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The chapters contained in this book were originally 
written to form the Introdttction to the Catalogue of the 
Egyptian Collection in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 
which I wrote for the Syndics of that institution ; they are 
intended to supply the information necessary for under- 
standing the object and use of the antiquities described 
therein. In the hope, however, that they may be of service 
to all such as are interested in the antiquities of Egypt, it has 
been decided to publish them in a separate form. 

The monuments and remains of ancient Egypt preserved 
in the great museums of Europe and Egypt are chiefly of a 
sepulchral character, and we owe them entirely to the belief 
of the Egyptians that the soul would at some period revivify 
the body, and to the care, consequent on this belief, with 
which they embalmed the bodies of their dead, so that they 
might resist the action of decay, and be ready for the return 
of the soul. The preservation of the embalmed body, or 
mummy, was the chief end and aim of every Egyptian who 
wished for everlasting life. For the sake of the mummy's 
safety tombs were hewn, papyri were inscribed with com- 
position.s, the knowledge of which would enable him to 
repel the attacks of demons, ceremonies were performed and 
services were recited ; for the sake of the comfort of the 
mummy and his ka, or genius, the tombs were decorated with 
scenes which would remind him of those with which he was 
familiar when upon earth, and they were also provided with 
many objects used by him in daily life, so that his tomb 


might resemble as much as possible his old home. Following 
up the idea that the mummy is the most important of all 
objects, I have given an account of the various methods of 
embalming ; of the amulets and other objects which formed 
the mummy's dress ; of the various kinds of coffins and 
sarcophagi in which he was laid ; of the ushabtiu and other 
figures, stelse, vases, etc., which formed the furniture of a well 
appointed tomb : and also of the most important classes of 
tombs hewn or built in different dynasties. In the series of 
articles which form this account I have given the information 
which the experience gained from the service of some years 
in the British Museum has shown me to be the most needed 
both by those who, though possessing no special knowledge 
of Egyptian antiquities, are yet greatly interested in them, and 
by those who have formed, or who are about to form, Egyptian 
collections. Frequent reference has been made to the great 
national collection in the British Museum because the an- 
tiquities there are accessible to all. With a view of applying 
the facts stated in these articles to a particular case, an 
account of an Egyptian funeral beginning with the process 
of mummifying the body and ending with its deposit in the 
tomb has been added. 

In the somewhat lengthy chapter on the Rosetta Stone, 
the evidence of the principal Greek writers on Egyptian 
hieroglyphics is brought together. The statement of the 
facts connected with the history of Egyptian decipherment, 
as well as the extracts from the papers on this subject col- 
lected by Leitch in his edition of the Miscellaneoics Works by 
the late Thomas Young, London, 1855, and by Dean Peacock 
in his Life of Tlwmas Young, London, 1855, seems to show 
that the labours of Akerblad and Young were of more 
importance than is usually attributed to them ; the views of 
Egyptologists quoted at the end of that chapter will indicate 
the prevailing opinion of experts on this matter. 




The Pyramid of Medum . . . , . . . 12 
Statue of Chephren . . . . . . . . 13 

The Shekh el-Beled 16 

The entrance to the tombs at Beni-hasan .... 20 

The Colossi at Thebes 35 

Seti I. in battle 39 

Rameses II. when a child ....... 41 

The Rosetta Stone inscribed in honour of Ptolemy V., 

Epiphanes ......... 108 

Egyptian Funeral Procession. I. From the Papyrus of Ani . 168 
Egyptian Funeral Procession. II. From the Papyrus of Ani . 170 
View of the Coffin Chamber . . . . . . .172 

Mummy of Artemidorus . . . . . .186 

"Canopic"Jar 196 

Ushabti figure of the Scribe Pa-mer-ahu . . . .211 

Ptah-Seker-Ausar figure with stand for holding a portion of a 

mummied body or papyrus . . . . . .215 

Ptah-Seker-Ausar figure which held the papyrus of Anhai, a 

priestess of Amen, about B.C. 900 ..... 216 
Stele of Antef, son of Amen-set . . . , . .218 

Egyptian gods :— 

Amen-Ra ......... 269 

Amsu .......... 269 

Ra 270 

Heru(Horu^) 222 

fieru-pa-chrat (Harpocrates) . . . . . .271 

Chensu . . . . . . . . .271 

Chensu Nefer-hetep 272 

Atmu .,,,.<,„.,, 272 


Egyptian gods {continued) : — 

Nefer-Atmu . 

Ptah . 


I-em-hetep (Imouthis) 

Chnemu (Chnoumis) 


Tehuti (Thoth) . 

Set . . . 

Ausar (Osiri s) 

Ausetjlsis)_ . 

Nebt-het (Nephthys) 

Anpu (Anubis) 

SIiu . 

Hapi (Nile) . 

Hapi (Apis) . 

Ur-mer (Mnevis Bull) 


Hapi . 

Tuamautef . 

Qebhsennuf . 


Anqet . 

Sebek . 


Bes . . . 


Net (Neith) . 

Mut . 

Maat . 

Het-Hem (Hathor) 

Shu lifting Nut from Seb 

Nut . 


Serq (Selk) 


Seker . 

Ta-urt (Thoueris) 

Sefech-Aabu . 

Sphinx . , 






The lady Nai 

Woman kneading bread 

The Scribe Kha-f-Ra . 

Limestone statue 

Statue of Ti . 

Statue of Ra-nefer 

Section of the Tomb of Rameses 11. 

Plan of the Tomb of Rameses II. 

Three Mastabas at Gizeh 

Entrance to a Mastaba at Sakkarah 

Plan of a Mastaba with four serdabs 

Longitudinal section of a Mastaba 

Transverse section of a Mastaba . 

Transverse section at the bottom of a serdab 

Upper chamber, pit and sarcophagus chamber of 

Mastaba at Gizeh with double pit 

Figures in relief in a Mastaba at Gizeh . 

West wall of a chamber in the tomb of Ptah-hetep 

Winnowing wheat 

Netting wild fowl 

Bakers making bread ..... 

Cattle on the march 

The Great Pyramid and the three small Pyramids 
Section of the Pyramid of Cheops at Gizeh . 

















The Egyptian Race and Language 

The Land of Egypt 

Egyptian Chronology 

The History of Egypt, Dynasties L-XXX. 

„ Persian Rulers of Egypt 

„ Macedonian Rulers of Egypt ... ... 65 

,, The Ptolemies ... ... ... ... 66 

„ The Romans ... ... ... ... 67 

„ The Byzantines ... ... ... ... 68 

., The Muhammadans ... ... ... 68 

List of Egyptian Dynasties and the dates assigned to them by 

Egyptologists ... ... ... ... ... ... 69 

List of Nomes of Upper and Lower Egypt ... ... 7o-7S 

List of the Cartouches of the Principal Egyptian Kings 76-107 

The Rosetta Stone : — 

Greek writers on hieroglyphics, Hecataeus, Hellanicus, 

Democritus, Herodotus ... ... ... ... 112 

Diodorus, Strabo, Chaeremon, John Tzetzes, Hermapion, 

Clement of Alexandria, Porphyry, Horapollo... ... X13 

Labours of Kircher and Jablonski... ... ... ... 125 

Young and ChampoUion and their successors ... ... 127 

Young's hieroglyphic alphabet ... ... ... ... 141 

ChampoUion's method of obtaining a hieroglyphic 

alphabet... ... ... ... ... ... ... 145 

Opinions of Egyptologists on the labours of Young and 

Champolhon 148-152 

Modern hieroglyphical literature ... ... ... ... 153 

An Egyptian Funeral 153-173 

Mummy, Methods of Mummifying ... 173-189 

Mummy Cloth and Akhmim Embroideries ... ... ... 189 

Canopic Jars and the inscriptions upon them 194 

Chests for Canopic Jars 201 

The Book of the Dead 203 



Ushabtiu figures ... 

Ptah-Seker-Ausar figures... 

Sepulchral Boxes 

Funereal Cones or models of Loaves of Bread... 



Objects fiDr the Toilet, Mirrors, Tweezers, Hair-pins, Combs, 
Fans, A'(?/^/-pots, Oils 

Necklaces, Rings, Bracelets, etc. 

Scarabs. Their signification. Funereal, ornamental and his- 
torical scarabs. Texts engraved on scarabs. Scarabs of 
Amenophis III. Phoenician Scarabs. Scarabs found at 
lalysos, Kamiros, Tharros, Arban, Babylon, etc. Scarabs 
used by Gnostics ... ... ... ... ... ... 231 

Amulets : — 

The Buckle or Tie di — Hieroglyphic texts ... ... 256 

The Tet ^ 












The Vulture V\ 260 

The Collar ^^ 260 

The Papyrus Sceptre jj ... ... ,.. ... ... 261 

The Pillow^ 261 

The Heart 1^ ... ... ... ... ... ... 262 

The Anck^ 263 

The Z7/f/4a/ ^; 263 

TheM/er T 264 

The Sam 1 264 

The Horizon cQj 264 

The S/ien Q ... ... ... ... 264 

The Crown of the North V/ ■■- •■• ... ... 265 

„ „ South/) 265 

The Meftaf ^ 265 



The Cartouche c 3 1 ... ... ... ... ... 265 

TheM/ta\j^ 265 

The Serpent's Head 1^:3 265 

The Disk and Plumes )(( ... ... ... ... 265 

The Frog ^ 265 

The Staircase j/J ... ... ... ... ... ... 266 

Tiie Fingers ... ... ... ... ... ... 266 

Figures of the Gods : — 

Amen-Ea [l^^^^^^^Ji 268 

Amsu ^^ 270 

^'^°S, - 

Heru (Horus) V^ (Jf 271 

Menthu-Ra '^^^^^ s=3 %^ ° _^ 271 

Heru-pa-chrat (Harpocrates) ^^ A^ f^ wf ■ • ■ ■ • ■ ^ 7 ' 

Chensu (Chonsu) ® B^^ 272 

AtmuO^|\%>J 272 

Ptah°§J^ 273 

Ptah-Seker-Ausar H '^^^=^ H J) 274 

i-em-hetep (Imouthis) ^ ^\ ^ ^ ^ 274 

Chnemu (Chnoumis) Q ^ y> j} 275 

Tehuti (Thoth) ^^ 276 

S^^Pal ^" 

Ausar (Osiris) AS^ 277 

Auset (Isis) jj ^ il 279 

Nebt-het (Nephthys) "n ^ J 279 


Anpu (Anubis) (j ^ ^^ 

Apuat V ^^^ I 
□ X Q I I 



Hapi(theNile)§— ^^ J 

Hapi (Apis) I ^ 

Ausar-Hapi (Serapis) r] J] 
Mnevis "^^ m ^^ ^ 



1 1 I 

Tuamautef -^ 
Qebhsennuf If J |1 
Sati *|p \\ and Anqet 






r"-^"^ P 







Het-heru (Hathor) (^ | 





and Nut 

The four children of 











M ■ ■ 

Serq(Selk) p"^3SPs| 



Seker ' 

Ta-urt (Thoueris) 


Figures of Animals, etc., sacred to the gods ; 









Hedgehog ... 


Ichneumon ... 

Crocodile ... 





Fishes -{ Latus 

Silurus ... 
_ Lepidotus 




































Figures of Kings and Private Persons 



Egyptian Tombs : — 



Theban Tombs 

Egyptian Writing Materials : — 
The Papyrus 


Reeds and Ink 

Egyptian Writing ; — 

Hieroglyphic, Hieratic, and Demotic 
Coptic Writing and Language 

Mummies of Animals, Reptiles, Birds, and Fishes : — 
Apis Bull 
Cat ... 
Ibis ... 
Fish ... 

Cippi of Horns 
The Egyptian Months, 
and Arabic 

Egyptian and Coptic Numbers 

A List of Common Hieroglyphic Characters 
A List of Common Determinatives 

and their names, in Coptic, Greek, 












The date of the period when the land of Egypt was taken Antiquity 
possession of by the race of people which we are accustomed Egyptians 
to call Egyptian is unknown. None of the researches which 
have been carried on by historians, philologists, anthropolo- 
gists and archaeologists has, up to the present, given us any 
information from which we may reasonably hope to arrive at 
a decision as to the time when this event took place. And 
just as we know nothing of the period of the advent of the 
invaders, so also we know nothing of the aboriginal people 
whom we may assume they found living there when they 
arrived. The Egyptian aborigines are thought by some to 
have been a dark-skinned race, and to have belonged to the 
negro family. Whatever may be the truth on these points, it 
is pretty clear that no traces of their works or buildings have 
come down to us, and as skulls belonging to their time have 
not been found, any statement as to their race characteristics 
must be based on pure assumption. 

About the race to which the Egyptian known to us from 
mummies and statues belongs and his characteristics, there is 

' Among the books which derive their information about the history of Egypt 
from native sources, and are all important for the study of Egyptian History, 
must be mentioned: — Champollion-Figeac, Egypie Annenne, Paris, 1839; 
Rosellini, Monumniti Storici, Pisa, 1832-1844; Bunsen, Aegyptens Stelle in der 
Wellgeschichte, Gotha, 1844-1857 (English translation with -supplementary addi- 
tions by the late Dr. Birch, Vols. 1-5, London, 1857) ; Lepsius, Chronohgie der 
Aegypter, Berlin, 1849; Lepsius, Konigsbuch, Berlin, 1858; Brugsch, Geschichte 
Aegyptens, Leipzig, 1859 (English translation by Danby Seymour and Philip 
Smith, B.A., 2 vols., 2nd ed., London, 1881) ; Tiirch, Egypt from the earliest 
Times to B.C. 300, London, 1880; Wiedemann, Aegyptische Geschichte, Gotha, 
1884 ; Meyer, Geschichte des alien Aegyptens, Berlin, 1887, with Einleitjing. 
Geographie des alien Aegyptens, Schrift und Sprache seiner BcTvohner, by 
Dumichen; and Mariette, Aper(u de PHisioire Ancienne d! Egypie, Paris, 1867. 
Interesting and popular works on this subject are contained in Maspero, Histoire 
Ancienne des Peuples de V Orient, 1st ed., 1875, and Lenormant, Histoire Ancienne 
de rOrient, Paris, 1882. 

, B. M. B 


Asia the no doubt whatever. He was a Caucasian, and it would seem 
home of th^* ^^ came to Egypt from an original home in Asia. He 
the wandered, or was driven, forth from there, and travelling in a 

Egyptians. , , , ,. ' . - , ^ 

south-westerly or westerly direction, after a number of years 
arrived at a place to the north of the Red Sea, probably the 
Isthmus of Suez, the " bridge of nations." Of the time 
occupied by the immigrant in making his way from Asia to 
Egypt nothing can be said ; it is quite certain, however, that 
when he arrived he brought a high civilization with him. 
Following the statement of Diodorus Siculus,^ it was the fashion 
some years ago to state in books of history that the ancient 
Egyptian was a negro, and some distinguished historians still 
make the statement that "the fundamental character of the 
Egyptian in respect of physical type, language, and tone of 
thought, is Nigritic."^ That neither the Egyptian nor his 
civilization is of Nigritic origin is proved by the inscriptions 
and by the evidence of an ever-increasing number of starues of 
kings, and of high officials in their service, who lived during the 
earliest times of the rule of the invaders over Egypt. Prof. 
Owen's opinion on this subject is as follows : " Taking the 
Evidence sum of the correspondence notable in collections of skulls 
and Mi-^ from Egj'ptian graveyards as a probable indication of the 
tiquities. hypothetical primitive race originating the civilized conditions 
of cranial departure from the skull-character of such race, 
that race was certainly not of the Australioid type, is more 
suggestive of a northern Nubian or Berber basis. But such 
suggestive characters maybe due to intercourse or 'admix- 
ture' at periods later than [the] XHIth dynasty; they are 
not present, or in a much less degree, in the skulls, features, 
and physiognomies of individuals of from the Hlrd to the 
Xllth dynasties."^ If the pure ancient Egyptian, as found 
in mummies and represented in paintings upon the tombs, be 
compared with the negro, we shall find that they are abso- 
lutely unlike in every particular. The negro is prognathous, 
but the Egyptian is orthognathous ; the bony structure of the 

' Bk. iii. 3. 1. (ed. Didot, p. 128). 
^ G. Rawlinson, Aiuient Egypt, 1887, p. 24. 

^Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 
Vol. IV. p. 239. 


negro is heavier and stronger than that of the Egyptian ; the Features 
hair of the negro is crisp and woolly, while that of the Eayptian. 
Egyptian is smooth and fine. The Egyptian was usually of 
slender build, with broad shoulders, sinewy arms and legs, 
and long hands and feet. His head was small, with large 
eyes, full cheeks, broad mouth, lips inclined to be full, and 
square chin. The nose was short and not aquiline. It will 
be observed, too, that if we add that the Egyptian was dark 
complexioned, the above particulars will agree very well with 
their general description by Ammianus Marcellinus (xxii. i6, 
23) : " Homines autem Aegyptii plerique subfusculi sunt et 
atrati ^ magis quam maesti oris, gracilenti et aridi, ad 

singulos motus excandescentes " When an Egyptian 

had an aquiline nose, it indicated that he had Semitic blood 
in his veins ; the aquiline nose was hardly ever met with in 
Upper Egypt.2 But it is quite as impossible to show that the 
Egyptian was a Semite, as some have attempted to do, as 
that he was a negro. 

The language of the Egyptian as known to us by the Opinions 
inscriptions which he left behind him belongs wholly neither "„ ^^° "^ 
to the Indo-European nor to the Semitic family of languages, affinity of 
The only known language which it resembles is Coptic, and 
this is now pretty well understood to be a dialect of the 
language of the hieroglyphics. Benfey' endeavoured to show 
that the Egyptian had sprung from a Semitic stock, and 
De Rougd,^ Ebers and Brugsch^ have followed in his steps. 

' See also Herodotus, ii. 104. 

^ Here and elsewhere I have reproduced passages from my Prefatory Remarks 
071 the unrolling the Mummy of Bak-ran, privately printed, London, 1890. See 
Ebers, Aegypten und die Biicher Moses, i. p. 46 ff. and Wiedemann, Aegyptische 
Geichichte, p. 25. 

' The whole of the facts which favour the theory that the Egyptian is allied 
to the Semitic languages are collected in his work Ueber das Verhdltniss der 
Aegyptischen Sprache zum Semitischen Sprachstamme, Leipzig, 1844. 

■* Memoire sur Vinscription du tombeau d'Ahmes, p. 195. " gt 

presque toujours un fait curieux a ete mis en evidence, i savoir, que la gramiiiaire 
de la langue antique se rapproche bien plus decidement des caracteres propres 
aux idiomes semitiques. " 

' Worterbuch, I. Vorrede, ss. 9-12. " Es steht mir namlich fest, dass die 
altagyptische Sprache, d. h. die alteste Gestaltung derselben, im Semitischen 
wurzelt und dass wir von hieraus alle jene Erscheinungen zu erklaren haben, welche 
sonst ohne jede Ausflosung dastehen wiiiden." 

B 2 


Barthelemy, de Guignes, Giorgi, de Rossi and Kopp pro- 
claimed unhesitatingly the identity of Coptic with Hebrew,' 
but Quatrem^re in his Recherches critiques et historiques sur la 
langiie et la litter ature de VEgypte, p. i6, declared that Coptic 
was without affinity with any other language, and that it was 
a mother tongue. Dr. Lepsius tried to show by the names of 
the numerals and alphabets that the Indo-European, Semitic 
and Coptic families of languages were originally identical,^ 
and Schwartze ^ asserted that Coptic was analogous to the 
Semitic languages in its grammar, and to the Indo-European 
languages by its roots ; but that it was more akin to the 
Semitic languages in its simple character and lack of logical 
structure. Bunsen and Paul de Lagarde thought that the 
Egyptian language represented a pre-historic layer of Semi- 
tism, and tried to show that the forms and the roots of the 
ancient Egyptian could be explained neither by Aryan nor 
Semitic singly, but by both of these families together, and 
that they formed in some way the transition from one to the 
other.* Stern in his Koptische Grammatik, p. 4, says : — 
" Es besteht eine alte Verwandtschaft zwischen der aegypti- 
schen, welche dem hamitischen Stamme angehort, und den 
semitischen Sprachen, wie sich unverkennbar noch in der 
pronominalbildung und in manchen gemeinsamen Wurzeln 
zeigt ; doch scheint sich das aegyptische von den asiatischen 
Schwestern friih getrennt zu haben und seinen eigenen Weg 

gegangen zu sein Die allgemeine Stammverwandtschaft 

der beiden Sprachen ist durch weitgehende Lautverschiebun- 
gen und Veranderungen verdeckt." Prof W. Wright thought 
that " we have not a few structural affinities, which may 
perhaps be thought sufficient to justify those linguists who 
hold that Egyptian is a relic of the earliest age of Semitism, 
or of Semitic speech as it was before it passed into the 
peculiar form in which we maybe said to know it historically." 
(Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages, p. 34.) 

' Renan, Histoire G^nh-ale des Langues Semitiques, p. 80. 
^ Ueber den Ursprung und die Verwandtschaft der ZahhvSrter in der Indo- 
Germanischen, Semitischen und Koplischen Sprctche, Berlin, 1S36. 
^ Das alte Aegypten, pp. 976, 1033. 
■* Renan, op. cit., p. 82. 


Quite recently Dr. Erman has discussed' the question of 
the affinity of the language of the hieroglyphics with the 
Semitic dialects, and he is of opinion that a relationship 
undoubtedly exists. To support this view he prints a list 
of Egyptian words with what he and I believe to be their 
Semitic equivalents, and he thinks that the number of such 
words might be considerably increased if we were able to 
recover the radicals which are hidden in their hieroglyphic 
forms. His arguments are carefully thought out and his 
facts ably put together, and he has made an important contri- 
bution towards the settlement of a difficult subject. 

On the other hand Renan, Max Miiller, and others, 
do not admit the connexion between Egyptian and the 
Semitic languages in any way whatever. Renan does not 
seek to deny that the proposed relationships between Coptic 
and Semitic dictionaries have something seductive about 
them, but he cannot admit that they form any scientific 
proof ; he considers them to be accidents rather than organic 
analogies, as shown by the following list : — ^ 

Egyptian. Coptic 

Sing. I. [I dnuk I «i.noK 


„ 2. m. Q g entttk thou ftOOK 

„ 2. f. ^ entut thou itOO 

,, 3. m. "^^ ^ entyf he ftOOC| 


„ 3. f. <^ (g entus she ftOOC 


n]n« for nri3« ^,,::_^\ an/a 
iriN for in?« ^\ a?iti 

' Z.D.M.G., BandXLVI. pp. 93-129. 

^ See however Wright {Comparative Grammar, p. 33), "An examination of 
the Coptic alone readily suggests several considerations in support of this view 
[i.e., that Egyptian is descended from the same stock as the Semitic languages]. 
For example, there is the marvellous similarity, almost amounting to identity, of 
the personal pronouns, both separate and suffixed — a class of words which languages 
of radically different families are not apt to Ijorrow from one another ' 




enen we «l.noit 


T /•A'VA/VN 

I I I 

2. ^tv ->A/wv> £«/«/^;z you ftetoxen QJjiISi for Djn?^ 

3. ^TVi ««/M they neoooif 




:^i^ ^ 


and "Ha- 

The identity of the pronouns, and especially the manner 
in which they are treated in the two groups of languages, he 
considers a remarkable fact, and goes on to say that this 
identity is observed even in the details which seem the most 
secondary. Several apparent irregularities of the Semitic 
pronoun, as for example, the changing of the T\ into "T in the 
affix, even find in the theory of the Coptic pronoun a satis- 
factory explanation. The analogies of the nouns of number 
pointed out by Lepsius are not less striking, for example : — 




two crt-l-nf (masc.) D^i^ttj 


suu or sas, six COO'*' ttJC? 

sexef, seven ajA.ajq iTltiJ 

Xemennu, eight cyJULKH. Hibty 

The conjugation itself is not without some analogies in 
the two languages ; the present tense in Coptic, like the 
imperfect of the Semitic languages, is formed by the agglu- 
tination of the pronoun at the beginning of the verbal root, 
and the other tenses are formed by means of a composition 
like those which the Aramean languages make use of. 
Having admitted these facts, Renan goes on to say that the 
problem whether these resemblances are merely such things 
as are to be found in all languages, or analogies which spring 
from a common origin is, to say the truth, almost unsolvable. 
We must then make for the language and civilization of 
Egypt a family by itself, which may be called Hamitic} 

' Renan, op. cit., pp. 84, 85, 89. 


According to Prof. Max Miiller and others, " the Egyptian Max MUl- 
and the Semitic languages belong to quite different stages 
of language, the former to what Prof. Max Miiller calls 
the second or Terminational, the latter to the third or 
Inflexional stage. In the Terminational stage, two or more 
roots may coalesce to form a word, the one retaining its 
radical independence, the other sinking down to a mere 
termination. The languages belonging to this stage have 
generally been called agglutinative. Now the Egyptian 
language has indeed reached this stage as regards the pro- 
nominal and one or two other suffixes. But in all other 
respects it most nearly resembles the languages of the first or 
Radical stage, in which there is no formal distinction between 
a root and a word/' ^ A theory has been put forth by Dr. 
Strassmaier that a relationship exists between the Accadian Egyptian, 
and Egyptian languages, and he printed a small list of ^°^"*^' 
Egyptian, Coptic and Accadian words which he thought to Accadian. 
be identical. If Egypt and Mesopotamia were conquered by 
branches of the same Accadian-speaking race this is only 
what might be expected. See his paper, Akkadisch und 
Aegyptisch, in the Alburn"^ presented to M. Leemans. 

The land of Eg^pt was commonly called by its inhabitants Country of 

_ @s ci ,, . , ^ ., , , , ^ ., ., , Egypt- 

Kami, because of the dark colour of the soil, and 

if the colour of the ground for a few miles on each side of 
the Nile be compared with the Arabian and Libydn desert 
the appropriateness of the name Kam or Kamt is at once 
evident. Another old name of Egypt is Ta-mera, "the land 

of the inundation,'' === ^ l ® ' K ^ © ' °'^ "^^^ ^H 63 ' 

two other names for the country are J A @ Beqet, apparently 

having reference to Egypt as an olive-bearing land, and 

' Renouf, Hibbert Lectures, pp. 55-6l. The question of Pronominal forms 
in Egyptian has been discussed by this writer in the Proceedings of the Society of 
Biblical Archceology, March, l888, pp. 247-264, and in this paper he states that 
pronouns like anuk, entuk, entuf, etc., are formed of a series of demonstrative 
elements; anuk = a + nu -1- k, entuk = en + tu + k, entuf=en + tu— f. 

2 Etudes Archeologiques, Linguistiques et Hisioriques, dediees \ Dr. C. 
Leemans, Leide, 1885, pp. 105-107. 


names of 

Nomes of 

Ta-res or s=s!= 

Upper Egypt was commonly called 
^ @ Ta-qemd, " the land of the South," and 

Lower Egypt 5^n'¥ Ta-meh, "the land of the North." 

Upper and Lower Egypt were represented in the inscriptions 

by the following: %^ , W M, 3 3,V J, ^SQ"' 

The Hebrews called Egypt " Mizraim," and the Assyrians 
and Babylonians Musur ; it is given this latter name in the 
cuneiform despatches of Tushratta, King of Mitani, about 
B.C. 1550. Upper Egypt extended from Asw4n (Syene) to 
Memphis, and Lower Egypt, beginning at Memphis, included 
the Delta and sea-coast. 

From the earliest times Egypt appears to have been 
divided into a series of districts which the Egyptians called 
hesp -H+t-, and the Greeks No/iot or Nomes. Each nome 
had its capital city and temple for worship, its own feasts, its 
own sacred animals and trees, and its own protecting deity. 
The limits of each nome were most carefully marked, and the 
amount of cultivated land, the amount of land available for 
agricultural purposes after a high Nile, and the canals with 
their various branches, were all known.^ Each nome with its 
independent administration, formed, practically, a small but 
complete state. 

The number of the nomes according to classical authors 
varies ; Diodoru.s, who says (i. 54) that the nome dates from 
the time of Sesostris, gives thirty-six, Pliny ^ forty-five. The 
number usually given in Egyptian lists is forty-two : twenty- 
two in Upper Egypt, and twenty in Lower Egypt. Hepta- 
nomis, or Middle Egypt, appears to have been the district 
between the Thebaid and the Delta ; its seven nomes are 
said to have been Memphites, Heracleopolites, Crocodilopo- 
lites, Aphroditopolites, Oxyrhynchites, Cynopolites, Hermo- 
polites. The Greater and Lesser Oases were considered to 
be parts of Heptanomis. 

' A list of the nomes is given at the end of the chapter on Egyptian History. 
^ He calls them praefeciuras oppidorum, (v. 9, 9). The nomes and their chief 
towns are given by Ptolemy, Geograpkiae, iv. 5, ed. Mercator, pp. 105-108. 


Over the early history of Egypt there hangs a mystery The 
greater than that which shrouds the origin and home of the ^n'od^in 
Egyptian ; of the period which preceded Mena (Menes), the Egyptian 

ff 1 - • I 1 History. 

first historical king of Egypt, nothing is known. According 
to Manetho a race of demi-gods and kings from This, near 
Abydos, and from Memphis ruled over Egypt before the 
advent of Mena, and these may possibly correspond with the 
shesu Heru or " followers of Horus " of the Turin papyrus, 
the list of kings on which begins with god-kings and ends 
with the rule of the Hyksos at the end of the XVI Ith dynasty 
or about B.C. 1700. The work of Manetho of Sebennytus on Early 
Egyptian history is, unfortunately, lost. He was alive about *"='°"^"^- 
B.C. 271, and is said to have been a contemporary of 
Ptolemy I. ; his Egyptian history was composed during 
the reign of Ptolemy II. Philadelphus, B.C. 286-247. 
Extracts from this work are given us by Josephus {contra 
Apion. I., 14), which refer to the reigns of the kings of the 
XV — XlXth dynasties. In Eusebius and Julius Africanus 
(fragments of whose work irevTa^i^Xlov 'y_povoKo<^iKov are 
preserved in Eusebius) there are given a list of Egyptian 
dynasties, and the number of the years of the reign of each 
king. This list is one of the most valuable documents which 
have come down to us, for Manetho, by reason of his position 
as priest and his knowledge of the ancient Egyptian language, 
had access to, and was able to make use of, the ancient 
Egyptian literature in a way which no other writer seems to 
have done. The thirty dynasties of Egyptian kings he Lists of 
divides into three periods, thus : Dynasties I. — XL, Dynasties ^^°2^" 
XII.— XIX., and Dynasties XX.— XXX. It must, however, 
be understood that the Egyptian did not group the kings 
into dynasties, and this fact is evident from the Tablet of 
Abydos and the Tablet of Sakkarah. The Tablet of 
Abydos, discovered by Diimichen in the Temple of Osiris, at 
Abydos, in 1864, gives the names of seventy-five kings, 
beginning with Mena or Menes, and ending with Seti I., the 
father of Rameses II. ; it is not a complete list, and there is 
nothing to show why certain names are omitted. The 
Tablet of Sakkarah, discovered by Mariette at Sakkarah, 
was inscribed during the reign of Rameses II., and it gives 



tainty of 

the names of forty-seven kings, agreeing closely, in the matter 
of selection of names, with the Tablet of Abydos. The name 
of Mer-ba-pen, the sixth king of the 1st dynasty, is that 
which begins this list. The Tablet of Karnak was disco- 
vered at Karnak by Burton and was taken to Paris by Prisse. 
It was inscribed during the reign of Thothmes III., and 
contains the names of sixty-one kings. Notwithstanding the 
fact that in the arrangement no chronological order has been 
followed, the tablet is of great value, for it mentions the names 
of some of the kings of from the Xlllth to the XVIIth 
dynasties, and gives the names of those of the Xlth dynasty 
more fully than any other list. The names of the kings in 
Manetho's list are in many instances corrupt ; by the help of 
the monuments, however, the greater number can be corrected, 
and the value of the document is the more assured as more 
of the historical inscriptions become known. 

The chronology of Egypt has been, and must be for some 
time jet, a subject of difficulty and of variety of opinion. The 
fixed points in Egyptian history are so few and the gaps 
between them so great, that it is quite impossible to establish 
an accurate system of chronology : approximate dates are all 
that can be hoped for at present. Nearly every student of 
Egyptian chronology arrives at conclusions different from 
any of his predecessors, and how widely different they are is 
seen from the fact that the date given for Menes by 
Champollion-Figeac is 5867, by Bockh 5702, by Bunsen 3623, 
by Lepsius 3892, by Lieblein 3893, by Mariette 5004, and by 
Brugsch 4400. The system of chronology by Brugsch, which 
is based on the calculation of three generations to a century, 
is generally used throughout this book. 






Dynasties I-VI. 

Mena or Menes, the first historical king of Egj'pt, came 
from This near Abydos in Upper Egypt. He left This, and 
journeying northwards, arrived at the head of the Delta, 
where, having turned the Nile out of its course, he founded 
the city of Memphis and built the temple of Ptah. 

The name Memphis, in Egyptian T A Men-nefert, 


p;gyptian history. ii 

means the " fair site " ; the sacred name of the place is 
IJ ^ 9. Het-Ptah-ka, and means " the temple of the 
genius of Ptah " ; from this name it seems that the Greek 
name for Egypt Aiyvirro'i is derived. The worship of the 
gods, the temple services, and the cult of Apis were intro- 
duced by Menes, who is said to have been devoured by a 

Teta wrote a book on anatomy, and continued building 4366 
at Memphis. 

Ata. In the reign of this king a great famine liappened. 4300 
He is said to have built pyramids at Kochome near Sak- Famine in 

■ ■ Egypt 

karah, but there is no evidence that he built the famous Step 
Pyramid^ there. 

Hesep-ti. The 64th chapter of the Book of the Dead is 4266 
said to have been found at Denderah during his reign, and Antiquity 
the 1 30th chapter also dates from that period. the Dead. 

Mer-ba-pen. With this king's name the Tablet of Sak- 4233 
karah begins. 

During the second dynasty an earthquake swallowed up a 
great many people at Bubastis, and the succession of females 
to the throne of Egypt was declared valid. Sent, the last 4000 
king of this dynasty, revised a work on medicine, and he Early 
appears to be the first king of whom contemporaneous monu- knowledge 
ments remain. '^ ^gyP'- 

During the rule of Nefer-ka-Seker, the first king of the 
Ilird dynasty, the tribes of the land to the north-west of the 
Delta rebelled : according to Manetho's statement, the moon Eclipse of 
first grew very large and bright, and then became dark, and ^ ""oo"- 
the rebels were so terrified that they fled away in terror. 

The monuments of the IVth dynasty are numerous, and 
the tombs of this period, particularly, show to what a high 
state of culture and civilization the Egyptians had attained. 
Of the first king, Seneferu, very little is known : he invaded 3706 

' The steps are six in number, and are about 38, 36, 34 J, 32, 31 and agj feet 
in height ; the width of each step is from six to seven feet. The lengths of the 
sides at the base are : north and south, 352 feet ; east and west, 596 feet, and the 
actual height is 197 feet. The shape of the pyramid is oblong, and the arrange- 
ment of the chambers inside is peculiar to itself. 



worked in 

the peninsula of Sinai, and having conquered the hostile tribes 
there, established copper mining at Wady Ma'^rah. He dug 
wells, and built forts and temples there for the use of 
the miners and overseers, and from the remains of the 
working of his mines, which may be seen there to this day, 
it is clear that the copper industry must have been very large 

at that period in Egypt. Sinai was called ^^ ^^=<^=_Lj 
Mafkata, " the land of the bluish-green stone." Seneferu is 
Pyramid of said to have built the Pyramid of M^dum, called in Egyptian 

A Chd, and in Arabic El-Haram el-Kadddb, " the false 



The Pyramid of Medum. 



built and 


pyramid." This pyramid is about 115 feet high, and is built 
in three stages ; the first is 70, the second 20, and the third 
about 25 feet high. It was never completed. 

Chufu, or Cheops, the next king of Egypt, is more 
famous as the builder of the great pyramid of Gizeh than as 
a warrior, and little more is known of his military expeditions 
than that he continued the wars against the tribes of Sinai 
which his predecessor Seneferu had so ably begun. He 
appears to have built many towns, and the famous temple of 
Denderah is said to have been founded during his reign. As 
the pyramids were tombs, they will be described in the chapter 
relating to tombs. 



Statue of Chephren, King of Egypt, B.C. 3666 [Museum of Gizeh]. 


B.C. _ 

3666 Chafra, or Chephren, is also more famous as the builder 

of the second pyramid than as a warrior, and with his name 
is coupled that of the Sphinx. 
The The age of the Sphinx is unknown, and few of the facts 

Sphmx. connected with its history have come down to these days. 
Some years ago it was generally believed to have been made 
during the rule of the kings of the Middle Empire over 
Repairs Egypt, but when the stele which recorded the repairs made 
Sphinx. i" *^ temple of the sphinx by Thothmes IV., B.C. 1533, 
came to light, it became certain that it was the work of one 
of the kings of the Ancient Empire. The stele records that 
one day during an after-dinner sleep, Harmachis appeared to 
Thothmes IV., and promised to bestow upon him the crown 
of Egypt if he would dig his image, i.e., the Sphinx, out of 
the sand. At the end of the inscription part of the name of 
Cha-f-Ra or Chephren appears, and hence some have thought 
that this king was the maker of the Sphinx ; and as the statue 
of Chephren was subsequently found in the temple close by, 
this theory was generally adopted. An inscription found by 
Mariette near one of the pyramids to the east of the pyramid 
of Cheops shows that the Sphinx existed in the time of 
Chu-fu or Cheops. The Egyptians called the Sphinx hu 
W .Sas, and he represented the god Harmachis, i.e., Heru- 

ein-chut "^ , rOi . " Horus in the horizon," or the rising 

sun, the conqueror of darkness, the god of the morning. On 
the tablet erected by Thothmes IV., Harmachis says that he 
gave life and dominion to Thothmes III., and he promises to 
give the same good gifts to his successor Thothmes IV. 
The discovery of the steps which led up to the Sphinx, a 
smaller Sphinx, and an open temple, etc., was made by 
Caviglia Caviglia, who first excavated this monument ; within the last 
few years very extensive excavations have been made round 
it by the Egyptian Government, and several hitherto unseen 
parts of it have been brought to view. The Sphinx is hewn 
out of the living rock, but pieces of stone have been added 
where necessary ; the body is about 1 50 feet long, the paws 
are 50 feet long, the head is 30 feet long, the face is 14 feet 
wide, and from the top of the head to the base of the 
monument the distance is about "jo feet. Originally there 



probably were ornaments on the head, the whole of which 
was covered with a limestone covering, and the face was 
coloured red ; of these decorations scarcely any traces now 
remain, though they were visible towards the end of the last 
century. The condition in which the monument now appears 
is due to the savage destruction of its features by the 
Muhammadan rulers of Egypt, some of whom caused it to be 
used for a target. Around this imposing relic of antiquity, 
whose origin is wrapped in mystery, a number of legends and The 
superstitions have clustered in all ages ; but Egyptology has ^P^^'"^ 
shown, I., that it was a colossal image of Ra-Harmachis, and blem of 
therefore of his human representative upon earth, the king machi" 
of Egypt who had it hewn, and II., that it was in existence 
in the time of, and was probably repaired by, Cheops and 
Chephren, who lived about three thousand seven hundred 
years before Christ.^ 

Menkaura or Mykerinos is famous as the builder of the 3633 
third pyramid at Gizeh. The fragments of his inner wooden 
coffin and a small fragment of his basalt sarcophagus are The oldest 
preserved in the British Museum, together with the remains '^P^" '", , 
of a human body which were found with them in the third 
pyramid at Gizeh. The reputation which this king left 
behind him is that of a good and just ruler. 

The kings of the Vth like those of the IVth dynasty are 
famous rather as builders than as warriors. The rule of the 
first king, Userkaf, extended as far as Elephantine. Sahura, 3566 
the second king, suppressed revolts in the Sinaitic peninsula 
and founded a town near Esneh. An, Heru-men-kau, 3400 
and Tet-ka-Ra also made expeditions into Sinai, and caused Copper 
reliefs to be cut on the rocks with the usual inscriptions in "orked in 
which they are called the conquerors of the land. In the Sinai. 
reign of this last named king Tet-ka-Ra or Assa was written 
the famous work entitled the " Precepts of Ptah-Hetep." 3366 
A single complete copy of this work, dating from the Xlth or 
Xllth dynasty, is extant ; it is preserved in the Bibliotheque 
Nationale in Paris, where it was brought by Prisse.^ If all 

' Budge, Tie Nile, Notes for Travellers in Egypt, 2nd ed., pp. 194, 195. 

* The hieratic text has been published by Prisse, Facsimile dun Papyrus 
Egyptien, Paris, 1847. The best analyses of the text are by Chabas in Revtie 
Arch., Serie I. t. xv., p. 1 ff. and in Aegyptische Zeitschrift, June and July, 1870. 

The Shekh el-Beled. From Sakk^rah [Gizeh Museum, No. 492]. 


Other monuments of the great civilization of Egypt were 

wanting, these " Precepts " alone would show the moral worth 

of the Egyptians, and the high ideal of man's duties which g j, 

they had formed nearly 5500 years ago. Of Unas, the last 3333 

king of the Vth dynasty, we know little except that he built 

a pyramid at SakkS,rah, which was opened in 1881. 

The kings of the VI th dynasty seem to have extended 
their operations further south, for their names are found at 
El-kab, Abydos, Aswan, and elsewhere. Teta and Pepi I. 3266-3233 
built each a pyramid at Sakkarah, and the rule of the latter 
seems to have embraced all Egypt He renewed the 
Egyptian rule over the Sinaitic peninsula, and the inscriptions 
at Wady Ma'arah show that copper mining was carried on 
there during his reign as busily as ever. Among Pepi's staff 
was a young man called Una, who had been a favoured The career 
servant of Teta ; Pepi employed him in many ways and ° ^^" 
distinguished him by entrusting the care of an expedition 
against the Aamu and Heru-sha, who are supposed to be 
Semitic and Asiatic enemies of Egypt respectively. Troops 
were brought from Ethiopia and led against them by Una ; 
the Egyptians were successful in defeating them, and having 
wasted their land, they returned to Egypt bringing many 
captives with them. To quell the tribes in revolt to the 
north of the Heru-sha territory it was necessary to send 
troops in ships. As a mark of the king's favour Una was 
sent to the quarries of Turah (in Eg. '^~-P^ i^^L V r^^-^ Re-du) 
to bring back a block of stone suitable for the king's sarco- 
phagus. The ability and fidelity of Una made him an 
acceptable officer to Merenra, the successor of Pepi I., who 3200 
sent him to the quarries to bring back a block of stone for 
the royal sarcophagus, to Aswan and Elephantine for granite 
to build a shrine and to make the doors of his pyramid, and 
to Alabastron for a large slab of fine white limestone. Nefer- 
ka-Ea, or Pepi II., succeeded his brother Merenra ; he built a 
pyramid and made an expedition to Sinai. The last ruler of 
the sixth dynasty, Nitaqert (Nitocris), was a queen ; she 3133 
enlarged the pyramid of Mykerinos and covered it over with 
slabs of granite, and the remains of a fine basalt sarcophagus 
which were found in a chamber near that of Mykerinos seem 
to indicate that the queen's body had been laid there. 
B. M. c 


of the cop- 
per mines 
of Sinai. 

period in 


Great ex- 
pedition to 


During the first six dynasties it is clear that the Egyptians 
were masters of the copper mine district in Sinai, that they 
were able to beat off the tribes on their western borders, that 
they defeated the two great warlike bodies of the Aamu and 
the Heru-sha, and that they were at peace with the Ethio- 
pians, upon whom they could call for assistance in time of 
war. As builders they were unequalled, and their art had 
advanced so far that they were never successfully imitated by 
later generations. Their religion and government were well 
founded, and their education was of a very high character. 
So far as is known there was no other nation, except the 
Babylonians under Naram-Sin and Sargon, which was so 
highly civilized at this remote period. 

Dynasties VII-XI. 
Of the history of Egypt of this period nothing is known ; 
the names of the kings who reigned cannot even be arranged 
in accurate chronological order. Towards the end of this 
period a number of kings named Antef and Menthu-hetep 
ruled ; they appear to have been of Theban origin. Menthu- 
hetep, with the prenomen of Neb-taui-Ra, is styled, on a 
stele on the island of Konosso, the conqueror of thirteen 
nations, and his name appears on rocks which lie beside the 
old road from Coptos to the Red Sea through the valley of 
Hammamat. The mightiest king of this period seems to 
have been Seanchkara, who was able to send forth an 
expedition to the land of Punt, the land of the gods, the 
peculiar home of the god Bes ^, and the land of sweet 
spices. The expedition set out in the eighth year of the 
king's reign, under the leadership of Hennu ; it consisted of 
3000 men, among whom were stone-cutters, soldiers, etc. On 
their road they dug four wells, and having arrived safely on 
the shores of the Red Sea, they took ship and sailed probably 
for the southern part of the Arabian peninsula. The expedi- 
tion returned successfully, bearing with it great quantities of 
spices, precious stones, and other products of the East. 

XIIth Dynasty. 
The kings of this dynasty, like the Antefs and Menthu- 
heteps, were of Theban origin, and under their rule Egypt 


comes forth into the light of day as a mighty power. As 
they were able to defend their country from the assaults of 
their hereditary foes in Ethiopia, and from the tribes on their 
eastern and western borders, the arts and sciences flourished, 
and large works connected with the storage of Nile water 
were undertaken. The period of their rule, following as it 
did absolute anarchy, is one of the most interesting in the 
history of Egypt ; and Thebes, which hitherto had not been Thebes 
the seat of government, became the chief city of the Egyptian capital^of 
empire. Egypt. 

Amenemhat I. made himself master of Egypt after very b.c. 
hard fighting, and during his rule of twenty-nine years he "* 
defeated the Uauat, an Ethiopian tribe, the Matui, a people 
who lived in the desert to the west of Egypt, and the Asiatics. 
He wrote a series of " Instructions " for his son Usertsen, 
whom he seems to have associated with him in the rule of the 
kingdom during the last ten years of his life. Conspiracies 
were formed against him, and he relates that his foes crept 
into his chamber at night to kill him. Amenemhat I. is famous 
as the founder of the temple of Amen-Ra, " the king of the 
gods," at Thebes, but although he beautified Thebes by this 
temple, he did not forget to establish another at Memphis, 
and at the other venerable cities of his kingdom. He 
followed the custom of the kings of the earlier dynasties and 
built a pyramid for his tomb. During his reign the story of 
Senehet was written. For an account of this remarkable 
papyrus see the article by Goodwin in Eraser's Magazine, 
No. 422, 1865, and for a translation see Records of the Past, 
1st ed.. Vol. VI., pp. 131-150. The original is preserved in 
Berlin, and a facsimile was published by Lepsius, Denkmdler, 
Abth. VI., Bl. 104 ff. 

Usertsen I. is famous as being the king who set up 2433 
obelisks at Heliopolis and who beautified that city by Rise of 
building splendid temples there. These works were under- Heliopolis 
taken by him after taking counsel with his chief advisers, 
and in the record ^ of the proceedings of the solemn assembly 
at which this took place, Usertsen's orders for the prompt 

' The leather roll giving this interesting text was purchased by Brugsch ir 
1858, and is now preserved at Berlin. 

C 2 



The entrance 

to the tombs at Beni-Hasan. Xllth dynasty. 


building of temples to the sun are preserved. Fragments of 
an obelisk set up by this king still exist near the modern 
town of Begig in the Fayyum, and portions of inscriptions 
remain at Karnak, which show that he continued the building 
operations which his father began there. In the forty-third year 
of his reign Ameni Amenemhat, a high official, set out for 
Ethiopia with four hundred soldiers to quell a rebellion 
which had broken out there. This expedition was perfectly 
successful, and having smitten all the tribes of Kash without 
losing a man, returned to the leader's city in the nome of 
Meh, near Beni-hasan of to-day, bringing much gold with Tombs at 
them. Ameni Amenemhat was one of the feudal lords of ?™'" 


Egypt, and he led this expedition in the place of his father, 
who was too old to go on military service. Another high 
official called Mentu-hetep built a well at Abydos, of which, 
however, no trace has been found. Like so many of the 
kings who went before him, Usertsen caused the mines in the 
Sinaitic peninsula to be regularly worked. 

Amenemhat II. sent men to Nubia to dig for gold, and 2400 
he opened the mines in the valley of Hammdmat; he appears 
to have lived some time at Tanis and to have had building 
operations carried on there like Usertsen I. In the nineteenth 
year of this king's reign Chnemu-hetep became governor of 
Menat-Chufu, near Beni-hasan, an office held before by his 
father and grandfather. In the thirty-third year of Amen- 
emhat's reign he associated his successor Usertsen II. with 
him in the rule of the kingdom. 

In the sixth year of Usertsen II. thirty-seven people 2366 
belonging to a branch of the Semitic race called Aamu, in 
the country of Absha, brought a gift of eye-paint to 
Chnemu-hetep, in whose tomb this interesting scene is 
depicted. Some writers have seen in this a representation of 
the visit of Jacob's sons to Egypt to buy corn, but there is no visi of 
ground whatever for this opinion. Of the wars of this king ^^^j^"^ j 
nothing is known, and of his buildings only one mention is Egypt. 
made, and that is on a slab in the temple of Ptah at Memphis. 

With the coming to the throne of Usertsen III. a new 2333 
period of prosperity began for Egypt. He recognized very 
soon that the tribes of Nubia had to be put down with a 






in Nubia. 



works in 


of the 

strong hand, and he marched into that country, and did not 
leave it until he had wasted the land, destroyed the crops and 
carried off the cattle. In the labours of Usertsen III. to 
suppress these peoples we have the counterpart of the 
expeditions of the English against the Mahdi and his Sudani 
followers. He foresaw that it was hopeless to expect to 
master these people if the frontier town of Egypt was Aswan 
or Wady Halfah, hence he went further south and built 
fortresses at Semneh and Kummeh. In spite of these, how- 
ever, he himself was compelled to lead an expedition into 
Ethiopia in the nineteenth year of his reign, and having 
conquered the country he built a temple at Elephantine to the 
local gods and probably another at Amada. In Egypt proper 
he seems to have carried on building operations at Tanis and 

In Amenemhat III. we have the first Egyptian king who 
seriously set to work to make the fullest possible use of the 
inundation of the Nile. At the fortresses which his prede- 
cessor Usertsen III. had established, he stationed officers to 
record and report the increase of the Nile, and "runners" 
must have conveyed the information to the king in Egypt. 
Amenemhat III. will, however, be best remembered as the 
builder of Lake Moeris in the Fayyum. The Egyptians 
called the Fayyum 

, r-n- 
X ® 

I Ta-she, " the land of the lake ' 


the name Fayyum is the Arabic form of the Coptic word 
(^loJUL "the water," which in turn is taken from ^^^Qu v 
The Egyptian original of the name 
inu-ur, or 1 — 1 ^^ /»w>/.a mer-ur, " great 


IS /V*AA/sA 

water." The Birket el-Kurun to the west of the Fayyiam was 
originally identified with Lake Moeris, but both it and the 
famous Labyrinth were situated in the eastern part of the 
district. The Labyrinth was also built by Amenemhat III., 
and is said by Herodotus (ii. 148) to have contained twelve 
courts, six facing the north, and six the south, and three 
thousand rooms: fifteen hundred above ground, and fifteen 
hundred below. In Egyptian it was called the "temple at the 
mouth of the Lake " <=■ "^^ "^P" \ '^ ^ ^i^^, and the stone 


for building it seems to'have been brought from the Valley of 
Hammamat. The copper mines in the mountains of Sinai 
were diligently worked during this reign. 

Amenemhat IV. reigned conjointly with his sister Sebek- 2266 
neferu, and beyond continuing the mining operations of his 
ancestors he seems to have done nothing. We may see in 
collecting the results of the rule of the Xllth dynasty over Power of 
Egypt, that its kings had extended their sway about 250 ^^^\j"i, 
miles south of the first cataract, and that they had lost dynasty, 
nothing of their possessions either in the eastern desert or in 
the Sinaitic peninsula. Mighty public works like the Laby- 
rinth and Lake Moeris had been successfully carried out, an 
active trade was carried on with the natives of Punt, and with 
the country to-day called Syria, and with the districts further 
east. Agriculture flourished, and the whole land was in a 
most prosperous condition. And if the living were well cared 
for, the dead were no less so. The tombs built for high Beauty of 
officials and gentlemen attest the care of the sorrowing ^^^j'^f 
relatives, while the sculptures and paintings employed to Xllth 
adorn them indicate that the artistic knowledge of the ^^^ ^' 
Egyptians had arrived at a very high pitch. 

Dynasties XIII-XVII. 
According to Manetho these dynasties were as follows : — 
Dynasty XIII, from Thebes, 60 kings in 453 years The 

XIV, „ chois, 76 „ „ 484 .. ^i^:;L7i 

„ XV, HyksOS, 6 „ „ 260 „ Kings." 

XVI, Hyksos, 10 „ „ 251 „ 

„ XVII, from Thebes, 10 „ „ 10 „ 

There are no monuments by which these figures can be 
checked, and there is no other authority for them besides 
Manetho. The Turin papyrus gives traces of 136 names for 
the period corresponding to that of the Xlllth and XlVth 
dynasties. Among the rulers of the Xlllth and XlVth 
dynasties were many who were not of royal descent. Se- 
mench-ka is known to us by his statues found at Tanis, and 
according to Mariette he seems to have been an officer who 
rebelled and then seated himself on the throne. Sebek- 


hetep II. was the son of a private individual, and Nefer- 
hetep's parents appear not to have been royal. This latter 
king built largely at Abydos, and as a worshipper of the 
local gods he is represented at Konosso and the islands of 
the first cataract. Of Sebek-hetep III., brother of Sebek- 
hetep II., Sebek-hetep IV., and Sebek-hetep V. little is 
known ; of Sebek-hetep VI. the best memorials are the rock 
tombs at Asyut. The names of many kings belonging to 
this period are known from the monuments, but a greater 
knowledge of the history of that time is necessary for 
arranging them in chronological order. It seems pretty 
certain that few of the kings reigned many years, and that 
the country was divided into a number of little states which 
were always at war with each other, and against whomsoever 
was king. Such a condition of things was, of course, highly 
favourable for a foreign invader, who would naturally be 
attracted by reports of the wealth of Egypt. The hardy 
tribes of desert dwellers, Semites and others, who crowded 
on the eastern and western borders of Egypt, delayed not to 
take advantage of the distracted and divided state of the 
Attacks of country, and making a successful attack on the north-east 
the Semites provinces of the Delta, they pressed in, and having taken 

upon the , r -nr t • t <- T^ rr-i 

Delta. possession of JVIemphis, became masters of Egypt. Their 
attack would probably be rendered less difficult by the fact 
that a great many of the inhabitants of the Delta were of 
Semitic origin, their ancestors having settled there in the 
Xllth dynasty, and their opposition to their kinsmen would 
be, in consequence, less stubborn. The sole authority for the 
Manetho history of this invasion is Josephus, who, quoting Manetho, 
"H*k " ^^y^' " There was a king of ours, whose name was Timaus. 
Under him it came to pass, I know not how, that God was 
averse to us, and there came, after a surprising manner, men 
of ignoble birth out of the eastern parts, and had boldness 
enough to make an expedition into our country, and with 
ease subdued it by force, yet without our hazarding a battle 
with them. So when they had gotten those that governed us 
under their power, they afterwards burnt down our cities, and 
demolished the temples of the gods, and used all the 
inhabitants after a most barbarous manner : nay, some they 


slew, and led their children and their wives into slavery. At 
length they made one of themselves king, whose name was 
Salatis ; he also lived at Memphis, and made both the upper 
and lower regions pay tribute, and left garrisons in places 
that were the most proper for them. He chiefly aimed to 
secure the eastern parts, as foreseeing that the Assyrians, who "Hyksns" 
had there the greatest power, would be desirous of that king- ^"^^' 
dom and invade them ; and as he found in the Saite [Seth- 
roite] Nomos a city very proper for his purpose, and which 
lay upon the Bubastic channel, but with regard to a certain 
theologic notion was called Avaris, this he rebuilt, and made 
very strong by the walls he built about it, and by a most 
numerous garrison of two hundred and forty thousand armed 
men whom he put into it to keep it. Thither Salatis came in 
summer time, partly to gather his corn and pay his soldiers 
their wages, and partly to exercise his armed men, and 
thereby to terrify foreigners. When this man had reigned 
thirteen years, after him reigned another whose name was 
Beon for forty-four years ; after him reigned another, called 
Apachnas, thirty-six years and seven months : after him 
Apophis reigned sixty-one years, and then Jonias fifty years 
and one month; after all these reigned Assis forty-nine years 
and two months. 

" And these six were the first rulers among them, who were Manetho 
all along making war with the Egyptians, and were very ^eriration 
desirous gradually to destroy them to the very roots. This of 
whole nation was styled Hycsos, that is, ' Shepherd-kings ' ; ^ ^°~' 
for the first syllable Hyc, according to the sacred dialect, 
denotes a king, as is Sos, a shepherd — but this according to the 
ordinary dialect ; and of these is compounded Hycsos : but 
some say that these people were Arabians." Now, in another 
copy it is said, that this word does not denote kings, but on 
the contrary, denotes Captive Shepherds, and this on account 
of the particle Hyc ; for that Hyc, with the aspiration, in the 
Egyptian tongue again denotes SHEPHERDS, and that ex- 
pressly also ; and this to me seems the more probable 
opinion, and more agreeable to ancient history. [But 
Manetho goes on] : — " These people whom we have before 
named kings, and called shepherds also, and their descendants," 


as he says, "kept possession of Egypt five hundred and eleven 
years." ^ On the whole it seems that these observations of 
Manetho are correct. Of Salatis, the first Hyksos king, 
nothing is known historically, and there are no monuments 
known which can correctly be asserted to be the work of the 
kings of the first Hyksos dynasty. The country from which 
The the Hyksos came, also, is unknown. Some Egyptologists 

Kings. "^"^ consider the Hyksos to be Cushites, and some think they 
are to be identified with the Accadians; others, again, 
believe them to be Phoenicians or Semites. The features of 
the statues that have come down to us which are attributed 
to the Hyksos, have the following characteristics : The eyes 
are comparatively small, the nose is broad but aquiline, the 
cheek bones are prominent and the cheeks thick, the mouth is 
broad, the lips thick, and the chin protrudes slightly. From 
these facts some have stated decidedly that the Hyksos 
cannot have been Semites, but it must be proved that the 
monuments attributed to the Hyksos were really made by 
them, before this question can be considered to be definitively 
disposed of Of the two meanings of the name Hyksos put 
forth by Josephus, the first being Manetho's explanation, and 
the second that of Josephus, based on another copy of 
Manetho's work seen by him, the former seems to be the 
more correct, and we may perhaps give the Egyptian 

||S- J^iM^flP J,^j -^-?--/^^^-^, as an equivalent of 
"Hyksos." **• ^^^ Shaasu are a well known enemy of Egypt, who 
came from the deserts east and north-east of Egypt, and 
" Hequ-shaasu " or " princes of the Shaasu " would be a name 
such as we might expect the Egyptians to bestow upon the 
invaders, just as they spoke of Heq Chetu, " Prince of Cheta." 
The kings belonging to this period, made known to us by 
the Egyptian monuments, are Apepa I., Apepa H., and Nubti. 
Of Apepa I. very little is known, but of Apepa II. a number 
of monuments remain, and among others one which records 
the submission to him of a number of Ethiopian tribes. 
Bar-Hebraeus relates that there " reigned in Egypt the 
fourth king of the Shepherds called Apapus, fourteen years. 

' Josephus, Contra Afion, i. 14, translated by Whistoii, p. 610. 


It was this king who dreamed dreams, and who made Joseph Joseph in 
ruler — according to the writings of Chaldeans — and it "^^^ ' 
seems that these kings were called " Shepherd Kings " 
because of Joseph's brethren." ^ It is known from a granite 
stele ^ found at Tani.s, a city formerly inhabited by the Apepa 
kings, that the four hundredth year from the reign of Nubti 
fell in the reign of Rameses II. Dr. Birch/ Wiedemann* 
and other Egyptologists, compare this period of 400 years 
with the 430 years of the bondage of Israel in Egypt, and, as Israel in 
the Exodus probably took place during the reign of the ^^^P'- 
immediate successor of Rameses II., we may assume that the 
statement of Bar-Hebraeus was based on some trustworthy 
tradition. It has also been pertinently remarked that it would 
be easier for Joseph to hold high office under the Shepherd Joseph and 
kings than under the rule of an ancient hereditary aristocracy. ^ d ^^ 
The Shepherd kings worshipped a god called Sut or Sutech, Kings.'' 
who was to the Egyptians a veritable abomination. They 
lived in the cities of Tanis and Avaris, on the east side of the 
Pelusiac arm of the Nile. They adopted the manners and 
customs and writing of the Egyptians, and whatever may 
have been their severity when they first began to rule, they 
were of great service to the Egyptians. It is doubtful, 
however, how far south their rule extended. The names of a 
number of kings whom Wiedemann attributes to this period 
are to be found in his Geschichte, pp. 295-297. 

The kings of the XVIIth dynasty were of Theban origin, xhe kings 
and are famous as those who defeated the Shepherd kings and of Thebes 
expelled them. According to Manetho, "under a king whose Hyksos. 
name was Alisphragmuthosis, the shepherds were subdued 
by him, and were indeed driven out of other parts of Egypt, 

.area.? ^oiQii] ^^>4Sd» U^^jo :V?^? lAoioAak) ^ 

' Ed. Bruns, p. 14, at the top ; ed. Bedjan, p. 13, at the top. 

^ iVn English translation is given by Birch in Records of the Past, V., p. 33 ff. 

' Egypt, p. 76. "* Aeg. Geschichte, p. 294. 


but were shut up in a place that contained ten thousand 
acres : this place was named Avaris." Manetho says that 
" the Shepherds built a wall round all this place, which was a 
large and strong wall, and this in order to keep all their 
possessions and their prey within a place of strength, but that 
Thummosis the son of Alisphragmuthosis made an attempt 
to take them by force and by siege with 480,000 men to lie 
round about them ; but that, upon his despair of taking the 
place by that siege, they came to a composition with them, 
that they should leave Egypt, and go without any harm to 
be done them, whithersoever they would ; and that, after 
Retreat of this composition was made, they went away with their whole 
"Hyksos " f^ini'iss and effects, not fewer in number than 240,000, and 
took their journey from Egypt, through the wilderness, for 
Syria : but that, as they were in fear of the Assyrians, who 
had then the dominion over Asia, they built a city in that 
country which is now called Judea, and that large enough to 
contain this great number of men, and called it Jerusalem." ' 
Of more Yalue than this account of Josephus for the expulsion 
of the Shepherd kings, is the mutilated papyrus^ in the 
British Museum which treats of Apepa and the native Theban 
Seqenen- king Tau-aa-qcii or Seqenen-Ra III. According to it, 
Egypt belonged to her foes and had no king, although 
Seqenen-Ra, who is described as a heq or prince, was master 
of a town in the south. Apepa received tribute from all parts 
of the Delta, and part of it he devoted to building temples to 
his god Set. He wished all Egypt, both south and north, to 
worship this god, and to pay tribute to himself, and he sent 
a messenger from Avaris to Thebes requiring Seqenen-Ra to 
worship Set alone. This king returned answer saying that 
he could worship no god but Amen-Ra. Some time after 
another messenger of Apepa arrived with threats, which 
caused Seqenen-Ra much trouble, and he gathered together 
his generals and councillors to decide upon a plan of action. 
What the decision was the mutilated state of the papyrus 
prevents us from knowing, but there is no doubt about the 
ultimate result of their deliberations. One of the officers of 

' Contra Apion. I. 14, Whiston's translation, p. 611. 
^ For the text see Select Papyri, ed. Birch, pi. 2. 


Seqenen-Ra was called Baba, the son of Re-ant, and he had 
a son called Aahmes who was born in the city of Eileithyia. Aahmes 
This Aahmes became an officer on board a ship of war called general, 
the " North," and in the inscription on the walls of his tomb 
it is said that he went with the king to besiege the city of 
Avaris. He was next promoted to a ship called Cha-em- 
Mennefer, and he took part in the battle fought upon the 
canal of Pat'etku of Avaris. Here he performed mighty 
deeds of valour, and he distinctly says, " We took Avaris, and 
I carried off as captives from thence one man and three 
women, in all four heads." ^ The war of independence begun Egyptians 
by Seqenen-Ra HI., was brought to a successful issue by Hyfj^os. '^ 
Aahmes or Amasis I., and Egypt was delivered. Seqenen-Ra 
probably lost his life in battle with the enemy, and must in 
any case have been seriously wounded, judging by the 
smashed skull and broken bones which his mummy exhibits. 

Dynasty XVHI. 

Aahmes I., son of Ka-mes and his wife Aah-hetep, was 1700 
the first king of the XVHIth dynasty, and the first native 
ruler of all Egypt for a period of about five hundred years. 
Having captured Avaris, Am.asis marched into Asia, where he 
captured the town of .Sharhana, the 'jlll'^ty of Joshua xix. 6, 
and made himself master of the land of T'ahi. Returning Egyptian 
to Egypt he marched into Nubia and defeated several tribes ?°"1V^^'^ 

°-' ^ in Asia and 

who had rebelled systematically for many years past. Nubia. 
Having made the borders of his country safe from invasion, 
Amasis began to build at Memphis and Thebes and other 
places. Thebes, the home of the kings who had expelled the 
Hyksos, became the first town in Egypt, and Amen-Ra, who 
hitherto had enjoyed the reputation of a mere local god, 
became the head of Egyptian deities. Amenophis I., son of 1666 
Amasis I., marched into Nubia, and brought it into subjection 
to him, and in the north of Egypt he defeated a people called 
the Aamu-kehak. In the reign of this king the horse is first 
represented on the monuments. 

• Records of the Past, VI. p. 8, 



1633 Thothmes I., like his father Amenophis I., marched into 

Nubia ^ and defeated the rebel tribes ; he made the people 

slaves and carried off much spoil to Thebes. Soon after his 

return to Thebes he set out with his army on an expedition 

to Mesopotamia, passing through the Arabian desert and 

Palestine by the way, and finally arrived on the banks of the 

Euphrates and Tigris. This expedition was the last in which 

the officer Aahmes took part, and he again distinguished 

himself by his personal bravery as on former occasions. To 

Limits of commemorate this expedition Thothmes I. set up two stelae 

temton'"in "^^'' ^^^ Euphrates to mark the limits of Egyptian territory. 

Asia. It would seem that no Egyptian king ever possessed per- 

manent hold upon the country of Mesopotamia, r— , ^^w>aa 

Nehern (compare .jcju A,^ or I^OJOU A.«-i ), and it is clear 
that Egypt only held even a nominal dominion over it as 
long as each king on his accession marched into the country 
to terrify the nomad tribes afresh, and to decide what amount 
of tribute each petty king or head of a tribe should pay to 
Egypt. The governors of cities in Mesopotamia and Ruthen, 
or Syria, made treaties among themselves and planned wars 
against each other, or a common foe, without any reference 
to the authority of Egypt over them. Each king of Assyria, 
if he wished to maintain his authority, found it necessary on 
his accession, or soon after, to undertake a series of military 
expeditions to punish the peoples who, on the death of a 
king, always revolted. If this were necessary for a power 
actually resident in Mesopotamia, how much more necessary 
would it be for a remote and shadowy power like that of 
Egypt. Thothmes I. continued the buildings at Thebes, and 
set up two granite obelisks. Towards the end of his reign he 
associated his daughter Maat-ka-Ra, or Hat-shepset, with 
him in the rule of the kingdom. 
1600 Thothmes II. married his sister Hatshepset and became 

king of Egypt. The tribes of Nubia were again re-conquered, 
and the Shaasu were once more defeated. After a short reign, 
the greater part of which was occupied in continuing the 
buildings at Karnak, the king died and Hatshepset his sister- 

' The o£&ce of "Prince of Cush" is first mentioned in the reign of Thothmes I. 


wife reigned in his stead. This queen was one of the most 
capable women who ever reigned in Egypt ; she is famous 
as the builder ^ of the beautiful temple at Der el-Bahari, and Hatshepset 
for the remarkable expedition to Punt planned by her and el-Bahari. 
carried out in the ninth year of her reign. Ships were made 
ready and sailors collected ; a multitude of gifts were stowed 
in each ship, and the necessary guard of soldiers for each told 
off; a number of Egyptian ladies and high officials prepared Expedition 
to accompany the expedition, and the direction of the whole 
was put into the hands of the queen's most beloved servant. 
The inhabitants of Punt received the expedition in a very 
friendly manner, and having loaded the servants of Hat- 
shepset with rich gifts of gold, ivory, balsam, precious stones, 
plants, trees, ebony, apes, greyhounds, etc., etc., sent them 
back to Egypt. When these things had been safely brought 
back to Thebes, Hatshepset received them with joy, and 
dedicated the greater part of them as an offering to her 
father Ainen-Ra. In the sixteenth year of her reign 
Thothmes III. became associated with her in her rule over 
Egypt. At Karnak she set up two magnificent granite Obelisks 
obelisks in memory of her father Thothmes I. According to 
an inscription on the base of the one still standing, the granite 
for it was hewn out of the quarry in Aswan, and was brought 
to Thebes, and was polished and inscribed and set up within 
seven months. The height of this obelisk is 105 feet, and if 
the weight be taken into consideration, and the difficult site, 
among a crowd of buildings, upon which it was to be set up, 
it will be easy to judge of the resources and skill of the 
Egyptian architect and mason of that period. Of the end of 
Hatshepset nothing is known. During her lifetime she wore 
male attire, and put on the robes and ornaments which 
belonged to kings only. In the inscriptions she is always 
described as king "of the North and South, Maat-ka-Ra, 
son of the Sun, Hatshepset,'' and the verbs and pronouns 
relating to her are masculine. After her death her brother 
Thothmes III. caused as many traces of her rule as possible 
to disappear. 

' The statue of her architect Sen-mut is preserved at Berlin. 


Thothmes III. was one of the mightiest kings who 
occupied the throne of Egypt, and during his long reign of 
fifty-three years * he carried the arms of Egypt to the utter- 
most parts of the world as known to the Egyptians, and 
showed himself to be a wise and great king. While Hat- 
shepset was amusing herself with her expedition to Punt and 
the building of her temple at Der el-Bahari, the desert tribes 
on her eastern and western borders were making prepara- 
tions ready to revolt, and they showed their contempt for the 
authority of Egypt by refusing to pay tribute. The Meso- 
potamians, over whom the power of Egypt must ever have 
been of a shadowy nature, boldly declared themselves free, 
and their neighbours and kinsmen living in Syria and in the 
districts to the north and north-east of Damascus followed 
Conquest their example. The conquests made by Amasis I. and 
AsiTby^™ Amenhetep I. were all forgotten, and Thothmes III. had 
Thothmes practically to reconquer the world. In his twenty-second 
year he set out from Tanis, and passing through the desert 
of Sinai he marched to Gaza, a city which had remained 
faithful to his authority. A few days later he set out for 
Megiddo, which he found to be occupied by the governor 
of Kadesh, who had made a league with all the tribes living 
between the Mediterranean and Nineveh. Sixteen days after 
Thothmes left Gaza he engaged the enemy, who seeing that 
the Egyptian king himself was fighting against them, lost 
all heart, and leaping down from their chariots, decorated 
with gold and silver, fled to Megiddo, throwing away their 
arms as they went. As the gates of this town had been shut 
by those inside, the fugitives had to be pulled up over the 
walls. The number of the enemy slain by the Egyptians was 
Fall of enormous, and Megiddo was taken with little difficulty. The 
Megiddo. cjijefs of the allied peoples seeing that their league was 
destroyed, and that Megiddo was in the hands of the enemy, 
immediately brought offerings of gold, precious stones, horses, 
com, oxen, etc., etc., and submitted to Thothmes. The news 
of the defeat of the league reached the remote parts of Meso- 
potamia, and their governors, in due time, also sent gifts of 

' This number includes the years which he reigned conjointly with his sister ; 
he reigned alone thirty-one years. 


propitiation to the king. The names of the places conquered Defeat of 
by Thothmes were inscribed by his orders on some of the league, 
pylons at Karnak ; of the 360 places there mentioned, com- 
paratively few can be identified with Biblical sites with any 
certainty. For the next few years the Retennu or Syrians 
and the Babylonians brought their appointed tribute regularly, 
and to make the relations between himself and the former 
nation of an amicable character, Thothmes married a princess 
of their country. In the twenty-ninth and thirtieth years of his 
reign he marched again to Syria and captured Tunep, Aradus, 
Carchemish and Kadesh on the Orontes. The remaining 
years of his life he employed in making expeditions against 
the Retennu and the Mesopotamians, into whose country 
he marched as far as Nl. The tribes of Ethiopia and Sinai 
sent him valuable gifts, which are duly enumerated in the 
inscriptions containing the annals of this king. A good 
idea of the different objects of the tribute sent from the 
various countries may be obtained from the paintings on the 
tomb of Rech-ma-Ra at Thebes, where we see depicted 
horses and chariots, collars of gold, vases weighing 2,821 
pounds of gold, tables of cedar, plants, ivory, ebony, corn, 
cattle, copper, lapis-lazuli, silver, iron, wine, etc., etc. On the 
south the Egyptian empire reached to the southern confines 
of Nubia, on the north-east to Lake Van, on the east to the 
Tigris, and on the west to the great desert on the left bank of 
the Nile. Notwithstanding the warlike activity of Thothmes 
III., he was able to carry on great buildings at Heliopolis, 
Memphis, Thebes, Elephantine and nearly every town in 
Nubia. Four of the obelisks set up by Thothmes have come 
down to us : one is now near the Lateran at Rome, one at 
Constantinople, one in London, and one in New York. 


Araen-hetep II. had been associated with Thothmes III. 1566 
in the rule of the kingdom, and immediately he began to 
reign alone he found himself plunged in wars with the 
tributary peoples, who on the death of Thothmes III. 
declared themselves free. He marched into Mesopotamia Conquest 
and captured Nl and Akati ; he made war on the Shaasu and ^sia."'^'" 
the Nubians, and defeated both peoples. 

Thothmes IV. maintained the authority of Egypt from 1533 
B. M. D 







of Nubia 
and West- 
ern Asia. 





Mesopotamia to the borders of Nubia, but he is better known 
as the repairer of the Sphinx at Gizeh. In the first year of 
his reign he removed the sand which had covered up the 
monument, in consequence of an after-dinner sleep in which 
Harmachis appeared to him and promised to bestow upon 
him the crown of Egypt if he would dig his image, i.e., the 
Sphinx, out of the sand. Thothmes set up between the paws 
of the Sphinx a tablet about fourteen feet high, in which he 
inscribed an account of this vision and a statement of the 
works which he carried out at Heliopolis and Memphi.s. 

In Amen-hetep III., or Amenophis, the Memnon of the 
Greeks, the successor of Thothmes IV., Egypt gained a king 
having some of the ability and energy of Thothmes III. In 
the fifth year of his reign he marched into Nubia to quell a 
mighty rebellion which had broken out against the Egyptian 
rule among a number of confederate tribes. He also held the 
Mesopotamians in subjection, for we learn from large scarabs 
inscribed during his reign that his empire extended from 
Neherna, or Mesopotamia, to Karei, or the land south of Nubia. 
From these same scarabs we learn that Amenophis was a 
"mighty hunter," and that during the first ten years of his reign 
he slew 102 lions with his own hand. He built the oldest 
part of the Serapeum at Sakkarah, a temple to Amen-Ra at 
Karnak, a larger temple to the same god at Luxor, with an 
avenue of Sphinxes leading to it, and the temple of Mut to 
the south of Karnak. On the western bank of the river he 
built a large temple, the dedication of which was described 
on a stele found behind the Colossi, which also were set up 
by this king. These wonderful statues were about 60 feet 
high, and from that on the north, called the Colossus of 
Memnon, a sound was said to issue each morning when the 
sun rose. The upper part of it was thrown down by an 
earthquake, it is said, about B.C. 27; the damage was partially 
repaired during the reign of Septimius Severus, about A.D. 160 
who restored the head and shoulders of the figure by adding 
to it five layers of stone ; but after that Memnon's Colossus 
spake no more. At El-Kab, Aswan, and Soleb Amenophis 
III. also built temples. Four important events in the life and 
reign of this king are recorded by large steatite scarabs. The 



The Colossi set up in honour of Amenophis III. Thebes. 

D 2 



icarabs of 
phis III. 

The Tell 



with Thi. 


Heresy of 

the disk 

first records his lion hunts ; the second the coming of Thi, the 
daughter of an Asiatic father, to Egypt, accompanied by 317 
of her women ; the third the marriage of Amenophis and Thi, 
and the fourth the building of a large lake 3,600 cubits long 
by 600 cubits wide for his queen near the town of T'arucha, 
which the king opened on the i6th of Choiak in the eleventh 
year of his reign, by sailing across it in his barge called Aten- 
neferu. The tablets inscribed in cuneiform recently found at 
Tell el-Amarna prove that Amenophis III. married a sister 
and daughter of Kallimma-Sin, king of Karaduniyash, a 
country probably lying to the north-east of Syria; Gilukhipa 
the sister of Tushratta, king of Mitani, and Satumkhipa 
daughter of Tushratta; and Thi the daughter of parents who 
were not royal. The country of Mitani also lay to the north- 
east of Syria, and we know that like Tiglath-Pileser I., king 
of Assyria, about B.C. 1120, Amenophis III. went thither 
frequently to hunt lions.^ The kings and governors of places 
as remote as Babylon promptly claimed the friendship of their 
new kinsman, and their letters expressing their willingness to 
make alliances offensive and defensive, are some of the most 
interesting objects of the " find " at Tell el-Amarna. 

Of Amen-hetep IV., or Chu-en-aten, the son of Amen- 
hetep III. and the Mesopotamian lady Thi, very little is 
known ; he built a temple at Heliopolis, another at Memphis, 
one at Thebes, and some in Nubia. He is famous, however, 
as the leader of the heresy of the " disk worshippers," that is 
to say of those people who worshipped the disk of the sun, 

Aten n'v>^^ in preference to Amen-Ra, the national god of 

Egypt. He showed how much he detested the god Amen, 
by setting aside his name Amen-hetep and adopting that of 
Chu-en-aten, " the brilliance of the disk." The worship of the 
disk was of some antiquity, and seems to have been a mono- 
theistic worship of Ra which originated in Heliopolis. 
Amenophis III. seems to have encouraged this form of 
religion somewhat, and it is certain that he named his barge 
Aten-neferu, " the most beautiful disk." The native Egyptian 

' See The Tell el-Amarna tablets in the British Museum, by Bezold and 
Budge, p. xviii. 


priesthood disliked the foreign queen, and the sight of her Ameno- 
son with his protruding chin, thick lips, and other charac- quarrels 
teristics of a foreign race, found no favour in their eyes ; that ^Uh the 
such a man should openly despise the worship of Amen-Ra 
was a thing intolerable to them. In answer to their angry 
words and acts, the king ordered the name of Amen-Ra to be 
chiselled out of all the monuments, even from his father's 
name. Rebellion then broke out, and Chu-en-aten left 
Thebes and founded a new city for himself at a place between 
Memphis and Thebes, now called Tell el-Amarna. After a few Founding 
years the queen Thi came to live there, and there Chu-en-aten ^gn"^ ^^ 
passed the rest of his life with his wife and seven daughters. Amarna. 
In the twelfth year of his reign he celebrated his victories 
over the Syrians and Ethiopians, but it is doubtful if they 
were of any importance. 

After the death of Amenophis IV. there is some confusion 
in Egyptian history ; the immediate successors of the " heretic The 
king " were Se-aa-ka-Ra, Tut-anch-Amen, Ai, of whom but k';^"^'"^" 
little is known. The last king of the XVIIIth dynasty 
was Heru-em-heb, the Horus of Manetho, who seems to 
have been a native of Het-suten, the Alabastronpolis of the 
Greeks, or Tell el-Amarna. He made an expedition into 
Nubia and the lands to the south of that country, and he 
carried on buildings at various places, and restored temples at 
Heliopolis, Memphis, Thebes and elsewhere. 

The Nineteenth Dynasty. 


Of the events which led to Rameses I. becoming sole 1400 
king of Egypt nothing whatever is known. Some suppose 
that he was connected with Horus, the last king of the 
XVIIIth dynasty, but there are no proofs which can be 
brought forward in support of this theory. He seems to have 
carried on some small war with the people of Nubia, and to 
have been concerned in a treaty with the Cheta ; he also built War with 
a little at Thebes. He is famous, however, as the father of 
Seti I., and grandfather of Rameses II. ; the former was 
probably associated v/ith him in the rule of the kingdom, 
but how long it is not possible to say. 

While Amenophis IV. was quarrelling with the priests of 




Amen about the worship of the disk, and during the rule of 

his feeble successors, the peoples of Nubia and the Shaasu 

and the nations of Syria and Mesopotannia became more and 

more independent, and as a result ceased to fear the arms of 

Egypt, and consequently declined to pay the tribute imposed 

upon them by the mighty Thothmes III. and Amenophis III. 

Under the rule of Rameses I. the Egyptians were forced to 

sign a treaty which fixed the limits of their country and those 

of the Cheta ; hence when Seti I. ascended the throne he 1366 

found it necessary to make war against nearly every nation 

that had formerly been subject to the Egyptians. From the 

reliefs sculptured on the walls of the temple of Amen-Ra at 

Karnak we see that he attacked the people who lived north 

of Palestine, the Retennu or Syrians, the Shaasu, the Cheta, 

and in returning to Egypt passed through the land of 

Limanen. At the city of Chetam, on the frontier of Egypt, 

he was received by the priests and nobles of Egypt, who said 

to him : " Thou hast returned from the lands which thou hast 

conquered, and thou hast triumphed over thy enemies. May 

thy life be as long as that of the sun in heaven ! Thou hast 

washed thy heart on the barbarians, Ra has defined thy 

boundaries." Seti then sailed up to Thebes, where he 

presented his captives and booty to the gods in the temples 

there. From the lists of vanquished peoples inscribed by Conquests 

Seti it is found that his rule extended over Mesopotamia, 

Punt or Somali land. Nubia, and the lands on the west bank 

of the Nile. Cities like Kadesh on the Orontes, Tyre, Reseph, 

Migdol, etc., he not only conquered, but also built fortresses in 

them. During the reign of Seti the Cheta who, without, 

in my opinion, the slightest evidence for the theory, have been 

identified with the Hittites of the Bible, reappear in history. 

Seti set up an obelisk at Kantarah, "the bridge" uniting Asia 

and Africa, he built at Heliopolis, Memphis and Abydos, and 

at Karnak he began several buildings, some of which were 

finished by Rameses II. His name is often found in Nubia 

on rocks and stelse, and he worked the gold mines there, and 

sank wells in the rock to obtain water for his workmen. Seti 

associated his son Rameses II. with him in the rule of the 

kingdom when he was but twelve years old. According to the 

in Western 






poem on 
the defeat 
of the 

The Cheta 

monuments Seti reigned about twenty-seven years. The 
name Seti is connected with the god Set, who though at one 
time worshipped by the Egyptians, was subsequently consi- 
dered to be the father of all evil ; in several places it is seen 
that his name has been carefully chiselled out. 

Rameses II., the Sesostris o" the Greeks, was perhaps the 
greatest king that ever ruled over Egypt. He was a man of 
commanding stature, of great physical strength and personal 
bravery, a great builder and a liberal patron of the science 
and art of his days. Around his name has gathered a 
multitude of legends, and the exploits of other warriors and 
heroes who reigned hundreds of years after him have been 
attributed to him. Before he came to the throne he led an 
expedition into Nubia and defeated the peoples there ; and 
he brought back to Egypt much spoil, consisting of lions, 
gazelles, panthers, ebony, ivory, gold, etc., etc. In the fifth 
year of his reign he set out on a campaign against the Cheta, 
which was the most important event in his life ; his victory 
over this foe was considered so great a triumph that an 
account of it illustrated by sculptures was inscribed upon the 
temples of Thebes, Kalabsht and Abu Simbel, and a poetic 
description of the battle with a vivid outline of the king's 
own prowess was written down by Pen-ta-urt, a temple 
scribe. The Cheta were a confederation of peoples, nomad 
and stationary, who first appear in the time of Thothmes III., 
to whom they paid tribute. In the time of Rameses I. they 
made a treaty of friendship with the Egyptians, but in the 
time of Seti I. they fought with them. The kings of the 
Cheta at this period w^ere Sapalel and his son Maru-sar ; 
the latter had two sons Mautenure and Cheta-sar. Mau- 
tenure was king of the Cheta when Rameses II. marched 
against them in his fifth year, and Cheta-sar was king when 
the Cheta and the Egyptians made a new treaty in the 
twenty-first year of the reign of Rameses, at which time they 
seem to have reached the summit of their power. According 
to an inscription which appears to be the official statement 
concerning this memorable battle, Rameses II. was in the 
fifth year of his reign in the land of T'ah, not far from 
Kadesh on the Orontes. The outposts kept a sharp look-out. 



Rameses II., when a child. 


and when the army came to the south of the town of Shabtun, 
two of the spies of the Shasu came into the camp and pre- 
tended that they had been sent by the chiefs of their tribe to 
inform Rameses II. that they had forsaken the chief of the 
Cheta, and that they wished to make an alHance with his 
majesty and become his vassals. They then went on to say 
Defeat of that the chief of the Cheta was in the land of Chirebu to the 
north of Tunep some distance off, and that he was afraid to 
come near the Egyptian king. These two men were giving 
false information, and they had actually been sent by the 
Cheta chief to find out where Rameses and his army were ; 
the Cheta chief and his army were at that moment drawn up 
in battle array behind Kadesh. Shortly after these men had 
Rameses been dismissed, an Egyptian scout came into the king's 
warrior. presence bringing with him two spies from the army of the 
chief of the Cheta ; on being questioned, they informed 
Rameses that the chief of the Cheta was encamped behind 
Kadesh, and that he had succeeded in gathering together a 
multitude of soldiers and chariots from the countries round 
about. Rameses summoned his officers to his presence, and 
informed them of the news which he had just heard ; they 
listened with surprise, and insisted that the newly received 
information was untrue. Rameses seriously blamed the 
chiefs of the intelligence department for their neglect of 
duty, and they admitted their fault. Orders were straight- 
Capture of way issued for the Egyptian army to march upon Kadesh, 
Kadesh. ^^^ ^g they were crossing an arm of the river near that city 
the hostile forces fell in with each other. When Rameses 
saw this, he "growled at them like his father Menthu, lord of 
Thebes," and having hastily put on his full armour, he 
mounted his chariot and drove into the battle. His onset 
was so sudden and rapid that before he knew where he was 
he found himself surrounded by the enemy, and completely 
isolated from his own troops. He called upon his father 
Amen-Ra to help him, and then addressed himself to the 
slaughter of all those that came in his way, and his prowess 
was so great that the enemy fell in heaps, one over the other, 
into the waters of the Orontes. He was quite alone, and not 
one of his soldiers or horsemen came near him to help him. 


It was only with great difficulty he succeeded in cutting his 
way through the ranks of the enemy. At the end of the 
inscription he says, " Everything that my majesty has stated, 
that did I in the presence of my soldiers and horsemen." In 
the poem of Pen-ta-urt the king is said to have been sur- 
rounded by 2,500 chariots. The defeat of the chief of the 
Cheta and his allies was crushing, and Rameses was able to 
demand and obtain much tribute. 

In the eighth year of his reign he led an expedition 
against towns in southern Syria, and Ascalon among others 
fell into his hands, and within a few years Mesopotamians, 
Syrians, dwellers on the coast, Libyans, the Shaasu and Ethio- 
pians all submitted to him. In the twenty-first year of his 
reign he made a treaty with Mautenure, chief of the Cheta at Egyptian 
Tanis, the favourite dwelling-place of Rameses. This treaty the Cheta. 
sets out at full length the relations which had existed between 
the two nations for some time before, and each party 
solemnly promises not to make war on the other, and to 
assist the other in war if required ; to cement the alliance 
Rameses married a daughter of the chief of the Cheta called 

Notwithstanding his activity in war, Rameses II. found Rameses 
time to make himself famous as one of the greatest builders builder, 
that ever sat on the throne of Egypt, and his name is found 
on stelae, obelisks, temples, etc., etc., from Beyrut in Syria to 
remote Napata. He built a temple of granite at Tanis, a 
town which seems to have been founded four hundred years 
before his time by Nubti, one of the so-called Hyksos kings. 
Near this city ran the wall from Pelusium to Heliopolis, 
which Rameses is supposed to have built to keep out the 
Asiatics. At Heliopolis he set up obelisks, none of which 
has come down to our time ; at Memphis he added largely 
to the temple of Ptah; and at Abydos he completed the 
temple begun by his father Seti I. At Thebes he finished 
the buildings begun by his father and grandfather ; he 
repaired the temples of Thothmes III. and Amenophis III., 
adding walls and doors, and occasionally usurping monuments 
of the kings who went before him; he set up statues of 
himself and two splendid obelisks before a building which he 




temple at 



made adjoining the temple of Amenophis III.; on the western 
side of Thebes he finished the temple originally dedicated to 
Rameses I., and consecrated it to his father Seti I. ; he restored 
the temple of Hatshepset at D^r el-Bahari ; he built a temple 
at Medinet Habu, and at Thebes, his greatest work of all, the 
Ramesseum. The statues of himself which he placed in this 
last place are among the largest and finest known. At Bet 
el-Wall at Kalabshi in Nubia he built a beautiful little rock 
temple, on the walls of the court of which are some well 
executed sculptures representing the bringing of tribute to 
him by Asiatics and Ethiopians. At Abu Simbel, the 
classical Aboccis, he hewed out of the solid rock a large temple 
to Ra Harmachis to commemorate his victory over the 
Cheta ; it is the largest and finest Egyptian monument in 
Nubia, and for simple grandeur and majesty is second to none 
in all Egypt. It is hewn out of the rock to a depth of 185 feet, 
and the surface of the rock, which originally sloped down to 
the river, was cut away for a space of about 90 feet to form 
the front of the temple, which is ornamented by four colossal 
statues of Rameses II., 66 feet high, seated on thrones, hewn 
out of the living rock. The large hall inside contains eight 
columns with large figures of Osiris about 17 feet high upon 
them. Among other matters the inscriptions give a list of 
the children of Rameses. The gold mines in the land of 
Akita, now Gebel Alaki, which were worked by Seti I., appear 
not to have been very profitable, by reason of the scarcity of 
water. The well which he sank to the depth of 120 cubits 
supplied little or no water, and the works in the mines were 
stopped. In the third year of his reign Rameses sent men to 
bore another well, and they found abundant water at the depth 
of twelve cubits. 

Rameses II. is generally thought to have been the 
Oppression oppressor of the Jews in Egypt, and it was probably for him 
that they built the treasure-cities of Pithom and Raamses. 

Rameses reigned sixty-seven years, and at his death he 
left Egypt one of the largest and most powerful kingdoms 
upon earth ; under him this country reached its highest point 
of prosperity and glory. The tribute brought in by conquered 
nations enriched the country, the hosts of foreign workmen 

of the 



employed hy the king produced articles of luxury and beauty, 
art and literature flourished unfettered, and the tombs and 
sepulchres of the dead were scarcely less splendid than the 
palaces of the king or the houses of his nobles. After the 
death of Rameses Egypt declined rapidly, chiefly through the 
inertness and want of national spirit possessed by the hosts 
of foreigners who lived there, and the country became a mart 
and a home of traders rather than of warriors. 

Mer-en-Ptah, the thirteenth son of Rameses II., had been 1300 
associated with his father in the rule of the kingdom before 
he ascended the throne. The chief event in his reign was an 
expedition against the Lebu, Kehak, Mashuash, Akauasha, 
Tursha, Leku, Sharetana and Shekelasha in the fifth year of 
his reign. The Lebu, thought by some to be the Libyans, 
under Maroi, the son of Titi, had advanced to the city of Pa- 
Bairo, and were preparing to march upon HeliopoHs and 
Memphis ; Maroi himself had reached Pa-aru-shep, when the 
god Ptah appeared to Mer-en-Ptah in a dream and promised Defeat of 
him victory. On the third day of Epiphi the hostile forces ^^.j^^^ 
joined in battle. Maroi fled, about thirteen thousand of his 
people were slain, and all his and their property fell into the 
hands of the Egyptians. The Akauasha have by some been 
identified with the Achaeans, the Sharetana with the 
Sardinians, the Shekelasha with the Sicilians, the Lebu with 
the Libyans, the Tursha with the Etruscans, the Leku with 
the Lycians, etc., etc. These identifications, based on a 
suggestion made by de Rouge, cannot be accepted, lacking 
as they do any historical evidence in support of them. It is 
quite certain, however, that the tribes against which Mer-en- 
Ptah fought were comparatively close neighbours of Egypt. 
The Exodus is thought by some to have taken place during The 
the reign of this king. Kxodus. 

Of Mer-en-Ptah's successor, Seti II., but little is known ; 
his reign was very short, and was not distinguished by any 
remarkable event. The rule of the XlXth dynasty was 
brought to an end by the reigns of Amen-mes and Se-Ptah. 





defeat the 

to Punt, 
and open- 
ing of old 

The Twentieth Dynasty. 

For some years after the death of Mer-en-Ptah Egypt was 
in a state of anarchy, " each man did as he pleased, and there 
was no one who had authority over his fellows. The Land of 
Egypt was under chiefs of nomas and each fought against 

the other." After a time " a Syrian called Arsu," (I ^ \<S. 

^ ' i ^v W' ^™^^ among them and succeeded in 

diverting the tribute to himself and finally in making himself 
master of the land. Rest and peace were not restored to 
Egypt, however, until the gods set their son Set-Necht upon 
the throne, who very shortly after associated his son Rameses 
III. with him in the rule of the kingdom. On the death of 
Set-Necht Rameses III. reigned alone, and having established 
the worship of the gods in the temples, and restored the 
customary offerings, in the eighth year he set out with his 
troops for the north-eastern borders of his country to do battle 
against the allied forces of the Mashuash, Leku, Shekelasha 
and other Asiatic peoples, who had come to the land of the 
Amorites partly by land and partly by sea ; the Egyptians 
were victorious and inflicted a crushing defeat on the enemy. 
A year or two after Rameses attacked the Mashuasha, who 
appear to have settled in the western part of the Delta and 
further south, and they were defeated with great slaughter. 
About this time he seems to have carried on some small wars 
in Nubia. In addition to his wars, he fitted out and despatched 
an expedition to Punt, which returned safely, bringing many 
marvellous things and treasures ; he worked the turquoise 
mines in the Sinaitic Peninsula, and the copper mines in the 
land of Ataka. He also opened up for trade the old road 
between Kosseir on the Red Sea and Coptos on the Nile. 
With the spoil which Rameses obtained from his successful 
wars, and the wealth which he gained from his mines and 
trading enterprises, he lavishly endowed the temples of 
Heliopolis, Memphis and Thebes. At Tell el-YahMiyeh he 
built a granite and limestone temple, at Heliopolis he restored 
temples, at Memphis he restored the temple of Ptah, he added 
to the temple of Thothmes III. at Medinet Habil, and at the 


same place he built what has been generally called his " palace," 
and a magnificent temple to Amen-Ra. The " palace " 
consisted of two square towers, the four sides of which were 
symmetrically inclined to a common centre. The interior 
chambers were ornamented with sculptures, on which were 
depicted scenes in the domestic (?) life of the king. The 
temple at Medinet Habu is of remarkable interest, and on the Medtnet 
walls are sculptured battle scenes on land and sea, in which ^^^ " 
Rameses is victorious over his enemies. Near Karnak he Karnak. 
built a temple to Ptah, and he added buildings to the 
temple of Amen-Ra there ; he began to build the temple of 
Chonsu, and it would seem that he repaired many of the 
temples and shrines set up both at Karnak and Luxor. The 
most important document for the history of the reign of this 
king is the famous Harris Papyrus No. i,now preserved in the Harris 
British Museum. It was found in a box, in a rough-hewn ^Py™^' 
rock chamber in the earth, near Medinet Habu. This papyrus 
enumerates the gifts which he made to the gods of Thebes, 
Heliopolis and Memphis, and concludes with a statement of 
the principal events of his reign. This wonderful papyrus, 
which measures 135 feet by 17 inches, was published in 
facsimile by the Trustees of the British Museum, with an 
introduction and translation by Dr. Birch. 


Of Rameses IV. little is known beyond the fact that he 1166-1133 
carried on the works in the mines in the valley of Hammamat 
with great diligence ; he was succeeded by Rameses V., of 
whom also very little is known. Of Rameses VI., the most 
important remains are his tomb in Bibin el-Muluk ; on the 
walls the risings of various stars are given and much astro- Astro- 
nomical information. This tomb was originally made for ""^'^^^l ' 
Rameses V. Rameses VII. and Rameses VIII. were the Thebes, 
next rulers of Egypt ; the most important event in the 
reign of Rameses IX. was the attempt to break into and 
rob the royal tombs at Thebes in his sixteenth year. The 
robbers were caught and prosecuted by the government, and 
after an official examination of the tombs had been made 
by the chief officers of the city, to find out exactly what Robberyof 
damage had been done, the band of thieves were properly '"^^^ 
punished. The robbery had gone on for some years, and 


appears to have been continued in the nineteenth year of 
the reign of Rameses IX. The reigns of Rameses X. and 
Rameses XI. are of no interest. Of the reign of their 
successor Rameses XII. an interesting though fabulous story 
is recorded. A stele found near the temple of at 
Karnak states that the king was paying his usual visit to 
Mesopotamia to receive the tribute from the tribes subject to 
him. Each chief brought his offering of gold, etc., but the 
Princess of chief of Bechten brought his eldest daughter, who was a most 
beautiful girl, and gave her to the king. She found favour in 
his sight, and he married her, and gave her the official title of 
" royal spouse." Some time after they had returned to Egypt, 
a messenger came to the king from Bechten saying that a 
young sister of his wife Ra-Neferu, called Bentresh, was 
grievously ill, and entreated him to send a physician to heal 
her. A very learned scribe called Tehuti-em-heb was 
despatched, but when he arrived in Bechten he found that the 
illness of Bentresh was caused by an evil spirit, and he was 
unable to cure her. Another messenger was sent to Egypt 
and he asked that the god Chonsu himself might be sent to 
cure Bentresh, and the king having asked the god to consent 
to this proposition, prepared a suitable shrine and sent the god 
to Bechten, where he arrived after a journey of one year and 
five months. As soon as the god was brought into the sick 
maiden's chamber, he addressed the demon who possessed her 
and drove him out from her. The demon acknowledged the 
authority of the god, and promised to depart to his own place 
if a great feast was prepared in his honour ; the chief of 
Bechten gladly made a feast, and the demon departed. The 
god Chonsu was detained in Bechten three years and nine 
months, and at the end of that time he returned to Egypt, his 
priests bringing rich gifts with them. Although it is proved 
now that this narrative is a romance and not history, it is 
nevertheless of great antiquity, and is most important as show- 
ing the belief in demoniacal possession at that remote period. 
The country of Bechten is unknown, but if, as is stated, seven- 
teen months were spent in reaching it, its situation must have 
been very far from E gypt. With the reign of Rameses XIII., 
the XXth dynasty comes to an end. 

egyptian history. 49 

The Twenty- first Dynasty. 

With the death of Rameses XIII. a new period of dis- "Priest- 
order came over the government of Egypt, and for nearly one J^^^ 
hundred years there seems to have been no legal king seated Egypt. 
on the throne. The chief priest of Amen called Her-Heru- 
se-Amen had little by little gathered the power of a king 
into his own hand, and finally he declared himself " King of 
Upper and Lower Egypt," and thus became the first of the ^^ 
so-called "priest-kings" of the XXIst dynasty. His dwelling- iioo-iooo 
place was Thebes, and the buildings which he carried out 
there, instead of being inscribed with the records of glorious 
victories over the foes of Egypt, were decorated with inscrip- 
tions of a purely religious character. The tribes that were 
subject to Egypt, and were at that moment unprepared for 
war, paid their tribute to him as the successor of the Pharaohs, 
but it was not to be expected that, a ruler who devoted more 
time to the service of Amen than to war, could maintain his 
sovereignty over restless and warlike peoples like the Cheta, 
or Retennu, of whom he calls himself the conqueror. During 
his reign the mummies and coffins and funereal furniture of 
some of the kings of the XVIIth, XVIIIth and XlXth 
dynasties were brought from their tombs and deposited 
together in one place, now called in Arabic Der el-bahari, DSr el- 
where they were discovered by an Arab in 1871. For the Mummjea, 
account of the recovery of these by Brugsch-Bey and Maspero, 
see Maspero, Les Momies Roy ales de Deir el Bahari, fasc. i, 
torn. IV., of the Mhnoires of the French Archseological Mission 
at Cairo. 

Her-Heru was succeeded by his grandson, Pi-net'em I., 
the son of Pi-anchi, the high-priest of Amen, the husband of 
Maat ka-Ra, a princess who belonged to the old line of 
kings ; Pi-net'em II. married the royal daughter and royal 
wife Het-Hert-hent-taui, but appears never to have been 
actually king. Wiedemann doubts the existence of this 
king.* Of Paseb-cha-nut, Men-cheper-Ra and his son Pi- 
netem III. but little is known ; they were succeeded by 
Paseb-cha-nut II., during whose reign Solomon captured 

' Aeg. Geschichte, p. 536. 
B. M. E 



king of 

the town of Gezer, and having conquered the Canaanites 
there, became king of Palestine. It is thought by some that 
his Egyptian wife was the daughter of one of the kings of the 
XXIst dynasty. The history of this period is very uncertain, 
and definite conclusions respecting it cannot be arrived at 
without fuller information. 

ian origin 
of kings of 


of Pales- 
tine and 
capture of 

The Twenty-second Dynasty. 

Various theories have been propounded concerning the 
origin of the kings of this dynasty ; the father of its first king 
Shashanq I. was called Nemart, a name which has been 
identified with that of Nimrod. From the fact that the 
names Usarken, Thekeleth, common to several of its kings, 
resemble the Assyrian and Babylonian names Sarginu, 
" Sargon," and Tukulti, " Tiglath," it has been generally 
assumed that they sprang either from a purely Semitic race 
in Mesopotamia itself, or from Semites who had been settled 
in the Delta for a considerable time. That they were of 
foreign extraction is certain, because the determinative placed 
at the end of their names is that of a man from a foreign 

country I ; ^ and the people called Ma, of whom Nemart 

styles himself the prince, have been proved by De Rougd to 
be simply the Mashuasha. 

Shashanq I., the Shishak (pffi''ttJ) of the Bible, the pro- 
tector of Jeroboam, who lifted up his hand against Solomon 
(i Kings xi. 26), led an expedition against Rehoboam, king 
of Judah, and took away from Jerusalem " the treasures of 
the house of the Lord, and the treasures of the king's house, 
he even took away all : and he took away all the shields of 
gold which Solomon had made." (i Kings xiv. 25, 26.) 
The list of the cities and districts, about 138 in number, 
captured by Shashanq during this war is inscribed upon the 
south wall of the temple of Amen-Ra at Karnak. The wife 
of Shashanq was called Kerama, and their son Aauput. Of 
the acts of Usarken (Sargon) I., Thekeleth (Tiglath) I., 
Usarken II., and Shashanq II. but little is known, and the 

' De Roug^, Milan^es (tArchiologie, t. i, p. 87. 


reigns of these kings were uneventful. During the reign of 
Thekeleth II. a rebellion broke out among the peoples to 
the south and north of Egypt, and it is stated that on the 
25th of Mesori, in the fifteenth year of his reign, an eclipse of 
the moon took place. Shashanq III. made great gifts to the 
temple of Amen-Ra at Thebes. He reigned fifty-two years ; 
and an Apis bull which had been born in his twenty-eighth 
year, died in the second year of the reign of his successor 
Pamai. During the reign of Shashanq IV. three Apis bulls Death of 
died, the last in the thirty-seventh year of his reign. 

Apis bulls. 

The Twenty-third Dynasty. 


Of the history of Peta-Bast, its first king, nothing is 766 
known from Egyptian monuments, and for the events of the 
reign of his successor, Usarken III., we have to rely upon 
the information supplied by a stele recording the invasion Conquest 
and conquest of Egypt by Pianchi, king of Ethiopia. When ^ pf^n'chi 
the kings of Egypt sent to that country in the Vlth dynasty, the Ethio- 
no opposition was offered by the natives to their felling trees, 
but in the Xllth dynasty the Egyptians found it necessary 
to guard against them at the first cataract by lightly-armed, 
swift soldiers. From the Xllth to the XXth dynasty Egypt 
maintained her authority over Ethiopia, and her kings built 
magnificent temples there, and ruled the country by a staff 
of officers under the direction of the " Prince of Cush." In 
the unsettled times which followed the death of Rameses II., 
the Ethiopians saw that the power of Egypt to maintain her 
supremacy abroad was becoming less and less. For many 
years they paid their customary tribute to his feeble suc- 
cessors, but at the same time they looked forward to a time Defection 
when they could cast off the yoke of Egypt. They had °\^f'°' 
adopted Egyptian civilization, the hieroglyphic form of 
writing, and the language and religion of Egypt ; they seem 
to have wished to make a second Egypt in Ethiopia. When 
during the reigns of the kings of the XXIst and XXIInd 
dynasties they saw that the power of Egypt continued to 
decrease, they boldly resolved to found a kingdom of their Ethiopians 
own, and they chose Napata, now called Gebel Barkal, as the ^°ng^o^ 
site of their capital. Brugsch thinks {Egypt under the 

E 2 


Pharaohs, 2nd ed., 1881, Vol. II., p. 235) that the founder of 
the kingdom was one of the descendants of Her-Heru, the 
priest-king of the XXIst dynasty, and he points out that 
many of them bore the name of Pianchi. Early in the 
eighth century before Christ Pi-anchi was king of Napata, and 
his rule probably extended at least as far north as Thebes. 
In the twenty-first year of his reign news was brought to him 
that Tafnecht, prince of Sals and Memphis, had revolted, 
that a league formed chiefly of governors of towns had placed 
him at its head, and that all Lower Egypt was in his hands. 
Pianchi's Pianchi at once sent troops against the rebels, and on their 
to Egypt" ^^y down the Nile they met a number of soldiers belonging 
to the army of Tafnecht, and these they defeated. The 
Ethiopian troops seem not to have been unvaryingly suc- 
cessful, for it was necessary for Pianchi himself to come to 
Thebes ; thence he marched to Hermopolis, which surrendered 
after a three days' siege. Nimrod, who had defended it, 
delivered up to Pianchi his wives, palace, horses and every- 
thing he had. Pianchi set out once more for the north, and 
every city opened its gates to him until he reached Memphis. 
Here he met with strong opposition, for Tafnecht had 
brought several thousands of soldiers into the city, and 
every part of the wall was guarded by them. Pianchi, 
Capture of however, brought his boats up to the very walls of the city, 
Memphis ^"*^ after a vigorous assault captured it ; there was a mighty 
and Sais. slaughter, and it would seem that some thousands of men 
were slain. The rebel princes came in one by one, and 
tendered their submission to the Ethiopian, and thus Pianchi 
became master of Egypt. At Memphis, Heliopolis and 
Thebes he offered sacrifices to the great gods of Egypt, and 
no acts of wanton destruction of cities or buildings are 
recorded of him. 

y'^ The Twenty-Fourth Dynasty. 

Bocchoris This dynasty is represented by a single king called Bak- 

aiive. en-ren-f (Bocchoris), who reigned but a very few years ; many 

legends concerning him are extant in classical writers, but the 
Egyptian monuments scarcely mention him. According to 
Manetho he was burnt alive by Sabaco the first king of the 
XXVth dynasty. 

egyptian history. s3 

The Twenty-Fifth Dynasty. ^-c- 


The kings of this dynasty were Ethiopians, who following 
up the success of Pianchi, made themselves masters of all Alliance of 
Egypt. The first king, Shabaka, is known from the Egyptian aM ^^^ 
inscriptions to have beautified the temple of Karnak, and his Sabaco. 
name is found on many buildings there to which he made 
additions or repairs. He is best known as being the king of 
Egypt to whom Hoshea (2 Kings xvii. 4), having ceased to 
send his customary tribute to the king of Assyria, went for 
help. Some think that Shabaka (Hebrew t^iD, which 
Schrader would point i^lD) was not king of all Egypt, because 
Sargon, king of Assyria (B.C. 721-705) styles him simply shil- 
tauna, '' prince." "^ Sabaco seems to have been known in 
Nineveh, for among the ruins of the palaces at Kouyunjik Egyptian 
were found two impressions from his seal or scarab, in which ^^^^^^ at 
he appears wearing the crown of Lower Egypt ^; in his right Nineveh. 
hand he holds a stick or c^ub, and he is in the act of slaughter- 
ing enemies. His cartouche stands above, together with his 
titles and the legend recording the speech of some god, " I 
give to thee all foreign lands." ^ 

Sabaco was succeeded by his son Shabataka, concerning 

whom the Egyptian inscriptions tell us very little. During 

the reign of this king Sargon of Assyria died, and was 

succeeded by Sennacherib, who within a few years set out to 

suppress the rebellion which had broken out in Syria and 

Phoenicia. The prince of Ekron, Padi, who had been set 

upon the throne by Sargon, was seized by a crowd of rebels, 

who had obtained help from Hezekiah, king of Judah, and Hezekiah, 

made prisoner ; Hezekiah himself likewise appealed to the judfh^ 

Egyptian king for assistance. Sennacherib marched on provokes 

Judaea, and at Altekeh he met the allied forces of Jews and of the 

Egyptians. The battle was short and decisive, the Assyrians Assyrians. 

were victorious, and Sennacherib having wasted the country 

with fire, and destroyed the towns, captured and plundered Defeat of 

Jerusalem, where Hezekiah had shut himself up " like a bird ^^l^"^^^ 

in a cage." Padi was restored to the throne of Ekron, and capture of 


' See Schrader, Die Keilinschriften und das Aite Testament, 1883, p. 269. 

2 A full description of these fragments is given in the chapter on scarabs- 


Judsa became an Assyrian province. Sennacherib, hearing 
of the advance of Tirhakah king of Ethiopia, determined to 
march on the Delta, and it was during this march that an 
epidemic broke out among his troops, and a catastrophe 
Assyrian destroyed nearly alj of them ; he returned to Nineveh without 
army des- leaving performed upon Hezekiah the vengeance which he 
had threatened. The ultimate failure of his expedition 
probably caused his sons to despise him, and shortly after- 
wards two of them, Adrammelech and Sharezer, smote him 
with the sword, and he died (2 Kings xix. 37). Shabataka 
reigned twelve years, and was put to death by Tirhakah, who 
succeeded him. 


693 Taharqa, or Tirhakah nj^H'^ri, shortly after his accession 

to the throne, made an offensive and defensive alliance with 

Alliance of the Phoenicians under Baal king of Tyre, and probably also 

Hezekiah ^j^j^ ^.j^^ people of Cyprus; Hezekiah king of Judah also 

Tirhakah. joined in the league. Esarhaddon, son of Sennacherib, 

marched to Palestine by way of Beyrut, where on his return 

to Assyria he set up a memorial slab at the head of the Nahr 

el-Kelb side by side with those of Rameses II. Without 

difficulties other than those caused by thirst and heat his 

army marched into Egypt, and Tirhakah having fled, 

Capture of Memphis fell into the hands of the Assyrian king. From 

by^Esar-' Memphis he marched to Thebes, and having plundered the 

haddon. city, and placed the rule of the whole country under twenty 

governors, some Assyrian, some Egyptian, he returned to 

Assyria laden with spoil. On the death of Esarhaddon, after 

a reign of thirteen years (B.C. 681-668), Tirhakah returned 

to Egypt and entered Memphis boldly ; he drove out the 

Assyrians that were there, and openly attended the burial of 

an Apis bull in the twenty-fourth year of his reign. As soon 

Assurbani- as the news of the return of Tirhakah to Egypt reached 

dftioh to^ Assurbanipal, the son of Esarhaddon, in Nineveh, he set out 

Egypt. with his army for Egypt ; he came up with the Egyptian 

troops at Karbanit, and completely defeated them, and 

Tirhakah, who had remained in Memphis, was obliged to flee 

to Thebes ; when Assurbanipal followed him thither, he fled 

into Nubia. When the Assyrian king had reappointed 

governors over the chief towns of Egypt, and established 


garrisons there, he returned to Nineveh. Soon after this 
Niku, governor of Memphis, headed a rebellion against the 
Assyrian rule, but he was promptly sent to Nineveh in 
chains ; Assurbanipal so far forgave him, that when he heard 
of new successes of Tirhakah in Egypt, he sent Niku back to 
his country to rule over all Egypt under the direction of 
Assyria ; soon after his arrival Tirhakah died. Tirhakah Tirhakah's 
built a large temple at Gebel Barkal, and restored temples jn^NubE 
and other buildings at Thebes. 

Rut-Amen, son of Sabaco (.?), succeeded Tirhakah, and 
in consequence of a dream, set out to regain for Ethiopia the 
rule over Egypt. Without very much difficulty he captured 
Thebes, and advanced on Memphis, where he was opposed 
by the Assyrian governor ; in the fight which ensued Rut- 
Amen (the Urdamanah of Assurbanipal's inscriptions) was 
victorious, and again Memphis fell into the hands of the Ethiopians 
Ethiopians. Once more Assurbanipal marched to Egypt, capture 
where he defeated Rut-Amen's army, and advanced on Memphis. 
Thebes, whither the rebel king had fled. Having arrived there, 
the sack and pillage of the city by the Assyrians followed. 
A stele found at Gebel Barkal relates that Nut-Amen, a king "Stele of 


of Ethiopia, had a dream, in consequence of which he set out Dream." 
to regain the rule over Egypt, and that having gained 
authority over Thebes and Memphis and the Delta, he 
returned to Ethiopia ; in the Nut-Amen of this stele, and the 
Urdamanah of the cuneiform inscriptions, we have probably 
one and the same king. 

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty. 


Psammetichus I., the first king of this dynasty, was the 666 
son of a governor (Niku?) of Memphis and Sal's in Lower 
Egypt, and had been associated with Nut-Amen in the rule 
of the country. When the Ethiopian king retired to his own 
land, Psammetichus became king of Egypt. He married 
Shep-en-apt, a daughter of Pianchi, and thus secured himself 
from any attack by the Ethiopians ; and by the help of the 
Ionian and Carian soldiers whom Gyges king of Lydia sent 
to him, he was able to overcome the Assyrian governors who, 
one after another, made war upon him, and resisted his 



of the 

Revival of 
arts and 
and liter- 



authority. A decisive battle took place at Memphis ; the 
Assyrians were utterly routed, and Psammetichus found 
himself firmly seated on the throne of Egypt. A permanent 
settlement was assigned by him to the lonians and Carians, 
and his favour to these foreign soldiers so exasperated the 
Egyptian troops, that 200,000 are said to have forsaken 
Egypt and settled in Nubia. Psammetichus appears to have 
decided that it was useless to attempt to make great con- 
quests of remote countries, as did the kings of old, but set to 
work to consolidate his kingdom, and to defend its borders. 
He was a devout worshipper of the gods, and he repaired and 
rebuilt many of the decayed buildings at HeliopoHs, Mendes, 
Memphis, Abydos and Thebes. He lived at his birthplace, 
Sals, and made it the capital of his kingdom. He was a wise 
patron of the arts and sciences, and during his rule the great 
renaissance of art took place. The statues and wall paintings 
of the first empire were diligently copied, many new copies 
of ancient religious works were made, and the smallest and 
greatest monuments of this period, as well as objects of 
ornament, are characterized by a high finish and elaboration of 
detail, which was the peculiar product of this time. 

Necho II., son of Psammetichus I. and Shepenapt, continued 
the policy of his father, and added a considerable number of 
foreign troops to his army ; he gave the Greeks every facility 
to enter and settle in Egypt, and he assisted the commercial 
enterprise of the day as much as possible. With the view of 
joining the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, he dug a canal 
from a place near Pithom, a little above Bubastis, on the 
Pelusiac arm of the Nile, which passing first through the plain, 
flowed through a valley between the spurs of the Mukattam 
hills, in a southerly direction, until it emptied itself into the 
Arabian Gulf It was an indirect connecting of the Medi- 
teranean with the Red Sea by means of the Nile, and did 
not correspond with the Suez Canal, except in the reach from 
the Bitter Lakes to Suez, in which it followed a somewhat 
similar course.^ About 120,000 men perished during the 
work, and when an oracle announced that he was only work- 
ing for the good of foreigners, Necho desisted from his under- 

' Wiedemann, Aegyptische Geschichte, p. 626. 


taking. Necho also sent Phoenician seamen to sail round 
Africa, bidding them to set out from Suez and come home by 
way of the Strait of Gibraltar ; on their return, they stated 
in proof of their having accomplished their task, that they had 
seen the sun rise on their right hand as they sailed from east 
to west. A few years before Nebuchadnezzar (B.C. 604-558) Rise of 
ascended the throne of Babylon, Necho set out on the march gabyioniar 
to Mesopotamia, and on the road was opposed by Josiah Empire, 
king of Judah, at Megiddo. Then Pharaoh Necho " sent 
ambassadors to him saying. What have I to do with thee, 
thou king of Judah ? / come not against thee this day, but 
against the house wherewith I have war : for God commanded 
me to make haste: forbear thee/riJM meddling vi'ith God, who is 
with me, that he destroy thee not. Nevertheless Josiah would 
not turn his face from him, but disguised himself, that he 
might fight with him, and hearkened not unto the words of 
Necho from the mouth of God, and came to fight in the valley 
of Megiddo. And the archers shot at king Josiah ; and the Death of 
king said to his servants. Have me away; for I am sore ^^'^ 
wounded. His servants therefore took him out of that 
chariot, and put him in the second chariot that he had ; and 
they brought him to Jerusalem, and he died, and was buried 
in one of the sepulchres of his fathers." ' Necho went on his 
way to Carchemish, but did not go any farther into Mesopo- 
tamia. On his return he marched to Jerusalem and deposed 
Jehoahaz, the son of Josiah, whom the Jews had set up as 
king in the place of his father, and made Eliakim (Jehoiakim), 
another son of Josiah, king in his stead ; he also imposed a 
tax of one hundred talents of silver, and a talent of gold.^ 
Soon after Necho had returned to Egypt he heard that a 
Babylonian army was marching into western Asia, and he 
again set out for Carchemish, where it was encamped. On his 
arrival there he found that the Babylonian forces were com- 
manded by Nebuchadnezzar II., and in the battle which Nebuchad- 
followed the Egyptian king was utterly defeated ; his troops, "nvades^^' 
Libyans, Ethiopians, and Egyptians, were slain by thousands, Egypt, 
and Nebuchadnezzar marched through Palestine to the borders 
of Egypt. Necho reigned sixteen years, and was buried at 

' 2 Chron. xxxv. 21-24. * 2 Chron. xxxvi. 1-4. 


Sai's ; he was succeeded by his son Psammetichus II., whose 
reign of a few years was, comparatively, unimportant. 

591 Apries, in Egyptian Uah-ab-Ra, Heb. S^IOH f Jeremiah 

xliv. 30), made an attack upon Tyre and Sidon by sea ; 
Sidon was captured, and the Cyprian fleet which attempted to 
resist him was destroyed. The Babylonians marched to 
Capture of besiege Jerusalem during his reign, and Nebuchadnezzar 
jerusa em. jjg^yjj^g already had Jehoiakim and Jehoiachin, kings of Judah, 
brought to him in fetters at Babylon, determined to punish 
the new king Zedekiah who had rebelled against him. Not- 
withstanding the presence of some troops of Apries, Nebu- 
chadnezzar took Jerusalem, and having blinded Zedekiah and 
slain his sons before his eyes, set up Gedaliah as king in his 
stead. Multitudes of Jews flocked to Egypt, where they 
were received by Apries, and this act of the Egyptian king 
drew upon him the wrath of Nebuchadnezzar. After a siege 
Fall of of thirteen years. Tyre fell into the hands of the Babylonian 
^'^' king, who thus became master of Phoenicia and Egypt, for 

Apries had no army to set in the field against him. In a 
dispute which broke out between the Cyrenians and the 
Libyans, Apries sent an Egyptian force to help the latter 
people, for he had a treaty with their king, Adikran. The 
hostile forces met in battle, but the Egyptian troops were 
defeated with a great slaughter, and their countrymen were 
enraged and asserted that Apries had intentionally sent them 
against the Greeks that they might be destroyed. When the 
troops returned to Egypt a rebellion broke out among them, 
Defection and Apries sent Amasis, an officer, to put it down ; but while 
and^def'at ^^ ^^^ addressing the disaffected troops, a soldier placed a 
of Apries. helmet on his head, and declared him king, and all the other 
soldiers agreeing in this, king he became. Apries then sent 
Patarbemis to bring Amasis to him, and because he was 
unsuccessful in his mission, he gave orders that his nose and 
ears should be cut off. Soon after this, Apries marched 
against Amasis, and in the battle which took place at 
Momemphis, on the Canopic arm of the Nile, his troops were 
defeated, and he himself was taken prisoner and led back to 
his palace at Sais ; he was shortly after strangled and buried 
with his fathers in the temple of Neith. Before the death of 


Apries Nebuchadnezzar II. is said to have invaded Egypt, 
and to have sailed up as far as Aswan. 

Amasis II. became sole king of Egypt after the death of 572 
Apries, and as he had married Anch-nes-nefer-ab-Ra, daughter 
of Psammetichus II. and of Nit-aqert, a sister of Apries, the 
Egyptians regarded him as, more or less, a legal successor to 
the throne. He continued the policy of his predecessors 
towards foreigners, and gave the Greeks many valuable trading Greeks 
privileges ; in his reign Naucratis became a very important ?-<i™i"™ 
city, and the centre of Greek influence in Egypt. In addition and rise of 
to Anch-nes-nefer-ab-Ra he married Ladike, said to be '^^"^ ^'' 
the daughter either of Critoboulos or Battus or Arcesilaus 
the Cyrenian ; according to Herodotus he was the first king 
of Egypt who conquered Cyprus. The same historian says 
(III. I) that Cambyses, king of Persia, made war upon him 
because, having demanded from Amasis his daughter to wife, 
the Egyptian king sent to him Nitetis, the daughter of Apries, 
as his own daughter ; when the damsel declared who she was, 
Cambyses was greatly enraged, and determined to invade 
Egypt. During his long reign of forty-five years Amasis 
repaired and added to the temples in many parts of Egypt, 
and he worked the mines in the valley of Hamm&mat. He 
did not live to see the invasion of the Persians, but he left the 
country in such a flourishing condition that it formed very 
rich spoil for them. 

Psammetichus III., together with his army, formed of 528 
Greek and Egyptian troops, marched against the Persians 
and did battle with them at Pelusium, but he was utterly 
routed, and the conquering host took possession of Egypt, Egyptians 
and marched on to Memphis, whither the remainder of the (>^Tse7 
Egyptian army had fled for protection. The reign of Psam- 
metichus lasted but a few months, and he was taken captive 
to Persia, where he suffered a miserable death. 

The Twenty-seventh Dynasty. 

Cambyses, the first king of the Persian dynasty, seems to 327 
have been of a revengeful disposition, for, according to legend, 
when he arrived at Sal's he is said to have ordered the mummy 
of Amasis to be dragged from its tomb, and having caused it 



tion of 
and tombs 
by Cam- 

tion of 
Temple of 
Neith at 



The coin- 
age and 
ment of 

Red Sea 

to be illtreated had it burned. Tradition, in general, states 
that this king caused many barbarous acts to be performed by 
his soldiers, and the wrecking of many tombs and statues in 
Egypt is said to date from his reign. His expeditions against 
the Nubians and the people of the Oasis proving disastrous, 
he returned to Memphis in exasperation and grief, and finding 
the whole town in festival, on account of the appearance of a 
new Apis bull, he ordered this god to be brought to him, and, 
in a fit of rage, stabbed it in the thigh. Another view of the 
character of Cambyses is, however, given by an inscription on 
the statue of a naval commander under Cambyses and Darius, 
preserved in the Vatican. This officer, called Ut'a-Heru-en- 
pe-resu, states that when Cambyses came to Sais he ordered the 
temple of Neith to be cleansed, he restored its revenues and 
sacred festivals, he performed all the rites there, and established 
the offerings according to what the kings before him had 
done. When Darius was king of Egypt the same official was 
appointed by him to re-establish the school of scribes in 
Egypt, and he seems to have had some influence in preserv- 
ing Sa'is from the destruction which Cambyses spread over 
the country, and he probably helped Darius to establish the 
beneficent government in Egypt for which he is famous. 
Cambyses died from a wound in the thigh, accidentally 
caused by his own dagger while mounting his horse. 

On ascending the throne Darius Hystaspes, the successor 
of Cambyses, set to work to improve the condition of the 
country, and to repair the damage done to the prestige of 
Persian government in Egypt by Cambyses. He deposed Ary- 
andes, the Persian satrap of Egypt, appointed by Cambyses, 
and caused him to be slain, because he had made an attack on 
Cyrene, and because of his cruelty and misgovernment. Darius 
established a coinage, rearranged the taxation of the country, 
and completed the canal to join the Red Sea and- the Medi- 
terranean which Necho had begun. The course of this canal 
can still be traced by the inscriptions in hieroglyphics, and in 
Persian, Median, and Assyrian cuneiform, which cover the 
rocks near which the canal passed. As stated above, Darius 
re-established the school of scribes in Egypt, and spared no 
pains to improve the condition of the people, and to increase 


the trade of the country by land and sea. Towards the end 
of his reign, while the Persians were fighting the Greeks, 
Egypt threw off the Persian yoke, and set up Chabbesha as 
king ; Darius never recovered his hold upon Egypt, and died 
after a reign of about thirty-six years. 

Soon after Xerxes I. ascended the throne, he marched to 486 
Egypt to reassert the Persian supremacy ; he broke through 
the defences which Chabbesha had set up on the mouths of Persians 
the Nile and in the marshes, and taking possession of the e™"^"^"^ 
country compelled the Egyptians to send a contigent of two 
hundred ships to assist him in his attack upon Greece ; the 
crews of these ships distinguished themselves by their bravery 
at the battle of Artemisium. After the murder of Xerxes by 
Artabanus, Artaxerxes I. became king of Egypt, but 465 
towards the end of his reign the Egyptians, headed by Inarus, 
king of Lybia, assisted by a fleet of two or three hundred 
Athenian shipsj again revolted and refused either to pay 
taxes, or to acknowledge the Persian authority. Artaxerxes 
sent a force of 300,000 or 400,000 to put down the revolt, and 
a battle took place near Papremis ; the Persians, owing to 
their overwhelming numbers, were at first victorious, but were 
subsequently beaten, and those that escaped from the general 
massacre fled to Memphis for refuge, and were besieged there 
by the Egyptians. Soon after this Artaxerxes sent more Fall of 
troops to Egypt, and these having surrounded Memphis, the Memphis. 
Athenians were compelled first to withdraw, and secondly to 
burn their ships ; Inarus was wounded in an engagement and 
taken captive to Persia, where he was crucified or impaled. 
Amyrtaeus, the governor of a town in the Delta and an ally 
of Inarus, fled to the marshes, and the Persians appointed 
Pausiris and Thannyras, their sons respectively, rulers over 
the Delta in their stead. Xerxes II., the next king of Egypt, 
was murdered by his brother Sogdianus, and towards the 
end of the reign of Darius II., his successor, the Egyptians 
once more rebelled, and regained their independence under 
Amyrtaeus of Sais about B.C. 405. 

The Twenty-eighth Dynasty. 
Of Amen-rut or Amyrtaeus, the only king of this dynasty, 400 
very little is known ; his native city was Sal's, but it is not 


likely that he is identical with the Amyrtaeus who assisted 
the ill-fated Inarus to rebel against the Persians. 

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty. 


399 Naifaarut I., or Nepherites, the first king of this dynasty, 

was a native of Mendes, and he associated his son Nectanebus 

with him in the rule of the kingdom. He supplied the 

Lacedaemonians with wood for building one hundred triremes 

and half a million bushels of grain at the time when 

Agesilaus was fighting against the Persians.^ He reigned six 

393 years, and was succeeded by P-se-mut or Psammuthis, who 

was in turn succeeded by Haker. Of Haker, or Achoris, 

the inscriptions say nothing, although his name is found 

inscribed on buildings and temples at Thebes, and in the 

quarries of Ma'sara and Turah. Towards the end of his 

Egyptians reign Achoris became an ally of Evagoras, king of Cyprus, 

waragainst t>ut the king of Persia, against whom they began a war, 

Persians, succeeded in destroying their united fleet, and shortly after 

Achoris died, having reigned twelve or thirteen years. He 

379 seems to have been succeeded by Naifaarut II., who was, 

however, soon deposed on account of his unpopularity with 

the people. 

The Thirtieth Dynasty. 

378 To Necht-neb-f, or Nectanebus I., the son of Naifaarut I., 

the first king of this dynasty, fell the task of continuing the 

war which Achoris, his predecessor, and Evagoras, king of 

Persian Cyprus, had begun against Artaxerxes II. The Persian 

upon king attacked Cyprus with great determination, but Evagoras 

Cyprus. met his forces with about one hundred ships and six thousand 

soldiers, and succeeded in partially stopping the supplies of 

grain for the enemy, in consequence of which a rebellion 

broke out among them. He increased his fleet as much as 

he was able, and with the addition of fifty ships from Egypt, 

attacked the Persians with all haste ; in the great battle 

which followed, however, his ships were scattered or sunk, 

' Wiedemann thinks that the king of Egypt who assisted the Greeks in this 
matter is, from chronological grounds, more likely to have been Achoris. 
{Ae^. Geschichte, p. 698.) 


and the Persians sailed on to attack Salamis, Evagoras fled 
to Egypt to obtain supplies from Nectanebus to carry on the 
war, but when he returned he found that his capital was 
besieged, and that his allies had fled. He straightway 
tendered his submission to the Persians, who finally decided 
to accept from him a yearly tribute and to consider him a 
vassal of Persia. The war against Evagoras being at an end, 
the Persian king next directed his attention to an attack Persian 
upon Egypt, and placing the Persian troops under the com- ^ ^^ 
mand of Pharnabazus, and his Greek troops under that of Egypt. 
Iphicrates, he advanced against Egypt with nearly a quarter 
of a million soldiers and three hundred ships of war. Nec- 
tanebus on his part fortified each of the seven mouths of the 
Nile, giving particular attention to strengthening the defences Egyptians 
on the Pelusiac mouth, and he flooded the whole country D^jta. 
round. When the Persian generals saw this they deter- 
mined to make their attack by the Mendesian mouth of the 
Nile, and after a battle they succeeded in capturing the fort 
which commanded it, and reduced its defenders to slavery. 
A dispute next arose between Pharnabazus and Iphicrates as 
to an immediate attack upon Memphis, and while the former 
was opposing the march upon this city by the latter, the 
Egyptians themselves mustered a strong force there, and in 
the battles which followed the arrival of the allied army of 
Persians and Greeks were generally successful. Soon after 
this, owing to the inundation of the Nile, the Persians with- Retreat 
drew to Syria, and Iphicrates returned to Athens ; thus the 
attack of the Persians, notwithstanding their immense army, 
came to nought. Nectanebus restored and added to many of 
the temples of Egypt, and after a reign of eighteen years was 
succeeded by T'chehra, or Teos (Tachos), who reigned but 360 
two years ; the Egyptian inscriptions make no mention of 
this king. From Greek historians we learn that Teos levied 
a tax on the Egyptians to carry on the war, and that, contrary 
to the advice of Agesilaus, one of his allies, he advanced to 
attack PhcEnicia. During his absence the Egyptians revolted, 
and sent messengers to Syria to invite Nectanebus II., the 
lawful heir to the throne of Egypt, to come and take pos- 
session of his country. The allies of Teos forsook him, and 

of the 









Flight of 

he fled to the court of Artaxerxes II. and of Ochusthe Persian 
kings, where, after a time spent in riotous living, he died. 

Necht-neb-f, or Nectanebus II., was the last native king 
of Eg>'pt, and having been helped by Agesilaus to overthrow 
a native of Mendes who aspired to the throne, he assumed 
the rule of the kingdom without further opposition. After 
the death of Artaxerxes II., Ochus determined to make an 
attack upon Egypt and Cyprus and Phoenicia, the kings of 
which had joined forces with each other and with the 
Egyptians to make themselves independent. Tennes, the 
king of Sidon, successfully expelled a number of Persians 
from Phoenicia, but when he heard that Ochus himself was 
coming to take vengeance upon him for this proceeding, he 
sent messengers to him to tender his submission, and to 
promise him his help in invading Egypt. The Persian king 
promised to overlook the past, but marched on Sidon, not- 
withstanding, and surrounded it ; Tennes betrayed the city 
and led Artaxerxes and his army into it, whereupon the 
Sidonians destroyed their fleet and set fire to their houses 
with themselves and their wives and families inside them. 
The treachery of Tennes availed him nothing, for he was put 
to death by Artaxerxes. Phoenicia, and soon after Cyprus, 
fell into the hands of the Persian king, who now made ready 
in earnest to conquer Egypt. In a few small preliminary 
battles fought on the north-east frontier of Egypt, victory 
rested with the Persians, and when Nectanebus learned this, 
and saw that Pelusium was attacked in a systematic manner, 
he and his troops withdrew to Memphis ; the Persians 
advanced through the Delta, and captured Bubastis, and 
their march to Memphis was a triumphal progress rather 
than the march of an enemy upon the capital of Egypt. 
Fear seized Nectanebus when he heard of the approach of 
the Persians, and having gathered together all the money 
that he could conveniently carry, he fled from his troubles, 
some say to Ethiopia, and some say to Macedon, where 
according to Pseudo-Callisthenes he became the father of 
Alexander the Great. Nectanebus, during his reign of 
seventeen or eighteen years, obtained the reputation of being 
a devout worshipper of the gods, and a sorcerer. The mines 


in the valley of Hammamat were worked during his reign, 
and he added to and repaired many of the temples at Philae, 
Thebes, Edfu, Heliopolis, etc. With the flight of Nectanebus 
the history of Egypt as an independent country comes to an 

Persian Rulers of Egypt. 


When Artaxerxes III., Ochus, became sole king of 340 
Egypt, he emulated the barbarous acts of Cambyses ; the 
principal towns were looted and destroyed, the temples were Ochus 
overthrown, and their sanctuaries pillaged, the Apis bull was ECT^t^"^^ 
killed and eaten by the king and his friends, and the ram of 
Mendes was slain. Ochus returned to Babylon with much 
spoil, and after a reign of twelve years was probably poisoned 
by Bagoas the Egyptian, who, it is said, thus avenged the 
slaughter of the Apis bull. 

Arses, the youngest son of Ochus, next sat on the throne 
of Egypt, but in the third year of his reign he and his family 
were slain by Bagoas. 

Arses was succeeded by Darius III., who narrowly escaped 
poisoning by the hand of Bagoas ; the plot was, however, 
discovered, and Darius freed himself from the traitor by 
causing him to drink poison, and he died. Darius was defeated Defeat of 
by Alexander the Great at Issus, and the Greeks marched on i^^"^^ ^' 
Egypt and took possession of it without any difficulty. 


Alexander the Great founded the Alexandria near Rakoti, 332 

Eg. ^^~^ M cissi (111 ^ Rdqetit, Copt. p-i-Kcf", and endeavoured 

to make it the central market-place of the known world. He 
was tolerant of the Egyptian religion, and sacrificed to Amen, Alexan- 
the god of Libya, who greeted him as his son. After about a ^"^(jgj 
yeai" spent in Egypt, Alexander set out on his expedition 
against Darius king of Persia. Having conquered all the 
east, and travelled nearly alone into China, he came back to 
Babylon, where he was poisoned at a banquet ; his body was 
brought in great state to his city Alexandria and was buried 

B. M. F 












Death of 


Egypt be- 
comes a 


Ptolemy I., Soter, son of Lagus, foanded the Alexandrian 

Ptolemy II., Philadelphus, built the Pharos, founded 
Berenice on the Red Sea, and Arsinoe ; he employed Manetho 
to compile a history of Egypt and its gods from native autho- 
rities, and caused the Greek version of the Old T-estament 
to be made. 

Ptolemy III., Euergetes I. 

Ptolemy IV., Philopator, founded the temple of Edfu. 

Ptolemy V., Epiphanes. 

Ptolemy VI., Eupator, died in this year. 

Ptolemy VII., Philometor. 

Ptolemy VIII., murdered by Physcon. 

Ptolemy IX., Euergetes II. or Physcon, reigned conjointly 
with Ptolemy VII. (B.C. 170 — 165). 

Ptolemy X., Soter II., Philometor II., or Lathyrus reigned 
conjointly with Cleopatra III. ; he was banished B.C. 106, and 
recalled B.C. 87. 

Ptolemy XL, Alexander I., made co-regent. He was 
banished B.C. 89 and slain B.C. 87. 

Ptolemy XII., Alexander II., is slain. 

Ptolemy XIII., Neos Dionysos or Auletes, became king 
of Egypt ; he died B.C. 52. 

Ptolemy XIV., Dionysos II., banished his co-regent 
Cleopatra VII., Caesar arrived in Egypt to support Cleopatra, 
and Ptolemy XIV. was drowned. 

Ptolemy XV., brother of Cleopatra VII., appointed her co- 
regent ; he was murdered at her wish. 

Ptolemy XVI., Caesarion, was named co-regent. 

Antony ordered Cleopatra to appear before him, and was 
seduced by her charms ; he killed himself, and Cleopatra died 
by the bite of an asp. 

Csesar Augustus became master of the Roman Empire, 
and Cornelius Gallus the first prefect of Egypt ; under the 
third prefect, Aelius Gallus, Candace, Queen of the Ethiopians, 
invaded Egypt, but was defeated. 



Tiberius. In his reign Germanicus went to Egypt, sailing H 
up the Nile from the city of Canopus to Thebes, where he 
visited the temples of Luxor and Karnak, and heard the priest 
read on the pylons the names of conquered nations which 
still exist on them by the score. Passing over to the other 
side of the river, Tacitus tells us (II., 61) that he saw the 
stone image of Memnon, which, when struck by the sun's 
rays, gave out the sound of a human voice, and there is little Germani- 
doubt that he visited the Tombs of the Kings, the Ramesseum through 
and the temples at Medinet Habu. He passed on to Syene, Egypt. 
where he visited the island of Elephantine, and either going 
up or coming down the river, he saw Lake Moeris and the 

Caligula. 37 

Claudius. 41 

Nero. In his reign Christianity was first preached in 55 
Egypt by Saint Mark. The Blemmyes made raids upon the j^^ad?^^^ 
southern frontier of Egypt. -Egypt- 

Vespasian. Jerusalem destroyed, A.D. 70. 69 

Domitian builds temples to Isis and Serapis at Rome. 82 

Trajan. The Amnis Trajanus, or canal which joined the 98 
Nile and Red Sea, re-opened. 

Hadrian. He visited Egypt twice. 117 

Marcus Aurelius. 161 

Commodus. 180 

Septimius Severus. 193 

Caracalla visited Egypt, and caused a large number of 211 
young men to be massacred in Alexandria. 

Macrinus. 217 

Elagabalus. 218 

Decius. 249 

Valerianus. 253 

Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra, invaded Egypt. 268 

Aurelian. Zenobia dethroned A.D. 273. 270 

Probus. 276 

Diocletian. " Pompey's Pillar " erected A.D. 302. The 284 
Copts date the era of the Martyrs from the day of 
Diocletian's accession to the throne (August 29). 

Constantine the Great. 324 

F 2 


337 Constantius. 

379 Theodosius I., the Great, proclaimed Christianity the 

religion of his empire. 


395 Arcadius, Emperor of the East. 

408 Theodosius II. 

450 Marcianus. In this reign Silco invaded Egypt, with his 

Nubian followers. 
474 Zeno. 

481 Anastasius. 

527 Justinian. 

610 Heraclius expelled the Persians from Egypt after they 

had held it, under Chosroes, for ten years. 


638 'Amr ibn el-'Asi conquers Egypt, and the country becomes 

Arab con- a part of the Muhammadan empire for about nine hundred 

quest of 

Egypt. years. 

1517 Selim I., of Constantinople, deposes Tumln Bey, and 

Egypt becomes a Turkish Pashalik. 
1798 Napoleon Bonaparte stormed Alexandria, battle of the 

Pyramids, and French fleet destroyed off Abukir by the 

1801 The French compelled by the English to evacuate Egypt. 

1805 Muhammad 'Ali appointed Pasha of Egypt. 

1848 Ibrihim Pasha. 

1849 Death of Muhammad 'Ali. 

1854 Said Pasha. During his reign the Bul^k Museum was 

founded, and the excavation of the Suez Canal began. 

1863 Ismail, son of Ibrahim Pasha, made Khedive. Suez 

Canal opened, 1869. 

1882 Massacre of Europeans at Alexandria, bombardment of 

the town by the English fleet in July ; Egypt was occupied 
by English troops, and 'Arab! Pasha defeated. 

1885 Murder of Gordon, and abandonment of the Sudan. 

1892 English troops continue to occupy Egypt. 

egyptian history. 

List of Egyptian Dynasties and the Dates 
assigned to them by egyptologists. 










































Elephantine ... 





































































(Shepherds) ... 







(Shepherds) ... 



V 2,214 












1. 591 













\ Tanis 








\ 1,091 






















j 729 









































Sebennytos ... 













1 Xdnig:sbuch, Berlin, 1858, Synoptische Tafeln, taf. 4-8. 

2 L'Univers. Egyfite Ancienne, Paris, 1839, p. 269. 

3 Notice des Princifaux Monuments du MusSe h Boulaq, Paris, 1869, p. IJ. 

4 The Ancient Egyptians, ed. Birch, 1878, Vol. I, p. 28 ff. 

5 Egypt under the Pharaohs, ed. 1880, Vol. II, pp. 341-346. 





I. Ca=sO 


6. //,or 

xo. ll-M 








At ef -fell 

.4. nb^id 



O o 






e o 



Annu qemdt 









Un IN ®,orll||®||ll Chemennu 

' See Brugsch. Diet. Geog., p. 1358, f. ; and Dumichen 






Apollinopolis magna 

Latopolis, Esneh 

Thebes, or 



DiospoHs parva 



Lycopohs, Asyflt 



in Meyer, Geschichte des alien Aegyptens, p. 24, ff. 





























.7. M 

19 ^.^^^ 

21. (>_^ 

22. ^ 












5 „)^ 













6. "^^^ 







® ^ 
cic D 









1 In the western part of this nome was the FavyQm, |— ^ ^^ Ta-shet. 



(UPPER ^GY?T)— continued. 





Heracleopolis Magna 
Nilopolis (?) 


D S 

D @ 






Heru, Horus 

Anpu, Anubis 

Anpu, Anubis 




Het-Heru, Hathor 














/wwvs 1 i__ 








= See J. 

de Roug^, 

Giog. Aticienne d( la Basse E 

gypte, Paris, 1891. 



Dynasty III., from Memphis, b.c. 3966. 

18. ^1 


ck ^ \ tia Ka 



■'■ m F^l 

















( 1 ^ s: 

Nefer-ka-Ra, son of the Sun, 


Dynasty IV., from Memphis, b.c. 3766, 
















33. m ( oau I 


34. 1^^ CRs^l 




Dynasty V., from Elephantine, b.c. 3366. 


uu Q 


Nefer-ka-ari-Ra, son of the Sun, Kakaa. 

1* O 


3,. 1^ ( T|1Z] 

Nefer-f-Ra, son of the Sun, Shepses-ka-Ra. 


Nefer-xa-Ra, son of the Sun, Heru-a-ka-u. 



Q Q 


40. « Pmp^I ¥ (1 

Usr-en-Ra, son of the Sun, 


| ttr i i i i | lTLJ 




M C^Tul 1- C^~0 

Tet-kaRa, son of the Sun, Assa. 

43. m (MM Unas. 

Dynasty VI., from Memphis, b.c. 3266. 

44 15^ (TT} nissii 



(Teta beloved ofPtah.) 




Usr-ka-Ra, son of the Sun, 


4^. m CXH ¥ QB 


a a \ 

Meri-Ra, son of the Sun, Pepi (I.). 


Mer-en-Ra, son of the Sun, Heru-em-sa-f. 
•9 O 



48. M [ o 

Nefer-ka-Ra, son of the Sun, Pepi (II.). 

49. m (o^h^K^ i 5°. m R^i 

Ra-mer-en-se (?)-em-sa-f Neter-ka-Ra. 

Men-ka-Ra, son of the Sun, Netaqerti. 


Dynasties VII. and VIIL, from Memphls ; Dynasties 








Nefer-seh .... 












Nefer-ka- Ra. 










- m Gdu] 0. m CZIu l 


.3. M K^ 


64. H Q^^j 



Nefer - ka - Ra - Pepi - senb. 


U o 

Nefer - ka - Ra- an nu.* 

68. l\ 




"Mi WW 



Dynasty XL, from Thebes. 

71. o 
Erpat Antef. 

72. \ 



»■ ^ CiZ l 



Antef (?). 

'^1 J (1^1 

Neter nefer, Antef. 

Beautiful god, Antef. 

• After this name the tablet of Abydos had ^\^ ( ® ^ Ml 1 

.... kau-Ra 

t Erpa, usually translated "hereditary prince" or "duke,'' is one of the 
oldest titles of nobility in Egypt. 

B. Mi. O 






m ¥ j^z '- m (¥1 

Son of the 


Son of the 


© FS=^ 

3 ¥ (JW) 


Nub-xeper-Ra, son of the Sun, Antuf. 


Aha-Heru-Ra-apu-maat, son of the Sun, Antuf-aa. 



Aha-renpit-Ra-aput-maat, son of the Sun, Antef-aa. 


Tet-Ra-her-her-maat, son of the Sun, 

8s^ H ( oj[l— ^ 





86. ^1 



^'- M ¥ (MIS] 

Son of the Sun, Men^u-hetep (I.). 

i"^^.-Q^ ''N 




Se-Ra-Men0-hetep (II.). 

Neb-hetep-Ra, son of the Sun, Men0-hetep (III.). 


Neb-taiu-Ra, son of the Sun, Meti0-hetep (IV.) 




-Mr°-n ¥ c 


Neb-xeru-Ra, son of the Sun, Men0-hetep (V.). 

9- m (ojwj 



Dynasty XII., from Thebes, b.c. 2466. 


o 1 — 0- 




Selietep-ab-Ra, son of the Sun, Amen -em-hat (I.). 
-9 O 





xeper-ka-Ra, son of the Sun, Usertsen (I.). 







Nub-kau-Ra, son of the Sun, Amen-em-hat (II.). 


xeper-xa-Ra, son of the Sun, Usertsen (II.). 

xa-kau-Ra, son of the Sun, Usertsen (III.). 

Ck £> \^ ^/■.^Ay^ fl ^yj -JJ \_ 1 AAAiV^A _Cr^ ^i^ ^ 


99- ^\^ i 

Maat-en-Ra, son of the Sun, Amen-em-hat (III.) 

Maa-xeru-Ra, son of the Sun, Amen-em-hat (IV.). 



G 2 


Dynasty XIII., e.g. 2233. 


. em-hat. 

-4. m ffi^^i 


- M CCl] 


Seanx-ab-Ra, son of the Sun, Ameni-Antef-Amen-em-hat. 

-7. m @M3 


=8. m (ZM5] 


.»9. « dgu] 


-3. M H^ mi ] 





Set'ef , 



c^ a V 


Ra-xerp(?)-xu-taiu Sebek-hetep (I.). 

5 j|(3M^1h] ¥ 



Semenx-ka-Ra, son of the Sun, Mer-menfitu 

xerp-seuat'-taiu-Ra, son of the Sun, Sebek-hetep (IT.). 



xa-seshesh-Ra, son of the Sun, Nefer-hetep. 


„8. \} 


Ra-het . . . . se, son of the Sun, Het-Heru-se. 
-9 r^ 


^9. m c^] 

xa-nefer-Ra, son of the Sun, Sebek-hetep (III.). 
-9 O 

-• m ( oQg^i 

T^Hci D 


xa-hetep-Ra, son of the Sun, Sebek-hetep (IV.). 


122. l\^ 




c» c» \ '^ I -£gS^ I I I 

Neb-f-a(?) a-mer-Ra. 


.5. m (W] 

Nefer ab-Ra. 
1 O 

Q o 

xa-anx-Ra, son of the Sun, Sebek-hetep (V.). 

- m c°-fl 

O . -J 



Men-xau-Ra, son of the Sun, Anab. 


-8 m RT^ ^ c^k^i 

9 V: 

129. :^V^ 10 
c^ ^ V 

xerp-uat'-xau-Ra, son of the Sun, Sebek-em-sa-f (I.)- 

]=»c=^ ^ 


xerp-seset-taiu-Ra, son of the Sun, Sebek-em-sa-f (II.). 

xerp (?)-Uast-Ra. 


xerp-uah-xa-Ra, son of the Sun, Ra-hetep. 

- m CSD 

Dynasty XIV. 
•2 o 



Mer-nefer-Ra, son of the Sun, Ai 

■f O 


Mer-hetep-Ra, son of the Sun, Ana. 

'35. m C^PtePil] 

Seanxensehtu - Ra. 


.3,. M r°pf^ 


.38. m 5^ 





Ka-meri-Ra. neter nefer. Mer-kau-Ra. 




Neb-t'efa-Ra Ra (5/r). 





145- W=^ 1 O 




'46. H ( o^PTmI 

Neb- sen -Ra. 

^47. M ( oPH-^ l 



H9. H (311] 

Dynasty XV., "Shepherd Kings." 

■=°- M CMH 

Aa-peh-peh-Set, son of the Sun, Nub-Set (?). 

^- M CliJOl -«€(I3M] 

.... Banan. 

Abeh (?) - en - xepes. 



Dynasty XVI., "Shepherd Kings." 


1 J C5= ] ¥ (JMV\ 

Neter nefer Aa-ab-taiu-Ra, son of the Sun, Apepa. 

Beautiful god. 

I 6 \ ^ /I ^^vwv^ _ J^ 

or neter nefer Aa-qenen-Ra. 

Dynasty XVII., from Thebes. 

-mqh;] ¥ cssn 

Seqenen-Ra, son of the Sun, Tau-aa. 



'56. m n 


157. 1^ 

Seqenen-Ra, son of the Sun, Tau-aa-aa. 

y1 /NAAW\ 

Seqenen-Ra, son of the Sun, Tau-aa-qen. 
Uat'-xeper-Ra, son of the Sun, Karnes. 


^ ^ a J 

Suten hemt Aah-hetep. 

Royal wife. 

- m dLSMS 


Dynasty XVIII., from Thebes, b.c. 1700. 

'61. mmC 




? CEia 

Neb-peh-peh-Ra, son of the Sun, Aahmes. 

(Amasis I.) 






Neter hemt Aah-mes-nefert-ari. 
Divine wife. 

■^3. m G^^ 3 0°:"ol 

Ser-ka-Ra, son of the Sun, Amen-hetep. 

(Amenophis I.) 

'64. m C 




Aa-xeper-ka-Ra, son of the Sun, Tehuti-nies. 

(Thothmes I.) 

Cartouches of Egyptian kings. 


.^s. m ( 31^1 ^ CMS] 

Aa-xeper-en-Ra, son of the Sun, Nefer-xau-Tehuti-mes. 

(Thothmes II.) 

Mat-ka-Ra, sonof theSun, Hat-shepset-xnem-Amen. 

(Queen Hatshepsu.) 

■-'■ m G^W] ¥ CMD 

Men-xeper-Ra, son of the Sun, Tehuti-mes. 

(Thothmes III.) 


mCTI] 1- 0°-llil 

Aa-xeperu-Ra, son of the Amen-hetepneterlieq Annu. 


(Amenophis II.) 

■''■ M (AMU 



Men-xeperu-Ra, son of the Sun, Tehuti-mes xa-xau. 

(Thothmes IV.) 

- m GiE} 



Neb-mat-Ra, son of the Sun, Amen-hetep heq-Uast. 

(Amenophis III.) 

Suten hemt 


(The Mesopotamian wi'e of Amenophis III.) 

-mCjMS] ¥ (M^M 

Nefer-xeperu-Ra-ua-en-Ra, son of the Sun, Amen-hetep neter 

heq Uast. 
(Amenophis IV.) 




Suten hemt urt Nefer-neferu-aten Neferti-i0. 
Royal wife, great lady. 

- m Gm l 




^Vl l 


Anx-xeperu-Ra, son of the Sun, Seaa-ka-next-xeperu-Ra. 

Neb-xeperu-Ra, son of the Sun, Tut-anx-Amen heq Annu resu (?). 
;^eper-xeperu-mat-ari-Ra, son of the Sun, Atf-neter Ai neter heq Uast. 

^77. m (311^1 ¥ C^^^^^V^l 

Ser-xeperu-Ra-setep-en-Ra, son of the Sun, Amen-meri-en-Heru-em-heb. 

Dynasty XIX., from Thebes, b.c. 1400, 


'»- m CXTl ¥ (3E 


Men-pehtet-Ra, son of the Sun, Ra-messu. 

(Rameses I.) 

179- 3J 

(3=) ¥° QSllEI 

Men-mat-Ra, son of the Sun, Ptah-meri-en-Seti. 

(Seti I.) 

- M GIffl ^° 


Usr-mat-Ra setep-en-Ra, son of the Sun, Ra-messu-meri-Amen. 

(Rameses II.) 

.».. I ^ mrj -'^^ v\{^Mg\ 

Suten hemt Auset-nefert. 
Royal wife. 

Suten mut Tui. 

Royal mother. 



"^■m(Mz^l ¥ (mmH 

Ba-Ra-meri-en-Amen, son of the Sun, PtaB-meri-en-hetep- 

(Meneptah T.) 

184. ^1 


.•-\ V I'^Ws'vA ^ 

¥ ( mm ] 

Men-ma-Ra setep-en-Ra, son of the Sun, Amen-meses-heq-Uast. 


Usr-xepefu-Ra-meri-Amen, son of the Sun, Seti-meri-en-Ptah. 

(Set; II). 

XU-en-Ra setep-en-Ra, son of the Sun, Ptah-meri-en-se-Ptah. 

(Meneptah II.) 

Usr-xau-Ra setep-en-Ra son of the Sun, Ra-meri Amen-merer 
meri-Amen, Set-ne;^t. 


Dynasty XX., from Thebes, b.c. 1200. 

-i^cgsii] ^ Cii 



Usr-mat-Ra-meri-Amen, son of the Sun, Ra-meses-heq-Annu. 

(Rameses III.) 

Usr-mat-Ra setep-en- son of the Sun, Ra-meses-meri-Amen- 
Amen, Ra heq mat. 

(Rameses IV.) 

-iiCSlS ¥ GiMH 

Usr-mat-Ra s-^eper- son of the Sun, Ra-mes-meri-Amen-Amen 
en-Ra, suten-f. 

(Rameses V.) 





¥ Gil-1Ifl 

Ra-Amen-mat- son of the Sun, Ra-Amen-mesesneter 
meri-neb, heq Annu. 

(Rameses VI.) 


-]M£\ ^ GmSD 

Ra-usr-Amen-meri- son of ihe Sun, Ra-Amen-meses-ta-neter- 
setep-en-Ra, heq-Annu. 

(Rameses VII.) 


m C°«^-l ¥ (^Mm j 

Ra-mat-usr-xu-en- son of the Sun, Ra-Amen-meses-meri- 
Amen, Amen. 

(Rameses VIII.) 


v^^_0_JJjWwv^ QUI V ai I O I Q A^ 

Neb ta S-xa-en-Ra Meri- neb xau Rameses-se-Ptah. 

Lord of the Amen, lord of crowns, (Rameses IX.) 


Nefer-kau-Ra son of the Sun, Ra-meses-merer-Amen- 
setep-en-Ra, xa-Uast(?). 

(Rameses X.) 

196. ^^ (oQ^Jiv?^ ] 

Ra-xeper-mat setep- son of the Sun, Ra-mes suten (?) Amen. 
en-Ra, (Rameses XL ) 



?0i? — -oN 



Usr-mat-Ra setep- son of the Sun, Amen mer-Ra-meses. 
nu-Ra, (Rameses XII.) 

■'«MC4iE] ¥ (^ IMiWirl 

Men-mat-Ra son of the Sun, Ra-meses-merer-Amen xa 
setep-en-Ra, Uast (?) neter heq Annu. 

(Rameses XIIL) 




Dynasty XXI., from Tanis, e.g. hoc. 


O I 

Ra-neter-xeper setep-en son of the Sun, Se-Mentu meri-Ra. 
Amen, (Se-Mentu.) 

Ra-aa-xeper setep- son of the Sun, Amen-meri Pa-seb-xa-nu. 
en-Mentu, (Pasebxanu I.) 

CTTD ¥ ( ] 

Aa-seh-Ra, son of the Sun, 

Setep-en-Mentu-Ra, son of the Sun, Meri-Mentu-Amen- 


-mOTID %? Oli^EI 

Het' lieq son of the Sun, Meri-Amen Pa-seb-xa-nu. 

(Pasebxanu II.) 

Dynasty XXL, from Thebes, b.c. hog. 

-- m (iifW j ¥ C!M3] 

Neter-hen-hetep en- son of the Sun, Her-Heru-se-Amen. 

Amen, (Her-Heru.) 

Prophet first of Amen, 

-=■ 1 ! ? - fl= 3^ f 7 

Neter hen hetep en Amen Pa anx 

Prophet first of Amen Pa anx. 


Pai-net'em (I.). 

Xeper-xa-Ra-setep- son of the Sun, Amen-meri-Pai- 

en-Amen, net'em (IL). 

Suten mut Hent-taiu. 
Royal mother, Hent - taiu. 

209. ^"v" ^ ' 

Prophet first of Amen, Masahera 

& (^ o T rirmiiirri^^TTTN 

■I 1 1 1 1 1 1. kUJ I 4; \ 1 j^.^/v^A^ \ iPv^ \ J 

1 ftl'^^^^ 

Prophet first, Men-;^eper-Ra, child Royal, Amen-meri Pai-net'em. 

Neter hen hetep en Amen-Ra, Pai-nat'em (HI.)- 
Prophet first of Amen-Ra. 

... ] w @D] 

Suten hemt Mat-ka Ra. 
Royal wife. 

Dynasty XXII., from Bubastis, b.c. 966. 


xeper-sexet-Ra son of the Sun, Amen-meri-Shashanq. 
setep-en-Ra, (Shashanq I.) 

xerp-xeper-Ra, son of the Sun, Amen meri Uasat ken. 
setep-en-Ra, (Osorkon I.) 



.5. m C-^inifl ^^ CPojio]: 

Het'-Ra-setep-en-Amen son of the Amen-meri Auset-meri 
neter heq Uast, Sun, flekelefl. 

(Takeleth I.) 


Ra-usr-mat setep-en- son of the Sun, Amen-meri Uasarken. 


(Osorkon II.) 

Xeper-sexem-Ra son of the Sun, Amen-meri Shash[anq]. 


(Shashanq II. ) 

Het'-xeperu-Ra son of the Sun, Amen-Ra-meri Auset- 
setep-en-Ra, meri 9ekele9. 


-MGHS 1- Q 

r^ c^qj 


Usr-mat-Ra son of the Sun, Amen-meri-se-Bast Shasha[n]q. 
setep-en-Ra, (Shashanq III.) 

Usr-mat-Ra setep- son of the Sun, Amen-meri Pa-mai. 
en-Amen, (Pa-mai.) 

Dynasty XXI 1 1., froim Tanis, b.c. 766. 

Se-her-ab-Ra, son of the Sun, Peta-se-Bast. 

Aa-xeper-Ra son of the Sun, Ra-Amen-meri Uasarkena. 
setep-en-Amen, (Osorkon III.) 



Dynasty XXIV., from Sais, b.c. 733. 


mcEj^] ¥ C 


Uah-ka-Ra, son of the Sun, Bakenrenf. 

Dynasty XXIV., from Ethiopia, b.s. 733. 

-4. ] " (U^] 

I ^^^^/^ > /I 

Suten Kasta. 

King Kashta. 

"5. m C 

O ti^^ 

Sun, P-anxi- 

Men-xeper-Ra, son of the Sun, P-anxi- 

Amen-meri P-anxi, son of the Sun, P-anxi. 

Dynasty XXV., from Ethiopia, b.c. 700. 

Nefer-ka-Ra, son of the Sun, Shabaka. 

(Sabaco. ) 

=-■ M GJ5£! ¥ (mWu} 

Tet-kau-Ra, son of the Sun, 

- M G5^S 


V rg ^ J 

Ra-nefer-tem-xu, son of the Sun, Tahrq. 


Neter nefer Usr-mat-Ra setep- lord of two 

Cod beautiful, en-Amen, lands, 



Dynasty XXVI., from Sais, b.c. 666. 

Uah-ab-Ra, son of the Sun, Psem^ek. 

(Psammetichus I.) 

Nem-ab-Ra, son of the Sun, Nekau. 

(Necho II.) 

-mGEI ■^ 

Nefer-ab-Ra, son of the Sun, Psem^ek. 

(Psammetichus II.) 

Haa-ab-Ra, son of the Sun, Uah ab-Ra. 

(Apries. ) 

^35. m C^J^ ^ CtIm] 

xnem- ab-Ra, son of the Sun, Ahmes-se-net. 

(Amasis II.) 

Anx-ka-en-Ra, son of the Sun, PsemSek. 

(Psammetichus III.) 

Dynasty XXVII. (Persian), b.c. 527. 

Mesu5-Ra, son of the Sun, Kemba^et 

B. M. H 


238. ^\^ I O 



Settu, son of the Sun, Antariusha. 

(Darius Hystaspes. ^ 





Lord of two xshaiarsha. 

lands, (Xerxes the Great.) 




( Artaxerxes. ) 

- m CMii 


Ra-meri-Amen, son of the Sun, Anfiierirutsha. 

(Darius Xerxes.) 

Dynasty XXVIII., from Sais. 

Senen-en-Ptah-Mentu- son of the Sun, (xabbesha.) 


Dynasty XXIX., from Mendes, b.c. 399. 

^43. m C^^ffif] 

Ba-en-Ra neteru- son of the Sun, Niafaaurut. 


344. M (^33 "^ (m^s^ 

xnem-mat-Ra, son of the Sun, Haker. 

-5. M ( -TXzX 



Ra-usr-Pta^-setep-en, son of the Sun, Psemut. 


Dynasty XXX. from Sebennytu.s, b.c. 378. 

S-net'em-ab-Ra son of the Sun, Next-Heru-hebt-meri- 
setep-en-Amen, Amen. 

(Nectanebus I.) 

H7. m C^jjj] 

xeper-ka-Ra, son of the Sun, Next- neb -f. 

(Nectanebus II.) 

Dynasty XXXI.,* Persians. 
Dynasty XXXIL, Macedonians, b.c. 332. 

m8. m (h 






Setep-ka-en-Ra-meri- son of the Sun, Aleksantres. 

Amen, (Alexander the Great.) 

dH ¥ (MiElME 

neb taiu Setep-en-Ra- son of the Sun, 

(Philip Aridaeus. ) 

251. "^ 

Ra-haa-ab-setep- son of the Sun, Aleksantres. 

en-Amen, (Alexander IV.) 

Dynasty XXXIII., Ptolemies, b.c. 305. 


Setep-en-Ra-meri- son of the Sun, 

(Ptolemy I. Soter I.) 

^52. ^ -^ c^MM] 

Neter mut, Bareniket. 

Divine Mother (Berenice I.) 

* The word "dynasty" is retained here for convenience of classification. 

H 2 



-wGMa] 1? QSW 

2 54- 

Ra-usr-ka-meri Amen, son of the Sun, Ptulmis. 

(Ptolemy II. Philadelphus.) 




Sutenet set suten sent suten hemt neb taiu Arsanat. 

Royal daughter, royal sister, royal wife, lady of the two lands (Arsinoe), 

Suten set suten sent 
Royal daughter, royal sister 


Ncteru-senu-ua-en-Ra-setep-Amen-xerp {?)-en-anx, son of the Son, 


Ptualmis anx t'etta Ptah meri 
Ptolemy (III. Euergetes I.), living for ever, beloved of Plali. 





-Baa I 



Heqt nebt taiu, Barenikat. 

Princess, lady of the two lands, (Berenice II.) 

-=• m (nf]^li^yu^Mn 


Neteru-menx-ua-[en]-Ptah-setep-en-Ra-usr-ka-Amen-xerp (?) any, 
•9 O 


son of the Sun, Ptualmis an^ t'etta Auset meri. 

Ptolemy (IV. Philopator,) living for ever, beloved of Isis. 

^59- II 1 

Suten set suten sent hemt urt nebt taiu 

Royal daughter, royal sister, wife, great lady, lady of the two lands, 


Arsinoe (III., wife of Philopator I.). 



360. m C 

/W^AJ^A C^ 




son of the Sun, Ptualmis anx I'etta Ptah meri. 

Ptolemy (V. Epiphanes) living for ever, beloved of Ptah. 

261. Ptolemy VI. Eupator, wanting. 




Suten set sen hemt Qlauaperat. 

Royal daughter, sister, wife, (Cleopatra I.) 


-3. M 11^:1 

Netcru-xu (?)-ua-Ptah-xeper-setep-en-Ra-Amen-ari-mat (?), 
1 O 


son of the Sun, Ptualmis anx t'etta Ptah meri. 

Ptolemy (VII. Philometor I.), living for ever, beloved of Ptah. 

2 I Q 

Sutenet set suten sent hemt suten mut neb taiu 

Royal daughter, royal sister, wife, royal mother, lady of the two lands. 


1=^ 1 

(Cleopatra II. wife of Philometor I.) 

265. Ptolemy VIII. Philopator II. wanting. 

^men-ari-mat X' 

Neteru-xu (?)-ua-en-Ptah-setep-en-Ra-Anien-ari-mat x^rp anx, 


son of the Sun, Ptualmis anx t'etta Ptah meri. 

Ptolemy (IX. Euergetes II.), living for ever, beloved of Ptah. 




Suten net 
King of North and South, 

lord of 

two lands, 


1=1 Q a — " — K^JiQ 


Neteru-men;i( {?).setep-en-Ra- 

00 Q 

■^^^ III 

Ra-se neb x^u 

Son of the Sun, lord of 

Ptualmis an^ t etta Ptah meri. 
Ptolemy X. (Soter II, Philometor II.) 

268. nOs 




Suten net, NeLeru-menx-ua-Ptah-setep-en-Ra-Amen-ari-mat- 
King of North and senen-Ptah-an^-en, 


son of the Sun, Ptualmis t'etu-nef Aleksentres an^ t'etts Ptah meri. 

Ptolemy (XI.) called is he Alexander, living for ever, 
beloved of Ptah. 

-''■ loH 


Heqt neb taiu Erpa-ur-qebh-Baaarenekat. 

Princess, lady of two lands, Berenice (III.) 

270. Ptolemy XII. (Alexander II.), wanting. 

• m C3 





Bon of the Sun, Ptualmis anx t'etta Pta^i Auset meri. 

Ptolemy (XIII.), living for ever, beloved of Isis and Ptali. 






■ o ^ J 

Neb taiu Qlapetrat t'ettu-nes Trapenet 

Lady of two lands, Cleopatra (V. ), called is she Tryphaena. 





Heqt taiu 

Queen of two lands, 


Cleopatra (VI.). 

274- Os 

Suten net neb taiu 

King of North and lord of two lands, 

Ptolemy (XIV.), 

€is O 





Ra se neb x^a. Kiseres anx t'etta Ptah Auset meri. 

son of the Sun, lord of diadems, Csesar, living for ever, of Ptah and 

Isis beloved. 

Dynasty XXXIV., Roman Emperors, b.c. 27. 

275. ?Qj ^"^^ === 

Suten net neb taiu 

King of North and lord of two lands. 


?Q Q) 



Ra se neb x3u Kiseres anx t'etta Ptah Auset meri. 

Sun's son, lord of crowns, Csesar (Augustus), living for ever, 

of Ptah and Isis beloved. 

276, ^ ^ ^ 
Suten net neb taiu 

Sc. A' 





Ra se 

neb xau 


Autocrator, son of the Sun, lord of diadems. 



Tebaris Kiseres anx t'etta. 
Tiberius Caesar living for ever. 



Heq hequ Autekreter Ptah Auset-meri son of the Sun, 

Kinjj of kings, Autocrator, of Ptah and Isis beloved. 


Qais Kaiseres Kermeniqis. 
Gaius (Caligula) Caesar Germanicus. 

278. «QJ ^:=^ === 
Suten net neb taiu 

^ a'- 

Auteqreter Kiseres 
Autocrator Caesar, 



Ra se neb x^u 

Sun's son, lord of crowns. 


Qlutes Tibaresa. 

Claudius Tiberius. 


-4 y 

^ \. 


neb taiu Heq hequ-setep-en-Auset meri Ptah 
King of North and lord of two Ruler of rulers, chosen one of Isis, 
South, lands, beloved of Ptah. 


se Ra neb x^-u 

Sun's son, lord of crowns. 

Autekreter Anrani. 
(Autocrator Nero). 



Merqes Au^nes (Marcus Otho). 



^ — ' 

Sun's son, 

lord of crowns. 

281. Vitellius (wanting). 


^1K®^ O ^ 

Kiseres netx Autukreter. 
Caesar .... Autocrator. 


c;artouches of Egyptian kings. 



(B (3 . 

\!\ ^[ 

Suten net (?) 

Suten net (?) 

Autukretur Kisares 
Autocrator Caesar, 

Uspisines netx 

283. <lOiS 


>l'=>l ^_^ J 

Autekretur Tetis Keseres. 
Autocrator Titus Caesar, 




7 a 


Sun's son, 

lord of 




Uspesines net^- 
Vespasianus .... 

284. ds 


(3 a ■ 



Autukretur Kiseres. 
Autocrator CjKsar, 


■ a 

Sun's son, lord of crowns. 

Tumetines netx- 
Domitianus .... 




Autukreter Kiseres. 
Autocrator Csesar. 

son of the Sun, 


Neruas netx- 




= (? 





Autukreter Kaiseres Neruaui. 
Autocrator Ctesar Nerva, 




the Sun's son, Traianes netx Arsut Kermineqsa Ntekiqes. 
lord of crowns, Trajan (Augustus) Germanicus. Dacicus. 





Autukreter Kiseres Trinus. 
Autocrator Csesar Trajan, 

?Q0 S 

the Sun's son, lord of crowns, 




Atrines netx. 

S8. 1^3 c^jWMI] CSMl] 

Suten hemt Sabinat 

Sebesta anx t etta. 

Royal wife, Sabina, 

Sebaste living for ever. 

"^ §=S=f King of the North and 

South, lord of the world, 

( l.^::^¥P:]^°qp::qqp"Hq°l 

Autukreter Kiseres Gites Alis Atrins. 
Autocrator Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus, 


the Sun's son, 
lord of crowns, 

0(S \\ O' 


Antunines Sebes^esus Baus netixui. 
Antoninus Augustus Pius 






Autekreter Kaiseres. 
Autocrator Cassar, 

tao a 


K_^ 2 

the Sun's son, 
lord of crowns, 


Aurelais Antanines netx anx t'etta. 
Aurelius Antoninus, .... living for ever. 













Uara an^ t'etta. 
Verus, living for ever. 


<2 \>- 




Autekretirs Kisaures 
Autocrator Caesar, 

'c>.^ h D O D o n o <^~^ 

tlie Sun's son, lord of crowns, Kamtaus A-en-ta-nins netex. 

Commodus. Antoninus 

293. Autocrator Cassar ( \j 

ar f X 



Sauris net^. 
Severus .... 

294. Autocrator Csssar 


Antanenes netx. 
Antoninus [Caracalla] . . 



295. Autocrator Caesar 


Kat netix. 

296. Autocrator Cassar 


Taksas netx. 



of the 

Stele of 






The Rosetta Stone ' and the Stele of Canopus. 

The following remarks upon the decipherment of the 
Egyptian hieroglyphics may be fitly introduced by a des- 
cription of the remarkable objects of antiquity whose names 
stand at the head of this chapter. 

The Rosetta Stone is a slab of black basalt, which is 
now preserved in the British Museum (Egyptian Gallery, 
No. 24). It was found by a French artillery officer called 
Boussard, among the ruins of Fort Saint Julien, near the 
Rosetta mouth of the Nile, in 1799, but subsequently came 
into the possession of the British Government at the 
capitulation of Alexandria. It is inscribed with fragments of 
14 lines of hieroglyphics, 32 lines of demotic, and 54 lines of 
Greek. A portion of the stone has been broken off from the 
top, and the right-hand bottom corner has also suffered injury. 
It now measures 3ft. gin. x 2ft. 4jin. x 11 in. We may arrive 
at an idea of the original size of the Rosetta Stone by com- 
paring the number of lines upon it with the number of those 
upon the Stele of Canopus, which is inscribed in hieroglyphic, 
demotic and Greek, measures 7ft. 2 in. x 2ft. 7in. x ift. 2 in., 
and is inscribed with 36 lines of hieroglyphics, 73 lines of 
demotic, and 74 lines of Greek. The demotic inscription is 
on the edge of the stele. This stele was set up at Canopus 
in the ninth year of the reign of Ptolemy III., Euergetes I. 
(B.C. 247—222), to record the decree made at Canopus by the 
priesthood, assembled from all parts of Egypt, in honour of 
the king. It records the great benefits which he had 
conferred upon Egypt, and states what festivals are to be 
celebrated in his honour, and in that of Berenice, etc., and, 
like the Rosetta Stone, concludes with a resolution ordering 
that a copy of this inscription in hieroglyphics, Greek and 
demotic, shall be placed in every large temple in Egypt. 
Now the Rosetta Stone is inscribed with 32 lines of demotic, 
and the Stele of Canopus with 73 ; but as the lines on the 
Rosetta Stone are rather more than double the length of 
those on the Stele of Canopus, it is pretty certain that each 

' a cast of the Rosetta Stone is exhibited in the Fitzwilliam Museum. 




1 4°KAoTlAI^XAM"llNTEkAl^TA4p^rkW 





~"*'^' '\TrioiriAclriTOACK«liam,-AnHMPlOnlVrl.TnYiOA(SEnmnltANElrVXAfllTmoM.lWr/,B.,.7riiJ«„i^^^^^ 


-ir^A ■/>,!,= .. >. — ^»-» MnANHrYrEJ>.NKAlT/l.NAAA-n-NTANN«Mr//e 



« ^eAE10HlTAN0MlI°«ENATHInAr^AH+ElTHl»AIlAE\AiEni0EmNiEKKmnlTiYnErlTAll!AilAEIAlTETtArnN0tKATAT<'nf0ElPHMEN0NllAilAE|ON»TA/" ' nr,^^^ 

The RosETTA Stone, inscribed with a decree of the priests of Memphis, conferring divine honours on 
To face p. io8. Ptolemy V., Epiphanes, King of Egypt, B.C. 195. 


document is of about the same length. The Stele of 
Canopus has 74 liHes of Greek to 54 on the Rosetta Stone, 
but as the letters are longer and wider, it is clear from this 
also that the Greek versions occupied about the same space. 
Allowing then for the difference in the size of the hieroglyphic 
characters, we should expect the hieroglyphic inscription on 
the Rosetta Stone to occupy 14 or 15 lines. When complete 
the stele must have been about twelve inches longer than it 
is now, and the top was probably rounded and inscribed, like 
that of the Stele of Canopus, with a winged disk, having 
pendent uraei, that on the right wearing Q , the crown of 
Upper Egypt, and that on the left %( , the crown of Lower 
Egypt ; by the side of each urseus, laid horizontally, would 
be ':^^>-, and above ^ ■f td dnck, " giver of life." 

The inscriptions on the Rosetta Stone form a version of a Contents 
decree of the priesthood assembled at Memphis in honour of stone. 
Ptolemy v., Epiphanes, King of Egypt, B.C. 195, written in 
hieroglyphics, demotic and Greek. A facsimile ^ of them was 
published by the Society of Antiquaries ^ in 1802, and copies 
were distributed among the scholars who were anxious to 
undertake the investigation of the texts. The hieroglyphic 
text has been translated by Brugsch in his Inscriptio Rosettatia, Principal 
Berlin, 185 1 ; by Chabas, H Inscription hieroglyphique de theRosetta 
Rosette, Paris, 1867 ; and by Sharpe, The Rosetta Stone in Stone. 
hieroglyphics and Greek, London, 1 87 1, etc. The Demotic text 
has been studied by M. de Sacy, Lettre a M. Chaptal stir I'in- 
scription egypt. de Rosette, Paris, 1802; by Akerblad, Letter a 
M. de Sacy sur I' inscription ^gypt. de Rosette, Paris, 1 802 ; by 
Young, Hieroglyphics (collected by the Egyptian Society, 
arranged by Dr. T. Young, 2 vols., fol., looplates, 1823-1828), 
pi. X ff. ; by Brugsch, Die Insckrift von Rosette nach ihrem 
dgyptisch-demotischen Texte sprachlich utid sachlich erkldrt, 
Berlin, 1850 ; Salvolini, Analyse Grammaticale Raisonnee de 

' Other facsimiles are given in Lepsius, Auswahl, Bl. 18, and in Arundale and 
Bonomi, Gallery of Antiquities, pi. 49, p. 114. 

■* The Greek version of the decree of the Egyptian Priests in honour of 
Ptolemy the Fifth, surnamed Epiphanes, from the stone inscribed in the sacred 
and vulgar Egyptian and the Greek characters, taken from the French at the 
surrender of Alexandria. London, 1802. Nichols. 


dijferents textes des anciens Egyptiens, Vol. I., Texte liierogly- 
phiqtie et dhnotique de la pierre de Rosette, Paris, 1836. This 
work was never finished. The Greek text has been edited by 
Heyne, Commentatio in inscriptionem grcBcam monumeiiti trims 
titidis insigniti ex Aegypto Londimnn apportati, in torn. xv. of 
Comment. Soc. R. Sc. Gott., pp. 260-280; Ameilhon, Eclair- 
cisse^nents siir ['inscription grecque du monument trouve a 
Rosette, Y2ix\s, 1803; Drumann, Commentatio in inscriptionem 
prope Rosetiam ijiventam, Regiomont, 1822; and Drumann, 
Historisch-antiquariscJie Untersiuhungen Uber Aegypten, oder 
die Inschrift von Rosette aus dem Griechischen ilbersetzt und 
ei-ldutert, Konigsberg, 1823; Lenormant, Essai sur le texte 
grec de r inscription de Rosette, Paris, 1842; Letronne, Recueil 
des inscriptions grecques et latines d'Egypte, Paris, 1842 ; by 
Franz in Boeckh, Corpus Inscriptionum Grcecarum, t. iii., 1853, 
p. 334 ff.. No. 4697, etc. 
Beneficent The inscriptions upon the Rosetta Stone set forth that 

PtolemyV. Ptolemy V. Epiphanes, while king of Egypt, consecrated 
Epiphanes. revenues of silver and corn to the temples, that he suppressed 
certain taxes and reduced others, that he granted certain 
privileges to the priests and soldiers, and that when, in the 
eighth year of his reign, the Nile rose to a great height and 
flooded all the plains, he undertook, at great expense, the 
task of damming it in and directing the overflow of its waters 
into proper channels, to the great gain and benefit of the 
agricultural classes. In addition to the remissions of taxes 
which he made to the people, he gave handsome gifts to the 
temples, and subscribed to the various ceremonies which were 
carried on in them. In return for these gracious acts the 
priesthood assembled at Memphis decreed that a statue of 
the king should be set up in a conspicuous place in every 
temple of Egypt, and that each should be inscribed with the 
name and titles of " Ptolemy, the saviour of Egypt." Royal 
apparel was to be placed on each statue, and ceremonies were 
to be performed before each three times a day. It was also 
decreed that a gilded wooden shrine, containing a gilded 
wooden statue of the king, should be placed in each temple, 
and that these were to be carried out with the shrines of the 
other kings in the great panegyrics. It was also decreed 


that ten golden crowns of a peculiar design should be made 
and laid upon the royal shrine ; that the birthday and Festivals 
coronation day of the king should be celebrated each year of Ptolemy 
with great pomp and show; that the first five days of the Epiphanes. 
month of Thoth should each year be set apart for the 
performance of a festival in honour of the king ; and finally 
tiiat a copy of this decree, engraved upon a tablet of hard 
stone in hieroglyphic, demotic and Greek characters, should 
be set up in each of the temples of the first, second and third 
orders, near the statue of the ever-living Ptolemy. The 
Greek portion of the inscriptions appears to be the original 
document, and the hieroglyphic and demotic versions merely 
translations of it. 

Although it is nearly certain that, without the aid of the 
Greek inscription found on the socket of an obelisk at Philse, 
and the hieroglyphic inscription found on the obelisk which 
belonged to that socket, the hieroglyphic alphabet could 
never have been recovered from the Rosetta Stone, still it is Rosetta 
around this wonderful document that all the interest in the base of 
decipherment of the Egyptian hieroglyphics clings. For decipher- 
many hundreds of years the interest of the learned of all Egyptian 
countries has been excited by the hieroglyphic inscriptions of hierogiy- 
Egypt, and the theories propounded as to their contents were 
legion. Speaking broadly, the references to this subject by 
classical authors ' are not very satisfactory; still there are some 
remarkable exceptions which will be referred to presently. In- 
asmuch as the names of Roman emperors, as late as the time 
of Decius, were written in hieroglyphics, it follows that the Late use of 
knowledge of this subject must have been possessed by some Xi^'^' 
one, either Greek or Egyptian, in Egypt. " For a hundred 
and fifty years after the Ptolemies began to reign, the Egyptian 
hieroglyphics appear to have been commonly used, and the 
Egyptians were not prohibited from making use, so far as it 
seemed requisite, according to ritual or otherwise appropriate, 
of the native language and of its time-hallowed written 
signs." * Little by little, however, the Greek language dis- 

' See Gutschmid, Scriptorum rerum Aegyptiacarum Series, in Philologtis, 
Bd. X., Gottingen, 1855, ss. 712 ff. 

- MotamseR, Provinces of the Roman Empire, Vol- II. p. 243. 




placed the Egyptian, and the writing in common use among 
the people, called to-day "demotic" or "enchorial," and 
anciently " epistolographic,'' completely usurped the place of 
the " hieratic " or cursive form of hieroglyphic writing. Al- 
though the Greeks and Romans appear not to have studied 
hieroglyphics thoroughly, only repeating, generally, whaf 
they were told about certain signs, nevertheless writers like 
Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus, Strabo, Hermapion, Chaeremon, 
Clemens Alexandrinus, and Horapollo, contribute information 
on this subject of considerable value. 

To Hecataeus of Miletus,^ who visited Egypt betweei;! 
B.C. 513-501, we owe, through Herodotus, much knowledge 
of Egypt, and he must be considered the earliest Greek writer 
upon Egypt. Hellanitus of Mytilene, B.C. 478-393, shows 
in his Airjv7rTLaK.a that he has some accurate knowledge of 
the meaning of some hieroglyphic words. ^ Democritus 
wrote upon the hieroglyphics of Meroe, ' but this work is 
lost. Herodotus says that the Egyptians used two quite 
different kinds of writing, one of which is called sacred 
(hieroglyphic), the other common * (demotic). Diodorus 
says that the Ethiopian letters are called by the Egyptians 
" hieroglyphics." ^ Strabo, speaking of the obelisks at 
Thebes, says that there are inscriptions upon them which prjD- 
claim the riches and power of their kings, and that their rule 
extends even to Scythia, Bactria, and India.' Chaeremon 
of Naucratis, who lived in the first half of the first century 
after Christ,' and who must be an entirely different person 
from Chaeremon the companion of Aelius Gallus (B.C. 25), 

' See De rerum Aegyptiacarnm scriptoribus Graecis ante Ahxandrum 
Magnum-y in Philologus, Bd. X. s. 525. 

^ See the instances quoted in Philologus, Bd. X. s. 539. 

^ Ilfpi tUv iv Mipoy Upuv ypafifiaTiov. Diogenes Laertius, Vi'i. Democ, ed. 
Isaac Casaubon, 1593, p. 661. 

■• Kai TO. /iiv airuiv ipri, to. Si StifioTiKa Ka^itToi. Herodotus, IL 36, ed, 
Didot, p. 84. 

' Diodorus, IIL 4, ed. Didot, p. 129. 

6 Strabo, XVII. i, § 46, ed. Didot, p. 693. 

' According to Mommsen he came to Rome, as tutor to Nero, in the reign cl 
Claudius. Provinces of Rome, Vol. II. pp. 259, 273. 


derided by Strabo,^ and charged with lying by Josephus,^ Greek 
wrote a work on Egyptian hieroglyphics ^ irepl toiv lep&v ^ 
ypafifiaTcov, which has been lost. He appears to have been Egyptian 
attached to the great library of Alexandria, and as he was phics. 
a " sacred scribe," it may therefore be assumed that he had 
access to many important works on hieroglyphics, and that 
he understood them. He is mentioned by Eusebius* as 
Xaiptjficov 6 iepoypap,p.arevi;, and by Suidas,* but neither of 
these writers gives any information as to the contents of his 
work on hieroglyphics, and we should have no idea of the 
manner of work it was but for the extract preserved by 
John Tzetzes (T^ir^v;, bom about a.d. iiio, died after John 
A.D. 1 1 80). Tzetzes was a man of considerable learning and j^ptYan" 
literary activity, and his works ^ have value on account of the hierogly- 
lost books which are quoted in them. In his Chiliades' (Bk. 
v., line 395) he speaks of o AlyvTrrLos lepoypaixfiarev^ Xaiprj- 
ILwv, and refers to Chaeremon's hiZarjp,aTa rwv lepcov <ypa/j-fid- 
Tcov. In his Exegesis of Homer's Iliad he gives an extract 
from the work itself, and we are able to see at once that it 
was written by one who was able to give his information at 
first hand. This interesting extract was first brought to the 
notice of the world by the late Dr. Birch, who published a 
paper on it in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Litera- 
ture, Vol. III., second series, 1850, pp. 385-396. In it he 
quoted the Greek text of the extract, from the edition of 
Tzetzes' Exegesis, first published by Hermann,* and added 
remarks and hieroglyphic characters illustrative of it, together 
with the scholia of Tzetzes, the text of which he emended 
in places. As this extract is so important for the history of 

' TfAw/ifvoc 56 TO TrAloy (ij aKa'C,u>v km iSiurrig. Strabo, XVII. I, § 29, ed. 
Didot, p. 685. 

^ Contra Apion., I. 32 ff. On the identity of Chaeremon the Stoic philo- 
sopher with Chaeremon the 'iipoypafi/Martii;, see Zeller, Hermes, XI. o. 431. 

^ His other lost work, AiyvwriaKa, treated of the Exodus. 

■* Praep. Evang., v. 10, ed. Gai-sford, t. I, p. 421. 

* Sub voce 'Iepoy\vfiKa. 

^ For an account of them see Krumbacher, Geschichte aei Byzantinischen 
Literatur, Miinchen, 1891, pp. 235-242. 

' Ed. Kiessling, Leipzig, 1826, p. 191. 

" Draconis Stratonlcensis Liber de Metris Poeticis. Joannis Tzetzae Exegesis 

in Homeri Iliadem. Primum edidit God. Hermannus, Lipsiae, 1812. 

B. M. I 


the study of hieroglyphics, it is given here, together with the 
schoHa on it, from the excellent edition of the Greek text, 
by Lud. Bachmann, Scholia in Homeri Iliadem, Lipsiae, 1835, 
pp. 823, § 97 and 838, with an English translation. 

Extract "O^iy^os fie, vaihevOei's cucpi^uji Se iraaav fiaOriaiv tV tuiv avfi^oXt- 

T etzes' "■"^^ A.l0to'!rtKuiv r/pa/i/naTiof, Twura (prjaiv " ot ryap AtOcoTres o-Toi%eia 
work on rypafijLiaTivv ovk e-)(ovaiv, aXK avr av-vGiv ^iSa ii-avTola, Kal fie\,rj 70vtuiv 
Kal fjLopia • fiovXo/ievoi r^ap oi apx^^oTepoi tS>v iepo^paii,)i.aTiuiv tov Trepl 
Oeuiv (pvaiKOv Xor^ou Kpvwreiv, hi aXXrj'^optKwv Kac (7Vju,j3o\,u)i> toiovtuiu 
Kal r^pafi/idruiv Tots iSiocs tskvois avra TrapeSiSovv, u)s o cepo'ypafifiaTevs 
'X.aipTj^uiv fpriGi' 

1. Kal avyl pkv ■)(apai, r/vvaiKa TVfiTravl^ovaav erfpacpov ' 

2. hnl Xvirrj^, avOpuitrov rij X^'P' ''° ^^Vefoi' KpaTodvra, Kal wpos 

r^TJv vevovra ' 

3. dvrl Se (TV/ii/popdsy o(p9aXfiov daKpvovTa ' 

4. di/Tl Tou fiTj ep^eii/, ^vo ^e£/)as Kevas eKrera/icva^ ' 

5. dvrl dvaTo\7J9y ot^iv e^ep^d/^evov ek tcvo9 ottos' 

6. dvrl Bvtreiv?^ elaepxdfiEvov ' 
7- dvTi dvajScwcrewiy ^drpa^ov ' 

8. avTi '^^XVh lepaKa' ert Kal dvTi yXtov Kat 6eov ' 

9. dvrl GrjXvr^dvov f^vvatKO^^ Kal fiTjTpo? Kal XP^^^^ '^^^^ ovpavov, 

f^vTra ' 

10. dfjl ^acrtXetvfy fie\i<raav' 

11. dvTi. f^evetjetos Kal avTocfivwv Kal dppevtvv, KavOapov' 

12. ovtI 7^9, ^ovv' 

13. \eov7os be Trporojuyj iraaav dpx^v Kal (pvXaKTJv SrjXol Ka-r avTovs' 

14. ovpa XeovT09^ dvaf^KTjv ' 

15. eXa^oSy iviavTov ' 

16. ofuntv^ Kat o (poivi^ ' 

17. o irais dijXot Ta av^avdfieva 

18. o r^epwVy Ta (f)Oeipdfieva ' 

ig. TO To^ov, T^v o^elav SvvafiiV Kal erepa fivpia' e'f tiv "O/inpos 
ravrd (jitrjaiv ' ev aKXvo he toVu), eiirep alpeiaOe, Ibujv eK 
TO'y ^atprj/iiovo^^ Kac Tas TtZv f^pafijiiaTwv avTUJu eK(pwvn(T€is 


Transla- " Now, Homer says this as he was accurately instructed 

extrart.*^ in all learning by means of the symbolic Ethiopian characters, 

For the Ethiopians do not use alphabetic characters, but 

depict animals of all sorts instead, and limbs and members ol 

these animals ; for the sacred scribes in former times desired 


to conceal their opinion about the nature of the gods, and 
therefore handed all this down to their own children by alle- 
gorical methods and the aforesaid symbols and characters, as 
the sacred scribe Chaeremon says." 

1. "And iot joy, they would depict a woman beating a Accuracy 

. , . „ of Tzetzes' 

tambourme. statements 

[The drum or tambourine was used in the temples proved. 
for festival services, and a woman beating a tam- 
bourine is the determinative of the words I ^ 

seker, " to beat a tambourine," and _ 

2. " For g-rt'ef, a man clasping his chin in his hand and 
bending towards the ground." 

[A man, seated, with his hand to his mouth, Q]\ 

is the determinative of the word T "^ e/ i] v ^ 
chadndu, " grief." A seated woman with head 
bent and hands thrown up before her face, is the 

determinative of ^vF I ^ ^a(/i, " to weep."] 

3. "For misfortune, an eye weeping." 

[The weeping eye ^= is the determinative of the 
common word , ifT ^e^i, " to weep." ] 

4. " For want, two hands stretched out empty." 

[Compare _n_ at, " not to have," " to be without." 
Coptic ^-T.] 

5. " For rising, a snake coming out of a hole." 

[Compare =<^ = ^^ per, " to come forth, to rise " 
(of the sun).] 

6. " For setting, [the same] going in." 

[Compare -^ ^ —^ J\ dq, " to enter, to set " (of 
the sun).] 

7. " For vivification, a frog."' 

[The frog R c^^ J\^ hefejinu, means 100,000, hence 
fertility and abundance of life.] 

1 But compare HorapoUo, (ed. Leemans, p. 33), AirXaarov Si avdpuiirov 
ypaipovTii;, ^arpaxov Zf^ypaifiovfftv, 

I 2 


Accuracy 8. " For soiil, a hawk ; and also for sun and god!' 

of Tzetzes' ecv <a jr, 

statements Compare ^, ba, " soul," ^^^ neier, " god," and '^^ 

Heru, " Horus " or "the Sun-god."] 

9. " For a female-bearinp- woman, and mother and time and 
sky, a vulture." 

"VN ^-. mut, " mother," is the common meaning of a 
vulture, and at times the goddess Mut seems to be 
identified with P-^ nut, "the sky." Horapollo 
says that the vulture also meant "year " (ed. Lee- 
mans, p. 5), and this statement is borne out by the 
evidence of the hieroglyphics, where we find that 

^0 = fgm.M"year."] 

10. " For king, a bee." 

[Compare 41^ suten net, " king of the North and 

11. " For dirt A and natural growth, and males, a beetle." 

[The beetle O '^eperd was the emblem of the god 

Cheperd M (1 ^, who is supposed to have created 

or evolved himself, and to have given birth to 
gods, men, and every creature and thing in earth 

and sky. The word M ^_^ means " to become," 

and in late texts ^ 1 5^ I ' '^^'^^peru may 

be fairly well rendered by "evolutions." The 
meaning male comes, of course, from the idea 
of the ancients that the beetle had no female. 
See infra, under Scarab!\ 

12. " For earth, an ox." 

IMP dhet means field, and (I | ^]( ah means "ox"; 

can Chaeremon have confused the meanings of 
these two words, similar in sound ? ] 

1 3. " And the fore part of a lion signifies dominion and 
protection of every kind." 


[Compare —^ hd, "' chief, that which is in front, Accuracy 

, T . I,-,' of Tzetzes' 

duke, prince. ] statements 

14. "A lion's tail, necessity" prove 

[Compare 1 ^ p^h, " to force, to compel, to be 

15, 16. " A stSig, j/ear ; likewise the /«/?«." 

[Of the stag meaning " year " I can give no example. 
The palm branch j or g renpit, is the common 
word for " year."] 

17. " The boy signifies ^wz£/?/4." 

[Compare S), which is the determinative of words 
meaning " youth " and juvenescence.] 

1 8. " The old man, decay" 

[Compare f%, the determinative of (]'^%f^ 
dan, " old age."] 

19. " The bow, the swift power." 

[The Egyptian word for bow is D <~-^ pet. 
Compare ^ _D^ ''•^ pet, " to run, to flee away."] 

"And others by the thousand. And by means of these 
characters Homer says this. But I will proceed in another 
place, if you please, to explain the pronunciation of those 
characters in Ethiopic fashion, as I have learnt it from 
Chaeremon." ' 

In another place ^ Tzetzes says, " Moreover, he was not Extract 
uninitiated into the symbolic Ethiopian characters, the xzetzes. 
nature of which we will expound in the proper places. All 
this demonstrates that Homer was instructed in Egypt," 
voiX firjv ovBe rSiv Al6iOTriKa)v avfi^oXiKcav •ypafifiaTcov 
a/u,vrjTO<; yeyove, rrrepl S)v ev T0Z9 olKeioif roTrot? SiSd^of^Lep 
OTTola elaL kol ravra Be rov "Ofj-Tjpov ev AlyinrTO) wacSevdiivai 
irapaheLKvvovcri, and upon this the scholia on Tzetzes say : — 
TiepX Tcov AWioTTiKav lypafifidrcov A(6[Sa)jOO?] ^ev eirefJivrjaOrj, 
Koi (J-epiKO)^ enrev, dXX' Scnrep ef UKorj(; dWov fia6a>v Koi ovk 

' Hermann, p. 123, 11. 2-29 ; Bachmann, p. 823, 11. 12-34. 
'' Hermann, p. 17, 11. 21-25 > Bachmann, p. 755, 11. 9-12. 


aKpi,^(o<; avToq eTriardfievo^ [et] Kal, Tiva rovrtov KareXe^ev 

mcrirep iv oh otSe ■jrapprja-id^erai. XaiprjfiQyv Se o lepoypa/ji- 

jjiaTeii^ oXrjv ^i^'Kov ivepi rcov rotovrav •ypafifidrav crvveTa^ev. 

ariva, ev roi? 7r/3o[(r^opois] tottok tmv 'Op,ripeLcov iirwv 

d\_Kpi\^ea-Tepov Kol ■7rXarvrepca<; e'pco." " Diodorus made 

mention of the Ethiopian characters and spoke particularly, 

yet as though he had learnt by hearsay from another and did 

not understand them accurately himself, although he set 

down some of them, as though he were talking confidently 

on subjects that he knew. But Chaeremon the sacred scribe 

compiled a whole book about the aforesaid characters, which 

I will discuss more accurately and more fully in the proper 

places in the Homeric poems.'' It is much to be regretted 

that Chaeremon's work, if he ever fulfilled his promise, has 

not come down to us. 

Greek One of the most valuable extracts from the works of 

of Egyp- Greek and Roman writers on Egypt is that from a translation 

^n text by of an Egyptian obelisk by Hermapion, preserved by 

pion. Ammianus Marcellinus ; ^ unfortunately, however, neither 

the name of Hermapion's work nor the time in which he 

lived is known. This extract consists of the Greek 

translation of six lines of hieroglyphics : three lines are from 

the south side of the obelisk, one line from the east side, and 

a second and a third line from the other sides. A comparison 

of the Greek extract with any inscription of Rameses II. on an 

obelisk shows at once that Hermapion must have had a certain 

accurate knowledge of hieroglyphics ; his translation of the 

lines, however does not follow consecutively. The following 

examples will show that the Greek, in many cases, represents 

Compari- the Egyptian very closely. Ai'yei "HXio<; BaaiXel 'PaLLearn- 
son of f s ' ' . \ - . , , „ ^ , 

Greek oeoaiprjfiaL croi ava traaav OLKOv/j,evr]v fiera xO'P<^'> paaiXeveiv, 

translation a w tj>, . -, - V^ Q © .51 ^ ""'^ "^^^ ^CT^ r~^^ 

with the ov J:lA,io<i (piAei, = I | 1 7v ^^wv. ==== 

Egyptian /, ' /^aaaa I i_J t ^ — /o < ... . | | | v ' _^ 


to thee all lands and foreign countries with rest of heart, 
O king of the north and south, Usr-maat-Ra-setep-en-Ra, 

' Hermann, p. 146, 11. 12-22 ; Bachmann, p. 838, 11. 31-37. 
2 Liber XVIL 4. 


son of the Sun, Rameses, beloved of Amen-Ra." @eo<yevv7jTo<; 
KTLaTr]<; t% olKov/j,ei"r]'i = m) P ll'l yf) ' , f , || ^^ "born of 
the gods, possessor of the two lands" {z.e., the world). 'O earms 
eV aXTjdeia^ SeanroTT]'; BlaSjjfiaro^, ttjv AiyvTrrov Bo^d(ra<; 

K£Kr7]fievo<;, 6 d'yXao'iroii]a-a<; 'HXtov -woXcv = ^ 

^=^ o « ^.- ODD ^ ffi © " t*" ""'^^'y ''""J> '■^^^^"g "P°" 

Law, lord of diadems, protector of Egypt, making splendid 
Heliopolis with monuments." "HXio? Oeb<; fterya^ SecrTroT??? 

»"'-"» = ii 1 : ^11 H -- ^ : ^^y\ ^ ""- 

machis, the great god, lord of heaven,'' TfXrjpdxra'; rov vecnv rov 
(f>oiviKO? d'yadcov, w 01 6eoX ^aifj'; ')^p6vov iBoopijaavro = 

111 J if I 

^1 '' filling the temple of the bennu (phcenix) with his 

splendours, may the gods give to him life like the Sun for 
ever," etc. 

The Flaminian obelisk, from which the Egyptian passages Flaminian 
given above are taken, was brought from Heliopolis to Rome ° ^ '^ • 
by Augustus, and placed in the Circus Maximus,^ whence it 
was dug out ; it now stands in the Piazza del Popolo at 
Rome, where it was set up by Pope Sixtus V. in 1589.^ This 
obelisk was originally set up by Seti I., whose inscriptions 
occupy the middle column of the north, south, and west 
sides ; the other columns of hieroglyphics record the names 
and titks of Rameses II. who, in this case, appropriated the 
obelisk of his father, just as he did that of Thothmes III. 
The obelisk was found broken into three pieces, and in order 
to render it capable of sustaining itself, three palms' length 
was cut from the base. The texts have been published by 
Kircher, Oedipus Aegyptiacus, t. iii. p. 213 ; by Ungarelli, 
Interpretatio Obeliscorum Urbis, Rome, 1842, p. 65, sgg., 

1 Qui autem notarum textus obelisco incisus est veteri, quem videmus in Circo 
etc. Ammianus Marcellinus, XVII. 4, § 17. It seems to be referred to in 
Pliny, XXXVI. 29. 

2 For a comparative table of obelisks standing in 1840, see Bonomi, Notes on 
Obelisks, in Trans. RoyalSoc. Lit., Vol. I. Second Series, p. 158. 


plate 2; and by Bonomi, who drew them for a paper on this 
obelisk by the Rev. G. Tomlinson in Trans. Royal Soc. Lit., 
Vol. I. Second Series, p. 176 ff. For an account of this 
obelisk, see Zoega, De Origine et Usu Obeliscorum, Rome, 
1797, p. 92. 

The next Greek writer whose statements on Egyptian 

hieroglyphics are of value is Clement of Alexandria, who 

Cham- flourished about A.D. 191-220. According to Champollion, 

es^St'e of " u" ss"^ auteur grec, a d6m^l6 et signale, dans 

Clement's I'ecriture ^gyptienne sacr^e, les ^Idmens phonetiques, lesquels 

onhiero-^ en sont, pour ainsi dire, le principe vital ^ Clement 

glyphics. d'Alexandrie s'est, lui seul, occasionnellement attach^ a en 
donner une idee claire ; et ce philosophe chr^tien 6tait, bien 
plus que tout autre, en position d'en fitre bien instruit. 
Lorsque mes recherches et I'^tude constante des monuments 
egyptiens m'eurent conduit aux r&ultats precedemment 
exposes, je dus revenir sur ce passage de Saint Clement 
d'Alexandrie, que j'ai souvent cite, pour savoir si, a la faveur 
des notions que j'avais tirees d'un examen ' soutenu des 
inscriptions hi6roglyphiques, le texte de I'auteur grec ne 
deviendrait pas plus intelligible qu'il ne I'avait paru jusque- 
la. J'avoue que ses termes me sembl^rent alors si positifs et 
si clairs, et les idees qu'il renferme si exactement conformes a 
ma theorie de I'dcriture hidroglyphique, que je dus craindre 
aussi de me livrer a une illusion et a un entrainement dont 
tout me commandait de me d^fier."^ From the above it will 
be seen what a high value Champollion placed on the state- 
ments concerning the hieroglyphics by Clement, and they 
have, in consequence, formed the subject of various works by 
eminent authorities. In his Precis (p. 328), Champollion gives 
the extract from Clement with a Latin translation and remarks 
by Letronne.^ Dulaurier in his Examen dun passage 
des Stromates de Saint Clhnent dAlexandrie, Paris, 1833, 
again published the passage and gave many explanations of 
words in it, and commented learnedly upon it. (See also 

' Pricis du Systime hiiroglyphique des anciens Egyptiens, Paris, 1824, p. 321. 

' Pricis, p. 327. 

' See also CEuvres Choisies, t. I. pp. 237-254. 


Bunsen's Aegyptens Stelle, Bd. I., p. 240, and Thierbach, 
Erkldrung auf das Aegyptische Schriftwesen, Erfurt, 1846.) 
The passage is as follows : — 

avTLKa ol Trap Kif'^VTr'tioL^ iraih^vofx^voi irpunov liev iravTWV Jijv Clement of 

,. r I 'n ■ y ni >> -\ JL ^ Alexandria 

XiyvTmuiv r^pafifiaTuiv fie.oo6ov eicfjiavoavovai rrjv e7ricrTOA.oypa<plKr]V ^^^ hiero- 

KaXovfievrjv, Bevrepav Be t^v lepaTLKTjV, rj ■y^wvTai ol cepo'ypa/j,fiaTe7i, glyphics. 

varajTjV Se Kal tekevTaiav ttjv l€poy\vcf>lKriv, Jjs ry /J.ev ioTL Sta tSiv 

TrpuJTivv moL-^eiu)v KVpioXoyiKrj, rj Be aVfJbpdXlKrj. ttjs Se av/i/3o\iKij9 

7j fiev KVpmXoyetTai, Kara fJ,ip,7]aiV, rj S" wa-!rep TpoTriKO)'; (ypaxperai, 

rj Be avTiKpvi aWrj^opei-rai Kara Ttva? ai,VI,y/J-OV<;, rjXiov lyouv <ypa.TJrai 

^ovKojievoL kvkKov iroiouai^ (TeXtjvnv Be a'^^iia jvqvoeiBe'3 Kara to Kvpto- 

\o<^ovjievov 6(5o9, TpoTTiKw^ Be Kar oiKeioTrjra jieraf^ovTe^ Kat fieraTi- 

devTes, Ta 8" e^aWarTOVTes, to Be '7roXKay(,u>^ jierai7'xrjfiaTi^ovTei ■)(a.par- 

TOVffiv. T0V9 (youv Ttjbv ^aaiKdiov eTralvov? deoXo^ovjievoi^ fX.vOoL's 

TrapaBiBovre^ ava^jpax^ovat Bia Tiov avay\\J(^(M)V, Tot) Be KaTa TOf? 

aiVliy/jiOVi rpiTov e't'Bov^ Bel^jLia earui roBe. la, jiev r^ap -ruiv akXtdU 

aGTpwv Bia Tfjv rropeiav rrjv Xo^rjv o(peujv awfiaaLV aTretica^oVy tov Be 

rjXiov Ttv Tou Kavdapov^ eTrecBtj KVKXorepe^ en, t^? jSoeia^- ovOov cT'X^tjjia 

TiXaad/nevos avTiirpoaiviro'i KvXlvBet. (paal Be xal e^a/MrjVov jJLev viro 7I/?, 

GaTepov Be tow erovs rjxTjfia to ^wov touto virep <yij^ Btanaadat^ 

arrepfjiatveiv t6 ets irjv acpalpav Kal fyei/i'aj/, /cat OijXvv Kai^Oapov jiij 

fjlveaOau ^ 

"For example, those that are educated among the Transla- 
Egyptians first of all learn that system of Egyptian charac- J°t"act 
ters which is styled EPISTOLOGRAPHIC ; secondly, the HIERA- from 
TIC, which the sacred scribes employ ; lastly and finally the 
HIEROGLYPHIC. The hieroglyphic sometimes speaks plainly 
by means of the letters of the alphabet, and sometimes 
uses symbols, and when it uses symbols, it sometimes {a) 
speaks plainly by imitation, and sometimes (b) describes 
in a figurative way, and sometimes {c) simply says one 
thing for another in accordance with certain secret rules. 
Thus (a) if they desire to write sun or moon, they make 
a circle or a crescent in plain imitation of the form. 
And when {U) they describe figuratively (by transfer 
and transposition without violating the natural meaning 
of words), they completely alter some things and make 
manifold changes in the form of others. Thus, they hand 

' Clem. Alex., ed. Dindorf, t. III. Strom, lib. v. §§ 20, 21, pp. 17, iS. 



kinds of 

down the praises of their kings in myths about the gods 
which they write up in relief. Let this be an example of the 
third form (c) in accordance with the secret rules. While 
they represent the stars generally by snakes' bodies, because 
their course is crooked, they represent the sun by the body of 
a beetle, for the beetle moulds a ball from cattle dung and 
rolls it before him. And they say that this animal lives 
under ground for six months, and above ground for the other 
portion of the year, and that it deposits its seed in this globe 
and there engenders offspring, and that no female beetle 

From the above we see that Clement rightly stated that 
the Egyptians had three kinds of writing : — epistolographic, 
hieratic and hieroglyphic. The epistolographic is that kind 
which is now called "demotic," and which in the early days 
of hieroglyphic decipherment was called "enchorial." The 
hieratic is the kind commonly found on papyri. The hiero- 
glyphic kind is described as, I. cyriologic, that is to say, by 
means of figurative phonetic characters, e.g., ^ % | -^3^=- 
entsuh, "crocodile," and II. symbolic, that is to say, by actual 
representations of objects, e.g., <^ "goose," \^ "bee," and so 
on. The symbolic division is subdivided into three parts : 

I. cyriologic by imitation, e.g., jy , a vase with water flowing 
from it represented a " libation " ; II. tropical, e.g., ^^^^ , a 
crescent moon to represent " month," p| , a reed and paletl e 
to represent "writing" or "scribe"; and [II. enigmatic, e.g., 
^ , a beetle, to represent the " sun." '^ In modern Egyptian 
Grammars the matter is stated more simply, and we see that 
hieroglyphic signs are used in two ways : I. Ideographic, 

II. Phonetic. wX^k man, "water," is an instance of the first 
method, and ^ % 1 m-s-u-h, is an instance of the second. 
Ideographic signs are used as determinatives, and are either 
ideographic or generic. Thus after I) [1 ^ mdu, " cat," a cat 

■l^V^ is placed, and is an ideographic determinative ; but f=^ , 
heaven with a star in it, written after a <r:=> | kerh, is a 

Champollion, Precis, p. 278. 


generic determinative. Phonetic signs are either Alphabetic as 
^ «, J (5, ^^zz:^ k, or Syllabic, as i^^*^^ men, ^^ chen, etc. 

Porphyry the Philosopher, who died about A.D. 305, says 
of Pythagoras : ^ — 

TLai h) Ai'yvinai fjuev rot? lepevcn avvrjv Koi rrjv aocpiav Pytha- 
i^ifiade, Kol Tr}v A I'yvTnioiv (^wvrjv, 'ypafi/J.dT(oi> Be<; S?'^^ ^^'^ 
Bia<popd<;, i7ncrTo\o'ypa<piKwv re Kal lepoyX.vtfiiKSv Koi avfi- glyphics. 
^oXlkwv, t(Sv ftev KOOvoXoyovfievcov Kara jj^ifirjaiv, twv he 
aWTjiyopovfievcov /card Tiva<; alviyfiovi;. 

" And in Egypt he lived with the priests and learnt their 
wisdom and the speech of the Egyptians and throe sorts of 
writing, epistolographic and hieroglyphic and symbolic, 
which sometimes speak in the common way by imitation 
and sometimes describe one thing by another in accordance 
with certain secret rules." Here it seems that Porphyry 
copied Clement inaccurately. Thus he omits all mention of 
the Egyptian writing called " hieratic,'' and of the subdivision 
of hieroglyphic called "cyriologic," and of the second sub- 
division of the symbolic called " tropic." The following table, 
based on Letronne, will make the views about hieroglyphic Letronne's 
writing held by the Greeks plain :— summary. 

ISj]/j.OTtKd and StlfUoSn by Herodotus and Clement, 
i7XUpla by the inscriptions of Rosetta, 
eintTTO\oypa^iKa by Clement of Alexandria and 
.cgypLiiUL WIH.1115 I jy rp, . P " y- 

. , , J- ■ - I sacrea, i j. Hieratic, or tbe writine of the priests. 

into two divisions v j--jji.J , 

divided by^ r a. Cyriologic, by means of the first 

Clement into ( 3. Hieroglyphic I letters of the alphabet, 

composed of | 

I d. Symbolical 

' a. Cyriological by 

^. Tropical or 

c. Enigmatical. 

The next writer of importance on hieroglyphics is Uorapoiio 
Horapollo, who towards the close of the IVth century of our ^^hlct 
era composed a work called 'l€poy\v(f)iKd ; this book was 
translated into Greek by one Philip, of whom nothing is 
known. Wiedemann thinks that it was originally written in 
Coptic, which, in the middle ages, was usually called 

' Porphyry, Ve Vita Pythagorae^ ed. Didot, § ii, p. 89, at the foot. 



writers on 




" Egyptian," and not in ancient Egyptian.^ In this work are 
given the explanations of a number of ideographs which 
occur, for the most part, in Ptolemaic inscriptions; but, like 
the list of those given by Chaeremon, no phonetic values of 
the signs are given. Nevertheless the list is of considerable 
interest. The best edition of Horapollo is that of Conrad 
Leemans,^ but the text was edited in a handy form, with an 
English translation and notes by Samuel Sharpe and 
Dr. Birch, by J. Cory, in 1840. 

In more modern times the first writer at any length on 
hieroglyphics was Athanasius Kircher, the author of some 
ponderous works ^ in which he pretended to have found the 
key to the hieroglyphic inscriptions, and to translate them. 
Though a man of great learning, it must be plainly said 
that, judged by scholars of to-day, he would be considered 
an impostor. In his works on Coptic * there are, no doubt, 
many interesting facts, but mixed with them is such an 
amount of nonsense that Jablonski says touching one of his 
statements, " Verum hie ut in aliis plurimis fucum lectoribus 
fecit Jesuita ille, et fumum vendidit"; from the same writer 
also, Kircher's arrogant assertions called forth the remark, 
" Kircherus, in quo semper plus inest ostentationis, quam 
solidae eruditionis." ' It is impossible to understand what 
grounds Kircher had for his statements and how he arrived at 
his results ; as for his translations, they have nothing correct 
in them. Here is one taken at random from Oedipus 

' Aegyptische Geschkhte, p. 151. The sepulchre of Gordian was inscribed in 
Egyptian. "Gordiano sepulchrum milites apud Circeium castrum fecerunt in 
finibus Persidis, titulum hujus modi addentes et Graecis, et Latinis, et Persicis, 
et Judaicis, et Aegyptiacis literis, ut ab omnibus legeretur. " Erasmus, Hist. 
Rom. Scriptorum, Basle, 1533, P- 312, at the top. 

' HorapoUinis Niloi Hieroglyphica. edidit, diversorum codicum recenter 
coUatorum, priorumque editionum varias lectiones et versionem latinam sub- 
junxit, adnotationem, item hieroglyphicorum imagines et indices adjecit C. L. 
Amstelod, 1835. 

' Obeliscus Pamphilius, Hieroglyphicis involuta Symbolis, detecta 

e tenebris in lucem asseritur, Rome, 1650, fol. Oedipus Aegypiiacus, hoc est, 
universalis hieroglyphicae veterum doctrinae, temporum injuria obolitae instau- 
ratio. Rome, 1652-54. Tomi I-IV, fol. 

■* Prodromus Copt us, Rome, 1636. Lingua Aegyptiaca restituta. Rome, 

* Jablonski, Opuscula, t. \. ed. Water, 1804, pp. 157, 211. 


Aegyptiacus, t. Ill, p. 431, where he gives a translation of an 
inscription (A) printed on the plate between pp. 428 and 429. 
The hieroglyphics are written on a Ptah-Seker-Osiris figure 
and read : — 

t'et an Ausar chent amentet neter aa neb 

" Saith Osiris, at the head of the underworld, god great, lord of 

<Cr> —(0— OCi 

^ —p— , etc. 

I — (D— C^^M l 


Re-stau (i.e., the passages of the tomb)." 

and his translation runs: — "Vitale providi Numinis domi- 
nium, quadruplicem Mundani liquoris substantiam dominio 
confert Osiridis, cujus una cum Mendesio foecundi Numinis 
dominio, benefica virtute influente, omnia quae in Mundo 
sunt, vegetantur, animantur, conservantur." Other writers 
on hieroglyphics whose works Kircher consulted were John 
Peter Bolzanius Valerianus," and Mercati,^ but no good 
results followed their investigations. In the year 1770 Joseph 
de Guignes determined the existence of groups of characters De Guig- 
having determinatives,^ and four years later he published his zoSga. 
M^moire,* in which he tried to prove that the epistolographic 
and symbolic characters of the Egyptians were to be found 
in the Chinese characters, and that the Chinese nation was 
nothing but an Egyptian colony. In 1797 Zoega made a step 
in the right direction, and came to the conclusion" that the 
hieroglyphics were letters and that the cartouches contained 
royal names. A few years later Silvestre de Sacy published a Silvestre 

de Sacy 
and Aker- 

' Hieroglyphica, sea de sacris Aegyptiorum aliarumqite gentium Hlieris blad. 
Commentatorium libri VII,, duobus aliis ab eruditissimo viro annexis, etc., 
Basil., 1556. 

2 Degli Obelischi di Roma, Rome, 1589. 

' Essai sur le raoyen de parvenir i la lecture et i I'intelligence des Hiero- 
glyphes Egyptians. (In Mimoires de F Academic dcs Inscriptions, t. XXXIV. 
pp. 1-56.) 

" Ibid., t. XXXIX. p. I ff. 

' Ve Usu et Origine Oheliscorum, Rome, 1797, fol., p. 465. 


letter on the inscriptions on the Rosetta Stone,^ and the work 
of this learned man was soon after followed by that oi 
Akerblad who, in a letter to M. de Sacy'' discussed the 
demotic inscription on the recently discovered Rosetta Stone, 
and published an alphabet of the demotic characters, from 
which a large number were adopted in after times by Young 
and Champollion. It would seem that Akerblad never 
gained the credit which was due to him for his really clever 
work, and it will be seen from the facts quoted in the 
following pages, how largely the success of Young's labours 
on the Demotic inscription on the Rosetta Stone depended 
on those of Akerblad. But side by side with the letters of 
de Sacy and Akerblad and the learned works of Young and 
Champollion, there sprang into existence a mass of literature 
full of absurd statements and theories written by men having 
no qualifications for expressing opinions on hieroglyphic 
matters. Thus the Comte de Pahlin in his De I'^tude des 
Absurd Hieroglyphes^ hesitated not to say that the inscription on one 
theories of ^^ ^^ porticoes of the Temple at Denderah contained a 
tents of translation of the hundredth Psalm, composed to invite all 
texts^ '^° people to enter into the house of the Lord. The same author 
said that to produce the books of the Bible, which were 
written on papyri, it was only necessary to translate the 
Psalms of David into Chinese and to write them in the 
ancient characters of that language.'' Lenoir considered the 
Egyptian inscriptions to contain Hebrew compositions,'^ and 
Lacour thought that they contained Biblical phrases.^ Worse 
than all these wild theories was the belief in the works of the 
Kircher school of investigators, and in the accuracy of the 
Warbur- statements made by Warburton,' who, it must be confessed, 

ton's views 

on an 

Egyptian ^ Ldtre au Citoyen Chaptal, au sujei de t Inscription igyptienne du 

alphabet. Monument trouvi i Rosette, Paris, 1802. 

' Lettre sur ^inscription igyptienne de Rosette, Paris, 1802. 

' Published at Paris in 5 vols., 1812. 

* Lettres sur les Hilroglyphes, Weimar, 1802. 

* In Nouvelle explication des Hilroglyphes, Paris, 1 809-10, 4 vols.; and 
Nouveaux Essais sur les Hiiroglyphes, Paris, 1826, 4 vols. 

" See his Essai sur les Hieroglyphes igyptiens, Bordeaux, 1821. 
' In his The Divine Legation of Moses demonstrated, to which is adjoint an 
Essay on Egyptian Hieroglyphics, London, 173^) 2 vols. 


seems to have recognized the existence of alphabetic 
characters, but who in no way deserves the praise of Bailey, 
the Cambridge prize essayist, " Vir singular! quodam ingenii 
acumine praeditus, Warburtonus ; qui primus certe recenti- 
orum ad rectam harum rerum cognitionem patefecit viam." ^ 

Here naturally comes an account of the labours of Young Young and 
and ChampoUion, two men who stand out pre-eminently as poI^on. 
the true discoverers of the right method of decipherment of 
Egyptian hieroglyphics. As much has been written on the 
works of these savants, and as some have tried to show that 
the whole merit of the discovery belongs to Young, and others 
that it belongs to ChampoUion, it will not be out of place 
here to make a plain statement of facts, drawn from the best 
sources, and to give the opinions of the most eminent Egyp- 
tologists on this point ; a few details concerning the lives of 
these remarkable men must, however, be first given. 

Dr. Thomas Young was born at Milverton, in Somerset- 
shire, on the 13th of June, 1773. His parents were both 
members of the Society of Friends. He lived during the first 
seven years of his life with his maternal grandfather, Mr. 
Robert Davis, at Minehead, in Somersetshire. At the age of Early life 
two he could read fluently, and before he was four he had g" voung!^ 
read the Bible through twice. At the age of six, he learnt by 
heart in six weeks Goldsmith's Deserted Village. When not 
quite seven years of age he went to a school, kept by a man 
called King, at Stapleton near Bristol, where he stayed for a 
year and a half. In March 1782, when nearly nine years of 
age, he went to the school of Mr. T. Thompson, at Compton, 
in Dorsetshire, where he remained four years. Here he read 
Phaedrus's Fables, Cornelius Nepos, Virgil, Horace expur- 
gated by Knox, the whole of Beza's Greek and Latin Testa- 
ment, the First Seven Books of the Iliad, Martin's Natural 
Philosophy, etc., etc. Before leaving this school he had got 
through six chapters of the Hebrew Bible. About this time he 
learnt to use the lathe, and he made a telescope and a micro- 
scope, and the Italian, Persian, Syriac, and Chaldee languages Young's 
all occupied his attention. From 1787 to 1792 he was private gtudks! 
tutor to Hudson Gurney, at Youngsbury, in Hertfordshire, 

' Hieroglyphicorum Origo ei natura, Cambridge, l8l6, p. 9. 


where he seems to have devoted himself to the study of 

English, French, Italian, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Chaldee, 

Syriac, Samaritan, Arabic, Persian, Turkish, and Ethiopia, as 

well as to that of natural Philosophy, Botany, and Entomo- 

Young's logy.' In 1792 Young began to study Medicine and Anatomy 

studies '" London, and in 1793 he entered St. Bartholomew's Hospital 

as a pupil. In 1803 he read a paper before the Royal 

Society, and was elected a Fellow the following year (balloted 

for and elected, June ig). Shortly after he attended medical 

lectures in Edinburgh and Gottingen, and he subsequently 

went to Cambridge, where he took the degree of Bachelor of 

Medicine (1803), and afterwards that of Doctor of Physic 

(1808). In 1798 Young received a splendid bequest from his 

uncle Dr. Brocklesby, consisting of his house in Norfolk 

Street, Park Lane, his library, his prints, his pictures, and 

about ;£^ 1 0,000 in money ; hence he was free to form his own 

Discovers scheme of life. In May, 1801, he discovered the undulatory 

theory 0/^ theory of light, and his paper on this subject was read before 

light. the Royal Society in the November following ; in the same 

year he accepted the office of Professor of Natural Philosophy 

at the Royal Institution. In 1802 he was appointed Foreign 

Secretary of the Royal Society, and on the 14th of June, 

1&04, he married Eliza, the daughter of J. P. Maxwell, Esq., 

of Cavendish Square, and of Trippendence, near Farnborough, 

Kent. The attention of Young was called to Egyptian 

inscriptions by Sir W. Rouse Boughton, who had found in a 

mummy case at Thebes a papyrus written in cursive 

Egyptian characters, and to a notice of this which Young 

prepared for his friend, he appended a translation of the 

demotic text of the Rosetta Stone. As the details of his 

studies on the Rosetta Stone belong to the history of the 

decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphics, they are given 

further on (p. 141 ff.), but the reader will understand Young's 

position better by reading Dean Peacock's chapter on " hiero- 

Young's glyphical researches'' printed in his life of Young, pp. 258-344, 

hiero-°^ and Mr. Leitch's notes in the third volume of the collected 

glyphs. Works of Dr. Young. In 18 16 Young was appointed 

' For the list of books read by him at this time, see the Life of Thomas, Young, 
by G. Peacock, London, 1855, pp. 14-17. 


Secretary to a Commission for ascertaining the length of 
the seconds pendulum, for comparing French and English 
standards, etc., and in 181 8 he was appointed Secretary of 
the Board of Longitude and Superintendent of the Nautical 
Almanac. In 1825 he became Medical Referee and Inspector 
of Calculations to the Palladium Insurance Company. In 
1826 he was elected one of the eight foreign Associates of the 
Academy of Sciences at Paris. In February, 1829, he began 
to suffer from repeated attacks of asthma, and by the April 
following he was in a state of great weakness ; he died on the Vonng's 
lOth of May, not having completed his fifty-sixth year. An 
excellent steel engraving of Young, by R. Ward, from a 
picture by Sir Thomas Lawrence, P.R.A., forms the frontis- 
piece to his life by Dean Peacock, which, according to J. J. 
Champollion-Figeac, "exprime fidelement la douceur, la grace, 
les traits d'une figure toute rayonnante d'intelligence." ^ 

Jean Frangois Champollion, surnamed le Jeune, the 
immortal discoverer of a correct system of decipherment of 
Egyptian hieroglyphics, was born at Figeac on December 24, 
1790. His family came originally from Champoleon in the Cham-^ 
High Alps, where a branch of it still holds property. As a physil;"? 
boy he made rapid progress in classical studies, and he devoted ^"^ . 
himself at the same time to botany and mineralogy ; at a very studies, 
early date however he showed a natural taste for oriental 
languages, and like Young was, at the age of thirteen, master 
of a fair knowledge of Hebrew, Syriac and Chaldee.^ In 
1805 his brother J. J. Champollion-Figeac brought him to 
Paris, and caused him to be admitted to the Cours de I'Ecole 
des Langues Orientales, and introduced him to Silvestre de 
Sacy. Soon after his arrival in Paris Champollion turned his 
attention to the study of the hieroglyphic inscription on the 
Rosetta Stone, but his powerful friend de Sacy advised the 
elder brother to warn the younger off a study which ne pouvait 
donner aucun resultat. In 1812 he was nominated Professor 
of Ancient History to the faculty of Letters at Grenoble, 

■ Letire au Directeur de la Revue Britannique au sujet des Recherches du 
Docteur Young, Paris, l857> P- H- 

^ On the subject of Champolliou's studies, at Grenoble, see Chroniques 
Dauphinoises, par A. Champollion-Figeac, t. III. pp. 153, 156, 157-238. 
13. M. K 


where he still carried on his oriental studies. When he 

arrived in Paris he found that the old Egyptologists maintained 

Cham- that hieroglyphics were a symbolic language, and seeking 

hiero°°^ to verify this theory, he wasted a year. He made up his 

glyphic mind, however, to work out this question without having 

studies.'' '"^ regard to the theories of others, and he sketched out a plan for 

a large work on Egypt in several volumes. The first part of 

this appeared at Grenoble in 1811, entitled Introduction; it 

was never sold, for only about thirty copies were printed, but it 

appeared, without the analytical table of Coptic geographical 

names, under the title L'Egypte sous les Pharaons, 8vo., 2 vols., 

1 8 14. About this time Young, in England, was studying the 

texts on the Rosetta Stone, and had actually begun to make 

a translation of the demotic section, making use of the results 

obtained by de Sacy and Akerblad, to the latter of whom 

great credit is due for his acuteness and insight. Whatever 

may be said as to Champollion's ignorance of Young's results, 

it is quite certain that he must have known of those of 

Akerblad, and we know (see p. 135) that a printed copy of 

Young's paper on the Rosetta Stone had been put into 

Cham- Champollion's hands by de Sacy. In a very short time 

acquainted ChampoUion discovered where his predecessors had broken 

t^^"^ , down, and having already written Z>e Cecriture Hieratique des 

labours. Anciens Egyptians, Grenoble, 1821, on September 17, in the 

following year, he read his Memoire on the hieroglyphics and 

exhibited his hieroglyphic Alphabet, with its Greek and 

Demotic equivalents, before the Acaddmie des Inscriptions. 

Champollion's paper created a great sensation, and Louis 

XVIII. wished a statement concerning it laid before him, and 

M. le Due de Doudeauville determined that an Egyptian 

Museum should be formed in the Palace of the Louvre. In 

the same year ChampolHon published his Lettre d M. Dacier, 

relative a V Alphabet des Hi&oglyphes phonMques, in which he 

showed beyond a doubt that his system was the correct one. 

In a series of M^moires read at the Institut in April, May 

and June, 1823, he explained his system more fully, and these 

he afterwai-ds published together entitled Precis du Systkme 

Hi^roglyphique des Anciens Egyptians, Paris, 2 vols., 1824. A 

second edition, revised and corrected, appeared in 1828. In 


June, 1824, Champollion arrived in Turin, where he devoted Cham-^ 
himself to the study of papyri. Early in 1825 he arrived in travels, 
Rome, and thence he went to Naples, where all the museums 
were opened for him. In 1826 he returned to Paris. In July, "^'^''^ 
1828, he set out on his long planned voyage to Egypt, and 
returned in March, 1830, bringing with him a fine collection 
of antiquities, and a number of copies of inscriptions which 
filled about two thousand pages. As soon as he returned 
to France he set to work to publish the rich results of his 
travels, but while occupied with this undertaking, death over- 
took him on the 4th of March, 1832. Louis-Philippe ordered 
that busts of him, executed at the expense of the civil list, 
should be placed in the galleries of the palace at Versailles, 
and in the rooms of the Egyptian Museum of the Louvre ; he 
also ordered that marble for another bust should be given to 
Champollion-Figeac, and that the carving thereof should be 
entrusted to the famous sculptor Etex. An etched portrait 
of Champollion le Jeune will be found in Les Deux Cham- 
pollion, leur Vie et leurs CEuvres, par Aim6 Champollion- 
Figeac : Grenoble, 1887, p. 52. 

In addition to the works of Champollion mentioned above, 
the following are the most important : — 

Rapport a son Excellence M. le Due de Doudeaiiville, sur ^^f."^', 

^^ _ ' polhon s 

la Collection Egyptienne a Livotirne, Paris, 1826. works. 

Lettres a M. le Due de Blacas d'Aulps relatives au Musie 

royal Egyptien de Turin {avec Notices chronologiques 

par Champollion-Figeac^ : Paris, 1824-26. 

Notice sur les papyrus hi^ratiques et les peintures du cercueil 
de P^tamenoph (Extr. de Voyage d Meroe par Cailliaud de 
Nantes), Paris, 1827. 

Notice descriptive des Monuments Egyptiens du Musife 
Charles X, Paris, 1827. 

Catalogue de la Collection Egyptienne du Louvre, Paris, 

Catalogue des Papyrus Egyptiens du Mus^e du Vatican, 
Rome, 1826. 

K 2 



on the 
Stone in 

Young and 
de Sacy. 

Monuments de VEgypte et de la Nubie, iv vols., fol., 440 
planches. Public par ordre du Gouvernement, pour faire 
suite a I'ouvrage de TExpedition d'Egypte, Paris, 1 829-1 847. 

Lettres ecrites penda7tt son voyage en Egypie, en 1828, 
1829, Paris, 1829; 2me edition, Paris, 1833; collection com- 
plete. A German translation by E. F. von Gutschmid vi^as 
published at Quedlinburg, in 1835. 

Grainmaire Egyptienne, aux Principes genh-aux de Vecri- 
ture sacr^e Egyptienne appliquh a la representation de la langue 

par lee ; Avec des prolegomhnes et un portrait de VMiteur, 

M. Champollion-Figeac, Paris, 1 836-1 841. 

Dictionnaire Egyptien, en ecriture hi^roglyphique, public 
d'apres les manuscrits autographes par Champollion- 
Figeac, Paris, 1 84 1. 

The results of Dr. Young's studies of the Rosetta Stone 
wrere first communicated to the Royal Society of Antiquaries 
in a letter from Sir W. E. Rouse Boughton, Bart. ; the letter 
was read on the 19th of May, 18 14, and was published the fol- 
lowing year in Archceologia,N o\. XVIII. pp. 59-72.^ The letter 
was accompanied by a translation of the demotic text on the 
Rosetta Stone, which was subsequently reprinted anonymously 
in the Museum Criticuin of Cambridge, Pt. VI., 181 5, together 
with the correspondence which took place between Dr. Young 
and MM. Silvestre de Sacy and Akerblad. In 1802 M. 
Akerblad, the Swedish President at Rome, published his 
Lettre sur V inscription Egyptienne de Rosette, adresse'e au citoyen 
Silvestre de Sacy, in which he gave the results of his study of 
the demotic text of the Rosetta Stone ; M. Silvestre de Sacy 
also had occupied himself in the same way (see his Lettre au 
citoyen Chaptal, au sujet de V inscription Egyptienne du monu- 
ment trouve d Rosette : Paris, 1 802), but neither scholar had 
made any progress in the decipherment of the hieroglyphic 
text In August, 18 14, Dr. Young wrote to Silvestre de Sacy, 
asking him what Mr. Akerblad had been doing, and saying, 
" I doubt whether the alphabet which Mr. Akerblad has 
given us can be of much further utility than in enabling 
us to decipher the proper names ; and sometimes I have 

' Letter to the Rev. S. Weston respecting some Egyptian Antiquities. With 
4 copper plates. London, 1814. 


even suspected that the letters which he has identified 
resemble the syllabic sort of characters by which the 
Chinese express the sounds of foreign languages, and that 
in their usual acceptation they had different significations : 
but of this conjecture I cannot at present speak with any 

great confidence." ^ To this M. de Sacy replied : . . . . 

" Je ne vous dissimule pas, Monsieur, que malgr6 I'espece De Sacy's 
d'approbation que j'ai donnde au systfeme de M. Akerblad, ^^"^y^^j"^ 
dans la reponse que je lui ai adress6e, il m'est toujours reste works, 
des doutes tr^s forts sur la validity de I'alphabet qu'il s'est 

fait Je dois vous aj outer que M. Akerblad n'est pas le 

seul qui se flatte d'avoir lu le. texte Egyptien de inscription 
de Rosette. M. Champollion, qui vient de publier deux 
volumes sur I'ancienne g^ographie de I'Egypte, ^ et qui s'est 
beaucoup occup6 de la langue Copte, pretend avoir aussi lu 
cette inscription. Je mets assur^ment plus de confiance dans 
les lumieres et la critique de M. Akerblad que dans celles de De Sacy 
M. Champollion, mais tant qu'ils n'auront public quelque q^^™!'^ 
resultat de leur travail, il est juste de suspendre son juge- pollion's 
ment." (Leitch, Vol. III. p. 17.) Writing to M. de Sacy in '""'''" 
October of the same year. Young says : " I had read Mr. 
Akerblad's essay but hastily in the course of the last winter, 
and I was not disposed to place much confidence in the little 
that I recollected of it ; so that I was able to enter anew upon 
the investigation, without being materially influenced by what 
he had published ; and though I do not profess to lay claim 
to perfect originality, or to deny the importance of Mr. 
Akerblad's labours, I think myself authorised to consider my 
own translation as completely independent of his ingenious 
researches : a circumstance which adds much to the proba- 
bility of our conjectures where they happen to agree. It 
is only since I received your obliging letter, that I have Young on 
again read Mr. Akerblad's work ; and I have found that it ^tou^i?'''^ 
agrees almost in every instance with the results of my own 

' For these letters I am indebted to the third volume of the Miscellaneous 
Works of the late Thomas Young, M.D., F.R.S. , &c., ed. John Leitch, London, 

^ L'Egyfie sous les Pharaons, ou recherches sur la Geographie, la Religion, la 
Langue, les Ecritures, et tHistoire de I'Egypte, Paris, 1814, 


investigation respecting the sense attributed to the words which 
the author has examined. This conformity must be allowed 
to be more satisfactory than if I had followed, with perfect 
confidence, the path which Akerblad has traced : I must 
however, confess that it relates only to a few of the first steps 
of the investigation ; and that the greatest and the most 
difficult part of the translation still remains unsupported by 
the authority of any external evidence of this kind." (Leitch, 
p. 1 8.) Nearly three weeks after writing the above, Young 
sent another letter to M. de Sacy, together with a Coptic and 
demotic alphabet derived partly from Akerblad, and partly 
from his own researches, and a list of eighty-six demotic 
words with the words corresponding to them in the Greek 
version. Of these words, he says : " Three were observed by 
de Sacy, sixteen by Akerblad, and the remainder by himself." 
In January, 1815, Akerblad addressed a long letter to Young, 
together with which he sent a translation of some lines of the 
Rosetta Stone inscription, and some notes upon it. Regarding 
his own work he says : " During the ten years which have 
Akerblad's elapsed since my departure from Paris, I have devoted but a 
about^ ^^^ moments, and those at long intervals, to the monument 

his own of Rosetta For, in fact, I have always felt that the 

results of my researches on this monument are deficient in 
that sort of evidence which carries with it full conviction, and 
you, Sir, as well- as M. de Sacy, appear to be of my opinion 
in this respect I must however give you notice before- 
hand, that in most cases you will only receive a statement of 
my doubts and uncertainties, together with a few more plau- 
sible conjectures ; and I shall be fully satisfied if these last 

shall appear to deserve your attention and approbation 

If again the inscriptions were engraved in a clear and distinct 
character like the Greek and Latin inscriptions of a certain 
antiquity, it would be easy, by the assistance of the proper 
names of several Greek words which occur in it, some of 
which I have discovered since the publication of niy letter to 
M. de Sacy, and of many Egyptian words, the sense of which 
is determined ; it would be easy, I say, to form a perfectly 
correct alphabet of these letters ; but here another difficulty 
occurs ; the alphabetical characters which, without doubt, are 


of very high antiquity in Egypt, must have been in common 
use for many centuries before the date of the decree ; in tlie 
course of this time, these letters, as has happened in all other 
countries, have acquired a very irregular and fanciful form, so 
as to constitute a kind of running hand." (Leitch, p. 33.) In 
August, 18 1 5, Young replied to Akerblad's letter, and dis- 
cussed the passages where his own translation differed from 
that of Akerblad. 

In July, 1815, de Sacy sent a letter to Young, which De Sacy 
contains the following remarkable passages : " Monsieur, Yowas, 
outre la traduction Latine de I'inscription Egyptienne que vous against 
mavez conimuniquee, fai requ posterieurement une autre tra- poUion. 
duction Afiglaise, imprini^e, que je n'ai pas en ce moment sous 
les yeux, I'ayant pretee a. M. Champollion sur la demande que 
son frkre nien a faite d'apres une lettre qu'il in' a dit avoir reque 

de vous Je pense, Monsieur, que vous ites plus avanc^ 

aujourd'hui et que vous Uses une grande partie, du moins, du 
texte Egyptien. Si fai un conseil a vous donner, c'est de ne pas 
trop communiquer vos d^couvertes d M. Champollion. II se 
pourrait faire qu'il pre'tendtt ensuite a la priorite. II cherche 
en plusieurs endroits de son ouvrage d faire croire qu'il a 
d^couvert beaucoup des mots de I'inscription Egyptienne de 
Rosette. J'ai bien peur que ce ne soit Id que du ckarlatanisrne ; 

f afoute m.eme que f ai de fortes raisons de le penser Au 

surplus, fe ne saurais me persuader que si M. Akerblad, 
Et. Quatreniere, ou Champollion av ait fait des progres reels dans 
la lecture du texte Egyptien, ils ne se fussent pas plus empresse's 
de faire part au public de leur de'couverte. Ce serait une 
modestie bien rare, et dont aucun d'eux ne me paratt capable" 
(Leitch, p. 51.) 

In a letter to de Sacy, dated 3rd August, 18 15, Young says : 
" You may, perhaps, think me too sanguine in my expecta- 
tions of obtaining a knowledge of the hieroglyphical language 
in general from the inscription of Rosetta only ; and I will 
confess to you that the difficulties are greater than a super- 
ficial view of the subject would induce us to suppose. The Young 
number of the radical characters is indeed limited, like °? ^^^y^' 

' glyphics. 

that of the keys of the Chinese ; but it appears that these 
characters are by no means universally independent of each 


Other, a combination of two or three of theni being often em- 
ployed to form a single word, and perhaps even to represent 
a simple idea ; and, indeed, this must necessarily happen 
where we have only about a thousand characters for the 
expression of a whole language. For the same reason it is 
impossible that all the characters can be pictures of the 
things which they represent : some, however, of the symbols 
on the stone of Rosetta have a manifest relation to the objects 
denoted by them. For instance, a Priest, a Shrine, a Statue, 
an Asp, a Mouth, and the Numerals, and a King is denoted 
by a sort of plant with an insect, which is said to have been a 
bee ; while a much greater number of the characters have no 
perceptible connexion with the ideas attached to them ; 
although it is probable that a resemblance, either real or 
metaphorical, may have existed or have been imagined when 
they were first employed ; thus a Libation was originally de- 
noted by a hand holding a jar, with two streams of a liquid 
issuing from it, but in this inscription the representation has 
degenerated into a bird's foot. With respect to the epistolo- 
graphic or enchorial character, it does not seem quite certain 
that it could be explained even if the hieroglyphics were 
perfectly understood, for many of the characters neither 
resemble the corresponding hieroglyphics, nor are capable of 
being satisfactorily resolved into an alphabet of any kind : in 
short, the two characters might be supposed to belong to 
different languages ; for they do not seem to agree even in their 
manner of forming compound from simple terms." (Leitch, 
PP- 55) 56.) Writing to de Sacy in the following year (5th May, 
1816) touching the question of the alphabetic nature of the 
inscription on the Rosetta Stone, he says: "Si vous lisez la lettre 
de M. Akerblad, vous conviendrez, je crois, qu'au moins il n'a 
pas ^t^ plus heureux que moi dans ses le9ons Coptes de I'inscrip- 
tion. Mais le vrai est que la chose est impossible dans I'^tendue 
que vous paraissez encore vouloir lui donner, car assur^ment 
I'inscription enchoriale n'est alphabMque que dans un sens tr^s 

born6 Je me suis born6 dernierement k I'^tude des 

hieroglyphes, ou plutdt a la collection d'inscriptions hiero- 

glyphiques Les caracteres que j'ai decouverts jettent 

d6j^ quelques lumieres sur les antiquites de I'Egypte. J'ai 


reconnu, par exemple, le nom de Ptolemee dans diverses Voung de- 
inscriptions a Philae, a Esne et a Ombos, ce qui fixe a peu "am^of*^^ 
pres la date des Edifices oti ce nom se trouve, et c'est meme Ptolemy, 
quelque chose que de pouvoir distinguer dans une inscription 
quelconque les caracteres qui expriment les noms des per- 
sonnages auxquels elle a rapport." (Leitch, p. 60.) 

On loth November, 18 14, Champollion sent to the 
President of the Royal Society a copy of his L'Egypte sous 
les Pharaons, and in the letter which accompanied it said, 
" La base de mon travail est la lecture de rinscription en 
caracteres Egyptiens, qui est I'un des plus beaux ornemens 
du riche Musee Britannique ; je veux parler du monument 
trouve a K.osette. Les efforts que j'ai faits pour y reussir 
n'ont point 6te, s'il m'est permis de le dire, sans quelques 
succes ; et les resultats que je crois avoir obtenus apr^s une Young and 
6tude constante et suivie, m'en font esp6rer de plus grands iion™or°- ' 
encore." (Leitch, p. 6^?) He asked also that a collation of respond. 
the Rosetta Stone with the copy of it which he possessed 
might be made, and suggested that a cast of it ^ould be 
presented to each of the principal libraries, and to the most 
celebrated Academies of Europe. As Foreign Secretary of 
the Royal Society, Young replied saying that the needful 
collation should be made, and adding, "Je ne sais si par 
hasard M. de Sacy, avec qui vous ^tes sans doute en corres- 
pondance, vous aura parle d'un exemplaire que je lui ai 
adresse de ma traduction conjecturale avec I'explication 
des derni^res lignes des caracteres hidroglyphiques. Je lui 
avals d6ja envoy^ la traduction de I'inscription Egyptienne au 
commencement du mois d'Octobre pass^ ; I'interpr^tation 
des hieroglyphiques ne m'est r^ussie qua la fin du mSme 
mois." (Leitch, p. 64.) In reply to this Champollion wrote, 
" M. Silvestre de Sacy, mon ancien professeur, ne m'a point 
donnd connaissance de votre m^moire sur la partie Egyptienne 
et le texte hi^roglyphique de I'inscription de Rosette : c'est 
vous dire, Monsieur, avec quel empressement je recevrai Cham- 
I'exemplaire que vous avez la bont^ de m'offrir." We have acquainted 
seen above from the extract from a letter of de Sacy that a ^i'li 
copy of Young's work was lent to Champollion between work ia 
May 9 and July 20, 1815. '^'S- 


On August 2, 18 16, Young addressed a letter^ to the 
Archduke John of Austria, in which he reported further 
progress in his hieroglyphic studies, thus : " I have already 
ascertained, as I have mentioned in one of my letters to 
M. de Sacy, that the enchorial inscription of Rosetta con- 
tained a number of individual characters resembling the 
corresponding hieroglyphics, and I was not disposed to place 
any great reliance on the alphabetical interpretation of any 
considerable part of the inscription. I have now fully 
demonstrated the hieroglyphical origin of the running hand,^ 
in which the manuscripts on papyrus, found with the 

mummies " (Leitch, p. 74.) The principal contents 

of Young's letters, however, incorporated with other matter, 
were made into a more extensive article, which was con- 
tributed to the Supplement of the Encydopcsdia Britannica, 
Young's Supplement, Vol. IV. He made drawings of the plates, 
published, which were engraved by Mr. Turrell, and having procured 
separate copies, he sent them to some of his friends in the 
summer of 18 18, with a cover on which was printed the 
title, " Hieroglyphical Vocabulary." These plates, however, 
were precisely the same that were afterwards contained in the 
fourth volume of the Supplement, as belonging to the article 
Egypt. The characters explained in this vocabulary 
amounted to about two hundred ; the number which had 
been immediately obtained from the stone of Rosetta 
having been somewhat more than doubled by means of a 

careful examination of other monuments The higher 

numerals were readily obtained by a comparison of some 
inscriptions in which they stood combined with units and 
with tens.^ Young's article in the Encyclopcedia Britannica 
obtained great celebrity in Europe ; and was reprinted by 

' This letter was printed in 18 16, and circulated in London, Paris, and 
elsewhere ; ii did not appear in the Museum Criticum until 1821. 

^ " Que ce second systeme (I'Hieratique) n'est qu'une simple modification du 
systeme Hieroglyphique, et n'en differe uniquement que par la forme des signes." 
ChampoUion, De rEcriture Hieralique des Anciens Egyptiens: Grenoble, 1821. 
We should have expected some reference by ChampoUion to Young's discovery 
quoted above. 

■'' Young. An Account of some recent discoveries in Hieroglyphical Literature, 
p. 17. 


Leitch in the third volume of the Works of Dr. Young, 
pp. 86-197 ; 't contains eight sections : — 

I. Introductory view of the latest publications re- 
lating to Egypt. 
II. Pantheon. 
III. Historiography. 
IV. Calendar. 

V. Customs and Ceremonies. 
VI. Analysis of the Triple Inscription. 
VII. Rudiments of a Hieroglyphical Vocabulary. 
VIII. Various Monuments of the Egyptians. 

This article is of very great importance in the history of Value of 
the decipherment of the hieroglyphics, and had Young taken „?icle in 
the trouble of having it printed as a separate publication, Encycio- 
there would have been less doubt in the minds of scholars as Sritan- 
to the good work which he did, and results borrowed from it "^"^• 
by Champollion would have been more easily identified.^ 

It has already been said (p. 130) that Champollion pub- 
lished at Paris in 18 14 the two first parts of a work entitled 
L'Egypte sous les Pkaraons, ou recherches sur la Geographie, la Cham- 
Religion, la Langue, les Ecritures et VHistoire de VEgypte on the 
avant l' Invasion de Cambyse ; these parts treated simply of g^°g''^P^y 
the geography of Egypt. In a note to the Preface he tells us 
that the general plan of the work, together with the introduc- 
tion of the geographical section and the general map of 
Egypt under the Pharaohs, was laid before the Soci^t/ des 
Sciences et des Arts de Grenoble, ist September, 1807, and 
that the printing began on the 1st September, 1810. On 
p. 22 of his Introduction, referring to the Rosetta Stone, he 
says : " Ce monument interessant est un decret des pretres de 
I'Egypte, qui decerne de grands honneurs au jeune roi 

^ Ich halte mich daher verpflichtet, alles auf unsern Cegenstand beziigliche 
dem Leser nachtraglich genau mitzutheilen und zwar mit einer urn so grbssern 
Gewissenhaftigkeit, je hoher durch dessen Kenntniss die Achlung gegen den 
trefflichen Forscher steigen wird, der besonders in der Erklarung der symbolischen 
Hieroglyphen so Manches zuerst aussprach, was man ohne den Artikel der 
Encyclopaedie gelesen zu haben, meistens als das Eigenthum Champollion's zu 
betrachten gewobnt ist. Schwartze, Das AlU Aegypten, p. 446. 







studies in 





values to 




Ptolemee Epiphane. Ce decret est ecrit en hieroglyphes, en 
langue et en ecriture alphab^tique Egyptiennes, et en Grec." 
Now by the words "en langue et en ecriture alphab^tique 
Egyptiennes" we are clearly to understand that part of the 
Rosetta inscription which is written in demotic. Having 
referred to the studies of de Sacy and Akerblad, and spoken 
of the words in demotic which the latter scholar had rightly 
compared with their equivalents in Coptic, " que nous y avons 
lus ensuite," Champollion adds in a foot-note, " Ce n'est pas 
ici le lieu de rendre compte du rdsultat de I'etude suivie que 
nous avons faite du texte Egyptien de I'lnscription de 
Rosette, et de I'alphabet que nous avons adoptd Nous nous 
occuperons de cet important sujet dans la suite de cet 
ouvrage. En attendant, nous prions le lecteur de regarder 
comme exacts les r^sultats que nous lui presentons ici." 
From this it is clear that as early as 18 10 Champollion 
claimed to have made progress in the decipherment of the 
demotic text (texte Egyptien) of the Rosetta Stone, and it is 
now time to ask how much he was indebted to Akerblad's 
letter for ideas and results. A comparison of Plate II. at the 
end of Akerblad's Lettre sur V Inscription Egypiienne de 
Rosette, with Plate IV. in ChampoUion's Lettre a M. Dacier 
relative a V Alphabet dcs Hieroglyphes Pkone'tigues, will show 
that sixteen of the characters of the alphabet printed by 
Akerblad in 1802 were retained by ChampolHon in 1822 ; 
also, if Akerblad's alphabet be compared with the " Supposed 
Enchorial Alphabet" printed at the foot of Plate IV. ac- 
companying Young's article Egypt, printed in 18 18 and 
published in 1819, it will be found that fourteen of the 
characters are identical in both alphabets. Thus it seems 
that a greater degree of credit is due to Akerblad than 
has usually been awarded to him either by Young ^ 

' Mr. Akerblad was far from having completed his examination of the whole 
enchorial inscription, apparently from the want of some collateral encouragement 
or co-operation to induce him to continue so laborious an inquiry ; and he had 
made little or no effort to understand the first inscription of the pillar which is 
professedly engraved in the sacred character, except the detached observation 
respecting the numerals at the end ; he was even disposed to acquiesce in the 
correctness of Mr. Palin's interpretation, which proceeds on the supposition that 
parts of the first lines of the hieroglyphics are still remaining on the stone. 
Young, An Account, p. 10. 


or Champollion/ or, indeed, by writers on Egyptology 

Having seen what foundations Young and Champollion 
had for their own works on the demotic text to rest on, we 
may return to the consideration of Young's hieroglyphical 
studies. On the four plates which appeared with his article 
Egypt, he correctly identified the names of a few of the gods, 
Ra, Nut, Thoth, Osiris, Isis, and Nephthys, and he made out 
the meanings of several Egyptian ideographs. His identifica- 
tions of kings' names were, however, most unfortunate. Thus 
of Amenhetep, he made Tithons ; of Thi (a queen), Eoa ; of 
Usertsen, Heron ; of Psammetichus, Sesostris ; of Nectanebus, 
Proteus ; of Seti, Psammis ; of Rameses H., Amasis ; of Au- 
tocrator, Arsinoe, etc., etc. He correctly identified the names 
of Ptolemy and Berenice, although in each case he attributed Young's 
wrong values to some of the hieroglyphic characters which glyptic 
formed these names. The hieroglyphic alphabet given by alphabet 
Young was as follows : — 

206.' ^ flip true value ba. 

207. <=-. e „ R. 

208. ■^ erte „ t'. 

209- UU I „ I- 

KG, KH „ SE. 

JUL, JUl.^. 


' " Feu Akerblad essaya d'etendre ses lectures hors des noms propres grecs, 
et il echoua complfetement. " Champollion, Precis, I ed., p. 14. 

" See Schwartze, Das Alte Aegypten, pp. 160, 162. 

' No. 205, which is omitted here, is really two demotic characters the values 
of which are BA and R : to these Young gave the value bere, and so far he was 
right, but he failed to see that what he considered to be one sign was, in reality, 
two. In Nos. 213 and 214 his consonants were right but his vowels were wrong. 
We are thus able to see that out of a total of fourteen signs, he assigned correct 
values to six, partly correct values to three, and wholly wrong values to five. 
ChampoUion-Figeac in his Lettre au Directeur de la Revue Britannique att siijet 
des Recherches du Docteur Young sur les Hieroglyphes Egyptiens, p. 5, gives 
Young no credit whatever for the three partly correct values assigned to hiero- 
glyphic characters by him. 






212, ^VNAA^VS 

213- _®s> 

-4. p 

2IS- a 

216. a ;^ 

217. Ci 

218. ? 


ocy, DC 




true V 

alue N. 

R or L. 





his famous Lettre a 
'eroglyphes Phonetiques, 

In 1822 Champollion published 
M. Dacier relative a V alphabet des Hie 
in which he stated his discovery of the Egyptian hieroglyphic 
alphabet in the following words : " Vous avez sans doute re- 
marque, Monsieur, dans mon M^moire sur I'^criture ddmotique 
Egyptienne, que ces noms Strangers ^taient exprimes phon^- 
tiquement au moyen de signes plut&t syllabiques qvlalpha- 
b^tiques. La valeur de chaque caract^re est reconnue et 
invariablement fix^e par la comparaison de ces divers noms ; 
et de tous ces rapprochements est r&ult6 I'alphabet, ou plutot 
le syllabaire demotique figur^ sur ma planche I., colonne 
deuxieme. L'emploi de ces caracteres phondtiques une fois 
constate dans I'^criture demotique, je devais naturellement 
en conclure que puisque les signes de cette Venture populaire 
dtaient, ainsi que je I'ai expos^, empruntes de I'ecriture 
hi^ratique ou sacerdotale, et puisque encore les signes de cette 
Venture hieratique ne sont, comme on I'a reconnu par mes 
divers memoires, qu'une repr&entation abreg^e, une veritable 
tachygraphie des ki^rograpkes, cette troisieme espece d'^criture, 
r hidroglyphique pure, devait avoir aussi un certain nombre de 
ses signes dou^s de la faculty d'exprimer les sons ; en un mot, 
qu'il existait dgalement une s6rie ^ hiiroglyphes phonetiques. 
Pour s'assurer de la v6rit6 de cet aper^u, pour reconnaitre 
I'existence et discerner meme la valeur de quelques-uns des 
signes de cette espece, 11 aurait suffi d'avoir sous les yeux, 
Merits en hi&oglyphes purs, deux noms de rois grecs pr^alable- 
ment connus, et contenant plusieurs lettres employees k la 
fois dans I'un et dans I'autre, tels que PtoUm^e et CUopdire, 
Alexandre et BMnice, etc." (p. 5). Throughout this work there 


appears to be no mention whatever of Young's identification 

of any letters of the hieroglyphic alphabet, although on p. 2 

Champollion says : " A I'egard de I'dcriture deinotique en par- 

ticulier, il a suffi de la pr^cieuse inscription de Rosette pour 

en reconnaitre I'ensemble ; la critique est redevable d'abord Cham- 

aux lumieres de votre illustre confrere, M. Silvestre de Sacy, admits 

et successivement a celles de feu Akerblad et de M. le docteur '^?^^^°},, 

Akerblad s 

Young, des premieres notions exactes qu'on a tirees de ce and 
monument, et c'est de cette meme inscription que j'ai d^duit i^^oufs! 
la s6rie des signes d^motiques qui, prenant une valeur 
syllabico-alphab6tique, exprimaient dans les textes ideo- 
graphiques les noms propres des personnages etrangers a 
I'Egypte.'' That Champollion should not have knovi'n of 
Young's article Egypt is a thing not to be understood, espe- 
cially as advance copies were sent to Paris and elsewhere as 
early as 18 18. 

From the facts given above we are enabled to draw up 
the following statement as to the amount of work done in the 
decipherment of the Egyptian language by the early workers 
in this field. 

Barth^lerhy ^ and Zoega ^ had come to the conclusion Statement 
long before the labours of Akerblad, Young, and Cham- ofjatours 
pollion, that the cartouches contained proper names. Aker- of Zoega, 
blad drew up an alphabet of the demotic character, in which Young and 
fourteen signs appear to have had correct values attributed Cham- 

° '■ '^ pollion. 

to them. Young published a demotic alphabet in which the 
greater number of Akerblad's results were absorbed ; he fixed 
the correct values to six hieroglyphic characters, and to three 
others partly correct values ; he identified the names of 
Ptolemy and Alexander, the numerals and several gods' 
names. Champollion published a demotic alphabet, the 
greater part of which he owed, without question, to Akerblad, 
and a hieroglyphic alphabet of which six characters had 
had correct values assigned to them by Young, and the 

1 Caylus, Recueil (V Antiquitis Egyptiennes, Etrusques, etc., Tom. V. p. 79. 

2 In De Origine et Usu Obeliscorum, p. 465. Conspiciuntur autem passim in 
Aegyptiis monumentis schemata quaedam ovata sive elliptica planae basi insi- 
dentia, quae emphatica ratione includunt certa notarum syntagmata, sive ad 
propria personarum nomina exprimenda, sive ad sacratiores formulas designandas. 


values of three others had been correctly stated as far as the 
consonants were concerned. There is no doubt whatever 
that ChampoUion's plan of work was eminently scientific, and 
his great knowledge of Coptic enabled him to complete the 
admirable work of decipherment, which his natural talent had 
induced him to undertake. The value of his contributions to 
the science of Egyptology it would be difficult to over- 
estimate, and the amount of work which he did in his 
comparatively short life is little less than marvellous. It is, 
however, to be regretted that Champollion did not state 
more clearly what Young had done, for a full acknowledg- 
ment of this would have in no way injured or lessened his 
own immortal fame.^ 
Cham- Briefly, the way in which Champollion recovered the 

alphabet greater part of the Egyptian alphabet is as follows. It will 
be remembered that, on account of breakages, the only name 
found on the Rosetta Stone is that of Ptolemy. Shortly 
before Champollion published his letter to M. Dacier, he had 
published an account of an obelisk,^ recently brought to 
London, which was inscribed with the name of a Ptolemy, 
written with the same characters as that on the Rosetta 
Stone, and also contained within a cartouche. It was followed 
by a second cartouche, which should contain the name of a 
queen. The obelisk was said to have been fixed in a socket, 
bearing a Greek inscription containing a petition of the 
priests of Isis at Philae, addressed to Ptolemy, to Cleopatra 
his sister, and to Cleopatra his wife. Now, he argued, if this 
obelisk and the hieroglyphic inscription which it bears are really 
the result of the petition of the priests, who in the Greek speak 
The names of the dedication of a similar monument, it follows of necessity 
and^™^ that the cartouche must contain the name of a Cleopatra. 
Cleopatra. The names of Ptolemy and Cleopatra having, in the Greek, 
some letters which are similar, may be used for comparing 

' We have seen above that Champollion did know of Young's work, yet in 
his Precis du Systime Hiiroglyphiqiie, p. i8, he says that he had arrived at 
results similar to those obtained by Dr. Y'oung, without having any knowledge 
of his opinion. 

- Observations sur VObilisque Egyptien de ttle de Philee, in Revue encyclo- 
pedique. Mars, 1822. 



the hieroglyphics which are used in each ; and if the 
characters which are similar in these two names express the 
same sound in each cartouche, their purely phonetic character 
is at once made clear. A previous comparison of these two 
names written in the demotic character shows that when 
they are written phonetically several characters, exactly 
alike, are used in each. The analogy of the demotic, 
hieratic, and hieroglyphic methods of writing in a general 
way, leads us to expect the same coincidence and the same 
conformity in these same names, written hieroglyphically. 
The names Ptolemaios and Cleopatra written in hieroglyphics 
are as follows : — 

No. I, Ptolemy. 


No. 2, Cleopatra. 


Now in No. 2 cartouche, sign No. i, which must represent Recovery 
K, is not found in cartouche No. i. Sign No. 2, a lion lying 2['^^. 

' s > / S Egyptian 

down, is identical with sign No. 4 in cartouche No. i. This alphabet, 
clearly is L. Sign No. 3, a pen, represents the short vowel E ; 
two of them are to be seen in character No. 6 in No. i 
cartouche, and considering their position their value must be 
A I of aio:;. Sign No. 4 is identical with No. 3 in No. i 
cartouche, and must have the value O in each name. Sign 
No. 5 is identical with sign No. i of No. i cartouche, which 
being the first letter of the name of Ptolemy must be P. 
Sign No. 6 is not found in No. i cartouche, but it must be A, 
because it is the same sign as sign No. 9, which ends the 
name KAEOFIATPA ; we know that signs 10 and 11 always 
accompany feminine proper names, because we see them 
following the names of goddesses like ]] q Isis, and Q g 
Nephthys. Sign No. 7, an open stretched out hand, must 
be T. It does not occur in No. i cartouche, but we find 
from other cartouches that o takes the place of c^> , and the 
reverse. Sign No. 8 must be R ; it is not in No. i cartouche, 
B M. L 


and ought not to be there. In No. i cartouche sign No. 7 
must be S, because it ends the name which in Greek ends 
with S. Thus from these two cartouches we may collect 
twelve characters of the Egyptian alphabet, viz., A, AI, E, K, 
K, L, M, O, P, R, S, T. Now let us take another cartouche 
from the Description de I'Egypte, t. III. pi. 38, No. 13, and try 
The name to make it out ; it reads : — 


No. 3. 

Now signs Nos. i, 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8, we know from car- 
touches Nos. I and 2, and we may write down their values 
thus : — 


The only Greek name which' contains these letters in 
this order is Alexander, therefore let us assign to the signs 
t;^^, /v/wa, and —*—, the value of K, N and S respectively. 
We find on examination that the whole group corresponds, 
letter for letter, with the group which stands in the de- 
motic text of a papyrus in the place of the Greek name 
AAEXANAPOZ. We have, then, gained three new pho- 
netic signs K, N, and S, and have determined the value of 
fifteen in all. 

Again, let us take the cartouche of another lady : — 


The name Now signs Nos. 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 we know, and we may 

Berenice. ^^-^^^ ^j^gj^j ^^^^ jj^^g ._ 

. RNAI . . 

The only female name which contains these letters in this 
order is that of Berenice, and to ^ and Z5 we may therefore 
assign the values B and K respectively. Thus we have 
gained two more signs. 


If we take two other cartouches, viz. : — 

C^l~^^^l '"^ c 


we find that we are able to read the first at once KAISRS, 
which is clearly Katcra/ao? or Caesar ; in the second the only 
sign we do not know is ^. Writing down the values we 
know we have A.TAKRTR, which is clearly AvroKpuTop; 
thus the value of the second character must be U. In this 
manner Champollion worked through the names of all the 
Ptolemies and the Roman Emperors, and eventually succeeded 
in making out the value of one hundred and eleven signs. 
At the foot of Plate I., in his Lettre a Monsieur Dacier, he 
writes his own name in hieroglyphics thus : — 

Sha- M - PU - LL - I - o - n. 

The following are the letters of the Egyptian alphabet 
with their values as now accepted by Egyptologists : — 

ni h 



— P 


J * |. 







A/v^jv^ or \/ n 

.23,, <=> :^or/ S h 

L 2 



Opinions of Egyptologists on the Labours of 
Young and Champollion. 

In favour of Young. 
The first idea of certain hiero- 
glyphics being intended to represent 
sounds was suggested by Dr. Young, 
who, from the names of Ptolemy 
and Berenice, had pointed out nine, 
which have since proved to be 
correct ; the former taken from the 
Rosetta inscription, and the latter 
deduced with singular ingenuity 
from the enchorial of the same 
monument. [M. Champollion fils 
seems to be unwilling to allow this : 
but the fact is evident ; and surely 
he has accomplished too much to 
stand in need of assuming to him- 
self the merits of another. Note i, 
p. I.] Working upon this basis, 
M. Champollion, with happy suc- 
cess, made out four or five others, 
as also about thirty synonymes ; 
and by the ingenious application ot 
these, the merit of which is all his 
own, he has been able to turn to 
effect the discovery, and to decipher 
therewith a great number of the 
names of the Ptolemies and of the 

Roman emperors — Salt, 

H., Essay on Dr. Young's and 
M. Champollion's Phonetic System 
of Hieroglyphics ; London, 1825. 

Amidst this mass of error and 
contradiction, the application of the 
phonetic principle by Young, in 
1818, had all the merit of an original 

discovery and it was only 

by a comparison of the three kinds 
of writing that he traced the name 
of Ptolemy up in his own way, 

In favour of Chainpollion. 
His [Young's] translations, how- 
ever, are below criticism, being as 
unfounded as those of Kircher. 
How far even, in the decipherment, 
he proceeded correctly, may be 
doubted. . . . But even here [in 
interpretation] there is much too 
incorrect in principle to be of real 
use ; much of it is beneath criticism. 
— Birch, Hieroglyphs., p. 196. 

It is even to this day a common 
habit of Englishmen to couple the 
name of their countryman. Dr. 
Thomas Young, with that of Cham- 
pollion, as sharing with him the 
glory of this discovery. No person 
who knows anything of Egyptian 
philology can countenance so gross 

an error But it is not true 

that he discovered the key to the 
decipherment of hieroglyphics, or 
even that his labours assisted Cham- 
pollion in the discovery. When the 
key was once discovered and re- 
cognized as the true one, it was 
found that one or two of Young's 
results were correct. But there was 
nothing in his method or theory by 
which he or anyone else could dis- 
tinguish between his right and his 
wrong results, or which could lead 
him or anyone else a single step in 

advance If anyone 

has a right to be named in con- 
junction with Champollion, it is not 
Young, but Akerblad, to whom he 
does full justice (as he does indeed 
to Young himself) at the very be- 
ginning of his letter to M. Dacier. 
— V^'E.noV's; Hibbert Lectures J- Lon- 
don, 1880, pp. 12-16. 



In favour of Young. 
from the demotic into hieratic, into 
hieroglyphs. — Birch, Hieroglyphs, 
in Wilkinson, The Egyptians, 
pp. 195, 196. 

Fast gleichzeitig mit dem alten 

Jomard ; hatte Dr. Young 

das Gliick aus den hieroglyphi- 
schen Texten die Bezeichnungen 
fiir die Einer, Zehner, Hunderte, 
und Tausende richtig herauszuer- 
kennen und iiberdies den hierogly- 
phischen Konigsnamen — 



ihre entsprechende griechische 
Form Ptolemaios und Berenike 
gegeniiberzustellen, eine Entdeck- 
ung, die ihm allein gebuhrt und die 
den Ausgangspunkt der spateren 

Entzifferungen bilden sollte 

Dr. Young's gliickliche Zusammen- 
stellungen der oben aufgefiihrten 
agyptisch-hieroglyphischen Eigen- 
namen mit ihren entsprechenden 
griechischen Vorbildern soUten 
ihm plotzlich die Augen offnen und 
ihn \_i.e., Champollion] auf den 
rechten Pfad fuhren.— Brugsch, 
Die Aegyptologie, pp. 9, 1 1. 

Ein solcher Ring mit Hiero- 

fand sich nun auch an den betref- 
fenden Stellen der Inschrift von 
Rosette und er musste den Namen 
des Ptolemaus bilden. Es war der 
bekannte englische Naturforscher 
Thomas Young, der im Jahre 1819 

In favour of Champollion. 
Scccuh enim hujus et initium 
usque quum cognitio hieroglyph- 
orum, quibus veteres Aegyptii in 
sacra dialecto scribenda utebantur, 
densissimis tenebris scateret, ita 
quidem ut fere omnia, quae antea 
vel eruditissimi homines summo 
ingenii acumine explorasse sibi visi 
sunt, si hodie forte legimus risum 
vix tenere possimus : hoc lapide 
detecto postquam omnium animi 
ad spem enucleandi tandem istud 
monstruosum et perplexum per tot 
ssecula quasi involucris involutorum 
genus signorum arrecti sunt, unus 
vir ChampoUio Francogallus ex- 
stitit, qui mira sagacitate incredi- 
bilique studio adjutus totam hiero- 
glyphorum rationem nulla fere parte 
relicta luce clarius explanavit et 
exposuit. — Brugsch, Inscriptio 
Rosettana; Berlin, 1851, pp. i, 2. 

Unabhangig von Young kam 
gleichzeitig ein junger franzosischer 
Gelehrter, Frangois Champollion, 
zu der gleichen Vermutung und ihm 
war es beschieden, sogleich ein 
vollig richtiges Resultat zu erhalten. 
— Erman, Aegypten, p. 14. 

Young, qui, le premier, 

fit I'application du principe phone- 
tique k la lecture des hi^roglyphes. 
Cette id^e fut, dans la realite, le 

fiat lux de la science Toute- 

fois, malgr^ quelques succ^s re- 
marquables. Young ne sut pas la 
feconder ; il avait bien reconnu 
dans les hieroglyphes les noms de 
Ptol^mee et de Berenice, mais sans 
r^ussir k assigner k chacun des 
signes qui les composent leur verita- 
ble valeur ; ses autres lectures sont 
fausses, quoiqu'il ait rencontre juste 
dans la determination de la valeur 



Opinions of Egyptologists on the Labours of 
Young and Champollion. 

In favour of Young. 
The first idea of certain hiero- 
glyphics being intended to represent 
sounds was suggested by Dr. Young, 
who, from the names of Ptolemy 
and Berenice, had pointed out nine, 
which have since proved to be 
correct ; the former taken from the 
Rosetta inscription, and the latter 
deduced with singular ingenuity 
from the enchorial of the same 
monument. [M. Champollion fils 
seems to be unwilling to allow this : 
but the fact is evident ; and surely 
he has accomplished too much to 
stand in need of assuming to him- 
self the merits of another. Note i, 
p. I.] Working upon this basis, 
M. Champollion, with happy suc- 
cess, made out four or five others, 
as also about thirty synonymes ; 
and by the ingenious application ot 
these, the merit of which is all his 
own, he has been able to turn to 
efifect the discovery, and to decipher 
therewith a great number of the 
names of the Ptolemies and of the 

Roman emperors — Salt, 

H., Essay on Dr. Voting's and 
M. Champollion! s Phonetic System 
of Hieroglyphics ; London, 1825. 

Amidst this mass of error and 
contradiction, the application of the 
phonetic principle by Young, in 
1818, had all the merit of an original 

discovery and it was only 

by a comparison of the three kinds 
of writing that he traced the name 
of Ptolemy up in his own way. 

Infavoicr of Champollion. 
His [Young's] translations, how- 
ever, are below criticism, being as 
unfounded as those of Kircher. 
How far even, in the decipherment, 
he proceeded correctly, may be 
doubted. . . . But even here [in 
interpretation] there is much too 
incorrect in principle to be of real 
use ; much of it is beneath criticism. 
— Birch, Hieroglyphs, p. 196. 

It is even to this day a common 
habit of Englishmen to couple the 
name of their countryman. Dr. 
Thomas Young, with that of Cham- 
pollion, as sharing with him the 
glory of this discovery. No person 
who knows anything of Egyptian 
philology can countenance so gross 

an error But it is not true 

that he discovered the key to the 
decipherment of hieroglyphics, or 
even that his labours assisted Cham- 
pollion in the discovery. When the 
key was once discovered and re- 
cognized as the true one, it was 
found that one or two of Young's 
results were correct. But there was 
nothing in his method or theory by 
which he or anyone else could dis- 
tinguish between his right and his 
wrong results, or which could lead 
him or anyone else a single step in 

advance If anyone 

has a right to be named in con- 
junction with Champollion, it is not 
Young, but Akerblad, to whom he 
does full justice (as he does indeed 
to Young himself) at the very be- 
ginning of his letter to M. Dacier. 
— 'R'ENOW, Hibbert Lectures J- Lon- 
don, 1 880, pp. 12-16. 



In favour of Young. 
from the demotic into hieratic, into 
hieroglyphs.-^BiRCH, Hieroglyphs, 
in Wilkinson, The Egyptians, 
pp. 195, 196. 

Fast gleichzeitig mit dam alten 

Jomard ; hatte Dr. Young 

das Gliick aus den hieroglyphi- 
schen Texten die Bezeichnungen 
fiir die Einer, Zehner, Hunderte, 
und Tausende richtig herauszuer- 
kennen und iiberdies den hierogly- 
phischen Konigsnamen — 


"is und 




■^^ B^ 


ihre entsprechende griechische 
Form Ptolemaios und Berenike 
gegeniiberzustellen, eine Entdeck- 
ung, die ihm allein gebiihrt und die 
den Ausgangspunkt der spateren 

Entzifferungen bilden soUte 

Dr. Young's gliickliche Zusammen- 
stellungen der oben aufgefiihrten 
agyptisch-hieroglyphischen Eigen- 
namen mit ihren entsprechenden 
griechischen Vorbildern soUten 
ihm plotzlich die Augen offnen und 
ihn {i.e., Champollion] auf den 
rechten Pfad fiihren.— Brugsch, 
Die Aegyptologie, pp. 9, 1 1. 

Ein solcher Ring mit Hiero- 

glyph en 


fand sich nun auch an den betref- 
fenden Stellen der Inschrift von 
Rosette und er musste den Namen 
des Ptolemaus bilden. Es war der 
bekannte englische Naturforscher 
Thomas Young, der im Jahre 1819 

In favour of Champollion. 
Sa;culi enim hujus et initium 
usque quum cognitio hieroglyph- 
orum, quibus veteres Aegyptii in 
sacra dialecto scribenda utebantur, 
densissimis tenebris scateret, ita 
quidem ut fere omnia, quae antea 
vel eruditissimi homines summo 
ingenii acumine explorasse sibi visi 
sunt, si hodie forte legimus risum 
vix tenere possimus : hoc lapide 
detecto postquam omnium animi 
ad spem enucleandi tandem istud 
monstruosum et perplexum per tot 
ssecula quasi involucris involutorum 
genus signorum arrecti sunt, unus 
vir ChampoUio Francogallus ex- 
stitit, qui mira sagacitate incredi- 
bilique studio adjutus totam hiero- 
glyphorum rationem nulla fere parte 
relicta luce clarius explanavit et 
exposuit. — Brugsch, Inscriptio 
Rosettanaj Berlin, 1851, pp. i, 2. 

Unabhangig von Young kam 
gleichzeitig ein junger franzosischer 
Gelehrter, Frangois Champollion, 
zu der gleichen Vermutung und ihm 
war es beschieden, sogleich ein 
voUig richtiges Resultat zu erhalten. 
— Erman, Aegypten, p. 14. 

Young, qui, le premier, 

fit I'application du principe phone- 
tique k la lecture des hieroglyphes. 
Cette idde fut, dans la realite, le 

fiat lux de la science Toute- 

fois, malgr^ quelques succ^s re- 
marquables, Young ne sut pas la 
feconder ; il avait bien reconnu 
dans les hieroglyphes les noms de 
Ptolemee et de Berenice, mais sans 
r^ussir k assigner k chacun des 
signes qui les composent leur verita- 
ble valeur ; ses autres lectures sont 
fausses, quoiqu'il ait rencontre juste 
dans la determination de la valeur 



In favour of Young. 
diesen scharfsinnigen und vbllig 
richtigen Schluss machte und 
wenigstens fur einige Zeichen des 
Namens den Lautwerl feststellte. — 
Erman, Aegypten, p. 14. 

Der erste, der es that und von 
dem richtigen Grundsatze ausging, 
dass die Konigsnamen alphabetisch 

geschrieben sein miissten war 

der beriihmte englische Physiker 
Thomas Young (geboren 1773). Er 
erkannte in der haufigsten in dem 
Dekret von Rosette vorkommenden 
Gruppe den Namen Ptolemaus, er 
vermochte ein spater zum grossen 
Teile bestiitigtes hieroglyphisches 
Alphabet aufzustellen und sie 
iiber das System der agyptischen 
Schrift vollkommen richtige An- 
sichten zu bilden. So haben wir 
denn in Young den eigentlichen 
Entzifferer der agyptischen Schrift 
zu sehen, wenn es ihm auch nicht 
gelang, der Sprache selbst Herr zu 
werden. — Wiedemann, Aegypt- 
ische Geschichte, p. 29. 

In the first work of ChampoUion, 
his essay De VEcriture hiiratique 
des Anciens Egyptiens, published 
in i82i,he recognized the existence 
of only the first of these three ways 
of representing words, supposing 
that all the Egyptian characters 
represented ideas. When he dis- 
covered the erroneousness of this 
opinion, he used all possible efforts 
to suppress the work in which he 
had stated it. That work, however, 
contained a valuable discovery. . . 

In favour of ChampoUion. 
alphabetique de plusieurs carac- 
teres. Quelques minces qu'ils 
soient, ces premiers resultats con- 
stitueraient en faveur du docteur 
Young un titre considerable, s'il ne 
les avait pas compromis lui-meme 
en s'engageant dans une fausse 
voie, et en publiant des traductions 
tout aussi imaginaires que celles de 
ses devanciers. La solution du 
probleme etait reserv^e au genie 
de ChampoUion le jeune ; c'est un 
honneur que personne ne peut lui 
disputer. — Chabas, L Inscription 
de Rosette, p. 5. 

Wenn wir die Frage so stellen : 
Wer hat zuerst einige hieroglyphi- 
sche Zeichen in ihrem Lautwerthe 
richtig bestimmt ? oder besser 
gesagt, zufallig errathen, so miissen 
wir antworten : das war Th. Young ; 
den Schliissel zur Entzifferung der 
Hieroglyphenschrift jedoch hat er 
nicht gefunden. Frangois Cham- 
poUion, geb. den 23. December 1 790, 
gest. den 4. Marz 1832, er ist es, 
den die Wissenschaft der Aegypto- 
logie in dankbarer Verehrung als 
ihren eigentlichen Begriindernennt 

—D-uyilcn^-a, Geschichte 

des alten Aegypiens, Berlin, 1878, 
s. 304. 

Zwei grosse Manner, in England 
der auf vielen Gebieten des Wissens 
ausgezeichnete Thomas Young, in 
Frankreich Frangois ChampoUion, 
begaben sich zu gleicher Zeit, aber 
unabhangig von einander, an die 
Arbeit. BeiderBemiihungenlohnte 
schoner Erfolg. ChampoUion aber 
wird mit Recht vor seinem brit- 
ischen Rivalen als Entzifferer der 



In favour of Young. 
In the year after this pub- 
lication, ChampoUion published his 
Lettre d. M. Dacier, in which he 
announced the phonetic powers of 
certain hieroglyphics and applied 
them to the reading of Greek and 
Roman proper names. Had he 
been candid enough to admit that 
he was indebted to Dr. Young for 
the commencement of his discovery, 
and only to claim the merit of ex- 
tending and improving the alpha- 
bet, he would probably have had 
his claims to the preceding and 
subsequent discoveries, which were 
certainly his own, more readily 
admitted by Englishmen than they 
have been. In 1819 Dr. Young had 
published his article "Egypt" in 
the Supplement to the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica ; and it cannot 
be doubted that the analysis of the 
names "Ptolemaeus" and "Bere- 
nice," which it contained, reached 
ChampoUion in the interval between 
his publication in 1 821 and 1822, 
and led him to alter his views. . . 
. . . The Grammaire Egypiien?ie 
ought to have been given to the 
public as his sole bequest in the 
department of Egyptian philology. 
It was published from a manuscript 
written in 1831, immediately before 
his last illness. Shortly before his 
decease, having carefully collected 
the sheets, he delivered them to his 
brother, with the remark, " Be care- 
ful of this ; I trust that it will be my 
visiting card to posterity." Even 
the warmest admirers of Cham- 
poUion must admit that he left his 
system in a very imperfect state. 
Few, probably, will deny that he 
held many errors to the close of 
his life, both in what respects the 

In favour of ChampoUion. 
Hieroglyphen genannt werden 
miissen. — EberS, Aegypten in Bild 
tend Wort ; Leipzig, 1879, Bd. ii., 
s. 49. 

Un savant anglais du plus grand 
merite, Th. Young, essaya de re- 
constituer I'alphabet des cartouches. 
De 1814 k 1818, il s'exerga sur les 
divers systemes d'dcriture egyp- 
tienne, et separa mecaniquement 
les groupes differents dont se com- 
posaient le texte hieroglyphique et 
le texte demotique de I'inscription 
de Rosette. Apres avoir deter- 
mine, d'une mani^re plus ou moins 
exacte, le sens de chacun d'eux, il 

en essaya la lecture Ses 

idees etaient justes en partie, mais 
sa methode imparfaite ; il entrevit 
la terre promise, mais sans pouvoir 
y entrer. Le veritable initiateur 

fut Frangois ChampoUion 

— Maspero, Histoire Ancienne ; 
Paris, 1886, pp. 729, 730. 

Ce fut en 1819, que le Dr. Young 
d^clara le premier que les car- 
touches, ou encadrements ellip- 
tiques, dans le texte hieroglyphique 
de I'inscription de Rosette, corres- 
pondaient aux noms propres grecs 
et particuliferement k celui de Ptole- 
mee du texte grec, et aux groupes, 
du meme nom, dans le texte inter- 
mediaire en ecriture egyptienne 
demotique ou vulgaire, groupes qui 
avaient ete dejk reconnus et de- 
composes par MM. Silvestre de 
Sacy et Akerblad. II allait encore 
plus loin en supposant que chaque 
signe du cartouche reprdsentait un 
son du nom de Plolemee et en 
cherchant k les definir reellement 
un ci un par une analyse trfes in- 
genieuse Plusieurs signes 



In favour of Young. 

reading of the characters, and in 
what respects the interpretation of 
the texts.— HiNCKS, On the Num- 
ber, Names, and Powers of the 
Letters of the Hieroglyphic Alpha- 
bet, in Trans. Royal Irish Acad., 
Vol. XXI., Section Polite Litera- 
ture, pp. 133, 134, Dublin, 1848. 

In favour of Champollion. 

avaient ete faussement interpretes 
et la preuve la plus evidente en 
etait qu'il ne reussissait pas h. lire 
d'autres noms que ceux de Ptolemee 
et de Berenice. II faut done avouer 
que, malgre cette ddcouverte, les 
opinions du Dr. Young, sur la nature 
du systeme hieroglyphique, etaient 
encore essentiellement fausses et 
que cette decouverte elle-meme 
serait probablement restee infruc- 
tueuse et k peine signal^e comme 
ddcouverte dans la science, si on 
avait suivi le chemin que son auteur 
lui-meme avait proposd — Lepsius, 
Lettre a M. le Professeur F. Rosel- 
Izni sur V Alphabet Hieroglyphique ; 
Rome, 1837, p. II. 


and others 





It could hardly be expected that the system of decipher- 
ment proposed by Champollion would be accepted by those 
who had rival systems to put forth, hence we find old theories 
revived and new ideas brought to light side by side with 
Champollion's method of decipherment. Among those who 
attacked the new system were, Spolm, the misguided 
Seyffarth, Goulianoff and Klaproth. Spolm and Seyffarth 
divided hieroglyphics into emphonics, symphonies and 
aphonics, by which terms they seem to imply phonetics, 
enclitics and ideographics. Their hopelessly wrong theory 
was put forth with a great show of learning in De Lingua et 
Literis veterumySgyptiorumdXl^eipzig, 1825-31. Goulianoff"^ 
did not accept Champollion's system entirely, and he wished 
to consider the phonetic hieroglyphics acrologic ; this also 
was the view taken by Klaproth, who bitterly attacked Cham- 
pollion in his Lettre sur la decouverte des hieroglyphes acrolo- 
giques, adresse'e a M. de Goulianoff, Paris, 1827, and also in 
his Examen critique des travaux de feu M. Champollion sur 
les Hieroglyphes, Paris, 1832. To the first of these two works 
Champollion published a reply entitled Analyse critique de la 

' Stetns Essai sur les Hieroglyphes cfBorafollon, Paris, 1827. 


lettre sur la decouverte des hieroglyphes acrologiques par J. Klap- 
roth (Extr. du Bulletin de Ferussac), Paris, 1827, in which 
he showed the utter worthlessness of the theory. In 1830, 
when the correctness of Champollion's system was fully Persis- 
demonstrated, Janelli published at Naples his Fundamenta false 
Hermeneutica Hieroglyphicae, in three volumes, in which the ?ystems of 


old symbolic theory of the hieroglyphics was re-asserted ! tation. 
and there were many who hesitated not to follow the views of 
Fran9ois Ricardi, feu Charles d'Oneil, the soundness of 
which may be estimated by the title of one of his works, 
" Decouverte des Hieroglyphes domestiques pkonetiques par 
lesquels, sans sortir de chez soi, on pent deviner Vhistoire, la 
chronologie ( I ! ), le culte de tons les peuples anciens et modernes, 
de la wieme maniere, qu'on le fait en lisant les hieroglyphes 
^gyptiens selon la nouvelle methode ; " Turin, 1824.^ Little by 
little, however, Champollion's system was accepted. In 1835 
Leemans published his edition of Horapollo, in which the 
results of the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphics were 
ably applied, and two years later Richard Lepsius published 
his famous Lettre a M. F. Rosellini sur Valphabet hierogly- 
phique, wherein he discussed the whole question of the 
decipherment, and showed that Champollion's method was, 
without any question, correct. About this time students, 
who worked on Champollion's plan, sprang up in Holland, 
Italy, France and England, and the misguided Seyffarth 
alone continued down to 1855 to write and protest against 
the new system. 

An Egyptian Funeral. 

The funeral of a poor Egyptian was, probably, very much 
like that of one of the present day. After the body had been 
steeped for a short time in bitumen or natron, or perhaps 
merely rubbed with these substances, the few personal orna- 
ments of the man were placed on it, he was wrapped in one 

' Another of his works was entitled, Triotnphe sur les impies obtenu far les 
adorateurs de la trh-sainle Trinite et du Verbe eternel^ sous le gouvernement des 
sixihne et septiime r-ois (VEgypte au Vie siicle apris le deluge. Sculpti en signes 
hiiroglyphiques surV Obelisque Barberimis et viaintenant expligue ; Geneva, l82r. 


piece of linen, and with his staff to support his steps,' and his 
sandals to protect his weary feet in the nether-world, he was 
laid in a hole or cave, or even in the sand of the open desert, 
to set out on his last journey. Trusting in the might of a few 
amulets that were buried with him, he feared not to meet his 
foes in the grave. 

The funeral of a king or a member of the royal family, or 
of a wealthy person, was a very magnificent ceremony, and it 
is, perhaps, impossible to realize exactly what an imposing 
sight it must have been. Treating of the burial of a king in 
Diodoras Egypt, Diodorus says (I. 72), that when a king died all the 
Uanlluial inhabitants of the country wept and rent their garments ; the 
temples were closed, and the people abstained from sacrifices 
and celebrated no festival for a period of seventy-two days. 
Crowds of men and women, about two or three hundred in 
number, went round about the streets with mud on their heads, 
and with their garments knotted like girdles below the breasts 
(a-irvBoyat; vTroKaTco rSv fiaarSv), singing dirges twice daily in 
praise of the dead. They denied themselves wheat, they ate 
no animal food, and they abstained from wine and dainty fare. 
No one dared to make use of baths, or unguents, or to recline 
upon couches, or even to partake of the pleasures of love. 
The seventy-two days were passed in grief and mourning as 
for the death of a beloved child. Meanwhile, the funeral 
paraphernalia was made ready, and on the last day of 
mourning, the body, placed in a coffin, was laid at the 
entrance to the tomb, and according to law, judgment was 
passed upon the acts of the king during his life. Every one 
had the power to make an accusation against the king. The 
priests pronounced a funeral oration over the body, and 
declared the noble works of the king during his life, and if 
the opinion of the assembled multitude agreed with that of 
the priests, and the king had led a blameless life, they testified 
their approval openly ; if, on the other hand, the life of the 
king had been a bad one, they expressed their disapprobation 
by loud murmurs. Through the opposition of the people 
many kings have been deprived of meet and proper burial, 

' Compare Psalm xxiii, 4. 


and kings are accustomed to exercise justice, not only Diodorus 
•because they fear the disapprobation of their subjects, but "ianbmal. 
also because they fear that after death their bodies may be 
maltreated, and their memory cursed for ever. 

It is very doubtful if the above description of the mourn- 
ing is not somewhat exaggerated, and there appears to be no 
authority in Egyptian inscriptions for the statement that 
many kings were deprived of their meet and proper burial 
because of the disapproval of their past lives shown by 
the people. This account by Diodorus is more valuable for 
the indication of the great and solemn respect which was 
shown to dead kings, as sons of the god Ra, and as lords of 
the land of Egypt, than for its strict accuracy of detail. The 
customs observed at the burial of kings would be respectfully 
imitated at the funerals of the nobles and officials of his court, 
and the account by the same writer of what happened after 
the mummy of an Egyptian gentleman was prepared for 
burial, must next be considered. 

According to Diodorus (1. 92), when the body is ready to 
be buried, the relatives give notice to the judges and the 
friends of the deceased, and inform them that the funeral will 
take place on a certain day, and that the body will pass over 
the lake ; and straightway the judges, forty in number,^ come 
and seat themselves in a semi-circle above the lake. Then 
the men who have been commissioned to prepare a boat 
called iSapi^," bring it to the lake, and they set it afloat under 
the charge of a pilot called Charon." And they pretend that 
Orpheus travelling in Egypt in ancient times, was present 
at a ceremony of this kind, and that he drew his fable of 
the infernal regions partly from his remembrance of this 

' Is it possible that Diodorus has confused the forty judges at the lake with 
the forty-two judges or assessors of the Book of the Dead, before each of whom 
the deceased was supposed to declare that he had not committed a certain sin ? 

■■' In Egyptian : J 1^^ 00 >Jm iard. 

' Wiedemann compares the Egyptian kan, " Schiffer." The dictionaries give 
/i ^S. ^n^ If are, a. "ship," and ^iM^ qdre, "coach- 

man," "cart-driver." 


Diodorus ceremony,^ and partly from his imagination. Before the cofifin 
Hanbunai. Containing the dead man was placed in the boat on the lake, 
every person had the right to bring accusations against the 
deceased. If any accuser succeeded in showing that the 
deceased had led a bad life, the judges made a decree which 
deprived the body of legal burial ; if, on the other hand, the 
accusation was found to be unjust, the person who brought it 
was compelled to pay heavy damages. If no one stood forth 
to bring an accusation, or if an accusation seemed calumnious, 
the relatives of the deceased ceased to mourn and began to 
praise the dead man and his virtues, and to entreat the gods 
of the infernal regions to admit him into the place reserved 
for good men.Ttohe Egyptians never praised the birth of a 
man, as did the Greeks, for they believed that all men are 
equally noble. The people being gathered together, add their 
cries of joy, and utter wishes that the deceased may enjoy ever- 
lasting life in the underworld in the company of the blessed. 
Those who have private burial places lay the bodies of their dead 
in the places set apart for them ; but those who have not, build 
a new chamber in their house, and set the body in it fixed 
upright against the wall. Those who are deprived of burial, 
either because they lie under the ban of an accusation, or 
because they have not paid their debts, are merely laid in 
their own houses. It happens sometimes that the younger 
members of a family, having become richer, pay the debts 
of their ancestors, secure the removal of the condemnatory 
sentence upon them, and give them most sumptuous funerals. 
The great honours which are paid to the dead by the 
Egyptians form the most solemn ceremonies. As a guarantee 
for a debt, it is a customary thing to deposit the bodies of 
dead parents, and the greatest disgrace and privation from 
burial, wait upon those who redeem not such sacred pledges. 

In this account also there are many details given for which 
proof is still wanting from the Egyptian monuments. 

' Thus Orpheus brought back from his travels in Egypt the ceremonies, and 
the greater part of the mystic rites celebrated in memory of the courses of Ceres, 
and the whole of the myth of hell. The difference between the feasts of Bacchus 
and of those of Osiris exists only in name, and the same may be said of the mysteries 
of Isis and those of Osiris. Diodorus, L 96. 


An attempt may now be made to describe briefly what Egyptian 
happened after death to the body of a man of high rank who ^j,^ "^' 
departed this life at Thebes towards the end of the XVIIIth according 
or beginning of the XlXth dynasty, that is to say about B.C. monu- 
1400. The facts are all known, and therefore nothing need ™s"'s- 
be invented ; it is only necessary to gather them together and 
to bring them to a focus on the person of one man. We must 
imagine then that we are living on the east bank of the Nile, 
near the temple of Amen-Ra, "lord of the thrones of the 
earth," in the fifteenth century before Christ. One morning 
before the day has dawned, even before the officials who 
conduct the early services in the temples are astir, we are 
awakened by loud cries of grief and lamentation, and on 
making inquiries we are told that Ani, the great scribe of 
the offerings of the gods in the temple of Amen-Ra, is dead. 
As he was the receiver of the revenues of the gods of Abydos, 
as well as of Amen-Ra of Thebes, first prophet of Amen, 
and the precentor who stood on the threshold of the temple 
morning by morning to lead off the hymn of praise to the 
sun, his death naturally causes great excitement in the temples 
and the immediate neighbourhood ; as his forefathers for 
five or six generations have been temple officers of the highest 
rank, it is certain that his funeral will be a great event, and 
that numbers of the hereditary aristocracy and government 
officials will assist at the ceremony. He leaves no wife to 
mourn for him, for she is already dead, and is now lying in a 
chamber of a splendid tomb, not yet finished, however, nine 
miles away across the river, awaiting the coming of her hus- 
band. She was called Tutu, and belonged to one of the 
oldest and most honourable families in Thebes ; she was a 
member of the famous college of singers of Amen-Ra, and 
also a member of the choir of ladies, each one of whom 
carried a sistrum or a tambourine in the temple of that god. 
Ani began to hew out the tomb for himself and his wife many Tomb 
years ago, and during his lifetime he spared neither pains nor ° "'' 
expense in making it one of the largest and finest ever known 
for a person of lower rank than a king. Ani was not a very 
old man when he died, although his step was slow and his 
back somewhat bent ; in stature he was of middle height, and 


his features had a kind but dignified look, and though com- 
paratively few loved him, all respected him for his uprightness 
and integrity. He was a learned man, and knew the literature 
of Egypt well ; he himself wrote a fine, bold hand, and was 
no mean artist with his pencil. He was a tried servant of the 
king, and loved him well, but he loved his god Amen more, 
and was very jealous for his honour, and the glory of his 
worship in the temple of the Apts. All his ancestors had 
been in the service of the god, and it was even said that the 
oldest of them had seen Amen, who, until the expulsion of 
the Hyksos by the kings of Thebes, had occupied the position 
of a mere local deity, suddenly become the national god of 
Egypt. Whether Ani believed in his innermost heart any or 
all of the official religion is another matter ; his official posi- 
tion brought him into contact with the temporal rather than 
the spiritual affairs of the Egyptian religion, and whatever 
doubts he may have had in matters of belief, or concerning 
the efficacy of the magic of his day, etc., etc., he said nothing 
about them to any man. 

For some days past it had been seen that Ani's death was 
to be expected, and many of his colleagues in the temple had 
come to see him from time to time, one bringing a charm, 
another a decoction of herbs, etc., and a few had taken it in 
turns to stay in his room for some hours at a time. One 
Death night his illness took a decidedly serious turn, and early in 
the morning, a short time before daybreak, when, as the 
Orientals say, the dawn may be smelled, Ani died. The 
news of his death spreads rapidly through the quarter, for all 
the women of his house rush frantically through the streets, 
beating their breasts, and from time to time clutching at their 
hair, which is covered with handfuls of the thick dust of the 
streets, after the manner of Anpu in the Tale of the Two 
Brothers, and uttering wailing cries of grief In the house, 
parties of mourning women shriek out their grief, and all the 
members of the house add their tears and sobs. The steward 
of the house has, however, sent across the river to the 
cher-heb or priest who superintends and arranges the 
funerals of the wealthy and great, and informed him of 
Ani's death, and as quickly as possible this official leaves his 

of Ani. 


house near the Valley of the Tombs of the Kings, and 
together with his assistants, makes his way with all haste to 
Ani's house. Having arrived there he takes Ani's body into Ani's 
his charge, and proceeds to discuss the method by which the given to 
body shall be preserved, and the style of the funeral. While ^^^^"^ 
his assistants are taking away the body to the embalming 
house, he sends quickly to the western bank of the Nile, and 
summons his chief mason to his presence ; after a short time 
he arrives, and the cher-heh instructs him to go to Ani's tomb 
with a body of men, and to finish hewing whatever chambers 
and pillars remain in a half completed state, to plaster the 
walls, and to paint upon them scenes for which he supplies 
him with details and notes. The cher-heb knows that for 
many years past Ani, and one or two of his friends among 
the scribes, had been writing and illuminating with vignettes 
a fine copy of the " Book of the Dead "; he remembers that 
this work remains unfinished, and he therefore sets a skilful 
scribe to finish it in the style in which Ani would probably 
have finished it. Parties of professional mourners are next 
organized, and these go round about the city at stated times, 
singing in chorus, probably accompanied by some musical in- 
strument, funereal dirges, the subjects of which were the short- 
ness of life and the certainty that all must die, and the virtues 
of the dead man. These dirges were sung twice daily, and Dirges for 
Ani's friends and colleagues, during the days of mourning, 
thought it to be their duty to abstain from wine and every 
kind of luxury, and they wore the simplest and plainest 
garments, and went quite unadorned. 

Meanwhile it was decided that Ani's funeral should be 
one of the best that money could purchase, and as while he 
was alive he was thought to be in constant communion with 
the gods, his relatives ordered that his body should be mum- 
mified in the best possible way, so that his soul ^, ba, 
and his intelligence ^^ %«, when they returned some thou- 
sands of years hence to seek his body in the tomb, might find Object 

Uof em- 
ka or " genius " there waitmg, and that all three might balmment. 

enter into the body once more, and revivify it, and live with 
it for ever in the kingdom of Osiris. No opportunity must 


be given for these four component parts of the whole of a 
man to drift away one from the other, and to prevent this the 

perishable body Z^ %« must be preserved in such a way that 
each limb of it may meetly be identified with a god, and the 
whole of it with Osiris, the judge of the dead and king of the 
nether world. The tomb must be made a fit and proper 
dwelling-place for the ka, which will never leave it as long as 
the body to which it belongs lies in its tomb. The furniture 
of the tomb must be of the best, and every material, and the 
workmanship thereof, must also be of the best. 

The cher-heb next goes to the embalming chamber and 
orders his assistants to begin their operations upon Ani's body, 
The em- over which formulae are being recited. The body is first 
balmment. ^^shed and then laid upon the ground, and one of the 
assistants traces with ink on the left side, over the groin, a 
line, some few inches long, to indicate where the incision is to 
be made in the body ; another assistant takes a knife, pro- 
bably made of flint, and makes a cut in the body the same 
length as the line drawn in ink by his companion. Whether 
this man was then driven away with sticks, and stones thrown 
after him, as Diodorus states, or not, is a moot point upon 
which the inscriptions give us no information. The chief 
intestines and the heart and lungs were then carefully taken 
out and washed in palm wine, and stuffed with sweet smelling 
spices, gums, etc. They were next smeared all over with an 
unguent, and then carefully bandaged with strips of linen 
many yards long, on which were inscribed the names of the 
four children of Horus ^ who symbolized the four cardinal 
points and of the four goddesses who took the intestines under 
their special protection. While this was being done a set of 
four alabaster jars was brought from the stores of the cher-heb' s 
establishment, and in each of these one of the four packets of 

. Compare ^[|p^^\„l^^[l^,=:J„„^^, 
, "^ g 7»wv? ^ , T Q -=^ /-;— '^ D ^ '^ yl "the four 

1 vvwjP JS I 

children of Horus, in the form of four figures made of metal, with the face of a 
man, with the face of an ape, with the face of a jackal, and with the face of a 


embalmed intestines was placed. Each jar was inscribed with 
a formula, and all that was wanted to make it the property 
of Ani was to inscribe his name upon it in the blank 
spaces left for the purpose. Each jar had a cover made in Jars for 
the form of the head of the child of Horus to whom it was •"'^^''n'^^- 
dedicated. The jar of Mestha had the head of a man, and in 
it was placed the stomach ; it was under the protection of Isis. 
The jar of Hapi had the head of an ape, and in it were placed 
the smaller intestines ; it was under the protection of 
Nephthys. The jar of Tuamautef had the head of a jackal, 
and in it was placed the heart ; it was under the protection of 
Neith. The jar of Qebhsennuf had the head of a hawk, and in 
it was placed the liver ; it was under the protection of Serqet. 
The inscriptions on the jars state that the part of the deceased 
in it is identified with the child of Horus to whom the jar 
is dedicated, and that the goddess under whose charge it is 
protects it. The covers of the jars are fastened on by running 
in liquid plaster, and they are finally set in the four divisions 
of a coffer on a sledge with a vaulted cover and a projecting 
rectangular upright at each corner. It was of the greatest 
importance to have the intestines ^ preserved intact, for with- 
out them a man could not hope to live again. The brain is Removal 
next removed through the nostrils by means of an iron rod 
curved at one end, and is put aside to be dried and buried 
with the body ; at every step in these processes religious 
formulae are recited. The body thus deprived of its more 
perishable parts is taken and laid to soak in a tank of liquid 
natron for a period of seventy days. At the end of this time 
it is taken out and carefully washed and dried, and it is seen 
that it is of a greenish-grey colour ; the skin clings to the The body 
bones, for the flesh beneath it has shrunk somewhat, but the matron. '° 
hair of the body is well preserved, the nails of the hands and feet 
still adhere to the skin, and the face, though now drawn and 
very thin, has changed but little. Longitudinal slits are next 
made in the fingers and toes and the fleshy parts of the arms, 
thighs and legs, which are then stuffed with a mixture of 
sweet spices and natron, and sewn up again. The cavity in 

' In mummies of the best period the intestines are sometimes found in packets 
beneath the bandages. 

B. M. M 


the skull is now filled up with a mixture of spices, powdered 
plaster and natron, and the nostrils through which it was in- 
serted are plugged up with small linen pledgets dipped in 
some astringent ; obsidian eyes are also inserted in the eye- 
sockets. ( Large quantities of gums, spices, natron, as well as 
a very little bitumen, are pounded and well mixed together, 
and with them the breast and stomach are carefully packed 
through the slit in the side ; while certain formulae are being 
recited, a gold plate inscribed with the utchat, or eye of Horus, 
^^; is laid upon it to indicate that this god watched over this 
body as he did over that of his father Osiris. The nails of 
the hands are stained with henna (Arab. 'Us-), and on the 
The orna- little finger of the left hand is placed Ani's gold ring, in the 
thrbod^ bezel of which is mounted a handsome steatite scarab in- 
scribed on the base with his name and titles. The ring was 
supposed to confer upon the deceased some power, but what 
that power was is not yet exactly made out ; it is certain, 
however, that no one was buried without one or more, and if 
the relatives of the deceased were not able to buy them in 
gold or silver, they made use of faience rings, glazed various 
colours, and even of small strings of beads which they tied on 
the fingers in lieu of rings. The legs are then brought closely 
together, and the arms are laid on the body with one wrist 
crossed over the other. The cher-heb next provides a large 
and handsome scarab made of green basalt which is set in a 
frame of gold, over the back of it is a horizontal band of 
the same metal, at right angles to which, on the side of the 
tail of the beetle, runs another band which joins the frame ; 
at the head of the scarab is a gold loop through which is now 
threaded a thick gold wire sufficiently long to go round Ani's 
neck. This scarab was part of the stock in trade of the 
cher-heb, and all that was necessary to do to make it Ani's 
property was to inscribe his name and titles upon it in the 
blank line left for the purpose at the head of the flat base. 
The scarab This done the scarab was covered with a thin gold leaf and 
the helrt. ^^^"^ upon Ani's breast at the neck.^ The inscription upon it 

■ According to some rubrics of the thirtieth chapter the scarab was to be placed 
"within the heart" of a person after the ceremony of "opening the mouth" 


was one of the verses of the 30th chapter of the Book of the 
Dead, and contained a prayer, addressed by Ani to his heart, 
that there might not be brought against him adverse evidence 
when it was weighed in the balance in the judgment hall of 
Osiris, that he might not be obstructed or driven back, and 
that his name might not be overthrown by those powers who 
made it their business to harass the newcomers among the 
dead in the nether-world. The prayer ends with a petition 
that no false evidence may be borne against him in the pre- 
sence of the god. 

And now the bandaging begins. The body is first of all Process of 
smeared all over with unguents. Pieces of linen are then '^^'^'i^ging- 
torn into strips about three inches wide, and one edge of each 
strip is gummed. On one end of each of these the name of 
Ani has been written in hieratic characters to facilitate the 
identification of the mummy during the process of bandaging ; 
a number of these strips are dipped in water, and the 
embalmers having bandaged the fingers, hands, and arms, 
and toes separately, begin to bandage the body from the feet 
upwards. The moist bandages cling tightly to the body, and 
the gummed edge enables each fold of the bandage to obtain 
firm hold ; the little irregularities are corrected by small 
pledgets of linen placed between the folds and gummed in 
position. These linen bandages are also held in position 
by means of narrower strips of linen wound round the body 
at inter\'als of six and eight inches, and tied in a double knot. 
Over these fine linen bandages passages from the Book of 
the Dead, and formulae which were intended to give power 
to the dead, are written. One end of a very thick bandage 
of eighteen to twenty-five folds of linen is laid under the 
shoulders, and the other is brought over the head and face, 
and rests on the upper part of the chest ; this is held in 
position by a bandage wound round the neck, and tied in a 
double knot at the back of the neck. The same plan is 
adopted with respect to the feet, but before the bandage 

(Naville, Bd. II, 99), had been performed ; this rite, however, took place in the 

M 2 


which secures all is tied, thick pads of linen are laid on the 

top of the feet to prevent any injury happening to them when 

Process of the mummy is made to stand upright.^ The bandaged arms 

an aging, j^^^jj^g been pressed closely into the sides, and the fore-arms 

and hands having been laid upon the stomach, the bandaging 

goes on again, while formulae are recited by the cher-heb. 

Names of Each bandage had a special name,^ each bandage gave power 

dages, to the deceased, and was inscribed with words and figures of 

gods, which also gave him power, and the adjustment of each 

in its proper position required both care and judgment. 

More folds of linen are laid on the body perpendicularly,' 

' Referring to the embalming of the feet, the following extract is of interest. 
" After these things perform the embalming operations on his right and left arms, 

and then the and the children of Horus, and the children of Chent-aat, 

shall carry out the embalming operations on the two legs of the deceased. Rub the 
feet, legs, and thighs of the deceased with black stone (?) oil, and then rub them 
a second time with the finest oil. Wrap the toes in a piece of cloth, draw two 
jackals upon two pieces of linen with colours mixed with water perfumed with dnti, 
and each jackal shall have his face turned towards the other ; the jackal on the one 
bandage is Anubis, lord of Hert ; the jackal on the other is Horus, lord of 
Ilebennu. Put Anubis on the right leg, and Horus on the left leg, and wrap 
them up in fine linen. To complete the embalming of the legs, take six measures 
of anchamu flowers, natron and resin, and mix with water of ebony gum, and put 
three measures on the right leg and three measures on the left. Then put some 
fresh (?) senb flowers made into twelve bundles (?) on the left leg, and twelve 
bands of linen, and anoint with the finest oil." Maspero, Le Rituel de PEm- 
baumement, pp. 43, 44, in Memoirs sur Quelques Papyrus du Louvre (Extrait des 
Notices et Exiraits des Manuscrits, torn, xxiv., I" partie ; Paris, '875). 

^ E.g., one of the bandages of the nostrils was called p— , (J[| ^ nehi, 
and the other 1 ^^^^^ ft 5 ^"^^" > ^ "^^^^ bandage ^^ (1 ll 1 X l^'hthethsu, 
the two bandages of the cheek "¥■■¥" jl A X Yr^ S-nchth dnchth su, the two 

bandages of the top of the head ^ V\ (I *^, rJ| Wl ' ^i^h'"*'ati. 

' While the head was being bandaged the following petition was recited by 
one of the embalmers : — " O most august goddess, O lady of the west, O mistress 
of the east, come and enter into the two ears of the deceased ! O doubly 
powerful, eternally young, and very mighty lady of the west, and mistress of the 
east may breathing take place in the head of the deceased in the nether world ! 
Grant that he may see with his eyes, that he may hear with his two ears, that he 
may breathe through his nose, that he may utter sounds from his mouth, and 
articulate with his tongue in the nether world ! Receive his voice in the hall of 
truth and justice, and his triumph in the hall of Seb in the presence of the great 



and more bandages are wound round the body horizontally, 
until, little by little, it loses its shape beneath them. "When 
a length of about three hundred cubits has been used in 
folds and bandages, a coarse piece of linen is laid on the 
body, and is sewn up at the back. Over this again a saffron- 
coloured linen sheet is laid, and this having been deftly sewn 
over the head, down the back, and under the feet, is finally 
held in position by a perpendicular bandage of brownish 
coloured linen, passing from the head to the feet and under 
them up the back to the head, and by four horizontal 
bandages of the same coloured linen, one round the shoulders, 
one round the middle of the body, one round the knees, and 
one round the ankles. Thus the mummy is complete. 

During the seventy days which have been spent in Ani's 
embalming Ani's body, the coffin makers have not been idle, 
and they have made ready a covering of wood to be laid on 
the mummy, and two beautiful coffins. The covering, in the 
form of a mummy, is slightly vaulted, and has a human face, 
bearded, on it ; it is handsomely painted outside with collar, 
figures of Nut, Anubis, and Ap-uat, the full names and titles 
of Ani in perpendicular lines of inscription, the cartouches of 
tne king in whose time he lived, and scenes in which Ani is 
adoring the gods. On the inside of the cover, on the purple 
ground, are painted in a light yellow colour pictures of the 
horizon, the spirits of the East, in the form of apes, adoring 
Ra, the lion gods of the morning and evening with a disk on 
their united backs, etc., etc.^ The inner coffin is equally 

god, lord of the west. O Osiris (i.e., the deceased), the thick oil which comes 
upon thee furnishes thy mouth with life, and thine eye looketh into the lower 
heaven, as Ra looketh upon the upper heaven. It giveth thee thy two ears to 
hear that which thou wishest, just as Shu in Hebit (?) heard that which he 
wished to hear. It giveth thee thy nose to smell a beautiful perfume like Seb. 
It giveth to thee thy mouth well furnished by its passage (into the throat), like 
the mouth of Thoth, when he weigheth Maat. It giveth thee Maat (Law) in 
Ileblt. O worshipper in Hetbenben, the cries of thy mouth are in Siut, Osiris of 
Siut comes to thee, thy mouth is the mouth of Ap-uat in the mountain of the 
west." (See Maspero, Le Riiuelde r Embmimement, p. 27, in Memoire sur Quelques 
rapyrus du Louvre (Extrait des Notices el Extraits des Manuscrits), tom. xxiv., 
I" partie ; Paris, 1875). 

' A fine example of such a covering is that of Nesi-pa-ur-shefi, preserved at 


handsome, and carpenter and artist have expended their best 
labour upon it ; before Ani was embalmed he was measured 
for it, and due allowance having been made for the bandages, 
it fits the mummy exactly. It is in the form of a mummy, 
and the sycamore planks of which it is made are about two 
inches thick ; the bottom is in one piece, as is also each of 
the sides, the rounded head-piece is cut out of a solid piece of 
wood, and the foot-piece is also separate ; all these parts are 
pegged together with wooden pegs about two inches long. 
On the cover is pegged a solid face, carved out of hard wood, 
which is thought to have a strong resemblance to that of 
Coffin Ani ; bronze eyelids and obsidian eyes are fixed in it, and a 

tation. " carved wooden beard is fastened to the chin. Solid wooden 
hands are next fastened to the breast. The whole coffin, 
inside and out, is next covered with a thin layer of plaster ; 
over this a coat of light yellow varnish is painted, and the 
Scenes Scenes and inscriptions are painted on it in red, light and 
thI"coffin" '^^^^ green, white and other colours. At the head is Neph- 
thys, and at the foot is Isis, each making speeches to Ani, and 
telling him that she is protecting him. On the cover outside 
is Nut, and between two series of scenes in which Ani is 
represented worshipping the gods, are two perpendicular 
lines of inscriptions recording his name and titles ; at the 
foot of these are figures of Anubis and Ap-uat. The sides of 
the coffin are ornamented with figures of gods in shrines, the 
scene of the weighing of the heart, Ani drinking water from 
the hands of a goddess standing in a tree, Shu lifting up Nut 
from the embraces of Seb, etc. Inside the coffin are painted 
figures of a number of gods and genii with instructions 
referring to them, and the goddesses Nut and Hathor ; the 
first covers Ani with her wings, and the second, as mistress of 
the nether-world, receives Ani into her arms. Around the edge 
of the coffin near the cover, from head to foot, run two lines 
of inscription, one on each side, which repeat at considerable 
length the name and titles of Ani. The outer edge of the 
coffin, and the inner edge of the cover are " rabbeted " out, the 
one to fit into the other, and on each side, at regular inter- 
vals, four rectangular slots about i^in. x 2in. x fin. are cut; to 
fasten the coffin hermetically, tightlyfitting Wooden dowels, four 


inches long, are pressed into the slots in the coffin, and pegs 

driven from the outside of the coffin through them keep them 

firmly in position. Ani's body having been placed in this 

coffin, the cover is laid upon it, the ends of the dowels fit 

into the slots in the sides, and coffin and cover are firmly 

joined together ; wooden pegs are driven through the cover 

and dowels, the " rabbets " fit tightly, the little space between 

the coffin and cover is " stopped " with liquid plaster, and 

thus the coffin is sealed. Any injury that may have hap- The outer 

pened to the plaster or paintings during the process of sealing 

is repaired, and the whole coffin is once more varnished. 

This coffin is, in its turn, placed inside an outer coffin, which 

is painted, both inside and outside, with scenes similar to 

those on the inner coffin ; the drawing is, however, more free, 

and the details are fewer. The outer coffin being sealed in 

the same way as that inside it, Ani is now ready to be carried 

to his everlasting home in the Theban hills. 

On a day fixed by the relatives and friends, all the various 
articles of funereal furniture which have been prepared are 
brought to Ani's house, where also the mummy in its coffins 
now lies awaiting the funeral ; the cher-heb sees that the things 
necessary for a great man's funeral are provided, and arranges 
for the procession to start on the first auspicious day. This 
day having arrived, the cker-heb's assistants come, and gather- 
ing together the servants and those who are to carry burdens, 
see that each has his load ready and that each knows his place 
in the procession. When all is ready the funeral train sets The 
out from Ani's house, while the female servants wail and procession, 
lament their master, and the professional mourners beat their 
breasts, feign to pull out their hair by handfuls, and vie with 
each other in shrieking the loudest and most often. They 
have not a great distance to go to reach the river, but the 
difficulties of passing through the narrow streets increase 
almost at every step, for the populace of Thebes loved the 
sight of a grand funeral as much as that of any European 
country to-day. After some few hours the procession reaches 
the river, and there a scene of indescribable confusion happens ; 
every bearer of a burden is anxious to deposit it in one of the 
boats which lie waiting in a row by the quay ; the animals which 




carried to 
the tomb. 

draw the sledge, on which Ani's bier is laid, kick out wildly 
and struggle while being pushed into the boats, people rush 
hither and thither, and the noise of men giving orders, and 
the shouts and cries of the spectators, are distracting. At 
length, however, the procession is embarked and the boats 
push off to drop with the current across the Nile to a place 
a little north of the Temple of Thothmes III., opposite Asasif 
After an hour spent in disembarking, the procession re- 
forms itself in the order in which it will march to the tomb, 
and we see for the first time what a splendid funeral has been 
provided. In the front walk a number of men bearing tables 
and stands filled with vases full of wine, beer, oil, perfumes, 
flowers, bread, cakes, ducks, haunches of beef, and vegetables ; 
one man carries Ani's palette and box of instruments which 
he used for writing and drawing, another carries his staff, 
another his bed, another his chair, others bring the ushabtiu 
figures in a box with a vaulted cover and made like a tomb ; 
and following them comes the stele recording his name and 
titles and prayers to the gods of the nether-world ; and 
behind them, drawn by two men, is a coffer surmounted by a 
jackal, on a sledge decorated with lotus flowers, in which 
stand the four jars which contain Ani's intestines. Next 
follow the men bearing everything which Ani made use of 
during his life, as, for example, the axe which he carried when 
he followed his king to war in order to keep the accounts of the 
army and to make lists of all the precious things which were 
brought to his lord as gifts and tribute, and the harp on which 

he played in his leisure hours. Next comes the chest j^^, 

in which is laid the mummy of Ani, placed in a boat which is 
mounted on a sledge drawn by four oxen ; at the head of the 
chest is a figure of Nephthys, and at the foot a figure of Isis, 
the boat is supplied with oars as if it were really destined to 
row down to Abydos, so that the body might be buried 
there, and its soul pass into the nether- world through the "Gap" 

7\ li ® Peka {i.e., the ' Gap') the place whence, according to 

the Egyptian belief, souls, under the guidance of Osiris, set out 
on their last journey. At the head of the boat stands a white- 
robed Sam priest wearing a panther skin ; he holds a bronze 

-efic: /m^SSoSSSK-^^^-es? ? 

?• r-^T^rij^n^ t""^' 

It"- If"- — 'it * ■» 'S' 

ii I 

1 l> . 

S"":^ ^'li ^^33SS§F^^l?E^SSJFr:^ 

Between pp. 168—9, 

?* Jj! M ainei 

(From the Papyrus of Ani, Brit. Mus. No. 1*0,470, sheet 5). 


instrument for burning incense in the left hand, and with the 
right he scatters water on the ground from a libation vase J. 
Behind the boat follow a number of white-robed priests, one 
of whom has his head powdered.^ Next follow more funereal 
offerings and flowers carried in boxes suspended from the 
ends of poles which the men who carry them balance on their 
shoulders. After these come a number of women with breasts 
uncovered and dishevelled hair, who in their wailing lamenta- 
tions lament the dead and praise his virtues. Among these 
would probably be the female servants of Ani's house, whose 
grief would be genuine, for they would feel that they had lost 
a good master and a comfortable home. 

Meanwhile the procession has moved on and has entered 
one of the rocky defiles to the north of D6r el-Bahari, whence, 
winding along through the valley of the kings, they hope to 
reach a remote place in the Western valley. The progress of 
the train is slow, for the ground is rough and rocky, and 
frequent halts have to be made ; on the right hand and on 
the left, kings and nobles are buried in splendid tombs, and 
almost every hill which they climb hides the mummy of some 
distinguished Egyptian. A few miles further on, at some Ani's tomb 
little distance upon a hill, a rectangular opening is seen, and '" ^^^ ■ 
when the procession arrives at the foot of it, a number of 
workmen, attendants, tomb-guardians and others are seen 
assembled there. The mummy in its coffin is lifted out ot 
the chest, and carried up the hill to the rectangular opening, 
which proves to be the mouth of Ani's tomb ; there it is set 
upright, and before it the attendants pile up tables with sepul- 
chral offerings and flowers, and animals for sacrifice are also 
brought there. The wailing women and the distant relatives 
of Ani here take farewell of him, and when they have des- 
cended the hill, the coffin is let down the slanting passage by 
ropes into the chamber, where it is hoped that Ani's friends 
will bring sepulchral offerings to his ka, at the appointed 
seasons. This chamber is rectangular and has two rows of 
square pillars in it. From it there leads a passage about six 

* In the papyrus of Ani, his wife is represented kneeling on the ground in 
grief by the side of the boat. 


instrument for burning incense in the left hand, and with the 
right he scatters water on the ground from a libation vase J. 
Behind the boat follow a number of white-robed priests, one 
of whom has his head powdered.^ Next follow more funereal 
offerings and flowers carried in boxes suspended from the 
ends of poles which the men who carry them balance on their 
shoulders. After these come a number of women with breasts 
uncovered and dishevelled hair, who in their wailing lamenta- 
tions lament the dead and praise his virtues. Among these 
would probably be the female servants of Ani's house, whose 
grief would be genuine, for they would feel that they had lost 
a good master and a comfortable home. 

Meanwhile the procession has moved on and has entered 
one of the rocky defiles to the north of D^r el-Bahari, whence, 
winding along through the valley of the kings, they hope to 
reach a remote place in the Western valley. The progress of 
the train is slow, for the ground is rough and rocky, and 
frequent halts have to be made ; on the right hand and on 
the left, kings and nobles are buried in splendid tombs, and 
almost every hill which they climb hides the mummy of some 
distinguished Egyptian. A few miles further on, at some Ani's tomb 
little distance upon a hill, a rectangular opening is seen, and '" *ntains 
when the procession arrives at the foot of it, a number of 
workmen, attendants, tomb-guardians and others are seen 
assembled there. The mummy in its coffin is lifted out ot 
the chest, and carried up the hill to the rectangular opening, 
which proves to be the mouth of Ani's tomb ; there it is set 
upright, and before it the attendants pile up tables with sepul- 
chral offerings and flowers, and animals for sacrifice are also 
brought there. The wailing women and the distant relatives 
of Ani here take farewell of him, and when they have des- 
cended the hill, the coffin is let down the slanting passage by 
ropes into the chamber, where it is hoped that Ani's friends 
will bring sepulchral offerings to his ka, at the appointed 
seasons. This chamber is rectangular and has two rows of 
square pillars in it. From it there leads a passage about six 

^ In the papyrus of Ani, his wife is represented kneeling on the ground in 
grief by the side of the boat. 



and stele 
of Ani. 

Ani's wife. 

feet wide by seven feet high, and passing through this we see 
to the right and left a series of chambers upon the walls of 
which are painted in vivid colours the pictures of Ani and his 
wife Tutu making offerings to the gods, and inscriptions 
recording his prayers and their answers. The walls of some 
rooms are occupied entirely with scenes drawn from the daily 
events of his life. As he was a scribe, and therefore no mean 
artist, we are probably right in assuming that he superintended 
the painting of many of them himself Some of the rooms have 
their walls unornamented, and it would seem that these were 
used for the living rooms of the priests who visited or lived in the 
tombs for the purpose of carrying out the various sepulchral 
rites at their appointed times. We pass through or by seven- 
teen chambers, and then arrive at a flight of steps which leads 
down to the chamber in which the mummy and coffin are to 
be placed. Hewn in the wall just above the top of the flight of 
steps is a square niche, in which, seated on one seat, are two 
stone figures of Ani and his wife ; he has an open roll of 
papyrus on his knees, and holds a palette in his hand, and she 
has lotus flowers in both hands, which rest on her knees. The 
plinth of the statues is inscribed with the names and titles of 
Ani and Tutu. Beneath, let into the wall, is a stone stele, the 
surface of which is divided into two parts ; the upper part 
contains a representation of Ani adoring the sun-god Ra, and 
the lower contains about thirty lines of inscription in which 
Ani prays that Ra, Osiris and Anubis will cause all kinds of 
sepulchral goods to be supplied for his ka or genius ; that they 
will grant his coming forth from and going into the nether- 
world whenever he pleases ; that his soul may alight on the 
trees which he has planted ; that he may drink cool water 
from the depths of the Nile when he pleases, etc. 

The mummy in its coffin has been brought down the 
steps, and is now carried into a large chamber on the left, 
where its final resting place is to be. As we pass into this 
room we see that a part of it is already occupied with a coffin 
and the funereal furniture belonging to it. When we come 
nearer we find that it is the coffin of Tutu, Ani's wife. Close 
by her is a table of alabaster covered with shapely vessels of 
the same substance, filled with wine, oil, and other unguents ; 


1-1 -Ji/t 

Between //. 170-1. 

(Fron the Papyrus of Ani, Brit. Mus. No. 10,470, sheet 6). 


each of these fragile objects is inscribed with her name. On 
the table are spoons made of ivory of the most beautiful work • 
manship. They are shaped in the form of a woman. The 
body is stained a deep creamy colour, the colour of the skin 
of the Egyptian lady, who guarded herself from the rays of 
the sun ; the hair is black, and we see that it is movable ; 
when we lift it off we see the name of " Tutu, the sistrum 
bearer," engraved beneath. On a second stand, made of 
wood, we find the articles for her toilet, mirror, kohl pot in 
obsidian, fan, etc., and close by is the sistrum which she 
carried in the temple of Amen-Ra upon earth, and which was 
buried with her, so that she might be able to praise that god 
with music in his mansions in the sky. Chairs and her couch 
are there too, and stands covered with dried flowers and 
various offerings. Removing the lid of the coffin we see her 
mummy lying as it was laid a few years before. On her 
breasts are strings of dried flowers with the bloom still on 
them, and by her side is a roll of papyrus containing a copy 
of the service which she used to sing in the temple of Amen 
in the Apts, when on earth. Her amethyst necklace and 
other ornaments are small, but very beautiful. Just over her 
feet is a blue glazed steatite ushabti figure. While we have 
been examining Tutu's general furniture, the servants of the 
cher-heb have brought down the cofiin, which is placed on a 
bier along the east wall, and the chairs and couch and boxes 
and funereal offerings, and arranged them about the chamber. 
In a square niche in the wall, just over the head of the coffin, 
Ani's writing palette and reeds are placed, and by its side is 
laid a large roll of papyrus nearly go feet long, inscribed in Ani's 
hieroglyphics during his lifetime and under his direction, with ^°°^°a^ 
the oldest and most important chapters of the " Book of the 
Dead " ; the vignettes, which refer to the chapters, are beauti- 
fully painted, and in some as many as thirteen colours are 
used in this chamber ; and in every work connected with 
Ani's tomb there is a simple majesty which is characteristic 
of the ancient Egyptian gentleman. , At each of the four 
corners or sides of the bier, is placed one of the so-called 
Canopic jars, and at the foot are laid a few stone ushabtiu 
figures, whose duty it was to perform for the deceased such 



The giving 
the mouth 
to the 




labours as filling the furrows with water, ploughing the fields, 
and carrying the sand, if he were called upon to do them. 
When everything has been brought into this chamber, and 
the tables of offerings have been arranged, a priest, wearing a 
panther skin, and accompanied by another who burns incense 
in a bronze censer, approaches the mummy, and performs the 
ceremony of "opening the mouth" ^^ "i™nr ■ , un-re ; 
while a priest in white robes reads from a roll of papyrus 
or leather. The act of embalming has taken away from the 
dead man all control over his limbs and the various portions 
of his body, and before these can be of any use to him in the 
nether-world, a mouth must be given to him, and it must be 
opened so that his ka may be able to speak. The twenty- 
first and twenty-second chapters of the " Book of the Dead " 
refer to the giving a mouth to the deceased, and the vignette 
of the twenty-second chapter (Naville, bl. xxxiii) represents a 

priest called the "guardian of the scale," W i^.M^i~^^^^ 
dri maj^et, giving the deceased his mouth. In the vignette to 
the twenty-third chapter a priest is seen performing the opera- 
tion of opening the mouth \J <=■ drit dpt re, with 

the instrument if^^ — ,, and the deceased says in the text, " Ptah ^ 
has opened my mouth with that instrument of steel with 
which he opened the mouth of the gods." ^ When the mouth 
of the deceased had been opened, his ka gained control of his 
speech, intelligence and limbs, and was able to hold inter- 
course with the gods, and to go in and out of his tomb 
whenever he pleased. When the formulae are finished and 
all rites performed, Ani's relatives and near friends withdraw 
from the mummy chamber and make their way up the stairs, 
through the long passage and into the first chamber, where 
they find that animals have been slaughtered, and that many 
of the assistants and those who accompanied the funeral are 

' Some copies read Shu. 




.^ I 



VIEW OF THE COFFIN CHAMBER (from Naville, Das Aegyptische TodteT.huch) . 

a. Address of Isis at the foot of the bier. g. 

b. Anubis standing on one side of the mummy ; on the other ^i 

is the soul. /. 

c. Address of Nephthys at the foot of the bier. k\ 

d. Speech of a statuette. ', /. 

e. Inscription of the tet. m. 
f. Inscription of the flame. 

To face p. 172. 

Inscription of the jackal. 
Addresses of the "living soul." 
Inscription of the ushabtiu figures. 
Speech of Qebh-sennuf. 
Speech of Hapi. 
Speech of Tuamautef. 
Speech of Mestha. 

MUMMY. 173 

eating and drinking of the funereal offerings. When the last 
person has left the mummy chamber, masons bring along 
slabs of stone and lime which they have ready and wall it up ; 
the joints between the stones are so fine that the blade of a 
modern penknife can with difficulty be inserted to the depth 
of half an inch. We have seen Ani's body embalmed, we 
have watched all the stages of the manufacture of his coffin, 
we have seen the body dressed and laid in it, we have accom- 
panied him to the tomb, we have gone through it and seen 
how it is arranged and decorated, and we have assisted at the 
funereal ceremonies ; in his beautiful tomb then, let us leave 
him to enjoy his long rest in the company of his wife. Ani did 
not cause such a large and beautiful tomb to be hewn for him 
merely to gratify his pride ; with him, as with all educated 
Egyptians, it was the outcome of the belief that his soul would 
revivify his body, and was the result of a firm assurance in 
his mind of the truth of the doctrine of immortality, which is 
the foundation of the Egyptian religion, and which was as 
deeply rooted in them as the hills are in the earth. 

Mummy is the term which is generally applied to the 
body of a human being, animal, bird, fish, or reptile, which 
has been preserved by means of bitumen, spices, gums, or 
natron. As far as can be discovered, the word is neither a Or gin of 
corruption of the ancient Egyptian word for a preserved body, "M,^^y.' 
nor of the more modern Coptic form of the hieroglyphic name. 
The word " mummy " is found in Byzantine Greek (fiovfiia, 
fj,a>fj,iov), and in Latin,^ and indeed in almost all European 
languages. It is derived from the Arabic Ij^^, "bitumen,"' 
and the Arabic word for mummy is aI^Jc , which means a 
" bitumenized thing," or a body preserved by bitumen. The 
Syriac-speaking people called it ].^qSo, the Greeks ■jrorrda-- 

^ I have reproduced here many paragraphs from my Prefatory Remarks made 
on Egyptian Mummies, ontheoccasionof theunrollingof the Mummy of Bak-Ran, 
privately printed ; London, 1890. 

^ It appears in Latin about a.d. iooo. Wiedemann, Herodots Zweites Bjis/i ; 
Leipzig, 1890, p. 349. 


(f)aXTO<;, and the Persians call a drug used in medicine t^'Lu^ . 
The celebrated Arabic physician Ibn Betar (died A.H. 646), 
quoting Dioscorides/ who lived in the first century of our era, 
says that Mumia is found in the country called Apollonia, and 
that it flows down with water from the "lightning mountains," 
and being thrown by the water on the sides of the water 
courses, becomes hard and thick, and that it has a smell like 
that of pitch. Having further quoted the article by Dioscorides 
on Pittasphaltus, he adds, " What I say on this subject is as 
"Mummy" follows : The name miiniia ^Ij^yo is given to the drug of 
stance which mention has just been made, and to that which is called 
embalming 'Bitumen of Judaea,' ^j»^\^^l, and to the muniia of the 
"^ '^'' tombs i_?.,jjill (_flji_<i)^l, which is found in great quantities in 
Egypt, and which is nothing else than a mixture which the 
Byzantine Greeks used formerly for embalming their dead, in 
order that the dead bodies might remain in the state in which 
they were buried, and experience neither decay nor change. 
Bitumen of Judaea is the substance which is obtained from the 
Asphaltites Lake, L^^_ 'ijj^jsr.!' 'Abd el-Latif^ mentions that 
he saw ■>n-Amia or bitumen which had been taken out of the 
skulls and stomachs of mummies sold in the towns, and he adds 
that he bought "the contents of three skulls for half an 
Egyptian dirhem," i_£^ 6J^ ijU^ <J"ij^ ^ '■^=->:'.y^^ ■^i 
^yo^ (fi'\'^i 3-nd says that it varies very little from mineral 
pitch, for which it can be substituted if one takes the trouble 
to procure it. 
Mummy About three or four hundred years ago Egyptian mummy 

a°dru^. formed one of the ordinary drugs in apothecaries' shops. The 
trade in mummy was carried on chiefly by Jews, and as early 
as the twelfth century a physician called El-Magar was in the 
habit of prescribing mummy to his patients. It was said to be 
good for bruises and wounds. After a time, for various 
reasons, the supply of genuine mummies ran short, and the 

' Materia Medica (ed. Kiihn, in Medicorum Graecorum Opera, torn, xxv., 
Leipzig, 1829, p. loi). 

2 See Abd el-LatSf, Relation de TEgypte, tr. by De Sacy, Paris, 18 ro, p. 273, 
and Abdollatiphi liistoria Mgypti Compendium, Ed. White, Oxford, 1810, p. 150. 

MUMMY. 175 

Jews were obliged to manufacture them. They procured 

the bodies of all the criminals that were executed in gaols, 

and of people who had died in hospitals, Christians and 

others. They filled the bodies with bitumen and stuffed the 

limbs with the same substance ; this done, they bound them 

up tightly and exposed them to the heat of the sun. By this 

means they made them look like old mummies. In the year 

1564 a physician called Guy de la Fontaine made an attempt 

to see the stock of the mummies of the chief merchant in 

mummies at Alexandria, and he discovered that they were 

made from the bodies of slaves and others who had died of the 

most loathsome diseases. The traffic in mummies as a drug 

was stopped in a curious manner. A Jew at Damietta who 

traded in mummies had a Christian slave who was treated 

with great harshness by him because he would not consent to 

become a Jew. Finally, when the ill-treatment became .so 

severe that he could bear it no longer, the slave went to the 

Pasha and informed him what his master's business was. The 

Jew was speedily thrown into prison, and only obtained his End of the 

liberty by payment of three hundred pieces of gold. Every mummy. 

Jewish trader in mummy was seized by the local governor of 

the place where he lived, and money was extorted from him. 

The trade in mummy being hampered by this arbitrary tax, 

soon languished, and finally died out entirely.^ 

The hieroglyphic word for mummy is I- — flX Y\y"s\ Egyptian 

I A _a JLD name of 

Sahu, and the word used to indicate the act of making a dead the em- 
man into a mummy is -^ | 5 oi" _£_ ^==^ 1^^ > i* means to 
"wrap up in bandages." The Coptic forms of the latter word 
are kGC, KHC, KCJOC, KCJOOOC, KCUCUce, and they were used by 
the Copts to translate the Greek ivTa(f>i,aa-ij,o';, Ta<f>r], eVra^tafetj', 
ddiTTeiv, etc.; the word JULIoXuoit, "mummy," is also given by 
Kircher, Lingua Aegyptiaca Restituta, Rome, 1643, p. 183, at 
the foot. The mummifier was called pecJKtoc ; compare 
OTf Og, ^"TKCOC JUL ^ICp^.HX ftze nipeqKtbc ^ = Aral e^era- 
^iacrav ol ivTa(pia<7Tal tov lapar/K.^ 

' Pettigrew on Mummies, p. 4. 

' Lagarde, Der Pentateuch Koptisch, Gen. 1. 2. 

" Lagarde, Librorum Vet. Test. Canon., Gen. 1. 2, p. 51, 




of em- 

work on 

Whether the art of mummifying was known to the 
aboriginal inhabitants of Egypt, or whether it was introduced 
by the new-comers from Asia, is a question which is very 
difficult to decide. We know for a certainty that the stele of 
a dignitary preserved at Oxford was made during the reign of 
Sent, the fifth king of the second dynasty, about B.C. 4000. 
The existence of this stele with its figures and inscriptions 
entreating the god of the dead to grant sepulchral meals, 
points to the fact that the art of elaborate sepulture had 
reached a high pitch of perfection in those early times. The 
man for whom it was made was called ^^ 1| Shera, and he 
held the dignity of i neter hen or "prophet"; the stele also 
tells us that he was 1 5^^^ suten reck or " royal relative." 
The inscriptions contain prayers asking that there may be 
granted to the deceased in the nether world, " thousands of 
oxen, linen bandages, cakes, vessels of wine, incense, etc.," 
which fact shows that religious belief, funereal ceremonies, and 
a hope for a life after death, had already become a part of the 
life of the people of Egypt. During the reign of king Sent, 
the redaction of a medical papyrus was carried out. As this 
work presupposes many years of experiment and experience, 
it is clear that the Egyptians possessed at a remote period 
ample anatomical knowledge for mummifying a human body. 
Again, if we consider that the existence of this king is proved 
by papyri and contemporaneous monuments, and that we 
know the names of some of the priests who took part in 
funereal ceremonies during his reign, there is no difficulty in 
acknowledging the great antiquity of such ceremonies, and 
also that they presuppose a religious belief in the actual 
revivification of the body because of which hoped-for event 
the Egyptians took the greatest possible care to preserve and 
afterwards to hide the bodies of the dead. 

Though there exists, to my knowledge, no monument of a 
similar nature to that of the stele of Sent which would prove 
beyond doubt that mummies were rhade in the first dynasty, 
still it seems tolerably certain that they were made, and there 
is little doubt that the Egyptians possessed all the anatomical 
knowledge necessary for this purpose. We know from 
Manetho that Teta, the second king of the first dynasty, 

MUMMY. 177 

about B.C. 4366, wrote a book upon anatomy, and that he 
busied himself in making experiments with drugs. The 
mother of this king, a lady called Shesh |-^ J,i earned fame 
for herself by inventing a hair wash. From the fact that the 
bodies of some ancient Egyptians who lived during the first 
four dynasties, have been found in a skeleton state in 
sarcophagi which had never been opened since the time they 
were cemented, some six thousand years ago, until the present 
day, it has been argued by some that mummification was not 
practised during the early dynasties in Egypt. Some system 
of preservation must have been adopted, however, because 
the bones are discoloured, and smell strongly of bitumen. 

The knowledge of the way in which the ancient Egyptians 
mummified their dead is obtained from the works of Greek 
historians, and from an examination of mummies. According 
to Herodotus,^ " When in a family a man of any consideration Account of 
dies, all the females of that family besmear their heads and ^y h«o"^ 
faces with mud, and then leaving the body in the house, they dotus. 
wander about the city, and beat themselves, having their clothes 
girt up, and exposing their breasts, and all their relations 
accompany them. On the other hand, the men beat them- 
selves, being girt up in like manner. When they have done 
this, they carry out the body to be embalmed. There are 
persons who are appointed for this very purpose ; they, when 
the dead body is brought to them, show to the bearers wooden 
models of corpses made exactly like by painting. And they 
show that Avhich they say is the most expensive manner of 
embalming, the name of which ^ I do not think it right to 
mention on such an occasion ; they then show the second. Three 
which is inferior and less expensive ; and then the third which ^"^em" ^ 
is the cheapest. Having explained them all, they learn from baiming. 
them in what way they wish the body to be prepared ; then 
the relations, when they have agreed on the price, depart ; but 
the embalmers remaining in the workshops thus proceed to 
embalm in the most expensive manner. First they draw out First 
the brains through the nostrils with an iron hook, taking part of ™^^^ 

> Papyrus Ebers, Bd. II., Glossarium Hieroglyphicum, by Stern, p. 47. 

2 Bk. II. 85. 

3 i.e., Osiris. 

E. M. N 


it out in this manner, the rest by the infusion of drugs. Then 
with a sharp Ethiopian stone they make an incision in the 
side, and take out all the bowels ; and having cleansed the 
abdomen and rinsed it with palm-wine, they next sprinkle it 
with pounded perfumes. Then having filled the belly with 
pure myrrh pounded, and cassia, and other perfumes, frankin- 
cense excepted, they sew it up again ; and when they have 
done this, they steep it in natrum, leaving it under for 70 
days ; for a longer time than this it is not lawful to steep it. 
At the expiration of the 70 days they wash the corpse, 
and wrap the whole body in bandages of flaxen cloth, 
smearing it with gum, which the Egyptians commonly use 
instead of glue. After this the relations, having taken the 
body back again, make a wooden case in the shape of a man,^ 
and having made it, they enclose the body ; and thus, having 
fastened it up, they store it in a sepulchral chamber,^ setting 
it upright against the wall. In this manner they prepare the 
bodies that are embalmed in the most expensive way. 
Second "Those who, avoiding great expense, desire the middle 

o/em°- way, they prepare in the following manner. When they have 


' Really in the form of the god Osiris. 

^ Compare raptx^vu 5k o XiyvimoQ' ovtoq fiev yf — \kyca 5* I'Swr — ^jipdvaQ rov 
ViKpbv ^vvdUTTvov Kal ^VfiTTOriiV eiroiiiaaTO, l^ucizUi De Z,uctUf §21 (ed. Dindorf, 
Paris, 1867, p. 569). 

AlyvnTioi 51 ra tvTipa l^t\6vTiQ Ti^pix^vovaiv avrovg, kui cfvv eavroic v-jrip 
yrjg txovaiv. Sextus Empiricus, Pyrrhoniarum Institulionam lib. III. cap. 24 
(ed. J. A. Fabricius, Leipzig, 1718, p. 184). 

Mortuos limo obliti plangunt : nee cremare aut fodere fas putant : verum 
arte medicatos intra penetralia coUocant. Pomponius Mela, lib. I. cap. 9 (ed. 
Gronov., Leyden, 1782, p. 62). 

Aegyptia tellus 
Claudit odorato post funus stantia saxo 
Corpora, et a mensis exsanguem baud' separat umbram . 

Silius Italicus, Punicorum lib. XIII. U. 474-476 
(ed. H. Occioni, Turin, 1889). 

Balsama succo unguentaque mira feruntur 
Tempus in aeternum sacrum servantia corpus. 

Corippi, De laudibus Jttstini, lib. III. 
11. 22-25 (ed. Antwerp, 1581, p. 4). 

MUMMY. 179 

charged their syringes with oil made from cedar, they fill the 
abdomen of the corpse without making any incision or taking 
out the bowels, but inject it at the fundament / and having 
prevented the injection from escaping, they steep the body 
in natrum for the prescribed number of days, and on the last 
day they let out from the abdomen the oil of cedar which 
they had before injected, and it has such power that it brings 
away the intestines and vitals in a state of dissolution ; the 
natrum dissolves the flesh, and nothing of the body remains 
but the skin and tKe bones| When they have done this they 
return the body without any further operation. 

" The third method of embalming is this, which is used Third 
only for the poorer sort. Having thoroughly rinsed the ^(^l^_ 
abdomen in syrmsea, they steep it with natrum for 70 days, balming. 
and then deliver it to be carried away."|^ 

According to Genesis 1. 3, the embalming of Jacob 
occupied 40 days, but the period of mourning was yo days. 
From Egj'ptian documents it is known that the length of the 
period from the death of a man to his burial varied ; in one 
case the embalming occupied 16 days, the bandaging 35 Period of 
days, and the burial yo days, i.e., 121 days in all. In a ^'^^^gnt 
second .case the embalming occupied 66 days, preparations varied in 
for burial 4 days, and the burial 26 days ; in all 96 days. ^"^ 
Elsewhere we are told that the embalming lasts yo or 80 
days, and the burial ten months.^ 

The account given by Diodorus (I. 91) agrees with that Account of 

of Herodotus in many particulars, but some additional details ^y dI™"^ 

are given. According to it, if any man died, all his relatives dorus. 

and friends threw dust or mud on their heads, and went 

round about through the town uttering cries of grief as long 

as the body remained unburied ; during the interval between 

the death and the burial, they abstained from the use of 

baths and wine, they partook of no choice foods, and they put 

not on fine apparel. The methods of embalming were three 

in number ; the most expensive, the less expensive, and the 

poorest of all. The first method cost one talent of silver, about Cost of 

a body. 

* Gary's translation, pp. 126, 127. 

' For the authorities see Wiedemann, Herodots Zweiies Buck, p. 358. 

N 2 



of em- 

^250; the second twenty minze, about £60; and the third 
cost very Httle indeed. The people who practise the art 
of embalming belong to a class of men in whose families this 
profession is hereditary, and they set down in writing a 
statement of the various methods of embalming practised by 
them and the cost of each, and ask the relatives of the dead 
man to decide upon the method to be adopted. When this 
question has been settled, the embalmers take the body into 
their charge, and they hand it to those who are fully 
acquainted with the process of embalming. The first of 
these called the "scribe" (ypafifxarev';) makes a mark on the 
left side of the body, which is laid upon the ground, to 
indicate where the incision is to be made. Next, a man, 
called the "ripper up" (■jrapaa-xtcrTJj'i), with an Ethiopian 
stone {Xidov AWlottikov) makes a cut in the side lengthwise 
of the size indicated by the scribe. Having done this, he 
flees away in all haste, pursued by his assistants, who hurl 
after him pieces of stone and call down curses, that vengeance 
may come upon him for this crime ; for the Egyptians hold 
in abomination anyone who wounds or commits an act of 
violence upon the human body. The embalmers (rapt^eiiTai) 
are held in high honour, and are treated with much conside- 
ration, because they are friends of the priests, and are allowed 
to enter the sanctuary as if they were ceremonially pure. 
Having assembled around the body, one of them puts his 
hand into it through the cut that has been made, and draws 
out everything that he finds inside, with the exception of the 
heart and reins (lungs .') ; others clean the intestines, and 
wash them with palm-wine and balsams. Finally, havin^g 
treated the body first with oil of cedar and other materials 
of this nature, and then with myrrh, cinnamon, and other 
sweetsmelling drugs and spices suitable for embalming 
purposes, they bring it into such a state of completeness, that 
the eye-lashes and eye-brows remain uninjured, and its form 
is so little changed that it is easy to recognize the features. 
The greater number of the Egyptians who keep the bodies 
of their ancestors in magnificent chambers, enjoy the sight of 
those who have been dead for several generations, and they 
feel great satisfaction in seeing the features and form of these 

MUMMY. l8l 

bodies, and look upon them, to a certain extent, as contem- 

With reference to the fleeing away of the paraschistes it is 
difficult to understand what Diodorus had in his mind. A 
little further on he says that the embalmers were great friends 
of the priests, and as this was certainly the case, the man 
who performed the operation probably merely fulfilled a reli- 
gious obligation in fleeing away, and had very little to fear. 
In some particulars Diodorus appears to have been mis- State- 
informed, and in any case the knowledge he possessed of Diodorus 
mummies could hardly have been at first hand. He lived too n°t wholly 
late (about B.C. 40) to know what the well-made Theban worthy, 
mummies were like, and his experience therefore would only 
have familiarized him with the Egypto-Roman mummies, in 
which the limbs were bandaged separately, and the contour 
of their faces, somewhat blunted, was to be seen through the 
thin and tightly drawn bandages which covered the face. A 
good example of a mummy made about this date is that of 
the lady Mut-em-Mennu, which is preserved in the British 
Museum, No. 6704 ; in this mummy the features of the face 
can be clearly distinguished underneath the bandages. 

A curious idea about the fate of the intestines taken from Fate of the 
the body obtained among certain Greek writers. Plutarch ^ '"'e^""^^- 
says, in two places, that when the Egyptians have taken them 
out of the body of the dead man, they show them to the sun 
as the cause of the faults which he had committed, and then 
throw them into the river, while the body, having been 
cleansed, is embalmed. Porphyry ^ gives the same account at 

1 of Tov vexpov avaTefj-vovrcs eSei^av ra rjXia, eir aira fiiv els rbv irorafiov 
Kareffakov, tov 6e nXXou cr<B/iaTos ^8i) KaOapov yf yovoToi intfieXovrai. Plutarch, 
V/I. Sap. Conv., XVI., ed. Didot, p. 188. Cf. also 'Effel KoKas (txev, aanep 
AlyvTTTwi, tS>v vfKpav rrjn Koikiav t^eXovTis Kui jrpos tov ip^iov dvairxlCovTes 
eK^aXKovaiV, mr aWiav aitavrav av 6 dvdptonos fjiiapTev. Plutarch, De Carnium 
Esu, Oratio Posterior, ed. Didot, p. 1219. 

" 'Ekeii/o iievToi oil TrapaiTeji.i!Teov, on Tovs mrodavovras rav ev yeyovdrau 
orav rapixfvuxTiv, 1819 Tr/v KoiXiav e^ekovTes Koi els Ki^arov ivBevres /ifra Tau 
aWav, av SianpaTTOVTOi vvep tov veKpov, Kal T^v Ki^arhv KparovvTes npos tow 
ij\tov [iapTvpovTai, fvor tS>v vnep tov vcKpov itoiovfiivov \6yov rav Tapixevrav. 


greater length, and adds that the intestines were placed in a 
box ; he also gives the formula which the embalmers used 
when showing the intestines to the sun, and says that it was 
translated by Ekphantos into Greek out of his own language, 
which was presumably Egyptian. The address to the sun and 
the other gods who are supposed to bestow life upon man, the 
petition to them to grant an abode to the deceased with the 
everlasting gods, and the confession by the deceased that he 
had worshipped, with reverence, the gods of his fathers from 
his youth up, that he had honoured his parents, that he had 
neither killed nor injured any man, all these have a sound 
about them of having been written by some one who had a 
knowledge of the "Negative Confession" in the 125th chapter 
of the Book of the Dead. On the other hand it is difficult to 
imagine any Greek acquainted with the manners and customs 
of the Egyptians making the statement that they threw the 
intestines into the river, for when they were not placed in jars 
separate from the body, they were mummified and placed 
between the legs or arms, and bandaged up with the body, 
and the future welfare of the body in the nether-world 
depended entirely upon its having every member complete. 
General An examination of Egyptian mummies will show that the 

of state- accounts given by Herodotus and Diodorus are generally 
ments of correct, for mummies both with and without ventral incisions 
and are found, and some are preserved by means of balsams and 

Diodorus. gums, and others by bitumen and natrum. The skulls of 
mummies which exist by hundreds in caves and pits at 

E(7Tt fie Koi 6 Xoyoff, ov jjpfi^v€V(r€V "EKCpavTos ^ €K r^ff TTarptov diaXeKTOv^ 
rowxJTOS, Q deairoTa ^Atc, Kal $eo\ ixcLvTts ot rr^v ^ajju Tols avSpatnoLS 6o»^T€ff, 
7rpo(r8e^aa'0e fie Kal irapaSore toIs aidiois Beois avvoiKov. 'Eyoj yap Toiis &€ovSy 
oDi 01 •yoj/fif poi irapeSst^av, evcre^av StereKovv oo-ov -x^povov iv Toi CKeivco 
alavi TOP ^Lov €i)(ov, tovs re to aaipA fiov yevvrja-avras ertfitov act ' rav re aKXcav 
av&ptanoiv ^ oijTe airdKreiva, ovre 7rapaKaTa6rjKr]v dTreaTiprjcra, ovre aWo oiheu 
dyrjKcarov Sie7rpa^dp.r]V. Et fie Ti apa Kara rov ipavTov ^lov ijp.apTop ^ tfiayatu 
^ 7ri(i>v <£)V pTj OeptTov ^v, ov fit epaVThv TJpapTOfy dWa 5ta ravTa [deltas rrjv 
KipaTOv, iv g r) yaarfip rjv). Porphyry, De Abstinentia, lib. IV., 10, ed. Didot, 

P- 75- 

' Wilkinson reads " Euphantos " {^Ancient Egyptians, iii. 479). 

2 Wiedemann {Herodots Zweites Buck, p. 354) adds ohlkva in brackets. 

MUMMY. 183 

Thebes contain absolutely nothing, a fact which proves that 
the embalmers were able not only to remove the brain, but 
also to take out the membranes without injuring or breaking 
the bridge of the nose in any way. Skulls of mummies are 
found, at times, to be filled with bitumen, linen rags, or resin. 
The bodies which have been filled with resin or some such 
substance, are of a greenish colour, and the skin has the ap- 
pearance of being tanned. Such mummies, when unrolled, 
perish rapidly and break easily. Usually, however, the resin 
and aromatic gum process is favourable , to the preservation 
of the teeth and hair. Bodies from which the intestines have 
been removed and which have been preserved by being filled 
with bitumen are quite black and hard. The features are 
preserved intact, but the body is heavy and unfair to look 
upon. The bitumen penetrates the bones so completely that Bodiespre- 
it is sometimes difficult to distinguish which is bone and tritumen,^ 
which is bitumen. The arms, legs, hands, and feet of such natron, 

and aro- 

mummies break with a sound like the cracking of chemical matic sub- 
glass tubing ; they burn very freely, and give out great heat. ='^n<=^*- 
Speaking generally they will last for ever. When a body has 
been preserved by natron, that is, a mixture of carbonate, 
sulphate, and muriate of soda, the skin is found to be hard, 
and to hang loosely from the bones in much the same way as 
it hangs from the skeletons of the dead monks preserved in 
the crypt beneath the Capuchin convent at Floriana, in Malta. 
The hair of such mummies usually falls off when touched. 

The Egyptians also preserved their dead in honey. 'Abd Bodies 
el-Latif relates that an Egyptian worthy of belief told him fn honey, 
that once when he and several others were occupied in 
exploring the graves and seeking for treasure near the 
Pyramids, they came across a sealed jar, and having 
opened it and found that it contained honey, they began to 
eat it. Some one in the party remarked that a hair in the 
honey turned round one of the fingers of the man who was 
dipping his bread in it, and as they drew it out the body of a 
small child appeared with all its limbs complete and in a good 
state of preservation ; it was well dressed, and had upon it 
numerous ornaments.* The body of Alexander the Great 
» 'Abd el-La tit, tr. 0e Sacy, p. 199 

1 84 


by bitumen 
and salt 

in the 

istics of 
of different 

was also preserved in " white honey which had not been 
melted." ' 

The bodies of the poor were preserved by two very cheap 
methods ; one method consisted of soaking in salt and hot 
bitumen, and the other in salt only. In the first process every 
cavity was filled with bitumen, and the hair disappeared ; 
clearly it is to the bodies which were preserved in this way 
that the name " mummy '' or bitumen was first applied. The 
salted and dried body is easily distinguishable. The skin is 
like paper, the features and hair have disappeared, and the 
bones are very white and brittle. 

The oldest mummy in the world about the date of which 
there is no doubt, is that of Seker-em-sa-f, ^ son of Pepi I. 
and elder brother of Pepi II., B.C. 3200, which was found at 
Sakkarah in 1881, and which is now at Gizeh. The lower 
jaw is wanting, and one of the legs has been dislocated in 
transport ; the features are well preserved, and on the right 
side of the head is the lock of hair emblematic of youth. An 
examination of the body shows that Seker-em-sa-f died very 
young. A number of bandages found in the chamber of his 
pyramid at Sakkarah are similar to those in use at a later 
date, and the mummy proves that the art of embalming had 
arrived at a very high pitch of perfection already in the 
Ancient Empire. The fragments of a body which were found 
by Colonel Howard Vyse in the pyramid of Mycerinus at 
Gizeh, are thought by some to belong to a much later period 
than that of this king ; there appears to be, howayer, no 
evidence for this belief, and as they belong to a man, and not 
to a woman, as Vyse thought, they may quite easily be the 
remains of the mummy of Mycerinus. The skeletons found 
in sarcophagi belonging to the first six dynasties fall to dust 
when air is admitted to them, and they emit a slight smell of 

Mummies of the Xlth dynasty are usually very poorly 
made ; they are yellowish in colour, brittle to the touch, and 
fall to pieces very easily. The limbs are rarely bandaged 
separately, and the body having been wrapped carelessly in a 

' Budge, History of Alexander the Great, p. 141. 

' Maspero, Guide du Visiteur an Musie de Boulaq, 1883, p. 347. 

MUMMY. 185 

number of folded cloths, is covered over lengthwise by one Character- 
large linen sheet. On the little finger of the left hand a mu^mL 
scarab is usually found; but besides this there is neither of different 
amulet nor ornament. The coffins in which mummies of this ''^"° ^' 
period are found are often filled with baskets, tools, mirrors, 
bows and arrows, etc., etc. 

Mummies of the Xllth dynasty are black, and the skin is 
dry ; bandages are not common, and in the cases where they 
exist they are very loosely put on. Scarabs, amulets, and 
figures of gods are found with mummies of this epoch. 

From the Xlllth to the XVIIth dynasties mummies are 
very badly made and perish rapidly. 

From the XVIIIth to the XX 1st dynasties the mummies 
of Memphis are black, and so dry that they fall to pieces at 
the slightest touch ; the cavity of the breast is filled with 
amulets of all kinds, and the green stone scarab inscribed with 
the XXXth chapter of the Book of the Dead was placed over 
the heart. At Thebes, during this period, the mummies are 
yellow in colour and slightly polished, the nails of the hands 
and feet retain their places, and are stained with henna. The 
limbs bend in all directions without breaking, and the art of 
careful and dainty bandaging has attained its greatest perfec- 
tion. The left hand wears rings and scarabs, and papyri 
inscribed with chapters of the Book of the Dead are found in 
the coffins, either by the side of the mummy, or beneath it. 

After the XXIst dynasty the custom arose of placing the 
mummy in a cartonnage, sewn or laced up the back, and 
painted in brilliant colours with scenes of the deceased ador- 
ing the gods and the like. 

In the period between the XXVIth dynasty and the 
conquest of Egypt by Alexander, the decoration of mummies 
reached its highest point, and the ornamentation of the car- 
tonnage shows the influence of the art of Greece upon that of 
Egypt. The head of the mummy is put into a mask, gilded 
or painted in bright colours, the cartonnage fits the body very 
closely, and the feet are protected by a sheath. A large 
number of figures of the gods and of amulets are found on the 
mummy itself, and many things which formed its private pro- 
perty when alive were buried with it. Towards the time of 

1 86 


istics of 
of different 


the Ptolemies, mummies become black and heavy ; bandages 
and body are made by the bitumen into one solid mass, 
which can only be properly examined by the aid of a hatchet. 
Such mummies are often wrapped in coverings inscribed with 
scenes and texts, copied, without any knowledge of their 
meaning, by an artist who altered them to suit his own fancy 
or purpose. 

About B.C. ICO mummies were very carefully bandaged ; 
each limb was treated separately, and retained its natural 
shape after bandaging, and the features of the face, somewhat 
blunted, are to be distinguished beneath the bandages. 

About A.D. 50 the desire on the part of relatives and 
friends to see the face of the deceased resulted in the inser- 
tion of a piece of wood, painted with his portrait, over the 
face of the dead man. The mummies, from this time on to 
the fourth century, are of little interest, for they become mere 
bundles ; scenes were painted, athwart and along the bodies, 
in which the deceased is represented adoring ill-shaped 
Egyptian deities ; but little by little the hieroglyphic inscrip- 
tions disappear, and finally those in Greek take their place. 
A remarkable example of a very late Grseco-Roman mummy, 
probably of the fourth century A.D., is British Museum 
No. 21,810. The body is enveloped in a number of 
wrappings, and the whole is covered with a thin layer of 
plaster painted a pinkish-red colour. Over the face is in- 
serted a portrait of the deceased, with a golden laurel crown 
on his head ; on the breast, in gold, is a collar, each side of 
which terminates in the head of a hawk. The scenes painted 
in gold on the body are : i. Anubis, Isis, and ISTephthys at the 
bier of the deceased. 2. Thoth, Horus, ursei, etc., referring 
probably to the scene of the weighing of the heart. 3. The 
soul revisiting the body, which is attempting to rise up from a 
bier, beneath which are two jars ; beneath this scene is a winged 
disk. Above these scenes in a band is inscribed, in Greek, 
"O Artemidorus, farewell." APTEMIAIjOPH, CYS'YXI ; 
and above the band is a vase ^ , on each side of which is a 

figure of Maat A . Mummies of children of this period have 
the hair curled and gilded, and hold bunches of flowers in 
their hands, which are crossed over their breasts. 

Mummy of Artemidorus. 
To face p. i86. 

MUMMY. 187 

In the early centuries of our era, mummies of wealthy people Descrip- 
were wrapped in royal cloth made wholly of silk.^ When [Xnmies 
Pisentios, Bishop of Coptos, and his disciple John took up ^Y Pisen- 
their abode in a tomb in the " mountain of Tchemi " (niTtOOT 
n (ThjlJlI = t:S:g ^^ "^N. ™ the necropolis of Thebes) they 

found it filled with a number of mummies, the names of which 
were written on a parchment roll which lay close by them. 
The two monks took the mummies and piled them up one upon 
the other ; the outer coffins were very large, and the coffins in 
which the bodies were laid were much decorated. The first 
mummy near the door was of great size, and his fingers and 
his toes were bandaged separately (neqTHfi. ft XIX rteJUL 
neq(ri.X<i.TX KHC n OVi-I OTi.l) ; the clothes in which he Silken 

, / . mummy 

was wrapped were made entirely of silk (g^oAOCHpiKOIt^ cloths. 
ftTe rtlOTDtUO'r).' The monk who wrote this description 
of mummies, and coffins, and silk, evidently described what 
he had actually seen. The huge outer coffins to which he 
refers belong to a very late period, as do also the highly- 
decorated inner coffins ; the fingers and toes being bandaged 
separately also points to a late Roman period. His testimony 

' Silk, Heb. ^'^'Q (Ezek. xvi. 10, 13), LXX., Tp/xajrTor, atipiKog (Rev. 
xvli. 12), Syr. (j'^A , was common in Greece and Rome at the end of the second 


century of our era. According to Aelius Lampridius (cap. 26), Heliogabalus was 
the first Roman who wore cloth made wholly of silk, holoserica vesie, and an idea 
of the value of silk in the early days of its adoption in Europe is gained from the 
fact that Aurelian denied his wife a shawl of purple silk because a pound of silk 
cost one pound weight in gold (Flavius Vopiscus, Vit. Aur., cap. 45). The 
custom of women wearing silk was railed at by Clement of Alexandria, Ter- 
tullian, Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage, Ambrose, Chrysostom and others ; yet Basil, 
about A. D. 370, illustrated the doctrine of the resurrection from the change of the 
chrysalis into a butterfly. The custom in Italy of wrapping dead bodies in silk 
is probably not earlier than the end of the third century, and in Egypt we may 
place it about one hundred years later. On the use of silk by the ancients, see 
Yates, Textrimtm Aniiquorum, pp. 161-249, ^^id for the collected statements 
of ancient authors on the subject, see G. D. Hoffman, Observationes circa 
Bombyces, Sericum, et Moras, ex antiquitalum, historiaruin, juriumqtie peitu 
depromptcE ; Tiibingen, 4to. , 1757. 

^ Greek oKoaripiKoq, 

' Yox the complete text see Amelineau, Ehiiie sitr le Christianisme en Egypte, 
P- 143- 


that silk was used for wrapping mummies is corroborated by 
the fact that within the last few years a number of mummies 
wrapped in cloths covered with silk^ have been found. In 
the British Museum is a fine specimen (No. 17,173), in v/hich 
two men on horseback, four dogs, flowers, etc., are woven 
in green and yellow on a reddish ground. The whole is 
inside a circular border ornamented with flowers. This piece 
of silk is sewn on a piece of fine yellow silk which is in turn 
sewn on a piece of ordinary mummy cloth to strengthen it. 
Mummy Mummies of the Roman period were identified by small 

wooden labels, of an average size of five inches by two inches, 
pierced at one end, and tied to the necks of the dead. The 
inscriptions record the name of the deceased, and sometimes 
those of his father and mother, and the number of years of his 
life ; some are in Greek only, a large number are bilingual, 
Greek and demotic, and a few also give the equivalent of the 
inscriptions in hieroglyphics. Unfortunately they are very 
easy to forge, for the natives use old wood from Egyptian 
coffins, and are able to imitate the inscriptions very closely, 
and many imitations are sold to tourists annually. 
Decline "phe Egyptian Christians appear to have adopted the 

baiming in System of mummifying, and to have mixed up parts of the 
to^hris-"^ old Egyptian mythology with their newly adopted Christi- 
tianiiy. anity. Already in the Ilird century of our era the art of 
mummifying had greatly decayed, and although it was 
adopted by wealthy people, both Christian and Pagan, for 
two or three centuries longer, it cannot be said to have been 
generally in use at a period later than the IVth century. 
I believe that this fact was due to the growth of Christianity 
in Egypt. The Egyptian embalmed his dead because he 
believed that the perfect soul would return to its body after 
death, and that it would animate it once more ; he therefore 
took pains to preserve the body from all destroying influences 
in the grave. The Christian believed that Christ would give 
him back his body changed and incorruptible, and that it 
was therefore unnecessary for him to preserve it with spices 

• For excellent coloured representations of Byzantine mummies, see Plates 
A and B, in Mimoires de la Mission Archeologique Franfaise au Caire, torn, iii., 
Paris, 1890. 


and drugs. The idea of embalming the body and keeping 
it in the house with the living seems to have been repugnant 
to many famous Christians in Egypt, and Anthony the Great 
admonished his tw^o faithful disciples not to allow his body to 
be taken into Egypt, but to bury it under the ground in a 
place known to none but themselves, lest it should be laid up 
in some dwelling. He disapproved of this custom, and had 
always entreated those who were in the habit of keeping the 
body above ground to give it up ; and, concerning his own 
body, he said, "At the resurrection of the dead I shall 
receive it from the Saviour incorruptible."^ For the descrip- 
tion of a plaque, which must have come from the mummy 
of a Copt, see under " Anubis " in the article " Figures of 
the Gods." 

Mummy Cloth. 

The bandages with which the bodies of men and animals Mummy 
are wrapped were, until comparatively lately, believed to be thouglTtTo 
made of cotton. In 1646 Greaves stated in his Pyramido- be made of 
graphia that the " ribbands, by what I observed, were of 
linen, which was the habit also of the Egyptian priests," and 
he adds, " of these ribbands I have seen some so strong and 
perfect as if they had been made but yesterday." Ronelle 
in the Mhnoires de VAcadhnie R. des Sciences, for 1750, 
asserted that every piece of mummy cloth that he had seen 
was made of cotton, and Forster^ and Solander, Larcher* 
and Maty, Blumenbach * and others accepted this opinion. 

^ )Lti) a^tirt Tirac to ffSfid fiov XfijSar uc AlyvirTov, fiijirojg Iv roTg oIkoiq 
airoSdivTai • rovrov yap x^P'" dov^Sov iig rb opoQ, xai ^Aflov HSc. OiSan Si xai 
TTuig act EVhTpenov ToiiQ tovto iroiovvrag, /cot TraprjyyiWov iravaaadai ri}Q roLavTTjs 
avvriSelas. Qaipart ovv to ij/i'srspov vjiiie, Kal inro yrjv Kpi^f/art ■ xai laria to 
Trap' ipiov prjli-a ^uAaTTO/itvov Trap' fj/uv, Skttc /niSiva yivdxjKiiv rbv tottov, ttX^v 
viiCtv iiovuv. 'Eyijt yap Iv Ty dvaaTaan rwv vsKpaiv airo\7i>pofiai irapa tov 
SuiTWoe a^Saprov avTO. — See Life of Antony by Athanasius. 

(Migne, Pairologiae, Ser. Grasc. lorn. 26, col. 972.) 

^ De Bysso Anti quorum, London, 1776, pp. 70, 71. 

3 Hirodote, Paris, 1802, p. 357. 

•• Beitrdge, Gottingen, 181 1, pt. 2, p. 73, 


Jomard thought that both cotton and linen were used for 
bandages of mummies ; ^ Granville, in the Philosophical 
Transactions for 1825, p. 274, also embraced this view. The 
question was finally settled by Mr. Thomson, who after a 
twelve years' study of the subject proved in the Philosophical 
Magazine (Ilird Series, Vol. V., No. 29, Nov., 1834) that the 
Mummy bandages were universally made of linen. He obtained for 
made of his researches about four hundred specimens of mummy 
imen. cloth, and employed Mr. Bauer of Kew to examine them 

with his microscopes. " The ultimate fibre of cotton is a 
transparent tube without joints, flattened so that its inward 
surfaces are in contact along its axis, and also twisted 
spirally round its axis : that of flax is a transparent tube 
jointed like a cane, and not flattened nor spirally twisted." ^ 
The coarse linen of the Egyptians was made of thick flax, 
and was used for making towels, awnings and sail-cloth ; ^ 
the fine linen, 'OOovrj, is thought by some to be the equivalent 
of the D^I^^P ptD« of Proverbs vii. 16. The Greek ^ivhmv 
= Heb. p19j was used to denote any linen cloth, and some- 
times cotton cloth ; but the a-ivS6vo<; ^vcraLvr]<; with which 
mummies, according to Herodotus (H. 86), were bandaged, 
is certainly linen. The Egyptian word usually translated 
by " byssus " is ^^ ^ g shens, Coptic cgeitc ; ordinary 

words for linen are ^^ '^ mak, '^^^^^ % M 5 metmui, 

Y 5 ^u, Coptic rtA.T = oOovLiov ^vcra-ivcDv (Rosetta Stone, 
1. 17). One piece of very fine texture of linen obtained at 
Thebes had 152 threads in the warp, and 71 in the woof, to 
each inch, and a second piece described by Wilkinson 
{Ancient Egyptians, HI. 165) had 540 threads in the warp, 
and no in the woof.* One of the cities in Egypt most 

' Description de PEgypte ; Mimoires sur les Hyfoghs, p. 35. 
^ See Yates, Textrinum Antiquorum ; London, 1843, p. 262, where the 
whole subject is carefully discussed. 

' Comp. iDll'll^n rrap-l^l tjjfij, Ezekiel, xxvii. 7. 

■• See also an interesting letter by De Fleury to M. Deveri.T on " Les Etoffes 
Egyptiennes "in Rev. Arch., t. XXI, Paris, 1870, pp. 217-221. 


famous for its linen industry was D ^ © Apu, the Pane- Panopolis 

1 -H the great 

polis of the Greeks,^ the ^jULijm. or cyjULirt of the Copts, centre of 
and Akhmim ^ of the Arabs ; but as Egypt exported great ^"^vers. 
quantities of this material, and also used immense quantities 
for bandages of mummies, it is probable that other cities 
also possessed large linen manufactories.' 

The length and breadth of mummy bandages vary from Mummy 
about 3 feet by 2^ inches, to 13 feet by 4J inches ; some are 
made with fringe at both ends, like a scarf, and some have 
carefully made selvedges. Large linen sheets several feet 
square are also found in tombs. The saffron coloured pieces 
of linen with which mummies are finally covered measure 
about 8 feet by 4 feet. Usually two or three different kinds of 
linen cloth are used in bandaging mummies. Mummy cloths 
are with very few exceptions quite plain, and it is only in 
the Greek times that the fine outer linen covering is 
decorated with figures of gods, etc., in gaudy colours. Several 
square pieces of linen in the Museums of Europe are 
ornamented with blue stripes, and it is pretty certain that the 
threads which form them were dyed with indigo before they 
were woven into the piece. As far back as the time of 
Amenophis III. it was customary to inscribe texts in the 
hieratic and hieroglyphic characters upon mummy cloths, 
and at that period large vignettes accompany the chapters 
from the Book of the Dead ; after the XXVIth dynasty 
hieratic only appears to have been used for this purpose, and 
the bandages, which are rarely more than four inches wide, 
are frequently so coarse that the text is almost illegible. 
Badly drawn vignettes, drawn in outline, usually stand at the 
top of each column of writing. 

The marvellous skill which the Egyptians displayed in Duration 
making linen did not die out with the fall of the native iinen^ 

* Haviiv ir6\if , KivovpySv Kai KiBovpyiov KaroiKia vaKaia, Strabo, XVII ., 1. 42. in Egypt. 
- Akhmim has a. population of about 10,000 souls, and of these looo are 

In the map published by Yates {Textrinum Anliqnorum, p. 250) to show 
the divisions ot the ancient world in which sheep's- wool, goat's-hair, hemp, cotton 
silk, beaver's-wool, camel's-wool, camel's-hair and linen are found, the only other 
districts where linen was made besides Egypt are Colchis, Cinyps, and a district 
ne^r the mouth of the Rhine. 



of Chris- 
tian necro- 
polis at 

the bodies. 

Age of the 

sovereigns of Egypt, and the Copts, or native Christians of 
that country, carried on the industry with splendid success 
until the twelfth century of our era. Although they ceased to 
mummify their dead, for the hope of the resurrection of the 
body given by Christianity practically killed the art of 
embalming, they continued to dress them in garments which 
are remarkable for the beauty of the embroidery and 
tapestries with which they are decorated. A great "find" 
of fine examples of this work was made at Akhmlm, the 
ancient Panopolis, in 1884. The graves at Akhmtm are 
about five feet deep, and are not indicated by any mound. 
The bodies appear to have been buried with natron sprinkled 
over them, for many of their garments are covered with 
crystals of this substance ; and they appear also to have been 
buried with their best clothes on. The head was provided 
with a band or cap, and was sometimes supported on a pillow. 
The body wore a tunic, and the feet had stockings, sandals or 
shoes upon them ; the head, breast, arms, and fingers were 
decorated with ornaments. The condition in life of the 
deceased was indicated by inscriptions on rectangular wooden 
tesserae (see p. 188), or by his tools, which were buried with 
him. The body was entirely covered over with linen and laid 
upon a board, and thus dressed was then deposited in the 
earth. The chief ornaments found in the tombs at Akhmim 
are: hair-pins and combs made of wood or bone; earrings of 
several shapes and forms made of glass ; silver and bronze 
filigree work, gold with little gold balls, and iron with pendent 
agates ; necklaces made of amber, coloured glass, and blue 
and green glazed faience beads ; torques, or neck-rings, made 
of bronze ; bracelets, open and closed, made of bronze, iron, 
glass and horn ; finger-rings of bronze ; and bronze belt 
buckles made in the form of a Christian cross. A large 
number of ivory crosses are also found ; the cross which is 
found so often on these objects was not used merely as an 
ornament, but as a special symbol and emblem of Christianity.^ 
The most ancient and the greater number of the tombs which 

1 I owe these details to Forrer, Die Graber und Textilfunde von Achmim 
— Panopolis. Strassburg, 1891, pp. 12, 13. This book contains 16 plates on 
which are photographed, in colours, 250 pictures of the textile fabrics and the 
other most interesting objects found at Akhmim, 


contained these belong to the second or third century after 
Christ, and the most recent to the eighth or ninth century;^ they 
are taken from bodies of Christians and heathen which were 
buried with or without coffins, or in private or common burial 
places. The Museum of Gobelins possesses a piece of cloth, 
the threads of the woof of which are made of pure silk, and 
this is said by M. Gerspach,^ the Director of the National 
Manufactory at Gobelins, to belong to a period subsequent to 
the eighth century, because silk does not appear in Egyptian 
tapestries until that century. It may then be considered that 
the Coptic linen work found at Akhmim covers a period of 
eight centuries, viz., ii-ix. M. Gerspach adds, " II est fort 
probable que les Coptes ont continue, pendant plusieurs 
siecles encore, une fabrication dans laquelle ils excellaient ; 
ils ont vraisemblablement travaill6 k ces milliers de pifeces 
representant les grands hommes de I'lslam, montrant des 
villes, des paysages et des animaux que poss^dait le calif 
Mostansser-Billah et qui furent brulees au Caire en 1062 avec 
les immenses richesses accumulees dans le D6p6t des ^ten- 
dards " (p. 2). Of the character, style, design, and antiquity Gerspach 
of Coptic linen work he says, " Le style est plus ou moins pur, i;nen°work 
mais il denote constammentunegrande libertd decomposition andde- 

- -1 •• 1 1.1-/ A signs. 

et de facture ; il est exempt de mmuties et de subtilites, meme 
lorsque nous ne comprenons pas tr^s bien la pensde de I'artiste. 
Quand il ne se rattache pas a la decoration romaine ou a I'art 
oriental, il est original, il a un caractere propre, une saveur 
particuliere, qu'il soit fin comme nos dentelles ou ^pais et 
obtus comme les ornements des races infifrieures ; il constitue 
alors, dans une manifestation intime et populaire, un genre 
special qu'on nommera peut-etre bientdt le style copte. A 
premiere vue, en effet, on retrouve I'antiquitd dans les pieces 
les plus simples, qui sont aussi les plus anciennes ; en gdndral, 
ces morceaux sont d'une seule couleur pourpre ou brune, avec 

' According to Forrer (p. 26), the foundation of the cemetery at Akhmim may 
be dated in the first or second century after Christ, and the decay of the art of the 
best kind is to be sought at the end of the seventh or in the course of the eighth 
century after Christ. 

^ Les Tapisseries Coptes, Paris, 1890, p. 2. This most interesting work 
contains 153 reproductions in one or more colours of the most important designs 
found on Akhmim linen. 

B. M. O 


des filets clairs en lin ^cru. Le dessin est sommaire, net, 
sobre, bien combing, harmonieux, d'une grande franchise 
plastique, dans le style qu'adoptera ultdrieurement I'art 
heraldique ; naturellement, dans la figure il est plus faible 
que dans rornement, car le tapissier, avec sa broche, ne trace 
pas aussi facilement que le cdramiste avec son pinceau ; nous 
devons excuser les tapissiers Coptes, leurs successeurs de tous 
les temps et de tous les pays ayant comme eux fait plus ou 

moins de fautes de dessin Les tapisseries polychromes^ 

sont g^n^ralement posterieures a cette premiere s6rie, mais il 
importe de faire remarquer que certains modeles primitifs 
n'ont pas et^ abandonn^s et qu'on les retrouve dans les tissus 

raodernes du bas Danube et de I'Orient Jusqu'ici ^ le 

dessin est clair et lisible ; maintenant nous arrivons a une 
suite inf^rieure ; les lignes se compliquent et les formes 

deviennent 6paisses ; Tornement est encore dans un 

bon esprit, mais les figures sont faibles Avec les si^cles 

suivants, nous tombons dans une decadence relative, moins 
profonde que celle de la mosaique au IX" siecle ; le corps 
humain est contourn6, strapass6 ; les t^tes sont bestiales ; les 
animaux sont difformes et fantastiques, pourvus de sortes de 
tentacules ; ils se transforment en ornements ; la flore n'est 
m^me plus ornemanis^e ni conventionelle ; certains motifs sont 
incompr^hensibles ; I'ornement, mieux tenu, prdsente toujours 
des combinaisons int^ressantes ; . . . . meme dans leurs fautes, 
les Coptes cotitinuent a prouver qu'ils sont decorateurs."- 

Canopic Jars or Vases. 

" Canopic jars " is the name given to the series of four 
jars in which the principal intestines of a deceased person 
were placed. They were thus named by the early Egyptolo- 
gists, who believed that in them they saw some confirmation 
of the legend handed down by some ancient writers that 
Canopus, the pilot of Henelatis, who is said to have been 
buried at Canopus, in Egypt, was worshipped there under the 
form^of a jar'with small feet, a thin neck, a swollen body, and 

' Of the fourth century. 
^ Fifth century. 


a round back. Each jar was dedicated to one of the four 
genii of the underworld, who represented the cardinal points, 
and each jar was provided with a cover which was made in 
the shape of the head of the deity to whom it was dedicated. 
The names and characteristic heads 9f each are: — i. Mestha g^^^^lY 
or Amset |^P](|5|J^P'=^^> man-headed. 2. Hapi ^he dead. 
Ad(](J^, dog-headed. 3. Tuamautef^'^ "^ ^ jackal- 
headed. 4. J J ^ |y i^^ in 2?.=^ ^ Qebhsennuf, hawltheaded. 
Mestha represented the south, Hapi the north, Tuamautef 
the east, and Qebhsennuf the west. -These four gods are, in 
some texts, said to be the children of Horus, and in others 
the children of Osiris. Each jar' was hollowed out and re- 
ceived one of the larger intestines after it had been steeped in 
bitumen and wrapped up in bandages ; the covers of the jars 
were then fastened on by plaster. Mr. Pettigrew examined 
the contents of one set of vases, and if was found that _the 
vase dedicated to Mestha contained the stomach" and large 
intestines ; that dedicated to Hapi, the small intestines ; that 
dedicated to Tuamautef, the lungs and heart ; and that dedi- 
cated to Qebhsennuf, the liver and gall-bladder. Canopic jars -^ge of 
first appear about the XVIIIth dynasty, and they continue in jars. ' 
use until the XXVI th dynasty, after which time the Egyptians 
appear to have been somewhat careless about them, and either 
to have preferred to bury the intestines inside the body or to 
have forgotten the significance of their use. In the XVIIIth 
dynasty they are made of the most beautiful alabaster and 
arragonite, and fine calcareous stone ; in the XXVIth dynasty 
they are still made of these substances, but green and blue 
glazed faience and wood also appear. Later they are made 
of terra-cotta, and the covers are all made in the same shape ; 
sometimes they have the shape of a vessel of the same dia- 
meter at the bottom as at the top, the gods being traced upon 
them, in outline,- on the outside surface. Frequently the jars 
are made of wood, painted with bright colours, and sometimes 
solid wooden models only are found in the tombs, a fact which 
shows sometimes the poverty of the deceased, and some- 
times probably the dishonesty of the funeral furnisher. When • 
the intestines were not buriedjn jars they were returned to the 

O 2 



body, and figures of Mestha, Hapi, Tuamautef and Qebhsennuf 
made of wax, sheet silver, gold or porcelain, were laid 
upon the parts which these gods were supposed to protect. 
On the alabaster and stone jars the inscriptions were incised, 
and on wood' and faience they were painted or traced in out- 
line in ink. In papyri of the XVIIIth and XlXth dynasties, 
the vignettes of the 17th chapter of the Book of the 
Dead show that Canopic jars werg placed in a sepulchral 
chest, upon the sides of which were painted figures of the four 
gods, in the form of men, but each having its characteristic 

" Canopic " Jar. 



head. Out of the cover there rises the sun with the head and 
arms of a man, and in each hand he holds -f- dnch, " life." 
{Papyrus of Ani, pi. 8.) On papyri and coffins of a later period 
the jars ar-e shown arranged in a row under the bier. In the 
IS 1st chapter of the Book of the Dead the four gods are 
shown standing in the mummy chamber, one at each corner ; 
the inscriptions which refer to them read : — 


met' an 

^ I 

i a 





" / am Mestha son thy, O Osiris. 


Ausar Speech of 

un a 

em sau 


Come have I thai may be I itt protection thy. Make to flourish I 






pa - k men sep sen utu en Ptah, ma utu en 

house thy, firm, firm, hath commanded Ptah, as commanded 

Ra t'esef 
Ra himself." 


\ A 

met' /an Hapi 



nuk Hapi 

" / am Hapi 


se k Ausar Speech of 
son thy, O Osiris. ' 

1 A 



un - a em sau k 
Come have I that may be I in protection thy. Tie up [/] for thee 



ees k 



III c^ <l\ 
tep at - k bui nek 

head and limbs thy, smiting down for thee 


I I I 

k ' 


xer k erta - na nek tep t'etta 

beneath thee. Give I to thee head [thy] for ever}' 

III. ]-| 

Speech of 



met' an 


meriu k 
loving thee. 


i na 

Come have I 


" I am 

se k Hem 

son thy Horns 





net' tef Ausar 

to avenge father [my] Osiris, 



em ta ari nek nek f ta a su 

not allowing to be done to thee destruction his. Place I it 

^ \\ 

xer ret k t'etta sep sen 
under feet thy for ever and ever." 

IV. In 

1 1 1 


Speech of 



met' an Qebh sennuf 
Says Qebh sennuf 

51 1 

' I am 


un a em sau 

se k Ausar 
son thy Osiris. 

1 na un a em sau k temt a 

Coine have I that may be I in protection thy. Gather together 1 


kesu k 
bones thy, 




a I I I 

at k 


r-f-fv^r-f^ /vvAAA'x 


a at k an - na nek 
/ limbs thy, bring I for thee 




ab k ta a nek su her auset f 
heart thy, place I for thee it upon seat its 

her auset 



em x^^ ^ 
in body thy, 


^ I 

serut na pa k 

make flourish I house thy." 

The inscriptions on the /jutsides of the jars, which are 
sometimes accompanied by inscribed figures of the four gods, 
vary considerably ; sonie. consist of a few words only, but 
others occupy several lines. These inscriptions show that , 
each of the four gods was under the protection of a goddess ; 
thus Isis guarded Mestha, Nephthys guarded Hapi, ISleith 
guarded Tuamautef, and Selket or Serqet guarded QebhsenfiuT~" 
The following are examples of the formulae inscribed on 
these jars : — ^ 

I. Amset, 


met an 






sa her 

protection over 

t'et setep - a 
the foe, make I 

Speech of 


enti am a sa 

who is in me. The protection of 


flk^l i-lk^s3 

Ausar sa AmseS Ausar Amse0 

Osiris [/.r] the protection of Amseth, [for] Osiris [is] Amseth." 

^ These inscriptions are taken from the set of Canopic jars exhibited in the 
British Museum, Nos. 886 to 889 ; they were made for the commander of soldiers 

(Il3ke@KM]T(! ¥fli h^^ 

Nefer-ab-Ra-em-yut, Psammetichus, son of Neith, son of Ta-ta- 

nub-hetep. See Sharpe, Egyptian Inscriptions, 1st Series, pi. I14. 
^ Here follow the name and titles of the deceased. 



"■s^"-^A I f°i 


Speech of 

met' an Nebt-het hap a se^eta 

Says Nephthys, " Hide I the secret 

an - a 
F, make I 


^ A, 

bessa her Hapi enti 
protection over Hdpi who is 

am a 

in me. 

The protection of 



U i- °^ ?M 

Ausar sa Hapi Ausar pu Hapi 

Osiris \is'\ the protection of Hdpi, [for'] Osiris [is] Hdpi." 


'U P 



Speech of 

met' an Net setua a 

Ayj- Neith, "Make pass the morning I, 





semaser a hru neb her ari maket en 

make pass the night I of day every in making the protection of 





which is 




am a sa Ausar 

in me. The protection of Osiris 



Speech of 

Ausar pu 
[is\ the protection of Tuamdutef, [for] Osiris [i.s\ 

IV. Qebhsennuf. \% \ 1 

met' an Serqet 



u p^- 


sa a hru neb ari maket en 

"protection my day every in making protection of 




entet am a sa Ausar sa 

which is in me. The protection of Osiris \is'\ the protection of 

Qebh-sennnu-f Ausar pu Qebh-sennu-f 

Qebh-sennuf [for] Osiris [is] Qedh-sennuf." 

Frequently the first parts of these inscriptions read, ^^^'^^^ 

M ^\, nI 9^^^^ ^'^ aduz her enti 

^ ^ y? •^ „ c> ^ /www f^ ra K^ readings. 

dm-d. " I embrace with my two arms that which is in me ;" 

the variants for H ( | being 1 (j se^en and N ^ 

«^^/ frequently also they only contain the names and titles 

of the deceased preceded by the words ^ [1(1 dm-xi %£^ 

" watchfully devoted to," which are followed by the names of 
the four gods. Often the same formula is repeated on all 
four jars. 

Chests for Canopic Jars. fi=S\ 

__The_chests, or coffers, which held Canopic jars were made 
of wood, and were usually painted black ; they were fitted on 
"aTKind of sledge with two runners, the ends of which were 
roilhded. They are about two feet square. On one end-are- 
traced in outline figures of Neith and $erqet, and on the other 
Isis and Nephthys ; on the one side are Mestha and Hapi, 
and on the other Tuamautef and Qebhsennuf By the side of 
each god is inscribed the formula which is given in the 
151st chapter of the Book of the Dead, and by the side of 
each goddess is inscribed the formula which is , found on 
Canopic vases. (Excellent examples of chests on sledges are 
Nos. 8543 «, and 8543 3, 3rd Egyptian Room, British Museum.) 
The inside of the chest is divided into four equal spaces by 
wooden partitions, and in each stood a jar. The use of such 
chests is certainly as old as the Xllth dynasty. 



The Book of the Dead. 

The Book 
of the 
Dead not a 

copies of 
the Book 
of the 

The collection of chapters, or distinct compositions, which 
the ancient Egyptians inscribed upon pyramids, walls of 
tombs, sarcophagi, coffins and papyri, amulets and other 
objects which were buried in the tombs with the dead was 
called " Rituel Funiraire " by Champollion, and this mislead- 
ing name was adopted by De Roug6, who, in his Etudes sur 
le Rituel Fun^raire des Anciens Egyptiens,^ brought forward 
reasons for so doing, and considered that all he had said 
"justifie suffisamment, suivant nous, le titre choisi par Cham- 
pollion." Champollion's grammar shows that he had studied 
every part of the so-called Ritual, and the many short passages 
which he translated prove that he recognized the nature of 
its contents, and rightly appreciated its great value from a 
religious point of view ; it is quite clear, however, that he 
never completely analysed a single chapter of it, and that he 
never translated any passage from it of considerable length. 
Had this remarkable man lived to examine the work further 
he would have seen that it was not a " Ritual." ^ This 
collection of chapters was entitled " Todtenbuch " by Lepsius, 
in 1842, and by the name " BoOK OF THE Dead" it is now 
most generally known. 

The earliest publications of parts or whole copies of the 
Book of the Dead were made by Cadet (J. Marc), Copie 
figurie d'un rouleau de Papyrus, trouve a Thebes, dans un 
tombeau des Rois, Strassburg, 1805 ; Fontana, Copie figure'e 
d'un rouleau de papyrus trouv^ en Egypte, publiee par Fontana 
et expliquie par Joseph de Hammer, Vienna, 1822 ; Sen- 

1 In Rervue Archiologique, N.S., torn. i. i860, pp. 69-100, 234-249, 337-365. 

2 Dieser Codex ist kein Ritualbuch, wofur es Champollion's Bezeichnung 
" Rituel Funeraire" zu erklaren scheint ; es enthalt keine Vorschriften fur den 
Todtenkultus, keine Hymnen oder Gehete, welche von den Priestern etwa bei der 
Beerdigung gesprochen worden waren : sondern der Verstorbene ist selbst die 
handelnde Person darin, und der Text betrifft nur ihn und seine Begegnisse au£ 
der langen Wanderung nach dem irdischen Tode. Es wird entweder erzahlt und 
beschrieben, wohin er kommt, was er thut, was er hort und sieht, oder es sind die 
Gebete und Anreden, die er selbst zu den verschiedenen Gbttem, zu welchen er 
gelangt, spricht. Lepsius, Vorwort ( Todtenbuch), p. 3. 


kowski, Exemplum Papyri Aegyptiacce quam in peregrinatione 
sua repertain Universitati Cracoviensi dono dedit, Petropoli, 
1826;^ Yo\xr\g,Hieroglyphics,\^ox\.Aor\, 1823, fol, plates I.-VI. ; 
Hawkins, Papyri in the Hieroglyphic and Hieratic character 
from the Collection of the Earl of Behnore, London, 1843, fol., 
plates 1-8 ; and Rosellini, iJr^w^ notizia intorno unframmento 
di Papiro funebre egizio essistente nel ducale museo di Parma ; 
Parma, 1839, 8vo ; Description de I'Egypte, ed. Jomard, Anti- 
quit^s, torn. ii. The most important publication, however, 
was that of Lepsius in 1842, who under the title of Das Lepsius 
Todtenbuch der Aegypter, reproduced the complete text of the Turin 
a papyrus at Turin, which contained 165 chapters. The Papyrus, 
custom of inscribing chapters of Books of the Dead upon the 
walls of the sarcophagus chambers of tombs is as old as the 
Vth dynasty, but at that epoch large, well-spaced hiero- 
glyphics, arranged between lines, occupy the walls conjointly 
with architectural decorations ; ^ towards the Vlth dynasty 
the space allotted for decorative purposes becomes narrower, 
the hieroglyphics are smaller, and the inscriptions overflow 
into the passages and chambers, the walls of which, in earlier 
times, were left blank. The pyramids of the Vth and Vlth 
dynasties which have inscriptions on their inner walls are 
those of Unas, Teta, Pepi I., Pepi II., and Seker-em-sa-f ; this 
set of inscriptions is usually called the " Pyramid Texts, " The Pyra- 
and they have been published with a French translation by ™' 
Maspero in Recueil de Travaux : Unas, tom. iii., pp. 177-224, 
and tom. iv., pp. 41-78 ; Teta, tom. v., pp. 1-60; Pepi I., tom. v., 
pp. 157-199, torn, vii., pp. 145-176, tom. viii., pp. 87-119; 
Pepi XL, tom. ix., pp. 177-190, tom. x., pp. 1-28, tom. xi., 
pp. 1-30, tom. xii., pp. 53-95. 136-195- 

During the Xlth dynasty the custom of writing chapters 
of the Books of the Dead upon wooden coffins or sarcophagi 
became common ; examples of the texts of this period, 

written upon coffins in the hieratic character, have been Texts in- 
scribed up- 
on coffins. 

' This book was published at the expense of the Academy of St. Petersburg, 
and. never came into the market. 

^ Maspero, La Religion Egyptienne, d'afrh les Pyramides de la V et de la 
VI' Dynastie (in Revue de rHistoire des Religions, Paris, 1885, p. 124). 



Texts writ- 
ten upon 

and orna- 
of papyri. 

published by Lepsius ^ and Birch.^ At this period Books 
of the Dead were also written upon papyrus.' 

After the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt by the 
kings of Thebes, copies of the Book of the Dead were usually 
written upon papyri, and these papyri are of various lengths 
and widths. The roll of papyrus was often placed in a rec- 
tangular niche in the wall of the tombs, or in the coffin by the 
side of the mummy ; sometimes it was placed between the legs, 
and sometimes it was fastened under the bandages. The length 
and style of execution of the work depended entirely upon 
the fancy of the relatives of the dead man. Books of the Dead, 
illuminated and plain, formed part of the stock in trade of 
the Egyptian undertaker. If the purchaser were rich he would 
probably select the best copy he could buy ; if poor he would 
be content with a simple undecorated text. In these " stock " 
copies blank spaces were left to receive the names of the 
deceased for whom they were purchased. Copies are extant 
in which, through omission or neglect, no name whatever has 
been inserted. The numerous badly-written and incorrect 
copies which are so common in the museums of Europe are 
probably the result of cheap work ; careless work, however, 
exists in the most beautiful papyri, and some of the finest 
known contain blunders which show not only that the scribe 
was careless, but also that he did not understand what he was 
writing. Books of the Dead are written in the hieroglyphic 
and hieratic characters, and are ornamented with pictures of 
the gods, sacred animals and birds, mythological scenes, re- 
presentations of the funeral procession, etc., etc., painted, at 
times, in as many as thirteen colours. The titles of the 
chapters, catch-words, and certain passages are written in red, 
and the text in black. Hieroglyphic texts are usually written 
in perpendicular lines, and those in hieratic in horizontal lines. 
The vignettes and scenes were probably executed by one 
class of men, and the text by another, and it seems some- 
times as if the relatives of the dead spent nearly all the 

* Aelteste Texte des Todtenlmchs, Berlin, 1867, 4to. 
^ The Coffin of Amanm, London, 1886, fol. 

" For the fragments found with the mummy of An-Antef, see B.M. First 
Egyptian Room, Case D. 


money which they could afford to spend upon a copy of the 
Book of the Dead on the artists' work for pictures, while they 
left the execution of the text to an inferior scribe. Although 
many of the faulty readings which occur in the Book of the 
Dead are to be attributed to the carelessness of the scribe, it 
is quite certain that a very large number were the result of 
his ignorance, and that, at times, he did not know which was 
the beginning or end of the text which he was about to copy. 
In proof of this M. Naville^ has reproduced from a papyrus 
the 77th chapter copied from the wrong end, and on the 
opposite page he gives the restored text in the right order. 
An examination of papyri shows that frequently more than 
one artist and scribe were employed in making a single copy 
of the Book of the Dead ; but it is also evident that in some 
instances both the vignettes and the text were the work of 
one man. 

According to M. Naville the Book of the Dead is known 
to us in four recensions : — 

1. That of the Old and Middle Empires, which is usually The recen- 

written in hieroglyphics. B°ok°of ""^ 

2. The Theban recension, which was much used from "^^ Dead. 

the XVIIIth-XXth dynasty, also written in 

3. The redaction closely resembling that of Thebes 

which obtained after the XXth dynasty, and 
which was written in hieratic ; in it the chapters 
have no fixed order. 

4. A text of the Sa'i'te and Ptolemaic periods written 

both in hieroglyphic and hieratic characters ; this 
text shows that the Book of the Dead at this 
epoch had undergone a thorough revision, and 
in it the chapters have a fixed order. 

The texts of the earliest recension are, for the most part, 
written in hieroglyphics upon tombs and sarcophagi, but texts 
written upon papyrus in hieroglyphic and hieratic characters 
took their place, probably because they cost less money, and 

' In his Einleihmg, pp. 42, 43. 


because the relatives of the deceased could make them as 

long or as short as they pleased. It is probable that Books 

of the Dead were not written in hieratic during the XVIIIth 


Acorn- In September, 1874, at a special meeting of the second 

plete edi- International Congress of Orientalists, a resolution was passed 

Book of to the effect that for the furtherance of Egyptian studies an 

the Dead edition of the Book of the Dead, or the "Bible of the Old 

contem- . 1 1 j t 

plated. Egyptians," as critical and complete as possible, should be 
steadily kept in view. It was further resolved that such an 
edition should contain the text of the Book of the Dead in 
three forms : — i. Under the Old Empire ; 2. Under the Theban 
dynasties of the New Empire ; 3. Under the Psammetici 
(XXVIth dynasty).^ A Committee was formed which was 
composed of Messrs. Birch, Lepsius, Chabas and Naville, and 
M. Naville M. Naville undertook the labour of this work. At the instance 
undertakes Qf Lepsius the Berlin Academy voted a sum of 3,000 

to make ^ _ _ ■' 

theedition. marks for preliminary expenses, and the Prussian Govern- 
ment voted 4,800 thalers for its publication. When M. Naville 
began to collect materials for his edition, he found that the 
texts of the Old Empire were so few while those of the 
XXVIth dynasty were so many, and had so few actual 
variants in them, that he abandoned the idea of making an 
edition of the texts of the first and third recensions, and at 
the Fourth International Congress of Orientalists held at 
Florence, in September, 1878, he asked the Committee to 
Change allow him to alter the original plan, and he stated his inten- 
of plan. ^Jqj^ q^ confining himself to collecting carefully all the neces- 
sary texts for a critical edition of the Theban recension of the 
Book of the Dead. He believed that in order to obtain a 
correct text of this recension, accurate copies of carefully 
written papyri must be published, from which, by comparison, 
the text may be emended. In 1886 M. Naville gave to the 
world the two volumes which contained the results of his 
twelve years' labour, under the title of Das Aegyptische Tod- 
tenbuch der X VIII. bis XX. Dynastie, Berlin,^ fol. The first 

' Transactions of the Second Session of the International Congress of Orien- 
talists, held in London, in September, 1874, London, 1876, p. 442. 

^ Lepsius unfortunately died before the work was issued. Egyptologists are 
indebted to Dr. Dillmann of Berlin for the issue of this valuable work. 


volume contains the text ^ and vignettes which were ably 
drawn by Madame Naville, and the second contains the 
variants. In a small quarto volume published a few months 
later, we have four chapters in which are discussed the 
Theban edition of the Book of the Dead, its history, its im- 
portance and the manner in which it was written ; the descrip- 
tion of the texts used by M. Naville, remarks on each chapter 
of the Book of the Dead, and a list of the chapters in hiero- 
glyphics. The texts of the Theban recension contain many 
corrupt readings, but it is of the greatest importance to have 
the material at hand from which a critical edition may one 
day be made, and M. Naville has rendered invaluable service 
to the science of Egyptology by bringing it together.^ 

Among the most valuable publications of texts of the Recent 
Theban recension of the Book of the Dead must be mentioned, copies of 
Plwtographs of the Papyrus of Nebseni^ in the British Museum, texts. 
1876, fol. ; Facsimile of the Papyrus of Ani (published by the 
Trustees of the British Museum, 1890, fol.); Papyrus Funeraire 
de. Nebset, ed. Pierret, 1872 ; and the papyrus of Shuti-Qenna, 
by Leemans, Papyrus Egyptien Funeraire Hi^roglyphique du 
Mus^e a Leide, 1882, Livraison 5, Part III. 

A useful example of a hieroglyphic text of the Book of 
the Dead not earlier than the XXVIth dynasty, is that which 
Lepsius published in 1842 from a papyrus in Turin ; the text 
is full of blunders and difficulties but, notwithstanding this 
fact, the work is a standard one for reference, and is of consi- 
derable value. Of hieratic texts belonging to a period subse- 
quent to the XXVIth dynasty, the copy published by De 
Roug6 is an excellent example.^ 

An English translation of the Book of the Dead was Transia- 
published by Birch in the English edition of Bunsen's Egypt's Book°of ^ 
Place in Universal History, NoV V, pp. 161-333, aid a French the Dead, 
translation by Pierret, entitled Le Livre des Marts des Anciens 

• M. Naville bases his text chiefly upon British Museum Papyrus 9,900, 
and the papyri which he calls Ca and Vb. 

^ See the review of this work by Maspero in Revue de THistoire des Religiojis, 
Paris, 1887, pp. 263-315. 

2 B.M. No. 9900. 

■• Rituel Funi-raire des Anciens Egyptiens, Paris, t86i, fol. 



of the 
Book of 
the Dead. 

Egyptiens, appeared in Paris, in 1882 ; both these were, how- 
ever, made from the text of the Turin papyrus.^ A German 
translation of the first fifteen chapters was pubHshed by 
Brugsch in Aeg. Zeitschrift, 1872, pp. 65-72, iic^-i'iiAf, and 
specially interesting chapters have been discussed by Birch,^ 
Maspero,^ Lef^bure,^ Guieysse,' Pierret,* and others. A number 
of " supplementary " chapters were published by Pleyte {Cha- 
pitres siipplementaires du Livre des Marts, 162, 162*, 164-174) 
with translation and commentary, at Leyden in 1881, and 
Schiaparelli has translated and commented upon a large por- 
tion of one of the Books of the Dead in // libra dei funerali 
degli aiitichi Egiziani? 

The age of the Book of the Dead is unknown, but it is 
certain that parts of it are as old as the beginning of Egyptian 
civilization, and Theban tradition in Egypt asserted that the 

130th chapter was as old as Hesep-ti, 4^^ ( i— j— j^^ | 


fifth king of the 1st dynasty ; the 64th chapter is variously 
stated to belong to the time of this king and to that 
of Men-kau-Ra (Mycerinus) of the IVth dynasty." The 
178th chapter must also be at least as old as the time of this 
last king, because it is inscribed on the cover of his wooden 
cofiin, which is now preserved in the British Museum (ist 
Egyptian Room, No. 6647).' The oldest chapters appear to 
have been composed at Heliopolis, the great sanctuary and 
home of religious learning in Egypt, which was to the 

' A complete list of the words in this papyrus is to be found in Lieblein, Index 
Alphabitique, Paris, 1875. 

' The Chapter of the Pillmv, Aeg. Zeii., 1868, p. 52; the Chapter of the Heart, 
ibid., 1880, p. 56 ; and the Chapter of the Tie, ibid. 

^ Le Chapiire de la Boucle, in Memoire sur quelques Papyrus du Louvre, 
Paris, 1875. 

* Les yeux d'Horus, Paris, 1874. 

^ Rituel funiraire Egyptien, Paris, 1876. 

' Etudes Egyptologiques, p. 85. 

' Estratto dal Volume VIII delle Meinorie della R. Accademia dei Lincei, 
Torino, 1882 and 1890. 

8 Naville, Einleitung, p. 31. 

' I am aware that doubts have been thrown upon the age of this cover by a 
French writer, but it seems to me that the appearance and condition of the wood 
preclude any possibility of the theory that this cover was " restoied " at a later 
period of Egyptian history being correct. 


Egyptians what Jerusalem was to the Jews and Mecca is to 
the Mussulmans. The growth in the length of the chapters 
and the increase in their number was probably slow but 
sure ; and that revisions should take place from time to time 
is only what was to be expected. 

The commonest name for the Book of the Dead in Egyptian 

^-^ g, *\ f~. name of 

Egyptian is ^^ v\ fU Y> ^ peri em hru, which is gene- the Book 

"^— ^ J\ jS^ <::rr> _Zr I of the 

rally translated by " coming forth, or going out, by day ; " Dead, 
this was probably only a conventional name, and may 
account for the difficulty which scholars have had in agreeing 

as to its meaning. Another name is , — , I (I M'^l^ 

Re eii sedqerxu, "The Chapter of making strong the beatified 
spirit." (Naville, Einleitung, p. 24.) The author of the Book 
of the Dead was said to be the god Thoth. 

The Book of the Dead is composed of a series of chapters,^ 
each one of which formed a distinct composition, which could 
be added to or omitted from a papyrus according to the 
wish of those who were causing a copy to be made.^ Cham- 
pollion divided the book into three parts: — chapters 1-15, 
16-125, and 126 to the end ; but had this scholar lived to 
devote more time and attention to the subject he would have 
seen that these divisions^ were purely arbitrary. 

The Book of the Dead treats of the dead man's journey The object 
through Amenti, and in it he speaks to the incorporeal gods Book of 
and beings who reside there, uttering the formulae which will "^^ Dead, 
deliver him from the foes who wish to impede his progress, 
reciting prayers, and chanting hymns to the great gods, with 
all of whom these compositions were supposed to enable him 

1 A Theban papyrus never contains more than ninety chapters. 

2 Es ist aber auch eine unrichtige Vorstellung, dass dieses Buch ein einziges 
Ganzes, eine in sich abgeschlossene von Anfang bis Ende fort schreitende 
Beschreibung der Seelenwanderung sei, welche von einem Verfasser so und in 
dieser Ausdehnung herriihre. Es ist vielmehr eine Sammlung verschiedener fur sich 
bestehender Abschnitte, die sich auf die Zukunft der Seele beziehen, unter denen 
einzelne mehr oder minder wichtige Stellen einnehmen, auch im Allgemeinen 
nach einer gevfissen Regel, die aber nicht immer unverbriichlich ist, angeordnet 
sind. Lepsius. 

3 This subject is discussed by Lepsius in the Vorwort (p. 5) to his edition of 
the Todtenluch. 

E. M. P 


to prevail. It contains texts which were ordered to be in- 
scribed upon amulets and bandages for the benefit of the dead ; 
it contains a plan of the mummy chamber and the arrange- 
ment of certain pieces of furniture in it ; it contains the text 
of the confession of the deceased in the presence of the forty- 
two assessors, and the scene of the weighing of the heart in 
the judgment hall of Osiris ; it has a representation of the 
Elysian Fields, etc. In our limited space here it is impossible 
to give the briefest summary of the chapters of the Book of 
the Dead and their contents ; the above notes are only in- 
tended to indicate the best books and chief authorities on a 
work which is so often referred to in these pages. 

Materials The pillows ^ which the Egyptians w^ere accustomed to 

pillows are put under the heads of mummies were made of wood (syca- 
made. more generally), granite, alabaster and calcareous stone. 

They vary from six to ten inches in height, and are often 
made in three pieces, viz., the curved neck-piece, the column 
and base. The column is usually round or square, and the 
base is oblong. The neck-piece is sometimes supported by 
two columns or pillars, fluted (B.M. No. 17,102), but it may 
be joined to the base by six supports (B.M. No. 2543), or 
even by twenty-one (B.M. No. i8,iSS). Pillows are made also 
in the shape of animals, e.g., B.M. No. 20,753, which is in the 
shape of a stag, the horns being curved downwards to form 
the neck-piece. Neck-pieces and columns are sometimes 
ornamented with ivory studs (B.M. No. 2541). The base is 
frequently dispensed with, and the supports are made in the 
form of the necks of ducks, the ends terminating in their 
heads and beaks. Such examples have usually the ends of 
the neck-piece ornamented with carvings of figures of the god 
Bes (B.M. No. 18,156), and sometimes with grotesque figures 
(apes ?) wearing plumes, and being led along by chains (B.M. 
No. 2256c). Such animals greatly resemble those represented 
on the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser II. The column of a 
Omamen- wooden piUow is ornamented in various ways, and the name of 
tation of ).j^g deceased is often written upon it in hieratic or hierogly- 
phics. One example (B.M. No. 2529a;) is inscribed with lion- 

Usliabti figiu-e ot Pa-mer-ahu. 

To face p. 211. 


headed gods, i^ T T T ^^^, and ut'at and neferu on the front, 

a figure of Bes ^ on the back, and a dog-headed ape holding 

an eye ^^ on each side. Another example (B.M. 25 56^:) 

is inscribed on the top of the neck-piece with lotus flowers 

and an ut'at — <^ ^^ ^1—- On each end of the base are also 

inscribed lotus flowers, and beneath are versions of the SSth, 

6ist and 62nd chapters of the Book of the Dead ; this pillow Inscribed 

was made for Aaua, the son of Heru, a prophet of Menthu, ^' °"^^' 

lord of Thebes, the son of the lady of the house Nes-Mut. 

„ \ ^^\ J|- The use of the pillow is very ancient, and goes Amiquity 

back at least as far as the Vlth dynasty ; the beautiful pillow, 
example in alabaster from Abydos now in the British Museum, 

No. 2533, made for the high official 0^0 Atena, probably 

belongs to this period. For the use of models of the pillow 
as an amulet, see the article "Amulets." Pillows similar 
in size and shape are in use to this day among the tribes of 
Nubia, and they are found among the natives in several places 
along the west coast of Africa ; that the ancient Egyptians 
borrowed them from the peoples of the south is not likely, 
but that the use of them by the Ethiopians, copied from the 
Egyptians, spread from the Sudan southwards is most 

UsHABTiu Figures.^ 
Ushabtiu, -Qi TtTtT fl ^ ^ t M was the name given by the The work- 

I ■ ^ C£ £LL Ji I ing figures 

Egyptians to stone, alabaster, wood, clay, and glazed faience in the 
figures of the god Osiris, made in the form of a mummy, worw! 
which were deposited in the tombs either in wooden boxes 
or laid along the floor ; sometimes they are found lying in 
the sarcophagi and coffins. They were placed there to do 
certain agricultural works for the deceased, who was supposed 

^ Observations on these figures by Birch have appeared in Aeg. Zeit., 1864, 
pp. 89-103, and 1865, pp. 4-20 ; Mariette, Catalogue des Monuments tT Abydos, 
pp. 46-48 ; and by Loret, Recueil de Travaux, pp. 90, 91. 

P 2 



tion of 
at various 




to be condemned to sow the fields, to fill the canals with water, 
and to carry sand from the West to the East. The ushabtiu 
figures of the Xlllth dynasty are made of granite, wood, and 
calcareous stone ; the last substance was, however, that most 
commonly used. The use of faience for this purpose appears 
not to have been known at that epoch. Generally the hands 
are crossed over the breast, but sometimes they are covered up 
in bandages. The hands do not hold any agricultural im- 
plements as in the later dynasties ; and the inscriptions upon 
them consist usually of the name and titles of the deceased, 
and resemble very closely those on the stelae of this period. 
The breasts of sepulchral figures of this period are sometimes 
inscribed with a scarabaeus having its wings outspread. Blue, 
green, brown, and red glazed faience figures appear during the 
XVIIIth dynasty, and continue until the XXVIth dynasty, by 
which time this substance has taken the place of stone, wood, 
or metal. In this dynasty the figures first begin to carry a 
hoe, mattock and basket. During the XlXth dynasty the 
dress of these figures changes, and they are represented as 
wearing the garments which the people for whom they are 
made wore during their lifetime. In the XXVIth dynasty 
these figures still hold the hoe, mattock and basket, and they 
stand on a square pedestal and have a rectangular upright 
plinth down the back. They were cast in moulds, and are 
easily distinguishable by their light bluish-green colour. 
Between the XXI Ind and XXI Vth dynasties ushabtiu 
figures seem not to have been placed in the tombs, and 
after the XXVIth dynasty they are made with less care, the 
inscriptions grow gradually shorter, and finally the figures 
become very small and bear no inscriptions whatever. 

Ushabtiu figures are generally inscribed with the Vlth 
chapter of the Book of the Dead, which appears on them in 
three forms ; the following, from Marietta, Catalogue des Monu- 
ments dAbydos, p. 48, is an example of the first form : — 


• U 

I <2:^ 

I ^ /I\ 


Fname ofl 
[_deceased J 


.4. 5, ^ "^ 

n tk '^ \jy """^ CZED Vlth 

The second form (Marietta, Catalogue, p. 58) reads: — 

_ I 

I Q I 


I I 



7]< 1 ^^,vw ^ Here some copies add (I <cz:> (I 

r-vm \\ 

The third form, which agrees with the text of the 6th 
chapter found in papyri of the XXVIth dynasty, reads : — 

a usabti apen ar aptu Ausar er 

O ushabtiu ^^«x t/iese, if is decreed Osiris to 

Ci Q ifli' I I 1 Ci ^111 1 _i3<Xb JiK5 ^i_ai dynasty. 

arit kat nebt arit am em neter xert 

do labours any \whicK\ are to be done there in the underworld. 

astu hu nef set'ebu am em se 

behold, be there smtten down for him obstructions there for a person 




o I 
-^•^ I 
xert f 

maku a 
Here am I 


\_when\ call ye. 


I I I 

ap - tu - ten er 

Watch ye at 

ennu neb 


moment every to ivork there, 

serutet sexet 

plough the fields. 

WB M\ 

er semehi ut'ebu 

to fill with water the ca?ials. 






O 111 


y y 


the east 


I' f-/~^y\ ■ 1 

Amentet ^es rer 
west. Again 

&1 I 1 I 

maku - a 
here am I 

ka ten 
\when\ call ye. 

That is to say, the deceased addresses each figure and says, 
" O ushabtiu figures, if the Osiris," that is, the deceased, " is 
decreed to do any work whatsoever in the underworld, may all 
obstacles be cast down in front of him ! " The figure answers 
and says, " Here am I ready whenever thou callest." The 
deceased next says, " O ye figures, be ye ever watchful to 
work, to plough and sow the fields, to water the canals, and 
to carry sand from the east to the west." The figures 
reply, " Here am I ready when thou callest." 

The 6th chapter of the Book of the Dead, which also 
forms a part of the 151st chapter, is part text and part a 
representation of the chamber in which the deceased in his 
coffin is laid. In the representation of the funereal chamber 
which accompanies the 1 5 ist chapter of the Book of the Dead, 
two ushabtiu figures only are shown, and the same text is 
written by the side of each of them. See Naville, Das Todten- 
buch, Bl. clxxiii, Einleitung, p. 180. 

Ptah-Seker-Ausar figure, 


Ushabtiu figures were placed in tombs in large numbers ; Ushabtiu 
in the tomb of Seti I. nearly seven hundred were found. The vx"vith 
figure was inscribed, in the later times, after the XXVIth and 
dynasty, and laid in the model of a coffin or sarcophagus d° a^a"! 
made of wood, terra-cotta, or stone. On the cofifins were 
painted figures of the four genii of the underworld, Anubis 
and other principal sepulchral deities, with appropriate in- 
scriptions, and these models bear a striking resemblance to 
the coffins made in Egypt from B.C. 500-300. The inscrip- 
tions on figures of this period are frequently written in a very 
cursive and almost illegible hieratic, and in demotic ; some- 
times, however, they have the form and brevity of those 
inscribed on the ushabtiu figures of the Xlllth dynasty. 

Ptah-Seker-Ausar Figures. 

This name is given to a large class of wooden figures, 
standing on pedestals, made in the shape of the god Osiris as 
a mummy. The god wears on his head horns, the disk and 

plumes (Jt,! , his hands are crossed over his breast, and in 

them he holds the flail /\ and crook (. The figures are cescrip- 
sometimes hollowed out, and contain papyri inscribed with '^}°^ "^ 

- r -r. 1 r figures. 

prayers and chapters from a late recension of the Book of the 
Dead. Frequently the papyri are found in hollows in the 
pedestals, above which stand small models of funereal chests, 
surmounted by a hawk ; in the hollows portions of the body, 
mummified, were often placed. Many figures are quite black, 
having been covered by bitumen ; others are painted in 
the most vivid colours, with blue head-dress with yellow 
stripes, green, red and yellow collar, face gilded, and body 
covered with wings of a blue and green colour. 

The god Ptah-Seker-Ausar Q Vv ^ [It^ appears 

on stelae in company with Osiris, Anubis and other gods of 
the dead, and he is addressed on figures made in his honour, 
because he was supposed to be specially connected with the 
resurrection. He is sometimes represented in the form of 
Osiris (Lanzone, Dizionario, pi. xcvii), and with all the 
attributes of this god ; the other forms in which he appears 



Forms of 




of inscrip- 

are : — I. As a little squat boy, with a beetle on his head ; and 

2. As a hawk wearing a crown and feathers %^1, standing on 

a throne before which is a table of offerings in a shrine. In 
this form he is often painted on the outsides of coffins. 
Behind him is a winged urseus wearing a disk, and ui'ais ^^• 
The inscriptions upon Ptah-Seker-Ausar figures vary greatly 
in length ; at times they are written in perpendicular lines 
down the front and back of the figure, and continue round 
each of the four sides of the pedestal ; at others they consist of 
a very few words. Be the inscription long or short, the 
deceased prays that Ptah-Seker and Ausar (Osiris) will give 
sepulchral meals of oxen, ducks, wine, beer, oil, and wax, and 
bandages, and every good, pure, and sweet thing to his ka. 
The formulae of these figures greatly resemble those found on 
stelse of a late period. The British Museum possesses a 
remarkably fine collection of these figures, and as they come 
from several distinct places, and have many varieties, they are 
most instructive. 

of sepul- 

Sepulchral Boxes. 

In addition to the chests placed in tombs to hold Canopic 
vases, the Egyptians made use of a smaller class of wooden 
boxes to hold ushabtiu figures, papyri, ailicles of dress and 
other things. They vary in size from six or eight inches to 
two feet square. Some are made perfectly square, with sides 
that slant slightl}' inwards like the pylon of a temple, being 
higher than they are wide: others are oblong in shape, and 
each end rises above the level of the cover. Some have two 
and others four divisions. The outsides are usually orna- 
mented with scenes in which the deceased is represented 
adoring Ra, or Anubis, or one of the principal gods of the 
dead, and with figures of Mestha, Hapi, Tuamautef and 
Qebhsennuf, painted in bright colours upon a black or white 
ground. The boxes from Thebes are decorated in the same 
style as the coffins from that place. Frequently the orna- 
mentation consists of ^-,\, \, i), ^^,> IIL etc., etc., arranged 
in symmetrical rows, above them being figures of Osiris, Isis, 

Ptah-Seker-Ausar figure 
which held the papyrus of Anhai, 
a priestess of Amen, about B.C. 900. 

To face p. 216. 


Nephthys, and other gods of the dead. The inscriptions 
sometimes resemble those found on chests for Canopic jars, 
but frequently they contain prayers in which the deceased 
entreats the gods to give him gifts of cakes, bread, beer, wine, 
ducks, oxen, wax, oil, bandages, etc., etc. Such inscriptions 
are at times very brief, at others they cover the whole box. 

An interesting class of sepulchral boxes comes from Boxes 
Ahmim, the ancient Panopolis, which deserves special Akhmim. 
mention. The largest of them in the British Museum (No. 
18,210) is 3-g- feet long and 3 feet high. Each side tapers 
slightly towards the top, and is in the shape of a pylon. 
The hollow cornice is ornamented with yellow, black, and 
red lines upon a white ground. Beneath it are two rows of 
ornaments : the first is formed by fl fl fl ^^ 089' ^"^"^ ^^^ 
second by (i)H (i)H repeated several times. Beneath each line 
is a row of five-rayed stars ■^■^^^~^. The front of the box 
is ornamented with "T""T"T" and uraei wearing disks JL and 
a winged disk "n^^. Behind is a hawk upon a pedestal, before 
which is an altar with offerings. On the right hand side is 
Thoth with both hands raised, pouring out a libation ; and 
on the left is a hawk-headed deity with both hands raised 
also pouring out a libation. On the back of the box is a 
hawk, with extended wings, and sceptres -fr. On the right 
hand side of the box is a figure of the deceased, kneeling, 
having his left hand raised, and above him are two cartouches 
I ][ ]. Behind him are three jackal-headed deities, each having his 

left arm raised, while his right hand is clenched and laid upon 
his stomach. On the left hand side of the box the deceased 
is represented in the same attitude, and behind him are three 
hawk-headed deities. These six gods form the vignettes of 
the 1 1 2th and 113th chapters of the Book of the Dead ; the 
hawk-headed were called Horus, Mestha, and Hapi, and 
the jackal-headed Horus, Tuamautef and Qebhsennuf ; they 
are figured in Lanzone, Dizionario, Tav. xxvi. In two sides 
of the box are two pairs of rectangular openings about six 
inches from each end ; ^ the use of these is unknown to ffle. 

' For the description of a similar box see my article in Proc. Soc. Sib. Arch., 
1886, pp. 120-122. 



Loaves of 
bread in 
the shape 
of cones. 

Funereal Cones. 

This name is given to a large number of burnt terra-cotta 
conical objects which are found near tombs chiefly at Thebes, 
in the districts cailed 'Asasif and Kurnah ; they were used 
from the Xlth to the XXVIth dynasties. They vary in size, 
but the ordinary length is ten inches, and the diameter three 
inches. The face, or flat part, of the cone at its thickest end 
contains inscriptions in relief which record the name and titles 
of the person in whose tomb they were found ; the inscriptions 
appear to have been made by a stamp with the characters 
incuse. The inscribed end of the cone is variously coloured 
blue, red, or white. Dr. Birch thought "- that they were used 
for working into ornamental architecture, or to mark the sites 
of sepulchres ; it is more probable, however, that they are 
merely models of bread or cakes which were placed in the 

tomb A A. It is not likely that they were seals, because they 

have been found of a rectangular shape with several copies of 
the same inscription stamped upon them. 

Use of 

Stelae of 


Sepulchral Stel^ or Tablets 

Stelae is the name given to the tablets of granite, cal- 
careous stone, wood, or faience, which the Egyptians used in 
large numbers for inscribing with decrees and historical records 
of the achievements of kings, biographical notices of eminent 
officials, priests, and private persons, hymns to Ra and other 
gods, and notices of any events of importance. The greater 
number, however, of those which have been found belong to 
the class called sepulchral, and are inscribed with the names 
and titles of deceased persons, their pedigrees, and the 
principal events in their lives. They were placed inside 
tombs, either in the corridor leading to the mummy chamber, 
or at the door, or at the foot or the head of the bier, or let 
into the wall ; sometimes they are rectangular and sometimes 
they are rounded at the top. The styles of stelae, the arrange- 
ment of the scenes upon them, and the inscriptions, vary with 

' Wilkinson, Ancient Egyptians, iii. p. 437. 


^^ f M^t^^'^rf^r^oTo^-ii \^fd%^ s tAitJ 




Stele of Antef, son of Amen-set. 

To face p. 218. 


the different dynasties. From the Ist-VIth dynasty' stelse are 
rectangular in form, and sometimes are made to resemble the 
outer fagade of a temple. The inscriptions are comparatively 
short, and merely record the names of the relatives of the 
deceased who are represented on the stele, and the prayers to 
Osiris for cakes, bread, meat, wine, oil, milk, wax, bandages, 
ducks, oxen, etc., which are put into the mouth of the 
deceased. A remarkable inscription found in a tomb^ of 
the Vlth dynasty is that of Una, who was born in the reign 
of Teta, and held service under this king ; under Pepi, the 
successor of Teta, he brought stone from the quarries of 
Ruau, and conducted an expedition against the nomad tribes 
to the east of Egypt, and in the reign of the following king, 
Mer-en-Ra, he died full of days and honour. During the Xlth 
dynasty the stelas have many of the characteristics of those of 
the Vlth dynasty, but the execution is better. A large number Stela of 
of the stelse of the Xllth dynasty are rounded, the inscriptions Mi^d^le 
and scenes are carefully executed, and are often painted with Empire, 
many colours ; sometimes on the same stele the figures are in 
relief, while the inscriptions are incised. As a rule the contents 
of the inscriptions are repetitions of the titles of the deceased, 
praises of the king, bald statements of the work he has done 
for him, prayers to the god for sepulchral meals, and an 
address to those who pass by the stele to make mention of 
the dead man in appropriate funereal formulae. The scenes 
usually represent the several members of the family of the 
deceased bringing to him offerings of the various things for 
which he prays. From the Xllth-XVIIth dynasty.biographies 
on stelae ^ are rare. Stelse of the Xlllth and XlVth dynasties 
are characterized by their uniformity of colour, when painted ; 
the workmanship is, however, poor, the inscriptions are badly 
cut, and the hieroglyphics are thin and small. The stelse of 
the XVIIIth dynasty are usually rounded at the top, and have 

* The oldest stele known is preserved at Glzeh and at Oxford, and was made 
for Shera, a priest of Sent, the fifth king of the Ilnd dynasty, about B.C. 4000 ; 
it is figured in Lepsius, Auswahl, PI. 9. 

^ Compare the interesting inscription published by Schiaparelli, Una toniba 
egiziana inedita, liome, 1892. 

' The inscription of Chnemu-hetep, one of the most valuable of this period, is 
inscribed on the walls of his tomb. 



very little in common with those of older dynasties. In 
earlier times the deceased was represented as being surrounded 
by his parents, brothers and sisters, wife and servants, but at 
this epoch the gods take their places, and he stands alone 
before Osiris, god and judge of the dead. In many stelae of 
this period the name of the god Amen has been carefully 
chiselled out, by order of the " heretic king," Amenophis IV. 
A remarkable characteristic of stelse at this time is the length 
Stele of and fulnessof the inscriptions upon them. In the earlier times, 
private matters in the life of the deceased were passed over 
with little or no mention ; now, however, full biographies 
become the rule, and the inscriptions cover not only the 
stelse, but the walls of the chamber in which the mummies 
were laid. Sometimes such biographies are almost the only 
authorities for the history of a period, and the inscription of 
Amasis is an example of this class of documents. Amasis 
was a naval officer who was born about the time of the 
final war of the Egyptians against the Hyksos, and he was 
present at the capture of the town of Avaris, during the 
reign of Amasis I., king of Egypt. He was specially honoured 
by this king for his prowess in battle, and he served in various 
campaigns undertaken by his successors, Amenophis I., and 
Thothmes I. The stelse of the XlXth dynasty show a great 
falling off both in design and execution. The figures of men 
and women are poor, and their limbs are made out of all 
proportion to the rest of their bodies. The mode of wearing 
their clothes, too, has changed, a large portion of the body is 
entirely covered by the dress, and the figures wear a heavy 
head-dress, which falls squarely upon the shoulders. The 
hieroglyphics are carelessly engraved, and lack the spirit 
which indicates those of the XVIIIth dynasty. During the 
XXth dynasty the use of stelae appears not to have been so 
general, and from about B.C. 1000-650 they almost disappear. 
The stelse which belong to this period are few and small, and 
the designs are generally poor imitations of stelae of an older 
date. The cause of this decline is not quite evident, but it 
may be either the result of the disquietude caused by the 
unsettled condition of Egypt through foreign invasions, or 
the consequence of some religious schism. It will be noticed 


that usiiabtiu figures, as well as stelse, become fewer and 
poorer during this same period. The stels of the XXVIth Stelae of 

, 1 M • 1 r , . , 'he New 

dynasty exhibit the features which are characteristic of the Empire, 
sculptures of this period. They occur in large numbers, they 
are larger in size, the hieroglyphics are small, but cleanly cut, 
and they have a beauty which is in itself sufficient to proclaim 
the time to which they belong. The inscriptions are copied 
from ancient texts, and as neither the scribe nor the sculptor 
understood at times what he was writing, frequent mistakes 
are the result. After the XXVIth dynasty stelse were made 
of all possible designs and forms ; the hieroglyphics are badly 
cut, the inscriptions are the ordinary formulae, in which the 
deceased prays for sepulchral meals, and it is quite clear that 
the placing of a stele in the tomb had become a mere matter 
of form with the greater number of the Egyptians. In Ptolemaic 
times ancient models were copied, but the inscriptions are as 
often in Greek or demotic, or both, as in hieroglyphics. Stelse 
bearing bilingual inscriptions, in hieroglyphics and Greek, or 
hieroglyphics and Phoenician, are also known. Subsequently 
it became the fashion to make the figures of the gods on 
stelae in high relief, and the attributes and costumes of Greek 
gods were applied to those of Egypt. 

The greater number of the wooden stelae in European 
museums belong to the XXVIth and subsequent dynasties. 
They are rounded at the top, they usually stand upon two 
pedestals having steps on each side, and they vary in size 
from 6 in. by 4 in. to 3 ft. by 20 in. The inscriptions and Ornamen- 

1 ti • 1 • 1 ■ •, tation of 

scenes upon them are usually painted in white, green, red, stete 
yellow, or black, upon a light or dark brown ground. On the xxvith 
back are at times figures of the sun shedding rays M and dynasty. 

standards of the east tk and west \. The large tablets have 
three registers ; in the first are the winged disk - .^^-w , with 
pendent uraei wearing the crowns of the north and south, 
the jackal-headed gods Anubis and Ap-uat, emblems of 

" life " and " power " 1 nr |. etc. ; in the second register are the 

boat of the sun, in which stand a number of gods, Ra, 
Horus, Chepera, Maat, Anubis, etc., and the deceased, or his 
soul, kneeling at a table of offerings in front of the boat 




in adoration of Ra ; in the third register the deceased makes 
adoration to a number of gods, and below this comes the 
inscription. The smaller, and more numerous, tablets have 
in the rounded part, the winged disk with pendent ursei, 
and the inscription c=ss ® '^d^ ^S-° Behutet neb pet "[Horus of] 
Behutet, lord of heaven." The scene which follows is 
divided into two parts : in the one the deceased stands or 
kneels by the side of an altar in adoration before Ra-Har- 
machis m , and in the other he adores Nefer-Atmu. Below 

the scenes are two inscriptions which read from the middle of 
the tablet to the sides, and contain, the one an address or 
prayer to Ra when he rises, the other, an address to Ra when 
he sets. Frequently a tablet is inscribed with the prayer to 
Ra-Harmachis and Nefer-Atmu for sepulchral meals. 

Wooden stelse were sometimes inlaid with glass figures 
and hieroglyphics of various colours in imitation of the scenes 
and inscriptions on tablets of an earlier date. A remark- 

able example of this class of work is B.M. 5 — 25 which, 

Stelae in 



according to Dr. Birch, is inscribed with the name of Darius, 
and represents this king making offerings to Anubis, who is 
seated on a throne under a winged disk and stars ; behind 
the god is Isis, with horns on her head, and a sceptre in her 

That sepulchral stelae were sometimes made of glazed 
faience, we know from B.M. No. 6133, a fine example of a 
light blue colour, in which the deceased Amen-em-apt, a 
royal scribe, is standing in adoration before the god Osiris, 
who holds a flail and crook. This interesting object was 
probably made about B.C. looo, when the art of making 
glazed faYence of a fine blue or green colour was at its 
greatest perfection. 


The Vases found in Egyptian tombs are made of 
alabaster, diorite, granite, basalt and other kinds of hard stone, 
steatite, bronze, wood, terra-cotta, faience, and glass. The 
shapes of vases are various, but the following are the most 

VASES. 223 

common: fl,l, ^, ^, ^, -^,0, '0,^1, Ki:^. Vases were Use of 

U i vases. 

placed in the tombs to contain the offerings of wine, oil, 
unguents, spices, and other offerings made to the temples, or 
to the dead in their tombs. Among hard stones capable 
of receiving a high polish, granite, diorite and alabaster were 
those most commonly used for making vases. Granite and 
diorite vases are usually without inscriptions, and were made 
during all periods of Egyptian history. Vases of alabaster are 
very much more numerous, and as this material was com- 
paratively easily worked, and readily lent itself to form sym- 
metrical and beautiful shapes, it was a great favourite with the 
Egyptians. They were sometimes inscribed on the front, the 
flat part of the rim, or the top of the cover, with inscriptions 
recording the names and titles of the deceased persons with 
whom they were buried ; thus they are valuable as giving the Value of 
names of kings and officials of high rank, pedigrees, etc., and as tions on 
showing at the same time the wonderful skill of the Egyptian ™^"- 
alabaster worker at a period nearly four thousand years B.C. 
Alabaster vases were in use from the IVth-XXVIth dynasty, 
and the Persian kings had their names inscribed upon them 
in Egyptian and cuneiform. Arragonite, or zoned alabaster, 
was used for large vases and liquid measures ; a beautiful 
example of this material is B.M. No. 4839, which has two 
handles and a cover, and is inscribed with its capacity 

nHo " eight A^w and three quarters." Vases in glazed 

A/.AA/VI 1 I I I I I I 

steatite are not common, and I believe the oldest to be B.M. 
No. 4762, which is inscribed with the name of Thothmes I., 
B.C. 1633. Vases in bronze are ancient, tolerably numerous, 
and of various shapes ; among them must be classed those, 
in the shape of buckets with handles, which are ornamented 
with scenes in relief, in which the deceased is represented 
adoring various deities ; they belong chiefly to the period of 
the XXVIth dynasty. Models of vases in wood were also Models 
made and placed in the tombs. They were sometimes ° ^^^^ 
painted to resemble glass (B.M. No. 95291^), and were some- 
times covered with plaster and gilded, examples of which 
are B.M. No. 9529^ and 9529/"/ both were made for the 
tomb of Rameses II. ; the former is inscribed ]) O^ 1 uatchu. 



' Stibium,'' and the latter 


I mestemet, " stibium.'' 


Vases in 



The use of glass for vases is very ancient, and Dr. Birch 
states that ^ the earliest dated example of Egyptian glass is 
a small dark blue fragment inscribed with the prenomen of 
Antef III., of the Xlth dynasty. The next oldest example is 
a small vase or jug with one handle, of a fine turquoise- 
coloured, opaque glass, ornamented in yellow, with a border 
round the neck, and three trees round the sides, and inscribed 
with the prenomen of Thothmes III.,^ B.C. 1600; the handle 
has stripes of white and dark blue, and round the neck where 
it joins the thick part of the vase, is a row of white spots. 
The vase is 3J in. high, and its greatest diameter is ly"^ in. ; 
the British Museum number is 4762. Vases made of varie- 
gated and striped glass are represented on the walls of tombs 
of the XlXth and XXth dynasties, and it seems that the 
terra-cotta and wood vases, or models of them, belong to that 
period. The next oldest examples are the small black, 
opaque glass vases, \j, mottled with white spots, which formed 
part of the funereal paraphernalia of the princess Nesi-Chensu, 
about B.C. 1000. ^ Transparent glass seems not to have been 
made in Egypt much earlier than the XXVIth dynasty. 
Vases in faience glazed with a blue or green colour are at 
least as old as the XlXth dynasty ; a beautiful example of 
this date is B.M. No. 4796, with lotus leaves, rosettes, and a 
line of hieroglyphics around the outer edge, in white or light 
yellow, upon a lavender-coloured glazed ground. The inscrip- 
tion records the name and titles of Rameses II., about B.C. 
1333. About B.C. 1000, small vases o and libation jars "Q 
were glazed with a beautiful light bluish-green ; the vases of 
Nesi-Chensu are fine examples of this work (B.M. No. 17,402, 
and 13,152). During the XXVIth dynasty flat, circular, 
convex vases or bottles made of glazed faience became 
common ; the neck and lip were in the form of the capital of 
a papyrus column, with an ape at each side, and where the 

' Catalogue of the Egyptian Antiquities at Alnwick Castle, p. 179, and 
■Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians, Vol. 11; p. 142. 

^ | iM i rii, OT /AT "Beautiful god, Men-cheper-Ra, giver of life." 
' The No. of the B.M. vase is 17,043. 


body of the vase joins the neck it is ornamented with rows of 
inscribed papyrus flowers and pendants. On the upper part 
of the flat band which goes round the vase, is inscribed 

X W -I I '^'^ " May Ptah open a happy new year for 

its owner," and v Xjf \ T '^^'^ " May Sechet open a 

happy new year for its owner." These vases were probably 
given as gifts, and they all appear to come from Lower Egypt. 
The oldest vases known are made of terra-cotta and red 
earthenware, and are of various shapes and sizes. They were 
sometimes glazed or painted and varnished, to imitate por- 
phyry, diorite, and variegated stone and glass, and sometimes 
they were ornamented with floral designs, figures of animals, 
geometrical patterns, etc., etc. Vases in this material were 
inscribed, in hieratic or hieroglyphic, with the names and 
titles of the persons in whose tombs they were found, and 
sometimes with sepulchral inscriptions. It is not possible, in 
the absence of inscriptions, to date terra-cotta vases accurately, 
and all the evidence forthcoming tends to prove that the 
various kinds of vases which were thought to belong to the 
XVIIIth or XlXth dynasty belong to the XXUnd or later. 

Objects for the Toilet. 

The Egyptian lady, in making her toilette, made use of the 
following objects : — 

Mirror, in Egyptian -^^ '^ y un-krd, " lifting up the Egyptian 

/v^~v\ I A mirrors. 

face," or --^ *^ *^ ^ y maa-hrd, " object for seeing the 

face.'' The mirror was made of bronze, and in shape was 
nearly round (B.M. No. 2728^), or oval (B.M. No. 2733), or 
oval flattened (B.M. No. 2732), or pear-shaped (B.M. No. 
2728^). Mirrors were kept in bronze cases or wooden boxes. 
The handles were made of ivory (B.M. Nos. 22, 830, 2734), 
wood, bronze, or faience (B.M. No. 2736), and were usually 

in the shape of the lotus in flower | . Wooden handles were 

inlaid with gold (B.M. No. 2728.2:), or were painted with the 

colours of the lotus plant and flower (B.M. No. 18,179) > they 

B. M. Q 



Descrip- were sometimes square, and sometimes terminated in a 
tionof hawk's head (B.M. No. 2733), or they were carved in the 
shape of a figure of Bes (B.M. No. 2728^). Bronze handles 
of mirrors were also made in the shape or the lotus plant 
and flower, but the flat space where the handle widens 
out into the flower was ornamented with the head of Hathor 
in relief (B.M. No. 2728a); they were also made in the form 
of figures of women, with their arms raised (B.M. Nos. 20,773, 
2718(2:). The mirror was further ornamented by supporting 
the bronze disk on each side with a pair of ursei (B.M. No. 
20,756), or with a hawk of Horus (B.M. No. 2731). The 
metal of which mirrors are made has been shown to be 
almost pure copper, a very small percentage of tin and other 
substances being present. The use of mirrors in Egypt 
appears to be of great antiquity, but the date of their first 
appearance is not known exactly. The greater diameter 
of the mirror varies from three to twelve inches. 

Tweezers. Pairs of tweezers, for removing hairs from 
the head or face, were made of bronze, the ends being, at 
times, in the form of human hands ; they vary in length from 
about two to six inches. 

Hair-pins are' usually made of wood, bone, ivory, metal, 
or alabaster, and vary in length and thickness ; the heads 
are sometimes ornamented with gold and silver bands or 
heads, and sometimes terminate in the figure of an animal 
or bird. 

Combs are made of wood or ivory, and when they have 
but a single row of teeth the back is carved into serrated 
edges, and its sides are ornamented with various devices, 
annular or otherwise. Double combs, i.e., combs with two 
rows of teeth, have the one row of teeth thicker and longer 
than the other. Combs used for merely ornamental purposes 
terminate with figures of animals, etc., etc. The date of the 
first appearance of combs in Egypt is unknown, and it 
has been thought that they were not introduced until a 
comparatively late period. 

Fan. The feathers of the fan were inserted in a handle 
made of wood or ivory, or both, having the same shape as 
the handles of mirrors jj ; both sides of the handle were 


sometimes ornamented with heads of Hathor in relief (B.M. 
No. 20,767). 

Kohl pots. Of all the necessaries for the toilet these Stibium 
objects are the most commonly found, and the varieties tubes.^" 
known are very many and very interesting. The object of 
the kohl jar was to hold the kohl, or stibium, or antimonj', or 
copper, with which ladies were wont to stain the eyelids and 
eyebrows. The simplest form consisted of a hollow tube of 
alabaster, steatite,^ glass,^ wood, or ivory, from three to six 
inches high; alabaster tubes are usually uninscribed (B.M. No. 
2574), wooden tubes are made in the shape of a column with 
a palm leaf capital (B.M. No. 2591), ivory or bone tubes are Dififerent 
sometimes made in the form of figures of Bes (B.M. g'^j^^j^^ 
No. 2571), and sometimes are ornamented with spirals vases. 
(B.M. No. 6184). Faience tubes are white, blue, or green, 
and have inscriptions on them in black ; fine examples of 
this class are B.M. No. 25721^, inscribed with the prenomen 
of Amenophis III., and the name of his wife Thi; and B.M. 
No. 2573, inscribed with the prenomen of Tut-anch-Amen, 
and the name of his wife Anch-nes-Amen. B.M. No. 2589, 
is a fine example of kohl tube in glass, made in the form of 
a column with a palm leaf capital. Kohl tubes were some- 
times made of the common reed, and carried in a leather bag 
(B.M. No. 12,539) j the single tube was sometimes repre- 
sented as being held by a monkey or some other animal 
(B.M. No. 21,89s). The tube was often formed of a hollow 
sunk in a jar made of alabaster, stone, steatite, granite, or 
porphyry ; steatite jars are glazed, and ornamented with 
T and (^ in hollow work (B.M. No. 2645). Such jars often 
had the rim, which supported the cover, turned separately, 
and in the centre of the cover, inside, a small boss was made 
to enable it to rest firmly on the jar ; these jars rested upon 
square stands supported by four legs. The outsides of 
porphyry jars are sometimes ornamented with raised figures 
of apes and uraei. Kohl jars had sometimes two tubes, and Stibium 


' B.M. No. 2736 is inscribed §^^^"^10^^?^ mo7e°fhan 

" Menlhu-em-hat, son of 9eq-ab, lord of watchful devotion." 

' See B.M. No. 24,391, made of light blue glass banded with gold. 

Q 2 

one lube. 



were made of wood, with a movable cover on a pivot (B.M. 
No. 2595), of obsidian, with a figure of Bes in rehef (B.M. 
No. 2599), of ivory, with each tube in the form of a lotus 
column (B.M. 22,839), and of stone. Kohl pots with three 
tubes were also made, and an interesting example in terra- 
cotta is B.M. No. 2612, which is in the form of a "triple" 
crown. Kohl pots with four and five tubes are very common 
in wood, and several examples exist in faience. B.M. 
No. 2605 is inscribed on each tube,^ and contains two, or 
more, different powders ; and B.M. 2606a, with five tubes, 
probably a votive offering by a friend or relative of the de- 
ceased Amasis, a scribe and overseer of works, is inscribed : — 

kinds of 
used at 
seasons of 
the year. 

■■ UM 


u— n; 


2- - ^m^ ® 5 ^v 

, /vvvvv\ 

, , , , IWW-A ^— ^ 
I I I I (V«/*/*'V\ 

I ^ 


I ' 




= III6O 1" 

The following texts are inscribed upon a remarkable 
brown wood stibium-holder, in the possession of Sir Francis 
Grenfell, G.C.B. It contains five tubes, each of which held 


I I 



^ o 

* These inscriptions show that one kind of eye-paint was to be used from the 
first to the fourth month of the inundation season ; a second from the first to the 
fourth month of the season of coming forth ; <* third from the first to the fourth 
month of the period of growing ; and also that a fourth was to be used every day. 



a different coloured substance ; on one side is a full-face 
figure of Bes, and on the other an ape. It came from Der 


Ci D 




Ci c^ 

o 111 





O I 


A set of four or more kohl tubes were also formed by the 
compartments of a wooden box which was generally inlaid 
with ivory. The studs in kohl tubes were used for fastening 
the cover. 

The stick with which the kohl was applied to the eyes was The kM 
made of wood, bronze, glass, etc., and was thicker and more 
rounded at one end than at the other. The thick end was 
moistened, and dipped in the powder in the tube, and then 
drawn along the eyelid ; the stick generally remained in the 
tube, but often a special cavity, either between or behind the 
tubes, was prepared for it. 

The black powder in the tube was called in Egyptian 
mestem (var. [T| 1 ^^ "Vn ^ " mest'emuf), Copt. 

C^HJUL, CXHJUL, Arab. J^si) whence the word Kokl, Gr. 
cr7t/i^t, stibium ; it seems to have been the sesquisulphuret 
of antimony, but sulphide of lead, oxide of copper, || " black 
oxide of manganese, and other powdered substances were 
also used. The act of painting the eyes with kohl was called 
I ^.^ ' semtet, and the part painted l''^ =5:; semti^ 

The custom of painting the eyelids, or the parts immediately 
under them, is contemporary with the earliest dynasties, 



of use 
of eye- 

vases of 

and we know that in the Xllth dynasty^ mestchem was 
brought from the land of Absha, by people of the Aamu, 
as an acceptable gift to the king of Egypt. This custom 
seems to have been common all over the East, and it will 
be remembered that Jezebel "set her eyes in stibium'' 
(n"i2ii? TJlSl atol 2 Kings ix. 30), and that the daughter 
of Zion was told that her lovers would seek her life, even 
though "she rent asunder her eyes with stibium,"^ in allusion 
to the wide open appearance which stibium gives to women's 
eyes in the East. 

Oils, unguents, scents, etc., were kept in alabaster, diorite 
and porphyry jars, or vases, of various shapes, ^ '0' U X ^• 
Sets of alabaster jars and flat vessels were arranged on a table 
in the tomb, and sometimes contained unguents, sweetmeats, 
etc., and sometimes were merely votive offerings. A fine 
example of a votive set in alabaster is (B.M. No. 4694) 
inscribed with the name Atena, from Abydos, which com- 
prises a wide mouthed jar on a stand, five smaller jars with 
pointed ends, and four flat saucers, the whole standing on a 
circular table of the same material. The shapes of the jars 
are of great beauty, and the alabaster is of the finest. The 
custom of placing alabaster jars in tombs is, at least, as 
ancient as the IVth dynasty, and it lasted until the XXVIth 
dynasty ; examples are known inscribed with the names of 
Unas (B.M. No. 4602), Pepi I. (B,M. No. 22559), Mentu- 
em-sa-f (B.M. No. 4493), Amasis I. (B.M. No. 4671a), 
Thothmes III. (B.M. No. 4498), Amenophis II. (B.M. No. 
4672), Rameses 11. (B.M. No. 2880), Queen Amenartas (B.M. 
No. 4701), etc. 

Necklaces, Rings, Bracelets, etc. 

Judging by the enormous quantity of beads which are 

found in Egyptian tombs, Egyptian ladies must have thought 

very highly of the necklace as an ornament. Beads are of all 

shapes, round, rectangular, oval, and oblong, and were made of 

' In the sixth year of Usertsen II. The scene of the presentation of the 
mestchem is painted on the walls of the tomb of Chnemu-hetep at Beni-Hasan ; 
see Lepsius, Denkmdler, II. ff. 131-133. 

SCARAB. 231 

mother-of-emerald, carnelian, agate, lapis-Iazuli, amethyst, 
rock crystal, onyx, jasper, garnet, gold, silver, glass, faience, 
clay, and straw. The necklace was ornamented with pendants Egyptian 

1 c w 6 1 1 6 r V 

made in the form of figures of the gods, or of animals sacred 
to them, or of amulets to which magical powers were attri- 
buted. Each kind of stone was supposed to possess special 
properties, and the Egyptians arranged their necklaces in 
such a way that the wearer was supposed to be protected 
from the attack of all evil powers and baneful beasts. Breasts 
of mummies and mummy cases are painted in imitation 
of rows of beads of various precious stones, or of collars 
made of beads, interspersed with pendants in the shape of 
flowers, etc. 

Rings were made of gold, silver, bronze, precious stones or 
faience ; sometimes the bezels were solid and did not move, 
sometimes they were inlaid with scarabs, inscribed with various 
devices, or the name of the wearer, and revolved. During the 
XVIIIth dynasty, a very pretty class of ring was made at 
Tell el-Amarna, in blue, green, and purple glazed faience ; 
examples are very numerous, and every Egyptian collection 
of importance contains several. 

Bracelets were made of gold or silver, and were at times 
inlaid with precious stones and coloured paste ; after the 
XXVIth dynasty the ends of bracelets, owing to Phoenician 
influence, terminated in lions' heads. 


Scarab,^ or Scarabaeus,^ is the name given by Egyptolo- Descdp- 
gists to the myriads of models of a certain beetle, which are Egyptian 
found in mummies and tombs, and in the ruins of temples and beetle, 
other buildings in Egypt and other countries, the inhabitants 

^ Scarab, from the Greek sKopapog, or ffKOpnySeiof, perhaps a transcription of the 
hatin scaraiaeus ; compare Srivapiov, a transcription of denarius. The Copts called 

this beetle (TiXo'lfKC , and the Arabs 'l^uiAiU , plur. j^^Uii. , 

Jjt=^ 1 pluif- ii)l«r ^"fl ■rb'^' P'"""' f^)^)'^' See also Payne Smith, 

TAes. Syr., col. 1188, and Duval, Zex. Syr., col. 714. 

^ The old plural scarabees we find in " You are scarabees that batten in 
dung." Elder Brother, Beaumont and Fletcher. 


of which from a remote period had trading and other rela- 
tions with the Egyptians. The beetle which was copied 
by the Egyptians in this manner belongs to the family called 
by naturalists Scarabmdce (Coprophagi), of which the Scara- 
hcBus sacer is the type. These insects compose a very 
numerous group of dung-feeding Lamellicorns, of which, 
however, the majority are inhabitants of tropical countries. 
The species are generally of a black hue ; but amongst them 
are to be found some adorned with the richest metallic 
colours. A remarkable peculiarity exists in the structure 
and situation of the hind legs, which are placed so near the 
extremity of the body, and so far from each other, as to give 
the insect a most extraordinary appearance when walking. 
Habits of This peculiar formation is, nevertheless, particularly service- 
tian beeSe ^'^^^ ^° '^^^ possessors in rolling the balls of excrementitious 
matter in which they enclose their eggs ; whence these 
insects were named by the first naturalists Pilulariae. These 
balls are at first irregular and soft, but, by degrees, and 
during the process of rolling along, become rounded and 
harder ; they are propelled by means of the hind legs. 
Sometimes these balls are an inch and a half, or two inches 
in diameter, and in rolling them along the beetles stand 
almost upon their heads, with the heads turned from the 
balls. These manoeuvres have for their object the burying 
of the balls in holes, which the insects have previously dug 
for their reception ; and it is upon the dung thus deposited 
that the larvae, when hatched, feed. It does not appear that 
these beetles have the instinct to distinguish their own balls, 
as they will seize upon those belonging to another, in case 
they have lost their own ; and, indeed, it is said that several 
of them occasionally assist in rolling the same ball. The 
males as well as the females assist in rolling the pellets. 
They fly during the hottest part of the day.^ Latreille, in 
the Appendix to Cailliaud's Voyage d Meroe, Paris, 1823-27,^ 

' See J. O. Westwood, An Introduction to the Modern Classification of 
Insects ; London, 1839, Vol. L p. 204 fF. 

^ Tom. ii. p. 311. " Get insecte est d'un vert parfois dclatant; son corselet 
est nuanc^ d'une teinte cuivreuse a reflet metallique. " Compare yElian, De 
Nat. Animal., iv. 49; Aristotle, Hist. Animal., iv. 7 ; Pliny, Nat. Hist., xi. 
20 ff., and xxix. 6. 

SCARAB. 233 

considers the species which he has named Ateuchus Aegypti- 
orum, or rfKiOKdv6apo<i, and which is of a fine greenish colour, 
as that which especially engaged the attention of the early 
Egyptians ; and Dr. G. W. Clarke affirms that it is eaten by 
the women of Egypt because it is considered an emblem of 
fertility. Horapollo, and other ^ ancient writers, state that a 
female scarabaeus does not exist. According to Horapollo Descrip- 
(ed. Leemans, p. 11), a scarabaeus denotes an only begotten,"^ beetle by 
generation, father, world, and man. It represents an only Horapollo. 
begotten, because the scarabaeus is a creature self-produced, 
being unconceived by a female. The male, when desirous of 
procreating, takes some ox dung, and shapes it into a spherical 
form like the world. He next rolls it from east to west, 
looking himself towards the east. Having dug a hole, he 
buries it in it for twenty-eight days ; on the twenty-ninth day 
he opens the ball, and throws it into the water, and from it 
the scarabaei come forth. The idea of generation arises from 
its supposed acts. The scarabaeus denotes a father because 
it is engendered by a father only, and world because in its 
generation it is fashioned in the form of the world, and man 
because there is no female race among them. Every scara- 
baeus was also supposed to have thirty toes, corresponding 
with the thirty days' duration of the month.^ Latreille thinks 
that the belief that one sex only existed among scarabaei 
arose from the fact that the females are exceedingly like the 
males, and that both sexes appear to divide the care of the 
preservation of their offspring equally between them. 

' 'O KcivBapos d9i}\v l^Qov iari, Aelian, Z>e Nalura Animal., x. xv. ed. 
Didot, p. 172, Kavffopof -yaf wag dpprjv, Vox-phyry, De Abstinentia, iv. 9, ed. 
Didot, p. 74. 

2 For the word scarabeus applied to Christ compare, " Vermis in cruce : 
scarabeus in cruce : et bonus vermis qui haesit in ligno bonus scarabeus qui 
clamavit ^ ligno. Quid clamavit? Domine, ne staiuas illis hoc peccatum. 
Clamavit latroni : Hodie mecum eris in paradise. Clamavit quasi scarabeus : 
Deus, Deus mens, quare me dereliquisti ? Et bonus scarabeus qui lutum corporis 
nostri ante informe ac pigrum virtulum versabat vestigiis : bonus scarabeus, qui 
de stercore erigit pauperem." See the exposition of St. Luke, by Ambrose, 
Bishop of Milan (Opera, Paris edition, 1686, tom. I. col. 1528, No. 113). 

^ " En comptant pour un doigt chaque article des tarses, on reconnajtra que 
cet insecte avait ^ii bien attentivement examine. " Mulsant, Histoire Nalurelte 
des CoUoptires de France, Lamellicornes ; Paris, 1842, p. 48. 



name for 
the beetle. 


scarab an 
emblem ot 

Classes of 

The Egyptians called the scarabseus O "^ " (1 "^v C/.'e- 

perd, and the god whom this insect represented was called 

^ <=> W I Chepera. This god usually wears a beetle on 

his head, and sometimes he has a beetle, with or without 
outstretched wings, in the place of a head.-' The god 
Chepera was the "father of the gods," and the creator of all 
things in heaven and earth. He made himself out of the 
matter which he himself produced. He was identified with 
the rising sun, and thus typified resurrection and new birth 

generally. The word \ which is usually translated 

" to exist, to become, to make," also means " to roll," and the 
" roller," or " revolver," was a fitting name for the sun, 
according to the Egyptian ideas of that luminary. The 

abstract noun Efi \M ' cheperu, may very well be 

rendered by " evolutions." 

Scarabs may, for convenience of consideration, be divided 
into three classes : — i. Funereal scarabs ; 2. Scarabs worn 
for ornament ; 3. Historical scarabs. Of the first class the 
greater number found measure from half to two inches in 
length, and they are made generally of faience or steatite, 
glazed blue or green ; granite, basalt, jasper, amethyst, lapis- 
lazuli, ruby, carnelian, and in the Roman period glass also, 
are often used. Upon the flat base of the scarab the 
Egyptians engraved the names of gods, kings, priests, 
officials, private persons, monograms, and floral and other 
devices. Sometimes the base of the scarab takes the form 
of a heart, and sometimes the scarab is united with the 
u'tat ^^^, or eye of Horus ; it is also found united with a 
frog, the emblem of " myriads '' and of " revivification." 
Rarely the back of the scarab is ornamented with a pattern 
made up of a number of small scarabs. Such small scarabs 
were set in rings, and placed upon the fingers of the dead, 
or were wrapped up in the linen bandages with which the 
mummy was swathed over the heart. They represented the 
belief of the Egyptians in the revivification of the body, and 

See Lanzone, Dizionario, pi. cccxxix. 

SCARAB. 235 

in the renewed life after death, which was typified by the 
Sun, who renewed his life daily. 

Among funereal scarabs must be mentioned those of DescHp- 
green basalt, which were specially made to be laid upon funereal 
the breasts of mummies. Of this class there are many s^^rab. 
varieties, but the form most approved by the Egyptians 
seems to have consisted of a scarab of fine, hard basalt, let 
into a gold border, to which was attached a fine gold wire 
for hanging round the neck. The folds of the wings of the 
beetles were indicated either by lines of gold painted on the 
back, or by pieces of gold inlaid therein. Occasionally, 
the scarab itself is let into a mount of solid gold (B.M. 
No. 7876), and sometimes the scarab is joined to a heart, 
and pierced for suspension, the heart being ornamented 
with hieroglyphics meaning " life, stability, and protection " 

■yHl) (^■^- No. 7925). On the back of the scarab we at 

times have a figure of a bennu bird and the inscription | 

"^ 'O',,,^©^ "the mighty heart of Ra" (B.M. No. 7878), 

at others the boat of the Sun LCli , ufats '^^^^^^, the 

bennu or phoenix ^^ , and Ra ^ (B.M. No. 7883) ; and 

sometimes the scarab is human-headed (B.M. Nos. 15,516 
and 7999). One instance is known where the back of the 
scarab is ornamented with incised figures of Greek deities 
(B.M. No. 7966). In late times this class of scarab was 
made of blue and green faience, and inserted in pectorals of 
the same material, upon which were painted the boat of the 
sun, and figures of Isis and Nephthys, one at each end of the 
boat ; the scarab occupied the middle of the boat (B.M. 
Nos. 7864 and 7865). The bases of large funereal scarabs 
were usually inscribed with the text of the 30th chapter 
of the Book of the Dead, but this was not always the case. 
Some scarabs have only scenes of the deceased adoring 
Osiris (B.M. No. 7931), and others figures of Osiris, Isis, and 
Nephthys (B.M. Nos. 7930, 15,500 and 15,507). At times Descrip- 
the inscriptions are merely written with gold or ink (B.M. |J,°"r°eal 
Nos. 7915 and 15,518). As such scarabs formed part of scarabs. 
the stock-in-trade of the Egyptian undertaker, the names 


of the persons with whom they were buried are not found 
inscribed upon them, although blank spaces are left (B.M. 
No. 7877) ; frequently scarabs have neither figures nor 
inscriptions upon their bases. A remarkable example of 
funereal scarab is B.M. No. 18,190, which was taken from 
the mummy of Thothmes III., found at D6r el-Bahari. 
This object is made of steatite, glazed a greenish (purple 
in some places) colour. A frame of gold runs round the 
base, the two sides of which are joined by a band of the 
same metal across the back ; a thin layer of gold covered 
the back, but parts of this are hidden by the remains 
of the mummy cloth which adhere to it. The base is 
inscribed with a figures of Thothmes III., kneeling ; on his 
head is the crown ^Mj_ , in the right hand he holds the 
whip 4\ > and with the left he is making an offering. Before 
him is a dog (?) seated, and behind him a hawk. Above is 
the sign T nefer, and the legend " Ra-men-cheper, triumphant 

before the gods for ever." (©^^l^ ^ lH ^^ 

The surface of the base was covered with a layer of gold, 

parts of which still remain. This scarab is 3 inches long. On 

the upper end of the gold frame was a loop by which the 

scarab, by means of a chain, was attached to a bronze collar 

round the neck of the mummy. 

The The chapter from the Book of the Dead called 30B by 

of^he"^^ M. Naville {Das Aegyptische Todtenbuch, pi. xliii.), engraved 

heart. upon scarabs, is one of a series of seven chapters, relating to 

the heart, which are entitled : — 

Chap. 26. Chapter of giving a heart to N.' in the under- 

Chaps. 27, 28 and 29. Chapter of not allowing his heart 
to be carried off from him in the underworld. 

Chap. 29 B. Another chapter of a heart of carnelian. 

Chaps. 30A and 30B. Chapter of not allowing to be 
repulsed the heart of N. in the underworld. According to a 
papyrus in Berlin, Ba in Naville's edition, chap. 26 is 
entitled " Chapter of a heart of lapis-lazuli (_®_ J 5^ 

' N. = name of the person for whom the scarab or papyrus was made. 

SCARAB. 237 

chesbet) " ; chap. 27, " Chapter of a heart of opal (.'), 
( 1^^^^ 1^ n I ^ neshem) " ; chap. 29 B, " Chapter of a heart of 
carneHan(?) (|l <ffl-, '? ] sekert)" ; and chap. 30 B, " Chapter of a 
heart of green jasper ( °<==<. » '^^^ meht)." The most im- 

portant of these chapters is the 30th, which exists in two 
different versions, called 30 A and 30 B, but it appears that 
the former was never inscribed upon scarabs. According 
to the rubric found in a papyrus at Parma (see Naville, 
Todtenbuch, ^ Bd. ii. bl. 99), this chapter was found during the 
reign of Mycerinus in Hermopolis, under the feet of the 
majesty of this god, by Heru-ta-ta-f his son. 

This interesting text reads : — 

met her %eper en meh - f mesesbeb em chapter 

To be said over a scarab of green jasper bound round with jje^rt. 

o 111 a. ^ jSks: a 111 A a 

smu ant f em tet' ertau en 

smu metal, ring its [being'] of silver, to be placed on 

T^u er xex f qementu re pen em 

a blessed one^ over throat his. Was found chapter this in 


xemennu x^^ ^^^ ^^ b*^"^ ^^ neter pen -s 

Hermopolis under the feet of the majesty of god this, ^'^^'^^^f^ 

her tebt en bat qemau em na neter 

upon a slab of steel of the south with the writing of the god 

' Quoted by Birch in Aeg. Zeitschrift, 1867, p 17. 

' First published by Birch in Aeg. Zeitschrift, 1867, p. 54. 

" I.e., the deceased. 



of the 


t'esef em 
liimself in 

\ Men-kau-Ra.\ 
\ [Mycerinus] J 

qem su 

Found he it 

the time 



\ V 

suten net 

of the majesty of the {^'jjstulh"'^''] 







way ids 

suten se 
the royal son Jferu 


and South-, 

Hem - ta - ta - f 


fata f. 



I I I I I till 
em er pau 

of the temples. 

According to some copies of the 30th, or 64th chapter, ' 
at the end of which this statement is sometimes added, it was 
found during the reign of Hesep-ti, the fifth king of the first 

Chapter 30 B belongs to the Psychostasia, in which the 
heart of the dead man is weighed against the feather, P . 
emblematic of Law ; in the vignette which sometimes 
accompanies this chapter, the deceased is seen being weighed 
against his own heart, in the presence of Osiris, the pointer 
of the scales being watched by the cynocephalus ape of Thoth. 
The text of this chapter, found upon scarabs with many 
variants, is as follows : — ^ 






tem ertat xesef 

not allowing to be repulsed 


1 ii^ 



the heart 




neter xert t'et - f ab - a 

\ in the underworld. Says he, " O Heart mine of 

{Here comes name 
of deceased 

' Goodwin, On a text of the Book of the Dead belonging to the Old Kingdom, 
in Aeg. Zeitschrift, 1866, p. 55 ! Lepsius, Das Todtenbuch, p. 12. 
2 Naville, Das Todlenbuch, bl. xliii. 



^ ® II 

mut-a Sep sen 
mother mine. Twice. 

hati a en x^per-^^ em 

Heart mine of evolution mine. Not may 

1 J\ 



er a 


be obstruction against me in 



em sexesef 

Not may be repulse 

D ci 

er - a 

to me 

er - a 

em t'at'anut' em ari requ k 

by the Powers. Not may be made separatio7i thy 


em bah 

^1 k^4i 





of the 



from me in the presence of the guardian of the scale. Thou art 

genius my 

at a 



o I 'SI 

body my, 

^%.\^ m\.\ 


making sound 



bu nefer 


limbs my. May est come forth thou to the felicity [to which] go 

I I I 

en n am em 

we there. Not may 



<^^^> ^Q f»AAAAA 

^^^\A/^ '—^ I I I 



en n 




[who] make 





^ I.e., the four children of Ilorus. 
5 Var. ^^ 




I I I 

nefer en n 






ab en 

heart at the 

weighing of 




be told 





I 1 


Pleasant to us, pleasant [w] the hearitig of joy of 

Not may 



falsehood [against me] near the god, 

embah neter aa neb Amentet mak 

in the presence of the god great, lord of the underworld. How 


0en0 k un^a em matxeru 

great art thou rising up in trimnph 1 " 

worn for 

of Ameno- 

phis in. 

The second class of scarabs, i.e., those worn for ornament, 
exists in many thousands. By an easy transition, the custom 
of placing scarabs on the bodies of the dead passed to the 
living, and men and women perhaps wore the scarab as a 
silent act of homage to the creator of the world, who was 
not only the god of the dead but of the living also. To 
attempt to describe this class of scarabs would be impossible 
in anything but a special work on the subject. The devices 
and inscriptions are very varied, but at present it is not 
possible to explain one half of them satisfactorily. 

The third class of scarabs, i.e., the historical, appears to be 
confined to a series of four, extant in many copies, which were 
made during the reign of Amenophis III., to commemorate 

SCARAB. 241 

certain historical events. They are of considerable interest, 
and the texts inscribed upon them refer to : — 

I. The slaughter of 102 lions by Amenophis III., during the 
first ten years of his reign ; the text reads: — 


L=^ Q 

anx Heru ka next xa em maat 

May live tlu Horus, hull pcnverful, diademed with law, 

P=l W, PJ>i" 3. 

semen hepu sekerh taui 

1 "'andS "th \ ' ^^(eiblisher of laws, pacifier of the two lands, 

i ~ - w '=^^°n 

Heru nub aa X^P^^ ^"^ sati 

Horus the golden, mighty of valour, smiier of foreign lands, 

suten net Neb-maa.t-Ra se Ra en xat-f 

{^'''indToufh,'''^^ ^'^-'^''"■^-^^^ ^on of the sun, of body his, 

Amen-hetep heq Uast ta anx suten hemt 6\ 

Amenhetep, prince of Thebes, giver of life, [and] royal spouse Thi. 

er xst mau an en hen-f em satet-f 

In respect of lions, brought majesty his from shooting his 


S im^ '-k fo I \\\- •=■ fS " s5k| 2Sfi 

of Ameno- 

t'esef ^aa em renpit ua neferit er renpit met' mau phis III. 

own, beginning from year first up to year tenth, lions 


I^ © II 

hesau saa sen 

fierce, one hundred and two. 

B. M. 


II. The limits of the Egyptian Empire, and the names of 
the parents of Thi, wife of Amenophis III. ; the text reads : — 

- f ^ ^ U=^ 


anx Heru ka next x^ 6™ maat 

May live the Horus, bull powerful, diademed -with law 

of Ameno- ^^ ' "^'^ ^ D JI I <=> A 

phis III. _ _ _ semen hepu sekerh taui 

Y"''ifJsotar'^} "^'^^^"^'^'' ''■^ ^'^^^' pacifier of the two lands, 

^K ~ •- 11 *=*1CI 

qN I I I 

Heru nub aa X^pes' hu Sati 

Horus the golden, mighty of valour, stniter of foreign lands. 

1% ^-(Ml ¥o CBTIl 

suten net Neb-maat-Ra se Ra Amen-lietep heq Uast 

At 1 « »•? CM] f I 

ta anx suten hemt urt ei anx^ 

giver of life, \and'\ royal spouse, mighty lady, Thi, living one- 


3. q^^q- 

ren en tef s luaa ren en 

the name of father her \was\ luda^ the name of 

mut-s 6'uau hemt pu ent suten 

mother her \was\ Thuau — the wife to wit of the king 

SCARAB. 243 

Ci Ci I X -^ T W M ■= 
■ c- n 4= '^=> 9- 1 ' 

W— n r-w-| ^^ X\> I I 


next tes'-f resi er Karei 

powerful. Frontier his south [z>] as far as Karei^ [frontier'] 

. AAAAA^ > 

w^ 10. pg -^ .. 1^ I ciCia 

meht er N harina 

north [his is] as far as Neharina? 

III. The arrival of the bride of Amenophis III. in Egypt 
from Mesopotamia, with three hundred and seventeen of her 
women ; the text reads : — " 

[g n ^ \\ ^ -^^ ^=^ ^ 


I-1rnllJL Yl 2. ^^^')f^W=iJ -^ scarabs 

of Ameno- 
renpit met' xer hen en Heru ka next x^ pli's III. 

Year tenth under the majesty of Horus, bull powerful, diademed 

em maat semen hepu sekerh 

with law, [^Zli^sZaf] ^^^'^^^"^^'' "/ ^«^-f. pacifier of 

<f^C:i 4. 

taui Heru nub aa x^^PS^ bu 

the two lands, Horus the golden, mighty of valour, smiier of 

Sati suten net neb ari x^*- 

foreign countries, {^"l^stS"^} ^^' ^'"''^ '""^"'^ ^^"''^'' 


Neb-maat-Ra, setep Ra se Ra Amen-ljetep ^leq Uast 

Neb-madt-Ra,chosen of the sun, son of the Sun, {"^"''"f^lf/,,^'""] 

' The land south of Nubia. = /^.^ ^JOU AjlQ Mesopotam 

3 Published by Brugsch, Aeg. Zeitschrift, l88o, p. 82. 

R 2 



A f 1 ^ g '-(SMI f] 

ta anx suten hemt urt ei 

giver of life, royal spouse, mighty lady, Thi, 

the living one — 

Historical <^rs> Ci 

scarabs x 

of Ameno- 

phis III. ren en tef-s 

the name of father her \was'\ 


ren en 

the name 




mother her \_was'\ 

^uaa bait an - it en 

Thuaa. A wonderful thing they brought to 

I- f i P ¥ 

hen-f anx ut'a senb set ser en 

majesty his, life, strength, health, the daughter of the prince of 




Z5 1 


1 iUl 
hetep en 

and the chiefs of 



xenra s 
women her. 


set saa xemt met' sexef 
Wojnen, 300 +10 + 7 

IV. The construction of the lake of Queen Thi in the 
eleventh year of the reign of Amenophis. The text of this 
scarab was first published in Rosellini, Monumenti Storici, tav. 
xliv. No. 2. It was partly translated by Rosellini, then by 
Hinks (in Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. xxi. 
Dublin, 1848, Sec. "Polite Literature," On the age of the Eigh- 
teenth Dynasty of Manetko, p. 7), and by Birch, Records of the 
Past, Vol. XII. p. 41. The text printed below is corrected 
from Stern's copy in Aeg. Zeitschrift, 1887, p. 87, note 2. The 
scarab is dated in the first day, the third month of sowing ^ 

' Hathor. 

SCARAB. 245 

of the eleventh year of Amenophis III., 1 (?) ■ 11 1 HM . • 
The first few lines of the inscription containing the king's 
titles are the same as the beginning lines of the scarabs of the 
series. The making of the tank is described as follows : — 

JTll i^^^ o I ^ t ^ ofAmeno- 

utu hen-f arit mar en suten hemt phis III. 

Ordered majesty his the making of a lake for the royal spouse. 

urt ^i em tema-s en T'aru .... 

mighty lady, Thi in town her (?) of T'aru .... 

=^ --^ III gg ^^^^^ ,^^ sg 

au - f meh ab - f meh 

Length its \ivas'\ cubits 3000 + 600, breadth its cubits 600. 

I [I I II 

o 111 

ari en hen - f heb tep set em 

Made majesty his festival of the entrance of the waters on 

abet xemt sat hru met'-sas xent hen - f en- 

month third of sowing^ day sixteen. Sailed majesty his in 

uaa Aten - neferu em - xennu-f 

the boat [ « ^,-^^ of Beauties ") | WZt/itn tt. 

Of the inscriptions found on scarabs by far the greater Inscrip- 
number consists of the names of kings. Names of priests scarabs, 
and ladies who took part in the services connected with the 

' 23| ^J@Taruxa(?). 

2 Hathor. 

^ Stem [1 ^'^^^^ l-ft|j4>l aten texen, "disk of saffron." 



tion of 
of Scarabs 
by Birch. 


and Smith. 

various gods are common enough ; so also are those of the 
singers of Amen-Ra. Scarabs inscribed with the names of 
kings are important historically, because sometimes they form 
nearly the only memorials of kings and royal personages, 
and they fill up gaps in the lists of kings of Egypt of whom, 
otherwise, nothing would be known. The names of the kings 
most commonly found are Thothmes III., Amenophis III. 
and Rameses II., and of these that of Thothmes III. is the 
commonest. The of the scarab by the Egyptians to 
denote the idea of resurrection is probably as old as their 
settlement in the Nile Valley, and scarabs are found 
inscribed with the names of nearly every king of every 
dynasty, beginning with that of Mena, the first king of the 
first dynasty, and ending with that of the Roman Emperor 

The first published classification of scarabs was made by 
the late Dr. Birch in his Catalogue of the collection of Egyptian 
Antiquities at Alnwick Castle^ pp. 103-167, 236-242, in 
which he described 565 objects of this class. The 
arrangement he followed in this subdivision was: — i. Names 
of mythological personages and emblems. 2. Historical 
inscriptions, names of kings, and historical representations. 
3. Titles of officers. In 1884, the Rev. W. J. Loftie published 
his Essay of Scarabs^ which contained a description of his 
collection ^ of 192 scarabs, inscribed with royal names, and 
excellent drawings of each. His collection, like those of the 
Museum of the Louvre and the British Museum, was arranged 
chronologically ; '' the principle of the arrangement he ex- 
plained in his interesting preface. In my Catalogue of the 
Egyptian Collection of the Harrow School Museum,^ pp. 14-29, 
I gave a description of nearly one hundred and fifty scarabs, 
and translations of most of the inscriptions. In 1888 a cata- 
logue of the scarabs and scaraboids from Egypt, Kamiros, and 

' Printed by the Duke of Northumberland for private distribution, London, 

^ London, small 4to. , no date. 

3 Purchased by the Trustees of the British Museum in 1890. 

< Loftie, op. cit., p. xxxi. 

' Harrow, 1887. 

SCARAB. 247 

Tharros was published by Dr. A. S. Murray and Mr. Hamilton 

Smith, in their Catalogue of Gems, pp. 46-58. In 1889 

Mr. Flinders Petrie published a collection ^ of drawings of 

2,363 scarabs, with a few pages of introduction. The idea of 

this work was excellent, but the plates should have contained 

a tolerably complete set of examples of scarabs, carefully 

indexed. The title Historical Scarabs was a misnomer, for 

the only, strictly speaking, historical scarabs known, the 

series of the four of Amenophis III., were omitted. 

Scarabs inscribed with certain kings' names were made Persis- 

and worn as much as a thousand years after the death of the certain 

kings whose names they bear. This fact is indisputable, names 

and if any proof were required it is furnished by the scarabs scarabs. 

dug up at Naucratis by Mr. Petrie. From the scarab-moulds 

found there, and the material from which they are made, and 

from the design and workmanship, it is clear that the scarabs 

of Naucratis are not older than the Vllth century B.C. ; yet 

many of them bear the prenomens of Thothmes III., Seti I. 

and Rameses 11.,^ etc. As the paste of which these are made 

is identical with that of scarabs bearing the names of kings 

of the XXVIth dynasty, there is no possible doubt about 

this fact. Scarabs inscribed with the names of two kings Double 

furnish another proof Thus in the British Museum, Nos. "'^™^^- 

4033 and 403s bear the names of Thothmes III. and Seti I.; 

No. 16,580 bears the names of Thothmes I., Thothmes III., 

and Seti I.; No. 17,126 (a plaque) bears the names of 

Thothmes III. and Rameses II. ; No. 17,138 bears the names 

of Thothmes III. and Rameses III.; No. 16,837 bears the 

names of Thothmes III. and Rameses IX. ; and No. 16,796 

bears the names of Thothmes III. and Psammetichus. That 

scarabs of a late period are found in tombs of the Vlth, 

Xllth and XVIIIth dynasties is not to be wondered at, for 

tombs were used over and over again for burial by families Exact 

who lived hundreds of years after they were first hewn out, scarabs" 

and who had no connexion whatever with the people who i«>pos- 

" ^ sible. 

' Historical Scarabs ; A series of Drawings from the Principal Collections. 
Arranged Chronologically. London, 1889. 

2 Naucratis, London, 1886, Plate XXXVII., No. 63, etc., PI. XXXVIII., 
No. 182. 


were first buried in them. When a scarab is found bound up 
in a mummy, the date of which can be ascertained from the 
inscriptions upon it, that scarab can be used with advantage 
as an authority by which to compare other scarabs ; ^ when, 
however, a scarab is dug up with a lot of miscellaneous stuft" 
it is of little value for the purpose of comparison. From the 
lowest depths of the Vlth and Xllth dynasty tombs at Aswin, 
scarabs have been dug up which could not have been a 
day older than the XXVIth dynasty, if as old. In some of 
these tombs, carefully closed with beautifully fitting blocks of 
stone, were found also red terra-cotta jars inscribed in hieratic 
which could not have been a day older than the XlXth 
dynasty, yet the inscriptions on the walls proved beyond a 
doubt that the tombs were made for officials who lived during 
the Xllth dynasty. It must then be clearly understood that 
the objects found in a tomb do not, necessarily, belong to the 
period of the tomb itself, and all the evidence known points 
Chrono- to the fact that it is nearly impossible to arrange a collection 
arrange- °^ scarabs chronologically, except so far as the order of the 
ment of names is concerned. Comparatively little is known about the 
possible, various local manufactures of scarabs, or of their characteris- 
tics, and hundreds of examples of thepi exist which can 
neither be read nor explained nor understood. 
Scarabs What has been said of the scarabs of Naucratis applies 

Kamiro°^' equally to those found at lalysos and Kamiros in Rhodes, 
^"d and at Tharros in Sardinia, places associated with the 

Phoenicians or Carthaginians. At lalysos, faience and 
steatite scarabs are rare. Of the three found there preserved 
in the British Museum, two are steatite and one is of faience. 
One of the examples in steatite is fractured, whereby the 
design or inscription is rendered illegible, and the other is 
inscribed with u tet, emblem of stability, on each side of 
which is an uraeus |A. The example in faience measures 
1 1 inch in length, and is inscribed v/ith the prenomen of 
Amen-hetep III., ( o ^ "^d^l.^ Scarabs are rare in Kamiros 

' Such a scarab, however, may quite well be older than the mummy upon 
which it is found. 

» Brit, Mus. Reg. Nos. 72-3-15, no; 70-10-3, 130 and 131. 

SCARAB. 249 

also, so far as concerns the tombs, and in those in which 
black and red vases were obtained no scarabs were found ; 
many specimens were, however, found in a well on the 
Acropolis,^ and among them were some inscribed with the 
prenomen of Thothmes III.,^ having all the characteristics 
of those of the XXVIth dynasty found at Naucratis. The 
scarabs found at Tharros do not go farther back than the 
period of Carthaginian supremacy, that is, not farther than the 
middle of the Vf th century B.C." A steatite scarab, found at 

Thebes in Boeotia, inscribed with -r- dnch " life," and a winged 

gryphon wearing the crowns of Upper and I.ower Egypt 

ry ^ belongs to the same period.'' 

At Kouyunjik there were found two pieces of clay, of Impres- 
sion of 
the same colour and substance as that employed by Assur- scarabs 

banipal for the tablets of his library, bearing impres- ^"^^^^1^ 

sions of an Egyptian king slaughtering his enemies, and 

hieroglyphic inscriptions, probably from a scarab. The king 

holds a club or weapon in his raised left hand, and his 

right holds some instrument which rests on the heads of a 

number of captives. The inscriptions read | J ( T(T(T "^:^ \ ] | 

neter nefer Shabaka neb dri ■)(et, " Beautiful god, 

Shabaka, the lord, maker of things " (the first king of 

the XXVth dynasty, about B.C. 700). Behind the king 

are the signs °8»» sa " protection," ■+• dnck " life," and 'W ha 

" increase [of power]." In front of the king is the speech of 

some eod /\ ~^~^ "^^^^ 1 ta-na nek set nebu. I give to 

thee all foreign lands." The Brit. Mus. Registration Nos. of 
these interesting objects are 51-9-2, 43, and 81-2-4, 352 ; as 
there is on the former also the impression of the seal of an 
Assyrian king, it has been thought* that the impression 

' No. 132 in Table-Case E in the Kouyunjik Gallery. 

2 Murray, Catalogue of Gems, p. 13. 

3 Brit. Mus. Reg. Nos. 64-10-7, 895, 915, 1998. 

'' Murray, op. at., p. 13, and King, Antique Gems and Rings, Vol. I. p. 124, 

' See Layard, Nineveh and Babylon, London, 1S67, pp. 173, 174. 



Use of 
scarab by 

Use of 
scarab in 

formed the seal of a treaty between the kings of Egypt and 
Assyria. Shabaka (Sabaco) was a contemporary of Senna- 
cherib, B.C. 705-681. 

The Phoenicians borrowed the use of the scarab from 
Egypt, and as their country was overrun by Shalmaneser II., 
King of Assyria B.C. 860-825, and by many of his successors, 
it is only natural that the scarab inscribed with devices to 
suit the Assyrian market should find its way to Nineveh and 
Babylon, the Phoenician adopting in return the form of gem 
commonly used by the Assyrians for seals. A good example 
of the Phcenicio-Assyrian scarab is No. 1029, exhibited in the 
table-case in the Phcenician Room of the British Museum. 
It is made of green jasper, and measures if in. in length. 
On the base is inscribed a man, who stands adoring a seated 
deity ; above is a seven-rayed star, and between them is 
■¥" dnch, "life." Beneath is inscribed in Phoenician characters, 

«"1QD TTinS, "Belonging to H6d6 the Scribe." For other 
examples see the specimens exhibited in the same case. As 
an example of the adoption of the chalcedony cone by the 
Phoenicians, see No. 1022, on which is inscribed a man at a 
fire altar and the name Palzir-shemesh in Phoenician 
characters. The scarab in relief,' with outstretched wings 
inlaid with blue, red and gold carved upon an ivory panel 
found at Abu Habbah, about five hours' ride to the south- 
west of Bagdad, together with a number of miscellaneous 
ivory objects, is a proof of the knowledge of the scarab in 
Mesopotamia. That the panel was not carved by an 
Egyptian workman is very evident.^ Scaraboids in agate 
and crystal, etc., are a small but very interesting class ; at 
times the device is purely Eg^'ptian, and the inscriptions in 
Phoenician letters are the only additions by the Phoenicians. 
Brit. Mus. Nos. 1024 and 1036 are tolerably good examples 
of them. The former is inscribed on the base with three 
hawks with outspread wings, and two of them have disks on 

' See Table-Case G in the Nimroud Gallery. 

2 The two rectangular weights (?) found at Nimroud by Sir A. H. Layard 
(Nineveh and Babylon, London, 1867, p. 64) have each, on one face, the figure 
of a scarab inlaid in gold in outline ; the work is excellent, and is a fine example 
of Phoenician handicraft. 

SCARAB. 251 

their heads ; these, of course, represent the hawk of Horus. 
The Phcenician inscription gives the name Eliam. The 
latter is inscribed with a beetle in a square frame, and on the 

right and left is an urseus TL ; each end of the perpendicular 

sides of the frame terminates in •¥- anck, and above and below 

it is a figure of Ra, or Horus, hawk-headed, holding a sceptre 

m . The name, inscribed in Phoenician characters, is " Mer- 

sekem." In 1891, while carrying on excavations at Der, a 
place about three and a half hours to the south-west of Bag- 
dad, I obtained a steatite scarab inscribed with an urseus fl, ^"^f^^^^?" 
dnck -¥■ , and an illegible sign, together with an oval green 
transparent Gnostic gem inscribed with the lion-headed 
serpent XNOYBIC. Both objects were probably brought 
from Lower Egypt, and belong to a period after the birth of 

Dr. Birch describes in Nineveh and Babylon (London, Scarabs 
1853, pp. 281, 282) a series of eleven scarabs which Sir Henry Arban.^ 
Layard dug up at Arbftn, a mound situated on the western 
bank of the Khabur, about two and a half days' journey north 
of Der on the Euphrates, and about ten miles east of the 
'Abd el-'Aziz hills. With one exception they are all made 
of steatite, glazed yellow or green or blue. Two of them are 
inscribed with the prenomen of Thothmes HI. (Nos. 304, 
309") ^ ; one bears the prenomen of Amenophis HI. (No. 320), 
with the titles "beautiful god, lord of two lands, crowned in 

■TQ. fS III till 

every land " ; one is inscribed t^^ O (I K^„ men Cheperd 
at Amen, " established of Chepera, emanation of Amen " 
(No. 322); two are inscribed p^J (No. 303) and J^^ 
(No. 318), and belong to the same period ; one is inscribed Scarabs 
with a hawk-headed lion and a hawk (No. 273) ; one bears Arban!' 
the legend, " beautiful lord, lord of two lands," i.e., the North 
and South (No. 321) ; one is inscribed with a human-headed 

' The numbers are G. 475 and 24,314. 

2 These interesting objects are exhibited in the Assyrian and Babylonian 
Room, in the Northern Gallery of the British Museum. 


beetle, with outstretched wings, in the field are ursei and T T 
of beautiful workmanship (No. 302) ; and one is inscribed 
with <2:^ p and an urasus T)^ having -V- on its head (No. 307). 

The scarab in haematite (No. 313) is inscribed with the 
figure of a king seated on a throne, and a man standing before 
him in adoration ; between them is •¥•. With the exception 

of this last scarab, it is pretty certain that all belong to the 
period of the XVIIIth dynasty, for they have all the appear- 
ance of such antiquity, and they possess all the delicacy of 
workmanship found upon scarabs of this time. The design 
on the haematite scarab appears to be a copy from an 
Egyptian scarab executed by a foreign workman, but it may 
be that the hardness of the material made the task of 
engraving so difficult, that the character of the design was 
altered in consequence. The presence of these scarabs at 
Arban is not difficult to account for. Thothmes I., one of 
the early kings of the XVIIIth dynasty, carried his victorious 
arms into Mesopotamia, and set up a tablet to mark the 
boundary of the Egyptian territory at a place called Ni, on 
the Euphrates, and the authority of the Egyptians in that 
land was so great that when Thothmes III. arrived there 
several years after, he found the tablet still standing. The 
kings who immediately succeeded Thothmes I. marched into 
this land, and that their followers should take up quarters on 
the fertile banks of the Khabflr, and leave behind them 
scarabs and other relics, is not to be wondered at. The 
antiquities found at Arb^n are of a very miscellaneous 
character, and, among other things, include an Assyrian 
colossus inscribed "Palace of Meshezib-Marduk the king" 
(B.C, 700), and a Chinese glass bottle ^ inscribed with a verse 
of the Chinese poet KEIN-TAU, A.D. 827-831 ; it is possible 
that the scarabs described above may have been brought there 
at a period subsequent to the XVIIIth dynasty, but, in any 
case, the objects themselves appear to belong to this period. 
Use of The Gnostics inscribed the scarab on the gems worn by 

scarab by ^|^gp^^ g^,^^ partly adopted the views concerning it held by the 


' British Museum, No. N. i ^8o. 

SCARAB. 253 

Egyptians. On an oval slab of green granite/ in the British 
Museum, is inscribed a scarab encircled by a serpent having 
his tail in his mouth. The same design is found on another 
oval,'' but the beetle has a human head and arms ; above the 
head are rays, and above that the legend eiAAMS'; to the 
right is a star, to the left a star and crescent, and beneath the 
hind legs three stars. 

The scarab is an antiquity which is readily bought from the 
native of Egypt by modern travellers of every nationality ; it 
is easily carried, and is largely worn as an ornament by ladies 
in their necklaces, bracelets and rings, and by men in pins 
and rings. As the number of visitors to Egypt has been Modem 
steadily increasing for many years past, it follows of necessity jure of 
that the demand for .scarabs has increased also, and the price scarabs. 
of these objects has risen in proportion. The late Sir Gardner 
Wilkinson, during one of his visits to Egypt, anchored his 
dhahahiyyeh ' opposite Kurnah at Thebes, and in the afternoon 
a native brought him a bag full of scarabs, many hundreds in 
number, which he had that day taken out of the ground in 
a tomb from under the coffin of a mummy. These scarabs 
were of a fine green colour and made of steatite ; they were 
all inscribed with the name and titles of Thothmes III. Sir 
Gardner Wilkinson bought a handful of these for an English 
pound, but each scarab might now easily be sold for two 
pounds. The supply of scarabs varies year by year, some 
years but few are to be had, and some years they are very 
common. The supply cannot be inexhaustible, although the 
demand for them appears to be so. The native has discovered Modem 
that the European not only wants scarabs, but that he wants {JJ," V*^ 
scarabs inscribed with the names of particular kings ; and as scarabs. 
these are not always forthcoming, he has found out the way 
to make them. The imitation of scarabs by the modern 
native of Egypt began about sixty years ago. At first the 
number produced was few, and they were so clumsily made 
that it was soon apparent that they were forgeries. In later 

' G. 455, Table-Case N, Fourth Egyptian Room. 
^ G. 483, Table-Case N, Fourth Egyptian Room. 

' Arab. <UOki J . 



ture of 

days, however, the native has brought skill and thought to 
bear upon the matter, and he sets about his work in a syste- 
matic way. He has seen what the old faience scarabs are 
made of, and he can now make a paste very much like 
that of which they are made. From the old broken ushabtiu 
figures, scarabs and beads, he chips off the thin layer of 
Process of green or blue covering for his use. A large number of 
genuine moulds for scarabs have been found, and from 
these and others which he makes like them, he turns out 
large numbers of scarabs ready for glazing. For glaze he 
uses the pieces which he has collected from broken genuine 
scarabs, etc., and he spreads this over the paste with a 
blow-pipe. When he wishes to make steatite scarabs he 
obtains the steatite from the mountains where the ancient 
Egyptians found it. There is a large amount of artistic skill 
in many natives, and with a little practice they are able to 
cut very good scarabs. The discoloration of the genuine 
scarab is easily imitated by keeping them in wet sand, earth 
and ashes, and if he wants to glaze them he makes use of the 
same method as in glazing his paste forgeries. For inscriptions 
he usually follows slavishly those inscribed on genuine 
scarabs, of which he keeps a good supply. In this matter, 
however, he is greatly helped by the act of an English 
traveller, who wrote out for one of these imitators a list of all 
the most important kings of Egypt 1 which he now imitates 
with great success. He sells hundreds, perhaps even thou- 
sands, of his scarabs yearly, and many of them bring a high 
price. One has only to see the excellent way in which some 
of the natives can make a fine and correct reproduction in 
stone from a sculpture in a tomb or temple, to understand how 
well the native can imitate such things. Colours and other 
materials and tools can now be easily obtained in Egypt, and 
through the support of numerous purchasers who have bought 
readily for some years past, the production of forgeries of anti- 
quities in general, and of scarabs in particular,^ has become 

1 And this, notwithstanding the statement, " Generally speaking, forgeries — 
except of one or two obvious kinds — are very rare, and there is nothing like the 
amount of doubt in the matter which is often supposed to exist. " Petrie, Hislo- 
rical Scarabs, p. 6. 

SCARAB. 25 s 

a very profitable business. At more than one place in Egypt Modern 

•; ^ 1 rnanufac- 

scarabs, bronze figures, etc., etc., have been so well imitated ture of 
that experts were deceived and purchased them. Genuine jj^j"^"'' 
ushabtiu figures and bronze statues of gods are cast in moulds 
found among the ruins of ancient Egyptian towns, wooden 
Ptah-Seker-Ausar figures and boats are made from the 
planks of old coffins, and as it is evident that the substance 
itself is genuine, the unwary collector is thrown off his guard. 
In certain dealers' houses at Thebes and elsewhere, the visitor 
will always find a large assortment of forgeries, even on the 
tables set apart for genuine antiquities, and he will be able to 
compare and judge for himself 

The reverence shown by the Egyptians to the scarab, as 
an emblem of the Creator, was not shared by neighbouring 
nations. Thus Physiologus, after describing how scarabs roll Physiolo- 
up their eggs in balls of dung, and how they push them scarab^us, 
backwards, and how the young having come to life feed upon 
the dung in which they are hatched, goes on to say that we 
may learn of a certainty that scarabs are heretics ^ who are 
polluted by the filth of heresies ; that these balls, which are 
formed of filth and nastiness, and which they roll backwards 
and not forwards, are the evil thoughts of their heresies, 
which are formed of wickedness and sin, and which they roll 
against mankind, until they become children of error, and by 
being participators in the filth of their heresies they become 
other beings and like unto them. See Land, Anecdota 

' The ignorance of the habits and manner of life of the scarabseus which 
is displayed by certain Syrian writers upon natural history is marvellous ; here 
is a specimen : " The scarabaeus receiveth conception through its mouth, and 
when it cometh to bring forth, it giveth birth to its young through its ears. It 
hath the habit of stealing, and wherever it findeth small things and things of 
gold and silver it taketh and hideth them in its hole. And if pulse be found in 
the house it taketh [it] and mixeth [it] up with [other] things, chick-peas with 
beans, and beans with lentils, rice with millet and wheat, and everything which 
it findeth it mixeth up together in the place where it hideth itself. It thus doeth 
the work of the cooks who mix such things together to make to stumble those 
who buy pulse at the shops. And if any man taketh note of it and smiteth it, it 
taketh its vengeance upon [his] clothing. If having collected pieces of money 
and taken them forth to the race-course or to play with them, they be taken away 
from it, it wandereth about and tumeth hither and thither, and if it findeth them 
not it straightway killeth itself." Ahrens, Das Buck der Naturgegenstande, text, 
p. 41, translation, p. 62. 


Syriaca, torn. IV. p. TJ, cap. 56. Bar-Hebraeus, commenting 
in rc'iHrC' i^or^*, on Psalm Ixxviii. 45, and referring to the 
words ,___ojr<' A^Kta r£^c\u ,__nnr».\s. \xl. (Heb., DHl 
rhxD'^, nhir^ he sent among them the gad-fly, LXX., 'E^avre- 
crreiXev eh avrov<; Kvv6/j,vLav), " he sent against them crowds of 
insects and they devoured them," includes the scarab (J^ nloJ. . 
plur. '^Q^riii.; lA»Q»£i*»i plur. "|'Al*a«iiij^) among noxious 

creatures like dog-flies, scorpions, ants, etc. . en . rO^cxxu 
rcluo^ r^^iz.o rc'-i-i.TO r^^A'-io^i^a Klisax.a,x.o 


The I. The Buckle or Tie m. This amulet, called by the 

Buckle of -Xc^q ^ 

Isjs. Egyptians i m 6et, is one of the commonest objects found 

among collections of Egyptian amulets. It was most com- 
monly made of red jasper, carnelian, red porphyry, red glass 
or faience, and sycamore wood ; sometimes it was made 
entirely of gold, and sometimes, when it was made of sub- 
stances other than gold, it was set in gold, or covered over 
with gold leaf Buckles are usually uninscribed, but fre- 
quently when two or more are found together the 156th 
chapter of the Book of the Dead is engraved on them. The 
buckle was placed on the neck of the mummy, which it was 
supposed to protect ; the red material of which it was made 
represented the blood of Isis. The formula which is inscribed 
on buckles reads : — 

^^"'^ ■ ^\ ° — I <rr> IP 

Re en Set ent xs^^cmet tata er x^X 

Chapter of the buckle of red jasper placed on the neck 


en X" senef ent Auset hekau 

of the deceased. The blood of Isis, the incantations 

% ^(t«Z J§°l iu^^- 




ent Auset 
of Isis, 


I I I 
ike power 

/vvvw. I -— . 

ent Auset 
of his, 

ut'at em 

a charm. for the 



(?. X 



protection of mighty one this, protecting [him front] the doing of 

betaut f 
what to him is hateful. 


The rubric of this chapter reads 

t'et-tu re 

Is to be said chapter 



her Set 

over a buckle 

° Rubric of 

C^ ^ B^^m chapter 

ent x^ne™ of Book of 

, , . , the Dead. 

0/ red jasper 

: ^ 


mes - 6k 










ancham flowers. 

^AM T 

menxu - ^a 
OTflife of 







A D 

erta - ek 

• heart of a sycamore tree, and placed 


•(s , 

c X^X ^" X^ P^" ^"^ aritu nef 

on the neck of deceased pei-son this. If makes one 


f book 1 
\ uiriting J 

ten un - nes 







» power of 



' See Birch, TAe Amulet of the Tie, Aeg. Zeit., 1871, p. 13: and Maspero, 
Mhnoire sur Quelques Papyrus du Louvre, p. 8. 

B. M. S 


o o 

sail - f haa Heru se Auset maa - f 

protecting him, rejoices Horus, son of Isis, when sees he 

su an t'era en uat nebt er-ef 

//, not is blocked way any against him. 

I D 

-^ J D ^ ~-n 5 r 

a - f er pet a f er ta . . ar 
hand his is io heaven, hand his is to earth If 

\ y\ AAA/W* 

rex - tu ^at ten un - nef em ses en 

known is book this, is he in the following of 

Ausar Un-nefer maatxeru au untu nef sebau 

Osiris Unnefer, triumphant / Are opened to him the gates 

1 ffl -- (]t^ iL_Jl 


em neter-xertet au tatu nef x^ ta em 

of the underworld, is given to him an allotment of ground with 

Ill Twin ^ Hi i^T 

pertu beti em Sexet Aan re unen 

wheat and barley in Sechet - Aanre, 



zt^w w-^ in 

ren-f ma enen neteru enti am an 

name his like that of those gods who are there, say the 

^1 ^P-li ^^"^ = 

^=3 I I I 

Heru Sesu asex sen 

Horus followers, they [who] reap. 



II. The Tet W. This object, which represents a mason's Thetetof 

lA Osiris. 

table and not a Nilometer, as a religious emblem symbolizes 
Osiris the lord of Tettu, great god of the underworld. The 
meaning of the word tet is " firmness, stability, preservation," 
etc. The tet had on it sometimes the plumes, disk and horns, 

[^ , and was painted on mummies and tombs. The amulet 

itself was placed on the neck of the mummy which it was 
supposed to protect. Tets are made of faience, gold, wood 
gilded, carnelian, lapis-lazuli, and many other substances, 
although the rubric of the iSSth chapter, of which u is the 

vignette, states that they are to be made of gold. This 
chapter is entitled : — 


re en tet en 

'■ Chapter of a tet of 



nub tata 
gold placed 



the neck 




Chapter of 
the tet 

the deceased" 

and reads : — 



uben - k - nek 
" Rise up thou, 




urtu ab pen 

O resting of heart this. 



pest - k nek 
shine thou. 


© 1 1 
tu her ma 


it na 

O resting of heart, place thou thyself upon place thy. Come I, 


tet en nub 

an-na nek tet en nub ha k 

iring 1 to thee a tet of gold, rejoice thou 

am f 

' Papyrus of Ani, pi. 33 ; the text given by Naville, Das Todtenhich, 
Bl. clxxx., differs from this. 

S 2 



The Vul- 
ture of 

This chapter was to be " said over a tet of gold, made of 
the heart of sycamore wood, which was to be placed on the 
neck of the mummy." The tet enabled the deceased to enter 
in through the gates of the underworld, and if this chapter 
were known by him, he would " rise up as a perfect soul in 
the underworld, he would not be repulsed at the gates there, 
and cakes would be given to him, and joints of meat from the 
altars of Ra." 

III. The Vulture ^^- According to the rubric of the 
157th chapter of the Book of the Dead, a vulture of gold 
was to be placed on the neck of the mummy on the day of 
the funeral ; it was supposed to carry with it the protection 
of " Mother " Isis. The chapter reads, " Isis has come, she 
has gone round about the towns, she has sought out the 
hidden places of Horus in his coming out from the .swamp of 
papyrus reeds. His son has stood against evil, he has come 
into the divine boat, he has commanded the princes of the 
world, he has made a great fight, he makes mention of what 
he has done, he has caused himself to be feared and estab- 
lished terror of him. His mother, the mighty lady, makes 
his protection and brings (?) him to Horus." Amulets of the 
vulture inscribed with this chapter are very rare. 

IV. The Collar %0^ usex- The rubric of the 158th 

chapter of the Book of the Dead orders a collar of gold to be 
laid upon the neck of the deceased on the day of the funeral. 
It was to be inscribed :— 

Father my. 

m ^=^ ill v«T^^ 

mut - a Auset 

mother my, Isis ! 

sister my^ 


sefexi ua 

Unbandaged am I, 

,ik Vff 

°°L, /wvw 

lAlll —"^ I I I 

maa-ua nuk ua am sefexi maa-sen Seb 

see I. I am one among the unbandaged ones [who^ see Seb. 

Amulet collars are found made of red jasper, carnelian. 




V. The "Papyrus Sceptre" T uat' . This amulet is The papy- 

1/ rus sceptre 

usually made of mother-of-emerald or of faience like unto it °^ ^hoth. 
in colour, and the hieroglyphic word which it represents, 

j P "I ^'^^' iTieans " verdure, flourishing, greenness," and the 
like ; it was placed on the neck of the deceased, and indicated 
the eternal youth which it was hoped he would enjoy in the 
underworld. This amulet was sometimes inscribed with the 
159th chapter of the Book of the Dead, where it is described as 

o uat' en nesem, " an uat' of mother-of- 


emerald." The next chapter says that a rounded tablet, on 

which is a figure of the | in relief, is to be placed on the 

neck of the deceased ; it was supposed to be given to him by 
Thoth, and to protect his limbs. 

VI. The Pillow ^'[l'^ urs} This amulet is usually 

made of haematite, and is generally uninscribed ; it is a 
model of the large pillows of wood, alabaster and stone which 
are placed under the heads of mummies to " lift them up." 
When inscribed the text is a version of that of the i66th 
chapter of the Book of the Dead. 

No. 20,647 i'^ the British Museum reads : — 

r:^ TL-\ 

0es tu 
Jiise up from 

I I I 

«] pra 


O prostrate one. 

Watch over 

of the 

sen tep-k er x^t 

they head thy at the horizon 

'l-\ P<^^-" 

6'es - u 

sexer k 
overthrowest thou 




xeft k 
enemies thy. 

maatxeru - k her ari u erek 

triumphest thou over what do ihey against thee. 

' See Birch, T/ie Chapter of the Pillnv, in Aeg. Zeit., 1868, rp- 52-54- 





utu er ari nek Heru net' tef f 

[as] has commanded to be done for thee Horus, the avenger of father his 




tepu nu 


1 1 

Ausar pen at k tepu nu x^f' ^ an 

Osiris this. Cuttest off thou heads of enemies thy, not 






nehem sen k erek er heh apt k 

shall carry away they from thee for ever head (?) thy I 

'L=^ I] 

sat Ausar ari 


Jii^ III I I 

mak sat Ausar ari em peru tepu 

Verily slaughter Osiris maketh at the coming forth of the heads 


I 1 1 


nu xeft f an nehem sen [tep] f er - f 

of enemies his, not may remove they [head] his from him 




ever I 

VII. The Heart \\<y db. Amulets of the heart are 
made of carnelian, green jasper, basalt, lapis-lazuli, and many 
other kinds of hard stone. The heart was considered to be 
the source of all life and thought, and it was the part of the 
body that was specially taken care of in mummifying. It 
was embalmed and put in a jar by itself, and it could not be 
replaced in the body until it had undergone judgment by 
being weighed in the balance against R, representing " Law." 
The heart was symbolised by the scarab, upon which the 
formulae relating to the heart were inscribed ; and sometimes 
a heart amulet was inscribed with one of the chapters of the 
heart on one side, and a scarab on the other (B.M. No. 8003). 


Sometimes the heart is human-headed, with the hands crossed 
over it (B.M. 15,598), and sometimes a figure of the soul, 
in the shape of a hawk with outstretched wings, is inlaid 
on one side of it (B.M. No. 8005). The chapters in the 
Book of the Dead which refer to the heart are the 26th, the 
" Chapter of giving to a person his heart in the underworld " ; The 
the 27th, 28th, 29th A, " Chapter of not allowing the heart of ^I'^^l" 
a person to be taken away from him in the underworld " ; Heart. 
29 B, " Chapter of a heart of carnelian ; " 30 A , and 30 B, 
" Chapter of not allowing the heart of a person to be turned 
away from him in the underworld." The most important 
chapter of the heart, and that most commonly found, 29 B, is 
translated in that portion of this Catalogue which describes 
the green basalt heart in the Fitzwilliam Museum ; for the 
text of the others see Naville, Bas Todtenbuch,^\\. XXXVIL- 
XLIII. ; and for translations see Birch, On formulas relating 
to the heart, in Aeg. Zeit., 1866, pp. 69, 1867, pp. 16, 54 ; and 
Pierret, Le Livre des Morts, pp. 103-114. An interesting 
example of the heart amulet is described by Birch ^ ; on 

one side are arzK Net, " Neith " and the bennu bird, ^^ , 
with the legend ^ ^^ M ^'^^ ba ■^eperd, " I am the 
soul of Chepera," and on the other is the common chapter of 
the heart. The bennu bird or phoenix was an emblem of the 

VIII. The Amulet of Life ■¥• a«%. This object is found 

in every material used by the Egyptians for making amulets, 
and formed a very common ornament for the living and the 
dead. Necklaces were frequently composed of pendants 

made in forms of ■¥-. U. and m, and sometimes neferu TTT 

" good luck," were added. 

IX. The "Symbolic Eye" or ^ ^j^'^^^, «^W. 

This amulet was made of glazed faience, wood, granite, 
haematite, carnelian, lapis-lazuli, gold, silver, and many other 
materials. Ut'ats are either right or left, and they are also 
made double or quadruple ; they are sometimes made in 

• Catalogue of Egyptian Antiquities in Alnwick Castle, p. 224. 


hollow-work, and are sometimes ornamented with a number 
of others in relief. Some have on their obverse a head of 
Hathor (B.M. No. 7357) or a figure of Bes (B.M. No. 21,547) ; 
on their reverse they frequently have names of kings, private 
The persons, or gods. They are sometimes made with wings, and 

amulet of _ 

the u^'ai. have an arm and hand holding •¥• "life," projecting (B.M. 

No. 7378); and some have a ram and two lions on them in relief 
The two ut'ats, right and left, represented the two eyes of the 
sun ^^ ^^ , the one symbolising the northern half of the 
sun's daily course, and the other the southern half; they also 
represented the sun and moon. On sepulchral boxes the ut'ats 

are often accompanied by neferu ^^III^^- The vignette 

of the 163rd chapter of the Book of the Dead contains two 
ut'ats, winged, with human legs, and the vignette of the 167th 
or " Chapter of bringing the ut'at," is ^^ ; the 140th chapter 

was to be recited over an ut'at made of lapis-lazuli, and offerings 

were to be made to it. The word ut'a ^ | 1^ ; means " to 

be in good health, safe, preserved and happy," and the 
popularity of this amulet in Egypt was probably due to the 
fact that those who wore it, whether living or dead, were 
supposed to be safe and happy under the protection of the 
eye of Ra. 

Miscel- X. The amulet Nefer *^-=— T or " Good Luck," was 

laneous "^-^ — -^ 

amulets. commonly made of glazed faience or of carnelian, and was 
much used by the Egyptians for necklaces. 

XI. The amulet Sam Y or P'^^^I represented 
" union " ; sometimes it is made thus * and then probably 
represents sam-ta, the union with the earth or " funeral." 

XII. The amulet Chut CS) represented the disk of the sun 
on the horizon, and was often made of jasper or hard stone. 

XIII. The amulet Shen Q represented the orbit of the 
sun, and is made of lapis-lazuli and of carnelian. It is often 
found on sepulchral stela4 and boxes, but its exact use is 


XIV, XV. The amulet of the Tesher crown V repre- 
sented the crown of Lower Egypt ; and Het' A represented 
the crown of Upper Egypt. 

XVI. The amulet of the Menat "^^^(l^/t^ signified Miscei- 

"joy " and " health," and perhaps " life." ^ It is always worn amulets. 
by Ptah at the back of his neck, and it is frequently an 
emblem of the goddess Hathor. 

XVII. The Cartouche \\ is thought by Pierret {Diet, 
d' Archeologie Egyptienne, p. 118) to be nothing more than an 
elongated seal (see No. XIII), and to represent natural 
reproduction and eternity. 

XVIII. The amulet Neha p or |-y-| *^'=j] represented 

•' protection " ; it was made chiefly of haematite, and is found 
in the breast of the mummy. 

XIX. The amulet of the Serpent's head is made of stone, 
red jasper, or paste to imitate red jasper, and carnelian. 
It was placed on mummies to prevent their being bitten 
by snakes and other reptiles in the underworld. The 34th 
chapter of the Book of the Dead, entitled, " Chapter of not 
allowing a person to be bitten in the underworld by a 
serpent," is sometimes found engraved upon this amulet. In 

later times glass and faience models of serpents |7., D, were 

worn by men and women round the neck ; they were probably 
connected in some way with Isis. 

XX. The amulet of the Disk and Plumes /^ 
probably represented the head-dress of Seker, the god of the 
resurrection ; the feathers (Jl) often occur without the disk. 
The use of this amulet is unknown. 

XXI. The Frog ^>| represents " myriads." This amulet 
is made of steatite, jasper of various colours, faience, etc. ; it 

1 For a discussion on this amulet see Lefebure, Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch., 1891, 
PP- 333-349- 



The frog 
of the 


is often found with u and |, and was probably placed with 

these on the neck of the mummy, although examples are 
known which were taken from the chest The frog-headed 

goddess S j^ Heqt is a form of the goddess Hathor, 

the wife of Chnemu ; she was considered to be connected 
with the resurrection. On lamps of the Greek and Roman 
periods found in Egypt the frog often appears on the upper 
part, and one is known 'which has the legend €rU) €IMI 
ANACTACIC, "I am the resurrection." The use of this 
amulet appears not to be older than the XVIIIth dynasty. 

XXII. The Stairs X] or 2^- This amulet is usually 
made of glazed faience, but the use of it is unknown to me. 
In the vignette of the i lOth chapter of the Book of the Dead 
it is figured placed in a boat (Naville, Das Todtenbuck, Bl. 
CXXIII.) ; in the 22nd chapter the deceased says, "I am 
Osiris, lord of Re-stau (the passages of the tomb), and of 
those who are at the top of the stairs"; and in the 85th 
chapter the deceased says, " I am the lord of the stairs, I 
have made my nest on the borders of the sky." 

XXIII. The amulet of the two Fingers, the index and 
medius, is found in the interior of mummies, and is generally 
made of haematite or obsidian. The use of the amulet is 
unknown to me. 

In every Egyptian collection of importance a large number 
of rings, having a gap in each, will be found ; they are made 
of gold, red jasper, obsidian, red glazed faience, shell, stone, 
and glass. Those made of gold have a small ring at each 
end for a wire to pass through (?), and they may thus have 
been used as earrings or pendants for necklaces ; on the other 
hand they may have been used as amulets. Some believe 
that they were used as buttons. 

Figures of Gods. 

The gold, silver, bronze, wooden and faience figures of 
gods in Egyptian collections may be reckoned by thousands, 
and they vary in size from half an inch to fifteen inches or 

' Figured in Lanzone, Dizionario, p. 853. 


more. Bronze statues were usually cast in moulds, in one or 
more pieces, the core being made of sand or earth. When 
cast in pieces the limbs were soldered together and the edges 
smoothed with a file or scraper. The core is frequently found Method of 
inside the statue, where it was left by the workmen to ture. 
strengthen the casting. Figures of gods in gold are com- 
paratively few, the gods most often represented in this metal 
being Amen-Ra, Chensu, and Nefer-Atmu ; figures of these 
gods were also made of silver and plated with gold, and a 
figure of the god Set, made of bronze plated with gold, is 
also known (B.M. No. 18,191). Bronze figures of gods were 
sometimes inlaid with gold, and the eyes were made of gold 
or silver with obsidian pupils. Glazed faience figures of 
gods are very common, and certain gods were made of this 
substance, which up to the present have rarely been met 
with in bronze. They were usually cast from moulds, and 
follow fairly closely the design and patterns of the bronze 
figures ; they do not occur earlier than the XXVth or 
XXVIth dynasty, and although wretched copies of them 
were made for hundreds of years after, they do not appear 
to have continued in use among all classes of people in 
Egypt. It may be mentioned in passing that the natives 
of Egypt at the present day make use of the old moulds, 
found chiefly in Upper Egypt, to cast figures of the gods in 
gold and silver which they sell to the traveller as genuine 

Figures of the gods of Egypt are found among the ruins 
of houses and in temples and tombs. According to M. 
Mariette ' those found among the ruins of towns are of two 
kinds: i, those placed in a niche, cut in the form of a Uses o< 
shrine, which represented the divinity to the service of which fig°"es 
the inhabitants of the house were attached, and before which, 
on certain days, offerings were laid ; 2, those which were 
placed in crevices of the walls of the inner chambers of the 
house, and which were supposed to be able by magical 
influence to protect the inhabitants of the house from spells 
and the results of incantations, and from other malignant 
influences. The use of this latter class of statues or small 

' Catalogue General des Monuments d'Abydos, p. I. 


figures is as old as the XVIIIth dynasty, at least. The 
figures of gods found in temples are very numerous and are 
votive. The Egyptians seem to have believed that the gods 
inhabited statues or figures, made in their honour, and on this 
account they often made them very beautiful, so that they 
might form worthy habitations for them. On certain days 
prayers were said before them, and offerings were made to 
them. As figures of many different gods are found in the 
same temple, it follows that a worshipper wishing to place a 
figure of a god in a temple was not bound to offer one of the 
god to whom the temple was dedicated ; supposing the 
temple to be one of Ptah, he could offer a figure of Ra, or 
Chnemu, or of any god he pleased. Figures of gods were 
supposed to answer questions, for it will be remembered that 
when Chensu was asked if he would go to the land of Bechten 
to cure a daughter of the prince of that land of her sickness, 
he inclined his head in assent. When he arrived in that land, 
he held a conversation with the demon that possessed the 
maiden, and when the demon agreed to come out from her, 
provided that a feast were made in his honour, the god 
Funereal through his priest, assented. Figures of gods other than 
bronzes. Qsiris, Isis, and Nephthys are not commonly found in tombs ; 
it is true that many examples in faience are found in the 
wrappings of mummies, but in these cases they were simply 
used as amulets like the buckle, tet, pillow and many others. 
Figures of gods made of every sort of material were also 
buried in the sand around temples and tombs with the view 
of guarding them from every evil influence. The following is 
a list of the most important of the gods and goddesses of 
whom figures were made in bronze and glazed faience : — 

Amen-Ra (1 J| and Mut and Chensu formed the 

great triad of Thebes; the word Amen means "hidden." 

Amen was said to be the son of Ptah, and he seems to have 

Amen the usurped the attributes of all the other gods. Before the ex- 

eod°oT' pulsion of the Hyksos by Se-qenen-Ra his position was that 

Egypt- of the local god of Thebes ; subsequently he became the 

national god of Egypt. He was said to be the maker of 

things above and of things below, and to have more forms 



than any other god. He made the gods, and stretched 
out the heavens, and founded the earth ; he was lord of 
eternity and maker of everlasting. The Egyptians affirmed 
of him that he was ONE, the ONLY ONE. In bronze figures 

he stands upon a plinth, he holds the sceptre | in his left 

hand, and on his head he wears the disk- and feathers )\i ; at 

times he holds a scimitar (B.M. Nos. 28, 29). He is also 
represented seated on a throne, and the throne was some- 
times placed inside a shrine, the top of which was ornamented 
with ursei, winged disk, etc., and the sides and back with 
hollow-work figures of Isis, Nephthys, and Osiris (B.M. 
No. 11,013). On the pedestals he is called " Amen-Ra, lord 
of the thrones of the world, the president of the Apts (i.e., 

Karnak), lord of heaven, prince of Thebes." (1 ^ ^ZZ7 

one of a triad consisting of Amen, Amsu, and Ra (B.M. 
No. 18,681). The faience figures of this god are similar to 









the bronze ||, and he appears together with the other 

members of his triad, Mut and Chensu. 

Ames or Amsu (j-jj-_„_A ^ J, commonly read 

" Chem," is a form of Amen-Ra, and represented '• genera- 
tion " or the productive power in nature : figures of him, in 

bronze and faience, |r , are tolerably numerous. 

The god 
of procre- 

Ra O Jf, the Sun-god, was also the creator of gods 

and men ; his emblem was the sun's disk. His worship was 

very ancient, and he was said to be the offspring of Nut, or 

Different the sky. He assumed the forms of several other gods, and is 

^™^° at times represented by the lion, cat, and hawk. In papyri 

and on bas-reliefs he has the head of a hawk, and wears a disk, 

in front of which is an uraeus 

When he rose in the 

morning he was called Heru-chuti or Harmachis ;. and at 
night, when he set, he was called Atmu, or "the closer." 


^3 jiA-^a-/ 

Heru (Horus). 



Horus '^ 

usually called 
defeat of Set. 


During the night he was supposed to be engaged in fighting 
Apepi, the serpent, who, at the head of a large army of 
fiends, personifications of mist, darkness, and cloud, tried 
to overthrow him. The battle was renewed daily, but Ra 
always conquered, and appeared day after day in the sky. 
Bronze and faience figures of this god represent him hawk- 
headed and wearing disk and urteus. 

Menthu-Ra ^^^^ v wi '"^ bronze figures is hawk- 

headed, and wears the disk, in front of which are two uraei, 
and plumes ; at times figures have two Iiawk's heads on a 
single body. 

^, the morning sun, son of Isis and Osiris, is 

' the avenger of his father," in reference to his 
Figures in bronze and faience represent him 
hawk-headed and wearing the crown of Upper and Lower 
Egypt. This god was distinguished in name only from 
Heru-ur; the elder brother of Osiris. 

Harpocrates, or Heru-pa-Chrat '^^ t^^ ^> the morning The god 

Heru-pa-chrat (Harpocrates). 




sun, in bronze or faience wears the crown of Upper and 
Lower Egypt W^, or the triple crown ^&_, or the plumes %, 
or is quite bald ; over the right shoulder a lock of hair falls, 
and the tip of a finger of the right hand rests on his lips. He 
is represented naked, as being in the lap of his mother Isis. 

Chensu ' vwf ^^^ associated with Amen-Ra and 

Mut in the Theban triad, and was god of the moon. In 
bronze figures he is human-headed, and wears a crescent and 
disk ; in faience figures he is made like a mummy, and holds 
sceptres of different shapes in his hands. His second name 
was Nefer-hetep, and he was worshipped with great honour 

at Thebes. Chensu-pa-chrat 1 A^ % has all the 

attributes of Harpocrates, and figures of him in bronze are 
not rare. A very fine specimen is B.M. No. ii,0/)5 

"T"^" ^ k ^ ^' °'' Atniu ^^^ ^ 51 the "Closer" 

The night- of the day or night, usually represents the night-sun. He 

fonns of 

Chensu Nefer-Hetep. 




wears the crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt ; in the right 

hand he holds ■¥•, and in the left |. Nefer-Atmu, the son of 

Ptah and Sechet or Bast, represents the power of the heat of 
the rising sun. Figures of this god were made in gold, silver, 
bronze, and faience. In metal, he stands upright, wearing 
lotus flowers and plumes on his head, in his right hand he 

holds 1 and in the left ■¥•. Sometimes each shoulder is inlaid 

in gold with an ut'at (B.M. No. 22,921). In faience he has 
the same head-dress, but stands on a lion ; in faience, too, 
he is often accompanied by his mother Sechet or Bast (B.M. 
Nos. 2^ob, 260a). 

Ptah ° § y, the "Opener," perhaps the oldest of all the The oldest 

^i A Jl god of 

gods of Egypt, was honoured with a temple and worshipped Egypt. 
at IVIemphis from the time of the 1st dynasty. He is 
said to be the father of the gods, who came forth from 
his eye, and of men, who came forth from his mouth. 



B. M. 



The god 
of the 

the scribe. 

He is represented in the form of a mummy, and he holds 
a sceptre composed of | usr, " strength,'' ■¥■ dnch, " life," and 

u iet, " stability." Bronze and faience figures of this god 
are tolerably common, and resemble each other in form and 
design. At the back of his neck he wears the mendt (w. 
With reference to his connexion with the resurrection and 
the nether world, he is called Ptah-Seker-Ausar, and is 
represented as a little squat boy, with bent legs, and his 
hands on his hips. Sometimes he has his feet on the head 
of a crocodile ; on the right side stands Isis, on the left 
Nephthys, at his back is a human-headed hawk emblematic 
of the soul, on each shoulder is a hawk, and on his head 
is a beetle, the emblem of Chepera, the self-begotten god. 
In faience figures of this god are very common, but in 
bronze they are rare. 

I-em-hetep ^s. i-^, the Imouthis of the Greeks, 

was the first-born son of Ptah and Nut. He is represented 





both standing and seated, holding a sceptre \ in the right 
hand, and -V- in the left ; at times he holds on his knees 
an open roll, upon which is inscribed his name. The bronze 
figures of this god are usually of very fine workmanship, often 
having the inscriptions inlaid in gold ; in faience, figures of 
this god are very rare. 

Chnemu ^ 

W, the "Moulder," the XvovfiK, The 

-L "mould- 

Xvov/3ts, Xvov^i,, Kvrj<^ or Kvovjii,<; of the Greeks, is one of er"of 
the oldest gods of Egypt, and was especially worshipped ™^"" 
in Nubia, at Philae, where he is represented making man 
out of clay on a potter's wheel, and at Elephantine. Like 
Amen-Ra he is said to be the father of the gods,^ and 



Tehuti (Thoth). 

' Father of the fathers of the gods, the lord who evolveth from himself, maker 
of heaven, earth, the underworld, water, and mountains "■ <-— '^'^ 

T 2 



Thoth the 
scribe of 
the gods. 


of Osiris 

of Horus. 

with this god and Ptah and Chepera he shared the name of 
" creator of men." Chnemu put together the scattered Hmbs 
of the dead body of Osiris, and it was he who created the 
beautiful woman who became the wife of Bata in the Tale 
of the Two Brothers. In bronze and faience, figures of 
this god represent him with the head of a ram, and wearing 

plumes, til) ; these figures are tolerably common. 

Thoth, in Egyptian Tehuti ^>^ , the " Measurer," was 

the scribe of the gods, the measurer of time and inventor of 
numbers. In the judgment hall of Osiris he stands by the 
side of the balance holding a palette and reed ready to record 
the result of the weighing of the heart as announced by the 
dog-headed ape who sits on the middle of the beam of the 
scales. In bronze figures he is represented with the head of 
an ibis, but he has upon it sometimes horns and plumes. In 
faience figures he has also the head of an ibis, and occasionally 
he holds an ut'at ^^^ between his hands in front of him 
(B. M. No. 490rt). 

Set or Sut 1^3, Gr. 5^^, was one of the sons of Seb 

and Nut, and was brother of Osiris, and husband of Nephthys. 
His worship dates from the Vth dynasty, and he continued 
to be a most popular god in Egypt until the XlXth 
dynasty ; kings delighted to call themselves " beloved of Set," 
and to be compared to him for valour when the records of 
their battles were written down. He probably represented 
the destructive power of the sun's heat. Between the XXIInd 
and XXVth dynasties a violent reaction set in against this 
god, his statues and figures were smashed, his effigy was 
hammered out from the bas-reliefs and stelse in which it 
appeared, and from being a beneficent god, and a companion 
of Amen and his brother-gods, he became the personification 
of all evil, and the opponent of all good. His persistent 
enmity of Osiris will be mentioned below. Set, or Sutech, 
was chosen by the Hyksos for their god. Bronze figures of 
Set are very rare indeed. The British Museum possesses two 
examples, Nos. 18,191 and 22,897; each represents the god 
standing upright, in each he has the characteristic animal's 



head, and wears the crown of Upper and Lower Egypt, 

each figure was originally gilded, and each has a hole drilled 
in a projecting piece of metal, from which it was suspended 
and worn. When I bought the larger figure it was bent 
double, evidently by a violent blow, given probably when the 
reaction against this god's worship set in. Faience figures of 
Set I have never seen. 


Ausar (Osiris). 

Osiris, in Egyptian Ausdr A S\ , the great god and king of 

the underworld, the judge of the dead, was the son of Seb and 
Nut, and husband of Isis ; he was murdered by his brother 
Set, who was in turn slain by Horus, the son of Osiris, and 
the "avenger of his father." According to Plutarch {De Plutarch's 
Istde et Osiride, xii.-xx.) Osiris was the wise and good king osms° 
of Egypt, who spent his life in civilizing his subjects and in 
improving their condition. Having brought them out of 
degradation and savagery, he set out to do the like for the 
other nations of the world. Upon his return his brother Set, 



together with seventy-two other people, and the queen of 
Ethiopia, made a conspiracy against him. They invited him 
into a banqueting room, and by an artful device made Osiris 
get into a box which Set had previously caused to be made 
to fit him. As soon as Osiris had lain down in it, the 
conspirators nailed the cover on it, and having poured molten 
lead over it, they carried it by river to the sea, the waves of 
which washed it up at Byblos. As soon as Isis heard of what 
had happened, she set out to search for her husband's body, 
and eventually found it ; but having carried it off to another 
place, it was accidentally discovered by Set, who forthwith 
broke open the chest, and tore the body into fourteen pieces, 
which he scattered up and down the country. Isis then set 
out to search for the pieces of her husband's body, and she 
found all but one ; wherever she found a piece she buried it, 
and built a temple over it. He was the type of all mummies, 
and the deceased is made like unto him, and named after 
him. Bronze figures of this god represent him as a mum- 

yj </uX«.(iir. 

Auset (Isis). 



mified figure wearing the crown 'f^M , in his right hand he 
holds the whip J\ , and in the left the crook | . Figures of 
this god in faience are not very common. 

Isis, in Egyptian Auset j] ^ J) . was a daughter of Seb and The family 
Nut ; she married her brother Osiris. Bronze figures repre- 
sent her I, standing and wearing n upon her head, and 2, 
seated suckling her naked child Horus, who is sitting on her 

knees, at her left breast, and wearing disk and horns X^ 
upon her head. In faience many figures of both kinds are 
found. In funereal scenes Isis stands at the foot of the bier 
mourning the deceased. 

Nephthys, in Egyptian Nebt-het Tj^J), was also a 

daughter of Seb and Nut ; she married her brother Set. 
Bronze figures, which are not common, represent her standing 

draped in a long tunic, and wearing Tl on her head ; in 

faience, figures of this goddess are very numerous, and follow 
the style and design of those in bronze. A number of 
rectangular faience pendants have been found in which Isis, 
Nephthys and Harpocrates or Horus stand side by side. 

Anubis, in Egyptian Anpu (Jq^ r||, was, according to 

some legends, the son of Nephthys and Osiris, who mistook 
that goddess for Isis ; elsewhere he is said to be the son of 
Ra. He is always represented as having the head of a jackal, 
and he is one of the chief gods of the dead and the nether- 
world. He presided over the embalming of the mummy, he The god 
led the mummy into the presence of Osiris, and watched over X^'^^^ 
the ceremony of weighing the heart, and he is often repre- 
sented standing by the bier with one hand laid on the 
mummy. The belief that this god acted in this capacity 
survived for some centuries after Christ, and a remarkable 
proof of this fact is given by a light green, glazed faience 
plaque in the British Museum, No. 22,874. On the obverse Peisist- 
Anubis, jackal-headed, in relief, stands by the side of a bier ^^^l^^^^. 
in the shape of a lion, also in relief; on the reverse, in relief, liefsamong 

the Copts. 



are two lines of inscription in Coptic which read, ^LC HIC e 
TCJUttK, " May she hasten to arise." At each end is a pierced 
projection whereby the plaque was fastened to the mummy. 
The plaque is an interesting example of the survival of 
ancient Egyptian ideas among the Egyptians after they had 
embraced Christianity. Anubis is sometimes confused with 

Ap-uat \J ^5^ ' fll ■ " the opener of the ways," another 
jackal-headed god, and the attributes of the one are ascribed 




Anpu (Anubis). 


to the other. Bronze and faience figures of this god represent 
him standing and having the head of a jackal. 

Shu, in Egyptian [j %^ r^ , was the first-born son of Ra 

and Hathor, and brother of Tefniit ; he is supposed to 
symbolise the air or sun-light, and in papyri and on coffins he 
is represented in the form of a man, standing with both arms 
raised, lifting up Nut, or the sky, from the embrace of Seb 
the earth. In bronze and faience figures he is in the form of 



a man kneeling on his right knee and supporting the sun's 
disk and horizon with his upraised arms on his shoulders. 
There is in the British Museum (No. 11,057) a- fine example 
of an aegis in bronze with the heads of Shu and Tefnut, 

O "t), his sister, upon it. Shu is bearded and wears two 

pairs of plumes upon his head ; Tefnut has the head of a lion 
and wears a disk and uraus ; B.M. No. 389 is an example 
of these gods in faience. Standing figures of Shu, in faience, 
have sometimes ^;s^) on his head. 

-n T=r 

Hapi 9 Q w ;;:^^ -?j , the god of the Nile, is depicted as a 
man, sitting or standing, holding a table or altar on which 
are vases for libations, wwvV) and lotus flowers ^p-) and 

fruits, he also has a clump of lotus flowers w" upon his head. The Nile- 


The British Museum possesses a figure of this god, No. 1 1,069, 
which represents him standing upright, with a table of 


the god of the Nile. 

j/z^^iur /pot. 

The Apis Bull. 



of Apis 

tion of the 
Apis bull. 

offerings of plants, fruits and flowers before him. On his 
head he wears W, and in front is an tit' at ^^. 

Apis or Hapi |^^, "the second Hfe of Ptah," and 

the incarnation of Osiris, was the name given to the 
sacred bull of Memphis, where the worship of this god was 
most ancient, having been introduced from Heliopolis by 
Kakau, a king of the Ilnd dynasty. He is variously called 
" the son of Ptah,'' " the son of Tmu," " the son of Osiris," 
and "the son of Seker." In bronze Hapi is sometimes repre- 
sented in the form of a man with a bull's head, between the 
horns of which are a disk and an uraeus wearing a disk. 
Usually, however, he is in the form of a bull having a disk 
and an uraeus between the horns ; on the back above the 
shoulders is engraved a vulture with outstretched wings, and 
on the back, over the hind quarters, is a winged scarab. The 
bull usually stands on a rectangular pedestal, on the sides of 
which are inscribed the name and titles of the person who 
had the bull made ; on the same pedestal is frequently a 
figure of this person kneeling in adoration before him. 
Figures of Apis in bronze are commoner than those in faience. 
According to Herodotus (H. 27-29) Apis was the calf of a cow 
incapable of conceiving another offspring ; " and the Egyp- 
tians say, that lightning descends upon the cow from heaven, 
and that from thence it brings forth Apis. This calf, which 
is called Apis, has the following marks : it is black, and has a 
square spot of white on the forehead ; and on the back the 
figure of an eagle ; and in the tail double hairs ; and on the 
tongue a beetle." 

When Apis was dead he was called Ausar Hapi or rJ ^ 
^^^, or Serapis by the Greeks, and he is represented 
on coffins in the form of a bull with disk and uraeus on 
his head ; on his back is the mummy of the deceased, above 
which the soul in the form of a hawk is seen hovering. 
The place where the Apis bulls that lived at Memphis were 
buried was called the Serapeum, and Mariette discovered at 
Sakkarah their tombs, dating from the time of Amenophis III. 
down to that of the Roman Empire. Above each tomb of 



an Apis bull was built a chapel, and it was the series of 
chapels which formed the Serapeum properly so called. 

The Mnevis bull, ^=^ m '^ , worshipped at Heliopolis, 

is thought by some to represent the same symbolism, and 
to be identical in form with Apis ; he is called the " renewing 
of the life of Ra." 

Mestha, Hapi, Tuamautef and Qebhsennuf, the four The gods 
children of Horus (see Canopic Jars, p. 194), are common in c^^j^f^al 
glazed faience, but rare in bronze. points. 

Sati "iP J) , together with Anqet ° P„ and Chnemu, 

formed the triad of Elephantine, and she seems to resemble 
Nephthys in some of her attributes. She usually stands up- 
right, holding jp in her right hand, and I in her left. The 

British Museum possesses one example. No. no, in bronze, in 
which she is represented seated. On her head she wears 
the crown of Upper Egypt, in the front of which is an 

The Mnevis BulL 




forms of 

uraeus ; a pair of horns follows the contour of the white 
crown, and above them is a star. No. 11,143 is a fine 
bronze figure of a woman, standing upright upon a pedestal ; 
the right arm hangs by her side, but the left arm is bent, and 
her hand, holding an object, is laid upon her breast. She has 
the same head-dress as No. 1 10, and I believe her to be the 
same goddess, although she is labelled Hesi-Sept. [Isis-Sothis 
or the Dog Star.] Dr. Birch probably had some reason for 
thus labelling it, but it is unknown to me. The British 
Museum possesses one example also in faience. No. 13,664, in 
which the goddess stands upright. 

Sebek I jN=^^^ represented the destroying power of 

the sun, and his worship is as old as the Xlllth dynasty. 
The British Museum possesses one example of this god in 
bronze, No. 22,924, in which he stands upright, and has the 
head of a crocodile surmounted with disk, plumes and uraei, 

which have disks and horns [^ . 






Anher I\ ^ ^ J4 , " the leader of the celestial regions," 

which Shu supports, is usually represented wearing plumes 

m, and holding a dart; he is at times called ^rr^ jj 

neb mab, " lord of the dart." The British Museum possesses a 
glazed faience pendant. No. 11,335, upon which this god is 
represented in relief, standing upright and wearing plumes ; 

in his right hand he holds ■¥• and in the left the sceptre | . 
This sceptre is usually composed of -r, jf, and 1 arranged 

perpendicularly one above the other. He is sometimes called 
An-her Shu se Rd, " An-her Shu, the son of Ra." 

Bes J ' |, a god whose worship in Egypt dates from a 

very remote period, seems to have possessed a double 
character. He is represented as a grotesque person with 
horns and eyes on a level with the top of his head, his tongue 
hangs out, and he has bandy legs. He wears a crown of 






aspects of 

of Bes of 

feathers on his head, and a leopard's skin thrown round his 
body. As a warrior, or the god of war, he is armed with a 
shield and sword, and sometimes he has a bow ; he was also 
the god of music and the dance, and in this character he 
is represented as a tailed creature, half man, half animal, 
playing a harp, or striking cymbals together and dancing. 
It is thought that he symbolized the destructive power of 
nature, and in this capacity he is identified in the Book of the 
Dead with Set ; as the god of joy and pleasure figures of him 
are carved upon the kohl jars, and other articles used by 
Egyptian ladies in their toilet. The worship of this god 

seems to have been introduced into Egypt from 

Neter ta, i.e., the land which was situated by the eastern bank 
of the Nile, supposed by the Egyptians to be the original 
home of the gods. Figures of this god in bronze and faience 
are very common, and they represent him as described above. 
Faience figures were made as much as fourteen inches long, 





and were sometimes in relief and sometimes " in the round." 
The British Museum possesses a large mould (No. 20,883) 
used for making flat figures, presented by F. G. Hilton 
Price, F.S.A., who obtained it from Bubastis ; it also possesses 
a beautiful figure in the round in blue glazed faience 
(No. 28,112), about fourteen inches high. A remarkable 
example of the use of the head and face of this god is 
furnished by a bronze bell in the British Museum (No. 6374). 
The plumes on his head form the handle, and the head, 
hollowed out, forms the bell. Bronze and faience statues 
of this god, to which have been added the distinguishing 
characteristics of many other gods, 
also exist, B.M. No. 17,169 is a 
bronze ithyphallic bird with two pairs 
of outstretched wings and the legs of 
a man, from the knees of which spring 
serpents, the arms of a man, and the 
head of Bes. Above the wings is a 
second pair of outstretched arms, with 
clenched fists, and on each side of his 
head, in relief, are the heads of a ram, 
a dog-headed ape, a crocodile, and a 
hawk (?). Above the head are two 
pairs of horns, two pairs of ursei and 
two pairs of plumes, between which 
is a disk. In this figure are united 
the attributes of Amen-Ra, Amsu, 
Horus, Chnemu, Sebek, and other 
gods. No. 1205, a bronze cast from 
a genuine bronze, makes this poly- 
theistic figure stand upon crocodiles ; the whole group is 
enclosed within a serpent having his tail in his mouth. A 
very interesting example of a similar kind of figure in faience 
is described by Lanzone in his Dizionario, p. 211, tav. Ixxx., 
and compare B.M. No. 11,821. It need hardly be said that 
such figures belong to a very late period, and they are found 
imitated on gems inscribed for the Gnostics ; see B.M. Nos. 
G. 10, II, 12, 151, 205, etc. On the Metternich stele Bes is 
represented in much the same way as in the bronze figures, 



Ionian art. 


but in the pair of outstretched arms and hands he holds 
sceptres of ■¥-, u, 1, knives, \\ \,^, etc., and in those 

which hang by his side he holds T and -V- ; he has on his 

head in addition eight knives and the figure ^ "myriads 
of years.'' He stands on an oval in which are a lion, two 
serpents, a jackal, crocodile, scorpion, hippopotamus and 
tortoise. This scene is repeated very accurately on a 
Gnostic lapis-lazuli plaque in the British Museum, No. 12, 
on the back of which is an address to lAtO ZABAW0 = 
r\iN!12 rf with whom this polytheistic deity was identified. 
Figures of the god Bes are common on gems and seals other 
than Egyptian, and on a small Babylonian cylinder in the 
possession of Sir Charles Nicholson he is represented in the 

Bes in form in which he ordinarily occurs Mt. On a red carnelian 

Baby- Hl 

cylinder in the British Museum (Reg. No. 6^231 he is en- 
graved, full face, wearing plumes, and holding a lotus flower 
in each hand ; on each side of him is a male bearded figure, 
with upraised hands and arms, supporting a winged disk. 
This seal was inscribed for Arsaces, and belongs to the 
Persian period. 

Sechet 4 J), also written ° JJ, was the wife of Ptah, 

and was, in this capacity, the mother of Nefer-Atmu and 
I-em-hetep ; she was the second person of the triad of 
Memphis. She represented the violent heat of the sun and 
its destroying power, and in this capacity destroyed the souls 
of the wicked in the underworld. In bronze and faience 
figures she has the head of a lion, upon which she wears the 

disk and urseus, and she holds ■¥• in her right hand and T 
in her left ; she is sometimes seated, when her hands are laid 
upon her knees. 

Bast |[ rv 5) represents the heat of the sun in its softened 

form as the producer of vegetation. She has often the head 
of a lion, but, properly speaking, the head of a cat is her 
distinguishing characteristic ; in her right hand she holds a 



sistrum, on her left arm she carries a basket, and in her left 
hand she holds an aegis. She was chiefly worshipped at The Lady 
Bubastis, Pa-Bast, where a magnificent temple was built in tjg, 
her honour. Bronze figures of this goddess 
are tolerably numerous, and she is repre- 
sented, both sitting and standing, wearing the 
disk and urseus on her head. In faience, 
standing figures hold a sceptre (B.M. No. 236), 
or ^g (B.M. No. 233), or an aegis (B.M. 
No. 11,297) ; when seated she often holds a 
sistrum, B.M. No. 272 ; a fine large example 
of the goddess seated is B.M. No. 277. Such 
figures are sometimes inscribed with the 
prayer, " may she grant all life and power, 
all health, and joy of heart," ^ ° ■?- \ ^^37 
I ^37 ^ "C, or, " I am Bast, the lady 


of life," 

Menhit ^^^^ § f] ^ ^ j) represented the 
power of light or heat, or both ; in faience Bast, 

she is represented as an upright woman, 
walking, having a lion's head, upon which she wears a disk 

and uraeus ; in her right hand is -p, and in her left I 

Mut ''^^, the " mother," was the wife of Amen, and the The 

W w \J universal 

second member of the Theban triad ; she is called the " lady mother. 

of Asher," , the name given to a district to the 

south of the great temple of Amen-Ra at Karnak, where her 
temple was situated. She symbolized Nature, the mother of 
all things. In bronze and faience figures she is represented 
as a woman, seated or standing, wearing a head-dress in the 
form of a vulture, surmounted by the crowns of Upper and 

Lower Egypt ; she holds •¥■ in her right hand, and I in her left. 


or Neith, the "Weaver" or "Shooter," was a The Lady 

of Sab. 

counterpart of the goddess Mut, and was also identified with 
B. M. U 



The god- 
dess of 

Hathor ; she wears the crown of Lower Egypt >/ on her 

head, and she is often represented armed with bow and 
arrows. In bronze and faience figures of this goddess are 
tolerably common. 

Net (Neith). 

Maat "^ ii J| , the " daughter of Ra and mistress of the 

gods," symbolized Law, and she is always represented with 

(j madt, emblematic of Law, upon her head ; in papyri two 

Maat are shown together, each wearing H, but sometimes 

this feather alone takes the place of the head. In figures of 
bronze, lapis- lazuli, and faience she is represented sitting 

Hathor, in Egyptian [^ , or ^ ■?" ^ Het-Hert, the 

"house of Horus," is identified with Nut, the sky, or place 
in which she brought forth and suckled Horus ; she was the 
wife of Atmu, a form of Ra. She is represented as a woman 



cow-headed, with horns and a disk between them, and shares 
with Isis and Mut many of their attributes.^ She is often 
represented as a cow coming forth from the mountain of the 
west. The worship of Hathor is exceedingly ancient, and The god- 
she was supposed to be the goddess of beauty, love, and joy, fine art. 
and the benefactress of the world. The forms^ in which she 
is depicted on the monuments are as numerous as the aspects 
from which she could be regarded. Full length figures of 
this goddess in bronze and faience are comparatively few," 
but plaques and pendants of faience upon which her head is 
inscribed or painted are common. 

For a fine example in bronze of Hathor, cow-headed, wear- 
ing horns, disk, urseus and plumes, see B.M. No. 22,925. The 
British Museum also possesses two interesting bronze hollow- 
work portions of menats in which Hathor is represented in 


IJet-Heru (Hathor). 

' A list of the gods with whom she is identified is given in Lanzone, Dia'onario, 
p. 863, 864. 
^ On a pendant, B.M. No. 302, she is represented at full length, in relief. 
' For a fine example, see B.M. No. 22,925. 

U 2 



profile. No. 20,760 shows the goddess wearing an uraeus on 
her forehead, and four uraei on her head ; she has the usual 
head-dress of women falling over her shoulders. Beneath is 
a Hathor-headed sistrum, with pendent uraei, resting on 
pw^ . Beneath in an oval is the cow of Hathor, wearing X^i 



standing in a boat. Above, on each side, is an ursus. One 

wears the crown of Upper Egypt, , and the other wears 

the crown of Lower Egypt. This beautiful object was found 
at Der el-Bahari, and is inscribed with the prenomen of 

Amenophis III. (o ^ ■ 

No. 300 represents the goddess 

with a vulture head-dress, wearing X^. Below, in relief, 
are a figure of the goddess, and a floral ornament ; it is 


of Nut. 


:7f=q, " Hathor, lady of heaven." 

^ was the god of the sky and the husband 

D o 

' , the sky, the wife of Seb, and mother of The god- 
dess of 
Osiris, Isis, Set, Nephthys, Anubis, Shu, and Tefnut, was the sky. 

represented by a woman having a vase of water O on her 
head, and holding ■¥- in her right hand and | in her left. 
She was painted on the outside of cofEns, and was supposed 




to protect with her wings the deceased within. Figures of 
this goddess in bronze or faience are unknown to me. 

Seb "^^ J 3 , was the husband of Nut, the sky, and 

father of Osiris, Isis, and the other gods of that cycle ; 
figures of this god in bronze or fafence are unknown to me. 

Serq ''^^"^SSPrlj. daughter of Ra, wife of Horus, and 

identified with Sesheta and Isis, symbolized the scorching 
heat of the sun. A bronze figure in the Louvre (see 
Pierret, Pantheon Egyptian, p. 17 ; Lanzone, Dizionario, 
tav. ccclxii.), gives her the body of a scorpion, and the 
head of a woman wearing disk and horns, by which she is 
identified with Isis. There is a similar figure in the British 
Museum, No. 11,629, on the base of which is inscribed 

n ^ A ■¥■, " Isis, Giver of Life," and a small bronze 

scorpion. B.M. No. 18,667 also gives her the head and 
arms of a woman with disk and horns. The figures of this 
goddess, other than bronze, are usually made of lapis-lazuli. 


Maahes ^^ ' ^ ^^ represented as a man, lion- 
headed, wearing a disk and uraeus ; a few figures of this 
god in faience are known.* 

* See Lanzone, Dizionario, p. 272. 



Neheb-ka "^ |J V ^^ 5^ '^ ^ ^od mentioned in 
the Book of the Dead (chap. xvii. 61 ; chap. xxx. 3, etc.), 
and pictures of him are found upon coffins. In bronze 
figures he has the body of a man, and the head of a 
serpent ; in wood he has the body of an animal, and the head 

of a serpent, and holds ^^ in his paws (B.M. No. 11,779), 

in faience he has an animal's body and a serpent's head, 

and either holds O outstretched in his paws (B.M. 

No. 11,795), or raises them to his mouth (B.M. No. 1197). 
He sometimes wears plumes and horns. 


Seker •^c^^ J) or Socharis, a form of the night-sun, is 

represented as a man, hawk-headed, holding /\, | and | 

in his hands ; for Ptah-Seker-Ausar figures, see page 215. 

There are among the Egyptian gods in the British Polytheis- 
Museum two examples (Nos. 1419 and 22,930) of a poly- q/ J,^"^^ 
theistic figure of considerable interest. They have hawks' 



ithyphallic' bodies, human legs and feet, each of which stands 
on a crocodile, and human hands and arms ; the front of the 
head is in the form of a jackal's head, surmounted by plumes 
and disk, and the back is in the form of a ram's head, sur- 
mounted by a disk and urjEus. In the right hand is a whip 
J\^ and in the left an object which I cannot identify. Each 
group stands on a pedestal with a circle formed by a serpent 
having his tail in his mouth. These figures have much -in 
common with those described under the name Bes, and may 
be variant forms of this god. 

Another figure of interest is No. 24,385, which represents 
a seated woman, with the head of a sheep, surmounted by 
disk, uraeus, and horns; behind this head-dress is the tail of a 
scorpion. The right hand is laid underneath her left breast, 
which she touches with her finger and thumb, and the left 
rests upon her knee. The Museum of the Louvre possesses 

Ta-urt (Thoueris). Thoueris, lion-headed. Sefech-Aabn, or Sesheta. 

' In No. 22,930, the hawk's body is more distinct, and has a head, sur- 
mounted by a disk, and the feathers of the tail rest upon a hippopotamus. 


a similar figure with the addition of a naked child whom she 
holds upon her knees, and whom she is about to suckle. 
Lanzone {Dizionario, p. 841, for the figure see tav. cccxi.) thinks 
that the sheep and scorpion headed god represents Isis, and 
the child, Horus. 

Ta-urt c ^^^^ ^^ ^Ti f/p, , or Thoueris, was the wife of Set, 

and she is usually represented in bronze and faience with the 
head and body of a hippopotamus, the hind-quarters of a 
lion, and the tail of a crocodile. On her head she wears a 
modius which is sometimes surmounted by a disk, horns, and 

plumes [^ . 

Sefex-Aabu or Sesheta is a form of the goddess Hathor 
which was worshipped in Hermopolis, and was also adored in 
Memphis from the earliest dynasties. 

Figures of Animals, Birds and Reptiles, Sacred to 

THE Gods. 

The figures of animals found in the temples, tombs and 
ruined houses of Egypt may, like those of the gods, be 
divided into three classes : — i. Votive ; 2. Those worn as 
amulets either by the living or dead ; 3. Those which 
stood in houses. They are made of bronze, steatite, basalt, 
faience, wood, wood gilded, lapis-lazuli, wax, and many other 
materials. Those in bronze, stone, and wood were usually 
made for temples, and to stand in tombs ; those in faience, 
lapis-lazuli, and other precious stones were placed on the 
bead-work, or under the folds of the wrappings of mummies, 
or were worn suspended to necklaces, by the living ; those 
placed in the walls of houses, but which are not sufficiently 
well distinguished to give many details, were usually made of 
faience cast in moulds. The animals and reptiles of which 
figures are most commonly found are : — 

I. Ape, dog-headed, ^ , wearing disk and crescent, Animals 
sacred to Thoth and Chensu. Figures in bronze, stone, wood the gods, 
and faience, in which he is represented sitting, sometimes on 
a pedestal with steps, or standing, are common ; sometimes 


he holds ^^ (B.M. No. 1442), and sometimes a goat (B.M. 
No. 11,910). 

2. Hippopotamus ^ "^ "^* ^ , Ta-urt, Thoueris, 
standing on the hind-quarters of a lion, and holding the tail 
of a crocodile ; figures in bronze and faience are common. 
The most beautiful example of this composite animal in 
green basalt is preserved in the Museum at Gizeh, a cast of 
which is exhibited in the Egyptian Gallery of the British 
Museum, No. 1075. 

3. Cow, sacred to Hathor, with disk between her horns, 

4- Lion J®s , couchant or running, sacred to Horus. 
Examples are very common in faience. Frequently the body 
of the lion has a lion's head at each end of it, and sometimes 
there is a lion's head at one end, and a bull's head at the 
other ; on the back, between the two heads, is the disk of the 
sun, ,3va , the whole representing the sun on the horizon t^ , 

The two heads, facing in opposite directions, are supposed to 
represent the south and north, i.e., the sun's course daily. An 
example in which each lion's head has two faces, one looking 
towards the south and the other towards the north, is figured 
in Lanzone, Dizionario, tav. cvi. 

5. Sphinx .S:^ , couchant or sitting on his haunches, 
sacred to Harmachis. Figures in bronze and faience are 
tolerably common. 



6. Bull '^^, sacred to Apis or Mnevis, having disk and 
uraeus between his horns, and the figures of a vulture with 
outspread wings and a winged scarab on his back. Figures 
in bronze and stone are more common than in faience. 

7. Ram, ^^, sacred to Chnemu or Amen-Ra ; figures in 
bronze and faience are tolerably common. 

8. Cat IV, sacred to Bast, lady of Bubastis. Large Animals 

JS) -^ sacred to 

votive figures of the cat were made of bronze and wood, the "^^ S°^^- 
eyes being inlaid with obsidian and gold ; B.M. No. 22,927 
has the eyes, and a large number of the hairs of the body, 
inlaid with gold. The smaller figures worn for ornament by 
the votaries of Bast are made of bronze, stone, rock-crystal, 
faience, &c. ; in the smaller figures the cat is represented 
with one, two, or more kittens, and the top of the I sceptre 
is often ornamented with a cat. 

9. Jackal 'irh , sacred to Anpu (Anubis), or to Ap-uat 
In bronze figures, which are plentiful, he stands on a pedestal 
which fitted on to the top of a sceptre or staff ; faience figures 
are not very common. A large number of wooden models 
from the top of sepulchral boxes are known. 

10. Hare ^^, sacred to Osiris Unnefer; figures in 
faience are common. 

11. Sow '^^, sacred to Set (?), was the abomination of 

Horus Ja%"^Mil(]^^ ^. according to the 

1 1 2th chapter of the Book of the Dead ; figures of this 
animal in faience are fairly common. B.M. No. 11,897 has a 
head at each end of its body. 

12. Hippopotamus ^j^, sacred to Set or Typhon ; 
many large and beautiful examples of this animal in glazed 
faience and steatite exist in public and private collections. 

13. Stag )^- Figures in which the animal is repre- 
sented with its legs tied together ready for sacrifice are 
known in bronze, e.£;., B.M. No. 1696. 

14. Hedgehog, a few examples of which, in bronze and 
faience, are known. 


IS- Shrew-mouse, sacred to Horus(?), examples of which 
are commoner in bronze than in faience. 

1 6. Ichneumon. Examples in bronze, in which the 
animal wears disk and horns and plumes, are known, but 
figures in faience are rare. 

17- Crocodile <ss3=-, sacred to Sebek ; examples in bronze 
and faience are fairly common. 

Birds i3_ Vulture \N, sacred to Mut ; figures of this bird in 

sacred to _ajtf 

the gods, bronze and faience are few. 

19. Hawk ^v. sacred to Horus ; votive figures are made 
of bronze, stone, and wood, and the hawk wears either the 
crown of Upper or Lower Egypt, or both crowns united. 
In smaller figures worn for ornament, it wears a disk (B.M. 

No. 1889) or ^, (B.M. No. 1850), or plumes (B.M. No. 

1859) ; it is often man-headed, when it represents the soul, 

^^, , and sometimes two hawks are on one pedestal, and 

each has the head of a man. A form of Horus, worshipped 

in Arabia under the name of Sept I A fC , is often 

found in hard stone and wood ; figures made of the latter 
material are generally found on the small chests which 
cover the portions of human bodies placed in the pedestals 
of Ptah-Seker-Ausar figures. When complete they have 
plumes on their heads. 

20. Ibis '^^ > sacred to Thoth ; figures in bronze and 
faience are not rare. 

21. Frog and Toad. Figures of both reptiles are common 
in bronze and faience. 

22. Fish <G*t- The five kinds of fish of which figures in 
bronze and faience are known are the Oxyrhynchus, Phagrus, 
Latus, Silurus, and the Lepidotus ; of these the Oxyrhynchus, 
Silurus, and Lepidotus are the commonest. The Oxyrhyn- 
chus fish, B.M. No. 1953, has on its back horns, disk, and 
ursus ; fish were sacred to Hathor, Isis, Mut, and other 


23. Scorpion Sw^, sacred to Serqet. Figures in bronze 
have often a woman's head on which are horns and disk, and if 
mounted, the sides of the base have inscriptions upon them 
which show that the scorpion was regarded as Isis-Serqet. 
Faience figures of this reptile are tolerably numerous. 

Urasus JL or serpent, sacred to or emblem of Mehen, 

^^ (^,or Merseker, M ^ J)r.; figures in bronze and 

faience are not rare. 

Scarab O, emblem of the god Chepera (see p. 234). 

The largest scarab known is preserved in the British 
Museum (Southern Egyptian Gallery, No. 74), and is made 
of green granite ; it was probably a votive offering in some 
temple, and was brought from Constantinople, whither it 
was probably taken after the Roman occupation of Egypt. 
The scarabs worn for ornament round the neck, and in 
finger-rings, were made of gold, silver, every kind of precious 
stone known to the Egyptians, and faience. B.M. No. 11,630 
is an interesting example of a horned scarab ; B.M. No. 2043, 
in faience, has the head of a hawk, and B.M. No. 12,040 has 
the head of a bull. 

Figures of Kings and Private Persons. 

F"igures of kings and private persons were placed in 
temples or tombs either by the persons they represented, 
or by those who wished to do honour to them. Figures of Uses of 
kings occupied prominent places in the temples, and services ='^'"'=^- 
were performed before them, and offerings made to them as 
to the gods, among the number of whom kings were supposed 
to have entered. The Rosetta Stone states (11. 39-42) that 
the priests of all Egypt decreed that a figure or statue of 
Ptolemy V. Epiphanes, should be placed in the most con- 
spicuous part of every temple, that the priests should thrice 
daily perform services before it, and that sacred decorations 
should be placed upon it. The custom of placing such 
figures in temples and tombs is as old as the IVth dynasty 
at least, for many examples of this period are known ; as we 
are certain that religious services were held in tombs during 



The lady Nai. 
XlXth dynasty. [Museum of the Louvre]. 



the earlier dynasties, figures of deceased persons must have 
been placed in them, and it would seem that the custom is as 
old as the settlement of the Egyptians in Egypt. Votive Votive 
figures of the gods were rarely colossal, but figures of kings 
were made of every size, and their heights vary from a few 
inches to several feet ; the colossi of Amenophis III., of 
Heru-em-Heb, and of Rameses II., are examples of the 
extreme size to which figures of kings attained. In the 
earlier dynasties there can be no doubt that the artist 
endeavoured to make the form and features of the figure 
exactly like the person for whom it was made ; how well 
they succeeded is evident from the most cursory examination 
of the figures of the first six dynasties exhibited in European 
museums, or in the Museum of Gizeh, which is particularly 

Woman kneading bread. [Museum of Gizeh]. 



rich in figures of this period. The famous Shekh el-Beled is 
what may well be termed a "speaking likeness," and the other 
figures of that date show that he is not a solitary success of 
the Egyptian artist. In later times conventional representa- 
tion was adopted in forming the figure, with the result that the 
sculptor lost the art of portraiture once and for all. Figures 
were made of granite, basalt, and other hard stones, limestone, 
gold, silver, bronze, wood, steatite, faience, and terra-cotta. 
Standing figures have the arms placed at the sides of the 
body ,and the hands usually hold a roll ; sometimes, however, 

The scribe Kba-f-Ra. Vth dynasty. 
[Museum of Gizeh]. 

Limestone statue. Vth dynasty. 
[Museum of Gizeh]. 



they hold a sceptre, or weapon, or flowers, or -r*, and figures 
made in the form of Osiris have the hands crossed over the 
breast. Figures kneeling or sitting on the ground hold 
with both hands tablets or altars, or shrines engraved with 
funereal inscriptions, before them ; figures seated on thrones 
or chairs have the hands laid flat on the knees. All figures 
were draped, and the pedestals or plinths on which they 
stood were usually inscribed with the names and titles of 
the persons for whom they were made ; at times the various 

Statue of Ti. Vth dynasty. 
[Museum of Gizeh] 

B. M. 

Statue of Ra-Nefer. Vth dynasty. 
[Museum of Gizeh] 



coffin in 
the world. 

members of the deceased's family were sculptured in relief, 
with their names on the seat. Groups of two or more 
figures, husband and wife, brother and sister, father, mother 
and child, were placed in tombs, and from the biographical 
notices inscribed upon them many valuable historical facts 
have been gleaned. 


Egyptian coffins are usually made of wood, but under 
the Ptolemies and Romans hard stone came into' use. 

The oldest coffin in the world is probably that of 
Mycerinus, a king of the IVth dynasty, about B.C. 3633, 
which is preserved in the British Museum, No. 6647 ; it was 
found, together with the remains of a wrecked mummy, by 
Colonel Howard Vyse in the third pyramid of Gizeh, and 
was presented by him to the British Museum in 1837. The 
stone sarcophagus of Mycerinus, of which only a very small 
fragment has been preserved (B.M. No. 6646), and parts of 
the coffin and mummy, were lost by the wreck of the ship 
in which they were being brought to England, on the 
Spanish coast, on the western side of the Strait of 
Gibraltar. The coffin, without paintings, had originally a 
human face, formed of several pieces of wood pegged 
together on to the cover, and the well-cut inscription in 
two perpendicular lines down the cover reads : " Osiris, 
King of the North and South, Men-kau-Ra, living for ever. 
Heaven has produced thee ; thou wast conceived by Nut ; 
thou comest of the race of the god Seb. Thy mother Nut 
(the sky) spreads herself over thee in her form of heavenly 
mystery. She grants that thou shalt be a god ; never 
more shalt thou have enemies, O Men-kau-Ra, King of 
the North and South, living for ever.'' On the cover, just 
over the knees of the mummy, are two raised projections 
resembling knees. It has been stated^ that this coffin was 
made during the New Empire at the expense of some pious 
person who wished to keep fresh the memory of Mycerinus. 
Of the coffins of the Vlth dynasty, the fragments of that 
belonging to Seker-em-sa-f ^ appear to be the only remains ; 

' See Aegyptische Zeitschrift, 1892, p. 94. 

' Maspero, Guide du Visiteur au Mush de Boulaq, p. 311. 


but it is tolerably certain that coffins during the first six 
dynasties were made of plain wood, that they had a human 
face, and that the inscriptions were short and cut into the cover. 

Coffins during the Xlth and Xllth dynasties are usually Coffins 
rectangular in form, with a cover consisting of one flat g^c^Loo. 
plank about 2}^ inches thick. Both coffin and cover are very 
rough, and the paintings consist of large stripes of blue, red, 
white, green, and yellow colours, interspersed with lotus 
flowers and pictures of funereal offerings, sometimes very 
rudely drawn. Many of the coffins of this period are, however, 
of the greatest interest, and B.M. 6654 and 6655 are good 
typical examples. The former is inscribed on the outside Omamen- 
with one line of well-cut hieroglyphics, and is inlaid with ^J°y ° 
^^ ; the inside of the coffin and both inside and outside of coffins. 
the cover are inscribed in hieratic with a number of chapters 
of the Book of the Dead of the period of the -Ancient 
Empire ; this coffin was made for an official called Amamu.' 
The latter, made for Mentu-hetep, is of the same form, and is 
also inscribed in hieratic with chapters from the Book of the 
Dead.^ At the same period, coffins with human faces were 
also made ; they were formed of rough pieces of wood, badly 
put together, and are characterised by a rude, gaudy style of 
ornamentation. A striking contrast to these is the gilded 
wooden coffin of An-antef, B.M. No. 6652, a king of the Xlth 
dynasty, who ruled at Thebes about B.C. 2500. The hard- 
wood face is beautifully carved, and is intended to be a 
portrait of the deceased ; the eyes and eyelids are made of 
black, white, and blue obsidian, inlaid ; the feather work and 
star ornaments on the coffin appear to have originated at this 
period. The ordinary ornamentation of coffins at this period 
is a large collar, beneath which are figures of the uraeus and 
vulture, emblematic of dominion over the north and south, 
and under the feet are kneeling figures of Isis and Nephthys, 
who mourn the dead Osiris. 

The coffins of the period between the Xllth and the 

' A facsimile of the text and an English translation were published by Birch, 
Coffin of Amamu^ London, 1886. 

^ For facsimiles of other hieratic texts on coffins of the Xlth dynasty, see 
I.epsius, Aelieste Texts des Todtenbuchs, Berlin, 1867. 

X 2 



about B.C. 

The finest 
about B.C 

XVIIIth dynasties are imitations of those with the gilded 
featherwork and bright colours of the Xlth and Xllth 
dynasties ; at this period many articles of furniture, vases, 
etc., were placed in the mummy chamber, either near the 
coffin or arranged by the walls. 

During the XVIIIth dynasty coffins were made very 
much larger, and were painted inside and outside in black ; 
the face is either gilded or coloured a bright red, the eyes 
are often inlaid ; on the breast is a vulture, and the inscrip- 
tions, which divide the lower half of the cover into a series 
of rectangular sections, are painted in yellow. 

With the XlXth dynasty there appears a class of coffin 
very beautiful to behold. Inside and outside both coffin and 
cover are profusely decorated with scenes of all kinds, large 
figures of gods and genii, vignettes from the Book of the 
Dead with appropriate inscriptions, and a number of emblems 
and decorations formed of rows of amulets, all painted in the 
brightest colours, and covered with a bright, yellow, shining 
varnish. Immediately over the mummy of a royal person, 
or of a wealthy man, was laid a slightly convex covering of 
wood, made in the form of a mummy, painted with the scenes 
alluded to above, and varnished. On the inside of this 
covering the boat of the sun, the mummy with plants growing 
out from it, and other scenes were traced in yellow, on a 
mauve or purple ground. The mummy and this covering 
were placed in a coffin with a cover having a human face, and 
the hands, in relief, were crossed upon the breast. The lower 
part was ornamented with scenes in which the deceased is 
represented adoring various gods in shrines ; these scenes are 
divided into two groups by one or more perpendicular lines 
of inscription which record the name and titles of the 
deceased. This coffin, with the mummy and its wooden 
covering, was then placed inside a larger coffin, upon the 
outside and inside of which were painted scenes similar to 
those on the inner coffin, but with less attention to details. 
The inside of the cover of the outer coffin was often left blank. 
A very fine example of a set of two coffins, and the wooden 
covering of the mummy, is that of Nesi-pa-ur-shefi, which 
is described in detail in the "Catalogue of the Egyptian 


Antiquities in the Fitzwilliam Museum." A third, and even 
a fourth, coffin was sometimes used for one mummy. 

The coffins of the XXth dynasty are good imitations of 
the best examples of the XlXth dynasty ; the paintings are, 
however, neither so fine nor so carefully executed. 

From the XXIst to the XXVIth dynasty coffins exhibit Coffirs 
many varieties of decoration ; they are sometimes painted jj ™^oo. 
black, or the wood is left altogether in its natural colour, and 
the faces are often red. Sometimes they are painted with 
inscriptions in many colours on a white ground, and the 
scenes on the covers are divided into two groups by perpen- 
dicular inscriptions between them. Faces of coffins of this 
period are also flesh coloured and gilded, and the eyes, m.ade 
of obsidian, are inlaid between eyelids of the same material 
or of bronze. Notwithstanding the fact that mummies of 
this period are protected by cartonnage cases, they are laid 
in two and even three coffins. Akhmim coffins of this period 
are covered with rows of gods and elaborate collars, and are 
profusely inscribed with extracts from the Book of the Dead ; 
the mummies inside them have gilded masks and are usually 
covered with a network of glazed faience bugle beads, upon 
which are laid figures of Nut and the four children of Horus 
in smaller bead work. These coffins belong to a class which 
has little in common either with those of Memphis or Thebes. 
Favourite scenes on coffins from the XXIInd to the XXVIth 
dynasties are the weighing of the heart, and the soul visiting 
the body. 

After the XXVIth dynasty the art of coffin making Decay of 
degenerated, and as a result the examples of this period *ct"^e"o"" 
known to us exhibit rough and careless work, the scenes of coffins, 
the weighing of the heart, etc., spread right across the cover, 
and the inscriptions show that the copyist had very little or 
no knowledge of their meaning. On the other hand very 
handsome coffins, in the form of a man, in granite and basalt, 
became fashionable, and the high polish and beauty of the 
cutting of the figures, inscriptions, etc., show that although 
the art of mummifying was decaying, and the national re- 
ligion of Egypt changing, attempts were made to imitate 
ancient art in its best forms. 


Under the Ptolemies and Romans the forms of coffins 
and their decorations altered very much. Coffins are now 
made of thin pieces of wood, and are usually rectangular in 
shape, and the inscriptions upon them, like those on coffins of 
the earlier dynasties, are rarely extracts from the Book of the 
Dead. Sandals, pillows, red pottery, and papyri were often 

Graeco- buried with the dead at this epoch. Stone coffins, covered 
fSiTand 'witl^ figures and inscriptions, are also common, but they are 

their found chiefly in Lower Egypt. In the early centuries of 

our era, the decay of the art of making coffins followed 
that of mummifying, and the coffins are large, badly shaped 
and ugly, the inscriptions upon them are copies of old 
formulae, but so carelessly written and so full of mistakes that 
they are unintelligible. The custom of laying mummies in 
old tombs increased greatly, and chapels, serdabs, pits and 
sarcophagi-chambers were alike used for piling up mummies 
by hundreds and thousands ; and one single roll of papyrus or 
parchment laid in a tomb contained the names of all those 
who were buried there. This was practically the end of the 
Egyptian system of mummifying and burial. Within a 
hundred years of the preaching of Christianity at Alexandria 
by St. Mark, a large part of the population of Egypt had 
become Christian ; the resurrection of the body of Christ 
made the Egyptians hope for the resurrection of their own 
bodies, and though they could not eradicate from themselves 
all traces of their old belief, they abandoned gradually the 
making of their dead into mummies, and were content to lay 
their bodies in the earth, wrapped in linen cloths only, to 
await revivification. 

Coffins of all periods were closed by dowels, let into 
cavities in the sides and cover, through which pegs of wood 
were driven ; these were covered with plaster and painted, and 
were thus invisible. 


Sar- Egyptian sarcophagi are made of black or green basalt, 

t^he ^^ ° granite, agglomerate and limestone. During the first six 

Ancient dynasties they are rectangular, and the cover is either flat 

like a plank, or vaulted. Running round the edge of the 


inside of the cover is a projection about two inches deep, 
which is carefully chiselled to fit a hollow corresponding in 
size in the sarcophagus, and after the cover was lowered upon 
it, a layer of fine cement was run in between, and the sarco- 
phagus became hermetically sealed. Not content with this, 
holes were drilled sideways through the cover and the 
sarcophagus, and into these pegs of wood were driven. 
Covers have usually at each end one or more projections, 
whereby it is easy to lift them ; the magnificent sarcophagus 
of Chufu-anch (IVth dynasty), preserved at Gizeh,^ has two 
rounded projections at each end of the cover. The sarco- 
phagus of Mycerinus (IVth dynasty) found in his pyramid 
at Gizeh resembled a small building ; it was beautifully 
sculptured, but was absolutely without ornament. Sarco- 
phagi of this period have their sides made to represent the 
openings, vestibules, and doors of mastabas, and the in- 
scriptions upon them usually contain only the names and 
titles of their owners, and prayers that sepulchral gifts may 
be made to the deceased on the specified festivals. Of the 
sarcophagi of the Vll-Xth dynasties nothing is known. 

During the Xltli and Xllth dynasties, rectangular wooden Sar- 
cofifins seem to have superseded, in some measure, stone ^f^tj^g^ 
sarcophagi, royal examples of which of this period are Middle 
unknown. A granite sarcophagus of this period at Florence ™P"^'^- 
resembles in form, style of inscription, etc., those of the first 
six dynasties. 

Sarcophagi from the Xlllth to the XVIIth dynasty are 

In the XVIIIth dynasty the sarcophagi of Memphis are 
in the form of a mummy, and are made of granite ; they 
are very sparingly ornamented. A perpendicular line of 
inscription runs from the breast to the feet, and the surface 
of the cover on each side of it is divided by three or more 
lines of inscription at right angles to it into sections on 
which are inscribed figures of gods. The sarcophagus of 
Ai is a good example of the work of this period.^ 

' For a cast see B.M. No. nil. 

^ For a scale drawing and inscriptions, see Lepsius, Denimaler, Bl. 113 d-g. 


In the XlXth dynasty sarcophagi become somewhat 
smaller, but otherwise differ very little from those of the 
preceding dynasty. They are usually made of granite, 
Sar- but alabaster, as in that of Seti I., was also used. This 

of Sell L magnificent object and its cover were inscribed inside and 
out with scenes and inscriptions from the " Book of being in 
the Underworld," inlaid with a pigment of a light greenish- 
blue colour. The cover was broken in trying to open it, 
but the sarcophagus itself is intact, and is preserved in Sir 
John Soane's Museum ; the inscriptions were published by 
Bonomi, Sarcophagus of Oi Metieptak, London, 1864, and 
for translations s&& Records of the Past, vol. X., pp. 79 ff. The 
chief idea which underlies these scenes is that, just as the 
life of a man is identified with the course of the sun by 
day, so the life of the soul after death is identified with 
the passage of the sun in the nether-world, through which 
he was supposed to travel during the night. The scenes 
represent the various parts of the nether-world, and the 
beings who dwell in them : Isis and Nephthys, Horus the 
son of Isis and Osiris, Seb and Nut, the four children of 
Horus, are all inscribed on sarcophagi of this period, and all 
were supposed to assist in protecting the deceased, who was 
identified with Osiris. In this dynasty, large, painted, wooden 
sarcophagi, in the form of mummies, are also common at 

Cover of In the XXth dynasty, granite was much used for sarco- 

cophaeus ph'^gi' ^^^ the form has changed, and the deceased is 
ofRa- represented lying on the cover. He wears a thick, square 
beard, his hands are freed from their bandages, and hold 

in them ■¥-, u, and A ; beneath the long tunic the feet 

appear, and on the sides of the sarcophagus are figures of 
the four children of Horus and of other funereal gods. A 
most interesting example of this period is the sarcophagus 
of Rameses III., which is made in the form of a cartouche 
( 3t ; the cover is preserved in the Fitzwilliam Museum (for 
a description of it see the Catalogue), and the sarcophagus 
is in the Museum of the Louvre. On the head, outside, is 
the figure of Nephthys, with outstretched wings, emblematic 

meses IIL 


of her protection of Osiris ; the inscriptions give the names 
and titles of the king, and refer to the course of the sun 
in the nether-world. On the other side, by the feet, is Isis, 
also with outstretched wings ; on one side is Ap-uat, and on 
the other Anubis, each jackal-headed. The two sides are 
ornamented with scenes and inscriptions referring to the 
passage of the sun, who is being towed along in his boat 
through the various divisions of the nether-world by their 
gods, and to his attack, defeat, and slaughter of Apepi, 
his chief enemy. Two scenes at the feet, in which Neith 
and Isis promise to put together the limbs of Osiris, 
complete the ornamentation of the outside.^ At the 
head, inside, are the solar disk, a mummy with a disk and 
star on his head, and a head of a goddess on each side 
holding out an arm, the hand of which supports a being 
who pours out water on the head of the deceased in the 
form of a mummy. On the sides are figures of an ithy- 
phallic god, hawks, etc., forming scenes from the " Book of 
being in the Under-world." At the foot is the god Chepera 
in a disk around which are twined the folds of a serpent ; 
above is the head of a ram being adored by figures of the 
king, by the sides of which are the cartouches of Rameses III. 
On the bottom of the sarcophagus is the figure of Hathor, 
goddess of Amenta, with wings outstretched to receive the 

The sarcophagi of the XXVIth dynasty are usually 
rectangular, and are made of green and black basalt, and 
variegated hard stone. Many of the scenes and inscriptions 
upon them are copied from sarcophagi of the XlXth and 
XXth dynasties, but long extracts from the Book of the 
Dead are characteristic of this period, and some sarcophagi Sar- 
are covered entirely with such funereal inscriptions,^ with {^heNew° 
the exception of the spaces occupied by the figures of the Empire. 
deceased and Nut, on the outside and inside of the cover 
respectively, and the figure of Hathor on the bottom inside. 

' For a fuller description of this sarcophagus see De Rouge, Notice des 
Monu?nents au Muses du Louvre^ Paris, 1872, pp. 173-175, and Seyffarth, 
Beiirdge, 2-5, Bl. 6. 

^ E.g., the sarcophagus of Anch-nes-nefer-ab-Ra, B.M. No. 32. 


Such sarcophagi are beautifully sculptured, carefully inscribed, 
and the attention given to detail is marvellous. 

After the XXVIth dynasty sarcophagi are sometimes 
rounded at the head, and the covers have human faces ; they 
are ornamented with rows of figures of gods, the four 
children of Horus, a number of genii of the netherworld, and 
inscriptions which state that they have taken the deceased 
under their protection. Rectangular sarcophagi which taper 
slightly towards the feet, and are narrower at the base than 
at the top, are also common. 

In the XXXth dynasty massive sarcophagi of granite, 
basalt and agglomerate, highly polished and beautifully 
sculptured, become very plentiful ; they are found chiefly 
in Lower Egypt. The inscriptions and scenes upon them 
are extracts, more or less complete, from the " Book of being 
in the Under-world," and, in arrangement, they greatly 
resemble those of the earlier dynasties ; a fine example of 
this period is the sarcophagus of Nectanebus I., B.M. No. lo. 
Sar- Under the rule of the Ptolemies and Romans wooden 

of^th?' sarcophagi became very common ; they consisted of two 
GrEeco- parts, viz., the board upon which the deceased in his coffin 
period. was laid, and the rectangular, vaulted cover, which is, at 
time.s, as much as eighteen inches high. The planks from 
which the covers are made are rarely more than an inch thick, 
and they are let into four rectangular uprights, which are 
often made of a hard wood with a fine texture. The vaulted 
cover has, at times, a gilded hawk upon the top, and a 
cornice running round the four sides ; it was fastened to the 
board, upon which the coffin stood, by its uprights, one at 
each corner, which, projecting slightly below the lower edge 
of the sides, fitted into four rectangular cavities cut in the 
board. The inside and outside of the vaulted cover are 
painted in gaudy colours with figures of the gods, the signs 
of the Zodiac, and inscriptions in hieroglyphics ; when the 
deceased was a Greek, his name and that of his father were 
also inscribed in Greek. The mummies which belong to 
such coffins are covered over with a linen cloth on which is 
painted the god Osiris, with the features of the deceased, 
wearing the atef crown, and holding ^ and ,^\; on each 


side of him are two of the children of Horus. The scenes 
and inscriptions on the sarcophagi of this period show that 
the people of Egypt had ceased to attach any importance 
to their meaning, and they appear simply as funereal 
decorations, without which the sarcophagi would have been 

The Egyptian Tombs. 

The extreme care which the Egyptians took to preserve 
the bodies of their dead would have been all in vain, if they 
had not provided secure resting places for their mummies. 
To guard the mummy intact and ready for the return of the Double 
soul, it was necessary to provide tombs which should be ['j^g^^^'^ ° 
safe from the attacks of human beings and from the Egyptian 
prowlings of wild animals, and also out of the reach of the 
infiltration of the waters of the Nile, or of the inundation 
itself. If the preservation of a mummy was regarded as a 
sacred duty to be performed by the relatives of the deceased, 
who were morally bound to show all honour to it, and to 
spend their money freely on whatever was necessary for its 
adornment, it follows of a necessity that a house or tomb 
meet for the habitation of the ka, and for the soul after it 
had been decreed triumphant in the judgment hall of Osiris, 
must also be provided. The size and beauty of a tomb and 
its furniture depended, as much as the making of the 
mummy, upon the means at the disposal of the relatives of 
a deceased person. Every person in Egypt knew perfectly 
well that to ensure the resurrection of his body, after the 
pure soul had returned to inhabit it, it was necessary that 
every part of it should be preserved in a fitting state, but 
nevertheless, every person was not able to afford the costly 
embalming, and the still more costly furniture and tomb and 
procession which were, no doubt, held by the wealthy 
to be absolutely necessary for " living a second time." 
The burial of the very poor of Egypt must have been 
much the same in all times and in all dynasties. The body, 
having been salted only, was laid in the sand to a depth 
of three or four feet, without covering, without ornament, 
and even without a coffin ; sometimes even the salting was 



qualities of 

dispensed with. The drying up qualities of the sand of 
Egypt are very remarkable. Some few years ago Sir C. 
Holled Smith, K.C.B., while making some excavations among 
the ruins of a temple at Wady Halfah, on the west bank of 
the river, dug up a box, which, having been opened, was 
seen to contain the body of a European ; on making 
inquiries he found that an English engineer had died there 
about a dozen years before. The hair and beard and 
features were unaltered afe far as appearance went, but the 
skin had dried up like parchment, and the body had become 
much smaller. In tombs of the lower classes of the Ancient 











iiiniiiii - .^n .. ■ . ill! ^' ^ ■, .^■■'7^ -.j ■ ■ I u-.;jt ;,. 

I. Three Mastabas at Gizeh. 

3. Plan of a Mastaba 
with four serdabs. 

2. Entrance to a Mastaba at Sakkarab. 



The mas- 
taba tomb. 

Empire, the remains of the dead consist chiefly of light 
yellow bones. Sometimes the body of the dead was 
protected by walls of poorly made bricks, and a vaulted roof 
The tombs of the wealthy were made in the shape of 
mastabas, pyramids, and series of chambers hewn in the 
mountains on the eastern and western banks of the Nile. 

One of the earliest forms of the building which marks 
the site of an Egyptian tomb is the mastaba,' the finest 
examples of which were built at Sakkirah ; it was called 

4. Longitudinal section of a Mastaba. 

S. Transverse section of the chamber of a Mastaba. 

mastaba by the Arabs because its length, in proportion to 
its height, is great, and reminded them of the long, low seat 
common in Oriental houses, and familiar to them. The 
mastaba is a heavy massive building, of rectangular shape, 
the four sides of which are four walls symmetrically inclined 
towards their common centre. The exterior surfaces are not 

' From the Arabic >' iL^^ . The facts here given on the subject of mastabas 

are derived from the excellent articles of M. Mariette in Revue Archiohgique, 
S. 2'"=, t. xix. p. 8 ff. 



flat, for the face of each course of masonry, formed of stones 

laid vertically, is a little behind the one beneath it, and if 

these recesses were a little deeper, the external appearance 

of each side of the building would resemble a flight of steps. 

The stones which form the mastabas are of a moderate size, 

and with the exception of those used for the ceiling and 

architrave, have an average height of 18 or 20 inches. The Plan and 

height and length of the mastaba vary ; the largest measures ^"ast^bas? 

about 170 feet long by 86 feet wide, and the smallest about 

26 feet long by 20 feet wide ; they vary in height from 13 to 

30 feet. The ground at Sakkarah is formed of calcareous 

rock covered to the depth of a few feet with sand ; the 

foundations of the mastabas are always on the solid rock. 

The plan of the mastaba is a rectangle, and the greater axis 

of the rectangle is, without exception, in the direction from 

north to south. Moreover, 

at the pyramids of Gizeh, 
where the mastabas are ar- 
ranged symmetrically, the 
plan of their arrangement 
is like a chess-board, the 
squares of which are uni- 
formly elongated towards 
the north. Mastabas then 
are oriented astronomically 

towards the true north, and in the cases where they are a few 
degrees out, this difference must be attributed not to design 
but to negligence. It has been asserted that mastabas are only 
unfinished pyramids, but properly considered, it is evident that 
they form a class of buildings by themselves, and that they 
have nothing in common with the pyramid, save in respect of 
being oriented towards the north, this orientation being the 
result, not of a studied imitation of the pyramid, but of a 
religious intention, which at this early period influenced the 
construction of all tombs, whatever their external form. The 
mastabas at Sakkarah are built of stone and brick ; the stone 
employed is of two kinds, the one being very hard, and of a 
bluish-grey colour, and the other being comparatively soft, and 
of a yellowish colour. The bricks also are of two kinds, the 

6. Transverse section at the 
bottom of a serdab. 

tion of 



The stele 
in mas- 

one yellowish, and the other black ; both sorts were sun-dried 
only. The bricks of a yellowish colour seem to have been 
used entirely during the earliest dynasties, and the black 
ones only appear with the second half of the IVth dynasty. 
However carefully the outside of the mastaba was built, the 
inside is composed of sand, pieces of stone thrown in without 
design or arrangement, rubble, rubbish, etc., and but for the 
outside walls holding all together many of them must have 
perished long since. The eastern face of the mastaba is 
the most important, for, four times out of five, the entrance 
- is in it ; it is sometimes, but very 
rarely, bare. Some yards from the 
north-east corner is, at times, a 
very high, narrow opening, at the 
bottom of which the masonry of 
the mastaba itself assumes the form 
of long vertical grooves, which dis- 
tinguish the stels of this epoch ; a 
stele, with or without inscription, 
sometimes takes the place of this 
opening. At a distance of some 
feet from the south-east corner 
is generally another opening, but 
larger, deeper and more carefully 
made ; at the bottom of this is 
sometimes a fine inscribed calcare- 
ous stone stele, and sometimes a 
small architectural facade, in the 
centre of which is a door. When 
the eastern face has the opening 
at the south-east corner which has just been described, the 
mastaba has no interior chamber, for this opening takes its 
place. When the mastaba has the fa9ade in the place of the 
opening, there is a chamber within. When the entrance to 
the mastaba is made on the north side, the fagade is brought 
back to the end of a kind of vestibule, and at the front of 
this vestibule are set up two monolithic columns, without 
abacus, and without base, which support the architrave, 
which supports the ceiling. The entrance to the mastaba is 


The upper chamber, the 
pit, and the sarcopha^s 
chamber of a Mastaba. 



sometimes made from the south, but never from the west ; 
the top of the mastaba is quite flat. 

The interior of the complete mastaba consists of three The 
parts, the chamber, the serdab, and the pit. Having entered ^amb«. 
the Chamber by the door in the side, it is found to be either 
without any ornamentation whatever, or to be covered with 
sculptures. At the bottom of the chamber usually facing the 

8. Mastaba at Gizeh with double pit 

east, is a stele, which, whether the walls are inscribed or not, 
is always inscribed. At the foot of the stele, on the bare 
ground, is often a table of offerings made of granite, alabaster, 
or calcareous stone ; two obelisks, or two supports for offerings, 
are often found at each side of this table. Besides these 
things the chamber has no furniture, and it rarely has a door. 
B. M. Y 



Not far from the chamber, oftener to the south than to the 
north, and oftener to the north than to the west, is a lofty but 
narrow nook hidden in the thickness of the masonry, and built 
with large stones ; this nook is called the Serdab.' Sometimes 
Use of the serdab has no communication whatever with the other 
the serdah. p^rts of the mastaba, but sometimes a rectangular passage, so 

9. Figures in relief in a Mastaba at Gizeh. Vth dynasty. 

narrow that the hand can only be inserted with difficulty, 
leads from the serdab into the chamber ; in the serdab statues 
of the deceased were placed and the narrow passage served 

^Aserddb, <_;1 J^ , strictly speaking, is a lofty, vaulted, subterranean 
chamber, with a large opening in the north side to admit air in the hot weather. 



10. West wall of a chamber in the tomb of Ptah-hetep. Vth dynasty. 

Y 2 



The mas- 
taba pit 
and sar- 

of the 

to conduct to them the smoke of incense or perfume. The 
interior of the serdab is never inscribed, and nothing but 
statues, inscribed with the names and titles of the persons 
whom they represented, have ever been found in them. 
Statues were at times placed in the court in front of the 
mastaba. The pit, square or rectangular in form, but never 
round, leads to the chamber where the mummy was laid ; 
it is situated in the middle of the greater axis of the mastaba 
nearer to the north than the south, and varies in depth from 
40 to 80 feet. The top part of the pit where it passes 
through the platform on which the mastaba stands, is built of 
fine large stones. There was neither ladder nor staircase, 
leading to the funereal chamber at the bottom of the pit, 
hence the coffin and the mummy when once there were 
inaccessible. At the bottom of the pit, on the south side, is an 
opening into a passage from four to five feet high ; this 
passage leads obliquely to the south-east, in the same direction 
as the upper chamber, and soon after increases in size in all 
directions, and thus becomes the sarcophagus chamber. This 
chamber is exactly under the upper chamber, and the 
relatives of the deceased in standing there, would have the de- 
ceased beneath their feet. In one corner of the lower chamber 
stood the rectangular sarcophagus made of fine calcareous 
stone, rose granite or black basalt ; the top of the cover was 
rounded. The upper chamber contained no .statues, ushabtiu 
figures, amulets, canopic jars, nor any of the numerous things 
which formed the furniture of the tomb in later times ; in the 
sarcophagus were, at times, a pillow or a few vases, but little 
else. When the body had been placed in the sarcophagus, 
and the cover of the sarcophagus had been cemented down 
on it, the entrance to the passage at the bottom of the pit 
was walled up, the pit itself was filled with stones, earth and 
sand, and the deceased was thus preserved from all ordinary 
chances of disturbance. 

The tombs of the mastaba class stop suddenly at the end 
of the first six dynasties ; of tombs belonging to one of the 
first three dynasties, M. Mariette found 4 at Sakkirah ; of 
the IVth dynasty 43 ; of the Vth dynasty 61 ; and of the 
Vlth dynasty 25. The mastabas of the first three dynasties 


have but one upper chamber, which is built of brick, the 
stelae are very deeply cut, the hieroglyphics and the figures 
are in relief, and display more vigour than at any other time ; 
the inscriptions are terse, and the use of phonetic signs less 
common than in later times. These tombs can hardly be 
said to be oriented at all, for they are, at times, as much as 
twelve degrees west of the true north. In the second half of 
the IVth dynasty, raastabas have a size and extent hitherto 
unknown ; they are either built entirely of black brick or of 
stone. Their orientation becomes accurate, the figures and 
hieroglyphics are well executed, the formulae become fixed, 
and the statues in the serdabs, which are very numerous, unite 
the vigour of those of the first half of the IVth with the 
delicacy of those of the Vth dynasty. The famous wooden 
statue of the ShSkh el-Beled belongs to this time. In the Vth 
dynasty mastabas are not so large, but they are always built 
of stone ; inside there are more chambers than one, approached 
by long passages, and the statues are not so characteristic 
as those of the latter half of the IVth dynasty. The mastabas 
of the Vlth dynasty show a decided decadence, and lose 
their fine proportions ; the figures are in light relief, the 
formulae become longer, and the chambers are built of brick 
and covered with thin sculptured slabs of stone. 

The walls of the upper chambers of mastabas were Ornamen- 
frequently covered with scenes which, according to M. 'r'"5" 
Mariette, are without any representation of divinities and mastaba. 
religious emblems, the names of deities, and characters em- 
ployed in the course of writing naturally excepted. The 
inscription which asks the god Anubis to grant a happy 
burial to the deceased, after a long and happy old age, to 
make his way easy for him on the roads in the underworld, 
and to grant the bringing to the tomb a perpetual supply 
of funereal gifts, is inscribed in bold hieroglyphics over the 
entrances to the tomb, and upon the most conspicuous 
places on the stelae in the upper chamber. The scenes 
depicted on the walls of the mastabas are divided by 
Mariette into three classes : 1, Biographical, 2, Sepulchral, 
and 3, those relating to funereal gifts. Biographical scenes 
are found in tombs of all periods. The deceased is 



and in- 

represented hunting or fishing, taking part in pleasure 
excursions by water, and listening to music played before 
him accompanied by the dancing of women ; he is also 
represented as overseer of a number of building operations 
in which many workmen are employed. It is tolerably 
certain that these scenes are not fictitious, and that they 
were painted while the person who hoped to occupy the tomb 
was still alive, and could direct the labours of the artist. 
The prayer that the deceased might enter his tomb after a 















long and prosperous life has a significance which it could 
not possess if the tomb were made after his death. The 
sepulchral scenes refer to the passage of the mummy in a 
boat to Amenta. The scenes relating to sepulchral gifts 

Bakers making Bread. From a Vth dynasty Tomb at Sakkarah. 

Cattle on the March. From a Vth dynasty Tomb at Sakkarah, 


represent the deceased, having colossal proportions compared 
with the other figures, sitting or standing with a round 
table before him, upon which fruits, flowers, vegetables, ducks, 
haunches of beef, etc., etc., are placed. These offerings are 
sometimes carried in before the deceased on the head or 
hands of servants and others, who often lead beasts appointed 
for slaughter ; they were brought into the tomb in an 
appointed order, and an endowment to ensure their pre- 
sentation in the tomb on the specified festivals and seasons 
was specially provided. The scenes in the tombs which 
represent agricultural labours, the making of wine, etc., etc.. 
Endow- all have reference to the bringing of funereal gifts ; and it 

ment of , . ® ® '^'>~^ [TD "l-^ , ^ 

tombs. seems that certain estates a.\ nut ent pa t'eita, 

© Ci O I . ... 'V 

''estates of the house of everlasting" {i.e., the tomb), were 
set apart to supply palm branches, fruit, etc., for the table 
of the dead. The act of bringing these gifts to the tomb 
at the appointed seasons was probably connected with 
some religious ceremony, which seems to have consisted in 
pouring out libations and offering incense, bandages, etc., by 
the fli Q Y'^SP^^ cher heb ox ■^x'l&'sX. The Egyptian called 

the tomb ^r| pa i'etta, " the everlasting house," and he 

believed that the ka LJ or "genius" of the deceased resided 
there as long as the mummy of his perishable body, ^1 
c/ia, was there. The ka might go in and out of the tomb, 
and refresh itself with meat and drink, but it never failed 
to go back to the mummy with the name of which it seems 
to have been closely connected ;' the i^ ia or soul, and the 
'^ cku or intelligence did not live in the tomb. 

The Pyramids. 

The royal tombs of the early dynasties were built in the 
form of pyramids, and they are, to all intents and purposes, 
merely mastabas, the greater parts of which are above 

' Herr und Leib vereint bilden das I — 1 oder die Persbnlichkeit des Menschen, 

das dem Individuum eigenthiimliche Wesen, die ihn von andern unterscheidet und 
mit seinem Namen in engster Verbindung steht. Brugsch, £>te Ae^ptologie, 
p. i8i. 



ground ; they consist of the chamber in which funereal gifts 
were offered, the passage and the sarcophagus chamber. The ^''J^^j^'^^j 
actual pyramid contained the passage and the sarcophagus 
chamber, but although the chamber, sometimes called temple 
or chapel, in which funereal gifts were offered, was a building 
separate from the pyramid, it nevertheless formed an integral 
part of the pyramid plan. On the western bank of the Nile, 
from Abu Roish on the north to Medfim on the south, is 
a slightly elevated tract of land, about twenty-five miles 
long, on the edge of the Libyan desert, on which stand the 












3 ! \ (K^' 


pyramids of Abu Roash, Gizeh, Zawyet e]-'Ary4n, Abusir, 
Sakkarah, and Dahshur. Other places in Egypt where 
pyramids are found are El-lahun in the Fayyum, and Kullah 
near Esneh. The pyramids built by the Ethiopians at Meroe 
and Gebel Barkal are of a very late date (B.C. 600-100) and 
are mere copies, in respect of form only, of the pyramids in 
Egypt. There is no evidence whatever to show that they 
were built for purposes of astronomical observations, and the 
theory that the Great Pyramid was built to serve as a 
standard of measurement is ingenious but worthless. The 
significant fact, so ably pointed out by Mariette, that pyra- 
mids are only found in cemeteries, is an answer to all such 
theories. Tomb-pyramids were built by kings and others 
until the Xllth dynasty. The ancient writers who have 
described and treated of the pyramids are given by Pliny 
(Nat. Hist, xxxvi. 12, 17). If we may believe some of the 
writers on them during the Middle Ages, their outsides must 
have been covered with inscriptions ; these were probably 
of a religious nature.' In modern times they have been 
examined by Shaw (1721), Pococke (1743), Niebuhr (1761), 
Davison (1763), Bruce (1768), Denon and Jumard (1799), 
Hamilton (1801), Caviglia (1817), Belzoni (1817), Wilkin- 
son (1831), Howard Vyse and Perring (1837-38), Lepsius 
(1842-45), and Petrie (1881). 
The liuild- jt appears that before the actual building of a pyramid 
pyramid, was begun, a suitable rocky site was chosen and cleared, 
a mass of rock if possible being left in the middle of the 
area to form the core of the building. The chambers and 
galleries leading to them were next planned and excavated. 
Around the core a truncated pyramid building was made, 
the angles of which were filled up with blocks of stone. 
Layei after layer of stone was then built round the work, 
which grew larger and larger until it was finished. Dr. 
Lepsius thought that when a king ascended the throne, he 
built for himself a small but complete tomb-pyramid, and 
that a fresh coating of stone was built round it every 

' " their surfaces exhibit all kinds of inscriptions written in the 

characters oi ancient nations which no longer exist. No one knows what this 
writing is or what it signifies." Mas'udi (ed. Barbier de Meynard), t. ii. p. 404. 


year that he reigned ; that when he died the sides of the 
pyramid were like long flights of steps, which his successor 
filled up with right-angled triangular blocks of stone ; and 
that the door of the pyramid was walled up after the body of 
its builder had been laid in it, and thus it became a finished 
tomb. The explanation of Dr. Lepsius may not be correct, 
but at least it answers satisfactorily more objections than do 
the views of other theorists on this matter. It has been 
pointed out that near the core of the pyramid the work is 
more carefully executed than near the exterior, that is to 
say, as the time for the king's death approached the work 
was more hurriedly performed. 

During the investigations made by Lepsius in and around 
the pyramid area, he found the remains of about seventy- 
five pyramids, and noticed that they were always built in 

The pyramids of Gizeh were opened by the Persians violation 
during the fifth and fourth centuries before Christ ; it is °f P)"^- 

^ ' mids by 

probable that they were also entered by the Romans, Khalif the 
Mamun (a.D. 813-833) entered the Great Pyramid, and ^"='^"=- 
found that others had been there before him. The treasure 
which is said to have been discovered there by him is 
probably fictitious. Once opened, it must have been evident 
to every one what splendid quarries the pyramids formed, 
and very few hundred years after the conquest of Egypt 
by the Arabs, they were laid under contribution for stone to 
build mosques, etc., in Cairo. At the end of the twelfth 
century Melik el-Kamil made a mad attempt to destroy the 
pyramid built by Mycerinus ; but after months of toil he only 
succeeded in stripping off the covering from one of the sides. 
It is said that Muhammad 'Ali was advised to undertake the 
senseless task of destroying them all. The most important 
pyramids and groups of pyramids are the following : — 

The Great Pyramid. 
This, the largest of the three pyramids at Gizeh, was built 
by Chufu ( ® ^ "^-^^ ^ 1 °'^ Cheops, the second king of the 
IVth dynasty, B.C. 3733, who called it ^ ^i^ A, Chut. His 


name was found written in red ink upon the blocks of stone 
Pyramid inside it. All four sides measure in greatest length about 
o . eops. ^^^ ^^^^ each, but the length of each was originally about 
20 feet more ; its height now is 45 1 feet, but it is said to 
have been originally about 481 feet. The stone used in the 
construction of this pyramid was brought from Turra and 
Mokattam, and the contents amount to 85,000,000 cubic feet. 
The flat space at the top of the pyramid is about thirty feet 
square, and the view from it is very fine. 

The entrance (a) to this pyramid is, as with all pyramids, 
on the north side, and is about 43 feet above the ground. 
The passage A B C is 320 feet long, 3^^ feet high, and 4 feet 
wide ; at B is a granite door, round which the path at D has 
been made. The passage at D E is 125 feet long, and the 
large hall E F is 155 feet long and 28 feet high ; the pas- 
sage E G leads to the pointed-roofed Queen's Chamber H, 
which measures about 17 x 19 x 20 feet. The roofing in 
of this chamber is a beautiful piece of mason's work. From 
the large hall E F there leads a passage 22 feet long, the ante- 
chamber in which was originally closed by four granite 
doors, remains of which are still visible, into the King's 
Chamber, J, which is lined with granite, and measures about 
35 X 17 X 19 feet. The five hollow chambers K, L, M, N, O 
were built above the King's Chamber to lighten the pressure 
of the superincumbent mass. In chamber O the name Chufu 
was found written The air shafts P and Q measure 234 
feet X 8 inches x 6 inches, and 174 feet x 8 inches x 6 
inches respectively. A shaft from E to R leads down to the 
subterranean chamber S, which measures 46 x 27 x 1O5 feet. 
The floor of the King's Chamber, J, is about 140 feet from 
the level of the base of the pyramid, and the chamber is a 
little to the south-east of the line drawn from T to U. 
Inside the chamber lies the empty, coverless, broken, red 
granite sarcophagus of Cheops, measuring 7^ x ^\ x 3^ feet. 
The account of the building of this pyramid is told by 
Herodotus^ as follows: "Now, they told me, that to the 
reign of Rhampsinitus there was a perfect distribution 

' Bk. ii. 124-126. 















of the 

of justice, and that all Egypt was in a high state of 
prosperity ; but that after him Cheops, coming to reign over 
Herodotus them, plunged into every kind of wickedness. For that, 
having shut up all the temples, he first of all forbade them to 
offer sacrifice, and afterwards he ordered all the Egyptians 
to work for himself; some, accordingly, were appointed to 
draw stones from the quarries in the Arabian mountain 
down to the Nile, others he ordered to receive the stones 
when transported in vessels across the river, and to drag 
them to the mountain called the Libyan. And they worked 
to the number of 100,000 men at a time, each party during 
three months. The time during which the people were thus 
harassed by toil, lasted ten years on the road which they 
constructed, along which they drew the stones, a work, 
in my opinion, not much less than the pyramid ; for its 
length is five stades (3,021 feet), and its width ten orgyae 
(60 feet), and its height, where it is the highest, eight orgyae 
(48 feet) ; and it is of polished stone, with figures carved on 
it : on this road then ten years were expended, and in 
forming the subterraneous apartments on the hill, on which 
the pyramids stand, which he had made as a burial vault for 
himself, in an island, formed by draining a canal from the 
Nile. Twenty years were spent in erecting the pyramid 
itself: of this, which is square, each face is eight plethra 
(820 feet), and the height is the same ; it is composed of 
polished stones, and jointed with the greatest exactness ; 
none of the stones are less than thirty feet. This pyramid 
was built thus ; in the form of steps, which some call 
crossae, others bomides. When they had first built it in 
this manner, they raised the remaining stones by machines 
made of short pieces of wood : having lifted them from the 
ground to the first range of steps, when the stone arrived 
there, it was put on another machine that stood ready on 
the first range ; and from this it was drawn to the second 
range on another machine ; for the machines were equal in 
number to the ranges of steps ; or they removed the 
machine, which was only one, and portable, to each range in 
succession, whenever they wished to raise the stone higher ; 
for I should relate it in both ways, as it is related. The 


highest parts of it, therefore, were first finished, and after- 
wards they completed the parts next following ; but last of 
all they finished the parts on the ground, and that were 
lowest. On the pyramid is shown an inscription, in 
Egyptian characters, how much was expended in radishes, 
onions, and garlic, for the workmen ; which the interpreter,' 
as I well remember, reading the inscription, told me 
amounted to 1,600 talents of silver. And if this be really Herodotus 
the case, how much more was probably expended in iron building 
tools, in bread, and in clothes for the labourers, since they of the 
occupied in building the works the time which I mentioned, pyramid, 
and no short time besides, as I think, in cutting and drawing 
the stones, and in forming the subterraneous excavation. 
[It is related] that Cheops reached such a degree of infamy, 
that being in want of money, he prostituted his own daughter 
in a brothel, and ordered her to extort, they did not say 
how much ; but she exacted a certain sum of money, 
privately, as much as her father ordered her ; and contrived 
to leave a monument of herself, and asked every one that 
came in to her to give her a stone towards the edifice she 
designed : of these stones they said the pyramid was built 
that stands in the middle of the three, before the great 
pyramid, each side of which is a plethron and a half in 
length." (Gary's translation.) 

The Second Pyramid. 
The second pyramid at Gizeh was built by Cha-f-Ra, 

( Q !^^ O |, or Chephren,, the third king of the IVth dy- 
nasty, B.C. 3666, who called it '^=f ^, ur. His name has 
not been found inscribed upon any part of it, but the frag- 
ment of a marble sphere inscribed with the name of Cha-f-Ra, 

' Herodotus was deceived by his interpreter, who clearly made up a transla- 
tion of an inscription which he did not understand. William of BaMensel, who 
lived in the fourteenth century, tells us that the outer coating of the two largest 
pyramids was covered with a great number of inscriptions arranged in lines. 
(Wiedemann, Aeg. Geschichte, p. 179.) If the outsides were actually inscribed, 
the text must have been purely religious, like those inscribed inside the pyramids 
of Pepi, Teta, and Unas. 









which was found near the temple, close by this pyramid, 
confirms the statements of Herodotus and Diodorus 
Siculus, that Chephren built it. A statue of this king, now 
in the Gizeh Museum, was found in the granite temple 
close by. This pyramid appears to be larger than the 
Great Pyramid because it stands upon a higher level of stone 
foundation ; it was cased with stone originally and polished, 
but the greater part of the outer casing has disappeared. 
An ascent of this pyramid can only be made with difficulty. 
It was first explored in 1816 by Belzoni (born 1778, 
died 1823), the discoverer of the tomb of Seti I. and of the 
temple of Rameses II. at Abu Simbel. In the north side of 
the pyramid are two openings, one at the base and one about 
50 feet above it. The upper opening leads into a corridor 
105 feet long, which descends into a chamber 46^ x 16-3- x 22^ 
feet, which held the granite sarcophagus in which Chephren 
was buried. The lower opening leads into a corridor about 
100 feet long, which, first descending and then ascending, 
ends in the chamber mentioned above, which is usually called 
Belzoni's Chamber. The actual height is about 450 feet, and 
the length of each side at the base about 700 feet. The rock 
upon which the pyramid stands has been scarped on the 
north and west sides to make the foundation level. The 
history of the building of the pyramid is thus stated by 
Herodotus^ : " The Egyptians say that this Cheops reigned 
fifty years ; and when he died, his brother Chephren suc- 
ceeded to the kingdom ; and he followed the same practices 
as the other, both in other respects, and in building a 
pyramid ; which does not come up to the dimensions of his 
brother's, for I myself measured them ; nor has it sub- 
terraneous chambers ; nor does a channel from the Nile flow 
to it, as to the other ; but this flows through an artificial 
aqueduct round an island within, in which they say the body 
of Cheops is laid. Having laid the first course of variegated 
Ethiopian stones, less in height than the other by forty feet, 
he built it near the large pyramid. They both stand on the 
same hill, which is about lOO feet high. Chephren, they said, 
reigned fifty-six years. Thus 106 years are reckoned, during 

' Bk. ii. 127. 


which the Egyptians suffered all kinds of calamities, and for 
this length of time the temples were closed and never opened. 
From the hatred they bear them, the Egyptians are not very 
willing to mention their names ; but call the pyramids after 
Philition, a shepherd, who at that time kept his cattle in 
those parts." (Gary's translation.) 

The Third Pyramid. 
The third pyramid at Gizeh was built by Men-kau-Ra, 

f Ot^iiii ULjI' *^^ fourth king of the IVth dynasty, about 
B.C. 3633, who called it <^-^ ^^, Her. Herodotus and other 
ancient authors tell us that Men-kau-Ra, or Mycerinus, was Pyramid 
buried in this pyramid, but Manetho states that Nitocris, a cerinus. 
queen of the Vlth dynasty, was the builder. There can be, 
however, but little doubt that it was built by Mycerinus, for 
the sarcophagus and the remains of the inscribed coffin of 
this king were found in one of its chambers by Howard Vyse 
in 1837. The sarcophagus, which measured 8 x 3 x 2^ feet, 
was lost through the wreck of the ship in which it was sent to 
England, but the venerable fragments of the coffin are 
preserved in the British Museum, and form one of the most 
valuable objects in the famous collection of that institution. 
The formula on it is one which is found upon coffins down to 
the latest period, but as the date of Mycerinus is known, it is 
possible to draw some interesting and valuable conclusions 
from the fact that it is found upon his coffin. It proves 
that as far back as 3,600 years before Christ the Egyptian 
religion was established on a firm base, that the doctrine of 
immortality was already deeply rooted in the human mind. 
The art of preserving the human body by embalming was 
also well understood and generally practised at that early 

The pyramid of Men-kau-Ra, like that of Chephren, is '^^yT^ 
built upon a rock with a sloping surface ; the inequality of cerinus. 
the surface in this case has been made level by building up 
courses of large blocks of stones. Around the lower part the 
remains of the old granite covering are visible to a depth of 
B. M. z 


from 30 to 40 feet. It is unfortunate that this pyramid has 
been so much damaged ; its injuries, however, enable the 
visitor to see exactly how it was built, and it may be 
concluded that the pyramids of Cheops and Chephren were 
built in the same manner. The length of each side at the 
base is about 350 feet, and its height is variously given as 
2IO and 215 feet. The entrance is on the north side, about 
thirteen feet above the ground, and a descending corridor 
about 104 feet long, passing through an ante-chamber, 
having a series of three granite doors, leads into one chamber 
about 44 feet long. In this chamber is a shaft which leads 
down to the granite-lined chamber about 20 feet below, 
in which were found the sarcophagus and wooden coffin 
of Mycerinus, and the remains of a human body. It is 
thought that, in spite of the body of Mycerinus being buried 
in this pyramid, it was left unfinished at the death of this 
king, and that a succeeding ruler of Egypt finished the 
pyramid and made a second chamber to hold his or her body. 
At a short distance to the east of this pyramid are the ruins 
of a temple which was probably used in connexion with the 
rites performed in honour of the dead king. In A.D. 1196 a 
deliberate and systematic attempt was made to destroy this 
pyramid by the command of the Muhammadan ruler of 
Egypt The account of the character of Mycerinus and of 
his pyramid as given by Herodotus is as follows: "They said 
that after him, Mycerinus,'. son of Cheops, reigned over 
Egypt ; that the conduct of his father was displeasing to him ; 
and that he opened the temples, and permitted the people, 
who were worn down to the last extremity, to return to their 
employments, and to sacrifices ; and that he made the most 
Pyramid j^g^ decisions of all their kings. On this account, of all the 

of My- ■" ° 

cerinus. kings that ever reigned in Egypt, they praised him most, for 
he both judged well in other respects, and moreover, when 
any man comjilained of his decision, he used to make him 
some present out of his own treasury and pacify his anger. 

This king also left a pyramid much less than that of 

his father, being on each side 20 feet short of three 
plethra ; it is quadrangular, and built half way up of 
' Bk. ii. 129, 134. 


Ethiopian stone. Some of the Grecians erroneously say that 
this pyramid is the work of the courtesan Rhodopis ; but 
they evidently appear to me ignorant who Rhodopis was ; 
for they would not else have attributed to her the building 
such a pyramid, on which, so to speak, numberless thousands 
of talents were expended ; besides, Rhodopis flourished in 
the reign of Amasis, and not at this time ; for she was very 
many years later than those kings who left these pyramids.' 
(Gary's translation.) 

In one of the three small pyramids near that of Mycerinus 
the name of this king is painted on the ceiling. 

The Pyramids of Abu Roasii. 

These pyramids lie about six miles north of the 
Pyramids of Gizeh, and are thought to be older than they. 
Nothing remains of one except five or six courses of stone, 
which show that the length of each side at the base was 
about 350 feet, and a passage about 160 feet long leading 
down to a subterranean chamber about 43 feet long. A pile 
of stones close by marks the site of another pyramid ; the 
others have disappeared. Of the age of these pyramids 
nothing certain is known. The remains of a causeway about 
a mile long leading to them are still visible. 

The Pyramids of Abusir. 

These pyramids, originally fourteen in number, were Other 
built by kings of the Vth dynasty, but only four of them are ^f^h" VA 
now standing, probably because of the poorness of the dynasty, 
workmanship and the careless way in which they were 
put together. The most northerly pyramid was built by 

( ©11^1 Sahu-Ra, the second king of the Vth 

dynasty, B.C. 3333; its actual height is about 120 feet, and 
the length of each side at the base about 220 feet. The 
blocks of stone in the sepulchral chamber are exceptionally 
large. Sahu-Ra made war in the peninsula of Sinai, he 

z 2 



founded a town near Esneh, and he built a temple to Sechet 
at Memphis. 

The pyramid to the south of that of Sahu-Ra was built 

by C.g ^iP<=>] "^ 0^3 " Usr-en-Ra, son of the 
Sun, An." This king, like Sahu-Ra, also made war in Sinai. 
The largest of these four pyramids is now about 165 feet 
high and 330 feet square ; the name of its builder is 
unknown. Abusir is the Busiris of Pliny. 

The Step Pyramid of Sakkarah. 

This pyramid is generally thought to have been built by 
the fourth king of the 1st dynasty (called Uenephes by 

Manetho, and \\\ o ^ J Ata in the tablet of Abydos), who 

is said to have built a pyramid at Kochome {i.e., Ka-Kam) 
near Sakkarah. Though the date of this pyramid is not 
known accurately, it is probably right to assume that it is 
The oldest older than the pyramids of Gizeh. The door which led into 
pyramid. ^^ pyramid was inscribed with the name of a king called 
Ra-nub, and M. Mariette found the same name on one of 
the stelae in the Serapeum. The steps of the pyramid are 
six in number, and are about 38, 36, 34^, 32, 31 and 29^ feet 
in height ; the width of each step is from six to seven feet. 
The lengths of the sides at the base are : north and south 352 
feet, east and west 396 feet, and the actual height is 197 feet. 
In shape this pyramid is oblong, and its sides do not exactly 
face the cardinal points. The arrangement of the chambers 
inside this pyramid is quite peculiar to itself. 






The Pyramid of UnAs 


better known as 

" Mastabat el-Far'un," i.e., '' Pharaoh's Mastaba," called in 
Egyptian Nefer-as-u, lies to the south-east of the Step 
Pyramid, and was reopened and cleared out in 1881 by M. 
Maspero, at the expense of Messrs. Thomas Cook and Son. 
Its original height was about 62 feet, and the length of each 
side at the base 220 feet. Owing to the broken blocks 
of sand which lie round about it, Vyse was unable to 
give exact measurements. Several attempts had been 


made to break into it, and one of the Arabs who took 
part in one of these attempts, " Ahmed the Carpenter," 
seems to have left his name inside one of the chambers in 
red ink. It is probable that he is the same man who 
opened the Great Pyramid at Gizeh, A.D. 820. A black 
basalt sarcophagus, from which the cover had been dragged 
off, an arm, a shin bone, and some ribs and fragments of 
the skull from the mummy of Unas were found in the 
sarcophagus chamber. The walls of the two largest 
chambers and two of the corridors are inscribed with ritual 
texts and prayers of a very interesting character. Unas, the 
last king of the Vth dynasty, reigned about thirty years. 
The Mastabat el-Far'un was thought by Mariette to be the 
tomb of Unas, but some scholars thought that the " blunted 
pyramid " at Dahshur was his tomb, because his name was 
written upon the top of it. 

The Pyramid of Teta C ^ f] 1 , called in Egyptian 

Tet-asu, lies to the north-east of the Step Pyramid, and was 
opened in 1881. The Arabs call it the " Prison Pyramid," 
because local tradition says that it is built near the ruins of 
the prison where Joseph the patriarch was confined. Its 
actual height is about 59 feet ; the length of its sides at the 
base is 210 feet, and the platform at the top is about 
50 feet. The arrangement of the chambers and passages 
and the plan of construction followed is almost identical 
with that of the pyramid of Unas. This pyramid was 
broken into in ancient days, and two of the walls of the 
sarcophagus chamber have literally been smashed to pieces 
by the hammer blows of those who expected to find 
treasure inside them. The inscriptions, painted in green 
upon the walls, have the same subject matter as those 
inscribed upon the walls of the chambers of the pyramid of 
Unas. According to Manetho, Teta, the first king of the 
Vlth dynasty, reigned about fifty years, and was murdered 
by one of his guards. 

The Pyramid of Pepi I., or f^ (](]1 "^ fSlf 1 " ^S- 
meri, son of the Sun, Pepi," lies to the south-east of the 


Step Pyramid, and forms one of the central group of 
pyramids at Sakkarali, where it is called the Pyramid of 
Shekh Abu Mansur; it was opened in 1880. Its actual 
height is about 40 feet, and the length of the sides at 
the base is about 250 feet ; the arrangement of the 
chambers, etc., inside is the same as in the pyramids of 
Unas and Teta, but the ornamentation is slightly different. 
It is the worst preserved of these pyramids, and has suffered 
most at the hands of the spoilers, probably because having 
been constructed with stones which were taken from tombs 
ancient already in those days, instead of stones fresh from 
the quarry, it was more easily injured. The granite 
sarcophagus was broken to take out the mummy, fragments 
of which were found lying about on the ground ; the cover 
too, smashed in pieces, lay on the ground close by. 
A small rose granite box, containing alabaster jars, was also 
found in the sarcophagus chamber. The inscriptions are, 
like those inscribed on the walls of the pyramids of Unas 
and Teta, of a religious nature ; some scholars see in them 
evidence that the pyramid was usurped by another Pepi, 
who lived at a much later period than the Vlth dynasty. 
The pyramid of Pepi I., the second king of the Vlth 
dynasty, who reigned, according to Manetho, fifty-three 
years, was called in Egyptian by the same name as Memphis, 
i.e., Men-nefer, and numerous priests were attached to its 

The Pyramids of Dahshur. 
The These pyramids, four of stone and two of brick. He about 

Pyramfd. t^''^^ ^"'^ ^ ^^'^ "''^^^ ^° *^^^ s>o\xl\y of Mastabat el-Far'un. 
The largest stone pyramid is about 326 feet high, and the 
length of each side at the base is about 700 feet ; beneath 
it are three subterranean chambers. The second stone 
pyramid is about 321 feet high, and the length of its sides 
at the base is 620 feet ; it is usually called the " Blunted 
Pyramid," because the lowest parts of its sides are built at 
one angle, and the completing parts at another. The larger 
of the two brick pyramids is about 90 feet high, and the 
length of the sides at the base is about 350 feet ; the smaller 


is about 156 feet high, and the length of its sides at the base 
is about 343 feet. 

The Pyramid of Medum. 

This pyramid, called by the Arabs El-Haram el-Kaddab, Tombs of 
or " the False Pyramid," is probably so named because it is MMdle" 
unlike any of the other pyramids known to them ; it is said y^jfj;^^, 

to have been built by Seneferu (P J^^^l, the first king '"P'^"- 

of the IVth dynasty, but there is no indisputable evidence 
that he was the builder. The pyramid is about 115 feet high, 
and consists of three stages : the first is 70, the second 20, 
and the third about 25 feet high. The stone for this building 
was brought from the Mokattam hills, but it seems never to 
have been finished ; as in all other pyramids, the entrance is 
on the north side. When opened in modern times the sarco- 
phagus chamber was found empty, and it would .seem that 
this pyramid had been entered and rifled in ancient days. 

Tombs of the- Theban Empire. 

Egyptian tombs belonging to a period subsequent to 
the mastabas and pyramids, i.e., about the Xllth dynasty, 
usually have the three characteristic parts of these forms 
of tomb, viz., the chapel, the passage to the sarcophagus 
chamber, and the sarcophagus chamber itself excavated in 
the solid rock ; sometimes, however, the chapel or chamber 
in which the relatives of the deceased assembled from time to 
time, is above ground and separate from the tomb, as in the 
case of the pyramid. Tombs having the chapel separate 
are the oldest, and the best examples are found at Abydos.-* 
On a brick base about 50 feet by 35 feet, and four or five feet 
high, rose a pyramid to a height of about 30 feet; theo- 
retically such a tomb was supposed to consist of chapel, 

' Abydos ^tant surtout une necropole du Moyen Empire, c'est la petite 
pyramide qui y domine. Des centaines de ces monuments, disposes sans ordre, 
herissaient la necropole et devaient lui donner un aspect pittoresque bien different 
de I'aspect des necropoles d'un autre temps. Mariette, Abydos, torn. II. Paris, 
1880, p. 39. 



Tombs at 


Tombs at 



Tombs at 

passage and pit, but at Abydos, owing to the friable nature of 
the rock, these do not exist, and the mummy was laid either 
in the ground between the foundations, or in the masonry 
itself, or in a chamber which projected from the building and 
formed a part of it, or in a chamber beneath. This class of 
tomb is common both at Thebes and Abydos. Tombs hewn 
entirely out of the solid rock were used at all periods, and the 
best examples of these are found in the mountains behind 
Asyut, at Beni-Hasan, at Thebes, and at Aswan. The tombs 
at Beni-Hasan are about fifteen in number, and they all 
belong to the Xllth dynasty ; they have preserved the chief 
characteristics of the mastabas at Sakkirah, that is to say, 
they consist of a chamber and a shaft leading down to a 
corridor, which ends in the chamber containing the sarco- 
phagus and the mummy. The tombs rise tier above tier, and 
follow the course of the best layers of stone ; the most 
important here are those of Ameni and Chnemu-hetep, 
which are remarkable for possessing columns somewhat 
resembling those subsequently called Doric, hewn out of the 
solid rock. The columns inside the tomb have sixteen sides. 
The bold headland which rises up in the low range of 
hills which faces the whole of the island of Elephantine, just 
opposite to the modern town of Asw5.n, has been found to be 
literally honeycombed with tombs, tier above tier, of various 
epochs. In ancient days there was down at the water's edge 
a massive stone quay, from which a broad, fine double stair- 
case, cut in the living rock, ascended to a layer of firm rock 
about 1 50 feet higher. At Thebes and at Beni-Hasan, where 
such staircases rriust have existed, they have been destroyed, 
and only the traces remain to show that they ever existed. 
At Aswan it is quite different, for the whole of this remark- 
able staircase is intact. It begins at the bottom of the slope, 
well above the highest point reached by the waters of the 
Nile during the inundation, and following the outward curve 
of the hill, ends in a platform in front of the highest tombs. 
Between each set of steps which form the staircase is a smooth 
slope, up which the coffins and sarcophagi were drawn to the 
tomb by the men who walked up the steps at each side. At 
the bottom of the staircase the steps are only a few inches 


deep, but towards the top they are more than a foot. On 
each side of the staircase is a wall which appears to be of 
later date than the staircase itself, and about one-third of the 
way up there is a break in each wall, which appears to be a 
specially constructed opening leading to passages on the right 
and left respectively. The walls probably do not belong to 
the period of the uppermost tier of tombs, and appear to 
have been made during the rule of the Greeks or Romans. 
In the hill of the tombs at Aswan there are three distinct Tombs of 
layers of stone which have been chosen by the ancient dynasty at 
Egyptians for the purpose of excavating tombs. The finest •'^w^n. 
and thickest layer is at the top, and this was chosen princi- 
pally by the architects of the Vlth dynasty for the sepulchres 
of the governors of Elephantine. The tombs here belong to 
the Vlth and Xllth dynasties, and of the former period the 
most interesting is that of Sabben, which is situated at the 
top of the staircase. Sabben was an official who lived in the 

time of Pepi II., whose cartouche ( O I Lf ] Nefer-ka-Ra is 

found on the right hand side of the doorway. The entrance 
to this tomb is made through a rectangular opening, in which 
is a small doorway about one-third of the height of the open- 
ing, that is to say through a door within a door. The walls 
inside were covered with a thin layer of plaster, and upon them 
were painted scenes in the life of the man who was buried 
there. Of the Xllth dynasty tombs, the most interesting Tombs of 
is that of Se-renput, in the front of which there originally dyn^ty''at 
stood a portico. The scarped rock was ornamented with Aswan. 
inscriptions, rows of cattle, etc., etc., and passing through the 
doorway, a chamber or chapel having four rectangular pillars 
was reached. A passage, in the sides of which were niches 
having figures in them, leads to a beautifully painted shrine 
in which was a black granite seated figure of the deceased ; 
thus the serdSb and the stele of the mastaba became united. 
On the right hand side was a tunnel, which, winding as it 
descended, led to the sarcophagus chamber which was 
situated exactly under the shrine containing the figure of the 
deceased. Se-renput lived in the time of Usertsen I., and 
was an officer in the service of this king when he marched 



Tombs of 

the Xllth 




similar in 



into Ethiopia ; thus the date of the tomb is well known.* 
Like the tombs of the Vlth dynasty the walls inside were 
covered with a layer of plaster upon which scenes and inscrip- 
tions were painted. 

During the XVIIIth dynasty tombs on the plan of the 
rock-hewn tombs of the XHth dynasty were commonly built, 
but the inscriptions, which in ancient days were brief, now 
become very long, and the whole tomb is filled with beauti- 
fully painted scenes representing every art and trade, every 
agricultural labour, and every event in the life of the 
deceased. The biography of the deceased is given at great 
length; if a soldier, the military expeditions in which he took 
part are carefully depicted, and appropriate hieroglyphic 
descriptions are appended ; the tribute brought to the king 
from the various countries is depicted with the most careful 
attention to the slightest detail of colour and form. The 
mummy chamber was made exactly under the chapcl,^ but 
the position of the pit which led to it varied. Under the 
XVIIIth and XlXth dynasties the tombs of kings and private 
persons possessed a size and magnificence which they never 
attained either before or since. The finest specimens of these 
periods are the famous Tombs of the Kings which are hewn 
in the living rock in the eastern and western valleys at 
Thebes; those in the latter valley belong to the XVIIIth 
dynasty, and those in the former belong to the XlXth 
dynasty. The royal tombs here consist of long inclined 
planes, with chambers at intervals, receding into the 
mountains ; according to Strabo these tombs were forty in 
number, but at the time of the death of M. Mariette, only 
about twenty-five were known. The tomb which we may 
consider to have been the model during the palmy days of 
the XVIIIth and XlXth dynasties, is that of Seti I. ; the 
walls of the staircases and chambers are covered with 
inscriptions and scenes from the "Book of being in the 

' For a full account of this tomb, see my paper in Proc. Soc. Bib. Arch., 
November, 1887, p. 33 ff. A tomb of great importance was discovered at 
Aswan in 1892 by Signer E. Schiaparelli, who published the hieroglyphic text 
with a commentary in his valuable paper Una Tomba Egiziana Inedita delta 
Via Dinasiia, Roma, 1892. 


Underworld," and their excellence and beauty is such that 
they cannot be too highly praised. Under this king, 
Egyptian funereal art seems to have been at its culminating 
point, for neither sculptor nor painter appears to have 
produced anything so fine after this date. The tomb is The tomb 
entered by means of two flights of steps, at the bottom 
of which is a passage terminating in a small chamber. 
Beyond this are two halls having four and two pillars 
respectively, and to the left are the passages and small 
chambers which lead to the large six-pillared hall and to the 
vaulted chamber in which stood the sarcophagus of Seti I. 
Here also is an inclined plane which descends into the 
mountain for a considerable distance ; from the level of the 
ground to the bottom of this incline the depth is about 
ISO feet; the length of the tomb is nearly 500 feet. The 
designs on the walls were first sketched in outline in red, 
and the alterations by the master designer or artist were 
made in black ; this tomb was never finished. Each chamber 
in this tomb has its peculiar ornamentation, and there is 
little doubt that each chamber had its peculiar furniture ; 
it is thought that many articles of furniture, pieces of 
armour, weapons, etc., etc., were broken intentionally when 
they were placed in the tomb.' Of the tombs belonging to 
the period between the XXth and the XXVIth dynasty, 
nothing need be said, for they call for no special notice ; 
in the XXVIth dynasty, however, the renaissance of Egyptian Therenais- 
art naturally showed itself in the tombs of the period, and in ^^"'^^• 
some few instances an attempt was made to reproduce tombs 
after the plan and with the elegance of those of the XlXth 
dynasty. It must be noticed that the inscriptions on the 
walls are of a funereal character, and consist usually of 
a series of chapters of the Book of the Dead. 

That the tombs described above are those of wealthy 
people goes without saying ; it now remains to refer to the 
tombs of the extremely poor. They were sometimes buried 
in the crevices of the rocks, and at other times in the 
desert, either near the great necropolis of the town or in 

' On les luait de la sorle afin que leur ame allat servir I'ame de I'homme dans 
I'autre monde. Maspero, L'Archeologie Egyptienne, p. 159. 



The tombs 
of the 


used by 

solitary places. A cave or hollow in the mountains afforded 
a place of sepulture unto many, and numerous rock caves 
exist in the mountains to the west of Thebes and other 
places, where the mass of decayed mummies and bones is 
several feet deep, and where skulls and skeletons, some with 
their skins shrivelled upon them, and others with bare 
bones, line the sides up to the ceiling. Sometimes pits were 
dug as common graves for the whole town, and sometimes 
the pit and passage of a forsaken tomb served to accom- 
modate hundreds of bodies. The absence of valuable fur- 
niture and ornaments rendered the bodies of the poor of 
no account to the pillager of tombs, and the inaccessible 
situation of the places where they were buried made it un- 
likely that they would be disturbed that others might be 
put in their places. The funereal furniture of the poor 
consisted of very little more than what they wore day by 
day, and, provided they were protected by a few amulets 
and figures of the gods in faVence to guard them against 
the attacks of evil-disposed demons, and by a scarab, the 
emblem of the resurrection and the new life, they probably 
laid down the burden of this life with as firm a hope in the 
mercy of Osiris as did the rich man in the mastaba or pyramid. 

Under the Ptolemies and the Roman Emperors the 
arrangement of the tombs changes greatly ; the outer 
chapel or chamber disappears entirely, and the character 
of everything appertaining to the service of the tomb 
shows that a great change has taken place in the religious 
views of the people, for although ancient forms and obser- 
vances are kept up, it is clear that the spirit which gave them 
life has been forgotten. 

In the early centuries of the Christian era the tombs 
in the mountains of Egypt formed dwelling-places for a 
number of monks and ascetics, and it would seem that the 
statues and other objects in them suffered at their hands. 
An instance of the use of a rock-hewn tomb by Pisentios, 
Bishop of Coptos, is made known to us by an encomium 
on this saint by his disciple John.' The tomb in which 

' For the Coptic text and a French translation, see Amelineau, Ehide siir le 
Chrislianisme en Egypte au Septiime Sikle, Paris, 1887. 


Pisentios lived was rectangular in shape, and was fifty-two 
feet wide ; it had six pillars and contained a large number of 
mummies. The coffins were very large and profusely de- 
corated, and one of the mummies was clothed in silk, and 
his fingers and toes were mummified separately ; the names 
of those buried there were written on a small parchment roll 
(ft OTXOJU.<Lpion ft XUOAX JUL. JUteJUtfi-pi-Iton). Pisentios 
conversed with one of the mummies, who begged the saint 
to pray for his forgiveness ; when Pisentios had promised 
him that Christ would have mercy upon him, the mummy 
lay down in his coffin again. 

Egyptian Writing Materials. 

The writing materials chiefly used by the ancient 
Egyptians consisted of papyrus, palette, reeds, and colours. 

The papyrus was called s= ^ k.=_ 'J' /^z^/ "^^ (] [] ^ 

kai, 0==^5> 9 ^uP" die/i, etc., and was made from the byblus 

hieraticus, or Cyperus papyrus, which grew in the marshes and 
pools near the Nile. The height of the plant was from twelve 
to fifteen feet, and the largest diameter of its triangular stalk 
was about four or six inches. The roots were used for fire- 
wood, parts of the plant were eaten, and other and coarser 
parts were made into paper, boats, ropes, mats, etc., etc. It 
will be remembered that the boat in which Isis set out to seek 
for Osiris was made of papyrus,^ and the " ark of bulrushes"^ 
in which Moses was laid was probably made of the same 
material. When it was intended to make paper from the Prepara- 
plant, the outer rind was removed, and the stalk was divided p°p °us 
with a flat needle into layers. These layers, the length of for writing 
which depended upon the width of the roll to be made, and P"''P°^^^" 
the width upon the thickness of the stalk of the plant from 
which they were taken, were then laid upon a table, side by 
side, and upon these another series of layers was laid in a 
horizontal direction, and a thin solution of gum was then run 
between them ; the two series of layers thus united were 

' Plutarch, De Iside et Osiride, Squire's translation, p. 22. 
- Exodus ii. 3. 

sions of 


pressed and afterwards dried. It is clear that by joining a 
number of such sheets of papyrus together, a roll of almost 
any length could be made. The quality of the papyrus 
depended entirely upon the class of plant used in its manu- 
facture. The colour of the papyri that have come down to 
us varies greatly, from a rich brown to a whitish-grey ; the 
texture of some is exceedingly coarse, and of others fine and 
silky. The width of papyri varies from six to seventeen 
inches, and the longest papyrus known (Harris, No. i, 
B.M. 9999) measures 135 feet in length. The finest hiero- 
glyphic papyri of the Book of the Dead are about fifteen 
inches in width, and when they contain a tolerably full 
Dimen- number of chapters, are from eighty to ninety feet long. The 
papyri upon which contracts in Greek and Demotic are 
written are of a coarse fibre, and vary from ten to fourteen 
inches in width ; their lengths vary from one to ten feet. The 
usual width of papyri employed for literary compositions 
is about eight inches. The common name for a roll of 

papyrus was J *!^ <=x^ -^ famd, Copt. 2f OJJUL, " a book." 

Papyrus letters and legal documents were fastened by being 
tied round with a piece of papyrus string, and upon this a 
piece of clay was laid, which, being impressed with a ring or 
scarab, formed a seal, called in Egyptian ^^ J Q t'ebdt. 

The British Museum possesses among its seals impressions in 
clay of the seal of Shabaka, found at Kouyunjik (see p. 249) ; 
a seal (No. S585) ascribed to Shashanq by Dr. Birch (in 
Layard, Babylon and Nineveh, London, 1853, p. 1857), which 

reads J(T)T TtTtT -ffl- : an oval seal (No. 5584) bearing 

the name of a private person and the prenomen of Amasis II. 
( oQ'0'|; and an oval seal (No. 5583), bearing the name of 
Naifaarut, the first king of the XXIXth dynasty. 

The palette of the Egyptian scribe, called "—^^ — 1 1| "■^^"^ 
mesthd, was made of basalt (B.M. No. 12,778), calcareous 
stone inlaid with lapis-lazuli (B.M. No. 24,576), and ivory 
(B.M. No. 5524), but more commonly of wood. In shape it 
was rectangular, and its size varied from 10 in. x 2 in. to 
16 in. X 2\ in. ; its thickness was usually | of an inch. At one 


end were circular, or oval, hollows to hold ink, the former 
being in the shape of Q, and the latter of a cartouche c — > . 
About a third of the length of the palette from this end 
a sloping groove was cut, which from about the middle of 
the palette to the other end had an equal depth, for 
holding the reeds for writing. These were kept in their 
place either by a piece of wood gummed into the palette 
about a third of the way above the groove, or by a piece 
of wood, forming a bridge, under which the reeds could 
pass freely, and which was left uncut when the groove 
was made. A sliding cover over the longer part of the 
groove protected the ends of the reeds from damage. The 
hollows in the palette for holding the ink are usually two 
in number, one for red ink and one for black ; these being 
the colours most commonly used for writing upon papyri. 
Some palettes have as many as a dozen hollows, and these 
probably belonged to scribes whose business it was to 
ornament papyri with scenes painted in many colours. 
The dates of palettes can often be determined with accu- 
racy because, in addition to the name of the owner, the 
name of the king in whose reign he lived is given. Thus Royal 
B.M. No. 12,784 was made in the reign of Amasis I., B.M. 5513 P^l^"^=- 
in that of Amenophis III., and B.M. 5514 in that of 
Rameses II. ; from these three examples we see that the 
form of the palette changed very little in a whole dynasty. 
The inscriptions upon palettes were usually in hieroglyphics, 
but B.M. No. 5524, made of ivory, is inscribed in hieratic, 
and B.M. No. 5517, made of wood, also has upon it an 
inscription in hieratic. The palette of a scribe was some- 
times placed in the tomb with its owner (see in the Papyrus 
of Ani, pi. 7, where it lies under the bier), and votive 
palettes are known, as for example B.M. No. 12,778. This 
object is made of green basalt, and at the end where the 
coloured inks were placed is a scene in outline in which the 
deceased is represented making an offering to Osiris, behind 
whom stand a goddess and Thoth. The places for the ink 
are outlined, but not hollowed out, and the groove is only 
cut a part of the length ; the reeds which still remain are 
fastened in with plaster, and it is perfectly clear that this 


palette was never used by a scribe. On each side is an 
inscription in hieroglyphics, which records the name and 
titles of the deceased, and which prays that appropriate 
sepulchral meals may be given to the deceased, and that 
he may enter in, and come out from the underworld, 
without repulse, whenever he pleases. Inscriptions on 
palettes are often dedications to the god Thoth, "lord of 
divine words." Stone and faience palettes with eight, ten, 
or twelve small vases for ink were also used. 

Uan^e^^' ^^^ ^^^^' '" Egyptian '^ tw qesh, Copt. KA-OJ, with 
which the Egyptian wrote, was about ten inches long, rVth 
or ^th of an inch in diameter ; the end used for writing 
was bruised to make the fibres flexible, and not cut. After 
the XXVIth dynasty an ordinary reed, similar to that 
which the Arabs and other Oriental nations use for writing 
at the present day, was employed, and the end was cut 
like a quill, or steel pen. The average sized palette will 
hold about ten writing reeds easily. 

The ink which the Egyptian used was made of mineral 
and vegetable substances, mixed with a little gum and 
water. The substance which coloured the ink, black, red, 
blue, green, white, or yellow, was carefully rubbed down 
on a rectangular slab of granite, basalt, or marble, with a 
hard stone muller, and then thrown into a vessel, where the 
necessary quantity of water and gum was added to make 
it the consistency of moderately thin cream. The profes- 
.sional scribe probably carried about with him pieces of 
colour similar to the specimens in blue, green, and red 
which are preserved in European museums, and rubbed 
down a little at a time according to his need. The green 
and blue colours are preparations from copper, which can, 
I understand, be successfully imitated at the present time ; 
fine examples are B.M. 5565, 5571 <^, and small prepared 
lumps of colour exhibited in bronze bowl, B.M. 5556. The 
red and bronze colours were preparations from red ochre 
mixed with chalk ; an interesting example of the former is 
B.M. No. 18,337, and of the latter B.M. No. 5572. 


Egyptian Writing. 

The system of writing employed by the people called Great 
Egyptians was probably entirely pictorial either at the time of'hiero'- 
when they first arrived in Egypt, or during the time that they g'yphic 
still lived in their original home. We, however, know of no 
inscription in which pictorial characters alone are used, for the 
earliest specimens of their writing known to us contain 
alphabetical characters. The Egyptians had three kinds of 
writing — Hieroglyphic, Hieratic, and Demotic ; soon after the 
preaching of Saint Mark at Alexandria, the Christian popu- 
lation made use of the Greek alphabet, with the addition of 
certain characters which they borrowed from the demotic ; 
this method of writing was called Coptic. 

Hieroglyphics, from the Greek lepoy\v(j)iK6';, were com- Oldest 
rnonly employed for inscriptions upon temples, tombs, coffins, giyphic in- 
statues, and stelse, and many copies of the Book of the Dead scription. 
were written in them. The earliest hieroglyphic inscription 
at present known is found on the monument of Shera, 
parts of which are preserved in the Ashmolean Museum at 
Oxford and in the Gizeh Museum; it dates from the Hnd 
dynasty. Hieroglyphics were used in Egypt for writing the 
names of Roman Emperors and for religious purposes until 
the third century after Christ, at least. 

Hieratic, from the Greek iepariKo'i, was a style of cursive 
writing much used by the priests in copying literary com- 
positions on papyrus ; during the Xlth or XHth dynasty 
wooden coffins were inscribed in hieratic with religious texts. 
The oldest document in hieratic is the famous Prisse papyrus, Oldest 
which records the counsels of Ptah-hetep to his son ; the com- inscti'p^ 
position itself is about a thousand years older than this t'on. 
papyrus, which was probably inscribed about the Xlth 
dynasty. Drafts of inscriptions were written upon flakes of 
calcareous stone in hieratic, and at a comparatively early date 
hieratic was used in writing copies of the Book of the Dead. 
Hieratic was used until about the fourth century after Christ. 

Demotic, from the Greek SrifioTiKO';, is a purely con- 
ventional modification of hieratic characters, which preserve 
little of their original form, and was used for social and business 
B. M. 2 A 


purposes ; in the early days of Egyptian decipherment it was 

called enchorial, from the Greek i'^x'^pios. The demotic 

writing appears to have come into use about B.C. 900, and 

The it survived until about the fourth century after Christ. In 

kinds of ^^^ time of the Ptolemies three kinds of writing were inscribed 

writing side by side upon documents of public importance, hiero- 

Egypt. glyp'^''^> Greek, and Demotic ; examples are the stele of 

Canopus, set up in the ninth year of the reign of Ptolemy III. 

Euergetes I., B.C. 247-222, at Canopus, to record the benefits 

which this king had conferred upon his country, and the 

famous Rosetta Stone, set up at Rosetta in the eighth year of 

the reign of Ptolemy V. Epiphanes (B.C. 205-182), likewise 

to commemorate the benefits conferred upon Egypt by 

himself and his family, etc., etc. On the Rosetta Stone 

hieroglyphic writing is called a|l]'wwv^ li nd en neter met, 
"writing of divine words," Demotic, Sr >/ W ^""^ 

na en sdi, " writing of letters," and Greek R 1 00 ""^^^ W ^ 
yf ' sexaien Haui-nebu, " writing of the Greeks." 
A century or two after the Christian era Greek had 
obtained such a hold upon the inhabitants of Egypt, that 
the native Christian population, the disciples and followers 
of Saint Mark, were obliged to use the Greek alphabet to 
write down the Egyptian, that is to say Coptic, translation 
of the books of the Old and New Testaments, but they 
borrowed six signs from the demotic forms of ancient 
Egyptian characters to express the sounds which they found 
unrepresented in Greek. These signs are — 

eg = Mil SH ; q = 

^ = I CH ; 2, = 

X = i TCH, like Turk. .:- ; (3^ = 



Coptic The knowledge of the ancient hieroglyphics was fast dying 

^"""S- oy(-_ and the phonetic values of many of those in use at this 

period were altered. The name Copt is derived from kxi, 

the Arabic form of the Coptic form of the Greek name for 


Egyptian, Alyinmo'; . The Coptic language is, at base, a 
dialect of ancient Egyptian ; many of the nouns and verbs 
found in the hieroglyphic texts remain unchanged in 
Coptic, and a large number of others can, by making 
proper allowance for phonetic decay and dialectic differences, 
be identified without difficulty. 

The Coptic dialect of Upper Egypt, called " Sahidic " Dialects of 


(from Arab, jo*.^), or Theban, was the older and richer 
dialect ; that of Lower Egypt was called Boheiric, from the 
province of Boheira in the Delta. The latter dialect has 
been wrongly called Bashmuric, and as it appears to have 
been exclusively the language of Memphis, it has obtained 
generally the name " Memphitic " ; the dialect of Bushmur 
on the Lake of Menzaleh appears to have become extinct 
about A.D. 900, and to have left no traces of itself behind. 
The Coptic translation of the Bible was considered by 
Renaudet, Wilkins, Woide, and George, to be as old as the 
second century of our era ; more modern scholars, however, 
are inclined to assert that it is not older than the eighth 
century. For an account of the revival of Coptic studies in 
Europe, see Quatreniere, Recherches Critiques et Historiques 
sur la Langue et la Litterature de I'Egypte, Paris, 1808, and 
for a list of the printed literature of the Copts, see Stern, 
Koptische Grammatik, pp. 441-447. The recognition of the 
fact that a knowledge of Coptic is most valuable as a pre- 
liminary to the study of hieroglyphics, probably accounts for 
the large and increasing share of the attention of scholars 
which this language receives. 

Mummies of Animals, Reptiles, Birds, 
AND Fishes. 

The most common of the animals, reptiles, birds, and 
fishes which the Egyptians regarded as emblems of or sacred 
to the gods, and therefore mummified with great reverence 
and care, were : — Bull, Antelope, Jackal, Hippopotamus, Cat, 
Monkey or Ape, Crocodile, Ichneumon, Hedgehog, Shrew- 
mouse, Ibis, Hawk, Frog, Toad, Scorpion, Beetle, Snake, and 
the Latus, Oxyrhynchus and Silurus fishes. 

2 A 2 


Apis Bull, in Egyptian « ^ ^3 Hdp, mummies are 

tolerably common ; they were mummified with great honour, 
and buried in sarcophagi at Sakkirah. The oldest are pro- 
bably those of the XVIIIth dynasty. 

Antelope, in Egyptian S "^^ | P ^ kahes or 1^ "^K^ 
T ^--j mahet', mummies are rare ; a good specimen is 
B.M. No. 6783a. 

Cat, in Egyptian yi] ^^ 1^ tndu, mummies are very 

common, and exhibit many methods of bandaging with linen 

of two colours ; they were placed in bronze or wooden cases, 

made in the form of a cat, the eyes of which were inlaid with 

obsidian, rock-crystal, or coloured paste. Wooden cat-cases 

often stand on pedestals, and are painted white, green, etc. 

Mummified kittens were placed in rectangular bronze or 

wooden cases, which, at times, are surmounted with figures 

Greek of cats. Diodorus says (I., 83) that when a cat died all the 

conrernine inmates of the house shaved their eyebrows as a sign of 

the cat. mourning, and although the statement by the same writer 

that the Egyptians slew a Roman who had accidentally 

killed a cat may be somewhat exaggerated, there is no doubt 

that the animal sacred to Bast was treated with great 

respect in Egypt, and that dead bodies of the animals 

were sent to be buried, after embalmment, to Bubastis. The 

cat was fed with specially prepared bread soaked in milk, 

and chopped fish. 

Mutnmies Cfocodile, in Egyptian ^ P ^ | "^^ enisuh, mummies 

etc. of a large size are not common ; small crocodiles, lizards, 

and other members of that family were embalmed and 

placed in rectangular bronze or wooden cases, the tops of 

which were frequently surmounted by a figure of this reptile 

in relief 

Ichneumon mummies were placed in bronze cases, made 
in the shape of this animal. 

Shrew-mice mummies are not common ; they were placed 
in rectangular bronze cases, surmounted by a figure of this 


Ibis, in Egyptian [[] "^^^ J Y^ -^ Aadu, mummies, 

embalmed, and buried in earthenware jars, stopped with 
plaster, are very common. 

The Hawk, in Egyptian ] (] ■ci^ ^^ idk, when mum- 
mified, was placed either in a rectangular bronze case or in a 
bronze case in the form of a hawk. 

Frogs, in Egyptian | ^ ^ Aeget, and Toads, when em- 
balmed, were placed in cases made of bronze or steatite. 

Scorpion, in Egyptian l*^~^3^ Ser^, mummies are 
very rare ; they were placed in rectangular cases, inscribed 
with the name of Isis-Serq, which were surmounted by 
figures of the scorpion, with the head of a woman wearing 
disk and horns (B.M. No. 11,629). 

Beetle, in Egyptian m O or O ^^ X^P^^^ 

rarely a. *. {m abeb, mummies were deposited in cases of 

wood (B.M. No. 86543; or stone (B.M. No. 2880). 

Snake mummies are very common, and were either Mummies 
placed in rectangular bronze or wooden cases, or wrapped \^f^^ ' ^^' 
in many bandages and laid in pits. Bronze snake-cases 
usually have a figure of the snake coiled up in relief upon 
them, but sometimes the head, which is human and erect, 
wears the double crown and urseus (B.M. No 6881 f); one 
example having the head of a hawk is also known (B.M. 
No. 6879). The urseus serpent, in Egyptian «=r>1|UJ_ 

Arart, was the most commonly mummified. 

Fish were mummified largely, and were either placed 
singly in cases of bronze or wood, or several were bandaged 
up in a bundle and laid in a pit prepared for the purpose. 
Many fish were known to the Egyptians, and the commoner 

sorts were H X^ dnnu = i^dypo';, QV^ ^^ \^ dia, 

o ^ 6efu ; the usual name for fish in general was 


rem. The tt J c^ ^ \^ abtu and the 

/ were 
the boat of the Sun. 

'"^^^ ^"^ '^'^i were mythological fishes which accompanied 


These curious and interesting objects are made of basalt 
and other kinds of hard stone, and calcareous stone ; they 
are in the shape of a rounded tablet, and vary in size 
from 3 in. X 2 in., to 20 in. x \6 in.; the Metternich stele is, 
however, very much larger. The scenes engraved upon them 
represent the triumph of light over darkness, the victory of 
good over evil, and cippi were used as talismans by those 
who were initiated into the mysteries of magic, to guard 
them from the attacks of noxious beasts, and from the 
baneful influence of Set, the god of all evil. To give an 
idea of these magical objects, a description of an example, 
in a good state of preservation, now in the British Museum 
(No. 9S7<2) is here appended.' On the front, in relief, 
is a figure of Horus, naked, standing upon two croco- 
diles, which are supported by a projecting ledge at the 
foot of the stele. Horus has the lock of hair, emblematic of 
youth, on the right side of his head, and above him, resting 
on the top of his head, is a head of Bes, also in relief His 
arms hang at a little distance from his sides ; in the right 
hand he holds two serpents, a scorpion, and a ram or stag, 
Scenes on and in the left two serpents, a scorpion, and a lion. On the 
Horas"^" right is a sceptre, upon which stands the hawk of Horus 
wearing horns, disk and feathers,^ and on the left is a lotus- 
headed sceptre with plumes and two mendts^ (see p. 265). 
To the right and to the left of the god, outside the sceptres, 
are eight divisions ; those on the right represent : — 

I. Oryx, with a hawk on his back, in front is inscribed 

, " Horus, lord of Hebennu," i.e., the metro- 
polis of the sixteenth nome of Upper Egypt. 

' A faulty copy is given in Wilkinson, The Ancient Egy/itums, Vol. IIL, 

' The inscription reads "^^^i" 1 A , " Behutet, great god." 

The inscription reads, 




2. Ibis-headed god, Thoth, -c:^ E E ^c::^ "^ |^ , "lord of 
Chemennu, lord of divine words,'' and the god Her-shef 
<3> 1 ^^ , hawk-headed, wearing the triple crown ^^K- 

3. " Heka, lord of enchantments," -^ ^^^37 8 U, hawk- 

ey AMI 

headed, holding a serpent in each hand ; " Neith, mighty lady, 

divine mother, lady of Sais" Q ''fe=' ^^ | ^^37—'^'^.®. 

4. Hawk-headed god, mummified, wearing disk and hold- 
ing a serpent in each hand ; the inscription is ® 1 ^ ^~^ 
1 ,^ " Chensu, lord of Sam-behutet." 

5. Isis, n '■^. o, with the body of a hippopotamus, 

holding a snake ; on her head she wears a disk and horns. 

6. Ptah, in the form of a squat child standing on a 

pedestal with four or five steps; the inscription is Q TO v-^<i'ff'0. 
Ptah ser aa, '' Ptah, prince, mighty " 

7. The goddess Serqet, scorpion-headed, holding a serpent 

with both hands; the inscription is I ^^Z^-j- "Serqet, 

lady of life." 

8. Goddess, wearing disk and serpent, ?0, on her head. Scenes on 
standing between two serpents; the inscription reads ^^ZZ^ ^^ H^rus"^ 
" Nebt hetep." 

The eight scenes on the left hand side of Horus repre- 
sent : — 

1. Goddess, having a disk and two scorpions on her head, 
which is in the form of two serpents' heads, standing on a 
crocodile ; she holds a serpent in her right hand, and a 
serpent and a scorpion in the left ; on the crocodile's head is 
a bird. The inscription reads, "^=» ^0^ ''— | '^^^^ ^ ^ I q. 

2. Crocodile, with disk and horns, on a stand ; behind it 
a serpent Usert, "^ (^- The inscription reads, j | ^^ " great 

god " 

3. Isis suckling Horus among papyrus plants, under a 
canopy formed by two serpents, called Nechebet -L J fS 
and Uatchet || r-. , wearing the crown of Upper and Lower 


Egypt respectively ; under each serpent is a scorpion. The 
inscription reads jj ^ ^r::^® Jm]/ , " Isis, lady of Cheb." 

4. Crocodile-headed god Sebek 1 jK^:;^ seated. This 
scene is rendered incomplete by a break in the cippus. 

5. Hawk-headed god wearing the crown of Lower Egypt, 

and holding a serpent in his hands ; he is called ^.^ j1^ 
ni/ww>Ar| , "Horus, son of Osiris, born of Isis." 

6. Hawk of Horus ^v, wearing horns and plumes 

standing on pss^ ; behind him is Q sen, and a goddess, 
wearing disk and horns, and having the body of a scorpion, 

called « Isis-Serqet " JI^P'^^- 

7. Horus, in the form of a boy, holding /\ over his left 
shoulder, seated on a crocodile, under a canopy formed by two 

serpents ; the inscription reads, ^v^ ^ I 11 I fr^S^'^t- 

8. The goddess Uatchet |~^^, wearing crown of Lower 

Egypt, on a papyrus sceptre ; behind her Hu » ■ and Sau 

^mA , each holding a knife. 

Above the two crocodiles on which Horus stands are two 
small scenes in each of which is a crocodile, one being on a 
stand ; that to the right of Horus has on his head .S^ and 

that on the left 4M ; the former is called iT^ *l=— , 

"Hidden is his name," and the latter VCHrts^' "Horus 
in Uu." 

The inscription, which covers the front and base of the 
pedestal and back and sides of the cippus, contains an 
invocation to the god from whom the person for whom it 
was made seeks to gain power. 
Late date Cippi of Horus belong probably to the period which 

no"us^' "^ followed soon after the end of the rule of the XXVIth 
dynasty over Egypt, and the inscriptions on them are badly 
executed. They are generally found broken in half, or if 
not broken, the head of Horus has been hammered to deface 
the features ; these injuries probably date from ancient times. 


The largest and finest specimen of the cippi of Horus is The Met- 
that preserved in the Museum of Metternich Castle at Konigs- '""'<=*» 
warth in Bohemia. It was found in the beginning of this 
century at Alexandria during the building of a fountain in a 
Franciscan convent there, and was given to Prince Metternich 
by Muhammad 'Ali in 1828. It is made of a hard, dark- 
green stone upon which the figures of the gods and the 
inscriptions are finely and beautifully cut. The inscriptions 
have much in common with the magical texts inscribed upon 
papyri in London, Turin, and Paris, and are of great interest ; 
this stele was made for Nectanebus I., about B.C. 370. A 
fac-simile of the stele and the text was published with a 
German translation and notes by W. Golemscheff, Die Mt^tter- 
nichstele .... zum ersten Mai herausgegeben, Leipzig, 1877. 
A long article is devoted to the consideration of the cippi of 
Horus by Lanzone, Z^2>/w2«rz^, pp. 583-594; and see Birch 
in Arundale and Bonomi, Gallery of Antiquities, p. 39 ff. 

The Egyptian Year. ^ 

The ancient Egyptians had : — I. The vague, or civil year, 
which consisted of 360 days ; it was divided into twelve 
months of thirty days each, and five intercalary days ' were 
added at the end. II. The Sothic year of 365:^ days. The 
first year of a Sothic period began with the rising of Sirius 
or the dog-star, on the ist of the month Thoth, when it 
coincided with the beginning of the inundation. III. The 
solar year, which was practically the same as the civil year, 
and which was a quarter of a day shorter than the Sothic 
year, an error which corrected itself in 1460 fixed years or 
1461 vague years. The true year was estimated approxi- 
mately by the conjunction of the sun with Sirius. Dr. Brugsch 

' The whole subject of the origin of the Egyptian year has recently been 
discussed with excellent results in Nature, Vol. XLV., 1892, p. 4S7, by Prof. N. 
Lockyer ; and Vol. XLVI., p. 1 04 ff. 

■2 Called in Egyptian i',', i,, p nj | |, "five days over the year." The 
first was called the " birth of Osiris," the second " the birth of Horus," the third 
"the birth of Set," the fourth "the birth of Isis," and the fifth the "birth of 
Nephthys." The Greeks called these days, eirayoiiivat ruifpcii irevri, and the 
Copts ItI^..S-OT" ItKOTXI, " the little month." 


thinks {Egypt Jinder the Pharaohs, Vol. II., p. 17) that as 
early as B.C. 2500 four different forms of the year were 
already in use, and that the " little year " corresponded with 
the lunar year, and the " great year " with a lunar year 
having intercalated days.^ The divisions of time of the 

Egyptians were „ ant, " one-sixtieth of a second," 

Q hat, "second," H^ at, "minute," '^=' unnut, 
"hour," O hru, "day," /-^ abet, "month," f^ renpit, 
"y^^'"'" ffi ^^^' "period of thirty years," ^^ hen, 
"period," ^ heh, "millions of years," |o| heh, and 
^^ t'etta, " immeasurable time,'' or " eternity." The 
Egyptian week consisted of ten days (1 . 

' See Lepsius, Die Chronologie der Aegypter, p. 147 ff. 









O O 














=1 '^= -^-^ 

1 ^ s^ 






"3 ;5 
;^ o 









o 3 


















■Q" >Q" £ 





2 ?; 

(- (= (^ (i (- (= (^ (^ (- (= i- (i 

uou'epunui jo 

•guiMOd JO Suia\oj3 jo 'qjjoj 3uimo3 

uoseas sqi jo t-i sqiuoj\[ jo uosBss a^j jo ^--i sqiuoi^ 

< s ^> I— > 












Egyptian and Coptic Numbers. 






7 lllllll 



lo n 

15 nmii 

20 nn 

30 nnn 

4'' nnnn 

50 nnnnn 

^° nnn 


ma ' 

I ua (fem. a aa/) 

— Q ca I 

Masculine. Feminine 

cj)i.cgi, xoc, (Too 

i'=a III 


Ml xemennu 

paut and — »— m /i?j/ 

f=^ met 

met tua 





1"^^^^ Q 



A. onri.1 ' 

S cnA-nr 

v cyOJULT 


e 'for 

H cyjULHIt 



le Ju.eT'f oTf 


it TeoTi 

I ce 









' See Eisenlohr, Ein mathematisches Handhuch der alien Aegypler, Leipzig, 1877, 
p. 15 IT. 

' For the variants see Stern, Koptische Grammalik, p. 131 ff. 











sefex o cy^e 


nnnn n 
nnn - |' 

nnnn n 
nnnn = |' 


© =. 

I (J IJ x^'nennui 





1 =i»Jl' 


^^ = 

q iticTeoTfi 

P ae 

c' cmjx ft eye 

I oKi. 


"^^i. hefennu p^. Oje H. OJO 


^.^. OJO n ego 

' T = 3oo, V = 4oo, c^ = 5oo, ^=600, 1^ = 700 (JD = 8oo, "^ = 


A List of the Commonest Hieroglyphic Signs and 
THEIR Phonetic Values.' 


a i;. an (gi: 

at ^^^ at 


ab ^,^,'0 

aa u-°^ , ( 1 



af e, 9 


ausar -£r3- 

auset ij 




amen u'M^ 




















• This list does not contain the values assigned to certain of the hieroglyphics 
in the Greek and Roman periods. 




3u ^.l;a. ^'"l' ^> 

aba Q^ 

' fl ' 


am j^i::^ 


. ^. ■^. 

I — ^^> 

anx ■¥■ 

ar >,-ga>,/\ 



at 5C< 


1 MM, W la r?si 

^ J 

ba "^.Ja^ 

ba ^,<^ 



belj ^=, F=^ 



beha y 
behutet ' 
bex ^ 

beti S 



B — continued. 

beq j[,J, 











n,"^, '^ 



pex IC 

pest H 

pes IC 






U (3, 

ua f] 

uas *! 

uat £^2 



ua Q::S>-' 


fent 63 


uu X 

un A 




usex I^.O 



uteb ^ 

u^es i^ 

\i— continued. 

uten ,iU^ , , — e 

ut'eb ^\K 










ma Q 0, JZi 0, r==a) 

nia,U f\A/^f\r^ 

mak y._i) 
men if, 

,. ti^^, 

meni 5 I 


\. m, 

'-'--Si, ^S 

mat a 

mes ^, I 
mesen 3 , taifca 
met r=Ti) , 


nu O 
B. M. 



nub ^%S^ 
nef il_l 

2 B 


ml 1- J 


nem « , i > \l ' 





neh [p 


nehem ^ 

nexeb _L 

N — continued. 

next ^,^^ 


., _£ai 







It ) 











net' em j 




r © 


rer ^^ 

rex .^ 

res ll ' f ' i 

ret i,o4,e,^ 


h ra 1^^ "I heb ^ 





ha ^,eee'^=^ ^^^ t 


H — continued. 




hra <^ 



^^^ S'-ffl 



hes 5,^ 



heseb Q 



hesep -H+4- 



het r 




'-■ 1.^ 



hetep ,_i2_, , @ 


n -n 

hetem r 


X or 

heter ^>.^ 
heka ,r-^ 




xeper O 



xepes tf^^ 



xem "^^S,! -='°^ 



xemt (^, £1, ;^ 


i^ -i 

x» ft.^^.^s! 







xnem Q 


xent S,(i,^, 




xer ^,ffl.| 

2 B 2 






or CH- 




xet s.^, /\, / , 



xut cQd 






^' ^' S' 

seb ~Tr , 'k 

sab -^ 

sebt A 

sebex ■=[] 

sebek 'S3=' 

sper /^-x 

sept -— -, A 

su ^, X 

sua 5r^' 



-c. 1.^=3 


sent ^^ 

ser f|,^.|^>l5?'S 

serq gi|^ 

sah j^,Q. 

seher h^ 
sexem y, H 

se^ X, ^^ 

se^ep ^".^igiJ.c^ 

seset ■*=^ 

seseta ^^, X 

sta — (p— 




set [yx£], ,f_»_ P^, 

S — continued. 

set'eb I 



setep sy — ^ 
setem, set'em >4- 
sek \ 
seq J, -s^, CS\ 




^em t^i] 

Werner -«-~^ 

sen _2as,Q,^,Q 



t o 

ta =^ 







tef ^ 

tem ■^J2=ir 

ter B 

tra I 

teh 2^ 





tex €=. 


T — continued. 

texen 1 tut 

e or TH. 






ta A—fl. A 

tu (ir3 

tua ■^, 


teben :=^ j ^=^ 

tep '^, @ 

tebh ^.YY 


A , < 










^ n 

^' t^ 

iev y, 





t'a 1 

t'eba I 

t'ef % 

t'er B 


T or TCH. 

t'aut -^ 

t'es \^ 

t'eser ^ 

t'etta t ^S) 

t'at'a 1—1—' 



ka U, f=S), '5^ kep a<=^, <;S=i, 

kat 1^, \144. katu 




qenbet [j— ' 



qens cj=o 



qent ^ 



qer i — ■ 


\ / 

qers t==^, J 



qes ^ , S , "^ 

qet j, 


O ka t=aifc=i keb ^^^ ker 

A List of the Commonest Determinatives. 


Character. Determinative of. 

to cry, to call 

' to address, to 

to exalt, to rejoice 
to turn back 

to dance 



Character. Determinative of. 

to skip 

to bow down 

f to make an agree- 
l ment 

I form, image, 
mummy, to 


majesty, dignity 
old age 




Character. Determinative of. 

to beat, to strike 






to plough 

to make an offer- 

to sow 

to bear, to carry 


to build 
to support 
to pierce 

to run 

fto pour out a 
1. libation 


fto eat, to think, 
I to speak 

inertness, to rest 

rto hide, be 
\ hidden 



Determinative of. 
millions of years 
to write 
dead body 
overthrow, defeat 


rchild, youth, 
1. growth 

king, prince 

(•ancestor, the 
1^ blessed dead 










Heru (Horus) 

Anpu (Anubis) 


Hapi (Nile) 





Delerminative of. 

Tehuti (Thoth) 

> woman, goddess 

Auset (Isis) 

1 (Nephthys) 
1 (Hathor) 









to suckle 

to dandle 

head, chief, best 

fhead-dress, skin, 
t colour, grief 
[to see, to watch, 
[ to sleep 





Determinative of. 

[eye painted with 
1 kohl 

to weep, to grieve 

eye of Horus 

feyes of Sun and 
I Moon 

ear, to listen 

fnose, to smell, 
I joy 




back-bone, to cut 


to embrace 

fto prohibit, ne- 
I gatioii, want, 
I need 

battle, to fight 

Cto seize, to beat, 
L to strike 

to write, paint 

to make an offer- 
ing, or gift 








Determinative of. 
to grasp 

[phallus, the front 
l of, male 


fto walk, stand, 
I to enter 
fto turn back, to 
1 return 

leg, foot, to run 

foot and leg 

to break into 





the front 

( behind, power, 
(. to arrive at 
\ to eat 
j horn, to resist, 
(. to attack 
fto taste, to eat, 
I to speak 
ftalon, to seize, 
\ to carry off 

skin, animal 



Determinative of. 

to shoot 

fflesh and bone, 
I. heir, offspring 

ly { 

tail, end 

all actions attri- 
buted to Set 

birds, to fly 

to hover, to stop 

fsmall size, 
l wickedness 

wing, to fly 

Jegg, feminine 
I. gender 


{crocodile, de- 


goddess, urasus 

• flower 

[sweetness, plea- 
1 sure 
[year, time, 
(. growth 















I I, ffiHD 


Determinative of. 

wheat, barley, eU. 

[store house, 
I granary 



night, darkness 

rain, storm, 

sun, time 

light, brilliance 

star, god 
earth, land 


foreign land, 
foreign people 

island, sea-coast 

nome, district 


road, to travel 





Determinative of. 

J water, river, to 
I wash 








a collection of 

lake, basin of 



to overturn 

a fortified place 






to establish 


door, to open 
a bolt 
funereal coffer 











Determinative of. 

boat of Seker 

fto sail up the 
I river 

wind, breath 
to steer 


f bier, dead per- 
1 son, mummy 


to bandage 

seat, throne 

! funereal box, 
tomb, sarco- 



altar, table 

crown and head- 
■ / dress 







=o=,4> ^ 


Determinative of. 

ciown and head- 

buckle, tie 
tongue, to taste 

to seal 

fto arrive, foreign 
I people 

to cut, to wound 

f block and 
I hatchet 




to plough 

fcord, to bandage, 
1 to wrap 

{book, to write, 
to read, know-, 

oil, perfume 
oil, perfume, wine 





,.n ^^o-^'D 



Determinative of. 


{the heart, in- 

fire, to burn 
pouring out 

, J. cake, bread 

scribe, writing 





IC> u. 




Determinative of. 

ture, account, 
thought, ab- 
stract idea 


to repeat 


half, to divide 

[death, wicked- 
l ness 


fto stink, to em- 
(. balm 


I a cutting tool, to 
make to shine, 


The principal references are indicated by blacker-faced type. 

Aah-hetep 29 
Aahmes, see Ainasis 
Aahmes the naval oiEcer 29, 30, 220 
Aamn 17, 18, 21, 230 
Aamu-kehak 29 
Aaua, pillow of 211 
Aauput 50 
'Abd el- Aziz 251 
'Abd el-Latif 174, 183 
Aboccis 44 
Absha 21, 230 
Abu Habbah 250 
Abukir G8 

Abu Mansur, Pyramid of 342 
Abu Roash 330, 339 
Abu Simbel 40, 44 
Abusir 330, 339 

Abydos 9, Tablet of 9, 10, 17, 24, 
39, 56, 71, 157, 168, 211, 230, 340 
Abydos, Tombs at 343 
Accadians 7, 26 
Acliaeans 45 
Achoris 62 

Acropolis at Kamiros 249 
Adikran 58 
Adrammelech 54 
AeUan 232, 233 

Aelius Gallus 66, 112 

Aelius Lampridius 187 

Africa 39, 57 

Agesilaus 63, 64 

Ahmed 341 

Ahrens quoted 255 

Ai 37 

AiyvTiTos, derivation of 11 

Akati 33 

Akauasha 45 

Akerblad 109, 126, 132—138, 140, 

Akhmim 191, 192, 217, 193 
Akita 44 

Alabastronpolis 37 
Alexander the Great 64, 65, 183, 

Alexandria 68, 108, 113 
Alexandrian Library 66 
Alisphragmuthosis 27, 28 
Altekeh 53 
Amada 22 
Amamu 204, 307 
Amasis I. 29, 32, 220, 230, 351 

„ II. 58, 59, 350 
Amasis the naval officer 220 
Ambrose 187, 233 



Ameilhon 110 
Amelineau 187 

Amen 39, 49, 65, 158, 220, 221, 251 
Amenartas 230 
Amen-em-hat I. 19 
„ " II. 21 

III. 22 

IV. 23 
Amentetep, see Amenophis 
Atneni 344 

Ameni Amen-em-hat 21 

A men-em-apt 222 

Amen-mes 45 

Amenophis I. 29, 32 
II. 33, 230 
„ III. 34—36, scarabs of 

34, 37, 39, 43, 191, 
227, 246,248,251, 
303, 351 
IV. 36, 37, 44, 220 

Amen-Ra 19, 28, 29, 31, 34, 36, 37, 
157, 171, 246, 267,268,269 illus- 

A men-rut (Amyrtaeus) 61 

Amen-set 219 

Amenta 313 

Amenti 209 

Ames, see Amsu 270 

Ammianus Marcellinus 3, 118, 119 

Amnis Trajanus 67 

'Amr ibn el 'Asi 68 

Amset, see Mestha 195 

Amsu 71, 269 illustration, 270, 363 

Amulets 256 

Amyrtaeus 61, 62 

An 15 

An-antef 207, 307 

Anastasius 68 

Anch-nes-Ameu 227 

Anch-nes-nefer-ab-Ra 59, 313 

An-her 75, 285, 286 illustration 

Ani, papyrus of 207, 351 

Ani the scribe 157 

Animals sacred to the gods 297 — 301 

Animals mummied 355 

Anpu, see Anubis 

Anqet 283, 285 illustration 

Antef Kings 18 
„ III. 224 

Antef, stele of, illustration 219 

Antelope 356 

Antoninus 246 

Antony the Gi-eat 66, 189 

Anubis 73, 158, 164, 165, 165, 170, 
186, 189, 216, 221, 279, 280 illus- 
tration, 313 

Apachnas 25 

Apapus 26 

Apepa I. 26 
„ II. 26, 28 

Apepi 271, 313 

Aphroditopolis 8, 71, 73 

Apion 9, 26 

Apis Bull 11, 51, 60, 65, 281 illus- 
tration, 282 

Apis, town of 73 

Apollinopolis Magna 71 

Apollonia 174 

Apophis 25 

Apries 58, 59 

Apts 158, 171 

Apu 191 

Ap-uat 71, 165, 166, 221, 313 

'Arabi Pasha 68 

Arabians 25 

Arabs 191, 231, 318, 331, 341 

Aradus 33 

Arban, scarabs from 251, 252 

Arcadius 68 



Arcesilaus 59 
Aristotle 232 
Arsaces 288 
Arses 65 
Arsu 46 
Artabanus 61 
Artaxerxes I. 61 

II. 62, 64 

III. 65 
Artemidorus, mummy of 186 
Artemisium 61 
Arundale 109, 361 
Aryandes 60 

'Asfisif 218 

Asoalon 43 

Asia 28, 29, 39, 176 

Asiatics 19, 43, 44 

Asi)baltites Lake 174 

Assa 15 

Assis 25 

Assurbanipal 54, 55 

Assyria 30, 53, 54, 55, 250 

Assyrians 8, 28, 36, 53, 250 

Aswan 8, 17, 22, 31, 34, 58 

„ tombs of 344, 345 
Asyut 24, 71 

,, tombs of 344 
Ata 11, 340 
Ataka 46 
Aten. 36 
Atena 211, 230 
Aten-neferu 36, 245 
Athenians 61 
Athens 63 
Athribis 75 

Atmu 75, 272 illustration 
Augustus 119 
Aurelian 67, 187 
Avaris 25, 27, 28, 29, 220 

Ba, or Soul 328 

Baal 54 

Baba 29 

Babylon 36, 57, 58, 65, 250 

Babylonians 8, 18, 33, 58 

Bachmann 114, 118 

Bactria 112 

Bagdad 250, 251 

Bagoas 65 

Bailey 127 

Bak-en-renf 52 

Bakers 327 illustration 

Baldensel 335 

Ba-neb-Tettet 75 

Baqet 8 

Bar-Hebraeus 26, 27, 256 

Barth^lemy 4, 143 

Bashmuric 355 

Basil 187 

Bast 75, 288 illustration 

Bata 276 

Battus 59 

Bauer 190 

Beaumont and Fletcher 231 

Bechten 48 

Beetle 357 

Begig 21 

Belmore, Earl of 203 

Belzoni 330, 336 

Benfey quoted 3 

Beni-hasan, tombs of 20 illustration, 

21, ■230^,344 
Bentresh 48 
Beon 25 
Beqet 7 

Bes 229, 264, 285, 287 illustration 
Bet el-Wali 44 
Berenice 66, 108 
Berlin Academy 206 
Beyrut 43, 54 



Bezold 36 

Biban el-Muliik 47 

Bible, Coptic translation of 355 

Birch, the late Dr Samuel 1, 27, 47, 
113, 124, 148, 149, 207, 204, 206, 
208, 211, 218, 222, 224, 237, 244, 
246, 251, 257, 263, 284 

Birds mummied 355 

Birket el-Kurun 22 

Bitter Lakes 56 

Black Obelisk 210 

Blemmyes 67 

Blumenbach 189 

Bocchoris 52 

Bockh 10, 110 

Boeotia 249 

Boheira 355 

Boheiric 355 

Bonomi 109, 119, 120, 312, 361 

Book of the Dead 11, 159, 163, 171, 
172, 182, 185, 191, 196, 199, 202 
—210, 211, 214, 217, 236, 238, 
256, 260, 307, 309, 350, 353 

Book of the Underworld 312 

Boussard 108 

Boxes, sepulchral 216 

British Museum 15, 28, 47, 108, 181, 
186, 188, 201, 204, 208, 210, 211, 
217, 224, 246, 247, 250, 251, 252, 
261, 297, 306, 327 

Bruce 330 

Brugsch, E. 49 

Brugsch, H. 1, 3, 10, 19, 51, 69, 71, 
109, 149, 208, 243, 328, 361 

Bruns 27 

Bubastis 11, 56, 64, 75, 287 

Budge 15, 36, 184 

Bulak Museum founded 68 

Bui) sen, the late Baron 1, 3, 10, 121, 
B. M. 

Burton 10 
Busiris 75, 340 
Buto 75 

Cadet 202 

Caesar Augustus 66 

Cailliaud 232 

Cairo 331 

Caligula 67 

Cambyses 59, 60, 65 

Canaanites 50 

Candace 66 

Canopic Jars, 171, 192—201 
„ ,, chests for 201 

Canopus 67, 194 

Stele of 108, 109, 354 

Caracalla 67 

Carchemish 33, 57 

Carians 56 

Carthaginians 248 

Cartouche, amulet of 265 

Cat, sacred to Bast 299 

Cats mummied 356 

Cattle marching, illustration of, 327 

Caviglia 14, 330 

Cha 12 

Chabas 15, 109, 150, 206 

Chabbesha 61 

Cha-em Men-nefer 29 

Chaeremon 112, 113, 115, 117, 118, 

Chafra, see Chephren 

Chaldeans 27 

Champollion Figeac 1, 10, 69 

Champollion le Jeune quoted 120, 
sketch of his life 129—131, his 
works 131, 132, his work on 
Rosetta Stone 133 fF., his letter 
to Dacier 142, his Egyptian al- 

2 C 



phabet 144 — 147, opinions of 
scholars of 148—152, 203 

Chaptal 109 

Charon 155 

Chemennu 359 

Chensu (Chonsu) 47, 48, 267, 268, 
271 illustration, 272 

Chensu-nefer-hetep 272 illustration 

Chens u-pa-chrat 272 

Cheops 12, 15, 331, 332, 333, 334, 
335, 338 

Chepera 221, 234, 251, 275 illustra- 

Chephren 13, 14, 15, 335, 336, 337, 

Cher-heb 162 

Cheta 37, 39, 40, 42, 43, 44, 49 

Chetam 39 

Cheta-sar 40 

Chiliades quoted 113 

China 65 

Chirebu 42 

Chnemu 71, 73, 266, 268, 275 illus- 

Chnemu-hetep 21, 219, 230, 344 

Chnoubis 251 

Choiak 36 

Chois 23, 73 

Chosroes 68 

Christianity in Egypt 310 

Chronicles quoted 58 

Chrysostom 187 

Chu, or intelligence 328 

Chu-en-aten, see Amenophis IV. 

Chufu, see Cheops 

Chufu-anch 311 

Chut 331 

Chut, amulet of 264 

Cinyps 191 

Clarke, G. W. 233 

Claudius 67, 112 

Clement of Alexandria 112, 121, 

122, 187 
Cleopatra 66 
Coffins 306—310 
Colchis 191 
Collar, amulet of 260 
Colossi, the 34, 38 illustration 
Colossus of Memnon 34 
Combs 226 
Cones, Funereal 218 
Constantine 67 
Constantinople 33, 63 
Constantius 68 
Cook, Thomas 340 
Coptic language 3, 4, 354 

„ dialects 354 
Coptos 18, 46, 71, 187, 348 
Copts 191, 192, 231 

,, era of 67 

,, literature of 355 
Corippus 178 
Cory 124 
Critoboulos 59 
Crocodile 356 
Crocodilopolites 8 
Cusae 71 
Cush 30, 51 
Cushites 26 
Cynopolites 8 
Cyprian 187 
Cyprus 54, 59, 62, 64 
Cyrene 60 
Cyrenians 58 

Dahshur 330, 341, pyramids of 342 
Damascus 32 
Damietta 175 
Darius I. 60, 61, 222 
„ II. 61 



Darius III. 05 

Davison 330 

Decius 67, 111 

De Pleury 190 

De Guignes 4, 125 

De Hammer 202 

De la Fontaine 175 

De Rossi 4 

De Rouge 3, 45, 50, 73, 202, 207, 

De Sacy 109, lfi5, 126, 133, 183 
Delta 8, 10, 11, 24, 28, 46, 50, 54, 

55, 61, 64 
Democritus 112 
Demotic 353 
Denderah 11, 12, 126 
Denon 330 
Der el-bahai-i 31, 32, 44, 49, 169, 

229, 236 
Der on the Euphrates 251 
Deveria 190 
Dillmann 206 
Dindorf 121 
Diocletian 67 
Diodorus Siculus 2, 8, 112, 118, 155, 

179, 181, 183, 336, 356 
Diogenes Laertius 112 
Dioscorides 174 
Diospolis magna 75 
Diospolis parva 7 1 
Disk-worshippers 37 
Domitian 67 
Drumann 110 
Dulaurier 120 
Diimichen 1, 9, 71, 150 
Duval 231 
Dynasties, Egyptian 9 

Ebers 3, 151 
Edfu 65, 66 

Egypt, history of 1 — 68 
„ land of 7, 8 
„ names of 8 
„ nomes of 8 
Egyptian, the, physical characteris- 
tics of 1 — 3 ; was neither Negro 
nor Semite 3 
Egyptian chronology, systems of 9, 69 

dynasties 9, 77—107 

funeral 153—173 

language 3 — 7 

race 1 

writing, three kinds of 122 
Eileithyia 29, 71 
Eisenlohr 364 
Ekphantos 182 
Ekron 53 
Elagabalus 67 
Elephantine 15, 17, 22, 33, 67, 71, 

275, 345 
El-Haram el-Kaddab 12 
Eliakim 57 
Eliam 251 
El-kab 17, 34 
El-lahun 330 
El-Magar 174 
Elysian Fields 210 
Epiphi 45 
Erasmus 124 
Erman 5, 149 
Esarhaddon 54 
Esneh 15, 71, 330, 340 
Ethiopia 17, 19, 21, 22, 23, 51, 54, 

55, 64, 346 
Ethiopians 37, 43, 44, 51, 53, 55, 

57, 66, 211, 330 
Etruscans 45 
Euphantos 182 
Euphrates 30, 251, 252 
Europeans, massacre of 68 

2C 2 



Eusebius 9, 113 
Evagoras 62, 63 
Exodus 27, 45, 113 
Eye, symbolic 263 
Ezekiel quoted 190 

Fabricins 178 

Fan, the Egyptian 236 

Fayyum 21, 22, 72, 330 

Fingers, amulet of 266 

Fishes mummied 355 

Flaminian Obelisk 119 

Flavius Vopiscus 187 

Floriana 183 

Fontana 202 

Forrer quoted 192, 193 

Forster 189 

Franz 110 

Frog 265, 357 

Gaisford 113 
Gallns 66 
Gaza 32 
Gebel Alaki 44 

„ Barkal 51, 55, 330 
Genesis quoted 179 
George 355 
Germanicus 67 
Gerspach 193 
Gezer 60 
Gibraltar 57 
Gilukh5pa 36 
Giorgi 4 
Gizeh 34, 184, 219, 311, 317 

„ pyramids of 12, 14, 15, 331 

„ mastabas at 330 
Gnostics 252, 287 
Gobelins, Museum of 193 

Gods of Egypt : — 
Amen 39, 49, 65, 158, 220, 221, 

Amen-Ra 19, 28, 29, 31, 34, 36, 

37, 39, 42, 47, 50, 51, 71, 73, 

75, 119, 157, 171, 246, 267, 

268, 269 
Arasu 71, 269, 270 
An-heru 285, 286 
Anpu (Anubis) 73, 158, 164, 165, 

166, 170, 186, 189, 216, 221, 

279, 280, 313 
Anqet 283, 285 
Apis 11, 51, 60, 65, 281, 282 
Ap-uat 71, 165, 166, 221, 313 
Atmu 75, 272 
Bast 75, 288 
Bes 229, 264, 285, 287 
Chensu (Chonsu) 47, 48, 267, 268, 

271, 272 
Chensu-nefer-hetep 272 
Chensu-pa-chrat 272 
Chepera 221, 234, 251, 275 
Hapi (Apis) 11, 51, 60, 65, 281, 
' 282 

Hapi (Nile) 281 
Hapi 284 

Harmachis 14, 34, 270 
Harpocrates 271 
Hathor 71, 73, 264, 266, 290, 291 
Heru-behutet 71 
[Heru-chent-chati 75 
Heru-pa-chrat 271 
Heru-shefit 73 
Horus 71, 73, 75, 186, 221, 251, 

270, 271 
Hu 75 

I-em-hetep (Imouthis) 274 
Isis 67, 75, 156, 166, 186, 216, 

256, 268, 278, 279 



Gods of Eg}'pt : — 
Maahes 294, 295 
Maat 165, 221, 290, 291 
Menhit 289 

Menthu-Ra 42, 71, 211, 271 
Mestha 283 
Mnevis 281 

Mut 34, 116, 268, 289, 290 
Necheb 71 

Nefer-Atmu 222, 267, 273 
Neheb ka 295 
Nephthys 161, 166, 186, 199, 217, 

268, 278, 279, 307 
Net (Neith) 58, 60, 73, 161, 199, 

289, 290 
Nu 292, 293 
Nut 165, 166, 293, 306 
Osiris 44, 156, 159, 162, 170, 175, 

177, 211, 216, 219, 238, 268, 

Ptah 21, 43, 45, 47, 225, 265, 

268, 273 
Ptah-Seker-Ausar 125, 274 
Ptah-Ta-tenen 274 
Qebhsennuf 284 
Ea 36, 75, 170, 216, 221, 251, 

268, 270 
Ra Harmacliis 15, 44, 222 
Sati 283, 285 
Seb 165, 166, 293, 294 
Sebek 284, 286 
Sechet 225, 288, 340 
Seker 295 
Selket 199 
Sept 75 
Serapis 67, 282 
Serq 294 

Set 29, 40, 276, 277 
Shu 165, 166, 172, 280 
Sut 73 

Gods of Egypt : — 

Tefnut 281 

Tlioth 71, 75, 186, 209, 239, 275, 

Thoueris 296, 297 

Tuamautef 284 

Hatch 75 
Golenischeff 361 
Goodwin 238 
Gordon 68 
Goulianoff 152 
Granville 190 
Greaves 189 
Greece 185, 187 
Greeks 34, 40, 58, 61, 63, 65, 191, 

their trade in Egypt 59 
Grenfell, Sir Francis 228 
Gronov 178 
Guieyesse 208 
Gutschmid 111 
Gyges 55 

Hadrian 67 

Hair pins 227 

Haker 62 

Hamilton 330 

Hamitio 6 

Hammamat 18, 21, 23, 47, 59, 65 

Hapi (Apis) 11, 51, 60, 65, 281, 282 

Hapi (Nile) 281 

Hapi 161, 195, 196, 197, 199, 200, 

216, 217, 284 
Harmachis 14, 34, 270 
Harpocrates 271 
Harris Papyrus 47 
Harrow School Catalogue 246 
Hathor 71, 73, 264, 266, 290, 291 
Hatshepset 30, 31, 32, 44 
Hawk 357 
Hawkins 203 



Heart, amulet of 262 

Hebennu 164, 358 

Hebit 165 

Hebx-ew languaare 4 

Hebrews 8 

Hecataeus 112 

Heliogabalus 187 

Heliopolis 19, 33, 34, 36, 39, 43, 46, 

52, 56, 65, 75, 119, 208, 282 
Hellanitus 112 
Henna 162 
Hennu 18 
Heptanomis 8 
Heq-ab 227 
Heracleopolis 22 
Heracleopolites 8 
Heraclius 68 
Her-Heruse-Amen 52 
Hermann 113, 118 
Hermapion 112, 118—120 
Hermonthis 71 
Hermopolis 52, 71, 75, 237 
Hermopolites 8 
Herodotus 3, 22, 59, 112, 177, 183, 

190, 282, 332, 335, 336, 337, 338 
Her-shef 359 
Heru 211 
Heru-behutet 71 
Heru-chent-chati 75 
Heru-em-heb 37, 303 
Heru-men-kau 15 
Heru-pa-chrat 371 
Heru-sha 17, 18 
Heru-ta-ta-f 237 
Hesep-ti 11, 208, 238 
Het-Hert-hent taui 49 
Het-Heru 52 
Het-Ptah-ka 11 
Het-suten 37 
Heyne 110 

ilezekiah 53, 54 
Hibbert Lectures 7 
HieraconpoHs 71 
Hieratic 353 
Hieroglyphics 353 
Hieroglyphic Signs, list of 366 (T. 

,, Determinatives 375 — 

Hincks 152, 244 
Hipponus 73 
Hittites 39 
H6d6 the scribe 250 
Hoffmann 187 
Homer 113, 114, 117 
Honey used in embalming 183 
Hophra' 58 
Horapollo 112, 115, 116, 123, 124, 

Horse, the, in Egypt 29 
Horus 71, 73, 75, 186, 221, 251, 

270, 271 
Horus, king 37 

„ cippi of 358 

„ children of 160, 164, 315 

,, followers of 9 
Hoshea 53 
Hu 75 
Hycsos 25 

Hyksos 9, 26, 29, 158, 204, 220, 276 
Hypselis 71 

lalysos 248 
Ia6 Sabadth 288 
Ibis 357 
Ibn B^tar 174 
Ibrahim Pasha 68 
Ichneumon 356 
I-em-hetep 274 
Inarus 61 
India 112 



Ink, Egyptian 352 

lonians 56 

Iphi orates 63 

Isis 67, 75, 156, 166, 186, 216, 256, 

268, 278, 279 
Isis-Sothis 284 
Israel in Egypt 27 
Issus 65 
Isthmus of Suez 1 

Jablonsti 124 

Jacob 21, 179 

Janelli 153 

Jehoahaz 57 

Jehoiachin 58 

Jehoiakim 57, 58 

Jeremiah quoted 58, 230 

Jeroboam 50 

Jerusalem 28, 50, 58, 67, 209 

Jews 44, 53, 57, 174, 175, 209 

Jezebel 230 

John 187, 348 

Jomard 190, 203, 330 

Jonias 25 

Joseph 27, 341 

Josephus quoted 9, 24, 26, 28, 113 

Joshua 29 

Josiah 57 

Judaea 28, 53, 54, 174 

Judah 50, 53, 54, 57 

Julien, Fort Saint 108 

Julius Africanus 9 

Justinian 68 

Ka, or " double," the 328 

Kabasos 75 

Kadesh 32, 33, 39, 40, 42 

Ka-kam 340 

Ka-kau 282 

Kalabshi 40, 44 

Kallimma-Sin 36 

Ka-mes 29 

Kamii-os 246, 248 

Kamt 7 

Kantarah 39 

Karaduniyash 36 

Karbanit 54 

Karei 34 

Earnak 10, 21, 31, 33, 34, 37, 39, 
40, 51, 53, 67 

Kash 21 

Kehak 45 

Kein-tau 252 

Kerama 50 

Khabur 251, 252 

Kiessling 113 

King 249 

Kings of Egypt, cartouches of ar- 
ranged chronologically : — - 

First Dynasty 

Mena (Menes) 77 
Teta 77 
kt&d 77 
Ata 77 
Hesep-ti 77 
Mer-ba-pen 77 
Semen-Ptah 77 
Qebh 77 

Second Dynasty 

Neter-baiu 77 
Ka-kau 77 
Ba-en-neter 77 
Uatch-nes 77 
Senta 77 
Per-ab-sen 77 
Nefer-ka-Ra 77 
Nefer-ka-seker 77 
Hetchefa 77 



Kings of Egypt : — 

Third Dynasty 
Tchatchai 78 
Neb-ka 78 
Ser (Tcheser) 78 
Teta 78 
Setches 78 
Serteta 78 
Ahtes 78 
Neb-ka-E,a 78 
Nefer-ka-Ra or Huni 78 

Fourth Dynasty 
Seneferu 78 
Ohufu (Cheops) 78 
Chafia (Chephren) 78 
Menkaura (Mycerinus) 78 
Tetfra 78 
Shepseskaf 78 
Sebekkara 78 
lemhetep 78 

Fifth Dynasty 
Usrkaf 79 
Sahura 79 
Kakaa 79 
Shepseskara 79 
Heruakau 79 
An 79 

Menkauheru 79 
Assa 79 
Unas 79 

Sixth Dynasty 
Teta 79 
Ati 80 
Pepi I. 80 
Heruemsaf 80 
Pepi II. 80 
Ramerensemsaf 80 
Neterkara 80 
Netagerti (Nitociis) 80 

Kings of Egypt :— 

Seventh — Tenth Dynasties 
Neferka 80 
Neferseh... 80 
Ab 80 

Neferkaura 80 
Cbai-tlii 80 
Neferkara 80 
Neferkara-Nebi 80 
Tetkaramaa ... 80 
Neferkaraxentn 81 
Merenberu 81 
Seneferkara 81 
Kaenra 81 
Neferkaratrer(l) 81 
Neferkaheru 81 
Neferkara-Pepi-senb 81 
Neferkara-annu 81 
Neferkaura 81 
Neferkauheru 81 
Neferkaarira 81 

Eleventh Dynasty 
Autef 81 

Mentu-hetep (?) 81 
Antef 81 
Antef 81 
Antef (?) 81 
Antef 81 
An-aa 82 
Antuf 82 
Antuf-aa 82 
Antef-aa 82 
Antef 82 
Seneferkara 82 
Ra... 82 
TJsr-en-Ra 82 
Nebnemra 82 
Menthuhetep I. 82 
Menthuhetep II. 82 



Kings of Egypt : — 
Menthuhetep III. 82 
Menthuhetep IV. 82 
Menthuhetep V. 83 
Seanchkara 83 

Twelfth Dynasty 
Amenemhat I. 83 
Usertsen I. 83 
Amenemhat II. 83 
Usertsen II. 83 
Usertsen III. 83 
Amenemhat III. 83 
Amenemhat IV. 83 
Sebekneferura 83 

Thirteenth Dynasty 
Chu-taiu-E,a 84 
Cherp-ka-Ila 84 
[Amenjemiiat 84 
Sehetepabra 84 
Aufna 84 

Ameni-Antef-Amenemhat 84 
Semenkara 84 
Sehetepabra 84 

ka 84 

Netchemabra 84 
Sebekhetepra 84 
Ren... 84 
Setchef...ra. 84 
Sebekhetep I. 84 
Mermenfitu 84 
Sebekhetep II. 84 
Neferhetep 85 
Ketheruse 85 
Sebekhetep III. 85 
Sebekhetep IV. 85 
Uahabra-aaab 85 
Chacherui-a 85 
Nebfaamerra 85 
Neferabra 85 

Kings of Egypt : — 
Sebekhetep V. 85 
Mercherpra 85 
A nab 85 
Sebekemsaf I. 86 
II. 86 
Cherpuastra 86 
Rahetep 86 

Fourteenth Dynasty 
Ai 86 
Ana 86 

Seanchensehtu-Ra 86 
Mercherpra-anren 83 
Seuatchenra 86 
Chakara 86 
Kamerira 86 
Sehebra 86 
Stakara 86 
Mertchefara 86 
Nebtchefara 86 
Ubenra 87 
Herabra 87 
Nebsenra 87 
Seuahenra 87 
Secheperenra 87 
Tetcherura 87 

Fifteenth Dynasty 
Nubset 87 
...Banan 87 
Abehenchepesh 87 
Apepa 87 

Sixteenth Dynasty 
Apepa 87 

Seventeenth Dynasty 
Tauaa 87 
Tauaaaa 88 
Tauaaqen 88 
Kames 88 




of Egypt :— 

Kings of Egypt : — 

Aahhetep 88 

Twenty-first Dynasty 

Aahmessepaari 88 

Se-Mentu 93 

Eighteenth Dynasty 

Pasebchami 93 

Amasis I. 88 


Amenophis I. 88 

Amenemapt 93 

Thothmesl. 88 

Pasebchanu 93 

Thothmes II. 89 

Her-Heru 93 

Hatshepset 89 

Pa-anch 93 

Thotlimes III. 89 

Painetchem I. 94 

Amenophis II. 89 

II. 94 

Thothmes IV. 89 

Masaherth 94 

Amenophis III. 89 

Mencheperra 94 

Amenophis IV. 89 

Painetchem III. 94 

Seaakanechtcheperura 90 

Twenty-second Dynasty 

Tutanchamen 90 

Ai 90 

Shashanq I. 94 

Osorkon I. 94 

Heruemheb 90 

Thekelethl. 95 

Nineteenth Dynasty 

Osorkon II. 95 

Rameses I. 90 

Shashanq 95 

Seti I. 90 

Thekelethll. 95 

Rameses II. 90 

Shashanq III. 95 

Meneptah I. 91 

Pamai 95 

Amenmeses 91 

Seti II. 91 

Twenty-third Dynasty 

Meneptah II. 91 

Peta-Bast 95 

Setnecht 91 

Osorkon III. 95 

Twentieth Dynasty 

Twenty-fourth Dynasty 

Rameses III. 91 

Bakenrenf 96 

IV. 91 

Kashta 96 

V. 91 

P-anchi I. 96 

VI. 92 

„ II. 96 

VII. 92 

Twenty-sixth Dynasty 

VIII. 92 

Sabaco 96 

IX. 92 

Shabataka 96 

X. 92 

Tirhakah 96 

XL 92 

Amenrut 96 

XII. 92 

Psammetichus I. 97 

XIII. 92 

NechoII. 97 



Kings of Egypt : — 
Psammetichus II. 97 
Apiies 97 
Amasis II. 97 
Psammetichus III. 97 

Twenty-seventh Dynastij 
Cambyses 97 
Darius Hystaspes 98 
Xerxes 98 
Artaxerxes 98 
Darius Xerxes 98 

Twenty -eighth Dynasty 
Chabbeslia 98 

Tioenty-ninth Dynasty 
TSTaifaarut 98 
Haker 98 
Psemut 98 

Thirtieth Dynasty 
Nectauebus I. 99 
II. 99 

Kircher 119, 124, 175 
Klaproth 152 
Kochome 11, 340 
A'o/Jpots 227 
Kouosso 18, 24 
Kopp 4 
Kosseir 46 

Kouyunjik 53, 249, 330 
Krumbacher 113 
Kiihn 174 
Kullab 330 
Kummeh 22, 218 
Kurnah 218, 253 
Kynopolis 73 

Labyrinth 22, 23 
Lacedaemonians 62 
Lacour 126 

Ladike 59 

Lagarde 4, 175 

Lagus 66 

Lamellicorns 232 

Land quoted 255 

Lanzone 215, 217, 234, 265, 287, 

291, 294, 361 
Larcher 189 
Lateran 33 
Latopolis 71 
Latreille 232, 233 
Latus fish 300 
Lebu 45 

Leemans 7, 115, 124, 207, 233 
Leftbure 208, 265 
Leitch, J. 133 
Leku 45, 46 
Lenoir 126 
Lenormant 1, 110 
Lepidotus fish 300 
Lepsius 1, 4, 6, 10, 19, 69, 109, 152, 

203, 204, 206, 219, 230, 238, 307, 

311, 330, 331, 362 
Letopolis 73 
Letronne 110, 120 
Libya 61, 65 
Libyans 43, 45, 57, 58 
Lieblein 10 
Linianen 39 

Loftie, his work on Scarabs 246 
Loret 211 
Loudon 33 
Louvre 246 
Lucian 179 
Luxor 34, 47 
Lycians 45 
Lycopolis 71 
Lydia 55 

Muahes 294, 295 



Maat 165, 221, 290, 291 
Maat-ka-Ea 49 
Maa-ur-nefem-Ra 43 
Macedon 64 
Macedonians 15 
Macrinus 67 
Maltata 12 
Mahdi 22 
Malta 183 
Mamun 331 

Manetho 9, 10, 11, 23, 24, 26, 27, 
28, 37, 66, 77, 176, 340, 341, 342 
Marcianus 68 

Marcus Aurelius 67 
Mariette 1, 9, 10, 14, 23, 69, 211, 
212, 213, 282, 318, 324, 325, 330, 
340, 341, 343, 346 

Mark, Saint 67, 310, 353 

Maroi 45 

Marusar 40 

Ma'sara 62 

Mashuasha 45, 46, 50 

Maspero 1, 49, 151, 164, 165, 184, 
203, 209, 257, 306, 340, 347 

Mastabas 317—328 

Mastabat el-Far'iin 340, 341, 342 

Mas'udi 330 

Matui 19 

Maty 189 

Mautenure 40, 43 

Mecca 209 

Medinet Habu 46, 47, 56, 60, 67 

Mediterranean 32 

Medum, pyramid of 12, 343 

Megiddo 32, 57 

Meh 21 

Mehen 301 

Melik el-Kamil 331 

Memnon 67 

,, Colossus of 34 

Memphis 8, 9, 10, 19, 21, 24, 25, 
29, 33, 34, 36, 37, 39, 46, 52, 54, 
55, 56, 59, 61, 63, 64, 73, 109, 
110, 185, 282, 309, 341, 342 

Memphites 8 

Memphitic Coptic 355 

Mena 246 

Menat amulet 265 

Menat-Chufu 21 

Mendes 56, 62, 64, 65, 75 

Menelaus 194 

Menes 9, 10, 11 

Menhit 289 

Menkaura, see Mycerinus 

Men-nefer 342 

Men-nefert 10 

Menthu-em-hat 227 

Mentbu-em-sa-f 230 

Menthu(Mentu)-hetep 18, 21, 307 

Menthu-Ra 42, 71, 211, 271 

Menzaleh, Lak 355 

Mer-ba-pen 10, 11 

Mercati 125 

Mercator 8 

Mer-en-Ptah 45 

Mer-en-Ra 17 

Mevoe 112, 330 

Mer-sekem 251 

Merseker 301 

Mesopotamia 7, 30, 32, 33, 34, 39, 
48, 50, 57, 243, 250, 252 

Mesopotamians 32, 33, 34, 43 

Mesori 51 

Mestha 161, 195, 196, 197, 199, 216, 

217, 283 
Metelis 75 

Metternich Stele 287, 361 
Meyer 1 
Migdol 39 
MOetus 112 



Mirrors 225 
Misraim 8 
Mitani 8, 36 
Mnevis Bull 281, 283 
Moeris, Lake 22, 23, 67 
Mokattam 332, 343 
Momemphis 58 
Mommsen quoted 111, 112 
Month, the little 361 
Months, the Egyptian 363 
„ names in Arabic 363 
„ names in Coptic 363 
,, names in Greek 363 
Moses 340 

Mostansser-Billah 193 
Muhammad 'Ali 68, 331, 361 

Mukattam Hills 56 

Miiller, Max 5, 7 

Mulsant 233 

Mummy, meaning of the word 173 
cloth 189 

Mummies, how made 174 ff. 

Murray, A. S. 247 

Mushezib-Marduk 252 

Musur 8 

Mut 34, 116, 268, 289, 290 

Mut-em-Mennu 181 

Mycerinus 15, 17, 184, 208, 237, 
306, 311, 331, 337, 338 

Mytilene 112 

Nahr el-kelb 54 
Nai, illustration 302 
Naifaarutl. 62 
„ II. 62 
Napata 43, 51, 52 
Napoleon 68 
Naram-Sin 18 
Naucratis 59, 112, 247, 248, 249 

NaviUe 163, 172, 205, 206, 214, 

236, 237, 238, 259, 263, 266 
Nebseni, Papyrus of 207 
Neb-set (Nebqet), Papyrus of 207 
Nebt^hetep 359 
Nebuchadnezzar II. 57, 58 
Necheb 71 
Nechebet 359 
Necho II. 56, 57, 60 
Necht-neb-f 62 
Nectanebus I. 62, 63, 314, 361 

II. 63, 64 
Nefer amulet 264 
Nefer-as-u 340 
Nefer-Atmu 222, 267, 273 
Nefer-hetep 24 
Nefer-ka-Ra 17 
Nefer-ka-Seker 11 
Negative Confession 182 

Neha amulet 265 

Neheb-ka 295 

Nehern 30 

Neherna 34 

Neith 58, 60, 73, 161, 199, 289, 290 

Nemart 50 

Nepherites 62 

Nephthys 161, 166, 186, 199, 217, 
268, 278, 279, 307 

Nero 67, 112 

Nesi-Chensu 224 

Nesi-pa-ur-shef 165, 308 

Nes-Mut 211 

New York 33 

NI 33, 252 

Nicholson, Sir Charles 288 

Niebuhr 330 

Nikii 55 

Nile 7, 8, 10, 19, 22, 33, 39, 46, 52, 
56, 58, 61, 63, 67, 108, 110, 168, 
170, 315, 318, 334, 236, 344 



Nilopolis 73 

Nimrod 50, 52 

Nineveh 32, 53, 54, 55 

Kitaqert 17, 59 

Nitetis 59 

Nitocris 17 

Nomes of Egypt 71—76 

Nu 292, 293 

Nubia 21, 29, 30, 33, 34, 36, 37, 

39, 40, 44, 46, 54, 56, 211, 243, 

Nubians 33, 60 
Nubti 26, 27, 43 
Numbers, Egyptian and Coptic 304, 

Nut 165, 166, 293, 306 
Kut-Ameu 55 

Oases, the 8 
Oasis 60 
Ochus 64 
Oi Meneptah 312 
Orontes 33, 39, 40, 42 
Orpheus 155, 156 
Osiris 44, 156, 159, 162, 170, 175, 
177, 211, 216, 219, 238, 268, 277 
Osiris, Tomb of, at Abydos 9 
Owen, the late Prof. 2 
Oxyrhynchites 8 
Oxyrhynchus 73 
Oxyrhynchus fish 300 

Pa-aru-shep 45 

Pa-Bairo 45 

Pa-Bast 289 

Padi 53 

Pahlin 126 

Palestine 30, 39, 50, 54, 57 

Palette, the Egyptian 350 

Palmyra 67 

Palzir-shemesh 250 

Pamai 51 

Panopolis 71, 191, 192, 217 

Papremis 61 

Papyrus, Egyptian 349 

Papyrus amulet 261 

Parma 237 

Pa-seb-cha-nut I. 49 

II. 49 
Patchetku 29 
Pausiris 61 
Peka 168 

Pelusium 43, 59, 64 
Pen-ta-urt 40, 43 
Pepi T. 17, 184, 203, 219, 230, 341 

„ II. 17, 184, 203, 219, 345 
Perring 330 
Persia 59, 61, 62, 65 
Persians 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 68, 174, 

Peta-Bast 51 
Peteti 363 
Petrie 330 
Pettigrew 175, 195 
Phagrus iish 300 
Phakussa 75 

Pharaoh, meaning of the name 73 
Pharnabazus 63 
Pharos 66 
Philae 65, 275 
Philip 123 
Philition 337 
Phoenicia 53, 58, 63, 64 
Phoenicians 26, 54, 248 
Physiologus quoted 255 
Pianchi, King of Egypt 51, 52, 53, 

Pianchi 52 
Piazza del Popolo 119 
Pierret 207, 208, 263, 265 



Pillows 210 
Pi-netchem I. 49 

II. 49 

III. 49 
Pisentios 187, 348, 349 
Pithom 44, 56 
Pleyte 208 

Pliny 8, 232, 330 
Plutarch 181, 277, 319 
Pococke 330 
Pompey's Pillar 67 
Pomponius Mela 178 
Porphyry 123, 181, 233 
Price, F. G. Hilton 287 
Prisse 10, 15 
Probus 67 
Proverbs quoted 190 
Psammefcichus I. 55, 56, 247 

II. 58 

III. 59 
Psamuiuthis 62 
P-se-miit 62 
Pseudo-Callisthenes 64 
Psychostasia 238 

Ptah 21, 43, 45, 47, 225, 265, 268, 

Ptah-Seker-Ausar 125, 215, 216, 255, 

Ptah-Ta-tenen 274 
Ptah, temple of at Memphis 10 
Ptah-hetep 323, 353 

„ Precepts of 15 

Ptolemies 66, 186, 306, 310, 314, 

Ptolemy the Geographer 8 
Ptolemy I. 9, 66, 99 

II. 9, 66, 100 
„ III. 66, 100, 108, 354 

IV. 100 

V. 101, 109,110, 301, 354 

Ptolemy VI. 101 

VII. 101 

VIII. 101 

IX. 101 

X. 102 

XI. 102 

XII. 102 

XIII. 102 
Punt 18, 23, 31, 32, 39, 46 
Pyramid, the Great 331, 333 

„ the Second 335 
„ the Third 337 
„ the Step 340 

the Blunted 342 
of Pepi I. 341 
„ ofTeta 341 
„ of Unas 340 
„ of Medum 343 
Pyramid texts 203 
Pyramids 67, 183, 328—343; battle 

of 68 
Pythagoras 123 

Qebhsenuuf 161, 195, 196, 197, 199, 

200, 216, 217, 283, 284 
Quatremere 4, 355 

Ra. 36, 75, 170, 216, 221, 251, 268, 

Ka-Harmachis 15, 44, 222 
Raamses, city of 44 
Rakoti 65 
Ra-meri 341 
Eameses I. 37, 40, 44 

II. 9, 27, 37, 39, 40—45, 
51, 54, 118, 119, 230, 
246, 247, 303, 336, 
351 ; plans of his 
tomb 316 

III. 46, 47, 312 



Rameses IV. 47 

V. 47 

VI. 47 

VII. 47 

VIII. 47 

IX. 47 

X. 48 

XI. 48 

XII. 48 

XIII. 48 
Raniesseum 67 
Ra-nefer, illustration 305 
Ra-neferu 48 

Ra-mib 340 

Rawlinson, G. 2 

Re-ant 29 

Rech-ma-Ra 33 

Bed Sea 2, 18, 46, 56, 60, 66, 67 

Reed for writing 352 

Rehoboam 50 

Renan 4, 5, 6 

Renaudot 355 

Rennutet 363 

Reptiles mummied 355 

Reseph 39 

Resurrection, the 266 

Retennu 33, 39, 49 

Rhampsinitus 332 

Rhodopis 339 

Roman Emperors 103 — 107 

Romans 66, 306, 310, 314, 331, 345 

Rome 33, 67, 119 

Ronelle 189 

Rosellini 1, 153, 244 

Rosetta Stone 108—153, 190, 354 

Ruau 219 

Rut- Amen 55 

Ruthen 30 

Sabaco 52, 53, 55, 250 

Sabben 345 

Sahidic Coptic 355 

Sahu-Ra 15, 339 

Sa'id Pasha 68 

Sais 52, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 

SakMrah 9, 11, 17, 34, 184; Pyra- 
mids of 330, 342 

Salamis 63 

Salatis 25, 26 

Salt 148 

Salvolini 109 

Sam-behutet 359 

Sam amulet 264 

Sam priest 168 

Sapalel 40 

Sarcophagi 310 — 315 

Sardinia 248 

Sardinians 45 

Sarginu 50 

Sargon 18, 50, 53 

Sati 283, 285 

Satumkhipa 36 

Scarab 231—256, 301 

Scarabs of Amenophis III. 240 — 245 

Soaraboids 250 

Schiaparelli 208, 219, 346 

Schrader 53 

Schwartze 4, 139, 141 

Scorpion 301 

Scythia 112 

Se-aa^ka-Ra 37 

Se-anch-ka-Ra 18 

Seb 165, 166, 293, 294 

Sebek 284, 286 

Sebek-hetep II. 24 
„ III. 24 

IV. 24 

V. 24 

VI. 24 



Seliek neferu 23 

Sebennytlios 75 

Sebennytus 9 

Sechet 225, 288, 340 

Sefex-Aabu 296, 297 

Seker 282, 295 

Seker-em-sa-f 184, 203, 306 

Select Papyri quoted 28 

Selim I. 68 

Selket 199 

Se-mench ka 23 

Semites 24, 26, 50 

Semneh 22 

Seneferu 11, 12 

Senehet 19 

Senkowaki 203 

Ben-mut 31 

Sennacherib 53, 54, 250 

Sent 11, 176, 219 

Sept 75, 300 

Seqenen-Ra III. 28, 29, 268 

Se-Ptah 45 

Septimius Severus 34, 67 

Septuagint 66 

Serapeum 34, 282, 340 

Serapis 67, 282 

Serdab 317, 322 

Se-Renput 345 

Serq (Serqet) 294, 301 

Sesheta 297 

Sesostris 8, 40 

Set 29, 40, 276, 277, 297 

Seti I. 9, 37, 39, 40, 43, 44, 119, 

215, 247, 312, 336, 346, 347 
Seti II. 45 
Set-Necht 46 
S7?6> 276 
Sethroe 75 

Severns of Antiooh 41 
Sextus Empericus 178 

B. M. 

Seyffarth 152 

Shaasu 26, 30, 33, 37, 39, 42, 43 

Shabaka 53, 249, 250, 350 

Shabataka 53 

Shabtun 42 

Shalmaneser II. 210, 250 

Sharetana 45 

Sharezer 54 

Sharhana 29 

Sharpe 109, 124, 199 

Shtruhen 29 

Shashanq I. 50 

II. 50 

III. 51 
„ IV. 51 

Shaw 330 

Shekelasha 45, 46 

Shekh el-Beled 16, 304, 325 

Shen amulet 264 

Shep-en-apt 55, 56 

Shepherd Kings 25, 26, 28 

Shera 219, 353 

Shesh 177 

Shishak 50 

Shrew-mice 356 

Shu 165, 166, 172, 180 

Shuti-Qenna 207 

Sicilians 45 

Sidon 58, 64 

Sidonians 64 

Silco 68 

Silius Italicus 178 

Silurusfish 300 

Sinai 12, 15, 17, 18, 21, 23, 24, 32, 

33, copper mines of 46, 339 
Sirius 361 
Smith, A. H. 247 
Smith, Sir C. Holled 316 
Smith, Payne, Dean 231 
Smith, Philip 1 




Snake 357 

Soane Museum 312 

Sogdianus 61 

Solander 189 

Soleb 34 

Solomon 49, 50 

Somali land 39 

Sphinx, the 14, 15, 34, 298 

Sphinxes, Avenue of 34 

Spohn 152 

Stelae 218—222 

Step Pyramid 11 

Stem 4, 117, 244, 355, 364 

Strabo 112, 113, 191, 346 

Strassmaier 7 

Sudan 68, 211 

Suez Canal 56, 68 

Suidas 113 

Sut 27, 73 

Sutech 27, 276 

Syene 8, 67 

Syria 23, 28, 30, 32, 33, 36, 39, 43, 

53, 63 
Syrians, 33, 37, 39, 43 

Tachos 63 

Tacitus 67 

Tafnecht 52 

Taharqa, see Tirhakah 

Tale of Two Brothers 158 

Ta-meh 8 

Ta-mera 7 

Tanis 21, 22, 23, 27, 32, 43, 75 

Ta-qema 8 

Ta-res 8 

Ta-she 22 

Ta-ta-nub-hetep 199 

Tau-aa-qen 28 

Ta-urt 296—298 

Tchah 40 

Tchahi 29 

Tcharu^a 245 

Tchehra 63 

Tchemi 187 

Teohi 363 

Tefnut 281 

Tehuti-em-heb 48 

Tell el-Amarna 36, 37, 230 

Tell el-Yahudiyeh 46 

Tennes 64 

Teiityris 71 

Teos 63 

Tertullian 187 

Tet amulet 259 

Teta 11, 17, 176, 203, 219, 341 

Tet-asu 341 

Tet-ka-Ra 15 

Thannyros 61 

Tharros 248, 249 

Thebaid 8 

Thebes 19, 23, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 
36, 37, 40, 42, 43, 46, 49, 51, 52, 
54, 55, 56, 62, 65, 67, 71, 112, 
157, 187, 218, 255, 268, 307, 
309, 344 

Thebes in Boeotia 249 

Thekeleth I. 50 
„ II. 51 

Theodosius I. 68 
11. 68 

Thi 36, 37, 227, 242, 244 

Thierbach 121 

This 9, 10 

Thomson 190 

Thoth 71, 75, 186, 209, 239, 275, 276 

Thothmes T. 30, 220, 222, 247, 252 

II. 30, 31 

III. 10, 14, 30, 31, 32, 
39, 40, 46, 119, 224, 230, 236, 
246, 247, 251, 253 



Thothmes IV. 14, 33, 34: 

Thoueris 296, 297 

Thummosis 28 

Ti 305 

Tiberius 67 

Tiglath 50 

Tiglatli-Pileser I. 36 

Tigris 30, 33 

Timaus 24 

Time, divisions of 362 

Tirhakah 54, 55 

Titi 45 

Tmu, see Atmu 

Todtenbuch 202 

Tomb, the Egyptian 315 ff. 

Tombs of the kings 67, 159, 346 

Tombs, Theban 343 ff. 

Tombs used by Christians 348 

Tomlinson 120 

Trajan 67 

Tuamautef 161, 195, 196, 197, 199, 

200, 216, 217, 283, 284 
Tukulti 50 
Tuman Bey 68 
Tunep 33, 42 
Turah 17, 62 
Turin 203 

„ papyrus 9, 2.3, 207, 208 
Tursha 45 
Tushratta 8, 36 
Tut-anch-Amen 37, 227 
Tutu 157, 170, 171 
Tweezers 226 
Tyre 54, 58 
Tzetzes 113, 117 

Hatch (Uatchet) 75, 359, 360 
Uauat 19 
Uenephes 340 
Una 17, 219 

Unas 17, 203, 230, 340, 341 
Underworld, Book of 313, 347 
Ungarelli 119 
Ur 335 

XTrdamanah 55 
Usarken (Osorkon) I. 50 

II. 50 

III. 51 
Userkaf 15 

Usertsen I. 19, 21, 345 
II. 21, 230 
„ III. 21, 22 
Ushabtiu figures 171, 211—215 
Utcha-Heru-en-pe-resu 60 
Utchat 264 

Valerian 30 

Valerianas 67, 125 

Van, Lake 33 

Vases 222 

Vatican 60 

Vespasian 67 

Vulture amulet 260 

Vyse 184, 306, 330, 333, 337, 340 

Wadi Habib 39 

Wadi Halfah 22, 316 

Wadi Ma'arah 12, 17 

Warburton 126 

Westwood, 232 

Wheat, winnowing of 326 

Whiston 26, 28 

White 175 

Wiedemann 1, 3, 27, 49, 62, 150, 

155, 173, 179, 182, 335 
Wild fowl, netting of 326 
Wilkins 355 
Wilkinson 69, 190, 218, 224, 253, 

William of Baldensel 335 
Woide 355 

404 INDEX. 

Wright, the late Prof. W. 4, 5 
"Writing, Egyptian 353 

Xerxes I. 61 
„ II. 61 

Yates 187, 190, 191 

Year, the Egyptian 361 

Young, Thomas 109, 126; sketch 
of his life 127—129; his work 
on the Ttosetta Stone 132 ff.; 
accouut of his discoveries 138 ; 

his alphabet 141; opinions of 
scholars upon 148 — 152 

Zawyet el-'Arydn 330 

Zedekiah 58 

Z. D. M. G. quoted 5 

Zeno 68 

Zenobia 67 

Zion 230 

Zodiac 314 

Zoega 120, 125, 143 

CAMBBIBGE: printed by C. J. clay, M.A. and sons, at the DN1VEE3ITY PUKSS. 



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