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Full text of "In the kitchen"

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Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924085803165 



I N THE KITCHEN 



"With baked and: boiled and stewed and toasted, 
And fried and broiled and smoked and roasted. 

We treat th.e town! — Salmagundi. 



BOSTON: 

LEE AND SHEPARD, PUBLISHERS. 
1875. 



K 



K COPYRIGHT. 3 
\ X* 

X „ 

ELIZABETH S. MILLJ5K. 



X 



^ A. P. 1875. J 



Electrotyped and Printed "by 
Alfred Mudgk & Son, Boston. 



THIS BOOK 
IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED 

TO THE 

"COOKING CLASS 

OF THE 

YOUNG LADIES' SATURDAY MORNING CLUB, 5 

OF 

BOSTON, MASS. 



Some of these receipts are French, some German, many are from English 
books, and many from excellent Americc.u collections. No small number are 
taken from written receipt-books of families famous both at the North and 
South for their savory cooking. Others are the result of weighing and 
measuring the ingredients of delightful dishes which celebrated cooks have, 
for the last fifty years, prepared " according to judgment." Most of these 
receipts have been tested by myself, and there is not one in which I have 
not full confidence. 

ELIZABETH S. MILLER. 
Geneva, N. Y., 1875. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

The Table 17 

Utensils 27 

SOUPS. 

Asparagus soup 37 

Beef " 35 

Beef-bone " 34 

Beef and okra soup 36 

Beef " (Cazenovia) 36 

Broth in an hour. . 37 

Brown veal broth 37 

Carrot soup 40 

Calf s head or mock turtle soup 38 

Celery soup 55 

Chicken" 40 

Chicken gombo (Mrs. M. N. O.) 41 

Clam soup (Mrs. Dr. Bayard) 32 

" '• (Mary) 33 

" " (Mrs Biddle) 33 

Cocoanut soup 52 

Corn " 55 

Crab gombo (Mrs. I. E. Morse) 43 

Gombojilet, simple 41 

" " (Prof. Dimi try) 42 

Liebig soup 60 

Mock terrapin soup 39 

Mookturtle " 38 

Mulligatawney " (Gen. Stuart) 45 

" " No. 2 46 

" " (English receipt) 46 

Mutton " 47 

Nantucket " 32 

Noodle " 47 

Onion " 56 

Okra " (Dr. Picot) 44 

" (H. A. W. Barclay)...:... 44 

" gombo (Mrs. I. E. Morse) 43 

Oyster soup 34 

Parker House soup 47 

Pea " dried 57 

" " green 66 

Potato " (Mrs. Strattan) 57 

" " (Mary) 58 

Kice " 47 

Sago and tomato soup 48 

Spinach " 48 

Summer " 49 

Tapioca " 49 



PAGE 

Tomato soup No . 1 (Friday) 59 

" No. 2 " 59 

" " (Hudson) (Friday) 58 

Turtle bean soup No. 1 ... 50 

" . " " No. 2 51 

"Vegetable " 54 

White " Medford 52 

" No.l ;. v 52 

" No. 2 53 

" " with almonds 54 

Soup it la Julienne -. 48 

" with poached eggs 48 

Bread' browned and crisped for soup 61 

Force meat balls for soup 60 

To brown flour for soups and gravies 60 

Vermicelli and macaroni for soup 61 

FISH. 

Bass black (Canadian), fried 75 

" with tomato 68 

Brook trout ' , 83 

Trout, boiled 68 

Celia's success 83 

Codfish and potato moulded and browned 82 

" croquettes 81 

" forbreakfast 80 

" to freshen 79 

Cod, curried 70 

Codfish (Mary's) for Friday dinner 81 

Eels, broiled 75 

Eel, collared 75 

Fish steaks 76 

" steamed 68 

" scalloped 74 

German picklinqe ( W. F. M.) 83 

Haddock or cod (fresh) fried- 83 

" stewed 69 • 

Mackerel (fresh), it la maitre 78 

" (salt) with cream 80 

" (salt) broiled 80 

Bock, striped bass, stewed 69 

Salmon, cutlets 76 

" dried 77 

" pickled 77 

Salt fish, to freshen 79 

Scotch " fish and sauce " 78 

Shad, potted 74 

" planked 73 



8 



CONTEXTS. 



PAGE 

Smelts, fried TO 

Sturgeon, fried 77 

stewed 78 

SHELL FISH. 

Chowder, clam 71 

" " (Dr. Colman) 72 

" (Gloucester) 73 

" (Maryland) 70 

Crabs, farcies : 84 

" (soft), fried 84 

Frogs, fricassee brown 91 

" " white 92 

Lobster taken from the shell 91 

" a la Dabney 91 

Oysters ( Bay City) 8G 

" boiled 85 

" broiled 8(5 

" caclie'cs 88 

" croquettes 89 

" en oarriere 88 

" fried 85 

" frozen 90 

" loaf.. 87 

" omelette 89 

" pate's 87 

" pie 87 

" pickled 90 

" scalloped 86 

" squizzled 85 

" steamed 85 

" stewed 84 

Terrapins (J. Savage) 90 

Stewed Terrapin (Mrs. F. B. C. ) 93 

Turtle, roasted 92 

POULTRY. 

Chickens : directions for killing 99 

" " trussing, 100 

" " " cutting 100 

" boiled 100 

" broiled 104 

" braising 103 

" braised 104 

" croquettes 109 

" " (Pittsburg)... 109 

" curry with cocoanut 105 

" and chicken jelly 110 

" in jelly. .... .' Ill 

" excellent way 103 

" fricasseed 105 

" " (brown) 10G 

" " (Duddington) 107 

" pate' (Mrs. Hastings) 108 

" pilau 107 

" and oyster pie Ufi 

" timbal 107 

" lissoles Ill 

" Toasted.. — 101 

" stew, with vegetables.,, — ... 103 

" Fried 117 



PASB 

Chicken: steamed 1C2 

" " dressing for 102 

" with cream ' K8 

Cocks' combs, for vol au vent 154 

Ducks, roasted 113 

Galantines 11G 

Goose, roasted 114 

Pigeons, in jelly- 114 

' ' a mould of jelly 115 

" roasted 114 

" stewed 114 

Savory jelly to ornament cold meats 115 

Turkey, boiled 112 

" roasted 112 

" hashed. 113 

BEEF. 

Beef, a la mode 125 

" (Duddington) 125 

" (corned), boiled 140 

" breakfast 133 

" eannelon de s . 133 

" croquettes 135 

" curry of cold.roast 133 

" daube 126 

" Despard red round 134 

" en matelote 132 

" French stew 131 

" . .(dried), frizzled 134 

" hash..., 132 

" (corned), hash 140 

" pie 131 

" .steak broiled 126 

" Pine Street stew. ., 131 

" steak pudding (Mrs. Messenger) 128 

" " " No. 2 129 

" " stewed (Mrs. Glasse).. 127 

" " " No 2 128 

" steakstuffed , 129 

" roasted .,.,..,,, . .., 124 

" " with Yorkshire pudding 130 

" (Butger's Bolletjes) 141 

" smothered in onions 130 

" spiced... .... 137 

" stew 132 

" (tripe), fried... 136 

" to corn (Duddington) 138 

" " " No.2 138 

" " (Jewell) 138 

" (Piffard) 139 

" tongue boiled 137 

" ' r spiced.. 137 

" (dried), with cream 134 

Ox-cheek cheese 142 

A dinner from Cap. Warren's Cooker 140 

Kidney ragout 143 

To dress kidneys 142 

MUTTON. 

Mutton, boiled 145 

" .braised ; 144 



CONTENTS. 



9 



PAGE 

Mutton breast „ 144 

'' roast 145 

" chops 144 

" cold roast 147 

" haricot 14li 

" legofstuffed 143 

" and potato 148 

" ragout (Christine's) 148 

" (cold), ragout of 147 

" stew 145 

" English 140 

" " Irish , 141! 

" and tomato pie 149 

" macaroni 149 

Limb, breast of 150 

" chops ■ 145 

" curried 150 

VEAL. 

Calfs' head boiled, No. 1 150 

" • " " " 2 151 

" " savory browned 151 

Sweetbreads and mushrooms 152 

" " tomatoes 153 

" " green peas 151 

" vol au vent 153 

Veal boiled and browned 154 

" balls fried 157 

" cheese 15!) 

" cutlets 155 

" frigadel 150 

" fried 157 

" fricandeau 156 

" marbled 158 

" minced 159 

" pressed.- 158 

" ragout 158 

" roasted.... 154 

" stewed 155 

" stuffing •.. 159 

" with oysters 159 

" liver (or veal) bewitched 101 

" " fourchette 100 

" " fried 100 

" " minced 15!) 

" " mock terrapin 161 

" stewed 100 

" " stuffed 160 

" " Pot-pie 162 

GAME. 

Venison (haunch of), roasted , 103 

" stewed 103 

Hare jugged 101 

Babbit curried 104 

Grouse roasted , 165 

" " (Madame Morvan) 105 

New Zealand mode of cooking birds 166 

Partridge, stewed , 160 

Reed birds 107 

Woodcock broiled . 166 

" roasted 166 



BACON. 

PAGE 

Bacon cured (Col. fm. Eitz Hugh, M. D. ) 170 

" " smaller quantity (Col. Wm. Eitz 

Hugh, m. n. ) 171 

Ham, baked (Pittsburg)... 173 

" boned 173 

" boiled and baked 172 

" broiled 173 

" croquettes, Westphalia 176 

" with curry 176 

" grated for tea 174 

" Ingle 171 

" potted 175 

" puffs 175 

" smoked in the brine 171 

" toast 174 

" whattodowith 174 

" with currant jelly 174 

" " vinegar 174 

Pig, a delicate roast 108 

Pork and beans 170 

Spare rib 167 

" (fresh), Dutch receipt 168 

" steaks 107 

Sausage frying 170 

" making (Willow Brook) 109 

" " (Aunt Hannah) 170 

Scrapple 109 

Souse 10!) 

Consomme' 177 



CATSUPS, PICKLES, SAUCES, ETC. 



Canteloupe 

Catsup cucumber. 



grape . . 
lemon . 



" tomato (Mrs. Sawyer) 

" " (Pittsburg) 

Spioed vinegar 

Tarragon 

Currants spiced 

Tomatoes spiced 

Pickle apples (sweet) 

" - (Aunt Betsy) 

" butternuts or walnuts 

" cabbage crimson 

" cauliflower 

" celery :. ... 

" chow criow „ 

" cucumbers (easy mode )....' 

" " grated, Eond du Lac. 
oil 

" French 

Higdom (Aunt Betsy) 

Pickle Iucho 

" Kalamazoo 

" nasturtiums , 

" onions 

" pepper 

" piccalilli (Thorn's) 

" tomatoes green 

Tomato soy 

Pickled walnuts , 



186 

. 183 

183 

. 184 

. 184 

. 184 

. 185 

. 185 

, 188 

. 197 

. 187 

. 188 

. 189 

, 190 

. 190 

. 190 

. 191 

. 391 

. 192 

. 192* 

. 193 

. 189 

. 186 

. 1!)2 

. 194 

. 194 

. 197 

. 194 

. 197 

. 198 

, 189 



10 



CONTENTS. 






_,.,,, PAGE 

Pickled yellow, No. 1 195 

" No.2 196 

Virginia WO 

Butter a la Maitre d 'Uotnl 199 

Cold slaw dressing , i02 

Chicken salad dressing 202 

Dresden dressing 203 

Mayonnaise, or Mrs. B.'s salad dressing 203 

Sauce, bread 199 

" celery 202 

" Chili 198 

" cream 201 

" drawn butter 199 

for lamb 200 

" PfTff 201 

fish, No. 1 ■ 200 

" '■ No.2 200 

Horse-radish 200 

Sauce, lemon (cream ) 201 

" lobster 204 

" oysters 204 

" piquante 205 

" Robert 205 

" tartare 200 

•Caramel for browning soups and gravies 20f> 

Gravy for poultry 207 

" venison 207 

Powder peas 207 

" sassafras {JUei) 207 

Eoux brown and white for gravies 200 

VEGETABLES. 

Apples, baked for dinner 23(5 

" (sour), fried 230 

Asparagus .' 224 

Artichoke, burr 224 

Beans (dried) boiled 220 

" " lima 220 

" green " 220 

" " string 225 

Beets 245 

Cabbage boiled with pork 239 

" dressed with cream 239 

" stewed 239 

" stuffed 240 

Saur Kraut 240 

Cauliflower boiled 238 

" browned 238 

• " with cheese 238 

Carrots in mould 242 

". stewed : 242 

" with curry 243 

Celery stewed . . . '. 230 

Corn canned with tomatoes 228 

" " to dress 228 

Corn, baked 227 

" Jioiled 227 

" fritters 228 

" (dried), hulled 229 

" (green), stewed 227 

Succotash, summer 229 

" winter 229 



PAGE 

Cymblins, like egg-plant 237 

" stewed 237 

Egg-plant, baked 234 

" fritters 234 

" fried 235 

" served in the shell 234 

" stewed 234 

Hominy (large), boiled 220 

(small), " 221 

" (large), browned , 221 

" croquettes 221 

Macaroni, baked 222 

" Irish 224 

" savory 223 

" simple 223 

Morels, stewed 236 

Mushrooms, broiled 230 

" fried 235 

" stewed 235 

Okra, stewed 233 

" " with tomato 233 

Onion, baked 241 

" boiled 241 

" fried 241 

Parsnip, balls...' 245 

" boiled 244 

" fried 244 

" scalloped 244 

Peas, green .• 225 

" (dried), pu,r£e of 225 

Potato and ham 215 

" (Aunt Laura's) 217 

" baked 215 

" " with roast beef 215 

" boiled 213 

" browned in slices 214 

" broiled 214 

" croquettes 218 

" fried 215 

" fried whole _ 215 

" Lyonnaise ; 210 

" mashed 214 

" New Orleans 210 

" a la Parisienne 218 

" rice 214 

" Saratoga '. 210 

" scalloped 217 

" stifled In a creeper 210 

" sweet 21f> 

Eice, baked 219 

" boiled 219 

" croquettes 220 

" Turkish pilof * 219 

Salsify (oyster plant) croquettes 243 

" scalloped 243 

" stewed 244 

Spinach 224 

Sauash (winter), baked, No. 1 237 

" " " " 2 237 

" " steamed 238 

Tomatoes and corn 233 

" baked,No.l 230 

, " " " 2 230 



CONTENTS. 



11 



PAGE 

Tomatoes broiled 233 

" en surprise 232 

" fried , 232 

" stuffed , 231 

" G.S 231 

Turnips, boiled 245 

" mashed 245 

Salad, asparagus 248 

" beet 248 

" beets and potatoes •. . 248 

" beef (cold roast) 250 

" cabbage (cold slaw) 240 

' ' celery 247 

" chicken 250 

" cucumbers 246 

" fowl (roast), a la mayonnaise 250 

" lettuce 246 

" mace'doine of cold vegetables 248 

" new 250 

" onion 249 

" potato 249 

Badishes au naturel 247 

Tomatoes, dressed 251 

EGGS. 

Eggs a la Maitre d' Hotel 257 

" boiled 257 

" fried 257 

" plate 258 

" poached 259 

" a la creme 260 

" Scotch 260 

" scrambled, No. 1 258 

" " No. 2 259 

" to keep 257 

Omelette, baked (Margaret's) 261 

" bread 263 

gentlemen's savory (Margaret) 262 

" how to make.. 261 

" Namlat 262 

BUTTEE, CHEESE, ETC. 

Bonnyclabber 271 

Butter, to color 270 

" " cure 270 

" "make 269 

" "preserve 270 

Cheese muff. 272 

" cottage 272 

" curd 271 

" fromage 273 

" Bama'kins 272 

Welsh rarebit, No. 1 273 

" " No. 2 273 

YEAST. 

Yeast bread, biscuit, etc 282 

" potato without hops 277 

" " without flour 277 

" " pure 278 

" (Mrs. Montgomery) 280 



PAGE 

Yeast "Whitesboro' 279 

" Mrs. Prof. Yarmol's 280 

BEE AD. 

Bread (corn), baked 292 

" " boiled 292 

" graham 290 

" graham, without fine flour 290 

" " (pure potato yeast) 291 

" Blue Island ., 287 

" gossamer 303 

" hermit's 291 

" Italian 293 

" (corn), steamed 293 

" raised twice 285 

" " three times 286 

" salt-raising 289 

" self-raising 2*9 

" raised but once 283 

" " " " (pure potato yeast) 284 

" raisedwithpurepotatoyeast(threerisings) 287 

" with potato 285 

" puffs 293 

Biscuit, bread 294 

Baking-Powder 301 

" (Maryland) 302 

" (Mary Taney) 294 

" dried (Mrs. Cobleigh) 299 

" quick 294 

" soda 300 

Aunt Polly's good cake 305 

Potato cakes 300 

Graham fingers and thumbs 308 

" gems 308 

" popovers 304 

Short cake 301 

Graham wafers 310 

Angel's food 303 

MUFFINS. 

Muffins (Kalamazoo) 312 

" (Burlington) 313 

" corn-meal and flour 322 

" cream 314 

" Dabney 314 

" English water 313 

" rice 315 

" (Miss Boot's) 312 

" simple and delicious 313 

Puffs, breakfast 304 

" Laplander ... 303 

" nuns' 305 

Bolls, Brentley 297 

" excellent 296 

" French 298 

" fruit (Mrs. Underwood) 296 

" flannel (Viney) 295 

" (Geneva) 295 

" graham 369 

" ParkerHouse 299 

Sally Lunn 308 



12 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Whigs 307 

Toast, cream 321 

" dry 311 

* " rye 311 

Benjamin 310 

Bruiss 310 

Crackers o la Prezel 310 

CORN BEE AD. 

Corn cake (Carolina) 317 

(Mrs. Uowles) 318 

" crust (Alabama) 318 

" cupslti 319 

" drops , 319 

" " plain 320 

•' pone 320 

" " withrice 320 

" " " sour milk 321 

" rolls, delicate 318 

North Woods' doughboys « 321 

GRIDDLE-CAKES, WAFFLES, ETC. 

Cakes, bread 322 

" buckwheat 323 

" flannel 323 

" hominy 324 

" rice 324 

" (Virginia) 325 

Waffles, Barby's 310 

" (Buffalo) 315 

" raised 317 

" without yeast or soda 316 

RTJSK, ETC. 

Bon Brae 30B 

Rusk 30fi 

Strawberry short-cake 325 

Cracked wheat 327 

Graham mush i 327 

Hasty pudding.' 32fl 

fried 327 

Oatmeal porridge 325 

CAKE. 

Order of Cake-Ma"king 334 

Cake, almond 348 

" ■" pound 349 

" apple (dried) 343 

" aurora 344 

" bread 335 

" kaffee kuchen — 335 

" chocolate (Hampton ) 354 

(Miss Baker) 353 



Clay 347 

cocoanut 3fi2 

" Nb.2 302 

coffee 342 

cream 301 

357 






&f 



PAGB 

Cake drops 345 

" Election 330 

" eclairs (chocolate) 355 

" Edgewood birthday 351 

" fruit 302 

" golden 340 

" Harrison 343 

" jelly 357 

" kisses (Geneva) 358 

" lemon 349 

Macaroons 358 

Cake, mountain : 355 

" (Mrs. Wells) 362 

" orange 356 

" plain, with currants 340 

" pound (Mrs. Montgomery) 350 

" " (Mrs. oSfegley, Hagerstown, Md.). 350 

" little 350 

" pork ,. 341 

" Portugal 315 

' Queens 347 

" Eebecca's triumph 346 

" Troy 340 

" valley 349 

" spice 346 

" sponge (Maryland) 358 

" sponge (Mrs. Bogart) 359 

" sponge (Daisy's) 361 

" " (Mrs. Jennison's) 360 

" " white 359 

" " Philadelphia 359 

" wedding (Montgomery) 353 

" white 341 

COOKIES, GINGERBREAD, ETC. 

Cookies, coasting 305 

" crisp 365 

rich 365 

Doughnuts 336 

" (Mrs. Boyd's) 337 

Drops, cocoanut 363 

Gingerbread (Mrs. Jennison's) 338 

" (O'Leary's) 339 

Little Hard : 367 

Gingersnaps 366 

" (Namlet) 367 

" Oak Hill 300 

Jumbles, (Mont Alto) 364 

(Susan) , 364 

Ollykoeks (Mrs. Graham's) 338 

Wafers, cocoanut 363 

" walnut 363 

ICING. 

Icing 371 

" chocolate 371 

(Philadelphia) 372 

" (Kentucky) 371 

Lemon cream 372 

Orange-peel for gingersnaps 372 



CONTENTS. 



13 



PAGE 

To blanch almonds 372 

To improve sponge cake 371 

PASTRY. 

Pic, apple, No. 1 379 

No. 2 380 

" blackberry 380 

" custard 370 

" currant , 380 

" mince (Lochland) 381 

" Mrs. D. S. Moore 382 

" " (Mrs. Talman). 381 

" peach 380 

" squash 378 

Pastry Angelica 370 

" crumb 377 

" Graham 377 

" potato 377 

" plainer 370 

" puff 375 

Paste made with drippings 376 

Vol au vent 378 

PUDDINGS BAKED IN PASTRY. 

Pudding, amber 387 

" apple, rich 391 

"• " simpler 391 

" pineapple (Hartford) 391 

(Boston) 392 

" cocoanut 393 

" cream 393 

" lemon 387 

" " (Mra.B.) 388 

" " (Mrs. Wm, Smith) 388 

." orange 389 

" " (Detroit) 389 

" " Queen Charlotte 390 

" potato (Mrs. B.) 392 

" (Duddington) 393 

Apples a la None 383 

Banbury cakes 383 

Bolster 410 

Brother Jonathan 403 

Charlotte, apple 407 

" pie-plant 408 

Croute mix abricots : . . 414 

Dumplings, apple baked 407 

" ,r boiled 400 

college... 411 

lemon 423 

German puffs 421 

Jenny Linds 422 

Jim Crow 421 

Pain Perdu 422 

Pudding, batter, baked, delicate 402 

" " boiled 401 

" Beaulieu 417 

" blackberry, baked 405 

" blackberry steamed 404 

" black eurrant, boiled 405 



PAGE 

Pudding bread, baked 396 

" " (English), baked 397 

" boiled 395 

" No. 2 396 

" " simplestofall 395 

" Burnett 417 

" cabinet 414 

" " cold 415 

" cocoanut 415 

" Delmonico 418 

" dried fruit 410 

" driedpeach 409 

" Eve's 413 

" " plainer 414 

" farina 403 

" Indian, baked (without eggs) No. 2. . 399 

" " boiled 390 

" " Philadelphia 398 

" plain 398 

" Marlborough 416 

" minute 404 

" (Mrs. Potter) 412 

" oatmeal 400 

" paste 420 

" plum (English) 412 

" " E. W 411 

" quince 408 

" quiver (F.B. J.) 401 

" rice, baked 394 

" " boiled 395 

" poor man's 394 

" sponge 420 

" tapioca 402 

" tip-top 418 

" transparent 416 

" TrentonFalls 400 

" Warrener's. 413 

" whortleberry 406 

" (Sister Jonathine)' 404 

FRITTERS. 

Fritters, apple ." 423 

" coquettes 424 

" it la Follie 425 

" Indian 425 

" potato 426 

" souzens 424 

PUDDING SAUCES. 

Almond 435 

Cream 434 

Creamy 436 

Golden 433" 

Lemon 434 

Maple 434 

Wine (Hagerstown) 434 

" (Maryland) 434 

Without butter or cream , 435 

Fairy butter 433 

Caramel for custard 437 



u 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Home syrup for buckwheat cakes 436 

Maple syrup made from the sugar 436 

Rexford sauce 435 



BLANC MANGE, CUSTARD, ETC. 

Ambrosia ( Hampton) 457 

Apple me'ringue 456 

Chocolate " 419 

Arrowroot in a mould 451 

Blancmange 441 

" " Eugenie '. 442 

" " farina 442 

" " Oswego ; 443 

" " sago 443 

Cream, almond 449 

" Bavarian 448 

" beaten 455 

" caramel 451 

" chocolate 447 

" fruit 448 

" ginger 450 

" Hamburg 452 

" Italian 452 

" lemon 453 

" Bussian 447 

" tapioca 452 

" vanilla renverse'e 449 

*' whipped 446 

Chantilly cake : 457 

Charlotte Busse 455 

Clinton Place trifle 458 

Croutdde of macaroons 460 

Custard, almond » j 403 

" baked 463 

" boiled,No.l 461 

" 2 462 

" chocolate 462 

Eglantine 448 

Floating island, No. 1 464 

" " 2 464 

" " (fresh raspberries)., 464 

Gelbe speise ' 445 

Lemon cheese 454 

Peaches a la ride 408 

Omelette souffle'e 463 

Bennet in wine 453 

Bice a la maj-quise 444 

" • in moulds 443 

Ruby under the suow 459 

Sheldina 457 

Slip 454 

Snowdrift : 458 

Sweetheart 445 

Jelly, calf s foot 465 

" coffee 467 

" LadyMary's 467 

" lemon 465 

*' No. 2 467 

" orange 460 

" Oriental 468 

" strawberry 466 



PAGE 

Jelly wine f j>S 

Macedoine of Fruit 468 

Tapioca and apples 456 

Tapioca and canned peaches jou 

An exquisite dish for Easter 4a> 

Green melon injelly 469 

CEEAM AND WATEE ICES . 

Directions for freezing 473 

" " " without a freezer 473 

Cream, caramel 475 

" chocolate 476 

coffee 476 

diplomat 477 

Tea ice cream 477 

" lemon 474 

(Mrs. Swift) 474 

peach 477 

" (Peterboro') 474 

" pineapple snow 477 

" strawberry ' 478 

" " (Mrs. \V.) 478 

with corn-starch 474 

" " maizena 475 

Strawberries /rappees 478 

Tuttifrutti 487 

Plum pudding glace' 459 

Snow ice 480 

Citron 478 

Currant 479 

Lemon 479 

Orange 446 

Pineapple 480 

Strawberry • 479 

Pistache nuts for ice-cream 480 

Scoke or poke berry 1 480 

FBESH FRUIT. 

Ambrosia 482 

Cherries 482 

Currants 482 

Fresh fruit, sugared 483 

Peaches 482 

Pineapple 481 

Strawberries 481 

Watermelon 481 

Whortleberries 482 



FRUITS, BAKED, STEWED, AND PRE- 
SERVED. 

Apples, sour, baked 488 

" stewed for dinner 488 

" sweet, baked 487 

" fried for dinner 488 

" coddled 489 

" fortea 487 

" jelly 504 

" dried, sour with raspberries 490 



CONTENTS. 



15 



PAGE 

Apples stewed, with cloves 487 

Bananas fried 4!)0 

Blackberry, dried (Mrs. Burritt) ,. . . 495 

sweetmeats 493 

raspberry sweetmeats 496 

Blackcaps 487 

Candied fruit 508 

Cherry sweetmeats 496 

Crab-apple marmalade 497 

sweetmeats 497 

Cranberries, stewed 490 

Currants, dried 495 

" jelly 505 

" without boiling the sugar 505 

" with three quarters of a pound of 

sugar 506 

" sweetmeats 496 

Figs, to freshen (Mrs. J. E Morse) 508 

" "preserve 508 

" tomato 507 

Gooseberry sweetmeats 493 

Grape jelly 506 

" sweetmeats 494 

Green " 500 

Orange marmalade 499 

" preserved 501 

Peaches, baked 489 

" (Mrs. B.) 498 

" marmalade 498 

" sweetmeats 498 

Pears, baked 490 

" Bartlett canned 491 

Pear sweetmeats 492 

" stewed 491 

Pie-plant canned 493 

for tea 493 

wi I h orange-peel 492 

Pine apple, Kitty's 501* 

" Christmas 501 

marmalade 502 

Plums, dried 504 

" sweetmeats 504 

Quince, baked 489 

" jelly 507 

" and apple butter 503 

" marmalade 503 

" steamed 489 

" sweetmeats 512 

" " (Mrs. Allying) 502 

Strawberry " 493 

To cover jelly 507 

QJ .Preserved Cherries 509 

&fe*£&lU,Uisyud CANDY. M 

/ Blacjt walnut (Bay City) 511 

Chocolate caramels 512 

" walnuts 513 

Cream chocolates 512 

Everton taffy 512 

Maple chocolates 513 

Mrs. Mr Williams' caramels 512 

Morrisville candy 611 

Soft " 511 



DRINKS. 

PAGE 

Broma 519 

Chocolate (Baker's) 518 

(Cayuga) 518 

" (Menier's) 518 

Cocoa, cracked 518 

Coffee, boiled 517 

" Eureka 517 

Tea 519 

Tea, iced 520 

Beer(Epp's) 520 

" ginger 520 

" pineapple 521 

" root 520 

Cider, for keeping, No. 1 521 

" No. 2 522 

Currant shrub 523 

Lemonade 523 

Raspberry vinegar 522 

Strawberry acid 523 

FOR INVALIDS. 

Arrowroot Wane mange 538 

Barley 539 ,. 

Beef juice 537 

" sandwich 537 

" tea, No. 1 537 

" " No. 2 538 

Candle 541 

Caie of invalids 529 

Cough remedy (Mrs. Burwell ) 539 

" " (Dr. Bertin, Paris) 540 

" " 540 

Cream toast 533 

Crust coffee . 534 

Corn " 534 

Chicken broth 536 

" cream 536 

" jelly 536 

Egg and milk 535 

Egg nogg 535 

Egg wine 535 

Gruel, farina 532 

" oatmeal 532 

" (Dr. Hitchins) 531 

" Indian (Mrs. Cowles) 532 

Irish moss 538 

Jelly in ice 539 

Panada ,533 

Pleasant drink in fever ' 534 

Potato jelly 537 

Quinsey 540 

Soaked cracker 533 

Syllabub 533 

" porridge ; 538 

Tapioca jelly \ 539 

Toast water 534 

Thickened milk (Bolton, N. Y.) 532 

" " (Cambridge, Mass) 533' 

Wine whey 535 

Nursery receipts, Mrs Fisher 541 

To stop bleeding of the nose 540 



16 



CONTENTS. 



MISCELLANEOUS KECEIPTS. 

PAGE 

Autumn leaves, to preserve 557 

Blacking, waterproof 555 

Blankets, to wash 519 

Borax solution for washing 549 

Cement for sealing corks 553 

Flour paste, to make 553 

Flowers, to ke^p fresh 557 

" preserve 556 

" revive 557 

Fruit spots, to take out , 549 

Furniture, to hrighten 554 

Glass, to remove paint 554 

Hard water, to make soft 548 

Honey, to strain 558 

Lemons, to keep the rind and juice 558 

Matting, to clean 554 

Picture screens, to make 556 

Pomatum, Mrs. Breck ^ 555 

Cold cream 558 



PAGE 

Booms, to disinfeclr. 553 

, " " clear of mosquitoes 5^3 

Silver, to clean £5? 

Sink, to purify 5"° 

Starch, potato °^> 

Steel, to take rust from *J™ 

To prevent calicoes from fading c "} 

Soap, B. T. Babbitt 551 

Soap, soft cold 552 

" hard.No.l 552 

" « "2 ° 53 

" (Marcy ).".'.' .'.'.'..'.. 551 

" soft, Geneva °2 

To set a leach 550 

Yiolet perfume *>;j5 

Ho, foe the Picnic 563 

Selections fob Dinners 503 



ADDITIONAL EECEIPTS. 



To clear Stock 5B9 

Consomme 1 569 

Potageala Boyale 569 

Frozen Sweet Potatoes 570 

Cleaning Fluid 570 

Cymlings, or Summer Squash, No. 2. 571 



Monadnoc Pastry • 671 

Bridget's Biscuit 572 

Cold Cream. M. W. M 558 

Preserved Cherries 609 

Caramel Custard 464 

Velvet Cakes 384 



IN THE KITCHEN, 



THE TABLE. 

No silent educator in the household has higher rank than the table. Surrounded three 
times a day by the family, who gather from their various callings and duties, eager for refresh- 
ment of body and spirit, its impressions sink deep, and its influences for good or ill form no 
mean part of the warp and woof of our lives. Its fresh damask, bright silver, glass, and china, 
give beautiful lessons in neatness, order, and taste : its damask soiled, rumpled, and torn, its 
silver dingy, its glass cloudy and china nicked, annoy and vex at first, and then instil their 
lessons of carelessness and disorder. 

An attractive, well-ordered table is an incentive to good manners ; and being a place 
where one is inclined to linger, it tends to control the bad habit of fast eating. An uninviting, 
disorderly table gives license to vulgar manners, and encourages that haste which has proved 
so deleterious to the health of Americans. Should it not, therefore, be one of our highest 
aims to bring our table to perfection in every particular? 

To this end cleanliness, order, and taste must be most carefully observed. Beautiful 
damask has no charm if soiled ; but be it ever so old, worn, and darned, if white and well-ironed, 
it commands our respect. Even where no table-cloth can be afforded, the well-scoured pine 
table is most welcome, and so beautiful in its whiteness that we almost persuade ourselves 
it is better than damask. Silver has no attraction if dull and tarnished ; sticky pitcher and 
teapot handles, streaked china, murky glass, the molasses-pitcher dotted with hints of its 
contents, cruets with necks and stoppers diugy and thick with dried condiments, stray crumbs 
of bread and spatters of gravy in the lumpy salt of the smeared salt-cellars, are all most repug- 
nant. And if, moreover, one knows that a similar regime controls the. cooking for such a 
table, though the rolls be ambrosia and the coffee nectar, they cannot tempt the appetite. 
JBut the most thorough cleanliness will not atone for a lack of order. The table-cloth may be 
clean and white, but unless well-ironed and laid straight, it is very unsatisfactory. Knives, 
forks, and spoons must be in line, and plates must have strict reference to their vis-a-vis. 
The china must be of one kind, and neither nicked nor cracked. 

Then taste -must come in for its share. The selection of silver and china, glass and 
damask, gives fine scope for its exercise. Let all be of beautiful design, the damask particularly, 
and of as choice a quality as can be afforded. " Extravagant," say you.?. Then can you not 
2 



18 IN THE KITCHEN. 

dress more simply; and as you purchase a rare painting for the refinement and cultivation of 
your children, so furnish your table with this beautiful fabric, which is a s tudy in its delicate 
tracery and artistic groupings ? A fern leaf, a branch of roses, or spray of ivy by your child's 
plate may prove in later years to have been its first incentive to the study of art. In the 
appointments of the table, very much depends on refined' taste. AVithout it, there may be 
a stiff bouquet in the centre, with flowers fitted together like stones in a mosaic ; with it, 
there would be a loose, graceful arrangement of flowers, with drooping ferns, leaves, and 
tendrils. Evidences of taste in the table are particularly acceptable to us, most deservedly 
so, and always worthy of cultivation, as they take from the grossness of indulgence in mere 
animal appetite. Let us give, then, to these three graces of the table — cleanliness, order, and 
taste — the importance which so justly belongs to them ; let us provide an abundant supply of 
wholesome food, well cooked and well served, and the hours spent at the table shall aid in our 
highest development. 



THE BREAKFAST-TABLE. 

First see that it stands in the centre of the room, and perfectly straight; for no matter how 
well arranged, if it stand but little out of line, everything looks awry. Then put on the 
cover of Canton flannel ; this preserves the table-cloth, gives it a whiter shade, and deadens 
sound. Have an eyelet-hole in each corner to fasten over corresponding knobs under the ledge 
of the table. This cover may be made long enough to admit another leaf in the table, in 
which case it can have two sets of eyelet-holes. By this means it is held in positiori, and can- 
not be displaced by the table-cloth, which conies next in order. In laying this, be careful to 
have the point where the folds cross in the centre, lie exactly on the centre of the table. Then 
arrange the mats; they are disliked by the most fastidious, and where the Canton flannel cover 
is used, there is less necessity for them. Then place the tumblers and napkins at the right hand 
of the places intended for the plates. Then arrange the silver and knives, makingthis square for 
every plate, viz. dessert-spoon for fruit or oatmeal at the right hand, fork at the left, and knife, 
with:the back of the blade towards the plate, across the top. Every large spoon should lie with 
the'handlc towards the right hand of the person sitting before it. Always place the silver right 
side up: the inside of a spoon is much more beautiful than the outside, and the fork gains noth- 
ing by being turned over. Salt-cellars go across the corners, with the spoons by not in them; 
small castors may also be placed at the corner. Then arrange the cups and saucers, sugar, etc., 
on a waiter or not, as you please, but by all means at the end of the table, in preference to the 
side. The head and foot of the table are for the lady and gentleman of the house. This old- 
established rule is sometimes waived for convenience' sake, but the change detracts greatly 
from the elegant appearauce of the table. If a milk, cream, or molasses pitcher be used, it 
should stand at "the corner with the spout towards the centre of the table. The plates may now 



THE TABLE. 



19 



be put around, unless they require warming, in which case they should remain in the heater 
until breakfast is ready. The butter may stand either in the centre or at the corner. A con- 
venient way, for a table of eight or ten, is to have four small, round dishes of china or ground 
glass for the butter, which may be in balls, screws, or pats, at each corner of the table. When 
you have it in the centre and want a larger quantity, a piece of regular form, cut from the end of 
a roll of butter, looks very well, or a square piece cut from a crock or firkin. When difficult to 
cut from the crock, try this method : Take a large iron spoon, sink the bowl of it nearly its depth 
in the butter; then turn it, forming a circle about three inches across, draw it out, and lay the 
butter on the plate with the smoothest part up ; it will be rather pointed at one end, and will look 
like a piece of very smoothly frozen ice-cream. This fnode is greatly preferred by some to the 
screws, etc., which require so much handling. In clearing the table, send out the breakfast first, 
then put away all the glass, silver, and china that may not have been used. If there are bits of 
butter on the plates, free from specks, let them be put away carefully, for greasing tins. As 
butter is used with the knife only, and the knife never touches the lips, this piece of economy 
need shock no one. Put the forks, spoons, and plated knives in a pitcher half full of hot water, 
and do not let the water reach the knife-handles, as it discolors and cracks them. Then scrape 
the plates very nicely and remove all to the tray where they are to be washed. Brush the 
crumbs from the table-cloth, which must never be shaken. If there are any spots, wash them 
when the hot water is brought in. Lay a partly soiled napkin under the spot, and with the 
clean dish-mop from the hot soap-suds wash it entirely out. Then raise the table-cloth, though 
the spots are still damp, by the ceutre crease, and fold it most scrupulously according to the 
lines made in ironing. This done, lay it on a shelf or table under some heavy weight. Have 
a marble slab prepared for this purpose, the size of your largest table-cloth when folded, and 
have handles put in the ends. With this care, a "table-cloth for a family of four or five will last 
a week, and then look almost too nice to go to the wash. The Canton flannel may remain on 
the table for dinner, the table-cover being placed over it. 

The breakfast things arc now to be washed. In many families this is done by the mother 
or daughter, and such an arrangement has great advantages. It is an open door to the rest of 
the housekeeping; it necessarily takes you to the store-room, and thence, naturally, to the 
kitchen and cellar. The various jars and boxes, and the larder, are thus kept under your own 
supervision. Your neatness, too, in this work, is a good example to your waitress, and what 
she sees you exact from yourself she is more willing you should exact from her. I have seen 
this done in a very attractive way by a stately lady, at the head of her own table. When 
the breakfast was sent out, the maid brought her the hot water in a well-scoured cedar tub, 
with its bright brass bands, a dish-mop and clean towels ; the glass, silver, and china were 
then collected about her; and as she sat there making them clean again, handling tenderly the 
quaint old pieces, and chatting with us all, we thought it almost the best part of the entertain- 
ment. The water must be very hot if you expect anything to look well, and the towels must 
be soft and clean. Use a dish-mop and a ■' soap-saver." This is a perforated tin box, three or 



20 1ST THE KITCHEN". 

four inches square, and one and a half inches deep, in which you put the soap; it has a long 
handle, by which you shake it in the water, until you have a good suds. It is the invention of 
a Buffalo gentleman in behalf of his wife, who complained of being obliged to take the soap in 
her hand. A Boston lady invented a box for the same purpose, which being oval has the ad- 
vantage of no corners. Two towels a week are sufficient for a table of four, provided you have 
them washed every other morning. Have six of these towels, and use them in succession, so 
the two used the first week will rest for the next two weeks. The waitress requires three 
towels a week for the dinner and tea things, and another for globes and lamp chimneys. 

"When everything is in readiness, wash the tumblers; put them sideways in the water, 
and turn them quickly; this prevents their breaking, as the outside and inside are heated 
together. Wipe them from the water without draining, and rub them till clear and bright. If 
milk has been in a tumbler, rinse it first with tepid water, as intense heat drives the milk per- 
manently into the glass, and trying your best, you can never make it clear again, nor can you 
ever get rid of such a glass, for, like the cracked pitcher and nicked plate, it has a charmed life. 
" After the glass come the coffee-pot and cream-piteher, which need great care; rinse both with 
a little water from the knife and fork pitcher. Use a brush in washing them, and then wipe 
and rub them briskly and perseveringly with a right good will. You will find the exercise 
equal to many in the " Swedish Movement Cure," with the satisfaction of bright silver as ready 
payment. Then come spoons and forks, which also need a world of rubbing; but their beauty 
and brightness will recompense you. Marion Ilarland's advice, to have a cake of indexical 
silver soap at hand, is admirable; keep it in a cup with a bit of flannel, and use it wherever 
there is a spot on the silver. It is well to rub the whole piece, and then wash, wipe, and polish 
with chamois. Put everything away in perfect order. The dish-mop should be wrung very 
dry, shaken out, and hung by the soap-box. Sift the salt on a bit of white paper through a fine 
sifter; then, holding the paper in the form of a trough, pour its contents gently into the cen- 
tre of the salt-cellar, leaving it in the form of a cone. The effect is very pretty, particularly in 
a glass salt-cellar. The fine sugar should also be sifted. For this purpose keep a wire sieve, 
four inches across, in the sugar-box. As to the small salt-cellars, known as " individual salts," 
there is not a single word to be said in their favor. In hotels they are particularly offensive, 
where we take off the top only to find suspicious lumps beneath. A friend at my elbow says, 
" Oh, do speak of the dreadful habit of helping one's self to salt on the table-cloth, then tak- 
ing it up on the blade of the knife, beating a light tattoo over the contents of the plate, and fin- 
ishing with a decided whack! " 



THE DINNER-TABLE. 

In changing table-cloths during the week, contrive to let the fresh one be for the dinner- 
table. Place a large napkin over each end of the table to protect the table-cloth during the 
carving; they must be removed when the crumbs are brushed. For dinner company, many 



THE TABLE. 21 

families prefer using two table-cloths, having the upper one removed after the first courses, 
thereby dispensing with brushing the crumbs, and generally securing a clean cloth for the des- 
sert. Put on the mats and glasses, and, as for breakfast, make a square for every plate with 
the knife, fork, and soup-spoon. When there are many at the table it is well to have the tum- 
blers supplied with ice and filled with water just before the soup is brought in, or better still, 
to have ice in the tumblers and a earaffe (water-decanter) at every plate. The bread, which for 
dinner should be two inches thick, and cut in strips two inches wide, may bo placed in the 
folds of the fresh napkin on the plate. On the best appointed tables, small plates for peas, 
corn, tomatoes, cold slaw, etc., find no- place. If disagreeable to eat these vegetables with meat, 
let the dinner-plate be changed for one of the same size. In changing the plate for salad, 
never substitute a breakfast for a dinner plate. If raw oysters are to be a part of the dinner, 
they should be the first course ; select a small kind, serve them on the half shell, five or six on 
a plate, with a bit of fresh lemon in the centre. The soup is helped by the lady. The rule is, 
one ladleful and but one helping. An American Chesterfield being asked to take a second plate 
of soup, replied, " Not to-day." At the end of this course the soup-plates are first removed, 
then the tureen. In handing plates, the servant should always go to the left side with the 
plate on a small waiter. It is now, however, becoming customary for the servant to dispense 
with the waiter, take the soup-plate in the hand, and put it in its place from the right side. 
With this mode, white cotton gloves are desirable, and for formal dinners they are generally 
used even with the tray. Plates should always be removed from the right side, and vegetable 
dishes should be taken from the same side, otherwise your face is exposed to the servant's 
elbow. Pish follows soup and is also helped by the lady. With it, only potatoes and cucum- 
bers are served. Boiled ham, too, belongs at her end of the table; a convenient way of serving 
it is to lay six or eight slices on a dinner-plate, with a silver fork, and send it around the 
table. Well sharpened knives are indispensable to the comfort of this meal. 

In some households there is an arrangement much more business-like than beautiful, and 
attended with more dispatch than elegance. It is flanking the beef and roast duck with the 
vegetables of the season, to be served by the gentleman of the house. He gives to every one 
a portion of all, and deluges the whole with gravy. A hard post, indeed, where the family is 
large ; but the poor man sustains himself with the thought that it saves time. Yes, it does, and 
that is its chief objection, for time is the very thing we require at the table, — time to talk, 
laugh, and be merry. Por a simple dinner of one kind of meat and three vegetables, give the 
gentleman the meat, the lady the potatoes, and place the other dishes each side the table in 
line with the centre, leaving the centre for a small castor, butter, pickles, or what is still bet- 
ter, flowers ; if the latter, small dishes may stand at the corners of the table. This arrange- 
ment gives the table a better appearance. When the dinner-table is set, arrange the china and 
silver for the different courses on the side-table. If the spoons are required for the vegetables, 
have a pitcher of hot soap-suds, the dish-mop, and a clean towel just within your pantry door, 
where they can quickly be washed and wiped. 



22 IX THE KITCHEN. 

In clearing the table for dessert, the rule should be to remove first the most unsightly 
things: plates, of course, stand at the head of this list. The plates of host and hostess should 
remain until all the others have been taken, so that no guest may feel hurried. The custom of 
taking the spoons from the vegetable dishes while they are still on the table is very objection- 
able : the particles and drops adhering to them are liable to fall ; the dishes do not look well 
without them; and it is, moreover, an unseemly introduction of work belonging to the pantry. 
Let the mats be the last things removed from the table. Nothing should remain but the tum- 
blers. Brush or scrape the crumbs, and before every person place a plate on wliich lie a knife, 
fork, and spoon ; then arrange the large spoons wherever they are required. In .putting on 
the dessert, begin with the least important dishes. Finger-glasses are used for the last course. 
Place them, on the front plates, the doylies lying between the plate and glass, and fill them 
about one third with cold water. They are useful as well as highly ornamental to the dessert- 
table, are quite indispensable to an elegant dinner, and in many families are in daily use. 
They should be used, however, as quietly and unobtrusively as possible. Brillat Savarin, in his 
" Physiologie du Gout,'' speaks of them in connection with the small goblet of water, which is 
sometimes placed in them, as " equally useless, indecent, and disgusting : useless, for among 
all those who know how to eat, the mouth remains clean to the end of the repast; as to the 
hands, one should know how to use them without soiling them; indecent, for it is a generally 
recognized principle that every ablution should be hidden in the privacy of the toilette." He 
brings the goblet under the head of" disgusting,' picturing the offensiveness of its use in most 
graphic language. 

Waiting should be as noiseless as possible. The voice of the servant should never be 
heard ; if necessary, a low tone to the lady is admissible. Kb reproof should be given a servant 
at table, and no instructions that can possibly "be avoided. Full directions before every meal 
should be given to an inexperienced servant. The foreign mode of serving dinner is beautiful, 
and has great advantages over our way. The table is handsomely set with glass and silver, 
fruit and flowers. The first course is soup, helped from the side-table and brought to you; 
then comes fish, already carved that you may help yourself with ease. Then there is a, filet de. 
Iceuf, part of which is carved, and the whole garnished with sliced potatoes, browned ; then 
a cauliflower or maccaroni ; after that, roast fowl and sweetmeats ; then a pudding, followed 
by ices and coffee, fruit being the last course. 

The little delay between the courses gives time for pleasant conversation, and would be 
admirable here in preventing our fast eating. To be sure, one may do his utmost in that way 
for three minutes, but is then obliged to rest the next ten. This custom saves the cook that 
last, severe pressure of serving from four to eight hot dishes at the same time. 

No well-ordered house has noisy servants. The housekeeping in every department should 
move like perfect, well-oiled machinery, with invisible wheels. Shrieks of laughter from the 
kitchen, singing and calling through the halls, stamp a house at once as belonging to the 
vulgar and uncultivated. Let the comforts and luxuries provided for your family and guests 



THE TABLE. 



23 



come to them as by magic ; let them hear no preparatory sounds, and see no sights that shall 
take from the freshness of the entertainment. 

In this country of untrained servants, most ladies have but little pleasure in giving dinners, 
as there must be a constant undercurrent of anxiety about the table and the service. This 
anxiety begins with the soup and ends only with the coffee. When the tureen-cover is raised, 
the fear comes that the soup may be scorched. But no ; the lady finds it delicious, and this 
gives her so much confidence in all that is to follow that her spirits rise. She ventures to chat 
a little with the gentleman at her right, just returned, perhaps, from Switzerland. She is 
charmed with his descriptions, and is already climbing the mountain and breathing its 
invigorating air, when her eyes fall on the roast turkey with wings and legs thrust heavenward. 
The lady beats a-hasty retreat from the Rigi, flushed with mortification over that wretched 
fowl, with its breast-bone, as she now sees, burned to a crisp. Bridget, to whom she had given 
" line upon line and precept upon precept," loses her wits, and half the time presents the 
bread and vegetables at the right side, attracting attention by little pokes in the back. She 
hands the tomatoes without a spoon. Iu putting on the dessert she begins with the ice-cream, 
the sight of which she seems to think sufficient, for she comes to a dead stop, ignoring plates 
and spoons and all the minor dishes. There stands the pillar of ice ; but your wrath, so far from 
being cooled by it, only bubbles and boils the more. Yet all the time you must look calm 
and unruffled, and make yourself as agreeable as possible. No one must know that you are 
tried, for you have invited your friends to give them pleasure and not to tax their sympathy. 

What we shall do for want of intelligent, well-trained, respectable, and respectful servants, 
is a question discussed far and near ; but the solution is every day farther and the trouble 
nearer. We must rejoice, however, that house-work is more healthful than fancy work ; that 
making beds, sweeping, and dusting give strength, and that kneading bread, making biscuit, 
and canning fruit " brush the cobwebs from our brains." 



THE TEA-TABLE. 



This has become in our cities, save for Sunday evening, a thing of the past; and this for- 
lorn condition of things crops out here and there in the country too. It is one of the serious 
results of dining late. City gentlemen, whose homes and offices are miles apart, can 
remedy this difficulty only by dining instead of lunching down town, and going home at night 
to tea. Many, iu the country, with whom the late dinner is not a permanent arrangement, 
choose it for the short winter days; they have a late breakfast and a four-o'clock dinner, dis- 
pensing with lunch and tea. But physicians tell us that the heaviest meal of the day should 



24 



IN THE KITCHEN. 



come at noon, when the digestive organs have more vigor than at night. In departing from 
their counsel we lose, perhaps, the most pleasant social gathering of the day. Business duties 
being accomplished, there is none of the hurry of the breakfast-table; and the rest, so charm- 
ing when contrasted with the anxieties, formalities, and etiquette of the dinner-table, comes, 
to the mother especially, as a sweet benediction. No soup-tureen looms up before her, or 
heavy, smoking joints. These have given place to fragrant tea, cold tongue, thinly sliced, and 
garnished with curled parsley, light and snowy biscuit, sweet, golden butter, and honey in the 
comb. But it is setting the table which concerns us just now, rather than the dishes which 
belong to it, — although in this connection it may bo well to speak of certain things which we 
sometimes find quite misplaced; for instance, pickles, cake, and pie for breakfast, and tea on the 
dinner-table. The rule which forbids this is not arbitrary, but full of reason: it secures to 
each meal its own distinctive features. Eating pickles for breakfast, we find them less appetiz- 
ing for dinner; eating pie for breakfast, we cannot relish it as a dessert; and eating cake at 
that early hour makes it but an old story by tea-time. 

Set the table without a cover. This is a privilege that neither the breakfast nor dinner 
table can claim, and should therefore bo cherished as particularly distinguishing the tea-table. 
Of a summer's evening the effect is cool and refreshing, and in the winter its polished surface 
is rich with the reflection of lights and silver. On some tea-tables we find a delicately cro- 
cheted mat for every plate, the tongue, biscuit, etc., placed on white mats of heavier make, and 
the tea-service arranged on one large oval mat. Arrange the knife, fork, and spoon as for 
breakfast, using a smaller-sized plate. Use fringed napkins, one lying on every plate. Let the 
cups be of thin china and placed before the lady of the house, the relish of fish or cold meat 
before the gentleman, flowers in the centre, fruit and biscuit each side, the cake-basket between 
the flowers and " tea-things, " and the butter on the other side of the flowers. 

There arc some mothers who give their daughters no instruction in household matters, pre- 
ferring that their time should be spent in study, recreation, and exercise in the open air. They 
say, " Poor things! they will probably marry and have houses of their own to look after, and 
that will be soon enough to begin to dig and delve ; they are bright, and can easily learn to bake, 
boil, and fry when the necessity comes." These mothers, for the sake of their daughters, call 
for a book of most minute directions in all things pertaining to housekeeping. In specifying, 
they say , " Tell them exactly how to make fires." This I most gladly do, for making fires in 
fire-place, stove, grate, and range has been, from my childhood, an unfailing pleasure. Let us 
begin with 



THE FIRE IN THE KITCHEH. 

In making the kitchen fire, either in a range or coal stove, first draw out the dust-damper, 
which prevents the ashes from flying over the room. Free the grate entirely from ashes; •■■ 



THE TABLE. 25 

light layer of partly burned coal may remain, but shake it about with an old broom-brush until 
no ashes adhere to it. Brush the tops of the ovens and all the inside iron within reach. Then 
put in half a dozen loosely-twisted rolls of dry paper, across the grate, about an inch apart ; 
over these, running lengthwise, strips of light kindling-wood, and over these, in the opposite 
direction, sticks of hard, dry " split wood," from two to three inches thick; then a layer of coal. 
Shavings may be used instead of paper. Replace the covers, take up the ashes, sweep the brick- 
work overhead and at the sides, and brush thoroughly the entire outside of the range. When 
all is clean and bright, light the fire, push in the dust-damper, and see that the dampers which 
affect the draught are pulled out. When you wish to heat the oven these dampers are pushed 
in, but the fire should be well burning before that is attempted. In a short time the wood will 
be burned outand.the coal ignited; then add more coal, but never let it come above the brick 
lining, and be careful that no pieces lodge on the ovens. Never let the range become red-hot, 
as such intense heat warps and destroys the iron. The best thing I know of for lifting covers 
is an iron of the usual form, with a tin handle thickly lined with plaster of Paris; it rarely 
becomes too warm for the hand. 

Every Saturday the slides under the oven should be' opened and all the ashes taken out. 
With a little care the range may always be perfectly clean. Do not let the kettles boil over or 
spatter. Be sure that they are not too full to allow room for boiling. Be satisfied with moder- 
ate boiling; it ensures equal speed in cooking, and better results. Keep all the kettles covered, 
and thus save the steam to aid in the cooking, rather than allow it to cover your kitchen walls. 

But we must remember that the fire which " makes the pot boil " is not the only one 
necessary to the comfort of the house. Let us take next 



THE FIRE IN THE GRATE. 

Remove and clean thoroughly the hearth and fender, rubbing the plated rod with a 
chamois ; then leave them out of reach of the dust until the fire is lighted. Clear the grate of 
ashes and coal, and take them away before the fresh coal is put on ; otherwise there will be a 
coating of dust to check the bright blaze and take from the beauty of the fire. 

Those grates with a throat leading to the cellar-floor save much dust and a vast deal of 
hard labor. Such a throat can be easily made for any grate. It is of brick, and, built against 
the wall, requires but three sides. At the lower extremity on one side is an opening, from 
which the ashes are taken when necessary ; it is wide enough to admit a large shovel, and is 
closed with a sheet-iron slide. Where there is room in the Cellar, the throat may be twenty- 
one inches deep and thirty-three inches wide. Sweep as high up in the chimney as the brush 
will reach, and down the back and sides of the grate. Clean the bars thoroughly, and polish 
them with a stove blacking-brush. The " large egg " coal makes the most beautiful and 
lasting hard coal fire. If this is used, arrange some of the largest pieces in two or three rows 



26 



IN" THE KITCHEN. 



along the front of the grate ; back of this use the paper or shavings, the light wood, hard 
wood, and coal, as in the range. Put on the coal with the hand to prevent disarranging the 
wood, to leave more regular spaces for the draught, and to make a symmetrical fire. Then 
with a damp cloth wipe the iron about the grate and the mantel-piece, if of marble ; wasli the 
marble hearth, and replace the grate-hearth, then light the fire underneath. A clear, well- 
made coal fire is wonderfully attractive, appreciated by all, and fully compensates for the care, 
it requires. 



A SOFT COAL FIBE 

May be made in very much the same way. As it ignites more easily than hard coal, it can be 
made with paper or shavings and light wood. 



WOOD FIRES. 



A wood fire in a stove must be arranged to light at the draught, whether it be at the side 
or end. And now comes the open wood fire. But it is so full of beauty, it so awakens 
sentiment and reverie, bringing back to us the past and opening vistas into the future, it so 
adapts itself to all our moods, that it is like a living soul, and directions for " making " it seem 
most presumptuous. 

John "Ware says, ""Without the open fire in the house, there is no centre of sympathy. 
When the fire went out upon the hearth, there went with it one of the strongest and healthiest 
influences of home." C. D. "Warner says, " I hope for the rekindling of wood fires, and a 
return of the beautiful homo-light from them." H. H. writes of the " blessed old black woman," 
who, standing before her fire, exclaimed, " Bless yer, honey, yer's got a wood fire. I 'se allers 
said that if yer 's got a wood fire, yer 's got meat an' drink an' clo'es.' 7 Of course, Aunt Chloe 
meant spiritual food and raiment, but her words present the material side of our treasure ; 
and quickly, before the scene shifts, we will venture to consider the making of the wood fire. 

Begin by taking up nearly all the ashes, leaving only a thin coating which the wood will 
almost conceal, a slight covering to receive the first light coals. Sweep the back and sides of 
the fire-place and as far into the mouth of the chimney as the brush will reach. Sweep the 
hearth and polish the andirons, and be careful to place them straight and at equal distances from 
the sides of the fire-place. Lay three sticks across the andirons, an inch apart ; the front and 
back sticks should be about three times the size of any others used for the fire. Across the small 
centre-stick place a row of slightly-twisted papers, the ends loosened, and going down through 
the opening each side oSthe stick, that they may be reached with a match from below. Across 
the papers, lengthwise, lay kindling-wood ' ' split fine," and across these, in reversed order, small 



THE TABLE. 27 

sticks of hard wood ; above these, a layer of three sticks, the size of the centre lower one and 
lying the same way. In all these layers do not fail to leave spaces for the draught. On the 
top, there may be two or three more of the same sized sticks, laid diagonally. When the 
arrangement is complete, wash the hearth arfd light the Areas directed. 

Hickory is considered best for an open fire, but any wood that is hard and dry will serve 
to keep bright this altar fire, this priceless blessing, to which every heart yields an involuntary 
offering of joy and gratitude. In " covering up " the remains of a wood fire at night, draw out 
the andirons, clear a place in the ashes, lay in all the coals and brands, and cover with ashes as 
closely as possible 

In the cellar keep the two kinds of ashes apart. Wood ashes are often useful in the house, 
and always command a good price in market. Over the bin for coal ashes have a very coarse 
wire sieve ; empty the ashes in this, and with an old broom move them to and fro, to clear 
the coal, which will then do to reburn, a little at a time, — a " top dressing" for a bright fire in 
the kitchen range. 



UTENSILS 

NECESSARY IN THE KITCHEN OF A SMALL FAMILY. 

WOODEN WARE. 

One bread-board. 

" rolling-pin. 

" small spoon for stirring pudding-sauce. 
Two large spoons. 
One potato-pounder. 

" lemon-squeezer. 

" wash-board. 



TIN WAR& 



One boiler for clothes, holding six gallons. 

" boiler for boiling a ham. 

" bread-pan, holding five or six quarts. 

" deep pan, for preserving and canning fruits. 
Four milk-pans. 
Two dish-pans. 

" two-quart basins. 

" one-pint basins. 

" two-quart covered tin pails. 



28 IN THE KITCHEN. 

One four-quart covered tin pail. 

Two tin-lined saucepans with covers, holding four quarts each, for boiling potatoes, cab- 
bages, etc. 

Two tin-lined saucepans with covers, holding* two quarts each, for vegetables that do not 
require much room, like okra, rice, and tomatoes. 
Two cups with handles. 

" pint moulds, for rice, blanc-mange, etc. 
Four half-pint moulds. 
One skimmer with handle. 
Two dippers of different size. 

" funnels, one for jugs and one for cruets. 
One quart measure. 

" pint measure. 
Half-pint measure. 
One gill measure. 

If possible, get these measures broad and low, instead of high and slender, as they are 
much more easily kept clean. 

Three scoops of different size. 

Four bread-pans for baking. The smallest make the best-sized loaves, and will do for 
cake also. 

Four jelly-cake pans. 

" round and two long pie-pans. 
One coffee-pot. 

" colander. 

" large bread-grater. 

" small nutmeg-grater. 
Two wire-sieves, one twelve inches across, and one four inches. 
One wire cloth sieve, for sifting salt. 

" small hair sieve, for straining jelly. 

" frying-basket. 
Two egg-beaters. 
One apple-corer. 

" cake-turner. 

" spice-box. 

" pepper-box. 

" cake-cutter. 

"• potato-cutter. 

" dozeu muffin-rings. 

" soap-shak«r. 



UTENSILS. 29 

IRON WARE. 



One copper saucepan. 

" pair of scales. 

'• pot, holding two gallons, with steatner to fit. 

" pot, holding three gallons, with close-fitting cover, for soup. 

" preserving-kettle. 

" tea-kettle. 

'' fish-kettle. 

" large frying-pan. 

" small frying-pan. 
Two sheet-iron dripping-pans of different sizes. 

" sets of gem-pans. 

" • spoons with long handles. 

" spoons with handles of moderate length. 

" spoons with wooden handles. 
One griddle. 

lt gridiron. 

" waffle-iron. 

" toasting-rack. 

" large meat-fork. 

" jagging-iron. 

" can-opener. 

EARTHEN AND STONE WARE. 

Two crocks, holding one gallon each. 

" crocks, holding two quarts. 
One bean-pot. 

" bowl holding six quarts. 

" " holding four quarts. 

" " holding two quarts. 

" " holding three quarts. 
Two holding one pint each. 
One nest of six baking-dishes, different sizes. 



There are natural cooks as well as natural musicians, and there is a charm in both *that 
can never he reached by art. The delicate taste that decides whether there shall be a grain 
more of this or that in the seasoning of a soup, tha eye that discerns, as by intuition, whether 



30 XN THE KITCHEN. 

the gravy is the proper thickness, the rolls just light enough for the oven, and the jelly of 
perfect shade and stiffness, are like an exquisite ear, beautiful taste, and graceful touch in music. 
They are rare gifts, however, and the majority of those who would excel in either art must 
accept the necessity of scales and measures. For exactness of proportions it is safer to weigh 
solids and measure fluids ; to weigh even by ounces and half ounces, and to measure even by 
gills and half gills. Tea-cups and tablespoons, dessert and tea spoons vary in size, and it is, 
moreover, difficult to know how closely the butter, flour, or brown sugar may lie in them. If 
a receipt says " heaping " it is very indefinite, as a teaspoon may be heaped from one third to 
double its even quantity ; and the " scant cup of butter " may have an easy range, varying in 
weight from half an ounce to an ounce and a half. It seems impossible, however, to avoid 
using a tablespoon and teaspoon as measures, — a tablespoonful of flour being less than half 
an ounce, and a tea spoonful of the same still more difficult to Weigh. Many cooking-spoons 
hold very much more than tablespoons, and cannot be used for this purpose. The true table- 
spoon measure is one eighth of a gill, and the teaspoon used in these receipts holds one third 
of a tablespoonful. No rule is given in which the measure is heaped. In many cases the word 
even precedes the measure, but it is simply for the safety of those who may not have read this 
explanation. But with all this exactness in measuring and weighing, it must be remembered 
that good ingredients are indispensable to success ; the best cooking cannot make a good dish 
of a joint of meat too recently killed or too long hung, nor a palatable omelette from eggs that 
are not perfectly fresh ; nor with the utmost skill can good bread be made from poor flour, 
nor good cake with any other than sweet butter. - 



4 tablespoons = £ gill. 2 pints = 1 quart. 2 gallons = 1 peck. 

8 tablespoons = 1 gill. 4 quarts = 1 gallon. 4 gallons = \ bushel. 

2 gills = \ pint. \ gallon = \ ^eck. 8 gallons = 1 busheL 

4 gills = 1 pint. 1 gallon = \ peck. 



A common-sized tumbler holds half a pint. 

A common-sized wineglass holds half a gill. 

1 quart of sifted flour = 1 pound. 

1 quart of corn-meal = 1 pound, 2 ounces. 

1 quart of closely-packed butter = 2 pounds. 

X quart of powdered sugar = 1 pound, 7 ounces. 

1 quart of granulated sugar = 1 pound, 9 ounces. 

A bit of butter the size of an egg weighs about two ounces. 



soup. 31 



SOUP. 



As stock is the essential part of most soups, it comes first in order. 

Use the most indifferent parts of beef, veal, mutton, and lamb, such as the shin of beef, 
knuckle of veal, neck and breast of mutton and lamb, — any part, which from its toughness or 
unsightly appearance is not desirable for the table. Of poultry, take that which is too old or 
tough for roasting or boiling. Choice pieces of meat and tender fowls are objectionable simply 
because they are too good. Cut the meat in bits and crush the bones with the back of the 
cleaver. Professor Blot says, " There must not be more than two ounces of bone to a pound 
of meat, the less bone the better." We see very fine soups, however, made from beef-shins, 
where the weight of the bone equals and sometimes exceeds that of the beef. Put all in 
the kettle, allowing a quart of cold water to every pound; use less water if you want it very 
rich. Cold water absorbs the flavor and nutriment of the meat ; and chemists tell us that 
some of its most important properties are soluble in cold water only. Let the water heat very 
slowly. As it boils, a scum will rise, which must be at once removed, lest it return in particles 
through the liquid, making it necessary to strain the whole through a cloth. After a thorough 
skimming, keep the pot closely covered, and simmer or boil slowly from five to eight hours. 
Then put it aside to cool, that the fat may congeal on the surface, and so be easily removed. 
On this account stock should always be made the day before it is wanted. In cold weather it 
is well to make enough at one time to last several days. 

It is by no means necessary to have uncooked meat for stock. Fragments of cold, roast 
or boiled joints, bits of beef-steak, and necks and bones of fowls, and the feet, are all excellent. 
Where a family requires slock soup but three times during the week, no fresh meat need be 
furnished for that purpose. 

From stock an almost endless variety of soups maybe made, — carrot, onion,, bean, pea, 
tomato; or okra, or many of these vegetables may be used together ; either rice, vermicelli, or 
macaroni may be used with stock alone. All vegetables for soup must be boiled soft before 
being added to the stock, but should then boil slowly for half an hour, and longer if they are 
to thicken the soup. Worcestershire and Chili sauce are both very nice in soup, also all the 
catsups, but these should be used very cautiously. Be careful in the use of pepper and salt, 
which have spoiled so many good soups : remember that they are easily added but cannot be 
taken away. For browning soups, fry the onions that are used, and stick a few cloves in the 
meat, or use a little browned flour or caromel. To first brown the meat with a little butter 
in the bottom of the soup-kettle, gives the soup a fine flavor and heightens the color. 



32 



IN" THE KITCHEN". 



For preparing stock, " digesters " are admirable, being so thick as greatly to lessen the 
danger of burning, and so made as to retain the most volatile parts of the meat. After boiling 
in a " digester " several hours, you will find the liquid but little reduced. They are, however, 
heavy, very expensive, and not to be found' in 6ur country towns. As a good substitute, 
therefore, select an ordinary iron pot, holding not less than six or eight quarts ; have a tin 
cover made for it, the inside rim fitting closely iuside the kettle, with a hole one sixteenth of 
an inch in diameter in the cover, to prevent the steam from forcing it up. Allow a quart of 
soup for four persons, For making soup quickly, chop the meat and crush the bone. 



NANTUCKET SOUP. 

Half a pint of codfish, picked fine. 

Two quarts of water. 

One quart of milk. 

Three ounces of butter. 

One ounce of flour. 

Half a teaspoonful of pepper. 

Three eggs. 

Boil the codfish slowly in the water for fifteen or twenty minutes, 
soften the butter with a little of the boiling water, and mix it until 
smooth with the flour and pepper. Put it in the soup, and after boil- 
ing a minute or two, add the milk. "When it boils again stir in the 
beaten eggs, and serve, with bread dice strewn over the top. (See page 

610 

To open clams, wash them perfectly clean and lay them in a drip- 
ping-pan in the oven. 

MRS. DR. BAYARD'S CLAM SOUP. 

Put thirty hard clams in a pot with two quarts of water ; boil two 
hours ; then take them out, chop fine, and return them to the pot with 



SOUP. 



33 



one dozen pepper-corns and a small shred of mace, and boil an hour. 
Rub a piece of butter, the size of a pullet's egg, with two tablespoon- 
fuls of flour; boil a pint of milk, and dissolve the buttered flour in it, 
and stir until smooth. Have this ready, and when the clams have been 
boiled the three hours, strain the soup into the tureeL., and stir in the 
thickened milk. Then serve immediately. 



MARY'S CLAM SOUP. 
Fifty clams. 

One quart and two gills of milk. 
One gill of rich cream. 
One teaspoonful of salt. 
Half a teaspoonful of pepper. 

Boil the clams twenty minutes in their own liquor; chop them very 
fine; mix the flour smooth in a little of the milk; add the rest of the 
milk, and pour it in the kettle with the clams. Let it boil a few min- 
utes to cook the flour, then add the cream, pepper, and salt, and serve. 



MRS. BIDDLE'S CLAM SOUP. 

Pour two quarts of cold water over a small knuckle of veal on 
which there is about a pound of meat; open fifty clams according to the 
above directions, and add one pint of the liquor to the veal; boil until 
it has been thoroughly skimmed, then throw in a few sprigs of sweet 
herbs tied in a bit of muslin, cover closely, and let it simmer for nearly 
three hours; then add the clams chopped fine, and two tablespoonfuls 
of browned flour and two of white flour mixed smooth with one ounce 
of butter and a little of the soup; season with half a teaspoonful of 



34 IX TIIE KITCHEN. 

salt and the same of pepper; let it simmer twenty-five minutes; then 
remove the knuckle and the herbs and serve the soup very hot. If 
cloves and mace are liked, put them in the muslin with the sweet herbs. 



OYSTER SOUP. 

Two quarts of oysters. 

Three pints of new milk. 

Three ounces of butter. 

One and a half ounces of flour. 

Salt and pepper to taste and mace if liked. 

Put the milk over boiling water, drain the oysters and put the 
liquor in a saucepan on the stove, wash the oysters and remove every 
particle of shell that may adhere to them. When the milk is hot, add 
the butter and flour, rubbed smoothly together, and thinned with a little 
of the milk; let it cook, stirring slowly, until slightly thickened; the 
liquor, which must be well boiled, skimmed, and hot, may then be added, 
and after that the drained oysters. As soon as they are well puffed, and 
the edges somewhat curled, serve the soup. Half a pint of rich cream 
is a great improvement, and may be used instead of the butter. 

This receipt is for oysters sold by the quart, with but very little 
liquor, — " solid meats " as they are sometimes called. There would be 
hardly half a pint of liquor in the two quarts. When the oysters have 
more liquor, use less milk, that there may not be too much soup. Serve 
with them a plate of small crackers, crisped in the oven. 



A SOUP FROM THE BONES OF ROAST BEEF. 
Two sliced potatoes, weighing about fourteen ounces. 
Two grated carrots, weighing about one and a quarter pounds. 



soup. 35 

One sliced onion. 

One dozen peeled and sliced tomatoes. 

Two quarts of cold water. 

Pepper and salt to taste. 

Crack the bones and pnt them with the water in a closely covered 
kettle; let them simmer slowly for one hour; add the vegetables, boil 
two hours moderately; then season and serve. 

It may be strained or not, but the bones must be removed before 
it is poured in the tureen. If liked, the soup may be made thinner, but 
should boil fifteen minutes after the water is added. 



BEEF SOUP. 

Time for making, three hours and ten minutes. 

Three pounds of lean beef. 

One can of tomatoes. 

One large carrot (twelve ounces) chopped. 

Two onions. 

Two tablespoonfuls of rice. 

Two tablespoonfuls of salt. 

One teaspoonful of pepper. 

Half a teaspoonful of ground cloves. 

Four quarts of cold water. 

Put the beef, carrot, onions, and rice, with the water, in the soup- 
kettle; cover closely, and boil slowly for three hours; add the tomatoes, 
salt, pepper, and cloves; boil ten minutes, and serve. If fresh tomatoes 
are used, peel them, and put them in the kettle forty minutes before 
serving. 



36 IN" THE KITCHEN. 



A CLEAR BEEF SOUP. 

Cazenovia. 

From a beef-shank, cut three or four pounds of the best meat, and 
lay aside until the next day; crush the "bones and put them in the kettle 
with five quarts of water and a little salt; cover closely, and simmer all 
day, adding more water if necessary; then strain through a colander. 
~Next morning remove all the grease from the top, and return the soup 
to the kettle; add the beef, and let it simmer five or six hours; then 
strain it again through a colander. The third morning remove the 
grease; a little before dinner let it just begin to boil, then strain 
through a bit of muslin, and return to the washed kettle; season 
with salt and pepper, add a gill of sherry, or some Worcester sauce, 
and a little celery; parboiled vermicelli may be thrown in five minutes 
before it is served. 



BEEF AND OKRA SOUP. 

One pound of beef (from the round is best). 

Quarter of a pound of butter. 

One gallon of cold water. 

One sliced onion. 

Two handfuls of chopped okra. 

Salt, pepper. 

Cat the beef into small pieces; season with salt and pepper; fry it 
in your soup-kettle with the butter and onion until very brown; then, 
add the water and allow it to simmer an hour; then the okra, and sim- 
mer three or four hours more, when it is ready to serve. It is very 
delicious. 



soup. 37 

ASPARAGUS SOUP. 

Two quarts of veal broth flavored with onion ; boil several bunches 
of asparagus and a little mint ; when the heads are tender cut them off, 
an inch in length, and set them aside; boil the rest until very tender, 
then press it through the sieve and mix it in the soup; add one ounce 
of flour rubbed smooth with two ounces of butter; add salt, cayenne 
pepper, a suspicion of sugar, and a gill of cream; let it simmer until 
the flour is cooked, then throw in the heads of asparagus, and serve. 
If the soup is not green enough, color it with the juice pressed from 
fresh spinach. 

BROTH Iff AW HOUR. 

Cut one pound of lean beef in small pieces, and put it in a stew- 
pan, with one and a half ounces of chopped onion and four ounces of 
chopped carrot, a few thin bits of bacon, and a gill of cold water; let 
them simmer for a quarter of an hour, until they begin to stick to the 
pan; then add one quart of boiling water, with a little salt and pepper; 
boil three quarters of an hour, strain, and serve. It may be boiled 
again after straining, with a small handful of vermicelli, and may be 
seasoned with catsup. 



BROWN VEAL BROTH. 

Fry a slice of veal, one of bacon, and one of beef, a light brown in 
butter, and throw them into a saucepan, with two quarts of boiling 
water, two small onions, and one or two carrots chopped, the rind of 
half a lemon, pepper and salt; let them simmer gently for two hours; 
remove the meat, and strain the soup, if preferred. The veal may be 



38 IN THE KITCHEN". 

cut in dice, and served in the soup. There should be twice as much of 
the veal as of the beef, and the slice of bacon should be thin and small. 



CALF'S HEAD, OR MOCK TURTLE SOUP. 
Boil the head, well covered with water, and cut the meat in two- 
inch squares. Put three ounces of batter, rubbed with three table- 
spoonfuls of flour, in a pot to brown, and when well colored, stir in 
gradually the liquor in which the head was boiled, and the square 
pieces, with some mace, cloves, sweet marjoram, or other sweet herbs, 
pepper, and salt; let it simmer an hour or two; add one and a half 
gills of wine, and just before serving add some lemon-juice. 



MOOK TURTLE SOUP. 
Time for making, four and a half hours. 
Half a calf's head. 

One quarter of a pound of lean ham. 
Two tablespoonfuls of minced parsley. 
Two onions and a few mushrooms chopped. 
A little lemon-thyme, sweet marjoram, and basil minced. 
Two heaped tablespoonfuls of flour. 
One gill of sherry or Madeira. 
Force meat balls. (See page 60.) 
Cayenne, salt, and mace to taste. 
The juice of one or two lemons. 
One dessert spoonful of powdered sugar. 
Three quarts of best stock. 

Scald the head and remove the brain; tie the head in a cloth, and 
boil one hour; cut the meat into small square pieces and throw the 



soup. 39 



bones into cold water; put the meat in a stewpan, cover with the stock, 
and boil gently an hour, or until tender; then set it aside. Melt the but- 
ter in another stewpan, add the ham cut small, with the herbs, parsley, 
onions, and mushrooms; when hot sift in the flour, stir, and let it 
brown, then add gradually a pint of the stock and the wine; stew 
gently ten minutes, and pass it through a sieve; add the tender square 
bits of calf's head, and season with cayenne, a little salt if required, one 
quarter of a teaspoonful of mace, if liked, and the sugar; put in the 
force meat balls, let them simmer for five minutes, then serve. Stew 
the bones in the liquor in which the head was boiled, and you will have 
good white stock. 



MOCK TERRAPIN SOUP. 

Mrs. Tales. 

, Wash two pounds of calf's liver in cold water; put it in one quart 
of warm water and parboil it; take it out, chop it very fine, and return 
it to the same water; season with pepper, salt, a little mace and mus- 
tard; mix two even tablespoonfuls of flour smooth in half a pound of 
butter, stir it in, and let it boil twenty minutes. While the liver is par- 
boiling, mash the yolks of two very hard-boiled eggs, mix them with 
the yolk of a raw egg, half a teaspoonful of sweet oil, and flour enough 
to bind the whole together; make up into round balls the size of a 
small nutmeg, flattened at one end. When the butter is stirred in the 
soup, drop them into boiling water; move the saucepan a little back 
where the boiling will cease, and let them stand for ten minutes; then 
skim them out into the tureen. Add half a pint of sherry to the soup 
and pour it over them. 



40 



EST THE KITCHEN. 



CARROT SOUP. 

Knuckle of veal, about five pounds. 

One gallon of cold water. 

One head of celery, or one half teaspoonful of celery seed. 

One pinch of cayenne pepper. 

Two tablespoonfuls of salt. 

Two and a half pounds chopped carrots. 

Put all the ingredients in the soup-kettle, cover closely, and let 
them boil three hours very slowly; then remove the knuckle and 
serve the soup, which may be strained or not, as preferred. 



CHICKEN" SOUP, MADE IN TWO HOURS AND TEN MINUTES. 

Two chickens. 

Fourteen ounces chopped carrots. 

Two tablespoonfuls of salt. 

Two teaspoonfuls of pepper. 

One can of tomatoes. 

One onion sliced. 

Four quarts of cold water. 

If the chickens are required whole for the table, they should be 
stuffed, trussed, and sewed separately in some thin cotton cloth. If 
they are wanted simply for salad or croquettes, this care is needless. 
Put them in a kettle with the water,, onion, and carrots; let them boil 
slowly, closely covered, for two hours; then take out the chickens, add 
the tomatoes, the pepper, and salt, and let the soup boil ten minutes 
longer. It is then ready to serve. 



SOUP. 



41 



CHICKEX GOMBO SOUP. 

Mrs. M , New Orleans. 

One good-sized fowl. 

Four quarts of water. 

Two ounces of butter. 

One ounce of lard. 

Two ounces of onion, chopped very fine. 

Twenty or thirty oysters. 

Haifa tablespoonful of filet powder. 

Handful of chopped okra, a little flour, cayenne and black pepper, 
salt. 

Cut the fowl, season with salt and pepper, and dredge it with flour ; 
put it in the kettle with the lard, butter, and onion, and fry until quite 
brown; then add the water, cover the pot and allow it to simmer, not 
boil, for two hours; add the oysters and okra, and let it simmer half 
an hour longer. Just before serving, add the filet powder (sassafras 
buds) and a little cayenne. 



SIMPLE GUMBO FILET. 

Upper Gisboro', D. C. 

Cut a fowl of any kind in small pieces, and dredge them well with 
flour; fry them brown in lard; add pepper and salt and three pints of 
water; cover closely, and boil until the soup is well flavored. "When 
ready to serve, thicken it with a tablespoonful of sassafras powder (see 
page 207) and let it boil up once. 



42 IN THE KITCHEN. 



SASSAFEAS GOMBO, OR GOMBO FILET. 

Prof. Alexander Demitry, of New Orleans. 

Take a quart or a pint of oysters, according to the quantity of 
stock required; parboil them in their own liquor, to which, if undiluted, 
add a cupful of water while over the fire. This being done, take them 
off the fire, and set them aside. 

Slice and cut up a good-sized onion, having also ready a teaspoon- 
ful of finely chopped parsley or celery. 

Cut up in not large pieces a chicken or a half of one, according to 
the stock desired, and four or five ounces of ham in small pieces. You 
have now all the materials for your stock, which is made! as follows: — 
First fry your onions in hot lard; when softened and turning brown, 
skim them out of the lard, taking care to leave no particles, which, char- 
ring, would impart a bitter flavor to the stock. 

Then throw into the hot lard your chicken and ham, which, when 
done bi'own, sprinkle gradually with a cupful of hot water, throwing 
in the chopped parsley or celery; cover the vessel, and give a simmer 
of five minutes on a slow fire. At this point may be added, if accepta- 
ble, a half-pod of cayenne pepper, or a sufficient quantity of the ground 
to give pungency; a dash of mushroom catsup, and one of "Worcester 
sauce may be added. No cold water is to be used in making stock. 
Continue every five minutes to add a cupful of hot water, keeping up 
the simmering, but never boiling, until you have your due quantity of 
stock for the number of plates which you may have to serve. The last 
addition of liquid, to complete, is to be made from the liquor of the 
oysters, which, with them, is thrown in to simmer a few minutes more. 

Thus far, we have a rich composite stew, which is now to be con- 
verted into gombo by the following process: Have ready about a 



soup. 43 

heaped tablespoonful of sassafras leaves (dried), finely powdered. 
Draw your stock from the fire, and by sprinkling the sassafras over the 
liquid, rapidly beating it at the same time with a spoon, thoroughly 
incorporate the powder with the stock, and Io Pcean! the gombo is done. 

JSlota Bene. — Never attempt to add the sassafras while the vessel 
is on the fire. The result of so doing would be to precipitate the 
powder to the bottom of the vessel, and, literally, send your gombo to 
pot. 

At the table, the gombo may be served as a thickened soup, to be< 
eaten with boiled rice or bread, as may be preferred. The rice, how- 
ever, is an element in the ritual of gombo. 

Sassafras leaves, prepared and put up in jars, can be obtained at 
botanical stores and of cuisiniers. 



TO MAKE A CRAB GOMBO. 

Mrs. I. E. Morse. 

Substitute a dozen crabs, or a dozen, and a half, should they be 
small, for the chicken; prepare them as you would for stewing, then 
sprinkle them well with flour, throw them in the boiling lard, which is 
already impregnated with the flavor of onion; add the bits of ham; fol- 
low the directions for chicken gombo, omitting only the oysters. For 
a Fast-Day dinner, a quarter of a pound of butter may be used instead 
of the ham. 

OEEA OOMB 0. 

Mrs. I. E. Morse. 

This is prepared as the above, using instead of the sassafras two 
quarts of tender okra, which should be boiled well in a separate tin, and 



44 IN THE KITCHEN. 

added to the stock about fifteen minutes before serving the soup 
Gombo should be served as a thickened soup, and eaten with boilec 
rice. 



OKRA SOTTP. 

H. A. W. Barclay.- 



Put into your digester or soup-pot a shin or shoulder clod of beef, 
with three quarts of water and a little salt; let it boil, and skim it 
well. Cut in thin slices (having pared off the stalk) a 'quart of okra, 
to which add the same quantity of tomato, peeled and sliced; put 
these in the pot, with four or six shred onions, a bunch of thyme tied 
in muslin, and salt and pepper to your taste; let it boil very slowly 
for six hours, stirring it occasionally. If boiled down, add more water 
half an hour before serving. Pour all in the tureen, save the beef and 
thyme. 



OKRA SOUP. 

Db. Picot. 



One chicken. 

One pound of veal. 

Two pounds of beef. 

Half a peck of okra. 

One pint of green corn. 

One pint of Lima beans. 

Four quarts of water. 

Six good-sized tomatoes. 

One green and one red pepper. 



soup. 45 

One carrot. 

One onion. 

One tablespoonful of butter. 

Three even tablespoonfuls of salt. 
. Three or four sprigs of parsley. 

Three or four stalks of celery. 

Cut the chicken and put it in the kettle with the butter and toma- 
toes, which must be peeled and sliced; add the veal and beef, cut in 
small pieces, and the okra sliced, the green corn cut from the ear, the 
.beans, celery, parsley, and salt, with one quart of water. Boil three or 
four hours; add the remainder of the water, let it boil half an hour, 
then strain it and serve, reserving the okra, corn, etc., to be eaten as a 
vegetable in the second course ; or remove simply the meat with part of 
the vegetables, leaving a tolerably thick soup. 

This is especially good the second day. 



MtTLLIGATAWNEY SOUP. 

General Stuart. 

Three pounds of a neck of veal stewed in two quarts of water, 
until reduced to one quart. Six grated onions put into a stewpan with 
two tablespoonfuls of curry powder, a pint and a half of water, and 
salt to the taste. Stew gently until the onions are melted, then add 
the gravy from the veal, and a fowl, cut up and skinned; let them 
all stew together gently until the fowl is well done; then take two 
good-sized onions and slice them very fine, fry them brown, rub 
them through a sieve, and add them to the soup, taking care that the 
fat is previously well skimmed off; add lemon-juice to your taste, and 
serve with a dish of well-boiled rice. 



46 IN THE KITOHEK. 



MTJLLIGATAWNEY SOUP, NO. 2. 

Slice six large onions and two heads of celery; fry in a little but- 
ter till colored; add basil and sweet marjoram, three tablespoonfuls of 
curry, and four quarts of stock; thicken moderately with flour rubbed 
in butter; let it boil gently, and rub through a sieve. Cut a good-sized 
fowl, or two chickens, and fry lightly; throw them in the soup, and let 
it simmer an hour; skim, and season with salt and lemon-juice. Serve 
with it rice, boiled dry. 



MTJLLIGATAWNEY SOUP. 

English Ebceipx. 

Two tablespoonfuls of curry. 

Six rather small onions. 

One clove of garlic. 

One ounce pounded almonds. 

Lemon pickle. 

One fowl or rabbit cut in small joints. 

Four thin slices of the lean of ham. 

Two quarts of stock. 

Slice and fry the onions a delicate brown, and slightly brown the 
joints of the fowl or rabbit; line the stewpan with the ham, and put in 
the onion, garlic, fowl, and stock; let them simmer until tender; skim, 
and when the meat is done add the curry rubbed smooth with a little 
of the stock, also the almonds, pounded with a few drops of the stock 
added occasionally; season to the taste with lemon pickle, and salt if 
necessary. Serve with boiled rice. 



soup. 47 



MUTTON SOUP. 
Boil a leg of mutton in two quarts of water. Have a can of 
tomatoes, heated and highly seasoned with pepper, salt, and grated 
onion. "When the mutton is cooked, take it from the kettle and keep 
it hot while the soup is made and served. To three pints of the broth 
add the tomatoes and one pint of hot milk; let them boil up once, then 
serve, being sure that the soup is sufficiently seasoned. 



NOODLE SOUP. 
Beat one egg with a small pinch of salt; mix stiff with flour, 
knead, and roll very thin; sift a little flour over the sheet, and roll it 
into a tight scroll; then with a sharp knife cut it as you would a roll of 
jelly-cake, but the slices must not be more than one eighth of an inch 
thick; shake it out and leave it on the floured board, while the two 
quarts of stock, which may be of any kind, are heated and seasoned. 
When boiling hot drop in the noodles, boil five minutes, and serve. 



RICE SOUP. 
Prepare two quarts of veal or chicken soup, and let it simmer, 
closely covered, with one gill of rice until the grains are nearly dis- 
solved; add pepper, salt, a little mace if liked, and half a pint of 
cream; just before serving, throw in the sifted yolks of four hard-boiled 
eggs; send to the table with a plate of rice croquettes. 



PARKER HOUSE SOUP. 
Pare and cut a medium-sized carrot, a beet, and a turnip, also two 
small onions; slice three quarts of tomatoes; boil the whole one hour 



48 IX THE KITCHEN. 

in three quarts of good beef-stock and strain it through the colander. 
Heat five ounces of butter in a pan, until it becomes a light brown ; 
take it from the fire, and while hot sift in four even tablespoonfuls of 
flour; mix well, add a pint of the hot soup, and then pour the whole in 
the soap-kettle; season with pepper, salt, and a dessertspoonful of 
sugar; place it on. the fire and stir until it boils; boil and skim it five 
minutes. In the winter two cans of tomatoes may be used in place of 
the fresh, and the soup may be strained before they are added. 



SPINACH SOUP. 
Boil spinach and prepare it as for the table, with salt, butter, and 
cream; press it through the sieve into a good stock soup, well seasoned, 
and flavored with vegetables; add a gill of cream; let it boil a moment, 
and serve. 



SOUP A LA JULIENNE. 



Two quarts of clear stock. 

Half a pint of carrots. 

Half a pint of turnips. 

Quarter of a pint of onions. 

Half a head of celery. 

Cut all the vegetables into strips about one and a quarter inches 
long; blanch them a few moments in boiling water; let them simmer 
in the soup until tender; season with salt and pepper. In summer 
asparagus heads and bits of string beans may be used. 



SOUP WITH POACHED EGGS. 
Any kind of clear soup may be used ; it should be well seasoned, 
and if liked, a few sticks of blanched macaroni (see page 61) may be 



soup. 49 

simmered in it ten minutes or until tender. Wet or butter as many 
patty-pans or cups as there are plates at table; break an egg in each; 
put them in a pan on the stove, and pour boiling water gently around 
and over them. "When the white is set, loosen them from the cups, slide 
them carefully into the tureen, pour in the hot soup, and serve. 



SUMMER SOUP. 

Put a beef-shank in a kettle, with four quarts of water; boil slowly 
for six hours, or until the water is reduced to two quarts. An hour 
before serving, add one pint of green corn cut very fine, six ripe toma- 
toes sliced, four small potatoes sliced, and two or three sliced onions; 
sweet herbs, if liked ; season to the taste with pepper and salt. Just 
before taking it up add half a pint of fresh cream, in which a table- 
spoonful of flour has been smoothly mixed. 



TAPIOCA SOUP. 

Soak one ounce of tapioca in half a gill of water for two hours ; 
throw it in two and a half pints of well-seasoned broth, cover closely, 
and let it simmer twenty minutes. 



SAGO AND TOMATO SOUP. 

Boil two quarts of peeled, sliced tomatoes, and a sliced onion, until 
half cooked. Pour a pint and a half of boiling water on a gill of sago, 
let it boil ten minutes, then put it with the tomatoes, and add a quart of 
boiling water; season with two tablespoonfuls of salt, three of sugar, 
a teaspoonful of pepper, and four cloves, and boil until the tomatoes are 



50 IK THE KITCHEN". 

done; if too thick, add boiling, water, and more seasoning if liked. 
When the soup is in the tureen, strew it with bread dice (page 61). 



TOMATO SOUP. 

Beef-shin weighing seven pounds. 

Four quarts of cold water. 

Two quarts of sliced tomatoes. 

Six onions. 

Three ounces of bread crumbs. 

One and a half ounces of salt. 

One third of a teaspoonful of red pepper. 

Cut the meat in bits (there must be no fat), crush the bone, and 
put all in the soup-kettle with the water; cover closely, and heat 
slowly. When it begins to boil, leave it uncovered until all the scum 
has risen and been removed ; then re-cover, and boil slowly for two and 
a half hours; add the tomatoes, onions, bread, pepper, and salt; then 
cover closely, and boil very slowly for six hours. 

This soup may be strained or not. If strained, the tomatoes need 
not be peeled. 

TURTLE BEAN SOUP, NO. 1. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Wash and soak over night in tepid water one pint of black beans; 
in the morning add four quarts of cold water, a shin-bone of beef or 
veal, salt, cayenne pepper, and thyme, two onions, two tomatoes, one 
large head of celery, two teaspoonfuls of allspice, one teaspoonful of 
cloves, one tablespoonful of catsup. Keep the original quantity of 
water by replenishing from a boiling kettle. After several hours, when 



soup. 51 

the beans are soft, strain through a colander, mashing the beans. Have 
ready force meat balls, made of veal, and a little salt pork chopped fine; 
add one egg; season to taste; make into small balls, and fry in butter 
and lard; lay them in the tureen with two sliced boiled eggs, and one 
lemon sliced very thin; pour in the boiling soup, and serve. If boiled 
calf's feet are at hand, cut some of the meat fine and add to the soup; 
it will be found a great addition. 



TURTLE BEAN SOUP, NO. 2. 

Half a pound of beef. 

Half a pound of salt pork. 

Two or three ounces of sausage. 

One pint of black beans. 

Half a gill of wine. 

One carrot, and one onion sliced. 

Two tablespoonfuls of salt. 

A pinch of red pepper. 

One lemon. 

Three eggs, hard boiled. 

Wash the beans, pour over them one pint of hot water, cover, and 
let them soak over night; then put them in the sonp-kettle, with two 
quarts of hot water, the carrot and onion, the beef and pork ; boil three 
or four hours closely covered; rub the whole through the colander, and 
add boiling water to make the quantity three quarts ; add the salt and 
pepper. The sausage may be cut in uniform bits, about an inch long, 
and thrown in to cook ten minutes; when ready to serve, skim them 
out, remove the skin, and lay them in the tureen, with the sliced eggs, 
the lemon, and wine; pour in the soup, and serve. The remains of a 



52 IN THE KITCHEN. 

cold joint may be used for this soup instead of the fresh meat, and to 
the seasoning, mace and cloves may be added. 



WHITE SOUP (Medford). 

Put a knuckle of veal in the pot, and cover it with cold water; 
when it boils, skim thoroughly; let it simmer, closely covered, two 
hours or more; then strain it, add pepper, salt, a little mace, and a 
handful of vermicelli; boil slowly ten minutes; then place the pot back 
where the boiling will cease; add an ounce of butter and a cup of 
cream, and stir in quickly the well-beaten yolks of four eggs. Serve at 
once. 

COCOANUT SOUP. 

Put six ounces of grated cocoanut in two quarts of good veal 
stock and let it simmer for one hour, keeping it covered; strain it 
Closely; add a gill of hot cream, half a tcaspoonful of mace, a pinch of 
cayenne, salt to the taste, and four even tablespoonfuls of flour, mixed 
smooth in a little cold milk; let it boil a moment, then serve. 



WHITE SOUP, WO. 1. 

A knuckle of veal weighing from five to seven pounds. 

Four quarts of cold water. 

Three pints of new milk or thin cream. 

Six ounces of bread crumbs. 

Two ounces of butter. 

One ounce of salt. 

One and a half ounces of flour. 



soup. 53 

Twelve small white onions. 

Haifa teaspoonful of cayenne pepper. 

Pour the water over the veal and let it boil uncovered until the 
scum has risen and been removed; then cover closely, and let it boil 
very slowly, or simmer, for three hours ; add the bread, and continue the 
slow cooking for three hours more ; then strain, return to the kettle ; 
add the salt and pepper, also the butter and flour rubbed together, and 
thinned with a spoonful or two of the soup; let it boil two minutes to 
cook the flour; then add the milk, and when it is on the point of boil- 
ing pour it in the tureen. If too thin, have three beaten eggs in the 
tureen; this will thicken the scalding soup as it is poured in; stir it 
sufficiently to mix well. 



WHITE SOUP, NO. 2. 

A knuckle of veal, five pounds. 

Three quarts and one pint of cold water. 

One quart of milk. 

Six ounces of cut celery. 

Four ounces of broken macaroni. 

Two tablespoonfuls of salt. 

One teaspoonful of white pepper. 

Three eggs. 

Crush the lower part of the bone, put the whole in the kettle with 
the water, and let it heat slowly; when it boils skim it well, then let it 
boil very slowly for two and a half hours; skim it again, add the celery, 
and boil another half hour; then take out the knuckle, and a pint of 
the soup to make a gravy for it; add the milk, pepper, salt, and 
blanched macaroni (see page 61), and let it boil slowly until the maca- 



54 IX THE KITCHEN. 

roni is tender. "When ready to serve, beat the eggs in the tureen, and 
pour the boiling soup on them; stir and send to the table. There 
should be nearly three quarts. 



WHITE SOUP WITH ALMONDS. 

One. quart of veal jelly. 

One pint of cream. 

Four ounces of sweet almonds blanched and pounded to a paste, 
using a little water to prevent their becoming oily. 

Two ounces of butter rubbed with three tablespoonfuls of flour. 

One teaspoonful of white pepper. 

Two and a half teaspoonfuls of salt. 

Haifa teaspoonful of powdered mace. 

The rind of a lemon. 

Put the cream over boiling water with the lemon rind; put the 
jelly on the stove, and when hot pour it gradually in the cream; add 
all the other ingredients, and let it simmer fifteen minutes. Take out 
the lemon when the soup is sufficiently flavored. 



VEGETABLE SOUP. 

One and a half pounds, or one sliced turnip. 

One and a half pounds, or one sliced carrot. 

Seven ounces, or two sliced onions. 

Four ounces of cut celery. 

Half an ounce of flour. 

Three ounces of butter. 

Three quarts and a pint of water. 



soup. . 55 

Two even tablespoonfuls of salt. 

One teaspoonful of pepper. 

A sprig of parsley. 

A few tender leaves of celery. 

Put all of the above ingredients in two quarts of the water, and 
boil them until perfectly tender, When the water will be nearly absorbed ; 
rub the whole through a sieve, add the three pints of water, and when 
it boils, stir in the butter, having softened it with a little of the hot soup, 
and rubbed it smooth with the flour, salt, and pepper; let it boil two 
or three minutes, then serve. 

A parsnip may be used instead of the carrot, and a gill of rich 
cream will do the soup no harm. 



CELERY SOUP. 

Put half a pint of rice, boiled as a vegetable, into two quarts of 
boiling milk, with a head of celery cut very fine ; cover, and let it stew 
over boiling water until the celery is tender; season to the taste with 
butter, salt, white pepper, and a little mace, if liked. Have two well- 
beaten eggs in the tureen ; pour in the soup, and scatter crisp bread dice 
(see page 61) over the top. 



CORN SOUP. 

One and a half pints of corn cut from the cob. 

One quart of cold water. 

One quart of milk. 

Three ounces of butter. 

Three even tablespoonfuls of flour. 



56 IN THE KITCHEN. 

Three even teaspoonfuls of salt. 

One fourth of a teaspoonful of cayenne pepper. 

Two eggs. 

Take the corn from the cob in this way: cut through the centre of 
every row of grains, then cut off just the outer part, and with the back 
of the blade push out the kernel and the milk, leaving only the hull on 
the cob. Of this, take one and a half pints, cover with the cold water, 
and boil until tender; it is well to allow half an hour, but if done sooner 
it can wait without harm. Then rub the butter and flour, salt and 
pepper together, with a little of the soup; stir them in and let it bail 
up ; then add the milk and let it barely break into boiling before stirring 
in the beaten eggs; after which, it must not be allowed to boil. Serve 
very hot. 

ONION SOUP. 

Slice a dozen medium-sized onions, and brown them in butter, 
with a little flour; stir them gradually in three quarts of scalding 
milk, which should be in a milkpan, over a kettle of boiling water ; 
season with pepper and salt, and thicken it with half a pint of grated 
potato ; add half a pint of sweet cream, and serve very hot. A. little 
butter may be used instead of cream. 



PEA SOUP (Green). 

Pour two quarts of cold water on two quarts of clean, tender pea- 
pods, and boil them half an hour; strain the water on one quart and a 
gill of shelled peas; add half of an onion, grated, and boil until tender; 
reserve the gill of peas and pass the rest through the colander with the 
soup; add three itablespoonfuls of flour rubbed with three ounces of 



soup. 57 

butter, two and a half teaspoonfuls of salt, one of pepper, half a pint of 
cream and the same of milk; throw in the gill of whole peas, boil two 
or three minutes, and serve. If mint is liked, a little may be chopped 
and put in the tureen. This rule makes less than two quarts of soup. 



PEA SOUP (Dried). 

Time Three Hours, 

One pint of split peas. 

Three pints of water. 

One small onion. 

Half a head of celery. 

Half a small carrot. 

Boil until the peas are cooked. To hasten the cooking, pour in, 
every half hour, half a gill of cold water, and start the boiling imme- 
diately afterwards; this saves the necessity of previous soaking. When 
the peas are soft, rub them with the liquor through a wire sieve; add 
one pint of sweet cream, and sufficient milk to make it the desired con- 
sistency; season with pepper and salt. 



POTATO SOUP. 

Mrs. Stkattan. 

Three pounds of unpared potatoes. 

A quarter of a pound of butter. 

Three pints of milk. 

One tablespoonful of chopped parsley. 

Three teaspoonfuls of salt. 

Two thirds of a teaspoonful of white pepper. 



53 IN THE KITCHEN. 

One onion. 

A pinch of mace. 

Pare the potatoes, and boil until tender, pour off the water, pound 
them, and add the butter, salt, pepper, and milk; boil two or three min- 
utes ; put the parsley in the soup tureen, and pour in the soup through 
a colander. 



POTATO SOUP. 

Mary. 



Slice one and a half pounds of pared potatoes, and boil them in 
one quart of water; pass the whole through a colander; add one quart 
of milk, two teaspoonfuls of salt, one and a half ounces of flour rubbed 
until smooth in two ounces of butter, half a teaspoonful of white 
pepper; add two gills of rich cream, and serve very hot. 



TOMATO SOUP MADE IN FIFTEEN MINUTES. 

Hudson. 

One can of tomatoes. 

Two ounces of butter. 

Quarter of an ounce, or two butter crackers. 

Half a pint of boiling milk. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Half a teaspoonful of soda. 

A very small pinch of cayenne pepper. 

Bub the tomato through the colander; let it boil three minutes; add 
the soda and let it boil until it stops foaming, stirring it all the time; 
add the crackers rolled fine, the butter, salt, pepper, and the boiling 
milk; let it boil five minutes, then serve. 



SOUP. 



59 



TOMATO SOUP, NO. 1. 

Friday. 

Two quarts of tomatoes (canned or fresh). 

Two quarts of milk. 

Two ounces of flour. 

Two ounces of butter. 

One teaspoonful of pepper. 

One teaspoonful of soda. 

Four teaspoonfuls of salt. 

If fresh tomatoes are used, peel and slice them ; boil the tomatoes 
until thoroughly cooked, from half to three quarters of an hour; have 
the milk scalding over boiling water; add the salt and pepper to the 
tomatoes; also the butter and flour rubbed together, and made of the 
consistency of cream, with a little of the hot tomato; stir in the soda, 
having first dissolved it in a spoonful of the soup; 1 let it boil a few 
minutes, then pour in the boiling milk, and serve at once, with fried 
bread dice thrown over the top. 



TOMATO SOUP, NO. 2. 

Friday. 

One can or one quart of fresh tomatoes. 

One onion. 

Four ounces of butter. 

Two ounces of flour. 

Two tablespoonfuls of sugar. 

Two tablespoonfuls of salt. 

One third of a teaspoonful of cayenne pepper. 



60 IN THE KITCHEN. 

Half a pint of rich milt. 

Three pints of water. 

If fresh tomatoes are used, peel and/ slice them ; boil the tomatoes 
and onion in the water for three quarters of an hour; add the salt, 
sugar, and pepper, and the butter and flour rubbed smoothly together, 
with a little of the soup to aid in mixing, and a little more to make it 
like thin cream; boil ten minutes, and when ready to serve, pour in the 
milk, which must be boiling, to prevent its curdling the soup. When 
.the soup is in the tureen, scatter fried bread dice over the top (see 
page 61). 



SOUP (Liebig). 
Mince a pound of beef, without bone, very fine; pour over it a pint 
of cold water in which a turnip, carrot, onion, and a clove have been 
boiled; heat gradually, and let it simmer ten minutes, when it is fit for 
use ; season with pepper and salt. 



TO BROWN FLOUR FOR SOUPS AND GRAVIES. 
Put a pint of flour in an iron saucepan on the range, and when it 
begins to heat stir constantly until it is dark brown, but be very care- 
ful not to let it burn; when cold, put it in a covered jar or large- 
mouthed bottle, and keep it from the air. More of this is required for 
thickening a gravy than of flour that has not been browned. 



FORCE MEAT BALLS FOR SOUP. 
Twelve ounces of veal. 
Three ounces of salt pork. 



soup. 61 

Two ounces of grated bread. 

Three tablespoonfuls of sweet cream. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Haifa teaspoonful of pepper. 

Half a teaspoonful of summer savory. 

One egg beaten with the cream. 

The veal and pork must be chopped fine as possible, well mixed 
with the other ingredients, and made into smooth, round balls, a little 
larger than an ordinary marble; roll them in egg, then in fine grated 
bread; place them on the frying-basket, and fry in deep lard. When 
the soup is ready to serve, lay a dozen or more in the tureen. 



VERMICELLI AND MACARONI FOR SOUP. 

Pour a quart of boiling water on half a pound of vermicelli or mac- 
aroni; add a pinch of salt; cover, and let it stand fifteen minutes; drain, 
and pour cold water over it; drain, and let it simmer five minutes in the 
soup; allow a little more time for macaroni than for vermicelli. 



BREAD BROWNED AND CRISPED FOR SOUP. 

Cut moderately thick slices of stale bread; take off the crust, and 
cut the crumb into small dice; put them in the frying-basket, sink it in 
hot lard or drippings, and remove it as soon as the bread is browned ; 
let it drain; then serve in a dish alone, or scatter it over the soup in the 
tureen. 



62 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



FOR ADDITIONAL KEOEDPTS. 



6B 



64 



FOR ADDITIONAL, RECEIPTS. 



FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 65 



66 FOE ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



FRYIXG. 67 



PHYIN a. 



The secret of accomplishing this work to perfection is to have the lard so deep that it 
entirely covers what you wish to fry, and so hot as instantly to form a crust over the entire 
surface. If further cooking is necessary, the heat must be reduced. Says Savarin, " In frying, 
when once the surprise has been effected, lower the fire a little, so that the stewing of the 
interior particles may not be too quick, and in order that the gradual heat may better bring 
out the taste." By this mode we avoid the fat-soaked, unwholesome dishes which are so often 
the result of the usual method of frying. 

E. S & E. I. Delamere, of London, say, " The best frying is done by plunging the article 
entirely in boiling fat. How often do we see fried potatoes and soles mere slices of something 
sodden in grease. Boiling grease does not enter articles plunged into it, but forms a crust on 
their surface, which keeps it out. A well-fried sole will hardly soil the napkin on which it is 
laid." Either lard or drippings may bo used for this purpose. Test the heat with a bit of 
bread an inch square: if it browns in one minute, the heat is right. 

In frying croquettes, lay them in a frying-basket, and plunge it in the hot lard ; this forms 
at once a crust over the outside, which prevents the fat from penetrating. When a beautiful 
brown, put the basket in a pan for a moment, while you transfer the croquettes to a folded 
brown paper to absorb any drops that may adhere to them. They are so dry you can lift 
them with the hand, and thus avoid the danger of marring the surface. Serve on a folded 
napkin on a platter. If it is not quite time to send them to the table, let them remain on the 
paper in the mouth of the oven to keep hot. 

Have an oval pan or kettle for frying fish; it may be made of tin. Have also an oval 
basket; any tinner can make it. It is better without sides. Form the edge with a heavy wire, 
and have fine wires running across, half an inch apart, or have it made of coarse wire cloth 
bound with tin. At each end there must be a long wire loop for a handle. It is very easy to 
take up a fish cooked in this way: Lift the frame from the kettle, let it stand for a moment 
across a pan that the lard may drip; loosen it with a knife from the frame, and slide it off on 
the hot platter. Have a round basket for croquettes made to fit the kettle you wish to use. In 
frying doughnuts the basket is not necessary. 

For browning a mould, an oval pint-mould of potato, for instance, have a piece of sheet- 



68 IN THE KITCHEN. 

iron, cut about an inch larger than the top of the tin mould, with a wire hand's at each end; 
lay it on the mould, turn it upside down, remove the mould, cover the potato r.-'.'h the yolk of 
an egg, and sift over it very fine bread crumbs; wipe the edge of the sheet-iro i. then plunge 
it instantly in the hot lard. The potato must be hot when it goes in, so it will require nothing 
more than browning; and when this is perfect, lift the whole from the lard, pass a knife 
between it and the potato, and slide it carefully into the centre of a platter, where the irregu- 
larities of the edge may be concealed with a garnish of curled parsley. 



FISH. 



TO STEAM A FISH. 
Secure the tail of the fish in its mouth; lay it on a plate, and pour 
over it half a pint of vinegar, seasoned with pepper and salt; let it stand 
an hour in the refrigerator; then pour off the vinegar, and put in a 
steamer over boiling water; steam twenty minutes, or longer if the fish 
is very large (when done, the meat parts easily from the bone) ; drain 
well, and serve on a napkin garnished with curled parsley ; serve drawn 
butter in a boat. 



TO BOIL A TROUT WEIGHING OWE POUND. 

"When properly scaled and dressed, wrap it in a napkin, drop it into 

boiling water, in which there is a little salt, and boil only four or five 

minutes; drain it well, and serve on a fresh napkin, garnished with 

parsley. The sauce with which it is eaten should be served in a boat. 



BASS STEWED WITH TOMATO 

Atteb M. S. W., "Choice Receipts." 

Stew a can or one quart of fresh tomatoes half an hour; slice two 
onions and fry them in one and a half gills of sweet oil; cut four pounds 



FISH. 69 

of the fish in square pieces; put it in the saucepan with the onions and 
oil; strain the tomatoes over it; add salt and pepper to the taste ; cover 
closely, and stew slowly for an hour or more. The fish must keep in 
form. 



STEWED ROCK. 

Clynmaleara. 

Slice six large onions, brown them well with flour and butter; they 
should be browned as dark and crisp as possible without burning; put 
them in the fish-kettle, then lay in the fish on its belly; cover it with 
lard or butter, to prevent the skin from breaking; pour over it a quart 
of water, in which two teaspoonfuls of thyme and two of sweet mar- 
joram have been well steeped; cover, and cook very slowly. Just 
bjfore serving add one dozen picked crabs, one gill of walnut catsup, 
one gill of mushroom catsup, and one and a quarter gills of port wine. 
In the winter two quarts of oysters are used instead of the crabs. It 
requires three quarters of a pound of butter in cooking, and should 
remain on the fire two hours. 



STEWED HADDOCK. 
Mrs. D. 

Split the fish lengthwise, and cut from four to five pounds in square 
pieces; boil the fins and head, and strain the liquor; butter a porcelain 
saucepan, and lay the fish in with the flesh downwards, having sprin- 
kled each piece with cayenne pepper, mace, salt, and flour; put a pint 
of the liquor in the saucepan, cover, and let it simmer gently for twenty 
minutes, occasionally shaking the pan ; add two teaspoonfuls of Read- 



70 IN THE KITCHEN. 

ing sauce, the same of anchovy, and half a pint of sherry or Madeira 
wine ; rub two ounces of butter with two even tablespoonfuls of flour, 
and stir it in the gravy; add more mace and cayenne, if necessary; let it 
simmer ten minutes, and serve in a deep dish garnished with parsley 
and lemon. The gravy must be poured over the fish. 



CURRIED COD. 

Two slices of cod, or the remains of any cold fish, about one and a 
quarter pounds. 

Three ounces of butter. 

One gill of cream 

Two gills of white stock. 

One tablespoonful of flour. 

One tablespoonful of curry powder. 

One grated onion. 

Salt and pepper to taste. 

Flake the fish and fry it in the butter, with the onion until it is a 
delicate brown; put it in the stewpan, add the stock, and the flour 
rubbed smooth with a little of the stock; let it simmer ten minutes; 
mix the curry, with the cream, beginning with a little of the latter; add 
it to the other, ingredients ; let it boil once, and serve. 



MARYLAND CHOWDER. 
A chowder may be made of any fish, or of different kinds together, 
but there is nothing better than the shoulder of a large cod, or good- 



FISH. 71 

sized haddock. Have the fish well cleaned, and cut into pieces of uni- 
form size. 

Two pounds of fish. 

Half a pound of water crackers. 

Two ounces of butter. 

One pint of oysters or clams. 

One gill of cream. 

One gill of water. 

One onion sliced. 

One tablespoonful of salt. 

Half a teaspoonful of black pepper. 

Half a teaspoonful of mace. 

One third of a teaspoonful of cayenne pepper. 

Put the water in a saucepan or clean iron pot; put in the onion, 
lay in half of the fish, the skin side down, and sprinkle over it half 
the salt, pepper, etc., then put in half of the oysters or clams; cover 
them with half the butter, in small lumps, and half of the crackers; 
then the rest of the fish, oysters, seasoning, butter, and crackers; pour 
the cream over the top, having first boiled it. If the oysters or clams 
have much liquor, the water will not be required; if the chowder is 
found too dry, a little more water may be added. Cover close, and 
stew half an hour. Serve on a platter. Milk may be used instead of 
cream; pork or bacon, cut in small pieces, gives it a very good flavor. 

This dish differs from the New England chowder in being eaten 
with a fork from a dinner-plate, instead of with a spoon from a soup-plate. 



CLAM CHOWIER. 
One pint of clams (the hard part chopped). 
Three quarters of a pound of potatoes. 



72 



IN THE KITCHEN. 



Three Boston crackers, broken in small bits. 

Three small slices of salt pork. 

Half a teaspoonful of white pepper. 

Half a gill of cream. 

Put the pork in a saucepan, and fry it slowly until crisp ; then put 
in the clams and sliced potatoes, in layers with the pepper; add the 
liquor from the clams, and sufficient water to cook the potatoes; when 
they are tender, throw in the cracker, let it boil a moment add the cream, 
and a little salt if necessary, and serve on a platter. 



CLAM CHOWDER. 

DR. COLMAX, SWAMPSCOTT. 

Blanch a quarter of a pound of fat pork (pickled) in hot water, 
drain, and cut into small dice; fry brown in a porcelain-lined kettle; 
shred in a small onion (say one and one fourth inches in diameter) and 
brown it. 

Remove from the fire and add : 

One quart of well-washed, thinly-sliced potatoes. 1 

One large teaspoonful of salt. 2 

One small teaspoonful of black pepper. 

One pint of the water from the clams. 

One quart of cold water. 

Replace upon the fire and boil until the potatoes are cooked; 
test by breaking with a fork. Then add one quart of solid clams. 3 

1 Potatoes for chowder should be sliced thin, and then washed in at least two waters. 

s If water is used instead of the liquor from the clams, one and a half teaspoonfuls of salt 
should be taken. 

3 Some cooks chop the hard part of the clams before cooking, and it is advisable to do so, 
and to remove the hard, uneatable black tips, when they are large. 



FISH. 



73 



"Now mix gradually and smoothly, one pint of milk with two and one 
half ounces of flour, and acid it; let the whole boil up; remove from 
the fire and serve. 

Crackers or pilot bread to be added, if at all, — not desirable, — 
just after the clams. 

The bacon mentioned by foreign writers is equivalent to our salt, 
pickled, or mess pork, and is not like the smoked sides and shoulders 
with which we are familiar under the name of bacon, side meat, etc. 

N. B. The dish prepared without pork is not a chowder, but 
rather like an oyster stew. 



GLOUCESTER CHOWDER, 
Boil six pounds of cod or haddock (the latter is better) five min- 
utes in one quart of water. Take the kettle from the fire, put the fish 
on a plate to cool, strain the water, and return it to the kettle with five 
or six (more if liked) sliced potatoes and a sliced onion; boil until 
they are nearly cooked, then add the fish, the bones and skin having 
been removed; add two quarts of milk, with pepper and salt to taste, 
and boil five minutes; take off the kettle, add six or eight Boston 
crackers split. Some prefer the hard-water crackers, which require a 
few moments cooking in the chowder; add two and a half ounces of 
butter, and stir gently to mix the ingredients. Pour into the tureen ? 
and serve very hot. 

PLANKED SHAD. 

A thick oak board is prepared for this purpose with wooden pegs; 

the fish is opened, spread, and laid on the board, and secured with the 

pegs; the plank is then placed before a clear fire, the end resting in a 

shallow iron pan, with a little salt and water, with which, the toasting 



7-1 



ix the kitchen. 



fish is basted; when almost cooked, baste with butter also. In serv- 
ing, add a little walnut catsup to the gravy; pour it over the fish, and 
garnish with pickled walnuts. 



POTTED SHAD. 
Cut the fish in pieces to suit the jar, pack them closely, and 
sprinkle over each layer a little of this mixture: A teacupful of salt, 
a tablespoonful of black pepper, a teaspoonful of cayenne pepper and 
one of cloves, two teaspoonfuls of allspice and two of mace, all well 
pulverized. Do this until the jar is filled, then cover the whole with 
vinegar, cover the jar with a cloth, and put a piece of dough over the 
cloth to prevent the steam from evaporating. Bake in a moderate 
oven. 

SCALLOPED FISH. 

Two pounds of cold boiled fish. 

Half a pound of butter. 

Two ounces of flour. 

One pint and one gill of milk. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Quarter of a teaspoonful of cayenne. 

One nutmeg. 

The yolks of four eggs. 

Take the bones and the skin from the fish, and pick it up in bits 
about an inch long and half the thickness of the little finger. Scald 
one pint of the milk over boiling water, and add the flour mixed 
smooth with the remainder of the milk; let it cook until thicker than 
boiled custard; take it from the fire, and immediately whip in the 
beaten yolks, the butter, cayenne, salt, and half of the nutmeg. 



FISH. 75 

Butter a baking-dish and make in it first a layer of the dress- 
ing, then of the fish, and so on until the dish is full, letting the last 
layer be of the dressing; cover it with grated bread, and grate over 
it the other half of the nutmeg. Bake three quarters of an hour 
in a moderate oven; too much heat will make the fish dry. 



COLLARED EEL. 

Skin the eel, cut off the head and top of the tail; split ft down the 
belly from end to end; remove the back-bone; lay it flat like a ribbon; 
wash, drain, and dry with a napkin; sprinkle the inner surface through- 
out with salt, ground pepper, and allspice; grated nutmeg also, if 
approved, and a little chopped parsley or sage. 

Roll the eel very tightly together, beginning at the broadest end, 
until you reach the tail. Tie it around in several places very tightly, 
with broad tape; put it in a covered earthen pot, cover well with 
vinegar and water, throw in a little salt, whole pepper, cloves, and a 
bay-leaf; bake in a slow oven; when done, keep it covered with the 
liquor. It may be served whole, or sliced, when cold, after removing 
the tape. ! 

BROILED EELS. 
Clean, skin, and split them; broil them over a clear fire; season 
with pepper, salt, and a little butter. 



TO FRY BLACK BASS. 

A Canadian Receipt. 

Cut off the head; make four incisions in the skin, the entire length 
of the fish, above, below, and down each side; take off the four strips 



7G IX THE KITCHE5T. 

of skin ; open and clean the fish ; remove the back-bone, separating the 
two sides of the fish; cut in pieces, across, from two to three inches in 
width; sprinkle them with salt and pepper, roll in oatmeal, and fry. 



TO FRY SMELTS. 
Select small fish of uniform size; put one teaspoonful of salt and 
half as much pepper in half a pint of sifted corn-meal; roll the fish in 
it, then lay Micm on the frying-basket, and fry in deep lard, so hot that 
the surprise will be at once effected. They are in this way cooked 
quickly and dry, but not brown. A coating of egg and then of very 
finely grated bread insures a rich brown crust, better adapted, however, 
to larger fish. ' 



SALMON OUTLETS. 
Cut the slices one inch thick, and season with pepper and salt; 
butter white paper, lay each slice in a separate piece, and twist the 
ends ; broil gently over a moderate fire, and serve with anchovy or 
caper sauce. 

FISH STEAKS. 
From fish of any kind take off the skin, cut the flesh from the 
bones, chop it fine, and add from- one third to half its bulk in bread 
crumbs, which must be softened in hot cream; season with pepper, salt, 
and grated onion; add the beaten yolks of one, two, or three eggs 
(sufficient to bind the whole together) ; mix thoroughly; make into balls 
twice the size of an egg, flour them, then flatten to the thickness of 
rather a thin steak, and lay them on a buttered paper in the dripping- 
pan ; cover with grated bread and chopped parsley mixed, and as they 
cook, baste occasionally with melted butter. Serve with this gravy poured 



FISII. 



77 



over them. Brown two ounces of butter in a tin cup or basin and stir in 
two and a half even tablespoonfuls of flour ; mix well, and add half a pint 
of boiling water; boil until it thickens; season with half a teaspoonful 
of salt and catsup or Worcestershire sauce to the taste, and a little 
lemon-juice if liked. 

PICKLED SALMON. 

Half an ounce of whole pepper. 

Half an ounce of allspice. 

Two teaspoonfuls of salt. 

Two bay leaves. 

One pint of vinegar. 

One pint of water, or of the liquor in which the fish was boiled. 

After the fish comes from the table, remove the bones and lay it in 
a deep dish. Boil the vinegar and other ingredients ten minutes ; pour 
it over the salmon; cover, and in twelve hours it will be fit for use. If 
the fish were steamed instead of boiled, boil the bones for a few minutes, 
and use the water with the vinegar, unless plain water is preferred. 



DRIED SALMON. 
This is very nice, cut in thin slices, and served cold like chipped 
beef; it may also be broiled ; wash it in cold water, and lay it on the 
gridiron over bright coals; turn it, and when hot throughout, lay it on 
a platter; cover it with small bits of butter, and a little pepper, and 
serve. 

TO FRY STURGEON. 
Boil the fish, and when cold cut it in slices half an inch thick; beat 
two or three eggs and season them with salt, pepper, and a little minced 



i8 



IX THE KITCHEX. 



parsley; dip the fish in this, and then in grated bread; fry it a rich 
brown. The best way for frying this and other fish is on a frying- 
basket in deep lard. The egg in which the fish is dipped must be highly 
seasoned and the bread almost as fine as corn-meal. 



STEWED STUKGEON. 

DUDDINGTON. 

Boil five pounds of sturgeon, well covered with water, to extract 
the oil. (This is necessary whether the fish is to be baked, fried, or 
stewed.) To one quarter of a pound of butter, add red and black pep- 
per, mustard, salt, and vinegar to the taste; when the ingredients are 
well incorporated, stir in the sturgeon, which having been boiled until 
perfectly tender, is picked very fine ; heat the whole together and serve 
very hot. The above dressing may be used for baked sturgeon. Stur- 
geon cutlets may be seasoned with pepper, salt, and mace, dipped in 
the beaten yolk of an egg, then in grated bread or corn-meal, and fried. 



SCOTCH "FISH AND SAUCE." 

Of any fish that is nice for stewing, take the head, fins, and tail, 
cover them with cold water, and let them simmer half an hour; strain 
the stock, take what is required, thicken it slightly. with flour mixed 
smooth in a little cold water, and season with butter, salt, and chopped 
parsley; pour it over the fish, which must be cut in regular pieces, and 
stew gently until tender. 



MACKE2EL A LA MAITEE D'HOTEL. 
Make a deep incision on either side of the back-bone of a fine mack- 
erel, after thoroughly cleaning and drying it in a cloth, and put in a 



FISH. 



79 



little salt, cayenne, and a spoonful of butter; spread it on a well-heated 
double gridiron, rubbed over with butter or suet; place the inside of 
the fish towards the fire, and when of a nice brown color, turn the back. 
When done, put in the incisions two tablespoonfuls of Maitre d'Hotel 
butter (see page 190) , put the mackerel on a hot dish, and spread three 
more spoonfuls of butter over it. Place in the oven a few minutes, and 
serve very hot. 

The following is sent from a lady in Mississippi, who highly recom- 
mends it. 

TO FRESHEN SALT FISH. 

"Many persons who are in the habit of freshening mackerel, or 
other salt fish, never dream there is a rigid and a wrong way to do it. 
Any person who has seen the process of evaporating going on at the 
salt-works knows that the salt falls to the bottom. Just so it is in the 
pan, where your mackerel or white fish lies soaking, and as it lies skin 
down, the salt will fall to the skin, and there remain; when, if placed 
with the flesh side down, the salt falls to the bottom of the pan, and the 
fish comes out freshened as it should be." 



TO FRESHEN CODFISH. 
"Wash the fish thoroughly; then heat it in the oven (this makes it 
so soft that it is easily picked), pick it fine, put it in a saucepan, cover 
with cold water, and let it heat gradually; drain it and pour on fresh 
water; this may be repeated if still too salt. Codfish may also be 
freshened before it is picked; cover the piece with cold water, and 
leave it to heat gradually ; when it boils, the fish will part easily from 
the bone; take it out, pick it fine, and if too salt, freshen it as di- 
rected above. 



80 IN THE KITCHEN. 



SALT MACKEREL STEWED WITH CREAM. 

Mr. Jaque. 

Soak the mackerel all night in warm water; cook it fifteen minutes 
in a shallow pan with water to cover it; drain, cover with milk or cream ; 
when sufficiently cooked, lay the mackerel on a platter; thicken the 
gravy with flour, rubbed smooth with a little butter, add pepper, and 
pour it over the fish. 



BROILED MACKEREL. 
Choose the whitest fish; wash well, and soak, over night; if very 
salt, change the water early in the morning; ten minutes before break- 
fast, dry it in a towel, and broil it on both sides, before a clear fire; put 
some bits of butter and a little pepper over it, and serve. 



CODFISH FOR BREAKFAST. 

Three quarters of a pound or one quart of finely-shred codfish. 

One ounce of butter. 

Three gills of cream or rich milk. 

Two even tablespoonfuls of flour. 

Two thirds of a teaspoonful of pepper. 

One egg. 

The fish will be much more easily picked if heated in the oven. 
Be very careful to remove every bone; lay it in a frying-pan, well 
covered with cold water; let it heat gradually, and simmer ten minutes; 
drain it; add the pepper, butter, and the cream, reserving half a gill for 
the flour, which must be poured on it gradually, while the flour is rubbed 
smoothly in; when the cream simmers add the flour, let it boil two or 



PISH. 



81 



three minutes, then stir in the well-beaten egg, and serve immediately. 
Garnish with points of dry toast. 



CODFISH CROQUETTES. 

One pound and three quarters of mashed potato. 

Ten ounces of picked codfish. 

Four ounces of butter. 

One gill of cream or rich milk. 

One teaspoonful of pepper. 

One egg. 

Fine bread crumbs. 

Melt the butter in the hot potato; add the fish, pepper, and cream; 
mix thoroughly, and make into round or oval balls, roll them in the 
beaten egg, and then in the bread crumbs, which must be very fine ; lay 
them on the fi-ying-basket; sink it in deep hot lard, having tried its heat 
with a bit of bread. When the croquettes are a beautiful golden brown 
lift the basket, let it drip for a moment, then serve on a napkin. Should 
there be a delay in serving, keep them hot on a brown paper, in the 
mouth of the oven. This quantity will make eighteen good-sized cro- 
quettes. 

MARY'S CODFISH FOR FRIDAY'S DINNER. 
One quart of picked codfish. 
One pint of bread crumbs. 
Half a pint of cream. 
Four ounces of butter. 
One teaspoonful of pepper. 

Wash the fish thoroughly, then soak it over night in cold water. 
Wheij, ready to use pick it fine; put it in a baking-dish in layers, with 

6 



82 IN THE KITCHEN. 

the crumbs and the pepper (adding a little mustard if liked) ; over 
the upper layer, which must be of crumbs, spread the softened butter; 
pour the cream over the whole, and bake half an hour. Milk may be 
used instead of cream. 



CODFISH AND POTATO MOULDED AND BKOWNED. 

One pound and three quarters of mashed potato. 

Ten ounces of picked codfish (see page 79 ). 

Four ounces of butter. 

One gill of cream or rich milk. 

One teaspoonful of pepper. 

The yolk of one egg. 

Fine bread crumbs. 

Melt the butter in the hot potato, add the fish, pepper, and cream; 
mix all thoroughly together; butter a tin mould (this quantity is 
sufficient for a quart mould), fill it evenly, leaving no spaces; let it 
stand in the oven ten minutes ; then turn it out on a sheet-iron frying- 
plate (see page G7), cover it with the yolk of the egg and bread 
crumbs, wiping ofi" all that fall, on the plate; sink it in hot lard (having 
tested the heat with a bit of bread) deep enough to cover it, and when 
it is a beautiful brown, lift the plate, pass a knife under the form, and 
slide it carefully on a platter. Garnish with curled parsley. 

Codfish may be served with or without browning, and it may be 
browned in the oven covered with egg only. A deep-red beet, boiled 
very tender and chopped, is a good addition, and egg sauce, with all of 
these preparations, is excellent. 



FISH. 83 

CELIA'S SUCCESS. 

A quarter of a pound of butter. 

One quart of cream or milk. 

Two pints of fresh cod, boiled, and picked from the bones. 

One pint of boiled potato. 

Three even teaspoonfuls of salt. 

One even teaspoonful of white pepper. 

Put the fish and potato in a wooden bowl, with the salt and pepper, 
and pound and mix them with a pestle until thoroughly incorporated; 
stir in the cream, put the whole in a baking-dish, smooth the surface, 
cover with the beaten yolk of an egg, and bake one hour. 



GERMAN MODE FOR SMOKING HERRING (PICKLLTOE) FOR PRESENT USE. 

W. F. M. 

String fresh herring through the mouth on a stick (those with the 
roe are decidedly the best), and smoke them twelve hours. They are 
delightful for lunch or tea with bread and butter. 



TO FRY FRESH COD OR HADDOCK 

W. F. M. 

Cut the fish across, entirely through, in pieces three inches wide; 
season well with pepper and salt, roll in corn-meal, and fry in hot but- 
ter and lard. 

TO FRY BROOK TROUT OR ANY OTHER SMALL FISH. 

W. F. M. 

Clean the fish, and let them lie a few minutes wrapped singly, in a 
clean dry towel; season with pepper and salt, roll in corn-meal, and 
fry in one third butter and two thirds lard; drain on a sieve, or on 
coarse brown paper, and serve hot. 



84 IN THE KITCHEN - . 

Salmon spiced, or simply canned, is very good served for tea/with 
a mayonnaise dressing. 

CRABS FARCIES. 
Pick all the meat from a good-sized boiled crab, chop or cut it 
into very small pieces; mix it with rather more than a quarter its 
weight of bread crumbs; season with pepper, salt, and butter, and 
return it to the shell ; squeeze in lemon-juice, and put a thick layer of 
bread crumbs on the top, with small bits of butter laid over them; 
place the shells in the oven to brown the crumbs. Serve on a napkin 
garnished with lemon and parsley. 



SOFT CRABS FRIED. 
Open and remove the sand-bag and spongy substance; wash well, 
and wipe; season them inside and out with salt and cayenne pepper, 
then close, and fry a light brown in fresh butter and lard. Or they 
may, when seasoned, be dipped in beaten egg, then in grated bread, or 
finely-rolled and sifted cracker, and fried in deep lard. 



STEWED OYSTERS. 
Drain and wash them, taking out every particle of shell; boil and 
skim the liquor; add sufficient hot cream to make the desired quantity 
of soup, to a pint of which there must be two even tablespoonfuls of 
flour, rubbed smooth in a little cold milk. If milk is used instead of 
cream, rub an ounce and a half of butter with the flour; season with 
pepper, salt, and mace, if liked; when very hot, put in the oysters, and 
serve as soon as they are puffed and curled. If preferred, the oysters, 
when washed and drained, may be stewed in hot milk, without any 



FISH. 85 

of their own liquor, seasoned as above, and thickened with rolled 
cracker. 

STEAMED OYSTERS. 
Leave a covered dish where it will heat; wash and drain the 
oysters, put them in a shallow tin, and place it in the steamer; cover, 
and leave it over boiling water until the oysters are puffed and curled. 
They may be dressed at table when eaten, or butter, salt, and pepper 
may be added in the kitchen, when served in the heated dish. 



SQUIZZLED OYSTERS. 
Drain the oysters in a colander; put them in a hot frying-pan with 
pepper and salt; put two ounces of butter in a platter over the steam 
of a kettle, and when the oysters are puffed, pour them into the melted 
butter and serve. This dish may be varied by adding cream to the 
oysters in the pan, and serving them on toast. 



BOILED OYSTERS. 
Take oysters in the shell; wash them perfectly clean, and put them 
in a small willow basket; plunge it in a kettle of boiling water, and 
when the shells open lift the basket, and serve the oysters at once on 
the half shell. 

FRIED OYSTERS. 

Use the largest; drain, rinse, and remove all bits of shell; roll 

crackers until fine as corn-meal ; season with salt, pepper, and a little 

mace, and roll every oyster in it separately. Have ready some hot 

butter and lard in a frying-pan ; put in a layer of the oysters, and as 



86 IN THE KITCHEN. 

soon as browned turn them over, brown the other side, and serve. Or 
dip the oysters in the beaten yolk of egg, well seasoned, and then in 
corn-meal; lay them on the frying-basket and plunge it in deep hot 
lard, having first tested its heat. Serve with a garnish of parsley. 



BROILED OYSTERS. 
Choose the finest; wash, and dry them in a towel; season with pep- 
per and salt, and lay them in a folding broiler, made of small wires 
near together; place it over a clear fire and turn it as the oysters cook; 
when done, serve immediately with small bits of butter, and season with 
pepper and salt. 

OYSTERS. 

Bay City. 

String the oysters on a wire bent like a hair-pin, putting first an 
oyster, then a thin slice of pork, and so on, until the wire is filled; then 
fasten the ends of the wire into a long wooden handle; broil before 
the fire. Serve the oysters without the pork, using only a little pepper 
for seasoning. 

SCALLOPED OYSTERS. 
One pound of grated bread or dried biscuit. 
Half a pound of butter. 

Three pints of second-sized oysters (the kind sold without the 
liquor) . 

Three teaspoonfuls of salt. 

A small nutmeg. 

A pinch of cayenne pepper. 

Drain the oysters, and lay them in a towel; mix the grated nut- 



FISH. 87 

meg, pepper, and salt thoroughly together, and use them from a fine 
sifter. Take two tin baking-dishes holding a little over one quart each; 
put bits of butter in the bottom, then a layer of bread, then of oysters laid 
in one by one; sprinkle lightly with the nutmeg, etc.; then another layer 
of bread and butter, and one of oysters; have three layers of oysters in 
each dish, and let the upper layer be of bread thickly spotted with butter; 
bake twenty minues. Serve on a plate, concealing the basin with a 
folded napkin. 

OYSTER PEE. 

Make a rich oyster stew; put it in a baking-dish, and cover with 
puff paste, prettily ornamented with leaves or diamonds cut from the 
same. Bake half an hour in a moderate oven. 



OYSTER PATES. 



In puffs made of rich pastry, put two or three oysters stewed in a 
dressing of rich cream ; cover with a round of the pastry, and serve. 
Both puffs and oysters must be hot. 



OYSTER LOAF. 



Cut a round piece, five inches across, from the top of a nicely-baked 
round loaf of bread, remove the crumb, leaving the crust half an inch 
thick ; make a rich oyster stew, and put it in the loaf in layers sprinkled 
with bread crumbs ; place the cover over the top, cover the loaf with the 
beaten yolk of an egg, and put it in the oven to glaze. Make a wreath 
of curled parsley on a platter, with the stems turned in, and place the 
loaf on them, concealing all but the leaves. Serve very hot 



88 IX THE KITCHEN. 



OYSTERS CACHEES. 
Have a kettle of deep lard heating. Season mashed potato with 
butter, white pepper, salt, and a very little cream, not enough to soften 
it. Have ready some oysters dressed with cream, pepper, salt, and mace ; 
there must be but little gravy with them, and that little, quite thick; 
after thickening it with flour (two even tablespoonfuls to half a pint) 
stir in, whilst boiling hot, the beaten yolk of an egg, but do not suffer 
it to boil again. Rinse a tin mould with cold water, and line it with 
the potato, nearly an inch thick; fill with oysters to within an inch of 
the top ; cover with potato pressed down evenly, then turn it from the 
mould on the frying-plate (see page 67), cover with the beaten yolk 
of an egg, and then with bread crumbs; plunge it in the hot lard, hav- 
ing first tested the heat, and when a light brown, lift, slide it on a hot 
platter, and serve, garnished with parsley. The browning may be dis- 
pensed with, and a rich drawn butter poured over the mould. 



OYSTERS EN BARRIERE. 
One quart of oysters. 
One ounce of butter. 

One and a half pints of well-seasoned mashed potato. 
Half a pint of rich cream. 
Two even tablespoonfuls of flour. 
Two teaspoonfuls of salt. 
Half a teaspoonful of mace. 
A pinch of cayenne pepper. 
One egg. 

Make a miniature wall of the potato, around a platter, just inside 
the rim; it should be from one to two inches high, and about an inch 



FISH. 



89 



wide; it maybe flattened at the top, or higher, in the centre, and sloping 
on both sides; make it as regular as possible, and smooth it with a 
knife. With a small swab of linen, cover it with the beaten egg; put 
it in the oven to heat and glaze. Put the cream, butter, mace, pepper, 
and one teaspoonful of salt over' hot water; mix the flour smooth in a 
little of the cream, and when the latter is hot, stir it in, and let it cook 
until thickened. Put the oysters in a saucepan with the rest of the salt, 
and let them stew in their own liquor until plump; shake them about, 
that any scum adhering to them may rise to the top; pour it off, and 
drain them well in the colander; throw them in the hot cream, and serve 
immediately, within the potato. 

If milk is used instead of cream, add another ounce of butter, and 
half a tablespoonful more of flour. 



OYSTER CROQUETTES. 

Take the hard end of the oyster, leaving the other end in nice shape 
for a soup or stew; scald them, then chop fine, arid add an equal 
weight of potato rubbed through a colander; to one pound of this, add 
two ounces of butter, one teaspoonful of salt, half a teaspoonful of pep- 
per, half a teaspoonful of mace, and half a gill of cream. Make in small 
rolls, dip in egg and grated bread; place them on the frying-basket, 
and fry in deep lard, which should be hot enough to brown a bit of 
bread an inch square in one minute. 



OYSTER OMELETTE. 

Chop from twelve to fifteen fine large oysters; mix with as much 
flour as can be taken up in a teaspoon, milk enough to make it the con- 



90 IN THE KITCHEN. 

sistency of cream, and add this, with two ounces of melted butter, to 
six well-beaten eggs, with pepper and salt to the taste ; stir in the oys- 
ters ; fry, and fold like an ordinary omelette. 



PICKLED OYSTEM 

Half a gallon of oysters. 

One ounce of whole pepper. 

Two ounces of salt. 

Three blades of mace. 

Vinegar. 

Put the oysters in a kettle with their own liquor and the salt; let 
them cook until the edges curl, drain them, and cover with cold vine- 
gar ; throw in the pepper and mace, broken in small bits. 



FROZEN OYSTERS. 
These are esteemed a great delicacy. Leave them where they will 
freeze ; open, and serve them on the half shell, when they may be sea- 
soned to the taste. 



The following receipts are from Mr. John Savage, of Bay City, 
Michigan. 

TERRAPINS. 

Terrapins must be boiled and picked. They are " diamond backs," 
and sold in the market by counts, which are so called from the width 
of . the bottom shell, each count measuring three inches. Any terra- 
pin that will go a count is a female, and of course is preferred, for being 
more tender, and on account of the eggs. 



FISH. 91 

Throw the terrapin into scalding water, with a little salt. When 
boiled, after cooling, the under shell becomes detached. The only 
things to be taken out of the terrapin are the gall and sand-bag, which 
are near together, about the centre of it. The contents of the shell are 
broken up, and a small quantity of Madeira wine, pepper and salt, added 
to tha taste. Serve hot. 

The gentlemen at the " Ducking Clubs " on the Chesapeake have 
a style which is greatly appreciated by those who have tried it. After 
being boiled, the bottom shell is detached, gall and sand-bag removed, 
the meat detached from around the shell, and well broken up, dressed 
with wine or brandy, or as the possessor of each separate terrapin may 
prefer. Put in a small piece of butter, and cracker, or breaci-dust on 
top, and bake in the shell. This is considered by connoisseurs as the 
only way in which the full flavor of the terrapin can be obtained. 



TO BOIL AND TAKE LOBSTER FROM THE SHELL. 
Put the lobster in boiling water, and when done, first disjoint the 
claws, then crack them with a hammer; cut the lobster in half, length- 
wise. It can be served this way at the table, and picked with a fork, or 
it may be prepared in the kitchen. The dressing is the same as for 
chicken salad or olio. 



I0BSTER A LA DABNEY. 

Pick the meat (not as fine as for salad) from two good-sized boiled 

lobsters, leaving with it some of the soft, bony parts; put a quart of 

milk over boiling water, reserving a gill to mix with the same measure 

of flour; when the milk is scalding, stir this in, season highly with cay- 



92 IN THE KITCHEN". 

enne pepper and salt, and stir until the flour is cooked ; then pour it on 
the lobster; mix well (the mass should be much softer than lobster 
salad) ; put in a baking-dish, cover with grated bread, dot it with bits of 
butter, and let it brown in the oven. 



TO ROAST A PIECE OF TURTLE OR TORTOISE. 

Professor R. Bradley, op thb University of Cambkidge, axd Fellow of the Royal 

Society, London, 1753. 

Take a Piece of the Flesh of about five or six Pounds, and lay it 
in Salt and Water two hours; then stick a few Cloves in it, and fasten 
it to the Spit; baste it at first with Wine and Lemon-juice, and when it 
is near enough, dredge some Flour over it with the Raspings of Bread 
sifted, and then baste it well either with Oil or Butter, strewing on, 
from lime to time, more Flour and Raspings, till it is enough; then take 
the Liquor in the Pan, and pouring off the Fat, boil it with some Lemon- 
peel and a little Sugar and Salt, and pour it over the Turtle. Serve it 
hot. 

A WHITE FRICASSY OF FROGS. 

From Mr. Gajteau. 

Cut off the Hinder Legs ? strip them of the Skin, and cut off the 
Feet, and boil them tender in a little Veal Broth, with whole Pepper 
and a little Salt, with a Bunch of Sweet Herbs and some Lemon-peel. 
Stew these with a Shallot, till the Flesh is a little tender; strain off the 
Liquor, and thicken it with Cream and Butter; Serve them hot with 
Mushrooms pickled, tossed up with the Sauce. They make a very good 
Dish, and their Bones being of a very fine Texture, are better to be 
eaten than those of Larks. 



fish. 93 



FROGS W A BROWN FRICASSY. 

From the Same. 

Prepare the Frogs as before, flour them well, put them into a Pan 
of hot Lard, and fry them brown, then drain them from the Liquor, and 
make a Sauce for them of good Gravy, some Lemon-peel, a Shallot or 
two, some Spice beaten, a Bunch of Sweet herbs, an Anchovy, some 
pickled Mushrooms and their Liquor, and some Pepper and Salt. Toss 
up these thick with Butter, and pour the Sauce over them, and some 
Lemon-juice. Garnish with broiled Mushroom Flaps, and Lemon 
sliced. 



STEWED TERRAPIN. 

New York. Mks. F. B. C. 

Put two terrapins in hot (not boiling) water for two minutes, take 
them out, rub off the outer skin from the legs and neck; return the 
terrapins to the kettle and boil them until they can be taken easily from 
the shell; this will be in an hour and a half or two hours according to 
the size. Open the shell at the side, take out the two sand-bags and 
the gall, which lies above the largest lobe of the liver; cut off the toe- 
nails and the head; cut the remainder in pieces, and put them in a sauce- 
pan with a dessertspoonful of allspice, half a teaspoonful of ground 
mace, a teaspoonful of black pepper, a little cayenne pepper, and salt to 
the taste. Let it stand half an hour; then add a quarter of a pound 
of butter, in small bits, one quart of milk, and more spice if desired; 
put it on the fire, and when it simmers add a gill and two even table- 
spoonfuls of flour, rubbed smooth with a quarter of a pound of butter; 
mix well and let it simmer half an hour or more, but do not allow it to 
boil. A few minutes before serving, add one gill of sherry and pour 
another in the dish in which the terrapin is to be served; stir well and 
serve at once. 



94 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



FOR ADDITIONAL REOEDPTS. 95 



96 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 97 



98 FOR ADDITIONAL KECEIPTS. 



CARVHSTG. 99 



CAEVING. 

C. D. M. 



" Let 's carve him as a dish fit for the gods, 
Not hew him as a carcass fit for hounds." 

One who is born with no mechanical genius should never torment himself or distract his 
family by attempting to carve; the office should be assumed by some one of the household more 
favored of the gods, who may, by daily practice and close attention, soon become a proficient 
in the art. 

To save strength, time, and patience, a very sharp knife is an absolute necessity; it is im- 
possible to cut thin, beautiful slices without it. As a general rule cut across the grain. 

A turkey should be placed with the head towards the right hand of the carver. The breast 
is generally cut in slices parallel with the breast-bone; but if the turkey is large, take off the 
wings close to the body, and cut the breast across. Duck and grouse should be cut from the 
wing joint backward through the second joint, taking wing, breast, and leg in one section. A 
roast pig running off with an ear of green corn in his mouth, his head towards the left hand of 
the carver, should be cut lengthwise through the back-bone, then in cross sections; the head, 
which may be first taken off if preferred, is out in the same way. The arrangement of the meat 
on the plate, like that of flowers or dress, is a matter where taste is appreciated and usefully 
brought in. As to quantity, serve according to the Pickwick rule, — "Wary, as appetites 
wary." 



POULTRY. 



THE MOST APPEOVED WAY OE BILLING CHICKENS. 

Catch them quietly as possible, that they may not be bruised ; tie 
the feet together; hang them on a horizontal pole; tie the -wings to- 
gether over the back with a strip of soft cotton. When they have hung 
five minutes, take a very sharp knife and cut off the head, or simply cut 
the throat; then let them hans: until the blood has ceased to drip. 

To make a fowl tender, give it a tablespoonful of vinegar half an 
hour before killing. 



100 IN THE KITCHEN". 



to mms A FOWL, 
Cross the last joint of the wing above the first joint, and skewer 
them close to the body ; cut off" the entire neck, having drawn back the 
skin an inch or two. Near the Pope's nose, each side of the opening 
made for drawing the fowl, make two incisions, into which by pressing 
back the legs very gently and perseveringly, the ends may be slipped, 
and their unsightliness concealed. Stuff this part of the fowl sufficiently 
to preserve its form; then sew it with soft tidy cotton. Stuff the breast 
of the bird through the neck, tie the skin, lap it under, and skewer it to 
the back. 

TO CUT A CHICKEN FOR FRYING, OR FOR A FRICASSEE. 

Cut the neck from the body, then the wings, and then the legs ; 
cut the body in two, lengthwise, through the sides. A very small fowl 
requires no more cutting; a large one should have the second joint and 
drumstick separated, and the breast maybe cut across, leaving the "wish- 
bone "in one part. The neck may be stewed with the fricassee, but not 
served. 

There is another way which makes a very pretty dish: Take off the 
back, and divide the remaining part into four equal pieces by cutting 
through the centre of the breast lengthwise and across. 

The liver is nice in a fricassee, but the gizzard and heart are better 
in the soup-kettle; or in cold weather they may be kept to stew and 
mince for the gravy of a roast chicken. 



BOILED CHICKEN. 
Two chickens. 
One quart of loose bread crumbs. 



POULTRY. 101 

Two ounces of butter. 

One teaspoonful of celery seed. 

Haifa teaspoonful of pepper. 

One and a half teaspoonfuls of salt. 

Stuff the chickens with the above ingredients mixed thoroughly 
together without water; bind them closely with strips of cotton two 
inches wide, and put them in the soup-kettle with four quarts of cold 
water (see Chicken Soup, page 40). When boiled, serve with rice piled 
around them, and a rich drawn butter poured over them. 



TO ROAST CHICKENS. 
When nicely dressed, rub the inside with an onion, then stuff them 
with dry bread crumbs, well-seasoned with butter (one ounce for a 
fowl), pepper, salt, and a little thyme or marjoram., if liked. Do not 
wet the bread, as the stuffing is far more tempting when it crumbles in 
the carving than when in a solid mass, that must be sliced. Put in 
sufficient stuffing to preserve the form of the fowl. Place the chickens 
in a dripping-pan, with a small quantity of water; spot them with small 
bits of drippings, and put them in a quick oven; watch them very 
closely, and baste often, to prevent their becoming dry. Allow three 
quarters of an hour for baking. Have the giblets (gizzard, liver, and 
heart) boiled tender, and chopped fine for the gravy, which must be 
made when the chickens are roasted. If there is nrach fat in the drip- 
ping-pan, pour it off; if not enough gravy, add boiling water; season 
with pepper and salt, thicken with flour (two even tablespoonfuls to 
half a pint) ; stir in the chopped liver, etc., and let it simmer a few 
minutes. In serving, place the chickens side by side, with the heads in 
the same direction; pour a little of the gravy around them, and put the 
rest in the gravy-boat. 



102 US' THE KITCHEN. 



STEAMED CHICKENS. 

Two chickens. 

Three pints of water. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Half a teaspoonful of pepper. 

Rub the chickens in the inside with the pepper and salt; put them 
in the steamer, and select a kettle so large that it will go nearly to the 
bottom; put the water and the covered steamer in the kettle, and cover 
the kettle. Allow an hour and a half for steaming, unless the chickens 
are very tender. "When done, keep them hot in the steamer while the 
gravy is made; then cut the chickens as for a fricassee, arrange them 
on a platter, pour the dressing over them, and serve. 



DRESSING FOB, STEAMED CHICKENS. 

One pint of the gravy from the kettle without the fat. 

Six even tablespoonfuls of flour. 

One gill of cream. 

One and a half teaspoonfuls of celery salt. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

A pinch of cayenne pepper. 

Lot the gravy boil, add the salt and pepper, mix the cream gradu- 
ally in the flour, and when smooth, add to the gravy. The celery, salt, 
and cayenne may be omitted, and curry powder substituted, or nutmeg 
may be used instead of celery salt, and the gravy may be thickened with 
corn-starch instead of flour. 



POULTRY. 103 



AN EXCELLENT WAY TO COOK CHICKENS. 

Stuff two chickens as for boiling 1 , with a little celery seed in the 
dressing; truss them nicely; place them in a four-quart tin pail with a 
tightly fitting cover, and set the pail in a large kettle partly filled with 
boiling, water; the water should not reach more than half the height of 
the pail. Cover the kettle and keep it boiling, being careful that the 
water does not boil away. When ready to serve, pour off the gravy, 
thicken it, and add butter if the chickens are not fat; season to the taste 
with pepper, salt, and nutmeg, if liked; a gill of cream may also be 
added. Lay the ^chickens on a platter, pour the gravy over them, and 
garnish with vegetable rice. Egg sauce (see page 201) is also very 
good with chickens cooked in this way. 



CHICKEN AND VEGETABLE STEW. 
Prepare two chickens as for boiling, breaking the breast-bone from 
the inside, or on the outside, which is easier; lay a towel, folded several 
times, over the breast-bone, and give it a blow with the rolling-pin; this 
makes them look plump. Put them in a stewpan with one pint of 
water, and when it simmers add two ounces of butter, mixed smooth 
with three quarters of a tablespoonful of flour; add one pint of sweet 
corn cut very fine, the same quantity of Lima beans, and two or three 
slices of fat bacon, with a little pepper and salt and cayenne; let them 
stew slowly until done. Serve with the chickens in the centre and the 
corn and beans around them. Do not send the bacon to table. 



BRAISING. 

This is a combination of stewing and browning, done in an iron 
kettle with so little water that the meat browns underneath, and by 



104 IN THE KrTCHEN, 

means of live coals on the iron cover browns on the upper side also. As 
these covers, however, are rarely found, the following mode of braising 
may be substituted: — 

BRAISED CHICKEN. 

Two chickens, weighing about five pounds. 

Six ounces of bacon. 

Six ounces of celery. 

One pound of turnip. 

Two onions. 

One and a half pints of water. 

One and a half teaspoonfuls of summer savory. 

One and a half teaspoonfuls of black pepper. 

One third of a teaspoonful of cayenne pepper. 

Three teaspoonfuls of salt. 

Put the bacon in an iron frying-pan and let it fry slowly until much 
of the fat has come from it. Have the chickens rubbed on the inside 
with one teaspoonful of salt and half a teaspoonful of summer savory 
mixed ; truss them nicely, then lay them in the hot fat, and turn often 
until they are a fine, rich brown; then place them in an iron kettle 
with the sliced vegetables, summer savory, etc., and water; cover 
closely, and cook slowly until tender. Lay the chickens on a platter, 
with the strips of bacon over the legs and wings ; skim the fat from the 
gravy and thicken it with two tablespoonfuls of flour rubbed smooth in 
two tablespoonfuls of water. The gravy can be strained or not, as pre- 
ferred. 

BROILED CHICKEN. 
Cut it through the back, clean, wash, and wipe it dry; spread it on 
the gridiron, and cook slowly with the inside towards the fire; keep it 



POULTRY. 105 



so until nearly clone; the chicken cooks more thoroughly in this way, 
and the surface being seared, the juice is retained. It must be nicely 
browned on both sides, then served on a hot platter with a little butter, 
pepper, and salt. Pigeons may be broiled in the same way. 



TO FRICASSEE A CHICKEN. 
Cut as directed, place in a kettle with half a pint of water, a table- 
spoonful of vinegar, a small onion grated, a little pepper and salt; cover 
closely, and stew gently for three quarters of an hour; then add one and 
a half ounces of butter and a dessertspoonful of chopped parsley; the 
moment before serving, add a beaten egg. A little nutmeg may be 
used, if liked. 

CHICKEN CURRY WITH C0C0ANTTT. 

Mks. BltECK. 

Cut the chicken as for a fricassee, put it in a saucepan with half a 
pint of cold water, cover closely, and let it simmer until tender. Grate 
a cocoanut, and pour over it one and a half gills of tepid water; let it 
stand half an hour. When the chicken is tender, take it out, and add to 
the gravy three tablespoonfuls of flour rubbed smooth with, one and a 
half ounces of butter and a tablespoonful of curry; let it stew a few 
minutes; pour in, through a strainer, the water from the cocoanut; add 
the chicken, let it boil once, then serve. Toasted slices of cocoanut are 
also a great improvement to a curry. 



FRICASSEED CHICKEN. 
Two chickens weighing two and a half pounds each. 
One and a half ounces of flour. 



106 IN THE KITCHEN. 

Two ounces of butter. 

One pint of cold water. 

Two gills of cream. 

One teaspoonful of mace. 

Two teaspoon fills of salt. 

One* third of a teaspoonful of cayenne pepper. 

One third of a nutmeg grated. 

One onion. 

Yolks of four eggs. 

Cut the chickens, and sprinkle the pieces with the salt, pepper, and 
spices; put the water in the kettle, and lay in the chicken,- the skin side 
down; slice the onion over them, cover closely, and let them simmer 
until done. Take out the chicken, arrange it on the platter, and keep 
it hot, while the gravy is being thickened; there should be nearly a pint 
of it. Rub the butter and flour smoothly together, adding a little of the 
gravy to soften and help mix them; stir it in the gravy, and let it boil 
two or three minutes; pour in the cream, and as soon as it boils, pour 
ithe whole on the well-beaten yolks, return it to the saucepan, let it 
get thoroughly hot, without boiling, and pour it at once over the 
chickens. 



BROWN FRICASSEE. 
Cut the chicken, put it in a saucepan with barely enough water to 
cover it, and stew gently until tender. Put a few slices of pork in a 
frying-pan, drain the chicken, and fry it with the pork until of a fine 
rich brown; take the chicken from the pan, empty it, and pour in the 
broth; make a gravy thickened with browned flour and seasoned with 
pepper; let the chicken simmer in it for a few moments, then serve very 
hot. 



POULTRY. 107 

FRICASSEED CHICKEtT. 

DUDDINGTOJJ. 

Pour one pint of cold water over two chickens, cut in the ordinary 
way; add a grated onion and thyme, sweet marjoram, pepper and salt to 
the taste ; cover, closely, and let it simmer slowly until the chickens are 
tender. To the pint of gravy add three even tablespoonfuls of flour 
rubbed smooth with a bit of butter the size of a large egg; stir it in 
well, and if liked, add a little mace and cayenne; when it has stewed 
sufficiently to cook the flour, pour in a gill or more of rich sweet cream, 
and when simmering, add the yolks of four eggs well-beaten, and serve 
at once. This fricassee should not be prepared until dinner is nearly 
ready, and should be made with great care, to prevent curdling. 



PILAU. 
Cut a chicken as for a fricassee, and put it in a pot with the liver, 
gizzard, heart, and a slice or two of bicon, and cover with water; sea- 
son with pepper and salt ; let it sfew slowly, and when done, take it 
from the pot, and set it where it will keep hot. Wash half a pint of 
rice, and boil it in the broth, of which there should be one pint; if there 
is not that measure add water, cover, and boil until the broth is absorbed, 
then uncover, and let it dry. Serve on a platter, with the chicken on 
the rice. 

TIMBAL. 
Cut a chicken as for a fricassee; barely cover it with cold water, 
and stew until tender; add half a pint of well- washed rice, and boil 
until soft; take it from the fire, add the yolks of three well-beaten eggs, 
and pepper and salt to the taste. Butter a baking-dish; put first a 
layer of grated bread and chopped parsley, then of the fowl and rice ; 



108 



IX THE KITCHEN. 



fill the dish in this way, and over the last layer of bread put small dots 
of butter, then brown it in the oven. Any meat may be used in this 
way. If there is not sufficient broth to boil the rice, a little boiling 
water may be added. 

CHICKEN PATE. 

Mrs. Hastings. 

Put half an ounce of Cooper's isinglass to soak. Cut a chicken, 
as for a fricassee, cover with water, and let it simmer until the meat slips 
easily from the bones. Have ready some hard-boiled eggs. Cut the 
chicken in thin slices; return the bones to the water in the kettle, and 
let them simmer a while, to enrich the jelly. Wet a plain mould, and 
line it with thin slices of lemon and egg, then fill it, seasoning with salt, 
pepper, and a little mace or nutmeg, with layers of chicken and egg, 
adding now and then some small bits of boiled ham, bacon, or pork, and 
slices of lemon. Season the gravy, add the isinglass, and when dis- 
solved, pour it over the chicken; cover with a crust or tin cover; bake 
in a moderate oven three quarters of an hour. To be served cold the 
following day. Three or four eggs and one lemon may be used for 
this quantity. Sliced mushrooms are an improvement to the pate, and 
also thin slices of boiled red beets. 



CHICKEN DRESSED WITH CHEAM. 
Three quarters of a pound of cold boiled chicken. 
Two gills of cold water. 
Two gills of cream. 
One tablespoonful of flour. 
One teaspoonful of salt. 
Half a teaspoonful of pepper. 



POULTiJY. 



109 



Pick the chicken in bits an inch and a half long, and put it in a 
saucepan; pour the water over it, and let it simmer until the water is 
nearly absorbed; mix the flour smooth in a little of the cream, add the 
rest, with the salt and pepper, and pour the whole over the chicken; 
let it simmer, and when sufficiently thickened, serve on a platter gar- 
nished with points of crisp toast. Milk may be used instead of cream, 
with the addition of an ounce of butter. 



CHICKEN CROQUETTES. 

Fourteen ounces of boiled chicken, chopped fine. 

Half a pint of milk. 

Quarter of a pound of butter. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Two even tablespoonfuls of flour. 

A pinch of cayenne pepper. 

Mix the flour smooth in a little of the milk; put the rest over 
a saucepan of boiling water, and when scalded, pour in the flour; 
sprinkle the salt and pepper over the butter, and cut it in the milk ; 
when like thick cream, mix it thoroughly with the chicken, and put it 
aside to become cold and stiff; then make it into twelve croquettes, 
from three to four inches long. Be careful that the surface is smooth; 
roll them in the beaten yolk of egg, then in grated bread; lay them in 
the frying-basket, and fry a golden brown in deep lard. 



CHICKEN CROQUETTES. 

Pittsburg. 

Three quarters of a pound of the white meat chopped fine. 
Half a pound of mashed potato. 



110 IN THE KITCHEN. 

Two ounces of butter. 
Two tablespoonfuls of cream. 
Pepper, salt, and nutmeg to taste. 
One egg. 

Mix well, form into balls, cover with egg and grated bread, and 
fry as in the above receipt. 



CHICKEN AND CHICKEN JELLY. 

"Where quite a large quantity of chicken jelly is required, or a sup- 
ply of chicken salad is to be made, this rule will be found useful. 

Nine and a quarter pounds of chicken. 

Three quarts of cold water. 

Cut the chickens as for a fricassee ; put them in a deep kettle, pour 
the water over them, and let them heat slowly; when they boil, skim 
well, cover them closely, and simmer until the meat is so tender as to 
slip easily from the bone. Take out the chickens, remove the meat, 
and return the bones to the kettle, where they must boil until the water 
is reduced to two quarts, — one third less than the original quantity. 
Strain it and put it in a cold place, that the fat may congeal on the top. 
This must be taken off, and may be kept for various cooking pur- 
poses. 

To one quart of the jelly add the pared rind and juice of a lemon, 
two even teaspoonfuls of salt, a pinch of cayenne pepper, and the whites 
and crushed shells of two eggs; beat the whites sufficiently to break 
them, but not to make them light; mix all thoroughly together; heat it 
slowly without touching; let it boil five minutes, and stand a moment 
to settle, then pour it through a straining cloth and place it on the 
ice. 

This jelly may be moulded in a basin, turned out, and broken in 



POULTRY. Ill 

small bits, as a rough garnish around cold roast chicken or turkey; or 
cut in squares to use in ornamenting a cold beef a la mode; or it may 
be moulded with the chicken, after the following rule : — 



A MOULD OF CHICKEN IN JELLY. 

"Wet a mould, and pour a little jelly in the bottom, about half an 
inch in depth; when it stiffens, put a sprig of parsley in the centre, 
spreading the leaves, and leaving the stem up; pour in a little more 
half-thickened jelly, and when it hardens cut a hard-boiled egg in two, 
lengthwise, and lay the halves obliquely across it; cover these with 
jelly, and when hard lay in long, delicate strips of the breast of chicken, 
seasoned with pepper and salt; cover with jelly to within an inch and 
a half of the top; when hard, put a lining of lemon around the mould, 
cut in very thin slices ; lay in more bits of chicken, fill the mould with 
jelly, and place it on ice. 

While filling the mould, keep the jelly in a pitcher and the mould 
in a pan of ice, unless it is very cold weather, when the mould may 
stand outside the kitchen window, on the sill. The jelly in the pitcher 
must not be allowed to stiffen. 



RISSOLES. 

Puff paste. 

One gill of chicken, chopped very fine. 

One half gill of grated or chopped ham. 

Four tablcspoonfuls of rich cream. 

The grated rind of half a lemon. 

A small pinch of cayenne pepper. 



112 IK THE KITCHEN. 

Roll out the paste, and cut it with a tumbler or with a round tin 
cutter; lay some of the chicken on one half of every circle, lap the 
other half over it, press the. edges- closely together, and drop into hot 
lard, having first tested the heat with a bit of the paste. Serve, piled 
on a small platter. This quantity of chicken is sufficient for ten rissoles. 
Nutmeg may be substituted for the lemon-peel, and rissoles may be 
made of veal or turkey. 

ROAST TURKEY. 
Clean the turkey, rub the inside with an onion, or rinse it thor- 
oughly with a pint of water, in which a teaspponful of soda is dissolved, 
then wash with clear, cold water; crush the point of the breast-bone 
with the rolling-pin ; this gives the fowl a fine round appearance. Truss 
it as you would a chicken; stuff it with bread crumbs, seasoned with 
pepper, salt, any sweet herb, and two or three- ounces of butter; lay 
it in the dripping-pan, spot it with lard or drippings, put three gills of 
water in the pan, and baste very often. When the breast is brown, pro- 
tect it with a bit of paper. Boil the giblets, chop them fine, and add 
them to the gravy, which may be made in the dripping-pan when the 
turkey has been taken out. If there is too much fat, pour it off before 
putting in the giblets, and if too little gravy add water. Thicken and 
season to taste. Pour some of it around the turkey, and serve the rest 
in a boat. Fried sausage or thin slices of ham, fried crisp, may be 
curled and laid around the turkey. Stewed cranberries or stewed 
apples should be served with it. 



BOILED TURKEY. 
Follow the above directions for cleaning and trussing; substitute 
oysters, chopped celery, or celery seed for the sweet herb in the dress- 



POULTRY. 113 

ing. Wrap the turkey in a towel ; put it in a kettle of boiling water, 
and boil slowly but steadily until it is cooked, which will be from two 
to three hours, unless ' the turkey is- very large. Serve with celery or 
oyster-sauce according to the stuffing. 



TURKEY HASH. 

Cut the remains of a cold turkey, either roasted or boiled, into 
shreds, large or small as preferred; put it in a stewpan with half a pint 
of water; cover, and stew gently for a few minutes; season with pep- 
per and salt, and thicken the gravy with a little of the stuffing if liked, 
or with flour; a gill of rich cream makes it very nice; the same quan- 
tity of milk will do with a teaspoonful of flour rubbed smooth with an 
ounce of butter. Add milk or water, if there is not enough gravy. 
Garnish the dish with points of dry toast. The turkey may be cut in 
small square pieces rather than shreds, unless very tender. 



BOASTED DUCKS. 

Clean and truss them like chickens. For two, make a stuffing of 
half a pound of bread crumbs, three ounces of butter, one large onion 
grated, one teaspoonful of salt, and half a teaspoonful of pepper. Sea- 
son the ducks both inside and out with pepper, salt, and a little sage; 
put them in the dripping-pan with a little water; put bits of drippings 
over them, and as they cook, baste very often. Stew and chop the gib- 
lots for the gravy, which must be made in the dripping-pan, after pour- 
ing off most of the fat; thicken it a little and season well. Stewed 
cranberries or apple should be served with them. 



114 IN THE KITCHEN. 

ROAST GOOSE. 

Clean, and truss it; and if old, boil half an hour sewed in a cloth; 
then stuff it with bread crumbs, seasoned with butter, pepper, salt, 
grated onion, and sage; dot it with drippings or lard, and baste very 
often while baking. The stuffing may be made of mashed potato, in- 
stead of bread crumbs, with two grated onions and a teaspoonful of 
sweet marjoram. Stewed apple should be served with it. 



TO STEW PIGEONS. 
Quarter, and put them in a stewpan with a little salt, and cold 
water, less than enough to cover them; cover the stewpan closely. 
"When nearly done, add a bit of butter and some pepper; when quite 
done, lay them on a hot dish, thicken the gravy with flour rubbed 
smooth in a little of the gravy, add chopped parsley, another bit of 
butter, and a beaten egg. Cream is a great improvement. When the 
gravy is made, put the pigeons in it; let them remain a few moments, 
then serve. 

TO ROAST PIGEONS. 
Scald some parsley, chop it with the livers, mix them with a piece 
of fresh butter, season with pepper and salt; put a portion inside each 
pigeon; cover the breast with a slice of bacon ; roast them. Serve with 
a garnish of curled parsley. Pour the fat from the dripping-pan, add 
a little water to the gravy if necessary, season with pepper and salt, 
ithieken it slightly, add chopped parsley, and serve in a boat. 



r 



PIGEONS IN JELLY. 
Take some strong veal broth, which is, when cold, a stiff jelly; put 
it in a pan with a blade of mace, a bunch of sweet herbs, some white 



POULTRY. 115 

pepper-corns, a little lemon-peel, a slice of lean bacon, and the pigeons 
seasoned with pepper, salt, and chopped celery; bake them, and when 
done, cover closely to preserve the color. When the jelly is cold, 
remove every, particle of fat, then beat into it the whites and shells of 
two eggs; let it boil a moment, then strain through a thick cloth wrung 
from boiling water, and laid in a sieve. When served, lay the pigeons 
in the centre of the platter; break the jelly, and put it in a rough mass 
over and around them. 

PIGEONS W A MOULD OF JELLY. 

Pick a pair of pigeons, and make them look as well as possible by 
singeing, washing, and cleaning the heads thoroughly ; be very particu- 
lar with the feet also, clipping the nails close to the claws; rub them in 
the inside with a little pepper, salt, and chopped celery; skewer them 
in a sitting position in the dripping-pan, with the feet under, keeping 
the heads up as if the birds were alive ; this may be done by means of 
a thread kept around the neck while roasting. 

Have ready a savory jolly as above, and pour it an inch deep in 
the mould designed for the pigeons; let this harden, while the rest of 
the jelly is kept soft, just thick enough to pour and fill in closely. See 
that no gravy adheres to the birds; place them in the mould side by 
side, with the heads down, and a sprig of myrtle in each bill ; then fill 
with the jelly, which should come three inches above the feet. Make 
this dish twenty-four hours before using, and keep it on ice. 



SAVORY JELLY TO ORNAMENT COLD MEATS. 
Should this be wanted on short notice, take a pint of good flavored 
stock, add one teaspoonful of Tarragon vinegar and a glass of white 
wine, and warm them together; add half an ounce of gelatine that has 



110 IN" THE KITCHETST. 

been soaked an hour in cold water, and drained; stir it well in with the 
whites and crushed shells of one or two eggs ; let it boil five minutes, or 
until clear, without touching, then strain it in a pan which will make 
the jelly about half an inch deep. Put it on the ice and when wanted 
cut it iu dice, or chop it; or cut it in stars, with a small tin cutter: 



GALANTINES. 
Capon, duck, goose, hare, lamb, sucking pig, partridge, pheasant, 
rabbit, turkey, veal, venison, and Welsh mutton, are among the things 
chiefly made into galantines. The piece of meat is to be carefully 
boned, seasoned inside, filled with force-meat, pieces of tongue, sau- 
sage, game, bacon, truffles, etc., in layers.; sew it up, trying as far as 
possible to make it retain its original form ; fasten it securely in a cloth, 
and stew it slowly for some hours in a rich consomme. Let it grow 
cold in the liquor, which should subsequently be reduced, clarified, and, 
in the form of jelly, used as decoration for the meat; serve it upon a 
white napkin. The heads of sucking pigs, hares, and rabbits should not 
be boned. Hard-boiled yolks of eggs, oysters, blanched sweet almonds, 
chestnuts, pistachio-nuts, foie gras, veal, garlic, bay-leaves, lemon-juice 
and rind, chopped pickles, anchovies, etc., enter into the composition of 
the stuffing. "When well executed, a galantine is a very handsome 
dish for any kind of collation ; it is invariably served cold. If difficult 
to glaze it, rasped bread may be used to mask it. 



CHICKEN AND OYSTER PIE. 
Cut two chickens as for a fricassee; put them in a kettle with 
chopped celery, a little pepper, salt, and barely enough water to stew 
them; cover, cook slowly, and when tender, drain. Take the oysters 



POULTRY. 117 

from a can, and put them over the fire in their own liquor, with a little 
salt and pepper; let them swell, then rinse well and drain. Add to 
half a pint of the chicken gravy two even tablespoonfuls of flour mixed 
smooth in two tablespoonfuls of cold Avater ; let it boil and thicken ; 
take it from the fire, and cut in it four ounces of butter, add half a tea- 
spoonful of pepper, and salt to the taste, not forgetting that it is already 
slightly salted; also a little nutmeg or mace, if liked. Place the chicken 
(removing the coarser bones) and oysters in layers in a baking-dish, 
pouring over each a little of the dressing, and all that remains of it over 
the top; lay around the edge of the dish- a strip of paste an inch and a 
half wide, and moisten it that it may adhere to the cover of paste, which 
is then placed over it. Cut an opening in the centre of the cover for 
the escape of the steam; bake from half to three quarters of an hour, 
in a moderate oven. If leaves of paste are required for ornamenting, 
arrange them on the top when it is half baked. 



FRIED CHICKENS. 

This is the best way of cooking young chickens : The breast must 
be left whole, also the back, wing, and leg, making in all but six 
pieces; the neck may go in the soup-kettle. For three chickens, have 
ready a gill of flour, sifted with one and a half even teaspoonfuls of 
salt and half a teaspoonful of pepper; roll the pieces separately in the 
flour, and then place them in a frying-pan, in hot butter and lard, equal 
parts, a third of an inch deep; as they brown, turn them. When 
done, arrange them on the dish in which they are to be served, — the 
breasts side by side across the centre, the backs concealed beneath ; sur- 
round them with the wings and legs, and keep the whole hot while the 
gravy is being made. To one pint of sweet cream add one and a half 
tablespoonfuls of flour, first rubbing it smooth in a little of the cream; 



113 POULTRY. 

also one and a half even teaspoonfuls of salt, a third of a teaspoon- 
ful of pepper, and three fourths of a gill of chopped parsley. Pour it 
in the frying-pan, in which should remain two or three tablespoonfuls 
of the butter and lard, with the brown particles from the chicken, which 
slightly color the gravy ; let it simmer for a few minutes, stirring occa- 
sionally, then pour it hot over the chicken, garnish with sprigs of pars- 
ley, and serve at once. The parsley may be crisped for the gravy by 
being fried before the cream is added. The skin is sometimes taken 
from the chicken, improving, perhaps, its appearance, but greatly lessen- 
ing the flavor. In frying a large number of chickens, use a long griddle. 



MRS. B.'S CHICKENS. 

Cut tender chickens as for frying; roll them in the beaten yolks 
of eggs, and then in grated bread highly seasoned with chopped pars- 
ley, pepper, salt, and a little mace; place them in a dripping-pan, spot 
them thickly with bits of butter, add a little water, and bake slowly, 
basting them occasionally. "When done, remove the chicken, and make 
the gravy in the dripping-pan; add a little flour stirred smooth with a 
bit of butter, and either cream or milk to make sufficient gravy, which 
may be seasoned to the taste. In serving, pour the gravy around, not 
over the chicken, and garnish with parsley. 



FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



119 



120 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



FOE ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 121 



122 



FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



DRIPPINGS. 123 



BOILING AND REDUCING. 



Says Alphonse Goufle, head pastry-cook to her Majesty the Queen of England, " Do not 
expect to hasten the cooking by indiscriminately heaping up the fuel. Once the boiling point 
is reached, all excess of heat is wasted : you will lose the benefit of progressive cooking, with- 
out expediting it. To reduce, on the contrary, a brisk fire producing quick evaporation is 
indispensable." 

Says Warne, " The most haste, the worst speed" is the proverb of the soup-kettle. 

Says Dolby, " Modern experiments, thanks to the enlightened few who have applied the 
science of chemistry to the improvement of the culinary art I have proved that water for all 
the purposes of this department of cooking can but boil. That galloping bustle of the pot and 
flapping of the cover, which alone satisfied the impatient, over-notable housewives of the last 
age, is now proved to have been mere 

"Double, double, 
Toil and trouble, " 

To no other end than to save a little time at an enormous expense of fuel, and thus convert- 
ing excellent meat from the larder into an execrable dish for the table." 

He also says, " Too rapid boiling raises the cover of the pot, and with the escape of steam 
we lose the more volatile and savory particles of the meat. Skimming must be thorough and 
frequent ; a little cold water accelerates the rising of the scum." 



DRIPPINGS. 



All the fat that accumulates in the general cooking of a family should be carefully pre- 
served. In roasting meats, the drippings may be poured from the pan before the meat is en- 
tirely cooked, to avoid the risk of burning. If the fat is dark-colored, mix well with about one 
half its quantity of water ; boil it a few minutes and strain it ; when cold and hard, it may 
be taken in a cake from the water, and the sediment scraped from the lower part. It often 
occurs that a piece of meat comes from the butcher with more fat than is desirable ; this may 



124 IN THE KITCHEN. 

be cut in small pieces, nearly covered with water, and left to simmer until the fat is melted 
from the fibre. The cleanest and whitest fat should bo kept to use instead of butter, in biscuit 
and even in pastry. The drippings from beef are particularly good for this purpose ; those 
from muttou are too hard to be used alone, but are a valuable addition to other fat in frying 
cakes, and are also useful for greasing tins. The great virtue of " mutton tallow " in relieving 
chapped lips and hands must not be overlooked ; it should be " tried " (melted and strained) 
from the surplus fat of uncooked muttou, and moulded in egg-cups. Fat should be clarified as 
often as once a week ; that which will not do for cooking should be kept for soap. Melt and 
strain the best, after it has been clarified, into small stone crocks that can easily be kept cov- 
ered, and mould the poorer quality into cakes, which must be kept in a cool, dry place. 



The best way to thaw meat is to leave it in cold water ; as it thaws, it becomes coated 
with ice, which is easily removed. 

When it is necessary to cook a piece of mutton that has not hung long enough to become 
tender, pin it in a towel, bury it in the earth, and let it remain two or three hours. 



MEATS. 



ROAST BEEF. 

Twelve pounds. .A " tenderloin roast." 

One pint of water. 

One tablespoonful of salt. 

One teaspoonful of pepper. 

Mix the salt and pepper and rub them well into the beef; lay it in 
the dripping-pan with the water, and roast two hours, basting it often. 
"When the beef is taken up, pour the fat from the dripping-pan, and 
see that the gravy is well-seasoned; put a few spoonfuls over the beef, 
and serve the rest in a gravy-boat, thickened if preferred with browned 
flour. It may be garnished with small, light mounds of scraped horse- 
radish, several of them around the beef, and an oval one across it. 



MEATS. 125 



BEEF A LA MODE. 

Bone a round of beef, lard it with fat bacon; make several incis- 
ions, and fill them with a savory dressing of bread, in which there is a 
little chopped pork, and stuff it with the same, skewering it well to- 
gether; tie it in good form w T ith twine. Put some pieces of pork in 
a pot, and when fried to a crisp take them out, lay in the beef, and turn 
it until nicely browned all over; then add hardly enough water to cover 
it, with a large onion, chopped, a sliced carrot (several carrots may be 
used, with the addition of a little more water), a dozen cloves, a small 
bunch of sweet herbs, pepper, and salt; cover closely, and let it stew 
gently but steadily for several hours, until very tender. The water 
must boil down to make the gravy rich, but be careful that it does not 
burn; it may be strained and thickened with browned flour or not, as 
preferred. 

t 

BEEF A LA MODE. 

DUDDIXGTON. 

Take the bone from a round of beef, and stuff it with bacon 
chopped and well-mixed with twelve cloves and twelve allspice, ground, 
a teaspoonful of ground mace, half a nutmeg, pepper, salt, and sweet 
herbs. Bind the beef, put it in a pot and cover with water and a pint 
of white wine; add four large onions and six garlic cloves, chopped 
very fine, a teaspoonful of cayenne and one of vinegar, a little salt, and 
a pint of mushrooms if you have them; strew over the whole about 
three handfuls of grated bread, cover the pot closely, and stew gently 
for six hours or more. "When the beef is cooked, take it out and keep 
it hot over boiling water. Strain the gravy, skim off the fat, return it 
to the pot, let it boil once, and add more seasoning if liked; pour it 



126 IN THE KITCHEN. 

over the beef, and serve. The round should be stuffed the night before 
it is cooked. 



DATTBE. 

Mrs. I. E. Morse. 



Get six or eight pounds of the round of beef; there is much choice 
in selecting it, the second cut being generally the best. Scrape the 
meat nicely, then make about a dozen slits in the beef, and into each 
put a strip of bacon an inch long and a quarter of an inch thick, and 
a couple of cloves; slice a large onion and sprinkle it over the roast, 
also an even tablespodnful of salt, a teaspoonful of allspice, and one of 
pepper; dredge the whole with flour, put in the pan a tablespoonful 
of lard and half a gill of water; bake it slowly for two or three 
hours, and just before sending it to table pour over the whole. a glass 
of sherry. 

TO BROIL A IEE¥STEAK. 

It should be thick and tender; lay it on a gridiron before or over 
a clear coal fire, and as soon as seared, turn it and sear the other side, 
to prevent the escape of the juice; if there is then danger of burning, 
the fire may be somewhat reduced by sprinkling ashes over it; turn the 
steak often, and serve the moment it is cooked; have the platter hot, 
and put small bits of butter, with a little pepper and salt, over the steak; 
this may be garnished with fried sliced potatoes; or, with the steak in 
the centre of the dish, have browned potato balls, the size of a marble, 
in a pyramidal pile at each end. 

This method is preferred by some: Put it on the gridiron before a 
clear fire; have two ounces of butter (more, if the steak is large), with 
an even teaspoonful of salt, and half as much pepper, on the end of a 
hot platter; when the steak is browned on one side, lay it on the platter 



MEATS. 127 

and press the juice from it; return it to the gridiron, mix the gravy, 
and when the beef is sufficiently cooked take it up, turn it two or three 
times in the gravy, wipe the edge of the platter, and serve. Stewed 
mushrooms or tomatoes may be served with it if liked, or it may be 
garnished with shaved horse-radish. When the steak is broiled, many 
prefer leaving it covered in the oven a few moments before serving, and 
many serve it without butter. 



STEWED BEEFSTEAK. 

Mrs. Glasse, London. 

Four and a half pounds of round steak. 

One and a half ounces of flour. 

Three ounces of butter. 

Half a pint of oysters. 

Half a pint of water. 

One gill of wine. 

One teaspoonful of pepper. 

Three teaspoonfuls of salt. 

Half a teaspoonful of summer savory. 

Two blades of mace. 

Three cloves. 

Four allspice. 

One onion grated. 

Mix the salt, summer savory, and pepper with the onion, rub the 
beef well with it on both sides; lay it in the kettle with the water, 
wine, cloves, allspice, and mace, and one ounce of the butter rubbed 
with half an ounce of the flour; cover closely, and let it stew gently 
until the beef is tender, then take it from the gravy, and fry it in the 
rest of the butter. "When brown, lay it in the platter, drain the butter 



128 IX THE KITCHEN. 

from the frying-pan, then pour in the gravy through a strainer (then 
should be one pint), rub the rest of the flour smooth in a little of th< 
gravy, and stir it in; add the oysters, and when curled, lay them on th< 
beef. If the gravy is not quite thick enough, let it boil a little longer 
then pour over the whole and serve. 



STEWED BEEFSTEAK, NO. 2. 
The steak should be one and a half inches thick; dredge with i 
little flour, and fry a few minutes until well browned, with an onior 
stuck with six cloves; put both in a saucepan with a quart of water 
and small bits of meat to enrich the gravy; add a little salt and pepper 
cover, and let it stew slowly for three or four hours. Take it up, 
remove the onion, thicken the gravy with a little flour; add butter, if 
! the beef is very lean, and walnut or mushroom catsup. Pour the gravj> 
over the steak, and strew over it one or two cucumber pickles, chopped 
fine. 

BEEFSTEAK PUDDING. 

iims. Messenger. 

For a large-sized pudding, take a pound of fresh beef-suet, clear- 
ing it from the skin and stringy fibres; then chop it fine as possible, 
sift three pounds of fine flour, adding the suet gradually, rubbing it fine 
with the hands and mixing it thoroughly, adding a little salt; then 
pour over it by degrees a little cold water to make a stiff dough. Have 
ready eight pounds of best tender beefsteak without bone, and with but 
very little fat; cut it in small pieces, seasoning them with pepper and 
salt; add one or two onions finely-chopped, if liked; then roll the paste 
into a large, even sheet; place the pudding-cloth in a large bowl, and 
arrange the paste in it. When this is done put in the meat, with a cup 



MEATS. 120 

of cold water, and dredge some flour over it; then tie the cloth, leav- 
ing space for it to swell; fasten the string firmly, so that no water can 
get in. Have ready a large pot of boiling water, put the pudding in 
it, and keep it hoiling for six or seven hours, closely covered, replen- 
ishing, if needful, with boiling water. 



BEEFSTEAK PUDDING, NO. 2. 
Cut tender beefsteak into pieces about three inches long and two 
wide; season with salt and pepper. Butter a quart basin or mould ; line 
it with suet-paste, letting it lap over the edge; dredge the beef with 
flour, and lay it in the mould with five or six parboiled button-onions, 
a teaspoonful of mushroom-catsup, and half a gill of water. Wet the 
edge that it may adhere to the cover of paste which is laid over it; tie 
the mould in a cloth, and boil four hours ; serve it turned out. 



BEEFSTEAK STUFFED. 

Two pounds of thick steak from the round, clear of bone. 

Two gills of bread stuffing, well-seasoned with salt, pepper, and 
half an onion chopped, if liked. 

Roll the stuffing up in the steak; wind a piece of twine around it, 
securing the ends of the roll. Have ready a kettle, in which a slice or 
two of pork have been fried crisp; take out the pork, and put in the 
steak, turning it until it is well browned. Put in half a pint of water 
and a little salt, cover closely, and boil two hours slowly; add more 
water afterwards, if too dry. Unwind the string carefully, lay the beef 
in a hot dish; thicken the gravy if necessary, and pour it over the meat. 
To be cut in slices through the roll. It is equally nice heated over the 
next day. 

9 



130 



IN THE KITCHEN. 



BEEFSTEAK SMOTHERED IN ONION'S. 
Cut six onions quite fine, and stew them in a saucepan with one 
pint of water, two ounces of butter, a teaspoonful of salt, half a teaspoon- 
ful of pepper; dredge in a little flour; stew until the onions are quite 
soft, then add a Avell-broiled beefsteak; let it simmer about ten min- 
utes, and send to table very hot. 



ROAST BEEF WITH YORKSHIRE PUDDING. 
Roast the beef on a rack in the dripping-pan, or on strong skewers 
laid across it; from half to three quarters of an hour before it is done, 
pour the drippings from the pan, leaving only enough fat to prevent 
sticking; pour in the pudding, and replace the beef. In- serving, cut 
the pudding in oblong pieces, and place them around the beef. 



YORKSHIRE PUDDING. 

One pint of sifted flour. 

One pint of milk. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Four eggs. 

Put the flour in a large bowl with two thirds of the milk, the salt, 
and eggs; beat thoroughly, and add the rest of the milk. This quan- 
tity, if baked in an ordinary dripping-pan, makes the pudding too thin. 
It may be baked in a pie-tin twelve by eight inches, and one inch deep. 
If necessary, pour part of the drippings from the pan, return it to the 
oven, place the pie-tin, greased with a little of the drippings, in the 
centre of the dripping-pan, pour in the batter, replace the rack and 
beef, and bake from half to three quarters of an hour. 



MEATS. 131 

BEEF PIE. 

One and a quarter pounds of cold roast beef or cold beefsteak. 

One ounce of flonr, rubbed smooth in two tablespoonfuls of water. 

Three gills of stock or water. 

Two tablespoonfuls of Chili sauce. 

Three teaspoonfuls of salt. 

One grated onion. 

Two hard-boiled eggs. 

Cut the beef in small, thin bits, with but little fat. In cutting it, 
if there are any ragged bits or bones, cover them with cold water, and 
let them boil slowly for an hour or more, for the gravy of the pie; to 
three gills of this, add the onion, salt, Chili sauce, and beef; let it sim- 
mer for ten minutes, then thicken the gravy, lot it boil for a moment, 
then place it where it will cool; put it in a two-quart baking-dish, in 
layers with the sliced egg, cover with puff paste, make an opening in 
the centre for the escape of the steam, and bake half an hour. 



FEENCH STEW. 
Cut into pieces three pounds of the lean of fresh, tender beef, veal, 
or pork; peel and slice two quarts of ripe tomatoes; put the Avhole in a 
stewpan, and season with pepper and salt; cover close, opening occa- 
sionally to see how it is cooking. When the tomato is dissolved, stir 
in three ounces of fresh butter rolled in. flour, and stew ten or fifteen 
minutes longer, or until the meat is tender. Serve hot, garnished with 
points of dry toast. 

PINE STREET STEW. 
Butter the lower part of an iron kettle, heat it, and place in it three 
pounds of sirloin steak; watch carefully, that it does not burn, and 



132 IK THE KITCHEN". 

turn often until it is brown all over; then put a muffin-ring under the 
beef to prevent its sticking; add two or three sliced carrots (more if 
they are quite small) and a sliced onion; cover closely, and stew slowly 
for an hour, or until the carrots are perfectly tender; season with pep- 
per and salt; serve on a platter, with the vegetables over the beef. If 
more gravy is required, add a little, water and thicken with flour; it 
must be free from grease. 



BEEF STEW. 
Three pounds of lean beef, put in a pot, covered with water, and 
placed over a moderate fire; add one quart of peeled and sliced toma- 
toes, one and a half pints of sliced okra, three onions cut fine, and 
half a dozen ears of corn cut and scraped from the cob; season with 
salt and pepper, and add two ounces of butter. Let the whole stew 
gently for four hours, or until the vegetables become a thick mass. 



BEEF HASH. 

Chop some cold roast beef, add a grated onion, two ounces of 
butter, and some cold potatoes, chopped; season to the taste with 
pepper and salt; let it simmer in a frying-pan with a little water eight 
or ten minutes. It may be garnished with sippets of toast. 



BEEF EN MATELOTE. 
Brown two or three onions in butter; add a tablespoonful of flour, 
and fry lightly; then a gill of ordinary claret, a gill of beef broth, a 
few mushrooms if possible; salt, pepper, a little thyme, and two or 
three bay-leaves; when all this is done, pour it over cold, sliced beef in 
a saucepan, and let it simmer for half an hour. 



MEATS. 133 

CANNELON BE BOEUF. 

One and a quarter pounds of cold roast beef, chopped fine. 

A quarter of a pound of boiled ham, chopped fine. 

One gill of stock, with one beaten egg. 

One and a half teaspoonfuls of salt. 

Half a teaspoonful of pepper. 

A pinch of thyme and summer savory. 

The grated rind of half a lemon. 

Work it all well together, form in a long roll, wrap in a buttered 
paper, and bake for three quarters of an hour. Make a brown gravy to 
pour over it, seasoned with catsup; garnish with small force-meat bafls 
and the yolks of hard-boiled eggs. 



BREAKFAST BEEF. 

Three quarters of a pound of cold roast beef. 

Half a pint of cold water. 

One tablespoonful of Chili sauce. 

Two tablespoonfuls of flour. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Half a teaspoonful of pepper. 

Cut the beef in small, thin bits ; let it heat slowly, with the Chili 
sauce, pepper, salt, and water. Rub the butter and flour together, with 
a little of the hot gravy; add them to the beef; let it simmer long 
enough to cook the flour; then serve, ornamenting the dish with points 
of toast. 

CURRY OF COLD ROAST BEEF. 
Cut some slices into rather small square pieces and dredge with flour; 
slice half an onion very thin, and fry both a good brown in about two 



134 IN THE KITCHEN. 

and a half ounces of butter in a stewpan; pour in one gill or as much 
as you may require of gravy from the meat, or gravy made from the 
bones or any trimmings of the meat; add one tablespoonful of curry 
powder, and let it simmer ten or twelve minutes. Serve with a border 
of vice. In using the curry, it is safer to begin with a teaspoonful and 
taste it before adding more. 



FRIZZLED BEEF. 
Chip dried' beef fine, pour boiling water over it, and let it stand a 
moment; pour off the water, add butter, and fry until it curls a little; 
then serve hot with a little pepper. If liked, a few eggs may be stirred 
in just before serving. 

DRIED BEEF DRESSED WITH CREAM. 
Chip the beef thin and fine with a knife or on a potato-slicer; 
measure a pint of it without pressing down ; put it in a saucepan and 
pour cold water over it; let it heat slowly, and let it simmer a moment 
longer if very salt; then drain off the water, add one and a half gills 
of rich cream, and season with pepper. Instead of cream, the same 
measure of milk may be used with one ounce of butter and a teaspoon- 
ful of flour. It is very nice laid on split crackers or toast, but in this 
way it requires more dressing. 



THE DESPARD RED ROUND. 
A round of beef weighing twenty-five pounds. 
One ounce of cloves. 
Three ounces of saltpetre. 
Three ounces of coarse sugar. 



MEATS. 135 

Half an ounce of allspice. 

Six ounces of common salt. 

One nutmeg. 

The beef should hang two or three days ; then take out the bone, 
rub the spices and salt thoroughly together, and rub them well into the 
beef on both sides; cover the beef, turn and rab it every day, for from 
two to three weeks. 

When you wish to use it, dip it in cold water to remove the loose 
spice; bind it closely several times around the sides with a long strip 
of cotton cloth two inches wide; put it in a pan with half a pint of 
water in the bottom to prevent burning; cover the top of the meat with 
shred suet, and cover the pan with a crust half an inch thick, made of 
water and Graham or other flour, seeing that it adheres to the edge of 
the pan. Lay a brown paper over the crust; bake it slowly for five or 
six hours. 

The gravy, of which there will be a large quantity, may be used in 
soup, in beef pie, or in hash. The place from which the bone was 
taken may be rubbed with fine chopped parsley, and sweet herbs may 
be laid between the skin and the meat. 



CROQUETTES. 

From the Despard Eed Rouxd. 

One and a quarter pounds of potato rubbed through a colander. 

Ten ounces of beef. 

Four ounces of stale bread or cracker. 

One and a half ounces of butter,. 

Half a gill of cream. 

Two teaspoonfuls of salt. 



13G EST THE KITCHEN. 

Half a teaspoonful of pepper. 

Half a nutmeg. 

Two eggs. 

Add the butter to the hot potato, then the cream, nutmeg, pepper, 
salt, and one egg; beat all thoroughly together; chop the beef very fine, 
avoiding all bits of gristle; mix well with the potato, and then make 
into rolls four inches long and one and a half inches through. Be 
carefnl to have a smooth surface, with no breaks for the fat to pene- 
trate. Place them on a floured tin, and let them lie while you "beat the 
other egg on a plate, and grate the bread or roll the cracker. Which- 1 
ever it is, be sure that it is very fine ; sift it through a colander or 
coarse sieve. Roll the croquettes first in the egg, then in the bread; 
lay six of them in the frying-baskct, and plunge it in the lard, the heat 
of which you have first tested with a bit of bread. When a beautiful 
brown, take them out on wrapping-paper, and in a moment transfer 
them to a folded napkin on a platter; then fry another half dozen, more 
or less, as you require. If you have more than necessary, put them 
away in a cool place, and fry them for tea. 



FEIED TBIPE. 
Scrape the tripe well on both sides, cut it in pieces the size of the 
hand, and boil it in salt and water (allow one tablespoonful to a quart) 
until very tender. The next day cut it in smaller pieces, season with 
pepper and salt, and dredge with a little flour; fry brown on both sides 
in a pan of hot lard. When done, take it out, pour out nearly all of the 
lard, add a gill or more of boiling 'water, and thicken with a little flour 
mixed smooth with a tablespoonful or more of vinegar; season to the 
taste; pour it over the tripe, and serve hot for breakfast. 



MEATS. 137 

BEEF TONGUE BOHED. 

Wash the tongue, cover it with cold water, and soak over night. 
The next day put it in the kettle, cover it with fresh cold water, and 
let it boil until tender; remove the skin, trim it carefully, and serve 
garnished with rice boiled dry or with well-seasoned mashed potatoes, 
heaped irregularly around it, or a savory jmree of dried peas. If the 
tongue is to be eaten cold, leave it to cool in the water in which it 
boiled; this makes it rich and juicy. When the skin is taken off, cut 
it in very thin slices, and serve on a platter garnished with curled 
parsley. 

SPICED TONGUE. 
Half a pint of sugar. 

A piece of saltpetre the size of a large pea. 

One tablespoonful of ground cloves. 

Rub this mixture into the tongue; put it in ajar of brine, of three 
quarters of a pound of salt to two quarts of water, with a weight to 
keep it under; let it lie in the brine two weeks; then take it out, wash 
well, and dry with a cloth. 

Roll out a thin paste made of flour and water; wrap the tongue in 
it, put it in a pan to bake; baste well with lard and water; bake slowly; 
when done, remove the paste and skin, when it is ready to serve. 



SPICED BEEF. 
A five-pound piece of tender, juicy beef. 
One pint of cold water. 
Half a pint of vinegar. 
Two teaspoonfuls of ground cloves. 
One teaspoonful of allspice. 



138 IN" THE KITCHEN. 

One teaspoonful of pepper. 

Two teaspoonfuls of salt. 

Two or three onions. 

Mix the salt and spices, and rub them well into the beef; press it 
into a deep dish, and pour the vinegar over it ; let it stand twenty-four 
hours in a cool place, turning it occasionally; if it absorbs the vinegar, 
add more; put it in a stewpan with the water and onions, and let it 
simmer slowly three or four hours. To be eaten cold; the gravy to be 
saved for breakfast dishes. 



DUDDINGTON CORNED BEEF. 

Twelve pounds of plate pieces. 

One and a half pounds of salt. 

One ounce of pulverized saltpetre. 

Four quarts of cold water. 

Rub the beef well with the saltpetre; lay it in a three or four gal- 
lon crock; dissolve the salt iu the water, and pour over it; lay a weight 
on the beef to keep it under the brine. 

In two weeks it is ready to use. 



DUDDINGTON CORNED BEEF, NO. 2. 
To one hundred pounds of beef, one pound of saltpetre, three 
pounds of sugar, rubbed on the beef. Corn it with brine that will bear 
an egg. 

MB,. JEWELL'S CORNED BEEF. 
Sixteen pounds of beef. 
One pound of salt. 
One tablespoonful of saltpetre. 



MEATS. 139 

It is important to buy young beef. Get Opiate " or brisket pieces. 
If the animal was not large and heavy, get the second or third piece 
from the quarter; if heavy, the first piece is best. Have two or three 
ribs iu a piece, and have the butcher crack them through the centre. 
The beef should be in two pieces. Strew a large handful of salt in the 
bottom of the jar; put in a piece of the beef, strew over it two or three 
more handfuls of salt and half the saltpetre; then lay in the other piece 
and cover it with the rest of the salt and saltpetre ; put a weight on the 
beef, and pour in cold water until the crock is nearly full; the beef 
must-be covered with the brine. Stir thoroxighly on each side the beef 
down to the bottom of the crock; cover it, and in three or four days 
the beef is ready to use. In summer it is sometimes fit for use the 
second day. In cold weather the brine may be used twice, if it is sweet 
and not bloody. 

In cooking the beef, put it in cold water and boil slowly, from four 
to five hours, or until the bones may be easily drawn out. 



PIFFAKD BEEF. 

One hundred pounds of beef. 

Half a pound of saltpetre. 

Half a pound of brown sugar. 

Sixteen pounds of salt. 

Ten and a half gallons of cold water. 

Lay the beef in a perfectly clean, sweet cask; mix the ingredients- 
thoroughly and pour over it; put a heavy stone on the meat, to keep 
it under the brine. Another half gallon of water may be added. It 
will be fit for use in twelve days. 



140 1ST THE KITCHEN. 



BOILED CORDED BEEF. 
"Wash the beef, cover it with cold water, and boil slowly until tei 
der, replenishing the kettle if necessary with boiling water. If a brisk< 
piece, boil until the bones slip out easily. It may be served with cal 
bage. 

CDRNED BEEF HASH. 

Two ounces of butter. 

One pint of chopped beef. 

One pint of chopped potatoes. 

Two gills of water. 

Half a teaspoonful of pepper. 

Put all the ingredients in an iron frying-pan ; stir sufficiently ' 
mix, but be careful not to break the pieces of potato; keep it covert 
until thoroughly heated; then remove the cover, move the hash to o: 
side of the frying-pan, letting it nearly reach the top ; keep this side ( 
the hottest part of the range; when browned, pass a knife under 
lay a platter on the pan, and turn it upside down. It makes a'beautif 
as well as excellent dish. 



A DINNER PREPARED IN - CAPT. WARREFS COOKER. 
A round of beef. 
Beef soup with vegetables. 
Potatoes. 
Pice. 

Tomatoes. 

Warrener's pudding. * 

Rub a round of beef weighing twelve pounds with two tablespoc 
fuls of salt, two teaspoonfuls of pepper, and one of summer savoi 



MEATS. 141 

place it on the tin lifter in the meat-chamber ; add two quarts of cold 
water, four large carrots cut in two lengthwise, two large onions cut 
in four; six peeled and sliced tomatoes, or half a can (more if liked), 
one potato cut in four, and two tablespoonfuls of well-washed rice. 
Fill the lower part of the boiler with hot water according to the direc- 
tions which come with the cooker; put the two other compartments 
and the cover in place, and keep it where it will boil steadily for five 
and a half hours. In three hours put the pudding in the upper part in 
a bag or mould; have the tomatoes prepared in an earthen mould or bak- 
ing-dish, in layers with bread crumbs, highly seasoned with butter, pep- 
per, salt, a grated onion, and a little sugar; give them, if canned, half an 
hour for cooking; if fresh, an hour. Have half a pint of well- washed 
rice in a quart basin, with half a pint of water and half a teaspoonful 
of salt; and allow for this and the potatoes the last half hour. The 
beef, on being taken from the cooker, should be placed in a pan, dotted 
with butter or drippings, and browned in a very hot oven, whilst the 
soup is being prepared and served. The fat must be skimmed from it, 
and the carrots, etc., may be chopped, and more seasoning added, or the 
soup maybe served without the vegetables. Reserve three gills of the 
soup for gravy; thicken and season it; when the vegetables are taken 
up, leave the pudding until wanted, and do not let the boiling cease; 
the water requires no replenishing. 



RUTGERS RQLLETJES. 
Ten pounds of beef. 
Five ounces of salt. 
Three quarters of an ounce of pepper. 
Half an ounce of ground cloves. 
Tripe. 



142 



IN THE KITCHEN". 



The beef should be sirloin, or from the best cuts, and about one 
third fat. Chop it in squares about the size of dice, and mix in the salt, 
pepper, and cloves. Take pieces of tripe about ten inches square, make 
bags of them, and fill with the beef; sew them up and boil four hours. 
Put the bags in a butter-firkin filled one third with vinegar, and the 
rest with the liquor from the pot, having skimmed ofi° the fat, which 
is kept for frying the rolletjes. Do not use it for a month. It will keep 
all summer, by adding vinegar. When ready to use, take a very sharp 
knife, cut it in slices one third" of an inch thick, and fry with unpared 
slices of sour apples; serve with a little of the fat for a gravy. 

This is used principally in Lent, when poultry and fresh meats are 
scarce, and is considered a capital substitute for fish, soupe maigre, etc., 
by the Dutch burgomeisters. 



OX CHEEK CHEESE. 

From half an ox-head take out the eye, crack the side bones, and 
lay it over night in water; cover it with water in a saucepan; boil 
gently, and skim carefully. When the meat loosens from the bone, 
take it out with a skimmer, and put it in a bowl; take out every parti- 
cle of bone, chop the meat very fine, and season with salt, pepper, and 
thyme. Tie in a cloth, press with a heavy weight; when cold, cut in 
slices, and serve. 

The gravy remaining will make a rich broth, with vegetables. 



TO DEESS KIDNEYS. 
• Cut all the good parts small, and lay them in salt and water for 
half an hour; then wash well, put on in clean water, and boil; pour off 
that water, put the kidneys on the fire again with clean water and an 



MEATS. 



143 



onion chopped fine, butter, pepper, and salt, and stew slowly all the 
evening. In the morning, warm them up for breakfast. Thicken the 
gravy if desired. 



KIDNEY RAGOUT. 

Mrs. I. E. Morse. 

Take two beef kidneys, nicely washed and well salted; cut them 
into bits of half an inch each, powder them with flour, or roll them in 
it, then throw them into a pan of boiling lard and cook until brown. 
Scald two quarts of tomatoes, stew them in their own liquor half an 
hour. When the kidneys are well browned put them in the stewpan 
with the tomatoes, add an onion and a half, finely chopped, cayenne 
pepper to the taste, and a little parsley. The ragout must now simmer 
a couple of hours over a slow fire; should the stew be too thick a 
teacupful of hot water may be added. Serve hot, with a dish of boiled 
rice. In winter a can of tomatoes takes the place of the fresh vegetable. 

A delicious dish is made by substituting mushrooms for the toma- 
toes. It is prepared in the same way, except that the mushrooms are 
added to the kidneys without being first stewed, and the ragout requires 
an extra hour to simmer. 



STUFFED LEG OF MUTTON. 

Haxnah. 

Take out the bone and fill the cavity with a stuffing made of bread 
crumbs, seasoned with pepper, salt, a little summer savory, two ounces 
of salt pork chopped fine, and a bit of butter, half the size of an egg. 
Skewer the ends, sprinkle, the mutton with ateaspoonful of salt and half 
a teaspoonful of pepper; lay it in the dripping-pan with a little water, 
and put it in a brisk oven ; when it begins tu roast put a little butter 



144 IN" THE KITCHEN. 

over it, and dredge it lightly with flour. Watch it very closely; keep 
an even heat, and baste it thoroughly every fifteen minutes. 

Following these directions, a piece weighing six pounds will roast 
in an hour and a half. 

ROAST MUTTON. 
. Precisely like the above, without the stuffing. 



BREAST OF MUTTON. 
Boil the mutton until the bones come out easily ; press it between 
two plates under a weight, and let it remain over night; the next day 
put the mutton in the oven, cover, and heat slowly; then chop a little 
parsley, and such sweet herbs as are liked, with an onion; add an egg, 
a little pepper, salt, and cayenne. Score the mutton, spread the mix- 
ture over the top, and over that put grated bread and small bits of 
butter; put it in the oven, and when a light brown, serve with a good 
brown sauce, seasoned with pickled mushrooms. 



A SMA1L LEG OF MUTTON, OR OTHER MEAT, BRAISED. 
Put two tablespoonfuls of drippings in an oval iron pot; when 
melted put in the meat sprinkled with a little salt. Shut down the lid 
and leave it over the fire on the trivet, or low rack; shake it up from 
time to time to prevent burning, and turn it over that it may cook 
evenly; should there not be sufficient moisture, add a little fat; when 
cooked, place the mutton on a hot dish, pour off the fat from the gravy, 
add a little water or stock, thicken with flour mixed smooth in a littles 
cold water (using two even tablespoonfuls of flour for half a pint of 
gravy) ; season with pepper and salt or with catsup or Harvey's sauce; 



MEATS. 145 

boil until the gravy is thickened, then pour it over the mutton and 
serve. 

I EG OF MUTTON BOILED. . 

Cut off the small bone at the end, leaving the meat to hide the 
joint and lap under; put it in a kettle of cold water, and make it boil 
as soon as possible; then boil very slowly but steadily until the meat 
is cooked. Stir a gill of capers in a pint of drawn butter; put some of 
it over the mutton, and serve the rest in the gravy-boat. 



MUTTON OR LAMB CHOPS. 
Trim them nicely; broil over a clear fire and when cooked season 
with butter, pepper, and salt; serve them, slightly lapping one over the 
other in the form of an oval, with the bones standing obliquely. If a 
very beautiful dish is desired put a frill of white paper an inch wide 
around the end of the bone; if liked, there maybe nicely-dressed toma- 
to in the centre of the dish. "With lamb chops, green peas may be 
served. 

MUTTON STEW. 

Time from two and a quarter to two and a half hours. 

Fry one and a half pounds of mutton, cut in bits, fifteen minutes 
in two ounces of butter; dredge over it one and a half ounces of flour, 
and let it brown; then add one quart of boiling water, two teaspoonfuls 
of salt, half a teaspoonful of pepper, and a pinch of summer savory, 
two onions cut in halves, with two cloves stuck in each piece; cover 
closely and let it simmer three quarters of an hour. Form sixteen cork- 
shaped pieces of turnip with an apple-corer; they should be of uniform 
length, from two to three inches ; fry them brown in one ounce of but- 
ter ; drop them in the stew, cover, and continue boiling an hour longer; 

10 



146 IN THE KITCHEN. 

then drop in eight or ten potatoes, cut down to the size of a black wal- 
nut. When the potatoes are cooked the stew is finished ; take out the 
onion, see that the gravy is well-seasoned, pour the whole in a hot plat- 
ter, a*nd serve. The bits of turnip and potato left from the cutting will 
do for soup, or with a little addition may be cooked as vegetables. 



ENGLISH MUTTON STEW. 
Slice in thin small pieces the cold roasted or boiled mutton left 
from dinner; barely cover it with cold water, add pepper, salt, and a 
small bit of butter, and let it simmer a few minutes; thicken the gravy 
with a little flour and brown it with browned flour; add half a tumbler 
of currant jelly (one gill) and the same of port wine; simmer a little 
longer and serve. This makes a very dark-colored dish. 



IRISH STEW. 

Two pounds of sliced potatoes. 

Two pounds of scrag mutton, cut in six or eight pieces and cov- 
ered with one pint of cold water. 

Two sliced onions 

Let it come very slowly to the boiling point; then skim well, let 
it simmer one hour and a half, season to the taste, and serve. 



MUTTON HARICOT. 

Trim mutton chops but leave the bone ; brown them on both sides 

in a hot pan with very little butter; then drop them into boiling water 

deep enough to cover them, with two sliced carrots, and let them stew 

until the carrots are tender; while stewing, brown half a sliced onion 



MEATS. 147 

in the pan where the chops were fried, and add to the carrots; season 
with pepper and salt. 



COLD ROAST MUTTON. 



Leg of mutton. 



Cloves. 

Salt pork. 

One pint of vinegar. 

Take out the bone, skewer the mutton, and trim nicely; stick 
cloves over it about one inch apart; lay it in the dripping-pan with 
slices of salt pork under and over it; pour the vinegar over it, and 
bake four hours slowly, basting it every twenty minutes. To be eaten 
cold. 

RAGOUT OF COLD MUTTON. 

Three quarters of a pound of cold roasted or boiled mutton. 

One pound of carrots. 

One pound of turnips. 

One sliced onion. 

Two ounces of butter. 

Two and a half gills of water. 

Two tablespoonfuls of flour. 

Two teaspoonfuls of salt. 

Half a teaspoonful of pepper. 

Cut the mutton in small bits, trimming off most of the fat; put the 
butter in the stewpan and sift over it one half of the flour; add the 
sliced onion and stir until brown; then put in the mutton; when this 
is brown add two gills of water, the carrots and turnips, which must 
be sliced very thin, and the pieces of turnips cut in two; add the pep- 
per and salt, cover closely, and stew till the vegetables are perfectly 



148 IN THE KITCHEN". 

done, from half to three quarters of an hour ; then add the rest of the 
flour with the half gill of water, and let it boil for a moment, when it is 
ready to serve. 

The proportion of mutton and vegetables may be varied. 



CHRISTINES RAGOUT. 

One and a half ounces of butter. 

One pint of broth. 

One onion, chopped fine. 

Five cloves. 

One and a half even tablespoonfuls of flour. 

One teaspoonful of, allspice. 

Two thirds of a teaspoonful of cloves. 

Salt and pepper to taste. 

One and a quarter pounds of cold veal or mutton. 

Chop half the onion very fine, stick the cloves in the other half, 
add the spices, salt, pepper, the broth and the flour rubbed smooth with 
the butter; let it simmer about half an hour, then add the meat cut in 
small pieces; let it simmer five or ten minutes, take out the half onion, 
and serve. 

This may be made of meat not previously cooked, in which case 
water will do instead of broth; more time must be given, and the flour 
and butter should not be added until the meat is nearly ready to. serve. 



MUTTON AND POTATOES. 
Three pounds of potatoes, boiled, mashed, and well seasoned. 
Fourteen ounces of cold roast or boiled mutton. 
Two ounces of butter. 



MEATS. 



]49 



One and a half teaspoonfuls of salt. 

Half a teaspoonful of pepper. 

Four tablespoonfuls of flour. 

Half an onion, grated. 

One pint of broth. 

Cut the mutton into very small pieces, not much larger or thicker 
than a two-cent piece ; stew the bone half an hour or more, to make 
the pint of broth; strain it, and let it simmer with the mutton, onion, 
pepper, and salt for ten minutes, adding the butter and flour rubbed 
together, two or three minutes before taking it up. Butter the lower 
part of a two-quart baking-dish, and put in a thin layer of potato, then 
half of the mutton, a thicker layer of potato, the rest of the mutton, 
and a last layer of potato, which must be glazed with the yolk of an 
egg; bake until thoroughly heated. A similar dish may be made with 
sliced instead of mashed potatoes; it is sometimes covered with a 
baking-powder crust, on which it is served. 



MUTTON AND TOMATO PIE. 
Cover the bottom of a baking-dish with bread crumbs, then a layer 
of cold roasted mutton, in thin, small slices, a layer of peeled, sliced 
tomatoes, and so on, • having the last of tomatoes, covered with fine 
crumbs; season every layer with pepper, salt, and small bits of butter. 
Bake slowly three quarters of an hour, and serve hot. 



MUTTON AND MACARONI, BEOWNED. 
Boil two ounces of macaroni until barely tender ; do not let it break ; 
drain, and put it by to cool.. Chop three quarters of a pound of cold 
roast or boiled mutton, add one teaspoonful of curry, one and a half of 



150 IN THE KITCHEN. 

salt, one ounce of butter, a beaten egg, and one gill of milk; mix all 
thoroughly together. Cut the macaroni in bits half an inch long, and 
mix it lightly with the mutton. Butter a pie-tin, and form the whole 
into a smooth round or oval mass in the centre; spread half an ounce 
of butter over it and put it in the oven; when well heated cover it with 
a beaten egg seasoned with a small pinch of salt and two of curry; 
scatter finely grated bread over the egg, and brown it. Serve on a 
platter garnished with parsley. This dish may be more highly seasoned 
if preferred. 

TO PBEPAEE A BREAST OF LAMB A IA EDM01JD. 

Contributed by Mr. G. Mason Graham. 

Boil a breast of lamb or mutton in salt and water until thoroughly 
done; let it get cold; beat an egg, yolk and white together, and smear 
the cold breast with it; then roll it in bread crumbs, or grated crust of 
bread and bake it. Have a sauce piquante of vinegar and oil, with ouion 
tops shred in it, to pour over the lamb when baked, and it is good to eat, 
hot or cold. 

TO CUBBY LAMB OR CHICKEN. 
Lamb should be cut in chops; chicken, as for a fricassee, a pound 
and a half of either; use barely enough water to stew until tender, with 
half an onion sliced thin as paper. When cooked, add half a pint of rich 
milk, two ounces of butter, one teaspoonful of curry (more if liked), a 
little salt, and two even tablespoonfuls of flour; let it simmer until the 
gravy is thickened. Serve with a garnish of rice, boiled dry. 



CALF'S HEAD. 
Soak it four or five hours in cold water; put it over the fire in a 
kettle of cold water, and when all the scum has risen and been removed 



MEATS. 151 

take it cff, and put the head into cold water. Dry it with a cloth, and 
if required, singe it before a bright fire; take out the bones, and 
remove the hard skin of the tongue; rub well with lemon-juice; tie in 
a clean cloth and let it simmer in water with salt, pepper, half a glass 
of vinegar, a large bunch of sweet herbs, and a clove of garlic, four 
hours over a slow fire. Serve garnished with parsley. 



PLAIN" BOILED CALF'S HEAD. 
Soak in cold water one hour and a half, and for ten minutes in hot 
water; put it in a kettle rather more than covered with cold water; 
boil and skim carefully; then let it simmer until very tender. Serve 
with drawn butter and parsley, and garnish with slices of lemon. 



BROWNED SAVORY CALF'S HEAD. 
When boiled, score the surface, and with a feather cover it with 
the beaten yolk of an egg; sift over it some fine bread crumbs, with 
lemon -thyme, parsley, pepper, and salt; brown it in the oven, and 
when it begins to look dry, baste it with a little melted butter. Garnish 
with thin slices of bacon curled. 



LARDED SWEETBREADS WITH GREEN PEAS. 
Draw with a larding-needle, through five sweetbreads, very small 
strips of salt pork, letting them project evenly, about half an inch, on 
the upper side ; put them on the fire with half a pint of water, and let 
them stew slowly for half an hour; then take them out and put them 
in a small dripping-pan with a little butter and a sprinkle of flour; 
brown them slightly, add half a gill of milk and water together, and 



152 TK THE KITCHEN. 

season with pepper; heat half a pint of cream and stir it in the gravy 
in the pan. Have the peas ready boiled and seasoned; place the sweet- 
breads iu the centre of the dish, pour the gravy over them, and pat 
the peas around them. 



SWEETBREADS AND MUSHROOMS. 

One dozen and a half of small, fresh mushrooms. 

Five sweetbreads. 

Two ounces of butter. 

Pepper and salt. 

Cover the mushrooms with water, cover the saucepan, and stew for 
twenty minutes; take them from the water, lay in the sweetbreads, 
and stew fifteen minutes; add the butter, pepper, salt, and mushrooms; 
thicken a little with flour, stew for fifteen minutes, and serve. 



SWEETBREADS AND MUSHROOMS WITH CREAM. 

Stew equal quantities of sweetbreads and mushrooms, as in the 
above rule, and when cool cut them in pieces the size of a grain of 
Mocha cofiee; stew them a few minutes in a little cream, and season 
with pepper, salt, and mace if liked; dredge in a little flour that the 
cream may be barely thick enough to keep the whole together in a soft 
mass. Serve hot in paper cases, placed on a napkin, in a platter. 

To make a paper case take a piece of writing-paper five inches 
square, fold down the four sides towards the centre, an inch deep, raise 
them, lap the paper at the corners, and fasten it with a thorn or a clean 
pine splinter half the length and size of a match. Or cut an oval, five 
inches long and three and a half wide ; fold down the edge three fourths 
of an inch, turn it up, and crimp it with a knife. 



MEATS. 153 



SWEETBREADS WITH TOMATOES, 
Slice two quarts of ripe tomatoes, and stew until they break; 
strain through a sieve into a saucepan, and add four or five sweetbreads 
that have been well-trimmed and soaked in warm water; stir in two or 
three ounces of butter, rolled in flour, with " salt and cayenne to the 
taste; just before serving, add the beaten yolks of two eggs. Serve 
in a deep dish, with the tomato poured over the sweetbreads. 



VOL AU VENT OF SWEETBREADS AND OYSTERS. 

Put three or four sweetbreads in cold water, and let them lie half 
an hour or more to cleanse and whiten, then throw them into boiling 
water, with some salt; let them boil fast, well-covered with water, for 
fifteen or twenty minutes or until they are enough but not too much 
cooked; take out, drain, cool, and set aside; when cold cut into dice; 
salt, pepper, and dredge them with flour. Have in a basin two or three 
dozen stewed, drained oysters, a small teacup of stewed button mush- 
rooms, one dozen or more olives, pared in one piece close to the ker- 
nel. Put a quarter of a pound of butter in a stewpan, melt, and add 
two tablespoonfuls of flour, stirring well, and pouring in stock gradu- 
ally until the sauce is of a creamy consistency; season with salt, pep- 
per, or cayenne, and a very little grated nutmeg; put in the sweet- 
breads, stirring to prevent browning; when thoroughly heated add one 
after the other, the oysters, mushrooms, and olives, and a tablespoonful 
of tarragon vinegar; stir and heat up again, but do not let it boil. 
Serve in the vol au vent crust (see page 378) after gently warming it. 
It makes a nice supper dish, and is liked cold as well as hot. 

Vol au vent may be made of oysters alone, or of lobster, fish, 
chicken, chicken livers, and cocks' combs fricasseed, also with pre- 



154 IN THE KITCHEN. 

served fruit, served with or without the cover; if without, the fruit may 
be piled in a pyramidal form, — peaches, cherries, and green melon. 



COCKS' COMBS FOR VOL AU VENT. 
They must be soaked several hours in cold water to bleach; then 
boil until tender, drain, and set aside for use. 



VEAL BOILED AND BROWNED. 

Remove the lower bone from a boiled knuckle, leaving the meat to 
turn under that which is on the other side of the joint. Beat the yolks 
of two eggs with half a teaspbonful of salt and a pinch of pepper; 
cover the meat with this, and then with grated bread, and brown it in 
the oven. 

Make a gravy to be poured around it, or served in a gravy-boat. 
Brown an ounce of butter, stir Avith it an ounce of browned flour, and 
by degrees add a pint of broth, having boiled in it the yellow rind of 
half a lemon; add half a teaspoonful of allspice, one teaspoonful of 
salt, a small pinch of cayenne, and the juice of half a lemon. Let it boil 
until as thick as desired. 



ROAST FILLET OF VEAL. 
Take out the bone, and fill the cavity with a stuffing of bread 
crumbs, seasoned with salt pork chopped very fine, pepper, salt, and 
sweet marjoram; make deep incisions in the veal, and fill them with the 
stuffing, or press into each a strip of salt pork. If a larding-needle is 
at hand, strips of pork may be drawn through the veal without pre- 
vious cutting. Bind it closely together with twine; put it in the oven 
with a little water in the pan, baste often, and roast until thoroughly done, 
remembering that no one likes rare veal. "When the veal is cooked 



MEATS. 155 

make the gravy in the dripping-pan, after pouring off the fat; add 
■broth or water, if necessary, season to the taste with pepper and salt, 
and thicken with browned flour. 



VEAL CUTLETS. 
Cut the veal from the round in slices about an inch thick; put it in 
a frying-pan and half cover it with boiling water; cover the pan closely 
and let it simmer ten minutes; take it out and when well drained dip 
the pieces in the beaten yolk of egg seasoned with pepper, salt, grated 
lemon-peel, and a little nutmeg, then in grated bread, and fry them in 
butter and lard. "When cooked take them from the pan, pour out nearly 
all of the fat, add hot water (half a pint for an ordinary dish), thicken 
with two tablespoonfuls of flour, and season it, adding a little lemon- 
juice. Pour the gravy over the veal, and garnish the dish with sliced 
lemon. The lemon and nutmeg may be omitted if preferred. 



FILLET OF VEAL, STEWED WHITE. 
Choose a small, fat fillet, remove the bone, and stuff it with half 
a pint of bread crumbs, well mixed with two ounces of suet, a little pars^ 
ley, chopped onion, lemon-thyme, grated lemon-peel, nutmeg, pepper, 
and salt. Reserve some of the dressing, moisten it a little, make into 
small balls, roll in grated bread, and fry in deep lard. Skewer the fillet 
nicely, and put it in a kettle, with a plate underneath to prevent, its 
sticking; add a carrot, and onion sliced, pepper-corns, salt, and mace; 
cover with cold water, and let it stew slowly. Take it up when done, 
strain a pint of the liquor for the gravy, and thicken it with four table- 
spoonfuls of flour, rubbed smooth with two ounces of butter, and add 
enough cream to make it a rich white. Garnish with the balls and thin 
slices of lemon; pour the gravy over the veal. 



156 IN THE KITCHEN. 

» FRICANDEAU OF VEAL. 

* 

Put in a frying-pan one ounce of butter, a sliced onion and as 
much carrot, one teaspoonful of salt, half a teaspoonful of pepper and 
the same of summer savory; lay in a slice of veal an inch thick, weigh- 
ing about two pounds, closely larded with very small strips of pork; 
they need not go through the veal, but must stand a third of an inch 
above the upper side, and should bo clipped off evenly. Fry until 
nicely browned on the lower side, then add half a pint of good stock, 
and put it in the oven; baste often, and add gradually another half pint 
of stock; when cooked and browned, lay it on a platter, strain the 
gravy, pour it over the veal, and serve. The gravy may be thickened 
if liked. 

FRIGADEL. 

Three and a half pounds of chopped veal. 

Five small crackers pounded. 

One tablespoonful of salt. 

One teaspoonful of pepper. 

Half a nutmeg. 

Three eggs. 

Chop the veal very fine, add one fourth of the cracker, the salt, 
pepper, nutmeg, and eggs ; if the veal is quite lean add a bit of butter 
half the size of an egg, and a .tablespoonful of cream. Mix, all thor- 
oughly together with the hand; form into an oval loaf, spot it thickly 
with bits of butter, and strew over it the rest of the cracker; lay it in 
the dripping-pan with a little water, and let it cook rather slowly for 
two hours; baste it occasionally, and from time to time add a little 
water, that there may be sufficient gravy. The gravy may be thickened 
if desired. This is delicious when cold. 



MEATS. 157 



FBIED VEAL. 

One and three quarter pounds of sliced veal. 

Three ounces of salt pork. 

Half a pint of cream. 

One even tablespoonful of flour. 

One and a half teaspoonfuls of salt. 

Two thirds of a tcaspoonful of pepper. 

Cut the pork in thin slices, and fry slowly until there is enough 
fat in the pan to fry the veal, which may be sprinkled with the salt and 
pepper, laid in the pan, and browned on both sides, cooking rather 
slowly. When done lay the slices of veal on a platter, with the bits 
of pork; pour nearly all the fat from the frying-pan, add the cream, in a 
little of which the flour has been rubbed smooth; let it simmer a few 
minutes, then pour over the veal, and serve. 



FRIED VEAL BALLS. 

One and a half pounds of veal chopped very fine. 

Three ounces of salt pork chopped very fine. 

One tcaspoonful of summer savory. 

One and a half teaspoonfuls of salt. ' 

Half a tcaspoonful of sage. 

Two thirds of a tcaspoonful of pepper. 

Mix thoroughly with the hand; make into flattened balls, pressing 
the veal closely that the surface may be smooth; roll in flour, and fry 
in drippings, in the frying-pan. This quantity makes nine balls. Let 
them cook slowly for half an hour. Serve on a platter, and pour over 
them some of the fat from the frying-pan. 



158 IN" THE KITCHEN. 

PRESSED VEAL. 

One pound of salt pork. 

Three pounds of veal. 

After weighing the pork, remove the rind and lean, and chop it 
fine; chop the veal also; mix them thoroughly together, season well 
with pepper and a teaspoonful of chopped onion or summer savory ; press 
it closely in a pudding-dish, cover, and bake two hours. To be eaten 
cold. 

MARBLED VEAL. 
Take a piece of veal from the round, being guided as to quantity 
by the size of the mould you wish to fill; add loose lean scraps, and 
bone if convenient; cover with cold water and boil until perfectly ten- 
der; remove the piece of meat, leaving the scraps and bone to steAV 
longer. Have ready four or five hard-boiled eggs; slice the cold veal, 
and put it in the mould in layers, with sliced egg, a little salt, pepper, 
sweet marjoram, small dice of boiled ham, and a slight dredging of 
flour; reserve enough of the egg to make a border around the last layer. 
When the mould is filled press the layers gently together and pour in 
the stock from the kettle. If there were no scraps or. bone for the 
stock, stir in a tablespoonful of melted gelatine (this much to a pint), 
cover the mould, and bake moderately for an hour and a half. To be 
turned from the mould, and eaten cold the next day. 



RAGOUT OF COLD VEAL. 

Cut in slices, dredge with flour, and fry in butter with half a grated 
onion until brown; take it up, put a little hot water in the frying-pan, 
and add a little smoothly-mixed flour, salt, pepper, catsup, and lemon- 
juice; put back the veal, and when very hot, serve. 



MEATS. 159 

VEAL CHEESE. 
Cold cooked veal chopped fine and slightly warmed with any 
gravy, or a little b ntter, pepper, and salt, nutmeg also, if liked; line 
a smooth mould with hard-boiled eggs sliced, and fill with the veal, 
pressing it evenly in. Serve cold. 



VEAL WITH OYSTEKS. 

Two pounds of tender veal cut in thin bits, dredge with flour,- and 
fry in sufficient hot lard to prevent sticking; when nearly done add 
one and a half pints of fine oysters, thicken with a little flour, season 
with salt and pepper, and cook until both are done. Serve very hot in 
a covered dish. 

MINCED VEAL. 
Cut cold veal as fine as possible, but do not chop it ; put some good 
broth in a saucepan and season it with pepper, salt, grated lemon-peel, 
and a little mace; rub a little butter and flour together, and add to the 
gravy; let it simmer to thicken; then put in the veal, with one gill of 
rich cream; let it get very hot, but not boil. Serve with three-cornered 
sippets of thin toasted bread around the dish. 



STUFFING FOR VEAL. 
Chop one pound of veal and half a pound of salt pork; mix them 
with one pound of finely crumbed or grated bread, a little cut parsley, 
sweet marjoram, three ounces of butter, two eggs, and pepper. 



MINCED LIVER. 
Cut it in pieces and fry with slices of pork; then cut both 
into dice, nearly cover with water, add a little lemon-juice and 



160 . IN THE KITCHEN. 

pepper, thicken the gravy with grated bread or browned flour, and 
serve. 

STEWED LIVER. 
Boil the liver until tender, and then chop fine; put in a saucepan, 
with a little water, butter, browned flour, and spices to taste. After 
simmering twenty minutes, serve hot, pouring over it half a gill of 
wine. 

STUFFED LIVER. 
Soak a calf's liver in cold salt and water for an hour or more, using 
two even tablespoonfuls of salt to a quart of water; change the water 
once during the time. Make a stuffing like that used for veal, highly 
seasoned with pepper, salt, finely-chopped pork, and summer savory or 
sweet marjoram ; make incisions in the liver and fill them with the 
stuffing; then roll and tie it, blanket with slices of salt pork, and bake 
it. To be eaten cold, sliced, for lunch or tea. 



FRIED CALF'S LIVER. 
Cut the liver in thin slices, wash it, and leave it in salt and water 
for half an hour; then wash it, and season with pepper and a little 
more salt; fry in lard, and let it brown nicely. It may also be cut and 
soaked as above, and broiled, seasoned with pepper and salt, and basted 
with butter. 

FOTJRCHETTE. 

J. W. S., New Orleans. 

Bits of nice salt pork about one third of an inch thick, two or three 
inches square; bits of calf's liver the same size. Put these alternately 
on a long skewer, beginning and ending with pork; lay it in the oven, 



MEATS. 161 

across a dripping-pan, and roast as you would a bird, basting occasion- 
ally. When done slide the pieces from the skewer, and serve on a 
platter. . 

LIVER (OR VEAL) BEWITCHED. 

Three pounds of raw liver. 

One quarter of a pound of raw, fat salt pork. 

Half a pint of bread crumbs. 

Three teaspoonfuls of salt. 

One teaspoonful of black pepper. 

Half a teaspoonful of cayenne. 

Half a teaspoonful of mace. 

A pinch of cloves. 

Chop the liver and pork very fine, add all the other ingredients, 
mix well together, put it in a covered mould or tin pail; set it in a ket- 
tle of cold water over the fire (let the water reach half the height of 
the mould) ; cover the kettle and let it boil two hours; take out the 
mould, uncover, and let it stand in an open oven to let the steam pass 
off. To be eaten cold. 

MOCK TERRAPIN. 

Hagerstown, Md. 

Half a calf s liver. 

Two ounces of butter. 

Half a pint of water. 

Half a gill of wine. 

One teaspoonful of mixed mustard. 

As much cayenne pepper as can be put on a half dime. 

Two hard-boiled eggs, chopped fine. 

Season the liver with salt, and fry it brown; cut it in small bits, 
11 



1G2 IN THE KITCHEN. 

dredge them well with flour, add the mustard, pepper, water, eggs, and 
butter; let it boil a minute or two, then add the wine. 
Cold veal may be used instead of liver. 



POT PIE. • 

This may be made of any kind of poultry or meat, which may or 
may not have been previously cooked. 

Of cold roast beef take two pounds, cut in rather thick oblong 
pieces, break the bones, cover them with water, and let them simmer 
two or three hours for the gravy; add sufficient water to this to make 
the quantity one quart, put it in a four-quart saucepan with three tea- 
spoonfuls of salt, half a teaspoonful of pepper, and one tablespoonful 
of catsup, and the meat, and when it boils add two tablespoonfuls of 
flour mixed smooth in a little cold water. Have ready a soda-biscuit 
dough (see page 300) made with two and a half ounces instead of 
three of lard, butter, or drippings, to the pound of flour, and one table- 
spoonful less of milk. A raised crust is excellent and bj some much 
preferred. Take a piece of bread-dough the size of a dinner-plate 
and two thirds of an inch thick, and let it rise. Be sure to have it 
ready for the stew when the stew 1 is ready for it; give it abundant time 
to rise, and if It rises too fast put it in a cooler place. When the stew 
is boiling fast, the crust may be added, either in one piece, covering the 
whole or cut in oblong pieces ; the saucepan must then be closely covered 
and must boil without stopping for twenty minutes; if the crust is in 
one piece it must be placed on the platter upside down, the meat laid 
on it, and the gravy (which may be more thickened if necessary) 
poured over it. Should there be but little meat in the stew put a tea- 
cup upside down on the oottom of the saucepan to help support the 
crust. 



MEATS. 163 



HAUNCH OF VENISON ROASTED. 

Aftee Marion Harland. 

If the outside is hard wash it in lukewarm water and rub it with 
butter or lard ; lay it in the dripping-pan and cover the top and sides 
with a paste half an inch thick, made of flour and water; lay a thin 
buttered paper over it, and over that a sheet of foolscap, and keep all 
in place with buttered twine wound around the haunch; pour a little 
water in the pao, put it in the oven, and occasionally pour a little but- 
ter and hot water over the whole to keep the paper from burning. 
Keep a strong, steady fire, and if the haunch is very large allow it about 
two hours. Try it with a skewer to know when it is done. The last 
half hour remove the paper and paste, and baste very often with claret 
and butter. Serve with a frill of paper around the knuckle. Gravy 
may be made by slowly stewing a pound of raw venison scraps in a 
pint and a half of water, with cloves, nutmeg, salt, and cayenne to 
taste; when reduced one third, strain, and return it to the saucepan 
with three tablespoonfuls of currant jelly, half a gill of claret, and two 
ounces of butter rubbed smooth with three even tablespoonfuls of 
browned flour and one of white. Serve it in a gravy-boat. Currant 
jelly is eaten with venison. 



STEWED VENISON. 
Use the backbone with the layer of tender meat each side, cut it into 
several pieces, and put it in a stewpan with just water enough to cover 
it; add a grated onion, a bunch of sweet herbs, salt, black pepper, and 
part of a red pepper pod. If it becomes rather dry add boiling water; 
just before serving thicken with flour rubbed smooth in an ounce of 
butter. 



16± IN THE KITCHEN. 



CTJERIED RABBIT. 

One rabbit. 

ITalf a pound of rice. 

Two ounces of butter. 

One pint of stock. 

Three sliced onions. 

One tablespoonful of flour. 

One tablespoonful of curry. * 

One teaspoonful of mushroom powder. 

The juice of half a lemon. 

Clean, skin, and wash the rabbit thoroughly, and cut it neatly into 
joints; put it in a stewpan with the butter and onions; let them brown, 
being careful that they do not burn; pour in the boiling stock; mix 
the curry and flour smoothly in a little water, and put them in the sauce- 
pan with the mushroom powder; let them simmer rather more than 
half an hour; squeeze in the lemon-juice, and serve in the centre of a 
platter with the rice, boiled dry, piled around it. 

Water may be used instead of stock, and a little sour apple and 
grated cocoanut stewed with the curry. 



JUGGED HARE. 

(Time from three to four hours.') 

One hare. 

One and a half pounds of beef. 

Half a pound of butter. 

Half a pint of Port wine. 

One onion. 

One lemon. 



MEATS. 165 

Six cloves. 

Pepper, salt, and cayenne to taste. 

Skin, clean, and wash the hare, cut it in pieces, dredge with flour, 
and fry in hot butter Have ready one and a half pints of gravy made 
from the beef and thickened with an even tablespoon ful of flour; put 
this into a jar with the fried hare, the onion stuck with the cloves, the 
lemon peeled and cut in half, and a good seasoning of pepper, salt, and 
cayenne; cover the jar tight, and put it up to the neck in a kettle of 
boiling water; let it stew until the hare is quite tender, keeping the 
water boiling; when nearly done pour in the wine and add a few fried 
force-meat balls (see page GO). Serve with currant jelly. 



ROAST GROUSE. 

{Time for cooking from thirty to thirty-five minutes.} 

Let the birds hang as long as possible; pluck and draw them, 
wipe, but do not wash them, either inside or out, and truss them with- 
out the head, cutting off the neck at the backbone, drawing over the 
skin from the crop, and lapping it underneath; lay them in a dripping- 
pan with a little water; keep them well-basted. Serve on toast which 
has been soaked in the dripping-pan and buttered; pour a little melted 
butter over the grouse, or serve with bread-sauce and gravy. 



ROAST GROUSE. 

Madame Morvan. 

Dress and clean them, put an ounce of butter in each, then lay 
each one, blanketed with strips of bacon, on a slice of dry toast in 
the dripping-pan; as soon as they begin to get at all dry moisten them 
well with stock, and until they are cooked, baste and turn them several 



166 IX THE KITCHEN". 

times. Serve on a hot platter garnished with parsley or cress, and the 
toast, which is delicious, cut in points. 



TO STEW PARTRIDGES. 

Mrs. Breck. 

In Mississippi, when partridges are abundant and butter poor, and 
hard to obtain, take five or six partridges, cover with water, and let 
them simmer for a long time until all the flavor is extracted; strain the 
soup, season it with salt, pepper, and cream, and stew in it six par- 
tridges. They are very delicate cooked in this way, and find great 
favor with sportsmen. 

ROAST WOODCOCK. 
After plucking the bird take out the gizzard only; truss nicely, 
putting the head under the wing or sticking the bill in the breast; lard 
with butter, and after baking a few moments baste well with butter and 
hot water, and place an oval piece of toast under the bird to catch the 
trail; the bird is served on the toast. "Woodcock are often drawn, del- 
icately seasoned with salt and pepper, roasted nicely, and served on 
buttered toast, which should be placed under them ten minutes before 
the roasting is finished. 

BROILED WOODCOCK. 
Split them down the back, broil over a clear fire, lay them on a 
hot platter, with a little salt, pepper, and a few bits of butter; cover 
and keep hot. In five minutes they are ready to serve. 



NEW ZEALAND MODE OF COOKING BIRDS. 
Cover the bird in its feathers with a paste made of mud and water; 
dig a hole in the ground and build a fire in it; when burned down 



MEATS.. 1G7 

place the bird in the coals, cover, and leave it until baked. When the 
paste is removed the feathers fall off, leaving the bird reaily to be 
eaten. The entrails will be found dried in a small ball, which can be 
easily removed. 

This mode has been adopted in Louisiana, and is highly appreci- 
ated. 



REED BIRDS. 
Pick, open, and wash carefully a dozen or more ; place them in the 
folds of a clean towel, and with a rolling-pin crush the bones quite flat; 
season with pepper and salt, spread them in a folding-gridiron, put 
them over a clear fire, broiling the inside first, and when a light brown 
turn the gridiron. Serve on buttered toast, season with pepper and 
salt, and baste them well with fresh butter. 



SPARE RIB. 
Rub the piece with salt, pepper, and powdered sage; put it in the 
dripping-pan with half a pint or more of water; baste very often to 
prevent drying. It must be thoroughly cooked, as fresh pork is most 
unpalatable when rare. 

PORK STEAKS. 
Take off the skin, broil well without drying, over a clear fire; 
have ready on a hot platter two ounces of butter, rubbed with an even 
teaspoonful of salt, half a teaspoonful of pepper, the same of powdered 
sage, and one teaspoonful of grated onion; turn the steaks several times 
in this dressing ; then cover closely and leave in the oven for a few 
moments, when they are ready to serve. • 



108 IN" THE KITCHEN. 



DUTCH RECEIPT FOR FRESH PORK 

Mrs. Johnson. 

Two pounds of lean, fresh pork. 

Half a pound of bread without the crust. 

Three gills of milk. 

Pepper, salt, and nutmeg to the taste. 

Two eggs. 

Soak the bread in the milk, add the seasoning and beaten eggs; 
when well-mixed, add the pork finely minced. Put it in a buttered 
dish, and bake it two hours. Have a little butter and water with which 
to baste it occasionally. 



A DELICATE ROAST PIG. 
Lay a nicely-dressed pig in a tub of cold water to soak all night; 
in the morning change the water, and let it remain until it is time to 
roast it; then wipe it dry, rub the inside well with sage, cayenne, and 
salt mixed, and stuff it with a dressing made of bread crumbs, salt pork 
chopped fine, pepper, salt, sage, sweet marjoram, and an egg. It 
should then be roasted on a spit before the fire; but lacking conveni- 
ences for this mode, the pig must be placed (the feet turned under) on 
a rack in the dripping-pan with some water, in which are some sprigs 
of sage and marjoram tied in muslin. Keep it well-floured until half 
4one; then take it out, wipe off the flour, return it to the oven, and baste 
well with butter, repeating this several times until the pig is roasted. 
Serve on a large platter with a. rose or small unhusked ear of green 
corn in its month. The herbs may be taken from the dripping-pan, 
the gravy thickened with flour and seasoned to the taste with pepper 
and salt, then served in a boat. Allow about three hours for roasting. 



MEATS. 



169 



SOUSE. 
Take four young and tender pigs' feet; cover them with water, 
and let them boil very slowly until so tender that the bones come out; 
take them out, and sprinkle a little salt over them; when the liquor 
cools remove the grease, and to one quart of the liquor add the same 
measure of vinegar; boil it a few minutes with a handful of whole pep- 
per, and pour it boiling hot over the feet. Cover closely, and leave in 
a cold place. 

SCRAPPLE. 
Boil a pig's head two hours in four quarts of water with a little 
sage, salt, and pepper; cut the flesh from the bones, mince it fine, and 
raturn it to the liquor; add enough sifted cornmeal to thicken; simmer 
(■wo hours, when it should be of the consistency of soft mush, not too 
thick to pour. Put it in pans; when cold and stiff it is sliced, and fried 
for breakfast. 

FOR MAKING SAUSAGE. 

Willow Bhook. 

After selecting the sausage meat, chop it fine, and separate from it 
all pieces of gristle and tough parts of the meat, and season as follows: 

Thirty pounds of sausage meat. 

Eight ounces of salt. 

One and a half ounces of summer savory. 

Two and a quarter oimces of sage. 

Two ounces of pepper (the pepper should be ground fresh from 
the berry). 

Knead the seasoning into the sausage meat; a larger quantity of 
sage and summer savory can be added, but no more salt. 



170 



IN" THE KITCHEN. 



AUNT HANNAH'S SAUSAGE MEAT. 
Fifty pounds of pork, about one quarter fat, chopped very fine. 
One and a half pounds of salt. 
I Five ounces of sage. 
Five ounces of pepper. 

Mix pepper, sage, and salt together, and then work them thor- 
oughly through the meat; pack it in stone jars, and keep in a cold 
place, but do not allow it to freeze. 



FRYING SAUSAGES. ~ 
Prick them well to prevent the skin from bursting, lay them in a fry- 
ing-pan, let them heat slowly, until sufficient fat has come from them 
to prevent burning; turn them occasionally. If a gravy is liked, when 
the sausage is laid on the platter, pour nearly all the fat from the pan, 
add a little boiling water, and stir it well until browned with the sedi- 
ment in the pan ; pour it over the sausages, and serve. 



BACON. 

Col. Wm. FitzHugh, of Maryland. 

To one thousand pounds of pork hams, one bnshel of ground rock 
salt, one gallon of molasses, one dozen red peppers ground; mix all 
well together. On each ham put a heaping tablespoonful of finely-pul- 
verized saltpetre, well rubbed in on the flesh side; lay on the mixture 
on the same side, the third of an inch thick; pack the meat in a tight 
tub with the skin side down, put on it a heavy weight, and let it remain 
three weeks. Repack it, laying the upper hams down ; leave it three 
weeks longer. Wipe them dry, and let them hang three days before 
smoking. Smoke with hickory wood, three days in the week, for four- 



MEATS. 171 

teen weeks. Before the flies appear, roll in paper, and place in cotton 
bass. 



■"O" 



TO CURE A SMALLER QUANTITY OF BACON. 

Col. FitzIIugh. 

To six large hams, take eight quarts of fine salt and four table- 
spoonfuls of saltpetre; mix well together, and rub thoroughly into 
every ham. Pack with the skin side down in a clean tub; let them 
remain six weeks, then hang them up and smoke six weeks. Cure 
shoulders in the same way, but with a little less salt. 



HAMS SXOKED IN THE BRINE. 
Turn a barrel over a pan or kettle, in which there must be kept a 
slow smoking fire of hard wood, for from five to eight days; keep water 
on the head of the barrel to prevent its shrinking. Pack the hams in 
the smoked barrel, and to every six gallons of water use twelve pounds 
of salt, twelve ounces of saltpetre, and two quarts of molasses; stir 
until dissolved, boil and skim, and when, cold pour the brine on the 
hams. In one week they are cured. By keeping the hams under the 
pickle they will remain good the entire year, without becoming hard or 
too salt. It is thought that these hams are far superior to those cured 
in the ordinary way. 

INGLE HAMS. 

Rub the hams well with salt, especially around the bone, put them 
in a cask, and pour over them this brine, which must be well-skimmed 
and boiling. 

Nine pounds of salt. 

Three ounces of saltpetre. 



172 EST THE KITCHEN. 

One pint of molasses. 

Six gallons of water. 

One heaping tablespoonful of saleratus. 

Let them lie four or five weeks; then hang them up in the smoke 
of a slow fire, which requires daily attention. Smoke very slowly a 
week t>r more, until they are a dark chestnut color. 



For boiling, always select an old small ham. For broiling, choose 
one recently cured. 

In carving a ham, begin two or three inches from the centre towards 
the hock; after the first slice is cut, the large end is called " Virginia," 
the other "Maryland." It should be cut as thin as possible; it is said 
that a cold boiled ham should be cut so thin as to cover an acre. 

Grated ham is very nice for sandwiches. Cold ham for the tea- 
table may be sliced very thin and rolled. 



HAM BOILED AND BAKED. 

Take a small ham that has been cured several months; wash it 
well and scrape the lower part; soak it all night in water that will more 
than cover it; in the morning put it in the boiler with an equal supply 
of fresh water; boil slowly for four hours. Take off the skin; this is 
done very easily when the ham is hot, by holding the bone with one 
hand, while with a damp cloth in the other, you loosen the ski.i from 
the bone, turn it back, and draw it off in one piece. The next day put 
the ham in the oven for two hours, with a cover to protect the top; 
have a pint of vinegar in the dripping-pan and baste the ham often. 
Ten minutes before it is baked take it out, cover it with grated bread, 
and return it to the oven to brown. 

When served, conceal the bone with a frill of finely cut paper. 



MEATS. 173 



BAKED HAH.' 
Pittsburg Receipt. 

Wash the ham thoroughly and scrape the lower part; soak it in 
water, that will more than cover it, all night. Skin it, and lay it in the 
dripping-pan with one pint of vinegar; baste every fifteen or twenty 
minutes; bake four hours. Half an hour before serving take it out 
and cover thickly with powdered white sugar and a layer of ground 
cinnamon with a little nutmeg, and a little red pepper. Return it to 
the oven and let it brown. 

BONED HAM. 
Soak a nicely cured ham the night before you wish to cook it, in 
tepid water. Next day place it in a pot of water of the same tempera- 
ture, and boil it until perfectly tender; take it up in a wooden tray, let 
it cool, and carefully take out the bone; cut it clear at the hock and 
loosen it around the bone on the thick part with a sharp knife, and 
slowly pull it out. Then press the ham in shape, and return it to the 
boiling liquor; take the pot off the fire, and let the ham remain in it 
until cold. It is like beef's tongue when cut across in slices. 



BROILED HAM. 

For broiling, a ham should not be old, as for boiling. 

Cut the slices thin, trim the edges carefully, lay in the saucepan, 
cover with water, and let it heat gradually to freshen, but do not let the 
water boil; after ten minutes, taste of the ham, and if it is still too 
salt, pour off the water and add fresh, letting it heat again. Then dry 
it in a cloth and broil over a clear fire; lay in a platter and dress with 
pepper, and a few small bits of butter. 



174 IN THE KITCHEN. 

HAM WITH VINEGAR. 

Cut cold ham thin, and broil it; lay it on the platter and pour over 
it two or three spoonfuls of hot vinegar and pepper. If the vinegar is 
very strong, add a little water, 



HAM WITH CURRANT JELLY. 
Put half a glass of currant jelly, a small bit of butter, and a little 
pepper in your saucepan; slice boiled ham very thin, and when the 
jelly is hot, put in the ham and leave it only long enough to be thor- 
oughly heated. Serve on a small platter. 



WHAT TO DO WITH A HAM FROM WHICH A PEW SLICES HAVE BEEN CUT. 
Make a very nice stuffing of grated or finely-crumbed bread, sea- 
soned with pepper and celery seed, and heated with a small bit of butter. 
Fill the space in the ham with this dressing, restoring as far as possible 
the form of the ham, and leaving a smooth surface; heat slowly in the 
oven and let it bake half an hour, then cover it with grated bread and 
a sprinkling of sugar; brown, and serve. 



GRATED HAM FOR TEA. 
Garnish the edge of a small platter with very thin slices of the fat 
of cold boiled ham; the pieces should be one and a half inches long 
and one inch wide; place them on the edge half an inch apart; fill the 
dish with grated ham, letting it meet the border. It should rise in the 
centre two or three inches. 



HAM TOAST. 
Put one pint of chopped lean ham in a pan with a little pepper, 



MEATS. 175 

one and a half ounces of butter, and two beaten eggs. When well 
heated, spread it on hot buttered toast, and serve. 



HAM PUFFS. 

One pint of water. 

One pint of flour. 

Four eggs. 

Three ounces of finely-chopped ham. 

A pinch of cayenne, or two thirds of a teaspoonful of curry. 

While the water is boiling, stir in the flour, mix, beat well, and 
cook until the stiff batter parts from the basin, then beat in the eggs 
one by one; add the ham and cayenne, or curry, and half a tea- 
spoonful of salt unless the ham is quite salt. Drop it in deep hot lard, 
in bits half as large as an egg. This is a side dish for dinner; nice with 
chicken, turkey, or veal. 



POTTED HAM. 

Two pounds of the lean of boiled ham. 

Half a pound of the fat of boiled ham. 

One teaspoonful of pounded mace. 

One teaspoonful of allspice. 

Half a nutmeg. 

Pepper to taste. 

Clarified butter. 

Chop the ham very fine and pouhd it with the fat in the mortar to 
a smooth paste ; add the seasoning gradually, and mix thoroughly. 
Press it into small pots, pour a thin coating of clarified butter over it, 
and keep in a cool place. 



176 



IX THE KITCHEN. 



WESTPHALIA CROQUETTES. 
Mix four ounces of grated or very finely-chopped ham with one 
pound of mashed potato., well-beaten with half a gill of cream, two 
ounces of butter, and half a teaspoonful of pepper. Make this into 
round or oval balls, dip them in a beaten egg, then roll in finely-grated 
bread, lay them in the frying-basket, and brown in deep lard- Serve 
piled on a platter, and garnished with curled parsley. 



HAM CROQUETTES WITH CURRY. 
Mix two pounds of mashed potatoes (free from lumps) with two 
ounces of butter, one gill of milk, two teaspoonfuls of curry powder, 
and three quarters of a pound of finely-chopped ham; make it into 
smooth rolls on the bread-board, a little larger than a sausage, and six 
or seven inches long; divide these in two, dip them in beaten egg, 
then in fine bread crumbs, and fry in a basket in deep lard. This will 
make twenty-two croquettes. 



FORE AND BEANS. 
Oue pound of pork. 

One quart of beans. 

Wash the beans at night and pour over them one quart of tepid 
water; in the morning add two quarts of water, and boil half or three 
quarters of an hour, or until the skins begin to crack; drain, and put 
them in the " bean-pot"; score the pork in small squares, put it in the 
Centre of the beans, sinking it to the rind; pour a quart of hot water 
over them, cover the pot, and bake slowly for three hours. 

For many generations this has been New England's Sunday dish. 



MEATS. 177 

The little bean-pots bustling to the bakery Saturday evening and return- 
ing the next day in quietness and solemnity for the Sunday dinner, have 
become a part of history. So many associations cluster around this 
little crock, that even were its place supplied by a new invention, better 
adapted to the purpose, we could not abandon it. But there is nothing 
better, nor as good. It is broad and low, the mouth about two thirds 
the diameter of the crock, but wide enough to admit the piece of pork, 
put in endwise, then turned. It is easily covered, which is a great 
advantage, as it is highly important to prevent the escape of the steam 
and to preserve the flavor of the beans. 



178 FOE ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 179 



180 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



181 



182 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



CATSUPS, PICKLES, SAUCES, ETC. 183 



CATSUPS, PICKLES, SAUCES, Etc. 



CUCUMBER CATSUP. 

Virginia. 

One dozen full grown cucumbers pared. 

One dozen onions. 

Grate the cucumbers and leave them on a sieve while the onions 
are being grated ; put both together in a large bowl and mix thor- 
oughly; add salt, spices, mustard, and turmeric to' the taste; also, if 
liked, a little sugar and horseradish, and vinegar to liquefy the mass 
sufficiently for bottling. 

If preferred, this may be seasoned simply with salt, pepper, and 
vinegar. 

GRAPE CATSUP. 

Mrs. Wm. Smith. , 

Five pounds of ripe grapes. 

Two and a half pounds of sugar. 

One pint of. vinegar. 

One tablespoonful of ground cinnamon. 

One tablespoonful of ground cloves. 

One tablespoonful of ground allspice. 

One tablespoonful of pepper. 

Half a tablespoonful of salt. 

Boil the grapes in enough water to prevent burning, strain through 
a colander, add all the ingredients, and boil until a little thickened; 
bottle and seal. 



184 IN THE KITCHEN. 



TOMATO CATSUP. 

Mrs. Sawyer. 



One gallon of skinned tomatoes. 
Four tablespoonfuls of salt. 
Four tablespoonfuls of black pepper. 
Two tablespoonfuls of allspice. 
Eight red pepper pods. 
Eight tablespoonfuls of mustard seed. 

The whole to be bruised fine; simmer slowly in one pint of vine- 
gar three hours; then strain, and boil down to two quarts. 



TOMATO CATSUP. 

Pittsburg, Pa. 

Half a bushel of ripe tomatoes. 

Quarter of an ounce of ground mace. 

Quarter of an ounce of ground ginger. 

Quarter of an ounce of ground cloves. 

One eighth of an ounce of cayenne pepper. 

One and one third gills of salt. 

One head of garlic. 

Slice the tomatoes without peeling; boil until soft and strain them 
through a sieve. ' Boil until reduced to one third its bulk, add all the 
above ingredients, boil half an hour longer; then bottle, cork, and seal. 



LEMON CATSUP. 
One and a quarter pounds of salt. 
Quarter of a pound of ground mustard. 
One ounce of mace. 



CATSUPS, PICKLES, SAUCES, ETC. 185 

One ounce of nutmeg. 

One ounce of cayenne. 

One ounce of allspice. 

One gallon of good vinegar. 

Eight or nine garlic cloves. 

Fifteen large lemons. 

Slice the lemons, add all the other ingredients ; let it simmer from 
twenty to thirty minutes; put it in a jar and keep it covered; stir it 
well every day for seven or eight weeks; then strain it, bottle, cork, 
and seal. 

SPICED VINEGAR. 

Three pounds of sugar. 

Two ounces of mace. 

Two ounces of cloves. 

Two ounces of pepper. 

Two ounces of allspice. 

Two ounces of turmeric. 

Two ounces of celery seed. 

Two ounces. of white ginger, in small bits. 

Two ounces of ground mustard. 

Mix the spices, put them in small bags of thin but strong muslin, 
lay them in a three-gallon stone "crock with a small mouth (a churn- 
shaped crock), and fill it with the best cider vinegar. Keep closely 
covered, and use for pickles and sauces. 



TARRAGON VINEGAR. 

Strip six or eight handfuls of tarragon leaves from the plant before 
it begins to bloom, put them in a pickle-jar, and pour over them one 



186 IN THE KITCHEN. 

gallon of the best vinegar; cover, and keep in a warm place for a week 
or more, until the vinegar is flavored, then steep it, strain, and bottle. 



CANTELOPE. (Sweet Pickle.) 

Seven pounds of cantelopc pared and cut. 

Five pounds of brown sugar. 

One quart of vinegar. 

One ounce of stick cinnamon. 

One ounce of whole cloves. 

Boil the spice, vinegar, and sugar together, and pour it over the 
melon; repeat this (draining and reboiling) the two following days; 
the fourth day boil all together until the fruit becomes clear; put in 
cans and cover closely. 

Blue plums done in the same way are delicious. 



IUCHO PICKLES. 

These pickles were introduced into western New York in 1826, 
by Mr. Wilhelm Iucho. 

Peaches, quinces, pears, plums, cherries, nutmeg, melons, and cu- 
cumbers may all be used in this way. The fruit must be ripe, but not 
soft; peaches, plums, and cherries should be pickled whole; pears also 
may be whole, or nicely halved, cored, and pared; quinces, after being 
parboiled, must be pared, quartered, and cored; if large, cut in eighths. 
Melons must be quite firm, hardly ripe enough for the table; open, take 
out the seeds, pare closer than they are eaten, and cut in such shape 
and size as is desired. They cook very quickly. Cucumbers must 
be full-grown and yellow; pare, open lengthwise, remove the seeds, and 
cut in long strips. Plums, peaches, and pears may be stuck with cloves 
and with cassia buds, or small strips of cinnamon. 



CATSUPS, PICKLES, SAUCES, ETC. * 187 

The old method of making these pickles was long and wearisome, 
requiring several days ; they are now made in an hour or two, and are 
equally good. Cucumbers, however, are an exception; they must be 
soaked over night in vinegar and water, and parboiled in it the next 
day, then drained, wiped dry, and pickled like all the others, after the 
following rule: — 

Make a syrup of four pounds of sugar, half an ounce of cinnamon, 
half an ounce of cloves, and one pint of best cider vinegar; a little more 
vinegar may be added if preferred. When the syrup boils, put in as much 
fruit as it will cover, and boil gently until tender. This quantity is suffi- 
cient for ten pounds of fruit, but will not cover the whole at once; as it 
cooks and is taken out, put in more. Of sliced fruits, great care must be 
taken not to break them. Have glass cans ready, half filled with hot water 
standing on a round board in a pan of hot water; empty them as the 
fruit becomes tender, and fill them. "When all the fruit is taken from 
the kettle, pour back the syrup from the cans, then, when boiling, fill 
the cans and screw down the covers immediately. The old mode is, 
perhaps, better for melons; it is given in the preceding receipt, which 
has been thoroughly tested. 



SWEET APPLES, PICKLED. 

Mrs. Burritt, Penn. 

To six pounds of sweet apples, pared and cored, add one quart of 
vinegar and one pound of sugar; if the vinegar does not nearly cover 
the apples, add a little more, or if it is very strong, use water; season 
with whole cloves and bits of cinnamon; boil slowly until the apples are 
tender. 



188 IN THE KITCHEN. 



SPICED CURRANTS. 
E. L. V. P. 

One ounce of cinnamon, unground. 

Half an ounce of cloves, unground. 

One tablespoonful of allspice, unground. 

One tablespoonful of mace, unground. 

One pint of vinegar. 

Four pounds of currants. 

Two pounds of sugar. 

Boil the currants with the spices tied in a little bag, and the sugar, 
to a thick jam; when nearly done add the vinegar. Put it up in tum- 
blers like currant jelly, or in glass cans. 



AUNT BETSEY'S PICKLE. 

One quart of green peppers. 

Two quarts of cucumbers. 

Three tablespoonfuls of salt. 

Vinegar to cover. 

Take well-grown green cucumbers, pare them and scrape out the 
seeds, cut them in bits about as large as the end of the little finger. 
Open the peppers, scrape out the seeds, and cut them in strips the same 
length; sprinkle the salt over them and stir them up. Let them stand 
two hours, then hang them in a thin cloth or bag to drain, for from twelve 
to twenty hours. Put them in a common stone jar and cover with good 
cider vinegar; put on the cover, place the jar on the stove, let it heat 
slowly, and boil ten minutes. It can then remain in the jar with a dou- 
ble paper tied closely over the cover, or it can be put up in glass Cans 



CATSUPS, PICKLES, SAUCES, ETC. 189 



AUNT BETSEY'S HIGDOM. 

This is made like the preceding, but onions are used instead of 
green peppers, and it is seasoned with cayenne and black pepper. 



PICKLED BUTTERNUTS OB, WALNUTS. 

Gather the nuts when so green that a pin can be thrust through 
them; make a brine of one and a half pints of salt to one gallon of 
water; throw in the walnuts, and let them lie for a week. Freshen 
them in tepid water for a few hours, longer if necessary; thrust a large 
needle through every one ; put them in a crock, and cover with boiling 
vinegar, spiced to the taste. 



PICKLED WALNUTS. 

Gather the nuts when they can be pierced with a needle; cover 
them with brine, allowing one and a half pounds of salt to one gallon 
of water, and let them stand in a cool place three weeks. Drain them 
in a colander; wash and wipe the jars in which they have been, return 
the walnuts, and cover them with the best cider vinegar, and let them 
remain one month; take them out, rinse and wipe the jars; put in the 
nuts and sprinkle with one ounce of mustard seed. To as much of the 
best vinegar as will cover them, add one ounce of cloves, one of black 
pepper, one of stick cinnamon, half an ounce of mace, and half an 
ounce of race ginger, and boil ten minutes. When cold pour all of it 
over the nuts, and cover them hermetically. They are fit to eat when 
soft, but improve by being kept for one or two years. 



190 IN THE KITCHEN". 



CRIMSON CABBAGE FICKLE. 

Mrs. Atkinson. 

Quarter small but firm heads of cabbage ; pour over them a boil- 
ing brine of one and a half pints of salt to one gallon of water, and 
cover closely; re-boil, and return the brine twice more, allowing inter- 
vals for cooling; drain the cabbage and lay it in a jar; fill with boiling 
vinegar which must be re-boiled twice like the brine. When thus pre- 
pared, the cabbage is ready for the coloring, which is imparted by the 
juice of poke-berries; mix it with the best vinegar, either plain or 
spiced, and fill the jar. Should plain vinegar be used, spice with black 
pepper, a pod of red pepper, ginger-root, bruised horse-radish, and some 
cloves of garlic, and the pickle is then made; cover the jar close, and 
keep it in a dry, cool place. 

Red cabbage may be pickled like the above without the coloring. 



TO PICKLE CAULIFLOWER. 

Separate the stems, wash them carefully, and sprinkle with salt, 
using half a pint of salt for a peck. Let them stand twelve hours, 
then shake off the salt, lay them in jars with a few pepper-corns, and 
cover with boiling vinegar. 



CELERY PICKLE. 
Quarter of a pound of white mustard seed. 
Half an ounce of turmeric' 

Half an ounce of white ginger-root, crushed in a mortar. 
Two quarts of chopped white cabbage. 
Two quarts of chopped celery. 
Three quarts of vinegar. 



CATSUPS, PICKLES, SAUCES, ETC. 191 

Two tablespoonfuls of salt. 
Four or live tablespoonfuls of sugar. 

Put all together in a porcelain-lined kettle, and cook slowly several 
hours, until the cabbage and celery are tender. 



CHOW CHOW. 

> 
Auburn. 



One peck of green tomatoes. 

Half a peck of green peppers. 

Quarter of a peck of onions. 

One large cabbage. 

One cauliflower. 

Chop all fine, mix well together, and pack in a jar or any large 
vessel, with a layer of salt to each layer of chow chow, in the propor- 
tion of half a pint to a peck. Let it stand over night, then squeeze it 
out of the brine, and add to the chow chow a quarter of a pound of 
white mustard seed and a quarter of a pound of ground mustard sprin- 
kled through it; put it in the jar in which it is to be kept; boil vinegar 
enough to cover it, and set it away for use. Keep it covered closely. 



AN EASY MODE OF PICKLING CUCUMBERS. 

Throw cucumbers in strong salt and water, one and a half pounds 
of salt to four quarts of water, and let them remain for twenty-four hours ; 
drain it off, and fill up the jar with boiling water; add a bit of alum 
(one ounce to five quarts of water), let them stand a few hours on a warm 
hearth. Pour off the water, and fill the jar with good hot vinegar 
seasoned to the taste with cloves, black pepper, mace, etc. 



192 nsr the kitchen. 

KALAMAZOO PICKLES. 

Half a bushel of small cucumbers. 

One quart of brown sugar. 

Half a pint of white mustard seed. 

One ounce of broken cinnamon. 

One ounce of celery seed. 

Two ounces of alum. 

Seven quarts of vinegar. 

The cucumbers should not be more than two or three inches long; 
nip the remains of the flower from the end; cover with a brine made 
of two gallons of water and a pound of salt; let them stand twenty- 
four hours; drain them, boil the vinegar, alum, and spices; put the 
cucumbers in jars {fill the jars with them, as the spaces between leave 
room for a sufficient quantity of vinegar) ; pour the boiling vinegar 
over them, and close immediately. Glass fruit-cans are excellent for 
pickles, but stone jars will do, with strong paper pasted over the covers. 



GRATED CUCUMBERS. 

Fond dtj Lac. 

Pare and halve full-grown cucumbers, take out the seeds and grate 
them; strain and press the pulp until much, not all, of the water is 
extracted. Season highly with pepper and salt, mix thoroughly with 
vinegar, and seal in small bottles. This is delicious; when served, its 
fragrance pervades the room like that of fresh cucumbers. 



OIL CUCUMBERS. 

Bellehukst. 

Fifty cucumbers. 

Half a pound of white mustard seed. 



CATSUPS, PICKLES, SAUCES, ETC. 193 

Half a pound of white pepper 

One ounce of celery seed. 
i A few blades of mace. 
1 Three or four white onions. 

A few little red peppers. 

One pint of best salad oil. 

Slice the cucumbers as thin as for table; put them in a jar in lay- 
ers freely sprinkled with salt, allowing half a pint of salt to a peck of 
the sliced cucumbers, and let them remain over night or a day or two. 
Then drain off the water; put a thin layer of the slices in a jar, add 
two thin slices of onion, a little red pepper, a blade of mace, and sprin- 
kle of mustard seed, of white pepper and celery seed, and two table- 
spoonfuls of oil ; then another layer of cucumbers, and so on, filling up 
with best vinegar. Good in two months. 



FEENCH PICKLE. 
One peck of green tomatoes sliced. 
Six large onions sliced. 
Half a pint of salt. 
Two pounds of brown sugar. 
Half a pound of white mustard seed. 
Two tablespoonfuls of ground allspice. 
Two tablespoonfuls of ground cloves. 
Two tablespoonfuls of ground cinnamon. 
Two tablespoonfuls of ground ginger. 
Two tablespoonfuls of ground mustard, 
One teaspoonful of red pepper. 
Five quarts of vinegar. 
Two quarts of water. 

13 



194: IN THE KITCHEN. 

Sprinkle the salt over the tomatoes and onions; leave them over 
night and drain them in the morning; add the water and one quart of 
the vinegar; boil the tomato and onion twenty minutes, and drain them; 
boil the four quarts of vmegar with the other ingredients fifteen min- 
utes. Put the pickles in jars and pour the hot dressing over them; seal 
and keep in a cool, dry place. 



PICKLED NASTURTIUMS. 
Have a two-quart jar partly filled with cold vinegar, salted to the 
taste, and as the nasturtiums are gathered, wash them clean and throw 
them in, being careful that they are covered by the vinegar. 



PICKLED ONIONS. 

Select small ones of uniform size, peel and trim them nicely; put 
them in glass jars, and pour over them two heaped teaspoonfuls of 
whole allspice, the same of black pepper, and one tablespoonful of salt 
to a quart of vinegar. 

Or, after peeling the onions, cover them with a brine, half a pound 
of salt to four quarts of water, and let them stand twenty-four hours; 
drain, cover with boiling water, pour it off, put the onions in jars, and 
cover with boiling vinegar, spiced to the taste with whole black pepper 
and allspice. Dissolve a bit of alum in the vinegar while boiling, half 
an ounce to two and a half quarts. 



THORN'S PICALILLI. 
Half a pound of sugar. 
Two quarts of vinegar. 
Half a pint of sweet oil. 



CATSUPS, PICKLES, SAUCES, ETC. 195 

Two ounces of curry. 

Two ounces of dry mustard. 

One ounce and a half of ginger. 

One ounce of turmeric. 

Rub the curry and mustard with the oil, add the other ingredients, 
and boil until it thickens. Take gherkins, button-onions, red pep- 
pers, nasturtiums, cauliflower, and the small heart of a cabbage, — four 
quarts in all; put them in brine for thirty-six hours, drain well, lay them 
in jars, pour the dressing over them boiling hot, and seal. 



YELLOW PICKLE, NO. 1. 

Take green cantelopes, from four to six inches in length, scrape off 

the outside rind, and cut a piece two inches square from the side; 

through this opening remove all the seeds and soft substance around 

them. Preserve the pieces carefully, as they are to be sewed in when 

the melons are stuffed. Scald the whole in salt and water, half a pound 

of salt to four quarts of water; then rub them well with salt, lay them 

on a white cloth, and let them bleach in the sun a few days, turning 

them frequently. "When bleached wipe off the salt, and put them in a 

two-gallon jar with one gallon of weak cider vinegar, with about two 

tablespoonfuls of turmeric; let them remain forty-eight hours. Have 

prepared one gallon of white wine vinegar, two ounces of turmeric, 

two of white ginger, previously shred, and soaked for forty-eight hours 

in salt and water, two ounces of long pepper, two of white pepper, two 

of coriander and carraway seed, two of cardamon, two of garlic, two of 

horse-radish, two of ground mustard, half a pint of sweet oil; mix all 

of these together, adding a little cabbage and two or three dozen green 

tomatoes, finely-chopped. Stuff the cantelopes and sew in the covers; 

when put in the jar add half a pint of brown sugar to the vinegar. 



19G IX THE KITCHEN". 



YELLOW PICKLE, NO. 2. 

Prepare four heads of white cabbage as for slaw, sprinkle them 
with salt, about three gills to a peck, and let them remain in the sun for 
twenty-four hours ; shred half a peck of silver onions, sprinkle them also 
with salt, and set them in the sun for twenty-four hours ; then drain the 
cabbage and onions carefully; mix them well together. Prepare one 
pound of white mustard seed, three ounces of ground mustard, a quar- 
ter of a pound of celery seed, half an ounce of powdered allspice, half ■ 
an ounce of powdered cloves, one ounce of powdered mace, one grated 
nutmeg, about a teaspoonful of cayenne pepper, one ounce of turmeric, 
half a pound of sugar, and a teacupful of sweet oil, and mix them thor- 
oughly together into a paste. Take three quarts of cider vinegar with 
about one pound of brown sugar; throw in some whole cloves, allspice, 
and pepper; let it boil up once, skim well, and when the vinegar is cold 
pour it over the pickles, and tie up the jar. 

It will be ready for use in two weeks. 



BOILED YELLOW PICKLE. 

Virginia. 

(Made at any time, and immediately fit for use.) 

For a head of coarsely-cut cabbage allow six shred onions; scald 
for fifteen minutes in boiling vinegar, with a little salt; drain well, and 
for a gallon of the cabbage and onion allow one ounce of ground mus- 
tard, two ounces of celery seed, two ounces of rasped horse-radish, four 
ounces of white sugar, two ounces of turmeric, one gill of olive oil, one 
tablespoonful of cloves, mace, and black pepper, beaten and sifted 
together. Mix all these ingredients, beginning with the oil and mus- 
tard; add vinegar to thin the mixture; put the cabbage and onion in 



CATSUPS, PICKLES, SAUCES, ETC. 197 

layers in a jar, with the spices between, and cover the whole with cold 
vinegar. 

PEPPER PICKLE. 

. Mount Holly, N. J. 

Twenty-five green peppers. 

More than double their bulk in cabbage. 

Two gills of salt. 

One tablespoonful of mustard seed. 

One tablespoonful of ground cloves. 

One tablespoonful of allspice. 

Vinegar to cover. , 

Take the seeds from the peppers, and chop them fine; chop the 
cabbage, add all the other ingredients, cover with cold vinegar, mix 
thoroughly, and put in closely covered jars. 

In making this pickle be very careful not to burn the hands with 
the peppers; use a napkin or a pair of white cotton gloves. 



SPICED TOMATOES. 
One and three quarter pounds of sugar. . 
Five pounds of tomatoes. 
One pint of vinegar. 
Two tablespoonfuls of ground cloves. 
One teaspoonful of mace. 

Peel and slice the tomatoes before weighing them, then boil all 
together four hours. 

GREEN TOMATOES. 
One peck of green tomatoes sliced thin. 
Twelve good-sized onions. 



198 IK THE KITCHEN. 

Put them in layers with half a pint of salt, and leave them twelve 
hours; let them drain four hours. Mix half a pound of white mustard 
seed, one ounce of ground cloves, one of allspice, one of ginger, one of 
pepper, a quarter of a pound of table mustard, one pound of brown 
sugar. Put the tomatoes in layers.in the kettle with the onions, adding 
the spice; cover with strong vinegar, and boil until the tomatoes arc 
soft and clear. Put the pickle in jars, and keep it from the air. Celery 
seed improves the flavor. 



TOMATO SOY. 

Half a pound of white mustard seed. 

Quarter of a pound of ground mustard. 

Two ounces of black pepper. 

Two ounces of allspice. 

Half a pint of salt. 

One peck of green tomatoes. 

One dozen sliced onions. 

Vinegar to cover. 

Slice the tomatoes, sprinkle the salt over them, and let them stand 
twenty-four hours; then drain them and put them in a porcelain-lined 
kettle with the onions and the spices'. Cover with cold vinegar, and 
boil until perfectly soft, stirring often to prevent burning. 



CHILI SAUCE. 
Ten pounds of ripe tomatoes that have been peeled. 
Two pounds of onions. 

Seven ounces of green peppers, without the seeds. 
Six ounces of sugar. 



CATSUPS, PICKLES, SAUCES, ETC. 199 

Four ounces of salt. 

One and a half pints of vinegar. 

Slice the tomatoes, peel and chop the onions and peppers; boil all 
together several hours, until it is as thick as you like. This quantity 
will make from three to four quarts. 



BREAD SAUCE. 
Let a sliced onion and six pepper-corns simmer in half a pint of 
milk over boiling water, until the onion is perfectly soft. Pour it on 
half a pint of bread crumbs without crust, and leave it covered for an 
hour; beat it smooth, add mace, cayenne, salt, and two ounces of butter, 
rubbed in a little flour; add enough sweet cream to make it the proper 
consistency, and boil it a few minutes. It must be thin enough to 
pour. 

BUTTER A LA MAITRE D'HOTEL. 

A MOST REFINED, EXQUISITE SAUCE FOK BOILED FISH. 

Quarter of a pound of fresh butter. 

One and a half tablespoonfuls of parsley, chopped fine. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

One pinch of white pepper. 

The juice of two lemons. 

Cream the butter perfectly, beat in the salt, pepper, and lemon- 
juice, add the parsley, and serve. If preferred, a tablespoonful of vin- 
egar and a teaspoonful of mixed mustard may be added. 



DRAWN BUTTER. 
Quarter of a pound of butter. 
One and a half ounces of flour. 



200 IN THE KITCHEN. 

Half a pint of boiling water. 

One gill of cold water. 

Two thirds of a teaspoon ful of salt. 

A pinch of cayenne pepper. 

Have the boiling water in a saucepan, and pour in the flour, mixed 
smoothly in the cold water; stir constantly and let it boil a few min- 
utes, to cook the flour; take it from the fire and cut the butter in 
small bits through it; stir well, and serve. It may wait for half an hour 
or more; keep it hot but do not let it boil. 



FISH SAUCE, NO. 1. 
To half a pint of the above add one teaspoonful of anchovy 
sauce, one tablespoonful of lemon-juice, and one tablespoonful of 
sherry. 

SAUCE FOR FISH, NO. 2. 
Pour a pint of boiling water on three even tablespoonfuls of flour 
mixed smoothly in a little cold water; season with white pepper and 
salt; add two well-beaten eggs, and stir it over boiling water until as 
thick as desired; add lemon-juice to the taste. 



DRAWN BUTTER FOR BOILED LAMB. 
'".Three ounces of butter. 
One ounce of flour. 

Half a pint of boiling water. (Use the water in which the lamb 
was boiled.) 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 
One pinch of white pepper. 



CATSUPS, PICKLES, SAUCES, ETC. 201 

One lemon. 

The yolk of one egg. 

Mix the flour with one ounce of the butter in a pint basin; stir in 
the water, boil it until the flour loses its raw taste; take from the fire, 
and add immediately the beaten yolk, stir well, cut in it the remaining 
two ounces of butter, and add the juice of half a lemon. 

The other half of the lemon may be cut in slices thin as paper, and 
used with parsley as a garnish for the lamb. 



EGG SAUCE. 
Four hard-boiled eggs chopped, sliced, or quartered, and mixed 
gently with one pint of drawn butter. (See page 199.) 



CBEAM SAUCE FOB, SALT OR FRESH FISH, OR FOR VEGETABLES. 
Put three ounces of butter in a saucepan with two tablespoonfuls 
of flour and a dessertspoonful of chopped parsley, a grated white 
onion, pepper, salt, and nutmeg; when the butter is melted, and all the 
ingredients well mixed, add half a pint of cream or rich milk, and let 
it boil a quarter of an hour, stirring continually. When served with 
fresh fish a pinch of horse-radish may be added. 



LEMON CREAM SAUCE FOR STEWED CHICKEN. 
One quarter of a pound of butter. 
Half an ounce of flour. 
One pint of sweet cream. 
Half a teaspoonful of salt. 
One lemon. 
Ten white pepper-corns. 



202 IX THE KITCHEN. 

Let the cream simmer over boiling water with the yellow rind of 
the lemon cut in strips, and the pepper-corns, until it is flavored ; rub 
the flour with the butter, which may be softened with a little of the hot 
cream; strain the cream, stir in the flour and salt, and let it cook until 
thick as boiled custard. Arrange the chicken on a platter, pour this 
dressing over it, garnish with parsle} r , and serve. If the cream is rich 
use less butter. 



CELERY S4UCE. 
Stew one pint of cut celery slowly in one pint of water until per- 
fectly tender; skim it out carefully, make a drawn butter with the 
water (page 199), add the celery, and serve. 



COLD SLAW DRESSING. 
Beat two eggs in a bowl that fits in the top of a tea-kettle; add a 
gill of water and vinegar mixed (the proportions depending on the 
strength of the latter), an ounce of butter, an even teaspoonful of salt 
and one of sugar; place the bowl over the boiling water and when hot 
stir it until thicker than boiled custard; then strain and leave it to cool. 
It must be perfectly cold when poured over the cabbage. When the dish 
is served a little black pepper may be sprinkled over the top; a dress- 
ing of vinegar, pepper, and salt is also very good for cold slaw. 



CHICKEN SALAD DRESSING. 

Mus. Montgomery. 

For one good-sized chicken allow four eggs, two table spoonfuls of 
mixed mustard, one teaspoonful of salt, a pinch of red pepper, two 
ounces of butter; beat well together, add a gill of vinegar (if very 



CATSUPS, PICKLES, SAUCES, ETC. 203 

strong dilute it with water), and stir it over boiling water until of the 
consistency of thick cream. It must be perfectly cold when used. 



DRESDEN DRESSING. 
Rub the yolks of three hard-boiled eggs until quite smooth; add a 
small onion, grated, and two tablespoonfuls of chopped parsley, also 
one teaspoonful of salt, one of dry mustard, and one of sugar; mix 
well, and by degrees, while stirring fast, add half a gill of sweet oil; 
when quite thick add gradually half a gill of vinegar. If wished, the 
whites of the eggs may be chopped fine and stirred in the dressing. 
This may be used for cold beef, mutton, or veal. The meat should be 
cut in very small bits and mixed with the dressing. 



MAYONNAISE, OR MRS. B.'S SAIAD DRESSING. 

One teaspoonful of dry mustard. 

Two even teaspoonfuls of salt. 

A small pinch of cayenne. 

Half a gill and one and a half teaspoonfuls of vinegar. 

Half a pint of sweet oil. 

One raw egg. 

Mix the mustard, salt, and pepper with the one and a half tea- 
spoonfuls of vinegar in a two-quart bowl (this gives ample room for 
beating), add the egg, and beat well. "With the left hand steady the 
bowl and pour the oil from the tin measure in a continuous thread-like 
stream, while a brisk beating is kept up with the right hand ; it must be 
like a thick batter; when the oil is well beaten in add the vinegar 
slowly. This dressing, closely covered, will keep for weeks in a cold 
place. It is not only delicious but is often of great service to invalids. 



204 IN THE KITCHEN. 



LOBSTER SAUCE FOR TURBOT, SALMON, ETC. 

One medium-sized hen lobster. 

One pint of drawn butter. 

Half an ounce of butter. 

One tablespoonful of anchovy sauce. 

Two or three tablespoonfuls of cream. 

Salt and cayenne pepper to the taste. 

A little mace, if liked. 

After boiling the lobster pick the meat from the shell, and cut it 
into small square pieces; put the spawn, which will be found under the 
tail, into a mortar with the butter, and pound it quite smooth; rub it 
through a sieve and cover until wanted. Make the pint of drawn but- 
ter in this way: In one pint of boiling water stir four even tablespoon- 
fuls of flour, mixed smooth in a little cold water; let it boil and thicken; 
take it from the fire and cut the four ounces of butter in it; add salt to 
taste. To this add all the ingredients of the sauce, save the lobster, 
and mix well ; then add the lobster, but do not stir it, for the pieces 
must not be broken or ragged; and do not boil, as that destroys the 
color, which should be a bright red. . 



OYSTER SAUCE. 

Boil half a pint of small oysters with their liquor in one pint of 
water until the flavor is well extracted, then strain, pressing the juice 
well from the oysters ; throw in a pint of small, fresh oysters, and stew 
until puffed; take them out, skim well, and make a drawn butter by 
adding flour and butter (see page 199), put back the oysters, and when 
thoroughly heated, serve . 



CATSUPS, PICKLES, SAUCES, ETC. 205 



SAUCE PIQUANTE. 

Two ounces of butter. 

Half an ounce of flour. 

One ounce of cucumber pickle. 

Half a pint of stock. 

One tablespoonful of vinegar. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Half a teaspoonful of dry mustard. 

One onion chopped fine. 

A small pinch of cayenne pepper. 

Fry the onion in the butter, and when a light brown sift in the 
flour; let it brown; then pour in gradually the stock, add the condiments 
and pickle, and boil until thick as desired; stir in the vinegar, and 
serve. 

SAUCE ROBERT. 

Half a pint of beef broth. 

One and a half ounces of butter. 

One tablespoonful of flour. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

One third of a teaspoonful of pepper. 

One teaspoonful of made mustard. 

One teaspoonful of vinegar. 

A small onion chopped fine. 

Juice of half a lemon. 

Put the butter in a frying-pan, and when hot throw in the onions ; 
stir them until brown, being very careful that they do not burn; sift in 
the flour, stir, and fry a little longer; add the broth, pepper, salt, etc., 
and simmer for ten minutes. Pour it hot over nicely broiled beefsteaks. 



206 EST THE KITCHEN". 



SAUCE TARTARE. 
This is very much like mayonnaise, but is more highly seasoned, 
and is specked with minced parsley, tarragon, and a little finely-chopped 
green cucumber pickle, or capers. 



HORSE-RADISH. 
This most refreshing and appetizing relish is used chiefly in the 
spring, and is especially valuable in country towns, where the reign of 
veal is so long and wearisome. It must be washed clean, grated, and 
moistened with vinegar ; add a little salt. 



CARAMEL FOR BROWNING SOUPS AND GRAVIES. 

Half a pound of moist, brown sugar. 

One pint of hot water. 

Heat the sugar slowly in a small iron kettle or saucepan, and stir 
it with a knife, or flat stick, until it is a smooth batter; let it darken, 
but be very careful that it does not burn; add the water veiy slowly, 
and with thorough mixing; let it simmer while the sugar, which must 
be scraped from the sides, dissolves; then bottle and cork. 



ROUX, BROWN AND WHITE. 
Put a quarter of a pound of butter in a stewpan, and when on the 
point of boiling stir in sufficient flour to make it a thin batter; continue 
stirring until it is as dark a color as desired. White roux is made like 
the above, but not allowed to color. These are used to thicken gravies 
and soups. 



CATSUPS. PICKLES, SAUCES, ETC. 207 

GRAVY FOR POULTRY. 
Boil in a pint and a half of water the neck, gizzard, and liver, with 
a small onion cut in two and stuck with four cloves; add pepper, salt, 
and a small bit of bread; when the liver and gizzard are tender chop 
them very fine and put them back in the gravy with a bit of butter; if 
it is not thick enough add a little flour (two even tablespoonfuls for 
half a pint of gravy) rubbed smooth with some of the cooled gravy; 
let it simmer, then strain, and serve. 



VENISON GRAVY. 
Take a piece of the neck of beef with a little venison (a pound in 
all), cover with a quart of cold water, and boil, closely covered, until the 
meat has no flavor; stir in four ounces of butter braided with four even 
tablespoonfuls of flour. When it has boiled, if not thick enough, add 
more flour, also pepper, cloves, salt, and Port wine to the taste; mace 
also, if liked. It must be well stirred and boiled. Gravy made in this 
way, without venison, is excellent for roast beef, beefsteak, and mutton. 



POWDER FOR PEA SOUP. 

One ounce of dried mint. 

One ounce of dried sage. 

One drachm of celery seed (one teaspoonful) . 

Quarter of a drachm of cayenne. 

Pound and rub well together through a fine sieve. Nice in pea- 
soup and in gruel. One drachm of allspice or black pepper may be 
pounded with the above, as an addition, or instead of the cayenne. 



FILET, OR SASSAFRAS POWDER. 

Mrs. I. N. Young. 

Gather the sassafras leaves in August, dry them in the shade, pow- 
der them, sift, and bottle. * 



208 FOE ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 209 



210 FOR ADDITIONAL, RECEIPTS. 



FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 211 



212 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



VEGETABLES. 213 



VE GETAB LE8. 



Be careful to have the vegetables fresh; wash and examine them very carefully, to be sure 
that tiny are free from grit, insects, and worms. Let them lie in cold water half an hour or 
more before using. Pick lettuce and cucumbers early in the morning when the dew is on 
them, and put them in fresh water. 

As there is no English word to express a substance that has been rubbed through the col- 
ander, or pounded to a pulp, the French word puree will be used occasionally in the following 
receipts. 

Where cream is used with vegetables, milk slightly thickened with an additional bit of 
butter may be substituted. 

BOILED POTATOES. 

If old, pare them; if ripe, leave them in cold water an hour or two 
before cooking; put them in boiling water with an even teaspoonful of salt 
to a quart; when they are cooked pour off the water, take them to an 
open window or door, and shake them; then return them to the fire for 
a few moments, and serve. After boiling new potatoes (the skin, being 
thin, is scraped from them before boiling) leave five or six small ones in 
the kettle; break (not mash) them with the potato-ponnder, add half a 
pint of milk and an even tablespoonful of flour rubbed smooth with two 
ounces of butter and half a teaspoonful of salt; when thickened pour 
it over the potatoes and serve. 

A German savant says that new potatoes require two boiling waters 
and that old potatoes are greatly improved thereby. Put them in a wire 
basket in a kettle of boiling water; have ready another kettle of boiling 
water, and when the potatoes are half cooked lift them from the first 
and put them in the second kettle. 



214 TN THE KITCHEN. 



MASHED POTATO. 

Four pounds of peeled raw potatoes. 

Six ounces of butter. 

One and a half gills of milk. 

One and a half tablespoonfuls of salt. 

Boil, the potatoes, pour off the water, mash them with the potato- 
pounder, add the milk, butter, and salt, and beat until all are not only 
thoroughly mixed, but light. Cream may be used instead of milk, and 
the quantity of butter lessened. In serving, do not smooth them over 
the top. 

POTATO AS RICE. 

Dress the potatoes as in the above receipt, and rub them quickly 
through the colander into a hot vegetable-dish. The puree must not be 
touched, but allowed to lie just as it falls from the colander. Serve at 
once. 

POTATO BROWNED IN SLICES. 
What remains of the mashed potato after dinner may be pressed 
evenly in a basin, and the next morning cut in slices half an inch thick 
and fried a light brown on the griddle or browned in the oven. 



BROILED POTATO. 
Slice cold boiled potatoes lengthwise (the slices should not be less 
than half an inch thick), broil them on the gridiron on both sides; lay 
them in a hot vegetable- dish, sprinkle with a little salt and pepper, and 
put bits of butter over them. To be served very hot. 



VEGETABLES. 215 



POTATOES FRIED WHOLE. 

Select small ones of uniform size; if this cannot be easily done 
cut them down to the proper size (the surplus bits may be boiled and 
mashed for balls or croquettes) ; boil them until nearly done in salted 
water, then lay them in the frying-basket and plunge it in deep hot lard; 
if preferred, they may be dipped in egg and grated bread before frying. 



COLD POTATOES FELED. 
Even cold baked potatoes may be used in this way. After paring, 
chop them fine; put them in a frying-pan with a little hot pork-fat, or 
butter, pepper, and salt; press them down in one side of the tipped pan, 
and when brown turn upside down and serve; or the whole may be 
stirred with a fork while browning. 



BAKED POTATOES. 
Wash them well with a brush to get every particle of grit from the 
eyes, then rinse them in clean water, lay in the oven, and bake half an 
hour. They should be served immediately, otherwise they shrivel and 
lose their charm. 

POTATOES BAKED WITH ROAST BEEF. 
Half an hour before the beef is ready to come from the oven, lay 
pared potatoes in the pan; they may be served with the beef or in a 
separate dish. 

POTATOES AND HAM. 
Keep a slice of fried ham hot, on a platter, while sliced cold pota- 
toes are browned in the fat; arrange them around the ham, and serve. 



216 IN THE KITCHEN. 

POTATOES LYONNAISE. 
Slice cold boiled potatoes, fry them, adding salt, pepper, half an 
onion grated, and a little parsley chopped fine. 



SWEET POTATOES. 
Boil or bake them, like Irish potatoes, but give them more time. 
If boiled* they must be pared before serving; cold sweet potatoes are 
very nice, cut and fried. 

SARATOGA POTATOES. 
Pare the potatoes, slice them thin as possible on the potato-cutter, 
leave them for an hour, or an hour and a half, in cold water, then dry 
them in a towel. Have a kettle of deep lard for frying them ; when it is 
hot cover the surface with the dried slices, sprinkle a little salt over 
then, turn them with the skimmer and when done lay them on a doubled 
brown paper in the open oven. Fry them all in this way, piling them up 
on the paper as they come from the lard. They are eaten both hot and 
cold, for breakfast, lunch, or tea, sometimes with a fork, but oftener 
with the fingers. 

NEW ORLEANS POTATOES. 
Pare, and cut the potatoes in three quarter-inch dice; leave them in 
water as in the above receipt; drain, dry, and cook them in the same 
way, giving them, however, a little more time. A quarter of an onion 
dropped in the hot lard imparts a fine flavor to the potatoes. 



POTATOES STIFLED IN A CREEPER. 
Wash, pare, and slice the potatoes ; have the " creeper " (frying- 
pan) ready on the stove with some hot fat, either suet or the fat from 



VEGETABLES. -17 

port; put in the potatoes, and add one gill of hot water, salt and pep- 
per; if suet is used, more salt is necessary than with pork; cover thorn, 
but stir them up as they brown, letting the top pieces go under; have 
fat enough to make them fry well. 



AUNT LAURA'S BREAKFAST POTATOES. 
This is a dish that has for forty years been the envy of many a 
housekeeper. The three essentials are cream, firm boiled potatoes, and 
patience in cutting them. The potatoes are left from dinner; select 
those that are not mealy, and where that is impossible pare off the 
mealy surface; new potatoes, not thoroughly ripe, are particularly nice 
for this purpose. Take a small, sharp, thin-blacled knife, and "nip" 
the potatoes in bits about the size of a dime, a little thinner on the 
edges than in the centre; put a quart of these pieces in a stewpan, in 
layers with two even teaspoonfuls of salt and two ounces of butter; 
pour half a pint of cream over the top, cover, heat slowly, and let them 
stew gently for eight or ten minutes ; stir as little as possible, and with 
a fork only, and in taking them up be very careful not to break the 
pieces. It requires no little time to cut the potatoes properly ; it was 
" Aunt Laura's " evening work, and instead of being additional labor, 
after her day's struggle in the kitchen, it seemed a recreation, as she 
sat, smiling and happy, while the delicate bits fell from her knife like 
snow-flakes into the basin below. 



SCALLOPED POTATOES. 
Slice cold boiled potatoes very thin and small; put one quart of 
them in a baking-dish, in layers with two even teaspoonfuls of salt, two 
thirds of a teaspoonful of pepper, and two and a half ounces of butter; 



218 



1ST THE KITCHEN. 



pour half a pint of cream or milk over the whole; if milk is used, more 
butter is required ; cover the potato with grated bread, a little pepper 
and salt, and small bits of butter; bake until thoroughly heated and 
browned. 

POTATOES A LA PAFJSJENNE. 
Cut raw potatoes with a vegetable-cutter into balls the size of a 
marble, fry them brown in butter, season with a little pepper, salt, and 
chopped parsley. 

POTATO CROQUETTES. 

One and a half pounds of potatoes passed through the colander. 

Three ounces of grated bread. 

Two ounces of butter. 

Half a gill of cream. 

Two teaspoonfuls of salt. 

Half a small nutmeg. 

Two eggs. 

A small pinch of cayenne pepper. 

Mix the butter with the potato while warm, use the cream to help 
pass the potato through the colander, add the salt, pepper, nutmeg, and 
one beaten egg; mix all thoroughly together, then make up into rolls 
about four inches long and one and a half inches through ; or make them 
round and flatten them, but be very careful to have the surface jjerfectly 
smooth. Beat the egg on a plate; have the bread grated very fine; 
rolled and sifted cracker will do, but, whichever is used, it must be fine 
as coarse corn-meal, to ensure a beautiful crust. Roll the croquettes first 
in the egg and then in the bread; lay them in the basket, and plunge 
it in the hot lard; when a light brown lay the croquettes on brown 
paper for a moment, then serve on a napkin. 



VEGETABLES. 219 



RICE AS A VEGETABLE, 

One pint of cold water. 

Half a pint of rice. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

"Wash the rice through several waters, rubbing it between the 
palms of the hands; pour off the last water, which must be clear, put it 
in a saucepan, and add the pint of water; cover it, and let it boil until 
holes come in the top, then remove the cover and let it dry. 



BAKED RICE. 
One pint of rice. 
One pint of water. 
One pint of milk. 
Two teaspoonfuls of salt. 

Wash the rice thoroughly, put it in a baking-dish with the other 
ingredients, and bake slowly for one hour. 



TURKISH PILOF. 

Rev, A. O. Von Lennop. 

One pint of stock or soup. 

Half a pint of rice. 

One ounce of butter. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Wash the rice well and put it in a saucepan with the stock; if 
soup is used, it must be strained and no saltneed.be added; cover, and 
boil until holes come in the top; melt the butter and pour over it; let 
it dry, then serve as vegetable rice. 



220 IN THE KITCHEN. 



RICE CROQUETTES. 

One pound of rice. 

One quart of cold water. 

Half a pint of milk. 

Three teaspoon fuls of salt. 

The yolks of two eggs. 

Fine bread crumbs. 

"Wash the rice thoroughly in several waters, put it in a saucepan 
■with the water, milk, and salt; let it boil until the water and milk are 
absorbed, then set it aside to cool. Grate the bread, or if dried to a 
crisp it may be rolled; it should be fine as coarse corn-meal. Beat the 
yolks; have the lard heating, then make the rice into fourteen cro- 
quettes, with smooth surface, roll them in the egg and then in the 
bread crumbs ; lay them in the frying-basket, and plunge it in the hot 
lard, having first tested its heat with a bit of bread. When the cro- 
quettes are a golden brown, lift the basket, let it drain for a moment, 
then serve either on a platter or in a vegetable-dish. 



HOMINY. 

Two quarts of large hominy. 

Half a pint of small, white beans. 

Wash both and put them in a large iron kettle with cola water, of 
which there must be- a depth of eight or ten incnes above the corn. 
After boiling an hour pour off the water, and add the same quantity of 
boiling water; let it boil slowly from eight to ten hours. As the water 
disappears, replenish with boiling water, but from the first it must not 
be stirred; keep it closely covered. When tender, if the water is not 
absorbed, leave it partly uncovered on the back of the stove, where it 



• VEGETABLES. 221 

will cook more slowly; then pour it into a large pan, mash it with the 
potato-pounder, and stir in a quarter of a pound of butter, and salt to 
the taste, beginning with three even tablespoonfuls. 



HOMINY BROWNED FOR BREAKFAST. 
In ' a small but rather deep frying-pan put a bit of butter, a little 
more than enough to prevent sticking. When hot, fill the frying-pan 
with cold boiled hominy, press it in evenly, cover until thoroughly 
heated, then remove the cover, and let it remain on the range until a 
brown crust has formed below and on the sides; loosen it with a knife, 
lay a dinner-plate on the frying-pan, turn them over together, then raise 
the pan and you will find a beautiful brown mould of hominy. 



SMALL HOMINY. 

One pint of hominy. 

Half a pint of rich milk or cream. 

One quart and half a pint of cold water. 

Two teaspoonfuls of salt. 

Put the hominy, salt, and milk in a saucepan, and stir often until 
it boils; cover, and boil moderately for one hour. If not stiff enough 
let it boil uncovered. A few minutes before serving, beat in the cream 
very thoroughly. 

HOMINY CROQUETTES. 

Half a pint of hominy. 

One and a half pints of boiling water. 

One and a half gills of milk. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

One ounce of butter. 



222 nsr the kitchen. , 

Pour the water on the hominy, stir, cover, and boil moderately, stir- 
ring occasionally for twenty minutes, or until the water is absorbed and 
the hominy rather stiff; add the milk and salt, stir thoroughly, cover, and 
let it stand ten minutes, cooking, if necessary, very slowly. It should be 
like a tolerably thick batter, but not too thick to drop. Beat in the but- 
ter and pour the hominy into a shallow pan. "When cool (if cold it is 
too stiff) flour your hands, take a piece about the size of a small egg, 
make a ball of it between the palms of the hands, then roll it on a floured 
tin into a well-shaped croquette. This quantity will make fifteen. Roll 
them in beaten egg and then in- the finest grated bread; they may be 
fried at once, or kept in a cool place for several hours. Fry them on the 
basket in deep lard. 



MACARONI. 

Mks. Montgomery. 

Six ounces of macaroni. 

Three ounces of grated cheese. 

One and a half ounces of butter. 

Half a pint of milk. 

Three quarters of a tablespoonful of dry mustard. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

A pinch of cayenne pepper. 

More than cover the macaroni with cold water, and let it boil 
gently until half done. It must not be stirred; if it sticks to the ket- 
tle, use a fork to loosen it; drain it and put it in layers in a baking- 
dish with a little of the butter, and some cheese between them, reserv- 
ing a part of both for the top; mix the mustard, salt, and pepper smooth 
in a little of the milk, add the rest, and pour it over the macaroni; 
cover with cheese dotted with butter, and bake half an hour. 



VEGETABLES. 223 



SAVORY MACARONI 

Half a pound of macaroni. 

Three ounces of uncooked ham. 

Half a pint of tomato-juice. 

Half an onion chopped fine. 

One teaspoonful of white pepper. 

Two ounces of grated cheese. 

Boil the macaroni in water, until tender; chop and brown the ham 
and onion in a frying-pan, and add the tomato, macaroni, pepper, and 
salt; just before serving sprinkle the cheese over the whole. 



SIMPLE MACARONI 

Pour one quart of boiling water over half a poiind of macaroni; 
cover, and let it stand twenty minutes; drain, and pour cold water over 
it; in a few minutes drain again, and throw it in a kettle of boiling 
milk and water, when it will soon be tender; then drain it, season with 
butter, cream, salt, white pepper, and cheese if liked. Serve hot. 

Or, put a quarter of a pound of macaroni in a stewpan with a tea- 
spoonful of salt and a quart of boiling water; cover, and boil for twenty 
minutes, or until nearly done; pour off the water, add a gill of milk, 
cover, and stew until perfectly tender. In the mean time have a gill of 
milk heating over boiling water, with half an ounce of butter, half a 
teaspoonful of salt, and a small pinch of cayenne; add a well-beaten 
egg and stir until as thick as rich cream ; add mustard if liked. When 
the macaroni is taken up pour this over it, and serve at once. There 
may be a light coating of grated cheese between the macaroni and the 
dressing, t 



224 



IN THE KITCHEN. 



IBISH MACARONI. 

To one pint of mashed potatoes well seasoned with butter, white 

pepper, salt, and cream, and beaten until light, add one gill of grated 

cheese j put it in a baking-dish with a layer of grated cheese over the 

top, and leave it in the oven long enough to heat thoroughly and brown. 



BURR ARTICHOKES. 
"Wash the artichokes, and boil them in water slightly salted until 
tender; serve whole on a napkin. Take off the leaves one by one, dip 
the large end in the sauce, drawn butter, and eat only the soft, pulpy 
part. 

ASPARAGUS. 

Wash it carefully and bind in bunches, making the heads even; 
then with a sharp knife cut the other end of the bunch straight; throw 
into boiling water, and boil from twenty to thirty minutes. Have some 
buttered toast on a platter, place the bunches of asparagus on it side 
by side, the heads the same way; carefully clip and draw out the 
strings ; pour over the whole, some melted butter with pepper and salt, 
or, if preferred, drawn butter. 



SPINACH. 

Look it over carefully, and wash it thoroughly ; take it from the 
water, put it in a saucepan without water, cover closely, and boil half 
an hour. Put it in the colander, press all the water from it, return it 
to the fire, cut it several times across, season with butter, pepper, and 
salt. Serve covered with poached eggs. 

Or, it may when boiled soft be rubbed through the colander, then 



VEGETABLES. 225 

put in the saucepan and seasoned with hutter, pepper, and salt. "When 
hot, beat in two or three tablespoonfuls of rich cream; garnish with 
hard-boiled eggs cut in quarters. 



GREEN PEAS. 
Be sure that they are young, as old peas are fit for nothing but 
soup. Throw them in boiling water, and boil from thirty to. thirty-five 
minutes; drain them, season with batter, pepper, and salt, and add 
half a gill of rich cream. 

PUREE OF DRIED PEAS. 

Cook them like dried beans (see page 226) until the water is ab- 
sorbed; rub them through a coarse sieve, and season with pepper, salt, 
and butter. If liked, a piece of salt pork may be boiled with the peas. 



STEING BEANS. 



The yellow butter-bean is an excellent variety. "With a knife take 
off the ends of the pods, and the strings from both sides, being very 
careful to remove every shred ; cut every bean lengthwise, in two or 
three strips, and leave them for half an hour in cold water. Much more 
than cover them with boiling water; boil until perfectly tender, for if 
they fall the least short of this they are unfit to serve. It is well to 
allow three hours for boiling, for the beans are easily kept hot, if ready 
too soon, drain them well, return to the kettle, and pour over them half 
a gill of cream, one and a half ounces of butter, one even teaspoonful 
of salt, and half a teaspoonful of pepper. This dressing, is sufficient 
for a quart of cooked beans. 

15 



226 IN THE KITCHEN. 



LIMA BEANS. 

Put one quart of shelled beans into a pan of cold water and let them 
remain an hour; put them in boiling water, more than enough to cover 
them; when tender pour off the water, add two ounces of batter, and 
half a gill of cream; season with pepper and salt; let them simmer a 
moment, then serve. 

All shell beans may be cooked liked the above. 



TO COOK DRIED LIMA BEANS. 
At night wash one pint of beans, put them in a small tin pail, pour 
over them one quart of boiling water, cover closely, and let them stand 
until two and a half hours before dinner; then add more water, and let 
them boil until tender, keeping them well covered with water. When 
nearly done throw in two even teaspoonfuls of salt; be careful to keep 
them from breaking. When perfectly soft, drain in the colander, re- 
turn them to the kettle, and add three ounces of butter, half a teaspoon- 
ful of white pepper, and one gill of cream. Shake them about, stir 
gently, and when very hot, serve. 



TO COOK DRIED BEANS. 
It is not necessary to soak them before boiling; put a pint of dry, 
.hard beaiis in a quart of cold water over the fire; after boiling a few 
minutes, drain, and add the same quantity of boiling water. In twenty 
minutes check the boiling by throwing in a gill of cold water, and after 
boiling twenty minutes longer throw in another gill. In an hour and a 
quarter after putting the beans in cold water they will be perfectly 
cooked. If wanted for soup, boil them until broken, and rub them 



VEGETABLES. 227 

through the colander. If to be used as a vegetable, drain them, then 
let them simmer for ten minutes with a little cream, butter, pepper, and 
salt; i.i either case, a small piece of pork may be boiled with the beans. 



GREEN CORN BOILED. 
Throw the husked ears in a kettle of boiling water slightly salted, 
and boil from twenty to thirty minutes. Serve in a napkin, or boil and 
serve in the thin inner husk, if preferred. 



GREEN CORN STEWED. 
Cut with a sharp knife through the centre of every row of grains, 
and cut off the outer edge ; then with the back of the blade push out the 
yellow eye, with the rich, creamy centre of the grain, leaving the hull 
on the cob. To one quart of this add half a pint of rich milk, and 
stew until cooked in a covered tin pail, in a kettle one third full of boil- 
ing water; then add salt, white pepper, and two or three ounces of 
butter. The old proverb " slow and sure " may be applied to this mode 
of cooking; allow two hours for the corn; it seems a long time, but 
there is no danger of burning, and it requires no more attention than to 
stir it occasionally and to keep good the supply of water. If dryer 
than liked, add more milk or cream. 



GREEN CORN BAKED. 

Grate, or cut as in the above receipt, eighteen ears of corn ; beat 

six eggs very light, and add one quarter of a pound of butter, creamed 

and stirred in with a pint of very warm milk; mix well, and beat until 

very light; add two tablespoonfuls of light brown sugar and a little 



228 1ST THE KITCHEST. 

salt; put in a deep dish, and bake in a quick oven from three quarters 
to one hour. Serve hot, in the same dish. 

Or, one dozen ears, cut or grated, one pint of sweet milk, two eggs, 
and two ounces of butter, mixed well and baked three fourths of an 
hour. 



CORN FRITTERS OR OYSTERS. 

One dozen large ears of corn. 

Two eggs. 

Three tablespoonfuls of flour. 

Salt to the taste. 

Grate the corn or cut it (see page 227) , add the eggs well-beaten, 
the flour and salt; mix well, and drop it in hot lard a quarter of an inch 
deep ; when browned on one side turn the other. Serve very hot. 



CANNED CORN AND TOMATOES. 

Stew the tomatoes until cooked; boil the corn on the ear; cut it as 
directed (page 227) ; let it cook with the tomato until thoroughly hot, 
and while boiling fill the heated cans, and fasten instantly. The toma- 
toes and corn may be in equal proportions, or otherwise. 

This may be used in the winter in layers with bread crumbs, baked 
in a baking-dish. 



TO DRESS CANNED CORN. 
Pour the corn in a saucepan; add half a pint of rich milk, two 
ounces of butter, one teaspoonful of salt, half a teaspoonful of pepper, 
and let it simmer ten minutes. 



VEGETABLES. 229 



HULLED CORN. 

Mrs. Adams. 



Put two handfuls of clean hardwood ashes in two quarts of cold 
water; boil fifteen or twenty minutes; then let it stand until the ashes 
settle, and the water is perfectly clear. To this cleansed water (it 
should be strong enough of the lye to feel a little slippery) add as much 
cold water as necessary to cover the corn; put the corn in the water, 
let it boil until the hulls begin to start, then skim out all the corn into 
a pan of clear cold water, and rub thoroughly with the hands to remove 
the hulls and cleanse the corn from the lye; rub it through two or 
three or even four waters, that there may be no taste of lye; then put 
into clear water, and boil until tender. 

This is eaten either hot or cold; is very nice for breakfast dressed 
with a little cream, pepper, and salt. 



SUMMER SUCCOTASH. 
One pint of cranberry beans barely covered with cold water; boil 
from an hour to an hour and a half. When half cooked add a pint of 
cut sweet corn, and fifteen minutes later half a pound of salt pork that 
has been boiled one hour and a half; season to the taste with pepper 
and salt; add two and a half ounces of butter, or one gill of very rich 
cream. If the succotash is too dry add a little milk or water; if other- 
wise, pour off some of the liquid before adding the cream. 



WINTER SUCCOTASH. 
Parboil a pint of beans and throw off the water; add one quart of 
boiling water, and when they have boiled twenty minutes throw in a 



230 IX THE KITCHEN. 

gill of cold water, and twenty minutes afterwards throw in another. In 
this way the beans will bo cooked in an hour and a quarter. Have 
ready a pound of salt pork which has been boiled two hours, and a can 
of sweet corn boiling hot; add them to the beans, Avith two tablespoon- 
fuls of white sugar, three ounces of butter rolled in flour, and salt and 
pepper to the taste; add a little water if necessary. Let all simmer 
together for half an hour, then serve very hot. 



BAKED TOMATOES, NO. 1. 
Select large tomatoes, pour boiling water over them, let them 
stand a few minutes, then drain and peel, remove the core, and lay them 
in a baking-dish; season bread crumbs very highly with pepper, salt, 
grated onion, sugar, and butter; press some of this dressing into the 
centre of every tomato, and strew over them a light coating of the same. 
Bake slowly until thoroughly done; take them out very carefully and 
Serve in a vegetable dish. 



BAKED TOMATOES, NO. 2. 
One can or one quart of fresh tomatoes, pared and sliced. 
Half a pound of bread crumbs. 
One fourth of a pound of butter. 
Two ounces of brown sugar. 
One teaspoonful of pepper. 
Three teaspoonfuls of salt. 
One onion grated. 

Put a layer of bread in a baking-dish, then one of tomatoes, and 
cover it with bits of butter, a little of the onion, pepper, salt, and sugar; 



VEGETABLES. 



231 



then another of bread, and so on, having the last layer of bread and 
leaving enough of the pepper, etc., to sprinkle over it. Bake from half 
to three quarters of an hour and longer if the tomatoes are fresh. Serve 
in the same dish, on a dinner-plate if round, on a platter if oval. 

Ripe tomatoes, unpeeled, may be baked in the dripping-pan with 
beef or fresh pork, and served as a garnish. 



TOMATOES. 

G. S. 



Take large tomatoes, green or ripe; cut out the tops and lay them 
aside until the tomatoes are stuffed. Remove all the inside of the fruit 
(being careful not to break the skin), and mix with it an equal quantity 
of stale bread crumbs; chop fine, and season well with salt, pepper, and 
summer savory. Fill the tomatoes with this dressing and replace the 
tops; place them in a baking dish with a bit of butter the size of a 
chestnut on each. Bake slowly, and when thoroughly cooked, serve in 
the same dish with an additional bit of butter on each tomato. 

The connoisseur who gave me this receipt considers it by far the 
finest mode of cooking tomatoes. 



STUFFED TOMATOES. 

Choose the large size, remove the stem, and slice a cover from the 
upper side; take out the seeds, place the tomatoes in a baking-dish 
with the stem side down, fill them with bread crumbs well-seasoned 
with salt, pepper, sugar, grated onion, and butter; replace the tops and 
bake in a slow oven. They may be served in the same dish, or taken 
out carefully and sent to table in a vegetable-dish. 



232 IX THE KITCHEN. 

TOMATOES EN SURPRISE. 

Pour a quart of boiling water on half a pound of well- washed rice; 
add a teaspoonful of salt, and let it boil covered until barely tender; 
throw it in the colander, drain, and return it to the saucepan; if not 
ready to use at once keep it covered to prevent its drying. 

Pour the juice from a can of tomatoes, or from fresh stewed toma- 
toes; season them well with butter, sugar, pepper, salt, and grated 
onion; add bread crumbs to nearly absorb the juice; butter an oval 
mould very thoroughly, and line it with the rice, from half an inch to an 
inch in thickness, reserving enough to spread over'the tomato; pack it 
rather closely; let it stand for five or ten minutes where it will keep 
hot without drying. A few minutes before serving fill it with the to- 
mato, leaving space at the top for the cover of rice; turn it from the 
mould and serve in a vegetable-dish. It should be so firm and white as 
to give no suspicion of its contents. 



FRIED TOMATOES. 
Cut ripe tomatoes in two, and fry, slowly on both sideR in butter 
and lard. When thorougly cooked take them out, pour a little milk or 
cream in the frying-pan, thicken with a little flour, and season with salt 
and a very small pinch of red pepper; pour it over the tomatoes, and 
serve. 

FRIED TOMATOES, NO. 2. 
With one pint- of grated bread (not pressed in the measure^ mix 
one tablespoonful of salt, three of sugar, and one teaspoonful of pep- 
per. Slice large, unpeeled tomatoes about half an inch thich, dip 
them in the bread, and lay them in hot butter on the griddle; drop over 
every piece half a teaspoonful of very finely chopped onion • brown well 
on both sides, and serve hot. 



VEGETABLES. 233 



BROILED TOMATOES. 
"Wash and wipe, then cut them in two, sprinkle with pepper and 
salt, and place them on the gridiron over the fire, with the skin side 
down; when hrown put the gridiron in front of the fire and let them 
cook slowly until well done; this saves the necessity of turning them, 
and thus losing the juice. In serving, put bits of butter over them, 
and a little sugar if liked. 

TOMATO AND CORN. 

Peel and slice tomatoes, and stew them a short time with butter, 
pepper, and salt; thicken, but do not make it stiff, with sweet corn cut 
from the ear (see page 227), and see that the whole is well seasoned. 
Have in a buttered baking-dish a layer of grated bread, add a layer 
of the corn and tomato, then another of bread, and so on, until the dish 
is full; the upper layer must be of bread; dot it thickly with bits of 
butter and scatter over it a little pepper and salt; bake in a moderate 
oven an hour or more. 

OKRA. 

Select young, tender pods; boil in a porcelain or tin-lined sauce- 
pan (iron discolors it) with a little salt in the water. When tender 
drain, season with salt, pepper, and butter, and serve in a vegetable- 
dish. 

OKRA AND TOMATO. 
Peel and slice the tomatoes ; slice the okra, which must be tender, 
across, or if very small, lengthwise ; slice one, two, or three green pep- 
pers, according to size and pungency, and stew them w T ith the above. 
When all are cooked season with butter and salt and serve. Cook in 
bright tin, or a porcelain-lined saucepan. 



234 IN THE KITCHEN. 



STEWED E&B-PLANT. . # 

Put the plants in cold water slightly salted, and boil until they can 
be pierced with a fork, having changed the water once ; peel and mash 
them, season with salt and pepper and butter ; add a little grated bread, 
and serve hot. 

# . EGG-PLANT FRITTERS. 

Select a large egg-plant, leave, it unpared and with the stem on ; 
boil it in a porcelain kettle, in slightly salted water, until so tender that 
it can barely be taken oat without breaking; remove the skin, put the 
pulp in the colander and press the water from it; mash it very fine, add 
salt and pepper to the taste, also two ounces of butter rubbed with 
three even tablespoonfuls of flour; add a well-beaten egg and mix 
thoroughly. Have ready some hot butter and lard in a frying-pan; 
drop in the egg-plant by spoonfuls and fry on both sides. 



BAKED EGG-PLANT. 
Cut an egg-plant in two, and leave it in cold salted water (two 
even tablespoonfuls to a quart) from one to two hours; with a sharp 
knife score the rind very deeply in squares; lay it in a pan with the 
scored side up ; season with pepper and salt, pour sweet oil or melted 
butter over it,. and bake slowly until perfectly soft and browned. 



EGG-PLANT SERVED IN THE SHELL. 

Among the several egg-plants intended for dinner select* the largest 

one; cut off the stem end about one quarter or one third of the way 

down; take out the inside carefully, without breaking the shell, leaving 

it quite thin; the other egg-plants maybe peeled, then cut in small bits, 



VEGETABLES. ' 235 

and with that taken from the large shell, put on the fire, well-covered 
with cold wuter; JdoU until perfectly tender, then drain in the colander, 
pressing out the water with the back of a plate; pound it smooth, and 
season wiih butter, pepper, and salt; a little rich cream may be added; 
heat the pane thoroughly, put it in the prepared shell, cover it with 
grated bread and tiny bits of butter, and put it in the oven to brown. 
Serve in a vegetable-dish. This puree may be served without the shell 
in a dish covered with crumbs and browned. "* 



FRIED EGG-PLANT. 
Cut in thin slices and soak an hour in salt and water, two even 
tablespoonfuls to a quart; sprinkle them with a little pepper and salt, 
dredge with flour, and fry on both sides in hot drippings or butter. Or, 
dip the pieces in a beaten egg, well-seasoned with pepper and salt, then 
in finely grated bread, and fry in deep lard on the basket, or as above. 



FRIED MUSHROOMS. 
Take the large hothouse mushrooms measuring from five to six 
inches across; peel them. Have ready in the frying-pan a little sweet 
oil with some pepper and salt; fry the mushrooms till thoroughly 
heated (too much cooking toughens them). Serve on nicely cut pieces 
of buttered toast, and pour a teaspoonful of wine over every mushroom. 



STEWED MUSHROOMS. 
Let them lie an hour in salt and water, about two tablespoonfuls 
to a quart; cover with water, and let them stew two hours; dress with 
cream, butter, and flour like oysters ; season to taste. 



236 IN THE KITCHEN. 



TO BROLL MUSHROOMS. 
Peel them at night and sprinkle a very little salt over them, not 
more than would be palatable in cooking; so place them that the juice 
will run from them and be preserved for the gravy; broil them for 
breakfast lightly on both sides; lay them on a platter with bits of but- 
ter and a little pepper, heat the juice, pour it over them, and serve. 



TO STEW MORELS. 
Leave them for an hour in water, slightly salted; drain, add barely 
enough water to cook them, and stew until tender; pour off the water, 
add cream, a bit of butter rubbed in. flour, pepper, and salt; let them 
simmer a few minutes, and serve hot. 



APPLES BAKED FOR DINNER. 
Take a baking-dish holding about two quarts; fill it with sour 
apples that have been quartered and cored, but not pared; add one gill 
of water and half a gill of white sugar ; bake uncovered until tender. 



FRIED SOUR APPLES. 
Wash, and cut them in quarters, then core them ; have about half 
an inch of hot drippings in the frying-pan; put the apples in it and turn 
them until they are brown all over; just before they are done sprinkle 
them with two or three tablespoonfuls of sugar. Serve for dinner in a 
vegetable-dish. 

STEWED CELERY. 
Cut the celery as for salad, cover with cold water, cook from 
twenty to thirty minutes. If there is more water than is requhed for 



VEGETABLES. 237 

the dressing pour some of it in the soup-kettle; then rub two table- 
spoonfuls of flour with two ounces of butter, and add this with a little 
milk or cream, salt, and pepper to the celery, and boil for several min- 
utes. Celery may also be stewed in stock, and served with a brown 
dressing. 

CYMIINGS, DRESSED LIKE EGG-PLANT. 
Take tender cymblins, parboil them, cut them across in slices half 
an inch thick, take out the seeds as nicely as possible. Have ready a 
batter made of two eggs and as much flour as will thicken it, with a 
little ground mace, salt, and pepper; cover each piece with the batter, 
and fry in butter. 



CYMLINGS, OR SUMMER SQUASH. 
If the nail presses easily through the skin, do not remove it, or 
the seeds. If quite small, the cymblins may be cooked whole; boil them 
in a bag for three quarters of an hour, place the bag in the colander, 
and press out the water with a plate ; then put them in a stewpan, add 
butter, salt, and a little cream; when very hot, serve. 



BAKED SQUASH, NO. 1. 
Cut slices about half an inch thick, pare them, and sprinkle with a 
little salt and sugar; put tiny bits of butter over them and bake in a 
pan. Serve in a vegetable-dish. 



BAKED SQUASH, NO. 2, 

Cut the squash in pieces four or five inches square; do not remove 
the rind; bake them like potatoes, and serve in the same way. To be 
eaten with butter. 



238 1ST THE inTCHEN. 

STEAMED SaUASH. 
Cut it in large pieces, and put them unpared in the steamer; when 
thoroughly done take them out, scrape the squash from the rind into a 
saucepan, season well with butter, salt, and a little cream; heat and 
serve. 

BOILED CAULIFLOWER. 
Remove the leaves, cut off the main stalk close to the flower, wash 
it thoroughly; lay it in boiling milk and water slightly salted, with the 
stalk down; cover, and boil moderately; when done, lay it in the colan- 
der, being very careful not to mar the flower; when well drained, serve 
in a vegetable-dish with the flower up, and pour over it a rich drawn 
butter. 

CAULIFLOWER BROWNED. 
Boil until very tender, drain well, and cut in small pieces; put it 
in layers with fine chopped egg and this dressing: half a pint of milk 
thickened over boiling water, with two tables poonfuls of flour and 
seasoned with two teaspoonfuls of salt, one of white pepper, and two 
ounces of butter; put grated bread over the top, dot it with small bits 
of butter, an'd place it in the oven to heat thoroughly and brown. It 
must be served in the dish in which it is baked. Poor, scraggy heads 
of cauliflower may be used in this way, and the perfect ones kept to 
boil whole. Use a pound and a quarter of cauliflower. 



CAULIFLOWER WITH CHEESE. 
Ten ounces of soft-boiled cauliflower. 
Three ounces of grated cheese. 
Two ounces of butter. 
Half a gill of rich milk. 



VEGETABLES. 239 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Haifa teaspoonful of pepper. 

Grated bread. 

This may be baked in an oval china dish with the precaution of 
putting it in a pan of water; put a layer of cauliflower in the dish, 
sprinkle it with a little of the cheese, and dot it with small bits of but- 
ter; in this way fill the dish, reserving a little butter for the top; mix 
the salt and pepper with the milk, pour it over the cauliflower, then 
cover with the bread, spot it with butter, and bake until thoroughly 
heated and of a light brown color. 



STEWED CABBAGE. 
Slice cabbage as for cold slaw, cover with water, and stew in a cov- 
ered saucepan until tender; pour off the water, add a bit of butter, — 
about two ounces to a dish holding three pints, — and pepper, salt, and 
vinegar to the taste; stir it as little as possible; let it simmer a few 
minutes, when it is ready to serve. 



CABBAGE DRESSED WITH CREAM. 
Cut the cabbage and stew it as in the above receipt; drain it, 
return it to the saucepan, add a gill or more of rich cream, one ounce 
of butter, pepper and salt to the taste; let it simmer two or three min- 
utes, then serve. In this receipt milk may be used instead of cream 
with a little more butter. 

CABBAGE BOILED WITH PORK. 
Two pounds of pork. 
One head of cabbage. 
Boil the pork an hour, then score the rind in lines or squares, and 



240 IN" THE KITCHEN". 

place it in the oven to brown; divide the cabbage in four or more parts, 
not removing the stalk, as that prevents its falling to pieces; put it in 
the water from which the pork was taken, and boil three quarters of 
an hour; drain it thoroughly without breaking; cut off the .stalks, and 
serve, the rounded side up, on a platter, with the pork in the centre. 



STUFFED CABBAGE. 

A large head of cabbage. 

One pint of force meat made of any tender meat with all the fol- 
lowing ingredients, save the yolk of one agg. 

Two thirds of a gill of chopped suet. 

Half a gill of fine bread crumbs. 

One small onion. 

One small nutmeg. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

One third of a teaspoonful of pepper. 

One third of a teaspoonful of marjoram. 

Two eggs. 

Take out the stalk, and enough of the cabbage from the centre to 
leave room for the force meat; wash the cavity with the reserved yolk, 
fill it with the force ineat, tie in a cloth, and boil three hours or more. 

Serve on a platter with drawn butter, and garnish with parsley. 



SATJEB, KRATTT. 

MliS. BURKITT, PEKN. 



Have a tight and perfectly sweet barrel; shave into it about half 
a bushel of cabbage, and with a long-handled mallet pound it until the 
juice can be readily squeezed out in the hand; sprinkle a handful of 



VEGETABLES. 241 

salt over it; then put in another layer of cabbage, pound, and sprinkle 
it with salt, and proceed in this way until the desired quantity is packed. 
One quart of salt is sufficient for a barrel; no water is necessary. If 
the cabbage is sufficiently pounded there will be plenty of juice. Put 
a heavy weight on it, and let it stand in a warm place until it ferments; 
then put it in a cool place. "When using, take out evenly, and keep it 
well covered. 



BOILED ONIONS. 
Select them of uniform size and not very large, and remove the 
outer skin; boil them until perfectly tender, in quite a large quantity 
of milk and water, to make the flavor more delicate; drain them, and 
put them in a saucepan with two ounces of butter and a gill of cream; 
season with pepper and salt. 



FRIED ONIONS. 
Peel and slice them, then fry in butter or drippings; turn them 
often, being very careful that they do not burn; season with pepper 
and salt, and serve very hot. 



BAKED ONIONS. 
Put four or five unpeeled Bermuda onions in a saucepan of boiling 
water slightly salted, and let them boil fast for an hour; then take them 
out, wipe them well, wrap each one in a piece of paper, and bake them 
in a moderate oven for two hours, or longer if the onions are very large. 
They may be served in the skins and eaten with a little butter, pepper, 
and salt; or they may be peeled, and sent to the table with a good 
brown gravy poured over them. 

16 



242 IK THE KITCHEN. 



STEWED CARROTS. 

One and a quarter pounds of carrots. 

Two ounces of butter. 

Two gills of cream. 

Two teaspoonfuls of salt. 

One pinch of cayenne pepper. 

The yolks of two eggs. 

Divide the carrots lengthwise unless quite small, and boil until 
perfectly tender; take them from the water, slice them very thin in a 
saucepan, add the butter, stir the salt and pepper in the cream, and pour 
it over the carrots ; let them stew fifteen minutes, then put them in a 
vegetable-dish, and leave the saucepan with the cream on the stove; 
when it boils, stir in the well-beaten yolks, and pour over the carrots. 



CARROTS DT A MOULD. 

One and a half pounds of carrots. 

Half a gill of cream. 

Three ounces of butter. 

Two teaspoonfuls of salt. 

Half a small nutmeg. 

One pinch of cayenne pepper. 

Boil the carrots until very tender (this dish is really unpalatable 
if the carrots are not perfectly soft), take them from the water, chop 
them, add the butter and the cream, in which has been mixed the salt, 
pepper, and nutmeg; put in a buttered mould, and let it stand in the 
oven until thoroughly hot. Serve in a vegetable-dish or on a platter, 
garnished with curled parsley. 



VEGETABLES. 243 



CARROTS WITH CURRY. 
Stew young carrots and cut them in four lengthwise; to half a 
gill of the water in which they were stewed add one gill of cream, and 
an ounce of butter rubbed with half a tablespoonful of flour, a little 
salt, and a teaspoonful of curry powder; let it simmer in a saucepan 
until thickened; slide in the carrots, cover for a few moments, then 
serve hot. 

SCALLOPED OYSTER-PLANT. 

One and a half pounds of stewed oyster-plant. 

Three ounces of butter. 

Half a gill of milk. 

Two teaspoonfuls of salt. 

A pinch of cayenne pepper. » 

The oyster-plant must be boiled until perfectly tender, then taken 
from the water and rubbed through the colander; add two ounces of the 
butter and all the other ingredients; if not hot enough to melt the but- 
ter, put it on the range for a few minutes, mix well, and put in a baking- 
dish or in a vegietable-dish, with the precaution of placing it in a pan 
of water; cover the top with very fine grated bread, and spot it with 
the remaining ounce of butter; put it in the oven, and when a beautiful 
brown it is ready to serve. 

Celery salt, which gives a delightful flavor, may be substituted for 
one half the quantity of salt in this receipt. 



SALSIFY CROQUETTES. 
Prepare the salsify as in the above rule, and place it on ice ; when 
perfectly cold make it into croquettes. Have ready the beaten yolks of 



241 IN THE KITCHEN. 

two eggs and the white of one, seasoned with the third of a teaspoonfut 
of salt and a pinch of pepper; roll the croquettes in this, and then in 
grated bread ; lay them in the frying-basket, plunge them in hot lard, 
having first tested its heat with a bit of bread; when a golden brown, 
lift, drain, and serve. 

STEWED SALSIFY. 
Scrape it well, cut in round slices, and stew it barely covered with 
water; when perfectly tender pour off all but a gill of the water, add 
half a gill of rich cream, two ounces of butter rubbed with an even 
tablespoonful of flour, pepper and salt to taste, and let it simmer a few 
minutes, then serve. 



BOILED PARSNIPS. 
"Wash and scrape them; boil them whole until very tender; cut 
lengthwise in slices, and cover with cream thickened with a little flour 
and seasoned with a small bit of butter, a little pepper and salt. 



FRIED PARSNIPS. 
Boil them whole as in the above receipt ; cut them lengthwise in 
slices a third of an inch thick, sprinkle a little pepper, salt, and sugar 
over them, dredge with flour on both sides, and fry a light brown. 



SCALLOPED PARSNIPS. 
One and a half pounds of parsnip puree. 
Three ounces of butter. 
Half a gill of milk or cream. 
Two teaspoonfuls of salt. 
A pinch of cayenne pepper. 



VEGETABLES. 245 

Mix thoroughly together, and cover with grated bread dotted with 
butter; put it in a vegetable-dish that may be trusted in the oven, in a 
pan of water, and let it remain until thoroughly heated and browned. 



PARSNIP BALLS. 
Prepare the parsnips as in the above rule. After mixing it with 
the other ingredients, let it become cold, then make it into round or 
flattened balls, cover them with beaten egg and grated bread, place 
them on the frying-basket, and fry in deep lard. 



BOILED TURNIPS. 
Peel them, and boil until perfectly tender; pour over them a drawn 
butter, or a hot cream thickened with a little flour and seasoned with 
butter, pepper, and salt. 

MASHED TURNIPS. 

Pare and slice them very thin, and boil them in a great deal of 
water, much more than enough to cover them; keep them boiling, as 
they are whiter for being cooked quickly. When perfectly tender pour 
them in the colander, and press them as dry as possible; then put them 
in a tin pan on the range, mash them thoroughly, and stir them until 
they lose their watery- appearance; then season with butter, pepper, 
and salt; a little rich cream is a great addition. 

Turnips are served with mutton and with spare-rib. 



BOILED BEETS. 
"Wash but do not cut them; leave an inch of the stalk on the beet 
to prevent its "bleeding." The time for boiling depends on the age 
of the beet; in summer, when very young, an hour is sufficient, but in 



246 IK THE KITCHEN. 

winter they require nearly a day; they are unpalatable unless perfectly 
tender. When boiled throw them in a pan of cold water, and slip 
off the skins; if small, cut them twice lengthwise; if a good size, slice 
them yery thin and put them over boiling water to heat thoroughly. 
Boil togethpr one third of a gill of vinegar, with two thirds of a gill of 
water, one and a half ounces of butter, a tablespoonful of brown sugar, 
one teaspoonful of salt, and half a teaspoonful of pepper; pour it over 
the beets ; this is sufficient for a quart or more of sliced beets. Serve 
very hot. 

LETTUCE. 

The firm white Ice Lettuce can hardly be equalled ; but it has been 
found too delicate to bear carrying to market and can therefore be en- 
joyed only by those who raise it. In buying lettuce, select small, com- 
pact heads. Wash the lettuce carefully, and leave it in ice-water until 
wanted; then dry it in a towel, cut it in quarters, and pour over it 
"Mrs. B 's Salad Dressing" (see page 203). 

Or, pour over it a thin dressing of three parts oil and one of vine- 
gar, with salt and pepper to the taste. Some will not suffer the lettuce 
to be touched with a knife; it is wrung in a napkin, " fatigued " as it is 
termed, and then covered with the thin dressing. It is sometimes 
^fatigued " in the salad-bowl with a silver fork and spoon. When let- 
tuce is cut fine and dressed it may be garnished with hard-Jboiled egg, 
cut in quarters, and little mounds of grated red beet, with a few grains 
of vegetable rice. 

CUCUMBEES. 
Leave them in ice-water until wanted; then pare them lengthwise, 
being very careful to remove all green, as that is very bitter; cut them 
in the dish in which they are to be served in very thin slices, sprinkle 



VEGETABLES. 2l7 

the layers with a little salt and pepper, and pour good eider vinegar over 
them about half their depth in the dish. Fresh young onions are by 
many considered a great addition ; they should be sliced thin as pos- 
sible, and scattered through the layers of cucumbers. 



RADISHES. 
"Wash them nicely, leave about two inches of the top, cut the fibres 
from the bulb, and let them lie in ice- water for an hour; serve in a 
white china shell with bits of clear ice. 



CELEEY. 
This delightful vegetable, used moderately every day as a salad, is 
said to have wonderful power to relieve nervous affections. 



CELEEY AS A EELISH. 
In England this is served in the last course at dinner with bread, 
butter, and cheese. Here, it is generally on table during the first and 
second courses. To prepare it for the table, it must be washed care- 
fully, using a brush to remove particles of sand which adhere to it. 
It is important to have it very cold and crisp, and this may be secured 
by keeping it in ice-water for an hour or more. Keep the outer stalks 
to cut arid stew for soups, and serve only the heart and the surrounding 
pieces which are perfectly blanched; put them in the celery-glass with 
cold water and cracked ice. 



DRESSED CELERY. 
For this dish avoid all the coarse, greenish stalks, leaving them for 
the soup-kettle. Have the celery thoroughly chilled and, crisped in ice- 



248 IK THE KITCHEN. 

water, and just before it is required wipe it dry, cut it in bits half an 

inch long, and pour over it " Mrs. B 's Salad Dressing " (See 

page 203) . 

As this dressing keeps a long time, it is well to have a glass can 
of it in the refrigerator ready for celery, cold vegetables, fish, etc. 



MACEDOINE, OR SALAD OF COLD VEGETABLES. 
The summer vegetables left from dinner — peas, string-beans, shell- 
beans, and beets — may be used in this way either together or sep- 
arately. Chill them on the ice, cover them with a mayonnaise, or any 
other salad dressing, and garnish with the small, crisp leaves of lettuce. 



SALAD OF RED BEETS AND POTATOES. 
The potatoes should be firm, not too much boiled nor mealy. The 
beets must be boiled very tender; when cold cut them both in pieces 
about half an inch square; pour over them a salad dressing; garnish 
with curled parsley. 

ASPARAGUS SALAD. 
Boil the asparagus as for a vegetable, cut off the hard ends, and 
put the rest away to cool; cut in pieces two inches long, and pour over 
it, in the centre of the dish, a mayonnaise dressing. Garnish with the 
very small white hearts of firm heads of lettuce ; a few capers may be 
.strewn over the 'dressing. 



BEET SALAD. 
Boil a deep-red beet until quite tender; pare, and cut it in dice. 
Have a root or two of endive, well blanched, washed and dried; six but- 
ton onions, and two stalks of celery cut. Rub the yolk of a hard-boiled 



VEGETABLES. 249 

egg with a little salt, a little powdered sugar, mustard, and enough 
thick and slightly sour cream to dress the salad, and vinegar to the 
taste; and remember that the ingredients should be so perfectly appor- 
tioned and so well mixed that no one is more perceptible than the 
other. Pour it over the beet, etc., garnish and serve. 



ONION SALAD. 
"Wash, peel, and cut the onions in very thin slices; barely cover 
them with water, and let them boil eight minutes; drain, and rinse 
quickly in ice-water; drain thoroughly; salt and sweeten vinegar to taste, 
pour it over the onions, place them in the refrigerator, and when chilled 
serve ; they should not stand more than half an hour. 



POTATO SALAD. 
Mix one teaspoonful of salt, half a teaspoonful of pepper, two 

tablespoonfuls of finely-cut parsley, and two of grated onion, with a gill 

of vinegar and half a gill of oil. Slice cold boiled potatoes in pieces 

an inch across, and not very thin; pour the dressing over them and let 

them stand half an hour before serving. This quantity of dressing is 

sufficient for two quarts of sliced potatoes. 



COLD SLAW. 
Shave the cabbage on the cabbage-cutter as fine as possible. A 
very sharp carving-knife may be used instead of the cutter; let it lie 
in ice-water an hour; then drain, and dry it in a towel. It maybe 
dressed simply with vinegar, pepper, and salt, or with " Cold Slaw Dres- 
sing " (see page 202) , 



250 IN THE KITCHEN. 



A NEW SALAD, 0E "GREENS." 
Young shoots of the common wayside sweet elder. Tender, suc- 
culent, and wholesome, requiring no cultivation. 



COLD ROAST FOWL, A LA MAYONNAISE. 

One fowl. 

Five hard-boiled eggs. 

Five or six heads of lettuce. 

Water-cresses. 

Roast a nice young fowl; when cold, cut and pile the joints one 
on another in the centre of the dish, as high as you can; arrange 
around, as a border, the lettuce cut in halves, and some nicely-washed 
water-cresses. Cut the eggs across, and lay them with the whites up- 
permost among the cresses and lettuce, or cut into rings, which have 
also a very pretty effect. When ready to serve, cover the fowl with 
mayonnaise dressing. 

ROAST BEEF SALAD. 

Gbuman. 

Cut cold roast beef as for chicken salad; mix mustard, sweet or 
sour cream, pepper, salt, capers, and some of the caper vinegar; pour 
over it and serve for tea. Cold mutton may be used in the same way. 



CHICKEN SALAD. 

Cut cold boiled chicken (use the water in which it was boiled for 

soup) in bits about the size of a shelled almond. Have twice as much 

celery as chicken ; clean it thoroughly, and leave it in ice- water for an 

hour or more; on taking it out, wipe, and cut it about as thin as 



VEGETABLES. 251 

cucumbers are sliced; mix it well with the chicken and with the dressing, 
Avhich may be " Chicken Salad Dressing " (page 202) or " Mayonnaise " 
(page 203). It is sometimes mixed with the first, and when served, 
covered with the other. Garnish with hard-boiled eggs, sliced or in 
quarters, and the delicate leaves of the celery or the hearts of lettuce. 
Olives, and small stars or diamonds cut from a boiled crimson beet are 
also used. Where turkey takes the place of chicken the salad is called 
Olio. Veal may be used in this way; and very tender white cabbage, 
crisped in ice-water, is sometimes used with veal instead of celery. 
Lacking celery, a nice chicken salad maybe made with the inner leaves 
and tender stalks of lettuce, adding Burnett's Extract of Celery to the 
dressing. 

DRESSED TOMATOES. 
The tomatoes should not be dead ripe; let them lie on ice for an 
hour or more before cutting them; then, with a very sharp knife, pare 
the top and bottom, and slice them very thin. They are often served 
with a mayonnaise dressing, but the usual way is to mix some salt, 
pepper, and sugar with a little vinegar, and Dour it over them. 



252 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 253 



254 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 255 



256 POK ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



EGGS. 



E G GrS. 



257 



TO KEEP EGGS. 
Put one pint of unslacked lime and one pint of coarse salt in a 
three-gallon crock; pour a teakettleful of boiling water over them, and 
when dissolved fill the crock with soft water. Pack the eggs in stone 
crocks, and fill with the brine. I have known of eggs being preserved 
in this way for two years. 

TO BOIL EGGS. 
Be sure that they are fresh; if not perfectly clean wash them; lay 
them carefully in water that is boiling moderately only, that the shells 
may not crack; let them boil two and a half minutes. If wanted very 
hard, with the yolk quite dry, boil them fifteen minutes. Serve in a 
napkin. 

FRIED EGGS. 
After frying ham, drop the eggs one by one, in the hot fat, and dip 
it over them until the white is set. They may be served alone or on 
the ham ; or they may be fried in other fat, and served on broiled ham. 



EGGS A LA MAITRE D'HOTEL. 
One quarter of a pound of butter. 
Half a pint of scalding milk. 
One tablespoonful of flour. 
One tablespoonful of minced parsley. 
One fourth of a teaspoonful of white pepper. 

17 



258 nsr the kitchen. 

The juice of half a lemon. 

Six or seven eggs. 

Stir the flour and half of the butter in a stewpan over the fire until 
the mixture thickens ; stir in the hot milk, add the pepper, and let it 
simmer a few moments; cream the rest of the butter, and beat in the 
lemon-juice and parsley. Have the eggs boiled seven or eight minutes, 
and cut in quarters lengthwise; if they are boiled until the yolk is 
mealy the white will be found tough;, add the creamed butter to that 
in the saucepan, allow a minute for thorough heating, pour over the 
eggs and serve. Unless the butter is quite salt a little more salt must 
be added. 

A similar dish without the parsley and lemon is also excellent. 



PLATE EGGS. 

Butter a plate, drop three eggs on it, and leave it on the stove or 
in the oven until the white of the egg is set; sprinkle with a little salt 
and pepper, and serve. 

SCRAMBLED EGGS, NO. L 

Twelve eggs. 

Four ounces of butter. 

One teaspoonfnl of salt. 

Cut half of the butter in small bits, put it with the eggs, and beat 
them very light; put the rest of the butter in the frying-pan, and when 
hot pour in the eggs, add the' salt, and stir until nearly as thick as 
desired; have the dish well warmed (not hot enough to cook the egg) 
and serve immediately. It is better to add pepper at the table, as it 
mars the color of the egg when cooked with it. 



EGGS. 



259 



SCRAMBLED EGGS, NO. 2. 

Two ounces of butter. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

A little pepper. 

Six eggs. 

Heat the butter in a frying-pan; break the eggs in a bowl, and 
throw the salt over them ; pour them (unbeaten) into the hot butter, 
and as they cook, scrape them from the sides and bottom of the pan. 
Cooking them in this way leaves strips of the white and yellow through 
the dish. If this is not liked, the eggs may be beaten before they are 
put in the frying-pan, and stirred constantly while cooking to avoid the 
large pieces. Be careful not to let them get stiff, nor to have the dish 
on which they are served too hot. When served, sprinkle with pep- 
per. 

One gill of milk or cream may be added to the beaten eggs, in the 
above receipt, and they may be scrambled in a baking-dish, and sent in 
it to the table. 

POACHED EGGS. 

Have ready a frying-pan of slightly salted boiling water, deep 
enough to cover the eggs ; break in six, and do not let the water boil 
again. Toast six pieces of bread, and trim them neatly down to the 
size of the egg; when cooked, butter and arrange them evenly on a 
heated platter, and as soon as the white is set lift the eggs carefully, 
and lay them on the toast. Serve immediately. This may also be 
done by dropping the eggs in buttered cups, placing them in a pan of 
c-old water, and boiling until the egg is sufficiently cooked to be taken 
out. The pan must be covered. 



260 IN THE KITCHEN. 



EGGS A LA CEEME. 
Boil twelve eggs from twelve to fifteen minutes. Line a dish with 
very thin slices of bread and fill it with layers of the egg cut in slices, 
strewing them with a little grated bread, pepper, and salt. Rub a quar- 
ter of a pound of butter with two tablespoonfuls of flour, and put it in 
a saucepan with a tablespoonful of chopped parsley, half an onion 
grated, salt, pepper, nutmeg, and half a pint of cream or milk- when 
hot pour it over the eggs, cover the top with grated bread, put it in 
the oven, let it heat thoroughly, and brown. 



SCOTCH EGGS. 

Twelve ounces of cold chicken or veal chopped. 

Two ounces of ham chopped. 

Half an ounce of flour. 

Half a pint of milk. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Six hard-boiled eggs. 

The yolks of two eggs. 

A small pinch of cayenne. 

Grated bread. 

Mix the flour smooth in a little of the milk, putting the rest over 
boiling water to scald ; when the milk is hot stir in the flour, and let it 
cook until like thick cream ; then pour it over the butter, which must 
be cut in small pieces and sprinkled with the salt and pepper; then 
mix it well with the chicken and ham, and leave it to cool. Take the 
shells from the egg?, cover them as evenly as possible with the force- 
meat, preserving the form of the egg; then cover with the beaten yolks, 
roll them in the bread, lay them in the frying-basket, and plunge them 



EGGS. 261 

in deep, hot lard, the heat of which has been tested with a bit of bread. 
When they are a golden brown lift the basket, lay the eggs for a mo- 
ment on brown paper, then serve on a napkin on a plate, in the form 
of a circle, and garnish with curled parsley. 



HOW TO MAKE AN OMELETTE. 
To prepare an omelette, use a frying-pan about the size of a break- 
fast plate; see that it is perfectly clean, and place in it about one ounce 
of butter. Break three eggs and beat them up with a little parsley and 
a pinch of salt; the eggs should not be beaten too much, as it makes 
them thin and destroys the appearance of the omelette. "When the 
butter is melted pour the omelette mixture in the frying-pan; as it 
cooks raise the edge with a knife, and press it slightly towards the 
centre; the moment it is thickened, or "set," fold the omelette and 
serve. If a cheese omelette is required, add a tablespoonful of grated 
cheese to the mixture; if one with sweetmeats is desired, spread the 
omelette with a thin layer of the fruit just before folding. Tomatoes 
left from dinner may be used in the same way, and grated onion may 
take the place of grated cheese. In preparing an omelette remember 
five things : a clean pan ; the eggs must not be too much beaten ; the 
omelette must not be too large, — three eggs are better than six eggs, 
which make two omelettes; they should not be too much cooked; they 
should be eaten immediately, or they become tough and more like a 
pancake. 

MABGARET'S BAKED OMELETTE. 
Pour half a pint of scalding milk on two even teaspoonfuls of 
flour rubbed smooth with one ounce of butter, two thirds of a tea spoon- 
ful of salt, and a pinch of white pepper; add this to six eggs beaten 



262 12* THE KITCHEN. 

very light; stir in a tablespoonful of parsley chopped fino. Spread one 
ounce of butter in a frying-pan that will go in the oven, pour in the 
egg, and bake in so moderate an oven that it will not brown. The 
instant the egg is set, fold the omelette and serve. 



NAMLAT OMELETTE. 

Six eggs. 

One gill of new milk. 

Half a gill of minced parsley. 

Two ounces of butter, melted. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Half a teaspoonful of white pepper. 

Beat the yolks until thick; add all the ingredients save the whites 
of the eggs, which must be beaten to a stiff froth and stirred in gently ; 
pour in a buttered baking-dish, and bake from five to ten minutes in a 
quick oven. 

"GENTLEMEN'S SAVORY OMELETTE." 

Margaret. 

One pint of finely-chopped parsley (not pressed in the measure) . 

Three ounces of softened butter. 

Two tablespoonfuls of grated bread. 

Two tablespoonfuls of grated ham. 

One third of a teaspoonful of pepper. 

One shalot or onion. 

Six eggs. 

Beat the eggs thoroughly, add the other ingredients, mix well; 
pour in a hot buttered frying-pan, and cook it in front of the grate or 
in a moderate oven. When the egg is set, fold and serve. 



EGGS. 263 



BREAD OMELETTE. 

Half a pint of bread crumbs. 

Half a pint of cream. 

Two ounces of butter. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Half a teaspoonful of pepper. 

A quarter of a nutmeg. 

Three eggs. 

Put all these ingredients but the eggs and one ounce of the butter 
in a saucepan on the range, stirring occasionally, until the cream is 
absorbed ; take it off, and beat in the eggs. Have the rest of the butter 
hot in a frying-pan ; pour in the mixture, loosen it often from the sides 
to let the uncooked part run in, and the moment it is set, lap one side 
over the other, pass a knife under it, lay a platter across the frying- 
pan, holding it firmly with the left hand while you turn the frying-pan 
upside down, leaving the omelette in perfect condition on the platter. 
Serve immediately. 



264 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



FOE ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 265 



266 FOR ADDITIONAL. RECELPTS. 



FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 267 



268 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



BUTTER, CHEESE, ETC. 269 



BUTTER, CHEESE, Etc. 



BUTTER. 

The location of the milk-room, its ventilation and cleanliness, are of the first importance. 
Cellars are often too damp for milk; a cool room above ground is better, — one that may be well 
afted and devoted entirely to the milk; for it so easily takes the flavor of what is near it 
that no vegetables, fish, nor meats, either salt or fresh, should be in the same room. Next in 
importance are the milk-pans, which must be perfectly clean and well-scalded. 

The following directions are from a butter-maker of experience and great reputation in 
Madison Co., N. Y. 



MRS. JOHN CAMPBELL'S RECEIPT. 
In cold weather warm the milk to blood heat before straining it. 
Never allow the milk to stand over forty-eight hours; in summer not 
more than thirty-six, and twelve hours will often be found quite long 
enough; churn twice a week even if there be but a small quantity of 
cream. Keep the crock of cream, during the summer, in the coolest 
place you have, and every time cream is added stir it well. In cold 
weather place the crock of cream by the fire the night before churn- 
ing, turning it occasionally and stirring the cream until it is milk 
warm; then remove it to a cold room; in the morning put it in the 
churn, when a few minutes' churning will bring the butter. (A t this 
season of the year, owing to the lack of pasture, the butter is of a 
very pale color. Ochre is sometimes used to give it a yellow hue, but 
Mrs. Campbell's receipt for coloring it is given with these directions.) 
In hot weather put ice in the churn, broken into small bits, one and a 



270 US' THE KITCHEN. 

half pounds to four gallons of cream ; let it stand about ten minutes 
before churning, to equalize the temperature of the cream. When the 
butter has " come " and " gathered," take it up in the hand, squeezing 
out the buttermilk quickly; put it in the wooden butter-bowl, and work 
into it one ounce of fine salt to every pound of butter; lay in it, for 
the above quantity, a piece of ice weighing one and a half pounds, and 
leave it in as cool a place as possible. 

The next clay work out all the water and milk, but be careful not 
to go beyond this, as the grain of the butter is often broken by tpo 
much working. Make it into rolls, or pack it in stone crocks or fir- 
kins. If not to be used at once pour a brine over it, made after the 
following rule. 



BRINE FOR PRESERVING BUTTER DURING THE SUMMER. 
Half a pail of water. 
One quart of fine salt. 
One ounce of saltpetre. 
Two ounces of white sugar. 

Boil all together, skim, and when cold pour it over the top of the 
butter. 



FOR COLORING BUTTER. 
For four gallons of cream grate two, three, or four carrots, accord- 
ing to size and color; add enough new milk to extract the juice; make 
it about milk Warm, and strain it into the churn. 



DR. ANDEBSON'S RECEIPT FOR CURING BUTTER. 
Let two parts of fine salt, one part saltpetre, and one of sugar be 
completely blended together by beating, and add one ounce of this mix- 



B OTTER, CHEESE, ETC. 271 

tnre to every pound of butter; incorporate it thoroughly in the mass, 
and close it for use. The butter thus prepared should be kept two or 
three weeks before using; if properly cured, according to the above 
directions, it will remain for three years so perfectly sweet as not to be 
distinguished from newly-made, salted butter. 



BONNY-CLABBER. 
For this dish the milk should sour and thicken quickly ; before it 
has thickened it may be poured in any shallow glass or china dish, and 
when thick placed on the ice for an hour or two before serving. There 
is no objection to serving it in the pan, if it be bright and clean, and the 
bonny-clabber cold. If there is cream on the surface leave it unbroken; 
a saucer or a shallow ladle may be used for helping it, and when not in 
use should lie on a plate, not in the bonny-clabber. To be eaten from 
deep dessert-plates, sprinkled with brown sugar and a little grated nut- 
meg, with sweet cream poured around it, not over the top, hiding the 
beauty which is half its charm. After the bonny-clabber has been dis- 
turbed, whey collects in^ the bottom of the pan ; be careful to avoid it in 
the second helping. 

CURD OR SMEARCASE. 
Put a pan of thick sour milk on the back of the stove where it will 
heat slowly; it must not boil or be allowed to simmer; as the lower 
part becomes warm, turn it gently with a skimmer, and when the whey 
is well separated, pour it in a colander, and leave it an hour or more to 
drain. It may be drained in a small strainer, which will at the same 
time serve as a mould, or it may be tied in a cloth to drain. This is 
eaten with sugar and cream, or a little salt and cream. 



272 EN THE KITCHEN. 

COTTAGE CHEESE. » 

Add to curd, salt to the taste, and cream, or batter and a little 

milk may be used; mix it well, and press it into a mould, or make it 

into small balls. In serving, garnish with parsley. 

When the curd is taken from the mould, it may be cut in slices two 

thirds of an inch thick, and served with a little cream poured over it. 



CHEESE HUFF. 
' Qne and a half ounces of butter. 

Four ounces of crumbed cheese. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Half a teaspoonful of pepper. 

Four eggs. 

Put the cheese and butter in a saucepan on the fire; when they 
begin to melt add the eggs well-beaten, and the salt and pepper; stir 
and cook until you can push it up into a soft muff-shaped form. Serve 
at once. 

EAMAKTNS, OB RANAQU1N A LA TJDE, 
Cook to Louis XVI. 

Four ounces of grated cheese. 

Two ounces of butter. 

Two ounces of bread (without crust). 

Half a gill of milk. 

One third of a teaspoonful of mustard. 

One third of a teaspoonful of salt. 

Small pinch of cayenne pepper. 

Two eggs. 

Crumb the bread and boil it soft in the milk; add the butter, mus- 



BUTTER, CHEESE, ETO. 



273 



tard, salt, pepper, and cheese, and the yolks of the eggs; heat thor- 
oughly, then stir in the whites of the eggs, whisked to a stiff froth. 
Pour in a soup-plate or in small squares of stiff white paper pinched at 
the corners, and bake fifteen minutes. 
A delightful dish for tea. 



WELSH RAREBIT. 

VERY SIMPLE AND DELICIOUS. 

Toast bread quickly, without allowing it to dry; cut off the crust 
eveuly with a sharp knife; butter it and cover it with thin slices of 
cheese, spread very lightly with made mustard; lay it on a pie-plate, 
and place in a hot oven until melted; cut in halves or thirds, and serve 
immediately. 

WELSH RAREBIT, NO. 2. 
Take as many eggs as you wish, according to the number of 
guests ; weigh them and take one third the' weight in cheese and one 
sixth in butter; beat the eggs well in a saucepan, after which put in 
the butter and cheese, the latter grated or chopped very small. Place 
the saucepan on the fire and stir until the mixture becomes sufficiently 
thick and soft; add a little salt and a large proportion of pepper, and 
serve in a warm dish. 

FROMAGE. 
Half a pound of grated cheese. 
Half a pint of cream. 

The yolks of two eggs and the white of one. 
A small pinch of cayenne pepper. 

Beat the eggs very light, add the cream, then the cheese and pep- 
per; pour it in buttered soup-plates, and bake fifteen minutes. 

18 



274 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 275 



276 FOR ADDITIONAL, RECEIPTS. 



"YEAST. 277 



YE J± S T . 



Of all yeast, from brewers down to the farmer's " salt risin' " 
and " miik risin'," I know of none more convenient than the " Twin 
Brothers" and the "National Company's Yeast Cakes," made in 
Waterloo, N". Y. They require no other care than being kept dry. 
The cakes are half an inch thick and one and a half inches square; 
one cake is sufficient for four loaves of bread, and needs but ten 
minutes' soaking before the bread is mixed. 

Of home-made yeasts, the receipts which follow have been in use 
for many years, and found admirable. 



POTATO YEAST WITHOUT HOPS. 

Boil three pounds and a quarter of potatoes; mash them fine with 
one quart of flour and one quart of boiling water; mix thoroughly; 
add two gills of white sugar, two tablespoonfuls of salt, and one 
quart of cold water; when lukewarm add one yeast-cake soaked in 
two tablespoonfuls of water. 

When very light pour it through a colander; put it in a jug, but 
do not cork it tight for two or three days, when it will settle. Shake 
the jug well before using, but with the cork out. 



POTATO YEAST WITHOUT FLOUR. 
A handful (one quarter of an ounce) of hops. 
Four pounds of pared potatoes. 



278 IN THE KITCHEN. 

Half a pint of salt. 

Half a pint of sugar. 

One tablespoonful of ginger. 

Four quarts of water. 

Two yeast-cakes soaked in four tablespoonfuls of tepid water. 

Boil the potatoes in three quarts of water and pass them through 
the colander with the water; boil the hops ten minutes in one quart of 
water, and strain the water on the potatoes; add the sugar, salt, aiul 
ginger. The whole quantity should measure five quarts; if lacking, add 
tepid water. When lukewarm stir in the yeast, having mixed it 
smoothly after soaking; keep it in a warm place until light, which will 
be indicated by bubbles on the surface ; it does not increase in bulk like 
thicker yeast. Keep it in a stone crock, cover, and in using, stir it up 
from the bottom. In a dry, cool place it will keep for months. A gill is 
sufficient for one quart of milk or water, and the bread requires but 
little, if any, additional salt. 

Reserve a gill or half pint of this yeast for raising a second supply. 



PURE POTATO YEAST. 

One pound and a half of pared potatoes. 

One pint of boiling water. 

One pint of cold water. 

One gill of white sugar. 

One gill of yeast. 

Slice the potatoes and boil them, drain off all the water, then mash 
them through the colander, adding the boiling water; stir in the cold 
water and sugar, and when lukewarm add the yeast (a yeast-cake 
soaked in two tablespoonfuls of water, with sufficient water added to 
make a gill, may be used instead of the liquid yeast) ; leave it in a warm 



TEAST. 279 

place for two or three hours, or until bubbles come on the surface, when 
it may be put in a jug and kept in a cold place, leaving- it but loosely 
corked for the first twelve hours ; after that, press the cork firmly in. 

The advantage this yeast has over others is that so large a quantity 
maybe used that the bread rises very quickly, and thus the danger of its 
becoming sour is avoided. (See page 284.) It should be made every 
week, but it is possible to keep it two weeks in a refrigerator. A sec- 
ond making may be raised with a gill or half pint remaining from the 
first supply. Make the yeast in the afternoon, and the bread the next 
morning, or it may be made in the morning, and still leave time for 
making the bread the same day. 



WHITESBORO' YEAST 

Six large potatoes (one pound and fourteen ounces when pared). 

Three pints of cold water. 

Four ounces of sugar. 

One and a half ounces of salt. 

Quarter of an ounce of hops (a handful). 

Half an ounce of ginger. 

One gill of soft yeast, or one yeast-cake soaked five minutes in two 
tablespoonfnls of tepid water. 

Pare the potatoes and grate them in a tin pan; tie the hops in a 
bit of muslin, put them in a kettle with the water, and boil ten minutes; 
pour the scalding water on the potatoes; add the salt, sugar, and gin- 
ger; set the pan on a kettle of boiling water and stir occasionally until 
it is like a thick batter; remove it, and when lukewarm add the yeast 
to raise it; let it stand in a warm place until the next day. "When it 
has ceased to rise put it in a jug, cork tight, and leave it in the cellar. 
Shake well before using, but always with the cork out. This yeast will 



280 IN THE KITCHEN. 

keep three weeks in warm weather, and as many months in cold 
weather. 

YEAST. 

Montgomery. 

A handful of hops. 

Two quarts of cold water. 

One pint of flour. 

Half a pint of yeast. 

One tablespoonful of salt. 

(This handful means the quantity that can be held in a nearly 
closed hand.) Boil the hops and waiter slowly for three quarters of an 
hour; strain, boiling hot, on the flour and salt, gradually at first, in order 
to mix smoothly; strain through the colander into a stone crock; when, 
tepid add the yeast and leave it in a warm place to rise ; when light, 
cover, and keep in a cool place. 



MRS. PROF. YARMOL'S YEAST. 

This requires no yeast to raise it, and has been called " the best 
yeast in the world." Time to boil, half an hour; to make, four days. 

Three pounds of potatoes. 

Half a pint of flour. 

Half a pint of best brown sugar. 

One pint of hops. 

Two even teaspoonfuls of salt. 

Two gallons of water. 

Monday morning boil the hops in the water for half an hour, strain 
it in a crock, and let the liquid become milk-warm; add the salt and 
sugar, mix the flour smooth with some of the liquor, and then stir 



YEAST. 281 

all well together. On "Wednesday add the potatoes boiled and mashed, 
stir well, and let it stand until Thursday- then strain, and put it in 
stone jugs, but for the first day or two leave the corks quite loose; stir 
the yeast occasionally while making, and keep near the fire. " It should 
be made two weeks before using, and will keep any length of time, im- 
proving with age." Keep it in a cool place, and shake the jug before 
pouring from it, but with the cork out, holding the palm of the hand 
over the mouth to prevent the escape of the yeast. , 



282 LN" THE KITCHEN. 



BRE^D. 



Nothing on the table so ensures the health and contentment of the family as good bread; 
nothing in the whole science of cookery gives such satisfaction, and nothing so establishes 
one's respect for the cook. In making it how many conditions are to be secured, how many 
are vital to success! The flour must be excellent, the yeast perfect, the quantity of salt exact, 
and all the proportions correct; if milk is used, it must be new. and in warm weather it must 
be scalded, and then cooled until but lukewarm; the batter must be of the right temperature 
when the yeast is put in: if hot, the life of the yeast is destroyed; if cold, much time is lost in 
rising. The room must be of the proper degree of heat, and the bread must stand where the 
same temperature surrounds it, not on the hearth, exposed to draughts from doors, but on a 
shelf or table. There is a circular rack, easily attached to the pipe of a cooking-stove, which 
supplies an excellent place for raising bread, keeping it warm above and below, being at a con- 
venient height for watching, and entirely out of the way. This rack is also useful for many 
purposes, — for warming plates, keeping dishes hot, drying fruit, etc. It would be a most val- 
uable addition to a range if made to fit the flat pipe. Where there is a space of three and a 
half feet above the range, light iron racks may be fastened in the brick ten inches below the 
top of the arch; these are very convenient for drying towels as well as for raising bread and 
biscuit. Bread must not be allowed to get too light, and so to lose flavor or become sour; 
should it become too light in the last rising, take it from the pans and work it over; and 
if sour, work in thoroughly a little soda dissolved in boiling wpter. Kneading must be 
thorough. The heat of the oven is all-important: if too low, the bread becomes too light 
before baking; if too high, a hard and sometimes burnt crust covers the loaf. It must be taken 
from the oven at the right time, evenly and thoroughly baked, neither burned nor clammy, and 
when baked, instead of smothering it in woollen and cotton, leave it exposed to the air until 
thoroughly cold, to ensure a crisp oru:st; then put it away in a well-aired, clean stone crock, 
and keep i't closely covered. 

Flour so differs in quality that it is difficult to give a receipt that may always be followed 
with the same results. A much larger quantity of some flour is required than of others for an 
equal measure of water. For this flour of which so much is necessary, boiling water should be 
used. Bread mixed with milk is much more tender than that mixed with water; it requires 
less flour and less kneading. 

I have tried to make these directions and the following receipts so clear that any young, 
person of intelligence, who lias never been in the kitchen and therefore has no "judgment " to 



BREAD. 283 

help her, can follow them to the letter and be rewarded with good bread. As to heating the 
oven, she must have instructions peculiar to her own stove or range. I am told that the, heat 
required for baking bread is 325°; but as thermometers for testing the heat of ovens are 
not in common use, we must do the best we can with the old indefinite rules: The heat 
is right if you can count thirty fast or twenty moderately while holding the bare arm in 
the oven; it is right if half a "teaspoonful of flour, placed on the floor of the oven, browns 
in one minute with the door shut. In the dim distance there is the dawning of an admi- 
rable plan by which we can know the exact heat of an oven without so much as opening 
the door. In the mean time, let us gratefully continue to burn our arms and brown the flour, 
until, by constant care and watchfulness, the hand may be trusted to serve as thermometer, 
and the art of bread-baking be learned to perfection. 

In all cooking it is very important that the dress should be adapted to the work; but 
bread-making requires special attention, not only to the dress but to the most thorough tidi- 
ness and cleanliness of head and hands. A clean calico apron with bib, the sleeves of the 
dress well-tucked up and so pinned that they will not tumble down at critical moments add 
much to the comfort of this work. 

It is said that bread loses sweetness by many risings. I begin, therefore, with a receipt 
which requires but one rising. 



BREAD RAISED BUT ONCE. 

Three quarts of sifted flour. 

One quart of milk and water. 

One tablespoonful of salt. 

One gill of yeast or one yeast-cake. 

Scald a pint of milk and cool it with a pint of water; pour it on 
two quarts of the flour and the salt, in a five-quart bowl or pan ; mix 
well, add the yeast, beat hard for five minutes, stir in the rest of the 
flour; then flour the board, place the dough on it, and knead vigorously 
for fifteen minutes, using barely enough flour to prevent sticking. "With 
practice a little flour will go a great way. The hands and board must 
bo very lightly coated withit, that as little as possible may be added to 
the bread. This quantity of dough, kneaded fifteen minutes, requires 



284 IN" THE KITCHEN". 

nearly a pint of flour. Mould into loaves and place them in buttered 
pans which they will but half fill; leave them to rise, until the bread 
has reached the top : at 80° this will require from five to six hours ; at 
a low temperature it may stand over night. When light, prick, and 
bake. If the yeast-cake is used, soak it in two tablespoonfuls of water, 
then stir it until smooth, and add water until it measures a gill. 

This bread retains much more of the flavor of the wheat than that 
which is raised several times. It may be mixed with water, or milk 
alone. 



BREAD RAISED BUT ONCE. (Pure Potato Yeast.) 

Half a pint of yeast. 

Half a pint of scalding milk. 

Three and a half pints of flour. 

One gill and two tablespoonfuls of cold water. 

One teaspoonful of sugar. 

One and a half teaspoonfuls of salt. 

A bit of butter half as large as a nutmeg. 

Put the flour in a bowl with the salt and sugar, make a hollow in 
the centre, and pour in half of the milk, stirring in enough of the flour 
to make a batter; add the two tablespoonfuls of water, and let it stand 
while you add the butter to the other gill of milk, and cool it with the 
gill of water; when the batter is lukewarm stir in the yeast, and the 
milk and water (being sure they are not too warm), and the rest of the 
flour; then put it on the floured board and knead ten minutes, using as 
little flour as possible; mould into loaves, and put them into buttered 
pans which they must but half fill ; cover, and leave until the bread 
reaches the top of the pan, which will be in from two to three hours in. 
a temperature of from 80° to 8S°, then prick and bake. 



BREAD. 285 



BEEAD RAISED TWICE. 

Montgomery. 

Three pounds and a quarter of sifted flour. 

One quart of tepid water. 

One gill of yeast. 

Two teaspoonfuls of salt. 

Mix the bread at four p. m. in winter, and the last thing at night in 
summer. Sift two pounds of flour in a five-quart bowl, add the salt 
and water, and beat very thoroughly, add the yeast and the rest of the 
flour; lay the dough on the floured board, scraping the bowl perfectly 
clean; knead for ten minutes, using barely enough floxir to prevent 
sticking; flour the bowl, return the bread to it, cover, and leave it in a 
warm place to'rise. In the morning, when light, divide into four loaves; 
mould, lay them in buttered pans, and when light, prick, and bake. 
These loaves are so small they require but thirty or forty minutes for 
baking. 

BEEAD WITH POTATO. (Two Risings.) 

Three pounds and a quarter of flour, sifted. 

One boiled potato, weighing (unpared) half a pound. 

One quart of warm water. 

One gill of yeast. 

One even tablespoonful of salt. 

Mix at night; put the flour in a large bowl, hollow a place in the 
centre for the mashed potato, water, and salt, stir in enough of the flour 
to make a smooth batter; add the yeast, and stir in the rest of the flour; 
put the dough on the floured board, and knead it fifteen minutes, using 
barely enough flour to prevent sticking; flodr the bowl, lay the dough 



286 1ST THE KITCHEN. 

in it, cover, and leave to rise. In the morning divide it into four parte, 
mould into loaves, and when light, prick, and bake in a moderate oven. 



BEEAD WITH THREE RISINGS. 

One quart of warm water. 

One gill of yeast. 

Three and a half pounds of flour. 

One tablespoonful of salt. 

Mix at night, in a five-quart bowl, two pounds of flour with the 
water, which may be quite warm when poured on the flour; but the 
batter should be only lukewarm when the yeast is added. Beat 
it very thoroughly, then leave it to rise in a temperature of 
75°. In eight hours it will be within an inch of the top of the 
bowl ; then stir in the rest of the flour and put the dough on the floured 
bread-board, scraping the bowl perfectly clean; knead it fifteen minutes, 
using barely enough flour to prevent sticking. Flour the bowl, put 
back the dough for an hour longer, or until of the same bulk as in the 
first rising. This quantity will make four loaves, baked in pans ten 
inches long, five wide, and two and a quarter deep. Flour the board, 
put the dough on it, and knead ten minutes; cut it into four equal 
parts, form them into loaves, and lay them in the buttered pans ; leave 
them ah hour, or until the bread has reached the top of the pan; then 
prick the loaves deep, in three or four places, or press the side of the 
hand an inch deep through the centre of the loaf, and put them in the 
heated oven. (For degree of heat see page 283.) These small 
loaves require but half an hour's baking. On taking them from the 
oven, leave them to cool, uncovered, on a sieve, that the crust may 
be crisp. If potato is liked in bread add half a pint, well mashed, to 



BUEAD. 287 

the sponge, which should be mixed with the water in which the potato 
was boiled, adding sufficient warm water to make a quart. 



BREAD RAISED WITH PURE POTATO YEAST. (Three Risings.) 

Scald a pint and a half of milk in the oven, or over boiling water. 
Have ready four and a half pounds of sifted flour in a pan; make a 
hollow in the centre and pour in half a pint of the milk, stirring in 
enough of the flour to make rather a thick batter ; add a gill of cold 
water, and let it stand until lukewarm; to the pint of hot milk add half 
an ounce of butter (a bit the size of a large nutmeg) , two even tea- 
spoonfuls of sugar, and a tablespoonful of salt; then cover, and set it 
aside; add three gills of yeast to the batter, mixing in more of the 
flour, and leave it to rise an hour at from 90° to 95°; add a pint 
of hot water to the milk (hot enough to make it lukewarm), pour it in 
the sponge, and stir in all of the flour; flour the board, place the dough 
on it, leaving the pan perfectly clean, and knead it into a smooth mass, 
using as little flour as possible; flour the pan, replace the dough, and 
leave it to rise two hours; knead it again (if sufficiently light the air- 
bubbles will not exactly " break into singing," but will really sing in 
breaking), and mould into loaves; put them in evenly but slightly 
greased pans which they will but half fill, and in an hour, or when risen 
to the top, prick and bake. The bread may remain in the second rising 
over night, but, of course, in a very much cooler place than when 
intended to rise quickly; 60° would not be too low. 



BLUE ISLAND BREAD. 
One yeast-cake. 

One and a quarter pounds of pared potatoes. 

One pint of the water in which the potatoes are boiled. 



288 IN THE KITCHEN. 

One gill of flour. 

Two tablespoonfuls of salt. 

Two quarts of warm water. 

Seven pounds of flour. 

Soak the yeast-cake in two tablespoonfuls of tepid water, boil the 
potatoes, mash them through the colander with the boiling water, on 
the- flour and salt. "When lukewarm add the yeast, and leave 
it to rise, allowing seven hours in a temperature of from 70° to 74°, 
so, if the sponge is made at two p. m., the bread may be mixed 
at nine p. m. "When the sponge is light put the flour in the bread-pan 
and pour the water in the centre; when enough of the flour is stirred 
in to make a batter add the sponge, stir well, and mix in all of the 
flour; then flour the board, place the dough on it, and knead for twenty 
or thirty minutes, using barely enough flour to prevent the dough from 
sticking to the board and hands ; lay it in the floured pan, and rub half 
an ounce of butter over the top, cover the pan, and leave it to rise until 
morning, when it should be twice its first bulk. If at all sour, dissolve 
a teaspoonful of soda in boiling water, and work it most thoroughly 
through the mass, then make it into eight or nine loaves, — they must 
but half fill the pans, — and when risen to the top, prick and bake. 



Much has been said against the use of acid and alkali, and we all 
know that they are often used unskilfully, and with a far too large pro- 
portion of the alkali, thus making bread, biscuit, and cake most of- 
fensive. Professor Horsford has scientifically selected and combined 
them in his " self-raising flour '." "We have Baron Liebig's authority for 
the healthfulness of this preparation in an extract from a letter to 
Prof. Horsford : — 

" I have, through a great series of experiments, satisfied myself of 



BKEAD. 289 

the purity and excellence of your Bread Preparation. The bread has 
no acid, is easily digested and of the best taste; aside from the conve- 
niences this invaluable idea of yours has provided, I consider this inven- 
tion as one of the most useful gifts which science has made to mankind. 
It is certain that the nutritive value of flour will be increased ten per 
cent by your Phosphatic Bread Preparation, and the result is precisely 
the same as if the fertility of our wheat-fields had been increased by 
that amount. What a wonderful result is this ! " 



SELF RAISING BREAD. 
This is made in a few moments, and is ready at once for the oven. 
To one pint of flour add one pint of milk; stir only enough to mix 
well, then put it in a buttered basin in the oven, and keep it covered 
until well risen, otherwise it makes too stiff a crust; then remove the 
cover. When baked, cool on a sieve. 



There is a kind of bread much in use among farmers, commonly 
called " salt risin" or " milk emptins"; salt rising, if made with water, 
milk emptyings, if made with milk. It is light, sweet, tender, and very 
white, and is especially convenient where yeast can neither be made nor 
obtained. The peculiar odor which it often has, does not necessarily 
belong to it; it is the result of carelessness in allowing the bread to 
stand too long in rising. 



SALT RISING. 
Pour a pint of hot water in a two-quart pail or pitcher, on half a 
teaspoonful of salt; when the finger can be held hi it add one and a 

18 



290 



IN THE KITCHEN". 



third pints of flour; mix well, and leave the pitcher in a kettle of water 
as warm as that used in mixing; keep it at the same temperature until 
the batter is nearly twice its original bulk, which will be in from five 
to eight hours; it may be stirred once or twice during the rising. Add 
this to a sponge made of one quart of hot water and two and a half 
quarts of flour, adding as much more as may be necessary to make a 
soft dough; mix well, and leave it in a warm place to rise; when light, 
mould into loaves, keeping them soft as possible; lay them in buttered 
pans, and when light again, prick and bake. 



GRAHAM BREAD. 
Take one pint of light bread-sponge and thin it with a pint of warm 
water; add two tablespoonfuls of molasses, a teaspoonfnl of salt, and 
sufficient Graham flour to make a stiff batter that can be stirred with a 
spoon ; put it in well-buttered pans and when light, bake. It requires 
longer baking ^han white bread, and the pans require more butter. 



GRAHAM BREAD WITHOUT FINE FLOUR. 

Three quarts of Graham flour. 

One quart of warm water. 

Two gills of yeast. 

One gill of syrup. 

One tablespoonful of salt. 

Mix all the ingredients thoroughly, put it in well-buttered pans, 
and leave it in a warm place to rise, or let it rise over night at 
60°. If left to rise slowly let it remain in the bowl in which it was 
mixed, and unless very light when put in the pans let it stand fifteen or 
twenty minutes before putting it in the oven. Brown bread does not 
require pricking. 



BREAD. 291 

GRAHAM BREAD FROM PURE POTATO YEAST. 

Three pints of Graham flour. 

Three gills of tepid milk and water, equal parts. 

One gill of syrup or molasses. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Half a pint of yeast. 

Scald the milk and cool it with the water; beat all the ingredients 
thoroughly together, and leave it to rise. In a cold room, 54°, it may 
stand from nine to ten hours, but it may be made, baked, and 
the pans washed, dried, and put away in less than half that time, if 
raised at a temperature of from 90° to 95° degrees. When light, if 
near breakfast or tea time, a part of it may be dropped into gem-pans, 
allowed to stand ten or fifteen minutes, then baked. The bread may be 
put in pans and smoothed over the top, or it may be moulded into loaves 
on the slightly-floured board. If disturbed as little as possible, with the 
spoon only, it need stand but from ten to twenty minutes to regain its 
lightness, but if moulded it requires more time. 



The following receipt is from a New York gentleman, — the result 
of his own experience. 

HERMIT BREAD. 

inexpensive: sweet with its own sweetness. 

Closely grind two thirds wheat and one third corn, separately. 
Sift the latter only, and boil it at least seven hours, — a little burning does 
not injure it, — add salt to the taste; mix it tolerably stiff with the wheat 
meal; bake in large loaves in a slow oven. It may be eaten hot or 
cold; it keeps moist and sweet for a long time. The proportions may 
be varied, or rye added, if desired. 



292 - IN THE KITCHEN. 

It is affirmed by the State chemist of Massachusetts that corn can- 
not be wholly assimilated unless cooked seven hours. This I proved 
for myself: I lived upon this bread an entire winter in the woods, eating 
nothing else, and gaining constantly in health and weight. 



CORN BREAD. 
One quart and half a pint of corn-meal. 

One quart of fine flour. One quart of thick sour milk. 

Half a pint of molasses. 

Three even teaspoonfuls of soda dissolved in two teaspoonfuls of 
boiling water. 

One tablespoonful of salt. 

Mix thoroughly, put in well-buttered pans, and bake in a moderate 
oven. This quantity makes two loaves in two-quart basins. 

If Graham flour is used instead of the fine flour, but one quart of 
the corn-meal is necessary. 

BOILED CORN BREAD. 

4 Mrs. I. N. Bukbitt. 

One pint and one gill of sweet milk. 

One pint and one gill of buttermilk or sour cream. 
"Half a pint of molasses. 

One teaspoonful of soda. 

Three teaspoonfuls of cream tartar. 

One even tablespoonful of salt. 

One pint and one gill of corn-meal. 

One pint and one gill of flour. 

Sift the soda and cream of tartar in the flour; mix all the ingredients 
thoroughly together and put in a buttered tin pail; cover closely, place 
it in a kettle two thirds full of boiling water; cover, and boil steadily 



BREAD. 293 

for three hours, replenishing when needful with boiling water. To be 
eaten hot with butter. 

STEAMED CORN BREAD. 

Rochester, N. Y. 

Three quarters of a pound of corn-meal. 

Four ounces of flour. 

Half an ounce of butter. 

One pint of thick, sour milk. 

One gill of molasses. 

Two teaspoonfuls of salt. 

One and a half teaspoonfuls of soda. 

One egg. 

Mix the soda smooth in a little of the milk; put all the ingredients 
together in a large bowl, and beat until thoroughly mixed. Butter a 
two-quart basin, pour in the batter, and steam it two hours and a half; 
then put it in the oven and bake it half an hour. To be eaten warm. 



BREAD PUFFS. 
If the wheat bread is light enough for the oven at breakfast time, 
have ready some hot lard in a deep kettle; with the thumb and two 
fingers pull up some of the dough quite thin, and cut it some two or 
three inches in length ; as these pieces are cut, drop them in the lard 
and fry like doughnuts. At table they are eaten with butter like bis- 
cuit; they are also served in a vegetable-dish with a dressing of hot 
cream seasoned with pepper and salt. 



ITALIAN BREAD. 
One pound of bread dough. 
A quarter of a pound of softened butter. 



294: IN THE KITCHEN. 

"Work the butter well into the dough, and roll out about half an 
inch thick; cut into strips nearly an inch wide, and seven or eight 
inches long; sift over them fine corn-meal, place them apart on a but- 
tered pan, and when light, bake in a quick oven. 



BREAD BISCUIT. 

One pint of dough ready to bake. 

Two ounces of butter. 

The white of an egg, beaten stiff. 

Soften the butter, and knead all together for five or ten minutes ; 
roll, cut, or mould into biscuit; lay them in a buttered pan, and when 
light, prick and bake. 

MABY TANEY'S BISCUIT. 

Four pounds of bread dough. 

Half a gill of melted drippings. 

The whites of two eggs. 

Beat the eggs to a stiff froth, and with the hand mix all thoroughly 
together, leave to rise, and when light, roll out and Cut with a small tin 
cutter; lay the biscuit in buttered pans, let them rise, then prick and 
bake. 

FOB aiJICK BISCUIT, OB A TEA LOAF. 

Miss Simons. 

Save from the baking a small piece of dough about the size of an 
egg; keep it in something close and small, so the dough will not spread. 

"Warm slightly a pint of milk, dissolve the dough in thisj thicken 
with flour until as thick as pound-cake ; add one tablespoonful of lard, 
one of sugar, and half a teaspoonful of salt. Set it to rise; when very 
light mould into biscuit; let them rise again, then prick and bake. 



BREAD. 295 

To make them more quickly it is better to have the flour slightly 
warmed. 

GENEVA ROLLS. 
One pint of new milk. 

One pound and a half of flour. 

Two ounces of butter. 

Half a teaspoonful of soda. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

One gill of yeast. 

About eight a. m. scald the milk and pour it in a basin with the 
salt and butter; stir in the pound of flour, and when lukewarm add the 
yeast; leave it to rise; about one p. m., or when light, add the rest of 
the flour and leave it to rise again; about four i\ m. add the soda, dis- 
solved in a tablespoonful of boiling water; knead it in thoroughly; 
roll, cut, or form into rolls; place in buttered pans, and when light 
prick and bake. Remember that the time required for the different ris- 
ings depends on the heat to which the dough is exposed. 



VINEY'S FLANNEL ROLLS. 

One pound and two ounces of flour. 

Two and a half ounces of butter. 

Two tablespoonfuls of sugar. 

Two tablespoonfuls of yeast. 

Half a pint of cold sweet milk/ 

The whites of two eggs, beaten to a stiff froth. 

Make a batter at night with the milk, sugar, and nearly half of the 
flour; in the morning soften and cream the butter, and stir it in the 
batter with the eggs, add the rest of the flour, and leave it to rise. When 



296 IN THE KITCHEN. 

light, mould it into small oval rolls, using as little flour as possible; 
place them in French roll or gem-pans, cover, and when light again, prick, 
and bake in a quick oven. 

EXCELLENT EOLLS. 

One and a half pounds of flour. 

Two ounces of butter. 

Two ounces of lard. 

One pint of milk. 

One gill of yeast. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

One egg. 

Mix these rolls at ten a. m. if for tea at six, unless the weather be 
quite warm, when less time is required. 

Scald the milk over boiling water and pour it on the beaten egg; 
stir it, and add the butter and lard. When cooled to blood heat mix 
in one pound of the flour and the yeast, and put it in a warm place to 
rise; when light add the remaining half pound and let it rise again; 
then roll out, cut into biscuit, lay them in buttered pans, cover them, 
and when light, prick, and bake in a quick oven. 



FKTJIT ROLLS. 
One and a quarter pounds of flour. 
One and a half ounces of butter. 
One pint of milk. 
One egg. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Half a yeast-cake soaked in a tablespoonful of tepid water. 
Boil the milk and pour it on the butter and salt; when nearly cool 



BREAD. 297 

add the egg and half of the flour and the yeast; leave it in a warm 
place to rise. When light, knead in the rest of the flour and let it rise 
again, then with your hands make it into rings in this way : roll on the 
board a piece of the dough about nine inches long and as large around 
as your little finger, and pinch the ends together; the joining cannot 
be seen when it is baked. Lay them in buttered pans, and leave them 
to rise; when light, prick and bake. 

These are called f ' Fruit Rolls" from their being nice to eat with 
fruit and cream. They are nearly all crust, very crisp and delightful. 



BRENTLEY BEEAKFAST ROLLS. 

One and a quarter pounds of flour. 

Two ounces of butter. 

One pint of new milk. 

One egg. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Half a yeast-cake. 

Soak the yeast-cake in a teacup with a tablespoonful of tepid 
water for ten minutes; put the milk and butter over boiling water to 
warm until the butter is softened; put'the flour and salt in a two-quart 
basin; with the left hand pour the milk gradually into the centre of the 
flour, stirring with the right hand. Before all the flour is mixed add 
the beaten egg and the yeast, then beat all well together and leave it to 
rise. In the morning roll out the dough an inch thick. It is soft, and 
requires a good deal of flour to prevent its sticking to the board and 
the rolling-pin, but be careful not to work it in; cut in strips two inches 
wide, and these in lengths of four inches ; or make oval rolls with the 
hand if preferred. Grease gem-pans, lay in the rolls, and when light, 
prick, and bake half an hour. 



298 IN THE KITCHEN. 

This quantity makes twelve good-sized rolls ; if any are left they 
are very nice cold for dinner, cut in two, lengthwise, through the upper 
and lower crusts. 

If the weather is warm these rolls may be mixed at nine P. m. and 
left in a room where the temperature is 68°. This gives time in the 
morning for the second rising and baking by eight o'clock. In cold 
weather the dough should be kept in a warm place over night. 



FBENCH ROLLS. 

Mks. Stkattan. 

One pound of flour. 

Nine ounces of potato. 

One teaspoonful of sugar. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

One gill of warm milk. 

One egg. 

One and a half ounces of lard. 

Two gills of cold water. 

Half a yeast-cake soaked in a tablespoonful of tepid water. 

Pare and slice the potato, cover it with the cold water, and boil 
until tender, then rub it through the sieve with the water; add the 
lard, sugar, and salt, and a tablespoonful of the flour; leave this to rise 
in a warm place. When light beat in the egg, add the milk, and knead 
in the flour; leave it to rise again, and when light make into oblong 
rolls, and lay them in buttered pans. "When light again, prick and 
bake. 

An easy way to make the rolls of uniform size is to roll out the 
■ dough half an inch thick, and cut it with a round tin cutter ; press the 
opposite sides together, and mould into rolls. 



BREAD. . 299 



PARKER HOUSE ROLLS. 

One quart of flour. 

One ounce of lard. 

Half a pint of milk. 

Haifa gill of yeast. 

Half a tablespoonful of sugar. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

In the evening put the flour in a bowl ; put the salt and lard in the 
milk, and warm until the lard is melted; when the milk is lukewarm 
add the yeast, pour into the centre of the flour ; mix it to a thin 
batter; cover, and leave it in the cellar. In the morning work it thor- 
oughly and let it rise. Two hours before tea roll it out two thirds of 
an inch thick, cut with a tin cutter, four inches across; with a feather 
coat half of the top with melted butter, and lap it nearly over the other 
half, then draw them out a little to make them roll-shaped; lay them 
apart in buttered pans, and when light, bake. 



MRS. COBLEIGH'S DRIED BISCUIT. 

One pound of butter. 

Three pounds of flour. 

One quart of boiling milk. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

One yeast-cake soaked in two tablespoonfuls of water. 

Eight eggs. 

Put one and a half pounds of the flour, with the butter and salt, 
in a large bowl, stir in the milk; beat the eggs very light, and when the 
batter has cooled a little put them in; then add the yeast, having first 
mixed thoroughly with it one or two tablespoonfuls of the batter; then 



300 IN THE KITCHEN. 

stir in the rest of the flour, cover, and leave it in a warm place to rise. 
"When light, roll, make into biscuit of whatever form you please, and 
lay them in buttered pans to rise again; when light, prick and bake. 
After baking they must be separated and thoroughly dried in rather a 
cool oven ; they will keep for months. "When used they are rolled on 
the pasteboard, and are very nice for puddings and for frying oysters. 
They are also, when first baked, delightful for the table. 



POTATO CAKES. 

One and a half pounds of pared potatoes 

Two and a half pounds of sifted flour. 

Two ounces of butter. 

Two ounces of lard. 

One pint of milk. 

One gill of yeast. 

One tablespoonful of salt. 

Four eggs. 

Mix at ten A. m. unless the weather is very warm. Boil the pota- 
toes, mash them through the colander, on the butter and salt; warm the 
milk and lard, beat the eggs, and mix all together with half or more 
of the flour; add the yeast, work in the rest of the flour, and leave it 
in a warm place to rise. At four p. M. roll out and cut into biscuit, lay 
them in buttered pans, and when light, prick and bake. 



SODA BISCUIT. 
One pound of flour. 
Two ounces of butter. 
One ounce of lard. 



BREAD. 301 

Three gills of sweet milk. 

One even teaspoonful of soda. 

Three even teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar. 

Sift the soda and cream of tartar through a bit of tarlatan or a very 
fine sifter, into the flour, and mix it well; rub the butter very fine 
through the flour, stir in the milk, then lay the dough on the floured 
board, work it very lightly into shape; roll, cut, lay in pans, prick, and 
bake in a quick oven. The dough may be cut, rolled, and baked like 
" Italian Bread " (see page 293). This shape is by many much preferred 
to the round biscuit. 

SHORT CAKE. 

One quart of flour. 

One pint of thick sour milk. 

One and a quarter teaspoonfuls of soda. 

One third of a teaspoonful of salt. 

Six ounces of butter. 

Put the flour in a bowl; put the sour milk in the centre with the 
soda dissolved in a teaspoonful of boiling water, the salt and the butter 
stirred to a soft cream; beat thoroughly, before mixing in all of the 
flour; stir in the whole, place it on the floured board, and form it quickly 
into a smooth mass; roll it out about one third of an inch in thickness, 
cut in small cakes, prick, and bake in a quick oven. 



BAKING-POWDER BISCUIT. 
One pound of flour. 
One ounce of butter. 

Two ounces of lard (it must be sweet and firm). 
Three gills of sweet milk. 



302 IN THE KITCHEN. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Five teaspoonfuls of baking-powder. 

The baking-powder must be taken up in the teaspoon, slightly 
pressed, and made even by passing the side of the knife blade directly 
over it; pnt it with half a gill of the flour, and sift it into the rest of 
the flour through a very fine sieve; mix thoroughly, then rub the but- 
ter, lard, and salt through the flour until quite fine; pour in the milk, 
mix lightly, place it on the floured board, and roll it out without any 
kneading; cut, prick, and bake in a quick oven. 



MARYLAND BISCUIT. 

One pound of flour. 

One ounce of lard or butter. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Two gills of sweet milk. 

Put the lard in the salt and flour, and rub it until very fine; add 
the milk by degrees; then lay the dough on the bread-board and knead 
it hard for twenty or thirty minutes, using barely flour enough to pre- 
vent its sticking. In Maryland they have a machine for this purpose; 
but kneading with the hands is capital exercise, and if persevered in 
fifteen or twenty minutes will show you, beyond contradiction, that the 
" flight of time" of which we hear so much, is a mere myth. When 
you see blisters on the dough, and it snaps in breaking, it has been 
sufficiently kneaded; then roll out half an inch thick, cut, put in the 
pan, prick in three places, and bake in a quick oven. 

The old Maryland cooks would be shocked at the bare idea of 
rolling and cutting these biscuit, for they mould every one separately, 
making all of the same size, and the last touch is the pressure of the 
ball of the thumb in the centre of the biscuit. Such skill is ac- 



BREAD. 303 

quired only by long practice, whereas the other way is easy for all, and 
very good. 

GOSSAMER BEEAD. 
One pound of flour. 

Three ounces of butter. 

Two tablespoonfuls of yeast. 

One egg. 

Mix all these ingredients together, and roll the paste to a thin 
sheet; fold it, and beat it fifteen minutes with a rolling-pin; roll out 
as thin as possible on a baking-sheet, exit in four-inch squares, and bake. 



ANGELS' FOOD. 
Half a pound of flour. 

Half an ounce of lard or butter. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

One gill of sweet milk. 

Rub the lard thoroughly through the flour, add the other ingredi- 
ents, knead the dough fifteen or twenty minutes, roll as thin as paper, 
lay it on baking-sheets, score it in four-inch squares, prick well, and 
bake. 

LAPLANDERS, 
One pint (eight ounces) of Graham flour. 
One pint of warm water. 
Half a teaspoonful of salt. 
One egg, well beaten. 

Have the gem-pans heating in the oven, which must be very hot, 
much hotter than for biscuit. 

Beat the egg with one or two spoonfuls of the water; add the 



304 IN THE KITCHEN. 

salt, half of the water, and the flour; beat thoroughly, then stir in the 
rest of the water. Put the pans on the range, butter them, using a 
swab on a stick, pour in the batter, and put them immediately in the 
oven. The batter may be mixed in a pitcher, and poured into the gem- 
pans. 

Made with milk instead of water, the above are sometimes called 
Graham puffs. 

BBEAKFAST PUTTS. 

Three quarters of a pound of flour. 

One ounce of butter. 

One pint of milk. 

Two eggs. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Beat the eggs and stir them in the milk; put the flour and salt in a 
two-quart bowl, stir in about two thirds of the milk, add the melted 
butter, beat very hard for three minutes, then thin the batter with the 
remainder of the milk; pour in well-buttered gem-pans; bake in a 
quick oven. 

GRAHAM POP-OVERS. 

Half a pint of Graham flour. 

Half a pint of White flour. 

One pint of milk. 

One even teaspoonful of salt. 

Two eggs. (If double the rule is required, three eggs will do.) 

Put the flour and salt in a two-quart bowl, stir in half of the milk, 
add the eggs, and beat hard for three minutes; stir in the rest of 
the milk. Have the gem-pans buttered and hot, then pour in the 



BltEAD. 305 

batter and bake in a quick oven. The batter may stand fifteen minutes 
without harm. 



NUNS' PUFFS. (For Tea.) 

Quarter of a pound of butter. 

Half a pound of flour. 

One pint of milk. 

Nine eggs. 

Put the milk and butter in a saucepan on the range, having first 
rinsed the saucepan in water to lessen the risk of burning; as it breaks 
into boiling, put in the flour, and stir until it does not stick to the sauce- 
pan. "When cool, beat in the yolks of the eggs, add the whites beaten 
to a stiff froth. Butter cups, or deep patty-pans, half fill them with the 
batter, and bake twenty minutes in a quick oven. 



AUNT POLLY'S GOOD CAKE. 

One pound and three quarters of flour. 

Four ounces of lard. 

One pint of milk. 

Haifa gill of yeast. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Three eggs. 

If these are wanted for tea, mix them at ten in the morning. 

Put the milk and lard together, and leave them over boiling water 
until the lard is melted; when the milk is somewhat cooled stir in one 
pound of the flour, the salt, and the yeast, and beat thoroughly; cover 
and put it in a warm place to rise. When light add three eggs, the 
whites beaten to a stiff froth, and the remaining three quarters of a 

20 



306 TK THE KITCIIEX. 

pound of flour. When light again roll out, cut into biscuit, lay them 
in buttered pans, and when light, prick, and bake in a quick oven. 



RUSK. 

Two pounds of flour. 

Three quarters of a pound of sugar. 

Seven ounces of butter. 

One pint of warm milk. 

Three eggs. 

Half a teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in a teaspoonful of boiling 
water. 

Half a yeast-cake, soaked in a tablespoonful of tepid water. 

Mix the milk, the beaten yolks of the eggs, one and a half pounds 
of the flour, and the yeast thoroughly together, and leave it to rise over 
night. In the morning cream the butter and mix it with the sugar, and 
the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth, and add them with the soda 
to the dough, and work thoroughly together with the hand, kneading 
in the other half pound of flour; let it rise again in a warm place, then 
roll it out, using as little flour as possible for the board and rolling-pin; 
roll it half an inch thick, then cut in circles and put them in buttered 
pans. A tin cutter two and a half inches across makes them a pretty 
size. As soon as they are light, prick, and bake in a quick oven; lay 
them on a sieve when they come from the oven, and do not cover them, 
as that would destroy the crispness of the crust. 



BON BEAC. 
One pound and fourteen ounces of flour. 
One quarter of a pound of sugar. 



BREAD. 



307 



One quarter of a pound of butter. 

Six ounces of English currants. 

One pint of new milk. 

One gill of yeast. 

Two eggs. 

Make a batter at night with about one half of the flour and the 
milk in which the butter has been melted; add the yeast, being careful 
that the batter is not too warm. In the morning add the eggs, sugar, 
fruit, and the rest of the flour ; lay it on the board, using only flour 
enough to prevent its sticking; make it into three loaves, and lay them 
in buttered pans ; when light, prick and bake. 

To be eaten either hot or cold. 



WHIGS. 

Two pounds of flour. 

Half a pound of butter. 

Half a pound of sugar. 

One and a half pints of milk. 

Three quarters of a yeast-cake. 

Six eggs. 

Cream the butter, and add the sugar and the yolks of the eggs, 
beating them well together. Put three fourths of the flour in a large 
bowl, and stir in all the milk; add the sugar, etc., then the whites of 
the eggs, beaten to a stiff froth, then the yeast-cake, which must have 
been soaked in one and a half tablespoonfuls of tepid water for five 
minutes, lastly, the remainder of the flour; mix thoroughly, and leave 
in a warm place to rise; when light, drop it in patty-pans or muffin- 
rings, and bake in the oven. Serve hot for tea 



308 rsr the kitchen. 

SALLY LUNN. 

One and a half pounds of flour. 

Two ounces of butter. 

One pint of milk. 

Two tablespoonfuls of sugar. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Half a yeast-cake, soaked in a tabl'espoonful of water. 

Two eggs. 

Warm the milk and butter over water until the butter is melted; 
beat the eggs in a two-quart tin pail, and if the milk is not hot pour it 
over them; stir in about half of the flour, then add the yeast, stirring 
thoroughly, and the rest of the flour. Unless the weather is quite 
warm allow five hours for rising. 



GRAHAM GEMS. 

Fourteen ounces of Graham flour. 

One pint of cold water. 

Two tablespoonfuls of sugar. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Beat well together; let the batter stand ten minutes; put the gem- 
pans on the range, and drop in every one a bit of butter the size of a 
small bean; when very hot fill them with the batter, let them remain 
on the range for five minutes, then bake half an hour in a hot oven. 



GRAHAM FINGERS AND THUMBS. 
One pound of Graham flour. 
Two ounces of butter and one ounce of lard. 
Three gills of sweet milk. 



BREAD. 309 

One teaspoonful of salt, one of soda, and three of cream of tar- 
tar. 

Throw the salt in the flour, and sift in the soda and cream of tar- 
tar through the finest wire-cloth sieve; if this is not at hand rub them 
through a hit of tarlatan held tight over a cup; then stir them with the 
hand thoroughly all through the flour, rub in the butter and lard very- 
fine, add the milk, and mix lightly; flour the board, lay the dough on 
it, barely mould iti shape, then roll it half an inch thick and cut half 
of it in strips six inches long and one inch wide; put a little corn-meal 
on the corner of the board, roll the strips in it, until round aud well 
coated, and lay them in the buttered dripping-pan with a little space 
between; put them in a hot oven. Cut the rest of the dough with a 
round biscuit-cutter, lap one side over the other, and draw them out a 
little, then bake them. The thumbs may be served with the fingers, 
where they naturally belong, but look better on a plate by themselves, 
leaving the fingers crossed and piled in the form of a triangle. 



GRAHAM ROLLS. 

Massasoit House. 

One quart of Graham flour. 

One quart of white flour. 

One and a half pints of tepid water. 

One gill of molasses. 

One gill of yeast. 

Two ounces of drippings or butter. 

Two even teaspoonfuls of salt. 

Mix all thoroughly together with a spoon and leave in a warm 
place to rise ; when light, drop in buttered roll-pans and bake. For 
breakfast, mix at night. 



310 IN THE KITCHEN. 

GRAHAM WAFERS. 
Haifa pound of Graham flour. 
Two gills of sweet cream. 
Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Mix, roll thin as possible, cut in squares, lay them in tins, prick 
well, and bake in a quick oven. 



BRUISS. 

Half a pound of Graham bread. 

Two ounces of butter. 

Three gills of milk. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

One third of a teaspoonful of pepper. 

Cut the bread in ordinary slices, and then in bits an inch square ; 
pour the milk over it, and let it stand fifteen minutes, then put it on the 
range, let it heat slowly until just rising to boil. Serve in a covered 
dish. Crusts of Graham bread may be used, but require long soaking; 
soak them in shallow water, that the pieces may keep in shape. 



CRACKERS A LA PREZEL. 
Dissolve an even tablespoonfnl of salt in a pint of cold water; split 
Boston crackers, dip the halves one by one in the salt water, butter 
them, and place them in the oven to crisp. To be eaten hot for tea. 



BENJAMIN. 
Half fill a vegetable-dish with broken ship-biscuit or any kind 
of water cracker; fill the dish with boiling water, cover, and leave it 
where it will keep hot; if any water is left when the crackers are per- 



BKEAD. 311 

feetly soft, drain it off, season the crackers with butter and salt, and if 
convenient a few spoonfuls of rich cream; cover. Serve hot for tea. 



RYE TOAST. 
To one quart of rye-flour add one even teaspoonful of salt and suf- 
ficient boiling water to make a stiff dough; put it in a buttered pan; 
have a bright, clear fire, and the grate well raked; prop the pan in front 
of the grate, and as a crust forms strip it off, and keep it hot and dry; 
repeat this process until you have enough for a dish, then break it, 
dress like cream toast, and serve in a deep dish. 



DRY TOAST. 

It is best to have this ordered from the table, as it should be served 
the moment it is made. Make it as quickly as possible, and not of very 
stale bread. If there are burnt edges scrape them lightly with a knife. 
If a toast-rack is not used, so arrange the toast that the pieces may, as 
far as possible, be exposed to the air; stand them up, letting the.tops 
meet. If piled together it loses its crispness and becomes soggy. 



CREAM TOAST. 

One pint of milk. 

One gill of cream. 

Three ounces of butter. 

One even teaspoonful of salt. 

Half a tablespoonful of flour. 

Put the milk and salt in a basin over boiling water; rub the butter 
and flour smoothly together, and when the milk is hot stir them in, and 
continue to stir occasionally until it is slightly thickened; then add the 



312 IN" THE KITCHEN". 

cream and let it scald. The bread must be toasted quickly, to prevent 
its drying; if the edges are at all burned, scrape them lightly with a 
knife; clip the pieces one by one in the cream, and place them evenly 
in two piles in a deep dish; pour the cream over them, cover, and serve. 
Without the gill of cream this dressing is very good. 



KALAMAZOO MUFFINS. 

One pint of thick sour milk. 

One pint and a half of flour. 

One and a third even teaspoonfuls of soda. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Three ounces of butter. 

Two eggs. 

Dissolve the soda in two teaspoonfuls of boiling water; melt the 
butter, put all the ingredients in a bowl, and beat them thoroughly 
together; drop in gem-pans or muffin-rings, and bake in the oven. 



MUFFINS. 

Miss Root. 

One pound of flour. 

Three ounces of butter. 

One pint of milk. Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Two eggs, the yolks and whites beaten separately. 

Half a gill of yeast, or half a yeast-cake soaked in a tablespoonful 
of water, with enough water added to make the same measure. 

Warm the butter, milk, and salt, and pour it in two thirds of the 
flour; mix well, and beat in the yolks thoroughly, and the yeast; beat 
the whites to a stiff froth, and mix them gently in the batter; add the 



liREAD. 313 

rest of the flour, and leave in a warm place to rise for breakfast. If 
wanted for tea, allow from four to six hours for rising. Bake in muffin- 
rings in a dripping-pan, in the oven. The rings should be two thirds 
full 

BURLINGTON MUFFINS. 

Ooe pound of potato, rubbed through the colander. 

One and a quarter pounds of flour. 

One ounce of butter. 

One pint of warm milk. 

One gill of yeast. 

One teaspoonful of sugar. 

One tablespoonful of salt. 

Four eggs. 

Melt the butter in the hot potato, add the salt, sugar, milk, and two 
thirds of the flour, mixing well ; break in the eggs, and beat until the 
whole is quite light; add the yeast, being sure that the batter is not 
more than lukewarm, then the flour; beat Well, and drop it in buttered 
gem-pans, but half filling them; when light, bake half an hour. Allow 
from four to six hours for rising. If the batter is light before the muffins 
are wanted, put it in a cool place. 



ENGLISH WATER MUFFINS. 

One and a half pounds of flour. 

One pint of tepid water. 

Half a gill of yeast. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Beat all thoroughly together,' and let it rise over night; in the 
morning flour the board, and roll out the dough very thin, using as little 
flour as possible; cut out the muffins with the cover of a small tin pail; 



314 IN THE KITCHEN. 

they should be five inches across. Butter the griddle lightly, lay the 
muffins on it, and leave them on the back of the stove for a short time 
to rise; draw them forward, and then bake slowly, first on one side, 
and then on the other; turn them often to keep both sides fiat. Tear 
apart, butter, and serve three together, one above the other, cut across 
the centre. These muffins can always be made from bread-sponge, 
adding sufficient flour for rolling. 



DABNEY MUFFINS. 

One pint of milk and water, — equal parts. 

Three pints of flour. 

One and a half ounces of butter. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

One gill of yeast. 

Mix them at night; melt the butter in the milk and water, and when 
lukewarm stir in the other ingredients. In the morning, when very 
light, roll them out, each one separately, as thin as possible, in strips 
four inches long and two wide; let them stand twenty or thirty minutes 
in a warm place, then bake on a griddle without grease, turning them 
constantly; this makes them much, lighter and keeps both sides flat. 
When properly made they are so thin that there is hardly anything 
between the two crusts. 

CREAM MUFFINS. 
Half a pint of flour. 
Half a pint of sweet cream. 
One third of a teaspoonful of salt. 
Three eggs. 

Beat the whites to a stiff froth, beat the yolks and salt, add the 
cream gradually; stir in the flour, and then the whites very gently; 



BKEAD. 315 

bake in buttered gem or patty pans, in a quick oven, from ten to fifteen 
minutes. 



SIMPLE AND DELICIOUS MUFFINS. 
One quart of flour. 

One pint of warmed milk less two tablespoonfuls. 
One teaspoonful of salt. 
Half a gill of yeast. 
i Mix at night, and beat until light. In the morning drop the well- 
risen dough into buttered cups, let them stand twenty minutes, then 
bake and serve. These can be made with water instead of milk, but 
are much less tender. 



RICE MUFFINS. 

One quart of flour. 

One pint of warmed milk. 

One gill of warm boiled rice, soft but dry, — the grains distinct. 

One and a half teaspoonfuls of salt. 

One and a half ounces of butter. 
' Half a gill of yeast. 

Melt the butter in the rice; mix all the ingredients thoroughly, 
being careful that the batter is not too warm for the yeast; mix at night, 
and in the morning, when light, drop into buttered gem-pans; let them 
stand fifteen or twenty minutes, then bake. 



BUFFALO WAFFLES. 
One pound of flour. 
Two ounces of butter. 
One quart of milk. 



316 IN THE KITCHEN. 

One gill of rice boiled in 

Three gills of water. 

Two even tablespoonfuls of baking-powder. 

Two teaspoonfuls of salt. 

Two tablespoonfuls of corn-meal. 

Four eggs. 

Melt the butter in the hot rice; sift the flour and powder together; 
beat the eggs very light, and pour in half of the milk, the flour, salt, 
and rice, beat thoroughly, and by degrees add the other pint of milk, 
which should not be more than lukewarm. In baking, be careful to 
leave room in the iron for rising. 



WAFFLES WITHOUT YEAST OR SODA. 

One pint of milk. 

One pint, one and a half gills of flour. , 

Two ounces of butter. 

Three eggs. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Melt the butter in the milk, and when sufficiently cooled mix it 
with the flour and salt; beat the whites and yolks separately, stir the 
yolks iii the batter, and then the whites, very lightly. 



BARBYS WAFFLES. 
One and a half pounds of flour. 
One pint or less of boiled rice. 
Two and a half pints of sweet, rich milk. 
One teaspoonful of salt. 



Four eggs. 



Put the rice in a four-quart bowl, separating the eggs, putting the 



BREAD. 317 

yolks with the rice; add the salt, flour, and two pints of the milk, beat- 
ing very thoroughly, then the remaining half pint of milk; beat the 
whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, add them to the batter, and beat well 
together. "When thoroughly beaten make the batter still lighter by 
lifting and pouring it with a tin cup for five minutes. 



RAISED WAFFLES. 

Axisr Byonb. 

One quart of milk. 

Ten ounces of butter. 

One and a quarter pounds of flour. 

Four eggs. 

One gill of yeast. 

Scald ihe milk and add the butter; when lukewarm mix in the 
flour and yeast ; allow six hours for rising. Just before bakmg beat 
the whites and yolks separately, and stir them in the batter. 



CAROLINA CORN-CAKE. 

One quart of thick, sour milk. 

One and a half pints of corn-meal. 

Haifa pint of flour. 

Three tablespoonfuls of melted butter. 

Two even teaspoonfuls of salt. 

Two and a half even teaspoonfuls of soda. 

Three eggs. 

Sift the soda in the flour through a bit of tarletan; add the meal, 
salt, two thirds of the milk, and the eggs well-beaten; mix thoroughly, 
and add the rest of the milk; bake in patty-pans or in large pans, and 
send to the table cut in square pieces. 



318 1ST THE KITCHEN. 

DELICATE CORN ROLLS. 
One quart of milk. 

One pint of wheat flour. 

Half a pint of corn-meal. 

One ounce of butter. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

One teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in two teaspoonfuls of the milk. 

Two teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar, sifted with the flour. 

Two eggs, the whites beaten stiff. 

Scald one pint of the milk over boiling water; add the butter, salt, 
and the meal mixed smooth in a little of the cold milk; stir, and let it 
cook until like thick mush; stir in the cold milk, and the yolks of the 
eggs well beaten, then the flour and soda, and lastly, the whites of the 
eggs, gently. Bake in gem-pans, in a quick oven. 



CORN CRUST. 

Alabama. 

One pint of corn-meal. 

One pint of boiling water. 

One and a half teaspoonfuls of salt. 

One teaspoonful of sugar. 

One egg. 

Pour the boiling water on the meal, sugar, and salt, mix well, stir 
in the beaten egg, and spread thin in a small dripping-pan; smooth it 
with a knife dipped in cold water, and score it. Bake in a quick oven. 



CORN-CAKE. 

Mi;S. CoWt.es. 

Mix thorougJihj an even teaspoonful of dry cream of tartar into one 
pint of white Indian meal, also a teaspoonful of sugar, and salt; warm 



BREAD. 319 

two ounces of butter, and mix well with the meal ; beat the yolks of 
three eggs, and stir into the meal; add, very slowly, one pint of milk, 
to make a batter thin enough to pour, then add half a teaspoonful of 
soda, dissolved in a teaspoonful of boiling water; lastly, put in the 
whites of the eggs, beaten to a stiff froth. Beat it all thoroughly; 
have the cups ready warmed, not hot, and buttered; pour in the batter; 
bake from twenty minutes to half an hour. 



RI'S COEN CUPS. 
One pint of sifted flour. 

One pint of thick, sour milk. 

One and a half pints of corn-meal. * 

One gill of molasses. ■ 

One and a half teaspoonfuls of soda, dissolved in one tablespoonful 
of boiling water. 

Two teaspoonfuls of salt. 

Put all the ingredients together in a four-quart bowl, and beat 
until they are thoroughly mixed and light, then bake in cups or gem- 
pans. 

CORN DROPS. 

One pint and one gill of cold milk. 

Half a pint of corn-meal. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Two ounces of butter. 

Two eggs, well beaten. 

Put the pint of milk over boiling water, and when scalding stir in 
the meal mixed with the gill of cold milk, the salt and butter; stir* well, 
and cook until the batter is thick, like mush; take it from the fire and 



320 IN THE KITG.IEN". 

beat in the eggs until the whole is very light, then drop it in separate 
spoonfuls on a buttered dripping-pan and bake in a quick oven. 



PLAIN CORN DROPS. 
Pour three gills of boiling water on one pint of corn-meal, two 
ounces of butter, and half a teaspoonful of salt; add three tablespoon- 
fuls of milk and two well-beaten eggs, and beat the mixture thoroughly; 
drop it by spoonfuls in a well-buttered dripping-pan, and bake in a very 
hot oven. 

PONE. 

Eleven ounces of corn-meal. 

Two ounces of butter. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

One pint of scalding milk. 

Four eggs. 

Pour the milk on the meal, the butter, and salt, and mix well; beat 
the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, then drop in the yolks of the eggs 
one by one, beating hard; then add the whites of the eggs, beat all 
thoroughly together, and pour it in two buttered tin basins; place them 
at once in the oven, which should be much hotter than for bread, to 
prevent the meal from settling. After the first eight or ten minutes 
the heat may be reduced. Send to the table one basin at a time, on 
a dinner-plate, with a folded napkin around it. This quantity is suffi- 
cient for two basins, nine inches across and two inches deep. Allow 
from half to three quarters of an hour for baking. 



PONE WITH PJCE. 
One gill of rice boiled in 
Three gills of water until the water is absorbed. 



BREAD. 321 

One pint and one gill of corn-meal. 

One pint of milk. 

Half a gill of melted lard. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Three eggs. 

Beat the yolks of the eggs, add the milk, then stir in the meal, rice, 
lard, and salt; whisk the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, and mix them 
lightly in the batter; pour in patty-pans, and bake twenty minutes, or 
bake in a deep dish if preferred. 



PONE. (Made With Sour Milk.) 
One pint of thick, sour milk. 

One pint of corn-meal. 

One tablespoonful of flour. 

One and a third teaspoonfuls of soda. 

Two thirds of a teaspoonful of salt. 

Three tablespoonfuls of melted butter. 

Three eggs, the whites beaten separately. 

Put the meal, milk, butter, salt, and the yolks of the eggs in a large 
bowl; through a fine sifter add the flour and soda; then beat all thor- 
oughly together; whisk the whites to a stiff froth, beat them in lightly, 
pour in a well-buttered, shallow pan, and bake in a quick oven. When 
served, cut it in square pieces. A gill of dry boiled rice may be added 
to this ; if the rice were left from dinner it may be rubbed with the dry 
meal to separate the grains. 

" NORTH WOODS " DOUGHBOYS. 

H. Chester Wilson. 

" With a quart or pint (according to the size of the party)iof corn- 
meal mix sufficient boiling water to make a soft dough,, and' add a little 
21 



322 isr the kitchen. 

salt (one even teaspoonful to a pint of meal) . We fry them in the fat 
from the fried salt pork, or in the fresh meat-fat, which we carry into 
the woods in cans; many times we fry them in the pan after cooking 
our trout and venison, as when far in the woods we are not blessed 
with many cooking utensils. Have the pan hot with plenty of fat; 
drop in the dough by separate spoonfuls, and flatten to one half or five 
eighths of an inch in thickness; keep them detached from the pan; fry 
slowly until of a fine brown; tarn them and fry the other side. Many 
eat them as they come from the pan, some with butter, some with 
shaved maple-sugar, and some with both." 



MUFFINS OF CORN-MEAL AND FLOUR. 
' To half a pint of mush (page 326) add two ounces of butter, one 
pound of flour, half a teaspoonful of salt, one and a half gills of sweet 
milk, and half a gill of yeast; mould it into a ball, and leave it to rise 
in a warm 1 place for four or five hours; when light, roll it out very thin 
and cut it with a large cutter or the cover of a small tin pail. The muf- 
fins should be five inches across; let them rise twenty or thirty minutes, 
some on the griddle and some on the board, then bake slowly on the 
griddle like English muffins. "When baked, tear open, butter, pile reg- 
ularly, and cut through the centre. 



BREAD CAKES. 
Pour one pint «f boiling milk on half a pound of bread crumbs, 
two ounces of butter, and one teaspoonful of salt; cover, and let it stand 
half an hour; beat it up well with four eggs and two ounces of flour, 
and when light stir in gradually half a pint of cold milk. To be baked 
like buckwheat cakes. 



BREAD. 323 



BUCKWHEAT CAKES. 

One quart of buckwheat flour. 

One gill of wheat flour. 

One quart less one gill of warm water. 

One gill of yeast. 

Two teaspoonfuls of salt. 

Mix the better at night in order to have the cakes for breakfast; 
if very light, an hour before they are i*equired stir the batter down and 
let it rise again. Bake the cakes on a smooth, nicely-greased griddle, 
and send them to the table the moment they are baked, piled regularly 
in the centre of the plate, and every one " right side up with care "; for 
although they may be well-baked on both sides, the lower side never has 
that beautiful brown, lace-like appearance which makes a good buck- 
wheat cake so attractive. If some of the batter is left from the baking it 
will serve as yeast for the next making; put it away in a cold place, but 
not where it will freeze; bring it out at night, add buckwheat, etc., and 
leave it to rise. With a little care, no fresh yeast will be necessary 
during the entire winter. 

These cakes may be raised with baking-powder; but the batter 
should be thinner than when mixed with yeast. A gill of oatmeal may 
be used in addition to the wheat flour. 



FLANNEL CAKES. 

Two and a quarter pounds of flour. 
Three ounces of butter. 
One quart of new milk. 
One teaspoonful of salt. 



324 IST THE KITCHEN. 

One yeast-cake, soaked ten minutes in two tablespoonfuls of water. 

Four eggs. 

First put the yeast-cake to soak; cut the butter in small bits, put 
it in the milk, and let them warm together until the butter is soft; sift 
the flour in a large bowl, stir in about three quarters of the milk, the salt, 
and the yeast, and the eggs, well-beaten; then add the rest of the milk, 
and leave it to rise. If you want these cakes for breakfast they should 
be mixed the previous evening. 



RICE CAKES. 

Three quarters of a pound of flour. 

Two ounces of butter (melted). 

One pint of milk. 

Half a pint of boiled rice. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Two eggs. 

Beat the yolks of the eggs, add the rice, salt, half of the milk, the 
butter, and the flour; beat ah thoroughly together, stir in the rest of the 
milk, whisk the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, and add them to 
the batter with a long, slow beat. Bake on the griddle. 



HOMINY CAKES. 
To half a pint of hominy (see page 221) add two eggs, three 
ounces of flour, one ounce of butter, melted in half a pint of milk; the 
whites of the eggs must be beaten separately, and stirred in lightly just 
before baking. To be baked on the- griddle. Should the hominy be 
cold and stiff, rub it through the colander. 



BREAD. 



325 



VIRGINIA CORN CAKES. 

One quart of corn-meal. 

One quart and one and a half gills of sweet milk. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Four eggs. 

One gill of melted butter. 

Put the meal in a three-quart bowl with the salt and about half of 
the milk; beat well, add the butter and the eggs, well beaten, then the 
rest of the milk. Bake of uniform size on the griddle. 



STRAWBERRY SHORT-CAKE. 
Make a soda-biscuit crust with one quart of flour (page 300) ; 
divide it in two equal parts; if it is to be served on a platter, roll the 
crust the shape and size inside the rim; if a dinner-plate is to be used, 
make the cakes round. Roll them half an inch thick, prick well, and 
bake in a hot oven. Split the cakes, lay one half on the plate, crust 
down; butter, and put over it a thick layer of strawberries and sugar; 
then anothe*r half cake, butter, strawberries and sugar, and so on; the 
last half may be a cover, the crust side up, or it may be turned and cov- 
ered with fruit like the others. Leave it in the oven from five to ten 
minutes, and serve smoking hot. 



OATMEAL PORRIDGE. 

KOBEUT COLLTEK, CHICAGO. 

One pint of oatmeal. 

One quart of boiling water. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Throw the salt in the water, then sift in the meal with the left 



326 IN THE KITCHEN. 

hand, beating rapidly with the right; let it boil but two or three minutes 
and serve immediately. Mr. Collyer says, "Porridge is not mush,' mush 
was never heard of either in England or Scotland. In Yorkshire, when 
we speak of porridge, we say, They are hot or cold, or good or bad. 
Porridge must be eaten, or as we used to say, supped, when they are 
fresh made; you can no more keep them good if you let them stand 
round to wait your leisure than you can keep champagne good in a 
platter. The true way to eat your porridge is to tumble in your milk 
while they are in the kettle, and stir it well in, then pour your porridge 
into basins, and eat 'em up; but if you want to set 'em on the table in 
one dish, as the heathen do here, leave them a little short of meal when 
you make them, because they will harden up dreadfully." So we, " the 
heathen," will heathenize Mr. Collyer's receipt by doubling the measure 
of salt, adding a pint of boiling water to the quart, pouring in the pint 
of meal from the measure, and stirring hard with a wooden spoon, as the 
thibel, the fork-like paddle used in Scotland, has not yet reached us; 
then we will boil the porridge moderately for ten minutes, and serve a 
dish fit for royalty the world over, Scotch lairds included. 



MUSH, OR HASTY PUDDING. 

One quart of water. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Half a pint of corn-meal. 

Put the water and salt over the fire; when hot, not boiling, take 
out half a pint and mix it with the corn-meal, and when the water 
boils fast pour this in, and stir until it thickens; then let it boil slowly, 
uncovered, for an hour. This is a good dish for lunch or a country 
tea. It may be eaten hot with butter and syrup, or when partly cooled, 
with milk or cream. 



BREAD. 327 



HASTY PUDDING FRIED. 
The pudding for this purpose should be thicker than in the above 
rule; add a gill of corn-meal to the pint. When boiled put it in a bak- 
ing-dish and press it down evenly; in the morning cut it in slices a 
third of an inch thick, dredge a little flour over both sides, and fry in 
hot butter or lard, in a frying-pan. The softer mush may be made into 
croquettes; flour the hands, make the mush into round, flattened balls 
of uniform size; dip them in a beaten egg, then in fine bread crumbs, 
place them on the frying-basket, and plunge them in deep, hot lard. A 
surface of corn-meal does not brown in this way. 



CRACKED WHEAT. 
Stir a gill and a. half of cracked wheat in a pint of boiling water; 
stir well until thickened, then leave it to boil slowly, stirring occasion- 
ally, for three quarters of an hour; add half a teaspoonful of salt a short 
time before serving. This does not make a very thick mush; if pre- 
ferred thicker, use half a pint of wheat to the pint of water. 



GRAHAM MUSH. 
One pint of boiling water. 
One third of a teaspoonful of salt. 
Half a pint of Graham flour. 

Put the salt in the boiling water, pour in the flour, stir and beat 
until it thickens ; let it boil ten minutes, or until thick as desired. 



328 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS 329 



330 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEEPTS. 



FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 331 



332 

FOB ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



CAKE. 333 



C A. KE. 



As it takes a long time to prepare fruit for cake, a jar of stoned raisins, and one of cur- 
rants washed and dried, should always be in readiness. 

English currants come to us in so much of their native soil, so much gravel and sand, that 
one sighs for the cataract of Lodore with its waters, " showering and springing, eddying' and 
whisking," to render them fit for use. The process is necessarily so long and troublesome that 
it is better to wash several pounds at once, — a year's supply. Put them in a milk-pah with a 
quantity of warm water; after rubbing them thoroughly pour off the water and put the cur- 
rants into the colandur; rinse the pan, set the colander in it, and pour over the fruit as much 
cold water as the pan will hold, then wash the currants well, and stir them about so the clean 
water may run in as the dirty water runs out. If needful, take another water, and still another- 
Persevere until the fruit does not change the color of the water; then let it drain iu the Colan- 
der for half an hour. Spread a large cloth on the table, pour the currants in the centre, and 
rub them wilh the sides and ends, absorbing as much of the water as possible; when the cloth 
is quite damp, spread a dry one, and cover it thinly with the fruit. This work should be 
done in a good light, that all foreign substances may be seen and removed. Through the whole 
process keep a constant " lookout for breakers," — iooi/i-breakers. Wash the currants in the 
afternoon, and leave them on the second cloth in a warm room to dry over night; in the morn- 
ing put iu jars, aud cover closely. 

Locke's " Raisin Stoner " saves the old tedious process of stoning raisins with a knife. 
They must first be stemmed, then, one by one, put through this ingenious little machine; the 
work is quickly and well done, and with, comparatively clean fingers. Thanks also to this 
labor-saving age, we are no longer obliged to grate sugar or grind spices. 

For beating eggs, use a large earthen bowl, and this kind of egg-beater, — a wooden handle 
_with wire loops in the form of a spoon. Some prefer the kind that screws to the table and is 
turned with a crank. I have been told by a lady who uses one that it is quite indispensable 
to house-keeping; another lady of great experience assures me there is nothing to compare 
with a piece of barrel-hoop, used on a platter; another says a spoon is beyond them all. Hav- 
ing tried the four, I greaily prefer the first. 

In preparing the ingredients for cake, weigh the sifted flour first, slide it in a piece of clean 
brown paper, then weigh the sujjar, arrange the scales for the additional weight of butter, and 
lay it carefully on the sugar; the butter can then be creamed in the cake-bowl, and the sugar 



•334 IN THE KITCHEN". 

added by degrees from the tin receiver, which then, being quite clean, need be only wiped, 
whereas, had the butter touched it, it would require washing. It is also a good plan to have a 
couple of paper bags near the scales marked " Flour," and " Sugar." Have them large enough 
to hold two quarts each. It is easy to slide the flour and sugar into them from the end of the 
tin receiver, and in every way they are better than plates or bowls. 

To cream butter is to stir it with the hand or a spoon until it is of the consistency of thick 
cream. 

ORDER OF CAKE-MAKING. 

First, attend to the oven, which must, for most cake, be of the heat required for baking 
bread. See that the fire is in condition to ensure a steady hea-t for three fourths of an hour 
from the time the cake goes in, neither increasing nor decreasing. It is bad to add coal while 
cake is in the oven, and it is equally bad to open oven-doors for cooling. Then prepare the 
baking-pans. These must be thinly buttered, and the lower part covered with paper; 
many butter the paper also, but it is not necessary. Collect all the ingredients, measured or 
weighed, as the receipt requires. Should the butter be quite salt it must be washed in cold 
water; press out the water and cream the butter, when the sugar may be gradually added and 
thoroughly beaten in.' Beat the yolks of the eggs until they are thick and smooth, and add 
them, beating well, to the butter and sugar; add t'.ie spice, then beat the whites of the eggs to 
so stiff a froth that they will adhere to the bowl when it is turned upside down. If the receipt 
require milk it should now be stirred in alternately with the whites of the eggs and the flour, 
leaving a little of the flour to go in last; if no milk is used, add the whites of the eggs and then 
the flour, after which it should be stirred as little as possible. Fill the pans but little more than 
half their depth, and if possible do not move them while the cake is baking. 

Icing can be made while the cake, if in ordinary loaves, is in the oven. If the icing be for 
jelly-cake, which bakes in a few moments, it should be ready when the cake goes into the 
oven. The whites of three eggs will make sufficient icing for two loaves of cake. 

The batter of some kinds of cake will keep a week in a cold place, — '■ drop-cake," for 
instance. It is not always convenient to bake the quantity made, nor does the cake keep fresh 
for many days. You want a loaf of it, say two successive Sundays; mix the rule, bake your 
loaf or two (the rule makes three loaves), and put the rest of the batter in the refrigerator or 
cellar. The next Sunday it is ready for the oven, saving the labor of a second making. 

Icing will keep for weeks, closely covered, in a cool place. If too stiff from partial drying, 
add a little water. 

The whites of eggs will keep for several days. The white of a common-sized egg weighs 
one ounce. It is very convenient to know this, as you sometimes want to take the while of 
one or more eggs from seven or eight that have been put away together, and by weighing you 
can be sure of the number. 



CAKE. 335 



BREAD CAKE. 

One pound of dough ready for the oven. 

Eight ounces of sugar. 

Four ounces of butter. 

One gill of currants. 

Half a nutmeg. 

The grated rind of a lemon and half of the juice. 

Half a teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in a teaspoonful of boiling 
water. 

One well-beaten egg. 

Having softened the butter, mix all the ingredients thoroughly 
together with the hand; put the batter in two small, well-buttered 
pans, leave it in a warm place several hours to rise, and when light, bake. 



KAFFEE KUCHEN. 

One pound of risen dough, ready for the oven. 

Four ounces of sugar. 

Three ounces of butter. , 

One egg. 

Cream the butter and beat it well with the sugar and the egg', 
add the dough and mix thoroughly with the hand; leave it in a warm 
place to rise; when light pour it in a' small dripping-pan (when baked 
it should not be more than two thirds of an inch thick), and let it stand 
ten or fifteen minutes, pat it in the oven, and while it is baking prepare 
the icing. Blanch (see page 372) two dozen almonds and shred them; 
add to the beaten whites of two eggs about half the usual quantity of 
sugar, stir in the almonds, and when the cake is baked cover it with the 
icing and leave it to dry in the mouth of the oven. The almonds may 



336 IN THE KITCHEN. 

brown a little, if liked. This cake is made to perfection in Berlin, where 
it is eaten with coffee at four o'clock in the afternoon. When served, 
it is cut in oblong pieces. 

ELECTION CAEE. 

Mrs. Peet. 

Six pounds and a half of flour. 

Three and a quarter pounds of sugar. 

Two and three quarter pounds of butter. 

Two pounds of raisins. 

Half a pound of citron. 

Half a pint of yeast. 

Two nutmegs. 

One gill of wine or brandy. 

Two quarts of milk (scalded and cooled). 

Six eggs. 

Mix the flour, yeast, and milk together at night; in the morning, 
when the doiigh is well risen, add the butter and sugar beaten together 
until perfectly smooth and light, the well-beaten eggs, and all the other 
ingredients; work all thoroughly together with the hands, put it in 
buttered pans, and leave it to rise from four to six hours. This quantity 
makes nine loaves. Nearly half of the butter may be omitted for an 
equal weight of sweet, firm lard. 



DOUGHNUTS. 
Eighteen ounces of flour. 

Half a pint of sugar. 

Half a pint of sour milk. 

One teaspoonful of cinnamon. 

Three tablespoonfuls of melted butter. 



CAKE. 



337 



One teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in a teaspoonful of boiling 
water. 

Half a teaspoonful of cloves. 



One egg. 



Beat the ,egg and stir it with the milk, sugar, and spice, add half 
the flour, then the soda and the rest of the flour. Roll half an inch 
thick, cut, and fry in deep lard. 



MRS. BOYD'S DOUGHNUTS. 

One pound and ten ounces of flour. 

Five ounces of sugar. 

Two and a half ounces of butter or drippings. 

One nutmeg. 

Two gills of hot water. 

Two gills of milk. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Half a teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in a teaspoonful of boiling 
water. 

Haifa yeast-cake, soaked in a tablespoonful of tepid water. 

Mix these cakes, during the winter, as early as eight o'clock in the 
evening; they will then be ready to fry before noon the next day. Melt 
the butter or drippings in the water, add the salt, sugar, nutmeg, milk, 
and all of the flour but two ounces. In the morning work the soda 
thoroughly in, and use the remaining flour for the board and rolling-pin. 
Roll out the dough half an inch thick, and cut the cakes in whatever 
shape you like, and leave them on the board to rise; the dough may be 
cut in long strips one and a half inches wide, and divided obliquely in 
pieces four inches long; or it may be cut in rings with two tin cutters 
of different size. The round pieces from the centre may be fried, and 

22 



338 IN THE KITCHEN". 

when served rolled in sugar; cut part of the dough like small biscuit, 
and when light flatten them, lay two or three raisins in the centre, draw 
the edges closely together, and drop them in the hot lard. These are the 
Dutch "ollykoeks." A little apple-butter or any kind of jam makes 
them the German "pfannkuchen." Have the lard or drippings hot, 
test it with a small bit of the dough; be careful that it is not so hot as 
to brown the cakes before they are cooked; one of the four-inch' strips 
requires about five minutes; attend carefully to turning them while 
cooking, keeping the lightest side under. The surface of the fat may 
be nearly covered with the cakes. When they are fried take them out 
with a skimmer and lay them in the colander. 



MRS. GEAHAM'S OLLYKOEKS. 

Half a pound of butter. 

Twelve ounces of sugar. 

One pint of milk. 

One pound of stoned raisins. 

Flour enough to roll out (about three pounds). 

Six eggs. 

Cream the butter, beat in the sugar and the yolks of the eggs; 
when light add part of the flour, and the whites of the eggs beaten to 
a stiff froth, then the rest of the flour. Roll about half an inch thick, 
cut in round cakes, put three .or four raisins rolled in cinnamon in the 
centre of each cake; draw the cake up around them, pinch the edges 
closely together, and fry in deep, hot lard. 



GINGERBREAD. 

Mrs. Jennison. 

One quart lacking one gill of flour. 
Half a pint of sugar. 



CAKE. 039 

Half a pint of molasses. 

Half a pint of sweet milk. 

One quarter of a pound of butter. 

Two even tablespoonfuls of ginger. 

Two teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar. 

One teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in the milk. 

Three egrofs. 

Sift the flour and cream of tartar in a bowl, hollow the centre, and 
put in the butter and sugar, well stirred together, the beaten eggs, 
molasses, ginger and milk; mix; drop in buttered' patty-pans and bake 
twenty minutes. It should be eaten while warm. 



O'LEARY'S GINGERBREAD. 

Three quarters of a pound of flour. 

Seven ounces of butter. 

Seven ounces of sugar. 

One and a half gills of molasses. 

One and a half gills of thick, sour milk. • 

One tablespoonful of ginger. 

One teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in a tablespoonful of boiling 
water. 

Three eggs. 

Soften the butter and beat it with the sugar until light, stir in 
gradually the molasses and ginger, then the milk and the well-beaten 
eggs and half of the sifted flour, then the soda and the rest of the 
flour. 

This is very nice baked in round gem-pans, particularly if it is to 
be eaten hot. 



340 EST THE KITCHEN". 

GOLDEN CAKE. 
» The yolks of six eggs. 

One pint of powdered sugar. 

One gill of sweet milk. 

One teaspoonful of vanilla. 

One and a half pints of flour. 

Half a teaspoonful of baking-powder. 

Half a pint of stoned raisins. 

Six ounces of butter. 

Beat the butter and sugar together until very light, add the milk, 
the well-beaten yolks, the vanilla, and the flour with which the baking- 
powder has been sifted; rub a teaspoonful of flour in the raisins, stir 
them in; put the cake in a small dripping-pan and bake. It should, 
when baked, be about an inch and a half thick. 



TROY CAKE. 
One quart of flour. 

Eight ounces of butter. 

One pint of coffee sugar. 

Half a pint of cold water. 

Three teaspoonful s of cream yeast-powder sifted with the flour. 

A small grated nutmeg. 

Three eggs. 

Pream the butter, add the sugar and yolks, the water and flour, 
and lastly the whites beaten to a stiff froth. This quantity makes two 
loaves. 

PLAIN CAKE WITH CURRANTS. 

One quart lacking one gill of self-raising flour. 
One gill of sour milk. 



CAKE. 341 

One pint of sugar. 

One lemon, rind and juice. 

One nutmeg. 

Eight ounces of butter. 

Half a pint of currants. 

Four eggs, the whites beaten to a stiff froth. 

Cream the butter, add the yolks and sugar, and beat until very- 
light; stir in the nutmeg, lemon, and milk, then the flour and eggs, alter- 
nately, and after that, the currants. Bake in pans lined with paper. 



WHITE CAKE. 

Four ounces of butter. 

Three gills of milk. 

One and a half pints of flour. 

One pint of sugar. 

One and a half teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar. 

Three quarters of a teaspoonful of soda. 

Two eggs, the whites whisked to a stiff froth. 

Bitter almonds to the taste. 

Beat the butter and sugar together, add the yolks and beat until 
very light, then stir in the milk in which the soda is dissolved, the flour 
with which the cream of tartar is sifted, and the whites of the eggs, 
alternately; add the bitter almonds, put in paper-lined pans, and bake. 



PORK CAKE. 

DELICIOUS; REQUIRING NEITHER EGGS NOR BUTTER. 

One pound of salt pork, chopped very fine. 
One pound of raisins. 
One pound of currants. 



342 IN THE KITCHEN". 

Half a pound of citron. 

One quart of flour. 

One pint of brown sugar. 

One pint of boiling water. 

Half a pint of New Orleans molasses. 

Two teaspoonfuls of nutmeg. 

One teaspoonful of mace. 

Two teaspoonfuls of cloves and two of cinnamon. 

The grated rind of one lemon. 

One tablespoonful of soda, dissolved in two teaspoonfuls of 
boiling water. 

Pour the water on the pork, stir until melted, then pass it through 
the colander to avoid bits of fibre; add sugar, molasses, spice, and half 
the flour; reserving a gill to rub with the fruit; then add the soda, the 
rest of the flour, and the fruit. This makes three large loaves. Put 
it in buttered pans lined with paper; the paper needs no butter. After 
baking the cake three quarters of an hour, try it with a clean broom- 
straw; if done, the straw will be dry when drawn out. 



COFFEE CAKE. (No Eggs.) 
Two and a half pounds of flour. 
Nine ounces of brown sugar. 
Fourteen ounces of butter. 
One pint of molasses. 
One pint of strong coffee. 

Two and a half pounds of stoned raisins cut in two. 
One pound of citron. 

Two teaspoonfuls of mace, two of cinnamon, and two of nutmeg. 
One teaspoonful of cloves and one of allspice. 



CAKE. 343 

Two teaspoonfnls of soda, dissolved in a little of the coffee. 

Rub the sugar and butter together, add molasses, coffee, and flour 
alternately, leaving a pint of flour in which to rub the fruit, then the 
soda, and lastly the fruit. 

DRIED APPLE CAKE. 

Half a pound of butter. 

One and a half pints of sour, dried apples. 

One and a half pints of molasses. 

Half a pint of raisins. 

Fourteen ounces of flour. 

One tablespoonfnl of soda. 

One tablespoonfnl of cinnamon. 

One tablcspoonful of mace. 

One tablespoonful of cloves. 

One egg. 

Cover the apples with cold water, and soak them over night; pour 
off any water that may remain, chop, and stew them twenty minutes 
with the spices in the molasses. When cold add the creamed butter 
and egg, the soda, dissolved in a tablespoonful of boiling water, the 
flour, and raisins. Bake in a moderate oven. 



HARRISON CAKE. 
Miss K. H. B. 

Bight ounces of butter. 
One and a half pints of brown sugar. 
Two and a half pints of flour. 
■ Half a pint of molasses. 
Half a pint of sweet milk. 
Half a teaspoonful of baking-powder. 



344 IN THE KITCHEN. 

Four even tablespoonfuls of cinnamon. 

One of mace. 

One of cloves. 

Two tablespoonfuls of allspice. 

Two pounds of stoned raisins. * 

Half a pound of currants. 

Half a pound of citron, sliced. 

Four eggs. 

Cream the butter, add sugar, molasses, the yolks of the eggs, and 
spices; beat well, then add the milk and whites of the eggs, beaten to 
a stiff froth, alternately with the flour which has been sifted with the 
baking-powder; lastly, the fruit. Bake in loaves. 



AURORA CAKE. 
Miss K. H. Bogakt. 

Eleven ounces of butter. 

One and a half pints of sugar. 

Two and a half pints of flour. 

Half a pint of milk. 

One gill of wine and brandy. 

One and a half pounds of stoned raisins. 

Quarter of a teaspoonful of baking-powder sifted with the flour. 

Five eggs. 

Cream the butter, add the sugar and yolks, and beat until very 
light; stir in the milk, add alternately the whites, beaten to a dry froth, 
and the flour, then the wine, and lastly the fruit; bake in deep pans, 
buttered, and lined with paper. 



CAKE. 345 



PORTUGAL CAKE. 

One pound of powdered sugar. 

One pound of sifted flour. 

Half a pound of butter. 

One pound of fruit (raisins and citron). 

One and a half pounds of almonds, weighed before shelling. 

Two tablespoonfuls of lemon-juice or wine. 

Eight eggs. 

Beat the butter and sugar together until smooth and very light; 
add the yolks, and beat again until well mixed and light; beat the 
whites to a stiff froth and add them alternately with the flour, of which 
a gill may be reserved to rub with the fruit; stir in the fruit and almonds, 
and bake in paper-lined pans. The raisins must be stoned, and the. 
almonds blanched and cut in shreds. 



DEOP CAKE. 
One pound of flour, lacking three even tablespoonfuls. 

One pound of sugar. 

Quarter of a pound of butter. 

Quarter of a pound of currants. 

Two gills of sweet milk. 

Two thirds of a teaspoonful of soda and two teaspoonfuls of cream 
of tartar, or one and a half tablespoonfuls of baking-powder. 

Five eggs. 

Sift the soda and cream of tartar through a fine wire cloth sifter, 
and mix thoroughly with the flour; cream the butter, and add the 
sugar with enough of the milk to make them mix easily; add the yolks 
of the eggs, and beat well, then add alternately the milk, the beaten 



34G IN" THE KITCHEN. 

whites of the eggs and the flour; butter a dripping-pan, drop the batter 
in separate spoonfuls, sprinkle a few currants over every one, and bake 
a rich brown. The eakes run together, but must be broken apart when 
taken from the oven. Cool them on a sieve. 

The batter for this cake will keep a week in a cold place. 



REBECCA'S TRIUMPH. 

Half a pound of butter. 

One and a quarter pounds of sugar. 

Eighteen ounces of flour. 

One pound of blanched almonds cut in strips. 

One pound of raisins, stoned. 

Half a pint of milk. 

One and a half tablespoonfuls of baking-powder, sifted with the flour. 

Six eggs. 

Cream the butter, and add the sugar gradually with a little of the 
milk to make them mix; beat the whites and yolks together until 
light, then stir them in the butter and sugar, add the rest of the milk 
and the flour, then the almonds and raisins. Bake in loaves. 



SPICE CARE. 
One pound of flour. 

One pound of sugar. 

Three fourths of a pound of butter. 

Two pounds of fruit (raisins and citron). 

Half a pint of sour cream (not very rich). 

One and a third tablespoonfuls of ground cloves. 

One and a third tablespoonfuls of cinnamon. 

One teaspoonful of soda. 



CAKE. 347 

Five eggs, the whites beaten separately. 

Cream the butter, add the sugar, yolks, and spice, and beat until 
very light; add the cream (having dissolved the soda in a teaspoonful 
of it and then mixed it with the whole), the whites of the eggs, and 
the flour; lastly the fruit, the raisins stoned and the citron cut as liked. 
Bake in paper-lined pans. 



CLAY CAKE. 
One pound of flour. 

One pound of sugar. 

Half a pound of butter. 

Half a pint of sour cream. 

One teaspoonful of soda. 

The rind and juice of one lemon. 

Six eggs. 

Cream the butter, add the sugar and yolks of the eggs gradually, 
and beat until very light; stir in the grated rind of the lemon; add the 
whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth; rub the soda perfectly smooth, 
mix it in a tablespoonful of the cream, and stir this in the rest of the 
half pint; then add the cream and flour alternately, and the lemon- 
juice before the last handful of flour. 



QUEEN'S CAKE. 
One pound of flour. 
One pound of sugar. 
Three quarters of a pound of butter. 
One gill of sweet milk. 
Half a gill of wine. 
One teaspoonful of cream pf tartar. 



348 IX THE KITCHEN. 

Half a teaspoonful of soda. 

One nutmeg. 

Eight eggs. 

Sift the cream of tartar with the flour, cream the butter, add the 
sugar, and beat until light; add the yolks of the eggs, beating hard, 
then the whites beaten to a stiff froth, then the flour and the milk alter- 
nately; when about half of the flour is mixed in add the soda, dis- 
solved in a teaspoonful of boiling water. Bake from thirty to forty 
minutes. 

It may be baked in a dripping-pan, and iced on the under side. 
Divide the icing before it hardens, into regular oblong forms with a cord. 
This quantity is sufficient for a dripping-pan twelve inches long and 
ten inches wide, and a cake-pan of ordinary size. 



ALMOND CAKE. 

One pound and two ounces of flour. 

Three quarters of a pound of sugar. 

Quarter of a pound of sweet almonds. 

One ounce of bitter almonds. 

Eight ounces of butter. 

Two gills of sweet milk. 

Half a gill of wine. 

One teaspoonful of soda. 

Two teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar. 

The whites of eight eggs. 

Blanch the almonds, cut the sweet almonds in thin shreds, and 
pound the others to a smooth paste; cream the butter, add the bitter 
almonds and sugar, the milk, in which the soda is dissolved, the flour 
with which the cream of tartar has been sifted, and the whites of the eggs 



CAKE. 349 

beaten to a stiff froth; then the wine and almonds. Bake in loaves in 
a moderate oven. 

ALMOND POUND CAKE. 
To one pound of pound cake put three quarters of a pound of 
sweet almonds blanched and cut fine, and two ounces of bitter almonds 
pounded and mixed with a little rose-water. 



LEMON CAKE. 
One pound of flour. 

One pound of sugar. 

Twelve ounces of butter. 

Eight eggs. 

The grated rind of two lemons and the juice of one. 

Cream the butter, beat the yolks until very light, add the sugar 
gradually, the butter, and rind of the lemon; beat thoroughly; add the 
flour and the whites beaten to a stiff froth, alternately, then the juice of 
the lemon. Bake in buttered pans lined with paper. 



VALLEY CAKE. 
One pound of sugar. 

Thirteen ounces of flour. 

Twelve ounces of butter, creamed. 

Eight eggs, beaten to a stiff froth. 

One teaspoonful of mace. 

Half a gill of wine. 

Beat the yolks of the eggs until very light; add the sugar gradu- 
ally, the mace, and the butter; beat thoroughly together, add the wine, 
and then the flour and whites of the eggs alternately; put it in but- 
tered pans lined with paper, and bake about three quarters of an hour. 



350 IN THE KITCHEN. 

POUND CAKE. 

Mrs. Montgomery. 

Seven ounces of flour. 

Eight ounces of sugar. 

Six ounces of butter. 

Half a teaspoonful of mace. 

The rind and juice of half a lemon. 

Four eggs. 

Cream the butter and stir in the flour; beat the yolks and sugar 
together until very light, then mix them with the flour and butter, add 
the whites beaten" to a stiff froth, the lemon and mace. Bake in paper- 
lined pans. 

POUND CAKE. 

Mrs. , Hagerstown, Md. 

Twelve small or ten large eggs. 

One pound of butter. 

One pound of fine sugar. 

One pound of flour, less one tablespoonful. 

Cream the butter thoroughly and beat in the sugar; add the whites 
of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth, and then the well-beaten yolks; put 
in the sifted flour carefully, stirring only enough to mix well. Bake in 
pans lined with paper, and do not move it after putting it in the oven, 
unless absolutely necessary. Pound cake does not require flavoring. 



LITTLE POUND CAKES, WITH PRESERVED LEMON-PEEL. 
Three eggs. 
Their weight in sugar, in flour, and in butter. 



CAKE. 351 

Half of a lemon. 

One ounce of preserved lemon-peel. 

Cream the butter thoroughly and beat in the sugar (this may be 
done with the hand) ; add the yolks of the eggs, and beat until the 
whole is very light; beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth and add 
them alternately with the flour, then put in the juice and grated rind 
of the half lemon, and the lemon-peel cut very small ; beat hard for sev- 
eral minutes, then drop in buttered patty-pans and bake fifteen or 
twenty minutes. Ice the cakes on the under side immediately on com- 
ing from the oven. As they are higher in the centre than on the edge, 
arrange them in this way to keep them straight for the icing : Lay 
thin strips of wood half an inch wide across a sieve, just near enough 
for the edges of the cakes to rest on them while the centre is in the 
space below. Let them remain until the icing is hard. 



EDGEWOOD BIRTHDAY CAKE. 

One and a half pounds of flour. 

One pound of butter. 

One pound of sugar. 

One pound of currants. 

One pound of citron. 

One pound of raisins. 

Half a pint of milk. 

One teaspoonful of cloves. 

One teaspoonful of cinnamon. 

One teaspoonful of mace, and any other spice that is liked. 

One teaspoonful of soda. 

Eight eggs. 



3<">2 rsr the kitchen. 

Cream the butter, add the sugar, with a little of the milk to mate 
them mix easily, then the yolks of the eggs, the spice, and the rest of 
the milk. Reserve half a pint of the flour in which to rub the fruit; sift 
the soda through a bit of tarletan or a wire-cloth sifter into the rest of 
the flour, and add it to the batter alternately with the whites of the 
eggs beaten to a dry froth; stir in the fruit, put the cake in a large, 
deep pan lined with paper, and bake from two to three hours in a slow 
oven. Frost and decorate. 



FRUIT CAKE. 

One and a half pounds of flour. 

One and a half pounds of butter. 

One and a half pounds of sugar. 

Two pounds of blanched and shred almonds. 

Two pounds of raisins, stoned. 

Two pounds of citron sliced. 

One gill of brandy. 

Half a teaspoonful of soda. 

One nutmeg. 

The juice and grated rind of two lemons. 

Fifteen eggs. 

Cream the butter, beat the yolks of the eggs until light, and grad- 
ually stir in the sugar, nutmeg, grated lemon, and butter; beat the 
whites to a stiff froth and add them alternately with the sifted flour, 
of which there must be a gill reserved for the fruit. Dissolve the 
soda in a teaspoonful of boiling water, beat it thoroughly in, add the 
brandy, lemon-juice, and fruit. Bake an hour and a half in a moderate 
oven. 



CAKE. 



353 



MONTGOMERY WEDDING CAKE. 

One pound of flour. 

One pound of brown sugar. 

One pound and two ounces of butter. 

One pound of citron. 

Six pounds of stoned raisins. 

Five pounds of currants. 

Half a pound of lemon citron. 

Half a pound of orange citron. 

One ounce and a, quarter of cinnamon. 

One ounce of mace. 

Three fourths of an ounce of cloves. 

Two gills of brandy. 

Two gills of molasses. 

Twelve eggs. 

A small pinch of salt. 

Cream the butter, beat the yolks of the eggs very light, and grad- 
ually stir in the sugar, spices, molasses, and butter, and beat thor- 
oughly; whisk the whites to a stiff froth and add them alternately 
with the sifted flour; add the brandy and fruit, and bake an hour and a 
half in a moderate oven. The lemon and orange citron must be cut in 
very fine shreds; the other citron may be sliced thin. 



CHOCOLATE CAKE. 

Miss Baker. 

One pound of flour. 

One pound and two ounces of sugar. 

Eight ounces of butter. 

23 



354 IN" THE KITCHEN". 

Half a pint of sour milk or buttermilk. 

The juice and grated rind of one lemon. 

One teaspoonful of cream of tartar. 

One teaspoonful of soda. 

Five eggs. 

Soften and cream the butter, add the sugar, rind of the lemon, yolks 
of the eggs, and a little of the sour milk; beat until very light, then 
add the rest of the milk; sift the cream of tartar and soda through a bit 
of tarletan, in the flour, mix well, and add to the batter alternately with 
the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth; lastly the lemon-juise. 
Bake in jelly-cake pans; take three cakes for a loaf, and between the 
cakes and over the whole loaf spread "Philadelphia Chocolate Icing." 
(See page 372.) 

This delicious cake is equally good with the thick custard used 
for cream-cakes between the layers, and the chocolate icing outside the 
loaf. 



CHOCOLATE CAKE. 

Hampton. 

One pint of fine sugar. 

One and a half pints of flour. 

Half a pint of milk. 

Four ounces of butter. 

Four even teaspoonfuls of baking-powder, sifted with the flour. 

Three eggs. 

Cream the butter, add the sugar and yolks, then the milk, and the 
whites of the eggs beaten stiff, alternately with the flour. Bake like 
"Orange Cake," with the "Philadelphia Chocolate Icing " between the 
cakes and over the entire loaf. 



CAKE. 355 



CHOCOLATE ECLAIRS. 



Make a batter as for "Cream Cakes" (page 361), form it with the 
spoon, as it is dropped into the dripping-pan, in cakes four inches long 
and one and a half inches wide; leave a little space between them. "When 
baked and cold, make an opening in one side and put in the cream, 
which must also be cold. Make it in this way: break, dissolve, and 
mix smoothly one ounce of chocolate with three tablespoonfnls of 
boiling water in a pint-basin fitted over a saucepan of boiling water; 
add gradually half a pint of milk, and leave it to scald; beat one egg, 
add to it one gill of sugar and two even tablespoonfuls of corn-starch, 
mix well, and stir in the scalding milk; then put the whole in the basin 
over the boiling water, and stir until much thicker than boiled custard; 
add a very small pinch of salt — about as much as half a pea — and half 
a teaspoonful of vanilla; when the cakes are filled cover the top and 
sides with this preparation of chocolate : dissolve two ounces of the best 
sweetened chocolate, over a very slow fire, in two teaspoonfuls of boil- 
ing water; add two tablespoonfnls of sugar; mix well, and if the sur- 
face looks rough add half a teaspoonful of water; put enough on the 
top of each eclair to cover it, directing it with a knife as it runs over 
the cake. 



MOUNTAIN CAKE. 
Four ounces of butter. 
One gill of corn-starch. 
One gill of sweet milk. 
Three gills of fine sugar. 
Three gills of flour. 

One teaspoonful of cream of tartar, sifted with the flour. 
Half a teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in the milk. 



3,5 G IN THE KITCHEN. 

One teaspoonful of vanilla. 

The whites of five eggs. 

Cream the butter, add the sugar, milk, and corn-starch, and the 
whites, beaten stiff, alternately with the flour; lastly the vanilla. To 
be baked like " Orange Cake." 

Put the "Philadelphia Chocolate Icing" between the cakes and over 
the entire loaf; or use thick custard (see " Cream Cakes ") between the 
cakes and a white or chocolate icing over the loaf. 



ORANGE CAKE. 

Make "Drop-Cake "; see that the oven will be very hot in fifteen min- 
utes; make this icing which separates the cakes and covers the entire 
loaf; to the whites of three eggs beaten to a stiff froth, add one pound 
and a quarter of powdered sugar, and the grated rind, the soft pulp, 
and the juice, and two large sour oranges and one lemon (there should 
be a gill of the juice). This is the proper thickness to spread over each 
cake, but for covering the loaf sugar must be added to make it as thick 
as ordinary icing. 

Having prepared the cake and icing and ensured a hot oven, spread 
three well-buttered jelly-cake tins one fourth of an inch thick with the 
batter and put them in the oven; watch them closely; they should bake 
in a few minutes. Have three nine-inch squares of brown paper on the 
table, and as the cakes bake turn them upside down on the papers; 
wash the pans (wiping is sufficient if it leave them smooth), butter, 
refill, and return to the oven; spread them with icing; when the second 
trio is ready turn the cakes upside down on the first, and proceed as 
before; the third trio completes the loaves. Both the top and sides 
must be iced; the edges may be first trimmed with a very sharp knife; 
when the icing is stiffened, which will be in fifteen minutes or less, 



CAKE. 357 



remove the cakes one by one, in this way: Turn one of the cake-pans 
upside down, hold it against the table in line with the top, draw the 
cake on it, and put it away; this prevents cracking the icing. 



JELLY-CAKE. 

Use " Drop-Cake " ; bake as in the above rule ; put jelly between 
the cakes and plain icing over the loaf. 



DOMINOES. 
Make Mrs. Jennison's " Sponge Cake," and bake it in long pie-tins; 
two such tins will make twelve dominoes, and if no more are required 
the rest of the batter may be baked in a loaf; the batter in the pie-tins 
should not be more than a third of an inch deep; spread it evenly, and 
bake in a quick oven. Have a brown paper nearly twice the size of the 
cake on the table, and the moment one of the cakes comes from the 
oven turn it upside down in the centre of the paper, spread it with a 
thin layer of currant jelly, and lay the other cake on it upside down; 
cut it with a sharp knife lengthwise, directly through the centre, then 
divide it across in six equal parts, push them with the knife about an 
inch apart, and ice them with ordinary white icing, putting a large dessert- 
spoonful on every piece; the heat of the cake will soften it, and with a 
little help the edges and sides will be smoothly covered. All of the 
icing that runs on the paper may be carefully taken up and used again. 
It must then dry, which it will do very quickly. Make a horn of stiff 
white paper about five inches long, one and a half inches across the 
top, and one eighth of an inch at the other end; put in it a dessert- 
spoonful of dark chocolate icing, close the horn at the top, and pressing 
out the icing from the small opening, draw a line of it across the centre 



353 IN THE KITCHEN. 

of every cake, and make spots like those on ivory dominoes ; keep the 
horn supplied with icing. 

GENEVA KISSES. 
Beat the whites of four eggs until perfectly stiff, then stir in very 
gently nine ounces of granulated sugar. Have ready a board about an 
inch thick, and about the size of a dripping-pan ; cover the top with 
paper; tlvm, with a tablespoon, put on the board portions of the white 
of egg and sugar, the shape you desire ; place them in a slightly-heated 
oven, and when a light brown cover them with paper. They require 
to be in the oven an hour, or until they are quite hanl to the touch; 
then take them off with a knife, putting them together in pairs. 



MACAROONS. 

The whites of three eggs beaten to a stiff froth, add half a pound 
of powdered sugar, half a pound of dessicated cocoanut, half a pint 
of rolled and sifted crackers, and an even teaspoonful of extract of bit- 
ter almond; drop them upon a greased paper in a dripping-pan, and 
bake a light-brown. 

SPONGE CAKE. 

Maryland. 

Twelve eggs. 

Their weight in sugar. 

Half their weight in flour. 

Two lemons. 

Beat the yolks until very light, add the sugar gradually, and the 
grated rind of the lemons, then beat the whites to a stiff froth, and stir 
them in very lightly, alternately with the flour, which should be sifted 
in; add the lemon-juice, and bake immediately in a quick oven. 



CAKE. 359 



This batter makes a delicious jelly-cake; bake it very thin in a 
dripping-pan, spread with jelly, and roll. 



SPONGE CAKE. 
Mrs. Bogakt. 



Fifteen eggs. 

Ten ounces of flour. 

One and a half pounds of sugar. 

The rind and juice of one lemon. 

Throw tho yolks on the sugar and beat uutil very light; beat the 
whites to a dry froth; add the flour to the yolks and sugar, also the 
lemon, and then stir the whites lightly in the batter. Bake from twenty 
to thirty minutes in pans lined with paper. 



WHITE SPONGE CAKE. 

Shelter Valley. 

Half a pint of flour. 
Three gills of sugar. 



One teaspoonful of cream of tartar, sifted with the flour. 
The whites of ten eggs, beaten stiff. 

Stir the sugar gently in the whites of the eggs, add the flour, stir- 
ring as little as possible, flavor with bitter almond, and bake in one loaf. 



PHILADELPHIA SPONGE CAKE. 
Three quarters of a pound of sugar, in a small bowl. 
Half a pound of flour. 
One gill of boiling water. 



360 



IN THE KITCHEN. 



Rind and juice of half a lemon. 

Six eggs. 

"When the ingredients are weighed and the baking-pans ready, 
pour the water on the sugar, stir it, cover, and let it stand on the 
table until the eggs are beaten ; grate the lemon-rind into the yolks of 
the eggs, then beat the whites to a stiff froth, and let them stand while 
with the same beater you give a few moments to the yolks, making 
them light and thick; pour them into the whites, and beat until well 
mixed, then pour in the syrup (the sugar and water) and beat ten min- 
utes, or until thick. Sift in the flour, mixing very gently with a knife; 
add the lemon-juice, pour in the pans, and bake from twenty to thirty 
minutes. 

The syrup is sometimes left on the range, and when boiling 
is poured into the eggs, which are then beaten until cold. The eggs 
"thicken more quickly in this way, and the cake is excellent, but perhaps 
not quite as moist as that made with cool syrup. This cake has the 
advantage of keeping much longer than ordinary sponge cake, which 
is comparatively dry. 



Mas. JENNISON'S SPONGE CAKE. 

One lemon. 

Three gills of flour. 

One pint of sugar. 

Eight eggs. 

Beat the yolks of the eggs thoroughly, add the sugar little by lit- 
tle, and the grated rind of the lemon; beat the whites of the eggs to a 
stiff froth, and add them alternately with the flour, beating very gently, 
and barely long enough to mix well. When part of the flour is in add 
the lemon-juice. Bake twenty minutes, in small loaves. 



CAKE. 361 



DAISY'S SPONGE CAKE. 

Three eggs, the whites beaten to a stiff froth. 

Half a pint of sugar. 

Half a pint of flour. 

Two tablespoonfuls of sweet milk. 

One teaspoonful of baking-powder. 

The rind and juice of one lemon. 

Beat the yolks with the sugar and the rind of the lemon ; add al- 
ternately the whites, the flour with which the baking-powder has been 
sifted, and the milk, mixing gently; add the lemon-juice. Bake in one 
loaf, or in patty-pans. 



CREAM CAKES. 

The Ckust. — Put half a pint of water with two ounces of but- 
ter on the fire; as soon as it boils stir in four ounces of flour, and con- 
tinue stirring until the mixture leaves the side of the saucepan; then 
take it from the fire, and beat in, one by one, four eggs. Drop it by 
spoonfuls on a buttered dripping-pan, leaving space between to prevent 
touching, and bake in a quick oven. 

The Cream. — Half a pint of milk, the yolks of three eggs, one 
and a half ounces of sugar, one teaspoonful of vanilla, One and a half 
even tablespoonfuls of corn-starch. Put the milk over boiling water, 
having reserved three tablespoonfuls in which to mix the starch. When 
the milk is hot pour in the starch, and stir until thicker than boiled cus- 
tard; then add the eggs, sugar, and vanilla beaten together, and con- 
tinue stirring until so thick that when cold it will drop, not pour from 
the spoon. When both are cold, tear a small opening in the side of 
the cakes, and drop in two or three tablespoonfuls of the cream. 



362 



IN THE KITCHEN. 



COCOANUT CAKE. 

One pint of sugar. 

One pint of flour. 

Half a pound of butter. 

Two tablespoonfuls of thin, sweet cream. # 

One grated cocoanut. 

The whites of ten eggs beaten to a stiff froth. 

Cream the butter, and stir in gradually the sugar and cream; add 
the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth, and the sifted flour; 
lastly the cocoanut. Bake in a moderate oven. This quantitv makes 
but one loaf. It is a kind of cake that may be kept a long time. 



COCOANUT CAKE, NO. 2. 

Four ounces of butter. 

One pint of fine sugar. 

One pint and a half of flour. 

One teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in half a pint of sweet milk. 

Two teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar sifted with the flour. 

Four eggs, the whites beaten to a stiff froth. 

One good-sized cocoanut, grated. 

Cream the butter and beat it thoroughly with the sugar and yolks 
of the eggs; add the whites alternately with the flour and milk; stir in 
the cocoanut, and bake in pans lined with paper. 



MRS. WELLS' CAKE. 
Eight ounces (half a pound) of butter. 
One pint and three gills (fourteen ounces) of flour. 
One pint of sugar. 



CAKE. 363 

One teaspoonful of cream of tartar, sifted with the flour. 

Half a teaspoonful of soda dissolved in half a pint of sweet milk. 

Half a gill of brandy. 

Half a pound of currants. 

Three quarters of a pound of citron cut in strips. 

Three quarters of a pound of raisins, stoned. 

Four eggs, the whites beaten to a stiff" froth. 

Beat the sugar and butter together until very light, then beat in 
the yolks thoroughly, and add alternately the milk, the whites, and the 
flour; stir in the brandy and fruit. Bake in pans lined with paper. 



COCOANUT WAFERS. 
Half a pint of powdered sugar. 
Half a pint of desiccated cocoanut. 
Three even tablespoonfuls of flour. 
Half a teaspoonful of vanilla. 
Two eggs. 

Beat the eggs and add the flour, sugar, vanilla, and cocoanut. 
Bake on buttered paper. 

COCOANUT DROPS. 
One pound of grated cocoanut dried in the oven, or the same 
weight of desiccated cocoanut, and one pound of fine sugar; the 
whites of three eggs beaten to a stiff froth. Add the sugar to the eggs, 
then the cocoanut, and bake on buttered paper. 



WALNUT WAFERS. 
Half a pint of brown sugar. 
Half a pint of walnuts taken from the shells. 
Three even, tablespoonfuls of flour. 



3 )4 IS" THE KITCHEN. 

One third of a teaspoonful of salt. 

Two eggs. 

Beat the eggs, add the sugar, salt, and flour, then the walnuts. 
Drop the mixture in small portions on buttered paper, and bake until 
brown. 

MONT ALTO JUMBLES. 
One pound of butter. 

One pound of sugar. 

One pound and a quarter of flour. 

Grated lemon-peel and wine to season. 

The whites of four eggs, beaten stiff. 

Rub the butter and sugar together, beating them very light; add 
the lemon, wine, the eggs, and flour. The hands must be floured for 
moulding the jumbles; make a roll about the size of the little finger, 
and five inches long; lap the ends, and lay in a slightly buttered pan, 
giving plenty of room, as the jumbles spread very much in baking 



* SUSAN'S JUMBLES. 

One pint of sugar. 

Half a pound of butter. 

One quart and one gill of flour. 

One teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in one and a half gills of sweet 
milk. 

One nutmeg. 

Two teaspf»onfuls of cream of tartar, sifted with the flour. 

Four eggs. 

Stir the butter and sugar together until very light, and beat in the 
eggs, one by one; add the milk, nutmeg, and flour; roll, and bake as in 
above rule. 



CAKE. 365 

_ n COASTING COOKIES. 

One pound of flour. 

Eight ounces of butter. 

Half a pint of molasses. 

One tablespoonful of soda, beaten very hard in the molasses. 

One tablespoonful of coriander seed, and one of carraway, pounded 
in a mortar. 

Ginger to taste. 

Soften the butter, stir in the molasses, ginger, seeds, and flour; 
roll thin, cut, and bake in a quick oven. 



CRISP COOKIES. (No Soda.) 

One pound of sugar. 

One pound of flour. 

Half a pound of butter. 

Two thirds of a nutmeg, or any other spice. 

Five eggs. 

Cream the butter, add the sugar and yolks of the eggs; beat until 
light; then stir in the stiff beaten whites, the nutmeg, and flour. Flour 
the board, roll, cut, and bake in a quick oven. 



VERY RICH COOKIES. 
Half a pound of butter. 

One pint and a half of sifted flour. 

One pint of light-brown sugar. 

One gill of thick, sour cream. 

Two teaspoonfuls of carraway seed. 

One teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in a teaspoonful of boiling 

water. t y,u. ,. 



366 IN THE KITCHEN. 

One egg. 

Soften the bntter, stir in the sngar, cream, egg, soda, carraway 
seeds, and flour; roll, cut, lay in a dripping-pan, and bake in a quick 
oven. 

These may be made plainer by using thick, sour milk instead of 
cream. Less flour might be used in that case; they should be soft as 
possible. 

GINGER SNAPS. 

One pound and six ounces of flour. 

Four ounces of sugar. 

Eight ounces of butter. ' 

Six ounces preserved orange-peel. 

Half a pint of molasses. 

One teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in two tablespoonfuls of boiling 
water. 

One teaspoonful of cloves. 

Two teaspoonftils of ginger. 

Soften the butter, and mix it with the sugar and molasses, add the 
spices, the orange-peel, and soda, beat it well, and stir in the flour. 
Flour the board, and roll the paste as thin as possible; cut in circles, 
and bake in a very quick oven. This quantity makes ten dozen and 
nine snaps, about three inches across. 



OAK HILL GINGER SNAPS. 
One and a quarter pounds of butter. 
Three pounds of flour. 
One pound of sugar. 
One pint of molasses. 
Three quarters of a gill or half a small teacupfu'l of ginger. 



CAKE. 367 

Three quarters of a gill or half a email teacupful of cinnamon and 
cloves together. 

One egg. 

Mix the spices with the flour, slightly warm the molasses, add the 
sugar and egg, and the butter and flour rubbed together. Roll as thin 
as paper, and bake in a quick oven. These keep a long time if closely 
covered. 



NAMLAT GINGER SNAPS. 

Three pounds of flour. 
One pound of butter. 
One pound of sugar. 
One pint of molasses. 
One gill of milk. 

Three quarters of a gill of ginger. 
One tablespoonful of cloves. 

One teaspoonful of soda, dissolved in a little boiling water. 
Three eggs. 

Work all together thoroughly, and roll out very thin. Bake 
quickly. 



LITTLE HARD GINGERBREAD. 

" Aunt Betsey." 

Molasses, one quart. 
Sugar, one pound. 
Butter, one pound. 

Soda, one tablespoonful, slightly rounded, dissolved in one gill of 
milk. 

Ginger, two tableapoonfuls. 



368 IN THE KITCHEN - . 

Roll the sugar, warm the butter and molasses, put all the ingre- 
dients together, mix stiff with flour, work and pound until your elbows 
ache, roll it a quarter of an inch in thickness and cut with a jagging 
iron into oblong cakes; bake in a quick oven, being careful that they 
do not burn. 



TOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 369 

i 



370 FOE ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



ICING. 371 



ICING. 



[ Time for Making, Three Minutes."] 

One pound of sugar. 

The whites of three eggs. 

Beat the whites until frothy only, not white; add the sugar grad- 
ually with one hand, while you beat with the other. Flavor with a 
little lemon-juice or vanilla. It is a great mistake to beat the whites of 
the eggs until stiff before putting in the sugar, as it makes the icing 
very hard to dry. 

TO IMPROVE SPONGE CAKE. 
Grate fresh orange-peel over the loaf before icing. 



KENTUCKY ICING. 

One pound of powdered sugar. 

One gill of hot water. 

The whites of three eggs. 

Boil the sugar and water six minutes, or until, as it drops from the 
spoon, it inclines to thread or rope. While the sugar boils beat the 
whites to a stiff froth, and with the left hand pour in the boiling syrup 
in a little stream while you beat hard with the right hand; continue 
beating until the icing is thick enough to spread over the cake with a 
knife. 

CHOCOLATE ICING. 
Two ounces of grated chocolate. 
Seven ounces of powdered sugar. 
The whites of two eggs. 



372 INT THE KITCHEN. 

Beat the whites but very little (they must not become white), add 
the chocolate, stir it in; then pour in the sugar gradually, beating, to 
mix it well. 



PHILADELPHIA CHOCOLATE ICING. 
Beat the whites of three eggs to a stiff froth, add half a pint of 
Maillard's or any sweet chocolate grated, and then half a pint of pulver- 
ized sugar. 



LEMON CREAM FOR CAKE. 

One pint of powdered sugar. 

The grated rind and juice of two lemons. 

The stiff-beaten whites of three eggs. 

Beat the sugar in the stiff whites, stir in the lemon, and cook it 
for a short time to thicken; then put it away to cool, when it may be 
spread between the cakes. 



ORANGE-PEEL FOR GINGER SNAPS. 
In the spring, when oranges are abundant, save the skins; they 
may be used at once or when partially dried. Boil one pound until 
perfectly tender, chop it fine; add one gill of the water in which it was 
boiled to one pound of brown sugar; then boil together until very 
thick. 



TO BLANCH ALMONDS. 
Take them from the shell, cover them with boiling water and let 
them stand four or five minutes; drain, and cover them again with 
boiling water, when the skins will slip off easily. 



FOR ADDITIONAL EECEIPTS. 373 



374 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



PASTRY. 



375 



PA.8TRY. 



Is making pastry, it is all-important to have good butter and good lard, and both must be 
firm. In summer they should be thoroughly hardened on the ice; the pastry should be mixed 
with ice-water, and made in a cool room. Do not touch it with the hand until it reaches the 
paste-board, and then as little as possible. The object of rolling is to incorporate the hard 
butter and lard with the flour, without the aid of heat. Never to roll otherwise than from one 
in making pastry is an unnecessary precaution. Pastry, with the exception of mince-pies, 
which are heated when served, should always be eaten the day it is baked. Unbaked pastry 
may be kept for several days if perfectly cold; in using it, it is necessary to simply flour the 
plate, not butter it. 



PUFF PASTE. 

One pound of flour. 

Five ounces of flour for the board and rolling-pin. 

Half a pound of butter. 

Half a pound of lard. 

Two gills of ice-water. 

Sift the pound of flour in a two-quart bowl; cut the butter and 
lard through it with a knife, into bits about the size of an unshelled 
almond Scatter the water over the whole, and mix lightly with the 
knife. Flour a space on the board twenty-four inches long by eighteen 
wide ; put the rough dough in the centre of this space, flour the pin, and 
roll the dough nearly large enough to cover the flour. "With a small 
sieve sift a light, barely perceptible coating of flour over the whole sheet; 
then fold it in thirds lengthwise and across, making a piece about eight 
inches long, and seven inches wide; turn it over, and put more flour 



376 IN THE KTTCHElSr. 

under it, and over the board; roll it out again, sift it with flour, and 
fold; roll it out the third time, sift, and roll lightly in the form of a 
scroll; cut it across in the centre, lay it on a plate, and leave it on the 
ice for fifteen minutes or longer, when it is ready for use. 



A PLAINER PASTE. 
One pound of flour. 

Five ounces of flour for the board and rolling-pin. 
Quarter of a pound of lard. 
Quarter of a pound of butter. 
Two gills of ice-water. 

Made precisely like the preceding rule. If preferred, the lard and 
butter may be cut very fine in the flour with a chopping knife. 



ANGELICA PASTRY. 
One pound of flour. 

Fifteen ounces of butter. 

Half a pint of water. 

Cut the butter through the sifted flour in bits about the size of an 
almond; sprinkle the water over it, mixing with a knife; lay the rough 
mass on the floured board, roll it out, then fold and give it a dozen 
blows with the rolling-pin; repeat this rolling, folding, and beating 
six times, then roll it out into a sheet, roll this in a scroll, cut it in 
two, lay it on a plate and leave it in the refrigerator for half an hour 
or more, when it is ready for use. 



PASTE MADE WITH DRIPPINGS. 
One pound of flour. 
Three quarters of a pound of good beef-drippings. 



PASTRY. 377 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Half a pint of ice-water. 

Rub the dripping to a fine powder through the flour, adding the 
salt; hollow a place in the centre, and pour in the water, and mix; flour 
the board and your hands; take out the paste, roll it out, and fold; 
this must be repeated twice, when it is ready for use. 



PASTRY OF GRAHAM FLOUR. 
Half a pound of Graham flour. 
Two gills of sweet cream. 
Half a teaspoonful of salt. 
Mix lightly together, roll, and bake in the usual way. 



POTATO PASTRY. 
Three quarters of a pound of flour. 

One quarter of a pound of potato rubbed through the colander. 
Three ounces of butter. 
One third of a teaspoonful of salt. 
Cold water to make it into a paste that may be rolled. 
Rub the potato, butter, flour, and salt together; stir in the water, 
and roll out the paste. To be used for boiled or steamed dumplings. 



CRUMB PASTRY. 
This is very nice for the various puddings that are ordinarily baked 
in pastry, as lemon, cocoanut, and potato. Grate stale bread, and cover 
a buttered pie-plate to the usual depth of a crust; pour in the pudding, 
cover the top evenly with the fine crumbs, and bake. 



378 IN THE KITCIIEN. 



FOR A VOL AU VENT. 
Roll puff paste one inch or three quarters of an inch thick, and 
about the size desired. Lay it on a baking-tin, and if a small vol au vent 
is required cut it round; if large, oval. For cutting round, use a sauce- 
pan cover. Trace with a knife, dipped in water to prevent sticking, a 
smaller inner circle, for the cover, leaving an edge about one inch 
broad, and making the knife penetrate to nearly half the thickness of 
the paste; or a smaller tin cover may be laid on the paste, and pressed 
in gently, to mark the inner circle. Bake, and when well risen and of 
a nice, light brown, take out; lift the cover immediately, being careful 
not, to make any openings in the lower part; this is called one of the 
nicest operations in cookery. Lay the cover aside, and if the inner 
part does not seem thoroughly baked, return it to the oven for a short 
time. If an oval vol au vent is wished, the paste may be cut with an oval 
basin, or marked with a vegetable-dish and cut with a knife. 



SQUASH OR PUMPKIN PIE. 
Cut half of a large winter squash in several pieces, remove the 
seeds, but leave it unpared; lay it in the steamer, and when cooked 
scrape it from the rind, and press it through the colander. To one 
quart of this allow one pound of brown sugar, eight eggs, one quart of 
milk, five ounces of butter, one teaspoonful of salt, two tablespoonfuls 
'of ginger, and four tablespoonfuls of cinnamon. Beat the butter with 
the warm squashj the sugar, salt, spice, and yolks of the eggs; stir 
in the milk, which should be boiling; then add the whites, beaten 
to a stiff froth; mix well; pour, in paste-lined pie-plates, having 
first pricked the pastry, that there may be no air-bubbles 



PASTRY. 379 

to force it out of place, and put them in quite a hot oven that the egg 
and milk may not separate. In ten minutes reduce the heat, as fast 
cooking makes them puff. As squashes vary in dryness, the above 
quantity of milk may not serve in all cases; the batter should be a 
little thinner than good boiled custard. Crackers or maizena are some- 
times used in squash pie instead of eggs. Two eggs may be omitted 
from this receipt. 



CUSTARD PIE. 

Put a quart of milk over boiling water. Line a deep pie-plate 
with a sheet of pastry rolled quite thin. Mix an even tablespoonfnl of 
corn-starch with two. tablespoonfuls of milk, and when the milk is 
scalding, stir it in with a gill and a half of sugar and a bit of salt no 
larger than half a pea; stir until slightly thickened, then pour it on 
four well-beaten eggs ; flavor to the taste, pour it at once into the plate, 
and bake in a moderate oven. The custard should be an inch deep. 

If preferred without the corn-starch, use six eggs to a quart of 
milk, but do not fail to scald the milk. 



APPLE PIE, NO. 1. 
Line the plate with paste and fill it with layers of sour apples sliced 
very thin, sugar and spice. Allow one and a half gills of sugar to a 
pie of ordinary size;- and cinnamon, or nutmeg, or whole cloves to the 
taste. Cover with paste, and cut a slit an inch long in the centre, wet- 
ting the edge of the lower crust to make it adhere. A few minutes 
before the pie is ready to come from the oven pour two or three table- 
ppoonfuls of hot water through the opening in the crust. This kind of 
pie may be baked in a deep dish if preferred. 



380 IN THE KITCHEN". 



APPLE PIE, NO. 2. 

Line a plate with paste, and fill it with tender, sour apples, sliced 
very thin ; cover it with paste, but do not press the edge to the lower crust. 
When the apples are cooked take two knives, and lay the upper crust 
on a plate; then add sugar and spice to the apples, stir all evenly to- 
gether, and replace the upper crust; press it down to touch the apple. 
The cracks thus made show the tenderness of the paste, and, partly 
concealed by fine sugar, add to the attractiveness of the pie. 

Excellent pies may be made with stewed dried apples, flavored with 
spice or bits of orange or lemon-peel. 



CURRANT PIE. 
The currants should be fully grown, and may be slightly ripened; 
line a pie-plate with pastry, put in a layer of currants carefully picked 
from the stems; cover with a layer of sugar nearly as thick, then 
another of currants, and of sugar; dredge an even tablespoonful of 
flour over the top, cover with pastry, press down the edge, cut an 
opening an inch long in the centre, and bake. 



BLACKBERRY PIE. 
Make this pie precisely like the above with one exception, — less 
ar. The fruit should be ripe. 



PEACH PIE. 

Line a baking-dish with pastry; fill it with whole pared peaches 

well covered with sugar; cover with pastry and bake. This is to be 

eaten hot. In the winter and spring a delightful pie may be made of 

dried stewed peaches; it should be no thicker than an ordinary apple pie. 



PASTRY. 381 



MINCE-MEAT. 

LOCHLAND. 

One pound of suet chopped fine. 

One pound of beef chopped fine. 

One pound of raisins stoned. 

One pound of currants. 

Half a pound of citron cut small and thin. 

Two pounds of sour apples chopped fine. 

Two quarts of sweet meat and Iucho pickle syrup. 

One pint of thin boiled cider. 

Cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg to the taste. 

Mix well together; if not sufliciently sweet, add brown sugar. 
Keep in a cold place in a closely-covered stone jar. 

The mince-meat is baked in paste-lined plates with an upper crust. 
Many bake a large number of pies, and keep them for weeks, heating 
them as they are required; but it is better to keep the meat in. a stone 
crock, and bake no more than will be wanted for two or three days. 
They are eaten warm. 



MINCE-MEAT FOE, PIES. 

Mks. Talman. 

Three pints of beef chopped very fine. 

Three pints of suet chopped very fine. 

Four pints of stoned raisins, some of them chopped. 

Two pints of currants. 

One pound of citron cut small and thin. 

One pound of candied orange-peel cut small and thin. 

Three quarts of dark-brown sugar. 



382 IN THE KITCHEN. 

Half an ounce of cloves ground. 

One ounce of cinnamon ground. 

Two quarts of sweet cider. 

One quart of sherry. 

Two large nutmegs grated. 

The grated rind of three lemons and the juice of two. 

These ingredients are to be mixed thoroughly together, and when 
used, add to one measure of this mixture the like measure of finely- 
chopped apples, Greenings or Spitzenbergs. 

If the meat is to be kept for some time use a quart of brandy 
instead of the wine, with cider to make it moist enough to pack nicely 
in a stone jar, which should have a plate fitted closely over it, and then 
a double paper tied down. 



MINCE PIES. 

Mrs. D. S. Moore. 

One pound of fresh beef tongue chopped fine. 

One pound and a half of suet chopped fine. 

Three pounds of sour apples chopped fine. 

Three pounds of stoned raisins. 

One pound and a half of currants. 

Half a pound of citron. 

Two pounds of light brown sugar. 

The juice and grated rind of one orange. 

The juice of one lemon. 

Two teaspoonfuls of salt. 

Two nutmegs. 

One tablespoonful of ground cinnamon. 

Half a tablespoonful of ground cloves. 



PASTRY. 383 

A little mace. 

One pint of wine. 

Half a pint of brandy. 

In making the pies, it is well to try a very small one first, to be 
sure that the meat is properly seasoned, as spices differ in strength; 
taste not measure should govern. 



BANBURY CAKES. 

Miss Simons. 

One pound of suet. 

One pound of currants. 

One pound of raisins. 

One pound of apples (sour). 

Quarter of a pound of almonds. 

Half a pint of bread crumbs. 

One ounce of citron. 

One ounce of candied lemon-peel. 

One ounce of orange-peel. 

The rind of three lemons. 

The juice of one lemon. 

Sugar, nutmeg, and brandy to taste. 

*This is baked in rich pastry; roll it out in round pieces about six 
inches across and a quarter of an inch thick; lay some of the above in 
the centre lap and press the sides together, then fold over the ends, 
rounding the corners, and making the cake oval. 



APPLES A LA NONE. 
Pare and core several fine large Spitzenbergs or Greenings; put a 
shred of lemon-peel in each; stew them in a syrup, allowing half a 



384 IN THE KITCHEN. 

pound of sugar to a pint of water. Cover, and cook slowly, and if 
necessary, turn the apples, but be very careful not to break them ; when 
tender take them out, and lay them on a plate or platter that may be 
trusted in the oven; when cold fill. them withisugar and preserved cher- 
ries drained from the syrup; cut puff paste with a jagging-iron in long 
strips as wide as a straw, and twine one around each apple; raise the 
apple to secure the lower end, and flatten the other end to cover the 
opening at the top. Bake, and serve hot. If liked, the apple and paste 
may be glazed with the beaten yolk of an egg. 



VELVET CAKES. 

One quart of sifted flour. 

One pint of sweet milk. 

One gill of sugar. 

One egg. 

One and a half ounces of butter. 

Three even tablespoonfuls, of baking powder. 

Beat the egg, sugar, and butter together until very light; sift 
over them the sifted flour with the baking powder; stir in enough of 
the milk to make a thick batter, and beat it thoroughly; add the rest 
of the milk; pour in buttered gem-pans, and bake twenty minutes. 
Serve hot for tea. 



FOR ADDITIOXAL RECEIPTS. 385 



386 FOR ADDITIONAL EBCED?TS. 



PUDDINGS. 387 



PUDDINGS. 



Puddings that are baked in pastry, though often called pies, are nevertheless, in polite 
acceptation, pudding's, with one exception, — the time-honored Yankee pumpkin pie! An at- 
tempt to give this pride of New England any other name would be sacrilege to the memory of 
our forefathers. It has always been and must always be pie. But here comes another claimant, 
a lineal descendant, who insists on his right also to the family name and with a determina- 
tion worthy his Puritan ancestors, he will not be denied. So the two must stand together, — 
the pumpkin pie and the custard pie. 



AMBER PUDDING. 

Mrs. G., of Rochester. 

One pound of sugar. 

Three ounces of butter creamed. 

Two lemons, juice and grated rind. 

Nine eggs. 

Stir part of the sugar in the butter, add the yolks, the rest of the 
sugar, and the lemon ; beat very light, whisk the whites to a stiff froth, 
and beat all together ; pour in paste-lined pie-plates, and bake half an 
hour. To be eaten cold. 

LEMON PUDDING. 
One pint of rich milk. 
Six ounces of white sugar. 
Four eggs, well beaten. 
Four tablespoonfuls of rolled cracker. 
Two tablespoonfuls of melted butter. 

The grated rind of one and a half lemons and the juice of one. 
Add the softened butter to the sugar, cracker, and eggs, and beat 



38S IX THE KITCHEN. 

thoroughly together; stir in the lemon, then add the milk gradually, 
mixing well; pour it in deep, paste-lined plates, and put it in quite a 
hot oven, reducing the heat after the first eight or ten minutes. To be 
eaten cold. 



LEMON PUDDING. 

Mrs. B. 

Nine eggs, the whites beaten to a stiff froth. 

Two lemons, the grated rind and juice. 

One pound of sugar. 

Three ounces, or a little less, of butter, creamed. 

One pint of milk. 

One and a half even tablespoonfuls of flour. 

Beat the yolks and sugar until very light; add the butter, with 
which the flour has been smoothly mixed, then the lemons, the milk, 
and the eggs, which must be beaten in slowly, gently, and thoroughly. 
Bake like the above. 

LEMON PUDDING. 

Mbs. William Smith. 

Two even tablespoonfuls of flour, mixed smooth with a little cold 
water, and stirred in half a pint of boiling water; let it thicken and boil. 
Have the yolks of three eggs, half a pint of sugar, the juice of one lemon 
and half the grated rind, beaten thoroughly together, then stir in the 
boiling starch; pour it in a large-sized pie-plate lined with paste, and 
bake. 

When just done take it from the oven, and spread over it a me- 
ringue made of the three whites beaten stiff and four tablespoonfuls of 
powdered sugar; spread it over the hot pudding, return it to the oven 



PUDDINGS. 389 

for two or three minutes, brown slightly, for if left too long the me- 
ringue will shrink and toughen. To be eaten cold. 

Corn-stareh may be used instead of flour in the above recipe. 



ORANGE PUDDING. 

Half a pound of sugar. 

Quarter of a pound of batter. 

Two oranges. 

Six eggs. 

Grate the rind from the oranges and squeeze the juice; cream 
the butter, and by degrees add the sugar; beat in the yolks of the eggs 
one by one, then the rind and the juice of the oranges; beat the whites 
of the eggs to a stiff froth, and mix them very gently, with a long, slow 
beat, into the other ingredients. Bake in paste-lined tin pie-plates. 



ORANGE PUDDING. 

Db ruoiT. 

The grated rind of two oranges. 

The juice and soft pulp of three oranges. 

Half a pint of sugar. 

Half a pint of milk. Four eggs. 

Two Boston crackers rolled and sifted, or four and a half table- 
spoonfuls of rolled and sifted cracker. 

One ounce of butter. 

Cream the butter, stir in the rind, the juice and sugar, the well- 
beaten eggs and crackers; add the milk, mix well, and bake in a pud- 
ding-dish lined with paste. 



390 IN THE KITCHEN. 

QUEEN CHARLOTTE'S ORANGE PUDDING. 
Quarter of a pound of sugar. 

One lemon. 

Two oranges. 

The yolks of five eggs. 

Grate the rind and squeeze the juice of the lemon and oranges, 
beat the eggs, add the rind, the sugar, and juice; beat well, and bake 
in a paste-lined pie-plate. 

C0C0ANUT PUDDING. 
Half a pound of sugar. 

Half a pound of butter. 

Half a pound of grated cocoanut. 

The whites of six eggs. 

One tablespoonful of rose-water. 

Two tablespoonfuls of wine. 

Be careful to pare all of the brown skin from the cocoanut before 
grating; beat the butter and sugar to a cream; whisk the eggs to a 
dry froth, and stir them in the butter and sugar; add gradually the rose- 
water, wine, and cocoanut. Bake in pie-plates, lined with pastry. 



GOOSEBERRY PUDDING, 

From Mes. Beeton's Book. 

"Put gooseberries into a jar, previously cutting off the tops and 
tails, place the jar in boiling water and let it boil until the gooseberries 
are soft enough to pulp, then beat them through a coarse sieve, and to 
a pint of pulp add three well-whisked eggs, one ounce and a half of 
butter, half a pint of bread crumbs, and sugar to the taste. Beat the 
mixture well, lay a border of puff paste around the edge of a pie-dish, 
put in the pudding, bake for about forty minutes, strew sifted sugar 
over, and serve." 



PUDDINGS. 391 



RICH APPLE PUDDING. 
Pare, quarter, and core six large, juicy apples, stew them in one 
and a half gills of water with the rind of a lemon; when soft- rub them 
through the colander; add six ounces of good brown sugar, six well- 
beat en eggs, one pint of rich cream, and one teaspoonful of lemon-juice. 
Line a dish with paste, pour in the apple, and bake in a slow oven. 
"When baked, stick thin strips of citron and candied lemon-peel all 
over the top. 



A SIMPLE APPLE PUDDING. 

Peel, quarter, and core five or six sour apples; hardly cover them 
with water; stew until perfectly soft; rub them through a sieve. To 
one pint of this add two ounces of butter, four ounces of sugar, half a 
teaspoonful of mace, one third of a nutmeg grated, the grated rind of 
a lemon, the beaten yolks of two eggs, and half a gill of milk. Beat 
the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, mix them lightly with the apple, 
etc., then pour in paste-lined plates, and bake. 



PINEAPPLE PUDDING. 

From "Choice Receipts" published for the benefit of Christ's Church Pair, Hartford, 

CONX. 

One grated pineapple. 
One pound of sugar. 
Half a pound of butter. 
Ten eggs. 
Two ounces of bread crumbs. 



392 IN THE KITCHEN. 

Cream the butter and beat it with the sugar until very light; add 
the yolks of the eggs and beat well, then the pineapple and bread- 
crumbs; lastly the whites beaten to a stiff froth; bake in paste-lined 
pie-plates. To be eaten cold. 



PINEAPPLE PUDDING. 

From "Choice Receipts" by M. S. W., Boston, Mass. 

A grated pineapple, and its weight in sugar. 

Half its weight in butter. 

Five eggs, the whites beaten to a stiff froth. 

One cup of cream. 

Cream the butter and beat it with the sugar and yolks until very 
light; add the cream, the pineapple, and the whites of the eggs. Bake 
in pie-plates lined with pastry. To be eaten cold. 



POTATO PUDDING. 

Mrs B. 

Six eggs, the whites beaten to a stiff froth. 

One pound of potato rubbed through the colander. 

One pound of sugar. 

One quarter of a pound of butter. 

The grated rind and juice of one lemon. 

Let the hot potato fall from the colander on the butter; mix well; 
add the yolks and sugar well beaten together, the lemon, and the 
whites; stir lightly, pour in paste-lined pie-plates, and bake. To be 
eaten cold. 



PUDDINGS. 39J 



POTATO PUDDING. 

DUDDINGTON. 

One pound of sugar. 

One pound of potato rubbed through the colander. 

Half a pound of butter. 
I Twelve eggs, the whites beaten separately. 

The rind of three lemons. 

A grated nutmeg, if liked. 

Mix as in the above rule, beating the yolks until very light. Bake 
also in the same way. 



CREAM PUDDING. 

One and a half ounces of sugar. 

Half a pint of cream. 

Half a nutmeg. 

The whites of three eggs. 

Bake in crumbs (page 377) or in a crust. Mix the cream, sugar, 
yolks, and nutmeg; then stir in lightly the 'whites, which have been 
beaten to a stiff froth. 



The electrotyped dish in which a baked pudding is sometimes 
served adds very much to its appearance, and is also equally useful 
for a meat pie or for scalloped oysters. The knit covers are preferred 
by many ; they are of white tidy-cotton, knit in raised points, producing, 
at a little distance, the effect of some rare china. 



394 IN THE KITCHEN. 

POOR MAN'S 'PUDDING. 

Six ounces of rice. 

Four ounces of sugar. 

One ounce of butter. 

Three pints of milk. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Put the rice in the baking-dish, and wash it thoroughly through 
several waters; add to it all the other ingredients and put it in the 
oven; in five or ten minutes, when the butter is melted, stir it, to mix 
well. Bake slowly, and be very careful to take it from the oven as soon 
as it is done. The best test I have found is this : On tipping the dish 
the rice and milk move together. If not sufficiently cooked, the milk 
runs from the rice; if too much cooked, neither move. This is a 
most delicious pudding if properly baked; otherwise, it is really 
unfit to serve. Every grain of rice should be perfect, surrounded 
and barely held together by a rich, creamy substance. Allow two hours 
for baking, and give more time if necessary. When nearly done, unless 
the heat of the oven is quite low, draw the pudding to the front, and 
leave the door open. 

To be .eaten cold, alone, or with sugar and cream. 



RICE PUDDING. 
Ten ounces of sugar. 
Five ounces of rice. 
Two ounces of butter. 
One pint of milk. 
One pint of water. 
Half a teaspoonful of salt. 



PUDDINGS. 395 

One lemon. 

Four eggs. 

"Wash the rice thoroughly, and boil it in the water with the salt 
until holes come on the surface; add the butter cut in bits, six ounces 
of the sugar, and the grated rind of the lemon; beat the yolks thor- 
oughly, stir the milk with them, and pour it gradually on the rice, mix- 
ing gently. Bake, and when cold beat the whites of the eggs to a 
stiff froth ; add gradually the remainder of the sugar, and flavor with the 
juice of the lemon. Put this meringue over the pudding and brown it 
delicately in the oven. 

BOILED RICE PUDDING. 
Wash a pint of rice, rubbing it well through several waters; mix 
with it half a pint of good-sized, clean raisins; tie it in a cloth, leaving 
it room to increase about one third, and plunge it in a kettle of boiling 
water slightly salted ; cover, and boil three fourths of an hour. To be 
eaten hot with sauce, — a gill of butter well-creamed, and beaten until 
light with two gills of brown sugar. Serve with nutmeg thickly grated 
over the peaks. 

THE SIMPLEST OF ALL BREAD PUDDINGS. 
Cut the crust very evenly from a loaf of bread, fold it in a napkin, 
and lay it in the steamer; let it steam half an hour. When served 
pour over it a hot wine sauce. 

BREAD PUDDING BOILED, NO. L 
Half a pound of bread crumbs. 
Half a pint of cold milk. 
Three ounces of raisins. 
Break the bread in rather large crumbs, pour the milk over the 



396 I5T THE KITCHEN. 

bread and raisins, and stir, that the m'dk may reach all of the crumbs; 
in five minutes tie it in a cloth, and steam it half an hour. The cloth 
requires neither butter nor flour to prevent the pudding from sticking. 
When ready to serve dip it for an instant in cold water, and the cloth 
will come off easily. 

BOILED BEEAD PUDDING, NO. 2. 
One quart of loose bread crumbs. 

One pint of milk. , 

One gill of currants. 

One gill of finely-cut citron. 

One gill of sugar. 

Two gills of stoned raisins. 

The grated rind of a lemon. 

Three eggs. 

Mix the bread with the lemon-peel and fruit, and put it in two but- 
tered tin moulds holding one and a half pints each; do not press, it 
down. Beat the eggs and sugar together, stir in the milk, and pour 
the whole over the bread; it will just fill the moulds; tie a cloth over 
each, place them in a kettle, and pour in enough boiling water to half 
cover them ; cover the kettle closely and boil one and a half hours. To 
be eaten hot with sauce. 

The fruit may be omitted or a smaller quantity used ; or quarters 
of stewed dried apple or peach may be used in layers. If preferred, 
it may be made entirely without fruit, using a small grated nutmeg in 
addition to the lemon. Stale cake may be substituted for bread. 



BAKED BEEAD PUDDING. 
Half a pound of bread. 
Two ounces of butter. 



PUDDINGS. 397 

Three ounces of sugar. 

One and a half ounces of currants. 

One and a half pints of milk. 

A small nutmeg. 

Three eggs. 

Cut the bread in thin slices and butter them ; put a layer in a bak- 
ing-dish that will hold three pints; grate a little nutmeg and scatter a 
few currants over it; make three of these layers. Beat the eggs, add 
the sugar and milk, mix well, and pour it over the bread; let it stand 
fifteen or twenty minutes, then bake half an hour in a moderate oven. 
To be eaten hot with " Fairy Butter." The grated rind of a lemon 
improves this pudding, and raisins may be used instead of or with 
the currants. 



AN ENGLISH BAKED BREAD PUD DING. 

Half a pound of grated or crumbed bread. 

Four ounces of butter. 

Four ounces of sugar. 

Two ounces of candied lemon-peel. 

One pint of milk 

Six bitter almonds. 

One tablespoonful of wine. 

Four eggs. 

Put the milk and bitter almonds, shredded, over boiling water; 
cut the lemon-peel in small, thin strips over the bread; add the butter 
and sugar. When there is a film on the milk pour it over them; when 
cool add the well-beaten eggs. To be baked three quarters of an hour 
in a pudding-dish, or in a buttered mould and turned out. It may be 
eateD with or without sauce. 



398 IN THE KITCHEN - . 

PLAIN INDIAN PUDDING. 

One quart of milk. 

One pint of corn-meal. 

Two ounces of butter. 

Four ounces of brown sugar. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Two teaspoonfuls of ginger. 

Three eggs. 

Mix the meal with nearly half of the milk, and put the remainder 
of the milk over hot water to boil, adding to it the butter, ginger, and 
salt. When scalding hot, stir, in the meal and let it cook several min- 
utes ; when it is a smooth, tolerably thick batter, take it off and put in 
the sugar; let it partially cool, beat the yolks in the batter, one by one; 
whisk the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, stir them in gently, then 
pour into a pudding-dish and bake three quarters of an hour. 

This may be eaten with "Fairy Butter" or with sugar and cream. 



BAKED INDIAN PUDDING. 

Philadelphia. 

One ounce of drippings or butter. 
One pint of boiling milk. 
Three gills of corn -meal. 
Three gills of molasses. 
One tablespoonful of ginger. 
One teaspoonful of cinnamon. 
Half a teaspoonful of salt. 
The grated rind of a lemon. 
Three eggs. 



PUDDINGS. 399 

Pour the milk on the meal, add the drippings, salt, spices, lemon- 
peel and molasses; cover the dish, and let it stand on the table for an 
hour, then stir in the beaten yolks, and lastly the whites of the eggs, 
whisked to a stiff froth. Pour it in a pudding-dish, and bake from half 
to three quarters of an hour, stirring it several times during the first 
ten or fifteen minutes; if a slight crust has formed it does no harm to 
stir it in. To be eaten with a sauce of butter, beaten with brown 
sugar. 

If liked, half a pint of the pulp of baked apple may be added to 
the above ingredients. 

BAKED INDIAN PUDDING WITHOUT EGGS, NO. 1. 

One quart of milk. 

One pint and one gill of corn-meal. 

Half a pint of molasses. 

One teaspoonful of allspice or ginger. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Boil the milk, and pour it gradually on the meal, mixing well; put 
it back to cook for ten minutes, stirring it now and then; add the salt, 
allspice, and molasses, and bake from half to three quarters of an hour. 
To be eaten with sauce. 

BAKED INDIAN PUDDING WITHOUT EGGS, NO. 2. 
Four ounces of suet chopped fine. 
One gill of molasses. 
Half a teaspoonful of salt. 
One pint of corn-meal. 
One pint of scalding milk. 
Half a pint of cold milk. 
Two teaspoonfuls of ginger and two of cinnamon. 



400 EST THE KITCHEN. 

Mix the_cold milk with the meal, stir in the scalding milk, add the 
other ingredients, beat well; pour in a buttered dish and bake from 
half to three quarters of an hour. To be eaten with sauce. 



TRENTON FALLS PUDDING. 
Delicious. — Bake Half an Hour. 

Four ounces of butter. 

Half a pint and a tablespoonful of corn-meal. 

Half a pint of powdered sugar. 

Three eggs. 

Beat the butter and sugar together untilvery light; add the yolks, 
beat them in thoroughly, then the meal, by degrees, and lastly the 
whites, whisked to a stiff froth; mix well, and bake in a buttered dish. 
To be eaten hot with sauce. It looks like a rich pound cake. 



OATMEAL PUDDING. 

One quart of milk. 

One pint of oatmeal. 

Half a pound of suet chopped fine. 

One quarter of a pound of stoned raisins. 

One quarter of a pound of currants. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Four ounces of sugar. 

Half a nutmeg grated. 

Three eggs. 

Scald the milk at night and pour it hot over the meal ; stir, cover, 
and let it remain until the next day. Two hours before dinner beat 
the eggs, and stir them in with all the other ingredients. Have ready 
a kettle of boiling water, lay the pudding-cloth in a bowl, pour in the 



PUDDTNGS. 401 

pudding, tie it tight, leaving it but little room to swell; plunge it at 
once in the boiling water, cover, and keep it boiling for two hours, 
replenishing from the tea-kettle. A maple-sugar sauce is very nice 
with it. 



BOILED BATTER PUDDING. 

One and a half pounds of flour, less one tablespoonful. 

Two quarts of milk. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Eight eggs. 

Put the flour and salt in a bowl, stir in enough of the milk to make 
a thick batter, break in the eggs, and beat well, then add the rest of the 
milk. Have ready a kettle of boiling water with a tin pie-plate at the 
bottom; have the pudding-bag well buttered and floured; pour in the 
batter, and tie it tight within an inch of the batter; plunge it in boiling 
water, and boil steadily for two hours. To be eaten hot with sauce. 



QUIVER PUDDING. 
F. B. J. 

One quart of milk. 

One pint of flour. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Ten eggs. 

Mix half a pint of the milk with the sifted flour and salt, drop 
in the eggs, and beat until light; add the rest of the milk grad- 
ually, and when well mixed, pour the batter in a buttered dish, and bake 
one hour in a quick oven. Serve immediately, as it falls in a few 
moments. To be eaten with sauce. 

26 



402 IN THE KITCHEN. 



A DELICATE BATTER PUDDING. 

Two ounces of flour. 

Two ounces of powdered sugar. 

Two ounces of butter. 

One pint of milk. 

Three eggs. 

Cream the butter, and add the flour with the sugar and enough of 
the milk to make quite a thick batter; add the eggs one by one, and 
beat until very light; then stir in gradually the rest of the milk, and 
bake in patty-pans. To be eaten with sauce. 



TAPIOCA PUDDING. 

Two ounces of tapioca soaked all night in a gill of cold water. 

Five ounces of sugar. 

One quart of milk. 

Vanilla or bitter almond. 

A pinch of salt. 

Three eggs. 

In the morning add half of the milk to the tapioca, and keep it 
over boiling water until quite soft; add the sugar, salt, and two tea- 
spoonfuls of vanilla, the beaten yolks, and the rest of the milk; lastly 
the whites beaten to a stiff froth. Bake a light brown in a moderate 
oven, and take it out before it is too stiff to shake. This pudding 
is often covered with a meringue when served;, rich cream, flavored, 
sweetened, and beaten 'until thick is also very nice; small bits of pre- 
served pineapple may be added just before putting it over the pudding; 
or bits of citron an inch long, stewed until tender, may be used with 
shied almonds in the beaten cream. 



PUDDINGS. 403 



FARINA PUDDING. 
Two ounces of farina. 

One ounce of butter. 

Five ounces of sugar. 

One quart of milk. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Half a vanilla bean or two teaspoonfuls of extract of vanilla. 

Four eggs. 

Put the bean and the milk over boiling water, reserving a gill in 
which to mix the farina. When the milk is covered with a film add 
the farina, salt, and sugar, and stir until about as thick as boiled cus- 
tard; take it from the fire, beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, 
beat the yolks, and pour the farina over them (it need not be cool), 
stir well, then pour it over the whites of the eggs, and mix thoroughly; 
pour in a large baking-dish, and bake in a moderate oven so slowly 
that there will be no bubbling. To be eaten cold with cream. 



BROTHER JONATHAN. 
Fill a two-quart tin basin two thirds its depth with pared, quar- 
tered, and cored apples; add a gill of water; lay over them a piece of 
bread dough which has been left from the morning's baking; it should 
be three quarters of an inch thick, and should cover the apples, touching 
the basin all around, and leaving an inch between it and the top of the 
basin. Put it on the range, covered closely with a tin pie-plate, with a 
flat-iron to keep it in place ; when it begins to boil push it a little back, 
where it will cook slowly; it requires three quarters of an hour. Serve 
it turned upside down on a platter. To be eaten with sugar and cream, 
or a sauce. 



4Q4 EST THE KITCHEN". 



SISTER JONATHINE. 

Half a pound of flour. 

One and a half ounces of lard. 

One and three quarter gills of cold milk. 

Two even teaspoonfuls of cream yeast-powder. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Rub the lard and salt thoroughly in the flour, e \n the mr-r <i?er 
through a fine wire-cloth sieve, all over the flour, and stir it well; O.en 
pour the milk ovej it, moistening the whole evenly, and mix li^l-Jy. 
Have fine Spitzenbergs or Greenings, pared, quartered, and cored; lay 
the quarters close together in a round pie-tin; roll out the dough and 
put it over the apples, making a cut an inch long in the centre. Bake 
about half an hour; the crust may be raised and the apple tried, to be 
sure that it is cooked. When ready, loosen the crust from the tin, and 
turn it with the apples Upside down on a dinner-plate. Serve hot. To 
be eaten with a sauce, or with sugar and cream. 



MINUTE PUDDING. 

Put one pint of milk and half a teaspoonful of salt over boiling 
water; when very hot place the basin on the stove, and as soon as the 
milk rises stir in one pint of flour; mix well, and serve immediately. 

This pudding is to be eaten with "Cream-Sauce." (See page 434.) 



BLACKBERRY PUDDING STEAMED. 
One and a quarter pounds of flour. 
One quart of blackberries. 
Two gills of beef suet. 
Twq gills of molasses. 



PUDDINGS. 405 

Two gills of milk. 

Two gills of brown sugar. 

One teaspoonful of soda dissolved in one tablespoonful of boiling 
water. 

Mix the sugar, molasses, suet, and milk together, then add part of 
the flour, then the soda, the rest of the flour, and the fruit. Butter a 
mould, put in the pudding and steam three hours. To be eaten with 
sauce. 

It may be steamed in a two-quart tin basin. It is good the next 
day sliced and fried. 

BLACKBERRY PUDDING BAKED. 

Quarter of a pound of butter. 

One pound of brown sugar. 

Half a pound of flour. 

One quart of blackberries. 

Four eggs. 

Cream the butter, add the sugar gradually, and the yolks of the 
eggs; beat until very light; beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, 
add them alternately with the flour, stir the blackberries very gently in 
the batter, pour it in a buttered pudding-dish, and allow an hour and 
half for baking. To be eaten hot with wine sauce or " Fairy Butter." 



BLACK CURRANT PUDDING. 
One pint of black currants. 
One pint of molasses. 
One teaspoonful of salt. 

One teaspoonful of soda dissolved in a tablespoonful of boiling 
water. 



406 IN THE KITCHEN. 

Half a teaspoonful of cloves. 

Half a teaspoonful of cinnamon. 

Half a teaspoonful of allspice. 

Flour to make it as thick as pound cake. 

Mix the molasses, salt, spices, and part of the flour, then the soda 
and the rest of the flour, afterwards the fruit; put the mixture in a 
buttered mould, and steam it three hours. To be eaten with sauce. 



BOILED WHORTLEBERRY PUDDING. 

PUMPELLY. 

Mix one teaspoonful of soda in one pint of molasses (mixing it 
first in a spoonful only of the molasses) . Stir in three pints of Whortle- 
berries, sift in one quart of flour, and add a grated nutmeg; tie it 
tight in a well-floured bag, leaving it a little room to swell. Boil or 
steam from three to four hours. To be eaten hot with " Fairy Butter." 

This pudding is sometimes made with only a quart of whortle- 
berries; and cinnamon and cloves arc used instead of nutmeg. 



STEAMED APPLE DUMPLING. 
. Make a soda biscuit, or baking-powder dough, or a raised dough 
as in the next receipt. Roll it out half an inch thick; pile the centre 
with sour apples that have been pared, quartered, and cored; draw the 
crust over them and pinch the edges together; turn the dumpling up- 
side down, on a plate or platter, put it in the steamer, cover closely, and 
keep it over boiling water for 1 three quarters of an hour. Tf small 
dumplings are preferred, divide the crust into pieces that will cover 
four quarters of apple. Make them up in the same way, place side by 



PUDDINGS. d07 

side on a platter and steam them. These are eaten with 'sugar and 
cream, or with plain butter and brown sugar, or with syrup and. butter. 



BAKED APPLE DUMPLING. 

One pound of raised dough. 

Two ounces of butter (or butter and lard). 

Six medium-sized sour apples, pared and cored. 

Mix the butter thoroughly with the dough, and leave it to rise an 
hour and three quarters before the dumplings are wanted, being sure 
that the dough is sweet; divide it into six equal pieces. Should the 
dough have the least sour odor, dissolve a quarter of an even teaspoon- 
ful of soda in a teaspoonful of milk; roll out the dough, coat it with 
the dissolved soda, fold, and knead it well; then divide, roll out the 
pieces a little thinner towards the edge, lay an apple in the centre of each, 
put in it a little brown sugar, a pinch of cinnamon and a wee bit of 
butter; enclose it in the dough and lay it in the baking-dish, the 
smooth side up. When all the apples are covered and in place, let 
them stand an hour, that the dough may rise again; then sprinkle a 
teaspoonful of sugar between them, adding a few small bits of butter; 
pour in half a pint of hot water, and bake them from half to three 
quarters of an hour. 

They may be eaten with sauce or with sugar and cream. 



APPLE CHARLOTTE. 
One pound of apples. 
Half a pound of bread. 
Three ounces of butter. 
Eight ounces of sugar. 
Two gills of water. 



408 IN THE KITCHEN. 

One lemon, or one nutmeg, or neither. 

Pare the apples and cut them in thin small slices; take a baking- 
dish holding three pints, put in it a few small bits of butter, then a layer 
of apple and sugar, a little of the grated rind of the lemon, if liked, and 
some bits of butter; then a layer of very thin bread and butter, another 
of apple, a second layer of bread, and a third layer of apple, reserving the 
butter for the crumbs which go over the top. If the apples are quite 
sour the lemon-juice is not necessary; otherwise, squeeze the lemon in 
a coffee-cup (the ordinary size holds two gills), nil it with cold water, 
and pour over the apple; then cover the apple with the remainder of 
the bread, either crumbed or grated; spot it with the rest of the butter. 
Bake very slowly for two hours, keeping it covered after the first half 
hour. 

PIE-PLANT CHARLOTTE. 

Peel the pie-plant and cut it in bits an inch long; butter a baking- 
dish, put in a layer of bread crumbs, then a layer of pie-plant well cov- 
ered with sugar, another layer of bread crumbs, and so on until the 
dish is filled, having the last layer of bread crumbs dotted with small 
bits of butter. If preferred, the bread may be cut in thin slices and 
buttered. Allow a pound of sugar to a pound of pie-plant. Bake very 
slowly for an hour and a half. It may be turned from the dish and 
served with a boiled custard poured around it. 

Cherry, currant, raspberry, and gooseberry charlottes, are all ex- 
cellent. They are better lukewarm, than cold or hot. 



quince pudding. 

Three quinces weighing about one pound. 
Three ounces of butter. 



PUDDINGS. 409 

Eight ounces of sugar. 

Two light, dried biscuits weighing three ounces. 

One quart of milk. 

Three eggs. 

Peel, quarter, and core the quinces, put them in a pudding-dish 
and steam until tender; then pour off the juice which has come from 
them and press them through the colander on the butter, that the heat 
may soften it. If difficult to press all of the quince through the colan- 
der, use a little of the milk to thin it. Roll the biscuit with the rolling- 
-pin, and add them to the quince with the sugar, the beaten eggs, and 
the milk; pour it in a pudding-dish, and put it in the oven; when it 
begins to bake, say in five minutes, stir it gently but thoroughly, for a 
moment, with a spoon. 

This may be eaten either hot or cold; if hot, serve with "Fairy 
Butter"; if cold, with sugar and cream. 



DRIED PEACH PUDDING. 

Three quarters of a pound of flour. 

One pint of dried peaches. 

Three gills of beef suet. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Cold water. 

Chop the peaches and suet, mix them with the flour and salt; add 
water to stick the ingredients together in as stiff a dough as can be 
easily made with a spoon ; tie it in a cloth, leaving room to swell, 
and steam or boil from three to four hours. To be eaten with wine 
sauce. 



410 IN THE KITCHEN. 



BOLSTER. 
Make a crust with baking-powder or like soda biscuit (page 
300), roll it out half an inch thick, spread with any kind of preserved 
fruit to within three inches of the edge; fold the sides over the fruit, 
then begin at the end and roll it in the form of a bolster; place it on a 
buttered plate and steam it from forty-five to sixty minutes. When 
served, pass a knife under it and slide it on a platter. To be eaten 
with "Fairy Butter" or sugar and cream. 



DRIED FRUIT PUDDING. 

Ten ounces of bread crumbs. 

Ten ounces of brown sugar. 

Eight ounces of chopped suet. 

Four ounces of dried cherries. 

Four ounces of dried peaches. 

Half a nutmeg. 

One teaspoonful of mace. 

One orange. 

Three eggs. 

Soak the fruit over night in just water enough to cover it. In the 
morning take it from the water with the hand, thus avoiding any grit 
that may have settled at the bottom; drain it, and partially dry it in a 
towel. Beat the eggs and add the grated rind and juice of the orange; 
pour this over all the other ingredients ; mis well, and tie the pudding 
in a cloth, leaving very little room for it to swell; steam it three hours. 
The cloth requires neither flour nor butter; the pudding may be 
plunged for an instant in cold water when taken from the steamer. To 
be eaten with a rich sauce. 



PUDDINGS. 411 

COLLEGE DUMPLINGS. 
Half a pound of bread crumbs. 

Three gills of cold milk. 

Two ounces of butter. 

Four ounces of brown sugar. 

One teaspoonful of cinnamon. 

Half a teaspoonful of cloves. Two ounces of sliced citron. 

The rind of one lemon. One quarter of a pound of raisins. 

Three eggs. One quarter of a pound of currants. 

Break the bread in small crumbs, do not grate it, pour two thirds 
of the milk over it, and let it soak fifteen minutes or more; melt the 
butter in the rest, add that with the spice, fruit, sugar, and eggs, adding 
the whites beaten to a stiff froth; bake it in buttered cups. This 
quantity is sufficient for ten. When served, turn them upside down on 
a platter, and sift sugar over them; they are eaten with a liquid sauce. 
If a softer batter is preferred, use one pint of milk instead of three 
gills. 

PLUM PUDDING. 

E. W. 

One pound of stoned raisins. 

One pound of bread crumbs. 

Half a pound of suet, chopped fine. 

Quarter of a pound of citron. 

One gill of wine or brandy, or the rind and juice of a lemon. 

Two and a half gills of sugar. 

Half a pint of milk. 

Half a nutmeg. 

One teaspoonful of mace. 

Eight eggs. 



412 



IN THE KITCHEN". 



Beat the yolks thoroughly and stir in the milk, add all the other ingre- 
dients leaving the whites of the eggs to go in last, having been whisked 
to a stiff froth; mix well, tie it in a cloth, and boil six hours. Turn the 
pudding occasionally, and keep the kettle supplied with boiling water. 
To be eaten with sauce. 

ENGLISH PLUM PUDDING. 

Two and a half pints of bread. 

Two and a half pints of suet. 

Three pints of raisins. 

Half a pint of brown sugar. 

Half a gill of brandy. 

One teaspoonful of ginger. 

An eggshell of flour. 

A little salt. 

Ten eggs, less four whites. 

Boil Ave or six hours, leaving a little room for swelling. A num- 
ber of these may be made at once ; they will keep through the winter, 
hung in a cold, dry place. 

MRS. POTTER'S PUDDING. 

Three quarters of a pound of bread crumbs. 

One half of a pound of raisins. 

Two ounces of butter. 

Two ounces of brown sugar. 

One gill of milk. 

Three eggs. 

Chop the raisins, roll them with the rolling-pin or stone them; 
reserve a few of the largest to stone, open, and stick to the inside of 
the mould; these may be arranged in rows, diamonds, or circles, as they 



PUDBIXGS. 413 

will easily adhere if the mould is well-buttered, and the inside of the 
raisin put next it. Beat the eggs until light, melt the butter in the 
milk, and add the sugar; when a little cooled pour it on the eggs, and 
pour the whole over the bread crumbs. Mix it thoroughly, put it in 
the mould, and steam it an hour or longer. To be eaten with sauc«> 



WARRENER'S PUDDING. 

One pint and three gills of flour. ^ 

Half a pint of sweet milk. 

Half a pint of chopped suet. 

Half a pint of chopped raisins. 

Half a pint of molasses. 

Three quarters of a teaspoonful of soda. 

Mix well together, adding the soda dissolved in a little of the milk 
before putting in all of the flour. Boil or steam it in a mould or bag 
for three hours. To be eaten with sauce. 



EVE'S PUDDING. 

Six ounces of grated bread. 

Six ounces of sifted sugar. 

Six ounces of chopped apple. 

Six ounces or more of raisins. 

Six ounces of suet. 

A little nutmeg and salt. 

Six eggs. 

Beat the eggs until light, add all the other ingredients, and mix 
thoroughly; tie the pudding in a cloth, or put it in a mould, and steam 
from three to five hours. To be eaten with Bailee. 



414 IN THE KITCHEN. 

A PLAINER EVE'S PUDDING. 

Four ounces of butter or finely-chopped suet. 

Half a pint of chopped sour apples. 

Half a pint of bread crumbs. 

Half a pint of stoned raisins. 

Half a pint of brown sugar. 

Half a tea spoonful of cinnamon. 

Half a teaspoonful of allspice. 

Half a nutmeg grated. 

Four eggs. 

Cream the butter and beat it with the sugar; add the well-beaten 
eggs, spices, apples, and bread. 

If suet is used beat the eggs first, add the sugar, suet, etc. ; mix 
thoroughly; put it in a buttered mould and steam, or boil it from three 
to five hours. To be eaten with a wine sauce. 



CROUTES AUX ABBICOTS. 
Halve and stone some apricots; place each half with the inside 
uppermost upon a thin, square piece of bread; fit them in the bottom of 
a well-buttered dish, lay a piece of butter on each, sprinkle them with 
sugar, and bake for half an hour in a moderate oven; when done, 
arrange carefully in a dish, pour over them the syrup they made in 
cooking, and serve hot. Peaches, large plums, and pears may be done 
thus. 

CABINET PUDDING. 
One quart of rich boiled custard, flavored with half a gill of wine, 
or with vanilla. 

Two ounces of raisins. 



PUDDINGS. 415 

Two ounces of candied peaches, or apricots cut small. 

Two ounces of cherries. 

One ounce of currants. 

Butter a plain mould and put a round of paper at the bottom, then 
a layer a quarter of an inch deep of the mixed fruit, on this a layer of 
finger biscuit or sliced sponge cake; continue this until the mould is 
two thirds full, then pour in the hot custard slowly; cover the mould, 
let it stand a few minutes, and then steam it from twenty to thirty min- * 
utes. Turn the pudding from the mould, and serve hot, with sauce. 

This quantity will fill two one-and-a-half-pint moulds. 



A COLD CABINET PUDDING. 
Prepare a cream blanc-mange, and before it is stiff put a little in a 
mould and let it run all over to leave a thin coating; then ornament it 
with candied cherries, fill the mould loosely with firm, preserved fruits, 
macaroons, and crumbed sponge cake soaked in wine, and a little citron 
cut very thin ; then pour in slowly the liquid blanc-mange until the 
mould is full. Let it stand in a cold place all night, to become very 
firm. 

COCOANUT PUDDING. 
One quart of milk. 
Half a pint of bread crumbs. 
Half a pint of desiccated cocoanut. 
One and a half gills of sugar. 
One ounce of butter. 
Half a teaspoonful of salt. 
Four eggs. 
Scald the milk over boiling water; put the bread and cocoanut in 



416 IN" THE KITCHEN. 

the baking-dish; beat the eggs, add the butter and salt, and pour the 
hot milk over them ; stir, and pour it in the baking-dish, mix well, wipe 
the edge of the dish, and place it in a pan of hot water in a moderate 
oven. After fifteen minutes stir it thoroughly; allow about an hour 
for baking. Try the pudding by shaking the dish; if it does not move 
take it out at once. To be eaten cold. 



TRANSPARENT PUDDING. 
Rub half a pound of butter with one pound of sugar; add one 
tablespoonful of rose-water and half a grated nutmeg; beat the yolks 
of eight eggs with the butter and sugar, whisk the whites to a dry 
froth. Butter a baking-dish, cover the bottom with slices of sponge 
cake, spread with marmalade or sweetmeats, pour in the mixture, and 
bake in a moderate oven. Make a meringue of the whites of four eggs 
beaten stiff and four tablespoonfuls of sugar, flavor with bitter almond, 
spread it over the pudding, and leave it in a quick oven for a moment 
to brown slightly; a few sweet almonds blanchet m*c finely shredded 
ma^ be added to the meringue. 



MARLBOROUGH PUDDING. 

Quarter of a pound of butter. 

Half a pound of stale sponge cake crumbed 

Six ounces of sugar. 

Six large pippins. 

One small nutmeg grated. 

The grated rind and juice of one large lemon.. 

Six eggs. 

Pare, core, and quarter the. apples; stew them in very little water; 



PUDDINGS. k 417 

when soft but not broken, drain, and mash them smooth with the bat- 
ter; when quite cold add the sugar, sponge cake, nutmeg, and lemon 
alternately; then whisk the eggs until very thick, and stir in gradually; 
mix all well together, then put it in a buttered dish, and bake in rather 
a quick oven three quarters of an hour. When done, turn from the 
dish, sift white sugar over it, if liked, and ornament with thin slices of 
citron. 

BURNETT PUDDING. 

Hudson, N. Y. 

Line a pudding-dish with rich paste. Pare and core six sour 
apples, and stew gently until tender, not allowing them to break; place 
them in the dish, fill them with sugar, stoned raisins, and bits of citron, 
and grate a little nutmeg and the rind of a fresh lemon over them. 
Cream ten ounces of butter, add the same weight of powdered sugar 
and eight beaten eggs, beat all together, and stir in one gill of milk; 
put it over boiling water, and stir until of the consistency of boiled 
custard; pour this over the apples, and bake half an hour. 



BEAULIEU PUDDING. 
One lemon. 

Two ounces of candied lemon-peel cut fine. 

Three ounces of sugar. 

Six ounces of flour. 

Six ounces of butter. 

Six bitter almonds cut in shreds. 

Ten sweet almonds cut in shreds. 

Four eggs. 

Cream the butter, add the sugar and the yolks of the eggs ; beat 

until very light. Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, add the 



418 EST THE KITCHEK". 

*. 

lemon-peel and almonds, the rind and juice of the lemon to the sugar, 
and add them alternately with the flour; stir lightly, drop in buttered 
gem or patty-pans, and put them in the oven. When baked, turn them 
upside down and serve on a napkin. To be eaten with a liquid sauce. 



TIP TOP PUDDING. 

Five ounces of coffee sugar. 

One ounce of butter. 

One quart of cold new milk. 

One pint of stale bread crumbed. 

One lemon. 

Four tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar. 

Four eggs. A small tumbler of currant jelly. 

Grate the lemon-rind and crumb the bread ; beat the yolks of the 
•eggs in the pudding-dish; add gradually the sugar, lemon-rind, and 
creamed butter, add the milk and bread alternately. See that the edge 
of the dish is clean, then put it in a slow oven; when it is " set," that is, 
so firm that it does not move when the dish is shaken, take it out and 
let it cool, unless it is to be eaten hot. Half an hour before using it 
beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, adding the fine sugar, and 
enough of the lemon-juice to flavor it. Put this on the pudding in a 
mass and smooth it over with a knife, or drop it from the spoon, leav- 
ing an uneven surface, but covering the jelly; then brown it in the 
upper part of the oven. To be eaten hot or cold. 



DELMONICO PUDDING. 
M. v. P. 



One quart and one gill of milk. 
One gill of corn-starch. 



PUDDINGS. 419 

Eight ounces of sugar. 

Two teaspoonfuls of vanilla. 

Five eggs. 

Put the quart of milk in a two-quart basin that will fit in the top 
of a saucepan, which must be two thirds full of boiling water. Beat 
the yolks of the eggs and add five ounces of the sugar and the vanilla. 
Mix the starch with the gill of milk, and stir it in the yolks and sugar; 
when the milk has a froth or film over the top, pour it on the eggs, mix 
well, then pour it in the basin over the boiling water, and stir until it is 
thick as pound-cake batter, pour it in the dish in which it is to be 
served, and when nearly cold make the meringue to cover it; beat the 
whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, continue beating while you add the 
remainder of the sugar. This may be put on the pudding in a mass, 
and smoothed over with a knife, or dropped from the spoon and left in 
little peaks over the top; but care must be taken that the pudding is 
entirely concealed by the icing. Place it in a hot oven for a few min- 
utes to brown, keeping close watch lest it burn. It must be served 
cold; it is very good eaten alone, but with cream will be found most 
delicious. 

CHOCOLATE MERINGUE. 
Two ounces of sweetened chocolate. 
Three eggs, the whites whisked to a stiff froth. 
Three ounces of sugar, to be beaten with the yolks. 
Four tablespoonfuls of sugar added to the stiff whites. 
Half a teaspoonful of vanilla. 
Three tablespoonfuls of corn-starch. 
One pint of milk. 

Dissolve the corn-starch in two tablespoonfuls of the milk; put the 
broken chocolate in a one-quart tin basin over boiling water, and nearly 



420 



IN THE KITCHEN. 



cover it with some of the milk; as it heats, mash, dissolve, and stir it 
until perfectly smooth; add the rest of the milk gradually, and when it 
is scalding pour in the starch, and stir until it thickens; then add the 
yolks and sugar, and stir until much thicker than boiled custard; set it 
aside, and when a little cooled beat in the vanilla and pour it in a glass 
dish. When cold, and just before serving, cover it with the meringue 
(the whites of the eggs and sugar) dropped by spoonfuls and left 
standing in peaks ; brown by holding a hot shovel over it. 



SPONGE PUDDING. 

One pint of milk. 

Two ounces of butter. 

Two ounces of flour. 

Two ounces of sugar. 

One teaspoonful of vanilla. 

Three eggs. 

Put the milk in a two-quart basin that will fit in the top of a sauce- 
pan, one third full of boiling water. Rub the butter, flour, and sugar 
well together, and stir the milk gradually with them; pour all in the 
basin, and stir until it is a thick batter; then take it off and let it cool. 
Beat the yolks well, and add them to the batter, then beat the whites to 
a stiff froth, and mix them gently in ; pour it in a pudding-dish, place 
it in a pan of water, and bake three quarters of an hour. To be eaten 
hot with wine sauce. 

PASTE PUDDING. 
One quart of milk. 
Three ounces of butter. 
One gill of sugar. 



PUDDINGS. 421 

One gill of raisins. 

Five eggs. 

Mix one egg, slightly beaten in flour, as stiff as paste can be rolled; 
roll very thin, and cut in narrow, cord-like strips, two or three inches 
long. Put the butter and sugar into the milk and boil; when boiling 
hot drop in the paste, which swells and rises to the top; then add the 
raisins; grate nutmeg over the top, or flavor with vanilla, let the milk 
cool, and then add the remainder of the eggs well beaten. Bake about 
half an hour. The pudding should be creamy like soft custard and 
the paste should not settle. Unless the milk is boiling hot when the 
paste is added it will not be good. To be eaten hot or cold. 



GERMAN PUFFS (For Dessert with Sauce.) 

One pound of flour. 

Two ounces of butter. 

One pint of milk. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Four eggs. 

"Warm the milk, and melt the butter in it; beat the yolks of the 
eggs very light, and when the milk is so cool that it will not cook the 
eggs, stir it in; add the salt and flour; whisk the whites of the eggs 
to a stiff froth; mix them gently in the batter. Bake in patty-pans or 
gem-pans. 

JIM CROW. 

Maryland. 

Put New Orleans molasses in a frying-pan and let it boil until 
thickened, Avhen it should be half an inch deep; slice bread as for the 
table, remove the crust, and cut in squares or oblong pieces; butter, and 



422 IN THE KITCHEN. 

lay them in the boiling molasses, and let them become crisp ; take them 
from the syrup, pile on a platter, and serve hot. No sauce is required. 



JENNY LINDS. 

Two gills of flour. 

Two gills of milk. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

One egg. 

Beat the egg thoroughly, add half of the milk, the salt, and the 
flour; beat well, then stir in the rest of the milk. Bake in patty pans, 
and serve with a liquid sauce. 



PAIN PERDU. 

Half a pound of bread. 

Half a pint of boiling milk. 

Three tablespoonfuls of sugar. 

The rind of half a lemon. 

One egg. 

Grated bread. 

Put the milk, lemon-peel, and sugar over boiling water. Cut the 
bread in slices two thirds of an inch thick, and cut off the crust evenly 
and divide the slice in two or three regular pieces ; lay them in a milk- 
pan, or on any surface so large that they need not lie one upon the 
other, and pour the milk over them; in a few minutes turn the pieces, 
then let them stand half an hour or more; beat the egg in a saucer, 
dip a piece of the bread in it, and then in the bread crumbs, lay 
it in the frying-basket and sink it in hot lard. Serve in a platter 
on a napkin, standing in two rows, two or three inches apart, ancj 



PUDDINGS. 423 



meeting at the top like a miniature roof. To be eaten with a liquid 



wine sauce 



LEMON DUMPLINGS. 

Half a pound of grated bread. 
. Quarter of a pound of suet chopped fine. 

Quarter of a pound of sugar. 

One lemon; squeeze the juice on the sugar, and chop the rest very- 
fine. 

One large apple (Spitzenberg or Greening) grated. 

Two even tablespoonfuls of flour. 

Three well-beaten eggs. 

Mix all thoroughly together, tie in square pieces of cotton cloth, 
drop in boiling water, and boil three quarters of an hour, with a tin 
plate under them to prevent their sticking to the kettle. This quantity 
makes eight dumplings. Serve with " Fairy Butter " made with brown 
sugar. 

APPLE FRITTERS. 

One and a quarter pounds of flour. 

One and a half pints of milk. 

Four eggs. 

Beat the yolks very light, add the milk and flour; whisk the 
whites to a stiff froth, and stir them in very gently. Peel and core the 
apples, cut them in two and slice them across, and as you fry the frit- 
ters, put a piece in the spoonful of batter; if preferred, the apple may 
be chopped fine and scattered in the batter just before frying. Fry in 
lard an inch and a half deep in the frying-pan. 

For convenience' sake, this batter may be mixed in the morning. 
It keeps three days in cold weather. 



424 IN THE KITCHEN. 



COaUETTES. 

One ounce of butter. 

One pint of flour. 

One pint of boiling water. 

Five eggs. 

Put the flour in a saucepan and throw the water over it, mixing 
well ; put it on the fire, and when the flour is well cooked take it off 
and cool, then beat in the eggs one by one. Drop the batter in bits 
two thirds the size of an egg, in deep hot lard, and when done serve 
like fritters. The batter requires a great deal of hard beating, both 
before and when the eggs are put in; but the coquettes are so beautiful 
and delicious one is repaid for all the trouble of making them. 



SOTJZENS. 

Mrs. Fairchild. 

Half a pound of flour. 

Half a pound of butter. 

One pint of water. 

Twelve eggs. 

Put the water in a saucepan; when it boils add the butter and let 
it boil a minute or two, then add the flour, stirring hard all the time, and 
•let It remain a few moments to cook thoroughly; then take it from the 
.'fire, and break in the eggs, one by one, beating very hard. Bake in 
little patty-pans well greased, for fifteen or twenty minutes. The oven 
should not be opened while they are baking. 

These cakes are eaten cold for dessert, with fresh fruit and cream, 
or with sweetmeats. 



PUDDINGS. 425 



FRITTERS A LA FOLILE. 

Quarter of a pound of butter. 

Quarter of a pound of white sugar. 

One pint of flour. 

One pint of water. 

Half a vanilla bean. 

Five eggs. 

Split the bean and put it in a saucepan with the water, butter, and 
sugar; when they boil mix in the flour very smoothly. Take it from 
the fire, and when cool remove the bean, add the eggs, one at a time, 
beating very hard. Fry the fritters by dropping the batter in small 
quantities in deep, hot lard; they puff beautifully and are delicious. 
Serve with sugar sifted over them. They are eaten without sauce. 

These may be made with but three eggs, or with six. 



INDIAN FRITTERS. 

One pint of meal. 

One pint of milk. 

Two gills of flour. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Four eggs. 

Beat the yolks very light, add the milk, salt, meal, and flour; beat 
hard, then whisk the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, and mix them 
very lightly through the batter. Fry in lard an inch and a half deep in 
the frying-pan. 



426 IN THE KITCHEN. 



POTATO FRITTERS. 

Three quarters of a pound of potato puree. 

One ounce of flour. 

Two ounces of butter. 

Three ounces of sugar. 

The juice and grated rind of half a lemon. 

Two eggs. 

"While the potato is warm mix the butter with it; add the sugar, 
butter, lemon, and flour; break the eggs over these ingredients, and 
beat the whole until very light; fry in lard barely deep enough to 
cover them in a frying-pan. Serve them piled on a platter and sprinkled 
with sugar. 

BOILED INDIAN PUDDING. 
Pour three pints of scalding milk on one pint and one gill of corn- 
meal; stir well, add half a pint of molasses, half a pint of chopped 
suet, one and a half even teaspoonfuls of salt, and two well-beaten 
eggs. Dip the bag in cold water, wring it dry, and spread thinly with 
lard or butter; pour in the batter, and tie the bag very tight, leaving 
room for the pudding to swell about one fourth; plunge it in boiling 
water, and keep it boiling, turning the pudding occasionally, from three 
to four hours. To be eaten with a maple syrup sauce. 



FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 427 



428 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



FOB ADDITIONAL BECJSIFTS. 429 



430 FOB ADDITIONAL BEOEIPTS. 



FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 431 



432 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



SAUCES FOR PUDDINGS, ETC. 433 



SAUCES FOR PUDDINGS, Etc. 



From the current receipts I have adopted I do not reject wine nor, in many cases, 
brandy; but am happy to be able to give substitutes for them, which, although they do not im- 
part so fine a flavor, have, nevertheless, the merit of being attended with no danger of harm. 



FAIRY BUTTER. 

Four ounces of butter. 

Five ounces of powdered sugar. 

The grated rind and juice of half a lemon. 

Cream the butter thoroughly, and add the sugar gradually, beating 
hard and fast, until it is so light that a million fairies may nestle in its 
cells ; add the lemon, and beat three minutes more. To be served piled, 
as it falls from the spoon, — not smoothed for all the world, for that 
would seal the hiding-places. 



GOLDEN SAUCE. 
Four ounces of butter. 
Seven ounces of powdered sugar. 
One gill of wine. 
Two gills of cream. 
Half a nutmeg. 
The yolks of six eggs. 

Scald the cream in a two-quart basin over boiling water; beat the 
butter, sugar, and eggs together; add the nutmeg, pour the hot cream 

28 



434: IN THE KITCHEN. 

over them, then pour all in the basin over the boiling water, add the 
wine, and stir until it thickens. 



CREAM SAUCE. 

One pint of cream, three ounces of brown sugar, and half a small 
nutmeg grated. 

WINE SAUCE. 

Hagerstown, Md. 

One pint of sugar, half a pint of softened butter beaten to a froth; 
boil two gills of wine with one gill of water, and pour them boiling on 
the sugar and butter, stirring fast. Nutmeg to taste. A gill of sweet 
cream stirred in after the wine, is an improvement. 



WINE SAUCE. 

Maryland. 



The yolks of two eggs beaten with four tablespoonfuls of brown 
sugar and a quarter of a pound of butter. "When thoroughly mixed 
put on the stove and stir until it thickens ; add half a gill of wine. 



MAPLE SUGAR SAUCE. 

Half a pound of maple sugar. 

Quarter of a pound of butter. 

Half a gill of hot water. 

Crack the sugar in very small bits, that it may dissolve quickly ; let 
it simmer a few moments until clear; take it from the fire, and stir in 
the butter cut small; pour it in the sauce-boat, and serve. 



SAUCES FOR PUDDINGS, ETC. 435 

REXFORD SAUCE. 
Rub two ounces of butter with an even tablespoonful of flour; stir 
in half a pint of bvown sugar and half a gill of boiled cider; add a gill 
of boiling water, mix well, let it simmer a few moments, then serve hot. 



ALMOND SAUCE. 
Blanch and pound one and a half ounces of sweet almonds and four 
bitter almonds ; put them in a saucepan with half a pint of cream and 
one and a quarter ounces of sugar; add the yolks of two eggs well 
beaten, and stir over boiling water until of the right consistency. It 
may be flavored with extract of bitter almond, if more convenient. 



LEMON SAUCE. 
Cream two ounces of butter, and stir in half a pint of powdered 
sugar, the juice and grated rind of half a lemon, a tablespoonful of 
flour, and one egg; beat all well together until very light, then add a 
gill of boiling water. If not as thick as liked, it may be stirred over 
the fire for a short time. 



SAUCE WITH NEITHER BUTTER NOR CREAM. 
Two eggs. 

Half a pint of fine sugar. 
Half a gill of milk. 



Flavoring to the taste. 



Place the milk over boiling water; when scalding put in the sugar 
and yolks beaten together, and stir until thick as boiled custard; set it 
aside, and when cool add the flavoring; just before serving whisk the 
whites to a stiff froth, and mix them lightly through the sauce. 



436 IN THE KITCHEN. 

CREAMY SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS. 

Half a pound of brown sugar. 

Four ounces of butter, 

Four tablespoonfuls of sweet cream. 

One lemon, or wine to flavor. 

Take a two-quart bowl * for beating the sauce, as that saves all 
anxiety as to its going over the edge. Stir the butter to a cream, with 
a small wooden spoon, add by degrees the sugar and cream, beating 
them until very light, then the juice and grated rind of a lemon, or wine 
to the taste. Place the bowl in the top of a kettle, one third or half full 
of boiling water; when melted to a thick, creamy froth set it aside, but 
keep it hot until required. 



HOME SYRUP FOR BUCKWHEAT CAKES. 
Some of the tempting amber syrups so often seen during the season 
of buckwheat cakes are said to be very deleterious. In corn-starch fac- 
tories the refuse is made into syrup by the chemical action of strong 
sulphuric acid, and such syrup is said to be very injurious to the teeth 
and stomach. This acid may be detected in syrup by putting a little 
of it in half a cup of strong black tea which has been boiled; it will 
turn it black. Pure and delicious syrups are easily made. Pour half 
a pint of boiling water on one pound of sugar, either the white crushed, 
or the sparkling, yellow sugar; put it on the fire, boil, and skim thor- 
oughly, then bottle and cork. 



MAPLE SYRUP MADE FROM THE SUGAR. 
One pound of maple sugar. 
Two gills of boiling water. 



SAUCES FOE PUDDINGS, ETC. 437 

Cut the sugar in bits, and put it in a saucepan with the water; let 
it dissolve without boiling, then boil and skim. When cold, it is ready 
for the table. 

CARAMEL FOE CUSTARDS. 

One and a half pounds of moist, brown sugar. 

Half a pint of hot water. 

Put half a pound of the sugar in a small iron frying-pan or in a 
small iron kettle (one with a rounding bottom is more convenient) , let 
it heat gradually, then stir it with a knife or flat stick until it is melted 
and like a smooth batter; the color should be but slightly changed; 
add the water by slow degrees, mixing thoroughly; let it simmer a few 
minutes, while you scrape down the sugar that adheres to the sides of 
the kettle; then stir in the pound of sugar, and when dissolved let it 
boil and become clear; place it on the ice, and when chilled it is ready 
to pour over a cold steamed custard, turned from the mould. 



SUGARS. 
For baked custard, For all light-colored cakes, 



mmce pie, 

squash pie, 

fruit-cake, 

gingerbread, 

most Indian puddings, 



icing, 

floating-island, 

blanc-mange, 

Meringues, 

whips, 



use brown sugar. use powdered sugar. 

For pudding sauce, use powdered or brown sugar. 
For sweetmeats, jelly, and raspberry vinegar, use granulated 
sugar. 



4:38 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



2TOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



439 



440 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



DISHES FOR DESSEBT. 441 



DISHES FOR DESSERT. 



BLANC-MANGE. 

One ounce of Cooper's isinglass. 

Five ounces of sugar. 

One quart of cream. 

Two teaspoonfuls of vanilla. 

Cover the isinglass with a pint or more of cold water, and let it 
stand two hours. If shred gelatine is used put it in a tea-cup, cover 
with three fourths of a gill of cold water, and soak it one hour; it 
absorhs the water. Sweeten and flavor the cream; take the isinglass 
from the water, lay it for a moment in a towel, and then melt it thor- 
oughly in a tin cup over boiling water; stir it in the cream, wet the 
moulds, pour it in, and place on the ice. 

Blanc-mange may be colored green with spinach-juice and pink 
with scoke-berry. Half-pint moulds are very pretty made in this way: 
Tilt the moulds in a pan of snow or pounded ice ; color one fourth of 
the blanc-mange a pretty pink and another fourth a bright green; wet 
the moulds and pour a little in each, coming nearly to the top of the 
mould, and not covering more than two thirds of the bottom. Keep 
the uncolored blanc-mange in so warm a place that it will not harden, 
and when the pink and green are stiff, place the moulds upright, and 
fill them with the white. 

If the design of the mould is in fruit or roses, the fruit may be 
green and the roses pink; if in corn, some of the blanc-mange may be 
colored yellow by adding a little saffron. 



442 IN" THE KITCHEN". 



EUGENIE BLANC-MANGE. 

Five ounces of sugar. 

Three ounces or three heaping tablespoonfuls of corn-starch. 

One quart of milk. 

Two teaspoonfuls of vanilla. 

A pinch of salt. 

The whites of four eggs beaten to a stiff froth. 

Put the milk over boiling water with the salt and sugar; mix the 
corn-starch with three tablespoonfuls of cold milk, and when the quart 
of milk is hot pour it in, and stir until it is a thick batter. Have the 
eggs beaten to a stiff froth, pour the hot corn-starch on them, and mix 
well; add the vanilla, pour in moulds wet with cold water, and place 
them on ice. In serving, turn it from the mould, and pour around it 
this custard. 

Put one pint of milk in a basin over boiling water; mix in a tea- 
cup, two even teaspoonfuls of corn-starch with two of cold milk; beat 
in the four yolks and two and a half ounces of sugar; when the milk 
is hot pour part of it in the cup and stir well ; pour it back in the 
basin, and stir until thick as desired. Put it on the ice to chill thor- 
oughly. 

FARINA BLANC-MANGE. 

One quart of new milk. 

Three ounces of farina. 

A quarter of a teaspoonful of salt. 

Put the milk over boiling water, having reserved a few spoonfuls 
in which to mix the farina; when there is a film over the milk add the 
farina and salt, and stir until it is quite a thick batter; then pour in a 



DISHES FOR DESSERT. 443 

mould rinsed with cold water. To be eaten cold with sugar and cream, 
or boiled custard. 

SAGO BLANC-MANGE. 
Half a pint of pearl sago, boiled in one quart of milk, or milk and 
water, until perfectly soft, then stir in two well-beaten eggs, and pour 
it into a mould wet with cold water. It may be eaten warm with 
" Fairy Butter " ; if preferred cold, boil the rind of half a lemon with 
the sago, and when soft add four ounces of sugar. 



OSWEGO BLANC-MANGE. 

Three ounces or one and a half gills of corn-starch. 

One quart of milk. 

One gill of sugar. 

One quarter of a teaspoonful of salt. 

Two teaspoonfuls of vanilla. 

Put the milk, lacking one gill, with which the corn-starch must be 
mixed, over boiling water; when scalding add the starch, salt, and 
sugar, and stir until it is a smooth, thick batter; let it remain over the 
boiling water for five minutes, then beat in the vanilla, pour it in a 
mould wet with cold water, and leave it to cool. To be served cold, 
with sugar and cream. 

RICE IN MOULDS. 
Quarter of a pound of rice. 
One pint of cold water. 
One pint of new milk. 
One teaspoonful of salt. 

Wash the rice thoroughly, rubbing it between the hands in several 
waters; pour off the water and put it in a saucepan with the pint of 



444 



IN THE KITCHEK. 



water and the salt; coyer, and let it boil until holes come in the top; 
add the milk, and keep it covered for ten minutes; stir occasionally, 
being careful not to break the grains, and let it boil moderately until 
the milk is thick enough to prevent the rice from settling. When you 
think it is done set it for a moment on the table, stir it up thoroughly, 
but gently; then, if the rice settles, it requires more boiling; if suffi- 
ciently cooked, let it cool in the saucepan for ten or fifteen minutes; 
there should be a creamy substance around every grain, and the form, 
when taken from the mould, should be barely stiff enough to stand. 
This quantity will fill a mould holding a pint and a half; wet the mould 
in cold water, fill, and place it on the ice. It may be eaten with sugar, 
cream, and a little nutmeg. It may also be served in two half-pint 
forms on a platter, with rich custard an inch deep around them. 

When properly prepared, there can hardly be a nicer dessert than 
this; but it is so often a miserable failure, an unpalatable, stiff mass, 
that one might cut with a knife, or uncooked rice, with milk oozing 
from it, that I have taken great pains to learn the exact proportions 
and mode of preparation. 

As the rice is first boiled in water, it may be boiled in the milk 
without the precaution of putting the saucepan over water; but it re- 
quires watching. 



RICE A LA MARQUISE. 
Boil rice after the above rule, with the addition of three ounces of 
sugar; fill the mould and chill it thoroughly in ice. When served, 
pour over and around it vanilla ice-cream, which has been stirred and 
thawed to the consistency of a very thick batter. 



DISHES FOR DESSERT. 445 

SWEETHEART. . 
Boil rice as above; fill the mould about one fifth its depth; let 
this and the rice that remains in the saucepan become nearly cold; then 
put eeveral layers of rich sweetmeats, from which the syrup has been 
drained, in the centre of the mould, leaving the space of an inch all 
around it; this space must be filled evenly with rice from the saucepan; 
and above the sweetmeats there must be a layer of rice an inch deep; 
place the mould on the ice. When the form is turned from the mould it 
is snowy white, giving no suspicion of its contents. 



GELBE SFEISE. 

Half a pound of sugar. 

One ounce of gelatine. 

Two ounces of thinly sliced citron. 

Two ounces of stoned raisins. 

One large lemon. 

The yolks of nine eggs. 

The whites of five eggs. 

Soak the gelatine two hours or overnight in one quart of cold 
water, and under a slight weight to prevent its floating; when it is 
soaked beat the yolks of the eggs, and add to them the sugar, with the 
juice and grated rind of the lemon. Take the gelatine from the water, 
put it in a two-quart tin pail, and pour over it one pint of boiling water; 
add the sugar and yolks in this way: stir with them half the contents 
of the pail, then put the spoon in the pail and stir while you pour it 
back again; put the pail in a kettle of hot water on the fire, and stir 
Until it is as thick as boiled custard; put it in a cold place, and when 
it has become like thick batter beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff 
froth, and add them with the fruit. Beat all thoroughly together, and 



446 IN" THE KITCHEN. 

pour in moulds that have been wet in cold water. This quantity fills 
two pint-moulds. The rece'ipt for this dish, sent from Vienna, gives 
no directions for cutting the raisins and citron. I have tried the 
raisins whole and the citron in large slices, and have also tried them 
both finely cut. The latter is more palatable, the former, more showy. 



WHIPPED CREAM. 

One pint of thin cream. 

One and a quarter gills of fine sugar. 

One gill of wine. 

Mix the ingredients in a large bowl, and churn with the whip-churn ; 
as the froth rises skim it off into the dish in ( which it is to be served, 
until the dish is full and the froth rises above the top. The top of the 
cream may be ornamented with kisses, or macaroons. 



ORANGE CREAM. 

Three gills of cream. 

Two gills of sugar. 

One gill of orange-juice. 

The grated rind of one orange. 

Half an ounce of Cox's gelatine. 

The yolks of two eggs. 

Soak the gelatine half an hour in half a gill of cold water; soak the 
orange-rind half an hour in the orange-juice; melt the gelatine in the 
basin in which it was soaked, over boiling water, add the juice and rind, 
and when quite hot the yolks beaten with the sugar; stir until it 
thickens, add the cream, and strain into a mould wet with cold water. 
To be served cold. 



DISHES FOR DESSERT. 447 

COFFEE CREAM. 

Half an ounce of Cox's gelatine. 

One gill of strong coffee. 

One gill of sugar. 

Three gills of cream. 

Soak the gelatine half an hour in half a gill of cold water, then 
place it over boiling water and add the hot coffee and sugar; when dis- 
solved, take it from the fire, stir in the cold cream, and strain it in a 
mould that has been wet with cold water. 



CHOCOLATE CREAM. 
Mix together two ounces of scraped chocolate, three eggs, four 
ounces of sugar, and a pint of milk; stir over boiling water until of a 
smooth and creamy consistency. Toast slices of any light, common 
cake, lay them on a hot dish, and pour the hot cream over them. 



RUSSIAN CREAM 

One quart of milk. 

Five ounces of sugar. 

One ounce of Cooper's isinglass. 

Two teaspoonfuls of vanilla. 

Four eggs. 

Soak the isinglass two hours in cold water; put the milk in a two- 
quart basin in the top of a saucepan two thirds full of boiling water; 
beat the yolks of the eggs and add the sugar. When the milk is 
scalded pour it on the eggs and sugar, stirring them together; return 
it to the basin, drain the isinglass, put it with the milk, and stir until it 
thickens; add the vanilla, and when cold and partly stiffened whisk 



443 



IN THE KITCHEN. 



the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth, and beat them thoroughly through 
the custard; pour in moulds rinsed with cold water, and place them on 
the ice. When ready to serve, loosen the edge, lay a small platter over 
the mould, and turn it upside down; shake the mould if the cream does 
not come out easily, but be careful to keep it in the centre of the 
platter. 

BAVARIAN CREAM. 

One quart of cream. 

Five ounces of sugar. 

One ounce of Cooper's isinglass. 

Two teaspoonfuls of vanilla or half a vanilla bean. 

The yolks of four eggs. 

Soak the isinglass two hours in cold water; make a custard (see p. 
461) of a pint of the cream and the yolks of the eggs, drain the water 
from the isinglass, and stir it in the hot custard before it is taken from 
the fire. While the custard is cooling whip the other pint of the cream 
to a froth, laying it on a sieve. When the custard is perfectly cold and 
quite thick, stir in the whipped cream gradually; beat all well together, 
pour in moulds, and set on the ice. 



FRUIT CREAM. 
A rich cream blanc-mange, poured over sweetmeats in a glass 
dish. 

EGLANTINE. 
One ounce of Cooper's isinglass. 
Five ounces of sugar. 
One quart of milk. 



DISHES FOR DESSERT. M9 

Two teaspoonfuls of vanilla or one of rose-water. 

Four eggs. 

Soak the isinglass two hours in cold water; put the milk to boil 
over hot water; beat the eggs, add the sugar When there is a froth or 
scum over the milk, pour it on the eggs, stirring them together; put 
them over the boiling water, add the isinglass drained from the water? 
and stir until it thickens; flavor, pour in moulds, and set them on the 
ice. 

ALMOND CREAM. 

One pint of milk. 

One pint of cream 

Five ounces of sugar. 

Three ounces of sweet almonds. 

A quarter of an ounce of bitter almonds. 

One ounce of isinglass. 

The yolks of two eggs. 

Cover the isinglass with cold water, and soak two hours; blanch 
the almonds and pound them to a smooth paste, adding a few drops of 
milk, now and then, to prevent their oiling; put the milk over boiling 
water with a small bit of lemon-peel and let it scald for ten minutes; 
beat the yolks and pour the hot milk on them, add the almonds, and 
rub and press the whole through a sieve; add the sugar and cream, take 
the isinglass from the water, melt it, and stir it in. Rinse moulds with 
cold water, strain the cream into them, and place on ice. 



VANILLA CREAM RENVERSEE. 
One pint of cream. 
Two and a half ounces of sugar. 



29 



450 IN" THE KITCHEN". 

One and a half teaspoonfuls of vanilla or half a vanilla bean. 

One egg and the yolks of six. 

Put the cream over boiling 1 water to scald; if the bean is used, 
split it and lay it in the cream; beat the eggs, add the sugar, and when 
the cream is ready stir it in and scrape in it the seeds from the bean, 
removing the pod. Butter a mould that holds about one and a half 
pints; pour in the cream, and place it in a deep saucepan, with hot 
water about two thirds the depth of the mould; cover the saucepan, 
and place it where it will be hot as possible without boiling. By shak- 
ing the mould, and touching the cream with the finger, you will know 
when it is stiffened. Leave it in the mould until served, when it must 
be thoroughly chilled. Turn it from the mould on a platter or a shallow 
glass dish and pour over it a rich vanilla custard, or a caramel. (See 
page 437.) . 

GINGER CREAM. 
Two ounces of preserved ginger, cut in small thin pieces. 

Half an ounce of isinglass. 

One pint of cream. 

One tablespoonful of sugar. 

Two and a half tablespoonfuls of ginger syrup. 

The yolks of three eggs. 

Soak the isinglass two hours in cold water; put the cream in a 
basin over boiling water; beat the eggs, and when the milk is scalding 
hot, pour it on them; stir, and.return it to the basin, where it must be 
stirred until it thickens. Take the isinglass from the water, melt it, and 
add it to the cream. In cooling stir the cream occasionally, and when 
it has become so thick as to prevent the ginger from settling, wet the 
moulds, and pour it in. Place on the ice. To be eaten with or with- 
out cream. 



DISHES FOR DESSERT. 451 



CARAMEL CREAM. 

LOCHLAND. 

One ounce of brown sugar. 

One pint of cream. 

Half a gill of caramel (page 437). 

One egg, and the yolks of three. 

Scald the cream, add the caramel, beat the eggs, stir in the hot 
cream, and add the sugar; pour in a buttered mould, place it m a 
saucepan with hot water about two thirds the depth of the mould; 
cover both the mould and saucepan, keep the water as near boiling as 
possible; when stiffened let it cool, then place it on the ice. It should 
be made several hours before it is required. It may be served on a 
platter with a vanilla custard poured around it, or it may be placed on 
a fringed napkin, and eaten with cream. 



ARROWROOT IN A MOULD, WITH MACAROONS. 

Two ounces of arrowroot. 

Two and a half ounces of sugar. 

Two ounces of candied fruit. 

Half a pint of cream. 

Half a pint of milk. 

One dozen macaroons. 

Put the cream and one half of the milk over boiling water; mix 
the arrowroot smooth in the rest of the milk, add the sugar and vanilla, 
and when the cream is hot, stir them in; cook until thick as mush; stir in 
the fruit, which, if larger than cherries, should be cut. Pour in a mould 
wet with cold water. When cold, turn it out and ornament with whole 
macaroons; they adhere easily and may be arranged to suit the fancy, 



4f>2 EST THE KITCHEN". 

either over the entire mould or in one or two diagonal rows across, r... 
Serve on a platter with thick boiled custard poured around it. Wnarf 
milk is used instead of cream add one ounce of butter. 



HAMBURG CREAM. 

Three quarters of a pound of sugar. 

Three lemons. 
♦Ten eggs. 

Stir the grated rind of the lemons, the juice and sugar rtv^he* ; 
beat the yolks of the eggs in a saucepan that will fit over another - ,1 
which there must be boiling water; add the lemon and sugar; beat t\ e 
whites to a stiff froth, then put the yolks, etc., over the boiling v/att r, 
and stir until as thick as boiled custard; pour it hot on the whites, be it 
well, and place on the ice. Serve in glasses. 



TAPIOCA CREAM. 

Two ounces of tapioca, soaked over night in one gill of cold wa' zr. 

Boil one quart of milk, add the tapioca, let it boil; add the yulks 
of three eggs, beaten with half a pint of crushed sugar; boil, and stir 
until like thick custard; season and pour in the dish; when cold, cover 
with the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth with four tablespoon- 
fuls of sugar. Brown lightly. To be eaten cold. 



ITALIAN CREAM. 
One quart of rich, sweet cream. 
Seven ounces of fine sugar. 
Half an ounce of Cooper's isinglass. 
The grated rind and juice of two lemons. 



DISHES FOK DESSEET. 453 

Break the isinglass, and soak it two hours in half a pint of cold 
water; mix the lemon-rind and juice with the sugar, then add the cream, 
and leave it in a cold place for an hour; strain it through a sieve-, and 
beat it with an egg-beater until thick, but not stiff. It is well to do 
this in a large pitcher which can be kept partly covered, and so save 
much spattering. Take the isinglass from the water, dry it slightly in 
a towel, put it in a bowl in the top of the boiling tea-kettle, and let 
it dissolve, stirring occasionally, then cool, and beat it in the cream; 
pour it in wet moulds, and place on the ice. Allow three hours for 
stiffening. 

LEMON CREAM. 

One pint of warm water. 

Three lemons. 

Six eggs. 

Throw the thin yellow rind of two of the lemons into the water 
with the juice of the three, and sugar to taste. As lemons vary in size 
and in juiciness, the exact quantity of sugar cannot be given. Ordinary- 
lemons require three gills. It will be quite safe to begin with that 
quantity; more can easily be added.- Beat the whites to a dry froth, 
then the yolks, and beat both together; pour in gradually, while beat- 
ing, the other ingredients; put all in a basin over boiling water, and 
stir until thick as boiled custard; strain it in a pitcher; when cool, 
place on the ice. Serve in glasses. 



RENNET IN WINE. 
Cut a fresh or dried rennet in strips two inches long and half an 
inch wide; if a dried rennet is used it must be soaked until it has no 
taste of the salt which was used in drying. Put the pieces in a quart 



454 FN" THE KITCHEN. 

bottle and fill it with sherry; in two or three days it will be ready to 
use. "When the wine is exhausted the bottle may be filled again and 
again. 



SLIP. 

"Warm to about blood-heat a quart of fresh milk with a gill of fine 
sugar ; have ready in. a cup two tablespoonfuls of the rennet wine (see 
above rule) and a teaspoonful of vanilla ; pour the milk in the dish in 
which it is to be served; place the thermometer in it, and when it has 
fallen to 94° pour in the rennet and stir gently to mix it ; then leave it, 
and it will stiffen in a few minutes, when it may be placed on ice until 
wanted. If preferred, it may be poured in cups with a little nutmeg 
grated over the top. After a little experience the thermometer may be 
dispensed with, and the temperature of the milk tested by the finger. 
Liquid rennet can be bought, and is very good, but in using it the milk 
requires more flavoring than with the rennet wine. 



LEMON CHEESE. 

One pound of loaf sugar. 

Quarter of a pound of butter. 

The juice of three lemons and the grated rind of two. 

Six eggs, leaving out the whites of two. 

Put all in a saucepan and stir gently over a slow fire until the 
mixture becomes thick and looks like honey. It will keep a year if 
closely tied and kept in a cool place. It may also be baked in small 
patty -pans lined with pastry ; these are often kept for many weeks, 
and reheated when used. 



DISHES FOK DESSERT. 4:55 

CHARLOTTE RUSSE. 

One quart of cream. 

One pint of milk. 

One ounce of Cooper's isinglass. 

Six ounces of sugar. 

Half a vanilla bean. 

Four eggs. 

Sponge cake. 

Cover the isinglass with cold water, place a slight weight upon it 
to prevent its floating, and let it soak two hours. Line moulds with 
thin strips of sponge cake, sticking the edges together with the white 
of egg ; if liked, the strips may be from both the outside and inside of 
the cake, arranged in alternate bands of yellow and brown. Scald the 
milk over boiling water, beat the yolks and add the sugar, pour the hot 
milk on them, take the isinglass from the water, and lay it in the hot 
custard ; then stir the whole over the boiling water until a little thick- 
ened and put it aside to cool. Whip the cream in a deep bowl, and lay 
the J'roth on the shallow side of the sieve. Iteturn to the bowl the 
cream that has drained from the sieve, and whip as much of it as pos- 
sible ; the little that cannot be whipped may be added to the custard. 

When the custard is not only cool, but quite thick, beat it very 
thoroughly with the whipped cream ; then pour it in the moulds and 
place on ice. 

BEATEN CREAM. 
Place a five-quart bowl in a pan of pounded ice ; pour in it a pint 
of rich cream much thicker than that used at table ; beat it with an egg- 
beater or spoon half an hour, or until thick and stiff; then sift in, beat- 
ing gently, a gill of powdered sugar and half a teaspoonful of vanilla, 



456 IX THE KITCHEN. 

or as little as will flavor it. This may be used with sponge-cake for 
charlotte russe, and for cream cakes and eclairs; it is also very good 
over a cold pudding with small bits of fresh pineapple, stiff currant- 
jelly, or stewed citron stirred in lightly; or cut the citron in strips one 
fourth as large around as a common lead-pencil and an inch long, and 
when the cream is spread over the pudding, stick them in the top a la 
porcupine. Use the Dover Egg-Beater for beating the cream. 



APPLE MEBINGUE. 
Pare, quarter, and stew sour apples, rub them through the col- 
ander, season with sugar and lemon ; fill a dish one third full with this : 
For a large dish take the whites of six eggs, for a small one, three or 
four; beat them to a stiff froth, season with lemon and sugar, spread 
it over the apple, and brown lightly. To be eaten cold with custard or 
cream. Rich stewed prunes, left whole, make a delightful meringue. 



TAPIOCA AND APPLES. 
Soak half a pint of tapioca several hours, or overnight, in half a 
pint of cold water; cover the bottom of a baking-dish with cored sour 
apples; fill them with sugar, and bake until tender and well browned. 
Put the tapioca on the fire with the rind of a lemon, cut thin, and 
half a pint of cold water; when boiling add another half pint of 
boiling water, a gill of sugar, and the juice of the lemon; boil a 
moment, pour it over the apples, and bake half an hour, or longer. 



TAPIOCA AND CANNED PEACHES. 
Soak half a pint of tapioca several hours, or overnight, in half a 
pint of cold water. Fill a baking-dish about two thirds its depth with 
the peaches taken from the syrup, sprinkle with sugar, and bake from 



DISHES FOR DESSERT. 457 

twenty to thirty minutes; add half a pint of peach syrup to the tapioca, 
and when it boils add one gill of boiling water and one gill of sugar; 
when clear pour it over the peaches and bake slowly for half an hour. 
If eaten cold, serve with sugar and cream; if hot, with f? Fairy Butter." 



CHANTILLY CAKE. 
Bake a cake in a mould; when cold take a very sharp knife, and 
cut out the centre, leaving a crust of an inch or more on the sides and 
bottom; throw in half a gill of wine; then put in a layer of preserved 
fruit, and fill with cold boiled custard ; put whipped cream over the 
top. 

AMBROSIA. 

Hampton. 

One pound of sponge cake. 

Two ounces of almonds. 

One pint of boiled custard, hot. 

Half a pint of preserved fruits. 

Prepare the nuts, of which there may be two or three kinds, blanch 
and shred the almonds, drain the fruit from the syrup; it must be rich 
preserved fruit, and may be of various kinds, including a little ginger. 

Slice the cake, lay it in a shallow dish, and pour the custard over 
it. When cold, wet two smooth forms or bowls, holding about one 
pint each; put in a layer of cake, a sprinkling of shred almonds, and 
bits of fruit, then another layer of cake, almonds, and fruit, and cover 
with cake. Let it stand on ice for an hour, then serve. 



SHELDINA. 
Line a dish with sponge cake and fill it with a cold boiled vanilla 
custard, made of six yolks and two whites of eggs; lay slices of cake 



458 IN THE KITCHEN. 

over the top, beat the four whites to a stiff froth, sweeten, flavor with 
lemon, cover the cake with it, brown in the oven, and serve cold. 



GLUTTON PLACE TRIFLE. 

One pint of boiled custard. 

Two gills of wine. 

Two ounces of sugar. 

The whites of six eggs. 

The juice of half a lemon. 

Preserved strawberries. 

Sponge cake. 

Take a glass dish holding about three pints and line it with slices 
of the cake; cover with a thin coating of boiled custard, then a layer of 
the strawberries, another of cake, custard, and fruit; then cover with 
cake. Pour the wine over the whole; beat the whites of the eggs to a 
stiff froth, and add the sugar and lemon-juice, then put it in peaks over 
the entire dish. 

SNOW DRIFT. 

One pint of milk. 

Two strips or one half ounce of isinglass. 

Ten ounces of crushed sugar. 

Five eggs. 

The juice of two large lemons. 

Soak the isinglass two hours, or overnight, in a quart of cold water, 
with a little weight to keep it from rising; take it from the cold water 
and pour over it one pint of boiling water; add the sugar and lemon- 
juice; put it on the ice; when partly stiffened beat the whites of four 
eggs to a stiff froth; beat all thoroughly together, pour it in moulds 



DISHES FOR DESSERT. 459 

wot with cold water, and place them on the ice. Serve with a boiled 
custard, made of the four yolks and one egg, and the milk. 



RUBY UNDER THE SNOW. 

Half a pint of tapioca. 

Half a pint of currant-jelly. 

One and a half pints of cold water. 

Four ounces of sugar. 

Two teaspoonfuls of scoke-berry syrup. 

The rind and juice of one lemon. 

Soak the tapioca overnight in half a pint of water; add the lemon- 
rind, cut like an apple-paring, and the pint of water; let it simmer until 
clear, take out the lemon, and stir in all the other ingredients; let it 
simmer a few moments, then pour it in a large pudding-dish or in two 
small glass dishes; when cold, cover it with either of the following 
snows : the stiff-beaten whites of four eggs with three ounces of sugar, 
added gradually, and flavored with a little fresh lemon; or one pint of 
thick, sweet cream with two and a half ounces of sugar mixed with a 
little lemon-juice, and beaten until stiff. The ruby should be ice-cold 
when covered, and may then be returned to the ice for half an hour. 



NESSLERODE PUDDING, OR PLUM PUDDING GLACE. 
Take a tin mould of whatever size may be desired, with a perfectly 
tight-fitting cover; cut the entire crust from bakers' sponge cake, slice 
it in pieces about half an inch thick, and soak them in wine; fit a layer 
of this in the bottom of the mould and cover it with a single layer of 
fruit, put in bit by bit; raisins and currants may be used with preserved, 
candied, or brandied fruits; cover this with cake, and so on until the 



4G0 



IN THE KITCHEN. 



cake is nearly even with the top of the mould, having the upper layer 
of fruit; leave a little space between the pile of cake and the sides of 
the mould. Have ready a rich chocolate custard; dissolve in it two even 
tablespoonfuls of gelatine, having soaked it for half an hour; allow this 
much to a quart of custard. When the custard is cold, fill the mould 
with it, cover it tight, and pack it in a tub of salt and ice jjrepared as for 
freezing ice-cream ; leave it undisturbed for ten or twelve hours ; when 
the pudding is taken from the mould pour over it a pint of whipped 
cream. This makes a beautiful and delicious dish for the dinner or 
supper table. 

CROUIADE OF MACABOONS. 

Dissolve half an ounce of gum-arabic in two tablespoonfuls of 
boiling water, then stir in one tablespoonful of powdered sugar, and 
let it simmer very slowly until almost stiff. Butter the outside of a 
plain tin mould, and turn it upside down on a plate; put a weight on 
the top to keep it firm; cover it with macaroons, beginning at the 
lower part; stick them together with the gum-arabic; when one row is 
formed, a string may be tied around to keep it in place until dry; then 
make another row, sticking the macaroons together, and to the first 
row. When finished and dry, it may be placed over a mould of ice- 
cream, or may be filled with whipped cream, or with floating island. 

If difficult to cover the entire mould, a cover may be made by 
sticking five macaroons around one, and when dry it may be placed 
over the top of the mould. If preferred, the cream or island may rise 
in a peak above the macaroons, in which case it requires no cover. 

Since writing the above I have tried the Dover Bgg-Beater for 
beating cream to the consistency of Charlotte Russe, and am happy to 
say that it works like a charm. There is but little, if any, spattering, 
and the cream becomes thick in far less time than with the ordinary 
beater. 



CUSTARDS. 461 



CU8TAEDS. 



It requires great care to make a nice boiled custard, because of its liability to curdle. I 
used to consider a curdled custard '' a hopeless case." Trying my hand one day in Berlin, to 
my despair, the custard assumed that most alarming appearance. Frau Friedel seeing my 
dilemma, cried out, " Der quirl, der quirll " Of this I knew nothing, and had no faith that 
anything less than a miracle could restore the beautiful smoothness of the milk. " Der quirl" 
however, was brought, and with a few twirls between the palms of the brisk little Frau, proved 
itself a magic wand " to make the rough places smooth." It is a stick some twelve or fourteen 
inches long with a wooden end, resembling a churn-dasher, about five inches in circumference. 
It is used by the Germans in preparing chocolate and in mixing puddings. It may also be 
used in making salad dressing of egg and hot vinegar. 



BOILED CUSTAUD, NO. L 

One quart of milk. 

Five ounces of sugar. 

Eight eggs, leaving out the whites of six. 

Two teaspoonfuls of extract of vanilla or half a vanilla bean. 

A pinch of salt. 

Select a saucepan, in the top of which a two-quart basin will fit 
firmly; have the saucepan two thirds full of boiling water, adjust the 
basin, and put in it the milk, sugar, and salt; beat the eggs thoroughly, 
and when the milk is boiling hot (this will be indicated by a froth or 
film over the top) pour half of it on the eggs, mix well, and pour it 
back into the rest of the milk in the basin which is over the boiling 
water, and stir constantly to prevent curdling. When thick as desired, 
pour it at once through a strainer in a pitcher; it curdles if allowed to 



462 IN THE KITCHEN. 

remain in the hot basin ; add the vanilla, and when thoroughly cold (in 
summer it should be placed on the ice) serve it either in a dish or in 
cups or glasses, three or four of which, on a dining-plate, are a very- 
pretty addition to a dessert. 

If the vanilla bean is used, put it in the cold milk, and when thor- 
oughly heated and soaked, split and scrape it, but do not take it out 
until the custard is served. 

A plainer custard may be made with four eggs instead of eight to 
a quart of milk. 

BOILED CUSTARD WITH CORN-STARCH, NO. 2. 

One quart of milk. 

One tablespoonful of corn-starch. 

Two teaspoonfuls of vanilla. 

Five ounces of sugar. 

Three eggs. 

A pinch of salt. 

Put the quart of milk, having taken out three tablespoonfuls for 
mixing the corn-starch, over boiling water with the sugar and salt; beat 
the eggs, and add to them the smoothly-mixed starch ; when the milk is 
ready, proceed according to directions given in the preceding receipt. 



CHOCOLATE CUSTARD. 
This may be made after either of the above rules, with the addition 
of four ounces of sweetened chocolate. Break it in half a dozen pieces, 
put it over the boiling water, hardly covered with milk; mash, and stir 
it perfectly smooth, then add the rest of the milk, and proceed as 
above. 



CUSTARDS. 463 

BAKED CUSTARD AND FLOATING ISLAND. 

Put one quart of scalding 1 milk on six well-beaten eggs and five 
ounces of sugar; flavor with vanilla, pour it in a baking-dish, and bake 
in a slow oven. When cold, spread a layer of floating island (page 
464) over it with small strips of stiff currant-jelly through it, or cover 
it with little peaks of the plain floating island. 



OMELETTE SOUFFLEE. 

The whites of six eggs. 

The yolks of three eggs. 

The grated rind of half a lemon. 

Three ounces of sugar. 

Beat the yolks with the sugar and lemon until very light; whisk 
the whites to a stiff" froth and mix them lightly with the yolks; butter 
a round dish slightly, throw in the whole, smooth with a knife; make 
an incision with a spoon-handle an inch deep all around the edge of 
the omelette; .bake ten minutes and serve immediately, not delaying a 
moment. 

ALMOND CUSTARDS. 

Four ounces of sweet almonds. 

Two and a half ounces of sugar. 

One pint of cream. 

One teaspoonful of rose-water. 

The yolks of four eggs. 

Blanch the almonds and beat them to a smooth paste with a table- 
spoonful of water (using a few drops occasionally) ; add the rose-water 
to the cream, the beaten yolks, almonds, and sugar, place it over boiling 
water, and stir until it thickens. Serve in cups. 



464 US' THE KITCHEN - . 



FLOATING ISLAND, NO. L 

One tumbler of currant jelly. 

One pint of powdered sugar. 

Five eggs. 

Beat the whites of the eggs very stiff before putting in the jelly, 
then beat well, add the sugar gradually and beat it perfectly stiff; chili 
it thoroughly on the ice; serve in a glass dish half filled with cold milk; 
cover it with the island in spoonfuls standing in peaks. To be eaten 
with cream. 

FLOATING ISLAND, NO. 2. 
Beat the whites of three eggs to a stiff froth, and beat in gradually a 
tumbler of currant jelly and a gill of powdered sugar; continue beating 
until perfectly stiff. Serve as in the above rule. 



FLOATING ISLAND OF FRESH RASPBERRIES. 
Crush a pint of very ripe red raspberries with a gill of sugar; beat 
the whites of four eggs to a stiff froth and add gradually a gill of pow- 
dered sugar; press the raspberries through a fine strainer to avoid the 
seeds, and by degrees beat in the juice with the egg and sugar until so 
stiff that it stands in peaks. 

CARAMEL CUSTARD. 

Mrs. John Stebbixs. 

Melt one pint of brown sugar to a liquid, in a frying-pan, and 
stir it very slowly into three pints of boiling milk; pour this on seven 
well-beaten eggs, mix well, pour in cups placed in a dripping-pan one 
fourth full of hot water, and bake in a moderate oven until when tried 
with a knife the custard will not adhere to it. 



JELLIES. 465 



JELLIES. 



CALF'S FOOT JELLY. 
Boil four calves' feet (three and a quarter pounds) in four quarts 
of water slowly, until the water is reduced one half, strain through a 
cloth laid in the colander, and put it away; the next day remove all the 
fat, and to one quart of the clear jelly add one pint of wine, one pound 
of sugar, four lemons (the rind pared like an apple), the slightly-beaten 
whites, and crushed shells of four eggs; boil fifteen minutes without 
stirring; when a thick scum rises, take it off, and keep it skimmed, then 
throw in a cup of cold water; let it boil three or four minutes, skim, 
strain, pour it into moulds wet with cold water, and place them in the 
refrigerator. 

LEMON JELLY. 
One pound of sugar. 

One and a half pints of boiling water. 

One ounce of isinglass, soaked two hours or more in half a pint of 
cold water. 

Half a gill of wine. 

The juice and grated rind of three lemons. 

Pour the boiling water on the isinglass, stir it, and add the other 
ingredients, then pour it in moulds wet with cold water. 



WINE JELLY. " 
Mks. Montgomery. 
One box of Cox's gelatine. 
One and a half pounds of sugar. 

30 



466 



IN THE KITCHEN. 



Two quarts of water. 

One pint of wine. 

Two lemons 

Pour one pint of cold water on the gelatine and the rind of the 
lemons ; let it stand an hour, then add three pints of boiling water, the 
sugar, wine, and lemon-juice ; strain it and put in moulds, which must 
be placed on ice unless the weather is so cold that the jelly will stiffen 
in the open air. 

STRAWBERRY JELLY. 

[see stkawberrt acid, page 523.] 

Strain a quart of the acid and warm it over a vessel of hot water, 
adding to it one ounce of gelatine which has been dissolved in as little 
water as possible ; mix well and pour into moulds. In hot weather 
take one and a half ounces of gelatine. 



ORANGE JELLY. 

One pound of sugar. 

Half a pint and about two thirds of a gill of strained orange-juice. 

Three gills of boiling water. 

The strained juice of two lemons. 

The rind of two oranges. 

One ounce of Cooper's isinglass. 

Soak the isinglass in cold water two hours, taking care that it does 
not float; boil the orange peel in a pint of water until enough of the 
flavor is extracted; this must be decided by the taste, as some like it 
quite bitter. Put the lemon-juice in the gill measure, fill it up with 
orange-juice, and put it with the half pint of juice on the sugar. Take 
the isinglass from the water, lay it for a moment on a towel, then put it 



JELLIES. 467 

in a two-quart tin basin with three gills from the water boiling with 
the orange peel; add the sugar, etc., stir well, and let it heat gradually, 
and when just ready to boil strain it through a towel, aud pour it into 
moulds wet with cold water. 



ORANGE JELLY, NO. 2. 

One box of Cox's gelatine soaked one hour in one pint of cold 
water; add one pint of boiling water, one pound of sugar, and one 
pint of sour orange-juice; pour in moulds rinsed in cold water. 



COFFEE JELLY. 
One pint of clear coffee as strong as it is generally drank; sugar 
to taste. Pour one gill of cold water on half an ounce of Cox's gela- 
tine and let it soak fifteen minutes ; pour off the water, and put the gel- 
atine, when well dissolved, in the hot coffee; wet a mould and pour it 
in through a strainer. 



LADY MARY'S JELLY. 
Put half a pint of calf's foot jelly in a mould that has been rinsed 
with cold water; when stiff and firm place on it a small bunch of fine 
hothouse grapes, and above them two peaches and a nectarine, placing 
them very carefully, remembering that the whole is reversed when 
turned from the mould. When the fruit is tastefully arranged add 
jelly that is partly formed; pour it in slowly on both sides the fruit, 
being sure that it fills all the interstices; let it reach the top of the 
fruit; above this place two or three small, glossy vine-leaves, and add a 
little jelly to keep them firm, and fill the mould; it must be carefully 
turned out. It maj T , perhaps, be loosened with a knife, or the mould 
may be wrapped for a moment in a towel wrung from hot water. If 



468 IN" THE KTTCHEN. 

in this last mode a little melted jelly should settle around the form, 
when served, absorb it with a soft napkin. Lady Mary would probably 
allow the fruit to be varied at pleasure. Beautiful plums might be 
used, or large, firm strawberries; nothing, however, from which the 
juice would come. 

PEACHE3 A LA UDE. 
Make a syrup of a pound of sugar and half a pint of water; when 

boiled and skimmed place in it five or six fine large peaches peeled and 

halved with the blanched kernels; let them boil gently until clear, being 

careful not to break them ; skim them from the syrup and leave them 

to drain; squeeze the juice of six lemons and acid to the syrup with 

gelatine Avhich has been soaked half an hour and melted over boiiing 

water; it must be used in the proportion of one ounce to a quart of 

syrup. "Wet a mould, pour in the jelly to the depth of half an inch, and 

let it harden on the ice; then fill the mould with alternate layers of the 

peaches and half-formed jelly. Place it on the ice and do not disturb 

it until perfectly stiff. 

MACEDODTE OF FRUIT. 
Wine jelly and fruit in alternate layers frozen together; the fruit 
may be of any or of all sorts, and may be candied or preserved, or the 
slices of pear, apple, etc., may be boiled in syrup and then drained. The 
mould must be filled after the jelly has begun to form, but before it is 
stiff, and the first layer should be of jelly. When filled place the mould 
in salt and ice prepared as for freezing an ice-cream; cover closely and 
let it remain several hours. 

ORIENTAL JELLY. 
This consists of red and yellow jellies placed irregularly in small 

quantities in the same mould with bits of quince. 



JELLIES. 469 

One box of Cox's gelatine. 

One and a half pounds of sugar. 

Two quarts of water. 

One pint of wine. 

One slightly heaped tablespoonful of dried saffron flowers. 

One and a half teaspoonfuls of scoke-berry syrup. 

The pared rind and juiee of two lemons. 

Pieces of canned quince. 

Pour one pint of cold water on the gelatine and let it stand an 
hour; drain the juice thoroughly from the quince and lay the pieces in 
a napkin ; add two pints of boiling water to the gelatine, the lemon-peel 
and juice, the sugar and wine; dissolve thoroughly, and let it stand 
while the saffron steeps a few minutes in' two gills of water; then take 
out the lemon-peel, and divide the jelly in two equal parts ; each part 
now requires two gills of water. If the measure of saffron water falls 
short, make it up with boiling water, and add it to one half of the jelly, 
making it a bright yellow; to the other half add two gills of boiling 
water and the scoke-berry juice to make it a deep red; place these jel- 
lies on ice until they are so stiffened that you can barely take up a 
heaped tablespoonful, then wet a mould, lay in two tablespoonfuls of 
one color and then of the other, putting in each a strip of quince about 
an inch long and half an inch wide. In this way fill the mould, and 
place it at once on the ice. 

GREEN MELON IN JELLY. 

Have a large and a small melon mould, also one pint of cream blanc- 
mange not stiffened, and one quart of clear calf's-foot jelly not stiffened ; 
fill the small mould, having wet it, with the blanc-mange, colored green 
with spinach -juice; wet the large one, and pour in clear calf's-foot 



470 IN THE KITCHEN. 

jelly, leaving room for the green melon to stand on it, and be even with 
the top. The next day, or when both are perfectly stiff, have the rest 
of the jelly but partly formed; take the green melon from the mould 
and lay it with the top down on the centre of the jelly, and, keeping it 
in place, pour in all around it the soft jelly, and place the mould on ice. 
Blanc-mange eggs may also be placed in moulds of jelly. 



AN EXQUISITE DISH FOR EASTER. 

Calf's-foot jelly. 

Preserved straws of lemon. 

Blanc-mange moulded in egg-shells. 

Color the jelly a bright yellow by steeping a small quantity of dried 
saffron leaves in the water. Pare the lemon as thin as possible, in bits 
about a finger long and the width of a common straw ; boil them in 
water until tender, then throw them in a rich syrup, and boil until 
clear. 

Make a blanc-mange of cream, divide it in three, color one third 
pink with pokeberry-syrup, one green with spinach, or pistache, and 
leave the other white. Make a hole half an inch in diameter in the side 
of the egg-shell near the large end, and pour out the egg, after breaking 
the yolk with a skewer; wash the shells and let them drain, then lay 
them in a basin of sawdust or salt, to steady them, and pour in the 
blanc-mange, through a cruet-funnel, very slowly, to avoid air-bubbles, 
and place the pan in the refrigerator; this should be done several hours 
before they are wanted. When ready to serve, break the jelly, and form 
a mass of it, about the size and shape of a hen's nest, in a round, 
flat, dish; lay the lemon-peel, irregularly like straws, over the edge 
of the nest; remove the shells carefully from the eggs and complete 
the dish by laying them on the jelly. 



FOR ADDITIONAL ■ RECEIPTS. 471 



472 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



ices. 473 



ICES 



FOR FREEZING ICES. 

One part coarse table salt. 

Two parts ice broken the size of a walnut. 

Pack the creara-pail firmly above the height of the cream. For 
three pints of cream, pour over the ice in the freezer one and a half 
pints of water, and for every additional quart of cream add half a 
pint of water, after the packing. 



TO FREEZE CREAM WITHOUT A FREEZER. 

If one wishes to freeze a pint or quart of cream when there is no 
freezer at hand, it may be done in a tin pail in from twenty to thirty 
minutes. Put the eream in a two-quart tin pail and cover it; mix coarse 
salt with finely-pounded ice or snow, in the proportion of one third 
salt; put a quart of it in an ordinary wooden pail, place the tin pail 
in the centre, and pack it firmly with the freezing mixture to within an 
inch of the top; then remove the cover and stir with a wooden spoon, 
constantly detaching the frozen cream from the bottom and sides of the 
pail, until the whole is stiff; smooth it over the top, replace the cover, 
pour off the water, repack, cover the whole closely with a piece of 
carpet, and leave it for an hour or two in as cool a place as can be 
found. In winter the pail may stand on a chair in the kitchen while 
the cream is being stirred, in summer in any shady place in the open 
air. 

This mode gives one the pleasure of seeing the freezing process, 
which is concealed in patent freezers. 



474 IN - THE KITCHEN. 



PETERBORO ICE CREAM. 

Three quarts of cream, not very rich. 

One pound of granulated sugar. 

One vanilla bean. 

Steep the bean in a little of the cream, break and scrape it well to 
get the full flavor, mix thoroughly with the cream and sugar, then 
pour it in the packed freezer, and freeze it. The pod of the bean may 
be rinsed, left to dry, and used in flavoring boiled custard. 



LEMON ICE-CEEAM. 
To two quarts of sour cream (it must be cream that has soured 
quickly) take one of sweet cream, one pound and a half of sugar, the 
juice and rind of one lemon; cut the rind thin, and steep it ten or 
fifteen minutes in half a pint of the sweet cream over boiling water; 
strain, cool, and add it to the rest. Pat it in the freezer, and set it in 
ice an hour before freezing. 



ICE-CREAM. 

Mrs. Swift. 



Put one pound of sugar, a vanilla bean split, and two quarts of 
milk over boiling water; beat six eggs with half a pound of sugar and 
add to the milk when hot; cook until a little thickened, take it off, and 
when cold add one quart of rich cream, whip it briskly for a few 
moments, and freeze it. 

ICE-CREAM (CORN-STARCH). 
Three pints of milk and cream together, reserving a lijftle for 
mixing the starch. 



ices. 475 

Ten ounces of sugar. 

Four even tablespoonfuls of corn-starch. 

Vanilla extract or bean. 

Four eggs, the whites beaten stiff. 

Let the milk and cream scald over boiling water, add the starch, 
the beaten yolks, and the sugar; when the custard adheres well to the 
spoon add the whites of the eggs and take it from the fire, flavor, and 
when cold freeze. If the vanilla bean is preferred to the extract, it 
must be boiled and scraped in the milk. 



ICE-CREAM (MAIZENA). 

Two quarts of milk. 

One quart of cream, beaten until thick. 

One and a quarter pounds of sugar. 

Three tablespoonfuls of maizena. 

Vanilla bean or extract. 

The whites of four eggs, beaten stiff. 

Put the milk over boiling water, having reserved enough for 
mixing the maizena smooth, which must be added when the milk is hot, 
when cooked add the sugar and let it cool; have the cream on ice and 
salt for an hour, then beat it with the egg-beater until thick, add the 
whites of the eggs, which should be cold as possible when the cream 
is ready; beat up quickly, flavor with vanilla, and freeze as fast as 
possible. 

CARAMEL ICE-CREAM. 

One and a half pounds of brown sugar. 
Three quarts of cream. ' 
One pint of boiling milk. 



476 EST THE KITCHEN. 

Put the sugar in an iron frying-pan on the fire and stir until it is 
a liquid, being careful not to let it become too dark; stir it in the milk, 
strain it, and when cool pour it in the cream, which it both flavors and 
sweetens. To be frozen like vanilla cream. 



CHOCOLATE ICE-CREAM. 

Three quarts of cream. 

One and a half pints of sugar. 

One gill of boiling water. 

Half a pound of Maillard's or other sweetened chocolate. 

Break the chocolate into eight or ten pieces, put it in a small 
saucepan with the water, and stir it over a slow fire until dissolved and 
smooth; add by degrees a pint of the cream, then the sugar, and 
when well mixed the rest of the cream, and strain it into the freezer. 



COFFEE ICE-CREAM. 

Half a pint of very strong, clear coffee. 

One pint of sugar. 

Three pints of cream. 

One tablespoonful of arrowroot. 

Scald one pint of the cream and stir in the arrowroot, mixed 
smooth in a little cold cream; add the sugar and coffee, and when cold 
the rest of the cream. 

Or, pour a pint of cream on one pint of hot roasted Mocha coffee, 
cover, and let it scald five minutes over boiling water; then let it stand 
ten minutes, strain it into a pint of cold cream, heat it, and pour it on 
four eggs well beaten with three quarters of a pound of sugar. When 
cold, freeze. 



ices. 477 



TEA ICE-CREAM. 

Pour a pint of cream on half a gill of Old Hyson, cover, and let 
it scald over boiling water a few minutes; take it from the fire and let 
it stand five minutes, strain it into a pint of cold cream, put it over the 
boiling water, and when scalding mix it gradually with four eggs well 
beaten with three quarters of a pound of sugar. When cold, freeze, 



ICE-CBEAM DIPLOMAT. 
In a tin, brick-shaped mould put a layer of strawberry cream half 
an inch deep, and fill the mould with vanilla cream, dropping in here 
and there a little candied fruit. Pack the mould in salt and ice until 
thoroughly frozen. 



TUTTE FRUTTE. 
A rich vanilla cream with candied cherries, raisins, currants, and 
citron. The fruit must be added when the cream is nearly frozen. 



PEACH ICE-CREAM. 
Select rich, ripe peaches, peel and mash them to a pulp ; make them 
very sweet (they will not require more than a pound of sugar to a 
pound of fruit, probably not as much), and add to every pint a pint of 
cream. Remember in* using sugar that much sweetness is lost in the 
freezing. Coddled apples may be used instead of peaches. 



PINEAPPLE ICE-CREAM. 
Choose a very ripe pineapple, pare it, take out all the eyes, then 
grate it, and make after the above rule. 



478 



IN THE KITCHEN. 



STRAWBERRIES FRAPPEE3. 
Line a mould with vanilla ice-cream, fill the centre with fresh 
strawberries, cover with ice-cream; cover the mould securely, and pack 
it in the freezer with pounded ice and salt; let it remain from half to 
three quarters of an hour and serve. The fruit must not be frozen, but 
thoroughly chilled. Ripe peaches peeled and cut are delicious used in 
this way. 

* STRAWBERRY ICECREAM. 

Mrs. W. 

Pour a quart of scalding milk on a well-beaten egg and an even 
tablespoonful of corn-starch mixed smooth in a little cold milk; stir it 
over boiling water until it begins to thicken; when cold mix it with 
a pint of strawberries that have been mashed with a half a pound 
of sugar and rubbed through the colander; freeze as usual. 



STRAWBERRY ICECREAM. 
Mash with a potato-pounder in an earthen bowl one quart of straw- 
berries with one pound of sugar; rub it through the colander, add one 
quart of sweet cream, and freeze. Very ripe peaches or coddled apples 
may be used instead of strawberries. 



CITRON ICE. 
Make two quarts of rich lemonade well flavored with the rind; this 
may be done by grating two or three of the lemons and leaving the rind 
for a short time in the water; or if lump-sugar is used rub some of the 
pieces over the lemons to extract the flavor; if the grated rind is used, 
the lemonade must be strained before putting in the citron. Slice 
enough citron thin and small to fill loosely a half-pint measure, and 



ices. 479 

throw it in the lemonade; put it on the fire and boil for a moment, or 
if made the previous evening it requires no boiling. Beat the whites- 
of three eggs to a stiff froth and add the above, beginning with very 
little, and adding the whole gradually, when it is ready to freeze. 
Preserved water-melon may take the place of citron. 



CURRANT ICE. 



To one pint of currant-juice add one pound of sugar and one pint 
of water; when partly frozen add the whites of three eggs whisked to 
a stiff froth. 

STRAWBERRY ICE. 

Crush two quarts of strawberries with two pounds of sugar; let 
them stand an hour or more, squeeze them in a straining cloth, pressing 
out all the juice; add to it an equal measure of water, and when half 
frozen add the whisked whites of eggs in the proportion of three to a 
quart. 

ORANGE ICE. 
Grate the rind of four oranges and steep it ten minutes in a pint 
and a gill of water; strain a pint of the water on one pound of sugar, 
add a pint of orange-juice, and when cold pour it in the freezer, and 
freeze ; when half frozen add the whites of four eggs whisked to a stiff 
froth. 

LEMON ICE. 
To one pint of lemon-juice add one quart of sugar and one quart 
of water in which the thin rind of three lemons has been steeped until 
highly flavored; when partly frozen add the whites of four eggs beaten 
to a stiff froth. 



480 



IN THE KITCHEN. 



PINEAPPLE ICE. 

» Pare good, ripe pineapples and cut out the eyes; grate them arid 
pass the pulp through the colander; to one quart of this add one and 
a quarter pounds of sugar and one pint of water; whisk the whites of 
two eggs to a stiff froth and add the above little by little, beating well 
to make them mix; freeze. 

SNOW CEEAM. 
Add a quarter of a pound of sugar to half a pint of cream, and 
%vor highly with vanilla or lemon ; if fresh lemon is used, more sugar 
will be required. Stir in newly-fallen snow until thick as ice cream. 
The syrup of any kind of sweetmeats may be used instead of cream. 
In either case the snow must not be added until just before serving. 



SCOKE 0E POKE BERRY. 

This is very valuable for the beautiful color which its juice im- 
parts to creams, ices, jellies, etc. It is a low, herbaceous plant with a 
reddish stalk and large clusters of very dark purplish berries. 

When ripe, gather the fruit, put it in a porcelain kettle, and nearly 
cover with cold water; let it boil slowly until the skins break; strain 
it, and to a pint of the juice add one pound of sugar; boil it a few 
minutes, then bottle and seal. 

In coloring a pint of cream, begin with half a teaspoonful, and 
add more if a darker shade is desired. 



TO PREPARE PISTACHE NUTS FOR ICE-CREAM. 
Pour boiling water over them; let them stand a few moments, 
drain, and cover again with boiling water, when the skins will slip off 
quite easily. They are then pounded to a paste in a mortar and mixed 
with the cream. 



FRESH FRUITS. 481 



FRESH FRUITS 



HOW TO SERVE A WATER MELON. 
Chill the melon on the ice ; cover the inner part of the platter with 
fresh, clean grape-leaves; place the melon in the centre and cut it in 
two, letting the ends fall back to show the fine coloring of the pulp 
and seeds; at table it should be helped with a spoon, scooped oulf in 
symmetrical, egg-shaped pieces. 



HOW TO CUT A PINEAPPLE. 
Pare it carefully, and with the point of the knife take out all the 
eyes; then, with a silver fork, pick the fruit from the core in bits as 
large as an almond or Brazil nut; cover with sugar or not as preferred ; 
sugar draws out the juice; place on ice in time to have it well chilled 
when served. 

STRAWBERRIES. 
Do not wash them unless absolutely necessary; but if it must be 
done, hold the shallow basket of unhulled strawberries close under the 
pump while you give them one good, generous douche which will pass 
at once through the basket, taking with it the dirt and grit which would 
otherwise have set your teeth on edge ; let them drain and dry for a 
few moments undisturbed, then hull them, handling lightly as possible. 
Put no sugar over them; it draws out the juice and changes the char- 
acter of the fruit. If the strawberries are not to be eaten for an hour 
or more, hang the basket in the refrigerator, and do not hull tnem until 
the last moment. 



4S2 



IN THE KITCHEN. 



CHERRIES. 
Gather them in clusters with a few leaves attached, and arrange 
them in a deep glass dish with large pieces of clear ice. 



CURRANTS. 
Look them over carefully, wash if necessary, and leave them to 
drain, in the refrigerator. Serve with a piece of clear ice in the centre. 
Of a sultry summer morning nothing is more refreshing. 



WHORTLEBERRIES. 
Look them over carefully, taking out all that are past their prime, 
or not fully ripe; wash, drain, and serve for breakfast or tea. 



PEACHES. 
It is very important that they should all be perfectly ripe ; better 
have a small dish of good peaches than a large dish spoiled by half a 
dozen peaches with a hard side. Pare them, cut in strips lengthwise, 
and serve at once; they become discolored if left standing. 



AMBROSIA. 

Six large oranges. 

One cocoanut. 

Sugar. 

Peel and slice the oranges, taking out the seeds ; pare and grate 
the cocoanut; put them in layers in a deep dish, strewing every layer 
with powdered sugar. 



FRESH FRUITS. 483 



FRESH FRUIT SUGARED. 
Select full, beautiful stems of the large red and white currants, and 
fine bunches of cherries; beat the white of an egg barely enough to 
break it; dip the fruit in the egg, then in powdered sugar, and leave it 
to dry on the shallow side of a sieve. 



484 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



485 



486 FOR ADDITIONAL KECEIPTS. 



FRUITS, BAKED, STEWED, AND PRESERVED. 487 



FRUITS. 

Baked, Stewed, and Preserved. 



APPLES FOE, TEA. 
Pare and core tart apples; fill the centre with sugar and a small 
bit of butter; put them in deep pie-plates with a little water, and 
bake until tender, basting occasionally with the syrup. To be eaten 
cold with sugar and cream. 

BAKED SWEET APPLES. 
For baking, no apple is equal to the Pound Sweeting. Never core 
Bweet apples; wash them, put them in the oven with a little water in the 
pan, and bake them very slowly for hours. They are wonderfully rich 
and luscious when properly baked, but quite indifferent if taken from 
the oven even a little too soon. They should be a dark, rich brown, 
with a slight appearance of syrup over them. 



BLACK CAPS. 
Pare and core sour apples; stick four cloves in the top of each, fill the 
centre with sugar and bake them, with a little water, in deep pie-plates. 



APPLES STEWED WITH CLOVES. 
Two and a half pounds of Spitzenberg apples. 
One pound of sugar. 
One quart of water. 
Cloves. 



488 IN THE KITCHEN". 

Put the sugar and water in a bright tin milk-pan. Peel and core 
the apples, sticking five cloves in every one. When the syrup is hot 
lay in the apples, cover, and let them boil until about done ; then re- 
move the cover that they may become clear, as they cook slowly and 
are exposed to the air. 

BAKED APPLES FOR DINNER. 
Quarter and core (do not pare) sour apples, put them in a baking 
dish, sprinkle with sugar, cover with small bits of butter, add water and 
bake until tender. For a dish holding three pints use a gill of sugar, a 
gill and a half of water, and butter the size of half an egg. 



STEWED APPLES FOR DINNER. 
Use Spitzenbergs or Greenings or any acid apple that will keep in 
form. Put a quart of water and three gills of sugar in a milk-pan on 
the range; when boiling add the apples, pared, quartered, and cored, — 
no more of them than will be nearly covered by the water; cover and 
boil slowly until almost done; then leave them uncovered, and as the 
pieces become tender, put them carefully one by one, the rounded sides 
up, in the dish in which they are to be served; some of the syrup may 
be poured over them. 

FRIED APPLES FOR DINNER. 
Use Spitzenbergs or Greenings ; quarter and core, but do not pare 
them; have hot drippings ready in the frying-pan and lay in the ap- 
ples, the skin side down; sprinkle with brown sugar, and when nearly 
cooked, turn and brown thoroughly. Drippings do not burn as readily 
as butter, and are better on that account. 



FRUITS, BAKED, STEWED, AND PRESERVED. 489 

CODDLED APPLE. 
"Wash unripe, dark-green, sour apples, and put them in a porcelain- 
lined kettle; cover with water, and let them boil until tender; pour them 
in a sieve and let them cool; throw away the water that drains from 
them; rub them through the sieve and add sugar to- the taste; the ap- 
ples should be so sour as to require a great deal. Serve cold, pouring 
it in the centre of the dish; leave it as it falls, do not smooth it, grate 
a little nutmeg over the top. To be eaten with sugar and cream. 



BAKED PEACHES. 
Wash the peaches (they need not be fully ripe), put them 
in a deep dish, sprinkle them well with sugar, cover, and bake 
until perfectly tender. 



STEWED PEACHES. 
Wipe peaches that are almost ripe, half cover them with water, 
cover the pan and stew until tender, adding sugar to the taste before 
they are quite done. 

BAKED aUINCES. 
Wash ripe quinces and core them; put them in an ordinary bak- 
ing-dish with half a gill of water; fill the holes with sugar, and bake 
until thoroughly done. 

STEAMED QUINCES. 
Pare, quarter, and core very ripe quinces ; put them in a deep dish 
and steam until perfectly tender; then slice them in the dish in which 
they are to be served, in layers sprinkled with sugar, and pour the juice 
over them. To be eaten cold. 



4:90 IN THE KITCHEN". 



DRIED SOUR APPLES, WITH DRIED BLACK RASPBERRIES. 
Wash both very lightly, and soak (separately) over night in suffi- 
cient water to cover them. In the morning put the apples on the fire 
in the same water, adding more until well covered, and cover the ket- 
tle;/ when they begin to boil, shake and stir them gently to bring the 
lower pieces to the top, that they may stew evenly; when half done 
add the raspberries with the juice, and when the apples are tender put 
in sugar to the taste; let all simmer together half an hour, or until of 
a fine, rich color. 

FRIED BANANAS. 
J. J. D. 

Peel ripe bananas, split them in two lengthwise, fry in butter, 
sprinkle with sugar, and serve for dessert. 



STEWED CRANBERRIES. 
Pick them over carefully and take out all that are defective; wash 
them well, and put them over the fire, more than covered with water; 
cover the saucepan, and stew until the skins are tender, adding more 
water if necessary; add a pound of sugar for every pound of cranber- 
ries, let them simmer ten or twelve minutes, then put them away in a 
bowl or wide-mouthed crock, and keep them covered. 



BAKED PEARS. 
"Wash them, leave the stems on, put them in a two-quart stone crock 
with a gill of water and half a pint of brown sugar; cover the crock with a 
piece of dough (coarse flour and water), rolled about half an inch thick, 
or with the stone cover belonging to the crock; put them in the oven, and 
bake two hours or more; the time depends on the ripeness of the fruit. 



FRUITS, BAKED, STEWED AND PRESERVED. 491 

STEWED PEARS. 
They should be ripe but firm; pare them carefully, that they may 
be smooth as possible, and the stems unbroken; drop them in boiling 
water to which sugar has been added '(one gill to a quart) ; the water 
should nearly cover the pears; cover the pan, and boil until perfectly 
tender. 

If liked, part of a vanilla bean may be boiled with them, and more 
sugar added. 

BARTLETT PEARS. (Canned.) 

Ten pounds of fruit. 

Two and a half pounds of sugar. 

Two quarts of water. 

"Weigh the sugar and put it in the preserving-pan with the water, 
leaving ii covered on the table. The fruit should be ripe and yellow, 
but perfectly firm; pare, halve, and core it, leaving the stem, when pos- 
sible; sometimes it may be divided with the pear. Ten minutes before 
finishing this work put the pan on the stove, and when the syrup boils your 
fruit will be ready for it. Slide it in, all together, and let it boil, covered 
until nearly done; have a deep pan of boiling water on the stove, close 
by the pears, with a thin board in the bottom, on which are five glass 
quart-cans, half filled with water; as the fruit cooks, empty the cans 
and fill them. There will be specks in the syrup, little particles of the 
fruit that have boiled off; and to strain this without cooling the syrup, 
heat a small pitcher in boiling .water, place it in the kettle with a little 
wire sieve in the top, and fill it with a ladle or teacup, then quickly fill 
and cover the cans. There will be perhaps a pint of syrup left, but 
that will do for pears, baked in a jar; or, if a thicker syrup is preferred, 
boil it down before filling the cans; while the syrup is boiling the covers 



492 IN THE KITCHEN. 



may be placed on the cans to keep the water from getting 1 in, but they 
must not be screwed on. 

Lay the rubber, rings, and glass covers on the cans while they 
are in the water, and give the metal ring a turn, then remove them to 
the table and screw tight. An hour or two later screw them again as 
tight as possible. 



PEAR SWEETMEATS. 

The pears must be ripe but firm; pare, halve, and core them, cover 
with water, and let them stew gently until tender. If lemon is liked 
with them, cut the rind as delicately as possible in long, thin, narrow 
strips, and boil it in clear water. If green ginger is preferred, scrape 
it thoroughly and boil it with the pears. Allow one lemon or half an 
ounce of ginger to a pound of fruit; make a syrup of three fourths of a 
pound of sugar to half a pint of water, using the water in which the 
pears were boiled; when boiled and skimmed, put in the fruit and boil 
until clear; boil the ginger or lemon-peel with the pears; if lemon is 
used, squeeze the juice in the syrup. 



PIE-PLANT STEWED WITH ORANGE PEEL. 

Pare an orange in long thin strips and boil until tender; add sugar 
to make a rich syrup, lay in pieces of pie^plant two or three inches long 
in a single layer, and stew gently until clear. When these are taken 
out another layer may be stewed. This makes a beautiful dish for' des- 
sert, ornamented with stars and crescents of puff paste. Allow one 
orange for two pounds of pie-plant. 



FRUITS, BAKED, STEWED, AND PRESERVED. 493 

PIE PLANT FOR TEA. 
Cut the stems into bits an inch long, put them in a baking-dish in 
layers with an equal weight of sugar, cover closely, and bake. It is 
said to be far better than stewed pie-plant. 



PIE-PLANT CANNED. 
Cut the pie-plant in pieces two inches long, put it over a slow fire 
with its weight in sugar; when the sugar is dissolved let it boil slowly 
until clear, but do not leave it to become dark-colored. Put it in air- 
tight cans. 



GOOSEBERRY SWEETMEATS. 
Nip the remains of the flower from the end of the gooseberries, 
wash, and weigh them, allowing a pound of granulated sugar to every 
one of fruit; cover, and place them over a slow fire, letting them stew 
gradually until the skins are tender; they must not be stirred, but should 
be shaken now and then; add the sugar, and when perfectly dissolved, 
without boiling, while the fruit is very hot, fill the cans, and screw the 
covers tight as possible. 

STRAWBERRY SWEETMEATS. 

Two pounds of sugar. 

Two heaping pints of very large strawberries. 

Two gills of boiling water. 

Put the sugar in a bright tin preserving-pan over a kettle of boiling 
water, and pour on it the measure of water; when the sugar is dis- 
solved and hot, put in the fruit, and then the pan can go directly on 
the range; let it boil ten minutes, or longer if the fruit is not clear; do 



494 IN THE KITCHEN. 

not let it boil violently, for that would break the strawberries ; put them 
in cans, and keep them hot while the syrup is boiled down until very 
thick and rich; then fill the cans, having drained off the thin syrup, and 
screw down the tops. If much fruit is put up during the day, and there 
is more syrup than is wanted, it may, while thin, be flavored with vine- 
gar, boiled for a moment, then bottled and corked; it makes a pleasant 
drink with ice-water. 

Great care must be taken to keep the strawberries not only 
whole, but round as possible; therefore as the cans cool, turn them 
occasionally, to prevent the fruit lying in a flattened mass at either 
end. As this fruit is very delicate and breaks easily, it should not be 
preserved in large quantities. 



GRAPE SWEETMEATS. 

Pick the grapes from the stems, pop the pulps from the skins, doing 
two at a time, one in each hand, between the thumb and forefinger; put 
the pulp in a porcelain kettle, and stew gently until the seeds are 
loosened; then strain and rub it through a sieve; weigh it with the 
skins, and to every pound of this allow one pound of granulated sugar, 
but do not put it in yet; put the skins and juice in the kettle, cover 
closely, and cook slowly until the skins are tender; while still boiling, 
add the sugar, and move the kettle back, as it must not boil again; keep 
very hot for fifteen minutes, then, seeing that the sugar is thoroughly 
dissolved, pour the fruit in cans, and screw down the covers as quickly 
as possible. 

The grapes should be dead ripe, and none but those with tender 
skins should be used in this way. The Isabella is excellent, but the 
Concord defies time and patience with the thickness and toughness of 
its skin. 



FRUITS, BAKED, STEWED, AND PRESERVED. 495 

There is a Fox grape which is preserved green, and is very 
beautiful ; it is large and firm, and before boiling it is cut open, and the 
seeds are taken out. 



TO DRY BLACKBERRIES. 

Mks. Burritt, Penn. 

Look them over carefully, pick out all leaves and stems, then add 
one pound of sugar to eight or ten quarts of berries and half a pint 
of water; let them heat slowly and scald thoroughly for several min- 
utes, then spread them with the juice on platters, or plates, and dry 
them in a partly cooled oven. 



BLACKBERRY SWEETMEATS. 
The large Lawton Blackberry is the best for this purpose, as its 
acidity makes a soft jelly of the syrup. Allow a pound of sugar to a 
pound of fruit; put the fruit in a porcelain kettle, let it heat slowly on 
the back of the stove until there is so much juice that it can boil with- 
out burning. It must boil until perfectly tender, perhaps ten or fifteen 
minutes; then add the sugar, mix as gently as possible, and do not let 
it boil again, but keep very hot until the sugar is perfectly dissolved. 
Heat a pitcher, and with that fill the cans as quickly as possible, and 
screw down the covers immediately. 



TO DRY CURRANTS. 
One pound of sugar. 
Five pounds of currants. 

Put them together in a porcelain kettle, a layer of currants at 
the bottom; when the sugar is dissolved let them almost boil, skim 



496 IX THE KITCHEN. 

them from the syrup, and spread them on plates to dry in a partly 
cooled oven. Boil the syrup until thickened, pour it over the currants, 
and dry it with them. Pack in jars, and cover closely. 



CURRANT SWEETMEATS. 
Look them over carefully, stem and weigh them, allowing a pound 
of sugar to every one of fruit ; put them in a kettle, cover, and leave 
them to heat slowly and stew gently for twenty or thirty minutes ; then 
add the sugar, and shake the kettle occasionally to make it mix with 
the fruit; do not allow it to boil, but keep as hot as possible until the 
sugar is dissolved, then pour it in cans and secure the covers at once. 
White currants are beautiful preserved in this way. 



RED OR BLACK RASPBERRIES WITH CURRANT JUICE. 

Ten pounds of raspberries. 

Twelve pounds of granulated sugar. 

One quart of currant juice. 

Make a syrup of the sugar and juice; when boiling add the fruit, 
and continue boiling for ten minutes. Put in glass cans, and fasten 
immediately. 



CHERRY SWEETMEATS. 

Mrs. B. 



To ten pounds of cherries allow five pounds of sugar; stone the 
fruit and put it in a porcelain kettle in layers with the sugar; let it heat 
slowly until the juice is drawn out; or it may stand in a cool place 
several hours, even over night; when stewed until tender take the cher- 



FRUITS, BAKED, STEWED, AXD PRESERVED. 4:97 

ries from the syrup in a little strainer, and put them in cans placed 
on a board in boiling' water. Boil the syrup until thick, then fill the 
cans and fasten the covers. 

CRAB APPLE SWEETMEATS. 

To a pound of fruit allow a pound of sugar, and one quart of hot 
water to seven pounds of fruit. 

Put the sugar and water in the preserving-kettle, and let it stand 
over boiling water to dissolve while the fruit is being prepared; it must 
be rubbed clean, and well pricked with a coarse needle, the stems left 
on The syrup must then be placed where it will boil, then add the 
fruit; boil until so tender that a straw will reach the core. Put in cans 
and screw down the covers at once. 



CRAB APPLE MARMALADE WITH PLUM SYRUP. 

Peterboro, N. Y. 

Sixteen pounds of crab apples. 

Four quarts of plum-syrup. 

Two quarts of granulated sugar. 

Two quarts of cold water. 

Nip the remains of the flower from the apples and take off the stems ; 
put them in a preserving-kettle with the water and let them boil until 
perfectly soft; rub them (juice and all) through the sieve or colander, 
add the sugar and syrup, and boil until thick, then pour it into pie-plates, 
and when stiffened paste paper over them. Cut in slices to serve. 

In preserving plums there is always more syrup than should be put 
up with the fruit; it can be put aside in self-sealing cans, or in bottles, 
until crab apples are ripe, and then used in this way, making a marma- 
lade of delightful flavor. 

32 



498 IN THE KITCHEN. 



PEACHES. 

Mrs. B. 

Pare fourteen pounds of ripe peaches, nearly cover them with 
slightly-sweetened water, — two pounds of sugar to three quarts of 
water. While the peaches are stewing prepare a syrup of seven pounds 
of sugar to seven gills of boiling water; boil and skim it; have glass 
cans, half filled with hot water, on a round board, in a pan of boiling 
water, and as the peaches become tender, pour the water from the cans 
and fill them; then drain the juice from the peaches, fill the cans with 
the boiling syrup, and screw down the covers. "While cooling, keep the 
cans turned upside down. 



PEACH SWEETMEATS. 

Mrs. Alexander. 

Pare, halve, and weigh the fruit, allowing a pound of sugar to a 
pound of peaches; crack half of the stones and blanch the kernels 
(see page 372); place the fruit in layers with the sugar in a bowl (but 
two pounds should be preserved at a time) and let it stand two or three 
hours; when the sugar is dissolved put the whole in a kettle with the 
kernels, boil fast until the fruit is perfectly clear, put it in cans, boil the 
syrup a little longer, strain it hot upon the fruit, and cover imme- 
diately.- 



PEACH MARMALADE 
Pare, halve, and weigh the peaches; allow three quarters of a pound 
of sugar to one of fruit; boil the fruit alone, breaking, and stirring it 
smooth, add the sugar, cook slowly, stirring often until it is very thick. 
Pour in earthen pie-plates, and when cold cover with paper. 



FRUITS, BAKED, STEWED, AND PRESERVED. 499 

ORANGE MARMALADE. 

Twelve pounds of sour oranges. 

Twelve pounds of crushed sugar. 

Wash the oranges, and pare them as you would apples; put the 
peel in a porcelain-lined kettle with twice its bulk or more of cold 
water; keep it covered, and boil until perfectly tender; if the water 
boils away, add more; the peel is generally very hard, and requires sev- 
eral hours boiling; cut the oranges in two, crosswise, and squeeze out 
the juice and the soft pulp; have a pitcher with a strainer in the top, 
placed in a two-quart bowl; squeeze the thin juice and seeds in the 
strainer and the rest with the pulp in the bowl, drawing the skin as you 
squeeze it over the edge of the tin strainer, to scrape off the pulp ; then 
pour all the juice and the pulp on the sugar; the white skins must be 
covered with three quarts of cold water, and boiled half an hour; drain 
the water on the sugar; put the white skins in the colander, four or 
five together, and pound off the soft part, of which there must be in all 
two pounds and four ounces; put this with the sugar and juice; when 
the peel is tender drain it from the water, and choose either of these 
three modes : Pound it in a mortar, chop it in a bowl, or cut it in deli- 
cate shreds with a pair of scissors. There is still another way, which 
saves the necessity of handling the peel after it is boiled; it is to grate 
the yellow rind from the orange, then tie it in a muslin bag, and boil 
until soft, which you can tell by rubbing a little of it between the thumb 
and finger; it is then ready for the other ingredients; put the whole in 
a porcelain kettle, or in a bright tin preserving-pan, aud boil about an 
hour; when it begins to thicken it must be tried occasionally, by letting 
a little of it cool in a spoon laid on ice. To prevent its burning, pass 
the spoon often over the bottom of the kettle; when it is thick as 
desired put it in tumblers, and cover with paper. 



500 IN THE KITCHEN". 

TO MAKE GREEN SWEETMEATS, 
Pare watermelon-rind and cut it in leaves, diamonds, hearts, or any 
form that may be liked; the very small, green melons, from six to eight 
inches in length, must have a round piece, two inches across, cut from 
the side, that all the pulp and seeds may be removed; do this carefully, 
with the handle of a spoon; preserve the piece. Put all in a crock, and 
pour over them a brine of one and a half pounds of salt to four quarts 
of water; let them remain in this two or three weeks if the weather is 
warm, — longer, if cold; they may remain unharmed for two or three 
months, if care is taken to keep the brine strong. Before preserving 
soak all the salt entirely out, by keeping them in fresh water, and 
changing often; boil until a straw can be run through them, and while 
boiling change them several times from boiling to cold water, as it 
makes them clear and brittle; if the melon is not green enough put in 
cabbage-leaves and boil again in fresh water. Make a strong ginger 
tea, by steeping dried or green ginger; if the latter is used it 
must be first well soaked and scraped that it may not discolor the 
syrup; add also the rind of several lemons, pared in quarters, being 
careful to take them out when the water is sufficiently flavored, after 
which they must be more than covered with fresh water and boiled 
until perfectly tender; then cut in fingers, remove the white, and with 
a pair of scissors notch the edges; they may also be cut like leaves. 
Allow one pound of sugar to one of melon; make a syrup of one pint 
of the strong ginger and lemon tea to four pounds of best sugar; let 
it dissolve slowly over boiling water, then put it on the range, and when 
boiling lay in the drained melon and lemon leaves, and boil until they 
are clear, when they may be tastefully arranged in cans, the lemon 
and the most beautiful pieces of melon lying evenly against the glass. 
Make a fresh syrup in the same way, and pour hot over the melons; 



FRUITS, RAKED, STEWED, AND PRESERVED. 50,1 

the ginger may be nicely cut, preserved in the first syrup, and put in 
the cans with the melon; or pieces of* preserved East India ginger may 
be used, but not boiled with it. If lemon-juice is liked, put it in the la^t 
syrup; the first syrup may be used in stewing pears, or canned, and 
used in mince-pies. Fill the small, whole melons with rich, drained 
sweetmeats, — cherries, crab apples, pears, and barberries, — and fasten 
the cover with two or three locust-thorns. 



PRESERVED OR PRESSED ORANGES. 
Slit the oranges and press out the juice and seeds; strain the juice, 
and leave it in a cold place ; boil the rinds, well covered with water, 
until tender, not allowing them to break; press out all of the water, 
cover with fresh, cold water, and let them stand until the next morning, 
then press out the water and weigh them ; allow three quarters of a 
pound of sugar to one of orange; make a syrup with the juice and 
sugar, put in the rinds, and boil slowly for an hour and a quarter, 
or until they are clear; if the syrup is too thick, add a little water. 
If boiled too long, they become tough and dark-colored. 



KITTY'S PINEAPPLE. 
Pare the .pineapples and take out the eyes; cut in slices about 
half an inch thick and shred with a silver fork; to every pound of fruit 
put half a pound of granulated sugar, mix, and boil hard five minutes; 
can while boiling hot, and screw down the covers immediately. 



FRESH PINEAPPLE FOR CHRISTMAS. 
Take a very fine ripe pineapple, pare it, and cut out carefully all 
the eyes, then with a silver fork strip all the pulp from the core; to one 



502 IN" THE TCITCHEST. 

pint of this add one pound and a Quarter of lump or crushed sugar, and 
stir occasionally until all the sugar is dissolved; then put it in glass 
fruit-cans and screw down the covers as tight as possible. This keeps 
a long time and is delicious. 

PINEAPPLE MARMALADE. 
Pare the pineapples and take out the eyes, weigh them, and allow 
a pound of sugar (granulated) to every pound of fruit; grate the pine- 
apples on a coarse grater, put them over the fire, add the sugar gradu- 
ally, stir often, and cook until clear and thick; then put up in air-tight 
cans. 

QUINCE SWEETMEATS. 
Wash the quinces and steam them until they can be pierced to the 
core with a straw; leave them to cool. If to be preserved whole, core 
them before paring; otherwise, pare smoothly, then cut into fourths or 
eighths. To every pound of fruit allow one pound of sugar made into 
a syrup with half a pint of boiling water; boil and skim the syrup, then 
slide in the fruit, cover the kettle, and boil for ten minutes; remove the 
cover, and if not clear let them stand for a few moments, then put them 
in hot cans (see "Canned Pears," page 491), and close at once. 



QUINCE SWEETMEATS. 

Mrs. Allyng. 

Pare, core, and weigh the quinces, and allow three quarters of a 
pound of sugar to every pound of quince; cut them in rings; put the 
parings and cores into just enough cold water to cover them, and boil 
uutil very tender; throw them into a bag and let thorn drip without the 
least squeezing; put a little water in the kettle with one layer of the 



FRUITS, BAKED, STEWED, AND PRESERVED. 503 

quince-rings and cover tight; cook until a straw will go through them, 
skim them out carefully, put them in a tureen and cover them; proceed 
in this way until all are boiled. Put the sugar in the water from which 
the quinces were skimmed, add what has dripped from the bag and 
boil fifteen minutes; skim it, pour it over the fruit, cover tight, and 
let it stand ten days; then put the colander over the kettle and pour 
in it the contents of the tureen; be careful that all of the juice drains 
into the kettle; return the quinces to the tureen, let the syrup boil 
twenty minutes, pour it over the quinces, then put in cans and screw 
the covers tight as possible. They keep well and are delicious. 



aUINCE AND APPLE BUTTER. 

Five pounds of quinces. 

Ten pounds of sour apples. 

Seven and a half pounds of sugar. 

Pare, core, and quarter the fruit; boil the quinces barely covered 
with water until soft, then add the apples, and when tender add the 
sugar, and boil slowly several hours, or until as thick as desired ; stir it 
occasionally, and towards the last very often to prevent burning. 



aUINCE MARMALADE. 
Pare, quarter, core, and weigh the fruit, cover it with cold water 
and let it boil until broken; mash and stir it smooth, add the sugar, and 
boil until so thick that it will be stiff when cold. Be very careful that 
it does not burn; stir often and cook slowly; when quite thick try a 
little of it on ice. Put it in earthen pie-plates, and when* cold paste 
paper over them. 



504 IN THE KITCHEN. 



DRIED PLUMS. 

Two pounds of sugar. 

Eight pounds of plums. 

The plums must be stemmed, stoned, and free from specks; put 
part of them in a porcelain kettle with the sugar, let them heat slowly 
to extract the juice, then scald them thoroughly without boiling; skim 
out the fruit with a coarse wire-skimmer and spread it carefully on plat- 
ters; scald the rest of the plums in the same syrup, and when they are 
taken out boil the syrup five or ten minutes, and pour it over them. 
Dry quickly as convenient; the syrup jellies and the whole dries easily. 



PLUM SWEETMEATS. 
Allow a pound of sugar to every pound of fruit; if the plums are 
very fine and large, do but a small quantity at once, and in this way: 
Make a syrup of three gills of water to two pounds of sugar, and when 
skimmed and boiling, put in. the plums and boil slowly until clear; keep 
them covered for the first fifteen minutes. The syrup that is left when 
they are put in the cans is excellent with crab-apples (see page 497). 
If the plums are small, after weighing them and allowing an equal 
weight of sugar, put them where they will heat very slowly, and let 
them stew until the skin is perfectly tender; then put in the sugar and 
shake the kettle; do not stir the fruit; let it simmer very slowly for 
twenty minutes, then put in glass cans and screw tight. 



APPLE JELLY. 

Hamburg, Germany. 

Wash sour apples and quarter them; put them in a porcelain ket- 
tle and cover them with cold water; let them boil untouched until they 



FRUITS, BAKED, STEWED, AND PRESERVED. 505 

break, then put them away in the kqftle, if it can be spared, otherwise 
in an earthen bowl, for three days; then drain them without pressing, 
add one pound of sugar to every pint of juice, and boil three quarters 
of an hour. Pour it in a pitcher, fill the glasses, and cover them. 



CUEEANT JELLY WITHOUT BOILING THE SUGAR. 
Wash the currants, if necessary, but be careful to let them drain 
thoroughly, over night if possible; pick out all the leaves, then crush 
the fruit with the hands in a large earthen bowl, about a quart at once. 
Have a stone crock with a strainer tied over the top of it, drooping in 
the centre, or a hair sieve, and as the currants are ready pour them in 
it; when they are all crushed and draining, stir them about with the 
hand and squeeze the thin juice from them ; then take about a pint and a 
half at a time in a strong towel and squeeze them; the thick juice that 
comes at the very last it is well to put aside for currant shrub; the'first 
can go with that in the crock. Measure the jnice, and to every pint 
allow one pound of granulated sugar; put the juice in the preserving- 
kettle and lot it boil fast for twenty minutes, skimming it well; pour 
the sugar in the boiling juice, having taken from it enough to equal the 
quantity of scum which has been removed ; place the kettle where it 
will keep hot but do not let it boil; stir gently, and when the sugar is 
entirely dissolved pour it in a large pitcher and fill the jelly-glasses. 
They may be at once covered, but should not be moved until the jelly 
is formed. 



CUEEANT JELLY. 
The currants must not be dead ripe; look them over and pick out 
all the leaves, but do not stem them; put them over the fire in a porce- 



50G IX THE KITCHEX. 

lain kettle and let them remain,- heating gradually, until they look 
shrivelled ; they must scald thoroughly, but not boil. Pour the con- 
tents in a large flannel bag, and drain without touching; to every pint 
•of this allow one pound of crushed or granulated sugar; boil the juice 
fifteen minutes without the sugar, and five minutes after putting it in; 
skim well, and pour in the glasses; squeeze what remains in the bag and 
make it like the above. It will be beautiful jelly but not equal to the 
first. 

CURRANT JELLY WITH THREE QUARTERS OF A POUND OF SUGAR. 

Heat the currants as in the above rule, squeeze them, and to every 
pint of juice add three quarters of a pound of sugar; boil twenty min- 
utes, skim, and put it in glasses. This is a beautiful jelly, but does not 
keep as well as that made with more sugar. 

Half a bushel of currants makes two dozen tumblers of jelly. 



GRAPE JELLY. 

Mrs. Huntington. 

The grapes must not be more than half ripe, less will do; put them 
in a stone crock in a kettle of boiling water, and as they heat stir them 
up gently from the bottom with a wooden spoon; when all are broken 
tie a towel over the mouth of an empty crock, place on it a quart of the 
hot grapes, and occasionally pass the spoon under them to remove the 
pulp from the towel, but do not press them; then take out the fruit and 
drain another quart, and so on until all are drained. (If desirable this 
drained fruit may be squeezed for an inferior jelly.) Measure the juice, 
allow a pound of sugar to every pint, put the juice over the fire, and when 
it breaks into boiling add the sugar, dissolve perfectly, keeping it very 
hot, but not allowing it to boil, then put in glasses, and when cold cover. 



PKUITS, JiAKED, STEWED, AND PRESEBVED. 507 

QUINCE JELLY. 

Mus. Allyng. 

Put the parings and cores of quinces in a kettle, and nearly cover 
them with cold water; boil until very tender, pour them in a straining 
cloth tied over the top of a crock, let them drain untouched. To every 
pint of juice allow three quarters of a pound of sugar; put the juice in 
a kettle, and let it boil, then stir in the sugar, a handful at a time; boil 
twenty minutes, and pour into glasses. 



TO COVER JELLY. 

This may be done by touching the edge of the round paper to the 
width of half an inch, with paste, placing it over the glass, and pressing 
it closely until it adheres; or it may be done with a thin paper wet with 
the white of egg, which not only serves as paste, but makes the paper 
air-tight. A thin but strong paper is required, as a poor paper cracks 
badly in drying; be careful to cut the papers evenly and of the right size ; 
half a dozen can be cut at once; fold the paper, turn a tumbler upside 
down on it, and with a pencil or scissors draw a line around the edge, 
remove the glass, and cut half an inch outside the line. 



TOMATO FIGS. 

Make a syrup of five pounds of best sugar, juice of two lemons, 
five gills of water, and the pared rind of the lemons. Peel five pounds 
of fig-tomatoes very carefully, letting them lie a moment in boiling 
water to loosen the skins; let them simmer in the syrup until clear, 
place them on a reversed sieve to become cold; boil the syrup until 



508 IN THE KITCHEN. 

quite thick, return the tomatoes, let them simmer slowly for an hour, 
then drain, flatten, and dry them in a cool oven; pack them tight in 
jars, sprinkling granulated sugar over every layer; cover close. 



TO PRESERVE FIGS. 

Mrs. I. E. Morse. 



Gather the figs with stems, just before they are ripe enough to be 
eaten; keep them in salt and water for twelve hours; take them out, 
and put them in fresh water for three days, changing the water every 
day. Make a thick syrup, put them in, and let them boil. 



TO FRESHEN FIGS. 

Wash them thoroughly and dry them in a towel, heat them'in the 
oven, and on taking out roll them in powdered sugar. 



CANDIED FRUIT. 

Make a rich syrup, — one pound of sugar to one gill of hot water; 
have this in a shallow vessel, as there should be but one layer of fruit; 
drop in the halved fruit, peaches and plums, or cherries, and let them 
cook slowly until clear; drain from the syrup, lay them on plates, and 
dry in a heater. Bartlett pears are excellent done in this way, but do 
not require so rich a syrup. Placed in the heater belonging to a cook- 
ing-stove, the fruit will be sufficiently dry in twenty-four hours to pack 
in jars. 



FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 509 



PRESERVED CHERRIES. 

WlLLOWBKOOK. 

Use French short-stemmed or Morello cherries. For every pound 
of stoned cherries allow a pound of granulated sugar. Stew the 
cherries carefully, for half an hour, in their own juice; add the 
sugar; stew slowly for twenty miuutes, or until the fruit is clear; 
then put it up in air-tight cans. 



°*® FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



V 



CANDY. 511 



ca:n:d y 



MORKISVILLE CANDY 
One pound of coffee sugar. 
Half a pint of New Orleans molasses. 
Half a pint of water. 
Two teaspoonfuls of butter. 
One teaspoonful of soda. 

Put all together in a saucepan and boil until it thickens; try it by 
dropping in cold water, when, if sufficiently boiled,, it is waxy. 



SOFT CANDY. 
One pound of good brown sugar, with three tablespoonfuls of 
water; when boiling add a quarter of a pound of butter; when thick 
and ropy, take it from the fire and stir until it grains, then put it on 
buttered plates. Nuts improve it very much; they should be put in 
during the stirring. 

BLACK WALNUT CANDY. 
Bay City. 

Four pounds of brown sugar. 

One pound of butter. 

One quart of kernels. 

Put the sugar in a saucepan with half a pint of boiling water, 
boil hard for twenty minutes; add the butter, and boil for five minutes, 
then add the nuts and stir until it boils; take it off, stir for a minute, 
and pour into buttered saucers. 



512 IN THE KITCHEN. 

EVERTON TAFFY. 
One and a half pounds of brown sugar. 
Three ounces of butter. 
One and a half teacups of cold water. 

Boil all together with the rind of one lemon, and when done add 
the juice. 

CHOCOLATE CARAMELS. 

Half a pint of rich milk. 

One and a half squares or one and a half ounces of Baker's un- 
sweetened chocolate, softened on the fire. 

Let the milk boil, then stir the chocolate in very hard, add half a 
pint of best white sugar and two tablespoonfuls of molasses; boil until 
very thick, taking care not to burn it; pour on buttered tins, and when 
nearly cold cut in squares. 

MRS. McWILLIAMS'S CARAMELS. 
Two pounds of light brown sugar. 
Four ounces of grated chocolate. 
Four ounces of butter. 
Half a pint of sweet cream. 
Put these ingredients in a saucepan OKrthe fire, and stir until perfectly 
dissolved, but not after it begins to boil, as that would make it gram; 
try it now and then in cold water, and when brittle pour it in buttered 
shallow pans, and when partly cool cut into small squares. 



CREAM CHOCOLATES. 
One quart of fine white sugar. 
Half a pint of boiling water. 



CANDY. 513 

Half a pound of Baker's chocolate. 

Pour the water on the sugar, mix well, and leave it to boil ten 
minutes without stirring; place the saucepan in cold water, and stir 
briskly until it becomes stiff enough to handle; mould it in little balls, 
and put them aside to cool. Break the chocolate in small pieces, and 
put it in a bowl in the top of the boiling tea-kettle; when melted remove 
the bowl, and drop in the balls one at a time; take them out with a 
fork, and place on a buttered paper. 



CHOCOLATE WALNUTS. 
Crack the walnuts carefully, take them from the shell, unbroken, 
cover each half with the cream (the soft sugar), and when cold dip it in 
the chocolate as in the above rule. 



MAPLE CREAM CHOCOLATES. 

Half a pound of maple sugar. 

Quarter of a pound of Baker's chocolate. 

Half a gill of hot water. 

Crack the sugar in small bits, put it in a saucepan with the water 
on the range, but do not let it boil until thoroughly dissolved, when it 
must boil quite fast for five minutes; while the sugar is boiling crack 
the chocolate and put it in a bowl over a boiling tea-kettle; when the 
sugar is boiled take it from the fire, put it in rather a cool place, and 
beat until so stiff that it may be made into balls ; flour the hands very 
slightly, take a bit about the size of a common marble, roll it perfectly 
round in the palm of the hand, and proceed in this way, putting them 
in a buttered plate ; when hard, drop them one at a time in the choco- 
late; have a fork in each hand, turn the little balls until covered with 
the chocolate, then place them on buttered paper to cool and harden. 

33 



514: FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



FOB ADDITIONAL KECED?TS. 515 



516 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



DRINKS. 517 



DEINK8, 



COFFEE. 

Old Java is generally preferred; some like Mocha better. 

Many prefer having it roasted in small quantities at home. Where 
there is no cylinder this is done in a dripping-pan in the oven, heated 
slowly at first, and stirred often, great care being taken that it does 
not burn. 

It saves much trouble to buy coffee already roasted. It is well done 
and there is no fear of its being adulterated ; ground coffee should be 
avoided. In preparing coffee for the table, use 

One quart of boiling water. 

Half a pint of ground coffee. 

Half a pint and one half gill of cold water. 

One egg. 

Mix the ground coffee with the half pint of cold water and the egg, 
which need not be beaten; put it in the coffee-boiler, pour in the boil- 
ing water, and let it boil from fifteen to twenty minutes ; pour in the 
half gill of cold water, and let it stand for a moment where it will not 
boil. It is then ready to serve. It is impossible to make good coffee 
in a boiler from which the tin is worn. 



COFFEE IN THE EUREKA. COFFEE-POT. 
Two and a half ounces of ground coffee. 
Three pints of boiling water. 
' The coffee should be ground quite fine; put it in the coffee-receiver, 



518 



IN THE KITCHEN. 



pour on the water, and let the coffee-pot remain on the stove until all 
the water has drained through, when the coffee is ready to serve. 



MENIER'S CHOCOLATE. 
For three persons, take two of the rounded bars, break into small 
pieces, and melt with half a gill of milk; when smooth add one pint 
of milk, let it boil a few minutes, then serve. Use five ounces or four 
bars of ordinary sweetened chocolate to one pint of water and one quart 
of milk. 

BAKER'S CHOCOLATE. 
Break two ounces, or two squares, of the unsweetened chocolate 
into small bits and stir it over the fire to a smooth paste with a gill 
of boiling water and a gill of sugar; add gradually a pint of boiling 
water and one of scalding milk; stir, and leave it over boiling water 
for ten minutes; then serve. 



CRACKED COCOA. 

Pour a quart of boiling water on a gill of the cocoa, and boil half 
an hour, strain, and serve; the same cocoa may be boiled again the next 
day in fresh water. It is sometimes kept in a little muslin bag, and 
boiled repeatedly. 



CAYUGA CHOCOLATE. 

Pour a gill of boiling water on two ounces of Baker's unsweetened 
chocolate, broken into four or five pieces; stir it over a slow fire to a 
smooth paste, add the yolk of an egg well-beaten, and a gill of sugar 
(beat part of the sugar with the egg) ; mix this slowly and thoroughly 



DRINKS. 519 

into a quart of scalding milk, and let it stand over boiling water, stir- 
ring occasionally, for ten minutes ; beat the white of the egg to a stiff 
froth, and add a tablespoonful of sugar. "When the chocolate is served 
a teaspoonful of the froth is put on the top of every cup. 



BROMA. 
Have three pints of milk scalding over boiling water, mix half a 
package of broma smooth with a few spoonfuls of boiling water, and 
when the milk is hot stir it in, having first mixed half a gill or more of 
the milk with the broma; leave it ten minutes or until slightly thickened, 
then serve. 

TEA. 

The old rule is : allow a heaping teaspoonful of tea for every one 
at table, and another for the tea-pot. As heaping is indefinite, and 
very annoying from its uncertainty, it is better to measure the tea; take 
one gill for five persons, put it in the tea-pot and cover it with boiling 
water; let it stand a few moments in a hot place, then fill with the boil- 
ing water and serve. The tea-pot should not only be emptied after 
being used, but made perfectly clean inside as well as outside. After a 
thorough wiping, turn it upside down that the drops may run from the 
spout, and when ready to be put away twist the corner of the towel 
and wipe the inside of the spout, and put the tea-pot in its place with 
the cover raised; when it is again required pour in boiling water, to 
heat it thoroughly. 

It is well to keep a small tea-kettle for the express purpose of boil- 
ing water for tea, thus avoiding for this delicate drink the water which 
has boiled and re-boiled repeatedly during the day, for filling up the 
various kettles. 



520 nsr the kitchen. 

LEMON TEA. 
A glass of this delightful drink may often be made from the tea 
remaining in the tea-pot, a few lumps of sugar, a slice or two of fresh 
lemon, with a little of the juice and some cracked ice. If too strong, 
add water. 

E00T BEER. 
Take a handful of yellow dock-roots (be sure to get the long and 
pointed green leaf without the red streaks), a handful of dandelion 
roots, and one of sarsaparilla roots, and a small branch of the spruce 
tree; tie them in a bag, and boil half an hour in three quarts of water, 
then take out the bag and pour the liquid in a crock; if too strong, add 
water; sweeten with sugar or molasses, and when cool add a pint of 
yeast and let it ferment, skimming it occasionally. It will be fit to use 
in a day or two, and must then be bottled and securely corked. 



EPPS' BEER. 
Four gallons of water, a pint of hops (pressed down), two quarts 
of bran, and two ears of corn roasted Mack, boiled together for half an 
hour; strain, add a pint of molasses, and when cool half a pint of yeast; 
leave it in an open crock until it begins to ferment, then bottle it, or 
put it in a small keg. A tablespoonful of allspice may be boiled with 
the water and bran. 



GINGER BEER. 
One and a half pounds of loaf sugar. 
Two ounces of cream of tartar. 
Two ounces of bruised ginger. 



DRINKS. 521 

Four quarts of boiling water. 

The juice and rind of one lemon. 

A tablespoonful of yeast. 

Put all these ingredients into an earthen bowl and pour over them 
the water; when quite cold add the yeast; in six hours strain, and put 
'*p in small stone bottles. 



PINEAPPLE BEER. 

Pour a quart of cold water on the rind of a pineapple, an even 
te«spoonful of ginger, and two even tablespoonfuls of sugar; leave 
it in a warm room twelve hours or until very slightly fermented, then 
strain, add sugar to the taste, bottle, cork tight, and use in twenty-four 
hours. 

Or, to the eyes and cores of pineapples add enough of the 
rind to weigh one and a half pounds; add three quarters of a pound 
of sugar, one and a half even teaspoonfuls of ginger, and three pints of 
cold water; leave it in an open crock in a warm room for twelve hours 
or until the taste indicates slight fermentation, then strain, bottle, cork 
tight (tie the corks down), and use the second day. Leave an inch 
and a half in the neck of the bottle, between the beer and the cork. 



DICK'S RECEIPT FOR KEEPING CIDER SWEET, NO. L 

Half a pound of isinglass. 

Half a pound of mustard-seed. 

One barrel of cider. 

When the cider has reached a pleasant fermentation — enough to 
relieve its flatness — break the isinglass in bits and put it in the bung- 
hole with the mustard-seed, then " bung it up " tight. 



522 IN THE KITCHEN. 

NO. 2. 

One pound of raisins. 

One pound of mustard-seed. 

Eight eggs, 

When you wish to check the fermentation of the cider, open the bung- 
hole, put in these ingredients, not omitting the egg-shells, and then drive 
in the bung securely. 

RASPBERRY VINEGAR. 

Five quarts of red or black raspberries for three successive days. 

Five quarts of best cider vinegar. 

One pound of sugar to every pint of juice. 

In the morning put five pounds of raspberries and all of the vinegar 
in a four-gallon crock; the next morning put five pounds of fresh fruit 
in another crock the same size, and tie a strainer over it, drooping 
several inches. Pour in it the contents of the first crock, and allow the 
fruit to drain untouched until the next morning, when the drained fruit 
is thrown away and the same process repeated; this brings you to the 
fourth day; then tie the strainer over the empty crock, which must be 
perfectly clean, and pour iii it the contents of the other; let it remain 
several hours or until the next day. Measure the vinegar, and to 
every pint put one pound of crushed sugar; put it in the preserving- 
kettle and let it simmer; skim, and while hot, fill the bottles, cork, and 
seal. Have the corks soaking in hot water while the vinegar is sim- 
mering. Pound the corks well in, holding the bottle, wrapped in a 
towel, in the hand. If the cork is too long cut it off even with the 
top of the bottle, then turn it upside down, and give it two or three 
turns in the "Cork Cement." (See page 553.) 

This syrup will keep for years, and makes a most delicious drink 
with ice- water. 



DRINKS. 523 

CURRANT SHRUB. 
To one pint of currant-juice and three pints of water add sugar to 
the taste; chill with ice, and serve like lemonade. 



LEMONADE. 

Half a pound of sugar. 

One gill of lemon-juice. 

One quart of water. 

Rasp two of the lemons with lumps of the sugar; if granulated 
sugar is used, grate two of the lemons, and leave the rind in the water 
for an hour or two, or steep it for five minutes. 



STRAWBERRY ACID. 
Dissolve five ounces of tartaric acid in two quarts of water, and 
pour it upon twelve pounds of strawberries in a porcelain kettle; let 
it simmer forty-eight hours ; strain it, taking care not to bruise the 
fruit. To every pint of the juice add one and a half pounds of sugar, 
and stir until dissolved, then leave it a few days. Bottle, and cork 
lightly; if a slight fermentation takes place leave the corks out a few 
days; then cork, seal, and keep the bottles in a cold place. 



524 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



FOB ADDITIONAL KECEIPTS. £25 



526 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



527 



528 tfOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



BECELgTS EOR THE SICK. 529 



RECEIPTS FOR THE SICK. 



SUGGESTIONS FOR THE CARE OF THE INVALID. 

Sickness should always be guarded against, not only for its suffering to the patient and 
anxiety to kindred, but for the disorder, irregularity, and restraint in which it involves the 
■whole family. It is undoubtedly the result of the violation of law; but whether it has come to 
us through our own recklessness or ignorance, or whether it is our inheritance, it demands 
the fullest exercise of wisdom, love, and tenderness. We must not forget that sickness has 
its compensations. The weary, suffering patient learns from it to value health, and to sympa- 
thize with all who have lost it; the attendants learn to perfect themselves in " the fruit of the 
Spirit," for which there is such constant need; the children of the house, being checked in 
their noisy demonstrations of health and happiness, learn to be thoughtful of -others; anxiety 
for the patient and joy in his convalescence turn the mind from its engrossing interests, and 
bring a refining and elevating influence. In a dangerous illness, the loved one vibrating for 
days between life and death , what message can so thrill the home wi'th joy as the blessed words, 
'' Out of danger," breathed and whispered through its halls? 

The sick-room, of all others, is the place where almost every faculty with which nature has 
endowed us is brought into use. Here we need physical strength and power of endurance in 
the care and deprivation which nursing necessarily brings; here we need love and tenderness 
in full measure, and entire self-forgetfulness; here we need wisdom, intelligence, cultivation, 
refinement, and beautiful taste. Wc need taste in the arrangement of pictures and flowers, 
which are for days, often for weeks, the silent study of the sufferer ; taste in the arrangement 
of the little waiter, brought to the bed, even if it bear but a simple bowl of gruel. Let the 
napkin be snowy, and ironed with a gloss; the china bowl and plate on which it stands free 
from specks; the salt-cellar clear as crystal around its little mound of sifted salt; the ring 
through which the fresh napkin is drawn, and the spoons, so bright that they reflect the flow- 
ers in the little vase beside them. See that the gruel is palatable, well boiled, free from lumps, 
of a creamy consistency, and hot. 

Keep all medicines out of sight of the patient; have no garments hanging in the room; 
keep the bed well-aired and clean. If it is possible, have two adjoining rooms for the patient, 
that there may be a change every morning and evening, and a good opportunity for thoroughly 
ventilating the room and bed. Even if the patient cannot walk he can be lifted on the 
sheet and the blanket which should always be under it. Let it be a constant study 
34 



530 



IN THE KITCHEN". 



with those having charge of the sick to bring all the appointments of the room to perfec- 
tion, — its ventilation, light, cleanliness, and arrangement of its furniture. Wear light cali- 
coes, blue, pink, or purple (colors which are always grateful to the eye), with linen collar, 
cuffs, and white apron. These dresses can be washed, and so kept cleaner and sweeter than 
woollens, which so easily absorb odors; have them but slightly starched, that there maybe 
no rustling. Study that nice line of distinction between .talking to the patient too much of 
himself, on the one hand, and too little on the other. Learn how to regulate all talking, to let 
it be at the right time, of the right kind, and of right duration. If the face or manner indicate 
the least weariness or drowsiness, let the talk fall into the same drowsy, sluggish way, grad- 
ually ceasing, without his knowing why; then, if he sleeps, lower the curtain and let every- 
thing conspire to lengthen those sacred moments. Whether the patient is awake or asleep, 
be very careful that the eyes are not directly exposed to either lamp-light or daylight, but 
have as much sunshine in the room as can be borne. Whispering is so trying to the sick tl»at 
it would be well if attendants and friends were familiar with the deaf-mute or silent language. 
The patient himself, suffering from quinsey or any form of throat disease that renders speaking 
difficult, is most fortunate if able to talk with the fingers, — it being so much easier than writ- 
ing, which requires pencil, paper, and eyesight. The alphabet for one hand, whuh is here 
given, is simple and very easily learned. 




T XT V WX. T Z.& 

A cheerful, merry heart is indispensable in the sick-room; and there is nothing better than 

a keen sense of the ludicrous, to rouse a smile, and if the patient is not too weak, a laugh, 

which is worth more than many drugs. No long faces must be seen in the sick-room, and no 

impatience or petulance. If, after taking the most unwearied pains ta have everything per- 



KECEIPTS FOE THE SICK. 531 

feet, and served on the instant, the poor, worn, nervous patient turns away his head in disgust, 
because the gruel is made of yellow corn-meal instead of the white, on which his heart was set, 
do not bo vexed but put the matter in such a facetious light that he will forget the color of his 
gruel, and eat it with greater relish for your merriment. 

Neglect no means for keeping the patient happy, cheerful, and comfortable. If he can 
bear reading, choose light, agreeable books, neither metaphysical nor emotional; keep the 
bed-clothes smooth, and in cold weather be careful that the patient is not burdened with heavy 
clothing. Have three small pillows, about fourteen by ten inches, one of them filled with hair, 
to be used wherever required, under the knee, elbow, or shoulder. Have nothing to do with 
" comforters " filled with cotton ; a light one of silk or woollen material, filled with wool, is very 
good, but with blankets the heat can be more easily regulated. When the patient is uneasy, 
gentle rubbing of the back and limbs is very soothing. An India-rubber bag of hot water 
at the feet, and, indeed, in many cases of neuralgia, under the head, is an unspeakable comfort. 
In long, protracted sickness, an India-rubber mattress is found of great service in preventing 
abrasion of the skin; so, also, is a sheep-skin — the fleecy side up. When the patient is sleep- 
ing heavily, with the mouth open, lay over it a bit of soft linen moistened with tepid water, to 
prevent the tongue from drying — this, of course, if he is able to breathe through the nose. If 
the sleep is induced by opium, the lips, and even the tongue, may be gently swabbed from time 
to time, without disturbing him. A glass tube is most desirable, when difficult to drink from a 
cup, and the little white china boat, with covered spout, is also very convenient. When the 
patient can sit up in bed, by all means have a wooden tray, on legs, some five or six inches 
high, to stand before him on the bed, for serving his meals. In a sick-room, where sweeping- 
is impossible, wipe the carpet with a damp clotb; pin the cloth around a broom and clean 
thoroughly under all the furniture that cannot be moved. 

These are but a small part of the many comforts that may be provided for the sick-room; 
but the mention of these few may prove useful to the inexperienced. 



DR. HITCHINFS OATMEAL GRUEL. 

Mix two tablespoonfuls of oatmeal with three of cold water; have 
ready in a saucepan one pint of boiling water; pour this gradually in 
the oatmeal, return it to the saucepan, and boil five minutes, stirring to 
prevent the meal from settling; skim r and strain through a hair sieve. 



532 IX THE KITCHEN. 

OATMEAL GRUEL. 
Throw a handful of raisins into a pint of water and let them boil 
five or ten minutes; mix two tablespoonfuls of oatmeal with a little cold 
water and pour it into the saucepan; boil fifteen or twenty minutes, 
add a little salt, and sugar to the taste. Wine and nutmeg are also 
used, and some prefer it without the raisins. 



FARINA GRUEL. 
Stir two tablespoonfuls of farina in three of milk, pour it in a 
pint of boiling water, and boil until thoroughly cooked, stirring often 
to keep it smooth; take it off, add a pinch of salt and two gills of 
cream. 

MRS. COWLES' INDIAN MEAL GRUEL. 
Make a thin paste with cold water of two tablespoonfuls of white 
Indian meal; stir this into a quart of toiling water salted; boil it four 
hours or longer, make a thin paste of a teaspoonful of wheat flour, stir 
it into a large teacupful of boiling milk, let it boil up once, then add 
this to the Indian meal, and let it boil up once. This can be made 
thicker or thinner to suit the taste. When made rather thick, it is very 
nice thinned with a little cream. . 



THICKENED MILK. 

Bolton, N. Y. 

Scald one pint of milk over boiling water, and pour it on two even 
tablespoonfuls of flour mixed smooth in two tablespoonfuls of cold 
milk, return it to the boiling water, stir well, and let it cook thoroughly; 
season to the taste with salt, and sugar, if liked. Beat the white of an 
egg to a dry froth, pour the gruel on it, mixing thoroughly r then serve. 



RECEIPTS FOR THE SICK. 533 

THICKENED MILK. 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Tie a pint of flour as closely as possible in a bit of strong cotton 
cloth, boil it four hours, well-covered with water, then take it out and 
leave it to cool. Boil a pint of milk over water; thicken it with a table- 
spoonful or more of the flour, scraped, and mixed smooth with a little 
cold milk; season to the taste with salt, and a little sugar if liked. This 
is not only very palatable, but in many obstinate cases of tr . summer 
complaint " it is a perfect remedy. The flour-ball will keep for months 
in a dry, cool place. 



PANADA. 

Grated bread or rolled crackers may be used. To one ounce of 
bread add half a pint of boiling water, let it boil a few minutes, then 
sweeten with loaf sugar and flavor with wine and nutmeg. 



SOAKED CRACKER. 

Cover a hard pilot-biscuit with cold water, and when the water is 
absorbed cover it again, and place it in the oven; when thoroughly 
heated and puffed, serve it with a little salt and a few spoonfuls of sweet, 
rich cream. 



CREAM TOAST. 

Toast a slice of bread evenly and quickly, not allowing it to become 
hard ; barely dip it in boiling water, then sprinkle some salt over it, and 
cover it with a few spoonfuls of sweet, rich cream. 



534: m THE KITCHEN. 

PLEASANT AND BENEFICIAL DRINK IN FEVER. 

Put half a pint of dried sour apples washed clean, in a quart-pitcher, 
and fill it with boiling water. When cold it is ready to drink, either 
with or without ice. Fresh sour apples may be used the same way. 



TOAST WATER. 

Toast two slices of bread thoroughly, but without the least burn- 
ing; put them in a quart-pitcher; while hot, pour cold water over them. 
This takes the chill from the water and gives it an agreeable flavor. 



CRUST COFFEE. 

Toast the bread slowly, as brown as possible without burning, pour 
boiling water on it, cover, and let it steep awhile, to draw the flavor 
and nourishment from the bread. It may then be prepared with sugar 
and cream, or not, as preferred. Graham, and Boston brown-bread, 
toasted slowly and thoroughly, make excellent coffee. 



CORN COFFEE. 

Shell ripe, dry corn, and roast it like coffee, evenly, and of a deep, 
brown; fill the coffee-boiler half full, and nearly fill it with boiling water 
cover, and let it steep two hours ; more water may be added to the corn 
for a second making. It is highly nutritious, and with sugar and cream 
is very much liked. Carrots cut fine, dried, and roasted, are also used 
for coffee. 



RECEIPTS FOR THE SICK. 535 

EGG AND MILK. 
Beat the egg separately, then stir the yolk and white together; fill 
the tumbler with milk, add loaf sugar to the taste, and flavor if de- 
sired. 

E^G NOGG. 

Beat the yolk of an egg in a tumbler with a tablespoonful and a 
half of sugar and two teaspoonfuls of brandy; beat the white to a 
dry froth, mix it thoroughly with the yolk, add a heaping tablespoon- 
ful of pounded ice, and fill the glass with milk. 

If the patient cannot take egg, it may be omitted and more milk 
used; or, if milk is objectionable, the egg may be used without it. 



EGG WINE. 
Beat an egg with half a gill of cold water, and pour over it a glass 
of wine made very hot with one gill of boiling water; add sugar to 
the taste; stir it over the fire until it thickens, not letting it boil. 
Serve in a tumbler with a slice of dry toast, cut in long strips, placed 
on a plate and crossed over each other. A little nutmeg may be grated 
over the wine. 

WINE WHEY. 
Stir a gill of sherry in a pint of boiling milk, let it boil again, 
then remove from the fire, and when the whey separates strain and 
sweeten it. 

SYLLABUB. 

'' In the morn when he went to follow the plough, 
She milked him sweet syllabubs under the cow." 

In a pitcher holding one and a half pints dissolve three fourths of 



536 



IN THE KITCHEN. 



a gill of sugar in half a gill of wine; take it to the cow and milk until 
the froth reaches the top of the pitcher. 

Or, when the sugar is dissolved in the wine pour in lukewarm 
milk from a pitcher, holding it sufficiently high to raise a froth. 



CHICKEN BROTH. 
Wash half the breast and one wing of a tender chicken; put it in 
a saucepan with one and a half pints of water, a tablespoonful of rice 
or pearl barley; let it simmer slowly, and skim; season to the taste. 
When the chicken is thoroughly cooked, take it out, and serve the broth 
in a bowl, with a bit of dry toast. If barley is used it should be first 
soaked for several hours. 



CHICKEN CREAM FOR AN INVALID. 

Quarter of a pound of the breast of a chicken, boiled. 

One pint of chicken broth. 

Three or four tablespoonfuls of cream. 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

A pinch of mace. 

A large pinch of white pepper. 

Pound the chicken to a paste in the mortar, adding now and then 
some of the broth; rub it through the sieve and boil a few moments 
with the pepper, salt, and mace. It may be put in the refrigerator until 
wanted. Heat it over boiling water, and add the cream. 



CHICKEN JELLY. 
Cut a chicken as for a fricassee, and to two and a half pounds add 
one quart of water; boil and skim, then simmer slowly until the water 



RECEIPTS FOR THE SICK. 537 

is reduced to one pint; strain through a cloth; when cold stir in the 
crushed shell and beaten white of an egg, with a blade of mace, a little 
salt and pepper, and let it boil (without stirring) five minutes or until 
clear; then strain it into a mould that has been rinsed with cold water. 



POTATO JELLY. 

[SEE " POTATO STARCH," PAGE 567.] 

Mix half a gill of the starch smooth in a littlo cold water, then pour 
on boiling water until nearly the consistency of jelly, and let it boil a 
few minutes; add a little salt, sugar, lemon, or wine, and nutmeg to 
the taste. 

BEEF JUICE. 

Put a piece of thick steak on a gridiron over the coals, and when 
heated sufficiently to free the juice, squeeze it in a lemon-squeezer. 

This is excellent for an invalid; it may be taken from a spoon or 
eaten with rice. 

BEEF SANDWICH. 
Scrape one or two tablespoonfuls of raw beef from a choice, tender 
piece; season it with pepper and salt and spread it on a thin slice of 
bread, buttered or not, as preferred; fold the bread, cut off the crust, 
and divide the slice in three pieces of uniform size. 



BEEF TEA, NO. 1. 
One pound of beef. 

One pint of cold water. 

Two even teaspoonfuls of salt. 

The beef should be juicy, and free from fat; cut it in bits about 



538 IX TUB KITCHEX. 

an inch square, cover it with the cold water, and let it stand one hour. 
Put it on the fire, let it heat slowly, and reach the boiling point, then 
strain, and season to the taste. 

The bits of meat will be found quite tasteless and the tea most 
delicious. 

BEEF TEA, NO. 2. 
Cut a pound of tender, juicy beef into small pieces and put it in a 
wide-mouthed bottle; cork tight and place it over a slow fire in a kettle 
of cold water; heat gradually until it boils; continue the boiling for 
several hours until the juice is well drawn from the beef; strain, season 
with salt, and serve either hot or cold. 



CARRAGEEN, OR IRISH MOSS. 
Wash two handfuls of carrageen through two or three waters, drain, 
and pour on it three pints of boiling water; let it simmer until the moss 
becomes a pulp, then strain, sweeten to taste, and add the juice of two 
lemons. To be eaten cold. Milk may be used instead of water. 



ARROWROOT. 

Put a pint of milk over boiling water, reserving a little in which to 
mix two ounces of arrowroot; when the milk is scalding add the arrow- 
root, two and a half ounces of sugar, and a pinch of salt; stir often, 
until it is thick as mush, then pour it in a mould. A gruel may be made 
in the same way with half the quantity of arrowroot, and with or with- 
out sugar. 



TAPIOCA PORRIDGE. 
Soak one gill of tapioca several hours, or over night, in two gills of 

cold water; add a pint and a half of new milk and let it cook slowly 



RECEIPTS FOR THE SICK. 539 

for several hours, over boiling water. It may be-seasoned with salt, or 
with sugar and wine, but is excellent without either. 



TAPIOCA JELLY. 
Soak two ounces of tapioca five hours, or over night, in half a pint 
of cold water; put it over the fire with another half pint of cold water, 
and when quite thick add one gill of boiling water; let it boil until the 
pieces are perfectly clear, then add four tablespoonfuls of sugar, and 
flavor with two teaspoonfuls of brandy or two tablespoonfuls of wine; 
or, if lemon is preferred, boil the thin rind of one with the tapioca until 
it is flavored, and add as much of the juice as is liked. Pour it in 
small moulds wet with cold water and place them on ice. It is also 
very palatable when warm. 



TO COOK BARLEY. 
Wash it, cover with cold water, and let it swell and cook slowly on 
the back of the stove all day, or until it is tender, adding water when 
necessary; whole raisins may be cooked with it. When soft, add wine 



and sugar to the taste. 



JELLY IN ICE. 
Pound ice very fine in bits about the size of a pea, stir it in two 
thirds its quantity of calf's-foot jelly, and pour a little sherry over it. 
This is in many cases most refreshing to the sick. 



MRS. BURWELLS COUGH REMEDY. 
One ounce of licorice-stick. 
One ounce of anise-seed. 



5i0 



IN THE KITCHEN". 



Half an ounce of* senna. 

One pint of molasses. 

Put the licorice, anise, and senna in one quart of water, boil it 
until the strength is out, — eight or ten minutes; strain it, add the 
molasses, and boil it down to a pint, then bottle it. 



COUGH REMEDY. 

Dr. Bektin, Paris. 

Pour half a pint of boiling water on a quarter of a pound of gnm- 
arabic; when dissolved add one quarter of a pound of sugar and half 
a gill of lemon-juice; let it simmer for five or ten minutes, then 
bottle and cork. "When taken, water may be added. This is a most 
soothing syrup for a throat irritated by a hacking cough. 



REMEDY FOR A COUGH. 
Finely-powdered saltpetre to cover a sixpence, taken every morning 
in a teaspoonful of honey. 



FOR QUINSY. 
Try gargling with as hot water as can be borne. It has been found 
to give great relief, where the patient could hardly speak, and could 
not swallow. 

TO STOP BLEEDING OF THE NOSE. 
Find the artery on both sides of the face where it crosses the 
jaw, some two or three inches above the point of the chin, press it 
closely against the bone with the thumb and forefinger; observe which 
nostril bleeds most freely, and press harder on that side. This gives 
speedy relief and is far more agreeable than rolls of paper pressed 



RECEIPTS FOR THE SICK. 541 

above the front teeth, or cold keys and cold water applied to the back 
uf the neck. 

NURSERY RECEIPTS. 

Mrs. Fisher. 

For dysentery or cholera infantum. To the white of one egg 
beaten stiff add three drops of brandy and one lump of sugar; mix 
well together; give a quarter of a teaspoonful every two hours. For 
babies over six months old, mix a quarter of a teaspoonful of brandy 
with the egg and give a teaspoonful for a dose. 

After a baby is weaned, give for the same disease one pint of milk 
boiled with one teaspoonful of flour; dilute it with water. Feed the 
child with this until the movements abate. Use raw flour and milk for 
an adult. 

These remedies have proved invaluable in serious cases when med- 
ical prescriptions had failed. Mrs. Fisher, who is a nurse of great 
experience, assures me that she has known many lives saved by using 
them. 

GRUEL. 

" Water Gruel,'' says Tryon in his books on health, " is the king of spoon-meats and queen 
of soups, and gratifies nature beyond all others." 



OATMEAL GRUEL. 
Boil the oatmeal in water two hours, strain it, and add an equal 
quantity of milk. 

CAUDLE. 

Mrs. Van dex Heuval, New York. 

Stir eight quarts of water gradually into one pound of oatmeal 
(one of Robinson's packages), add one ounce of stick cinnamon, three 



512 IN THE KITCHEN. 

grated nutmegs, the thin yellow rind of four lemons, and one pound 
and a half of sugar; boil it four hours. In another saucepan boil one 
pound of stoned raisins — the best and largest kind — in two quarts of 
water for two hours; add the whole to the oatmeal wiih the juice of the 
four lemons, one pint and a half of Madeira or Sherry, and half a pint 
of brandy; let it boil a few minutes, when it is ready for use. Half 
this receipt will make three quarts of caudle. 



For taking scurf from the head of an infant. Burn butter, and 
apply like glycerine at night. 



FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 543 



544 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



TOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPT*., £45 



546 FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



MISCELLANEOUS BECEIPTS. 547 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 



USEFUL HINTS. 

Rough wooden boxes two and a half feet long, one and one half 
feet wide, and two feet high, larger or smaller, may be easily made very 
useful and quite ornamental. If the top is in pieces, fasten them together 
with cleats on the upper side. It improves the appearance of the dox 
to have the top project half an inch or more over the front and ends; 
it also makes it much easier to open. If hinges are not readily found, 
use strips of leather instead; these may be cut from a worn-out shoe. 
Put a layer of hay or straw over the top, and cover it with a piece of 
tow-cloth or factory; double the edge, and tack it closely, then cover 
it with glazed chintz, using as few tacks as possible, depending chiefly on 
paste, which need be used on the edge only. Let the edge of the chintz 
lap under the box and over the top, just within the inside; then line it 
neatly with yellow wrapping-paper from store packages, or with cheap 
wall paper; the paper should conceal the edge of the chintz. Cover 
the top of the box in the same way. 

These boxes may be used for a great variety of purposes. In an 
upper hall, one is very convenient with a small, light box for dust inside, 
with space at the end for dustpan and brush. In a linen closet, one is 
good for waste paper, with a small box for strings nailed in one of the 
upper corners. 

Covers for pillows may have a loop on the irtside edge of the upper 
hem, and be hung on very small smooth knobs on the bedstead, directly 



ti±8 IN THE KITCHEN". 

over the pillows, and thus save pinning them every morning to the 
pillow. 

Never use newspapers for wrapping. Save all the paper from 
packages, fold it smooth that it may be ready to use again. Save all 
the strings, putting them away free from knots. 



Ax oil-cloth may be pasted to the carpet where tacks cannot be 
used; and table oil-cloth may be pasted on a shelf or over a small table. 



It is a good plan to have eight white cotton piece-bags hung on 
a row of hooks in the linen closet; have six of them sixteen inches 
wide and twenty long, with a string to draw from both sides; and the 
other two nine by thirteen inches. Have them marked in large letters 
in indelible ink, the large ones, " Merino and Cloth," " Cotton and 
Linen Sundries," K Dress Pieces/' " Old Linen," " Worsted and 
Yarn," "Old Silk"; the two small ones, "Thread and Tape," "Old 
Gloves." 

To preserve ice in a refrigerator, Wrap it in several thicknesses of 
newspaper. 

To remove the unpleasant odor from feather pillows, expose them 
to a strong wind on a cloudy day; do not put them in the sun. 



TO MAZE HARD WATER SOFT. 
For every one hundred gallons take half a pound of the best quick, 
lime, make it into a cream by the addition of water, then diffuse it 
through the water in the tank or reservoir, and allow it to stand; it will 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 549 

quickly become bright ; the lime having united with the carbonate of 
lime, which makes the hard water, will be all deposited. This is a most 
beautiful application of the science of chemistry. 



BORAX SOLUTION FOE, WASHING AND MAKING HARD WATER SOFT. 

One and a quarter pounds of super-carbonate soda. 

Quarter of a pound of borax. 

Dissolve in one gallon of boiling water; when cold add three 
ounces of ammonia. For washing hands, use one ounce of this liquid 
to one gallon of water; for clothes, use two ounces to one gallon. 



POTATO STARCH. 
Grate four pounds of raw potatoes, pour over them six or eight 
quarts of cold water, mix thoroughly, and strain through a cloth into 
a large pan. When the starch has settled pour off the water, add fresh 
water, mix it thoroughly, and let it settle again ; then pour off the water 
and dry the starch on a brown paper, either in the sun or in a slightly 
heated oven. This weight of potato makes twelve ounces of starch. 



TO TAKE OUT FRUIT SPOTS, 
Pour boiling water through them before washing, or moisten the 
spot, and hold under it a lighted match, when the sulphurous gas will 
soon cause the stain to disappear. 



WASHING BLANKETS. 

Mrs. Breck. 

In a tub that will hold three blankets, make a suds of soft soap or 
Castile soap (it must, be, free from turpentine) and cold water; add 



550 IX THE KITCHEN. 

one gill of borax. Lot the blankets soak over night; the next morning 
wash them well in the same water, and rinse them through two clean, 
cold waters; then hang them up to dry without wringing. 



TO PREVENT CALICOES FROM FADING. 
Dissolve half a pint of salt in one quart of boiling water, and 
while hot put the dress in it, let it lie several hours, then wring it dry 
and wash as usual. 

TO SET A LEACH. 

Bore several auger-holes in the bottom of a barrel; prepare a 
square board a little larger than the barrel with grooves running into 
one in the centre of one side; pile up sticks of wood, or turn a strong 
box upside down on which to raise the barrel; it should be eighteen 
inches from the ground and so tipped that the tye may run easily from 
the board into the pail or tub prepared for it. Put straw in the barrel 
to the depth of two inches, and scatter over it two pounds of slacked 
lime ; then pack tight with ashes, moistening occasionally, to make it 
more compact. Leave a funnel-shaped hollow in the centre large 
enough for several quarts of water. Let it stand two days before pour- 
ing in water, and when the first water is poured in let it disappear 
before adding more. 

It may stand in a cellar or under a shed. 



SOFT SOAP. 

Geneva. 
Twelve pounds of stone potash. 
Twelve, pounds of clean grease. 
Put the potash in a piece of old carpet, and crack it with the back 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 551 

of an axe into pieces the size of an egg; put it in a large iron kettle 
with a gallon or more of water; when dissolved add the grease, and 
when thoroughly melted pour it in the soap-barrel, fill it with hot water, 
and stir well, and for a day or two stir occasionally. 



B. T. BABBITT'S PURE CONCENTRATED POTASH. 

This makes excellent soap. Follow the directions on the box, 

using two large kettles if a suitable boiler is not at hand. The meat 

used in a family of six or eight supplies sufficient gi-ease to make all 

the soft soap that is required. Make it every three months, or oftener. 



FOR HARD SOAP. 

Marcy, N. Y. 

Six pounds of sal soda. 

Three pounds of slacked lime. 

Six pounds of clean grease. 

F^our gallons of soft water. 

Half a pound of resin. 

Put the sal soda, lime, and water on the fire, and let it come to 
the boiling point, then set it away over night to settle; pour off the 
liquid, place it over the fire, add the grease and resin, and boil slowly 
until fit for moulding, which will be in about two hours; pour out into 
a tub or tight box, and when cool cut it into bars. The above quantity 
will make twenty-three pounds of the best hard soap at a cost of four 
or five cents per pound. 

Lime in its best state is called " quick-lime " ; but when exposed 
to the air it becomes a powder, has less strength, and is called slacked 
lime. 



552 IN THE KITCHEN. 

HARD SOAP, NO. 1. 

Five pounds of grease. 

Twelve quarts of soft water. 

One box of saponifier. 

Put the grease and water in a kettle, and when melted knock off 
the top of the box of saponifier, and throw in box and all; boil over a 
slow fire for three or four hours until it becomes ropy, then throw in 
ten cents worth of borax; let it all boil half an hour, then throw in a 
handful of salt, stir well, and put it into a tub to, harden; cut in pieces, 
lay them separately to dry. If any of the soap sticks to the side of 
the pot pour in a little water, stir well, and let it boil, and it will be 
nice soft soap. 



HARD SOAP, NO. 2. 

Six quarts of soft soap. 

One pint of salt. 

A quarter of a pound of resin. 

Melt and scald the ingredients together, and put it aside to cool. 
"When hard cut it, throw away the lye that has settled at, the bottom, 
and melt the soap again to refine it. Pour it in. a, small tub, and when 
hard cut it in bars. 



COLD SOFT SOAP. 

One and a quarter pounds of clean, melted; grease. 
One gallon of lye, strong enough to bear an egg. 
Mix them together in a barrel in the cellar, and. stir it for a few 
minutes every clay until you find that you have good soap. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 533 



TO CLEAR A ROOM OF MOSQUITOES. 
Burn in a tin plate, over the gas or a candle, a piece of gum-cam- 
phor about one third the size of an egg, being careful that it does not 
ignite. The smoke will fill the room and expel the mosquitoes. 



TO DISINFECT A ROOM. 
Burn a piece of coarse brown paper on an old dustpan or in a 
kettle ; the flame consumes the impurities of the air. Dried apple skins 
burned in the same way are excellent, but neither save the necessity for 
ventilation. 



CEMENT FOE, SEALING CORKS. 
Melt one part tallow and three of resin together; when partly 
cooled turn the well-corked bottle (the end of the cork cut even with 
the bottle) upside down; give it one or two turns in the cement, turn 
back, and leave it to cool. 



TO PURIFY A SINK 
To one pound of common, copperas that can be bought for a 
few cents a pound, put one gallon of boiling water, and when dis- 
solved pour the liquid into the sink or drain, or wherever required. It 
must be remembered that the copperas is poisonous. 



AUNT SARAH'S RECEIPT FOR CLEANING SILVER. 
Rub the silver with a piece of an old soft napkin, moistened with 
a little olive oil, then rub it well with calcined magnesia^. using a brush 
where necessary, and afterwards with a clean, soft chamois. 



551 IN THE KITCHEN. 

Aunt Sarah cleans her silver in this way once a fortnight, and its 
brightness is the admiration of all her friends. 

George Dandy's silver is also beautifully bright. He pulverizes 
rotten-stone, sifts it through tarlatan, mixes it with sweet oil, and rubs 
it thoroughly all over the silver, then washes the silver in hot soap- 
suds, polishes it with soft towels, rubs it lightly with Tiffany's Rouge 
Powder, mixed with water, and applied with a sponge, rubs it dry with 
the bare hand, washes it again with hot soapsuds, and polishes with 
chamois. 

TO TAKE RUST FROM STEEL. 
Cover the steel with sweet-oil, well rubbed in. In forty-eight hours 
rub it with finely-powdered, unslacked lime until the rust disappears. 



TO REMOVE PAINT FROM GLASS. - , 

* 

Dissolve soda in very hot water, and wash with a soft flannel. 
Glass should never be scraped with an ordinary knife, but with a little 
tool used by glaziers, called a putty-knife. Paint is easily removed 
without the least injury to the glass. 



TO CLEAN STRAW MATTING. 
Put a pint of salt in a pail of warm water and give the matting a 
thorough washing. It may be done with a mop, one breadth at a time, 
and wiped dry. 

TO BRIGHIEN FURNITURE AND REMOVE SPOTS. 
Two tablespoonfuls of sweet-oil. 
One tablespoonful of vinegar. 
Half a tablespoonful of turpentine. 
Use with a bit of flannel. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEEPTS. 555 

WATERPROOF BLACKING FOR BOOTS. 

Two ounces of beeswax. 

Two ounces of tallow. 

Two ounces of spermaceti or paraffine. 

One tablespoonful of lamp-black. 

Melt all the ingredients together, and stir well. Apply warm, with 
a brush, and when cold polish as with ordinary blacking. For the 
spermaceti keep the little ends of candles. 



SOFT POMATUM. 

Mrs. Breck. 

One and a half ounces of almond-oil. 

Two ounces of castor oil. 

Three drachms of beeswax. q 

Twenty drops of oil of lavender. 

Forty drops of oil of burgundy. 

Melt slowly together the almond and castor oil with the beeswax, 
and stir until cool; then aid the oil of burgundy and lavender; mix 
them all well together; put in small jars, cover closely. 



VIOLET PERFUME. 
Put half an ounce of orris-root, broken in small pieces, in a bottle 

with two ounces of alcohol; cork it tight and shake well. After four 

or five days a few drops of this on a handkerchief will leave the odor 

of fresh violets. 

FLOUR PASTE. 
One gill of flour. 

One gill of cold water. 



55G 



Itf THE KITCHE2T. 



Two gills of boiling water. 

Pour the cold water slowly on the flour, stirring well, then stir in 
the boiling water, and let the paste boil until as thick as desired. 



A PICTURE SCREEN. 
Take the pictures from the torn books that the children have thrown 
aside, and from illustrated papers; also the old photographs that have 
been pushed out of albums and accumulated in drawers, and bright 
roses and carnations from bits of cretonne; cut them out very neatly; 
the photographs must be soaked from the cards, and the background 
may be cut out or not. "When the collection is sufficiently large, have 
the carpenter make a frame about three feet wide a,nd four and a half 
high, larger if preferred; cover it on both sides with stout factory cot- 
ton stretched as tight as possible, and tacked at the top, bottom, and 
sides; make starch as thick as for shirt-bosoms; take a painter's brush 
and saturate the cloth with the hot starch as evenly as possible. When 
dry the pictures may.be put on with flour paste; arrange them taste- 
fully; the largest, most striking picture should go in the centre. "When 
dry, soak a sheet of Cooper's isinglass, and dissolve it in water enough 
to make it like a thin varnish; put a coat of this over the screen and 
when dry another coat, and when that is dry, give it one coat of white 
varnish. The sides and top may be finished with a narrow moulding 
of black walnut. 

PRESERVING FLOWERS IN SAND. 

Take the finest river or lake sand, and wash it perfectly clean ; 

heat it, and when very hot, mix it thoroughly with stearic acid; to fifty 

pounds of sand half a pound of the acid. Let it cool, take a small 

sieve and place it in a pan. Pour in enough sand to hold the flowers 



MISCELLANEOUS EEOEIPTS. 557 

in position in the sieve, not covering them ; then with a sheet of paper 
in the form of a funnel, carefully let the sand pass between, around, and 
over the flowers, covering them about half an inch deep. Place them 
where there will be an even temperature of about seventy degrees. 
The length of time which they must. remain in the sand depends on 
the thickness of the leaves and petals, varying from seven to twelve or 
more hours, as may be found best. "When they have remained long 
enough raise the sieve carefully, and let the sand run out, leaving the 
flowers perfectly dried. By this process the color and. shape of the 
flowers are preserved, and they will continue _ beautiful for many 
months. 



TO PRESERVE AUTUMN LEAVES. 

Have a board about eighteen inches square ; lay over it two or three 
thicknesses of yellow paper. Have a warm flat-iron and a caketef yel- 
low wax. Place a leaf on the paper, pass the iron over the wax and 
iron the leaf on both sides until dry; the iron must not be so hot as to 
make a hissing sound on the leaf. After ironing several leaves, there 
will be so much wax on the paper that to iron the leaf on one side will 
be sufficient. 

TO KEEP CUT FLOWERS FRESH. 
To a vase of flowers put half a teaspoonful of soda in the water, 



TO REVIVE WITHERING FLOWERS. 

Take them from the vase, throw out the cold water, and replace it 
with hot water, in which you can barely hold your finger; put in the 
flowers immediately. The effect is wonderful. 



558 EST THE KITCHEN". 



TO STRAIN HONEY. 
There are often ends of honeycomb left from the beautiful pieces 
served at table. When these accumulate, it is best to melt and strain 
them ; put them in a tin cup in an open oven, and when.melted, strain 
through a piece of coarse book-muslin. If there are any bits of " bee 
bread " they will remain in the muslin, .while the honey and wax run 
through. When the honey is cold remove the cake of wax from the 

mt> 

top, wash it well in cold water, melt it, and mould in a thimble or in an 
egg-cup; this will be useful in the work-basket, and the honey will be 
found an excellent addition to hot biscuit. . 



TO KEEP THE RIND AND JUICE OF LEMONS, 
(rrate the rind and mix it with an equal quantity of sugar; bottle, 
cork, and seal. Squeeze and strain the juice, and to a pint allow one 
and a quarter pounds of sugar; leave it a day or two in an open vessel 
then skim, bottle, cork, and seal. 



COLD CREAM. 
M, W. M. 

One ounce of white wax. 

One ounce of spermaceti. 

One ounce of mutton-tallow (free from kidney fat). 

Two ounces of almond oil (sweet almond). 

Two ounces of glycerine. 

Twelve drops of attar of roses. 
, Melt all slowly together in an earthen vessel; pour into a soup- 
plate or bowl, and beat with a silver fork until perfectly white and 
light; then, while it is still warm, put in small earthen pots, and cover. 



FOK ADDITIONAL KECLIPTS. 



559 



560 FOB, ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



FOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 561 



562 



TOR ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 



HO, FOR the picnic! 563 



ECO, FOR THE PICNIC I 



WHAT WE SHALT, TAKE, AND HOW WE SHALL TAKE IT. 

The tumblers, cups and saucers, plates, knives, forks, and napkins 
should be packed by themselves, and be in the care of one person, who 
should take the responsibility of bringing them all home again. In 
using bottles for milk and cream, this is a good way to secure the 
cork, after pressing it firmly in: Take a strong, rather fine twine eight 
or ten inches long, make a loose slip-knot in the middle, adjust the 
lower part around the neck of the bottle, and let the loop rest on the 
top of the cork; make it firm by drawing the ends, then tie them tight 
on the top of the cork, directly over the loop. Make a slip-knot in 
this way: Form a loop around three of your fingers by simply crossing 
the twine; slip out the fingers, and from the upper half of the twine, 
close by the crossing, draw through another loop the size of the first; 
the first loop goes around the neck of the bottle, while the second rests 
on the cork; the ends are then drawn, and tied, as above. "We will 
provide for a party of twelve, and making due allowance for appetites 
sharpened by the open air, and the excitement of a busy, merry day in 
the woods, we give eight bills of fare from which a choice may be 
made. A block of ice a foot square, wrapped in old carpet, is always 
necessary. 

L 
A glass can of lemon-juice and sugar, in the proportion of one gill 
of juice to half a pound of sugar. One and a half pints of ground 



564: IN THE KITCHEN. 

coffee in a coarse white flannel bag (tie the bag an inch above the 
coffee, and place it, with other things, in a four-quart tin coffee-pot, for 
boiling the coffee). A pint of sweet cream for the water in a well- 
corked bottle ; this, with the lemon, and paper for lighting the fire, may 
be packed in a six-quart tin pail, to be used for spring-water. Twenty- 
four sandwiches, four inches long by three wide ; if made with ham, it 
should be grated or chopped. Two loaves of corn-bread just from the 
oven. A half-pound roll of butter in a small tin box laid next the ice, 
inside the carpet. Two glasses of orange marmalade or a can of black- 
berry jam. 

When it is time to prepare for lunch pour three quarts of water in 
the coffee-pot, and put it on the coals; when it boils drop in the bag 
of coffee and let it boil fifteen or twenty minutes. While the coffee 
is boiling spread the table-cloth, arrange everything in beautiful order, 
and have a pail of ice-water in readiness. Spread shawls and water- 
proofs on the grass, as these picnic repasts are taken in Oriental style. 

2. 

Sweet potatoes; build the fire over a flat stone; when burned to 
coals, rake it off, wrap the potatoes in wet brown paper, cover them with 
sand, and rebuild the fire. Birds may be cooked in the same way. 
Bacon and a frying-pan: slice the bacon very thin, cut off the rind, 
and fry it crisp. Eggs : scrambled in the pan, after the bacon is fried. 
Coffee, butter, bread. 

3. 

Chocolate: make it at home, and carry it in a covered tin-pail, in 
which it can be reheated. This must be done over a moderate fire, to 
prevent scorching; or the pail may be set in an old pan with a little 
water, made to boil fast, as there is then no danger of scorching. But- 
tered biscuit, ajar of baked pears, fresh gingerbread, cheese. 



HO, FOR THE PICNIC ! 5G5 



Sardines, cold roast chicken, bread, butter, dried apples stewed 
with black raspberries, a loaf of bread-cake, a tin tea-pot, and two and 
a half gills of tea, which will make three quarts. Do not put it in the 
tea-pot until the water boils ; let it steep a few minutes, but do not let 
it boil again. 

5. 

Clams : these may be boiled in the shell in a small quantity of 
water, or they may be baked; pepper and salt, coffee, pickles, bread, 
butter, cold tongue, dried stewed peaches, raspberry vinegar. 

6. 

Green corn : boil or roast it, pepper and salt, cold broiled chicken, 
cold boiled ham, bread, butter, baked apples, gingersnaps. Tea or 
coffee. 

7. 

Cold Frigadel, sandwiches, cold, hard-boiled eggs, buttered bread, 
pickles, sponge cake, quince marmalade. Tea or coffee. 

8. 

A pot of pork and beans just from the oven; vinegar, pepper, and 
salt, cold roast beef, pickles, baked sweet apples, cream, butter, fresh 
rusk, coffee. 



566 



IN THE KITCHEN".' 



SELECTION'S FOR DINNERS. 



SHOWING WHAT MEATS AND VEGETABLES SHOULD BE SERVED TOGETHER 



Mock Terrapin Soup. 
Boast Beef. Chili Sauce. 
Potatoes roasted with the Beef. 
Fried Apples or Tomatoes. 
Macaroni or Okra. 

Indian Pudding. 



Clam Soup. 
Boast Mutton. Currant Jelly. 
Winter Squash. 
Cauliflower. 
Boiled Potatoes. 

Apple Charlotte. 



White Soup. 
Boast Lamb. Currant Jelly. 
Peas or Asparagus. 
Cymblins or Beets. 
Potatoes. 
Bice in Moulds, with Sweetmeats. 



Mutton Soup. 
Boiled Mutton. Caper Sauce. 
Turnips on Carrots. 
Salsltty or Egg-Plant. 
Potatoes. 

Warrener's Pudding. 



Clear Beef Soup. 
Boast Pork. 
Stewed Apples. 
Onions or Turnips. 
Potatoes. 

Apple Dumpling. 



White Soup. 
Boast Veal. Horse-Badish. 
Parsnips. 
Potatoes. 
Spinach. 
Bolster of Canned or any other Fruit. 



Beef Soup. 
Corn-Beef. Tomato Soy. 
Cabbage. 

Beets or Carrots. 
Potatoes. 

Bice Pudding. 



Tomato Soup. 
Pork and Beans. 
Beefsteak. 
Cold Slaw. 
Potatoes. 

Apple or Dried Peach Pie. 



SELECTIONS FOR DINNEKS. 



567 



Turtle Bean Soup. 
Beef ok Mutton Stew. 
Parsnips. 

Tomatoes on Cold Slaw. 
Potatoes. 

Dried Fruit Pudding. 



Oyster or Clam Soup. 
Boiled Turkey. Celery. 
Turnips. 
Canned Corn. 
Potatoes. 

Tip-top Pudding. 



Beep Soup. 
Roast Duck or Goose. 
Stewed Apple or Cranberry. 

" Celery or Onions. 

Potatoes. 

Quiver Pudding. 



Mulligatawney Soup. 
Boast Turkey. Celery or Pickle's. 
Cranberries. 
Winter Squash. 

Potatoes Mashed and Browned. 
Eve's Pudding. 



White Soup. 
Boast Chicken. Pickles. 
Corn or Egg-Plant. 
Okra with Tomato. 
Potatoes. 

Jim Crow, or Pain Perdu. 



Chicken Soup. 
Boiled Chicken. Celery. 
Mashed Potatoes. 
Salsify with Cream. 
Macaroni or Bice. 

Tapioca Pudding. 



Mock Turtle Soup. 
Boiled or Baked Pish. Cucumbers. 
Boiled Leg of Mutton. Caper Sauce. 
Boiled Tongue garnished with Rice. 
New Potatoes dressed with Cream, or 

Mashed Potatoes browned. 
Cymblins or Turnips. 
Beets, Carrots, or Salsify. 
String Beans or Canned Corn. 
Salad of Lettuce or Asparagus ; or Fried 

Oysters and Dressed Celery. 
Pie-plant Charlotte or Apple Charlotte. 
Ice Cream, Cake, and Sweetmeats. 
Pruit and Nuts. 

Coffee. 



Pea Soup. 
Cold Pish dressed with Mayonnaise and 

garnished with the Small Hearts of 

Lettuce. 
Fried Chickens. 
Boiled Ham. 
Peas. 

New Potatoes dressed with Cream. 
Beets. 
Cymblins. 
Macaroni. 

Custard with Caramel. 
Currant or Red Raspberry Ick. 
Fruit and Nuts. 

Coffee. 



568 IN THE KITCHEN. 



Raw Oysters on the Half Shell, with Lemon. 

Calf's Head Soup. 

Fisn. 

Vol au Vent of Oysters and Sweetbreads. Boiled Mutton and Filet de B<euf. 

Potatoes, Carrots dressed with Cream, Baked Tomatoes. 

Macaroni with Dressed Lettuce. 

Pastry. 

Ices. 

Fruit and Nuts. 

Coffee in the Drawing-Room. 



HOW A PIECE OF ROAST BEEF AND A BOILED LEG OF MUTTON MAY SERVE A 

SMALL FAMILY FOR A WEEK 

Sunday. — Boast beef, hot or cold. 

Monday. — Potato soup and a pot-pie made of some of the beef. 

Tuesday. — Mutton soup and boiled mutton. 

Wednesday. — Tomato soup and cold joint of mutton. 

Thursday- — Soup from the beef bones, and a savory hash of potato and beef, browned 
in a loaf. 

Friday. — Fish, and a pie of mutton and potato. 

Saturday. — A soup from the mutton bones, and a haricot of the rest of the mutton, 
•with <carrots. In winter the earrots miist be stewed two hours; this dish, so delightful when 
w;ell made, has no merit unless the carrots are so soft that the slices barely keep in form. 



In making the soups crush the bones (the more meat that adheres 
to £heim ihe better), put them in the kettle with all the bits of gristle 
and *Mn^ pour in from two to four pints of cold water, cover, and let it 
simmer for several hours; then strain, and add boiled tomato and 
grated onion, or soft boiled and chopped carrots, or soft rice, or okra 
and faamatOg season to taste, and boil slowly for three quarters of an 
hour- Sery<e very hot. 



AXUDITTOINTAX, RECEIPTS. 



TO CLEAR STOCK. 

The day after it is made take off the grease carefully, and to about 
four quarts of the thick jelly add five eggs (the whites, yolks, and 
shells), a large carrot, and a pound of raw lean beef, both cut in small 
pieces; mix all thoroughly together; put it in a soup-kettle on the 
back of the range and let it simmer for two or three hours. Strain it, 
and it will be found clear and of beautiful color. 

The best strainer is of tin, funnel-shaped, with a handle. 



CONSOMME. 

Five pounds of lean beef. 

Four quarts of cold water. 

Two bay leaves. 

A small head of celery. 

One large carrot. 

Two onions. 

Half a turnip. 

Cut the vegetables, put the whole in a soup-kettle, cover closely, 
and let it simmer seven hours, when it may be strained, and seasoned to 
the taste. 

POTAQE A LA ROYALE. 
To the well-beaten yolks of six eggs add a little more than their 
bulk of cream or milk, a little salt and white pepper; pour it in a small 



570 IN" THE KITCHEN. 

tin or earthen dish an inch or two deep with straight sides; place this 
in another dish in which there is a little hot water, and bake in so mod- 
erate an oven that it will neither brown nor bubble. Place it on ice, 
and when perfectly cold cut in slices half an inch thick, and then in 
dice or in fancy shapes with a vegetable cutter; put them in the tureen, 
pour in boiling consomme very gently, and serve at once. 



FROZEN SWEET POTATOES. 

Sweet potatoes, though frozen hard as stones, preserve their flavor 
and firmness if baked at once without being thawed. Clean them 
with a brush or dry towel, put them in the heated oven, and bake. If 
thawed, even in cold water, they are soft and worthless. 



CLEANING FLUID. 

J. OF D. 

Half a pint of alcohol. 

Two ounces of ammonia. 

Half an ounce of Castile soap, shaved. 

Two quarts of rain-water. 

Shake the ingredients well together in a jug. After four or five 
hours, shake them again ; then bottle and cork. Use it freely, with a 
bit of flannel, to take grease from woollen cloth. 



ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS. 571 



CYMIINQS, OR SUMMER SQUASH, No. 2. 

The cymlings must be so young that the rinds and seeds are tender. 
Cut each one into several pieces, and boil in as little water as possible, 
keeping the kettle closely covered. When a straw can be passed 
through them pour off all the water and leave them uncovered, on the 
back of the range, to dry for fifteen or twenty minutes ; then, without 
mashing, stir in butter, pepper, and salt to the taste, with a little cream; 
cover, stew two or three minutes, then serve at once. 



MONADNOC PASTRY. 

One pound of flour sifted. 

Nine ounces of butter. 

Seven ounces of good, firm lard. 

Half a teaspoonful of salt. 

Half a pint of ice water. 

This quantity will make three pies of ordinary size. The oven 
should be hotter than for bread. 

Rub the lard thoroughly, but lightly and quickly, into the flour, 
being careful to keep the flour well between the hand and the lard. 
Add the water, mixing with a knife; place the mass on the floured 
board and roll it into a thin sheet; spot it with one third of the butter, 
sift a little flour over it, and with the hands, touching it as lightly as 
possible, roll it into a scroll; divide it in half, and divide one of the 
halves into three equal parts for the lower crust of the pies; roll each 
piece separately and cover the plates; the paste cut from the edge may 
be returned to the rest of the pastry, which must now be rolled thin 
and spotted with half the remaining butter; sift a little flour over it, 



572 IN THE KITCHEN. 

and fold it by lapping the four corners in the centre of the sheet; roll 
it again into a thin sheet, spot it with the remaining butter, sift it with 
flour, fold as before and roll it out, but this time not thin, as it must be 
made into a short, thick scroll like a "bolster" or "roly-.poly" when it 
is ready for use. For the cover of a pie, cut one third of the scroll, 
flour both ends and roll it on the end to the desired thickness. To add 
to the beauty of the pastry, roll it very thiu and put two or three 
covers on a pie. This is excellent for squash pies and for all puddings 
baked in pastry. 

BRIDGET'S BISCUIT. 

Peterboro', N. Y. 

Half a pint of yeast. 

One pint of new milk. 

Four ounces of butter. 

One tablespoonful of sugar. <- 

One teaspoonful of salt. 

Two pounds of flour. 

The whites of two eggs, beaten to a stiff froth. 

Make the yeast in this way : have ready in the half-pint measure, 
half a Twin Bros, yeast-cake soaked in two tablespoonfuls of tepid 
water; have six ounces of potato boiled and mashed fine; when luke- 
warm mix it with the yeast and add sufficient tepid water to fill the 
measure; mix well then pour it in a pint bowl and leave it to rise. 
Warm the milk and butter together; add the sugar, the salt, and 
enough of the flour to make a thick batter; then stir in the yeast and 
leave it in a warm place to rise; when light add the egg; knead in the 
rest of the flour and leave it to rise again; then roll out:, cut into small 
biscuit, place them in buttered pans and when light, prick, and bake in 
a quick oven. 



JiWX'"-' 



'M 






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