Trough 94' 

Sheds, Straw Covered 94 

Shelf, Revolving 77 

Shelter, Plant 134 

Shingles, Preserving 275 

Size Stains 278 

Skidway 169' 

Slatted Stall 88 

Slaughter House 99"- 

Smokehouse, Concrete 22^ 

Smoking Device 243^ 



288 



INDEX 



Page 

Snow Plow 214 

.Solder, How to Make 17 

Soldering 16 

Sorter, Potato 246 

Sorting Table 151 

Sowing Machine 162 

Square, How to True 26 

Square, the Steel 19 

Stall for Cows 84 

Stains, Wood 279 

Stair Stringer, How to Lay Out. . 30 

Stairs, Bam 105 

Stalling Out Stock 92 

■Stanchions, Swinging 86 

Stanchions for Calves 87 

Steel Square, Use of 19 

Stock-Cart 91 

StoneBoat, Boxed 157 

Stool, Garden 144 

Stool, Milking 88, 89, 90 

Stool Rack 90 

Stove, Fence Around 47 

Straight Edge, How to Make 28 

Straw-Covered Sheds 94 

Stream, Fence Across 183 

Stump Pulling 166 

Surveying, Rule for 33 

Suspended Gate 182 

Swinging Sheep Trough 94 

X 

Table, Folding 50 

Table, Fruit Sorting 151 

Tank Heater 243 

Tent, Camping 171 

Testing Seed 250 

Tool Grinding 284 

Tools Needed for "Workshop 7 

Transplanting Large Tree 146 

Trap for Owls 145 

Trap. Hawk 126 

Trap Nests 119 

Tread Power for Separator 56 

Trees, How to Move 146 

Tree, Transplanting 147 

Trellis, Folding 132 

TreUis, BarreJ Hoop 132 

Trellis for Beans 133 

Trellis, Iron Hoop 131 

Trellis, Self-Supporting 134 

Trolley Mailbox 71 

Trough, Sheep. 94 

Trough, Partitioned Hog 102 

Truck for Bam 109 

Truing the Square 26 

TubFeedBox 93 

Turnstile Gate 1»0 



Paga 
V 

Vat, Butchering 98 

Vegetable Storage Bin 72 

Veranda, Vine-Covered 213 

W 

Wagon Jack 238 

Wagon, Market 263 

Walk, Concrete 230 

Wall, Cementing 230 

Wall Paper, How to Hang 265 

Washing Machine, Pedal Power 55 

Water Bottle, Poultry 117 

Water Cooler 60 

Water Filter 70 

Water Filter for Cistern 68 

Water Heating for Butchering ... 99 

Water Pipes, Mending 282 

Watering Rack for Hens 117 

Watering Seed 144 

WaterStoring 167 

Water Supply for House 77 

WaterTrough 244 

Wedge Staple 15 

Weighing Balance 107 

Weight Lifter 237 

Welding Metals 283 

Well Frontispiece 

Well Cooler 62, 64 

Well, How to Clean 66 

Wheelbarrow 239 

Wheelbarrow Sheep Trough. ... . 96 

Wheel Gate 174 

Windlass, Bam 108 

Windlass for Butchering 98 

Wire Gate 176 

Wire Reel on Boat 156 

Wire Reel on Wheels 155 

Wire Splicer 13 

Wire Tightener 155 

Wood Bleaching 277 

Wood Fireproofing 276 

Wood, Hauling 168 

Wood, How to Split 245 

Wood, Petrified 277 

Wood Polish. 278 

Wood, Preserving 274 

Wood. Seasoning 277 

Wood Splitter 245 

Workshop, The Farmer's 7 

Wrench, Bit-Stock It 

Y 

Yoke Crate Carrier lit