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THE FATIMID caliphs 






JACOB MANN, M.A., D.Lit. (Lond.) 









Preface . . 9 

Appendix A (to volume I, chapter I), 

I. A poem in honour of 'Adayah b. Menasse the Wezir . ii 


Eighteen poems from an old Diwan 

3. A poem by Dunash b. Labrat in honour of Shemarya b. Elhanan 21 

4. A letter from Samuel the ' Third ' to Shemarya b. Elhanan . 23 

5. Data concerning Samuel the ' Third ' and his son Abraham . 35 

6. A letter from Fustat relating to the demise of Shemarya b. 

Elhanan 26 

7. An elegy, probably on the demise of Shemarya b. Elhanan . 27 
7*. Fragments of letters from Shemarya b. Elhanan ... 29 
7^. Note on historical accounts in the form of ' Scrolls ' (Megillot) . 30 

8. First version ofuthe Egyptian Scroll of 1012 c.E. ... 31 
g. Second version of the Egyptian Scroll of 1012 c.E. . . 35 

10-12. Letters from Elhanan b. Shemarya 38 

13. Fragment of a letter from the Babylonian Exilarch, dated 

835 C.E., concerning the fixing of the Calendar ... 41 

14. The Massorites of Tiberias and the Palestinian Academy . . 43 

15. The Gaonic family of Ben Meir . . . .... 49 

16. I. Data concerning the priestly Geonim Joseph, Samuel, and 

Yose(?) 58 

16, II-III. Concerning Joseph ibn Abitur ... -59 

16. IV. Concerning Abraham Hakkohen b. Joseph Gaon. ' 60 

17. The Gaonic family of Ebyatar Hakkohen ... .62 
18-21. Letters from Joshiah Gaon . ... ... 66 

22. An epistle from the community of Tarabulus to Hesed b. Sahl 

(al-Tustari) 72 

23. A letter from Abu'l Hayy b. Hakim, of Sicily, to Hananya' 

Hakkohen Ab , ' . -73 

Appendix B (to volume I, chapter II). 

1. A poem in honour of Abii Sa'ad b- Sahl al-Tustari . . • 75 

2. A letter from Solomon b. Yehuda to Ephraim b. Shemarya . 77 
3-5. Concerning the demise of Abu Sa'ad and Abu Nasr, the sons 

of Sahl al-Tustari . -79 

6-1 1. Concerning the physician Abraham Hakkohen b. Isaac (b. Furat) 81 
12-17. Letters relating to Jewish prisoners from Byzantium who were 

brought to Egyptian ports 87 

18. An epistle from the community of Alexandria to that of Mastaura 

(in Byzantium) 92 

19. A marriage document, dated 1022 C.E., and drawn up at 

Mastaura 94 

20. I. Data concerning the communal leaders of the Palestinian 

section at Fustat , . 97 

20, II. Similar data concerning those of the Babylonian section at 

Fustat .... 100 

6 Contents 


20, III. Sahlan b. Abraham as a liturgical writer .... 104 

21-27. Letters to Ephraim b. Shemarya from several people . • 106 

28. An epistle from Solomon b. Yehuda to Samuel Hakkohen b. 

Abtalion ... 112 

29. A letter to Sahlan b. Abraham 1 13 

30. A letter from Isaac the Reader to Abraham Hakkohen b. 

Haggai 113 

31. Fragments of letters from Solomon b. Yehuda . . US 

Appendix B (concluded, to volume I, chapter III). 

32. A letter from Solomon b. Yehuda, when still Ab of the school . 117 

33. A letter to Solomon b. Yehuda . . . ■ • 118 
34-5. Letters from Solomon b. Yehuda . • -119 

37. An epistle to the Nasi David b. Hezekiah ... ■ 122 

38-41. Letters from Solomon b. Yehuda to Ephraim b. Shemarya . 124 
42-44. Letters from Solomon b. Yehuda to Abraham b. Sahlan and 

Samuel (?) b. Abraham (al-Taherti ?) . . .129 

45. An epistle to David b. Aaron .... 13S 

46-58. Letters from Solomon b. Yehuda to several people 136 

59. A declaration by a Karaite .158 

60-65. Epistles from Solomon b. Yehuda relating to his rival Nathan 

b. Abraham .... 159 

66-72. Letters from Nathan b. Abraham . . . 167 

Appendix C (to volume I, chapter IV). 

1. An epistle from a community, probably from Palestine . . 175 

2. An account of an earthquake at Ramlah in December 

1033 C.E 176 

3-4. Letters from Jerusalem concerning the revolt of 1024-9 C.E. • '79 
5. An epistle from Sadok Hallevi b. Levi to Ephraim b. 

Shemarya. 182 

6-1 1. Appeals on behalf of the Rabbinite community in Jerusalem . 184 

12,1. Concerning Reuben b. Isaac of Rhodez (France) . . . 191 
12, 2. A fragment of an epistle from Salonica concerning a Russian 

pilgrim to the Holy Land . . . . . . .192 

13. Appeals on behalf of the sick taking the cure at the hot springs 

of Tiberias 192 

14. A letter from the communities of Ashkelon to those of Fustat . 198 

15. An epistle from Joshu'a b. 'Ali, the Haber of Hasor, to the 

Nagid Meborak 199 

16. Data concerning the Jewish community of Ashkelon . 200 

17. Data concerning other Jewish congregations in Palestine . 202 

18. An epistle relating to a bogus-nasi 205 

19. Concerning the Nasi Sar Shalom b. Pinhas 207 

20. Data relating to several Nesiim . . ' . . . 208 

21. Karaite Nesiim 210 

22-3. Letters from Daniel b. 'Azarya, Nasi and Gaon . 215 

23*. An epistle from Fustat .217 

24. Daniel b. 'Azarya, Nasi and Gaon, and his sons . . 218 
24». A letter to the Nagid Yehoseph b. Samuel (b. Paltiel) . . 221 

25, I. Extract from a letter from 'Ali Hakkohen b. Eiekiel to 

Ebyatar Hakkohen b. Elijah Gaon 222 

Contents 7 


25. 2. Extract from a responsum of the Gaon Elijah Hakkohen to 

MeshuUam b. Moses 223 

25a. Note on liturgical compositions, probably by the Nasi David 

b. Daniel (b. 'Azarya) 224 

26. An epistle from Shelah the ' Sixth' b. Nahum to Ephraim (Aba 

Khair) " 225 

26». Fragments of letters from Ebyatar Hakkohen Gaon . . 228 

27. Letters to Elijah Hakkohen b. Ebyatar Gaon and to Nathan 

Ab b. Abraham 229 

28. Data relating to Abraham b. Nathan Ab and some of his 

colleagues 231 

29. A letter from Solomon Hakkohen, Gaon of Hadrak, to 'Ulah 

Hallevi b. Joseph . 233 

30. Fragments of letters to Solomon Hakkohen Gaon and his son 

Masliah . 234 

31. An epistle from Baruk b. Isaac to Joseph b. Samuel . . 235 

32. Letters from a Haber in Syria to a Gaon . . . 236 

Appendix D (to volume I, chapter V). 

I. A letter to 'Ali b. 'Amram ........ 239 

2-2*. Epistles from Yeshu'a Hakkohen b. Joseph, of Alexandria, to 

Nahrai b. Nissim 240 

3. Data concerning Nahrai b. Nissim and his son Nissim . . 245 

4. The family of Meborak Nagid 249 

5-7. Fragments relating to Meborak Nagid and his brother Yehuda 

Nagid 252 

7*. An elegy on the demise of Meborak's wife . . . .255 

8. An epistle from Abraham b. Sabbatai, the Haber of Minyat 

Zifta, to Moses Nagid b. Meborak 257 

9. Poems in honour of Yakin b. Netaneel . 260 

10. Poems in honour of Abu'l Munajja b. Sha'ya . . 264 

11. The family of Joshu'a b. Dosa .... 270 

12. A letter from Isaac b. Benveniste to Joshu'a b. Dosa . 271 

13. A fragment of a letter from an imprisoned government 

official .... ... 273 

14. Masliah Gaon ... . 274 
15-16. Letters from Nathan b. Samuel . . . 277 

17. The family of the Nagid Samuel b. Hananya .... 281 

18. An epistle from Elijah b. Kaleb b. Leon to Samuel b. Hananya 288 

19. A collection for the ransom of prisoners, made by order of 

Samuel b. Hananya 289 

19*. A calendar for the years 1153-6 C.E. . . 291 

20. The family of the Gaon Sar Shalom Hallevi 292 
21-23. Letters from and to Sar Shalom Gaon . . 298 
24-25. Epistles from and to Yehiel b. Elyakim . . 301 
26-28. Family Letters 306 

29. The period of Maimonides (died in 1204 C.E.) . .310 

30. An epistle from Kakkah (Kalne) . 321 
30*. Concerning Joseph ibn 'Aknin . . 323 

31-32. Letters to Anatoli b. Joseph . . . . 324 

33. Abraham Maimuni and his descendants 326 

34. Concerning certain compositions ascribed to Abraham Maimuni 331 

35. Data relating to several Egyptian Jews of prominence . . 336 









to volume I, chapter 1] . . . . ,.' ■ - • • 341 

'to volume I, chapter 11] ■ 344 

to volume I, chapter III] . . . . . • • • 347 

to volume I, chapter IV] . . . . - . . - • 355 

to volume I, chapter V] . ..... . . 363 

'to volume I, chapter VI] 373 

Addenda . , , . . . . . • . . -375 
Concordance of Manuscripts used . . . -384 
General Index to Volumes I and II . . . -389 

Hebrew Index and Glossary 413 

Corrigenda 428 


The Genizah mateiial, which formed the basis of the first 
volume, is edited here in extenso and in extract, accompanied 
by explanatory notes and other matter in close connexion with it. 
Since the writing of the first part I have come across a number 
of new fragments, which are incorporated here in a Supplement. 
A number of Addenda and Indices to both volumes conclude 
this work. 

In the letters and other documents, reproduced in the following 
pages, we possess a good sample of Hebrew as she was written 
(and perhaps spoken) in the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth centuries. 
We see how the Paitanic phraseology pervaded the style of 
ordinary private letters. However arbitrary a treatment was 
meted out to grammar and philology, it cannot be denied that 
the Piyyut as a literary form widened the limits of the language, 
making it flexible and capable of expressing new thoughts and 
various shades of meaning. On the other hand, we detect 
a considerable influence of Arabic, the native tongue of the Jews 
in the Orient, on the syntax of literary Hebrew. At all events, 
the Semitic character of the language remained unimpaired. 
The manuscripts edited here will supply material of no negligible 
a quantity for a fascinating study on Hebrew in speech and in 
writing throughout the centuries both in Palestine and in the 
countries of the Diaspora. 

There remains finally to tender hereby my heartfelt thanks to 
all those who have helped the present volume to see the light of 
publication. Through the kind offices of the Chief Rabbi, the 
Very Rev. Dr. J. H. Hertz, Mr. Jack Mosseri of Cairo, and a 
number of his friends contributed a considerable part of the cost 

lo Preface 

of production. It is of special gratification that contemporary 
coreligionists in Egypt have thus shown practical interest in 
a work that sheds so much light on the history of Egyptian 
Jewry in the past. 

J. M. 
London, August, 1930. 

PS. — In addition I am greatly indebted to my friend, 
Professor Israel Davidson of the Jewish Theological Seminary 
of America, for having been good enough to read second proofs 
of this volume and for offering several valuable suggestions. 

J. M. 

Baltimore, Md., February, 1923. 


(to Vol. I, Chapter I). 

[Doubtful letters are marked with superlinear dots.] 

1. [Vol. I, pp. 20-2 2.] 

A poem in honour of 'Adayah b. Menasse the Wdzir. 

[T.-S. 32. 4 (under glass), paper, square writing, with vowel-signs; 
the Raphe of nD3 1J3 as well as the n without a Mappik are indicated by 
a small line over the corresponding letters. Up to about line 49 there 
are corrections by a later hand on the top of the lines, evidently by 
an amateur versifier attempting to remodel the strophes. Thus line i 
reads, as corrected, nTns Dtt".! 31G1 N113 Vrr> ' n^^j; plC NT "iB'ia nxs, 

1. 3 '131 nsiiicn Dsiya ijn: n^n ntys, I. 14 'lai n"jj)i cub' ms'' itrx, 

and so on. Whether this versifier took the name of Perahya at random 
or actually had in mind a prominent Jew of his own time, is difficult to 


^ ^ w 

.nbw ^N "■> OB'S 
' 7\''y} \rm ?n''aa nsB'a ni nxs -mz |pt 

T T-: "T : ■■ • : t- : "t •• : v ' : 

hjVk'j; ^nbiipip in^m inva tatyn bna n;n IK'S 

iTnx |3 nxvi X3X n'B'i s-ig^p nwjjD nina i^j'i d?,i 

n'nta nso ^31 ^no ^3^) n^m NsnD ioir iTh N^in ^ 

mm K)0-i\ nnnis? nbsB' wioja n^iisi 

' This name is biblical (cp. c. g. 2 Kings 22. i), but in A. B. 56, infra^ p. 222, 
1. 9, he is called ''Ty, which may either be shortened from n'HV or the name by 
which he went in Arab society, viz. 'Adi. 

2 MS. nbnipD. ' MS. ipVD. 

' Lengthened from n?np, to suit the metre. But, as Dr. Davidson suggests, 
probably read Tl^np in agreement with TIDVX at the beginning of the line. 


From the Conquest, 969 c.e., to 102 1 c.e. 
,Tpi i3i^ bi repp bai np vhr\, 'p.iV ^=1 ^?1 

n;in3ri nnpb'3 sn:^ dji 

n;m 'n iis pvb I'm "npvo 

n^ijpn nn«v innnna 

n;!iba ban pyb ^nniBip 

v>h ijnijp ■'33 3.b n'inp 

n:;iD3 NNT '"Dnaan nia^bn 
njisi N''n npns nniB's:! 
n;un D'^^n nins lin ib'bji 

npys ijip D3 '33 ijip n??'?! 
pns fJK; !ife fjbn na^ 10 
r\'^mT\ cpin-^n ivdb'I 
inbsp i'^pns pbn ib-k 

lyas nisns '^^| «"iNa iB-t? 

n^^tyri 'py v.? liS' Q'^^B'n 15 

nf:p ijans ^|'^ N^n 

npi''« nn^n sbn wp^a 

n3isi pb'pi3 inp"'Ki. 

m''33 mp ''33 ^'''SE'n nai 

T : T : • : • 

sjjpB'P D3 DB'3pi ^3-liil '33 30 

Npni Kto nin npii 'ss 

in'S3 Dii'i^ "la-i n^n x^n 

Tni "pns< '33 np'B'p 

nny-i B'sa i^ab yab'p!) 

npvx "'pnyb nio c^''3bp1 

f3inp ni3pl3«'! D'pin'b'! 

innyp 3iD OB'S -ips: N'Sn 

D''ni5Nn vsbnp D'pm 

,-i3i3ri ny nppnn ini:35? 30 

inpp nsiD nvn iD'anni 

[D'^iji^n D'pan iiin 'inaB's 


1 MS. |"'iy. ^ For ^53 to suit the metre. 

' n3K, |3T, pX ; for similar noun-formations, cp. Zunz, Synag. Poesie, 384 fl., 
and £>« i?!YM5, 235. » MS. n''''nB'. ■* MS. "IDiyO. 

«MS. HN'S. 'See note 2. » MS. DnaiB'D. 

* " The metre is here faulty. Probably the word "IE' has fallen out after NIH. 

» See Gen, 25. 13-15. i?3Tt<, instead of ^JNiTN, for the sake of metre ; yDtyp 
is evidently taken as yiSE'p. 

i»Ms. imiina. ' "ms. n^m. 

>2 For 0^513 'all of them ', to suit the metre. " Cp. Ps. 89. 46. 

" The metre demands this vocalization. '' Cp. Gen. 49. 11. MS. 'Dn'y?. 

i« Cp. Judges 14. 12, 13. " < In heaven ', cp. iT^jy ''33 (Sukk. 45'"). 

" Instead of D'ODIT (\/DD1), to suit the metre. 

Appendix A 

n''?so mx ^ab ins 021 
n;si n3"i» D51 N13 niil!? 
n>npi 03 iTinKii ms Di'3 

T . ; - T : • tt : 

n^sii n;i3 im ^''^anji 
'nj3S ^'lONPi iD3 on ^qishd 

ni!im nS) n3hp Dn3-i3i 

T : T ': T T : - 

9|TaX B'Bi 103 isx 'INT 

n;w3n fi'si D.^B' nitn 
n''in}< 'riDi'N ^3 a^B'ni 

T -: • T -; T ■ T ; 

i^^'^J'p ii"i»H''i Dn''n>N 

njnE'n ;3N'! |i>s \bN 

.T^E's D3 ns-ii D2 n3n-) 

iT^as ismjj ni''n min <33 

n'Ni 'N ■'33in □''sy Tjins 

iTanj nnans k'nt Nin -ib'K, 

njpan iB'Sji ib nnns 

n;nin oix 7]in3 i3^ I533 

iV^bn inN''3b itj'a? IK'S 
i5nN''"!i? VDB',^ nB'N ny Ijic'i' 

(/■(^ Chapter I) 

Duni inisn? ib?'?p3 
D''3^p3 d3 D'sii-ilj Nin =0 
D\n'^Nn Tiy[»3] n^; Nini 35 
nianas j'SJi'i aab in: 

n''i?i"ip D^3J? i03 iT D31 

npin_^ QiN ^sjy^ N?n la's 
D''i)n3 n3 r\pb\ m\ ^ fsl) 

Di1''33 ^syOB'^l D3 i'NIDB' 

D^pan D'aa '33 ini<:Ti 

'"DinVn n''E'p p3^ s<i33 45 

u^'iib ni3K 33b 3'B''' nj?3 

nin3 nsE' ids pnii nys 

lisf'!;'! nob i»3 DV "psps 

n3"i3 •'^ ni^B-b inn^ril'XB' 

ni33 ^'■113 ''B3 •'b in^i 50 

^3 pj/'is in3'!33 "ixannlj 

JV1V i33ht< ''3 nnox^i 

T\hr\i ninb nxp nb"!; -133 

nibnps vn3B' ns rnyob 

D'iinjjp vsyn ysb'ni 

3.b 3iD3 '',''3X \^N innnni 

rsxi Kin i^N \^n; n-jp^ [s^j 



1 Pr. 25. II ; ?lW3 is taken as feminine to suit the metre. 

2 MS. yni. 3 For metre's sake, instead of [sb. 

" MS. |ni31. = MS. Q'SVD. "^ Instead of 'DNH, for metre's sake. 

' Cp. Cant. 7. 4. 8 MS. 'XnV " ' Desirous' (from Aramaic, N3X). 

10 See Sanh. 98": '■n" 'N3B' lOB' flJi nON ''NJ^ ''31 ... ? (n^B'D b'.:') IBS' HD 
IBS' p3» B'DB' 'JB^J nSy? lot? (Ps. 72. 17). 

" MS. pU''p3. " Read VPl^XB' in order to repair the metre. 

'2 ' It (the gift) is expected towards them ' (viz. by the scholars). 
" MS. DITy. 1^ MS. n>-\\>. 

14 From the Conquest, 969 c.e., to 102 1 c.E. 

2. [Vol. I, pp. 22-26.] 

Eighteen poems from an old Diwdn. 

[Oxford MS. Heb. d. 36, fols. 9-10, cp. Bodl. 2776' ; brownish vellum, 
square writing, old hand. The lines run on in the MS. and only 
occasionally are some words vocalized.] 

(fol. 9, recto) 


n^rVp 3Tpn ^\ va nnpni inb baa ■>x\-i-n^, ''S ns-ini 

:[V]SDn bs inVK^'s? b psm nin! ^hn; -ie^k b^'Kh ns^_ 

tniapSx p x^B'in' 'nxb 3n3i ii 

: in''C5J ' Ti.^ "'5'' ' ''■'V. "'^^ ' ''•' T? '^1??'!^'! ^'^S? b''i)3 

:in3nK n.ina dsd; ib'S :Nin ''DI bs-jE'!:^ K'x'i iina 5 

:inio3 irribja fN "3 nps .•nn'in^ oy ba "ib'K iJJn^ 

;iniTn ny ta ino);i^ ^nbi iDT'^H ^^1=0 i'^l' '™«2i; 

:in>sn mx '-as oy ban3 ."nNbob no q-idnd nam 

nniDi nlas Dcn ic'sn \by tiro; n« i]pw inn^p 

:inio3 dp xb tm b'^n mirD !Nip33 ys'ini WKnp 10 

nniBJp yann^ he'd db-? :T'33b iiay Tjina v\m\ 

^tmS^N p SxiaEr'? :3nDi iii 

:niT'33b ninsE'n ''3''y3 :ni'«ibri ^b*?? in^ 'yy ^b 

••rfntaDb nions nbnins :bn''K niny b33 TiyoB' bsi 

T ; . T-; ■.. '.- : : • T : ' t : ■ v : 

' The poet seems to use already the licence of changing a Sh'va quiescent into 
a Sh'va mobile. But, as Dr. Davidson suggests, the vocalization may be VSIBD. 
For )'"1Stp, cp. Judges 5. 17 ; for CTIS, Amos 4. 3. 

■'■ Cp." Num. 3. 49-51. ' MS. Vyn. ■> Cp. Zach. 11. 13. 

"MS. inbisn. "ms. obisi. 'ms. lyn. 

' See vol. I, 23, note 2. 

Appendix A 

.•niT'na iha ns? cno Dipp 
3:ni-isBn nsijfi ''bin 2hi 

tv:v t t : T : 

:niT3io b'o s<bf) nan 'ns 

:ni-flK'i5 'HDK'Ji 'riTn^ 

:nnita ^nis^n ^spi 

:nnwD ninanoi tDV tiiiab 

jniiiDN T!i9ai3» ■hT^\ 

: niiiyy ^'s^n n3\''nni 

iniTinsj '•USB' ^eo ib ni 

'.rh'-fOff T'nsB' -iny i»a 

«ni-nDNp ^^a navn ioa 

(/(? Chapter I) 

i^aab n»in ixd t^ni 
:it3na -\mi ib'k ia pN dni 
:d« nw jn, n^Di nx ^n^isa 5 
^ ; 5jk by[ ab ii> •'n; naa^Ki 

:^?V1 TlVl 'T'^Vl 

:nibiXN T'«^nio [^8<]^[n] 

i^yai nb[in] nxi nbin *3S 10 

!D>i-)B'33 fjaiv) 71^ 'aa[) 

iTja ne^x "a nin^i jn^ 'W 

:?iniai> ris aiB^ni ''niDsva 

;in^np nwsi 'a lypi) 

pjNi nriK ioa nns i>aK 1 = 

■t; t- : T- T-: iJ 


nnisa ^ni^ais nijn i^aa 
nib^ '•noB'ii ^n^^n^ 

i»;-i7isp B^'aa ioa vbo bi^ 

tnpnsSx ny ansi iv 

:i3ip« nD nsDoa law aba 

'•y}^^. baK njv! niaaai 

jiiMT '•set ii''bab 

"jnnijrsa ^bxa nra hS^ 

:''0 bsi cax 'f?i -jbt? 10b 5 

:wn iB^N Tin ija 'nat^i 

:niBt5'3n !i>ni rbo ns^N 

' The curious plur. of nCN, DIB'K, is unnecessary here, as D'B'J would suit the 
metre just as well ; nilSD, MS. niTVD, cp. Jer. 48. 41 ; 49. 22. 

2 MS. TlTSa. ' Fem. of DnSD, Lam. 1. 3. 

' Cf. Job 19. 22, bx ioa, which Sa'adya takes as nbx. See Dunash b. Labrat's 
niaiETl against Sa'adya, ed. Schroder, 1866, p. a, no. 5, "'JISTin HOb (y'Dn) Vy^\ 

nriKinxi (Deut. 19. ir) bsn Qi'<'y37\ i»a bin \\-ih Nint? nbs nioa bx ioa 
irNi nbx ma nnibv ion^e' nnbii mx VTanb ai''X nana n^n xb 'a PT-b 

(i.e. God) E'nip flt^b xbx. 
» MS. IIS'iB'. ° This hemistich is not clear to me. (But see Addenda.) 

' Cp. Mic. 2.4. « MS. nn^a. 

9 Terror, cp. Prov. lo. 24 ; MS. mjoa. " Cp. Jer. 23. 29. 

>' By mistake ncxa is written in the manuscript ; but dots inside the letters 
denote that it should be cancelled; B'^Xa is written on top; MS. iT^n, cp. 
a Kings 4. 35. 


From the Conquest, 969 c. e., to 1021 c.e. 

t'^Dah'j* ''?« ':'"iy n':'i v 

^rn'?? nxT3 xi'i nn-inxi 

;nn' ijp EJ'Q?.'! 'B*?? T"!^ 

: '3''va ^i53 \'i!« '•no ny 

: ^aab riN n-'V"'! 'jpni 

r'^'aa nmnj^ ''^ri'iy^ 5 

;ni ncj'ya nn^ nxnn ri''Ki 

.M-nj -niiina tynns •'3S 

nnnna ixi^ n^b^n isb'^ p'So ^ik*? nn^i vi 

inib^pa cyiN ''jn •')? by dji 

: nib=iB3 « ^ni^nri nnb nB'S 

» : mihw\ j'apri Dn^ ib^s 

":nii'in»a h wy: Ty baa 

11 : nibinsn bnni i^B'n Tji-iy 

••nibispa "yam 'aix^ 
'«;nibsK3 nioinn ''D''D i»a 

:7]bnN njs nyi njpN 'pb 

:D''N^b'3 I'ns; toa liy nsB'jn 

jnp'iNn iKib: n^s t<bn 

:Q'E'Jt!n ba ib'K Nin nj sbn 

:-i»xni *3anri bx nn^ 

nnao n^yj pb •'wn^B* 

TT : ■ T '-: • - ; - ; 

;n'»xi •'p.ip iaa 'ri'bri:i 
:''b3n POB* ny ■'n^byi 

1 MS. TIN. ^ MS. "ilVSa. » Cp. Deut. 21. 18 ff. 

« MS. ISaipV ^ Jonah 4. 6 fF. 

^ The plural is used for sake of the rhyme. 

' 'The silk merchant', referring to the occupation of Ibrahim, Menasse's father. 

8 MS. ''ni!)''nn. 

' Cp. Isa. 40. II, a figure of speech for a ruler shepherding his people. 
'" Cp. I Sam. 18. 6-7. 

'1 On top of this word there is written in the same handwriting niblOJn, but 
this gives no meaning. 

^'^ Cp. Exod. 9. 32. 13 MS. yaiao. 

" Can also be read rivi'D] . It will then be a verb formed from iiPISD. But 
ni?SW is also suitable, as PSK in the Middle Ages has the meaning of emanating 
and also descending from high downwards (cp. ni;''S{<). Thus the thought is well 
expressed here, ' I ascended heaven but my feet dangle in the waters of the deep '. 
Cp. also infra, p. 239, note 3. 

Appendix A {to Chapter I) 


rniVbo naij? ^S3 vnialoi 

\r\'h^v\ 1*3D3 2 [in"]? "nhi 

'.'[niji'hsn n^Ni nnnOT 

;n'ii>sN ^OT ioa nix t^s 

.•nii'inaa Dn\^s o^riNani 

:nii'j>n niaiT ioa D|n x^n 

:ni^L5a nixian xi) niiDX 

'[npn]? ^)?y^ ^^ ^^ ^10 ro 

: vn$-=|[3]D pjgai) j'isnri ^xi 

: -lb inyiD nn^B'a nan;; ns-x 

rD'ijjij "nimn nxin x^n 

.'Dwbs? tina -iB-x iniTt^ 

.: ^''ipjsja nimn ni^s's^ 15 

lisn^n ijx ^iDipD bx 7]S nna 

sms'^K nnn n^'^x jip npi n*Sx in:Di vii 

»:nn'5:D oix nan^ 

ij I \j 

-:nDB' fab ^jx nbxa 
.; . . . HTii^a 


(fol. 10, recto) 

, v.. 

« : D'H^xs ba 'ipa na naxi 
; D^riDS aiD * nesp i|'n nta 

:D''n'n3 n-i'jj ".^x laiB-ji 

.'D^mB'pn vniaxa '^n^ajj 

.•D'nDE2n "hh^ frs ixsa 

.•ens? r\-i\ ny Dasai^p 

:D'n-iX3 Dannx iK'sai 

:ian^ by na nx nxEnxi 

; nj Di''a rw^ nxp ' wnny 

s-rnbiJ ijniE'a irsm 

jvp^a "DiTjap 'nsaip^ 

:Tl-iap laiy ^r\\ Dn":abi 5 

;D''map io.nn^ ins b;i 

:Di' i^oaba "tt 'na-ian 

■: iaaisK" najfb jn |ri^i 

' MS. njiyO. '^ This reading, however, spoils the metre. Read I'ninPni. 

' This hemistich is not clear to me. 

* Cp. I Sam. .. 3. »MS. nmi:D. « Cp. job 15. 16. 

^ MS. IJ-niy. ' Instead of noSD for sake of the metre. 

" MS. nbinJ. ■" MS. li'3'p\ " MS. DmiBO. 

'2 MS. nSab. ^' MS. 1a^1an. » ms. aabia. 

2240.J B 

i8 From the Conquest, 9,69 c.e., to 1021 c.e. 

:pN-is'?N 'S ih\ IX 

: n33N c'D? nna carn.ns 

inHon nx nsis^ aVi^N ='"!53 

.•inonD '•abni ''di dji c 

T T -; •• •:■.■: * t - : O 

:np3 'af) lijp n« viipsi 
' ; ''xb m^ <3» psn iaa 

:*\i)3i ii) '1^3 no: -IK'S 

nibci? Dap «3'5^ vi {^'n ^ai 
: ^''^3^0 fiit:J) pan ib-k 

T T -; •- T : — T : 

nibw D3"n!) t>Nn ib'i 

^rnna-n D^iriym DRsapin 
riK'wij D^nn nc'x Tnj \^j; 

tvainn on^aai snniaai 

rD'anjjJ n inn nsa^w 5 

;ndi-i'?k fp ma* n'?i xi 

tini[na] 3^n 31D1 i)3p B'^xa iij^jja 'n^^ni '<ni^i53 

;ina^ ns . . . . nB-n btj'a :"i'K'[nb] tij; 'J^p^ nnp^ nj/a 

.'ini33 i)bin in[K naja^xi •■['^?'^'!] ^nnatywa »-ie'V t]''si 

.Mn''B'D :a h^ vi'm '"noiD 'nx ;D3m s'-aj nya no\s n»? 

xph'o *1K *s Sxpi XII 

i^.-niNi vstopi vnhsi :v3i3^ n^anp dji ■'a^' "»i)ijs 

: vj^ya aixsp ^b " ^^n TiN ; [n ^as 'ai' i)«b v;?; ioa 

» MS. ■h\>\rK>. 

' Cp. Ezek. 33. 13. 

' MS. nn«\n. 

' See Mic. i. 8, and cp. Job 30. 29. 

' Read lan , as the metre is faulty. 

* Instead of ^3"!, for the sake of the metre. 

' For metre's sake instead of 31'. 

» MS. Dnia''3i. ' » MS. na>". 

"> IDID in the meaning of culture, i. e. a man of culture. So also Samuel ibn 
Nagdela in his poems (ed. Brody, pp. 35, I. l, and 21, 1. 7). See also /. Q. Ji., N.S. 
I, 247, 1. 14. 

" For "bbtt see Mic. 7. i, Job 10. 15. But to suit the metre read here i!)S (see 
Joel I. 8). 12 Sorrow, cp. Gen. 35. 18, Hos. 9. 4. 

" MS. bbin, but read nVn 'became sick'. 

Appendix A 

: rjiDK nny n^i lai? j^B'b' 
tram •'yy 'iin nxi^ 101 

♦:vrs|5 nriK nyb 'ay ^pa 
.•I'MV "fBiK ant 'ji-itsw 

TT-: • - ; I T • 

jvjpi B-'ain nas Dioj Tjijr 
« : wiyt? E'DB' DE'3 Dna''ri: 

(to Chapter I) 19 

: -\S)Sv'? " vnisina nen^ '•ay 
! ^1'"!! n-P! ri)^? D^V'n ' D?' s 

:^.i'Li>< ''?'?? TT "'■'I"? '.t"!!? 
;d'b' "IK'S a^n ana psi? i.^k 
: tvpn^- D'H^'na vay ij^k 
:t<in DK1 ^s^»a ■'tsy ii^t ro 

:niprnnn niriNn i^i jni 

'iN^voi a-] i-ia|i bina Idb* 

:in''3n noan t^k npie ipiK 

j'Bya ^B> E^'N iiai Dins \nN 15 

:Dnij;2 ai^i *33» "^xpi xiii 

:[niN';]:Fi» nN^r? e'sj oi] 

;Nb il^s vniaca ^:^2) 
:D'aip D'S' nions D''Dni 

. -r': • - -:- • T : 

' Since the sick hero of the poem cannot attend to the communal affairs and 
administer justice, the wronged people have no redress of their grievance ; 
accordingly ' the nights of his oppressed ones ' are prolonged (see also Eccles. 4. i). 

' ' By his eyes ' (cp. Eccles. 12. 3). 

' For |nai (i. e. in these eyes), to suit the metre. 

* Fol. 10, verso, begins with VJ^Sp. But this hemistich is not clear to me. 
In 1. 7 Abu Sulaiman ( = David) is apparently eulogized. But it is possible that the 
poet means, I shall go to David for curing the grief of my heart, i.e. obtain comfort 
from reading the Psalm.s of king David. 

' tVpn' for^p'T, to suit the metre, though I'p*")^ would have been sufficient. 
pltSDI , a Pi'el formed from ItiD ' rain '. 

* I.e. Moses. 

' So in manuscript, but the meaning till the end of the line is not clear to me. 
' 'DpIT? a? = anybody else in the world. 
° For IDS to suit the metre. 

'" IDyO (cp. I Kings 22. 35') = here nJtSD ' appointed '- An allusion to the various 
temple officers (see Shekalim 5. i). 
" Cp. Mic. 2. 4. 

B 2 


From the Conquest, 969 c.E., to \02\ C.E. 

T : T •• r. . T : - ■ -; 

: niKisp ''3 nisop ^^^? b?) 

:i^N3 C!»3iS3p3 "n'.^sji. . 

:|3 ^ipN? »v^a3 ''3 jyp^. 

: nspi pB' nani '■By '-? 

;''B'D3i 'nn -ies'S iins \^y 


:NrK Sxpi XIV 

: nnsi ns ijns t)3 npxa : 'liB'b Vin dki rk 'JHK 

:nnnD wba 'hdd 03^1 

T • ; " T ' : ■ T • ; 

2 : nn3D VBn=,D3 i^NB'ri i'Ki 

: D'3i-iJ< s''B'3 h-2\ -ibp ^ab 
paab nK npe'i xia nnyi 

: nasi j^b* Di*3 ' nxa dji « : a'lE'i B'db', Din nsBai 

8 : nj'js riK iiaja njijbsa : naicij ^n ^-i3| '•3ri-]3T 

« : nsas ^iont« Qva npi; np? : n3p|j 'h naas nn^B'i. 5 

-tN'rs nVi XVI 

: noiN^ DS'31 npp ioa 

T . : T • T : T - ; 

: npran n*np ^ir\ iD3 
: nonipn nnn; ion -^ 

PB-s?^ •'B's: TIT nm N^n 

; nnn imn nya rh xw -ib'x ■ 

: 'aai) ns n*np nns dji 

nstNi ini'oi) N13 nnyi 

: ur\%i fy* nSi xvii 

; n^pSpn D''yB'in pn-ini ! D'-tHSi bsna D»s^ any 

: D''i''iii nn "la^p: vn h\ \ obnp ^inp diji nnp xi") 

: D''Dp cnini^ysp yiia : on t^n dib'^k nioa sian bKi 

: Dn.1-1 nN;ir:p i:p3 ni^i ; t]^ pins' va N^pp fpKn ^ni 

npan ^ni 5 

' Cp. Isa. 30. 14. 
' Cp. Ps. 91. 4. 

' MS. nana. 

° Cp. Isa. 49. 10. 

' Cp. Exod. 33. 16. 

*Ms. nynn. 

' A brasier, Jer. 36. 22. 

" Cp. I Sam. I. 4, 5. An allusion to the ungenerous gift of the donor, just as 
Elkanah treated Periinah with less generosity than he did Hannah. 
" The meaning of this hemistich is not clear to me. 
'" = K^npi, So also in Jer. 39. 7, 2 Chron. 31. 10. 

Appendix A {to Chapter I) 




[One more poem (beginning missing) from this Diwan is preserved in 
a small paper leaf, recto, in T.-S., Box K. 8. At the end there is written 
NV'N ^D3 (J«^). i-e. the poem is also finished. Verso contains poem X 
without the superscription, and again with the ending Ni!»K 7D3. 
Evidently the sequenvce of the poems was different in this manuscript. 
The lines run on and only the hemistichs are separated. The metre is 

mi> ih\_ D''sn Ni53 vnis^ia 'rnin ni\ 

r.E'13 np yrb to nn sQ^tinK ^oioi 

«rB'nip3 rh^i la's Tl'nay nTjin n.n^ 

'n^'mp ^3n -IK'S iinTi?*? iVOB'n!' 

3. [Vol. I, p. 2 7. J 

A poem by Diinash b. Labrdt in honour of 
Shemarya b. Elhanan. 

[Oxford MS. Heb. d. 75, fol. 15, paper, stained, doubled into two 
columns of which the second is damaged ; the hemistichs follow each 
behind the other.] 

(recto, column i) 

v^j ^ [!i]-i3^ p mv. |o DNna ms . 

\ixh^ ja Tf-Kw mi's hvi. 
•nio-iy ta ni3''3i 'nton d: ib nni) 

D''W i'b^i 'niJ3]Di nisjJi 

' Shot with (the glance of) his ej'es, i.e. became angry with him. 
' MS. T/STWO. The reference is to the calf which Abraham cut into pieces 
(Gen 15. 9), so is the poet's heart torn. 

'MS. Dvons. ' MS. ncTipon. 

' We should expect ^K'BJ, i.e. may God rejoice me by granting me his (my 
friend's) sacred soul while he in lieu receive my own soul which is now divorced 
from him. In this way their friendship will be renewed by this interchange of 
souls. A pretty idea finelj' expressed. 

^ Has been parched as if in a pan. ' Enchants everybody. 

' Yehudi ibn Sheshet, Dunash's disciple, in his polemical reply to the disciples 

2 2 From the Conquest, 969 c. E., to 102 1 c.e. 

•'T .; •'tI- : -t; ti * '.*• 

D'^bni nniaa • nnNa'sn D21 = • D'35 djj n»S)n: • due' la obi 
D'nan "03 ni^ . . • 'Dij i>3 i)3pD • '•^•oo 'ai ioa • *»! bs ^a:? 5 

D'^jr D3 nirsp • D^n^lsB'p xi* iai ' • D'h^c xi' D^cen • n'ri^o to:a 

[D^5']}>b n^ha 'n'raEiS ia ^ax 'D'J^d D'H ^<h 'n^yin ps iai 

D'^ian D3 »N^i •nniB' n'riai 'nnin Wrp} 'ennir n^ npana 
D'"Kn nyaEJa 'KS' ii" aio Dbn •^s^3 ip*3 lai 'NSioai xaioa 10 
»D«n D;a iip» Tivljia-ip wm 'rt»sa ^poi •ni'lsnp rsa 

■• : • T ! T T -T : T T? : * : tt- •• - : 

Q["]?P'!? ^sl" ' D"lis ^fis ri?l " ' Dlip [ijoipp?' * DiiJ^ !> . . . 1 

D^^asa iwi^ '03i'o lis'ii' na's 'DaiNaDbiyb '^ • Dans' D'Da[n] 

D^nayn isaa •niaE'np ..'jk TiiaiDnixy^aa •nia'B'»nin['«]pi^ ,5 

n^^i^y D'''iK'i 'Ti^o b niina "ij^Ba ii»in[i "\^'!h 

"D»;i[3-i]3 'rpi '"ysfpi fiisjtp -ys' lnEip[a 'yjSD "e'sgw 

of Menahem b. Saruk (in Stern, Liber Responsionum, II, 9, I. 62), has modelled 
a line with reference to his master after the one here which Dunash himself used 
about Shemarya, Dnnjl D'bnJ • lip' ilX3 * 11N HMn "ICK • in inoana. 

' The fields are irrigated ; for h^Tih^, cp. pn^CH ITia, M. Kat. i^, &c. 

^ MS. D'a'J. 

" In his sea neither sailors nor rowers do ply ; for D'niB', cp. Isa. 25. 11. 

■■ Cp. Exod. 35. 29. 

^ Plur. of '"^ ' gift '. The word can also be vocalized as D'''''tJ', plur. of XVif. 

" The root is really nit ' to be unsteady '. Here nnil is used, instead of ni, for 
metre's sake. ' Is afraid, see Isa. 44. 8. 

* Read v1, i. e. people are looking out to him for his legal decisions. 

« This hemistich reads in the manuscript nV^UID NIHI ' D^n D''D "lipD. This 
is clearly in accordance with the sense, ' and he wells forth in the deserts a fountain 
of living water'. But the rhyme obviously demands the transposition as above in 
the text. The meaning of nvhjIO Nini is not clear to me. The plur. of n''i'3nD 
• a pearl ', is rvi>JnD. i» Plur. of 'KJQ ' for leisure '. 

" Bends down in his place (while studying), i.e. intent on his study. 
" For DOanS' 'whom he made wise', and thereby entitled them for the bliss of 
the future world. 

"MS. yxipDI flDUD ysV ; «1B3» formed from ejOJ, an odoriferous gum (Exod. 
30. 34), and yxpD from ny'Xp ' cassia '- 
" The usual plur. of D13"3 ' saffron ', is pD3ia. 

Appendix A {to Chapter I) 23 

c^O^ T>!$\ ' ii'"??'? pi]Ojn * ['^]?« ^n«x nyi m^j'? irae' nna 
^D'^D^ nnnK "'w 'Dnia •in[b] TTja^ nu'js'»i5i 'Nap i)x^ ib-k 
. . . . • i>N"jb''' . . . • isNijn riK'na • !>« n<3. nn^ wni 30 

4. [Vol. I, pp, 27-8.] 

A letter from Samuel i/te ' Third.^ to Shemarya b. Elhanan. 

[T.-S. 16. 68 (under glass), paper, size 36x33 cm., rough square 
wriiing; cp. Worman,y. Q.R., XIX, 729, no. 21.] 

Address, (verso) 

vj i'Hjn ann pn^s ijun p un-n no netn? rhva nn35> 

nyiB" naiann minon am nnoB' 

anpn VTon niB'SJ "mo \~<a^ 


trnaa 'pDn b [aits] imtt6 mi'B' 

' "poap poca np-i3 i>iji i^Jin 'pma .... nii'np»[a] iDtr np'' . . . . 
'manoa naiaoi minttn ann nn»B' w'am »n» nrnp n^na ni[aa] 
li'i-iB' B-iN niana vb\aa * ^db'n len nviB" ''■i[i]"i1a anvon -131 mto niK 
E'B' n;in prnn tj^tja 'jd'h nioy i^jr '^k 'cj niD' aiu iiaD xijo ' ijm 13 5 

priD jicB'i' un' VK'JN ns'Ni incK 'vBTia ^0^)00 'h 

im'jy^i D»»5'[i]v nix im[DB']'' [vtyJiTsi miB'^ai i''pi"i['s]i vtm 

' DHW evidently means here 'to break' (see Lam. 3. 16). The meaning is: 
by building academies ' the glory (i. c. the glorious scholar) breaks the teeth of 
the cursed ones who become silent'. Probably allusion is made here to the 
Karaites who are worsted if there is an increase of learning among the Rabbanites. 

"^ For D'')5Dn (v'DOl), to suit the metre and the rhyme. 

' For such noun-formations in |^" in the Piyyutim, see Zunz, Synag. Poesie, 397 ff. 

* manoa = miana ' in the company of scholars '. 

» Read perhaps ni'lE" Vaia, cp. Isa. 59. 17. 

° A Paitanic expression for IDnJ PTB'S ; here the adjective is formed into 
a noun (lOn) and placed before paCN. For similar cases see Zunz, Ltg. synag. 
Poesie, 64a, 16 : Genitiv-Umstellungen. 

' A man upon whom God caused (His lamp) to shine, see Job 29. 3. For 
|ini(?) readjom. 

' Magnifies God by Piyyutim or hymns recited during the 'Amida of the 
New Year, which consists of nine blessings. The expression PD7D is already 
used by Kalir and other early Paitanim (sec Zunz, Syn. Poesie, 125). 

24 From the Conquest, 969 C.E., to 102 1 c.e. 

n^i-j 1133 p D''D'j;33 vni3t:'i vd^ 2iq3 Thy\ 

inu ontJi mnsi T^r^ -m. r\^rw !5njn 3nn ijh^k ir3m uno ntrnp 

vnn^D r\yi> *pnD»i v3mN w»o i-nj ^'hv [fiv] P^ -o 

E'TO' K^B' y3p n3V3ni5 y3pi -mp' "mi' ^33 [3"s]n ib^n im3y» 3itDi 


3:^N 'D 

y[nn] iito D<^yn 313 ■nsp, pino li^xn imw i»V3 'nunc D"P^i 

ic'pb I1V1 'n* • • inT'yD insn rsJi • imsj'ND iny»K' ins d:^n • d^bsj 


Nt^^'] fjsi 'i^JT "D^NT'i 'i^NB^ \^-cs^ Dip 'nijs ' - D^nn Dt^n 

mna n3n3 

*3 ^iKB* |3 nn-i3N n:3-i nyiDB' nyorj n^sn O'cu '3 i3'3T ynin^ 

vnouiy i5UK'3 nsvb 1:3 in: 'n nb dk-i P3B' laun^ '"ni D-om 

niyyo v^y won ''3 icsj? i'v sin nnD* n^i n^^tj* ni^D^' ini:Di''Di 

n3t3in s*h niniNn 
Dv ^531 -limin 'hrni 'MmnD ^n": n-on it 155" sini vh^i ie'd: 20 

np^ fj^DiD 
\i-i-\-a i:k D"'y3ini li' -nc'inB' nD3 no'': sbi nnn3i nicon 13 c^i 

i''3n3D3 in-iNB''i in^"3E"i inr3'i in^'yv-n 3it;n tii imw py 

bs vnnJNi 
•'i4''»: v3niNi vyn ^ki • ^^310 nt<i3V3 DTiicn • vniyD \>v.\ vnii'np» 

• vnisDn 
i>y D*»* ei''Di''i 13UT 33^" D^nVsn "wy xin i3oy i»y ne'y'B' no ^3 "'3 

•inys" -Tno'i •inmn Tnn 'inipn fcx'i vnuB" ^y D'jn i[''!2'] 25 
n^D •in3n3 Dii'tf i'D^D''i n^vyi n3T'i '"inTn" nicc^i "in^n mxn 

m»3 mi3n3 *^^vfr\ ^nidc 

' Cp. Job ag. ii. * Read perhaps nipTlD. = Ps. i6. 6. 

< Cp. Isa. 62. 7. » Read Dnil. 

' From pJII ' the banner '. For similar noun-formations, see Zunz, /. c, 387-8. 
' His soul i^cp. infra, p. 85, note 6). 

» In T.-S. 16. 14 our Samuel is mentioned as head of the court at Damascus in 
a document drawn up in 1007 c.e. 

Appendix A {to Chapter /) 25 

5. [Vol. I, p. 28.] 

Data concerning Samuel the ^ Third'' and his son Abraham. 

Samuel 'i^b^n is known as a liturgical wriler. T.-S., Box H. 5, 
contains four torn paper leaves of liturgical compositions for the Day of 
Atonement. Fol. i verso, reads PXICC ^[n] (another composition) ~ins 
^\ NiJJBnn na ''K'''^C'n. Fol. 4, verso, has (Ibn Abitur?) ^f ain ^OY nn nnx. 
T.-S. 8 H 23', verso (recto contains scribbling) begins a composition 

for nanan nxn. 'c-'Scn ^xidc -rh -na-ian nNtii nvi'' •N^rDnn loca 

'131 «l'Din niana J?3ns '(D'om NSD"'=) rn 'iov Alphabetical, preserved 
till letter '1 . T.-S , Box H 1 5 contains four paper leaves wherein we 
read (fol. i, recto) nn DUTxr n^DKO DTiiBx : iJt 's^^B'n bayovb nns" 
(on rhv2 Tfl, alphabetical, ends on fol. 4, recto). Two more pieces 

Two other paper leaves in the same box contain (fol. i, verso; recto 

blank) -jiDa ■>» ijt >w'hvr\ bvi.\o^ tin t^2; fol. 2, verso, i?i ^vrh\vbH Tica *d. 
A colophon in T.-S., Box K 6, reads (verso) DV NnaDJ | p JNisi'K IS'ai 
j'DDa n3D I Sn^x nxD? p | rnry iiNi DDKaijK | (r. pansi's*) icnx^N 
pia na | n^n mm"' anai | njjjti'in nirb a bv.\o^ \ nio fi''3vn n'NO | Dtiai 
Dli'E'l tOD ^li^n I nS'' niD. Accordingly a copy of a work by Samuel 
b. Hoshanah was completed on Jumada i, 550 (probably a. h.= i 155 c.e.). 
The copyist was Yehuda Hallevl b. Yefet. A leaf in T.-S. Box Library 
Collection.contains (verso; recto blank) | vaJ ^^'hv ^NIDC in [n''B'X]n3 nSV. 
Or- 5557> A., fol. 7, recto, contains a part of 'm D^DinN ''wb ptc nana 
ijj '■tJ/i^B'n IjnicB'; Or. 6197, fol. 10, has a part of i>Nl»B' Wani) fDIN 
'E'^^CJ'n. Cp. R.E.J., LXIII, 118, no. 132: 'ny'^E'^X i'N'IOE'i' UXtDH ; 

p. 285, no. 1 23 : (r. N3j?Enn) Nji'yts'in 'a-ia 'B^^rn S'nidb' 'mb D*:K'm ^b pctB 

n^nn^l Ijf; see also p. 287, no. 300. Haikavy, Hakkedem, I, Hebr. 
part 64, mentions a Petrograd MS. (Antonin), no. 104, with the 
superscription XJViJ-in p i'XIDE' 'T nirnDD. Bodl. 27i5*<' contains a 
liturgy which reads at the end nxjaoi) liai'O "1 ninbin nnvV n^ca 

!?sr NJvnn pi) (r. naca ''di) vaayo" nniNtDi cjois* mm. See further, 

Bodl. 2729^^-*; 2548"^ Probably several pieces in Bodl. Catalogue, 11, 
Index, s. V. Samuel, are by our scholar. See also Marmorstein, R. E.J., 
LXVIII, 47, note i. 

Samuel's son, Abraham, signs a Get dated [il'D^N npans' niB* (1. 2) 

[s>DDi NHJiD [nijDn] ... (4) r^B' nw [pjjcni pixD vat^i (3) 
n'ana "'B'l^rn ^kiob' *aTa nann nmaN wn (signature) . . . '\'bb (5) 

nnnci (T.-S. 10 J 2^). T.-S. 13 J 20' contains a letter in Jewish Arabic, 

26 From ike Conquest, 969 c.e., to 1021 ce. 

addressed Dmax ina n^nj inj (4) maaJi mv*i mnsi lopr!? (1. 3) 
w pan pns' UTia TpM ne'n (5) inon, from ^nide' »an*3 omas uinx 

yj miana 'C'^e'n. It is nowhere mentioned that Samuel's son, Abraham, 
held the dignity of 'Fourth' as Dr. Marmorstein, I.e., states. He 
evidently confused him with Abraham ' the Fourth ', the son of Solomon 
b. Yehuda {infra, A. B. 31). 

6. [Vol. I, pp. 28-9.] 

A letter f?-om Fustat relating to the demise of 
Shemarya b. Elhanan. 

[Or. 5560, A, fol. I, recto, paper, size 21x18 cm:, square writing, 
very faded and much damaged towards top and bottom ; verso contains 
a selection of biblical verses apparently in different handwriting.] 

D^2pi d'5;i[d] ■hs nan[i] 

D'cnn n[B'i3]ni D^nJB' 

i'N HDxi 'iD i^JD -^"arx hnd nhv 

ijrsi ;in B-pao '31 anyn i^K n^ 'a 

nMSc na 'xd W aitj'Ni ^h^'v^r\ nnsn h-sa un[DrJ .... 5 

D'CB' pxns D^jnn iniD"'i D'Ni^nn na nvdni 

.... 3 xano "yoi »mos dj ■h^ \rhtx\ w . . , . 
. . D»J3 ntj'ijB' i^v 'ncnjna dj hub' ... "n ... o nann 

[Q'n''3i] . . , ,h Tiasynj i^'n nnvDi I3[d]v n^ninxi 

[p'm] iD^iy fTii^ nosji nrs'i ^f 3nn .t-ide' -iio ni-n nnn lo 

. . . . Ijf 'Sr'i^B'n ^NIDB' W'iiN N3 ihs '>»'31 P3B' pSn^ 

. . . [iDijpM innsD iinj ijnpi W\v b pin k 

^y . . . nn^5 o ^^D^ irB'[^n]i 

^3 D^onn ^n'DN n'33 b'''n is oy WK-ni ijk i3iDDn[''i] 

«'3^ npNJ j)CE"i "irnN " ^N pyvji xin mo p or^ Nin i>3 15 

unini D»b3i nwi'B'^B' nmo 11333 [i3t<]<:»vi uniN jn'i 

nwi nnin^ nsj icn!' 

. n»N ...... 

. . . \^T 'CI 'jiD*jn 
[yJoB'Ni np . . . . 

= Dnxo. 2 =,3.nbN. 

Appendix A {to Chapter I) 27 

7. [Vol. I, pp. 2 9-30. J 
An elegy, probably on the occasion of the demise of 
Shemarya b. Elhanan. 
[Or. 5557 ?> folios. 55-6, paper, square writing, vocalized.]' 


(fol. 55, recto) 

DUVJ1 B'iD» \h fjlta 

" • □•'vnr . , . . iv xi^i rmr\ tints 

• D'yjs li? . . . . 3 ^tN nnn Tin* 

Dn'D^n '3 ' : D'viin xhh^ bi[pl 

:Dn"nn nmina man 5 

•nmaK'n Din i^no ^h siDsa 'n^)^ O 

• D[nN]» B'D t;^ i^'asi i^naj nnio^ 

'^T ni) 'mnx II 
mo |VVD ^loy na njn^ ^p n:n 10 

'•invjii Dam •imini jna .tX 
'mj;B' nnnijo a^tyo •injcci am 


"•D'njx: Dn'oiri •"o'pe'a ["^]^ if<2 

:mDa nsD •D''p[wa] idddi 

• I'ls iviva J'^^1 • " inxn b'iss'd n^J 

'-.•mv Tp !;di -pna ann fioma 

unpD nna:i "anyD i3 lyl 5 

aina "aina •'insa nxr b • Nub 

• n^T D'cn pjti • riB'ayi " n^i'Dix 

' Poem III, from letter D, is also to be found in T.-S. 8 J 31'°, recto and verso, 
in different handwriting. Letter D occurs only in this manuscript (verso, 1. 6 IT.). 
• The beginning of the strophes are indicated by me with large letters. 
2 Cp. Dan. 11. 31. ' Zach 11. 3. 

* The a is evidently intended for the reading 'iai f[D2 i02. 
' Another poem by the same author. Read either mnS or nON (the Arabic 
feminine form). 

« Jer. 8. 19. ' Cp. Jer. 18. 18. » Cp. Isa. 28. 6. ' Joel i. 13. 

'" The rhyme demands here the reading D'p3t<3. 
^' Isa. 24. II. ''' Isa. 22. 6. " Cp. Amos i. 5. " Joel i. 12. 

2.8 Fro7n the Conquest, 969 c.E., to 102 1 c.e. 

: m3V3 ^yyy^ ri^5?ni 

:n-iinn n:Di'Nn33 '»"iE'3n DB'N-ii' fiim 

» : mDD3 *3aBi ^ ' "JX^n njiy ' ' 
'••'n''"^ no DVni ■'"'nn nbn 


(fol. 56, recto) 

•n['!'3n ']^3 [iQDD 'Dly [v^'v] -nn^n px 'Ji 

■■ : [•'JtJ'xn 'i'v in n''i[b] • nnxK' n''n c^x ^j? 

•pn DJ1 may nvn -px lava vnMj 

''B'BJ anxni "iDj/ -j-no fnoa i^[aN]i 

• Dnsx v^y no • onrx v[^]y niyo"! s 

« : inab p'tJ* D'cxi ' ' Dnui SS'^ na^xi 

•nJB'n ■([b'x] niBDini 'nri'Di xnpo i)!? nH 

"."B'sn n^noa i3ni 'nan ibvi Dnpi^ 

•niD^ n^n van le'x 'niDnni rixnan nrr^l^nn ^y 

rt^ipn pia' *Di '"'niDisj [d]v3 dsx Tf< ^° 

" na'' xi 
'noip d:i n[iv]v na'' 'noan |pr n3''3 tpT 

:''B'BX *x nonoai 'ncino dv3 i^n n^x 
'2 fa 


•m''3in Dnvf:'! 'mi5[v3] ni'an 

" : "B'roB'n pia ibdi • mnn naa ts?33i 

■■b [i]' 1!:b^ '^33 *:3 n3*B''' dv •i'3n3 us n3''ti"> nnatS 

: •'B'pio h'i ih jincns " • ^3ib' 

•nrin rr-ni ^no "nr DE'xnD m* 5 

c^r cui'Di -ntJ DM "}nnK> -i[di] 

•in'Si* piDV ^D :'B'i3i 

tnon ijai •\r\'hv mno ijai 

' S vivel and bucket for drawing; water (see Jastrow, s. v.). 

' " Cp. Jonah 2. 6. ^ Job 16. 7. ^ Cp. Job g 7. 

< Cp. Job 17. I. * Cp. Job 23. ■^. » Cp. Prov. 4. g. 

' Mic. 1. 8. 8 Cp. Ps. 69, 12. 9 Ps. 88 6. >" Cp. Job 3. 7. 

" I.e. nOlp riEi DJI X:''"inX Xnoi:. it therefore seems that the copyist of this 
composition had before him more than one version. 

" = PD'B. " Cp. I Sam. 6. 14, iS. 

" Cp. Isa. 47. 2. "> Cp. Judges 8. a6. 

, . Appendix A {to Chapler I) 29 

^'nioinon paiTvi •nioa»i'i nu[2^J 10 

. , -11N3 TllOI^Vn D3 nN3['] 

•D''TDn Djr 'insnD 

•nnnj dv yap^i 15 
:''S'ipD nu nn'i 

V''. [Vol. I, p. 30, note 2.] 

Fragments of letters prom Shemarya b. Elhanan. 

Oxford MS. Heb. b. 11, fol. 8 (cp. Bodl. 2874''^) was apparently 
issued from Shemarya's court. It has nothing to do with the appoint- 
ment of a TpD or Nagid, as is stated in the Catalogue. The fragment 
is much damaged and faded. We give here a number of lines 

ii'iK p lib no . . . (2) . . . 3-in pn^K '■anu a"i[n nnoB'] ... (0 

si7[3] ... (3) [nsji iJDD i:p ^3 <jnE'3i [njy k , . . B'N , . [i]3 viTn 

nyBTii nixD E'i'B> 0^3(5 i'i[Dn] . . . [']DbNnt:N^K i"b [3 Dn-i3N p 

n:ip Xing' n'snD3 ^:h nn^snci iqibi' nn^vno tiiJT'B' ... (4) DUinr 

D'''pn:i onyn lonni .1333 finia'D ni5Dn3E}' poyno b ^113 nN6[n] . . . (5) 

nnN -1 , . ^ . . |iDD3 n^on^ i'[''i']3 p Qm3x p fib ib [ib] ... (6) 

n1?3 pb'D13 •'sniB' 5]^ i^J 'br\ '3 ^nyot:' yioB' ... (7) ^iib no n3 jj 

VN3D n' b inpoi 1-1300 NiT'B'i rh-crh^ p . . . (8) vnvs 'jni Tiitrn 

^y DnvDo I'pan tNv[oB' nsis* px] ... (9) 303 p ''3 ni'on3 Tpsn 

-t nai ni tbj ann ny . . . (10) 'jdoh/I ""h^h . , . i3n3 . . . vq 

QiYifn •'3033 nsno . . . (n) tiovs dn Visb ni3r^ orn -int<b 1^ an^z' 

^ib N33 ... (12) onn'' DN' mtvl' 1^ r.TB' ni3bon ■'^n: ^[3n33i] 

' Instead of nt^JO!, for sake of the rhyme. The interpreter between Joseph and 
his brethren (ppOn, Gen. 42. 23) was Menasse. See Gen. R. c. 91. 

> Lilcewlse in the answer of the Palestinian academy to DIJ'T 'C^JS, 960 c. e. 
(see Graels Jubelschrijt, 31-2, and R.E.J., XLIV, 238) we read D3P iTH 31D1 
fUlTiJ)! niD3'' V»1V3 1:^ hvCth- ' Read inX'no. 

* Probably reference is made here to a JIOtD which began with ^'pn ; perhaps 
nNiril B'N-I 'b i^'piT (see Lam. 3. 5). 

30 From the Conquest, 969 c.E., to 102 1 c. E. 

"Tisf'n . . . (13) r|ib ^y BjjnnJi pB^nD nrnt? eii'3^ . . . ^rA> 
0^313 ihe'D n\nE' n^in my kS ejib 1^ pna'i nj33 fi''^n"i- There 
follow six more lines, very faded. It is evidently a legal document 
setting forth the dispute between two partners, Khaluf b. Aaron and 
Khalaf b. Abraham. The latter went on business to Damascus without 
the former's consent. The 'official' (Tps) of Ramlah yN3D (I. 8), 
probably was superintendent over the merchants (D''^^1D^ Tps). His 
colleague in Fustat (1. 9) is probably identical with Muhassan b. Husain 
IS'VDB' nilX px (i.e. the nephew of Simon) who is mentioned in a 
document of 1026 c.E. (see vol. I, 82). A very damaged fragment 
(T.-S. 12. 43), top and left-hand side torn, seems to be a letter from 
Shemarya to a friend of his. There are mentioned (X. b. ?) Nissim of 
Alexandria, and Musa Jalab ibn Ezra. The fragment concludes 
. . . W3inN Xihxi "13 eiDV n mi'B'l '['oh^m. Signature : Shemarya 
Ab-Bet-Dln hvTW^ ^ h'<0. 

1\ [Vol. I, p. 3 I.J 

Note on historical accounts in the form of 
'Scrolls' {Megillot). 

The same form Sa'adya gave to his Sepher Haggaluj. In defence 
against criticism he mentions that 'in this our generation the people of 
Kairowan composed a Hebrew book on what they suffered at the hands 
of mjtr ?N ' the Christian ' ; it was divided into verses and provided with 
accents (cp. Malter, /. Q.R.,y^. S., Ill, 489-90). Evidently this book 
was a IXITp n?JO, and after the same model we have the D*-isi3 thyo 
discussed here. Indeed Egyptian Jewry during its long history had 
occasion for several such scrolls describing events fraught with danger 
for the community, and the subsequent deliverance. The so-called 
3 Maccabees is in fact a Megillat Misraim, setting forth the perils which 
the Jews of Alexandria escaped during the reign of Ptolemy Philopater 
(221-204, B. c. E. ; cp. also Josephus, Contra Apionem, 11"). The Jews 
were to suflFer destruction from the fifth to the seventh days of Epiphi 
(month of Epiphi= June 25-July 24). After their rescue the Jews fasted 
from the seventh to the fourteenth days of this month (6. 38-40). Another 
Megillat Misraim describing the deliverance of the Cairene Jews in 
1524 c. E. was published by the Rev. Margoliouth, /. Q.R., VIII, 277 ff. ; 
cp. ibid., 511-12. A second recension of this scroll, with an Arabic 
translation in parallel columns, is contained in Or. 7768 (Margoliouth, 
Catalogue, 111, 1915, 591-2). 

Appendix A {to Chapter /) 31 

8. [Vol. I, pp. 31-2.] 

First Version of the Egyptian Scroll of 10 1 a c. E. 

[Oxford MS. Heb. e. 95, fol. 54, square writing, provided with accents 
and occasionally witii vowel-points.] 


[nx nns] b>\x sidk^i :»-* . . . •'ci' 

[iNB*]'! non 115 h\'ah i'[npn b i]s3p'i i^npn 

nni D'piBTi nnN3 nnri irmro nx 

D3 1N2P1 nnapn nu iiN nsi' n&'x 

Di^^P'i D'^nsn ml^po'i onvD "ejidsdn 5 

pN 'ppn Dn'i'j; ippin'i Dn''^3; Mb'":*!*! 

Dn''i5y ijiiT^'i :^Dj? laina nn'^j; nna^i 

"innin'i irs?^''! irySi i2''y^'i pv ivnpn 

iNC'i nr Dj? nt ji''Dn''i DT'aNni' itrpan 

DJ1 VD31D1 rtyjij nnsn n^Jtyi :e'iX-i 10 

DD1D3 DV3 ivnaii msi v[nt2]ir'i5 hh^r\ 

DismM Dism'i Dnna'i nD»n nnxo 

i)!? iDiyi Dyn lijnrv ^ : ni^DD3 D[ii'i5i]y'i 

n^HB'n nno 1x3m nnoi im3 dhd dc:'S3 

nnci DH^jn lucain dhd |idd 15 
[i^]3i3i iinn* ipnn onci lui' lai'E'in 
[njB'^E'i DHB'V Dyn fo lopi^i ron^i^n 

[bn]N1 D^xb ['3]E'3 IDB'D i'S D1DDN''1 B"N 

[inpil CJ'SDV] DJ CM'Jjn D'3^ ■'D13''N'3 

:DmK'[*3:] d2d ^v cnnjs nvp[o] 

3»'') fpr B'''K imnjD <:3o D-3 'n*i 

■>B»^B' Nim D'-n^N XT' nn naai ':j; 

:wuK'in f3 ^NicB' iDci mi3n3 5 

nj;3nN3 ijrn dv3 'ip33 iDot'^i 

:DrnD niyB' t:'i^B'3 nm3i ^'n3 

' Thronged, cp. Ps. 2. i. '^ Cp. Ps. 62. 4. ' (r;p_ Judges 20. 43, 45. 

■■ The meaning here is probably that the cell assigned to each prisoner was no 
larger than the space of a crib (see Isa. i. 3). The word □''35 can be read in the 
MS. as DiS^ or D'r^. 

From the Conquest, 969 C.E., to ro2i c.E. 

DniD''1 D'piB'a DIVT'l D13'B'D''1 

Qia^N D''JiDn D'3i»n Dis^p^i Dunwi 10 
vpani DiT^v oni'D Dinni nna-ii 

Dnnaia on'^'sf iTny'i di31j''i nisnn*! 

DiDnvi nnn nipo ^n D'asnoD Dii'un 15 

51j;n DiTiys^i d.t-^'U/D an n[ND]- 

:nns nan D^n nnn ;vd^ DyT[ai] 

hp mm mcN -b-w na'-Sna ^[n'>i] 

[Or. 5560, A, fols. 5 and 6, paper, clear square writing, size 19-7 
XI4-2 cm.; fol. 5, recto, 11. 1-4 (^Ip) is identical with the preceding 
i'ragment, verso, 11. 14 (Dpm3n3)-i8 ] 

(fol. 5, recto) 
DipO b^ D'DCOD Dl^UVl Dnn313 

:nnx naa nnn ;5Jd^ oyrai ^lyra 
nnnnN ^ip n;ni hidn icy na^bina ^-l'1 

nnvpoi naoon ^n d'scid D'b'ji^n 

l^on pcixa ncjs IK'S notron ^jn* 
^:db'sj nx3 h\~a nj? d^t ^333 ijyi 

n^5xi' "by nS'i niJiDD03i D''n33 ixannn 

ncK'i ; nrh ivni onny:; nvvi nu^i 

cnicBj i3Nh DJin bb^b nrnDn >J3 

1^3Xn''l nniD PNI i'NDB'b "IE3''3'1 -ItlU |'X1 15 

Dn'nipijDi nn^nnaiyo ny onTiijai 0.^:3 
'Dvy 1NVD xh nnn'n Dsyni mna i'nj''i 
. . . . iy B'SJ njviTNni : y^>rh m))\p xh] 
noon [onjnwi dh'b'j 20 


» Read riKB. » Cp. Ps. 105. 18. 

' ' Strength '- But read perhaps Hi'V. 

Appendix A (to Chapter I) 33 

(fol. s, verso) 

-\bnn nyc* 'jsi" ipaxnii di^bj lis^s^i 
isnp'i ipvi'M ' on^cK-i ^y "isjy i!'y^i 
nvB'in noNii iinnc^i ''D^n^JNi' npina 
Dnpyv nyocj o \ti 'o^JiDn irjns 5 

nx irn^s nuM Dnii5n ^y nnT'i nnn 
^3^B3 'v* nu lijon nij *3 □rr'i'y on"! ni' 
li) ynin'i ° : ijq' pan* * ne'x ^3 hv D'd 
«i5Dy D'3n3ni ;ik D>ppnn Dnyn -iipa' 10 

DTIND^) 3np mSDO n^T ''3 nCN ^31 

npn sh nny ynv t^^x oni xvoj xi'i 

nV'SD's D^B'jx nysnx dx •'3 nnnc' 

"h i^jiT'i :Dnnya D>yji3i DnnnK'3 

QiTi'3ni Dn''^3Ji nnnnai onnpa' 15 

TiD b 3ynD pns ^^D ly^ ''n^ lijoni 

pyv3 \T'i ':ixD3 nyo nonai yen 

' [n^i^n] wjnx i)DnM on^jyi dhtji * DJi[Dn] 

[Dx''Sinh Dnn]xisD Dnjioni DiT^no 20 

(fol. 6, recto) 

nx n3''B'n^ nison nwi : oxbo 

wy*i i'yj inK' nyi dird □n^B'npij 

l^cn nx i3"iaii ix^ii :niv nB'X3 

ni3n3 ^b ui'i uioix nya' nsiD'i 

j'Dx^i inui'D ini:nS vn y^iArb 5 

■•mTD ii:ai> nnah inna nityi'i v^"n 

TOB'ni'i VX3B' n*n3nh V3nyoi D^^iyn 

D'pyivn nninx oy nyvi nn^iix 

'PjB' ^x nrnon ^x ob vnx'") D*3Dni 

D''X3n3n DH'nx Dnx-ipij ix^n :Dnva 10 

' Cp. Joshua 7. 6. '' Cp. Jonah 3. 8. ^ Cp. 2 Kings 6. 26. 

' From "lE'X to fol. 6, recto, 1. 3 (PlIS) is also found in one leaf, belonging to 
Mr. Adler, paper, provided with vowels and accents. It is perhaps a part of 
Oxford MS. Heb. e. 95 (above, p. 31). 

5 Prov. 21. I. ^ Cp. Isa. 10. i. ' Prov. 20. 28. 

- » MS. Adler Dyn piyt3. » MS. Adler Dn'^y ^bD^. 

2240.2 C 

34 From the Conquest ^ 969 c.e., to 1021 c.e. 

nnN3 iiann'i innmi nnsj bi ^»t^31 

nnin nao riK'^tJ' ik'si»i inijnjn 15 

no"i3 i:b'''i D"n d'h^'n^j ninin mM 

NIDI niinan ijijn ixnp'i ii>an i33n[N5)] 

. . . ^'tri Dn>^y lynp'i sn^nj n[nDtJ'n] 

[njtf] ba n«ynni>i na Disb . . . 

(fol. 6, verso) 

neon "ij; tiaB* ra-vh nc^tr di>d niB'i 
Bn[B']bE> Dixb Dnii'V Dmn'ri ifiap :u 

ijip n^ajf^i nae'a lyac" rsi : onp^n 
lyapi) onsDa na-x oninM nx owai' 5 
dc^ nmni) n^jxn D»D:n nar^ rriiyn 
bai n^on wjnxi' niana nmnh^ irn^x 
DnsD px nianD ntj-s cinaani nn^vn 
iB'pa pex xuai O'a-na ne'x ou^vm 
h^B*^ DiTiisj nsJiiT'i nninia n^ nii'B'!' 10 
vcicna 'iT-i ijnniii n^oB-n^i iiah 
ainai? nivi nyS^ »n^ i^jon iriiixb -lain 
niDipon b W nnsD ni^triji oinnh 
b iV30'i :Dnin'a t m^e' ^nbi" 
oip» ba 03 1VJ3 N^i nnjJT 'Btpao 15 
lyap^i icis'i Dni.Tn iv3pn'i 'mpoi 

hna] : wjnx nx inaisi v >3s n[x] 
[l^en abj nxr3 inj itrx wnux Nni^x 

[Continued in T.-S. 8 J 34', verso, 1. i] 

i"njni5 pa^n umx p iii? •"irnipni' 
vxiia noTn5)i o^n D>ni'xi» nviin 

' From Aram. JD3' to hide'. Likewise nDt331 from Aram. tDtS. 

' Probably read [Dynl itJ'XT. ~ ' 

' From here also in a leaf (brownish paper, square hand), T.-S. 8 J 34'. 

' T.-S. 8 J 34', reads H^xn niDipDJI 1)33. 

<■ T.-S. 8 J 34', reads 'its' DT. • Cp. i S ig'" 

Appendix A {to Chapter I) 35 

N03D3 i'i'inDn 'xshT^ \r\i vh 5 
nsB' b 1X2331 nciN b 

Nin ni^nm na-in i'a 15$? nB'x 
nnpn :vn'''T' nsnn ddi-id 
n^Dno D"'svi> !5^inD vnii?^ 
Dioanno nyn 5)300 di»dip 10 

':i3D ynin d^dw -w^. wb 

Second Version of the Egyptian Scroll of 1012 c.E. 

FT.-S. 8 K 10, pointed, with accents, large square writing, size about 
i6-i X 12-5 cm. Fol. I contains the morning blessings from minn n3-|3 
to minon noCi ; fol. 2 should come between fols. 6 and 7. Fol. 3, 
verso and recto, is identical with Oxford MS. Heb. e. 95, recto, 1. 12 
(DIsnT'l) to verso, 1. 8 (nm3l).'' Between fols. 3 and 4 there is a gap 
which is partly filled up by /. Q.R-, IX, 25, 11. 1-8, There is likewise 
a probable gap between fols. 5 and 6. Fol. 6, recto, 11, i-ii (iimM), 
agrees with Or. 5560, A, fol. 6, recto, 11. 3-9.] 

(y.Q./?., IX, 35, 11. 1-8.) 

D5? ViT :D''jiE'N-in D'NUjn ipinyn nws x''3:i prn Dnnj ny ■'jb' m: 
i nnan hv.^ D'xiy i'N ivij naoi n»i> ^30 ni3i'Di> ni3^»» ovnyj D'ni's 
Dmr iijj nisirii niyn disdn'i msn nnv n tS WJn Di»'n ini'K 5)331 
D^?' Dn'>[ni3]K \ni'K i'*' ^n d31b'31 d'i"!D3 -ini in 15331 :D''''n fjj idid 
)ry3 D<»m rsh \Tf\ cdj 3n noDin Tihrw cnI's n-'^'S'-i ci''v''C1» [Drt]5' 
'nb^Ji DJVjn t?»n ncs innin \s!<h\ Dni3N nn3 ivni) o^jdi -^n b 
l^JiDn 5J^?-^1oiN3 fin Nipjn ii>Dn id»3 in»i : nnnNtJ' nnan 

mcy E'll'B' p 

35' 3nn3 ns^jeon 5)3 

^^X3 N^JI 5'3B' 31D31 lo 

nD3 j'yri' nI^i nitrDl) 
a^Dp n»3i vijy Mncip ontyip 
vijy i»p 

(/. Q. R., I. c, 1. 8 ff. = fol. 4, recto.) 

iiconi nnxD }'-is3 

3nyD3 j"iNn ni3''a3 

: D'3i \sii mi»3i 

prnni 'nnuijo n35ni 

ND3D 1ND3 DTI }*DNni 5 

: rni3s ni3Ni vni3N 

1 Read perhaps 1D3. ° Above, p. 31. 

s Arabic suffix (J). Read inwi^D. * Read nivp. 

C 2 

From the Conquest, 969 c.E., to 102 1 c.E. 

rohy rrt^^ o^nu'i 

tyi^ci ^^ rm vcn 

ci'tn nnwi nisD 5 

N'ni rmiv\ pDDnS> 

niKD VBTi rusr 

:Bnip ni3 

hT\\>T\ ''JTHD B'''K tlDN^I lo 
(fol. 6, recto) 

vi"n j'Dxi'i iniai'D 5 
niriD^i inn: mrybi 

vwity T'nan^i vmyoi 
"niv^i V3'N TDB'nh 

nvvisn Dn''nx dv 10 
noKM vns'i n''33ni 

(fol. 6, verso) 

nei'Dj -ma irtj-sj 

1:0^031 nan nacj nsD 

'Tmn -nv "ums 

(fol. 4, verso) 

niaa nnn n'^rh^ a^^sM 
iDjyii '^VB'i WB»i pns 

BStW DISB'i'l pns PT 5 

>B'3K nx pnTi :n»N 

px ^riD riN nD''i Don 

lai'DD nx 3yn'i 

3nN^l isysn "ijji im 

31V' nxi hyo tid ns 10 

im riNi DSE'cn 

3nD wi ;3iDn 

(fol. 5, recto) 

3^1 pixi? mans 
pmab D':es3 nnv 

3^ ^5J ' ^ lE'x n^'^ 

nr3 lonp si?! i^d 5 
^ab vnvi :pD^E> b 

eiD33 N^ IXan pN O 
<i>t1J3 N^l 3nT3 K^l 

DV3 Dvn »ffi °:nvn»3 xh 

C3B> t^Tin^ nB'i'2> 10 
(fol. 5, verso) 

ca^N nyaix nrca 

DiV3B'l mXO ^31^1 

' The first two letters of next line, to fill up tlie space. 

■' Cp. Ps. 45. 8. 3 Supply nby. •* Better i)U3. 

" Oppression (see Jer. 22. 17). 

^ Read HJIVI, and they assembled themselves. ' Ps. 124. 7. 

" The beginning of the Tauhid, (the declaration of the) unity of God. Probably 
thi- Shema' was to be recited here. 

' The stroke on second Aleph denotes that the letter should be deleted. 

Appendix A {to Chapter /) 


no*'' nB'N3 ''2 in on lo 

(/.Q.i?., /.c.,11.5-9^; 
1DB' tVD^ 13VW1 MjniN ID' 

nna ij;»h- nuK nna ivd^i 

DE' ST '^:nb niB'j; 'b nxr 
nnyo nniK'Di inn» i3''ni'N '>*' 
^oisiv^i nnn nni' D^iy nvi 
la's D^nvj nvjiji □''oi'is? 
wi'K vnna'noi vniKi'[aj] 

(/. Q. R., I. c, 11. a5-6 = fol. 7, recto) 

iDvjf n-isD3i m'w 

ini^bn nii^i'n ^hbdd 

naj 13 iniDon imn^K' 

non ^vh^s 

lij^n D^iyi' " noNi s 


mtj?3 n^jon m»j3 
Tia ni'^i'sj xnu 
obiyi' nina' 
iDKi i»K ni'iy^ " ina lo 

Qli'B'l |0N1 

{J.Q.R; /.c, bottom) 
PIDB Ij) n'piDS D13D 

Dam'' -it^x nmo 
nininai ma''' Tna 

(/.g.i?../.c.,i. i8ff.) 

Dn>^vo pints'* DM3 
: inaB'Di vb nn lo 

(fol. 2, recto) 

^E'lix nimna dj 

HE'D D^'C ^t^'^< ^no 

'iT'nina fix DniJT'nB'a 

ntrs ijnai <:5; n'ox 

''.•D^na 'nna yij< 5 

^53 wnx nnvi 

N N3 nw ^NiE'i nn 

iD''Bn u^nuK *ni'N '■' bvi 

ipan D3<3nv ^v caanij 

inpi noin a^j nacn 10 
niD^B'i nst nar :idid 

(fol, 2, verso) 

nnsDi D2''3''j? ij: 

DH'-iai' D3''i31 03133^' 

inic 'nnx in^ 0^:31 
iTnrm nnrn i3''E'im 
j)n iT-on i3nn larn s 
03''3iT u'-Dni b^yo 

in3E'n i'KI D3''i5b!31 

3n3i VDm3 li^Dj 

The division into verses is not consistently indicated in the Cambridge 

1 Readnmn3. 
* Cp. Deut. 8. 5. 
« Cp. Ps. 40. 6. 

2 Cp. Ps. 107. 

^ Cp. Lev. 26. 44. 
' Ps. 117. 1-2. 

' Cp. Joel 1. 3, 

38 From the Conquest, 969 c.e., to 1021 c.e. 

Nos. lo-ia. Letters from Elhanan b. Sheinarya. 

10. [Vol. I, pp. 34-5-J 

[Oxford MS. Heb. a. 3, fol. 21 ; cp. Bodl. 2873".] 

3x nncB' uTa mon b'kt iohSn 

nre'ni tit-jiv mt^cn 'musi mw 'miDNn myn 7N 

' • miyn mstj-jDn " • miov nn' i^jn • myx jmrsa ' * mna 

njjnon ''mm nyitr^ai 'mio mvn Tniyn mDCDn 

cnnpn ^Jnpn «'min '•an 'mna 'jv^a "mnD '•piai "nTin 5 

nnn ni "n'onn DiaiOTn irnna: umn u'i'nJ irawn 
•n['']3y myiD »*n''^od3 Tsh^ ntriyi •rrat:' b n^iyn •nue' 
IDC iiva 'nniD jsja nnvn 'n'b pit^ nail' "n'i'N nanon 

•n^jN yacn '.TJNn nnn 'Tf-ym p pn^N "io '■T'lDn 10 
, . . J31 -n^Dn yjD -nna nnwn "".tjn D'aa '.TDin trsn 
•yano nrx 'vh^va aiD •i'laa t^hv •rr'nn nivoi) 
" • Tiiaa Tiu-i Dai) ni,T • ~w ^vi it • E'Dinn nra 
•ntisitj' nynn •■a yniDi n^o innny u-ivd "'mi''np 'e'ki 
pns Nnnn -a •ni'^DO cq:™ 'n^^ia naisni •nQni[n] Tm 15 
M/^sB'na pa i^n:n3 pa 'i^i^n bn ijyi 'i^^yo am M^ysD 
o yni3 13^ tynan ni[si]b isvn pa e" 'a -s^i 
'[n]^in sna bi •D'D^yj 'b 'h D^ii'Ji 'D'o^iy^ 'n i'xn 

' Foregoes sleep (in order to study the Torah). 

^ Probably an allusion that they put on Tephillin on their arms. 

' I. c. prays to God in awe (mBB'D = IBK' nCK njnij , cp. Gen. 49. 21). 

* Both in weal and woe gives thanks to God. See Ber. 9. 7. 

^ I. e. Erubin and other difficult parts of the Talmud (cp. above, p. 29, note 2). 

^ These phrases are not clear to me. 

' Israel is God's Terumah (cp. Jer. 2. 3, nnX13n ^I*B'X^). 

" Israel, a beloved daughter but now a captive, surpasses in value all (delightful) 
imagery (il^atJ', cp. Isa. 2. 16, monn DVaCJ'). By her good deeds establishes 
peace in the world (NvDB probably refers here to HDD PB" K'?DB, see Ber. 17' top), 
i. e. appeases God when He is incensed against the world. 

' The storm-tossed, afflicted nation (Israel, Isa. 54. 11) that awaits the coming 
of Elijah (iTpS), the forerunner of the Messiah. 

'» Like a ship on sea, so is Elhanan's soul disturbed. 

" I.e. my masters (that are as precious to me as) the apples of my eyes 
(cp. Zach. 2. 12). 

Appendix A {to Chapter I) 39 

tsy b in* Dna hai 'n»N D'niic ''i n '33 'i^its in t^'^ 

ntssji *3i5J lonji Tii^ajn '•n^ai'i •ni'sn ni^nroh ^•nsB'' 20 

pe^T DJnca *3ki usb'd mD3 'ann Mint* no ■'as 

D'NXV Q^Ni^nn ''3>o3 'n"n 'a u pDvnni' Tior nS 

nB't<3i D»3nn3i nanoa DienaEn D'B^:tri n^xai 

^nnoncnn n^i onsD h^ i?^ 'm»N nijiva DyD3 nn hm 

n'Di -Q^ii^jfa i3"'Bt3im csniD 'n^tsDij ui^y ixs*i 25 

eiSJtD [D'']ops n»3 ijb^d:i nno nnun nnx wi'XJ mo 

i:nw . . . ■b'\^ un ... a "v^ub* i^iipvi '|1B"'si 'V^jji D'h 

iiS3pi 'T3J ^JiJa " Dty nvoa p^rnn^i ^tiiqid canan 

n^onb ' ' naip rr\rh • hib bv mail natrn Dvb iripn an 3° 

niaiun noim Timnn naji •oans"' n^b' •oann 

nun^i CN mnii |'nn[o mIjxJj n^i 'ni3vinn ani* 

D''B'Nnni D"3vni •D''B'P3 ovs^ni •d''niD3 D^sipa "D^n^ 

nsDi TivniNn isai tivdw 'na iDnn:i •n'B'iB'aj loa 

• D''3^B'j D'CDnni • D'vno o^yirai • D''v~ip3 nmn 35 

•niNB'loi' DID^B'M 'niNB* nvD33ni •Doi'nD b3 

'•nipyin lyjnca iccn •n'Jinp 133^)^ •n^mnu' ucah 

njin N^)! »i3BNi Unix bv TV lirii tiipnj irna tvhm 
njasncn '"^f u»nu-i cmD i:a D"pn3i wb 
[D'^^rjn nmn nsDi n'h'\v\ '''an iJn i^j^n "chip 'ja*< 4° 
isni nnini in''jni onJioNo ')[a]B' [d]ui"i 

11. [Vol. I, pp. 38-9.J 

[T.-S. 18 J 4°, paper, handwriting very erratic] 


psrcia nrN i:^nj wpi wnN Jin (2) ''3T'a -iion cnt pn^s (i) 
. . . 'D'aaiaa on^nto •D'-a-in 'pnsD •niaTij '^ya (3) TianJ O'srn 
a'vniDi (15) ... ahy p'mni> 'ib u^ij 'pno ^jv ^acvi pi 'nv (6) 

' Jer. 10. 10. !^ Job 21. 26. 

' The Nile. So also Sa'adya in his translation of Gen. 2. 11. 
* For nUa? in order to rhyme with pi3tJ. 

' From the Aram. 'BD 'to grow faint'. ' Cp. Prov. 18. 10. 

' To cleanse their inside, i. e. improve their character by giving up strife and 
discord. ' Cp. Ps. 66. 11. 

' = U'SNI IJilNIV. "• This Agadah I could not locate. 

" Lam. 4. 1. " = coan niD^n. 

40 From the Conquest, 969 c. e., to 1021 c.e. 

•D3*b D'i'i'anDi {16) '^yah^ D^cini 'DD^13^ ^jj d^^nib' tot uk o 

D3ii'Vi M^ Tiin'bsD nnii nitai (17) •nini'sni mn -na^ fi'Din5> |ivt ^^' 

mi (19) 'irniDinD ihii pt^n wrnNC ^a^y fiNi (18) -nirai rmi 

n3« i3io» h-s\ (20) Du vat3 •'3 (r. lijnn) unnn njJiDB' Nua iJ'nirox 

mn njDijN iNiT'pa i^na n'^jni (21) n^cjni ijB'jno voy nt:' ^^^ naini 

njnn ijy ^-rh »« D*3"ni c^Sno locn oniD ijk (22) "i? nna pxn 

ncixai MUinD (24) tojjD Mrnaj ^a noan x^jx nyn nrxi 'nainn loa (23) 

;nn mo D^^1i'xa (25) ijf wnun noxi -"Ji DNn^Jxa nan i'i'nN* "a nan 

... ■'a 
;ot mva xnpx « dc nivic'' {26) Diaa pri ms liai ' Diem mo "a 

SiTtrx DSB'iaa m-^x nona DSB'tDi nona (27) liai '"Nnpx " us 

Da^/V WDDj? s'i'tj' nrD3 Di'ni 'nniao " uff \T npi? ^1 inj (28) « nai 

i:xi 13a (30) na nj; nyjni pnrt (r. mo) no 133 nj?M i:mD ndci (29) 

vianSj xi^B' pin M'-i'Vi (31) Di[i5i']snD oai^xi niprnnra wn^N nnx naa 

in^i nn " my' ny itj' ^^o^ (32) (r. ujnN) unx 'jd^d nan ni^a Jjin^^i 

vom nc iTiyi na'xai '« Ta ^^D ai) n'5;>ni"i (33) ijk 'pv ^ 'sa iji) 

I D'vsip xb T DHNi D'saip' N^J ti»» 13N1 ' aBTf lyi) ^Jonani (34) \h 

I tiN nsa' I "nan pjy 'aav | [Dsnb''] | 'aa t^yn | wsna nyni | 

1 (r. nnioa) nnjov nry | nae'xi . . . 'B'a | npnvi* avj'n'i | Dan3B' has' I'^i 

. , . minu 

Verso begins 'aTia Jjn^X and contains greetings to three prominent 
men, evidently at Damascus. Cimax niiD uawn i:hnj inV' imx ( 1 ) 

tm 'aipy ib^'d -Dnnva n^Non 'nnax nno wnx (9) D'itnn np' 
wnx (19) WTp'' irn nmax ii ;na isxiDC ni) i3an3 n:ni ... (15) aip^i; 
l»D»i (20) 'QiDan^ lyro 'Diyni yu 'niyna b"n in3 i'xiOB' i 

. . , D'O'Dni' 

12.. [Vol. I, p. 39.J 

The following small epistle is also in Elhanan's handwriting. 
T.-S. 13 J ii', paper, square wriling, -irTpi irnx (2) moH B'NT (i) 

Dn-^'n 'canan Vi^'\^''r\ ainio (3) i n^aa o'i'^BnDn MJiainx iriinj 
;o'D nanxi (5) naiu p'D oa^i oa'^y Qni[Bn] '[d'J rn» (4) 'Dmnun 
• ni3o niiiB^i • nwaa oman nis'ji nijnsi (6) nniox nnotri * nany nana 

' Cp. Ber 9. 7. 2 Probably r. IjyiJJ. s pj. jg. „_ 

< Cp. Ber. 6o\ bottom. See Dikduke Soferim, a. I. » Cp. Ps. ii6. 3, 4, 13. 

« Cp. Ps. loi. I. 'Job I. 21. 8Prov. 21. I.' 
« Cp. Isa. 29. 17. 10 Cp. Prov. 21. 14. 

Appendix A (to Chapter /") 41 

-■1 "lana nnnj aimo (8) -i 05; n-pr irnn pon ii 'nn'M lainn (7) 
. . . (Isa. 66. 22) '1J1 n''B'nnn D''»B'n ncsa '3 nan (9) ds'i'y D"P' 

. t1''3Ti [D3n]aiD1 DaDli'CI 
T.-S. 13 J 22", in different handwriting, contains an epistle beginning 

n-is*i nni»n Ti^i (3) nnun trnn \-\r\^ 'i inins (2) mon trsn (i) 
. . . lEn^s^JK (5) pn^N UN n[B']D fs Piiy p nin {4) nyi) nan^i 

Ends DD nn2 nni ^D1i>B^. Possibly it also emanates from Elhanan. 
Aaron [rnn is perhaps identical with Aaron b. Ephraim of Fustat (infra, 
p. 103, note 3). 

T.-S. 8 J 33* (a narrow paper strip) contains another letter from 
Elhanan to this Reader Aaron. inp''1 uawN ^[D1i'B'] (2) mon TNT (i) 

nn . . . H'bxN ^n1T^' (4) •'3 -yh^ wab nv^ nai'' ;rnn (3) \-\rx!f. -io 

[v]k' . . . i>x n'D vi'D "ipi "I . . B'' (Kin nnn oipen =) nii pm (5) 
ux '^Ni itj' ''i'vo^N nx TB'i'N 'iiN (7) nn dj pN'MJj[nN] nxris nj;»i (6) 
nj)D "litDni ^^ja'i'^< vn: ... n in '[hs i"yn* (9), nit* nnai aips;^ (8) 
n . . . (11) IS 'ijs' ini |iNj njy nacr'i t33 nxr.nij'ia i^s n . . . i? (10) 
.^B3« inscn (13) iNJn in3j5"i!> nyo ^dvd . . (12) •-^y-iainnD danjy nao^x 

Verso is blank. The Gaon mentioned is very likely Hai. A certain 
person arrived at Cairo-Fustat with epistles from the Gaon to Abu'l 
Ma'ali and Abu Ya'kub. Aaron is requested to bestir himself on the 
behalf of the Gaon (probably by collecting donations for the school) 
in order to receive the latter's thanks, who will also recite prayers on the 
Sabbath (at the synagogue of the academy) on behalf of the donors. 

13. [Vol. I, p. 52 ff-] 

Fragment of a letter from the Babylonian Exilarch, dated 
835 C. E., concerning the fixing of the Calendar. 

[T.-S. 8 J 7', vellum, square writing.] 


D''B'i[n3 nnx] mux 'b''' bi 'lijia ''^inih 

6'N nan[» x]^ xjhjd innaa onviD bai 

mm nnc [x]'m xrn 15; xnxa'nci jnnax 

pnB' yaen fynxi nxoi xsiix ruts' 

' This word is not clear to me. The V is doubtful. 

' Spelt in manuscript as two words ''in vl. 

» = N:i'13 ' all of us '. Likewise in I. 3 [rlnaX = XJnn3X ' our fathers '. 

* = bxiE". ° First letter of next line, to fill up space. 

42 From the Conqtiest, 969 c.e., to 102 1 c. E. 

BTsm D^B^N nyanx rue' N*ni nntai?^ 5 

pan ii><aK pn^n Nino nnxno naoi 

r«[vB'] vansa n[a]B'a nrhrh KDca 10 

pin niyap »iNn |['']o'i'B' pi-uv» 'k 

anjroa niyap '»p p rnnm nensna 

-iB's^K N^j pioa iincT n'D ^pi'p'oi 

na vh^ naca nyansa hdb »Din»DT 

mvy tna s^i nos [n]3 v6 noh nos 15 

pnav INI nJB'n b'xt nx »h nico 

fc-K-i N'oino naB>[a =p]nn3 pnna nos 

'i»VDa nma[3 dv]i nwisa NnB* 


HDD [3na[j) '']xi naatj* [dicd ncja^N n^^i 

Di[']i ,[*]i'Vo[3] ' lijia'iNa Nnc cxn [n^hnJ nyaiNa 

naaB' dib-d ncs's n^h na[s'a] nna nisa 

noD pnav ^si * pnaB* naB'i ^dv nn nvab 

[■iB's]''K nih nae'a nna NnB* k'nt s^riN ''i'V»3 5 

»c[n]n'^ xh nanj? ^i^ Sij aio nv mtyo 

pjiitf^ NiiT NijD N^ Nnatya n3ny 

isp^pii* xh iD^i DWD pn'on *m'^ 

r\m^ pn3n3 N''va[''Dj xh Nnn^o 

miann B'xn °iDpi> [iJinB-i nay [pn]3i 10 

N^T pn^i'v ty3B[m] pTipn munn ['jjai 

insi'B' sh pioa ^5^ pr^iB'i' nE>a^x «n^t 

[poJ^CT pnoa pnay -sn pjot li^ax n^n 

jraoD pn'i'y D^iy^i mn^ 'dnt pn'on ik 

'B'Nni N3N1 nnijs nnus ^n-ie" ^IiT^ vh'\ 15 

N-in»y isy iracDs b« bi p33-ii nnN3ino 

pa^n , , . -13!' . . . i''T[a]n 'cpi) -nne'^Nn 
x''DE' ID pi>m np n^K icp noNi 

' = pjyPT ' as regards '. 2 Repeated in manuscript. 

' The dots on top indicate that the word should be deleted. 
' Really only one day would be spent in fasting. But the sense is clear. 
" *Dpi5 really agrees with nay, whereas after mC we require 'CpiiD. See, 
however, 1. 17. 6 Repeated in manuscript. 

Appendix A {to Chapter I) 43 

14. [Vol. I, pp. 55, note 2, and 58.] 

The Massorites of Tiberias and the Palestinian Academy. 

(i) The chief seat of learning in the Holy Land during the Byzantine 
period, Tiberias, was also a famous centre of study of the Massora and 
the Hebrew language. After the school had long been transferred to 
Jerusalem, Tiberias apparently still remained the home of the Massorites. 
At the beginning of the tenth century there lived there the famous 
Aaron b. Moses b. Asher. There exists a well-known list of early 
Massorites and grammarians, published several times by Harkavy and 
Strack (see Baer-Strack, JDikduke ha-Te'amim, pp. 78-9), to which Merx 
(in Abhandlungen des 5. Orienlalisten-Congresses, II, pt. i, 188 ff.) devoted 
a thorough paper. Unfortunately the corrupt text in the Codex 
Tshufutkale (now at Petrograd), being a translation from the Arabic into 
Hebrew, as Merx has already noticed (/. r., 192, note i), led him into 
the realm of speculation wherein to reconstrue with much ingenuity two 
rival schools of Massorites in Tiberias, going back to the middle of the 
seventh century, with their respective principals in succession. Merx's 
conclusions have been adopted without demur by Eppenstein, Beitrdge 
zur Gesch. u. Liter, im gaon. Zeitalter, p. 49. 

(2) The same list, entirely in Arabic, is to be found in Genizah 
fragments of an old grammatical work. Several difficulties that beset 
Merx in his examination of the passage in the Codex Tshufutkale dis- 
appear. Moreover, any suspicion inherent to a manuscript that passed 
through the hands of Firkowicz cannot fall upon leaves coming from the 
Fustat Genizah. Or. 5554 A, fol. 28, recto, begins IDDC ^hhl^2 'hh'il (i) 

nnsn ' riD'yi (3) Tm)i • no^ixaa iityxn rwnb • riK>r\^ (2) [n*]w dk • ura 

.... nniSB' W 'nmy nSBQ 'naTin. The whole passage is very 
similar to that in DiUuke ha-Te'amim by Aaron b. Moses b. Asher (ed. 
Baer-Strack, § 33). The last two lines of verso begin a new chapter, 
'JNnijN ^xbiA •'s Kity nnnn tyn 5)3 [ kib'^'n nnni tJ-n^N one'. There is 

a gap between fols. 28 and 29, which is filled up by Bodl. 2862''', alike 
both in size and in handwriting. We give here the parallel accounts for 
the sake of comparison. 

In dealing with the pronunciation of *n^, D^Fi?' and referring to the 
Tiberians ()"JX~13D ?N), Bodl. 2862, fol. 59, verso, 1. 12, continues, 

mDN^Tibx •h' nijiun noja ^^■^•a noN^B' nbpa ^3^5^^x n^N n'ns^K 
rhi\> p DNpm xi^\>'''\ p Dm3K Dn i'Nipx h^ xnn iranx ni'N (end of 

44 From the Conquest, 969 c.e., to 102 1 c.e. 
[Or. 5554, A., fol. 29, verso, but really recto.\ 

tiN nnsi na^B' lax p nos nbp [Mi 

UT-a aun 'am mN''S ^x psa finyo 

nanoo lann pan in^nxi nia^a 

on iTcn[3 p] -lEJ'N on njas iT»[m] on 

ini ncD p pHN on ne'x p ncD 

xnty |D xnjN naii n^Dijo^K nas isa 

•'an irio naix |s Dip ■'^isn 5)» i^a ipi 

Dm*ii '^s^'^n ^nrvn hb'di nhid nt^a 10 

[na]ia^ Dn^jnar dhndds "^ mai ndjxi 

TJia N'B'N 13 'is'naLX np DniNi) 

pND NiB-i ''pni'ni pwni nnai fop p 

' jWNp^N N-in KDK1 innnp vfto\ 

DnJN DDJs? nnu n . . . . iTq •'oxb ni'S 15 

nni^'Da nn ne-K D^ntf . . . t^x pnp'' 

[isHx] v''0?i nna ^i^a t?b rr'i'j? ppano 

(recto, but really verso) 

nn^V !Na ini pp^n^xa onvD xin nnaD 
in no lanv' xSi xnaiDisj?' xij. 

Codex Tshu/utkale. 

in xnn jx tx-ip^xi o-iE'ijx xnn '!>y i^jxp fx n^vxi .... 
n^xi rhmn noja ^b'jkd nox i'ty n^apa' nx^nax nijx nTis^x pp^ri^x 
Dmax ^Dno DnioE> pi "loxisn nr i/3pi lop nrx QiToirin an 
nxna la nmaxi ' p ! xipi np' wn mipo vax Dxpm taxpn p 
p j)n\n HDsi na^c ux p nov nt mp» nMi n3''B'M B'xn Dm''ai 
DV1 nnvc njncD nann jnan in^nxv ca'a ' onra i ja a^an ni xixiv 

> Readia^nax. 

' Probably meaning the 'IS and the p13D having two and three dots respectively. 
1 Read fxnpbx. 

' The Arabic has the plur. i)X1pX referring to the pronunciation of TUf and QTIB'. 
' The Arabic has Dn not QHJD. 

" The last three vi?ords are not in the Arabic. They are a gloss telling us that 
DXpn = 1p\ 
' To be deleted, being the copyist's mistake. 

Appendix A [to Chapter I) 45 

»a pnx n^^ mnsi ntrx p nt^D •'iy in ncD .Tn inriNi n'onj p ncD 
^njn iptn -itj-x p n'onj p nB'X p nco p pnx nr *3 vm ntyo p <jy 
o iiyi ^vi pan snrv p ^vn ii>'x •'a nosi nan ^n^B'i'ts'n nnns .Tn 
vni DnnN Dnoljo n^jjei) nnswn c^Jiun nnD!5on n^aprn 1^^5 ny vn d: 
Dmpan ba (r. d''N''pai) n^pai □n^'yi j)31n nsnp ^y D'i^nj D»oan 
3^ 5r nnio ne'e ai nno nniiDSi' n^Ki □n'tyioB' isaai nniDnni Q^ovDm 
'' ,n:r\ Dniotf nau sh ''nann cinbiri i-jpan Tiryn ne'e onn 

(3) It is obvious that our text is by far superior, if not the original 
underlying the Hebrew translation. The author gives his reason for 
mentioning the names of these Massorites in order to point out that, 
though holding different opinions in many instances as regards the 
reading of either Karnes or Patah, pnjn or pnpn,* Sheva quiescent 
or Sheva mobile, they all agree with reference to the pronunciation of 
TIB' and DTlB' that the n should have a Dagesh (Kal) though preceded 
by a Sheva mobile. The ' people of Tiberias ' concurred in their view. 
Yet the reason for that irregularity was unknown to them. This pronun- 
ciation is traditionally traced from the ' men of the great synagogue '. 
There is given a list (' chain ') of Massorites, the beginning of which is 
reported to have extended to Ezra the Scribe. We possess unfortu- 
nately only the end of it. The last link in this ' chain ' is the famous 

» nyaiK is no doubt a corruption of m ! Hence read 'yi;^. 'ai iTn I^S DJII , 
exactly corresponding to the Arabic. 

2 =B'3J ini3, but should better be deleted. 

' These three words between the lines are apparently by first hand (so Strack- 
Baer, /. c, 79, note i). Evidently the copyist discovered his mistake in calling 
Nehemia's son Moses. He thus put on top Ua "ICN instead of iT'DnJ p IIB'D. 
The next word VinXI is merely a catch-word to indicate wherefrom the text is 
correct, viz. 13a ntJ'D H^n 1^^^X1, a device familiar to those acquainted with 
mediaeval Hebrew manuscripts. To make his meaning clear beyond doubt, the 
copyist inserted afterwards Ti'N p HK'D *jyS and likewise HCD fa ''iV' after 
133 pHN VinKI. There are only five generations of the Ben Asher family who 
were Massorites, as is clear from the Arabic. 

' This whole sentence amplifies the short one in the Arabic, ' and he was the 
last of the chain ' of tradition. Here correctly five generations are enumerated. 

'' Incorrectly translated, because the Arabic has NHiX referring to the ' chain '. 
Hence read here Vr\V) \0 HH^T K'H O. 

' This whole passage is greatly amplified from the Arabic. 

' This seems to be a wrong translation of the Arabic DnXDDX "j? mai NDINI ! 

» Probably meaning the i"lX and the ^JIJD having two and three dots respectively. 

46 From the Conquest, 969 c.e., to 102 1 c.E. 

Aaron b. Moses b. Asher b. Nehemiah b. Asher the elder. The last 
person was a colleague of Abraham b. Rikat, Abraham b. Furat, Pinhas 
' the head of the school ', Semah, known as ibn Sayyara (or Sawwara), 
Habib b. Pipim, and Ahiyahu Hakkohen, the Haber of Tiberias. Their 
contemporaries were Moses Moha (or Moheh), Moses of Gaza, and others 
unnamed. The immediate predecessors of this generation were Rikat, 
the father of Abraham, and Semah b. Abu Shaiba. 

This is the most probable construction of the data which our text 
furnishes. In 1. 2 of Or. 5554, recto, nbp 1K31 refers only to Semah b. 
Abu Shaiba, and not to the following names. The Hebrew has also 
correctly HI mpD nvil and not vnv Of course Xshl^ IK31 would have 
been more explicit, since Semah was the predecessor of the two persons 
mentioned before. All the speculations of Merx about groups of four 
scholars (J.c, 192, 194, 197) are now disposed of, since our text proves 
that the Hebrew nvns Vn I^N DJD is a corruption (see above, p. 45, 
note i). 

(4) Now another Cod. Tshufutkale (no. 14) has the following passage : 

vvr\ Dn^B "im ^no i"six ^n (r. niriNDN^N) ninox^x \<i fjijo w nd:xi 
ni^'?'-^ p Dn-i3Ni nx-is p omaxi Di''S''S ^a-i p yir\ mi ra''E"n 
13X n»si nrriD ncDi r\Tv> ns p hdvi nbp jo (r. tsNpni) Dxpnxi 
nnxnan niix ^''nw^k rtrrhn '•hxn nti'oiy ijx i3ni ni»n3 p ie'NI Ditiii'D 
nnjD NiT'i dn'xna mnp nijN mnNDsiiN ''5'iNn ^np (printed by Merx, 

I.e., 190, 1. 16 ff., see the corrections, p. 196). It will be noticed that 
here ten names are mentioned, while in the former list we have eleven 
scholars exclusive the descendants of Asher the elder. Semah Ahu 
Slutum is most likely identical with Semah ibn Sayyara (or Sawwara). 
By Asher b. Nehemiah Asher the elder is meant ; from his son's name 
Nehemiah it is to be inferred with great probability that his father was 
also called Nehemiah. But this Nehemiah I was no Massorite, else it 
would have stated expressly so just as in the case of Rikat, the father of 
Abraham. Neither Ahiyahu Hakkohen nor Moses of Gaza are men- 
tioned. But instead we hear of a new person, Abii'l 'Umaitar, who is 
probably identical with the former, being a more prominent person than 
Moses of Gaza.' As for Semah b. Abu Shaiba, the contemporary of 
Rikat, he is indeed mentioned next to him. Hence n^3p [O ought really 
to follow ra^tr us p novi. 

The end of the passage from Cod. Tshufutkale, no. 14, calls for some 

' The Jews in Muslim countries usually went by double names, one being 
Hebrew while the other Arabic. 

Appendix A (to Chapter I) 47 

comment. After enumerating these Massorites, the writer says : ' These 
are the early disciples whom we have mentioned before those " masters " 
whose {sc. "the masters") opinions one follows and whose rules are handed 
down '. But at the beginning of the cited paragraph he styles the 
' disciples ' as ' the early masters '. There is obviously an inconsistent 
use of these terms. But in the first list our Massorites are also styled 
'disciples'. Hence in Cod. Tshufutkale, no. 14, i>iN1X^K mriNDNiiN 
should be corrected into ^i^KIN^K m'oi'ni'K. It is obscure who these 
' masters ' were. But probably the earliest Massorites are meant, whose 
names have not come down to us.* Their early 'disciples' were the 
above-mentioned Massorites. Even Rikat and Semah b. Abu Shaiba are 
already placed amongst the ' disciples'. 

(5) On the whole the two lists bear out each other. The very 
omission of the descendants of Asher the elder in Cod. Tshufutkale, 
no. 14, as well as the different sequence of the names enumerated, prove 
that these eight or nine scholars, exclusive of Rilfat and Semah b. Abu 
Shaiba, who belonged to a older generation, were contemporaries. Their 
time is to be placed at the first quarter of the ninth century, because 
Asher the elder's fourth generation, viz. the famous Aaron b. Moses b- 
Asher b. Nehemiah, lived in the first half of the tenth century (see Baer- 
Strack, I.e., XI). Aaron's father Moses was still alive in 895. Hence we 
have the following list of Massorites : 

I {c. 775-800 C.E.). 

Rikat Semah b. Abii Shaiba. 

II {c. 800-825 C.E.). 

1 Abraham b. Rikat. 5 Habib b. Pipim. 

2 Abraham b. Furat. 6 Asher the elder (b. Nehemiah). 

3 Pinhas ' head of the school '. 7 Moses Moha (or Moheh). 

4 Ahiyahu Hakkohen the Haber of 8 Moses of Gaza. 

Tiberias (probably = Abu' 1 9 Semah ibn Sayyara (or Sawwara) 
'Omaitar.) = Abu Slutum. 

III {c. 825-850 C.E.). V (r. 875-900). 
Nehemiah b. Asher. Moses b. Asher. 

IV (c. 850-875 C.K.). VI {c. 900-925). 
Asher b. Nehemiah. Aaron b. Moses. 

' In Merx, / c, p. 189, Fragm. II, 1. 6, there are mentioned some of the 
masters (mnXDX^t< fWl anonymously. On 11. 10 ff. we read NIH ^S |X cijVNl 

nnswi . . . yup^ |K3 rhb^f. ncm ie'x p thvr^hvi \i6 ^•'Xis b^ p3 '^b 

• • . 'BC. Ben- Asher is very likely identical with Aaron b. Moses b. Asher whom 
our author places amongst the ' early ones ' though he was the last of the ' chain '. 

48 From the Conquest, 969 c.e., to 102 1 c.E. 

(6) Now of the contemporaries of Asher the elder only Ahiyahu the 
Haber is expressly stated to have hailed from Tiberias, while another 
Massorite was Moses of Gaza. As to the residence of the others we are 
in the dark. Pinhas, the head of the school, very likely presided over 
the academy in Jerusalem. Ahiyahu also held a diploma of the school- 
We thus see how some of its members, as is only natural, were interested 
in the work of Massora and grammar. But how far the school as a 
whole was officially connected with this work is impossible to ascertain. 
The academy was transferred to the Holy City. But Tiberias remained 
the centre of study of the Hebrew language. There are mentioned in 
the above fragments the ' ahl Tabariyya ', apart from the scholars in 
group II. A system of vocalization w^as evolved in Tiberias different 
from that in vogsiC' in the rest of Palestine.' The ' people of Tiberias ' 
had a peculiar pronunciation of ifli'T, sounding sometimes as V, and 
sometimes as t3, still in the period of Isaac Israeli at the beginning 
of the ninth century.* About that time the famous Aaron b. Moses 
lived there. His father Moses seems to have also been a resident of 
Tiberias (see Baer-Strack, I.e., XI). But wherefrom the earlier genera- 
tions of this family hailed is unknown. 

(7) The point need now no longer be laboured that these Massorites 
were not Karaites. But the study of Massorah and Hebrew grammar 
must have strongly appealed to these sectaries, who endeavoured to erect 
a new system of Judaism on the Bible text. Those that settled in the 
Holy Land must have devoted themselves with zeal to these branches of 
Biblical knowledge. In course of lime they characteristically pretended 
to possess a monopoly of knowledge about vocalization, accents, pro- 
nunciation, and everything appertaining to the Bible text, A Rabbinite 
challenges them to make good their claim, demanding from them reasons 
for the vocalization of certain words . by Ben Asher.' Moreover, the 

1 Mahzor Vitry, ed. Hurwitz, p. ,462, 1J^B> llp'J^ r\)::'r\ 'JiaD mp: PX "jyai'l 
bvr\V' pS IP'^^ DiTia' N^I. See especially Kahle, Z.A. W., 1901, 273 ff. 

■' See the extract (given by Dukes, miDDil DIDJip, p. 73) from the commentary 
on Sepher Ye^ira, variously ascribed to Isaac Israeli, Dunash b. Tamim and Jacob b. 
Nissim of Kairowan (for the latest discussion of the problem, cp. Poznanski, 

fNiTp •'B'JN, p. 17), fiB'^3 K"" ''3 nns b"\ HD^B' Nm p pm-< wan n»ni 
nxnpa '«p3 iThb" '■jaa rmb nt . . . nssm ndh D"i2tin ^sn D^-Qjin 

8 See the passage from a Massoretic work, cited by Baer-Strack, /. c , 

xxxviii-xxxix, pHK 'n iiiun noijon o Nnpon 'bw D:ns Ti^s't;' rh^v 

|DN (read HSnB') ^VW (referring to all the three) nj"13^ Dirj T«i'S< |3 HiJ'D p 

Appendix A [lo Chapter I) 49 

author of the remarkable poems (/. Q. R., XIII, 345 ff.), who defended 
the Palestine academy against the Karaites in the Holy City (as proved 
in vol. I, p. 274 ff.), does not spare them on account of their boasted 
expert knowledge of vocalization and intonation.' It is obscure as to 
what sort of fusion there took place between the Massorites of Tiberias, 
after the death of Aaron b. Moses b. Asher, and the Karaite scholars of 
Jerusalem. But it seems that the latter took the whole study of vocaliza- 
tion and intonation under their special wing. This led to its losing credit 
in the eyes of the Rabbinites. Hence the sarcastic remarks of the author 
of these poems. 

15. [Vol. I, pp. 65-6.] 

The Gaonic Family of Ben Meir. 

(i) To determine the chronology of Ben Meir's family we begin with 
a fixed date. A descendant of his was Joshiah Gaon, some of whose 
letters are edited farther on. T.-S. 13 J i'' is a document of the year 

1015: nDD^J (2) D^ninnn nnvni pn ira uk irjoa nrr'nE' nnj; in3r(i) 
r\w N''m '3 "syythvf (3) t\tw&-\ njB'a i^s cninn D'tD' nj)3B'3 'b'b' dv3 
"x^ naiDDn n^oi nrnoa (4) com D^yatJ'i nixo van cs^k nyaiN 
. .. nniiT 'J3 n^ma. Signatures, | v:a3 iniT'V nana: tf<i'3 I^ ^PV 
1W ps: I n3'a" b-xt W'B'K'' | ii i'snc* p ^ib | iJ itnn niov }3 ^kidc 

'3T3.' Thus this document was signed by the Gaon at Ramlah, where 
he resided, as shown above (vol. I, p. 72), for some time. 

E" Dx . . . nns r,ix3 nr -wa p npj vxh , . , Dnsion ppna hi: 
D3n3xi'o NM Nnpon 'j \:\y^r\ nnicn \fr\pQr\ \vih *^j)3 li'nx ns^ss 
nnip33 DniDi tjinipn naB'3 Di/'m on^no i3mx n»xn onxi D3n!;;m 
iNipn ^*^< P^on 'na'i' (read naieri) naiB"^ (supply Dji?) px dxi nirjjai 
nip''jn m^'i'V win xi) onx ^a PDmoi onoi'Di xnpon '^y3 dsb'sj 

onsD n5/3nxi Dntfv eiii'''n x^i 'Dycni. 

1 L.C., 358, i.3ff., (see Porges nDi"! 'HanxDi nm W\ 'ni'txi nniD iix 130 
^x -n^tx D30 T »3 iWn '•hx nns3 mrv -nl^yDi J.Q.R., xiv, 130) 
nSp n3B" 'i" i'V3 I'B's DiLnisi qtodFi '3J1J? :nni^n nns^y px 
la'DV xisi -px 3^51 n»3n Dnij "sym Tina -pp bin (read ■•nxa) 'nx3 
TO 'D^anxD nsDpa cni3 K-ina ca' 'DOin DJicbi Dn''Q nvs :-3ji> 

' See now also Pozna/iski, Schware-Festschrift, p. 475, where this document is 

50 From the Conquest, 969 c.e., to 102 1 c.E. 

(2) About Joshiah's predecessors and descendants there exists sev^al 
conflicting genealogy lists. A Memorial List (printed by Pozn., R.ij., 
LXVI, 65, II. 1-17) begins with Abraham Gaon (apy pNJ n3'E" CSn), 
followed by his son Aaron Gaon, his son Joshiah Gaon, his son Aaron 
Ab (isxTk^^ h':hv p n<3 ax), his son Joshiah Ab, and finally his son 
Sadok Ab. 

(3) But Bodl. 2443 (which Pozn. cites I.e., p. 62, cp. p. 67) has a different 
list, i,-iVN> nin n3''B"n b-xt \-\r\)?. -in mn w^^-^ n»3 pn nu 3x pns 
.B>npn i:uT p: oyixjn nsj apjji pxj nra" b'x-i Dn-ax nn pn nu 3n 

Placing the two lists in parallel columns (A = R.E.J., LXVI, 65 ; B = 
Bodl. 2443), we have the following contradictory genealogies: 

B A 

Abraham Gaon Abraham Gaon 

Joshiah Ab Aaron Gaon 

Aaron Gaon Joshiah Gaon (1015) 

Joshiah 3nn Aaron Ab 

Sadok Ab Joshiah Ab 

Sadok Ab 

(4) Two more Memorial Lists are to be found in MS. Adier 2952. 
The first, one loose leaf, reads as follows. Only the part relating to 
Abraham Gaon — Sadok Ab is given here : 

(ncsj =) B] '^pfh ats pan 

nnstyo niDnron ninQB»Dn 

pn m noi coanni o^n Tia 

[65']n-i3 !jpi ^[njpn iran nnseiD 5 

[lyjjnx iya[m unja an as p* in 

[ap5>^ p]xj na^B" b'xi omax irjixj 

w'5i[ix] ni nD an [sv] p' -in nicni ijf 

^S t-xntj'^ b ijBt [pi] no ax nnx 

i3^:nx -ii no [an b]v p» in niDm 10 

[i?)' in i]niDni ^t apjj' pNj na'a» cxn 

[PT nn a]x f[n]n[x i:'3i]nx ii io an av 

[an] as p^ in mom ^\ ^vr^v'' h:hv 

nu ax ^-^Tin in^c-x' iy:nx ii io 

Appendix A {to Chapter I) 51 

Dn BV p' -in mom ijf ^nic'' h-:hv pn 15 
pn nu 3N pn^fn pnv ir^nx -ii no 
^\ i'Nntj" bijc 

(5) The second memorial-list consists of two leaves, and contains 
several genealogies. Fol. 2 verso has the following list : 

. . . ri''3 

f[iw] n['N]» rii I1N3 mi[n' i^njpn irm nnQtyD 

Diii 11NJ ini[B'x^ rii pjsj pnN tii pxa he'd rii 

VTCN'' m PN3 pnx lil pK[3 iJ.TK'N' r» PNJ Dm3\* 

[^ijjai pn nu 3n ^''-[\y,r\ ^ml f\\ pn n<a a^? 

Placing the two lists in parallel columns (C = no. 4, D = no. 5), we 
have the following contradictory genealogies : — 

D C 

Yehuda Gaon 
Meir Gaon 
Moses Gaon 
Aaron Gaon (I) 

Joshiah Gaon (I) Abraham Gaon 

Abraham Gaon Aaron Ab (I) 

Joshiah Gaon (11) Joshiah Gaon 

Aaron Gaon (II) Aaron Ab (II) 

Joshiah Ab Joshiah Ab 

Sadok Ab Sadok Ab 

(6) We shall first discuss the genealogy from Abraham Gaon-Sadok 
Ab given in these four lists. A comparison of these lists show that A 
and C are practically identical, the only difference being the tide held 
by Abraham Gaon's son, Aaron. B and D agree so far that five genera- 
tions are enumerated from Abraham Gaon to Sadok Ab. Joshiah mn is 
probably equal to Joshiah Ab. Hence the difference between B and D 
would consist in the title assigned to Abraham Gaon's son, Joshiah. 

(7) In view of these confliciing statements, the facts have to be ascer- 
tained by means of other data. All lists agree that there are four gene- 
rations from Joshiah to Sadok. Now the latter was still ' Third ' in 
1094, as we learn from Megillat Ebyaiar (see VoiTi..,Eabyl. Geon., p, 95). 
We know of a Joshiah Gaon in 1015. A Gaon Aaron in the period 
1015-1094 is nowhere mentioned. Joshiah's successors 10 the Gaonate 
were Solomon Hakkohen b. Yehos^ph and after him Solomon b. Yehuda, 
as will be established in A. A. 17. It is fairly certain, that A represents 

52 From the Conquest, 969 C.E., to 102 1 c.E. 

the most correct genealogy.' The confusion has probably arisen from 
the fact that Abraham Gaon had several sons, viz. Aaron Gaon, Joshiah 
Ab, Isaac the ' Third ', and also Meir Rosh Hasseder (see sub 8-9). 
Joshiah Ab never succeeded to the Gaonate. But Aaron's son, by name 
Joshiah, we find holding the dignity in 1015. As is proved in the next 
paragraph, there must have lived before 1000 a Joshiah Ab. From the 
fact that a son of his is called Aaron it is evident that he belonged to the 
Gaonic family of Ben-Meir. 

(8) Joshiah Ab, the grandson of Joshiah Gaon, cannot be identical 
wiih Joshiah Ab mentioned in Saadyana XXVIII (= T.-S. 12. 722), as 
Pozn., R.EJ., I.e., 64, 68, thinks. The fragment, as re-examined by me, 
reads niDn n^iycn ]-\t\v. no (7) [pJ3 na] nann irr-B'N^ pla map ... (6) 
na"tj«3 iDDini narc mvi losvi' iJW»a (8) [pi?] onu 3« in'tysi im 
Q'-yBTi'i nwD V3B-") (10) n''ai'N nyanx r\iv K'n ••ns na'C'' nmpn (9) 

[13]5? [njJnDl m^S'i' nnKI. A brother of this Joshiah Haber was Elijah. 
T.-S. 8 K. 20', one paper-leaf, contains the end of a concordance of all 
Biblical words with their meaning and etymology. The colophon reads: 

tov3 njiSJi I n^^N rTityDn pspna'x ^ni ] TDani>s n^ia nipdIjk okb^n non 
i.T'B'K' u-a I 3'a3 "lann \-\n» 'ana | i.t^jx ijx 'nanai r\^'hhbh khfn nw 
|Dsi !»« D^iv^ " ina I nas3h apy tiw | na^u" as. Both brothers 

evidently resided in 'Akko. Probably Joshiah, after obtaining his diploma 
in the Jerusalem academy in 1031, settled in the same year in 'Akko as 
the local Haber.'' 

Now, seeing that Joshiah Gaon was probably still alive about 1020 
(see vol. I, p. 72), it is of course hardly possible that his fourth genera- 
tion, Joshiah Haber, received his diploma in 103 1 ! It should be added 
that both the father and the grandfather of Joshiah Haber were then no 
longer alive (py Dnu clearly refers to them). There is no doubt that 
there lived towards the end of the tenth century a Joshiah Ab, probably 

, ' T.-S. 8 K 22'" contains a small paper leaf (verso blank) with the following 
genealogy : 
probably the beginning of a formula used in) ijn'X (2) B'lpn 'y\ DnS'i'O (i) 

IiKa (4) na'tt" b'nt omas (3) 'p' 'pja nji (genealogies such as '131 pK ':n'K 

(3PJ)' pNJ is left out here) b'l na'B" (6) CNI pnX 'SV p' (s) 'OHI y? apV^ 

.h'\ in n^a ax (8) na'r'' cxn we'N'' (?) s p' lii 

There is no doubt that between lines 7 and 8 a line is missing as the title 
jn n'a ax naV CXI is impossible. Hence read 'ni h'^ na<e'» CKT in't^N' 
^T in n'a ax [\-\T\Vi V PV it thus fully agrees with list A. 

2 A Menasse b. Mauhub Hallevi of 'Akko is mentioned in a document of 1013 
C/.S.i?.,XVI, 574). 

Appendix A (lo Chapter I) 53 

a son of Abraham Gaon. He had a son Aaron, who in his turn gave 
birth to two male children. One was Joshiah Haber, who received his 
diploma in 1031 at the Palestine academy. The other was Elijah, who 
finished his work on the Bible in 1041. Their grandlather was probably 
' Father' under the Gaon Joseph Hakkohen (see vol. I, pp. 66 and 71). 
Indeed, Harkavy prints in Uammaggid, 1877, p. 134, col. 2, a colophon 
at the end of an old Midrash: t^NT |n2n fjDV i:»311 13'-|D B'np ij 3D 

'B^S'B'n vns pns'' 'n»i pi nu ax i.ticn' 'n»i nawnn apv Iinj riyz» 

ii intj) p i'NIDB' 'noi. Probably Isaac the 'Third' was Joshiah's 
brother. Another indication that they bdonged to Ben-Meir's family, 
in which the name Isaac recurs (see Table, in/ra, p. 57). Pozn. (Bahyl. 
Geon., 91, note 4) makes this Joseph Hakkohen Gaon to have been the 
successor of Solomon b. Yehuda and the brother of Elijah Hakkohen, 
both well known from Megillat Ehyatar. As will be shown farther 
on (p. 62), this Joseph never succeeded to the Gaonate, but died as 
Ab. Pozn. thought of Joseph Hakkohen Gaon, the father of Samuel 
Gaon, but could find no Joshiah Ab as his contemporary. This difficulty 
is now removed by our having established the fact that there lived a 
Joshiah at the end of the tenth century. 

(9) We shall now deal with Abraham Gaon's predecessors mentioned 
only in D. We have seen that this list was incorrect as regards his 
descendants. This bids us be on our guard when considering the first 
half of the list. After Meir Gaon his son, Moses Gaon, is mentioned. 
Was he the Ben Meir who had the famous calendar-dispute with Sa'adya 
in 921? But Ben Meir quotes his forefathers by name, viz. Meir and 
Moses, the latter evidently his grandfather (see vol. I, p. 57). According 
to our list Moses Gaon's grandfather was Yehuda Gaon. It can also be 
proved from new data that Ben Meir's successor to the Gaonate was his 
son Meir, called apjj' |1W n3'B" CXn. 

Mr. E. N. Adler printed in R.EJ., LXVII, 52, a poem with the 
acrostic nD^C and the heading "vb'fO p'^'Ti TiND [3 i^lp ;0 . He cited in 
addition (p. 45, note i) from T.-S. 13 J 16'" the signature nia "iBIDn HL'TD 
e-KT TND iu '-\i 'n:D3 nan.T r\rh^ nu rhryi [pijinjoa nann pn-r 
spy |1NJ n3''B'V Combining the two data, Mr. Adler assumed that Ben 
Meir, the antagonist of Sa'adya, was called Solomon. Against this Pozn. 
{R.E.J., I.e., 291, and Babyl. Geon., 83, note 3) rightly argued that if 
Ben Meir be identical with Solomon he would not simply be styled 
Haber. He was the head of a school, and even his opponenis addressed 
him as Rosh Yeshiba or munn trsn. 

54 From the Conquesi, 969 c.E., fo 102 1 c.e. 

We give here, in addition to other data, the essential lines of T.-S., 

-ic"'! fi'nr T^ana (2) -nyoa niv ms' nomn T'p'n ncn "inN (i) (a) 
. . . njfD '3x [N3]nio mxsn 'ip^ [njiaa nns (6) ... nj)v ^33 ^no i^ 
m[p] ni3D p . . . (9) ... . n' n^B'io b ina^i • niirn ns niv niotf^i (8) 
!'3 (11) vns' iruo bn.^ -Doica ^a^ ijnjn nB-n non (10) i?nD 'no 
^riNa vnon mpo laiD nnw -i^^isn nay '':xi (14) . . .D'a[n]si 'n^raaa 
n'isv (16) fi'DiD Nin ns^N "nyDC ncN inyiec 'nw 'sa vja nnpn^ {15) 
'bia inas? he's TU'is* (17) na'K hd^e*^ xac nai'D mosB' i^^jiai Piniyi 
imnn nauo aicxc jvc^ vjhjd na'iK ''i (18) •'ov 3inj^ ncfn •'rya aia dn' 
K'npn 'np'a ns'y n^in nctb' 'jvt ^k nob^ pro '3xi (19) nctri b'^' 
nDB"i (21) '>na''B' n"pn •n^ar 'b''i *:3 i^yi 'nac ^''-sa"' Nin ina (20) 

nv3^ n3Ti ni33 nii'B'i nvi) nvri 
•S'3 rij ;d3 i3nn pns'' nu naion ncD may pup 
'3py' ps3 T\yv'< B'K-i n'Nn nu na 63 "i3nn hd^b' • 

T.-S. 8 J 8' contains a document which is signed among others by 

jin: tkd ''3-13 i3nn nn^c ''313 lann pnv'' uia [nsion ntyo] 

iiiivin D-icy '3n3 -i3nn ■hv and [3p]y['] 

{b) [T.-S. 8 J 14"]. 

-non B'N-i T'ND p nc^B' 'n^i^i 

3pyi PN5 n3^E» B'NT TKD po 

ys"! 'Tnia pa niyiB>'i Tna nni •'isja di^'B' 

';3 -ixE' Dy ' • mas nn^ n'303 i-iutid 

moyi nnai -itsi it k: vn> . . . (6) . . . D''S3p3 nj vn' D^jiosn 5 

myn lu' (8) xjna Dn-i3K ini no v^p "ij iai) (7) 

nrya niv \t n»B'n3 ncwn noana (9) TiN[2]n ronan nxa 

'131 b\ mSnpn (n) fpr [pn]vi ini io [-ipj i; 33 p (10) 

' Now also printed by Poznanski, Schware-Festschnft, p. 476. ^ = IHIK. 

' From n33, all that are in tears and in want. 

* I Kings 10. 8. » = n3D 'his hope' 

" T.-S. 10 H 3, fols. 2-5, are written by Isaac b. Solomon Haber [1X3 TND p. 
' Grandson ' (pj) may refer to Isaac. Hence the copyist is identical with Isaac the 
father of Moses Hassofer. 

' His friend (luIJj). « Joseph, Gen. 49. aa. 

' David, a native of Bethlehem, 1 Sam. 17 . 12. 

Appendix A [to Chapler I) 55 

The above data establish the fact that this Meir Gaon was Ben Meir's 
son, and not his father. The great grandson of our Meir, Moses 
Hassopher, asks for support from Abu Sa'ad b. Sahl. As was shown 
above (vol. I, pp. 76 flf.), this benefactor wielded great power in the 
Egyptian court from about 1030-48 (see also infra, p. 73, note i). 
When Moses wrote his epistle, his grandfather, most likely the paternal 
one, Solomon the Haber, was still alive (1. 19). This precludes at once 
his identification with Ben Meir of 921. But this Ben Meir's grandson, 
Solomon Haber, could quite well have been alive about 1030. Our 
Moses Hassopher also signs a document together with 'Ali the Haber 
b. 'Amram. The last scholar was the head of the Palestinian com- 
munity of Fustat after the death of Ephraim b. Shemarya (see vol. I, 
p. 203). A brother of Moses Hassopher was probably Solomon b. Isaac, 
' a grandson of Meir Gaon ', who was a member of the Bet-Din of 
Tarabulus al-Sham (see about this community, vol, I, p. 72 f.) T.-S. 
10 J 26* being a document, dated Sivan(?) 4839 a.m. = 1079 c. e. 
naniD Sljn dm r|in bv'^ nvmf\^.V.'\ Di'3N[-)D]3, is signed by Yehudah 
Hakkohen b. Nathan, Abraham b. ni'NS, X. Kohen b. Aaron, Nahum b. 
Yannai ("J'), Solomon b. Halfon and "iDB'D b. Sadakah. The testatum 
of the Bet-Din is signed by na rbn.'i /[p]S3 TND p: pnif 'ana nisi'tt' 
'ilJ f)DV "la ap[3}''] pann ina'. Solomon b. Isaac was probably presi- 
dent of the court, as his signature is appended first. He must have been 
several years younger than his brother Moses Hassopher, because he bore 
already his grandfather's name, Solomon. His birth must have taken 
place some time after the dace of the above epistle to Abu Sa'ad b. Sahl. 

T.-S. 10 J 26* contains a document (very damaged, right-hand side as 
well as top are torn off) which seems to have been signed by Isaac the 
Haber, the grandson of Meir Gaon. The signature reads 

!jt }iw "I'NO pj trx-in -lann pi ... . 
nv vi Vttmn ^»^5' na , . . . 

The first letter of line i seems to be the remainder of the n in p[ns'j. 
The name of the witness was probably [omaN], because a document 
(T.-S. 28. 6), dated 1079 c.e. at Fustat, mentions "la Drnax ^a TN' 
£3S1K'n TXV Thus the time of Jair II fits in with that of Moses Hassopher 
the son of Isaac the Haber. Accordingly Abraham b. Jair the judge 
and Isaac the Haber could very well have been contemporaries. In the 

56 From the Conquest, 969 C.E., to 102 1 c.E. 

first-mentioned fragment the following names occur : lann n»»D (1. i) 
,VE' ^riB'-invi'N ji^jy (I. 5) /dHjkI'k I3 I'dh^n 'as (1. 2) ^-i) t>sNs5i5K 

nyo ux ^'^j^N I'c^N ''N^iD ansv i^a un (1. 10). 

A grandson of Meir Gaon was Meir Rosh Hasseder, who probably 
resided in Egypt. His son Solomon corresponded with Abraham 
Hakkohen, b. Isaac (b. Furat); the highly-influential physician in the 
time of Solomon b. Yehudah (see vol. I, p. 84 flf.). The Gaon in a letter 
(printed in A. B. 53, end) also mentions Solomon b. Meir as one of the 
opponents of Ephraim b. Shemarya. Very likely the poem printed by 
Mr. Adier is by this Solomon b. Meir Rosh Hasseder. 

(10) To return to the Memoiial List D, Meir Gaon mentioned therein 
is undoubtedly identical with Ben Meir's son, dealt with under 9. As 
his father was Yehuda Gaon, we now learn for the first time Ben Meir's 
proper name. Yehuda's forefathers were Meir and Moses. Now 
according to our list between Yehuda Gaon (=Ben Meir, 921) and 
Joshiah Gaon (II), evidently the Gaon of 1015, there are mentioned five 
generations. Within this period the dignity was also held by Joseph 
Hakkohen and his son Samuel ' (vol. I, p. 66). Accordingly, including 
Yehuda Gaon and Joshiah Gaon (II), we shall have in less than a 
century nine Geonim. This number is obviously excessive for the usual 
average assigned to a generation. In my view the list D is incorrect 
also in the genealogy of Yehuda Gaon-Abraham Gaon. While the 
first two names, Yehuda and Meir, are well established, Moses Gaon has 
crept in by mistake. He is the grandfather of Ben Meir(= Yehuda). 
Aaron Gaon (I) should be placed between Abraham and Joshiah (II) ia 
agreement with list A. Joshiah Gaon (I) should be removed altogether. 
There really existed only one Joshiah Gaon, the grandson of Abraham 
Gaon, whom we found in office in 1015-20.'' 

We are thus able to construe the following genealogy of Ben Meir's 
family : 

' Whether his son Yose was in turn Gaon, is questionable (see vol. I, p. 66). 

2 The above investigations dispose of Marmorstein's remarks (/. Q. R., N. S., 

VIII, 3 ff.) which need not be refuted here in detail (see also my remarks, ibid.. 

IX, 409fr.). 

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58 From the Conquest, 969 c.e., to 1021 c.e. 

16. [Vol. I, pp. 66-70.] 


Data concerning ike priestly Geonim Joseph, Samuel, and Vose(f). 

(i) A fragment Adler (a loose leaf in no. 2805, very damaged) has 
the following signatures ; 

]M» pj na in jnsn ]-\r}ii 

•iu 113 in pan batce^ 
n DK" 'pa 
[t3] npy pxj n3''[t5" {^nt] inan ei[Di*] 

Over Aaron's signature there are some illegible letters. The C| in Joseph 
is not certain, but can hardly be anything else. Apparently we have 
here the signature of Joseph Hakkohen Gaon. His son Samuel, the later 
Gaon, was then still ' Third '. The letters beneath his signature = UDE" 7N 
refer to T3, i.e. his father Joseph. It is doubtful whether Aaroa 
Hakkoiien the 'Fourth' is a grandson (or son, see A. C. 25, i, 11. 6 and 
8) of our Joseph Gaon or of another Gaon who was also a priest. 

(2) T.-S. Box K 6 contains two paper leaves, consisting of several 
Memorial Lists, from which the following lines are given here : 

lati' 3Q pan | nvj las D^n^x tsaa 'nDiciiN nu^ n'mn^s (fol. i) 
n.-nax i:a-) nioni ipy psj | naiB" CiSi no^c u^nx p'aa iv bai^' 'Jiw 
bHice> I ujnx p'ja ny n''JiNjn D':nan naii) ao pan iiyi | miana Tann 
11V1 apy iiNj na^B'^ cxn | ;nan •'ov mom apv iwa na'ts''' ckt pan 
1 ni^npn cnt ncn ■'i^n nc-JD p'ja ny n^B-n | nnsts'o ata jian 
P'ja nj? a£3 pan nij?i | *i^n nt^jo niDm 'i^n ntybx p'aai nti^D imDnt 
niom I ni^npn b'xt laajn icn apv' mcni | pnn cimas uani inn 
I ninan omax nicm ^dv xjaii | -\^n pnvi vnxi naa^n ncn nmax 
eiDVi aVK [N^VE p nu I vninn »3B'i pnvi apy» D''nt<n •'3B'^ ni^E'ni D'^nni 
.niran ffba nab2> nu'an | fi^bti nnsK nnts; nnsx 
{3) This Memorial List, belonging to 'the house of the super- 
intendent ' (~|D1B'?K ', perhaps this official had a synagogue at his 
residence where the list was recited on Sabbaths and Festivals, especially 
on the Day of Atonement), and written by the Rals Abu Nasr, included 
Solomon Gaon (b. Yehuda) and his son Abraham the 'Fourth' (see 
above, A. A. 5, end), and also the priestly Geonim Samuel and his son 
Yose. As we know of no other Samuel Hakkohen Gaon but the son of 

' This word is traced over another word which is illegible. 
* About this title see yol. I, p. 270. 

Appendix A (to Chapter /) 59 

Joseph Gaon, he is probably meant here. Yet he ought to have been 
mentioned before Solomon b. Yehuda, whom he preceded in the office 
at least thirly years before. Of Yose Gaon nothing further is known. 
The 'head of the congregation', Menasse Hallevi, is also unknown. 
El'azar Hallevi was probably his brother. Another unknown family of 
consequence was that of Abraham Dayan, whose son Jacob was also 
' head of the congregations ', probably in Fustat. The latter was 
probably the father of Abraham, Isaac, and Joseph. The latter's three 
sons in turn were Abraham, who died a bachelor, Jacob and Isaac, who 
were still alive when the list was drawn up. Isaac's two sons are also 
mentioned anonymously. 

The next item in the Memorial List deals with the house of Fadlan. 
In another list (published by Pozn., R.EJ., LXVI, 72, II. 16-18) we 

read : ioni ''»^t5'n''n hnin "iB'n iNion mani 3i»n a''^xnE'^ in^ss iria 

7 ? 
jm lin innrj? 6ni ini lin onax lim (read ini 5nn) 331 m innty 

^^•31 ^^nan Onsx ni. In our list evidently the genealogy of another son 
of Job is given, viz. Joseph, whose lineal descendants are enumerated 
without the indication of niDn. We thus have Job-Joseph-Ephraim- 
'Azaryah-Ephraim AUuf-Solomon Alluf (this title nwun fll^N was held 
also by the Nagid Meborak and others, see vol. I, p. 278 f.). 

[Vol. I, pp. 67-9.J 


Concerning Joseph ibn Abitur. 

[MS. Adler 4009, two joined paper leaves, square writing. Now 
printed by Dr. Marmorstein, R.E.J. , LXX, 1920, pp. loi ff. The text 
has been carelessly edited. See my corrections, ibid., LXXI, pp. no-12.] 

[Vol. I, pp. 69-70.] 
Oxford MS. Heb. e. 76, fol. 50, recto, very damaged at right-hand 
side, contains the following poems. The lines run on : 

■■" : "'* D1K3 • o"Ka D'tD' T\-iT\ ' D^H ^Jib< ' D^ni^s , . .>by 
6.«\^ W2ni *'Dna'"i'j 'h^ ''Dnxjc ''n[i]Ni •. , . . na •>r\o 

' Cp. Exod. 35. 10. ' Probably referring to Amos 8. ii. 

' MS. Dn'i'tJ'. * MS. DWI'J. Cp. Judges ii. 7. » Isa. 8. 17., 

6o From the Conquest, 969 C.E., to 102 1 c. e. 

':"'' hoj rnh [a'cn] onnJi "wxo onvapnn hv^ nn* 5 

: "'" '•B'[s3]i' 'moNi 

2 : 1" D1SB>' •Dr3']3''31 ■'[i'Ja •D3!'3 

[: "''] iN[a] nityp nnvJ . . 'b n 

':"'' ai'[iDj 3S'n] . . . -^mrv^ s'ni '^vihta. ni^N ^:a^ 

:■>"....• [nmna] v"in ni[ty]vbi 'nmoD onr "vi djijddi '[nn] 

* : '" ^n h'i 'nmani nn»3 yK'iv[nmDD] onix . . i^a •nms''D j)"i pc'i'i 

: "' "»2n 3 TinD:! nT ids 'nnacmi '-inNa •nmc .... 

:[»"] CN D^N-a .... [nJniB* • [n]ni'3''pi . , . .'hi vn n^a 15 

' : "L'] nmD '« nnxioi •■nmay min [nani] 

[Vol. I, p. 68.] 


Concerning Abralmm Hakkohen b: Joseph Gaon. 

MS. Adler 223, from which Dr. Marmorstein printed extracts in three 
diflferent places (Z.Z).il/.G., LX VII, (ii^i-2, J.Q.R., N. S., IV, 623-4, and 
R.E.J. , LXVIII, 42-4) in an unscientific manner, should be discussed 
here. It consists of four leaves ; from the binding it is impossible to 
ascertain whether they were originally joined or detached. Leaves 2 and 
4 are of the same ink and handwriting. The number of lines on each 
page is 21 {fol. 4, recto and' verso, fol. 2, verso); fol. 2, recto, has 
18 lines, but between lines 3 and 4 there is a blank space of 3 lines, 
smce with line 4 a new composition begins. 

Leaves i and 3 are in paler ink. The number of lines is 19 (fol. i, r. 
and v., fol. 3, r. ; fol. 3, v., has 20 lines). Several words have Babylo- 
nian and also Tiberian vowel-points; "iriN (fol. i, r., and 3, r.) occurs 
before new letters, whereas in fol. 2, v., ^^^? has no vowel signs. It is, 
therefore, questionable whether fols. 2 and 4 are by the same person who 

' LSm. 3. 64. 2 (^ip Gen. i6. 5, i Sam. 24. 13. 

» Cp. Ps. 28. 4. < I. e. Israel, cp. Deut. 32. 9. " Cp Ezek. 8 la. 

« Perhaps the meaning is you have turned aside (taking nm'B' = iiniD) like 
Aher, i. e. Elisha b. Abuyah, though the rhyme separates the words. Likewise in 
the next phrase ' and art regarded as a stranger '. 

' This strophe ends in the manuscript in the middle of the line. A few more 
letters are presei-ved. Evidently the poem is incomplete. 

Appendix A [to Chapter I) 6i 

wrote fols. I and 3. The manuscript is wrongly bound ; fol. i is the 
continuation of fol. 3, while fol. 2 follows fol. 4. 

Fol. 2, r., begins: ibom [Da'ns] i5[y 1»mi D3"J5J] bil IDim DDiry (i) 

Danoni " non^ nvhn (3) nn'j^jji . . . ••aa n^nitrnn [D3']o3[n] ^55? (2) 

D^nSD IVB"? D''7n''D1. This is evidently the end of a draft of an appeal 
for support. After a blank space of three lines the manuscript continues : 

:^b)-a fTinjD (5) miana [yv]n inan nmns i fi^^sn : m ba db'3 (4) 
nnj-NH rbMO ii: tj'i (6) px na't:'* ckt fiDV ina [ia] p. Then 

follow specimens of letters in heavy Paitanic style. 

Of more interest are fols. 3 and i, containing again specimens of 
letters from the Rabbinite community of Jerusalem and from the head 
of the local academy. Fol. 3, r. : ... DW^B' (3) D'cyj n^n.x!' ... (2) 

iTDjan 'mnin D'^ann (6) na piani nsan " m'^p tv ni i:n uodi (5) 
n~no (8) 'si[ni] "pp •'ynj •D'hniaa •d[t]x 'jvax (7) D^jip^nnoic 
•0*^33 D'Dno 'DTicij D'ncn • 01^)1? (9) ''mJT 'i?rfo Tiwi "3X0 lann 
•D»Dnioo(ii) D'3noD •nmp''B'ni' • -ins ''i'itj'3 '(r. ^^ntt)^3^a (10) 'c^p< 
"i^^x 'nn^a •'vna 'luyo ipicj? (12) -niD "isijo -xb nuD •hb'j 'sicj 
in^ "'13 b (14) '2ij}n •TiiB' •'i'l^B' Yvn »vist -i^np i^jvop (13) poij? 
ni!'[n]pn i^x (16) inx 'ntiniDioi nas'ioen (15) . .. d nt:ip3n •nD''i'Qn 
irsiE'n iNC^ (fol. 3, v., 1. 15) . . . ni3B'v (17) npni nt:n3 ib'x niE'npn 
'jpn wn3'B« ^aioDDi udo fp I'x^ (16) oii'tr ir33^3 D'pipm iranji 
['o]n-i3i D'Jin: ux umvo (18) nDn3 '3 irnyDca ^x ononi iy3C'iD (17) 
1DB' i.T (20) D'aw 13X i3[''i:m]D nno ^v3i ni^nj lix (rg) li^jsinn 
pen ^3 ha 'nnx •n^nni n3n3 (fol. i, r., i) i)3 i'jf Donoi ni'noa nnuo 

. . . |j)iv3 ntyx nnnxjn nia'iipn (2) ni^npn 

That Abraham HakUohen b. Joseph Gaon composed all these letters 
is far from certain. The above examination of the manuscript tends 
to the reverse conclusion. It is also doubtful whether the sad condition 
of the Jerusalem community, as described in the alphabetical composition 
(fol. 3, r., 11. 7-14), is a true reflex of the actual state of things in 
Jertisalem or merely an embellishment to meet the requirements of the 
alphabet. Though there is no doubt that the congregation in the Holy 
City was greatly dependent on outside support (see vol. I, pp. 162 ff.). 
Altogether it is questionable whether these compositions ever served for 
epistles to the mentioned communities of Aleppo, Tiberias, and Fustat. 
They may have been the exercise of a tiro in the art of writing. The 
only definite detail we gather is that a son of Joseph Hakkohen, Gaon of 
Palestine, Abraham, was the author of a letter-writer in heavy Paitanic style. 

' See in/ra, p. 75, note i. 

62 From the Conquest, 969 c.E., to 102 1 c.E. 

17. [Vol. I, p. 70.] 
The Gaonic Family of Ebyatar Hakkohen. 

The genealogy of Ebyatar Hakkohen is preserved in a Memorial List 
published by Pozn. (R.E.J., LI, 53) from Or. 5549. It is now fully 
reprinted in the Rev. Margoliouth's Catalogue, III (1915), 56il'-za. Of 
the Geonim mentioned therein only one, Masliah, held this office in 
Egypt. His father, Solomon, probably occupied the Gaonate in Hadrak 
(Damascus), as has been shown in vol. I, p. 196. But Pozn. {Babyl. 
Geonim, 101-2), unable to fix the first three names of the list, Elijah, 
Solomon, and Menahem, in his scheme of Palestinian Geonim, makes 
them to have held office in Egypt after the overthrow of the Nasi David 
b. Daniel b, Azarya. Pozn. adduces no proofs for this assumption. 

We are able to print two new lists which have the advantage of indi- 
cating the genealogy from son to father. One is in Or. 5557 A, fol. 7, 
verso, in faded handwriting, while the other is to be found in Oxford 
MS. Heb. c. 50, fol. 11. We shall place Ihe three lists side by side for 
the sake of comparison, indicating A for Or. 5549, B for Or. 5557 A, 
and C for Oxford MS. Heb. c. 50. 

It should be noted that A, though headed ' principals of the schools ', 
includes also names of people that were no Geonim. Ebyatar's son, 
Elijah (I. 10), must have died when only ' Fourth '. Yehoseph (1. 6) was 
only 'Father' (Bet-din = Ab-Bet-Din), while Mordecai (1. 5) evidently 
held no office. In C, Joseph (11. 6-8), the son of Solomon Hakkohen, 
and the brother of Elijah, is styled Rosh Yeshiba. This agrees with 
Megillat Ebyatar {J.Q.R., XIV, 458, 1. 8, where he is styled Gaon 
(n^ilKJ ^yv jnan inil'XI jnan ^IDV 'DU). But in another Memorial List 
(J.Q.R., N. S., I, 48, 11. 6-7) he is mentioned as Ab (3X flDVT VriNI 
bv.f<S/^ byp^ pi nu). This is more correct, as his own son, Solomon, 
styles him only as such (see vol. I, p. 187, note 2). Likewise Elijah 
Hakkohen, when already Ab, mentions his late brother Joseph as Ab 
only, as we read in T.-S. 12. 775, which is a letter from Elijah to X. 
T\>-\V ■in . . . hr^yn pn n'2i> JDNJn (there is a blank space for the name) 

nyan . . . nn pr. Elijah writes : innar wan na-iDN nt nva wjrjm 
'nu lo' TOc D^niD o i^N Dmo bbi^ . . . r^y pa uano rhv napn <ibn 

■i ^N b'-ii i^TiK as ^iDi'' iJUT 1^ ana ^xr nann noi'B' n^a ^t T-n 

;v.j)< DE/i' D>Ty "h E" ''a "kni nana Di^a "h jna ^h ainra ana mnat 

.warn vans iiaa una xaii vpoy iiaa rin ti p^jn 

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64 From the Conquest, 969 C.E., to 102 1 c.E. 

The lists are in agreement as to the descendants of Yehoseph Hak- 
kohen (Bet-Din, Kohen Sedek). The divergence begins with his fore- 
fathers. All the three lists mention an Elijah Gaon {jhw i'B' na*E" EJ-NT). 
A and C agree that Yehoseph was a son of Mordecai (whether Gaon or 
simply nan KMa). B and C agree that the same Yehoseph was a 
grandson of Elijah Hakkohen Gaon. It is difficult to ascertain which 
list is to be given preference. Let us hope that further Genizah finds 
will solve the contradictions. This much is certain, that the forefathers 
of Yehoseph Kohen Sedek were Geonim outside Palestine (n^Jia hv HliB"), 
probably in Sura. No Gaonate existed in Egypt before the Nasi David 
b. Daniel (1080), as has been shown in vol. I, pp. 82, 190 f. According 
to A and B, Yehoseph's father (be he Menahem or Mordecai) held no 
office, and is simply styled nai XJna . He probably emigrated from 
Babylon to Palestine, where his son Yehoseph became Ab. 

Yehoseph's son, Solomon, succeeded to the Gaonate in Palestine, and 
is styled apV )1X3 DTE" {^NT. His time of office was before Solomon 
b. Yehuda. His sons Elijah and Joseph figure in the struggle against 
the Nasi Daniel b. 'Azarya, as described in Megillat Ebyatar. But Pozn. 
(I.e., pp. 87-8) makes their grandfather Yehoseph Bet-Din to have 
been ' Father ' under Solomon b. Yehuda. After this Gaon's death, not 
Yehoseph Ab but his son Solomon Hakkohen, assumed the dignity 
(p. 91). That Yehoseph Bet-Din was ' Father ' under Solomon b. Yehuda 
is mentioned nowhere. The construction of the corresponding data 
leads Pozn. to several difficulties. Thus, for example, when finding 
a signature (=ni23 inniJD) 56 r\'yfV''r\ CXI no^c ■iu nann \Tor\ f|Di' 
(cited mJ.Q.R., XIX, 724, no. VII), he is forced to assume that Solomon 
Hakkohen, the father of Masliah, had another son, by name Joseph 
(p. 109, note i). But this Joseph is most likely the brother of Elijah, 
both of whom opposed Daniel b. 'Azarya when he usurped the Gaonate 
after Solomon b. Yehuda. 

It is now possible to state definitely that Solomon Hakkohen b. 
Yehoseph Bet-Din was Gaon before Solomon b. Yehuda. Besides 
several data which have been discussed in vol. I, pp. 84, 100, 130-31, 
MS. Adler 301 1, fol. i, parchment, will be adduced here for our purpose. 
] t contains on recto a liturgical composition, evidently a dirge. On verso 
there is a palimpsest, very badly preserved, which forms the end of a legal 
document drawn up at the court of Solomon b. Yehuda. The last 
seven lines can safely be reconstrued: 

. . . [v]'r\Th njiB'n[3] yysz M»nni uanai 

n-f-i-h V2V^ D['j;B'!ni [njixo yam d^sSn nvanx nvff 
[t3] Tf^'b'i \sb nvrh anpa njan ^in'^\r(\ n^v n^i'im'a 

Appendix A (to Chapter I) 65 

D^'pi ^ 'ne* iT'cni'' ti^i jikt oixn 

. . [HDji'B' ta [D]ma[N] rn dj ono na omnN 
i'P[t [ixj p] munn ^K't^n insn in^i>x 

We see thus that in 1037 c.e. Elijah Hakkohen, the son of the late 
Gaon (i.e. Solomon), was 'Sixth' under Solomon b. Yehuda. Eight 
years later, in 1045, we find him as 'Fourth' {see/.Q.Ji., XIX, 728, 
top, mnna 'Jf^ann |nan VT^ik). What position Elijah's brother, Joseph, 
then held in the school is unknown. They must have been very young 
when their father, Solomon Hakkohen, died. Altogether his period of 
office was very short, a few years between 1020- 102 5. So far only one 
letter by him has been preserved.^ The question often arises when we 
find the signature iaT3 apV pxJ r\2^^ ITNT Vn nol'B' whether Solomon 
Hakkohen or Solomon b. Yehuda are meant. But in most cases the 
handwriting of the fragments decide in favour of the latter. And 
generally it may moreover be assumed that Solomon Hakkohen would 
have indicated his priesthood in his signature, just as we find in the case 
of his descendants. Solomon b. Yehuda, who was then ' Father ', suc- 
ceeded Solomon Hakkohen to the dignity (about 1025). After his death 
in 1051 (see vol. I, p. 75), the ordinary course would have been for one 
of the sons of the former Gaon, Solomon Hakkohen, to assume the 
presidency of the school. But Daniel b. 'Azarya, the Nasi, forestalled 

^ Bodl. 2874" is headed UnU apV [IN) nCaiB*' supply tJ'NI ]nn Hoi'B']. 
Solomon b. Yehuda invariably signs at the end of his letters, whereas the descendants 
of Solomon Hakkohen Ebyatar, Solomon and his son Masliah head their signatures 
(infra, A. C. 26", A. C. 29, A. D. 14). An epistle from Elijah Hakkohen, Solomon 
Gaon's son, when already head of the school has not been preserved ; (in A. B. 21, 
when writing to Ephraim b. Shemarya he signs after the letter, but he was then only 
Ab). We may assume that the Geonim of this priestly family headed their signatures 
just as Joshiah Gaon did. The above fragment is addressed TiD7nn DHSN inD? 
. . . [tiaj]ni Dann, no doubt Ephraim b. Shemarya who must have studied in the 
academy under Joshiah and Solomon. In 1016 we find him already in Fustat 
(see vol. I, pp. 36 and 100, note i). In the letter, the right-hand side of which 
is missing, we read (after nineteen lines of praise for Ephraim) laDOO ... (1. 20) 

. . . (22) vasi ui>3 aitrn hm pa o . . . (21) Dn-ias KJan lamK nya 

Evidently Ephraim wrote an epistle on behalf of an Abraham whom the Gaon also 
cherished and whose father he seems to have known. Perhaps Abraham b. Sahlan 
is meant here. Certain prisoners are mentioned (D'llDN, D^B'ian), and also 
■ . . CNT i'NIE'' NJ31. In the latter case, if we supply [na'tJ"], then probably 
Israel Hakkohen b. Samuel b. Hofni is meant. As I have shown elsewhere (/. Q. R., 
N. S., XI, 414 ff.), he was at the head of the Sura school from 1018 to 1033 c. e. 

2240-2 £ 

66 From the Conqtcest, 969 C.E., to 102 1 c.e. 

them. Joseph, Elijah's brother, was never Gaon. He died in 1053, 
two years after Solomon b. Yehuda. Elijah thereupon became ' Father '. 
He came to some sort of an agreement with Daniel b. 'Azarya. A 
document of 1057 speaks of the latter as Gaon, and of Elijah as Ab- 
Bet-Dln (/.(2.i?., XIV, 484). On the death of Daniel in 1062 c.e., 
Elijah assumed the dignity of Gaon, held by his father about forty years 

To sum up, the ancestors of Yehoseph Bet-Din, namely Elijah and 
Mordecai (or vice versa, or Mehahem, Solomon, and Elijah), were Geonim 
in the Diaspora (n^M), but not in Palestine. Probably they resided in 
Sura in the period of vacancy between Sa'adya and Samuel b. Hofni. 
The position of the academy there was then very precarious, and little is 
known of its history. A descendant of Sura Geonim prior to Samuel b. 
Hofni, viz. Yehoseph Hakkohen, became 'Father' of the Palestinian 
school about the year 1000. A son of his, Solomon, occupied the 
Gaonate before Solomon b. Yehuda, and probably after Joshiah Gaon, 
between 1020-1025. 

18. [Vol. I, p. 71.J 
Nos. 18-21. Letters from Joshiah Gaon. 

[T.-S. 13 J 14'°, paper, square writing, verso blank.] 


Begins (1. i) i^KiB'' D[3j] 'mon rhm 'mvi i""? h\f. •m^asx di^c 

'mwi with a long exordium, from which it appears that the com- 
munity lived outside Palestine, most probably in Egypt, since the letter 
was found in the Cairo Genizah. The Gaon writes : DH^ (i.e. God) NT 

Dij;-iii Dv^cv •n»icE' nv3B' T\'hvi\ '■nxshm'y' mm 'riDnj nva "noin 
DJion ^■y?'' . . . (11. 3-4) "D^y^r Ijx niyi •dv'JT ninumi •dvcjie'^ ivinIji 
. . . (11. 6-7) •D'noaD \ygwi n^insi D'jj-i 'D'mj dw^ njjiao I'v ^n 
•inK-i"! inansa •inrjB' dnti •ini'm ^w win Ijn "inDnN hvt, ta^'nr (9) 
.DDDixai Dvixa •Dnicaj wy>i •Dnnc ti^<''i {12). - • 

The chief interest of the letter begins with the last two words of 1. 12: 
nnKTi nan. 
"pj TintrnD ^^y^ Timj i^jn 'ansiDni nnanni 'nninni novwn 

DU-1DI Tiuvin 'p''mD Tiina^ 
nrij? • mpinnn nnniDni nnanm -mina n^ipjm "muaa Dncn TiniD 

y'vrsTh "DDipo naao uny 

' 131, Aramaic, = ^3t. 

Appendix A {to Chapter I) 67 

ty'N •nipi'nD ipmi •iT'Dn yni •miviT'i my -noin'j nipoi •qdv 15 • 

•nip{5>j)D yv3 nana 
•ynj Nini 'vnra prnnon 'nipim de^h nxnio 'mpn vnvisai ui)i 

•ynD vmnynai 
•Duna naiDH •1^v^5 ninvini 'li^ya oonni ''lij-iv npB'ni "h ah vpyan 

Dnpc D''2ni anin^ ^n 
irT'Dno JNV bx -mn v:^b f^^'\ '\:h naj i>x i>Ki nab dti 'Dnrai 

•131XJ1 iniNj nsnon :unp oyi 
D''3ji'nij •nn^ja nnsnon 'ijiyoD npij? 'wip "lar xi^i inxB' ijip v*Ds;>ni 

lat K^i Tinno 
•losy oa SDD1 mdvi iW •iDynu'-vinn s^n TinnNi niijiip Tinnrx 20 

:iDin nvi inrn dvd 
xiin 'NDCi Nna bn •n[D]nj inuiai 'noiD idn:i 'nddd is« ^5b^ 

n''[i]Dj vsaiji 'inpa iniB' 
n^Db • vnuvin bv ^I'Dini : in*B> msii ova '^ • inij nar Nb[i] • inn 

•vnim wtro!' 'iTiimiN 
'3 yT MTiim ynv Kin 'a •vnati' ana mm vsi 'vnnoa niini 

mroo •innf o^xn 
hni icoj nann nnn nnx hcb' jnn -inia-ix' [3n]y[»]oi •inii'j'« 

nyaB' -inx niN'B'i' 
•ncui ni)ny ''3a •ne'cn nnno Tf<i 'nipD cai'D nao nnn iw 35 

.natHp iB'[n]^ dhd o'^Jtr 
Dmn"! -iDyTi mv jnn •is''p'' dip» ijao yni ^'ncnxa nmi dhd nn 

xa na'Nai -laiDa 
'D'xwE' vK^yoi Tiinnni nionn onnsnai 'ninna nnaa 'mm r\M^b 

nwnji •D'xi^i D'^ii'j 
•D'awD i'aipi 'nDna ijaoi -id aiE3 imoi noio i^av xh [niJNja 

[aii] 'CDim nii'''a3ai diljj '•' ''nt'd 
N^n '31 'Ji nw yn nwES* " nxn^ 'aa inixyci' mvDi -diddpi "in 

"J1 NJB'N " n^NJCD 

fliiDn mx n^Jis 'ai 'Ji "nbiN d'^iini 'ai °ji yno noi nt can 'ai 30 

' Read 'h'i. 

' He that drew him out (from the womb, see Ps. 2a. 10), i. c. his Creator. 
' The Gaon refers here to 'Anan, the knowledge of whose teachings has been 
admitted by the person attaclced in this letter. 

* See Note (p. 68). ^ Read nf?n^D. 

* And he used (up) much ink for his lampoons. But read perhaps [H. 
' Prov. 8. 13. ' Ps. 139. 21. ' rov. 14. 16. 

'" Prov. 16. 22. Read D''blN nD1»1 . " Prov. 19. 3. 

E 2 

68 From the Conqiiest, 969 c.e., to 102 1 c.e. 

nosn pND nD[N] noNi nrNnni npts*.! imi hdnh nry iJ^nx ortNi 

mpon i'3i 
"lis nso pi ^Ji 13-ipa na^x fiiBDsni 'jc ynn dhni irij^s^i D3^*s> 

Evidently the person attacked here was of the Davidic family, a descendant of 
Bustanai, who is styled *]a'B> jnPI •' the son-in-law of (the king of) Babylon ' (Jar. 
25. 26 ; 51. 41). As is well-known, Bustanai married the daughter of Khusrau, the 
last king of Persia (cp. Graetz, V*, 124 and 433-4). From the interesting fragment 
in Sa'adyafia, XXXVI (/. Q. R., XIV, 244, 1. 10 ff.) we know that Bustanai had 
three sons from the princess, while another Jewish wife bore him two male 
children. A dispute arose after the Exilarch's death whether the children from 
the Persian princess should be regarded as Jews. Ultimately they were declared 
as legitimate children. Yet even centuries later the descendants of these sons of 
Bustanai were discredited. Thus Sherira, in claiming Davidic origin for his 
family, is anxious to add "131 Wn3N ''X3nD3 ''330 N^ (Letter, ed. Neubauer, 33). 
Moreover, two Genizah fragments (printed \nJ.Q. R., XIV, 304 ff. and XX, 212 ff.), 
also reveal hostility to Bustanai's descendants. From the daughter of Khusrau, 
it is stated, originated 'Anan, Bo'as (i. e. the father of the Karaite Nasi David, one 
of the foremost early Karaite scholars, about the beginning of the tenth century, 
see about him Poznariski, /. Q. R., XX, 226-8), and the family of Zakkai (i.e. the 
well-known Exilarch David b. Zakkai). The ' sons of Bo'as ' sided in Bagdad with 
Sa'adya during his conflict with the Exilarch. Thus we read in the pamphlet 
of Khalaf b. Sarjado (in Harkavy, Studien «. Milteilungen, V, 227, 1. 8 ff., see 
Geiger'sy«rf. Zetischrift, X, 174) biD31 . . . nii^DS fpt (iTlVD bn) vW n3nn*1 

. . , ni[nD]B'n iJ3i nnxnins Ty3 *33 on nait ii>i w^-m. joshiah Gaon 

in our letter (1. 24 ff.) also speaks of 'five generations, sons of uncircumcision and 
shame, two of whom only inherited sanctity ', i. e. two only of Bustanai's five sons had 
a Jewish mother. The person attacked sprang up ' from the royal princess ' 
(D''3?t3 n3D), i. e. Khusrau's daughter. Joshiah mentions seventeen generations 
from Bustanai (']iS'!J' jnri) to his own time. Perhaps the opponent of the Gaon 
was a member of the family of the Babylonian Exilarchs who settled in Palestine 
or in Egypt and, in the capacity of Nasi, attempted to usurp the authority wielded 
by the head of the academy. But his name cannot be ascertained. 

Entirely misunderstanding this Genizah letter. Dr. Marmorstein {Theologisch Tijd- 
schn/t, Lll (1918), p. 104 ff.), makes the person attacked by the Gaon to have been 
a priest and a member of the sect from whose midst Schechter's Zadokite Fragment 
emanated! The 'seventeen generations' are 17x50 ( = 850) years from El'azar 
b. 'Azarya (sic). Dr. Marmorstein's remarks are the result of utter confusion, 
incorrect quotations from our fragment and baseless deductions. It is inexplicable 

1 Ps. 85. 12. 2 Read ^llDQDNni, Num. 11. 4. s Cp. Lev. 24. loif. 

* The letter must have been concluded on another leaf which has not been 

Appendix A {to Chapter /) 69 

to me where he discovered the struggle about the Gaonate between the members 
of the Davidic family (i. e. the Ben Meir family) and the priestly scholars in the 
tenth and at the beginning of the eleventh centuries. We have seen (above, p. 53 ; 
cp. also vol. I, pp. 66, 71) that Joshiah Ab (of the Ben Meir family) was under 
Joseph Hakkohen Gaon, while the Ab under Joshiah Gaon, the writer of our very 
fragment, was Hananya Hakkohen (probably the son of the Gaon Samuel 
Hakkohen). There is not the least evidence for this supposed rivalry between 
these families. Moreover, it is unthinkable that the priestly Geonim, like Joseph 
and his son Samuel, deviated from Rabbinic Judaism towards the standpoint taken 
up by the Zadokite sectarians. Would such people as Sherira, Hai, and Joseph 
ibn Abitur have been their correspondents ? That the VPi'D VO are the Zadokite 
sect is another of Dr. Marmorstein's statements that hardly need refutation. The 
passage in Megillat Ebyatar {J. Q. R., XIV, 458, 1. 9) y^SH n33 pmiT'l (which 
Dr. Marmorstein himself quotes, note 72), tells us that Daniel b. 'Azarya had their 
support in Jerusalem against Elijah and Joseph the sons of the Gaon Solomon 
Hakkohen. Thus these very sectarians supported a member of the Davidic family 
against the descendants of Aaron ! But, as shown in vol. I, p. 275, the Karaites 
were dubbed by their opponents as VPSH TO ; these sectaries were powerful in the 
Holy City and took a share in the making and unmaking of Geonim. Likewise 
the person attacked here by Joshiah Gaon, had a leaning towards Karaism, as 
shown above. In fine, our fragment has not the slightest bearing on the sectarians 
of the Zadokite Fragment. (Other quotations from manuscripts in Dr. Marmorstein's 
article cannot be discussed here.) 

19. [Vol. I, pp. 71-2.] 

[T.-S. 13 J 26"^, paper, size 30 x 19-5 cm., cursive writing, left-hand 
side torn .J 

Address (verso) 


[naiD rrilnnNi in ^aa Din nm lor h:i2 D''omi nv 

[T'y] N'n -iins3 •'W omn pnpn [nn ij^^ns? mm 
[nn]»ttn pT n''3 didv ^1 no "ip ij nna tf'xna ' D^ion 5 

' Another name for Damietta is Djn. MS. Adler 2747 has in a fragment, 

ninsa 'x nsnpn dw n^no h^A -\h''b dj ; Megiuat Ebyatar, (/. g. r., 
XIV, p. 460, 1. 17, ■insK'1 iins3 •'NI fr. D:n 'ni) Din'Ni pox nj bv '\b^o''^, 

and ibid., note 3, a document dated 1106, fwh naniD ^K/< ^1n3^ DJH ''N n:nD3 
vh^i 'llpn DnXD hm. We hear of the Damietta community in 989 c, t. 
Bodl. 2805' "•'■ are really two halves of one document that has been cut across its 

70 From the Conquest, 969 ce., to 102 1 c.e. 

.... xn-ii "m»v jam iPtn iry^'N n331 *iNin [t3B]iB'ni 
[ha]' DDii'B' Dnaiann csptn nsci nyic" sjani 

\p?^'i ^CJN QN'OT i'np "»nN 13DD Dli'tT 1Kt5' 

[^ijK D3]3 D2'i'5J 1DV1 D3t3ir» nm^ Dipon non '{yivi 
[nnon^ unna'] totni nvn pnn o wnx lyni ' iji Q'»vs 1° 
[D'jnwn] Dv napi'n nvni> oaij mar xnib' 'd^vsni Da''i)v 
[n'n]nDo irn xb nia^»n iv» D^Dnano w'nc nyai 
[nieyi' lijijia' n^j irnx r\^^y^ mipo d'^c tib' Dvm 
[NUji'i nsvi) pNi ijnj pnna uni niaii»n nxo s'pai'i 
[dj] .ioi -inva wrasi nhna msa i'xntj'' pN '•n ^a 15 
[isJ'Din yj D'JiDnp D'jikj anjca i3naai> onjnjB' 
[T>]Dnji irijy nsni nxT 'a i3''i'y in^nni nan* 
[Dip»n] D'anao unJN ntrsa Tiasi nawana 
[oa^^Jy mm ■'33 '^•yQ\ jmnJD •'33 ^301 wdd yoB*'' 
[t<''3''E'] no i'3 HB-y^i n:nn ^31 n^an b i'NiE'* i'a i^yi 20 
• [DanDanJai! riT'Sti 'namaa nt^iyi 'DaTiwuDa nab nn 
[nyi] ajtj-D D3^ nvni^i 'aannnsa oariN a't3ni»i 
[ns-1'1 iijan ■'j^'y^i vryi? D'»m^i nom jn^ □anni'i 
[x]:d31 natDn <3J ijy ij^b pnp3 iB'yriE' no b 
[nan]' naniaa tihrn rsb^ naiD na^'^y B'na''i omaa 25 

whole length. We quote here a few lines. The strokes indicate where the 

document was cut. HTH npcno nDDi) coiJinn D'':pTn 13K i^jsa iTntJ* no (i) 
niNo yaa*! D"'s!;n nyans hjb' (2) ncn cnna d'^c nyaca naca ''JtJ'a 
naajn min^ (3) 'ja poini bno ir:a^ isa nnxD D^na dSyli? nje' o'CDni 
nr oniax paty ncno pais: dj^dd n'ai|t3 na pan NT-tsi nr by D'S^aip J: 
-iDaj irax ''3 :j miln' ''33 poim iino nt ib''N noNi 53 nos:n min'' (4) 
I E'i'K'i fiD3 eii'N n<3iD na NT'DJ nr ^jvn n''3ni (5) d''Ob> mvaa n^Di>y niai) 
Dnnan uyctr nt'dj nto (6) mun pary D'yain uni «id3 nncyi fiD3 nixa 
nnana imo^ai cjprn •'jai' t<ai NT'oa nt nns upyc'i D''B'nvn ■h''^ 
cjyn Noc iDsya | nnrn ij^ns □•'Jptn nuio -la ntdj r\h noNi (7) 
|nyi3i D'-jprn iniD'^aE' "inNoi pnn dvd it^a: (8) nx ^''sni niDin'n ib'sa 

'131 D''Jptn <3ai> min Onoy. We find here this Netirah b. Tobias of Nisibis 
living in Damietta and holding a deposit of 1320 Dirhems (5)03 ; the Dinar is 
usually called aim) belonging to the heirs of the late Yehuda. 
' Deut. 1. II. 

Appendix A {to Chapter I) 71 

20. [Vol. I, p. 7 2. J 
[T.-S. 12. 16 contains a letter with the superscription (recto) l.TCN'' 

'3nu apy (iNJ naiE" b'n'i wib'N' | o nipy ;inj ri^^ cnnt (the second 

line is evidently the corrected form) TKhvf ni ID rhnra irnN^ (1. 3) . . . 
. . . vsra "iB'x i'npm o^aprn nxci w DsiK'n | nnyo i p taawn. Cp. also 
Worman, J.Q.R., XIX, 731, no. xxx. In vol. XVIII, 14, note 6, 
Woman cites the very same fragment as evidence for a supposed Joshiah 
Gaon in Egypt (!).] 

Verso contains in small handwriting the following : 

nnS'B' D^HDiDm nn^Jtn •rTnn''aD (2) hy\ '.Tnuaai nnyn (left side, 1. i) 
noni im 'D.TniDna myi'' "DnnniDi (4) nn^o-iva Dnoiyni D'onani (3) 
h-i 11? ni3-Qi (9) TiDsp ^\ npn xija 'jdd i)nj mi'E' inb* (8) dn''VD'' 

nnnn oa^nmni •u'ijvs pipn oaor o (10) 'wns ivii 'nanN nno n 

1311 "T-n rh^■», dni (12) nipo bai .... ira^'ioa ny i'aa (n) Mrsa 

n»o nnv prnnni? \h ''Int 'lymjiy ano (13) nvcjan p-ino Dn\n 

'u'DUi 1231 vn' irnusn 
nmn^i -upj onni' (15) iro-a 'a yiii •irinc (14) 

*jsoi 'wivb D^*n VK Mjary k^) -istn (i6) 'umv vom '•i'li'i 'upa 

^5)3 n'3t3 ^UMK noni Q''pni (18) o'h \rm!-s\ n'-p^v.-i laoxj nvin(i7) 

'ji *»v [in] n»N''i 'ji lotN ''''' non 'ninatJ' nea (19) u^jb) ib'n i>a 

B^Ni (21) ij^oj ncN mon ijy iDB'i' ijn nniDi (r. omv) urns 1)33 (20) 

'n* inai (22) inon ion ^ ''3 nncim rxihi:, \'h (read in: nt^Ni) jnJi 

moi 3sp b i)j; 

(right-hand side reversed, 1. i)lJ'nN* DS'i'N 1Ji3n3» n»301 D^ivi* 1CB' 

niyo yn' sin '3 (2) 'pnoi) p yn^n yi itn nev p ^'Wdc id ^'e* nya 
iri>vNi Nin \hv -lyu' nsiDi (3) 'min aniNi mm iivDi b^ns VB'yoa 
v^5? ^ *3i nny ly ivr\ n^Di nrioa m^^xs (4) de'io 1^ wjnji ijiatnoai 
iiiy.T i^cj 131301 njijy ■'i'ln nysai nrptn (5) im^vi nvnx "na* 133 hy 
innrync (7) ^snc'' irnx 031133 i'N 1^:3^0 3n3n nr h i33n3 (6) vW 
.iyni3n3 i^3pnB' ns d'-jd i^j nuoni (8) d3T innani nanau^ u'mni 

The letter is unfinished. 

' These words give no proper sense and are clearly corrupt, especially imUNn (!) 
2 = irn^JN. ^ Isa. 63. 7-9. 

* ''E', '^ ' the affair of Mar Samuel b. Semah '. 

72 F^'om the Conquest, 696 C.E., to 102 1 c.e. 

21. [Vol. I, p. 72.J 

[MS. Adler, paper, square writing.] 

Address (verso) 

niv noB' ''irhvi/T] bsjnj ni no "^3>pn [i3n]'pii' 


unu aipy pxj nn'tj''' est in^cs' 
• miy^ 31D Dtri (2) .... rT'3 ... ij nmai -nsn^ va . . . doi ubv (i) 
i B'Ni^ nisnan b i?i>3 nj) -np' -mh (3) ^iJ^i •ncNi' naiD nnnNi 
•niom (5) mm '•jai' i[»n]Di ivt^D Nin itrs naiaoni Tp^n (4) ^.»5:n3 
bnj m^B' NC nasJii (6) nn[N] ii n» 13 id^nb' 1^ k^ci b^ inin' 
UTiii'^sn "3 i^nv li* VTvi nsi'p fx ny nisiai (7) -ipn t<b ij»d 
bb:ii D^jnn id>3 (9) d''3 . . , . 31 Di^Jt^nu Ton ' n-^y ri'V wmianai (8) 
nv3i D3ny3 irn^sn v^^'< i:''nijK (10) ['"] . . . [ijjxna" irns ni^^np b 

D'DtJ> (12) [i]Dm ijV D'mt23 UN '3 I^Tp'' VITl nnSI (ll)[ ^NIE']"' b 

Dn3 ijnsr ncK I'n-ib'* (13) irnN nun^ ^jvi irn^s ion 3n ^yi 
upiiii 1331 Dnmi''DJ33 D'-poyno nn pny (14) ^xnK''' ps ''J3 nnyi 
[««> ^si) 3ian (16) ^Jn:o3 uoy jnanc' lanv loo D'I'nib' uni {15) 
nsty i? nTT'B' iy[Di5] n3m k'333 (17) [n3iD]n Tii nnan nnm n^pim 

[l3']n^XD 31t3. The last four lines are very faded, and only a few 
letters can be deciphered. 

T.-S. 12. 256 contains the beginning of another epistle from Joshiah. 
Only the general introduction is preserved. There is no indication to 
whom it was addressed. It may have been a circular letter. . 

22. [Vol. I, pp. 72-3-J 

An epistle from the community of Tardbulus to Hesed b. Sahl, 

[MS. Adler, paper leaf, square writing. Verso contains, besides the 
following address, an elegy which must have been composed in Cairo- 
Fustat some time after the receipt of this letter. The unknown author used 
the blank in order to save paper.] 


bno ii i» ip ■ii 33 t3 prn non nno np 'n: 33 np^i) 

JJB" nv ini3 nvj univ ncc'^ nnxn -ib',t 

' Repeated in the manuscript. 

Appendix A (to Chapter I) 73 

Recto, after the unessential introductory remarks, reads as follows : 
i[n]ni3B'' nnajn inNn -itrn tptn 'non ii no (12) ip 'ij iai) . . (n) 
in-i*nD''i Maitynp (14) miD'i 'ly-ixi* lana^i •irni's* nryi -irniv (13) 
inw nna tidh n\nE' iprn ijno ni io ni:'np (15) "ij 33 p liis nnoa 
^np 13S (17) uil^Da QiDm ssd' D'-pni-n hb\)i nnx dj? pv 13 (16) 
'•>" riND D''^NiB'i an m^c nnajn (18) iptn wans n'stj wijia obs-itiK 
nysn 13n "'3 in^nj np'' D^5)m»i iv^ in^m Dii5T (19) npyv V'DiK'n i^ni)x 
on'^K ntn ^xne** (21) nu nipo ^331 n^jsn^ 12^ mpo i6i hr^i (20) 

D'PNiB' 13N1 nJDD nD'jsn vnB> pi3B'3 (22) wnriD xpn Dn''nvD'':3 'n3 
13'niDipD iD wi? m3JB' (24) nab-an \q pincn idh wcy nwE' ni' (23) 
b3 {25) no'u nu n3B> Ni'3 ona D^aw n^jon n3jj ncs* n'-annn 
vb'\ nD'33 I n^a iiiau Snp \J3 | njc'n ira o wjnxl? D^jjniDi nioipcn 
1 njtJ' i>33 ijipK*: i:nJNB' | w'jns^ d'-viidi | oib q^UpT id ins | noN 
|m3rni) 'ixi dipd ij^ni | (?)D''3ini ohyn | ni»iK p3 oipo nTSB* 
cnv VEJ''' I rho nx3 j^m'' | n^ni3'i3i •\a'b\y^ i3 Dtyn 

23. [Vol. I, pp. 73-4.) 

A letter from Abu' I Hayy b. Hakim, of Sicily, to Hanatiya 

Hakkohen Ab. 

[MS. Adler, vellum, square writing, top missing, remaining part much 


Address (verso) 

ninsi . . . ij [D]''3n na '•n^x i3[n '3]» ^ [t]n nu 3n n'jjn 3[-i 

niDi [n]vp pn5' nii3ii'[tr 31] ^3''t^'^^ b-nt in[3n] .... [na] 

■ ThisHesed is the brother of Abraham (Abu Sa'ad)b. Sahl al-Tustari. The great 
importance of these two brothers in the Fustat community has been pointed out 
in vol. I, p. 76 if. Poznariski [Schwarz Festschrift, pp. 477 ff.) is certain that Hesed 
was the father of the Karaite author Yashar b. Hesed b. Yashar, known as Abii Fadl 
Sahl b. Fadl b. Sahl al-Tustari. But this is unlikely, because, apart from the 
intimate relations between our Hesed and such leading Rabbinites as the Gaon 
Solomon b. Yehuda, Ephraim b. Shemarya and Sahlan b. Abraham, we find Hesed's 
paternal uncle Joseph b. Israel al-Tustari signing a document issued by the 
Rabbinite Bet-Din (see infra, A. B. 71, and cp. vol. I, pp. 38, note i, and 122, note i). 
The whole family were evidently influential Rabbinites in Fustat belonging to the 
Babylonian section, as Israel, the grandfather of these two brothers, hailed from 
Tustar (Persia). 

'^ VnC is corrected on top. Hence read ItyytJ*. 

' T.-S. 20. 97 also contains a copy of a long letter in Arabic by our Hananya 

bi'B' pn ni3 3N |n3n n''::n lomi i:no np ij ii33 3Nn3 n[3]DJ (0 

74 From the Conquest, 969 c.e., to 102 1 c.e. 

D^bB' m (1. 4) ^'■"'°^ 

un-131 ''n^njD i[3y3]i 'Dnnj 'b'D3 "n33:i nisi ^^''\>'' ^nj s 

lya iiijanDm 'aiti p[n]3D wi i'33 TT3t»n [i]i D-sn [n]3 

nyai inw 'm^nv [b]p^ ''Vf^r\ -poan '^ao Ton io[i^]b' 

h V'jn ''3 hJviiL^O nnnatJ^ '331 T'3[nsiJ I'li): b 

3 . . . . iTB'N'' Nnei [N331 n]3»B«n trxn ''jin [n J 3n3 10 

[Dii'B'i' unjotri n^^jpo '[ny3] omn cnpn S^rv?r\ i5]3 d[»] 

[nsB-n] nvs nD333 i[nix i3Nn]pi -an [b]^B' kv[id3 m]^vo 

[nip'Ds njatrn inso ^\T\^r\ ^]3 icyi [i]3njn3 

Dv . . . . D"T xiji MD . . . [n]-iM n[n]M3i ^ ijaj 

1 •D'JB' n»3 inK" [D]'B>Jvn n^k 15 

no nysns n . . . [ni']j[i']j b i'v 3ivp .... Dn''i'y 

[n]»jvi •KinB'Di n . . D icy ny3ts' •i'nj 3[in] NinB* 

my si'i 'D"n» [ni]o nnn-'i •nriTff nn[B'i] ncas 

iDca psn iJnN nna 3n»i 'D33 . . . . 1 n":y [sn] x^n 

vn Tb^x\ -nfl nsyo im3 nnsp[o I3'>ni3]iiy3i d'' . . . hr^n. 20 

B-N-i^ n3iB'[n 3]in3^ D^ptn itr .... 3nn ... yn: p . 

3n3 rhvh nu'SN 'n noNC ^a . . . . i3n3 n^i ns^cTi 

Dn3nn nvpna vnyiini 3n3 1^ ''n3n3 -1331 ^^53 ^1 

hvifTW ht-\. xb 133 hriE'ni' nnyion li^xa pin ijni 

nnai) ^1x13 niE'yi' nnyion li'^xi' iinpn j'apnna 25 

hr\':?r\ ^y D[yn]n' xi'B' li'bn nnsnn b inu33 inynini 

IDi^K'i hh^ B-in cxna 'i'n33 •'n3n3i ir^[yi B'Jnpn 

ny nyij iv3-i^ insio ■'B'nn i'3i i'i^:i inyo Dii'E'i 

. . . "ixpa xhh>< iiXDX '•Dim ■'x^ioi n^ox' isxns [i]x3 c^) xjom 6: ^xntj" 

The people of Tiberias (DnStS SlX) are mentioned therein ; also a certain person 

has been placed Dn3nl?N pixyoai . . . on^xi ;m DTiTH iH *s x^oin "H^i nnn. 

Thus the ban has been pronounced on Mount Olivet by the Gaon (Dn?X), either 
Joshiah or Shema'yah (see/w/w, Supplement I), the Ab Hananya, and the college of 
Haberim of the academy. Our Hananyah is probably identical with his namesake, 
the Ab ha-Yeshiba, to whom the poet 'Alvan b. Abraham sent three poems 
(published by Davidson, J.Q.R., N. S., II, 227-31). From the first composition 
we learn that Hananya was for a time in Aleppo, probably on some communal 

> Cp. Job 37. 9 and 38. 32. 2 ^ QpoH. 

" Masculine formed from nS"l3 


(to Vol. I, Chapter II) 

1. [Vol. I, p. 8 1. J 

A poem in honour of Abu Sdad b. Sahl al-Tustari. 

[T.-S. 13 J 10", paper, square writing, size 27.7 x 17-7 cm.] 

Cl'[M]V3 SD^MD DiT \eiD3 

D>33i Da ninaB' nsp pb 

•t; - t; :'t'": 

sQijiaN I53 in^ nbn 'bg 

''D''3iJ»n v^n> DJixiJi 

= Q'<3pin rijiJD ntsn nni 

«D''3iDn ''iri^N? ab -iB'i'i 

(recto, col. l) 

w VJ 

Dnon Djn i>in3 ann ne-K 

nhn33 nianj iby nisJi 5 
niE'san vn^ DJiDaai 
Dn'onn ns'ijE' nsn x^jn 
D'priB' ly anon la-in ib'k 

niji'jx Dy nB'n'! 'nmi -ini 
DjiDm D'lE'i 'Q-iin jq 10 

' mnin is evidently a noun, from VO', in the meaning of ' remnant '. See also 
above, p. 61. But read perhaps in both places nini3 ' crown '- 

^ MS. D'D130. 

' MS. D*JS^?. The word occurs in the Mishnah, meaning 'beans'. See Levy, 
Dictionary, s. v. [IflX. Here it is used poetically for all kinds of vegetables which 
the rivers irrigate. 

* d*M^ 'those that are in grief, an adjective JW^ formed from jijV 

° MS. m'ptn ni'iJD. 

^ 'Those that spread (sc. wings) in the skies', either birds or angels who in 
number can be compared to the gifts of those people eulogized in the poem. 
' These two words are obscure to me. Dr. Davidson suggests the reading 

D3 -n -ixs. 

T T " ; 

' Abraham is called 'mtNn [IT'S and also D'-IJ [IDH 3N (Gen. 17. 4, and see 
B. B. i5»). Here all the patriarchs are meant. 
» Read perhaps DI^H. " MS. "ICnSD. 


The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

.... '"t; t " V : 

D''3i:nn nni p nni 
D'Mpi DJ^neb'D 'DnipBi 

n''3wn lonnNBo d'yTD 

D':3a Dy n^n^ap inns:! 
uQony njj na yoj ib'K 

D'i)3U-!i D'oB'-i iyiri 

" D[*3'']33 ^lia -IB'X ^^^[K iD3] 
D^JDIB'I D''3iDl5B'1 D'Jpy fya 

inyni noan dj^ nj^a ip| 

3D''3ND3 eiDi' i»3 «)pv Dai 

nyian Mrn'^N i^'nam 

IJisrsn nnyp Da ''E'''i)B' 

D''3inii? nin^Dn nijinnsi 15 

(recto, col. a) 

n^iD^OTn '5in3 "D-'Jifno 
v"ipn in33 nB'S "ipn iD3 
D''p^n Dy niswi n\5 iit 5 
D'ansn i^s '^jion Dm3Xi 

■ : - T ' -: T T : - : 

iipns bs nyp nyp ''3S 

nii-)K nisas ''as i^^n::i 
"O'lyai Dy xs'^'h^ D'p 'ps" 
ixiaa Ds inxsa -iis iiOK' 10 

' MS. nym . Above the line the word Tna is written. 

' Here above the line the word my is written ; probably somebody tried to 
remodel the line by substituting another compliment for Yashar as being 'the 
chosen one of the congregation (my TTia). 

^ Probably read DJna ' in Egypt ' (cp. Isa. 30. 4). 

« MS. n'ljysD, cp. njya n:ss, Gen. 41. 45. b ms. irnN. 

6 MS. D''B'n''B1. ' MS. D'llpiai ; cp. Ps. 19. 9. 

8 MS. D'JV' DminD. "^ Ms. D^3pin». i" ms. DnKiao. 

'' The sixth heaven is called )13D where snow, hail, &c. are stored up. See 

Hag. la", D'bs n^i^yi .cyT D'l'i'D T\'''h'^\ Ta nnsiNi h^ nnsis uc pao 

niDV b^ myOI myoi naiD V mnni . The seventh sky contains the dew 
with which God will revive the dead. Ibid., i^DI . . . DaCDI plX XSif flUiy 

DTio 13 nvnni5 .T'apn •vvm. 

" = "131 [ion aN ' the father of the multitude of benefactors ' (see Gen. 17. 4). 
" So MS., but read DiJly, see 2 Sam. i. 24 ; Ps. 36. 9. 
'^ For nijS ' corners ', to suit the rhyme. 

" The MS has here WKW which is struck through as cancelled. 
" The usual forms are D^yS"), D'C'.^E' (cp. Exod. 20. 5, &c.) but D^y''3T is also 
found in 2 Kings 10. 30, 15. 12. Here the metre demanded the above forms. 
" Joseph, cp. Gen. 41. 43 and 50. 23. is MS. in''n\ 

Appendix B (to Chapter II) jj 

D'jyji Dy nhh» ^yab* nai ^lyae' ie^k 15 

(verso, col. i) 

D''3iet5 nnia^a oniaB'nipi DB'N-ia son^ys bvi d^b-"'' 

D'3u^ cxn iD3 nn'insE'i ni^-ina ajiB*^ ^lofe' ib'k 

i«D'3i3^ oboa r^i) DaK* xisi annsr? 'nio^B' nniiTii 

Q'jns 'Jiysira Dnna-i) "ti'm nion niona io^ npn 

» Qi^wn Dni3i)a vn ii»i]i niy db'-i-i^ " !|jin5x nxr tiy N^n 
Q'^P.Il' i'3 I^"'>^ lyo 'ax nonpi nisD '^5' n.B- \'i^ 

"D^jnq i["i]n ^ina insna ns-ini t)^ Tinion ^jn 'STr!''! " 

2. [Vol. I, pp. 81-2.J 

A letter from Solomon b. Yehuda to Ephraim b. Shemarya. 

[T.-S. 13 J 18', paper, square, very damaged.] 

Address (verso) 

ij iD3 nann nnas' ino "ip li nua i-n ip^^ Dii'B'ni o^nn 
nasjn nnoB' ii io "ip aa ja nyoa \n^i nsri irni'N noB" 

' MS. D^JfrXn, but the metre demands the above vocalization. The reference 
is to the patriarchs. 

" MS. "nm. niDSD gives no clear meaning. Read perhaps niBDD (cp. DBDQ), 
speak about, i.e. request kindnesses. 

' The MS. has here an incomplete line 13101 IIDH 313 vh nJQ 1D*nana. 

< MS. D^iy-in. 6 MS. D*yno. 

" MS. D^VTOI ; friends (see Gen. 26. 26). 

' The margin reads here D^JIDOn miUJ Piy'Sini . Combining the hemistich in 
note 3, a whole line can be formed : 

D-iioisn ni"ii33 nysini :t3ibi TTion 313 u^ njs 

:~ : T ' \ 't:'t;- ■»; t ••; 

' MS. DDPiyS. 1 MS. rmhv. i» Cp. Prov. 19. 29, 26. 3. 

" See Ps. 58. 5. The poet (or the copyist) quoted the actual verse. But the 
metre demands here the modification i^niOT V^n npH Sxh DOn. 

" MS. IVB'". For\^y read 'Sn. " jg. God. "ReadD\"l5N. 

"* Seeking pretexts, cp. 2 Kings 5. 7, Judges 14, 4. '« MS. iT'lTl. 

" The remainder of verso, cols, i and 2, is covered up with dirges in different 

78 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 


[D''3]nN Di'ni 'nSnynij [E'JyD -iwi '•nWnni' aits nairi 'nijupnij 

■-j-ii • rb'nvxh \'n'<)i 'dvjdi • rh'h'orh npvn ' nnyni • ni>uini) 

nnaK 5t) no ncnp rh'ny niaa mn v^ =''n^D 331D1 !ai>a 

[D>]»m NSD' Tonn rinoti' nio ip 33 p ia ion nann 5 

-ipn 'b nii'tf np'n nann nb" 'mn* ly "n^ nv 'mni 

riND nny nj; bn I'kb'pT nnw: nunaon dni lanixa 

13^ notwi i'''JN ^nN Di^E' Nin 'a 'l? [njavt^ai 'nx b 

Dj •nyoa \T'1 Dii'trn ^y laon-'i [iJ^'dd' nipon 

^jw -v nam 1^ d'b>»i 'unon xiici . . . 'miy nyii 10 

ni33i> '^niin w n^axn nann ^n 'ana nojo •n''S» 

smi Nno riB'np 33 nuxn iprn ne'a 3n3jn 'rutrn '3 

v'y'^in niv innyD' ny[D] un [aip]jn i3<ni>K n»E''' omaN 

' isna inians ntrN py ini: bno 3-11 id np 33 p nnDnijN 

nnins n-ityi Nnry nno p itj' npnv \y\'\yo np'n iptn He's 15 

6 nwa [ns]< iio p vtr 'nnmon n^s ''i^n ps^n -iio ncx 

' To make high, to raise up (cp. n^Pvll, and Lewy, Dictionary, s.v.). 

^ Evidently a Paitanic form from the Pol'el Ty^ (cp. Ps. 146. 9) ' to strengthen '. 

s Cp. Ps. 3a. 7. 

* 'From every newcomer' ; HX from VHTIN. 

^ = nwrb ' to tell '. " The name of the lady. 

' As to the dignity of D''"iniDn TpD, the following data will be of interest. 

Or. 5542, foi 6: nDDt> D''»in[nn D'']nyn unjN irjsa nn^^B' nny i'n3r (i) 
o'l^'n UKB' I'ljoi' nnoB'^ y3Bn o'B'i'Bn niso B-ijB'i eibx (a) [rutyja 
na inn i^x naB-ia di^'j nnj bye' cnxo dsdds3 (3) [nja nwob 

avn »i> B*' •'3 *nm iyi woai' moN 'oi-np p v'^^n (4) .... Dmas 

PN naijn nnnion nips poin ia jono i i'cs' inua naci'' (5) d^3b> nB>[y] 

in''3» npSnODI n31Da nar (6) * (l. e. the nephew of Sam'an) jsyBK; nSIX 

Dipnn D''aB' otrb "oy :^m'\ 'nona (7) ... mb '>!' dm n^b> ly^jiDi 

. . . [na]lt3 in»i»»r Nin Tina ; Bodl. 2B^9,^^ ■. a document dated Elul i8th, 
1404 Sel. = 1093 c. E. at Fustat ; the parties are Qi-imDn l^pa HE'D "iU ^XTlIp' 6 
and n''n3^^S« pS3 ]1'<'T''\ T-IT 12 flDV 6 (i.e. the son of a lady from Lebda, 
see vol. I, p. 33, note a) ; Bodl. a878"6 ; colophon of a Pent., beginning, 

pj3 "13 TiDirin pan ninan moy nno piab pnx' ia nyw ^3X 'n3n3 
nnnion T'pa n33:n inan nnxtr nno. 

» Cp. also the heading of a letter (probably from Ephraim b. Shemarya) to the 
Haber Joseph b. Jacob of Tyre {R.£.J., LXX, igao, 59, 1. 3 of the Hebrew) 

IsyDB' p |Dnt3. 

Appendix B {to Chapter II) 79 

. . . vnun . . . n nnn xn't:' nn^jc iv-i *3 :h)}n » p ps^n 

Njaii w-iD naajn fprn i^vx ' anox p^ryo nnb iscin 

Dj rw2 Dn*3^3 voT NH'ti' DH . . . iiv noc'' Dmax 

b bv imyoNni naDis hib't vb' Dn-i3[N] b* ao 

sin T^V3 vnniNi pn bi nmns b[o innt3]£3i u ncv' -h^n 
= niD't<3 npy i^w nhib' na nt nan T'Dsn nan^ *nvnin msca 
psi'n iio "ip 33 v^jy D'Dinnn niDtri n c'c ^':n ^31 "vyifn 
}Ptn ns"' niD p 331 mpus p vnun nu^ nio p ie' -ip^n iprn 
jptn j?Bin^ ii» P31 'i'ai'sni'x ynwn vi ntfao niD p vty ^iiaan 35 
D3nn in3n nD» ni6 p3i yj n:N»nN -iio p3 p vb> pajni D3nn 
vi ejov -iiD p3 p x{j> p2:ni 

Nos. 3-5. Concerning the demise of Abu Sa'ad and 
Abu Nasr the sons of Sahl al-Tustari. 

3. [Vol. I, p. 8 2. J 

[Oxford MS. Heb. d. 65, fol. 65; cp. Bodl. 2877"; the lines run on 

in the manuscript.] 


py in Dni3 n^nsn ijb' h'i t2[vs] 

VHNi nvD 13X nji3Dn omas 

'«ih\)n nsjiax njison ion 

:vj nnon^N Sno 

' T.-S. 10 J 27', being part of a sheet that was originally stuck on to the bottom 
of another sheet in continuation of a letter the upper part of which is now 
missing, deals also with the will of this Halfon b. Ta'Ub. It reads as follows : 

rn3ni |1l^'K-|a ly'OB'D | d^jiki p^'pn iD'a yncin ncN xitrn "mih snp 
I B'Sin nnj rx n3ir"'3i mipic \h ntran^Jtrsi | nij^nn inx'sin ^E'^? nsB-n 
na'y* H>-iisi i"n n3nK | n-nnni n^n* di^b' rvtavn mivD piI'nb'i mniprui 
I vijN i)'i>3ni)i loiijca B'm^ nb'nn i:an3 rhrvw \ imin -in^xi lotf iVDi) 
psiin no ns*DN -yao n^p Ni> '3 | u^ainxi m^p^ I'i'x la^mrN xsru poy 
(r- inv) nny | nyjai rnua ^nB* nx k'T's ins^Dx mtJi | jij aijyn p 
. . . pa'p iij; [N-iry njid] | p npnv wn» unn ns nj'o eiD»ii' 

No more is preserved ; bottom of fragment is torn. It seems to be an epistle from 
a scholar (probably a prominent member of the school in Jerusalem) to a communal 
leader in Egypt. 

''■ Plur. of nD''N ' fear ' ; here in the meaning of ' validity ', authority of the 
document. s = ^^JJI ' condition '. 

* Probably read bSpBOpX ' al-mufalfal ', having ' woolly ' hair, like that of a negro. 

The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 


. . . D ji nc'' p non ^nj.T i^'n ^jy r\Wp xdd 
. . . Ni : ■invni'N npnc 'iij; jvio ^ iinjoi mtijo 
lijVNDC) iiiiyKSD •'^y nfjip i,t iinoiiNa jnsDD nj» 

■ '"in^? ^"^^ ''■?^ "^?" '^W '• ^^^ '^^■? 15?^ "^?'? ^? ■^'?? 
: rv^n Di3 n^3 nrrin x^n : n<to- tk nn^xi ti's '33 

TT '.. : ■ t; • : • ■•.: • ; • : • 't: J 

6 1 

4. [Vol. I, p. 82.] 

T.-S. 13 J 13" {c^.J.Q.R., XIX, 734, no. XLI) contains a letter 
from 'Ali nnoion b. Abraham ji ' to David . . . and Meborak nijptn tiie 
sons of 'Am ram yiij. The writer continues, nyS3 iJNE' D3nK *JX yniDl 
p ^nxyi -ipB' i'y yacJi b'^x 'liNDi ^3^ ''nnD3n nxr nn^n xh disds31 
mjiy 3nDi : yiii non iprn ns* v^ti^ ''nnD3i D''nvD ^jn mn o'niDxn n's 
1133 bn^ Ninn dv3 nox ib'x xipcn iri^y loy d:oxi nvan D\ni'N r\m 
D3>ni3n3 i'y ^^;Dnb irj'y D3"'i'y i:n3 bax : rcyo b b li^T pnvji ' hi 3py* 
. , . D30B' nbyi irn^xi "T'vs n^s Dx nii'S'ysi nn eipw nrnxcj onx o 

5. [Vol, I, pp. 82-3.] 

[T.-S. 13 J 31*, paper, square writing, damaged.] 


• ib'j '33 b bi3 iD»ni' " ["ira ny3B'3 3ipjn ixs -\?[h] 
IX^HD ino " P33 v:i'^ b-\v • 1^^6^'^ ir33 

' ' Verse and prose '. See /. Q. R., XIV, 505, 1. 9 ff., and 742. 
2 Cp. Ezek. 23. 34. s Ms_ s>t<33. 

« MS. i^Jiyij. MS. n"blDD. 

" Abraham is perhaps identical with Abraham b. Samuel the ' Third ' (above, 
p. 25 f.) because Joshua'a the Haber, the writer of A. C. 15 states that his 
father 'Ali the Haber was a descendant (p3) of Hoshana, i.e. the father of 
Samuel the 'Third'. Here, too, 'Ali calls himself nriDlDn, i.e. shortened from 

nnoiDH i^m. 

' Read •'MT. « Isa. 17. 4. s Cp. Isa. 24. 13. 

"• It seems that Sahlan had seven titles. From A. B. 20 II, 4-5, we learn five of 
them, viz. Haber, Alluf, Rosh Hasseder, r]2'<V^7\ po, and niX''B'Jn mDH. The 
other two are as yet unknown. 'i = TWIp 1133. 

Appendix B {to Chapter IT) 8i 

i^NtrDn bvTKi .... n-hv ms^ ne-x b3[i sb- eii^Nn] 

'pai p IDC inuN n'ao rv^T W-\ vs^no [inioja Toyni) 

D'3[n3]D hyan^ loip -py inu nnnn DpT13N ii no s 

•nvnn nyiocn man ^y ^b'1b«^ nnsi n^J nnx d''3B' 

•nyiDin py bai na^sani ny^jan 3^ bi 'ny^mni nyjnn 

• Q-pino ^J1D^?1 nis-is mu vnn • Dvnsn •'jb' nya 

•Dnyn3n nriM njityo nn''D3 t^* •nnyc' nsiDa nix 

n3T ^y DN '3 • INV DmiD3 N^JI • 1XVD HDS N^ll lo 

[irjijy ^53 DV nas'' •o^i'^ynD d^sjie' Dwjpa 'O'^'sno 
d[ii3]33 njB' 'D'3 i[n''] ^N DV miK inup' 'i-iynn u 
[nB'yJD nnw3 .... mnno oncpj ^xn oipj' ^ N13' ^t« 
[b'» in noNjM ^1BK'^ may m nopj u-i^y^ d*ij3 ynvi 

.... '31 3pn n3vy3 ind nyi nsc? diosjib' D'n 15 
. . . . ny 3nyBn fns ni^np n3B'3 bm natr •'3 
[biiiyi] 3py' nu3 i>T nnn pyo djdni {p^^-iyt nyjj 

[nisNi nnJNB'ij ij^n nity^ 'ijiNi "^sib" nnstf |aj3 i^^iy 

' [^xn]D nstn nynn h[v »n]j ^ip y^DB'nS' nnx dv ^bni) 

[nu< ^nJi idb' bv iJnnj n^fN ms'yn oy n\hn n'wb hvsron 20 

ni3in»i y nsipa 'nn^bx ^n:nn Tnxi iJ^y t:DB'D3 

nojsn n'3^ i^jsni ^'•n tfni ni3 ^k'3 'Jn '3 ibb: IK'S 

sin "3 |inu3ni n35< ono nxjnn nn'n -wa. omsn bi nsi;!? i'3is vb 

3inN mi'B'i m^B' aw^i n^n nE'[N]i' in ijT'I non dii i'3^3'' 

ns3 n3T n[3nD r\'o]nh '[nsnjn] nci'B' 

Nos. 6-11. Coftcerning ike physician Abraham Hakkohen 
b. Isaac {b. Furdi). 

6. [Vol. I, p. 84.J 
[T.-S. 13 J 23'', paper, cursive, size 25 x 19-8 cm.; top corner on left 

side is torn off.] 


vi [d'dJb' ''Dimn 

niv . . . . D'^^ino Tiivn™ 

' =nB'np 1133. 

■' = n3'B»n E'lB'D^ (see vol. I, p. 83). Cp. also Bodl. 2878' ISNDD b. Joseph 
the judge n3'B"n B^E'O in a document of 1106 c.E. 

^ Cp. Job 3. 3 ff., Gen. 49. 6. * Cp. Ps. 79. 10, 58. la. " Cp. Isa. 17. 4. 

° I.e. to the bearers of the epistle who were probably representatives of the 
school sent to Egypt for the purpose of collecting donations. 

2240. J F 

82 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

'•[iJditdn ^\rb 'inn'' nniua njni' nis'vioa 'iDms vn^ 

iDiN'i *['ji] j-DiN 5i''DV D*3'ir nriBi iani pnv thn'i D^pi) 5 

'v^'ax^i 1^ D'nin'3 d^k-ni in'nixi in'NSiNi 'n»KT va-in 

• DiDiyjai 31D3 ' c'Dvp niitfi • CD'' nianx 

i:i-i'3N ir-ins votj" •D''»ijj) mb 'D^a^iDD nj vni 

mvn fv \rQT\ Dmas ano pis unn p ij'-ie' 

^I'DtDi nnm naivi sna ^53 lao •D''Dimn noNi •D''»in^3 nan to 

•13'mNsn ipr ax^j ia •■'nym ymni '^mD^J' viotr 

D^^bN^ nx x-i»n r3j;n -unaaj unns ns'Dxa 'irmy -w 

1^' *njjio ns>aa Diom nvd'' 'mya naajn ie'n D'ana 

"y^-h h ^1x1 ''1J1 niix iii-^a ypa* rx v^y n^p' piv vjsii' 

11N D''[B']ami d^Dpbji d''!05?d: vnai VTaai VTaNE' 75 

nj) i'[3]a 15^5 onpiai ^3^^l \ya \h vnB> vdo nn^ytJ' "'oi' lb 

• DB'paNi i^N njx • Da-n •'B'jx iot isd nn^ni^nDi Dn'naua 

•^ IJT") na^ann ^1nlo i^^vi unc' t^s? \v 'k^' 'h^n 

D*:nan o^pnxn ^n1^1 Tm^s man b^B'i' n^'aj ns 

« B" nix ''''' nna iijs u'-nti i^nt^ "jb nioj?i nnaaM ao 

'dnn nij'pai n:nni nbsn ba iijja ijdd yDS"^! 
'' E* ' "1 i ' n 
"bvr ;iw p ;nan wbx nnn p inon mio 
I N •'JDD •> y 

' Cp. Job 17. 1. 

* IDTllJ 'their Creator (see above, p. 67, note 2) will in joy lead them on in 
His ways'. 

^ TICK means 'wealthy' (see Levy, s. v. TON). Here, 'to increase their 
wealthy ones '. 

* Job 17. 9. 5 Isa. 57. 18. 6 Isa. 58. 8. 

' = ^N-IB". 8 Cp. Isa. 30. 29. » = nljD |OX pN. 

'» Under the word liTPN we read ''JDD, while the letters above and beneath 
^^n p "inon can be combined into n^JlVn. There are further, a ' over wl^N, an 
N under |n3n and C above it, a '' above p, while the f beneath it may really be a 1. 
Possibly a H is missing above JIKJ. We shall thus have the word liT'ti'X', in 
entirety in''B'N* ^W^ ''3DD, thus the scribe of the epistle dictated by Elijah 
Hakkohen was named Joshiah, who was probably the scribe of the academy 
(na^C^T IBID). He may be identical with Joshiah b. SadoI< Ab, who towards the 
end of Elijah Gaonate, when Ebyatar was proclaimed Gaon, was 'Third' of 
the school (see vol. I, p. 187, top). 

Appendix B {to Chapter I J) 83 

7. [Vol. I, pp. 84-5 J 
[T.-S. 13 J 14', paper, square writing, size 27 x 18-4 cm]. 


['■T-] myn nti> [tjnan Dmas ini no pia mxD[n] np^i> 

^ • naE*! impni tn in^vd^i • nDy[i]i niaa hvi • my mx 

nc »[n]''2K vxf' ' pv ini3 pan pns» -Sio pa p 

nionoi ''joo na lyr' ^^'nd npnvi "" nxa nana myn 

[i)!; i]n'3N ijN ni'N nmo n»j[o] 'yp ]^<vh nh'^ an 5 

[']i'n:D xno idc Tyn ncns ipr 'ji'xtj'K' i't<tj'[D] 

[v]-ianD D'e'JN "h^ ixa^ 'jnaao nsoi) Kin [n]^y[n] 

' i> . . . ay p !"[p] ijDE> nnxn nua nx hNSfij im^SE'i 

n'jj niiisji'N 13K vnj^i TOtr ics nnan '•a nar nnNn[i] 

aina^ ^nib* xai D''jwxnn vu^yo by lyain Nin nipon 10 
*[i]ynNi' Nibty T»n ninsbx ux nt b^ "lai!? niaa ^jn 
WSJ TiScni |"p ntn C'sri nh nawn ntj-y [laa] '■a 

TJan ijx lanb iiuao <jk bswi i^c mna 

'a )ptn bxN "iDipDi i^^fK iDipo ly-iN'' ^^ 

I"P nrn B'''Nn oy ntj-y ncNi i^xn nbaipo ti^'nc is 
CJaiB* 13S ncN n^pr^n W wa irr'a ••b'jn ''a nny Nin "iDy 
myn nt^ irjpr ^vn naiao ''Dipo "la lyT nny u 
H^ sh ijij* vym iny^Di niaa tihvn ^chm 

an yE" 
. . [uTa] nsn^ !>« nyic^i' nanan nD^t^ 

8. [Vol. I, p. 85.J 
[T.-S. 13 J 15", cp./. Q.R., XIX, 734, XLIII.] 


•inn^T na ^''B'jn ^sat 

* D^yniD ^N Tim • n^ynn yni * D''yiti' an: niaab 

* U D'cini ciniN3 

= 11301 'hope'. 2 =ini'Nr3. 

The reading pFNlTlay, hence ' Kain b. 'Abduel ' in vol. I, p. 85, top, appears to 
me now as unlikely. 
' Not to harm him, yiX, Af'el of yyi. 

• ' My place ' in the meaning of ' my position ', probably an Arabism. 
' I. e. a descendant of priests. 

F 2 

1 =1 

84 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

mna • njsi nv i'3 i'Ni • njiao 2113 db' bn ' • nao p hjd 

•D''ptmD nnnn 'Dv^n rwh^ nxs •nvn^' "n li'nJ 

nsisT •ma'B'^^ nii'voi Tiuna j'yv 2S 'niiNn naina 

I' D'onaa 
3^ ija ^v 'D''3n3: D'pipn 'nmy nn na h:h 'DUin vnac 


•nianvi nniati' TiianK d'jb' ny Tiiana b nviy 15 

I'D^oi'iy •'oi'iy'? 
ni3D3 ' • fn:* va^iN b ' in inid '':a^ sxo^ * pan nmnN^ 

V D'oyn 
• -ina' ni3-i3i niaitJi ' • non* i>x uto • no nTyi) sin 

kD^DnD piB* h\xa 20 
° • na''i nai nut i^j n^oy ■ navo ^jk yK-^S? • Nann pan 

'D''D'»n pan 3Ni 

sann pan nmax ni nD nrnp ni'nj "lua nnx 

sann jnan pnv nio p nj aa na m^yn id NJioDn 

. . , py imj 25 

9. [Vol. I, pp. 85-6.] 
[T.-S. 13 J 31^, paper, square hand, size 12x9 cm.] 


: n-jinj b^ i^aK D3i : nniyna « nE'ND -i''=tk '.^k 

: .Titpm )'sn iia) [njoanni ; nyni n;p] -iin pns^ un 

" ; nniBK aB'n iaa ii> ncn : niisna npanm C'scnn wni 

' = "IB". 2 cp. Deut. 7. 7. » See Ta'an. 2I^ 

' iny, a Hiphil formed from [inj ' he will cause to fall on the belly', i.e. bring 
to the ground. <> Cp. Cant. 7. 3. 

" Probably Sarah and Rachel, Gen. 12. 11, 29 17. 
"> Abraham. s Mg_ "liii^D. 

^ About the title of Rosh Hasseder, see vol. I, p. 279. 
>" Cp. Exod. 28. 17. II Cp. Exod. 28. 27-8. 

Appendix B {to Chapter II) 85 

1 ; niijiin \\> ib'n n'ii ^aijoa : nW? sria.'; ^h\ na -lai^ 5 

: nn?3s e'bj isab naaSc'o = ; h^Bis?^ njnn ii) N\n d;i 

* ; nn?n^ [a liB'ri?? » vni^va ; mvvn n''l>aiio3 inia nstj' 

' ; n"i-)V vasK 1d3 ny^i'' na'S rioaB'i' b'nt db' ira tysin xini ,0 

: nniayn '>'iib'3 ^sn'; ib-s » : ja tob nioSy ids rxin ^<^^1 

i'llTDl HDWp nKT Ni^i =» : D-jpiDsn ,Tnp 'iwri^ 

" ; nnisJDn nii nirn 15*1 riya ; n^a'i 1:3a nirn inar 

; nnj/) nb' b tyxii pnr ^ax : >ywn ^sp.: ipK ^jinx 

jnniayn \S''f^\ ipoy 'b!) '^.'laJpn aio a^ia nin nxn 15 

•vnivwi vnicv:'; vnuiD uni •vniaiai ^mb^ nioi^B' 

nviti'11 'nmni mm 'mpii mxani •moyi itJi ir n3 ytv 

pi[3]Nin 'Nn»:a isnj -Nnpoa maj 'minn nnsij •mi[n3]i 

• mi»[it Vlv. nxn[']a • m\on nbn'p bi • mj?n nc amaN '11 'id 

^vn[v d]5?i '[vijaj; ^ba inD''B"i 'vn^on mcsj nDic 1ml3;^•'' 20 

innwD • \i M'h'o • pv inu " • mis loa • ms 'ni 'no pia la • inioa 

vninaE' 'a nuji nns^ yiv 'd^ijj max oy ip^n m' iiaa 

Tnxan n*aa nats'i lyio ly-nDi bnpo baa nnno »b3 

na^sy'' E'xni ijinan x''wn i's^jn i'xia'^ iix ir:nx nD':a 

TfTf' DHDi ^xna" cnp motj" imcni nyb '■n^ apv^ |ix3 35 

nann '■by | laiD t^nni nnix | B'nv yts" .... I'livn 'n'' pi b^Mn 

bS anoy •'a-ia 

' From Ijy ' to bind ' (cp. Prov. 6. 21). Here meaning ' a crown '. 

2 MS. D'S'iyi) n"nn. ' ms. vniisiya. 

* Really Nashshon b. 'Aminadab, the prince of the tribe of Judah. Cp. Sotah 37*, 

n'h rb'^nn nnv >:x px nois nr x^x rwvo hnt na xb min< '-\ "h n;;x 
. . . nii^nn □'>!' tci anroy ;a pcm pp D''i' ni"nn inv "jx px "inix nn 
i'xnB'''a n^B'DD mtryi' mm'' naT la-sb. 

' Cp. Exod. 30. 23-4. ' The soul. See Ben-Jehuda, Thesaurus, a. v. 

' I.e. the High Priest on the night of Yom Kippur. Cp. Yoma 1. 7 B'p'a 

'131 mnv yavxa vjsb pan njina ima njMnni'. 

" Our poet adopts here Menahem b. SarOk's explanation of Ps. 9 i. See Rashi, a. I. 

loi'i' nwii T{vifa\> unns nai 'i'ohb rwya \:h nioby ins nnjci. 

For metre's sake ja ID? instead of [a?. 

* MS. in"n\ ■" I. e. the dead. 

" I. c. |n*1? miyo, the well-known item in the Agadic description of the 
Messianic time. 

" Excuse, from IIJ'JD. For 31D read 7]aiD, to complete the metre. 
" I. e. Joseph (cp. Gen. 49. 22). 

86 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

10. [Vol. I, p. 86.] 

I- Or. 5544, fol. 8, recto, contains the following about Abraham 

mjjn 'w : 

mnK pDji'x |N3 . . . n^jD^N naspijN i^n sixvd ... (2) ddw . . . (i) 
n'l^n -IB* (4) jnan omaN Njaii id ntrnp nha nu3 MTasi u^'-sni (3) 
vnnNi5 cmni'K nw {5) nunaiixa liji nyariNi D^jnan -ixb D'jprn nin 
Nini D'^prn nin in ddk h^ [d m? (6) ndi .T'-nni'i na-o^ D-i3t nnrn 
njiai? nar ;n^v3 p ^ijy nx y^hb nm ci"':b' {7) nj» na '■oid fxa ddn 
^•'i'j^N T'c^N ''inI'id n'm ins xna kdd'' xi; [n^n •'^ni (8) nooi nunna 
nwcn ''JB' Ijv ID10 na n''i5y ni^v^N rT'ODii u inix "rr-ja (9) i'snc' sna 
nSnvi (11) miN [cd nana icd ait: id'd vijy inD''!J"' ■'^i ninaiccn (10) 
D'o'pjai vo^ (12) aiD3 T'"i^''''^i mme' nwoh idc ^nj^ niaa niby'? 
irni'N inana' j-isi^K (14) las n"D ''^s iidb-j^n m^isi . . . (13) . . .vniJK' 

. . . [nVNDjj^N i^X HNlpI n'^y sipn. The margin reads nsT | 13 ND . . . 

ivoa I •'anxs -lan^x lan. 

2. Oxf. MS. Heb. a. 3 fol. 17 (cp. Bodl. 2873") contains a long letter 
in the same handwriting. The following lines are cited here: asna 

~\T\ mjjn I ■yif n-aan -icn nnxn V\i'h\Si T'E'^'n •'■'n^id Npa rhW ^jnox 
'n pjriN^x Dv pB'DT ;» nny asnai | •>" DW Taan o'-jnan nxa D'sptn 
. . . nDxijD |5J mto. Addressed (verso) to Abu Ishak (= Abraham). 

11. [Vol. I, p. 86.] 

1. T.-S. 13 J 19'" contains the following lines preserved from a eulogy 
in Abraham's honour : 

mno DJ nans ni'ipB' 'snt nanv titb' 

mien d: nnaca "E'b: p''^*^ ■nm^c ns pe'iia 
mai nc hdin ;pr ••nsnn [nan omaix lo? 

mnv WSJ D^nn inva 'Njna nnis ia pns'' ~id p 

mna i^rh^i. nhv mas dn 'pi? pa n-pn^^s' nin-a yatr ds? 5 

inyni inan^a 'D'^^ncn 1^5^^ \i ib's 

2. Attention is also drawn to the following fragments. T.-S. 13 J 19' 
is a letter, in Jewish Arabic, from Solomon b. Yehuda to Abraham 
Hakkohen sann myn -\^ b. Isaac niSlpn Ipr (already departed this 
life). Likewise Bodl. 2876" is from the Gaon to our Abraham. 
Bodl. 2878" contains a small epistle to Abraham m^vn no xann pan 
b. Isaac Hakkohen py ini3. Finally, Bodl. 2874'", by Solomon b. 
Ythuda, is probably also addressed to Abraham. The beginning is 

' =Nann. 

Appendix B [to Chapter II) 87 

damaged. The following can be read Xin . . {2) . . . tr*n . . . (i) 

D^ni" (3) '[pnvi ni]D ip 33 inwni M:vr P '[nio] 'no ijai -n^vi 

. . . n313[BJn "ipvcn Jptn 'pm». In conclusion the Gaon writes IDliJC'l 

nanx poj nnr -mo Tia bi -nh' wpr diS'B'i -nna m^tri. Accord- 
ingly Isaac, the fatlier of the Gaon's correspondent, was then still alive. 

Nos. 12-17. Letters relatijig to Jewish prisoners front 
Byzantium who were brought to Egyptian ports. 

12. [Vol. I, p. 90.] 

[T.-S. 13 J 14"", paper, square writing, damaged at the bottom.] 


'a-11 Nn» pi 1^13331 WTis' 3Bn» !?x mi^tr xa p nnx^ 
inx i»vi ina-a-'i -cn^N in''^n['] na3:n nis'n nnsn jnan i3Njnj 
ni'B'i .nia» D»aa naon i3['n]'D ibp't v^x nmca D^ncno 
•'HB-n ni^K' p nnx^ ^sm Dys vcnn nnv nmo unx i^x 
[ajinr ^hm [D'ainr] D''K'^a'i ns'^JS' ii;E> a'):in 1^ ^pn vl^x n>]xn 5 
■13B' In:{^' -inxi' on^m yrh ^-'^vih ms in:i ^'''j^ni noai 
ntrj? ncx naiLjn b by aii •'aiDi n^not:' nsnx ijx isbni n^DDn 
iranni nnx nnl? niaa lij^axD^uea i?npn n'nD[n vh\^ d;:v 
nam udcb' '■[sjbyDX \T\p\j\\ hi ncvoa ^^[3;] ni;Bnn u^nbx ^jsb 
loyca vi'v bbsn;B' n[vjD*J3n 'nira naa'i nac' Ijsa ir^y 10 
■"i^jn TH xjani xjio via-\i D3 inac nx mnvj vh\ U'mpnb 
nflijxni 'pi pnvi 5-1 p ri[i]Ksn tik' nxs -inxn is'n nnn jpr 
DJ uvixa nnixD 'jK-a an 13 mya UTiii'sn ycK» nona 
..•.niaa miaa hv'\ in Din [isy] n3['Dv] dj irnl'x D"ni navnxa 
D^anyn nnx!? hj^sd nxs* ^a [nyJiDS'n nxa p nnx 'n'l 75 

ni^xDJx ^nxD onini me'jj [na]i nxnao p mxa: xmi 
Tt-crh WDxn xbi aiyo ima mxon yniJ Dipo [^jx] nxai 
inan ^NJru an no jprn 5'xi i:-bx oanao xa [nc'Jx nv 
nxoh an p»D ano npb ^ai mcy on >3 la Wi> nyb [m'] 
irni:ij; 'h-h-x nci irxon lonj no >ix moxi iraa ixd[i mys] 20 
aynci annroi nn^Do n^fp] . . . n'-ac'a irnx "i^ja^ [p 13] 

nme'Dm fij^n , 

B'JM hp D 

1 Perhaps in Bodl. 2875", being a deed of transfer from yj pn^^ na , . . Tin "inO 
('corpulent') tJDX^X p yTT to the Sheikh Abu'l Barakat Berakot b. Jacob, 
we should supply David [^vil] as being identical with the above elder. 


The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

13. [Vol. I, pp. 90-I-] 

[T.-S. 13 J 2o'*, paper, square writing, torn across the right-hand side.] 


nniN np^i ni'B'i n''3inT ctyoni n''nNo ns '3 . 

i3*ni3iy 2n ^55? dou un ns? ^ai nuy' \h^ nhv [cpaji] 

unp^ nsr b nnx •••mpoi' mpDO D'aw i3"m . 

ni'''^3 n-ip3i Du mna i:3E'''1 v^nis ^n I33^ni cap . 

na-in onan irai ivra nayi im3^KtfVi»y unva . 

iN^ani Qininr onB'v nw '-cnx nay ''^sxd nais . 

-ann rm-h ijaiJ n^ m»N -n)! oa^nN nx inpi . 

iroan \h noN ^^B' nsun nj^NB* m Wdvy ^y n''V131 

^N i33[{:']i 'oi'iyn pp-ri •'Jbd nn^DiD inr D^iatrn [ns 

cnpn bnpn -irr'iii ly^ *n' pan inj m no iwpti' ir . 

jioDH sa^c ly imn in''3n ids'i ini an a^B'n ni5x[n] 

n'i'S'' Dvni'Nni 'b'' ''sa navsna nann nta-nB'yK 

nnxaj >3a n^B* 'a h noKi unyn nsnaoD anao 

^^13B'a omN* n^cN n^ '':xi npna fnx ^n nninNn 

i'aw si) inoNi nsnn nt dh^ na''Di ^npn b nns p 

nsiBTi v^JN nl'ti'i D'aint nxoa D'-iatrno [nnJnN 

••• nae' ^'sa"! nnnn n'tiv D''nt'Nni oniay [nji'NtJ'i 

Dn3yn "lai Dnih[»] d[^''>{ii] n^jM . . 

Dmay [i]ynv33i 



14. [Vol. I, p. 91.] 

[MS. Adler 2804, detached leaf, square writing, size 29.5 x i6»3 cm., 
damaged at the bottom. The address is written on verso near the top ; 
the rest of verso contains part of a legal document in different hand- 
writing, and has no bearing on the letter written on recto.] 

Address (versoj 

[ijjnp [DJa'aniN ua 

D''3nD Nnnioax 

DViyi Di^B'n [nab] 


= 33 hj' 

> Gittin 4. 6. 

3n?a nio [np] nj aa nnnn np[''^] 

nSnj jnnnjDa n3nn Din[BN] 

p)) [ini3] nnDE> niia [pJ5 p] 

Quwnn nun[3n D''3prm] 

mty3 nniv [^n^] , . , 

' Num. 14. 17. 

Appendix B (to Chapter IJ) 89 

II I I (recto) 
PPy 'bn K«B' ''[?]JN niD'W 'S7B' 

. . n . . . 31 'sJicj "13 'jinr nis pvi 'wx na- 

^npn u^iinj i[:'3i]B'n mv i[3n]33J irns bii , . . . 
•■sna Dim nD[n ^Jcjk nnva n3n[D3] nmn e-npn 

•[n>v ^3i'[i]n ^yn iijj aita 'rno '-ipu is? 'ipn lanxo 'i»n[»] 

•DnK»o D'pini 'D''^3^ nn . . n nniK' nz'ia vniK 

•D-iiv D3ia' '"D^n-iiv ^j) i£5[3]3 •D'-naES' i>y D'i'iyn 

[" injmni h3B> id3 'dttii' naiB'[ni'] DiaT •cnry 

[mnn -ip' njiaai? ux n^yiioi *'iji n3iD[i'] 10 

[nann] d''[i]dn aio irani uno ncnp nbi[n]j 

[naajn] i5npn nxK'i niv nnc ni'n[j imJnjDa 

[D''i'i>]snBi [D3]Bi^Et i)y D'^[s]iE' TiDH wx ^3 ntn tj'npn[i] 

nii'K'ni Di^OT D3i> i'''[ra]ni> p^n 'n* [D3]nva bi6 

[pD]v ^y [i3]3niaai' D''yniD irnx nyb^ i[jan]3 noani 15 

[Djna'ya nnix ij'jp onx fixo nixun n[']iaB' ni:'x 

DmjB' iiD^'ci' rfbv "itf'x oaion Tib D''ainr nyanxi 

D3D1 -mfr\ wnax i:^pt5'i caint ni^jj d''3B' iJiiiK 

D''n^on tj-B'JN >JB' iri>x ix'an p inx dji iiD^tyn 

1^ nin' ip nnxni mm ia b»i na^ iina nnxn 30 

D'ao Dni onjn in cwxia' loai d''jb' nB-j; nioa 

nD33i Dn''i'y uon ij-'jsi' onx nninscv D''i'\i[a]oi [ojnx 

nro i:[dp]b' xi? nnme'io onx laanjii Dn'!?[v wj^om 

.... xai n'aty na e>''1 onx pxo nrao nxac iv 

[i:!? ^]Dini nrx lavi xsn nnx r^x D'laB'n dj? 25 

lai? niXDi" nv un' oni wi" mm aixaoi iir 

n* noicni nyn pnn n^jw dopt nv''3[n] .... 

wi'in'b "110X 'lacn 

lix p njixn 

15. [Vol. I, pp. 91-2.J 
[MS. Adier, 2804, fol. 7, paper, square writing, torn right across its 

-■ Address (verso) 

DnvD fyiva nmn cnpn bnpn ij[''nx ijx] 
rhrii pmnjoa nann dnax niD n[ia3 tfxiai] 

' Cp. Job 38. 28. ^ I. c. the good Yeser over the evil one, see Ber. 5° top. 

' The meaning of this phrase is not clear to me. * Deut. 28. 11. 

90 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

■iXB'i CD3 mj -noB' nia "ip 33 [p W oty] 
DDumx Km3D3N iJHp WD Di[D3nni D':ptnJ 


'•jc i[iv] nvnvK •a^'Di^jJo ynr nsa 

yniN •mmi'D -ina ij^.-x tiidb'j .... '[d'd^ij; 

•anpnv iins K^sin^i •oniy-i^ 

•nr,''an prni? -onnny inao v'B'in^ 

uyjo^ ivu-inh •Dni3?ni> ijns •Dmip 5 

\y\ysi ij^awn iiuins 13^^^? .!?3i' 

D['']Di'ciTn D'jiiTn ani'D is!is[3 n»'N] 

d3nn xhv,\ jmnjoa nann anax i[iD] 

i'Hpn nxci pjJ inu nui'Dn nnoa' n[iD ■i''3] . . . 
^3 a'Dnam a'-Jim a''B''B'»ni D[»jprni oun^n B>Nnai] 10 _ 
naiD^i anii"'! u'n^s anoB" ini'yLrD '3^5 nnsi nns] 
D^bNiB' 13N nv 5533 ■'3 irns a3ni3[3] . . . [oTn?] 

'anni' anx ■'3 vcb'ji a3ri3itD BT[iriD] 

mwi naa an^B* B''nB' a3n3[33j 

man n3n3 a3^ ^^w\ asoiSc [nnnni?] . . . ["^] 15 

Bm3N 6 i'SND 3n3 IJ'^N ^JH '3 

njjw p ^Dv Kim ■h^ nipan i'[x] 

B^ljovn nvpDD B'ainr aitycn 

fnJ 1331 am^j; pff aipon a' 

n:i»c' an^DiD iri'y nxB':i a' 20 

i^npni pron a'3-is)n ina' .... [auinr] 

•)i3s ^mbc noyi ansDn ij[NXimJ 

-i3nn 1^31 ^yi i'nji \ya\) 

pni" n3 ^iSt iMi niD ij 

B[jn]p ncin irns isyi is d-c 25 

13 an-i3N i ^5Ji in^VD ^-h 

•nijyTia •'^d ^3d [a]3^['vni'] 

[njn nn3 iNVoni B3' 

\yi-\ riN 13313 aji 

Bm3x iji3n riNi 3Kn [Nann in3n pnv'] 3° 

rn U3 n3'B'\T cicd [Kann myn nc 133] 

' ' The God of both worlds (this and the future one) I shall describe in chniic 
language.' About this expression DiTIS in the early Piyyutim, see Zunr, Syiiag. 
Poesie, 432-3. ^ Read perhaps Hlin? ' freedom '. 

Appendix B [to Chapter II) gr 

16. [Vol. I, p. 92.J 
[T.-S. 24", recto, left-hand side torn off.] 

;yD^ D'Dn»a UB'vn (2) . , . [oJB'n psi r\\m pK'inn c^nh ^x (i) 
vi'ii'DDa (4) . . . [n^]na |mn:Da nnnn onss -ii (3) [no] . . . c nnp 
. . . [vnnjna lotJ' vt *3i n iptyn "iir:n (5) . . . rwrh vni5N pvn ^n^c 
[unD3] ... (12) . . . "ii^r nnctr in p '•'db' vt "3 (6) [innjB'K] 
ntn jjutfn la^ni nstrn it3 (14) . . . nnx poy injinin i^^n oniD (13) 
[s'ijtiJN] nons ^K Dua^'ni n^uM '22 dov (15) [irwi] . . . [Dvnx] ^n 
Dy imx (17) ... [Nii'ujjx fnsD ijwna 'n p 'naB- 'n (16) . . , 
npa]^ B'pnD sintJ' '■a^ um 12''B'3?i (18) . . . \v6^h> inn'':jB'i n^utyn vyn 
. . . [inJcS' ni33 pcD Dipoi wnp nna (19) [^/snnh] . . . [obtj'n' nx 
'd] . . . [iT3] sAxh Qiiii: i^^N «'»»• ;d miidj (20) [nann Ijx uanaij 
nw r^oi iii^'VVB' (22) . . . nitnr m nwtn |d nvp (21) [vnv Nin ' 
n prnn'ty (24) . . . o^Jia v,t o'^na tmpn iinpn ^x (23) ... ■'3 -\v\'' 
b 'D*ai ly^ ''n'' (25) [nann ■'du n-inoa nja*] . . . E'lpon n''3 ^^? i^'i 
• . • [l""!'"" IDI' T P injsn nyiB'i nnn^i namx (26) . . . h\n-vo^ loy 
.mnyi Diets' 3[n 'job'd n^nn (28) ..,., . sidv i inona D''B'ni (27) 

17. [Vol. I, p. 92.] 

[MS. Adler, paper, square writing ; only the left-hand side is preserved.] 

Address (verso) 

nmJDaxa na'N 'ni^npn tib' ijcd 

[n]^^ mnx "n h^ m^i'snoi •nvns' 

nciy •voii'E'a inDVi •vd'' pans' 

nhv nna ''^ nsj * vonca nii'e' ........ 


ini' p;} ntyini 'ninan iia pnx n^uoa ^jdid 

'':ai' Dnaai Tivir yaixa omrsn ^NnD'' ;[»] .... 

irni'N Tiy nj^aB* *jsi5D pxi ''n''Ej> •'■n[s] .... 

d: irni'x nmn nnoB'D -icc o no .... 

Tn Njani sno pja -inxn c'N-ini T'a[an nc-n] ... 5 

"insi •imD' vnipiVD ^aoi Mrmiyn D[''n^N •imDc^ ''i^n] 

. . . :n''nnh nanai? nar [pns' -iio pia p] . . . 

Dii'E' an nnsn iK'n xts" 12 

niiripn inB> i'bDi lanis nirnci 

niincn pos w I'nxa -wtn niD'^an 

1 Ps. 91. 14. » = [san] D^iyn "ni? unar. 

92 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

nnvn i3>B3n* DTija dsi inra 15 

ix'23 Ti i'j) n''t33n nB'N3 niyiE''' 

. . . . ■iB'n inns i^n [^y iyni)N "^ n^an 
nyiDK' wiiN ns3 o wy\rh vbs [mna noJ»i] . .as 

pN Ijk one ntf'i'tj'n isSt diix p[n] 

ijnpn ^y hb'p nso^i xna 

nna ib'k nva ''laB'n nt N31 rar\'> 25 

iniD31 t3J?D3 1S3P xi'S 

;prn i'vi irntiN ion ^y inuai 

li^vx ixB'j o nty^s an p inafn iiNinj in naain] 

"iK'n 'jnnx ''ja^D c^'nib' umsi 

iprn ^x vja^o rb^\ nion I3[n203] ... 3° 
D-'B'i'B'i HB'^B' iyi?x n^C'S}' lyi' [''n''] .... 
^■h-h\ (x^y p Dm3N n tpin ^y ci[n] . . [Di3ini] 
nDn3 rW "TOX''i nyn nra D''n'' ..... 
f-ixD nnnsn ne'^B'n 1x31 xd . . . . 
ncn mnx o wnyiDi ••• ^npn .... 35 
IT nvni' ansDn nr vi'x i33n3 .... 
[n]in dijiys nison nn^a bx^B* .... 
[i]y nyb p'a-i^ vm^'E'i vnioii'tyi '[xan ohya ppni] 
pK'i:'!' HT'V''^ xsti'n rvw d3B' .... 
Di^ty nn3 uhvif mnyi di^je' 3-1 -urn wnnx -yaw ... 40 
pxiy^x Dmax na eiDV :: pnn mm' -ia lin[x] . . . 

One of the signatories is also TiyD ~\1 flD[l'']. 

18. [Vol. I, pp. 92-3.] 

An epistle from the community of Alexandria to that of Mastanra 

(in Byzantium). 

[T.-S. 16. 251, square writing, faded, bottom torn, especially left- 
hand side.] 

X3»m Dt:'3 

. . . yi 13 iDn ^1 isaini to. -ir'x ioi^b' n3iD cns' W 

' Lev. 26. 44. ' Is this a proper name ? ' Cp. Peah. i. i. 

Appendix B (to Chapter II) 93 

•irmon wnmN u'hk bv 'nianan b's loonj nil Tiwaipn b . . . a 

[N]ni[t3D]D ijnp Binpn impn non 
niB'pj onnsDn jv pxa QijaiE'n B'nipn i)np[n on •iJt5'£3i]i uua[i'] 

mtv 'D'aiia nitsio D'-bion Dnv[n] ijij? nnn Dmocn d'-i'iKn «i33 

nipo i>N in^m ^n Difapi> D'oy^j dj tidvi n^o Dn[N vj]a ■ix''i Din'-i 5 

, . . innwD 
P353 /^« «n3 D'noB'i Dn''^y o^ni? ainan i^i: dj; [UB'iD]i> w'ik 

•i[Dni njanNi Di[i'E'] m^t^ ii'3[p] ^Ji njna p's in31 [paa" '"•>] ■''-nai 


«ij)D byi i»3? iiy ^ . . . , nj'jm 

[oJninDn nhvf *3xi)» hndi apy' . . . ca'nuN 

'n]3ji ^las ^mbB*! my 'snpi niDK' uipjoi ijn''3n D'':'n[n] joi uod 10 

D<]nvD i'B' NrnjoaN^'N runo nnt pos nu irip uinp b 

[pJXT 'iT" vniaia Daiijy nnnni)i T-onni? cai^y i^on uni'N 'aa 

.... Bnnij i3[''n]N iwivin oaiya 

nnsn 3noi D'JB'[n] y[i]nD oa^juD n^UB'n irnx ni3j; 

.... [nJiDinoni 
.... .T^N . . w^N K3 . yai D . . 1 . . . ■'33 vh H'i'x r\r2r\ uoy 15 
iaii'B' np'i aa^sK pn v^ (17) .... ^ Dam''OE'[i] nanaiD vnini 

Nim n . . (18) .... a 

. . . nniK iNnm D'oaiD (20) .... nhy (19) ns'"' d'ob' yvoa 

na'i'x NaiE' ny (21) 
iiy WW* kIji onDJnN ^y DTiyuji {23) . . . . y (22) . . . . pn vi? 

-lE'N Dnons Ijyo 
nxnai? (26) . . . . b* (25) .... '-yrh^ '^" (24) [nos nni) ■■nnj 

'iai . . . D^iy 

' From ']^B (Exod. i. 13, &c.) ' the jokes of the task masters'. 
' Isa, 35. 10. ' Amos 9. 15. 

94 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

19. [Vol. I, pp. 93-4-J 

A marriage document, dated 1022 C.E., and drawn up at Mastaura. 

[T.-S. 1 6. 374, square writing, parchment.] 


I"r»i) D^ijj 'nnab D':n a''3Dt5'i niN» yae'i D'si'S 

-inj'i' naiDon niiddd nrn»3 n'a wooi' Nji^j-in 

'nx-pn^x nsti' nasi njpijN la ''noa so T^ omjN^D 

n^Q'N NJN1 ijKity^i nt5^ ma tunJ) 1^ *in a^ja na 5 

pxnin^ inau na^''na »a<n^ naiDNi onssi Tpwi 

nniD ni5 Kja'n'i xDnpa iin'B'j n'' inpioi pn^sn 

iDND vn 103 '"033 [o "i'5? D"pi TiRN *a"i'''na 

Nn''nixnD ^a'i) pvm Nn^^ni piJ'T '■son pi'ST 

'a^'iiSJ iiv^ai li'v '3"pi3'Di '•3"niD^ai ''a":ir»i 10 

r\h nini xn nx^pnas nN'am njcint xmixa 

ni'3n nN''pnax ni'wnT x^jna pi 'nyNi" 

nl^va -;d3 iria^ al53 6 nuN nun 

h'h\>^ na'c d^PCD ona *^in 05? antbc D''i)'J5) ait 

DipDipi spjpi) N ainn 'P'P'J.t' ^'>'?'o^y'\ x ainta *pa33 15 

'was Dy ei'pv N ainra ncin^ ^b* fjai ^3in pp 

X inra "pijaosi ''nyob ouint aa eioai't}' ib'P 

nnx "(i'^^paa !'1D3 naai x inra •"d^jb' wm nn 

1 =nxna!5. 

'^ This name is very rare. A document, dated 1435 Sel. (1124 c.E.) at Fustat, 
has the name Levi b. vi |ptn "IDJ (in Merx, Documents de Pallogr. hebrdique et arabe, 
p. 24). We have here a man going by the name of leopard, just as he appropriated 
the names of other citizens of the animal realm (cp. iTHK, 311, axt, a?3, &c.). 

' EvSoKia (see Pape, Worierbvch der griech. Eigennamen, s. v., and Zunz, Namen 
der Juden, in Gesammelte Schriften, II, 57). 

* KaitKrt0iov, xaKKaffiv, 'caldron*. In the Byzantine period the ending -lov is 
shortened into -iv, 

' Ae/3^Tii' for \i0-qTiov, dimin. of Ae'/Sijt, 'a kettle' of copper, explains what sort 
of DIpDlp, also kettle ; the latter word occurs frequently in Talmud and Midrashim. 
^ Bottles (Gk. \maprj, see Jastrow, s. v. NJ'pp), 
' Struck through in the manuscript, to be deleted. 

* For na^Df (Judges 4. 18), 'a rug'. 

' Probably the same as pvSX, (VPS (pallium), sheet used for a cloak and also 
bed-cover (see Jastrow, s. v.). 
'» Read Q'JK'. 
" BafipaKfpdv, of cotton wool (cp. Ducange, s. v.). 

Appendix B (to Chapter II) 95 

'iiDi'siT") "^o D^B^J miD N inti \:h nm 
Duinr 'n^JB'a 0136? nnnNi D'aint 'd"'5B'3 20 

cn^pi inr ''vna d't nwaoo n&'i'tyi 

ann» Tiisva nban nsipnas it^ i[nn]n ids nr 

fpa^B' nnNi i'pB' isni niB'SJ D''SpB' ba 25 

'iJW inr 33 3 ' Ki>'3-]ai3ip:s int 33 

inr- ^vn3 idv -insi " ~0v miDc n' D^i'p"^ 

"hv^ 3nr i'tf' nv3tM "sD^bnt: anr'-'^rv 3it 

T T - ; 

^^?^p.n3^«i5 n^abtj' nnx "njnj niyi nc^'c d^^pb' 

'S'ni 3inr3 "ppn^ihp onx i'loa 133 nn3 30 

nnniDi n^tsfnipi n''D33 nv Q^ia di3D nbyi 

tr^i^B-i ntroni D^'tJ'i'B' D'3inr nn3in3 nDDin oyi 

nbi)!?- PICK njru nyi "ii jjiiin noj \hv! ^3Vi 

TiCD mtD3 iTni 1N31D1 iNsiai pnnnn rran nn3b 

■h n'-'i "3^53 nias^ rvni 1x3 hv n'-vm nnj^ 35 

niirjiS n'mron -lyB*.-] p dm''B' 3b^ ma'T 

13ns b -1N33 

"ipB-j Dii'd pnv IB'JBJ naxi non 

' The word '•713 is not dear to me. flDpSll^S, x«'po-'''^<"'A'<»' 'o'' x^'/'o-"'^'"'/'""'' 
' hand-embroidery ' ; for tiKovijuov, Lat. pluma, see Sophocles, G>-<?«/6 Lexicon of the 
Roman and Byzantine periods, s. v. 

' Read 'JB'3. ' A small bag (cp. acucxeWa). 

* MeffffaAm — fnaaaXiov, ' a table-cloth ' (see Sophocles, a. v.). 
' Biis, ' palm '. ^ 'Ei/Tpix"") ' ^ w'E '■ 
"^ 'A-yKajfoffpaxioKtoyj * an arm bracelet '. 

* Repeated in the manuscript, first the number n' and then in words. 
» Read 'Jj^iJ?, cp, I. 14. 

'" The meaning of this word is not clear to me. 

" Read [Di. 

'^ So in manuscript, but the right reading is ppn?1p1p,«ov«o«XXapi«oi', 'agarment' 
furnished with a hood (see Sophocles s. v.). For some of the Greek identifications 
of the above words, I am indebted to Dr. L. Belleli. 

" The dots over the letters indicate that they should be deleted. 

'* It is not clear whether this Caleb was the bride's brother or her uncle (her 
mother's brother). The latter alternative is more probable since her father was 
also called Caleb and seems to have been still alive (cp. 11. 13, 29). But it may be 
she had a maternal brother named Caleb. 

'^ Ps. 85. II. Between the words pli* IB'JSJ there is in the manuscript the 
figure of a Menorah. 

gS The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 


xn nnaina ninns fnnn noa vb b^i 

-iSB' !» nynsi" nnna 'nim'' h\i\ ^mi^s? 

Nnu3 N^oc ninn rh n'NT poaj 'jik 

nHi KnaoDto xh n'sns i'vn v.n'h-i. 5 

'DjiTS i'aa SJT jnnn -103 io N3<Jpi i:am 
mnsD pB'isDi panai ri"N yj'Vi 

n<3 N^Jp^D^ -|{f3"l N0C3 KJT "ItStr 

' Dlta^'^lpN D"P'' TIB' 1° 

, niD 

jfj s^DV p iTnw 

'ovK*^ TiaB' 'ania ncD 

' In the meaning of selection (cp. Jastrow, s. v.). 

* 'AkcuAutois, dttiuXwTos, ' unhindered ', evidently a Greek formula at the end of 
a document. Likewise T.-S. i6. 375 contains a strip of parchment forming the end 
of a document (no doubt drawn up in Byzantium) pfllDI "l'"131 TinB* D''''p1 ... (a) 

xpnD hM 3in3 "aniDT dijt'Isipn uai wnm pn^jna p3i ... (3) idmci 

D'^pl. (The last five words mean that the word *3T)D, in the missing part of the 
document, is written on an erasure but is nevertheless genuine.) Signatures ; 
X. b. Sadok Hakkohen, Elijah b. David, Isaac b. Joseph. See also the Ketuba, 
published by Berliner, n»J)0 ^'^t^', pp. 3-4 (in T" 'pj! f2.p, IX, 1893), -f'\m 11131 

rp3iDip'J3 •'ipn''! KS'B' Dipo i)33 nw iniDn iDcr nsT prnioi ;dn3i d"?^ 

Din'SpS -ItrVD D1K)iJ31 D^Vn niOIX ijn3 P31 ^XlBi^ ijn3 p3 pi 
icp. Epstein, Der Gaon. Kommentar sur Tohoroth, 1915, p. 77). In spite of the 
superscription n^DPB'lT n3in3 riDW, it is probably from Byzantium since it is found 
in Mahzor Romania. 

' These abbreviations are obscure. DID may be = niTltD "IBID, DID = pPBD "ISID. 
The first occurs also in an acrostic of a liturgy for the New Year (/. Q. R., N. S., 
VIII, 425 ff.) DID bViOb^ 13-13 ^NB'iD (see Dr. Davidson's remarks). 

* = 'I33B'D ^•j) ni3' tibv X3\ We find thus this abbreviation in a document ol 
the first quarter of the eleventh century. For a controversy about it, see Harkavy, 
Altjiidische DeiikmaUr, 137, 233, 284, and Chwolson, Corpus Inscr. hebr. 190 ff. 
By the by, the names Shelahya and Caleb occur in the colophon of the Bible Codex 
discussed there. 

Appendix B {to Chapter II) 97 

20. [Vol. I, pp. 94-ioo.J 


Data concerning the communal leaders of the Palestinian 

section at Fustdt. 
(i) T.-S. 10 J 5" contains a document, li^in (r. Nine) 'rri* la'C DV3 
nntjtj'i' '•h'i} n3E> . . . onvo dnddd3 . , . nv^M nin ivid {jsj'. 

Signed by 

nnrDC i3 onsx ji in^hd p nmax 

[1022 C.E.] 

(i*) T.-S. 8 J 32' contains two paper leaves, of which on fol. i* we 
have the minutes of the court of Fustat, signed by Samuel Hakkohen b. 
Talion and Aaron b. Isaac, and dated Kislev 1336 Sel. (= 1024 c.e.) ; 
other minutes (fol. ib), dated end of Tishri (1)341 Sel. (= 1029 c. e.), are 
signed by Abraham the Haber b. Sahlan, Samuel Hakkohen hr:^r\ CNI 
b. Ab(t)alion and Sadakah b. Yahya. Fol. 2a b contains a calendar for 
A.M. 4779 and 4780 (1018-20 C.E.). 

(2) T.-S. 8 J 4^ : a document, dated n^E>K nri*, is signed by h^riv 
(V^D na \rar\ and npns -\1 njjlE'i (fol. i, verso). Another document of 
loth Tebet ni'E'N JD is signed by (fol. 2, verso) 

tr^D na pan i'NiDB' 
yi rfvf -a T\-^'n ij \-v\v^ na [nan Dmax 

':i Tn ^3 irni-i na'' nca na xv^w 

[1026 C.E.J iiD^B' p nnaiy 

T.-S. 8 J 6", fol. 2 recto contains minutes of the court which are 
signed by 

,rf-\tytf -in nann anss* jv^'to na pan i'sitsc 

, . . DnsD BNDDsa xhtif. T\yo (2) '^ Dvaa^N dv p n*a '■a nvn (fol. 2, v., 1. 1) 

i^Daa incjji nno 

' Yefet the Hazzan b. David (cp. nos. 3 and 4) is identical with Yefet b. David b. 
Slielchanya, whose signature is to be found on documents drawn up at Fustat and 
dated lozo and 1034 (cp. Pozn., R.^.J., LXV, 41 ; see also my remarks, ibid., 
LXXI, 1920, p. 99, and infra^ p. 424). 

* This document as well as several of the following ones mention Thursday as 
the day when the sittings of the Court were held. No doubt the Dayyanim were 
in attendance also on Mondays, thus continuing the old Rabbinic custom said to 
have been introduced already by Ezra the Scribe (see B. l;amma 82', nUpH HIB'i? 

'B'^Dnai ijB'a p:ni . . . xirv iP'n). 

2240.2 G 

98 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

signed by 3pjr }1k[j noJ^E' 'ain nmaK 

nnoB* [UT3 'JD]3 -i3nn nnaK 

(3) T.-S. 13 J 5', fol. I, recto: DnvD3 D»D^B'n"'n nD'ja 'B jn n'a nin 
jmn3D3 -lann anBN 3-1 no . . . nntaa'^ ta^CK ruis' n30 i» . . . DV ^s 
lin C3 ^3'tJ'^^ mon i'KiOB' in »i hrv?r\ cnt i'sioc in noi n^nj; 
fol. I, verso is signed by un>3 hrf^XS E>Nn fnan i'NIDl}' ,55 nnvD n3 nd7^ 
|T'5't3 and others ; Samuel b. Talion signs also on fol. 2, verso. 

T.-S. 8 J 4' : a document, drawn up in nD33 'S nnt3t5'^ tS^JCN t23E' 
D''Di'B'n''n , signed by 

pi^ja ^3n''3 isnpn t^Nn insn" h^yav 
innoB' '•3^3 363 n3nn {xyvi\ =) 5f D'^nss 

[1028 C.E.J 

T.-S. 8 K 20', fol. I, recto : a minute (probably of C^B'S) is signed by 
iv^t33s •'3n^3 ijnpn B'sn psn I'nidb' 
ttnn Tin ^3^3 irnn na* J: nK'3t3 n3 nnn3s; 
another minute of Adar 25th of this year mentions pns* n3 3ni and 

pisHD p )inn3. Fol, I, verso: D11 ns D'oi^K nv 's ffi nn '•b nitn (i) 
j2xt:DD3 13 noc^ 13K (3) pi"jm nnajj"^ ^tebt hjd id 'jc m« {2) )d 

. . . NSn^V IsSnO n3 linn3 6 DnXD ; signed by 

nB'3D n3 Dnn3x ij n'3it3 n3 fiSn ha* 

in3D n3 nnyo l^a n3 psns' 

j: >^v 13 nnty 
fol. 2, recto: pD^E'n'n nD''533 in n'3 *a nxtv^s pnv n3 ^ivnttD nvn 
sijtDio nncc!' d^je'n nrir f» 'jb* mx jd dv Pis D^eii'X Di' 'a nv»3 
, , . ponv n»i nt<yn ncv rrionii onnsK n3 pan rjDV »^ ; fol. 2, verso : 
n*3 ia nnDB'i' laiJB'N 7\w pn ri'3 la ':b' nnN i» . . . d'»3^k dv 'b nin 
. . . ns3in3 nnjJD n3 fiDvij 3^x1210 npnx n3 nyic o'oi'B'n'n now >d pn 
This is signed by j» |rnn nn '3n'3 irnn na\ as is likewise another 
minute (on the same page) dated Nisan 24th olsBiK Dioi'E'lTn nD33 ''B. 

T.-S. 8 J 4* : a document, drawn up at Fustat in nn^Si^ nsETl n:B' n^'N, 
is signed (fol. i, verso) by 

[Djaicn in T\rh^ '•snn tjaism pan siDV 

jv^DSx ''3n3 hr\\>r\ vvr\ jnan ^'nidk' 

ij pns n3 inan Dnn3N 

.T3it3 n3 ii^n na' 53 nt:'3» n3 Dnn3K 

1 =n^nj pmn3D2. 

Appendix B (to Chapter II) 99 

(4) Bodl. 2805^ {=Ii.EJ., XLVIII, 173-5) contains a Ketuba of 
1029 C.E., signed by 

Dmas ,nm na rrcro .D^an la r.'ohu jrnn n'i[n] '3T3 irn[n nsi] 
na 'li^n nsjw^ ;i^n nvijo T'a fjov .onat? p Dn:[»B] ^55 Ijkidb' na 'li^n 
.nnDC na ioa nann (N-i''yr=) yi nnax .ton na nB'a ,jj Dn-ias 

(5) T.-S. 13 J 1°, end of a document: 

DTiK'i D''tJ'Dni nix» ci^ty si^N n2tr |D^i cina anai 

nacio "injn Dib'J bB* nnvD laxDDsa 13 nuob p^^n [uxt r^Jai) 

J: nD^t}* -la 'li^n nyitj" -iB-a -a pd'j 

iji^n na na' pHV na ivyB> 

yi apv na Mi).! n^ 

'njya nai p^tsaN una nann pan b^m^ 

55 Di-ian njnty' na eiov "33 ncao na omaN 

npnx ia nyiK" ii ^JN^n: la no^c 

[104I C.E-J 

(6) To complete the data about the period of Ephraim b. Shemarya, 
attention is drawn to Bodl. 2834" = R.E.J. , I.e., 17 1-2 : 

['t^-on] (2) nv rh-h^ '3 npo^ DTinnn ijmx irjaa nmitr • . . (i) 
DniTVi [niN» B'btt'i] (3) 5i^N nisj- n3D ^inni nnsi nna's? Nina' n3B'a 
•'Jii'x yniJn nncr -la nnas n'3. . . (lo) , . . i3NDDa3 . . . nysci 
(r. nj^iN). The signatures are Dnn3N "13 |n3n [? tiDV] pnn 13 min^ 
. PD133 n3 fiDV Xr. p'i'ta) p'li'v n3 inan ^JNitiC 

Ephraim b. Shemarya signs documents as head of the Bet-Din in 
the years 1350 (T.-S. 13 J 6") and Tebet 1361 (T.-S. 13 J i'^) Sel. 

[1016-1050 C.E.J 

(7) The Palestinian community in Fustat had a president, and also 
four Parnasim. This appears from Or. 5566, B., fol. 29, very damaged, 
signed by pii'D3S UnS \in\>n CXn pan bsiCC ; the document deals with 
a charity legacy left (probably) by a certain n[B>a]D "a apV; four 
Parnasim (O'DNJian nV3^^<) are mentioned, one of them being la ??n 
iriD'; the name of ji 'jn ^a inan pnS' occurs also therein. Jacob b. 
Mebasser was a brother of Abraham b. Mebasser, whose signature is 
found on documents (see nos. 3 and 5).' More information about these 

1 Read nJV 3n31. 

'^ Abr. b. Mebasser signs also a document, dated Tammuz 1356 Sel. ( = 1045 c.E.) 
at Fustat (T.-S. 8 J 34I). 

■"' Bodl. 2873*^ : a Ketuba, dated 1034 at Fustat, is signed among others ^ by 

hna -13 Dnan hhn. 

G 2 

lOO The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda . 

brothers is contained in a letter from 2^3 im3 TllB' addressed (verso) 

o [D3]nan npy nitbi vivm ?yis [bnj Dmas] niio anvo 'ona . . . nc^e' 

[ncaio] -ilD pi3 *J3 T'yD[l3i< ilDl] , . . The letter bears the class- 
mark T.-S. 13 J 15" The following lines are taken from recto, 

vivii im hvs? (nbiJD=) ^UD Snan [ne'n] omnK niD pi 33 xhr\r\^^ (7) 
. . . 13NV T\vi-b " riy3 noivn onan 3P5)> (9) niD piii . . . (8) . . . 
•iti'3a -^no pi 33 '33 (15) ... i'>E'yo3 niiysn tvd i3x iio pisi . . . (u) 
'noci ynry . . . vt-dh nwaa noiK* '3 Dsi? '^x vnio (17) . . . luaw 
. . . 'siis 'in'/vni •D'yHi dii^hdi 'D'ynn (19) nnx 'J3ai . . . 1113 (i8) 

Oxford MS. Heb. d. 77, fol. 12, contains a letter in Solomon b. Yehuda's 
handwriting, of which the beginning only is preserved. The address 
(verso) reads : 

py ini: -ic3d 3i no i3 3i no p3 ut'T'i inv'i' 

n'lvni ivis iinp ^jud Dm3K 

-lis (imDB' = ) B' 


Z'd:;'!? concerning the communal leaders of the Babylonian section 

at Ftistat. 

(i) A Memorial List in the possession of Mr. E. N. Adler is of 
importance for our knowledge of the communal leaders of the Baby- 
lonians at Fustat. It was probably recited on Sabbaths and Festivals. 
The manuscript (no. 2592) consists of four small pages, of which the 
first is blank, paper, square writing. In the first ten lines of !*> are 
mentioned : 

^ nfuiio 
D'osHni cjixan vni3N (5) ^^31 ni'ij^B' r\i'>v^T\ b'xt "xn (1. 4) 
bNiB" b ni'^j (7) {Tsi i.Tprn* 133ns nnn pj3i (6) ^'xs\ nn 
. . . h^-W' hii (9) nvijj Nia'3 N'Mn nm nio pi3 (8) mom . . . 
n3't5"n n'n3 ni^t^n Dn-i3N nTo p33i' (12) '31 3D \-\yn iivi (n) 
p33 vnx[i] nb cNni -non (14) k'nt in^hd ni6 p:3 vnon ''3^ (13) 
mion nB'i'B'i (2) nann onax "iio p33i 'Npna en (2* 1. i) n'on3 niii 
'ji nn vnsi I'Dnn trnn ^x'cj^a nio pii vhni (3) -i3nn nnvo ii6 pia 

■So (6) P331 P3-10 N3niV TIUO -ilD p33 (5) 'jl 3D p3n ijll (4) 

" nj? ^33 T33n ,-mn' ino pl3i (7) 1-1113 tdh n'ne' xann nnvc 
nts'iB'oi n3''!j"n (9) po nnyo iio p:3 mom nb trxni (8) niN3V 

' =n3i3B'n 'B33 nnn ni33 inn3D. 2 = noui, i.e. omsn " mi. 

Appendix B (to Chapter II) loi 

iiDDi (ii) npnv -iTd3i fprn na' -iiesi wjns (lo) men nyaixi nicni 
ujnx ino pjai (13) '131 nanai) pnv nar (12) ijsn nxTa ijijariDn ^^n 
tvm MJnx -iio 'pj3 iiN D"nni 

niN''E':n bji " nj? th ijnjn T's^n (14) nnirn -ib> tiud i33nN 
lop lyiyn n^un tih (2) na^B^n hia omxani Dnu'n mtay (2^ 1. i) 
' nnon cxn bnan mn insn (4) mvT' ino piai? no pan nj)i (3) ' i'sni?'' 
'sninj nno pjai (6) ..^, '31 wn-'jn " nn innai:'D noaj {5) nxK' ij^Jai 
" nn P331 (8) cann d''DJ. nno pla nioni T\y^^r\ (7) i^nj hnjn mn 


{2) Abraham b. Sahlan was no longer alive in 1032. This is evident 
from T.-S, 16. 45 (cited by Worman, J.Q.R., XVIII, 13) : ;n nu 'a TSn 

mtyjj^N D'oi^JN Di' 'D nvaa i"»N&'i'N no'jai hr\v\ ;n n'3 '■ao vupn 
Dmas b nnDE' p2?Db pyanNi nni?ni n''ND ni'ni fil'N n:D t» non [d pb 
Dmax 'no 'np n^nr iiaa p irnn h'-dhj » isy bip ii ^'kicc -i3 'ib 

yaj 13nn. Nehemiah is known as a Kturgical poet (Bodl. 2842 and 
2710, cp. Index s. v. Nehemiah). His son, Joshiah, also composed 
liturgical pieces, ©r. 5557, A., iols. 47-51, contains a Piyyut on the 
Sabbath-'Amidah in alphabetic order, signed Joshiah b. Nehemiah 

' This part of the list referring to the family of Meborak Nagid is discussed 
in A. D. 4, I. 

^ T,-S. 10 J 15' contains a letter from Shelah b. Mebasser to Yehuda Hakkohen 

mon B'N'l ^nan mn b. IJsr 'y\2r\ SlOin'' 13^3-1. He was still alive in 1055 
(see infra, p. 107, note 10). He was the son of Joseph Ab, the brother of Elijah 
Gaon, mentioned in the Megillat Ebyatar. T.-S. 6 J 2'^ contains a document signed 
by ^pf pnv ;no SlDin' \''': tb \T\-:ir\ SIDV p inan minL*] ; the same signature 
occurs in Bodl. 2874'"'. An Arabic commentary on Deuteronomy, compiled and 
abridged from the woriis of Kirkisani, Yefet b. 'Ali and other Karaite writers (the 
codex, from which the modern copy, Or. 2498, was made, was finished in 1352)- 
contains on fol. 16 a a quotation from our Yehuda's commentar}' on Scfer Yesirah 

(y: irns* Dmasi? htv nsD rrw 13 jnan fioin' p: iiov 'nn pan mm'' '~\ , 

see Margoliouth, Catalogue, I, no. 334, p. 268, col. 2). A loose leaf in MS. Adler 
2592 reads %\ nOH B'Nn |n3n 3nn mSiV 13''31 T-ban TiOan^N Nini. Several 
responsa in Jewish Arabic by our Yehuda are to be found in T.-S. Box G. i. 
T.-S. Box K. 8 contains a liturgical composition which begins | K310n"l ']D2'3 

Nnnii njD nal^s | nc» n-'OB' p 'nnu3 | hijn i-\t\ mm'' i3'3-il' 
'yn SB'S I '31 1351^0 v3-n b •'3 "i^ya ] D'oa iisn | (= loSo ce.) \-s-\rb 

'131 "I1S3 pN? Tnv. The poem is alphabetical, two letters being assigned to 
each strophe. Only preserved till t5'n. A paper leaf in T.-S. Arabic box (recto, 
middle) contains tfKI fnsn mm'' ^HSH 13''3ni5 n3B' jD ''blN^N mbni'N" CITB 

p ;n3n cidv "T'3 yi "non. 

' For Nahrai and his son Nissim, see A. D. 3, 3. 

I02 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

navih ^"^tin cni; two poems on n^aa ns'e'J follow on fol. 51-8. At 

the conclusion we read the following genealogy: ~0, rfOnJ | "13 iTCN* 

-yi I T\rhv -13 I Dm3N i3 | in^jho j -i3 Dm3N I -13 ixi'nD na | dh-isk 

riiSJn I " 33 I ' DN33D n3S'. Cp. also Bodl. 2805' : a fragment of a 
Ketuba, dated 1002 c,e., but with the superscription 1366 Sel. (= 1055 
c.E.) and Joshiah b. R. Nehemiah Npna B-Nn. 

(3) Nehemiah's father, Abraham, and his brother, Sahlan, held several 
titles (see nos. 4-6). There exists a letter from Sahlan nriDlon b. 
Abraham nnoion (printed by Marmorstein, nn'T!''! nnon B'mo, 
1917, pp. 76-9, from a MS. Adler; see Introduction, 12, bottom), 
I adjoin here the following corrected readings, while the epistle itself is 
discussed in vol. I, p. 97 f. MS. Adler, paper, square writing, damaged 

and faded: mni niNi "nci ''3^01 'ntJi nti 'nnai ^'\[v\ ^'hv] (1. i) 
. . . n3iB'n T^x [n»]np 3-is (1. 2) for to. "main r. 03 mjtn, (I. 3) for 

n'm r. njni. Then follows the version of a Midrashic passage which 
I leave out here. (L. 26) for imON r. inoK, (I. 27) read i^i [ni3l]n K^l, 
(I. 28) r. n3 i'nni n[pip , . . (instead of the Hebrew Dalet he writes the 
Arabic Dal), (1. 29) r. nSDin pOT Tm^\ (1. 30) for ''^in r. i^nn, (I. 31) 

read rniB'[NnD DB']nB'[x psni], (1. 32) r. npijn vn\yti\ . . . , for pao 
r. niD, (1. 33) for xv'TiTh r. pnsni>, (1. 34) r. npjn rhrs\ . , ., for 

■UDlij B"1 r. iQab ivi (i.e. R. Abraham (1. 28), who has been consulted, 
answered), for Nmi r. .Tnni, (1. 36) r. "b*,?? nns 131 tT'l 33VnN . . ., 

(I. 39) r. |Dn[rn], for ib ni'trxe' r. ybti n^tj-sE', (1. 40) for [nntrv] r. 
[nwjnN, (1. 41) for n'jp r. n'jp3, (1. 42) r. nniN by [^asnini], (i. 44) fc 

BTT'a31 nij;i r. B'n3''1 TDI, of N^'SID only the first letter is certain, (I. 45) 

r. VniyiB'^l 1''n[in?vn], in the same line is . . . [E'mn]3 D'O^ t3. The 

n D D D IN 
signature is i3n3 nn»iDn ;x?nD ; the letters above and beneath consti- . 

n inn 3 
tute his father's name nncion Dn"l3N. Verso contains, beside ihe 

address in Arabic script, the following lines: ntJ'i'tS' ijTDnK ybti Tirk'^C 

nn^i i>inN^t< f3 ntoabo \ bti omx rh^th yrhnm T^nas n'ans n^ans 
'b nni'B'S nsiETi nnpb^ [2)\i>b]'\ 3n3n ib. 

(4) T.-S. 8 J a 2'=/.Q.Ji. XVI, 575-6 (cp. my remarks in J.Q.R., N.S., 
XI, p. 451 f.) contains a document of Adar (1)345 Sel.= 1034c. E., drawn 
up at Fustat. Verso, 1. 12 ff., as re-examined by me, reads as follows : 

nntas'i? fm^ ■'JB' mN3 n3 ii nr snanNn 
(n^B^n n*n3 ^"hiin nsnn nnon b'kt =) E»n 3 ^JNn -i3nn on sn 

' See vol. I, p. 96, note i. 

" Read perhaps j)i3 = ny |J3. The next abbreviation is of course =1B'S3 Nlfl 

□'••nn nnva mnv. 

Appendix B {to Chapter II) 103 

Dn-i3N p ]vhno mint^ ny^^h niiB'n 
(niN»B'3n=)[B'J:n m»n eji^Nn lin nnon cnt 

nann nnss na nnyo 
n-ijvD p Dm3N nry^N p ntyo nmax p pnv' 
nnvD 13 pa [xux 

{5) T.-S. 20. 6 contains a Ketuba wherefrom the following lines are 
cited here : 

x'JDni j'vmKi HND n^m NsisN njB' b'hvt. vrvb pov nnc'i ina-fya] (i) 
N-inj Di^'3 ^vn onvD dnddbi [n<3 NJioci) x^^^m srjob] (2) j['']3b^ 
nix^cin men n[3'B"n jjd s^iiiNn] (3) ntid E'n ixi'nD i33[~i] tn nania 
[^e^! n'nni'i nanai) nar] {4) na^B-'n T-na fiii^xn lann omaN iran la 
'5) 'in nv] (5) inu DDiB'n mov wan p ' eiDV 'an na xni'ina nnosi' nb 

. . , isNIB"! n[e'D ma 'nJNb. The bridegroom's full titles recur on 

11. 21 and 25-6, ni[N'K'3n n]non na'ty'n po e|i^sn nann tK^n[D] . . . (25) 
iTnnh nanai) nar n3'B"n T[na eiiisKn n]ann Dmax i3[aT p] (26) 

Signatures, . . . 'i'NioB' 'ana ni)nj riinjoa nann apj)' 

j?: n'aits na 'ibn na* . . , 
' nnsN 'ana [n]3iDDn \-\nii jn: na no^E' 
i'NntJ" na nnxaD nco na \-\r\v^ yi s)dv na n'i'X' :j nnoy na . . , 

' A Ketuba (Bodl. 2875", <^3'^ missing) is signed among others by Nathan 
Hallevi the Haber b. Yeshu'a, Jacob b. Joseph b. "Amram DDIBTI, Sahlan [Alluf] 
b. Abra[ham]. The date of this Ketuba must be prior to 1037 as the last two 
signatories would thus be brothers-in-law. 

' T.-S. 13 J 15" (cp. /. Q.R; XIX, 734, no. XLII) contains a letter of thanks to 
a benefactor Abu Sa'ad and his son Yefet (perhaps Abu Sa'ad b. Sahl al-Tustari). 
Signed by Jacob ann b. Samuel ann b. Abraham ann . Probably he is identical 
with the above Haber. A colophon in T.-S. Box K 6 (one leaf, verso blank) reads 

a'nax 'an'a bb min' 'an'a ny!? niDsy | aitan nyjn nvno ''am ''n»^ 
^i ann 'ovb 'an'a | onnax 'an'a ann bifyav 'an'a | ann apy 'an'a 

JDX JJNyi. The origin of this family is evidently Byzantine ; '131'? is probably the 
Greek for Levi (Kfv'nrjs). 

' Aaron b. Ephraim is very likely identical with Aaron ftnni nPIOIDn b. Ephraim 
of Fustat (lySD) who writes an epistle to Solomon naajn Ipm (/. Q. R-, XIX, 731, 
no. XXVIII). A document of divorce, dated 1066 at Fustat, is signed by pHN 
Nnnn NnSD [n']nDK a"T3 nnOIOn (^. £. J., LVI, 128). See also Bodl. 
2873« and Pozn., R.£.J., LXV. 45. Probably the letter to Aaron [tnn, R.£.J., 
LXIV, 119, no. 18) is to our Aaron. The na'CM |3D mentioned therein is thus 
Sahlan b. Abraham. See also above, p. 41. 

I04 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

(6) A MS. Adler contains a congratulatory letter, addressed to 
D^in warn no p . . . (3) ... oncna jnjnnn (2) ;nnn rwya 2-id (i) 
115? in imi ti32ni (4) n-onn tptn. Signed, >3Ta nb t^Nii ^ii^Kn \^va 
r|i^xni nniOlDn nmaN. The last three words are above and beneath 
ihe signature. 

(7) Oxford MS. Heb. g. 12, fol. 54, recto, contains the following 

three lines : | no^Di) nann Nb B"! 1 ria'tr'n pD lyan | man *no iv»e' 

nu'Xl 'V^na Dip. This is evidently an introduction, recited by the 
Hazzan, before a sermon by our Sahlan. 

Sahlan b. Abraham as a liturgical writer. 

(i) T.-S. 10 K 20' contains a paper leaf, square writing, size 6-|x5 



•'jion mvD 

"]j){yi3 ■'rnoB' 

'riDi nnx [nn]D 

xy? '!'[^]im '3[*']aJD 

IHN 'naiD 

y^nni Ds; ajB' 

"115^31 'va D^p^s inDtr lo 

Dnina ''ro'tJ' 

'nSlB'l 115?D 

m npnis' 

njNtDi nn . . 

nnpi? i'3K'' 15 

'IE*!? nim ^aiD 

IB''' •iA>^ 

non mpD 

' I. e. the householders (cp. DTia 'bVa). This expression is used already by 
'Anan and also by others (see the passages cited by l^cw'in, Jahrbuch d.jiid.-liier. 
Gesellschaft, VII, 254-5)- 

2 Read perhaps tJXID, pi. of tJID (ja-j*) 'summary '. 

' Identical with Bodl. 2738", fol. 107, W "1133 ilfilX nSD, acr. ptH [N^nD. 

■■ Evidently in the meaning of T01 'to draw up', ' raise up' ; (cp. Ps. 30. 2). 
Of course n?lni would be more correct. 

^ ' And wrap (bind) up (my wound) ' ; cp. Ezek. 16. 4. 

" This poem, as well as the following, and also 1. 16 (see note 8) and I. 33 are to 
be found in a paper leaf (T.-S. 6 H. 8') where it is expressly indicated, as is also 
evident from the acrostics, that they emanate from Sahlan. 

' Read perhaps DDIB'i 'support (the city) that was burnt' (i. e. Jerusalem). 

« Perhaps identical with Bodl. 2738", fol. 106, ^E^lp HNl 01D, acr. JN^nD. 

Appendix B {to Chapter II) 





niT nsiDni niDo 45 
-ipu icK mc 
[nn]N »j'>nDB' 
nn -jva' JB'ik' hjid 

yiS'sb DX1 •Ntr ''^30 

noir mr 3id 50 
imm pN "ino mo 

rh'hv vr\M ^xa c'sj'n b'IB' 


"ISDV nSD 60 

wt* *'nniD 

Cl''D3 •'Sti' 

jyivn irnDD 

iiis 'pDy ["'JiJnoB' 

nni: ib'n q''3d 

ion 'Djno 

^DV^? •'JtaiD 25 

'pvoi' l^i^D 

biD SB' 'n'D 

uai) onyisr 

? ? ? 

laij tn3D^ riDD 3° 

n£3 la's lyo 

i'3» ^n-nno 

jyn K3 ''n'-D 

npt? mai uid 35 


':iDn ijnp in[nD] 


nnv '':i3D 

^C3 3;»D3i'N 

(2) T.-S. 8 H 16'' contains a ;i<6nD iran^ '^Sl'' beginning miB'X 
loy mis ?N7. — T.-S. 8 H 23° contains 2 paper leaves of liturgical com- 
positions. A poem ends on fol. i, recto, having the acrostic ptn n^[nOB'], 
as is evident from the next one, beginning n3t< DiTi NV'S rh\ which 
lias the full acrostic nin»B'. The third composition (fol. i, verso) is 
also by him. No. 4 is headed i)ho "'ni'nin DJ n3D •jjii \ahnob Dm 
'miVDI ; acr. prn ]vhr\0. There is a gap between fols. i and 2. 
Fol. 2, recto, contains the end of a poem of whose acrostic pr[n] only 

' Probably identical with Bodl. 2738", fol. 107, ICnp pVD bx T^I^D, acr. 

^ReadmmnO. s =n''i5131. 

* From niD ' to incite' (cp. JT'DH). Here in a good sense, ' to persuade ', ' inter- 
cede '. '■' I. e. the sum total is 62. 

io6 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

is preserved. The author sets forth to enumerate the forms of the 
Divine name in several languages, nsnp [njTvi' NUn ntsitfp (1. 4 f.) 

Nnjtao 'xmuiiNa irn^ojK 'N'SK^^sa nt» -ir •N'JDisi'Na tnbdvn iksovx) 
n»33-isi«^N3 Nij3 xnaa •N^Joi'ljKa Di'p on'p 'JitiDn^xa Nnatsp. it cannot 
be ascertained who the author of this poem was. 

Nos. 31-7. Letters to Ephraim b. Shemarya from several people. 

21. [Vol. I, pp. loo-i.j 

[MS. Adler 2804, paper, cursive writing, size 28-7 x 19-7 cm.] 

Address (verso) 

[ninn] 'nty-no [njnsx 'am -no pai «an np*i> . . , . . 

^f TDnn wnctj' '-i[']3 •n^i[di2] nn -n^bid pn [nu •n]i'iy[on] 


" ci[B'a] 
n3i3[o Nj^pi' -eiiD nyi ckid 'eiiDN^ [ijb m^c ^3 

[i3n]v ij nu ^*» riNT r\^^h n3[it3]3 " 

'•[« »3]b riN niNmij •'" nym r\\\rh *"''' ve^a niyni' 

piB" " N-i' ^Nan -ipi5> ♦bsiB'* niv h\i. •'■' -in ^n Niai'5 

•N^Bio pn n''3 'n^iyen onBN 3-11 [x3]nD pji sin 

Di^B> n^Jivon irnN nb« ^vr -v^nn nnDtr 'Ta 

ir'ni Dii'B' »s xih'i h\f. nona '3 jjti T»n hdk 

Dmyj N^ onnn nvni? nijiyon U'nN lans^ o'lpo 

manKi itinnn^ pptjn 'd nt:nna injjn mtn noci 10 

B"ND yn nmo lij'sni' wnixo wcpai nyiap 133 

tyy^ D'ncB'n ns^ij ib-v nimN D^anyn nwann naio 

n3on i'siB"a iioa ciki '«pin3 sbn inh n3n x^b 'yi 

'[i:i]n riB'CB'i nniaj^' yjn^ liapn ^^*^1 ^i^snK 'Jtr nx 

bni ^an p nn'' ii> ymi i>D3 yen nya b'^n iitd' 15 
(!)nr nya ijocon •'3 oma wo 3ii3i5 Ni>N nune^n sb bi 

1 Cp. Ps. so. 23. ' Ps. 27. 4. ' Exod. 34. 23, &c. 

* Isa. 30. 29. » =mNBn. " Prov. a. 12,14. 

' Amos 6. 13. ' Cp. a Sam. 33. 20. 

' See especially, vol. I, p. 100, note i. 

Appendix B {to Chapter II) 167 

TWO n^3'> T«i"i i'a^ ^i 'tf^^cn wani »nbx' nu 
1d[n' i)]Ni *innns njcn ^1^stti5 njjvo in'B'Nni d'ob* db'^ 


I DN n^B^i I ":ni »:ns nyns | *:t< inntjana | 'jvo^ ny-T'i 

I »6nk I «iyi> " ii>j3>i I 'd[isv ^iJlij nsiijm r\>-mh nyiiivn 

I '"^xr iwj p 1 iiNnc" ^a ijc in nu 3n | tnan i.T^Jt* 

' Amos 5. 13. 2 a Chron. 30. 18, 19 a. 

' Isa. 53. 10. * Cp. Job 8. 7. 

" Job 15. 31. « Ez. 34. 15. 1 Mic. 4. 7. 

' Ps. 146. 10. 9 = n^D |»x ;nK. 

"> A letter from Sadok, a son of Elijah, dated 1055, is preserved in Or. 5529 (see 
Margoliouth, Catalogue, III, 557, no. 1127). The writer signs pHS D^B' n'olri IIDp 

B'lip ni33 inruD probably = ) anpio B"n CKT no^B' pj in'^K n'a [nan 
mnoa raan (i-e. Jerusalem)). Margin: pnni? | tsphh 'E'ttDn cnni? i^ '1 or anas. 

[|DXJ mnoa nj[a''] iran. The following is the correct reading of the right-hand 

margin: HN nmn^ '■nivj ^ T mvi bagi '"iiv noE " nxn i?NE'x »jki 
I • an li'D 'js (?) aniyi" ina[p] | • ann mon b-kL"* njiin'' ani jno pha laii^B* 
cmi)! npai? | MJ'jnn iniao ano pa db-d 'irni^K ina-ia* inWs •'Jn dj 
'lisvK lij B'lB' Dtsison fcB'n I maT iiy niyB* p sjnijn i^pano nii'j^i 
DS1 nin'-K '•i'3 lij inni' I'btc ana laa *a pn'-aa | uuB'ni vm uo nnpisi 
I [^Ni] . . . niaa bv nno'- wdd np' nE'xa (signature) t's | i:od [B'Jpa' 
Pia DJ I • 5>*nni) t'[a^] • jjni' nr laT niaya d . . . any inana nnNrr 
•[v]yn bi eiDV niD pjai | •vi'v i'i'anoi loii'B' n^'vyo pin hb-d nno 
' 'B'NT -it3 nji • nls'xn^ | \b nns i>aD • n^i'sn imj?a s!db« (dm^k = ) onK 

r. 1^aai> 'to double', a verb ijSa,) l^'i'^-Sa^ '('entitled me') 'BHn niHI IJHX 

•inoi-iD p'se/n E'pao Nin ia wmniji | •ipidb'd mi'B' (formed from hta 

(V, read perhaps WnN) Ifl'/ID DI^B'1 WDli'd [ "inom^l milS^I injini" 
Qi^B' n^ia I 'anpa Tlia^l •a^^ Yehuda Rosh Hasseder, though not called 
here Hakkohen, is probably identical with Sadok's cousin (above, p. loi) ; for ailjf? 
read perhaps ailV? (from SalV ' a lot '), ' to draw the lot (D"a) in the presence of the 
great King ' (God, i.e. in the Temple), a reference to his priesthood. Another Yehuda 
Rosh Hasseder is mentioned in Or. 5542, fol. 5, being a document dated 4824 a.m. 
(1064 c. E.) at Fustat, wherein is set forth the last will of Jacob b. Dunash 
i'f b. ^t Snn>D B'n mm'' Xm . Another document (T.-S. 18 J i'), dated 
4815 A. M. (1055 c.E.) mentions MPT^n " nn 'DH B>t?T mW'' jaT p . . . TTI 'iD. 
Evidently this Yeshuda Rosh Hasseder, no longer alive in 1055, while in 1066 
already his son Dunash is mentioned as departed from this life, cannot be identical 
with the scholar greeted in the above epistle of 1055. Perhaps he is the Kairowan 
scholar who corresponded with Hai and Sherira (see Pozn., [XITp 'E'JX , no. 22). 

io8 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

•br\-\ h]nva \hv \ ^%^^ "'ns nor mio w n»bn didvi' | [-iiJ-iDi 
I l^va . . . K^ in[n]i' I yvth nrvni 'ijsD 1 nu 

22. [Vol. I, p. 1 01.] 

T.-S. 13 J 18"' looks like Elijah's handwriting, and is addressed to 
Ephraim 'nj 'd3 [nnnn] (i. 4) b. Shemarya the teacher (1. 5). Mentioned 
is also 3^NJ p ^D1» p :h^i IVJ 13N '•T'D. The following lines (16-23) 
are excerpted here, inv (!)p'V1S msD. r''K DlpD^'N r\'':b ITI 1N3 npl 

inioab (r. 11N-13 "b) 'inNa ini> ti^b-di inva onan (!)nd3 ioni intys 
no ^3 ^^13Di' 3in3{< [<:n] D^nnn nn3 Niynn DV3 rfnw nai oi'Nii 
mnn ntyytr 'na 3in3 "131 in ^hinoc'd w nmv hm'' oni -jTisnin nwB' 
DiS'B'i n^bj) iTiT 310 p''D ann iin3 }'n33 3n3J •n3nt<n )':o3 •n3n' piiri 

.31 ys:'^ nn3 ^53 ^y nil'B'' 

23. [Vol. I, pp. 101-2.J 

[T.-S. r3 J 20", paper, square writing, size 24'3 x 15-8 cm.] 

Address (verso) 

. . . , nnDiDH Dnss ni no "ip "ij ii33^ 

yj [^']^[^f] •13 eiDi' = iy ij nnDC -iin ^'3 


Dtri • nhnn -ip''i • n^isa rD-i3i • nijyo '^bts Diets' 

v-iv ^y •n^yD^[i] n^jyai) •ni'ijD nny3 Ti^yo ^svi •ni'''n[n] 

vopi 'ni'''SE'n9 iiwtJ'oi •ni5'D3nb lunx dm •n^n3[ni'] 

Nin • n^m nn*Nt5'3 ^ • r\VvcTh iniNi " • rii'''i5nni' ^^[tJ'x] 

•bnjn pn nuo nnoicn onsN 'ni 'lo 'np 'i: '3[3] 5 

m^B' NB''' • py ini3 • T'onn nnoB' ni no n3 

ix oc ■ioi' yniNi moi^b' c-iim uinso ubv 

ny3 •'{fon dv nnns bv. ino33Ji onijoo ^niss' ny[3 *3] 

■•oy D533 "lis noK' "non b'ni hmi 'ru'son to *m-i» 

mxn2i 'DU mv vi^y "i3y{5' 'b nsoi •■'t'lon dv3 nnnv[^] 10 

• n i^^an"' is'n nipon isN n3i:' dv m*i • dsjot noi'tj' ijVN 

• Read DnOy. 

' Probably read niNnCn ' necessity'. Cp. Ezra 7. so, TfiVWI^. 

5 =ny ini:. "'Xoslay'. Cp. tj'aj i3i5n. ' ' 'To make rule'. 

Appendix B [to Chapter II) iqg 

nbv i6)b['\] 'mrbdp Nvn 'a "-by ^'i^ ti)t\ iiaw " nnD[i] ^^[i] 

nvaB* 1D3 1^ ^^31 'nns it^M innsn p Tnao -nnan b''s>[y] 

TivT ™n nyi ['jja* nr i'^i' Djn i)}* nTi '"DVir nxoi d^jjui 

n'lT'B' no 1^ nsDN ijk sb' uiix [jn v[''3]ni [n]3t[Nj dni 15 

jftDC* ' '3n ^i3o T'nii^NE'Da noE'N ■'jnb' ''3j!'''T)ri iiiv li? b" dxi 

nnn u^ .Tnc? j'ma n^jn oniDn 'jb' i^x inana n^ '11^2 ■<r\b'^sn 

iTin- '"1 in: DN1 T^x *3n3 piosx k^ *Dn not* Dxi 'Tinn isj? 

bv 3D" DN 'jyia • 1^5 mn3N* ins n^ dsi inoana n ncvn nn ivdb' 

nxnriB' 'd ba mix njcni ^v''3nn 20 
'jsyi inan ijn -ii in 33 i'VN nis* 'cip nnty Tiw <3K1 
mna nnu -\^h • cnw cniyi • mis mDB'[^] • inion 
''sn n^Diril?! min ■'^yn^ a^ nmy b!? o'v^doi omw 'nmi^ 
n3-a n^B" in -ji'Dn •bi' B'nQ n3[n]i>iB' y^ 1215; bi)! 'Dnjn^i 
nunan b i5i'33 u^Dii'Xi 'npixi mv ij3D Qi'''S*i onn'' •'B'yoa 35 
n^D ns3 -D-nv 'db'i ^S-ipn O'b^ nji nyi? hv idi^jb-i 

24. [Vol. I, p. 1 02.] 

(i) T.-S. 13 J 17* contains the beginning of a letter to Ephraim (I. 3) 
b. Shemarya (1. 8) which was undoubtedly written by Solomon b. Yehuda. 
Lines 13-21 read as follows: p3 ir3n3D pa iTnjn ^3 Tp'''^ "in3J N"1 

mjDi B'paD niy ann nmncm di^b-^ nnnnx a'-B'^ nipon onnx unso 
nr 3n3 •'jsi' 'ana lanp n33i ■T'B'pao ^3 B'[pa''i] np[i]i'nDn a^E" niv pno 
nuj) i^N oniD nDjDi -n^nin ijs inxnpo jnn nnx .Tmn ^3 u 'nynin 

"iB'K nn:nn ;d 3n3 tay n3 'ni''nti3 pxio ^no p ^xidb' iob'i dncm 
O jimn HB*!: p nn jjD IDB'I n''b''3''B'3. Here the fragment breaks off. 

25. [Vol. I, p. 102.] 

[T.-S. 8 J 21^] 


Vs::2 B'DJ niB'pi aiani ainx '-yn i>nji 'vm nx i^s 

' Isa. 4a. 13. » See vol. I, p. 102, top. ' = 1133n,. 

' =D'pt:n. 5 =D''D3n. 

« =a''anpn ' -d-idb''. 

' I Chron. 12. 19. ' = njn 'knowledge'. 

no The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

ni)nj "nmoa lann onsN ''iii n» np nJ ina 

DB"! "ntya 'd'^n 'n' D''Knp3 n5>ij)on nnann isd 5 

pv wi: noijon nnoe' ni -io ip "ij nua p "nriD vi>v 

no ivoe* ^nvDtr n^ ntn Dvn nvi imajB- DV» 'd'x !J 

"mNCJi nnya cnnnj no h dhn Tjn t«i'i 'i^atra ntfv 

E" nnsji ri'an V3N ^v nnt3N[i] nnion rraa 55'nn ms nioa 

3113 nstn D5)E)3 lion TiDnn '^y D'bn: nnon i^ 10 

^N nvii);! ^yyi '3^ "a ^'cnnn ijsi nyiini 'n» . . . 

^N 1N3 n3ai nnon Ijni tiud idb' nh' n^^nn -iiv ion 

'iK n^nK h^frw^ fnsoi nns pNo mm 13a nain piin 

nha' li? n»n'' dn pim nym ... (16) ... '•oy nam ono ^^^5^ 

nt?pi miiEn om dsi 3Did nn cdh h^i oy nan ^oy nwy^ 15 

h'<xav ^y IN fD^ ^y n^sNi '■i' m^jn nann I'^y 

sbn n"'33 ':i»'B" vhi Tnyw 

pn^r •n3nx poa 'naT loii'tsn 
noii'E' D''vyD pniN 

26. [Vol. I, pp. 102-3.] 

[T.-S. 13 J 21"; right-hand side torn off.] 


3-11 no "ij 33 . . . . (2) yypT^ i'NB'o b "li'tai di^b' mnyi . . , . (i) 
.... (4) -IB"*! 3py' *i« noB" D'nn^B'31 oy . . . (3) i^P'n nann anss 
Nin '3 D'ana t^x ... (5) ''iB^o ^nb*: i'lXB' py ini3 nn»B' a['ii in pj 
ms . . . . (7) "'3 yniD \cm nsiann d^^'B''' liv v^ . . . . \rhyn\ (6) 
Nai n^Dn din sini nB-o p .... (8) ni ;iw wjnN mijiD pso ihn 
(10) B'mpn Tya aB"^ E'pai nha^n isa i»[y] .... (9) -iDina irbx 
im^iD ps .... (11) laija n'ni nyn pnn •'si' nu nni'y [sh] .... 
h'\>fxh\ ''jy T'Dn mx Nin 13 .... (12) mpo ana loy ijjns anai 
.... (14) i» i3:is-i nnyi icy ni" 3-iyD i'in ^jn . . . , (13) nisni' 
anp NB'' -w^f. "ly .... (15) 1^ 3n:nni' oyn W '\yh\ nam loy 
(17) HB'y' nB'Ni D'i'B'n''!' aiB'i> nxi is-i[n] .... (16) i:wt *a iniisn^ 
nann nxTi dxi naiD .... (18) ohy >n^ND iniiaB'D nrn B"Nn .... 
... i (20) m^B'i iDi^Bn lb' ijaa naits "ii»D[ji'] .... (19) no wri) 

.Dii;B' Diamxn 1331 lann fiDV 'n Dii'[B'] 

1 = Irani uhd riB'pp niinj. ^ = imnjoa. » =Q'n^N. 

Appendix B (to Chapter II) 1 1 1 

27. [Vol. I, p. 103.] 

[T.-S. 10 J 10'.] 


TV iiN Ki nc'wysi n[y]va Nim nn-an u wyi 5 

■i3[n] ^i) i:n' 'hx onvo 5)x ^i3^• nox tynipn 

■ nanm '»ip» ht^ aitrs -ncN ny im^ mv 

iiN Na' nts'K f)3 ny aiun niwi' 'intrn w 

na^ 1^ n\T'i ntn ty^Nn djT nB'y< pi nnsD 

na'Ni nD''«i n^.T ne'N »o trnpn ^npn 

ynv nanni naiD iPi»i>Dr niaan i^d inu ^n 

Dn» tjitj'ai' canT ns'^l' n[p]nsn ma ^np^ 

DNiai" nariiD I'jx VDa[3]D [n^jc ^d!) loim i>p 15 

naijiN n'njn bi loy nt-y "iB'Na lana 

Dii'm nan' \'ah^ tr . . . n bi nriy bi 

731 frnni D'3p[r]ni Dunjni Donixn 

- . . ^r\pr\\ 

T.-S. 12. 857 contains a letter from nnns \'r\'^ to Ephr. b. Shemarya. 
Also T.-S. 13 J 13' is a small epistle in Jewish Arabic from Moses b. 
Yefet of Milij (j^^d |d) to our Ephraim. 
Dr. Davidson (ijn pSD naiVn, II, r ff.) edited Genizah Piyyutim, p. 3, 

boitom, yi nncK' la xjom nnoj Dna^s wan niaai) ^x mrya nojj. 

Liturgical compositions by Ephraim are now- published in R.E.J. , 
LXX, 1920, pp. 46 iT. See also vol. I, p. 75, note i, where his elegy on 
the death of Solomon b. Yehudah is referred to. 

' = iriDI ' his custom, habit '. 

1 1 2 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

28. [Vol. I, pp. 103-4.J 

An epistle from Solomon b. Yehuda to Samuel Hakkohen b. 


[MS. Adler 2804, fol. 2, paper, square writing, size 26-4 X 16 cm. ; the 
left-hand side is very faded across the whole length.] 

Address (verso) 

niv [nojis'^ nn»iD[n] in3[n] 'h^\'av -io [pi]5 \y^ nmjn W 
pv in[i]3 tvi>n3N 'ana •nry[3] nti n[*n]T 'nvn 

3n j;e{'] 


>nDiOT pan bNiDK* iio p[jii] U"i*p'i i^njti'Di irmnN ^n 

^[sm M]nty nis in* mbj' n 

vi Di:i[s<]ji D''T[D]n p jvi'tsaN •'3[-i p] . . . .e'^i -nnD 

[si'Dji' -i^Dya nin^vni -i^ tyi ba m3-i3[i -i]^ \t di^e' mi'B' 

T^N n^JN oniD nn3j •nTiini' nioV •'iB'a m^nb^ b 5 

m nD p \yfb rrnjn' [iti] na ij:pt ni[i]iN vmni' mins? 

nr DTi^N }'n[s xna] dvd 3id 13 i^j . ... -wKi. ii nis:D 

•m»B'!' n . . . . mvn inny[an nJ^'c mry^ dj nt^K 

ncN .... noxn pi . . . . monnn^ nax dcd 

nt^Nai non ie'ni dWn npaiD nu 10 

n[n]y ^ 13 '""^["i] '^ noyi Wii niyuB' 

ni'D[i] nanoa nunpsn ^jn linB": nj»[D] 

h nE'xi niE'v^ n«3 lyii xi) qijodw D'aiaj 

[i]t3[p]B' [n^i n]i'B' N^ nnN oya n'n )h D3i onnx nwnpaa 

b [riK D3]ymn^ nw n«n xiji ''ran nrh Na 15? ira n^i 15 

. . . ^ [■i]v[p]3 ''n3n3 "133 pn ^^ya pai w^a -m nt^s 

. . . i> [niyi' ni]Dyn nns [onjan mi'B' d''E'''i ^n moB" 

. . . [']:d iHNB'J 1^ nos [Di]i d^sx ni[n]j,-i^ in^a ''m'^ 

i3SB'[»]n ip 13 i[j;]t' ^ D[ni] Dsircn ipa nncjj nxa n^i 

[ni]Dn[ij]D nns . . . j? u , . y n^ rii>Dna ^npin nc'sa 20 

[Dn]D I33^['']n lalpiv = pan oniDa wdv n^j -iij'k ni3i[aD]i 

^ "^ Dii'tr Qi^ci nna Nwaoi 

lira 3n3j 
[una n]3''tr[''n] cxn in nD^B* 

' =nnDi»n. =Cp. jobs. 26. » =Dip»n. 

Appendix B {to Chapter II) \\ 

29. [Vol. I, p. 104.] 
A letter to Sahlan b. Abraham. 
[T.-S. 13 J i4«3, very faint writing, paper.] 


'am -iD ip ji ip'n Tann 3in[Nn nnj] 

ijx n^rn nya'3 inwn [■'d] ms noK* 

TiDnpni 'n^Np^x '.^^[Daxn] ae'V •'jjni ™n 

[niv] nB'Nj ij;mni) ^S^? nnitj' tik' 5 

•"W rjn[i] nnns Tyi' Tiwn ^iddx 'a 

nnn[v] -iiyi? [<]ns"aa lymn^ ni2{^ una 

TiiiNn nn[v n;ni] ninai) ^jd "i? n^n k^ji 

nicv^ [mjx'' HD nNn[Ni] snii inoi? 

ni33Di^E^i lai^B"! n^B-jn n^vi' j}''ti'' m 

nmx P3D3 nan'' nnnixn b 
m DB'i 

^3 NH'^x hinN 113''^ 3DD nj;\n3 nyo ''31 [n . . . 

30. [Vol. I, p. 104.J 
A letter from Isaac the Reader to Abraham Hakkohen b. Haggai. 
[MS. Adler, paper, square writing, torn.] 

Address (verso) 

^ycB- 3 . . . i? ^^3n»n .;d niD pji "[jq^J ;5^ji ninDca bv 
'D[N]ai'N jj n . . . [io] irnn pnv omiN 

DnsD ..... nai'3[n 'in] ^[iro] p:i [t3 in]3n 

0" 'Tia , . [ipn]n^ 

n^Jvi woc[i]-in [irnirK] 

piB' ''ja^a 'H/i'D n^i?D^ ny iha 

A Khan ? 2 Read perhaps l*Xp7N ' the commander ', ' prefect '. 

Oxford MS, Heb. d. 76, fol. 55, torn and faded, concludes a letter from Solomon 
b. Yehuda, probably to Sahlan. Last line reads : 

. . . ^in'!} ^3 Diijci ^^ [n'']ni'D 3[t iJd di^e-i 
' [nano i^x] nyir"!' • ron:n hd^b' 

A great quarrel between the communiiies is mentioned. 

1 1 4 The Period of Solomon ben Yehtida 


''■y\]?-''\ ^aiHNi ^insi? 'nnns | ' 'ji d'o'dd v;' « ynv I'm dc ^v 

ni3i mi *mNsni n[n]'i 
3i[nNn njtj'n tnsn nmax nio 'n bv min pii . . , | inini nnai 

n2[v]ih *3[n] iio p» p . . . (13) ib'\t 
flDinD[Di] (14) [njjin ['j]s m^a'i' ['Ja [i]3»d m mi'B' i3i['i]n vss 
[TJDn ■':[i]nNi' ^:}< vniDi im[j)] i[jj]3 **y[iB']i nw vivoi ''^n isva 
i^v3 nsj'x VJ;^i'^ wnri' ■'^ ^[nan] '^u nis nriDD nna li' 'nana "a 15 
pi)! N^ DS'i v^N* a[nan y^jn] dk tiut [n^i] '^m"n \p D^ojae' on 

3i ns' p aitin jptn Di'iB'[j2] niii de' tinsdi [ptron^] Tixa [run] 

tyanii p 
'DS'voi mn»3 i3'N . . . -D'NT vi[i]Dn loai . . . Nin ''ij'N in[ncB«] 

*^5J -iib 
yniK 11V1 naio ^a ''dj? IK'S?! u^n ip'[Tn'] ... p 33 ihr\ ns' la 


[D]':tn^ noNi pb'dt no'saa 'h'S [n»]5Ji . . . p "'J''v[3] on 'a ^vnlvbl 20 

r L i'" 

[njnbr J: '"jn pia na pan DmiN nub DtJ'a lanai mm ^[-is]d iN^yin 

fnND [iJnN'3 nya nao ''^^5 oy hij non nc^j? 'a vsa ^y iioni 

[n']m no pnnni v^y lop ncN b ^yi va-nv i'aa loy n[D]yi [D]nx 

nnyi d^jd^d n\T ns-xa 'ni^x db' '•jnxi' .thi nx ica [i^] aio 

NVf i3'ax Dmax nB-Ni inh' 'ntrsi incx •'B'sj [tJt 25 

113 naai '[aiun] ptTD dk' 31d D"pn3 i^^yi vv^^no l[niD]a 

^na na-^ li? n'ni ijnpn b ijy ii rhi b'nt i^i^nD iio oca 

[ijaai ;: ns'' iiD na ^•hr\ •'^y 'on mx nao oy 3id n-j'y o ijy 

[Q]''i'bBnD ijnpn ^ai mny b onoiy Dyn bi min n3[D MNv]i[n] 

[l"]ni i^D' [TjiN'K' nvb fnp 'jb^'d o^rpaoi nvjiDi [d]m^x[^] 30 

. . . iBDi i'npn CNT h^ ■hvi 6 [loy] *a bKic'a ini[o]a nain] 

^h■st!a |Dini Ta-n [oyjji inac n^ 

. . . . ia HB'y Nin ib'[n] 

[ijy nua u'n s^dv] 35 

'^y -iiio ncyo idb' b 31D nci iniaa 

' = Njom nde; i^y. =i Ps. 37. is. 3 ^niNcn msss. 

* 'And my crying (to God) is for my congregation.' The writer was a Hazzan. 
' Read niD. 8 Read perhaps hlj. « Eccles. 7. .. 

Appendix B {to Chapter II) 115 


I [ncx] bi uhv wai | \p^hv 1[5^^5]1 | d''B^ b'2 . .\ ws [li'Ja ini:n 

I »3Ni 1J00 • i' . . . . I ii> ['JjHK y»y pnv | [ii]rb vnxi Di^c li* 

" »s^DD na | [»^] •■nnpi' n33[[i] | tripDn nu ^n | i^s . . . . ^[oJb'k 

^[x] ■i[iTnNi ^sn] I [n]tu dk nosn nnsi | . . . n ^b nvd •'isi 

I DnxD }'[n]x 
[i^a] Dii'K'i i[d]n Di^ts'[i ''JjnK I Diijiyi mm 7355 | [nj^ns ^n ^r-n^ •'i'lN 

.[nms] i'3D3 I nan' vrbi 

T.-S. 13 J 23° contains a letter to Abraham insn |ptn (1. 7) b. Haggai 
funn (1. 9). Greetings to his brother Isaac. There are also mentioned 
ion "hv UN Vh^h^ ywb^ and his son Ephraim. The writer signs 

'^rh^ ''3Nnn:i)N bno p b-^s)' nan^itsn n3NB>. Bodl. 2876" is in Solomon 

b. Yehuda's handwriting, and signed HNT' nar* i'N nj)W • nN33n HD^Ii'. 
I quote here a few lines from the beginning 'am 6 pa nN3 Ip'b (1) 

•niaa nai'i "iiriD (2) [i^vi 'nty] niv nt aiE'nn pa^ni oann pan Dmax 
no p N^o' (3) insy ^ai laa^a li) ;n''i •nvo'' ;rst3i nw K'nipo rhv^^ 
usna (4) liio ijN yiaox ^x 's ijawn n* mpn [sa "py ini: ijn ini 
r\yo DijvnDX n^on^x idi rhn-s hii. jd ■>;» n»^x nonpn ania j xid n-'^s 
px no^E> -i^ XD ^Q rhb^ nam 'd^ijx^x n^xn px nmax n"i'i {5) 
. . . yxb niar nxoy (6) bv. nos. 

Isaac Hakkohen b. Haggai signs a deed, dated Fustat 47[9]7 a. m. = 
1037 c.E. One of the signatories is Ephr. b. Shemarya (Bodl. 2874'*). 

31. [Vol. I, pp. 104-5.) 

Fragments of letters from Solomon b. Yehuda. 

(i) MS. Adler 2804, fol. i, contains the end of a letter of thanks to an 
elder signed by 

ji '•aTiD p pan noi'E' J3 nobc p pan n)}\iir 

3i psija p nos I?j min» la irnn in3 

[33 nDjbtJ' p D'^n 
jj HDV p nniao :j [ajpv p nmax Ji nyiB" fa fpv 

apu^ IIXJ n»bB' 'ana lin nmaN 
ii min^ <ana na'a^n t'xn in na^B' 

(2) Abraham "lann, Solomon's son, is no doubt the 'Fourth' men- 
tioned in some other epistles from the Gaon (see also above, p. 58). 

' t)nDD is a maternal uncle (see Ibn Ezra to Amos 6. lo). 

H 2 


ii6 T/te Period of Solomon ben Yelmda 

T.-S. i8 J 4">: Solomon writes minji . . . m^ni U^nM mV''i' (i) 

2T in p . . . (4) ... njjnn nifi ;i33 pr Dm3^? ... (2) aa ujim 
3[pv]'' niVD 3-1 Di^E' (8) aiB'nn npM fprn xb» . . . py in» i^pan ncijE;' 
irryi en i:''ni3 Dsi irsm wn nh^ *3 uni»:n (9) ^v^ann pi 1:001 ODnri' 
nitri nat 310 •'3 . . (13) . . n^T nsipi nyn ^cipi iPitn naiao (10) ins 
p-." bi 3£j'i n3iv bo u''J3^ D^il^J D^pinon (14) vijijuoi vsmi vb-vo 
n3ir (16) nj> ^3 w nion k-s-i in^hd 311 io pii ir3inx (ig) nnrNO 
. . . vnuno Dviyi (17) iTim: 3nni . . . vs-n -\m\ 

(3) T.-S. 18 J 4^» is likewise a letter from Solomon to htjdn (1. 2) 

3py» nivo (7) ^nj Dii'tj' utp' nc' . . . (6) ipin pD^n no p (4) 'ii;n 
n3i3o i:ni3 bti dj<i o'iso un (8) m^c^ •'3 i:nion 'jfuin ioi ueoi oonn^ 
ipirn. Herein is also mentioned \V nnon CNT im, undoubtedly 
referring to Sahlan b. Abraham. 

(4) T.-S. 13 J 14'' contains a letter in the Gaon's handwriting, 
addressed to Duisi'nn Q^jprn | . . . ' |iOK N133 Dmn t^npn ^npn wriN 
nxB-i nsjo 13 . . . I'l^nn | iiNnn im[n nDjijc ini io ip [in] rxnsi 
-i'3ioi cioii'B' cino Dj . . . Dni) di^e' onn inb" . . . |iopi ^nj iinpn 

i:niN 11^311 ^ Dm ni3n33. Herein are mentioned niv * B' p nu 3K 
and Sahlan b. Abraham (SB' [nItiD 'no pi3 ^N3^N DN1 3113 np^l). 

• Alexandria. 2 ='innOB'. 

(Concluded, to Vol. I, Chap. Ill) 

32. [Vol. I, pp. 106-7.J 

A letter from Solomon b. Yehuda when still Ab of the school. 
[T.-S. 12. 80, Rabbinic square writing, paper, size 23 x 18 cm. ; cp. 
f.Q.R., XIX, 725, X.] 


[1x31 n]^N DmDi "Dn^j^yD 31D3 wt hvcw^ rri 1 vjs^ 3 
[i]nn["']B'''i nh^ inN'sci ryh'^ i'x inyr iinn i^d''[7]ti15 
D3[nJ '3 t:'n[pn] -i^j? ^np nnse' watno Sjn ibdnj •'3 diI'B' 5 
[n3i']i) ijnn!:3n [njns '3 n»[N'i] T'W 5533 hb'k n3i3 iddkj 
[^31 irnnjs naoi'i irnvar mo^i'i irne'i'' p^nh hdivd 
[li" imx] ij;:d ns'x nmp ixnpi imn n:3nj k^i 13'nnip 
[Hu] n[sD]i' jjnv B'vs 133 insj'J n^ '3 T^nn nnion vo 
\y']v [^n] in3[i]cn •'Jcd nn»n k!?! '[n^i]nn n3Dn dvis» nsnn 10 
nnxi' SB"! ^yiDty 1^ nvDK'Ji n3iv inn3 i3nT nn^n '3 B'Tipn 
[n3iv] ms^ \rS «Ti'[nn] nn -i3nn i^y xhvtw^ ^■T'l dv -ik'v 
nii;np W ^npno Di3n3 n^ai nnvo nvnx nu^ nnn: Dnx^[i] 
Ptnn[i v^]k n3iD insj; nj ''nn D*jp[rn bi?] Dn*nn''[3]D ^31 |i!iv 
ms3 N'n 13 n . . n t^iipn tis; 'jn^ [w]dd ^^■^n na'x ^3[3] \y nx 15 
.... .T'^N i's-iB''' aw nvD n[i]»3 [njn^n: vh ne's nisna 
[ntrvn nn]Ki Toy' x^ ni'b ^y o n[n]ip[n] nynr idi^b'3 n'hi 
[dnd ^^3B']1 . . . -11311 IDS' [mNsni] imNsn i'[nij ^33 •^'\ •'isna 

[n]nin» u[i3] na'a^n 3X r\rh'V 

' Cp. Exod. 9. 3. 2 Read nyiOB'. 

1 1 8 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

33. [Vol. I, pp. 107-8.J 
A letter to Solomon b. Yehuda. 
[T,-S. 12. 247, paper, Rabbinic square writing, size 27 x 19 cm.] 


E«N . . . [^Jya . . . no[^]tr .... 
[B'OB'-a] . . . n in^D . . . "minDn n[N]Ti 'n-iaon 

'[D''B'K]i nva-i8<3 ii?ini ityiD ijcd i'na n^^tr kb* 
[aia] DB' marni ni;sn ny mji'' k^i iuob'^ xi" 5 
..." n^no nnyi D''3nai -^i \r\'<\>'h 'iNia 

iri)yn np[']i in»3 nyc h'i\ itripo rr'a i'[yo] T'i[^*«] " 
WN '3 D"n3 [1JNI] D^:s ^upni) nsisT xsdji [n]i3[n»]n 

"iDini h\> bn i^i; nnj;:i ^aipD rwfw D'vnv 10 

inini i'^snn niv»n jna nnoij iiyi nanisi [iin' ^jj)] 

pconai nnvoai ^nib" pxa nmn i'snc''' irnx nx 

'B-D a-iyooi niTDD ^nib" nioipo nsB'ai n[3i]v3i 

onaaon ni)m 'jpiai d^b-it '^pni wvob-d 

wmatna naia nB-vm onvD 'jpr pi wniN 15 

nriNB' v^v 'Jni li^ea^D ib^n niaian ^a ni'''sn3 

':q isT Dipon 'impnifai] nniTDn3 p nB'[vn] 

Nijo Nini mi'E'31 D"n3 ywan nw w3[-ij 

nan[3]i n3iD [n^jnnN i^j in"'i i^n [^jjao nnDB"i I3i[sn] 

hbsn in^a pn nixni) noy is'an lan n3iD ao 

nviB"n B^n'! loy nv^j f i3'pi in^cn nN*3i ib'n 

n'xb 3'B»i nNVDjn nnNB-n iiir dhti n^isani 

TO'31 i"n3 nn^ n^o^i ^in»''i imini'i inNTij 

mv* ^ na boi nnoD loii'B'i 3np \a\i\ mno3[i] 

D'aiinn D''jptn h■:h^ i^np [bi) Dii'B'i] obivi" PDS' xh 25 

[D-nvn nn ^y ij^snni)] 

' Cp. Gen. 2. 10. The 1 can also be read as a 3. Read then perhaps [mDl]3, 
as the letter is written before Passover. 

■i ' Request', from n?n, but in 1. 9 thvityn ' disease '. 

3 These are the first two letters of the next word, placed here to fill out the line. 

■> Read inplSSI. 

Appendix D (foncluded, to Chapter III) 119 

Nos. 34-6. Letters from Solomon b. Yehuda. 
34. [Vol. I, p. 109.] 
[T.-S. 13 J 11', paper, square writing, size 29-5 x 20-1 cm.] 

Address (verso) 

D'ET'C'ni D»:prm |rnn c-Nna ''Non n^jjn amn rsr\'^r\ i^npn b^ 
3T jjB''' taris>\ mix diob'' Snai pap hnpn nsci omnam 


[rjtnn B'Nin •'Ntina ncx smpn bnpn lo'rpn wn^pii utin b^ 

Di^c INC DD-iaM nix moB" Snpn nNtj-i o^jprni 

^3 irna''B'' 'aicoDi unicnoi itodi nonn'' apv niSD 

irnx D3^ D'3?ni)o aion inai o^Jin ijhjn di^'B'^ 

onvDo ana na^'B'^n -m' iu Vm 'a wK'np oanoB" 5 

iDB" inK c^N ncvD Dn'arD |din 'jpr D''ainn vbi 

iiTs Dcn imin ^[B'mi pn nva^s pnN p nmax 

n^iyon nann nnsN 'am 'no pia unan oy an nmn 'a 

n^nni D''nDn ^nib" •'jinj vaoio iiaaai niaaa l^iiir 'ai 

nnvT ^5? i3D3Dn wn dj invonnm mnji njiaj nam 10 

03^ 'iNii axa nvBTi ova na'B"n npB-a inunji 

i»y i'bni'n DaTiWiua nntn d3'^n nu» dni innj!? 

i'31 vsDiDi inrw Nin Dnin»i iii^ipoi mijo Nin 13 

i»y nano in li? auno in i^'axn in inaio 'B'pao 

n^DB''' nix DniDs dhni mni inna loy {5^^ rN 15 

nanya wnij^sn yor^i iD[naD o'xipn] n^a^i idjj 'y-i 

an yB'' nva [vaT D3'ni3[nai] aa'niaiDi oaoii^E'i 

I'jj miiT 'ana n3n:n hd^b' 

35. [Vol. I, pp, 1 10- 1 I.J 
[T.-S. 13 J 9^ paper, square hand; cp./.Q.R., XIX, 726, XIII.] 

Address (verso) 

py inw iD^'cn nnoB* 'ana np nj aa irainxi unan nNa np'b 
an yB" mis noB"! nann nnsN am NJno 

' About this town see vol. I, p. 109, note 1, and cp. infra, A. D. 6, note i. 

'' Cp. Harizi, Tahkemoni, Makame 24 (ed. Kaminka, p 221): Up B" nt naPDl 

nri Nnao nca n^N^aja niaon Nipoa Nipn nnina nnv . , . |B'-n pn 

Qn'E'3 nS'l Dnp' D'IOVS. Kalkashandi (see Gottheil, J.Q.R., XIX, 500) also 
draws a distinction between the Hazzan, well versed in preaching, who ascends 
the Almemar and exhorts the people, and the Sheliah-Sibbur who leads the people 
in prayer (see also vol. I, p. 268). 

I20 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 


nonDi WD3 •-ann onQx ini 6 pji 'ij-ivi mnaai •mam minx ^n 
^B-iD nvn^ innn • ninn^'i pyv ^x 'XTa ^ • [-iJaxiT'i i:i^n'' nB* ^V3 • najno 
'•lan pns osy n- hs ir\-AT\rb naynDi -i3w anc b anpi) ''•najnni' 
;j nnoB' -q ''-laD ^531 j^an ^3 h TKih'S '^ivh inaini nunni' idi^c 

p nn nas'Di ai? axao nry -nv •'n^ man ^x i^x oniD lanas 5 
Dfjvi ni)*^ •n^yipB' ona ijn na'x niynni •Q'juats nna i3x ntrx nn^'n 

pm njj^ "'m 7^»n irjnx m^no T'ar 13''tis 'onjjijn rrunon p 'Dnyn 
uvn px nnnn ib'x dip ''ja ^ irj?n^ ontv^ n^an D'xs'w ijx Tion 

•oniDi pan pnii •dhT' nj? di^c px xa^i xvvi'vmix naiy natyi di^dd 
i^'D'Dni "lyj's? mani 'unia wr\r\ ncx niDinon nxE^ij wb nsn "nai 10 

nya tw\> rmyyv ir^y ciau -ib-x njj •li^nicD: u''xnni 'iraa^ iD»m 
n^i3i na moix ra\ na niirnx na^ nina nina' is^yj ■'a onvo ni^np 
xi? DnD[i] • D^viT' ono D'B'Jx niDca ixu'' na'x D^anaoa pn nnoiD 
onoixi D^^aip DnT 'lOinD pti'i'a cmoi "iDiDa onnan dhd 'D^jcn' 
'ixT x^ B"x TT'S'-in 'a ^x n'jjij* nia^on ^y ■'i'j? hapi? oyn an ivn "a 15 
vSjjj ac'^i yn nB> x'^jid hyo pnn naj'' ^ pon D^yi onana ■J1V^D5^'''l 
i:''n'n:x iixia' Trnxt^'oi [i]^ni[:nD] '■\<)rh 'a nDX''i nmtax pna 
ainan i^a ir^y nc'pin nixo ny nrxoh ^^fl db' "1 on'S'i? na nrynb 
^'nan^ ainai? D't^'jx i'xti'i niE'nn n* nnno- nxt ^Ja 'a djoxi an^anaoa 
i^x ^x 'JD^o inxDm \w hv na'' ^jx p nuioi Di^ajD ncyca n^nsniii 20 

naai nnon 
nisba danai? di^e* rr-wa ni^npn ^jn anajn priE^jn oy anaia T'^x mp 
an^ tinynbi di/cn nnx ^im ntyxi ma nt^xi i^nnn li^'xl' naiu pnnniji 
d'B'JN nxra nnax noni npi/non nnas:' laa ■■a dnno i3[i*]ni niana 

bn lonpn n:ni nrax^i 'nhj npjji'ni 'nnan nanom 'nrnj? npi^non ^a 
a[-i] noa isnna ^an 'a i'[^y] dvainnn jd dm v^y diDinn nvnyi ncyo 25 
\ymh\ dn'jn pni? dn''^y nxnn xin nvni) ' j j p^i^oaN na [nan ^Jxicty 

' From "laX 'a wing', i.e. take shelter. Cp. Ps. 91. i. 

' Cp. Prov. 16. 32. 3 I. c. the name of God (see Isa. 45. 19). 

" 'Hope'. 6 =d1pDn, i. c. God. 

" The meaning of this phrase seems to be, 'By God, there is a rumour'. 
' Wherefrom Wormsn, /. Q. R., XVIII, 14, inferred that Samuel's son, Solomon, 
was Gaon in Eg3'pt (Fustat) is inexplicable to me. He cites our fragment which 

Appendix B (concluded, to Chap!er III) i 2 1 

\\r\ ncsn pni's t ns nvi nji [ij^an m ^y nnj) dhd nnsi 

DnsD ni^npi n\T p o >b Dn'jJD bni nan nS's *3 D3oxi naijin nt^jjoi 30 
n3[i]yn '3i iv'jn nwaab ny nianDni nip^non nxr b o'lnv mry bs ^^' 
cpaD PN1 B>in pxi uij nixn hto'i inpc'n ii'''DN'' -m'xi' o nS vry vn xSj 
inna 1611 ptj'ip'' lyra n'^ioh nnxj niaxa xibn n''ff3iDi' nou de'sj ps 
p N^in iniK D'anix vni nnoini sy^ n''a ^j; n-ng' nm nti'N Nin ''o " p^s 
paiDoi' ncx* ijnna n^'N 'nib^a jd^n^ n/Ni5 paiD' ia''an bv. n^iD nos 35 
mob DariN [jd]' xbi n^N- nyi' ca^niNiao pa^oo vnn xij ia''Dn ^n 

l^i[n trj^x [N^Jn] 
fl'Qtt .^[ni] dI'VN iivi mn laB'h pi^ iT'on^ ara^ npcm dhdj? nn 

[i3i;n]n lox^JDm •uacj'pn n^ vn'32 S^ni ••uyDtJ' i6 i2\s " ^jx ds 

[n]D "i:nj?ni 
Tntnij DN ''3 Dnnu nha^n nn^^ n^ D''K''33n dx pN3 cnits'nn ncx' 


nucl' ^31 xim tiiijf nrp m ijnip »a inn ib'X cira ^hff hnm yoB" 4° 
yin nnii 3iDn im irja^ |nJi w^na ne'x ic3 lan^'^n bx unv 

nx n'Dn^i iraa^ nx ^jio^ n^onn icn nyn ny na nai'i' niun Tn 

mB'3D pxn 3^5 
f ux , nxfn nya " oy ''3 nyni' man li? ^isni nti'a ai? 13^ nnh 

n^n: Diaci' 
Nin man ^yai^ -h njn omb^ na ua pxi D':iipn na m "onao 

' i^sip nx ni'3' 
nnnx »jn ^y e'en' x^ ny ncx^Ji p^ctj'n^ D'S''nB'io^ mpo x''Sot b^^ 45 

. , , , main 
anxn^jy nc^y nna x'vcnb T^^a t^'^^ "'"-'"1 ^''-'J' 1^^ J''^^'''' '"^^'J' ''J' 

nioa , 

" ?y Dx nann p X7 •'3 inimra ^jx d''DE' 'oma dxi iti py d^dc db' 

nB-x DnaonDi noai nD3 nnx bv imr i'y I3 ^b ib-x onai ixan i^x 

proves nothing. A supposed son of Samuel b. Abtalion, by the name of Solomon, 
is entirely unknown. ' =''Jva. 

' Isa. 29. 21, 5 Mic. ■^. 6. * Ibid., ver. ii. 

' Cp. Ezek. 3. 27. « Cp. Jer. 30. 12. ' Cp. B. Mes. 83 b. 

12 2 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

anvpa •'3 n»^?n31 i^^nn iain o nst rs^m-in fjiann nnvo ^jn i3cin 
-I'arn^i 02*3 Dnnn[b] »3^ 'jn^k-'' ik'x nnxoi pn c^i in b" Dm3B' 50 

D'x'DB'D nva ^^xrh DUii'jr infjv cpaS? b** 'k ^n snpi' nann 

nn3ji □•'s^cE'cn n' nnxn dn *n*Dn m innaa "3 'jni nan wvio 

Dn'i'ir Dn'jiys 3iDn TDvni> d,tt3 dhib't npii'ncn <^5?3 n* ynr 

cnip -i^y3 3B'N iJN Dn^DBiE' riN uistrb fiis DV3 nvni' pvp^i CNni^ 55 

VNT 'o'K "'2N ■h^ "invo ncN nvn ^yi »dsv ijjJ n3i3 nijji3i 'n'x U's 

nc'KS DiNoi' nirsN »ni \snpj ncm nicvb no i'3K nxtn nyn '<^i^ 

'Kin l^JK ''Din3 1JS 'JiJ? IDT xijl 'si) n3J vb ini3D ids' 'iT" W'N ' HDJin 

vj'jra 31D nB'N3 h rvsT 'J^'^ 13 'nsan \h nos'' ns dn i3it33 ijonn 
onvpD ^x 'n3n3 -1331 ^nniN i)!; 'jipK» nB^x nnnon i^nynin 60 

nv3 113^ -^TV? h-2 Di^B-i noii'B'i T'3'ix b» ni) n':* nusn n^jo 
'3n3 3PV' pxj n3''E''' B'xn vn no^B* 

(right-hand margin) 

nbiix mx s^oi'x px pn i^v ux ^B-isx n['']D^x 3xn3 ijd ns3 ixd npi 
noBJ s'a* "i*n3 i'x i'^i'? ^jx njj? njxi ^xmo njx rh ^\> xd ii^' nm 

[Djii'B'i Dxi'Di'x3 nsin 

36. [Vol. I, pp. 111-12.] 

[T.-S. 13 J 17", now printed by me m J.Q.R., N.S., IX, 415.] 

37. [Vol. I, pp. 112-13.J 

An epistle to the Nasi David b. Hezekiah. 

[Or. 5346, under glass, very badly preserved.] 

Address (verso) 

[i3''X'B': i:mx] i3'j[n]x mi . . d'3t va ivb' '•js? 

[n*n nu^ x''B']on n<n i:nn[x 3B'n]3 3E'n3n 3B'1d^ d'31^ . . . 
[E'xn inv]n' irjnx p nB'[n]p ha 33 xin . b-* . . [xj'con . . . 
[cn^x x''Jb'j [njiiijjn] 

' = nPi'in ' what benefit is there ' in announcing the ban ? 

'^ I. e. on Mount Olivet opposite the temple site. 

' = D\nbx 1J\nl7X , cp. Ps. 48. 9. * I.e. I go by the name of Gaon. 

^ Read perhaps myn, cp. Job 40. 10. The meaning is, ' What can be done, the 
name is called (i. e. I bear the title Gaou) and it is impossible to reject what our 
God adorned (me) with '. 

Appendix B (concluded, to Chapter III) 123 

. . . 1:N''2'3 

wjns] Irani wno riB'np ['nj] '11 Nin iind n3j['] nb'3[i] dit 

[N'2'j]n ti[t 

HNT " ny T'H 3py> pxj i'sntj-'' •'ax Tn rfa^ 

^nsi ....." nninn e"n noN3 

.... 1^ 1 . . . n^nn i[ok'] hn ^i:[']i innrjj' . . . '"'' '3 5 
. . . '•aj ^v ntrsD psn ^rre' ^ [i]''-in[n]o [i]^'^'^' pc vnii'N iSj n^>:- 

[wj]nN ['np] 'nj [p] 'n^n nds h^ fp ps nii'n me'Dn 1^ ni[3n]ij 
nnn D'oixh iijnnn d'djj nm* iv[i'y] DMiis k'B':i n^un b'nt inv[Tn'] 

[p]i ''v^j[t 
n[p]i[si] " [dnd] ^^^a wx'B'j innx nb" nbo nv3 psn \t 
rr . . '>n . . nua vn^i lab [i]aij [ba] ia[n]iK[ni] 'wc' •■nf'ND 10 

. . . n 
nijin PN1 "'ni'[i]3 ^Nsioa nhv^rva [ij']n''B'j nsv nixo ['n]ns 'a 

" [T]i'y 
rmw riDNH 'nni "Tion nax n^Jios iddi "'D^Jioi'tJ' •'sTn [lan] 'a 
" [noB'] T>j;a nxB': »a " d^b" oi'B' " niiiioj ijNi " 'b'd jno noi 

c-iD* [x]h 
n^nns lijasi ijni "nmoj nmaji nos aima n^Jcai "nonni •\\r\ 

iN'OTi "i[mp]f) fNvn nna»i"npn r\hni h^i nn'oyni ''aari [I'lKij] 15 

''^[ib] nn 
ipn:] i)i5? i[n3B'] cpao pxi tyin psi ty-iia pxi ^'in^Nj vnnn 

[ipa '^nnoiD 

1 Ps. 138. 6. 2 Ps. 6i. 7. 8. ' Mic. 5. 8. 

' Deut. 6. 19. '^ = rnsan. « cp. Ps. 45. 8. 

' Isa. 9. 6. » Cp. Ps. 47. 4. » Ps 24. 5. 

'" Ezek. 12. 4. " Cp. Amos 6. 6. '^ Cp. Isa. i. 23. 

" Cp. Ps. la. a. " Isa. 59. 15. '= Cp. Isa. 59. i8. 

" Isa. 24. 12. " Ps. 55. 12. " Cp. Isa. 59. 14. 

" Isa. 3. 26. 20 Ezek 24. 11. " Ezek. 24. 5. 

" Mai. a. 15. w Cp. Ps. 14. 3- " Cp. Jar. 5. 5. 

1 24 The Period of Solomoti ben Yehttda 

~iV 'cinin 1VT' D''j?in iNvn ^n ^TKB' ivb' nav nvni 'n^i'^^'B 

["> 133 cyn fo naini naipn nv "tinvi wivna usv^ v't^^'i " " xi^i 

Perhaps in Bod!. 2878" containing a letter, in Arabic, to CN") p Tin 
. . . n^ljn, our David is meant, Daniel, the father of David Nasi, is 
usually styled Gaon and Nasi, but not n^lM E'Xl. Cp. further R.E.J., 
LXIV, 120, no. 39: a letter from David rh\iX\ B'NT p, ending (?) HDi^ 
nyw = 1054 (?). 

Nos. 38-41. Letters from Solomon b. Yehuda to Ephraim b. 


38. [Vol. I, p. 1 1 4. J 

[T.-S. 13 J 15^ paper, square writing, size 27-5XiS-5 cm.; cp. 
J-Q.R., XIX, 729, XXII.] 


•nmn nniD nv3ti'ni •nn^cD ^33 n^iiio nsnsi Tinnoi ^j?cd ^hv 

in riN'VDi TinJi i:nb'i ops' 3'3Doi -nn^sm cjjd bn bcni 

"ifev ''•nnt:3ni p^i ^3Nn ^-2 -inb' dd -nnoiv nyic^i noni 

niD piij •iJn3*B'i3 iiddi •iJ3inNi i:T'T'^ 'nnso vriN^ injN'' 

•irmry3 nouJi 'i:*nN':p wpijn niinj pii^^o^ lann nnas 5 

nocM 'nry ni^f \t 'I3'n3nx3 ptnnoi 'irnvccn ^jn noi 

i;''3inN 7^i5t< nnia' imp nivih nnoti' ^3 "nvri 

Tnnax n3icn am oyn vhw mj?~iin3 onjjiDn nnx 

*nn: ''d niriK'^ ni^''£j' ^Da dsd -ie'k tit niviiD t^ 'lyj nt^x 

w^ ps" ti^'na -i3n nnn fiiks 0^3 nvin: o TDsn lovyb 10 

n3a'3 n3nni 'nmin nn3^ ■'3 ncN^ °d« ni333 I'pn dni innsni) 

Njp'' Nin •nnsB' ni? -rmn nc'is •nnnin nsvo o ''3n' nt^'N 

m<nj) *3 Tinan^ nmin nati'n ^ 13 'n''n3 ni) ni3i''i r\'h''^^■th 

p 1031 • n''ni3''S'n dhd •'nbi' " • n^nvjD3K •'03 ^n 3'm'^ N''n 

' Isa. 28. 7. 2 Cp. Isa. 24. 12. 3 Cp. Ezek. 34. is. 

* Lam. 3. 50. c 'Desire', masc. form of n3Nn. 

« Instead of nnD3ni, to suit the rhyme. 
' More correct the Hif'il form IJJijn. 

« Cp. Isa. 8. 6 and Jer. i.. i8. 9 I.e. Palestine. 

'» I. c. Babylon as compared to Palestine, but the meaning of nn^in HNSD *3 
is not clear to me ; however, it is possible that the word should be read nn^l'll 
' her teaching', being a Hebraized form of NnmS. 
" Cp. B. Me;. 85*. 

Appendix B {concluded, to Chapter III) 125 

nny -v) innxriJ -fv^ 'vm DUinr -\m nyrnn nnis* Tivnin 15 

nxD^ nnjni nvij ''ff 13K''!J'j my nc'S ainn 'mnin on ^a 

pHN no DJ1 n5)>jn n^ -ip'jj ^3 onnya 'jpini mix fx 

'Jpinn 'JQD nxn' b'* dni ■h ic-x ns Ninn t^'N^ i>^r\ 

ira^ 3t:'n D'DUa 'JB' nnix npN '•an ''db'3 naina x'n sbn 

IB-K ijx tnJn Dx n:nnxn nxr Ti^ir xvn ie'x ''•'jpin b 20 

3n3D3 ^n^ t^n nrn naon xua tiv mnxn xj ^x 

ana ainax *jx npi^n n* ana xiaa ^ ,njnn nt^x isx 

ni»j)i j'csnni prnnm Dip»n mrya ^an nx ^'snij nbp 

nsj nani iciIjb'I Tiijia ^T> "1 nncy Jjy 25 
una ^a*c^^ cxi 'in nialsE^ 

Address (verso) 

iiasiii nnax ''aia [ijmmoa nam d>-i3x -iio pja^ 

30. [Vol. I, p. 115.] 

[T.-S. 13 J 14'', paper, square writing, very badly preserved, size 
26 X 18-3 cm.] 


iJiix [ijoixn nioxa n^y hnrin anian ana i'x-iB''' j'nx [nJiB'ia 

'. . . n 
■■a iS'h [i!3]d [']jx 'a [xji^ ' Dai?Da ipan min» e»xi Dipca noxj ^na 
[p]x ycB-j [n]D IX ijiy *a ixvd no 'a xain h^-ar\ bx ^ni^ir Dnnxn 
[xj^n n[D';x]D •yan nxr nan ^y inx b-^h •'nana ix "nmon 'an nya 
D[n] . . , ^ ['Ja uy 'Jjn ni^cn nxan ■'nixn i^a Dim 'oma 'jx ''2''y3 5 
□"ban . n . i . y . B* . x-i . n i^ai inK'ui ni3i[y] nna »'[•'] dx <:n»y' 
B» 'an h xu' nDi[n] 'a yiDC' lax . . . c* nxjn no b'^ fnxij 
1:2' na'x ns i>a ^jx [p]n ^a-j'ii ^x ''Jao n^ayni? [nnj'i'y pin iJo[a]^ 

nnl'XB' iK'pa'' ncx [oipjo nt'xo onojo n[v]n db' . . . 

pax nann tx pi^n: noa jtrn ^a^ nnx b nnawn n^nn [dJb'd 10 
'anao n'i' ixa na^x nnxD nvxn nn^ xuni d^piot ipin ijy 

^ See above, p. 75, note i. 

'^ 'jpVT is a cheque assigning payment of money (see B. kamma 104'' top). 
Worman (/. Q. R., XIX, 727, note 2) malies of tliis expression an ' image' ! 

' ' Wlien this pamphlet, enclosed in an epistle, will reach you where you 
reside' (mnn). 

* Read perhaps [pin]n iniX. ^ 2 Sam. 20. .i, « Cp. i Sam. 12. 3. 

1 26 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

nyntw ^n trmi\ 'as na'B'' narw 'a -i^* -^ yiv [Dn']i5V nD[vi] 

mm Dn^by ie'shv nnns ''3 ^ravi db'imd pyn ^p« pn [n]a'B^ 

iDipca u'ciniii pjn •'1^5^ c'n xa^i 'ni'NB' Nian in* »di nno ip^ 

'D''vn<a-n d'ss D''sni3 D[''K'ij]n dx ■'a nsn i^n '^ D'Jiu'xin ncyoa 15 

in"' h\x\ btJ'.-ii nyi nniy-iij ub D'-yn on^ Toy» ib ixsn nc'Ni 

mitsni inyiB^a •'a^ iij' Tinoa nona ''ixi •'''i''iK nyn "vi ■'jxs 

N»n nawn nnaipo ni[']ni' [ni)'i)n] onyj' na'N nyrni onnnD ntrs 

nani> nyna na ni'icn nya [lanja nc'N nvDini nniitrj anxa riNtn 

or B*' pn ts*'! pT B" [njiiaa nianni' nxt iia hnyna '•an nn^ 20 

[b] ia iBiU' 
"'ii'nj'' •'Nniai Dnn[3n] j[i]i'pa [canjNsnDni D[n]npB'a D''!'i'nn»n 

[iE>]VD 1533 

'n[a]B' nap* vb 'a nviu nnia •jk[i] nn'moai Dn"na onoy 

D . . . . [njcyn: "lai Da'i'N "'■'Kn i3[an] "'a[n3]D isa 'a lanana in* 
D31 Dnann . . . rh niinpai Dni^ji^a . . . [DjniNnp^ Tibi' DTTiDnii 
. . . ni) ' D[ni3]i3 K-Din sin 'a B'pai [ie'nJi nniN nSOT niaa ymni) 25 
[n]tn na[nn ^jjy ['a] naia i:dd li'y px . . . jin Dnipnv -sypaa ^ao 
^a i'y trnai' i^a^ ibi [n]nibi33 a'-mnb wpa' nst ijai DnTinjs n'cin[''] 
' [i]B" ''N "li) \T\'i niv nDna *3xi dhixjit yrr^rb nsr b Dnintrn aB^vn 
[I'Jnn nvo ^v:nb nsr ^a nniyc' nea 'd'' ns -I'ayn^ TiSa' li? naita traj 
D'pT Diciai'Dai D'^iyo 'j'»a min ^b" nam wsd nIjc nnain dv»i 30 
[ijaa "3 nvni> nys "m i^'i? Kij**" ^5)i niriB'i' a^oi ni'aa naa ax o 
[oi'Jpno 'rN Dixnnn p 'jn rm nrth inyjn [n]^ dni *aiDi nc's 
•■Nnia nN[3]n ^k dk '•a noii 'B'bj px nioaa vh anra xiii fjoaa ^ 

• Cp. a Sam. 23. 8 and M. Katon \(f'. 

' Solomon alludes here to the Bene Batyra who vacated their position for 
Hillel the Babylonian. 

^ ' Treading arrows ' (really bows that discharge arrows), i. e. slanderers. 

* Cp. Zach. II. 15. 6 Cp. Ps. 50. 20. 

^ The donations for the school used to be called D'tyOin ' fifths '. According to 
an institution of Usha, no Jew was allowed to spend more than one-fifth of his 
fortune on charity (Ket. 50"). For the same expression, see J. Q.R., XIX, 106, 
L 22; N. S., VIII, 347, I. 3, XI, p. 452, note 17. 

' = W-W' ^^i'^<. « cp. Abot 6. 4. 

Appendix B {conchided, to Chapter III) 127 

40. [Vol. I, pp. 116-7.] 

[T.-S. 20. 181, paper, square hand, size 46x18 cm.; cp. /.Q.J?., 
XIX, 726, XII, where the Arabic address is given; Ephraim's Arabic 
name is Abii-KatTr,] 


onax -iiD pj3 ^3s n3''K''' nisuDi winii imnx ba 

123^ i^aa Djrn nn'tJ-a noiyn mm n^na mnjoa nann 

mivi "nyv pa^i "it nx pirv niv -niND bai wa: ijaai 

inana n-vyi •laii'B' na^i 'niy •'D* ^a ntv3 ^T1 •nvD''i 

i[-id]b«i MO'yjn^ u^j mixn )'? fn'i 'loty nx a^t2"i "iDDsa s 

[iij; "a]naD H'Ijn* imp 'navin nn»B' na "iDipi laatra 

l[3i ^i]njn )iB'i)3 DHD [nnjsn n'jjia^ 'c'k B'Tipn t^d 

n^jprn ^i)^5 lana '•a n'i5x ■'sia nnx nbon runno niv 

lyba ixiaa wna^i inNo'' nnoisi d'^xic D'ais'nn 

Dn'33 nx a''B'ni' ab 'a »n'xni nyn pxa |xva inxcj 'a 10 

[muo] nnncin n-yn mm nis' cja -laoa 'ib'-apm 

'K'ly ija nvai? nprnnji prn nDx''i ixia>i nyvi D''sns 

cpa^ an ny laox'i Dis ixnp''i Dnix onnn^i v{^'^ 

xiani -mvan 'pa "nnn *^ixi vja^ 'isnn ityyi " •'^e nx 

[nxt n]:ni2Di 'msj" Tna 'a^in i»a i>'vn "-n-inxn Dn*i;x 15 

"Vtcvb nan [itr^'a ti^jx nnxn cnao hb'^b' ^nn^B' 

nty bti 'n' pan onax an no nt^n nx a'trn^ 13 aman b b 

ica 'a pnv •'ax dxi 'nhjo v^jx 'iK'ni lanaa ^5? nvipa 

ijax b^ii pa nop ra mxa pn^jro px imoa vnx 

niaa by ijniDi prifijEr ^Jia^ya "jx d[xi n]jxnn p''nnn^ 20 

[n]5?Dx i6 "'nntaa u ijxi navi xn' ni^itrj dWd E''' 

[Vjninii bnpn b ''jrxa nixnpn!' Dinnn inxin {ri^jni 

[nnitra xi? ']a eii^x 0^2 nmani nan oi^a dxidh nnix 

D'anao ''jen nxo ny •■^y np'' o iixi* '•ibi n?n nann n\n3 

'aaij b]i Dnn onan li'ic una nya •'a ''nvnp nr •':d5' 25 

ns'a' x^ ncixi awxi nanxn niatx aw oanaxi 

[i]a^ nit:p htje' xin dxi D'anix yb&rb) nuna nianb 

' =DNni5X. 

'' Arabic. Cp. Responsen der Geonim, ed. Harkavy, ro. 377 (p. 187), and also 
Maiinonides in his letters to Lunel and to Samuel ibn Tibbon (Kobes, II, 44'', 27°'. 
' Supply iniX. ^ - nnW ' win go down ', i. e. have effect. 

* Read DDa. ' 'The cursing', i.e. the ban proclaimed under curses, 

' ' As a choice ' ?, i. c. specially penned for hiin. 

1 28 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

xb nn^iT T3tn^ n^e' li? iTn pn »3B'ri laann^ nxi 
[n^'] nsrn nait^on nnNT T'N Dn>^y [ijuynh v~o. xh aioa 30 
D[B']ai •innp'' -ib'[xi] 'innaD [njcx nara nij ^53 ns N'sin^ 
n[D h]2'A u njiirin ni^nb laa mp nan s^ by -iniK-ip 
nx p3* D\pDn mwH ns rh\h\>'o. nanxni nwyi' 
TIE' riNi masa panai n'pb b[iya]i' aiB>[''i] nnabn 
n'':e'ni TinnNji nmas ja bmiv ^b nnsn nnax 35 
Divri UB'np DiJDE'i ji'^DaN na inan Snidb' •ii' 
ba mi'E'i nDibci i'KiK' bai anis bb di/C nthi 
ncsa. ima ^ -icix nNobi nan' isnji pop br\pn 
'a fiN DVinn pa inxanai Diijcn nsmia n^cy 
''Di^j' apyi nvan nisD Ti< ^55? psD'' nipan jai) ax 40 
"■ana ^av na'tJ"' cnt in hd^b' 

41. [Vol. I, pp. ii7-r8.] 
[T.-S. 10 J 12", paper, square hand.] 


tra'' . . . uwb .... a man nx ra[n]i) 

[oya] a[n]6 'a ''2K nonoai iD[vya njma »ni si'i bsy '^[ix] 
inyna x[bj nonn nnann lam i[a D^jnnm nbun pxj . . . 
b»[-\] -\v>-^ nt^-xa la'xbi bh'rb ib . . . x inis n^n xb o 
DT'arn[ij] inpna nxi dxi . . i6 ^Linjx nv-13 [o] nnbit lotn^ 5 

D''a[n]a nixipb inojo nn'm nbx dji idx^ li) .Tn 

p c\n lb nwyb nbia'' c* ox bax ^[vajb Dvno bixiJ'bi 
pT'aj?[jD] pxi pnni[i3] pn[i] iT'asjnb ix nmnb nt nan by mn 

ni'n n&'xa xbx tjibxa mix , . na . . xb 

nycB'D bx no n^n^i fiibx oca my xnp'' xbi aic'' aiB* dw 10 

nmnb wnani lianix ib nxni "in'aynb nb^bn 'av nny^ 

nnti-b nnn abi fix ^n1X1 mn nnix ib in: o ixniab 

innix nniy pi inbirb \rv^ 'ib'x no cin^ans baa oyn nx 

inxa nr ['a] •D'-baoj cnan ono nnx baa c'' n»x'i ■'anixi 

CB'SDJ [nB'xa] mavn ^poy baa nnn ab nn mn nsp nii mn 35 

' ntJ'W commended ',' praised '. But read perhaps ntS^'X 'I wish thy strength to 
be firm ', i. e. I commend thee. Cp. the phrase "jna nC". 

2 'And the reward let be peace'. For the frequent phrase ap)^ in the Bible, see 
the Dictionaries. 

3 Supply xb. 

Appendix B {concluded, to Chapter III) 129 

nm 13 B" D5 cn>n33 di^Jiian [mji'tj' n^Jsrai tn[n]3i ocn 

13 pK nn ivp n[n]^i[ti di^]b> iodk'di [diJ^'b' xmh t-n nyi^ 

o» ^3)31 nsiDi ^cioi -iDiE> ^x ni^nnn^ n px dj pna p'j;^ na 

13331 [DVn] ''rV3 D3 "It^K Qnnt* Qi-|3n 13 tf* 73K 

i!'!'33 nB'[« N]in 'D '3 n3B'n niT'o b^ [nair] din b n^i d^vn 20 

'['IJI] INO 13y HE'D B^'Kni 13 ICWB' ^ 3^? '3t UUI HCD DN i3 13 

vjsi> B'p3^i ^N^ nnin^ onvpo !?n i^^n^n ^B'^? id Ssi? ^isn pi^i 

3nNnn^i 13m vjd^ iB'^h •inpis3 inina^i •invy3 mining 

13jn 'T^5 Qini 'Dn-i3 nriNi [cii]^ti'n nnx cimi;i [vn3n]h iDvi* 


nnyi pnpin ^ni nnhr vsn 3nv . . . nniD 25 


Nos. 4.3-4. Letters from Solomon b. Yehuda to Abraham b. 
Sahlan and Samuel (?) b. Abraham {al-Tahertif). 

42. [Vol. I, p. 118.] 

[T.-S. 13 J 16", paper, square writing, size 25-2 x i8-6 cm., very 

faded; c^. J.QR., XIX, 724, VI.] 

Address (verso) 

^CST min' n3 iVah^ D3niN no pi3 crninNn npi^ ij'ji ^•'^1 bin 
3n SIB''' [nnvjb 61 \^brm "13 » 'jni 'nn Dm3N 

cnry i'x 'n^ 


nini'sni « • nii:ni> nwB'''i -niipn^ ni3im •niiv!' ni3n3i 'nuin^ ah^ 
•nu'moi nunsD niit<n b ny *nmnij r\'hv.vo i>3i ''nnnnij 

•nnnj pvvi •ni33E'3 p3Di -nn^im nnni ''•ni3''-ip3 pani 'ni3« ''n33 
sinun Nin • pcjpi n:p3 [n]*D»n sin • nmn nn^o b 13 , •'Isdi 

Nin 'pDDnSNS 

' 1101^31 ^131 np3^? . . nn N^ii:n3 " • p»3nn3 3K'im " • pon 3N3 [3]ip:n 5 


' = n3-l3i5 13n3T. 2 Num. 12. 3. '=1\1^X. 

' Sc. n3'B». 6 =pa3,-|i Q3nn. 

« ' To adorn ' (Hiphil of nW). Cp. Exod. 15. 1.. 
' ' To mark out ' (see Jastrow, s. v. nin). 
' Evidently the same as nilXP ' to command '. 
' 'In relationship ', i. e. of respected family. 

'" I.e. Abraham b. Sahlan is the namesake of the Patriarch Abraham (see 
Gen. 17. 4-5). '"■ Cp. above, p. 126, note i. 

33«0.2 I 

1 3C3 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

xi'h'' 'pB'i ''3 , . . [in]i: py •/Ni'nD m no nion 't^yoii jtsoa 

. . . inl3D2 

bix jiiB i*!? Sde' j'va • [in]'i'vn!? inucn^ ins !'iDji' • imsi is*si' 

. . . \iish 
\-\i^r\ ' p-t)sn ]-\^'[n am] no nion Nin ^u" x^ inosi nih'' n^j ins 

^N Qrh nri 'a^nnn^ .... nna b-\i'<^ vax Dtro iok- 3dv pajn 

[-iij]o bo 
. . .'nbbv onnm * mnn onit^pi ' • niD3 D''pipn i[-i]b'ix'' • 31300 10 
'b ny 3ni' dices' ixs"ii 'myDo di^'sioi 'myjo n^oiijon 'msD 

c'Ko ^nT 
. . . n ne'K ion ^[n]3 nona . , . 03^0^3 d310 {yiini . , . 'he^ 
•niymoi myryro [ino Tiijyirno tj>D3n "ops'i 3^n m oyoa ion 


D>[npi] 'mijiojn b ^ xin ^n31 nni[''a] i6 . . . n[T]nyn 

fnB'^ti'[3] . . . [DJTiB'i . . . nnx . . . 0^3331 15 

pe'n[nD cnjinoi . . . (18) . . , [ni]nix -iniso ;nya-ix3i nsniy 

niv nrnoo nin3 ^t hv [n]h^i 
D'JB' D^i'331 Diamm a<i2:i:b [njonao ':^ loyi na'o p Pib iok' 


lb biNcb ^np^K nsio pnv* iob*! b"n lya na» p nnoB* no ]pib 20 

nio^K [n]3ijy nsry »3 'fioy "32 n3[n3] in'3 ie>3[N] oy my na'S by 

[nr iTn] 
Ninn nin3n n^ni 131003 Di3[ni3i] O'xrwno Nin '3 |yob d''3B' y3nN 

yni3 xbi nnno 3it;'i '3 now ivnx bx . . , . n3n nip'i nonvo nsbb 


' Evidently a Paitanic form for nB' ' God '. For ivb' read IJi^V 

2 The following forms are clearly Paitanic : pnx = (t33nO) N3nlS, p3D = 
N-I3D by3. 

= nit33 (cp. nino, Ps. 51. S, job 38. 36) ; let (my friends) become happy who are 
engraven in my inward part (' rein') and are bound up with my soul (ran3 = E'S33). 

' Cp. Jer. 17. I. 5 Cp. Ps. 72. 7. 

« Wadi'l Kura' in Arabia. Sherira and Hai corresponded with the local Jews, 
see /. Q. R., N. S., VII, 489. 

' 'Amman, the capital of the Balka province (Peraea), see Le Strange, Pjlcsliiir 
under the Moslems, 391-3. 

Appendix B {concluded, to Chapter III) 



' r^\ I nnnDi ^yoD | yob n-rr ] . . , di^m | . . . n^ dki aif ds 
jj mw I ^ann 'in hd^b* | di^jb; | an | mon eiov 61 | nnmv 

• (verso) 

. . . -\^n pan nnsN [am] -ia ^n nn^B'j tnan neon b ^i ^pi micN 

jw . . . i) DanaiD ana nnn 'jx nijn t^n D[n]n^ nm^JB' vanana 

nmo Tiv 
Tya xni . . , onix^ b onsnn^ ms n[T]rja inv:n nan!:n nun-^ 
nna p ^j)i . . . D'^vit' D'ainx^ d^jq noao . . . mia nivy t^Tipn 5 
N^i ''nn-iD ani "TibD ino ny ■•a "Tims •■nsy ^nl^ia' i^i ••'nma 

N^'i '^nn-iDn 
•njDp n^yn '•a •-Kiai "xvioa i^^n nvna "iNiai Tixs in^D nna: 

i'yn fiDi 
ni^yno ^yn nna^i '•a K:pn^ na^x i5a^ a-i n>ni na na's tDyon • n^iao 

r\Kh ^ip 
^y bbnn^ nnv:i' 'ini . . . nn'ob 'i^ynnn dud ^yn -ins''i onni?! 

D''a'iK IT 
Dnni ^y Dnon rh-o dni ''•nnnn •'jsa ^r"i ^Dnaa vjs i:nii" o 10 

n^ia' px nnai) 
in'i nona oysi nya nbbno voma ion nvi3 nona B'sjn nny ny 

i:oDi Dvp na dx 'a nnn['] niixna x^ nnini i'lax nyca nm 

nat rT'Hsn^ 
D*Dn nE5 ijaixi oniycr ns ha[x^] 1^ iB'sxt}' b mar nana^ irniax 

msD laiy 

' =x3iDh. = =T'ysn. 

' Jerusalem is styled pyi P]D (Zach. 12. 2). The Gaon continues that ijyi can 
be explained from nvyi 'vibrations' (different from Isa. 3. 19: certain garments ; 
cp. Jastrow, s. v. npyi). But the word can also be connected with ni'yinn D1J 
(cp. Isa. 51. 17, 22). According to the first explanation, we should translate 
'a threshold ofvibration'wherefrom a sounding noise comes forth (Dnn?! flXiv ?1p)- 
But the second one is 'a bowl of poisonous drink'. 

« See Ber. 6". 

" Plur. of 111 'generation'. Here used in the meaning of 'contemporaries, 
fellow-beings '- 

I 2 

132 The Period of Solomon ieti Yehuda 

••bpDa <3 51N D1X ''J33 [D'jmji] D''Nt5'b3 H^N* Qn3ii 'n''ncn ^3 

. . , 303 nwriD 
'D"i»y pi ''[n'x' 13 Dm3]3 a^jm xi'i' nionni' nSa* n'm tri'' ^oi 15 

ons' '3 pnasn ui . . . (18) . . . nsn p csjni mov nnicvi' x^i 


ini ia^ n3io [p''r]nni' . . . (22) . . . [i]'>om3 3ity' n^ 3itj) n^i 

.[3n] VK" Dii'B' 3PJJ1 jnan onax 

43. [Vol. I, pp. 1 1 8-9.] 

[T.-S. 13 J 13", paper, square writing, length 27 cm., left-hand side 

much torn; c^. J.Q.R., XIX, 725, IX.] 

Address (verso, top) 

.... [noj^if nnix nmsN -i . . . . 

n3S3[n] .... 


. . . . n ''X31D1 •ni3n3n 'snaoi 'n 

.... 5? tiusSt "isam Tiiotn ''S'[^»] . . . 

.... [^NioE' 'iiD pjjii b'b:3 3?"ii nNT3 n'^ n3"nn 'ni^en vow 

1^3 nb-irh nae' in* ^'bpD 3nN3 -iid''''1 'bsiDi siijyn 

VI nj? 'nin dc »do n^oyni'i •nan iok' Teyn^ 'nn 5 

i'3 Dm3]x -13 •i'Sirr' tj''' cmp3 •bi'inDi ^nJ3 •^''jii noB'''i e^ty^i 

[mXD N33 

.... vnxD ''•on[Dj;] ''Dm 'DnsD^ mi 'DmnN ipwi 'Dnna 
N^j D'3-i] DID • ni'nJ3 me'pi t^N iqb'-; n^asyn • n^nno nv ^3 B'Q33 

. . . [nii^Jn nnx n3n3 t^ n''i^ji • mmoD mv nxnu s^n '•a noiyb 

px "nnnu -i3nnn3 'nn^nM 3J'3a"i 'D''n cnip tj)3 10 

.... [-i]tJ>x3 iDajji) 3is3ni inii'5:> vde'^j ^irt/m ° o^no n^ jysD D33I5 
D'3D33 si^nn^ "•ivni' f^D 1^ mrh 'nsJi naiD pN3 i:n: o imp 

. . . B'N 

1 Cp. Sabb. 140". 2 See Pullin 7\ bottom. 

^ Moses, cp. Num. 16. 15. < See Ber. 5'. 

° Paitanic references to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. 

« Cp. Cant. 8.6, 7. ' = D'ln^S. 

» May He (God) satisfy (our) souls (JIITTIS see above, p. 85, note 6) by our 
being joined in friendship (i.e. may we meet soon as is our desire). 

' Fustat and Damietta (see above, p. 69, note i). 

'" It seems that the Gaon's friend met with some untoward event and had no 
witnesses to prove the justice of his claims. 

Appendix B {concluded, to Chapter III) 133 ''HN 5)11 • lyn |cn: K3n n^iya \>3!» • i:n nisni' njn d^ju'^ 

. . . D 
Dnnxi' nn^ n^i novva nn ijn'i ink*'' ncNa •nnnoD in' vvb xi'i is 

. , . DD 73 DnDic ncvni djionh o ijn'' nt^va dni ixe» nr.Dsa dn 

HB'j? N^ ^inra nwoa nc's ^m-^r\ t^'sn 'i'1^?1 nnoni) n'ani? mso 

. . . u 

catyoa VB'nv K'D[nj] ij^i'ni) 'vs pN3 inioa nrci iidn 

. . . DVD 

pn Dicnbi i>in!' ij^n n[3n3] x^j nK'N* nnpibn n< prnb i'yb 'oa 

. . . 'jna 
. . [xjDni? nnnai nnivciB* ''rjjn -iK'ii' on''3 niNonD nv^ncn nipbn 20 
. . naiia mcN n^i nnnnx mar nS DpT'I'n nyot:' ncx nvcnon dji 
. . [ns]D ias3 bs:nh ainai) icvva cnnyo ni:h n'n Msn o n:3 tdj 
, , imps biosb rTnn o • imin nts'sn nmni n^wni' Dnpaij vna 
. . r\ywr\ xbi nnbmn atani • nnipn naxni hjicd nn*Da isnaa fionni 
. . [njosn -wovh •'int nna"'B' bab' 'a moN tcx njoa nsa mo" 25 
. . . 'mNn nin'' ws nsid bj? ia ani iiv i'v T'^'cni'i djjd rrnnb 
. . . [jn]3 nniN yam inisa iJinua D''B' >nN nnxi • nn'-n^'nl' imn 
. . main naua^ nab mini ^ npb ■'•'i iru '•• noxb in pnvn i's dni auia 
DiJN NDn^ bx bax niNbDb nhai pN "iionDb nvnb ntJJ ns'x ba 'a 

. . . n *bab aiD xin o nxn^i pn' it^'xa nann bbir ib^'c ban nrs 3° 

1:1^ lats'in T;na he's fnxa nne'n n: bxi hn ab by lanb 

ao nton icrx B"xni bav bia'' o nann ^b nnb Mj*i<b "'a 

I w'j) niD 'nbab | i:[n]si'o cpab irbyi i ' ipbn nx trnn | bas* ' sbi 

I wv^ nona wm | u'o^fva cj^oxd 1 n^nj bxi umnb 1 i:b''aB'nb 

I nan' •yo'bm 
'iDibt:'a I n'ni anaoi 1 loibtr id^vv | iixjdi DmaNi | nanx ^r:oa 35 

*a nnK['] | vb' "xn pNJ | iranx anao | dv nxija p | pK-mo I'pa 

I Kin 

1 Cp. Ps. 55. 23 ; Deut. 8. 3. ' Cp. Job i. ai. ' = imbsb. 

* The following small lines are on the margin. 
» Cp. Hos. 5. 7. 

1 34 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

I i;pr mar h \ niaf ramn •^'q \ nii'nj noSn 1 vjs^ njici 3W 

D'3it3 I d'b'Vd[i] mina 


r . . . . i'B' iB'n insn onsN an io nw lainn mar nti'K nanni 
. . . latj'n*' a"'D^^ nc'sa lanabi inia ncsi' vi5t< ^nh^ canao 'a 
. . . nmsi p^iv bo i^''vnb wn v^v niDni? non v^n -[^mh Dunpo 

ci'i ikS^hd na omax io pia '-ainm inx^ pi p px^ di^b' an 
, . . [nnvD] 

, . . " [i^N'-iJis" 13 'ja ^'a^1N1 nj;a i'Nie' bi nann nnax ia ntJ'ao 'oh 5 

44. [Vol. I, p. 119.] 
[Oxford MS. Heb. c. 28, fol. 8, recto; cp. Bodl. 2878'.] 

Address (verso) 

imsj' imoB" nisnj mn:Da nann nmax am no pia win' -ip'i' 
an jJB" pv im: i^^no 'ana ''mvo imvri 


•mj)iE"n I'lvpi 'n[iai]Dn "ii^ci •niana[n iiivjvi •ninii'B'n mxB'D 

•nann Dmas ^iniD pia -ip'S) •ni^NE'Dn "ni^'di 'nin^vnn "ii'ni 

;iaji nan • naonb d^jqi pjjn aiui ai>n ana • naiv ^53^ nac* Tiat^cn 

nie-D ijsm • nay bo . . [dJipb''') nij^i ' • naxa ^sa i:jr • na:nD pjjD 

• nn' nyov • vninn 'JEn Nin • nav D''i?''ni xb'ji on^i • naa^i e]Ditr 5 

•na'na nanto -naio nptnna ainx ijs anan mp 'ny ini: in^d 
aitt'nn |prn n'' h^ nxhmn n'hi Tians nna naoix ncs "nanjn iiy 
pajni Dann n^ ani b pia {jn jij nnyo una sb* rxhv nio pa 
li'K bs pa anaji rxxio nv[s]n3i n^n nijapriJi v: omo una 
•DniB'VD nvn'' niaan ^^D oanaisi D[n]i[a njcxi' niijnpn ^n anaoi 10 
naab tirh fn'T •Din''DDNa nnix nisn 'Dnn^ ne'jjDa nana ni'ts'^i 
n^'n Na u nniD hdjdi •DnTiutj' D[iD]'wai 'DiTD' aioa nii'ai' 
P'Ni ' 1^)03 nt^Na fiDina ains^ naia pnno ^iria ncxo Dnm p 
aina^ i'NB'i • nsB'^ inon uwiji • nao'' vnipns vs • ii?s: iddi • h^i 
Ni?i • nayo yn i;n»j u • nva p^n^ • nu nbs nniD nvni' iv[n]ini' 15 
•xnian niTm li'nnni' 'narn^ vniNDn b ^jy -nan ncx b li* na'3 
pini) nxn -a ainsa nnaa n^ji 'v^rw^ nvnij '^anpi'i pinni" di^b' di^b' 

' See vol. I, p. 122, note i. 

2 Read IjnSJD irun^l, cp. Prov. 29. 17. 3 = Xj^ni NjnD. 

■* Cp. above, p. lao, note i. 5 Cp_ js^ y^ jg_ 

Appendix B {concluded, to Chapter III) 135 

iiapon h-y\ dhd hi^ fs inpi? -yovt. b lyti'n 1S1 niwn ^^ya n' 

nan Dpi n"'B' ano noN^ • naii^ni njxn li) n'Kcn Ti^a^ • r\\:,'^i nt^N 20 

nns i^K ■^ aina^ ni3:n '^nnxn ;ptn in'oan '3 norm -n^n ny 
NE«3 n nTV" •'i'lN* ' -w& 13 nnNn:i n ntyni) •h inj' nE^Na vnnB'D 
inoiiD uwnij ains^ •'ixm .Tno ^n nc n£3nDni> onsD ^jn inu 'k'jn 
iniij bi i''Dn pi vniDn di^b-i idi^ci i^d:' nioi ibya d^b" Dipon 

ns: nan' 
'« nnin'' una n3*B'\n isf^n *sn nD^ty 25 


D''5b' 3p5Ji njiB'Nna \ih^^ \ naiD nprnna una nu'c nsn ^jni 

45. [Vol. I, p. I2C.] 

An epistle to David b. Aaron. 

[T.-S. 18 J 4", square writing, end missing, width 17-2 cm.] 


•nnia pa mywi -nna 1^333 di^ej' 

nNc Dy nnsN nn!? ri'iao nniyno j;k"i 

• D''VDn ^3 •'ib'Di ° ' D'vapj NJ vn' • D''3iDNn h'2 

"\''\'\ am no np 33 •\'iy^'\\ micm \r\''^h 

CN paam nann n33jn iprn 'nunn^ lii nt 5 

;prn p noioni nDanni ruianni nvnn 

B'SJ noiK' noB" innx am no np aa np^n 

Dii'B' Nc 'vnav caj nnia innsn 'rn^on 

D'HoncD may unci u^yc^ nis ond ^ina 

' See Tos. Shebiit 8. ii, B. kamma 84', where the reading is D''tD3n Hin. 
^ MS. Adler 2804, fol 5, recto, very damaged, contains a small epistle, signed by 
"a[n]a apy t[lNJ naJ'tJ"* tJ'6{[n] in noi'E', from which the following lines 

are given here: nana ... (4) ... T\TK)V 'n ns* mrvriK' pD nWn nnyi (3) 
N'ti'ni ... (6) ... [i]nix inDB" nnsn ipin (5) bx ^nana .... nrn 
loainis ^31 ^N ino^p' inxj.n [j]n3n [aj^Nj (7) niD irainNi? yrx-D 01^)^ 

» Probably read nDX. *=mysn. 

' Above (p 54'! Solomon b. Meir Rosh Hasseder begins his letter to Abraham 
Hakkohen nnyn nE* in the same way. Perhaps he is also the author of the 
present epistle. He was therefore at that time in Palestine. But later on (see 
vol. I, p. 133 top) we find him in Egypt, where he joined the opponents of Ephraim 
b- Shemarya. 

136 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

riK n'cnn^ dj nnnnij id^in nw Ton 10 

nJV'i ycE" inaB' iiaoo xini iw'pf l^i^'^' 

Dunpno nian^n DipmnD niDijn ns 

nnsni ^h -nij?nn nv baa nanxm 

niDinon ana n^n pt 5'aa Tb^< D'anao 

ires: DB-n nnai na D''m{r i:"n ie'n 15 
^ai^n p nnNi ij''t'n dijd^ fna n^i D^na 
untnni loc [yoi? na mpion nj^jfi pk'dt bx 
aiD tiNj Manx TT'Nni m^'tf ^js Di^b' 
TiB'B'i T'i'v D'san lunaDO Tmh ai? 
HE'yD pxi ntn ~iana "insbyi "nnoci 20 
ana ann lo^a i'i5« ^nanai nnw iioa 
npns i2vnx ^jk xa nrn jjuB'ai y*j' •'i'lN 
niNDi) naiD ^b pnn» Nini se' dtod p 
niaiDH T'ar[''] nt^Ki ids? T\'>m na'x by 
Nbon ^^D^a nnsi n:nai nana ib eipv 25 
"Diiai aiDH iMJoa ids? Jin:ni b^<t^'D^ 
[n]iaiD natb [nnsjn n^js ^JB'b njia^n 
CK uanab i:B>ni 

T.-S. 20. 178 also contains a letter from Solomon b. Yehuda to (1. i) 
David np\ni naasn jptn )''ai:n boccn (1. 4) b. Aaron, dealing with a case 
of property in Egypt left as an inheritance for three brothers residing in 

Nos. 46-58, Letters from Solomon b. Yehuda to several 


46. [Vol. I, p. 1 2 O.J 

[T.-S. 13 J 23", paper, square hand, 28-1 x 20-4 cm.J 


[aiDj <nN bv. 'ab ia Tiynu mv ■'Dma •>:« 

['oa] I'nyaB'n ains nnvi nnain apy yab , . . nam ^abno nx 
nns nyB''':3 on nnBTi Nb[B'] cnpn [t:']np[Dn] nua "'cu:' ns pcf 

. . . N1 

['3 D]3a: 

' = ^^D11^1 ' and like tliy custom '. Cp. also above, p. 135, 1. 23. 
=* Read 1DB'. 

Appendix B {concluded, to Chapter III) 137 

nosnn n3 cinann ■^yo pai [nB'n v]p33 r\\s\-h axrn pa tu 'nyatj' m 5 
>b\ anns niDipon [ni)]v[ni n]n nnb i^dv' nniDs thd cmoxb 

latyn' nnsD an . . . yo . . . disoi ' nnxj vn-' 'a py iD''i'j;n ib'n 

•'T'D^n 'SB' '3 nyni' n^i qi^b'dd ddx c^tyiDn nm ^a lyn^i nu' nifx 

'-\ n?Bn 1D3 DHD -iDio jinp^ DN '3 D^jiB'iS-i nan ^h una: n^i 10 

njpn ja n'':^™ 
vnun li^a-a' n!jb'i vnan in»B'''i naisn nana ^ca* n^c ^^ano nMt? 

Nin DJ noE'[n] 
ai^isn Dm ih • noa nnt< h\i nns nana naijn nana na dni * ana 

Toiri nxn 
QB' ijfinn' ^Ni U'ai' ira imain^i vi^y nioa^ nxn varvo nan nx an 


noNi? Sni»i) niDa dj loy {stj'ai DV.n n^B'ai |0'd nt pica fen i:n3i 

ini'[oB']a inoa 
'naiBTi rm ['^?]nn nJ'n njdb' ncsn iiNi naicn nB'y ncb' ni'ib 15 

D'oan 'i?iii 
nB'y d>:b'B' nan [l]i^pa nnx naan^ i'Ni nta nr niaa vinh pa^n 

ros pa n^n[j] naj]j:[a] mo ^\y\ t<a'pv ni) 1^ vn an n'oiri 

^jao nnvv^ 

n'nn yno »ji'D[r] nan? •'jkb* loai 'nia nr niaa I'jnu vn npc 

[^]n pa na<N 

' ' Will be cursed ' (cp. Mai. 3. 9). 2 = D'Oan. 

* This seems to be a paraphrase of the statement in Derekh Eres Zuta, 9, 

nioi? [SID npi^HD p^jiai pjn na oni nnN n»va nnnn n"n 'a. SeeaUo 
Ta'an. 8» pNjpno na^jna nr^ nr in» pNi nnx n^ya pacvc D'oan n^D^n •'JB' 
mix pijyoi fiNa. Cp. Rashi, in^^v pnudi niK d*^j)di ^iNa nnano D'sspno. 

IJ' seems to be a noun similar to nUD ' terror '. 

* Ber. 28". » Hos. 4. 5. 

« Cp. M. Kat. if, Thvs\ 'vo N'Dmsa mix \''^:i^o px nnotJ' cian n^oi^n 
nii'b inoa rh'h loSJ nuj dj ^cai Dvn ; Ber. 19% on 5;nj)idb''> 'i un Njn 
'131 n''Nn. 

' = n'oiril. * Yeb. 6a^ 

138 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

''3m n'3"n mcN" noann pnn n« [Jri' prnv p ^y *3 ivt s^n in 

[nDtj>] nvni'i loipo nx [nisjni' " in ^n nnvi ' m^tJ' n^nuTia bi 20 

li'^yr not ipiina 

. . . N '^3 . . . pi?* . . . [x]i>n iK'ts* D'ots'i' ni'v'' dni i^"ui mix: 1^ 

"iB'x b aiT3J''[i] 

pnv icni D'wi . . . vp n . . . [D]'>oi'Nn [•'Jne'Ni n^ts'nnn na'Ki li? 

i'[ax] nicfy ^aix no [ijajx D3['ra mi'jB'n ^nii in' ''di ' Dii'tJ' an ^v 

DN1 inN[''!i]'a ne'jjn ncx nnva ■'ja Dy n^w ityxa aia nb '':« 
mis [onx] ':a int i^jn inioa mx [^b'] inii'iyB' li' ''Int la opn aiE" 25 

nianni [onjinam nn'aon p n':n ib's h^ Sjasno nan msnD 

nr pN noN' 'a onacj nniab vm D''Dm[»]i o'^in D'xnn vn ■hif. 

rairiD iniN onixna ^[n"] niT'vnn nnvn ano dx ia p nny D'JK'a 

lani nn^^xn xi' p ■'3^ • npia iy anyo iipn^i ci-iti • npai> 1^ ^ nnx 
mN^ pN pajji Dan nns iix nonai 3[n Tijana ne'sai nn nn^y n^ 30 

^■"•n pK mx 13 i[N]B'Da nnxi inx b [ntJ'Jy \xii'n onnN nns 

•■oi pnxa 
inanxi? niaaSn ns ho'' ucnp miv ' 'nNono mnno ni) •'ir'at noN' 

P^[nn]Di' nna N''VDn ^ni inan nx laaiji bn a^ ^y nan^ -^ mk-ii 

niaan ^^D bni? 
b Di^ci io[n]n Di^ci iDii'B'i °^B'^Ja ninvnsa y['']at5"i lion im' 

nv3 nai' n^np 

' Prov. 3. 17. The Book of Proverbs is called n03n already in Yer. Makk. 
31", bottom, '131 Nmn nD3ni' li'NB', referring to Prov. 13. 21. 

^ = n3n T'O^n. » Ps. 37. n. For piX read pnS. 

< Eccles. 7. 20 ; Prov. 20. 9. "> Read ItTSJ, cp. Isa. 58. 11. 

Appendix B (concluded, to Chapter III) 139 

47. [Vol. I, pp. 120-2.J 

[T.-S. 18 J i^', paper, square writing, beginning and end missing.] 


[dJt" nt^vM nrh r\Tb • m» r\:a nhi: nt 

Ticm •v'cin^ nam ^lanni r^ba b^ o ynini' 

. . . *iNi p ^3 'v'wn^ DlsC**] nmiQ nynsn 'vnani? inix injcia 
. . . nn^b iJiB'i' • nmnij nnn^ »ini * y-^ynb inya vcyoa b^ • yia^ 
□'DDic D\n^N c^ ^K ^ • I'nia pnsb na c^ ■'3 ynv • oma n px • nv s 

'jai'i •un3iE''»3 nicDn •mun!' mpn -ib^x •\:b ncpin nsD ny 

•ninn laasB' -iri^x 
Ni3ni 'W nffi'vni nj ny'tyini •«: nm nj ba k3n -losi) •mws e'en 

npJ^? Tija^ 
DW3 D'onj • D''d^n: in' vrc^JDY • Qiomi' in .... [' i'dn] 
'3 • nyiDt:' «n ny * • oiai'D ^^^ n^ • n'^ais D''ip» wni • D'oi'aj 

•nyicn nntyw 
n' i'y Tiiji^inD ni3in ■'3 djdni 'njciT ••b'jk D^ni; d'k':x n* ^y 10 

pnv >Bnn 
nu^ D''D 'j^a 'iD^iya n3t nbvm 'k& Tian' ^iriijNi Ti^^onD 

•1T3 D'3i>D 

•n'VJncn lujn 3b \n: nons sin ^-nnsi) do* pan' -\^ii b i5N 

•nsib ni3l'r3[3] 
npin iDiB-^ -pD N^Ji v'n bv nD3 n^j Tinyn nos nnix ^jy mpn^ 

• 10003 

• npn3 icma 'n^i • nipcii n3nn njB" • iipn'' ab 3dnt 'hN nos 'a 

nyn n3T ijy 

nay npc • noxa nyn npc' ny njni • n3T nino fjnn'i • i-ipB'3 n^yon 15 


u'onx ^N -i3nn nx x'3n^ ion"! ' n'wn^ Dyt3 fiyra in-ivvi • noN03 

lyij 'H' li'on 

nnyn o pa: bti yT" n^t<n onatn nx ivb ^n' i^on irjHN yioK-si 

nbrina nptj' 

' fiy is used by Kalir and others in the meaning of ' praise ', ' prayer ' 
(cp. CBMlpDI Q'S''"iyO). Here the righteous is rewarded by praising (praying 
to) God. 2 ps. 58. 12. » Cp. Ps. 79. II. 

^ Cp. I Sam. 4. 13. ' = UM^JXI. » Cp. Prov. 21. i. 

' ' To separate him ' (^formed from "VV), i. e. to imprison him. 

140 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

b'h V11J1 ' a''C5'nn nionin nnsh * D'B'sn d'sisi rh^\i ly^ in' ncNM 

* I'Dtyi n'B'iyi pim* nni5is; ^31 " • i^ojt'I mvc inds pnvai • txdt pN 

Vjna inii 
-IDK31 'ijyiin nwiii 2iDn an hr;!?-i\ •wyocni i3"t:n 'ir^K nnn 20 

•n^nni oipn in«^Di •n^n'' D^iy^ n^on i3»:nj< 'j ^^Nin nvnb oai' 
•^^Dn 2-1 pon dji .inax^D •'K'lpa noNni pivn iniixn b 'a • wvnm 

ny^ Iff 
•n^on iwns ni^iin niasnh •n'bson T'3;n ff^vniji •iniai'D xtyj^ 

'D''ij v-sh -rh 

DnnoDa ijidodi 
njnm npy nx*i nats'a 'm Snpa dt ^ipa ni'^ann ^nni ^-nb^ li" 

^npni n!?Dn 

inicj? iv 'P'^v '■'''^3^31 ci\ni'K ipn tjj ^jk ains: p 1021 "Idn D^Jisf 

piB>i? syiK Dj) non 

i:-iB'i m^aj uanu p id31 • pirn ddih c'in b niiNn jn: Nisi • j'lvni 

•nw vh\ HNjii •HNT' nsJiB" ii^jn Tn t<:3Ti nj-id ntJ-np ni23 'nxan 

pnyi 31 in 
tlDv 3nDi nnyo moi n^K' no D'aipjn oiiaajn d'awnn n'spti'i 30 
n3iD3 clnB'^5^ S-nncxn ^v. D'yi^n W-w'' ano p ^n moB" 
bi) pi • 12^1 hr matj' • nana nnrnin DnsiDni nntyn bi) p loai 

•DUitrnn Qijptn 

• D'aciDD loptr s'5'1 in: n^) on d) qh ne'N • D^aipin niN^an ^nB* 'jpr 

nB'x ijf 

' 'Those that have become deaf, i. c prisoners immured in their cells and 
unable to hear what is going on outside. 

''■ Cp. Prov. 29. 4 ; 20. 28. ' Cp. Isa. 45. 1, 3. 

" ' Our leader', cp./. Q. R., N. S., IX, 158, note 141. 

See also A. B. 57, 1. 10 niriNDT ^N DUipjn Qijprn {jji^i, p'- ^'^j) 

* noblemen ', ' grandees \ In both instances the correct reading should be THSOT. 
The Bagdad Gaon Samuel Hallevi b. 'AH is also called Ibn al-Dastur {see Pozn., 
Babyt. Geon., 15 ff.). 

Appendix B (concluded, to Chapter III) 141 

' ' niVD n^w nnvij non N^i^an ncN " ina • nunan 3B'V x^Srsn 


I'nxa tj'^K niai yiio iJNnii nnx hv>. ^r\ \hxh ins ax i6r\ noxi' 35 

' niax n'li ij^jni? 
T^yn E'^x bN3 nE's ni? MrniK'aj D'B'paon •'u'ia''ix O'lan nxr^ wn 

nno riN Dnaxi nnax dn rxm^a • ijinn ' nob' nnanl? • lynnb vthn 

Dipa Dnx ij^ "'•'T 

"•aB'n iDix pNi 

na^ij irni^N nN-i>a • }*»s"nnh ptnnnh irNnnh • nannnij mian 40 

niaivin nr\sh 
iiDNn laT ^lax •<rb3b • ^xie" nyn nno^i ' nDi» nnux nnnh yty-i 

'DBB'Da p"'J)i'1 

inoN ^JN [ijnn Nismh « 

48. [Vol. I, pp. 122-3.] 

[T.-S. 16. 275, paper, square writing, size 30 x18 cm.; cp./.Q.J?., 

XIX, 726, XI, where the Arabic address is given: Abr. b. Sahlan is 

known as Ibn ]oL^, and lives in Fustat.] 


« pnoy' nrr^bti nm manai p . . . v ^s: i'ti nx nioi^a' 

nn[n]a^ ab) p^jny vni^xcD bai pnnxv T^i^n vmn^sni 

noni 'T'vn pis i^a -nann omas* ini in np ij aa xin 

• ns) ini3 jx^D ia • naij) bij ' -laoa D^jai • i^^n 

ainan ^v "rniajJi vninma n[» anaja ninnnn VHrnc lyan 5 

ns''Xi jjainn nrani n[y-in»]n n[»i]ynni p'^y nnnni pa 

anao •'ba rjn itj-x m''[n] |o *a ir^^ ii^ji pnnn np'mi fXDn 

' Cp. Ps. 31. 22. 2 Mai. ■... 10. ' Read 1DE>. 

' Cp. Isa. 9. 18-20, II. '^ Isa. 42. 22. 

» Cp. Jer. 4. 4 ; Hos. 6. x. ' Cp. Isa. 58. 6. 

* From n'DV 'associate'- Here ' many blessings should be added to them'. 
' Isa. 41. a is referred in the Aggada (see Sabb. 156"" top, Sanh. 108'' bottom) to 
the Patriarch Abraham the namesake of our Abraham b. Sahlan. 

142 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

swi '\y\'ox\ nn3?Di nanao Nn nnx nonn D^amrn nTaxn '33 

. . {)» nna nrynij nonn D''3[i]nrn nnpb >n''vnriJi W \rviav nb 

on^^y ['nnjoc n^i D^nnp^ ^[^5] my u ijn nc'x ncpn nyn 10 

•iD p ['SB'] nm3x 3T no ''T ^5? [D]n3S3 n'i' y^jn '-n 3n3 njni 

[nnN n]3i3» 'nnv nsn "ns [i]'^x m»[iNi] oy . ^n p ynwn pny m 

[pyTDH] n^nn n^Nn ntJ'Dn kj vni nnyi n^ n3DD2 mnN mm ms3 

•':3^ 133 Dy n:K'>3Ni rhv^ 'Js* '•3 . . . . !? nTi'S'y iT'^t: h e" njni 

n^NH nmnr ie'sj nvs nn[b]''p n33 13 [i]»b'3 3n3i T'T' ^y Dn3»^ 15 

ny n^N Q'i3inr ncy nycTin d^b'[n] he's ny ini''inx3 nni 

i'c' Tiicn ^N 3n3n Nin 3n3i 

i* im ^v 3-1 -ID 3n3 p i»3i inan n[na'y nu djJb''' -ib'N3 
[^]i^'n DipD3 nm "'i'VN niE^ ijj'k Dijiyn ^3 <3 '^sm D^ynv on '•3 
ni«3 nnjK mm d3'i'N omnnjx lyjn o n3iD Ti^m oari 20 
nE'x ynnij r™'^ p^o onix y3in D3ni3n BJ^Kn •'3 n nnx ir 
[3i]e'ni did ny '^ nn''i rnxDi) ny nsnn ■'i'y nB'p''[i nyujn my li) px 
n^NB'Ni ly^jn vh ''hs «mDN ''3 nsi ns n3[s]6<i b'^cni n:^! 
n:m lyjn ''3 Ti'ipi Dnnbe^D onpn!? tsh onnj Ti-x d'-b'jn^ 
1:3 nxo D'nti' nnjxi imjs* nyjn n3D3 mtj'y nr nvn 25 
•hr\ mTDi nynn Piimo m^n^ mno s'B'ni' tiik o^vmo , 
m naxi nn: ne'N nsnci nDptJ' la's* npii'nD -i^yn in^3i'i 
•'33 N33 "ixDn iDn3 HDi 'h 'IX 't5'a3 1D3 nn3xi n3Nxi m ^y 
naix '3x n3n 'nx nnyi •ni;xn niynn '31x3 nnvD |yis ijx 
nx D^ca '3X '3 Dim ''3"n'' dx 'xnu mry3 •'3 i^y nynr 30 
nsm xb »3i n3nnxn nmns ny D'o^a'n'iT ^x rh^r\ D'3mTn 


Verso, besides the address in Arabic, contains also the following lines : 

in 33n^x p «i[ni]B>!'x . . . p ^x 

i5>^n D''3intn x'vve' nnyo p noise' •ii' rw^ fn'' 
p ncD ■'B'-iv^ iIjvx »»''»' no bso 

49. [Vol. I, pp. 124-6.] 

[MS. Adler 2804, fol. 8, torn across the whole length.] 


1- ... 1 n3in Ti)y nnoixi 

[ni']D-i3 'n'OT nv3yn nD3i ui? ^jy n^y 

[n]3nDn »3x nvnl' .... irn '3 

flD' xl) nixsn "'DB' ni3yni . . . 

. . [cxnpn iivx] dvi D''33-in bxx n3n av nvni' ibxt?i 5 

Appendix B {concluded, to Chapter III) 143 

iyt)ry\ fiixj ids D''^i'33 nisan inB» 

["iJa'K Nin '3K1 DH'^N invoB'[i] . . . 

nb i[:]^ niv^i yoE''' ii^an ^i5|^ rum mr\ 

[is]viJi iDixn P1DISI ntfyj -ib'k ymn^ 

'3 Tiana n^ji TT^f "Jf* Q^<i tiI'kb' n^j 10 

. . . [omn n]x •n\'zh tid3 E»Ni5 iixn nos^i -rarn^ 
.... [iJB'N lai? nr nbona nxjn pKi lisiy nusni 

i'V *3 nae'nD N<n »3 rusno <t;'a3 iniosi 

[P"i] . . . [ni]'n!' isnpn hv. nnsoa Tinnn n^ji nniB'SJ 

n lan" pa "3 TiyT' xi) di^jot pirn^j 15 

n "3 onianam nnoiN nann n^tj'iN 

DiTra Di7B'n nvn? n'na nn' ub'" vb* 

niaiD ''3 nna iiy nai nE'inn o'vy^i 

.... bi inD'wa n f<i^ Dn''3nn p inx ija ''3 

. . . [n]rn nmn n^n* vnn* TaB"i isdn'-* dxi va bv 20 

, ''n3n3 

. . . [i]nN. P3 n\T -\T\r\ p ds nr noN nr ij''3 nu-N 

. . [njifx DB'n 131 vbx 'ansD Nuai tinip i[3]n303i 

. . . . N 133" ntj'NS p b ijrTi iNnn 13 T'yn sna 

. . . mis niM^ Dn"i?x 3inD3n "3 pix pi? . . . dj^x 

B* "D oSivn ni3N3 i3"VD K^J [iiyi] nnan 25 

\ [piKa] lean cpivDi nhtn-y^. iT'oiri N[na]p n[3 n]Ds 

. . [iiB'i'i' ijotr nx "n3an •':[n] . . , [□'•Jpivron 
. . ^L^]nD uiy ptj-b iB'iT'a [ni]B"D "3 . . . ^a^\^-^ 
. . . . Dii'B' cpaoni nma b*" no -\yh djjd nihi 
.... "3 it5'333 airnn ^jn "sins xa yoB'i man si) 30 
. xh^i h "3 i'xi' "ilja hvrar vho ^jivt bi Tuxn bs 
[Dj;a] . . . nun nis "onia "jx •'3 D^iapx \^ npii'nD n* isy 

. ipo Dii'B' ni i)]? p3 [iJnn^iB^ Dx[i] xijDS Dva nonn 
. . . ' Dx fnj'" ic' psn nnax xo3"i np^n p'nn mnx 
.[crninr] "iw nyacn D'oijE^iTn anio li? yna" ''3 in^oan 35 
. [ni2i]a "3 »jxi nnix . . . xi?i ■hs i[n"]3 ary in'nx nani 
. . . . ^ ntyx ypviiT nuy nrn 3in3n nvp» ^1303 



' Cp. Ketubdt 104". 

' Probably there is here a reference to Sahl, the father of Abu Sa'ad and 
Abu Nasr, whose Hebrew name was Yashar. See vol. I, 122, note i. 


The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 


ff 10K ''"'1^3 

. nrn nana oynini nn^^s xj aina li? 
anaoa vi'x na'tJ'inS' mar xjan dnd -itfN 
N^JN iriND nt'x ''jpinni lan xa k!? 
. nxsD nE;'K . . . D^boa du^CpT 5 
[tnjan vb' Tn Njan np>n it^n dnd 
nn njn {'k mm ^oma nnix nnlj 
i'y ^yw©- nxan -janao naiisri mp 
01 T'^vo Dvn noi^n n'' 'imN''3 
-lE^K hm ^ya "'i'nui ip^n .Tn nr '•a Tiy 10 
nc-K inna niN^n [i]nis njNipni 
. n^a niji) n^ji niyi nis' tw a'^^i 
[ijnai ani? ncx nao omoNn niiy 
. M HE'-ijn B^'sni DnEyvi nxD 

^•z uia-ipa 0533 -ityx Nini ij^n 15 
tJ'i nnx anvDD xa it^s ^531 n^ijN 
i3 nnjjD p vb* nci'B' an nxD 

. N "ICN lev njJBTini T333n 

. 1 nNE'iT jjnsK Nn[ia]n mmi 
Wiai pxa rhtf. 3in ynsi' ''ns van 20 
. "iE'N3 nailsK i^n ib'n yjin 

nnjai D"'i?3 
. . 113051 T\ya:) vt<^r\\ ncsni 

. T-a psi a^* ■'a 1^ nam ntj'Kai 
. n hv. -|i)ni d^u ''xans npiji 
. . [nJafN nnipi mi'vjnn ij?i 25 
. . ^ na'ND iniN naai n^ainr 
. rh^ omnr nisD ci'B'a pany 
. ^ wnn ism nsn iat^D icn 

[njiiii iniD •'js^ ijvn ispiB* iran 
m^iiK) nsfT mv nao p *5s^i 30 

h'^ D^B'T niiwa la'DNa vn na'K 
tfi D'ainr mcy na^ 11^5? myi 
. i^aN D^ainr ci'iyK'na d'-mn oy 

[{yjnipn nja iNr i?v Duinr hnd 

' Law officers '. Cp. Levy, s. v. ''31X , and also s. v. ^aijf. 


Appendix B {concluded, to Chapter III) 145 

...... [ni]3inn Vp^ n^Ni nijyun an n^s 35 

K xb ijK^ '^'hi -ins IS ^N T-ana 

nna ib'N3 inpa its' wm ^n 

npa nna: ndk- n . . . 1 dv . n . 1 

\p]n:h D'soxj dijj^ li? px n^ania 

'"b xi' ni'DT b^ imT niyN DVD 40 

hii t:i3 nann niv [mt5?]3 *nn-i3 

1 Dn''5)n bi n3[n] iix d''v . . . 

50. [Vol. I, pp. 128-30.J 

[T.-S. 12. 217, paper, Rabbinic square writing, 27 x 20 cm.] 


VTon ni55'a3 idib' imDtj« \i6r\o 3-11 no ' f)^Nn mn np'' pji 3n3 van 

bv 'moyi pj; in inu nsnn dm3x no pjH [3 iniDS vx^no T'DV 

' nrvn D'oti' DB'i' •'3 n3n3 n'l^n nnin xi? in3nK 13 djdxi u 3in3n i53 

3N'n i)5? D^oinan nw ^jc *n3n3 nr '':a^i invn '■d' b meiy x'n pi 


iprn ny3 131 ie'XI V3np bi 'iiinx on:''! 'b''' n^on oy S'xn i3n''3'' 5 

"VDi Ni) ^N^ 'lijj 'iinsi miDn rfn''! ^''^yo tidi n^ ^^5^ non xm 

ty's i»y TisrvK' vh '•jx onax xn-i n3nn iy3 nst ib'ni n3it33 ■•ao 
IB'' xi) n3n3 E'^sn 'db* 3in35' ^nb" sb' 3n im r\:h ono 's ^jn^ •'li'Ji 
Dvn p 'ia^ 13 ninsK) thsi ^b^ ^b 'niyin n!) ''3 vcyo yn nsn ^jiy3 

-i3n «S3nni inxD 
Ds *3 HB'yi K^ 13 vi'N 3n33 'SiNi DanitJ'D nsryj nnyi mna: niB'nn nrrin 10 
N^B" Tnx Dnoisn 13 nion nvn ovn inix 3inx *niN nxn li? nymx nvy3 
IB''' -itysh nioyi' nyi iiny^ ny n3 *3 pan i'si' ynui wnp on nnp^ 


mp^i ninsa n . . . » ninx ni3E'^ •'I? ni'"'i'n Tiisn^ dx nioy 

na'x DK1D 

D3tyD 13 ''3 itB' tyiCDH 3n3 N^ll? 131 

[nry nix] 'H' ■'in''prni irsn mp'' wkie'J ntj>y 15 

1 Read S]>|^xn. '^ Cp. Abot. 5. 17. ' = ijNIB". 

' >= 1J3inN. » Sc. non. ° Read nanni < and he stipulated'. 

' T.-S. 12. 734, right-hand side damaged, speaks of ilDTIB' HlSPn composed by 
Joseph the son of Hezekiah Nasi. The following is all I could read : X7I , , , (i) 

[n]i33 Ijsi) 'INI Nin '3 . , , (3) K'B'j p bv nnntrni m . . . (2) ... ni'sn 

22<a.3 K 

i46 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

1? . E* . 'jN'^K'n T** it5'S3 h-i jjnno 

[D*^n''D]i cipon cu ''Toni' ncix xh ■'jistI' 

[D]a D'l^n onnN pxi on^n'' Dn ^D^^? ijax nnnTa aijn Dnar ni^j;' 
[l]a s|DNj -|t^'N Di''D Nan ^b*]:: ' ixo nyi nxD^ Nuij rQ.-\^ rfhn cdc wi ' 

nn'iJB' mo n»N" W\ c^na nstn nsari luynij ^nhd i'NB'Dn ^{^[^jj 20 

nnN njca 
nab DB' DN "3 rw\ ■h •^^5B'3 n^ "n^nriN D^va ijn '•a ains^ 'n'- viTii 
[im i)!?] ain3N nsrsi D^ryn mai iinn nyoi inam nian ^b>31 ^'nn btii 
Dnann p 1031 niniiyo vn' D'oys nne'vo nnwn vn» D''D5Ja nio^Sn 
DC 1^5 nxB'Jts' D'^Ja Ds^D Nuni; naiv ijN nionn lijn dvc nynn in^Do 
. . . vni n . . . J . , . Ni ' •'3rNi ^^s< onDa diS'B' wa^cni) ^nb^dh hvt.r\i:> 25 
[nj? ']-ij? N3ni n[T3] . . . ^ njj pDsmDi5i amji) am pnnni) ■'n »3ni 
N . . . nv: naT nnyo Nsm m^tri nua nhm 

51. [Vol. I, pp. 1 30-1. J 

[MS. Adler 2804, fol. 3, square writing, size 27x17-6 cm. J 


• [iJB-Jnp [iJnoE''' [n]ann onsx *ai"iD pia iyni'i:Di mani wainN ^s 

[aiD]a n[vs] i''[a]''i nrya \ti lynt pN"! n* prn^i • uajB-D nv[3)i 

Di^ty [Diji'tr • pv inu nnoty an no p in^vd' nom [|n]i [Djjwjai 

nxIsiD Dj; vn'' ntJ'DD ba nianai 'inav boi max ^a[a 1^ n^jn* 

nnB'ya ''jpinn lainai jnn nns lanao j;^jn • ^n[e'd] b 5 

nis nnoB''' D'aiB'nn D^jprn hnd ihI'b'j [ntrjs D^aintn 

Djnsn DniN bpi nbpi i's^n p stj' i'ia an no n' h^ 

ana 1^ Tianai D"jyi' nsyx b b iit'j <3'n *jne' •'s^ [iJn'iD 

iw . . . (6) niaaa *a Dnm< onan ib'sj ... (5) D^ova ''a . . . (4) lij iE'j?nB' 
Danyn lybn ^jni nan ns ip^tn[n] ... (7) pta j'nN "jnnai noioa nj 
^Nncn ... (9) [r]o napiE* in nvrn an p eiov ^b* ncinB- [nia^n] ... (8) 
HN^ij? Njn n»a ;d nia n^avm . . . (10) nnan '.t n^db' id nnx mdv 
1^ E'''E' pisD b li* lo^B-i vanv ba . . . (12) ny ntn sidv^e' . . . (h) si.nn 
m . . ^c ni . , . (14) DriD ijjnjn ^5X1 pninnoai i^ivoa lu'von ^jni . . . (13) 
n^oai nnuE' pn nib*: pb 6 id^b^i . . . (15) «iDa ti'^n nxB*! iniaa lai? nTvrt 
oavDN^i . . . [niana] (17) oa^ ^^\yi> "na oao . . . i^j >in na niaa . . . (16) 

(|31Sp 'our commandments') fJIVO TW'h Wmi VmSDa. Perhaps the father of 
the author of ilD^riB' Jliab is identical with our Nasi Hezekiah. 

' Read niND nVI niNoi). 2 Cp. Ps. 39. 7. ■■• Ibid.. 39. 14. 

^ =N»ni NJnD. 

Appendix B (concluded, to Chapter III) 147 

^rhv" •'3 D'lpD iy*ni nuD^D im[3]D''^pi nnn'' ^ no 11 urui 10 
nvnn naa'a <Nii>n n^ninn naroji nison jna n^''jyn pao na 
njD 31 nas^n nin nmn na 'b''' px2 njpj 1^ ^^p^3 'a nxrn 

nniD iDE'i [aJTian c^sn Dis' ncs . . . v c^n n[3] ntn nyiD[ai] 

DK' Tips 1D3 1^ ,Tm [n]NlJ33 [■'i'v] [3 ' N3[-|] . . . 1B'[n] 15 

D['']isi:3 131003 nupn^ iiis[n] hm nI? . . . n B"Nn "3 . , . 

\h ^^v |3 Nil nrn B'^NH '3 ns'Di . . . pN . . . i^ dn ''3 rh^ ^ 

h '^T\\ i>nj poD li? np^ '•31 n . . . 3 . . . DN 13 nty 1^5 xv 

incvD yn n''3iDi' nin 01 ninB'[^]i ^i3N[i'] Dty 3B'<i ^hk'd px Ijn 

»3 riN-iJ nijvin njoo pN cjej' noa n3n[i] n3it3 nnn [n]yi i^jdj ''3 20 

jn3i hk DiatJ''' Cii:ptl5 n3iD pp'fno ux p *3 ^j; sjn 'nrn taynn ox 

van 3naDi n:v*i J'd'<5'^ umv aiui" id3 ni3"i3 cini> i3''3in nrn 

-m B* 3n ''sd N-ipj ^B'^5 E>'Nn can ib-n Tinn 13 ynio ^iion W 

Di-uh mncni' xi) nuv Tn3 jn3n[n^] dn '3 ixnp 13 n:o h^ ^ 

niT'D 'E» ''3 won -iBtN B^Nn |D nonni n3yB> no •"! nip^no 25 

nip^noa in' -iryni) vK'n 'b'jn -i[r]y nmB- ^''3B'3 niTon 

man v^jj iihsi) 3^ nM na3i • idb> n^ri • loijiy isn' cvid ni ptnS 

p[D]Nn;i • inn^DH nm tnx i^[i] n b*' oniD onan bx ' niryi iiiv 

• innB'U 
pijinn nanij B-inn ^x unip'' "dni max 133D xin •'3 niNipnij nair nM 
nsnn b xis 11233 nvnh pi!5n!? '"won ija n^i 'pn3D Nin pny ■'3 30 
poNnn prnnn T\p'hr\-a V'c^rh n''E'3N v^n ibdn3 " ^id"' na-n nx "h h'vsh 

t}'P3DB' 'D 111 nt pN D'DB' DB'i' DN inN3 D''B'N1 ''3B' DIE'vi' Dl^t^l DH 

1 'Signature'. See R.£.J., XLVIII, 173, note 3. 

^ From 'NiSl the meaning is obscure. Perhaps read '13 for O ' would that the 
rent of this house be sufficient for its repairs '. Had ruins been bought in Palestine 
with the amount of the donation, the rent would have been more (1? = 1?, n3 should 
be understood to refer to a missing noun n313). 

' For this name cp. infra, p. 201. 

' Khurasan (see vol. I, 275, note 2). 

" Since many years no profit (nPJJin =n?Din, above, p. 122, note i) accrues 
from the above-mentioned property but that small amount. 

« = union. ' Supply 13. 

" Cp. Isa. 31. 3; the Gaon perhaps indicates here that he would have pronounced 
the ban. 

' Cp. Hag. 15', used here in a different sense. 

'" Read 13DM. The phrase 130M {53 n!' (cp. Jastrow, s.v. »M) means 'he has 
no right' (lit. ' not all depends on him'). '' Cp. Ber. ,l. 8. 

K 2 

148 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

jnan hb'jd ''ai^ Tiana 
nw 1^ in IM0 rh\y: -iB'K [ivn]n ijja [i]3 [iryjn^ E'pn* dn sb' 

lb'' hyi imryi li? n:jinn 
D'onam iramx ^3 di^ci i[»ib]B'i iniij;['i i]ivd*i i-iry '[p]on 35 

nx3 naT' 
'ma n3''[tr'n] B'sn vn n:^^ 'Ind . . . [pi^]E' nm^ uniom 


nvnn nniN ivipa iviin^ ve' ityi'B'n 'j^kb' ht ana anajc nnsDi 

vi pK3 DB-a nyni nxtn isnn ••[a] muy hb'jd an no ^n ^nana ib'n 

nayi nsa nB'nii yj pxj ne-x in[i]nx t''ai ■ib'jo an no pa nn\T bx 

n'n Ni'[i] mian |a 'eu poD B'jyji hb'jd [id] B'sn^B^ nvai nian» 

Dninr nNO nva i'PB' ■'a pi's? ta eib n»N i^i^y aspjn nixi'D!? na n'a 5 

nana pijy p ns's moj? iniD 'insi iij n* iij? nvnn hb'JD •*» il? ana ■'ai 

[njiion [i']^? m'' ids nins '■aai sin vb' 'B'^i'B'n >ai nna n^anja mis 

n:pB' no ps'nv i^njx ° pi's? p 'cnv iiai^c Dnis my i'ani nynyi 

[is'']an psja nyi[n]'' nxnn ''^'h^r\ oni) nosn nB'[:o] nx[D] irax 

dT'a ps n:ni i>NE'[i] U'-i'^x nny nii'^i'y iNnni ni[xn] 10 

si'B' li) nx-ii ana [i]n*a px ■'a nann [i]i!?y .... [n]jn n^a ^ dj pxi 
i'B' [11] nx DnQx an noi) •'[naJiiaB' ny[E']a . . . dni . in''ai' [xte* ijn^jni? 
[iJoB'a nya xh\)'i> 'a nD[x] la's . . . ox ia . . . yam ni . ■'i' . . . 
[n']a px xin nnx . . . b . . X . . . li'S' nv [an] 13 in[yan] qb' x!j 

nDX ^ ainan idx p ^ non xini unnx imD''B' nsn xin 15 

D''B'n njn nvar iTi b pqd'' 'pan ly^oi'i inryi' ° my airyn airy ox 'a 

' pcnna on 'B'Dni 'J'b' bai idx ninx p ?idv nia ni'B'i pB'on ijx ana 

mi'B' apyi 'im 'nprnn:i pin noixa ptnn^ onoi udd 

1 The following lines are written on the margin. ' = X3ai7. 

8 =D1pOn. * =N3-|D. li Supply nOX. 6 Exod. 23. 5. 

' See Additional Note. * i Chron. 19, 13. 

Additional Note. 

Oxf. MS. Heb. a. 3 (cp. Bodl. 2873') contains a letter from Solomon b. Yehuda 
to Ephraim b. Shemarya (11. a-3) wherein he is also requested to announce the 
ban in a lawsuit. 13 150D1 DDinni Vn^JX " nXD ai Dl^B* nann XB'^ (4) 

niB^'iynon ninnen (6) niyviB'n osiyo man v^n dxi D'jin ux Dii'B'i' (5) 
N^ii Qiina nnix ncn ^na nnonE'D nny ny (7) x^t E'EiJn i^ax nnnnon 

Appendix B (concluded, to Chapter III) 149 

52. [Vol. I, pp. 131-2.J 

[T-S. 13 J 26" is very damaged and illegible. The following few lines 
which I was able to decipher seem to have a bearing on our subject. 
The handwriting is that of Solomon b. Yehuda.] 

. . . nj;v3 ■htii nB'N on (3) ... xJj d31 Qr ni" no yni i6 (2) 
Dnxtrjn , . , (8) . . . xh -inxno *jni (6) . . . onNE-'Jn bo ini'' (5) 
. . . -irs nnnNm mnx njni (9) ... nuinr pp , , ,hv [yo]» ainn 
, . . N^ Tinna -ib'n (n) ... 3na» n''3i . , . (10) '. . . einmn 
. . . ybvi Ti^na ... 'a ainx nn yiTi •mat!' 1^3 nvni? ... (12) 
■w»2 , . . (14) . . . nanxn rr^cn imas naiKTi Nin ntrx pcxnn (13) 
3n3 •'o IK lb (15) ... Dn^in o^^cn nnxs D^i'ipa' ir'n -b) ^nijapn 
ninan . . . ''iDms ^jn '•3 . . . (i6) ... nua Tin nnD"pi nnn nnma 
n^ne' nioa nnx dj (17) ... ['av] naiB" pw o noNn ijNi . . . •'i'K 
<3 Tiyn' 1331 nsnn n*^ n3i 123 nr {18) ... fap nan inix ^nN'>^p3 
nn3B'»:i t^ix 3n3 nnE'D3i bsoa (19) ... bv) lov inion n3nnn3 
Nin '3 13^ in3nx nojsj o tivt (20) inion ijx T'3n3DDi in3'i nnx 
tli^n Dvai ^TND NT nriN . . . (21) niinn vosnoi i'Nit5'i "'i>njD ip-m 
V mp'r ;n3 px nD3n dn 'n3n3 -ie'n^ nai? (20) \pv'\ . . . tiux dnt 
iTnn mo ''3 j)T nmon n3ib nDn dni . . . (23) in -^ yion. in3 

[l]nuy i;!ni"Bn vob" (9) DiP»n nv ba nn3r imyn n^ hn uiDi) jn: (8) 
sann ii [Dm]3N p Dm3N wjai! X3 13 (10) ynini' n^N r\\-m hdjoi 
lyT 1DN11 nsni'N yiTn f)DV p ^'nidb' ^d ^nx p (n) nvn^x yiTin 
nunpa (13) n3nn mx '•33 ^sx li? n^i ^xiok' 'no nn '•3 Tiian (12) 
'nhr nv n'jn xb inwi' fjoxj (14) nts'xai 0^^)31 3nti ^031 nnim nil'''XB'i 
wjsiiD i'XB'i iB'Ti''i' y^jnii lovv ijj? nxi xi' nan (15) n^3 n'.nB' ^d bsi 
nrn pB>b li? onnni? ytj-i iB^om ^Jt? 1^ nnnnl? (16) 

[follow the details of the ban, 11. 17-28] 

h mmni (29) nn iub' 3!' 31x3 inix u'xi ■'3 mbxt}* \hip>\ . . . (28) 

(Arab. ^) pty ij3 niT TWTfl IDDHI (30) I^WB' *D b iiJJ ^XB* lEiXS HDiSH flUa 

B" 13 nox 13 nrn n3n3 idj? nwyi) t^'*' Ninas' (31) Wisijo i'XK'i ^xti* •wa 
n'jni inDii3 idv (33) nwn lis u'B'^i ixn"i lyoc^ ^hx i:n '^ya db' (32) 
'IT ^y n^i'^'i •i"'J'5: p3''i (34) 'TTVS 'n''i •inDC'' [Di]p[D]n inifi 
I nan^ ^3nn Dii'tyi n'onsni □''jprn Dibtyi (35) l^sHp i?3 Dibtyi pi^E'i 

'313 3pV' pX3 na'a*^ Cxn in n»^tr | an J;l^". this letter was written 
before 1035, since Ephraim's son-in-law is saluted. The terrifying news (11. 5-8) 
probably refer to the events in connexion with the revolution of 1024-9. 

' =Tni'XD. 

1 50 The Period of Solomon ben Yehtida 

''ji'V'' Nin 1K1U TisTi ^b\ in^{-i n^i Tivsp vh "'Jn ''3 (24) • • • njyb 
ipnivh Tibial x^i ciii'is'n ^x qn '•a "am px (25) ^d^d •'a rnn dv3 
mu nvn^j 'jx "h rh'bn\ h^^ . . , (26) n'hv . . nb^ mpDi? a^pDO 
inan D^nax am d nc'n pn (27) . . . ^n . niaiw mip •'a npiimob 
o n^nj IN m[Qp] niw^ (28) tiin tS "a nna ^di'i "a by ba ino't}''' 
ijax insva . . . {29) . . . xh ba n^otJ" ''^'brn as nv nannna Dx 
. . . pnyna . . . in^aa . . . (30) . . . ^x aina'-B- itra* f^^ ^^^ ^'^^ 
nnx b Dni' px apv' nsvo '■oipo . . . (31) nixnpni' ni5j(irt ne'xi' 
^JX1 . . . (33) Timin nb'i 'iT'^un x^ ^njJiJ xi'[i TiBoin xb '':x] ... (32) 
TiDB'j Tiv b i^nnx ^oina 'jxi . . . (35) Tcynb '<:h ■'b n^''^n 'a invo 

IDT xh ''a^ naj x^j ia 'nv^a (36) , . . ncx •'■'' nnai 13 

... •'31 i3''5; 

53. [Vol. I, pp. 132-3.] 

[T.-S. 13 J 31', paper, square writing, right-hand side only preserved, 

top damaged.] 

Address (verso) 

[ii: nnttK" una] [nann nnsx ino pja ipi^] 

iniDK"' ms nj ioa 


r^^-i'o^ "ana (7) ' [sb* hj 3d3 lann nnsx] ... (6) ... ip^i) (i) 

. . . Diann'' lyrhtia xb*'' na-iai (8) ... [an dJi^b* "pv i[ni3j 

n[^]v^ (11) ... ■■' pc'sa vnux [n]i355' pB'i' (10) . . . xb* na'B^n tyiB^ (9) 

Tja -icxi' nimn (13) . . . xb' . . . . nann 'a (12) . . . niari' . . . 

. . . [iDJsjj nxjni) [ia]i5 n[nn]B'a laoD (14) ... [^n]p[n] Qv[i] 

^x ma x^ 'a nann id (16) . . . dxj pi abys nns'ipi nnju (15) 

iB'aj nx DB* (18) ... XVD1 iB-x b:ib pian ^ntii (17) ... n''am 

Dffain »a ivd^ (20) . . . ana »a laini' iVDB'ni' (19) ... a nDvi isaa 

b ntn (22) . . , ''T pT Dx ''3 nniT-i DBin» iixn (21) . . . n p dxi 

. . . [i]dv^ ^x xjp' '':ii'a 'nhr xb (23) . . . db" pi vby nB'x b"x 

. . . iD"ph Q'lVDiB'n n'' n*a ia (25) . . . ns'yD 'h ainai) m nann iix (24) 

. . . nE'x IV "ii D'x nDx yB'nbi (27) . . . ixa xs'i uaB-Dn ptn'' (26) 

. . . T'l Dxa nJHD ibn[3D] cm (29) , . . "c" itdhd i:pr yiv 'jx (28) 
X71 riB-iy ... (31) ... nxD? 13 ns'iy xin <dv (30) [idv nB-v^tJ* no 731] 

nv^jn ^ijtna i'v i:a (32) [noi'B'i' in li^Dn -idxb' no nann]D in33 
1 lis w-iDB* nlsnj pnnjoa. 

' ' Nile ' (above, p. 39, note 3), i. e. at Fustat by the Nile. 
' Cp. Ps. 50. 16. ■• =bN1B". 

Appendix B {conchided, to Chapter III) 151 

I . . . nprnn3 una , . . (33) . . . ' [iji noti ntJ'Un nvbn ^^tni] >j3^i 
njin nam | loy nw "1 1 n^vni [ns'Jj? | d.tju taii'ty Dwi' [nj^ni b*' dni 
ni>''niN I [nniiVK] "'''3 | ^jni DnE'ip[n] | na dv D^i'B'n | tkd p noi'e' | '3 
TNT ' vn n[D^Er] I [an vb"] j an iixno -i2nn [ nb'^ di^ci | ' 'ji '■vb'^ ^xi> 

.•■ana 3pi?» pw na^tr* 

54. [Vol. I, p. 133.J 

[MS. Adier 2804, detached leaf, paper, square writing, size 
25x17-3 cm. J 

Address (verso) 

[n]V [i]ni3 ma m io p no pa iJTii^np fpr i33p[T]i' 

[3]i vtT' [n]ry niv '■n'' pan pnv' 


31D3 CD'-i Q'jtj' Tn^biD n[i]ana3 -ni^biD nici^B' 

naiD na1t^'1 TUNlJob *nipni nnnsi 'm^aij D'aijJJai 

ijijnji i3a[i]B'm lajptlj •ni^''3n nac'pni 'm^iva -icvi 

a[iB']ni •nii'npn ipt xann inan pn^* am no np aa 

'Twh'hv an inajB'''i Tn^nn Nni3 inncti" -ni^npo ba 5 

•nihni> nntTD •nii'vn x^vonb •mi'no i^aa ni ^5? n''[^]sn 

myn na* men ''nvnv nixnni> -nihya i^aa ia nnann[i5] 

laija oi'tr Diets' ina'iB'n -njiv pan -nvDca iniva ip'na 

nraoi n^ij) -mpiD nato b'S -miav niasii) ^x inai* 'nioa n'h^ 

'am no p '•bbnnn hv.'W K'npa '"a ijijn iB'a:! 'mim d'd^b' 10 

fl''i>n'' 'nii'npn pr ^n niiK nniD lanaj -py inw nna 

in' 'TfB'xnD nnns a-Dni) '•nii'ynt' nnt^ja ma h^ ■b 

max nnn idb-i •n'oyni' lynr •iT'cni' vkvns ''B'Nn ^3; 

•j^^nni" D'aii)]? •p^i'D aiD '•a jv 'n^on mpD *s^od ''D'':3 

•iha niNnni) -li) ^b nipn ijv i^J'na paipn •p'i'aD n<D 15 

Daon pxa •ihai' Tm "ao M^nm ni'v nB-N -liiiaj nuyb 

DN '3 inai) nuDi" ono nnxi) niB'n pN nc's -i^'j p 

•ipiina noi^n i[o]ipD n'a' 'a ncn inwa net* in''3n nyn ^y 

n3an 'ipna niK:ni> losy popn 'ipnsa dv dv anonn 

13^" n3r xh •3iK'''3i niD''i'3 inonp nirN i:dd Qii'ina 20 

cnnon tub •31b'P in' in3ni •aiB'n 'jn "yc^ iry [dJit n^ji 

' I Kings a. 7. 2 Hab. 3. 18. ' = Tyxn. 

< Jer. 29. II. 5 isa. 49. 16. " Isa. 40. 31. 

' Cp. Job 8. 7 and Exod. 7. 8. ' Cp. Ps. 45. 17. 

152 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

nsnn b ^ • ipmn niun ' nB'yon dn '3 ♦ "ipvn Nin 
Dn> ' • D''Dns HQU noNoa dn 'a ^ • d^cd db* 1^ rwh 

•nBX3 DJJ'DE''' Dli'E' Dli'E'l • DDK ^X Q-lTV nOKH ntlJJI 25 

' m'' 'b ny ddi^k' 3^^ mvn ity wTaxi mbnpn ipr ujpn 
»3-i3 apy I1NJ n3''B'i csn xn hd^k' 
naiB'a n[*]^t< nana n^si Nhij y^c'' ind ^n imatr'' mvn ■ib> in '•^ . . . 
Dii'B'i ''jy ni? -laiB'i'N n' jn n^^s ^ndn nnm nnpna i5itsniD in . , . 

55. [Vol. I, p. 133.] 

[MS. Adler 2804, fol. 6, square writing, much torn, is in Solomon 
b. Yehuda's handwriting.] 

HNi hy^n toioi) (2) inj n^ji [D]"na irnws: DB'n " nna . . . (i) 
UN -fDn innni nijsnn (3) nitan nmin . , . [irnijiysj 13 '■a h^ 

. . . Dun Dnovon i)y nm!? aw^ cyan (4) tjipein^i ma D'ncu 

TD[nn]i' Da'-^yi .Dnjni> ny-in iiyi Dn''jni' DaiB'ni' (5) nn'nao u^av\ 
npiiinon ijy n^aisa iy\n nwD^i Di/cni yaicni noai' (6) na'B'in oaf* 
'T" by D'Nan D>nann i>aij oa'NJiB'i' nao [n*n]n [a ca^j'-a nn^n (7) icn 
D''ana (9) oaij^ao nnac na'Tia -IK'S nipisn an lyei'i npii'ncn (8) 
nniNa mats' (10) an noi nnncNi niN^n ne'Ni nii'^nn nu's "l? vn^ 
nDNi . . . (ii) ... 'iai nn'nniaD hy\^ mxE' onan i^ni MjijE'ty 
njja hh<or\ hv^. Mnami Diets' B-pa aita (12) [njtj'yi yno -iid mwon 
ncyi " ''j'ya yn nn o ntryn vb nivo (13) [yno] nio noxa nninn b 

.'iai ncy niso aiu 

56. [Vol. I, pp. 1 36-7. J 

[T.-S. 13 J 13^", paper, square writing, size 25-5 x 17-4 cm., very 
badly preserved, torn at left side bottom. See /. Q. R., N. S., X, 


yn hyiy\ -niv inn»B'^ xb cxn in^hd -iio pi aa ijn''T'i i:n['']p[''b] 

• niS3 *n^ 
Dana lyj *a Da ^nyiin xb' nn» '^n "anao lonp yi nann Dmax nia 

• Abot I. 17. 

' Cp. Ber. a. 8. ^ ^ Paifanic expression for the ' heavens '. 

* Cp. Ps. 72. 7. Ps. 66. 9. • Pea. s.. i. ' Ps. 34. 15. 

Appendix B (concluded, to Chapter III) 153 

fob naiD uprnni inD''j3 ■'Wn by\ Nin prnnn na'xai nB*!; icxn pTnni 

DVD nD.V nmiatin: nt'I D^jya q^b'^i aiD hoa 

n^vna nyi^ vn'' imn i[di] nui'Dn "':a^D ... in ... 3 ''npp[T:] 5 

DN[''S]r cniDNn 
niDi)Si iB'nD DnN''S' D''ip» i[j]i''ni Dn[''V] in^B?: im nis^ iyn[i'x] 

dnnoiD pin:i 
niaiDni nnoicn in xbn n^23 miy [■'Ja pcDio in3 D'ana njni 

Dn^i5yci noin 

p 'ny nxD PIT'S Dni' [n]^B'[3] 'a na ainai onpnva intii tin^ 

iNTpiJN p na'jn nB>;» 
08*3 iNnp'' N^ ■'3 ny^ •'n'' n^cn "nai '"3 W3B'i '•a "jn n 3ina 10 

imB''' N^Ji Dnaii 
UBtyca N^ i^livip IX n^nj nnca ^xntt" px ^3 ^Nniy' nu nx 

•lai [i]n!'iT3 N^Ji 
•'si' 3iB':i lania ^sd [nrn] pn''an n3T yiOB'^ D''sn lamx u^tyn 

nB'sai [nx-iJB'] no 
liji M« tjo» ,3 j<j ,,x irnDNi awao bv pr ^idij [d]"i3t ^y mtty 

""ji ''Jir [^y] liy 
i[j'"ni] nxtn nymcn by n . n 'Jniif ^ 'ji itrn nini nixi) [ni]p3[i] 

1N13' 'a [D''i]po 
bNJDJ ai-iD 3iK'nn jpin nxD unaJB' nunaoi' nuwn ptfcnD 15 

aip:n in[anj 
aipjn ':: ■bv nn -\vfn i-vaa 3-1 [i]»i nry i'x ^'T' its' -ixaa^N 13N 

ixn -iB'X3 i'iai'x nx 

'DU ni'xn a''Di3 D'ipr '':a['']i>ini ptrmo ixa ib'x Dunaa 

"iipni j^cni vnon 
ma 'Jiya i)E>a •■a [piB'n i^s] non p ibrh nia 'a ['[xi ijaa |pr ''Jxi 

vi>y apy ui3n rby N-i[''n3 p''i]xn pd['']3''3 dxi }1dx »j[n]p'' dn yiN 

' I.e. 'Adayah b. Menasse the Wezir. Cp. above, p. ii, note i. 

^ Jer. .45. 3 is somewhat different. It was probably quoted from memory. 

' Isa. 59. 9. * Cp. Gen. 42. 38. 

154 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

D'Nij nmcn nisn [™ni] D''Nt:inn ijmK »3 ?!« [''•' '':]s^ n^i[ij] 20 

N^ '3 Dji Dnniy by nmoj ijjt' ^ dijiinh ib'ax d'sj'P D^jn xs\i 

xhr\{p\r\i mnn -lap 
xb \yv-i\ nunbi oinK'S' nmnin pwa nnx m^n rf<"ipfi Qfi^ i^"i2' '='' 

[njxn tr'^x pxn npna 
niN IJO'' Nij ' ma ix mh nss* anij xu' dk cnnon nxty 'di 

iTn* DX ''31 D' . . 13 

D.Tni'':n nx mnah u hbrb ivt'I D''mn ny xui xb Dn^xc 

... '31 Dni^y Ci^mn 
.... D*an3 [i3]n3'' 01 xh'ayi ^\ B'^pn n^ya xb ixia['] \^ dmoxn 25 

. . c mil nbxii 
nii'nn nbx[n anajna Dony wnjx '■a n-jptn byi ''by n^y'i 


. . . . ^ii D''nvD px3 n»Dnx byi 'ine'xa nuonx by ly'OB'n 
D''nann pi D^jnn |o inx2 I'jna djox xbi 
. . . baj ub HB'y' 'bix ''xnna Tinoai ''saa ''Jtsj nx ''nn[j ijaai 
, . , , nma nioy ''3 ynna' V3 bsb ni3 j'cxbi ptnbi prnnnbi 
. . . nnn Dijsb uniN in'''i3'' xbtj* peon bxi nbon bx bx nj^ir 30 

. . . D 'in3J xb >3 n3nx [nn'']n xbi nb^bc anb nxij xb i:['n]x nsr 
. . . b3b xin ntn nan iK'yni ncyn nirxi D''jyB'3 i3x i[3'']nb[x] ""3 

''''1' 13'n ''Tiuiyni bnai pop nbnp b3i i[a]nDD nibc'i 

[nynn] ^iit'dd ['Jdcd 3in3b bxs'x 

I 'niy-in xb •'3 | nvn [i]n''-i3 [[yjobi | me' tyob | nmnb mvo ] x^vn 35 

I nna nnx nx 
nxDb[i] I ''''by |ox3i | ny xini 1313 | ^nnpb xb dji | "nmon xbi 

I HDpJi ''■'na I [']nvp 
I Qj bxiDtr 31 [i]Di nann ''t5'[''] ] ni •io bx [''n3n3] | n33i *nn 

I [D]''3n3» imp 

' A sheep or a cow that is about to give birth, i. c. pregnant. This seems to be 
the meaning of mbl, cp. n''J"lbl1 nnSC (Levy, Worterbuch, s.v. n'JnblV. For 
this Karaite prohibition, cp. e. g. Sahl b. Masliah in his Letter to Jacob b. Samuel 
(Pinsker, Likkute, Appendices, 28), DnX "lE^X Q''nainD DniX yWob »nX3 DJI 

. . . nb3J x-ipjn xini nja nxi nnix bi^xboi mn nona nD''nB' on^no 

(cp. also ibid., 30 top). In a marriage document, dated 1036 at Fustat, between 
a Rabbinite and a Karaite lady, one of the conditions is that the husband compel 
not his.wife to eat .TCT nOnZ xbl [inn n3 bsJ napj ne-a (m/m, p. an). 
''■ Amos 3. 9. 

Appendix B (conchided, to Chapter III) 155 

I ^npn B-NT ns[''] | m -10 bv.^ ^^ \ [nan onsx | m id nnnn ^js 

I irnN [^Ni] 
-iny^ I DipDH nn' | iDinnn ^Njn: | an -io jj^i [itcj'] | apy' an id 

I D3nN 

I ai^c 3pj)^ I IK'S?!! ncN I ba nan'-S'X'i | mc^n j im [ojanvi 

.... rmV^ 

57. [Vol. I, p. 139.J 

[T.-S. 10 J lo'^ paper, square writing.] 


3 . . n vn*i 

. . . . . N^ ''3 '•JN xi* "1D1N men 31 V navD 

u^ INO 3t<3"'i muD x^[n] mn njs[3] He's nsa ^x ■'3 n^mn 
[nx3] D3DNn 'V "i/S " [njaixi nmsi n^xNi ddwd nacsi 
[nvjo mv3 ''n3n3 D"'an3 n»3 e-Tipn tjio B'ljnn^ njfn 5 
aB'pin N^ TN ib*j)in nI? yno Q'Jiinn nai3 ny^^n jdi 

Dnaon ns nnph i? aiHiSi nx nnv lann 'S^j? 

DT-vn^i nhs' ba mry^i nuna DniNnpi:i lonp ib-x 

DtiSN ncx nya ^nnxnoT i^x D''aipjn n':prn ^x nans' 10 

u^b-irxa D^jann na ntyi x^ nx •'3 mib ainxisi 

na njji .D''i'B'nia naiB" on^j pxi nDipn nni' px 

nw ntyxi nyn fin''Di a^ nn^Do 'jw^a Tinan 

ns3 nan' nni^B'i tvv nna \:iwn 'V ''xd nae' nana 

nnin' una r\y^n ts-xn 'vn noi'B' 

58. [Vol. I, pp. 139-40.] 

[T.-S. found by me in Box K 17 and 18, but mislaid after copying, 
paper, square hand.] 



T X B'nnoa irso 

*\\b n3]n nnsx duvj? nian 

ncx ni[v]on [d nxr px 

' = hvr\^ ''ni'X. ' See above, p. 140, note 5. 

' = i'XnB'' \nbxD. ^ Hos. 4. 17. 

156 The Pej'iod of Solomon ben Yehuda 

rs'^no niSDH ID [ini] Dni[D]Nn dhtid dhn onoix oni onoiN 5 

b i>y d''-inj "^ 'lya xi? ik'n "iiin nnn dmj bn ' n^p' f<^ ib'^' iiis 

anm " ninaE' ^norx 
iiDN'' Dm ''•' nviD ij^nDn b ^jvi n:pn3 nac noKtjn Nin im pi'l^nc 

lai''" Dmb pn -iK^N D^nm 'omina ntj'i-i'' npi^ni d''ij lyni) Kvvn 

iB»j;' D''B'Ji DiB-iN D''ani D'sB'a nB-wn b isvi nvnn pE'^2 anni V^2^^ 

ntj-a -a\i •'O Drsjn idti nana icpaoi ^'ui px ni^as p i;]) ii^a 10 

D'^pnn aijni 
nisxani nnj)inni rhr\ir\ u^noE'Ni D'vin i:'b'j)o niarj x^ nmnn 

133 niNvojn 
tr\i ncx 3!'n3 nra -i''3Tn^ ds o [n]p[i]^nDn [i]d xih-i nMeii x^j 

nnvn ^33 \h 
miD^i ^1n3 nisiion t hdjsji nn3ix niB'SJ im op l5V031 ni^xn 

u^nmx ^jj 
muj Dipoi pxjn n'i'B'n nxu mpn ib-x inoni irx •'om '•i'li'i 

':i ucBO 7y i3y 'rx wcsr pj? nny npna uiaDB" D^»n w 15 

eino iwns xPB' '''' in3 
I Deut. 27.26. 2 =u»nwi5;3. 

' Both Rabbinites and Karaites were against referring lawsuits to non- Jewish 
courts. For the opinion of the Geonim, see my remarks in /. Q. R., N. S., X, 137 ff. 
Benjamin al-Nahawendi writes (ID'':3 nXE'D 6") : ^XIB''' nx pVtn^ ''XK'1 nDX pX 

min fT D'JiEj' s"yx Dnnv3 x^i Dsn pidb3 x^i mDB'3 x^ touy 'ons 

. . . ^X-IE" T'33 xi)X ^XnE" nX pVtnb ^XKH nnX pXI. in a marriage 
document dated 1109 at Fustat, between a Rabbinite and a Karaite lady, one of the 
conditions is that they go not to non-Jewish courts {infra, p. aia ; see further, 
vol. I, p. 162, note i). 

' The Karaites permitted the eating of meat together with milk. Cp., c g., 
Hadassi -|S3n i'3B'X, Alph. 360, H (132 d) 3^n3 ^J i'B'3n N^ pjJIS niP Ut^n 

. . - i»x ■:hn ni^ir xinB^ b "esx ibxi* niox 3^n3 -it}'3 (Qi33in) nox : i»x 
noix xip • imino ^1DX xin ■>3 pjo nnx nrai inx 3ijn bx (133 a, top) 

. . . iniSD a^Dmi? Xin O \V'< IDX. The renegade Yahya b. Samuel al-Magribi 
also reports that the Karaites eat flesh with milk (see Mschr., XLII, 259). 
' Hos. 4. 3, incorrectly quoted here. 

Appendix B {concluded, to Chapter III) 157 

Tina "31 w^f nsD ism u^b'sj rwhrn nona ityx nnai nn'-jB'!? 

Dva no^B' imaE'D n['']nni "hvz thv inix D''N''E'cn •>'arb sjdb' Ni> 

nw iV'Sn -ics ci''aiK'nn nnmon p Kin p njao iE>a3 T^E'n iB-Na 
iB's'i 'DnTia b\A nh^ Da''B>ii •nnn'' ne^voa i'x aana'' mat noiji 

pii) " HNni t3iaE'''i " ST CNitron pN •'ppn nvpinn irnxo ni5Kn 20 

ijijn navi 
p Di^c Gfih i'Nno i>NB'Dn m^B'^ cipo \rri\vn [^ac] ty aT'yai 

nB'X DM 51 iniai min'' ''nnisi onax lixjp moi nnDina np^non 

iiv nDlj' kSji D'^p'' 
mas' nn^ .thj 'a 'ji " nx lyi niixi' viix lix {^'[xi] inyn lix B''x 

niob Tija bi nnoana ■''''' 
nxty ''3 jimnh lorni njjn 1:^ anp' [iji^np] irniv ^T^i Diets' a-ij *'» 

^x nonai !3''B'ijn T'i? dx "la n''3nw xi? nny^ ^x^ m^ji nuinr ane'Vi 25 

"nvT nn: Danonai 
Qmnijfn:i om-in nrxa "Datraj^ jjwna ixsoni ♦oansiT n'':n p 

Daaina nmryi 
nwni ' D'i'B'n''i' xni? mivnni ^ onvoio nvavai mnn p • oaTiwan 

Dywa nnnij larni 'O'l^aa ■'i'aa 
i'xtj'mi **ajn -inoa wm •oyi' ni^tr nnn ixtj'^i -Dyin -iiaya 

pipni? x^Ji •iK'i' r^n^ oaiuaD 
mov Tfrwrn lajj ncxD nnu aijm b^nn btii man ^b 'a •lE'aa 

mpna 13J''Ti'' Q^nnni 
•lyoE'n tsh^ ai^tn runni n^jan b mya yotr' mp»n [iijn'xai 30 

•lyt^'in CD^iy nsJiETii 
33 min< ma naun nni'a' "^ ny 'o^ivi' iJ? lo^sn f'i'i lE'ian xh 

an 5)B'i 

^ Ps. 124. 4-7. 

* Isa. II. 13; Jer. 31. 33; Isa. 54. 13. ' Cp. Hos. 11. 11. 

* Cp. Ps. 81. 8. " Read ilpa. " Cp. Isa. 45. 17. 

158 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

59. [Vol. I, p. 141.J 

A declaration by a Karaite. 

[Oxford MS. Heb. c. 28, fol. 9 (cp. Bodl. 28768); paper, square 


•nia-iy mo •nn[n]N "'di»3 tiu-i n[';D]-)3 
^5^PI^ ''pya D^iUini D''DDnn E'npn i^npn ^n 

nan pnvn nx Diarh nt:^<^ ns K-m^ n^n 
■la E'^x 'J3D nun >it> iisjoeti i5nj3 pt^ps 5 
Tfii d:33 'n"n ■'3 0355 lynn ''Nin d'h^jn!? DBE'Dn 
•"JN DJ1 ^^v loxj n\ni 'n''3i xin oji njiDijUN T'B'i>« 
nbx np inK'Ki xin '■^ idn q^vk ^ oys 'nDjaj lii 
"iisDi) onix "innp^ inu^ D3'!'ini nnra fi^aa niDOin 
-ino IBS3 nnx pn'' n^ i[ncNi] Nin 'h ~idx nnijs^ Dn[ix] 10 
[■"Jnxsin ^n^ab "riai'ni oniDx nn[a onix] Tinp^ xsi onp 
"':?:!» Dnix wip-a Dib Tina na[K]'' \h^ dti-isdi nnix 
nax •>t' nox nam nan oniSy DTnsDi onix 'naSn 
xini pmi ^N[m n]nvi D-aint ijb' nw nna nnx nan 
xin no ynx n!?i nrn -lann n[K ti^nJt xb •'a |ni iv 15 
DamaaD ^xi^x nnyi • fiiD nyi [E>]xn» Tiiaa laxs xh 
vn'XT QIXI "lann nr 'nyn^ Dx ^db* ^j? 'Din lO'B'nEJ' 
"lain nt icti aiija on^ naxa vb oxi ^n^aa naxj d[xi] 
Dn''3B^ ;dx3 nvn^ xi^c ^jD^i'an^ na nm5?a [^nx] 
DB'xna n\n*i mnn apsj'' nnana onix D^i^ao , . . 20 

DX1 laxj DX ^[1]' xii njinbiax t^'^n "i^nn nt 

moixn x*n inion x^jx npiy b -lanc x^'^ no j)i . . •■• . 

lany iii^b na laa "laxi lann n^ya x''n 

'n^D an w px •i'T W\ hr naoi^K'i na'^jx 

' Deut. I. 17. 2 Supply nnX. 

' About the ban amongst the Karaites, see Benjamin al-Nahawendi, [D'ja nXETJ, 
2' bottom (cp. also /. Q. R., N. S., X, 348, note 269). 

' There are some letters above and beneath the last four words which cannot be 

Appendix B {concluded, to Chapter III) 159 

Nos. 60-65. Epistles from Solomon b. Yehuda relating to 
his rival Nathan b. Abraham. 

60. [Vol. I, pp. 142-3. J 

[T.-S. 13 J 23", paper, square hand.] 


• Tm" "nni 11331 • nno ijvi • nry -m [']n» ^^ ^n mas nonp 
'w pt<3 Di^B'n i>j^jnj I'N "isipa vmn^j •nae'i inipni ini'NB' k^'d"'! 
•IBID TD r\'\'vh '3 PIN 'naDDn nxi?'' 'pimn n'pi px -pin^ dni 

»3nr5? li'i 

o i'^[n]nni' ^j'nnn Nin nn ij'':i3 vdb'j n^ DnaiDij d 

•■ai ini03 [|]'N 
ts'xm [n]3i na niNc:'ni> hzxh x^'hinrh nna N^vom mntJ'i' [•'ixn] , 


• anisy^ j^dno i»ina ■'jni • Dnixn irc'n DTi'-oani nhy n2[ni'K'ni] 
nni D^prnoai onniNj civxij * ddvj?^ nn^nivs? •'3 Tun^n ['■3 ny] 

Dni Tiian 
nosi i^bji nvya [i]vj;i3 xv' '3 lyotr neiN nyi tiissis nVoip 

B'''Nn rijn 
njni n3''B'''3 pNj ^h tyxi si? inNnpn n!) o nna nm3J nu> 

nn'' icy uni 
hr\pi 13DD lij wwi D''Dm Nxc 3x nyiBE> nxni on^ iruoNm 10 

Tl-IDS'I Dy 

loy n^y ti'nipn n^y ^jn n^y nB't<3 mii idipd Niiai xin ''vh^T\ '3 

ini3a 'd ncn 
nn3i' 'j[i]sy'' ncsi ni? [']pi5n li'y ne^N nyni siiy p •wr\ •'Sy p 

inx aE* nnnn 

fjDWn DIpD N^O l^J nox'' DX li) 'US DIpDH r\S\ ''^h^ "IONI DHD 

by rhttTo, 
i[n]u'' nny n:n mi' rfn:^ xi'n n»D3 xSj nnxi min naiai Ijnpn 

lli>NB"1 copt 
i'KB'j nnni fiDNjn oipo x^dd X3n t^xn -inii '•a'^i'B' loipm Tioyi? 15 

DX1 11333 

DUT i:a3 'C'^'CT i'XEM nsj-n X3 ^^^ I3i ly^J' {jxh nyB> •{> iioyn 

Dipttn li" 10X1 

? = nyy ' without weariness ', difEculty. 

i6o The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

^'^ pn m^JB' nwi 3k Ob's xan B'''sn Nnp"i pipoa niDvn lije* 

nnnon ina»'''i 

'mDjjn N^i imavn xb va nns" n^j n^toi atj'i'' ■'Jxi xh\'^ vob-'i 

1X0^)1 '"ui 13-n mxb nIj »3 innn na^nj r\wr\ h mov ^t^'K nya 

nit^D Nin nNTi '■a vm "h nioyn dn o f •h tno ni? ''"i^ ^DSJn '•a 20 

3 '1JI >< i^tj'VD li'iJ no moiNi ni'sj'' naf ds mnxi loipo t^nv Nin ^a 

•'3X1 Dipon D'^K'ni' ntfn ni'NB' mip j'v* ne'N xin nnaa ix''an 

n^yni inub eioxin 'a' rih^rx ^'jnyo'' " non ''i'n hdd nx ioik 

N^D^ Kan ai> 
ban ia vmnb laipn xbob xan caa' nmr isyctj' nx^a ma loipo 

is'strim n^a 
pxa my xa njti -yan xh w noa ^•t5'''x nar niaa xbi ^onvTi 25 

. . v^J^n w 
nnaa tJ'xnn idxj ''a aniano innon iixobi ' ' yia xbi nibna nciy 

xnp'' xb o 
wns-ip xb '•3X nay nx b^vn ntyx oipon nnai •ne'a ■'Jiba 

nn\T " nxD 
•niancn iwi Tiuabn 'inx3 D'om nonai pjoaa xbi T'noa xb ib 

mio '•JX1 
-iDWi ah aba nn ntj'x nii-'cti'Dn iicbo 'jb''sn nB'[x 'bxi nisb] 

**''' D-ixna 
vn am onb ^njoxn nti^xD ain lab '■a bxb 'ibai "niDby [uanj^] xin 30 
nincm 'ffDmi niaTiJ nni -D'ona D"'X"i3 on .... '•a D^bno 

ina 'DTTiB 
nnix iDip nnsxa inmbxe'i "u^x nixbs: [TJnyTin •d''D3 ncny 

camtn mry 
1 . . . Tibapnj ... pn I .... ox I \jw^^i ix catra | ia bxb 'ibw 

[Dnijnrn mw 

1 = bxiB'\ 2Jer. i6. 23. = Ps. 92. 6. 

' Cp. Ps. 94. 18. 6 Read Dnil. • Cp. i Sam. ■^. i. 

' Job 37. 5. ' ' United' ; a verb formed from nX ' brother'. 

» Ps. 116. 6. 11 Ps. 48. 15, " =iirnbx. 

Appendix B (concluded, to Chapter III) i6i 

I D^biN n'33 I -iB'Ki ^jx I njDOi nt^un ^n'ip nnni | . . . lOB'a na>N 

I [n]nv3 mnv | [ijca^ \in i:^ | ddin nn^ | mv -ib's | e-aj ' u^S tvv 35 

I naT'i D"nn 
Dii'E'i n333 I Di^tj^i ^^JN | yjni? ny yr | ie'n nac 
[naxa !?« yEyij n]N33n noiiK' 
. . . . . . Nn' nii^ 

61. [Vol. I, pp. 143-4.] 
[T.-S. 13 J 231, paper, square writing, size 28-3 x 19 cm.j 

Address (verso) 

V33 ^no^^• -ii io pj p i?mi 'no pji manb 

VB" [i]iiv noB''' n^jns [injinjoa innn nnsx 



ini -ID pji 'unyot^D^ noi •wmDS'D -loiari •i:[-i]3m [i:]ainN ^x 
•nmni' vnio^B' 'nno ^si 'nry nis \t inj jd3 nann nnax 
DonoD T"^** i«2np ' nv 1™^ nnoB' '■ana • niixij vnianni 
•ntJ"' N^ !B'*''i -lyr iniN ms ^•niysn cnt nc-yo ynini) 
• piynai) i3»o • nyn inuo cion xi) • bo: niyii * i'»j: nuio nsTx 5 
•yian ■!> fiTij ^•nv^ni' OTa **Tp3 pna'D i^ nnsn^ '-nynx pa 
'•yiOB" ynpi) anpn kS "-ynrn i'xi tti ^ni iinn b^ it dcs 
niNJa 'va-iyo nvpn n:in x^ njni •vd^'ho yni 'rom iy[D]B'3 
b men bv 33n 'n^in ui) nnnc nnxi 'i^nno 33^ hiJ3i 
tjipsoi na^b mix ax isnoo ^ama ~\v^b nyco •^i51^ ovn 10 
331DO nny xin ™n inxu n^cxna archv nxjn: ne'XD onya 
D3''ni^x£5' x^ox 'jxi •'jnty ^jnry 'QiT^x i:nn» •tannye' i'y 
P'lmnlj n''D3Di '-pin ''^y ijoy nvvi •pine njioxn nx ntri 
un nvn^ nnnoB' ^ja •■a rijx d^du dmi • pimh anpS' • pin 
b D*'x px •vj'v ij:b n''^x nns px E'lxni njiax pxa n^^ann 15 
npK' nai DB'ni ijoy *3n3 3ni3i px •'ppn ppini "•vnioro . 

' =irn^X. 2 Cp. Num. 23. 28. 

^ A pun on TVTfi \2, i. e. Joab, cp. 2 Sam. 3. 29. 

' Cp. I Sam. 25. 22. s = T^pEnP. So also in Yer. "Ip3n stands for IpSn. 

" The meaning is : ' only a part of the body is given to him (yi3n ' the knee ') 
and he snatches at the whole of it, i. e. he assumes the whole authority. 

' But he did not come with the intention to efface his former bad record (for 
aipn read probably 3npn). 

' Cp. Ps. 94. 20. ' Cp. Ps. 36. 2 ; 10. 4. 

2240.2 L 

1 62 The Period of Solomon be^i Yehuda 

pnx D''JtJ' lu 'ni's:i nib* niyuK'a Dvmoi ara nns mini 

31^1) iina 'JNi •DDjj'i ^« in-'O'i ^nann jjcni •noiriB'Ji n[3n]n 

ii? p'P r\:ir\ -idj? am un an'i 'idv pai'jji ''jubya ^n hnt 

K3''1 OpK"'! D^''3X''1 D'i'nj D''Jpr DK^yi ^ DUaa' D'Slpn to 30 

vxjic riK xiJK'i'i vamN nx ainxb njjuB'ai nbxa o^an 

'D"Nni: '3K •'i' nb^^n onnsD nmc'a nwnij ainai) ^^ ntj'a' xh 

13 nxariD iB'iva sa nn ns-va Niii i"na n^ niaa n^ 'i? njnj 

D''Nnni:i nnoa iniN annv dhd D"'an mnxn nan ^cjni naanoi 

in: DTO nDpiB' pxn nn^n la^j ^^v:^' nyi' i^) 'ix ''dv on o 35 

anan tnnc ^l2o i'siB' ':ni nann n^^nnn xa nj)D "'isnoo 

1D31 aivon iiN tirh^ dhdj nI? B^won ^n i'npn ^n 'nni'K' "is'k 

naijn nva 'nana 'ys\f. anaon noi: 'h anan p 

I ['njana n^ni nam | [njtryni ano | [xnp]^ no: li'SN pN '•ana b '3 

^npn I d[i|5]e'i -\ahv\ \ rby nioyn | nns ^npn | i^a htf. inx ana 30 

I [nv]3 na-i' 
•[■'Ja-i^a apy' ;ixj na*B» cnt in noijc 

62. [Vol. I, p. 144.J 

[MS. Heb. c. 50, fol. 21; right-hand side damaged; paper, square 


.... pnvni nosn Trmt-a noiB'L^] 
. . . p's =TiD^ nnjiai •-iirai' Dnt5'ip[i] 
ansK nib pia sin "'-mh annn aiB'[i'] 
•naiD nB'1331 'nsjno ne'vai -nann 
'ana 'laD ^31 ipnco 133 1^ sijci '--lar a''b''[ni] 5 
* • ini3D boi • may bo li) ^^* aii't:' 01^)^; 
•nnoa p^mni -nina aiiNno -n^n^n ynin[^i] 
n»ipn 'DT "nivnjiDa nsiia tjyDDni 
'■mh pxai nujn^ □■'^SE'ni -ynsh i'a[n!'] 
[n]uiani 'non la 'nLjia b -na^D my ps [«] 10 

1 Cp. Eccles. 7. 16-17. "^ Cp. Kidd. 75". s = D'lni'NnD. 

* His maternal uncle, see Ibn Ezra to Amos 6. 10, and Felsenthalin Semitic 
Studies . . . Kohut, 133-7. For in3 read HJ. 

^ = "VOrh. « Cp. Obad. ver. 7. ' Cp. Eccles. 10. 10. 

" inUD 'his dwellings' (cp. e.g. Gen. 37. i). 
' Cp. Isa, 10. 33. 

Appendix B {concluded, to Chapter JIT) 163 

• niaa ah in:^^: vhv\ ' niQK' "oinDa n nj? . . 

['a] nr oea loyi btin psna on '3 •TiaDDJ 

"'nnajn n^ >ab •tiob' n^ pin "rnnDn t6 b\[v] 

bv ^jjnr Nim '-'nobj nJ) [a bv 'b -\iv d''[?nj 15 

^non c^N n2i3 D'':pin nsya nvvin b3 

•[■i]mi nr ViaS 1^ rn^ nom rm -nny^ ^n [loiija;] 

povn^ 1^5 21D npi^ib n^r li" acnn n . . 

'' [n]'':ni n^^jy -\^nb naiD pnnnij aina^ . . . 

'is 'Dt5' nann jd oisy: n^ iIj Dijc-' liiiDji 20 

12 nrvn^ ainai' iDvy^ nxnx x!? "abno ['=] 

[n]3iy ntripn loa xin ^iiy noNi' siii nT[y] 

[13 i:»nn i^a ''b rh^bn ncpno 'a [dj] 

^DB' n^Dvn^ vjsb 313** DN nsBTii) n . . 

)b nw •>«,! n3 Tivan ab nox'' n3 dni [aits] 25 

nis OK* niJiB't^'iT UN iy2 mat ns'Ni ' [v3] 

nn'ijN n*n notya: ''3 tNiT'p iinpi? j>*jn nt^N 

Dim 'Dm lisi^ Di[n]i3N Dni^w vn Dp n[vD3] 

inajB''' apyi im Tjjn sin t3j>D nrj; n . . 

1-1311 IDE' i^X TiDVl '3P5)*D 3313 VDU l[m*J 30 

[di^]b'3 v!>}< 3in3N -pnv D'^ni? 'pnsi '3t Niaa !5iD[nx] 
. . y . . . . SnnDEy 'an ana ny mipn anan yj 
Dvy bnpn b ni^ci naT aniN[,-i] 
• nan* ba nyiB" • naijn hd^e' 

63. [Vol. I, pp. I44-5-J 

[MS. Adler 2804, fol. 4, square writing, paper, size 14-6x18 cm. 
It contains two incomplete letters, the first of which covers the whole of 
recto and half of verso, while the second letter comprises the other half 
of verso. The second fragment was clearly stuck on the blank space of 
verso. The handwriting is very much the same, though it is in different 
ink and in somewhat smaller letters. It may be that the Gaon intended 
II to be a postscript to I since there is no signature to the latter.] 

' Isa. 50. 7. 2 Hesed, i. e. Abu Nasr b. Sahl al-Tustari. 

' iT'Py ' elevation ', n*3n ' pleasure '. 

* 2 Sam. 15. 26. ' Num. 24. 17. 

" Perhaps the elder Shemarya b. Yefet (above, p. 130, 1. ao). 

L 2 

164 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 



^x [ijnnnai 5;['']3n[i'] nnain p nnf? ■'vm ins 

•ywi px TnoN poT my m^B'i' ^j inana i'[y] 

na 13 cy'' q[n] una .... ■'3 

Tiipn a!? 3X3[o]i njNnDi •'Jioai' 'd six dv •'i'n)^ natyxi n-iwri 5 

»3 D31DN1 naiBTi a'B'ni' ma na's lann no 'a onan 

D'on D3»t< *a nuinxi D'j?-i isj; naa* [*]jiDa b.'-'N unao 

'jai niano nan^ nnxi ins b Dnmon 13 nnmon ^ivcxh 

p iVD^i nnaa on p i'y'i nwnn^ siji nxjn B'pa^ onianao mm 

•'3 D-i*3Tni' \b\ DiT'S'v i'pn ■n35;3i' D^oyo nnnix b^ "ansa 10 

IN 13 inonD Dtr -IK'S dipon 13 • •'Jatj? n!? non • ijanvn mx qni 

^NB"i '^x inxi3' Nin 'onBD^ ^n^x nxi hvi. inx''3'' ix v^x ws^i'r 

Disy^ niDin^ px nxi nonan xin xm •'33 Wx nxi ■hi\>h ''Jdd 

px DJ »v i''X3 vam [b] ^5? inons srihvb pr Mrx •'a lo^vo 

'nijiai mnoji n^ n^JB-ni '[d']d [n]navi Q^avn ruiy ox »a '^•'vh^:/ 15 

iDiD iioi)^ mx^ ^ [!]nt5'i'E>Di ^nnaiv i^j Dip n'ty^K'ni 

^33 I mix D''133J3 I D''3niX 'h \ Vn ■'3 D''1J I n^DHD B^'Xa I injJDK'l 

. . . ' I xh [v-i*]x I nnx Dya | vr>-:^r\ \ I'y ^x ixu' | -icx ny 


Dami:nD ^ap'' o pmnn^j t^^xn inixi i:nn 11^x3 Wn i^x 3-ipnni'i qdx 

bx •'311 nt Dim ''oms dxi idid mnpb ^x myDC 'ini3r nman^i 

Dx Duinx 3^30 •ysixh Dx •'a mpn nxann^i [^^Jnnni' xh poix maoin 

niB'y^ DX 13 TI133 ^y nnDnij px nv'' 'nx nnyi lE'n X3 nii'K'i on 

nisnip p-ina Dnaon ^vo lyjn dx yniniji unix inmx Dy non 5 

Tpan r«h^ 3t no nx ^xbti yan xb dxi "'traj 3ia'n ' 53 ^''Vih "ib'x 

ny v^JX 1^311 nr i'xiB''' 'ib nxo pt:x3 udto xc'D3 '•3 Dnnix iiy 

n3nn ni3B'i niy vf-iarb px p nnxci Dn3 ntryx no nvnx nt^x 

an yK'' nvj nan' paon rv^vio n» Dii^B'i nmon Dii'B'i pii'e'i nixo 

' =irn^x. 

'^ There is perhaps here an ironical allusion to the ' Third' of the school. 
' r Kings ig. 6. i i Kings 17. 3 ff. = j Kings 17. 9 ff. 

" A few of these marginal lines are missing, as the right-hand top corner is 
torn off. 

' Here ends the story which began on the margin of recto. 

« =B'aj inu. 9 =xjiD. 

Appendix B {concluded, to Chapter III) 165 


[^]k inana ^jn •'3 nb 2E'n[i] pv inij ii^jv dj; [D]npibnD inD'23 rr'a 

N^ tJ'''N3 '3N1 inixnp D[n] iniNipi' 'jnoN ntysi mi'tj'n n[''n] n^N 3inx^ 
« DNDi n^iisn tTDB' ''Jx '3 Dil'B'n nin' 'a TiaoKn s^ [Di]i'3[i] yi . 3 

1^ nn\T 
nnii 'tyn n3i bn mn n3 -ib'k[3i] iioipD nJ'di n3 3xn nma 5 

DB-i ''nnp: xh . , . . Tiioai [«]n3 ■'i' d''^^pd vn'' Niji '•5' n''5ni iid 

"Wii nr 
n^^j ixn[' i']rsn rmzn ■'3 DUt^in nic tid nox'-i d^kjpdh [i]3t 

ni33 Dii'K'[i] D*N •'NT' bi ''h 1^5 Hipni JinnN nn^ i'scon i^sno' 

m: naTi 

n[av]'' •n3[n]'' b\yC\ nvitJ'''^ 'nanjn ''[nD^tr] 

64. [Vol. I, p. 145.] 

[T.-S. 10 J 14*, verso, paper, square, torn across the right-hand side, 
handwriting that of Solomon b. Yehuda.] 

13 ncN hv [3]np 1313 "h . 

"3 iniKip'' it^N nj;3 n . 

' [VJU] llUnb I31D3 DIN PN 113^ . 

' [Di'3 n]N mp'' VJS1 nj; '3 dni D''D3ni' ad dji n^ i3r N^i . 

" nnND D'N'E'C INSD'" DN1 D''nn»1 D^JT'DO n'' ^y 1W . 

ntioi) nnsi nisjio^ "Jiija [sjn'' jjiid D''r3»i D''D3n n'i3[ii'] . 

B-N 1D3 Dnain inu' m^iT' imin mini' dni ah^ . 
[i]»iyn ny ■id^'c •'3 idt' nnnv li" iioy^i iiy . . nyn . 
"n N'cn wis NipM ;3 103 '^nb'i'' vh p ^v nnnr itJ'[»E'] 

Dw Tiy iTii D''DiiM ijniN iD''ti'''i DH^vao re-nij d''1['] 
iB'N iv nvd: N'b Dii'B' 'NUD Dnixn N^oi) i3ini . 

' Eccles. I. 5. 

^ This line is on the right-hand margin. For similar endings, see above, pp. 157 
and 163. 
' Cp. Yoma sS"" top. * Cp. Eccles. 9. 11. 

" The 'N, here and 1. 15, is to fill up the line. 

1 66 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

ctrpvo iDK'ini -iiK'pi' iNit^nn isbni Dvwn •'C 

piNi ^t!Ui> nnnr nyn nxa ncx nw ib'k ncn a^ 

K'DB' nN3 N^) niy b'db' nxa ne-N oipo xi'Di' Nini? 

'n QinBJD nB* "iB's on an d^h^dd vn ntt'N nrsn 

•n^'^1 DDV Ti^n p3n: nss: nsin npi^non nc 

•nijani njnn ^'am 'nispriJ munni 'n^pnn nxr nsa 

•mycn nxa ''i'B'3 dk 'Nniini niajn hian i>t<n " [njs] 

in* *D mpi'nDn ihji nnncn m ''JI^es ''13''3 ion'i 

' DitJ" r\h-<i -\ivi ^3 • nijsn rra •'i'i'n -ijon^ • ^br\r\rh •'bv 

' K1SD ny^ I'^N n^Dn ^3 i'i'an* nsr ijy Tin -icx oan ^v ^ 

no -3 nyanS! 1^3 h^ om d'd fiDtfi' pn vi^-h x^i 

»nnn[N]i nywns'ni' ,13 r\w "b ni»y 13 nv3 Q'^^ho 

nDin3 in'wi nvnni -laitj" qv3 v:2) nw inys* ni'i'in[i] 

•nv& lb iioyn iij-n bi? •'Ini \:h-\ nnvn3 nnnoB' nw 

bsinb nvi' iivn 13 niB"!?^ Tivih vh-\ n^^cb nvr\b n 

1DVV3 nt33'' {jNi • vhisDJi 1^ •^^•'b bn^) ' vbiiSiKi ^33 ' ^bv 

' 13 nt3i3 mx ne'N 3V " nDN'i ny ny ^533 u inD3 trn 



65. [Vol. I, pp. 145-6] 

[T.-S. 13 J 15", paper, square hand, size 27-6xi8-6 cm., right hand 
side very faded.] 


nna ab) *D*^5 ikii ab ['3] ly nsT' 

. . . N31 ° fjnns vi'Ni NipN [v^JN*] ;[*]nn n 

Ncn iNB'[n ^Ki Dn]3nD i3i» . . . mi nx . . . 
iDB' iyDi> t<in[i] "^^nnn i'NiK''' [B'np3 "3] ^^an nnxi 
in»i 'in' n^B'D i'331 T'odn[3 n3n]an nx inx nw 5 
IDB' nn3^ i'Ki . . , " D[»]3iyi ony db' i''E'yD3 .... * [13^) di^Jnb'o i^ 

Dsy niNi>a3 HE'iy •'oy ntyy ncN nisn Tjnb dni T3[i]S3i 
noB" N^i '"TivD -i'y3 n3y ny non N'^an ie'n wn [in3 ''5d]d 
"^ 3iB'x no vbv Tioyn ni»n 3n3Dt2i ii)» Don 'wici ["'S'in] 

> Cp. Jer. 18. 16. 2 Ps. 32. 6. 

' -Q'nl'N. 5 Cp. Ps. 30. 9. 

' Deut. 28. 8. 8 Ps. 37. 4. 

' Cp. Mai. a. 12; here the plural is used. 
10 Cp. Ps. 31. 22. 

s Ps 84. 13. 
^ Isa, 41. 16. 

Appendix B {conchtded, to Chapter III) 167 

3^3 ;nj ncNi ncy n^^x noN.-ii ononni nuion ^y nuan nnoi 

-iB-N D^ijcn Q^JiD ^yi Tyn ['isna] '3'yai [e'npn] n^yn ^B'lon 

ijjnNi iniairo i'N tdit' iinan ni^on ujnN "sd [iStra] bx tdh' n^ona 

^N inN''SD' nni3D nsf nxan n^-n p loai in^^na hv>. Torr' luxn nju'on 

nE'N bai ns' 6 p xb' irw'a an no npM -iB'n p loai 31d be'i fn 15 

yotf^i D^ys Dni> oi'B'^i nuit: "b'^ ''n D^or nyaan tyxn nn'^i noy 

nam nprnna nnax nn^ N^ani? nha'' nn^ni tixo Ti^sn Diya 

Dn''a i^jy D'i'njDn \rh'2V\ ic"3ini iB'y ncx [i^njn] 'w.rh •'3 

D3X31 PN3 vnii nnacn nxnpa nnmn i^a [nanM icn]' p 

niT'oa eix T"i^*'i^ '^nn o fyni'i D^X''t:'Dni DTi'Don i^j 20 

Dyaa *nn 'nanxn njm njyh id icpb'd wnt ns [lian^ *irS] 

nK'x Kin yB'in iniN xvvaoi dhd '•pj ''jx i:^^ ox [n]xrn 
nnxni 13 

Dip'' yn DID ?3 'a d:cxi nxr •'Ja? .... [nanojn -imn 

HDC . . . ''l^j 

iJ3inxi UTp' iDii'B'i Dn3 n\-i[n m^P'' T^Viin] 35 

Dn-i3X 'no umnxi bnpn cxi [[nan ^xidc id wjjpr Dii'[B'i] 

Diijc D'lanixn bi iinpn ':pT .... iD[x3n onan] 

i-\ yty* 'SIS spy )ixj n3''B" ^[xt in nJD^B' 

Nos. 66-73. Letters from Nathan b. Abraham. 
66. [Vol. I, p. 146.] 

[T.-S. 13 J 3i\ paper, square writing.] 

Address (verso) 

yj )i3:m D3nn nn T3 iixanj xjmi xno u3iB'n \Yfph 

p3jni D3nn n3'B"n nry 
"ijN pxnn DXDDD [i]j-isv nxjii Mmr? nna" 


3pyi px3 na^B''' cxi in: 

nsnsi? nat omax unn 

[mDn] -m!? trwD nhiJ "iJTax miB'n in'P'i' 

1 Ps. 116. 12. 

' This is a passage from the well-known prayer nDB'3 , cited first by R. Yohanan 
(Ber. 59"). 

s = i)x-itj" 'n^x. " =iJ''nbN. 

" This is a Hebrew translation of the Arabic formula of address 4J)1 li ^^1 I>lV;-all , 
see /. Q. /?., XIX, 726, 735 ff. 

1 68 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

N:no •i3p[Dv] Tswxs •unp-io nihao •i:»b'3 nany •i:K'a: 

'na''[B'io B-sJj m minn 'n3'>B'»n nw i'sani smi 

'[n3]i3n bn[''3Q r\'\^rh 'r\yy^ 'a^x^ n^n^ 'nanj nna nioDi 

vi IU31 Tinn ''i^n nn n'^a 'pf<3 
P3 -mipD noni 'nipi) ye*''! 'nivi5 mi'»' 
-{>n 11^-11 p'^jy n^nni n^nlsN w 'mrh 21D dk'i -nn 
^^bD inuaiD^ D^a •'jni nc 'cmi 
13DD m Di^E' lyi? '■n'' n3iB>»n itj unns xty 10 

IX-a: b '3 D''5jniD1 31D ■'3 h^ Dnio 

''D 13 iniN-ii' TiaDas invni> Tinninco v^« 

[njana ns: s-aia^i^ty njinn •Q''^inpi5K' p KfTip ynt 
[P]d»i Defn rvtKv? hv lovy npicn pnvn yir nnx jjdd 15 

-iv rh'^ x*3D3N nu na ^b>wqr\ min nioi;^ iDsy 

la'iD^ )h r\-^rhra n[v]npN[n] eiDv ma lyiro npDia pxe' iSj 
*Di5iy nyi nnyi: [^''' njox ly^t jrit *fi»i in? *a»i ^ao 

\h^ niB'["i] nna n^ d»3 d'-b'^ mtid 1!? n^r ijiivi 

•^viiy niE'[n mm nin] ^n[y1B»]3 noa bn; v^y d^' it 20 
I i3[nnK] Di^ci I \h'& ina'Da | ^aa Dii>E> m[i'B'] | b3p[ni] | nyi? '•n' xini 
' JE' rittn I anp^ ye-'' | 'vh ^T" | n^i ni^tyi | n3^B«n niy 

67. [Vol. I, pp. 146-7.] 
[T.-S. 10 J 15".] 

'mp IDE' ■'tttJ'O 

[m^]E' IN n'"'ni -nnix V'r\y< 'y\i Tiy[' •I'l'i] l^^' •^^3D is^se' 
i:n3''E'' ijaci udd di!'E' nyi) »n' u^nj xt^''' 
31D "3 whyo niv^ n^nio ion:s [dJi^b* ''3 yT'i i3''^x noDDjn 

•31Dn IDiyi D^DD-llSD DniDH VCyD '3 D^yniDl 5 

« Nri5>3v:'b NDNb 13 inn''n3n an in'ijyi inxn^i aiDi fys finu 

• Ps. 41. 3. "^ Ps. 32. 7. 

3 I. e. the Bible divided into three parts, DOin3 D^N^a: min. 

< See B. Mes. 85'. <> Ps. 21. 6. « I. e. Sel. 11)350 = 1037 c.e. 

' Cp. Ps. 68. 34. * As the ear of corn surround the stalk. 

Appendix B {concluded, to Chapter III) 169 

ana irijx 3J";n ni'D ''3 cymo dj i^np ntJ'Ki ncN pi? 

cisi5?i iftSc nDDO nyb '■n'' 'n^^npn B'sn tiuo kjT'D m['']ix 

Hj)3pi m5"i i'npa in:3t;' ij-id''d i^ipi? ^nNT'1 \h iranx 

nsljD^ inijyo D5i-i^ u^n^so i:i5[NB'i] bii nae' bi Tnwia 10 

"li) tn'' T'^y D^T^ 133^)3 1^ nni5 nna'pa [nx] niB'vi' IJipv 

D^j):n msn nion oi^tri n[»ii5]f 1 '' n''^s^ invy bi 133^3 

3np' VB'' ny ny^ hv [vi]^j i53 di^b'i 

68. [Vol. I, pp. 147-8.] 

[T.-S. 8 J 20^] 

Address (reversed) 

yi p3jni D3nn nn n'3 i'sjna Na3ni N:no i33iB'n iJ"|ip'i5 
3np'' ye'' 


hj'' •iJT'D^n iiNJn: k331i xno 'irry n33i •iJ3it5'n nii'B' 

wol'i yoT niB'DD iryyi imas nijD pav nniDi nyi5 

^nsni B'DJ 3'B'D^ ul? nn"n o ntsD umna ^y non'' 

ymDi nn: niNnij irip D''n3 ''i'y3 i^x uacDj '3 uyniND 

Dy ipixi cd: na'isi nn3iD n3ibni minon yj^'p ni:i)i 5 
iJCBninji hh'in ir^y lanji mm -vih nam ynt nt<-|j 

' T.-S. Box C 7 contains liturgies based on Genesis i. Two leaves are 
preserved. Fol. i a (blank) has the following superscription : 

^Stt [3-|]n flDV 

nMT n3 tn3n p[nsi]i5 

yi niSnpn cxn inno nu pns iniN mp 

yj panD 13 pon nimsi> pnyj 

Perhaps this Sadok, the buyer of these compositions, was a son of the above 
Meborak, 'the head of the congregations', who lived in 1037. T.-S. Box H 6 
contains a liturgy for n?*yj {two vellum leaves) which belonged n3 pHV^ 
7\ niPnpn B'Xn ^^"|3!^. a Perahya Hakkohen b. Tarfon is mentioned in a 
document dated 1104 c. E. at Fustat {J.Q.R., XX, 453). He is perhaps identical 
with the above copyist. 

2 Read Ni)»i, Ps. 20. 5. 

1 70 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

^aTiu'aD ntfN D''i3n iqsb'mi p3y3i na-p in "nix ini nno 
i:n \h^ pi niDoi' ^^''sni D^pni oniVJ "nvm •nn'B'v »<^ 
nnr Tina in-: Nini i:nQ3» ijob' irni'x i'yi nnnano 10 
[^x]i iniriscr i^:y3 anan onpni? woo D^i'NiB' i:ni 
I lovya piDV Kin '■o Mronb cin'' iss^i '|3B'ioi' oyn rnJ' 
nv ba I 3in3^i ' vni'sa j th ptnn^i | pays inn | nso^ prnrri 
I ijio I h-m I Dv iron pi | ^npn p | cinn^B' no | [ijjvnv 
wnT'i I nnoK'a i^npn | iri^apn naai | iny^b pans | ijn'c nan 15 
I i3i^s<B'i ! nara ^npn b | ir^i< uvapnai | mnis [x^y p pn | i^N 


UNI iJ^VN Dvn b laBt^i nae' 3"i5?[3] m '"'^P" '= "^1^' ^^^ "O"'"" 

[mj'a nnoi) 
anpi yc" ny^ nan' noi^B'i d^'^b' li'iB'njo \h^^ miv D:n i'x Dohn ^vo 

69. [Vol. I, pp. 148-9-] 
[T.-S. 10 J 9-^ paper, square writing verj- similar to that of preceding 


^ ^ (recto) 

[una'B-'J 'J3 {5301 ijoo 3T Di^E' [nyi) *n' ^hrw m!^~\ 

D'-ymoi aiti 'a. ^•^ anio uhjn Dii>E' 'a yT'i iri'N D'aoDjn 

-iiffs i>y pioy uai" n''ni na^CMTT iri'nj i'N yana n'^oys noa •'a 

npi)''B' 'D ba ^y it-ji insi ddin D'npi^j sijn my 'a 13^ -nanjB' ly 

ii'B> irsty ana 
uana n^m -ini'Ni' naicnn ama ny^ "ni n'n lyjn ii>''N 'a uyin v^s 5 

ny nt uana 
CNii nB'npn na'c^n psji wapr iiy^ sninDTi nnns Diana 

sm Nin nii^npn 

1 Read nH't^y, Ezek. 5. 7. Cp. Sanh. 39' bottom nB'N D'lJn ''ODB'Dai a^na 

p:pinoa Dn^tyy na'niaiaD s^^ d^un 'oatj'oai a^nai nn'c'y n^ na^nuuD 
Dn'B>y jnaB' pi'pi'ipoa DniE'y xb inaB*. 

' atyiO seems to mean here a public hall, probably a school (cp. Arabic 

« o » 

(jJls^). See also above, pp. 117, 1. 5 and also p. 71. 

' I Sam. 30. 6. 

* Dr. Davidson suggests IJIpn which commends itself somewhat by reason of 
Samuel's statement (Sabb. lag'') that Friday is a proper day for blood-letting. 

s Read NmnSTl (cp. Yer. Pea. II, 17", 1. 50). 

Appendix B (conchided, to Chapter III) 171 

n333 13^ awn N^n '3 i^-yp^ na^i's ijj^p o D'nicai 'E'^ nu ncao 

Nno wi'nj riN n^anix Dai^ia o ij^xni oaana wnp -1331 

Daij 'iNni iniT'D[ni inxn* vi^-nrh nycu mis uaoDi y3 ni)B' ''3^3 

[niDjsj^i in^ pTni' 
Qn'3-iv3 xin loyiji ntv^ na iidd b'''N nn'jsi' i'xb* nisnp b 'a imrva 10 

DH'ans -iiry^ -i*pd "h oni pSnn uaa noiy n3n e>'k Dni:a^ nfliB'ai D''b*v: 
'Dm3 nriNi onnN i'y ^jdid mnai 0^3130 nm pin3 d'k'i;: 

DN1 3D1D jpni) DX li^V* ^NIK'* ^3 01 jnn <D'' 13np ''3 IDD D^'VJ N^!! 

iiaD vh'i np'j? on vn'tr na udj; ujpto d^b'JK nvni? ux D''xni aoia 
D'jptn ^3 bb3ni) D3D 13X D'sm )'ia3 lanoiv nxn^ 'b-jn D3ni»3 cqj •'ains 15 

nvrh ni^vi5 ni? ^jy D''ni'N V3: ib'n b"k b anjnnh nana ]T\'h\ nci?! 

Dns^n DniDB' 
■hy?r\i naai n3n'' isy n'i'vn n'in'hv u>rb^\ D3ni'ir i3B'Dm 

i3*nx ^3 
Uin niN^ N''Vini un'B' vocn qn nns^ iioi'K'.n i5x wn nijon ''Jpr 

DX1 3m» nn 
nn i3in»n3i noi? njE'Dn wjinx nna d''X^'vi ni)i3 njnon nvvis ijn in^ 
s^B* ' KJN^iD "na y3B'3 n33i inis* D'sin mn pn»' tJ'Nn bv nnpn^ vanpi 20 
'D j [7jn3i»Ni' unnan unnani) | nvnn qn iniB'n nnn | d}3J ^ 

5J»B'^ 5J[DB']''B' 

i nvni? poNB'i'K nDJ3 inp^i | ddjj "ipbrn ny nr n^j^ 3nn» | nax^r 'oi 

I imam picn inpisi n3 | ijTi^sni irnwnn n'nni | pw n3 i:niN 

i:jdx3 na 

nniji I nojan Sjk iK'B'n "^-v^ \ pnai tsnci Dvn ^i5^1 | irjsa njioon 

. , i pDD.n I . , , i . . D i'aN'B' I . . . . m "ija I va | B'nnh ... 25 

mn riN I . . . 
Di^B'i na^i^n nn* i^isina | •[Ksh^^ n\nn mv 1 "VTin D'Haic ^3n | mnpi 

• an[p' ye'''] | di^b'i inion 

* JL« ' our Lord ', i. e. God. ^ The following lines are on the margin. 

172 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

70. [Vol. I, pp. 149-50-] 

[MS. Adler 4020, detached leaf, paper. Rabbinic square, about 

11x7 inches.] 


D3nn \rv<xhr\ nana N-mi sno onaDJ i:3iE'n [ujTiTb 
nvn wmp nois''' i'Nne''' 'h^n nivoa iinn pajni 
'Nnaj? nty niji^x DNnx nnxna ^si yj nn ~i''"3 msv 5 
r\'h^ nysn ajoia nj-n asna hjd n^'^n p2D [n n's lai'' 

ana'' in 35''i ^vi npi n[so]^N id ^;2 nvi? 'n" ni's^'pT ''lin 

nns [xi N35?3 DinNi nvoa mns jni tnd p ''Jvk 
irnx jjttn3[N] nan'' nn atJnai'x 'oy . . . n»^ nonnN to 

nntj' -lino .... na''E'' ckt w^jy ^DnnN^jni pb'dt 

mn N3ni>''^ . . . '•s nNntrsbN 'h's Dm i)?-! li or ^jin n''D 

in''3 pni) -jNati mna dnivn t-^v nt>5'N Nrnxys 

^ iji) ntyy p ii>xn wv'i i:''ni3Ni> d''d: 'iB'yB> DE'ai 

g xh'xh'A '3 yan3K mo lonN nxne''' d^ nb''b njxa 15 

'f Np3^ 0^51 nnjD -iiiaN nyxpi'N ''31 ijan li im 

^ XT' nb pn ''B' (f'SD nvni n^jn xnp n^ji in3'i 

'-;' nyot:' pp pi3i ''n3s nyoB' ^ ninx Ijy^i n^no 

§ invtni K^an^N nixi ni5n:p3 tntJ'yi mN:» i? in^i 

^ nion nx'np ^nvo i? ira >s ni'jDi'N n''npi D^ui^N 30 

noyi pncy inj pDNty^N ''3 ixai rpN'iy^x no'i^a ''S nnx nvni q^i 

po^jya ipD3') nniD i^''^': 1)3 xnp pp nvxn |N3 po^i 

niirni nD^JS^N eiNi5ni<3 dnj^n •inn3i dn3^x3 pxnpi'N 

DNJ^N inii Ny['']D3 pnD''NDi'N ''i'y n''^si syo pn3''NDi'N 

D''ni3^N N'in Thfvo xn'' ni) jx dw^x lynasi n''npB' 35, 
I nnx n33 ^ipn | [^JnyNoa^xi pn ^rs \ jsoi \^v^^ p | dx*n |d 
I HD^Jo ''31 T'T' ''^y I pn3i[s]Di5N nob yoj | n^jx '" -yro. 
vnvi I nyxD^N ppK'Dn i^x ;d | 3n3 n^vi npi coy DXiijK nnsi 

1 Read xn3N 'for ever'. 2 jj^ 'vileness 


Read probably Dnn''l'ini, i^Jji (v. n. 2 of ,J«) 'setting over, appointing'. 
Read rVi)\l^. 

< Read nB'yC. 

Appendix B (conclicded, to Chapter III) 173 

'3Nn3 IN I mail dn^d^n | i^un jriiini \ nn^noi'Na 1 ^h ^?3^^^«3 
I 'hw sijiiji nn dj | pnan cxn ma j Nsan unv 'i'V ^v'' Q^ 3° 
ni^JN I ^si >3xn3i n^^N | aNriD^JN nrnpi) | ppe'oni'N nantoDa 
mpi vc^ I m> I •\'ahv\ \ rh^i 'h-i np^vi | nna^ 3?^ nd3 | xin nv3 

71. [Vol. I, p. 150.] 
Oxford MS. Heb. d. 66, fol. 69, cp. Bodl. 2878"°, also begins on recto. 

n3n3? nsr nmas uiu 
'i:Ei?3y n'i'N 'irpoy (2) ■nmt) .... 'iJti'a: nnn '\& b'ib'ci^ (i) 
tJiNi nima xmi xno (3) "ijiiiNj 3nn -unvaD n[oi]n 'uaN nn 
, . . IK-N • Dinn i'3 inaoi cnsoi • nino b (4) pson Dsnn . . . pisin 
Nin 13 iv* (11) ... Mi^3 ''juw prn bip3 mvi (5) rnn''i naff iib' 
'ijDiD nu h^3N n'a^ nus nd3^ .Tni (12) a'-anai ^123 1^ ^^^ ;din Nsn 
. . . [wnaj^a'^ '33 ^1301 uod 3-1 Diir pnsn t^•N■l m^p'' ^5r1 (14) . . . y: 

Address (vecso) 

j)3 T'Dnn i^DiD Ta iTima xnii xno w3iB'n wT'p'i' 

anp* j?B" noa'' iujm D3nn p-i£n k'nt 

i3-i3'i 'mvi' nvn MJB'np 

Our Perah (Perahya) b. PoiD is probably identical with the person who 
(in the following fragment) heads the signatories to a statement of 
evidence. T.-S. 13 J 30', beginning missing; there is much scribbling 
between the lines both on recto and verso. 

unan nxt n3nNan (2) nn''3m W'yo^ myo ni^najtyi (recto, line i) 
Tisni (4) [iniN] nrui n^ijain minpi'i D''t3ait:^n (3) dbib' ^n na^ini 
n'HND (6) B'p3n nnso niry iiyi nnan ^y (5) moiy s^ni n'':ao nn3^ 
n'T- iprn» (8) nsfon ni»3 d'cjn n^ b''>i n'[i]j (7) '':''T i'ss n'-as ntrn* 
ii"ain^ (10) ina pa irniTy i:3n3 wyn^c (9) r,»i « nx 1NI1 n^i 
nis^ (12) ina-ip'>B' no niE'yb iv ba na»^'^^ (n) b'nt u'jnN ac'ioi' 

^N-IK'' ^13 ^y Dli'tJ'l 

* See Shekalim 5. 7. 

'^ Cp. Isa. 22. 23. 5 Probably Jlj.11 ' mu'ammil '. 

1 74 The Period of Solomon ben Yehuda 

> ij hb\h p ma 

ij nnmi'N i'sntj"' p ^dv 

u^vn iiBi'n p noi'B' ii nnty p IDV 

72. [Vol. I, p. 151.] 

Oxford MS. Hebrew 39, fols. 29^ and 30'', cp. Bodl. 2732, is apparently 
in Nathan's handwriting' and contains the following remainder of a 

i»i \xxs an Diets' \ih\'y-i kk" ns3 1^ 

Dnioi i:n3N m!?B' ^a yT"i w^jn nnbin ^aoi wtidh Dniax 

nwib nn^a dji i3''t}'S3 nsoaj 'a DiyniDi aiD 'a h'^ 

cs^njo WN1 D'D'vJi canNJ on *a fs)* wcsi uniN ijs 

DanariN nna trrn^i oan^xna pvnni) oai'VK Nia^ irosv 5 

irw noi Da*i)K v'jn naa ub'^r\ id naya' n)a ijai 

invva i'Kntj>' loj? ns tprr' i:nixi i'sne."' ni^c ■'jsd 

i:n'P' nnxi • nacji nam ^n • na'i'nN * pp^i • naion 

• nai2n niB'vi' • nanv inl'^'an xnni • na''B'3 ^3^13'' 

ny^ at" t^« D''ii'3ni lunp Qi^'B'i idiI'B'i 

■iitj' eii'N jwrno anp< yB« 

' A document, dated 1329 Sel. = ioi8c e. at Fustat (T.-S. 28. 2) is signed by 
Jacob b. Joseph pT n'a (ajsove, vol. I, p. 37), Moses Hakkohen b. Isaac, Joseph b. 
Benjamin, Solomon b. 'Alvan, and (in large letters) Perah bar pDID. For Jos. 
b. Benj., see above, p. 99, no. 6. 

^ Cp. R.&.J., XX, 79: a tomb-inscription of 1 159 at Tripolis has the name 

PIDV na vi DNon. 

= T.-S. 8 J 33' contains also a fragment of a letter in Nathan's handwriting to 

, . . ;n3 i'a . . . npno ba nsjn . . . nDt't^' smi n:-id innx mus* 
nVDUN n iliDni. 

^ Supply 7X isNItS''' 'may He gather (Israel) to Jerusalem (Ezek. 23. 4), to 
the Temple ' (41. 7), 

(to Vol. I, Chapter IV). 

1. [Vol. I, pp. 153-5.] 
An epistle from a community, probably from Palestine. 
[T.-S. 13 J 26", paper, square writing.] 

wnmaa n^onB* 

UN n5N p xnpjn ™n ninB* usiB'ni n''aiB'ni nricn '•snEi 

iriB" I'K n»N o Dion sno u'^jj; lonD^i ivvnii ^apn* b't bi 

mnai? vijx pyva nt^'K ts'^B'i ^''if'itt ^ai ui'B' D'on ;» nianyn 5 

D'M pin N^Ji p^n iJDv nnb pN loxi' nyiriM isapni Qion i:ij 

'n^n^N nT3T 
nptfo n* 13 WNii Nm»n \r\^'^r\ wh^n rmr\ ita Na ib'n ijj 

cpaij cnvD iiK ijim^c wni'E' ninia'ao b iiyi nrnen •'b'jn Ijy 
unijnh njWN-iaa iji^jx con ninDi) d^jd nty^jci) \\T^m\ ana 
K'Nio Don ni^aj ni^n^ii Dinc^o 121VJ0 ^a pina pica Dincb to 

ny DO uoo nnp^ n^i 'toh^n n Nnpjn irnnn nvi Dnnoi>K m* 

D1JS nsrS'K'n i^^sa [ine'jn N^aii irni^B' xa^i njcn iinn icn 
pncran np^i n-n^n nnan i>N uoo iinp n^si nnpii onann 
DNnp^i nia^jon, hr\ya\ r^N ^ ^^6i'^< Tua p iJNun D^anai 
lil^Dvi irwya i^Ji nnc la w no i>a iij; ^B'paji ito Daiiic'i 15 

> I.e. the nephew of Abu'I Siyad. "- = apl' QiyCT DCI, Prov. lo. 7. 

" ' The treasure of the state '- 

* Al-Muharram, the first month of the Muslim year, Du-'lhijja (month of 
pilgrimage), the last month of the year. 

'' ' Eminent of power '. 

* Cpai would suit better, ' and he (the governor) asked for bribery ' as regards 
the three concessions mentioned in the patent letter. 

176 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

D'Nam vrnt^D bij iniJi nipisi nnvi nipys nnNi? nud^Ki 
nnrn nrnai sioan nanv i»3 ubisj -ib'x ny v?n ^aiNSism 
P31 D'':ptn b isapnii ins dv D'on 137 nnsi nPE* bs nnxb -g 


i3Dy pin nni' ps voa^ itj?*'; nrnon *^nj ^31 nmnan f 20 
li'on 'jnx nn^i^N nox''! nanon itn irj'i p^n oni' pxi d^di ^ 

13DD ''i'N INi^n nB'X 15? -I3T 130O T-DN N^ pin pfll 131 niT q 

nnbi HB-nn n^ia i»p ht avDc^a imana nt nioa inx pne^J ^"g 

nrnoa &^ 

•'nu'B'n nnv q'-dh onb ''nnns on njn nB'N uDiB'n ?« noxi ViSPD ^ q 

N3 1DVD DaiB>n n!5''i pin na nns pin[n]i onDintJ' pin t^jn ^^ 2 ^s 

, , , lyn-ixa ij'nnn i^ • 

njtyn DD D^iinNiD B'pni' vpn ci*?'nn saa nnsn j?db> in»[p] . . . n : 

D'nND psnx ''j[x n]DNi D'B'nn ni^on na xian mua nEynnn 
Niani nit^n niian -ib'n is na'-bx nans Ni'[i nnj; d3»5?]o Duinr 

2. [Vol. I, pp. 1 56-7. J 
An accoimt of earthquake at Ramlah^ in December 1033 C-E. 

[T.-S. 18 J 3°, paper, square writing, size 34 x i9'6 cm.j 


nnipni onoiyi n^ua D'-bnan Qinan ini *a niaimb D'^nan 10 iss'' 

nnnni nibaiJ niprmon [n*3]''3''ani nnnn niae'i niTpn P nmaj 

iNS^i mm njn dud onb n\T xb 'a nii'QDn nnn mo ami nio-inj 

Dmnnno [bajn 

' The letters on the top of the words indicates that D^Xani should be read after 
□''NJfVni , so as to agree with the preposition VPX . 
2 The margin follows after this word. 

Appendix C (to Chapter IV) 177 

nninj o-ixn rn 
n^yiyi Dijia inb'j tc'xi n''^D:[i nr n]x nr D''n3:D im o^isnan ^k 5 

3B>r px Qivpiao 
nsiri n'lnjn nsp» ninai) dni ovn ny nn'^jj i^a' js Dn'i'ya d'nt'd o 

[aiJna^JD im 
" njn 'niDNn D^priJi nyot:/ [tjisni nnt<-i pyn ib'ko hd-idj njjnn dj 

[npijjui fixii ppiii 
jnsD D[y]3 bn wrwi ['a 1]^ pT ^'''DB'Dm n^aer f^sm n'jsi nivi 

pnn =[']pn:{D D'n[i D]n''nia>a2[i'] dud n'-a'pao dhtiudind anxsa 

noipcD px r''j'iDn ^5i nvoni j'nx^ fnon =31 ni^iy li^oi Q"n d^is! 10 

jiDni j'nxn nyaf;] ^\\ 

era nrn nann n*ni '['ji njioy ■'d loyr '':ai' '"v\ r\'<im'< b ^^^dini 

Di' nt5'i> □•'JEJ'a 'EJ^Dn 

px ba p nijona p [ojixna yna B'CB-n xn mD nac cnini' 

nsao T'jjD p D'nE'^a 

ny [^]aa [pi pj nifao ny d"d 'ban nvao ^aa p 'vnan naia ny 

oS'B'n'' ny nnm ajjn 
bi Wjn nni n['']n[a]a bi nna[D iy]i nnaa hy\ oae' ny nny Sai 

vn ne'xi ^asn px 
D'B-yn annn irxT noxi D"n Sx nniaj itij' D'a-na D^a^nno 15 

nnijax Dnpn D^^^xa 
nnian •^ry'a ny niaaiariD nu^^xni nmuno niyajni nissianD 

lijy niDipDa 
non ana om ncx u^n^x 'jDm •'hi'i nao^ pty^n nvpn nnTiiia ny 

nrn nann n'm 
n^*^ n''n '°x^ nr^ nr nn^nroi nr ns nr D\xn om Dvn nua mta 

^y D^rc^ ijan vni 
D''mxy moni nun vom ^ax nnnc' nx o o^a^o: vn xi' nn^niDD 

nb n[r5] dxi 
D^aEfniD D''ay ni'[y]n cynn nrn •'ja^ 'a isn^n -it^x uid na na'y* xi? 20 

Qia^o iD^nni 

' Isa. 24. I. 2 = DipnSD. " Jer. lo. lo. 

' There is no such verse ; probably read lyim f "IX? D'aOn , Ps. 104. 32. 

^ Job 9. 6. ^ Cp. Amos 9. 5 and Hos, 4. 3 ; incorrectly cited. 

' Nahum i. 6. 8 Cp. i Sam. 6. 18. ' Egypt, Isa. 30. 4. "> Read "h. 

2240. 2 M 

lyS Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

anyoD b'n nnsiJi nxn: nnxn 13 nsnai niiinj nintrp tic iniji d''3» 

3ie' Ninn ni^bi D*»n[p] d'-cd ini»3 nxns xi) ib'N cjnn n\T N^nn 

nvjini'i x'vi^n D'pB'ni' ninnn ^•li5^< Ijx ovvi^j ^idi ccji D'c-jx nisina 

^31 pN D''3iDii nvn Vinx n^^nas bm nac' '^'b nij? mn: najj' mw 

D''pjJis D''an ^^nti'v 
^ niarn om nna Dssrcn Nun bsi nmn nynn ^vi dht mm ijna i5ip 25 

bn '□•'iiK'Ni nuiy nistn hv^ 
njiDC nr Dmu o^yj omin D''wni' caw pxn ^y ly^yb nmn 

ca: pNi nn nm fx d''di 
niNnp^ D1V E'lpi? Dj?n ^jn 13T o rwrnh anun ^la* -ib-xi nDpity 

^N mB'n ijx Pixviji msv 
h^ ■\iw\ Qanb ^xi oiaa^ ijcip nox^i nsDDi oai Diva nnapn nu 

1SX tnno yw> "hvA "ji nmi nw' j)"ii' ^» O'oni cpiui '31 '^ ^x 

^nnxj xS 
nnima d: nivina D'^ai'do Dj)n vn ntrx D''D'n ^53 ■'3 l^njn dmi 30 

D''aB'J HT x^ 

nvi njHD^ pn D'ijnx Dn!5 ivpn nb»n n3xi5r2 itj'iv Dy iivn ^cij: dj 

[de'] on nny 
nonai onx [y]''B'Vi nms^ nmn id^jis; ^js? vomn fi-piy '•'i xh\i in^x 

[Dj'^hy ^y Din^i 
nxro D3l5''sii n3X3 x^i •oi'XDK'i' Drc p3 lyT x^j -ic'x ^jyi n^pjin 

[nr]3 xsvaoi 
D3TnD''i njjT DV3 n3D3 D3nx ias''i nityp nnna 5)30 c3T'nD'i 

[VD33 nnJDi 

D33»E'V1 D3''nipiX1 D3nDni QiaiDn [D3]''K'yD 03^) TiDV^I D3»Dn' 35 

[pxtj'i noja 

IXETll ^•mi'ti' 03^5 nt^X bl •[Dli'B' 03^1 ]31 Dli'tJ' DDXI 'TOT inSD 

• [DiJ^trn inxD Dii'B' 

1 Cp. Ps. 75. 4. 2 Hab. 3 -A. 

^ Cp. Ps. 79. 8. 4 Joel 2. 13. 

» Hos. 6. I. 6 Cp. Jonah 3. 9. 

' Cp. Prov. I. 33. 8 Cp. I Sam. 25. 6. 

Appendix C [to Chapter IV) 179 

Nos. 3-4. Letters from Jerusalem concerning the revolt 
of 1024-9 C.E. 

3. [Vol. I, p. 160.J 

[MS. Adler 2804, detached leaf, paper, square hand, torn across the 
whole length and also damaged at the bottom. Verso contains, besides 
the address, scribblings in Arabic] 

Address (verso) 

-i[3nn] Dnas* xmi xno na'np 33 \y''h'\ 

V3J noijiDn nnoB' xm p •nvjb ns b[Di -niys ^k st] 


':T'3riit< vi^E" D^e'[n'' Di^c iI'nk'] 
'D333^ ^jy rhvr\ ni'i *''3['c' n3-j'n ni'K'n^ insivx dn] 

•nianvi nniDcy -mans t-btini •ni»''VJ tb' 

•nwiDD niD'on TiiDm^ fiiosNi tiu 

•onun^ nnoiDi 'Dnin 3n d3 h'mih •one'' d' s 

•a''i'V3D ntyiu -c^i^DD inn!? •D''bi'nD 

•pstjji riB'n'' in^ 'micon -\yr\T\ nnss* '3ni [i'b] 

* nis imoB'* • inl'yi ''jyo tivj t iidd^ qj • 1133 

•msann '^b ny •hnt nn nosn nns "iTfjn 

':3 Tinx 130 .*. ribsift nD^Jon [inno^ niD p] . . . 10 

D''^usn •D*:3iB' in3n -lJ!t^'3 la'K •Qijsnn [ns] 

•niyna nnsi -niyn nnip3 npinTk^N •D'Jij[:nJ 

ona'sn nn''D3 * niyiETi nn^Ji * niyitt" pinn3 • ni 

PD Qivnji • n^JiDsn no^ai • D'Jprn m^oji • n 

•ni)^!! i:d 11 n^rsi "'DiN •':3d dijidn* iSq '3 lion [noj 13 "] 15 

nflB> u'^y i33n ddh irn hm 13 • n^yni n3[i]nN pN3 , , . ♦ 

HND by ni5''[nn]3 

. 31-1 , 

NPi D''K':Nn 1SD V5i'3yi Tbtro. ne'N nvjnn isb'o nsv nn n^ni [Di3inr] 
lun "icN •D''B'3iy irby lijuin ^s ptj' hy\ "d'b'p oyo Nf^s nstyj] 

•nynon by boion B'jiyn o DnvpD3 nioyb irnUNb nvix [p'n sbi] 

' Ps. 122. 6. ^ Ps. 137. 5. ' Jer. 51. 50. 

* =n:3-)1 «:-)». = =3in3E' xipo. 

« Ps. 122. ' Readn'•t^'^. 

M 2 

i8o Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

onin'n ^v i^sj n'si'N na'iJ'a nrvhv eioiDni a'ainr ei^N iB'y .... 20 

iT'ain inu pb'db' ''d ijdd e^'i inu 'i^a in idvj; nioa li^ax 

iTn o fniD\n nnn ino nanni -ip'v b n^ots' ''d mod c''! 

i» s»i nn urh nvdj n^ji nbon ''b D3\ni on^ b'^b' '> 25 

DNT b Dyi pmD"n ptim "nvp^on eipin *33o nnina ies[i? t^otJ^B'] 

• D'Dva ''JB' i>s3''jn Don ny B'om D'sS'Ni' xi'x 1 

Dj inpi? pi nrion nB-o sii'si' anpa nixD con nNB'n nn[n] .... 
nn''2pi DOTin np^'oai nyB'n eipin •'ci' njjn ^biVi^ y^a . . . . 
ins b yam n*3-in nyi[n3] . . . . b^ 30 

4. [Vol. I, pp. 160-61.] 

[MS. Adler, paper, square writing, beginning and end missing, left 
side damaged.] 


•■jiVT pN* nnixi Y'^ B'juni pB'N[n] 

'hp^'D »vn2 cinxn nnrn ■idd''i 13 pisn'' xij 

^i) DniDT yana "b-dhi b'B'.t nm ainra niyi D''y 

D^B'Ji D'B'JN iniD^i i'ai' mpn mvn ^d cisnyni D'wn i^'sni . . . 

DHDI ni30n |D DHD 

ny V3B'N ■'S^n ins^b* dhoi inn lovy i^i'B'nB' id nnoi nro'-xn [o 5 

[D'v]nn n33n3 hb-n 
Nsn nx " T'D^''j<inn ova niosn D'pnji rTino din^j inb-j n^i ixdnioi 

i[n]Dm B-ni oayn 
noy nB'N ly in^ns i>[< e'^n D'onui d'su nnnwn nnui i*:yn bi 

v6 ^'2 5<»3nD 

niND B'B' DDsy b)i iB-ja inp*i dij^w i^^i'-i no-^h nian^ B'3i:n awn 

N . 2np^ 

ny onm pun ny ono D'B'nn nB'B' ny nno B-jiyn jd nn^iiy avpjn 

[lijap]^! QiB'in nci'B' 
no^ ''nn nnyi nn^jow on^i'y n^i d^w^b' nisaiyn O'^'prn novy bv 10 


• Isa. 3. 18. 

Appendix C {to Chapter IV) i8i 

DrfNT i^^Ki • ^yv DD i3nj p -ins"Di B'Jivn isij^o nK'N nj? D:b aiJ'rn 

^3 ynsE' 'D 

iinjn cjiyn xs^ D'''3yn n^Non nnoiNi cm: nmbvi D^■T'I^n Dn"n 

[ino] niJiva ''3 'nrn 
■•nD i[nx]e'3i io'T'E'v itrB^nn:! unina loni Mj>[B''B']n ibdi irrpt 

. . . . B"N D'ccna tiVD 
DnaiDi 'Knt^Na n^npiii irMtj' nnmoi n^on n'psD nn^n un^no am 

.... D'VIIDI 

[pN n]y 133 DV ba 
iniJB' D[ip]» b N^N D''mn ij^n p ■h^h^ ai'D^nb dwd n^ nnuo 

.... ni^NT u irj'v 
nsi nnbi nna ^nan onjj' no D"pn3i niD^ja b*' px h'2 ne'ana'Ji 

[^^^ psnj 3ot y'^v 
" DV HK'n N^n -iHN Dipoa dini ^oi nnsn bx Sjis'' nnan i^ipo DJn 

5 [1^5' njj xbi i;sxi ^1]^? Kiji 

laB* Dnn D''D['n ^ith] 'a »ini »*3i ann ivjbi nxn 'jsd tf^x mr it^-M 

[naci rT'n:] n^ [nJnNn 
t:»N mNn ija nx ni'B'Ki nvn ;d di^b' i'n xah v^'i^'h^ nars* n»nan 20 

[jo D'B'jNni] ^•iiT'vna 
D^raun 1JS0 Dva nDvi n^^i' DninBi nvim nn^yi' d»dj nunon' 

.... ^JSD n^'bi 
WDty* nia^oa k-i pxa nnioa 1^?1i i6 "wv. mini man nns uinsdi 

[Dl^tr^ nip DIN]! 

nh^m^ [ninjj]!? [ovn] iix^ u'vp cix « • rinw ni'ni xsno nv!'' aiD pxi 

[DstfD^ U'lj^p DJ .i:ai5M 

D3 i« \T\m "H^N vjcvD ^a by irx «i pnsi ^ • udo npm nviB'^b p^'i 

"[irbvj Nan ba ^JV wn pnx 

b»[j wnuiw N^Ji] 1:^5 riB'y WNana nS u'-jivd ntat:^ liyn o oaoxi 35 

nniao i:"ni 'ni^bv 

' ' Our frail ones ', i. e. the aged. 

^ Cp. Ezek. 7. 7. 3 = ainan ione'. * isa. 24. 17, is. 

'' Amos 5. 20. ' Amos 5. 19. ' Zech. 8. 10. 

'Jer. 8. 15. 9 Cp. Isa. 59. 9, II. i" Cp. Dan. 9. 14. 

" Cp. Neh. 9. 33. 12 Ps. 103. 10. 

1 82 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

^e'^{ n s^i DT'ac'nh xb'Krsi \'b "itJ'N nvjnni nnnn 

IX ny yihv 

Dnam inp 'n bi anv iv3p''3i mav n^ nnioa mvj 

.... [^NyJoB''' '33 oy 
nswNT .... •'in E'lina n^JOT ^y i3n''i yrb nanx na inu'i 


muan nxi n nx ue'ii nn-'^sn noivn i>3 inn''i rjvta 


[nv]p^D •'i'D ba DnD"i nisnoj niao di3''1 3° 


D''B'[3n] pi ni3^'N3 nnoi nuan isvo nnoi nnua dhd nnnsisai 

. . . [D'pJiB'n DIN^Tl 

ni'':33i ni3in-i3i nipiB'3i nnia3i niaK'Nn i^v i^JDim n3-in inoi [flnT-ai 

.... [nV]D"'3331 

C33 niOT^ Dnyjni n'i'S'ivni nii'in3n inpij'Ji nonii 

[D]ni:5?^i d:is-i3 

C'K DnD"D vnB'3 '3 ^5i'a3^1 nnojn nijona r\^r\v ^3 

D n»n ntrs in 

n^»n ''J3 nn^NB' isx'i po3^ P»i3 ^3 '^s^c ly li'ty •■rN 35 

DU'-yn nbi33 

. . DnDi . . . ^N DHDi QB'i' Dirt^m nn^yn !>« one . . . 

O'D^D'^n b 3n inoi niaoni '^nni .... 


5, [Vol. I, pp. 161-2.] 

An epistle from Sadok Hallevi b. Levi to Ephraim b. Shemarya. 

[MS. Adler, paper, square writing, torn and damaged.] 

Address (verso) 

[iy]v3 [yi3]pn [[^Jt n'3 -i[pj'n nann nnsN 3-1 -io 'tv.'^ [ni>n3 nnaij] 
rovjn n[''Dn]n nnroB' ''3n3 tw\ i3''B'np notr* [n''3]i's [bi] 

The following only is excerpted from the exordium consisting of 
eighteen lines : — 

pi n''3 mnnn nB'np3 nann onax an no np "ij 33^5 .. . (7) 
nnDcy '313 . . . (10) , , . mins in^ no^s bi onvD ![viv]3 ynpn (8) 

. . . Tonn 

Appendix C {to Chapter IV) 183 

la's! nniN nara nxa nn:n nnaiOTi imj'N 'nv'j ^j[i]n lynioi 19 

bph noiD m\h Dy^'cn D'i'nan t» ^*i)^{ wn awn ijnui nnn nsipo 20 

- ^y- . 

np33 'ipn'3 ^ D'ii-ii cihv ^iSi- Nwiji ^'^n^K'y ria naNi) "inn 

1D3C'D [np2]3, 
nan hrts nijDni nw: noi -ntyS Iji'v vnr nSji inw [xi^] niN^ jn> 

■•a' ° w\in ^^Dt^" lann Tp^ T^ny -iis'>p3 niDnmn niD''B'n[i] 35 
E" px Ijn n^y ba n-hva dhj^d p |rnn [nan nn npi d^''31D 

Di'tJ'n''3 niinncn^ 
npi?:! TU31 nunvn ncna irrna oanj xin dji mavK' nr^a ni^yi? nan 
^mnnij inyna ni^yi p»n nnai ^i^B^i? li? 'nni ican ^su nx "ib-x b 

ijxi fyiv ^Jx 
px ba nxB-: xi) *3 lam riwsvin [^Jna nuniD 'nun^n lyob hd^s 

imons'i ti-iinn *di B'yi d3:b'''^ D'npxn nab niv ^np '•'a i5^Im^ 30 

i'XB'i miDa'i 

lb iTnn "iiayab nixbnn ano ixnp nB'xi nyx nynin ^^la^ 'irx Dnn 

na-iy ^sa ins'i'D n'nni nya i'XB'cn xbon iny lyana ijnpn >jai5 nab 

my 'nn inaB* Dnaooi TB'yo Dnti'XD ban ^a 7^ by imarb ' bi:n *bix 

nyb nan' ^^1aa nibB-i nisn: tb'J'ki nbaaio iniaji nB'bB" [imiaE'jD 

""J3J nb una •'ibn ^xn ^av n^obn pop 

' 'The arrival of, a noun formed from yjn as if the root were yi3 and not yjj. 
2Jer. 8. 6. ' Jer. 6. 29. •• Zeph. 3. 5. =^=irnbx. 

« Supply lb- ' ' To profit ' ; infin. Niphal of njn (cp. nXjn). 

» Supply DX. « Probably read ini3t bbuH. 

'" This Sadok afterwards occupied the dignity of Ab Bet Din. The following 
lines are cited here from Oxford IMS. Heb. c. 28, fol. 59 (cp. Bod). 2876"') : 

xin Dibs' -nnnai Dnm 'Dnxai biNnB*' (15) "iin wonx xb" . . . (14) 
bxnB*' babB* -^^^ nu 3x ''ibn pnv (16) i:i3ni una nB-mp nbnj ni33 
Nam (17) D3 ('ruins', a feminine piur. of bw) • vnibn3 pmon bx nnv nynn 
[3 . . . (19) •iTiimna a^c'cn •vnniax B'p3!:n •vnn3B' B'3inn •vnibin 
jujni Dann nna Tonn *ibn nb xJ3ni (20) xno nB'inp nbnj ni33 
inxn' no'xa (22) bnr3 3nan nr n'lDbni nay 3na . . . (21) , . . riivin 

184 CoTidiiions in Palestine and in Syria 


I N3 '3 [i:]^ njin o lam | nt ps* ;inn jnan nn | -i •'= Tp'^ inivi 

I noty ^jjanai pb'dt W 
\ npi" nS ^npa ij^sn^i | mv Sjn bn:n3 dji ohd | nun^Jj nvn ^^ hn^i 

I N^ 's n3T bnpn id 
aiti'h c" \-\^ I nNniji o^'cnu bi'snnij | [«]^n i[n]3^ n:ii3 nnM 

lov n'ni I ISIS' iJN 
D^tyiTa I i:niw dtib'^d )'"i[x b] I nnn: n«3 nu'K ny | [injona n 

[n]st< ^[3] npiiji I i:d[5)] n3^3i 
.... niinii'i | iviv[^ n^^b inyn3 | [n^i ni'jB'in* ny 3K'1 | [lis] hm 

^ahsDi yra | [xini] imn nxvin | [n3] 
O'lrp'" i'[t<i] I . . [vb] nor ioi'''i I [iDy ijnon ^[n> •^p^^ | [n3nn]i 
I [iJjTii^''an . , . Dyn . . . . | dtis ^db" 

I biiJB' n''n3 . . . ! 

Nos. 6-11 . Appeals on behalf of the Rabbinite community 

in Jernsalem. 

6. [Vol. I, p. 162.] 

[MS. Adler, large square writing, brownish ink and paper, much 
damaged, bottom missing; the stitches on the top show that it was 
attached to another sheet which formed the beginning of the letter. 
The manuscript is early, probably dating from the second half of the 
tenth centur)-.] 

n3yB' HD D13-1 ceo (23) ni33i3 3n3B' no nof imih 3n33 nuy nsno 
in3n3' (DN-ii't<n=) xh'&r\ (24) ^Di'B'n''n nyic^ p in: '-\ ''T'3xi •'ins t^Ni h^ 
in^ niryi (25) vcyo ym 'pn^N p hint i^yso iVK'p ;d D'ini'i mi'B'i' 
'pi^x p o np"^ inynin piji ... (31) ... ijiDjni iisn bi 133^ nyii 
vby y3B'Ji n^ann ny3 r^^rhwy' nD^J33 'n dv vb* in: -i (32) k^dd 
li'n!' in'ji K^B* n^JDH tj'sn3i li? icx b 11^31 min3 nni?;n (33) rmyo 
npty 3n3 ^ijy n3n3 nnx |n3 -ib 'pi^N p idn '3 pnis3 (34) n^x 
. . . 3n3n xisins' ny ^nide' n^i pc ^^'•3^< x^i npc' ny nny (35) ^\ Nitfi 

T.-S. 10 J 106 contains a letter signed by '1^5,1 pllS US n^D^H [IDp "I'nK 
'y3: •'li' ''313. Greetings are sent to DnSN '313 1X3 13N* n31312n 'IB 'pa3 

\yi ini: n3nn. 

Bodl. 2878°* contains a fragment of a letter from Solomon b. Netaneel tlie banker 
to our Sadok. Herein Abu Ishak Abraham b. Mebasser is mentioned (see vol. I, 

p. 96). 

' = D1DB". 

Appendix C (to Chapter IV) 185 

(recto ; verso blank) 

pni[ii n-i]v :na i[n]2B'3 Dip» ^[3121] r\ba-i '•k'jnd oni) nnnj) vn 

[ijspi] n^ ni>txi 

D'nijN Donrv np . . d . . p ^«iob> .... 1 ; nban nivnn <jsd ij^na 

[•'jsb D''Dn]-ii non nai) in^i Ton 

[i']3i'3Di Dn^ni 

. . . 1 :Dn13^v nrh n:)? rT<n ei[nn]n nvai Q^i'iia onon ntriy ^^^[1] 

.... 30 -icx ny 
ixi' n? wni3jJ3 ini: n^ni poD u!? hm dbh nwi it bub pN o 5 


pjoiji j!*ri»i' 13^ iniN npii 133TS; s<^i utJ'iaj n!' 1J''^i'^5 non anoi mv 

. , . . 1 TTIDni? 

ui) nvnnh }'-iNa nn^*t^' "nb owb oNni'x ini'B'''i ntrsj bai ^33i' ^32 

D'nijN D'p' nIj o '51 TiiN Dnni'B' oriK ab nnyi 33 V3k nnis f\DV 

n3iD . . . 

N[in 13] D3n''-|nN^ n3^ 31[d]1 DSnCN ^33i) n3n3 PT '•3 [N]i'[N] " 

□ns ''3 D3''m3N jnaoi D3jn3D 

|ni D'n^K [D'ji'lyD DS'TOD D51 IB'1''!? 3nn inU3 10 

[vn »]3 13DJ? itJ'vn IK'S nanon i'lrj D3^ 
bv nn^B' ne-N n'':iD3[mn] i:ii5N is3 ie'k nv niinj mv3 irnx 


iNnp''! im inDB"''! ni'B'n'' •'■'jyi' nniN pbm] n^sju D*3iD3m D''B'i5E' dji 

[nsna ni^B-b D]*n^x ^jx 
D':i»3m tyba nnijB' icn .... niyi yf 'cvo i'[3]3i in'a ^n 

.... z>bm D'&v Dm 

ijHD p Ilijy 3i''t3 UN 1331 Nin 13^5 31D , . . . pnS [[3] iinO 

[fi]''n^t< mrv 

i'3iJ riDi 'f 

, . . . n . . . ijia^ 

I More properly tibv. ' Gen- 45- 8. 

1 86 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

7. [Vol. I, p. 163.J 

[T.-S. 13 J 11^, paper, square writing, size 28 x 19-1 ctn.J 


' nlji^n^ ' ms'i D\n[^x] 'j'w ' ni^acni? xivo^ iD[n]i ;ni • ni^an 'ivni 
[Ni'nD 'ni '-10 'np [mjaa mxsn np'!5 •n^'iasnij nonsi ninai h^jn b 
• Nijoi 130D nm |ixi • nbc' ba par^n oann • rh-z B'xni ejii^N 
•n^^nnni? ini»3 vs^nD nvoyi -n^D apr ^''n' imsri noti''' 5 
* ni'nj * 'JD3 nann Dn-i3N ini io pia p ' n^sr ^31 ^l^5n b li" N^ci 
ni3i33 [ni]3nij?D -ai Dii^c fiiissn xk''- '01515? niSN* oy pJ? i"" 
ijDj; HB'v nt}'N3 'ima nicy'xi •mac iirn3 ^•3n •^•a nnp nbnpo 
lynr DN j'D'Ki n' nx pfn •'a ie'ndi nann wnii'B' 3nao n3 'a 
Dsnini Dvsa oyaa cin»Ji? Dn^nx nx -nTjji' oyn i5N 13^1 m 
DniS^v na^N ss^en 3m dt "isipi Dnjfs nnsi nian3 
'J3 Dy nB*' p njD ijj; -ia tkd na DucT'n i>v hyn [njaiai 
Q'Viap D'pini D'a'^c DNtt'Di n'yn mio nvni) na i'sjiDB" 
•n^jax nisii' 'c nu i)an •n'li'x CNan ipv' n^ fyob •nninai? 
i'lpa Tinh's ^ijsnn^i cnpon nvB* 3310^1 'iTrinsy \yvh\ 15 
vi)!? mDV3i "i'B'3 nwrn nn ^n onibvai ^inai cnps m 
n3n pxi vbn nnni nv nraiy aipo " ^a^^ So n^ann 'd»3 
na 1:3 px DjfD 'no uni yup pin3 ddh n3ia dj n3T 
wan" N^ fVD^ n'3n3 np^jj njB" ^3 nsfini mspoa Tfoh 
'^ n'3 ^y 3in p^Ji ddh 'prfs mcvsa e'nipn ~i»y iis n^l^iyn 20 
[nat' D]nva p^^jon isai hvb'Ij iri'' oni? nvni^ na n^wn n' [ptn]i' 
n3T' mi'B'i « E*' i^N b^no naci inaiD fji^sn nibci nnnnra nictri' 
[3n] w\<\ 

n'jjiai d'n :rT)pn niy utn» O'jann na 'pjy 
'aia 3p5J' psj naw b'k-i 'vn noi'B' 

[A similar epistle to Ephraim b. Sliemarya is preserved in T.-S. 13 J 33*, 
the right-hand side of which is torn off, thanking him for his effective 
pleading on behalf of the needy Jerusalem community. In phraseology 
it very much resembles the above. Of the signature tJ'XI Sn nD^B"] 
Uma 3py^ pxj [n3'B'* has been preserved.] 

1 Cp. Prov. 3. 4. 2 ='nbN. » =p-nn3Da. 

< Cp. Ps. 48. 3. » I. c. Kedushah and 1313. » = \>}frfl>'' 'n^JN. 

' The meaning is 'The affair of the Rabbiiiite sect'- Read perhaps "JS?. 

Appendix C {to Chapter IV) 187 

8. [Vol. I, p. 163.] 
[T.-S. 13 J 26\ paper, square writing, size 29-7 x 19-9 cm.] 

Address (verso) 

liavjii nann nmax ino pj5 \i k'nt jn^tid ii '-\-a pij nsa np'i> 
31 yc' •nno S;si 'nrv vn^s '.T' -non 


' DnnNni niannn icsjii • onLnJaxi ^m31^{^•^ He's 

' n»niD -1N31 niSnn b nrovvni ' • on^Nmi nuitan nxB'i 

nnnx na'Lii incni iionan mn ainn mxi • loyiD nioi 

•[njnin nem npin sinm tiisd d"pd 12:1 p:i 'rnav ^ aiD D-^yi 

'n» [ijp na 33 i3^n:i wTp^i? an nuai nbe' mm • mc'' n^ini 5 

• -nni mn naijji • -nx B'aii'n • -non cxn i^?^^D warn 

i[ijD h'pfss ' niv noB''' • -na b oi^'c^ • ma nnj^ • mj; ynani? 

i:n*3n " nn ninn nmas im no 'np 'n: 'aa [3 ' nisj 

•T2[niN TinjN uooi nbvn'^ spy mvt: an m^B' wains nb- 

B'lpn my ya • T'naiD nam ' inon D'ano • loii'B' ^B'ln :o 

[d]vd 'no insB'Ji ubm irnn udjjdj "IK'S nan D''j3nn na 

ncN Dipi[n]ni na ^3 uniN D'i'aiN nni iri^iy naa nti'N 

[DNTjn n:B'a qj dvdsj manjni ni3[Dni D]''aDin[3 i]ri>s? 

[njB* ba DJ^DaariD vnti' D''3Jinn ana ii'''ax *a id» nnaa n^ 

[n'ana] npi) ua-isini D^amn B'laB'i ni^''nn ^lDaDD ivjdj 15 

[nnjDi ayi3 nno nB'3i{j'D i?x"iB» pNi irby na-x D'oon 

li^j WVD n1?i iDB' jyo^ 101; ijy dnm urns nn33 nnci naia 

Dnins ni3iva on dni onvo pN dn 'a irvniNO mmb Dipn 

trnn sidv na ns wni'B' naai hjso d'hj on tayoa ijax Dvm 

■■'lijoi' ump' 100 ni'NB'ni irnnjN idvi ini'tin na'' d ;a 20 

1r^5^1a ^v i:''nnc3ani inaT atai' pa '•a nam iri'[i:3]h unya 

irn^'an j)db" ms iioa nani' ni hnK'niji pmnnis ybv^ 

mm pi lotr hri naa'io n^n pipe NE^ri inya 

nv3 nam I'lija b di^e*! ' lanoD nann nii'd ■jdi^b'I 

3-1 ytyi njan cipn n^j; 'oa Tinx 25 

' Read Dn^mmi. ^ ' To plead ', from mJ'JD. 

' His maternal ' uncle ', i. c. Sa'adya b. Ephraim (see vol. I, p. 99). 

i88 Coiidiiiotis in Palestine and in Syria 

9. [Vol. I, p. 164.J 

[T.-S. 13 J 13", paper, square writing, size 27-4 X i7"6 cm. ; 
cp. J.Q.R; XIX, 727, XV where the class-mark T.-S. 13 J 13' is 

Address (verso) 


^3Di • si'iD'' kIj np'' pn ^33 iB'K • n^ij!»n "i3nn 

in p • nno t>si • ntv nix ^T' • NijiDD Nin nD3n 

• 3-1 uhv UT-p' KB''' w nnoty ni io pa 

nsiiiyn nsn p dj ' • 3-1 i^d nnpo • 3nwo i''jn[i] 5 

^3 yninS '^3^ n^onoi vi'b^ ''B'Tit 

''B':k irnNO pp "itys" ':pvnn in^^ -nw 

■iiiD p 33 wj^t 1^0 "^3pi D11S mctj' nnxD 

cnK'yi nyeri jij ne'n 'li? ni no p fn p irao 

li'sx m3n: na'Ns ikvi 3inr ' pcc'i i3'3inr lo 

D3m nr a-'Uph D3n hjeti in vn D^ajinn '3 

Dncv riNrn ijpinn \a nph i33"n[nji i]Db iJDS 

* N 133T'31 niC ^33 wijj? nB'N 3in3 DOint 

'"N wi 3vyh5 ntyw xjyc'in m''3 mis 
D'"n pnN3 ^'' 3it:3 mirb mafi n3t:' i:s3'' ^snB" 15 
I'nsT' inijnp [b dJi^b'i nus ni^tyi iDii'E'i 

l'''3T'3 [3?^] PSJ n3''B''' B'NT XH nci't}' 

yj ''li' ■13 "iB'[3o] -ID T'D Di't5''n'' '[:p]T n'3intn i^3p 

''3S3 DHD nVB[n3l] 

1 Ps. 48. 3. 2 Instead of nV'Jn. 

s 1/8 of Dinar. More correct n''J''DK'1. 

■* The N is the first letter of the next word, placed here to fill out the line. 

Appendix C (to Chapter IV) 189 

10. [Vol. I, p. 164.] 

[MS. Adler, paper, square writing, much torn and faded, contains 
a letter from the Jerusalem community to (so fully on the address verso.)] 
THK 13N . . . (5) [a^N*]: 6p5 p . . . (4) 1^3 nops^ ... (2) 
. . . nny ^■:h DD^o Q''3in[3n] ... (6) [D']]iijn o^hn d^c'it ^^-jn 
DnB'yi nsD D»n i^w ... (8) ... ijyn: ns'N 'Jiyn irn x^i . . . (7) 
. . . d''3inr □''B'i'B' irljs; ^x5^': riNrn r\vi>z\ ... (9) ... D'ainr 
□nn'' . . . (11) . . . DD virb nJCD itb* 'd n^mn |d xh\2 . . . (10) 
n'3ia nnpii wjnsim ... (12) [oo-njn hv Q'-ddib'd nipnv ^npi' noica 

D3*^N unisB*! nuDB'o CT" ["^3] ... (13) D ^33 Qi3inrn ■h^ 

3B'B'3i omoni'i D'Dtj' ['Dm!' D''ipD i:ni] ... (14) ... irjvt n'^Jt^ 
. . . cnpn •'b nwoi" itypai 3inn ■'^'^[3] ... (15) ... ti^-^-^ irnibB* 
noi'n . . . (17) mtoKi insn onan 3py' no ijy ub moj; . . . (16) 
•\h^ xinhv N133 13^3^1 ... (18) nijvn ^ijis u^rpr isx nnxn Ijn i^m 
Tmr\ nnDn3 iub'di n^ O'^mn"' "•'vh iTn[ni] . . . (19) inons innyon 
..." i'3\n bya ^'n13^3 i'''a3:B' ^[s] . . . (20) 

Signed by ■jDii't;' D'ovyD D^'E'n'' 'CJN H'nK 

11. [Vol. I, pp. 164-5.] 

[This letter, printed by Harkawy in Osar fob, 1878, 077-81, probably 
dates from the time of Daniel b. 'Azarya who was both Nasi and 
Gaon. The ending is . . . miDK'i' t2"sn ^l^N nJE' ID [ICmo '3 3n3J . 
Now Harkawy himself (Magazin, 1877, p. 217) states that the date 
nilDB'? D"vn ^PK is upon an erasure and is uncertain. Very likely the 
original date was DOES' fji'X = 1057 c.E. We excerpt here the essential 

["] DB'3 ' '1J1 •" n« pimo n3t '1:1 D''^B'n' lybv i^jnc (077, 1. 25 ff.) 
nn (078, 1. 7) . . . n>ni3S' du'ik }'1K3 -\^^ -n^nx ^n ni>ijn 'js W-wh 
'E^js irnN INC (13) . . . nii'iNn (8) ^3 dnnaon t}'nip[n] nii'np on 
•moNJ nnpDi (15) . . . njiDN S^nd njiE^NT t/b^ . . . (14) unhxj 
. . . njHDn •'jpr nn'oi ... (23) ... njvs n3''K'' cnt N^B'jnD dj 
. . , (34) . . . nybvn nnan Qij3nn my i:x dJ? D^ymoi . . . (30) 
. . . T'on t6 'M niN3 D'biDn . . . (35) . . . d'» ^yn b)v [o'sjcun 
B'P3i'i nmriK'ni' anyc^n i^y 1:33103 on •'3 non^j uij pxi (079, 1. 4) 
... (7) ... itrnpD inDi) D''Dn-i3 n^i'cn' !^n' 3it;'i' nn^^oi niDm {5) 

' Ps. 122. 6; Jer. 51. 50. 

190 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

(r. nmN) d'jnx nixi^ Dijn\sn mi Nin nrn B'nna D-'i'B'n'' h\f. htfrw" (9) 
nsni • D^aunnai n^ann noriOT^ DinvOT bj? aaioi? ninnaj? (10) pinij 

1B>N' nv3 ^Npaty nis/o ^js^ ion \ihv nt:n ^3 n^<r nriTi (n) ^vrh^ 
Dnoy vn i:ihvr\'< ixai nnN to uvn j'ns nx na^i dt- (12) noes 
Dvn npi TND Dnoy uc^i E-npon oipo Dni? isnn i'xiE" ijaD D'B'jn (13) 
li'i'snM i'lK'J bo Biipon n^a nn naji nn 'a cxjn nn^^p unni (14) 
moy ne'N DTivn nn wpi 'dhiti i^v nnoo n^n"! Nisi muE' iiy (15) 
D^ann nmin u i'i'an: (19) na's mpon Nin (18) . , , \hv njoOT (16) 
njno iPN-ityi (20) n»3 b lana^ dm 'wpe'in nvn " ija^n bio 
bi D^i'^'n'' nx -i3itn bi * (r. n^an:! iTrpi) nanj nrpt n^mi'np nnoi 
p . . . (24) . . . ni3-iaai ni^ana nar Dtr nab h^ nnix ni'sjon (21) 
aona ro^v^ 13 nucv ■'T' ptni) (28) . , . D^ni^'N 'nT' bij (25) iixn 
Qipim nini3iToi -ni nsiVD (29) ni^ispn 13 • di^cit pa* ijsi • ntyp 
. . . inm^ii ihi'iji w-fm n^^N (30) in3 nanni • Qiosoi^iD niniDJiai 
ivnii'N 'Dm hh\ 'na ouciin nn d"u 'j?*! '3 (33) ijjii . . . (32) 
nirni' n^yn mis ^53 nxxb acsj l^y myi (34) DiJii^Nnb ion nun -ict< 
n^i'B'iD nis-ib nnoiij'i • nTiiDin jpn!? (35) • nTinia rwph ' nTiinsB'N 
. . . Dnoy nae'b ni'W* ui? nn'n (36) t6 p 'i'll' nmnni nnci 
nn (2) o uvn j^nxai D'^tniu nTp 'w ay D"'J3its'n . . . (080, 1. i) 
• Djnj (3) mns napa fiD3 'sna VDiD-isno n:p n'n oni nann □'■nnDD 
bb&nrh cmn (4) nn ^jy moybi onycn i^y aaiob n^i'ia'' ir»n k!? p ^bibi 
... (9) ... nain (5) nnitra sbx tidv sb nr bai nnoD psi m bipa 
i'NiB''' nu i3''[nN I'yi] d'cb' lom by dx (10) ■<n ;ycnb loa wi? psi 
ij^by nay lai •ibdo Tie u-iNn ^[3] (n) oymnbi arrba ainsb 
saS Nvvbi TnDnbDm nytyn (12) npvo ib^xn nica (r. man nns) man 
p D31 -na 'atyvi Ty (13) nsiboi ps -ibN^i -mp 'no Dibc ps 
nn33 i6 Dnmann (14) onx nB-xa Boonab b3i: xb -itj-x nionbon 
lira i3Dx: wan (15) n^n'o ub iTNB'n xbi 'ps 'ac'v bo U'nnv 
i3mx D'ai Ds irby (16) ntyx n^yiapn D'pnni oom 'ihh^ onxs'^m 
lyan' ab ]Vob inxbob (17) niana mbb pans ux n:{5' baa o'Diyo on 
n'anm ainn naia anoi (18) 'mpo baa -\&t6 B'lipn Ty bs D'xan 
unty wnty uun uun (19) loxb mpimn moipon bx ainab uaivin 
ub nitjyb D3b iixni • Niai (20) ne-x bab D3b onow ijwn '3 
nscb (22) '3 ?iN iJipis'Da moyb i:a i'n 1Jm^5 'a . . . (21) . . . [Da'niann 

1 Read D'DSnnO. 

Appendix C (to Chapter fV) 191 

innn ;ptn nav an s-in irjoNJi irn''i'E:'i (26) ... niyn miD niNcca 
1D33 WSJ Dt^i iDvy ^j) nnun n:;'N nn (27) mson mini ^"3 Ni^n 
nhai psB' HD Dai? n^r t<im • D''55t^'n''n nxvojn nnNa'n (28) ^jy ^cm 
ini^VDi nnsi nnx b (r. lajj^iv Nini) 13•'3J''^^|^ ini . . . (31) ... nana^ 
ims niari' niansin nuoa vnux dk'i iob' aina^i •inne'ai (32) inmai 
. . . ni^sm nianaa ^^ cnpo ijj DTi'tn (33) nn ^s? 

12. [Vol. I, pp. 165-6.] 

(i) [Or. 5544. fol- 1. vellum, square writing. Verso contains (in 
different handwriting) formulae of letters to a Gaon, the academy, and 
other communal leaders.] 

Recto, after a long alphabetical exordium, reads as follows : 
[there follow seven lines] .... ni^Un nvisn Vf\\> ni^np?3 U'nN DH 

[DijjmDi] . , . . N Tiy nj Dan^ys aainN i:dd m d[';^e' inc] 
[irSvN n3] •^t^'to iptn pHs^ "12 pint no nr nnis [Ij]^ U'nsi' 
[tot pint n]D E'lNH nr i.ti nmcn Nvnsa na'N ' om t-vd 

ij^D in»iN mnwi nnn ^osa 1321 nxD hnj 

n^jci DVJ D[vn] i,Ti bbvb iniJi j'nxn 'j)[B'n nn]o3»3 ^dji ncnin 

[i]j)*3 dNns vijv [li^Jsn [njie-a nts'N inwD i^N pna mav ov n^n" m 

[n]ann ynui v^y majJi ininn''i n^nca iK'nn nnpu nnras 0*13 

[vas] inixna isivD |\xi nyn bv no ^si: Ii-in-sdii j'lna ns'i vasi' 

[n:Jnon nir I^k pyvi '^ innpimn natf-i -laB-in vhi^ nxa ng'x njjnn 

n5?[s] niNia a-iN^ li? lan: sin dji d^w .. 1 ... on vn 13 in^v nS 10 

[psi ipr] nriN ii^jn noN o [b» -i]ijf3 pn ^b ivsni li? -ie;n i^a npi)! mai 

N31 Dipo[n 2rj?i DDici] mu "iNt^ji nrn nuan b nini ^i) ;a i? 

''ywb [3]y^ai Da''i'VK na nj; loipDo Tmui ■riai'B'in ir^x idix finno 

'3i3n 1MX Dnx nnv anao 'nansin n^j mr\ ijji "nnip nnvoK'i iv . . . 

D'n -layaB' tynipn ni^npn b[a] nzh •h niM ^ij vTsn anao •h lanai 15 

'tyi px ny nai'i' ''vsn laj nyso I'ae OE'ai njis'b nani) pax x^ »a 

UN unixna f-sn ^^ pkb* didi •'Jiyjn ^a dk' nioh ni'^'n* iyi 

uanai v^y 13^ [in]n [n]xa''3i uiavy ana»n nra numan 

vhv iDin lu-in [u'']i'n3 unaaj irnx oriNi lyion nr •h 

xS ipnsini p^J b^ mun^itj-i iniprm innryi 30 

" nxD oanae' ^sav p bv vs nns'' si) 055X3 xini i^ca^n 
There several lines follow enlarging upon the merits of charity. 
Address (verso) : pnox lax T'E'^X . . . . 13X yiffbii 
1 Rhodez, cp. Gross, Gallia Judaica, 626, s. v. Din. '^ Read innpiTrin. 

» = ^xnB». 

1 92 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

(2) Bodl. 2862^^ fols. 70-74, contains formulae of banns (nimn, 
fols. 70^'= and 71=^) and of a colophon for an owner of a Bible copy 
(fol. 71^). On fols. 7 lb and 72^ we have a copy of a letter of introduction 
from which the following lines are excerpted. The writing is certainly 
of the eleventh century and probably even earlier. 
nixiB' 33N , . . ;nw nnxB' nmsn b'Iip oy riK'np nbnj nua . . . 
mxnai nsion bpf^'a ^vw ^ ^a 5 ^a d poy naDmn laanvin ^y-rsh^ nxtJ'a 
Ty D'^e'n''B xn ^^a t unp nx nxdi ;xsn n''jjx ''P'ji^d ^npn i:'ii'SN 
aD irjiiN riNJD ma^N n^n unp n^ai • n^D ci/ij? nu m:i3' ' d^x ^"wprs 
xin Dj na^b miN inn n3i:i tj'^ ps mnn ^a li? la^oi ^a b pi 
r^'D^i nai) iV nvnij ■hhr\ nniB' tib* 13»» cpui einipn mpo ^n nnnncni' 

1331 imijiD ^nx ''B'3^? ■'[onnJnD |y:3 nae* dn 'a unv x^ dj ^jiv \\-^h 
D13B' tnoi iDnn bnui npnvn ns u^nijiNj "'B'jn . . . lr^^? nb" nu h-2 nun 
E'i'iB'D D'Nun •'laB'i mina 3in3 nr 131 nnc' os'-jai' 'i!5j m'S3 t.^n 
'i3i '•> [tjion ^T i^Dj nrniN3 dji niD^n3 B'lon dn .n:i:'D3 ^3110 Duin33 

13. [Vol. I, pp. 166-9.] 

Appeals on behalf of the sick taking the cure at the hot 
springs of Tiberias. 

(i) T.-S. 13 J i' contains a declaration of evidence beginning 

n5>[w]* -o. nr ^b ^'y. ijdjsje' n^n p hdd^ □'■Dinnn qiij; i3n (i) 
ijDiD rh\r\ mis uxsoi nn3'£2 njnD3 -ib'n nnovon (2) irnx i'B* nmi'B' 
i:b m3n:i . . . mx 'js nxB'a vai n<3ii3D (3) v^i^^di v-i3ii nDD3 

ID^Jiy nui? noaj hw, iniNDC The document was drawn up '<^\ff av3 

nu xj^^m x:'':d nntiB'i' n»s' n^e* h^x t^nnij nw nE'i^e'3 n3B'3 

. . . DXDDa3. 

(2) A detached fragment in MS. Adler 2804 contains a letter (of which 
only the left-hand top corner remains) sent by (1. 8) n''VOn 1JX UDD 
nn3*C33 n:''nDn to Ephraim b. Shemarya. One of the lines has the 

word nnoven. 
' -iJiba [3 ''Jiija X3ia. ^ = 'ji^b ui. 

s = n'lnbx. * Read Dn31DB>. 

^ See Sabb. 104' and also Alphabet of R. Akiba (in Jellinek, Bet Hammidrash, 
in, ao and 56). 

Appendix C {to Chapter IV) 193 

{3) [T.-S. 16. 248, paper, Rabbinic square writing, size 29 x 32 cm.j 


T^'N xaro nivih w nia''B'[''] tib' ^hvt. 3p[j)'] 

nrn d^iw dnio iyt<n b '3 n^nn mvv ivmn^ [miE'ni] lonaas 

iJniD" T'33ni i:niio D''V3)ni unntr bnjnc '[irs »•' xin p^nx] 

31J3 n^nybi nnsD2 n^nph -ajjE'i' no [m o^priji i:nvvj fi^pnm 

T3 t^K ipitnn[i Dna nan ^'^ noino ninn xinn niu n'ni Jiaa] 5 

'ji inyn 
nwnw w^n p ==31 v^n h'^ loiy nwi [na'a pon] .... nnyi 
iraia nijjD'p ly^jn fiidtj un' ni^ais i:nax nncw uTiiynss 

nnnpi dv ^aa [nanji ^ji mj^iki nio^ onnon idx: uai di^qin wj'v 

•'B'N-ia D''i'[ij i3]xi iDipoD n^v ^Ni DIN niD' * ^t irnm hidni onax 

'CNni nwnD 
V3*y lacni i^Ni mx nio' 1:^ nxian pNi n^onn D''on Dip»^ ninsB'D 10 

niD' D'-ri? ''yv^n i:ki 
INB-v -laa unaaj nnxi nvnai? doivj ioni nmaij innx'' bxi mx 

y'jna Q''3»n chn D*'':5?n 13n -{ys hy\ omv^ D'':''S)i ci'B'aj^ 

^33 iRi: iTiiaN jnjM n:wnn nnm:ai nsiajn nnsya [in^n:ni i.Tnivn] 

nijimpn ^i? "> mnin mar i^ .^[nn] jycb Nnij:D ■iDi'[n] 

pvT Titavi nja^n miopa twd nvT' "irSi 15 

bb njiv Xing' nrnn ^53 n^sn i?3 inw xdyo jjob'm] 

npT pn m onoron i^nx -ly^ d'' 

(4) [T.-S. 13 J 23".] 

Address (verso) 

ip -ij a3 amo ptJ'njn aK'nin acion h^ ' bip'' ni[n]na • bv notya 

•niiivsin -lann ■'i'j; niii 

nann ii no np nj aa ja • n^no bo iSjivi • nl?yD pw n»K" 


^ = 13\n^N. ^ Zech. 14. 13, 12. s jot 3. 31. 

' This statement I could not locate. 

= Additional, cp. inV. See also above, p. 75, note i. « = WnPNI. 

2240-2 N 

194 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 


non av 'hi^b'i apm 'nipni nnnNi 'niNn ii^j'bi -nnni mi'B' 

■ii ID nmp nhnj nna in'p''^ nj vn' "n[3]D ■'Jsib' psni -f'^y 

nann i^jsj 
... (6) insni dann ino (5) pj aa p . . . (4) .... rh-wan 

unip' NE'* 
Dnan n^mvn *:b> 13» . . . (7) o'i'nja m^B' an nS5;[Dn] lann 

BpB' ffjaw 13N o 5)11 • [t]i:]Dx:m d^jptni • D^arnni onann i» 

. . . m^c D'-nB'i (9) 
pDj)(ii) -11V i-iDc nSuon nann i:''3[nx] niaais i3[s] pynioi .... 10 

onovDn 131ns 
13 DioDin Tixm (12) DiDn[D nsjnn] tj'pai' .... w^k D'xapjn 

. , . B>anin onaa 
innana nsn ^as . . . (14) . . . nnSyn nas li? ono^ai oao ia (13) 

ns . , , . nnpivi omv wnis-iai (15) 'ijinajo ni^ayn inaB'nca fjci 

umN D3 13^ 
iiv n»B' in["nn] b^ aina!? liisni unK'a (16) i3in[Kj "itt'aa ^a 

tv»^ nxra i5J''n[in]i' 
onw i>jn •nrT'i'iiD ^v ^lonni •DrT'^i'W v^as] oinni 'tin'hv on* (17) 
H1JBI nvvn ano 'D''ppinB'Dn D^^'pn •D''p3Njn oninai •D''p''»^'i 
• D^vn iniD^D • mis -npi • onsn itrm • ma'a y^nn iv axan 
inai N^ ^ iii iK'a: pjno nnani noxi d.t^jjb' • DnuiaD wvhr^^ 20 

nB'v p^JD^ n^nii naion inoiia Qiijyn oy nB'VB' nix ncB' 

iJimi'B' na^^N Hn^c nsni inon bv"^ vow iDm ^y Qimoa nnB> 
'nanu Dyjna n^ainr ''jb' ^b lanni inj p ana loe'i mtivt iiy 

iCNa Dni?s isa nnoanai inona nt:'yni 'isna cin'iii'n^i onbp^ 

Isnjn laioa lymi'B' ov ncvn fapn: ncsi ijini'ND naBf bpn 25 
nxan bv.-\iif^ u^nN nanj dv iSi'a: [-iiajifa loiaoa u^^jn ainani 

• Cp. Deut. 33. 16. 2 Job 7. 15. 

^ Evidently after writing till QiainT, it was decided to send another messenger 
in addition to Karim b. Nathan. Hence IJiniPB' was corrected into DTniiK*, while 
from dyijna the plural is used. 

Appendix C {lo Chapter IV) 195 

'33 ^^^51 ^^^e hi q^jdnj [»]ti ^j; dh'^j? p^n" Dips ^ao 

•njnni n^an ^a ^3 [^dk''] nipn nvvi niD"i ^svso no 

■i'3 -i3[nn fnajn fnj nvj [hr] ti^j^: di^ci yyhv^^ -njni ni^xK^i 

TD' ni3'-ix3 " isN xihhzim np[i]3 [o^jinjn Dnovon inav 30 

(5) [T.-S. 13 J 26', paper, square writing, size 28-7 X 19 cm.] 

Address (verso) 

• [nr]v nis ^n' n^iyon nann '^y ini na ip ij 3[ji>] ^'h^rf\ [n"nn] 

nnn niviii n^onn moy iiii •in ip m p • nno i5[vi] 

•[3i]iv» hn 'an vtJ» tid^p ny^ 'noNi m^B- niny -m^c 


•niaJviD nws^''i .nia^pa nini'^ni 'msisn nmai Tiistav niDi!?B' 
np''^ Tiian^ ouit: o^B^yoi •nia^i' ai!2 dk-i "^'niepn^ D^a •'m 
[ni3]ui • N^siDo nioan • n^iyon nann ■hv -ii no ip ■ij ni[33] 

'h pnv '•ni'iD'' N^ T-aix onan ns^x -s^aiD 

[n]y p '^i'Ns ''313 nnn ^n^.t ini3 ffl'B'n D-icy ini -16 -ip ij aa p 5 
"bn 'b an di^b' nnxn nann nb" ton ciijiy •^^rh "mn in 
B-D N^ 'fiDiaD "lan Tarn s^ "inaB* nlsyn* nivo invisD^ 
ni^j'NB'n -inny [Djunaon myj dni 'fiDina udd '^vn 
ismB'i 'la-iB' aiD njvB' nyi 'dn ^a nxc •in-iya nnnn 
•innnij ^'xb'n nvon niijNoi ni2B'[t<i] V^\y(. "'i]i'[a] imi'B'i lyni 10 
isaiDi IXVID bai wai inya'' mi'B' -nnyn^ ib -inon^ m 
['jpvjnni ia iDim una nB'x ba "^B»B'ni naajn lanao "wi 
"D'tiT'p 'JE* non' ainr na'j? nyanx n^t la's nw 
noB' no!;B' all -id laa^n fprn ^jsno D'^uy d^di^'B' 
nnyo all n» pa p ia^ asa 33Vi psn 'Dimn ib p3i< niv 15 
'» p VB' ''i^n i'NioB' ii iD airiN db'3 py cinij '*n*iv 'd p 

1 = pya inDB>j. " cp. Ps. 32. 7. 

» Cp. Job 28. 16. ■• Read H^T. 

' ' Under the boughs of the lotus trees of the Gan Eden.' Cp. Job 40. 21, 22. 

* The reading of these words is uncertain and also the meaning is obscure. 
' =n''?an. * ns 'from every newcomer' (Vnnx). 

' Cp. Jer. ;a. 23. 1" i?3 ' I entirely rejoice '. 

" =r3ni. >2 Fori3B«B'ni. is Kirat = 1/24 of D. 

" Probably identical with -|iiv p T'yD p (?) XXOvh^ nSJiaX T'B'i'N mentioned 
in Bodl. 2876'"'. In vol. I, p. 168, 1. g, read %&^r for Sajir. 

N 2 

196 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

nniD HB'j mxi' njn:i ijdo nnp^:'; aiavn p n'^'^'o^ 
nni) tymn nn3''t53B' onovDn wn^ n^h^^ ra. i^^ 
3n3 x'-a''! nno nnx ^ai? D"'jpn nnann •'jai' piijyn 
T'axn innn isb' i'lsa'' Dip»n p^iim ncyjtj' nm 20 

I'mDI }6lN1 J'mh fW 3'1X bo D^^Vil t3^bs3 '^S3 

nani) yniNi ^xntj'' lov ^a nwi Dip3 uoo i(»K'''i 

i53N ^D'-ixn misna onp^n ^'kidb' 'db* ■'3 ic' n^Jivon 

moK' ijc ^nc^N nnaK'D non o oi'ivn 'sa "jina aimo 25 

vni^npo ^31 in^3i niD tidi ni33 m^t^•1 ffsnip vn 

■h »'mn -mnn ipti) '■'JOD vi'vh nxn^ dni ijjSj nsni 

nnvD 'd p vb" nnijc ni i» -n-iin' DVpi n'3nN D"n 

31 I'B" n3nn he'd •'3n3 hmya py onu -|iis p 

(Among the signatories of a deed of 1037, at Fustat (Bodl. 2874", cp. 
above, p. 115, 11. 21-2) we find Samuel the Haber b. Moses the Haber, 
probably identical with the author of the above letter.) 

6) [T.-S. 16. 18, square writing, paper, size 20x30 cm.J 


n^! . . . . »i viip'wn mi'B'i njuij viidi niviE'[''] jDini n^nn hdvoi 31 hh^ 

. . . no' , . , n3r 
. . . [n]in[L3ni]i nrn ^[ojnn 3iDn jprn i'N[iDB>] w3-i ncnp fca -\ph 

. . . D^^^X XT' 31D C'N " ^V:^ N33-| p 

DK DTiio I33n3 (5) ... nom npns ?inn min 3n[i]K p33i asn 

. . . insc nis''DD onn si' (6) [uiit?'!? ''3 idiJS'E' 
ijmi'B' Ti^JN iu''rE'3 nn3D3 omn onDvon tirn n3ii "ii3j?3i (8) 

jinji d-iryni cmx [n]niyn fiSii nnaiy 
n3Di n-i3m jjvs yn pncs d''31d nSnj n^y i:n •'3 o's^n ^jn^c ijdj? 

"iB'a ^c ni3''nn psn ^y D''3i'B'D nna 
... in av bn nwN [iJ''n]3Di o^na unasi wna'aD nwDn n^y^nni 10 

D'D[i3] 13'^y 1133 . . . cip tl''Din 

ni'jy *pnpni r^nav, Diyttoi T'33 syni iinj npro nnvo nnv i^^xn 

'ia^ irn3D i^iu i3n3K' 

' These three words are hopelessly corrupt and are impossible as they stand. 
Read perhaps D'llD'n '\\T\1 ^3 31pjn, i.e. among Jews he is known as Samuel, 
but among the Arabs as Mauhub. 

*=''1DpN. ^^ Supply mlsB'. Msa. 58. II. »=TDnn. 

Appendix C {to Chapter IV) 197 

r"if< ..... viiDi 'asj-i ■hbn-o mn •hhn vn quid ':33 nynn nao 

[D^JtyjN ^bao any nv^i ^sna'^ 
[lomji? nvi^n irryi nns nansa ir^x mis cnx fsi -aw pm 

Ti»3 Nine '"D^i p33n ^^D^^1 D'Da> 
ONB' n» ijibv O'V nnx nytj' i:dd ^rj; nl^yn ijs non ^wi 310 ^v. 

■ynvh lb 11* nx nnan nna Mnn 
1^ tb^^ Dfli'Nni ^'ib dIjb" liiiDji hi pin >> nte 'nai •"•'idv!' 15 
•IDN iba^nn npnbi '« nyun ■'najni 3id isb' 
nnau nrioa Dnoron ^ns I'-nv nyi^ h:' idiIpe'i 

(7) [T.-S. 13 J 19", formula of a begging letter.] 


[SJDK" napii] inaiu ca'panni i"n nianx by a^bbsnon -i'nt< 120 


[D']n[i]yv.T Dn'yvn un n^Dm ncpii naita ■nW'^ ba in 

na'N ♦Dnovjon 
•DnoNj QTiaa iJTirn ny -DnDnno yi 3-i3ai •onDTiis r^t^^ 

•D''B'i3ni D'sbaa 
pnB' "ij''D baa • onrn udo D''yu''p uod ■ nnry unn • D^tJ'nn irao 

• DnDD3 

•DnE'''» mam nox ijna' 'nnnN nnx ina onoiN us' nxr baai s 

• Dnoa pa DViri'-^a iu • nmr ba n^nnn • nnann baa idc 
irnona Pioxbi i^Ti^nn papb uniba^ t-d ipm ;prn b« y^r nr i^anai 
jnjDi ijnjDa innryn lyjna woy 'an: lai np''n ;pin p 
nwn nB'Na inaB' b''33*i T'cyo nvTi uniiii yi TnuN 

nan* pib^'i 'o 

npn nj on^yxn oa^nN 

Verso, in different handwriting, reads 

. . . Njnabs . . . fo Iinbs a^abx '3X n^ob 

. . . xjniaN biDi 'a nry D!<n[N] . . . nbbx bxas' 

1 Lam. 4. 9. 2 = minn moxc 

' Deut. 15. II ; omit lb and read yiV? for l»yb. * Prov. 19. 17. 

5 More correct aUHI. The writer evidently confused the verb 313 (1"y) 

with naj (n"b). 

198 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

(8) Bodl. Heb. c. 13, fols. 15-18 (cp. Bodl. 2807"), very damaged, 
are letters sent from Tiberias to Egypt in request of support. 

• • . 0- 9) ... [nnron] -w^ nnoiiDn aa'nx \ir\vA {15*, 1. 8) 
nniDN irai33 ij^nrn . . , (10) . . . [q^Jb-ji n''B':t< nnnN onax i3i'a3[tr] 
. . . [□J'^'paoni D3'"n hv n''^^anon na^ns . . . (17^, 1. 4) . . . [D'JNi^a 
. . . D^Kiij^a n>nDN3 u^naa ... (7) Dnonno aim inD''n[D] ... (6) 
omn D3[^nN] . . . (15) . . . ni pan |[n3] -io td prn ^n . , . (10) 
"ja . . . (2) ... Dnp\T nn^cyn a^nsn ''wh hl^a (I8^ 1. i) npna 
ny nnonriD ... (5) ... onovcn nmyvn mx . , . (4) ... xjan 
. . . (11) . . . pan jNiiD n*D y^r . . . (10) , . , nnaN onas m^bjb' 
■'JB' . . . (18I') npna nmn (15) ... name na iJ''nN bni ido wnino 

. . . [njinan nsnao wan onp-in ainxn 

(9) Cp. also R.E.J. , LXIV, p. 127, no. 246: 'Appeal of prisoners in 
Tiberias soliciting R. Yeshu'a and R. Solomon to intervene on their 
behalf. Most likely this Genizah letter is for the sick at Tiberias; 
D'nDVDn was wrongly taken to mean prisoners. See also Bodl. 2807": 
a marriage-document drawn up at Tiberias, Sivan 12th, either 945 or 
1035 c.E. ; Bodl. 2807': a commercial, letter, dated 1034, wherein 
Tiberias is mentioned. 

14. [Vol. I, p. 169.J 

A letter from the communities of Ashkelon to those of Ftistdt. 

[T.-S. 13 J 19", paper, square writing, badly preserved, size 
26-1 X 16-9 cm.] 

Address (verso) 

D1W1 onaiD •'B'nn ni^npn '•riD' rrnn mp'b 

'{hp^^ Snp Doi^tJ-a Dnvoa nmn D''B'npn 

■ cnv ciniDU vK'i •laeri'' nonai •lanu'' 


'•D''mKD »p3 iDn ma 'Dinin'sa l'a'ip"'[i] hy(o''rih^ 

incn ni'van ■ D'nDtj'D vcd vnnaa Tiiao 

nnay ^di nwB'vtJ'o niyir'' • o^npno nica 

n^»n ViT ^ • D^nsJ n^B'ntJ' pcupi ti3 '^ • n^nno 

1 Read DTIinD 'free from thorns'. 

2 The meaning demands here a word ' to flow away ', i. e. the waters of trouble 
pass away. 

' ' Her roots are united ' : a denominative verb nPlK from nX ' brother '. 

Appendix C (to Chapter IV) 199 

N7 'n'msna nn^ nion onn •[nj^nnci d'-b'B' 5 

'DE? on •n'^nm v6 ny^Ji d^ton: 

DB'Nna nnvD JV1^{3 nB'[N ni]t5'npn nii^npn 

n-'-ipvoni ciniaen n'-aprni n^jmni nnnnn 

DniDE>a D^ji3Dni nxan lOB^n inx f)3 ouipjn 

n:3' •noB'i v"i boi -nivi nvj^ duidh 10 

i3-)n< 'D-i'm i^ja^ naf •mira j-ap^ -dtj? 

n»[jJo fisi 'n* pi -mv: oy D:pr ob 

"'i'l; [njonoi wjnNi wjpr 'Dai's nr wanao 

iv^ hr D^D1i'{^' nmni> umNsm 

B"i>B' nyn [ir]3 w^Ijvn xae* naymni'i 15 

invn n3[i]D w^jdj ^ai pi'PB'N nrno ^y 

[Dj^iya nana ^w[b]y nnD[n] xh Mii'y on xi,t ^ai 

[vijjy Miw is['>i5]nt}' Minx naniaao d'^nc mxi 

jjiiii UN ^b^r[ nw n-Nipn ijpr i33pr Ijsn 

nnxa Dn[n>B'] T\V''\^n jpr mn *3ni 20 

i[y]nv Di^'Nt^'i wans ba naio ijd[d] . . . . ivi 

. . . prnrT'C [n]iay d^jsn onae' ijijn o nns 

ntryi N^i D''h uyo unb' ^^N D^ynv DnN[K'] 

D[a^]v[x] nrh n^T'tr may naTiaai" n^in nam uoy 

lawnn i'si C2'hif. irrytt' py iD'ijyn i5Ni [i]n 25 

• DanaB* is^aa' mpDni • nans uS'nb'b' [n»a] 

papal •^yv ^pjiaa unyvi 'naiya m'ny'i 

•DaDlJC 'cnn trnv yc^ jivt \n^ pt -my i?np 

iDD' [oaJo^B-i pS'B'N ijnp -Danaita ■h^m 

15. [Vol. I, pp. 169-70.J 

An epistle from Joshu'a b. 'Ali, the Haber of Hasor, to the 
Nagid Meborak. 

[T.-S. 13 J 16'', paper, square writing, size 25-7x1 1-4 cm.; cp. 
J.Q.R., XIX, 728, No. XIX.] 

Address (verso) 

°nsn ID rn dj '" ny •X'-a iniao n[i]^o pja iranx mnnij y^r 
[yj] nnyo i'a 

» =Da'^N. '^ =i3''i'y. ^ =iraint<. 

* -pjaa. 

' Read ^12f n JO ' from Hasor ' where the writer lived. 

200 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

"[j]l HNT' ^SB'I ^ m '3 

nxnn •D':innn2i D'jv^va i's^ian •D'-jnNn ;nx ^oai^o di^b* 

Nin • D*jn*N nna iDifij D"pDn • D^jrasn npvv ^''typoi 

'ni5WDn nann tidd nno piii i3i:[nN nx] niva't mtvi iiob'' 

niDH D31 ^itf Donn nnuD -ino pia p rn dj »'• tDj) i'n 'noon 5 

py pa ini3 vnias bi ''''' dv i^jj T3:n min^ ijijnx 

[h]j'' n^»n nnai noino n laniN ietn nsjs[n ano nt uana] 

^ Nian iK'K msnot^n ai-i» mvni nnsa uts'QJi nv ba w^jn 

n^Ti iisna ^B'N uBwn i^x ana ii>XN[D w]!5 nu^c vjb^d ^nb'ni [ij]!? 

nya nc p^^^^ \h\>^^ ^x nivno nai>^ psnx dn ns [pnnjs 'b 10 

D'^tyn nnan bx •'^ nam nisno -inv nprnioi miva x^^ •'a .tix 

i«h '•asvl' TiiB'-ia niHNi •'jyjDi'i ijoisi Kilts' na -iti'x 

Dno i^! NU'' sh np''!) ba aiD tn iinp ^lna 'jni mx ^Jpv 

ntj'j)'' m^KB'N ninoa ins '■isj? ^dwi e'33 nyva n^k -lan 

nnnni) n^Ntr nva onx •'jv^d'' n^'B' h^ T\\\h nann nr ^^ 15 

pNi D'tsis- mip " HNo naci iivn njn»n niiiD 

napn h D^pn vd'' nianx h^ bbno nj; ba 'jxi 

Ton imwa n^n^'i ohyi' D"p v"ir li? niDvn^ i''V^nD db' 

noai DpB'na man d''3B'^ inarii D'anan ae'V nixas " 

p: nann ''^y iu nann •i'<2\rf nay an ytr^ nD-'i'si' i^.t 
^t xjycin 
Di^ci I aB*! naiy ^Hjd I ny ba mwn I lyinx di^b' e'-ih 

16. [Vol. I, p. 170.] 

Data concerning the Jewish community of Ashkelon. 

(i) Hasor must have been near Ashkelon, but the exact locality desig- 
nated by this name is unknown to me. Shaizar, in Syria, which Benjamin 
of Tudela in his Itinerary (ed. Adler, p. 32) calls Hasor, is of course 
here out of question. Harizi alludes to his visits to Hasor {Tahkemoni, 
ed. Kaminka, pp. 202 and 301, mun Dy "lISH nyi niVD TiyDJ). But 
it is not clear which Hasor he meant. The writer of the preceding letter 
we find in Ramlah in 1096 c.e. MS. Adler 4010 contains a document 

1 Ps. 138. 6. 2 Read nJKian. ' Read ^D. 

Appendix C (to Chapter IV) 201 

drawn up in Elul [min^ ^32] ni'm I'hb n3iDD[n] nbvi^ nT'vi' iiniii. 

Signatures: Joshu'a the Haber b. 'Ali yi "I3nn, Abraham b. Nathan 
[n3''ti>in] 3X. Joshu'a was no longer ahve in 1131 c. e. Worman, 
/. Q.H., XVIII, p. 37, cites from a Genizah fragment pr K"lp3n pnV b 

aoDN JVD , , , ''bv p y'TI i?}. 'Ali's grandfather, Hoshana, is probably 
identical with the father of Samuel ' the Third ', the contemporary of 
Shemarya b. Elhanan (vol. I, p. 28). 

(2) A number of additional data about Ashkelon are given here. 
Saadyana, XXV {J.Q.R., XIV, p. 220), has a colophon, TDDn | nipn n3 ns' 

I [ji]2 T-n UTa nnty | nana tisb' "'• nT-aa^JS | na^no^x Dxn nx^s 
(1061 c.E.) nT-v^ I nyi> nnNi anroi niSD | m^m □'■a^'x nya^^< nstj' 

. . . ji'pE'N njn»a. Goldziher, R.E.J., LV, p. 58, edits the beginning of 

a Genizah letter n^noa Dmn mnpn Sipn on . . . pnvn i^^x ^k 
tr^CDi p:n "ria ije' un ijddi . . . n[anai di]S'b> an inb* . . . lope's 
naiijDn tj? nojai D"ban nosai coi'B'iTn nD:a br\\> ni^ivon rSr\\>T\ 
, . , mnxp ba mnpn. 'A great misfortune' (ncbyi'N nvnbx) is 

referred to in the fragment. T.-S. 13 J 23' contains the following epistle : 

''O'V 'JiisxD (4) nvi D^wi' pan (3) E'lipn i^y D''!5t5'n''D (2) . . . (i) 
^:ni nnDB' p i?;)! pi> . . . (n) . . . ppin nvni? •an:non [T-Jno -isid 
pi unc (13) Kiaa mm' nm mi^jni p^x moETii nyoc' av (12) ■'B'bj 
i3''jpr p pa:ni oann nnsn na'n (14) |nan ps/n ni ■ia pja woaB' 
51S (16) niva vm5)''DQ DiB'i' pi'PE'N'i' rn q: n^onn (15) inan niybx 
nvn-iynini5 'Nat n'' (17) ijy mat i''l?3bD pb aip noci' ^<^B' '3 bv 
nuD ^ao li^'snij ni'iyn niv '':a nrpai M^n i"n (18) nva nnioriD ^an. 

The writer of the epistle was evidently also a priest (1. 13). 
T.-S. 13 J 13' {cp./.Q.H., XIX, p. 741, no. LXXVI) : a letter to il no (3) 
n^onn nnuo nc npiv -ii -io (6) ip niaa p . . . (5) Tio^nn ijNjru 

iiasin nna. Therein is mentioned the Sheikh Abii'l-Hasan xn 
SB' ''Ji^pc'xn. The letter concludes | ])bp\^K liahx | ^i^N pju anaj 
(11 14 c.E.) a-i ya*' | bi na'^e^n | tt npnv na nmax | non miD lanix. 

Oxf. MS. Heb. e. 98, fol. 60, contains a copy of a marriage document, 
dated Shevat 4860 a.m. (iioo c.e.) at Ashkelon. The bridegroom is 

styled i'xnE'' i'xnB''' no -ib' -ipm naa:n ibti n^i:' ii nn pja. 

He seems to have been an important official, but it cannot be ascertained 
whether he resided in Ashkelon or merely visited it to lead home his 

1 =n3nn. 

202 Condiiions in Palestine and in Syria 

(3) MS. Adler 2806, fol. 5, contains a letter of which only the 
following lines are preserved: • D''DnD3 't^VD ... (2) 6n"l DCa (i) 

oijij n^n* •QiDB'ijn mnbsnn i)3 nstj^ (3) dv •D"'i3Dt<3 niison nianai 
inan (5) wIjk unnai in[»] imi mo pw . . . (4) . . . •D^of<[nj] 
pj3 p •nini mn (6) [nan]''i •hud irn^K ^'[i]^' 1^ ™2^" id . . . 
apv pNJ na''E''' wr\ pan' (7) [nnj'ax ir:i"iN innai ij-i» imi uno 
n3T ^^^i'x D^i^jm (top margin) ... (8) wiD pl3 p noin^ ' pnv -i3r 
Annans nnjj | aS iv pi'pB'N aari tiB'n naoa | . . .i .iri niiD nv: ivii 
'"13 njiia"" I '^ nnon rrwan \ nnay n'jjv tw | yj nnu» p inan |nj 

Address (verso) 

in3v ■'3E' m» pj3 rmn 3b>i[d ^n] i5[3v] 

ci'jaiB'n inan \rth\f. wjiin 'innai unn 'ijan[i] 

11^X3 nsTi! -mn [di]T' li* [miajn] 

irjns Mnnai mw 'uani me pJa p •ni[3a] 
l;st apy jinj naiE" b'xt fnan n[n'']3N 5 
inan pnN na: ny "n^ mat hkj pj psa p 
31 #1 ijf V B'np B'N[nn] 

Nathan Hakkohen b. Meborak and Yeshu'a b, Yefet were the local 
Dayyanim. T.-S. 16. 22 contains legal documents, drawn up in Ashkelon 
in 4896 and 4902 a.m. (1136 and 1142 c.e.) and signed by them. 
In 1 1 45 C.E. they were no longer alive. Their successors were their 
respective sons Meborak and Yefet. The same manuscript contains 

a document, dated nano X3n NC ^'a ^v n p^pB'x njn»3 Tiy^'^'h npnm, 
with the signatures iu pan iniaia ^7^ pnm ni>ij>Dn nyic' t3 nD' 
ijvt sljsim pnn nhyon pan jrij. 

17. [Vol. I, p. 171.] 

Data concerning other Jewish congregations in Palestine. 

(i) Oxford MS. Heb. d. 75, fol. 13, contains a letter from Tobias b. 
"Ali of Fustat to his father ■i''3 n^HJ ;mn:D3 n^i5)»n n3nn ;nan ■h^ 

pan nmas*. Lines 7-10 recto, read as follows Wno np ij "1133 1^31 

on'' mon e>n-ii p3"i '■3 trn n3''E''n iid'' ^njn 3-in Dn-i3N i^jnx 1^3-11 
We' in 1^3 3N' inj ^^[ni] wno np n^^na nua la niaa (!) i'Nijii 

' Of these letters only the tops are preserved. 

^ The feminine suffix refers to the n3''{5''' of which Elijah was a prominent member. 
As shown in vol. I, p. 196, it was then situated in Hadrak, and presided over 
by his uncle Solomon Hakkohen, the father of Masliah. 

Appendix C {to Chapter IV) 203 

TO-\:b nar i^Nne^V Verso: irinx^ (from jjo 'let it hasten') "ivn'' (i) 
DiPD n vh'o'' oncn mtay (2) nwB'jn m»n " dm T'wn ntJ'n ncD 
nii'npn (4) (r. 'nB') tick ni^'cai idi^b'3 bNiB* u'ani . . . (3) . . . vas 

miV D1DE'* n ~isa»3 Dmn. 'The fortress of Dan' is identical with 
Baniyas (Paneas) in the district of Damascus (see Smith, Historical 
Geography of the Holy Land, pp. 473 and 480).' Mukaddasi writes 
about Baniyas, ' To this place have migrated the greater part of the 
Muslim inhabitants of the frontier districts since Tarsiis was taken by 
the Greeks in 765/ while Ibn Jubair remarks in his diary (11 85 c. E.), 
' Tills city is a frontier fortress of the Muslims ' (cited by Le Strange, 
I.e., p. 418). 

Tobias is known from other Genizah fragments. Or. 5536, IV 
(cp. Margoliouth, Catalogue, III, 560): a letter from Nathan Hakkohen 
b. Solomon to Tobias Hakkohen b. jnan "hv wmi uno p33; Bodl. 
2834" : a letter from Tobias Hakkohen b. "Ali Hakkohen ijf ni>1VDn nann 
to Nathan Hakkohen nann b. ^f Tionn [nan T\xhvf -inD p»; Bodl. 2834^": 
a letter from Sa'adya Hakkohen b. Hillel ^npn {^[xi] to our Tobias ; 
Bodl. 2878"^: a letter from Tobias to the above Nathan b. Solomon. 
The Nagid Moses, referred to above, is the son of Meborak Nagid 
(see vol. I, p. 212). 

(2) T.-S. 12. 59: ... n'arh Dnn^j; n''»innn ns''n nvao ''E'jni ... (i) 
obiy nxn3i5 . . . (3) . . . [n]''B's:'n r\yoi pe/mD htd d^o"' n . . , (2) 

. , . irjs^ vam y^ 

(3) T.-S. 10 J io^°: a letter to (recto, 1. 2) nniDlon [inn :h^ from 

(verso) nann | nnjJD p ! ijvr ''inann nnDion sidv p | apy p ^IDV naj; 

T.-S. 8 J 18": verso has the following address, ID pjj mnni' J)''J'' 
;j3 rh^ iD pj5 p | " ns ^«"l^■l laain inNn (r. ibti) -inb-h nB^B* 
m5D nav | non dhid D^ai'xnN n^jja 1 D^j^acn cnpn Isnpn p | pj? 
yj 'jnann nann nnyo nu nmax non (probably this Abraham was 

a brother of Joseph b. Sa'adya of Hebron); fol. 32, verso^ contains 
a letter from the same Abraham to Moses Hakkohen Hazzan and 
TOnn nnw '-\. A letter in a box of fragments belonging to the 
Cambridge University Collection is from our Abraham to (verso) pnv 

(r. x^DB'o) n^Dt^D 'nnt33 jun ;n n^a nis^cin -itv pan ia en i'n:n ain 

^Vi ^'^'^'iT\ i'NIOE' nitb pj5 "la. This Isaac is probably the son of Samuel 
he Spaniard (see vol. I, p. 192). 
' Cp. also Tanhum Yerushalmi (in Bacher, Aus dem Worterbuche Tanchum 
JeruschalmVs, Hebrew part, p. 21, no. 16 : (pvh) DK''3Na \T pi DK'JOS It p. 

204 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

(4) T.-S. 13 J 21" recto; the first five lines are very faded; from 
line six the handwriting is larger. 

ir:nN mvD7 sjsnon niN3 6 

[ijjijns •'SD nasa pojn 
nn^T D^iB'D na nn •'B-an nvn n^ •'Jinx nx TianN 

[nJnijST D^m'D -ia onra to 

ijT plan nnaiy ni jnan aipv' nav^ 

nas n:nDi5 nsiDon tinn iixpi; n*ya 

ryli nDbcy . .. . L •• L / 

■- -■ a nnvD vj n^n a iryPN jmn yj -iTOt< a pe'K' n 15 

aisn e'wi' on n''i^v^N T-yn ^Noi'j? n^ya 

jij ''NiDn 3 naijc' i;i nti^a 3 ;rnn na'' 

yj ■'Nnon 3 pn^i"' i)i aipV 3 nn3iy 

vi aipv 3 fiDV 

' tJ'iii'N Tj;3 yj no^c 3 mini 20 

. . , B" 3 nnyo nnyo 3 nn3iy 

yj irnn 

(5) See also Bodl. 133: Ecclesiastes with the Arabic commentary of 
Tanhum Yerushalmi (second half of thirteenth century) with colophon, 
(probably Elijah's father) i^t ijnsnn \r\ir\ , . . nibx -i^ysn n3yn noaj^ nana 
i'Hjn 3nn n'':un im3 [nan niobv '~\2 jnsn n''iy[D] u"i3 pan nyiE" -ia 
[njB'] 'd [innnn ^i^ji ;v^yn b^i^n 'e'l nx dse' ntrx xe'-ni: [u B'^n] 
niya i^pt (?)'3 nji^o ^oan xao inan pidv p: ['']^^[^j]n pan i'xpin'' i:3n3 

» Cp. mai ninaa, ed. Luncz, pp. 283-4 : noN a^zbaio ninsa nas nr pax^ 
sna n^ pnipi , . . nu K^n ni33 in by. 

2 Alme, near Safed, see map of Western Palestine in 1187 (in Beha-ed-Din 
(1137-93), ^'fi ofSaladin : Palestine Pilgrims^ Text Society Libraty, vol. XIII). 

s = Giscala, see niBI linaa, ed. Luncz, p. 259 : B'''b 1^5 pnipl dpn VC , and 
Le Strange, /. c, p. 463 : Al Jahsh (Giscala). See also Luncz, Jerusalem, VI, 57-8. 

Appendix C {to Chapter IV) 205 

18. [Vol. I, pp. 172-4.] 
An epistle relating to a bogus-nasi. 
[T.-S. 20. 94, paper, square hand, size 37 x 21 cm.J 


[njunai noana n-ni's nn inx x^josi] nb sie'D 

3in3[n] |ix{>> lJ^i^^ xn 

nt '['nix nnn] nm ^r\ 5i ''mSvD 

' tt-w nD2n 
riN nav i? njjT' in mx^ idnii s 

x:b> ie'nS n''3in nij;i 

D'^nn xipji . . . nna 

•3[^ nnjoifi Di'wi' p^ni nnonn b ;un nDx[i] 

mx niDi 

Dj'Nnji? noDj niDn xTi ' irT' ^y [niipjn sun ^jni 

nr ■h'h\^^\ 

Kn ^ [D]'X'33n h\A [niD nb] ox o vn xi? 

i'xiDB'D i:nolj 
iniE'n in''E'D ^ na: nx n»x'i '•»''• p ax'^x nx~i nya di^ot i'i)v 10 

in nn pn 
anxn o "x^ •'3 ininoxo 13 inoip naj ^xi inxno hv^ Dan Ijx 

D'lyj)^ nxn' 
'"'^ njin xh 1JD0 D''^5?n [^''i] yE^'^[xn] nox3 121 '[aaj^i' nxT "1 

D''Vnv nnxi 
I'XB'JB' n''Dini Dmx xiii x''n3 xi)i nj?n xi)2 npn mxB'i nSaa 13 w^nx 

' Exod. 31. 3 ; 35. 31. 2 Hos. 6. 6. ' Jer. 22. 16, 

* This abbreviation is not clear to me. ^ Ps. 2. 11. 

* ReadVIV I could not locate an Aggada having this wording. Cp., however, Sifra 
to Lev. 20. 16 (ed. Weiss), 92' bottom , , . l!?Xn niOipDn DX n»1 1'p CiaT nni 

Qi>iyn ID n^3i Pine' nne'n ainan i»ix in^i ^j? nispn dixi) nxac *"» 
ij-iuy»B' vrxy nion ^T^i' D^n Tno inioni' i-i3ni5 cnij xint:* mx 
oi'iyn ID mpon. 

' Amos 3. 7. 8 Supply mXH HXl' ICX. 

' I Sam. 16. 7. 1° 2 Kings 4. 27. For IJIil read "VHn. 

2o6 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

Din" ^h Dnvo \-i\ T^ aiD pni r[pi]no^ mivo pn ynji ono 

N''E>3 pai 

^Nis'^ij ^li) pai 11^^ ;n3 pa nvfiji? nhn w^ b'' ^3n B'sn^ 15 

ntj>n»i rhipi 
■•i^n pi n^y 'E'jn 1^ iTiyi ;n3 Ninti' D''j[n3]n vhn -h ncNV pani 
nnal? va3 ona^ sa^i nipim nirno ^s t3[3]nrT»D ^lj^dik* nyh 

n»i5Ji ^^3D Nin n^jx iDnv n\x 1^ noixij . . . ivjoi) ntras in DB'a 
' ''1S-1 131 n3in3 nianD ^131 n^n biNi [njcyo isoui \rx2 mpon 
IJDVI nsTiii'np Dj? Tfow Dvoii'sjn D[''B']5J[D]n irnx D3d n^y: n^ji 20 
N^B*: *npn k'inh iniN i'snt:'' pnx i'331 d'bB'n''3i i'xn^'' pnx nyi 
D'DjpiN ' npi'i "^ pninjp nis'jti DstJ'i Diff 3n3 icy nTii 31d m> njsnji 
DipoD in^i ^lyn Ti33ni nnwD iiDJi a''ST nSci nuns 3n3i 
D'TD^ni D'03ni onani p-nnjo D3n3»nD[3] vni i'^nc'' dsb-i Dipo^ 
nSi innp^i inns'si iniB'-i nnn idj3:i /3d -inv mina onna vni 25 
-i[*ii'] r^D^ dnoiNi mm nx ^^<ov3 D^niB* vm iDin" inx ipnpn 
^33 D''j[Tni] DoiiD *je^ WIN D'^i'nci d['']i3 ■'j'-yi' iniK D^nacoi ^ 
n!?! D3n ip''rn xi) njb ny onvoo oa?^ d'J3''K' oipoi mpa g ^ 

'ry^ D^DiK'n vnnn:i nx vni T'o^n nI^i b-nt ^ 

ni^npn bo nijyji n'K'j irs •'3 nSjjn: Q^njs' ppbi ^13 30 
•h [m]iai3D i»bj ^h iB'n ^\ ipb' N[in]B' noix hmb' idih" 
inw3 N^i nii'wn xisini crin [T'ojyn inoixai n\T D3n noN ■'3 

nann k^3 nnncD mixivim nsnM •'i'ya inio-bn nSi 

Ilia Dsj' noi DHN x\y^'f> inini'*B'[i] nob n^ji 
nayc ci^n nnit< mvp nna D3ymni5 irnx D3''i;N nt [ijrnns nojci ?,? 
-i3nn nijnns" nDj -i3nn 3py^ 'n T' 3n33 [onJ^NCs' ns'w ir^y 

iv[i'N] xa 
[mnn Ni]ni i'lna 3n3 loyi nn:n nsc hw nnan [ijnyjro ■'U niNna nht' 
. . . [ni^jB* ''J^? n»Ni 3n3n nt 'od in[iji'N]B'i niN''B'j nyaoa 
^B" . , . ^5^ 

• Cp. Maimonides, min nJCD, nXUniDiN 'n, c. 20, § 13. 

^ Read perhaps pilflip, centurions, i. e. communal officials. See Jastrow, 

«.■</. ci''3nD:ip. 

" Read perhaps n3D1, and he appointed managers in communal officials (cikwO|Uos, 


* It seems that the scribe indicated on the margin his name by the statement 
'Joshua wrote' (the epistle). 

Appendix C (to Chapter IV) 207 

19. [Vol. I, p. 174.] 

Concerning the Nasi Sar Shalom b. Pinhas. 

[T.-S. 13 J 25", in double columns, separated by lines in red ink, 
thick paper, square writing.] 

(recto, col. i) 


• T : T : T T : -t 

■T : - T : TT :'- • 

a'D mpoi N»y ^2!) pya 

D^BJix nDN3 i^ Niijn . . , 
D?nij!'o!' D''i?'?opi i"'?i['i] 

0^313 ^SON D"! . . . 

ni'ob n"in» D'lJin larnn 

-iij>ri niijypa nby ib'X tj^P 

xini syn bi? nyt:p npN3 Nin 

nyb QiK'b'iri inion -rri^ 
1 B'a^p vi3"^ 'pyp isfip? np 
. . . no , i) . b Dntj' ijn^ as 10 

Nin '3 

.... [■'jnpB'i 13 njny 'b'la' 
-|i33f) onvp »"'{< 'TibpjB' ^jy 

niTnb nnnp \r\zv bsn 15 


(col. 2I 

[apy* fl^N n^ro ijy opin -i3:n pa] 

i'[Nn]B"i min^ yt^in vou bxne" niTor [oj'yji 

"upnv '« iNn[p'] "vo^ Di[i'B' ■i]b' ioc nn nasb |i3ty^ 

VDpl VWCD T-aXM VJ3» inN'' irn^N D^ikx "blBiDa 

3in3B' Nnpo ni33b o^pb voys ^\rh in'' bsi 5 

* Cp. Gen. 32. 2-3. 2 Qpjj ito eat bread', cp. Prov. 9. 5 ; 23. i, 6. 
' '3n has been evidently inserted to complete the metre. 

* Cp. Ps. 119. 103. 

° The singular Tin instead of the plural nj"nn is used for metre's sake. 
« Read ''")[''»']. ' The metre is faulty here. 

* For '10 or *1!3 to suit the metre. ' Abbreviation of Ps. 121. 8. 
'" Cp. Jer. 23. 6. ^' This abbreviation is not clear to me. 

2o8 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

Dnn 3[in3i] '31 iioty Dw ^^.i^Jn ti-.oi' |ni W 

njiDN ncnp ni'ns nnan nna 'ji 'nn^ ^s Ti' 

nisijn s''B': dws kj3ti x:no \'iv>m ijjiin 

I'm HD^ty 'no on ''3 I'D'' Dn''Jt:' nonn ra^jn 

Dn'n nriDx nnann dyn i^vx nnanjB' irai 10 

anion T-ysn ^x^? noxnji man: dj -i3Mn 

.ni'i^s? NniJ 'onn nipnn ■h^r\ onion nnx lor 

nna nijijn k''B'3 ^n^'St' i3''3nN p \f>mr\ innry 

iji:nKn nnn n^un n^cj inntj; irN'-t^: irjinxn 

^3 nv^j CKT ^njn ^''tr^n nin ua^o i:x''B'j 15 

[ipTn]i'1 [^NIB'''] 

T.-S. i3jio'\ recto, paper, square writing, size 27-8 x 12-9 cm., 
contains at the end of a liturgical composition the following genealogy : 

nua (3) -o. ^NnB»i ^3 nvi^j b'ni N'E'jn tihs -ib> (2) in^'tJ-N' ua dc (i) 
irjnN p (5) K'sn nnin isno maa ta (4) k'ni x^E'jn Dm*a uno 
{i>Kn N''B'jn no^B* p (7) b's-i min» k''E': p (6) b^x-i n'B'K'' 

'.i'i?!' psr (10) tj'N-i xiB':n in^B'N'' p (9) b-x-i s'B>jn inns? p (8) 

'Azarya b. Yehalelel finished a polemical work in Bagdad, Adar 1652 
Sel. = 1341 C.E., for 'Obadya, called Kemal ad-Daula 'Abd al-Halik b. 
Jonah of Mareddin (cp. Steinschneider, Polem. u. apolog. Liter., p. 39, n. 3). 

20. [Vol. I, pp. 175-6.] 
Data relating to several Nesiim. 
(0 MS. Adler 4020 contains a iJUT nnc, dated Tebet 4874 

ujilNT nTiici naniD nsnsi njox xnn: ^jjt xrunD p[B'Dna m^'iis] 

, . . ram dj ^jnie" ^a nv^j e'si ^xnon 
Signed by ^^y p . . . lann ^^n. 
(2) Oxford MS. Heb. e. 101, fol. 18 begins as follows : 

li-i nsDca 
bvrw' b nv^j x''E'3 innryp ''xar jd 
ntj'N ani[n]''n nnnsn D''3ptn W 
nnaaini \h Downn ptyon n:n»a 
an Di^B> -inva ir^jy 5 

1 Ps, 121. 3 ; Mic. 5. 8. 2 = Q^iy^ (y^^p, p^^jf -|3f. 

Appendix C {to Chapter IV) 209 

(3) There existed in Egypt a Nasi Daniel in the second half of the 
twelfth century. Or. 5561 B, fol. 2, contains a Ketuba, dated p''D (5) 
onvo DxtsDsa nnutrb pjB' (6) ctsm \'Vsti\ nso v^nsi Nsi'N nsB'T 
t<''B'3n (8) ^N^3T WD^D WN'B'o ijjnNT n'oitrn nsniD (7) Nin3 Di^'-j ^n 
nhsl' ice-' ^n' ^JN-ib-^ b nii'J B'XT i^nan. The same formula is found 
in T.-S. 13 J 13" verso containing a document dated 1476 Sel. = 1165 
(cp. also Worman, /. (J. i?., XVIII, 15, note 2). 

(4) In the time of Maimonides we find a Yehuda b. Joshiah Nasi who 
countersigns a responsum of the great scholar of Fustat. rhvN!7\ iTn TiJan 

%\& (r. NiB'jn) NUan in'^'X'' f3 (Sambari, in Neub., Med. Jewish Chron., 
II, 116, 153; cp. Pozn., Bahyl. Geon., 136-7). According to Sambari 
he originated from Damascus. T.-S. 13 J 28": an epistle, commencing 
Nicjn in^cN' loi^ca ij^arnDn, is addressed to mo nti'inp ThvM niaa. 

rnin"! S'NIB'' pS TJJ 'mwrin 1133 Tij:n imi. Probably he is the father 
of Yehuda. In T.-S. 13 J 11', containing marriage-congratulations, 
Yehuda Hannasi is mentioned. Probably the contemporary of Maimonides 
is meant. 

(5) In the middle of the thirteenth century we find in Fustat a Solomon 
b. Jesse Nasi. T.-S. 13 J 4' contains a document of evidence, dated 
Tammuz, 1555 Sel.= i244, at Fustat, signed by ^Jpt X'B'Jn 'B''' p [noji'B' 
n[n]i3f *naB' "la IDV. T.-S. 10 J 22': a legal question and answer from 
which the following lines are excerpted Dn^^nJI ^NIB'' i03n l^lp' no (i) 

i'lsa D-iDK'1 ijnv (8) ... tWDB'i pisn 's (2) mp' ^nn min dit' 
niaijniiN anNV (18) ^i5r pnv* uai 'sp xim . . . (17) 3ni3^n D'oij'n to 
D'^atr n\:hr\ 's ijpr ne'e imjn (19) mn im nan ibisi Nnna ^jin ia 
N'nsi'N ^5^^ (21) bp) nib-jh 'k» I3 noijcr ansi ni^trb pxi (20) pnn pi 
nasjn eiDV ia n'ms hpN xnai nn'nv. T.-S. 8 J lo'^ contains a few 
lines in Jewish Arabic, signed bpt K''K':n 'B''' p noi'B' anal. Several 
letters are found addressed to a Solomon Nasi (probably b. Jesse). 
T.-S. 6 J 4"^ : a fragment of a letter to IJa'DJ I^N'B'J 12:nx imi 1J-|» pj3 
bri^^n N'B'Jn noi'B'; T.-S. 6 J 4", in Jewish Arabic, from n^n nay to 
nin D1T niiwn n^B'J HB^B' im N^B-jh ij^HN ; T.-S. ,6 J i^' : from 
min» may t'W to ux^b'j i^t-jj w'^on (4) "3-11 mo ip ij aa {3) 
. . . tyi (6) [nvi'Jj N'B-J noijc irabo (5) [ir^Jo:. T.-S. 18 J 4'-' and 
13 J 21^* are also letters in Jewish Arabic to Solomon Nasi. (UTJi 
here is probably only complimentary.) Another letter to Solomon 
i'SnB'^ bz Twhi N''B'3 . . . bnjn N'B'Jn is to be found in a volume of 

2IO Conditions in Palestine and, in Syria 

Fragmenta Hebraica Cairensia Miscellania belonging to Westminster 
College, Cambridge. Herein also Joshiah Nasi is mentioned. 

Finally Oxford MS. Heb. a. 3, fol. 24, recto and verso (cp. Bodl. 
2873") contains letters, written nDpnS" n:^ ptTDia (1137 c. e.), to (recto, 

11- 3-5) "^1 ■^o ip ij nu3 ^N'lB" Ttih'i. N'B'J • hnjon tiyon • isnjn N''t>'jn 
nvj imsTii i-vsjn inx'so'i iniN''B'j do (D'ni5N on'' =) ^n "^^ hd^b'. 

Poznanski's statement (Babyl. Geon., 124, 3) that the letter emanates 
from Egypt and sent to Solomon at Damascus is wrong. The reverse is 
the case. 

(6) T.-S. Box K. 6 contains a Herem written by Joshiah Nasi b. Jesse. 
(Verso) (ksn =) 'sn I •iB'i (33 Twbi ^\_^m '•»']'' p ^'•mn n''a'[x^] anai 

(1235 c.E.) lopns I noa h^ -h^n myc'ioi' ^h. On recto, 1. 5, we read 

i'vr n^jun n''B'j •'B'i p noi'B' anai. 

(7) T.-S. Box G I contains one paper leaf which forms a legal question 
to the Nasi Hodaya : • nfrh 11331 D'Cnn D3n i:x''B'J "lONi SD (recto) 

inx • mtyon loati' ^v IK'S* • mxsn i'po | ny noo • K-ni^ni K'sjn rr-a 
pxj Mjcsj xB'o "i^rv lono d3d | uo'^dj i'y Dpin najn nn ynr minn 
n-i'sn nxr i:ni'KB'3 ^xna" b nv^j | -x's': x'-n hijn x'tj'jn inmn • 13115? 
(end, recto) 'i3i niD^ HDji n^ns' ]2^^-\2 \ D^ns pa pm nnaa ury 
^is3 nae'i inc'va | noi iDst^D no 1^3 ib-n imn nx i3X'B'3 i3>:nx i3ni'' 

D'CEJTI [D, Scribbling on verso. 

21. [Vol. I, pp. 176-8.] 

Karaite Nesiim. 

(i) A memorial list (T.-S. 8 K 22^, size 6^ x 5 J inches) reads as 
follows : 

nnsB'D 'nB'nvon nnaccn | •yy>h nr,K'a3 ^nh 2nd pan (fol. i, recto) 
I N''£:'3n na'' '^S-\ j)i 13 id pi -lua nj; | Dn233n Dneri D''t<''E'3n T'h ] nu 
j 'X'B'3 ^^J^i mvTi ^xnB'* N''B'3 hi:n I N's^:n nox t<i vi 13 -^irb pjii ^n3n 
' D3''3'' I D'^o'in il?Na mDa3n nxn^^ npisn | nvi3vn ms'sn n:;'Nni nn ni3 
D<nD3D I ni33K'D3 pB'n3 pi'oa *ii3nN3 I pi'oa 3D ;i^D3 D^3 13\ni^N 
' (!) D'T'cn iT^r I ' [Dji'B'n' 033^0 ^5^1 D^B'n cn'i'v I nibi ' n33NNa' nni3C3i 

1 =nDnvDn. "- (owt^n n->D5Ji i3-in3i 13-1T3 133-11 13-iiD vsw nh.i. 

' Evidently connected with |i3'', Ps. 72. 17. 

■* Read "KlVii. The writer (or copyist) was very careless. 

5 Read n33Nt}'. « Read Qi^B' NHV ' Ps. 149. 5. 

Appendix C [io Chapter IV) 211 

I p: 133 ny Dn33:n onKTii | D''3ni3n nnscD ' on en i^ j ^ i (verso) 
^31 tJ iiD pj3 I a: ij n ij^xxm nnxn n33:n ni^n | pins ^ire'n yi iJ io 
'n'D ^jsi Dn33jn | Q''3m3n nnOT isbi ^•'ssni nnxn | n333n •ysr\ nt^c 
nom |ii'D3 31D jiijos nb | «\n^« nrj' flDi □''B'ji ccjn | DnnDCD 
^j/i m^B'n I nn'^jf mi)' nujNf nm:D3i | n^nuao nrcon pt^m | ii)»3 

D^B' ''n'' D33B'» 

Dn33:ni Dne'n | nnDt^o n^'nvDn nnsB'Dn tb a: ij i (fol. 2, recto) 
31 n333n ncn rh^ \ St np nj 3i n332n ni^n Dicy ni | 6 pi [n]i33 nv^ 
s|t2^ DiB>ji D'tJ'jx nonvDn | nnsB'on ti'd ^31 n33:n iB'n | Dm3x io pj 
nmJD3i I n''nt33)3 niJ3[B'D]3 potj i1?»3 | nom pi'[D]3 0153 iJ^m^s | orr 
*:(0ii33 niTDn itir | di^b' 'ni n33tJ>D ^yi ci^cn | nn'^y ni^i ='n3:[x]NB' 
D-'Din'': Dn3n d['']3id Qn3i | 03^3 by n3T'i D''0in''3ni nibt^n | m^'i 
D^bsnon I D'^'sxH \ihr\v\ unm i:n33:i | irTmi w'Sli5^5 331? iju (verso) 
io pJ3i n333.-i ncn | rsxhv^ 16 pji i33:n -&r\ didu | id pji nrn ^3X3 
DDsna I iir bNn[B"] 'h^n "'nojn | le^n na' io pisi 53133 ^iiai | nn3iy 
Dye I DHTiss U'viOB" i5xi I npivi mv b[3]D nijis'i 'id33 | -inD3 D["i]'nD''V 
nno[B'i'i] [iB'B'b obx lan^i npyvi | ^ h'sns bip mnx 

(2) Oxford MS. Heb. d. 66, fols. 49b and 50" (cp. Bodl. 2878"-5o) 
contains a Karaite Ketuba from which the following lines are excerpted 

nyK'3 b'nn: ... (7) nhpd ''y:h (2) nso n3n3 nsoi nin (49'', 1. i) 
"n3i '•nni:D b^'n p (9) N'B'jn nm i3':nN "n3 •nni'vni 1^13 (8) 
nacD . . . (12) -nma jajn Nipo 1:3 '"nsi •nnoB'i (10) mis nbi |nn 
DnvD }'1X3 D»:i'' naDD^j D'aB* d''j>3nxi (13) ny3B'i nisr niKO ty^tyi tji's 
nnv nnax n-ini (50s 1. 9) n3E'iD pa^a nn: isyB* DNOoa njn»3 (14) 
N't^on pi 33 p nov n'oth ip (n) ii 133ns "n3 nsiicN bs 3Nn3 
'ijy nisnpi's (r. v^'h'dh) mr}h (13) one nin . . . (12) ... xdn 
s^i n;i)S inB-N nnvn3 i3 xm ns'x in'3 h^ ^^t )6 "31 \X2rh^ hrh^ 
mn non3 xbi -^•'~\r\ n3 ba: n3p3 it's xbi n33n (14) xbi nvbn tib' 
nii'''b n: tw n^i dsi:d xi'i Qn'?,,''. n^i Q^iyn (15) niox onb n^ 
■'D''3 rm 33B" xbi nin3B'n ''D'3 b*}* iri''33 n'n' n^i (16) nin3B'n 

' See beginning of fol. i, recto. 

2 (!)w'B'n n-iDVi i:nn3i uirj 1:311 uio riB'ip nha. 

» Read rUiXB". ' P^- H9- 5- 

'^ ReadV:3. ° Read1333n. 

T T 

' Read V333. Our copyist was indifferent about the raatres lectiones. 
8 Read n''33. ' !• ^- King Solomon, cp. i Chron. 22. 8. 


212 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

^hn iiy (i8) nnix nna' s^i Sjinn 'd* naoc onvicn '0*1 nin3tj>n (17) 
''3 bsnc" pNa a'3x (19) Nvonai nT-n n^sn ^v "ik'x niNas " nvm 

(3) Or. 5532 (cp. Maigoliouth, Catalogue, III, 558, col. i) contains 
a formula of a Karaite Ketuba of the year 1392 Sal. = 1081 c. e. which 
has the name Yedidyah as Nasi. 

(4) T.-S. 20.42 : a Karaite Ketuba, dated 1062 c.e. at Fustat, mentions 
T\rh^ p N'B'jn in'ptni. A brother of his was Joshiah. See vol. I, p. 178, 
note I, and also Pozn., Babyl. Geontm, 129, 2. 

(5) Hezekiah's son was Hasdai. Oxford MS. Heb. a. 3, fol. 42 (cp. 
Bodl. 2873") also' contains a Karaite Ketuba from which we excerpt 
the following : 

ni^3 s'tyj 'NiDn i>[n3n] ».'<mn wjnx -ii ic np ij 33 "n3 . , . (i) 
inni3D rh^n e'nt b-mn n'^k^jh in^rn* uai [p] ... (2) dit bio.'v b 
nsD^i? D'3B' DnOTi n1^5D 3;3nN'i ei^N njtJ'D i^i^x syin ... (3) nu3 
. . . naa'lD pa^a inj ijUK* anvo jyixa D^JV ; towards the end the following 
conditions are men;ioned: [n]xr ncK ^Jy bhn-' N^B* B' Ji' ''^ nn33 S^l'l 

ni53N»3 no'jN' N^ n3B'3 nj n^i'v P''^t n^[b']i hth rr^NT iiy . . . 
. . . mh''ti [in J ninN ncx laj) nnvn "'d* b n^^v np^ x^ci nptroii 
'":5?[i] pNnpn I'-Js)^ D'Jinann nxo vlsy n^.T D''XJnnD int« ns' dni 
N^c nr nc'N^ nB>33 {jj; nxr n[D"-i] njnni on'^u 'j^iDa niB* [o^jjain 
•<:i 3n:a i^y unj''! . , . iDy nnvn lo' b n^mn i:*nN nyiD r^y ^i;nn 
)'1s3 3'3N DN'voi m^T n^NT ^y D'cnipDH onyion riN onciE'n NnpD 
. . . nmnn •'DSB't: f^bnrb DM;n 'bsb'd ^n ins* n^ci i^NnB". (Cp. also 
the Ketuba of Jerusalem, dated 1027, in vol. I, p. 162, note i.) 

(6) T.-S. 20. 179 contains a letter to Hasdai's son [David] wherefrom 
the following lines are given here : 

•n^i;n "js b n^b-:! 'rhio ... (2) n'^y-b noion nison . . . (i) 
piii p "non bnan N'tr:n nnn . . . pii p -nsa roT'i "nin (3) dit" 

i3J3 p noi^c 
nvcip nnsn ^f in ijnjn s'l^'in pis p iJi iiTpiff (4) ^n:n n''K'M nnD 

nninn^ rvn^rh iniv 'jq^ iioy^ (5) nvvf iijon nivD ipnpni minn 
nNs Qsyi' Nsnoi Btsj^ (6) pino nox ''qb'Ip i5^^pc^ -\}m nvv '^ai' 
•njiyo iDB' (7) noK''' 'irB-a: ntinn 'irry nix M3[']my it3i "irn^np 
xjT'D/X 3Nn3^N xiH i^cxn yD maix npi (18) ... nrjni n^jona WJivi 
X3K1 . . . (22) . . . niai'on (19) nvyi nix^B'Jn yrj x'tr^n rxh^ i'ixai'N 
. . . T'i'y i'NlD i^x Th3 nnay Omax (23), This Solomon is David's 
son (see Pozn., Babyl. Geontm, 130, nos. 9 and lo). 

Appendix C {to Chapter IV) 213 

(7) Joshiah Nasi, the brother of Hezekiah Nasi, seems to have bad 
a son called David. T.-S. 13 J 11', verso, paper, square writing, size 
27-2 X lo-i cm., contains the following Karaite memorial-list. Beginning 
and end are missing. 

iiD pi 33 h^\ irN-ic' msan (2) 1^'i^•N' hr\yn n^b-jh nio pi 33 d) 
310 DB'3 nnnuDij laijnty ^'^ (4) dc iin" i^j) nnjn N'tyjn rw (3) 
D3K-'iD n^j)' (6) Dnvv ^^D'' DDmi ntr ^s d'sio d^'B'jjdi 310 1311 (5) 
ijy inNi nnxi (8) m-ix |ni niiDj nvth^ 'h^r\ in (7) mnss ;n py pa 
Dn'ntDni (10) 'otycni D»»3nn ^3 ^y om^i (9) 3'mn^N xin i^ya 
Dns'p'' nnc (12) tjonT ^Nna-i 'h^jn rh'Si^ pju ino (n) nt^N nnoijani 
Dmii ='31 n^^^ (14) D^i5'3E'oni Dn>bsJ D"P' 'p5? p3 ^13) dscic ni^r 
nty^i ncc^i Tin'' h^~w n''3 i»y b tt'di (15) dstt'oi wn'o i*!? 
N'cjn liB'Ni moyi irnnsi (17) mtJi UTn^sni irjis niiD (16) 
ii33ni Mnn n^jun 'n b cnii (19) minii ^Nnc'i N'tyj in^'ptn'' ^'n'irx (18) 
imvri imiv^i imcty-'i in3n3'i (21) ne' bx nncn nno ^3 NijoDn (20) 
3113 (24) tn3T3 ~n3t'i -m^\ -iicu''i (23) T13'' DJ1 3it: in3r3 in3ri (22) 
. . . (26) Nia'jn \vf'V^\f> [3 nn Dnp''n (25) d-k^e'm ijc nno pi 33 dn 

Joshiah at the beginning of the part preserved is probably the grandson 
of 'Anan, while Bo'az is the former's grandson. We learn here that he 
died a martyr. When the memorial list was written Hezekiah (1064, 
no. 4) was still alive. Good wishes are also expressed for his nephew, 
David b. Joshiah, and (in the missing part) probably for his own son 
Hasdai. Joshiah, Hezekiah's brother, seems to have been no longer 
alive, else he would have been included. 

(8) A long list of the lineal descendants of Hasdai Nasi b. Hezekiah 
(11 II C.E., no. 5) is found in T,-S. 8K22' consisting of a quire of 
two leaves, faded and damaged, size t\ x 5f inches, forming a part of a 
Karaite prayer-book for the Day of Atonement. Fol. i, verso, contains a 
memorial prayer for the NeSiim, the descendants of 'Anan (D''N''tJ':?N Cmn). 
[oni'l] . . . . loy nD''i'S hv hon'T (fol. i, verso, last line) 

'jn '-IN 'ni 'in j 'sn 'vi 'xn 'vi '31 'r: 'ni '» Pis \>v w^ni^x (fol. 2, recto) 
" nmnn nnn nriB -w^ * 'ni 'vn W'W' \ nn b nr^J b'nt pj? ^ 'jn 
tsBtyoi pin t>NnK'''3 I ^ DniS "yoH^ ^^^tn1 n^xni Nnpo 'ja '^''y | Txni 

1 =D'^OKn3m. "^ Dan. 12.3. 

' =i:mNsn ?i''3si liB'N-i moyi i:-in3i unrj wmi uio nu'ip nbn: ni33 

iinan N'CJn i::nN imm Unin. Another leaf (T.-S. 8 K 224) contains these 
titles in full. 
■* = ^^Dnn1 pnvn . f^ To be deleted ; missing in the other fragment. 

214 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

ml?' I i3n''jn ' "'V nn D''31o xi^m'a^ aita nan no | Ds'a inmao^ pidxji 

^itf '^'r inix "inra ypa' tn vl'V | D'-p'' diI'B' ^T' ude'd i'yi ^h-^ vh^ 

'xnon ':n 'jn | irjnx 'ni 'in 'xn 'jJi 'nai 'm * 'ni 'no pib nar | ' %\ 

I [I'm] iJii ml'K' ni ctd i^yi * j) i''' nn nbun | ':a b K'B'ai ^ 'inn 'k" n'cj 

^jyi 'Et* 'v ''■ nn ' [nn] | ['jn '^n] 'nx 'xn 'vi 'nai '» 'ni 'no pis ' i 

' ini[vjo vn]i5[x]i) naij?n noissr 'jn 'pn 'ns | [r] iJiit i'['kf 's' '•n'] 'tro 

nn 'ni 'no 'p« 'r | ^lit H 'ar '% m'' 'co i'vi 'b* 'v '^'' 'nn (verso) 

ijitt t 'n' K*© i B-v* I Jin TVS nno piai ^rif ^st b' 'h' | 'va h^^ W nn 

"IN r\''\ noistr | in :n n lin I'a'' in''i's :n li " n fs-^^ pv i nino pi ar ^lit 

'jn 'n I lin innj? 'an ':n 'ns lin nov -\vh^ | in li n lin wb'N'' in in 

in 'jn 'n lin "DSB'in'' 'jn ':n 'n | lin nn n n 'x lin in'B'K' 'm 


X lin nco | '^ in'ja in in 'x 'nn pa'' in'!*}* 'jn 'jn x 'nn | in'[vox] 
I inij3n 'an in x lin ^dv in"':ios 'jn 'jn | 'n 'nn ^•'' i^i? innry 'jn 'an 
nnscon i^y D'-p'' oil'tj' ^n' | naB« ^in ruh^ vb nib['] 'nn cinnaN 

"ir^yf I nxTn n^njn 

1 The Divine Name. « jg^, 58. 8 

' =nanii) n'on nar nanab p'-fi nar. 

^ The other fragment, which is only preserved till the end of the passage dealing 
with Hasdai Nasi reads here D'X'CJn (i.e. 'Anan's) [VJa] *Jai VJa h^^Z hvi\ 

•iio nnxsn nn'as nnp' pia ny D'!5njn. 
5 = nninn W-«if\ 

^ Supply E' = DvB' ; all these abbreviations are clear by comparing the passage 
following the mention of "Anan's name. 

'' ="iaT. * See no. 6 for a letter to him. 

' Also mentioned in no. 6. The same qualification ' who served God from his 
youth* was first given to Hasdai's grandfather Solomon (no. 4, see Pozn., I.e., 
t29, no. 6). 

"> From here the formula is shortened and each new item begins with 'N = UJinS. 

'I This Nasi was the owner of the Bible codex the title page of which is 
reproduced in Gunzburg and Stassoff, VOrnement Hebra'ique, Plate XVII, 

I inmaa -^r^ in | in nx ni no p | DSisyin'' in in nx ! ni no inx | napco 
h»y i6^ nao'- | v6 ^xna" | 'rbif. nin^i^ | tJ>np || niaa. 

** See Jer. 22. 24. 

" The reading is not certain. Can perhaps be fa*. 

1' Ps. 149. 5. 

Appendix C {to Chapter IV) 215 

(9) Our memorial list mentions only the founder of Karaism, 'Anan, 
and, omitting seven generations of his descendants (see about them, 
Pozn., I.e., 127-9), proceeds to Hasdai who is mentioned in a Ketuba 
of 1 109 c.E. (no. 5). We are able to draw up a genealogy of 'Anan's 
descendants for twenty-eight generations ; 

I. 'Anan I j 15. Elijah Yakin I (the first to 

2 Saul ■ '^^^^ '^^'^ "^ni^s) 

3. Joshiah I ! 16. Solomon III 

4. Yehoshaphat I i '^- Jo^^iah III 

5. Bo'az I ' 18. El'azar Semah 

6. David I 19- 'Uzziah 

7. Solomon I 20. Joshiah IV 

I i 

„ TT ', . , / . s T ', ■ , TT 21- David V 

8. Hezekiah (1062) Joshiah II 

David II 

22. Yehoshafat II 

23. Amasya 

24. Elijah Yakin II 

25. Konyah Moses 

26. 'Azarya 'Anan 

9. Hasdai (1109) 
10. David III 
ir. Solomon II 

12. David IV 

13. Bo'az II ; 27. 'Amasya Joseph 

14. 'Anan II 1 28. Hananya Abraham ' 

Of course several of the above Nesiim had more than one son who 
also went by this name. Thus the early Karaite Nesiim in Fustat Yefet, 
Asa and Semah (1030), must have traced their descent from the founder 
of Karaism. We also notice the preference for names borne by the 
Judean kings, the descendants of David. 

Nos. 23-3. Letters from Daniel b. 'Azarya, Nasi and Gaon. 

22. [Vol. I, pp. 179-80.J 

[MS. Adler 3765, fol. i, paper, square writing.] 


''1^ ijj; 

irnnx ni?jn •"c-nt '3 viti ^■hi xSi nns nni ^nj . . n nr ^r\ 

.13-13^ mar 
nnaajn Dni2N linn -^yh nnb n-ni oniN Di:n:Dni anis'-i 'bw on 

1 Bodl. 2849' mentions a Nasi (evidently a Karaite) Hananya b. Solomon who 
must have belonged to another branch of 'Anan's descendants. 

2i6 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

Kin nn nu nn-i-^ ^2 in^i ' ni^J Disr D'^'OB-Dn 

x^i mina irxn xh n^ivo d "i nii . . . . [pjnvn nn-iB' 5 

D'anvon wrxh rhhrn irnus n'3 . , . k^n n-nra ••ivs D'ainsa i<^ 

■\-\-y\'''\ mty^n imi' nrffK' mpji oxnu niifo ^jv nav'K' onvn ny 

nn nxi nn^n^N "1 nx iB'pai ^snE" 'n uib'i nnx inip^i Niian noxo 

riN D-rnac. unsx B'npn Dipon nrij usaa' dvdi iivt in' pi ='131 na^D 

i'ai? d: Dn'rn qidsie'i nnioi 'is j'ns i^aa ntj'K qidb' mtin i'snc'' I'D 10 

D'Dsia'ni nnunm nniyni nirnon ^33 irl^v ni5snrii Qipn-ion ija 

njDp TV i'y i/ia^i n* ib px wnbin [wn]' nnno dipdi DipD ^22 ib'n 

^xns'iD DiJB' pa nv-i xi^ 131 Dnj;i»[n nnx] 'T'i'S yjn psD ^y\ 

laiDi DinoB' nni^nx ^n laSni ibi^enni nna D'jjinn i^y Isax nyn n^o 

unaaj 1^5 D'^'m "diIje' v^ob'd xiaii nii'npn ba m^B'n disb''' "ii ai? 15 

yanis ijiy nnsn i^naaj nnxi mm nina rm'h lafi VDia cyj p^n 

, , , bx , 

D^nKn bx Tonai inpiysp naty [b*'] nana pnon 'p pN o yni 

npi? nan' -\'ah^ hcb'ji in: pa jaoii'B' unvHsa nya nynio 

nyiB" nnDty^ jdb' eibx rue nao nn'a anai 

23. [Vol. I, pp. i79-8r.J 
[MS. Adler 3765, fol. 3, paper, square writing.] 


n^^in 133 Tfs'si hzv. Qnii'''XK'3 vih's i-nnt:''! 

DiJDtn nnn^v cnyn niayniv) o'-aio onan a^cn^ 

ne^pi noiN nnna ivnnn onyn nwn n-^x nv 

niJJ xisi •h iixn xma' nt: n^Jivon nann maaa ny 

liTianx i!v ntjai \h inanx no inijisxji p'-h inyji 5 

Mn3B' x^ i'Vis 3103 ynii np^i awn loipD 13 yn'i 

Dx 13 Di^ci on awj x^i i:ary x^ nasyj xbi 

nonan nion n^n in" dx irn^x nntya xhvn 

D1DX inx aiD ^[x] D1310 ni23 ^pcn riifjin D-bpE' 

xaB> xn^nj ne-xi ^n^y nai^o inna ^e'idi niajo 10 
nnrya nan yocyn xi) in^oi niavn ^ inro^x Dycin 
na'x nan mac ^irna ^npn iix ana svai niv 

1 = n3nai5. " Hos. 3. 5. ' Supply "anao. 

■• Cp. Isa. 52. 7. ■■ Prov. i6. 32. 

Appendix C [to Chapter IV) 217 

D'sn u n^rj □'js fv'^ '»i p'i'aipD iidsb'io nvnbi 

ni'i:''' i:ni!D' xini '.'.a nD3i bcnrr' i^si hnc" d'jub' 15 

ijppnB' no iniMij ni hi)n did^ irr ^■y an" vi'v 

nix nrw i'^dxi pmi mo ab vana nnnn^ ii> iini 

ai^ci psn^ inp^a* .-. 1 vansi vnuim vnioii'S' iwi 

'nj)w nijD nvj 'Nt^ji m i'Nno •nk'' diS'B' 

23a. [Vol. I, pp. 181-2.] 

An epistle from Fustdt. 

[Oxford MS. Heb. d. 79, fol. 34, recto, contains a letter of which both 
the beginning and the end are missing.] 

*Dm:3 T'rnKi 'Dno inyna'D W n^ivn 'bis 't . . . . s . . . 
" • n^D iiK D<at}'i • nanaoa onxsnoni • ini3[i']D3 ri^na^ • imb\i> npiB* 
rn t)3 iniN "jsb D^ymoi 1 . . ppTia d'-inddi nni'if K'm 'b 
ap&\ noa D''''nB' ij{< •im'nvi [ury ni>]snai •inD'ni WB-np n^jona »a 
• nnn^ uribx lo^^vn oSao • nnsan ^JB-a • nns irby najiB' ^s iis) sjn 5 
« 'Nn' ' • [i]onn 'jaicai • ion "saba^ • iDDni? Tcn • mv -ivb inani 
uvB'n[a xjiji • )i'? a'tfn w^sa Ni)! • i:i;»j wtrvpa xi' ^B'K • iok' 'ac^ini 

' = i'3, so also in 1. i8. 2 Cp. Ps. 55. 23 ; 21. 3. 

* From the ending npiB" it appears that the following defective fragment 
originates also from Daniel Nasi. T.-S. 6 J 3" : 1D[K'] ... (2) in''1[a] . , . (i) 

]'isbn (4) NJ-iO riB-np nbMi nualj di^k' in-i] (3) q^^db' umxi anpa 
nisna niaai) di^b* in'i (5) innDB"! inaia'' i^npn b'n-i niN'K'jn nbi3D anjn 
nan^E' ina'^i uxma invoN'' niN'B':n tti naaM (6) jprn omo 'jio ntfnp 
bi ini»n 'jci tptn (8) nD^tJ' 'j-hd ncnp iiaa dji nncn^n inion (7) 
naT hnpn b^ oi^t^i omivi Disn ditvi (9) dioc^ wi? D'anixn 

nyiC' lyP . . . (10). As Nasi, Daniel bestowed appropriate titles upon elders 
such as ' the choice of the Nesiut ', ' the friend of the Nesiut '. We know also of 
the titles nWCJil pOV n1^5''E':^ iry, &c. (see vol. I, p. 272). Likewise 
Oxf. MS. Heb. d. 75, fol. 24 contains the end of a letter which seems to have come 

from Daniel. The date is n5;iB'['] NDB' r[l»n] 'W (1050 c. e.). The postscript 

reads Di^tT ''s^xa | n:j; d»j;3 d'^tj i:\n^x inhj' inlji irrj; n»n» pn 
rbn^ b^ iil?'»ai iit^ca | anpa i:nj;[i]ii nnD!:'a Da':B i3s-i['] D^r]bit^. 

* I.e. to one of royal descent, from King David (cp. also Hos. 3 5). 
^ I. e. the earth (cp. Isa. 66. i). 

2i8 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

miy ^ •'s '331 'ji nxr D3 uni nnQan3 •iJB'tiJ ^ nonni •mty 

'lev ns '" 
13 D'Dinn iDjji in^JUD u'ona u^i^N i3n3D ' w o ^ n5 wry '3si5 Dn3iri 
•^hby^i e'n nas'a •unvm: lyoB'i'i nun nnsN ansa -n3 lo 

DmiN ^mu |n3n nnax minon fprn nisjn ns'ni • ijov lanunn ^ys 

? ? 
yiDB*^ • ly^Jj? nxnni .... nnnn noyi 
• i]ji3n nvry^i ' * i333n bi^ nb dji • i::i3n3 □■'a^^'iTn no^js^ • ijcxna 
• uann ppi • ijb'ib's' axy ini^tyai • us^y mnx Qii'B'ni ° ' uciB'sni 
mryi •ua''3B' T'ynn n^ji -unis n3''3 vbv 'ywvn uNnni' T'B'i 

' u^nnss 
•ijaro uxniD ••EiSFiJS^ nx • uysj'ini' y^a-iD 'inna ub lo'pni 15 

' ir^sJi vi*]? i'N ir • ijoipj^o « • uocpo i^b'b'ipd • un^aiD m^nra 
D'-T^nn ■<:»• pjya niaoni iMtna' ' p * vnnnrn b oy vj'':iv ba [in^bn] 

•nns ai'a nl^^i' "najnn^ misa •lannnb "arh 'int 

•nnx B"[o 
• nsT * HOT^ 'nB'y b'ijx nB>s • nsr 'nm in'' 'di . . , . 

.... iJjnx o *nm lyn ncsi lyo '^■ps?n 20 

nainni nii'B'n ny[B'] 


Verso contains another copy of a letter in Jewish Arabic wherein there 
are mentioned both the Babylonian and the Palestinian synagogues, 
Ephraim the Haber, the Skeikh AbQ Katib jnan onax "ilD naajn ntJ*."! 
b. Abraham and also i 63 myn ° »:*yi nci ^mnn ^Nioc 'o. 

24. [Vol. I, pp. 182-3.] 
Daniel b. 'Azarya, Nasi and Gaon, and his sons. 
A number of data concerning them are collected here, 
(i) [T.-S. 12. 109 contains a document from which the last few lines 
are ciied here ; the date is not to be ascertained (cp. also /. Q. R., 
N. S., XI, p. 417)]. 

' Lev. 26. 44 ; I Sam. ra. 22. 

'' The passage between the Lnes comes in here. 

* This word is evidently corrupt. 

» See R. Lakish's statement (Sanh. 18') on Zeph. ij. i : DB'p ' ItTipi IB'B'ipnn 

Dnnx oe-p a"nNi pxy. 

' Supply no. * Repeated in MS. 

'' ' The communal leaders '. For this expression ' the eye of the congregation ', 
cp. Gaonic Responsa, ed. Harkavy, no. 37. 

Appendix C {to Chapter fV) 219 

nD' na |tnn fi[DV -i] nyw Ta nj 63 nann ;rij ^[i nc] 'pwi . . . 
lip i?nj 1133 p tnsn iniE>x'' 3m id pjai -i[ry]^K ^^2 nos i noijon 

insn innty i:3ni mo 
i'NiDB' p[n]'30'D3 nnn» nD'nn3 ponm n^ono n^ybs' n3'is"n {yN-i 

rh^ m3 
innty n'3 pan iniB'N['] iryky ■13 nov nD^t:n ns'' p ciDr nyw^ p tn: 
nn'jiD'D3 p:x ijm pijis inns' >r nranm xinnp n-i3n'NnDi |inj 

Muo'vi ''nmB'N 
. . . [nnrjy nu 3py'' hnj dts'i b'nt siB'jn ^x^jn nma 
riiiih n^asin n3 "i: pnnnjoa nann nnin' 

(2) T.-S. 13 J i": a document drawn up 10V anv ^n3lE'3 nE'Dn3 

mn p nbona nnDB'^ pjt:' ntrcni pna'i hnd nirii nb^n nac |VJ'n-iD3 
'131 ij nsiBiin niD'' pnv n'3 Dm3X nno pj5n. After the signatures the 
following testatum is in different handwriting, pn nXB'in "iDtt' D"pn'N 

nnB'i nnoiin ^pv psj n3'a''' b'kt N^a'jn ^s'm nvt n^aa ^53Dnp3 
pJ3 iniby poTim pb^N nnEf n' 3n33 Nnn^ nui n»ro n'ovpi ab'vb p3'n3 

'131 nci'r n''3 inj 63 [-i3]nn D"n 't 

(3) Blau, Judische Ehescheidung, II, 102-3, published a document of 

divorce, HND n^m xai'N nJB' (2) ncns pov ntyoni pns'y snany mu (i) 
smp (4) D^B'n''3 nnt2ci» n''3 Nr^^m n^jo^ (3) pic yerii pna'i 
nnns' n3n3 yfj nryi^N 'ma nD[v] x3n (17) . , . yn33 innn sriB'np 
n'onn nnne' 3ipy'' pxj n3iE'i cxn x^B'^n ^x^jn njs (18). Semah b. 
El'azar signs the document no. i. 

(4) Daniel had three sons. T.-S. 13 J 13'^ (verso) : N^CW bs^jn , . . 

inion D'Niran nB'b[tJ'iJ . . . bNiB" vf^m N^tJ-in innry iio np nj 33 p. 

Oxford MS. Heb. d. 75, fol. 18, contains the beginning of a letter 
(evidently from Fustat) to pxjn N^tyin i5N':n 1J3m mo ncinp nhnj (3) 
inj n nyi' ^n^ [i33]nN ys^-ah N3'' . . . (5) ... DiN''B'jn men mh^ 
mpi nunnb mv (r. D'od ' people ') Dino onoyi (6) ni»n mi 'jn^cn 

Ton I'lDI^B' DiB'mi V3niND Dn ■'3 (7) V^N 03^) T'tJ'On^l Dni33 iinjiih 

ism nnoB' 31D31 ix3 np 3t5'iD pni (8) 3inT nunano qin?d oni 

. . . V^N (9) D3^ nD^I liJinX mpV The signature is illegible. 
Another fragment (in a box belonging to the Cambridge University 
Library Collection) is a letter to 3py' psj n3'e" trsni isnjn Ni^jn Nn'D 
. . . rh^ D^iy ny ^xn niJ3l3V Greetings are sent to his sons QiNiCM 
mimi i'xiB" 'NiB'j. Mentioned are itj' B'lB'an nmas pNnsN* lax mo 

1 ' Week', see Jastrow, s. v. aB* II. 

2 20 Coiiditions in Palestine and in Syria 

and Nathan Hallevi the Haber. The latter is no doubt identical with 
the signatory of the Ketuba, Nathan Hallevi the Haber b. Yeshu'a, 
(Bodl. 2875" i") together with Sahlan b. Abraham (see above, p. 103, 
note i). Another contract, dated 1041, is signed by him together 
with Ephraim b. Shemarya (Bodl. 2876™). See further A. D. 3, i. Bodl. 
2873^ is '^ legal question evidently addressed to Daniel. 1J1»7"| \b\f,V 
nhvc!\ nno^ \in331 v>rytni »nnD: iiwi N'B'J ir3[l]iN. Mentioned are 
the courts of Fustat and Tarabulus. 

In conclusion, attention should be drawn to Or. 5557, K, fol. 8, which 
contains a long Kasida composed pi3 rnB'j; h^NJii'N ^J^D?i'^< DV (i.e. the 
day after Passover). Recto begins -\T\VCW^ " ''JT'lp | Jn n''B'5;i. The first 
seven lines yield the acrostic Elijah Kohen. Of interest are the following 
lines Dinnn •nB':»3 ens'' fh'on •^E'p^?1 Tinn nTnn (recto, 11. 6-7) 
. . . ntf'-nx H\irW' nv: • ?\v-\'on uoinj uk^e': imp nion Y'^'i'^'^ ' "B'SJ'' '^^w 
i:jix3 naiB-'a • npipnn vjiw: nenipa TipTivn w:nN nhija (verso, 1. 31) 
rhbr^tin Tnijjnja novN mnn (36) . . . np^nani) i^ nnn (32) nptnn 
nc mai •nihsB'sn nsa '^tj-ai Tui^ijan ;1^^{a nsann •nii'nnn bbi2 
miripn nxa niS'nja pe^i rawDn •nii'ijon. It seems that the Nasi 
here combined also the dignity of Gaon and therefore Daniel b. 'Azarya 
is meant. 

(5) Of Daniel's three sons the best known is David, the opponent of 
Ebyatar Gaon. A few more data are given here. Or. 5545, fol. 7, 
contains (recto) a document dated lyyar 23rd, 1400 Sel. {1089 c. E.) 

at Fustat, ijjnx i:ani mo b^ (4) isn;n' pn niaa ni[n] ... (3) 
••nnasi N[''D]Bn ^n\-ia: i'^5-lB''' b[2 be] (5) iinan N'B'in th wk'b': 
E'65n i'lun N''EJ':n ^jniji ijjnN umi i:nD ncnp (6) nStJ nua ja ni^'roi' 
'■"ibn n'aiD no p ■'•hn DmnN -io niaa innuo apv' ]'it» (7) na'tj''' 
na''B'''n (9) nbo ntj-o ino is-ioy las y^bt< vo msnE.* li^ bspi (8) 
NDN^D D "la inan (ro) n[B''] tb '5)j?iax T'J'^^' voi vi "n^N lax ^o na 
. . . (the agent) i'si'nljx. Or. 5566, B, fol. 7, contains a deed, dated 
probably 1400 Sel. (1. i contains only the word . . . yaiKI, i.e. [Na^sJ 
[nXD] vaiNl) at Fustat, stating that befor« tlie court of David Nasi b. Daniel, 
Nasi and Gaon, appeared Meshullam iptjnDnbs pnz^ lasa Tiiyoi'S, who 
referred to his property situated n2ai>K no^W^'b miKJD^N ptrOT nrnoa (7). 

' Perhaps orte of the signatories of a document {Sa'adyana, J. Q. /?., XIV, 450, 
note 2), dated 1092, and issued by the court of David Hannasi b. Daniel, 
D"D Oniax ta ^ibn nUID n , is a son of this Abraham Hallevi b. Tobias. 

Appetidix C {to Chapter IV) 221 

Petahya of Ratisbon tells us in his Itinerary (ed. Grunhut, p. 35) of 
a 'great' synagogue inside the city of Damascus where people pray.' 
Evidently this synagogue is meant in the above document. 

(6) Daniel's second son was called Samuel and resided at Damascus. 
Oxford MS. Heb. d. 75, fol. 11, damaged, contains a deed dated Tishri 
Z5th, 1396 Sel. = 1084 C.E., at Damascus with the following testatum, 

miana (11) ^foh^r\ sj^a-jn ^xioitt xrn '33 NJonp kji xana n"pn'x (10) 
. . . ^i'f ;iNJ V!>'i>ir\ hv.''Ti UTn. Signature (1. 15) ^^^.r\ vc^vn i>NiDB' 

(7) The third son of Daniel seems to have been called Isaiah. See 
R.E.J., LXIV, 120, no. 34 : Samuel b. Shekhanyah and Isaiah b. Daniel 
b. Ahwath Gaon (for Ahwath(?) no doubt read 'Azarya, while Gaon 
should refer to Daniel). 

24a. [Vol. I, pp. 183-4.] 

A letter to the Nagid Yehoseph b. Samuel (b. Paltiel). 

Oxford MS. Heb. a. 3, fol. 43 (cp. Bodl. 2873") contains on recto 
a Ketuba drawn up at Fustat in Marheshwan, 1371 Sel. = 1059 c.e. 
The last of the signatories is ijf Dnay '313 rh'!itf\ ninii 'h^ (of tiie 
dotted letters only the tops are preserved). Verso contains a long letter, 
from a scholar, to the Nagid Yehoseph b. Samuel Nagid. The letter is 
written in two columns, and it seems that originally the vellum was 
folded into two halves and was afterwards flattened out when used for 
the Ketuba on recto. The epistle seems to have been continued on 
part of recto and subsequently the marriage document was written 
between the lines in large letters (cp. Catal. 2873'^ b). 
ntyiy . , . (9) . . . us^np i:iiv nni3j Shiy^ 'o (verso, col. i, 1. i) 
mt3v ^p^^ mx i'N ai^B' '"nm "o. b ^p 'non nl^yjn ^^^r'^^ nw^sj 
Dna'n T^' . . . anujn cnt (12) . . . nbuo ^n . , . (10) . . . mmn 
'tvsjn •nB'ni ^r^m |nxn wn (15) , . . d'T^m h-^ rsin . . . (13) 
T3J fiDin' '-11 'no 'pja Nin . . . (17) . . . nnam n[-i''sv]m 'nHm 
. . . n^mi i53n nsnpn ^ ''1:1 mioij tjj •xi'Djn ^x 'nn3 (18) ... rhxin 

' r^^sno n31 niina noaan n''3 (I'Vn) ySlDX3V ForVSDX31 a better word 
would be (Tiyn) ")in31, as two lines before Petahya speaks of Tl?7 pn. 

2 =ni5nni nana ba ^jj? ddi-idh. 

' Of course this does not indicate that he was also Gaon. The head of the 
school was then Daniel Hannasi (I. 44). 
^ = nPUl, i. e. Israel, cp. Isa. 49. 21. ' 

22 2 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

•ni'njn moyi •ni'i:n T53 n^ne' . . , ^'xide' ii no pja p . . . (22) 

nw o . , . (35) inx^ niini> . . . (34) 'nijui mioi) 'nijivon n-iNanni 

^y Donon ^vh '•li'Ji] . . . (36) . . , rhv^ no mivjn m1v^^ .-itibti 

. . . mnw m^D -ib'V pijoi "rnvDa -iv •'pi'n irn 13 xn3t5> no I'D 

inni 'mp" jnxn b'sj 'a tjjk n^n n'na' nann noin nyir . . . (38), 

. . . micD N^ n'l^j inanji . . , (39) •"nDB' 'ob' 3nn[3] n^m 

-iniDv (41) n^N ^53 511D1 . . . nnyi ni'^'sn ^a (40) [ijnya ^jd irn^x yotj''' 


i5'':nN bv ij^ariN nya o nioi^yn ynvi . . , (44) *n-ns3 tiw npnn 

pi p 

^K*^ niN T'i'v i'i'anN n??: ny^ ''n'' (45). D^Jiyn nis ^'ni 'B'[:]n i'x''JT 

^N (46) 13 ■jiT'Dn nv DN1 m Sp3 |dn nnoix Dm 0^13 nnoiy ^npm 
ni33 »3a^ Ti3txi Nni3n b nti fi^ps'i ly yiyn inn 13 T-jjn •'jnN yoa" 
TDya ia' no 'n3T na sm m '■:h '3r 'ni3T n3nD uyo np (47) oni 

■* '131 ana n3 . Several other Aggadic passages are quoted till the end of 
this column and throughout the next one. It seems that on recto the 
part between the lines of the Ketuba is a continuation of this epistle. 
But it is very difficult to read. T.-S. 12. 214 contains (verso) the 
beginning of an epistle with a long exordium to ^Tij: ^53? tfNin flDin* 
[nj^ljD "iTJ ' n^ijn. Probably the above Nagid is meant. 

25. [Vol. I, p. 186.] 

(i) T.-S. 13 J 15^' contains a letter from 'Ali Hakkohen b. Ezekiel to 
Ebyatar Hakkohen b. Elijah Gaon, from which the following lines are 
excerpted : 

nti'np r,i?nj ni33i5 ... (3) ... Dusno rmbt? nm (recto, 1. i) 
(p=) p: . , . (6) ... mnni ''ymn pan (4) -in''3i« irmi ly-iD 
in3n in^^N uanx ircxi moyi i3nn3i unr: irsni uno (7) n^nj 1133 
^D ip nj 33 (p =) pj worn nnD3 '* oy br\ apy iixj ni'B" i^Nn (8) 
finy npi (13) ... iJiit spy ;i!<3 naic'' cj-nt nio^ty irjinb? wuni (9) 
iD bvn (14) Dxb Ti^N -iNasNbl' nvD h^ bxi'hv. ly nixn 33d wtd 
''3ni3 (1.5) yoj -a nl'SD npi iD^Jiy ^y fi^tJ" voma nis aynni nnan 
eii^N nan^N \x^i»i3i rn ti: tjj^n xjtd^ (= n3nN3o^x) n3QN3Dbx 
ID np^j IK np in!? npi navjs 'e' ^vw ^yi) vti' n3*i:'\T D3n (16) niy3n 

1 = niBB', cp. Job 26. 13. 

''■ Cp. Ps. 126. 5. nilV3 means here the reaping of grapes (\/"\SZl). 

» = pwm N'CJn . • * Hag. 3', Sukk. 49^ 

Appendix C (to Chapter IV) 223 

nisDT ^N D''^i:'n''D nsv^ ms ^3V ^ htod niv ysiONi'N (17) jna^JN 
nivi»B'ni Di^c fs Nah Nvrh nan npi n:3D nptna (18) n^amn ^di 

. . . niyn (19) hjiqi iv ^3d 

Conclusion: V3J |fnn W\>\rf "13 jnan •'^j? may nioiyi' an ansi. 

The Nagid mentioned is Yehuda b. Sa'adya and his brother Meborak, 
the famous successor to the dignity, styled here Haber, AUuf nU'Dn and 
the scholar of the academy (see infra, p. 250). The writer 'Ali Hakkohen 
signs a Ketuba at Fustat (1107 c.e.) as ij 03 -|3nn ^Nprn' ni itnn pan '•^5? 
(T.-S. 28, 6, recto), and another dated 11 28 c.e. by authority of Masliah 
Gaon (Bodl. 2873*°). We thus learn that 'Ali followed his father's 
calling as a Reader, and that the latter was also a Haber of the academy. 
A relative of our 'Ali was probably Ezekiel Hakkohen ij D3 "I3nn b. 'Ali 
Hakkohen VJ "13 D3 "lann who is found among the signatories of 
documents at Fustat, dated 1095 and 1102 (Bodl. 2875'' t'"; cp. also 
2877^; Merx, Documents, &c., 36-7). 'Ali the Haber, the father of this 
Ezekiel the Haber, was no longer alive in 1095. He was a contemporary 
of the important physician Abraham Hakkohen b. Isaac (b. Furat, see 
vol. I, p. 84 ff.) whom he congratulated on the occasion of his marriage 
(T.-S. 18 J 4"). He signs his name 'Ali Hakkohen the Haber b. Ezekiel 
Itnn b. Solomon the Haber. We thus hear of two persons named Ezekiel 
Hakkohen both of whom were Readers. A liturgist Ezekiel Kohen is 
mentioned in Bodl. 2 73o<"^, 2853'"; '" ^^ latter place the acrostic 
is \ra (lTn=)n iiNpfnV He is very likely identical with one of the above 
Readers. See also vol. I, p. 97, note 4. 

(2) The responsum of the Gaon Elijah Hakkohen to MeshuUam 
b. Moses is very damaged, ifiii TWa mo p Q^IS^D 3nD 1J'':i3J . . , (i) 

Dii'B'1 on D3D1PD '':33 ... (2) ... n3n3 ns ux's^m nDii? [n]D nuy 
. . . ^ [i'xiB'''] NvnxT [Njna^nD nn3 pjnu ux pa' piijinn nt[i3n3 ^Jnic 
, . , r\i^2. fcnn nx -iwi' • • • (5) ... [niJB-^] fxi [n3]i?n pi . . . (4) 
, , . nnioi n3''[-iB' -injs fi:n -nyu pxc ^nii -\\-\yv innn ... (7) 
... (9) ... [d]''^3ixk' b'de:'3 -ini O/iyo Nn3''nt3n Njnjn ... (8) 
nx i:"iV3i N3X "inN '•nai'ni ... (12) ... mnai N'n nnn pn^jnoi 
Nns'nm iwsji) rani: pi . . . (15) . , . [moxje'i xna^n pi ''j'cnn 

' Elijah speaks here oi two schools in Palestine (?, after PNItJ" NS?"1XT, another 
country may have been mentioned). We only linow of one school in the Holy 
Land. Where the other was situited is obscure. Perhaps the Bagdad school is 
meant. Hence read [153311 W'yiT'] NJ?-|XT [N]n3'nO nn3. If this suggestion 
be correct, then the Bagdad school was re-constituted not long after Hai's death. 

^ See Pes. 49". 

2 24 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

hn irx (20) . . . jnaip (18) , . . dWb'i ... (16) ... nc^ mcsBn 
m»NB' noi . . . (21) ... nny ns* ■nne'Dn . . . moNB' noi pinyn b» 
. . . '^rh^z nnn ji^d •'D3:d nc:'np[n] . . . (22) . . . tripn '[t'':]^5Ji' 
. . . [ni'NB'B' noi] ^nsi^n pi (the same subject is continued till 1. 30) 
'33D ra-dj ='ir px: -Nnin'' 31 . . . (34) ... am ova . , . (33) 
. . . ^maiyi n''n miva 13KTOt5>. Greetings are sent to Meshullam and 
his son Moses (1. 58, nCD i ^[id] ' libl). Conclusion : ^nn^' nuan li^o 
i'sh ni's'' Ti*n •" j'sni uny t>mo . , . (59) . . . i^ nicpn min nna 
frtan in'as apv I [jinj ri2>B>*] cnt inan \r\'h^ nl^D nv3 minn ■'oan 
. . . Ta Tain. 

25a. [Vol. I, p. 191, note I.] 

Note on liturgical compositions, probably by the Nasi 
David b. Daniel (b. 'Asa^ya). 

David b. Daniel may be identical with the author of several liturgical 
compositions. Lewin, Tahkemoni, II, 19 11, 48-52, edited two poems 
(Bodl. 282i">c and 272210) having the titles N'tt-jn yrh VSSi! and nnnr 
B':n TH ^ respectively. Both compositions are alphabetical, the first 
being incomplete. The author exhorts his soul to curb its pride and 
keen desire for aggrandisement (so in the nnnt, but no details as to his 
own experiences in life are to be found). The first may have been 
written by David b. Daniel after his deposition in 1094 c. K. The writer 
alludes to- his degradation (Ton p^Jpa maa run) and to the death of 
several members of his family. The last line preserved reads, ' I have 
become faint on account of the heat (i.e. God's punishment) because 
I loved dissension ' (IIV'D, cleavage, a synonym for np17na). It appears 
as if David regretted then his former behaviour which resulted in his loss 
of office. 

T.-S. Box K. 6 has a leaf beginning • ijpt rh\ir\ N'C3 nil 'Ulij nn'i>D 
'lai ua I3y IVJIV DN. T.-S. Box K. 27 contains a parchment leaf wherein 
we read (verso) 'lai nriD nno IB'N' ''33 ib'DJ Tinx " Dca ; alphabetical, 
only first two letters preserved. Recto has the following colophon 
mi.T'i W-ys'' pK N'CJ N't^jn n^n irjnx^ x\hvr\ tprn pn^ insin nr 

' — pjyP ' concerning '. 

2 Cp. on the subject the responsum in |t^'^n 001111, no. 27a. 
' = IJIiat. It is interesting to find the Palestinian Gaon quoting R. Yehudai 
Gaon. t 

< See Be?ah 24". » = niOn^V 

Appendix C [to Chapter IV) 225 

rh^ \Citf. ny "n^ nan n'n* ni>l3n ^n ^"3 N'B'JI. Accordingly this liturgical 
poem by David Hannasi belonged to the elder Hasan, the ' representative ' 
(of probably the Nasi's school, see vol. I, 190-1, and cp. p. 202). 
T.-S. Box H 5 contains four paper leaves of liturgical compositions. 
On fol. 4, verso, we read 'lai uhysn I3>ni3iv D3DN DK 'NVJn 'Vrb nin'!jD. 
Finally, T.-S. Box H 15 contains ten paper leaves with the following 
poems by David ' the son of the Exilarch '. Fol. i, verso, • B'ln 'h pK 
T3TN1 triN ^1^, alphabetical, ends on fol. 4, recto; fol. 4, verso, n!?3N 
nny 1»»t5' ''3 min», alphabetical, ends on fol. 7, recto; fol. 7, recto, 
':niSV1 '3mr3 n^Jin nnvi '^ir\ivr\ mv CJ^Jsi'D rx, alphabetical, ends on 
fol. 8, verso ; fol. 9, recto, ni'if, alphabetical, probably by David, ends on 
fol. 9, verso; fol. 10, recto, nnmv XDS3 ICN nncn ni^S, alphabetical 
and incomplete, preserved only till letter '7. 

26. [Vol. I, pp. 191-2.] 

An epistle from Shelah the ' Sixth ' b. Nahum to 
Ephraim {Abii Khaii^. 

[T.-S. 20. 106, vellum, rough square, size 42 x 17 cm. A part of recto 
contains marriage congratulations in rhymed prose in a different hand ; 
faint ink.] 


nxcoa ■hhT\ D"nniB' 'ncnn mn: p 'ccn rh^ [':s] 

irn-n \y<-\rh D^ijin ny D^m nSnji mNsm naiai [nom |n] 

mv pvT »n' '-i"5uN otra xnpjn Nin dj Nin D''n[3N] 

Tianvin pxi 'lox i^n 'iiy 'pn "D^a in-ixsn 02* [Tt:nn!?] 

Iii5pB>N pNB' DnoiKH noN"' '3 ' "ijrx nsoEj-in '[3 ■h~\ 6 

nx:n lyjHN 'jai? man nain nr D[''n{}'^3 pNo] 

nr3 -iDN' Ni> D''DsiK' nsD iDi'[B' ''D ^53 o i>vrn\ 

IDsi) "3 i:N-lB'» »33 1^NB"1 *3in[3 D'D31B> 1303 p] 

mm' " noN'i nni'n^ nijnna ''jj;[33n ijx uii nby' 'd] 
'33 loni"! = nnn3 n3i • rri x'«^'^ nx 'nn: r^l'in n^y] lo 
Tyn nxi i-\t\ 's^ ni3'i nn1^? n3i''i Di'B'i[T'3 mm'] 
'jyjsn ns* i3'i vns pyoB' nx mm' ii''i '^lisi b'[k3 ini^B'] 

■T3i"i 'nonn -I'yn nc nip'i r\rm lo'nn'i [nav 3^1'] 

1 About this name, see Steinschneider, J. O. R., XI, 124. 

* Cp. Isa. 40. 22 3 Cp. Job 4. 12. ' Judges r. i. 

6 Ibid., 1. 8. ' s Ibid., 1. 17-18. 

2240.2 p 

2 26 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

nijuj [n>i pi'PE'N nxi rh\ii nN[i] my [ns mini] 

nn Tjf N^n trv miv» dji • [njbuj [n]Ki [|npv nsi] 15 

-iB>N iDUin riN B'mni nnah nn [xaje' iv [itrna n^j] 

^sntyi bi nn •i^[i]i ' D''B[i]n nain [lisB* id3 na] 

fiN'n oK'i'' "DUST DtJ'i Dni [x^n D'i'B'ni] 

la^^i njn xan n^" nni) [di3» uii''' nDS'i] 


[p^PB'Jxt}' [Djnana dxi in tj? jw mivo ns in 

[x]b min'' ya nnaijtr ijsd i>KnB'i )'"is<o nyx 

[pi iJiiipcK Dv tan na^t? D'-i'B'n' dj p dn jjsnn'' 

nn n^v 
nm n^sai in mai't:' iv ma^jj xStJ' ivs 

[nnoiNjn a^j b n^jj^ dni •^nib''' j-ino i^sb' 5 

^[lIB'DB'Ja liaB' IDa DTlci'S flSD N'n p^pcsB' 

[k'ik D'tri'tJ'] ona 71 \h'^v^ m'l '" nn v^y nijvni 

[nB» ija] nabe* nnx^B> ':a» 'iai nniv^n ns np^i 

[ijiya ynn nijK'yi' ny 'ja iB^Din niy dni p^ptrx nx 

[Dnyn n]ai5i D^na'i's Ta DwriJi D'Dsitj'n iDn '" 10 

•'' [nan n]ry dj pi'ptrN dj W'yir pNaB* niaion 

[DJn'i "] lyya ynn nisyy^ ^xnc" ^ja la-on 

[nj^NB' noNn] dn[i] nsty D^ya-iN D^ne'i'a ^a 

[lii'pB'Na DTiB'ji'a iNatr 'Jbd i'x-iB'i pso 

[D''311^?^ nnai'B'] lino hvosv^ ^'\-i ija dj 15 

\yi!^ PND p's] D''[a^]Dn ^nui D^Dairn Moia 

[onsD IPO pt^jB" pyi nDPty p oyama ^naa 

[nnxN nsi i*] jra nnvN nx np^i oi'B'ni bv 

[i?Kb n^E'jDnn njtya in^i nosji i^jon rra 

[i^yo o obmi'] bv Dnv» i^o pb^b' rhv oyam 20 

min-'i' "iB'K nnvon ny nx na^JM 'iai ^'a 

[niyi D»»]in nana " noisi ^ • o^BnT' ijy xa^i 

' I Chron. i8. 4-5. ' Judges 14. 19. ' Judges 13. i. 

< 2 Chron. 12. 9 ; ffiaT probably stands for Q^cn '"laia. 

" 2 Chron. 12. 2-4. » 2 Chron. 28. 17-18. 

Appendix C (to Chapter IV) 227 

[131B' nsi nmjn] nxi n^''N nxi c'Dtr nu n^? 25 

[l^s ina lajB^i min''D DTiti'i's 

nn DJ i'NiB''' I'nsD 30 

■ [onsJrD pNO nlj-c b^ 

.... [onjvn xh^ bn i'sntj" j'ixd 
K . . . D'triy DriN ntv3i 

nDW DrS 'iB''' flN i'3B' ''Eli> 

[fxc DHDiKjn nms n^n i^n ib^sw nnx 35 
pom •IB'' psD pi'pE'^? 

. . . . B'a «K3 ilisptyM XniB' Dllp 1JN 

VDi iriTWD ^3''B'^^ bi in n^a 

. . . 3 . . c . . . ijy lij^ann dji ns^na 13N31 

. . . N xfl ^snc"! pND na^n '3 nnin i'sni 40 - 

[min]3 D3n nnsi nn '131^? pp pNi d^^d 

... 3 n3''B"n ^n^^B' nio''Di n^J djn n^) tt bi 

.... Ni in nu 3N1 ''V''3En ^^^ dijdd on 

.... n33D . . . J-lNi) TfiVra. p31 I'1K3 p3 

[p-nn3D3] x^TTQ nns lan sin hs^dd bitn. 45 

[ij'N nB'i'B'3] Di:pr n3['']DDi nyrx> kjsd 'pb'nt pns3 

[n':» \rb pJaoD ''3''n '»>« 3-1^ N3nT nn3 xhn 3n 

\rih P3DD ^n] mi) P3DD1 pn^B'nK mi 'ni'- 

[p'o^ Nnici ni^] '3n''i 13-1 n^i) np xoh ndb'3 

1 Sanh. 13'' bottom ; the reading here is different from our text. See also 
Dikduke Soferim, a. I. 

P 2 

2 28 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

26*. [Vol. I, pp. 192-3. J 

Fragments of letters from Ebyatar Hakkohen Gaon. 

T.-S. 10 J 24' contains two paper leaves, very damaged, which form 

a part of a collection of letters from Ebyatar Gaon. We can only 

extract a few passages. 


-I'-arni' hi^ 'T«23 D2n^ [n]i ^»[^]N^!' pN[i] n^syi (fol. i, recto) 
TV *3B' i)3 D''3ci D'Do niTvi) [D'jn^n liijia [Dijc no I imini inna 
w^nisN i»npn nta nyij '3 | . . . iJ"n n[u] nNnn | i3n^[a]n [njipo irnii)x 
nisDi mpon nB{n]p -fax- pan | u djdni itynpoi'i inuij piio inrn^ 
nt ij'3n3 [Ndj] prnni | . . . nr i3''3n3i | irnans^ u^i'i visits' mrj; 
'Sk [iB3n itrsj] DB* Dmv ano | [nJe'N nn idnji pnsn insn onsn 
i!? nmni) . . . cnn n3T[''B'] W3i[^] | nt5'3i nnn^NB' pnij nj^jn xvo* 
I D'»n nuB-i . . . ^n: -isb* [ii» iy]3p' D'acn jdi hot nt^N | nx 'v ^jbIj 
I . . . nin Dn* . . . | . . . Nim inan onsn \^^v \ . . ,\h ib''Di'' Dii'B'iJ 

i3'3inK "iDjiDi'N, 13N ^'''i'j^N | jxTnij innNi . . . [yjnr Nine' 'Nsni'x nx 
'^ [nnnjc Dii'B' isvvbi r^ys di^b' •'vwi' mi'B' | . . . i'i'si 


'r Dca itv[:n] na'C'n ivk'd pj3 bv lyi oSyi' aano ae'njn zmh 

xM^ i[dn] 'V DVM3 nirnb iob' 'n* i'nan ann pns' imi inn, 

3T VB" ^ iivr iu oisiyi' 


'pKi D'DE' [iiB'y] 'r [dvd nry] 

[v^y 'v] Dr Nipj -|L"K 'V iiN3[3 NnjpjH ;n3n -in'SN t» 

fjvr pnv |n3 jn "'^ |n3n siov p p^j p: pxj [[3] 

. . . !? 3in' I ^3 . . . nyi ' Nn na | mai ,T[DnD] . . . minn »D3n •'jsi? 
I . . . [ni5i3]n B'KT iiTptni w3t . . . nitrna . . , | om D3n * * xna'nnrt 
i'tr I 'n[DbDi njuv ^nhm . . , -ib's nrow •'B'sii omnni onB'n ^n 
i'3 Dy nnmi -iin3 ^31 [3^1] ;pr oyn [nstyi mjiinpn 'onai pn no 

Dioc'' . . . [nB'r] I 'sb^n D^^^N^ ^tJ'np noB' D'wiB'n . . . | a^^hyi eiD 

• Perhaps this Parnas' Arabic name was Abu'l Ridha. See Bod!. 2876''' : 
a letter from Abraham b. Nissim addressed XSIPX 13N HNT i>3XpD n3n flP ''S'K 


* Prov. 12. 20. ' Ps. lai. 2. < Cp. Neh. 8. 9. 

» Supply nipwn. 

Appendix C (to Chapter IV) 229 

uvn pN 1JINJ '•^•hit 13N i:»oi . . . (after a few lines) . . . irniiN 

. . . vijy D^ipn t^'WH i'lan yrihv. n:iin3n 'ma «ii»n ^Jt^i . . 

Dnov irjnm • D"ni' ainsn b dv nioi pon pan pnsi • D>''ni , . 

. . . wrh^ imty •D'i'tyn'' v^^ naimn ni[Di] nhycn nann pan 

'av j'nx nt:»i enipn m»tr» [nniB'] . , . Doiooni onann [^aoi] . 

a 131333 ana uv'jn . . . | . . . paoi n^oiri . . . nSan 'ja bi . 

. . . 'V Dv riN . , . ij^c naic^n as inan :)Dv . . . (fol. 2, recto) uno 

•'JBi' I ■ . . n'jnK-i nntsB'i' Snx rur naa mo inv^noi' fi[DN]jB' . . 

ni>i ... I ■'jni'iB'n yi pnx 6 [a npin ^xiob' ano psa vaxD n^va . . 

TK'S'N nu . . . HB'n' fiDNjn | . . . n 'a ni 03 pnx ina i3naa3 latc 

i3Nsni isn^c anan nyan [nns] . . . | i'tj' ^unai'N viwn jon ••ijy lax 

1 [anan] vi'j? usnpi minn idid 'Bi) . . . | un tb'^n . . . ^p^^ jprn nx 

I rns riB'' . . . nann lann viiy nsypi ' • ni5''D n^''o pnx pa i3naa3 h^ 

XI I nnsD UN T'K'i'f* Jif* "331 noaM . . . n3i:yn b'i ii:'B3 naxw Tiyi 

. . . ••ns riTtJB . . . axa *B'B3 ^jj; napn. There follows his whole 

declaration and a Talmudic discussion about the question of levirate 

(fol. 2, verso). 

27. [Vol. I, pp. 1 94-5 • J 

Letters to Elijah Hakkohen b. Ebyatar Gaon and 
Nathan Ab b. Abraham. 

[Or. 5557, N., fol. 13, square writing nearly cursive, size 17 x 13-4 cm.] 


"'VT'a vniK^33 -'papa vniana •'v'DB'n^ nis 'h^rm'' 

nniNO xna ia •Ta[-i ojra -inai '••'vnoi •'B'^aion 

T-nani •"'yj-i '3011 "'yE' '•ny ia ^nani '•lycyB'^ 

DB'a snpi •'y[''a]E' DV cTip dvo^di -Tan \i naipoa 

•inxnp DB-a nv3' lyunn "'an n^'i'N 'nnn 'psa 'Nin "ym 5 

laniK i^a byi •ino'B" vb am [cd •inoB'-ia pn iDa 

• = Tho Tho ' word by word '. 

' On the top there are a few words in Jewish Arabic of which I could only 
decipher . . . i^jy . . . . 1N^1[D] [y. 

' ' Who gives me rest and (also) causes me evil ', i. e. who rewards and punishes 
me. tysin is a Hiph. of WB ( = ^£3, see Levy, a. v. CJ'IB, I). 

* Cp. Gen. I. I4fr. 

' All the following indications of words abbreviated are not in the manuscript. 

« =inan. 

230 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

uiD?D 'inni3 i'^xi' "imDy* msisD njpr "\rmh^ 

•vhr\h DK^3 wy rm'b na "inTnii r\i\vh Mniv[''] 

pvi ^T pi iv^y ^K inonT' 'n pxan ijjns 'pjo p 

•y-in yoOT -^vri 'ytx '^[nn] 13 'ito ''JS yniDi 10 

»ny3p ^3X1 •[•'jB'Nn i^sjsn -ib'n • ['•]»»i5E-'n 'iid 'pj3 nss^DNS 

»13K1 ''INI '^tynn pri n^xi ••'cnan nnni pno i*k' ^n3 

[d]vdi •''K'ipoi' inD333i * 'B'ui'D Tiyipi •icnl's ''n3in 


nyi3i "'ts'nns '.-1:1 d'^p •[']B'*Dn dv iy m!K3 hjidb' 

•TT'K'y T\-^r\y\ "Tnoyn oniK mit:'3i •Tny ''3T 'oy 15 

nw •Dn[3]Dn 130 dsni 'nrax i*ni '•□Jpno ijn u^ ^331 

Dy i3ip n3nK'D I'Dn m -nw 'n^n i''3n33 

1355 ni»n iJB' Tim ^y dji ^•irm''N3 irnjni' "iriDin 

•'3JB'Db niB'b "13^ ^S 31B'N pX ' 3X pn ^y 1D3 '3X3: 

□i3ni3 •ontj' ■'JE' Dni) TTiin 103 •uxsi' nxia-i onpon 20 

nnwb 'DnntDj 3[^3 •□''jT'no mins Dnwi' •nnK'* 

iiD^ni 'Dnip njB'D •onB''' ^^^ onnini' •Dn3n 

. , . n TRS n'ni "i3i T33 'nx ['n]n D[n'']^y D^pi* 'anDU 

-in3 i^CEJ''' • vrinn "T'Dnni' nv^ oxi i» di^p'i 

V3mx 26 


oipi5 ^NE'x •vni^[B'] 'yccai •vnin3E' inn» p^nx 
^3 ■ah^ • XV01 yni3 • xvo' 31 niijin nanyni) 

Diryv V3nix 

verso (reversed) 
•D'ClpD ni3n31 'DiDIID "'OB'O Dli'B' ' 

ri3B'n[iJ • D'D' nisnx Dy • D''Dxm» nnim 

inn3i in[r:] ijjhx '"ino 'pjsi? •Dioi'iy 'JB' 

^•n3'E'o E'a: ',13.-1x3 njinn •n3''B»iT 3x \n: 

Dm3x ''niD33 p •X31 xxri> 'nanjs mini 5 

jnxn xc* • pvn 'ni pi • nin in' py p • nn I'on 

•nnvDH ^xno ncv: lom fn3 •noniD Diijc 

' Dipno for ppno. 

2 Read inmX3 ' in his light'. A paitanic noun iTliX for niX. 
» Ps. 45. 17. 

* On the top there is written in a different hand . . , , '(jy nS'ITO^X f OlXI^X 1]). 

* I. e. the Torah which ' restores life' (cp. Ps. 19. 8). 

« xmi X31D nbnj ni33. 

Appendix C [to Chapter IV) 231 

ymoi • iisi •'H'' pi • n'DV naioi!"! • nry cnn^i 
ynn yocn nud *3 •ij3:b'd nocs'^ MJ-inK 'ja 10 

Dva • 'ni'nnn iDonai • 'nyap nijvni • Tnvin: 

''moj ''K"Dn DV 511D lyi '^rurp mxa 'n »rc 

•nnNE'n ^jy Dins' "nnnnt^j wnp ■'js^i 15 

•onr 2Nn Iran aS TinnNi nipn cni! nn^ 

iniyi -noE" nionn omaxa dji 'nnT vbyi 

niD'Na lanno yjicai 'nos' vdu vb>''i 'no* 

^ . . vn:i imjB> wnsn nnsi ' e-ioK'n nou 

"lann -nnnji n:n»a mini ne'niDn dv 20 

nii , , . 3 I minn b\'a'h onya 

p ainax 3did h^ ninijr 

28. [Vol. I, p. 194.J 

Data relating to Abraham b. Nathan Ab and some of 

his colleagues. 

(i) A number of data are collected here about Abraham b. Nathan Ab 
and his colleagues of the Bet-Din of Cairo-Fustat. Above (p. 201) we 
found Abraham signing a document at Ramlah together with Joshu'a the 
Haber b. 'Ali (1096 c.e.). A testatum (T.-S. 8 J 4"), dated Adar, 1413 
Sel. = 1102 C.E., is signed by Abr. b. Nathan ^^ r\2>^r\ IN, Abr. b. 
Shema'ya the Haber and Solomon Hakkohen b, Joseph Ab noPC 1*3 
i>sr flXJ. The former two sign also a document (T.-S. 6 J i''*), dated 
1414 Sel. (1103 C.E.) together with Isaac [b. Samuel the Spaniard]. 

^ CIDB' is a legal record containing, as it seems, reports of evidence given and 
other details in connexion with lawsuits. Hai in a responsum (printed by Goldberg, 
Sherira^s Letter, p. 64) describes a lawsuit between Nissi, the Exilarch's son, and 
the Gaon Sar Shalom, B'lDB' [n^JU U^yi N'DnD NHDn \11-\1 DnnaiD IDinXI 
'131 una pi. Alfasi also uses the expression nyOJ^S CIO'CI JH HU E^CB' 
to denote the minutes of the court and of the community (Responsen der Geonen, ed. 
Harkavy, no. 125, cp. note 6 and p. 390 [to p. 291]). R. Hananel to B. M. 2o» 
explains NnjytJ nCB' as n"*3 K'lDB'. A different view is held by Rabed (quoted by 
R. Nissim (p) to Alfasi, Gittin, ppTM % 2"nV2 b'Oi laDDC D''Din' nOB-D) 

D'Din'' bv Dunp^ nnsi DicnDisNi' 'n nntstj' '2 panian T'ax-in ana 

1"2 B'IDB' Itaty XIpJn Nini nixa niN . (See further, Brilll, Jahrbucher, IX, 135.) 
Cp. also Yehudah b. Barzilai, Sefer Hashetarot, ed. Halberstam, p. 14. 

232 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

(2) Abrah. b. Nathan, Abr. b. Shema'ya, and Isaac b. Samuel were 
the Dayyanim of Cairo-Fustat as we read in T.-S. 8)5^ which begins 
Dnvo :3s<BDS3i (2) xiPiNpijK TV3 D'yiapn o^mn rvih^ ijk wivn (i) 
nnt3B>i' liins nac (3) \>'hK B'tn ;» mdS'n xnsijni'N nv. Signatures: 
Abr. b. Nathan HDnib nst ^XIB''' b[i'B'] )n n»2 3^5, Abr. b. Shema'ya 
the Haber jINJ iT'JJDB' p, Isaac b. Samuel the Spaniard. Other 
signatories are Mebasser Hallevi b. Yeshu'a, Joseph b. Sa'adya, Halfon 
Hallevi b. Menasse. 

(3) Abr. b. Nathan Ab is referred to as pnaiDH i'njn 2")n in another 
document, dated 1427 Sel. (1116 c.e.) at Cairo (T.-S. 18J i'*). Menasse 
b. Sa'adya mnna ni'iycn addresses him (in a letter, T.-S. 13 J 5") 
jw "irjnK ... (5) . . . p nojDi ny^v/^n hd' pnaion ann nmnx (4) 

3VJ naT^n as (pJ stands here for son). In another epistle (T.-S. 

13 J 22") he is styled nis''B'3n nty DTnn niKsn ncn nn-ias. Mentioned 
are also the RaTs Solomon, R. Sadok the Third, and the Nasi (msn 
VB' •\'iVCm'\ lyJIlN). Abraham held also the titles Rash be Rabbanan 
and Rosh Hasseder (above, p. 202). In Bodl. 2878*^ for "iu Dn[rs] 
pn nu as ina probably read Dn[n3X]. Cp. also Bodl. 2836'*. 

(4) Abr. b. Shema'ya the Haber signs several documents (see Bodl., 
Index, S.V., besides those mentioned before). Also Papyrus Erzherzog 
Rainer, no. 1242 (see Karabacek, Filhrer durch die Ausstellung, 1894, 
p. 26^6) contains a document, dated Marheshwan 1400 Sel. (1088 c.e.) 
at Fustat, with the signatures Abr. b. Shema'ya, Isaac b. Samuel the 
Spaniard, and Halfon b. Ghalib the Hazzan. The sutjgestion of MuUer 
and Kaufmann (ibid.) that Abraham's ancestor, Shemaya Gaon, is 
identical with Shemarya b. Elhanan requires no further refutation. 
We know now that Shemaya presided over the Palestinian school at the 
beginning of the eleventh century (seezn/ra, Supplement I). In Bodl. 2862" 
read Abr. b. yj lann n'y[DB']. Afterwards the volume was acquired by 
Samuel Hallevi b. Sa'adya (see also vol. I, p. 195, note i). A brother 
of Abraham was Joshiah (see Kaufviann Gedenkbuch, 241, XV). A son 
of Joshiah is the signatory of documents, dated 1451-2 Sel. (i 140-41 c.e.) 
at Fustat (T.-S. i3j2'"-''°). The signature reads pj Inge's' 13 nyW 
^T P**' IIT'VBB'. He is perhaps identical with the person mentioned in 
the colophon of Bodl. 2634". 

(5) Isaac b. Samuel is also styled (just as his colleague Abr. b. Nathan) 
Resh be Rabbanan, 'helpoftheNesiut', and also pjn pT n''3(above,p. 203). 
He was probably Ebyatar's correspondent in 1091 (above, p. 228) and the 
author of an Arabic commentary on ^the first prophets (see Margol., 

Appendix C {to Chapter IV) 233 

J.Q.R., X, 385 ff. ; CataL, I, 125 ff. ; cp. also above, vol. I, p. 166, 
note 3). This commentator is also known as Isaac n33i>N (or 'Han) as 
shown infra (p. 311, note i). In 1153 c.E. he was no longer alive. 
Besides the documents mentioned before, his signature is found in 
Bodl. 2807s 2876^ 2873', 2877=', 2S^i'\ 282i*"'(Kislev, 1436-38 Sel. 
= 1124-27 c. E.), and also (without the indication 'the Spaniard') in 
Bodl. 28598al>, 2875<''<:^ 2i']%'^^-^\ See also infra, p. 247. Finally, 
two leaves of documents in the Cambridge University Collection, dated 
i4i9(?) Sel. (1108 0. E.), are signed by Abraham b. Shema'ya, Isaac 
b. Samuel the Spaniard and Meshullam b. Menasse the Haber. One 

document begins •hi< i>Npi msBnlJK '^yuN y^hvi. pn n^a "bv. nvn 
'131 mNnEj>; mNsn^N stands for n3''B'^n mxsn (see vol. I, p. 279). 

29. [Vol. I, p. 196.] 

A letter from Solomon Hakkohen, Gaon of Hadrak, to 
'Ulah Hallevi b. Joseph. 

[Or. 5535, I, cp. Margoliouth, Catalogue, III, 559. J 

Address (verso) 

[n]iN3x 'v Qt^a ajtran r\y<\o^r\ ivb'd xmi jno 1133 in»p'' uuniN iji33j^ 
n[i5]D 3pyi 'ri^JN \h 3i'tra i:n333 p "^p^r^ onsn iii^n rhvi 

"ijji oi'ivi' i:^nD3D irtiyo w 'y: "ip^n ;ptn e)Dv 'j3ni 'jid n[i5;]3 

^'r m '3 

33K'ji 'v I1XJ3 Nipjn |n3n rxh^ jo 
''ni'D ipy '<xb^ u^ 3jb'd icnp de'3 

iijJT 'V K'np pPlN 13^ pNJ p: pSJ 'i'3 

'nrin nsan mnn ni3n3i ^jyo d''db' ni3n3 
• D[n]By: ni^B'31 • DnliNo rwahvi vriN'' nn' 5 
<i^n n^is? NJ311 in» ni33 ut'P'' i3''aniN 1:^3:3^' 
nnnx 1^5 in^i inn»E'''i irn^N ini3n3"' np'n onan 

'ni[j)3] 1331B'ni 13133[3] p iTlK''' Hipni xihis 

[n^]x nniN v5 -ip^n ;prn fior im id ni33 
ij''3''^ mon mnx ij'':s^d W »3 nvniNn 10 
[']avn V^i n3''B'^^ mon ^■'ssa ^n i3n n^oi's T'5'^f' 
uynini I3n33:r2 ij['']3n3 pioa^ x^k' ^r:m nLJJ 

> Ps. 138. 6. '^ Ps. 46. 8 and 12. = Gen. 49. 25. 

< = D"n3 niy3 'while he was still alive '. 

234 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

ba i'[3]3 i'^5? Moc vam ba rnn in^a'' baa 

B^N [Djy 13'anj ivi);! uans is 

niiia p nN . . . . [nijana p pnv^ ibe' 

n33 mi3i5K p 

p^ un .... '3 uvDtn 

DN loy I rwT no nsn^i ,Ti5j? | 1:1333 nicy' nm | loE'a ' Nnonism 

131333 Dii'B'i I cnnnon b i3»j;nvi | nT3 ^b'ID' ^jxi [ mniND iJipK" Ds 20 

Di^B>i '\^''r\ I D3nan 
I tsnx niN d"' I nyi) | i3'nQ3D i3rij;D yB'^ | yh 3"i' luniKi | vi^3 b 

• sniD I inn 

30. [Vol. I, pp. 1 96-7. j 

Fragments of letters to Solomon Hakkohen Gaon and 
his son Masliah. 

MS. Adler 2806, fols. 3, 4, and 2, contains copies of letters to the 
Gaon Solomon and his son Masliah. Fols. 3 and 2 are torn across their 
whole length, so that only half-lines are preserved. The school (nS'tJ'") 
is addressed in the feminine. Fol. 3«- contains the end of one letter, 

. . . DnuniKi Dn^ii>3 hh-i {\\) ... [n]ion ^b^i "an 'nn Dibei (1. 10) 
. . . Dm iion ^^31.-1 laun (15) ... [13]i3d T'onni'i nD3 pB"i (14) 
hi-W mi33 (17) . . . DSDK^I m^Jtr nmn^ (16) Fol. 3b seems to begin 
a new composition. The last two lines read ^E'3D . . . | \xhv. K7 ''3 . . . 
y^triD iHj. Fol. 4a seems to be the continuation. Thus''31N3DD (i) | y'B'ID 

■inj [vjnvn 3^ b m^N ni33n^ (2) niDHoy 3np3 nni:[n]b \ry\ 'Pivd 
K'trs (4) ' iN rmn . . . [injon i'nui niv ^y ivb'ni (3) nni3''v •'D ncoa 
. . . jfB'in »3''B>'i> ifon ''ypin (5) 'ijin -iiD pj3 ^''VD^ ^ynn d3B' 'ibn 
mp' nunni) [ijxijB'^ niv ^33^50 pvn ^TB' (9) ... ninsn (6) nn3 
Dibn (11) nsT' mp' Di^tw nnbu'BD |3i3h nxD3 -iks^ (10) nDtr iinan^i 
nmvon 'i^n ''N>b'3 «''B'3 (12) 'jiuin in3n i'SD i3nT3 "is ii» pj3 mion 
3T jfe» "iND naT nmmB>ci n.TsniNi (13) Dnii^3 i'3 diS'B'i 3''{j''^. 

^ Nn311X is a deed of attorney (nNB'in), cp. Harkavy, Responsen der Geonen, 
p. 359i note to p. 90. 

'^ =p^3nrmn. ^ ^ijjhn. ' =iniVDn. 

6 =n'^so. 8 =na<B"b nnivon. 

Appendix C {to Chapter IV) 235 

? ? 

A new epistle begins on fol. 4^ ^iss j>j)3 |y ptyoT ij pKJ 'JB^ 13 (i) 

nom ini 'Idvid nianani 'nDnD m^B' 'nj iN xb" {2) -lanijN npnv 
N^Ji nBD' (4) xi? 'nDSJDi "iDco "B-JN ' nom ns nwyi? -nDi^D (3) 

• • • ["'l^''- F°l- 2* seems to continue this letter which ends at the 
bottom ; pNjn ix min is mentioned. A new composition begins on 
fol. 2^. Therein are mentioned Mebasser the Parnas, Sadaka the Parnas, 
and Meborak. 

81. [Vol. I, pp. 198-9.] 

An epistle from Baruk b. Isaac to Joseph b. Samuel. 

[T.-S. 20. 141, square writing, paper, contains the following letter, 
dated 1405 Sel. = 1094 c. e. ; c^. J.Q.R., XIX, 724, IV. Addressed 
(in Arabic) to Abir Ya'kub Yusuf b. Samuel at Fustat, Misr.J 

1U3 (3) b \hv vihrh iniB"3 riB'in mp' nrs (2) N:om tisi (i) 
iin fjov 'jmi (10) 'na pji xin ... (9) ... ^av px mnsB'o 
bp' (15) . . . jj i'xioB* -11 ID p (12) D'boB'Dn mxani nnann 
v^x vwn TiiriDi' "iB'N fjov man pi ^i-aa (16) TiiDnn 's^tia •nioi^B' 
iiyi D'HB' nan di^e>3 (18) o inx nsmnl? nann: ib-x vjnm (iDia (17) 
wniu'11 n^B'i' ^xib''' nvo niso d*5'xib'i D'Su (19) o'nyn 133 niniJo ^d 
B'nina imax ny^jn aa^ (21) nnaB'i niasy }'i^''n3 ni'nna nBixa nn'' (20) 
VDii'E' nnix ijjj 'HE'B'i nip-ia h-2 i^y Tnoyi (22) nxtn njB'i'B' mx 
ua^ja nB'XJ dx^ (24) lijnji' non atv xi5 na-x nnini nns' "nn:! (23) 
nx lansa •':j;''iin xi^i uivi njs'nai imin (25) nicb vmixn ix^sani' 
nn^ya dxi wrcrh (27) nipa ynp naB*! 'hb' xin navy onsaa (26) 
pana nnnn "niny rr'B'i' UTnrni nar ib-xi (28) ^lajn iiy niaiaon 
'31X1 nx yiv un ix (30) naa lan inanx ana 13 ^nyi^ minn (29) 
mn D^iyn 'i^ana iininy Taynb >33 TiaB' (31) vh ^my b^ '3 ^nixni 
Dx 's baxa (33) ''jijyn ijy xS 'i^J '33 nxB'3 s'u^a in'' bv ab (32) 
njB'x nnanxa o mm niairi ijy d't (34) 'isn '^3 D'jaira nmy yiapi) 
"max 'ay wy nB'xa (36) lay ^iriB'ni' n3r ie'x s^di' mam Tan (35) 
ijx vnvn:n naa o'JE'a xin it dxi laab (37) nB'xa 'mB-y "laa 
bv\ 13 xsi'3 D'^sa (39) nn'nuB'B' '''a njaa ixb' ib'x mB'yi' n3xi5Dn (38) 
lar bi x-iin '3 rr^b 'soixb ims ^3 ^y us (40) Ttna nrsi nx b 
rra pxi vynl' ipna (42) nx xin miB* mavn 'ansa pioy ':xb' (41) 
ns'xa nmnn pa'n bv i2'3i3J I'nnixi nnx (43) ^v^ ba2 B'-nan 

• =1331X3 133inX. 2 More correct npX. 

236 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

onriB'Di man hy^ tiDV nioni (45) vnioi^B' D''B'nn iinpn bi nnx (44) 

pnsi ma Tini | D^iv tj) onmni' pvn 'n'tj' vdi^b' (46) ■'una vjd 

nflN n'*N3 I X^ihaJ . He is probably identical with the writer of the letter, 
printed in Wertheimer, D^tyiT V33, II, i6a-i7'' .= Bodl. 2873'. Verso 
reads according to Bodl, i'\t\ n[i-i3 ir]3n nu nnix ana HNTn maxn 
m:''sn nx ina ij'3-i 3in3''i vi pn[s' iran] f3 w 63 pna^oni bnjn 
l^in ^?1n -itrN ^nib'^ ni^np ^a h-i\n nan nnaiv T3 nnvni? dnth 

. . . Dn'^N.' Cp. also Bodl. 2878': letter in Arabic signed by 1113 
S'inai pnV' i3")3; 2878': a responsum in Arabic by our scholar. 

32. [Vol. I, pp. 230-1.] 

Letters from a Haber in Syria to a Gaon. 

[T.-S. 13 J 16", paper, square hand, badly preserved.] 


. . [n]^^ 'siriN -iNnn ny -^ ns^iiis pi) n3x 

p N^ noKi p [mos] nolj 1^ 'n[-i»N] tx Diba ^nnp^ n^) n»s« 

. . , [Tijntos 
. . . nn n^v3 ':3d . . nu' Ninn 3in[r]n 1^ ^moD nsr b nns 

jixj ini" pDo 
[v]K'aj) ^ntJ' s")n pnna o li^ [nos]! inN viiv «1''D13 uni ■h injn inxni 

'o^j TitJ-pa . . . |D nnx b *j . . . n ms isa "irni 5 

-1DNI vtr Dm3^? 3n ^v . . . [Dj'cn nDi) TiJinnai ^cb tinsd Ni5i 

■ii) n:n 
DUinr ijcn n:ni if) ■a:r\'h p ■i3na3i d[''o]'' ri';[Da]i5 Niai nrtri'N p ns'' 
napon nm dn cnp^ riD" -i vsrv nvE^3 icnj mx ijVN n^mio 

X3B' n'^cni 
iNob nv ■h nvi p-ns 't 3na d[i?] naiK'nn m3N ■'a ncs ■'anaoa •^■^■^ 

[ir]Ntj' noib ^n vh\ pnv n ana sai 10 

Dn3n p inininim imn oii't:' dib'd nns nD:3 D''3na •'vo v^n 

[eiK]i D'an 
jijn3 p'V^ nxn ''^kb' n3T btf- il^b ona ^nai'n mvp Tiitt" •'s i>v 

^33 \^A 

losy -lyv'i vryo nrc n-1311 raw ts-jp'tj' nnxij nxin' xb 'a -iia^v oiv 
pataDHD pvoic Dns o oanjji) may K^^ n:ni niSD nwp^ k'P3''1 

' Cp. further my remartts in R. E.J., LXXI, p. 89 ff. 

Appendix C (to Chapter IV) 237 

nrm.1 /i 'iif? '"JS^ i''i'''3nD ^pn 'n 'li no yir 'nj "ini i^rc'^DnKi is 

vn N^Ji >s3 irp'jai ^aai? Dina "iSjin ^n^n *jni ninain ■h^ ama nriN nn''''ni 
Nin 13 vcavi -ipnnji 'xnin D3^ minji pv niN^ TianiB' nv ''^ pa^cxa 
iji)B> ni3 'jn ii'3inb iJicnnis' oni ■'ixna \y\m^ "insD ob '■n i^JOin '3 

Dnv^ona ni)i3' px 'a onvDi? ix djIivk^ nai?^ ■'js nx n[Q]in -n^'n 30 
xbv'V pns ii) ^nana -iia b« novv miE'n »3 nv'na r\vi^i\ rh^ir, xb 
DK lyini njnna na -inr dxi -iaDi5i "vvh "33 px '2 D^nojnD insn ib 
p^V^ K^n *3'Ne' ''sh ixi" Dx I'^'anonD D3Vi:tJ' n:v:xi xin n»x 

xi) i3'ai> 
Q''Dva nv3"ix Visi) 'DiDv '3 ''nnpi' Tisfan ib*x o d'^otd max 'nnpij 
nvB* "3 *n3b^ [Ti]v 'jx mnoi C3''3b naoi ^a nom in>naT3i 25 

noa: ''3 D.Tbs? nlJon^^b r\'i-r[ viv ^t< inty D.Tra rmvi^ n^a: 'a 

nwx hrnx)3 nx^n' no nxix d^ob' 'ema innxB'ai db' aaiB'n 

cpB'Oi^ Kill 'J^'5' 's^ D^sxD ni'XB'3 Dn>j»a nljyn nucpB" 'Jx -iiaoai 

|Dt iniXD pn nua ac^i? iba'' x^ D^n^joc d^cjx onixi nimm an 

nnv ny xi) 'a vtray B'nal' 'b pxi p ^ nnan b" '3 Dnyiyon i:n 3° 

[nlxB*^ n3 njn "jx Dn''3ns^B' "n^n -lUDi nnain nan dib' *3x 'ao ivdb' 

» x^ nsnB' D':prn x^i ibvaa b»x^ d^b"1 '•aaba ■h inwn xim h^xh-\ on'^yo 

NWB' tsb -nan'B' no xi^x DB'aj b ibp' n^i Q'3133 dx '3 Dixna 

nn^ 'ixi 
D''B'na pDo ^n'-'n x^ niB'n nno ti^djb' nvB'a ob ''jii'XB' 'i'l/'xi 
^\ ii'''yv xi)b mvy D'wno div b^c ny ^31 ns'ani du Da-iiinb 35 
[naiB-n] ainana' xi ixo i'xiB' "jxi onW nn^ tn's- n[x]T 'ir.ix nB'y 
xia^ DX ivan '^ynv it naiBTi noy ^i^'i maxB' nawnn mion 
. . ni axn xin ix o I3ivi3 nB'yx atr^^ 'b lox' Dxi xiax ■h'i'^ 
ne'aoi tjdi ibdo xin '■oi mxanm D^ryni B'xini iB'ni 
lE'nni \h I n^ax njm -iix nixii' TnaoE'ai nr | dv3 nxnxe- ^nix 4° 
I xsox p DX '3 n^jyni? D*''si' nr xi? | p-n iin"m | 'nne'iy oy' 
I ffJXB' D3nyn dxb' '"ii D'3ai> i D'jan d'ohb* . . . xina* u^a 
I -\-ni 'i'x una lyvo^j | rx lyai' ix -ysh ivnnB' 'oi' ix on!? 
• isiriB' no iB'yn 1 i nxi ■h D'anao dnxB* noxi niaa 

1 = ij:ix3 iJ^nxi . 2 =''Oipo '•^arn. => =imix3 ujnx. 

< See vol. I, p. 245, note i. '" =1J'n?X0. * This word is superfluous. 

' = 13''n^X. ' From here on the margin. ' Cp. Job 30. 26 ; 10. 22. 

" Prov. 27. 19. For D^OHB* r. D'Oa. 

238 Conditions in Palestine and in Syria 

T.-S. 12. 17, damaged and faded, verso blank, is similar in handwriting 

to the above letter. The style and contents of the fragment leave no 

doubt that it is a part of a letter from our Haber to the Gaon protesting 

against the false accusations levelled against him by slanderers who find 

credence with the Gaon. The writer points out that he is serving the 

community without any.remuneration, as he supports himself by business 

(11. 15-16). 


D^DJI .... 

''■Tij'31 Vjsi? h'i ''DVJJ3 

nn-ijoi D'B'''nD mxi) msn ab p irN-iu 

\J7\ nivon K^i py ^1 niDm Ncn ^■z ann nsj^ n[:ni] pw ' in . . . . 
. . . cytJ'T nvy ^j? dn 13 . . . . trni i'iai'''3n xbi mpo nt^x r:sp:»x\ 5 

i^a pi^sri i'5)'i'3 ''J3 D''3n . , . , ijvi D''i'''3n«3n h'S 

bsi ™i3nni nyini nosnn Tipo xin nt^K B'snn nin> tini onpa'n 
b ^y \''-^r\'an D^i^s'Dn a'isnn nnx jn3nni> nx^n' ib* . . . . nx . . . 
ni5''^n n^'i'n 3112 x^ nxr3 njun xIji nn x^ Dn3 px ''3 csud 
mx hv V3-n *3 dixd h'2 lioD [nnsi] xi'i xin "^yi "' nxijoa nxi 10 

nipn''i B-m'' xb noisi nb nji3 ijy pniaiD 

nxsri [Dnici'Jnni o'sprm onipsno mnon ''J3 bo 'B'yoi 'sm ^y 
on .... on^ ... 1 n»xn nn'»x n^ ynvB* ny t3is3i ^'^3 i'npn 

^y nntaD 'jxtf m^Dm ^Jnpn p3 m^c'n nym 'xtani) 

"irnDD 's 3nT ^\ ^03 xb Dn'3-is ^3 noiyi n^j^iji d»v "Dvy 15 
'jcD mnDJi onnin . . . o nxT' dx p ''s fjy pjxi UTnsB'D 
^xjsB'i pD* njDD ntsx xbi i^N IT im3 "invi psa ':nin[i]i 
n-Dso ''3XB' nosnn '<!' oyon D'B3 •'Pj 'jxi xtan '':x''B'^ ^xi 

'DVy 13''3P21 TIUITD DISCVI ni5Q33 TlSxijO t2iy'03 'DVy 

.... nvv iivn^J 11133^0 nv nx b>13dxi "n3 pipxtj* ny 20 
. . , ^ xtannc Ti-inty ni»j xuins i^:b^ n''nx nxT iia iiix 

pxj DX pn xi)i 

Dn3nni .... n3nxn nx 

ni ^y . . . nrn DipD3 psj "ixi 

niDy^ i3i!33 nixnni 

' =i::nX. ^ =r«X3S. ' Read IjnnOD 'our business'. 


(to Vol. I, Chapter V). 

1. [Vol. I, pp. 202-4.J 

A letter to 'Alt b. ^Amram. 
(i) [T.-S. 13 J II-, paper, square writing, size 27-6 x 19 cm.] 

Address (verso) 

mnoi ijv v^j? ^■I''1 ^r )prn D-i»y t3 muna nljiyon 


[njTiana nbivnn nann 'i);; ■ina pJa n'SNi nnx ^di^b^ 

'13 VDnna iniiDm un t^s nic:^ D''DB'n 'h^n nai* 

' [v]''iin T\Tm TiK-a lann nnx •'Js Timpn .•. ^f n-ioy 

"ino pJ3 i»B' n'i'pv ''NO rhrh^ ^dnvdvj'd n^» ^ty 5 
^VKty nj? ni3''aDn nnvi sb' mson riov 'na hb^ 
niB'vi' nrsDn p rmi) in^n^NB'i "naiin "isjde' ^^jv 

nwni niD3n po-ia D'si'D on n:ni imn 'ncsm d*d» 
ni3vi D'otf DNTii oha riN nivnao n ns-i^ ninni 10 

niD^nni n^tyoni Nnpono in cpas dki mTi' 

naT" lyn^JN x^d noan bo inxvox D'-Jiv^n niDam 

mcpii rn'ri' nans "■ab nvapi ini»a 1^*3 «jaa 

n^iN •'jsi' i^^n nniB' ^'nc in^m"vi 'B'saa iniT-T 

nN-|ii noann |d ini'vo myninij n^ivon nann 15 

1 = 5)nini>. ^ Read DNSJDV (|.U»-.) ' sword of the realm '. 

' ' The report of him reached me '. ?ltN in Biblical Hebrew means ' to lay aside, 
reserve". Cp. Num. ii. 17; Gen. 27. 36, &c. But here the verb is used in 
a sense similar to that of ni?''VN ' emanation '. Thus ' the report of him descended 
upon me', i.e. reached me. See also above, p. 16, note 14. 

< Correctly iJICa ' I described him in those two lines '. 

240 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. E. to 1204 c. e. 

la's mnoh T"iv irxi imp'isi vn:ab na n'DB* 

kS D'aniann Kim Dmsana t'Dsh^ vb'i mi 

i'nJD mpB^i niDD inv'ac' u^^i'^? n^npil^n p 

'i? -nanJB' no ii> "mjni m'nyiin n^n VJiv 

niTs vi'SJi •'^v nam o •'iNia lov niB'y^ na 20 

•nnai' ps'-o' p yy& 'dj? uann'' [mdoi D''»3n n'Diri] 

ny ny^ nann'' ni5ij;on lann j n'^Ni nnx diI'b'I | min 'ja 

'D*nv3 I nsjbi 

(2) A document (T.-S. 8 J 44), dated Tishri 1369 Sel. (1057 c.e.), 
is signed by Ghalib Hakkohen b. Moses, 'Ali Hakk. b. Ya'ish and 'All 
Th\ff07\ nann b. 'Amram who is styled in T.-S. 13 J 13^ rh^Vlin nann 
Dnvoa jnapn in n*a na'tyn man nniana b. 'Amram nh^n. 'AH is 
the author of a long poem in honour of 'Ali b. Mebasser (T.-S. 24. 10). 
In Bodl. 2873^', containing a Ketuba dated 1060 c.e. at Fustat, supply 
['Ali] b. 'Amram. Likewise Bodl. 2874'^ a Ketuba dated 1063 c.e., is 

signed among others by moy '•ana nhy OT na(?) pn i^V. No doubt 
read 'Ali Qnoy 'aia rh^'^^n nann. See further, Bodl. 2876'^. 

Nos. 2-2*. Epistles from Yeshu'a Hakkohen b. Joseph, 
of Alexandria, to Nahrai b. Nissim. 

2. [Vol. I, pp, 204-5.] 

[T.-S. 12. 338, paper, Rabbinic square writing, size 28 x 16-5 cm.] 

Address (verso) 

nann pan nyic* nna ''sa jiop ''j?o oann '■NinJ -ii io pa . . , . 
WDja lanixn jn n'a cidv -i^a -^i ijf D'-dj Ta a^r: .... 

iiyiai B'VD i)33 n^^v^i -iiyD . . . , 
Dibtr nna 


D'To^nn "INS '•Ninj ino pa unaaa wr'as* nii'B' 
nit33^ ono \-swT\ irn^x na^ D''3n3n nn3[i] 
nins^ ^iT'E' lay 'a nij'-^i q»v non Din viiy 
i>r D'D3 n'-a ' niae-u yanxo -s^n nn[xi]K 1^ 

1 Read naab [ib'dv. 2 = n'nniji na-ia^j unar. 3 Ps. 4a. 9. 

* From atJ'J 'to blow'; here 'winds', a paitanic rendering of ya^^{0 

oSyn ninn. 

Appendix D (to Chapter V) 241 

nvi Donn'' u'<rbiib cinn 'nns 'jbd 5 

•noixjin in:iDsa n''Dm ii'^^3'> "ion ip'35>[''] 
D^noB' 1JNI '•wi'''^3*i uyoi' ^i'l^a yci^'i 
iman ii)i 'm-\2 ipnb in^aa tid pTioni' 10 
TiiNn nviyi WKnoi' '•'soa an innx^ 

-m'an ojoi'i nn^an j'ap^ ^SBfjiT Tiin'' 
inynin nrn nja Tiansin .*. inwni 
QiVTDVi *nfo !i3V5?i 'Jiy ruB* nnnna 13 15 

D'B'P D''3nN Dy D'"UB' HB'i'E' DNUa 

"''''''^ i^iK 13KVD '3 wmn ni>D nniDo 
°^'' 'i^^n nmc nraoo D'npi'3 D'E'jn 


I [npn] aitryi j [eiosi] mino | D^onyni ib» 20 

[onnjij iD»n 

I n3iD Doy niOT^ | [ij»d nniajpi' n3'^N 1 nusani 
I Dni3in23 I nmayi nno | ounpi' D»y | umx w^'yc 103 

m I nj3 jDrnc | 'a^yasi 


biy unNis ijy uiaan 31D ^3d wna pni 

'DT B'pa^ nann ijyvi d''d'' m' id3 DnwitD 

DUinr niE'y dk o wnvd x^i dhd ins 

D<3inr Dityon nnonv^ pam i:ni omj 

nuinr niyanx xS' nnvo ni^np ijy nNtyi 5 

. . . Dn''Di Tpy I3''3inr o^e'Dn i'3n nw 

••sni D'ainr nyanxi D''ynN Dn''niiK isy 

^E'^i'B'ni '•vni D''3inr D'ty^E'i D'JB'3 ono O'ije' 

wij noN nno inx i'B' insn Dmnt ne'y a':&2 

D3i' ins 'vm ns'y ncB* '•i'tj' ppn nps •':« 10 

^ 'And should crown him' See Jastrow, s. v. 7?3. ' Cp. Ps. 55. 15. 

' ' My desire '. To be pronounced '3D3, the noun being tJDta. 

■• 'And hard struggle for maintenance.' Cp. Gen. 3. 17. ' =110313. 

2240-2 Q 

242 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e. io 1204 c. e. 

D^JOTi D''3int nw riB'B' ■h MDi 3[int '']vn [n]3n!3[3] 

jwv xijN Dnnxn n''3B'3 npa n^j n»x Dnn[Nn] 

nnpii in^tf nv D'^he'd ijnjxi nij?i Dumr D''K'[i'B'i] 

nnoy nanisO] irinisK nma mn b ds? fapnni' mk-ii nap . . . 

miy muv mI? vtn "a hq'B' nv °j*i'n nrarh'i '|n» Dse'i' d ... 15 


• QTfii I nvjiji ny | nyi' | ivaT- | ymsb^^ | . . . ib'h 

2*. [Vol. I, pp. 205-6.] 
[Oxford MS. Heb. c. 13, fol. 20; cp. Bodl. 2807'".] 


• ptin ^B'^? iNnnj 3n[D ' • id\ii] bio p^^ ' id ^j^n 
• jD^ni' msD bi • tD'onni) moan bS ^ * tDn\nb naio b^ 

vi D'D3 nn innioi nn ona nvn ini3»^ naf pa s 
•anj?»ei mmD 'a-iann^ t^jn 'ann ^xno -ai di^b' 
•msiDJoni nnaityen •n-ip'n imax ny^jn ni'D nv3 
ntyxi •nnoB'a nTiN-ipi 'mniD n:va 'mDiyD .TisDa 
iCN ni'NB'n nD3 K^n n^N{5'[jB' n^NJtj'n naicn poy n^arn 
[ijiaty iB'Ni Ti^SB' ne'K ni'iscn x^n xh nijo rh'a itc nann i'xB' 10 
naiinn sfiTD Nin 'de' p tbj ann ujnN a^Bin nc^s ddni t^x 
-insi niBp ^\ni Nmax ntynip 'a niarni ^se* nc-N 'wnn ni^nni 


' Sing, of D*jnD, cp. i Kings i8. 46. 

^ Sing, of D''xbn ' loins ' ; COH is here a verb formed from D>B'Dn (Exod. 13. 18) 
' in battle array '. The meaning of both phrases is similar, i. e. 10 exert oneself. 

' From D1K3 ' utterance ' ; here ' to declare to blessings (read Jliaiai) promised 
to the Patriarch '. 

* See Mekh. to Exod. 16. 4 (cp. to Exod. 13. 17) ^^5 -|t31S ^"aBH n*n [XaO 

^ Read pW 'like the descendant of Kalkol and Heman' (cp. i Kings 5. 11.). 
6 ' To perfect them '- ' = N'Ot!' p nniDJ. 

' = naitrnn. ' a lapse into Arabic. Read X\ni. 

«> Read nflSinj. 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) 243 

ina2 "'Nar axn nxnnJ n? qui 'nsin: dk n^JNtrn it ^b'^vvo 

nsn n»Ni nonaa nss'B' p nm: msnn ina '•cnpa 
■'jnx min ib-ni lann 1^ iTh ab mm 15 

j3 ^a jmn * ia pi'nni' n^ii na''!' ovn niSDn ^a ' nn lix 

^ iDNE' "^ ni'^n nivob n»nip nu'' niso 

■'Q iij) INI ^iNB' Nasa N^Ji ca-ia n^bn D'ani n^n' uimD^' 

I''DDin PNC 'nnrv p ntvi'N ^1 .tcb^ ntyc an ncNE' 

Da*D nIj Da^n 1^ nh''^ n^ nv^y n-iBN '•n lapb '\K)'<ab ni> 

ija^ i6^ ^Da^^ i>ai) n^ji d^'cm bJ? ab n^n 'nmia ^w nb 20 
Dyn an 

Dvn "a pisHni) 1^ '■int nai b"i aa''^ 1^ ^ini oa^ b'i "la nioa^n 

Dipo atJ* D"p [VHN DB' D'']pnp pjiiano j^n 

, n , 

[i]-i3ni "can dni "i^n nan min moN la •'a vpn -laib niB'n 

ill 1^ njjinn nvv 
pnn 13 b]3 snoDi moD ,Tn dni 'h pinuB' viiN 

na'' ON 'Ni "an dn p 13 ima ^ya li) p-iaax D^jprm 25 

no^D n\b irs3N n!? NJvi'n n!' pi'n^[»] n^ N3a^D[n Nin] ^du^ 

PT noa .Tn hb'ni ': [l]''SiaB' 

DTD I3pi nojan n*a[a] -inNi' 

pal aiD pa pi jo [ni'jJ'ti' n» n^i^j; lijJap'B' 

i pj3 nDJ3n nu ... nr .... pn n^a nbm yn 30 

> Read i)ij)in HD. 2 Keth. 46". 

' Probably = N3Dm nnHN ' may God gladden him ' (Af'el of nn). 

* =nana; read JJ3T. 

'' This is the opinion of the 'scholars' (i.e. nJCD DDD, see Yeb. ^g*' and 

* This is Abba Saul's opinion, ibid., and 3'. The writer frequently corrected his 
copy by insertions above and beneath the lines. 

' Yeb. 4«. 8 Read I^WT. 

' See Halakot Gedolot, ed. Hildesheimer, p. a8i. 

" Deut. 25. 8. " Yeb. 44". 

'^ This passage is in Halakot Gedolot, p. 282. 

Q 2 

244 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e. to 1204 c. e. 

(right-hand margin) 

i3-ini iT^y i3»ixi 'D^cj-on ntTDS snijyninB'Ni noa'n ir Sxn usi'n ■'3 pn 
naini cn-'a udd t^ r*« T^^5J saom n^'pn nmnn i»i o^oK'n |o o nh^ 

b xth)i N'anj ii^j in'' n^i T3n KXin» s^ nde' '•noKn dni i^3b»i i^na< 


ii» B^B* nr pB' bi [■'ua Tfm\ '■a Sy tixi iDajc ^rnx 

PN 'UK ^ ntj'a [ns] lannn . . . n[-is]n iiy ■"Jiown D'^ai He's 

nmni' ''JiN''Sin noc •'Jinnan bsi is^in' ixisn* dsi id3' loa' ox 
one'jn o'lyptni ;»n it's 
no D3''P pn nn -i»n n^Jprn nn ns "yoe'B'ai ^oaiixa 'jw m^i nyn 5 

on^n iniK noy mv {jss d»nb> '■b Nn[i3 x^j] mos nn ntra: nnxn 

'DB'-iiD -133 iT'nB' HDi ijin* n[^] pii^nx 'pXB> y3E'31 

onnsn ijx yiotfij ux'' x^ •'3 nipDn nts D'jprni pn iT'a nrsnai ii^jx 

in rT-i ''B ^y onao am D''3''nn poiy lyTi xi) d^e'jx uri ^ '•3 

D'yanb n3 D^jnn h'ii >T' iptn^ it3a{j'''B' na bi? D'-snoDi 10 

pn rra^ ^ir\ los^n' niD3''n b x^i iv^ni ni»3*n i'3 x^ 13 lyi' xij nni 

T'jai'D 1JX ^xic nnyi d^J'I ''i'ya ''a^i ptn '■aiji nyn '■ai) pTB* 

»B>i{j»B> 03^ nt nnsjB' 31a 'in npx 1^ n»xni 3-in 'nx pix nisana' 

n''3E'Ji iv?n» 1ST DX1 103" isn d[x o'ljasn n^nni 0*331 ntrx 1? 

mvn ^y nD''333i rrro ijy nD3'n nnnasB* ix np^noi hddp 15 
o ncyj no 3nn "in lanoij'' nyn rwy^rb xvn x^i B'''''3nn "ox 
*3 ^y nD''B' lyn^ D3in ynr nx iprn^B' d'b'jx ntn aipos c'' 

n3t iB'xi nsnoi pno D^'5B'ni> n3 nswnn pnjni pi nu 

' See Yeb. sg*". ' Repeated in the manuscript. 

' From n3X 'consent', read n3X. 

T T 

■* Probably read D3nV3 ' my sin will be at your side ', i. e. fall upon you. 
6 Read iyDB'B'31 . « More correct xi'B'. 

■ =«i::nX. » A lapse into Arabic. Read Xin 

3ReadB'itJ>. "> Better *^1X. "=1331. 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) 245 

Dianni tih-\ ^■<rh on ntn ^ i»tn •'3 ' qvid 'jpo D'DiDi»pn ins? 

dididS'3 oannxi DN''aNi njB'N yNi sa D'y 3n ly n^n 20 

"Jiynin ^anisi 'i^B'inB'n ^[ai] 3 i^^jk d-isb-ki 

i>SK '•JB'in IN ^3j)nin ^ ipbnn lono i? nNtrjtr noi nna noB' »3n '3 

li-i m 3in 2-6 '3DD ^ nncn mip an jnn pi T'^n mjE'N id 

D)b^ apyi n^nvoco iiN "nncj-ni yn'i •'mtS di^b'i ni' di^'ci 

Address (Bodl. 2807" is to be 
corrected accordingly) 

vi tiDV n'a nvi[B''' ij»d] [»i Q'-dj n'']i 'N-nna nil id imJ? 

'n^D vB'T TD "iiDH nwsii DIE' ifiDB" vJniijN^ xi[i]n p33[ni] nann 

3. [Vol. I, pp. 206-7.J 

/?«/« concertiing Nahrai b. Nissim and his son Nissim. 

(i) T.-S. 20. 7 (cp. J.Q.R., XIX, p. 736 top) contains a marriage 
document, dated Shebat 20th, 1361 Sal., at Fustat, the bridegroom being 
Abraham b. Isaac TD?nn. Signatories: Nathan Hallevi b. Yeshu'a, 
Abraham b. [Masljiah, Menasse b. David, Yehuda b. Sa'adya the 
physician jli, Nathan b. Sason, Nahrai b. Nissim yj, Mansur b. Meir 
. . . . B'n (either [''B'^^jE'n or [^jnhjcn, the banker), Khalaf b. Sa'adya, 
Isaac b. David, Hayyim b. Moses and Aaron b. Tobias the Third. 
The latter's brother was probably Solomon b. Tobias the Third, 
a signatory of a document (Bodl. 2878^). 

(2) Oxford MS. Heb. c. 28, fol. 6 (cp. Bodl. 2876') contains the 
following list, evidently emanating from the Babylonian synagogues of 
Fustat and Cairo. R. Nahrai, who heads the list together with the 
Dayyan, is probably identical with Nahrai b. Nissim. 

' The reeds that grow by the Lake Maryut (near Alexandria). About these 
feet-long vegetations at the shores of this Lake, see Ritter, Erdkunde, I, 872. 

2 Read pra. 

' 'Your needs' (Aram. nBTI, cp. Ezra 7. 20 niPlB'ri). 

' ? ; read perhaps ippriH ; ' hilk ' in Arabic means a signet- ring. 

« A noun formed from ninntTn. " = DnDHI. ' Cp. Ps. 97. 10-. 

246 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e. to 1204 c. e. 

nocnoi'K p "'pnnijN p 

n^i'N Dmna mm xjn 

nxijaiiK ftni'N Dmas 'n 

^Tyoc p nanisN 

ooKiijK p nanijN 

'^^jj? p nnni^N 

^■^B'Dni'N 5101'' '1 

'(njni paijN) ^pjxrn^N 10 

csic^N p '.n^HC p 

^3DN3i)s p n'n' p 

naav^K nvous wsj p 

MpDvi'N 'nnii'N nyouK 

"lK35)i>K Di>yD^x 15 

' This Dayyan is a different person from R. Nahrai, see the next list 
(= T.-S.), 11. 6-7. 

^ Probably identical with Abraham b. Shema'ya (above, p. 232). 

' Perhaps identical with Salim the scribe in T.-S., 1. 18. 

« See T.-S., 1. 10. 

6 Probably = Joseph al-Franji in T.-S., 1. 8. The title 'wh'^ is probably 

« The following persons (11. 11-14) were Readers. 

' Angular brackets indicate that the words enclosed are crossed through in the 
manuscript. See next column, end. 

' Probably = Yefet b. David b. Shekhanya, above, p. 97, note i. In T.-S., 1. 13 
he is called nniDD^X. 

9 Read "inii'K (^^) 'the blind', as in T.-S., 1. 17. 

1" The teacher (loilDn) of Akko, see T.-S,, 1. 14, 

" In T.-S., 1. 4 JOt^N 'the invalid '- 

"' DXia^N, pi. of Dna 'the four benefactors', see T.-S., 1. 17. 

" Probably the people mentioned in the first column lived in Fustat, while the 
following persons resided in Cairo. 

" In T.-S., 1. 15 ''plai'N , read perhaps ''pnai'Kj, of Barkah. 

'5 See T.-S., 1. 19. " Of jQsh (Giscala). 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) 247 

T.-S. Box K. 15 contains a similar list (i leaf) wherein several of the 
above names recur. 

"i ''pnabs j ui)ni?N itnl^K 15 
3 riNonv p j DNon 

i ^TND p i '"irni'K 

ii priiK ii n!?noi5N *tm 
i5 msi'N irni'N id "ounni'N 5 
3 •'jn ^bn -i TQ isnnj ''31 

i ^jnsljN fiDV n < K''VDt5' i^ nsnijN 
ii mil ii ooNsi'K p •o.rhv). 
ii ^Jjv p ii 'VNXpi'N p 10 

(3) Numerous letters to and from Nahrai b. Nisim and his son Nissim 
are preserved in the Genizah. Nissim's time can be fixed by T.-S. 8 J 4" 
containing a document, dated at Fustat, Elul 1409 Sel. = 1098, 
signed by 

n3nn nivDE' -13 Dn-i3N yj ^Nior ii pns'' 

We see that in 1098 Nahrai was no longer alive. But in a letter to 
Ebyatar Gaon (Bodl. 2878") n3'B'M hlJ 3nn \xnn3 1J31 is mentioned as 
well as his son Nissim. As Ebyatar assumed the Gaonate in 1083, 
Nahrai's year of death can be fixed between 1083-98. Nahrai's father 
seems to have been a native of Jerusalem (see the Arabic address, 
J.Q.R., XIX, p. 737, no. 58 : — Nahrai b. Nissim al-Mukaddasi ; on the 
other hand, in no. 50 (p. 736) 'Nahrai b. Nissim al-Misri' refers 
probably to Nahrai who resided in Fustat). T.-S. 10 K 18° contains 
two paper leaves of which the bottoms are torn. A liturgical composition 

^ Read perhaps TOi^N ( ^.^i-i) ' adopted son '. In this hst are indicated the 
amounts of money each person gave. 

2 ' The son of the lord '. Or, if we read "Vi^Q, ' the son of the traveller '. 

' Probably meaning 'the grandfather' (Sa.). 

* Read perhaps [m ' the steward ' i,of an estate) of Mahalla. 

" This person was then in prison. " = |DNJil ? 

' Two leaves in the Cambridge University Library collection contain one 
document of the Bet- Din at Fustat, dated 14 lo Sel. (1099 c.E.), signed by Isaac 
b. Samuel, Hillel b. 'Ali, and Konyah b. Moses, another has the same signatures 
as T.-S. 8 J 4I*, while a third has instead of Abr. b. Shema'yah the signature of 
Ilayy b. Joseph. 

248 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e. to 1204 c. e. 
covers fols. i^ and 2''l>. On fo). !»■ we have the following colophon Tiana 

Wi (r. DicJipn) DK-it5ipn ir ni "113a '■tDW^ rn 63 ^sinj 'n-a d^dj ''JN 

^(r. bsN) iiVN VOK'i'X nspa DnSD. Accordingly this was written in 

the lifetime of Nahrai. Nissim, Nahrai's son, was probably the father of Isaiah 
who is mentioned in a colophon at the end of a work (in Jewish-Arabic) 
on Bible exegesis (Or. 5563, 1, fols. i and 2). IN31 Nnian mtW oi'tJ'i (2*) 

ynti n^ynti Kin srcms b ^xh rfi\h »m rrnrsji' ^i mn d''dj n'3 

n^D nV3 IDK Nm 153 D^iy ly niVir. Isaiah was not the author of the 
work but only copied it for himself. 

We have thus the following genealogy : Nissim I (died before 1050), 
Nahrai (died between 1083-98), Nissim II (1098), Isaiah (1146). 

(4) Both Nahrai and Nissim (II) must have been very important 
people in Fustat. In the Dukran Tab (above, p. loi) they are 

mentioned as pajni D3nn D^D3 . . . niDni n3''B'in i^nj h'nyn ain ^sin:. 

Numerous letters have been preserved either addressed to or emanating 
from these scholars. See Bodl. Catal. II, Index, s. v. Nahrai, Nahrai b. 
Nissim (Abu Yahya) ; Oxf. MS. Heb. d. 75, fol. 20; Worman, J.Q.R., 
XIX, 735 ff., nos. 46, 49-53, 55-7. A considerable number of epistles 
are contained in MSS. Adler 2805 and 2806 ; four letters are to be found 
in Or. 5554, B, fol. 30, 5566, B, fol. 20, 5566, D, fols. 3 and 4 ; see 
also R.i.J., LV, 54-5, 317; one letter has the address 13N T'B'^'* ''^^10 

iv DE' i'njn tn n'-n >Nnn3 nu cd: nvD; LVI, 125, no. 5.' 

(5) Nahrai's correspondents hailed from Andalusia, Kairowan, and 
Byzantium (Rum). Of interest is T.-S. 13 J 16* containing an epistle 
from Israel b. Nathan to Nahrai b. Nissim. The writer was imprisoned 
in Constantinople and after his release visited Tyre and Jerusalem. 
What he thought of Byzantium can be gathered from these lines: 

npi (7) ... noDtr vks^v h^-w 'ni'K nn^JN nba )d ''hxi lya p (3) 
IN xsrb^ nb is ■'jni i>ipx nj3i n^D^Dsp^N )» DianiiN id :hW ijpiN 

. . . n3 Dips nbi'N liX i>3. He also mentions that a letter reached 
him through Yedayah of Narbonne (niyni JID laNna h^ i^SI ItO Ipl 


' Also T.-S. Box J 3 contains a letter from Nahrai b. Nissim (Hvl riisin 

Appendix D [to Chapter V) 249 

4. [Vol. I, p. 207.] 

T^e family of Meborak Nagid. 

(i) From the Dukran Tab (above, p. 100 f.) we learn of a Meborak 
|:210 xailX whose son was Sa'adya the physician (styled inf.Q.R., N.S., 
I, 49, 11. 14-15, ^NltyiD ninxn ne'n). A son of his was Yehuda Nagid 
and Resh Kallah who in his turn had a son called Sa'adya nn^B^^n JJD 
ntJ'lE^l (fol. 2, r., 11. 4-9 ; -inNn nsTi mf.Q.R., I.e., 1. 19). A son of the 
last (niDn) is not mentioned by name. ' The four sons of our lord ' 
(liJns mon nvmxi, 11. 9-10) probably go back to Sa'adya, the 
physician. These are Yefet the elder, Sadakah, Hillel, and Meborak 
Nagid. Hence read in 1. 10 nioa for nioai. Meborak bore the titles 
' the banner of the Nesiut, the crown of the lords and their glory, the 
great one of the academy and the Nagid of the Diaspora' (1. 14 ff.). 
Between the lines we read ' And life to our lord Moses '. This is one of 
Meborak's sons who succeeded to the dignity of Nagid. Evidently this 
Memorial List was written in his lifetime. T.-S. 13 J 14''' contains 
a letter to Meborak Nagid b. Sa'adya the physician. It continues 
(read cxnn) irna nnaajn (6) nntrn ■>:(}• {sc. God) n^wi ... (5) 
nsana^N un oni'N vnxi mro 'I^<'3i'N las oni'N ino pii ni5[n]nai. 

(In this letter the ' people of Tyre ' are mentioned in connexion with 
a lawsuit.) From A. D. 7",^ 1. 21, we learn that the Hebrew name of 
Meborak's second son was Nataneel. Moses Nagid had in his turn 
two sons, Meborak and Yehuda styled ' candidates for the Negidut 
(iTn'JJn 'JJD, A. D. 8). But so far no information is available whether one 
of them actually attained the dignity. It is unknown when their father 
Moses died. The next Nagid was probably the famous Samuel b. Hananya 
who is mentioned as such in a document dated Eiul, 11 42 c.e. (A.D. i 7, 3^).' 

' Chapira, Melanges H. Derenbourg, 1909, 121-30, edits a Genizah fragment 
wherein are mentioned, besides the synagogues of the Babylonians and the 
Palestinians, al-Sheikh al-jalil Abu'1-Fadl ' head of the congregations ', the Rals 
Abfl'l-Bayyan and Joseph Hakkohen the Hazzan (b. DJ3D7N). Very likely by 
Abu'l-Bayyan, our Moses is meant. The same 'head of the congregations' 
Abii'1-Fadl is mentioned in T.-S. 18 J 2'^, being a document, dated Tammuz, 1428 
Sel. (1117 c. E.), at Fustat. It begins DKDDSn D'Viapn D'J[n]n ['Jtr UN] 

. . . [i"iUD] . . . mn rnjD ^^^t5' tio mxan . . . *dd cjiddh nnsD 
t:j hijn Tijin ntfo irjHN -m pJa nion 'ddi . . , iu3 inniJD 
nntyn -ib- n%n tijj DmNsni nnBTi niDV nix'B'jn i^n nixav " dv 
nab imans pan n3'E>'n iin bvnuf'' n''3 ba lis? Qn^wn n*«i. Abu'i Fadi 

is very likely identical with Yakin b. Netaneel (vol. I, p. 213 ff.). 
* Jnfra, p. 257, top. ' Infra, p. 286. 

250 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e. to 1204 c. e. 

(2) We thus obtain the following genealogical table : 

Meborak I 

Sa'adya I, the physician (1018-28, cp. no. 3) 

I ^ 

I I I I I 

Yehuda I Nagid Yefet Sadakah Hillel Meborak II Nagid 

I ■ ■ I 

Sa'adya II 


Moses Nagid Netaneel 

Meborak III Yehuda II 

Our list completes the defective Dukran Tab, published by Greenstone, 
J.Q.R., N. S., I, 49, 1. 10 ff. Netaneel Ta>v>T\ iina . . . nnsn nB'H 

(/. c, 50, 11. 6-7) is no doubt identical with Abu'l-Barakat, the brother of 
Moses Nagid. The latter is very likely meant on p. 59, 1. 47 ff. 'And 
may our God bless all this holy congregation . . . headed by . . . our 
Nagid Moses, the great Nagid . . . who came to do an act of loving- 
kindness ' (by visiting the mourners). We thus learn that Moses survived 
his brother. (Greenstone's identifications, some correct while others the 
reverse, require no further comments.) 

(3) Several members of the Meborak family are mentioned, as we 
have seen, in the Memorial List wherein other dignitaries of the Babylonian 
community of Fustat are enumerated (above, p. 100 f.). They probably 
belonged to that congregation. This is also apparent from above, p. 98, 
where the minute of the court, dated Adar 25, 1339 Sel. = 1028 c. E., 
is signed among bthers by Sa'adya b. Meborak, evidently the father of 
the two Negidim Yehuda and Meborak. His signature is also found on 
the document (T.-S. 13 J i*), dated 1018 c.e. at Fustat, together with that 
of Jacob b. Joseph Ab (vol. I, p. 37). From above, p. 200, we learn that 
Yehudah Nagid died before Meborak (II. 5-6). Thus the latter was the 
former's successor to the dignity. The two brothers are probably referred 
to in the letter (above, p. 222, 11. 15-16) >ihv:h'\ lin ti n*«^N WToi) 
VB> na'B'''n DSn nwun ejli'K ^3^^^<. Meborak is styled nwin eili'N 
above, p. 200, 1. 4, and also in a fragment {J.Q.R., N.S.,I, 54) inD p3i 
NnnnjD ny^'^n tsan niran 9\-h«. . . . nhvon nnnn ywia . . . uani 

[Djann . 

Appendix D (to Chapter V) 251 

(4) Yehuda b. Sa'adya, the physician, is mentioned i^infra, p. 253, 
11. lo-i i) together with Isaac b. Abraham, Nathan b. Sason and Isaac 
b. David in a document of 1043 c.e. The last two were his co-signatories 
of the deed dated 1050 c.e. (above, p. 245). We have seen (vol. I, p, 184) 
that the Nagid Yehoseph b. Samuel was still alive when Daniel b. 'Azarya 
was already Gaon (1051 c.e. and onwards). As has been shown in vol. I, 
p. 254, Yehuda probably attained the dignity during the Gaonate of 
Elijah Hakkohen (from 1062 c.e. and onwards). About 1070, when the 
Seljuks invaded Palestine, he very likely was already the political head of 
the Egyptian Jewry (see vol. I, p. 186). Bodl. 28781" a contains a deed, 
dated 1386 Sel. = 1075 c.e., before the Nagid Yehuda b. Saadya (for 
%\ r. PVt). He was still alive when the Turkomans were defeated before 
Cairo in 1077 (vol. I, p. 280). 

(5) A few details bearing on him should be added here. In a letter 
(T.-S. 13 J 8") he is addressed "ij 33 in^B-co rw bv.'yt^ n»3 p^?J (6) 
■iiiD pi3 J3 . . . (9) lonai " dj? ijnj Twn mm'' ij3ni mo "ip (7) 
Tonn nnvD. His son Sa'adya is also saluted. A poem on the occasion 
of Yehuda becoming Nagid is edited in /. Q.R., VIII, 556 (cp. ibid., IX, 
360-61). The acrostic is 'Yehuda Hannagid hazak'. Lines 4-5 read, 
Nini • vN^ii P3D ^-^7 {fsn njD3i • mNisn 'csn h"^ 3n {sc. God) letyi 
•nin''3 ya>h T'E' I3n3i -nin ^n db-s dv •'JIDh tub's' nioxj;^ Nan 
najfi) nr t«3 ins na'N. 

(6) More famous became his brother Meborak who was already Nagid 

about 1080 when David b. Daniel came to Egypt (vol. I, pp. 187-8). 

Through David's intrigues, he suffered banishment to Fayyum and 

Alexandria for a year. But he was subsequently recalled to power 

and in 1094 succeeded in overthrowing his opponent David Hannasi. 

He is greatly eulogized both in documents of the Bet-Din and in letters 

addressed to him. For documents drawn up at Fustat and issued by his 

authority, see T.-S. 13 J 2* and /. Q.R., IX, p. 116 top (1097-8 c.e.). 

As court physician he resided in Cairo. Hence the address of the letter 

to him {J.Q.R., VIII, 556-7) reads mnsp ^X J!'r. 

As illustrations of the great reverence Meborak was held in, the following 

lines are cited. In a letter (T.-S. 12. 230) to Elijah b. pT n[''3 DruJD 

nn''B"n ^rwi ''ix[n]n, the Nagid is styled NninjD Dn'jjn tjj xi'^yon n[e'] 

onsD i^'oi' nacon -non cnt 'snyon njn 'jo'n ni»y ptnn b'^ds nan 
(cp. vol. I, p. 80, where Abu Sa'ad al-Tustari is also styled -^xh DJE'D). 
Bodl. 2873" begins ffJiDon DnvD DKDDS3 D'yupn D^mn i:e' i:n NJ2Nn3 

252 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e. to 1204 c. e. 

yy^ DnB'n ib' nan mnnjo na'B'NT D3n nwun fjiiiN tiud Id pii ''DD 
Iiu 'n^uDn riaB' -n^wn nj\ Tijjn ^'nib'" n*3i> 'anyi DiT'Jjn 
. . . i'nan icn nnyo id pij p . . . mon b'ni '^•ni'ijj). The letter 

is sent to a ' judge ' in a provincial community. Therein is mentioned 
a deed drawn up in Cairo and ratified by mnxp^Nl pT n*3 Dm3t< i:a-) 
NICE' p ''nilDJ, no doubt Abraham b. Nathan Ab (above, pp. 231-3). 
T.-S. 12. 341 contains a letter of greeting to Meborak from Samuel b. 
Solomon b. Abraham b. Solomon, from Lucena, Spain, (iJND'PlN ''TIBD 
. . . lanix , so on the address, verso). 

Nos. 5-7. Fragments relating to Meborak Nagid and his 
brother Yehuda Nagid. 

5. [Vol. I, pp. 209-io.J 
[Oxf. MS. Heb. c. 28, fol. 41, verso; cp. Bodl. 2876".] 
cinny D>»ninn onyni crnTOn vi^y?'^ pT iT'a wn irasi) ^^^B' ncvD 
anD n[3] ^Jis^N inx r\yaar\ eior 3-10 Tf< ^'^'^ 3n33 hdd 

3nD by iisip n'n-iQ 
nnxD nr fs^as d 's Tim m ids pi ' nnvo n3 jnan iK'3'i 

^N "3np 

nox pi D''3nN3 nnv ''Ja3 djs ''3x n^33 inaty 'jsd hv '\'\'^y''^ ntrpn 

He's inwB'ji 'h^'vo invnp p insotr id3i onay '':3 vi *3xi *3n o 

31-10 ''cai nw "la •h'i iDin nnjn i:»d *:n npi^if ny n''jyn3 ^^^^«t5' 

mviJ' p wyocai nB'VK no ^3^ •h bmo ''n''''n njiUB'n ''i'li'i iT'Jvnn 

' ' The repairer of the house of Israel ' (cp. Neh. 3. 8), 

^ The Sanhedrin sat is such a circle (Sanh. 4. 9). But the expression is applied 
also to a king's Privy Council (cp. Jastrow). Here probably the Caliph's Diwan 
is meant. 

' He is mentioned in a document, dated Nisan, 1357 Sel. ( = 1046 c. E.) at Fustat 
(T.-S. 10 J 27°). He is probably also identical with the signatory of the document 
of 1034 together with Sahlan b. Abraham (above, p. 103). In Bodl. 2859'° he is 
styled Abi3 Sa'ad Sabyan Hakkohen the banker ('a"\*V?N). His father-in-law 
Abraham Hallevi b. Nusair, the perfumer, is perhaps identical with the person 
mentioned in a document of 1075 c. E. (Bodl. 2878'° '). 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) 253 

> JNUX t3 

("icsa nnty vans nicnn lac') ncyo nr riov d s^vin nj P ioni 

(Nsnn nnyo p nsnn mm' jj Dn-ia^ -ia pns' mo Dm onny NsntJSJ) 10 
wyta nn^cNa npiprf nnw u mar " <w Tn na pns' ij iib-b' na jni) 
ano "man lyi nosi a'B'ni tyanji nr inuv naina djox nr eior 
"h j'N niJDNJ Dnyni ^sd NrB* noa 'njan x5) nison ny ^ ^»^^ nonnn 
nu D3 pN S111X DiyiQ i:k ^(s niv) njm ip nu 1^ dj px ririh^i 

rh^x\r\ pT 
pn nnn ^Dvy o^jan p inNoi uoo minni -^^ rhr\ D^'esn 15 

i'niD »n"n ^hiyiatyn "i^ 13 ny:'^ TnaN naa noxi fiov a^cn tk pn 
i:ni \xsq npv pnn nap njoo i'ViNc ^yiatrn niavai bn i^y ii> 

li) iiinDK 
QVD pina tihiv. jnjo ijsvy rnjni "iT'ja rria iD»jan p •'bS' bn i'y 
'3 yT lb iDXJi mwai jjina mini -inNci NaB*! nn or ny sat^a 'B'B' 
13X1 inbira omarn na^fa trab n^ixn D^^pr mam dj 'a -^ht idxj 20 
fl'DU cjprn t» nnx marn 13 D^iun Q"':e' ht Qx la nnno 

n»3D np: 
islja lovy by "ribv noxi a'-B'n naioa bab inar n\T mino dji djh 
p Dx 'by lonnni min nao ix'vin any Dtr px dx dji nmcxB' no 
irjpi nptya "(pcbni) nai x'sinB^ 10 bai 'ijja D'^prno nn imam 

[l]x''as TO 
''(iiiT'j iJinni) 
<vnij untync) nnxo nnawn Dixjnn b3a icsj pvna nnyo la XMa 35 

pnn ba'p loa vby ubbsnni '•ixns vnjo inmnni ib uncnB' 

Din nfl pi 
nits' s|bx njr vboa B'nina dv nnxi Dnts'y xinsr xatJ'a nnx 

'ntJB' p:ob 

' The marked words are to be deleted. 

''■ Angular brackets indicate that the words enclosed are crossed through in the 

' Read perhaps Hiy, i. e. I submit my body to the punishment I deserve. 
•• = xbib. 5 ReadnyUB'n. 

<■ This is corrupt. Probably read ''XVil IHub DJa: . 

' =nijaa. » =T\vai>. 

2 54 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e. to 1204 c. e. 

6. [Vol. I, p. 210.] 
(i) T.-S. 13 J 15MS either sent to Yehuda Nagid or to Meborak Nagid. 

[^1* pi] 

•'si'N onn 1NB''' liisin ^^un im la nnyo wm p pxn 
• Dnn -ivv ':s^o • ontrn nsr minn nan im 3B'i» D3 mpi? di^b' 
•Dnnan niaxn ^jvnbi •D"'T'n3n D'i'B'iTDi pisDi *Dnn onu [n]noi 
non^i • omwD ini^nm • nnnao inanxa -ityx • n^p^n [vv 'in i^aDi 5 

. . . nnncD it i'jj D^^i'^5^ 
Signed by mo ^vai • nn'i uniN nn'iBMn nio'' -lann n[pix] 

(2) Yehuda b. Sa'adya and his brother Meborak are also mentioned 
in the following epistle (Oxford MS. Heb. c. 28'°; cp. Bodl. 2876'°). 
ini -nijvni j;b"1 uniNi \yah]v ^"rrb ryb^ di^b' (2) xjom loB-a (i) 
onsn \bv (4) "^i ^» P» i^'-jvn i3n[u]Ni) 'n^nai npii -n^ixji (3) 
ijnotri •np''i nj)3 'np^n (5) unso yan yi xi»n i''3 Tonn n[B"n] 
. . . i inanx uvT'i i^oJ "ityx vnuita (6) b iiy ^n^ [wjnini ini^tra 
i6 i^ao ntrs iboi imoi (8) . . . r\m . . naitj* nci innc [nviJsJi (7) 
nsB* an DiT'i'y bp^ jnar naoa ipnvi (9) [iJidw vtyjiai P^i^j W" 
'D w (11) irnnxb un d''V''11oi 'ijirajn i^w ''^si'D •i'lDJ (10) nviyi 
. . . Daymn^ (12) unna -ib'n nt einina ir^jy naytr n[u]n»n 
in^^o:^' mnx ne-yni (13) [D]3"'i'x rh'w n^njn . . . . n . . vn 
33 ui3inxi irT'Xsl' lynin^i -inB-in (14) -in3^i lai^jp niijaiji •in[yn3] 
n-ii3n3 rh'wun sb B'n ip^n n3nn mvf J3ni (15) ■id ip hj 
ijnp wns i^a^i (17) muns n^iiyon niDsnn 3-1 niann 9;hv. vnsi (16) 
-i3ijn D^itfo p ni-i»E' IDB"! inii23^ (18) ... Nine Jn:D3 jinji> onvo 
• iriDsna nw Nini ^n | cw iDi^tyi ' \SDn3 | ny[3] ib'n | hjb'i • sa 

7. [Vol. I, p. 2 1 O.J 

[T.-S. 10 J 14".] 

Address (verso) 

.T'CN'' xno ni33 p HDv N33n nuaij 
rn tb: ^ 31055 mat ^idv i:dd 

' Is this the place mentioned above, p. 119? See also vol. I, p. 109, note i. 
^ This epithet must refer to Joshiah, who was no longer alive, whereas the next 
two words go back to his son Joseph. 

Appendix D {io Chapter V) 255 


'^''3 Wn 1313'' (2) V3X n^3 hyo n333ni viB'ni sn^n ''3[n]K ''s (i) 
njriD 'i) nnnii ^^: "'i' nm-ijc nnx^ ii»3 (3) naisD u'^xi' niw^ 'ikt 
T'i'V i"i»N"' n» riKTS VDE''' *ni (5) *3Dd nnw nnpi*! nmtn ^ 3iDn ^n13■^33 (4) 
D'jJDwn bi rm^ (7) nrs pn' nnnjai nipns3 vit" siw (6) ni»3 •'S 

■'bva (9) b 13301 131301 3113 Nin eiDIi i 13 J)13 (8) UN nON'' nr 131 

13'JiiN ni>3 CNi TijJn i ON (10) pi 31121 :n3» ^s^ ^nm nnyi mm 
'■ii> (12) nitrvb nr i3i pn' i^xn iidn DiTje' vnN (n) i3nn ir3ii 
D''aD3 io ^i^ DinjB' inNi' ^ins pn (13) n3''D pi n'tyN* nno p pidv 
i^VN 1^ iM 13 iJDO (15) DniN npiji irn li) nn^vv ib'S3 Tin5?3 (14) 
futrnn »^ 3t:>ni nniN npiji irn ii''3 inx (16) nipoo D^aDs 6 id3 
oniN NIXIN xi) (18) ijNi Dib li' in' x^ ■'3ni px eiov n nos '3 (17) 
i »3iiN nnyi n3D px ion p nib {19) h in» n[^] ^s max o 'D'3t3 
T1313 nirn (21) h muK' no iio3 niB'v^ nT3 pni 3n3n (20) eiov 
^loiy niB'vl5 iB'sn £>* dn ■h^n nnsi (22) iiv •'js'tyn i^xn is^di dki 
••n nriNi '•jynin (24) min ^bw i'3 Qv 3iDn ijnoo ib'ns ion (23) 
'mB' 31101 iND^ ly ^101 iicp nvn (25) '3 nnx yiv eiDV i n331 
I nnnN oy 310 nnx dni ' innui ino3n3 nu'jji • nj.i ij? ''m3i | ''Dy3i 
•ni)D iON TO' |i3nN' \'srh\ i^ 3D' lyoi' 310 •h dj imfi min '^w 

7a. [Vol. I, p. 2 1 O.J 
An elegy on the demise of Medorak's wife. 

[Oxf. MS. Heb. e. 74, fols, 57-8 (cp. Bodl. 2862"); fol. 57, recto, 

contains scribbling.] 

(fol. 57, verso) 

Tvh "ii noNii p'l pi ^-''nv). (2) 31 yn pnvN D'^'sn omo dE'3 (i) 
ninvn "t'^jjo '1133 (4) :'3fi nb*: x^ Ti'N icon iivn (3) :'b" '3 
" fi'V^ao }n '" '13^ '31 m'3:S'N (5) '^v n^oy 

1 .s 'to'- ' Read p '31. ' Read ,1311:1 nn3133. 

■" In the meaning of ' by Rabbi ', &c. " Read '05?. 

"Read 1101. 'Read^n31J1. 

* This is the formula of Sidduk Haddin. 

' Ps. 92. 16 ; Deut. 3s 4 ; Job 34. 19, 19. 9. 

" 'A recital of the merits (of a dead person) which I composed for the lady 
(the Nagid's wife) '. 
" Indication of the metre. 

256 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. E. io 1204 c. e. 

^^n:DN wo 1D3 i^n^ ■h)) 

'iTij^a ni3i 6^33 nna 

njnon maji mon i^yi 

'runs? riNra nn^ns ns^Ni 

njE3i iin n^Ji nmpji 

njioNH ns'i'-i nvvni 

*nr3X3 iDipcD nno 

HD^pi nan ^ipa ^op wj; 

Ni isti> PC 'mjm hdib'q 

n3p"'i nix na3 ['jmoaa 

w 133 D'nwni onaiD oyi 

nsunn may li' n^n* 

nyjm nyna ^n du n*:: 

nj«3 TVffp •h's nnj nu 

njivDD ii^ijD p "ni 

' ' Wail ' (cp. Isa. 23. 2). 

"" ' As a furnace ' (see Dan. 3. 6). 

(__^| ^1 w) 

tj^hn QnnDD3 rv ''oi 

'•"pnxa Dm w aa^ni 

'ma: ija maa nB>K ■hv 

\>h^^T\ 'nnT'n'' ns ntj'tjji 

nsDi injxni '•b'sj '33 5 
n3*xi n^n: ^nj n'ln ^ip3 

(fol. 58, recto) 

'a ny3 n^iDJ ik t xi'n 

nonx b'!) n^m im35;i 

n33n nn»3na "[b^ ncn 

i^v»i nnn pys nvnph 10 

vn»i bcioa in miCss] 

DD'I 13'33i' nm n[KT3] 

no^yj nijD tid noan '[no] 

niDK "nOID iRN 1JD IVB' 15 

[Dns]y 'SCI m |yiv my 
nona »n ni^xi) ^Kipi 

D'sna in3nDi rnncN 

1 * Cp. I Kings 5. 12, where the np is nJBN 

* Just as the Nagid was styled OnUJil T'3J . 

' mTT' usually means soul (cp. above, p. 85, note 6). But here it may be 
a poetic expression for Israel. 

* ' And woe is to me owing to her (i. e. Israel's^ supplication.' Evidently 
a noun jlsn is used here. But the metre demands the reading rlJUriD. 

^ Mourning, cp. Isa. 29. 2 ; Lam. 2. 5. 

* Phrases of exclamation in distress ; n'ln for 'in to suit the metre, cp. Jer. 34. 5, 
Amos 5. 16, Mic. i!. 4, Lam. i. i, Esther 8. 6. 

' ' Hitherto', Eccles. 4. 2. » 'With grief. 

9 Read niTUm niOICB. i» See above, p. 18, note 10. 

1' MS. P113D ' made great from heaven ', a poetic allusion to Moses the namesake 
of the Nagid's son Moses. 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) 257 

njiDNH \n^N' Dnr iixjnj Dsnni nnsm 

'33 'njn nnp ''i'K en [3]iBn nnuo nn pn^ iJK oar 

*ii nt3Xi nm» 'Ji tw nrn 
npiv ni'vn^s nnay 
yj mm'' p 

8. [Vol. I, pp. 212-13.] 

An epistle from Abraham b. Sabbatai, the Haber of 
Minyat Zifta, to Moses Nagid b. Meborak. 

[T.-S. 32. 8, square writing, paper ; o.^. f.Q.R., XIX, 728, XVIII.] 

Address (verso) 

"xmny uani M'-\\p\ mp'- mnn -sma ijN 'yoinii 'vv 

nix2v " Dj? "fJ^ i'njn Tiajn nco uinx 

'aia Dm3N nntJ'n mtay n'Tjan tjji oncn na* 

3ipi VB" w:nN ir-iiD imi mo ntnp nijia nns "ia 5 

Ijitj D^mn ijjT K3n xmnjo p3n» xnniv Tino 


'ji " Dv» nty nm oca 

^31 invs'' nil onnni j^nxn bm O'CK'n inoB''' 

01x^)1 n\sb b ptri' inni 5)3 inro^ mOT >vy 

lis^sni 1ND3D •ii i^n n^JD nniei" nvi in3B"i 

nn3nl> 3tJ'n Kin "ihoj iB'Nna 3''B'ni •li'-iscni 

D . . 1 D'Din hv D[^^n]3 Dimb [t]pri d'':s nistj ija 5 

na^ Via db* D3 nv"i n^ "i tan^isi' iNnp' QnB-i 

jna x^ "1 xh nixn niK^Dii opj Dipji) i'li'B'i'i 

}«{n nun icx ps''B' 7^ iodt p'an xpi vind 

1 Supply 7N to complete the metre. 

''■ The metre is faulty here, probably due to the quotation from Isa. 29. i. 

' Isa. 33. 20. 

' There is no such verse ; the reference is probably to Zech. 6. 12. 

» The feminine suffix refers to Hlin (1. i of address). 

* Ps. 121. u. 

2J40.J- ^ 

258 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c.E. to 1204 c.e. 

v^vo 1S1S3 ib'n i)3i ivs'ji isxn qm^jn ''1 p'ji 

napjii M'trsj nxa ^na hv^ hyzli by nmp nntj'^ 

csj ^"'vn nt^N " Tinai i^xne'^ nB*^ iSc ^a ini)™! 
Dn[n'']3 i:n: vh ib'n " inai D^yic tid i::nN 
•irry -ii[K]-ijmi mo m'ss rr\v nmn ^x 15 
•[wtyxi] rrm •iJ''[s]t< nn •irnai' cico •ijisysy ^it'j 

mcy niK''B'3n hi pnan T'Jjh nco i33nN 
iriana'' D'ni'Nn ptn omn Dmsani nnBTi 
D'^spi Doi'D B'NT ^v 'inNtrji wDcn* 'vh-w 
onB'n mien 'je' n«n*i n^yci) ih» niiyi 20 
unci "11130 13311 in» nn^jjn ^:3d D'3njn 
nnsNa n^nn^i DB'i' imbK qdib''' min'' U3Ti 
nnsim Dmm nix-i^ ijjiin inan ncjci 
•miD iMiiK •13311 1J1D ntynp n^nj ii3d p 
n3''a"n nan nir3n cii^N iiud -unnai i:ir3 25 
^KiB" nu I'D [iijit: Dn>J3]n T'jji onB-n ib* 
DVivi'B' nin'3 ^3^* DV iJn''jn " nn ^?31 Nnn:D 
Wins [^jk] 113 nyn3i diss np''{j'3 • pv |J3 

riivin ''n3B' 1313 n3y Dni3x ^:n '•itsc 
IK'S 1)3 iy3i Ton inion iy3i nys iii^Bnon 30 

•■JNI ni33 Vi 1133 fliDV ^^iI Dipon 3PDO h 

uJiiNi' I'jno nar n^jo ^npn ■'B'jn bi n3y 

irni3x Dy d^d^j ntyyc coin i?»n3 n3i3 

yE5'-)n tc ijjHN Dy 

P'tt'o [13]ni nni3:i D'd: uoyi qidj ncy Nin 

"hiiin iJD ^jy i^j db' vh\ pN 'Jo lis list 35 

1 Ps. 105. 18. 

2 Read 13N ' destroyed '. s = Noijy ' world '. 

« From lUi 'to shine'. » ^ ^^n ■y^-^, e job i8. 17. 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) 259 

. . . n b typ'n Nin 'nvsN \\fih innnn 

i'Vi vi>5J iDvn innn nsjts' ^w ''ub" i'SB'3 

nnotw nDptr yi^m V3didi vnny 

^ ip^i \'mr\ nnam iriiN nii'n nniii'-ij 40 

1D3 iDB* n^iNi fona hfxyir' by i»5J '3 

'WNT bv nnn D''bna 'cnxna |onb na^NC 

;vb'' nn'' loy •'njwi "^^ ti3*n i^a niN' p 

ujnN nia3 pmo unvoni onsini &min 45 
' niitjii ''n3K' i3'i3 Dm3N 

1 Cp. Job 20. 16. 2 Eccles. lo. 6. . ' Esther 8. i6. 

•• Cp. Prov. 25. aa. ^ Judges 5. 31. 

' We have seen above (pp. 355-7) that his mother died before his father. 
Read hereriB'K. 

' Abraham b. Sabbatai signs a letter (T.-S. 13 J 132°) sent mti''npn Hliripn ^N 
I3D3DD1 D^DDT njinSI NnJ31 n'iDI D3i5'3 D''DB'ij VH' n'31-l3. The signature is 
TlSr n'3»3 I)13pn niirih 'n3B' '313 Dm3S. T.-S. BoxFs contains a fragment 
consisting of four pages of which the first one is Ijlank. Fol. i verso begins 

iJi3i nDn3 p» n^Bon D''a n^Bon piB mj 'dd3 p'j; niB' htm 'b Dine' 

(Nidda 22" f). There is a gap between leaves i and 2 which is also in different 
handwriting. Fol. 2 recto begins NHD HJIH T ON nTinD 3n CN D^pnO PN 
(cp. Erub. 54") njB'D mO "1^13 Din3 D^C3n 13C IISK'. Verso has the 

following colophon, HJOT iiiitin ''n3B' ^3 Dm3Ni' nDBnn nr oi'B'J 
nN''3 nnDB'3 nyavb nsfi niB'ybi niocbi noiih niobb insr* iiipii injii 
TD' 131'' u '3 h3n3 niDijiy "Jtr [nb^nri piN "piSD Dy ipi^n tJT'i ^Nun 

(Prov. 9. 11) n"n nUB* ^!' 1B''D1''1. T.-S. io J 27^ contains two paper leaves, 
damaged, wherein we read on fol. i a that Joseph Hallevi b. Berakot betrothed 
a lady at Cairo in Sivan, 1418 Sel. (1107 c.E.) nJDD n3in3?N ''S [3]n3' . . . 

f^rv n^i N^3 iDsrin di^e'i on dnt i'xiB''' ps ''J3 anjD3 3n3n nn^jnji 

nnnNp^N p NnnS' xijl Nni3N n''3D ^n'yh r\'"ir\. The document is signed 
among others by Abraham b. Sabbatai nixin, just as in the above epistle. 
A contract, dated Ab, 1465 Sel. = 1154, at XDDt n*3l2 (Bodl. 3874"), is signed among 
others by niitJn J"ln n3nn Dm3N ''3T'3 'nSC. He is evidently Abraham's 
son referred to in our letter (1. 45). 

R 2 

26o Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c.E. to 1204 Ce. 

9. [Vol. I, pp. 213-5.] 

Poems in honour of Yakin b. Nataneel. 

[Oxf. MS. Heb. d. 68, fols. 27-30 (cp. Bodl. 2836"). Fol. 27, 
r. and v., 11. 1-12, contain verses ; the poems begin from fol. 27, v., 1. 3 IF. 
Poem I (11. 3-6) runs on in the MS. ; it is edited here in the usual way, 
indicating the metre which consists of five syllables in each hemistich, 
while the moving Shvas are entirely neglected. On the other hand 
occasionally the latter have to be made full vowels for metre's sake.] 

"'JJIP 2133 pis 

•^3ivn ^3313 nx 
'•'•rt?''^ y^ 31D 

i'N [ni]^W3 join 
nian ion i|5 

"BB't? ps^b 


ijinni ^st«3 

(fol. 27, verso, 1.8) 
iJtol ^S N3S 

ijlVBO IB' nC'K lo 

^3''t3b'p n^nsm 

*33N3 np IS^K 

• T -; T 't v -; 

i3nt?3 1331 

» For nbyO to suit the metre. 

* Ps. no. I ; 31D has been added to suit the metre. But in the first hemistich 
"■* is taken only as one syllable. The whole line could just as well read 
"•WS 3B' 'rnxS 'JIN DN3. 

' Num. a6. 12. The vocalization given above is demanded by the metre. 

* This abbreviation is not clear to me. (But see Addenda.) 

li ' Who espied from His dwelling the low status of His poor ' (people), 
cp. Ps. la. 9. 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) 


Ma^y nbenni 

s : T ; 

3 i:i5 Dintsp i''3B*nb 
ijisna ntryi 

I ■ T T : 

^wn niDy 

(fol. 28, recto) 

iJip in'psn 

^JiN li^V 3Bi 

T T T : 

Nisi? iisf) n||7 
iJinpa i^ oan 5 
ijia^p n^3i 

iJiDK Di'J) i-lQ3 
'B'N-l JiVP /'3J 10 


nyaw d'i>3 

'.T1S3 rrjiy ind 
8m3y N^) iny 

T ; T T 

iTinj ysin dt 
m3j/3 D:in ^3 

T : V : T T 

=n33 na^K niaitsi 


nnx lap ne's 
n ^p ^y ivpE* 
DW ninsj? Jjy 5 

-D nxsb neipi 
nnp D^;n ^yi 

* Can also be read VHS. 

^ 13? would be more suitable for the sense, i. e. the perversities of his heart. 
But IJiJJ is necessary for the rhyme. 

* For ijj? ' his nest ', to suit the metre. 

* For WJpW , to suit the metre. 

' Cp. I Kings 7. 21. 

* MS. has here only nnStfD p3'^. But the full refrain is necessary here to 
rhyme with the former line into '3", whereas the rest of the poem ends in 13". 

' Cp. Ps. 42. 2. 8 Cp. Nahum 3. ig. 

262 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c.e, to 1204 c.e. 
2,Tis)lD din!) "W-^ \s\vto I'jnba nwi 10 

nip nanlii eiJh ntrg i'^'iani 

'ma "1133 i^'-'S -n nB^s bs iiita 

Ernsts' »»»> nno ntsn ib'N tinai 

T ; • •• ; •• T • V ~; ' T 

'miDi nMu Dix 

f : T 

n-iNsni tiv i>3i 

TT : • ; T : 

n"in^ 'h Dn'B' 

mp' iND n^3D 

HTSiK 3nip 

nyaan 'onsa 
N"ii?p sip Diibi 

m;3 niN>n ^jj 
mni) iii nn'-ni 

mbD 1133 X3''1 

7J ■ • : t: 

■'t: V -: T -; 

(fol. 29, recto) 

ni^np E'Ni "iNsij 
inni ni33 iiaa 

T T : T T I 

... I . f 

ialjp i!"3pn 

laniin B'B' n333 

-nn »pDN niaiDna? 

anyiobi co^b 

nn 8 IS 'mi 10 

isiiD ^i> n3n3 

: - T T : 

r\m NS 'h D31 

'SI 'ihN 'Q la's 
n3y n^n? nxr 

n-iBE' '3T!» nbn 
'a'a'n nn 


-53 j'3j njinj 
wn.ina pa; 

- ; . I • TT 

' Between the lines the manuscript reads 'ja? N3, i.e. another version has v37 
instead of in^a. 

^ Cp. Isa. 54. II. ' Cp. Isa. 32. 6 ; 59. 13 ; Ps. 7. 16. 

• Cp. Job a6. 13. ' Cp. Isa. 49. 21. 

* Cp. Prov. 7. 16 ; a construct |1DN is formed here from pt2N to suit the metre. 
' DHJSnn (Jer. 43. 7, &c.) stands here for the whole of Egypt. 

' Either the brother of the foe (see fol. 28, r., 1. i) or ly 'HN is a poetic 
expression for the enemy (cp. IDID 'HN, p. 18, note 10). 
« Cp. Isa. 54. 17. 
'" Mordecai the Benjamite and the guardian of Esther (cp. Esther 2. 5, 7). 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) 



n^aM ''3''p3 
nina yt>t^rh 

ni-iiB' 13 nc'i 5 

on ^b ^ii'ai' 
■■ay "i>3a n^oc' 

ii-i'sb riB'ianni ,0 
riDi'? -IS Dipa <3 
i'QE' ana wn op 

~ : 't 

3311 'h rio3i 

nQn n^a »« 
^Nnon Dineia 

nayn m3K3 

■ : ' T T : - : 

»nio in3 nijp 

8 nay '»sn 'its' 

n'B' bwnji 

niDi ^waa 

n^yb 3iL3 -itao 

n'a-i bbsE'b? 

"3iD"iK at?''. 

'3'3>n nn 

• ■ T T 

atr' itssB'D by poixi nbn 

iB'x 10E' nn naab 3b« 

« irpnx 

(fol. 30, recto) 
iipn3 n'B'^ f31 

^''ix b'SB'[ni] 
nbvD nbyp nsi 
'•'1Z' ni3ia ^b 
or Di» ^waio; 5 
nibpio bsa oni 
?inion '•JE'bi 
inxn lE'aa 
npT DDE' nn 
Nia; DS^D^a ,0 
^brn nijab 
icsiB'o by 031 
-aE'D pajb 
by n*y nniaji 'jb' p:y3 
bxiB"! mm'' yj'in vca 15 

1 TX sing, of Dn'X ' pangs ' (cp. e. g. Isa. 21. 3). 

' I.e. Mordecai. See Hullin 139" nm ID a'n3T pjD minn p ''3'T'O 
N'3T NI'D p'DJ-inOI. 
» Cp. Deut. 33. 26. * Cp. Job 39. 18. 

5 Abraham, Jacob (Gen. 30. 37), and Isaac ; niD in = nniD in. 
« Cp. Cant. 4. 5. ■? Cp. Jer. 30. 18. » Jer. 30. 18 ; 23. 6. 

264 Egyptian Aff'airs, c. 1050 c.e. to ,1240 c.e. 

10. [Vol. I, pp. 215-17.] 

Poems in honour of Abu' I Munajja b. Shay a. 

[Or. 5554 B, fols. 21-2, separated, square hand, with a turn to cursive, 
size i6'4X 1 1-8 cm.] 


(fol. ai, verso) 

N3JD i>N UN byti6^ "V^bif. *a van ^vh'\ 

2 -^pxi nbSv pNi nbij) liyo > tjj'd^ nosy n■;■^^53 nba 

•IjiBS ny-i 3 13ND DiKna tvjn; ^2. ?|t [nsin] 

■qjiin ni3j? B'N3 I^wbt: i^a^'i oyn . . pa le'n . . 

<7]3''5?3 iininai osko? p[K]3 ^'j;?. N^n c^^s i)3i 

^Mn3 nn ]yob ibi< ^ai D''B'inp ^[5?] sniain «^n ie^n 5 

•jMan n[a]E'npa ri\^y3'! nniv^ iijjd nm nsbBJi 

TljlB'is mom lity")!^ «ni3ba n'-pm 

'[ii]!??^ niJiB'bai "I'^iJii n^*?? O''!?*??^ 

.... ^ynini irrnn d>3B'1 oy aipa ^jbyai 

. . . . " [«i.e'p]ri D';n''K'! n^a^a? i'b^B' o^yi'' -jiMnb 10 

!]5>ab ira fwnri iasK>a b^atj-nb -jb nayb n-bsni 

[^3]ssa D'EjiitJ □'•jNiB' nins laab inio^pn tiyo tj'n 

' Cp. Exod. 15. 6. 

* I. e. God comprises the world but not vice versa. The idea is already 
expressed by R. Isaac (Gen. R. c. 68. 9), lOlpO D^iyn pt<1 pb^y btS' lOlpO NinC. 

» MS. iJN'o. ■• Cp. isa. 40. 17. 6 MS. niono. 

« MS. nU''ba. ' MS. TibSn. » Cp. Hab. 3. 3. 

9 MS. in"nn, cp. Hab. 3. 2. >« Cp. Job 12. 17, 19. 

Appendix D (to Chaptet V) 


= [-irjpn D-D-i D-11 D''»i5 m_j) 

■njwi D-JjiT -13'^p i'nin'! 

TjriV) M''?? "I'S? DiD-ll :]iT1 
IISJVD j'sm nn-in bsi 

irronn inim nibc' niw 

't • v: V : T : 

^IjiDD ^p'3 nina niv m-v) 

•i\:'i\tfb n:yn n_inn noana 

12 -ism -np ^:a b "nbini 

'T " : T ; T f ; 

Tljssp n?yB Qi^a fipi'' jm 

i*:]3nri« ncp? iijpD d^i 

"^Ijax nan ninri 'd priB'i 

' T - : - : V T : 

Tjjipi -iiw "laT D'lM. Di5i 

Ti:n?3 ^wsp T'SiN ani 

TjiDK nbpn " pna jn ^siipi 

My npnp ncapij.nn^^ni 

D-irihipn ^3 i^a? ^n "V l'? 15 
NTnn < D'BN D51 cey T'aa 


' ^jbrii -imp ipf? 1^ iiy) 

D'labBp nnam nth npi 

njiiDK nnaa nyoB' ^n nai 

T v: ■ : ■ T : T " - : 

nyiD^ [an trpi poa "iB't* 5 

bx ^J) D''i'e'ri IK'S ns nbV 

piir^ iTjNsrn. a'py: "inn 

inayp rin'^B' niD'pn 

D''|'i>nQn »3p liN^ip 10 

jnana -j^p Di^a Tn jna 

i»isya HB'D *p^ ^b «Bn 

ijniNa Dii nixp nanyi 

^n-iix nnani) imx [nyi] 15 

npip^ nnirriDa iDij ny[i] 

Diioa -ja^p '?B nx ij'ipya 

' Cp. Ps. 46. 2 ; 61. 4. ' Cp. Isa. 40. 31. 

» Cp. Deut. 26. 19; 28. I. < MS. D'DIX. 

■^ ppn 'mighty one', cp. jiDH, Amos 2. 9. ^ MS. ItWI. 

' MS. y^bn), cp. Gen. 27. ij. 

* Cp. Deut. 23. 14. ^ Cp. Ps. 91. 13. 

" Shortened from HJB'N. 

" 'JD = j_5i-l, ni'11 = i)]j, alluding to the hero's title n^JH^N ''3D .1. 2) 'the 
exalted one of the state '. 
" MS. "IJ'ni. " For nCNI to suit the metre. 

" David, 2 Sam. is. 4; Joseph, Gen. 41. 45; Moses and Aaron, Num. 17. i6 ff., 
20. 7 S. ^^ Cp. Isa. 63. II. '8 Cp. Job 14. 19. 

" MS. b"N1. A Piel formed from ij^N 'strength '. 

" MS. pina. 

266 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c.e. to 1204 c.e. 

?iy»^ n: ^Jy ^ijy 1 »31K 10N''1 ^313> i'K3'n? 

T]3ryi 2 nins3 an-ij naa c^jg nnx e'lbna ari^n 

^3l»:p ■'OB'a < w'sni 3 nnjnv nni)Vi Dti'N3 dti 

5 ^1501 ob i|T ^y 7]^j)i sin vmn ni ^3|»d iok[)] 


(fol. 22, recto) 

nn-jt N^n •'E'db' ^^2n3i 

[njn-iD iB>K nsD ito En3nb 

nnb^j IK'S «ir?OK D3 nix 

nnpiE' ityN 9 noK nieyni 

"nnij 1K-) bbn «y:i 

" nn^-in N'bn iD&a nioa nnw 

js nne'D b'aa ab riyob noan 

TTT T t; t:T 

'"nnna pns naioa nma 
nnB* T)b lE'K a'p^! ^33 nicn 

tt;t -: 't t: t;t 

'9 nnnon i3i [nD]n sbt! ^'« 

Ij^ntsn 83X in3D Dip>n ib' 

nN-133 'wn ^s -\to 13 ibs.^ 

10x5 ''jbnl) Tis ^iPibf issn 

riKi •'K'^ i:a |3 ntaV nriK 

•:•:; t t :• : v v ' : tt 

nabn no'SB N^n ni»ODip ny 

T ; T T ■• : • • : ^ 

'»? "rijy npj *D3i ''D3 nD"i 

linx •'3 D^pPiK' "'3313 nwyji 

nytsj i3 nps naa -la's i|'ri 

ip! "^K" "^jy3 NE^ jitn tDi^n 10 

1^31 nnni "j'ny ipi nspx 

r\rh "cnonn "np^o ~iB' 

' MS. 'V, cp. Ps. 121. 5, 

* 'With the lucid (words) of thy thought' (cp. Isa. 32. 4). 

» Cp. Joel 2. 20. * MS. imSW. » MS. 13'DI . . . I^l'yi. 

* MS. Ifiy. ' The renowned host ', i. e. Israel, bow before their exalted dignitary. 
' MS. ij^nai. 

8 Can also be read W^JflX 'our Patriarchs', cp. Abraham = imtNiT jn^N. The 
meaning is obscure. ' MS. PIDIX. 

" INT for WT to suit the metre ; nmj, MS. r\X\'Vi. 

" MS. n»iy. ' " MS. nnpnin. 

" For nnCD to suit the metre. 

" Cp. Ps. 80. 16 ; Num. 17. 33. This indicates perhaps that our hero was a priest. 

" MS. ^ny3 . . . Dpin. 

" 'Thou precious choice of the children of Jacob, to whom tyrannical time's 
might bows down ', i. e. you overcome the dangers of a critical period. 

" MS. nmain. 

" Read perhaps Dn^pnn ' the benevolent learn from him how to do kindness '. 

" MS. nnn»in. 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) id-j 

r\r\^ N^n n^?: np ' \^ tS ^a nn^cr iiy hi?^ naio 


nnain noNa 'a'py^b noxi 

nn-13 B'^ni n^-)3 N^jn ^an 

"nnboi) ''nn naT'C rax 

nn»B' nxD Dnwi)ni ainb 

T •• T : T . — T 

nnip? iai ini? Qnj)>i 

nnn»3 nyb npn nj?^ "nan 

"nnjp: jm b^n litNfi in 

nnp? a; i^isa Di>n ■^ -^rh^ 

"nnribn \Sv nso ^b v^Mb'o 

nnntn nioN piBipB* nixD \n »3 

15 nnnj xbn ioE'a IK'S San 

i^nnor lE'K ^^\ ija nx'a 

nPiDf^ iai iniaboi "iw 

nnwDi nwfj 'S'ns'i ^t 

' MS. inv. 

^ ' From his steps (i. e. his example) generosity has been created '. 
''■'■ ' The vicissitudes of time ' (see Goldziher, J.Q.R., XIV, 721, and Davidson, 
J.Q.R., N.S., IV, 66, note 39). 

3 Cp. Isa. 38. 5. * Cp. Mic. 7. 20. MS. ItlW. 

» Cp. Prov. 6. 23. « MS. nn'-i'Di'. T MS. inya. 

' For IDN' for metre's sake, cp. also Deut. 26. 17, 18. 

» Cp. Job 26. 9. '" MS. nsin. 

'1 ' Is girdled ', cp. ntD, Ps. 109. 19. 

" For 'Sa 'the hands of, to suit the metre. >' MS. rwhx!. 

'• ■ From him who in over the wardrobe ', i. e. the Keeper of the Robes, cp. 
a Kings 10. 2a. About the garments' store of the Fatimid Caliph, see Kalkashandi's 
Geographie u. Verwaltung von Agypten (tr. Wustenfeld in Abhandlungen Ges. 
der Wiss. Gottingen, vol. XXV, 174-5 ! <^P- ^'s° P- '93 '°P)- 

1* MS. nmnj. 

'« For npsn, to suit the metre. Likewise in the next line nTObj for nipB'ri. 

" MS. mil. '* MS. p-iani. "' ' ' 

Dhp iiy nniiyi n^p 'by Djsa 

nx-iaj 2i'by?p n^anjn ib* 15 

rm saD's: nija wnay la by 

bsx3 iwa an-jaxb non 

■ ibi » n-jh -131 iniTi'^ oa by 

nby: ijiin fs nxTi «p 

liby Dip'' ia D'abian -iv 20 

' -;~ t't: • t : ~ - 


T'pyn Tiiya Dnisbnp ^3 

nina inix t^x ny ns^npn 

'bn''; insy^i D'abpn -i'b* 

Df) nin »33y Mens naJx nBin. 

-xsa iiy ips nx D^nlsx nitj; 

IB*!!! a\-\D •'axbp niiB'n bap 

np>n sriabpa niabp inn nmp 

'ibna ninni b[Nn -i]p^ nnpi 

nbnx nb'ja jyix nxD nnoE' 

Dip; IB' [n]KB')i [i-ii]y 'n^ bN[n] 30 

'15? ''"bE'ppi inn-iB' I'pn: 

jiap by b . - 1 111? h . . . 

VT' nyb 

268 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c.e. to 1204 c.e. 

2 nn:ni V'x'z. inniB' npib ' "nt^ Vn'mb on'e' h . . . 

nni^BN JiTl bxb 13V' T'B' TNI "iniiw 35 


nsani nNtys miji 'sin npi d^jno n^yi 


Nip nonS) DN D3B'? DN p 

t't V v: • V" : • ' •■ 


ii?.[no] • • • «^''«2 Nsi-ii j'niD 


[Oxf. MS. Heb. a. 3, fol. 22, recto (cp. Bodl. 2873"') contains the 
following epistle.] 


'J1 mV DV3 •''' 13S)' 

'Ji -ivxo nn'K's-i n'-ni 5 

'li? is-DV Di^E'i |i3ni mm ocs 

inon ban ^m i^bn ii)i 

T T -; - ^ : - : 

inny ^an nc'N i)3n ins 
nc^a ^y noiN jw iiina 

T • ; ^ T T-: : 

' MS. nn''B'. » Instead of nnj-l, to suit the metre. = MS. HH^'E'in. 

* Ps. 20. 2 ; Gen. 28. 3, 49. 25, 27. 28 ; Job 8. 7, 11. 19; Prov. 3. •^. 
^ The metre is used only for the first ten lines which are alphabetical. The 
rhyme is carried on for the next five lines. 

' Cp. Prov. 8. 27 ; Job 26. 7 ; for Hin more suitable would be m\ see Job 38. 6. 

Appendix D (to Chapter V) 269 

L J T": T T : T •* ■• : tt : ■.■•.*:•: ' ; 

Mn^N^ "lElD liNB' ^i5in 

inns isip inna ionyna 

^'1^1 "i?? ^9? i^ P*<i3^ 

[1'']T"'.0 "^ "?1!1 'i^i! ^^l 
vniDi a^n npno paM 

mm vin. b oy iaaS) 

maj) niB'BJi •'B'sj ^jk: ncx 

vnayi onon td ii"X'i 

mona T^v IP.'i "i^r pa 

on 'Dsbn ^3 nnoiB' ina-n 
D' 1SID3 jjia* D^D t'"^'^ 

rsm;^ npsi Tsn nai 

nnni ^a^von i^jia *3 niai 15 

D*i?"ian nW^ nb l^pn 

^Dvi) tj^a: Kiji PS -lintj 

ianpa mx niatyno B'sn'' 

i'jii innnx ib a'tj'-'i 20 

ncn HD^B' 'JHN Kin 

nay 'isy hnnii Din'' 
irtri irn^JK ivok' 
nhij iiaa mvn '-^xyn rhW ijyj "rp 
^■•VNn nnxn iK'n hd^b' ■ii -in riK'np 25 
ni'ni'N •'^d ^npn paini oann laaM 
nty^i irn^N in^m xnj'osi 
Nsnai e|ini)D ijab nj^d irt^'inp 
Nnb n' •'i'lsyn Thh^\ fiiyoo b^ 
jD 3"'3nD''i KHnarci niKyoi'K 3° 
mxn^^ n'yT nd xnai^oo 
NpaiJK i'lDi noya^N Dxna n^osD^x 
in NVDi Tnana p^did^n [oni 
^ DiNi n''n^N lyya aiu hyt'\ 
yb hr na*.! irons ioi^jbi 
niiD nvj, 


1 The author here, just as in 1. 15 ff., skilfully paraphrases Elihu's words by 
putting them into metre. Cp. Job 36. zi ; Ps. 104. 14 ; Job 36. 24, 37. 5 ; 
Hab. I. 13; Prov. 20. 27. 

2 Prov. 3. 4. 

270 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c.e. to 1204 c.e. 

11. [Vol. I, pp. 217-18.] 

The family of Josku'a b. Dosa. 

(i) From the next letter we learn of a highly influential person Joshu'a 
b. Dosa whose genealogy can be traced for several generations. A leaf 
in T.-S. Box K. 15, recto (verso blank), reads as follows XDH X32T 713 

-\2 jjB'in'" -i3 KDH 1 -o vein' n3 HB-D na ytj'in'' -i3 | Non la aipv' la 

inv Dni3 irD'n | nljnp nc nai na ■'i'l; ta VB-m* | in iIjj; na ndit 
I ^N''3T na Nonn ^kb"d -i na n^onn in'jjB''' na | bv.''r^ vhni n:a i'NE'''0 
rvnrh'i naiai> mat -non cst ww'' | na i?Ki:T -ia ini^Jty* -ia. 
Accordingly this lady, the daughter of Dosa b. Jacob, &c., had two sons 
Mishael and Daniel. Their father was Isaiah b. Mishael, &c. The last 
four persons we find in the memorial-list (published by Pozn., R.EJ., 

LXVI, 72, 1. 15) (inn:n = )iDn i^tyi in^ytr' (niDni=) iom W»d D''ii' 

^N''JTl ^NB'^D. Isaiah Hallevi b. Mishael, the author of a philosophical 
work, was one of the signatories of the will of Masliah Gaon (see vol, I, 
p. 226).' It is thus quite in accordance with the chronology that he 
should have been a son-in-law of Dosa the father of Joshu'a who had 
some influence with al-Afdal (died 102 1). Moreover, MS. Adler 4020 
contains a piece of parchment which forms a document, dated 1144 c.e. 
at Fustat, wherein the court is mentioned as being under the authority of 
Joshu'a. nntaty^ pjE* ne'cni pu'oni nse jjanxi ns^k mvn . . . (i) 
mNsn riTsv [mp'] ... (2) n^nic-n naniD Nnnj 01^)13 ijjjT DNDDoa 
hv.'w TT'a i'a ib- naiann jjtiid noann ax iinjn nc-n ywin' uani in» 

. . . N^OB* ID 'nnDJ. When Yehuda Hallevi visited Egypt he found our 
scholar in disgrace and imprisoned. He composed a poem for "IBTI 
Abu Sa'id b. Dosa, known as nplp p, when in prison {Diwan, ed. 
Brody I, no. 71, pp. 103-5). In the accompanying letter (II, pp. 328-9) 
Joshu'a is addressed as lann N^JBiDn Dann ia p . . . naisDon n^s 
ivati oijiyn ba t<v'i •ijjaK' ijjjde' na's ncn ^^5 . . . ndh •iio n^ivon 
. . . • iNoa ^v ina^ty^i • iNijaB (j.r. 'n) ins^vv . . . Di:pnin p n^ae'Di , . . 
. . . nc"' imtyDai 'nis' nisai inN''a'' icy ^ni. It appears from the 

letter that Joshu'a was an important dignitary and a scholar. 

(2) In view of the above genealogy it is evident that the Dukran "Tab 
(edited by Pozn., R.EJ., LI, 53 = Margoliouth Catalogue, III, 56 1^) 
does not represent a lineal sequence. It reads niD pja | NDIT p nir'a 

' See also infia, p. 319, fol. 2, recto, 1. 9 ff. 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) 271 

I 3jn ncn nmnx ni6 pbi nijivon nana vein'' iilD piai iajn ng'n xon 
noann niDV | b"3 ^njn ne'n npv'' nno pjii a^n "wn pnv •iio pjai 
njiann vni» noann nx ^nib'''3 | mxn ne-n vb'W'" nio piai 'svn ^'•'^3 
nonVDn | nnSB'Dn noSJ 7731. Two Joshu'as are mentioned, but it is 
apparent from the qualifying titles that the second is the scholar and 
influential person eulogized both by the writer of the next epistle and by 
Yehuda Hallevi (cp. also the identical appellations in the document of 
1 144). Now this Joshu'a was not a son of Jacob, who precedes him in 
the list, but of Dosa (probably the one mentioned at the head). These 
four persons, Joshu'a, the Haber, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (the latter 
an influential man) were members of this family but their actual relationship 
cannot be determined. Another Memorial List (in R.E.J. , LXVI, 72, 
11. 6-8) has Dosa the Haber — Joshu'a — Dosa — Moses, and the latter's four 
sons Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joshu'a. After a lacuna we read 
i'^31 ninan ioni ntyo iom. (The following TJJ^K h^'W nn no longer 
refers to this family, as Pozn., I.e., p. 73, thinks, but to the subsequent 
genealogy of Samuel Hannagid.) Here we have another branch of the 
same Dosa family. In 1. 16 we read nvso nu NDIT T\'^1\. Indeed 
Masliah Gaon seems to have been connected with the Dosa family (see 
vol. I, p. 220 f.). Finally in the Memorial-List {J.Q.R., N. S., I, 50, 
bottom) asm tin ^xnt:'''! nnxn nrn xon am una pJai, probably the 

father of Joshu'a, discussed here, is meant. 

If the assumption that our Joshu'a was the brother of the lady in no. i 
be right, then we are able to trace his ancestors for thirteen generations. 
Thus Yefet (' dignitary of the congregation of "'J^DM ', Jerusalem that was 
in the territory of Benjamin?) — 'Ali I — Joshu'a I — 'Ali II — Dosa I — 
Joshu'a II — Dosa II — Joshu'a III — Moses I — Joshu'a IV — Dosa III — 
Jacob — ^Dosa IV. 

12. [Vol. I, pp. 218-19.] 
A letter from Isaac b. Benveniste to Joshua b. Dosa. 

[T.-S. 20. 114, damaged at top and bottom, paper, square writing.] 

. . B'N 

. , IN . . . . [n]ni3j Dj; 

no x^'hy-b ri'^fth nrvn onyv 

Niinn na: o i3JiB'['']t< . . . [n]^j;ni 

niDiD nicyi' nnnani imi3V 5 

272 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c.e. to 1204 c.E. 

Q3 ■ atj'n'' 13 ^\ noT- p ^ na^ '■a 

ii^ra'atynKi 'wjuyn 'b*na py'ii [iW] ..... 

1^-13 ne'na ■•nn^B' ''3 Tiira nIji ijiMD 

Nunn ''^3n3i 'nsasy ^y »3^nm3 o'B'ip'' 

riNip nvini Tiuiy Tiis jcns nama bcasi 'n3B'[Dj] 10 
TK'Vo nona n'yti'an ni^h nmn ■'i' c 'a ik *niN 
°'Dna N^Ji "TiwvD HDoi' icn le'N ^-ijiai ^tra ijvdi mca . . 
u^ nnoB'i "jnxsD nxirii 'na Tina n:y ^a is 'i? hb*]? 
vh noni mx •':a •'V^a ■'jnoin ne-N idb^^ nn[iini] 
NT nph tn3 nB'Ni ■'onv T»n inoNi nom idjjd [iiDn] 15 
^y miynn ^y "n^nni nana h-^ ^y DDn»i inian [idb*] 
nxTa naiDon ne^trn inoan ti^b'i inans c'D^in 
T^sij n^N nnitj' 'ne-a hn nnn Tixa niTom ni3y xan 
npax isa^ E'sni '•□mo i^a '"as ■'jDan.T "n^si xijan p3on 
ujnx 'DniD nai ^ypxi 'Dnio isn pani) aefff 'DniDi 20 
i3Dnap uian ua^o: i3Jin minn 'fain niNan moy 
ain p rn 63 ys'in'' i pTiin ann uanj batrni nyn nyn 

IB'DtJ' "lis "'il' 13-13 nB'N son Nm[l N^no] *33 JD c*B"n 

[NiiDn] '"iB" 'ntyjaaa -i3 pnv nnaiB**! in''3 )dn3 iTa^n 
lix "''Jna i'''an vb ne'x niN^n -iiae'n niyn yae*.! nnna 25 
nB'N Dnonn iuin px ^iDsy niijaoo o anaa onniaD 
Nixo nyi) ■'ion xssh-sn i>N iija^ Tvn ovd 'ny n^nn 

i'NnB'"'3 N'a: b-^ ''3 ijinx ly^i ino3n3 iT'tyyi ^nnnr3 
o "ndh P3 son p '^n'nnn nibjai rri^y r<byi caa xira 3° 

' Cp. Isa. 10. 7. 2 Cp. Dan. 4. i. ' Job 18. 8. 

« Hos. 9. 13 nitt'a is one of the -)0D pnpl pB* pan3 nniDO. The meaning is 
here when God looks favourably on a man (niB'3'>, he bestows upon him riches. 
But when He turns away (1-|1D3) from him, the result is poverty (pB'a 'jyDI). 

^ =''NDn3. 

" Ezra 9. 13 ; Ps. 103. 10, 102. 24 ; 2 Sam. 7. 14-15 ; Job i. 21 ; Neh. 9. 5. 

' Cp. 2 Sam. 23. 8 and on it M. Kat. !&> bottom. 

» =1133 inni:D. « =nvv. 

" = N3IDn-| imOB'V or perhaps, = QiOm SB'S thus Benveniste was already dead. 
But the usual expression is □''Dm NXD*. 

" ' My thumb ', i. e. my hand. 

" Play upon words (cp. Joshua 15. 19 = Judges 1. 15). Here, of course, ni73 means 
' Diaspora '. 

•^ I.e. R. Haninah b. Dosa. 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) 273 

inmjD^ innnx ^^n1 [31 ]d b nnnsi naiti na'tya ^iny aica 

[i]nD3 1^2 ibKi VKsvi t6 '3 in ira ^3^d n^[Dn] Qi? nna 

[nsjo nan ns'b' nono ujix cp^M ^toiTiDN p pto^ 35 

['SN]pn ^x ins<o Dinn ana n«»m Tvb ixaij N3[''65>] ni3i'D[n] 

[B'''Nn] nr 'a yn oma onan li'v anaa nns''^ ns'OT [•'JjNDsi'S 

IDID IK imi nionD ia pNi nn c^n KinB> vi'y *^ mana 

''3 IN u yoE'j "131 j'DE' N^1 vT "laT IN ''Jivni nDin[n] 

IN N^aai' IN Dii^a-ia^ ]n nJ?b nvT qni aiti nan ia nvoi 40 

inciian ^ni i:od won ^n ^nsidb*^ j-iNi' in dhn fnNi) 

m: ^nijal? D''i'aini'i niJiDon ^aab nisn ''3 in nan nwa 

iv3n lb nwiii)! na3b ^a in y-i hdind ib niOT ''ni'ai 

ma anan dsid T'jsi' ainab nnn nat^n 13 pN ''^[ni] 

mroibyn noyi npi? eiDvi nan yoti''' d^in li? Tin[VB>] 45 

lb ainabi nnonb vnii •'^n ^jne* *ninnb [D»i'S3 n»3n] 

['jnJdn^'n T-b N31B' nnN Di3n3 'JK' IWI my D 

nu'V pbci tJ-NT M ''b n'n^t^ 

inons nr anai b 

^3 yiDjb ni:D 50 

■iiQ t^N 

13. [Vol. I, pp. 2 1 9-20. j 

A fragment of a letter from an imprisoned government official. 

[Oxf. MS. Heb. c. 28, fol. 35 ; cp. Bodl. 2876'=.] 



IN • -1133 iniN yo'D •'3 ni3iN[D 'n'cy n^j] dji 
nixas *^D [nna]^ vh nai hy\ npe* iE'3j[a] ''n^tpy 
nat^N Nisi rm bi 'na^'inc D''yn '^K'yD vn n^ 
'TS ^'bi T 1^^"^ moans r\rhv noN 13 ''osy nN 5 
VE^yo inyi) 'i'B'n Ijy avN iivica ohxi 

^ See Hag. 14' and Bacher, Palest. Amorder, II, 94-5. 
" Read VJiy. ^ Antoninus, the friend of Rabbi. 

* Cp. Prov. I. s; Job 11. 6. ' Prov. 27. 2. « = DI^B'n V^V. 



274 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c.e. to 1204 c.e. 

Ti^n nyy [d]ji d'jv2n? ^n^n 3n icx imva 

[vjjsi' inpiv ni^j^ "^^^n ijj? 'ntjrin in^^Ki> n»N 10 

-IDNE' 1D31 'J1 '"'* *N03» N'anKl " i^UJ HN 

^nai'nnn hb'n dn w mar " njn in^jiara iniptn^ 
^ii ^n^cy i^yya 3i£2ni oi'tj' aabi nosa t-js^ 

D^jann oy D'yiT n^aiian ■'B'yD naai 15 
= '-in» DV3 'npns n nnayi •o'N-ipn oyi 
lyes' DK 13 n^on nniB's ^npoyn: vh\ 
hvfys^'ci -en, nnp^i nin3i> Titass n^b' 

lEJ'K 31t3n ID hvrwh 3''D^■li'l ^CBJ bbij i'3N 

'3 "'ts'aj nx i'i'nN xi) p '•a i>y pjxi ■'^ " s'di'' 20 

DN "'3 -11DX3 iniN yiT"! nW^il " DNT-a DN 

D''Dm NVD'' UNI *ii i'i'nnDn i)i>nn'' nxn 
n3^ n3T i»n^ ■'S' -iDN^i 'nvi niison ^y 'jha 
D*Div naiJi B'3nD D''pinD '•as vm n''ni tiisd hcb' 
nNm:D3i'N runm ni3!5»^ mc* ns n^ni 25 

vni r\w niB'y tyon 103 en -lys' 5)y nwi 
aiyDDi miDDi dhn j'ind D-'san nnnion iib 

14. [Vol. I, p. 2 2 I.J 
Masliah Gaon. 

Masliah's activities in Fustat date from 1127-38 {stsJ.Q.R., XVIII, 14, 
note 14, and Pozn., Babyl. Geon., IC2). We add here the following data 
in addition to those discussed above (vol. I, p. 196 f.). 

(i) In a letter addressed to him (Oxf. MS. Heb. d. 74. fol. 37) his two 
sons are greeted (D''mBn im»n ''Jt^). Their names are unknown. None 
of them succeeded ttieir father to the Gaonate. 

(2) A loose leaf (in MS. Adler 2806) contains the end of a document, 
dated Ab, 4889 a.m. (1129 c.e.) at Alexandria ni^VO IJiJnNT [n^niK'jT 

1 Job 29. 15. 16. 23. 2 = n'h^n \hv- 

= I Kings 18. 13. i 2 Kings 20. 3 ; Isa. 38. 3. 

' Gen. 30. 33. 6 jer. 9. 23. 

Appendix D (to Chapter V) 275 

. . . [3p]yi |1NJ naiE" B-N-i [nan. Signatures: Aaron b. Yeshu'a 
^Vt xann, Isaac b. Joseph yaj, Sadok b. . . . The first is no doubt 
identical with the Alexandrian Dayyan Aaron (Ben Sion) b. Yeshu'a 
whom Yehuda Hallevi eulogized in his poems (see infra, pp. 286, 305 f.). 
T.-S. 10 J 26": dated lyyar, 1440 Sel. (1029 c.e.) and signed by Nathan 
Hakkohen b. Solomon Hakkohen, Nathan b. Samuel the Haber, Halfon 
Hallevi b. Menasse. T.-S. 12. 703, end of a letter or document, reads 

Hr D^iiNjn 13J inan ^^sd jam uno -ip "ij misn ^'sabm . . . (i) 
TW h'h^ tnina ansJi niso ps •dsds^ ^jni •Dvy •H'' nSji 'nj?^ (2) 

a'Nn n''nv 'oi'vi' 'JSnn (the date is clearly (4)893 a.m. = 1 133 c.e.). 
Signatures : Jacob b. Moses Kohen, Israel b. Tobias, Nahum b. 'Ezra, 
Samuel b, Abraham Hakkohen, Moses b. Abraham . . ., Mattatiah b. 
Moses. Masliah is also mentioned in a fragment of a document, dated 
Sivan, 4895 a.m. (1135 c.e.), at Alexandria (MS. Adler 2806, fol. 11 ; 
fols. 8 and 13 contain also fragments of documents wherein the Gaon is 
referred to, but their dates are not preserved). T.-S. 13 J 2'' contains 
a document dated Kislev 1449 Sel.(=ii37 c.E.)at Fustat. T.-S. ioJ^26' 
contains (recto) a document which is hardly legible. Verso, in different 
handwriting, evidently contains the testamum D^n [']ni. IB'IDpX ITnin 
. . . DDnn^ [na''B'''n] lyco D'JIDOn. Dated Marheshvan, 1450 Sel. 
{i 138 C.E.) at Fustat, by authority of Masliah Hakkohen Gaon. Signed 
by Nissim b. Abraham. The other signatures are illegible. 

(3) As head of the former Palestinian school Masliah naturally oGSciated 
in the Palestinian synagogue at Fustat. Thus a deed, dated 1132 c.e. 
at Fustat, was drawn up before the Gaon and his court held in DDiM 
"ISD3 ("DXtS'i'X (Bodl. 2878'). His official letters would begin as 
follows (MS. Adler 2806, fol. 6): pNI Wav HB'iy 'v DB'a mtV (i) 

Nin \va vn^N 'v nca noinn (3) apv psj na''B'* k'ni jnan nh'in jd (2) 
ini^N p (5) apv liN'J n3''i:" cxn pan no^c 'T3 (4) li D'onn ^^ 
apv^ PNJ na^B''' e'si inan r\\^'}i> pj (6) apy jinj [nal^B** b'nt inan 
Bmp {yxnn pan pnx naj (8) pns pa p rra ina[n fjojin^ [y]w (7) 

|5p[r] ['l]v Only one line more of this epistle is preserved indicating 
that it was sent to a Haber Abraham b. X. For this heading see also 
J.Q.R., XIV, 450, note 2 (dated 1131, also addressed to an Abraham); 
correct accordingly Bodl. 2878=1 Cp. also the heading of his father's 
letter, above, p. 233. Also Ebyatar begins his epistles with " D5?D ntV 
pNI D''»t5' HB'IJJ {Saadyana,J.Q.R., XIV, 458 and 475; above, p. 228). 

' Probably read xh'h = Noi'J'^! ■*• "• The next two words, 'true repentant', 
must refer to the writer of the fragment. 

S 2 

276 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c.e. to 1204 c.e. 

(4) A loose leaf, very damaged (in MS. Adler 2806), contains a rhymed 
poem in the Gaon's honour. Its beginning reads 

•n'^VD W3n^? '■on 'nhv'^ irnsJiK''' i3[''ni'N] 

•n[n]si' nnicn '•n •nnQ''i nn* irniDio 
'n .... -iiN 1)3 i5Vi 'ni-in rhs'' inis 
•nn N"ini onn (6) nvi^ in^vo ni'v •n^'^so mwi ■orito 5 
'131 'mrh [n3n]a ^nu ^n (7) •ninD''i B'ntJ''' iB^nc 

T.-S. Box H II contains two paper leaves (tops torn) of poems 
one of which is in honour of Masliah Gaon. 

D^jnnN nno . . . tiv^ix nnnn D*:n D'OB'a nn (fol. i, r., 1. 9 ff.) 
\>\\>i D^Jioann monpni 'nvajn cx-iij i^y n^riforrw nv^ njj^Bin ■db'db' 
nntJ' •iSipi' 3ps)i I1N3 njj) nvaj cxno . . . nynni nnnai 'nvwi nn 
•njiann as ni^s? 1^ nnv anpo ''JK 'mina ^jjd bsb 'li'ui'i nan ixn 

• loivun iiN ^nr • rrbvo ij'jinj (verso, 1. 8 ff.) ... ii'''SNi pin iid^ 
•lotyi Ti3t D'pni 'nnr -vh n'n' T'io'-d pv N^sini •nnsne' noci 

• ''i'wri nb^ non ^xi n^os • i^n ^y e"K Dn^'atr ' nonon waB'i 

There follows another poem by the same writer, nta Thx> PN ''S npl 

cn '•; ni'm njn 'n^JioN 'd^c nijiip inn '(tn^ nnra=)!j. 

(5) MS. Adler 2806 contains a few fragments of letters to the Gaon. 
Fol. I is from Abu'l Mansur b. Abu I Faraj ; fol. 12 (recto) from 
''B'SB'Ip^K Dmax Nm3l? (the feminine ending Nmay refers to . . . nmxn 
with which the epistle begins); verso: a few lines in Jewish Arabic with 
a poetical introduction sent to Sadakah T\y"a''r\ mon IU:ni Q3nn. 
T.-S. 8 J 22' contains also a letter to Masliah. 

(6) Finally T.-S. Box K. 6 contains two vellum leaves forming the 
beginning of Babli Erubin (fol. i, verso, ff.). Fol. i, recto has the 

following colophon | nraB*^ loij^ 1112^5^ n^M | n3t' NiDJ pan''!? raao 
nts'^Na hprm \ i^t ^nidc •\i xiv:vch v.'wW nana i'Np:N | : px | nwy^i 
HDB* VT" apj)^ pNJ nTB*' sj'Nn I inan n^'i-a wjixj lyjnx mnn ip^ij n^ns 
;d T'aNi'x ntJ'yi'N iq •\>^\ hdd 'Dinn ijn iJ'iJDa | D^iy pa'' nT-a ni'iyi' 
}D''Di I aim [D^D yh^ ino^E'^ Nin ina oipon nntjcj'i' lirbiiN nJK' | v^oa 
nu ''i^n \\thr\ \ jjj pan no^c ia [nan [nj n^xniji lat^ i:anai naia 
i'a nmo D^J | nns 'S Nntyiixa ^pnJN (m different writing) I yj na-JD 
•^Otyij nhx nJB' | i^t \y».\T\ he'IT'D | y3 niaia. This volume was first 
copied for Menahem b. Samuel and subsequently bought by Masliah in 
Kislev, 1448 Sel. (1136 c.e.). The witnesses recur frequently on the 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) 277 

documents issued by the Gaon's court. After his death it was finally 
acquired by Menahem b. Berakot in 1146 c.E. Menahem b. Samuel is 
perhaps identical with one of the parties mentioned in Bodl. 2836'''» 
The time would fit in as Abraham b. Nathan Ab, who is also mentioned 
therein, lived at the beginning of the twelfth century (above, p- 231 f.). 

Nos. 15-16. Letters from Nathan b. Samuel. 

15. [Vol. I, pp. 225-6.] 

[MS. Adler 2806, fol. 9, paper, square writing.] 


[iB'.^n'' " ''ipi] 

-w^ nx nui) •nninstyDb •DmD''J3n ^55'iD 

n\\>-h\ ninDi) 'DDtra "inbit' "iKBn»n pny 

■'3VVT imni IV1X31 'DDira nm iidd 

•Dnan»n on 'Dnajno nnwp pin s 

NU'' NH • nniD^ nniy nyao nsdj 'a ijc 

nDHDD ms DyiJo ^'1S^•13 'inx' xb 

Tn:.! M^ijinD ncx "i^^nD nsDi 'i^''j ''^a 
•np'i 11331 '-nni in •ii'''mni lij'vsn -i^tD 10 

Dn-i3N iy:iw iranx □"n i^o *3B -iin3 

'N^D 3nN -iB'N apv JiNJ naitj*' trxn 

nB'n T-nto i3''3nN p ns? ''ivi' ikd3 iw 

inniiNi 1133 innwD nnitr'n niD< i'lun 15 

•niTyn ^niNo 1^ n:n'': Tion nnns 

•nniynn pi •nniD''n psD 'niTiDnn pB-Di 

^^vb -nniDsn D' niijch -nnaaj u -lani) 

liBi) -inn 3113^ nsn lotri 'nniDn 

n:iyi nv ^3 hun iisjn irjiiN 20 

1 Isa. 40. 31 ; Ps. 68. 4. ^ Read 05)131. 

' Read n^D. See also in Sa'adyana, XLIV {J.Q.R., XIV, 485, U- 6-8) 

nb ans ick spy |iw n3'tt"' t^Ni insi n'^so iraiiN. 

278 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c.e. to 1204 c.e. 


yhbr\-a nxn^ | mxyi nyioi natjn 1 cnn bi 

vi:''i's nB'Ni I •ini'v ne'si ine'N | tstsi hh^i 

I 'viimN laitsi •v^i'nD | ixissj iind no 'a | 'innw 

I inN' ynr nxT | • vnpi vNJtro | ib^i • roor loip'' 

I i^^'Ni * vonn '•i'aNT | i'lbe'i • vdv3D3 nirni' d'-d' 25 

I nnni n>i>3ni | rvi'^ \^^ ij? oii'K'i | iisi 'n" pi • vdS>ixi 

I nanni 3vvi 


Di^{j>n iiiND 'a-iiyD nsnaa t^hv nn* kb" 

•innni' siooin nnix nsoi nmncn rasi'DDi 

niiym nj;n anpn niyiiij siDSjn Mnaia nmci 

hncfD ''3N on DV h^ii ''3 imini' ymo -nva 

•inanN am v^^no nvp nsioi inac isd^ 5 

^nott'i nB^npn nn^e-M acioi) •iniTB' Dviyi 

Nnpiii iXDxi'i inKab nna^'B'* lopj^sa ppnji dcij 

'tmp cnrv' e-nipn ni^np ':si) ii>nj^i iob'3 

niKDi nniv E'* ''3 np''i' yiinb ci dji 

•invy Dsiyi -inra ani^ nnovni? nsa 10 

"■iNna rssn niNiiDh p33 Ijj; D3 nicyi' 

u^jnx aciD '':s!' matin ^^<^s^ poya 

lyjns nniN niv "ib'n iNoa pa* iiwn 

poya ^t D'jwj 13 pxj tn3n n'iiSD 

vjurv iJV inio "inx hb'VB' no 15 

WOK' D'B'JN B" 01 inns n^J'tJ' nci 

'SI lonm i3n3i nxivn nniN vsd 

"rn cj nhvon lann pnn ;n: •'an 

naia yiv sini ni^y npipn imT'V 

'SD 'votyo HDD nnjianei miDi 20 

n'-rc" 3-1 nn^jj nji ffiiSD irjins 

Tihv npipn dj ^ii>n ^nb'''D nn ''li'n 

' Read ".DB*!, but perhaps the feminine ending refers to iniini) (1. 4). 
" This Dayyan is identical with Nathan b. Solomon Hakkohen, who is a signatory 
of documents under the authority of Mashah (see vol. I, p. 226, note i). 
' ReadVDE'B'. 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) 279 


I mipi rho nv3 1 . . . nae' >yn 1 . . . 
.... pVT I ''rf •\vr\-\T\ I iiNi 

16. [Vol. I, pp. 226-8.] 

In the same handwriting and style is further Oxf. MS. Heb. c. 28, 
fol. i6. See Bodl. 2876" where the MS. is wrongly described as a ' letter 
to the Nagid, not named, from his three sons '. It is an epistle addressed to 
. . . 'nj 'JD3 -om \n'2n in»nna Nsaii (i8) wnn pja (recto, 1. 17) 

innaiv waii Nno paa -niw n* p'lnon 'n''5Ji ''^^B'1 •noi'D [3 22 
Ni>i ^ JDV vh nB'X • ptn by ]ybr\» dn bt pnvn nobon [nan 

T\2TQ iinHi nity^i'n n^sdd nhn-ai nins pin n^Ej^o 'ionj 
pxi iiniiTi niTiQ xiip "invn dvd 'imo nr •D'mo pt^m •D''vn 25 
•■niv nui) DN1 ^'iniy ki'j ri'SJi 'Itie^ uu •inxnpi' r\'S\> 

-\v 'Nnioi an ne'am -mx D^a nayi 'htv tpi "ht mv s^n 

T-noE'i •'■ana bv 'inh^a icn •'ainsi vi nnx 'imnN tidti 

nD^as nnx d''JB' noa nn njD ^jaiB* psii anx naina • oiva 

's by Dibc nxnp ib'BNi ana by °ib 'moy xb bjjr bsniy^ ba jinj 30 

'•nmJD 1SSD' bx Dnxn '33 dni 'nmo m^ in^on ffnbx dk n>-i»nN 

(right-hand margin, reversed) 

1133 by inaT ba | »niinnb | Q'>3''vb •h n^nn | [^]a i»d3 ^n"n | t^Vi 
n^cN"! I 'nab b'iidi • ij'dn' '3b | 'a Ti>'ar\r\ ba iiay ribss | trinnoni 

no byi nobi 'ob | nviaa t 3B'n [yob | noa niKT dni • ijido 

I aic iiniony 'd •':a by 1 nioai nba'ni niD' nn'33 | na^ba by 

bnjn ■iB'n | t by lana yjm noKi | non T-nx nx acni nny 5 

I I'jsn irjnN nmn bx | n'dc \n 'nnts: no'ien | k-'n nna [xijan 

I iniN 'nnnai | in'on nwsj now i.tidb" | [mi]nii bx-iB" Tn bnan 

THM'a I nibnni nnaB* ynin lynb | D'oye n^^v 10a \rm \ 'nnpi vjab 

.... DipD lacina | vnn dj inxnpb ' K-n | nnecn 3n bnpa 

1 From Aram. \Q\ = \m. 

2 Evidently referring to 2 Chron. 15. 3 (cp. v. 8 !). 

3 'Thy friendship'. * Read "]»nbTJ. 

^ An Arabic phrase ^ i—ijj and accusative. ^ See i Sam. 26. ig. 

' The feminine refers to min (1. 6). 

28o EgyptiQ,n Affairs, c. 1050 c.E, to 1204 c.e. 


lliN^ '3 ntrpn n» nxni niaa ^yo ninj dni j'snn ^s? 'nononn ^s 

DJ ^!? TWih\ \hyy2. "fp^ ncnni niijn^ mp»n nta in* ijy hs' ^ T»* 

ni niann tivti ^ dj 'nm nvpo Tiai pii' m D'-oan niTcn 

D^ana noai no i)!) ij . . . •'vni '■ns m^Dvoa ne'N enpn nii»np 

•Dni^JK '■nana 
m^Tii n3''B"n ainx -ityi^x wan naasn iB'n tix ny^jn k^ naitrm 'nana 5 
-iiMD px Dna^N ■j'B'ijN ini irniiK imotj''' • o^'vicn nnai • D»ynn nss 
ijf n^Jivon lann ■'jiix p laaan n{5':o xjan nomn -iB'n isN d:i a^w 
na'ni -m nan nx inaci 'jod onuna T\'''viri. no ^jy 'nvn» xh 
naT ''j'ynin^ dj ■'j^yTini'i •'jrx nx nii'ji' lain Ti^iyi mnx 
JixnE" n^a b mom 'Dmcn -ie' 'DnSin hnji Tnnxi 'min n'-XB' 10 
'v ''n ia nnmx bi jiaj i^y mai ^'X1 nyi) '•ni bxic" nu -ic nnxn nw 
Ni) nnx im Dn''i)y nno ■-ah 'jdd nnyioB' n-nyj d^d* D''njE' nt 
•Tm»Kn nnrai 'Tm-iiy nisnn nnn •^ni'NB'n vh\ '-\''rhv«t) 
. . . . na y-iixo[n] bi . . . in»3xi inin noix •tJTi3''1 inaiai 

pinD^J cf-aia •'sa [vni] obixi ixvoj 15 

D''DsyDi • i^ry cpB'JD ^Din^i "... 1 nnyoi iniao ^ • T^a niDn ne'i'B' 
"\h'i D''ii'jni 7'anxi 'ti^J ^3 ^vi 'T^V dibv D''»tfn di^b'i 'i^»i^b' 
iryty^ iryB'^ }yis jl[n]x iiB-mo lyi? hj' 

•'ij^yB'' xin 

' See Eccles. 5. 7 ! Here ' do not delay in the matter ', viz. to go to Egypt. 

* ' My three children, thy sons ', &c. ; *]''Ja is only a complimentary expression. 
' The lacuna probably did not contain a new name, as four sons would be 


* This concluding phrase is evidently corrupt. Probably read WyC V'.J-"' 

liy^m^ Xin. 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) 281 

17. [Vol. I, p. 230.] 
TAe family of the Nagid Samuel b. Hananya. 

(i) The genealogy of the famous Nagid, eulogized by Yehuda Halle vi, 
has been preserved in several forms. Pozn. (R.EJ., LXVI, 72, 11. 8-13) 
edited one version, rh^'^'y pmnjoa "lann ^xiDC htfTw Tyh^ nu iibi 
(iniDn=) ion Ij^i br . . . muna iB'B'n innDB* (niDm=) lom ^i 
(vnion =) ion 'jci Nsnn np''n ntj-n i.T3jn 'ni 'no (DE'Kna =) 'Nna 
niN-B'jn nty ^jkidc i5vr {11231=) 'ai (r. [on-iajx (-iB'n=) tJrt) . . . kot 
nnvpa lusni (D3nn=) nn .T'n"' hhy\ inion •'je'i nai^iDn poi prn 'anno 
"limn leni ^'nide' idhi (nB'n=) 'tj^n nij:n 'ai. This list is clearly 
abbreviated, leaving out several members of this family. 

Two more complete genealogies are to be found in Oxford MS. Heb. 
f. 61, fol. 46, and f. 56, fol. 122 (cp. Bodl. 2855' and 2821^^) which are 
given here (pp. 282-3) ''^ parallel columns. The former gives the maternal 
(recto) as well as paternal (verso) genealogies of a certain al-Rais. He 
was a descendant of Samuel Nagid from the maternal side. 

282 Egyptian A^airs, c. 1050 c.E. to 1204 c.e. 



























_ *^ I 1 I— I 

P S£ C f- 

,— , f- 

,^ -^ 

£. n 

JN & 





X >: » 

P g ^ 

- '" I 

_ n ^ 

n .ii I" 

? a ^ C » E 

/> r- ^ C 


•r I- 





•M S 

n r: c 

& P 2 

& S »f- 



S5 C 























































































Appendix D {to Chapter V) 



t n 
> c 










1 — 1 






























f~ ^ so 












5 § -^ 
•E "^ g. 






>■ ^ ^ 

- r y Q 
><*. g r F 


s tz 

J= !i 


•0 «- 




M r: 





g F 

























S= E 

1 r 

S r 



























































•is I 






CO J5 


r r 















S" K- 


o a 

C/3 u 1; 

'. £ ~r\ t- O r- 

284 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c.e. to 1204 c.e. 

We thus have the following genealogical table of the Nagid's family. 

Samuel the Haber 

Shemarya the ' Sixth ' 

Netaneel ' the great one of the Yeshibah ' 



Hananya the physician 

Abraham the physician Samuel Nagid 

Yahya ' 

Samuel ^ 



' Yahya's Hebrew name must have been Moses. T.-S. 13 J 3' contains a 
statement of evidence, dated 1459 Sel. (1148 c.e.) at Fustat, wherein we read 

imi una mNsn m'ss mp» rrnn 'pja p [hdjd 'oinn pN X3^:px . . . 
D''-iK'n rrm mNsrin [11:1 miynn njij* ^N [ojw i^nan iB'n rw^ u^jiin 

n^iin i'NiDB' iJ^:inK p . , . nniwi) nniyon min''i ijKnts" ns? nmsBni 

nhy 113'' nT'3 Dhyi) IOB* \n' bnan. As none of the memorial lists mention 
this Moses, he must be identified with Yahya which is really an Arabic name. 

* Evidently the mother of the dignitary (Bodl. 2855') was a daughter of this 
Samuel. The paternal genealogy of this person is as follows : 











LI azar 




Hence his father's name was Berakot. In addition there are mentioned 
(evidently members of this family) Sa'adya and his son Netaneel, Shelah and his 

Appendix D (to Chapter V) 285 

(2) Yehuda Hallevi, when visiting Egypt on his way to Palestine, was 
greatlyhonoured by the Nagid Samuel. He composed several poems in his 
honour. Theyare here indicated in the orderprintedintheZ'zw(Z«,ed.Brody, 

Vol. I, no. 57 (pp. 76-7) . . . one' -fo h^ nnv^ ov (l 10) 
nnxD i'NB'i ^xh i''3i'no -iwa* -nix^ vjs niso 's ion nnvoi' fW3 (15) 

11X31; no. 59 (pp. 81-2); no. 61 (pp. 85-7) "icis Dn'B'n TB"! . . . (i) 

n^rr pi va^K3 ks'' (7) ... Tj:n ^nidb> naano nsii (4) ... DncT 
'u Dv vn' n^va ... (13) ... Dnox: -inni nnoa: ^^vn^ (8) Ton 
inirnij nyjK' '31x3 ab (21) ... nm-nn lu ona o'^jenM onnyo 
. . . n^^13 va nnx nnxa ■'sdvi (22) d'h'; no. 76 (pp. no-n), to 

Samuel Hannagid and his sons; from 1. i, ''Jp Txh^l mix nn^n Qmn^^ 
miion, Luzatto, followed by Brody, inferred that he had three sons, but 
Kaufmann maintained that Samuel himself was included in the number 
three. The latter view is now confirmed by our genealogy list (so also 
Pozn., R.E.J., LXVr, 73); no. 77 (pp. 111-12) n^CCD nns^ (U. 2-3) 
mini nbnj 'fpsixn anxjn apy iixj^j . , . ami; no. 90 (pp. 12 1-3); 
no. 97 (pp. 144-8) o lynni iixji ni; ddd'b'x h^ ivapn laij (11. 75-6) 

DJT'XJ. It is doubtful whether vol. II, no. 94 (p. 310), is addressed to the 
Nagid Samuel. The subject of the poem is alluded to only as a scholar 
and not as Nagid. 

In addition Yehuda Hallevi's letter to Samuel, sent from Alexandria, 

two sons Samuel and Nissim, Rason-'Obadya-Meir and Solomon, and the latter's 
son Rason. 

Or. 5549, fol. 2 verso (cp. Margoliouth, Catalogue, III, 562, col. 2) contains 
a genealogy list of some members of Samuel Hannagid's family. It reads, as 
re-examined by me, n[1 nnitO] (3) n031 DnD[n HDD] (2) nCIVH ... (0 

pnv nar (6) niya nionn pajni (5) nann ^xnt^u nnxn (4) iB'n nty^x 
unD mxsn (9) m^av nmn pia (8) na? nana^ ^''•n nat (7) lii nanai? 
na: niya T'onn (12) ^xnc^a nnxn (n) la'n ^jxioc wanx (10) wam 
pia DK'xna li ''jci (15) nana^ pnv lar (14) nn^onn Taa onijin (13) 
pnv nar xann (18) -iioi'nn pajni Qann (17) in*vB'* waii uno (16) 
u'ani (r. uno) inano pja ^xi (20) n'm mam njno xi (19) nanai^ 
mnn piai nana^ (23) pns nat xann (22) nnxn iot ^xidb' (21) 
;[v«^']c' lii (26) nty^vx xi in^yc'- [li] (25) 'JK'i ^jxidi^ niaii (24) 

To recto (/. t., col. i) the following corrections should be noted. The remainder 
of the first list is ^J^Jai "linan n-ma 1 ni i"XV X[1 ^5?]1tf^ The beginning of 

list 2 is apy XI n'TXE' [ri] | bbi n'ND [n]i hd^b'] | inn pi , . . [nn'j'a. 

" Read hi ' and his son', i. e. Yahya's 

286 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c.e. to 1204 c.e. ' 

has been preserved (ibid., vol. I, 2 1 1 ff.), thanking him for his invitation 
to visit Cairo. The poet had to delay the journey on account of business 
obligations (p. 213, 1. 59 ff., 13 •nsv^ins f^J) i'lnDi ' HDHa TJjn ijnw 
pDja TiDj '3 'ima h^i 'ims nt< 33v"'i 'bnIj bnarri ovon nonttn'' 

. , . miriD). He sent greetings to the members of the Nagid's school 
as well as to the 'three congregations' (i.e. Babylonian and Palestinian 
in Fustat, the third in Cairo, p. 214, ^^5^31 NlpDH 'tJ>3^?1 VniDtril VJD3nni 
. . . nVDisn B'i'B'^1 . , . nJtJ'on). The secretary of Samuel's school 
was Nathan b. Samuel with whom Yehuda Hallevi also corresponded 
(see vol. I, p. 225, note i). From Cairo the poet wrote to his friend 
Aaron b. Yeshu'a (Ben Sion b. al-'Ammani) greatly eulogizing the Nagid 
(vol. I, 207 ff.) -D^^SS »!5S3 'D'ryn INTI 'DnVO N3N1 (209, 1. 61 ff.) 

{^•■N WKT , . . onijin T'3ii Dntyn ib' ni33 ijvx 'Qi^rKn ipotr -yotxa 
n3iri niini n^nj sidx •D'e'jk, ny 31DI 'D''B'np Dy idnj . . . nnicm 
•vjns ;iivn3 •v:DDa ns nrs'i . . . nuriMW Nin i53K •niinbtj' ^ntyi" 

(op. also Brody, Mschr., 1908, 247 ff.). 

(3) Samuel's period of activity as Nagid dates from 1142-59. This 
can be determined by means of the following data from documents 
wherein it is indicated that they were issued by authority of the Nagid. 
(a) T.-S, 13 J 3': a document of the Bet-Din, dated 1453 Sel. 

(1142 C.E.) at Fustat bNiB''' lu: Hv.iT^ T3:n ^NiDB' irjnKT nTiicn. 

(3) T.-S. 13 J s'' at Fustat, 1454 Sel. = 1143 c.e. ; T.-S. 13 J 3*: at 
Alexandria, 4903 a. m. 

(<r) T.-S. 13 J 3°: at Fustat, 1455 Sel.= 11 44 c.e. (Worman,/.^..^., 
XVIII, 15, note i). 

((f) Bodl. 2805^: at Fustat, 1456 Sel. = 1145 ^•'^- i" presence of 
Samuel Hannagid. Bodl. 2877": at Fustat by authority (= nTlWi) 
of Samuel Hannagid. Bodl. 2878" : at Fustat, the parties being Joseph 
the goldsmith (j'Xsi'N) b. Yehuda "iDIB'i'N and the Sheikh Abu 'Ali Yefet 
the Parnas b. Shemarya. Witnesses : Sa'adya b. Meborak and Solomon 
b. 1JNJ the Parnas. 

(e) Bodl. 2878'": dated 1458 Sel. = ii47 c.e. Bodl. 2878"^, headed 
[below yj nipn "ino -13J ns' f<J3~i p nov -ns:© ux ns^o nsDJ Nin 
}3 nx3n3l3N 13N T'B'i'N n33N ^sN^i'^? no h^ nsDy^JN ■h'i nx T'5?!'n 
'nsi'ijN. T.-S. ID J 26'": at Fustat [i4]57 Sel. (1148 c.e.) For a 
document of 1459 Sel. = 1148 c.e. see above, p. 284, note i. 

(/) T.-S. 13 J 9': dated 1460 Sel. = ii49 c.e. ^^ n31DDn N3:1S Ty3 

' Of Lebda (see vol. I, p. 23, note 2). 

Appendix D (io Chapter V) 287 

{g) Bodl. 2874": dated 1461 Sel. = 1150 c.e. atin3''DD1 nJB'N TfXi 
t3Nt3Dai>, the parties being Sadaka b. Netaneel (?) '>3mi'N3 VITH Itnn and 
Samuel ncn b. Yehuda IDS p yn\n. Bodl. 2878"° and T.-S. 13 J 7" 
(Worman, /. c). 

{k) Or. 5551 (printed in Margoliouth, Catalogue, III, 564-5): at 
Fustat, 1462 Sel. =1151 c.e. There are mentioned the Sheikh AbQ'l 
Faraj VOB'i'N (Menahem Hallevi np^n Jpm b. Shemarya), the Sheikh Abu 
Ya'kub Joseph the cloth merchant (rNtai'N, Joseph b. Munajja) and the 
Sheikh Abu 'Ali, the perfumer from Askelon (iJN^'pDvi'K nSDV^N, Yefet 
b. Tikvah na^C^n Tna, see sub. e). Bodl. 2873^: at nJK'N .TiJO (see 
sub. g). T.-S. 13 J 3' : at Fustat. 

(2') Bodl. 2836^': dated 4912 a.m.= ii52 c.e. Also T.-S. 13 J 8' 
and T.-S. 8 J 5'" (Worman, /. c). 

(y) T.-S. 13 J i8^°: a letter, dated 1464 Sel. = 1153 c.e., signed by 
n''Hn p i'KIDtr (our Nagid) to a certain community, prnpcSsi . . . 

nmaN i^xn . . . iJB'np mrv* cjni's j?i»3 'a . . . p'JKtni'Ni n^tjaitri'Ni 
in^Ni mt;'^ omn n''ND noDJa pmo -idb" w^anoa . . . •'ji'S iivjd p 
iisr ^xiB" bi bvf jn n^a as pnsn pns iwns p nnsn T^n ij^in 133-1. 

Bodl, 2806'': a document at Fustat. 

(-^) Bodl. 2874^'': atMiniyatZifta,i465Sel.= ii54C.E. Bodl. 2874'=: 
parties, the Sheikh Abu Sulaiman Daud b. -Abu'l Nasib (David b. nyit)' 
and the Sheikh Abu'l Ma'ali the merchant (nJND^N) b. Abu'l Hasan 
HDK p vnn (Samuel "iB'n b. Yehuda, see sub g). 

(l) Bodl. 2876'': at Miniyat Zifta, 1466 Sel. = ii55c.E. T.-S. 10 J 24': 
document, dated Ab, 1466 Sel. (=1155 c.e.) at Cairo. The testatum of 
the Bet Din is signed by Sason b. Meshullam, Joseph b. Yehuda, and 
Hillel b. Joseph the Babylonian. 

{m) Bodl. 2877^': at Fustat, 1467 Sel. = 1156 c.e. 

{n) Bodl. 2874^*: at Fustat, 1468 Sel.= 1157 c.e., the parties being 
Makarim b. Salamah and his brother Abii'l Surur. Or. 5536 (cp. 
Margoliouth, Catalogue, III, 560, col. i): at Fustat; Samuel is styled 
'Nagid of the Diaspora'. Mr. E. N. Adler {Mschr., XLI, 424) cites 
a Ketuba dated Nisan i[4]68 Sel.^ T.-S. 8 J 5" (Worman, /.c). 

' Read perhaps N1TV, Ezra. 

^ Kaufmann (ibid., 504) quoted a few lines from a document drawn up n3'"1D3 
l^Jjn hvWSO 13''E>NT niiOyi Una^n HTIWI] . . . (Alexandria = ) JIDN N1J 

n«i5»n pD' Dn'33n -iu) W-^a-' n'3 b [tivd] ■ . . onB'n ib' . . . hi3n 

. . . IDtn OTID niN^B'Jn (probably r. irW IB'. His contention that pn ''3T1D 
was a title of honour and that there existed no Mordecai Nagid is now generally 
accepted. See also infra, p. 329, note i. 

288 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c.e. to 1204 c.e. 

Bodl. 2806": a document concerning a certain Joseph 'Dn?N who 
arrived at Damietta in a ship on Friday evening (eve of Tabernacles), 
1469 Sel. = 1 157 C.E., bearing a letter from the Nagid. 

(0) T.-S. 13 J 3" (fol. I b): dated Adar II, 1470 Sel. (1159 CE.) 
at Fustat. 

18. [Vol. I, pp. 230-31.] 
An epistle from Elijah b. Kaleb b. Leon to Samuel b. Hananya. 

[T.-S. 10 J 9".] 

Address (verso) 

T'jj i'NiD[2' i3]3ni moi i3:nK 'wxh bv 

vtJ'iai [^j<n]K''' 33-1 DnB'n nc'i onijin 

•i:njj h'\yo •[urnxjan i^b 'licxi miay 

•n3y niitjh [ps]^ nu ab ns nii>N •'JD 


•inn onn moj "in-ii mo nmp n^n: mxsn riT-ax mp'' nxipi' 

^NiDE' 3-1 i23nx * inij ini« xin • utyxi mayi • irj^y niNo ' ww» n^np 

pi:33 niin in3t' ^xib''' nix ^Nin -i''3ii ciipn piN u'nisx dv t^jj 

nx niNT nsMi nnTiJ T'd miTa rw ppi? la^xu xn' VD131 i^xnx 

nninn '3x 'nppnn Mrniix nu •'XB'n ni3E'i53 bnoxi i3i3 wanx 5 

^x ■'jnx n» nt^xa ''nx3 -ii^n 13 iwnx T\-\iTh ynini' n^^nniE' ^1103 

DH'B'DD TTixni *xmjD3i'X3 ^xu3 'niDX 'jxi ' xn:53 ''3X n:ni nsy 

i3:nx bxx Dunpn i^x Tnoxi ^ison 111330 D^pim tsw "■jao •'3 

Dn''j''5;3 nio3nn 'e'jxi ivnn x^ nnxisoi xhhii Djni inno iDD3n: 

TicDincJi ^33^ 3X33 r\w 's^i Dni:i5J3 phr Dipinni mijjnni ninn33 10 


TX1 n33 on r\rh *nyn3 Tinai ^nxB":! i'xia''' ni^''np bo 'n^xiij' ''irtj'n ^y 
TiDmi imtm n^jan xi53 Don^ I'sxS' d3^ jn* i^xi psy nx on on pij3iD 
[nnl?] nmni> D''D3n n'obn )nijo i3ij'''''nj vh^ ^J'xin imoxi •'dsv nx 

Tiin nx 
nrT'B' D''DnD3 pw 'je^D pvi nti pi D''33W3 inix n n^jjfi n3 wis* ib'x 
xj Dx [• DiiJ'i'vi w^i'V QHTi nn ^3 mpo 1?3d "is dittos xh ^jjie's 15 
ni'yxB' D'DB' ni33 ni3V3 r\m xijx inv '■nnxn ijx *3nx yv'^i \n '■nxvo 

^ in'X, irT'i are Aramaic synonyms of XW ' he', 'he himself. 

^ See Shekalim 5. 6. 

^ Read Xn333, Ben he al'Asal (see infra, p. 290, note 9). 

* '3PX? would be more correct. ^ "^SDn ' that covers ', protects. 

Appendix D (to Chapter V) 289 

nw ''jnN ^j'-w D5)D' l^xi nviK d<sn imnn^ niinna'ni>i tjsi {'•'apnis 

nwa i^ias o'B'JNn niiN •'3 iiua '^n •'ana yjni' pin niv vmae' 
nvpo Ijv ''JV'iin DJ1 nt ^nh^ Dy bpx Tina anai ijuty^'n s^ riDD''Nn 20 

B'ln trxno ''3 vnv ■'^nx nasi B'iai'»n i^yi pa^iin ijy tiin minao 

inasi''' fD': 
K3 Dx nnvi ^nj nyvi n^aaa '^o '«b p'pn ■'^y nayi nxm^oa^xa 
i'aa piDi inv li* iTH' napni nnv ^yDsx nj S^n ''j'nx •'J^ya |n tinsd 

nysD in^ti^Ni n'ni jc ^n'B'N^D innnx Hn inNnp[n]B' ny 25 
nasan pN^i n'a a^a ia itS'n 'nto njo' innnxi 

19. [Vol. I, pp. 232-3.] 

A collection for the ransom of prisoners, made by order of 
Samuel b. Hananya. 

[T.-S. 8 J 17^', a quire of two leaves.] 

(fol. I , recto, middle of page) 

npiDs ;» 'a; xoa !?n3 
•■s DNn^JN Dn^n' oi^iae' ^n 

Dm OB'a 

D^'^iaB'i'K np'DB |0 finijx le '•a? kd ibac 
nmn nn^xap mos' sod dm^n dtti'' 

mo msan m^av nt^np nbna niaa 
Tijj ontyn niy ^jnan Tjan ^ni[»]b' uanx 

niN'E'Jn ^^^ naii5Dn pD' on'ajn T-aj D^[n]'j:n 5 
nnixa? s^in n»» nmxan i?nri min nn* 
las TtJ'i'xi yj 1'T3 la nnoiiN lax xmay 

n» na ^p^^ prn ^kidb* iaii -io aa ^^JNyD^K 

1 Read 1^)3. ^ Supply DN. ' Job 8. 7. 

2240.2 T 

290 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. E. to 1204 c. e. 

yi n33:n prn mm'' 

nDoii piT'ND n:n3 anm 
pni j;3Ti nan pTi^vi 

"irn rnirii nyao '^Nnsr .tjd 

(fol. 2, recto) 

nri inB'Di nno 'n''t3U0D 

i:n nw 'jns ^d^ddt 

nn nrs? nnx ^nuoo 

nrn |nB>yi iTjndd ^5''i'D 

nn -IK'S? nya-iN ^TT'D^ 5 

TJN3T nnxiri 'D''jn 

[t]oni ^^^T ^.^j, ^5,3^^ ^oy^N »Nn33 

•Dni yam n:n p-ic'y nooDi 
-ijn pnirii nyao nyo i3b5 T'tyi'x ynio ''i?6« nvD ''i'^? 

1 Mahallat al-Kubra, H^Han n^nO^X l^y , see J.Q.R, XVIII, ro ; "i/ra, p. 293 ; 
Bodl. 2877": a Get. dated 1143 c.E., NinJ C'h^i bvi n^HaH nl^nD^N l^'WD 
nnniD XDIT. it is half- way on the railroad between Alexandria and Damietta 
(Gottheil, J.E., V, 62, col. 2). 

^ Miniyat Zifta, cp. above, p. 259, note 7; Bodl. 2876**-'' : dated 1126 and 
1 155 c. E. respectively ; R. J&.J., LXV, 43 ; above, p. 287. 

« Near Fustat, see Bodl. 2875' ; a Ketuba, dated 1134 c.E., at nSIDDH n'D"l3»D 

' Damsis, see above, p. 359, note 7. 

^ Read perhaps IIJDD, Sammanud ; cp. infra^ pp. 308, 1. 23 and 317. 

" Milij. Elhananan b. Shemarya corresponded with this community. A letter 
dated Fustat, 1131 c. e., was sent to R. Abraham of Milij (JvD, cp. /. Q. R., XIX, 
729, no. XX and 723, no. i). T.-S. 13 J 16" : a letter to "liya ItJ'N CHpH ^JHpn 

yi mini -i^ nnDon irnn [nan -ity^x nirb pi DB'N-im . . . ai^o. 

' Damirah. Cp. /. Q. R, XVIII, lo-ii ; T.-S. 8 J 5" nJDpH nT-DT l^y. 

* Tinnis, see vol. I, p. 89; R.£.J., LXIV, 124, no. i; Arabic letter to the 
members of the synagogue of Tinnis, dated i Adar 30th, 1480 Sel.= ii69 c.E.; 
Bodl. 2878»8. 

" Read NHja, Binhat al-'Asal. i" Damietta (Dimyat). 

Appendix D (to Chapter V) 291 


nyiw in nn oapH nod xir^x m> ;di 

'nniyo7N nisjo un ycpx iju pxa in nd 

"in intJ'y py^x p 6m 63 

'i'N j)i finD p nnoijN un t ^i^y -ni nd 

"in pDDill nD03 1J)D UN T^'^^' viio 10 

^•hnp n^uD noyo t '^y mi nd 

D^nc^^ siivjN nyi? ju'' N3n"D d^jd *^n 
pni nN:n Dnm pyanxi nooii jy pni 

inw nnoi pn^ND h^dj^n i?'i2 
iom -irn 15 

19". [Vol. I, pp. 232-3. J 

^ Calendar for the years 11 53-6 C. E. 

[T.-S. 10 K 20^, consists of three paper leaves, damaged, square 
writing, size 6| x 5 inches, of which fol. i is blank.] 

''nui'N hnal'N . . . i '■ni [Dijn [nitno 'Js 3^ riNtn njB'n (fol. 2, recto) 
'm iQ[N] nu' •* \i-\Th ^^1 nonx ni-iDB'[i'] | ■■[ni] i^piih-i nT'S''!' \ni n> 
p-i'Dni ntJiE-a | 'ni n^ ■'DDB'i?N nirnoi'N 'si | [t 'i\-xth^ 131 hiodb-^ ii'N 
N naiJH n v^jdj ni pB'm[D] | D'u^i' noph nr.:' aan ^jin | iiii piD 
iin T-iN i fD''j I ii Dma aix n onis 3n mN f d3B' n d[i]v | i nats 
I ' nsiD nETi ni ^li^N i div 3 3n i | div ni non n mvy [i] p^D 

' 'Designate' for some dignity. Cp., e. g., the title niUH? nniJJD, vol. I, 278. 
Perhaps our Abu Mansur was an aspirant to the title Haber. 

^ Evidently this Mu'ammar held the title ' the choice of the congregation of X. 
(. . . Snp npiJD, cp. vol. I, p. 259, no. 5). 

' Can also be read n^JPN. The meaning of these two words is not clear to me. 

* Supply B'npCn nU to which the next word n53^ 'may it be rebuilt', really 

' Supply n ' both ', i. c. the first day of both New Year and Tabernacles falls on 

T 2 

292 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e. to 1204 c.e. 

[t]x^a[^N UN Tti'^x] . . . I . . . [TtJ'l^N tiaiy . . . nan . , . I vi'[D3] 
. . . r\vifr\ B'N-ii i'[i^N] ... I n[i]v[3J]i i[v]d 
nnDE'i'i n'pn[h-i] | [ni^s'-ji' ^^1 tb3n -iir[nD] 'a i' nsrn njB'n (verso) 
nirnD^i)! ib bv^s 'di nuoB'i'N 's x ^jx [^m] | [ijax p-i[n]^^i iohN 
I D^ai'i' D»pn 33-1 \>-\^ I [Njc'.n p'-D d-d^^b*! nowa mi | [n^ ''dJkb'^n 
ti -nx '<x D1V) n I D3B' [i] div ii nan ri naijn iix r^oa ii ^^[n-iD] 
I ax X mv in ti»n a m^*y "i ivd ja n"x | x noa x id'3 i oma 
lax T'B'i'X I HD'ja^x aona n^rbx | ': . . . naio nK-n ax ^6x x dis f 
lax T^^^^ I [v^D]a c'la'n p loni'x lax T'ci'N pbthd npns p •'i'y 
n^'Vi Ta^x lax tb'^x | [tajac nvD lax ton^x lax naum nau xitnijx 
IVD ts<''3^'< 13X yvhvi n^x n[nv] j hv "lax iT^x noai p'^ f<3« "ns 
B'x[ni] Sji^x ^viaD^x lax T'B'^x 3x[i n]?2n | h^r\ •y^W mvni 

. . . r\wn 
nnDB'5'i vpniii m'V'b tii | tbjn nitno 'a n^ nxrn n3B>n ^ (fol. 3, lecto) 
iirnD/h V isai^^x ''ai | naoci'x 'a n'':xn^x ^■l1 nax pinij^ii | tonx 
I 3 naun i vS'oa lii pB'mD | fai icd piMi maiyo 'ni | v iDOB'i'x 
ID'j 1 li Dnia iii '32' -nx n: iib'xt ] mx a natj' i ia mB*!? xf nao 
XT bii'[x x] ia tb i ax 1 X r qis ni non i msy | i ivd ax n^^x f noa^ 

[a nai]Di nBTi 
iwmo nns •'i'j; lax | [Tcjbxi nyo i3x -^^^^ tidfiIjx rmbx (verso) 
naum naD | won p tDni5X ux T'E'i'x vboa npnv p | i^v tax n»tr^x 
-loi^x ux 'xvh^ I pB'xn -nx lyo ux pn^x ux | d3E' xin^x ux Tt^'i'x 
T'-'X ni'^x ncm | -i3n^x nmi noai p''^ nyo ux I'-t^^^' I "''^^^ "n^ 'Tis 
ux "xvb^ axi I non [xubx ux i^b'^x mvyi jvo | ''•xm hv ux Tcl'x 
^x-iB" ba i'yi I ir^jj Dii'B'i X3X njB'n B'xni | ijiiix ^xi5n D3:i'X 

20. [Vol. I, pp. 234-5.J 

The family of the Gaon Sar Shalom Hallevi. 

(i) Netaneel Hallevi Gaon was probably a brother of Sar Shalom. 
The period of his activity can be traced by means of the following data : 

1 Angular brackets indicate that the words enclosed are struck through in the 

' Tue.sday evidently refers to New Year and Tabernacles (naiD HBTI). Perhaps 
in the lacuna was also mentioned JTISV ''Ttyi). 

' On the top of this page we read mO and also the indication of the Muslim year 


navi' bix an ipii D^'U^i'. 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) 293 

(a) T.-S. 8 J 5^^: a document, dated Sivan 24lh, 1471 Sel. Tiya 

')hn iisin: ushnt n^nie'n nnvo dxdds^ nsicon ni>njn n^jnobs. 

Therein is mentioned a certain n3''B'M TT. Likewise T.-S. 13 J 6": 
Adar, 1471 Sel. =1160 c.e. A document (T.-S. 18 J 1") of the same 
year, drawn up at rhnc near Fustat, by authority of Netaneel Hallevi, 
mentions Sheerit pjrnn mn Jtnn b. Shemarya prnn nxs. 

{i) T.-S. 8 J 5": at Fustat, 1473 Sel. = 1162 c.e. T.-S. 8 J 32^: 
at Fustat on Ab 14th, 1473 Sel. = 1162 c.e. Or. 5542, fol. 3, iiip: (i) 
'DSE'ct* (3) p jjiTn -iNDj}i)j< -laai'N nx Tt^'i'^' (2) • • • iwb'^n tn: 
nerves *D m:iro^x x^a (4) -ip\i iprn nmax niD p iprn nnvo iia 
pjE^ ni^ni pv3B'i nxD ymxi (5) nq^js njB'n v^ds vwnD ddin^n 
mp'' rmm [rrriiB'Jn namo n-ihj di^''j ^n (6) nnvo t2t?DDD3 nnnci) 
153''d: (8) unn th' i:ani i3n[D njcnp [n]^n3 niao mNsn (7) nTsv 
. . . vciDi i'NiB" (9) 331 'i^n ^N:n: ijjnx i:3ina D^^i'^' j^'tr:!. 

Signed by Tikvah b. Simha b. Mebasser the Haber. Or. 5542, fol. 23, 
contains a letter to the above perfumer Sa'adya (Abu'l Fakr). 

(c) Merx, Documents de paleogr. hebr. et arabe, Plate III, prints 
a Ketuba, dated Adar, 1475 Sel. = 1164 c.e. at Fustat. Netaneel is 
mentioned therein as n^U \>V na'B" CNT 'li'n b^zm 1:J1W (see Kaufmann, 
Mschr., XLI, 214). Signed by Jacob Hakkohen b. Joseph, Meborak 
b. Nathan the Haber, Hillel b. Sadok Ab (cp. above, p. 287). The latter 
was probably the father of the author of the Zuta Megillah (see Pozn., 
R.E.J., LXVI, 70). 

{d) T.-S. 13 J 3'': a document, yONn^N priN^'N Dl' tN3 vxh (i) 

Dxt:Daa (2) nnoB'b •{'va -iym pv^B'i hnd jjaisi nb^n 7\Vi> i^Joa tjinnio 
i:jiNa i3:nN (3) . . . mp' rmm htiib't nnnio xnn: di^'j ij^T onsa 
n^j h'w r^y^'n cst mmn nx inn "vrv VB'nsi bxnB" 321 ^'hr\ Ij^jdj 

.(cp. also T.-S. 13 J s'^) D^vi' 1»C NT (4) 

(2) That Netaneel was Nagid is mentioned nowhere. Only Benjamin 
of Tudela calls him DHBTI S'if, a title given to the Negidim. Itinerary, 
ed. Adier, 63 : DnBvTni' (Epstein's MS. reads ^NJiH 'n) ijwnj DH-Jiai 

nbon 'ja mcD nwi D'jtni D'jan D'pni) onvD /t5> niSnpn h:h tni sim 

nJ^non fJJIS |1D1!0 1Wr\ ^nan. Benjamin does not however mention 
that he was a Levite. 

(3) Bodl. 2876": a deed in Arabic wherein 'l^n ^NJnJ WJINJ is 
mentioned. Bodl. 2787" contains a poem wherein the following lines 

occur : pDxi "rji xim • cjjv t^'ot>' nnD3 nntJ'33 • imr3 u'-Jiw p iiNana 

D'DSnS. Does this refer to his title of Nagid.? Probably our Netaneel 

294 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e. to 1204 c. e. 

is meant here. Hence his father also occupied the dignity of Gaon. 
Indeed Mr. E. N. Adler (Mschr., XLI, 425) mentions a Genizah 
fragment in his possession which seems to be an account of the 
installation of Netaneel as Rosh Yeshiba of nW'ID 1533 ijnjn pi n»3 
DnVD J'IK. Amidst a host of other titles he is introduced as UJ'Vp 

nt^D smi wiD mnn p . . . rh^hv r\y'^r\ c's-i isNina irnN ijjinj 

(4) While Netaneel is styled rh\h^ na'B'^ 6^'N^, Sar Shalom Hallevi 
b. Moses styles both himself and his father 3pjj» psj rO'B'* B'NT . The 
latter is also addressed thus in a legal question (T.-S. 13 J 31'') which 

begins apy jiNj {2) [m'B'i b'Jkt •'i^n nB'D irjwj i^'jiin i'lp'' nd (i) 

''Sin ?3"1 '3. Claims are advanced on the property of the deceased by 
a creditor possessing an lOU and by the widow claiming her Ketuba. 
The question ends imin npi'l im&'O pS'l naB* ^'''33'' na Dlp»ni 
(n^D |DN = ) DN. hifra, p. 299, Sar Shalom signs as 'avn pN na'B'i CNI 
b. Moses lavn pN n3''B'^ CNI, the descendant of the Geonim. 

(5) Sar Shalom's period of activity can be approximately determined 
by means of the following data : 

(a) T.-S. 13 J 3": a document dated Adar, 1481 Sel.= ii7o c.e., at 

r\'>Tm-\ name mm di^'-: ^yn tinvD t^^5DDsi5 naiDon mnxp^s nnyoi's 
oi'ijji' IDC ^^' |iNj ii^n Dii'B> [ic ij]j[inj] i:[jnNi] (cp. T.-S. 13 J 7'', verso). 

In the following year we have a document (1482 Sal.) at Fustat 
(T.-S. 13 J 3", cp. Worman, I.e., note 4), r\va IJjnNT n^nid nanio 
D^ivi' IDS' ^T' hv.'W^I hnjn ann (i.e. Maimonides). Likewise T.-S. 
10 J 26^ dated Tishri, 1483 Sel. (1171 c.e.), and T.-S. 10 J 26", dated 
Adar I, 1483 Sel. (1172 c.e.). 

(3) Bodl. 2834'^': dated 1488 Sel. = 1177 c.e. in the presence of 

Iji't api;» |iNj na'cy* cni [supply hej-d] 'ana diIjc ik'. 

(f) Bodl. 2878'^ and 2875'"': dated 1494 Sel. = 1183 c.e. 

(rf) Bodl. 282ii«'» and 1. marriage documents, dated 1496 Sel. = 
1 185 C.E. at Fustat. T.-S. 18 J i": a document dated 4945 a.m. 
na''B'i E'sn ''i^n nii'E' ib' ujnNT nTiiB'-i nai t<[o]' eio i^vn pos n33 
ia\'n pnx. 

(e) Bodl. 2805": at Fustat, Kislev, 1500 Sel.= 1188. A fragment in 
a box belonging to the Cambridge University Library Collection, dated 
Tebet, 1500 Sel. at Cairo by authority of Sar Shalom Hallevi Gaon. 
Signatures : Solomon b. Zakkai and Netaneel b. Joseph Hakkohen. 

Appendix D (to Chapter V) 295 

(6) Our Sar Shalom is perhaps identical with the Ab of the Damascus 
academy whom Benjamin mentions in his Itinerary (ed. Adler, p. 31) 

pi nu 3x Di^tr -0 rnxi nnij? 'n idci i)N-lE^'* fnx isE* nn^K^n tJ-Ni DCi. 

For "Azarya another reading (ibid., note 1 2) has 'Ezra. But this is probably 
a confusion with the later Gaon, perhaps 'Azarya's son, whom Petahya 
met when visiting Damascus {Itinerary, ed. Griinhut, p. 28). This 'Ezra 
received his diploma from the Bagdad Gaon Samuel Hallevi b. 'Ali. 
Thus Netaneel, 'Azarya, and Sar Shalom were the sons of Moses Hallevi, 
Gaon of the Palestinian school situated then at Damascus. Netaneel 
emigrated to Egypt where he became rhw bc n3'e» {^xn at Fustat. 
'Azarya succeeded his father as Gaon at Damascus while Sar Shalom 
was Ab. After Netaneel's death (between 1166-70) the Ab of Damascus 
settled in Fustat and became president of the school. He gave himself 
the title of 3pj)^ PK3 na'K'i E'XT, n^fH fnN na''B" B-KT, probably because 
of his having been Ab of the Damascus school. 'Azarya was probably 
succeeded by his son 'Ezra to whom perhaps T.-S. 8 J 8^', containing 
a very damaged letter, was addressed, m^?^n Dl"l mp'' m*in (1. 5) 

apr n^'3 nTK''' tj'N-i Nnty u'jnx (6) irmi uno ma moy riTss 
I UJiiN p . . . (last two lines) . . . nna^oo (7) hJDi nni'B'DD Dnn 
N3n oijiyn "ni? nsn nna innijo iinjn pwn.' 

(7) Harizi, when visiting Safed about fifty years after Benjamin's 
travels, found there a Sadok apy pX3 na''B'* K'XI who lost his position 
and wandered about from one place to another. Tahkemoni, ed. 

Kaminka, p. 354, ne"D hr\v\ ncn • h^r\ Tna Dr inxvDi nav tiy Tnayi 
. . . mT2"n '{^Ni vn vnux 'api?' pNj na'ty ti'NT pnsn pns • nipv b 
■'li'D nnx 1ND3D mini tiud viij; lijj^jnni •nun nns iniaax pn 

. . . iSn n^mi li'a i^N ■'^ao pnini. It may be that he was a member 
of this Gaonic family. Probably this Sadok is identical with the person 
mentioned in an interesting responsum of Maimonides (Kobes, I, no. 148). 
A number of people in a certain community bound themselves by means 
of a ban to discontinue the honorary mentioning of 'the head of the 
school ' and other people in the synagogue during prayers and on other 
occasions. This used to be called by the technical term of 7W\ (see 
above, vol. I, p. 237). The wording of the ban was, according to some 
correspondents, unai D3nsp» ^yoo li'NB'B' 1J33 nj;UB'n nriM DN i?aN 

1 A Siddur by Solomon b. Nathan of Sijilmissa (copied in 1203 at Barka 
by 'Amram b. Sa'adya) contains an entry B'n NnTV 1^31 h^ 13^ fCaa 
":h 'IV '3t pNJ r\-'-\UO NJai na Nn3''nD (Steinschneider, n"3, IX, 39; Bodl. 
896; cp. also Pozn., Bab. Geon. no). Both father and son are entirely unknown. 

296 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 ce. to 1204 c.E. 

Dixi^ jjDB''' nxi'ni Ninn Dvno -\\Wi> vo ^jj? lonnn lac noxi onnn noij 
N^Ji ana 's b xbi min nso '•by Ni* .T'ddd n^i nar xiji nana Ni? niB'i 
■h vh^v noijn mi r\7i> n"spns< ny maian p dib' *i>y. If Sel. is 

meant here, which would correspond to 1277 c.e., then the ban was 
declared in 1 177 c.e. for a period of a hundred years. But it is also 
possible that nspnx is a corruption for riDpnn. Hence a.m. is meant 
= 1228 c.E. and the event took place in 11 78, forbidding the mentioning 
of nils'"! for half a century. Maimonides continues {I.e., 30" top), 

x'^ pnv 31 naam iB'n r\h nan j)T'k nx lanac nr now is^ eixi 
Niip^ n^v* w nst p "h ni'V ix nB>« ne'''B' iud vJ vnuN Dtri lotJ' "V^^rh 
^^■0 ^■22. mix inward nuai' 'ixia mix pD^jpoi mix paiao mina 
na'tj''' B'x-i iiNjn i2ii>s p piioixi ^'st □•■trnpn vniax Dtri hvtk' n^ira 

'131 UVn pix. Thus this Sadok was a son of a Gaon, the head of the 
Palestinian academy. During the period from 1 177-8 c.E. to Harizi's 
visit of Safed, this Sadok probably assumed himself the title of Gaon and 
experienced adverse changes of fortune. 

What militates against the above identifications is the fact that none of 
these people are styled as Levites. But it should be borne in mind that 
Netaneel, who undoubtedly was a Levite, is not mentioned as such by 
Benjamin of Tudela. 

(8) In dealing here with the Damascus school, a few remarks should 
be made about the scholar Joseph b. nx^si'X (nxps px , ni'S px) whom 
Benjamin met in Damascus during his visit. Joseph had the title 
n3''B'''n 11D\ He is perhaps identical with the scholar whom Maimonides 
mentions in a responsum (Kobes I, 5°, no. 23), p fiDV '~\ 13Sn ['''Jyn nil 

yn T»n noix nxin lah \h xh'C' ncx D'-onDjipn onixa ^iri D^Jxe 

}33nlD 3i»n xn^lXID . We see that Joseph corresponded with Maimonides 
and sent him some of his writings (QiDnDJIp). However, when the above 
responsum was written, he was no longer alive. The real name of his 
father was Paltoi, as we learn from Perahya b. Nissim's commentary to 
Babli Sabbath (Bodl. 438^) who cites this scholar a few times. Fol. 21* 

(to Sabb. 38i> inip'OHB' iim ''mo), •'iD^B p '■'lijn eioini iran idk 
pnifD nu'e" ^vfoiv uyoK^ty 'b moxi ^t nxj pB'n: an li'XE'B' 'iBrvM 
pny pts'iy 13 0X1 -iMna ; fol. 25a, itj'^a ■i'^sB' 'd c' (Sabb. 50^) i^jyo 

DB'* IB'b n'S 'mi's p flDV ''ini (saffron) biDXjbx (i'XJIDC' \\vhl = 'p' 
myo (see Lane, s. v.)^; fol. 32a, p ^dV Pt (Sabb. tb^) nty-p DJ 

' The stroke over the word is in the manuscript, and probably denotes that it 
should be deleted. 
2 See Addenda. 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) 297 

''B Sine' <a-l DIB'D (r. iidS'S) il^S. T.-S. Box F 3 contains a leaf of 
a Talmudic commentary which begins on recto (E''n^3 = )a "113r^ TT'^T (i) 

b'nv^ 2-h h n wntj' pisn n (2) o'/B'n^ 6:3 (!)3in3n ncmn (!)nt 
[n]i3^nn h)}2 nisjo i:u-i i>njn ann na nmaK (3) [ij^un 3-in ^sne'^a 
. . . (Sabb. 88=^) 'i3i nNi)''i'j Ninn B'-n Nion nox niaa onuD (4) 
.'131 nvo hs B'lSD (5) ijpiti 'id^s p ^loin* irani (verso, 1. 4) 

Joseph b. Paltoi seems to have composed a commentary on Sabbath 
which Perahya b. Nissim used.' Most likely iid^d and oi'Sa are 
variations of the same name, the former being the original ; nNija^S , 
nN?a ps, n?a ps would be corruptions of this name, provided the 
Damascus scholar is identical with our Joseph b. Paltoi. Whether 
this dignitary of the Damascus school is identical with Joseph ibn Plat 
mentioned in the Pardes^ is still doubtful. The reading ^3''B'^^ 11D' is to 
be preferred to navn 11D; the former was an honorary title bestowed 
upon well-wishers of the academy (see vol. I, p. 278). Accordingly 
Joseph was no ' Vorsteher des Lehrhauses ' as Graetz (VP, 244, note 3) 

' Perahya also cites Abraham Maimuni. See also Kobes I, 53, a, b where a 
statement of Abraham is excerpted ^f D'D: "13 n^ma n"nnb T\1^ n3DI3 ''BD 
(1247 c. E.) nTi'v 'r 'n nitJ' "lanC- a document (Bodl. 2873*), dated 1551 Sel. 
(1240 c.E.) at Fustat, mentions our commentator as one of the parties (see also 
above, vol. i, p. 248, note i). In dealing with Perahya's commentary, the following 
excerpt from Bodl. 480', fol. 26^ will be of interest. On K'3X CK ''3n 'X 
(Sabb. 53', see Rashi a. 1. and in Hullin 45'') Perahya remarks P)DV ''3"l DIN 

|ni xin N3N an db' '3 onno rhm ^j>3 pns' 13-10 b'pB' ^i >'hn 
i'NiDci N3X vh2 3T innp^ nrn mio nr3 vv ivai x3n 3-1 inix ps-iip 

3-1 N^3 N3N "h Nnip i'NIDB' n^HI n''3ni n'oiTl n'<n. Now Joseph Hallevl is 
most likely Joseph ibn Migash who reports in the name of his master Isaac (Alfasi). 
But the author of the Megillat Setarim was not Alfasi, but, as is well known, 
Nissim b. Jacob of Kairowan (see Pozn., [NlT'p 'CiX, 38-4°)- By-the-by, anothei 
disciple of Alfasi was Joseph b. IHDV of Jian. Bodl. 438", containing Yehuda 
b. Eli'ezer Hakkohen's commentary on 'Ab. Zara, reads on fol. 126'' 3n33 XSD3 pi 

13 nrna' l^t •'Dnb^'x 3nn m bv T'Vnc i^'J nrioo intsv p ^r ^idv io 

'131 VD' fl1D3. (See Addenda.) 

2 See also bl3B'Nn 'D, ed. Albeck, p. 15, from MS. Paris, inVOB' 31113.1 ''JXI 
VK)V DnOIN VrW (Lucena) nJDV^X3 p3ni3 ViW HN^B pX fjOV Ul 0^3 

nnx ly nrni n3in b p3 ppoao vni nirnoai ^nj dvij3i ^ip3 nm. 

Albeck thinks that this is a later addition by the author of the Eshkol. See further 
Epstein, Mtschr., XLIV, 289 ff. 

298 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e. to 1204 c. e. 

Nos. 31-3. Letters from and to Sar Shalom Gaon. 

21. [Vol. I, p. 237.] 

[MS. Adler 4020, paper, square hand, top torn oflf and also damaged 
on left hand.] 


^yi' . . . . 

n3''B'^ B'NT iii'n aiW IS' i[d] 
t^Ni ^i^n HB'D -i'a apy' iinj 

= i5pt 
'2i^[p ij^ya nmn nona^N nyoai'N axns m:; nd^ 

11 DDin^'' mti'ioi' D''ari' an □''ann 

13 DansQNP iom osnan xjppnni 

.... [Djjrnn T3 ip^n irnn hb-d xjani wno 

r\yz'^r\ 2inN ^p^^ irnn 'i^ xmi xjno 

N^ NDD n-ci in ni' ^hk ^rh hr\^ ini 

....... T'JE^ 

niiD , , , , 

33D1 K^N naay ptsyn sd n:K Dpyj ira[i] h^d^n nxpis 

2P3J1 11NJ naiB'i CNT •'li'n oi^tj' ntJ* 

apy |is3 n3''2'» cst •'ibn rxm •^ifi 


I min nj nanxhs oi'y njia^N naaxnoi | npipna dv^n oa^^vs . . . 
ns3 \'a». I hr irnK m^ci | niD^xn B'jiyo ivijanm nam n^ p D3?"i3['']i 

.... I [ptJ'jE'i' laiT 1 n^D 

1 Of this heading only the last three letters are legible. 

2 = TO-xh ^\'S^ 13T. 

3 Read av^jp (see /. Q. R., XVIII, lo-i i, nV^p I'J) ; !«/'•«. P- 302, note lo, 1. 6). 
Kalyub is 8| miles north from Cairo by railway. 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) 299 

22. [Vol. I, p. 237.J 
[T.-S. 13 J 31^] 

( ---) 


.'. psv DJ1 icn nN3 ■ill';. .'. inn ib'n ^ oca nih3[»3] 
.*. pa^n ua Nin n^anjn b .•. T-nji (2) n^jnan pD he'd 

.'. 'psh 3N3 nw (3) ITIN DJ .•, -TN' p3 n\-Ii llnlN DN 

i'''VD inis .•. mman fsi mNsnn ei'jvi .'. rmt< \tih 
p3 .'. •'j''pt -in3D .'. 'jny ^nj .'. p-ican •v^y^ hdisji .•. pnrr'n (4) 

.•.iinaB'n'Di''i [vjmxnc" .'. □•'oe'jn ^d'o^ vnunoi .•. QiDnrn bvao nB'x 5 
HDTO [n»i] ,•. "iioiD 13^ noi .-. ^I'oB'b np' no ,•. vnpnn '^n in'a''i 

.•, TDd ni:j 

.*. nipni 1203 n[nD]3 hy\T\ ,'. miKTi niia bn .•. minon nanao '^ 13 
.'. nivvn ^Jx nnin''^E'o mit^-nm ,•, nivnn i5x nanj nn .•. nivoi'i pn^ 
[uanjn n'TaiD [ij]n .•. naBT, n^ dW nna .', nam^ "'i'3» npna n:D[i]5y 10 
vo' nx panxDi [i^J pa^uD nnN mvD ns'iyn i^a a^ at minn loan nan 

nair n-iw n'sm Tntn h-y\ i ' pxn nx ^Jnui 

nyai nnn D»ba iK* 'ciay nisD b'k'i D^a^x n:ioB' inis pu'Dcoi 

fjiaa ipnhni D'ljn ni'bisj'^ ^ao Q'B'jx miri; ipin^ nK'N N'nn 

mnN nriNi "oabs? dnik ijvoc;' •'a naby na^j -\rivh nin' c"'N 15 

[Difjs ba Ti'D^: naai natj" ^id''!' Tnirnri nivoa TTiiT'nn vn^ 

nriNi n^vv nivD na ncyxB' n'^o 'h n:s'nE' Dii'K'a ais^nc Dvai 

-^ •y\'a<s''\ nnrva n'nM Tiaa' I'^aa'' iiapDni inm D*''pi ^D^? 

"Sa ai) SI VNni i>v D^Jiy nyi oiiivb '" loni vs pjya D1S5t^'^l nonn 

anpi \h w " DJN h'' hv.\ • i>njDn riva • hr 13^1c^ qi^b-i 20 

••i^n rwQ nu uvn pnt< na''^" csi di^k' ^{^' 

ijpi d"'3iKjn pj lavn pnx na^B'i tf-sn 

• Cp. Cant. 5. 13 ; 4. 16. ^ I. e. Mordecai (Esther 2. 5). 

' I.e. Haman, cp. Esther 9. 7. * D-?'5i <^P- Exod. 28. 19 ; 39. 12. 

5 Cant. I. 3. « = IB'aJD. Cp. above, p. 85, note 6. 

' Kiddushin i. 10. 

8 Sabb. 32"; our text reads DHaSJ HIXD 'HI D'S^JN ''JB'. 

" Zech. 8. 23 ; the verse seems to have been quoted from memory, hence 

N'nn nyai nnn n>D''a. 
10 Ps. 103. 17. " =nbD nsj i»x. 

300 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c.e. to 1204 c. e. 

23. [Vol. I, pp. 237-8.] 

[T.-S. i3j2o'«.] 

Address (verso) 


lii (in i^a 

'ji Tbss'D nil 'ji -liix ^i^^i 'ji 2 pih-ii? ni^t^* niV 'ji ^ •'ariix^ iiT di^jb' 
'31 ■'n'-'n'' ': ^3 'ai ='VDp D'iriD I'fiD 'ji v 1^3 'Ji TSf^^ m'iup id''''b'^ 

'D^rai niDsn i'^b33 u ityK D*3iNj[n] nnai ijNn T'na' 

'''D''335? -\-\ mina nn*j Nini c^dsi jixa b^ nn3 wni 

D-iyspn 3e'iD3 a::" dji mp^n n-nra nn3j[i] 

D'':nn nana "iiiN lan dji inion dn '°"n'' in nibx 

D1J1J2X nnoc i^x nam dji " K^n lai' niijiNc S's NisDi 5 

'^"' ''^ ci'Ji'i • n-iDjJi nin • mNsn nTs:; mp^ matn^ navn ynr ntfNi 

-iiNn 'iJicNT niDvi "iJnnni wnni "ujinj ujhn -wani i:-id 

vTini nai-kTin t'Nn pwn ni'n d^c ne* '[niJiitDn aaoni -Tnan 

•niaiB'n naii "p'pi •n3N^^'^ n^a nncB*^ naT^i •namo ^jt 

eisinD^niji •■jijsb niinntt'n^i •I'JS niNn^ sioa: t<in ^a 'nan nnoB'a 10 

mxn natni n^nni "T^L^] P'''nii •ijice' hr D^n^Nn n^i'^nxa 

":^NnE'i hv Di/t}' T"^ c^a nSni a^nana '7:3^ n^ja 

• loiib 3 

nsa h fNi • fOTn lijan [pn] inns'^ dv ba Dpan^o -aaiy xh 

nt^K niya nhj d^oi yiaB'o 'a nt» pni : fcsjn i^x ion ds 'a 

:i3N5?D D''i'Nj;D{j'''n pt^b ice' xnp' ^jv ^^^ 'h'' ia m iJis 15 

n^B-i nspn ns' dn pn \n n« he xb ['Ja ho:n ^ax ncKi 

Ksnn nia^B' na ns^ xa nar:n nc [ns's] nnN^J warn vnnx 

1331NJ nmn 'jb^d na [ia] noNi nnJN iDy[i] i'Nsoi'N lax 1^ NnpiB* 

nnx mini n^jb"! [D]insan baa nbioi) invap ia aina nai 

13J1N3 imB' |DiDn[i] na injjianni nnis inxnpi f<in n^n hnoi 20 

[im]DNi piD na inssD n1?i niJsi5D nsib' nao isaa ninnb 

nvT i^Jix n^iDn ijya bvs n^ niyi nI:^5 nsDn nr jin 1:3 h 

' Ps. 119. 165. 2 isa. 57. 19. s Deut. 33. 8-11. 

* PrOV. 3. 26. 5 PlOV. 3. i!. 6 p5_ 29. II. 
' The metre of the following five lines is ^ \ \j\ ^ . 

* For niJiai to suit the rhyme. » I. e. God. '» Read nipi. 
" The metre is here faulty. Read B'ln ' quickly '. 

12 Readpaipl. is pg. igg. g 



Appendix D (to Chapter V) 301 

QiDSj' Dty^ s'i'N nac li?! 

■i[''N] TinDxi nni^K woxn s^i ujinj irya mm »maT 25 

nivi niK'SJD U'Jixji' n^''^n "niiNT x^^ oniy 'b noio nm yoB'''i 
' ^s ni'jn nijajn ^ 'ji i5xnB'['] ^y^ Nip 'd | nnx irjis: *by mn^c '':n *» 
I DT ns'^Ti ^Ni ''JDiB'Nn iixi mar eiaij i2''3''i o^'ciipn thi^n anjoa 'ji 


nrx ra'nan T:ni na^nan i^aa 'jccxn bxi xh 

nto 310 T''j ''nxsD xb ir:ixj "m t^jh pi (!)3ia 

nhn i]x ^a "'JBd naio n:'>x naTian nw 

''j''Vi ''yoa n^in ijx 'a ao^D 'jxi nnix ^nanai 

nana v^r\ •'n''in n^in '':x •'a hh^ niDvi' bix xi^i 5 


•initsn 1 Di^Bii Qii'B'ii j^p px nv di^c xb* 
£2D •'i^n [n'ji'x 13 ntj'o in3y hnsjjn i3y 

Nos. 34-5. Epistles from and to Yehiel b. Elyakim. 

24. [Vol. I, pp. 2 39-4 1. J 

[T.-S. J 20', paper, square writing, size 25 x 16 cm.J 


'l?n I 'inn nicaj ijaai •7ni'raai la 'naoji nami 'naio nnxian 
"nn nnaia njjxci pxa pan noijon ns"' -ino ■'ca^a ne'x 

n3B>3 •'sjuns 135JDJ "iB'x yiasj' inixa mnn pa nx n^rx nx 'mox 
Dii'B>3 "natnJD nno ^x uxa '•^^nn ni»ai ^oao p iJn:iaD nri'an 
lisn D^iy 'nxsD ix lai D^bo pxi n^a nyo pxa paj nna wb 5 

nnava ctypr Dn'i>y ib-x d^dd n-k^o n^B'piaD nipon 'cjxi 
nj)OB' 'ijipi •QioB'D '" XT1 i^B''' IV P"iK3 T^J »3xi na3 ninnxn 

1 Delete X^3. ^ Read nVXI. ' i Sam. 24. 15. 

4 ps. 77. ,0. 5 Read navo. 

6 Cp, Prov. I. 33. ' Al-raaks, the port of Cairo. 

' Miniyat Zifta. 

302 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e. to 1204 c. e. 

nbjjtti'D niNsn ymsD nnp^ ini'''nni iriNnpn idx^ 10 
•pdp inisinni onyan dv ^dt ^ni ''nans iB'sa nDDijDi 
nanai x^vion inah vt ^ib''^ ids nx nivi vTi'' n^hb' nianan ns 
''Ijjpn 1^3 ^j? DT-ntni u-n ''sb inis i33:n "icn nii^t::! d^'Dhi t"n 
"iipoi vnon ;d pox "^"ip'' is i^'n^ 'nm\i^ inix n'']n "nb^ 
o fjxi non D^vwi/'B' nij'i 1^5 np' •'3 Tpn |d nja^j v^j? jjian fsi ion 15 
•'35} iniND TT'i^ T^x D'aoan omsi yB'in^ '11 T' mvp vb i:ton n^'iy 
™n na^i' tbh: xin id wnt dni i:[vis] iis sux TiTN nj? nnona '':^n: 
niD' D'33 n3D3 bpi ''b ni^jn^ ■'ijiuxi'iDi's ^■'Jjodx y^ nx •'IT'IV 

nni' pib'na * Di3''n □»-!> nin* •'3 ^nvn^ 'Jxi 1^ jni 3inn my^E' 15do npi 

nB'p'' DXT ne'^c ix d'jb' d''5;i3{{> inpl'ni '''':3-in iniiijj i;3in dxi °D'':tJ'iii 20 
Dins Dii'E' n3iDi D3in3 n\T e^x "is ij)T' iv onnxa ■'i'ly n^n'' [i}3''V3 

xin pnijx p n^oirin ini -io nyi tisb' np^ ''i'3 nDn;n nxn ijy 

Qn''^j; Timj hb-x d^b'x nj; Dn^^jj? ''3^51 vn' d'jb' 3-ip3 vm V3x 

v^x mmi T'i'x in3npn sb" ixubx i3x "iwn inixi onxnps 

■h iry rxi Din'' xini *v^3? inisc o "ruriD ui5J''do i.T'nnrv xi? '3 25 

mm n'-i'sni -E'yi 'xin nons in3[x]^D d''^b'x diI'B's i31b'3i 

^ja m^B'i m333 onp onn VB'in^ 'i vnxi T'B'T ^xiod tb-^x 

"'oiitn D*p''i'x uns i'X''n' 'md^ nimD3i •Dn''Snx rhv^ rsn^ iranix 

' See vol. I, pp. 239-40. 

2 Read JDpfl. His name was Moses (see infra, p. 320, II, 1. 10 f.). 

' From rm, used with the walking of a child. See Sabb. 18. 2, ntfNn 

n:3 nx mno. 

* Literally 'beating out ' ; here in the meaning of a crush. 
6 Probably □'•B'nVl 'lentils'. « Cp. Ps. 18. 36. 

' Probably read injriD ' his gift ', or fee he was paying for a certain piece of work. 
8 Read "'^5?. » Cp. Job 12. 6. 

'" Probably he is also the author of the following epistle, MS. Adler 2738, paper, 
square writing : 'JDD p33ni D3nn (2) DiD[n] fll 'JHX npSH DISV DI^B' (0 

''Di^B'3 ^ixB'b run (4) T1U3 X3 '3 'n''33 h noxi -jDi^B-i (3) -\r\y<a ctn 
x:ni3X (6) ,i3n X3 o TTi33i5 vnio 'jxi n3-in "h (5) nini mn ti^pI xi>i 
niBin inc n^n c' "3 lii ^moxi iJ3 nx (7) B'npb 3vi'p ^[x] xni) •'Jdd i'XB'i 
B>pi3'i jiB'xn DV3 ii^x X13X (9) ':xi ''jju-i ^'''b [n]nxi ''B^i'B' m''3 nnx (8) 
'ixi 'E'''i'B' ^^i'3 nnxi (n) ipaa ^ys dv3 nnx p xvdj x^i (io) -lann 
DV ly inxnnij (13) D3i5 ib'sx dx 'h ynini db- ^b'''^b' (12) dv3 xux 

Appendix D (to Chapter V) 303 


D"n 13^53 i:nt< Nin d^c ij^n x:'h^i\ 

25. [Vol. I, pp. 240-41.1 

(i) Yehiel b. Elyakim is most likely identical with the author of the 
Genizah responsum, published by Dr. Abrahams, Jcms College Jubilee 
Volume, pp. 106-8. It contains interesting information about ihe internal 
life of Egyptian Jewry. Yehiel writes : 

nonsD -wh ^mnn '3n dud d'^h^n 'nix wnn na'xj (p. 106, 11. i-i8) 
non DDicj'D naj^xi an nmnij nnnoi nivDi T'ya am ddh ti'int 
1l^'JN (r. nvpDi) nvpj3i "•D^1^N n^j nrom D''ni)N D'dsic' D^^!5^? inisna 
mam TiNa nt^x d^ivd nan i^NiC'i' a^'cn n ^n^? c'^n 'ji^nc nipDn 
'ax rraa i^vvn 'jjx -nan anix 3'B'xi "laT njjT dx un ttxi 
D'Hisx^j x^n 'D'r'jjJi nuiBTia 'pa 'jj'x dxi bxntj'u nTysn Tinse'Di 
no h nnx'i "'jx fix 'jjt ninx '^■sbvw ni'nixn h X3 nsD •D'jnnQ 
nati' "nntatya irmi wno niB'io n-i3t:n niB'-i nj?a Ik's: loxn 
mivDi ft<iB»:i I'DiTx mij?D nn Q'^idd D'ane- miifoai 'nnaoDi n'npo 
kjinn moi Dvn iw ^'i'snon n'^B'n yoB' ijy ons mm 'na xsrai n^'o 
nnx nan 'v:<r\ dx x'n naion py nnara nxrn nits'na en Dona B'nnjn 
ijia: • D':it^xn ibj lo'Ja^ ncx • D'Jionpn un: nrn jn:)»ai • nvom wdj? 
pc'xn isy a'B'n^i nini' 'al? nx njnxi •cDe'n nnn B>nn b px •b'd' ^ 
' nra nox noxb • onian nin • D'm&n nno nirx by pnnx pnnx i'yi pcxn 
'vn TiJJia nmon ;» 'jriDC 'a'aa 'nyn -Jiy 'b^ji 'nrD byi nro 'nyn' xi? 
ns i'a nn nyn nnxb nobcn nnrya • nrr ddb' nan nn'^ • nn' i^j/ 
ir naiBTiB' 'b nxnji (p. 108, 1. 7 ff.) ... nnt:ti>n ^jjd nn:nn n'on 
D'tii'^ni D'D^y^n l^a byi Tinjn D'CK'n |o 'jixnn nwyxi njj»x nboEj*! nljiyo 
x'n It i'xnt:^'' by mbc pxn 'byia nx " na'^' nmbpbpy D'acni Qnib:yDa 
Dann anvDa I'nn (r. bx'n') 'a^n' (r. i:ani uno) pani pno pja nxnin 
[nb'oa] nb'Di nixa nix inxmn'o npnysB' pajni nann o'p'bx na [pajni] 
i3n:xi npnyin n' na'naoi nbia'n 'aa nnix unjni pn'yo lax nrai 
biri nr'D n'a n't^x' 'yj bbn 'n'a Dnnax ■■''n^yoi nnix D'ynv. 

na'bx (15) xiab nrn '^yn nx 'nnaK* njni naai 'b (14) ynin ^anaa 'B"bE' 
I Bibci 'Jot) naajn ntifn n'^XD] n (16) x±>t>i bxB'i 'minxa nptj'x xbi 
a'p'^x na bx'n\ 

1 Read |!2pni . 

2 Here in the meaning of Judges, scholars. Cp. Exod. 22. 27 and Sanh. 66". 
» = D'n'yDI. 

304 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c.e. to 1204 c. e. 

There is no doubt that 'b'TT' should be read i'^?''^^ as already Dr. Abrahams 
(p. 103) suggested. We now know that he hailed from Aleppo. Hence 
the allusion at the beginning of the responsum to his having left his 
native place and settled in Cairo-Fustat (Egypt). After some wandering 
he became Dayyan there and must have attained a great reputation. 
One of the signatories testifying to the exactness of the copy of this 
responsum made from Yehiel's own handwriting is probably Abraham 
b. Hillel, the author of the Megillat Zuta. 

(2) T.-S. 8 J 8^ contains a question [m]p* nmn *:a5'D xhvsi/'i rh^'V (i) 
iDK" ''H' pt[nn] K'''t3an pnaion ain ^K'n'' irmi (2) uid msBn 'tbx 

'l31 DPiy?. Probably our Yehiel b. Elyakim is meant. He is also the 
recipient of the following episde (T.-S. 10 J 14^ verso, faded writing). 

Di» (2) Dv rJB^ pnn ^N-ni wmi xnis N^n hvrw man i^a >rh (i) 
■hh TiBinn: [p]^i (3) nox nm iot ninsa nicv^ •iivan'' imini ptrnT 
ns^D ma npipnn minn (4) nj?a i^hn 'oa m^ni' ^^Ntya nb'd W 
VDjffl piaij nsnn* ny uoo K'pai' "la's: (5) ^aai nn3i5 ba nana nioyi) 
[Ti]sa nijyo!? ainan bi aiuni nty^n nwy^ D'i'B'n' (6) tj-iipn tj? 
ma xi) (8) h^ym> 'jam 'no p ^idi' smi sno nu ijan iia^ai (7) 
vnx ni5mD niaai' B'''xn iniN (9) bv b^ nu inp^ vnx naina "idb* D31 
vam n^iis'' tn ''a ir^s iii'nn yjo' nj ^n pi'i (10) inainao nw 
n''a ij'i'N Nan (12) ■ijnx ni anav •h'^yir ini vh^n nivo id^v^ (h) 
ba lo^B'y iJDy niB'y nxban -ityx (13) nion ny ir^x to [prn 
. , . b{:>nn2[B'] n • • a (15) • • dni •unaE' Nir[i unj'vv nij-N nrnvD (14) 
nu nhB* "laai (17) ihiia n^n n^jb* n^''^n n^j^n irjnx (i6) nsian b 
nny u^ia^ n^j »a anaa (18) 'jnxi) yni3 bn ^yi ^jhn ^n Nian Tiy t"« 
' • DXT (20) mm' lana iT::n •'joa n . . . m (19) 

(3) The following epistle (T.-S. 8 J 33') is either of the twelfth or the 
thirteenth centmy.^ 

I nhv D[y] • Di^B* -^ -\^^ bi I ' Dii'B' inui • ^h^ nnsi (recto) 
'av nna | "oanya v-\r\r\ •nanay b-sw | •D''3ia3n □•'jrinni 'O'san oa^n 
inisa ne-y hd | ann mo "j-n K'na' Tiy 1 iiri^f pns> ia bsw | • D'in^N 
nipo ''rr'aa nrh \ 'n^ry 'a D'ans D3''n ''a | nipo mwi' nc'npne' | B'npnn 
m^'B-ai I nianan p D''Dti'jn uTiiJiya | ipoa naa o »^ty nr ^ia \ ^rh pxi 
i^yn '31D nyae* n» isy | cipnn nuB*^ ban 1 iiiatab o^wn d'h^jd pK 

' Cp. Isa. 65. i. NfO is probably a dittography before pNCD. 
2 Read DNn' = n^JD IJ^n^JX IHOm''. 
^ See vol. I, p. 241, note i, end. 

Appendix D [to Chapter V) 305 

na unua | i^d^b' [n^y^l'] [3]id myi | ' n-ns [ntjn b" dx (verso) 

ivan I [nb) a>']c sb vn d^dvs '•a | n^^na [['Jn ^maan | [njlnD^ntf 
IV I DniN Dinrnni npaa | d'ovsi [IjI^ ns'sn x^a | [D''D]y£5i nijUDij 
B'a:a 1 ^kib*' b:h-\ D)b^ \ nr n\ni uijvN isuD^ | cin^ aiQ p ijv anv^ 
I rvvn ivixD '13 T" iiy 3 pyyn nro | >an3 iTiii v^jn Dt< i:ai laynv | ^s^ff 
■n mn vaxi laov idci. 

(4) Our Yehiel b. Elyakim is probably also the recipient of the 
following epistle. MS. Adler, one leaf, very damaged : 

nmn ba (2) 66 Nsnn ]'\nH •i'^a no^on mini -^-^^v »m dot (r., 1. i) 
nB'np[n] irmnij (3) vnv niaa hri nin dit pnaion ann ^xini pia 
N^i (4) ysf ^xiDtr won bx lanN ana xai nann iniNi^ eioa: ^jn 'a 
(r. nDiwSo.?) niniB^ fsn 'vx ^anx min^ imox naai nib ijx wxn 
. . . naiD njj'ioK' b vi'j; (5) jjob'nb'I aioa nM''B' x^x. There follows 

a report about a certain person who has been arrested for taxes and is 
threatened with imprisonment in default of payment. The same Yehuda 
b. Aaron writes to Abraham Nagid (b. Maimonides). T.-S. 6 J 4''', 

66 xann ]'\nH n^a loi'nn mm'' (2) inixn^ ^loain imin laj; (i) 
omax irani mro mxan m'sv mp mnn ^x (4) ijxoy (3) 
hri Mni'inB' (6) [xjoa lyniix pa* [njixav " ay i^jj ^njn n^wn (5) 

(no more left) inl'JJD. 

Yehuda is probably the son of Aaron (Ben-Sion) al-'Ammani (b. Yeshu'a 
the physician) whom Yehuda Hallevi eulogized in his poems which he 
composed during his stay in Egypt (see Dt'wdn, I, pp. 2-3, lo-ii, 93-4, 
99-102, 116, 207 ff. ; II, 226, 257-60, 287). We know that Aaron had 
five sons, viz. Meborak, Yeshu'a, Yehuda, Samuel, and Sadok (see 
Brody, ZfHB., VI, 18-24). We now learn that of these Yehuda was 
a teacher (IDPd), while Yeshu'a followed his father's profession as doctor 
{stt J.Q.R., XIX, 732, no. 34: a letter from Abu'l-Hasan to Yeshu'a 
naaan -\^t\ xann b. Aaron vb' (r. ijndv^x) 'iXD^JX \<fi-\~\r\). The name 
iJXDjfPX indicates that Aaron was a native of 'Amman in Palestine (see 
above, p. 130, note 7). He may have also stayed in Jerusalem (hence 
his name Ben-Sion). But as the Crusaders were then the masters of the 
Holy City, his stay there must have been of a short duration. We find 
him in Alexandria already in 11 29 (above, p. 275).^ It is remarkable 

' Cp. Meg. 27" bottom. ^ Read nniajn. 

■^ = pJUn 'matter'. ' Read imiB'. 

^ It appears that Aaron was installed in Alexandria as Haber still earlier. 
Reifmann published in Osar Tob, 1882, p. i, an Aramaic epistle from a certain Joseph 
2240-2 U 

3o6 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c.e. to 1204 c.e. 

that his son styles him only physician and not Haber and Dayan as 
Yehuda Hallevi did. He was also the author of a liturgical poem 
(Bodl. 2704'). 

Nos. 26-S. Family Flatters. 
26. [Vol. I, pp. 241-2.] 

[T.-S. 13 J 1 1^ paper, square hand, damaged at the right-hand bottom 


Address (verso) 

Daninx ijd mnoc5'3 hn mrx bin 

' ^ nn''i;» riNnpJn tvdun "hn pji '!>« ^''Ji 


•D''oinn ''3131 'D^'ono 'a''03i •i3''onn ncva nianai •D''DnDD oi^b' 

' iai • □''cn N3 iiDn 3n3 • d^d^ tuni • D^»mi noni |m • n'oivvm njn 

[DT n]rD3i • D'oibn D^nai • d^ot b'''n 3PJ)''31 * n''ono nns npwsi 

"nx ''t5'Nn3 nsnvi nasvi i^in'-i vhn' ni3-i3n \h-y\ '•D''Dj)q nvni:' 

• D3ninN nff^D ''3D • tD''5n3W Ci^'CW cnx • tij;d uni hd^b* » 5 

''3int33i liTON D''^n^ • 03^5 niinriK'Dn " %\\ n^?^p:^ njcpn Tiai 

nnoB'bi • iivn^J 'b i^^v^i ' pox ^b iiCB'i' nnx djc w^yc" iiv^i? 

31133 ^^3'3K ''JN 31103 03^5 ''n3n3 DN1 • HHiXI pj' ''i'3 * nnini'l 

b. Jacob with the superscription [3 n^iPDPX "l3nPX (probably r. n3n31) n3n31 
r\^y^^^'h T'snm run 03^ Cin ''S '':SDVi'N. On the left-hand top corner 
we read (r. ''3N ^JSaN^N) ''3Ki'JN ^t T-ty^X ''xi'li: I^ (r. n3X13) n3N'3 nva3 
pnN p nl^^N [nrjJN] 31''N p pl^^^- signed by 3p5?* -13 flDV. The reply 
begins n''m33DN^X JD rh\>^ nTSJX h^ n3K13. It seems that the 'superior 
Haber' (as Aaron is styled for example in the headings of Yehuda Hallevi's poems 
in his honour)'Ammani wrote to Joseph b. Jacobin Shebat,48S4A.M. ~ 1123/4C.E. 
As a reply we have the first epistle written in Misr (Fustat) to the Sheikh Abu'l- 
Hasan b. Ayyub (b. Aaron). Abu'l-Hasan was apparently Aaron's Arabic name, 
while that of his father Yeshu'a was AyyOb. Aaron's grandfather was also an 
Aaron. The second epistle is the Haber's reply from Alexandria to his cor- 
respondent Joseph b. Jacob. 

^ Literally ' beautiful '. Cp. Bodl. 2006^: a marriage document, dated urge. E. 
The bride is named nPlvD, the daughter of Yefet. 

' The first three letters of the next word were placed here to fill up the line. 

^ I.e. Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, and Aaron, the High Priest (Lev. 16. 14). 

^ For this name, cp. Zunz, Namen der Juden (in Gesarnmette Schriften, II, 6x top). 

'■ Read ^lyii. 

Appendix D (to Chapter V) 307 

3 "ismi ''^iDlp iiyo) 13^3 HDin •'Cdj D3^ -lorxB' nyg'a >3 

;j~ nnni d''JB' noa nvn ddo 'mnsj •'a ima ddoi i^didsv 10 

^ nsn nvnna "nsni d3':d tiddS':' r\)n'6 miN-riD '3jn 

■^ DV nanriB'Ni nsiys'i mva nax •'i' irr vo imoNi tiddi 

^ KVM mm -1SD3 'n\^ni 'sn^ 'dsv Tupn i^^n oy VB'ajJi 

" ni^MP •'6^'3^? nsnn k^jh niDf^ •'ni 'onav Nia!? Ti^ia* n^!! 15 

Dnsi • Da'tyni' Dn''3np ui''' nno utyi dn o " nx'-jm 

'rNc i3np''i '^Yx Nu^ 1Q33 wq: nnx ffc" t6 n^b 

':x •'Dvyo DaijvN kuk cis •'3 ins ny Disrh i»vy nnjo 

'niK ^•'nyni a^ih nux dki aiD ^d i^Nn i^aty^ xb njn 

Dsnutsp ^DiD DsriK mao ^2k 13 niDNty •'i' auiD nynn 

nN'':»n3 mn n2i niino 

mino d[3]d nnN np''i 

27. [Vol. I, p. 242.J 

[T.-S. 13 J 20", paper, square hand, size 49-9 X 15-6 cm.] 


^n^i6 'anyoDi niroo •anp'' ye^i -a-i oii'E' 

DUitjn I'B'yDn -nyn^ nvni nyi^sni nTB»3n 

"ID Di^tJ'^ run yD^b& '3n oyi ^'izb ns pNi 

' The custom was also to consult a Pentateuch for such purposes. Cp. Maimonides' 
responsum (in Kobes, I, 52'^) ^IXT pNE}' my '^2 raitlTH 3''K'n i^f "lanon imi 

vu'DD iniK i'Di^ pN p ncyt^ ^i'ti'i ni^nu inn bv E'Din nina^. 

'^ I. c. Byzantium, see Zunz, £>!> Ritus, p. 79, note c. About conditions in the 
'congregations of Rumania' see the statements of R. Isaiah de Trani the elder, 
who lived in Greece for several years (/. Q. R., IV, pp. 95-100). In Maimonides' 
time there lived in Alexandria the Dayyan Pinhas b. MeshuIIam, who hailed from 
Romaniah. Maimonides writes to him {Kobes, I, a-;") lim!? HSn nnXty TiyDtfl 

l^ni •s:^?^^ DipD n''jn 'nxr nt^yn i^Ni imn ntn oyn -lyvD rrjoni' 

. . . niD"33 niE'aiK'D niOlpD^. Cp. also Gross, ZfHB., XIII, 52-4, and Krauss, 
Studien s. Byz.-Jiid. Geschichte, pp. 94, loi. The Karaite Aaron b Elijah writes in 

'^^ p, ii2»: may nxn . . . nN'':Dn niSnp^ *jn' tivst yn :n3Di ni'iij nii'nD 
njnjnn nxr nxa jnJD nVND ynv •'rsi minn nisoa. He speaks here 

probably of Karaite congregations in Byzantium. 
* = 'jynxni ' befall me the evil '. 

3o8 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c.e. to 1204 c.e. 

nj?3n '■'^ry mnai Qao titib i?!? no ''^ 

pviv n:K3i nan n^'' ''ainx '•aian 1:3 s 
■•D t'xi oi'iyn ninn ymx^ '■rjii ^'^1 dv 

''B'yi D'-DB'^ :iry ^ne' 'ivs loy nnv 
nyj ^{y imiDE>3 nnni Tj^inp^ tyDij 

■-nbia* lij^N ''3 hv nm oi^a [uB'nJn \>^\ [njnnns 

^^ mnDi 'jT'cy 'a-n ^33 Jjp 3y i;y ya-h 
■iry3 mno 3^x1 •'mi3[y njB'yx db-h nirj[''] 

NETI NtJ'l X3''71 X^IPD ^«P ND*33 O'DC 

''3int33i D'onn nxi ti'''y\Vf.r\ nx pnx nib>3 15 

lijyjj nnyOT b dni o^iyn n^ni ^'onb' '>» isy 

i!jnjn N:nDix nB'Nni h^yjj n^ nycn nyE> 

D^i'B'xi wSi3xi DB'n mty ny a''3ia Dn3i3 nnx 

''jnx oy iroi^'B' B>nnn bi ^nnijs^ B'Dinn 

Iinn tx"3 ijN 13K Nmi xno pii 20 

I mbB* nsnii DB-n | pvna di^btii | pnvn 

I 31D p^D V^D3 I E'lin E'N-l DV ni3DD3 ^13)13 

i'KiB'^ I b ^yi irijy 
Tixv I DVD n3B' i'''!' I ny ''S3 N3 sill I *s*nj33 wac-i 25 

I di^B'i oni? •'B'iDn j Dv 


3sy lis . . . . tj''' ans -yrsi \z pnx' 
< 6y 


tx"3i5K 13X pj3 mrxn \r\''\h mrNn bin 
•Dnsas SB' ii3jni D3nn itnn 

^ This is the proper name of his boy. ' = IDNB'. ° Cp. Ber. sz*". 

" Read ilPB*. Probably this lady had a Pentateuch written with the purpose 

of presenting it to the synagogue. Cp., e.g., the colophon in Bodl. 2817": 

D'oi'B'n'n ncH^ . . . rxhv n3^n-i oniN nE^npn d'KUjh nao hjide* lis'S 
. . . riDwn nua Dn3 iNip^B' onsD DNDDa3. 

'■' 'And I spent the Sabbath in Benha al 'Asal ', see above, p. 290, note 9. 
° VtB' = IIS imOB' refers to Isaac, while * 6y = PIIJ^ 133B'D i'y to his departed 

3 ■ 

Appendix D (to Chapter V) 309 

28. [Vol. I, p. 242.J 
[T.-S. 13 J 21'°, paper, square hand, size 25 x 11 cm.J 


hip ^b'' "laiDH no^B* 'i nna ">»•''« •'JIIk •'S'x-i 

injit niD n:n •'jdi •Dii'12' inx» 'ni^c an 

npaii i:nn he'd '-ii ijmi wn TTii^ai 

N^J ix\n T^v D'/T'Dn i-imNi 'd^^x ''JS niNna 
li) wn^cK* D''an3 noao nniETi ijI? nnba' 

'hm-i nxD m'^n ■jidb' onn jd iids ^^^nB' i?^ 10 
l?oy nroc crnonn bo ni'inj nnr nison nxr 

ij^3 12X3 jiB'Nnb nirm nnjn 'bbniii5 m naw 

noD ni^n^ n^nn hb'di iTiuni idb's* wmx 

ne-a'a Ni)! Du n^! i:dd pmn i6& ma nxD 15 

■ niN3s K'n ■'H nx'p-iiDb n:bb nnj)iB> mv»b' *3 

nvn nriN •'ai ijdjj nain n^j nain nB'vn dne' 

D^BTii D^ivn b umx iTa''B' nan niB'y^ 

maiy» n^ii ina pai ijnn pa npii'no 

n^DBn D31 i3''D izb n^»a[n] xdb'i ina nj)Dsn[i] 20 

naiLJi ns-ii nhna n\-ib' ina ^m ^b' ni^ro 

ipn aiD diN iNnn □S'wn nasi ''a njjuvi 

irx D'-JK' noa nnx^ vnum inB-x n^jn naioi 

nnxi pmo pxi) i^in sin ■'a ntantrj ndc 

nvpa ^•'03 ij'j)i piDsn nDNt5> no jnv 25 

xann nD^B* 't na3:n 'ja ni^nn ja ^yi "pnxn 

DX1 niDa .T'nnE' ddh p ana ^b [nixd^jc ^*' 

ncyn ^Ki 'n*J3 aiua may: »a '.•. ina xan ixi^ 

Dii'B'i nnx laT 

1 = lyi) inv 2 = D'nSjx. Cp. Gen. 33. 10. 

" ReadiTnni. ■■ = DSTll. 

= = D'-aic dik^volI] nam nnin^. « Prov. 17. 24. 

' These dots probably stand for the Divine name. 
* This abbreviation is not clear to me. 

3IO Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e. to 1204 c. e. 

29. [Vol. I, pp. 243-4.J 
The period of Maimonides {died in 1 204 c. E.). 

A number of data are collected here about scholars and dignitaries in 
Egypt during this period. 

(i) A contemporary of Maimonides was the scholar Jacob Rosh be 
Rabbanan, whose son Joseph Rosh Hasseder became known at the 
beginning of the thirteenth century as an author and prominent Rabbi. 
MS. Adler 1267, fols. 2-5, contains responsa by Joseph, dated 1522 Sel. 
= 121 1 c.E. He is addressed isnan nn siDIi UOnNI 133ni ino hp' ND 
ain apy i^jini imi mo "iian nua h-\v\ nin dit m[Dn] ckt 

?f |33T '3 tyNI pnaion. In the same year Joseph compiled a commentary 
on the Haftarot (Bodl. 2624"). It is of interest to cite here the colophon 

(fol. 83, recto) hnjn mn ?idv u'intii 1:3-11 ijnD jjd? | T'tiNSNi'X TDsn 
3-in 3p3;i ijijnNi | 133-11 mo iidh ni33 hri nin dit -non | t:«-i 
'^5? HPi ND^s nnDci' 33pnN nie^ jyivn nyo? | iJvt p3-i u k'x-i pn3i»n 
i 13103 ''i'N niDB' rh^\ [oi nx^i 'i^jj rr'e'N-is p niii'ni'K mini'N | -|iDsn 

1J3-1^ D'DSB' •'^N -I31D3 [[ojl | niDC ni'NI ''^K NS''l pi 'inVD W3"li' 

I iiNno p innN imij minl'K -i5n "h^ Q'dqb' pi | ijsn p ijNiot^ 
n^yxi njNn^x |i . j>d | -i^DKDN^i< itDsn ^^jj on-i^b^ n!?! dh^ !ipi d!5[i] 
I p T'Dsn^N Nin PjipiijN lya niNDQN^x i-Dan | "1^5? eiipi^N -h^ 3J13 Dsi'a 
1231^ '\m nm hidi^ | Toani nJoi'N pnx' imi> ^in^n n5)3iN I'Dsn 
I .•. rTiVD iJ3i^ in''j;B" I'Dsm •'uon p iniB's' ij31^ | ijNprni Toani ^5^3-13 

Cl'l2''yj II 133 ins I pSD D''D'Oni OnB'' I liQNSN^X I'DDn !im ^3 
(the acrostic is 'Joseph ben Jacob') 133 tyilp niV 13132''.' 

We learn thus that our Joseph had before him a complete commentary 
on the Pentateuch, viz. that of Sa'adya on Gen. 1-28. 9, Exod. and Lev., 
that of Samuel b. HofnionGen. 28.10-end, Num. andDeut. 1-16. 17, while 
the second half of Deut. (16. i8-end) was by the Gaon Aaron b. Sarjadu. 
In editing his work on the Haftarot Joseph made use of the commentaries 
of Isaac nia^N" on the first prophets (i.e. Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and 

1 A part of this colophon has been discussed by me in /. Q. R., N. S., XI, p. 426, 
where the date iiii should be corrected as 1211. See further my remarks in 
R.A\J.,LXXll,pp. 167-8, 

2 This author is most likely identical with Isaac b. Samuel the Spaniard, 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) 311 

Kings), of Berakeel on Jeremiah and the Minor Prophets, of Joshiah 
b. ''IJDn on Ezekiel, and finally that of Sa'adya on Isaiah. 

Derenbourg (Oeuveres completes de R, Saadia, III, 121) edited Bodl. 
fols. Ss^-Sga (from niDsn 6m DE'a) and remarked on the introductory 
poem, which has the acrostic 3p5>i p flD1^ ' Therefrom it is clear that the 
leaves, found in the Genizah, come from a volume which contained 
the Haftarot with Sa'adya's commentary. 'Joseph ben Jacob' in the 
acrostic refers to the Gaon's ' father ' (ibid., note 2). We know now who 
this person was, viz. the editor of the commentary on the Haftarot who 
lived in Fustat in 1 2 1 1 c. e. For the Haftarot taken from Isaiah he used 
Sa'adya's commentary. Thus he quotes him. I.e., p. 123, (i5Xp=) 'p 
i?t nnjJD 1JUT. But the fragments, edited by Derenbourg, are not by 
the Gaon himself. Or. 2583-4, containing commentaries on the 
Haftarot of Exodus and Numbers (see Margoliouth, Catalogue, I, 185 fF.), 
are probably parts of this work. The latest authority mentioned is 
Maimonides. That the author lived in Egypt is evident from the phrase 
^SD3 XJ"ljy (see p. 185, col. 2, bottom). Finally the fragments (nos. 7-14), 
printed by Harkavy, D''3B'< DJ D^Cin X (in Hebrew Graetz, V), pp. 25-8, 
are very likely from our Joseph's work. Harkavy wanted to assign them 
to Tanhum Yerushalmi, but, as Poznanski (ibid., p. 50) pointed out, 
Tanhum in his Jonah commentary (see R.E.J., XL, 129 ff., XLI, 45 if.) 
did not mention Ben Berakeel. On the other hand we have read in the 
colophon that Joseph b. Jacob used the work of R. Berakeel on Jeremiah 
and Minor Prophets. And indeed in the fragments from Jonah (printed 
by Harkavy) Ben Berakeel is cited four times. In the above colophon 
he is called R. Berakeel. Probably his grandfather was also a 
Berakeel and his family was known as Ben (Ibn) Berakeel.' 

a portion of whose work on Samuel has been edited by Margoliouth (see above, 
p. 232). He was an eminent Dayyan in Fustat and held the title of Rosh be 
Rabbanan. A son of his, Yehoseph, also went by this honorary name. A colophon 
in T.-S., Bc-c K. 6 (vellum, verso blank) reads ;.';31 U Cn 51D[l]ni ii3 nD^[B'] 

^n:on ryn | n^ir "nan pnv^ ir3n[i uno pnaiDn] | iin p 

nnano^N b'ni [nan ^xidb' umi | lino MiyDni. it seems that the work 

was one of Samuel b. Hofni's. Yehoseph is probably identical with the signatory, 
^t 3^^ pnV "i'a fJOliT, of a document, dated Marheshwan, 1465 Sel. = 11530. e. 
(Bodl. 2874'5). Cp. also Bodl. 2643I' where ^jf ''M3 3"in pnV 13U1 is quoted, 
and also the Book List {J.Q.R., XIII, 55, no. 84) ir33^i' \h'\n '1^3 ID DnN"l3, 
and no. 85, ifJ^ij^* m^DSn |D D'lXnS V ■ Thus besides his Biblical commen- 
taries he also wrote one on HuUin. 
1 See also R. E.J., LXXII, p. 168. 

312 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e. to 1204 c. e. 

Or. 5554, A, fol. 55, verso, reads | Taai'N vrwh^ i» ] NVn ''3 TDSn 

On the margin we also read 1>:3^K p naTlO^N DKni) | NVD O TDSn. 
There is much scribbling on the page and the whole heading seems to 
be incorrect. The commentary on xvn ''3 is probably on the Haftarah 
of this weekly portion, being a part of Joseph's large work on all the 
Haftarot. The author's title Rosh Hasseder was evidently misunderstood 
as denoting ' head of the Yeshiba V while his father Jacob Rosh be 
Rabbanan became a Nagid (B'XI = Rals was erroneously taken as being 
the equivalent of Rais al-Yahiid, ihe real title of the Nagid, see vol. I, 
p. 255). Similar scribbling is to be found in T.-S. 12. 826 which 
contains fragments of our Joseph's writings. One heading reads CVD *lt5? 

^vi i>npn ^xn h'^ \i nb e'k-i npy p cm?;.! EyN-i fiDV "^ \m ", while in 

another one he is styled ^vf h'nin pnn apy p rh\h'<i> r(S'V7\ tJ'NT f|Dr. 
We also have the heading Joseph noilD hvi. DN"l. All these are 
exaggerated titles. His real one was Rosh Hasseder. Joseph's 
grandfather was called 'Ali. His father, Jacob Rosh be Rabbanan, was 
the author of a treatise on the laws of Shehita. One page of this work is 
preserved in T.-S. 8 F 3^ verso (recto blank), which has the following 

heading ^\fr\ pnaijon i-\r\ apj)'' irjiiKi imi i:id r^b^r\ •nD'nB> niaiin 

i?Vt [l»]Dnn i^y an p pa-i •'a. Likewise T.-S. 8 K 22'-' is a piece of 
scribbling whereon the following three lines are repeated several times 

p (3) r\y^'h^' -non ty^n i^Di* {2) )>nNi d^de' ntriv " dvo nrv (i) 

i?if IJ3"l ^a CNI apV. Once after line i we read rb^hro na'C^n K'NT ^iDIi 
which is at once followed by line 2. 

(2) Our Joseph is probably also the author of the following work of 
which the beginning only is preserved. Or. 5554, A, fol. 18, recto (large 
square hand, damaged ; lines cross and recross the whole page because 
some person used the margins for Talmudic sayings continued from 

fol. 17) reads ^1J'^ nDD i3-iaTiK|TnN_| iban apv una pidv idk 6m tvi 
vaina i3J"yi niD^na woan u-jy iwb n^ia | 7\wrh^ rx'owti ia ij&n'sr 
ijcm • nj":v | ■iiK''ai hjcdh p-ins iiE'xin pvn • njja-iK vy'^s? | wvdi 
''Vaini , . . [D]''j:nn nix-i»''»ni | ninnjJDB'n •"^["btyni] . . . inin 
-inp Kin ... 1 njjaixn •b''V.\ . , . nji^cn ^v riiL^i^] . . . | nwmn 
nsE'i [iits^n Dn''bv tf'' mB'sn ninaoD d^E'^Je'i ntrcn bye | ijnsoi 

1 See also Pozn., Babyl. Geon., 104, note i. 
'^ = pNl D1CB' HB'V, Ps. 121. 2. 

Appendix D (to Chapter V) 313 

tidd] Qi^pc pi niJD pn | niobn vby fN ■h\p nnno -nDi] niinao 
I Dn^^jj pK Di)n D'B'np -noD nijpi nnoi ppn moo | nnxi nin[yi njjio 
"INK' ijj? niD^n invi' I msin xi) nuyiB' nynn ■■a nnann pNioi nio^n 
KnaoD D'c^CT HB'Dna icisna lOTiiaiin | yno "':sd n:i^m ninaoD 
ntyc iiDn n3DD ^a (r. nNnn) nsin N^n nioiin tir\h-i \ nTDB" (r. niriDDD) 
Dnnxn nci'tJ'n in^jni one nty^t^ h>i niD^n m'D | o^pns. No more is 

preserved. Verso contains, besides scribbling-, explanations of Ber. i' 
which may be a part of this work. The appearance of the fragment 
is that of the thirteenth century. If our identifications be right, then 
Jacob, Joseph's father, was a native of Babylon. 

It should be noted that Maimonides. in the introduction to his Mishnah 
commentary defines the contents of the Talmud also under four headings. 

See ed. Wilna, 55a, u injis nn'm . . . iiD^nn -inn^ 'ErN n Tiunni 
ic'i'B'ni ... in PD53 •'Jcm , . . njtj'Dn cits nnxn 'onan nyans 
. . . niB'-n •'yanni . . . hjb'OpI id nn b 'can iK^vina' D''r33;n 'B^n'-na. 

Maimonides also mentions that only thirty-five tractates have Gemara in 
the Babylonian Talmud. It seems that Joseph b. Jacob Habbabli used 
Maimonides' Introduction, which would be only natural if the author is 
identical with the above Fustat scholar. Why he found it necessary to 
write a new commentary on the Mishnah in Arabic after the great sage is 
difficult to say. But our Joseph's literary work seems to have been 
chiefly that of compilation, as we have seen in the case of his commentary 
on the Haftarot. 

(3) MS. Adler 2592 contains the following genealogy, with which 
compare Saadyana (J.Q.R., XIV, 451, note 6). iniVD^N [n^a] (i) 

nann .Tms lii (4) ^[itj nnoni' nmvcn jiD[i'n] (3) n*/S"iB'[''] (2) 
i^NT nann mi.-^ bn (6) dvdini ^f Dun^n b-nt (5) nn'^ti'M men 
vnNi D''an:n mn n3iB"n mon bwn: vnsi (8) na''B''n bn on^ann (7) 
nijij? (12) D pjii mianij nniyon (n) inuD lii niN^B'Jn 'ivt (10) he'd 
i.Tiaij? ^ii vnx[i pn] (14) 'a ]mi pa^n n ai (13) in rria icnj iDN^n 
^f min^i i)t<ntr' px [ijj:! (i6) miynn ib* isnjn Tj[:n] (15) 
. . . (18) NST i?N (UN=) u Dn^N (17)- 

'Obadya's grandfather, Perahya, signs a deed, dated 1106 c.e., at 
Damietta, tb invon pa^n ^''3 n^ms (Bodl. 2878'; Perahya b. Halfon 
lann, and not a candidate (Bodl. 2878'), who signs a deed of 1132 at 

314 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e, to 1204 c. e. 

Fustat, is evidently a dififerent person). Perahya was no longer alive in 
1 1 25 c.E. See Bodl. 2807': a deed of conveyance from Tikvah Hallevi 
b. Perahya to man iT-niD ni Wv!\i nnD pii) i'irSDi'N 13N TB-i^N 
66 , . , ^■^3''K'^■^. A colophon of Petrograd Codex iii, supposed to 
date 1088 c.E. (see Harkavy-Strack, Catalogue, 145 ff., and cp. Pozn., 
Z/HB., X, 146, note i), states that the owner is Nno riK'np rbm 1133 

'no riB'np rhm nns 13 . . . n333n nt^n ^wn: '3n 3iDn dot ^311 
nnijon ik' nunjn B'^n n3''syin man mi3n3 n^ijjcn n3nn in''ma 'irw 
rhm nnnn3D3 nijivan hijn -i3nn pa^n ':3-ii 'no 'ip 'na ni33 p 

niV3 n^Dnn pnv (r. 'T13) T'3. A son of Nataneel, Samuel, is also 
mentioned (p. 147). Perahya is no doubt identical with the above- 
mentioned namesake. But his father Halfou was only a candidate 
(nnijja) but no ' great Haber, &c. '. The latter title is probably due to 
Firkowicz's benevolence, just as well as the date 1088 for Nataneel 
b. Perahya is the result of his magic pen. The latter was still alive in 
1 106, while his son Netaneel we have found in 11 25. 

Meborak nnil?an b. Moses, 'Obadya's cousin, is probably identical with 
the writer of the colophon (Bodl. 2852^^) nan itB' ne'e »3Ti3 "inno tJD 

(563 A.H.= 1 168 c.E.) nixa DD31 pnoi rhn njD iNvai nnc <a rhb^ iDn3. 

A colophon in T.-S. Box K 6 (one leaf, recto, verso blank) reads as 

follows HK-o ''3T3 T^^yob I 66 inii'N ■ri rvab^ T\iv?r\ ^vtr\ sjoia n'b'i 
mi3n3 rh'w^n \ n3nn n>ms ''3-in | its' aunjn man n3^tj''n | "rnz 
rbv 31D I joD niiih rhm pmn3D3 | -i3nn pnti'' uis I3nn jiai»n | ^313 

lasi ;aK | 11:3 S'DI . Solomon b. Elijah was evidently the copyist. Here, 
too, Halfon b. Isaac is made a Haber, whereas he really died a ' candidate '. 
Moses, Meborak's father, holds here two more titles in addition to the 
one mentioned in the genealogy list. Finally, Bodl. 2876'' contains 
a contract signed by 'Obadya b. "Ulah ^roy (either = m3'' 133^0 bv or 
= n'n^ D1JK' HNO Ij)). He is most likely our Nagid because the other 
signatories Samuel b. Sa'adya and Meborak b. Nathan were Dayyanim in 
Fustat-Cairo in the middle of the twelfth century (see Bodl., Index s. v.). 
Whether he was then already Nagid is not indicated. His exact position 
as min^l ^JSntJ" pX TJJ, also held by Hillel b. Moses in the thirteenth 
century (see Pozn., R. E.J., LXXI, 66 and 70), has been discussed in 
vol. I, p. 257. 

' T.-S. 13 J iS' contains a letter from Sabbatai b. Moses to Perahya n3'C"n mOPl 
who is also the father of four sons. But his first son was called El'azar 
D'Jfnn IKS Hence the namesakes cannot be identical. 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) 315 

We have thus the following list of 'Obadya's family : 



■ I 
Perahya (no6) 


Yehuda Netaneel (1125) Moses "Ulah 

Samuel Meborak (1168) Halfon 'Obadya Nagid ^ 

(4) Oxf. MS. Heb. c. 28, fol. 66 (cp. Bodl. 2876") is probably 
addressed to Maimonides. The top is torn off. From 1. 3 the following 
can be read : 
pnv miD^J 'D'jvcna nmx nni •d'':io-i3 ait: bis n[^]ci . , . 


omnan onna • a^np n^h^ njipn • d''J3Ui Duy inna^ i6 ne'N ^nan 

TS Dn33 

[d']n:i [D-iaJiD on njni 
not^'' *D''3Dpn VToiriD bp sin na'N^ sioin nDanni ppn nanxai 

•D^jnm nnvD ims''i 1y^^^5 
wm^ Mi^a ^^3;v1 •np'' nn-i''i 'nipo -ip'- •d'-jion nttic xin 'a 

n:ni -mN^i laoD'-i 'niv'i n[v3]'i 
*aa^ nniD bv 'a nnnnN piari'' nn^B-NiD dski naws Timn^ 'nans 

loy aipa n'NB'n ncx i^j; isan isv •'JD^ TT'innE'm innoci 'nB-K-i 

[naB*] pya ini»a ^laB'N 

u nana »a inh^nETi ^n ncxi ^latysa B'n^nn xito'' nwa " nox na 10 

'''' nay jv»2i' nros p 
yninij nxi-an t^saai aita aba n'-nana lij^n oniDni ' • ban n^ne-.i Tii'ab 

•TnTT Donsh "TianK 
px ^a mat fpb '':rT'B' 'jdo nts'paai • dti-uk' pnnai • n^nana ym^^ 

'iwn lyn^N ninxn dn lanb N^tr si's TiJian: n^i • npnji bi' vn> nr 

1 His Arabic name was al-Rais Abu'l Ridha. See, however, in/m, p. 320. 

2 Isa. 65. 8. 

3i6 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e. to 1204 c.e. 

pvT »ni pi 
isn* N^'i hj'' 1^ -0i^ bi vi^ji vainxi vnnpi nion diI'B'I voii'ts'i 15 

Dipton •ni'D nv3 
nipipnn nninan nianan ^bi 'hi fn^a nE^Ni in^wi imoB''' Nin Tina 

nniDxn niDiB'nn 
nvj IV isw mail'' la nyi nl^D n i»''pn'' D''3in33'i □•'som mina 

liivih nnvD ■'anu ■■Dva iTiTii ivn 

(5) Maimonides ha-.i, besides the well-known Joseph b. 'Aknin, several 
disciples to whom he imparted knowledge in Egjpt. Sa'adya b. Berakya 
nopcn answers in his master's name the questions of ' the scholars of 
Tyre', the disciples of R. Ephraim (1201 c.e., Kobes I, I'iT.). In 
a responsum to the Alexandrian Dayyan, Pinhas b. MeshuUam, 
Maimonides mentions ijVX Sim niVDH pjD pjy3 'any '{wbl "WTn 'h E» 
n'D^n VB' nnjJD no . No doubt Sa'adya b. Berakya is meant. Another 
disciple was Solomon Hakkohen who visited Yemen and there eulogized 
his master to Jacob b. Netaneel (b. al-Fayyumi), the recipient of the 
Iggeret Teman (Kobes II, i" ff.). R. Nissim and R. Shemarya, whom 
Maimonides mentions in a responsum, evidently sent to Alexandria, were 
probably also his disciples {/.Q.H., N.S., V, 12). There a scholar from 
a Christian country, probably Pinhas b. Meshullam, made himself 

conspicuous. P. 12, am "jat^ DHK niv"iND Q'DDnn insD onyoB'B' noi 
Dtj' r\m-> nhm HE'npi Di b)p2 nns Dj?a s"B'n bh&n'^^ b"-\ mann m-\ 
lu man ti'^nib' 'jsd .tdvod ik^i n'nia xna^n hd idin ^J^5 ijb u-n^ 
man niN'-jti' ona e'ib* nnan nba Dm omv diob' nn«3EJ> 'm d'dj 'i 
. . . nND niB'aiiJ'oi nitj'i^n ni''xi t<''am . . . iwrh anwnoi. 

About his school the sage writes (Kobes I, 250) iDa ^b E'^B' 1S?1 JJIW 

a^'B'JK 'j 1K3 NijN (i.e. Mishne Torah) man 'b)iii no^ tS^ 'sm n:v 
(i.e. Aifasi) ann i'B' nia^nn imbb ivn D'-n^D^nn am onao nspo noi) 
'mioi'i xn»jn niD^^ i^'nb' n''JtJ' d:i niaijnn ija CDva noa oniK Tnoiji 

. . . li'XB' na'X ninaOD OniN. Altogether not much of Talmudic study 
was pursued by the circle of his disciples. 

(5) In Tammuz, 11 73 c.e., Maimonides writes to a community 
(probably in Egypt) to obtain a sum for the release of captives. 

jVscAr., XLIV, lo-ii, ■<bv (r. lyrhtt) nrht< nanai | DT'nD' vaw "inoa 

1 Ps. 41. 3. 

Appendix D (to Chapter V) 317 

(r. wnDJN?) Nnnjx npi D-ioxa | irniiN Tn^ D^UB'i'K i»n 'a Ni^syn nd 
naiDn b"3n M^n pnx k]3-ii njid | 'n3 wnaa: nansv asna n^'ba 

Or. 5533 (cp. Margol., Ca/alogue, III, 508) contains the beginning 
of a circular letter by Maimonides to several Egyptian communities. 
The address reads, B'lnn 'UTili'inp 'anj ' irnblNJ ''B'JN • irnN ^b[^] 

D*jptn ^st bnjn nn [id'-d '>z-\''2 he'd cnya bijsnon onmai Doii'B' 
1J1J1 miD"i n-w Dmn nnna^n oninnni D''B'Tipi:n n^B^cfli D^naajn 

D'lb D':n3 (r. DS331D1, iol'Jl) DN3DD1 D^DDHI 113001 (r. "13131, ^^jZ.) 

•jDiN n3iON 'n^D ns3 ;ck mvs^i 13^-I^N 'dioc^' D'^NnB^i. 

The beginning of another circular letter from Maimonideis to the 
communities in the provinces of Egypt is contained in T.-S. 12. 238: 

Address (verso) 

[D]nv3 ^N^ bbttnion nnnitii cidi^b' E'n[nn] 13*05; n^as [u^ni'iw •'E'3n i'bi'] 

ijist bNntJ'''3 ^njn nn po^o ■i''a he^d Dninam nnaajn Di3pT[n] . . . 

n3iDN omn D'K'nipcn D»B'''rB'*ni D>nna3n] 

tbw D3n3'> D<pNnB'*i D"i? D''3n3 Pi>[n?x ny pan] 

On recto only the following is preserved : * pXI D^Otf ntJO j " DVD 'ity 

[n]ono 'i3''nii5np ''3pr "woy n*a3 'i3*nbix3 ''E'3k u^nx nsjNO? obv 
-ixtyi • [D*K'n]ip»n D1^'»t^'^■^1 • nnnasn nmnani • Dna33n D*3prn • i3''3''v 
WK-[2t 'D^^K-iB-'i cibi D''3n3 sjn^N nv ^33 Dmn Dnni3n 13'ni'N oy 
cnoB''' ni[^np]n •'3^3 niots'n iaip3i D'noioni Di3Tnni D''i333n onnnn 
. . . DioB>'i mono pic onryi nmi? m. 

(6) Contemporary scholars of Maimonides in Egypt were, according 

to Sambari (ed. Neub. II, 33), Anatoli, a native of Lunel, Hasdai Hallevi, 

51 Spaniard, Pinhas b. Meshullam, Simha Hakkohen b. Solomon, Joseph 

. Zekarya, Eli'ezer b. Haifon, Shemarya b. Abraham, 'Sa'adya 1070, 

>aniel b. Joseph lo^on, and Solomon b. Zakkai, all these in Alexandria. 

'he Dayyanim of Cairo were Maimonides, Isaac b. Sason, Samuel 

. Sa'adya, and Menasse b. Joseph. In 1187 they appointed as Dayyanim 

[alfon b. 'Ulah for -iin3on,^ Yehuda Hakkohen for Bilbais (for DU^13 

D''3b), and Perahya b. Yose for Mahala (for n^mo^X r. n^nO^K). 

everal of these scholars are mentioned in Maimonides' letters and 


'■ Damanhijr near Alexandria (Guest, /. R.A.S., 1912, map facing p. 980). 

3i8 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e. to 1204 c. e. 

(7) In conclusion we give here two genealogy lists that deal with 
several important families in Cairo-Fustat during the period of 


[T.-S. 8 K 22°, paper, square hand, size 7i x 2\ inches.] 

(fol. I, recto) 

D^jna pn px T\^<^2 



' • • M:x3 nu 
'on ii nmaN "lii sidv 

D^jnXI fJDVI 3ps?* 

^y^mn d.innx rii 

^itSD pS fOni'N UN 

5'XB>''D m innaiy 10 

(fol. I, verso) 

" b\ pnsi .•'in m[ny] 

' Read perhaps 'JNJ. For this name, see vol. I, p. 220, note i. In the lacuna 
it was probably indicated whether this family belonged to the Priests, Levites, or 

' =ni»ni. = miDn. 

* This Abraham, who met a violent death, was Adonim's son. Our list then 
goes on to give the Arabic names of these three brothers fU. 2-3), viz. Mufaddal 
(Joseph), Abu Sa'ad (Jacob), and Abu'l Hasan ibn Mufaddal. 

' Mufaddal's maternal grandfather was 'Obadya, and the latter's son Mishael. 
Only Mufaddal is mentioned but not his brothers, either for the sake of brevity or 
it may be that Joseph and Adonim were his stepbrothers only, viz. from one father, 

'^ Angular brackets indicate that the word enclosed is crossed through in the 
manuscript, to be deleted. 

' = T\V\\> nPIJ 11321 . He is Sadok's second son. He must have been 
a prominent man. 

' Netaneel is Sadok's third son. 

^ A brother of Moses was Abu Nasr Netaneel. 

'" Moses' second brother was the Sheikh Abii'l Barakat Sadok. 

'' The family of the Dayyan Isaac b. Sason, the colleague of Maimonides. 
Schechtcr (/: Q. R., XIV, 45r, note 6) has evidently copied the names mentioned 
there from our list. 

^^ Meshullam's grandson was Sason, styled ' the banner of the Dayyanim '- 

Appendix D (to Chapter V) 

on ji ny^^n r\b)ia 
D''3''n3n B'Ni n''mi 15 

on 'JK'i 


EfKn pin pnsi nTo 5 

pnS''1 fIB'B' 1NJS 

Qi^xntj'"' 'TDy/N nu 10 
DSiB'n in til HD^E' 

"V3 T'onn iiTyty lii 
n^Dnn ^not en ■'jk'I 15 
npnisK i'-B'^Ni " ijxijn am 

on DB'Dm 

-11VJD UN 


(fol. 2, recto) 

'^pr nt^iD un mns? 

ni nai'tj' lii innnij? 
lii fiDV lii innaij? 
po'D lii tiDV rii pnsi 5 
[li] i:b>i 

(il ^pf HE'D! in 

' DmiN 
nphl?N yebti mny 

' =niDni. 

- Evidently identical with the Dayyan Menahem b. Isaac whom Harizi met in 
Fustat (vol. I, p. 247, note i). When our list was written Menahem's children 
were still young. They were Sason, Isaac, and Joseph. 

'' This is evidently a dittography from the end of the previous line. 

•• The head of this family had the title 'Amid ad-daula, ' the stay of the realm ' 
(see vol. I, p. 220, note i). 

^ This Abraham (Abu'l 'Afif) seems to have been a son of Netaneel. Abraham's 
two sons were Yahya and Daniel. His brother was called Yeshu'a. 

° = VriNl . ' The family of Moses (Maimonides). 

* When the list was written Abraham Maimuni's son David was not yet born. 

' The family of the Sheikh al-Thil;at, i. e. Mishael b. Isaiah. The latter was 
a brother-in-law of Joshu'a b. Dosa (see vol. I, p. 226, and above, p. 270). 
Angular brackets indicate that the word enclosed is crossed through in the 
manuscript and should be deleted. 

" = NSinn ' the physician '. 

'' =niW. This is the brother-in-law of Joshu'a b. Dosa. See note 9. 

'^ Hananel was Daniel's son. 

'' This is the second son of Isaiah. This Mishael had five sons, viz. Abn Nasr 
Isaiah, Abu Mansiir Dosa, the Sheikh Abu'l Ma'ali 'Uzziel, and Abu'l Tar Elijah. 
The fourth son Abu'l Ma'ali died in 1222. He was probably the brother-in-law of 
Maimonides (see I'li/ra, p. 328, note i). 

320 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e. to 1204 c. E. 

Fol. 2, verso, contains on 11. 1-20 the genealogy of Halfon iniJIBD as 
MS. Adler 2592 (see sub 3, pp. 313-15) with a few variations, viz. Netaneel 
b. Perahya is styled merely Haber, but his brother 'Ulah has in addition 
the titles nniB^n iivn DUnan -nn na^B'in nnv The latter's son 'Obadya 
the Nagid is also called mun^ iniyon. But the chief difference consists 
in the Rais Abii'l Ridha not being the Arabic name of the Nagid as 
in MS. Adler, but that of his son,' who in his turn had a son called Abii'l 
Surri.^ Our list concludes with the genealogy of another family (11. 21-3). 

nnyo on Ji ina lii ^hT\ 
'h^ UN TB'i'K in nB'Di 'fiori 


[T.-S. 8K 22', paper, square hand, size 7^X5 inches.] 


nan , , 

. . . 'm nrroxf. "ni nan bm^cf on 51 nan papn 

pa^m nB>»i td^jh i'Nprn'' 'n 'ji ^pn na'i 

Dnas 'ni rwr^ "vrhr^ na* 'on "ji tdSti 

. . . t'N'n'' i lan D'jna 5 

nnsJDi nvw on 'ai in'^anj 

ana 'm nna''"i nnyoi ^niob'i" 

in'':n: '^'ai 

'^l^NW 'n nu 


[li] ai i'N''n'' 'm D''p''i'N 'm 'nae' d'-p^^ix 10 

•ntyoi cp^N 

' It may be that in our list lil is a mistake for ini, i.e. 'Obadya Nagid is the 
dignitary known as al-Ra!s Abu'l Ridiia. It will thus agree with MS. Adler. 

- Abu'l Surri's Hebrew name was perhaps Joseph (see vol. I, p. 243, note i). 

= This Joseph is perhaps identical with Joseph 'am PX mentioned in an 
inventory, dated 1080 c.e. at Fustat (/. Q. /?., XX, 459, 11. ai-a). Cp. also above, 
p. 255, 1. 17, where Joseph b. Joshiah is called Joseph 'am pX. 

* This line is in black ink but the following ones are in brown ink. 

" The wine merchant. ° The silk mercer. 

•' = VnXI . * Dayyan. _ 

» This ought to read 'ai, unless we alter QnaX 'ni into DnaX (VnN1 = ) 'XI- 

'" These persons are not the sons of Netanya but relations. 

" Read either 'HI or 'XL 

'- This is the family of Yehiel b. Elyakim (vol. I, pp. 239-41 ; above, pp. 301 ff.). 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) 321 

30. [Vol. I, pp. 245-6.] 

An epistle from Rakkah {Kalne). 

[T.-S. 18 J 4"°, paper, square hand, very faded.] 


nvn iniv paoi nn^jupi nn'-^nsi' Dn^i 3n 

nnsn ■ih^ noaa tids*3 sh nnna 

nSr ■iDiN •'si' np[Nj]D 'nDpE^'1 'avjii 

Dnw IV pnB'j •'JHsi' TT'xn sh 'njj »nnbD 

nnxn Tinp' np* i53D 'nnjN Tir [lyan mi] ivoa 5 

mia'a hvn's •rsa>yso noma JT'Jii'm •hdib't [na]6nD 

h^ryi h V1T1 •^J^'^5^ nnixna m*i •'b'qj 

•ni^P nnx ai [dk']i •nii'i nnx T^iva'' 

•nii'[j] ;»TD VB»i •ni^SE' nns n[i'i]^K'i 

• ''j'>''jj)3 •'nJ'pJi • ^y'-^i '•n2[D]p- ci''nij''ani o'nxnp ns'ivai 10 

ppn[D]i Tinaa: ^ans- •'3 nan^ •■a "["Jn noi [*]3n' 'd idini 

• [5?]n»a HDix nioria • J}^^5 t<^i "i5Ja ''Jki • nnion •'i'^nDa 

^'aini) DN -'^v ^-ni51D:n ija (jj? ■h a^'^'x noi •■'^ca injuN no 

N^JON onnn inaEfa dni ^rrf^ h ■'iNin na n-iityni ^vs 

aiz'N •niD'[D]n3 Tiae-n i^K^a 'js 15 

n^n'K' nt^DN \-w^-\r\ oyaa xb bx tiidx nj; imtrx 

pasi •'•mD Dn!"n ;d i'p^sj' ly xijs Nt^o ^raa bi? 

•"■as •'H^x ij-irp'' Dx •'•ab nann nt nam •^m/h ms 

•''j''D'' naKTi 'ina[B'x] dn •'•i'v i'ij:[i' v]nDn ''a '^jns^ px* 

isan niro^ ^n[i5ia'' \^^ -'naj Tina xl? nx "'ma "':arjr 20 

•nnv ny ''nm [x]h 'nnn TiB'p bx wtj-v nnx mu 

miaya tioxoi •'iiacn noni -'avvi ibb vana naai 

rww 'h'VA 'nivim n^'pitj' nna 'i' c'' i^i 'rnvnxn lijx 

nniDn nnix ^y ^xb* na'xi Tsya qb' mitrx-iaa . . . . n 

tir\h'i eiDV 'n nx Tii'XE' nia^nn i)}) wan n'njnc nn[p''n] 25 

' Ps. 132. 64. 

' The metre of lines 8-9 is w | \j, 

' Supply ^T. 

9210.2 ^ 

32 2 Egyptian Affaii's, c. 1050 c. e. to 1204 c. e. 

•D^vnj wmo nti •cii'iVD Dnan vn s^ •Dnij''''3jj .... 

•D^cn'sn ijj; niv -ie'ni 'nTiJo nox nan nt;'N 'miDnn nnoun 
^NiDcy 'ni? • N3vn nan • naiv runoij • D''tJ'n D''n^bE' dj? TnfjB'] 

n:b h^ h^^av 'i y^jn D^anan \-^m> -\rm omax 'i^ji 30 
•':n^? Di^tr ^y ^nb'') naisn main 'is mv xai mnx ima 

j^jyt: nar ncxi vanp i'b^i v^jn ina^Dao tansi ijut 

Tnac nmD3 nu i?33 n^ '3 nni^c ■'rya na" [xjis nsjsan 

Tinpi'B' D»3D3n poy ^y 'riDnnru naai innnS nnix 35 

DK nny ^Na-c n-byirn in b^atfa •h'^ 'n |pin jd Qnix 

TX2h ''iyy\ np' masn nxr vm^o Dr»[N] np^B* pn» 

pntijN lax i'[v]N pCTona xin . , . 

yan onnp^ 'l' nivtj' Dnan nyicni n^ ppis ^ nsiscni 

ins nn nnpb nsn 'rxi D^aoa [nJ'E'Dn nn» h\A 
u^c y . . . ''D nn niK' 'inx noNi n^ji ainas dx n^jn 40 

n''!' yj^ nn nsdn 'by pni iy napn 3in[3N] . . . 

r\h nixna •':n 13 baiNE' no ^3 ainas ^D"pj D''3^p 

iDi^B'i nann nr imnni) |eN''i niNno 'ins hdd nnv 

I xh\^ 1DB' 112'' pns miD HB-D IJUT | QIDS . . , . b •■DI/B' t<>tJ" 45 

■niDm \\^r\ '-b'\ \ ' nrya nti • nj T'n''i • nis n»u" nmni'i 

bNE'''D 'T a'B'nn nan^i | laTia* VJnm ^^y 'nh invxn u hnt 

irnDK'^ nis vnx | pi)! m"! nD* | VTionh i'^'no ^3 bv bb'\nv> 

DToirin b^i I cnn [aan] . . . . n-a nitya: -\n[^]b'i \ in'w 

Iiaf T^xi' UT" fnrsn TiDirin } . . . 1 | T'o^nn ^d[v] oa'sna 50 

I nny 'bi 'niD[n oibcyi] iDi^ti'a | ^n^ef 'a voyn dwd 'i aiun . . . . iii 

' npnx ... I ... . bi'i j . . . . iniom . ,. . 

' What monetary value these D''SPp (pieces of parchment?) represented is not 
clear to me. But n3''nn is used by Hai and others to denote a small coin (see 
Zunz, Zuy Geschichte, p. 542). 

' The n can also be taken as PI or D . 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) 323 

30*. [Vol. I, pp. 246-7. J 

Concerning Joseph ibn 'Aknm. 

[T.-S. Box J 2 contains a letter (handwriting of the twelfth century) ; 
marked on wrapper 74. j 

nnai irD* pvi ''i'V ■^l^*l ''^'n^^ T'Jn^ mspa ^nxa [ '^6: " (recto) 

E^'N I pnaran nann i'sng'* iDsn mNsn eiDin* laaii mo pJa | • ■'JWn 

in^ijTi va* aiua | y-\ti'<) • in"n''i Ijn inaiai • nionj nam • n:nnni nsnn 

• n^Dvi 1T3-I nnynh " ' iT-ox u | prnl? • n^nn nn' • man "na • ihb'jjb'^i 

laai' mm Mmna by ^Tiatm 'irmn i>N 'naioa | nspn ^mtid n^npi 

'Dan I Tiia-i nif lyinn^i nx n^aa tiDinon^i ■ xn^o 12'ju nin's | bv 

p nN''V' •'i' pnr: ab | fny ''a ' cn^ai ^jy iiptriji • onixa -\)icb ba-t^' 

B'pao "'3N nwD iJDijDi D-iiava TmnxriJi | ci"^ni a^mief nnan nrnon 

I voana pannh vom i^B'a niS^nni) ^aw •'i'lx }"pn nta | nsvi'i 'nrvS' 

5)ipE'nB' nnsDB> p-^ona | f\DV uan ann 'jnx ''ji^y n^ uns^ ins ijini 

nmiB' npb\in "aaSj cn naai Nai "ni'vaa 1 ybniz Nannji wma napn 

'[''i'N I vani" ai'B'ni nipn ano ni'ia» iTia i''t<i ni)''i'i nov ejun | nx nails' 

nnai niw^i ^t^^^a | Tioyn^ lacpai di^jbo wi'N Nai nona n^jj doti 

pirn I . . . bvrh b)pr] nx TTiyl5i )i2)siib J niaa ^^aa'a p^ mip nDNJB> 

. . . naoy nyn xa-e' | . . . nmi n^j^^y pnn nn'v c-non 

The last three lines are damaged ; no more preserved. Verso contains 
in different handwriting the end of a letter of condolence to a Nagid on 
the death of R. 'Uzziel. 

nojjK' '' cnp pn^a naa ••» Sth* naj ''d 'NDinjn t cni la (I. 16) 
HB'Da naj 'd mob li' n'^n aib naaon nx nsj) 01 D"nn pai dtioh pa 
Ttsrh isp VJnK-a fiioaiji . . . n^ncn^D in»n a''ti',n^ pnsa n»vB' '^''an 
pn T-nv P bv "131 nonni sixn ijeo »mir 'a ia yoB-: no nSj^n 10 
'no bi n{?o saM upiv h^e^d | nyitj" pn i-^w^ nya n^ia B-xia in^nni' 
DHDy nnni' p'ni^ps? nns xaSj lamx nj nara p . . . mpa my naio 
n^jjn Manx^i nn-'T'Dm iE''' ''oan nsE' dj? .Tinniji nniaoi' n\T' ^xviy i dji 
d:iji (jf. God) T>D' vbv D'^asriDn l?bai isnnaiyD b2^ vniinxi vnx dj? 

. . . D^K ON nnj''! 

' Exod. 17. 15. * See above, p. 82, note 3. 

' Cp. Hab. 3. 4. * ' My grief, formed from Arabic ^jy>- 

^ Baalbec, see vol. I, p. 246, note i. " Probably read J33 ' with us '. 

' Cp. Deut R., c. 9, 'iai ntyDa laj »0 . . . NDinjn n't*, but Aaron is not 
mentioned. Our writer seems to have }iad a fuller text of this Aggadah. 
' Ps. 89. 49. * Deut. 9. 19. 

X 2 

324 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e. to 1204 c. E. 

Nos. 31-a. Letters to Anatoli b. Joseph. 
31. [Vol. I, p. 247.J 
[T.-S. 13 J 9', paper, square writing, size 40-5 x i2'5 cm.] 
nay 'lin f^. 

naE' nnon^ 'nijia' vh •uv[y]i '•asa ano 
•■•aani ib'-iq 'mi no ^insb niN ••'an 
la prnn c^'t^an pnaiDn ann ['-ji'iDJN 
ain ^iDV 133-11 uiD riE'np n^na niaa 
'^x iSJ'M '3 ^r ptnn c^oan pnaion 5 

mam 'nil?N'i oyo D''aT D'ana 

laiannK' nanan nin^x ^y D^pyi^' 

"■a DnoiNi wan ^np na 

riDJan n^aa Dn»^v n^n -ik'x tJ-a:,! 

n^a Trm)-:\ ras ba i^'-ara maxi 10 

D-DB'jno ^Dni mpn \hi noaan 

iiinDi nona •'^nxi xniDi ina 

Tatnb N^N -i\iTn5> '•nana vb '■a nay^ 

cjya lyr canai pnj nann ia ■h'h\ 

»3ai> 'nana n^ pna nya niaima 15 

poyne '•aira •'Jk ia nann nr lyjns 

Ton'' '^napon nnx nan!' ■'xaa ■h pxi 

hr inayi in'-o^'n diI'b'i hdi^'b' 

n^D nv: ion -vh 

•iapriN v^oa aa 

Address (verso) 
.... '•i'lOJN 133-11 13-10 

' ={<30m NOw'3. 

' Read perhaps nvN 1) R. Elijah (correct thus accordingly, vol. I, p. 247, 1. 22). 
' Here is missing a word such as nD-in3, viz. the structure (cf. Talmudic 
Dictionaries, s.v. CBS) protecting the synagogue collapsed. 

^ Read Qniii. » = «in Ilia Dipon. 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) 325 

32. [Vol. I, pp. 247-8.J 

(i) [MS. Adler, paper, square hand turning to cursive.] 


•irnisna mun (2) 'u^pno tddh 'irpna pirnon 'wnn Dsn^ (i) 
^Mjn (4) •bn:r:!n [tiyojn -bmn mn ■'i'lDJN (3) 'iram i:nDi wnx 
yj FjOi'' umi una ncnp ha na p (5) ^['an] it'^i nis''V3 tn3 ipnsa 
'^ica ^'innn I'vy 2Dim n^D^o (7) 2nic ^^3J) 'jkd D"n yii p''is ns (6) 
TiJucnB' nj; inuao (9) 'Dirai nai nvnini) ^nsn mvpa (8) [ajTinio 
•'TaB' no (11) niDDN yn^-na noTin TiiNna ini^a (10) by ^r\:v^a 
ariD icpi '3-15JD ]r\2n nn-'ax in '^k (12) t<a mm pip'sn isya ffijB'i' 
ncnn ^nixna lan^a \T'inn (13) nt^xs nctr nnann pxi nisnu''ax (13) 
MsD wxT Ni'a' (15) nvi rann ^jin ni^i^' ^ob m-DDX (14) ironx 
15? (i/) Tspni? '^y r'' ''j^ya aiK'm tidx ffi'B'n (16) tP'snti' iysNi Dvp 
'^3yniNi 'inNi) ^nyTin nt [sin bn (18) incnn ^y uriD nan Ti^bnc 
'JCD inyoB'D^ nnoni (20) loy D^ii^jm 'inx D)b^^ juani naxn (19) 
iu fiDiiT (22) iminh i^! Di^c niaE'''i 'ime'o popi (21) Mnay pop 

(2) Anatoli is the Dayyan of Alexandria who corresponded with 
Maimonides. On his arrival at Alexandria he sent a letter of introduction 
to the famous sage of Fustat and received a complimentary answer. 
Kobes II, 36c ff. n:ni , . . \vb]! nj:i3' rh)ni n^y nmi "pcN Ni3a N2ni 
niNsna • nrsni nyn)! "ickIj . . , DJiB't'a S'i'nDni • DjyDn nat^n nmaa 
''JiyjDB' ''i'1^1 . . . "I'yvn ^^3y ooni . . . i3*3n hbts . . . Dna-n t>:' 
D^cj . . . 'Dsy3 *3N ^n^n ybi-i '^zb nxi 'max nyjn x^ i"s» *^np ^jpr 

(mr laae'O ^y =) '''Vcy flOli i^ i^JIDaX m^X. Maimonides answers 
(37c) : a>t>»n ijx . . . Tnon \<''ir] y'sf 'i^iDJX -i"nn . . . nmn ana yjn 

' Rabbi Yehuda Hannasi, known as tmpH Uai. * = Dinnn. 

3 =B'-11ED. < Read >3ynini. 

» ReadViay. « Read VmrO. 

' Sambari (in Neub. I, 133) writes '11 iB'Dy ^IDV 'ID ''^ICJX 'T . . . ^'':i^ ''Dan 
"lis "DariD IT'oiri OnSX. No doubt the proper reading should be '"JILJJX "\ 
(nl3' laaB'D ?y=) '"B'Cy fJOV ia ! Probably Anatoli's signature was mis- 
understood by Sambari, who makes thus m separate scholar of Joseph ''ti'tDy (?). 
That Ephraim of Tyre was Anatoli's disciple is improbable, as the former died in 
Maimonides' lifetime (see above, p. 316: Maimonides sending responsa in 1201 
to Ephraim's disciples). 

326 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e. to 1204 c. e. 

HE'D •invicB' 31D1 , . . ino3n Dsw »a^ •inixni' eioaan "imnna nst}-! 
'n ^3^ 'mcN nwi' . , . t^iW nam i^na ^v inn»n 'pD^o 13 

(3) Later on, Anatoli sent to Maimonides a legal question which 
reached him from Sicily. Kobes, I, 28*, no. 146: 'y\T\ 133nN Ip'yi 

"iKD n"' nDD"pnD SnpD ^rb'&vivi) nst Tii'Ntr nona •'b nxa* pxjn ijnw 
D'cc mrua oni? iJn!'B'x nxiao anaa i3:nN naieri Nuni . . . nN^'ip'o 
"v DD^nnai mxiao na^nan .T'nn vb dk auNn pani) mm ^iiya dj^x ont? 
nin -ip'' DC Dj; IJJns [i'tr njsynpn. Maimonides replied : [n]^nj HD^n 
l^NHi 'iai T-non naan pnn hijn nann kxB'65' ni^Ni^n nxr ^v mncn 
n^ibi Dva nnoi ni'in "3x1 ■h^f. nmo mana ^^a''^ ano "la vnv Tian' 
Timtjn ^a'ai'1 nnn nioja Tiix ncn' ncb> Tnosi injs '>!' j<n nna* 
m-.on n\icn pnn s'tr '^idjn ''an niD pJa mnn xi-bm . . . ainai) ids» 

. . . p11 m. Anatoli was evidently acquainted with the cultural status 
of Sicilian Jewry. He must have visited the isle on his way from Lunel 
to Egypt (nDD"pnD is no doubt a corruption for Siracusa, on the eastern 
side of the isle). 

Oxford MS. Heb. d. 76, fol. 53, contains a book-list wherein is 
mentioned ^ir ''i'mJN aT uaa ; probably our scholar is meant. Wertheimer, 
C^GIT VJJ, III, 1 7"' edited a fiDV na ^t ''i'lQJX ^ Tsnh^. A paper leaf in 
T.-S. Box H 5 contains on recto a liturgical poem by Ibn Ezra, while on 
verso we read anal "^W ^1^3 IB' i)SJ nntDK' 131 * ^j pnn '^DJX \yi'h 
'131 l^no nB'OD. He is indeed mentioned as a liturgical writer in the 
list printed in Osm-. Tab, 1880, 16-17. See also Bodl. 1082, III, D, 
2501, V. Cp. further, Margoliouih, Catalogue, III, 563, col. 2, v.: 

33. [Vol. I, pp. 248-9.] 

Abraham Maimitni and his descendants. 

(i) Abraham Maimuni was born in 1186. Nagid he no doubt 
became soon after his great father's death in December, 1204. The 
following data as lo his activity till 1237, when he was gathered to his 
fathers, are collected here from documents. 

{a) The mutilated fragment (printed by Gaster, Kaufmann Gedenhhuch, 
p. 236, IVb), dated 1520 Sel.= i209 c.e. at Fustat, no doubt refers to 
Abraham as 'our Nagid'. There is really no indication that nB"DQn 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) 327 

means 'Patishah' and that it is the Nagid's title (as Gaster thinks, 
pp. 223 and 226). Perhaps it is a corruption for DXaoaa ! 

(3) T.-S. 13 J 3": atFustat, 1213C.E. 

(f) Bodl. 2806°: a document of conveyance at Fustat, 1214 c.e., the 
parties being Abraham Maimuni and the Sheikh Abu Ishak al-Abzari b. 
jfj hr\^^ fQ TSf-^N (vj ^^n -a Dmax -io nua), probably identical with 
the author of the Zuta Megillah.' 

(d) T.-S. 13 J s''^: dated 1215 c.e.; T.-S. 8 J 6=: 1216 c.e.; 
Zfe^ff/m, I, German part, p. 130: 4997 a.m.= 1217 c.e.; T.-S.8J6': 

I218 C.E. 

(e) A fragment in a box belonging to the Cambridge University 
Library Collection begins •>i)i? | jjj D<i^n lin <l^n no^B' 'T \vor\ p \vxh^ 

u'd nivjD^N nN T'K'^K p I n'VDi3N T'B'^Ni lua^N ^is^K -ax Ttf^x mi'1 
i . . . ^iVDB' jujni D3nn Nann | np'n iB'n i'xjnj 'i 'vi^n noN nd3 
nvoa ' DB'^ ypns ntrn nnis- ;d . . . (1218 c.e.). The Nagid is mentioned. 
T.-S. 8 J 32': 12 22 C.E. at Fustat. 

{/) T.-S. 10 J 26^ : a declaration of evidence, dated 20th of Adar II, 
1535 Sel.= i224 C.E., \^i pxi) naiDDH Dub I'jfa, by authority of 
Abraham Nagid. 

Kg) T.-S.i3j4\4%- 8J6^30^32'; 10J26"; I3J4^4^• i8Ji'^: 
documents dated 1225-30 c.e. 

(h) A fragment in a box belonging to the Cambridge University 
Library Collection contains nnv [nor, dated 1231 c.e. at Fustat. 
Abraham is styled B'npn mn Dmax i:i»J3 inXJ WJHK. Mentioned are 

NO-iD -13 Dn'oirin mxan nno^n tpfn -irjj'i'K N:3ni sno pJa np3^n yvW 
vi Dnmnn cst aiB'nn ip\T iprn nrriax Njmi, and a descendant of 
Netaneel yi QiaiB-nn T3a aiBinn ipNT ;ptn. 

(?') Or. 5563, D, fol. 1 1 contains on recto a question beginning 

I nn b men tis Dva hnjn ntrn | omax ino ip ij 33 p' in hp» xd 
'131 13X3 ''ii;i [ivod pixn ''3 I psn ^n^ pi rh\-h iok' ^'T' i'xnc 

' It is likely that Abraham b. Hillel is identical with the scholar Abraham 
I'Dnn, frequently referred to by Abraham Maimuni in his writings (see the 
passages cited by Eppenstein, Levay Festschrift, Hebrew part, p. 53, and Hoffman 
Festschrift, Hebrew part, pp. 131, 135 ff.). Abraham b. Hillel died thirteen years 
before his friend the Nagid (see infra, p. 328). Hence the Nagid could speak of 
him in his writings as already departed (Pt) this life. Abraham's library was sold 
after his demise in two portions on Adar 26th and Nisan 4th, 1534 Sel. (Feb. 28th 
and March 7th, 1223 c.e.) at the Palestinian Synagogue of Fustat in the presence 
of Abraham Maimuni (see the list published by Worman, /. Q. R., XX, 460-63, 
and Pozn., Z.f.H.B., XII, 112 ff.). 

^ = Tiis irnoB'. ' = nnoB'i), 

328 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. E. to 1204 c. E. 

n^orn JD ^33 n3{5n l^i "S ND (im = ) t mv (last line). Verso contains 
the answer. No signature is given. Pjobably the author is Abraham 
Maimuni. Cp. also nan pND nsisn, II, 10. 

(2) Or. 5549, III (see Margoliouih, Catafogue, III, 563) contains 
entries relating to the Nagid Abraham and his family. The dates of 
their respective birth and demise remove some of the chronological 
difficulties of those given by Sambari (as discussed by Brann, Mtschr., 
XLIV, 14 fF.). Fdl. 3, recto states that Abraham's grandson and 
namesake, Abraham, was born on the 22nd of Elul, 1556 Sel. (1245 c.e.), 
and was circumcised on New Year of 1557 Sel. (^'^J^f* yiabx mxi'l 

tJpns T\Vi> Tm!T\ B'NT; cp. Brann, I.e., 19-20). After him his brother 
Solonjon was born but the date was unknown to the writer (noi'B' T fT'DNI 
IN^X •'^X nnsl^l 'inNn ppnx 12^1 mw). Verso contains entries reporting 
the demise of the Sheikh Abu'l Ma'ali b. al-Sheikh IDNHD^X UN npni>N 
l?t 'l^i'X ' on the 2nd of Tammuz, 1533 Sel. (1222 c.e.), of the Sheikh 
Abu Ishak (probably = Abraham b. Hillel, above, p. 327) in Adar, 
1335 Sel. (1224 C.E.), and of the Nagid Abraham (Maimuni) on the night 
of Kislev i8th, 1549 Sel. (1237). 

Fol. 4, recto, records that n^n '~\ ^?3T'D (i.e. the later Nagid David b. 
Abraham) was born in Tebet, 1534 Sel. (1222 c.e.). His appointment as 
Nagid (nosn) was in Ab, 1549 Sel. (1238 c.e.) a few months after his 
father's death. David was then 16 years old. Verso contains a few 
more entries with dates, but the script is very difficult to read. 

A supposed elegy on Abraham Maimuni is published by Halberstam, 
T ^V PP, 1899, pp. 2-4. It has the superscription amax im 'S n*niD 
^i D2D"in p. Two persons, named Moses and Abraham, are mentioned 
therein, 3py' iJWJ ' DU133 pnE'01 {"nx 1V3 D^n^X ^333 DHI DT'-X '"VO 
D''31p3 WxijlOl ^N 'SD1 T\\y^' 'K'XT. Now, neither Maimonides nor his son 
ever were Geonim presiding over academies (see above, p. 316). In spite 
of the heading, it is very doubtful whether the elegy was really composed 
on our Abraham. 

(3) Abraham's son, David Nagid, was away for several years in 'Akko. 
This we learn from a poem composed by Joseph b. Tanhum Yerushalmi, 
who seems to have been well acquainted with the Nagid and his family, 
Or. 2558 (cp. Margoliouth, Catalogue, III, 253 ff.) contains this poet's 

' Probably identical with Maimonides brother-in-law whose sister married the 
great sage (see Arab. Liter., p. 199). His Hebrew name was 'Uzziel (see above, 
p. 319, note 13). 

Appendix D {to Chapter V) 329 

Diwan. Fol. d'^ has the following superscription n»n '~\ "Vlh^ 'h^ 3n31 

\''-:a mo nay 's xnjy nna'3 nya ivd i^jn nnwnxn ny^DD i:y vV 
(see also Brody, /. c ., p. 17, where nay is wrongly transcribed as n:y). 
The Nagid is addressed as minil ntt''' n<j2l • miynn ''B'NT B'KT. His 
sons Abraham and Solomon are also greeted. The poet styles himself 
'oi'tinTn DinJn nn p rpy nnnyn Tyv. Another poem Joseph 
composed on the occasion of the marriage of the Nagid's son Abraham 

(fol. 9'^ m!?i Dny >d irti' Tin t i-jj^n ^i^x anai; 1. 13, 31d no •rajn nr' 

ixnp pen aN QC ^y mis lan Cyj nm). The Nagid's other sons are 
also mentioned. Other poems in honour of David are to be found on 
fols. 25a, 271*^ 28*. 

(4) T.-S. 13 J 9" contains a letter from a certain Benjamin to 
R. Hayyim, who seems to have been a respected elder. His son was 
a Dayyan. Greetings are sent to the Nagid David and his brother 
'Obadya. David is mentioned in documents T.-S. 13 J 4": at Fustat, 1564 
Sel. = 1253 c.E. ; T.-S. 13 J 4^: at Bilbais, n'TiiE'": nnniD p's'h naioon 
D''T':jn b T30 Dncn -ib* pnaion ain Tn imi mo i:jnNT ; T.-S. 13 J4": 
at Fustat, 1603 Sel. = 1292, ij^aani 'inn s^^3D 'liTja WJnsT nTiiB'-i 
n» Diimn ^n nn irmtri imi mo 'lyaina D[\-ii']s n'Cj "ircnBi 
min ijc nriTsj" b-nt • pNjn nynn ' )Dtn omo DTin''n ms'an Dit^ann 
WTjj ijjns n^jya mnn inTE'U awn 1:3 •'o^'ai min'"i ijNnK" yc'in VD'a 
•ion njsjs •mm •'ja riy •n-iNsrin ^p» l^nan ann omax wani i:id 

miaa iri •min DIT' -p^S N^ oy; Add. 3124: dated 1295 (Worman, 
/.^.i?., XVm, 15, note7). 

(5) Of David's four sons, Isaac, Solomon, Jacob, and Abraham, the 
latter succeeded him as Nagid. As we have seen he held the title of 
Nagid already in 1292 during his father's lifetime. In his turn he had 
three sons, Moses, 'Obadya, and Joshua. The latter was the next 
Nagid. In 1355 Joshua was gathered to his fathers. But his brother 
'Obadya preceded him. This is evident from T.-S. 24. 63 from which 
the following lines are excerpted ; — 

Verso has the address . . . [T:]m yisyw' | NJT'iD . . . nonnD 'i'X . . . 

•nii'np»n ne'i -ni^npn nss "B'Nn^ (3) ... □"sia^ niDibc (recto, 1. 1) 
... (8) D'oann Dn''j:n 'h\rw^ Noa b yah 'hm oa (4) ina -ityx 
D'jprn mam on^j^n i"'3 yiB'ini >an irani (9) irno ntrnp nhn: nua on 
inana '\'^t\ mia-on apy Djnay yni» . . . (29) . . . o^Junn (10) 

1 Worman, /. Q. R., XVIII, 15, note 6, makes of this expression |CTn ''3TUa 
' the Mordecai of the time ' (.i. e. the leader of Jewry), a separate Gaon (see also 
above, p. 287, note i). 

330 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e. to 1204 c. e. 

"tys3 niha ••'B'xt (31) mos? Jjiajn • ■•nn inaB*! »Jir dw Danuai) (30) 
"nxun 1DSVB' ^yi ^aiv an i'S? "'nin^N (32) 13-1 o natf isy pvtk nN^ 
ns^DN h'i ^-2 , . . (37) ... "a!? ciB'D naa'i -n'r nijji 'nwo (33) bx 
• n»3i no3 nnx ^y ':x 'E'esji • nDDic ts'SJ b (39) D^Tjan jo nnaiy m 
-iDina ani3 inan "s (47) d^o i'N mityon apj)» 'niijDDijN . . . (46) 

''^X B'np (48) =Dn:3 (repeated in the manuscript) X01 ND1 ^n!? pN n*! 

nvB* "n rsh (49) (r. kd, Arabic for p^?) no D"3y inan bsi •'?' |n anja 

DN'PD JJX 'SJ lliiDD^N ■* bsS NIH DTOD (50) i J3 ff^H ^JX nyiB" T D^V3 

raK'o (52) pipn pKi xnn*D"a pk'dt jo nn'i> b (51) DnK-ns lii 
nx pnv vniD nisx bx nteo (53) ^xi xn"D D^y nna p nxn nx 
nana ^x (55) D3Dnxn»i ncan ^x ^bncn ijnpn nx pnvi (54) xjx^id 

n^'xy r\ ^y<<h ni'^xv^i' n3 {56) nynox "ra ni^ool^x ijxn ^3 •ns: i^x 

3py* D3nDn mio (61) . . . nibnpn ^hi iiyi aa^b (57) P' maxn ni2ti 

.nn ■'3nyD nn -13 pnv^ (62) -13 nanay •'3'n3nn 

(6) Finally, reference is made to Bodi. 2834", being a letter to an 
Egyptian community signed by miH/B' nn3''t5" B-XT "VVin yiB'ini 133T3 nn 

^c nn3''B''' B'xn n^jjn nn i:3-m minn nx n^onn Tijjn Dm3x im'3 
i33n"i3 |ix:n hb-d 103^3 mxann ^po Tonn amax ij3-t3 min 

.^Fi^T po'o 

This David lived for some time in Damascus (see Arab. Liter., § 162'') 
and also in Aleppo where we find him in 1379, as we learn from the 
colophon of Abraham Maimuni's responsa to Daniel Habbabli (Bodl. 628, 
more fully in H.B., VI, 114, note i). The work was first copied for 
his own use by Samuel b. Yehoseph (fol. 3'"- VXli'X HOB)!' niDinOX XD 
bivr TOnn 3-in eiOin'' ^1'\1 i^XIDtr n3-| nom), probably identical with 
the signatory of the circular letter by the Nasi of Damascus in 1286 
(vol. I, p. 248, note i). It was acquired first by Isaac PXIOC ain 13 
niBOn (perhaps a descendant of Isaac b. Samuel the Spaniard of the 
beginning of the twelfth century, above, pp. 231-3). On fol. i" we read 

nn ^[x-ic'' ^Jnijxa nDi3[n i]3x 3n3i . . . pinyo npnv'to I'n^^P 
nn3 n3iv n3n!03 pxjn ncD urn [p]: i^Jjn ywin'' (ij3T'3=) 't3 
d:x (r. 3np'') mp' yty' rrc^-h D'p'n nnaB'i' xVn'n'x nJB' pcmo 

(ni^D ns: px =^ ). Thus the work came afterwards into the possession of 
a certain Sedakah, who sold it to our David at Aleppo. A similar 
'ex libris' we have in Bodl. 8,58, »3 [nn] ^JXn n3y 31131 . . . p IWip 

1 'The servant', in Hebrew 1.1^T\. 2 Read Dnr3. 

8 Read N^X. « Read i)VX1, IV of J^j. 

Appendix D [to Chapter V) 331 

Another colophon of a copy of Abr. Maimuni's Pent, commentary 
(Bodl. 276, see JI. B., I.e.) slates that the work was written in Aleppo at 
the beginning of 1375 for our David, who is styled therein DTJjn Ti: and 
mini'a' rmyv CNT. Probably he resided then already in this city. 
He must have occupied the office of Nagid in Egypt for some time. 
But it is unknown why he had to leave this country and spend several 
years in Syria.' 

34. [Vol. I, p. 248.] 

Concerning certain compositions ascribed to A braham Maimuni. 

(i) A number of fragments bearing on Abraham Maimuni (published 
by Neubauer, Hammagid, XVI, 151, Israel. Letterbode, III, .51-6, from 
Oxford manuscripts, cp. Bodl. 131 5) should be analysed here as they 
have not been fully understood. The first piece (in Hammagid, 'n) is 
apparently the conclusion of an epistle to our Abraham. His correspondent 
intended to write to his father. But meanwhile the great sage died. 
Abraham is comforted and encouraged. The letter, as far as preserved, 

begins: bi • msiD nvni) • mano mao -an^ Tntsin inDwa . . . 
i'x eiD«''i 'VD' ixi'D •'3 "ssn c^sfn N^i ""vn torn n^dw Tnana \wh 
i> nn . . . •Myira '^^ nir di^e' xn'' -uit:! ipns m^x inN^vc 'tosj 

(i. e. of the departed) I.TTO D (r. nvi) nxi D'.I^K ''3 nisn »T« inB' 

. . . tiVKib inbv^ D-\') . . . i:n ybv 'n ;n' 'un i:n noxai Mr^ya 

. . . i»y ms^b am ai) ^^ tn'i 

(2) The next piece (fully printed in Lelterhode, pp. 51-2) has the 

superscription i>"r TiK* P pn:i' iiw ^SN b'r nsj-D '3 DmaN 'id ana. 

The recipient of the epistle was the Bagdad Gaon Isaac b. Israel ibn 
Shuwweih, who is mentioned as head of the school already in 1 2 2 1 (see 
Pozn., Babyl. Geon., pp. 42 ff.). It is doubtful whether its author was 
Abraham Maimuni, as Pozn. (I.e., 43-4) assumes without much ado. 
We read in the letter (p. 52, 1. i ff.) bv. Dnon miD 'oanD an Dli'B' NB" 

' Cp. also H. B., I, 21 : Sa'id ibn Daud of Aden (15th century, see Arab. Liter., 
§ 202) found in Aleppo a copy of the Arab, commentary on Mishne Torah, Book I, 
by Muwakkit 'Ala ad-Din which was written by our David b. Joshu'a (see especially, 
Margoliouth, /. Q. R., XIII, 488 ff. and cp. p. 497). 

332 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e. to 1204 c. E. 

inN imin n^s? Mria''B'i msi'D hndi -inDan 'rvoo D-asitri 'inyDCD 
. . . riB'D 'T'3 Dmns 'ncTii omaK ■>xh>A nas? nay minn »3t3pD. 

With all the customary phraseology of those times, it is not likely that 
the Nagid would have written in such a submissive manner, especially 
since his father met with opposition on the part of a previous Bagdad 
Gaon, Samuel b. 'Ali. It is also improbable that when writing to Bagdad, 
Abraham would call the scholars of Cairo mtD 'MH, a term applicable 
only when in contrast to those of Spain and the Magreb. The letter 
more likely came from a scholar somewhere in 'Irak whose community 
stood under the authority of the Bagdad school (cp. 1. 17 ff. ^JHN nnjjl 

(3) The third fragment {Leiierbode, p. 52, 1. 3 ff., from bottom) is 
a copy of an epistle from a Nasi to a certain congregation. , , . nriN HDi: 

Nin . . . vi5n i'3D ppinci miniD Dnc niD' n^ 'h^vi^rh rdu 'jn hnd 
nxB'i psn anpn vn^ • onnan onB'n ^^^ db'n"13 . . . trnipn n^np 
nici^B' irnx Mtw . . . i:n3i;cD Di^r ''c^'^^ . . . i^nna noiE' Dyn 
in nora nt^N • mu'nn ne'i • myn nnxDi . . . nis'B'jn ive-'o nii'Tij 
.nyi' Dni^ mry 'D'sod vcmai -DoboJ ijun 

(4) The only genuine fragment emanating from Abraham Maimuni 
is the copy of his letter, written in 1232 c. e., wherein interesting details 
about his literary work are given {Letterbode, pp. 53-4, ^VN ITCM 2n3 riDU 
pD-D 'Ta i^nin ann he'd 'n^a cmas). Its details need not be discussed 
here, as they were already dealt with by others (see e. g. Steinschneider, 
Arab. Liter., § 159). 

(5) Thereupon follow two elegies on the death of a scholar Jacob 
[Leiterbode, pp. 54-6). The first poein (1) has the superscription 

y'vr apy 'n '•'am 'no pxjn mn m'ca hv (who?) nanc mjxn hdij 

while the second (II) begins V'r 3pj!^ 'll 'no 1133 ^y n»N: my. 
Neubauer is certain that the author was Abraham Maimuni, but hesitates 
to connect the late scholar with R. Jacob Tam of France ! In Bodl. 131 5 
he makes the second elegy to be on the death of two Rabbis, Jacob and 
Benjamin. But a close examination of the pieces shows that this Jacob 
was no Gaon (in spite of the superscription) but Ab-Bet-Din (probably of 
the Bagdad school), that he was buried in Nehardea and also that 
Benjamin was one of his sons. The contemporary Gaon is also alluded 
to in the poems, though anonymously. We give here the essential lines 
in the usual form indicating the metre. 

Appendix D [to Chapter V) 

nbvi nrsB' i^x Sbv] mjs: 3113 b^ fp.':pN wt??' 3i5jr: rriH 7 

rhv.f ni^NB* ax ■'n'jv n-iv "1133 by n-jiyn 'Dsn npx"' m 

'nb^s ^niD3 Dnio naV «2ipy bab "itf* apy: =1311 fin 12 

'J n^npj ncJiip db' njnp !?3 u'x-i inyi iJhx n:? « 3''n': ^fyi 15 

nS^S3i !3i33 ijK^ iinne'n i3^ ne' nbijlj n333 dud mpo 

ion^3p i^3N3 |ir biv^ n-jy 3.^1 I'ja naSj ns am) bx dj is 

• Here Cherub is connected with a scholar, since he studied the Torah which 
was in the Ark that was adorned with Cherubim above it. Cp. also the famous 
elegy of Bar Kappara on the death of Rabbi, whom he compared to the Holy Ark 
(Ket. 104* B'nipn }nN natyjl). The expression 'hidden' in connexion with the 
Cherubim refers to the well-known tradition that the Ark (and the Cherubim) were 
hidden by King Joshiah and were not to be found in the second Temple (see 
Yoma 53", 54% Horayot iz% Keritot s"). 

^ In Jer. 50. 7 this expression is a figure of speech for God. Here it is for 
a scholar. 

' = N1D3 . The metre demands the above abbreviation. 

* The printed text, as no doubt the manuscript, has Dn''3'3''y. 

■• The printed text has "11 '1)0. But the metre clearly requires the full spelling. 

' Cp. Isa. 40. 4. 

' Quivered (in terror), Hab. 3. 16. 

8 The printed text reads 3^11' 312^31 . But the above reading is no doubt more 
suitable. 3*11"' IC is the well-known place in Nehardea where an ancient synagogue 
has been built, according to tradition, by king Yekonya after he came to Babylon 
as a prisoner. See Meg. 29', R. H. 24", 'A. Z. 43", Nidda 13". Sherira in his 

letter (Neub. I, 26) writes xnnnjl? inrn"N . . . H'ja'' m^a ^Nn2" I^JJ -ID 
iN'3nB' isyi D''33S3 inHDM xne^ja [u] inyoi nmn^ i^io r\'>iy nnn i:3i 
x];"nnj3 s^ni 3^1*1 ^ivi sntt'03 u aVinb nvipi . . . ^ipon n^3D onoy 

|[0 3B'''1 15'nptDn nU yoi^ IDlba . The synagogue was visited both by Benjamin 
of Tudela and Petahya of Regensburg (see Itineraries, ed. Adler, p. 46 and ed. 
Griinhut, p. 17). The latter found it waste, without a roof. 

» ' For the head of all the holy congregation (it) assembled there ' to attend his 
funeral (ntTllp nirip ^3 has to be taken twice, viz. : niripJ DIJ" TWTip HPHp 73 

na'np nbnp b cxi ii3y3). 

" thzo agrees with Jjiyi? ; in prose it would be 7iy n?3D , but here SyP 's 
required by the metre. 

!34 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e. to 1204 c. E. 

n^ntsp nxxo naiils niKsi 
n^lsiD -lisK*;! ibB* Diia nypa 

* n^3D DPivii injun imx 

ijnsj 13 D51 niin D?n nb ^in 

ijj3b»^ i»n3 nDan 'np 'bai'' 

^ys^n nninB' oanaa^ v^v 

nyapn insp!5 ni^pja ^ris 

^veB*^ niyp'i ps byi 123; 

"ijn3nn DJi iniD nin nj 

ia? my? nnif lin D'n$s -ij Kin 
Dnp^^ ni:un ny nsa? Dx 

■133 ni!33p n:a ji^yi '3n dk "is 

\^!< 3''B'n N^n II* 133 npppi 

i>3b »3 initsn ii) n>n'' ijsn 


i^!j33 Dpna Dy d^^s ^'h''^ 10 

- : - • : T ; T : tt 

vnn D^bsK VTp^nb iips 14 
^31 niy U3 3in apy: hv i}' 

apy: n^np 3in apy: by 
-'Di ib 9-ipan isba ipjj 20 
"'•'nan moi 'obtpn^ niobn 

> Cp. pxn ;»y, Exod. 10. 5, 15. 

- =''31P3. The abbreviation is demanded by the metre. The Gaon eulogized 
here is not mentioned by name. 

^ niniajn would be more correct. 

' Cp. Isa. 44. 25. 

^ The printed text has np?T3, which gives a meaning the reverse of what is 
expected. T\772i is obviously more suitable, i. c. ' every desirable quality is com- 
bined in them' (the Gaon's sons). 73? is required by metre ; of course mO 73 
np733 . . , mien is more correct. 

" ' These ' (qualities) are enumerated in the lines left out here. 

' The printed text reads P3Vri1 which gives no meaning. ?av, i. e, the period 
of time comprised within half a century, is a synonym of in. Thus ' the unique 
(person) of the generation and the period '. 

* A word like D1'' has to be understood here, i. c. ' and in all (331 for 7331 to suit 
the metre) synagogues fix (a day) for his mourning'. 

' =t<nD3n. The abbreviation is for metre's sake. 

'" What part of the Talmudic literature is designated by '031 ITD is not clear. 
Of course our poet was limited in his expression by the metre. He may have 
meant S<31 IPvX IID. But more likely it stands for the Tosefta and Baraita. 
We find that the collections of R. Hoshaya, Bar Kappara, and R. Hiyya are 
called ni?nj nV36^'D (Yer. Hor. Ill, end, and elsewhere). IID in connexion 
with n^Q is well-known (cp. HJE'D mO). Accordingly Tiai IID means the 
' great collection ' of extraneous Mishnayot (Baraitot) embodied in the Tosefta. 

" From yD ' rend ', as a sign of mourning ; 113 , from "IW, to shake one's head as 
a sign of grief. Here the mourning is done by the Talmudic literature because 
their great authority is dead. 

Appendix D [to Chapter V) 335 

iV"!3^ D'osn ^3 'h -iB^N W3 ! -h«^ Da njn: D';m ' vpj 26 

lyapj nivii nioan iai ncsn -iwxa ^sn nn^ pi?)??^ nenja lisiN 31 

<ij)»b' ivora n? boa aa^ ^a1 ipj Qi) sin ^lafe'Di p?? 

ij^isa^ a:) nasi i^Naa'Di i^ya ni-1^1 bx tj-i.t ib'n 

WD^ DJiNi Drni\i] oa^ -d!i Minx aS nw Dn:^ iab 

^y3o« nxD ny niUDT eory -oi ritj'b' ''ba D^ax lisn' lis 


It is evident from these lines that the lamented scholar was an 
Ab-Bet-Din (I, 1. 8) somewhere in Babylon. He was buried in the 
neighbourhood of the famous synagogue of Shafyetib (in Nehardea, 1. 1 5). 
Indeed, from a responsum by R. Hai it appears that people regarded it 
as a great honour to be buried in Nehardea, so that bodies used to be 
removed to Bagdad for re-interment there.' Likewise we find here our 
Jacob taken to Shafyetib for his last resting place. He was probably Ab 
of the school of Bagdad, since the poet in his elegy refers to the then 
Gaon who has been spared fortunately for the study of the Torah 
(I, 20 ff., II, 26 ff.). Jacob's sons are consoled (I, I. 18). One of them 
was Benjamin (II. 31) who is complimented for his mental abilities. Who 
the author of the poems was is entirely obscure since he fails to mention 
the Gaon by name. Perhaps our elegies are a part of El'azar b. Jacob 
Habbabli's Diwan which furnishes so much material about the Bagdad 
academy during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries (see especially, Pozn., 
Baiyl. Geon., p. 5 ff.). Abraham Maimuni's authorship of these poems is 

1 The late scholar ' made his last journey ', but fortunately the Gaon has been 

" The printed text reads "HX^ rUHJ D"nni PDJ which forms a faulty hemistich. 
By emending D^nni into D^TII and inserting DJ after rUflJ the metre is re- 

3 In the sense of [jain Sabc 

* In prose WOB' IJJOK', here IJIOE'a for sake of the metre. 

"OrVPIS. ' " « In the printed text DrPO. 

' Ibn Gayyat in his nnDC njIB', II, 73-4, quotes the following responsum : 

p^2lpc^' E'^ si'N loipca ^apD non nx pTiynb uanjo ps *»Nn an ncNi 
Dns nay bt< nixona noa mis ^^■'•ivo tor nnxi (r. mjaa) naaa non ns* 
mpo!' DipDD ntJ'Nn m»sy npnyn pjyh . . . iicc'^ nmon nanob lanyDn 
niDriB'a a'ysi . . . ^a niwi? vbv ns: noa dhdin n'Jpin [d pyDitr iJ"n 
liD''E"n nano bs niasB' n^a ^jk m3a[D] nn'u ns D^n^w naiti'n hb'n 

'131 nana pX niO^X ism. There is no doubt that nUNK' 'n'B is a corruption for 
Peroz Shabur= Nehardea (see Bamberger, note 735 in [jn' pnS''). 

336 Egyptian Affairs, c 1050 c. e. to 1204 c. e. 

not indicated at all, and is not likely. In diction and in thought they 
appear to be the product of an accomplished poet acquainted also with 
the artifices of the metre. So far there is no evidence that the Nagid 
was a devotee of the muse. 

35. [Vol. I, pp. 249-55.] 

Data relating to several Egyptian Jews of prominence. 

We collect here data about a number of Egyptian Jews of prominence 
who are not mentioned in the preceding pages. 

(i) T.-S. 16. 267, very faded, contains a letter addressed to 

m^a . . . (4) . . , [niran or nra'^ln f|ii'« min |pr irnni ... (1. 3) 
T^^h »3N ppinB'oi . . . (10) iiiivjn lin^jn " nn [njsion pnv 
pj5 twn anaa mionn ^^'1 (n) naion nnona (r. <j-ij3Dn»') ''jnjje'ntj' 
ry Taa '"tj" ^vf\ p n'ai l^npn tf'sn T'asn -\vr\ di^b* "yo id 
nnxi nrn anan dv . . . l^x '•nana p '■a nm^Das ^n -iiaa iniai (12) 
'nana vh\ iinNi) Dni:ni3yi nnns (13) 'k-'jx nu'^vo ia k**! ia piann 
nan pa^oi (14) om^n noana nan ^jnw Dn» Tnatne' hod D5Jd n^n 
. . . Qj? nava •'oy n^ n^nni iTiarn T^'Va njs'a'i nac^ dni nai nmo 
NmiDaK[a] .thnb' nan[N ■'Jnc' mtjjaa' mpo idvd nni'nnnc no (15) 
['JSDi] ^npiT Ijni irnn h^ [iiijncjn n\nn . . . (16) . , . r\yvr\ CNia 
hij m^B' [n'ktii] ... (17) T^v '"nmon inva lai? amx nnsB' 
■•c'* fji^Ni pn nui \7s^r\ B>xn] T'a[Kn n]B'n di^jb" nc' no pjai) (18) 

. . . KJcm [nnnj 

Signed by 

n 1 y ?a B» 
unn -i''3;vn vfoyo — nnpr n^sJDU' pj.'' 

T.-S. 13 K 7' (paper, top and bottom missing, damaged and faded) 
contains an elegy on the demise of Nissim the ' Third '. One of the 
mourners is Sar Shalom Ab-Bet-Din who is probably identical wilh 
the above person. I quote here a few lines: CpB' lljn HNT ?J? (r., 1. 23) 

i^niNia . . . D^3 iric dsn •'a onn: iyaB'[i] nss' ip'mni i^^i^-'ni hdd 
. . . me-h Dva niN» (l- 31) ... Q^iin vjvvni D^aia i''nxi di^b' -yzh 
aiajDi D^rvp p naajn ■'K'^i'e-'n D'dj lanc na'D[K ^jv n'']j^ya isddi 
• = na^'B'''. 

'^ If this Shema'ya is identical with Sheraa'ya Gaon (see vol. I, p. 249), then his 
descendant Menasse is perhaps tlie author of a poem in honour of El'azar b. Joseph 

Haiievi (T.-S. Box K 6, apJiJD D'JiKjn pj mini ^»a nc'JD nmin lav ^^T\). 

Appendix D (to Chapter V) 337 

. . . nh'i'o " ntyiy Nin ib-n i)3i . . . nxian UNaT-i ijonr ijxn (v., 1. 2) 
nii^np ^3^ . . . ''a nox^ [ff* ^^tini pi n''3 ax di^b* "ib> irjns nj [vdc] 
ni33 D^3is3i Dnt:' 133 (!. 10) . . . q^bis ns3D Dvin» in3ii ^sntj'' 
, . . nna '■a^ i^j naoi nnio nnoa TD[n] ''^■h^n d^dj ^s? * nnr nv»"i 

(2) MS. Adler 3363, fols. 1-2, cursive writing, contain a eulogy from 
an academy to a Halfon. • Di^B'N la^D nt^X (6) n3n . . . (fol. i, r., 1. 5) 

ijn' wai) p ^y • □■'i^e'D i'B'Di (7) nn'n oyija • D'^e'ia ustr naitri 
□ty iSj na-wn • n^^iyon ni^yD3 • D'^iyn b T'3k (8) ^-cm nmr • Tih^hni 
'ji 1133 i3n3'B»3 (10) -ip'^ni i3'^y n33:n ijnns uie' nih •D'i'njn OB'S (9) 
•nnnB'3 'V\''^'n (n, D^TDi5nn = ) i;nn mn inmnn nnxn ntt-n ps^n 
nnjNJ niai^B' xc'i ... (14) ... oniD'^ nyn ^3133 voai) wn ib's 
'oan riNDi . , . (20) . . . v nd3 n3''K'''n nvB'Di (18) . , . ni3n33 (15) 
. . . onijon onaion D'>i3nnD . . . (i, t., 1. 2) . . . noe'D hv oncwn minn 
[n]in mv "n ^y njnni nny nn^ttnon n-aioD (5) nxe-oi ... (4) 

between fols. i and 2 there seems to be) ... ' ^'^^ ilVT Qi"l*0^nn (6) 

i33itj'n n* iiy rhmr\ -niy^N loi^N d'dd miop I3npn3 (fol. 2, r., 3; a gap 
'liri i333n fpn iia^n=) ti'^n inx iJn in ri li N3311 no ni33 unins (4) 
IPtn »i^n ijNjnj smi Njno p:3 (5) i32pr 13^333 ;3 . . . (n3'B"n 3inK 
■inv3 (8) insc miD n3r3n d'^i^h nm i3m!i>n is'x-ii (7) ... -1333,1 
i3^n3*B>^i5 (10) in3nx na*Di ... (9) m33n inun3i vi'yea 3ian''bi'nD ne-xai 
1'i53101 VNS1D3 inU' '31 13nnN 13T«y NB''' (2, v., 6) . . . ^YTTwrh in3''ni 
iny3n ^3\in (n3''B>\n nyE'»i=) B'^n b'di . . . (9) . . . 3n ni^ty (7) 
'6^X11 iD^nni (in 3D 3-11 (n) y^BfiD X3 ny ny nioyij nD3iDn 
Qnsnni (12) n^ai^xn ns'i oyn (niK3v ■'B'xii Dn^oirini onsnn ^30=) 3V 
ns {13, nxB'!' = )xB'^ D''3V3n n''3in33 (D''3i»Dn = ) ioon nxB'i Dnaioni 
. . . '1331SP "n ^y D''b^an»1 n*3iyD nn ''3a. This fragment (by reason of 
the several abbreviations) seems to be a copy of a letter from the academy. 
Halfon sent a donation through Halfon Hallevi b. Netaneel. The latter 
is probably identical with the recipient of an epistle from Isaac Sijilmasi 
(/. Q. R., XIX, 730, XXVI ; therein is mentioned Abu Sa'ad ' the Sixth '). 
Another correspondent of this Halfon is 'Amram b. Isaac (ibid., 
no. XXXVII). See Bodl. 2874". Bodl, 2805'" is a letter to Fustat from 
Halfon Hallevi b. Menasseh. The address (verso) reads mnn npii? 
i333n I -inxn iB'n pa^n iio pii | 13ib'st moyi w^nsi i3nnNi i3nB' 
13 iDB* 1133 131 ijyi i3''n^x nty | ni^npn nibn yiB'ni 3''i3n ipvom 
1 = na^B'M. 

■^ ' The usual donation.' It seems that Halfon was a regular benefactor of the 

2240.2 Y 

338 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e. to 1204 c. e. 

^•21 nnsJDi noim N3»m | nnDj niiinpn nn: naasn nrn pnv nib | pja 
w nt^jD in ■'lijn pa^jn | [v^v] i'si' b^ariDi non miDi navo || n^nsniN 

I'NDp^X |3 . In the letter the Sheikh AbQ Sa'id Halfon Hallevi b. Netaneel 
is also mentioned. 

(3) An important Katib in the time of Maimonides was Abu'l-Barakat 
Yehuda Hakkohen b. El'azar. Bodl. 2878^* contains a letter to the 

Sheikh Abu'l Barakat TDD"'! irn^K In3"i3< niD^DH "IDID n33:n "IBTI 

. . . nna'n mien ^"2 n''n''i vt<n ^a iji^i niabon ■'^jja (r. irn) nrn. 

Bodl. 2834™ is a document wherein the witnesses testify that they went 
10 see the sick Sheikh Abu'l Fudail ino pJD WTnNI ^YW niniD^N 3i3D^N 

p [noi'B'] nxis-i irni5N inst pajni nann ajn iB>n Nsnn i'x^nip'' Jam 
la's: Nnn Dn[ni]Dn n^ps ^^^Dn nsion laajn na-n ncD mnNi ij'j^pt 

D''''nn "inva mnv who made certain bequests to Abu'l-Barakat the 

Katib nin ona'.-i mxsn ^^[nB'n nnjsn nt^n pan mm'' imNi mtj' 
DnB^n mxsn ^snc^a inNn iot pan ityljN xrw win p . , . D''an:n 
3)3 mnni Dunan Tin cnini. The document is dated 11 76 c.e. at 

The same titles we read in a letter (T.-S. 13 J 20'^) to pan min' 

mnn p . . . mnm D^anjn mn onini nnB-n mKsn •'" nya nnxn irn 
DTini Dne'n msBn " oya nnxn ntj'n pan itDi'N ivhnai lannxi mE* 
DB'^ Dhj'i irni^N Dana'' D'oiwrn D''anN3n Dnir'n •'jb' NmiijiS . . . bsr 
y^h'& njiaon ^E'N'n mou npi''cn 3n^53n nsn oeiNna . . . xh7\rh\ 
. . . ^^ ^^^^ jupn vhki . . . r\-n\f,-^r:) rhW invdn i^d^n ijjd. 

Thus Abu'l Barakat's elder son, El'azar, had the title Sa'ad al-Mulk, 
' the happiness of the kingdom '. He must have held an important 
position in the state. Another letter to our Yehuda Hakkohen is published 
by Kandel, Genizah Keziratok (Budapest, 1909, I-II). This publication 
is inaccessible to me and is only known to me from the reference in 
ZfHB, XVI, 92. That he was Nagid, as is stated there, is unlikely 
as he is not styled as such in the preceding fragments. 

(4) In T.-S. 6 J 2'o there is mentioned Din^Jin -vyi hnjn "I'Jjn in''-|DtJ' 
CTDnn B'NTi . His time cannot be ascertained from the very fragmentary 
piece. Bodl. 2517 contains Harizi's Tahkemoni with a dedication to the 
Nagid Shemaryahu b. David. Perhaps the above Nagid is meant.' 

' This Yekutiel the physician b. Moses is different from his namesake Yekutiel 
b. Moses the physician (only the father and not the son is styled thus) who is 
mentioned in a document dated 1409 Sel. (= 1098 c. e.) at Fustat (T.-S. 10 J 27*). 

2 See also H. B., XX, 134-5, where he is however styled Nagid of Yemen 


Appendix D {to Chapter V) 339 

(5) We hear of the following physicians in Egypt. In Fustat we have 
in 1066 a physician Ephraim b. Yefet. Or. 5557, F., fol. r has the 

following colophon, Nmi xiiD^ yj n^a -\2 pnii' aniDni nn'^'oi's non 
{sc. nT'vi') iahii njB' nat: tj-in . . . yj T'onn na' amo p xsnn nnsx 

nnniD snn: D1^''3 bvi OnvD tDNUOsa. Whether he is identical with the 
famous court physician Ephraim b. al-Zafan (see Steinschneider, Aral>. 
Liter., § 142) cannot be ascertained, though the time would fit in well as 
he was a disciple of 'Ali ibn Ridhwan who died in 1068. We further 
hear of an important doctor named Elijah. T.-S. 13 J 26" contains a 
letter from pan mw | DnNai'N to xain ywn'n b^nc^a n33:n -wr\ in»^N 
. . . Di3''vpni Di3i5»n •'j''5J3 3i[2 bri fn its'-sci hifn!ir< noiB' n-Q"' pajn 
. . . ^nan ntrn ^1^ NJm nion nx nna'^l. Another physician of influence 
was Zekarya b. Elijah Rosh Hakkahal. Or. 5542, fol. 13, contains an 

epistle beginning ~WT\ nnar uam wnD riB'np rhr^i nusb an oiba' (1) 
mcyi (3) iJ''3''y "iix ni no np "iJ niaa na Nsnn ^Nityu hnjn (2) 
DiDB''' ^npn csn (4) hnscn tiyon ^Nnt5'''3 hnjn ne^n n^iss irt^Nn 
dW pa' nT'a (5) xh^h doc ^T Q"iTj;a n^nn mvv. Elijah was perhaps 
the recipient of the epistle {J-Q- J?., XIX, 739, no. LXIX) addressed to 

(6) Another state official seems to have been Abraham b. El'azar. 
Or. 5856 contains a begging letter addressed to him by Joseph Hakkohen 
b. El'azar. wam KJiD nmip rkm niaa t^nip nmn <jd ba (11. 23-6) 
nar nna nhyon an:n aicnn naain ipin ^itf nrvi's na ncn omas 
-iryi'x 'ana noi'' 'Jx niaa b-aa "bbn nnic 'nana nionn i:ai Nin nanab 
nvam^i nonh mi) (^f. God) ■ man^i (38) . . . aii^yni aisnn nbun ;nan 

.rxn bs 'ryai onB'm maijon (r. lyyai) ^rya vrya (39) 

(7) T.-S. Box K. 6 contains the following colophon : apy na !1D1* 

1 naxih in nu n>-\iDt> na | na[v]ih nnoon pnn ^idv ^a | ' nairin iihb 
(or f) ivnn-i n:a fim^ba Knn ['m]p \ naiiii pn ira (!) nmac na . 
Accordingly our Joseph lived in 1 136-7. His father Jacob was no judge 
but his grandfather and namesake was Dayyan, while his remoter ancestors 
Shemarya and Menahem presided over a court (pn nu = pT nu B'Kl). 
Nothing further is known about them. Another colophon in the same 
box reads (recto, verso ,blank) (r. p'Slil^JNl) p^KH^NI nNlHB'i'N axna 

^an yn li^ii | iy n^r onvo tviv b^ \ pn n^a pnv nn tiDvi' | ^oxa. 

1 =D'"nn insa mnv inoa'J ''nn D^iy "ni). 

2 =Kan oijiyn "ni? unan nyi D^iy '^ni) uinat. 

Y 2 

340 Egyptian Affairs, c. 1050 c. e. to 1204 c. e. 

On left-hand top corner tb'hN ] n3D D~in3. This work on the laws of 
evidence and documents (no doubt by Sa'adya Gaon)' belonged to 
Joseph whose father was president of a court at Fustat. Joseph evidently 
lived in 1 107-8. 

(8) Bodl. 2876^" "■ contains the remainder of an epistle to an important 
dignitary. The first four lines preserved are in verse but the metre is 

very faulty. niD3ni nr3 ^x 13 DB' "iB'x "'1^ 'ja hi "ixa ir3n[N] (i) 
^D'om Dj D'3»t>''' Dv pa^pi '^Nnxn pa rm^h in'or' (2) o^nnnn 
nanaa bs wani'' (4) aiona 'ua -hj'n li's^m "* oyi^a nnni5 nan (3) 
"niDXJjni niiDNjn niaian bi (5) 'ov^iisn D^n dji d^id rm -nprii jn 
^njn neri irans^ movi "iss vn'i lajvii vnx'' nnni (6) ni33 isa 'sd 
nnai .Tii? inai min nna cina (7) n[va]i«a nniajDn npiiom laiaon 

iDni'i \rh (9) injrT'i ia^^ ni^ntyD jn'' ^ .iap niaiiD nnai am (8) db'i nxni 

nci D^Dnom nima:ni njB'Dm ^^D^ (lol 'ryai napn 'yya o^Dmi mm 

.n^D *x N (12) VNn b »3'j?ai niai^nn ib'jn i)3 ^vv^ niai'Dn (n) 
The person thus eulogized was evidently a Levite and was influential at 
the Court. 

1 About Sa'adya's p^Nhll^X 3Xna (probably = ni"lD{I'n ISO), see Steinschneider, 
Arab. Liter., p. 49, no. 7, and cp. also Pozn., J. Q. R., XIII, p. 329, no. 78. 
^ From QIT 'to slumber'. ^ j g Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph. 

^ Formed from DX3,as the prophets usually introduce their oracles with the formula 

" DXJ. 

= = Nin ina ti'np[n]. " = pN px. 


I (to Vol. I, Chapter I). 

(I, 37, note i.) My suggestion to read -|imn for TiDTD (in the Genizah 
letter published by Schechter in Berliner Festschriff) is not favoured by 
Prof. A. Marx who has kindly consulted the manuscript and found 
that the reading in the original was not "iiDina (communication, dated 
September 5, 1919). He would read 3lDnD3 but has to admit his 
inability to explain the word. 

(I, 38-41.) Though Solomon b. Yehuda and the writer of the epistle 
of 1 020- 1 seem to have had an unfavourable opinion of Elhanan b. 
Shemarya, others held him in high esteem. This is evident from 
T.-S. 12. 153 which contains the beginning of a letter from the 
Palestinian community in Fustat to Elhanan. The address on verso 
reads : 

hT\\> '[jfiit n''yv xsa iio ip nj 33 n-nn mpii) 

•[in]3B' O'Dvyoi ipns pais inaoiT'i in[ns3"'i] 

After a long exordium recto continues on 1. 12 ff., "ilb "ip ij 33 Nin 
n^un ipt UN'CJ Mrry none 'lytfN-) mDj? •u'mNsn nrii 'ijn:i mix 
imtv^i ini"'n''i W imoB" ^3-11 ib» inp''3V'' pn3iDn hy\v\ 3-in ijnbs 
bij B'snn 3-in innoB' ii6 p "ia 33 p ipnv pon insorT'i in30D''i irnvj"! 
PK ny niyn3i -ipn px ny niTJoi nixinnE'n un • pj) im: h^'W 
l5n5i popi 'mjjn •'ryi d^dj-isi D'^rm n^jpr D'o^tyiTn br\'^ i:d 'nsoD 
nnNC yocntJ' ny ^331 . . . xb idi^b' ne'm '3 ij'jhn yni ^npn nxtyi 
Cptyi V^C. No more of the fragment is preserved. 

(I, 47.) According to R. Hartmann, PalasHna unter den Arabern, 
I9i5> P- 33j Jerusalem should have been temporarily occupied by the 
Byzantines during the campaign of the Emperor Nicephorus Phocas. 
Hartmann does not indicate his source and from the tenor of his statement 
it seems that he himself is hot convinced of the veracity of this report. 

' The dots above the word indicate that it should be deleted. 

' Cp. Isa. 19. 20. 

' The communal leaders. For this expression see above, p. 218, note 9. 

342 Supplement to Chapter I 

(I, 48, note 2.) The editor of the Pesikta seems to have also 
incorporated here older material. Thus at the bottom of p. 158^ we 
read a statement •syvr^'n 13N1 DniN nnosD 'h''^ bv ni3r N^jn "in 'm nos 
Dn'inN. It is difficult to ascertain whether this Rabbi actuallj' made 
his remark with reference to ' the mourners for Zion '. He may have 
originally made it in quite a different connexion but the editor of the 
Pesikta inserted it here for his purpose. Moreover, the very name of 
Rabbi b. Haninah is unknown. Bacher, Pal. Amorder, I, 431, note 4, 
suggests the reading of R. Jose b. Haninah (thus the misprint there 
WJn 'DV 13 'n is to be corrected). 

(I, 54.) In a more recent paper (in Schwarz Festschrift, 1917), which 
has been inaccessible to me while the first volume was printed, Dr. Poznafiski 
modifies some of his former views on the beginnings of the Palestinian 
Gaonate. Owing to new material he dates the establishment of the 
Gaonate backwards from 942, the year of Sa'adya's demise, to about 918. 
But even the latter date is now untenable by reason of our remarks in 
vol. I, 49 ff. Other points arising from Dr. Poznanski's article are dealt 
with in A. A. 15 and 22 (above, pp. 54 ff. and 73, note i). 

(I, 71.) Between Samuel Hakkohen and Joshiah we have to place 
the Gaon Shema'ya, whose descendants lived in Egypt towards the end 
of the eleventh century (see A. C. 28, above, p. 232, and cp. also 
Pozn., Babyl. Geon., no). The Dayan Abraham b. Shema'ya the 
Haber was a great-grandson of Shema'ya Gaon (Shema'ya the Haber 
being styled |1X3 irT'yDB' |'j). Thus these four generations comprise the 
whole of the eleventh century. Indeed T.-S. 12. 427 (paper, square 
writing, right-hand side torn off) mentions Shema'ya Gaon as already 
departed this life but his Ab Hananya Hakkohen as still alive. Now the 
latter we have fourid occupying the same position under Joshiah Gaon 
(vol. I, 73; above, pp. 73-4), The fragment reads as follows : 
nnv[D] ... (2) D'-vni'' uras o ncvi ninK- mnn . . . (recto, 1. i) 
n^oiri lUD any nD^ntyn p;[y] ... (3) pb mipo iniyTi n-ch unsr 
^JONn N^i . . . (5) HM o -iU'vn •'anvD nS D''3iDn n . . . (4) D'Dan 
li^xa jnjri'i ini>it vb , . , ■o . . . (6) n'ne' •'Jbd nip'sD ab^ nisnt: 
nutnn niDvi) n^jnan ni3Di ubvf nc vjm ... (7) 15? "pi nvMixn 
na . . . (9) IK D'yiD Tira nno {j-nsnni' hv:n nvpon ni . . . (8) 
Dm riNT n3x^»3 i>iy dt . . . (10) nnxoaE' b^-w b vh^ M'p-iyi 

1 Probably meaning 'and its veins' referring to a certain part of the animal. 

Supplement to Chapter I 343 

^SK Di^'anni rs^miA nvpo n[ay] . . . (n) ni[''D}» ^naa \'yhh':iz 


inan ni^jn xjm ^^isi iit ffvotr n[D ^a''B'^^ csnj (12) wnoi n33-i 

ID b ijy ni nnnni max ^Knty^ ps [psj n^ci] (13) in nu 2n 

niaSn ixip n^ji uinc^ D^ynv ors nn 13 n'' . . . (14) i'^N^B' 

rh^ m ijy novi lai p s^i? ^onon o uniNia [^n^i nsiDi ntj'-nc] {15,) 

^(litii) nD'ntrn nipji? irxni DiTiij? ijon orr'na [nspi n''K'»<n] (16) 

■i[di] . . . (18) "'3 hi\n iKt^: bni irim nn npc n^^'aion . . . (17) 

'rt^y DH'i'y nsdj [si'i] ... (19) no^'ncn D''yiv sba cxni irnn nD^c 

^n^a nisnoa *in'a k^i inon n[5?] . . . (20) i^^Dxn Ni>i n^r naKijoa 

nijiy N^i no-ID xi)! iT'onn n^ nna px cimniD ... (21) oaraD isv 

sanD *J33] (23) K^i D3n 'jaa noy* n^c nnsa 1:1333 d . . , (22) 

on . . . (24) worn pyiDj pT nu 3x1 na't^n B'xn [h'b'n" wjanr 

nnxi'i Dam 'ni'ir •ia'i3 . . . (25) nnnnsD n^i^ xi'i Dnn3nb dtiisdi 

131 -133 nac3 131 133 i3Dnni [ij]3[n3] ... (26) DHD nr lan \yiy^ 

.Di^ij ijyT DSDDsa [k3]iodS' pj[i5»m n:]ij[d] . . (27) vnrh 

Verso contains liturgical compositions and scribbling. The fragment 
is a copy of a document drawn up at Fustat and dealing with certain 
Shohetim who were accused of incompetency before the late Gaon 
Shema'ya and before his Ab Hananya Hakkohen. As a result, an 
epistle was issued by the Palestinian academy prohibiting the meat of 
animal slaughtered by these men. However, in Fustat, the Bet-Din 
testified to their integrity and qualification. The G aon and Ab mentioned 
on 1. 23 and both referred to as still living (NJOm pjno:) are very likely 
identical with Joshiah Gaon and Hananya Ab. It is difficult to explain 
why the latter, already Ab under Shema'ya, did not succeed him to the 
dignity on his demise. There must have been a special reason for 
the advancement of Joshiah in preference to the Ab who remained in 
his station. 

1 =N:Dm iTit::. 

2 To be deleted. Angular brackets indicate that the words enclosed are crossed 
through in the manuscript. 

s ' Falsehood, fault.' 

* Kna means 'to be astonished, appalled', see Ben-Jehuda^ Thesaurus, s.v. 
But this gives here no proper meaning. Read perhaps 1^3, a verb formed from 
Xyi3 'an abscess', especially in the lungs, which makes the animal HDID. Here 
the meaning would be ' they have not declared such cases IK'S except in accordance 
with their general custom '. 

344 Supplement to Chapter II 

II (to Vol. I, Chapter II). 

(I. 87 ff.) Another fragment dealing with Jewish captives who were 
brought to Alexandria is T.-S. 13 J 34' of which top and bottom are 
torn off. It is an epistle from the two Rabbinite communities at 
Alexandria (i. e. Palestinian and Babylonian) sent to a certain scholar 
who is complimented as pn21Dn 2"in (1. 3). Perhaps Elhanan b. Shemarya 
is meant as he is thus styled in the letter from Fustat (above, p. 341)- 
The writers report the arrival of five Jewish young men from iS^nDDN 
(evidently a Byzantine locality which however I am unable to identify) 
who have fallen captive into the hands of cruel masters. After great 
exertions the local Jews ransomed them for 100 dinars. Subsequentl}- 
these youths became ill. Here the fragment breaks off. 

It reads as follows : 



'2^1 Disy xihv pnaion ann ns: h^'yo'' •':3^ tijjki 

^IiDN W3 -wv. •niB'npn niijnpn 'ja i:ddi 'mm 'D''ni'x nso 

• d*[b'] . . . Dn'^Ki • D'' wino nnsn ny bn dxi • niK'o }h '" nn"J:[i] 5 
ninaTon i^Ni • n^^^-m id^ D:inDi • D''if pao nninni t^^'^^m'o on'-rv 
• D''t5'"i{j'-in nibnpDa K^npjn • D'K'np nioa j'lyjn ■hh\ • D'^b'ijd DinB"^ 

'['31] uiyb 
N33-I «n3 ' unCisn]: 'S't^^rh • irnl's •'Js^o D^ijxw wx T'on [nr ''Jsai] 

[iTja irnpN " f^rw dvd'' yns'' vnr hnt ["iJtfnpD] 10 

[s]ini 'n^v 

' Read \n^X ' the God of Horeb' (Sinai). 

''■ No Amon is identified with Alexandria already in Targum to Nahum 3. 8, 
cp. Gen. R. i'. See also the History of the Alexandrian Patriarchs of the Coptic 
Church (in Pairologia Orientalis, I, 105 bottom), ' a quarter of Alexandria which is 
called in the Hebrew language the city of Amon '- 

3 ' Established, settled.' 

* From the Aram. B'ja to suit the rhyme. The Hebrew would of course be 

s Readnin''Di. « = aTians. 

' Ps. 124. I ff. ' Cp. Isa. 53. 10. 

Sii,pplenient to Chapter II 345 

[pv ' y]nin maa -c^rb n^K ' □niB' nojo • in:inNi nona i'NCDn ^ ly* 
piny Dm i^imoDN pNo iyi)N n^ias^ nc-Bn dnud d*d\t i^''N3 vt'SB' 
nx ivantr ny irninn nx ip'sni . . . jjn n^»bs onrax 'Tia ii5D2i nnyj 

[D]i5nn''trE;' ny p^'yin n?i mnon u^^ca nn'^^y untynji mo ny wb-bj 

[flDDI 3n]t» 
..... ^b3[:]E> ny nnijiti mnoai onai ^iidi 'n dtib'si ncmi 
«B> nyn ne'x li' nssB' nyn nr^ Dnoisi ijdd nvnoin D''ijn bi 

[Dn]T3N n»» D^nB'n ib'N ii'''vnB' iy dovi nb^^ nptyi ompDyD i^Dana 
n[noB']a wdjub' [^]x nwi'yni nn^sna irnixn nviy nxnca lyn^x niyi 
n]n[n nJ^C' d'h^nh mi'p •'^inn oan lija: '3 onn i^nnoB' no^cj n^i 20 

' [DNsn^i 
N nnyi 

(I. 88.) Yeshu'a Hakkohen b. Joseph, the Haber of the Palestinian 
community in Alexandria, had at the beginning of his career to meet with 
a certain amount of opposition. Complaints against him were submitted 
to the Gaon of Palestine (probably Solomon Hakkohen, the predecessor 
of Solomon b. Yehuda) a fragment of whose reply is preserved in 
T.-S. 12. 328 (both top and bottom of which are torn off). The first 
six lines preserved contain greetings. From 1. 6 ff. the fragment continues 

as follows: jnsn nyw^ 3t no bv Tihy\\> lijooa npipnn namax 'nyj 
)i3n 131 Nin 'INT o D^JSN noNnJ nB-xa munn un ^sd muna iioon 
ID p DSTiiS-ipD p n^b-in.'o D'xan ^530 niyn "yi nm yoB'j Ni5i xin 
[vajxD ha xin -iox''i in^nxo nni innB'X"' nnx na oi'D D'xan n^'mixn 
nxty^Ji nijya [nn]D^ lan OE'a iniaaoDi miann 'ja iddd Dnnan ijyi 
Q'oinnn nnxi Dmi3 ^y . . . nii'[n]i' mix irro ^b nam xb'o mits 
Dm ^3 nox: na3 DJisnn nrB* -i»x'' ''»i 'maxn 3ni3 -I'sa D'ainsn an 
uans p 1D31 ini:n3im i3an3 njwx-in D3mjx nan ^yi v^x d^di: n3D 
. . . . ND pnn insiT ^idv no pJ3 'a D3Di udd a^yj xbi :inux ^x 
.... pnnoi .... ni^np^ ny . . . . -lyovni tjd n3'iM 

' = njy ' and may He (God) answer the request '. 

'^ Read nrw or D^io. ' = ynini>. 

" = DiJJya ' in their affair ', i. e. on their behalf. 

^ Ps. 144.15. ^ Cp. Ps. 107. 20. 

' =ny»3n. » Supply v^y. 

' I. e. most of the signatures are in the handwriting of the writer of the epistle. 

346 Supplement to Chapter II 

No more of the epistle is preserved. The Dayyan Joseph Hakkohen 
is evidently Yeshu'a's father then still alive. 

(I, 90.) Surri, the Teacher, b. Hayyim is a signatory to a document, 
dated 1033 c.e. at Alexandria, together with Aaron b. Yehuda the 
Reader, and Menuha Hakkohen b. Joseph (T.-S. 13 J i')} 

(I, 99.) The statement that Yehuda Hakkohen Rosh Hasseder was 
a son of Joseph Ab, the brother of Elijah Gaon, as the data discussed 
above (p. loi, note 2) rendered it probable, is now to be modified by 
T.-S. 8 K 22° which mentions Yehuda's grandfather by the name of 
El'azar. Hence Yehuda must have belonged to another branch of the 
priestly family of the Ab Yehoseph Hakkoken. It seems that the latter had 
two sons, one Solomon Gaon, the father of Elijah Gaon and Joseph Ab, 
and another El'azar,^ the father of Joseph, who in his turn gave birth to 
our Yehuda Rosh Hasseder. The latter held his degree not from the 
Palestinian school but from the Babylonian Exilarch Hezekiah. Yehudah 
was evidently connected with the Babylonian community in Fustat. 
He is therefore included in the Memorial List of the men prominent in 
this congregation (above, pp. loo-i). 

T.-S. 8 K 22', which furnishes the new information concerning our 
Yehuda, contains three paper leaves, damaged and torn. Fol. i* is 
blank ; verso consists of three lines beginning with 'l31 impo n^no TC . 
Fol. 2°- has the following colophon : 

mm'' irjHN uaii una Gia mi 
Ncnp m ^^vbv. p ^idv p pan 
^v>v\ ;n jT'a p npntDT spnno 
[ni^ba] CNT nn [p] in'pm'' uinsi'::' 5 

ui KD1 nxa:xi .... 

Fol. 2° ff. contains a list of liturgical compositions. It cannot be 
ascertained whether Yehuda was their author or merely copied 

' See about this document vol. I, p. 89, note i. 

^ This name occurs again in the family, viz. as a son of Solomon Hakkohen 
b. Joseph Ab (above, p. 63, C). 

' From here Yehuda is referred to. 

* The following titles again go back to Yehuda. 

Supplement to Chapter III 347 

III (to Vol. I, Chapter III). 

(I, 1 12-13.) The letter from Jerusalem to the Nasi David b. Hezekiah, 
the Exilarch of Babylon, is by Elijah Hakkohen b. Solomon Gaon, 
because T.-S. 6 J 9^ a fragment of an epistle from him to David, is in 
the same handwriting. Only the left-hand side of the heading is preserved. 

On recto we read • mtfon iiyn . . . | • jn pvin vnsB' ijyi • jnn np^ . . . 

nj . . . I N'E'n i.T-pTn uno wirw. . . . [niDy] | nw •mxQ[ni n]in 
I " • pion jnt • [pNJn iioy • j*-iq3 [loiy] . . . | invrni irjns p dm^in 
■ n^D [nVJ] . . . On the top margin we have the signature of the writer 

i)vr I pw p 1 'am 't^'^cn | pan in^^x | nai^a nmx. 
The address on verso reads : 

nv^j Iff nbun fsi in'prn' u^anx p 
We know that Elijah was 'Fourth' in the academy still in 1045 
(above, p. 65). Hence this epistle must have been written some time 
later when he had already advanced to the dignity of ' Third ' (see vol. I, 
pp. 185-6). It is obscure where David then resided. From the address 
it would seem that Hezekiah was then still alive, though nj>b 'H' can also 
be taken to refer only to his son David. 

(I, 114 ff.) The dissensions in Fustat between the two Haberim as 
well as the affair of the prisoners in Jerusalem are further dealt with in 
two more epistles from Solomon b. Yehuda, given here as I and II. 
In the first there is again a slighting allusion to Elhanan b. Shemarya 
and also to a letter that arrived from the head of the Bagdad school, i. e. 
Hai Gaon (1. 8 flf.). Solomon b. Yehuda describes how the people in 
the Holy City accused, him of refusing to help the prisoners though able 
to bring about their release. Owing to these annoyances he had to return 
to Ramlah after a stay in Jerusalem of less than a fortnight. The second 
letter is addressed to Ephraim b. Shemarya. Two consignments of 
donations from a certain Shemarya b. X. the Haber are referred to (recto, 
1. 5f.). He is perhaps identical with Shemarya b. Yefet (above, p. 130, 

' The mistake \7f\l\V\ is corrected on top. 

f Cp. Mic. a. 13. Evidently piSH there is taken by Elijah to mean the Messiah 
(cp. also Rashi a. 1.), hence a descendant of David. See also Kimhi a. 1. 

' =n-\i3n3. 

* ' David ' is to be understood twice, for the founder of the family, King David, 
and for his descendant and namesake, our Nasi David. 


Supplement to Chapter III 

1. 20, and p. 163, 1. 32). Then there are mentioned the 19^ d. (1. 8) 
for which the Nasi stood surety (see vol. I, p. 114 and above, p. 125, top). 
We hear of the Nasi's son-in-law Aaron (1. 9), perhaps identical with the 
person mentioned, ibid., 1. 17. Then there follows a long description 
of a certain building erected in Jerusalem either at the expense of 
Mebasser, the Babylonian, b. Hillel, or at that of a certain Mauhub 
Hakkohen and 'Obadya (1. 15 if.). Solomon b. Yehuda alludes to an 
epistle he sent to Joseph b. Jacob Alluf (i. e. b. 'Aubal, see_/. Q.R-, N. S., 
VIII, 357-8) to thank him for some favour (1. 29). Then we hear again 
(1. 29 if.) of the scholar who gave up his Palestinian diploma of Haber in 
exchange for the title Alluf-Resh Kallah. In conclusion the Gaon greets 
Ephraim's brother-in-law Joseph. On the other hand we hear of a Joseph 
who was Ephraim's son-in-law (above, p. no, bottom) and whose death 
took place in 1035 (see vol. I, p. 94). 


[T.-S. ioj27^ paper, square writing, verso blank; top torn, while 
bottom was stuck on to another leaf being its continuation, but now 
missing. The handwriting is that of Solomon b. Yehuda.] 


Tihm . 


D*n . , , . [^n]pni aw E^m'' . . . 
T'Vni'i . . . . DD nvniji 1 . . a nnaoa 31 

fimii in^nx nx tj"K nnnvn 

nasi D''UB' on ntJ-K qitdnd o^mar] . 
nnin njn -ictS nptr nm bv orb ino[3] . . 
riND ntj'x anao [d]ji vam hni ty^xn ns D[nv] . . . [\]:nhti i 
n^w nH'\i [HNn] ^b') xa nana [t6] 'a ' ip'o ina: i<b b22 naic" cxn 


b:i bv w'N ''b D-.' tj-^i Nin ^)bi nann nn hnt [njbit ... id ffn to 

*nana dpij? nn^nb ab 'a d^joo bo nnna: id -a-n ^i>ss •'«''!< 

asao DN o 
B'^nni' ij; ntn nann t^v ''^n nnoiNn oyn nanoi niiiroi nn natfoi a^ 
oyb^i) ppiT'S ainaj ino xisan n''ao ^bn [ni'B'jb nv "i*yn >:2 b:> "hv 

T'vn ba 

> Read -l*p''D. 2 Cp. Eccles. 12. 14. 

Supplement to Chapter III 349 

'n'oi3i 'noya -wv. ly unix 3ny[i] i:[^ iiTvi'] nu «>' M^s -idnm 

nosS D'i3 oy ivyi3 aic '^ ['t3]''^B'ni nr o si? dtbti n^! dn n^nn 15 

13 T-y' ''Jibs 
nana ;dnj xin -1313 T'y^ dn rsh noNi * 'ciTa ns-x oninM i?y tiDon 

TioaK'n TN "lann '"yoB^a \i'i sin Ni^an n'ai in'JE' •'» ni)[!y:i] ntn 

\^rh 'n'^y '3 niyuB' ■'jc ' i^dx 'cn^a nac^ •'Jin'jn xi? ni^on ^s nnsi 

DV B'X") n^ns li^asB' 'B'an 'nDB* ij^ann^ 

[T.-S. 13 J 34', paper, square writing, right-hand side torn.] 

(Address, verso) 

ni5n3 mnjDi nann onsN ^ini [xno] . . . 
3T ye" •mjB'D nrya ^Tl 

myiB"i -nvian ninWni -nvm: nuioi Tinn . . . 

nsa np''!' ™«nn nyxun nnjNn 'nvunn m . . . 

loipo N^Dion • my Twy^i n^ntn rnrii ' 'n: ':d2 n[3nn anas] . 

•iD^iy iraa ^s inn":' innoB' -ia -iD'yii D":tr ni[3na] . . 

'oK''' n['']-i»E' an no nx» ^''■w niwpvT ia pansi np . . . 

nasj'a nns ova e'nipn Tya 'jni •'^n lyvn yi nann . . ['na 

Dii'ap'' "3 niv nona ''jx miaai oni^x nmnan ^n . . . 

isni n^ainr iB'y nycnn nya nunao ncbc ik . . . 

'n' us'tfj jnn pns ai no ^n '^pma onE'^r^ ij» , . . 

':pin aina moN . . . d . . . rvo^'i no [DJ^S'ja nns . . . 

nnxa n^i nr Tpan \-\7\if. an -10 'T ^y 'nanai id . . . 

DniDxn nya ijx'cj any nsj-x ainn ;a nnxB'jn . . . 

Diya ^■h^m loy ''n^^3: ^JiDnxi mya •'jI'sb" nvan . . . 

"1130 '[n^Jni v^N Dy'jn5? ly nvnan nnyi D'hci dy[D] . . . 

n: h\n ianSn nnaiy an^i [v]tj' jnan ainia -rh ana^n ^ba . . . 

D'-iK'ya ij ^^n p [ije' *i'[33]n t,^3d in no ^x max . . . 

njian onp^ ni'y[K)]i5 d*sti 'jc vnx db'/I iroB'i' ''ni'-ia[n] . , 

^ ='Jv3, i.e. the Gaon Solomon b. Yehuda. 

^ A contemptuous remark to the effect that they are profligates. 

= I.e. the Gaon. ' = D"i'B'n''a. 

^ =i^''DX. ^ =x:3ni. 




350 Supplement to Chapter III 


nv D''3»[-i]s rb^r\ . . . . ni Tcm D^jnsn nvni? D^aint .... 

'33 Dmas aB" nnx DV3 ^jiotxi 133 ' n''»'n^ ly n^ . . , . 

lE'N' n^xn Q''3intni [ojSa nnsa nniso vnt< db'i ioe' .... 20 

N3a-ii n^n3 naxi'Dn '3 . . . , vn^ »3 mpD ■'n^n ' ^s db'' . . . . 

xnic 10 xn''i mm nnj'' dni hnt b^ j?""' ^in :i nnts* . . . , 

n^n nnaioh [m]y[on] nt5'[n]nnj •'3 hdivj nt^s nxsinn .... 

D'B'ts'i' nnp li^b inix irx -\iix)-x\ -nno^ Tinvn ncx n . , . . 

, . . noNi . »N . HB' ^ni3[n] ''niy ann ijj; hdn anwi' 3i[ipJ ... 25 

n ^DDi DnD3 niND ... 1 nnip d''E'K'i d''3B'^ lans^i .... 


nw ntJ'N niv ^33 u^nx ■'Si'i ^xn nry Tix nonx nx-ix ncx .... 

n'n3i5? 3") i'N X3 [3]n3 nax^D^ r\'yr\'!f. nni's? x^ DUint .... 

nty ijx 'n' 
n3it: h p'rnni5 ciii>x 3[p]5;i ns sb' idv 3t n» ^x ''n3n3 .... 

nmx bvi 
niB'in 13V muno iob* nx v''i3ni' nvn^ ox ^i5 j)n»i ijx n . . . .30 

nnx 1331 nu 
nxtn nw nb» px i»ipo3 nnxi 1331 xin idip»3 inn"'3n 1 . . . , 

c^x nnan^J 
h'M'' [njcxa la v^y 3in xin n^'x nsioxn nnix iiyt . . . . 

iniEyn nCT3 

ne'xa ■'3n3 ''3[n] nb cxt T'3rn x^i tjnann T>3tn »3 ixn . . 
niDH nx im3rn x^j p ^v 3xn DipD3 pn nx T'3rnij . . 

xin D3 mr\ 
''3X nDiji yn» t^'^ 3n33 on nvp -i3n D''n3D[n] piB'[3] . . 

'3^ i3iy px 
Dx 13 "b" n3icx3 031X1 B'i3X n^in3 Dvn ^xnci 13 y . . 

n3b ora 
nx ntyy "ityini 3it:n rm'<h nnai'n nx /1di mpon nisyon . . 
n33S pnnixbi'b''3E'[n Txi]T3"nn!<nii'vnTX''3^i3ixnx . . 
• nno3n3 n^B'yi 1113 ne'x nixc^inn i-ic . o i3n 1^ nnljo i^ . . 
CXI in TKhv "srf i^on p =idv '='''31 di^bii loii'B'i 

I' 1313 n3''B»n 

1 Read n'Onb ' to plaster up '. 2 = D^n^X IIDB'''.. 

' =^xnB"'. * =i3in|5X. 

' Cp. Josh. I. 8. 6 13131. 


Supplement to Chapter III 351 

In this connexion the fragment edited in R.E.J., LXX, 55 ff. (see my 
remarks, ibid., LXXI, 98-9) should be discussed. It is evidently a letter to 
a Gaon as the writer assures his correspondent of preferring nothing but 
his honour and that of the ' holy academy ' (p. 56, 1. 26 naityNT nu31 11133 
ntJ'npn). As the same manuscript contains liturgical compositions with 
the acrostic 'Ephraim the Haber' (p. 63 ff.), one is tempted to identify 
him with the writer of the four epistles to be found on the same leaf. 
They are drafts of letters he dispatched to several people. This suggestion 
is strengthened by the fact that the first letter (p. 46) is explicitly stated 
to emanate from the Bet-Din of Fustat, as I have shown (ibid., p. 98). 
Moreover, the persons referred to in the third letter (p. 55 ff.), with which 
we deal here, were all the contemporaries of our Fustat Haber. The 
Gaon, no doubt Solomon b. Yehuda, reprimanded Ephraim about certain 
actions of his as they had been reported to Solomon. And our fragment 
is Ephraim's reply in defence. In 1. 4 there is a reference to the 
Palestinians (in Fustat). Ben Shekhanya is identical with the Reader of 
this community whose full name was Yefet b. David b. Shekhanya (see 
above, p. 97, note i). Solomon b. Yehuda resented the correspondence 
between Ephraim, a Haber owing allegiance to the Palestinian school, 
and the Babylonian Exilarch as well as Hai Gaon (1. 7 flf.). But Ephraim 
pointed out that in the first instance the Exilarch had been the first to 
write to him expressing the desire to continue their acquaintance by 
means of letters (11. lo-ii). The cause of the Haber's correspondence 
with Hai Gaon was due to an epistle from Samuel b. al-Taherti whom 
we have found having connexions with Hai, Solomon b. Yehuda, and 
Ephraim (see vol. I, pp. 117, 119, 123-4, andy. Q.R., N. S., VIII, 357). 
Ephraim adds that a reply reached him from Hai wherein the Gaon 
Solomon is honourably referred to (1. 14). The Haber Abraham (1. 19) 
is probably identical with Abraham b. Sahlan who was on very good 
terms with Ephraim. A certain Hasan started an opposition against our 
Haber, endeavouring to prevent him from acting as judge in Fustat, or, 
if this prove impossible, from being the Haber (of the Palestinians) 
(11. 19-20). Hasan was aided by a certain b. al-Rakki and also by 
b. Talion. The latter is identical with Samuel Hakkohen b. (Ab)Talion, 
the Rosh Hakkahal of the Palestinian community in Fustat. We have 
found that his relations with Ephraim were not friendly and that 
a certain section nominated him as Dayyan in opposition to Ephraim 
(see vol. I, pp. 95-6, no). This Hasan was probably an influential 
elder of the community and not a high Muslim official (as is stated 
in R.E.J., I.e., 58, note i). But his identity cannot as yet be 

352 Supplement to Chapter III 

(I, 141 flf.) A letter from a certain Shemarya b. Masliah to the Nagid 
throws more light on the conflict between the two rival Geonim, Solomon 
b. Yehuda and Nathan b. Abraham. Shemarya, who was evidently 
a Haber in a certain community in Palestine and a loyal adherent of 
Solomon, protests against the doings of Nathan and his followers. 
Nathan apparently claimed to have the support of the Nagid who had 
sent tvifo epistles to a certain influential elder Abu'l-Kasam b. al-Advat 
recommending Nathan to the authorities (recto, 1. 3 if., see verso, 1. 7). 
Nathan's partisans prevented Shemarya from mentioning Solomon's 
name in the prayers recited at the synagogue in accordance with the then 
usual custom of publicly acknowledging the authority of the Gaon 
(cp. vol. I, pp. 237 and 240). Shemarya therefore appeals to the Nagid 
to put a stop to the raging conflict by authoritatively upholding the 
position of the old Gaon Solomon against the usurper Nathan. The 
Nagid is no doubt identical with Yehoseph b. Samuel (b. Paltiel) who 
was still in ofiice during the Gaonate of Daniel b. 'Azarya (vol. I, p. 184). 

The epistle reads as follows : 

[T.-S. 18 } 4"", paper, square writing with a turn to cursive.] 


[Dn-i3«] 12 t™ 

'nv'DC Dy rn 63 nx:n irans i^y I'sp 

'"TiK'D onsa ns*r ^3 ^1 usnin dj 'nsi^na .... 


nnxi'N p ipjn b'i^ tjjh unnxD •ns['']vp ni-i[js] 

N:n \^m nai -nvnan nia^cn i>sx 'nvDN3 nrvi' 5 

1^ NS» '3ns?DD »3 D3 pi ' nvnD3 "in tj'xni ipr pwySj 

mrw Tisiy* on'^ao hntd m^B"! oni 'v^-i^n rmi 

•nvim •'CJQ TJjn ^vrvsb n^« ^ani 'nsotr nn"n3 

irnnn T'ij^d • nspo rn bi tiwn irjnx ■•nnao 

'TKi'h * soty .iJOD ni'yj n^ji • nvp WB'ai '3 unNnnn 10 

' 7131 " ''nop i^Ni ninap rvi^ •'d 73 " 'a? '3t '3n 
rwnrh n-a ne* mrvn •'3 n n^nj nt nan C]''3a ni23»i 

1 For rhyme's sake, really TXTCrV ' suspicion, libel '. 

'^ The X on top is superfluous. 

' I. c. Egypt, cp. vol. I, p. 30, note i. 

< = l-lli" in-IDB'. » See 3abb. 54''. 

« Read nniD. ' = ni^ui. 

Supplement to Chapter III 353 

^'"13^ 'or 'nm iji-iaii? loa '■<^\y:}7\ jnjoni 'SJiT-n pinn 

'D^S'' nnann p dni np^non ijso din hjb'i ^jni 15 

'''li' 'or i:nin inai noai noa nnx ijy onion 

^ 2in3^ nca' dni o^iy lanin in ira npi^Jno 

* • n^i3j Turh hi ' • rhvch ^nho • xhv:h j'sipn c^xn 

'rh , , . Qnsff ax "n^^no 'x'^joi' 'nSu niw^D niB-ij 

P^jI'jd 'loxj 103 'Tih-hh nrar •ni'iox nnvn 'b 20 

n'33n irjiN nnjji ''Dn[']3ro i:ni 'xar n^ i^j? nrar 

"imn vijvi 'px ini'ir v':ao '3 'pu uod '"(Qbvn) i>x oi)!)* 

"•inx^^D3 noxn prni^ nan ipn^ nia^on W nwnni' 

npnvi aatyo inww 'X'\^'n uipcn f3x -inSr p''mni5 

•lyv Qioxi '-'pp 'snip n''3B'ni5 ^x'^'^^ i^^^ 'pnxa 25 

• npivi mv3 i:x '3 " isob- •viir\ iwnx ^y " '»»' iia 

'uns nano 13^20 nxoi'i 'npiyon npi^nonn 

nCB" •IJ^DV T33 ^X D3 '" * 13^X ^X 13''3'5)1 ' IJ^'VIID niS''3ni 

i:nix nnipn ^3 nsp man 1^1 'iJiiyo m:iji 'MBmp 

D^*3' x^ B'''san irnn na^x iru 'no B'''xn ''yn'^'o 30 
nona D''i3n-in ^ya nox'B' • "i5dd li'njB' *a^ • nao 

'^ Pes. 4. I. ' I. e. ' in light matters ' 

< See Derekh Eres Zuta, 9, Q^iyn f3nln P^T 'n3 Hpli'nD lOIX ijIXB' X3X. 

5 'To fear ', from ^JPin . 

' A fern, of 7laJ , to suit the rhyme. 

' Read XSo!? Mo find'. 

' I. c. by the Rabbis, Sifre, Num., § 133. 

» The writer politely says, 'we are only reminding you (of this), but we are 
not warning you'. Supply Dn*nr03 xS i53X. See for the same phrase, 
above p. 324, 1. 13, and infra, p. 356. 

1" Angular brackets indicate that the word enclosed is crossed through in the 
manuscript. It is corrected on margin so as to avoid addressing the Nagid in 
the second person. 

" 'By his recommendation.' 

" ' Slanderers '. See Levy, s. v. XSIIp . 

" =^xnE"- '* = ''"'1^ in-iDC. 

" =irn^x. 

2840.2 Z 

354 Supplement to Chapter III 

niK'ni? nnnnni nivon r\''ivrh ntyi^ nnnn nirnnij 

*DV DB'''! ^nnoana •in^onn r\vo xi'ymh '\rhvs\ ids? 

i-nibnp ijbi T'jjn un^ax m^ts'i 'ui miitr ni:3 " d . . 35 
Dvvv [v^jn] n''3iDDm vanixi innyi .... 

[The first six lines are mutilated n*i'K (2) ... JJHD i'SJl . . . (i) 

. . . T naoj lany ;s hvo'' NmsJNi (3) ... n's ;™ i-i^s ms j)[fi]ni 

mND NJITJII (5) • • • "n^^f f*^ 553 IN3 DDpi'X 13N T^'i'N ''i'N (4) 

^Nn b •'i'y NJj? Nmain jd (6) . . . xd kd i'mi pnv ^n ^^v 
, . . noi'ya.] 

. . . ''i'V nns^x \i DDp^K 12N •'jiB'i'N natra ana' i'ssn'-i 7 
. . . n^vi ip niTiD^N DNi Kjn^D anai Sj^dj^n jn xr^v 
nonn nvca^h nty h^^jk dnin tjj^n saniD i^s pniDJ 
i^x 'D .T-Jxh^JN n3D:ii'Ni nijSNpi'N jjd xnxnsjNi :hh)f. to 

n:5? DnijsDa sr^'y nipi'N •'xl'iNn liiNDnDxi nntyi^xi 

niion NSD np -idk^'n w^y nxr np ixi' n^a N^ninosi 15 
... P' IK m^NDi nty n^^s* dnin hnvp^n *vnp 'i^x mxn^ixi 
nbp iD i'JT Nni3 "itiji^ o^npN^xi d''N33^k Dxanx 
nan'' xb |N1 ht ■'^y "nc" oxanx ton ;n* hi^'nd i^xnai 
|o j''a''X3 fnai n^xi p nnwo' oh 'ntj'^ ;o nnx n.T'i'y 
[■■Js Dax'xi rhhv^ xji'V? ixoi'Di'x !» nb^xa niyxi na" idx ;o 
mien ryh'v\ "vy^n ijijiix Diijc-i nox^D^Jx i''n 
D-nxj nvjh iy ny^ nan'' inyo bi vnxi 
iu n''i'VD -ia nnoB' 

1 Isa. 32. 18. 

^ Here as well as in the next line there are some faded letters on the right-hand 
side margin. 
' -i'XnE'''. 

Supplement to Chapter IV 355 

IV (to Vol. I, Chapter IV). 

(I. 155.) As regards the community of Ramlah, a document, dated 
1060, should be cited here. T.-S. 10 J 26' begins as follows: 

Dis^N [njjanx] njB'a . . , h'h^ a^nnn . . . ij'ijDn niT'nB' nny |ii3r 
mm* "ia ni^n: -^h njino ni^Qona] . . . [m^s''^] Dn[B']yi mxa mioE'i 
ncNi pT iT'a^ 1:^33^ s<n 'ny^?i>^? W-\-avi. px •'-iv[d]!'n nan *3 n'n 1= 
niBio ON ^1 a3''j'3 ca3 naiD n^ji nn mip ''px *3 osi) ['Jjn [sJ-'Jnuo 
'jNi anvoi' rth^A 'r^h bix xh n^ona 'jsi nnvo pnxa xsn '3 incxo 

Tn p DmaN D[in]3 i^Jini j)i:v !i'''N [nj^ona njn e" nnvi rh-crh ■h^ 

nx Nuni? nnvD isx "i^j''^ . . . n •'i? nvn^ iniN 'njcxn "a [nJjonsai'N 

. . . -'jNJtN pN3 «inj)Di'N iN^no na njon^N '•ncs 

Bodl. 2878* contains the names of the same people. The document 
was probably drawn up also at Ramlah. 

(I, 159 ff.) A document of the Bet-Din of Tyre, dated ion c. e. 
should be added here. T.-S. 13 J 33^*, recto, begins: 
nt nac ^iidi irnn^y noinnn D'jpini ;n n>3 i:n ir:s^ n\nB' no 
[njK'3] sJuc^ n''5-"3nn n^ti'a ontJ' [cJTin^ Qne*!? n^io'^a natj'a *B'''Dna 
flin ijy nacrn nis n^nDa rr\'"£h nnxi d''WB'1 hind Mtyi Qiai'x nyaiN 
onnion Tps PHN 13 nts'D p fiba i3''^n n3B' nm la c'Dt^'n nuo en 

'131 ui? -IDNI mip *[3]n P JJlTn T1V3 
Khalaf made his father-in-law Solomon b. Rabi' in Fustat attorney 
with regard to all the claims he had there on a certain person. 
The document is signed by Habish Hakkohen b. Joseph, Solomon 
Hakkohen b. Aaron, Jacob Hakkohen b. Na'man, Joseph Hakkohen b. 
Jacob Hassofer, and Elhanan b. Moses the Haber. See Bodl. 2873", 
being a letter from Tyre to Aleppo, dated Marheshvan, 4789 a.m. 
(= 1028 C.E.), wherein the name Jacob Hakkohen b. Na'man recurs. 
Samuel b. Moses the Haber mentioned is probably a brother of Elhanan 
b. Moses the Haber of our document. Aaron Hakkohen b. Solomon in 
Bodl. is perhaps the son of Solomon Hakkohen b. Aaron. Finally the 
Haber Joseph Hakkohen b. Jacob, who signs last the letter of 1028, is 
probably identical with Joseph Hakkohen b. Jacob Hassofer (this title 
referring to Jacob). This Haber was very likely the recipient of the 
epistle from Ephraim b. Shemarya (published in R.E.J., LXX, 1920, 
pp. 59 ff., cp. above, p. 351). 

1 'The lame.' '^ Supply '{). ^ ' The glazier.' 

356 Supplement to Chapter IV 

(I, 167.) A letter from Hillel the Haber b. Yeshu'ah the Hazzan to 
Ephraim b. Shemarya deals with the case of the Tiberias sick, whose 
messenger, by name Khalaf of Aleppo, went to Egypt to collect donations 
for them and died while engaged on his mission. He is very likely 
identical with Khalaf b. Yeshu'a who made his last will in Fustat in 
1034 0. E. (above, p. 192). Now another messenger has been despatched 
to take over what Khalaf had collected and to complete the task he had 
to relinquish. Ephraim is requested to help him for the sake of the 
unfortunate sufferers. The writer, Hillel, was evidently Haber in Tiberias, 
having as his colleague Nathan Hakkohen b. Isaiah (above, p. 195). 
Hillel sends greetings in the name of his son Sheerit. 

The epistle continues from 1. 1 6 ff. as follows : 

[Westminster College, Cambridge, Fragmenta Hebraica Cairensia, 

n^'nn nvipn -lp^^ nann bi< [n]^N [nmt:] 'Jtr rmva ... (1. 16 ff.) 
may D'pmi D'2ia ^i^n^jjvn irnx i^« ixa "la [ynin^Ji im^c 5ninni5 
^2 iDtr nhv Dnso W ini'B' niT'i ion D^nn vcn^ ■i>-\y>To o Dnibc 
nu^ nD33 ''3 inv'OK' "nw i^N*n dw[3i] xna nns itdjji idvd nnn 
x'ni n»i n"vn j'apnj u^nx np»DD 'ai i'snti" ba^i ^z-h pac "m lohy 
iniTDna '3 " ny ^aisa noiy ■lp^^ nnnn ''3 cnoaio oni it nnn 
ny Dnb 3in3i' ibxe* -1331 on^e' n-'^E-n nr nn^o ni33» rhv: ^ inx-iui 
D"jy nn ^31 n''3n ns'N x'sniji nxtr'^n b fnp^ '-lij^uax 3n3 -ins r^hv 
nnyi nuima nNB'j oaipo *3nn nt2D ninsB'N D'panD nhi Dnno 
nnsi li^'N Dy nnni naiu ijsn ny rmyh T^V i^i^''^ "ip'n n3nn •'jinx 
y-\v.m nnhv onTi oniN pn 3E'i nsiy ^53 ^ ^y doid D'E'voai niTcna yiTi 
non to "iNtj'j -iB'N ns yiih^ tn3nij D''JTni' inu33 nivi D"ax n-rnbvh 
"h 'i3'Ni D''DB'n ID -inna np'n nanni Dn'i'B'^ inni'i np'Dsn rrvioni 
pj03 n3T li'np Dii'ii'i raii'K'i . . . d nnno xihe' ■'Cii' T3m3 bx -i''ntD3 
D'sya niDn nnsa' iT'obn i?T [tnn nyiE>' n^a n3nn |j^n lanix • nsns 

. . . 101W 

T.-S. 13 J 33^ brownish paper, contains a letter of appeal, signed by 

Nathan Hakkohen the Haber b. Isaiah, on behalf of the Tiberias poor 

who took the cure. The epistle is addressed to Jacob b. David, probably 

of Fustat. 

1 From lys 'pain'. ^ Read nN3. 

' Letter of attorney. See Levy, s. v. "IpDJN. The same expression is found in 
several Genizah documents of the Bet- Din. 

» 3in ' dryness '- = = (jN. « Read 'rNI. 

Supplement to Chapter IV 357 

(I, 171-) To the Galilean places wherein we have found Jews residing 
should be added Sepphoris. T.-S. 8X13', fol. 2°-, contains the following 
colophon : 

"13 irnn ns" '3n '■nana | naoni ;n pnv | nnapn t^^^ii \ )'nii'' xo v.vf^ 
I p i?iiM ffnijK p pjj ' Dnw I nnoDni irnn nco na nntoon | trm 
tnip -i3r cnpn ijai Dipo ■' nmss m3:n | nvnn runooi ' ■'ysTNji'N' 
[inioB-^ iIpHh [iptnj . . . , I -=16 pii unaaji mnsb | n"nni)i n^-iab 
eii'Nn nat' ipM | ;prn nvw* in .... | nrnoDn nrvn n^nii i'snc''' | nis 

.nsr 3 . . . . iTDiDi nma 
(1, 174-6.) T.-S. 8 K 22° contains the following genealogy of Nesiim. 

^jn in i^NijT 

^:n n nnry 

'in eiDV 

in or 5 
"Jfin in 
innin inion 

in inN'K'v noni 

in no^B' nntvi 10 

in in^ptn'' 5 no^B'i 

in . 
•'^'•'1 innin 

This list is obscure. Some of the persons mentioned are styled 
Exilarchs, hence holding office in Babylon ; the others are called Patriarchs, 
a tide given to those descendants of King David who lived in Palestine, 
Egypt, Damascus, Mosul, and elsewhere. Have we here a list of 
descendants from son to father or vice versa ? From 1. 7 of col. 1 four 
names are enumerated, seemingly those of the sons of David (1. 6). 
How then the persons enumerated in col. 2 are to be connected with 
those in col. i is again obscure. However, one may venture to suggest 

' The plural suffix refers to 'Amram and Moses. 

^ The last two letters can also be read as J?. 

^ Spelt here after its Arabic name Saffurlyah (see Le Strange, /. c, 525, bottom). 
Evidently Sepphoris was then taken by the Jews to have been identical with the 
ancient Tirsah, which was really a Samarian stronghold, the capital of the northern 
kingdom till the seventh year of 'Omri's reign (i Kings 16. 23-4). 

< Read 'SinD^X. = = pN'jn ijai. 

« =nb«n cxn. ' N''B':n. 

358 Sti-pplement to Chapter IV 

that the dead person (1. i), whose genealogy is given here, is none else 
but David Hannasi b. Daniel Gaon. Hence David's father is styled in 
1. 2 Daniel [IWH 1i3T. The genealogy of David's ancestors is continued 
for four generations (11. 3-6). The Exilarch David (1. 6) could be 
identical with the famous David b. Zakkai, the opponent of Sa'adya 
Gaon, since a son of his also goes by the name Zakkai (I. 5).' 
Accordingly Daniel b. 'Azarya was a descendant of David b. Zakkai. 
The period of 930-1060, about 130 years for five generations, would 
chronologically be quite suitable. Then the dead person's (i. e. David b. 
Daniel) four sons are enumerated (11. 8-1 1), viz. Daniel, Hasdai, 'Azarya, 
and Solomon. Of these the first may be identical with the Nasi Daniel 
whom we have found in Fustat in 1 164-5 ('^ol' !> P- i75)- -^^so Hasdai, 
the Damascus Nasi of 11 14- 15 (ibid.), could have been David's second 
son and not that of Samuel, David's brother, as was suggested there. 

As regards col. 2 of the list, Hadaya (1. i) should be taken as a son of 
one of the four sons of David b. Daniel. Indeed Harizi found in 
Damascus a Nasi Joshiah b. Jesse b. Solomon b. Joshiah b. Nehemiah 
b. Hodaya. Our list leads down to Solomon (1. 4). A son of his was 
Hezekiah (1. 5). In 1. 6 in ityi seems to have been added so as to 
indicate Solomon's second son Jesse. Hodaya and Jesse (11. 6-7) are no 
longer styled Nesiim. They seem to have been the sons of Hezekiah 
b. Solomon. But Jesse, the brother of Hezekiah, had a son by name 
Joshiah Hannasi whom Harizi met in Damascus.^ Thus our list is 
brought into accord with the information supplied by Harizi. The fact 
of the residence of Joshiah b. Jesse in Damascus where we found a Hasdai 
Nasi in 11 14-15 suggests that Hodaya (col. 2, 1. i) was the latter's son 
and strengthens our suggestion that this Hasdai was the second son of 
David b. Daniel. There remains only the diflScuky of the difference of 
titles. Why, e.g., are Hodaya and Nehemiah (col. 2, 11. 1-2) styled 
Exilarchs but Joshiah (1. 3), &c., Nesiim 1 We must await further 
information to elucidate this point, unless we assume this distinction to 
have been only verbal and of no real significance in reality. 

' David's other son, Yehuda, figures in the scene when Sa'adya refused to sign 
certain documents submitted to him by the Exilarchs and which was the cause of 
the unfortunate conflict (see Neub., Med. Jew. Chronicles, II, 8i). After David's 
death Yehudah succeeded him for seven months, whereupon he was also gathered 
to his fathers. His small boy, twelve years of age, was then looked after by 
tja'adya (ibid., 83, 11. 4-1 from bottom). This boy's name was evidently Hezekiah, 
who in his turn gave birth to a son David the father of Hezekiah, who became 
during the time of Hai Gaon Exilarch of Babylon (see the heading of his letter, 
dated 1020, in R. li.J., LV, 51, and cp. also Pozn., Babyl. Geon., 1-2). 

2 About the later descendants of this family, see Pozn., Babyl. Geonim, 123-4. 

Supplement to Chapter IV 


If our reasoning be correct, we may draw up the following 

genealogy : 

Zakkai ' 

David (c. 930) 

Yehuda ^ Zakkai 



Daniel Gaon (1051-62) 

Samuel Isaiah ' 


Daniel (1164-5) Hasdai (i 115-6) 'Azarya Solomon 







Joshiah* Jesse Hodaya 

' The ancestors of Zakkai need not be traced here as this appertains to the 
history of Babylonian Exilarchate. 

^ See p. 358, note i. Yehuda's descendants in order were Hezekiah — David — 
Hezekiah (the Babylonian Exilarch in the time of Hai) — David (the Nasi whom we 
found in Jerusalem during the period of Solomon b. Yehuda, vol. I, pp. 112-13). 
A son of David was probably Hezekiah the Exilarch, mentioned in the letter of 
Ebyatar Gaon (above, p. 228, cp. vol. I, p. 193). 

' See vol. I, p. 185 ; above, p. 221. 

* A descendant of Joshiah was the Nasi Jesse b. Hezekiah of Damascus, who 
issued a ban in 1286 which decreed that all the writings against Maimonides be 
handed over to David Maimuni or to one of his sons (see Pozn., Babyl. Geon., p. 123 ; 
cp. p. 124, note I : the date m^Vv IDn tlDO probably means 5046 a.m. = 1286 c. e. 
and not 1291, as Halberstam thinks). T.-S. 16. 377 contains a document, dated 
Ab 2ist, 1564 Sel. (1253 C.E.), which probably emanates from this Nasi. Therein 

360 Supplement to Chapter IV 

(I, 178 if.) T.-S. 16. 128 contains the end of a letter of introduction 
for a certain elder. It is in Daniel b. 'Azar)'a's handwriting and concludes 

nvw ' Kni'ci D'wiNi nixD tyibci ^v^ rue' ^•yifva zroi nj)!? na-r dddi^ci . 

The ending nyiC'' is a further proof that the epistle emanates from Daniel 
(see vol. I, p. 179). The date Tishri, 1343 Sel. (= 1031 c. e.) takes us 
back twenty years before he assumed the Gaonate. Where did Daniel 
live then ? On 1. 2 there is a reference to the districts of Palestine and 
Egypt (nVDI DNK'^N ^nt<i:a). Perhaps there is a mistake in the date 
which should read 1363 Sel., i.e. Tishri, 1051, the very year when he 
succeeded Solomon b. Yehuda as Gaon of Jerusalem. 

We give here three more letters from Daniel. They are all addressed 
to his faithful friend 'Ali b. 'Amram, the Haber of Fustat. In no. i 
Daniel assures his correspondent of his constant interest in his welfare, 
though the Gaon's letters are not frequent by reason of the pressure of 
communal duties (1. 7 ff.). A certain elder of Fustat, Moses b. X., visited 
the Holy City and highly commended 'Ali for his loyalty to the 
Nasi-Gaon (1. 1 3 ff.). Daniel flatters the Haber by stating that he has in 
him more confidence than in all the other Haberim in Palestine and the 
neighbouring countries (11. 24-5). In the second epistle Daniel asked 
'Ali to hand over to the bearer, X. b. Moses, the amount that has been 
collected (in Fustat, very likely for the school) during the third of the 
year, from Elul to Kislev (1. 6 fif.). The amount of the collection has 
already been quoted by the secretary of the Gaon, Semah, who seems to 
have visited Fustat for a certain purpose (11. 9-10). This Semah is 
identical with Semah b. El'azar who is a co-signatory to documents issued 
by Daniel b. "Azarya and his Bet-Din (see vol. I, p. 182 ; above, p. 219). 
The third episde deals with a certain lawsuit. The tide nijiyon nann 
(1. 3). by which the correspondent is addressed, makes it certain that 
the epistle was sent to 'Ali b. 'Amram. 

we read, [wjiixn] nTiiB*"! nanic pcnn in nnni [ijaijn nypaa ie>N n . . . 
D''N'nn -iM hvrw' i'o nv^3 n^cj [i^nan N'K'jn ^k''' ijja^c ua^o: ijn''K'j 
ijjnN iiDH nips i3\n^N] Don'' ^asn pK •'ja cni D''Nu:ni no^Dn nar 
joiruj i^NnE" b nrija n^k'j bv>yn x'B'jn in'pTn'' 1:3^)0 ua^o: ux^trj. 

This Nasi was styled ' head of tiie men of Palestine ' just as the Gaon of Damascus 
was ' head of the academy of Palestine' (above, p. 295), 

Sti,ppleine'nt to Chapter IV 361 

(i) [Westminster College, Cambridge, Fragmenta Hebraica Cairensia, 


n'-a -nvjb noK'i' 'nno ^si 'ntv nis m* pnsm ncxn niiana 
nbivon nann linaaj nb" -nsi) naTi ^ab ar moy 

yc'n \ni'No npivi ' .*. nsD nana n^jd nny mbnn xnu imoty'' 
D[''X''5?]:n [ntr^B-jDi hddi ni^a^n inxa niijcn an pin ns 5 

n'PE' noni ":« ''a . . . [ij»ani]K jjaci una'tr^ 'jn'NDi i:iniDn 

nmy: n^anan dni ^\-iii'i[Djn h'\^ h^ hish d''iid 

oniSD ia D''aanDD i:n ncNi i^'pov an^ Dx nr px woo 

-imB'^oi •inDi^B' i'lNiJ'i'o D'Hn 1J3''« ns-t ija oyi ^xnty" 

D'VnV 13X DN1 WSJ DI^C VDE>3 L'^''-^:': ClCl "•in''n31D 10 

LDijiiinJ snia nixoi [wsjj isaa losy ijy nnno xinB* 

lOB* maa nan ijy [imjTV 

B'Tipn [nj^yb [n]^y nbsn D''0'ai upB'i Dii^c 
. , , . Ta npM ipin ntyn d uauni urpr 
[na'Di] vcyo aiia nc^'Ni •in[n]i3 "na''i •imcj'N nrni 15 
mans ano u^i'SN -niaoi 'nosD xinB* no i^i) 
la^j nnx ['iJ^Ni • irssn n-'B'yi • isnaina inn'nn 
«a ^xi' "lisji •w'jd!' 'iIjm -wny dd-iidq lannB' 's^ 
Nim i:a i'JDiD nrn nannjj' ■'si' nip"i ma'aa i^'ssn 
onann "iDia pn ntro a urpr 1:^ dot's niyi lii'B' 20 
DVD 'a'DD 13 ... . ujni on^i^bi 'nnatJ'a ncs 
IcfE' nca .... ns'SJ" ne'sa pns nvy ^atyini 
ntn -i[ana ia^] i'Vi itr^s: auTi iniK'yi' h-i1''i napn 
vijif 5)3 n''0''i^o '■'lon^ "la yn['']i D'o^iy lijo oca nrv"! 
inp''S'' "1 n'ni3^3Di •'ava ncN ly^an bo nnva 25 
• strji D-i ^sno • v.^ uhv di^k'I • pTni -d^js inanTi • iivii? 

' =t<3om. ' =n3i3i5 1131. 

^ The three dots are instead of si, i.e. the Divine name. For the phrase, 
cp. Ps. 24. 5. 
' Cp. Ps. 116. 12. ' Cp. Prov. II. 27. 

« Piel. ' nEND. 

« I. e. Fustat. » = Wrij = 12n3N. 

362 Supplement to Chapter IV 

Address (verso) 

njjiB" iJr DnDj; n^a nann h^ no pJj imiyni uiaaj^ 

[There follow selections from Talmud in different handwriting.] 

(2) [T.-S. 12. 44, top as well as right-hand side torn. J 


nar moj; io imnw^i imvri 

nhynn nann uiaa: ■'ana nnsn: i . , . . . [nana^] 

D'^NiB' use xb''N niy ^\ m[pj 

'°'^ ii) E^nnn^n mijc-n voB'ai • inupLc'ja D'tJ'[nni • inoiira] 
'''''^"' .•• 1 lav unnoB' fi^DiriE' n[3] uymni' h ''i[ki] ... 5 
l3[aiK']m 131333 TD inny jj'j' nttn "i:3n3Di [idi^'c] 
I33n3 133 i'f niyts nu i33jt:'a 1:3-13' 3ie'nn jptn n . , . 
j'apjE' no ^3 vi'N Q'i'e''' v^y nova -insc;' .... 
tntrnn ni^y^ p '3 rbs n''i'3n ny h^s s'sno t\'x> \phw:x\ ,, 
3in3''i iviso ' li-i tix N3i5n xnDD nov 6 . . . b'B' n . .10 
'-i3r3 n-iK"m naian inDii3 vana nnnM vi>^[y)3] 
ny^ n3T iDii'S'i V3ivi vxani vnniDi , . . 
nyic'' 3ipy iiNJ na^c' B'«n N'-cjn i'X'Ji 

[Recto contains, in different handwritmg, a liturgical composition]. 

(3) [T.-S. 10 J 35^, paper, square writing, very damaged.] 


ms •'33 t'y . . . (2) Dni'in di^'': -in: i^y pJK'3 . . . (i) 

nisiynn n3nn iji3[3Jj1' ... (3) inoi^Ko nnnxoi ^h pno 

nn^N^ Drar ini^ aj'-otni' nvT' dni -o . . . (4) [an>f]c3 yiinni? [ifc*] 
jni? nn3[B'i'] (6) own^ pon vbs 3in3^ Dny3 . . . d n'n^ . . . (5) 
aaran ipi inn mic' nB'[ya3] (7) vi^y b d''B'''1 vnns* ba pyiji 
3n3 (9) .'. 1 "nan^ ne'N b[f3] T^ Q'^'y i'N'i • • • (8) P"'^"" nniNi 
^NHD •XB'^ m^B- ni^ci ... (10) nv3r b n* iiy h-hv\ ;ivn^ inp''3'' vcm 
•nyiB'i N"'K'3n ^n^ot (k) ' n^JD nv: •XB':i d-i 
Verso contains a letter in another handwriting, of which beginning 
and end are missing. The writer sent three letters with a certain 
, . . . 3T "13 Dm3X 3T. 

= X3Drn rrnnx ' may God make him rejoice ' 

S2ipplement to Chapter IV 363 

(I, 195.) As to when Ebyatar Hakkohen departed this life, it should 
be added that in a fragment of a document (T.-S. 10 J 23'), drawn up at 
Fustat, there figures the Gaon's attendant Mukhtar. Ebyatar is referred 
to as ' late '. But the document is unfinished, being only a draft and the 
date is not given. The following lines from the beginning are cited here : 

D'nm IDT onxo ^stjODa o'vupn n^ynn ^ya i:k ir^^ rfrvs ^J^'v» 
n^x -nnwDn nsnao pn n''^ acio h^ wi'K litn nin p srinn^ xjo^j? 
'bs psj'Dia nanao h^jn^i n^a nvnxi iif pxj \r\'s\ nn^nx wanN dx^? ixa 
pis [n]3 xna^x no id yi inan nyw -inn nn ^yi b" inan iry^s ino 
'131 Nnnix^ n3X3 ^Jn noDsn yii nnicn b"n hmm iptn ■h's ino 

V (to Vol. I, Chapter V). 

(I, 202.) 'All b. 'Amram is a signatory of a document dated already 
1055 c. E. (viz. Adar II (1)366 Sel., T.-S. 10 J 26'). The other signatory 
is Abraham b. Solomon b. 'Ezra. 

As to the title ^''^t^•^^ a strip of paper (T.-S. 8 J 27"), being the top of 
an epistle, has on recto the following address : 

[Ton vfWp [iT'Jn-is -ino pB p [iTJno i55 muai i:n'pn mnx[b] 
D'DDT • nasjn rmi Tiv noiZ'^ n'^json nh^>r\ n^nm 


This letter was sent either to or from Damsis in Egypt (see above, 
p. 290, note 4). 

(I, 204.) Nahrai b. Nissim's connexion with the Babylonian con- 
gregation in Fustat is further proved by a document, dated 1391 Sel. 
(io8o c. E.) and drawn up at their synagogue, with a testatum signed by 
Nahrai the Haber ,-l3^B'^^ ^HJ b. Nissim (T.-S. 13 J 33"). 

(I, 207 ff.) Another letter dealing with Byzantine captives in Egypt 
is preserved in T.-S. 10 J 27*. It is addressed to Yehuda b. Sa'adya 
and seems to have been written by the captives themselves who described 
their sad experiences. They had evidently been captured by pirates amid 
sea (recto, 1. 2, DU^^sn) and brought to Egypt (probably to Alexandria) 
where they were illegally sold to Muslims and Christians. But the 
Jewish communal leaders intervened with the authorities with the result 
that after five days the buyers had to return their purchased slaves to their 
captors (I. 5 ff.). This greatly enraged the latter who gave vent to 
their feelings by maltreating their unfortunate victims. The communal 
leaders found themselves compelled to stand surety for their enslaved 

364 Supplement to Chapter V 

co-religionists and thus have them released for a certain time till the full 
amount for their ransom be collected. The captives appeal to Yehuda 
to help them in their distress, as the local community can hardly maintain 
them, not to speak of being able to pay the full ransom. The pirates are 
an.xious to dispose of these Jews because they are making preparations 
for another raid into Byzantium and do not want to be encumbered with 
captives. They therefore threaten that if these Jews be not ransomed 
within the time agreed upon, they will either be sold as slaves to Muslims 
and Christians or be beheaded. It can hardly be doubted that the 
Nagid did his best to forward the amount due for the release of, these 
unfortunate Jews. 

[T.-S. 10 J 27', paper, square hand, top torn.J 

Address (verso) 

K'sn mm' ■iino pj niaal? nrn iror\ i^aii nh^ , . . i~o. n 

•rhxio vs T3J1 -nb 
'B>3irty5B»y riiiitjn nnvD -ino pj naa '3 nil r\'h^ 



., 1:^ 'Dub'sn 

"bw i:bi3 ns 

no nna nm x^ '3 Drrnin 

mjn pa: rx . . . . [D]'^ia[''] vn vh '3 irl^ljini irniK' int he'soi 5 

i:iN''3ni I'ltJ'Nnn 
nxoai nvaiJ'i D'iioB'ai D^vat^ai D^tJ-Dnai D-ainr D'va-ixa l:^3c:l pwa 

bnpn 'B^si isi^n p -ln^?^ D'O' ne'cns i3''3ip T3 i:"ni [cbn]!;!)! 

[ijjjnnni mo n"333 
Dmi3 ^w DmiOT Ta unvnni nnvn ^nh mw Tyn ['cxn] ysl? 

31-iD omiB'ni 
iv pnn3 -iinsb irT noxi DnT3io ly^y lopi ij^mnS? ncs* d^d 

ID mn DNV 
inp^i ^npn 'ji-Ni in3i n^»n hi i:i3ni D-ipu'va u-bn iB'3m wnivnr 10 

by uniN 

' This abbreviation, evidently connected with -in^3 HTllV lii'S^ 'riD 
naVJli = D^nn , is not clear to me. 
' XiiKa-^0% ' sea '. 

Supplement to Chapter V 365 

w'nm nnyi • mu unnn^ti' ' ija for ny [icon ijn> xi^ dxc p hjd 

iiapii^ DD''J''V INC 

-1331 tr !-ixa ^^vh na^^ nj^io mian cn^ e'* 'a inN Dipo3 inaiDi? 

nrn ^npn na i'Ei'a 
-r^n' IX pin y^jna '3 lyat": Dmit^m irD[:nJa^ i^^ax h^yy dj'xi 

'ja^ u'E^'NT nx 
oama bn i^ine-n irnm px p^i n^i'xsJttB'^h n'hw unso' ix ^npn 15 

Danoiiai ij'^y 
xijx 133 i^E'nnn i^xi -nan jnain x^c^i ni»: x^b* iiipn tvo^ naian 

ijnjj[''D nx] ivnjn 

(right-hand margin) 

I napo 13''XH' I Qiponi onxi | .ifipn dx •'3 | idid pxi | nny px •'3 

(I, 213 ff.) T.-S. 16. 352, recto, contains a liturgical poem by Yehuda 
Hallevi (IVB* ^hn rrwrh nanx, hence he was then still alive). On verso 
we have a poem in honour of Yakin ' head of the congregations '. 
There is an introductory strophe which serves as a refrain after each 
subsequent strophe. It reads, ^rm \ m^Dni li> 3103 • myi ^np3 "1»3TX 
*r3 'minu T331 V^^D. * miyn CXl p?. Yakin is greatly eulogized for 
his great services to his co-religionists. In the fifth strophe we read, 

o»a* •D"nni min o^on •mn3i mxai •onni onci rSr\^ e'xi xin 
'n^arx ra -mux u Dnnoc a: •qts'i de'ik'oi d^'j 'Dnxm D'x'i. 
The acrostic of the poem is prn minv It is very doubtful whether the 
famous poet made his muse sing in honour of our Yakin b. Netaneel. 
It is unlikely that Yehuda Hallevi met him in Cairo when he visited 
Egypt after 1040 (see vol. I, p. 229), since Yakin must have flourished 
in the twenties of the twelfth century. But it is possible that his fame 
spread to Spain, so that Yehuda Hallevi found himself induced to honour 
him with a poem. 

1 =''J1^S. 2 Readirnv 

' Here the manuscript breaks off. 

366 Supplement to Chapter V 

(I, 218-19.) Graetz, Mischr., XXXVI, 304, could explain the connexion 
of Isaac b. Benveniste with Samuel b. Jacob ibn Jama' only by the 
assumption of the latter having visited Narbonne. Now that we know 
of Isaac's travels it is more likely that he visited North Africa on his 
journeys either to or from Egypt. 

(I, 222, note I.) As to Jacob Hakkohen b. Joseph, it should be added 
that the minutes of the Bet-Din, dated Elul, (1)473 Sel. (1162 c. 1), 
and dealing with a charity collection at the Fustat synagogue of the 
Palestinians, are signed by our Jacob together with Menahem b. Berakot 
(T.-S. 8 J 33")- 

(I, 224 ff.) Nathan b. Samuel was still alive in Kislev, 1463 Sel. 
( 1 1 5 1 c. E. ) when he signed a statement of evidence together with Ephraim 
b. Meshullam (see vol. I, p. 222, note i) and Hillel b. Sadok Ab 

(I, 226.) An interesting epistle to the Fustat Dayyan Nathan Hakkohen 
b. Solomon is preserved in T.-S. 20. 173, dated beginning of Tishri, 
1445 Sel (1133 c.E.) at NDinVJPN near Aden.' The writer, Jacob b. 
Salim, acknowledges the receipt of Nathan's letter wherefrom he gathered 
that Nathan was a native of Palestine (having probably emigrated to 
Egypt owing to the Crusaders). Jacob would have liked to be able 
to induce his co-religionists in Aden to be generous towards Nathan who 
evidently asked in his epistle for monetary help. But there was serious 
friction between Jacob and his countrymen owing to his disapproval of 
their method of jurisdiction. He was forced to leave Aden and settle in 
a place of three days' distance (i. e. NDinVJ7N). Only during one month 
in the year did he come together with the people of Aden. Here we 
have a glimpse of conditions in Yemen in the first half of the twelfth 
century. Jacob must have been a scholarly person, perhaps acting as 
Dayyan, but had to relinquish his position owing to dissensions. 

[T -S. 20. 173 ; after a long exordium up to 1. 15 it continues.] 

■io I V:im>r\ pnn naain -\vn • 'jij; niNi • *jnx mp'' ^■in ip \ ij 22 
jam j-iD "ip "ij 33 na | nmti) ^ibni -iDj paani nann [nan \r\: 33-11 
tiz" MD^n D"nn fj? nnni 'mam D"nn | nnv3 mvin tnsn nab^ 

^ About the commercial travels of Jews from Malabar to Ceylon and also to Aden 
see the Genizah fragment published by Mr. E. N. Adler in the Jewish Chronicle, 
June I, 1906, p. 34, and cp. Bacher's translation, ibid., p. 35, column i. 

= = min riB'np nha nua. 

' = X30m n^ltDJ 'may God protect him and be gracious unto him'; DynNl is 
evidently an Afel from JDn. 

Supplement to Chapter V 367 

ci'D p apyi -laitn iT'D^n . . . I . . , ^di^'k' a'nnD la nnsi di^ot 
'3 I im lanan Tin^ncai . . . (l. 33) . . . iani ino mJ•'^5 ny«jn | 'nn 
':sba TiWi nxo njj na Tinnw | ''n2''n nsDin: naa nnx 'asn nx 'jao 
nivnNn bo | .naun n",-ib> • -jrimx^ Tinnnh • in^s*^ ib nnb \ bn nsv 
WDan p ■'3 • na -iapj{j> ■'di • na nj | Nine- •'di • na pwtf 'd vnu'si 
2wn Dyr; •'fi^^n | pc' noN'' bai '^ WDan d3i • mil iiioiN •isai | '' ainan 
I nijaiB* Djj na' pbm o^v^ ^-iij nh ^ib p^bnrh pvn 'n* p 'py swj na 
li) anjnni? •'in-i hmi xan | xaniv nns 'a 'nyn^ vit naai "na Dmni 
nins^ I aia"n on o nJTrijnDa omn ny iniaa^ | iisia iiya "-ujoi'i 
I ah) HB'VK HDi ^n1»^B' ^nj ani nan | bvN DnviuriD a'mr^i onn^ noa 
'iry by DiT'rai 'j>a nano | n^a:B' •'a^ mionn mson nxr o'^pb •'ir'at 
na nina^ | bis* n^ji ^^^i'^a xi'E' mina Dni»n bjji in,! | nvy bin pii^ 
mriN Tya ^1:36^1 dhd "Tipmnj 'Jn | dji ''JiK'':t:'B' r\H:K>r] ano nrr'i'N 
cm nab 'jni nje^a | nnx dn ^nbiT ana wax s<bi [qJ^c nc'StJ' | nbno 
I . , . mar i^ab 'jri^i nxr by •'M'b'wX'' bxi | bna non i:an rt^v m^b 
bny iiB'npn nmin nibci | im iDiba") ^•'''iy omm njni noNn nan ib 
Daibc bij"' i^naoji ^*by ob:n oi (right-hand margin) nbo ns3 ny nyb 
" • NDinrabs I'vo \ " '-iDB>b libhN nt^n cxt • an | ye" nv: 

(I, 227, note I, end.) Tobias Hakkohen b. 'Ali nbiyon nann signs 
a document, dated lyyar, 1459 Sel. (1148 c.e.) at n:^n mv by the Nile, 
together with Shelah b. Yefet (T.-S. 8 J 32'). Tobias corresponded with 
a certain El'azar the brother of a prominent scholar Sa'adel b. Joseph. 
T.-S. 8 J 33" contains the address of an epistle the address of which 
reads : 

in'iaiD n[^Db]n Njani xno paa nmn 

"nbiy»n •'by n[''a ina]n •■nx pa^ni nann nrybx 

bt nbiyb loc ^1' bnjn ann b^nyo laan 

bpf I'Dnn rpv p 

1 Cp. paiD Ka-iix. ^ Sc. mbc ■'nbx. 

' = UrT'Jn 11 nn. * Oeut. 32. 43. Cp. Ketubot, III*. 

<■ Isa. 33. 24. " 'To plead', from TIJiJD. ' See Abot 5. 11. 

» Cp. Job 16. 19. ' =nnoB'b. 

^° This town is not mentioned in Neubauer's list of places in Yemen occupied by 
Jews {J. Q. R., XI, 361-4). 

" For nbiyon -lann. 

368 Siipplement to Chapter V 

T.-S. lo J 25*, the top of which is missing, is evidently addressed 
to our Tobias because where the letter begins we read the name of his 
late father 'Ali Hakkohen (|mnjD3 n[h]y»n 13nn jnan ''i'V Nmi N31D 

QniaatJ'D ^i-a wn* nuaa ditidh n^y aTiai xnp r^y Diip* n^na). The 
letter continues vijx *n»npn o nv bo "lotrin imnn ^K nnmn nniN 
■"S irmn ynixi ^-h inoji nnx nix '"naiBTi •h'k nrn M^ji ne'cn anna 
^■hr\ -in' ip'n ;pTn •'S'v dji irnn p t'snyo laajn -icn mnn ^x ^mjc 
iDi^c tj'in " rnx • oynin naisrn 'Ijx naK" ' ih irnn na mnan »^xi 
. . . Dns' i3*DB>n mi'[B'] . . . ni^c d''V5)''1 vry pB*:! inn2 ioib' 

To the same Sa'adel there is addressed another epistle (T.-S. 10 J 27') 
of which on recto only the greetings are preserved. The address on 
verso reads : 

. . . [ani] x:-iD np ij niaa p plb!) ^^ji r\\vm>i ijiv 

ya: T'onn 'pn ;ptn men nnajn n^-n i^xiyo iii xno 

nyw ^xiB" 

It is doubtful whether this dignitary is identical with the above scholar 
Sa'adel b. Joseph because in the last two fragments no reference is made 
to his scholarship but only to his importance as a dignitary, probably 
holding a government office. 

(I, 229.) Two leaves in T.-S. 10 H 3 contain poems in honour of 
Samuel Hannagid and his son Moses, styled ' Nagid designate ' (see 
vol. I, 254). The first three strophes of I yield the acrostic 'Moses'. 
Either the poet was named thus or more likely the poem was composed 
chiefly to celebrate a special turning-point in the career of the Nagid's 
son, Moses. Indeed he is alluded to as already occupying a high position 
at the Court (11. 7-9). The 'heads of the schools' bestowed upon both 
Samuel and Moses honorific titles (1. 1 1 flf.). On a certain Sabbath the 
community of Fustat betook itself to their residence to offer them 
congratulations (1. 16 ff.). Yet with every prospect of a successful career, 
Moses did not become Nagid after his father's demise. This was due to 
the intrigues of Zuta (see vol. I, 234 ff.). 

iReadxbl. 2 Supply f|X. » = ^X. 

* In the meaning of friend. ^ ^'IpTI. 

Supplejnent to Chapter V 369 

[T.-S. 10 H 3, fols. II and 12, contain poetic compositions. Fol. 11, 
recto, has [nn^ nanx; verso reads.] 


(---I --) 

T'):n ujnx 's h^p nodi 

D10B" rwy^yh inivon rwn ijjnxi 

^^'B'J 11333 nnn^ rvh^ 'anB> m* 

n^jjn 13 ijNioB- ^y n'liB'n nratyn 5 

^NiDC icn inB'D nianjjcn ■-sxi'D 

^x DV3 ^KtiD nvni? ni3n3n ^^^>D^ dj 

ijN nv3 i^nnoi X3 'nis^^n n^3 nsn3 

*n''n3^ HE'D nvn3 nn^oi? Nin pa ■-a 

'Ji nmcn nrae-n '^'ra 10 

nnnyn oniDtJ'i' nnip: niDB' \rh^ 

ni3Ni D1J3 bb nn nuu Dt^a id3 *3 

iTHD^ -11V Dn^K' '3 nn3/n u'cxn 

'ji nr3OT 'ra 75 

DnB'oi' Dvn np3 onna^ jyiv my in 

DniJD DV nDJ33 Dnpni djcb' inp^ 

'Dnai D3r moya Dni^c Dvn 'hni 

°t<"m nn nic'iD *Dn . . d op nnax 

'ji n^nK'p- n5''3E:'n 'ta 30 

^ A poetical designation of the earth. The expression originally (cp. Ps. 88. 13 
iTi': pN3) stood for hades (!^y^V). 

' I. c. the Nagid's son. 

' I. e. the Court which is visited by many people. 

* Pharaoh's daughter (see i Chron. 4. 18). 

' = n^Sfa, i. e. the second line of the introductory strophe serves as a refrain. 

' For nSIBTin, to suit the rhyme. 

' Dnsi D31 '(he) that bestows merits on them and their dignitary'. D31 is for 
D31tp, to suit the metre (cp. Di3in OK n3mn) ; DnS is evidently = nPIS + suffix (see 
Neh. 5. I4> 

' This hemistich is obscure. 

' Probably meaning that Samuel Nagid and his son Moses are honoured by 
authority of the Nasi (a descendant of David) and the leading Rabbi (R. Hiyya 
being a prominent representative of Rabbinic learning). 

2240.2 A a 

;70 Supplement to Chapter V 

(fol. 12, recto) 

Snjini'n ns? 

3)55 15? 

HMT nnjDc nn^y 

n:''3B' DD'a 

■■^V "3 


b i:''DKn 

n:s^ on Efix b:h\ 

^■^3p»i5 Dn-i2N^ nv 

^n''n ''D13 ' 

"nn D3 


on h 'JN'i 


t n'-ne-n 


NDDN '^J} riT'j 

' i?' xi'^'-\''V:r\ li^anN 


iE'33 nr 

lb Dj;!' '55' 


'nni OT3rx 



ncD ni: 

IV ''^N' D'pn si? 

''a'DJ DX 


[There follow three more strophes which end on verso with the 
following colophon stating that this pamphlet belongs to Abii 'Ali b. 
Sakkani (the cutler ?).] 

■'^usi' nDN-|3!:'N linn 
• njy n^^N ■'in ''jn3d \i 

(I, 240, note I.) Another settlement of Jewish pilgrims from France 
existed in 'Akko in the first half of the thirteenth century. Joseph b. 
Gershon, whose correspondence with Abraham Maimuni with regard to 
his conflict with the Nasi Hodaya has been referred to in vol. I, p. 175, 
belonged to the group of French scholars who emigrated to Palestine and 
settled in 'Akko. Joseph was for a time Daj'yan at Alexandria as is 

1 Cp. Cant. 4. 6, taken by Targum and Gen. R. c. 55. 7 to refer to Mount Moriah. 
Evidently our poet alludes here to the same locality, viz. the joy at the advancement 
and honour of the Nagid and his son extended to Palestine. 

''■ Cp. Gen. 23. 18. Here by Abraham his descendants, the Jewish people, are 

8 Cp. Ps. 23. 5. < =-i5)i3 vn\ 

^ This seems to be a repetition of the preceding word. Read perhaps 
'7 = in? (j^) 'tune', i.e. the following poem is to be recited after the melody 
of a well-known hymn beginning '131 QV7. 

'^ Is this = "1D1J, i.e. &c., the whole line not being quoted ? 

' =i')DTD. 

* 'My prince', i.e. the Messiah has not yet come but there are leaders of the 
type of the Nagid and his son. 

Supplement to Chapter V 371 

evident from his letter to the Nagid Abraham Maimuni.' On the other 
hand a responsum in support of Abraham's decision in this very dispute 
between Joseph and the Nasi Hodaya b. Jesse, signed by the scholars of 
Akko,'' includes the name of our Joseph who must have by then left 
Alexandria and rejoined his countrymen. He afterwards seems to have 
set out on a journey to Babylon and died on the way. The poet El'azar 
Habbabli lamented his demise in an elegy.' A letter of his, written to 
an elder Tahir, has been preserved which shows how unhappy he was 
while occupying the post of Dayyan (in a certain community, probably 
Alexandria). There were three judges authorized by the Nagid, viz. our 
Joseph, Elijah, and a third one referred to anonymousl)-. While the first 
two acted in harmony, the last person is accused by Joseph of very grave 
improprieties. The writer complains that the Nagid left his letters 
unanswered. Why was he invited by the communal leaders to come and 
join this person as a colleague .? (recto, 1. 1 7 fif.). It seems that Joseph 
was asked by the Nagid and his co-workers to come over from "Akko to 
Egypt and to take up the duties of Dayyan. Joseph suggests a modus 
Vivendi, viz. that he and Elijah should administer justice for two months 
and the other person for a month (verso, 11. 10-12). He threatens to 
resign if his demand be not fulfilled (1. 15). Joseph's father, Gershon, is 
referred to as a 'martyr' (1. 16); he was probably killed in France 
during the Crusades. The bitter experiences of our Joseph, first with 
the Nasi and then with his third colleague,^ made his stay in Egypt 
wellnigh intolerable. He therefore returned to 'Akko. But his restlessness 
drove him on to seek new scope in Babylon, which country he was not 
destined to reach for death overtook him on the way. 

' See Guttmann Festschrift, p. 220, 11. 11-12, (last line) Jjy WSDHSB' nriNI 

mnn bv ; nani •':« n^a nvnb nmax um mn ij3t ain un^:: UJins id 
IIDN x:3 □•'jioen nam ^:x mnng'. 

^ See Bodl. 2670^ (and cp. /. c, 218) : eleven persons including Joseph b. Gershon 
are the signatories who are designated as 1DJJ bT\\> 'J^ ''B'XI . A strip of paper in 
T.-S. Box K 15 contains the following passage: Dili' 01122'' 13V3 DVn DUtn^H 

by D''i'si2i niynuty ^kidb' t anni mm' i mm mnno na fioi'' '-\ mn 
hv nxnt:' noi yp-ipa nn-ijai onoia bv vba "i^sn x^i 'nrh »b'\ nn<:D 

i'^nnniiS' nVB'D On» B" ^a myni nXTn nV^ISn. Joseph b. Mattitya, Yehuda 
( = b. Joseph) and Samuel ( = Hakkohen b. Eli'ezer) are among the signatories of 
the above responsum. 

2 See Pozn., Babyl. Geon., pp. 41, 47, and 64, poem 9. 

* It is possible that this anonymous person is identical with the Nasi. Our letter 
thus would give us the antecedents of the bitter enmity between Ihem. 

A a 2 

372 Sttppiemenf to Chapter V 

[T.-S. 13 J 34', brownish paper, square writing.] 


[nu3^ -\'^mi im'B'" nmw pitrn -{tq 

may ^ np3 nisa r\i\h nuiK^n fnxa inn'B"i 

imxj'' py nK'''N3i 1.1333' injjjo!' ''' ijyQ ^3 

imn' nnaE'3 vjsi inNU' di^c^ li'nNa 

ims)' xip' nnL:3 d: inxsT nn»i '^n ^3D1 5 

injiaB" D'nDnD nusB'Dai ina'an^i y ^ino nw 'a 

•jji Dii'B' ni33 'DV 3B"i ' na-i^ snpa vijv n"p* 

IJI ny&'iNi lyv'nn siinxi " ':t<En 'nai 

anj • D'CX^ Tli^ • O'DHD pic HND • Q'O' 'Q^Da lo 

■i taajn anjn 'lianni unryi -lian: utt •D'dv 

iai^tj'i' ina't;''! •insis-i n[vi''] d'^'e" mvn "pr *nint3 

D'Dii'B' m:N 'nn^B' o 'in-nn^ "fjon pe^na •in'ai' 

ntfN • onann p 1^3 >n'^: n^i ci'dv i':: ^ii:n T-jjn bs 

TnrsN 'a hdind nsnon pijym nn» • onno 'anaa 15 
TiNnp ynm njB>N dj inan ^h^vi. no ^yi n?a l^y 
'mDi "-ins onn^B' njn ix a^K'N nai naiy pNi 1^ 

[•'Jnis onxan 'jnnl^n Da? pihd' oanvv oanvoB'o? 

. . . n . , 

o "nan n^nco cn? nvno lanni ninn aio 'a 

(right-hand margin) 

I "Nmn'D IK I avx nana | |nan Nniran | no noN 
nvv 1 • ''jT'JDn rnisi | pn b Tai | • 'j^n: n>a | T'Jjn d: 20 


np'HE'a IT pirn^i xin xa' ia I'yjNi xtin* "ie'n ^a 'a 

[n]oD i'apx N^ D':"nn t» ^^^« dn 'a nnx pK Noinn '^ -ii:n» 

[»]^n3 'a PIN noiNn nwyi' ':« bis x^i oa^ia iD'aon ncx iv 

IN m>rh 'i'y i:B'i''' p tint nnna^ na 'a e"i '»y iriyn 

' Isa. 32. 18. ^ Jer. 17. 14. ' Masc, to suit the rhyme. 

« = Arabic Tahir. ^ Cp. Prov. 28. 24. « B. Batra 16" 

Sicppiemeni to Chapter V 373 

rm^ int^nn ^v Tjjn nivD hs nay nr nI^^5'1 cDicij 5 

WB"i "iinx iniN -IDS'' "jsa ncs^ xij dki ni^'Dno 

li'ap'E' D''ijn an33i oyn '^rsn niv' tjjh dn nnyi nas n^;;' 
pnn li) jnst^ ^a ^si? ncysc' n?o b 1^ ain^i' ^byi "nan 
nn pincN in tiivd d"Pni dot Sji^'n'iN muy is ;io» 10 

"JK* i:ki njno.T •':"3y b Sjj; ti-nn xin pi'' tn 3t3i» 

''jtJ'T' N^ DN1 n'^N -i n33Jn pnn nnyai mnyi a'cnn 

■';"JV3 Dja^x s^tr Tivas'J o nnv '^s nc'sa ^n^aa 3B''>!' 

Dn'j"jy ne'iyn sin 'a lyT'i lijia ii^joa B'ln njnan 

ptyna hr lai^jj'i Dibc^ om^ ^bs '■nsv tawa^i 15 

nii'B'i n''n^t;' •■ja nni ^iin Dti'nj t ain wan ta eiDin» 

■■n^a sbi D''i] 'jsi' inivn nj? ny ^^u n\n' nijjn tsist^ anani 

b ^y DiijE^i n''ijn 'jDij pn^- = rpa can's Ni5C ds 'a ia iiiv ''i' ps '•a 
lay 'nac' s^? ^ay 'ihnci r\'h^ n naajn pnn nans ■h'h'\ 

inna i^'' lya^ mis n^ain o^aya naa ia nny ny 20 
ns^j n^aian dj '= iai paaa my: nnn \hv! D"pnji =^ nca ^iiy yn' s^i DUits 
Diijci bnan T'jjn ^s lanaa Tan naa onann nvpi nan nscj sb •■a ny 

VI (to Vol. L Chapter VI). 

(I, 259.) A Parnas would be complimented as n''D3n3n5n'na. Thus 
a liturgical composition in T.-S. Box H 1 2 has a colophon which states 
that the manuscript belonged to Solomon b. Nissim D'onan T'na who is 
perhaps identical with the signatory to a document, dated 1189 c. e. at 
Fustat (Bodl. 2805'). To the titles of eminence in the community should 
be added those of i^npn n^JUD and ^npn nnsan . In the minutes of the 
Bet-Din, dated 1134 c. e. and signed by Nathan b. Samuel the Haber, 
there are mentioned Moses Hazzan D'Jinn nT D'Jtnn nsa and Meborak 
^npn nnsan naa:n ncn b. Yefet (the latter bears the same titles, 
T.-S. 10 J 5'). A document, dated Marheshvan, 1485 Sel. (1173 c. e.) 
at Fustat, mentions the banker 'Amram pnpn n?13D (Genizah fragment 
belonging to the Cambridge University Library). 

1 Read n^ii = lan Dip:' DCn. = Read ipa. 

5 =i)sni}". * Readibnncm. 

^ Cp. Zeph. 3. 5. " Prov. 17. 10. 

374 Supplement to Chapter VI 

(I, 272, note 2.) Nathan the 'Seventh' and his son Abraham are 
mentioned in a Memorial List (edited by Margoliouth, Catalogue, III, 
559 b). Nathan had another son called mx (see J.Q.R., IX, 120). 
T.-S. 13 J ip* contains a letter from Moses b. Abraham to the Sheikh 
Abu Nasr 133 J n nETl mXN ' J3T b. Nathan the ' Seventh ' (see also 
T.-S. 12. 81 for another epistle addressed to him). His brother Abraham 
seems to have been more prominent. Solomon b. Hayyim (probably 
identical with Solomon b. Hayyim the ' Seventh', vol. I, p. 192, note i) 
addresses Abraham as n3it:'*n mon n^ljJDn n333n nt^n and continues in the 
course of his epistle (T.-S. 18 J 4^), evidently written during Hanukah, *D1 
Dyi iJoy nc'v'' V33i 'Jiocn n' \>v nrn iar3i i^Jsn d''d*3 irnuNi) woi rwsii; 
;N"3i>N UN ^N^iD m^i "hv^ mN3v '" ay tijj inuo irsn b^iin -wn ij'jhn 

(i.e. Moses Nagid, above, p. 249) JCDJ hvv Abraham b. Nathan was 
thus intimately connected with the Nagid Meborak and his family. 

(1,275.) As to eipsn jjpv, cp. also the Apocalypse of Zerubabel, edited 
by M. Israel L^vi, R.E.J., LXVIII, 140, 1. 2 f. Piijxn ■h'il oi'U 1V3P'1, 
1. 8, fl^NH vi'S3 (i. e. third battle) ^inhvn . 

(I, 278-9.) The names of a few more persons who held titles 
connected with the schools should be added here. T.-S. 10 J 26' 
(damaged) begins, jx "iDDxi'N rm nnn n:01U3 pn3{<n[3bx jnj] ijipj 
xp33 n-iiDv^N poscyiiN now 13 N^js ^sinxiiK n^i ^liin i5nDi3N ixtnijN 
nnxi's xnnxB'i min lao nixi i^yiiNi ^nl'si n3Di'N 'd Nnvn3 W-w 
X^":^"^^ 'h^. This Reader Abu Sahl Hallevi is perhaps identical with 
the recipient of a letter addressed to him as well as to his brother 
Moses the Reader and their father Abu 'Imran (Bodl. 2878*°). Finally, 
a certain Daniel b. Tobias asks his correspondent in an epistle, 
dated Kislev 9th, (1)479 Sel. (1167 c. e.), to convey his regards to 
pON \^h^, ^-Wah^ , . . [l]3N tB'i'N, 'tJoi^N fXDii'D ^jxi)N y^^ 

*.(T.-S. 10 J 33'°) nao pN ■' T\yarh^ ■h'i " px t^i'N and ^ choD niini'N 
> = NJ3T. 2 = n3''C"n 3inN. ' = n2'^>n po. 

' =n3'B"n 11D". = A Muslim. 

« Read ux. ' = ny^'n mon. 

8 In the book-list {R.E.J., XL, 61 top; t^'IB'D^X does not mean 'the distraught', 
as Bacher thought, but stands for nS^B'^H t^lB'D. 


[The volumes are indicated by I and II respectively.] 

(I, 15.) To the learned Jews in Egypt and in Palestine prior to the 
Fatimid period should be added Aba Kathir Yah3'a b. Zakariya, a scribe 
of Tiberias, of whom Mas'udi ^ reports that he was the teacher of Sa'adya. 
He died about 932/3 c.e., Mas'udi mentions that he had many theo- 
logical disputes with this Abu Kathii'. In Rakkah (in Egypt) he met a 
scholar Yehudah b. Joseph known as Ibn Abii'l Thina, a disciple of the 
Sabean philosopher and physician Thabit b. Kurra. In that city he also 
conversed with another Jewish scholar Sa'id b. 'Ali known as Ibn Ashla- 
miya. From Mas'udi's statement it appears that where he resided (in 
Egypt), he also came into contact with a scholar from Bagdad, Abraham 
al-Tustari (hence a native of Tustar), v/hom he regarded as the most 
subtle dialectician and as most experienced in controversy among the 
later Jewish savants. 

(I, 33, note 2.) About the synagogue of Jaudariyya see Makrizi (cited 
byGottheil,/.(2.i?. XIX, 509). 

(I, 36, note I.) As regards the synagogue of the Palestinians in Fustat, 
Makrizi writes that ' over its door there is a Hebrew script and engraven 
upon wood [an inscription to the effect] that it was built in the year 336 
Seleucid Era : before the second destruction of Jerusalem by Titus about 
45 years and before the Hijrah about 600 years '.* It goes without saying 
that from ' before ' to ' 600 years was not in the inscription but is 
Makrizi's addition in his endeavour to synchronize the date 336 Sel. with 
those of other eras. He misunderstood the date nnDci? ii'B' (as must 
have been in the inscription) to mean actually 336 Sel., whereas it really 
stood for (1)336 Sel. = 1025 c.e.! It was the usual custom in those 
days to leave out the first thousand.^ But Sambari correctly understood 
the date and thus gave the corresponding year of Creation as (4)785. 

1 In Bibliotheca Geogr. Arabicorum, ed. De Goeje, VIII, pp. 112-13. For a 
Hebrew translation of this passage, see Harkavy, Luak AI}iasaf, II, pp. 279-80. 

^ See the passage cited by Gottheil, ibid,, p. 507, top. 

' See, e.g., the end of the Gaonic responsa (ed. Harkavy, no. 67, p. 3a) nC njB* 
= (1)327 Sel., no. 350 (p. 179) iJC nJB' = (1)302 Sel. ; J.Q.R., XIX, pp. 254 and 
256, DB' njC and StV n:i:' = (1)34° and (1)346 Sel. respectively (cp. also above, 

376 Addenda 

(I, 40, note I.) About Asaph Rosh Hasseder see novi /.Q.R., N. S., 
XI, pp. 421 and 436, note 2. 

(I, 43, note 2 end, and 44, note 3 end.) The Karaite commentary on 
Daniel is to appear inJ.Q.R., N. S., XII (April no.). 

(I, 52, note 2.) The difficulty pointed out there is now explained by 
Bornstein (nsipnn, IX, p. 228, note i) that there was a difference of one 
year between Babylon and Palestine as regards the calculation of a. m. 
and hence 4595 a.m. in the former country corresponded to 4596 
A. M. according to our reckoning. 

(I, 61, 62, note I.) The tract of the early Karite settler in Jerusalem 
is now published mJ.Q.R., N. S., XII, p. 257 ff. 

(I, 67.) About the power of Ibn Abitur's ancestor in Spain see also 
J.Q.R., N. S., XI, pp. 456-7- 

(I, 76 flf., and II, p. 73, note i.) The question whether the influential 
Abii Sa'ad (Abraham) b. Sahl al-Tustari and his brother Abu Nasr 
(Hesed) were Rabbinites, as has been my assumption, or Karaites, as still 
maintained by Poznanski,' has become now more complicated by reason 
of a Karaite Memorial List ^ wherein the former of these two brothers is 
greatly eulogized. The passage reads (p. 41, 11. 17 ff) 73; IJ'DPN •'V om^l 
'11 '"ID Pl'^ DB»x-i3 mnNDii;x CNnpn d'^^-vxh c^a^n D'ODnn nnrn nnsB'D 
in^3 iT'ni niNav 'V av ^V non l^njni r\-\^'n nx n;p he'n -v^^ p tdh p -yi?^ 
iTiiJDD nraoi nuiD noai nnon no:: n-^iy n\ni nnn^i sipoi^i min^ mns 
liD p:3 vja ijn v:3 bh:> bj)i irn^jx incm'' nriDai Mbaa □''^vas'S'i D'ljyi' 
(as above) 'iDi non ^Jnani -^■ob njcj'D rvn "wa. nmaN. Ic should be 

remarked that the same list contains the names of Karaite Nesiim who 
have lived long after this powerful dignitary Abraham {s,^^ infra, p. 380 f.). 
There was evidently an old custom in the Karaite synagogue at Fustat 
(wherefrom our fragment most probably emanates ^) to bless the memory 
of these prominent persons, Yashar b. Hesed b. Yashar and Abraham, 
the former because he bought ' the field ' (i. e. the cemetery) and practised 
other acts of charity, and the latter for similar deeds. Now the cemetery 
probably belonged in common to both Rabbinites and Karaites. The 
cleavage between the two sects was not then so pronounced, as is evident 
from the several cases of intermarriage that are reported. Even a Nasi 
and son of the former Gaon of Jerusalem, David b. Daniel, did not 

vol. I, p. 94, note i); J.Q.R., N. S., VIII, p. 366, IDB' my = (1)315 Sel. and cp. 
further ibid., XI, pp.410, 412-13, 441, 445, 451, 465, note j. 

J Mtschr., 1921, p. 135. note i ; RM.J., LXXII, p. 205, note i. Alas that this 
eminent scholar is no more ! 

2 Published by Ginsburger, R.E.J., LXXII, pp. 40 ff. 

' Cp. also ibid., p. 45. 

Addenda 377 

shrink from marrying a Karaite lady.' The close relations between 
Rabbinites and Karaites are also apparent from the interference of the 
latter in the making and unmaking of the heads of the Palestinian 
academy.^ It is therefore quite in accordance with the trend of those 
times to find our Abraham, though himself belonging to the Rabbinites, 
bestowing his generosity to both sections of Fustat Jewry where he 
occupied such an exalted position. 

Moreover we have clear proof that Abraham's paternal uncle was 
a Rabbinite. Minutes of evidence concerning a woman who claimed from 
her brother a share in her father's inheritance are signed among others 
by Joseph b. Israel al-Tustari (vol. II, 173-4). The woman, not being 
able to carry through her lawsuit at the Bet-Din, took it to the Muslim 
courts. The Gaon (either Nathan b. Abraham or Hai) is informed of 
her procedure. Now it seems that the reason this woman appealed to 
the non- Jewish court was because according to Rabbinic law a daughter 
did not share the inheritance with a son, as is the natural meaning of 
Num. 27. 8. However, early Karaite authorities maintained that both had 
equal rights, while Daniel al-Kumisi limited a daughter's portion to a 
third.^ Besides this point involving a legal point of difference between 
Rabbinites and Karaites, our document clearly emanated from a Bet-Din 
of the former which submitted its findings to ' the head of the school '. 
One of the co-signatories, Perah b. Muammil, is found on another docu- 
ment together with the prominent Jacob b. Joseph Bet Dm, who later on 
became the spiritual leader of the Aleppo community (see vols. I, 150 ; 

II, 174, note i). There is therefore no doubt that Joseph b. Israel 
al-Tustari, who signed our fragment, was a Rabbinite. 

That he was a brother of Sahl al-Tustari is evident not only from the 
agreement of time and place but still more from the data discussed in 
vol. I, p. 112, note I (cp. vol. II, p. 140, 11. 30-31). Their father was 
Israel, who had three sons, Shelah, Sa'adya, and Joseph. The second 
son is referred to in the poem (vol. II, p. 76) as D'3ni D''B'nEl min |pt 
D'':nn31, which again points to Rabbinic knowledge and education. 
Shelah's Arabic name was Sahl, but it seems that he also was given the 
name of Yashar. It may be that his father Israel also went by the name 
of Hesed, though we have no evidence for it except that in the above 

• Cp. vol. I, pp. 162, note I, 177, 187, note 2, 188 ; vol. II, pp. 211-12. 

'' See vol. I, pp. 143, 150; vol. II, 69. Cp. further vol. I, p. 125, and especially 

P138. , 

3 See Gan 'Eden, i66a, top, ''D IDDtJ' X''B'3n TJJn p niT '^7 'IT'KT PSN 

Dm nt riTI D^ai D''k:'JN C''. Cp. further on the subject Revel, J.Q-R., N. S., 

III, p. 339. 

378 Addefida 

Karaite Memorial List there is mentioned first Yashar b. Hesed b. 
Yashar and then Abraham, apparently as his son. But the phrase 
VJ3 ''^31 VJa hb'2 ^ill is vague, and Poznanski himself (R. E.J., LXXII, 
204) has to assume that Yashar was not Abraham's father, but nephew, 
the son of his brother Hesed (Abu Nasr). This very fact alone does not 
tend to enhance the veracity of this Memorial List. To sum up, the 
existence of a prominent Karaite author in the second half of the eleventh 
century with the name of Yashar b. Hesed b. Yashar al-Tustari should 
not lead us to transfer the above family of Fustat grandees to the fold of 
Karaism. Apparendy these names were in vogue among the Persian 
Jews haihng from Tustar. By the by, Mas'udi in the first half of the 
tenth century came into contact in Egypt with an Abraham al-Tustari 
(above, p. 375). 

(I, 179; II, 216-17, 361-2.) The conclusion r\VIW' 'salvation', at 
the end of a letter was already used by Sa'adya.^ By misunderstanding 
this phrase Sa'adya was given by recent writers a new title VfW flvSP 
See also above, p. 368. 

(I, 182, bottom.) The reference io J.Q.R., N. S., is now to vol. XI, 
416 ff. 

(I, 186 ; II, 223-4.) About the connexions maintained by R.Meshullam 
of Ma3'ence with the school of Jerusalem see also the work npH TWya by 
R. Eli'ezer b. Yehuda b. Kalonymos of Mayence (edited by Hirschsprung 
and printed in Sanok, Galicia, 191 2), p. 27, Dnna lynJn NSJJD3 □''JINJni 

vi's? pannoB' ini3''K'ni tJ'iipn Ty^ vb^-^ nvjnjco ai'iB'D iran j'nan pi. 

(I, 221-2.) The practice of reciting the Pentateuch in the synagogue 
in an Annual Cycle side by side of the official Triennial Cycle seems to 
have been in vogue already in Palestine, and not only in the Palestinian 
synagogue at Fustat. An item in the collection of differences of customs 
between the Holy Land and Babylon (QijnjD w^r\ , ed. MuUer, no. 47) 
reads according to one version "ix »jni ^Dyni f'^ nBniS '^'y\'^ mto VJN 
□moi nB'ia Dj;n Nmp. Another reading is y"m nB-isn Qj;n;nip "'N3 
nijoa ni?D iyoE'''i noy' Dvm ixnan f'^n snip ba 'jn omo. The 

text is not free from corruption, but the second version is to be preferred. 
Mailer's explanation is entirely forced. But bearing the above practice 
in mind it is evident that the passage means to denote that in Palestine 

' See the fragment of Sa'adya's epistle {J.Q.R., XIV, p. 41, bottom) which ends 

p nnsJD (i.e. Sei. =922c.E.) ffosn rb^isob j^-i sj^s n^c' tion . . . ti' 

2 See/?..^./., LXXIII. pp. lovf. 

Addenda , 379 

the worshippers as a whole read from ordinary copies the whole Parasha 
of the corresponding week while the Reader recited from the Scroll only 
the corresponding Seder (the first being the technical term of the weekly 
portion according to the Annual Cycle, while the second according to the 
Triennial one).' But in Babylon the Reader recited the Parasha, so that 
there was no need for the people to do it by themselves, but only to pay 
attention to minn nN''np. It seems that the people were to stand during 
the reading. This is against the custom known to Sar Shalom Gaon 
(see 'Amram's Siddur, I, 28''). 

The wording of the text reflects already the time when the Reader, and 
not the people ' called up to the Law ', recited the weekly portion. This 
was a later practice. 'Amram Gaon still knows only the recital of the 
minb D'xnp.'' Very likely the original text underwent modifications in 
the process of time. 

(I, 250; II, 338.) A letter to Yehuda Hakkohen b. El'azar is also 
found in a manuscript belonging to the Hungarian Academy of Sciences 
(see Goldziher, Kitab met dm al-na/s, p. ro, note 3). But he is wrongly 
styled there as Nagid. 

(I, 251—2.) About Sambari's account of the origin of the office of 
Nagid in Egypt, see also Rosanes (nonjina bvi'W ''fO' nn, I, p. r23, 
no's 35) who points out that in the Paris MS. of the Chronicle the 
reading is 4748 a.m. = 988 c.e.' Rosanes' attempt at vindicating the 
veracit}' of Sambari's story is proved futile by the very fact that the 
Caliph al-Mu'izz, whom Rosanes identifies with ni5ni)N nsj; in Sambari, 
died in 975, thirteen years before his supposed marrying the daughter of 
the Caliph of Bagdad ! 

(II, 14, poem 11, 1. I ; 19, 1. 15, and 21, 1. 6.) About the poetic phrase 
of 'being ransom for somebody', see Goldziher, _/. (2.i?., XIV, p. 721. 

(II, 15, 1. 15.) For njvn probaby njj?: (instead of the more usual njj?: 
for sake of metre) should be read. Thereby the meaning of the line 
is made intelligible. Saad)'a in his polemic against Hiwi al-Balkhi 
(ed. Davidson, p. 60, § 40) quotes an Arabic proverb about the ostrich 
denoting its uselessness. D'Nnn \o nb D^iSJ^n ' D'Nnjnn ^K'D IDS'' ntTNa 
' Q'NB'lJn ;» n!?! . For QiNin read D'Xin * (from nXT ' to fly '), i. e. the 
ostrich belongs neither to the birds nor to the animals of burden, corres- 
ponding to the Arabic proverb cited by Damiri (see ibid., note 188) that 
' the ostrich is neither bird nor camel '. Accordingly our poet depreciates 

' See vol. I, p. 221, note I, and the document edited there, p. 222, note 2, 

^ See Siddur, I, 28'', 29", and cp. Elbogen, Gesch. des Jiid. Gottesdienstes, 170-1. 

' Also noted by Neubauer, J.Q.R., VIII, 552, top. 

* This correction Dr. Davidson also suggested in a letter to me. 

380 Addenda 

himself in comparison to his friend, ' You are as you are (viz. the person 
thus eulogized) but I am like the ostrich in the proverb ' (viz. I am 

(II, p. 20, poem XV, 1. 5.) Dr. Davidson suggests a plausible reading 
P5D riN instead of ?'iori>5, the meaning being, ' What can one think in a 
day of woe (or trouble) in front of a cheese ' (instead of substantial relief 
such as our poet hoped to obtain from his patron). The expression 
ns nr would have been more usual than ns' Dl'' (nx ' alas ', really being 
an exclamation when in pain or trouble), but our poet skilfully uses the 
same word in two different meanings in 11. 3 and 5. 

(II, 104-5.) A liturgical poem by Sahlan is also cited in/. Q.R., 
N. S., I, 102. 

(II) 155. no. 58.) The fragment has in the meanwhile been found 
and bears now the class-mark T.-S. 13 J 33'-. 

(II, 204, note 2.) About an inscription on the door of an old ruined 
synagogue at Alme, see YA€\n, Jiid.-pal. Corpus Inscriptionum, 1920, 
pp. 77-8. 

(II, 208.) As to the Nasi Sar Shalom and his son Joshiah, a frag- 
ment (T.-S. 12. 728, cited by Schechter, /.<2./?., XIV, 453, note 3) seems 
to report of the ordination as Nasi of the latter by the former, his father. 
It is very faded and probably therefore appeared to Schechter 'very 
ancient '. But it evidendy dates from the fourteenth century when our 
Sar Shalom and his son flourished. It reads n ... (1. 3 of Hebrew) 

ixij (?) '^■owr\ K'sna xmnr, |vi disi (4) noi wat^'xi msoi nsiv nvi'j 2'xn 

B'sn^ nn'' uan .T'B'X'' ^DDt^' (oiijc -& sjno i:s''iy: uanNb =) ck" 'no b'i 
. . . HDD (r. niiaon) nsiann iniE>x' . . . (7) . . . ^n-ib"i . . . ^n . . b nvba (5) 
= r. nn-i) no (''nnD3=) to: (i^s'tr: i33nN=) m is ^j) 'Js* tdoi (9) 

nm bv niiom . . . . (lo)'n' nn^i ith'' ua^ 7001 n . . . . (s:Dm 

T\h'iX\ tJ^xi i>j) p^in nisijon. The fragment is only a copy from an 
original document, as is clear from the last hne given by Schechter 

= r. SI a r) 31 3 c; ('ail's B'nna =) s -ina DTinicn 'hta. (r. i[3n3Ji]) \ . . 

(the usual ending lajjn 2n31 m'2{''^=) J?n n31 '•'•i'h (n*:i^S1 JT'Jll'S rw. 
This Nasi was not lacking in ambidon when extending his nomination 
as Nasi to the diasporas of France, Spain, Germany, Media, Persia, and 
Byzantium ! What militates against the above idendfication is the fact 
that Joshiah is styled here ' an only son ' (1. 9) whereas we know that 
Sar Shalom had three sons beside him (see vol. I, p. 174). 

(II, 213-15.) More Karaite Nesiim are enumerated in the Memorial 
List published by Ginsburger' (discussed in part above, p. 376 ff.) Whereas 

1 See further Poznanski's remarks, R.E.J. , LXXII, 202-4. 

Addenda 381 

our list seems to preserve a genealogical order (p. 215) this is certainly 
not the case with the former one. The first Nasi mentioned there, David, 
who is stated to have died a martyr, is either identical with David IV or 
V (nos. 12 or 21 in our list). Poznanski (I.e., p. 203) identifies him 
with David b. Solomon b. 'Obadya, but the existence of this 'Obadya is 
not beyond doubt (see Pozn., Babyl Geon., p. 130). The next Nasi, 
Eli'ezer Semah corresponds to no. 18 in our list. Then follows a 
Nasi Yeshu'a, whose name is not mentioned elsewhere.' Joshiah, who 
comes next, is either III (no. 17) or IV (no. 20). The next one, 
Hananya Abraham, styled 'head of the physicians', is the last one in our 
list (no. 28).^ Ginsburger's list adds another one, by name Sar Shalom 
(no. 17 in Babyl. Geon., p. 131). 

The dates of the 27 descendants of 'Anan enumerated in vol. II, p, 215, 
may approximately be fixed from Hasdai (no. 9), who lived in 1109, and 
onwards by assigning four generations to a century, thus nos. 9-12 to the 
twelfth century, nos. 13-16 to the thirteenth, and so on till in nos. 25-28 
we reach the seventeenth centurw 

(II, 259, note 7, end.) The Palestinian custom of returning half of a 
deceased woman's dowry to her father's relatives in case she died childless, 
is also mentioned in the Ketuba of 1082, issued on the occasion of the 
marriage of David b. Daniel with a Karaite lady {J.Q.R., XIII, p. 220 
bottom, cp. also vol. I, p. 187, note 2), Tn IJN'^^J nitys: b)j ''D3 [i'apl] 
xm3N nu^ fn n'^jh: "nhz , . .~b^ i6z nt .tb'nj nDsnn Di^ti'i on dnt pn 

h^fff"^ jnN 'JjI N3~3C3. See also the formula of a 'Jerusalem Ketuba' 
(cited above, vol. II, p. 96, note 2) wherein we read, niu DNC ]rvT2 13r.n 131 

'ijQ nh Diip '■'j^a nxt mua: dni omN ik'i" on 0*33 nrb '{nh Dipon 
-iifn' iNL-m nvnn in'23 ntX'Z'n'Z' n?o i^sc ismj nisya nr '^s nh' la'jn xb 
n'3x ''C'lv^. 

(II, 260-3.) The poems in honour of Yakin b. Netaneel are really 
four extensive stanzas of one long poem. The first letters of the stanzas 
form the acrostic Isaac, indicating the name of the poet, whom however 
I am unable to identify. But he must have hved in Egypt since he knew 
all the details of the conflict with and the subsequent triumph over the 
dangerous enemy of Egyptian Jewry. 

1 See also Pozn., I.e., p. 203 f., who, however, laboured under the erroneous 
assumption that Yeshu'a was a son of Eliezer Semah, whereas this list most likely 
did not intend to give a genealogical sequence. 

'i He cannot have been identical with the physician Hananya (mentioned in 
R.&.J. LXVI 72, 1. II, as Ginsburger thinks) since this H.-jnanya was the father 
of the famous Nagid Samuel, the contemporary of Yehuda Hallevi fsee above, 
■vol. H, p. 281 ff.). Pozn. (/. c, p. 204) also rightly pointed out that this Hananya 
was a Rabbinite without, however, identifying him any further. 

382 Addenda 

(II, 260, note 4.) The abbreviation 'C3 = "IIDJ is a technical term 
used in Hebrew prosody to indicate that the last lines of all the stanzas 
have the same rhyme though each having a different one. I owe this 
explanation to Dr. Davidson who is dealing with this point in full in 
f.Q.R., N.S., XII, pp. 39T-2. 

(II, 274 ff.) More Genizah fragments concerning IMasliah Gaon are now 
published by Weiss (^^"W^ nD3n^ naivn , V, p. 4 ff.). The first (pp. 6-7) 
is a letter from the Gaon, dated Fustat, lyyar 1443 Sel (= 1132 c. E.), 
to Aaron b. Netaneel. Herein is mentioned a certain Yefet Hallevi, 
a representative of the Gaon. The second fragment (pp. 7-8) is the 
beginning of a circular letter which Masliah sent to the provincial com- 
munities in Egypt (^"h^ ny ' the cities of the country '). Weiss (p. 5) 
erroneously takes al-rif to denote Morocco. For the same expression see 
above, vol. II, p. 264, referring to Abu'l Munajja's stay in the provinces 
supervising his works (in connexion with his duties as administrator of 
the eastern Delta-province, cp. vol. I, p. 216). We further read of a 
collection made in the provincial communities in Egypt for the ransom 
of prisoners (vol. II, 289 ff.), where again the expression c]n7X is used. 
A circular letter to the provincial congregations (fl'IPN ''HV P33 Dmn), 
similar to the one by Masliah, has been preserved in parts from Maimo- 
nides (vol. II, 317)- Cp. further the epistle from the Nagid Samuel b. 
Hananya to a certain provincial community in Egypt (l''"'''^ ^J'CJ ''D, 
vol. II, p. 287, j). Finally, Weiss edited (ibid., pp. 8-9) a poem in honour 
of Masliah Gaon. 

(II, 296, no. 8.) About the translation of vJ'D see now the various 
views cited by Pozn., R.EJ., LXXII, 120, no. 5. 

(II, 297, note I, end.) About Alfasi's disciple, Joseph b. iriDV, the 
commentator Jehuda b. Eliezer Hakkohen very likely copied the whole 
passage from R. Zerahya Hallevi's TiXD (to Pesahim, c. 2). See further 
Reifmann, "T\^~i nnpin, p. 6r, note 91, and Michael, Or ha-Chaj'im, 
p. 482, no. 1047. 

(II, 312.) A Bokharian MS. belonging to Mr. E. N. Adler {J.Q.R., 
X, 588, B 9) contains a legal question sent to • i:ni"l :''n3)0 * 1J';nvS' 

^t ''^5? '1 13 ]ii-\ 13 K'K-i npy 3iD 'lyjtDt Dan. 

(II, 327.) In the periodical {Green Bag, Boston, July, 1901, vol. XII) 
Amram gave a facsimile of a document from his own Genizah collection, 
dated Fustat, lyyar 1543 Sel (= 1232) under the authority of Abraham 
Maimuni, and signed by Netaneel b. Sa'adya and Elijah b. Zekarya, 
wherein it is set forth that the Bet-Din and the elders had resolved upon 
the prohibition, under threat of the ban, to give the synagogue utensils 
(Clpn ^73) in pledge for a period of twenty years. 

Addenda 383 

(II> 331-) Also Eppenstein, Abraham Mainiuni (in fahresberichi des 
Rahhinerseminars, Berlin, 19 14), pp. 30-31, assigned without further ado 
all the compositions, edited by Neubauer, to Abraham Maimuni, the 
untenability of which has been demonstrated above. 

(II, 370-1.) The French Jews who settled in 'Akko and in other 
places in Palestine seem to have been prosperous, and thus R. Yehiel of 
Paris, who maintained a school of 300 disciples, sent a representative to 
the Holy Land to collect there donations for his institution. See the 
extract from a manuscript in the Sorbonne in Zotenberg, Catalogue de 
MSS. Heb. de Bihliotheque Naiionale, p. 42=", nt^N nnapiT ^"ZVa '3D*D I^X 

ini'C'a 1^ B" ne'N vnsD h\>>r\'' lim anno jcnj r^\>v apv" '-\ nN''an 
nvi*: nsB' b-sy\ layai ^'kik'' ^'^^? h'h'i. ba n3 i^m DiTiDiTi niND b'!'E' 

Finally, with regard to phrase DK'np rbVi'X 1133, in addressing people 
recurring so frequently in the Genizah letters of our period, it should be 
remarked that nc'lp is already used in the Yerushalmi (Sanh. I, 19^ 1. 9) 
in connexion with the story of the attempt of Hananya, the nephew of 
R. Joshu'a b. Hananya, to fix a leap-year outside Palestine (see also 
Ber. 63''). A letter dispatched to him from the scholars of Palestine 

began n'wn nsj'lp!'. I owe this reference to Prof. Louis Ginzberg. 


[The volumes are indicated by I and II respectively.] 

I. Cambridge. 

,aj Taylor-Schechter Collection ( = T.-S.^'. 

T.-S. Arabic Box, leaf in, II, loi, note 2 
T.-S. Arabic Box : Poetry and Liturgy, 

colophon in, I, 99, note 2 
T.-S. Box C 7, leaves in, II, 169, note i 
T.-S, Box F 3, leaves in, II, 259, note 7, 

T.-S. Box G I, leaves in, II, loi, note 2. 

T.-S. Box H 2, leaves in, I, 98, note 2 
T.-S. Box H 5, leaves in, II, 25, 225, 

T.-S. Box H 6, leaves in, II, 169, note i 
T.-S. Box H ir, leaves in, II, 276 
T.-S. Box H 12, colophon in, II, 373 
T.-S. Box H 15, leaves in, II, 25, 225 
T.-S. Box J 2, leaves in, II, 248, note i, 

T.-S. Box K 3, fragment in, I, 259, 

note I 
T.-S. Box K 6, leaves in, I, 31, note i ; 
II, 25, 58, 105, note 2, 210, 224, 276, 
31 r, note i, 314, 336, note 2, 339-40 
T.-S. Box K 8, leaves in, II, 21, loi, 

note 2 
T.-S. Box K 15, leaves in, II, 247, 270 
T.-S. Box K 16, fragment in, I, 21, 

note I 
T.-S. Box K 27, leaf in, II, 224-5 
T.-S. 12. 6, 11,71 
T.-S. 12. 17, II, 338 
T.-S. 12, 44, II, 362 
T.-S. 12. 59, II, 203 
T.-S. 12. 80, II, 117 
T.-S. 12. 81, II, 374 
T.-S. 12, 109, II, 218-9 
T.-S. 12. 133, I, 122, note r 
T.-S. 12. 153, II, 341 
T.-S. 12. 214, II, 222 
T.-S. 12. 217, II, 145-6 
T.-S. 12. 238, II, 317 
T.-S. 12. 247, II, 118 
T.-S. 12. 256, II, 72 
T.-S. 12. 328, II, 345 
T.-S. 12. 330, II, 251 
T.-S. 12, 338, II, 240-42 

T.-S. 12. 341, II, 252 
T.-S. 12. 358, I, 55, note i 
T.-S. 12. 427, II, 342-3 
T.-S. 12. 703, II, 275 
T.-S. 12. 722, II, 52 
T.-S. 12. 728, 11,380 
T.-S. 12. 775, II, 62 
T.-S. 12. 826, II, 312 
T.-S. 12. 857, 11, I [I 
T.-S. 16. 14, II, 24, note 8 
T.-S. 16. 18, II, 196-7 

T.-S. 16. 23, II, 282 

T.-S. 16. 45, II, loi 
T.-S. 16. 49, I, 97, note 3 (where cor- 
rect T.-S. accordingly) 
T.-S. 16. 68, II, 23-4 
T.-S. 16. 128, II, 360 
T.-S. i6. 251, II, 92-3 
T.-S. 16. 267, II, 336 
T.-S. 16. 275, II, 141-2 
T.-S. 16. 284, II, 193 
T.-S. 16. 352, II, 365 
T.-S. 16. 374, II, 94-6 
T.-S. 16. 375, II, 96, note 2 
T.-S. 16. 377, II, 359, note 4 
T.-S. 20. 6, II, 103 
T.-S. 20. 7, II, 245 
T.-S. 20. 81, II, 127-8 
T.-S. 20. 94, II, 205-6 
T.-S. 20. 97, II, 73, note 3 
T.-S. 20. 106, II, 225-7 
T.-S. 20. 114, II, 271-3 
T.-S. 20. 141, II, 235-6 
T.-S. 20. 173, II, 366-7 
T.-S. 20. 178, II, 136 
T.-S. 20. 179, II, 212 
T.-S. 24. ID,, II, 240 
T.-S. 24. 63, II, 329-30 
T.-S. 28. 2, II, 174, note i 
T.-S. 28. 6, II, 55-6. 
T.-S. 32. 8, II, 257-9 
T.-S. 6 H 66, I, 187, note i 
T.-S. 6H8S II, 104, note 6 
T.-S. 6 J iM, II, 231 
T.-S. 6] 1^8, II, 209 
T.-S. 6J 2i», II, 338 
T.-S. 6 J2I'', II, loi, note 2 
T.-S. 6 J 3", II, 217, note 3 

Concordance of Manuscripts 385 

T.-S. 6 J 4I6, II, 209 T.-S. 8 K 226, II, 318-20 

T.-S. 6 J 4M II, 305 T.-S. 8 K 228, II, 346 

T.-S. 6 J 92, II, 347 T.-S. 8 K 229, II, 312 

T.-S. 8 F 3S II, 312 T.-S. 8 K 22I0, II, 52, note i 

T.-S. 8H 16", II, 105 T.-S. ioH3"-i2, II, 368-70 

T.-S. 8 H 23", II, 105-6 T.-S. 10 J 2?, II, 25 

T.-S. 8 Jaa', II, 102-3 T.-S. IoJ5^ II, 373 

T.-S. 8 J 4I, 11,98 T.-S. roJs", 11,97 

T.-S. 8 J 42, II, 97 T.-S. 10 J 9", II, 288-9 

T.-S. 8 J 43, II, 98 T.-S. 10 J 9^6, II, 170-1 
T.-S. 8 J 4*, II, 240, § (2), where cor- T.-S. 10 J 10', II, 184, note 

rect'8 J 44 accordingly T.-S. 10 J 10", II, iii 

T.-S. 8J4I2, II, 231 T.-S. ioJio2», 11,203 

T.-S. 8 J 4", II, 247 T.-S. 10J1022, II, 155 

T.-S. 8 J 5I, II, 232 T.-S. 10 J 12", II, 128-9 

T.-S. 8 J 515, II, 287 T.-S. 10 J 14I, II, 304 

T.-S. 8J 5'« ; II, 290, note 7 T.-S. 10 J 14', II, 254-5 

T.-S. 8 J 521, II, 293 T.-S. loj 158, II, lor, note 2 

T.-S. 8 J 5", II, 293 T.-S. lo J 151", II, 168-9 

T.-S. 8 J 62-', II, 327 T.-S. 10 J 20*', I, 234, note 3 

T.-S. 8J6», 11, 327 T.-S. 10 J 228, II, 209 

T.-S. 8 J 618, II, g,_8 T.-S. 10 J 23I, II, 363 

T.-S. 8 J 7I, II, 41-2 T.-S. 10 J 2,^2, I, 220, note i 

T.-S. 8 J 81, II, 304 T.-S. 10 J 241, II, 228-9 

T.-S. 8 J 86, II, 54 T.-S. 10 J 246, II, 287 

T.-S. 8J8>5, H, 295 T.-S. ioj25S II, 368 

T.-S. 8 J 10'. II, 209 T.-S. 10 J 261, II, 355 

T.-S. 8 J 14", II, 54 T.-S. 10 J 263, II, 275 

T.-S. 8 J 17I8, II. 289-91 T.-S. ioj26«-", II, 294 

T.-S. 8Ji8i6-32, II, 203 T.-S. ioj26», II, 327 

T.-S. 8 J 18", I, 213, note i T.-S. lo J 26", II, 55 

T.-S. 8 J 20I, II, 169-70 T.-S. 10 J 26', II, 374 

T.-S. 8J212, I, 260, note I T.-S. ioj26», II, 55 

T.-S. 8 J 2i6, II, 109-10 T.-S. 10 J 26", II, 363 

T.-S. 8 J 22', II, 276 T.-S. ioj36'», II, 286 

T.-S. 8 J 279, II. 363 T.-S. 10 J 26", II, 275 

T.-S. 8 J 3oS 11, 327 T.-S. 10 J 2612, II, 327 

T.-S. 8 J 3ti», II, 28-9 T.-S. 10 J 27I, II, 368 - 

T.-S. 8 J 322, II, 293 T.-S. 10 J 272, II, 348-9 

T.-S. 8 J 32^, II, 327 T.-S. 10 J 27', II, 259, note 7 

T.-S. 8 J 32', II, 327, (e), (g) T.-S. ioj27S II, r,38, note! ' 

T.-S. 8 J 328, II, 97 T.-S. 10 J 27=, II, 252, notes 

T.-S. 8 J 328, II, 367 T.-S. 10 J 27', II, 79, note i 
T.-S 8 J 33I, II, 41 (where correct T.-S. 10 J 27*, II, 363-5 

8 J 33" accordingly) T.-S. 10 J ss'", II, 374 

T.-S. 8 J 332, II, 366 T.-S. 10 J 35% II, 362 
T.-S. 8 J 33«, II, 304-5 (where correct T.-S. 10 K 186, II, 247-8 

8J33I accordingly) T.-S. 10K20I, II, 291-2 

T.-S. 8 J 335, II, 174, note 3 T.-S. 10 K 2oS II, 104-5 

T.-S. 8 J 33«, II, 367 T.-S. isJiS II, 99 {.where correct 
T.-S. 8 J 33'", II, 366 13 J i' l§ (6'. end) accordingly) 

T.-S. 8 J 34=, II, 34-5 T.-S. 13 J i^ II, 49 

T.-S. 8 K 10, II, 35-7 T.-S. 13 J 1% II, 250 

T.-S. 8 K 13*, II, 357 T.-S. 13 J i', I, 89, note i ; II, 346 

T.-S. 8 K 20I, II, 98 T -S. 13 J 18, II, 192 

T.-S. 8 K 2o^ II, 52 T.-S. 13 J i», II, 99 

T,-S. 8 K 22I, II, 320 T.-S. 13 J ii", I, 97, note i 

T-S. 8K222, II, 210-11 T.-S. 13 J i", II, 219 

T.-S. 8 K 228, II, 213-14. T.-S. 13 J 2*, I, 187, note 2 

T.-S. 8Ks2<, II, 213, note 3 T.-S. I3J2«, II, 251 

T.-S. 8 K 225, II, 3g7_g T.-S. 13 J 2'8, II, 249, note i 

>Ma.2 B t) 


Concordance of Manuscripts 

T.-S. 13 J a", I, 217, note I T.-S. 

T.-S. I3j2»<'2», II, 332 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 2=', II, 275 T.-S. 

T.-S. i3J3'-^-<-6, 11,286 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 3', II, 284, note i T.-S 

T.-S. 13 J 39.11,287 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 3"i5, II, 294 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 3^^11,327 (b) T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 3^11, 327(d) T.-S. 

T.-S. 13.141,11, 329 T.-S. 

T.-S. i3j4'-2-s-S II, 327 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 4'. II, 209 T.-S. 

T.-S. r3j4"-i3, II, 329 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 4i«, I, 184, note 2 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 5I, I, 192, note i ; II, 98 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 5", 11, 293 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 6", II, 99 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 712,11, 294 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 7", II, 287 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 8MI, 287 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 816, II, 351 T.-S. 

T.-S, 13 J 9^ II, 119-22 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 9«, I, 224, note I T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 9\ II, 286 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 9«, 11,324 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 9l^ 11,329 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J Io^ I, 259, note 2 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 10", II, 208 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J loiS II, 75-7 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J III, II, 209 T.-S. 

T,-S. I3jii2, II, 239-40 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 11^ II, 213 T.-S. 

T.-S. I3jii^ 11,306-7 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 116, II, 186 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 1 1', II, 40-1 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J ii", II, 119 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 13', 11, III T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 132, II, 240 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 133, 11,201 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 13''. I, 227, note i T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J i3'o, II, 288 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 3", 11,209 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13J3IMI, 293 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 13I8, II, 219 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 13", II, 132-4 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 13", II, 188 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J xz^, II, 259, note 7 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 1321, II, 80 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 1328, II, 152-5 T.-S. 

T.-S. I3j,i4», II, 83 T.-S. 

T-S. 13J14MI, 165-6 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 14IO, II, 65-8 T.-S. 

T.-S. i3ji4iMI, 249 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13J14II!, II, ,,6 T.-S. 

T.-S. i3ji4>MI, 125-6 T.-S 

T.-S. 13 J 1420,11, 87 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 14", II, ,13 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J is', II, 124-5 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 15', II, 254 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J 15", II, 166-7 T.-S. 

T.-S. 13 J I5>2, II, 100 T.-S. 

3 J 15", II, 103, note 2 
3 J 15", II, 83-4 

3 J 15", II, 232-3 

:3 J i6S II, 248 
3 J 16", II, 129-32 
:3Ji6i^ I, 141, note i 
3 J i6i«, II, 53-4 
3 J 16", II, 236-7 
3 J 16I*, II, 199-200 
3 J i62', II, 290, note 6 
3 J I7^ II, 109 
:3 J17", II, 122 
:3ji8i, 11,77-9 
:3 J 18", II, 314, note r 
3 J 1815, I, 278, note 4 
3 J 1826, II, 387 
3 J i82», II, 108 
3 J 19', 11,86 
3JI9^ II, 374 
3 J 19'', II, 198-9 
3 J 1916, I, 141, note I 
3 J 19", II, 86 
3 J 19" II, 197 
:3 J 20I, II, 25 
3 j2o3, II, 301-3 
3 J20«, II, 338 
3 J 20', II, 307-8 
3 J 20", II, 108-9 
3 J 30", II, 300-1 
3 J 2o26, II. 88 
3 J 21'", II, 309 
:3j2i'9, II, no 

3 J2l2', II, 204 
3 J2l24, II, 309 

3 J 222, i_ 225, note I 

3 J 331", II, 232 
3 J 2221, II, 41 

3 J 23I, II, 161-2 
3323', II, 201 
:3 J23', II, 115 
3 J 23", II, 136-8 
3 J23I2, II, 8l-2 
3 J 23", II, 193-5 

3 J 23", II, 159-61 
3 J 24", II, 91 
3 J 25", II, 207-8 
3 J 26', II, 187 
3 J 26', II, 195-6 
;3j26'i, II, 175-6 
3 J26I6, II, 69-70 

3 J 2621, 11,339 

3 J 2623, II, 149-50 

13 J 28", II, 209 
3 J 30', II, 173-4 
3 J 31', II, 167-8 

3 J 3iS II, 294 
3 J 31', II, 299 
3J315, 11,84-5 

3 J si', II. 150-51 


13 J 33', I, 229, note I 

Concordance of Majiuscripts 


T.-S. 13 J 33', 11, 356 

T.-S. I3J33», II. 355 

T.-S. I3J33S II, 186 

T.-S. 13 J 33'. II. 283, col. I, note 6 

T.-S. 13 J 33". II. 363 

T.-S. 13 J 33", II, 155-7 (no. 58, see 

Addenda, above, p. 380) 
T.-S. 13 J 34'. II, 349-50 
T.-S. 13 J 34'. II, 372-3 
T.-S. 13 J 34^ 11,344-5 
T.-S. 13 K 7^ II, 336 
T.-S. 18 J i«, II, 107 
T.-S. 18 J i", II, 232 
T.-S. 18 J i''*, II, 294, note 10 
T-S. 18 J i^ II, 293 
T.-S. 18 J i»', II, 327 
T.-S. i8j2'«, I, 41, note 1 
T.-S. 18 J 3', II, 176-8 
T.-S. I8J4^ 11,374 
T.-S. I8J4^ II, 39-40 
T.-S. 18 J 4", II. 116 
T.-S. 18 J 4I0, II, 352-4 
T.-S. 18 J 4", II, 135-6 
T.-S. 18J42'', II, 321-2 
T.-S. 18 J 4^'", II, 116 
T.-S. 18J4M II, 139-41 

;b) University Library Collection. 

Fragments from, II, 25, 203, 233, 347, 
note 7, 294, 327, 373, bottom 

(c) Westminster College Collection. 
II, 210, 356, 361 

II. London. 
(a) Collection of Mr. Elkan N. Adler 
( = MS. Adler). 
Fragments not marked, II, 58, 72, 72-3, 
73-4, 91-2, 102, 104, 113-15, 180-82, 
182-4, 184-5, 189, 294, 305, 325 
MS. Adler 223, II, 60-61 
., ,, 2592, II, loo-i, loi, note 2, 

MS. Adler 2738, II, 302, note lo 
•• 2747, II, 69, note I 
2804, fol. I, II, 115 
2804, fol. 2, II, 112 
2804, fol. 3, II, 146-8 
2804, fol. 4, II, 163-5 
2804, fol. 5, II, 135, note 2 
,, ,. 2804, fol. 6, II, 192 
,, ., 2804, fol. 8, II, 142-5 
,, ,. 2804, loose leaves in, II, 75, 
note I, 88-9, 106-8, 151-2, 179-80, 
192, 274-5 
MS. Adler 2806, fols. i, 12, II, 276 
,, ,. 2806, fols. 3, 4, 2, II, 234-5 
,, ,, 2806, fol. 5, II, 202 
,, 2806, fol. 6, II, 275 
„ , 2806, fols. 8, II, 13, II, 275 

MS. Adler 2806, fol. 9, II, 277-9 

,, 2806, loose leaves in, II, 276 

„ 2952, II, 50-51 

,, 3011, fol. I, II, 64-5 

,, 3363, fols- 1-2, II, 337 

„ 3765, fol. X, II, 215-6 

„ 3765, fol. 3, II, 216-7 

,, 4009, II, 59 

,, 4010, II, 200-1 

,, 4020, leaves in, II, 172-3,208, 
270, 298 

(b) British Museum, Oriental Depart- 
ment Collection (= Or.). 

Or. 2558, II, 328-9 
Or. 2561, I, 79, note i 
Or. 5346, II, 122-4 
O""- 5529, II, 107 
Or. 5532, II, 212 

Or- 5533, H, 3i7 

Or. 5535, I, II, 233-4 

Or. 5542', I, 187, note 2 

Or. 55423, ij^ 253 

Or. 5542", II, 339 

Or. 5542''^, U, 293 

Or. 5542'', I, 272, note i 

Or. 5549^ II, 285, note 

Or. 5549, III, II, 328 

Or. 5550, I, 99, note 2 

Or. 5551, II, 287 

Or. 5554, A, fol. 18, II, 312-3 

Or. 5554, A, fol. 55, II, 312 

Or. 5557, A, fols. 47-51, II, 101-2 

Or. 5557, F, fol. I, II, 339 

Or. 5557, K, fol. 8, II, 220 

Or. 5557, N, fol. 13, II, 229-31 • 

Or. 5557, P, fols. 55-6, II, 27-9 

Or. 5560, A, fol. I, II, 26 

Or. 5560, A, fols. 5-6, II, 32-4 

Or- 5561, B, fol. II, 209 

Or. 5563, D, fol- II, II, 327-8 
Or. 5563, I, fols. 1, 2, II, 248 
Or. 5566, B, fol. 7, II, 220 
Or. 5566, B, fol. 29, 11,99 
Or. 5856, II, 339 
Or. 6197", II, 25 

III. Oxford. 

Bodleian Collection. 

[The catalogued fragments are cited 
according to the numbers in Neu- 
bauer-Covvley, Catalogue of Hebrew 
MSS., vols. I-II ( = Bodl.), whereas 
of the fragments not yet catalogued 
the respective class-marks are given.] 

Bodl. 438', II, 296-7 
Bodl. 438^, II, 297, note i 
Bodl. 480I, II, 297, note i 
Bodl. 628, II, 330 

B b 2 


Concordance of Manuscripts 

Bodl. 858, II, 330-31 

Bodl. 1315, 11,331-6 

Eodl. 2624", fol. 83, recto, II, 310 

Bodl. 2667!^ I, 186 ; II, 223-4 

Bodl. 2729°, I, 75, note i 

Bodl. 2732, II, 174 

Bodl. 2776", II, 14-21 

Bodl- 2787", II, 293-4 

Bodl. aSos'-''-'', II, 69, note i 

Bodl. 2805*, II, 99 

Bodl. 28058, II, 294 

Bodl. 2Bo5'«, II, 337-8 

Bodl. 28o6«, II, 327 

Bodl. 2807'*, II, 198 

Bodl. 28o7'6, II, 242-5 

Bodl. 282i>8-''-', II, 294 

Bodl. 282i5», II, 281-3 

Bodl. 28342", II, 338 

Bodl. 283421, II, 294 

Bodl. 2834^', I, 222, note 2 

Bodl. 28342s, II, 99 

Bodl. 28342=, II, 330 

Bodl. 2836'«, II, 260-3 

Bodl. 28558, II, 281-3 

Bodl. 286220, II, 355-7 

Bodl. 286221, fol_ gg^ IJ^ ^3 

Bodl. 286226, II, 19a 

Bodl. 28732, II, 251-2 

Bodl. 2873S, II, 148, additional note 

Bodl. 2873I', II, 86 

Bodl. 287321, II, 38-9 

Bodl. 287322, II, 268-9 

Bodl. 38732^, II, 210 

Bodl. 2873S', II, 297, note i 

Bodl. 2873", II, 355 

Bodl. 2873*2, II, 212 

Bodl. 2873", II, 221-:^ 
Bodl. 28741-'', II, 86-7 
Bodl. 2874''', II, 29-30 
Bodl. 2874-', II, 165, note 2 
Bodl. 2875", II, 294 
Bodl. 28766, II, 245-6 
Bodl. 28769,. II, 158 
Bodl. 2876'", II, 315-16 
Bodl. 2876", II, 293 
Bodl. 2876I6, II, 297-80 
Bodl. 287626", II, 340 
Bodl. 2876»6, II, 273-4 
Bodl. 2876", II, 252-3 
Bodl. 2876*2, II, 183, note 10 
Bodl. 2876™, II, 254 
Bodl. 2877", II, 97-85 
Bodl. 28786, II, 134-5 
Bodl. 2878", II, 338 
Bodl. 2878"-6», II, 2i:-i2 
Bodl. 287863, II, 173 
Bodl. 2878^*, II, 294 
MS. Heb. c. 50=', II, 62-3 
MS. Heb. d. 74", H, 274 
MS. Heb. d. 75", II, 221 
MS. Heb. d. 75", II, 202-3 
MS. Heb. d. 75'*, II, 21-3 
MS. Heb. d. 75i», II, 219-20 
MS. Heb. d. 752^, II, 217, note 3 
MS. Heb. d. ^6^^, II, 326 
MS. Heb. d. 76*5, II, 113, note 3 
MS. Heb. d. 7712, II, 100 
MS. Heb. d. 79'*, II, 217-8 
MS. Heb. e. 955*, II, 31-2 
MS. Heb. e. 9866, n^ 301 
MS. Heb. e. loi". II, 208 
MS. Heb. g. 125*, 11^ 10^ 


[The volumes are indicated by I and II respectively.] 

Aaron, staff of, I, 256, note i. 
Aaron Ab b. Joshiah Gaon, I, 186. 
Aaron b. Ephraim, II, 103. 
Aaron b. Josliiah Ab, 11, 52-3, 57. 
Aaron b. Moses, 11, 103. 
Aaron b. Moses, Massorite, II, 44 ff. 
Aaron b. Netaneel, II, 382. 
Aaron b. Sarjada, Gaon, II, 310, 
Aaron b. Solomon Hakkohen, II, 355. 
Aaron b. Tobias the 'Third', II, 245. 
Aaron b. Yehuda, Reader in Alexandria, 

II, 92, 346. 
Aaron ^Ben Sion,Abu'l Hasan) b. Jeshua 

al-'Ammani, I, 241; 11,275,286, 305-6. 
Aaron b. Sadakah Hakkohen, II, 318 
Aaron Gaon, I, 71 ; II, 50 ff. 
Aaron Hakkohen, 'The Fourth ', I, 66 ; 

H, 58. 
Aaron Hallevi. Katib, II, 317. 
Aaron, Karaite grandee, 1, 176 f ; II, 211. 
Aaron 'Iraki, I, 174, note 2. 
Aaron, son-in-law of Nasi in Jerusalem, 

II, 125, 348. 
Aaron, the official, II, 349. 
Aaron, the Reader, b. Ephraim, II, 41, 

103, note 3. 
Aaron, uncle of Samuel, I, 55, note i. 
'Abd-al-Malik, 'Omeyyad Caliph, I, 170. 
Abdimi b. Nehemiah, I, 58. 
Abraham a\-'^itZ')p, II, 276. 
Abraham al-Tustari, scholar, II, 375, 378. 
Abraham b. Aaron Hakkohen, II, 97. 
Abraham b. Aaron of Basrah, I, 109; 

II, 119. 
Abraham b. Abraham al-Basri the phy- 
sician, II, 149, note. 
Abraham b. Adonim, II, 318, note 4. 
Abraham b. 'Alan, II, 92. 
Abraham b. 'Ata, Nagid of Kairowan, 

I, 252. 
Abraham b. ^'2^2, II, 97. 
Abraham b. David niDISabN, H, 355- 
Abraham b. David Maimuni, I, 248 ; II, 

328, 329. 
Abraham b. El'azar, I, 250; II, 339. 

Abraham b. Haggai Hakkohen, I, 102, 

104-5, iii> 116, note I ; II, 113-15. 
Abraham b. Hananya, brother of Samuel 

Hannagid, I, 230 ; II, 281 ff. 
Abraham b. ha-Takvi, Samaritan digni- 
tary, I, 18. 
Abraham (Abu Ishak al-Abzari) b. Hillel, 

I; 234-s ; II, 303-4. 327, 328. 
Abraham b, Isaac, II, 219. 
Abraham b. Isaac Hakkohen (b. Furat), 

court physician, 1, 28, 83ff.,95, loo-i, 

129, 133, 143, 180, 183, 259 ; II, 26, 

54 ff., 81 ff., 97, 142, 151 f., 219, 223. 
Abraham b. Isaac TiDiTin, II, 245. 
Abraham, b. Jacob, II, 115. 
Abraham b. Jair, II, ^=,. 
Abraham b. Joseph, II, 318. 
Abraham b. Joseph Hakkohen Gaon, 1, 

66; II, 60-1. 
Abraham b. Masliah, II, 103, 245. 
Abraham b. Mazhir, Gaon, I, 223 ff. ; II, 

277 ff. 
Abraham (Abu Ishak Abu Sa'id), b. 

Mebasser, I, 96, 146, 260 ; II, 98 ff. 

100, 167, 184, note, end. 
Abraham b. Meir of Andalusia, II, 115. 
Abraham b. Moses, II, 271. 
Abraham b. Nathan Ab, I, 194, 267; II, 

201, 202, 231-2, 252, 277. 
Abraham b. Nathan Gaon, II, 174. 
Abraham b. Nathan the * Seventh ', I, 

278, note 6 ; II, 374. 
Abraham (Abu'l 'Afif) b. Netaneel, II, 

319, note 5. 
Abraham b. Nusair Hallevi, II, 252, 

note 3. 
Abraham b. Perah, I, 205 ; II, 244, top. 
Abraham b. Rikat, II, 44 ff. 
Abraham b. Sa'adya of Hebron, II, 203. 
Abraham b. Sa'adya of Galilee, II, 20.). 
Abraham b. Sabbatai, Haber of Minyat 

Zifta, I, 212-13 ; 11,257-9. 
Abraham b. Sadakah, II, 201. 
Abraham b. Sahl, see Abu Sa'ad 

(Abraham) b. Sahl. 


General Index 

Abraham b. Sahlan, I, 40, 90, 94, 96 ff., 
118 ff, lagff., 145; II, 65, note 2, 

Abraham b. Samuel Hallevi, II, igg. 
Abraham b. Samuel the ' Third ', I, 28 ; 

II, 25-6. 80, note 6. 
Abraham b. Semah, II, 283-4. 
Abraham b. Shelah, I. 148; II, 171. 
Abraham b. Shema'ya, I, 206 ; ll, 231- 

2, 233, 246, 247, 342. 
Abraham b. Solomon Gaon (b. Yehuda), 

I, 96, 105, 107-8, 120, 186, note I ; 

II, 26, 58, 11S-16, 133, 319, 350, 

I. 19. 

Abraham b. Solomon b. Ezra, II, 

Abraham b. Solomon the official, 1, 105; 

II, 115. 

Abraham b. Tobias Hallevi, II, 220. 
Abraham b. X., II, 362, bottom. 
Abraham Dayyan, II, 58. 
Abraham Gaon, II, 50 IF. 
Abraham Haber, I, 185, 187. 
Abraham Haber b. Halfon, II, 320. 
Abraham Haber b. X., 11, 275. 
Abraham n^Dnn ( = Abraham b. Hillel), 

II, 327, note. 
Abraham Hakkohen of Magreb, I, 248 ; 

II, 325- 
Abraham Hazzan of Bagdad, II, 246. 
Abraham Hazzan of Damascus, I, 39 ; 

II, 40. 
Abraham, Karaite leader, I, 177 ; II, 

Abraham Maimuni, I, 175, 236, 241, 

24B-9, 255 ; II, 297, 305, 319, note 8, 

326 IT., 370-1, 382. 
Abraham of Aleppo, II, 322. 
Abraham, Patriarch of the Copts, I, 17. 
Abtalion b. Samuel Meyuhas, I, 95, 

note I. 
Abu Aaron, I, 55, note 3, 56. 
Abu Abdallah, governor of Ramlah, I, 

1 8. 
Abiialbis, community of, II, 203. 
Abu "Ali, I, 333 ; II, 292. 
Abu "Ali the perfumer, see Yefet (Abu 

'All the perfumer) b. Tikvah. 
Abu 'Ali mSSn^X, II, 83. 
Abu 'Ali al-Hasan b. Abu Sa'ad (b. 

Sahl), Wezir, I, 78, note 2, 
Abu 'Ali b. Fadlan of Bagdad, I, 86: II, 

Abu 'Ali b. Nathan, see Moses (Abu 

'Ali; b. Nathan. 
Abu 'AU b. Sadakah, I, 233 ; II, 292. 
Abu 'Ali b. 'iN3D, II, 370. 

Abu 'Aiib. nao, 11,374. 

Abn 'Ali Hasan, I, 104 ; II, 115. 

Abo 'All Hasan bxHS^N, I, 193; II, 

Abu 'Ali Hasan b. al-Tayyib, I, in ; 

II, 12a. 
Abu 'Ali (Yefet) Parnasb. Shemarya, II, 

Abii Hariz, I, 169; II, 199. 
Abu Haru', Governor of Ashkelon, I, 

169 ■; II, 199. 
Abu Ishak al-Abzari, see Abraham (Abu 

Ishak ai-Abzari) b. Hillel. 
Abu Ishak b. Mebasser, see Abraham 

(Abu Ishak) b. Mebasser. 
Abu Kath'ir' (Yahya) b, Zakariya, II, 

Abu Khair, see Ephraim (Abu Khair). 
Abu'! 'Afif b. Netaneel, see Abraham 

(AbuTAfif) b. Netaneel. 
Abu'l 'Ali Hasan b. Surur (b. 'Ali) = 

Yefet b. Sason, I, 272, note i. 
Aba'l Baka b. 'Abbas al-Magribi, see 

Yehuda b. Abun of Fas. 
Abu'l Barakat b. al-Lebdi, II, 286. 
Abu'l Barakat (Netaneel) b. Meborak 

Nagid, see Netaneel (Abu'l Barakat) 

b. Meborak Nagid. 
Abu'l Barakat b. Joseph Hakkohen, see 

Sadok (Abu'l Barakat) b. Joseph Hak- 
Abu'l Barakat (Yehuda) b. El'azar Hak- 
kohen, see Yehuda (Abu'l Barakat) b. 

El'azar Hakkohen. 
Abii'l Bayyan, I, 233 ; II, 292. 
Abu'l Bayyan, a young man, I, 240; 

11, 302. 
Abu'l Bayyan, a Reader, 1, 242; II, 

Abu'l Bayyan (Moses) Nagid, see Moses 

(Abu'l Bayyan) Nagid b. Meborak 

Abu'l Fadail, I, 196 ; II, 233. 
Abu'l Fadl b. 'Ali, see Meborak (Abu'l 

Fadl) b. 'Ali. 
Abii'l Fadl b. al-Uskuf, I, 212. 
Abu'l Fadl (Yakin) b. Netaneel, eee 

Yakin (Abu'l Fadl) b. Netaneel. 
Abu'l Fadl (Joseph) b. Perahya, see 

Joseph (Abu'l Fadl) b. Perahya. 
Abu'l Fadl b. Solomon Hallevi, II, 

Abu'l Fakr (Sa'adya) b. Abraham, see 

Sa'adya (Abu'l Fakr) b. Abraham. 
Abu'l Faraj V»E'i)N, sfe Menahem (Abu'l 

Faraj VOcbx) b. Shemarya Hallevi. 
Abu'l Faraj b. Abu Zakari, Dayyam al- 

Yahud, I, 266, note 2. 
Abu'l Faraj b. al-Rais (perhaps = b. Abu 

Zakari), I, 262, note 2. 
Abu'l Fudail (Yekutiel) b. Moses, see 

Yekutiel (Abu'l Fudail) b. Moses. 

General Index 


Abu'l Futuh, a governor, I, 85 ; II, 83. 
Abu'l Hajaj Yusuf, see Yehoseph b. 

Abn'l Hasan, II, 305. 
Abu'l Hasan Abn Sa'ad, I, 333 ; II, 

Abu'l Hasan b. Hashush, I, 233 : II, 

Abu'l Hasan (Adonira) b. Mufaddal, II, 

Abu'l Hasan (Aaron) b. Yeshu'a, see 

Aaron (Ben Sion, Abu'l Hasan) b. 

Yeshu'a al-'Ammani. 
Abu'l Hasan SJT of Ashkelon, II, 201. 
Abu'l Hayy b. Hakim, 1, 73-4 ; II, 

Abu'l Kassam b. al-Advat, II, 352, 

Abu'l Khair b. iJKJ the Parnas, 1, 220, 

note I. 
Abu'l Khair Sadakah, I, 233 ; II, 292. 
Abu'l Ma'ali' (Samuel) b. Abu'l Hasan 

(Yehuda), I, 232; II, 287, 289, 

Abu'l Ma'ali, II, 41. 
Abu'l Ma'ah ('Uzziel) b. Abu'l Muhasin 

(Mishael) Hallevi, brother-in-law of 

Maimonides, II, 319, note 13, 328. 
AbD Mansur Sadakah b. Yusuf al-Fellahi, 

renegade Wezir, I, 77. 
Abu'l Mu'amr, a Reader, I, 192 ; II, 

Abu'l Mufaddal, I, 233 ; II, 292. 
Abu'l Muna, II, 291. 
Abu'l Muna, a Karaite, II, 158. 
Abu'l Munajja (Solomon) b. Sha'ya, 

Wezir, I, 215-17; II, 264-9, 382. 
Abu'l Najm (Hilal), I, 233 ; II, 292. 
Abu'l Ridha, I, 233 ; II, 292. 
Abu'l Ridha b. (?) 'Obadya Nagid, II, 

Abu'l Ridha b. 'Ulah,sfe 'Obadya (Abu'l 

Ridha) b. 'Ulah. 
Abu'l Ridha Parnas, I, 192 : II, 228. 
Abu'l Sahl b. Abu 'Imran, II, 374. 
Abu'l Siyad, a Kadi, 1, 154 ; II, 


Abu'l Surri (Joseph) b. (?) "Obadya Na- 
gid, see Joseph b. 'Obadya Nagid. 

AbQ'l Suriir b. Salamah, II, 287. 

Abu'l Surur b. Tarif, I, 232; II, 289, 

Abij'I Tar (Elijah) b. Mishael, see Elijah 
(Abn'l "Tar) b. Mishael. 

Abu'l Tayyib, a Reader, 1, 168 ; II, 197. 

Abu'l SjNDB b. Solomon, sfcYefet (AbD'l 

i5XBD) b. Solomon. 
Abu'l 'Umaitar, see Ahiyahu Hakkohen. 

AbQ'l Zahak of Damascus, 1, 246 ; II, 

Abu Mansur (Dosa) b. Mishael, s«eDosa 
(Abii Mansur) b. Mishael. 

Abu Mansur (Samuel) b. Hananya, see 
Samuel b. Hananya, Nagid. 

Abu Mansur of Damietta, II, 291. 

AbQ Mansur (Semah) b. Yefet, II, 

Abu Nasr, II, 58. 

Abu Nasr b. Ephraim, II, 184, note. 

Abu Nasr b. al-''3»{«, II, 247. 

Abu Nasr b. 3iyt5», I, 189. 

Abu Nasr Ghalib b. Musa, II, 108. 

Abu Nasr (Hesedl b. Sahl al-Tustari, I, 
38, note I, 73, 76ff., 81, 108, 112, 
121, 138 f, 140, 260; II, 72-3, 76, 
79 ff-, 14s, 376 flf. 

Abu Nasr (Netaneel) b. Joseph Hak- 
kohen, II, 318. 

Abu Nasr Salama b. Sa'id (probably 
identical with Solomon b. Sa'adya), 
IJ, 195, note 14. 

Abu Sa'ad, I, 232 ; II, 290, 291. 

Abu Sa'ad b. Abraham, see Jacob (Abia 
Sa'ad) b. Abraham. 

Abu Sa'ad b. p\Axh^ , 1, 189. 

Abu Sa'ad (Abraham) b. Sahl al-Tustari, 
1, 38, note I, 73, 76 ff., 92, 112, 113, 
119, 121, 128, 260; II, 54 ff., 75 ff., 
251, 376 ff. 

Abu Sa'ad b. Solomon (b. Nathan), II, 
174, note 3. 

Abu Sa'ad (Sabyan) b. Sa'adya Hak- 
kohen, see Sabyan (Abu Sa'ad) b. 
Sa'adya Hakkohen. 

Abu Sa'ad of 'Okbara, II, 246. 

Abu Sa'ad, the blind, II, 246-7. 

Abu Sa'ad, the ' Sixth', I, 272, note 2 ; 

Ij. 337- 
Abu Sahl Hallevi, a Reader, II, 374. 
Abu Sa'id, II, 247. 
Abu Sa'id b. Abu'l Mansur, II, 327. 
Abu Sa'id b. Mebasser, see Abraham 

(Abu Ishak, Abu Sa'idi b. Mebasser. 
Abu Sa'id (Joshu'a) b. Dosa, see Joshu'a 

(Abu Sa'id) b. Dosa. 
Abu Sa'id (Halfon) b. Netaneel Hallevi, 

see Halfon b. Netaneel Hallevi. 
Abu Sa'id, brother of Maliha, I, 241 ; II, 

Abu Slutum, see Semah b. Sayyara, 
Abu Sulaiman, I, 22, 24, 25 ; II, 16-7, 

Abu Sulaiman (Daud) b. Abu'l NasTb 

(David b. nVlt, r. perhaps 'Ezra), II, 

Abu Tahir, I, 193; II, 229. 
Abu tayyib 'Alvan b. Sahl, I, 162 ; II, 



General Index 

Abu Thinna, II, 302, note 10. 

AbuX. IID'^X, II, 374. 

Abu Ya'kub, II, 41. 

Abu Ya'kub Ibrahim, Samaritan Wezir, 
I, 228. 

Abu Zakaraya b. Sada, court physician, 
I, 18. 

Academy, organization of the Babylo- 
nian, 1, 272-3 ; of the Palestinian, I, 
272 if. 

'Adayah ('Adi) b. Menasse the Wezir, 

I, ao, 22, 136 f. ; II, II fT., 153. 
Aden, Jews of, II, 366-7. 

'Adi b. Menasse, see 'Adayah ('Adi) b. 

Menasse the WezTr. 
al-'Adid, last Fatimid Caliph, I, 16, 

235, 251. no'e 3- 
Adonim b. Mufaddal, see Abu'l Hasan 

(Adonim) b. Mufaddal. 
al-Afdal, Wezir, I, 207 ff., 209, 211 ff., 

215, 218-9; II, 270, 273. 
Ahima'as the elder, I. 48, 55 ff., 73. 
Ahima'as, the Chronicle of. I, 16, 252. 
Ahiyahu Hakkohen, Massorite, II, 44 ff. 
Ahmad, Amir of Sicily, I, 203. 
Ahmad ibn Tuliin, viceroy of Egypt, I, 

14, 16, 62-3. 
'Akko (in Palestiee\ I, 42, 150, 189 ; 

II, 172, 246, 247, 328-9, 370, 371, 383. 
Aleppo (in Syria), I, 20, 25 f., 37, 129, 

158 f, 167, 173; II, 61,117, "8,247, 
304, 322, 331-2, 355. 
Alexandria (in Egypt), I, 13, 14, 26, 
32, 36, note I, 87 ff., 91, 93, 105, 108, 
188, 189, 204ff., 219, note I. 230 f., 
249 ; II, 116, 251, 274, 275, 286, 287, 
note 2, 288, 289, 294, 305, 306, 307, 
note 2, 316, 325, 336, 344, 345, 346, 
363, 370, 371 ; Jewish state official in, 

I, 319 ; Jews of, I, 204 ff. ; port of, I, 
219; scholarship in A. in time of 
Maimonides, II, 317; trade of, I, 219, 
note I. 

Alexius, Byzantine Emperor, I, 212. 

'Ali b. Abraham Hakkohen, Haber of 
Dan (Baniyas), II, 202-3. 

"Ali b. Amram, Haber of Fustat. I, 82, 
85-6, 95, 96, 167, 180 ff., 202 ff.; II, 
80, 85, 193, 195, 221, 239-40, 360 ff., 

'Ali b. Ezekiel Hakkohen, I, 186 ; II, 

'Ali ibn Ja'far ibn Fellah, General, I, 

'Ali b. Joshu'a, II, 270-r. 
'Ali b. Mebasser, II, 24c. 
'Ali b. Ridhwan, II, 339. 
'Ali b. Solomon, Karaite, I, 79, note i. 
'Ali b. Yahya Hakkohen, I, 192, note i; 

II, 228. ■ 

'Ali b. Ya'ish Hakkohen, II, 240. 

'Ali b. Yefet, II. 270-1. 

'Ali b. Yefet Hallevi of Damascus, I, 

104 ; II. 114. 
'Ali of Fustat, I, 245 ; II, 322. 
'Ali of Kalneh (Rakkah), I, 246 ; II, 

'Ali Rosh Hakkahal, father of Jacob 

Rosh be Rabbanan, II, 312. 
'Ali, son-in-law of Aaron, I, 55, note i. 

NDiniiJ?N,a place three days'journey 

from Aden, II, 366-7. 
Alluf, the title, I, 114 ff., 249, 277, 278 ; 

II, 124 ff., 348, 350. 
'Alvan b. Abraham, a poet, I, 22-3. 
'Alvan b. Hiyya, the Parnas, I, 210 ; II, 

Alme (in Galileel, I, 171 : II, 204 ; old 

synagogue at, II, 380. 
al-'Aluya (near Gischala, in Galilee), I, 

171 ; II, 204. 
al-'Amid, family of, II, 319, note 4. 
'Amid ad-Daula, I, 220, note i. 
Amin ad-Daulah, title, I, 217, note i ; 

II, 374- 
Amin al-Mulk, title, I, 227, note i, 257. 
'Amman (in Transjordania), I, 118; II, 

130, S-'S- 

al-'Ammani, II, 273. 

'Amr ibn al-'Asi, 1, 13. 

al-AmIr, Caliph, I. 207, 228. 

'Amram, II, 144. 

'Amram b, Berakot, II, 283-4. 

'Amram b. Isaac, II, 337. 

'Amram b. Moses, 357. 

'Amram b. Semah, II, 283-4. 

'Amram b. Sheerit Hakkohen, II, 78, 
note 7. 

'Amram, Dayyan of Damietta, I, 71 ; 
II, 70. 

'Amram, head of the Bet-Din of 
Damietta, I, 71 ; II, 69, 

'Amram Hakkohen, son-in-law of Eb- 
yatarGaon, I, 193; II, 229. 

'Amram, Karaite leader, I, 177 ; II, 211. 

'Amram, the banker, II, 373. 

'Amram, the teacher, I, 100 ; II, 108. 

Amasya b. Jehoshafat, Karaite Nasi, 
II,' 214, 215. 

Amasya Joseph b. 'Azarya, Karaite 
Nasi, II, 214, 215. 

'Anan, founder of Karaism, I, 59, 176, 
177, aoo, note i ; II, 213, 215 ; de- 
scendants of, I, 176 ff.; II, 215, 381 ; 
synagogue of A. in Jerusalem, I, 200, 
note I. 

'Anan b.Bo'az,KaraiteNasi,II, 214,215. 

Anatoli b. Joseph, Dayyan of Alexan- 
dria, I, 231, 247, 267 ; II, 87, 317, 

Andalusia (Spain), II, 247, 248. 

Animals, slaughtering of, see Shehita. 

General Index 


Annual Cycle, of the Reading of the 

Law, I, 221-3 ; II, 378-9. 
Anushtegin ad-Dizbiri, General, I, 136, 

159 ff- 
Arabs and Jews, I, 153-5; II, 175-6; 

A. prohibiting slaughtering of animals 

according to Jewish law, see Shehita ; 

shutting off the water supply to Jews, 

I, 154 ; II, 175-6- 
Arab conquest of Palestine, I, 42 ff. ; II, 

Arab b. Nathan the ' Seventh ', II, 374. 
Ark, hiding of the, I, 256, note i ; II, 

333, note I. 
Asa, Karaite, Nasi, I, 178 ; II, 211. 
Asaph Rosh Hasseder, of Bagdad, I, 40, 

note 1 ; II, 376. 
Asher the elder (b. Nehemiah), Mas- 

sorite, I, 58 ; II, 44 ff. 
Asher b. Nehemiah, Massorite, II, 44 ff, 
Ashkelon ("Askalan, in Palestine), 1,42, 

169 ff., 188,' 191; II, 198 ff., 287; 

Jews of A. in Jerusalem, I, 240, note 

I ; whether belonged to Palestine, I, 

191 ; II, 225 ff. 
'Asluj, I, 17. 

v'DIDDN, a place in Byzantium, 11,344, 


Ayyub (Yeshu'a), father of Aaron (Ben- 
Sion), II, 305, note 4. 

'Azarya 'Anan b. Konyah Moses, Ka- 
raite Nasi, II, 214, 215. 

'Azarya b. 'Ali, II, 98. 

'Azarya b. David, II, 201. 

'Azarya b. David (b. Daniel), II, 357-g. 

Azarya b. Joseph, Exilarch, II, 359. 

'Azarya b. Yehalelel, Nasi, I, 174 ; II, 

'Azarya ('Ezra ?), Gaon of Damascus, I, 
238, note I ; II, 295. 

'Azarya Hakkohen, Gaon of Sura, I, 
182 f. 

al-'Aziz, Caliph, I, 16, 17, 19, 33. 

Baalbec, I, 246, note i ; II, 323, note 5. 

Babylonian section in Fustat, I, 79, 96 ff.; 
II, 100 ff., 249, note 1, 346, 363. 

Babylonians in Palestine, I, 148, 171. 

Badr al-Jamali, Wezir, I, i88, 207 ff. 

Bagdad, I, 15, 17, 18, 40, 61, 62, 63, 
note 2, 174 ; II, 133, 147, 246 ; 
academy of, I, 193, 238 note i ; II, 
223, note I, 331 ff., 335, 347, 348. 

Bahr AbO'l Munajja (in Egypt), I, 215. 

Bairut (in Syria), I, 188. 

al-Baka (Eli'ezer) b. Ebyatar, II, 327. 

Baldwin, king of Latin kingdom of 
Jerusalem, I, 199-200. 

Ban, announced on Mondays and Thurs- 
days, I, 131 ; II, 148-9 ; on ninth of 
Ab, I, 109; II, 119. 

Baniyas (Fort Dan, in Palestine), I, 157, 

171 ; II, 202-3. 
Bari (in Italy), I, 73, note 2, 
Barkah (on North-African coast), I, 91 ; 

II, 88. 
Baruk, a dignitary, I, 227 ; II, 379. 
Baruk b. Isaac, I. 198-9 ; II, 235-6. 
Basileos, Byzantine Emperor, I, 48. 
Bathing in Shiloah prohibited, I, 241, 

note ; II, 304. 
Ben Baboi, I, 45, note 2, 280. 
Ben Berakeel. Bible commentator, 11, 

Benhe (Binhat) al 'Asal (in Egypt). I, 

230 f., 232, 242; II, 288, note 3, 290, 

note 9, 308, 1. 25. 
Benjamin, II, 329, 
Benjamin b, Jacob, II, 322, 335, 
Benjamin Nahawendi, I, 60. 
Benjamin of Tudela, I, 233, 240. 
Ben-Meir(probably = b. Meir Rosh Has- 
seder), I, 149 ; II, 172. 
Ben-Meir, Gaon, I, 50 ff,, 60, 70, 80, 134; 

II, 53 ff. ; family of, I, 65-6 ; II, 49 ff. 
Ben Sha'ya, an official, I, loi ; II, 107, 

note 10. 
Beraka b. Revah, I, 149 ; II, 172. 
Berakeel {see Ben Berakeel), Bible 

commentator, I, 243 ; II, 310-11. 
Berakya, grandfather of Solomon b. 

Yehuda, I, 75, note i. 
Berakot, commentary on, I, 246; II, 

Berakot b. 'Aniram, II, 283-4. 
Berakot b, El'azar, II, 283-4. 
Bibles, presented to synagogues, II, 308, 

note 4, 
Bible Difficulties, the so-called collection 

of, discussed, I, 274-7. 
Bilbais (in Egypt), II, 259, note 7, 317, 

327, 329- 

Biriat (near Safed in Galilee), I, 171 ; 
II. 204. 

Bishr b. Ghalib, I, 164 ; II, 189. 

Bishr b. Hasan, II, 79. 

Bo'az b. David, Karaite Nasi, II, 214-15, 

Bo'az b. Yehoshafat, Karaite Nasi, II, 

Bohemund, Prince, I, 212. 

Brigands, infesting the roads from Da- 
mascus to Palestine, I, 34, 103 ■. II, 

39, III- 
Bustanai, Exilarch, II, 68. 
Byzantines, the, I, 14, 42 f., 46-7. 
Byzantium (Rum, Rumania, Edom), I, 

87 ff., 173 ; II, 241, 248, 273, 363-5. 
' By authority of (n1B'^l3), I, 237, 240; 

II, 295-6, 303, 

Caesarea (in Palestine), 1, 159, 188, 
Cairo (capital of Egypt), 1, 17 and 


General Index 

passim ; II, 232, 246, 251, 286, 287, 
294, 304 ; Dayyanim of Cairo in time 
of'Maimonides, II, 317'. 

Calendar, I, 232-3 ; II, 291-2 ; differ- 
ence in calculation between Babylon 
and Palestine, II, 376 j'dispute between 
Ben-Meir and Sa'adya, I, 50 ff., 65; 
Palestinian prerogative of fixing the, 
I, 50 ff., 273; II, 41-2. 

Captives, from Byzantium, I, 87 ff., 
204-5, 232, 244 ; II, 87 ff., 241, 289- 
91, 316-17, 344-5, 363-5. 

Ceylon, II, 366, note i. 

Charity, of Egyptian Jewry, I, 87 ff., 
105, 204-5, 232- 

Cherub, used as metaphor, II, 333, 
note I. 

Chorister, the, I, 270. 

Christians and Jews, in the Fatimid 
Court, I, 211 ff. 

Circumcision, authorization to perform, 

I, 237-8 ; II, 300-1. 
Commentary on Berakot, see Berakot ; 

on Ecclesiastes, see Ecclesiastes. 
Communal Organization, I, 251 ff. ; 

titles, 252 ff. 
Constable, the, I, 270. 
Constantine, Emperor, I, 43, note 2. 
Constantinople, I, 195, 211; II, 248. 
Court (Bet-Din), the Nagid's chief, I, 

266 ff. 
Crusades (Crusaders), the, I, 45, note i, 

169 f., 195, 198-200, 236, note I ; II, 

305; and Karaites, I, 199-200. 

Damanhur (in Egypt), II, 317, note i. 

Damascus (capital of Syria), I, 19, 20, 
25, 28, 34, 38, 39, 41, 71, 150, 171, 
176, 188, 234; II, 39, III, 118, 148, 
'53. 154. 172, 184, 208, 220, 221, 235, 
280, 296, 322, 323, 330, 363 ; Nasi of, 
III 359i "o'e 4 ; Gaon of, II, 295, 
359, note 4 ; school of, I, 238, note i ; 

II, 295, 296, 297 ; synagogue (large) 
at, II, 220-1 ; Palestinian synagogue 
in, I, 150, 171 ; II, 172. 

Damietta (in Egypt), I, 14, 89, 91, 147, 
232; II, 69-70, 109, 170, 273, 288, 
290, note 10, 291. 

Damiga (= Damira?), I, 187. 

Damira(in Egypt), I, 187, 232, 244 ; II, 
290, note 7, 317. 

Damsis (in Egypt), I, 232, 244 ; II, 
259, note 7, 290, note 4, 317, 363. 

Dan, Fort, see Baniyas (Fort Dan). 

Daniel al-Kumisi, on a daughter's in- 
heritance, II, 377. 

Daniel b. Abraham (Abu'l 'Atif), II, 

Daniel b. 'Azarya, Nasi and Gaon, I, 
44i 55. note i, 85, 86, 94, 95, 104, 

III, 113, 140,146,161, 164, 170, 172, 
175? I78ff-i 200, note i ; II, 66, 85, 
189, 215 ff., 218 ff., 222, 251, 252, 
357-9. 360 ff. 

Daniel b. Isaiah Hallevi, II, 270, 319. 

Daniel b. Isaiah TDriH, II, 270, 319. 

Daniel b. Isaiah Rosh Hasseder, II, 

27O) 319- 
Daniel b. Joseph, of Alexandria, II, 

Daniel b. Tobias, II, 374. 
Daniel, Nasi in Fustat (probably b. 

David b. 'Azarya), I, 175, 233; II, 

209. 357-9- 
Daniel the Babylonian, II, 330. 
al-Dasatir ('the noblemen'), II, 140, 

note 5. 
Dastarians, see Tustarians. 
Daughter, inheritance of a, II, 377. 
David b. Aaron, I, 120 ; II, 135-6. 
David b. Aaron Hallevi, II, 97. 
David b. Abraham Maimuni I, 248 ; II, 

319, note 8, 328-9, 359, note 4. 
David b. al-Rakki, II, 184, note 9. 
David b. 'Amram, I, 82 ; II, 80. 
David b. Bo'az, Karaite Nasi and author, 

I, 145, note I, 178 ; II, 68, 377, note 3. 
David b. Daniel Gaon, I, 138, 175, 

177, 182, 183, 185 ff., 213; II, 220-1, 

224-5. 251. 357-9. 376, 381- 
David b. Hasdai, Karaite Nasi, I, 200, 

note I ; II, 212, 214-15. 
David b. Hezekiah Exilarch, 1, 112-13, 

113, 172, 193; II, 100, 122-4, 347. 

358, note I, 359, note 2. 
David b. Hodaya, Nasi, 1, 176. 
David b. Isaac Hallevi, I, 88, 90, 91-2, 

121, 146, note 1, 260; II, 87, 90, 

David b. Joshiah, Karaite Nasi, II, 213, 

David (V) b. Joshiah, Karaite Nasi, II, 

David b. Maimon, brother of Moses 

Maimonides, II, 319. 
David b. Meshullam, II, 204. 
David b. Solomon, a judge, II, 319. 
David b. Solomon, Karaite Nasi, II, 

David b. Yehuda, Babylonian Exilarch, 

I. 53- 

David b. Zakkai, Exilarch, 1, 63, note 2 ; 

II. 68, 357-9- 

David b. ni'"i1 (r. probably 'Ezra), sec 
Abu Sulaiman (Daud) b. Abu'l Nasib. 

David IV or V, Karaite Nasi, II, 381. 

David Hakkohen, II, 144. 

David Nagid b. Joshu'a, I, 249 ; II, 

Dayyan al-Yahud, the, I, 266 ff. 

Dayyan, the, I, 264 ff. 

General Index 


Dead, of Bagdad removed to Nehardea 

for interment, II, 335. 
Dhaliah (perhaps corruption for R. 

Elijah), I, 247 ; II, 324, note 2. 
Diaspora and Palestine, I, 189-90. 
Dimyat, see Damietta. 
Diplomas, Palestinian 7/CT-s«5 Babylonian, 

I, 114 ff.; II, 124 ff., 348, 350. 
Disciple (Talmid), title, I, 54, note 2. 
Donna Sarah, I, 242 ; II, 309. 

Dosa (Abu Mansur) b. Mishael, II, 319, 

note 13. 
Dosab. 'Ali, II, 270-1. 
Dosa (II) b. Joshua (II), II, 270-1. 
Dosa (III) b. Joshua (IV., II, 270-r. 
Dosa (IV), b. Jacob, II, 270-1. 
Dowry, Palestinian custom concerning, 

II, 259, note 7, 381. 

Dunash b. Labrat, poet, I, 22, 27; II, 

Dunash b. Yehuda Rosh Hasseder, II, 

107, note 10, 

Earthquakes in Palestine, I, 15511.; II, 
176 ff. 

Ebyatar Hakkohen, Gaon, I, 50, 58, 70, 
185 ff., 195; II, 62 ff., 222-3, 224, 
228-9, 247, 275, 359, note 2, 363. 

Ecclesiastes, commentary on, belonging 
to a Nasi, I, 144-5 ! "i 164. 

Edom, see Byzantium. 

Egypt, passim ; and Palestine, I, 190-1 ; 
Arab conquest of, I, 13 ; communal 
life in, I, 230-1 ; communities in E. 
in time of Maimonides, II, 317 ; Jews 
in, I, 13 ff., and passmi ; Gaonate in, 

I, 197, 220 ff., 238-9; learning in E. 
in time of Sa'adya, I, 14-15 ; II, 375. 

Egyptian Scroll of 1012, I, 30 flf. ; II, 

31 ff. 
El'azar, b. 'Amram, II, 283-4. 
El'azar b Hiyya, II, 204. 
El'azar b. Isaiah, II, 204. 
El'azar b. Jacob the Babylonian, poet, 

n, 335. 371- 
El'azar b. Joseph, II, 367. 
El'azar b. Joseph Hallevi, II, 336, 

note 2. 
El'azar (Ibn Mansur Ghalib), I, 227 ; 

II, 280. 

El'azar b. Netaneel, II, 283-4. 
El'azar b. Perahya, II, 314, note i. 
El'azar b. Samuel, II, 285, note. 
El'azar b. Semah Joshiah, Karaite Nasi, 

II, 214-15. 
El'azar b. Shemarya, I, 229, note i. 
El'azar b. Solomon Hakkohen, I, 187, 

note I ; II, 63, 346, note 2. 
El'azar b. Yehoseph Ab, II, 346 
El'azar b. Yehuda Hakkohen, I, 220, 

note I, 250; II, 338, 363. 

El'azar, Dayyan of Damietta, I, 71 ; 
II, 70, top. 

El'azar Hallevi, II, 58-9. 

El'azar, the dignitary II, 285, note. 

Elegies, on Jacob Ab, II, 332-6 ; on 
Meborak's wife, I, 210 ; II, 255-7 ; 
on Moses and Abraham, II, 328 ; on 
Nissim the 'Third', II, 336-7; on 
(probably: Shemar3'a b. Elhanan, I, 
29-30; II, 27-g ; on Solomon b. Ye- 
huda, I, 75, note I ; on the brothers 
Abu Sa'ad and Abu Nasr the sons of 
Sahl al-Tustari, I, 82 ; II, 79-80. 

Elhanan the elder, I, 26. 

Elhanan b. Hushiel of Kairowan, I, 27, 
49, note 2, 204. 

Elhanan b. Moses, II, 355. 

Elhanan b. Shemarya, I, 28, 34flf., 71, 
iio-ii, 146, 205 ; II, 38 ff., 121, 341, 

344, 347, 348. 
Eli'ezerb. Ebyatar, see al-Bal a (Eli'ezer) 

b. Ebyatar. 
Eli'ezer b. Halfon of Alexandria, II, 317. 
Eli'ezer b. Hillel, I, 259, note i. 
Eli'ezer Semah, Karaite Nasi, II, 381. 
Elijah, II, 324, note 2. 
Elijah, a physician, father of Levi, I, 

250 ; II, 339. 
Elijah b. Aaron (b. Joshiah Ab), II, 52- 

3, 57- 
Elijah h. Abraham Hakkohen, I, 37, 

note I. 
Elijah b. Ebyatar Gaon, I, 170, 193, 194, 

195, 196 ; II, 62, 63, 202, 229-30. 
Elijah b. Kaleb (b. Leon), I, 230 f.; II, 

Elijah b. Menahem (?), II, 251. 
Elijah (Abu'l far) b. Mishael, 11,319. 
Elijah b. Solomon Hakkohen, Gaon, I, 

84, 94, loo-i, 131, 134, 149, 178 ff., 

i8o, 185 ff. ; II, 82, 107, 162 ff., 223-4, 

25", 347- 
Elijah b. X. Hakkohen of Hebron, 11, 

Elijah b. Zekarya, II, 382. 
Elijah Dayyan, II, 371, 373. 
Elijah Gaon, II, 62 ff. 
Elijah Hakkohen of Damascus, II, 220. 
Elijah, a physician, I, 250 : II, 339. 
Elijah Yakin b. Amasya, Karaite Nasi, 

II, 214-15. 
Elijah Yakin b. 'Anan, Karaite Nasi, II, 

Elyakim b. Yehiel, II, 302, 320. 
'Eminent of power', the, a dignitary, 

I, 154 ; II, 175- 
Ephraim (Abu Khair), I, 191 ; II, 225. 
Ephraimb. Abraham Hakkohen, Dayyan 

in Cairo, I, 41, note i, 116, 118, 125, 

131, 137, 181-2, 267; II, 127, 131, 

132, 134, 143, 148, 150, 155, 218. 


General Index 

Ephraim b. Abu 'AH Hasan I, 104 ; II, 


Ephraim b. al-Zafan, physician II, 339. 

Ephraim b. Halfon, II, 320, note 9. 

Ephraim b. Meshullam, I, 222, note i ; 
II, 366. 

Ephraim b. Sadok, I, 99, note r. 

Ephraim b. Shemarya, I, 36, 75, 81, 86, 
88 ff., 94-5, 99, 114 ff., 156, 160, 161, 
163, 164, 180, 181 f., 202 ; II, 65, 
note 2, 77,88ff., 97 ff., 106 ff., Ii9ff., 
I24ff., 145, I46ff., 150. l6r ff., 179, 
182 ff., 186, 188, 192, 218, 220, 347 ff., 

351, 355- 
Ephraim b. Yefet, physician, 1,250 ; II, 

Ephraim, the Haber, II, 100. 
Ephraim of Damascus, I, 39 ; II, 40. 
Ephraim of Tyre, II, 316, 325, note 7. 
Epistles, concluding phrases of, I, 179. 
Eudokia b. Kaleb, Byzantine lady, I, 

93; II, 94. 
Exilarchs, Babylonian, I, 23, 52-3, 65, 

271 ; II, 357-9- 
Ezekiel b. 'Ali Hakkohen, I, 97, note 4 ; 

II, 223. 
Ezekiel. b. Yefet, Dayyan, II, 320. 
Ezekial Hakkohen of Galilee, II, 204. 
'Ezra ('Azarya), Gaon of Damascus, sec 

'Azarya ('Ezra) Gaon of Damascus. 
'Ezra Gaon b. Shemarya Gaon, II, 295, 

note I. 

Fadl b. Daniel, I, 130; II, 146. 

al-Fai'z, CaMph, I, 235. 

Fatimid Court, Jews and Christians in 
the, I, 211 ff. 

Fayyum, I, 15 ; II, 251. 

Fez (Fas, capital of Morocco), I, 132 ; 
II. 150. 

Filastin, province of, I, 212. 

French Jews, in 'Akko, II, 370,383: 
in Jerusalem, I, 240, note i. 

Fustat, (So'an, Shafrir, Misr, in Egypt), 
passim ; = So'an, I, 29, note i ; Baby- 
lonian section in, see Babylonian 
section in Fustat ; composition of F. 
Jewry, I, 206 ; dissensions between 
the Haberim of, I, ii4ff. ; II, I25ff., 
347 ff. ; Karaites in, see Karaites ; Pa- 
lestinian section in, see Palestinian 
section in Fustat. 

Gabal (in Syria), I, 188. 

Galilee, Jews in, I, 171 ; II, 204, 357. 

Gaon, the title, I, 54, note 2. 

Gaonate, in Egypt, I, 182, 190-1 ; in 

Palestine, I, 49 ff,, 178 ff., 198; II, 

Geoffrey of Bouillon, I, 200, note i. 
Geonim, the Babylonian, I, 15, 39; the 

Palestinian, I, 21, 39, 40; list of 
Palestinian G., I, 70-71, 197 ; hst of 
Egyptian G., I, 238. 

Gershon, famous Rabbi, abolishing the 
levirate, I, 206, 

Gershon, father of Joseph, French 
martyr, II, 371. 

Ghalib b. Moses Hakkohen, II, 135, note 
2, 240. 

Gischala (al-Jush, in Galilee), I, 171 ; 
II, 204, 246. 

Government supporting schools in Pales- 
tine and in Egypt, I, 71-2. 

Greece, II, 307, note 2. 

Gurya b. Mar Zutra, I, 58. 

Haber, the title, I, 54, note 2, 264 ff., 

277-8; II, 348, 350. 
Habib b. Pipim, II, 44 ff. 
Habish b. Joseph Hakkohen of Tyre, 

■ II, 355- 
Hadrak (in Syria), I, 170, 189, 193, 224 ; 

II, 234, 277 ; school at, I, 196 ; II, 

202, note I. 
Hadrian, Emperor, I, 43. 
al-Hafiz, Caliph, I, 228-9. 
Haggai Hakkohen, I, 102; II, 109 
Hai Gaon, I, 27, 30, 40, 67, 68, 69, 95, 

96, 107, 115, 193, 200, note I, 204; 

II, 41, lOo, 126, 133, 223, note I, 347, 

351, 358, note I. 
Haidara, a governor, I, 154 ; II, 175. 
Haifa (in Palestine), 1,42, 188, 189, 191; 

II, 203, 227. 
al-Hakam, Caliph, I, 68. 
al-Hakim, Caliph, I, 20, 21, 30 ff., 38, 

64, 72-3, 76, 134, note I ; 11, 31 ff. 
al-Hakir al-Nafi', court physician, I, 33, 

note I. 
Halfon Hakkohen b. El'azar, II, 201. 
Halfon b. Ghalib, II, 232. 
Halfon b. Isaac, I, 249-50, 260; II, 
' 337-8- 

Halfon b. Isaac, II, 313-5, 320. 
Halfon b. Menasse Hallevi, I, 250 ; II, 
' 357-8. 
Halfon b. Menasse Hallevi, li, 232, 275, 

Halfon b. Moses, I, 81 ; II, 79. 
Halfon b. Netaneel Hallevi, I, 250 ;, II, 
' 337-8. 

Halfon b. Ta'lib, II, 78, 79, note i. 
Halfon b. 'Ulah, II, 313-5. 
Halfon b. 'Ulah, Dayyan of Damanhur, 

II, 3'7. 
Halfon b. Yefet Hallevi, I, 81 ; II, 78. 
Halfon b. Yefet Dayyan, II, 320. 
Halfon Haber, II, 320. 
Halfon of Fustat, II, 322. 
Halfon Rosh Hakkahal, I, 181 ; II, 217, 

note 3. 

General Index 


Hananel b. Hushiel, I, 26. 
Hananel b. Samuel, I, 195, note 2. 
Hananya Abraham, physician and 

Karaite Nasi, II, 381. 
Hananya Abraham b. Amasya Joseph, 

Karaite Nasi, II, 214, 215, 381. 
Hananya b. Ezekiel Hakl<ohen of Galilee, 

II, 204. 
Hananj'a b. Netuneel, father of Samuel 

Nagid, I, 230 ; II, 281 ff,, 381, note 2. 
Hananya b. Samuel Nagid, II, 282 ff. 
Hananya b. Solomon, Karaite Nasi, 

II, 215, note I. 
Hananya b. Yeliuda, I, 240; II, 304. 
Hananya Hakkohen Ab, I, 22, 66; II, 

69. 73-4, 342-3- 
Hananya, nephew of R. Joshua b. 

Hananya, II, 383. 
Hanina b. Shema'ya. I, 58. 
Hanok b. Moses, I, 26 ; II, 67 ff. 
Harizi, I, 240, note i, 347, note i. 
Hasan b. 'Alan, I, 147 ; II, 170. 
Hasan, Arab chieftain, I, 158-9. 
Hasan, opponent of Ephraim b. 

Shemarya, II, 351. 
Hasdai b. David (b. Daniel), I, 185 ; 

II, 357-9- 
Hasdai b. HezeUiah, Karaite Nasi, I, 

177 ; II, 212-13, 214-15. 
Hasdai b. Ayyub, II, 59. 
Hasdai b. Shaprut, I, 68. 
Hasdai, Exilarch of Babylon, I, 193. 
Hasdai Hallevi of Alexandria, II, 317. 
Hasdai, Karaite Nasi, II, 381. 
Hasdai Nasi, 1, 253. 
Hasdai, Nasi of Damascus, I, 175 ; II, 
' 208. 

Hasnat b. Sahlan, II, 355. 
Hasor (in Palestine), I, 169 i. ; II, 

199 I. 
Hasor =- Shaizar, in Syria), II, 200. 
Hayy b. Joseph, II, 247, note 7. 
Hayyim, II, 329. 
Hayyim b. Moses, II, 245. 
Hayyim b. Solomon, II, 115. 
Hayyim b. Solomon, I, 183 (where 

correct accordingly), 192, note i ; 

II, 219. 
Hazzan, the, I, 268-9 '> Hj ^^9> "°'^ 2. 
' Head of the congregation ' (Rosh 

Hakkahal), the, I, 257-8. 
Hebron (in Palestine), I, 171,248; II, 

203-4, 329-3<^- 
Hefes b. Yasliah, I, 98. 
Heraclius, Emperor, I, 42, 45. 
Hesed b. Sahl, see Abfl Na (Hesed) b. 

Sahl al-Tustari. 
Hezekiah b. David Nasi, 11,359, note 2. 
Hezekiah b. Solomon, Karaite Nasi, I, 

177, 178, note I ; II, 212-13, 214-15. 
Hezekiah b. Solomon, Nasi, II, 357-9. 

Hezekiah b. Yehuda (b. David b. 

Zakkai), II, 358, note i, 359, note 2. 
Hezekiah Exilarch, I, 100, 113, 129, 

145, 193 ; II, 228, 346, 347, 358, note 

I, 359, note 2. 
Hezekiah Exilarch (grandson of above), 

I, 193 ; II, 228. 
Hibat b. Israil. II, 355. 

Hilal (Abu'l Najm), see Abu'l Najm 

Hillel, II, 247. 
Hillel b. al-D1D3, I, 189. 
Hillel b. 'Ali, II, 247, note 7. 
Hillel b. 'Ali, Haber, II, 208. 
Hillel b. Joseph the Babylonian, II, 

Hillel b. Moses, Nagid of Palestine, I, 

257 ; II, 314- 

Hillel b. Sadok Ab, II, 287, 293, 366. 
Hillel b. Sa'adya the physician, II, 

249, 250. 
Hillel b. Sahl, II, 99. 
Hillel b. Yeshu'a, Haber of Tiberias, II, 

Hillel of family of al-'3m, II, 320. 

Hiyya, I, 222, note i. 
Hodaya b. Hasdai Nasi, II, 357-9. 
Hodaya b. Hezekiah Nasi, II, 357-9- 
Hodaya b. Jesse Nasi, I, 175-6 ; II, 

Hodaya b. Joshiah Ab, I, 187, note i. 
Hodaya Nasi, I, 176 ; II, 210. 
Hoshana, father of Samuel the ' Third ', 

II, 201. 

Husain b. Yehuda, II, 70, note. 
Hushiel of Kairowan, I, 26, 27. 

Ibn Abu'l Damm al-Yahudi, Wezir, I, 

Ibn Abu'l Thina (Yehuda b. Joseph), 

II, 375- 
Ibn al-Anbari, Wezir, I, 77. 
Ibn al-Bataihi, Wezir, I, 213, 228. 
Ibn al-i2i-n, II, 320. 
Ibn Ashlamiyya (Sa'id b. 'Ali), II, 375. 
Ibn Ezra, liturgy by, II, 326. 
Ibn Fadl, II, 255. 
Ibn Hafs, II, 318. 
Ibn Hujairah, I, 14. 
Ibn Killis, see Jacob b. Killis. 
Ibn Kirfa, court physician, I, 229. 
Ibn Mansur Ghalib, II, 280. 
Ibn Tliimma, I, 203. 
Ibrahim the constable (nOltJ'i'N), H, 

Ibrahim b. Barun, I, 25. 
Inheritance of a daughter, II, 377. 
Intermarriage between Rabbinites and 

Karaites, II, 376. 
Interpreter, the, I, 270-1. 


General Index 

'Isa b. Nestorius, Wezlr, I, 19, 21. 

Isaac, I, 144 ; II, 163. 

Isaac Ab, perhaps brother of Ben-Meir, 

I, 65, 71 ; II, 57. 

Isaac Alfasi, II, 297, note i, 382. 
Isaac al-Kinzi, see Isaac b. Samuel the 

Isaac b. Abraham, II, 201. 
Isaac b. Abraham, II, 103, 251, 253. 
Isaac b. Baruk, I, 242 ; II, 308. 
Isaac b. Benveniste of Narbonne, I, 

218-19, 23' ; I'l 271 ff., 366. 
Isaac b. Berakhya, II, 234. 
Isaac b. David, II, 245, 251, 253. 
Isaac b. David Maimuni, II, 329. 
Isaac b. Haggai Hakkohen, I, 104 ; II, 

99) lis- 
Isaac b. Hasdai, II, 204. 
Isaac b. Furat Hakkohen, I, 83 ff., 133, 

259 ; II, 151 f- 
Isaac b. Joseph, I, 220, note i, 
Isaac b. Joseph {perhaps identical with 

above), II, 275. 
Isaac b. Joseph, ancestor of Maimonides, 

II, 319- 

Isaac b. Menahem, II, 319. 

Isaac b. Moses, II, 271. 

Isaac b. Samuel the Spaniard, I, 192, 

206; II, 203, 228, 231-3, 247, 311, 

note I, 330. 
Isaac b. Sason, I, 222, 236, note i, 268 ; 

II, 317, 319 ; family of, II, 318, 

note II. 
Isaac, father of Hal ton, II, 314-15. 
Isaac, friend of Ephraim b. Shemarya, I, 

I02 ; II, no. 
Isaac, Gaon of Sura, I, 53. 
Isaac b. Shuweih, II, 331. 
Isaac b. X. al-Fasi, I, 104 ; II, 113. 
Isaac Israeli, I, 15. 

Isaac of Wadi'l Kura', I, 118; II, 130. 
Isaac, poet, II, 381. 
Isaac Sijilmasi, II, 337. 
Isaac the Spaniard (perhaps identical 

with Isaac b. Samuel the Spaniard), 

I, 97, note 4. 

Isaac the 'Third ' b. Abraham Gaon, II, 

52 ff. 
Isaiah b. Berakot, II, 284. 
Isaiah (?) b. Daniel (b. 'Azarya), 1, 185 ; 

II, 221, 357-9. 

Isaiah b. Daniel, II, 270, 319. 

Isaiah b. Mishael Hallevi, I, 226 ; II, 

270, 278, 319. 
Isaiah (Abu Nasr) b. Mishael, II, 319. 
Isaiah b. Nissim (b. Nahrai), II, 248. 
Isaiah b. Samuel, II, 282 ff., 285, note. 
Isaiah de Tratii, on Jews of Greece, II, 

307, note 2. 
Isaiah Kosh Hasseder, II, 270, 319. 
Ishak b. Musa, court physician, I, 18. 

pn7 IjNpy (near Safed, in Galilee), II, 

Isma'il al-Tulatuli, I, 240 ; II, 302. 
Isma'il b. Musa, court physician, I, 18. 
Israel, I, 145 ; II, 164, 
Israel b. Nathan, II, 248. 
Israel b. Samuel (b- Hofni), I, 182-3 ! 

II, 65, note 2. 
Israel b. Simhah of Basrah, I, 178, 

note I. 
Israel b. Tobias, II, 275. 
Israel, father of Sahl al-Tustari, I, 122, 

note I ; II, 377. 
Israel Iskandri b. Daniel, Karaite author, 

I, 255, note I. 

Italy and Palestine. I, 64, 73. 

Jabarah b. Mukhtar, a pirate, I, 90, 91 ; 

II, 87. 

Jacob, I, 137 ; II, 155. 

Jacob, Ab of the Bagdad school, II, 

332 ff- 
Jacob b. Abraham Dayyan, II, 58. 
Jacob (Abu Sa'ad) b. Abraham, II, 318. 
Jacob b. 'Amram, Nagid of Kairowan, I, 

124, 144, 252; II, 163. 
Jacob b. 'Aubal, I, 25, 26. 
Jacob b. David, II, 356. 
Jacob b. David Maimuni, II, 329. 
Jacob b. Dosa, II, 270-1. 
Jacob b. Dunash, II, 107, note 10, end. 
Jacob b. Isaac, a chorister, I, 248 ; II, 

Jacob b. Isliak (b. Musa), court phy- 
sician, I, 18. 
Jacob b. Jama', II, 366. 
Jacob b. Joseph, Haber of Aleppo, I, 

37, 150, 173; II, 174, note I, 250, 

Jacob b. Joseph Hakkohen, I, 222, 

note I ; II, 293, 366. 
Jacob b. Joseph Dayyan, II, 339. 
Jacob b. Killis, Wezir, I, 17, 18, 19. 
Jacob b. ;n1>3, II, 49. 
Jacob b. Mar Zutra, I, 58. 
Jacob b. Mebasser, II, 99, 100. 
Jacob b. Meshullam (or vice versa), I, 

74, note. 
Jacob b. Moses, II, 271. 
Jacob b. Moses Hakkohen, II, 275. 
Jacob b. Na'man Hakkohen, of Tyre, II, 

Jacob b. Netaneel (b. al-Fayyumi), I, 

244 ; II, 316. 
Jacob b. 'Obadya Hakkohen, II, 204. 
Jacob b. Salim, II, 366-7. 
Jacob b. Samuel II, 103. 
Jacob b. Sheerit, II, 285, note. 
Jacob b. Ya'ish Hakkohen, II, 346. 
Jacob Haber, I, 173 ; II, 206. 

General Index 


Jacob Hakkohen, Parnas of Jerusalem, 

I, 164 ; II, i8g. 

Jacob Rosh be Rabbanan b. 'AH, 1, 243; 

II, 310-12, 382. 

Jacob, representative of Yehiel of Paris, 

", 383- 

Jacob Tam, II, 332. 

Ja'far b. Fellah, General, I, 41. 

al-Jarjarai, Wezir, I, 77. 

al-Jaudariyya, district in Cairo, I, 33, 
36 ; 11, 375. 

Jauhar, famous general, I, 13, 16. 

Jaujar (in Egypt), I, 244 ; II, 317. 

Jerome, on the Jewish annual visits to 
Jerusalem, I, 43. 

Jerusalem, passim and especially I, 
43 ff., 159 ff., 192, 198 ff., 240 ; various 
synagogues in, I, 49, note 2 ; occu- 
pied by Byzantines (?), 11, 341 ; 
synagogue of 'Anan in, I, 200, note i. 

Jesse Haber, I, 137 ; II, 154. 

Jesse b. Hezekiah Nasi, II, 357-9. 

Jesse b. Hezekiah, Nasi of Damascus, 
II, 359> note 4- 

Jesse b. Solomon Nasi, II, 357-9. 

Jews and Christians in the Fatimid 
court, I, 211 ff. 

Jian (in Spain), II, 297, note i. 

Joel, II, 285, note. 

John, Patriarch of Alexandria, I, 13-14. 

Joseph b. Abitur, I, 66 ff. ; II, 25, 59- 
60, 169, note I. 

Joseph (Mufaddal) b. Abraham, II, 318. 

[Joseph ?] b. Abraham Hakkohen, II, 

Joseph b. Abraham of 'Irak, II, 92. 

Joseph b. Abun the Interpreter, I, 271, 

note I. 
Joseph b. 'Aknin, disciple of Maimonides, 

I, 235, 243, 245, 246-7; II, 316, 321, 

Joseph b. 'Amram, II, 103. 
Joseph b. 'Azarya, II, 174. 
Joseph b. Baruk Hakkohen, Haber of 

Tyre, I, 167-8. 
Joseph b. Baruk of France, I. 240, 

note I. 
Joseph b. Baruk (b. Isaac), I, 199 ; II, 

Joseph b. Benjamin, I, 36 ; II, 99, 174, 

note I. 
Joseph b. El'azar Hakkohen, II, 339. 
Joseph b. El'azar Hakkohen, father of 

Yehuda Rosh Hasseder, II, 346. 
Joseph b. Elijah, I, loi ; II, 108. 
Joseph (Yehoseph) b. Gershon of France, 

I, 175-6, 231 ; II, 370-3. 
Joseph b. Hezekiah Nasi, I, 129; II, 

145, note 7 
Joseph b. Hiyya the scribe, I, 74, 


Joseph b. iriDV, disciple of Isaac Alfasi, 

II, 297, note I, 382. 
Joseph b. Isaac, II, 319. 
Joseph b. Isaac Dayyan II, 339-40. 
Joseph b. Israel al-Tgstari, I, 38, note i, 

81, 122, note I, 150 ; II, 73, 76, 140, 

174, 377- 
Joseph b. Jacob, II, 339. 
Joseph b. Jacob, II, 305, note 4. 
Joseph b. Jacob al-Lebdi, I, 23, note i. 
Joseph b. Jacob (b. 'Aubal), I, 25, 26, 

167 ; II, 193, 348, 350. 
Joseph b. Jacob (b. Joseph), II, 203. 
Joseph b. Jacob Hakkohen, II, 355. 
Joseph b, Joshiah, I, 210; II, 254, 255, 

320, note 3. 
Joseph b. Khalaf, 1, 89, note i. 
Joseph b. Mansur Hallevi, II, 99. 
Joseph b. Mattitya, II, 371, note 2. 
Joseph b. Migash, II, 297, note i. 
Joseph b. Nathan Hakkohen, see 

Yehoseph b. Nathan Hakkohen. 
Joseph b. Nathan, II, 320, note 3. 
Joseph b. Netaneel Hakkohen, II, 318. 
Joseph b. 'Obadya, I, 118; II, 131. 
Joseph b. 'Obadya, ancestor of iVIai- 

monides, II, 319. 
Joseph (Abu'l Surri ?) b. 'Obadya Nagid, 

I, 243, note I ; II, 320, note 2. 
Joseph b. al-Plat, I, 238, note i. 
Joseph b. Paltoi (Plat;, II, 296-7. 
Joseph (Abu'l Fadl) b. Perahya, I, 209, 

210 ; II, 252, 253. 
Joseph b. Sa'adya, II, 98. 
Joseph b. Sa'adya, II, 282. 
Joseph b. Sa'id of Alexandria, II, 92. 
Joseph b. Salim, II, 30. 
Josepli b. Samuel, I, 192, note i. 
Joseph b. Samuel (perhaps identical 

with above), I, 198-9 ; II, 235-6. 
Joseph b. Samuel, II, 304. 
Joseph b. Samuel Hallevi (ibn Nagdela), 

I, 184, note I. 

Joseph b. Tanhum Yerushalmi, a poet, 

II, 328-9. 

Joseph b. Ye!et, a Reader, 1, 163, 182 ; 

II, 187, 2ig. 
Joseph b. Yehuda, II, 287. 
Joseph b. Yehuda, a goldsmith, II, 286. 
Joseph b. Yeshu'a, I, 92 ; II, 90. 
Joseph b. Yeshu'a, II, 115. 
Joseph b. Yeshu'a Parnas, II, 59. 
Joseph b. Zekarya of Alexandria, II, 


Joseph b. Zakkai Exilarch, II, 357-9. 

Joseph, brother-in-law of Ephraim b. 
Shemarya, II, 348, 350. 

Joseph Dayyan b. Shemarya, II, 339. 

Joseph Hakkohen, Dayyan of Alexan- 
dria, II, 345-6. 

Joseph Hakkohen, of Fustat, II, 247. 


General Index 

Joseph Hakkohen Ab, father of Jacob, 

I, 37, note i. 
Joseph Hakkohen Ab b. Solomon Gaon, 

I, 99, 178 ff., 183, 193 ; II, 62 ff., 98, 
148, 229 ; family of, I, 187. 

Joseph Hakkohen Gaon, I, 66 ff., 70; 

II, 53, 58-9. , 

Joseph Hakkohen b. Q33D7N, II, 249, 

note I. 
Joseph of Byzantium (or France), 11, 

246, 247. 
Joseph, of house of 'JK3, II, 318. 
Joseph of Rum, II, 288. 
Joseph of the school of Damascus, I, 

238, note I. 
Joseph Rosh Hasseder b. Jacob, I, 238, 

243 ; II, 310-13- 

Joseph, son-in-law of Ephraim b. 

Shemarya, I, 92, 94, loo. 
Joseph, the disciple, If, 322. 
Jonah b. Yehuda the Spaniard, I, 165 ; 

II, 191. 
Joshiah Ab, I, 71 ; II, 52-3, 57. 
Joshiah Ab b. Aaron Ab, I, 186. 
Joshiah b. Aaron (b. Joshiah Ab), II, 

52-3, 57- 
Joshiah b. 'Azarya Hakkohen Gaon, I, 

182-3, 188; 11, 219. 
Joshu'a (Abn'l Faraj) b. al-Kumudi, I, 

23, 262 ; II, 14. 
Joshiah b. Jesse Nasi, I, 176; II, 210, 

Joshiah b. Moses, II, 303. 
Joshiah b. Nehemiah, liturgical poet, I, 

97, 269 ; II, loi. 
Joshiah b. Nehemiah Nasi, II, 357-9. 
Joshiah b. Sadoic Ab, II, 82, note 10. 
Joshiah b. Sar Shalom Nasi, I, 174 ; II, 

208, 380. 
Joshiah b. Saul, Karaite Nasi, II, 214, 

Joshiah b. Shema'ya, II, 232. 
Joshiah b. Solomon, Karaite Nasi, I, 

178, note I ; II, 212, 213, 214, 215. 
Joshiah III b. Solomon III, Karaite 

Nasi, II, 214, 215, 
Joshiah IV b. 'Uzziah, Karaite Nasi, II, 

214, 213, 381. 
Joshiah Gaon, I, 23, 39, 64, 66, 70, 71 ff., 

100, note I, 146 ; II, 49 ff., 66 ff., 

Joshiah Nasi, I, 243 ; II, 209, 210. 
Joshu'a b. Abraham (b. David Maimuni), 

Nagid, I, 248 ; II, 329-30. 
Joshua b. 'Ali, I, 169 f ; II, 80, note 6, 

Joshu'a b. 'Ali, II, 270-1. 
Joshua b. 'Ali Hakkohen, Karaite, I, 

162, note I. 
Joshu'a b. Armand, I, 82 ; II, 79. 

Joshu'a (Abii Sa'id) b. Dosa, I, 217-19, 

220-1, 227, note I, 230, 267 ; II, 

270 ff., 319, note 9, 
Joshu'a II b. Dosa, I, 270-1. 
Joshu'a III b. Dosa II, II, 270-1. 
Joshu'a b. Moses, II, 270-1. 
Joshu'a, brother of Samuel Rashid, I, 

240 (where correct accordingly) ; II, 

Joshua Haber, II, 271. 
Jubail (in Syria), Jewish co.timunity of, 

1, 73 ; II, 73, 273 (xija: ?) 

T'Tlj, II, 203. 

Julian, Emperor, I, 43, note i. 

Kadi of Damietta, the, I, 212, 218 ; II, 

Kadi of Hasor, the, I, 169 ; II, 200. 
Kadi, the nephew of Abu'l Siyad, II, 


Kafur, governor of Egypt, I, 17. 

Kain b. 'Abd . . ., I, 185 ; II, 83. 

Kairowan, I, 15, 17, 27, 38, 40; II, 163, 
248 ; Negidim of, I, 252-3. 

Kalneh, see Rakkah (in Syria). 

Kalyub (in Egypt), I, 237, 240 ; II, 
298, note 3, 302, note 10. 

Karaite congregations in Byzantium, II, 
307, note 2 ; dignitaries in Fustat, I, 
177; laws of Shehita and Bedika, I, 
134 ff. ; II, 154; Nesiim, I, 176 ff.; 
II, 210 ff., 380-1 ; Nesiim in Fustat, I, 
178, note I. 

Karaites, I, 49, note 2, 57, 65, 71, 79, 
125, 134 ff., 143 ; II, 69, 154, 156, 
158, 172; and the Crusaders, I, 199- 
200 ; and Massorites, II, 48-9 ; and 
Rabbinites, relations between, I,59ff. 
134 ff., 150 ; II, 376-7 ; in Ashkelon, I, 
169, 171; in Byzantium, I, 89; in 
Fustat, I, 80, 177 ; II, 376-7 ; in Jeru- 
salem, I, 46, 59 ff., 162, note i, 177, 
199-200, 274-5 ; in Palestine, 42, 
59 ff., 134 ff., 177- 

Karim b. Nathan, I, 167 ; II, 194. 

Kasr al-Shama", Jewish quarter of 
Fustat, I, 14, 38 ; II, 248. 

al-Kazzaz (the silk mercer), the family 
of, II, 320. 

Ketubas, Karaite, II, 211-12 ; Pales- 
tinian custom of, II, 259, note 7, 381. 

Khalaf b. Abraham, II, 29-30. 

Khalaf b. "Alvan, I, 131 ; II, 148. 

Khalaf b. Israel, II, 49. 

Khalaf b. Moses of Tyre, I, n8 ; II, 

Khalaf b. Moses b. Abraham, of Tyre, 
II, 355. 

Khalaf b. Sa'adya, II, 245. 

Khalaf b. Yeshu'a, I, 167 ; II, 192, 356, 

General Index 


Khalaf, a partisan of Moses b. Hanok, 

I, 68-9. 

Khalaf of Tiberias (perhaps identical 
with Khalaf b. Yeshu'a), 1, 168 ; II, 196. 

Khaluf b. Aaron, II, 29-30. 

Khazars, the, I, 64. 

Khurasan (in Persia), I, 275, note 2 ; 
n, 147. 

Khusrau, Persian king, I, 43, note i : 

II, 68. 

Kiyyam b. Meborak, II, 174. 

Kohen Sedek, II, 229 

Kohen Sedek, Gaon of Sura, I, 63, 

note I. 
Konyah b. Moses, 11, 247, note 7. 
Konyah Moses b. Elijah Yakin, Karaite 

Nasi, II, 214, 215. 

Lebda (near Tripoli in North Africa), I, 
23, note I ; II, 286. 

Leo, a captive from Mastaura (Byzan- 
tium), I, 92 ; II, 93. 

Leon, father of Moses (of Mastaura), I, 
93 ; II, 96. 

Levi al-Ifranji, II, 247. 

Levi b. Elijah, I, 250 ; II, 339. 

Levi b. Menahem, I, 119, 123; II, 134, 

Levi b. Namer, II, 94, note. 

Levi b. Jacob Hallevi, II, 97, 99. 

Levi the Reader, II, 298. 

Levirate, a case of 1. in Alexandria, I, 
205-6 ; II, 242-5. 

Library, sold at Palestinian synagogue in 
Fustat, II, 327, note i. 

Liturgical compositions, cited, anony- 
mous, I, 75, note 1, end, 99, note a ; 
II, 106, top, 169, note I, 247-8, 346, 
369; by Anatoli b. Joseph, II, 326; 
by David Nasi (b. Daniel), II, 224-5 > 
by Elijah Kohen, II, 220 ; by Ephraim 
b. Shemarya, I, 75, note i ; II, iii ; 
by Ezekiel b. 'Ali, II, 223 ; by Ibn 
Ezra, II, 326 ; by Joseph ibn Abitur, 
II, 25 ; by Joshiah b. Nehemiah, II, 
101-2 ; by Nehemiah b. Abraham, I, 
269, note I ; by Sa'adya Gaon, I, 97, 
note, 98, note 2 ; by Sahlan the elder, 

I, 98, note 2 ; by Sahlan b. Abraham, 

II, 104-5 ; by Sanjari, I, 25 ; by She- 
marya, II, 105 ; by Yehuda Rosh 
Hasseder, II, loi, note ; by Yehuda 
Hallevi, 11, 365. 

Lucena (in Spain), II, 252, 297, 

note 2. 
Ludd (Lydda, in Palestine), I, 155 ; II, 

Lunel (in Provence), scholars of, II, 
325, note 7. 

Ma'add, see al-Mustansir. 

Ma'ani, II, 300. 

Magreb, II, 162; Jews of M. in Jeru- 
salem, I, 240, note I. 
Mahalla (Mahallat al-Kubra in Egypt), 

I, 189, 232 ; II, 347, 289, 290, note i, 

293- 317- 
Maimon b. Joseph, father of Moses, II, 

Maimonides, I, 30, 175, 222, 231, 236, 
240, 242 ff., 267-8 ; II, 209, 294, 
295-61 3071 note 2, 310 ff., 319, 322, 
33I) 3321 382 ; and Joseph b. Anatoli, 

II, 325-6 ; disciples of, II, 316 ; family 
of, II, 319. 

Makarim b. Salamah, II, 287. 

Makrizi, on the Palestinian synagogue 

in Fustat, II, 375. 
al-Maks, port of Cairo, I, 239 ; II, 301, 

note 7. 
Malabar, Jews of, II, 366, note i. 
Maliha, a lady, I, 241 ; II, 306-7. 
Malik ar-Ramli, a sectarian, I, 116. 
pynOD b. Isaac of Gaza, II, 98. 
Manna, the jar of, I, 256, note i. 
Manoah Hakkohen, II, 342, bottom. 
Mansur b. Meir, II, 245. 
Mansur b. Solomon (b. Yehuda) Gaon, 

I, 107 ; II, 133. 
al-Mansur, Caliph, I, 15, note 3. 
Mar Ziitra, I, 58-9. 
Mar Zutra II, I, 58. 
Marja, Muslim dignitary, I, 85 ; II, 83. 
MaryOt, lake of (in Egypt), I, 206 ; II, 

Mashallah, I, 15. 
Masliah b. al-Basak, Dayyan of Sicily, 

I, 204. 

Masliah b. Semah, II, 99. 

Masliah b. YefetJ I, 187, 188. 

Masliah, Gaon, I, 70, 191, 195, note a, 

196-7, 220 ff. , 256; II, 62 ff., 233, 

234, 271, 394 ff., 382. 
Massorites of Tiberias, I, 55, note 2; 

II, 44ff. 

Mas'udi, on learned contemporary Jews, 

"7 375- 
Mastaura (in Byzantium), I, 87, 92-4 ; 

II, 93ff. 
Mattitya b. Moses, II, 275. 
Mauhub, see Samuel b. Moses. 
Mauhub of Fustat, I, 39; II, 41. 
Mauhub b. Yefet, I, 146; II, 167. 
Mauhub Hakkohen, II, 348, 349. 
Mayence (in Germany), I, 74, note. 
Mebasser b. Ephraim, I, 119 ; II, 134. 
Mebasser b. Hillel the Babylonian, II, 

3481 349- 
Mebasser b. Jesse, I, 148; II, 170-1. 
Mebasser b. Levi, I, 164 ; II, 188. 
Mebasser b. Yeshu'a Hallevi, II, 232. 



General Index 

Mebasser, Gaon of Pumbedita, I, 63, 

note a. 
Mebasser of Fustat, I, 118 ; II, 131. 
Mebasser the Parnas, 11, 235. 
Meborak b. Aaron, II, 305. 
Meborak (Abu'l Fadl) b. 'AH, I, 137, 

147 ; II, I53-. 
Meborak b. "Ali (b. Ezra, probably 
identical with above), I, 142 ; II, 

Meborak (Mubaraki b. Israel, II, 103. 
Meborak b. Menasse Hallevi, II, 58. 
Meborak b. Moses, II, 313-15. 
Meborak b. Moses Nagid, II, 249, 250, 

Meborak b. Nathan, Dayyan of Fust t, 

I, 222, note i, 227, note i ; II, 280, 

293, 314- 
Meborak b. Nathan Hakkohen, Dayyan 

of Ashkelon, II, 202. 
Meborak b. Semah, II, 115. 
Meborak, 'head of the congregations', 

I, 146 f. ; II, i6g. 

Meborak Nagid, I, 80, 169, 184, 188 ff., 
207 ff., 222, 254, 267 ; II, 199 f., 222, 
235. 249 if., 374 ; the wife of, I, 210 ; 
Ilj 255-7- 

Meborak, son-in-law of Sadok b. Elijah 
Gaon, I, loi ; II, 107, note i. 

Meborak, grandfatherof Meborak Nagid, 

II, 249-50. 

Megas b. Hanina, I, 58. 

Meir b. Baruk, I, 240, note i. 

Meir b. Menahem Hakkohen, I, 37, 

note I. 
Meir b. 'Obadya, II, 283-5. 
Meir Gaon, son of Ben-Meir, I, 65; II, 

Meir, father of Ben-Meir, I, 57, 60, 65 ; 

II, 53 ff. 
Meir, a dignitary, II, 303, note. 
Meir Rosh Hasseder, II, 52 ff., 56-7. 
Menahem b. Berakot, II, 276, 277. 
Menahem b. Berakot of Fustat, II, 366. 
Menahem b. Isaac (b. Sason), 1, 247, 

note I ; II, 319, note 2, 
Menahem b. Saruk, I, 27. 
Menahem b. Samuel, II, 276, 277. 
Menahem (Abu'l Faraj VDCi'N) b. 

Shemarya Hallevi, II, 287. 
Me[nahem?] Dayyan, father of Elijah, 

II, 251. 
Menahem Dayyam, II, 339. 
Menahem, correspondent of Anatoli b. 

Joseph, I, 247 ; II, 324. 
Menahem Gaon (?), II, 62 ff. 
Menahem ''JS'iJ, I, 178, note i. 
Menahem of Fustat, I, 245 ; 11, 322. 
Menasse b. Abraham (Ibrahim) al- 

Kazzaz, Wezir of Damascus, I, 19 ff., 

24, 26, 72, 134, note 1, 150 ; II, 11 ff., 

Menasse b. David, II, 245. 
Menasse b. El'azar Hallevi, II, 58. 
Menasse b. Hayyim, II, 104. 
Menasse b. Joseph, Dayyan of Cairo, 

II, 317- 
Menasse b. X., I, 227 ; II, 280. 
Menasseh b. X. (descendant of Shem- 

a'ya), I, 249 ; II, 336. 
Menasse b. Yehuda (perhaps identical 

with above), II, 336, note 2. 
Menasse Hakkohen, brother of Ephraim • 

b. Abraham Hakkohen, I, 116, 118, 

125, 130, f, 159; II, 148. 
Menasse Hallevi, II, 58-9. 
Menuha Hakkohen b. Joseph of Alex- 
andria, II, 346. 
Merwan II, last 'Omeyyad Caliph, I, 45, 

note 2. 
Merwan Hakkohen, I, 169 ; II, 198. 
Meshullam, ancestor of Isaac b. Sason, 

II, 3t8. 
Meshullam b. Jacob, see Jacob b. 

Meshullam b. Menasse, II, 233. 
Meshullam b. Moses of Mayence, I, 

186 ; II, 223-4, 378. 
Meshullam b. |7'-|B' of Damascus, II, 

Meshullam b. Yefet of Damascus, I, 104 ; 

II, 114- 
Michael, Coptic Patriarch, I, 14. 
Milij (in Egypt), I, 103, 232; II, iii, 

290, note 6. 
Minyat Ishna (in Egypt), 11, 287, 367. 
Minyat Zifta (in Egypt), I, 232, 239 ; 

II, 257-9, 287, 290, note 2, 301, 

note 8. 
Misa (Moses) b. Megas, I, 58. 
Mishael b. Daniel, a physician, II, 270, 

Mishael b. Isaiah Hallevi, II, 270, 319, 

note 8. 
Mishael b. 'Obadya, II, 318. 
Mishael b. 'Uzziel, I, 245; II, 322. 
Misr, see Egypt, Fustat. 
Mohelim in Egypt, I, 237-8, 
al-Mo'iZz, Caliph, I, 16, 17, 18, 20; 

II, 379' 
Mordecai Gaon (?), II, 62 ff. 
' Mordecai Nagid', non-existent, II, 287, 

note 2. 
Mordecai, the elder, II, 217, note 3. 
Moses of Fustat, II, 247. 
Moses b. Aaron Hakkohen, Karaite 

grandee, I, 176, 177, 187, note 2, 188 ; 

II, 211. 
Moses b. Abraham, II, 275. 
Moses b.Abraham Nagid, I, 248; 11,329. 
Moses b. Abu 'Imran, II, 374. 

General Index 


Moses b. Abu'l Hayy, II, 230. 

Moses b. Benjamin, the Spaniard, I, 

2ao, note i. 
Moses b. Asher, Massorite, II, 44 ff. 
Moses b. Dosa, II, 271. 
Moses b. Elijah Hallevi, I, 237 f. ; II, 

Moses b. Elyakim, II, 320. 
Moses b. Halfon Hakkohen, I, 237 ; II, 

Moses b. Halfon, II, 320. 
Moses b. Hanok, Rabbi of Cordova, I, 

26, 68. 
Moses b. Hesed, Karaite, I, 79, note i. 
Moses b. Isaac, II, 53 ff. 
Moses b. Isaac Hakkohen, 11,174, notei. 
Moses b. Joseph the Spaniard, I, 202 ff. ; 

II, 239- 
Moses b. Joseph Hakkohen, II, 318. 
Moses b. Joshu'a, II, 270-1. 
Moses b. Leon of Mastaura, II, 96. 
Moses b. Levi (?), I, 237 ; II, 298. 
Moses (Abu'l Bayyan), b. Meborak 

Nagid, I, III, 207 ff., 2i2ff., 229; II, 

203, 249, 250, 256, note 10, 257-9, 374- 
Moses b. Meshullam (b. Moses) of 

Mayence, II, 224. 
Moses (Abu 'Ali) b. Nathan, II, 320. 
Moses b. Netaneel Hallevi, Gaon, I, 226, 

234, note 3 ; II, 294 ff. 
Moses b. Perahya, II, 313-15. 
Moses b. Sabbatai of Mastaura, II, 96. 
Moses (Yahya) b. Samuel Hannagid (b. 

Hananya), I, 254 ; II, 282 ff., 285, 

note, 368-70. 
Moses b. Semah, II, 283-4. 
Moses b. Yefet, I, 258. 
Moses b. Yefet of Milij, II, in. 
Moses b. Yefet Dayyan, ll, 320. 
Moses b. Yehiel, II, 302, note 2. 
Moses b. X., II, 360, 361. 
Moses, friend of Jacob ibn Killis, I, 

Moses, grandfather of Ben-Meir, I, 57, 

60, 65, 66 ; II, S3 ff. 
Moses Hakkohen, a Reader, II, 203. 
Moses the Reader, II, 373. 
Moses Moha, Massorite, II, 44 ff. 
Moses of Gaza, Massorite, II, 44 ff. 
Moses, son-in-law of Solomon the scribe, 

II, 309. 
Mosul (in Mesopotamia), I, 175. 
Mount Olivet (in Jerusalem), I, 44, 50, 

63, note I. 
' Mourners for Zion ', the, I, 47 ff., 162, 

Mu'amr, II, 291. 
Mufarraj b. Yefet Hallevi of Damascus, 

I, 104; II, 114. 
Muhassan b. Husain, I, 82 ; II, 30, 78, 
, note 7. 

Mukhtar, attendant of Ebyatar Gaon, 

n, 363. 

Mukhtar, a private, I, 89 ff. ; II, 88. 

Mukhtar, I, 168, bottom ; II, 198. 

Musa, ancestor of Ben-Meir, I, 57, 60,65. 

Musa b. al-Razzan, court physician, 
I, 18. 

Musa b. Ya'kub, court physician, I, 39, 
note I, 83-4. 

Musa Ghalib b. Ezra, II, 30 (where 
correct accordingly). 

Musafar the Reader, n, 247. 

al-Musta'li, Caliph, I, 207. 

al-MustansIr, Caliph, I, 76 ff., 207. 

Muwaljkit 'Ala ad-Din, author of com- 
mentary on Maimonides' Mishne 
Torah, II, 331, note i. 

Nadib b. Yiftah, II, 320. 
Nafis, the wine-merchant, H, 320. 
Nagi, the family of, II, 318. 
Nagid, thedignity of, 1, 25ifr. ; beginning 
of, 1, 251-2 ; II, 379; Nagid designate, 

I, 251 ; N. of Palestine, I, 247, 257. 
Nahrai b. Nissim, I, 204 ff. ; II, loi, 

240 ff., 303. 
Nahshon, Gaon of Sura, I, 53-4. 
Nahum b. 'Ezra, II, 275. 
Namer b. Elkanah of Mastaura, I, 93 ; 

II, 94. 

Names, Jews having Arabic names 

besides Hebrew ones, 1, 168, note i. 
Narbonne (in Provence), II, 248, 366. 
Nasi, the dignity of, I, 271-2, 274 ; a 

bogus N., I, 172 ff. ; II, 205 f. 
Nathan of Fustat, II, 247. 
Nathan Ab b. Abraham, I, 151, 193-4 ; 

II, 230-1. 
Nathan b. Hillel, II, 320. 
Nathan b. Isaiah Hakkohen, I, 167, 169 ; 

II, 195, 356- 
Nathan b. Meborak Hakkohen, I, 170; 

II, 202. 
Nathan b. Nisan Hallevi, 1, 162, note i. 
Nathan b. Samuel, I, 224 ff. ; II, 275, 

277 ff., 286, 366, 373. 
Nathan b. Solomon Hakkohen, I, 226 ; 

II, 203, 275, 276, 278, 366-7. 
Nathan b. Sason, II, 245, 251, 253. 
Nathan b. Yeshu'a of Jerusalem, II, 

184, note. 
Nathan b. Yeshu'a, a Haber, II, 219. 
Nathan b. Yeshu'a Hallevi, II, 220, 245. 
Nathan b. Yeshu'a, a Reader, II, 115. 
Nathan Gaon b. Abraham, rival of 

Solomon b. Yehuda, I, 21, 27, 141 ff., 

146 ff., 186, 193 ; II, 24, 27, 159 ff., 

167 ff., 352 ff., 
Nathan, Haber in Fustat, I, 127 f. 
Nathan Hakkohen, probably of 

Damietta, I, 91 ; II, 88. 

ce 2 


General Index 

Nathan Hakkohen, probably identical 
with Nathan Hakkohen b. Isaiah, I, 
169 ; II, T98. 

Nathan, the banker, II, 219. 

Nathan the ' Seventh ' b. Abraham, II, 

Nehardea (in Babylon), burial at, II, 

332, 333> note 8, 335. 
Nehemiah b. Abraham (b. Sahlan), I, 

80, 97, 269 ; II, loi. 
Nehemiah b. Asher the elder, Massorite, 

I, 80 ; II, 44 ff. 

Nehemiah b. Hodaya Nasi, II, 357-9. 

Nehemiah b. Misa, I, 58. 

Nehemiah b. Perahya, II, 363. 

Nehemiah, Gaon of Pumbedita, I, 15, 

Nesiim, I, 21, 23, 25, iii, 171 ff., 252, 
253-4; II, 208 if., 357-9; in Palestine 
and in Egypt, II, 68 ; Karaite, I, 
60, 62, 176 fif. ; II, 210 ff., 380-1. 

Nesiut, titles connected with, I, 272 ; II, 
217, note 3. 

Netaneel, a physician, II, 327. 

Netaneel, of familyof Samuel Hannagid, 

II, 282 ff. 

Netaneel b. Aaron, the banker, I, 72 ; 

II, 72. 
Netaneel b. Abraham, II, 319. 
Netaneel b. al-Fayyumi, I, 244. 
Netaneel b. Berakot, II, 283-4. 
Netaneel (Abu'l Fakar) b.El'azar Hakko- 
hen of Alexandria, I, 88 ff., 137, 204, 

260 ; 11, 87, 92, 153. 
Netaneel b. Halfon Hallevi, I, 105, 137 ; 

II, 116. 
Netaneel b. Joseph Hakkohen, II, 294, 

Netaneel b. Joseph Hakkohen (perhaps 

identical with above), see Abu Nasr 

(Netaneel) b. Joseph Hakkohen. 
Netaneel (Abul Barakat) b. Meborak 

Nagid, II, 249, 250, 257. 
Netaneel b. Perahya, II, 313-5, 320. 
Netaneel b. Revah Hallevi, I, 146, 147 ; 

II, 167 ff. 
Netaneel b. Sa'adya, II, 283-4. 
Netaneel b. Sadok Hakkohen, II, 318, 

note 8. 
Netaneel b. Moses Hallevi the ' Sixth ', 

I, 234, note 3. 

Netaneel b. Shemarya the ' Sixth', II, 

282 ff. 
Netaneel b. Sedakah, II, 201. 
Netaneel Hallevi Gaon, I, 226, 233, 234, 

237 ; II, 292 ff. 
Netanya b. (?) Yehiel, II, 320. 
Netanya, brother or son of Nadib, II, 

320, note ir. 
Netira b. Tobias Hakkohen of Nisibis, 

II, 70, note. 

Nicephorus Phocas, Emperor, I, 47 ; 

II, 341. 
Nisibis (in Mesopotamia), II, 70, note. 
Nissim, I, 25 ; II, 18. 
Nissim b. Abraham, II, 275. 
Nissim b. Jacob of Kairowan, I, 246 ; 

II, 297, note I. 
Nissim b. Nahrai, I, 206-8 ; II, 245 ff. 
Nissim b. Shelah, II, 283-5. 
Nissim, disciple of Maimonides, II, 316. 
Nissim, father of Nahrai b. Nissim, 11, 

247, 248. 
Nissim the ' Third ', II, 336-7. 
Nissin b, Bishr, II, 99. 

'Obadya, II, 348, 349, 350. 
'Obadya, a Karaite, I, 177 ; II, 211. 
'Obadya, ancestor of Maimonides, II, 

'Obadya b. Abraham Nagid, I, 248 ; II, 

'Obadya b. Jonah of Mareddin, II, 208. 
'Obadyab. Rason, II, 283, 285. 
'Obadya'b. Sa'adya, II, 204. 
'Obadya b. Solomon, II, 97. 
'Obadya b. Solomon, ancestor of Mai- 
monides, 11, 319. 
'Obadya (Abu'l Ridha) b. 'Ulah, Nagid 

of Palestine, I, 243, 257 ; II, 313-15, 

'Obadya, grandfather of Mufaddal, II, 

318, note 5. 
Obadya (?), Karaite Nasi, II, 381. 
'Obadya of Fiistat, I, 118; II, 137. 
'Obadya of Tiberias, I, 168; II, 196. 
'Obadya the proselyte, I, 198 ; II, 236. 
Official of the merchants, the, I, 81 f., 

a6i ; II, 29-30, 78, note 7. 
'Omar, Caliph, I, 42 ff. 
'Omar b. 'Abd 'l-'AzIz, I, 14. 
Omen, consulting a Pentateuch for a, 

II, 307, note I. 
Ostrich, proverb about the, II, 379-80. 

Palestine, passim ; Gaonate in, see 
Gaonate in Palestine ; learning in, 
II, 375 ; the academy of, I, 195, 198 ; 
the academy of P. versus Babylon, I, 
114 ; versus Egypt, I, 190 ; the coastal 
cities of, I, 191 f. ; the annual and 
triennial cycles of the reading of the 
Law in, I, 221 ff. ; II, 378-9. 

Palestinian community in Fustat, the, 
I, 94 ff- ; II, 97 ff-. 341, 351 ; the P. 
synagogue in F., I, 221 ff. ; II, 184, 
note, ai8, 249,, note i, 275, 308, 
note 4, 327, note i, 360, 375 ; the P. 
synagogue or community in Alex- 
andria, I, 88, 89, note i ; in Damascus, 
I, 150, 171; II, 172; in Ramlah. I, 

General Index 


1 48-9, 171 ; II, 171 ; in Tiberias, I, 

167, 171 ; II, 194. 
Palmyra (Tadmor), I, 37, note i ; II, 

Paltiel, first Nagid of Egypt, I, 16, 19, 

49, 64, 72, 134, note I, 184, 252. 
Paltiel b. Ephraim, a Reader, I, 99 ; II, 

Paris, the school at Yehiel of, II, 383. 
Parnas, the, I, 259 titles of the, II, 273. 
Perah (Perahya) b. Mu'ammil, Rosh 

Hasseder, I, 150, 269; II, 173-4, 377- 
Perahya b. Halfon, II, 313-15. 
Perahya b. Joel, II, 285 note. 
Perahya b. Joseph, II, 209. 
Perahya b. Nissim, I, 248, note i ; II, 

Perahya b. Tarpon Hakkohen, II, 169, 

note I. 
Perahya b. Yose, Dayyan of Mahalla, 

Perahya, dignitary of the academy, II, 

314, note I. 
Peroz Shabur = Nehardea, II, 335, 

note 7, end. 
Petahya b. 'Obadya Hakkohen, 1, 227-8; 

II, 279-80. 
Pilgrims, Jewish p. to Palestine, I, 138, 

161 ff. 
Pinhas b. Abdimi, I, 58. 
Pinhas b. Ephraim, II, 99. 
Pinhas b. MeshuUam, II, 204. 
Pinhas b. MeshuUam, Dayyan of Alex- 
andria, II, 307, note 2, 316, 317. 
Pinhas the Massorite, I, 58 ; II, 44 ff. 
Pishon, synonym for Nile, II, 39, notes, 

211, 212. 
Plague in Jerusalem, I, 106 ; II, 117. 
Poems {see also Elegies), edited, by 'Ali 

b. Amram, I, 85-6 ; II, 84-5 ; by 

Dunash b. Labrat, I, 27 ; II, 21-3 ; by 

Joseph ibn Abitur, I, 69-70 ; 11, 59- 

60 ; by X. b. Kalima (?), I, 70 ; II, 

60 ; by Zakkai b. Yedidyah Hannasi, 

I, 85 ; II, 83-4 ; eighteen p. from an old 
Diwan, I, 22-6 ; II, 14-ai ; in honour 
of Abraham Hakkohen b. Isaac, I, 86 ; 

II, 86 ; in honour of Abu'l Munajja b. 
Sha'ya, I, 215-17 ; II, 264-9 > '" 
honour of Abu Sa'ad b. Sahl al- 
Tustari, I, 8i-a ; II, 75-7 ; in honour 
of "Adayah b. Menasse the Wezir, I, 
20-3 ; II, 11-13 ; in honour of 
Masliah Gaon, II, 276 ; in honour of Sar 
Shalom Nasi, I, 174 ; II, 207 ; in honour 
of Sedaka b. Joseph, I, 259, note 2 ; in 
honour of Samuel Hannagid and his 
son Moses, II, 368-70 ; in honour of 
Yakin b. Netaneel, I, 213, note i, 
213-15 ; n, 260-3, 365 ; kasida by 
Elijah Hakkohen of Damascus, II, 

220 ; strophe in honour of Sar Shalom 
Gaon, II, 300; strophe in letter from 
Rakkah, II, 321 ; strophe by Yehoseph 
b. Gershon, II, 372 ; strophe by Sar 
Shalom Gaon, II, 299. 

Poems, discussed, in honour of Masliah 
Gaon, I, 197 ; by Solomon Hakkohen 
b. Joseph, I, 207-8 ; cited, by Harizi, 
1, 224, note I, 247, note i ; by Yehuda 
Hallevi, I, 225, note, 234, note 3 ; II, 

Prisoners, see Captives, from Byzantium. 

Pumbedita, mentioned by Ebyatar 
Gaon, II, 228. 

Punba (in Egypt), II, 286. 

Putiel, a Reader, I, 32 ; II, 36. 

Rabbinites in Jerusalem, I, 61 ff., 134 ff., 
160 ; II, 155, 179. 

Rachel b. Solomon, II, 308, note 4. 

Rachel b. Solomon the scribe, II, 309. 

Rafah (in Egypt), I, 72 ; II, 71. 

Ra!s, the title, I, 26a. 

Rals al-Yahud = Nagid. 

Rals b. Meir, II, 246. 

Raja b. "Ali, I, 130; II, 147. 

Rakkah (Kalne, in Syria), I, 173, 201, 
245 f. ; II, 206, 237, 321-2. 

Rakkah (in Egypt), II, 375. 

Ramada (on the North-African coast), I, 
90 ; II, 87. 

Ramlah (in Palestine, capital of province 
of Filastin), I, 17, 18, 20, 28, 41, 
note I, 42, 61,63,65, 73,90, 105. 107, 
108, no, 116, 125, 126, 133, 136, 145, 
148 f., 155 ff-, 183 ; II, 25, 29, 49, 112, 
118, 127, 142 f., 14s, 148, 154, 167, 
171, 172, 177, 179, 181, 185, 200 f., 
219, 223, 231, 347, 355 ; the governor 
of, I, 138, 145, 148; II, 167, 171. 

Ransoming prisoners, the mode of, I, 

Rason, II, 283, 285. 

Rason b. Solomon, II, 283, 285. 

Reading of the Law, in annual and 
triennial cycles, I, 221 ff. ; II, 378-9. 

Rebecca, daughterof Solomon the scribe, 
II, 309. 

Reeds from Lake Maryut, I, 206 ; II, 

Resh Kallah, the title, see Alluf: 
Reuben b. Isaac of France, I, 165 ; 

11, 191. 
Revah b. Ephraim, I, 99 ; II, 100. 
Revah b. Pinhas Hakkohen, a Reader 

from Babylon, I, 161 ; II, 183. 
Revolt in Palestine, 1024-9 C-E., I, 103, 

no, 131, 158 ff.; II, 179 ff. 
Reynah, daughter of Solomon the scribe, 

II, 309. 
Rhodez (in France), I, 165 ; II, 191. 


General Index 

Rikat, a Massorite, II, 44 £F. 
Rosh be Rabbanan, the title, I, 279-80. 
Rosh Hakkahal, see ' Head of the con- 
gregation '. 
Rosh Happerek, the title, I, 269-70. 
Rosh Hasseder, the title, I, 279-80. 
Russia, I, 165 ; II, 192. 

fS^EJ", an enemy of Egyptian Jewry, I, 
ai2-i3 ; II, 257-9. 

Sa'adel b. Joseph, II, 367, 368. 

Sa'adel b. Netaneel, II, 2828". 

Sa'adel b. X., II, 368. 

Sa'adya (Abu'l Fakr) b. Abraham, II, 

Sa'adya b. Berakhya, disciple of Mai- 
onides, II, 316. 

Sa'adaya b. David, II, 204. 

Sa'adya b. Ephraim, uncle of Sahlan b. 
Abraham, I, 99, 118, 130, 144; II, 
100, 103, 104, 113, 129, 146, 164-5, 
187, note 3. 

Sa'adya b. Hillel Hakkohen, I, 258 ; II, 

Sa'adya b. Israel al-Tustari, I, 81, 82, 
122, note I ; II, 76, 140, 377. 

Sa'adj'a b. Israel of Jerusalem, I, 112. 

Sa'adya b. Meborak, II, 98, 249, 250. 

Sa'adya b. Meborak, II, 286. 

Sa'adya b. Moses of Seville, I, 102 ; II, 

Sa'adya b. Nathan, I, 227 ; II, 280. 

Sa'adya b. Nathan, II, 320. 

Sa'adya b. Netanya, II, 320. 

Sa'adya b. 'Obadya, II, 204. 

Sa'adya b. Solomon, II, 204. 

Sa'adya b. Yehuda Nagid, II, 100, 249, 

Sa'adya, father of Netaneel, II, 283-4. 

Sa'adya Gaon, I, 15, 22, 50, 222 ; II, 
310-", 358, note I, 375, 379, litur- 
gical composition of, I, 97 note, 98, 
note 2. 

Sa'adya, the late, II, 342. 

Sa'adya of Ashkelon, I, 240, note i. 

Sa'adya the teacher of Alexandria, II, 

Saba'u, the official in Ramlah, II, 21. 

Sabbatai b. Abraham of Minyat Zifta, 
II, 259, note 7. 

Sabbatai b. Elyakim, II, 320. 

Sabbatai b. Kaleb, 11, 100. 

Sabbatai b. Moses, II, 314, note i. 

Sabbatai b. Netaneel of Anatolia, I, 92 ; 
II, 91- 

Sabyan (Abu Sa'ad) b. Sa'adya Hakko- 
hen, I, 97, note I, 209-10; II, 103, 

Sadaka, Wezir, I, 82. 

Sadok, I, aoo-i ; II, 236-7. 

Sadok b. Aaron, II, 305. 

Sadok b. Ebyatar Gaon, I, 193 ; II, 229. 
§adok b. Elijah Gaon, I, loi, 187 ; II, 

107, note 10. 
Sadok (Abu'l Barakat) b. Joseph 

Hakkohen, II, 318, note 10. 
Sadok Ab b. Joshiah Ab, I, 66, 186, 189, 

193, 200 ; II, 50 ff. 
Sadok b. Meborak, II, 169, note i. 
Sadok b. X., II, 275. 
Sadok, Gaon, II, 295-6. 
Sadok, Gaon of Sura, I, 53. 
Sadok Hakkohen, of house of Ibn Hafs 

■ 11,318. 

Sadok b. Levi Hallevi, I, 161-2 ; 186; 

■ II, 183. 

Sadok the Third, II, 23a. 

Safed (in Galilee), I, 171 ; II, 204, 

Saffuriyah (Sepphoris, in Galilee), II, 
357, note 3. 

Sahl b. Aaron, I, 162 ; II, 185. 

Sahl b. Fadl, Karaite author, see Yashar 
(Sahl) b.' Hesed (Fadl) b. Yashar. 

Sahl (Shela'h, Yashar) b. Israel al- 
Tustari, I, 38, note I, 81, 122, note i, 
125 ; II, 72, 75, 78, 79, 140, 143, 376-7. 

Sahl b. Masliah, Karaite author, I, 61. 

Sahl b. Yehuda, II, 70, note. 

Sahlan b. Abraham, I, 79, 82-3, 97, 98, 
99, 104, III, 112, 113, 114, 128, 136, 
142, 144 f., 156, 163, 202, 204; II, 
80-1, 102 ff., 115, 145 f., I52ff., 159, 
164-5, 186-7, 220, 252, note 3. 

Sahlan the elder b. Abraham, I, 97-8 ; 
II, 102. 

Sahragt (in Egypt), I, 89, loa, 103, 
249 ; II, 108, III, 259, note 7, 336. 

al-Sa'id, a Sheikh, II, 176. 

Said b. "Ali ibn Ashlamiya, II, 375. 

Sa'id b. David of Aden, II, 331, note i. 

Saladin, I, 229, 235-6, 240, 257. 

Salih, Arab chieftain, I, 158, 

Salim the scribe, II, 246-7. 

Salonica, I, 165-6; II, 19a. 

Samad, governor of Alexandria, I, 13. 

Samaritans, the, I, 14, 18. 

Sambast (in Egypt), II, 259, note 7. 

Sambutiah (in Egypt), I, 232; II, 290, 
note 3. 

Samjud (? in Egypt), I, 232 ; II, 290. 

Sammanud (in Egypt), I, 242, a44; II, 
290, note 5, 308, 317. 

Samsam ad-Daula, king of Sicily, I, 
aoa ff. ; II, 239. 

Samuel, I, 55, note i. 

Samuel, II, 285, note. 

Samuel b. Aaron, I, 193 ; II, 229. 

Samuel b. Aaron, II, 305. 

Samuel b. Abraham Hakkohen, 11, 275, 

Samuel b. Abraham of Tahort, I, 117, 
119, 124, i8a; II, 128, 132 ff., 218,351. 

General Index 


Samuel b. Abtalion Hakkohen, I, 36, 

note 2, 84, 94, 95-6, 103-4, no, 112, 

117, 121, 137, 146, 159,258; H, 97ff., 

128, 154, 167, 351. 
Samuel b. "Ali Hallevi, Gaon of Bagdad, 

11, 140, note 5, 295, 333. 
Samuel b. al-Lebdi, I, 23 ; II, 14-15. 
Samuel b. Daniel (b. 'Azarya), I, 175, 

185 ; II, 221, 358-9- 
Samuel b. El'azar, II, 285 note. 
Samuel b. Halfon Haber, II, 320, 
Samuel b. Hananya, Nagid, 1, 213, 218, 

222, 225, 228 ff., 252, 254, 257 ; II, 

249, 271, 281 ff., 2898"., 368-70, 381, 

note 2. 
Samuel b. Hananya, grandson of the 

above Nagid, II, 282 ff. 
Samuel b. Hofni, Gaon of Sura. I, 40, 

note I, end, 183 ; II, 65, note 2, end, 

310, 311, note I. 
Samuel b. Hoshana, the ' Third' of the 

academy, I, 27 ff., 141 f., 170 ; II, 

23 ff., 31, 201. 
Samuel b. Isaiah Iskandri, Karaite 

Nagid (?), I, 255, note i. 
Samuel b. Joseph al-Basri, II, 149, note. 
Samuel b. Joseph Hakkohen Gaon, I, 

37, 66 ff., 100, note i ; II, 58-9, 343. 
Samuel b. Joshu'a the Haber, II, 201. 
Samuel (Mauhub) b. Moses of Tyre, I, 

167-8 ; II, 196, 355. 
Samuel b. Moses, I, 227, note t. 
Samuel b. Netaneel, II, 314-15. 
Samuel b. Paltiel Nagid, I, 49, 56, notes, 

113, note I, 140, 184. 
Samuel b. Netaneel, a physician, I, 260, 

note I. 
Samuel b. Sa'adya Hallevi, 1, 195, notes; 

II, 232, 314. 
Samuel b. Sa'adya, Dayyan of Cairo 

(perhaps identical with above), II, 

Samuel b. Sahl of Kairowan, I, 102; 

II, 109. ■ 

Samuel b. Semah, I, 73 ; II, 49, 71. 
Samuel b. Shemarya Hallevi (b. Ri'a- 

kub), I, 168 ; II, 196. 
Samuel b. Abraham of Lucena, II, 253. 
Samuel b. X., I, 162 ; II, 185. 
Samuel b. Yahya, a physician, II, 385, 

note 5. 
Samuel b. Yehoseph,!, 248, note i ; II, 

Samuel b. Yehuda, see AbS'l Ma'ali 

(Samuel) b. Abii'l Hasan (Yehuda). 
Samuel b. Shelah, II, 283, 284, note 2. 
Samuel Haber, ancestor of Samuel b. 

Hananya, I, 230; II, 381 ff. 
Samuel Hakkohen of Damascus. I, 39 ; 

II, 40. 
Samuel of Aleppo, I, 246 ; II, 323. 

Samuel Rashid, I, 240 ; II, 302. 
Samuel, relative of Netanya, II, 320. 
Sar Shalom, see Zuta (Yahya, Sar 

Sar Shalom Ab, I, 238, note i. 
Sar Shalom AUuf, I, 249 ; II, 336-7. 
Sar Shalom b. Shemarya Hakkohen, 


Sar Shalom Hallevi Gaon, I, 226, 234-5, 

237 f. ; II, 292 ff. 
Sar Shalom Nasi b. Pinhas, I, 174 ; II, 

207-8, 380. 
Sar Shalom Hakkohen, II, 343, bottom. 
Sar Shalom, Karaite Nasi, II, 381. 
Sarah b. Yehuda, II, 201. 
Saracen pirates, I, 87 ff. 
Sason b. El'azar, a Reader, II, 204. 
Sason b. El'azar, II, 285, note, end. 
Sason b. Menahem, II, 319. 
Sason b. Meshullair, 11, 287. 
Sason, grandson of Meshullam and father 

of Isaac, II, 318, note 12. 
Saul b. 'Anan, Karaite Nasi, II, 214-15. 
' Scrolls ', historical accounts in the form 

of, II, 30. 
Sedaka, II, 330. 

Sedaka b. Ezra, I, 81 ; II, 78, 79, note i. 
Sedaka b. Joseph, I, 259, note 2. 
Sedaka b. Menahem, I, 119 f. ; II, 134, 

Sedaka b. Netaneel, II, 382 ff. 
$edaka b. Netaneel, a Reader, II, 287, 

Sedaka b. Sa'adya, II. 249, 250. 
Sedaka b. Sadok Hakkohen, II, 318. 
Sedaka b. Yahya, II, 97. 
Sedaka b. Yehuda I, 210 : II, 357. 
Sedaka the Haber (very likely identical 

with above), I, 210 ; II, 254. 
Sedaka the Haber, II, 235, top. 
Sedaka, dignitary of the school, 11, 276. 
Sedaka the Parnas, 11, 235. 
Selim, Sultan, I, 174, note i. 
Seljuks, the, I, 164, 168, 188, 192; II, 

Semah b. Abu Shaiba, Massorite, II, 

■ 44 ff. 

Semah b. Asa, Karaite Nasi, I, 24, 176, 

178 ; II, 210, 211. 
Semah b. El'azar, I, 182 ; II, 319, 360, 

Semah b. Halfon, II, 115. 
Semah b. Netaneel, II, 383-4. 
Semah b. Sayyara, Massorite, II, 44 ff. 
Semah b. Yefet, see Abu Mansur (Semah) 

■ b. Yefet. 

Semah Nasi, I, 24, 173; II, 17. 
Sepphoris (in Galilee), II, 357. 
Severus, a prelate, I, 18. 
Shafyetib, ancient synagogue at Nehar- 
dea, II, 333, note 8, 335. 


General Index 

Shaizar (= Hasor, in Syria), II, 200. 

Sha'yon b. Isaac, II, 99. 

Sheerit b. Hillel, Haber of Tiberias, II, 


Sheerit b. Meir, II, 285, note. 

Sheerit b. Shemarya, a Reader, II, 293. 

Shehem (in Palestine\ I, 157 ; II, 177. 

Shehita, Arabs prohibiting, I, 154 ; II, 
175-6 ; prohibition of Sh. in Fustat, 
I, 214 ; II, 262, top ; Karaite laws of, 

I, 134 ff. ; II, 154 ; works on Sh., by 
Jacob Rosh be Rabbanan, II, 312 ; 
by Joseph b. Hezekiah Nasi, I, 129 ; 

II, 14s, note 7. 

Shelah b. Nahum, ' Sixth ' of the school, 

I, 191 ; II, 225 ff. 

Shelah b. Israel al-Tustari, see Sahl 

(Shela, Yashar) b. Israel al-Tustari. 
Shelah, II, 283-4. 
Shelah, a dignitary, II, 201. 
Shelah, a Reader, II, 203. 
Shelah, a Karaite, I, 177 ; II, 211. 
Shelahya b. Joseph of Mastaura, I, 93 ; 

=11, 96. 
Shem Tob, a bogus Nasi, I, 172; II, 

Shema'ya b. Jacob, I, 58. 
Shema'ya Gaon, I, 249 ; II, 73, note 3, 

232, 336, note 2, 342-3. 
Shemarya b. Abraham of Alexandria, 

II, 317- 

Shemarya b. David, Nagid, I, 250 ; II, 

Shemarya b. Elhanan I, 26ff., 39, 40, 

68, no, note i, 142, 190, 267 ; II, 

21 ff., 26 ff., 232. 
Shemarya b. Masliah, II, 352 ff. 
Shemarya b. Menahem, II, 339. 
Shemarya b. Meshullam, I, 210 ; II, 

Shemarya b. Sadok Hakkohen, II, 318. 
Shemarya b. X. the Haber (perhaps 

identical with), II, 347, 349. 
Shemarya b. Yefet, I, 118, 144 ; II, 

i3o> 163, 347 f. 
Shemarya, a disciple of Maimonides, II, 

Shemarya the ' Sixth ' b. Samuel, 1, 230 ; 

II, 281 ff. 
Sherira Gaon, I, 26, 27, 30, 67. 
Shiloah (in Jerusalem), Jews prohibited 

to bathe in, I, 241, note, end ; II, 304. 
Sicily, I, 73-4, 204 ; II, 73-4, 238, 326. 
Sick, the, seeking cure in Tiberias, I, 

166 ff; II, 192 ff., 356. 
Sidon (in Palestine), I, 20. 
Silanus of Venosa (in Italy), I, 56-7. 
Simha, I, 119 ; II, 135, note 2. 
Simha b. Mebasser, II, 293. 
Simha b. Solomon Hakkohen of Alex- 
andria, II, 317. 

Sinan b. 'Alyan.Arab chieftain, I, 159. 

rT'JD (in Egypt), II, 259, note 7. 

Siracusa (in Sicily), II, 336. 

Sitt Nna^K b. Ali, II, 363. 

'Sixth', the, of the school, in Fustat, 

I, 108 ; in Ramlah, I, 149 ; II, 171. 
Social life, pictures of, I, 108-9, 205-6, 

209-10, 239-42. 
Solomon, II, 198. 
Solomon b. Aaron Hakkohen of Tyre, 

II, 355- 

Solomon b. Abraham, II, 319. 
Solomon b. Alvan, II, 174, note i. 
Solomon b. David Hakkohen, a Karaite, 

I, 161, note I. 

Solomon b. David, Karaite Nasi, II, 

212, 214, 215. 
Solomon b. David (b. Daniel), II, 357-9. 
Solomon b. David the judge, II, 319. 
Solomon b. David Maimuni, II, 328^329. 
Solomon b. Elijah, a copyist, II, 314. 
Solomon b. Elijah Hakkohen Gaon, I, 

170, i86ff., 189, 193, 196; II, 62 ff., 

202, note I, 233, 234-5. 
Solomon b. Elijah Yakin, Karaite Nasi, 

II, 214, 215. 

Solomon b. Joseph Hakkohen Ab, 1, 187, 
207-8 ; II, 62-3, 231-2. 

Solomon b. (?) Hadid, II, 285, note. 

Solomon b. Hakim, II, 97, 99. 

Solomon b. Halfon of Aleppo, II, 174. 

Solomon b. Hasdai, II, 204. 

Solomon b. Hayyim the 'Seventh', I, 
183, 192, note I ; II, 374. 

Solomon b. Isaac the Haber, II, 55 ff. 

Solomon b. Jesse, Nasi, I, 174, 175-6 ; 
II, 209-10. 

Solomon b. Joshiah, Nasi, II, 357-9. 

Solomon b. Meir, II, 285, note. 

Solomon b. Meir, I, 133 ; II, 151. 

Solomon b. Meir Rosh Hasseder (prob- 
ably identical with above), II, 54 ff., 
135, note 4. 

Solomon b. Moses, Reader in Alexandria, 

I, 105; II, 116. 

Solomon b. Mordecai Hakkohen, II, 

Solomon b. Nagi the Parnas, II, 286. 

Solomon b. Nathan, II, 103. 

Solomon b. Nathan (perhaps identical 
with above), II, 174, note 3. 

Solomon b. Nissim, II, 373. 

Solomon b. Netaneel, II, 99. 

Solomon b. Netaneelj the banker (per- 
haps identical with above), I, 162 ; 

II, 184, note, end. 

Solomon b. 'Obadya, II, 283-5. 

Solomon b. "Obadya, ancestor of Mai- 
monides, II, 319. 

Solomon b. Rabi', II, 355. 

General Index 


Solomon b. Sa'adya, I, 96, 119, 133, 
125, 168 ; II, 97, 134, 144, 195, ig6.j 

Solomon b. Sa'adya of Rafah, II, 71. 

Solomon b. Samuel Petit, of Akko, 1, 175. 

Solomon b. Semah the perfumer, II, 115. 

Solomon b. Sha'ya, see Abu'l Munajja 
(Solomon) b. Sha'ya. 

Solomon b. Shelah, II, 203. 

Solomon b. Tobias the ' Third ', II, 245. 

Solomon b. Yehuda, Gaon of Palestine, 

I, 20, 21, 22, 27-8, 41, 50, 55, note I, 
61, 66, 70, 71, 75 ff., 81-2, 100, 
note I, 156, 180, 182, 183 ; II, 58-9, 
64 ff., 81,83, 86-7,112, iisfif., 124 ff., 
159 ff-, 186, 188, 341, 346,3473"-, 351, 
352, 359, note 2, 360. 

Solomon b. Zakkai, II, 294, bottom. 
Solomon b. Zakkai, of Alexandria, II, 

Solomon, brother of Maliha, I, 241 ; II, 

Solomon Hakkohen, disciple of Mai- 

monides, II, 316. 
Solomon Hakkohen Gaon, I, 70, 84, 

131, 183 ; II, 62 ff. 
Solomon Hallevi, II, 327. 
Solomon, a Karaite, I, 177 ; II, 211. 
Solomon, Karaite Nasi, I, 199-200. 
Solomon of house of al-' Amid, II, 319. 
Solomon, Reader and Resh Kallah, II, 


Solomon Sabik, a Reader, I, 108-9. 

Solomon the elder, II, 217, note 3. 

Solomon the judge of Sahragt, II, 108. 

Solomon the ofiScial, I, 145 ; II, 164. 

Solomon the physician, I, 242 ; II, 309. 

Solomon the scribe, I, 242 ; II, 309. 

Spain, Jewish position in, compared to 
that in Egypt, I, 220 ; power of 
Jewish authorities in, I, 69. 

Sulaiman, dignitary of the academy, II, 

Sunbat (in Egypt), I, 96, note i, 344 ; 

II, 102, 317. 

Superintendent of the merchants, the, 

I, 261. 
Sura (Mahseya), II, 219, 228. 
Surri b. Hayyim, I, 70 ; II, 346. 
Synagogues, destruction of, in Egypt 

and Palestine, I, 33 ff., 72-3, 89, 

note I ; II, 39, 72-3. 
Syria, I, 16, 19, 21, 23, 25-6, 36, 41, 

I53ff-i 173, 174, 200; II, 216, 234, 

236 ff. 

nansan, aiady, ii, 173. 

Tahir, an elder, II, 37I-3' 
al-Tai, Caliph of Bagdad, I, 251. 
ha-Takvi b. Isaac, Samaritan official, 

Tamin, II, 236. 

Tamin, II, 302, note 10. 

Tamim b. Jacob Hakkohen, II, 346. 

Tanhum Yerushalmi, II, 311. 

Tarabulus (Tripoli, in Syria), 72-3, 81, 
19s, 218 ; II, 55, 72-3, 273. 

Tarsus (in Asia Minor), II, 203. 

Taxation, problems of, 19, 31-2, 102, 
103, 107, 120, 131, 154-5, 160-1, 
i62ff., 239, 242; II, 31, no. III, 
148, 175-6, 179-82, 185 ff., 301, 
bottom, 309. 

Ten Commandments, recital of, in 
Palestinian synagogue of Fustat, 1,223. 

Thabit b. Kurra, a philosopher, II, 

Thabit b. Tobias Hakkohen, I, 89, 

note I. 
Tiberias (in Galilee), I, 42, 58, 157, 

166 ff., 171 ; II, 61, 73, note 3, 177, 

192 ff., 206, 336, 375 ; the hot springs 

of, I, 166 ; the Massorites of, II, 43 ff. ; 

the school of, I, 55. 
Tikvah b. Simha, II, 293. 
Timam b. Abraham the banker, II, 174. 
Timam b. Joseph, II, 174, note 2. 
Timam of Fustat (perhaps identical with 

T. b. Abraham), II, 247. 
Timoteos, Katholikos, I, 45, note 2. 
Tinnis (in Egypt), I, 89, 232 ; II, 290, 

note 8. 
Tirsah, Biblical = Sepphoris, II, 357. 
Titles, in connexion with the academy, 

I, 278-9 ; with the Nesiut, I, 272, 
top ; other t., I, 254 ff. 

Tobias b. "AH Hakkohen, I, 227, note i ; 

II, 202-3, 367-8. 

Tobias ' lord of the community ', 1, 130 ; 

II, 147. 
Tribute, people of the, I, 13. 
Triennial Cycle, the, of the Reading of 

the Law, I, 221-3 ! '', 378-9- 
Tripoli (in Syria), see Tarabulus. 
Tripolis (in North Africa), II, 174, 

note 2. 
Tomei (Tumai, in Egypt), I, 109, note i, 

II, 119, 254. 
*NDn(= Tomei, Tumai?), I, 109; II, 

"9, 254- 
Turkey, I, 218, 242 ; II, 273, 309. 
Tnrkomans, the, defeat of the T. before 

Cairo, I, 208 ; U, 251. 
Tustar(in Persia), I, 76, 79, 122, note i ; 

II, 375, 378. 
Tustarians (Dastarians), the, Karaite 

sect, I, 79. 
Tyre (in Palestine), I, 20, 42, 118, 159, 

161, 167-8, 188, 189, 193, 195 ; II, 

130, 183, 184, 247, 249, 355 ; 

Palestine school situated at, I, 193, 

195 ; scholars of, disciples of 

R. Ephraim, II, 316. 


General Index 

'Ulah b. Berakot, II, 283-4. 
'Ulah b. Joseph Hallevi, I, 196; II, 233. 
'Ulah b. Perahya, II, 313-15, 320. 
'Uzziah b. El'azar Scmah, Karaite Nasi, 

II, 214, 215. 
'Uzziel, I, 247 ; IT, 323. 
'Uzziel (Abu'l Ma'ali) b. Mishael, s^ 

Abu'l Maali ("Uzziel) b. Abu'l Muhasin 


Venosa (in Italy), I, 55 ff. 

Wadil Kura' (in Arabia), I, 118; II, 

Wallda, the (queen mother), of al-Mus- 

tansir, I, 76 flf. 
Water supply, Arabs shutting oil" the, 

to Jews, I, 154; JI, 175-6. 

X. Ah, under Solomon b. Yehuda, I, 
126, 128, 129, 132, 142, 143 ; II, 145, 

149-50, 159, >6o> i6i- 
X. al-Fayyumi b. Saadya, I, 244 ; II, 

X. al-Barki, II, 246, 247. 
X. b. al-'icXS, II, 246, ,247. 
X. b. al-''3;NSp, II, 247. 
X. b. al-Rakki, opponent of Ephraim 

b. Shemarya, II, 351. 
X. b. "Aii the Haber, II, 246, 247. 

x.t.riDny, li, 246-7. 

X. b. Azhar, U, 350. 

X. b. 'Aubal, I, ^5 ; II, 19-20. 

X. b. Jacob AUuf (probably identical 

with Joseph b. Jacob b. 'Aubal), I, 

163 ; II, 193. 
X. b. Kahma(?), I, 70; II, 60. 
X. b. Moses, JI, 360, 362. 
X. b. WS3, II, .246. 
X. b. Sa'adya (b. Yehuda Nagid), II, 

loi, 249, 250. 
X. b. -Sadok, I,:?49; II, 336. 
X. b. nWS, II, 350. 
X. b. Seraya, II, 62. 
X. b. Yahya, II, 246. 
X. b. Yehuda, II, 357. 

X. b. mian, i, 131; 11, 148. 

X. Hallevi, a great dignitary, I, 250 ; 
II, 240. 

'p3'' b. Abu RazTn, a pirate, I, 89, 90, 

91; II, 88. 
Yahya, see Zuta (Yahya, Sar Shalom). 
Yahya (perhaps identical with Y. b. 

Solomon b. Yehuda), I, 102.; II, 109. 
Yahya b. Abraham, II, 319. 
Yahya b Abraham (Abu'l 'Afif), II, 319. 
Yahya b. Mansur, I, 98. 
Yahya b. 'Omar, I, 196, note 2. 

Yahya b. Samuel Nagid, see Moses b. 

Samuel Nagid. 
Yahya b. Solomon Gaon (b. Yehuda), I, 

102, 107-8, 115; II, 118, 133. 
Ya'ish b. Sahl of Nahrwan, I, 104 ; II, 

Ya'ish Hakkohen, II, 346. 
Yakin b. David, II, 62. 
Yakin (Abu'l Fadl) b. Netaneel, I, 192, 

note I, 213-15, 258 ; II, 249, note i, 

260-3, 365, 381. 
Ya'kub b. Ishali, court physician, I, 83. 
Yashar al-Tustari, see Sahl (Shelah, 

Yashar) b. Israel al-Tustari. 
Yashar (Sahl) b. Hesed (Fadl) b. Yashar, 

Karaite author, I, 79 ; II, 73, note i, 

Yasliah b. Joseph, 11, 103. 
al-Yazuri, Wezir, I, 207. 
Yedaya of Narbonne, II, 248. 
Yedidya, Karaite Nasi, I, 85, note i, 

J76 ; II, 212. 
Yefet b. al-inj'B', II, 236. 
Yefet b. 'Amram, a Reader, II, 357. 
Yefet b. David (b. Shekhanya), a Reader, 

I, 96 ; -II, 97 ff-, 246, 247, 351. 
Yefet b. Halfon, II, 320. 

Yefet Dayyan b. Halfon the Haber, II, 

Yefet b. Hillel, II, 99. 
Yefet b. Joseph Hakkohen, I, 82 ; II, 79. 
Yefet b. Mebasser, I, 8i ; II, 79. 
Yefet b. Sa'adya the physician, II, 

Yefet b. Salama, II, 220. 
Yefet b. Sason, see Abu'l 'Ali Hasan b. 

Suriir (b. 'Ali). 
Yefet b. Semah, II, 283-4. 
Yefet (Abu"l ^Xat3) b. Solomon, I, 237 ; 

II, 300-1. 

Yefet b. Tikvah, II, 201. 

Yefet (Abu 'Ali the perfumer) b. Tikvah, 

II, 286, 287. 
Yefet b. Tobias Hallevi, I, 99 ; II, 98, 

Yefet b. Yeshu'a, Dayyan of Ashkelon, 

I, 170 ; II, 202. 

Yefet Hallevi , representative of Masliah 

Gaon, II, 382. 
Yefet, a Karaite, I, 177 ; II, 211. 
Yefet, Karaite Nasi, I, 176 ; II, 210. 
Yefet Rosh Hakkahal (probably identical 

with Yefet b. Tobias Hallevi), 1, 137 ; 

II, 155- 

Yefet, an important dignitary, II, 270-1. 
Yefet, the teacher, I, 239 ; II, 301. 
Yehiel b. Elyakim, I, 237, 239-41, 267 ; 

II, 301 ff., 320, note 12. 
Yehiel b. Isaac, I, 241, note, end ; II, 


General Index 


Yehiel Hakkohen, II, 320. 

Yehiel of Paris, II, 383. 

Yehoshaphat b. David, Karaite Nasi, II, 

Yelioshaphat b. Josiah, Karaite Nasi, 

11, 214-15. 
Yehoseph, I, 246 ; II, 323. 
Yehoseph b. Gershon, see Joseph 

(Yehosephi) b. Gershon of France. 
Yehoseph b. Nathan, I, 220, note i, 

227, note I, 267 ; II, 280. 
Yehoseph b. Samuel the Babylonian, I, 

247 ; II, 325. 
Yehoseph b. Samuel (b. Paltiel) Nagid, 

I, 113, note I, 140, 184, 221-2; II, 
251, 352- 

Yehoseph Hakkohen, Ab, I, 70 ; II, 

62 ff., loi, note 2, 346. 
Yehoseph Rosh be Rabbanan b. Isaac, 

II, 311, note I. 

Yehuda b. Aai-on, I, 241 ; II, 305. 
Yehuda b. "Alan, Gaon (?), I, 59. 
Yehuda b. David Exilarch (b. Zakkai), 

II, 358, note I, 359. 
Yehuda (Abu'l hiarakat) b. El'azar 

Hakkohen, I, 220, note i ; 250 ; II, 

338, 379- 
Yehuda b. Eli'ezer Hakkohen, II, 297, 

note I. 
Yehuda b. Hadid, I, 36 ; II, 99. 
Yehuda b. Huspit the Haber, I, 182 ; 

II, 219. 
Yehuda b. Jacob Hakkohen, I, 225, 

note I. 
Yehuda b. Joseph (Ibn Abu'l Thina), 

II. 375- 
Yehuda b. Joshiah Nasi, I, 175, 252 ; 

II, 209. 
Yehuda b. Mansur, I, 103; II, 112. 
Yehuda b. Moses Nagid ; II, 249-50, 

Yehuda b. Perabya, a Haber, II, 313-15. 
Yehuda b. Sa'adya, Nagid, I, 184, 206, 

207 iT., 254; 11,200, 223, 245, 249 if., 

Yehuda b. Meir Gaon,5«e Ben-Meir Gaon. 
Yehuda b. Semah, II, 283-4. 
Yehuda b. Solomon, II, 204. 
Yehuda b. Tobias Hakkohen, I, 227, 

note I. 
Yehuda Alluf of Kairowan, I, 40. 
Yehuda, a French scholar in "Akko, II, 

Yehuda Hakkohen, II, 339. 
Yehuda Hakkohen Rosh Hasseder, I, 

99, loi, 187 ; II, loi, 107, note 10, 

Yehuda Hakkohen, Dayyan of Bilbais, 

II, 317- 
Yehuda Hallevi, the famous poet, I, 25, 
217, 225, 226, 227j note I, 229, 230, 

234, note 3, 241 ; II, 270-1, 275, 285-6, 

305, 365- 
Yehuda Rosh Hasseder of Kairowan, 

II, 107, note 10, end. 
Yehudai Gaon, I, 57, 280; II, 224. 
Yekutiel b. Moses the physician, 11,338, 

note I. 
Yekutiel b. Moses, ' the superintendent 

of the merchants', 11, 78, note 7. 
Yekutiel the physician b. Moses, I, 250 ; 

II, 338. 
Yemen, II, 316 ; Nesiim of, I, 271. 
Yeshu'a, II, 198. 
Yeshu'a, brother of Joel, II, 285, note, 

Yeshu'a (Ayyub), see Ayyub (Yeshu'a). 
Yeshu'a b. Aaron, I, 55, note i. 
Yeshu'a b. Aaron (Ben-Sion), II, 305. 
Yeshu'a b. Abraham Hallevi, II, 99. 
Yeshu'a b. Joseph Hakkohen, Haber of 

Alexandria, I, 72, 88, 90, 204 ff. ; II, 

91, 240 ff., 345, 346. 
Yeshu'a b. Joseph Nagid, I, 184, note i. 
Yeshu'a b. Joshiah (b. Shema'ya;, II, 

Yeshu'a b. Menahem, II, 330. 
Yeshu'a K Netaneel, II, 319, note 5, 
Yeshu'a b. Netanya, II, 320. 
Yeshu'a b. Sadok, II, 99. 
Yeshu'a b. Sedaka, II, 97. 
Yeshu'a b. Solomon Hakkohen, II, 115. 
Yeshu'a b. Solomon Hallevi, II, 99. 
Yeshu'a b.Yefet, Dayyan of Ashkelon, I, 

170 ; II, 202. 
Yeshu'a, Karaite Nasi, II, 381. 
Yeshu'a of Damietta, II, 70. 
Yeter Hallevi, II, 368. 
Yiftah, relative of Netanya, II, 320. 
Yose Hakkohen Gaon, I, 66, 70, note i ; 

II, 58-9. 
Yuhanna ibn Abu'l Laith, Wezir, I, 
211 ff. 

Zadokite Fragments, the so-called, II, 

az-Zahir, Caliph, 1,41, 76; revolt against, 

I, 103, no, 158 ff. 
Zakkai Exilarch, II, 357-9. 
Zakkai b. 'Azarya Nasi, I, 175 ; II, 208. 
Zakkai b. Yedidyah Nasi, I, 85, 172 ; 11, 

Zakkai Dayyan, I, 217, note 2. 
Zekarya b. Elijah, I, 250; 11, 339. 
Zekarya Hallevi, II, 62. 
Zoi, daughter of Maliha, I, 241 ; II, 306. 
Zuta (Yahya, Sar Shalom), 1, 234 ff., 

249; II, 368, bottom; 'the scroll of 

Z. ', author of, II, 327. 


[The volumes are indicated by I and II respectively. The General Index is 
frequently referred to by the indication see followed by the respective item in 
English letters. Wherever see is followed by a Hebrew word then the respective 
item in the Hebrew Index is meant. The Glossary contains many words not 
commented upon in the text. The reader is therefore requested to consult the 
Glossary whenever the occasion arises.] 

in n''3 3x, 1, 265-6, 272; n*3 3n 

ijNlB" ijaijE* fT, I, 267. 

noann nx, title, I, 261. 
Thnh^ na'ty'n ax, I, 262. 

nUN, dignity of pT n*3 DN, I, 40, 

note I. 
ijNaD^N UX see Yefet (Abu'l i^XSts) 

b. Solomon. 
T'ii'N UX see Abu'l Khair b. ''JN3 

the Parnas, Ephraim (AbQ 

Khair) and Abu'l Khair Sedakah. 
DJoi'N UK see Abu'l Najm (Hilal). 
mpHN, II, 79, 1. 24. 
nuiJJ'K'n ns (probably = {J'icrD 

m^vrri), I, 144, 278, note lo; 

II, 163, 1. 26. 
ivs •h^2)<, I, 47 ff. ; D'D^ijjn n''3 'x, 

I, 49, note 2; imxan ijur 'n, 

I, 49, note I. 

iTaxni'K px see Nathan b. Samuel, 
fan px J^^ Ibn Hafs. 
E'XJDB' px «« Joseph b. Abitur. 
nax, Hithpa'el, to take shelter, II, 

120, note I. 
DIIX (Byzantium or any other 

Christian country), I, 43, note 2 ; 

II, 272, 1. 41. 

"W1X, adornment, II, 79, note i, 

3riX, love, II, 126, 1. 19, 316, 1. 29. 
D'^JIinx, Aaronites (i.e. priests), 

II, 276; rrjinnx, I, 21, note i. 
ainx^x = na^B^n ainx, I, 278,, 

note 2 ; II, 374, note 2. 
n3XD''^1X, Lucena (in Spain), II, 

XJriDIX, a woman, II, 308, 1. 17. 
nnix = iix, light, II, 230, note 2. 
xnailX, legal document, II, 234, 

note I. 
X''J^'1X = X''J)B'1X, I, IS, note 4, 

nx, calamity; nx d^, II, 380. 
nnx, Kal. passive ptc. '•inx, II, 66, 

I. 9 ; Niph'al nnX3, D''nxj, united, 

II, 160, 1. 8; 198, note 3. 
ninx, brotherhood, friendship, II, 

279, no. 16, 11. 24, 28, 316, top. 
"IDID ^nx, a fellow of culture, II, 

18, note 10, 256, 1. 15. 
"IV ''nx, a foe, II, 262, note 8. 
DltDX, dead person, II, 85, note 10. 
pDX, a cord, rope, II, 164, verso, 



Hebrew Index and Glossary 

D^Jas-iax see Dibnu. 

pjn ''N and ninaa ''N, names for 

Damietta (in Egypt), I, i88, 

note I ; II, 69, note i. 
?.'{<, Pi'el, to strengthen, II, 230, 

top, 265, note 17. 
nD''N, authority, II, 79, note 2, 216, 

no. 23, 1. II, 231, 1. 18. 
nN'^'pC^') Sicily, I, 204, note i. 
nV'X, urging, II, 141, no. 48, 1. 6. 
nm3D3N see Alexandria. 
^N = n^x, II, 15, note 4. 
ri3DlvN, Lucena (in Spain), II, 

297, note 2. 

N^-n3D3^N, nNmjDaijK, nmjDaijx, 

see Alexandria, 
myan r^'^, title, I, 278; II, 58, 

59, 250, bottom. 
n3'E5'i el"lb^?, nu''B'» tib' 'k, I, 278. 
niDX, wealthy, II, 325, 1. 16. 
^^C^<, wealthy, I, 263, note, end ; 

II, 82, note 3, 323, 1. 4. 

rhrh^ i'»s*, title, II, 374. 
"^rh^ pox, title, I, 227, note i. 
nxiON, strength, II, 352, 1. 5. 
pnj) pr nSDX, tyrannical time's 

might, II, 266, note 16. 
nON, Pu'al ptc, nOND, verified, II, 

361, note 7. 
rm = nmx, sighing, II, 12, 1. 10, 

230, 1. 12, 
')ba:t(, n^D3X nna, letter of attorney, 

n, 356, note 3. 
I?? = njJN, lamentation, II, 12, 1. 10. 
f|DN see Asaph Rosh Hasseder. 
PJIIBN, Franks, I, 211, note 2. 
PVX, to emanate, to dangle, to 

reach, II, 16, note 14, 239, 

note 3. 
?2fK, to, II, 331, no. 2; from, II, 

332, no. 4. 

5'''SN, title, I, 261. 

mx see Arah b. Nathan the 

' Seventh '. 
niN, Niph'al a^n-iN'J, to take the 

road, II, 17, VII, 1. 8. 
mnx, curse, ban, II, 127, note 6. 
Via, Af'el of ]}]11, to harm, II, 83, 

note 4. 
bav^^'' px, Turkey, II, 273. 
''avn pN, us px, Palestine, II, 

229, top, and 1. 5, 235, no. 31, 

1. 3, 360, note, 367, 1. 4. 
niCK = D'CJ, women, II, 15, top. 
ns, newcomer, II, 78, note 4, 195, 

note 8. 

... 3 N3 = , , , ? N2, to arrive at 
(a place), II, 326, 1. 3, ^n^<U 
1JSnN2 (cp. I, 56, note 2). 

fNni'Ka, Baldwin, I, 200, note i. 

?n3 = npna, confusion, II, 31, 
verso, 1. 7, 133, 1. 24. 

n^ijjon nju, play upon title nnnn 

nSvDH, I, 182, note i. 
ci'Dnan n^na, title, II, 373. 

nyjlfn Tna, title, I, 278, note 3. 

inO, II, 343, note 4. 

pa = nJU, understanding, II, 80, 

last line of text, 276. 
1^3, verb formed from NDn, an 

abscess, II, 343, note 4. 
n'n*3 see Biriat (near Safed). 

isnan pi nu, xn Njn »3, i, 266, 

pan pn n^n = 'n '1 n'-n b'ni, II, 

Cd; nisa, vicissitudes of time, II, 

267, note 2"'. 
nl'va see Baalbec (in Syria), 
miva, II, 222, note 2, reaping of 

grapes (probably read misa). 

Hebrew Index and Glossary 


ni3i."l see Berakot b. 'Amram, B. b. 

El'azar and 'Ulah b. B. 
•'^xnn = DTia •'^Jja, householders, 

II, 104, note I. 

miann jiw, I, 54, note 2. 

'as I1^53, I, 40, note i. 
Dn'3jn Taj, one of Nagid's titles, 
I, 256. 

Dnonn 'vi-i, title, 1, 260. 
Dmcnn -yyi, title, II, 327. 

N^J, Jubail ? , II, 273. 

n32 = -rta3,II, 130, 1.9. 

na^c^T ^na, title, I, 278, note 4; 

II, 248. 

N^inUPN see al-Jaudariyya. 

"iJIJ see Jaujar (in Egypt). 

"imj, a name, II, 203. 

niS, Creator, 11, 67, note 2, 82, 

note 2. 
npiw p15, synonym for Sanhedrin 

and then for academy, I, 276, 

note 2; II, 252, note 2 (where 

it can also mean a king's Privy 

JI^IJ, JtJ'J, in neighbourhood of 

Bilbais (in Egypt), II, 327, 329. 
ytJ, Hiph'il, to cause one to have 

children, II, 76, 1. 8. 
|m, Hiph'il (formed from linj), II, 

84, note 4. 
JX'J (in Spain), II, 297, note i. 
n''5, shining, light, II, 258, note 4. 
Vi, ^'J p, contemporary, II, 146, 

1. 20. 235, no. 31, I. 32, 239, 

I. 13, 277, 1. 9. 
"ID13D DITJ, literally 'striped study', 

i. e. superficial skipping over the 

difficult passages, I, 40, note i. 
11D3, technical term in Hebrew 

prosody, II, 382, top. 

W = J)»jn, II, 79, note I, I. 9, 124, 
note 7, 163, 1. 32, 183, 1. 20, 
188, note 2, 195, 11. 12, 13, 218, 
note 3, 222, 1. 35,343, note 7 ; 
Hoph'al ptc, JJJID, II, 231, 1. 18. 

Wa, arrival, II, 183, note i. 

n*jnn ^jt, title, I, 268; II, 318. 
DniNon B'lB'Di nrvDT oniiTn b'n, 

title, I, 187, note 2. 
HTB'M iijT, title, I, 278, note 5. 
niN'iEJ'jn \>V\, title, I, 252, 272. 
n^mn ^n, title, I, 223, note, 268. 
D''"in, contemporaries, II, 131, 

note 5, 
7m, npmp, to fear, II, 333, note 5. 
mriDXil, I, 121; II, 140, note 5, 

see -iiriN'DI. 
blVT, adornment, II, 24, note 6. 
■"JpVT, consignment of money, II, 

125, note 2, 143, 1. 37, 144, 1. 4, 

146. 1- 5. 195, 1- 12, 349. 11- 5. 
9, I a. 

I^*'^, dwelling, II, 230, verso (re- 
versed), 1. 6. 

I"T, the office of, I, 265; NJ"T 
Nam, I, 266, 273. 

7T, II, 231, 1. 12, i^lD, means 
either 'from my Hps'=''na{J' ?1D 
(cp. Ps. 141. 3) or h = nih, 
poverty, affliction. 

tiNiDT, riNiDI fif^ Damietta (in 

riTiDT J^f Damirah (in Egypt). 

D'DDT «« Damsis (in Egypt). 

mnNDi^N, I, 139, 261; II, 155, 

1. 10, see TTINDn. 
TnxDT, noblemen, II, 140, note 5. 
V^ = ny^, knowledge, II, 109, 

note 9. 
D'lfn ''^^^ , slanderers, II, 1 2 6, note 3. 


Hebrew Index and Glossary 

N"a3W Q''31D3"n, I, 162; II, 185, 

1. 12. 
ja'-n, the office of, preacher, I, 238, 

note I, 268; II, 119, note 2. 

nvjn, arrival, II, 229, 1. 11. 
njn, ^'^■S\ Xfoh, Arabic, II, 127, 
note 2. 

ninq, piur. D''onn, II, 306, 1. i ; 

fern. plur. niDHn, II, 235, no. 31, 

Dianan mn, title, I, 260. 
CT'oirin mn, title, I, 279; II, 

-\\'vn Tin, title, I, 178, note i. 
D'':pin mn, title, 1, 259. 
nnann nin, title, 1, 277; II, no. 31, 

I. 10. 

Cirnn -nn, title, II, 293. 

n^^JH Tin, title, I, 260 ; II, 327. 

■Q'y'xyn nin, title, 1, 260. 

nisyin, nbyn = rfejin, profit, benefit, 

II, 122, note I, 147, note 5, 
237, 11. 21, 41. 

nnin = DN, mother, II, 133, 1. 23, 

nnnSn = xnnis, Torah, II, 124, 

note 10. 
Niipn nmn (nao), I, 73, note 2. 

b3''n, Ark of the Law (in the 
Synagogue), I, 89, note i. 

DTirn nn ntian, I, 50, note 2, 63, 

note I. 
nta^HE' niai'n, by Jacob Rosh bs 

Rabbanan, II, 312 ; by Joseph 

b. Hezekiah Nasi, II, 145, note 7. 
ip^n(?), II, 245, note 4. 
n3"i3 nan, to please somebody by 

bestowing upon him a blessing, 

II, 258, 11. 32-3. 
DTirn '\r\ see Mount Olivet. 

nn'inn , prolongation, constancy, II, 
79, note 1, 1. 6. See s. v. "nn. 

mi, Nithpa'el mini, became certain, 

II, 237, 1. 17. 
rrh\, pregnant, II, 154, note i. 
'h'\, rf'h'\ (Arabic), his friend, II, 

54, note 7. 
riDI, noil, 1W\, nni, custom, habit, 

I, 123, note I, 1. 18; II, 127, 
note 2, 135, 1. 23, 136, 1. I, 149, 
note, 1. 33, 336, 1. 10, 362, 1. II, 

365. !• IS- 
Tiyi, ^1y''l, meeting together, II, 
235. no. 31, 1. 19, 278, v., 

^131T^=^<^D1r, the insignificant one, 

II, 364, Address, 1. 3, 367, 1. 2 
from top. 

?ni, fear, II, 183, note 10, bottom. 
03] = Cl3]», II, 369, note 7. 
P = al-Sheikh, I, 259. 
b^'W^ T\''2. Ipt, title, I, 260. 

nnn tpr, title, 1, 260. 
-nnn ;pr, title, I, 208. 
niijnpn tpt, title, I, 259. 

rhb^ iDsa osxn^N, I, 31, note i,, 

see al-Hakim, Caliph. 

nnn, Niph'al Infin. mnnni'=N3nnS', 
to hide oneself, II, 200, 1. 15. 

mi3n, college of scholars, I, 54, 
note 2 ; 'n3 ''vhvfr\, 'ni "lyunn, 
'nn ■'trann, 'na 'K'trn, 'na Tatyn, 
titles of officials in the Palestinian 
academy, I, 272. 

i'Nnt^' pN mnn, I, 50, note 2; 

pnxn 'n, I, 276, note 2. 
mnn p, II, 148. 
lan, title of graduate of Palestinian 

Hebrew Index and Glossary 


academy, ni^nj }mnjD3 ninn, 
I, 272; rnjcn'nn, I, 364; 'nn 
ni>ij;»n, muna. nSvon 'nn, I, 
182, note I, 277. 

nnan, x^ian, I, 54, note 2. 
niN'cj'jn nnn, title, I, 225, note i, 

272, top. 
Tin see Solomon b. Hadld. 
n^in synonym for Ramlah (in 

Palestine), I, 139, note i. 
B'Oirij donation for academy, I, 

274, note I ; II, 126, note 6. 
njrn, grief, II, 323, note 4. 
3Dn, Niph'al UtDnJ, II, 164, v., 

I. 7, must mean according to 
the sense ' were spread out ' or 
' fastened ' with a rope (see s. v. 
ptat?). But the meaning can also 
be ' in the load they (the books) 
were covered with a carpet 
(ilBN3 UDm NtJ'Da)', cp. Prov. 
7. 16. 

ilDTl, mercy, II, 217, no. 23''', 1. 4. 
na'^B'M Dan, title, I, 278, note 7; 

II, 250, bottom. 

D''3n see Solomon b. Hakim. 
iJDsn = D3n, II, 272, 1. 19. 
^n, Hiph'il, to slay. II, 108, 

note 4. 
fy^ sing, of D^V^n, II, 242, note i. 
'P^n?, II, 245, note 4. 
S:t?N non, Paitanic expression for 

1»nj ^13B>N, II, 23, note 6. 

moniix = n3''B'M mon, title, I, 

278, note 6; II, 233, second 
line from bottom, 374, note 7. 

niK''c:.-i mon, title, 1, 272, top. 
niiinpn mon, title, I, 260. 
nnB'n man, title, I, 261. 

lion, son, II, 54. 1- 8, 58, and 
throughout the volume. 

tyon, Pi'el, to prepare, make ready, 

II, 242, note I. 
mnna '•E'Dnn see mnn. 
WVi, Af'el njinN, II, 366, note 3. 
n^n, supplication, II, 256, note 4. 
D3n, Damietta, II, 170; see DJH 'K. 
PPO, mighty, II, 265, note 5. 
r\\'yhr\ nu -isn, the Court, II, 369, 

note 3. 
ppn = -ipin, II, 130, 1. 8. 
Ulin, a letter (from -/onn), II, 


iTin, piur.nhn, II, 230,1. 24,iinnn 

= Van3D, his letters; 352, 1. 9, 

irnnn = uunsn. 

n^'in, writing, II, 325, 1. 13. 
niNnB'n, necessity, II, 108, note 2. 
nintyn, need, II, 245, note 3. 
na'nn, a certain coin, II, 322, 

note I. 
p? inn, to shorten the (bad) time, 

II, 216, no. 23, 1. 2. 

1UD, ninun ^•say, I, 199, note i, 
inhabitants of Palestine (see Ezek. 
38. 12 and Kimhi a. 1.). 
mno = Tahir, a name, II, 371-3- 
niD, Omt:, lines (of writing), II, 

315, 1. 11; QinniD.ii, 325. 1-6. 
7nnit3, 1. 10. 

nN'pmtJ, Turkey, II, 309, 1. 16. 

DiijaiD, DNB'^N D^Nnn, oi'nsioN, 

Tarabulus (in Syria), II, 55, 73, 
1- 17. 273- 

nxs Hithpa'el nxTl', to behove, II, 
236,1- 13. 237, 1. 27, 238,1.8. 

VJ^, labour, II, 159, note i, 160, 
L 25, 164, 1. 4, 169, 1. 9. 

njj = 112D, fear, II, 137, note 3. 

nn^^K = n3'B'''n ^n^ i, 278, note 8. 


Hebrew Index and Glossary 

c^rnn •v•^\ title, II, 373. 

r\'yv^T\ TIT, title, I, 278, note 8 ; 

n, 293. 

mx'B'jn nn', title, I, 272, top. 

5;n\ Hoph'al ptc. iniD, news, I, 

123, note I, 1. 12. 
NJniS Yuhanna, I, 211, note i. 
[V, Byzantium, II, 93. 

T\yi)i aB'r = •'jioann T\-yt!i •2.m\ 

synonym for Gaon, I, 115; II, 

126, note I. 
fCl'' = DDV, II, 237, 1. 17. 
nnnS being together, II, 316, top. 
mTl', soul, I, 208 ; II, 24, note 7, 

85, note 6, 132, note 8, 196, 

I. 28, 256, note 3. 

m'n^ synonym for Israel, II, 256, 

note 3. 
pa^ see Yakin b. Netaneel. 
n:jii'on pOMiiai'Dn pD>, title, I, 257. 
^lD''i'^5 = na''^^''' ^1D^ 1, 278, note 9; 

II, 254 (no. i), 1. 7, 277, 1. 15, 
374, note 4. 

niB'Dn ^1D^ title, I, 267, note 2. 
"i'B), suffering, II, 132, 1. 4. 
V3.^, beauty, II, 195, 1. n. 
nn3\ J-« Yiftah. 
aiS?, establishment, II, 36, fol. 4, 

v., 1. ro. 
IT'Pi"' see Yasliah b. Joseph, 
njJIB''', concluding phrase of a letter, 

I, 146, 179; II, 360, 368, 378. 
3lp* W\ 3T W^ concluding phrases 

of letters, I, 146, 179. 
-IC^ jff Sahl (Yashar) b. Israel 

"in» see Yeter Hallevi. 

'30N3 w« X. b.. al-iaoto. 
nD''3D^N mso, title, I, 260; II, 
2+6, col. 2, ]. 6. 

P"J3 = Tliffl\) n^nj 1133, origin of 

expression, II, 383. 
POPN TiDS, 'eminent of power', 

title, II, 175, 1. 14. 
TiS, signature, II, 107, note 10, 

1. II, 147, note I, igo, bottom, 

I- 25, 336, 1. II, 345. 1- 4 from 

bottom of text. 
|K1''Nn^3, Kairowan (in North- 
Africa), II, 109, no. 24. 
''fivn Ws, title, I, 261; II, 233, 

second line from bottom. 
PP3, Niph'al, to assemble, to come 

together, II, 8r, 1. 19, 119, 1. 12, 

171, 1. 15, 218, 1. 10, 349, 1. 13; 

Hiph'il, to include, II, 194, ]. 26, 

237. 1- 37, 334, note 5. 
''?3 = ?3 (poetic usage), II, 12, 

i. 10. 
??? or i?^|, assembly, i:''!3b3, II, 

343, top. 
?73, Hiph'il, to crown, II, 241, 

note I. 
r\h-2 see Rakkah. 
pab see Semah b. Halfon, 
103 = ns^NS, II, 252, 1. 5. 
nD''33=nD33n n''3, II, in, 1. n, 

114, 1. 20. 
^D3, desire, II, 241, note 3. 
n3''D3, desire, II, 322, 1. 33. 
i'B3, Pi'el, to double, II, 107, 

note 10, 11. 15-16. 

3113 = d3n, r)3J 3113 = riDC D3n, 

II, 333, note i. 
0^^13-13 = PD3-13, saffron (poetic 

usage), II, 22, note 4, 
yi'Sn n3, nvi'isn n3, synonym for 

sect of Karaites, I, 275, 276, 

note 2 ; II, 69. 
nn3, Hiph'il, to adorn, II, 127, 


Hebrew Index and Glossary 


(IN? see Moses b. Leon. 

''^aP7N, from Lebda, I, 23, note 2. 

npnij = rhr<.p, II, 34, note 6, 87, 

I. II. 

V'i'h, Lunel (in the Provence), II, 
325, note 7. 

|ivnp = JTI?, oppression, II, 306, 

•\-h, Leo (of Mastaura), II, 93. 

n?''!? , taken as feminine, hence con- 
struct rhh, II, 99 (no. 6), ]. I. 

vrw^tf. pa'^, Arabic, I, 34, note. 

npljNtD, Malaga (in Spain), I, 25, 

note 2. 
ins'30 Jf« Meborak b. Israel. 

paaD = nan, weeping, II, 54, 

note 3. 
HDJO, purpose, II, 71, 1. 24, 78, 

1- ir, 83, 1. 5, 89, 1. 15, 199, 

1. 12, 206, ]. 35, 345, top, 356, 

first line of Hebrew. 

njunn ynio, title, 1, 261. 

N^siD, lord (Arabic), 11, 171, 

note I. 
ijaiD see Perah (Perahya) Rosh- 

Hasseder b. Muammil. 
"ID1», culture, see "IDID ''HN. 
NPSIO, distinguished member of 

the court, I, 267. 
aClD, habitation, school (cp. Arabic 

majlis), II, 71, 117, 1. 5, 170, 

note 2, 193, Address, 219, 1. 6 

from bottom, 228, Address, 254, 

no. 1, 1. 3, 273. 

mro, piur. = mr»n niviN, II, 33, 

r., 1. 6 36, fol. 6, r., 1, 7. 
?np = n?nD, sickness, II, 37, fol. 2, 

r., 1. 2. 
ni'nD, n^no^X see Mahalla (in 


pDin p |DnD see Muhasan b. Husain. 

ftsip = n^», II, 130, top. 

1^0, Pi'el, to rain, II, 19, 

note 5. 
D30, Maks (port of Cairo), II, 301, 

note 7. 
J^^D see Milij (in Egypt). 
nsvD, recommendation, II, 353, 

note II. 
■■DD, •'DD3, II, 325, 1. 8, read IDm, 

(I pray) as a favour. 
DnVD, proper name, I, 95, note i. 
pmxn nin^D or pDlxn 'd, synonym 

for Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, 

I, 236, note I. 
niD70, teacher, I, 270. 

nncD, title, I, 269; pi nn 'd, 

I, 266. 
^1i'DDi3^5 = ^y;!^, II, 330, note i. 
piynOD, of Gaza, II, 98. 
nJCN n^JD j« Minyat Ishna (in 

Nnst N^JD, narTOD j« Minyat Zifta 

(in Egypt). 
"laXDD, a Reader, II, 247. 
^DDD, reliance, II, 139, 1. 13. 
fJlDD, maternal uncle, II, 115, 

note I, 154, 1. 33, 161, 1. 10, 

162, note 4, 187, note 3. 
*3N5Jt3, proper name, II, 300. 

-ma, nnavD^muy, 11, 134, 1. 15, 

24, 1. II. 
muna nljiyo, title, I, 277. 
iniJJD, candidate, II, 291, note i; 

TsV^yh nniVO, candidate for 

dignity of Nagid, I, 254. 
rvo^S, al-Mo'izz (Caliph), I, 18, 

note 2. 
nirjJD = nnna, Tiberias, , 43, 

note 2, 58 ; II, 44, 1. 5 and 


D d 2 

420 Hebrem Index and Glossary 

rn*Dj!l3, synonym for Damascus, Karaitic term, I, 49, note, 141, 

I, 228, note I ; II, 280, 1. 4. note i, 276. 

nu''E'''n niijlfD, titles of the njB'Dn, the Wezir, II, 167, 171. 

academies, I, 85 ; II, 84, 1. 11. "{prh HJB'D, title, I, 257. 

I^VP = "^VD, II, 130, top. tn», sing-, of Q^jna, n, 242, 
inyo = nJDD, appointed, II, 19. note i. 

note 2. dipno = ppno, ir, 230, 1. 16. 

-ICJJD, Mu'amr, II, 291. DnnDiiN, the interpreter, I, 270. 

3-iy», plur. = 3-iyon nins, II, 33, 

recto, 1. 7, 36, fol. 6, r., 1. 8. )■|D^? N3, Alexandria, I, 88, note i ; 
^"IJIP, quality, II, 161, 1. 8. II, 287, note 2, 294, 325, 344, 

B'yp, deed, II, 106, bottom, 240, 371, note i. 

Address. 'JNJ, Nagi, name, II, 318. 

?1S» see Mufarraj b. Yefet Hallevi DXJ, Niph'alniJ2N:j,II, 340, note 4; 
of Damascus. HipK'il, D''Njn, to utter, speak, 

1V0, Misr = Fustat, I, 31, note i ; 242, note 3. 

II, 172, 222, 329. pT n''! pNJ, title, I, 196, note 2, 
nnsD = DnsD, pangs, II, 15, 268, note 1. 

1. 5. na''B"n IDNJ, title, I, 278, note II. 

jnpD = ri?npD, congregation, II, njo , Pi'el pt. nj3D , to act as Nagid, 

12, 1. 24, 85, 1. 23. I, 252, note I. 

nipD, position, attitude, II, 83, mwi hytrW^ J'nx TJi, I, 257; 

note 5, 156, 1. 14, 216, no. 23, n^JUn ':, I, 229, note i, 256; 

I. 6. nUHDn 'j, commander-in-chief, 

n-ix3n bpD, title, 1, 256. I, 138; D''Tjjn '3, h^-yo" 'j 

N310 see Marja. min^l, i^N D5? 'J, I, 256. 

jDTn 13T1D, title, I, 223, note, 256 ; ni^npn anj, title, I, 260. 

II, 258, 1. 18, 287, note 2, 329, hr\\ = nm, way, II, 54, 1. 4. 
note I. ''X13 = 113, beauty, II, 54, 1. 8. 

tOVID, Lake Maryiit (in Egypt), II, ni3, Hiph'ii, to adorn, II, 129, 

245. note 6. 

^KE'C, request, II, 81, top and piv ni3 = D3n, II, 333, note 2. 

i. 20, 83, 1. 6, no, no. 26, 1. I iDnKntJEiTlJ, Neo-Patriarch, I, 211, 

■sxidi passim. note i, 

"nWD, chorister, I, 270. DD13 (from D3), to show a miracle, 
ciB-Dn, vimrh^ = na'c^n b'ib'd, II, 35. 

title, I, 278, note 10; II, 162, "lyiJ = D^llW, youth, II, 280, 1. 8. 

219, 374, note 8. 1p, Hiph'ii, to separate, II, 139, 
■]K>D, Khurasan, I, 275, note 2 ; note 7. 

II, 147, note 4. -inbti — onnnn nn, title, I, 225, 

isOCO, not always a specifically note i, 277. 

Hebrew Index and Glossary 


n''3Tnn n», title, 1, 269. 

na''B>'>n 1M, title, I, 278, note 12; 

rh\'hv ''n 'j, 1, 262. 
D'ljnan irj, title, I, 260; 'n 'j 

DIIJJDI, I, 225, note I. 
D^lispT 113, title, I, 260. 
D''i'i3B'»n nti, title, I, 223, note. 
Tm<mr\ -in, title, I, 272, top. 
"iTji'N = nn^'n ■!», title, I, 227, 

note I, 261. 
J'm, haste, 11, 108, 1. 12, 109, 

j'nJ, Kal f'njn, Pi'el isron, Hiph'il 

vnvnjn, to hasten, to urge, II, 

244, bottom of text, 365, 1. 16, 

235, no. 31, 1. 37. 
pj = p, son, II, 58, 222, note 25, 

11. 6 and 8. 
;w, r?, Kal or Hiph'il DW', II, 210, 

note 3. 
nai, front, presence, irn3:D, II, 

194, 1. 14. 
i)VDJ, II, 16, note 14, ni^XSJJ. 
"yai, name, «^ Namer b. Elkanah. 
IDJ, Pu'al ptc. niDIJO, patchy, 

striped, see "IDWD DITJ. 
D"'B3, Nafis, name, II, 320. 
CSJ, Structure, II, 324, note 3. 
na''t5'D CBJ synonym for mm, II, 

230, note 5. 
31x3, station, garrison (?), II, 34, 

fol. 6, v., 1. 9. 
I''3''V3, Nisibis, II, 70, note. 
'myD nj, title, I, 30, note i, 223, 

NCi , Hiph'il + Dvi'K', to send regards, 

II, 91, 1. 27 (probably read V»^T\\ 

for D'BTll), 92, 1. 40, 322, 1. 45, 

336, 1. 17- 

TwysM = D^iiyn mnn, li, 240, 

note 4. 

pNltyJ, Inarriage, used in singular 

iNicaa, II, 322, 1. 32. 

rfm =pS, II, 369, note I. 
liriE'J, piriK'J, letter, II, 321, ]. 4, 
336, 1. 16. 

VX3D, an official in Ramlah, II, 21. 
h\h ^ao = i)lj? ^3D (poetic usage), 

n, 333, note 10. 
-mp, nap = Niao bv3j I, 56, note 

I ; II, 130, note r. 
"130, hope see naB*. 

xhyihvt. — na^e^'n nijjD, title, 1, 278, 
note 13; »av na'B''' nhjo, I, 

278, note I ; II, 127, 1. i. 

niN''B':n n^uo, title, 1, 272, top. 
irnpn nijWD, title, II, 373; n^wo 
\)m Sip, I, 259-60; n^wD 

. . , 7np, II, 291, note 2, 
rtTJD, bowing, II, 320. 
IJoi'N = na'^B'TI po, title, I, 278, 

note 14; II, 232, 374, note 3. 
Cinan po, title, I, 260. 
D'lSn po, title, I, 260, note i. 

niT'3:n po, title, I, 257. 

TiaT TTD = ^?nsDln, II, 334, note 

n3''B'"'n 11D, title, I, 238, note i, 

278, note 15. 
tiXa^lD see Sunbat (in Egypt). 
nsiD, scribe, I, 270. 
n3iE>in "laiD, scribe of the school, 

I, 225, note I. 
nui'Dn nsiD, Katib, I, 270. 

NniD see Syria. 

mo, hniD, to intercede, II, 105, 
note 4. 

■hv^, II, 382. 

TiD = Arabic Sayyid, lord (nK»), 
260; NJTD, our lord, II, 169, 


Hebrew Index and Glossary 

^nx^s T'D = myn ~0, I, 259 ; II, 

D'DVD, completion, supplement of, 

I, 208. 
'\h'^'0 see Silanus of Venosa. 
ny'D, help, II, 365, 1. 16. 
fJIV^D = npi^JHO, strife, II, 224. 
•'p^JI^D, Salonica, II, 192. 
jmnjD, rhxn. pmnjo, I, 265. 
N3n K-nn3D, II, 250, bottom. 

i'oi'D, to magnify, I, 23, note 8, 
ijip, leader, II, 140, note 4. 
n'liUOD see Sambutiah (in Egypt). 
DDaOD (in Egypt), II, 259, note 7. 
nwao, Samjud ? (in Egypt), II, 

"i?.^?, to plead, excuse, II, 85, 

note 12, 187, note 2, 367, 

note 6. 
n/ni^K •'JD, title, I, 216, top; 'JD 

s'nrtoNi n^niiN, I, 207, note i. 

n"'JD (in Egypt), II, 259, note 7. 
|DD, to pay attention, I, 276, 

note 2. 
.T^Jpo, nN^p'D, II, 74, 1. II, 326. 
no = "yo, II, 84, note I, 86, 1. 3 

from bottom. 
HDDpnD , corruption for Siracusa (in 

Sicily), II, 326. 
Nnni'N no, name of a lady, II, 363. 

my, to draw a lot, II, 107, note 10, 
1. 20. 

pV, Aden, II, 367. 

n*!!?, Tliyo, since your existence, I, 
123, note I, 1. 18; ni3J3, when 
he was still (alive), I, 271, note i, 
end; II, 233, Address and r., 
1. 8, 279, no. 16, 1. 22, 282, 
col. 2, note 5, 319, note u. 

njV, sin, II, 231, 1. 17. 

n3''B'''n nl?^ title, I, 279, note i. 
niiynn nj?, title, I, 261. 

any, repairer, II, 252, note i. 

py, nV3 nTi'' py, one's sin will be at 

somebody's side, i.e. fall upon 

him, II, 244, note 4. 
iniy = ntrilN II, 24, 1. 18, 70, note, 

1- 3. 79. ]- 2. 179. 1- 7- 
nry, Gaza, I, 43, note 2 ; Tiryn, 

iTJ^f?, I, no, note. 
nn^B^'n nty, title, I, 279, note 2. 
niN'B'jn -iry, title, I, 252, 270, top, 

272 ; II, 232. 
nity, synonym for Mount Olivet .^ 

"lXDy!?N, the performer, II, 115. 

noann mtay, title, I, 261. 

nntyn mt:y, title for Nagid 

designate, I, 253, 254, 257. 
niyn py, communal leader, II, 218, 

note 9, 340, note 3. 
IDT py, leader of the epoch, genera- 
tion, II, 334, note I. 
i''ry, proper name, II, 308, 1. 4. 
N3y, nay, 'Akko, II, 172, 329. 
n?y, fault, II, 343, note 3. 
... 3 ni'y = is ni;y (direction to 

a place), I, 49, note 2, 56, note 2 ; 

see . , . 3 N3. 
nnnJ'D \by [sc. IB'k), Keeper of 

the Robes, II, 267, note 14. 
pvi>y, rejoicing, II, 306, 1. 7. 
IK'Nl i'y "icy, I, 40, note I. 
i'y IDy + accus., II, 279, note 5. 
rhrh^ Tioy, title, I, 220, note I. 
nTDy, standing (in prayer), II, 

118,1. 7. 
DDy, Hoph'al, II, 237, 1. 21 ; 
noyv miti'n, taken in meaning 

of perverting (cf. Talmudic 


Hebrew Index and Glossary 


n»JJ, to add (cp. n''D5?, associate), 

II, 141, note 8. 
rniJjj, crown, II, 85, note i. 
pjjf, affair, II, 345, note 4; fern. 

plur. nWJy, 336, 1. 12. 
ODy, name of a Muslim, II, 305. 

ijsy, II, 194, 1. 14, wvwa n^sjn, 

according to sense must be 
'which is dark (obscure) from 
our presence'. Probably read 
n^sxn or n^anyn (from ^s-ij)). 

ptD pa^'y, hard struggle for a liveli- 
hood, II, 241, note 4. 

IDT'ri'Npy (near Safed in Galilee), 
II, 204. 

3pJ?, reward, II, 128, note 2, 132, 
I. 17, 135, 1. 26, 148,1. 18, 155, 

I. 3 from bottom. 

("pt^lV^'*! 'he Babylonians (in 
Fustat), I, 36, note i, 97, 
note I. 

nony, proper name, II, 246, 247. 

fIV, Niph'al, praised, declared 
awful, II, 220, 1. 14, 344, 1. 7. 

ny, praise, II, 139, note i. 

OVV, veins, II, 342, note i. 

nnj; = m^ny, prayer, I, 160, note; 

II, 15, 1. 14, 222, 1. 40. 

|1DXD, IIDDNQ, Filastin, I, 18, 
note 2. 

onann nxa, title, 1, 238, note i, 

D*:mn nss, title, I, 269; ii, 293, 

T\yv^T\ INS, title, I, 279, note 3. 

D'jnsn nxa, title, 1, 260. 

D^li)/! nXD, title, I, 260. 

D'Nann nsa, title, I, 260, note i. 
n''T'obnn iks, title, I, 279. 
niNsn Ticj' isa, title, 1, 260. 

N2Jia, Punba (in Egypt), II, 286. 
Tlia, taskmaster, II, 93, note i. 
flia synonym for Messiah, II, 347, 

note 2. 
{^la, Hiph'il ptc. B>''aiD, to give 

rest, II, 299, note 3. 
nna, title, I, 260. 

ma see Perah (Perahya) Rosh 

prnn t^'Da, title, I, 223, note. 
nB'''Dsn, not Patishah, but pro- 
bably corruption for DNDDBa, 

II, 326-7. 
DU^^e, sea, II, 364, note 2. 
T nD''a, II, 192, 1. 7 of Hebrew, 

abundance of hand, i.e. generous 

[IKf^a, Nile, II, 39, note 3, 150, 

note 2, 211 (no. 2), 1. 14, 212 

(no. 5), 1. 3. 
prT'a = Npn''a = Npta^a , a piece of 

paper, "a letter, II, 153, 11. 9, i 2, 

184, note, 1. 34, 186, 1. 20, 348, 

ni?vQ, jurisdiction, II, 36, fol. 5, 

r., i. 3. 
D^ia, plur. of iNJa, leisure (poetic 

usage), II, 22, note 10. 
DNDOa see Fustat. 
Dnnion T'pa, official over the 

merchants, I, 261. 
futiona, I, 15, note 4. 
D'Ona = Q'CE', II, 152, note 3. 
na, open part, I, 88, note i. 

DJia, the office of, 1, 258; onsn 
E'DlJ'n, I, 259, note i. 

Dlina = ^D:^^, maintenance, II, 
241, note 5. 

DNCa see Soloman b. ONK'S. 

DB'a, "iiy UK'S, to submit to punish- 
ment, II, 253, note 3. 


Hebrew Index and Glossary 

^yi = nxn px, Palestine, I, 40, 
note I, end; II, 126, top, 127, 
1, I, 128, 1. II, 216, 1. 10, 361, 
1. 25 ; US nn, II, 304, 1. 5 from 

JNUV see Sabyan (Abu Sa'ad) b. 
Sa'adya Hakkohen. 

nnns see Sahragt (in Egypt). 

ms, Hiph'il used as Kal, II, 129, 
note 8. 

T\y\'i see Aleppo. 

T\)}hn see njj^ivn riD. 

jyiV = Fustat, II, 117, 256, 277, 
280, 293, 305. 

pane Nmis, title, I, 279. 

nvns, to describe in pure (choice) 

language, II, 90, note i. 
PWV, chain, II, 364, 1. 10. 
NSn^V, banker, I, 96. 
myi, nj3V p, II, 350. 
ei^sn V^V, quarter in Jerusalem, I, 

275; n, 374. 
n^n^X DNSDS see Samsam ad- 

}»n T\TiTi, title, I, 256, note r. 
nvv, So'ar (in Palestine), I, 43, 

note 2. 
"liys, T'VS, a person in pains, II, 

197, no. 7, 1. 2, 356, note i. 
nnss, nniav, SafFuriyah (Sep- 

phoris in Galilee,), 1, 18, note 2 ; 

n, 357, note 3. 
n^^px, Sicily, II, 239. 

lanv = p-io xmiv, ii, 367, top. 
jmx = 13310 xanis, II, 130, 

note 2. 

mriNpT'N, Cairo, II, 201, 294. 
pnv IP = T'^n TTW, II, 375, 
1. 18. 

naip, II, 124, 1. 3, see 3.\soJ.Q.R., 

N.S., VIII, 135, bottom, literally 

a vault, seems in both places to 

refer to the Ark of the Law in 

the synagogue (evidently because 

the place was shaped like a 

ynp ''VTip, slanderers, II,. 353, 

note 12. 
tNtp^N, the silk mercer, I, 20, 

note 5; II, 1 6, poem VI, 172, 

320, note 6. 
Ot<''p, proper name, II, 174. 
riTip, bowing, I, 208. 
fsn^i Kairowan (in North- Africa), 

II, 163, 1. 27. 
DTP, Kirat, II, 195, 1. 13. 
yihp see Kalyub (in Egypt). 
ND'^P (?), ND^^P p, II, 60, 1. 10. 
D'Spp, coins, II, 322, note i. 
njp, DJp nrno, Bagdad, I, 18, 

note 2. 
3?«sp^N, ysvpbs p, II, 247. 
nrDJDSp^N, Constantinople, II, 248, 

1. 4 from bottom. 
mxav I'Sp, commander-in-chief, I, 

208, note 2. 
VDB'^S ixp, quarter of Fustat, I, 

36, note I ; II, 248. 
'Ti2''lip, relationship, II, 129, note 9. 
nTVr HP, synonym for Muslim 

rule, I, 43, note 2. 
^5«i)»^B'p, Castille, I, 69, note i. 

B'Sn, on^K, D''n^N, titles, I, 262. 

im u trxn, title, 1, 262, 279-80. 
onann ij'ni, title, 1, 277. 
T\%b^ T\y'^'>r\ CNi, I, 262; CNi 
n^U^K' na»tt", I, '239, note i ; II, 

riDjjn t^'s<^, I, 15, note 4, 258. 
Dnanon tyxn, title, II, 327. 

Hebrew Index and Glossary 


Cmon B'NT, HDinCi^N ONn, title, 

1, 280; II, 312. 
D^'anan cxn, title, 1, 260. 

mon K'NI, title, I, 262, 279-80; 

b^'yi}'' h:hv 'n 'n, I, 39, 280. 
[mnjon tni = Gaon, I, 54, note 2. 
p-ian rxT, title, 1, 262, 269-70. 
hr\^r\ B>K-i, ni^npn tw<i, 1, 258. 
uv j'ls* ro'ty wr\, '3vn 'n '■' 'n, I, 

123, note i> II, 294-6. 
npy I1N3 na-ty e'nt,. I, 54, note 2, 

239, note I ; II, 295. 

min^B' T\r\y^ rsn, I, 238, 248 ; 

II, 329-3*- 
D'':nn iia b'st, title, I, 268; II, 

rhi TNT, title, I, 262. 
mn, i)njn 'n, ^NiB^a 'n 'n, 'n 

pnaion, titles, I, 279. 
muna ly^ann ^^^ mian. 

Nn b. 'Ali, II, 147. 

hT\, Hiph'il, to cause to come, II, 

152, 1. 8. 
''P, policeman, II, 173, bottom, 

5)57, quiet, ease, II, 195, 1. 10. 
B'n, Hiph'il, to throng, II, 31, 1. 6. 
Dim, Rhodez (in France), II, 

nisn = D^yy, II, 19, note 2, 21, 

I. 2. 

on, n»1"1, nnijN, see Byzantium. 
nX'Dn, Russia, II, 192. 

nam = mm, i, 55> note 3 (cp. 

J.Q.R., N.S., XI, 450, bottom). 
riDxn, office of Nagid, II, 328. 
aiayn, proper name, II, 196, 

Pin^K, the provinces (of Egypt), 

II, 264, 287, 289, 317; not 
Morocco, II, 382. 

Nna^no E^T = Gaon, I, 54, note 2. 

Npnia cn = pnsn B-sn, I, 97. 

mSD-i, a place, II, 87. 

fj."] = rUJl, song, I, 160, note; II, 

12, 1. 10. 
riDi see Rafah (in Egypt). 
na'^''n ^isi, title, I, 279, note 4; 

n. 337- 
niN'^jn 'isn, title, I, 272, top. 
. . , Snp ''in, title, I, 259-60. 
nU"'B'* mc '1ST, title, I, 279, note 5. 
npT, Tiberias (in Galilee), II, 193, 

'• 17. 195,1- 30> 197.1- ii> 198, 

1. II. 
niB'T, niB'nD, 'by authority of, I, 

237, 240; 11. 295-6, 303. 
TTJ'T see Samuel Rashid. 

h^^, request,. 11, 78, 1. 7. 
p'DXB'i'N, the Palestinians (in 

Fustat), I, 36, note i, 89, 

note I. 
JWNB', ease, tranquility, II, 195, 


m2W, upheaval, II, 39, 1. 23, 323, 

1. 8. 
miana vaK'n see mian. 
I??*, lap, hope, II, 54, note 5, 83, 

note I, 120, 1. 4, 150, 1. 19, 162, 

1- 5, 231, 'op. 
pB' = nB', II, 130, top. 
IDIB', the, I, 270. 
UaiB', the, I, 265. 
D'lin'n piB', the Jewish bazaar, I, 

nw = vrw, line, II, 145, 1. 4. 
nilB', dual pi., II, 225, no. 26, 

1. I, D''miTE', read D^nnir as 

in 288, 1. 6. 
Qi3B>1K», D'JE'IE'^K, name for IJara- 

ites, I, 160, note 3. 


Hebrew Index mtd Glossary 

''?', gift, plur. Q^C (poetic usage), 

II, 22, note 5. 
'5J' (Arabic), affair, II, 71, note 4, 

149, note, 1. 30. 
niN^K', carrying, II, 192, 1. 1 of 

n''i"3''5i', Seville (in Spain), II, 109, 

no. 24, 1. 8. 
'-ijv^ijN, Yefet b. ''-lh't^'^^?, 11, 236. 
nib'S', Shiloah, II, 304. 
f'S'K', name of an enemy of 

Egyptian JewTy, I, 212-13; ■'■■'■> 

V-^V = tlE^'K', II, 129, Address, 1. i. 

DStJ" (in Palestine), II, 177. 

mnna ■'i^^b^n:see mun. 

DC, rumour (?), II, 120, note 6. 
CIDC, legal document, II, 231, 

note I. 
nips' z= nnCE', rejoicing, II, 13, 

1. 48. 
)'0E', Hiph'il, to speak evil of 

(somebody), II, 120, 1. i6, 121, 

I. 45; Hoph'al, 'JtS nSDB'in, 
my ear heard an (evil) report, 

II, 225, no. 26, 1. 5. 

nv^jDB' = nsc"«r, suspicion, II, 352, 

note I. 
HTOB' = B'DK', sun, I, 100, note; 

II, io6, noie 9. 
lyiSt", Babylon or Bagdad, I, 235, 

iVUC b. Isaac, II, 99. 
na^B^Ni nvB", I, 266; nyB* = -\y& 
nyiif''n, I, 72, note i. 
3'n'' f]B', ancient synagogue in 

Nehardea, II, 333, note 8. 
T'W, pouring out, II, 15, 1. 13. 

isjtji _ na3> i-icK |ni3, n, 38, 

note 3. 
T'lSK', synonym for Fustat, II, 

361, 1. 21, 362, no. 2, 1. 8, 

no. 3, 1. 6. 
"It^, titles connected with, I, 260. 
D'li'n -IB', title, I, 260. 
mvn -IB*, title, I, 259; II, 147, 


Dns'n "itr, intJ''' 'ib' ns', Nagid's 

title, I, 216, 256. 
Dip\T b -IB', bn Dip'' ntr, titles, I, 

nn:D -ic, title, I, 260-1 ; II, 

lyo^n rhnp -ity, II, 270-1. 
^T|E' (cp. Jar. 2. 23), here in the 

meaning of ease, leisure, II, 195, 


•'K'E'bs = mnnn iCB'n, II, 234, 

note 3 ; see mi3n. 
nnB*, bowing, II, 245, note 5. 

3Sri, desire, II, 124, note 5. 

n3Nn, see Thabit b. Tobias Hak- 

mn, Niph'al D''DNn3, joined, II, 
202, 1. 4, Hoph'al ptc. D''DXniD, 
II, 230, verso reversed, 1. i. 

naiNan, name of a lady, II, 173. 

nn, Hiph'il (cp. ninnn), to pro- 
long, to make content, II, 136, 
top, 195, L 10, 217, 1. 17; 
Hiph'il ptc. nnriD, II, 230, v., 

1. I ; Hoph. ptc. nmmo, ii, 

343, 1. 21, 'are constantly 
used to '. 

i=nn = nnn, constant, ii, 235, 

no. 31, 1. 28. 
niDtn, Palmyra, I, 37, note i ; II, 

7nri = n?nn, praise, II, 230, 1. 10. 
pain, identified with Slavonia, I, 

275, note 2, end. 

Hebrew Index and Glossary 


nin , Hiph'il, to mark out, to write, 
II, 129, note 7, 325, 1. 13. 

eiDin=naDin, addition, II, 134, 

ninin, remainder, II, 75, note i, 
125, !. 16, 193, 1. 4. 

|i03nn = '':iD3nn nasj-a, II, 129, 

D^31D3nn, scholars, 11, 276. 

]m = njnn, 11, 201, note i. 

••Ntin (in Egypt), I, 109; II, 
, -54- , 

biF\ = P^i)3n, end, II, 195, 1. 6. 
?n, ruin, fem. plur. nhn, II, 183, 

note 10, I. 16. 
P?n, Hipli'il, to make high, II, 78, 

note I. 
T»^n, DniD^Jn, student, scholar 

(shortened from D3n n^O^n), I, 

54, note 2, end, 279. 

n»n, Niph'al ncns II, 199, 1- 29, 

to be constant; Hiph'il, II, 126, 
1. 2, 136, top, 140, 1. 19, 201, 
1- 25, 234, no. 30, 1. 6, 235, 
top ; Hoph'al IcniD, II, 230, 
last line of text. 

QN'on, see Timam. 

D»n, Hiph'il, to perfect, II, 242, 
no. 2, 11. 2 and 4. 

*lin, enumeration, II, 216, no. 23, 

1. 12. 
D''Jn see Tinnis (in Egypt), 
inyn, strengthening, 11,78, note 2. 
nPvn, healing cure, II, 196, 1. 19. 

^Nint*'' n^3 mN'Qn, title, 1, 260. 
d''jnn niNan, I, 268; II, 232. 
n-iNsn^N = ny^n mssn, title, I, 

267, note 2, 279, note 6; II, 233. 

uh''-2vcr\ n-iNsn, title, II, 235, 

no. 31, I. 10. 

br\pn niNsn, title, II, 373. 
oncn msBn, title, I, 261. 
CToi^Tin rnxsn, title, I, 279. 
rh^v piJ »sn mNsn, I, 222, 

note 2. 
^ai'Sni'N read hth^'ob^, I, 82. 
'Ipnri b. Isaac, Samaritan official, 

I, 18. 

nipn see Tikvah b. Simhah. 
|t2:"inn, the interpreter, I, 2 7r, 

note I. 
^jj-in = n^nn, II, 131, note 3. 
piB^itj'nn, angels or the heavenly 

animals, II, 344, 1. 7. 
ty^ETI, old, frail, II, 181, note i. 
IBTI, Hiph'il, to present one with 

something (cp. miKTi, a present), 

II, 179, L 3. 


[Exclusive of those given in vol. I, p. 8. The volumes are indicated by I and 11 

I, 20, 1. It. For "Adiyyah read 'Adayah ; 
1. 17, for 57 read 56 (=vol. 11, 

P- 153)- 
I, 21, 1. 32. For 72 read io ( = vol. II, 

p. 172). 
I, 24, 1. 3 from bottom. For 21, i read 

21, 2, 
I, 27, 1. 7 from bottom. After Gaon 

delete ' and '. 
I, 28, I. 15. For 1022 read 1026. 
I) 35> note I, 1. a from bottom. For 

100-820 read 1008-20. 
I, 40, note 1, 1. 6. For')i'2\> read ]12p. 
I, 50, 1. 18. For Jew read Jews. 
I, 57, 1. 16. For ne read new. 
I, 68, note i, bottom. For Vli? read 


I, 79, 1. 19. For nnOT i'N-lB"' read 

'inm^X IK'i ; note 1, 1. 2, for Bo'as's 

redrf Bo'az's. 
I, 82, 1. 3. For note 3 read note 7 

( = vol. 11, p. 78, note 7). 
I, 89, 1. 12. For 233* read 233^. 
I, 97, 1. 6. i^3>- II, 4 rearf II, 5. 
I, 99, 1. 16. i^or note 3 read note 2 

( = vol. II, p. loi, note 2). 
I, lor, 1. 3. For note i read note 10 

(=vol. II, p. 107, note 10). 
I, 104, 1. II. For note 2 read note 3 

( = vol. II, p. 113, note 3); 1. 9 from 

bottom, yb»- Ja'ish read Ya'ish. 
I, 112, 1. 22. ForS3.'\ii readSa'ai. 
I, 119, 1. 3 from bottom. For note 5 

read note a ( = vol. II, 135, note 2). 
I, 122, 1. 10. For Thence read Hence. 
I, 125, I. i8. For 13-14 read 14-15 ; 

1. 19, for 16 read 17 ; 1. 22, for 26-7 

read 27-8 ; 1. 31, for 32-5 read 34-6, 

I, 129, 1. 10 from bottom. For note i 
read note 7 ( = vol. II, p. 145, note 7). 

I, 134, note I, 1. 4. For Kzaz read 

I, 141, note I, 1. 6 from bottom. For 

I, 145, note I, 1. 2. For Bo'as read 

I, 146, 1. 13. For Fames read Parnas. 
I, 161, 1. 16, and 162, 1. 3. For note gr~> 

read note 10 ( = vol. II, p. 183, note 

I, 164, 1. 18. For }a\ah usarfGhalib. 
I, 172, 1. 16. For Yedidyah Hannasi 

b. Zakkai read Zakkai b. Yedidyah 

Hannasi ; 1. 8 from bottom, delete (see 

note II). 
I, 174, 1. 28. /br'iEX read''Z!0. 
I, 17s, 1. 6. For 1085 read 1084. 
I, 178, 11. 2 and 7. For Bo'ai read Bo'az. 
I, 180, 1. 3, and 181, 1. II. For note 4 

read note 3 (= vol. II, p. 217, 

note 3). 
I, 183, 1. I. For 1034 read 1033 > '• 2°i 

for Solomon b. Hayyim read Hayyim 

the 'Seventh' b. Solomon (cp. 192, 

note i). 
I, 194, 1. 20. For'CttfT\ f-farf3Xn. 
I, 198, 1. 14 from bottom. For Parnes 

read Parnas. 
I, 208, 1. 22. For note 8 read note 6 

( = vol. II, p. 85, note 6). 
I, 210, 11. 6 and 8. For Parnas read 

Parnas; 1. 11, for MeshuUam read 

I, 213, note I, 1. 4. For Di1333n read 

I, 218, 1. 5. For readers rearf leaders. 



, 220, 1. 19. /"or A. D. II, I reatf A. D. 

II, 2 and/oy A. A. 15 read A. A. 17. 
, 223, note, 1. 2. i^3>- B'npn read 


, 225, 1. 1. /or 1 143 >?arf 1453. 

, 227, note I, 1. I. For Meborah read 

, 229, 1. 12. For 186S read 1168 ; 1. 26, 

for 1142-50 read 1142-59. 
, 234, 11. 6-7. Delete ' see also A. D. 

, 240, 1. 12. For a certain Joshu'a and 

his brother read Joshu'a, his brother ; 

1. 15, /or note i read note 10 ( = vol. II, 

p. 302, note 10). 
, 241, 1. 12. For (5) read (6). 
, 243, 1. 12 from bottom. ForA. C. 20, 3 

read A. C. 20, 4. 
, 244, 1. 10 from bottom. For 29, 4 

read 29, 5; note 2, 1. 2, /or Livine 

read Levine. 
, 245, 1. 8. For son-in-law read sons- 
in-law ; 1. 17, for where he was read 

were he ; 1. 27, Jor Mishnah read 

, 247, 1. 8. For note 6 read note 7 

(=vol. II, p. 325, note 7). 
, 248, note r, 1. 5. For 20, 7 read 

20, 8. 
, 249, 1. 20. For 28. 1-2 read 28, 1-4 

( = vol. II, pp. 231-2). 
, 250, I. 15. For note 3 read note 7 

( = vol. II, p. 78, note 7). 
, 252, 1. 8 from bottom. For Sumnites 

read Sunnites. 
, 255, note I, 1. 3 from bottom. For 

mJJDX read i-nj3DK. 
, 256, note, 1. I. For Negidat read 

, 258, 1. 12. For 16, I read 16, I, 2-3 

( = vol. II, pp. 58-9) ; 1. 16, for Sa'adael 

read Sa'adel. 

a6o, 1. 2, and 263, 1. 26. For Fames 

read Parnas. 
, 261, note 2. For 3-4 read 3 ( = vol. II, 

p. 338). 
262, 1. 10. For note i read note 3 

( = vol. II, p. 73, note 3); 1- '3, /'"' 
KmOdi read KumOdi. 

265, note I, 1. I. For 35, 8 read 35, 7 

( = vol. II, pp. 339-40)- 
, 266, note 2, 1. i. For A. D. 35, 4 

read Above, p. 228, note, 1. 2. 
, 267, note I. For note 9 read note 10 

( = vol. II, p. 183, note 10). 
, 269, 1. 7. For Hazzan read Hazzan. 
, 272, note I, 1. I. For note 4 read 

note 3 ( = vol. II, p. 217, note 3). 

, 26, 1. 14. For D^Din read ffOTH . 
, 30, 1. 13. For Jalab read Ghalib. 
, 41, 1. 10. For 33' read 33'. 
, 74, 1. 9. For 1^ read ^[3^J''i'• 
, 76, 1. 7. For D'3 [Q]'i read ff3[S]1 . 
, 83, 1. 13. For Ti^h read T3M. 
, 92, 1. 29. For 'nns read mnX . 
, 97, note 1, last line. For p. 424 
read^. 351. 

, 98, 1. 26. For Dm3K read dni^K . 
, 99, notes 2 and 3 should change 

, 106, 1. 7. For Nnb Sn33 read 
Nn'ia N^JD, 'bon Dieu, bon Dieu'. 
, 117, 1. 3. For Tf 1 read Jl^ai. 
, 125, Address, col. is. For QilDN 
read nnDC. 

, 146, 1. 20. For Dn'JB' read nrfiV. 
, 151, 1. 6. For IT J-rarf n''; 1. 15, 
for "Va read "V'O ; note 7, /or Exod. 
read Eccl. 
, 164, 1. 12. For 133''i'l'' rearf ^^yW. 

, 166, bottom of text. For "P reorf "P. 
171, 1. 16. /or O'liyi probably read 

D'toitrn ; 1. 19, /o*" njniDn »-«arf 

runon ; l. 22,/o»-naN^tJ' more correct 
would be n3N^ vh^, 'who will not 

I, 177, 1. 7. /br>i read It. 

I, 191, 1. 18. /or ub . . . read 12[^13n]. 

1,193,1.16. For mT\T\ read nynn. 
1, 194, 1. 3. For n^iv»n «arf n^JijiDn. 

I, 200, 1. 13. For lyS read WS . 
I, 213, note 3, 1. 2. Foe 224 reflrf 22''. 
I, 215, 1. 3 after the list. For 1030 
read 1036. 





II, 238, Address, col. 2, 1. 3. 

II, 232, 1. 18. For [1-1 read pT. 
II, 233, Address, col. i, 1. 3. 


II, 235, 1. 40. fo»-13N read'^Vf.. 

II, 237, 1. 21. For r\fm read nVlHS. 

II, 244, verso, I. 5. For VW^T] read 

II, 257, recto, 1. 3. For 'ni read JJ^l. 
II, 259, note 7, 1. II. For [npTiyi read 

II, 265, recto, 1. 7. For RS read RS ; 

note 17, for PlN read ?''N. 
II, 267, 1. 16. For D'S] read D^D\ 
II, 269, 1. 16. For ns (rflrfnS. 
II, 287, 1. 9. i^oc Askelon r^arfAshkelon. 
II, 301, 1. 24 (top). For pN read 13N. 
II, 306, 1. I, and 342, 1. 22. For Dayan 

read Dayyan. 

II, 328, 1. 36. With Ow. there begins 
a new sentence. 

, 345, 1. 17. For "tJ' read'^''^. 

, 347, note 3, 1. 2. For Kimhi read 

I 35°! verso, 1. 4. For 03113X3 read 

, 358, 1. 24. For Harizi read Harizi. 
, 375, 1. 6. With iWas'Mrff there begins 
a new sentence. 

, 378, I. 30. For "'N read '"N ; 1. 31, 
for "isa read ''"Na. 

, 382, I. 12 from bottom. For "nil 

read iT'tl. 

, 384, col. 1. Add T.-S. 12. 43, 

II, 30. 

, 407, col. ii, bottom. Add Seville (in 

Spain), I, 102 ; II, 109. 

, 414, col. 1. .(4rfrfD1pliX, Andalusia, 
II, 58, III, 1. 3.