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Full text of "The Victoria history of the county of Bedford"



€amtH IKnivemtg ^itatg 







3 1924 088 434 174 



Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 


XTbe IDtctoda Ibfstotig of the 
Counties of Enolanb 












This History is issued to Subscribtrs only 

By Archibald Constable & Company Limited 

and printed by Butler Ss" Tanner of 

Frome and London 











His Grace The Duke of 
Bedford, K.G. 

President of the Zoological Society 

His Grace The Duke of Devon- 
shire, K.G. 

Chancellor of the University of Cam- 

His Grace The Duke of 
Rutland, K.G. 

His Grace The Duke of 
Portland, K.G. 

His Grace The Duke of 
Argyll, K.T. 

The Rt. Hon. The Earl of 
Rosebery, K.G., K.T. 

The Rt. Hon. The Earl of 

President of the Royal Agricultural 

The Rt. Hon. The Viscount 

President of the Society of Antiquaries 

Sir Frederick Pollock, Bart., Col. Duncan A. Johnston 

LL.D., F.S.A., ETC. DirectorGeneraloftheOrdnanceSur-vey 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., Prop. E. Ray Lankester, M.A., 


Sir Edw^ard Maunde Thompson, 

ETC. Director of the British Museum 

Sir Clements R. Markham, 
K.C.B., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

President of the Royal Geographical 

Sir Henry C. Maxwell-Lyte, 
K.C.B., M.A., F.S.A., etc 

Keeper of the Public Records 

Col. Sir J. Farquharson, K.C.B. 

Sir Jos. Hooker, G.C.S.L, M.D., 
D.C.L., F.R.S., etc. 

Sir Archibald Geikie, LL.D., 
F.R.S., etc. 

Rev. J. Charles Cox, LL.D., 

F.S.A., ETC. 

The Rt. Hon. The Lord Lister Lionel Cust, Esq., M.V.0.,M. A., 

F.S.A., ETC. 

Director of the National Portrait Gallery 

Albert C. L. G. Gonther, M.A., 
F.R.S., M.D., Ph.D. 

Late President of the Linnean Society 

F. Haverfield, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 

Late President of the Royal Society 

The Rt. Hon. The Lord 
Alverstone, G.C.M.G. 

Lord Chief Justice 

The Hon. Walter Rothschild, 

F.R.S., etc. 

Director of the Natural History 
Museum, South Kensington 

Reginald L. Poole, Esq., M.A. 

University Lecturer in Diplomatic, 

F. York Powell, Esq., M.A., 
F.S.A., etc. 

Regius Professor of Modern History, 

J. Horace Round, Esq., M.A. 

Walter Rye, Esq. 

W. H. St. John Hope, Esq., M.A. 

Assistant Secretary of the Society of 

Among the original members of 
the Council were 

The late Marquess of Salisbury 

The late Dr. Mandell Creich- 
TON, Bishop of London 

The late Dr. Stubbs, Bishop of 

The Late Lord Acton and 

The Late Sir William Flower 

General Editors of the Sems [^ ^"«"f °°"^"°*^ 
•^ \ William Page, F.S.A. 


The Victoria History of the Counties of England is a National Historic Survey, 
which, under the direction of a large staff comprising the foremost students in science, history, 
and archaeology, is designed to record the history of every county of England in detail. This 
work was, by gracious permission, dedicated to Her late Majesty Queen Victoria, who gave it 
her own name. It is the endeavour of all who are associated with the undertaking to make it 
a worthy and permanent monument to her memory. 

Rich as every county of England is in materials for local history, there has hitherto been 
no attempt made to bring all these materials together into a coherent form. 

Although from the seventeenth century down to quite recent times numerous county 
histories have been issued, they are very unequal in merit ; the best of them are very rare 
and costly ; most of them are imperfect and all are now out of date. Moreover they were 
the work of one or two isolated scholars, who, however able, could not possibly deal adequately 
with all the varied subjects which go to the making of a county history. 


In the Victoria History each county is not the labour of one or two men, but of 
several hundred, for the work is treated scientifically, and in order to embody m it all that 
modern scholarship can contribute, a system of co-operation between experts and local students 
is applied, whereby the history acquires a completeness and definite authority hitherto lacking 
in similar undertakings. 


The history of each county will be complete in itself, and its story will be told from the 
earliest times, commencing with the natural features and the flora and fauna. Thereafter wU 
follow the antiquities, pre-Roman, Roman and post-Roman ; a new translation and critical 
study of the Domesday Survey ; articles on political, ecclesiastical, social and economic history ; 
architecture, arts, industries, biography, folk-lore and sport. The greater part of each history 
will be devoted to a detailed description and history of each parish, contaming an account ot 
the land and its owners from the Conquest to the present day. These manorial histories will 
be compiled from original documents in the national collections and from private papers. A 
special feature will be the wealth of illustrations afforded, for not only will all buildings ot 
interest be pictured, but the coats of arms of past and present landowners will be given. 


It has always been, and still is, a reproach to us that England, with a collection of public 
records greatly exceeding in extent and interest those of any other country in Europe, is yet 
far behind her neighbours in the study of the genesis and growth of her national and local 
institutions. Few Englishmen are probably aware that the national and local archives contain 
for a period of 800 years in an almost unbroken chain of evidence, ' not only the political, 
ecclesiastical, and constitutional history of the kingdom, but every detail of its financial and 
social progress and the history of the land and its successive owners from generation to 
generation.' The neglect of our public and local records is no doubt largely due to the fact 
that their interest and value is known to but a small number of people. But this again is 
directly attributable to the absence in this country of any endowment for historical research 
such as is to be found among other cultured nations. The government of this country has 
always left to private enterprise work which our continental neighbours entrust to a government 
department. It is not surprising, therefore, to find that although an immense amount of 
work has been done by individual effort, the entire absence of organization among the workers 
and the lack of intelligent direction has robbed the results of much of their value. 

In the Victoria History, for the first time, a serious attempt is made to utilize our 
national and local muniments to the best advantage by carefully organizing and supervising 
the researches required. Under the direction of the Records Committee a large staff of experts 
is engaged at the Public Record Office in calendaring those classes of records which are most 
fruitful in material for local history, and by a system of interchange of communication among 
local editors each county gains a mass of information which otherwise would be lost. 


Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, K.C.B. C. T. Martin, B.A., F.S.A. 

Sir Henry Maxwell-Lyte, K.C.B. J. Horace Round, M.A. 

W. J. Hardy, F.S.A. S. R. Scargill-Bird, F.S.A. 

F. Madan, M.A. W. H. Stevenson, M.A. 

F. Maitland, M.A., F.S.A. G. F. Warner, M.A., F.S.A. 

Many archeeological, historical and other societies are assisting in the compilation of this 
work ; and local supervision and aid are secured by the formation in each county, of a County 
Committee, the president of which is in nearly all cases the Lord Lieutenant. 

The names of the distinguished men who have joined the Advisory Council are a 
guarantee that the work will represent the results of the latest discoveries in every department 
of research. It will be observed that among them are representatives of science ; for the 
whole trend of modern thought, as influenced by the theory of evolution, favours the intelli- 
gent study of the past and of the social, institutional and political developments of national 
life. As these histories are the first in which this object has been kept in view, and modern 
principles applied, it is hoped that they will form a work of reference no less indispensable 
to the student than welcome to the man of culture. 


Family History will, both in the Histories and in the supplemental volumes of chart 
pedigrees, be dealt with by genealogical experts and in the modern spirit. Every eflFort will be 
made to secure accuracy of statement, and to avoid the insertion of those legendary pedigrees 
which have in the past brought discredit on the whole subject. It has been pointed out by the 
late Bishop of Oxford, a great master of historical research, that ' the expansion and extension 
of genealogical study is a very remarkable feature of our own times,' that ' it is an increasing 
pursuit both in America and England,' and that it can render the historian useful service. 

Heraldry will also in this Series occupy a prominent position, and the splendours of the 
coat-armour borne in the Middle Ages will be illustrated in colours on a scale that has never 
been attempted before. 

The general plan of Contents, and the names of the Sectional Editors (who will 
co-operate with local workers in every case) are as follows : — 

Natural History. 

Geology. By Clement Reid, F.R.S., Horace B. Woodward, F.R.S., and others 
Palaeontology. Edited by R. Lydekker, F.R.S., etc. 

(Contributions by G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S., F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, M.A., H. N. Dixon, F.L.S., 
G. C. Deuce, M.A., F.L.S., Walter Garstang, M.A., F.L.S., Herbert Goss, F.L.S., F.E.S., 
R. I. PococK, Rev. T.R. R. Stebbing, M.A., F.R.S., etc., B. B.Woodward, F.G.S., F.R.M.S., 
etc., and other Specialists 
Prehistoric Remains. Edited by W. Boyd Dawkins, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A. 
Roman Remains. Edited by F. HAVERriELO, M.A., F.S.A. 

Anglo-Saxon Remains. Edited by C. Hercules Read, F.S.A., and Reginald A. Smith, B,A., F.S.A. 
Ethnography. Edited by G. Laurence Gomme, F.S.A. 
Dialect. Edited by Joseph Wright, M.A., Ph.D. 
Place Names 1 

Folklore >■ Contributed by Various Authorities 

Physical Types J 
Domesday Book and other kindred Records. Edited by J. Horace Round, M.A. 
Architecture. By Various Authorities. The Sections on the Cathedrals and Monastic Remains Edited by 
W. H. St. John Hope, M.A. 

Ecclesiastical History. Edited by R. L. Poole, M.A. 

Political History. Edited by W. H. Stevenson, M.A., J. Horace Round, M.A., Prof. T. F. Tout, M.A. 

James Tait, M.A., and C. H. Firth, M.A. 
History of Schools. Edited by A. F. Leach, M.A., F.S.A. 

Maritime History of Coast Counties. Edited by J. K. Laugbton, M.A., and M. Oppenheim 
Topographical Accounts of Parishes and Manors. By Various Authorities 

History of the Feudal Baronage. Edited by J. Horace Round, M.A., and Oswald Barron, F.S.A. 
Family History and Heraldry. Edited by Oswald Barron, F.S.A. 
Agriculture. Edited by Sir Ernest Clarke, M.A., Sec. to the Royal Agricultural Society 
Forestry. Edited by John Nisbet, D.Oec. 
Industries, Arts and Manufactures \ 

Social and Economic History J- By Various Authorities 

Persons Eminent in Art, Literature, Science J 

Ancient and Modern Sport. Edited by the Duke or Beaufort and E. D. Cuming 
Hunting 1 

Shooting y By Various Authorities 

Fishing, etc. J 

Cricket. Edited by Home Gordon 

Football. Edited by C. W. Alcock 
Names of the Subscribers 


Among the many thousands of subjects illustrated will be castles, cathedrals and churches, 
mansions and manor houses, moot halls and market halls, family portraits, etc. Particular 
attention will be given to the beautiful and quaint examples of architecture which, through 
decay or from other causes, are in danger of disappearing. The best examples of church 
brasses coloured glass, and monumental effigies will be depicted. The Series will also contain 
1 60 pictures in photogravure, showing the characteristic scenery of the counties. 

ix ^ 


Each History will contain Archaeological, Domesday, and Geological maps ; maps show- 
ing the Orography, and the Parliamentary and Ecclesiastical divisions ; and the map done by 
Speed in i6io. The Series will contain about four hundred maps in all. 


The Histories will contain, in the Topographical Section, manorial pedigrees, and 
accounts of the noble and gentle families connected with the local history ; and it is proposed 
to trace, wherever possible, their descendants in the Colonies and the United States of 
America. The Editors will be glad to receive information which may be of service to them 
in this branch of the work. The chart family pedigrees and the arms of the families 
mentioned in the Heralds' Visitations will be issued in a supplemental volume for each county. 

The Rolls of Arms are being completely collated for this work, and all the feudal coats 
will be given in colours. The arms of the local families will also be represented in connection 
with the Topographical Section. 

In order to secure the greatest possible accuracy in the descriptions of the Architecture, 
ecclesiastic, military and domestic, a committee has been formed of the following students of 
architectural history, who will supervise this department of the work : — 


J. BiLsoN, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. W. H. St. John Hope, M.A. 

R. Blomfield W. H. Knowles, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. 

Harold Brakspear, A.R.I. B. A. J. T. Micklethwaite, F.S.A. 

Prof. Baldwin Brown, M.A. Roland Paul 

Arthur S. Flower, F.S.A., A.R.I.B.A. J. Horace Round, M.A. 

George E. Fox, M.A., F.S.A. Percy G. Stone, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. 

J. A. Gotch, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. Thackeray Turner 

A special feature in connection with the Architecture will be a series of coloured ground 
plans showing the architectural history of castles, cathedrals and other monastic foundations. 
Plans of the most important country mansions will also be included. 

The issue of this work ts limited to subscribers only, whose names will he printed at the end of 
each History. 









Counti? Committee for Bebforbebire 


Lord Lieutenant, Chairman 

His Grace The Duke of Bedford, K.G. 
The Rt. Hon. The Viscount Peel 

The Rt. Hon. The Lord Alwyne 

compton, m.p. 
The Rt. Hon. The Lord St. John of 

Sir Robert Pearce Edgcumbe 
His Honour Judge Sir Thomas W. Snagge, 

The Ven. Archdeacon of Bedford 
The Worshipful The Mayor of Bedford 
Major John H. Brooks 
Francis Crawley, Esq., J.P. 
Col. C. Villiers Downes, J.P. 
Col. a. Fyler 

C. R. Wade-Gery, Esq., J.P. 
L. Stileman-Gibbard, Esq., J.P. 
A. R. Goddard, Esq. 

J. Hamson, Esq. 

William Marsh Harvey, Esq. 

H. Longuet Higgins, Esq. 

J. E. King, Esq., Headmaster of Bedford 

Grammar School 
W. W . Marks, Esq. 
J. E. Morris, Esq. 
R. R. B. Orlebar, Esq. 
Guy Pym, Esq., M.P., D.L., J.P. 
Arthur Ransom, Esq. 
James Saunders, Esq., A.L.S. 
Col, F. Shuttleworth 
WoRTHiNGTON G. Smith, Esq., F.L.S., F.A.I. 
Maj.-Gen. a. C. Toker, C.B. 
F. A. Page-Turner, Esq., J.P. 
W. Clarence Watson, Esq. 
Anthony H. Wingfield, Esq., J.P. 
The Rev. V. Wyatt 



Dedication ..... 

The Advisory Council of the Victoria 
General Advertisement . 
The Bedfordshire County Committee 
Contents ..... 

List of Illustrations .... 

Preface ...... 

Table of Abbreviations . 
Natural History 

Geology ..... 

Palaeontology .... 
Botany ..... 


MoUusca {Snails, etc.) 

Insecta {Insects) 

Coleoptera {Beetles) 
Lepidoptera {Butterflies). 
Arachnida {Spiders) 

Crustacea {Crabs, etc.) 

Pisces {Fishes) . 

Reptilia {Reptiles) and 

Batrachia {Batrachians) 

Aves {Birds) . 

Mammalia {Mammals) 

Early Man .... 

Anglo-Saxon Remains 

Introduction to the Bedfordshire 

Text of the Bedfordshire Domesday 

Ancient Earthworks. 

Ecclesiastical History 


By John Hopkinson, F.L.S., F.G.S., and James 
Saunders, A.L.S. .... 

By R. Lydekker, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.L.S. 

By John Hamson and G. Claridge Druce, M.A, 

F.L.S. ; assisted by James Saunders, A.L.S. ani 

E. M. Holmes, F.L.S. . 

By B. B. Woodward, F.G.S., F.R.M.S. 

By the Rev. Canon Fowler, M.A., F.L.S. 

By Charles G. Barrett, F.E.S. . 

By F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, M.A. 

By the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S, 

By Arthur R. Thompson 

By J. Lacey Fishwick .... 
By J. Steele-Elliott .... 
» » .... 

By Worthington G. Smith, F.L.S., F.A.I. 
By Reginald A. Smith, B.A., F.S.A. 

By J. Horace Round, M.A. 

By the Rev. F. W. Ragg, M.A. . 

By A. R. GoDDARD, B.A. 

By the Sister Elspeth of the Community of AH Saints 


















Religious Houses . . . . By the Sister Elspeth of the Community of All Saints 

Introduction .....••••••••' '^° 

Priory of Beaulieu . . . • • • • • • • " • • 35 

Abbey of Elstow 353 

Priory of Markyate 35^ 

Abbey of Warden 3^1 

Woburn 366 

Priory of Dunstable ......••■•••• 37' 

„ Newnham . . . . • • • • • • • • -377 

Caldwell 382 

„ Bushmead ........■•••• 3°5 

Harrold 387 

Chicksand 39° 

Preceptory of Melchbourne . . . . • • • ■ • • • -394 

Franciscans of Bedford. ............ 395 

Dominicans of Dunstable . . . . . . . . • • • -395 

Hospital of St. John, Bedford 39^ 

„ St. Leonard, Bedford 39^ 

„ St. Mary Magdalene, Luton 399 

„ St. John Baptist, Luton .......... 400 

„ Farley near Luton ........... 400 

„ St. Mary Magdalene, Dunstable 400 

„ St. John Baptist, HocklifFe . . . . . . . . . .401 

„ St. John Baptist, Toddington . . . . . . . . .402 

College of Northill ............. 403 

Priory of La Grave or Grovebury .... . . . 403 

Index to the Bedfordshire Domesday. By the Rev. F. W. Ragg, M.A. . . . -405 




Dunstable Priory. Etching by W. Monk ........ frontispiece 

Prehistoric Remains. Figures I to 64 . . . . . . . . . 1 45-1 71 

Pottery Vases from Graves at Kempston . . . . . . . , . .178 

Cinerary Urns from Cemetery at Kempston -v 

Bronze Brooch, Kempston . . • \ • • • • • • • • ■ '79 

Engraved Bronze Brooch, Kempston . . / 

Anglo-Saxon Objects cohured plate, facing 1 80 

Bronze Workbox, Kempston . . . . . . . . . . . .181 

Tin-plate Badge, a fish, Kempston , 


Vase Vifith glass disc, Kempston 

Cinerary Urn, Sandy . . . . . . . ' . . . . . .184 

Merovingian Urn, Toddington . . . . . . . . . . .185 

Bone Combs, Bedford . . . . . . . . . . . . .186 

Bronze-gilt Brooch, Leighton Buzzard . . . . . . . . . .187 

Bronze Brooch, Famdish . . . . . . . . . . . .190 

Ancient Earthvirorks — 

Waulud's Bank 268 

Maiden Bower .............. 270 

Quince Hill 271 

Caesar's Camp, Sandy ............. 272 

Galley Hill, Sandy 274 

Bolnhurst 275 

Church Panel, Shillington 



Higham Gobion 

Etonbury 279 

Plan showing the course of the Ouse . . . . . . . ■ • .280 

Tempsford ............■■• 281 

Willington 282 

Renhold 284 

The Mount, Flitwick 286 

Conger Hill, Toddington . . . . . . . • • • • .287 

Thurieigh 288 

Yelden 290 

Cainhoe 292 

Totternhoe 293 

The Hills, Meppershall 295 

Eaton Socon .........••••■ 298 

John of Gaunt's Hill, Sutton Park 3°° 

Bletsoe Castle 3°' 

xvii c 


Ancient Earthworks {continued) — 

The Creakers .......•■•••'"' 

Newnham Priory .....■■•■••'' ^ ^ 

Keysoe Park .......•■■•••■' ^ 

Mossbury or Mowsbury .....■■■••'' ^ 

The Camps, Bushmead . . . . • • • • • " ' • 3 7 

John Bunyan fo^^^S^ P^"*'' fi""S 34° 

Seals of Religious Houses .....•■•" » >» 35 

„ „ „ 376 

„ „ » 382 

„ „ „ ....•■ 

„ „ >» 392 


Geological Map l'^'^"'' ^"' ' 

Orographical Map • " 24, 25 

Botanical Map » 3°> 37 

Pre-Historical Map » I44» HS 

Anglo-Saxon Map » '74' '75 

Domesday Map „ ^9°' ^9^ 

Earthworks Map » 266, 267 

Ecclesiastical Map >«'»^ 34^ 


Page 209, line 18, for 'Wellow' read 'Willey.' 
Page 235, last line but one, for ' Beauchamp barony of Bedford* 
read ' Beauchamp barony of Eaton.' 



THE present work is the first attempt to compile a history of the 
county of Bedford from original sources. Although Bedfordshire, 
like most English counties, possesses a wealth of materials for 
local history, no systematic collection and arrangement of these materials 
has been undertaken hitherto. The work of some of the contributors 
has consequently been done under great difficulties. 

The editors regret that it has been impossible to follow a strict 
chronological sequence in the present volume. The chapter on the 
Romano-British period will appear in a later volume. 

It may be desirable to point out that in the chapter on the religious 
houses, descriptions and illustrations of the buildings have been purposely 
omitted. They more properly belong to the parish in which the houses 
were situate and will be dealt with there under the section on Topo- 

For the use of some of the illustrations in this volume the editors 
have to thank Mr. Worthington G. Smith and the Council of the Society 
of Antiquaries. 



Abbrev. Plac. (Rec. Abbreviatio Placitorum (Re- 

Com.) cord Commission) 

Acts of P.C. . . Acts of Privy Council 

Add Additional 

Add. Chart. . . Additional Charters 

Admir Admiralty 

Agarde .... Agarde's Indices 

Anct. Corresp. . . Ancient Correspondence 

Anct. D. (P.R.O.) Ancient Deeds (Public Record 
A 2420 Office) A 2420 

Antiq Antiquarian or Antiquaries 

App Appendix 

Arch Archaeologia or Archaeological 

Arch. Cant. . . Archaeologia Cantiana 

Archd. Rec. . . Archdeacon's Records 

Archit Architectural 

Assize R. . . . Assize Rolls 

Aud. OiF. . . . Audit Office 

Aug. Off. . . . Augmentation Office 

Ayloffe .... Ayloffe's Calendars 

Bed Bedford 

Beds Bedfordshire 

Berks .... Berkshire 

Bdle Bundle 

B.M British Museum 

Bodl. Lib. . . . Bodley's Library 

Boro Borough 

Brev. Reg. . . . Brevia Regia 

Brit Britain, British, Britannia, etc. 

Buck Buckingham 

Bucks .... Buckinghamshire 

Cal Calendar 

Camb Cambridgeshire or Cambridge 

Cambr Cambria, Cambrian, Cam- 

brensis, etc. 

Cant Canterbury 

Cap Chapter 

Carl Carlisle 

Cart. Antiq. R. . Cartae Antiquae Rolls 

C.C.C. Camb. . . Corpus Christi College, Cam- 

Certiorari Bdles. Certiorari Bundles (Rolls 

(Rolls Chap.) Chapel) 

Chan. Enr. Decree Chancery Enrolled Decree 

R. Rolls 

Chan. Proc. . . Chancery Proceedings 

Chant. Cert. • . Chantry Certificates (or Cer- 
tificates of Colleges and 

Chap. Ho. . . . Chapter House 

Charity Inq. . . Charity Inquisitions 
Chart. R. 20 Hen. Charter Roll, 20 Henry III. 

III.pt. i. No. 10 part i. Number 10 
Chartul. . . . Chartulary 

Chas Charles 

Ches Cheshire 

Chest Chester 

Ch. Gds. (Exch. Church Goods (Exchequer 
K_R_) King's Remembrancer) 

Chich Chichester 

Chron Chronicle, Chronica, etc. 

Close Close Roll 

Co County 

Colch Colchester 

Coll Collections 

Com Commission 

Com. Pleas . . . Common Pleas 

Conf. R. . . . Confirmation Rolls 

Co. Plac. . . . County Placita 

Cornw Cornwall 

Corp Corporation 

Cott Cotton or Cottonian 

Ct. R Court Rolls 

Ct. of Wards . . Court of Wards 

Cumb Cumberland 

Cur. Reg. . . . Curia Regis 

D. and C. . . . Dean and Chapter 

De Banc. R. . . De Banco Rolls 

Dec. and Ord. . Decrees and Orders 

Dep. Keeper's Rep. Deputy Keeper's Reports 

Derb Derbyshire or Derby 

Devon .... Devonshire 

Doc Documents 

Dods. MSS. . . Dodsvi'orth MSS. 

Dom. Bk. . . . Domesday Book 

Dors Dorsetshire 

Duchy of Lane. . Duchy of Lancaster 

Dur Durham 

East Easter Term 

Eccl Ecclesiastical 

Ecd. Com. . . Ecclesiastical Commission 

Edw Edward 

Eliz Elizabeth 

Engl England or English 

Engl. Hist. Rev. . English Historical Review 

Epis. Reg. . . . Episcopal Registers 
Esch. Enr. Accts. . Escheators Enrolled Accounts 
Excerpta e Rot. Fin. Excerpta e Rotulis Finium 

(Rec. Com.) (Record Commission) 

Exch. Dep. . . Exchequer Depositions 
Exch. K.B. . . Exchequer King's Bench 
Exch. K.R. . . Exchequer King's Remem- 
Exch. L.T.R. . . Exchequer Lord Treasurer's 

Exch. of Pleas, Plea Exchequer of Pleas, Plea Roll 

Exch. of Receipt . Exchequer of Receipt 


Exch. Spec. Com. 

Feet of F. . . . 
Feod. Accts. (Ct. 

of Wards) 
Feod. Surv. (Ct. of 

Feud. Aids . . . 


Foreign R. . . . 
Forest Proc. . . 




Guild Certif. 
(Chan.) Ric. II. 

Hants . . . . 



Heref. . . . . 
Hertf. .... 
Herts . . . . 



Hist. MSS. Com. 


Hund. R. . . . 


Hunts . . . . 

Inq. a.q.d. . . . 

Inq. p.m. . . . 







Lamb. Lib. . . 


L. and P. Hen. 


Ld. Rev. Rec. . . 


Le Neve's Ind. . 







Memo. R. . . . 



Mins. Accts, . . 


Exchequer Special Commis- Misc. Bks. (Exch. Miscellaneous Book (Ex- 

sions K.R., Exch. chequer King's Remem- 

T.R. or Aug. brancer, Exchequer Trea- 

Feet of Fines Off.) sury of Receipt or Aug- 

Feodaries Accounts (Court of mentation OiRce) 

Wards) Mon Monastery, Monasticon 

Feodaries Surveys (Court of Monm Monmouth 

Wards) Mun Muniments or Munimenta 

Feudal Aids Mus Museum 


Foreign Rolls n. ^^^ Q. . . . Notes and Queries 

Forest Proceedmgs Norf. .... Norfolk 

Northampt. . . Northampton 

Genealogical, Genealogica, Northants . . . Northamptonshire 

etc. Northumb. . . . Northumberland 

George Norvir Norwich 

Gloucestershire or Gloucester Nott Nottinghamshire or Notting- 

Guild Certificates (Chancery) ham 

Richard II. N.S New Style 

Hampshire Off. Office 

Harley or Harleian Orig. R. . . . Originalia Rolls 

Henry Oxf. Oxfordshire or Oxford 

Herefordshire or Hereford 

Hertford p pjgg 

Hertfordshire Palmer's Ind. . . Palmer's Indices 

Hilary Term p^j ^f chest. . . Palatinate of Chester 

History, Historical,Historian, Pai. of Dur. . . Palatinate of Durham 

Historia, etc. p^j ^f l^jj^,. . . Palatinate of Lancaster 

Historical MSS. Commission p^^ Parish, Parochial, etc. 

Hospital P3J.J Parliament or Parliamentary 

Hundred Rolls p^rj r Parliament Rolls 

Huntingdon p^^i s„rv. . . . Parliamentary Surveys 

Huntingdonshire Panic, for Gts. . Particulars for Grants 

Pat Patent Roll or Letters Patent 

Inquisitions ad quod dam- P.C.C Prerogative Court of Canter- 

num bury 

Inquisitions post mortem Peterb Peterborough 

Institute or Institution Phil Philip 

Inventory or Inventories pipe R Pipe Roll 

Ipswich Plea R Plea Rolls 

Itinerary Pope Nich. Tax. Pope Nicholas' Taxation (Re- 

(Rec. Com.) cord Commission) 

James P.R.O Public Record Office 

Journal Proc Proceedings 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. . Proceedings of the Society of 

Lambeth Library Antiquaries 

Lancashire or Lancaster pt Part 

Letters and Papers, Hen. Pub Publications 


Lansdowne R Roll 

Land Revenue Records Rec Records 

Leicestershire or Leicester Recov. R. . . . Recovery Rolls 

Le Neve's Indices Rentals and Surv. . Rentals and Surveys 

Library Rep Report 

Lichfield Rev Review 

Lincolnshire or Lincoln Ric Richard 

London Roff. .... Rochester diocese 

Rot. Cur. Reg. . Rotuli Curiae Regis 

Membrane Rut Rutland 


Memoranda Rolls Sarum .... Salisbury diocese 

Michaelmas Term Ser Series 

Middlesex Sess. R Sessions Rolls 

Ministers' Accounts Shrews Shrewsbury 



Shrops . . . . 

Soc. Antiq. . 


Somers. Ho. 

S.P. Dom. . . . 

StafF. . . . . 

Star Chamb. Proc. 



Subs. R. . . . 




Surv. of Ch. Liv- 
ings (Lamb.) or 


Society of Antiquaries 
Somerset House 
State Papers Domestic 

Star Chamber Proceedings 
Subsidy Rolls 

Surveys of Church Livings 
(Lambeth) or (Chancery) 

Topog Topography or Topographi- 
Trans Transactions 

Transl Translation 

Treas Treasury or Treasurer 

Trin Trinity Term 

Univ University 

Valor Eccl. (Rec. Valor Ecclesiasticus (Record 

Com.) Commission) 

Vet. Mon. . . . Vetusta Monumenta 

V.C.H Victoria County History 

Vic Victoria 

vol Volume 

Warw Warwickshire or Warwick 

Westm Westminster 

Will William 

Wilts .... Wiltshire 

Winton. . . . Winchester diocese 

Wore Worcestershire or Worcester 








J & B flrtbolionpvr 


oil nty Boiinday y s h n in n thus 


THE strata which form the groundwork of Bedfordshire, under- 
lying the surface-soil and other superficial accumulations, con- 
sist of rocks of Jurassic and Cretaceous age. With the ex- 
ception of the oldest bed that comes to the surface in the 
county, which is an estuarine deposit, they are entirely of marine origin. 
The freshwater or lacustrine beds which were deposited in the south of 
England at the commencement of the Cretaceous period are absent, and 
so also are the estuarine which were laid down in that area before the 
close of the Jurassic period. With this break in the succession of the 
strata there appears to be a slight unconformability, the Cretaceous rocks 
not lying quite evenly upon the Jurassic. A few small outliers of beds 
of Eocene age rest upon the Cretaceous rocks, indicating the former 
extension of the Eocenes of the London Basin far to the north of the 
main mass. The strata dip more or less towards the south-east, so that, 
proceeding in a north-westerly direction, they are seen to crop out 
successively in descending order. 

Bedfordshire is almost entirely within the catchment-basin of the 
Great Ouse. Its surface slopes on the whole from south-west to north- 
east, towards the great marshy tract of the Bedford Level through which 
the Ouse flows on its way to its embouchure in the Wash. It presents 
a series of shallow valleys and gently rising hills which follow in the 
main the same direction as the general inclination of the surface and 
coincide with the strike or trend of the strata. A rather prominent and 
very picturesque ridge crosses the county from Leighton Buzzard to 
Sandy, defining the limits of the Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks and form- 
ing the water-parting between the valley of the Ouse and that of its 
tributary the Ivel. Each of these valleys, when viewed from the hills 
on its southern margin, owing to its shallowness presents the appearance 
of a plain, that on the north consisting of Jurassic rocks with hills of 
but slight elevation, and that on the south of Cretaceous rocks rising 
along its south-eastern margin into hills which attain a considerable 
altitude. The most prominent of these are known as the Barton Hills 
and the Dunstable Downs. They form the north-eastern termination of 
the Chilterns, a range of hills situated entirely on the Chalk and gradu- 
ally approaching its escarpment in its passage through Oxfordshire, 
Buckinghamshire, and the west and north-west of Hertfordshire. In 
crossing the south-east of Bedfordshire this range forms the water- 
parting between the catchment-basin of the Ouse and that of the 


Thames, and attains an elevation of about 800 feet at the highest part of 
the Dunstable Downs between Kensworth and the Five Knolls. Al- 
though the most striking feature of the county, these hills do not present 
abrupt or rugged outlines, their contour being rounded and gently un- 
dulating, the result of very gradual and long-continued sub-aerial denu- 


Owing to the absence of deep borings in Bedfordshire we are 
without any actual knowledge of the disposition of the Pateozoic rocks 
which underlie the Mesozoic strata, but we may form some idea of it 
from the facts which borings made beyond the limits of the county 
have revealed. A few miles to the south-east a ridge of Silurian rocks 
underlies Hertfordshire at a depth of about 800 feet, the strata dipping 
to the south at a high angle, and upon the southern flanks of this old 
ridge repose Devonian rocks dipping a little west of south at a much 
less inclination. A few miles to the west or north-west, in Northamp- 
tonshire, the Carboniferous Limestone has been met with at a depth of 
980 feet. The Coal Measures occur at a great depth in Oxfordshire 
and come to the surface in Warwickshire. 

From this evidence, and that afforded by other borings at a greater 
distance, we may infer that the old Silurian ridge of Hertfordshire is 
the southern fold of an anticline which probably passes under Luton 
and is flanked on its northern fold by Devonian rocks which extend at 
least so far to the north as Bedford. This ancient land-surface sinks 
as it trends from east to west, in which direction the Devonian rocks 
are succeeded or overlaid by Carboniferous, but it is scarcely likely 
that any more recent division of that series than the Carboniferous 
Limestone comes on within the county. There may however be, in 
the north, a syncline or the southern margin of one in which the Mill- 
stone Grit may lie, possibly succeeded by the Coal Measures. 

During Permian and Triassic times this area, with the whole of 
the south-east of England from Norfolk to Kent and Sussex, was prob- 
ably a land-surface over which rivers flowed ; in the earlier period to- 
wards the north, depositing their sediment in the lakes or inland seas 
which existed just before the close of the Paleozoic epoch ; and in the 
later period, after a further upheaval of the land, in a westerly direction 
towards the more extensive sea which, at the commencement of the 
Mesozoic or Secondary epoch, divided the east of England from Wales 
and western Devon. The shore-line of this Triassic sea, which we 
know from its deposit of rock-salt to have been land-locked, was some 
distance to the north of Bedfordshire but not far from its western border. 
In the succeeding Liassic period, with which Jurassic times commenced, 
owing to the gradual sinking of the land, the sea became oceanic, en- 
croaching upon the area which now comprises the county and laying 
down sediment within it. It is at this point therefore that our certain 
knowledge of the geology of this district commences. 




Character of Strata 

thickness in feet 



Valley Gravels .... 

River-mud, etc 

Gravels of existing rivers . . 



River Drift 

Clay-with-flints . . . 

Glacial Drift . . . ■ 

Older river-gravel and sand 
Reddish clay (on Chalk only) . 
Loam and sandy clay . . . 

Gravel and sand 

Boulder-clay with chalk and 




3-1 OO 


Reading Beds .... 

Plastic clay, loam, and sand 

? 10 shown 


Upper Chalk .... 
Middle Chalk ... 

Lower Chalk ... 7 

Upper Greensand . . . 
Upper Gault .... 

Lower Gault .... 

Soft white chalk with layers of 

Chalk Rock — very hard, cream- 
coloured chalk 

Hard white chalk with few flints 

Melbourn Rock — hard, nodular 

Grey and white chalk . . . 

White blocky and hard grey 

Totternhoe Stone — hard, sandy 

Chalk Marl — grey, marly chalk 

Chloritic Marl or Cambridge 
Greensand — glauconitic marl 

Micaceous and glauconitic sand 

Variously-coloured clay, part 
sandy, and clayey sand . . 

Light and dark grey marly and 
sandy clay 

lOO shown 


2 00-2 I O 










Lower Greensand . . 

Woburn Sands and Potton Beds 
— brown ferruginous sand- 
stone, dark clay, and light- 
coloured sands, rarely green. 


Upper Jurassic 

Kimeridge Clay . . . 
Ampthill Clay .... 

Oxford Clay .... 
Kellaways Rock . . . 

Dark-coloured clay and shale . 

Black clay with bands of lime- 

Greenish grey and brown clay 

Calcareous grit, shale, and sand- 




Middle Jurassic 


Great Oolite Clay. . . 

Great Oolite Limestone . 
Upper Estuarine Series . 

Inferior Oolite .... 

Tough grey limestone and clay 

Variegated clays, partly calca- 

Limestone, marl, and clay . . 

Variegated sandy clays and lime- 

Northampton Sands — brown 
sandstone and ironstone 





Lower Jurassic 

Upper Lias 

Blue clay and shale . . . 

66 seen 


The geological formations represented in Bedfordshire, with their 
chief lithological characters and approximate thickness, are given in the 
table on the preceding page, in descending order, the names of the for- 
mations which do not come to the surface in the county being prmted 
in italics. 

In the following account of the Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks, at 
the head of each division are given the geographical names adopted for 
the formations or their subdivisions by continental and by some English 
geologists, the lithological names in general use in this country, and the 
life-zones represented in the county. 

Toarcian . . Upper Lias . . Zone of Ammonites communis 

The oldest formation of the occurrence of which within the county 
we have actual evidence is the highest division of the Lower Jurassic 
series, the Upper Lias, and that does not come to the surface, having 
only been met with in well-borings at Sharnbrook and Felmersham, 
where it appears as a blue clay. The greatest thickness passed into being 
66 feet, it is not likely that the lower zone of the Upper Lias, that of 
Ammonites serpentinus, has been reached. The strata rise towards the 
north-west, and both zones crop out in Northamptonshire. The mud 
of which the Liassic clays are composed was probably derived from 
the erosion of Carboniferous shales, the sediment having been deposited 
in the sea whilst its bed was sinking, a process which had been going 
on throughout Permian and Triassic times. 


(Cornbrash .... Zone of Ammonites discus 
Great Oolite ... „ A. gracilis 

Upper Estuarine Series „ Modiola imbricata 

Bajocian Inferior Oolite ... „ Ammonites opalinus 

The Inferior Oolite is represented only by the Northampton Sand, 
a passage-bed between the Lias and the Oolites, and by some geologists 
considered to belong to the older formation. It has been su^k into at 
Wymington, yielding a supply of water. It comes to the surface in the 
adjoining county of Northampton, where it consists of sandy ironstones 
with a thin bed of coarse oolitic limestone on the top. It represents 
the Midford Sand of Dorset and Somerset and the lower part of the 
Inferior Oolite of Cheltenham, and indicates a change of conditions to 
a more shallow sea than that of the Liassic period. 

The Upper Estuarine Series is the oldest formation which comes to 
the surface in the county. At Bedford it is 70 feet beneath the surface, 
and its outcrop, which is not a continuous one, is some miles to the 
north-west. It consists of sand and sandy clay of various colours with 
irregular layers of limestone here and there, and is of fluvio-marine 
origin, showing alternations of marine and freshwater conditions, and 



yielding, besides aquatic forms of life, remains of land plants and 
animals. It varies much in thickness within short distances, and in 
fact is not a persistent bed, sometimes occurring only in ' pockets ' or 
'pipes' let down into the underlying strata. The Series is a richly 
fossiliferous one in some places, but not here, and it represents in time 
the Stonesfield Slate of the south of England, from which have been 
obtained many fine fossils that adorn the walls of our museums. 

While estuarine and freshwater conditions continued in the north, 
marine conditions set in from Lincolnshire southwards, commencing 
with the deposition of oolitic limestone. This does not indicate a 
deep sea, for the limestone was in all probability the detritus of coral 
reefs, which are built up in shallow water on a slowly-sinking sea-bed. 
The influx of the sea must have been from the south, and the warm 
currents thus brought in would be favourable to the growth of coralsi 
The Great Oolite here consists of two divisions which are not very dis- 
tinct from each other — the Great Oolite Limestone and the Great 
Oolite Clay. The former is by far the most persistent, extending 
through the midland and southern counties, while the latter is repre- 
sented in the south of England by the Forest Marble, a shallow-water 
and perhaps partly estuarine deposit which gradually takes its place. 

The Great Oolite Limestone is quarried for lime-burning and for 
use as a building-stone at several places near Bedford, where its thick- 
ness varies from 25 to 32 feet. It extends from Kempston south of 
Bedford westwards to Cold Brayfield, Carlton, and Harrold, and north- 
wards to Puddington and Farndish. It usually consists of pale grey, 
dark blue, and bluish-grey limestone, either earthy, oolitic, or flaggy, in 
beds of varying thickness (from i foot to 10 feet) separated by thinner 
beds of pale grey, dark blue, or mottled clay or clayey marl, both lime- 
stone and clay frequently being crowded with specimens of Ostrea 
sowerbyi. The limestone is occasionally false-bedded or current-bedded, 
which indicates shallow-water deposition, this inference being confirmed 
by the great variations in the thickness and character of the beds which 
take place within short distances. After O. sowerbyi the next most fre- 
quent fossil is O. subrugulosa. Myadae are abundant, and remains of 
saurians and fishes also frequently occur. 

The water-supply of Bedford is derived from this formation. The 
water has been analysed, with that from the River Ouse adjacent to the 
pumping-station, by Professor- Attfield, F.R.S.' Both waters are hard, 
but the well-water is about twice as hard as the river-water. 

The Great Oolite Clay is very variable in colour, calcareous in 
places, contains selenite, and has at or near its base a nodular ironstone 
band about which the clay is sometimes dark and carbonaceous. It 
occurs near Bedford but is not persistent ; the Cornbrash, at West End, 
Stevington, resting directly on bluish oolitic limestone. It is only a 
few feet in thickness. 

1 See Trans. Herts Nat. Hist. Soc. iv. xxviii.-xxix (1888). 


The CoRNBRASH consists of tough pale-grey rubbly limestone, usually 
shelly and sometimes sandy, and occurring in irregular layers parted by 
bands of softer limestone and occasional seams of marly and sandy clay. 
In most of its exposures it is seen to be crowded with fossils, chiefly 
Lamellibranchiata, the prevailing genera being Avicula^ Ostrea, Pecten, 
and Lima. It is by some geologists considered to be distinct from the 
Great Oolite, and by others to be a member of it, being everywhere its 
highest subdivision. It appears to have been laid down at a considerable 
distance from land in a rather shallow sea varying in depth from time to 
time. Rarely exceeding i o feet in thickness, and being a persistent and 
well-marked formation, it is of value in the determination of the general 
dip of the strata. The river Ouse, in its devious windings through Bucks 
and Beds, has cut through it into the Great Oolite Limestone, the in- 
clination of the river-bed being a little less than the dip of the Corn- 
brash. Thus at Bradwell near Stony Stratford the river-bed is 200 feet 
above mean sea-level, and the Cornbrash just comes up to the 300 feet 
contour-line ; at Harrold the height of the river is 130 feet, and that of 
the Cornbrash 210 ; and at Bedford the river is 80 and the Cornbrash 
120 feet above sea-level. There appears to be a local upheaval at Brad- 
well in Bucks, but in its range through Beds the dip of the Cornbrash 
seems to be very slight and fairly uniform, its direction being considerably 
to the east of south-east. It follows that this is the direction of the dip 
of the Jurassic strata above and below which are conformable with it, 
while the Cretaceous rocks dip in a more southerly direction. 

The Cornbrash is quarried for building, road-making, and lime- 
burning. Its presence near Bedford was known in the early days of 
geology (so far back as 18 18), when it was called the ' Bedford Lime- 
stone.' To the rubble on its surface the name ' Cornbrash soil ' was 
given, this being an old agricultural term for certain stony or brashy 
soils which are well suited to the growth of corn.^ The average width 
of its exposure in the county is about a quarter ot a mile and does not 
vary greatly. 


Kimeridgian | f^'"'"'!!^^?^^ * ' , ^°"^ "'^ Ammonites hlplex 

^ \ Ampthill Clay f „ A. plkatilis 

((= Corallian) \ „ A. perarmatus 

Oxford Clay and ( „ A. cordatus 

Kellaways Rock \ „ A. jason 

The Kellaways Rock is usually considered to be a subordinate 
division of the Oxford Clay, coming in above the lower portion of the 
clay, the great mass of which is always above it. Although it is so 
mapped by the Geological Survey, it would perhaps be better either to 
call the lower bed of clay the Kellaways Clay, as suggested by Mr. H. 
B. Woodward, or to group the clay and ' rock ' together under the name 
of Kellaways Beds. While the clay indicates a rather deep sea, the rock 

1 H. B. Woodward, Jurassic Rocks of Britain, iv. 380, 451. 


gives indications of shallow-water conditions, for its sandy nature and 
the presence in it of lignite, as at Oakley north of Bedford, point to the 
proximity of land, while its ammonites indicate that a fairly deep sea 
was not far distant. The best sections are to be seen in the vicinity of 
Bedford, where it generally occurs as a calcareous sandstone with a thick 
bed of sand at its base and a thin layer of shelly limestone at its summit, 
from 7 to lo feet of clay separating it from the underlying Cornbrash. 
The sandstone often takes the form of irregular concretions or ' doggers ' 
of varying size up to lo feet in diameter imbedded in sand and some- 
times united in pairs like the figure 8. Many of these nodular concre- 
tions may be seen projecting from the sides of the cutting on the 
Midland Railway at Oakley. The clay contains selenite and ' race' ; the 
sand is destitute of fossils ; but the sandstone is very fossiliferous, having 
numerous Mollusca, including Myacites recurvus in abundance, and species 
of Ammonites, Ancyloceras, Pleuromya, etc. Gryphcea bilobata and Belem- 
nites oweni occur in shelly layers. 

Although the Oxford Clay is usually a greenish-grey and brown 
clay, it is by no means entirely clay. The following strata were pierced 
in a boring at Northill, three miles north-west of Biggleswade : — 

Boulder Clay, 104 feet. 

Oxford Clay : green clay, 12 ft. ; blue clay, 10 ft. ; blue clay and shells, 9 ft. ; dark 
green clay, 13 ft. 6 in. ; black stone, 4 ft. 6 in. ; greenish clay and shells, 20 ft. ; 
live sand, 9 ft. ; sandy blue clay, 9 ft. ; sand-rock, 7 ft. 4 in. ; blue clay and 
shells, 2 ft. 6 in. ; rock and blue clay, i ft. 9 in. ; limestone, 2 ft. 8 in. ; sandy 
blue clay, 3 ft. ; blue stone, 3 ft. 6 in. ; sandy clay, 4 ft. 10 in. ; limestone, 
4 ft. ; sandy clay and stone, 3 ft. Total depth, 223 ft. 7 in. 

This section is of interest not only for the great variation which it 
shows in the strata which here constitute the higher portion of the 
Oxford Clay, but also in bringing to light such an enormous thickness 
of boulder clay. In giving it Mr. H. B. Woodward ' says that ' portions 
of the upper beds grouped with the Oxford Clay may represent the 
Ampthill Clay.' Elsewhere there are bands of limestone near the top of 
the Oxford Clay, as at Sandy, 2 miles north-east of Northill, where 
there is stiff grey clay with ferruginous concretions, selenite, and a band 
of earthy limestone from 6 to 8 inches thick ; at Ampthill Park where 
the railway-cutting exposes dark blue clay with symmetrical crystals of 
selenite and seams of hard grey limestone varying from a foot to 18 
inches in thickness ; and at Ridgmont and Aspley Guise near Woburn. 
The great mass of the formation, which attains a thickness of nearly 
400 feet, is more homogeneous in character, indicating a prolonged 
period of deep-sea conditions over an extensive area, although near its 
base lignite and saurian bones have been found. It would appear that the 
sea-bed was sinking during its formation more rapidly than the sediment 
accumulated, and yet very slowly if the vast period of time which this 
accumulation must have occupied be considered. Its fossils are mostly 
pelagic forms, ammonites preponderating and Ammonites cordatus bemg 

^ Jurassic Rocks of Brita'm, v. 5 1. 


abundant. Right across Bedfordshire, from Leighton to Potton, the 
Lower Greensand covers much of the upper portion of the Oxford Clay 
as well as the succeeding Ampthill and Kimeridge Clays, overlapping 
these formations, and more to the north the lower portion is overlaid by 
boulder clay. This makes its precise limits difficult to ascertain in some 
districts, but it is known to extend over the greater part of North Beds. 
There are many brickfields in it, and where boulder clay overlies it an 
admixture of the two clays is found to be advantageous in brick-making. 
Boulder clay over Oxford Clay makes a very tenacious soil, retentive of 
moisture and well suited to the growth of corn. 

The Ampthill Clay was formed under much the same conditions 
as the Oxford Clay below it, and the Kimeridge Clay above, and consti- 
tutes a passage-bed between them, having an admixture of their fossils. 
Being a comparatively deep-sea representative of the Corallian beds, 
which owe their origin to the destructive action of the sea on coral-reefs, 
it is frequently called Corallian, but the term is scarcely applicable. The 
two life-zones of the Corallian stone-beds are very distinct, but although 
both are probably present in the Ampthill Clay, they cannot be dis- 
tinguished in either Beds or Cambs owing to the Oxfordian and Kime- 
rigian fossils being mixed. The Ampthill resembles the Oxford Clay in 
not being a bed of clay only. In the cutting north of Ampthill railway 
station it consists of a thin septarian band with Ostrea discoidea in and 
beneath it ; 50 feet of marly shale and stiff clay, with selenite, a layer 
of calcareous nodules with Ischyodus, and a rusty band with Ammonites 
cordatus and other fossils ; a thin band of pale earthy limestone ; 6 feet 
of grey and yellow marly shale ; and a rubbly rock-bed at the base, 4 ft. 
6 in. thick, and containing numerous fossils ; the whole (given in de- 
scending order) resting upon Oxford Clay and being surmounted by 
Kimeridge Clay.* The outcrop of the Ampthill Clay is concealed for 
the most part by the overlapping of the Lower Greensand. 

In this section at Ampthill there appears above the Ampthill Clay 
a bed of clay and dark-blue shale, i o feet thick, with Ammonites biplex, 
Ostrea deltoidea, and other fossils, which is of Kimeridge Clay age, and 
has boulder clay resting unconformably upon it. The Kimeridge Clay 
must here have suffered very considerable denudation. Elsewhere it 
usually varies from 400 to 1,000 feet in thiekness, but near Aylesbury it 
is not more than 1 00 feet thick. Here only its base is seen, the higher 
beds having been washed away, together probably with the succeeding 
Portland Beds, of which the only trace in the county consists of fossils in 
the Lower Greensand which have been derived from Portlandian strata. 
It was probably the presence of these fossils which led Professor A. C. 
Ramsay to say that outliers of the Portland Stone occur in Bedfordshire^ 
rightly adding that ' the whole has evidently been exposed to denudation 
before the deposition of the Cretaceous rocks.' * 

' Jurassic Rocks pf Britain, V. 135. 
^ Physical Geology and Geography of Great Britain, &L 5, p. 191. 





It will be seen from the foregoing that although the Kimeridge Clay 
in this district is in immediate contact with the Lower Greensand, the 
two formations are in point of time widely separated ; but the slight 
unconformability between them gives very little indication of the great 
changes which occurred in the distribution of land and sea, and of the 
vast amount of sediment which was elsewhere deposited between the 
close of the Jurassic period in this district and the commencement of 
the Cretaceous. 

With the increasing depth of the Jurassic sea, the western margin 
of the land of the south-east of England was gradually encroached upon ; 
but it was not until Cretaceous times that the whole of this area was 
completely submerged, and it is doubtful how far until then the sea 
covered that portion of it which is now known as Bedfordshire. To- 
wards the close of the Jurassic period the sea became shallower ; but the 
Portland Beds, consisting mainly of sands and limestone, appear to have 
been laid down on the whole in clear water at some distance from the 
estuaries of rivers. The Portland sea probably extended over part of the 
county, and on the upheaval of the sea-bed its sediment would form the 
surface of the land, constituting a plain flanking the Palseozoic hills of 
Middlesex, Hertfordshire, and South Bedfordshire. That this plain 
was subjected to denudation we know, for not only have the Portland 
Beds been washed away on the north of these hills, leaving a few of 
their fossils as witnesses of their former presence, but a great part of 
the underlying Kimeridge Clay has also been removed. 

About this period considerable earth-movements took place here and 
elsewhere, the result in Bedfordshire being an elevation of the strata 
towards the west or a depression towards the east, and in Hertfordshire 
a depression by which the Palaeozoic range of hills was ultimately sub- 
merged some i,ooo or 2,000 feet. This was probably between the 
close of the Portland and the commencement of the Purbeck period, or 
mainly in this interval, for not a single species is known to pass from the 
one formation to the othier, which indicates a great lapse of time. It is 
true that some forms, such as Ammonites and Belemnites amongst the Mol- 
lusca, and Ichthyosaurus and Plesiosaurus amongst the Vertebrata, main- 
tained their existence as genera and are well represented in the local 
strata of both the Jurassic and the Cretaceous period, but no species ap- 
pears to have survived the changes which took place between the depo- 
sition of the Kimeridge Clay and that of the Lower Greensand. 

The Portland Beds are marine ; the Purbecks are partly marine 
and partly freshwater, and they seem to have been deposited chiefly in 
an extensive lagoon on the eroded surface of the Portlands. In the south 
of England they are succeeded by the freshwater Wealden strata, 2,000 
feet in thickness, of which no trace is known to exist beyond the Vale 
of Wardour ; unless the silicified wood found at Brickhill near Woburn, 
I 9 2 


and the plant, Endogenites erosa, and remains of Iguanodon from Potton, 
have been derived from the Wealden as suggested by Mr. Walter Keeping/ 
In all probability however the deposition of the Wealden strata over the 
south-east of England, which must have occupied a great length of time, 
took place whilst the whole of Bedfordshire was above sea-level, and 
therefore whilst the Kimeridge Clay was subjected to sub-aerial denu- 
dation, by which its higher beds, with the overlying Portlandian, were 

During the long period occupied in the accumulation of the Creta- 
ceous strata there was a nearly continuous and usually gradual change 
from comparatively shallow seas to those which were much deeper if not 
truly oceanic, occasionally interrupted by temporary elevations of the 
sea-bed. These alterations in the depths of the marine areas were 
accompanied by important changes in the character of the fauna. Many 
of the earlier Cretaceous forms became extinct and were superseded by 
others of newer types, noteworthy amongst which are the echinoderms 
Holaster, Galerites, and Micraster ; the lamellibranch Hippurites ; the 
cephalopods Hamites and Scaphites ; the fishes Lamna, Otodus, and Pty- 
chodus ; and the reptile Polyptychodon ; species of all of these genera 
having been recorded for the county. 

Vectian or Aptian. Lower Greensand. Zone of "ferebratula sella 

Owing to the absence of beds of Wealden age the Lower Creta- 
ceous rocks are in this district represented only by the Lower Green- 
sand, which is the equivalent of the higher division of the Vectian of the 
south of England and the Aptian of western Europe ; the lower division 
consisting in the Wealden area and the Isle of Wight of the Atherfield 
Clay, a very fossiliferous marine deposit having no representative in 

The Lower Greensand extends across the county from Leighton 
Buzzard to Potton, forming a very picturesque range of hills running 
generally from south-west to north-east. For some portion of its extent 
it is concealed by the boulder clay and alluvium of the valley of the 
Ivel, and on reappearing it attains a considerable elevation in the vicin- 
ity of Sandy, having there a rather steep and very prominent escarp- 
ment. Its maximum thickness is about 220 feet and its exposure is 
several miles in width, the area it covers being more extensive than 
in any other of the midland counties. In passing under the newer 
strata in a south-easterly direction it thins out rapidly, terminating in 
the adjoining county of Hertford somewhere between Hitchin and Ware. 
It was the absence of the knowledge of this fact which led the late Sir 
Joseph Prestwich to believe that it might form a valuable water-bearing 
stratum for the supply of London ; but although he was mistaken on this 
point, owing to no boring having at that time (1851) been carried to a 

* In Geol. Mag. dec. z, vol. ii. p. 375. 


sufficient depth to prove that it thus thinned out, his ' Geological Inquiry 
respecting the Water-bearing Strata or the Country around London ' is 
a classic of geological literature replete with valuable information. 

Near Leighton the Lower Greensand consists for the most part of 
white and light-coloured sand known as ' silver sand,' which has an 
industrial value.^ It is now chiefly obtained for filter-beds, but it is in 
places so free from iron and other colouring matter that it has been used 
for glass-making. The larger quartz grains show signs of attrition, being 
rounded and polished, like the sands of the sea-shore. 

At Leighton and near Silsoe a bed of dark-brown ferruginous sand- 
stone is exposed which is sufficiently indurated to be of service for 
building purposes, several churches in this part of the county being 
built of it, but it weathers rather rapidly and very unevenly. This 
' carstone,' as it has been called, is a local feature which has been stated 
to be dependent on the presence beneath the sand of beds of clay which 
have arrested the percolation of ferruginous water." Opposite the Castle 
Hill near Clophill there is a very instructive section showing i o feet of 
dark-coloured clay, called by the workmen ' black clay ' to distinguish it 
from the ' blue clay ' of the Gault, occurring in three distinct beds of 
about equal thickness with thin layers of sand between them, dark-red 
carstone being above the clay and light-coloured sand beneath it ; but 
elsewhere the carstone is frequently seen resting on light-coloured sand 
with no trace of clay. The sand is, wherever exposed, seen to be 
partially or wholly false-bedded, showing that it was deposited in a 
shallow sea with shifting currents. The false-bedding is also evident 
in the carstone whether it occurs in a continuous layer or in isolated 
masses which are called ' doggers.' Concretions of brown iron-oxide are 
of frequent occurrence. 

At the base of the series near Woburn, and at a rather higher 
horizon near Potton, there is a peculiar bed of variable thickness (6 inches 
to 2 feet) consisting for the most part of pebbles with water-worn fossils 
derived from a distant source, and containing also numerous (so-called) 
' coprolites.' The pebbles are of quartz, quartzite, limestone, ironstone, 
slate, etc., and they are sometimes cemented into a hard rock by car- 
bonate of lime. Sub-angular fragments of rock also occur. Most of 
the fossils are derived from older beds, the majority of Upper Jurassic 
and some of Lower Cretaceous age. With these may sometimes be 
found fossils proper to the formation, that is which lived in Vectian 
times. The indigenous fossils are chiefly brachiopods and lamellibranchs ; 
the derived fossils, teeth and bones of saurians and fishes. At Mill- 
brook have been found remains of the saurians Ichthyosaurus, Pksiosaurus, 
and Dakosaurus, and of the fishes Sphcerodus, Pycnodus, and Acrodus. 
Most of these also occur in the neighbourhood of Potton ; and in 
addition a previously undescribed brachiopod, I'erebratula dallasii, and 

' Analyses of this sand from Heath near Leighton are given in E. W. Lewis's Lectures on the Geology 
of Leighton Buzzard, p. 6i (1872). 

" H. B. Woodward, Geology of England and Wales, ed. 2, p. 379 (1887). 


a cycadian stem, Cycadoidea yatesii^ amongst other forms, have been 
found there. One of the most abundant of the derived fossils is 
Ammonites biplex. The bed has long been worked for the phosphate of 
lime which its coprolitic nodules contain, but all the workings in the 
county are now closed. 

At a higher horizon are beds of fullers' earth which have formed 
an item of local commerce for the last two centuries. This earth occurs 
in ' tabular lenticular masses,' ^ the areas and thicknesses of which vary 
considerably. It is an ' earthy hydrated silicate of alumina ' possessing 
saponaceous and detergent qualities which render it of use in certain 
industrial operations. Its colour varies in the different seams, its hues 
being sometimes sharply defined and at other times graduated*; the 
variations in shade are not accompanied by important alterations in 
chemical composition. A peculiarity of this mineral is that although it 
has an argillaceous base it has no coherent properties, being quite un- 
suited for the manufacture of pottery. For a long period it was obtained 
by sinking ' earth-wells,' usually unprotected by masonry or brickwork. 
This method was superseded about the year 1890, when two companies 
were formed for working the bed. The most modern machinery was 
employed and extensive mining operations were carried on for some 
time, but the concerns did not prove a financial success and the works 
were closed in 1901. 

Quite recently ' a fossiliferous band of much interest has been dis- 
covered at the summit of the series in pits which have been opened on 
Shenley Hill near Leighton in order to obtain the silver sand before 
mentioned. The fossils occur in blocks of ' hard, horny-looking, gritty 
limestone ' between two undulating floors of iron-grit at the junction of 
the Lower Greensand with the Gault. These blocks, as well as the iron- 
grit bands, afford evidence of having been ' uncovered on the sea-floor,' 
where they have been eroded by current-action, but ' the shells embedded 
in the limestone, although fragile, are in splendid preservation, and rarely 
show even the slightest traces of abrasion.' Brachiopods are by far the 
most numerous ; next come the pectens ; spines of echinoderms are 
rather plentiful ; and amongst other fossils are joints of a crinoid, cara- 
paces of a crustacean, and polyzoa with which many fossils are encrusted. 
The chief interest in this discovery lies in the fact that the fauna has a 
decidedly Upper Greensand facies ; so much so that were not the strati- 
graphical position of the bed so clearly defined it might have been con- 
cluded to be of Upper Greensand age. Similar forms of life doubtless 
appear under similar conditions, but the connection is here so close that 
it leads to the inference that the Lower and Upper Greensand must some- 
where be continuous, the fauna of the Lower Greensand migrating under 

* Carruthers, Geol. Mag. iv. 199, pi. ix. (1867). 

* A. C. G. Cameron, The Geology of the Fullers' Earth (1893). Mr. Cameron has added greatly 
to our knowledge of the geology of Bedfordshire, and this is the best account we possess of fullers' earth 
as it occurs in the county. 

3 G. W. Lamplugh and J. F. Wallcer, ' On a Fossiliferous Band at the Top of the Lower Green- 
sand near Leighton Buzzard,' ^art. Journ. Geol. Soc. lix. 234-65 (1903). 



the altered conditions of the Gault period and coming back with no 
further change than would occur in its natural process of development 
and modification elsewhere during the deposition of the Gault. 

The town of Leighton Buzzard derives its water-supply from the 
Lower Greensand, but the formation is not here a very satisfactory water- 
bearing one. The yield is sufficiently copious, but the presence of iron 
in a form exceedingly difficult to get rid of is a great drawback. The 
water is rather hard, but is much softened by ebullition.' 

A well for the supply of Biggleswade has recently (1903) been sunk 
into the same formation, the Greensand having been reached at a depth 
of 1 1 o feet. At 1 70 feet it was found to contain a seam of rock, which, 
with the sand immediately overlying it, is coloured green through the 
presence of grains of glauconite. 


(Upper Greensand . . Zone of Pecten asper 
Upper Gault ... „ Ammonites rostratus 

Lower Gault ... „ A. interruptus 

While in the Vectian epoch only a small portion of England was 
submerged, all in its eastern division; in the Selbornian the sea extended 
so far to the west as Devonshire, and probably covered the whole of the 
Midland as well as the Eastern Counties. The sea-bed sank as it gradu- 
ally extended, and may have reached a depth of several hundred fathoms 
before the close of the period. The composition and fossil contents of 
the Lower Gault however indicate a comparatively shallow sea, not so 
deep as 100 fathoms and probably not averaging more than half that 
depth. The passage from the Lower Greensand to the Lower Gault is 
in some places continuous and in others shows a decided break, apparently 
owing to the former not having been entirely submerged when the 
deposition of the latter commenced. Thus in a brickfield south of 
Leighton no distinct line of demarcation can be seen, the Gault clay 
gradually becoming more sandy downwards until it passes into a clayey 
sand with small pebbles, and that into a coarse yellow sand, obliquely 
bedded, the pebbly bed marking the base of the Gault and indicating 
current-erosion. In a sand-pit north of Leighton, on the other hand, a 
well-marked plane of division may be seen, ' 14 feet of dark-grey clay 
with small patches of bright-red clay at the base resting directly on 
yellow sand.'* 

The Lower Gault stretches right across Bedfordshire, from south of 
Leighton to west of Potton, but in a portion of its course eastwards from 
Heath and Reach it is covered by drift deposits ; it is again exposed to 
the south of Flitton, Silsoe, and Sheffiard. On the slopes of the Lower 
Greensand hills to the north of the Ivel valley there are several small 
outliers of it, and there is a large one north of Sheffiard. It is the 

' Analyses by Professor Attfield have been published in Trans. Brit. Assoc, of Waterworks En^neers, 
iii. 199, 224, 225 (1899). 

* Jukes-Browne, Cretaceous Rocks of Britain, i. 284-5. 



erosive action of a tributary of the little river Ivel (the Flit) which has 
cut them off from the main mass ; they form however but a slight indi- 
cation of the former extent of the Gault to the north and west. 

The Lower Gault is usually a light or dark grey marly clay. 
Where it is worked for brickmaking near Silsoe it is called ' blue clay,' 
and it is used mixed with the ' black clay ' of the Lower Greensand 
before mentioned. At Arlesey its higher part is extensively worked, 
a section about 50 feet in depth showing a transition from dark clay 
at the base to that of a much lighter colour at the top. It there con- 
tains from 26 to 31 per cent of carbonate of lime.* 

Near the base of the clay there is usually a bed ot phosphatic 
nodules which has been worked at various places for making into 
artificial manure. Many fossils have been found in and with these 
nodules, species 01 Ammonites and Bekmnites prevailing, and by far the 
most abundant species being Bekmnites minimus. In a brickyard at Heath 
near Leighton the nodule-bed contains an admixture of Lower and 
Upper Gault fossils ; while at Campton near ShefFord, apparently about 
the same horizon, 20 to 25 feet from the base of the Gault, there is 
a nodule-bed with fossils, all of which, with the exception of Terebra- 
tula biplicata, are of Lower Gault age.^ 

An interesting relic in proof of the existence of the Gault beneath 
the south of the county is furnished by a brick which is built into the 
wall of the market room of the Cock Inn, Luton, bearing the legend 
' F. Burr, 465 feet, Jan. 1828.' This brick was made from material 
brought up from the bottom of a boring for an artesian well at the 
Old Brewery adjoining. From the estimated thickness of the beds from 
the Middle Chalk to the Upper Gault inclusive, it is safe to assume 
that the stratum in which the boring terminated was Lower Gault. 

Another bed of phosphatic nodules marks the base of the Upper 
Gault, which in this district is a much more calcareous formation than 
the Lower Gault, containing about 50 per cent of carbonate of lime. 
The sequence of formation was continuous, but the alteration in the 
mineral composition of the Upper Gault indicates that it was here 
deposited at a much greater distance irom the shore of the Cretaceous 
sea than was the Lower Gault. In fact it was laid down in a sinking 
sea with a receding shore-line. It is a marly clay much resembling the 
Chalk Marl in appearance and composition, Mr. William Hill having 
found it by microscopical examination ' to consist of calcareous matter 
in a fine state of division enclosing many small particles which are pro- 
bably shell-fragments and some tests of Foraminifera.' ^ It is not of the 
same composition throughout, for this light-grey marl passes up into a 
darker grey sandy and micaceous marl.* 

When traced across the county in an easterly direction it is seen to 
diminish in thickness, its basal nodule-bed being brought nearer and 
nearer to the overlying Chalk, until, between Barton and Shillington, it 

' Jukes- Browne, Cretaceous Rocks of Britain, i. 319. * Ibid. p. 286. 

^ Loc. cit. * Loc. cit. 



disappears altogether, the Chalk Marl resting directly upon the Lower 
Gault. This thinning-out is most probably due to erosion, for the nodule- 
bed which forms the base of the Chalk Marl contains phosphatic fossils 
derived from the zone of Ammonites rostratus, that is to say of Upper 
Gault age. 

From recent borings the Gault appears to be much thicker in the 
south of the county than has hitherto been supposed. 

The Upper Greensand is not a continuous bed ; after running 
through the greater part of Buckinghamshire it dies out before it 
reaches Bedfordshire, re-appearing again near the boundary of the two 
counties. It can be traced, but not very clearly, in the parishes of 
Eddlesborough, Eaton Bray, and Tilsworth ; its maximum thickness in the 
county being 20 feet. ' It consists of fine yellowish-grey micaceous sand 
passing up into dark-green glauconitic sand, which in turn passes up 
into the glauconitic sand that forms the base of the Chalk Marl.'* Only 
one fossil, Aucellina [Aviculd) gryphaoides, has been recorded from it in 
the county and that with some doubt, its horizon being uncertain. 

In the opinion of Mr. Jukes-Browne the restricted area of the 
Upper Greensand in this district is not due to the erosion of a much 
larger deposit, but to the present outcrop marking the easterly extension 
of the original shore-line. He also thinks that beyond its eastern limit 
near Kateshill there was a land-surface which was unaffected either by 
erosion or deposition until the period of the Chalk Marl, when the 
area was submerged beneath the Cretaceous sea. The absence of the 
Chloritic Marl in this locality tends to confirm this view. 


Turanian Middle Chalk 

Cenomanian Lower Chalk 

Senonian Upper Chalk Chalk-with-flints . . Zone of Micraster cor-bovis 

Chalk Rock ... „ Heteroceras reussianum 

Soft white Chalk . . „ Terebratulina lata 

Melbourn Rock . . „ Rhynchonella cuvieri 

' Soft grey Chalk . . „ Actinocamax plenus 

Tough blocky Chalk. „ Holaster subglohosus 

Totternhoe Stone . „ Pecten fisskosta 

Chalk Marl ... „ Ammonites varians 

Chloritic Marl . . „ Scaphites aqualis 

The Chalk is essentially a pelagic formation, and during its deposi- 
tion the whole of England, with the exception of the mountainous 
districts of Cumberland and Westmorland, North and South Wales, 
and Devonshire, was submerged. The depth of the sea gradually 
increased on the whole, but varied greatly from time to time, and at 
one period especially, when the Chalk Rock was being tormed, it must 
have been comparatively shallow ; but there is no indication of the prox- 
imity of a shore-line in our area during the deposition of the Chalk. 

The lowest bed of the Chalk is very different from the white lime- 
stone which gives the name to the formation ; the Chloritic Marl, which 
immediately succeeds the Upper Gault, being usually a grey or bluish 

1 Jukes-Browne, Cretaceous Rocks of Britain, i. 287. 


sandy clay containing phosphatic nodules and numerous organic remains. 
It is regarded as the westerly extension of the Cambridge Greensand, 
the fossils which it yields being identical with those found in this bed 
in Cambridgeshire. The phosphatic nodules, with their associated 
fossils, have in all probability been derived from the denudation of the 
Upper Gault, which appears to have extended before this period con- 
siderably to the west of its present limit. The Chloritic Marl extends 
from Arlesey in the extreme east of the county, westerly by Shillington, 
Barton, and Sharpenhoe, and probably so far as Harlington, towards 
which place it is concealed by newer beds. 

During the period in which the coprolite-pits were being worked, 
numerous fossils were brought to light, especially in the neighbourhood 
of Barton and Sharpenhoe. That the assemblage of organisms was very 
remarkable may be seen from its inclusion of the reptilian genera Ich- 
thyosaurus, Plesiosaurus, and Pterodactylus, and the cephalopods Ammonites 
auritus, A. studeri, A. mantelli, and Bekmnites minimus. Some of these 
were derived from the Gault during the extensive denudation to which 
it was subjected, and others are of the age of the bed in which they occur; 
but when the attempt is made to distinguish between the two series, the 
difficulties which present themselves are well nigh insuperable. An 
attempt to do so has however been made by Mr. A. J. Jukes- Browne in 
a paper ' On the Relations of the Cambridge Gault and Greensand." 

The Chalk Marl is an impure limestone, dark in hue and some- 
what plastic in texture, which features are due to a small admixture of 
silt. Its mineral composition indicates that it was deposited in much 
deeper water than the Gault. It attains its maximum development over 
an area which extends due east from Berks through the counties of 
Herts and Beds, north and south of which it rapidly diminishes in 
thickness. This change is accompanied by differences in its mineral 
constituents, that to the north indicating an increase in the depth of the 
sea in which it was laid down, and that to the south-west a decrease in 
the depth. 

During the progress of the works connected with the extension of 
the Midland Railway, numerous fossils were found in this stratum, some 
of which are worthy of mention. Two specimens of a previously un- 
described crustacean were obtained (one from the dark grey portion of 
the bed and the other from the higher and lighter-coloured part of it) 
which were figured and described, with specimens from elsewhere, by Dr. 
Henry Woodward under the name of Falcega carteri^ The cephalopods 
include Ammonites varians in abundance, Actinocamax {Bekmnites^ lanceo- 
latus, a rare species, and Turrilites mantelli, previously recorded only from 
the south of England. Of reptilian remains a portion of a jaw of 
Ichthyosaurus campylodon with teeth in situ is the most noteworthy. 

The Chalk Marl, as well as some other divisions of the Chalk, 
contains numerous nodules of iron-pyrites, a mineral which is locally 

' ^art. Joum. Geol. Soc. xxxi. 256-316. 
" Geol. Mag. vii. 496, pi. xxii (1870). 


known as ' crowgold,' but is nowhere present in the county in suffi- 
cient quantity to be of commercial value. The stratum plays an impor- 
tant part in connection with the water-supply of the district. The 
argillaceous character of the middle portion renders it partially impervious 
to water, so that at its junction with the overlying porous portion 
numerous springs arise, which however are now fewer in number and 
smaller in volume than they were some twenty years ago. This feature 
was strikingly exemplified during the excavation of the extensive cutting 
at Chalton, the flow of water in the Chalk Marl being so copious that 
in driving a heading into the escarpment the workmen had to wear 
miners' costume, as their clothing was in a state of constant saturation. 
The Chalton cutting is the only exposure of the bed of any importance 
in the county. A sandy layer near its base is not exposed here. 

The ToTTERNHOE Stone takes its name from the village of Tottern- 
hoe about three miles west of Dunstable, where it attains its maximum 
development which does not exceed 22 feet. Away from this locality 
it rapidly diminishes in thickness. It is a dark grey, slightly arenaceous, 
compact limestone, with a peculiar grain to which the term ' curly ' is 
applied by the quarrymen. The comparative coarseness of the materials 
of which it is composed, and the presence of siliceous particles, indicate 
that there was a temporary increase in the force of the currents which 
effected its deposition, over those which prevailed during the era of the 
Chalk Marl. Scattered irregularly through it are numerous dark brown 
amorphous masses, and at its base there is usually a layer of green-coated 
phosphatic nodules ; a further indication of current-action. Many springs 
arise from it at the foot of the Dunstable Downs and elsewhere. 

Totternhoe Stone was formerly extensively employed in local archi- 
tecture, numerous churches in the south of the county affording 
examples of its use, but it is not sufficiently indurated to withstand for 
any great length of time the climatic changes to which it is subjected 
when used for exterior decoration. It weathers badly, as may be seen 
from the present condition of the west front of Dunstable Priory 
Church.' It is much more suitable for interior work ; but even for this 
it has long been superseded by more durable materials brought from a 
distance. The numerous and extensive relics of excavations on Tottern- 
hoe Hill show that this stone has been quarried for a very long period. 
Until about the middle of the nineteenth century it was customary to 
construct tunnels which commenced at the outcrop of the stone and were 
carried a considerable distance into the hillside. In later times tramways 
were used to bring the material to the surface, the incline, correspond- 
ing with the dip of the bed, being only slight. This system was then 
superseded by open quarrying, the whole of the overlying bed of Lower 
Chalk being removed and used for making lime. This method of 
working terminated during the last decade of the nineteenth century, 
consequent upon the cessation of the demand for the material. 

' This is now undergoing restoration, the material employed being a Bath stone. 
r 17 3 


The Totternhoe Stone has yielded at its headquarters numerous 
organic remains. Of these it may suffice to mention the crushing teeth 
of the fishes Ptychodus polygyrus, P. latissimus, P. decurrens, and P. mam- 
milaris, the cephalopod Nautilus atlas, and the lamellibranch Pecten orbicu- 
laris, specimens of all of which are in the museums of Luton and St. 
Albans. Another exposure occurs in the Midland Railway cutting at 
Chalton, where it is visible on the face or the excavation when viewed 
from the bridge which carries the road to Sundon. This section has 
furnished Pecten Jissicosta, P. orbicularis. Ammonites varians, and several 
fine examples of Nautilus elegans, the largest of which, about 8 inches 
in diameter, is now in the Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge. 

Overlying the Totternhoe Stone is a tough grey blocky limestone, 
the zone of Holaster subglobosus, which in some of its exposures has a 
yellowish tinge at the base, doubtless due to the presence of iron oxide. 
In its passage upwards it becomes light grey or white. The lines of 
deposition are indistinct, and it was evidently laid down under tranquil 
conditions. Its mineral composition and fossil contents indicate that 
there was a gradual increase in the depth of the sea during its deposi- 
tion ; one result of which was that many of the genera of Mollusca 
which previously existed died out or migrated to other districts and were 
succeeded by others which were adapted to the altered conditions. The 
stratum contains a high percentage of lime, this material averaging at 
least three-fourths of its bulk. There is also present a small amount of 
silica, both organic and inorganic, the former consisting of sponge- 
spicules and the latter of siliceous granules. Oxide of manganese is 
often present in the form of a fine black deposit on the surface of the 
blocks into which it separates during weathering, as well as distributed 
unequally through the mass. 

The fossils of this division of the Lower Chalk are both numerous 
and interesting. Conspicuous amongst them are the palatal teeth of 
several species of Ptychodus, and the pointed teeth of Lamna, Corax, and 
Notidanus, the latter occurring only rarely. The lamellibranchs are 
represented by species of Inoceramus, Plicatula, and Spondylus, and the 
brachiopods by Rhynchonella cuvieri, 'Terebratula semiglobosa, and Terebra- 
tulina striata. Gastropods are of rare occurrence. Echinoderms are 
represented by the characteristic Holaster subglobosus, and crustaceans by 
Enoploclytia. Examples of these fossils are to be seen in the Luton and 
St. Albans museums. Exposures of the bed are not unfrequent along 
the line of the Chalk escarpment at Totternhoe, Sewell, Puddle Hill 
Sundon, Sharpenhoe, and Barton. 

Overlying the zone of Holaster subglobosus is a soft grey chalk or 
shaly marl known as the zone of Belemnitella plena, or to use the most 
modern terminology, Actinocamax plenus. This is remarkably persistent 
across England from the south-west to the north-east coasts. The 
presence of a seam of impure limestone at this horizon indicates a 
marked change in the conditions under which it was deposited, and in 
explanation of its formation the theoiy has been advanced that a sub- 



arctic current set in from a northerly direction, from its coldness tra- 
versing the lower part of the sea and effecting the extinction, at least 
locally, of many of the MoUusca, as only a few species survived the 
interval which elapsed between the deposition of the Lower and Middle 
Chalk. Mr. Jukes-Browne has identified the following fossils found in 
this bed between Luton and Leagrave : Rhynchonella cuvieri, R. plica- 
tilis, Ostrea vesicularis var. baylei, Ptychodus decurrens^ Lamna gracilis^ and 
a crustacean of the genus Lepas. 

The escarpment of the Lower Chalk forms the most striking 
physical feature of South Beds as well as of the adjoining counties 
through which it passes. In most of its course it rises abruptly from 
the plain lying at its base, often to a height of 200 feet above it, 
clothed only with closely-cropped herbage. Occasionally the monotonous 
though not unpleasing rounded contour ot the hills is relieved by groves 
of trees, mostly beech, the best illustrations of which are in the parishes 
of Sundon and Streatley. In several places the escarpment is intersected 
by the remarkable ' coombes ' which are a striking feature of this range 
of hills. These have been formed mainly by the erosive action of springs 
which in former times were much more copious than they are now, and 
also issued at higher levels. This process of erosion still continues, but 
on a greatly reduced scale, the Barton and Streatley valleys furnishing 
examples. On the eastern side of Barton there originates a narrow pre- 
cipitous valley which describes a semicircle in the heart of the hills. 
It starts from the base of the north-west angle of Ravensbury Castle (a 
Roman camp), takes a southerly curve, then turns south-easterly, and 
finally debouches in a north-easterly direction in the parish of Hexton, 
Herts. The spring which has been the prime factor in the formation 
of the coombe is known as 'Burwell,' and now originates at the angle 
at which the valley is deflected from an easterly to a north-easterly 
course. At Pegsdon, on the eastern confines of the county, there is a 
peculiar coombe designated ' Pegsdon Barns,' the sides of which are as 
smooth and sharply defined as though they had been cut by human 
agency. When this valley is approached from the northern end of 
Lilley Hoo it opens out to the observer with startling suddenness. 

Many springs formerly existed at the junction of the Lower with 
the Middle Chalk at Houghton Regis, Leagrave, Limbury, and Biscot, 
but they are now greatly reduced in number and volume. 

The Melbourn Rock, which forms the base of the Middle Chalk, 
has been traced in the neighbourhood of Dunstable, Houghton Regis, 
Sundon, and Barton. There are outliers of it on Totternhoe Knoll. 
Sections are exposed in chalk-pits about a mile south-east of Leagrave, 
and between that village and Sundon. Its thickness in the county is 
about I o feet. It is an impure limestone having in its lower part many 
well-defined nodules which are often greenish-grey in colour, especially 
after weathering. Some of these nodules have on their surface shells of 
immature Ostrea, which suggests that they were exposed on the soft 
ooze of the sea-bed for a considerable period before they were covered 



with silt. The upper portion has a yellowish tinge, it is less fossili- 
ferous than the lower, and its nodules are not so easily distinguished from 
the surrounding matrix. 

The coarse gritty texture of the Melbourn Rock, to which the term 
'rag' is applied by the workmen, is mainly due to the presence of the 
remains of Globigerina and other Foraminifera, and of the triturated tests 
of marine MoUusca. The most abundant fossil in this district is Ostrea 
veskularis var. bay lei; other less common forms are Rhynchonella cuvieri, 
Plicatula inflata, and Actinocamax plenus (Belemnitella plena) . 

The central division of the Middle Chalk, comprising the zones of 
'Terebratulina gracilis (or lata, as it is now called) and Holaster planus, 
consists of a soft white limestone about 200 feet in thickness, which is 
much more homogeneous in texture than the Melbourn Rock. The 
lines of deposition are occasionally indicated by thin seams of grey marl 
which persist over a considerable area. When exposed on the face of a 
section these seams are seen to be broken at intervals by slight faults 
varying from a few inches to 2 or 3 feet in depth. Examples are present 
in the cuttings for the Midland Railway south-east of Luton. In the 
cutting at the twenty-ninth mile from London there are at least half a 
dozen faults in 200 yards, appearing like a series of steps, and there are 
others which are obscured by vegetation. In the next cutting south- 
eastwardly there is a conspicuous fault about i o yards in length and with 
a downthrow of 2 or 3 feet. These faults appear to have been pro- 
duced by the upheaval of the Chalk and its shrinkage from desiccation. 

The sea in which this portion of the Chalk series was formed 
seems to have been deeper than that in which the Lower Chalk was laid 
down, though not so profound as the ocean in which the Globigerina-oozt 
of the present day is being deposited. 

The fossils in this division are both numerous and interesting, 
including the typical species Terebratulina lata and Holaster planus, well- 
preserved examples of Terebratula semiglobosa, Spondylus spinosus, and Gal- 
erites albo-galerus, and occasionally the teeth of Lamna, Gorax, and 
Ptychodus. Broken fragments of Inocerami are abundant. Other less 
common forms are the curious Hippurites mortoni, and aptychi, the man- 
dibles of belemnites, three specimens of which have been found in the 
neighbourhood of Luton and are now in the Blackmore Museum, 

This portion ot the Middle Chalk occupies a considerable surface 
over the south of the county, and is largely devoted to arable agriculture. 
The hard seams of chalk above and below it (the Chalk Rock and 
Melbourn Rock) have been important factors in the pi-oduction of the 
existing outlines of the Chalk escarpment, and by their resistance to 
erosion they have greatly assisted in the formation of the ' lynchets ' 
which are not uncommon over this area. 

The uniformity in texture of the great mass of the Middle Chalk, 
and the slight changes in the general features of its fauna, suggest that 
subsidence and deposition nearly balanced each other, so that an almost 



uniform depth of water was maintained during its formation. Flint nodules 
become numerous in its higher part, indicating an increase in the num- 
ber of silex-secreting organisms living in the seas of the period. 

The Chalk Rock consists in this district of two bands of indurated 
limestone, each about 2 feet thick, separated by about 10 feet of soft 
white chalk known as the Micraster-htd. The ' rock ' itself, so termed 
from its hardness, is cream-coloured, sometimes with a greenish tinge 
owing to the many glauconitic grains which it contains. It is often 
sub-crystalline, sometimes shows a conchoidal fracture, and in places is 
so hard that when struck with a hammer it has a metallic ring. The 
hardest seams are nodular, the nodules being slightly phosphatic, very 
irregular in shape, and cream-coloured with a green coating. 

The fossils of the Chalk Rock are numerous and varied, consisting 
chiefly of Foraminifera, sponges, echinoderms, and Mollusca. The 
delicate microscopic tests of the Foraminifera are often in fragments, 
and the former existence of branched sponges is sometimes indicated by 
tubular cavities occasionally containing a powdery substance in which 
sponge-spicules are present. The state of preservation of the remains 
of the Mollusca varies considerably. As a rule the shells of the gastro- 
pods and cephalopods have perished, casts of both the interior and ex- 
terior being present, the latter exhibiting the ornamentation, which can 
be reproduced by means of a wax impression. The lamellibranchs 
usually have their shells well preserved, as is also the case with the tests 
of the echinoderms and brachiopods, but they are difficult to extract 
owing to the hardness of the matrix. 

The general features of the organic remains indicate a marked 
difference in the conditions under which they lived from those which 
existed when the softer beds of the Middle Chalk were deposited. The 
prevailing species, especially of the gastropods, prove that at this period 
the sea-floor was not deeper than from 150 to 200 fathoms, this being 
the extreme depth at which their modern representatives are found. 
Taking all the observed facts into consideration, it is probable that the 
Chalk Marl and Chalk Rock, which are separated by 400 feet of Creta- 
ceous beds, were deposited in seas the depths of which were very similar. 
A few species are common to both horizons,^ indicating that, although 
absent from this area, they maintained their existence during the interval 
in some other locality. 

The Chalk Rock appears to form the summit of the escarpment 
of the Chalk along the Dunstable Downs as seen from the plain below, 
but the higher ground behind is on the Upper Chalk. It may be traced 
westwards along the ridge from the Five Knolls, and sections of it are 
exposed in a pit near the top of the downs. Sections may also be seen 
on both sides of the Luton valley near the 500-feet contour line. Owing 
to its extreme hardness it is affected much more slowly by denudation 
than the associated softer beds, so that its presence has largely determined 

» See H. Woods, ^art. Joum. Geo/. Soc. liii. 396. 


the existing outlines of the hills overlooking the valley of the Lea in 
South Bedfordshire. The most instructive exposure is that on the Mid- 
land Railway between the zS^ and 28| mile marks. At the deepest 
part of the cutting the following beds are seen in descending order : — 
The base of the Upper Chalk with numerous flints, about 20 feet ; 
upper seam of Chalk Rock, 2 feet ; white chalk with few flints (the 
Micraster-bed), 10 feet; lower seam of Chalk Rock, 2 feet; Middle 
Chalk with few flints, 30 feet. The beds are approximately parallel 
and are interrupted with occasional faults, the dislocations being very 
apparent in the seams of Chalk Rock. 

The series of beds thus shown indicates several variations in the 
depth of the sea which were accompanied by changes in the fauna. 
That for the Middle Chalk below the Chalk Rock suggests a deep sea 
of 1,000 fathoms or more ; that for the lower bed of Chalk Rock 
much shallower water ; again a deepening for the Micrasier-hed, followed 
by another period of shallower water during the formation of the upper 
bed of Chalk Rock ; and then a great depression of the sea-floor during 
the deposition of the Upper Chalk. 

Much original work on the palaeontology of the Chalk Rock has 
been accomplished in recent years, especially by Dr. Morison ^ and Mr. 
Henry Woods,' the latter of whom has figured and described several 
species found near Luton. The most prevalent forms which occur in 
this district are the sponges Ventriculites, Cephalites, and Plocoscyphia ; the 
echinoderms Micraster, Holaster, and Echinocorys ; the gastropods Trochus, 
'Turbo, Avellana, Aporrhais, and Pleurotomaria ; and the cephalopods 
Nautilus, Ammonites, Scaphites, Turriliies, Baculites, Ptychoceras, and Hetero- 
ceras. Taken in the aggregate these genera present a group which is 
incomparable with any other in the Chalk series. 

The absence of flints in the Chalk Rock, and the finding of a pebble 
of quartzite in it near Luton, are noteworthy. 

The deepening of the sea at the commencement of the Senonian 
or Upper Chalk period was accompanied in this area by a great palaeon- 
tological break which indicates a cessation of deposition of strata for a 
prolonged interval after the formation of the Chalk Rock. The presence 
of dislocations in the lines of bedding in the Middle Chalk and their 
absence in the Upper Chalk are confirmatory of the assumption that 
there were great oscillations in the level of the sea-floor at the close of 
the Middle Chalk period. The surface of the Chalk Rock also some- 
times appears to show indications of erosion. 

The Upper Chalk, of which only the lower portion is present in 
Bedfordshire, covers the summits of the hills in the south of the county, 
and is often concealed by accumulations of gravel, loam, and clay. 
That it has been subjected to an enormous amount of denudation is 
attested by the numerous flints which are present in the superficial 
deposits of the district. Those in the drift gravels are usually much 

* 'Notes on the Chalk Rock,' Trans. Herts Nat. Hist. Soc. v. 199-202 (1889). 
» 'The Mollusca of the Chalk Rock,' ^art. Joum. Geol. Soc. lii. 69-98, liii. 377-404 (1896-7). 



waterworn, while those in the clays, having been subjected to less at- 
trition, retain their angular form. Each separate flint is an index of 
a much larger amount of chalk which has been removed ; and so 
numerous are the flints over this area that it is a popular belief that 
' stones grow,' the supposition being that the supply is maintained by 
their production within the soil by some occult influence. This is more 
particularly the case in the soil covering the superficial stratum known 
as clay-with-flints. 

Considered lithologically the Upper Chalk is a soft, white, almost 
pure limestone which in weathering separates into thin flakes. It con- 
tains flint both in the nodular and tabular forms. Its exposures in this 
district are neither numerous nor extensive ; they lie chiefly between 
Luton and the extreme south of the county. A chalk-pit at East Hyde 
exposes about 20 feet of this stratum. Near the top of the section is a 
thin layer of marly chalk similar to those which occur in the Middle 
Chalk but remarkably even. About 3 feet below this, and parallel with 
the lines of deposition, is a thin seam of flint which breaks into small 
fragments under weathering. There are also present numerous flint 
nodules, most of which are disposed in layers, a few being distributed 
unequally through the mass of chalk. 

The most typical fossils which have been recorded from this stratum 
in Bedfordshire are Echinocorys vulgaris, Ostrea normanniana, Pecten quin- 
quecostatus, and Bekmnitella quadrata. 

Between the period of the Upper Chalk, which closes the Mesozoic 
epoch in western Europe, and the commencement of the Cainozoic 
epoch, important changes were effected in the life-history of this part 
of the globe, whole genera of organisms becoming extinct. As examples 
represented in the Mesozoic strata of the county may be named the 
marine reptiles Ichthyosaurus, Pksiosaurus, and the winged Pterodactylus, 
and also the cephalopods Ammonites, Scaphites, and Belemnites. The allied 
genus Nautilus, which occurs in several of the local beds, still survives, 
being now found in tropical seas. 

The Chalk once extended very much farther to the north-west 
than it now does. Proofs of such former extension of one formation 
over another are furnished by outliers, which are detached portions of 
the main mass. Instances of such outliers of the Chalk Marl on the 
Gault occur at Billington Hill near Leighton, and between Upper and 
Lower Gravenhurst. These however only give a slight idea of the 
former extent of the great Chalk formation. The Chalk of the south- 
midland and eastern counties was once continuous with that of Lincoln- 
shire and Yorkshire, having since been cut through by the rivers which 
flow into the Wash. 


A long interval must have elapsed between the close of the Meso- 
zoic era in western Europe and the commencement of the Cainozoic, 
and this was more prolonged in Bedfordshire than in the south of 



England owing to the absence of the latest Cretaceous and earliest 
Eocene strata. 

There are great contrasts between the Upper Chalk and the Read- 
ing Beds, which, when present in this area, lie in contact with it. 
PalEBontologically the contrast is between the fauna of a deep sea and 
that of an estuary ; stratigraphically between a nearly pure limestone 
of organic origin slowly and evenly deposited, and bright-coloured clays, 
sands, and pebbles accumulated rapidly and distributed irregularly. The 
arm of the sea in which these beds were deposited extended from the 
district which is now the south midlands, to Hampshire or beyond, in- 
cluding the areas known as the London and Hampshire Tertiary Basins. 
The northern margin of the London Basin runs through the south oi 
Hertfordshire, and beyond and not far from it there is a series of Eocene 
outliers of considerable extent followed by another of much smaller 
ones ; and far away to the north, in South Beds, a few very small ones 
have escaped the complete denudation which has removed the inter- 
vening mass, testifying to its former extension. These are in the parishes 
of Caddington, Kensworth, and Studham, the largest being near Ringsall. 

In the superficial deposits of the valley of the Lea, within our 
county, there are frequently found large masses of conglomerate or ' pud- 
ding stone,' which are probably of the same origin as the Hertfordshire 
conglomerate. As they are but slightly waterworn they may have been 
dropped into their present position owing to the dissolution of the 
softer strata of the Reading Beds of which they formed a part. One 
that was met with in a shallow excavation just south of Luton measured 
6 feet long, 3 feet wide, and 2 feet thick. The pebbles of the Reading 
Beds, which are thus locally consolidated into a conglomerate with a 
siliceous matrix, are almost invariably chalk-flints, indicating that the 
higher Cretaceous strata were subjected to an enormous amount of 
erosion at the beginning of the Eocene epoch. 


The greatest change of climate which is definitely known to have 
taken place in this area and western Europe generally, occurred between 
the Eocene and Pleistocene epochs, tropical conditions giving place to 
arctic. The tropical fauna and flora of the London Clay became sub- 
tropical in later Eocene times, and continued so during the Oligocene 
and Miocene periods. Early in the Pliocene period temperate conditions 
set in, and before its close the climate had become boreal or arctic. This 
change or climate was accompanied by considerable alterations in the 
distribution of land and sea, the whole of south-eastern England from 
the Severn to the Humber being at first submerged, then rising so far 
above the waters that Britain became joined to the continent, neither 
German Ocean nor English Channel existing, and finally again becoming 
submerged. It was probably about this time, that is towards the close 
of the Pliocene period and before the last great submergence, that our 




Till. IdiuTiirrgli l3(sDg-iMipWnl TjutilTiir 



{ ^IM.O Jr.. ^^/\j^ "■ "'""'■■"' fi£jj,lr« .^;a'"' '',,.;.J"'^''''"'1 

;;>o«i.;.«w; Vf/jaS^ ':'''■-;■ ,/ ti,,-.,.),,,,- *""'1„T':,. 

^'^- ' '-tt ' vi-'-AACf'^f'* /art. ,.„«^; .^'■^-^^^'; rVir 


i.l.we 800 feet 
600 To 800 feet 
400 to 600 feet 
200 to 400 feet 
liHj to 200 feet 
"below 100 feet 


J Sfiaitluilomcw- 


County Boundary shown thus 


existing south-eastern river-system originated, and that the northern es- 
carpment of the Chalk commenced to be formed by the erosion of a 
river with its tributaries flowing towards the north. There is no reason 
to suppose that any great physiographic alteration has taken place since 
that time in the lower valley of the Thames, besides its deepening and 
its widening on the north where it has encroached upon the catchment- 
basin of the northerly-flowing river; but many changes must have taken 
place in the course of the latter river during the long period in which 
it has been developing into the present sinuous Ouse. 

But the features then impressed upon this district were afterwards 
obliterated by the great ice-sheet which advanced from the north and 
ploughed up the surface, leaving its record in the chalky boulder clay 
which covers the greater part of Bedfordshire. This is not nearly the 
earliest of the Pleistocene deposits, earlier beds of a very varied nature, 
showing great changes to have taken place both in climate and in the 
distribution of land and water, having been deposited elsewhere. It is 
thus seen that a very long period elapsed of which there is no record 
in the county, even in Pleistocene times, and to this must be added 
the whole of the interval since almost the commencement of the Eocene 
period. It would be useless to give a sketch of the geological history 
of Britain during all this time, for how Bedfordshire fared would have 
to be left to the imagination.* What was the condition of the district 
when the chalky boulder clay was deposited, whether the land was sub- 
merged or not, is a disputed point ; but from the presence here and there 
of marine shells in beds of gravel and sand mtercalated with the boulder 
clay, it seems most probable that in the southern portion of its course 
the ice-sheet travelled over submerged land, abrading the submarine 
hills and filling up the submarine valleys by material dropped into the 
sea from icebergs or from the under-surface of the ice to which it was 
frozen and from which it would become detached on the partial thawing 
of the ice as warmer latitudes were reached. The northern land from 
which this ice-sheet came, whether Scandinavia or Scotland or no 
farther than Shap Fell, was no doubt much above the level of the sea, 
the submerged area probably extending over the whole of the midland 
and eastern counties, including Bedfordshire. 

The ' great chalky boulder clay,' as it has been called, covers an 
area in these counties of nearly 5,000 square miles, including nearly the 
whole of Bedfordshire except the valley of the Ouse, which has been 
cut through it, and part of the county south of Bedford where it occurs 
in patches. Portions of the hills of the Lower Greensand and of the 
Chalk are free from it, and in some places it is difficult to say whether 
it is present or not, for over the Oxford Clay and the Gault there has 
been such a mixture of the older and newer clays that the presence of 
the boulder clay can only be inferred by the drifted rocks and fossils 
which occur in it and work up to the surface of the land. This admix- 

1 Part of this period is treated of in the V.C.H. Hertford, in the account of the Westleton Shingle 
and Middle Glacial sands and gravel, on pp. 18-23. 

I 25 4 


ture of the clays is of great benefit to agriculture owing to the amount 
of chalk which the boulder clay contains. 

While this clay occurs in such cases only as a thin sheet, some- 
times it attains a great thickness. Over a considerable area it is from 
30 to 50 feet thick ; in the valley of the Ivel near Sandy, as already 
stated, it is known to attain a thickness of 104 feet, and in the same 
valley near Biggleswade it has recently been ascertained to be 90 feet in 
depth. In each of these localities it has been cut through in well- 
sinking, and in the latter a transported mass of Ampthill Clay, 67 feet 
in thickness, was found in its midst.^ At the well at Northill near 
Sandy, which is west of the Ivel, the surface-level is about 105 feet 
above ordnance datum, and the base of the boulder clay which rests 
on Oxford Clay is therefore nearly at mean sea-level, while at the well 
near Biggleswade the surface-level is 160 feet above ordnance datum, 
and the base of the boulder clay which rests on disturbed and denuded 
Gault is 55 feet above mean sea-level. There is evidently a Glacial 
or pre-Glacial valley here which has been filled up by boulder clay, 
and it would be of great interest if its further extension could be 
traced. Biggleswade is on its eastern flank ; Northill may or may not 
be in its centre, but cannot be far off it ; and the evidence points to 
the conclusion that the Ivel flows through a valley of earlier formation 
than that of the Ouse above the junction of the two rivers ; but whether 
this valley, now nearly filled up by boulder clay, was the deep channel 
of a glacier or that of a powerful river which flowed in Pliocene times, 
if so probably during the period of greatest elevation of the land, can- 
not be determined without much further knowledge of the contour of 
the old land-surface beneath the boulder clay than we now possess. 

The boulder clay is a tenacious brownish or bluish clay con- 
taining numerous subangular fragments of rocks of various kinds, and 
sometimes large boulders, transported from a distance, with lumps of 
hard chalk and Liassic and Oolitic fossils, usually water-worn. Its 
boulders are ice-scratched, and glacial striag may even be seen on its 
chalk pebbles. These are usually of hard chalk, red as well as white, 
very similar to that of the Yorkshire Wolds. The harder rock-fragments 
are of granite, syenite, quartzite, limestone, etc., from a distant source, 
and flints from the Chalk ; and the ' boulders,' as shown above, some- 
times take the form of huge masses of adjacent strata of a soft nature. 
Chalk in the boulder clay has even been quarried. 

At Toddington, a village situated nearly at the top of a hill which 
rises to a little over 500 feet above sea-level, there is a bed of gravel the 
precise geological age of which is uncertain. It has been described by 
Mr. Worthington Smith ' from information given to him by the late Major 
W- C. Cooper of Toddington Manor. It is a flint-gravel with many 

* An account of this discovery was given by Mr. Henry Home in a paper read before the Geo- 
logical Society on 24 June 1903, and published since this was in type {^art. Joum. Geol. Soc. lix. 

375-80- . , 

* In Man, the Primeval Savage, p. 69. 



rocks and fossils drifted from a distance, including basalt, porphyry, 
granite, slate, encrinital limestone, red sandstone, rocks and fossils from 
the Coal Measures, Lias, and Oolites, and ironstone from the Lower 
Greensand, etc. Major Cooper has also found in it 'a good red-tinted 
example of Pectunculus glycimeris . . . apparently from the Crag,' and ' a 
patella from one of the hind legs of Cervus elaphus' 

This gravel appears from its constituents to be of glacial origin, 
but differs somewhat from the Middle Glacial sands and gravels below 
or intercalated with the boulder clay in Hertfordshire and elsewhere. 
It may possibly represent the plateau or ' cannon-shot ' gravel which 
overlies the chalky boulder clay in many places in the eastern counties, 
and which ' may perhaps have resulted in part from the melting away 
of the ice-sheet that formed the clay.' ^ It is difficult to account for the 
presence in it of a bone of the red deer, but that may have been derived 
from beds of later Pliocene age, and it does not necessarily indicate a 
non-marine origin for the gravel.'' 

Bedfordshire was certainly beneath the sea at the close of the 
Glacial epoch, if not during the deposition of the boulder clay, and 
before the land again rose milder conditions had set in. There are 
evidences of successive stages of elevation before the present level was 
attained and the British Islands were finally cut off from the continent 
of Europe. It was during this period that much the greater part of our 
present fauna and flora was introduced from the continent, and that early 
man reached Britain, for his advent must have preceded the formation 
of the Straits of Dover by which England was finally severed from France. 
It was also during this period of elevation that the present river-system 
of Bedfordshire originated, except in the case of those streams which 
took the course of existent or pre-Glacial valleys not entirely filled up 
by boulder clay. Snow-fields had not altogether disappeared from 
Britain, for as our present mountainous districts rose higher and higher 
after their submergence to a depth of at least 2,000 feet, they were 
again covered by ice and snow, the glaciers from which have left ice- 
grooved rock-surfaces and moraines as evidence of their passage down 
the valleys. In the lowlands the rainfall was probably copious, and as 
the rivers in the midland and eastern counties flowed over boulder clay, 
percolation would be small and most of the rain which fell would flow 
off the surface and make the rivers large and swift and the rate of denu- 
dation much greater than it is now. This is the period of the formation 
of the older river-gravels, much of the material of which was derived 
from the erosion of the boulder clay, the clay being carried down the 
swift-flowing streams in suspension, leaving sheets of gravel, and being 
deposited as alluvium when the current became less swift. 

The river Ouse in its passage across the county flows in a valley 

* H. B. Woodward, Geology of England and Wales, ed. 2, p. 510. 

* Since the above was in type we have seen, near the summit of the hill west of Toddington, 
exposures of this bed of gravel and sand which we consider to be a local development of the boulder 
clay (the higher part here) into which the bed merges. 



of Recent alluvium usually flanked on either side by Pleistocene gravel 
forming a bed from lo to 20 feet thick resting on Oolitic strata at a 
considerably higher level than the present surface of the river. Between 
Felmersham and Bedford the river is very sinuous, below Oakley the 
gravel exceeds a mile in width, and below Bedford its width exceeds 
2 miles, in places extending to 4 miles. At Tempsford, where the 
Ivel joins the Ouse, the bed of gravel narrows to about a mile in width. 
The Ivel and the Hiz have formed similar but less extensive beds of 
gravel along their courses, and so has the Lea, the town of Luton being 
situated on such a bed about half a mile in width, which extends, though 
narrower for the most part, to above Leagrave Marsh for some distance 
beyond the present source of this river. 

The old river-gravels of the Ouse near Bedford have been described 
by Sir Charles Lyell in his Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man^ 
It was at Biddenham, about 2 miles west of Bedford, that in 1861 Mr. 
James Wyatt first found the earliest traces of man in these gravels 
which here form the capping of a low hill nearly encircled by one of 
the windings of the river. Sir Joseph Prestwich had ascertained that 
the valley was bounded on both sides by Oolitic strata capped by boulder 
clay through which it had cut its way, and also that the gravel ' con- 
tained bones of the elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, bos, equus, 
and cervus, which animals he therefore inferred must have been posterior 
in date to the boulder clay.' In the same gravel many land and fresh- 
water shells had been found by Sir John Evans. These discoveries 
induced Mr. Wyatt to very carefully watch the excavation of the gravel 
from day to day for some months, and at last he saw two well-formed 
implements thrown out by the workmen ' from the lowest bed of stratified 
gravel and sand, 1 3 feet thick, containing bones of the elephant, deer, and 
ox, and many freshwater shells.' The implements occurred at the base 
of the gravel and rested immediately on Oolitic limestone at a height of 
40 feet above the present level of the river. Since then Mr. Wyatt 
found several other flint tools in this gravel, and also a freshwater mollusc, 
Hydrobia marginata, which occurs in the south of France but no longer 
inhabits the British Isles. Remains of Elephas antiquus have been dis- 
covered in the same gravel at Biddenham and elsewhere, and ' at Sum- 
merhouse Hill, which lies east of Bedford, lower down the valley of the 
Ouse, and four miles from Biddenham,' Mr. Wyatt obtained ' a flint 
implement associated with bones and teeth of hippopotamus.' Sir 
Charles Lyell concluded that the Bedford sections ' teach us that the 
fabricators of the antique tools and the extinct Mammalia coeval 
with them, were post-glacial, or, in other words, posterior to the 
grand submergence of central England beneath the waters of the 
glacial sea.' 

The most important discovery of flint implements in the county is 
that of Mr. Worthington G. Smith at Caddington, an account of which 

* First edition (1863), pp. 163-6 ; 4th ed. (1873), pp. ZI4-7. The quotations here given are 
from this, the last, edition. 



is given in his work, Man, the Frimeval Savage (1894). Caddington 
lies nearly at the head of a dry valley which must have been excavated 
by a stream at one time flowing past Kinsbourne Green, Harpenden, 
and Sandridge, between the valleys of the Ver and Lea, and joining 
the Colne near Wilkins Green about midway between St. Albans and 
Hatfield, a distance, measured along the windings of the present valley, 
of 14 miles. This valley commenced in a swamp, outlying portions 
of which may have drained into the Lea on the east and the Ver on 
the west. Boulder clay then covered the hills ; only one patch of it 
has been left in position within a mile of Caddington, but its former 
presence elsewhere in this district is proved by the occurrence of a clay- 
stained Grypheea and ice-scratched flints which must have been washed 
out of it, and by seams of the boulder clay itself which have been 
carried down to the horizon of the swamp. Close to the village ' an 
ancient chalk valley, filled in with water-laid brick-earth . . . serpen- 
tine on plan, as if made by a brook, has been followed in its curved 
course, and dug out by the brickmakers for the clay.' This appears to 
have led into the present dry valley of Alley Green which joins the valley 
of the Ver at Friars Wash. 

The brickfields at Caddington are in loam or brick-earth overlying 
the Chalk, and it is in these that Mr. Worthington Smith has discovered 
a Palseolithic floor or old land-surface on which primeval man lived 
near a shallow lake or swamp on the margin of which he established a 
manufactory of tools and weapons of flint. The heaps of flints have 
been found which were gathered together for the purpose, the finished 
and unfinished implements, and the flakes which have been struck off 
them, and Mr. Smith has pieced together the implements and flakes and 
built up the original flint. Many of these are described and illustrated 
in his work, in which he says that his Caddington reattachments then 
numbered over five hundred. 

The Palaeolithic workshops at Caddington are some feet beneath 
the present surface of the ground. The brick-earth in which they lie 
is mixed in places with Reading and other Tertiary clays and pebbles 
which have been washed into it from an old land-surface, and it fre- 
quently shows evidence of strong current-action, while around are patches 
of re-deposited chalk-with-flints and long stretches of red clay-with-flints, 
chiefly on the higher ground. In one section one workshop was seen a 
few feet above another, the older one having been covered up by an 
accumulation of brick-earth, on the surface of which the industry was 
again carried on. ' The descent of the red-brown stony clay,' Mr. Smith 
says, 'finally drove the Palxolithic people away from the position.' 
And from the way in which the implements were left, finished and un- 
finished, and the presence of heaps of unworked flints, he is of opinion 
that the workmen were driven away in a hurry. 

The implements found in and about these Paljeolithic workshops, 
which are of lustrous flint, are not the oldest known to occur in this 
neighbourhood ; for others, ochreous in colour and more primitive in 



type, are found here and there in the brick-earth, having been washed 
down from the higher land with the material by which the Palasolithic 
floor was covered up. But little of this higher land now exists, Cadding- 
ton, the site of which then was near the bottom of the valley, being 
now nearly at the top of the hill. A flint from this brown drift has 
been found with apparent ice-scratchings, one of which stops suddenly 
at an artificially-flaked surface, showing that the scratches were made 
before the flint was chipped ; and neither here nor elsewhere has a 
glacial scratch or groove been seen on an artificially-worked surface. 
Nowhere can evidence be found of a pre-Glacial flint-chipping animal ; 
but man may have existed for ages before he acquired the art of chipping 
flints to a fine edge and so first left evidence of his presence. 

The ochreous implements found in the brick-earth of the Cadding- 
ton hillside are probably of the same geological age as the older imple- 
ments of the valley-gravels. Both date back to an earlier period than 
that of the deposition of the beds in which they occur, having been 
washed into these beds from a pre-existing land surface ; but the lustrous 
implements were fashioned during intervals of non-deposition of the 
brick-earth, the men who made them being contemporary with that 

While the brick-earth is mostly if not altogether water-laid, the 
clay-with-flints which caps the hills of Upper Chalk has a very diff^erent 
origin. It is the residue of the Chalk left after its dissolution by water 
holding carbonic acid in solution, and also of Tertiary and more recent 
clays which formerly covered the Chalk. Its formation has doubtless 
been going on during the whole of the time that the Chalk has been 
above the level of the sea, and it is still proceeding, but it may generally 
be considered as of (post-Glacial) Pleistocene and Recent age. It is a 
stiff brown and red clay containing unworn flints, which are often much 
broken up by frost and by the plough, and its presence may be recognized 
in ploughed fields by the soil appearing to consist of little else than 
broken flints. The surface of the Chalk, except when covered by an 
impervious stratum, is exceedingly uneven, owing to its unequal dissolu- 
tion, and the clay-with-flints upon it may be of any thickness, from less 
than a foot when its surface is fairly even, to many feet when a ' pipe ' is 
formed which the clay-with-flints fills up. A layer of flints in the 
Chalk may sometimes be seen extending across a pipe, let down a little 
where embedded in the clay. In an old chalk-pit on Farley Hill, now 
closed, a line of Chalk Rock nodules occupied a similar position in a 
broad but shallow pipe of brown clay. 


The Recent accumulations of Bedfordshire are unimportant, except 
in connection with the Neolithic flint implements which they contain. 
They consist almost entirely of the alluvium of existing rivers, which is 
nowhere of great extent. There are far wider stretches of alluvium in 
the valley of the Colne than there are in Bedfordshire in that of the 



Ouse, and it is not until after the Lea leaves the county that there is 
any considerable sheet of alluvium in its valley. Alluvium is a silty 
deposit of sandy clay or peaty mud, in which there may be seams of 
gravel. It contains recent land and freshwater shells, sometimes bones 
of existing animals, and occasionally Neolithic flint implements. These 
are fairly common on both sides of the Lea from its source at Leagrave 
to its outflow in the Thames. Many such implements have been found 
in the county, but as they do not occur in regularly-stratified deposits, 
usually being found on the surface of the ground or just under the sur- 
face-soil, and occasionally in alluvium, their consideration rightly belongs 
to the domain of Pre-historic Archeology. 


The earliest notices of the geology of Bedfordshire relate to strata 
of economic importance, to petrifying earth, and to mineral springs. The 
soil of the county was mentioned so early as 1615;^ petrifying earth at 
' Aspley-Gowiz ' (Guise) near Woburn claimed much attention from the 
year 1660,* and the fullers' earth of Woburn from the year 1662.' In 
1680* it was stated that a gold mine had been discovered at 'Pollux 
Hill ' near Silsoe, and the statement was repeatedly copied, even being 
mentioned as a fact in Calvert's Gold Rocks of Great Britain and Ireland 
(1853). Although the Society of Mines Royal seized the mine and 
granted a lease of it, the ' gold ' was merely flakes of mica in drifted 
stones occurring in a bed of gravel. On the Ordnance Map (old series) 
' Gold Mine ' marks the position north-east of Pollox Hill in a field 
which is still called Gold Close. 

A petrifying spring at Barton was first mentioned in 1738 ;' mineral 
springs generally were frequently alluded to from the year 1808,* some 
dozen localities for them being mentioned in various works ; and ferru- 
ginous water at Priestley Bog near Woburn was analyzed by Sir 
Humphrey Davy in 18 13.'' It is probably of the same origin as the 
mineral water of Flitwick Moor and somewhat similar in composition. 
The Totternhoe Stone seems to have been first described in 1820 ;° and 
although Professor Henslow called attention to the value of phosphatic 
nodules for manure in 1845, the ' coprolites ' of Bedfordshire do not 
appear to have been noticed until 1866.* 

' John Speed's {Description of England and Wales] : ' Bedfordshire.' (Without title-page or pagination.) 

* Childrey's Britannia Baconica, p. 86. 

^ Fuller's History of the Worthies of England, p. 114. 

* Abbot's Essay on Metallic Works, p. 203. (Not seen ; referred to in Calvert's Gold Rocks, p. loi, 
under the above date. See also p. 109, in which he gives a list of unauthenticated golA. localities.) 

" Jtlas Geographicus, i. 150. 

* Batchelor's Agriculture of the County of Bedford, p. 15. 
'' Elements of Agricultural Chemistty,'}. z^\. 

» E. Hanmer, 'Letter describing the Totternhoe Stone,' Ann. Philos. xvi. 59. (It was in this 
year that William Smith published his Geological Map of Bedfordshire, the earliest geological map of the 

» Rev. P. B. Brodie, ' On a Deposit of Phosphatic Nodules at Sandy in Bedfordshire ' ; Geol. Mag. 
iii. 153-5. (With analysis by Dr. Voelcker.) 



The first mention of Bedfordshire fossils seems to have been in the 
year 1728/ and since then much work has been done on the paleonto- 
logy of the county, the results having been given in numerous papers. 

The chief interest in the geology of Bedfordshire has continued to 
lie in the economic products and the fossils of its strata, but it was 
thought advisable to devote the most attention in the preceding pages to 
the geological history of the county, and especially to the physical 
changes which it appears to have undergone. 

' Dr. John Woodward, Jn Attempt towards a 'Natural History of the Fossils of England, ii. 93, 104. 
See also vol. i. (1729), pt. i, pp. 60, 62 ; pt. 2, pp. 67, 72. 



BEDFORD is a county of comparatively little interest to the 
vertebrate paleontologist, although it is probable that if the 
remains of reptiles from the Oxford Clay were collected as care- 
fully as they have been in the neighbouring county of Hunting- 
don, the number of species from that formation might be very largely 
increased. Apparently only two species of fossil vertebrates — one a 
plesiosaur and the other a reptile of unknown affinity — have been 
named on the evidence of Bedfordshire specimens. The four horizons 
from which vertebrate fossils have been obtained in the county are the 
Pleistocene gravels of the valley of the Ouse near Bedford, the Cam- 
bridge Greensand, the Lower Greensand beds of Potton and the Oxford 
Clay. Most, if not all, of the vertebrate fossils in the Potton Sands are 
derived from older formations, chiefly the Kimeridge Clay, and they 
are therefore of much less interest than would be the case were they 
native to the deposit in which they occur. 

The occurrence of mammalian remains in the gravels of the Ouse 
valley was first recorded by the late Mr. James Wyatt,^ whose collection 
now belongs to the corporation of Bedford. The most important pits 
whence the remains were obtained are those of Cardington, Harrowden, 
Biddenham and Kempston. The species recorded by Mr. Wyatt (many 
of whose specimens were submitted to Sir R. Owen) are as follows : — 

The wild ox or aurochs {Bos taurus primigenius), the red deer [Cervus 
elaphus), the reindeer {Rangjfer tarandus), the Pleistocene hippopotamus 
{Hippopotamus amphibius major), the woolly rhinoceros {Rhinoceros anti- 
quitatis), the straight-tusked elephant {Elephas antiquus) and an undeter- 
mined species of bear. Specimens in the Wyatt collection are referred 
to the mammoth {Elephas primigenius) , Pleistocene bison {Bos priscus), 
and cave-bear {Ursus spe/aus). 

As I learn from private information, the Chalk — notably its middle 
and lower divisions — has yielded remains of fishes. Among these, the 
ridged and pustulated quadrangular crushing teeth of the ray-like 
Ftychodus are by no means uncommon, as are the pointed teeth of sharks 
of the genus Lamna, while those of another type of shark, Gorax, are 
more rarely met with. Other remains of fishes have been referred to the 
genera Cimolichthys and Enchodus. 

1 See Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc. xvii. 366 (1861), xviii. 113 (1862), xx. 183 (1864). 
I 33 5 


Two reptiles have also been identified from the Chalk of the 
county, namely the common Cretaceous fish-lizard Ichthyosaurus campy- 
lodon, of which an imperfect jaw is known from the Totternhoe Stone at 
Chalton ; and the large short-necked pliosaurian Polyptychodon interruptus, 
of which the large fluted conical teeth occur in the Chalk-marl. 

I am informed that Mr. W. Ransom of Hitchin has in his collec- 
tion remains of the cave-lion {Felts leo spelaa) and wild horse {Equus 
caballus fossilis) from Langford. 

Mr. J. S. Elliott has shown me a tooth of the above-mentioned 
saurian Ichthyosaurus campylodon and another of a shark from the Cam- 
bridge Greensand of Henlow ; and the coprolite-pits in that formation 
have doubtless yielded many other vertebrate remains similar to those 
from Cambridgeshire. 

Among the reptilian remains from the Potton Sands is included 
the base of a dinosaurian skull, described by Professor H. G. Seeley ^ as 
Craterosaurus pottonensis ; it is too imperfect to afford decisive evidence 
as to the afBnity of the animal to which it belonged. Bones and teeth 
of the great three-toed bipedal reptile of the Wealden, the Iguanodon, 
occur not uncommonly in these deposits ; as well as those of its 
carnivorous cousin Megalosaurus. Crocodiles are represented by the 
huge Dacosaurus (or Geosaurus) maximus, of which the conical and 
carinated teeth have been washed out of the Kimeridge Clay and 
reburied in these deposits. 

Remains belonging to both groups of the great marine saurians 
characteristic of the Secondary period are also common in the Potton 
Sands. Of the ichthyosaurs, or group in which the head is large, 
the neck short, the eyes furnished with a ring of bones, and the bones 
of the paddles articulated together in a pavement-like manner, the 
Cambridge Museum possesses a fine series of remains from these 
deposits. Of the second group, or plesiosaurs, in which the neck is 
often long and the bones of the paddles are of more normal type, several 
forms are known. Among the long-necked and small-headed types are 
Colymbosaurus trochanterius, C. brachtstospondylus and Murcenosaurus trun- 
catus, all of which occur typically in the Kimeridge Clay, From the 
same formation are derived the large triangular teeth of Pliosaurus — a 
short-necked and large-headed member of the group — which are of 
such common occurrence in the Potton beds. 

Scales, spines, palates and teeth of several kinds of Jurassic fishes 
are likewise met with in the Potton beds. Among these it will suffice 
to mention the large button-like teeth and polished rhomboidal scales 
of the Kimeridgian ganoid Lepidotus maximus, the palates of the pycno- 
dont ganoid Gyrodus cuvieri, the elongated crushing teeth of the shark 
Hybodus obtusus, derived from the Kimeridge or Oxford Clay, and the 
dental plates of Ischyodus townsendi, a species belonging to the same 
group as the modern chimera, whose remains occur typically in the 
Portland Limestone of Wiltshire and Dorsetshire. 

1 Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. xxx. 183 (1874). 


From the Oxford Clay of Bedford the late Professor J. Phillips 
described the fore-limb of a long-necked plesiosaurian under the name 
of Plesiosaurus eurymerus. The species, of which nearly perfect skeletons 
have subsequently been obtained from the same formation in Huntingdon- 
shire, is characterized by the great width and shortness of the upper 
bone (humerus) of this limb, and is now known as Cryptoclidus eurymerus. 
Another plesiosaurian, Peloneustes philarchus, which is nearly related to 
Pliosaurus, is represented in the Oxford Clay of the county by an 
imperfect skeleton (now in the British Museum) from Kempston. 
Finally, an imperfect dermal spine in the same collection from the 
Oxford Clay of Bedford indicates the occurrence of an armoured 
dinosaur probably belonging to the genus commonly known as Omosaurus. 






IT must be confessed that although a considerable proportion of the 
species of plants which actually occur have been put on record, yet 
their distribution through the various parishes of the county is at 

present inadequately known, and the knowledge of such critical 
genera as the brambles, roses and eyebrights, the segregation of which 
has during the last years of the nineteenth century been made the object 
of special study, is most imperfect. The publication of this sketch of 
the flora of the county, incomplete as it avowedly is, will, it is to be 
trusted, stimulate local workers to fill up the lacunae, and to prepare a 
complete flora such as exists for so many other counties. 

It is true a very excellent work on the subject, the Flora Bedfordiensis 
by the Rev. Charles Abbot, D.D., of Oakley Raynes, was published in 
1798, but necessarily a work issued at that date is insufficient in detail, and 
has an archaic nomenclature. Moreover shortly after its publication the 
Enclosure Act led to a considerable change in the vegetation of the 
county from the introduction of hedges as separating boundaries to the 
fields, and from the enclosure of commons, some of which had at one 
time a heathy growth, but which soon under the influence of cultivation 
lost much of their original flora, and either as pasture or arable land 
became like their neighbours in possessing few plants of interest ; indeed 
so rare has the true heath {Erica cinerea) become that it now exists, it 
is said, in only one locality in the county. The higher cultivation of 
arable land and the more complete system of drainage have likewise 
been factors in gradually eliminating some of the original species from 
their homes and replacing them by less interesting and more widely dis- 
tributed plants. Nor is the process arrested ; each decade threatens some 
local species, and witnesses the encroachment of common plants. Need 
we wonder then that several plants mentioned by Abbot have either 
become extinct, or are now so scarce as to have evaded the observation 
of recent botanists. 

The area of the county is small, indeed only Hunts, Middlesex and 
Rutland are smaller in England. Compared with other counties its flora 
is small also ; there are several reasons, apart from the mere extent of 
surface, why this should be so, the chief of these perhaps being the 
excellent condition of tillage and cultivation of the surface soil, which 
necessarily means that the aboriginal features of the flora have long ago 
disappeared ; while, although so much of the surface is below two hun- 
dred feet in altitude, yet the drainage is so complete that few marshes, 



and still fewer bogs, remain. Bedfordshire has neither any large expanses- 
of water such as the East Anglian broads, with their interesting aquatic 
vegetation, nor any rocky escarpment on which a rupestral flora could 
grow, as in the Derbyshire dales ; indeed the limestone of the Great 
Oolite only comes to the surface in small and widely separated patches, 
and were it not for the long line of the Chalk escarpment, and the 
elevations of the Greensand at Woburn and Sandy, the flora would possess 
but few species of an attractive character. In the few pages allotted 
to this subject it is desired to give the salient features of the county 
botany and to show how they compare with those of some of the border- 
ing counties. 

In its general character Bedfordshire has much in common with the 
botany of Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire, since the dominating 
feature in each is the long range of the Chalk hills, and the picturesque 
escarpment of the Lower Greensand about Woburn also extends into 

As there is no sea coast, there is, with the exception of a few 
casuals, no maritime flora. The physical character of the county is very 
varied for so small an area, but for botanical purposes the geological 
formations offer naturally two main divisions which are not dispropor- 
tionate in size. Putting it briefly, the northern division is clay, with a 
river valley of alluvium, gravel and limestone ; the southern division has 
a lighter soil, which in turn falls into two divisions, Greensand and Chalk, 
with a slice of Gault sandwiched between them. In the following obser- 
vations the terms northern and southern divisions will denote these 
geological characteristics. 

In the north most of the hills are capped with Boulder Clay, which 
also forms a broad patch between the windings of the Ouse. The Oxford 
Clay comes to the surface south of the county town as far as Lidlington, 
where it is succeeded by the Lower Greensand. Following the course 
of the Ouse, besides the gravels and alluvium there are exposures in bands 
of Oolitic limestone and Oxford Clay and Cornbrash — the latter forming 
a persistent bed of slight thickness and about a quarter of a mile wide. 
The Lower Greensand enters the county at Leighton Buzzard and crosses 
it about mid-way. Aspley Guise, Lidlington, Millbrook, Haynes, 
Southill, Sandy and Everton are on its northern edge. At Leighton, 
Heath, Tingrith, PuUoxhill, Silsoe, Campton, Shefford, Eyworth and 
Potton, the Greensand is contiguous with the Gault, which extends 
in a narrow band from Eaton Bray on the south-west to Arlesey on the 
east. Along the line of contact the surface soil is often of a mixed 
character, chiefly owing to farming operations. The Lower Chalk suc- 
ceeds the Gault at Dunstable, Eggington, Chalgrave, Toddington, Harl- 
ington, Hexton, Stondon, Arlesey and Stotfold. The Chalk without 
flints is well developed in the south of the county. A flora typical of 
the Chalk is found on the downs of Luton and Dunstable, and the 
characteristic orchids are plentiful in those localities but are not confined 
to them. The bee [Ophrys apiferd), the fragrant [Habenaria conopsed), 



butterfly {H. cMorokuca), and the helleborines Epipactis latifolia and E. 
violacea are not infrequent in the northern division, owing apparently to 
the calcareous nature of the subsoil in many parts. Among plants which 
seem to occur only on the Chalk are the pasque flower {Anemone Pulsa- 
tilla), which flourishes on the slopes of the chalk combes near Barton, 
the blue milk vetch {Astragalus danicus), the horse-shoe vetch {Hippo- 
crepis comosa), the squinancy wort {Asperula cynanchica), the field rag- 
wort {Senecio campestris) , the mountain cat's-foot {Antennaria dioica) , the 
Canterbury bell {Campanula glomerata), the felwort {Gentiana Amarella), 
and the ground pine {Ajuga Chamcepitys). In the list of chalk-favouring 
plants there are possibly others that are practically limited to the Chalk. 

The Lower Greensand is responsible for several plants which in its 
absence would be rare or non-existent in the county. It is a warm 
and greedy soil, which in parts will grow little more than pines and 
larches, but where it is mixed with clay a very productive loam is 
formed, well adapted for market-gardening, as at Biggleswade, Sandy 
and Potton. The phosphatic nodules known as coprolites are found at the 
base of the Greensand at Sandy, Shillington, Sutton, Potton and Ampt- 
hill. Two other seams of coprolites occur in the Gault near Barton, 
but as they are usually found at some depth it would be difficult to say 
how far the coprolites affect the character of the flora. Among the plants 
which have been found only on the Greensand are the silver cinquefoil 
{Potentilla argentea), the saw-wort {Serratula tinctorid) , the sheep's scabious 
{Jasione montana), the bilberry {Vaccinium Myrtillus), and the lily of the 
valley {Convallaria majalis). In the list there are several others that pre- 
fer the Greensand, and possibly some of them are limited to it. The 
grasses Aira prcecox and A, caryophyllea occur not only on the Greensand, 
but also on a patch of Tertiary sand in the south of the county. 

The river Ouse at Bedford is about 90 feet above sea-level. Luton 
rises from 350 to 450 feet, Dunstable to 483 feet, and Dunstable downs 
to 799 feet. The northern part of the county is hilly, though the heights 
rarely exceed 300 feet. In the centre and on the eastern side the county 
is flat right away into Cambridgeshire, but it can hardly be described as 
fen country. 

For the last hundred years, especially, the county has been under 
very high cultivation, particularly in the market-gardening districts. 
The most interesting piece of marshland is undoubtedly Flitwick Moor, 
which is a peat bog on Greensand, associated with the river Flitt, and 
containing a chalybeate water derived from the ferruginous subsoil in 
contact with vegetable acids. At Gravenhurst there was formerly an 
interesting moor where such plants as the marsh arrow-grass {Triglochin 
palustre) and the marsh helleborine {Epipactis palustris) grew. Mr. C. 
Crouch reports that the former is still found on what survives of the 
moor, though the orchid is apparently extinct in the county ; and 
in referring to such plants as the flea sedge {Carex pulicaris), the 
butterwort {Pinguicula vulgaris), and the grass of Parnassus {Parnassia 
palustris), which he found on the dry chalk of the Markham Hills, he 



speaks of them as seedling survivals of an ancient bog which filled the 
present valley. In August, 1901, Mr. Saunders, after many years' search, 
at last found Erica cinerea in a green lane near Pepperstock. There was 
only a small patch, and it was evidently a relic of the flora of a large 
common that formerly existed. At Stevington, Ampthill, Potton and 
elsewhere there are remains of ancient marshland, which would proba- 
bly repay more careful examination than they have received. Some of 
the older woods contain interesting native plants, such as the wild 
licorice {Astragalus glycyphyllos), the crested cow wheat {Melampyrum cris- 
tatum), the nettle leaved bell flower {Campanula T'racheliurri), and the 
birds'-nest orchid {Neottia Nidus-avis) . 

The following table corrected to the present date shows the number 
of species which are reported on good authority to have been seen 
growing in a wild state in the various counties, the standard adopted 
being practically that of the last edition of the London Catalogue, which 
has already been followed in the accounts of the botany of the counties 
of Northampton, Buckingham, Berks, etc. 

Native plants . 
Denizens and colonists 













847 942 890 850 

In addition many named varieties, several hybrids, and many species 
of casual occurrence, or undoubtedly alien, have been recorded. 

Taking the London Catalogue as a standard of specific limitation, the 
total number of British species is about 2,000, but of these 250 are not 
native, 144 are confined to the coast, while at least 200 are found only 
in northern latitudes, or only extend to the same latitude as Bedfordshire 
in mountainous situations in the west of England and Wales, 17 are 
exclusively Irish, and about 20 belong to the Channel Isles, and are not 
real constituents of the British flora. It will therefore be seen that about 
1,350 species remain which might be found in the county ; but such is 
not the case, and some of the influencing reasons have already been given, 
while others, such as soils and altitudes, need not now be referred to. 

Bedfordshire, although it has no species peculiar to itself, however 
possesses some plants of considerable interest, among which may be men- 
tioned the great pig-nut {Carum Bulbocastanum) , which is limited to 
Bucks, Herts and Cambridgeshire, and is found locally in some plenty 
in arable fields on the Dunstable downs ; the crested cow-wheat {Melam- 
pyrum cristatum), which apparently has its western limit in the county 
(unless indeed it really occurs in Bucks and Hants, whence it has been 
reported, but on somewhat uncertain evidence), occurs in some of the 
woodlands. Another eastern species, the sulphur clover {Trifolium ochro- 
leucon, Huds.), which occurs sparingly, also has its western range in this 
county and Surrey. Another very local species is the box {Buxus semper- 
virens), which by some authorities is considered to be native on the 
Dunstable downs, and in a few other localities such as Box Hill in 



Surrey, at Edlesborough and Ellesborough in Bucks, etc., but which 
in most of its habitats in Britain is certainly an introduced shrub. A 
specially interesting species is the grass Phleum phalaroides, which at one 
time was wrongly called P. Boehmeri, and has a peculiarly restricted area 
in Britain in the counties of Beds, Herts, Essex, Cambridge and Suffolk. 
The beautiful pasque flower {Anemone Pulsatilla) still occurs in the 
locality given by Abbot, on Barton Hills, with the mountain cat's-foot 
[Antennaria dioica), a very rare species in the southern midlands, although 
known in Northants, Oxfordshire, etc. A rare species of charad, Nitella 
mucronata, was found by Mr. C. Davis in 1882 in the Ouse. 


As will be gathered from the foregoing notes the foundation of 
Bedfordshire botany was laid by the Rev. Charles Abbot, D.D., who 
was born probably at Winchester about 1761, and was vicar of Oakley 
Raynes and Goldington, Beds. He was elected a fellow of the Linnsan 
Society in 1793 and in 1798 published the Flora of Bedfordiemis. He 
became D.D. Oxon in 1802. His herbarium is still preserved atTurvey 
Abbey, and has been critically examined by Mr. R. A. Pryor, B.A., 
F.L.S. (the author of the Flora of Herts), who published some interest- 
ing details respecting it in the "Journal of Botany, x. (1881) 40 et seq. ; 
and Mr. E. M. Holmes, F.L.S., has also reported on the lichens and algse. 
Dr. Abbot was a frequent correspondent of Sir James E. Smith, to whom 
he sent many specimens, several of which are figured and described in 
English Botany. He also noticed Asarum europeeum in the Thames valley. 

The Flora Bedfordiensis included not only the flowering plants and 
the higher cryptogams, but also the mosses, liverworts, lichens, algae and 
fungi ; though, owing to changes already alluded to, many species are 
no longer to be found in the stations mentioned by Abbot, and some are, 
it is to be feared, no longer existing in the county. 

These missing species include the fen orchis {Malaxis paludosa) , a 
tiny plant which once grew on the sphagnum bogs at Potton, the 
cranberry (Vaccinium Oxycoccos or Oxycoccos quadripetala), the petty whin 
{Genista anglica), the Lancashire asphodel {Narthecium ossifragum), which 
grows at Brickhill just outside our area, the black bog rush {Schcenus 
nigricans), the white beaked bog rush {Rynchospora alba), the deer's club- 
rush {Scirpus ccespitosus), the marsh St. John's wort {Hypericum elodes), 
the marsh fern {Lastrea or Dryopteris Thelypteris), the horse-tail {Equise- 
tum hyemale) and the flea bane {Pulicaria vulgaris) ; and the extinction or 
diminution of these may all be attributed to drainage or cultivation. 

Among others which cultivation has either extirpated or rendered 
much more rare, are the maiden pink {Dianthus deltoides), the cress 
{Draba muralis), the star thistle {Centaurea Calcitrapa) and the grass 
Glyceria distans ; the latter Abbot called Poa retroflexa. The misnomers 
in Abbot's Flora^ include Spergula pentandra, by which probably a form 

' See papers in Journal of Botany (1881), pp. 40-6, 66-73. 
I 41 6 


of the corn spurrey (S. sativa) was meant ; Carex montana^ for which 
Abbot cites Leers, but Leers' C. montana is really C. ericetorum. The 
specimen in his herbarium is immature, but is probably C. pilulifera, 
and Abbot may well have been led astray by Linnaeus, since the C. 
montana of Linnaeus' Flora Suecica is correctly named, though the C. 
montana of the Species Plantarum is really C. pilulifera. Galium pusillum, 
by which early British botanists meant the plant now identified with 
G. syhestre of PoUich, is not that species but only a form of G. 
Mollugo. His G. erectum is also a form of G. Mollugo, L, Abbot's 
Cerastium pumilum is not the plant of Curtis but probably a form of 
C. semidecandrum, which is still plentiful in the localities he gives, and 
as we gather from his herbarium where C. semidecandrum is represented 
by another species. The Polypodium cristatum from Potton Marshes and 
Aspley Wood is not Lastrea cristata, but L. spinulosa, the Callitriche 
autumnalis is C. hamulata ; the former plant is absent from the midlands, 
and his C verna is probably G. obtusangula. The wild everlasting pea 
{Lathyrus latifolius), which he records from Haynes and Bromham, is, 
as his herbarium shows, only L, sylvestris, which still occurs in the county, 
and sometimes with broader leaflets than those of the southern plant. 
His Galium spurium is really G. tricorne. His Veronica agrestis is V. 
polita, the grass Festuca fluitans is Glyceria pedicellata. Towns. Juncus 
sylvaticus is represented by Luzula vernalis, DC. ; his Vicia latbyroides 
is really V. angustifolia, and Eruum tetraspermum is Vicia hirsuta. Gray ; 
his Hieracium murorum is probably H. sciaphilum ; his Viola canina is V. 
Riviniana ; his Orchis latifolia is O. incarnata ; his Carex distans is C 
binervis ; his C. panicea is represented by a specimen of C. remota ; and 
C. ceespitosa is C. Goodenowii. 

Mr. J. McLaren, formerly gardener to Mr. Whitbread at Southill 
Park, where his herbarium is preserved, was a careful investigator. 

The Rev. W. Crouch, sometime curate of Lidlington, seems to 
have made an extensive collection of plants between the years 1841 
and 1 846. His herbarium is in the possession of Mr. Charles Crouch 
of Ridgmont, himself for many years an industrious observer and re- 

The Rev. W. W. Newbould, M.A., F.L.S., the well known botanist, 
occasionally visited the county, and has left some records which are quoted 
as the Newbould MS. He supplied a considerable number of records of 
Bedfordshire plants to 'Topographical Botany. 

Mr. W. Hillhouse, Professor of Botany at Mason College, Bir- 
mingham, was formerly at the Bedford Modern School, and when there 
compiled a list of the county plants in which several appeared for the 
first time as Bedfordshire species. 

Mr. James Saunders, A.L.S., of Luton, has been one of the most 
assiduous workers in recent times at the flowering plants of Bedford- 
shire, of which he published a very complete list of species found in the 
south of the county in the Journal of Botany for 1883. He has also 
worked at the Characeae,. of which he discovered the rare Tolypella 



intricate for the first time- as a Bedfordshire plant, as well as several 
commoner forms. He has turned his attention also to the mosses, and 
more recently to the Mycetozoa. 

Mr. T. B. Blow of Welwyn, Herts, made some additions to the 
county flora which were published in the Report of the Botanical Record 
Club. He also found Phalaris phalaroides in the county. 

Mr. R. A. Pryor, F.L.S., the author of the Flora of Herts, added 
several plants to the county list including Vicia gracilis and Potamogeton 
prcelongus. He also made a critical examination of Abbot's herbarium 
and published accounts of it in the Journal of Botany, in which also ap- 
peared a valuable paper in 1875 on the plants of the county. 

The following are the principal sources from which the informa- 
tion given in the following pages has been in the main collated : — 

Flora Bedfordiensis, by Charles Abbot, M.A., F.L.S. (1798), abbreviated (Abbot) ; Plant Records of 
J. McLaren of Cardington ; Plant Records of William Hillhouse, F.L.S., 1875 and 1876 ; List of the 
Wild Flowers of South Bedfordshire ; also a List of Plants observed in North Beds, but at that time unknown in 
South Beds, by James Saunders, 1881, abbreviated (J.S.) ; Bedfordshire Plant List, by J. Saunders and 
A. Ransom (1882) ; 'The Wild Flowfers of Bedfordshire' (List published in the Luton Advertiser), by 
James Saunders (1900) ; Plant Records by Charles Crouch, up to 1901 ; Plant Lists collated, with 
additions by local observers, and noted by the botanical secretaries to the Beds Natural History Society, 
by J. Hamson, 1886 to 1901 ; various Herbaria referred to in the lists ; Records of Musci, Characeae, 
Hepaticae and Mycetozoa, by James Saunders ; Hymenomycetes and other fiingi, by J. Hamson, 1885 
to 1 90 1, who has also made a collection of Mosses which, with the records by Dr. S. Hoppus Adams, 
mostly refer to the northern division ; Records of Flowering Plants noticed by G. Claridge Druce, 
, abbreviated (Druce). 


In the lists of the Flora of the various British counties which have 
been published during the latter part of the nineteenth century, it has been 
the almost universal custom to select the river drainage of each county 
as a means of subdividing it into districts, thereby showing the plant 
distribution in a more scientific manner, and enabling the student of 
phyto-geography to more easily compile a flora of a river basin which 
might be contained in several counties. There is no doubt such a plan 
possesses considerable advantages, but it also presents difficulties, and 
these are especially felt when the water partings are obscure, but they 
are not greater or indeed so formidable as those which are met with if 
the boundaries were made conterminous with a geological stratum or a 
surface soil. Therefore in order to bring the county into line with those 
of its neighbours which have a published flora, a plan is here suggested 
for dividing Bedfordshire into districts based upon its drainage, which 
shall as far as possible be uniform with those adopted for the counties 
of Herts, Buckingham, and Northants. Bedfordshire is contained in 
the two great basins of the Ouse and Thames, but by far the larger 
portion belongs to the former river, which has a most erratic course 
through the county and forms its western border for about three miles ; 
it has a tributary in the south-west in the Ouzel, and a considerable 
feeder in the Ivel with its tributaries the Hiz and Flitt. In the north- 



east of the county a small portion about Podington and Wymington 
is drained by a brook, which belongs to the Nene drainage, and corre- 
sponds with the Nene B district of Druce's Flora of Northamptonshire ; 
a narrow strip on the eastern side containing the parishes of Cockayne, 
Hatley, Wrestlingworth, and a portion of Edworth belongs to the Cam 
drainage, itself, like the Nene, a tributary of the main Ouse. We may 
therefore subdivide the county into seven botanical districts, namely : — 

, The Nene, which has its counterpart in the Harper's Brook or Nene B district 
of Druce's Flora of Northamptonshire. 

2. The East Ouse. 

3. The West Ouse, which has its counterpart in the Ouse district of Druce's 
Ouse. \ Flora of Northamptonshire and the Flora of Buckinghamshire (in preparation). 

. The Ivel, which corresponds with the Ivel district, No. 2, of Pryor's Flora of 
5. The Cam, corresponding to district i, the Cam, of Pryor's Flora of Hertfordshire. 
,6. The Ouzel, which corresponds with the same district in the Flora of Bucking- 

Thames. 7. The Lea, which has its counterpart in district No. 6 of Pryor's Flora of 

The boundaries of the above districts are briefly as follows : — 

I. The Nene District 

is a small portion in the north of the county containing the parishes of Podington, 
Wymington and Farndish, having its southern limitation in the Forty-foot Lane, which is 
practically the water-parting of the Nene and the Ouse drainage. Lotus tenuis is the only 
plant recorded for this area from near Podington. 

2. The East Ouse District 

is bounded on the north by Northants, and on the east by Hunts as far as to Cold Arbour, 
which is about two miles east of Roxton. From Roxton to the Forty-foot Lane near 
Wymington Wold in the north, the separating line from the West Ouse district is traced by 
Florns Wood, between Wilden and Ravensden to Tilwick farm. Then by Cross-end farm 
and Bletsoe Park, Harner Wood, and Souldrop village to the Nene boundary. 

The botany of this district is much less known than that of the other portions of the 
county. Keysoe Park and Melchbourne Woods should repay systematic search, and the river 
flora itself is sure to yield additional species to those recorded. The gravelly soils should also 
prove remunerative. 

Among the interesting species recorded for the district are : — 

Thalictrum flavum, L. Ouse tOrnithogalum pyrenaicum, L. Between Eaton 

Ranunculus fluitans, Lam. Ouse Socon and Thurleigh (Abbot), Keysoe Park 

tCentaurea Calcitrapa, L. Eaton Socon (Abbot) ; {Bot. Guide) 

not recently seen — nutans, L. Eaton {Bot. Guide) 

Cuscuta Trifolii, Bab. Basmeade (Pryor) Acorus Calamus, L. Ouse 

Hottonia palustris, L. Eaton Socon (Abbot) Orchis incarnata, L. Basmeade (Pryor) 

Thymus Chamaedrys, Fries. Basmeade (Pryor) Calamagrostis Epigeios, Roth. Basmeade (Pryor) 

3. The West Ouse District 

is bounded on the north and east by the district of the East Ouse which has been described. It is 
separated from the Nene district by the Forty-foot Lane to Dungey Corner, from which place 
to Nun Wood it is limited by the county of Northampton. At the latter place the county 
boundary of Bucks is followed by Harrold Lodge to the river Ouse, which then becomes the 
county boundary as far as to the vicinity of Newton Blossomville. Thence the Bucks 
boundary limits the West Ouse district until the road from Broad Green to North Crawley is 

t before a plant name means that the plant is recorded for one district only. 

* means probably extinct. 

A plant name in italics signifies that it is not native in the district. 



met with. From this point where the Ouzel district is reached the water-parting of the two 
districts is traced by Cranfield to Boughton End ; the Ouzel district is then replaced by the 
Ivel district, and the separating line is drawn along the Ampthill road to Maiden, and thence 
by West End to Wilshamstead, Moggerhanger and Herring's Green to Blunham Station, 
where it meets the East Ouse district near Roxton. 

The West Ouse district, although it includes the northern escarpment of the Lower Green- 
sand hills, is on the whole a very flat and low-lying area, chiefly on clay soils, or consisting 
of extensive alluvial deposits, and in many instances the strata are obscured by drift deposits, 
and for some distance the glacial clay obscures the porous bed-rock of the Lower Greensand, 
so that the flora of this area differs essentially from that of the Ivel and Ouzel districts, in 
which not only plants characteristic of arenaceous soils are well represented, but also those 
peculiar to or fond of cretaceous ground. Hence in this area Pelophilous or clay-loving plants 
naturally predominate. 

This district was however the one in which Dr. Abbot lived and in which the greater 
part of his research was made, so that many local plants are recorded for it. 

Among the species recorded for the district are : — 

Clematis Vitalba, L. 

Thalictrum flavum, L. Common by the Ouse 

Ranunculus fluitans, Lam. Ouse 

— Lingua, L. Goldington, Oakley (Abbot) 
Myosurus minimus, L. Biddenham, Fenlake 

Helleborus fcetidus, L. Stagsden, Bromham, 
Steventon (Abbot) 

— vitidis, L. Goldington (Abbot) 
Delphinium Consolida, L. Near Bedford (Abbot) 
Berberis vulgaris, L. Clapham, Milton Ernest, 

Honey Hills (Abbot) 
Nymphaea alba, L. Ouse ; as well as a small pink- 
flowered form 

By the railway, Turvey 
WaU of Bedford Castle 

Papaver somnijerum, L. 
— Lecoqii, Lam. 
Cheiranthus Cheiri, L. 

Alyssum calycinum, Jacq. 
Sisymbrium Sophia, L. 


Diplotaxis muralis, DC. Railway 
Erysimum cheiranthoides, L. Near Bedford, 



(Abbot) ; 

\Lepidium latifoRum, L. 
correctly named 
Stellaria palustris, Retz. 
Saponaria officinalis, L. 

Kempston ; alien or in- 

Ford End (Abbot) 
Silene noctiflora, L. Oakley (Abbot) 
Sagina apetala, Ard. 

— nodosa, Fenzl. Steventon (Abbot) 
Cerastium arvense, L. Ford End (Abbot) 
Geranium columbinum, L. Biddenham (Abbot), 


— lucidum, L. Elstote, Caldwell (Abbot) 

— pyrenaicum, Burm. Ford End (Abbot) 
Genista tinctoria, L. Clapham, Steventon (Abbot) 
Cytisus scoparius, Link. Ampthill 

Ononis spinosa, L. Too abundant in stiff soils 
Anthyllis Vulneraria, L. Oakley (Abbot) 
Trifolium medium, L. Bromham and Milton 

— striatum, L. Biddenham (Abbot) 

— ochroleucon, Huds. Clapham (Abbot) 
Astragalus glycyphyllus, L. Bromham, Oakley 

(Abbot) ; Turvey (Miss Higgins) 
Lotus tenuis, Waldst. and Kit. Near Bedford 

tVicia gracilis, Lois. Clapham (R. Pryor) 
Lathyrus Nissolia, L. Putnoe, Bromham (Abbot) 

— sylvestris, L. Bromham (Abbot) ; under the 

name L. latifolius 
tGeum rivale, L. Putnoe Wood (Abbot) 
Crataegus oxyacanthoides, Thuill. Near Bedford 
Sanguisorba officinalis, L. Fenlake (Abbot) 
Pyrus communis, L. Thurleigh (Abbot) 

— Aria, Ehrh. Near Fenlake (Abbot) ; probably 

planted here 
tChrysosplenium alternifolium, L. Lidlington 

(W. Crouch) 
Parnassia palustris. Steventon, Turvey (Abbot) 
Sedum dasyphyllum, L. Ford End (McLaren) 
S. album, L. Steventon (Abbot) 
Drosera rotundifolla, L. Cleat Hill, Ravensden 
Hippuris vulgaris, L. Ouse 
Lythrum Hyssopifolia, L. Goldington Green, 

Oakley, Westfield (Abbot) 
Epilobium obscurum, Schreb. Elstow (New- 


— tetragonum, L. Elstow (Pryor), Bedford 
*Cicuta vlrosa, L. Oakley Springs (Abbot) 

Smymium Olusatrum, L. Ravensden, Oakley 

(Abbot) ; Elstow 
Apium graveolens, L. 

(Abbot) ; Elstow 

— repens, Reichb. f. 

Green (Abbot) 
CEnanthe fistulosa, L. Ouse 

— silaifolia, Bieb. Fenlake (Abbot) ; the true 


— fluviatilis, Colem. Ouse 

Carum segetum, Benth. and Hook. Goldington, 
Clapham (Abbot) 

— Carui, L. Thurleigh (Abbot) 
Slum latifblium, L. Ouse 

\Anthriscus Cerefolium, HofFm. Goldington (Abbot) 
tCaucalis daucoides, L. Oakley, Westfield 

*— latifilio, L. Oakley, Thurleigh (Abbot) 
Pimpinella major, Huds. Common (Abbot) 

var. dissecta, Druce. Tmn Woods 
Adoxa Moschatellina, L. Cleat Hill, Ravensden, 

Sambucus Ebulus, L. Between Bromham and 

Wilshamstead, Goldington 
Steventon, Goldington 



Goldington, Kempstm 
Kempston Pits 

DIpsacus pilosus, L 

Bidens cernua, L., var. minima. 


Erigeron acre, L. Thurkigh, Btddenham (Abbot) 
Inula Helenium, L. Ravensden, Steventon (Abbot) ; 

Thurleigh Lane (Ransom), Cox's Pits near 

Bedford (McLaren) 
Tanacetum vulgare, L. Bromham (Abbot) 
Pulicaria vulgaris, Gaertn. Goldington, Ravensden 

Carduus tenuiflorus, Curt. Near Bedford 

*Centaurea Calcitrapa, L. Biddenham (Abbot) 
Lactuca virosa, L. Near Bedford (Pryor), 

Houghton Conquest (C. Crouch) 
\Mariana lactea, Hill (Silybum). Woods, jimft- 

Aill Pari Q.8.) 
Crepis taraxacifolia, Thuill. Lidlington (Druce) 
Campanula Trachelium, L. 

— Rapunculoides, L. Common near Bedford 

Anagallis ccerulea, Schreb. Oakley, Westfield 

Samolus Valerandi, L. Ouse 
Lysimachia vulgaris, L. „ 
Vinca major, L. Ravensden, Clapham (Abbot) 
Menyanthes trifoliata, L. Kempston (Abbot) 
Blackstonia perfoliata, Huds. Bromham (Abbot) 
Pulmonaria officinalis, L. Betvceen Thurleigh and 

Milton Ernest (Abbot) 
Cynoglossum officinale, L. Elstoai, Cleat Hill 
Symphytum officinale, L., var. patens (Sibth). 

Ouse (Abbot) 
Cuscuta europaea, L. Common (Abbot) 
Solanum nigrum, L. Garden ground 
Atropa Belladonna, L. Bromham (McLaren) ; 

doubtfully native 
Linaria Elatine, Mill. Bromham, Clapham 


— spuria, Mill. Clapham, Bromham, Steventon 


— viscida, MOnch. Oakley (Abbot) 
Limosella aquatica, L. Goldington Green (Abbot), 

Fenlake (McLaren) 
Antirrhinium majus, L. Bedford, Elstotv (Abbot) 
Melampyrum cristatum, L. Common (Abbot), 

as in Twin Woods near Clapham 
Lathrsea Squamaria, L. Oakley Hill 
Orobanche major, L. Oakley (Abbot) 
Utricularia vulgaris, L. Bromham 
Verbena officinalis, L. Goldington, Wilden 

fMentha citrata, Ehrh. Wild in a ditch near 

Bedford (Abbot) 
Leonurus Cardiaca, L. Ford End (Abbot) 
Salvia pratensls, L. Near Ford End Farm 

tStachys germanica, L. On a hill two miles 

from Bedford (Bot. Guide) ; i if native 
Marrubium vulgare, L. Elstotv (Abbot) 
Plantago arenaria, W. & K. Cardington 
Chenopodium urbicum, L. Near Bedford 


var. intermedium 

— hybridum, L. Mill Lane, Bedjord (Abbot) 


Chenopodium murale, L. Common (Abbot) ; 

not so now 
Atrlplex deltoidea, Bab. Ouse side 
Polygonum Bistorta, L. Thurleigh (Abbot) 

— minus, Huds. Goldington, Elstow (Abbot) 
Rumex maritimus, L. Goldington Green (Abbot) 

— acutus, L. Bedford (Pryor) 

Daphne Laureola, L. Near Lidlington (Druce) 
Euphorbia platyphyllos, L. Near Bedford 

Mercurialis annua, L. Ford End (McLaren) 
Salix triandra, L. Thurleigh, Fenlake (Abbot) ; 


— purpurea, L. Thurleigh (Abbot) 

— rubra, Huds. Bedford {Bot. Guide) 
Hydrocharis Morsus-ranae, L. Fenlake (Abbot), 

Goldington (J.S.) ; Ouse 
Spiranthes autumnalis. Rich. Thurleigh (Abbot) 
Ophrys apifera, Huds. „ „ 

Habenaria conopsea, Benth. Clapham (Abbot) 

— viridis, Br. Steventon, Thurleigh (Abbot) 
Neottia Nidus-avis, Rich. Clapham (Abbot), etc. 
Epipactis palustris, Crantz. Steventon (Abbot) 
Iris foetidissima, L. Bromham, Steventon (Abbot) 
Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus, L. Clapham (Abbot), 

Ravensden, Cranfield 
Polygonatum multiflorum. All. Thurleigh 

Fritlllaria Meleagris, L. Bromham (Abbot) 
Paris quadrifolia, L. Renhold, Clapham, Thur^ 

leigh (Abbot) 
Colchicum autumnale, L. Ampthill Park 
Ruscus aculeatus, L. Oakley (Abbot) 
Typha angustifolia, L. Knotting Green (Abbot), 

Lidlington (C. Crouch) 
Acorus Calamus, L. Ouse 
Alisma ranunculoides, L. Marston (Miss Steven- 
tPotamogeton praelongus, Wulf. Ouse (Pryor) 

— lucens, L., var. acuminatus. Ouse (J.S.) 

— compressum, L. Fenlake (Abbot) 
Carex axillaris, Good. Fenlake (McLaren) 

— acuta, L. Fenlake (J.S.) 

t — strigosa, Huds. Putnoe, Renhold (Abbot) 
Calamagrostis Epigeios, Roth. Cardington, 
Houghton Conquest 

— lanceolata. Roth. Sheer Hatch Wood (Abbot) 
Apera Spica-venti, Beauv. Ford End (Abbot) 
Bromus secalinus, L. Buryfield, Bedford (Abbot) 

— commutatus, Schrad. Bromham (Abbot) 
tBrachypodium pinnatum, Beauv. Clapham 

(Abbot), Houghton Conquest Park {Bot. 
tGlyceria distans, Wahl. Clapham Lane (Abbot) 
Hordeum sylvaticum, Huds. Thurleigh, Putnoe 

Lolium temulentum, L. Fenlake (Abbot) 
Asplenium Trichomanes, L. Cardington 
Scolopendrium vulgare, Symons. Elstoza, Lid- 
tBotrychium Lunaria, Sw. Oakley, Westfield 

tNitella mucronata, Ktltz. River Ouse near Bed- 
ford (C. H. Davies) 
Tolypella glomerata, Leonh. Near Bedford 


4. The Ivel District 

has for its boundaries those of the West Ouse district already described from near Roxton 
to Boughton End. At this place it touches the Ouzel district, from which it is separated by a 
line drawn across the county from Boughton End to Eversholt, Toddington, Chalgrave and 
Chalton Cross ; it then borders the Lea district along the Icknield Way until the Herts 
county boundary is reached, and this limits it as far as to Edworth. Here the Cam district 
comes in, and the water parting is traced by Dunton, and west of Ey worth, to Tadlow where 
the Cambridge county border then limits it on the north as far as to Cold Arbour, at which 
point an arbitrary line is drawn across county to about a mile west of Tempsford, and 
thence southwards to Blunham station. The district is also watered by the Flitt and Hiz 
streams. The greatest elevation is about 530 feet near Streatley, but a large extent of the 
area is below 200 feet. 

The Ivel district is perhaps the most interesting portion of the county from a botanist's 
point of view, since it comprises a great variety of soils, including the bare chalk of the downs, 
the flat valley of the Flitt with its extensive deposits of peat and a rich uliginal flora, and the 
southern slopes of the Lower Greensand ridge, which affords a warm porous soil with a varied 
selection of characteristic plants. The country too is very charming from a scenic point of 
view, and there are still spots untouched by cultivation, where the lover of nature may revel, 
and where the student may yet make additions to the county flora. 

The meadows by the Flitt from Flitwick to Flitton are particularly rich in bog species, 
notwithstanding some attempts at drainage having been made, and there are detached portions 
of bog-land which occur as far as to Shefford. 

Here occur the sundew {Drosera rotundifolia), the marsh violet {Viola palustris), the small 
valerian {Valeriana dioica), the bog bean {Menyanthes trifoliata\ the marsh bedstraw {Galium 
palustre) and its variety elongatum, the marsh and the' heath louseworts {Pedicularis palustris, P. 
sylvatica), the bog stitchwort {Stellaria uliginosa), the ivy-leaved crowfoot {Ranunculus i/ederaceus), 
a large form of the common spearwort {R. Flammula), the scorpion grass {Myosotis cespitosa), 
the starworts Callitriche hamulata and C. platycarpa. The cotton grass {Eriophorum angustifolium) is 
peculiarly plentiful, and the sedge vegetation includes the very local Carex canescens, besides C. 
pulicaris, C. rostrata, C. disticha, C. leporina, C. flava^ C. echinata, C. acutiformis^ C. Goodenowii, 
and great tussocks of C, paniculata. Scirpus setaceus is local, and Lotus uliginosus and the marsh 
willow-herb {Epilobium palustre) also are found. 

On the soil reclaimed from the bog there is a considerable growth of the rare hemp 
nettle {Galeopsis speciosa), discovered here by Mr. Saunders in 1883 ; the borage {Borago 
officinalis) as well as a form of the prickly comfrey {Symphytum asperrimum) also occur, and the 
North American snowberry {Symphoricarpus racemosus) is semi-naturalized. 

There are remains of alder coppices, showing that at one time the vegetation must have 
been in great part woodland, and here and there a bush of the grey willow {Salix cinerea) 
and much more rarely 5. aurita occur. The rushes include Juncus supinus, J. acutijlorus, jf. 
lamprocarpus, J. conglomeratus and J. effusus. Luzula or Juncoides multiflora and its variety 
erecta are frequent ; here and there are patches of ling {Calluna Erica), and on the drier 
parts may be occasionally seen Poa pratensis as the var. subcoerulea as well as Festuca ovina 
and its variety paludosa. Molinia varia, Phragmites communis, Glyceria fluitans, Agrostis vulgaris, 
Sieglingia decumbens, the pond-weed Potamogeton poly gonif alius. Pour., and the form ericetorum, 
have been observed. 

The Lower Greensand about Ampthill affords abundance of the cress Teesdalia nudi- 
caulis, of the scorpion grasses Myosotis collina and M. versicolor, of the chickweed Ceras- 
tium semidecandrum, which Abbot mistook for C, pumilum, the buck's-horn {Plantago Coronopus), 
the hair grass {Aira pracox), the foxglove {Digitalis purpurea), the hawkweed Hieracium 
boreale, the vetch Vicia angustifolia and its variety Bobartii, the sheep's scabious {Jasione montana), 
the holly {Ilex Aquifolium), the heath hair grass {Deschampsia fiexuosa), the meadow saxifrage 
{Saxifraga granulata), the thale cress {Sisymbrium thalianum), the broom Cytisus scoparius, the 
clovers Trifolium arvense, T. filiforme and T, striatum, the bird's-foot Ornithopus perpusillus, the 
sandwort Buda rubra, etc. 

The chalk downs afford a characteristic flora, and some very local species are 
found on the Barton Hills. Among these rarities are the pasque flower {Anemone Pulsatilla), 
the mountain cat's-foot {Antennaria dioica), and the blue milk vetch {Astragalus danicus). 
Abbot found a cress {Draba muralis), which was figured in English Botany from a Bedford 
specimen, but the plant appears to be extinct, and it was probably introduced and not indige- 



nous ; Wilbury Hill is one of the few British localities for the grass Phleum phalaroides, 
Wibel, at one time known as P. Boehmeri. 

The cultivated fields also have three choice species, namely the ground pine {Ajuga Chama- 
pitys), the great earth nut {Carum Bulbocastanum), and the great corn rattle (Rhinanthus 
major). Besides these the arable ground aiFords the fumitories Fumaria densiflora, F. Vaillantii 
and F. parvijlora, the candytuft (Iberis amara), the crimson poppy {Papaver hybridum), the 
toadflaxes Linaria spuria, L. elatine, and L. viscida, the Venus' looking-glass {Specularia 
hybrida), the grass Bromus secalinus, the hone-wort Carum segetum, and the bur parsley Caucalis 

The grassy downs are resplendent with the rock-rose {Helianthemum Chamacistus), the 
lady's-fingers (Anthyllis Vulneraria), the horse-shoe vetch (Hippocrepis comosa), the small scabious 
{Scabiosa Columbaria), the squinancy wort [Asperula cynanchica), the field ragwort (Senecio cam- 
pestris), the Carline thistle {Carlina vulgaris), the musk thistle {Carduus nutans), the marjoram 
{Origanum vulgare), the milkwort (Polygala vulgaris), the orchids Orchis pyramidalis, Habe- 
naria conopsea ; the perfoliate yellow-wort {Blackstonia perfoliata),thc felwort {Gentiana Amarella), 
the Canterbury bell {Campanula glomerata), and the mullein (Ferbascum Thapsus), etc. The grasses 
consist of Kosleria cristata and its var. gracilis, Festuca ovina, F. rigida, F. rubra, Bromus erectus, 
Avena pubescens, A. pratensis, Briza media, etc. 

The yew ( Taxus baccata) is almost certainly native in the district, but the scarcity of the 
juniper (Juniperus communis) is remarkable, since it is so frequent on the chalk escarpment of 

The rarer plants of the Ivel district include : — 
Clematus Vitalba, L. 

tThalictrum calcareum, Jord. Flitmck (R. H. 
Ranunculus Lingua, L. Reed Pond, Sundon (J.S.) 
t — Baudotii, Godr. „ „ 

— fluitans, Lam. Ivel 

— parviflorus, L. Tingriti (W. Couch) 

— acris, L., var. Steveni (Andrz.) Flitzvick 


Aquilegia vulgaris, L. Barton Leete (Abbot) 

Berberis vulgaris, L. Steppingley 

Papaver dubium, L., var. Lamottei (Lam.) 
Flitmck (Druce) 
var. Lecoqii (Lam.) Clophill 

Capnoides claviculata, Druce {Corydalis). Clop- 
hill, Kings Wood 
■\Draha muralis, L. E. B. Plate (Abbot) ; drawn 
from a Bedford specimen 

Erophila stenophylla, Jord. Ampthill (Druce) 

Erysimum cheirantholdes, L. Flittvick (J.S.) 

Diplotaxis muralis, DC. Railway 

Viola palustris, L. Ampthill (J. H.), Westoning 
(C. Crouch) 

— hirta, L., var. calcarea, Bab. Barton (J.S.) 
'Dianthus deltoides, L. Everton, Potton (Abbot) 

Cerastium quaternellum, Fenzl. Ampthill War- 
ren, Clophill (Abbot) ; Flitwick (McLaren) 

— viscosum, L., var. apetalu m (Dum.) Ampt- 

hill (Druce) 
[ — pumilum, Curtis. Ampthill (Abbot) ; error, 

it should be C. semidecandrum] 
Stellaria media, Cyr., var. Borseana (Jord.) 

Ampthill, Flitwick (Druce) 
Silene noctiflora, L. Barton Hills (J.S.) 

— anglica, L. Barton (Abbot) 

— • Cucubalus, Wibel, var. puberula (Jord.) 

Barton (Druce) 
Sagina ciliata, Fries. Ampthill (Druce) 

— nodosa, Fenzl. Ampthill (Abbot), Flitwick 

Arenaria leptoclados, Guss. Flitwick (Druce) 


Saponaria officinalis, L. Harlington (J.S.) 
Claytonia perfoliata, Donn. Ampthill on the 

Maulden road 
Montia fontana, L., var. minor (All.) Flitwick 

•Hypericum elodes, L. Potton (Abbot) 

— calycinum, L. Haynes 

Geranium sanguineum, L. Potton, an escape 

— pusillum, L. Ampthill (Druce) 

— columbinum, L. Pegsdon 

Erodium cicutarium, L'Herit. Ampthill, etc. 

— moschatum, L'H6rit. Abbot (180 1),^^^?/- 

holt (McLaren), Ampthill Warren 
Genista anglica, L. Ampthill (Abbot) 
Medicagi Falcata, L. Flitzvick 
t — lappacea, Desv. Near Caddington (Pryor) 
Trifolium scabrum, L. FRtwick (McLaren), 

Potton, Ampthill (Abbot) 

— ochroleucon, Huds. Potton, Everton (Abbot) 

— subterraneum, L. Ampthill, Clophill (Abbot) 
Lotus uliginosus, Schk. Flittvick 

— tenuis, W. & K. Haynes 

Vicia angustifolia, L., var. Bobartii, Koch. 

Ampthill (Druce) 
[ — lathyroides, L. Ampthill, Maulden, Clophill 
(Abbot), but his specimens are V. angusti- 
Lathyrus sylvestris, L. Haynes (Abbot) 

— Nissolia, L. Wilbury 

Potentilla argentea, L. Ampthill, frequent 
t — palustris, Scop. Flittvick Marsh (J.S.) 
Alchemilla vulgaris, L. Sundon 
Poterium polygamum, W. & K. Railway banks, 

Crataegus oxyacanthoides, Thuill. Pulkxhill, 

etc. (C. Crouch) 
Pyrus Aria, Ehrh. Warden 
•Parnassia palustris, L. Ampthill (Abbot) 
\Sedum album, L., var. terettfolium (Haw.') 
5tf?*«(J.S.) ' 


*Drosera longifolia, L. Potton (Abbot) 
• — anglica, Huds. „ „ 

Callitriche obtusangula, Le Gall. River Flilt 

Peplis Portula, L. Jmpthill (Abbot) 
Hydrocotyle vulgaris, L. Flitwick, etc. 
Smymium Olmatrum, L. Between Silsoe and 

Barton (C. Crouch) ; Gravenhurst (W. 

Apium graveolens, L. Barton (C. Crouch) 

— inundatum, Reichb. Ampthill (Abbot) 
Bupleurum rotundifolium, L. Barton Hills 

Carum segetum, B. & H. Barton Hills, Wilbury 

— Petroselinum, B. & H. Flitwici railway 

— Carvi, L. Gravenhurst 

Pimpinella major, Huds., and var. dissecta, Druce. 

Anthriscus vulgaris, Bernh. Common about 

CEnanthe silaifolia, Bieb. Fotton (Abbot) ; possi- 
bly this was (E. Lachenahi 

— fistulosa, L. FRtzoick 

Adoxa Moschatellina, L. Sundon, Streatley, etc. 

Galium Mollugo, L., var. elatum (Thuill.) 
This is Abbot's G. pusillum from Shejffird; 
therefore G. sylvestre Poll., with which it 
has been wrongly identified, is still a desid- 
eratum to the Beds flora. 

— erectum, Huds. FRtivick ; Abbot's G. 

erectum is G. Mollugo var. elatum 
Valeriana officinalis, L Barton (Druce) 

— sambucifolia, Mik. Flitwick 

Dipsacus pilosus, L. Near Ampthill, Clophill, 

Warden, etc. 
Solidago Virgaurea, L. Clophill Woods (J.S.) 
Erigeron acre, L. Barton, etc. 
Filago minima, L. Flitwick, etc. 

— apiculata. Flitwick (J.S.) 

Inula Helenium, L. Pulkxhill, Higham Gobion 

(C. Crouch) 
Taraxacum erythrospermum, Andrz. Ampthill 

Tanacetum vulgare, L. Maulden (J.S.) 
Anthemis arvensis, L. Flitwick (J.S.) 
Cnicus eriophorus, Roth. Sundon (J.S.) 
Onopordon Acanthium, L. 
Serratula tinctoria, L. Aspley 
Arnoseris pusilla, Gxrtn. Ampthill, Maulden 

(Abbot) ; Potton, Clophill, etc. 
Crepis taraxacifolia, Thuill. Near Ampthill 

Hieracium boreale. Fries. Clophill (J.S.) 

— tridentatum, Fr. Shefford (R. A. Pryor) 
Hypochoeris glabra, L. Ampthill, Sandy, Potton 

Jasione montana, L. Ampthill 
Campanula Trachelium, L. Streatley, Barton (J.S.) 

— latifolia, L. Barton Leete (J.S.) 

— rapunculoides, L. Between Barton and 

Hexton (Messrs. Carruthers) 
*Oxycoccus quadripetala, Gilib. Ihe Cranberry, 
Potton (Abbot) 
Erica Tetralix, L. Ampthill, Potton (Abbot); 
Maulden (W. Crouch) 

— cinerea, L. Potton (McLaren) 

Hypopitys Monotropa, Crantz. 
tCentunculus minimus, L. Ampthill Moor {khhot) 
Cuscuta europaea, L. Flitwick, 184.1 (Rev. R H 

— Epithymum, Murr. Barton Hill, Ampthill 

Warren (Abbot) 
Atropa Belladonna, L. 
Antitrhinum majus, L. Midland railway, Har- 

lington (J.S.) 
Linaria repens. Mill. Dunstable Downs 
tRhinanthus major, Ehrh. Chalky fields on 

Barton Hills (J.S.) 
Verbena officinalis, L. 

Mentha longifolia, Huds. West Flitwick (J.S.) 
Marrubium vulgare, L. Sundon 
Salvia Verbenaca, L. 

— verAciUata, L. Flitwick (C. Crouch) 
Lamium hybridum. With. Maulden (Miss 

Teucrium Chamadiys, L. Warden (Abbot) 
•Utricularia minor, L. Ampthill, Potton (Abbot) 
Pinguicula vulgaris, L. Barton (C. Crouch) 
Lathraea Squamaria, L. Sundon (J.S.) 
Orobanche major, L. (O. Rapum-genists, 

ThuiU.) Ampthill (Abbot) 
Polygonum minus, Huds. Flitwick Marsh (J.S.) 
Euphorbia Cyparissias, L. Barton Leat Wood 

{Eng. Fl.) 
Viscum album, L. Barton, etc. 
iUrtica pilulifera, L. Shejird 
Salix aurita, L. Flitwick (Druce), Warden 

Castanea sativa. Mill. Silsoe 
Populus tremula, L. Kings Wood, Flitwick (J.S.) 
Quercus sessiliflora, Salisb. Ampthill 
Ceratophyllum demersum, L. Pulloxhill (J.S.) 
Juniperus communis, L. Barton (Abbot) 
Salix repens, L. Flitwick, Ampthill 
Alisma Plantago, L., var. lanceolatum (Afe.) 

FUtwick Marsh (J.S.) 

— ranunculoides, L. Ampthill (Abbot) 
*Epipactis palustris, Crantz. Gravenhurst, 1842 

(C. Crouch) 
Cephalanthera pallens. Rich. Streatley, etc. 
•Malaxis paludosa, Sw. Potton Marshes (Abbot) 
Neottia Nidus-avis, Rich. Sundon, etc. 
Orchis ustulata, L. Barton Downs 
Habenaria conopsea, Benth. Barton 

— viridis, Br. Sundon (J.S.) 

Ophrys apifera, Huds. Barton, Streatley, etc. 


— muscifera, Huds. Streatley, Sundon (J.S.) 

— aranifera, Huds. Southill (Abbot) 
Spiranthes autumnalis. Rich. Pegsdon and 

Barton Hills (J.S.), Haynes 
Iris foetidissima, L. Flitwick West (J.S.), Haynes, 

Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus, L. Maulden, Warden, 

Galanthus nivalis, L. Sandy (Abbot) 
Omithogalum nutans, L. Potton (Mr. Bond 


— umbellatum, L. Everton Heath (Abbot) 
Triglochin palustre, L. Gravenhurst Moor, 

Westoning (C. Crouch), Ampthill Bogs 



*Potamogeton alpinus, Balb. Chphill (W. Calamagrostis Epigeios, Roth. Maulden 

Crouch) (C. Crouch) 

— pusillum, L., var. tenuissimus, Ivel (J.S.) t — lanceolata, Roth. Chicksands (C. Crouch) 
Paris quadrifolia, L. In chalk and clay, not Catabrosa aquatica, Beauv. 

arenaceous soils tPhleum phalaroides, Wibel. ffilbuty Hill 

Ruscus aculeatus, L. (T. B. Blow) 

Colchicum autumnale, L. Barton (Abbot) Poa compressa, L. Streatley {]■&.) 

Allium ursinum, L. Chalm (J.S.) Festuca sciuroides. Roth. Ampthill (Druce) 

*Narthecium ossifragum, Huds. Ampthill Bogs Bromus commutatus, Schrad. Barton (J.S.) 

(Abbot) Nardus stricta, L. Flitzvick (McLaren) 

Typha angustifolia, L. Chphill {C. Ctoxs^ch) Loraaria Spicant, Desv. Flitwick Q.S.) 

Juncus obtusiflorus, Ehrh. Harlington Brickyards Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum, L. 

(J.S.) tLastrea uliginosa, Newm. Flitwick (McLaren), 

*Schoenus nigricans, L. Ampthill, Potton (Abbot) 1885 

Scirpus sylvaticus, L. Flitwick Marsh (J.H.), I — cristata, Presl. Potton (Abbot), probably 

Westoning L. spinulosa was meant 

* — caespitosus, L. Ampthill, Flitton Moors * — Thelypteris, Presl. Potton (Abbot) 

(Abbot) Aspidium aculeatum, Sw. Flitwick (J.S.), 

*Rynchospora alba, Vahl. Ampthill Moor and Potton, Chicksands 

Potton (Abbot) Scolopendrium vulgare, Symons. foddington 

+*Carex dioica, L. Ampthill (Abbot) Ophioglossum vulgatum, L. Sundan (J.S.) 

— flava, L., var. minor. Towns. Southill Equisetum maximum. Lam. Barton (J.S.) 

Q.S.) ? *Lycopodium clavatum, L. Potton Heath (Abbot) 

Acorus Calamus, L. Tingrith Park ; planted I * — inundatum, L. Ampthill (Abbot) 

(J.S.) Nitella mucronata, Kuetz. Sandy (J.S.) 

Apera Spica-venti, Beauv. Streatley (J.S.) tTolypella intricata, Leonh. Near Sundon (J.S.) 

5. The Cam District 

is very small and narrow and is bounded on the west by the Ivel district as already described, 
and on the east by Hertfordshire. As the water-partings are obscure, no part of the district 
being above 200 feet in altitude, it may be well to merge it in the Ivel district which it so 
closely resembles. 

6. The Ouzel District 

is in the south-west of the county and has for its eastern boundary the districts of the West 
Ouse and the Ivel district already described, but in the south it is separated from the Lea 
district by the Icknield Way from Chalton Cross by Houghton Regis to the Bucks boundary, 
which it touches above Edlesborough, and this county bounds it on the western side to 
Wharley End. 

This district is very varied in scenery as well as in its geological character. The streams 
which feed the Ouzel rise from the juncture of the Chalk with the impervious soil at its base, 
and cutting through the Upper Greensand and crossing the Gault also drain the picturesque 
country about Heath and Reach and Woburn Woods, which are on the Lower Greensand ; 
they finally pass through the country situated on the Oxford Clay, and that covered by the 
Ouse gravels. The latitude near Birdshill is 550 feet, at Toddington 485 feet, at Heath and 
Reach 460 feet, while no part appears to be below 200 feet. 

There are some boggy portions still left undrained near Aspley, also some interesting 
meadows with peat near Totternhoe, and the warm dry soil about Heath and Reach and 
Woburn affords a large number of ericetal species ; then the Chalk escarpment has its typical 
cretaceous vegetation, and its grassy slopes afford abundance of the rock-rose [Helianthemum 
Chamoecistus), the lady's-fingers [Anthyllis Vulneraria), the horse-shoe vetch {Hippocrepis comoio), 
the milkwort [Polygala vulgaris), the carline thistle {Carlina vulgaris), the stemless and musk- 
thistles (Cnicus acaulis and C nutans), the field ragwort {Senecio campestris), the yellow-wort 
{Blackstonia perfoliata), the marjoram {Origanum vulgare), the thyme [Thymus Chameedrys), the 
orchids Orchis pyramidalis, 0. ustulata, Habenaria conopsea, etc., the bee orchis (Ophrys apifera), 
the grasses Bromus erectus, Avena pratensis, A. pubescens, Festuca ovina, F. rigida, F. rubra, 
Kceleria cristata), the squinancy wort [Asperula cynanchica), the Canterbury bell {Campanula 
glomerata) and the scabious {Scabiosa Columbaria). 

The arable fields on the Chalk have the candytuft {Iberis amara), the great earth-nut 
(Carum Bulbocastanum), the crimson poppy {Papaver hybridum), the rattle Rhinattthus major, 
if indeed this be correctly named, the bur parsley {Caucalis nodosa), the Venus looking-glass 



{Specularia hyhrida), the toadflaxes Linaria Elatine, L, spuria, L. viscida, and the calamint 
(Calamintha arvensis). 

The heathy district near Leighton Buzzard, Woburn and Aspley affords a completely 
diiFerent flora from the Chalk. 

Here occur in open places the cress Teesdalia nudicaulis, the pearl-wort {Sagina ciliata), 
the sand-wort {Buda or Arenar'ia rubra), the St. John worts {Hypericum humifusum and H. pul- 
chrurri), the scorpion grass [Myosotis collina and M. versicolor), the wood pea {Lathyrus montanus), 
the buck's horn {Plantago Coronopus), the clovers Trifolium arvense and T. striatum, the sheep's 
scabious i^asione montand), the climbing fumitory ifiapnoides claviculata), the cudweeds Gna- 
phalium sylvaticum and Filago minima, the chickweed [Cerastium semidecandrum), the hemlock- 
leaved stork's-bill {Erodium cicutarium), the silvery cinquefoil [Potentilla argentea), the crane's- 
bill {Geranium pusillum), the hawkweeds Hieracium umbellatum and H. horeale, the golden rod 
{Solidago Virgaurea), the dog violet {Viola canina), the grasses Molinia varia, Agrostis canina, 
Deschampsia flexuosa. Air a caryophyllea, A. prescox, Festuca ovina and var, paludosa, F. sciuroides, 
the foxglove {Digitalis purpurea), the grass Poa pratensis var. subcoerulea, the sedge Carex 
pilulifera, and the musk mallow {Malva moschata var. heterophylla). The cultivated ground 
on this light soil yields the small succory {Arnoseris minima), the corn camomile {Chrysanthemum 
segetum), the spurrey {Spergula sativa), the grass Bromus secalinus, the bird's-foot {Ornithopus 
perpusillus), the saw-wort {Serratula tinctoria), etc. 

The woods and bushy portion have, in addition to the planted pines and larch, a native 
growth of huckleberry {Faccinium Myrtillus), heather {Calluna Erica), the lily of the valley 
{Convallaria majalis), the aspen {Populus tremula), the grasses Molinia varia and Poa nemoralis, 
the wood rush {Luzula maxima or "Juncoides sylvaticum), the foxglove {Digitalis purpurea), and 
the fern Lomaria Spicant. 

The boggy parts yield the local sedge, Carex canescens, the bog pimpernel {Anagallis 
tenella), the marsh bedstraw {Galium uliginosum), the sedges Carex echinata, C. flava var. 
minor, the biting persicaria {Polygonum Hydropiper), the blinks {Montia fontana as the var. 
minor), the grass Sieglingia decumbens, the marsh violet {Viola palustris), the rushes Juncus 
supinus, "Juncoides multiflorum and var. erectum, and the grass Molinia varia. 

On clay soils, as about Cranfield, Salford, etc., we have the graceful sedge Carex pendula, 
not only by hedges but in the woodlands, where also occur the spurge laurel {Daphne Laureola), 
the small burdock {Arctium minus), the water elder {Viburnum Opulus), the grass Calamagrostis 
Epigeios, the violet Viola Reichenbachiana, the grass Milium effusum, the cow wheat {Melampyrum 
pratense), the gromwell {Lithospermum officinale), etc. 

The riverside vegetation includes Epilobium roseum, E. obscurum and a hybrid of the two, 
the winter cress {Barbarea vulgaris var. divaricata), the sedge Carex paludosa (which is probably 
Abbot's C. acuta), C. riparia, etc. ; the willows Salix triandra, S. Smithiana, S. cinerea, 
S. caprea, S. purpurea, S. viminalis ; the orach {Atriplex deltoidea), the water chickweed (5/^/- 
laria aquatica) ; the black poplar {Populus nigra) is not uncommon, and P. canescens and P. alba 
occur, but all as planted trees. 

The maple {Acer campestre) is very frequent and is often a good sized tree, and is found 
with glabrous var. leiocarpa, as well as hairy fruit coverings (var. hebecarpa). The wych 
elm ( Ulmus campestris) is not uncommon, but like the common elm ( U. sativa) may be a 
planted tree. 

The streams have Potamogeton densus and P. crispum, and Zannichellia palustris. 

The ponds have Ranunculus heterophyllus, R. peltatus, R. Drouetii and Ceratophyllum. 

In the pastures the rest harrow {Ononis spinosa) is frequent ; the eyebright {Euphrasia) is 
almost universally E. nemorosa, and the rattle is Rhinanthus minor. 

Other plants of the Ouzel district : — 

Clematis Vitalba, L. 
Thalictrum flavum, L. 

Ranunculus heterophyllus, Web. Woburn Sands, 
etc. (Druce) 

— pseudo-fluitans, forma. Ouzel G-S.) 

— divaricatus, Schrank. Aspley (J.S.) 
Myosurus minimis, L. Salford (Druce) 
Berberis vulgaris, L. Woburn 

Papaver Lecoqii, Lam. Near Eaton Bray 

Bunias Erucagp. Leighton Mill (Druce) 

Erophila stenophylla, Jord. Woburn (Druce) 
Camelina sativa, Crantz. Clover fields near 

Woburn Sands (Druce) 
Erysimum cheiranthoides, L. Woburn 
Diplotaxis muralis, DC, var. Babingtonii. Rail- 
way near Woburn Sands (Druce) 
Hesperis matrmalis, L. Woburn Sands 
Brassica elongata, Ehrh. Casual at Leighton Mill 

Viola tricolor, L., var. agrestis (Jord.) Woburn 



Viola tricolor, L. 

var. subtilis (Jord.) Wobum (Druce) 
var. Deseglisei (Jord.) „ „ 

— canina, L. Heath and Reach (J.S.) 
Polygala serpyllacea, Wahl. Heath and Reach, 

Wohurn (Druce) 
Silene anglica, L. Woburn 
Lychnis alba x dioica. Wobum (Druce) 
Cerastium semidecandrum, L. Aspley (this is 

Abbot's C pumiluni) ; Heath and Reach 


— viscosum, L., var. apetalum, Dum. Wobum 

Arenaria leptoclados, Gun. Common about 

Leighton and Woburn (Druce) 
Claytonia ferfoliata, Donn. Leighton Buzzard 
'f Geranium phieum, L. Eversholt (Abbot) 
Erodium moschatum, L'Herit. Eversholt (Mc 

Laren) ; the plate in E.B. was drawn from 

a Bedfordshire specimen sent by Dr. 


— cicutarium, L'Herit., var. pimpinellsefolium 

(Sibth.) Aspley (Abbot) 
Rhamnus Frangula, L. Aspley, Eversholt 

Hypericum calycinum, L. Wobum 

— quadrangulum, L. Aspley 

Malva moschata, L., var. heterophylla, Lej. 

Wobum (Druce) 
Tilia parvifolia, Ehrh. Aspley, planted (Druce) 
Medicagp denticulata, Willd. Leighton 
Melilotus alba, Desv. Leighton (Druce) 
Trifolium iilifbrme, L. Leighton, Aspley ; com- 
mon on the Greensand 
Vicia Lathyroides, L. Near Leighton (Druce) 

— sylvatica, L. Eversholt 

— angustifolia, L., var. Bobartii. Leighton 

Potentilla argentea, L. Common on the Green- 
Alchemilla vulgaris, L. Eversholt (Abbot) ; 
Tottemhoe (J.S.) 

var. filicaulis (Buser) Near Woburn 
Crataegus oxyacanthoides, Thuill. Salford (DTwct) 
Pyrus communis, L. Eversholt 
Sedum Telephium, L., var. Fabaria (L.) Aspley 

Wood (Abbot) 
Chrysosplenium oppositifolium, L. Toddington 


Callitriche obtusangula, Le-Gall. Near Salfird 

Epilobium roseum, Schreb. Near Salford (Druce) 

— roseum x obscurum. „ „ „ 

— obscurum, Schreb. „ „ „ 

— angustifolium, L. 

— tetragonum, L. Salford 
Pimpinella major, Huds. Tottemhoe 
Caucalis nodosa, Scop. Eaton Bray, etc. 
Anthriscus vulgaris, Bernh. Heath and Reach 

Carum Carvi, L. Tottemhoe, apparently native 

Bupleurum rotundifolium, L. Wobum 
Galium uliginosum, L. Heath and Reach (J.S.) 
Valeriana officinalis, L. Eaton Bray (Druce) 

Valeriana sambucifolia, Mik. Wobum (Druce) 
Valerianella dentata. Poll. Eaton Bray (Druce) 
Filago spathulata, Presl. Birchmore near Wobum 

— apiculata. G. Sm. Heath and Reach, etc. 

Gnaphalium sylvaticum, L. Aspley (Abbot), 

Leighton (J.S.) 
iCentaurea Solstitialis, L. Tottemhoe Knolls (J.S.) 
Tanacetum vulgare, L. Ridgmount 
Serratula tinctoria, L. Aspley, Salford Wood 

Senecio sylvaticus, L. Aspley 
Hieracium sciaphilum, Uecht. Aspley (J.S.) 

— boreale. Fries. Abundant about Aspley 

Arnoseris pusilla, Gaertn. Leighton Buzzard 

Taraxacum erythrospermum (Andr.) Heath 

and Reach (Druce) 
Crepis taraxacifolia, Thuill. Aspley (Druce) 
Campanula latifolia, L. „ „ 

Pyrola minor, L. Aspley 
Cuscuta europsea, L. Tottemhoe (J.S.) 

— Epithymum, Murr. Leighton (Druce) 

— Trifolii, Bab. Salford (Druce) 
Veronica montana, L. Eversholt (Abbot only) 
Pedicularis palustris, L. Tottemhoe, Heath and 

Reach (J.S.) 

— sylvatica, L. Heath and Reach, etc. 
Orobanche major, L. Aspley 

Anagallis tenella, L. Tottemhoe, Heath and 

Reach (J.S.) 
Lysimachia nemorum, L. Aspley Q.S.) 
Lemnanthemum peltatum, Gmel. Stanbridge 

Ford (J.S.) ; perhaps planted 
Menyanthes trifoliata, L. Ridgmont 
Myosotis cespitosa, Schult. Heath and Reach 

Verbena officinalis, L. Tottemhoe Q.S.) 
Pinguicula vulgaris, L. Tottemhoe Mead (Worth- 

ington Smith) 
Salvia Verbenaca, L. Toddington (J.S.) 
Rumex Hydrolapathum, Huds. By the Ouzel; 

this is the R. aquaticus of Mr. Saunders* 

Populus tremula, L., var. villosa, Lang. Rather 

common in Salford Wood (Druce) 
Quercus sessiliflora, Salisb. Near Heath and 

Reach, Salford, etc. (Druce) 
Ophrys muscifera, Huds. 
Orchis latifolia, L. Tottemhoe (Worthington 

Neottia Nidus-avis, L. Salford Wood (Druce) 
Epipactis violacea, Bor. Wobum (Abbot in 

Eng. Bot. Supp.) 
Polygonatum multiflorum, All. Aspley (W. 

Maianthemum Convallaria, Weber. Aspley ; 

but requires confirmation 
Fritillaria Meleagris, L. Eaton Bray (H. C. 

Juncus squarrosus, L. Aspley (J.S.) 
Sparganium neglectum, Beeby. Near Salford 

Potamogeton pusillus, L. Near Salford (Druce) 
Scirpus setaceus, L. Tottemhoe (J.S.) 



tCarex data, All. {=C.stricta, Good.) Markham 

mil, a.s.) 

— pulicaris, L. Eversholt (McLaren) 

— binervis, Sm. Tottemhoe (J.S.) 

— echinata, Murr. Aspley, Woburn, Heath and 


— flava, L. Totternhoe Q.S.), near Eaton Bray 


var. minor, Towns. Woburn (Druce) 

— acuta, L. Tottemhoe (C. Crouch) 

— pilulifera, L. Woburn, etc. (Druce) 

— disticha, Huds. Salford 

Phleum pratense, L., var. nodosum (L.). Eaton 

Bray (Druce) 
Anthoxanthum Puelii, Lee. and Lam. Heath and 

Calamagrostis epigeios, Roth. Near Leighton 

(J.S.), Cranfield (Druce) 
Setaria viridii, Beauv. Leighton Buxzard 
Melica uniflora, Retz. Woods and hedges 

Festuca Myurus, L. Aspley, Heath and Reach 

Poa nemoralis, L. Rather common 

— compressa, L. Leighton 

Bromus commutatus, Schrad. Tottemhoe (J.S.) 
tAlopecurus fulvus, Sm. Near Heath and Reach 
Phalatis canariensis, L. Woburn Sands, etc. 
Lolium italicum, Braun. ,, „ „ 

Lastrea spinulosa, Desv. Asfley (J.S.) 

— dilatata, Presl. Woburn (Druce) 
Scolopendrium vulgare, Symons. Toddington (J.S.) 

*Osmunda regalis, L. Aspley (Abbot) 
Polystichum aculeatum, Presl. Eversholt 
Equisetum maximum. Lam. Woburn (Druce) 
Chara hispida, L. Tottemhoe (J.S.) 

— fragilis, Desv. „ „ 

— contraria, Ktttz. „ „ 

Tolypella glomerata, Leonh. Near Woburn 

7. The Lea District 

is a small irregularly shaped portion of the county which lies to the south of the Icknield Way, 
and has for its southern boundary the county of Herts, from which it is only artificially 

The river itself rises from springs near Houghton Regis and from others in Leagrave 
Marsh three miles above Luton, and cuts through the chalk escarpment before entering Hert- 
fordshire. The greatest altitude of the district is about 630 feet. A small portion may belong 
to the drainage of the Colne, itself a Thames tributary. 

It has an expanse of grassy chalk downs, bare chalky arable fields, and woodlands where 
brick-earth gives the subsoil, and marshy ground about Limbury, and it includes also the rich 
park of Luton Hoo and its ornamental waters. 

Although the area is small it has had the advantage of being well explored by Mr. J. 
Saunders of Luton, so that the list of interesting species recorded for it is quite out of propor- 
tion to the area it includes. 

It will not be necessary to repeat the names of the plants common to the chalk downs, 
as they are already given for the Ivel and Ouzel districts ; the other interesting species found 
in this district include : — 

Ranunculus Drouetii, Sch. Limbury with the 

variety Godronii, Gren. (J.S.) 
Anemone apennina, L. Luton Hoo (Abbot) 
Helleborus viridis, L., var. occidentalis, Druce. 

Limbury (J.S.), Whipsnade (Worthington 


— feetidus. Lynchetts near Luton (J.S.) 
Papaver Lecoqii, Lam. Luton (R. Pryor) 
Erysimum cheiranthoides, L. Luton (J.S.) 
Hesperis matronaRs, L. Luton Hoo (J.S.) 
Camelina sativa, Crantz. Luton deodorizing 

works (J.S.) 
NesRa paniculata, Desv. Casual, Luton (Pryor) 
tViola permixta, Jord. New Mill End (J.S.) 

— canina, L. Chiltem Green Common (J.S.) 
Stellaria aquatica. Scop. New Mill End (J.S.) 

— palustris, Retz. Luton Hoo Park (Mr. J. 

Sagina nodosa, Fenzl. Leagrave (J.S.) 
Geranium lucidum, L. Martlets near Luton 


— pyrenaicum, Burm. Luton Hoo (Abbot) 
Hypericum calycinum, L. Luton Hoo 

— quadrangulum, L. Luton (JBot. Guide) 

Onobrychis vicixformis, Scop. Apparently in- 
digenous on the ancient greensward of the 
Chiltems (J.S.) 
MeRlotus arvensis, Desv. Luton (R. Pryor) 
Prunus Padus, L. Luton Hoo Park, probably 

planted (J.S.) 
Alchemilla vulgaris, L. Luton Hoo (J.S.) 
Epilobium angustifolium, L. Whipsnade (J.S.) 
— obsurum, Schreb. Limbury, Luton Hoo (J.S.) 
Saxlfraga granulata, L. Limbury (J.S.) 
Carum Bulbocastanum, Koch. Limbury (J.S.) 
Adoxa Moschatellina, L. „ ,, 

Hippuris vulgaris, L. Luton Hoo Lake (J.S.) 
tMyriophyllum alterniflorum, DC. Pepperstick 


Peplis Portula, L. Studham (J.S.), Luton Hoo 

Q. Catt) 
Sambucus Ebulus, L. Limbury (J.S.) 
Arctium majus, Sckhuhr. „ „ 
Erigeron acre, L. Leagrave (J.S.) 
Picris hieracioides, L. Pepperstock (J.S.) 
Lactuca muralis, Fres. Luton Hoo Q-^.), near 

Dunstable (Pryor) 
Hieracium umbellatum, L. Chiltem Green (J.S.) 



tCampanula patula, L. Luton Hoo (J. Edge) 
— latifolia, L. Whlpsnade, Studham Common 


Cuscuta Trifolii, Bab. See paper by Mr. 
Carruthers on the devastation of Swedish 
turnips at Dunstable {Joum. Royal Jgric. 
Soc. vol. ix. pt. i.), where it is stated that 
the plant not only fed on the foliage but 
actually on the turnips themselves. 

Erica cinerea, L. Pepperstock Q.S.) 

Pyrola minor, L. Woods near Luton (Abbot), 
(? if in Beds) 

Hypopitys Monotropa, Crantz. 'New Mill End 


Vinca minor, L. LMury, Neto Mill End (J.S.) 
Menyanthes trifoliata. Limbury, Leagrave Marsh 


Atropa Belladonna, L. 
Hyoscyamus niger, L. 
Digitalis purpurea, L. 
Linaria repens. Mill. 

Whipsnade (Abbot) 
Limbmy (J.S.) 
Luton Hoo G-S.) 
Luton with the hybrid 

L. vulgari-repens (R. Pryor) 
Mimulus Langsdorffii, Donn. Luton Hoo (J.S.) 
Lysimachia nemorum, L. Chiltem Green G-S.) 
Ajuga Chamaepitys, Schreb. Luton Downs 

Rumex maritimus, L. New Mill End (J.S.) 
Polygonum Bistorta, L. South of Luton (J.S.) 
— maculatum, Trim, and Dyer. Lea Side G-S-) 
^Jristolochia Clematitis, L. Thoroughly natural- 
ized in a wood at Luton Hoo (J.S.) 
Daphne Laureola, L. Leagrave, New Mill End 


Ceratophyllum demersum, L. Luton Hoo Lake 
in fruit, 1882 (J.S.) 

Carpinus Betulus, L. Fine trees near Luton 

and at New Mill End (J.S.) 
Populus canescens, Sm. Caddington G-S.) 
Salix purpurea, L. Limbury G-S-) 
Triglochlin palustre, L. Luton 
Zannichellia palustris, L., brachystemon. Gay. 

Luton Hoo, sources of the Lea (J.S.) 
Potamogeton perfoliatum, L. Limbury Pond G-S.) 

— pusillum, L. New Mill End (J.S.) 

— pectinatum, L. Luton Hoo Lake (J.S.) 
Butomus umbellatus, L. River Lea G-S-) 
Habenaria viridis, R. Br. Pepperstock (J.S.) 
Cephalanthera pallens. Rich. New Mill End 


Tulipa sylvestris, L. Whipsnade (Abbot) 

Poly^natum multifiorum. All. Luton Hoo (J.S.) 

Omithogalum umbellatum, L. Limbury (J.S.) 

AUuin ursinum, L. East Hyde G-S-) 

Orchis ustulata, L. Dunstable Downs 

Iris fcetidissima, L. Luton Hoo 

Scirpus multicaulis, Sm. Woodside, Pepperstock 


Carex disticha, Huds. Luton Hoo (J.S.) 

— leporina, L. Pepperstock (J.S.) 

— Goodenowii, Gay. Biscot G-S-) 
Sieglingia decumbens, Beauv. Pepperstock (J.S.) 

^Bromus arvensis, L. Not uncommon near Luton 

G-S-) . 

Lomaria Spicant, Desv. Luton Hoo G-S-) 
Asplenium Trichomanes, L. Luton Hoo 
Scolopendrium vulgare, Symons. „ „ 
Chara fragilis, Desv. Limbury G-S-)> with var. 

Nitella opaca, Ag. Sources of the Lea at Biscot 



The brambles of Bedfordshire are only imperfectly known, but 
the extensive area of the Lower Greensand is especially prolific in 
species, and systematic search would probably reveal a large number. 
The areas of the Chalk and Clays are poor and afford little beyond Rubus 
ulmif alius, R. corylif alius with its varieties cyclophyllus and sublustris, and 
the dewberry {R. ccesius), the latter being especially frequent in damp 
woods and by the sides of wet ditches. The woodlands on the Clay also 
have R. leucostachys, and occasionally R. radula and R. echinatus. The 
Chalk, where it comes to the surface, is also singularly poor, but where, 
as at Chiltern Common, it has a covering of brick earth or tertiaries a 
much more varied selection of brambles is to be met with. The richest 
districts are Woburn, Heath and Reach, the neighbourhood of Leighton 
Buzzard and Ampthill, 

At Woburn, in both Bucks and Beds, is a variety of R. ibirtus, 
namely jlaccidifolius (P. J. Miiller), which is unknown elsewhere in 
Britain ; and in this neighbourhood the writer has met with R. pyramida- 
lis, R. fissus, R. plicafus, R. Lindleianus, R. rhamnif alius, R. pulcherrimus, 
R. macrophyllus, R. rudis, R. dasyphyllus, R. dumetorum, R. corylifolius and 

1 By G. Claridge Druce. 


var. sublustris. The raspberry i?. idceus is local, but is found in all the 
larger districts and is common locally. 

Several other species are recorded in various works, but the specific 
limitations are now so different from what they were when the records 
were made that it is impossible, with accuracy, to determine what species 
(as we now understand them) they are identical with, and it is safer to 
ignore them, a course which has been followed in the Handbook of the 
British Rubi, by the Rev. W. Moyle Rogers. 


The roses, like the brambles, have been much neglected so far as 
critical study goes, and such records as have been made are in many cases 

The dog rose {Rosa canina) is widely distributed and shows more 
variation on clay soils. Among the modifications of it that the writer 
has met with are R. lutetiana, Leman, which is the commonest form, 
and is generally distributed, although less abundant, on the Greensand ; 
R. dumalis, Bechst., under which is placed the biserrata of English 
writers, is also very common. R. dumetorum, Thuill., with which is 
grouped R. urbica, Leman, is widely distributed and occurs about Salford 
(Ouzel) in many situations. R. verticillata, Merat, is local ; it occurs 
near Eaton Bray (Ouzel). The field-rose {R. arvensis, L.) is abundant 
in the woods and hedges on clay soils. The peduncles vary much as 
regards their armature of bristles ; an extreme form is var. gallicoides. 
Baker. R. micrantha, Sm., is local, but is rather more frequent on the 
Chalk. The sweet brier {R. Eglanteria, L. = R. rubiginosa, L.) is rare and 
only scattered through the district, and is often only an escape from 
cultivation. The downy rose {R. mollissima, Willd., R. tomentosa, Sm.) 
is rather rare ; it occurs in a few localities, chiefly on hilly ground, as 
near Aspley (Ouzel), and usually as the var. subglobosa (Sm.) 


THE CLUBMOSSES {Lycopodiacea) 

This order is probably extinct in Bedfordshire. According to 
Abbot, Lycopodium clavatum grew on Potton Heath, and L. inundatum at 
Ampthill, at the end of the eighteenth century, but there is no modern 
record of either. 

THE FERNS {Filicesy 

Although there are old-established woods in Bedfordshire, the ferns 
are not numerous. The hard fern {Lomaria Spicant) is frequent on sides 
of ditches at Aspley and Flitwick. The black maiden hair {Asplenium 
Adiantum-nigrum) was found on Stafford Bridge by Abbot, and is men- 
tioned as not uncommon in the South Beds list, 1881. Wall-rue {A. 
Ruta-muraria) has been frequent on walls in the north since Abbot's 

* By J. Hamson, Bedford. 


time. A. Trichomanes has been found at Stafford Bridge, Luton Hoo 
and Cardington. Aspidium aculeatum is native but very local ; Eversholt, 
Flitwick, Potton and Chicksands have been returned as stations. The 
hart's-tongue {Scolopendrium) is not common ; for many years it has grown 
in a well at Elstow, and it has been found on Newnham walls, at 
Lidlington, Luton Hoo and Toddington. Polypodium cristatum was noted 
by Abbot at Potton and Aspley, but Lastrea spinulosa was probably meant, 
and it has several modern stations. L. uliginosa was certified as correct 
by Dr. F. A. Lees, being found by McLaren at Flitwick in 1885. 
L. Thelypteris grew on Potton Marsh in Abbot's time, and the name 
occurs in Hillhouse's list, 1876, which also includes L. dilatata without 
station. The adder's tongue [Ophioglossum) is widely distributed, but the 
moonwort {Botrychium), which Abbot found in Oakley West Field, is 
apparently extinct, as is also the royal fern (Oj/«««^tf), which formerly 
grew in Aspley Wood, and of late years has been found at Little Brick- 
hill just outside the county boundary. 

THE HORSETAILS {Equisetacecef 

The great horsetail (£. maximum) is generally found on marshes, 
especially in the north, but is rarer in the south. The mud-horsetail 
(E. limosum) is frequent on bogs, and Mr. Saunders gives the Ivel near 
Sandy as a station for the yzx. jiuviatile^ which Mr. Hillhouse also met 
with. Abbot recorded E. hyemale at Potton and Ampthill, and E. syl- 
vaticum at Haynes Wood, but there has been no recent confirmation of 


None have been found in the county. 

THE MOSSES {Musci)'' 

As Bedfordshire is an inland county and possesses no mountains the 
folio wing moss list of some 160 species and varieties is not so extensive 
and varied as it might be with different physical features. The sphag- 
nums or bog mosses are found only on the Lower Greensand formation, 
which stretches across the middle of the county. The most noteworthy 
species in the list are Dicranum montanum and Hypnum Sendtneri, the latter 
of which it is feared has recently been exterminated through the plough- 
ing up of its only known station. 

The nomenclature and arrangement is that of the London Catalogue, ed. 

2 (see, South Bedfordshire Mosses,' J. Saunders, Journ. Botany, xxii. 47). 

SPHAGNACEi?: Sphagnace^ {continued) 

Sphagnum acutifolium, Ehrh. Sphagnum intermedium, Hoifin. 

var. tenue — cuspidatum, Ehrh. 

„ rubellum var. riparioides 

— fimbriatum, Wils. — cymbifolium, Ehrh. 

— squarrosum, Lind. var. squarrosulum 

var. laxum 

' By J. Hamson, Bedford. 
' By James Saunders, Luton. 




Weissia viridula, Brid. 

— cirrhata, Hedw. 
Dicranella varia, Hedw. 

— heteromalla, Hedw. 

— Schreberi, Hedw. 

— cerviculata, Hedw. 

Dicranum montanum, Hedw. Aspleyy 
very rare 

— scoparium, L. 

— majus, Thurn. 

— palustre, Schimper. 
Campylopus flexuosus, Brid. 
Leucobryum glaucum, L. 


Pleuridium nitidum, Brid. 

— subulatum, L. 

Seligeria calcarea, Dicks. (Bryum calcareum 
of Abbot) East Hyde, 1903 (J.S.) 


Phascum cuspidatum, Schreb. 

— rectum, Sm. 
Pottia cavifolia, £hrh. 

— minutula, Schweg. 

— truncata, L. 

— intermedia, Turn. 

— lanceolata, Dicks. 
Didymodon rubellus, B. & S. 
Ditrichum flexicaule, Schweg. 
Trichostomum tophaceum, Brid. 
Barbula muralis, L. 

— ambigua, B. & S. 

— unguiculata, Dill. 

— fallax, Hedw. 

var. brevifolia 

— convoluta, Hedw. 

— tortuosa, L. 

— subulata, L. 

— laevipila, Brid. 

— ruralis, L. 

— intermedia, Brid. 
Ceratodon purpureas, L. 


Encalypta vulgaris, Hedw. 

Grimmia apocarpa, L. 

— pulvinata, Dill. 
Zygodon viridissimus, Dicks. 
Orthotrichum saxatile, Brid. 

— affine, Schrad. 

— diaphanum, Schrad. 

— Lyellii, H. & T. 

Physcomitrella patens, Hedw. 
Physcomitrium pyriforme, L. 
Funaria fascicularis, Dicks. 

— hygrometrica, L. 

Bartramia pomiformis, L. 
Philonotis fontana, L. 

I 57 


Leptobryum pyriforme, L. 
Webera nutans, Schreb. 

— cruda, Schreb. 

— carnea, L. 

Bryum pendulum, Hornsch. 

— inclinatum, Swartz. 

— bimum, Schreb. Flitwick 

— murale, Wils. Luton Hoo 

— atropurpureum, W. & M. 

— caespiticium, L. 

— argenteum, L. 

— capillare, L. 

— pseudo-triquetrum, Hedw. 

— roseum, Schreb. 

Mnium affine. Bland. 

— undulatum, Hedw. 

— rostratum, Schrad. 

— hornum, L. 

— punctatum, Hedw. 
Aulacomnium androgynum, L. 

— palustre, L. 


Tetraphis pellucida, L. Aspley 


Atrichum undulatum, L. 
Pogonatum nanum, Neck. 

— abides, Hedw. 

— urnigerum, L. 
Polytrichum formosum, Hedw. 

— piliferum, Schreb. 

— juniperinum, Willd. 

— commune, L. 


Fissidens bryoides, Hedw. 

— incurvus, W. & M. 

— viridulus, Wils. 

— crassipes, Wils. Bromham 

— adiantoides, Hedw. 

— taxifolius, L. 


Cinclidotus fontinaloides, Hedw. 
Fontinalis antipyretica, L. 

— dolosa, Cardot. Limbury 
Cryphaea heteromalla, Hedw. 


Leucodon sciuroides, L. 


Neckera crispa, L. On the chalk hills 

— complanata, L. 

Homalia trichomanoides, Schreb. 

Leskea polycarpa, Ehrh. 
Anomodon viticulosus, L. 
Thuidium tamariscinum, Hedw. 


Thamnium alopecurum, L. 
Climacium dendroides, L. 
Isothecium myurum, Poll. 



HypnacejE [continued) 

Homalothecium sericeum, L. 
Camptothecium lutescens, Huds. 
Brachythecium glareosum, B. & S. 

— albicans, Neck. 

— velutinum, L. 

— rutabulum, L. 

var. longisetum, Bry. Eur. 
Eurhynchium myosuroides, L. 

— striatum, Schreb. 

— crassinervium, Tayl. 

— piliferum, Schreb. 

— Swartzii, Turn. 

— praelongum, Dill. 
Rhynchostegium tenellum, Dicks. 

— confertum, Dicks. 

— murale, Hedw. 

— ruscifolium, Neck. 
Plagiothecium denticulatum, ly. 

var. aptychus, Spruce 

— undulatum, L. 
Amblystegium serpens, L. 

— riparium, L. 
Hypnum aduncum, Hedw. 

var. Kneiffii, Bry. Eur. 

HvPNACEii {continued) 

Hypnum exannulatum, GUmb. 

— Sendtneri, Schpr. Totternhoe ; proba- 

bly exterminated about 1890 

— fluitans, L. 

— filicinum, L. 

— commutatum, Hedw. 

— cupressi forme, L. 

var. tectorum, Schpr. On thatch 
var. filiforme, Bry. Eur. On trees 
var. ericetorum, Bry. Eur. On heaths 

— resupinatum, Wils. 

— patientiae, Lindb. 

— molluscum, Hedw. 

— palustre, L. 

— chrysophyllum, Brid. 

— stellatum, Schreb. 

— cordifolium, Hedw. 

— cuspidatum, L. 

— Schreberi, Ehrh. 

— purum, L. 

— stramineum, Dicks. Flitwick 
Hylocomium splendens, Dill. 

— squarrosum, L. 

— triquetrum, L. 


There are about two hundred species of Hepatic^ catalogued for 
the British Isles and of these only about twenty appear in the^ppended 
list. It is evident therefore that there is room for original investigation 
of the local forms of these plants. 

It is desirable that modern records should be obtained for Abbot's 
Jungermannia viticulosa, y. tamariscifolia and J. Jissa. 


Marchantia polymorpha, L. Damp places, 
marshes and in greenhouses ; fre- 


Concephalus conicus, L. Banks of rivulets, 

etc. ; very local (Sewell) 
Ricciella fluitans, L. In still waters ; 

very local ; Luton Hoo, near the 

Lower Island 


Frullania dilatata, L. On trees ; frequent 
Radula complanata, L. „ „ 

Porella platyphylla, L. On tree roots, 

in shady places ; not uncommon ; 

Chaul End, Caddington, Luton Hoo 
Lepidozia reptans, L. Shady banks ; local ; 

Aspley Woods, Heath and Reach 
Cephalozia divaricata, Sm., E. B. Shady 

banks, marshes, etc. ; local ; Flitwick, 

Barton, Heath and Reach 
Lophocolea bidentata, L. Damp woods ; 


JuNGERMANNiACE.5; {continued) 
Lophocolea heterophylla, Schrad. 

woods ; frequent 
Diplophyllum albicans, L. Moist woods ; 

rare ; Heath and Reach 
Plagiochila asplenoides, L. Damp woods and 

shady banks ; local ; Streatley, Flitwick 
Jungermannia bicrenata, Lindenb. On 

old tree roots on shady banks ; rare ; 

woodside by the path to Caddington 
Blasia pusilla, L. Banks of rivulets ; rare ; 

Hazelwood Lane, Abbot 
Pellia epiphylla, L. Ditch banks, etc. ; 

local ; Ampthill, Flitwick 

— calycina, Tayl. Banks of rivulets ; 

local ; at the foot of Markham Hills 
Aneura pinguis, L. Banks of rivulets ; 
local ; Barton Springs 

— multifida. Gray. Woods ; common ; 

Metzgeria furcata, L. Shady banks ; local ; 
Limbury, Harlington, Ampthill 

^ By James Saunders, Luton. 



The Charas or stoneworts constitute a well-defined group of aquatic 
plants, the English appellation being given to them on account of the 
quantity of lime that is secreted by some of the species. They are 
always submerged, and are to be found in ponds, pools, lakes and streams, 
affecting chiefly quiet waters, although sometimes occurring in rapidly 
running brooks. They are often the first kind of vegetation to occupy 
pools that have been newly formed, such as water holes in clay pits and 
reservoirs that are uncovered. In such situations they may sometimes 
be observed to have filled nearly the whole of the available space, to the 
temporary exclusion of other vegetation. It is also noteworthy that they 
occasionally die away rapidly from an apparently congenial habitat, and 
although they may have fruited abundantly, and the mud below con- 
tains multitudes of their fruits, they do not reappear for several years. 
Apparently they have exhausted the constituents in the water that are 
necessary to their existence, and do not start a fresh growth until the 
conditions are again favourable for that purpose. It may happen that, in 
the meantime, other aquatic plants, such as water-buttercups and pond- 
weeds, have occupied the site, and the Characeas can only find a pre- 
carious existence, or fail to reappear for an indefinite period. In the 
waterways of the Fen districts they often occur in enormous quantities, 
and as their tissues contain a large proportion of mineral matter, they 
add annually in their decay an appreciable amount of soil. Their 
presence may often be detected by the foetid odour they exhale when 
left uncovered by receding waters. 

The only two forms mentioned by Abbot (1798) are Chara 
vulgaris and C. tomentosa, the latter probably that now known as 
C. hispida. The most noteworthy record given below is that of Nitella 
mucronata, found in 1882 by C. H. Davis, after having been unrecorded 
in Great Britain for fifty years. 

Chara fragilis, Desv, Frequent Tolypella glomerata, Leonh, Rare ; Lea- 
var. Hedwigii. Leagrave, Sundon grave, near Bedford 

„ capillacea. Totternhoe — intricata, A. Br. Rare ; Brammingham, 

— contraria, Kuetz. „ Sundon 

— hispida, L. Not common Nitella mucronata, Kuetz. Rare ; River 

— vulgaris, L. Frequent Ouse, Bedford, River Ivel, Sandy 

var. longibracteata. Biscot — opaca, Ag. Frequent 


Practically the only available information concerning the freshwater 
algae is in Abbot's records. A few microscopists have examined speci- 
mens from time to time but have kept no records, and apparently have 
had no means of determining species. Mr. E. M. Holmes, curator of 
the Museums of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, has been 

* By James Saunders, Luton. . 

= Revised by E. M. Holmes, curator of the Museums of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great 




good enough to revise Abbot's list. In modern nomenclature it appears 
therefore that the following species were noted by that investigator. 

Nostoc commune, Vauch. Common 
— pruniforme, C. Ag. On the heath in 

Wrest Park 
Aphanizomenon Flos-aquae, Ralfs. Com- 

Spirogyra porticalis, Vauch. Common 
Hydrodictyon reticulatum, Lagerh. Wo- 
burn, Aspley 

Enteromorpha intestinalis. Link. Common 
Trentepohlia aurea, C. Ag. Barton Hill 
Cladophora canalicularis, Kutz. Mill- 
ponds, icommon 

— fracta, Ktitz. Common 

— glomerata, Ktitz. 

Vaucheria sessilis, D., var. caespitosa, 
Cooke. Rare ; Luton Hoo 


Batrachospermum moniliforme. Roth. 

With regard to Conferva bullosa, Vaucheria sessilis {Conferva amphibia), 
and Spirogyra porticalis {Conferva rivularis), Mr. Holmes remarks that he 
does not positively identify the species, but has compared the references 
with the illustrations given by Dillenius (as quoted in Abbot's work) 
but the illustrations do not show any structural details. As regards 
Conferva bullosa, concerning which Abbot says, ' threads matted, enclos- 
ing bubbles of air,' Mr. Holmes remarks, ' I have seen Cladophora fracta 
lifted to the top of the marsh ditches by gas given off by the weed in 
sunshine, and there could be no other alga of a bright green colour grow- 
ing in the situations described and in matted tufts that does the same.' 
The Vaucheria is stated by Abbot to grow on damp walls, but Mr. 
Holmes says it is found in spring time in runnels of water at the foot of 
damp walls by farmhouses, etc. Abbot's description of the branches unit- 
ing into points when dry exactly applies to it. The Spirogyra named is 
most likely the one intended, but the structure is not given by Dillenius, 

In this section we have also to rely upon the observations of Abbot 
and the revision by Mr. E. M. Holmes. In the following Hst the 
numbers refer to the records in the Flora Bedfordiensis. 

879 Collema tenax, Ach., var. coronatum, 896 Collema nigrescens, Ach. 

Koerb. 851 Calicium hyperellum, Ach. (?) 

The Lichen favus of old authors apparently included the sterile 
thalli of several lichens, C. hyperellum, common on old oaks, is probably 
the species intended by Abbot, as he mentions that Lichen flavus grows 
' on oak barks,' 

906 Cladonia coccifera, Schasr, 
903 f- cornucopioides, Fr. 

908 Cladina rangiferina, Nyl. 

909 — uncialis, Nyl. 
886 Ramalina calicaris, Nyl. 

891 — farinacea, Ach. 

892 — fraxinea, Ach, 

910 Usnea hirta, Hoffm. 

911 Alectoria jubata, Nyl. 

* Revised by E. M. Holmes, Curator of the Museums of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great 


Baeomyces rufus, DC. 
869 — roseus, Pers. 
867 — icmadophilus, Ehrh. 
905 Cladonia alcicornis, Flcerke 

901} - py"'*^"*"' ^'- 

902 — fimbriata, Fr. 

904 f. exigua, Cromb. 

907 var. subcornuta, Nyl. 



Evernia prunastri, Ach. 


Lecanora aurantiaca, Nyl. 


var. stictocera, Hook. 


— galactina, Ach. 


Parmelia saxatilis, Ach. 


— subfusca, Nyl. 


— caperata, Ach. 


— sulphurea, Hoffm. 


— subaurifera, Nyl. 


— atra, Ach. 


— physodes, Ach. 


— parella, Ach. 


Lobaria pulmonaria, Hoffm. 


— calcarea, Somm, 


Peltidea aphthosa, Ach. 


— fiiscata, Schrad. 


Peltigera canina, Hoffm. 
— horizontalis, Hoffm. 



Pertusaria amara, Nyl. 


Physcia parietina, De Not. 


— communis, DC. 


— lychnea, Nyl. 


Urceolaria scruposa, Ach. 


— ciliaris, DC. 


Lecidea quernea, Ach. 


— aipolia, Nyl. 


— sanguinaria, Ach. 


Leproloma lanuginosum, Nyl. (?) 


— calcivora, Ehrh. 


Lecanora saxicola, Ach. 


— canescens, Dicks. 


— laciniosa, Nyl. 


— casruleo-nigricans, Lightf. 


— citrina, Ach. 


— canescens, Ach, 

Although Lichen incanus is referred by subsequent writers to Lecidea 
pachycarpa, Duf., that is a comparatively rare species, whilst Abbot's 
L. incanus is stated to be common on the bark of trees ; he probably 
refers to the undeveloped growth of L. canescens in a sorediate condition. 

872 Lecidea rubella, Ehrh. 854 Opegrapha varia, Pers., f. pulicaris, 

860 — muscorum, Sw. Leight. 

861 — canescens, Dicks. 853 Graphis scripta, Linn. 
856 — petraea, Leight. 863 Verrucaria nigrescens, Pers, 

The rarer species in this list are Bceomyces icmadophilus, Alectoria 
jubata, Peltidea aphthosa, Lecidea sanguinaria and Peltigera horizontalis, 
which are usually found in upland or subalpine districts ; Peltidea aphthosa 
generally occurs in limestone woods, as in Derbyshire, where it is frequent. 
Of the commoner lichens, which are almost certain to occur in districts 
where other species equally common are found, there is no doubt that 
many would be detected in the county by careful search and that this 
list might be largely increased. 

The first three lichens in Abbot's list, Nos, 849, 850 and 851, 
used to be placed in the genus Lepraria, but all three, as well as the rest 
of this spurious genus, consist of undeveloped sorediate thalli, and prob- 
ably each included several species. Lichen incanus was probably L. 
canescens, but might be an undeveloped Pertusaria or Lecanora hcema- 
tomma or even L. rubra, all of which have whitish powdery thalli. 
Similarly Lichen albus may have been Leproloma lanuginosum or several 
others, and L. flavus is likewise doubtful. These therefore cannot be 
regarded as positive records. Mr. Holmes has followed Crombie's British 
Lichens as far as Urceolaria scruposa and for the remainder Leighton's Lichen 
Flora of Great Britain. 


Abbot gave considerable attention to the larger forms of fungi, and 
also includes in his list some of the smaller ones. About a hundred 

• By John Hamson, Bedford, 


years after his time Mr. J. Hamson took up the subject. His records 
were confirmed in the first instance by Mr. Worthington G. Smith and 
afterwards for several seasons by Mr. W. B. Grove of Birmingham, who 
also revised Abbot's list of fungi in terms of modern nomenclature. At 
that time the modern list was of almost equal length with that of Abbot's, 
allowance being made for microscopic forms which Mr. Hamson did 
not collect. Mr. E. M. Langley of Bedford has also been a collector of 
fungi for several years ; the initials ' E.M.L.' indicate that the specimens 
were found by Mr. Langley and examined by Mr. Hamson. The initials 
' W.B.G.' and ' W.G.S.' signify that the specimens were seen and named 
by Mr. Grove and Mr. Worthington Smith respectively. Those to 
which no initials are attached or are followed by such remarks as ' com- 
mon ' are on the authority of Mr. Hamson alone. A list of the recent 
finds was revised by Mr. W. B. Grove, read by him before the Birming- 
ham Natural History and Philosophical Society, lo April 1894, and 
published in the Journal of that society, vol. i. No. 13. The fairly 
well established records number about 266 so far, but many others have 
been found though doubtfully recorded, and some which have the repu- 
tation of growing in the county have not been seen by the author. 

Mr. Grove's notes on Abbot's Fungus Flora are set out at length in 
the Midland Naturalist, xvi. (1893), 212, 235. It will be sufficient to 
state here that according to the identifications, which Mr. Grove has 
very carefully traced, thirty-eight species of Agaricus found by Abbot 
have been rediscovered, together with seventy-eight fresh records ; but 
sixteen of Abbot's species have not been since met with or only doubt- 
fully. Abbot gives five Coprini, and they have all been found again. 
He gives Bolbitius titubans, but the modern record is B. hydrophilus. Of 
his four species of Cortinarius only one, hinnuleus, is in the modern 
record. Gomphidius viscidus survives from Abbot's time, as does Paxillus 
involutus ; but, singular to say, P. atrotomentosus, so common in recent 
years, is not in his list. Of Hygrophorus he gives five species, all re- 
discovered with seven additions. He records Lactarius torminosus and 
piperatus. The latter is not in the modern list, which contains eleven in 
all. He records only Russula nigricans of that genus ; Cantharellus cibarius 
and C. retirugus, but not aurantiacus, which is very common ; and seven 
species of Marasmius, of which the first five constitute the modern records, 
but M. Hudsoni and M. epiphyllus have not been confirmed. Lentinus 
tigrinus and lepideus are now frequent, but Abbot found only L. cochleatus. 
His two species of Panus have not since been noticed, but Lenzites flac- 
cida is known at Ampthill together with L. betulina. Abbot gives only 
four Boleti, of which piperatus is not in the modern list. Out of eleven 
Polypori three, viz. varius, lucidus and intybaceus have not been since met 
with. He gives a much longer list of the Pezizce than that below. 
The comparison might be pursued further with regard to many of the 
other families and genera ; but most of the common forms mentioned by 
Abbot have been rediscovered. A considerable number of his records 
can however be only doubtfully recognized. It is interesting to note 



that Cyanophallus caninus, which has been found by Mr. Saunders in 
Luton Hoo Park, was recorded by Abbot at Silsoe. 

In the fir woods on the Greensand the fungi grow in great profu- 
sion. Paxillus atrotomentosus, which Stevenson notes as rare, is really the 
prevailing form on fir stumps in these woods. It has come up regularly 
and in great quantity every season since 1885. Species of Boletus, 
notably elegans, and also of Russula are common in these woods. Agari- 
cus rubescens is very frequent, but A. muscarius is only occasionally found. 
The dangerous form, A. phalloides, is frequent in the Southill woods and 
probably elsewhere. A. procerus and A. rhacodes are both favourite 
esculents with the Bedford fungophagi ; but though numerous other 
kinds have been eaten by local specialists and their friends, the only kind 
that has any popular vogue outside the mushrooms is A. personatus, 
locally known as the blue-leg. This is extensively used for making 
ketchup. The shaggy top {Coprinus comatus) comes next in popularity, 
mainly because it is easily identified ; but the people will not look at such 
superior sorts as the champillon, the morell, and the chanterelle, of which 
the first is abundant, the second frequent, and the third locally plentiful 
at Woburn. 

In the following list the names of the Hymenomycetes are those 
of Stevenson's British Fungi : — 

Agaricus phalloides. Southill, Ampthill, 
Sharnhrook (W.B.G.) 

— muscarius. Ampthill Woods 

— rubescens. Common (W.B.G.) 

— vaginatus „ „ 

— procerus „ „ 

— rachodes. Frequent, especially near Bed- 

ford (E.M.L., W.B.G.) 

— excoriatus. Ampthill (W.B.G.), Willing- 

ton (E.M.L.) 

— gracilentus. Frequent, 1892 (E.M.L.) 

— acutesquamosus. Adelaide Square, Bedford, 

1896 (E.M.L.) 

— Badhami. Frequent, 1892 (E.M.L., 


— cristatus. Common (W.B.G.) 

— granulosus „ „ 

— focalis. Ampthill Woods, 1887 (W.B.G.) 

— malleus. Common (W.B.G.) 

— portentosus. Near Bedford, 1892 


— rutilans. Common in 1888 (W.B.G.) 

— luridus. Clapham, 1 89 1 (E.M.L., 


— gambosus. Bedford, 1892 (E.M.L.) 

— terreus. Common (E.M.L., W.B.G.) 

— atrosquamosus. Ampthill, 1887 (E.M.L., 


— loricatus. Ampthill, 1892 

— personatus. „ (W.B.G.) 

— nudus. Common „ 

— melaleucus. Kempston, 1885 (W.G.S.) 

Agaricus brevipes. "1 ^«M/f/««, Bedford, 1888 

— humilis. J (W.B.G.) 

— subpulverulentus. Sandy, 1888 (W.B.G.) 

— nebularis. Milton Ernest, 1891 (E.M.L.) 

— clavipes. Common (W.B.G.) 

— odorus „ „ 

— cerussatus. Clapham, 1 89 1 (W.B.G. per 


— phyllophilus. Bedford, 1 89 1 (E.M.L.) 

— candicans „ „ (W.B.G.) 

— elixus. Ampthill, 1887 

— infundibuliformis. Typical near Bedford, 

1 891 (E.M.L.) 

— geotropus. Frequent at ^w//^/7/ (W.B.G.) 

— brumalis. Common (W.B.G.) 

— metachrons. Ampthill, 1887 (W.B.G.) 

— fragrans. Common (W.B.G.) 

— laccatus (and var. amethystinus) Com- 

mon (W.B.G.) 

— radicatus. Common (W.B.G.) 

— longipes. Southill, 1890 (W.B.G.) 

— fiisipes. Kempston, etc., 1889 (W.B.G.) 

— maculatus. Ampthill, Sandy „ 

— distortus. Milton Ernest, 1892 
Common (W.B.G.) 


Ampthill, 1887 (W.B.G.) 
Clapham, 1892 (E.M.L.) 
purus. Ampthill (W.B.G.) 
rugosus. Ampthill, 1892 (W.B.G.) 
galericulatus. Ampthill „ 

alkalinus. Carlton, 1887 „ 



Agaricus ammoniacus. Sandy, 1887 (W.B.G.) 

— tenuis. Sandy, Ampthill 

— epipterygius. Ampthill, 1887 

— fibula. Sandy, 1887 and since (W.B.G.) 

— „ Swartzii. Ampthill, 1887 (W.B.G.) 

— corticatus. 1892 (E.M.L.) 

— ulmarius. Common (W.B.G.) 

— lignatilis. Ampthill, etc., frequent 

— circinatus. 1892 (E.M.L.) 

— ostieatus. Common (W.B.G.) 

— euosmus. Bedford, 1889 and since 


— septicus. Ampthill, 1887 (W.B.G.) 

— speciosus. Ampthill, abundant, ^1892 

(W.B.G.) ; the thin grey variety, 
Bedford, 1898 

— parvulus. Biddenham, 1887 (W.B.G.) 

— cervinus. Pavenham, 1887 „ 

— chrysophjeus. Kempston, 1887 „ 

— sericeus. Ampthill, etc., 1887 „ 

— prunulus. Frequent (W.G.S., W.B.G.) 

— „ orcella. Southill (W.B.G.) 

— cretatus. Common (W.B.G.) 

— pascuus „ „ 

— durus. Common at Bedford (W.B.G.) 

— pudicus. Bedford on elder, 1887 

— comosus. Ampthill, 1892 (W.B.G.) 

— squarrosus. Common (W.B.G.) 

— aurivellus. Great Barford, 1896 

— Bongardii. Southill Park, 1887 (W.B.G.) 

— rimosus. Common (W.B.G.) 

— asterosporus. Bedford, 1887 (W.B.G.) 

— geophyllus. Ampthill, 1887 „ 

— fastibilis. Kempston and near Bedford 

(W.G.S., J.H., E.M.L.) 

— glutinosus. 'Nez.r Bedford, 1892 (E.M.L.) 

— crustuliniformis. Ampthill, 1892 

— nudipes. 'bies.r Bedford, 1892 (E.M.L.) 

— lentus. Bedford, 1887 (W.B.G.) 

— flavidus. Ampthill, Bedford (W.B.G.) 

— melinoides. Bedford, 1887 „ 

— striaepes. Kempston, very rare „ 

— pediades. Pavenham, 1887 

— tener. Common (W.B.G.) 

— furfuraceus. Common (W.B.G.) 

— inquilinus. Bedford, 1887 „ 

— mollis. Bedford, Kempston „ 

— Elvensis. Near Bedford (E.M.L., 


— arvensis. Common (W.B.G.) 

— campestris var. praticola. Common 

var. rufescens. 1901 (E.M.L.) 

— sylvaticus. Near 5?^ri,!i 891 (E.M.L.) 

— aeruginosus. Common (W.B.G.) 

— coronillus. Kempston, 1887 „ 

— semiglobatus. Common „ 

— sublateritius. Frequent „ 

— fascicularis. Common ,, 

— lachrymabundus. Kempston, 1885 


Agaricus velutinus. Common (W.B.G.) 

— Candolleanus. Kempston (W.G.S., 


— appendiculatus. Common (W.B.G.) 

— areolatus. Kempston (W.G.S.) 

— fcenisecii. Frequent (W.B.G.) 

— corrugis „ „ 

— separatus. Common in 1890 

— fimiputris. Common 

— campanulatus „ 

— papilionaceus „ 

— gracilis. Bedford (W.B.G.) 

— atomatus. Bromham 

— disseminatus. Common 
Coprinus comatus. Common (W.B.G.) 

— atramentarius „ „ 

— niveus. Common 

— micaceus „ (W.B.G.) 

— domesticus. Ampthill, 1887 

— plicatilis. Common (W.B.G.) 
Bolbitius hydrophilus. Ampthill, 1887 

Cortinarius callisteus. Great Warden, 1892 

— tabularis. Ampthill, 1887 (W.B.G.) 

— hinnuleus. Bedford, 1887 „ 
Gomphidius viscidus. Frequent (W.B.G.) 
Paxillus giganteus. Common in 1892 


— involutus. Common (W.B.G.) 

— atrotomentosus. Ampthill, Sandy 


— lepista. 1 90 1 (E.M.L.) 
Hygrophorus hypothejus. Ampthill, common 


— pratensis. Common (W.B.G.)- 

— virgineus „ „ 

— ovinus. Carlton, 1891 

— ceraceus. Ampthill (W.B.G.) 

— coccineus. Frequent „ 

— puniceus „ „ 

— conicus. Common „ 

— calyptracformis. Carlton, 1887 (W.B.G.) 

— chlorophanus. Ampthill, 1886 „ 

— psittacinus. Common (W.B.G.) 

— nitratus. Bromham, 1887 

Lactarius torminosus. Frequent (W.G.S., 

— insulsus. Frequent (W.B.G.) 

— trivialis. Frequent in 1892 

— pyrogalus. Sandy, 1887 ; Great Warden, 

1892 (W.B.G.) 

— vellereus. Oakley, 1892 (E.M.L., 


— deliciosus. Sandy, 1887 ; Ampthill, 

Southill, etc. (W.B.G.) 

— quietus. Common (W.B.G.) 

— rufus „ „ 

— volemus. Clapham, i886 

— mitissimus. 1892 (E.M.L.) 

— subdulcis. Frequent (W.B.G.) 



Russula nigricans. Ampthill, Southill 
(E.M.L., W.B.G.) 

— adusta. Southill, 1887 (W.B.G.) 

— delica. Frequent, 1892 (E.M.L.) 

— cyanoxantha. The commonest species 


— heterophylla. Southill, 1890 (W.B.G.) 

— foetens. Frequent (W.B.G.) 

— Queletii. Ampthill „ 

— ochroleuca „ 1886 (W.B.G.) 

— integra. Oakley, 1891 (E.M.L.) 
Cantharellus aurantiacus. Common, assum- 
ing various forms (W.B.G.) 

— cibarius. Woburn, plentiful, 1896 
Marasmius peronatus. Common (W.B.G.) 

— oreades. Common ; rare in 1887 


— ramealis. Frequent (W.B.G.) 

— rotula. Kempston, 1887 (W.B.G.) 

— androsaceus. Sandy „ „ 
Lentinus tigrinus. Banks of Ouse (W.B.G.) 

— lepideus. On railway bridges, etc. ; com- 

mon (W.B.G.) 
Lenzites betulina. Ampthill (W.B.G.) 

— flaccida. Ampthill, 1889 „ 
Boletus luteus. Common at Ampthill 

— elegans. Sandy, 1888; Ampthill, 1891 

— flavus. Ampthill (W.B.G.) 

— granulatus. Ampthill 9.n^ Sandy {W.B.G.) 

— bovinus. Ampthill, 1889 

— badius. Frequent (W.B.G.) 

— chrysenteron. Northill, Ampthill 


— subtomentosus. Southill, 1888 (W.B.G.) 

— edulis. Not common (W.B.G.) 

— fragrans. Near Bedford, 1893 (E.M.L.) 

— impolitus. Ampthill, frequent 

— Satanas. Oakley, 1892 (E.M.L.) ; Wo- 

burn, 1897 (J.H.) 

— purpureus. Ampthill, 1889, per Mr. 


— laricinus. Ampthill, 1888 
Fistulina hepatica. Ampthill Park, etc., 

frequent (W.B.G.) 
Polyporus rufescens. Pavenham, 1889 

— perennis. Ampthill {W.B.G.) 

— squamosus. Common „ 

— lucidus. Ampthill, 1887 

— frondosus. 1892 (E.M.L.) 

— sulphureus. Common in 1 892 (W.B.G.) 

— chioneus. Frequent (W.B.G.) 
- — fiimosus. Frequent in 1887 

— adustus. Kempston, 1887 (W.B.G.) 

— hispidus. Frequent in 1887 

— dryadeus. Carlton, 1887 (W.B.G.) 

— applanatus. Bedford, 1888 

— fomentarius. (W.B.G.) 

— igniarius. Oakley (E.M.L.) 

— fiilvus. Bromham 

Polyporus ulmarius. Common (W.B.G.) 

— fraxineus. Lidlington 

— annosus. Common (W.B.G.) 

— versicolor „ „ 

— abietinus. Ampthill, 1887 
Trametes gibbosa „ „ per Mr. Fer- 
raby (W.B.G.) 

— suaveolens. Bedford, 1887 (W.B.G.) 
Daedalea unicolor. Ampthill, Kempston 


— quercina. Ampthill, 1892 (E.M.L.) 
Hydnum auriscalpium. Ampthill, 1885 

Thelephora laciniata. Common (W.B.G.) 

— molissima. Ampthill, 1885 (W.G.S.) 
Stereum purpureum. Bedford, Ampthill; 


— hirsutum. Northill, 1886 (W.G.S.) 

— spadiceum. Ampthill „ „ 
Auricularia mesenterica. Common (W.B.G.) 
Corticium corrugatum. Sharnbroek, 1885 


— aridum. Ampthill, 1885 (W.G.S.) 
Clavaria muscoides. Ampthill, 1887 (W.B.G.) 

— coralloides. Ampthill, 1886 and since 

— cinerea „ 1887 

— rugosa „ frequent (W.B.G.) 

— formosa „ „ „ 

— fusiformis. i^w/^^V/, 1887 and since „ 

— argillacea. Ampthill, 1887 
Calocera viscosa. Common (W.B.G.) 
Tremella mesenterica. Ampthill, 1889, per 

Mr. Ferraby (W.B.G.) 
Dacryomyces stillatus. Bedford {W .B.G.) 
Phallus impudicus, L. Common at Ampthill 
Mutinus (Cyanophallus) caninus, Fr. Luton 

Hoo Park (J. Saunders, W.G.S.) 
Bovista plumbea, P. Common (W.B.G.) 
Lycoperdon giganteum, Batsch. Common 


— caelatum, Fr. Ampthill, 1887 

— gemmatum, Fr. Common (W.B.G.) 

— pyriforme, Schoeff. Kempston, etc., 1887 

Scleroderma vulgare, Fr. Bedford, etc., 1887 

— verrucosum, P. Southill, etc., 1887 

Cyathus striatus, Hoffin, Ampthill, 1887 

— vernicosus, DC. Bedford, 1887 (W.B.G.) 
Tubercularia vulgaris, Tode. Common on 

currant twigs (W.B.G.) 
Verticillium agaricinum, Ca. On Agaricus 

ostreatus, Ampthill, 1887, per Mr. 

Ferraby (W.B.G.) 
Melasmia acerina. Lev. Ampthill, common 

on sycamore leaves (W.B.G.) 
Ptychogaster albus, Ca. Common in pine 
woods (W.B.G.) 

65 9 


Morchella esculenta, L. Ampthill and Mucor fusiger, Lk. On Agaricus fusipes 

Sandy W.B.G.) 

— crassipes, P. Ampthill, 1877 and since; Sporodinia grandis, Lk. "j Growing on Lac- 

frequent (W.B.G.) Syzygites megalocarpus, rtarii from Sandy 
Peziza badia, P. Pavenham (W.G.S.) Ehr. J (W.B.G.) 

— vesiculosa, Bull. Kempston, ^tc. {W .G.^.) Reticularia umbrina, Fr. Ampthill, 1888 

— calycina, Schum, On larch twigs (W.B.G.) 

(W.B.G.) Didymium squamulosum, A. et S. On Pol. 
Tuber aestivum, Vitt. Ampthill, Flitwick ; fumosus, t^w/^A///, 1887 (W.B.G.) 

common, per Mr. Ferraby Tubulina cylindrica. Bull. Sandy, 1887 
Xylaria polymorpha, Grev. Ampthill, 1887 (W.B.G.) 

(W.B.G.) Trichia varia. P., var. genuina. Ampthill, 

— Hypoxylon, Grev. Common (W.B.G.) 1887 (W.B.G.) 

Mr. Grove adds : As bearing on the subject of the Bedford Fungus 
Flora, it may be mentioned that, in the later volumes of the English 
Fungi, Sowerby figures two other Bedford species which he received from 
Abbot : 

t. 242. Ag. tremulus, SchoefF. t. 437. Xylaria pendunculata, Fr. 

as well as (t. 362) Ag. planus, which is probably a form of ^^. crustulini- 
formis, and (t. 369, f. 8) Peziza nigra and (t. 389, f. 8) Peziza Abbotiana, 
which are, perhaps, both unrecognizable. 

In Cooke's Handbook there are two records of Bedfordshire Fungi : 

p. 253. Boletus rubinus, Sm. Nezr Dunstable p. 748. Genea hispidula, B. Bedfordshire 

And in his Illustrations two more are figured : 

t. 876. Paxillus atrotomentosus, Fr. tVoburn t. 922. Hygrophorus puniceus, Fr. Bed- 
fordshire (W.B.G.) 


The curious group of organisms usually known as the Mycetozoa 
forms one of the numerous links that connect the animal and the vege- 
table kingdoms. They frequently occur as denizens of damp woods, 
where they creep about on rotten tree roots or fallen branches, during one 
stage of their existence. They are also to be found on decaying heaps of 
leaves or straw, especially if such accumulations have been undisturbed 
for several months. In these situations they are occasionally to be met 
with in immense quantities, so much so that portions of the heap appear 
as though covered with hoar frost from the numerous calcareous spor- 
angia that have been formed on them. 

In the following list of the species that have been recorded for 
Bedfordshire, the most noteworthy are Badhamia ovispora, Fuligo ellip- 
sospora, Diachaa subsessilis, Chondrioderma testaceum, and Lycogala Jlavo- 

It is also worthy of remark that out of the two hundred species 
that are catalogued for the whole world in Mr. A. Lister's Monograph 
which was issued by the British Museum authorities, upwards of ninety 
have been found within ten miles of Luton. The most prolific district 

* By James Saunders, Luton. 


in Bedfordshire for these organisms is the parish of Flitwick, for which 
at least sixty species have been recorded (see ' Mycetozoa of the South 
Midlands,' J. Saunders, Journ. Bot. xxxviii. 83).^ 

Ceratiomyxa mucida, Schroed. 
Badhamia hyalina, Berk, 
var. papaveracea 

— utricularis, Berk. 

— nitens, Berk, 

— macrocarpa, Rost. 

— panicea, Rost. 

— lilacina, Rost. 

— rubiginosa, Rost. 

— ovispora, Racib. First British record 

— foliicola, Lister 
Physarum leucopus, Link 

— citrinum, Schum. 

— viride, Pers. 

— nutans, Pers. 

var. violascens 
var. leucophxum 

— calidris, Lister 

— compressum, Alb. and Schw. 

— straminipes, Lister. Sp. nov. 

— didermoides, Rost. 

var. lividum 

— cinereum, Pers. 

— vernum, Somm. (E. Saunders) 

— bivalve, Pers. 

— diderma, Rost. 

— contextum, Pers. 

— conglomeratum, Rost. 
Fuligo septica, Gmel. 

— ellipsospora. Lister. First European 

Craterium pedunculatum, Trent. 

— leucocephalum, Ditm. 

— mutabile. Fries 
Leocarpus vernicosus. Link 
Chondrioderma spumaroides, Rost. 

— testaceum, Rost. 

— Michelii, Rost. 

— reticulatum, Rost. 

— niveum, Rost. 

— radiatum, Rost. 
Diachaea elegans. Fries 

— subsessilis, Peck. First European record 
Didymium difForme, Duby 

— serpula. Fries 

— clavus, Rost. 

— farinaceum, Schrad. 

— nigripes, Fries 

— eiRisum, Link 

— Trochus, Lister. Sp. nov. 
Spumaria alba, DC. 
Lepidodermatigrinum, Rost. (Miss G. Lister) 

Stemonitis fusca, Roth, 
var. confluens 

— splendens, Rost. 

— ferruginea, Ehrenb. 

— Smithii, Macbride 
Comatricha obtusata, Preuss. 

— typhoides, Rost. 

— Persoonii, Rost. 

— rubens, Lister 
Enerthenema elegans, Bowen 
Lamproderma physaroides, Rost. 

— irideum, Massee 

— violaceum, Rost, 
Brefeldia maxima, Rost. 
Lindbladia tubulina, Fries 
Cribraria argillacea, Pers. 

— aurantiaca, Schrad. 
Dictydium umbilicatum, Schrad. 
Licea flexuosa, Pers. 
Tubulina fragiformis, Pers. 
Dictydiaethalium plumbeum, Rost. 
Enteridium olivaceum, Ehrenb. 
Reticularia Lycoperdon, Bull 

— lobata, Lister 
Trichia affinis, de Bary 

— persimilis, Karst, 

— scabra, Rost, 

— varia, Pers, 

— contorta, Rost, 

var. inconspicua 

— fallax, Pers. 

— Botrytis, Pers. 

var. munda, Lister 
Hemitrichia rubiformis, Lister 
var. Neesiana 

— intorta, Lister 

— clavata, Rost. 
Arcyria ferruginea, Sauter 

— albida, Pers. 

var. pomiformis 

— pimicea, Pers. 

— incarnata, Pers. 

— flava, Pers. 
Perichaena depressa, Libert. 

— populina. Fries 

— variabilis, Rost. 

Margarita metallica, Lister (Miss Crouch) 
Prototrichia flagellifera, Rost. 
Lycogala flavo-fuscum, Rost. First British 
record (C. Crouch) 

— miniatum, Pers. 

All records have been verified by A. Lister, whose assistance is gratefully acknowledged. 




Although the physical features of Bedfordshire are such as to favour 
moUuscan life, students of the moUusca are conspicuous by their absence, 
and only one paper, that by Mr. J. Saunders, Midland Naturalist (1888), 
xi. 152, has been published on the conchology of the area. From this 
and the Records of the Conchological Society, supplemented from the 
observations of Mr. Cox and the Rev. C. McN. Rushforth the following 
list has been compiled. 

Only 74 species out of the 139 known to exist in the British Islands 
have thus been actually found ; but the names of fourteen others pre- 
ceded by an asterisk [*] have been included in the list, because judging 
from the records of neighbouring counties they must certainly exist in 
the area. So far as our opinion can be formed from such scanty material 
this moUuscan fauna is of the average British type. 

A notable inhabitant is the Roman snail {Helix pomatid), which 
however was living in England before the advent of the Romans. It is 
a very local species, and in this county is found near Luton. 


I. PULMONATA Arion ater (Linn.) 

a. Stylommatophora " bortensis,^hr. 

— ctrcumscrtptus, John. 

Limax maximus, Linn. * — subfuscus (Drap.) 

flavuSf Linn. Punctum pygmaum (Drap.) Bromham ; 

Agriolimax agrestis (Linn.) Woburn 

* — lavis (Mall.). Pyramidula rotundata (MuU.) 

*Amalia sowerbii (F^r.) Helicella virgata (Da C.) 

* — gagates (Drap.) — itala (Linn.) 

Vitrina pellucida (MUll.) — caperata (Mont.) 

Vitrea crystallina (Mtill.) — cantiana (Mont.) 

— alllaria (Miller). Woburn Sands ; *Hygromia fusca (Mont.) 

Ampthill — granulata (Aid.) 
glabra (Brit. Auct.) Woburn Sands ; — hispida (Linn.) 

Luton ; Sharnbrook — rufescens (Penn.) 
cellaria (Mtill.) Acanihinula aculeata (Mtlll.) 

— niudula (Drap.) Vallonia pukhella (Mali.) 

— pura (Aid.) ) ^^_ti,iii Helicigona lapicida (Linn.) 

— radiatula (Aid.) J — arhustorum (Linn.) 

— nitida (Mull.) Helix aspersa. Mall. 

fiilva (Mall.) — pomatia, Linn. Near Luton 



Helix nemoralis, Linn. 

— hortensis, MUll. 
Buliminus obscurus (Mtlll.) 
Cochlkopa lubrica (Mull.) 

Azeca tridens (Pult.) Near Luton ; near 
Bedford ; Barton-le-Clay ; Ampthill 
Calianella acicula (Mull.) 
Pupa cylindracea (Da C.) 

— muscorum (Linn.) 

Sphyradium edentulum (Drap.) Local and 

Fertigo antivertigo (Drap.) Near Ampthill ; 


— substriata (Jeff.) Near Ampthill 
■ — pygmisa (Drap.) 

*Balea perversa (Linn.) 
Clausilia laminata (Mont.) 

— bidentata (Str5m.) 
Succinea putris (Linn.) 

— elegans, Risso 

b. Basommatophora 

Carychium minimum, MqII. 
Ancylus fluviatilis, MuU. ") j^. , 
Velletia lacustris ^Linn.) ■> ■' 

Limnisa auricularia (Linn.) 

— pereger (MUll.) 

— palustris (Mull.) 

— truncatula (MuU.) 

— stagnalis (Linn.) 
Planorbis corneus (Linn.) 

— albus, Mtlll. 

— nautileus (Linn.) 

— carinatus, MuU. R. Ivel 

— marginatus, Drap. 

— vortex (Linn.) Limbury 
* — spirorbis, MOll. 

— contortus (Linn.) 

— fontanus (Lightf.) Limbury 
Physa fontinalis (Linn.) 

* — hypnorum (Linn.) 


Bithynia tentaculata (Linn.) 
* — leachii (Shepp.) 
*Vivipara contecta (Millett) 
*Valvata piscinalis (Mull.) 
* — cristata, MuU. 

Pomatias elegans (MUU.) 

Neritina fluviatilis (Linn.) Great Barford 


*Dreissensia polymorpha (Pall.) 
Unio pictorum (Linn.) 
— tumidus, Retz. 
Anodonta cygnaa (Linn.) 
Spharium corneum (Linn.) 

*Pisidium amnicum (Mtill.) 

Pisidium pusillum (Gmel.) 

— nitidium, Jenyns. Limbury 

— flmtinale (Drap.) and the variety 


— milium (Held.) Biscot 



The county of Bedford cannot be said to rank high in regard to the 
number of its species of insects in various groups. The paucity of its 
insect fauna may in great part be attributed to high farming, as well as 
to the nature of its soil. Yet the admixture of its clay with the great 
oolite and the more sandy formation towards Woburn furnishes a varia- 
tion of soil which is favourable to insect life, and it is very possible that 
further investigation — especially by a larger number of workers — may 
add considerably to the list of species found in the county up to the 
present time. The only orders which appear to have been studied in 
the county are the Coleoptera (beetles) and the Lepidoptera (butterflies 
and moths) : of the former order from seven to eight hundred species 
have been recorded ; of the latter over six hundred. 


The records of Coleoptera from Bedfordshire have hitherto been 
very few and far between, and the county has evidently never been 
worked by any of the older collectors, except perhaps for an odd day or 
two. Hydroporus marginatus, indeed, was first taken in Britain near 
Woburn by the Rev. Hamlet Clark, and Harpalus discoideus used to be 
regarded as a great prize when it was found near Sandy more than half a 
century ago, but these instances are quite exceptional, and at first it 
appeared hopeless to attempt to draw up any list at all. Mr. H. 
Willoughby Ellis of Knowle near Birmingham, however, has been 
kindly collecting during the past summer with a view to this list, and I 
am much indebted to him for the large number of species which he 
has recorded, and for all the trouble he has taken in the matter. I 
must also express my thanks to Mr. Herbert Studman of the School 
House, Woburn, for a few interesting records. 

It will probably be found in time that Bedfordshire contains a large 
number of good species. The banks of the Ouse will certainly furnish 
many, and there are woods and parks which cannot but contain a fair 
proportion of the rarer species which occur in the adjacent counties. 

Most of the species mentioned below are common, but there are a 
few very interesting insects among them. Among these may be men- 
tioned : Homceusa acuminata, Ischnoglossa corticina, several good species of 
Homalota, Megacronus inclinans, Asemum striatum, Euplectus piceus, and 
last but not least Bagous cylindrus, which was found by Mr. Ellis in 
numbers a short time ago. 

Most of the insects mentioned in the list have been taken by 



Mr. Ellis within about ten miles of Leighton Buzzard. Dr. Power 
lived in Bedford during the last years of his life ; if he had been younger 
and able to collect, even for a few weeks, our knowledge of the beetles of 
the county would be very much enlarged, for he always seemed to know 
intuitively where to find the scarcest species. 


Cicindela campestris, L. 

Cychrus rostratus, L. 
Carabus catenulatus, Scop. 

— nemoralis, Miill. 

— violaceus, L. 

— granulatus, L. 
Notiophilus biguttatus, F. 

— aquaticus, L. 
Leistus spinibarbis, F. 

— fulvibarbis, Dej. 

— ferrugineus, L. 
Nebria brevicollis, F. 
Elaphrus riparius, L. 

— cupreus, Duft. 
Loricera pilicornis, F. 
Clivina fossor, L. 
Dyschirius globosus, Herbst 

Broscus cephalotes, L. Dawson {Geod. Brit. 
p. 114) has the following note on 
this species : ' It is not, as has been 
commonly supposed, exclusively a 
coast species, for it has been taken 
by T. V. WoIIaston, Esq., on a sandy 
common near Twigmoor in the north 
of Lincolnshire, forty miles from the 
sea ; and I myself have captured 
specimens near Woburn in Bedford- 
shire, more than double that distance 
from the coast ' 

Badister bipustulatus, F. 

Acupalpus meridianus, L. 

Bradycellus distinctus, Dej. 

— verbasci, Duft. 

— harpalinus, Dej. 
Harpalus rufibarbis, F. 

— ruficornis, F. 

aeneus, F. 

— rubripes, Duft. 

— discoideus, F. Woburn ; also recorded 

by Dawson from Sandy 

— latus, L. 

— tardus, Panz. 
Stomis pumicatus, Panz. 
Platyderus ruficoUis, Marsh, 
Pterostichus cupreus, L. 

— versicolor, Sturm 

— madidus, F. 

— niger, Schall. 

— vulgaris, L. 

— nigrita, F. 

— minor, Gyll. 

Carabid^ (continued') 

Pterostichus strenuus, Panz. 

— diligens, Sturm 

— picimanus, Duft. Woburn 

— vernalis, Gyll. 

— striola, F. 
Amara fulva, Dej. 

— apricaria, Sturm 

— ovata, F. 

— similata, Gyll. 

— lunicollis, Schiodte 

— familiaris, Duft. 

— trivialis, Gyll. 

— communis, Panz. 

— plebeia, Gyll. 
Calathus cisteloides, Panz. 

— flavipes, Fourc. 

— mollis. Marsh. 

— melanocephalus, L. 

var. nubigena, Hal. 

— piceus. Marsh. 
Pristonychus terricola, Herbst 
Anchomenus angusticollis, F. 

— dorsalis, Mull. 

— albipes, F. 

— oblongus, Sturm 

— marginatus, L. 

— parumpunctatus, F. 

— viduus, Panz. 

var. mcestus, Duft. 

— micans, Nic. 

— fuliginosus, Panz. 

— gracilis, Gyll. 

— piceus, L. 

— thoreyi, Dej. 
Olisthopus rotundatus, Payk. 
Bembidium rufescens, Gu6r. 

— obtusum, Sturm 

— guttula, F. 

— mannerheimi. Sahib. 

— biguttatum, F. 

— riparium, Ol. 

— aeneum, Germ. 

— articulatum, Panz. 

— lampros, Herbst 

var. velox, Er. 

— decorum, Panz. 

— nitidulum, Marsh. 

— quadriguttatum, F. 

— quadrimaculatum, Gyll. 

— femoratum, Sturm 

— littorale, Ol. 

— flammulatum, Clairv. 



Carabidje {continued) 
Tachypus flavipes, L. 
Trechus discus, F. Islands of the Ouse, 

— micros, Herbst 

minutus, F. 

— secalis, Payk. 
Patrobus excavatus, Payk. 
Demetrias atricapillus, L. 
Dromius linearis, Ol. 

— agilis, F. 

— meridionalis, Dej. 

— quadrimaculatus, L. 

— quadrinotatus, Panz. 

— melanocephalus, Dej. 
Blechrus maurus, Sturm 
Metabletus foveola, Gyll. 

— truncatellus, L. 


Brychius elevatus, Panz. 
Haliplus flavicollis, Sturm 

— ruficollis, De G. 

— lineatocollis, Marsh, 

Noterus sparsus, Marsh. 
Laccophilus interruptus, Panz. 

— obscurus, Panz. 
Coelambus versicolor, Schall. 

— inaequalis, F. 
Deronectes assimilis, Payk. 

— depressus, F. 
Hydroporus pictus, F. 

— rivalis, Gyll. 

— lineatus, F. 

— angustatus, Sturm 

— gyllenhali, Schiodte 

— palustris, L. 

— erythrocephalus, L. 

— nigrita, F. 

— pubescens, Gyll. 

— planus, F. 

— marginatus, Duft. First taken in Britain 

at Woburn by the Rev. Hamlet Clark 
Agabus guttatus, Payk. 

— nebulosus, Forst 

— chalconotus, Panz. 

— bipustulatus, L. 
Platambus maculatus, L. 
Ilybius fuliginosus, F. 

— ater, De G. 
Colymbetes fuscus, L. 
Dytiscus marginalis, L. 
Acilius sulcatus, L. 
Gyrinus natator, Scop. 

— marinus, Gyll. var. opacus, Sahl. 
Orectochilus villosus, Mull. 


Hydrobius fuscipes, L. 
Anacoena globulus, Payk. 

— limbata, F. 

Hydrophilid^ [continued) 
Laccobius sinuatus. Mots. 
Limnebius truncatellus, Thorns. 
Chaetarthria seminulum, Herbst 
Helophorus nubilus, F. 

— aquaticus, L. 
var. aequalis, Thoms. 

— aeneipennis, Thorns. 

— brevipalpis, Bedel 
Hydrochus elongatus, Schall. 
Octhebius pygmasus, F. 
Hydrasna nigrita. Germ. 
Sphaeridium scarabasoides, F. 

— bipustulatum, F. 
var. marginatum, F. 

Cercyon haemorrhous, Gyll. 

— hsemorrhoidalis, Herbst 

— obsoletus, Gyll. 

— flavipes, F. 

— lateralis, Marsh. 

— melanocephalus, L. 

— unipunctatus, L. 

— nigriceps. Marsh. 

— analis, Payk. 

— granarius, Thoms. 

— minutus, Muls. 
Megasternum boletophagum, Marsh. 
Cryptopleurum atomarium, Muls. 


Homoeusa acuminata, Maerk. Woburn 
Aleochara fuscipes, F. 

— bipunctata, Ol. 

— lanuginosa, Grav. 

— mcesta, Grav. 

— nitida, Grav. 

— morion, Grav. 
Microglossa suturalis, Mann. 

— nidicola, Fairm. 
Oxypoda opaca, Grav. 

— alternans, Grav. 

— longiuscula, Er. 
Ischnoglossa prolixa, Grav. 

— corticina, Er. Woburn Fork 
Ocyusa incrassata, Kr. Woburn ; Leighton 

Phloeopora reptans, Grav. 
Ocalea castanea, Er. 

— badia, Er. 
Chilopora longitarsis, Er. 
Myrmedonia humeralis, Grav. 
Astilbus canaliculatus, F. 
Thamiaraea cinnamomea, Grav. 
Alianta incana, Er. 
Homalota gregaria, Er. 

— eximia. Sharp' 

— fragilis, Kr.' 

— longula, Heer' 

' These three species were taken by Mr. Ellis 
amongst sand and shingle on the margin of a 
brook near Leighton Buzzard. 

73 10 


SrAPHYLiNiDiB {continued) 

Homalota luridipennis, Mann, 

— gyllenhali, Thorns. 
- — elongatula, Grav. 

— silvicola, Fuss. Wohurn 

— vicina, Steph. 

— graminicola, Gyll. 

— fungivora, Thorns. 

— nigella, Er. 

— aequata, Er. 

— pilicornis, Thorns. Heath near Leighton 

— circellaris, Grav. 

— immersa, Er. 

— cuspidata, Er. 

— analis, Grav. 

— depressa, Gyll. 

— aquatica, Thorns. 

— EEneicollis, Sharp 

— xanthoptera, Steph. 

— trinotata, Kr. 

— fungicola, Thorns. 

— boletobia, Thorns. 

— nigricornis, Thorns 

— palustris, Kies. 

— autumnalis, Er. Bedford 

— sericea, Muls. 

— atricolor, Sharp 

— nigra, Kr. 

— sordidula, Er. 

— cauta, Er. 

— villosula, Kr. 

— cinnamoptera, Thorns. 

— atramentaria, Gyll. 

— longicornis, Grav. 

— sordida, Marsh, 

— testudinea, Er, 

— aterrima, Grav. 

— pygmaea, Grav. 

— laticoUis, Steph. 

— fungi, Grav. 
Gnypeta labilis, Er. 
Tachyusa constricta, Er. 
Falagria sulcata, Payk, 

— obscura, Grav. 
Autalia impressa, Ol. 

— rivularis, Grav. 
Encephalus complicans, Westw. 
Gyrophaena afHnis, Mann, 

— nana, Payk, 

— minima, Er. 

— laevipennis, Kr. 
Bolitochara lucida, Grav. 
Hygronoma dimidiata, Grav. 
Oligota inflata, Mann. 

— pusillima, Grav. 
Myllaena dubia, Grav. 

— intermedia, Er. 

— elongata, Matth. 

— gracilis, Matth. 

— brevicornis, Matth. 

Staphylinid^ {continued) 

Hypocyptus longicornis, Payk. 
Conosoma littoreum, L. 

— pubescens, Grav. 

— lividum, Er. 
Tachyporus obtusus, L. 

— chrysomelinus, L, 

— humerosus, Er. 

— hypnorum, F. 

— pusillus, Grav. 

— brunneus, F. 
Cilea silphoides, L. 
Tachinus humeralis, Grav. 

— rufipes, L. 

— subterraneus, L. 

— marginellus, F. 

— laticollis, Grav. 
Megacronus cingulatus, Mann. 

— analis, F. 

— inclinans, Grav, Heath near Leighton 
Bolitobius lunulatus, L, 

— trinotatus, Er, 

— exoletus, Er, 

— pygmaeus, F, 
Mycetoporus splendens, Marsh, 

— lepidus, Grav. 
Heterothops prasvia, Er. 
Quedius mesomelinus, Marsh. 

— fulgidus, F. 

— cruentus, Ol, 

— cinctus, Payk. (impressus, Panz.) 

— fuliginosus, Grav. 

— molochinus, Grav, 

— picipes, Mann. 

— maurorufus, Grav. 

— rufipes, Grav, 

— boops, Grav. 
Creophilus maxillosus, L. 
Leistotrophus nebulosus, F. 
Ocypus olens. Mall. 

— brunnipes, F, 

— morio, Grav. 
Fhilonthus splendens, F. 

— laminatus, Creutz, 

— jeneus, Rossi 

— proximus, Kr, 

— addendus, Sharp. In moss, Leighton 


— politus, F, 

— varius, Gyll. 

— marginatus, F. 

— albipes, Grav, 

— cephalotes, Grav. 

— sanguinolentus, Grav. 

— varians, Payk. 

— micans, Grav, 

— trossulus, Nord, 
Xantholinus glabratus, Grav. 

— punctulatus, Payk. 

— linearis, Ol. 



Staphylinid^ {continued) 

Xantholinus longiventris, Heer 
Baptolinus alternans, Grav. 
Othius fulvipennis, F. 

— melanocephalus, Grav. 
Lathrobium elongatum, L. 

— boreale, Hoch. 

— fulvipenne, Grav. 

— brunnipes, F. 

— terminatum, Grav. 

var. immaculatum, Fowler 

— multipunctum, Grav. 
Stilicus rufipes, Germ. 

— orbiculatus, Er. 

— similis, Er. Heath near Leighton 

— affinis, Er. 

Medon melanocephalus, F. 
Sunius angustatus, Payk. 
Paederus littoralis, Grav. 
Dianous coerulescens, Gyll. 
Stenus guttula, Miill. 

— bimaculatus, Gyll. 

— Juno, F. 

— speculator, Er. 

— providus, var. Rogeri, Kr. 

— buphthalmus, Grav. 

— atratulus, Er. 

— exiguus, Er. 

— brunnipes, Steph. 

— impressus. Germ. 

— pallipes, Grav. 

— flavipes, Steph. 

— pubescens, Steph. 

— binotatus, Ljungh. 

— bifoveolatus, Gyll. 

— cicindeloides, Grav. 

— similis, Herbst. 

— tarsalis, Ljungh. 

— paganus, Er. 

— latifrons, Er. 
Oxyporus rufus, L. 
Bledius fracticornis, Payk. 
Platystethus arenarius, Fourc. 
Oxytelus rugosus, Grav. 

— insecatus, Grav. 

— sculptus, Grav. 

— sculpturatus, Grav. 

— tetracarinatus, Block 
Haploderus coelatus, Grav. 
Trogophlceus bilineatus, Steph. 

— elongatulus, Er. 
Syntomium aeneum, MuU. 
Lesteva longelytrata, Goeze 

— pubescens, Mann. 
Olophrum piceum, Gyll. 
Lathrimaeum atrocephalum, Gyll. 

— unicolor, Steph. 
Homalium rivulare, Payk. 

— excavatum, Steph. 
- — caesum, Grav. 

Staphyhnid^ {continued) 
Homalium pusillum, Grav. 

— punctipenne, Thoms. 

— rufipes, Fourc. 

— planum, Payk. 

— concinnum, Marsh. 

— deplanatum, Gyll. 
Anthobium torquatum, Marsh. 
Proteinus ovalis, Steph. 

— brachypterus, F. 
Megarthrus denticollis, Beck. 
Phlceobium dypeatum, MuU. 


Clambus pubescens, Redt. 

— minutus, Sturm 
Agathidium seminulum, L. 

— laevigatum, Er. 
Amphicyllis globus, F. Woburn 
Liodes humeralis, Kug. 
Necrophorus humator, Goeze 

— mortuorum, F. 

— vestigator, Hersch. 

— vespillo, L. 
Silpha thoracica, L. 

— rugosa, L. 

— sinuata, F. 

— atrata, L. 

var. brunnea, Herbst 
Choleva angustata, F. 

— cisteloides, FrShl. 

— spadicea, Sturm. Billington 

— velox, Spence 

— nigricans, Spence 

— grandicoUis, Er. 

— nigrita, Er. 

— tristis, Panz. 

— chrysomeloides, Panz. 

— fumata, Spence 
Catops sericeus, F. 

Colon brunneum, Latr. Brickhill 


Scydmaenus collaris, Mull. 
Eumicrus tarsatus, Mtlll. 


Pselaphus Heisei, Herbst 
Bythinus validus, Aub6 
Bryaxis fossulata, Reich. 

— juncorum, Leach 
Euplectus signatus, Reich. 

— piceus, Mots. 

Stilbus testaceus, Panz. 


Anisosticta 19-punctata, L. 
Adalia bipunctata, L. 
Mysia oblongoguttata, L. 
Coccinella lo-punctata, L. 

— hieroglyphica, L. 

— II -punctata, L. 

— 7-punctata, L. 



CocciNELLiD^ {continued) 
Halyzia 14-guttata, L. 

— 22-punctata, L. 
Scymnus capitatus, F. 
Chilocorus bipustulatus, L. 
Coccidula rufa, Herbst 


Dacne rufifrons, F. 


Cerylon histeroides, F. 


Hister cadaverinus, HofF. 

— succicola, Thorns. 

— carbonarius, 111. 

— bimaculatus, L. 
Saprinus nitidulus, Payk. 


Epuraea aestiva, L. 

— florea, Er. 

— deleta, Er. 

— obsoleta, F. 
Nitidula bipustulata, L. 
Soronia grisea, L. 
Omosita depressa, L. 
Meligethes rufipes, Gyll. 

— asneus, F. 

— • viridescens, F. 

— picipes, Sturm 

Ips quadripunctata, Herbst 
Pityophagus ferrugineus, F. fVoburn 
Rhizophagus depressus, F. 

— ferrugineus, Payk. 

— dispar, Gyll. 


Monotonia picipes, Herbst 

— longicollis, Gyll. 

Lathridius lardarius, De G. 
Coninomus nodifer, Westw. 
Cartodere ruficollis, Marsh. 
Corticaria pubescens, Gyll. 

— denticulata, Gyll. 

— elongata, Humm. 


Byturus tomentosus, F. 

Telmatophilus caricis, Ol. 
Cryptophagus lycoperdi, Herbst 

— scanicus, L. 

— dentatus, Herbst 

— cellaris, Scop. 

— affinis, Sturm 
Micrambe vini, Panz. 

Atomaria umbrina, Er. Heath near Woburn 

— elongatula, Er. Under bark, JVoburn 

— nigripennis, Payk. 

— pusilla, Payk. 

— ruficornis. Marsh. 


Scaphidium quadrimaculatum, Ol. 

SCAPHIDIID^ {continued) 

Scaphisoma agaricinum, L. 

Typhaea fumata, L. 

Triphyllus punctatus, F, 

Mycetophagus quadripustulatus, L, 

Dermestes murinus, L. 

— lardarius, L. 

Byrrhus pilula, L. 
Cytilus varius, F. 
Simplocaria semistriata, F. 

Limnius tuberculatus, Mull. 


Heterocerus marginatus, F. 

— laevigatus, Panz. 

Lucanus cervus, L. Mr. Studman found 
a number of females in a willow tree 
near Little Drakeloiv Pond, Woburn, 
but could not find a male 

Sinodendron cylindricum, L. 

Onthophagus ovatus, L. 

— nuchicornis, L. 
Aphodius erraticus, L. 

— subterraneus, L. 

— fossor, L. 

— haemorrhoidalis, L. 

— fimetarius, L. 

— ater, De G. 

— merdarius, F. 

— inquinatus, F. 

— punctato-sulcatus, Sturm 

— prodromus, Brahm. 

— contaminatus, Herbst 

— rufipes, L. 
Geotrupes typhaeus, L. 

— spiniger, Marsh. 

stercoranus, L. 

— vernalis, L. 
Serica brunnea, L. 
Rhizotrogus solstitialis, L. 
Melolontha vulgaris, F. 
Phyllopertha horticola, L. 


Lacon murinus, L. 
Cryptohypnus riparius, F. 
Melanotus rufipes, Herbst 
Athous niger, L. 

— longicollis, Ol. 

— haemorrhoidalis, F. 
Adrastus limbatus, F. 
Agriotes sputator, L. 

— obscurus, L. 

— lineatus, L. 

— sobrinus, Kies. 
Dolopius marginatus, L, 



ELATERiDiE [continued) 
Corymbites tessellatus, F. 

— quercus, Gyll. 
Campylus linearis, L. 


Helodes minuta, L. 
Microcara livida, F. 
Cyphon coarctatus, Payk. 

— variabilis, Thunb. 
Scirtes hemisphaericus, L. 


Lampyris noctiluca, L. Very plentiful 
near Little Brickhill, and probably 


Telephorus rusticus, Fall. 

— lividus, L. 

— nigricans, Moll. 

— lituratus. Fall. 

— iiguratus, Mann. 
Rhagonycha fuscicornis, Ol. 

— fulva, Scop. 

— testacea, L. 

— limbata, Thorns. 
Malthinus punctatus, Fourc. 
Malthodes marginatus, Latr. 

— pellucidus, Kies. 

Malachius bipustulatus, L. 
Dasytes aerosus, Kies. 

Necrobia ruficollis, F. 

— violacea, L. 

Ptinus fur, L. 
Niptus hololeucus, Fald. 

Anobium domesticum, Fourc. 
Ptilinus pectinicornis, L. 


Cis boleti, Scop. 

— bidentatus, Ol. 

— fiiscatus, Mell. 
Octotemnus glabriculus, Gyll. 


Aromia moschata, L. 

Asemum striatum, L. In stumps of Scotch 

fir, IVohurn 
Callidium violaceum, L. 
Clytus arietis, L. 
Rhagium inquisitor, F, 

— bifasciatum, F. 
Toxotus meridianus, Panz. 
Strangalia armata, Herbst 
Grammoptera ruficornis, F. 


Bruchus pectinicornis, L. In granary, 

— rufimanus, Boh. 


Donacia limbata, Panz. (lemnas, F.) 

— simplex, F. 

— semicuprea, Panz. 

— sericea, L. 
Lema lichenis, Voet. 
Crioceris asparagi, L. 


Cryptocephalus aureolus, SufFr, 

— labiatus, L. 

Timarcha violacea-nigra, De G. 
Chrysomela staphylea, L. 

— polita, L. 

Phytodecta olivacea, Forst. 
Gastroidea polygoni, L. 
Phaedon tumidulus. Germ. 

— armoraciae, L. 

— cochleariae, F. 
Phyllodecta vitellinae, L. 
Hydrothassa marginella, L. 
Prasocuris phellandrii, L. 
Luperus rufipes, Scop. 
Lochmaea capreae, L. 

— suturalis. Thorns. 
Galerucella tenella, L. 
Longitarsus melanocephalus, All. 
Haltica oleracea, L. 
Phyllotreta undulata, Kuts. 

nemorum, L. 

— exclamationis, Thunb. 
Sphaeroderma testaceum, F. 
Crepidodera transversa, Marsh. 

— ferruginea, Scop. 

— aurata. Marsh. 
Plectroscelis concinna, Marsh, 
Psylliodes chrysocephala, L. 


Cassida flaveola, Thunb. (obsoleta. 111.) 

— viridis, F. 

Tenebrio molitor, L. 

— obscurus, F. 
Tribolium ferrugineum, F. 
Helops striatus, Fourc. 


Lagria hirta, L. 


Cistela marina, L. 

Rhinosimus planirostris, F. 

CEdemera lurida. Marsh. 


Pyrochroa serraticornis. Scop. 


Anaspis frontalis, L. 

— ruficollis, F. 

Notoxus monoceros, L. 



AnthicidjE {continued) 
Anthicus floralis, L. 

— antherinus, L. 

MeloS proscarabaeus, L. 


Apoderus coryli, L, 

Attelabus curculionoides, L, 

Rhynchites minutus, Herbst (germanicus, 

Deporaiis betulae, L. 
Apion pomonas, F. 

— miniatum, Germ. 

— haematodes, Kirby 

— viciae, Payk. 

— apricans, Herbst 

— asneum, F. 

— carduorum, Kirby 

— virens, Herbst 

— aethiops, Herbst 

— vorax, Herbst 

— violaceum, Kirby 

— hydrolapathi, Kirby 
Otiorrhynchus ligneus, Ol. 

— picipes, F. 

— sulcatus, F. 
Strophosomus coryli, F. 

— capitatus, De G. 

— lateralis, Payk. 
Exomias araneiformis, Schr. 
Sciaphilus muricatus, F. 

Polydrusus tereticollis, De G. (undatus, F.) 

— cervinus, L. 
Phyllobius oblongus, L. 

— urticae, De G. (aineti, F.) 

— pyri, L. 

— argentatus, L. 

— maculicornis. Germ. 

— viridiasris, Laich. (uniformis. Marsh.) 
Barynotus obscurus, F. 

Sitones griseus, F. 

— regensteinensis, Herbst 

— tibialis, Herbst 

— humeralis, .Steph. 

CuRCULiONiD^ {continued) 
Sitones lineatus, L. 

— sulcifrons, Thunb. 
Hypera rumicis, L. 

— nigrirostris, F. 
Liosoma ovatulum, Clairv. 
Orchestes quercus, L. 

— alni, L. 

— rusci, Herbst 

— salicis, L. 
Grypidius equiseti, F. 
Erirrhinus acridulus, L. 
Dorytomus vorax, F. 

— maculatus. Marsh. 
Bagous cylindrus, Payk.^ 
Anoplus plantaris, Naez. 
Miccotrogus picirostris, F. 
Gymnetron pascuorum, Gyll. 
Anthonomus ulmi, De G. 

— pomorum, L. 
Cionus blattariae, F. 
Coeliodes rubicundus, Herbst 

— quadrimaculatus, L. 
Poophagus sisymbrii, F. 
Ceuthorrhynchus assimilis, Payk. 

— contractus. Marsh. 

— quadridens, Panz. 

— pollinarius, Forst. 

— litura, F. 
Ceuthorrhynchidius floralis, Payk, 

— melanarius, Steph. 

— troglodytes, F. 
Rhinoncus pericarpius, L. 
Calandra granaria, L. 
Magdalis pruni, L. 


Scolytus destructor, Ol. 

— multistriatus. Marsh. 
Hylastes ater, Payk. 
Myelophilus piniperda, L 

Mr. Studman as 
damage to pine woods near Woburn 
Dryocaetes villosus, F. 

Recorded by 
doing serious 


For the means of furnishing any really passable catalogue of the 
Lepidoptera of the county of Bedford I am indebted in a very great 
degree to the kindness of Mr. A. E. Gibbs of St. Albans, whose large 
acquaintance with this county has been of the greatest assistance in 
drawing together the available information. Mainly through his help, 
valuable lists have been received of the larger Lepidoptera for Bedford 

' Mr. Ellis tells me that this very interesting species occurs in a small boggy place near Leighton, 
and that he has taken it in hundreds. The bog often dries up in summer, and the insects congregate 
under the matted grass in one spot about ten yards square ; although the bog covers some acres he 
has never found a specimen outside this small area. 



and the adjoining district from the Rev. O. W, Harries and Dr. W. G. 
Nash, and of these and also the smaller groups from Mr. J. Sharpin. 
Mr. W. Bond-Smith has furnished a useful list of the larger species 
found at Potton, and Mr. Herbert Studman a list of a few species 
at Woburn. At Luton excellent work was done by Mr. J. A. Saunders, 
now unhappily deceased, and to documents left by him, and obligingly 
lent by his father Mr. Jas. Saunders, A.S.S., to Mr. A. E. Gibbs, I am 
indebted for the extensive list of species both of Macro- and Micro- 
Lepidoptera supplied for that district. 


Aporiacrat9egi,Linn.(BIack-veined White But- 
terfly) Reported by Mr. H. Studman 
to have formerly occurred near Woburn 

Pieris brassicae, Linn., rapas, Linn., napi, 
Linn. (White Butterflies) Abundant 

Anthocharis cardamines, Linn. (Orange-tip) 
Generally distributed 

Colias hyale, Linn. (Pale Clouded Yellow) 
Bedford, Woburn ; plentiful in igoo 
and 1 901 

— edusa, Linn. (Clouded Yellow) Bedford, 

Potton ; abundant in the year 1900 
Gonepteryx rhamni, Linn. (Brimstone But- 
terfly) Bedford, Luton, Potton ; fre- 
quent in clover fields 
Chrysophanus phlasas, Linn. (Small Copper) 

Generally distributed 
Polyommatus arion, Linn. (Large Blue) 
Haworth in 1 803 says : ' Taken in 
Bedfordshire and sent to me by my 
friend Dr. Abbot ' ; Professor West- 
wood (1849) adds that it was taken in 
the ' Mouse's pasture ' near Bedford, 
and that Mr. J. C. Dale took it there 
again in 1819 ; further that it was 
taken on commons near Bromham 

— agestis, Hb., medon, Esp. (Brown Argus) 

Bedford, on hillsides 

— alexis, Hb., icarus, Rott. (Common Blue) 

Generally common 

— adonis, Hb., bellargus, Rott. (Clifden Blue) 

On chalk hillsides near Bedford 

— corydon, Scop. (Chalk-hill Blue) On 

chalk hillsides near Bedford 

— alsus, SchifF. (Bedford Blue) Hills and 

railway banks around Bedford and 

— argiolus, Linn. (Holly Blue) Bedford 
Thecla quercAs, Linn. (Purple Hairstreak) 

Generally about oaks in woods 

— betulae, Linn. (Brown Hairstreak) Re- 

ported near Woburn by Mr. H. Stud- 

— pruni, Haw. (Black Hairstreak) Found 

near Bedford by Dr. Nash 

Thecla w-album, Knoch. (White Letter 
Hairstreak) Bedford and Woburn about 
wych elm 

Apatura iris, Linn. Recorded at Clapham 
Park Woods by Professor Westwood 
(1849) on the authority of the Rev. 
W. T. Bree 

Vanessa polychloros, Linn. (Large Tortoise- 
shell) This fine butterfly seems to be 
well distributed over the county 

— urticae, Linn. (Small Tortoiseshell) Abun- 

dant everywhere 

— io, Linn. (Peacock Butterfly) "j All 

— atalanta, Linn. (Red Admiral) !- generally 

— cardui, Linn. (Painted Lady) J distributed 
Argynnis paphia, Linn. (Silver-washed 

Fritillary) Generally distributed in 

— adippe, Linn. (High Brown Fritillary) 

Recorded near Bedford by Dr. Nash, 
and near Woburn by Mr. McKay 

— euphrosyne, Linn. (Large Pearl-border) 

Bedford district, in woods 

— ■ selene, SchifF. (Small Pearl-border) Com- 
mon in woods about Woburn 

Melitasa athalia, Esp, (Heath Fritillary) Re- 
corded in Aspley Woods, fifty years ago, 
by Westwood 

— artemis, Hb. (Greasy Fritillary) Clapham 

Park Woods ; Prof. Westwood 
Melanargia galathea, Linn. (Marbled White) 

On chalk hills near Bedford 
Pararge aegeria, Linn. (Speckled Wood But- 
terfly) Bedford, in lanes and wood 

— megaera, Linn. Generally distributed 
Epinephile janira, Linn. (Meadow Brown) 

Generally common 

— tithonus, Linn. (Gatekeeper) Generally 


— hyperanthus, Linn. (Ringlet) Plentiful 

in woods 
Coenonympha pamphilus, Linn. Common in 

every grass field 
Syrichthus malvae, Linn., alveolus, Hb. 

Bedford, Luton, Potton 



Hesperia linea, Fab., thaumas, St, C. Bed- 
ford, Luton ; in marshy places 

— lineola, Ochs. This species, of recent 

discovery as British, has been found by 
Dr. Nash and Rev. O. W. Harries in 
woods and lanes near Bedford 

— sylvanus, Esp. Generally common 

Cyclopides paniscus, Fab., palaemon, St, C. 
Recorded by the late Professor West- 
wood at Clapham Park Woods and near 

Nisoniades tages, Linn. Bedford, Luton ; on 
hillsides and railway banks 


Smerinthus ocellatus, Linn. (Eyed Hawk 
Moth) Bedford, Potton, common at 

— populi, Linn, (Poplar Hawk) Generally 

distributed, on poplars 

— tiliae, Linn. (Lime Hawk) Widely dis- 

tributed, about limes and elms 
Acherontia atropos, Linn. (Death's Head) 

Occasionally found ; larva in potato 

Sphinx convolvuli, Linn. Bedford, Potton ; 

an occasional visitor 

— ligustri, Linn. (Privet Hawk) Generally 

distributed ; larva on privet hedges 
Chaerocampa celerio, Linn. Dr. Nash re- 
ports : ' A specimen is said to have been 
taken in Bedford twenty years ago ' 

— elpenor, Linn. (Elephant Hawk) Bed- 

ford, Wohurn 

— porcellus, Linn. (Small Elephant) Bed- 

ford, Potton ; among ladies' bedstraw 
Macroglossa stellatarum, Linn. (Humming- 
bird Hawk) Generally distributed ; 
to be seen occasionally in gardens, 
hovering at tubular flowers 

— fiiciformis, Linn. (Broad-bordered Bee 

Hawk) Dr. Nash records this species 

in woods near Bedford 
— - bombyliformis, Esp. (Narrow-bordered 

Bee Hawk) Dr. Nash also records this 

species in woods near Bedford 
Sesia tipuliformis, Linn. Generally common 

about currant bushes 

— myopjeformis, Bkh. Taken by Mr. W. 

Bond-Smith at Potton 

— cynipiformis, Esp. Recorded by West- 

wood in Clapham Park Woods 
Sphaecia bembeciformis, Hb. Bedford 

— apiformis, Linn. (Hornet Clearwing) 

Bedford, Woburn ; on poplars 
Procris statices, Linn. Luton 
Zygsna trifolii, Esp. (Five-spot Burnet) 

Found by Mr. H. Studman near Woburn 

— filipendulae, Linn. (Six-spot Burnet) Bed- 

ford, Luton, Potton ; common 
Zeuzera sesculi, Linn., pyrina, St. C. (Wood 
Leopard) Bedford, Woburn, Potton ; 
not plentiful 
Cossus ligniperda. Fab. (Goat Moth) Gener- 
ally distributed 

Hepialus hectus, Ochs. Bedford, Luton ; in 

— lupulinus, Linn. Generally abundant in 


— sylvinus, Linn. Bedford, Luton 

— velleda, Esp, „ „ 

— humuli, Linn. (Ghost) Generally common 

Halias prasinana, Linn.l _ , . , 

o L -rr i aken m woods 

— quercana, Schift. }- i -n jr i 
■c. ■ ,1 ' TT, I around Bedford 
JLarias chlorana, Hb. J -' 

Sarrothripa revayana, W. V. Found by Mr. 

J. Sharpin near Bedford 
Nola cucullatella, Linn. Bedford, Luton ; 

among fruit trees 
Calligenia miniata, Forst. Bedford, Luton 
Lithosia complana, Linn. Taken near Potton 

by Mr. W. Bond-Smith 

— complanula, Bdv., lurideola, St. C. Taken 

at lamps near Bedford and Luton 

— griseola, Hb. Bedford 

Euchelia jacobasae, Linn. (Cinnabar) Gener- 
ally common among ragwort and 

Deiopeia pulchella, Linn. One specimen 
taken near County School by Dr. Nash, 
July 1894 

Arctia caia, Linn. (Common Tiger) Every- 
where common 

— villica, Linn. (Cream-Spot Tiger) Re- 

ported by Mr. W. Bond-Smith at Potton 
Phragmatobia fuliginosa,Linn. Bedford, Potton 
Spilosoma mendica, Linn. (Muslin) Bedford, 

— lubricepeda, Linn. Common everywhere 

— menthastri, Schiff. „ „ 
Porthesia chrysorrhaea, Linn. Reported at 

Bedford by the Rev. W. O. Harries, 
and at Woburn by Mr. H. Studman 

— auriflua, Fab., similis, St. C. Generally 

common on hawthorn hedges 
Liparis salicis, Linn. . Bedford, Potton ; about 

willow or poplar 
Dasychira pudibunda, Linn. Bedford, Potton 

— fascelina, Linn. Taken near Bedford by 

Dr. W. G. Nash 
Orgyia antiqua, Linn. (Vapourer) Common 
everywhere, and conspicuous in the 
autumn by its lively dancing flight, 
about roads and shrubberies, in the 



Eriogaster lanestris, 

Clisiocampa neustria, 


Demas coryli, Linn. Bedford^ also taken at 

Luton at 'light' 
Poecilocampa populi, Linn. Bedford^ Luton, 
Potton ; sometimes to be seen flying 
around gas-lamps in December 
Trichiura crataegi, Linn. Bedford, Luton, 
Potton ; but scarce 

/ The large silken habi- 
tations of the larvae of 
these two species are not 
uncommon on haw- 
thorn hedges and fruit 
Lasiocampa trifolii, Esp. Dr. W. G. Nash 
reports that he has reared this species 
at Bedford 

— quercus, Linn. Generally distributed 
Odonestis potatoria, Linn. „ „ 
Gastropacha quercifolia, Linn. Bedford, Wo- 

burn, Potton 

Saturnia carpini, Schiff., pavonia, St. C. Bed- 
ford, Wohurn, Potton 

Cilix spinula, Schiff., glaucata, St. C. Gener- 
ally distributed about hawthorn 

Cerura furcula, Linn. (Kitten) Bedford, 
Luton ; about sallow 

— bifida, Hb. Recorded at Bedford by Dr. 

W. G. Nash 

— vinula, Linn. (Puss Moth) Generally 

distributed among willow 
Notodonta dictasa, Linn., tremula, St. C. 
Bedford, Luton ; among poplar 

— ziczac, Linn. Bedford 

— dromedarius, Linn. Luton 
Lophopteryx camelina, Linn. Bedford, 

Pterostoma palpina, Linn. Bedford, Potton ; 

among poplar 
Petasia cassinea, Schiff. Bedford 
Pygaera bucephala, Linn. Generally common 
Diloba caeruleocephala, Linn. „ „ 

Gonophora derasa, Linn. Bedford, in woods 
Cymatophora duplaris, Linn. „ „ 

— ocularis, Linn. Bedford, taken at ' sugar,' 

and the pupa dug up from roots of 

Asphalia diluta, Schiff. Luton 
Acronycta aceris, Linn. Bedford, Potton ; 

about sycamore 

— megacephala, Schiff. Bedford, Luton ; on 


— tridens, Schiff. Larvae taken at Potton 

— psi, Linn. Generally common 

— rumicis, Linn. Bedford 

— ligustri, Schiff. Potton 
Agrotis suffusa, Hb. Bedford, Luton 

— saucia, Hb. „ 

— segetum, Schiff. Everywhere abundant ; 

very injurious in turnip fields 

— puta, Hb. Bedford ; not very common 

I 8 

Agrotis exclamationis, Linn. Most abundant, 
and mischievous to growing turnips 

— nigricans, Linn. Luton 

— porphyrea, Hb. „ 

— ravida, Hb. Bedford, very local 
Axylia putris, Linn. Generally distributed 
Triphaena fimbria, Linn. Bedford, in woods 

— janthina, Esp. Bedford, Potton ; in gar- 

dens and woods 

— interjecta, Hb. Bedford, Luton ; in woods 

and hedges 

— orbona. Fab. Everywhere abundant 

— pronuba, Linn. „ „ 
Noctua augur. Fab. Bedford, Luton 

— plecta, Linn. „ „ 

— c-nigrum, Linn. Bedford, Luton, Potton 

— triangulum, Tr. Bedford, Luton ; in woods 

— festiva, Hb. „ „ „ 

— rubi, Viewig. „ „ 

— xanthographa. Fab, Everywhere abun- 

Eurois adusta, Esp. Luton, in woods 
Charaeas graminis, Linn. Bedford 
Heliophobus popularis, Fab. Luton, Bedford, 


— cespitis, Fab. Potton 
Aplecta advena, Fab. Bedford 

— nebulosa, Hufn. „ 
Hadena thalassina, Rott. „ 

— pisi, Linn. Bedford, Potton 

— oleracea, Linn. Common in gardens 


— dentina, Esp. Bedford 

— chenopodii. Fab., trifolii, St. C. Generally 

Mamestra brassicae, Linn. Universally abun- 
dant, and mischievous in gardens 

— persicarias, Linn. Bedford, Luton, Potton 
Hecatera serena. Fab. Bedford, Luton ; a 

very pretty object on a tree trunk 
Dianthecia carpophaga, Bkh. Luton 

— cucubali, Fuessl. Luton 

— capsincola, Hb. Potton 

— conspersa, Esp. Luton 

Folia flavicincta, Fab. Bedford, Luton, Potton 

— chi, Linn. Bedford; usually a northern 

Dryobota protea, Bkh. Bedford 
Chariptera aprilina, Linn. Bedford, Luton, 

Potton ; about oaks 
Miselia oxyacanthae, Linn. Bedford, Potton ; 
its dark variety, capucina, occasionally 
Luperina testacea, Hb. Generally abundant 
Cerigo cytherea. Fab., matura, St. C. Bedford 
Haiha anceps, Hb., sordida, St. C. Luton 
Xylophasia lithoxylea. Fab. Generally com- 

— sublustris, Esp. Bedford, very local 

— polyodon, Linn., monoglypha, St. C. 

Universally abundant 


Xylophasia hepatica, Hb. Luton 

— rurea, Fab. „ 
Apamea basilinea, Fab. Luton, Bedford 

— gemina, Hb. Bedford 

— oculea, Gn., didyma, St. C. Abundant 

Miana strigilis, Clerck. Generally common 

— fasciuncula, Haw. Bedford 

— fiiruncula, Tr., bicoloria, St. C. Bedford, 


Eremobia ochroleuca, Esp. Recorded in Bed- 
fordshire, Westwood and Humphrey, 
ii. 228 

Dipterygia pinastri, Linn., scabriuscula, St. C. 

Euplexia lucipara, Linn. Generally common 

Phlogophora meticulosa, Linn. Common 

Hydraecia nictitans, Bkh. Bedford 

— micacea, Esp. Bedford, Luton 
Gortyna flavago, Esp., ochracea, St. C. Bed- 
ford, Luton 

Tapinostola fulva, Hb. Luton 
Leucania conigera, Fab. Bedford, Luton 

— lithargyria, Esp. Bedford; probably 


— impura, Hb. Everywhere abundant 

— pallens, Linn. „ „ 

— straminea, Tr. Reported at Bedford by 

Mr. A. Sharpin 

— comma, Linn. Bedford 
Taeniocampa gothica, Linn. Generally com- 
mon at sallow bloom 

— cruda, Tr., pulverulenta, St. C. Abundant 

about sallows 

— stabilis. View. Abundant about sallows 

— instabilis, Esp., incerta, St. C. Common 

about sallows 

— gracilis. Fab. Bedford, Luton 
Pachnobia rubricosa. Fab. Bedford 
Rusina tenebrosa, Hb. Bedford, Luton 
Mania maura, Linn. Generally distributed 
Nasnia typica, Linn. Common everywhere 
Amphipyra pyramidea, Linn. Bedford, in 


— tragopogonis, Linn. Generally common, 

often coming into houses 
Hydrilla arcuosa. Haw. Luton, in fields 
Stilbia anomala, Haw. Bedford 
Caradrina morpheus, Tr. Generally com- 
mon in gardens 

— alsines, Bkh. Bedford, Luton 

— blanda, Tr., taraxaci, St. C. Generally 


— cubicularis, Bkh., quadripunctata, St. C. 

Abundant everywhere 
Grammesia trilinea, Bkh., trigrammica, St. C. 

In all woods 
Calymnia trapezina, Linn. Common in 


Calymnia difBnis, Linn. Bedford, among elm 

— affinis, Linn. „ „ 
Orthosia ferruginea, SchifF., circellaris, St. C. 

Generally common 

— pistacina, Schiff. Generally common 

— litura, Linn. Bedford, Potton 

— lunosa. Haw. Bedford 

— lota, Linn. „ 

— macilenta, Hb. „ 

Xanthia citrago, Linn. Bedford, among lime 

— cerago, Schiff., fulvago, St. C. Bedford, 


— silago, Hb., flavago, St. C. Bedford, Luton 

— aurago, Schiff. Taken at Potton by Mr. 

W. Bond-Smith 

— gilvago, Esp. Bedford, not rare 
Cerastis vaccinii, L. Generally common 

— ligula, Esp., spadicea, Stn. Bedford, Luton, 

Scopelosoma satellitia, Linn. Bedford, Luton 
Xylina semibrunnea. Haw. Bedford, Potton, 

at ivy bloom 
Xylocampa lithoriza, Bkh., areola, St. C. 

Calocampa exoleta, Linn. Bedford 

— vetusta, Hb. „ 

Cucullia verbasci, Linn. Bedford, Potton ; 
larvae on Verbascum and Scrophularia 

— umbratica, Linn. Bedford, Luton ; at 

flowers in gardens in the evening 
Plusia chrysitis, Linn. Generally distributed 

— pulchrina. Haw. Luton 

— iota, Linn. Luton, Bedford, Potton 

— gamma, Linn. Everywhere abundant, 

buzzing about flowers 
Habrostola urticae, Hb., tripartita, St. C. 
Potton, Luton, Bedford 

— triplasia, Linn. Bedford, Potton 
Heliothis marginata. Fab., umbra, St. C. 

Taken near Bedford by Rev. O. W. 

Heliodes arbuti, Fab., tenebrata, St. C. Bed- 
ford, in meadows 

Acontia luctuosa, Esp. Bedford, a very local 

Bryophila perla, Fab. Generally common on 

Gonoptera libatrix, Linn. Generally distri- 
buted. Fond of hiding in cellars dur- 
ing the winter 

Catocala nupta, Linn. Generally distributed, 
sitting on trunks of willows 

Euclidia mi, Clerck. Bedford, Luton, Woburn 

— glyphica, Linn. Bedford 

Herminia barbalis, Linn. Luton, among sallow 

— tarsipennalis, Tr. Luton 

— grisealis, Hb. Bedford 
Hypena rostralis, Linn. „ 

— proboscidalis, Linn. Everywhere among 




Rivula sericealis, Scop. Luton 
Brephos parthenias, Linn. Bedford 
Ourapteryx sambucata, Linn. ~ 
Rumia cratagata, Linn. 

Woods near Bed- 

Woods near Lu- 

Angerona prunaria, Linn. 

Venilia maculata, Linn. 

Cabera pusaria, Linn. Generally common in 

woods ; the var. rotundaria has been 

found near Bedford by Mr. J. Sharpin 

— exanthemaria, Scop. Generally distri- 

Bapta temerata, SchifF. Bedford, at the mar- 
gins of woods 

— taminata, SchifF. Potton, Bedford ; at the 

edges of woods 
Macaria Hturata, Linn. Luton, Bedford ; 

among Scotch fir 
Halia wavaria, Linn. Everywhere in gardens 

among currant bushes 
Panagra petraria, Hb. Near Bedford, among 

Strenia clathrata, Linn. Bedford, Potton, 

Luton ; common among clover 
Fidonia atomaria, Linn. Luton, common on 


— piniaria, Linn. Plentiful in all fir woods 
Odontoptera bidentata, Linn. Generally dis- 

Ennomos alniaria, Linn., tiliaria, Stn. Bed- 
ford, Luton ; among alder 

— fiiscantaria, Haw. Potton, among ash 

— angularia, SchifF., quercinaria, St. C. Bed- 


Crocallis elinguaria, Linn. Generally distri- 
buted, on hedge banks 

Himera pennaria, Linn. Bedford, 
common in woods 

Selenia illunaria, Hb., bilunaria, 
Generally common in lanes 

— illustraria, Hb., tetralunaria, St. C, 

corded at Bedford by the Rev. O. 


Pericallia syringaria, Linn. Bedford 
Epione apiciaria, SchifF. Bedford, Luton ; in 

lanes among sallow 
Metrocampa margaritata, Linn. Generally 

common in woods 
Ellopia fasciaria, Linn., prosapiaria, St. C. 

Luton, among Scotch fir 
Biston hirtarius, Linn. Bedford, Luton 

— prodromarius, SchifF, „ „ 

— betularius, Linn. Generally distributed 
Phigalia pilosaria, SchifF., pedaria, St. C. Lu- 
ton, Potton 

Cleora lichenaria, SchifF. Luton 
Tephrosia biundularia, Esp., crepuscularia, 
SchifF. Bedford, on tree trunks 

— punctularia, Schiff. Luton 

Luton ; 

St. C. 


Boarmia repandaria, Linn. Bedford, Luton ; 
probably everywhere 

— rhomboidaria, SchifF., gemmaria, St. C. 

Generally distributed 
Hemerophila abruptaria,Thunb. Bedford, Luton 
Hibernia rupicapraria, SchifF. „ „ 

— leucophasaria, SchifF. Luton 

— progemmaria, Hb., marginaria, St. C. 

Everywhere abundant 

— defoliaria, Linn. Generally distributed in 

Anisopteryx ascularia, SchifF. Bedford, Luton 
Abraxas grossulariata, Linn. Abundant in 

gardens everywhere 

— ulmata, Fab., sylvata, St. C. Bedford dis- 

trict, in woods 
Ligdia adustata, Schiff. Bedford, Luton ; 

among spindle 
Lomaspilis marginata, Linn. Bedford, Luton ; 

among sallow 
Pseudoterpna cytisaria, SchifF., pruinata, St. C. 

Generally distributed 
Geometra papilionaria, Linn. Bedford district 
lodis vernaria, Linn. „ „ 

— lactearia, Linn. „ „ 
Nemoria viridata, Linn. Recorded at Bed- 
ford by Mr. J. Sharpin 

Phorodesma bajularia, Schiff., pustulata, St. C. 
Recorded at Potton by Mr. W. Bond- 

Hemithea thymiaria, Linn., strigata, St. C. 
Bedford, Luton 

Ephyra porata, Linn. Bedford, among oak 

— punctaria, Linn. „ „ 

— trilinearia, Bkh., linearia, St. C. Bedford 

district, among beech 

— omicronaria, Schiff., annulata, St. C. 

Bedford district, among maple 

— pendularia, Linn. Bedford, among birch 
Acidalia scutulata, Schiff., dimidiata, St. C. 

Generally common 

— bisetata, Bkh. Common in woods 

— dilutaria, Hb., osseata, St. Man. Bedford 

— incanaria, Hb., virgularia, St. C. Gener- 

ally common in gardens 

— immutata, Linn. Luton 

— promutata, Gn., marginepunctata, St. C. 

— remutata, Hb. Bedford, Potton ; prob- 

ably in all woods 

— aversata, Linn. Generally distributed 
Timandra imitaria, Hb. Bedford, Luton 
Bradyepetes amataria, Linn. „ „ 
Ania emarginata, Linn. „ „ 
Melanippe subtristata. Haw., sociata, St. C. 

Common everywhere 
Melanthia rubiginata, Schiff., bicolorata, St. C. 

— ocellata, Linn. Generally distributed 

— albicillata, Linn. Bedford, Wohurn 

— unangulata. Haw. Luton 



Anticlea badiata, Schiff. Bedford, Potton 

— derivata, SchifF., nigrofasciaria, St. C. 

Bedford, Potton, Luton 
Coremia montanata, SchiiF. Abundant in all 

— fluctuata, Linn. Abundant in all gardens 

— ferrugata, Linn. Everywhere common 

— unidentaria, Haw. Generally distributed 

— quadrifasciaria, Linn. Bedford, Luton 

— pectinitaria, Fuessl., viridaria, St. C. Luton 

— didymata, Linn. Bedford, Luton ; prob- 

ably everywhere 
Asthena luteata, SchifF. Bedford, Potton, Luton 

— candidata, Schiff. Bedford, Luton 
Emmelesia affinitata, Steph. Luton, among 


— alchemillata, Linn. Luton, among Gale- 


— albulata, Schiff. Luton, in meadows 

among yellow-rattle 

— decolorata, Hb. Bedford, among Lychnis 
Cidaria miata, Linn. Bedford, Potton, Luton 

— corylata, Thunb. Luton, in woods 

— russata, Schiff., truncata, St. C. Gene- 

rally abundant 

— suffiimata, Schiff. Luton 

— prunata, Linn. Luton, in gardens 

— dotata, Linn, associata, St. C. Bedford, 

Potton, Luton ; in gardens 

— fiilvata, Forst. Bedford, Luton 

— pyraliata, Bkh., dotata, St. C. Luton 

— testata, Linn. „ 
Scotosia vetulata, Schiff. Bedford, among 

Clematis vitalba 

— rhamnata, Schiff. Bedford, Luton ; among 

Clematis vitalba 

— dubitata, Linn. Bedford, Luton, Potton ; 

comes to ' light ' 

— certata, Hb. Luton, Potton ; among Ber- 

beris and Mahonia 
Camptogramma bilineata, Linn. Abundant 

in every hedge 
Phibalapteryx lignata, Hb., vittata, St. C. 

Luton, in damp meadows 

— vitalbata, Schiff. Bedford, Potton, Luton ; 

among Clematis vitalba 

— tersata, Schiff. Luton, among Clematis 

Thera variata, Schiff. Bedford, Luton ; among 

Hypsipetes impluviata, Schiff., trifasciata, St. C. 

Bedford, among alder 

— elutata, Schiff., sordidata, St. C. Gener- 

ally abundant 

Oporabia dilutata, Schiff. Generally distri- 

Cheimatobia brumata, Linn, Everywhere 

Chesias spartiata, Schiff. Potton, among 

Chesias obliquaria, Schiff., rufata, St. C. 

Potton, among broom 
Anaitis plagiata, Linn. Generally distributed 
Eubolia palumbaria, Schiff., plumbaria, St. C. 

Bedford, Luton 

— bipunctaria, Schift. Luton, on chalk hills 

— cervinata, Schiff. Luton, Potton ; among 


— mensuraria, Schiff., limitata, St. C. 

Generally common 
Eupithecia venosata, Fab. Bedford, Potton ; 
among Silene inflata 

— centaureata, Schiff., oblongata, St. C. 

Common in gardens 

— succenturiata, Linn. Potton 

— subfulvata. Haw. Bedford, Luton 

— satyrata, Hb. Bedford 

— castigata, Haw. Generally common 

— nanata, Hb. Luton 

— subnotata, Hb. Bedford 

— vulgata. Haw. Common everywhere 

— tenuiata, Hb. Bedford, among sallow 

— sobrinata, Hb. Luton, among juniper 

— coronata, Hb. Bedford, Luton 

— rectangulata, Linn. Generally common 

in orchards 
Herbula cespitalis, Schiff. Bedford, Luton 
Botys urticalis, Linn. Everywhere among 


— forficalis, Linn. Frequent everywhere in 


— verticalis, Schiff., ruralis, Scop. Generally 

distributed among nettles 
Scopula olivalis, Schiff. ] Generally common 

— prunalis, Schiff. J in hedges 

— lutealis. Haw. Luton, among thistles 

— ferrugalis, Hb. Luton, in hedges 
Ebulea crocealis, Tr. Bedford, among flea- 

— sambucalis, Schiff. Bedford, Luton ; prob- 

ably everywhere 
Cataclysta lemnalis, Linn. "1 Bedford, about 
Paraponyx stratiotalis, Linn. J water-plants 
Hy^rocampanymphsalis,|^^^^^^^^ ^«'«« 5 

^ ' 1- -n I about water 

— stagnalis, Don. J 

Aglossa pinguinalis, Linn. Generally com- 
mon about stables 

Pyralis costalis. Fab., fimbrialis, Schiff. Bed- 

— farinalis, Linn. Generally common in 

houses and corn stores 

— glaucinalis, Linn. Luton 

Nomophila hybridalis, Hb. Generally com- 
Scoparia cembrae, Haw. Luton 

— ambigualis, Tr. Generally common on 

tree trunks 

— dubitalis. Curt. Bedford, Luton 

— mercuraiis, Linn, Bedford 



Platyptilus gonodactylus, SchifF. Bedford, 
among coltsfoot 

Mimaesioptilus pterodactylus, Linn., fuscus, 
Retz. Bedford, Luton 

CEdematophorus lithodactylus, Tr. Bedford, 
among (leabane 

Pterophorus monodactylus, Linn. Luton, 
probably everywhere 

Aciptilia pentadactyla, Linn. Bedford, Luton, 

Orneodes polydactyla, Hb. Bedford, Luton 

Crambus pratellus, Linn. Everywhere abun- 
dant among grass 

— pinetellus, Linn. Bedford, Luton 

— perlellus, Scop. Bedford 

— tristellus, SchifF. Common everywhere 

among grass 

— geniculeus, Haw. Luton 

— culmellus, Linn. Everywhere abundant 

among grass 

— hortuellus, Hb. Everywhere among grass 
Ephestia elutella, Hb. Bedford 
Nephopteryx spissicella, Fab. „ 
Rhodophaea consociella, Hb. „ 

— tumidella, Zk. „ 
Hypochalcia ahenella, SchifF. Taken at 'light' 

at Luton 
Aphomia sociella, Linn. Bedford, Luton 
Tortrix podana. Scop. Generally distributed 

— xylosteana, Linn. „ „ 

— sorbiana, Hb. Bedford, Luton 

— rosana, Linn. Abundant everywhere 

— diversana, Tr. Recorded at Luton by the 

late Mr. J. A. Saunders 

— heparana, SchifF. Generally distributed 

— ribeana, Hb. Generally common 

— corylana, Hb. Bedford, Luton 

— unifasciana, Dup. Generally common 

— ministrana, Linn. Luton 

— costana, SchifF. „ 

— forsterana, Fab. Generally distributed 

— viridana, Linn. Abundant among oaks 
Sideria achatana, SchifF. Bedford, among haw- 

Dichelia grotiana, Fab. Bedford 

Leptogramma literana, Linn. „ 

Peronea sponsana, Fab. Luton, among beech 

— cristana, SchifF. Bedford 

— variegana, SchifF. Generally common 

— ferrugana, Tr. Bedford, in woods 

— comparana, Hb. Luton 

Teras contaminana, Hb. Common in every 
hawthorn hedge 

— caudana, Fab. Luton 

Dictyopteryx loeflingiana, Linn. Luton, about 

— holmiana, Linn. Luton, Bedford 

— bergmanniana, Linn. Abundant every- 

where among rose 
^r— forskaliana, Linn, Luton, among maple 

Argyrotoza conwayana, Fab. Bedford, Luton, 
among ash 

Ptycholoma lecheana, Linn. Generally dis- 

Penthina capreana, Hb. Luton, among sal- 

— pruniana, Hb. Generally abundant among 


— variegana, Hb., cynosbatella, Linn. 

Everywhere common 

— gentianana, Hb. Bedford, Luton; reared 

from heads of teazle 
Hedya ocellana, SchifF. Bedford 

— dealbana, Frol. Bedford, Luton 

— aceriana, Mann. Luton, on poplars 
Spilonota sufiusana, KoU. Bedford, Luton, 

about hawthorn 

— rosaecolana, Dbld. Bedford, among roses 

in gardens 

— roborana, SchifF. Generally common 

among wild rose 

Pardia tripunctana, SchifF. Generally com- 
mon among wild rose 

Aspis udmanniana, Linn. Bedford, Luton; 
among bramble 

Sericoris bifasciana, Haw. Bedford 

— lacunana, SchifF. Everywhere common 
Roxana arcuana, Linn. Woods near Bedford 
Orthotaenia striana, SchifF. Bedford, Luton 
Cnephasia musculana, Hb. Generally dis- 

Sciaphila nubilana, Hb, Bedford, among 

— subjectana, Gn. Abundant everywhere 

— virgaureana, Tr. „ „ 

— pascuana, Hb. Bedford 

— chrysantheana, Dup. „ 

communana, H.S. 

— hybridana, Hb. „ Luton 

Bactra lanceolana, Hub. Everywhere among 

Phoxopteryx unguicella, Linn. Bedford, on 


— biarcuana, Steph. Recorded at Bedford 

by Mr. Sharpin 

— lundana, Fab. Among clover every- 


— mitterbacheriana, SchifF. Bedford, among 

Grapholitha ramella, Linn. Bedford 

— nisella, Linn. Bedford, Luton 

— nigromaculana, Haw. „ 

— trimaculana, Don. Generally common 

among elm 

— penkleriana, SchifF. Generally common 

among alder 

— nasvana, Hb. Generally common among 

holly and fruit trees 
Hypermecia cruciana, Linn. Generally com- 
mon among sallow 



Batodes angustiorana, Haw, Generally com- 
mon among privet and fruit trees 

Pcedisca corticana, SchifF. Generally common 
among oak 

— solandriana, Linn. Luton, in hedges 
Semasia janthinana, Dup. Bedford, about 

Halonota cirsiana, Zell. Luton 

— brunnichiana, Schiff, Luton, among colt's- 

Coccyx strobilella, Linn. Bedford, among 
spruce fir 

— pygmaeana, Hb. Bedford district, among 


— taedella, Linn. Bedford district, among 

spruce fir 
splendidulana, Gn. Luton, among oak 



on oak trunks 
Bedford, among 

Hemimene fimbriana, Steph. 

Retinia buoliana, SchifF. Bedford, among fir 

— pinivorana, Zell. „ „ 
Carpocapsa splendana, Hb. 5^^r^, among oak 

— pomonana, Linn. Everywhere among 

apple trees 
Stigmonota compositella, Linn. Bedford, 
Luton; among clover 

— regiana, Zell. Bedford, Luton ; on syca- 

more trunks 
Dicrorampha politana, SchifiF. Bedford, among 

— petiverella, Linn. Generally common 
Catoptria ulicetana, Haw. Everywhere abun- 
dant among furze 

— hypericana, Hb. Luton, among St. John's 


— fulvana, Steph. Bedford, Luton ; among 


— scopoliana. Haw. Luton, among black 


Phtheocroa rugosana, Hb. Luton, among 
Bryonia dioica 

Aphelia pratana, Hb., osseana, St. C. Bed- 
ford, Luton 

Tortricodes hyemana, Hb. Bedford, Luton ; 
among oak 

Lobesia permixtana, Hb., reliquana, Stn. M. 

Eucelis aurana. Fab., mediana, Schiff. Luton 

Hemerosia rhediella, Linn. Luton, among 

Eupoecilia nana, Haw. Luton, among birch 

— angustana, Hb. „ 

— ciliella, Hb. Luton, among Primula 
Conchylis francillana. Fab. Bedford, among 

wild carrot 
Argyrolepia sub-baumanniana, Dbld. Luton, 
among Scabiosa columbaria 

— zephyrana, Tr. On railway banks near 


Argyrolepia cnicana, Dbld. Luton, among 

marsh thistles 
Xanthosetia hamana, Linn. Bedford, Luton; 

among knapweed 

— zoegana, Linn. Bedford, Luton ; among 

Simaethis fabriciana, Linn. Over nettles 

Dasy stoma salicella, Hb. Bedford 
Diurnea fagella, Schiff. On tree trunks 

Epigraphia steinkellneriana, Schiff. Bedford, 

Taleporia pseudo-bombycella, Ochs. Bedford 
Scardia cloacella. Haw. Bedford, Luton 

— arcella. Fab. Luton 

Tinea imella, Hb. Recorded at Bedford by 
Mr. Sharpin 

— ferruginella, Hb. Bedford 

— rusticella, Hb. „ 

— tapetzella, Linn. Everywhere in harness 

rooms and houses 

— pellionella, Linn. (The common clothes- 

moth.) In houses everywhere 

— fuscipunctella. Haw. Bedford, Luton 

— pallescentella, Stt. „ 

— lapella, Stt. Bedford, Luton 

Tineola biselliella, Hemm. Bedford, in houses 
Lampronia quadripunctella. Fab. Luton 

— luzella, Hb. Bedford 

Incurvaria masculella, Schiff. Generally 

Nemophora swammerdammella, Linn. Bed- 
ford, in woods 

— schwarziella, Zell. Bedford, Luton 

— metaxella, Hb. Bedford, in marshy places 
Adela degeerella, Linn. Bedford, in woods 

— viridella, I/inn. Generally common in 

Swammerdamia apicella, Don. Luton, about 

— spiniella, Zell. Luton, Bedford ; about 


— oxyacanthella, Zell. Bedford, about haw- 


— pyrella, Vill. Luton, Bedford; about fruit 

Scythropia crataegella, Linn. Bedford 
Hyponomeuta pedella, Linn. Common every- 
where in hawthorn hedges 
Prays curtisella, Don. Bedford, among ash 
Plutella cruciferarum, Zell. Abundant every- 

— porrectella, Linn. Bedford, among Hes- 

peris matronalis 
Cerostoma radiatella, Don. Common in all 

— costella. Fab. Woods near Bedford 
Ypsolopha alpella, Schiff. Bedford 
Harpipteryx scabrella, Linn. „ 



Harpipteryx xylostella, Schiff. Common 
about honeysuckle 

Phibalocera quercana, Fab. Bedford, Luton ; in 
oak woods 

Depressaria costosa, Haw. Generally com- 
mon among furze 

— liturella, SchifF. Bedford, Luton ; among 


— umbellana, Steph. Bedford, Luton ; among 


— scopariella, Zell. Luton 

— arenella, SchifF. Generally common 

— propinquella, Tr. Bedford 

— subpropinquella, Stn. Bedford, Luton 

— alstroemeriana, Linn. „ „ 

— purpurea, Haw. „ „ 

— conterminella, Zell. Bedford 

— yeatiana, Fab. „ 

— applana, Fab. Abundant everywhere 

— weirella, Stn. Bedford 

— chaerophylli, Dbld. Luton 

— nervosa, Haw. Bedford 

— badiella. Hub. Bedford, Luton 

— heracliana, De Geer. „ „ 
Gelechia peliella, Zett. Bedford, taken by 

Mr. Sharpin 

— diffinis. Haw. Bedford 
Ceratophora rufescens, Haw. Luton 
Brachmia moufFetella, SchifF. Bedford 
Bryotropha terrella, Schiff. Abundant every- 

— domestica, Haw. Luton 

Lita maculea, Haw. Bedford, Luton 

— tricolorella, Haw. Bedford 

— hubneri, Haw. Recorded at Bedford by 

Mr. Sharpin 
Teleia notatella, Hub. Bedford 

— humeralis, Zell. „ 

— vulgella, Hub. Bedford, Luton 

— dodecella, Linn. Bedford 

— triparella, Zell. „ 
Pcecilia gemmella, Linn. „ 

— albiceps, Zell. „ 
Nannodia hermannella, Fab. Bedford 
Tachyptilia populella, Linn. Luton 
Brachycrassata cinerella, Linn. Bedford 
Parasia lappella, Linn. Bedford 
Chelaria hubnerella, Don. Luton 
Harpella geofFrella, Linn. Bedford 
Dasycera sulphurella. Fab. Common every- 
where among decayed wood 

CEcophora minutella, Linn. Luton 

— lunaris, Haw. Bedford 

— unitella, Stt. „ 

— flavifrontella, Hub. Luton 

— fuscescens, Haw. Bedford 

— pseudospretella, Stt. Generally too com- 

Endrosis fenestrella. Scop. Generally too 
common in houses 

Glyphipteryx fuscoviridella, Haw. Bedford 

— thrasonella, Scop. Bedford, doubtless 

among rushes everywhere 

— equitella. Scop. Luton, in gardens about 


— fischerella, Zell. Luton, probably every- 

Heliozela sericeella, Haw. Bedford 
Argyresthia ephippella, Fab. Bedford, about 

cherry trees 

— nitidella, Fab. Common in hedges every- 


— conjugella, Zell. Luton, among mountain 


— semifusca, Haw. Bedford 

— andereggiella, Fisch. Reported at Bedford 

by Mr. Sharpin 

— curvella, Linn. Bedford, in orchards 

— albistria, Haw. Luton, in hedges 

— goedartella, Linn. Bedford, among alders 

— brockeella, Hb. „ „ „ 

— pygmaeella, Hb. Bedford, among sal- 

Cedestis farinatella, Zell. Bedford, Luton ; 

among fir 
Gracilaria swederella, Thunb. Bedford, 

among oak 

— syringella, Fab. Bedford, Luton ; in gar- 


— tringipennella, Zell. Luton, among rib- 

wort plantain 
Coriscium brongniardellum, Fab. Bedford, 

among oak 
Ornix avellanella, Stt. Luton, Bedford ; among 


— anglicella, Stt. Luton, Bedford ; among 


— betulae, Stt. Bedford, among birch 

— torquillella, Stt. Bedford, among black- 


— guttea, Haw. Bedford, among apple 
Coleophora albitarsella, Zell. Luton, among 

ground ivy 

— laricella, Hub. Bedford, upon larch 

— murinipennella, Fisch. Bedford 

— nigricella, Steph. Bedford, probably every- 


— siccifolia, Stt. Bedford, Luton 

— viminetella, Zell. „ 

— lutipennella, Zell. „ 

Chauliodus chaerophyllellus. Bedford, among 

Laverna fulvescens, Haw. Bedford, among 


— ochraceella, Curt. Luton, among Epilo- 


— hellerella, Dup. Bedford, Luton 
Asychna modestella, Dup. Luton 
Chrysocorys festaliella, Hb. Luton, among 




Chrysoclista flavicaput, Haw. Za^^w, in hedges Lithocolletiscoryli, Nicelli. £«/««, among hazel 

Elachista albifrontella, Hb. Bedford^ Luton — emberizEepennella, Bouch. Luton, among 

— luticomella, Zell. Luton honeysuckle 

— nigrella, Hb. Luton, probably every- Lyonetia clerckella, Linn. Bedford 

where Cemiostoma laburnella, Heyd. Luton 

— megerlella, Zell. Bedford Bucculatrix cratasgi, Zell. Luton, about haw- 

— triatomea, Haw. „ thorn 

— rufocinerea, Haw. Common everywhere — aurimaculella, Stt. Luton, among ox-eye 

— cygnipennella, Hb. Bedford, Luton daisy 

Tischeria complanella, Hb. Bedford Nepticula floslactella, Haw. Luton 

— marginea, Haw. „ — aurella, Fab. Luton, among bramble 
Lithocolletis hortella, Fab. „ Eriocrania calthella, Linn. Bedford, Luton ; 

— sorbi, Frey. „ among Caltha 

— quercifoliella, Fisch. Everywhere abun- — seppella, Fab. Bedford, Luton ; on Ver- 

dant among oak onica chamasdrys 

— cramerella, Fab. Everywhere common Micropteryx subpurpurella, Haw. Bedford, 

among oak Luton ; among oak 


Spiders, etc. 

Scarcely any collections of the members of this order have been 
made in the county of Bedford, though there is no reason to suppose 
that it should prove less prolific in species than other neighbouring 
counties. Several species however have been observed in the neigh- 
bourhood of Woburn Abbey by Lord Tavistock, and others have been 
taken by Mr. F. P. Smith — thirty-five species only, all told. 




Spiders with six eyes and two pairs or stigmatic openings, situated close together on the 
genital rima ; the anterior pair communicating with lung books, the posterior with tracheal 
tubes. Tarsal claws, two in Dysdera, three in Harpactes and Segestria, 

1. Segestria senoculata (Linnaeus). 

Woburn Abbey (Lord Tavistock) ; Luton (F.P.S.) 


Spiders with eight eyes, situated in two transverse rows. The tracheal openings lie 
immediately in front of the spinners. The tarsal claws are two in number, but the anterior 
pair of spinners are set wide apart at their base, and the maxillae are more or less impressed 
across the middle. 

2. Drassodes lapidosus (Walckenaer) 

Luton (F.P.S.) 


Spiders with eight eyes, situated in two transverse rows. The tracheal openings lie 
immediately in front of the spinners. The tarsal claws are two in number, but the anterior 
pair of spinners are set close together at their base, and the maxillae are convex and not 
impressed across the middle. 

3. Clubiona pallidula (Clerck) 

Luton (F.P.S.) 




Spiders with eight eyes, situated in two transverse rows, two tarsal claws and anterior 
spinners close together at their base. Maxillae not impressed. The crab-like shape and side- 
long movements of these spiders are their chief characteristics, enabling them to be easily 
distinguished from the more elongate Drassidee and Clubionida. 

4. Xysticus cristatus (Clerck) 6. Tibellus oblongus (Walckenaer) 

Luton (F.P.S.). Luton (F.P.S.) 

5. Philodromus aureolus (Clerck) 

Luton (F.P.S.) 


The spiders of this family may be recognized in a general way by their mode of pro- 
gression, consisting of a series of leaps. More particularly they may be known by the square 
shape of the cephalic region and the fact that the eyes are arranged in three rows of 4, 2, 2, 
the centrals of the anterior row being much the largest. Otherwise the spiders are simply 
specialized Clubionids with two tarsal claws and other minor characters possessed in common 
with other members of this family. 

7. Salticus scenicus (Clerck) 

Woburn Abbey (Lord Tavistock) ; Luton (F.P.S.) 


Spiders with eight eyes in three rows of 4, 2, 2 ; the small anterior eyes being sometimes 
in a straight line, sometimes recurved and sometimes procurved. Those of the other two rows 
are situated in the form of a rectangle of various proportions and are much larger than the 
eyes of the anterior row. The tarsal claws are three in number. Pisaura runs freely over 
the herbage, carrying its egg-sac beneath the sternum ; while Dolomedes is a dweller in marshes 
and swamps, 

8. Pisaura mirabilis (Clerck) 

Woburn Abbey (Lord Tavistock) ; Luton (F.P.S.) 
Known also as Dolomedes, or Ocyale, mirabilis. 


The members of this family are to be found running freely over the ground, and carry- 
ing the egg-sac attached to the spinners. Many of the larger species make a short burrow in 
the soil and there keep guard over the egg-sac. Eyes and tarsal claws as in the Pisaurida, 
with slight differences. 
9, Lycosa ruricola (De Geer) "• Pardosa lugubris (Walckenaer) 

Luton fF P S ) Woburn Abbey (Lord Tavistock) ; Luton 

^ ■ ■ ■' (F.P.S.) 

10. Pardosa amentata (Clerck) 12. Pardosa annulata (Thorell) 

Luton (F.P.S.) Luton (F.P.S.) 


Spiders with eight eyes, situated in two straight or more or less curved transverse rows. 
Tarsal claws, three. The species of this family spin a large sheet-like web, and construct a 
tubular retreat at the back of it, which leads to some crevice amongst the rocks or in the 
herbage, or in the chinks in the walls of outhouses and barns, wherever the various species 
may happen to be found. The habits of Argyroneta, the water spider, are however quite 
different. The posterior pair of spinners is much longer than the others in the more typical 
genera of this family. 

13. Tegenaria parietina (FourcToy) 14. Tegenaria derhami {ScopoU) 

Woburn Abbey (Lord Tavistock) Luton (F.P.S.) 

Abundant in the London district. Known A very common species everywhere, 

also as T. guyonii and T. domestica. 

I 89 12 


15. Agelena labyrinthica (Clerck) 

Woburn Abbey (Lord Tavistock) ; Luton 

Abundant, forming large sheet-like webs 
on the herbage, with a funnel-shaped tubular 


The spiders included in this family have eight eyes, situated in two rows, the lateral eyes 
of both rows being usually adjacent, if not in actual contact, while the central eyes form a 
quadrangle. The tarsal claws are three, often with other supernumerary claws. The web is 
either an orbicular snare, as in the case of the ' common garden spider,' or consists of a sheet 
of webbing, beneath which the spider hangs and captures its prey as it falls upon the sheet. 
This immense family includes those usually separated under the names Epeiridcs and Linyphiidie. 

16. Meta segmentata (Clerck) 

Woburn Abbey (Lord Tavistock) ; Luton 

17. Meta meriaitce (Scopoli) 
Woburn Abbey (Lord Tavistock) 

18. Tetragnatha extensa (Linnasus) 
Woburn Abbey (Lord Tavistock) 

19. Pachygnatha clerckii, Sundevall 
Luton (F.P.S.) 

20. Cyclosa conica (Pallas) 
Woburn Abbey (Lord Tavistock) 

2 1 . Tiilla X - notata (Clerck) 
Woburn Abbey (Lord Tavistock) 

22. Araneus cucurbitinus, Clerck 

Woburn Abbey (Lord Tavistock) ; Luton 



Araneus diadematus, Clerck 

Woburn Abbey (Lord Tavistock) ; 
(F.P.S.) and Leighton Buzzard. 

Araneus umbraticus, Clerck 
Woburn Abbey (Lord Tavistock) 

25. Linyphia triangularis (Clerck) 
Luton (F.P.S.) 

26. Stemonyphantes Uneatus (Linnaeus) 
Luton (F.P.S.) 

Lepthyphantes minutus (Blackwall) 
Luton (F.P.S.) 

Centromesus sylvaticus (Blackwall) 
Luton (F.P.S.) 

29. Kukzynskiellum fiiscum (Blackwall) 
Luton (F.P.S.) 





The members of this family have eight eyes, situated very much like those of the Argio- 
pidce \ but the mandibles are usually weak, the maxillas are inclined over the labium, and the 
posterior legs have a comb of stiff curved spines beneath the tarsi. The web consists of a 
tangle of crossing lines, and the spider often constructs a tent-like retreat wherein the egg-sac 
is hung up. The tarsal claws are three in number. 

30. Theridion tepidariorum, C. L. Koch 
Woburn Abbey (Lord Tavistock) 

31. Theridion denticulatum (Walckenaer) 
Luton (F.P.S.) 

32. Theridion lineatum (Clerck) 
Luton (F.P.S.) 

33. Steatoda bipunctata (Linnaeus) 
Woburn Abbey (Lord Tavistock) 


The spiders belonging to this family possess three tarsal claws, and the eyes, eight in 
number, situated in two transverse rows, the laterals being in contact. The cribellum (or 
extra pair of spinning organs) and the calamistrum (a row of curving bristles on the protarsi 
of the fourth pair of legs) are present in all members of the family. They construct a 
tubular retreat with an outer sheet of webbing, which is covered with a flocculent silk made 
with the calamistrum from threads furnished by the cribellum. 

34. Amaurobius simi/is (Blackwall) 
Luton (F.P.S.) 
Common. Known also under the name 

35. Amaurobius ferox (Walckenaer) 
Woburn Abbey (Lord Tavistock) 
Common. Known also under the name 



The latter half of the nineteenth century was a period the most 
stirring and the most fruitful for natural history that the world has ever 
known. To promote the study of it clubs, societies, associations either 
sprang up afresh or were quickened into renewed and more vigorous 
activity over a wide area. A persistent and varied industry was thus 
excited, the results of which, after being orally explained and discussed 
within a small circle, were afterwards in many cases with more or less com- 
pleteness printed and pubHshed. Though no doubt this was often done 
only to gratify an author or a little coterie of friends, the unintended con- 
sequences were not unimportant. The collected reports were frequently 
to a high degree miscellaneous. There was little editorial sifting of 
wheat from chafF. The circulation was usually very limited. Hence 
it has come to pass that on science is laid a twofold burden ; first the 
task of searching for publications often far from easy to meet with, and 
then the task of discovering whether there are any useful facts or 
opinions to be gleaned from them on any particular theme out of the 
wilderness of all possible themes which they are capable of embracing. 
The Abstract of Proceedings and 'Transactions of the Bedfordshire Natural 
History Society and Field Club, beginning with the year 1876, is very 
much a case in point. A perusal of these records at the library of the 
National Museum in Cromwell Road is a pleasant enough study in itself, 
but in regard to the crustaceans of the county the information to be 
derived from it is scanty in the extreme. In a way the carcinologist is 
debarred from complaining, seeing that a far more popular subject is 
exposed to equal neglect. For Mr. W. B. Graham exclaims in this 
very abstract : ' Multitudinous, however, as the insect fauna of Bedford- 
shire unquestionably is, yet in the entomological world the county is 
almost wholly ignored.' ^ In words to precisely the same effect it may 
be declared that, multitudinous as the crustacean fauna of Bedfordshire 
unquestionably is, yet in the carcinological world the county is almost 
wholly ignored. 

Of the higher Malacostraca only one species is here to be expected, 
and that by good hap satisfies expectation, since Mr. James Saunders, 
A.L.S., writing from Luton, January 19, 1902, kindly informs me that 
'crayfish are abundant in the river Lea south of Luton Hoo.'^ This 
lobster-like macruran, Potamobius pallipes (Lereboullet), the river cray- 
fish, should certainly not be neglected. Professor Huxley, taking its 

* Abs. Proc. Trans. Beds Nat. Hist. Soc. and Field Club for the year 1876-7 (Jan. i, 1878), p. 127. 
* Lysons, Magna Britannia (1806), i. 21, mentions it 'among the fish of the Ouse,' 



vernacular name as the title of a book at once wonderfully learned and 
lucid, has shown how this common, clean and hardy species can be 
made as it were a compendium of all zoology ; how the consideration of 
its structure and vital powers, its birth and breeding, its distribution and 
alliances will lead the inquiring disciple onward step by step through all 
the philosophy of life. For those who are content to learn from it the 
general plan which with endless modifications runs through crabs, lob- 
sters, shrimps, woodlice and all the other Malacostraca, there is scarcely 
a species more convenient than the crayfish. Its stalked eyes, its two 
pairs of antennae, its lips, stomach and intestine, its carapace, the six 
pairs of jaws, its five pairs of trunk-legs, its jointed pleon and the pleo- 
pods, its tail-fan, and within the body the liver-like gland, the heart, the 
brain and ventral nerve-chain, and all the arrangement of the muscles 
are easy for the most part to distinguish in specimens prepared for the 
table or otherwise preserved. Its behaviour alive in the aquarium is not 
without interest. The shedding of the skin, known as ecdysis or exuvia- 
tion, is worth observing by those who can secure the chance. Those 
who can study the creature in its native haunts have ever the opportunity 
not only of amusing themselves, but of instructing others. For of any 
complex living organism all the efforts of all the zoologists can seldom 
or never so exhaust the interest that true lovers of nature need despair 
of discovering some new charm or wonder in the creature or its ways. 

The sessile-eyed Malacostraca are constructed on the same general 
plan as the stalk-eyed Decapoda or ten-footed crustaceans, to the macru- 
ran or long-tailed division of which the crayfishes belong. In some full- 
grown crabs and in some larval forms of lobster-like and shrimp-like 
species the stalked eyes attain a quite exorbitant length. With respect 
to the crabs, it is true, the epithet may not quite literally apply, because 
the orbits are usually as long as the eyes ; but when these stilted organs 
are raised out of their sockets they present a remarkable appearance. In 
the crayfish however, as in the common crab, there is no great length of 
stalk to attract attention, and therefore little regard is in general paid to 
the substantial difference in ophthalmic structure which separates such 
forms from the Isopoda and Amphipoda. These latter groups have the 
eyes seated in the head, without stalks either long or short. They are 
not ten-footed, but fourteen-footed. Their branchial or respiratory 
apparatus is not, as in crabs and shrimps, concealed by the carapace. 
Their size in all the British land and freshwater species is limited to a 
low standard. In their general appearance the fondest admirer would 
scarcely claim any high degree of dignity and grace. They are not by 
any means warmly esteemed, except by those who have learned to appre- 
ciate modest merit and neglected virtue, Man the omnivorous does not 
even pay them the compliment of eating them, though there is little 
doubt that they all have a good shrimp-like flavour. But in spite of all 
prejudices on our part and dissimilarities on theirs, and in the teeth of 
such contemptuous designations as woodlice, slaters and pill-bugs, the 

terrestrial Isopoda are as truly malacostracan Crustacea as the lobster and 



the crayfish. The species of woodlice in England amount to more than 
a score. Many of them are so generally distributed that it will be no 
exaggerated estimate to credit Bedfordshire with half a score of them. 
Mr. James Saunders assures me that he often meets with them when he 
is hunting for mycetozoa, and certainly in that or any similar research 
Philoscia muscorum (Scopoli) could not well fail to be met with. Oniscus 
asellus, Linn., Porcellio scaber, Latreille, and Armadillidium vulgare 
(Latreille) make themselves familiar everywhere. But none, even of 
these the commonest of the common, appear to have been specially 
recorded for this county. 

The two sessile-eyed groups agree in the character of the eyes. 
They agree in having seven segments of the middle body freely movable, 
and not as in the Decapoda covered by the carapace. They agree also 
to a great extent in the distribution of their appendages, for they follow 
up the two pairs of antennae, not by six pairs of jaws and five pairs of 
trunk-legs, but by four pairs of jaws and seven pairs of trunk-legs. But 
these features of agreement do not exclude strongly-marked differences. 
The Isopoda, whether terrestrial or aquatic, being usually flattened from 
above downward, are fitted for walking ; whereas the Amphipoda, being 
as a rule laterally compressed, in clumsy attempts at an upright gait 
commonly fall over on one side and have to slidder. A more important 
distinction depends on the position of the breathing organs. These in 
the Amphipoda are sacs or vesicles, simple or pleated or twisted, attached 
to some or all of the trunk-legs except the first pair. In the Isopoda 
they are not in the trunk or middle body at all, but in the tail part, 
otherwise known as abdomen or pleon. Some of the appendages of this 
pleon, the thin-skinned flattened pleopods, are respiratory. The equi- 
valent appendages in the pleon of the Amphipoda have no such function, 
although they may be considered in some measure auxiliaries to it. 
That the Amphipoda are represented in Bedfordshire does not rest upon 
conjecture, for early in February, 1902, Mr. James Saunders very oblig- 
ingly collected from the river Lea near Luton some specimens which he 
packed in damp moss and dispatched by post. They reached me the 
following day, languid but still alive, and proved to be, as Mr. Saunders 
supposed, the wide-ranging Gammarus pulex (Linn.) . This may be taken 
as a typical representative of the Amphipoda at large, but especially of 
the Gammaridea, the most extensive of the three sections into which the 
whole group has been divided. Just as nature has been at the pains to 
distribute Asellus aquaticus (Linn.) over all parts of England as if with 
intent to provide a type of water-breathing isopods, so has Gammarus 
pulex in the companion group been made everywhere available. At all 
events no English naturalist can excuse an utter ignorance of sessile-eyed 
Crustacea on plea or pretence that specimens are not procurable for 
investigation. The beginner will soon find his wits well exercised if he 
attempts to compare the common freshwater gammarus with two other 
species that are common on the seashore, namely G. locusta and G. marinus. 
He might at first impatiently refuse to believe that the three species 



were distinct one from another, but he would not easily persuade the 
latter two to live in fresh water, in which the first finds itself happy and 
at home. Without going into every detail, it may be pointed out that 
the sides of the head project angularly in G. /ocusta, but are rotund in 
G. pu/ex, and that the accessory branch of the upper antennae is more 
numerously jointed and longer in the former than in the latter. At the 
other extremity of the organism the last appendages, known as the third 
uropods, pretty well agree in these two species by having two elongate 
branches ; but in G. marinus the inner branch, instead of being only a 
little shorter than the outer, is scarcely a third of its length. In the 
Isopoda the appendages of the pleon form five pairs of pleopods (swim- 
ming feet) and one pair of uropods (tail feet). In the gammaridean 
Amphipoda there are three pairs of pleopods and three of uropods. In 
these pleopods each appendage consists of a stem with two many-jointed 
flexible setose branches, and this description, though admitting of some 
exceptions, applies with extraordinary uniformity throughout the group. 
When the animal is alive in its own element its natatory limbs are in 
tolerably constant motion, and that even when the body is stationary. 
The purpose of this is to keep a current of water continually bathing 
the branchial sacs, and when there are eggs in the mother's pouch to 
give them also the benefit of the invigorating stream. The maternal 
marsupium is formed by membranaceous laminae which, like the respira- 
tory vesicles, are attached to several of the trunk-legs at the upper part. 
In contrast to the pleopods the uropods have branches which are not 
flexible. They seem to be purely locomotive, enabling the animal to 
make leaps or to jerk itself along, or in tube-building species to execute 
manoeuvres which may best be described as turning head over heels. 

In almost every marine province the Malacostraca form a demon- 
strative portion of the fauna. It is only in specially favoured regions 
that they are conspicuous as occupants of fresh water. The other half 
of the crustacean class, upon which O. F. M tiller, towards the close of 
the eighteenth century, bestowed the designation Entomostraca, is rather 
differently situated. For, though these so-called ' insects covered by a 
shell ' are extremely abundant in the sea, they also inhabit inland waters, 
not only with surprising diversity of form and ubiquity of range, but 
with no sort of regard for Malthusian prudence in their rate of prolifera- 
tion. In regard to this division of the subject there is fortunately some- 
thing to be gleaned from existing records. One quotation indeed might 
have been earlier given as applying not to a part of the class, but to the 
whole. The statement is of a character rather elementary, yet with 
certain reserves useful to be borne in mind. In a paper on ' Antennae,' 
Mr. H. J. Sheppard begins by saying : 'Antennae are horn-like members 
placed on the head, peculiar to insects and crustaceans ; the former 
generally have two, the latter more than two.' ^ To this it might be 
objected that horns are usually stiff and antennae usually flexible; and 

1 Abs. Proc. Trans. Beds Nat. Hist. Soc. and Field Club for the years 1877-81 (Oct. i, 1882), 
p. 20, 



again that myriapods, without being either insects or crustaceans, are 
possessed of antennae. But the point that chiefly concerns our present 
subject is the fact that crustaceans are distinguished alike from myriapods 
and insects by having the pairs of antennae twofold. It cannot be said 
however that they always make quite as much of this distinction as they 
might. In the woodlice the first pair of antennse are exceedingly small 
and often hidden away as if these isopods were ashamed of them. Also in 
Talitrus, the sandhopper, a genus of semi-terrestrial amphipods, a similar 
diminution occurs. In many of the Entomostraca likewise the first 
antennsB are small and inconspicuous, and that is the case with more than 
one of the species presently to be mentioned. 

The Entomostraca are at present divided into three principal sec- 
tions — Branchiopoda (branchial-footed), Ostracoda (shelly), Copepoda 
(oar-footed). Not much of the nature in each case can be explained by the 
mere meaning of the name. The Ostracoda are called shelly because, 
like some mollusca or shellfish, they have the body capable of a complete 
enclosure between two valves. But some of the Branchiopoda have a 
similar bivalvular security, entitling them to boast equally with the 
Ostracoda that the carapace is their castle. The Copepoda use their 
feet for locomotion in the water, but so far as that is concerned there are 
some of the stately phyllopods to which the name of oar-footed would 
as well or even better apply. 

The Branchiopoda are divided into Phyllopoda (the leaf-footed), 
Cladocera (the antlered), Branchiura (the branchial-tailed). The last is 
by far the smallest of the three divisions, and has in England only a 
solitary representative, Argulus foliaceus (Linn.). It so happens however 
that this is among the very few recorded crustaceans of Bedfordshire, 
yet it comes into the list by what sportsmen would probably call a fluke, 
for the mention of it is not in any discussion of its own class, but only 
as incidental to ichthyology. In a paper on ' The Fish of the River 
Ouse,' Mr. A. R. Thompson observes that ' the Argulus foliace (or 
roach louse) is also found upon roach and other coarse fish : it is a small 
crustacean of a disc-shape and attaches itself by means of two suckers on 
the underside.'^ It is a vicious little parasite, varying in length when 
adult from an eighth to nearly a third of an inch. Fishes that would 
seek revenge by swallowing their foe are soon glad to give it up again. 
Scientifically it is interesting as belonging to a very small yet distinct and 
widely-dispersed group. It was at one time placed not in the Branchio- 
poda but among the parasitic Copepoda. Its mouth organs are con- 
siderably modified from any normal standard, the first pair of maxillae 
being evanescent or lost, while the second pair are metamorphosed into 
suckers. These, as above mentioned, are the organs of adhesion. For 
sucking the juices of its victim its uses, not the suckers, but its mouth, 
an efficient apparatus being formed by the sharp glandular organ called 
the stimulus, and by a combination of the lips and mandibles. 

1 Abs. Proc. Trans. Beds Nat. Hist. Soc. and Field Club for the years 1882-3, 1883-4 (May, 
188s), p. 93. 



To Mr. James Saunders I am again indebted for a reference to the 
circumstance that at a microscopical meeting of the Bedfordshire Natural 
History Society on January 20, 1880, among other objects of pond life 
' Daphne vetula ' was exhibited. The use of this name carries the mind 
back, to 1776, when the species intended was actually so called by 
O. F. Miiller. The conspicuously-branched second antenna, to which 
the name Cladocera is due, and which all the Cladocera possess except 
the females of a single genus, are also responsible for the name Daphne. 
Miiller avowedly chose it in allusion to the shrubby antenna2, but after- 
wards exchanged it for Daphnia, in order that his shrubby genus in 
zoology might not be confounded with the botanical shrub. At the 
same time he changed the specific name from vetula, ' a little old woman,' 
to sima, 'snub-nosed.' Eventually his genus Daphnia was found to be 
too comprehensive, and this particular species was assigned to a new 
genus, Simocephalus, by Schoedler, who restored the original specific name, 
so that the Cladocera of Bedfordshire are now represented by Simocephalus 
vetulus (Miiller) . In Daphnia the head is carinate above ; in Simocephalus 
the head is convex and blunt. This genus is also devoid of the sharp 
angle or the more or less prolonged spine into which the species of 
Daphnia almost always have the valves produced behind. Like the rest 
of the Daphniidas, Simocephalus has one branch three-jointed and the other 
four-jointed in the large second antennae, which are its swimming organs. 

For definitely assigning Ostracoda to the county I can rely on the 
sure authority of Mr. D. J. Scourfield. In 1896 the presence of Candona 
pubescens (Koch) ' at Pavenham, Bedfordshire,' was noted by Brady and 
Norman in an appendix to their ' Monograph of the Marine and Fresh- 
water Ostracoda of the North Atlantic and of North-Western Europe.'^ 
But whereas they expressly attribute this record to Mr. Scourfield, he 
himself in 1898 states that the only known British locality for the 
species in question is Wanstead Park in Essex, ' as the reference to 
Pavenham in Brady and Norman's "Monograph" . . . was made under 
a misunderstanding.'^ To compensate for this disappointment he has 
lately informed me by letter that he has received from his cousin two 
other nearly related species, Candona Candida (O. F. Miiller) and Erpeto- 
cypris strigata (O. F. Miiller), the locality for both of them being Paven- 
ham. Both belong to the family Cypridas in the section Podocopa. 
The generic name Erpetocypris means the creeping Cypris, and in the 
definition Brady and Norman say that 'the power of swimming is lost, 
and the habits of the animals, which creep along the bottom, are thus 
very different from those of Cypris." In the same way however Baird, 
in defining Candona, remarks that 'the animal creeps at the bottom or 
upon aquatic plants, instead of swimming freely through the water.'* 
But Candona, though similar in habit to Erpetocypris, is distinguished 
from it, as also from Cypris, by having no branchial plate on the second 
maxillas. Erpetocypris strigata has the lower margin of the shell nearly 

1 Trans. R.Dublin Soc. (1896), ser. 2, v. 729. ^ Tie Essex Naturalist (1898), x. 322. 
8 Trans. R. Dublin Soc. (1889), ser. 2, iv. 84. * British Entomostraca, Ray Society (1850), p. 159. 



straight, the surface smooth, variously banded with pale yellow and 
green/ In Candona Candida the lower margin is sinuated, especially in 
old examples and adult males, and the surface of the shell is smooth, 
pearly or yellowish white, with darker yellow cloudings towards the 
dorsal margin.'* 

Of the Copepoda, Dr. Brady in his Revision of the British Species of 
Freshwater Gyclopidce and Calanidce attributes to Bedfordshire two species, 
both from Pavenham and both on Mr. Scourfield's authority. They 
are both extensively distributed species, Cyclops bicuspidatus, Claus., and 
Diaptomus castor Qurine), the former assigned by Brady to the family 
Cyclopidae, the latter to the Calanidje.' The genus Diaptomus, Westwood, 
should rather be included in a family DiaptomidcB, of which it is the 
earliest and apparently the most extensive genus, comprising three or 
four scores of species. The range of D. castor is stated to be the whole 
of Europe, its occurrence in North America also having been reported, 
but not thoroughly ascertained. The length of a specimen varies from 
a twelfth of an inch to an eighth or even a seventh. Cyclops bicuspidatus 
is smaller still, as it reaches its upper limit in a twelfth of an inch, 
while starting from a nineteenth. In Diaptomus the first antenns are 
twenty-five jointed ; in Cyclops the number of joints in these appendages 
varies from six to eighteen, reaching seventeen in C. bicuspidatus. 

According to Mr. A. R. Thompson's paper above quoted many 
species of fish frequent the waters of the river Ouse. The supposition 
therefore is well warranted that in the same waters parasitic Copepoda 
frequent those fishes. It is indeed quite certain that the hitherto unre- 
corded crustaceans of Bedfordshire would fill a far longer catalogue than 
can be composed of those which have as yet been publicly noticed. 

^ trans. R. DubRn Soc. ser. 2, iv. 85. 

* Brady, Trans. Linn. Soc. (London, 1870), xxvi. 383. 

* Nat. Hist. Trans. Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1891), vol. xi. pt. i, pp. 
79. 94- 

97 13 


The river Ouse, which runs through this county, and the Ivel, 
which joins it at Tempsford, together with the Lea, which rises in 
Bedfordshire, are tenanted by many species of freshwater fish which 
may be considered indigenous ; other species have been introduced, 
some of which have multipHed to a certain extent, but have not yet 
become common. 

It is probable that salmon in very early times were found in the 
Ouse, although the rivers of England west of a dividing line running 
from Portland to the Humber may be considered as salmon rivers rather 
than those east of that line. The alteration of the course of the Ouse 
in the fen districts by the cutting of the ' Hundred Foot ' and the erec- 
tion of the tidal Denver Sluice, together with the obstruction of the 
numerous water-mills and weirs, have probably tended to prevent the 
free passage of salmon up the river from its mouth at King's Lynn in 

The Ouse from Bedford to its mouth is roughly a hundred miles 
long, and the water at Bedford Bridge is nearly loo feet higher than at 
Lynn ; the fall therefore being about i foot per mile makes the river 
better adapted for coarse fish than for the Salmonida. 

There are however three authentic records of salmon having been 
captured in this county within the past sixty years. One was taken in 
the eel trap at Cardington Mill about the year 1840 or 1841, weighing 
about 6 lb., and was exhibited by a fishmonger at Bedford. Mr. George 
Street of Maulden, who rented Cardington Mill from 1852 to 1862, 
informs me that a salmon, weighing about 10 lb., in fine condition, 
was taken in his eel trap at the time of a very high flood in July 
(probably 1853), and was sent by him to a fishmonger at Bedford for 
inspection, and afterwards presented to the late Mr. S. C. Whitbread, 
the lord of the manor. Owing to the excessive rainfall in 1852—3 the 
river Ouse was more or less in flood throughout the winter and spring, 
which would therefore facilitate the passage of salmon in spite of the 
obstructions of the sluices and weirs previously referred to. A male 
salmon weighing 9I lb. was caught in the eel trap at Kempston Mill, 
December 22, 1880. 

The introduction of trout into the Ivel took place several years ago, 
with the result that many good specimens have been taken and are still 
found in that river, which appears to be well adapted to their growth 
and development. A cast of one {Salmo fario) taken by the late Frank 
Buckland, weighing upwards of 9 lb., was in the possession of Mr. 



Beaumont of Astwick ; and the stock has been frequently replenished 
by fry artificially hatched. Mr. Pope of Biggleswade formed an 
association for stocking the Ivel with trout about twenty years or more 
ago, which hatched out several thousands of fry annually. It was found 
that the fish thrived well and grew to a good size — he himself took 
one spinning of 8| lb. — but owing to the fact that they would not rise 
to the fly, having so much other natural food, the enterprise was 
abandoned about fourteen years ago. A trout was taken at Stopford 
Mill, weighing exactly 8 lb., in 1899. Preserved by J. H. Wright of 

22 April, 1899. A man caught a trout in my meadows this day just 2 feet 
long ; he had taken two previously, one 2 lb., the other 3^ lb. The former we 
guessed at 5 lb. 

JosiAH King of Langford. 

A trout of 3 1 lb. was taken in the eel trap at Cardington Mill, 
February 18, 1880. 

The Bedford Angling Club also attempted the introduction of 
trout into the Ouse in the year 1875, when 3,000 young fry were 
placed in the river at Biddenham, and again in 1881—2, when 600 
yearling trout {Salmofario), varying from 4 to 7 inches in length, were 
turned in at Kempston and Renhold ; but, probably owing to the 
abundance of pike, the attempt was not attended with much success. 

Two trout were taken in the eel trap at Milton Mill in April, 
1896, weighing between 2 and 3 lb. each. One of 5 lb., length 22| 
inches, is in the possession of Mr. George of Tempsford, taken 
August 22, 1892, below Roxton Sluice. Trout were common in the 
stream flowing from Luton Hoo, where they were strictly preserved, 
as well as in the river Lea more or less generally. 

Barbel have also been introduced into the Ouse by the Bedford 
Angling Club. In the year 1876 thirty-one fish, weighing from i lb. 
to 5 lb. each, from the Thames, presented by the Maidenhead Associa- 
tion, were put in at Kempston ; and again in 1888 thirty-eight barbel 
from the Trent, varying in weight from 3 lb. to 10 lb., were put in at 
Clapham and Renhold. These fish appear to have bred and distributed 
themselves both above and below Bedford. One was taken at Sham- 
brook in 1898 weighing 12 lb. Others have been taken as far below 
Bedford as St. Neots ; and on October 4, 1901, a barbel of 6| lb., 
captured by an otter, was found on the bank of the Ouse at St, Neots. 
A barbel weighing 6 lb. was taken at Sharnbrook, May, 1881. 

A few tench of the golden variety were presented to the Bedford 
Angling Club by the Duke of Bedford in 1 874, and were placed in a 
pond at Clapham Park by permission of the late James Howard, Esq., 
M.P., in the hope that they would breed; in 1876 they were found 
in their original number and put into the Ouse, but there was no 
appearance of any young fry. 

Carp from ponds in the county have also been put into the Ouse, 



but have not since been met with. A crucian carp was taken some 
years ago by Mr. F- Newbery in the eel trap at Milton Mill. 

From the following Hst it will be seen that there are only eighteen 
different forms of freshwater fishes which may be considered indigenous 
to the county. 



1. Perch. Perca fiuviatilis, Linn. 
Plentiful in the Ouse in all parts, especially 

near the places where the water lily abounds. 
It attains a weight of 4 lb. and upwards. 
One was taken at Willington in 1900 
weighing 2 lb. 10 oz. ; one at Clapham in 
the same year of 3J lb. ; one taken by Mr. 
P. Addington with an artificial minnow from 
under Tempsford Bridge weighing 4 J lb.; 
and one was caught in Southill Lake a few 
years ago by my son weighing \\ lb. Three 
were taken by Mr. George at Tempsford 
about 1882 in the course of an hour, weigh- 
ing 2 lb., 2^ lb. and 2\ lb. ; and I took 
three at Clapham in 1899 in less than half 
an hour in one spot, each weighing close 
upon 2 lb. 

2. RuiF (commonly Pope). Acerina cernua, 

Locally, Joey RufF. 
Usually found at the bottom of the river 
up to about 5 inches in length. 

3. Miller's Thumb or Bullhead. Coitus gobio, 

Found under stones in the gravelly parts of 
the river and in small streams that are not 


4. Three-spined Stickleback. Gastrosteus acu- 

leatus, Linn. 

Davis's History of Luton. 

5. Ten-spined Stickleback. Gastrosteus pungi- 

tius, Linn. 
These are more frequently found in the 
various brooks and ponds rather than in the 


6. Pike (commonly Jack). Esox lucius, Linn. 
This fish is abundant in all parts of the 

Ouse and in various lakes in the county, and 
grows to a large size. The largest I have 
seen taken from the Ouse weighed 28^ lb., 
and was caught at Kempston many years ago 
by the late Mr. W. Bailey, surgeon, of Bed- 
ford. The head of a pike of 36 lb. was in 

the possession of the late Mr. C. Palgrave of 
Bedford, and the fish was said to have been 
left on the meadows near Bedford after a 
heavy flood and there captured. One of 
21;^ lb. was taken at Clapham in the Ouse 
in 1893, and I took one in the Ouse at Oak- 
ley in February, 1878, a female fish measur- 
ing 40 inches in length and weighing 20 lb. 
A pike of 30 lb., taken at Luton Hoo by 
H.R.H. the then Princess of Wales, now 
Queen Alexandra, is preserved in the ' fish 
house ' there ; also one taken by Mr. Forbes 
in 1875, length 47^ inches, weight 36 lb. 
In August, 1894, there was an accidental 
influx of sewage from the sewage farm at 
Luton into the lake, which killed a great 
number of pike. There is a photograph 
showing about sixty pike killed at the time, 
all very large fish. About 500 in all were 

At Southill Lake in June, 1897, when the 
lake was accidentally run oiF, a female pike 
46^ inches long, and weighing 2^3 lb., and 
a male 45 inches long weighing 26 lb., were 
taken and presented to Mr. J. Steele-Elliott, 
who has them preserved. 


7. Gudgeon. Gobio Jluviatilis, Flem. 
Found in all parts of the shallow gravelly 

bed of the river up to about 5 inches in 

8. Chub. Leuciscus cephalus^ Linn. 

Found commonly in the deep pools in the 
Ouse near the rapid parts of the stream, and 
weighing up to nearly 6 lb. One was taken 
by myself a few years ago at Milton Mill of 
5| lb., and one of 5:^ lb. taken at Blunham 
about 1882 is in the possession of Mr. George 
of Tempsford. They are frequently taken 
with the fly or minnow up to 3 and 4 lb. 
The chub appears to preserve its ' habitat ' to 
a great extent, and keeps constantly to its 
selected parts of the river. 

9. Roach. Leuciscus rutilus, Linn. 

A very common and gregarious fish in all 
parts of the river. One 3 lb. 6 oz., taken at 
Luton Hoo about 1891, and another 2 lb. 
10 oz,, caught about the same time, are pre- 



served in the ' fish house ' there. I took one 
in the Ouse at Clapham in July, 1900, 
weighing over 2 lb. One of 2 lb. 2 oz. and 
one of if lb. were taken by Mr. A. R. 
Lindley at Great Barford, June 23, 1898. 
A roach weighing 3-^ lb. was caught in the 
Ouse at Bedford, September 2, 1872, by 
Mr. J. Savage. 

10. Rudd. Leuciscus erythrophthalmus, Linn. 
This fish is not nearly so common as the 

roach. It is occasionally met with up to 
i^ lb. I took one of that weight a few 
years ago at Clapham. One 2 lb. weight 
was caught, March, 1901, near Sandy, by 
Mr. A. Rylett {Field, March 16, 1901). 
A rudd weighing 2 lb. 6 oz. was taken in 
the Ouse by Mr. H. Thody, September, 
1875 : length i$\ inches, girth 12 inches. 

1 1 . Dace. Leuciscus dohula, Linn. 

It frequents the clear and rapid waters of 
the river and swiftly running brooks, and is a 
gregarious fish, varying in weight to about 

12. Bleak. Leuciscus alburnus, Linn. 
Found in all parts of the river in large 

numbers near the surface. 

13. Minnow. Leuciscus phoxinus, hinn. 
Found in shoals in most of the shallow 

gravelly parts of the river and in the various 
brooks. It appears to be plentiful at times in 
certain parts of the river, and then to change 
its locality, appearing again in other parts 
where it was formerly comparatively scarce. 
This is probably caused by the frequent 
changes in the scour of the sandy beds of the 
stream produced by heavy floods. A minnow 
4 inches in length, girth 2^ inches, was 
caught at Clapham Ford, May 3, 1881. 

14. Tench. Tinea vulgaris, Cuv. 
Although more frequently found in lakes 

and ponds, it is present in the Ouse in the 
deep parts of the river. It attains a weight 
of 4^ lb. to 5 lb. One was taken by myself 
of 4|- lb. at Blunham Mill in the Ivel in 
June, 1897, and two were taken in Southill 
lake in June, 1897, weighing 5 lb. and 4I lb., 

and are in the possession of Mr. J. Steele- 

15. Bream, yibramis brama, L,'mn, 

The Ouse is considered one of the best 
bream rivers in England, and Bedfordshire is 
always held particularly famous for this fish. 
It is found in large numbers in all deep parts 
of the river, and attains a large size. One 
of 9 lb. was taken at Bromham in 1898, and 
many are taken every season of from 4 to 
5 lb. Whilst proving the right of the lord 
of the manor a brace were netted from the 
Ivel at Blunham Mill pit, July i6, 1882. 
One weighed lO;^ lb., and passed into the 
possession of Mr. P. Addington, and the 
other, weighing 9I lb., is now in the posses- 
sion of Mr. George at Tempsford. The 
largest recorded is one of 12J lb. taken at 
Southill in June, 1897, when the lake was 
accidentally drawn ofi^, and is remarkable as 
being the only one found in the lake. It 
was presented to Mr. J. Steele-Elliott, who 
has it preserved. 

16. Loach. Cobitis barbatulus, Linn. 
Found more in brooks than in the river 

itself, secreting itself under stones. It used 
to be common in a brook, now partially filled 
up, near the Midland Station, Bedford. 


17. Eel. Anguilla vulgaris, Turt. 

Found in large numbers in all parts of the 
rivers, especially in the Ouse, where it has 
been a source of profit from a very early date. 
The eel grows to a great weight ; the heaviest 
appear to come from the upper parts of the 
Ouse near Olney, and Lavendon in Bucks. 
One of 9 lb. was taken at Roxton Sluice 
about 1880. It has long been a matter of 
doubt where they breed ; but they are now 
known to go down to the sea to spawn in 
deep water. I have noticed them in the 
latter part of the summer at the side of the 
Ouse near Bromham as small threadlike 
specimens of about an inch or more in length. 
Countless numbers of ' elvers,' which are very 
small, ascend some rivers as the Thames, Exe 
and Severn, where their annual migration in 
the spring is termed the ' eel-fare ' or ' travel.' 


18. Lampern. Petromyzon fluviatilis, Linn. bery that he has taken it at Milton Mill on 

This is mentioned in Davis's History of the Ouse. 
Lutoti, and I am informed by Mr. F. New- 

NoTE. — I am indebted to Mr. J. Steele-Elliott of Clent, Worcestershire, for many interesting 
notes and other information contained in the above paper. 



The physical features of a country determine to a great extent the 
distribution of its fauna, and the county of Bedford may roughly be 
divided into two zones so far as the reptiles and batrachians are concerned. 

There is first the low land, frequently flooded, lying around the 
river Ouse which affords food and shelter to the moisture loving reptiles 
and batrachians ; secondly, the belt of warm greensand which, entering 
the county at Leighton Buzzard, passes by Woburn, Ampthill and Sandy, 
and out of the county beyond Potton. This stretch of country, undulating 
in many places and covered with woods and bracken, forms a secure 
retreat for those reptiles which love warmth, and it is in these two belts 
of land that most of the reptiles and batrachians of the county are found. 
The northern portion of Bedfordshire with its cold clay soil, and the 
southern portion with its chalk downs, are not favourable to reptilian and 
batrachian life. 

Although the orders Lacertilia and Ophidia, and the class Batrachia, 
are represented, the county cannot be considered rich in species. I have 
not been able to find the smallest of our newts, known as the palmated 
newt {Molge palmata), although I have sought for it far and wide, and 
Mr. Steele-Elliott agrees with me in thinking that it cannot be reckoned 
among our local fauna. He informs me that he has searched every likely 
looking clay pit, well, village pond, and other such waters without finding 
a trace of it. The edible, or green frog as it is sometimes called (Rana 
esculenta), is not met with outside the Woburn Park estate. Some years 
ago a number of these batrachians were imported from the continent by 
the Duke of Bedford and let loose in the gardens at Woburn Abbey, and 
the colony still continues to exist. 

The natterjack toad {Bufo calamitd) is also absent. This is rather 
curious because it exists on the borders of the counties of Cambridge and 

There is no record of the smooth snake {Coronella lavis) ever having 
been seen, and I think that it may be safely asserted that it does not exist 
in the county. Probably the same assertion may be made of the sand 
lizard {Lacerta agilis). It has been sought for diligently in the localities 
that would be likely to harbour it, and without success, but I have cap- 
tured it at Perry in Huntingdonshire, only a mile or two over the border. 
Owing to the high state of cultivation the number of individuals of 
existing species of reptiles is not great, and the number is each year get- 
ting less, the lizards and snakes being killed whenever they are met with. 
It is earnestly to be hoped that the spread of education will do something 
towards removing that fooUsh prejudice against creeping things which so 



widely exists in the rural districts, and that the day is not far distant 
when the ruthless destroyers of our harmless little reptiles will realize 
that these animals should be protected, as they play an important part 
in maintaining what is known as the balance in the economy of 

I. Common Lizard. Lacerta vivipara,Ja.cq. 

This lizard is plentiful on the greensand, 
particularly at ShefFord Warren. 

2. Slow-worm or Blind-worm. Anguis fragilis^ 

This harmless limbless lizard suffers from 
its general resemblance to the snake, from 
which it may be distinguished by the absence 
of broad ventral scutae, the scales being alike 
all round the body. In length it probably 
does not average more than 12 or 14 inches. 
It is fairly common in the same locality as the 


3. Common 

or Ring-snake. 
natrix, Linn. 


This, the largest of our English reptiles, 
known locally as the grass snake and the water 
snake, is occasionally met with in the meadows 
adjoining the river Ouse. The average length 
of a full grown ring-snake is about a yard. 
Two years ago I had a very fine specimen 
brought to me which was very nearly 4 feet 
in length. These snakes are perfectly harm- 
less ; they feed chiefly on frogs which abound 
in the meadows adjoining the river. They 
do not confine themselves to this diet, but 
occasionally make a meal of the fish from the 
river. One of the specimens in my collection 
came to an untimely end by an attempt to 
vary his diet in this way. He seized a roach 
in the river, brought it on the bank and was 
choked in endeavouring to swallow it. Every 
year these snakes are decreasing in numbers 

and now they are very rarely seen, the country 
people consider them to be poisonous and 
kill them whenever they have the opportunity. 
4. Viper or Adder. Vipera berus, Linn. 

It inhabits the woods and bracken which 
clothe the greensand district. Specimens 
have been taken in the neighbourhood of 
Potton, Westoning, Shefford and Woburn. 
Although the viper can hardly be said to be 
common it is certainly more often met with 
than the ring-snake. Unlike the latter, as a 
rule, it frequents dry, warm situations and is 
found in the woods and bracken which stretch 
across the county from Leighton Buzzard to 
Potton. One was run over a short time ago 
by a cart between Woburn and Aspley Guise, 
and three years ago a man was bitten by a 
viper in the neighbourhood of Westoning. 
The locality where this accident took place is 
of a swampy nature. I have found vipers in 
Holme Fen in Huntingdonshire, but the 
swampy moorland in the neighbourhood of 
Westoning is the only locality of this nature 
in Bedfordshire in which I have known vipers 
to occur. The gamekeeper informs me that 
he has killed several near Westoning. He 
says they are fairly common about that 

Formerly this snake was more abundant : 
the earliest reference I can find to the viper 
in our county is a mention of it by John 
Bunyan,' to which my attention has been 
drawn by Mr. Steele-Elliott. As Bunyan 
was born in 1628, and the incident he men- 
tions took place in his boyhood, it would 
seem that 250 years ago the viper was found 
near Elstow. 



Common Frog. Rana temporaria, Linn. 

Abundant everywhere. 

[Edible Frog. Rana esculenta, Linn. 

Found only on the Woburn Park estate, 
and imported from the continent by His Grace 
the Duke of Bedford.] 

6. Common Toad. Bufo vulgaris, Laur. 
Common everywhere. 


7. Great Water Newt, 

This is also known as the common warty^ 
newt. It is found in pionds 


Molge cristata, Laur. 

all over the 

Common Smooth Newt. Mo/ge vulgaris, 

Known also as the small newt, eft, or evet ; 
is abundant everywhere. 

Grace jibounding. 


Bedfordshire at the hands of the zoologist has received less attention 
than almost any other English county. Only one work, and that touching 
but briefly upon its vertebrata, has been published. In the History of 
Luton and its Hamlets (1855, and a second edition in 1 874), a list of species 
is given with a few particulars, but unfortunately several of the records 
are untrustworthy. In addition to this work, the scattered notes in the 
Zoologist and Field and local newspapers form almost the only printed 
records from which information has been gleaned. 

With the exception of the chalk-hill range running through the 
south of the county (where, until about twenty years ago,the stone curlew 
still continued to nest and dotterel whilst on migration were annually 
known to tarry awhile) there is but little attraction for any rarer breeding 
species, other than that which a highly cultivated county with a consider- 
able number of smaller woodlands more or less generally dispersed would 

Early in the past century when our woods were more extensive 
the common buzzard and kite still nested, and possibly the honey 
buzzard, and the hen harrier also still frequented the more open areas ; 
but of our hawks the sparrow hawk and kestrel alone remain, the hobby 
not having been known to nest since 1892. Several pairs of ravens con- 
tinued nesting until the middle of the century, the last pair being 
exterminated from Woburn about 1871 ; the carrion crow, though con- 
siderably reduced in numbers, still remains with us. On several estates 
where there is a considerable amount of fir plantation the nightjar is 
still evident, but in lesser numbers than formerly, and the long-eared owl 
is fairly abundant. The existence of several small ' heronries ' is within 
the memory of some of our older inhabitants, but the nests of one or two 
pairs only are to be found now, and these are not in the localities that 
were formerly chosen. The preserved waters in the parks at Southill, 
Woburn and Battlesden are the favourite resorts of the great crested grebe 
(and until quite recently the little grebe), as well as Luton Hoo. Pochard 
ducks have nested in considerable numbers around the latter pools ; teals 
in many instances, particularly at Southill, and shovel ducks have bred in 
the county on several occasions. 

With the exception of the now much restricted Flitwick Marsh — 
on which until the year 1901 at least one pair of snipe nested — little 
undrained land remains. The meadow-pipit is another bird awaiting 
extermination as a breeding species ; one pair only could be found nest- 
ing at Flitwick during the spring of 1902, and the only other haunts of 



the present day seem to be on Dunstable Downs where a few pairs can 
also be found. Although redshanks probably bred on our low-lying 
meadow lands years ago no certain evidence can be obtained ; but they 
appeared at Newnham in 1896 and several pairs continued nesting until 
1899. It is possible that the black tern may once have nested also in 
the county. To what extent such a small area as the sewage farm at 
Newnham can, under varying conditions, influence the appearance of 
rarer migrants and nesting species will be shown in the accompanying 
notes. The Ouse is the highway which brings so many of the rarer 
waterfowl, and along the Ouse valley a regular stream of migratory 
waders, geese, ducks, gulls, terns, etc., journey every spring and autumn 
on their way from coast to coast. The large flocks of lapwings and 
golden plovers, and the numbers of hooded crows and various other 
species that winter with us are evidently migrants that have come from 
our eastern coasts and followed the course of the Ouse. 

In cases where the record of a bird's occurrence is open to doubt or 
its appearance is due to artificial introduction the entry in the following 
list is placed within square brackets. 

Brackets placed round the name of the original describer of a species 
indicate that he did not employ the generic name which is now adopted. 

or in early November small flocks of fieldfares 
arrive, their number being considerably added 
to as the winter advances. During the more 
open period, when insect food is obtainable, 
they frequent, in company with redwings, the 
grass lands, where, in such districts as the 
meadows of Goldington and Cardington, they 
may be seen together in thousands. At the 
first fall of snow, or as soon as the ground has 
become frozen, they are driven to seek a 
living among the bushes and hedgerows, feed- 
ing upon the berries in company with red- 
wings, blackbirds, thrushes, etc. Should un- 
usually severe weather prevail for a long time, 
many starve, and others, half starved, are com- 
pelled to migrate elsewhere. Under such 
conditions it takes several years to recoup their 
numbers. The fieldfare is the last of our 
winter visitants to return to its breeding 
haunts, staying with us until late in April and 
frequently till May. A pied fieldfare was 
killed at Bolnhurst about 1863. 

5. Blackbird. Turdus merula, Linn. 

Our blackbirds undoubtedly vary in num- 
bers owing to migration, but many are also 
resident with us, except perhaps during pro- 
longed severe weather ; yet even then, so long 
as a small supply of food is obtainable, some 
prefer not to forsake their summer haunts. 
Although a general favourite, this bird becomes 
troublesome in the fruit season. Albinos, pied, 
yellow and other varieties are frequently 

1. Missel-Thrush. Turdus viscivorus, Linn. 

Locally, Screaming-Thrush. 
A common bird throughout the county. It 
is one of our earliest breeding species, fre- 
quently nesting towards the end of March, 
and at times even earlier. A fawn-coloured 
variety in the possession of Mr. Cane is said 
to have been taken locally. 

2. Song Thrush. Turdus musicus, Linn. 
Nests abundantly everywhere. Many 

thrushes forsake their haunts as the winter 
approaches, and remain absent during any 
lengthy spell of severe weather. An instance 
of a nest of a thrush having been found near 
Luton in the side of a round wheat-stack is re- 
corded by Morris in his British Birds. Several 
pied varieties of this thrush have been obtained. 

3. Redwing. Turdus iliacus, Linn. 
An abundant winter visitant. As is the 

case with the fieldfare, prolonged severe 
weather tends very much to reduce their 
numbers. Redwings generally arrive with 
us earlier than the fieldfare. Often the first 
intimation of their presence is the note of a 
migrant passing overhead during the night. 
About the middle of October seems to be the 
usual date of their arrival, and they depart 
again at the end of March or early in April. 

4. Fieldfare. Turdus pilaris, Linn. 

Locally, Felt, Felfer. 
Generally towards the latter end of October 




6. Ring Ousel. Turdus torquatus, Linn. 
From the frequency with which this bird 

is obtained, notwithstanding that it is rather 
shy in its habits on migration, it must pass 
through the county in the spring and autumn 
in fair numbers. Mr. A. F. Grossman reports 
one seen by himself as late as i8 January 
1 89 1. A male was picked up in May 1896 
which had killed itself against the telegraph 
wires. Mr. J. King, writing to me in refer- 
ence to this bird around Langford, states that 
it is generally seen in October, rarely in the 
spring ; that in the autumn it feeds upon 
hips and haws and in the spring upon the ivy 
berries growing over some old hawthorns 
alongside the river. He reports one shot 27 
October 1861 ; another 3 October 1869 ; a 
female on 13 October of the same year; a 
male 14 April 1870, which had been about 
the meadows some days, and which he had 
frequently heard singing; others in 1875 
and 1886, and 27 September 1889 ; one 
shot 3 May 1892 ; another seen by him 
29 April 1895 feeding also upon the ivy 
berries; and one shot 19 October 1898, 
having been in that locality in company with 
redwings, blackbirds, and thrushes about the 
hedgerows several days. One was killed at 
Clifton 6 April 1893, and two at Chawston 
in the autumn of 1892. Professor Newton 
has seen this bird at Everton, and other 
records include one shot at Tingrith in 1897. 

7. Wheatear, Saxicola cenanthe (Linn.) 

At the present day by no means a common 
nesting species. Of late years the wheatear 
seems to have restricted its breeding range to 
the southern portions of the county where it 
breeds in very limited numbers. It is now 
known only as a common spring and autumn 
migrant in other parts of Bedfordshire, 
whereas at one time it seems to have bred 
regularly in limited numbers in various other 
localities. The wheatear used to breed in 
the Newnham ruins, at Cox's Pits and in the 
old stone walls of the gardens at Steving- 
ton and Sharn brook ; in 1892 two pairs 
frequented the brickyard along the Clapham 
road, when they stayed some considerable 
time, but it is uncertain whether they attempted 
to nest. Mr. J. King saw a nest containing 
young in a rabbit hole near Hexton about 
thirty years ago, and informs me of a pair that 
remained in a field near Clifton all the summer ; 
although his brother searched well he failed 
to find their nest. Mr. C. F. Woods says 
the wheatear bred regularly on Crawley 
Heath during his residence at Woburn 1858- 
68. On the downs below Whipsnade on 
the borders of the county they continue nest- 

ing, four of their nests being found in May, 
1898, and I have personally observed this 
bird during tjie nesting time in other localities 
around that neighbourhood. 

8. Whinchat. Pratincola rubetra (Linn.) 

A fairly common summer migrant. It can 
be found frequenting meadows and rough 
grassy lands, but by far the most favourite 
haunts of this bird are the railroads, where the 
embankments and cuttings form rough grassy 
slopes which suit its requirements admir- 

9. Stonechat. Pratincola rubicola (Linn.) 
Formerly known to nest in several localities. 

Those seen nowadays are usually on migra- 
tion or are wintering with us. At Henlow 
they nested until about 1870, and also on 
Rowney Warren. Along the Clapham road 
and in the ballast hole along the Ampthill 
road they bred until about 1890, The only 
nesting place I know now is between Southill 
and ShefFord. 

I o. Redstart. Ruticilla phaenicurus (Linn.) 

One of our handsomest summer migrants, 
but by no means so commonly distributed here 
as in many other counties, and its numbers 
have probably decreased of late years. It is 
however fairly abundant, and may be found 
nesting throughout the county. Even in the 
town of Bedford several pairs nest regularly 
in the old pollard willows along the embank- 
ment and elsewhere. An interesting instance 
of the nesting of the redstart came under my 
notice while rambling with Mr. King over 
the Southill estate on 18 May 1894. He 
was telling me that many years ago a pair of 
these birds had nested, season after season, on 
a ledge under the porch of one of the cottages 
in the park. On passing by we called upon the 
old tenant, and to our surprise we found a nest 
on the same site containing young. By the 
side of it, separated only by an upright, was 
another nest containing one egg, which the 
tenant informed us had been forsaken by the 
old birds, and the second nest had been built 
beside it. Upon Mr. King referring to his 
notes he found, strange to say, that exactly 
twenty years ago on that day the female had 
been caught on her nest by a lad, under the 
same porch. At that time the eggs were 
frequently robbed, and the pair once tried 
nesting at the end of the house, at another 
time in an outhouse at the bottom of the 
garden, and again in the hole of a tree not far 
away, but came back again to the porch, 
where we were informed redstarts have nested 
regularly ever since. 



11. Black Redstart. Ruticilla ft'/yj (Scopoli) 
This somewhat rare winter migrant to 

the British Islands has been recorded for 
the county several times. Four occurrences 
came under the personal observation of Mr. 
A. Covington, the particulars of which are as 
follows : In November i860 one was search- 
ing for food among the crevices of the stone- 
work of the old hostelry in the Old George 
yard at Bedford ; another was observed on 
Sunday, 29 December 1872, on the carving 
of the south porch of St. Paul's Church ; it 
seemed rather shy, but he was able to watch 
it for several minutes ; it eventually flew up 
to one of the pinnacles. One shot in the 
town was taken to him on the following day, 
and was probably the same bird. The third 
was observed 17 February 1899 near Clap- 
ham Park. Two others also passed through 
his hands, shot at Barford and Clapham, both 
whilst perched on hurdles forming sheep pens. 
Mr. Cane killed one of this species near Luton 
about 1865, and saw another at a later date, 
which however was not obtained. He heard 
also of a third being seen in that locality. 

12. Redbreast. Erithacus rubecula (Linn.) 
The robin is far too numerous and familar 

to need any reference to its distribution, ex- 
cept that its numbers with us are considerably 
added to by immigrants at certain periods of 
the year. Instances of odd situations chosen 
for nesting accommodation by the robin are 

13. Nightingale. Daulias luscinia (Linn.) 
From its abundance the greater part of the 

county must be well suited to its habits ; any 
small spinney with a fair amount of under- 
growth will be made the nesting haunt of at 
least a pair of these birds ; in larger plan- 
tations and woods many pairs can be found, 
and frequently a thick hedgerow or a garden 
shrubbery will tempt a pair to nest regularly. 
It seems more numerous in some years than 
in others. 

14. Whitethroat. Sylvia cinerea (Bechstein) 
Locally, Haybird, Nettle-Creeper, Cut-Throat. 

The commonest warbler amongst our sum- 
mer migrants. Its fragile nest can generally 
be found about the hedgerows or among the 
undergrowth of small spinneys. 



15. Lesser Whitethroat. 

Compared in numbers with the previous 
species this bird is far less common, but yet it 
may be termed fairly abundant, and I think, 
from my own observations and those of others. 

will be found equally distributed over the 
county. Mr, A. Covington once had a lesser 
whitethroat pass through his hands which had 
the whole of the under part suffused with pale 
salmon colour. 

16. Blackcap. Sylvia atricapilla (Linn.) 

In my wanderings over the county I have 
always found the blackcap a fairly common 
summer migrant, which experience is shared 
by various friends and correspondents. It is 
generally distributed, frequenting the numerous 
small plantations and woodlands where suit- 
able undergrowth can be found for its nesting 

17. Garden-Warbler. Sylvia hortensis (Bech- 

Another summer migrant visiting us in 
numbers about equal to those of the blackcap, 
frequenting similar situations, and whose habits 
are almost identical. To the best of my know- 
ledge it would be described as common in any 
part of the county. 

18. Goldcrest. Regulus cristatus, Koch. 

In such localities as Ampthill, Woburn, 
Aspley, Rowney, Southill, and Warden, or 
probably where fir plantations are abundant, 
we find the goldcrest fairly common during 
the breeding season, and I have found it 
frequently nesting in many other districts 
where isolated or small groups of suitable trees 
meet its requirements. 

19. Firecrest. Regulus ignicapillus (Brehm) 
A very uncommon winter visitor. Mr. A. 

Covington mentions two specimens of the 
firecrest as having passed through his hands ; 
a male which was killed in the firwoods at 
Ampthill about 1873, and a female which 
was killed with a stone by a lad in one of the 
hedgerows there. 

20. Chiffchaff. Phylloscopus rufus (Bechstein) 
A common summer migrant arriving in our 

county towards the end of March and stay- 
ing with us until late in September. 

21. Willow- Warbler. Phylloscopus trochilus 

Locally, Oven-Bird, Banking-Bottle, Willow- 
From the domed construction of the nest the 
willow-warbler has received its local names. 
A willow-warbler was shot near the old bridge 
at Newnham as late as 27 December in 

22. Wood Warbler. Phylloscopus sibilatrix 

Although I can name many localities where 



several pairs of the wood- warbler breed, such 
as around Woburn, Southill, Luton Hoo, the 
woods adjoining Ampthill Park and the plan- 
tations near Clophill, also in the Aspley 
Woods, Everton, and at Bromham, yet we 
must consider this bird as a rather uncommon 
summer migrant and very local in its distri- 
bution. With us it seemingly prefers the fir 
plantations with their sparse undergrowth to 
the oak or other mixed woodlands where the 
under-cover is more dense. 

23. Reed-Warbler. Acrocephalut streperus 

Locally, Reed-Bird, Reed- Wren. 
Wherever reed beds abound there also shall 
we find this summer migrant plentiful. There 
are many of its haunts in close proximity to 
the town of Bedford, and throughout the 
whole course of the Ouse it occurs very com- 
monly. On the Ivel at Blunham, Clifton, 
Langford, and other places I have found it 
abundant, and it is no doubt frequent all 
along this waterway. At Southill Lake it 
nests freely, and the lake at Luton Hoo is a 
favourite haunt also. The majority of these 
nests are built, as is usual, suspended between 
the reeds, but not a few are found in osier 
beds built similarly upon the osiers and often 
at a considerable distance from the ground. 

24. Sedge-Warbler. Acrocephalus phragmitu 

A summer migrant, and common every- 
where ; along the banks of our rivers through- 
out their course, and about every stream, 
pool, pond, ditch or wherever moist herbage 
grows, and even some distance away from 
any such situation we find its nest. It is 
generally placed in low bushes, on the stumps 
of osiers or amongst the rank herbage, seldom 
more than 2 or 3 feet from the ground, but 
sometimes higher ; one nest that came under 
my notice at Tempsford situated in the top 
of one of the numerous tall hedgerows found 
around that neighbourhood was fully 8 feet 
above the ground. Mr. J. King kindly gave 
me a nest with the eggs of this bird taken at 
Langford 28 May 1897 which were pure 
white, without any markings upon them 
whatever. He once shot a sedge-warbler as 
late as December, having seen it several 
times previously along the river. 

25. Grasshopper- Warbler. Locustella msvia 


A very scarce summer migrant. According 

to Mr. J. King, Sherhatch Wood near Cople 

seems to have been a veritable stronghold for 

this bird in our county. In 1891 he found 

a nest containing young in his osier bed close 
to his house at Langford. It has also been 
heard in the woods at Stagsden and Bromham, 
also at Harlington, Thurleigh, Oakley and 
Pegsdon. Its nest is also said to have been 
found at Clapham, Thurleigh, Kempston and 
near Woburn. During the year 1901 I 
found two pairs nesting on Flitwick Marsh, 
and its song was heard at Clapham Park and 
in one of the osier-bed islands in the river 
at Cox's Pits. 

26. Hedge-Sparrow. Accentor modularh (Linn.) 

A resident throughout the year, and very 
common, evidently preferring, like the robin 
and sparrow, the close vicinity of the haunts 
of man. White, buff and pied varieties of 
this bird have been met with. 

27. Dipper. Cinclus aquaticus, Bechstein 

The slow-flowing Ouse and our sluggish 
brooks offer the dipper but little attraction. 
The only authorities for including it in our 
fauna are Mr. Cane, who states that about 
thirty years ago one was obtained in Luton 
Hoo Park, and Mr. W. J. Chalk who saw one 
on the Ivel in March 1900. 

28. Bearded Reedling. Panurus biarmicus 


The only information that I have relating 
to the occurrence of this bird in the county 
was given to me by Mr, A. Covington, who 
was told by an old sportsman and ornithologist 
that he had killed two or three specimens of 
this bird when shooting down the river fifty to 
sixty years ago. In Mr. Covington's possession 
is an old male given to him in the flesh which 
was said to have been shot along the river 
below Great Barford in the winter of 1867. 
It is unfortunate that Mr. H. Thompson, as 
the authority on the list of birds given in The 
History of Luton, 1855, only briefly refers to 
this bird as rare, without verifying its actual 

29. Long-Tailed Tit. Acredula caudata 

Locally, Long-Tom, Pudding-Bag. 

Resident and generally common. Its won- 
derfully constructed nest will be known to 
most of us, and the family parties of this in- 
teresting little bird, which roam about the 
country, implicitly following their leaders, are 
a common enough sight. Mr. A. Covington 
once dissected one of their nests, which con- 
tained no less than 2,050 feathers besides 
wool and other materials used in the con- 
struction of the lining. 



30. Great Tit. Parus major, Linn. 
Locally, Large Tom-Tit. 

The great tit is common generally, nesting 
as a rule in holes of trees, but occasionally 
selecting some very odd sites in which to build. 
During the winter months the pairs still seem 
to prefer their own company, but occasionally 
when a good supply of food oflFers more than 
usual attraction, several may be seen together, 
or at other times may be observed accom- 
panying the other species of tits, goldcrests, etc., 
about the woods, though generally preferring 
the company of the blue tits to that of the 
others ; often these two species hold them- 
selves somewhat aloof from the rest. A buff 
variety shot at Broom was in the possession of 
Mr. J. King. 

31. Coal-Tit. Parus ater, Linn. 
Although fairly common, the coal-tit is by 

no means as plentiful as the blue and great 
tits as a breeding species, but when the mi- 
gratory flocks arrive to winter with us its 
numbers are increased considerably. 

32. Marsh-Tit. Parus palustris, Linn. 
Resident and somewhat commoner as a 

breeding species than the last named, and dis- 
tributed, I think, generally over the county. 
It is the most unsociable of all the tits, for 
except when accompanied by their young sel- 
dom more than a pair are ever seen together. 

33. Blue Tit. Parus caruleus, Linn. 
Locally, Tom-Tit, Little Tom-Tit. 

A very common resident ; and its handsome 
plumage, its vivacious movements and its 
partiality for the haunts of man make it a 
great favourite. Mr. A. Covington states 
that he has had several pied varieties of this 
tit pass through his hands. 

34. Nuthatch. Sitta casta. Wolf. 

A resident wherever old timber abounds ; 
hence the neighbourhood of our numerous 
old parks offers the nuthatch irresistible at- 
traction. In such localities as Ampthill, Wo- 
burn, Luton Hoo, Silsoe, Southill, Warden, 
Blunham, Tempsford, Turvey, Bromham and 
in many another district, it can be very often 
observed, and its note will be constantly heard 
to verify its presence. In such localities it 
nests plentifully, often utilizing the same site 
year by year. 

35. Wren. Troglodytes parvulus, Koch. 
Locally, Jenny Wren. 

A numerous resident and universal favourite. 
Mr. J. King has found in the winter time 
as many as six or eight wrens roosting 

together in one hole, and thinks possibly they 
may have been one family party. At Wo- 
burn, Mr. C. F. Woods was examining one 
evening in the winter time some martins' 
nests situated under his stable eaves, when he 
found as many as five wrens sleeping together 
in one of the nests. 

36. Tree-Creeper. Certhia familiaris, Linn. 
A common resident. In winter it appears 
to be more numerous than in summer, but 
this may be due to the fact that the leafless 
trees give us better opportunities for obser- 
vation. The old timbered parklands during 
the nesting period seem to offer the tree- 
creeper special attractions, and nowhere is it 
more common than at Ampthill, Woburn, 
Turvey, Southill, and Bromham Parks ; in 
the latter I have always found it particularly 

37. Pied Wagtail, 

Motacilla lugubris, Tem- 

Locolly, Water- Wagtail, Dishwasher. 
As the winter approaches, this wagtail for- 
sakes the majority of its summer haunts and 
will be but rarely seen. Along our waterways 
a few remain the winter through, or until 
severe weather forces them to migrate. They 
may be often observed roosting together in 
considerable numbers in the willows and reed 
beds by the water. 

38. Grey Wagtail. Motacilla melanope, Pallas. 
Except during the nesting period, the grey 

wagtail can be found generally distributed and 
fairly abundant throughout the county, haunt- 
ing the smallest streams and ponds as well as 
our larger waterways, and is not infrequently 
noticed far removed from any water. The 
sewage farm at Newnham seems to offer 
special attraction for these birds during their 
winter sojourn ; a few at least will invariably 
be found there. 

39. Yellow Wagtail. Motacilla rait (Bona- 

Locally, Yellow Dishwasher. 
A fairly abundant summer migrant to some 
parts of Bedfordshire. Nesting generally in 
growing crops, its eggs are seldom obtained. 
I have seen numbers of these birds roosting 
on the bed of rushes at the junction of the 
New Cut and the Ouse at Cardington ; in 
my diary on 9 August 1892 I noted a com- 
pany of about 200 yellow wagtails flushed 
from this locality. 

40. Tree-Pipit. Anthus trivialis (Linn.) 
Locally, Tit-Lark. 

An abundant summer migrant, having a 



preference for certain localities ; it will be 
found nesting in woodlands with thin under- 
growth, and uncultivated districts generally. 

41. Meadow-Pipit. Anthus pratensis (Linn.) 
Locally, Tit-Lark. 
Better known within the county as a win- 
ter migrant than as a resident. Numbers 
appear during the autumn and distribute them- 
selves generally where suitable food can be 
found. Towards the latter end of September 
and onwards one or more pairs, and frequently 
small parties, can often be flushed from among 
the turnip crops ; our meadow lands, especi- 
ally during floods, have also great attractions 
for it, and on the sewage farm at Newnham 
throughout the winter it is a very common 
bird indeed. As a nesting species within 
Bedfordshire it must now be considered very 
local. It formerly had several nesting haunts 
close to Bedford, as for instance the Long- 
holm meadows, but it has ceased to breed here 
and elsewhere for several years past. A few 
pairs still nest on the Dunstable downs, and 
during the year 1902 I found a nest with 
young on Flitwick Marsh. 

42. Great Grey Shrike. Lanius excuhitor, 
This bird formerly seems to have occurred 
most winters, a year seldom passing without 
one or more being received at the local taxider- 
mist's, or reported as having been seen within 
the county ; but now several years may pass 
without one being recorded. Four have come 
under the personal notice of Mr. J. King, 
two of which were shot by himself, one 12 
December 1866, and the other 9 November 
1867. His son shot a third on 6 January 
1873. He failed to get within shot of the 
fourth bird. He tells me that all these birds 
frequented the same dead ash tree in his mea- 
dows at Langford, perching always on the 
topmost branches. During the past thirty 
years about a dozen county specimens have 
passed through the hands of Mr. A. Covington. 
Four or five have been sent to Mr. Cane, one 
killed at Dunstable, another, about three years 
ago, at Sutton. Three have been received 
by Mr. J. S. Wright, one of which was caught 
in a ground clap-net. John Cole shot another 
17 October 1880 at Haynes. Dr. Sprigge 
told me of one that was killed previous to 
1894 on the Wilden road near Great Barford. 
Another, in my own possession, was taken 
near Clophill about the year 1848 ; Mr. P. 
Addington saw a grey shrike near Wyboston 
about 1873 ; Dr. Edward Hamilton shot a 
male near Dunstable 25 November 1848, 
that had alighted on the top of a decayed ash 

tree (evidently a favourite site), and Mr. C. F. 
Woods sends me the record of a male killed 
at Hockliffe in 1861. The most recent 
records of this species are one killed at Fen- 
lake in November 1898, and another shot 
near Luton in the winter 1 900-1. 

43. Lesser Grey Shrike. Lanius minor, 

J. F. Gmelin. 

The addition of this rare visitor to our 
county list is made on information kindly sent 
to me by the late Lord Lilford. The Duchess 
of Bedford informed him that she and a gen- 
tleman staying at Woburn saw there in the 
first week of September 1894 a bird that they 
have little hesitation in considering as of this 
species. The only other British species for 
which it could possibly be mistaken is Lanius 
excubitor, and the date of its occurrence at 
Woburn puts this supposition almost out of 
the question. 

44. Red-backed Shrike. Lanius collurio, Linn. 

Locally, Butcher-bird. 

A regular summer migrant, but, taking the 
county generally, less numerous perhaps than 
in some other counties. Probably commoner 
now with us than in former years. 

45. Waxwing. Ampelis garrulus, lAnn, 

Many instances have come to my know- 
ledge of this irregular winter visitor being 
recorded in our county, and no doubt there 
are many others that could be added to the 
present list. One, an adult male, is recorded 
in the Zoologist, 1847, as shot 23 January at 
Luton. One was picked up at Houghton 
Conquest in the winter 1872—3, and another 
was killed at Aspley Guise about 1879. In 
the winter 1882-3 waxwings were reported 
commonly about the county, and one was 
shot at Fairfield, Biggleswade, on 1 5 January. 
Two were given to me by Mr. J. King, one 
of which was shot in Southill Park, and the 
other in Henlow Park the same winter, about 
1856. Another, which was alone, was shot 
by his son in the meadows at Langford 20 
January 1885. During the same winter one 
was picked up dead at Ampthill. A male 
was shot at Odell Rectory 19 January 1890, 
one near Bedford the same year, and another 
at Odell in January 1893. A specimen in 
the writer's possession was caught in a field 
at Girtford 31 January 1895, and another 
was shot at Upper End farm, Shillington, on 
the same date. Mr. A. Covington writing 
on this bird states that he has had specimens 
pass through his hands from many localities, 
the last one being from Wilden in January 



1895. He once had a fine old male, shot in 
a yew tree in the Grove, Bedford. 

46. Pied Flycatcher. 

Muscicapa atricapilla. 

This bird probably passes through the county 
annually but in very limited numbers on its 
spring and autumn migration. On 13 May 
1 87 1 Mr. J. King shot a female in his gar- 
den at Langford, Mr. W. R. Butterfield of 
St. Leonards-on-Sea gives me particulars of a 
specimen of this bird in his collection, an 
adult male, which was killed near the river 
Ouse in the vicinity of Bedford, September 
1895. Mr. A. Covington says he has never 
had a local specimen through his hands, but 
has a note of one shot at Wilshamstead in 
the autumn of 1870. Mr. Cane informed 
me that a male was shot at Pepperstock from 
a pair that were said to have a nest in the 
hole of an apple tree. Colonel Barclay men- 
tions that he observed the pied flycatcher 
during 1898 at Tingrith. 

47. Spotted Flycatcher. Muscicapa grisola, 

Local/y, WaU-bird. 
A common summer migrant equally dis- 
tributed throughout the county. Frequently 
nests in private gardens and the public walks 
and grounds of towns ; in Bedford it nests 
regularly. Mr. A. Covington told me of a 
pair that built near his house in Lurke Street, 
Bedford, in the fork of a grape vine trained 
to the wall, for nineteen years in succession, 
and were still doing so when he left that 
neighbourhood. Mr. C. F. Woods mentions 
a pair that built their nest for four consecutive 
years on the hinge of a pair of very heavy 
doors at Woburn. 

48. Swallow. Hirundo rustica, Linn. 
Generally arrives about the middle of April, 

but in some years it may be a few days later. 
Its departure takes place usually at the end 
of September or early in October, though 
many may have left us before these dates. 
The swallow has been observed with us as 
late as November. There are many osier and 
reed beds locally where swallows and martins 
congregate to sleep in enormous numbers. 
Several white varieties or albinos have been 

49. House-Martin. Chelidon urhica (Linn.) 
Although the house-martin arrives at about 

the same time as the swallow, and one of its 
first thoughts seems to be to visit its old nest- 
ing haunts, as a rule it is somewhat later than 
the latter bird in starting incubation, it being 
seldom before the second week in June that 

its full complement of eggs is found. It 
evidently rears at least a second brood, as 
young birds may be observed in the nest very 
late in the year. Mr. A. Need sent particu- 
lars to the Field, 1898, of two pairs still with 
young in nests on his house at Leighton Buz- 
zard during the first week of October. De- 
parture takes place generally about the end of 
September and early October, but they are 
frequently observed in some numbers up to 
the middle of the latter month. Mr. J. King 
mentions seeing one on 4 November 1898 at 
Langford. In the Field some fifteen or 
twenty are mentioned as staying within the 
county as late as 17 November in 1875. A 
perfectly white house-martin is reported as 
having been seen about the neighbourhood of 
Bedford [^Field, 11 August 1877). 

50. Sand-Martin, Cottle riparia (Linn.) 
The sand-martin is generally the first of 

the swallow family to arrive. Mr. J. King 
has observed it at Langford as early as 26 
March 1897, and on 3 April 1899 ten or 
more came under my observation flying 
around Southill Pool. Departure takes place 
towards the end of September, although many 
may leave at a much earlier date. By far the 
largest breeding station within the county is 
the colony at Sandy, where they nest in the 
sandy cutting close to the railway station in 
numbers roughly estimated at a thousand 
pairs, and perhaps this is considerably below 
the correct figure. Two white sand-martins 
were killed by Mr. J. Cole at Haynes many 
years ago ; one is in Mr. T. Cane's posses- 
sion, and the other retained by Mr. Cole 

5 1 . Greenfinch. Ligurinus chloris (Linn.) 
Locally, Green Linnet. 

A resident species which, with the excep- 
tion of the common sparrow, considerably 
outnumbers any of our other species of finches. 
During the autumn and winter they flock 
together in considerable numbers in company 
with many other species, but particularly with 
the common sparrow, and remain gregarious, 
often as late as April, some time after other 
species have left them. For sleeping accom- 
modation the flights of greenfinches resort to 
certain of the numerous tall hedgerows so 
common in some of our districts, where they 
congregate in hundreds towards the evening. 
This they continue to do so long as the 
leaves remain to afford them sufficient shelter; 
when these fail they resort to evergreens. 

52. Hawfinch. Coccothraustes vulgaris, Pallas. 
This bird has probably increased in num- 



bers of late years. Nowadays in any locality 
in our county, whenever carefully sought for, 
it will undoubtedly be found. At Southill I 
cannot call to mind ever visiting the park 
without observing this bird more or less freely, 
and in at least five instances have found its 
nest also. Mr. A. Covington also informs 
me that in 1893 he had three nests, each 
containing six eggs, brought to his notice, all 
taken from an orchard in the vicinity of that 
park. Mr. J. King speaks of them as fairly 
plentiful at Southill previous to 1844. In 
Bromham Park four nests were found, one of 
which, on 21 May 1893, contained six young. 
At Flitwick, Ampthill, Luton Hoo, Silsoe, 
Great Barford, Chicksands Priory, Woburn 
and Turvey it treeds also, and I have 
observed it in numerous other localities. 

53. Goldfinch. Carduelis elegans, Stephens. 

Before the passing of the Wild Birds Pro- 
tection Acts of 1880 and 1881 the goldfinch, 
owing to the constant persecution of bird- 
catchers, was fast verging on extinction. 
Now its numbers seem again rapidly on the 
increase. In the cottage gardens and orchards, 
particularly around the neighbourhood of 
Bromham and also at Colmworth I have 
found it of late years quite commonly. But 
at present in many other districts where it 
was once common it does not seem as yet to 
have re-established itself. 

54. Siskin. Carduelis spinus (Linn.) 

An irregular winter migrant. Its numbers 
vary considerably and its occurrence is not 
frequent. Their favourite haunts with us 
are larch and alder trees, where they are likely 
to be found in numbers.* A flock of 70 or 80 
siskins was feeding on the larches in Rowney 
Warren on 1 April 1902. 

55. House-Sparrow. Passer domesficus (Linn.) 
When corn was considerably more valuable 

than in present years, ' sparrow clubs ' existed 
to keep this bird as much as possible in check. 
In certain parts of our county many of the 
country people used to term this bird the 
' theck sparrow,' or, to be more literal, ' thatch 
sparrow,' deriving the prefix from the serious 
damage done to thatched buildings, in which 
they so freely made holes for nesting purposes. 
Now that corn is of less consideration, 
thatched dwellings far less numerous, and 
sparrow clubs few and far between, sparrows 

*■ The reported nesting of the siskin ' in Bed- 
fordshire ' {Zoologist, 1880) is an error. It should 
have been reported as ' in Buckinghamshire.' 

have undoubtedly increased, and are more 
often than not left to their depredations. 

56. Tree-Sparrow. Passer montanus (Linn.) 
An abundant resident, gregarious, but with 

a decided preference for its own species. Pro- 
bably its unobtrusive habits and its similarity 
in plumage to the house-sparrow cause it to 
be overlooked by the casual observer. For 
nesting, usually holes in trees, in the vicinity 
of water, are chosen, more particularly in the 
pollard willows, which are so common along 
all our streams. I have found a nest in the 
thatch of outbuildings ; in another instance 
two nests were placed in some drain pipes 
built into a wall alongside Cople Brook, and, 
again, a nest containing the very unusual 
number of seven eggs I took out of one of the 
wooden bridges spanning the New Cut at 
Newnham. Occasionally it has been found 
building inside old magpies' nests. 

57. Chaffinch. Fringilla coelebs, Linn. 

A very familiar species and generally dis- 
tributed ; gregarious with numerous other 
birds throughout the greater part of the year. 
When flights of the brambling are observed 
it will be noticed that the company of the 
chaffinch seems almost indispensable to them. 
Pied, bufF coloured and albino specimens have 
occasionally been obtained. 

58. Brambling. Fringilla montijringilla, lAnn. 
One of our migratory finches, occurring 

only during the winter months. Its num- 
bers greatly vary according to the severity 
of the weather. In some winters great num- 
bers are seen in Woburn Park, which they 
frequent to feed upon the beech mast there. 
Mr. J. King has observed them in flocks 
feeding under the beech trees in Southill 
Park. My father has also seen this bird in 
great numbers at Muggerhanger, and I have 
met with them very commonly at Chicksands 
Park. In favourable seasons, from November 
to the end of February or early March, the 
brambling is taken very freely, occasionally in 
hundreds, by the bird-catchers in the southern 
portion of the county, mixed with the flights 
of chaffinches, linnets, greenfinches, and other 
birds. Mr. A. Covington has informed me 
that he once had over forty of these birds sent 
to him, which had been killed at one shot 
when about to roost in some evergreens. 

59. Linnet. Linota cannabina (Linn.) 
Locally, Brown Linnet, Red Linnet. 

A widely distributed resident. From in- 
formation obtained from bird-catchers I learn 
that they must at certain times become very 



numerous during their migratory movements. 
As many as twenty dozen have been taken by 
one pair of nets in a morning on the Dun- 
stable downs. The greatest number of birds 
is taken during sleety weather. They tell me 
that when one man works the nets and 
another drives the flocks of birds in the 
required direction as many as fifty dozen birds 
of various kinds have been taken by two men 
working two pairs of nets. For the linnet 
decoy or call-bird a mule goldfinch-canary 
trained with the linnet's note is preferred. 
White, bufF and pied varieties have often been 

60. Mealy Redpoll. Linota linaria (Linn.) 
There is little reason to doubt the occur- 
rence of this arctic form of our commoner 
species within the county during some winters. 
At present the only information I have been 
able to gather was given to me by a bird- 
catcher living at Clifton, who, to my know- 
ledge, is a very trustworthy man. He said 
the common redpoll was particularly common 
in 1 894, frequenting the numerous alder trees 
that grow along the sides of the Ivel, between 
Chicksands and Stanford, where during the 
autumn of that year he secured within a few 
hours one morning no less than fifty-four of 
the commoner species. It was during the 
same winter when redpolls were exceptionally 
numerous that he caught two mealy redpolls 
along with others from the same locality. 
Four or five altogether have been taken by 
him from the same district. 

61. Lesser Redpoll. Linota rufescens (Vieillot) 
The lesser redpoll is a well known winter 

migrant, occurring generally in small flights 
of a dozen or more. As a nesting species I 
am inclined to think that it is becoming more 
common, for previous to the year 1 894 1 have 
only been able to obtain information respect- 
ing one instance of its nesting. This was a 
nest found by Mr. King at Clifton about 1870, 
which contained young. During 1894 Mr, 
King kindly forwarded me two nests with 
eggs, both of which he had found in the 
neighbourhood between Langford and Biggles- 
wade. Since then to my personal knowledge 
one pair at least has continued to nest in the 
same locality. Mr. Crossman also sent me 
word that he had found a nest containing six 
eggs of this species on 10 June 1899 in 
the old ballast hole along the railway between 
Bedford and Cardington ; on the same day 
another nest with five eggs was found by a 
lad. Both of these nests were built in willow 
trees. In July 1 898, I saw a pair of old birds 
with young between Shefford and Clifton, and 

in 1 903 two pairs nesting near Southill Lake. 
A white variety of this species was taken near 
Luton in 1894. 

62. Twite. Linota flavirostris (Linn.) 
A winter migrant, occurring more particu- 
larly during the autumn. Throughout the 
county generally a few whilst accompanying 
the flights of linnets seem to be taken by the 
bird-catchers every year, and in the neigh- 
bourhood of the chalk hills in the south of 
the county it is I believe a fairly common 

63. Bullfinch. Pyrrhula europeea, Vieillot. 
Fairly common ; in the winter migratory 

arrivals seem to add to the numbers of our 
resident birds, and it is then this bird becomes 
more conspicuous, as it can be seen haunting 
the wayside hedgerows, feeding upon the dock 
and various other seeds and hedge fruit, with 
a particular weakness for the berries of the 
privet. Unlike any of the other finches, 
seldom more than a pair, or at the most a 
small party of four or five, will be found 

64. Crossbill. Loxia curvirostra, Linn. 
Flights of the common crossbill varying in 

numbers may I think be considered now of 
regular winter occurrence, but owing to their 
quiet and inconspicuous habits numbers of the 
birds might frequent a locality for perhaps 
many years without coming under observation. 
And I do not think their numbers vary at all 
with the severity of the weather, for in several 
of the past mild winters they have been as 
numerous as in any other years. In their 
regular haunts, as for instance the fir planta- 
tions of Ampthill, Woburn, Southill, Rowney 
Warren and Sandy, records of their occurrence 
are far too numerous for me to give in detail; 
sometimes they have been noticed in small 
parties, and at other times in much larger 
numbers. A flight observed at Woburn 23 
October 1897 contained upwards of fifty 
birds, and in the winter 1898-9 at Rowney 
Warren I understand they were very numer- 

65. Two-barred Crossbill. Loxia bifasciata 

A flock of about twenty of these birds was 
found haunting one of the fir plantations at 
Ampthill on 3 January 1890, from which 
five were secured with the aid of catapults ; 

* The nesting of this species in our county as 
recorded in Science Gossip, 1868, is incorrect; both 
nest and eggs have since come into my possession 
and are certainly proved not to be of this species. 

13 ^5 


one of them however afterwards escaped. 
During the same winter this bird had been 
notified from several other counties, indica- 
ting that a considerable number must have 
arrived as early as the previous autumn. 

66. Corn-Bunting. Emberiza miliaria, Linn. 
Locally, Bunting Lark. 
Resident and a partial migrant. In the 
enclosed and wooded districts this bird is 
seldom observed. The more open lands of 
the eastern portion of the county offer it far 
greater attractions, particularly the neighbour- 
hood of Wilden, the Eastcotts, and the cul- 
tivated lands generally bordering the Ouse 
and Ivel. Still more frequently will its 
monotonous song be heard in the vicinity of 
the chalk hill range in the south of the county, 
where around Totternhoe in particular I have 
found it remarkably abundant. In proportion 
to its numbers I do not think any bird is more 
subject to pied variation, 

67. Yellow Hammer. Emberiza citrinella, 

A very common resident and generally dis- 

68. Cirl Bunting. Emberiza cirlus, Linn. 
The distribution of the cirl bunting in 

Bedfordshire has yet to be more fully investi- 
gated. In December 1869 Mr. A. L. Jessopp 
found this bird in some numbers at Clapham 
Park, and he secured altogether ten males and 
one female. The males numbered about 
thirty, and were associated with some reed- 
buntings ; the female birds, which kept in a 
separate flock, were only about six in all, and 
were very difficult to get near. ' I think 
there is little doubt,' adds Mr. Jessopp, * that 
from what I was able to learn at the time 
that the cirl bunting nested in that locality 
the previous year.' Mr. A. Covington adds 
that a few of these birds seem to visit us 
occasionally in the winter. In addition to 
those above mentioned, all of which passed 
through his hands, another, a male, was 
brought to him which had been killed at Oak- 
ley in January 1 870, and in the winter follow- 
ing he had two more from Bromham. 
Another was obtained at Wilden [Zoologist, 
1871). Mr. A. F. Crossman observed one 
in 1889 between Clapham and Oakley. 
There is another specimen I am told in the 
headkeeper's possession at Woburn which 
was killed from a small party in the park. 
Mr. Cane of Luton tells me that in his forty 
years' experience as a taxidermist only three 
have passed through his hands. G. Smith 
has in twenty years' experience of bird- 

catching only taken two specimens, both of 
which were in the neighbourhood of Limbury 
about 1887. The only instance I can as yet 
obtain of this bird having been found nesting 
is from information kindly sent to me by Mr. 
W. Ruskin Butterfield. ' On the morning 
of 25 May 1896,' he writes, 'whilst in the 
company of my friend Mr. A. Page Page, we 
observed in the parish of Cardington a male 
cirl bunting, and with the aid of a pair of 
field-glasses we watched it some considerable 
time. Later in the day we returned to the 
same place, and I had the satisfaction of flush- 
ing the female from off her nest and four 
eggs ; we watched her and saw her joined by 
the male.' 

69.^ Reed-Bunting. 

Emberiza schoeniclusy 

Locally, Reed-Sparrow, Black-headed Bunting. 
Fairly common. Throughout the whole 
course of the Ouse, Ivel and other smaller 
streams, pools, disused ballast holes and marshy 
patches of ground, particularly Flitwick 
Moor, this bird will generally be found, 
nesting always in the vicinity. In the winter 
time it is frequently forced to seek sustenance 
further afield, and can then be met with on 
stubble fields and even busy amongst the 
hedges along the roadside, sometimes in small 
parties. Several bufF-coloured specimens have 
been obtained. 

70. Snow-Bunting. Plectrophenax nivalis 
An irregular winter visitant, always re- 
stricted in its migratory movements to the 
southern portion of the county, where, in the 
neighbourhood of the chalk hills, such as 
around Barton, Luton and Dunstable, num- 
bers are said to be taken. G. Smith, who 
has had considerable experience as a bird- 
catcher in these localities, speaks of this bird 
as generally appearing in December, when, 
during a continued spell of exceptionally 
severe weather, droves of a hundred or more 
have been known to occur. Writing to me 
in the winters of 1893-4 and 1894-5 he 
stated that this bird had occurred commonly, 
some very good specimens being caught. In 
other parts of the county it appears as a 
very scarce straggler. Of the few that have 
been brought under my notice one was taken 
at Clapham Park, and another at Willing- 
ton, about 1870 ; both are now in my 
brother's possession ; a third at Clapham in 

* The record of the Lapland bunting {Calcarius 
lapponicus) having occurred in Bedfordshire, in the 
Field, 31 January 1874, was an error in identifica- 
tion of the species. 



January 1894; a fourth, shot I believe at 
Biddenham, was set up for the late Mr. C. 
Howard. Mr. A. Covington says that one 
or more of these buntings used to be brought 
in every winter. He saw three together in 
company with two stonechats near Cardington 
Cross in March 1897, and again, two at 
Putnoe in February 1899. On 7 Novem- 
ber 1900 a male was obtained at Keysoe 
and another at Ampthill in November 1903. 

7 1 . Starling. Sturnus vulgaris, Linn. 

An exceedingly numerous resident though 
a partial migrant, and it is probable that 
large numbers are autumn immigrants and 
winter with us. 

72. Rose-coloured Pastor. Pastor roseus (Linn.) 
The only instance of this rare migratory 

straggler to our islands occurring in Bedford- 
shire was brought to my notice by the late 
Mr. Cane, taxidermist of Luton, who stated 
that a young bird of the year was killed at 
Barton-in-the-Clay in August 1855.* 

73. Jay. Garrulus glandarius (Linn.) 
Locally, Jay-pie. 

In all the larger woodlands this bird be- 
comes very common if game preserving is 
not carried out too strictly, but even then it 
seems capable of withstanding all the devices 
used for its total extermination. 

74. Magpie. Pica rustica (Scopoli) 

In years past, before game preserving 
became so extensive as at present, the magpie 
was common generally, but nowadays it has 
become far more local. In the poorer agri- 
cultural districts, where no quantity of game 
can be supported, we now find this bird most 
abundant ; in such districts as around Stags- 
den and Turvey and even more so in the 
neighbourhood of Bolnhurst and Thurleigh 
it is very common. Throughout the whole 
of the northern portion of the county it 
occurs more or less plentifully, whereas in 
the southern half it is rarely met with, and 
in many parishes is unknown. A variety, 
with the usual black portion of the plumage 
considerably pied with white, was killed many 
years ago at Sherhatch Wood. 

75. Jackdaw. Corvus monedula, Linn. 
Although a fairly common resident, it is by 

no means so abundant a bird with us as in 
other parts of the midlands. In many of 
the parks, where the holes in old timber offer 
suitable accommodation, such as at Woburn, 
Ampthill, Silsoe, Turvey and Bromham, it 

See also the Naturalist, 1856. 

nests very freely. Formerly it nested in 
many of the church towers in the county, 
but at the present day I am only aware of 
one at Marston Morteyne church. 

76. Raven. Corvus corax, Linn. 

Until the middle of the nineteenth century 
the raven must have been fairly well known 
as a resident bird within the county, in all 
probability continuing to nest regularly where- 
ever it had done so from time immemorial. 
As Davis, on the authority of Mr. H. Thomp- 
son in his History of Luton and Neighbourhood, 
published in 1855, refers to the raven as com- 
mon, we can at least infer that one or more 
pairs had nested regularly up to that date in 
that particular district. At Haynes Park in 
1 849 a pair still had their home. A former 
keeper there, named Franklin, told me these 
birds each year occupied a group of tall elms, 
which were known as the ' Raven tree 
clump.' As soon as the young were strong 
upon the wing the whole family departed 
from that immediate locality, and were not 
seen again till the old pair returned the fol- 
lowing spring. Occasionally one of the pair 
would be shot, but the remaining bird, after a 
lapse of a few days' absence, always returned 
with a fresh mate, whence no one knew. 
Although his father, who was at that time 
head-keeper, frequently gave orders for the 
destruction of these birds, on account of the 
damage caused by them amongst the young 
poultry and game, no one cared to carry out 
his orders ; as for himself, he added, he would 
sooner have lost his situation than have killed 
one. They continued breeding there up to 
the time he left that neighbourhood. ' In 
Silsoe Park, a pair built every year in the 
large elm trees that stood on Cain Hill ; the 
young ones were frequently robbed and taken 
up to London by some of the servants and 
sold. This pair still continued nesting there 
in the year in which the present house was 
being rebuilt ' (J. S. Wright). ' At South- 
hill Park, some fifty years ago, when I was 
working on that estate, every year a pair 
nested in one of the large oaks, standing be- 
tween the house and the lake. They still 
continued nesting there when I left that 
village in 1844' (J. King). The last nest- 
ing haunt of the raven in the county, as far 
as I am able to ascertain, was in Woburn 
Park. ' To my knowledge a pair nested in 
Woburn Park from 1848 to 1871, in which 
year I left there. For twenty years they 
built in what was known as " the big beech," 
a tree unique for its perfectly smooth bole, 
measuring in height some 54 feet to where 
the branches all grew out together in a 



crown ; it was within the huge cup thus 
formed that the nest was placed. On 23 
March 1852 I was drawn up to the nest by 
means of a rope, and it contained three young, 
which were secured. The old ones came 
very close but did not attack me in any way. 
The young were taken home, which would 
be about a mile away, the parents, neverthe- 
less, paying them frequent visits. The 
youngsters were allowed a fair amount of 
freedom, after their wings had been clipped, 
and on more than one occasion the old ones 
came circling down upon them from a great 
height and attacked them fiercely, and when 
we went to the rescue seemed loath to retreat. 
One year the hen bird was shot whilst nest- 
ing, but the male by the following day had 
brought another mate home, whence I know 
not, as I never knew of another pair in the 
county, although I understood a pair nested 
in Beechwood Park, near Hemel Hempsted. 
The same year (that would be in 1856) they 
built in another beech tree hard by, which 
was much higher and placed in a very con- 
spicuous position. I managed to climb up to 
it and took the eggs. They added to the nest 
and occupied it a second year, and again the 
nest was robbed, when they went back to the 
old nest. How many times they were suc- 
cessful in bringing forth their brood I cannot 
say, but I am inclined to think it was not 
many, and considering how often the nest was 
harried and the old ones shot at (not always 
with the intention of killing them) it is won- 
derful how they stuck to the place. The 
ravens did no particular damage that I am 
aware of ' (C. F. Woods). ' An uncle of 
mine, long since deceased, often took the 
eggs and young of ravens at Bolnhurst and 
Keysoe Wood ; he sometimes saw several in 
company together feeding on the carcase of a 
sheep or lamb ; frequently a crow or two 
would be in their company, but had to remain 
at a respectful distance until their superiors 
had gorged sufficiently. And from informa- 
tion I have been able to gather, the raven 
probably bred at Thurleigh also, in fact 
there is little doubt that sixty or seventy 
years ago it was a very well known bird with 
us ' (A. Covington). ' Used to breed in 
the fir trees at Allington Hill, near Little 
Barford, for twenty years or more, previous 
to 1865, or thereabouts' (P. Addington). 

77. Carrion-Crow. Corvus corone, Linn. 

This species is fast disappearing. Fifty 
years ago it must have been a common bird 
with us, distributed generally throughout the 
county. During 1899, in which I gave the 
distribution of this bird special attention, a 

very liberal census would not exceed more 
than twenty pairs nesting within the county. 
But a few years since it bred regularly in the 
plantations around Clapham, Ravensden and 
Thurleigh ; at Bromham in Salem's Thrift ; 
at Stagsden, in Hanger's Wood ; in Odell and 
Carlton Woods, and at Elstow and Harrow- 
den ; also on the island in the Biddenham 
backwaters, as well as the plantation known as 
Doctor's Corner or Devil's Spinney near the 
Clapham Viaduct ; but such localities know 
this bird no more. Its only remaining haunts 
of which I am aware are in the neighbour- 
hoods of Turvey, Stagsden, Stevington, Brom- 
ham, Rowney Warren, Clop hill, Wootton, 
Milton Bryant, Podington, Colmworth, Paven- 
ham and Leighton Buzzard. 

78. Hooded Crow. Corvus cornix, Linn. 
Locally, Royston Crow. 

Although a fairly common bird throughout 
our county, it confines itself more particularly 
to the river valleys, especially where the 
country is low-lying and open. One seldom 
fails to notice this bird along the river below 
Bedford during the winter in such localities as 
Fenlake and Goldington, and a very favourite 
haunt is the sewage farm at Newnham, 
where I have observed at times several feed- 
ing together. On the Ivel too it is of regular 
occurrence, as many as four or five having 
come under my notice in a walk from SheiFord 
to Langford. It is usually alone, but, in 
many instances, its mate will be noticed not 
very far away. This bird reaches us generally 
in October and departs again in March. The 
specimens I have been able to examine in the 
flesh vary considerably in size. 

79. Rook. Corvus frugilegus, Linn. 

The rook, so frequently mis-named the 
crow, is common in all parts of the county. 
Rookeries are generally observed in the 
vicinity of houses, and the birds show a dis- 
tinct preference for the mansion to the humble 
cottage. There are however a few instances 
where they seem to be more independent, 
discarding the habitation of man altogether, 
and locating their nests in the trees upon 
some of the quiet lying islands in the upper 
reaches of the river. On the other hand, one 
may count a dozen or more sites that are 
occupied for nesting purposes within the town 
of Bedford itself. Pied variations are not in- 
frequent ; cream-coloured and several albinos 
have also been obtained. 

80. Sky-Lark. Alauda arvensis, Linn. 
This bird is probably nowhere better known 



or more numerous than in Bedfordshire. The 
Dunstable downs have long been noted for 
the number of sky-larks caught there. It 
often passes over our county in considerable 
flights on migration. BufF, pied, white and 
other varieties have been frequently met 

8i. Wood-Lark. Alauda arboreoy Linn. 

The only specimen recorded was shot at 
Oakley in 1867, and passed through the 
hands of Mr. A. Covington. 

82. Swift. Cypselus apus (Linn.) 
Locally, Devilin. 

A common summer migrant. It nests in 
the town of Bedford, but to a very great ex- 
tent is restricted to the vicinity of the older 
portion in the neighbourhood of St. Mary's 
and St. John's. It arrives during the first 
few days of May and departs at the end of 

83. Nightjar. Caprimulgus eurepaus, Linn. 
Locally, Goatsucker, Night Hawk, Fern Owl. 

A summer migrant decreasing numerically 
in most of its present haunts. It is known to 
nest at Turvey, and has been observed from 
time to time in Odell and Clapham Woods. 
In many of the fir woods around Leighton 
Buzzard it is still fairly common, and at Asp- 
ley Woods several pairs have come under my 
notice ; around Ampthill, Maulden and Clop- 
hill several pairs may still be found, but at 
Flitwick, Major Brooks says it is now rare. 
At Warden, Southill and Rowney Warrens 
it is far less plentiful than formerly ; on the 
latter in recent years I have never found more 
than two pairs of birds in any one day ; 
whereas as recently as ten years ago Mr. J. 
King has found as many as five or six nests 
there in a day's ramble. The fir plantations 
at Sandy, especially Sandy Warren, are the 
favourite haunts of this bird, where owing to 
the careful protection given to wild life 
generally by Viscount Peel they are likely 
long to remain. When upon the southward 
migration it may occasionally be flushed from 
varied localities and situations. 

84. Wryneck. lynx torquilla, Linn. 

Locally, Cuckoo's Mate. 

Although the wryneck may still be heard 
more or less frequently about the county, it is 
unfortunately nowadays decreasing in num- 
bers. It is one of our earliest summer 
migrants, not arriving as is generally supposed 
with the cuckoo — whence its local name — 
but often fully a fortnight earlier. 

85. Green Woodpecker. Gecinus viridts 

Locally, Whetile, Laughing Lady. 
A far commoner bird with us than either 
of the other two species of woodpeckers, and 
generally distributed throughout the county, 
particularly in the vicinity of old timber. In 
such localities as Bromham, Stagsden, Turvey, 
Odell, Colworth, Ampthill, Flitwick, Woburn, 
Southill, Warden, Renhold, Muggerhanger, 
Tempsford, Roxton and Bushmead, I have 
notes of it nesting rather commonly. Mr. A. 
Covington remarks that this species is far 
commoner now than in former years. 

86. Great Spotted Woodpecker. Dendrocopus 

major (Linn.) 
At Rowney Warren, Sandy, Clophill and 
in Ampthill and Turvey Parks, I have found 
this species nesting, in the latter locality the 
excavation used being certainly of several 
years' standing. Mr. J. King used to find its 
eggs rather frequently at Southill and War- 
den, and the bird is still plentiful there. It 
nests also at Woburn Park and probably does 
so at Bromham and Bushmead Parks ; at 
Henlow Park it is also said to be a resident 
species. Professor Alfred Newton occasionally 
saw this woodpecker around Everton when 
he resided there, 1847-8. Davis mentioned 
it as a common species around Luton. It is 
more numerous during the winter months, 
and judging from the numbers received by 
the local taxidermist, our resident birds must, 
especially in some years, be considerably added 
to by migratory sojourners. A variety con- 
siderably pied with grey has been obtained. 

87. Lesser Spotted Woodpecker. Dendrocopus 

minor (Linn.) 
This species is about as numerous as the 
last named, but being a much smaller bird is 
more likely to escape general observation, 
though probably it does not roam the country 
as freely as the foririer species during the 
winter. At least one pair nest regularly in 
Turvey and Bromham Parks. I have also 
found it during the nesting season at Roxton 
Spinneys and at Kempston ; I believe this bird 
is a resident also at Henlow Grange and Wo- 
burn. Mr. J. King adds Warden and South- 
hill, where in the latter park years ago he 
found two nests, both of which contained 

88. Kingfisher. Alcedo ispida, Linn. 
Notwithstanding its too numerous persecu- 
tors this bird is still fairly common except 
perhaps in a few localities. The kingfisher 
is early in its nesting, generally being found 



with eggs early in April. My friend, Mr. 
W. Knight, informed me of a pair having a 
nest containing six eggs as early as 28 March, 
and I have known them with young still in 
the nest as late as 6 August. 

89. Hoopoe. Upupa epops, Linn. 

One was shot at Thurleigh by a Mr. King 
many years ago (A. Covington), another at 
Woburn Park about i868, and one in the 
writer's possession was obtained by Mr. J. Cole 
at Haynes in the autumn of 1876. A fourth 
was shot 5 October 1890 by a keeper to one 
of the shooting tenants of Lord St. John at 
Melchbourne, and is now in his lordship's 
possession (see also the Field, 1890). Another 
was killed between Luton and Dunstable 
about 1885, and passed through Mr. T. 
Cane's hands. 

90. Cuckoo. Cuculus canorus, Linn. 

A common summer migrant, arriving gener- 
ally about the middle of April, and leaving 
during the first week in July ; immature birds 
remain with us until September. I have 
notes of a cuckoo's egg being found at Lang- 
ford as early as 8 May, and of a young one, 
several days old, as early as 18 May. In 
addition to the usual foster parents there are 
records of the nests of the greenfinch, 
chaffinch, yellow hammer, willow warbler, 
chifFchaff and whinchat being chosen. 

91. White or Barn Owl. Strix jlammea, 

Still fairly abundant in old timbered parks, 
such as Ampthill, Woburn and Bromham, 
where several pairs may be found nesting. In 
former years when farming was a profitable 
industry, and barns in which to store grain 
were more needed than at present, an ' owl 
hole ' would frequently be left in the barn at 
the top corner of the gable end to allow this 
bird an entrance, so that the rats and mice 
might be kept in check. A pied variety with 
the tail and the whole of the wing feathers 
pure white was shot at Harrold in January 

92. Long-eared Owl. Asia otus (Linn.) 
This species still nests frequently in the fir 

woods and spruce plantations between Sandy 
and Potton ; during 1900 at least three pairs 
nested at Rowney Warren and two pairs in 
the small plantations at Sharpenhoe ; a pair 
nest regularly in one of the fir plantations at 
Maulden. It formerly bred in Southill 
Warren and may still do so, as also in War- 
den Warren and the fir woods around Ampt- 

hill and Woburn. Judging from the thou- 
sands of pellets of this species that I have been 
able to examine from those localities, there 
is little doubt that this owl is comparatively 
harmless to game preserving and well deserv- 
ing of protection, as in no single instance have I 
ever detected any remains of the young of 
game ; mice, voles and various species of 
finches comprising nearly their entire prey. 

93. Short-eared Owl. Jsio accipitrinus (Pallas) 
A regular winter visitor, but as a rule in 

very limited numbers, and solitary birds are 
usually found. Mr. C. T. Lindsell whilst 
partridge-driving at Cople in November 1894 
observed nine or ten together ; five were seen 
some years ago at Biddenham sitting in some 
sedgey-grass ; four were killed in one day at 
Woburn, and I understand that it occurs fre- 
quently on Flitwick Moor. Mr. J. King re- 
fers to its having been killed around Biggles- 
wade. The earliest migrant noted was one 
killed 17 October 1878, and the latest, one 
shot 3 April 1895, as it rose out of the flags 
alongside the river. 

94. Tawny Owl. Syrnium aluco (Linn.) 
By no means a common species with us 

and rarer than formerly. I have known of 
several nests at Bromham and Southill, and in 
recent years have found its eggs also at Wilden. 
At Turvey it nests regularly, and it may still 
continue to do so at Woburn, Ampthill, 
Haynes, Odell, Tempsford and Warden ; in 
the last-named locality Mr. J. King once 
found a nest containing the unusual number 
of six eggs. 

95. Little Owl. Athene noctua (Scopoli) 
For many years the late Lord Lilford en- 
deavoured to establish this species at Oundle 
Park in Northamptonshire and eventually suc- 
ceeded in so doing, a nest and eggs being 
found there in 1889. No doubt the numbers 
of this species that have been shot in recent 
years have originated from this locality. Mr. 
J. Wilkerson mentioned this bird nesting 
regularly of late years in the neighbourhood of 
Wyboston, and during 1 900 a nest containing 
four or five eggs from which the young were 
reared was found at Great Barford. A female 
killed near Southill on 22 May contained 
eggs, so was also probably nesting at the time. 
A nest from which two young were taken 
was found at Harlington in 1 902 and a pair 
were nesting near Ampthill in 1903 {Field). 
In 1862 one was caught at Woburn and was 
kept alive by Mr. C. F. Woods for three 
months, but it eventually escaped. 



96. Marsh-Harrier. Circus aruginosus (Linn.) 

The late Mr. T. Cane informed me that 
he had observed this species about 1865 over 
" The Bogs " close to Luton, which was then 
a marshy swamp extending about a mile. 
One in his collection was killed there about 
1870. Mr. A. Covington has also heard of 
this harrier being shot along the Ouse years 
ago, but has never seen a local specimen. 

97. Hen-Harrier. Circus cyaneus (Linn.) 

Early in the last century this species evi- 
dently still nested in Bedfordshire. Mr. J. 
King can call to mind information given to 
him some fifty years ago by an old man, who 
remembered both the hen-harrier and the kite 
in this county. Mr. A. Covington's uncle, 
who lived at Keysoe, knew this bird well ; but 
it was not so common in that particular 
neighbourhood. Again an old farmer who 
lived at Colmworth used to speak of it as 
common in that parish in his boyhood days ; 
he had found its eggs on two or three occa- 
sions, and described their colour and the posi- 
tion of its nest. More recent records of its 
wanderings into the county are as follows : a 
female shot at Sutton Park in November 
1865 ; another in the possession of Dr. 
Sprigge, which was shot between Roxton 
and Tempsford ; one in similar plumage in 
the possession of J. Clark, head keeper at 
Woburn, which I have examined, trapped at 
Potsgrove about August 1892 ; and another 
shot at Ickwell about 1880. 

98. Buzzard. Buteo vulgaris. Leach. 

The early history of this bird in the county 
is generally associated with that of the kite, 
and where particulars are obtained of the one 
formerly nesting so probably will records also 
be found of the other. The most recent 
nesting of this species mentioned by Mr. 
A. Covington was at Putnoe Wood, where a 
hen bird was shot upon the nest by his in- 
formant ; in another instance, where a nest 
was situated in a clump of trees near Knight's 
Lane, Oakley, the hen bird was shot whilst 
leaving the nest and her three eggs. Occur- 
rences of this bird with us in later years 
are by no means rare, as it is still common in 
many localities of Wales and Scotland, whence 
it may occasionally wander to the midland 

99. Rough-legged Buzzard. Buteo lagopus 

(J. F. Gmelin) 

The inclusion of this species rests upon 

three occurrences only. One was shot at 

Luton in 1839 {fieds Mercury), another which 

I have recently examined was shot by Mr. P. 

Addington near Colmworth Wood in Novem- 
ber 1892, and the third, a male, was trapped 
by Mr. H. Gates at Sundon early in December 
1894. It had been seen about for some two 
months previously and was caught while 
feeding on a rabbit. 

[Golden Eagle. Aquila chrysa'itus (Linn.) 

The Rev. F. O. Morris states {Brit. Birds, 
vol. i. pt. i. ed. 4) that two of this species 
were seen in the neighbourhood of the park 
of Woburn Abbey, Beds, in the winter of 
1820, and one of them was shot by Thomas 
Judge, the Duke of Bedford's gamekeeper ; 
another occurred in the same neighbourhood 
late in the autumn of 1844. I have failed 
to trace any particulars respecting either of 
these records, as no such specimens are pre- 
served at the abbey at the present day, nor is 
anything known of them.] 

100. White-tailed Eagle. HaliaStus albicilla 

The following particulars of the occurrence 
of this eagle in the county are taken from the 
Field: 'On 15 March 1863 one was ob- 
served in the parish of Cardington. It was 
shot at, and its wing broken ; it was found 
to be blind in one eye, the cornea of the left 
eye being quite opaque. It was kept alive 
for a few days, eating portions of a lamb 
which were put into its mouth. When it 
was first taken the plumage appeared perfect, 
except the tail feathers, the ends of which 
were rather worn. The tail feathers were 
greyish in colour. It was added to the collec- 
tion of Mr. Barlow of Cambridge ' (Wm. 
Thurnall, Bedford). What eventually be- 
came of the specimen I am unable to add, as 
the collection was dispersed by auction some 
twenty-five years ago. 

I o I . Sparrow-Hawk. Accipiter nisus (Linn.) 

Fairly abundant, but undoubtedly a gra- 
dually decreasing species. It is very conser- 
vative in its nesting haunts, returning year 
after year to the same wood or spinney re- 
gardless of the constant persecution it may 
receive. When one of a pair is killed the 
other soon finds another mate, and they will 
take up the same quarters as before ; if both 
are killed, the locality will be selected the 
following year by another pair. The more 
wooded parts of the county are naturally 
their favourite breeding haunts, and in such 
localities as Stagsden, Turvey, Bromham, 
Bolnhurst, Thurleigh, and the range of woods 
from Southill to Clophill, it has been known 
to nest regularly for many years. 



102. Kite. Mihus ictinuSy Savignjr. 
Evidently by no means a rare nesting 

species in the county during the early years 
of the past century, but it must have been 
exterminated soon afterwards, for no recent 
record can be traced of this bird even as a 
visitant with us. The only two instances 
that can be given arc one shot at Bromham 
Park some time in the ' thirties,' and another 
some few years afterwards in Cleat Lane near 
Clapham Wood. An old gamekeeper named 
Goodliff assured me that in his early days 
(about 1 8 13) both the kite and buzzard built 
fairly commonly in the woods at Keysoe and 
Bushmead, and he had often taken the eggs 
of both species. Another keeper said it 
formerly nested in the woods around Haynes. 
Mr. J. King from another old informant 
learned that it once nested in a row of elm 
trees between Langford and Holme, and he 
says his fether could remember this bird 
occasionally being seen at Southill. Mr. A. 
Covington reports it as formerly nesting around 
Bolnhurst and Keysoe, where his uncle knew 
it well and had taken its eggs, and also reared 
young birds from the nest. A pair built a nest 
in Silsoe Woods, but both were destroyed. 

103. Honey-Buzzard. Pernis apivorus {h'mn.) 
A rare summer visitant ; it probably nested 

in limited numbers in former years. About 
1852 a honey-buzzard was caught in a ver- 
min trap in the woods at Haynes Park, and 
is now stuffed and in possession of the owner 
of the property {Naturalist, B. R, Morris, 
1855), In June 1871 a female was taken at 
Silsoe, and eggs as large as sloes were found 
in the ovaries. Its crop contained grass- 
hoppers and other insects (Zoologist). A very 
dark female in the writer's possession was 
shot at Warden Warren 27 May 1874. On 
2 October 1883 one was shot at Harrold and 
passed through the hands of Mr, A, Covington, 
A female that I recently examined was ob- 
tained at Potton Wood 8 June 1901, 

104. Peregrine Falcon. Fa/co peregrinus, 

This bird is a regular winter visitor to our 
county, occurring most frequently from No- 
vember till February, and in single instances 
only as early as August and as late as April. 
Seldom a year passes without reports of one 
or more being seen or killed. Most examples 
are in immature plumage. 

105. Hobby. Fako subbuteo, Linn. 

This bird formerly nested in Keysoe Wood ; 
the last pair that frequented Bromham Park 
were shot from the nest by the keeper in 

June 1865. About 1880 a nest of young 
was taken at Colmworth, and passed into the 
hands of Mr. Bryant, poulterer, Bedford. 
According to Mr. P, Addington it used to 
nest regularly in Colmworth Wood, utilizing 
the crows' old nests, A former keeper at 
Odell Wood shot three young hobbies just 
after leaving their nest, one of which I have 
seen ; and I was told by Gell, the present 
gamekeeper, that about 1883, when first he 
came to Odell Woods, he set traps in the 
various crows' nests, and once caught a hobby 
in a small wood by the road ; during the 
afternoon of the same day he shot another 
close by. He also informed me that his 
father had two specimens set up in a case, 
which were shot near Knotting Wood. The 
most recent records of the hobby nesting in 
Bedfordshire occurred in the woods adjacent 
to Turvey Park on the Stagsden side. In 
1890 Cowley, a working man with a good 
knowledge of local birds, took four eggs from 
a wood close to Turvey Park ; in 1 89 1 Mr. D. 
Campbell took three, and on 31 May 1892 
he and Mr. A. F. Crossman took four more 
from a plantation in the same locality ; in 
each case the nest of the carrion crow had 
■been adopted. The female of a pair in the 
woods at Turvey was killed in 1897. Mr. J. 
King mentions that the last instance of the 
hobby near Langford was in 1894, and gives 
the following records in that neighbourhood : 
one shot on 16 September 1853, another a 
week later ; one on 1 8 May 1 854, and one 
on 22 September 1891, In 1901 one was 
trapped in a wood near Podington, 

106. Merlin. Fako asalon, Tunstall. 

A scarce winter visitant, and of far more 
frequent occurrence years ago, when several 
might have been observed at the local taxi- 
dermist's shop. Now a year or so may pass 
without even one being recorded. Immature 
birds are far commoner than adults, and occur 
throughout the winter months. The parish 
of Elstow seems always to have been the 
principal locality in which this bird has been 
obtained. Mr. A. Covington states that about 
twenty-five years ago he received as many as 
three in one week from that place. The 
following are some of the most recent occur- 
rences : At Elstow in 1889, on 30 January 
1897, and in September 1898, also in Novem- 
ber 1 90 1 and January 1 902 ; at Renhold 
close to the river about 1888 ; at Harrowden 
in April 1890 and on 10 November 1891 ; 
at Felmersham on 24 February 1894 ; at 
Newnham on the sewage farm in October 
1894; at Cardington on 29 October 1897 
and at Tingrith about 1898. 



107. Kestrel. Falco tinnunculus, Linn. 

Common, nesting plentifully, though some- 
what locally, even in unpreserved districts. 
During the winter months it is a partial 
migrant, as at that time several may be seen 
together about the meadow lands and espe- 
cially in the neighbourhood of Goldington 
and Cardington, whereas in the summer it 
will rarely be observed. The nests of the 
magpie, both old and new (if the latter have 
already been robbed of the rightful owner's 
eggs), are usually adopted, and also crows' 
nests, holes in trees being next in favour. 
Occasionally the nest of the sparrow-hawk is 
selected, and in one instance I have found their 
eggs in the fork of an ivy-covered oaktree. 

108. Osprey. Pandion haUaltus (Linn.) 

An occasional spring and autumn migrant. 
The earliest record is one shot at Luton in 1839 
{Beds Mercury). One formerly in the posses- 
sion of Mr. W. King was shot by him in 
1852 at the moats in Biggin Spinney, Roxton ; 
another was shot on the Ivel at Blunham by 
Mr. Triplow in 1877, both of which have 
come under my observation. One shot at Tur- 
vey in July 1863 is preserved at the Abbey, 
and another frequented the river between 
Stevington and Oakley about 1867 for over a 
fortnight. Davis {History of Luton, ed. 2) re- 
fers to one killed in Luton Park about 1844, 
and Dr. C. Sprigge saw one near Roxton 
Bridge about 1894. According to Mr. J. 
Wilkerson the osprey has occurred twice near 
Chawston, the last instance being in 1889. 
On 18 May 1894 Mr. King and I saw an 
osprey at the pool in Southill Park. The 
most recent occurrence is a male shot at 
Southill 31 August 1900. 

109. Cormorant. Phalacrocorax carbo (Linn.) 
A rare straggler inland. Three have come 

within the knowledge of Mr. A. Covington, 
but only one, which was shot at Sutton in 
1863, was received by him in the flesh ; one 
of the others was killed previous to that year 
on the brick-kiln in one of the brickyards 
along the road to Clapham. Mr. T. Cane 
received one to set up which had been shot 
about 1865 as it sat on the roof of Todding- 
ton church. Mr. J. King mentions having 
seen one about 1875 at Southill Lake, and 
on 3 May 1901 another came under my 
observation there — it was sitting on the brick- 
work surrounding the pool island. 

no. Shag or Green Cormorant. Phalacro- 
corax graculus (Linn.) 
Another rare straggler inland. Mr. J. 
King mentions an immature bird which was 

I I 

caught in a potato field at Biggleswade on 
29 August 1877, ^^^ the following instances 
are given by Mr. A. Covington : One killed 
at Biddenham Backwater about 1859; an 
immature bird received by him about 1868 
that had been killed on the river at Kemp- 
ston ; another taken to him alive on 28 
August 1887 — it had been caught by a man 
at Renhold, who had seen two birds alight 
on a pond during a very high wind, and by 
running up was able to catch one, which was 
apparently exhausted. 

III. Can net or Solan Goose. Sula bassana 
Very rarely observed. Mr. A. Covington 
remembers one being caught alive locally 
many years ago, but he cannot call to mind 
the name of the place. In February 1895 
Mr. J. King saw two gannets at Langford 
flying over during the first week of that 
month. They were passing at a good height 
from south-west to north-east. 

n 2. Common Heron. Ardea cinerea, Linn. 
Locally, Heronshaw, Mollhern. 
A common winter visitant, and at times I 
have seen them in flights of as many as ten 
together, but no heronry now exists in the 
county. Until about 1869 they bred in 
Luton Hoo Park, when by an accident in a 
high wind some trees were blown down on 
what is known as* The Island' and destroyed 
their nests (Davis, Hist, of Luton, ed. 2, 
1874). Isolated nests have occasionally 
occurred. Two were built in the Cowhill 
rookery at Woburn about 1855, but being 
within a stone's throw of the London road 
they were harried, and the birds did not 
attempt nesting there again (C. F. Woods). 
Dr. Sprigge records that a pair nested on a 
fir tree in the six-acre plantation at Temps- 
ford about 1890. In the Twin Woods at 
Clapham at least a few pairs nested regularly 
until about 1850, or possibly a few years 
later. A pair attempted nesting about i88o 
in the tall poplar trees close to the island in 
the river between Cardington and Castle 
Mills, and previous to 1895 another pair 
nested on the small island in the lake at 
Southill Park. When I visited this island in 
May 1899 a nest which the birds had placed 
there in that year was on the horizontal 
branch of a tree overhanging the water, but 
only partly constructed. Either the owners 
had forsaken it, or they had no intention at 
the time of completing it. I was assured 
that they were in no way molested. The 
only locality in the county where at least 
two pairs nest regularly, and have done so 

21 16 


for certainly the last thirteen years, is on 
Sandy Warren, which is accounted for with- 
out doubt by the great interest taken in 
these birds by Viscount Peel. 

113. Night-Heron. Nycticorax griseus (Linn.) 
In Montague's Ornithological Dictionary, 

edited by Edward Newman, the following is 
recorded : ' We are informed by Lord Upper 
Ossary that this species was shot on the bor- 
ders of the river Ouse in the year 1791, a 
few miles from Ampthill, and that it is now 
in his lordship's museum. It is remarkable, 
too, that the bird was killed in the summer.' 
There is however no such specimen now in 
existence at Ampthill House, neither can I 
gain any additional information relating to 
the above occurrence. Mr. J. King once 
saw a bird alight in his meadows at Langford 
which seemed to him most probably of this 
species. He got within less than a hundred 
yards, and distinctly recognized its dark back 
as it rose. 

114. Little Bittern. Jrdetta minuta (Linn.) 

A female or immature specimen, which 
was obtained in September 1894 by some 
youths whilst boating down the river, was 
shown to me by Mr. G. Pestell ; it had been 
shot as it sat upon the head of a pollard 
willow near Castle Mills. Upwards of thirty 
years ago a case containing two of these birds 
was sent to Mr. A. Covington for repairs. 
The owner informed him the birds had been 
killed in the county many years previously. 
These were evidently the specimens in the 
late Mr. T. Cane's possession, of which 
similar particulars to the above were given. 

115. Bittern. Bofaurus stellaris [Linn.) 

A visitant in most severe winters. The 
earliest record I can trace was one shot 
at Blunham about 1850, and in January 
1856 one is mentioned in the Zoologist as ob- 
tained at Lawrence End near Luton. Mr. 
C. F. Woods mentions one killed at Tingrith 
Manor 1858—9, which he saw in the flesh. 
Since then there have been numerous records 
of this bird. The spell of sharp weather that 
was experienced in the winter 1 899-1 900 
brought a remarkable number of bitterns into 
the British Islands, in several counties numer- 
ous records being given, and in Bedfordshire 
such a * bittern year ' is hardly likely to occur 

116. American Bittern. Botaurus lentiginosus 
An example of this rare straggler was shot 

by Mr. Cocking from the brook by the old 
racecourse at Elstow 13 November 1886, and 
is still in his possession. Mr. Covington, in 
whose hands I saw the bird whilst being set 
up, informs me that it was a female, and in 
very good condition ; the stomach contained 
at the time the remains of three small dace 
and a water shrew. 

117. Grey Lag-Goose. Jnsercinereus, Meyer. 
Probably a regular passing migrant in the 

spring and autumn, but very seldom alighting ; 
it may be occasionally observed in winter. 
From 'The Bogs' near Luton, which are now 
drained and under cultivation, Mr. T. Cane 
once saw three grey lag-geese that had been 
killed at one shot. The first and last of this 
species that ever came under Mr. Covington's 
observation as having occurred locally were 
two that were brought into his shop about 
1868, by a farmer who had killed them from 
a small flock at Ravensden. During the same 
winter another goose, evidently of the same 
species from the description given him at the 
time, was shot from a small 'gaggle' (pro- 
bably the same birds) at Biddenham. 

118. White-Fronted Goose. Anser albifrom 


Probably this species need not be considered 
as rare with us, for although only two in- 
stances of its occurrence in the county can 
be given, the quantities of geese observed 
during any severe winter might frequently 
include this particular bird. Mr. A. Coving- 
ton mentions that a male was killed out of a 
flock of fourteen at Cople about 1863, and 
passed through his hands. Another, in the 
writer's possession was shot from a party of 
four on the Cardington meadows on 19 De- 
cember 1901. 

119. Bean-Goose. Jnser segetum (J. F. 

There seems little doubt that the somewhat 
frequent information received of 'grey' geese 
haunting the neighbourhood of our watervi^ays 
during the more severe winters would gener- 
ally refer to this particular species, which usually 
occurs in small ' gaggles ' of five or six up to 
fifteen or twenty in number ; at times far 
larger flocks appear. Mr. P. Addington shot 
two bean-geese from a flight of seven along 
the Ouse at Wyboston Corner in January 
about 1870, one of which I have examined ; 
one in the possession of Mr. J. King was 
killed from a small flight at Southill on 10 
December 1871, and two were shot from a 
flock of seven that were on the Biddenham 
and Kempston meadows 28 December 1883. 



1 20. Bernacle-Goose. Bernicla kucopsis{Bcch- 

A very unfamiliar species with us. An 
adult male purchased by Mr. Covington about 
1885 had been shot near Renhold; it was 
alone when killed and was in extremely poor 
condition. Mr. A. F. Grossman records that 
on 24 December 1890 a flight of eight flew 
over the river quite close to him near the 
Britannia Iron Works in Bedford. 

121. Brent Goose. Bernkla brenta (Pallas) 

Evidently occurs far more commonly in 
Bedfordshire than the previous species. On 
1 1 February 1 8 7 1 four were killed at Great 
Barford by Dr. C. Sprigge from a flight of 
thirteen. An adult male was obtained by 
Mr. J. Bennett close to the town of Bedford 
on 3 December 1877, and others had been 
seen the day before at Cardington (see also 
Zoologist, 1878). Mr. A. Covington men- 
tions two locally' obtained specimens and 
also a flight of forty-seven which he saw 
near Clapham Wood on 4 October 1881 ; 
they were going very slowly at the time 
and he obtained a good view. A few days 
later he heard of a black-headed goose being 
shot in the neighbourhood of Pavenham. 
Mr. A. F. Crossman observed a solitary brent 
goose passing over the Clapham road, near 
the Bedford waterworks, on 10 March 1892, 
and several were said to have been seen on 
the sewage farm 5 November of the following 
winter. Mr. W. J. Chalk once saw a flock 
passing over a hedge at the back of the rec- 
tory at Wilden, so low as to come within ten 
yards of him ; and Mr. C. F. Woods records 
occasional winter visitants to Woburn. 

122. Whooper Swan, 

Cygnus musicus, Bech- 

An occasional visitant, more particularly 
during severe winters, and nearly always ob- 
served passing onwards without alighting. I 
have seen one in the possession of Mr. J. 
Cole, which was killed with one or more mute 
swans at Newmill End near Luton in the 
winter 1890-1. Mr. A. Covington is aware 
of only one instance of its being obtained 
locally, when one was killed at Milton many 
years previous to its first coming under his 
observation in 1865. Mr. C. F. Woods men- 
tions that in the long frost which set in on 
Christmas Eve, either in 1862—3 °^ ^8^3~4> 
a party of seven, two adults and five birds of 
the year, came to the Basin and Large Drake- 
low Pools at Woburn, and remained several 
weeks, most of them being killed. 

123. Bewick's Swan. Cygnus bewicki,Yarrel\ 
A rare winter visitor. Three were procured 

within a mile of Woburn in the latter end of 
January 1864 (C. Hervey Smith, Zoologist, 
1 864). Mr, A. F. Crossman says that two 
wild swans came under his observation on 29 
November 1890 near Cardington Locks, 
which he considered were of this species. 
Their note was tong, tong, and as he was able 
to get within one hundred yards of them, he 
particularly noticed their small size. 

124. Common Sheld-Duck. Tadornacornuta 

(S. G. Gmelin) 

Occurs with us at rare intervals. In the 
severe and continued winter, 1 894-5, Mr. J. 
Wilkerson mentions that about twenty were 
observed along the Ouse in the neighbourhood 
of Wyboston Corner. One, an odd bird, 
was killed about February and passed into the 
possession of Mr. J. Addington, who has also 
seen this duck in that district, the last time 
being in February 1900, when two came 
comparatively near to him while duck-shooting 
upon the floods. Two together were also seen 
by Dr. C. Sprigge at Great Barford about 1 887. 
Mr. A. Covington has preserved two that were 
killed locally, both adult males, one being ob- 
tained at Cardington in 1864, and the other 
from Great Barford several years later. He 
purchased a case containing two immature 
sheld-ducks many years ago ; they were simply 
labelled ' Goldington,' 

125. Mallard or Wild Duck. Anas boscas, 


In the winter our home-bred birds are 
frequently added to considerably by numbers 
of immigrants, probably continental birds, and 
when the weather is in any way severe, es- 
pecially after a north-east wind, duck-shooting 
along the waterways and at our various lakes 
may be carried on for a time with fair success, 
when the Ouse and other streams are in 
flood, large flights may frequently be observed. 
In very mild winters even small flights are 
rarely seen along our rivers. Pied, cream- 
coloured and white variations have been met 

126. Gadwall. Anas strepera, Linn, 

A rare visitant, Mr. J. King shot an im- 
mature male on 5 April 1861 on the Ivel at 
Langford ; in this specimen the crescentic 
margins on the feathers of the breast were 
as yet visible in one of the feathers only. 
Mr. A. Covingtop mentions a female killed 
at Blunham during the winter 1889-90 in 
company with mallards. 



127. Shoveler. Spatula dypeata (Linn.) 

A visitant in small numbers probably during 
most winters, and is one of the four species of 
duck that have been know^n to nest v/ith us. 
At Luton Hoo a pair w^ere said to have nested 
in the park in 1893. I have visited these 
pools almost every year since, but have never 
been able to find this species there again. At 
the sewrage farm at Nev\rnham, one if not 
two pairs of shovelers nested in 1898. The 
first nest found was on 5 May, and contained 
four eggs, which were taken ; the nest was in 
the middle of a large tuft of rushes growing 
out in the water of the 'sewage-lake' that 
existed at that time. On 21 May a nest 
containing six eggs, which were also taken, 
was found among the thick grass in a 
small osier bed within the same field, and in 
addition to these, I understand, two other 
eggs were also eventually procured. During 
the previous year, shovelers were said to have 
frequented the same locality during the nest- 
ing season, and it seems probable that they 
may also have nested, especially as small eggs 
of a duck were said to have been found. 
They have not infrequently been killed on 
the river in the vicinity of Wyboston ; several 
instances of the ' spoonbill ' duck being shot 
in past years have been brought under my 
notice. One was obtained in 1889 from the 
moat around Chawston Manor ; Dr. C. 
Sprigge shot this species at Great Barford about 
1890, when a pair together were observed 
by him upon the floods. In November 1889 
a female was shot from the Ouse at Golding- 
ton. Two adult males were also killed 3 
January 1 89 1 at Kempston, and a pair had 
been killed from the same water many years 
previously. Another, also a male, was shot 
in the same parish shortly after the two drakes 
were obtained. A solitary female was killed 
by myself on the Ouse at Goldington 7 Janu- 
ary 1892, and on 27 July of the same year 
one was seen down the river below Bedford. 
A female was shot 25 September 1897 on the 
Newnham farm, and another by Colonel H. 
Barclay at the pools in Tingrith Park in 

128. Pintail. Dafila acuta (Linn.) 

A winter visitor, resorting to our rivers and 
pools most years, but in very limited numbers ; 
formerly more numerous. Females and im- 
mature males are far more plentiful than adult 
males. At the lake in Southill Park one was 
killed about i860, and came under the obser- 
vation of Mr. J. King. Dr. C. Sprigge once 
saw three or four together on the flooded 
meadows at Great Barford, One was shot near 

Castle Mills in the winter 1889-90, another, a 
fine male bird, killed near Harrold Hall 1 1 
January 1 892, and an adult female shot at the 
Newnham farm 18 September 1894. In 
the winter 1 899-1 900 several were secured : 
a female at Roxton, two females at Renhold, 
and a beautiful adult drake shot from the Ouse 
at Goldington, 

129. Teal, Nettion crecca (Linn.) 

A winter visitor, and is frequently met with 
on all our larger waterways and pools. It 
seems evident that in former years and in 
certain favoured localities it once bred regu- 
larly. Mr. J. King can recall at least three 
nests with eggs being found in the vicinity of 
the lake at Southill, several eggs from which 
he has kindly presented to me. In one in- 
stance, whilst the keepers and others were 
gathering pheasants' eggs in the park, those of 
the teal were also picked up, and remained 
unrecognized imtil hatched in an incubator. 
In more recent years I have never met with 
it on the lake later in the spring than 9 April, 
but the head keeper assures me that a nest 
and eggs were again found in 1 893, At 
Luton Hoo a pair were seen by the water 
keeper nesting as recently as 1895 ; they bred 
in the vicinity of several water-holes in one of 
the woods of the park some distance away 
from the larger pools. 

130. Garganey. ^erquedula circia (Linn.) 

One of the rarer of the numerous species 
of ducks that visit us ; formerly more frequent. 
A fine old male, which is now in the posses- 
sion of Mr. J. Smith, was killed at Fenlake 
about 1872 ; another, also a male, was shot at 
Ravensden in November 1890, and a female 
was obtained near the ford at Clapham in the 
spring of 1 89 1. The most recent occurrence 
was one killed at Milton about 1892. One 
was observed on the pool at Luton Hoo by 
Mr. W. C. Thompson, and several local speci- 
mens have been reported to me, but without 
any additional particulars. , 

131. Wigeon. Mareca penelope {Linn.) 

Throughout the winter, and more particu- 
larly during the early months of the year, 
the wigeon is frequently met with in numer- 
ous localities along the Ouse, and on many of 
our larger sheets of water. It occurs generally 
in small parties, but occasionally in flights 
from fifteen to twenty and upwards ; adult 
males are few in number compared with fe- 
males or birds of the year, 

132. Pochard. Fuligula ferina (Linn.) 

Still fairly abundant as a winter and spring 



visitor, occurring more particularly in small 
parties from November till the following 
March. It is not so numerous as in former 
years, and in localities where it was once of 
annual occurrence it is now seldom observed. 
The inequality in the numbers of the two 
sexes is remarkable, males almost invariably 
outnumbering the females. On i6 April 
1896 I counted about thirty upon the two 
pools in Luton Hoo Park, and learnt from the 
water keeper that considerable numbers had 
been breeding there for many years past ; on 
a second visit on 26 May of the same year 
upwards of forty of this species were counted, 
most of the females being then with young. 
One nest I examined was situated among the 
rushes close to the margin of the pool ; this, I 
was informed, was almost invariably the situ- 
ation chosen there, the majority of nests 
being unapproachable from the banks. Visit- 
ing the park in 1899 ^ found the number of 
pochards considerably decreased, and again, 
on 7 May 1901, only three in all could be 
noted. On 15 May following a pair were 
noticed on the smaller pool in Battlesden Park, 
where previously they had not been identified 
at all during the breeding season. Davis, in 
his History of Luton and Neighbourhood (both 
in the 1855 and second edition of 1874), re- 
fers to this species as a winter visitor, so that 
it has evidently only bred there in later years. 

133. Ferruginous Duck. FuUgula nyroca 

A rare visitor. One that is now in my 
collection was bought by Mr. J. Cole, taxider- 
mist, when in the flesh, during the winter of 
1890— I, having been shot on the river Lea, 
at Newmill End, close to Luton Hoo Park. 

1 34. Tufted Duck. Fuligula cristata (Leach) 

Although not so frequent as several others 
of the duck family, it is constantly met with, 
either singly, in pairs or small parties, from 
October onwards throughout the winter ; it 
is found along the Ouse, Ivel and other 
streams. Mr. W. C. Thompson assured me 
that this species bred at Luton Hoo Park in 
1894, but the water keeper there could not 
confirm this beyond that they remained there 
till late in the spring. When I visited the 
pools on 16 April 1895 there were six or 
eight together, several beautiful males being 
among the party. Upon visiting the park 
again in May 1896, and in following years 
during the same month, I have failed to find 
this species. 

135. Scaup-Duck. Fuligula marila (Linn.) 
The occurrence of this duck in any winter 

is now the exception rather than the rule 
as in former years. It has been met with 
almost as frequently along the Ouse as either 
the pochard, tufted duck, or goldeneye, and 
on the Ivel and in the neighbourhood of Lang- 
ford Mr. Josiah King used to consider it 
even commoner than those species, being 
only outnumbered by the mallard and teal. 
It is some years since I heard of its being 
obtained. Very few adult males have been 
obtained locally ; not more than a dozen have 
passed through the hands of Mr. A. Covington 
during over thirty years' experience as a local 
taxidermist, and Mr. J. King could never 
obtain one. 

136. Goldeneye. C langula glaucion {hinn.) 

Immature specimens of the goldeneye seem 
to occur somewhat frequently upon our rivers, 
and at times it is as numerous as the pochard 
or tufted duck, but adult males of this species 
are far rarer than either of the latter. Usually 
a pair or an odd bird only will be met with, 
or small parties rarely numbering more than 
four or five. 

137. Long-tailed Duck. Harelda glacialis 

So far as it has been possible to ascertain 
only two records of this rare arctic species 
have been locally obtained. A female was 
shot along the New Cut at Goldington during 
a heavy snow in the winter of 1870-1, and 
eventually passed into the possession of Mr. 
A. L. Jessopp (see also Zoologist). Another, 
an immature bird, is in the small but interest- 
ing collection belonging to Mr. G. Pestell. 
It was picked up dead some few years ago, 
also out of the New Cut. 

138. Common Scoter. CEdemia nigra {hinn.) 

Although this bird cannot be considered as 
a common inland visitor with us it has been 
obtained too frequently in our county to be 
classed as rare. It has, I believe, generally 
been observed singly, and apparently always 
during the autumn movements. Mr. J. King 
shot a male on the Ivel near his house at 
Langford on 2i October, 1858. Mr. A. 
Covington records the following instances : 
In November 1865 a boy from Ravensden 
brought in a fine old male in beautiful plum- 
age ; another was reported some few years 
afterwards during October at Harrold, and on 
4 November 1883 another male was brought 
in from Great Barford. In addition a female 
was shot at Fenlake in 1 886. On 1 1 July 1 870 
a flight of ten of these ducks was observed by 
Mr. P. Addington when shooting along the 



Ouse at Tempsford, and seven males and two 
females, all adults, were actually obtained by 
him. A male was killed on 1 9 August 1 8 7 9 by 
Mr. G. Hare at Campton, and Mr. W. Mills 
informs me he has one in his possession, which 
was killed on 14 October 1890 on the Ouse 
at Cardington. 

139. Velvet-Scoter. CEdemia Jusca (Linn.) 
An adult male is in the possession of Mr. 

J. Cole, taxidermist, of Leagrave ; it is cased 
in company with a common scoter, the two 
having been killed together close to Luton 
Hoo Park in the winter of 1 890-1. 

The common scoter is not mentioned by 
Davis, but strange to say Anas fuica is included 
as a winter visitor occasionally. 

140. Goosander. Mergus merganser, Linn. 
Of occasional occurrence. Some thirty or 

more years ago Mr. A. Covington saw an 
adult male that was shot at Cox's Pits ; he 
also mentions a female killed near Turvey in 
1862, and has in his possession another 
obtained in the winter of 1 870 and the head of 
one killed on 20 January 1891 at Sharnbrook. 
Mr. J. S. Wright informs me that a female 
was shot at Campton Mills by Mr. G. Hare 
on 2 December 1879, and he has set up 
several other local specimens. On 24 October 
1 88 1 one was shot at Langford. There is a 
beautiful adult male among the valuable group 
of locally-killed ducks in Mr. P. Addington's 
possession, which was killed by him, he believes, 
in February, about 1870, from Friars Pits, 
Tempsford ; it was accompanied by a female 
at the time. On another occasion he saw 
three others together at Great Bar ford. A 
female, which I have seen in the possession of 
Mr. C. L. Hall, and which he obtained at 
Newnham 28 November 1874, was recorded 
by him at the time in the Field. 

141. Red-breasted Merganser. Mergus ser- 

rator, Linn. 
Very occasionally met with and far less 
often recorded than the previous species. Only 
about six have passed through the hands of 
Mr. A. Covington, all being either in the im- 
mature plumage or adult females. There is 
one in the possession of Mr. P. Addington 
which he killed when in company with eight 
others during a hard winter, about 1875, at 
Wyboston Corner. A flight of eight ducks, 
which Mr. A. F. Crossman believed were 
mergansers, was observed by him at South ill 
Lake on 23 April 1894. 

142. Smew. Mergm albellus, Linn. 

Only at rare intervals has this bird wandered 

so far inland as to reach our waters, Mr. A. 
Covington informs me that three adult males 
were shot at Pavenham about 1870 ; a year 
or so after he received an adult male from 
Milton and a female a few days later from 
Goldington. In the winter of 1874-5 a 
female was killed at Clapham, the head of 
which came into his possession, and he has 
heard of one or more other instances, but not 
personally verified the species. In every 
instance he adds that, as in the case of the 
goosander and the merganser, they have in- 
variably been killed during hard weather. 
Two, evidently immature females, that I have 
seen in the possession of Mr. P. Addington 
were shot about 1870, though not during the 
same winter ; one he obtained near Temps- 
ford Bridge and the other between Great 
Barford and Tempsford ; in both instances 
they were unaccompanied. Dr. C. Sprigge 
also sends me word of two killed by him at 
Great Barford about 1895. 

143. Ring-Dove or Wood-Pigeon. Columba 

palumbus, Linn. 
Locally, Wood-Pigeon. 
Not only is this bird a common resident but 
its numbers are considerably increased by im- 
migration during the winter months, and the 
damage caused to the grain and pea crops in 
the summer is added to by the destruction 
among the root crops in the winter. Mr. J. 
King gives the following account of an amaz- 
ing flight of ring-doves he observed in the 
winter of 1895. * It was from the 5 th to the 
8th of December, that, not thousands, but hun- 
dreds of thousands, were passing over, going 
from north-east to south-west. They were, as 
a rule, in rather scattered flocks, but occasionally 
followed rather quickly ; then perhaps ten 
minutes or so would elapse before another 
flight came into view. They were passing 
each morning from daylight until ten or eleven 
o'clock. Some flocks must have contained 
many hundreds, sometimes small parties of not 
more than ten to twenty. The flight line 
seemed to be over Biggleswade, then passing 
immediately above Holme Mills — few flew 
as wide as Langford — generally well beyond 
the range of a gun. About a week after the 
above dates they came over for one day only, 
in almost as large numbers. These vast flights 
puzzle me considerably as the winter has been 
such a mild one.' 

144. Stock-Dove. Columba oenas., Linn. 
Locally, Little Pigeon. 

An abundant resident at Woburn, Ampt- 
hill, Luton Hoo and Bromham Parks, whilst 
in other parts of the county it is found nesting 



very commonly. It continues nesting over a 
very considerable portion of the year, in fact 
exceeding that of any other of our breeding 
species. I have particulars of a nest with 
eggs taken at Bedford Ford End as early as 
8 March 1893, and another elsewhere also 
with eggs on 12 March 1899; then we 
have the record of Mr. C. M. Prior {Zoologist) 
of finding fresh eggs as late as 2 October in 
1875. I have occasionally found these birds 
utilizing old nests of the magpie, 

145. Turtle-Dove. Turtur communis, Selby. 
A summer visitor, becoming more numerous 

every year. Twenty years ago we looked 
upon the finding of the nest of this bird as of 
some rarity, but nowadays it is by no means 
an uncommon incident in any neighbourhood ; 
and in its more favoured haunts, particularly 
the small plantations between Wootton and 
Marston, or again in Muggerhanger Grove, it 
nests very commonly. Its arrival generally 
takes place during the last week in April or 
early in May and its departure about the 
middle of September. 

146. Pallas's Sand-Grouse. Syrrhaptes para- 

doxus (Pallas) 
During the immigration of sand-grouse that 
reached the British Islands in considerable 
numbers in 1863 and several years following, 
no record of its occurrence is found any 
nearer than in the adjoining county of North- 
ampton. In 1888, when that wonderful 
irruption of some thousands reached our shores, 
many favoured us with their presence, but 
received I am afraid little better reception than 
that meted out to them only too generally. 
Mr. J. H. Barnard records that a flock of about 
fourteen visited the neighbourhood of Cople 
in May of that year and stayed for upwards of 
three weeks ; and Mr. A. Covington informs 
me that sand-grouse were also reported from 
Cranfield and Kempston ; in the latter locality 
one was taken alive on 3 July, and after 
being kept some few days again set at liberty. 
There is a specimen in the Modern School 
Museum which was picked up dead under 
telegraph wires at Thurleigh on 1 1 June, 
and another was obtained there shortly after- 
wards, but unfortunately not preserved. 
Another was killed at Caddington during the 
same year. 

147. Pheasant. Phasianus colchicus and P. 

torquatus, Linn. 

Both the black-necked pheasant (P. col- 
chicus) and the ring-necked pheasant {P. 
torquatus) are common with us, as well as 
the intermediate forms produced by the 

inter-breeding of these two species. At 
Woburn several other species of pheasant have 
been turned out on the estate. 

148. Partridge. Perdix cinerea, Latham. 
Very abundant. All the occurrences of 

albinism and white variations, which seem to 
have been unusually plentiful with us, have 
occurred in one particular district, namely be- 
tween Pertenhall and Bolnhurst, some four 
miles distant from each other. All may have 
arisen from one common stock, but it more 
probably bears out the statement that partridges 
reared on heavy clay lands are often poor in 
colour ; nevertheless it seems strange that with 
so much similar land in the county the records 
should be confined to this one locality. 

149. Red-legged Partridge. Caccabis rufa 

An introduced species now abundant 
throughout the county, though not in any way 
as numerous as our indigenous bird. Mr. J. 
Allen mentions that it was first killed in the 
neighbourhood of Ampthill at Brickhill Pas- 
tures in i860, and Mr. W. J. Chalk that one 
was shot by his grandfather at Wilden in 
1845. According to Davis it was common 
in the neighbourhood of Luton in 1855. 

150. Quail. Coturnix communis, Bonnaterre. 
A summer migrant, but it is very doubtful 

if it occurs every year with us ; it was former- 
ly far more plentiful. There is little doubt 
that this bird is far oftener met with in the 
vicinity of the chalk hills in the south than in 
any other part of the county. The land be- 
tween the Embankment and Goldington 
Road (particularly about that part where 
Howbury Street now stands) used to be al- 
most invariably frequented by quails and most 
years a few were killed. Mr. J. King shot 
one on 22 June 1854 near Stanford Mill and 
another at Langford on 3 July following, but 
not recently, and Major Brooks also mentions 
that the quail has been absent for years from 
Flitwick where formerly he often shot it. 
Numerous records have been supplied by Mr. 
A. Covington, Mr. J. Cole, Mr. A. F. Cross- 
man and others. 

151. Corn-Crake or Land-Rail. Crex pra- 

tensis, Bechstein. 
A fairly abundant but decreasing summer 
migrant. It arrives generally at the latter 
end of April or early in May, and leaves again 
usually in September, but often later, October 
birds being commonly met with. One was 
taken on 3 January a few years ago in the 
Grammar School grounds, Bedford, and 
another on 7 December 1899 at Henlow. 



152. Spotted Crake. Porzana maruetta 

Occurs with us regularly, though in small 
numbers, whilst on migration in the spring 
and autumn, but is far more commonly ob- 
tained during the latter movements. Mr. A. 
Covington has received altogether about two 
dozen specimens, the minority of which have 
been shot, and the remainder picked up along 
the railway, having killed themselves against 
the overhead wires. He mentions that most 
occur on the low meadows at Clapham and 
Oakley, and at Goldington and Fenlake, 
being generally obtained during April and 
August, though a few have occurred in Sep- 
tember and one as late as 7 November 1894. 
Mr. J. King has occasionally shot this species 
at Langford, and killed one at Clifton on 1 1 
November 1867. Mr. H. Pestell has one 
which was found dead on 11 June 1892 
under the telegraph wires at Elstow, and ac- 
cording to Mr. J. Cole several have been ob- 
tained at Leagrave Marsh, the most recent 
being one that killed itself against the railway 
wires on 7 September 1897. The last local 
occurrences of this bird were two in 1898, 
one shot at Cox's Pits and another at Golding- 
ton, and on 3 November 1900 an unusually 
large adult bird was shot from the New Cut, 
the gizzard of which was full of seeds. 

153. Little Crake. Porzana parva {SiCopoW) 
A very rare visitor. The only instance 

which has come under my notice was one 
caught by a dog at Longholm, close to the 
town of Bedford, on 2 May 1901. 

154. Water-Rail. Ra //us aguaticus, Linn. 
A regular winter resident, varying consider- 
ably in numbers, but not very abundant. It 
is likely to be found in most localities where 
there are sufficient water and unlimited skulk- 
ing accommodation for its requirements. 
During a continued frost its numbers increase 
for a time, but if such weather is prolonged 
a re-migration further south takes place, and 
the birds return when the weather becomes 
open again. In the severe weather of Decem- 
ber 1899, fifteen were taken to one of the 
local taxidermists within a fortnight. 

155. Moor-Hen. GaZ/inu/a ch/oropus {Unn.) 
It is extremely common along the Ouse, 

Ivel and our larger streams and pools ; m 
somefavourite localities regular colonies appear, 
and almost in every waterway and pond no 
matter how isolated, where there is the least 
bit of cover, either under or above the water 
and some sort of accommodation for a nest, 
the moor-hen will be found. This bird re- 

mains about its nesting haunts throughout the 
year, unless frost compels it to seek sustenance 
elsewhere. A pied variety, having the upper 
breast of ash-grey and under plumage white, 
was shot at Felmersham in January 1895 ; 
one with the head, neck and lower breast of a 
light bufif colour was killed in October 1 900. 

156. Coot. Fu/ica atroy Linn. 

Unlike the moor-hen, this bird is restricted 
in its nesting haunts almost entirely to the 
few pools that occur on several of the larger 
estates within our county, such as at Woburn, 
Luton Hoo, Southill and Battlesden, where 
they are in each instance exceedingly plentiful 
for the area of the waters. Although one 
would expect to find at least a few pairs nest- 
ing alongside our sluggish Ouse, especially in 
the private reaches of the river, such is very 
rarely the case. The majority remain at 
their breeding haunts the year through, pro- 
vided the weather remains open, but after a 
few days' continued frost they are frequently 
found along our principal waterways, though 
seldom more than a solitary bird or at most 
two in company, the greater number evidently 
departing direct to the coast. 

157. Great Bustard. Otis tarda, hinn. 
One said to have been killed on Mr. P. 

Addington's farm at Wyboston about 1840 by 
Mr. Martin George, at whose sale it was pur- 
chased for £2, passed into the possession of Dr. 
Rix of St. Neots. At his death it was again 
sold. Unfortunately I am unable to trace its 
present whereabouts. 

158. Stone-Curlew. (Edicnemus sco/opax (S. 

G. Gmelin) 
Until the middle of the nineteenth century 
this species was a familiar summer migrant to 
the neighbourhood of the chalk hills running 
through the south of Bedfordshire and oc- 
curred in other parts of the county, probably 
more or less frequently during its spring or 
autumn movements. Davis wrote of it as 
common around the neighbourhood of Luton 
in 1855 ; and Mr. T. Cane, whose local 
knowledge of that district carries him back 
also into as early years, mentions it as fre- 
quenting the Dunstable downs, but com- 
monest around Streatley. Mr. J. King informs 
me that about Hexton and Pegsdon Hills he 
has flushed two or three pairs during the day, 
and has seen them at Langford on two or 
three occasions. Mr. C. F. Wood mentions 
that between 1860-70 a pair or two nested 
between Toddington and Houghton Regis 
where he once put up five. One was obtained 
at Wilden in September 1864, another came 



under the writer's observation which was shot 
by a schoolfellow at Milton, in September 
1884, and one was shot at Offley in 1886. 
According to Mr. J. Cole they used to be 
more common on the Dunstable downs than 
elsewhere, and he has received one to be 
stuiFed which was killed in that locality so re- 
cently as 1894 ; a year or two previously he 
had two immature birds that had been shot 
between Luton and Dunstable, a quantity of 
the down being still upon them. 

159. Dotterel. Eudromias morinellus (Linn.) 

Formerly common along the chalk-hill 
range running through the south of the 
county, but occurring far more freely in spring 
than during their autumn movements. Mr. 
J. Cole shot three near Luton in 1891, and 
Mr. J. C. Wright mentions that two were 
killed about 1875 on the high land known as 
Bandy-Knowles, between Clifton andShefFord. 
Mr. A. Covington has one in his possession 
killed at Oakley previous to 1840, and has 
seen another, a very fine plumaged bird that 
was shot many years ago at Milton ; the 
most recent occurrence he mentions was one 
shot at Bolnhurst about 1892. 

160. Ringed Plover. /Egia/itis hiaticula 

Although far more frequently observed 
during the spring and autumn, I do not think 
there is a month when this bird does not 
occur ; with the exception of the dunlin it is 
probably the commonest seafaring wader that 
visits us, frequently staying for several days 
together. The sewage farm at Newnham 
seems to ofiFer it far greater attraction than 
any other locality, and it is here that most 
specimens are obtained. In other parts of 
the county it is of somewhat unusual occur- 
rence, evidently preferring any open shallow 
waters to the attractions of our waterways. 

161. Golden Plover. Charadrius pluvialis, 

A common winter visitant, and may be 
observed more or less frequently in all parts of 
the county, although it is as a rule very con- 
servative in its sleeping and feeding haunts. 
It occurs in the fields bordering the Ouse and 
Ivel with great regularity, and in the district 
between Newnham, Goldington and Willing- 
ton it may, in company with the lapwing, 
frequently be observed in thousands together. 
It is seen on the lands between Clifton and 
Langford, especially in the neighbourhood of 
Langford Common, also at Stondon and in 
the fields along the roadside between Bedford 
and Bromham and in many other localities. 

162. Lapwing, Vanellus vulgaris, Bechstein. 
Locally, Peewit. 

Fairly abundant, but somewhat local as a 
resident. In the autumn its numbers are 
swelled considerably by continental arrivals, 
which in some years are very numerous. 

163. Oyster-Catcher. Hamatopus ostralegus, 

Of occasional occurrence. Mr. A. Cov- 
ington mentions one shot near Longholm, 
close to the town of Bedford, during a heavy 
snowstorm either in i866 or the following 
year, and according to Dr. Sprigge three 
oyster- catchers appeared at Great Barford about 
July 1880. 

164. Black-winged Stilt. Himantopus candi- 

dus, Bonnaterre. 

One instance of this rare straggler's occur- 
rence within the county can be recorded. It 
was shot about 1855 from Pinfold Hole, a 
disused sandpit situated by the roadside be- 
tween Chicksands and Shefford. Through 
the kindness of Mr. C. Tanqueray I was 
enabled to examine this particular specimen. 

165. Grey Phalarope. Phalaropus fulicarius 

Occurs at rare intervals whilst on migra- 
tion, especially during its autumnal movements. 
On 22 September 1866 one that is in the 
possession of Mr. A. Covington was killed 
from the Elstow Brook, and a second specimen 
was received by him from Beeston, which 
had been shot whilst swimming about on a 
farm pond 2 October 1879. Both were re- 
markably tame, and the plumage in both 
instances intermediate between the summer 
and winter dress. Dr. Sprigge has one in his 
possession which was killed about 1875 by a 
keeper at Tempsford. Two have passed 
through the hands of Mr. T. Cane of Luton, 
and would probably be the same birds as re- 
corded by Davis, one of which was killed from 
some water alongside the high road. Mr. J. 
S. Wright has also had a locally obtained 
specimen to set up. Another example was 
observed about 1885 by Mr. J. King whilst 
it was swimming about on his flooded 

166. Red-necked Phalarope. Phalaropus hyper- 

horeus (Linn.) 

A very rare visitant on migration. The 
Rev. E. W. Boling has a specimen, evidently 
a female, which was shot on the glebe pond 
at Houghton Conquest on i June about 




167. Woodcock. Scolopax rusticula, Linn. 

Thinly distributed in many of our more 
suitable woods and plantations from October 
onwards, but there is little doubt that it is gradu- 
ally decreasing in number. Several instances 
of its remaining to nest within our county have 
been recorded. A nest with four eggs in it 
was found at Chicksands Priory Woods on 
15 April 1828.^ In the Field, 1868, a young 
bird is mentioned as having been caught on 
17 April in one of our woods (the particular 
locality not being mentioned) by a labourer, 
who, whilst sitting on the ride eating his 
dinner caught sight of old and young together, 
and secured one of the young as a witness of 
the fact. Another contributor to the same 
newspaper, also writing under a nom-de-plume, 
sends particulars of one caught from a brood 
of young by one of the keepers in Charle 
Wood, Woburn, about the same date, so 
possibly it may be the same bird as above 
quoted. About 1863 two young woodcocks 
scarcely able to fly were taken to Mr. A. 
Covington. In 1899 a nest containing four 
eggs was found in Maulden Wood, where 
also it has been reported as nesting in previous 

168. Great Snipe. Gallinago major Q. F. 


Of occasional occurrence as a winter 
visitant. The first within Mr. Covington's 
knowledge was shot previous to i860 at 
Willington, and another was killed about the 
same year on the Renhpid side of the river. 
In September 1866 one came into his hands 
which was shot at Biddenham. About 1878 
two were shot at the Newnham farm in the 
one season, and on 3 October 1885 an old 
male was shot in the same locality. An im- 
mature bird in Mr. Covington's possession 
was brought to him in September 1887 ; 
it had killed itself against the telegraph 
wires by the New Cut. Mr. P. Addington, 
referring to the hundreds of snipe he ob- 
tained at Wyboston, mentions having only 
shot one, and that in November about i860. 

169. Common Snipe. Gallinago coelestis 

Locally, Full Snipe. 
Except in continued severe weather, when 
a re-migration takes place, the common snipe 
may be foimd fairly plentiful along our water- 
ways, ditches, and in other suitable localities 
from the autumn to the following spring ; at 

' White's Natural History of Se Bourne (1853). 
Edited by Capt. Thomas Browne. 

times erratic arrivals in considerable numbers 
take place, and a ' wisp ' may sometimes be 
flushed together. There is ample evidence 
that it was once far more numerous than 
nowadays, in many districts cultivation and 
drainage having greatly restricted, if not com- 
pletely changed, its former haunts, as for 
instance Crawley Moor and a large portion 
of Flitwick Moor. Throughout the summer 
of 1897 two pairs were frequently observed 
and heard drumming over the Newnham 
farm, but whether they bred or not I cannot 
say. There is little doubt that it nested for- 
merly in the vicinity of our lowlying meadow 
lands, as also at Staughton and on Flitwick 
Moor, where a nest and eggs were seen in 
1875 by the late Mr. T. W. Overman. 
During the summer of 1901 I frequently 
flushed this bird off that moor, and on several 
occasions at least three snipe were seen there. 
On 27 May I flushed one of the birds over 
and over again from the same spot, to which 
it would almost immediately return, but 
failed to find the yoxmg which were un- 
doubtedly close at hand. A cream-coloured 
variety was seen by Mr. T. Taylor at Temps- 

170. Jack Snipe. Gallinago gallinula {Limi.) 
A regular winter resident, but varying in 

numbers. It arrives usually in October 
and occasionsiiy in September (as early as 3 
Septeaiber 1893), remaining with us until 
-the following March and not infrequently 
well into April. 

171. Dunlin. Tringa alpina, Linn. 

In the autumnal and spring migrations, as 
also in its winter movements, this bird utilizes 
the valley of the Ouse with great regularity, 
and the enormous number of birds that occa- 
sionally pass over the town of Bedford pro- 
bably contain large flights of this little wader. 
It frequents any expanse of water with a 
stretch of mud in the vicinity, and at such an 
attractive site as the Newnham farm it is 
particularly noticeable throughout the greater 
part of the year. It is commonest in August 
and March, but almost a regular visitant in 
greater or lesser numbers from the end of 
July till the following May, and not uncom- 
monly a straggler has been seen even in June. 
I have seen them as late as 21 May 1899, 
several being in their fiill summer plumage, 
and again as early as 3 July 1900, when five 
were in company with other waders in the 
above locality. Mr. A. Covington records 
that on 28 July 1886 nine adult males in 
perfect plumage were picked up under the 
telegraph wires near the New Cut and 



brought to him ; several others considerably 
mutilated were also found. During his ex- 
perience of nearly thirty-six years, among the 
hundreds of locally killed dunlins that he has 
handled, there have been seven or eight of 
the much larger type of bird, writh the bill 
more curved, and extremely white on breast 
and belly ; these have generally been ob- 
tained alone, or at most two or three together. 
The last he received were two out of three 
killed at Fenlake in the winter of 1896. 

172. Little Stint. Tringa minuta, Leisler. 
Five instances at least can be given of 

this rare passing migrant being obtained. A 
specimen formerly in the possession of Mr. 
J. King, which his son killed at Langford 
on 29 September i860 ; another which I have 
seen, in the possession of Mr. A. Covington, 
killed 2 November 1889, in the New Cut ; 
an immature bird shot on 21 October 1898 
on the irrigation farm at Newnham by Mr. 
T. Harding, and two others obtained from the 
same locality on 22 September 1902. 

173. Curlew-Sandpiper. Tringa subarquata 

Another rare migratory visitant. The only 
records at present are an immature bird shot 
on 12 October 1872 by one of the old walls 
at Newnham, and six others obtained from that 
locality on 11 and 18 September 1902. 

174. Knot. Tringa canutus, Linn. 

A very uncommon straggler inland. One 
was killed from a brook at Ravensden, and 
two others were obtained at Elstow on 2 and 
3 October 1884 which had been picked up, 
one dead and the other with a broken wing. 

175. Sanderling. Calidris arenaria {Linn.) 
A rare visitor. Mr. A. Covington informs 

me that in January 1868 a large flock ap- 
peared in the neighbourhood of Fenlake and 
remained in that locality for two or three 
weeks ; several were brought to him at the 
time, and one or two others were obtained 
much later. He has also received several 
odd birds from different localities bordering 
the Ouse. The last specimen which he re- 
members was killed in January 1880 during a 
deep snow from a ditch along the Kimbolton 
road near to Cleat Hill. 

176. Ruff(? Reeve). Machetes pugnax{L'mn.) 
Although this bird was probably a common 

visitor to Bedfordshire formerly, it is now but 
a rare straggler in autumn. A reeve was 
brought to Mr. Covington in September 1877, 
which had been shot at Cardington, and Mr. 

J. King's brother shot one about 1870 near 
Shefford Mill. An immature bird was killed 
about 1880 at Newnham. In the autumn of 
1894 six or seven ruffs remained at Newn- 
ham for about a week in association with 
other waders ; one, a reeve, which was killed 
on 1 3 September, was kindly shown to me by 
Mr. Harrison, another an immature bird was 
obtained on 23 August 1897, and in its 
stomach were the remains of several small 

177. Common Sandpiper. Totanus hypoleucus 


A most regular and plentiful passing mi- 
grant ; in the spring it may be found with us 
from the third week in April onwards to the 
second week in May, reappearing at the latter 
end of July and throughout August, evidently 
in many instances remaining with us a week or 
more at a time. At these periods of the year 
one seldom fails to find at least a few solitary 
birds at several of its more favoured haunts ; 
as at Newnham farm, or about the gravelly 
shallow stretches of our waterways, such as at 
Castle Mill, Old Mill near Great Barford, 
Wyboston Corner, and many other places 
along the Ouse and Ivel. In the spring 
movements they are most frequently seen in 
pairs, but in the autumn small parties may 
be sometimes observed. Mr. A. Covington 
has known an odd bird occasionally to stay 
the summer through at Goldington, and in 
the neighbourhood of the Biddenham Rapids 
a pair once remained throughout their nesting 

178. Wood-Sandpiper. Totanus glareola (J. F. 

A single instance of this far more uncom- 
mon but similar species occurring locally is 
given by Mr. A. Covington, to whom a 
male was brought in May, about 1875, 
that had been shot from a pond at Thur- 
leigh. Davis adds this bird to his list as 
of occasional occurrence, but it is doubtful 
whether the species had been correctly veri- 
fied by him, especially as it is omitted alto- 
gether in his second edition. 

179. Green Sandpiper. Totanus ochropus 

A migrant in the spring and autumn, 
and appears most regularly in its latter move- 
ments. It frequently occurs in some numbers 
together, and in many instances remains 
upwards of a week or more at a time. 
Solitary birds are not infrequently met with 
throughout the winter months, but I can- 
not venture to say whether these are the 



same birds or not that arrived the autumn 
previously. It has occurred here probably 
during every month of the year, including 
even June, although, curiously, it is a species 
which has never yet been known to nest 
within the British Islands. Whenever I have 
been at Newnham during the first week in 
August I have invariably met with this species. 

1 80. Redshank. Totanus calidris (Linn.) 
This bird passes over the county somewhat 

regularly, though probably in small numbers, 
whilst upon its migratory flights. An occa- 
sional bird or a pair sometimes break their 
journey and remain a day or so with us dur- 
ing the spring or autumn, and a few have 
occurred in the winter. Not infrequently 
they are flushed from ditches and brooks re- 
mote from the river. In all probability it 
was formerly known as a nesting species in 
Bedfordshire, for Mr. A. Covington remarks that 
sportsmen that have known the county from 
the early part of the past century have spoken 
of the redshank as at one time nesting regu- 
larly in various of our marshy meadows. At 
Newnham farm in 1896, if not a year or so 
previously, a small colony of redshanks, some 
two or three pairs in all, located themselves, 
and one nest at least was robbed of the eggs ; 
but young were evidently reared during that 
year. In 1897 Mr. Covington sent me par- 
ticulars of a clutch of four eggs which he had 
seen, which had been taken on 21 April. 
On the day following he observed five red- 
shanks together at Longholm ; four additional 
clutches of eggs were also found during that 
season. In the same year, besides the pairs 
nesting on the Newnham farm, one or pos- 
sibly two pairs probably nested on a field 
known as part of Fenlake Marsh, where they 
were frequently flushed, and on 20 August 
1897 three were seen together at Newnham. 
In 1898 two or three pairs continued nesting 
at Newnham, and a young one in the down 
was found and liberated again by Mr. A. F. 
Crossman. On 11 May 1899 when I visited 
the farm there appeared to be two pairs 
there, and the same day I was fortunate 
enough to flush a redshank off Fenlake 
Marsh and find her nest, which contained 
four eggs. On 21 May I again visited 
Newnham and saw four birds. Since 1900, 
when the site of this lake of sewage had 
again passed under cultivation, I have been 
unable to hear of any redshanks even visiting 
their former haunts. 

181. Spotted Redshank. Totanus fuscus 

A rare visitor. Mr. J. King kindly pre- 

sented a specimen to me which was obtained 
by him at Langford 17 September 1856. 
Mr. T. Cane once had a dusky redshank 
brought to him about 1870 from ' The Bogs,' 
which are now drained. 

182. Greenshank. Totanus canescens (J. F. 


So long as there are sufficiently attractive 
feeding haunts, the greenshank may be re- 
garded as a regular visitor to us during its 
migratory movements, particularly in the 
autumn. At the Newnham farm in recent 
years, when the large extent of sewage water 
was left exposed upon the land, this bird 
occurred annually. In other parts of the 
county it is occasionally reported from time 
to time, being usually flushed from ponds 
and ditches and other isolated waters. In 
the Zoologist one is mentioned by Mr. C. M. 
Prior, shot in September 1878 as it rose from 
a ditch at Goldington. One in the writer's 
possession was killed at Stanford about 1880. 
Two, presumably of this species, were seen 
at Newnham by Mr. A. F. Crossman in 
September 1893, and in August 1894 I heard 
from Mr. E. F. Harrison of several being 
there in the company of dunlins and some 
ruffs. Two ' specimens were shown to me 
by Mr. H. Nicolls killed at Newnham in 
1895. On 23 May 1897 I saw at some 
distance what was evidently a greenshank, 
and on 21 May 1898 Mr. Crossman observed 
a single bird also in the same locality. Mr. 
A. Covington says that upwards of a dozen 
local birds have passed through his hands, 
which were in every instance killed in the 
month of August. The first he can call to 
mind was one killed from a pair that rose 
from a pond at Putnoe in August 1868, and 
the most recent, one of two seen, that was 
killed at Turvey in August 1896. 

183. Bar-tailed God wit. Limosa lapponka 


An uncommon visitor. Two were shot 
at Goldington on separate occasions during 
the winter 1866-7, ^^^ purchased by Mr. A. 
Covington, who also had another specimen 
from Ampthill in the beautiful red plumage 
pass through his hands in May 1887. In 
the Field, 1870, one is recorded killed on 
2 1 May of that year near Ampthill. One in 
full breeding plumage, in my possession, was 
obtained, near Stanford about 1877 ; another I 
have seen in the collection of Mr. G. Pestell, 
which I understand was killed at Newnham, 
and Mr. W. Addington has one which was 
shot at Wyboston in 1870. 



184. Black-tailed Godwit. Limosa belgka 
(J. F. Gmelin) 
Occurs yery occasionally during migration. 
Morris^ mentions it as having been obtained 
at Cardington, but without any additional re- 
mark. One which I have seen in the posses- 
sion of Mr. H. Manning was shot by him 
near the park at Luton about 1885 ; the 
third instance is an immature male shot by 
Mr. G. Pestell by the osier bed at Goldington 
during the first week of September 1897 ; 
another was in company with it at the time, 
but though wounded was not secured. 

185. Common Curlew. Numenius arquata 

Of irregular though by no means un- 
common occurrence with us ; but being wary 
in its habits it is seldom obtained. Mr. A. 
Covington mentions one shot at Longholm 
about i860, two brought to him from Riseley 
in the month of July, and one shot at Little 
Staughton in September 1 896. A variety with 
neck partly pied with white was killed at Wil- 
lington about 1890. During the long severe 
winter 1894-5 one was picked up dead on 
Mr. H. Dillamore's farm at Sandy, and a few 
curlews frequented the sewage farm at Newn- 
ham in 1894. Mr. H. Pestell has observed 
a solitary curlew occasionally at Elstow, 
the last was seen in December 1897, flying 
over the old racecourse. On 4 January 
1 90 1 one was shot at Roxton, another was 
picked up dead at Kempston on the follow- 
ing day, and on 8 January three were seen 
together at Langford, two of which were 
eventually killed. On 1 5 and 24 July of that 
year curlews were reported to me passing on 
migration during the night over the town of 
Bedford and at Langford. 

186. Whimbrel. Numenius phaopus (Linn.) 

Evidently a regular passing migrant, occur- 
ring in small flights during the spring and 
autumn. Like the curlew this bird is more 
frequently seen than obtained, and as it 
usually flies high overhead is often unrecog- 
nized. Not more than six locally obtained 
birds have been received by Mr. A. Coving- 
ton, shot either in May or September. Har- 
rold, Kempston, Turvey and Cardington are 
localities in which four of them were obtained. 
The last he saw was one which had killed 
itself against the telegraph wires in 1896. In 
1894 one was killed at Streatley by Mr. 
Osborn, and one in Colonel H. Barclay's 
possession was killed at Tingrith in 1868. 

Briiisi Birds, by F. O. Morris (i860). 

Mr. J. King mentions a flight of about a 
dozen, which flew quite low over Langford 
on 5 May 1895. One was killed 10 May 
1896 at Brickhill Pasture by Mr. J, Crisp. 

187. Black Tern. Hydrcchelidon nigra (Linn.) 

Although for about the last fifty years it 
has not been known to nest in the British 
Islands, this bird is nevertheless fairly com- 
mon as a passing migrant with us. In the 
early part of the last century it must have 
occurred here in considerable numbers whilst 
journeying to and fro from its nesting haunts 
in the Fenlands ; the nearest point — Whittle- 
sea Mere — at which it was known to nest 
until about 1843 not being more than 
twenty miles distant from our county. Mr. 
A. Covington informs me that until about 
1870 it appeared regularly in small com- 
panies along our river every May, and in one 
instance he heard of seven being killed from 
a flock of about thirty. Year by year since its 
numbers have decreased on the spring migra- 
tion, and adult birds are now seldom obtained. 
During one morning in August 1896 he 
counted thirty-two, all immature birds, on 
the Newnham farm. On 15 May 1901 the 
writer observed nine together in Woburn 
Park over the Basin Pool, where they re- 
mained at least all the morning, flying back- 
wards and forwards over the water. 

188. Common Tern. Sterna fluviatilis, 


A common passing migrant with us. The 
buoyant flight of this or the following species 
may often be recognized over many of our 
larger pools, as well as along the Ouse and 
Ivel. Generally single birds will be observed, 
but not infrequently small parties of some six 
or eight together. 

189. Arctic Tern. Sterna macrura, Nau- 


Evidently not so numerous as the last 
species. Owing to the difficulty of dis- 
tinguishing these two terns upon the wing — 
even at close quarters — records based on obser- 
vation alone are unsatisfactory. Five which 
were brought to Mr. A. Covington during 
one week, were shot near the Common 
Bridge over the river just above Bedford 
about August 1866. The last he set up was 
one from Bletsoe 19 September 1894. An 
adult was shot near Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, 
in August 1885 (Lilford, Birds of Northamp- 
tonshire and Neighbourhood). The water 
keeper at Luton Hoo has one which was 
killed at the lake there in May 1899. 



190. Little Tern. Sterna minuta, Linn. 
By far the least plentiful of the four terns 

that visit us. In thirty-seven years of taxi- 
dermy Mr. A. Covington can remember re- 
ceiving but five local specimens ; they came 
from Fenlake, Willington and Harrold, and 
in every instance appeared during their spring 
migration northwards. In addition he men- 
tions a male and female that w^ere shot near 
Willington church in the month of June 
about 1865. Mr. R. J. Cawse has one, he 
says, in his possession vi^hich he shot on the 
Ivel at Biggleswade in 1883. I saw a single 
bird on II May 1899 at Newnham, which 
was resting upon a small patch of ground in 
one of the flooded parts of the farm. 

191. Black-headed Gull. Larus ridibundus, 

Perhaps the commonest of the sea-gulls that 
one may so frequently observe as far inland 
as Bedfordshire. It evidently seems to be a 
regular migrant, journeying to and from its 
nesting colonies during the spring and autumn, 
but more particularly, I think, during the 
latter period. Often driven inland after heavy 

192. Common Gull. Larus canus, Linn. 
This is one of the least common of the 

gulls which occur with us. Apparently it 
does not appear in the county with any regu- 
larity in the spring or autumn like several 
others of the gull family, but this may be more 
easily accounted for by the total absence of 
breeding stations in England ; their visits 
seem therefore more particularly in the nature 
of winter records, and at this season evidently 
under conditions of stormy weather only. 
Adult phimaged birds are nearly always ob- 
tained. One I have seen was shot at Blun- 
ham in 1836 ; another was killed near Bed- 
ford on 7 September 1892 and one at the 
Newnham farm on 3 1 December of the same 
year. On 21 January 1893 one was picked 
up dead at Ravensden, and in February 1900 
one was obtained at Keysoe. During the 
winter 1900— i one was killed at Barton and 
set up by Mr. J. Cole, who remarks that it is 
the only one of this species he has ever had 
that had been obtained locally. 

193. Herring-Gull. Larus argentatus, J. F. 

Evidently utilizes the valley of the Ouse 
very regularly during its migratory periods of 
the year, and often at no inconsiderable height, 
but in these overland movements it seldom 
alights again before reaching the coast. Dur- 
ing April and early May we may frequently 

see this bird either singly or in small parties ; 
greater numbers are seen throughout August 
and September, the majority being immature 
birds. Throughout the winter months soli- 
tary birds not infrequently appear. 

194. Lesser Black-backed Gull. Larus fuscus^ 
Like the last species it is more frequent 
with us during its local migrations in the 
autumn, but it is frequently met with all 
through the winter, and whilst on its return 
journeys overland in spring. Immature birds 
comprise by far the greater proportion of those 


Great Black-backed Gull. Larus mar- 
inus, Linn. 

Very rare. Mr. G. B. Clarke records an 
adult shot in the spring of 1849 ^* HocklifFe 
{Naturalist, 1851). Three have been received 
by Mr. A. Covington, the last of which was 
shot from near the New Cut at Goldington 
in the winter 1892-3. 

196. Kittiwake. Rissa tridactyla (Linn.) 

Almost as plentiful a species locally as the 
black-headed gull, but, unlike that bird, not 
particularly noticeable during any migratory 
season of the year, though appearing freely 
from November until the following February. 
It generally occurs inland in the wake of every 
storm that beats upon our coasts, very fre- 
quently reaching us in an exhausted condition, 
as numbers of them are picked up dead, and 
often in localities far removed from any water. 
The birds seen are usually solitary, but occa- 
sionally two or three may be observed together. 

197. Pomatorhine Skua. Stercorarius pomato- 

rhinus (Temminck) 
On 18 October 1879 a male bird of this 
species, which has since passed into my posses- 
sion, was taken by a countryman to Mr. A. 
Covington. It had been shot by the man 
from a ploughed field at Ravensden. When 
skinned it was found in very poor condition 
and the stomach quite empty (see also Zoolo- 

198. Razorbill. Alca tarda, Linn. 

The only local record that can at present 
be given is that of an old stuffed specimen 
mounted in company with a green wood- - 
pecker, which Mr. A. Covington purchased at 
a local sale. The label on back of case stated, 
' Razorbill from Fenlake.' 

199. Guillemot. Uria troile (Linn.) 

A very rare species, and probably never 



found in this county except when driven under 
the stress of severe weather, for when pro- 
cured they are generally picked up dead, or 
in a very exhausted condition and unable to 
fly. An old specimen came into the hands 
of Mr. A. Covington some years ago that had 
been shot close to Milton Mill. One was 
picked up at Renhold 26 November 1893 ; 
others have been obtained at Sharnbrook, 
Goldington, and two in addition at Milton, 
one in November 1893, and an adult speci- 
men in 1894. 

200. Little Auk. Mergulus alle (Linn.) 

There are many instances of this little arc- 
tic visitor being storm driven into our county. 
The earliest noted is one that was picked 
up near Bedford in the winter 186 1-2, 
which, although not actually seen by Mr. 
A. Covington, was sufficiently described to 
him to leave little doubt as to its being 
correctly named. Davis [History of Luton, 
1874, ed. 2) refers to four having been taken 
near Luton in the last thirty years ; particu- 
lars of only two are given, one of which was 
obtained in Hertfordshire and the other found 
at Barton in January 1870. The late Mr. 
T. Cane also mentioned to me one having 
been received by him from Caddington in the 
last week of January 1895, and he had a 
second during that winter. In the Field one 
is recorded by Mr. Allen as having been picked 
up dead after severe gales on 8 December 
1878, upon the allotment gardens at Hus- 
borne Crawley. Again in the same journal 
Mr. W. F. Higgins sends particulars of one 
killed at Turvey on 22 November 1882. 
One in the possession of Mr. J. Day of Rox- 
ton was picked up dead on 21 November 
1894 near Colm worth Woods. In the ex- 
ceptionally severe weather at the end of Janu- 
ary 1895 two came into the hands of Mr. 
J. S. Wright, one found on 20 January at 
Hinxworth in Hertfordshire, and another, 
which is now in my possession, was picked 
up on 2 February, almost dead, in Haynes 
Park. The most recent was one, a male, 
picked up near Hanger's Wood, Stagsden, on 
19 February 1901 ; when found it was still 
alive, but in a very exhausted condition. 

201. Puffin. Fratercula arctica (Linn.) 
The very few obtained are probably storm- 
driven birds, occurring more particularly with 
us during their spring and autumnal move- 
ments. Several have been received by Mr. 
A. Covington, but have generally been found 
dead or nearly so. One he mentions was 
picked up in the middle of Clapham Wood, 
and he has received others from near Castle 

Mills, Willington, Turvey and Harrold, the 
most recent from Kempston at the latter end 
of March 1901 after a westerly gale. A 
uniform cream-coloured specimen was sent to 
him in the autumn of 1880 which had been 
picked up at Girtford. On 5 January 1895 
a female was caught at Marston, and a 
male in the same parish two or three days 
later. Colonel H. Barclay has one in his 
possession which was picked up dead in Tin- 
grith Park in November 1893, driven in by 
the great storm at that time. 

202. Great Northern Diver. Colymbus gla- 

cialis, Linn. 

A very rare winter visitor. Morris * refers 
to one being met with in Bedfordshire on 
the river Ouse 4 February 1830, which is 
evidently the same bird now in the possession 
of Mr. J. F. Day of Kettering, who kindly 
informs me that one was shot by Mr. William 
Francis, his grandfather, during that year and 
month. It was shot on the ice on the Ouse 
near Cardington Mill. Another which was 
purchased by Mr. A. Covington in the flesh 
in December 1876 had been shot on the river 
at Cox's Pits, Biddenham, after being hunted 
and fired at several times before being secured. 

203. Red-throated Diver. Colymbus septen- 

trionalis, Linn. 

The local specimens handled in the flesh 
by Mr. A. Covington have not shown any 
trace of the red neck of its summer plumage, 
and all have been extremely fat. One was 
killed at Kempston about 1890 near the 
Hill Grounds, another at Pavenham in 
January 1898, and the last received by him 
was killed near Felmersham in January 1897 ; 
in its gullet there were nine roach, each 
from 3 to 4 inches long. Another, a male, 
was also shot at Felmersham in January 1886 
by Mr. A. W. Saunders, who informed me 
when I examined the specimen in his posses- 
sion that when killed it was absurdly tame 
and never attempted to escape by either diving 
any distance or attempting to get upon the 
wing. One was shot by Major Duberly on 
the Ouse by his house at Fenlake on i8 
November 1891, and another was obtained 
by Mr. Hassall close to the railway bridge 
over the river at Cardington on 17 November 

204. Great Crested Grebe. Podicipes crista- 

tus (Linn.) 
Until a few years ago known only as a 
winter visitant, occurring not uncommonly 

British Birds, by F. O. Morris (i860). 



upon the Ouse and Ivel from September on- 
wards until the following February. Mr. J. 
King, who was formerly resident at Southill 
for many years, has no knowledge of their 
having attempted to breed there until 1894, 
when in company together we found them so 
doing. But it is evident from conversations 
I had with the keepers that the birds had first 
frequented the lake one or two years pre- 
viously, and as they remained throughout the 
greater part of the year probably nested. On 
1 8 May of that year we found a pair had a 
nest and eggs and the old bird was evi- 
dently sitting ; a previous laying of three eggs 
had been destroyed on 23 April, close to 
where the present nest was situated. When 
visiting the pool again in August of that year, 
I found that the second laying had been fully 
successful, the old birds being then accom- 
panied about the pool by their young. On 
17 April 1895 two pairs were upon this sheet 
of water ; but, not visiting Southill again in 
that year, I am unable to say with what 
results. Subsequently on 3 April 1899 one 
pair were present, and on 12 May following 
three grebe were observed. On 3 May 1901 
three pairs and one odd one were upon the 
pool, of which two pairs at least remained and 
nested there. Her Grace the Duchess of 
Bedford has been kind enough to favour me 
with particulars of this species on the pools at 
Woburn. It was first observed there in 
1894, when a pair nested and reared three 
young. Four of the five left in the autumn, 
one staying until the hard frost set in during 
that winter, and one returned immediately 
when the weather opened. When visiting 
the various pools within Woburn Park on 15 
May 1 90 1 seven of these grebe were upon 
the pools, one pair of which were accompanied 
by their three young, and another had a nest 
containing two recently laid eggs, to which a 
third was eventually added. The numbers 
observed on these pools on this occasion may 
be possibly accounted for by Battlesden Lake 
having been drained and left dry, I visited 
Battlesden Pool on 16 May 1899 and five 
adult birds were then present ; two pairs 
were evidently nesting, one nest of which 
could be inspected from the side, and con- 
tained a single egg. In Mr. C. F, Wood's 
experience of Woburn and Battlesden from 
1849-72 he never knew or heard of this 
grebe in either locality. At the larger pool 
in Tingrith Park, Colonel H. Barclay says 
that to his knowledge they nested only in 
1899, the eggs being successfully hatched and 
the young reared ; but the year following 
only a single bird returned to the pool, remain- 
ing some little time before departing again ; 

since then they have not reappeared in that 
particular locality. 

205. Red-necked Grebe. Podicipes griseigena 

A rare winter visitant. In February 1863 
one was shot by a farmer on a pond at Ren- 
hold ; the bird was skinned and eaten, but 
Mr. A. Covington was, fortunately enough, 
enabled to obtain the mutilated remains and 
identify the species. Another, a female, 
is in the possession of the writer; it was 
picked up alive on 1 1 February 1870, during 
hard weather, in the farmyard of the Hill 
farm at Wilden (see also Zoologist). A third 
which I have also examined is in the posses- 
sion of Mr. J. Lund of Bedford, and was 
killed on the small reservoir above the Clap- 
ham road on 8 November 1885. A red- 
necked grebe recorded in the Field, 1880, 
proves upon examination to be but a specimen 
of the great crested grebe. 

206. Slavonian Grebe. Podicipes auritus 


Another winter visitant, but seems to occur 
far oftener than the previous species. About 
a dozen have been received by Mr. A. Cov- 
ington in the flesh, nearly always in February 
or March during their return movements north, 
and invariably in the winter plumage. Blun- 
ham, Willington, Pavenham, Milton, Harrold, 
Odell, and by the ash-plantation along the 
river at Clapham are localities where they 
have been obtained. The most recent was 
one found at the edge of a pond along the 
Kimbolton road about 1890, apparently ex- 
hausted and frozen to death. Several have 
been received by Mr. J. S. Wright at various 
times. One which I have seen in the possession 
of Mr. J. Cole of Leagrave was shot at Luton 
Hoo, and others have also been received by him 
from around that neighbourhood. One in the 
possession of Mr. J. King was shot on 27 
March 1865 at Southill Lake. That recorded 
by Mr. C. M. Prior in the Zoologist, shot near 
Bedford during the last week in February 
1879, is very probably the specimen now in 
my possession, which was shot by Mr. J. 
Bennett on the overflows at Fenlake about 
that year. Another in my collection was 
obtained near the bridge at Felmersham on 
2 February 1895. 

207. Little Grebe. Podicipes fluviatilis (Tun- 

Locally, Dabchick, Didchick, Diadobber. 
Still plentiful as a winter visitor on all our 
larger streams, and with the exception of 
within a few miles from Bedford — where its 



numbers are less frequent owing to its being 
too freely harassed — it occurs commonly 
throughout the whole course of the Ouse and 
Ivel, particularly on the former river between 
Willington and St. Neots. During continued 
frosts they suffer considerably, often allowing 
themselves to be caught with the hand, and 
being occasionally even picked up in the streets 
of Bedford. Until about 1885 they nested 
regularly on several ballast-holes close to the 
town of Bedford, one locality in particular 
being the ballast-hole along the Hitchen line 
at Elstow, close to the London and North- 
western Railway station, and once at least, some 
years previously, in the lime-pit holes at Cox's 
Pits. At that time Mr. A.Covington frequently 
received specimens during the spring in the 
full summer dress, most of them having been 
killed against the telegraph wires. At another 
ballast-hole close to Biggleswade station several 
pairs used to nest, as witnessed by Mr. J. 
King, but we failed to find them continuing 
to do so in 1895 or since. Again several 
nests have been found by him alongside the 
Ivel at Langford ; and at Southill, on the 
small Basin Pool, one or more pairs nested 
regularly formerly, but had ceased to do so 
about 1890. They have nested also at 
Woburn, Ravensden, Tingrith and Luton 

208. Storm-Petrel. Procellaria pelagica,l^\nn. 
Occasionally found, and generally during the 
autumn. The following have been recorded : 
One picked up near the Ashburnham Road, 
Bedford, on 30 October 1879 ; one shot by 
Mr. G. Steadman at Ridgmount on 13 
October i88o, as reported at the time in the 
Field; another during the same month of 
that year, caught in the old tanyard at 
ShefFord ; one found in the Midland Road, 
Bedford, on 7 October 1889; one caught 
whilst fluttering against the windows of the 
old Borough Police Station in Silver Street, 

Bedford, on 20 October 1890 ; and one 
caught by Mr. J. Bennett in his garden in 
Peel Street, Bedford, on 5 December 1893. 
Major Brooks sent me word in 1894 that one 
had been taken at Toddington a few years 
previously. Another was picked up dead near 
Colmworth Wood in 1 894, and one in Novem- 
ber, 1878, at Staplow, both of which were 
seen by Dr. Sprigge. 

209. Leach's Fork-tailed Petrel. Oceano- 

droma leucorrhoa (Vieillot) 
Mr. F. J. Thynne informs me that one was 
picked up in Wilstead Park on 1 6 November, 
1877, and is still in his possession at Haynes ; 
and during the last week of December 1878 
a male was picked up alive under one of the 
street lamp-posts near the Grove, in the town 
of Bedford (see also the Zoologist). On 2 
November 1880 a flock of seven of these 
birds was said to have been observed along 
the river at Goldington, and Mr. Covington, 
from the description given at the time, 
thinks they were undoubtedly of this species ; 
two days afterwards one was sent him from 
Fenlake, the adjoining parish. 

210. Manx Shearwater. Puffinus anglorum 

Occasionally driven inland by storm. One 
in the collection of Mr. T. Cane of Luton 
was taken at Stopsley, some two miles 
north of that town, and another in my collec- 
tion was picked up alive at Cotton End near 
Haynes in the autumn of 1885. 

211. Fulmar. Fulmarui glacialis {hinn.} 

The only occurrence on record is an adult 
bird picked up at Goldington on i October 
1888, which was placed upon a pond where 
it survived a few days. It was eventually 
taken to Mr. A. Covington, and when skinned 
was found to be extremely emaciated. 


White Wagtail. Motacilla alba, Linn. 

One picked up under telegraph wires at 
Turvey in the spring of 1 902, and an adult 
male obtained at Newnham in September of 
that year, were verified by Mr. A. S. Coving- 
ton (see also Beds Times). 

Great Skua. Megalestris catarrhactes (Linn.) 
One that is in the writer's possession was 
caught alive by Mr. J. Cole on 11 May 1902 
on Bankey Park pond near Leagrave. It had 

a large sea fishing-hook it its throat, to which 
cord and two pieces of wood with lettering 
thereon were attached. 

Black-throated Diver. Colymbus arcticus, Linn. 

On 20 February 1897 one was reported 
by Mr. Tomalin as having been seen on a 
fishmonger's stall at Northampton said to 
have been shot at Wootton, Beds {Journ. 
Northants Nat. Hist. Soc. and Field Club). 




In compiling the record of mammals the same difficulty has been 
experienced as in the case of the vertebrata generally. With the excep- 
tion of a local list given by Davis in his History of Luton (1855), there 
is no trace of any other work upon the subject. A work of a century 
ago would now be invaluable for reference to many species already exter- 
minated, whose local history has all but passed away. Unfortunately 
there seems to be no one resident in the county who has specially 
studied the local mammalia, and this accounts for the omission of many 
little known mammals from this list. During the past century the 
marten and the black rat have disappeared, and the polecat may now also 
be considered extinct in the county. Amongst those species as yet un- 
recorded within Bedfordshire, and which would in all probability on 
careful investigation be found, are the lesser shrew (Sorex minutus) and 
several of the Cheiroptera. 


1. Long-eared Bat. Plecotus auritus, Linn. 

2. Barbastelle. Barbastella barbastellusy Schre- 


Bell — Barbastellus daubentmtii. 

Evidently uncommon, and personally I have 
never seen a local specimen. One was taken 
in 1868 in the bedroom of a house in the 
Clapham road, another a few years after was 
knocked down by a boy with his cap near 
Brickhill farm, and a third found dead in Fos- 
terhill Road in Bedford about the same year. 
The most recent was one picked up alive also 
in that road by Mr. A. Covington in August 
1 90 1, which he retained for a time before 

3. Great or White's Bat (Noctule). Pipis- 

trellus noctula, Schreber. 

Bell — Scotophilus noctula. 

White — Vespertllio altivolans. 
Common, haunting more particularly the 
neighbourhood of our rivers and larger pools, 
where not infrequently they may be observed 
in company with swifts {Cypselus apus), with 
which they seem equally adept when upon 
the wing at taking the Mayflies and other 
aquatic insects. At times I have observed 
this bat capture the larger beetles also. They 

sleep in the holes of trees, frequently in 
colonies. On 3 August 1897 I took exactly 
fifty from an old beech tree at Warden Warren, 
and I have heard ofaboutasmany being taken 
in other localities. A matutinal flight seems 
often to be taken by this as well as some of 
the other species. 

4. Pipistrelle. Pipistrellus pipistrel/us, Schre- 


Bell — Scotophilus pipistrellus. 
Very common. They sleep in buildings, 
especially in churches. 

5. Dauben ton's Bat. Myotis daubentoni, 


Bell — Vespertilio daubentonii. 
The first occurrence of this species recorded 
in the county is given in the Zoologist 1893, 
when two were obtained on 9 August from 
several flying by the river close to Cardington 
Mill. I have since observed this species in 
many other sheltered haunts along the Ouse 
and over the lake at Southill. 

6. Natterer's Bat. Myotis nattereri, Leisler. 
Probably not very uncommon within the 

county, although seemingly local. It is first 
recorded in the Zoologist 1903, when several 
were observed during August in that year at 
Turvey and one obtained. 




7. Hedgehog. Erinaceus europaus, Linn. 
Fairly abundant generally, particularly in 

the northern half of the county. An albino 
female was taken in a trap at Wrest Park, 
Silsoe, in December 1878 {Fieldy also Zoolo- 

8. Mole. Talpa europaa, Linn. 

Very common. Varieties are occasionally 
obtained. One, orange-coloured, with a 
reddish stripe down the belly and a few black 
stripes across the back, was taken 1 7 February 
1877 {Zoologist). Mr. A. Covington has also 
received three others of a pale fawn colour, 
one of which was trapped at Bromham ; and 
one of a uniform bright salmon colour which 
showed a delicate pink next the skin when 
the fur was blown aside. Pale silvery grey 
specimens have been received by him in some 
ten or more instances ; one at Goldington 
about 1895, and two dingy white varieties from 
Stevington, as well as occasional pied varia- 
tions, but in the latter the spots and blotches 
were always restricted to the under parts. 

In addition to the mole being rather a 
favourite prey of the weasel I have not infre- 

quently found their remains either in the nest 
or among the pellets of the tawny owl. 

9. Common Shrew. Sorex araneus, Linn. 

Locally, Hog Mouse. 

Very common generally. In many small 
spinneys during the spring months I have at 
times noticed considerable numbers together 
running about the undergrowth. 

10. Water Shrew. Neomys fidiens, Pallas. 

Bell — Crossopus fodieni. 
Not very abundant and somewhat locally 
distributed. A favourite haunt is the stream 
flowing through the ' Green ' at Goldington ; 
it also occurs more or less commonly at 
Ravensden, Stagsden, Harrowden and Ren- 
hold. I once procured it at Biddenham near 
Kempston Mill. Mr. A. Covington refers to 
its being formerly abundant in the ditch along 
the Kimbolton road near Gipsy Lane, but 
having now entirely disappeared from that 
locality. One in his possession was taken by 
him in 1861 when a schoolboy in the old 
spring at Clapham. 


1 1 . Fox. Vulpes vulpes^ Linn. 

Bell — Vulpes vulgaris. 
Fairly abundant throughout the county, 
but its numbers naturally depend upon the 
protection afforded. The head keeper at 
Southill informed me that once during a 
very heavy thunderstorm, when the young 
pheasants were knocked off their roosting 
perches by the gale, he found as many as 
seventy-six that had been killed by foxes 
during the night. Mr. P. Addington assures 
me that in one instance he found a litter of 
no less than ten cubs. 

12. Pine Marten. Mustela martes, Linn. 

Bell — Martes able turn. 
Locally, Marten Cat. 
During the early years of the last century 
the pine marten was still in evidence in our 
county, but was more particularly confined to 
the larger woodlands. A rapid extermination 
must have however followed soon afterwards, 
as records of a more recent date seem entirely 
absent, and at the present time I do not sup- 
pose there is any one living who has any 
local knowledge of the marten except from 
hearsay. Davis, in his History of Luton (1855), 
refers to it as ' rare,' and in his second edition 

(1874), 'almost extinct,' whereas there seems 
little doubt that it had been exterminated 
even long before his first edition. Mr. A. 
Covington remarks that he has heard his 
uncle speak of having occasionally obtained it 
around his home at Bolnhurst, and his mother 
when a girl had a cape made of marten cat 
skins and a muff of polecat skins. The animals 
had been caught by her father and brother in 
the locality. The last two that he ever heard 
of were one trapped in a fir tree at Sandy, 
and of more recent date one seen by a Mr. 
RufF. It had been trapped at Keysoe Wood 
(then of far greater acreage than now) and sus- 
pended to a hazel in one of the ridings. He 
also adds that keepers generally used to sell 
the skins of both these and polecats to the 
furriers. In a conversation I had some years 
ago with an old keeper, named Franklin, he 
assured me his father once killed a marten 
cat at Haynes about 1840, and he had heard 
of it being obtained at Wootton. In the 
Field (1859) 'S to be found an interesting 
account of the capture in Odell Wood of a 
pine marten and four kittens by an old game- 
keeper in about the year 1819. The old cat 
brought up the kittens successfully in con- 
finement, and although the mother was never 



tamed the young became as docile as domestic 

13. Polecat, Putorius puiorius, Linn. 
Bell — Mustek putorim. 
Until about the middle of last century the 
polecat was still fairly common, more partic- 
ularly in the well wooded districts. Many 
of the old inhabitants, especially gamekeepers 
and woodmen, have told me they were 
familiar with this species in their early days, 
but nowadays almost the only evidence that 
remains are the few stuffed specimens that 
one may occasionally come across. At Ren- 
hold Wood four or five were killed by Good- 
liflF, who was keeper there many years ago. 
They were not uncommon in the woods 
around Bolnhurst, and in Clapham Woods as 
many as six or seven are stated to have 
been taken in one week ; at Stanford 
and Newnham they have occurred, and in 
more recent years were comparatively well 
known around Wootton, Maulden and 
Melchbourne. Major Brooks remarks on its 
occurrence formerly at Flitwick and Mr. 
Rouse Orlebar around Hinwick. About 
1850 one was seen by Mr. J. King at 
Southill Fields and another in Southill Park 
about 1870 ; one obtained at Sherhatch 
Wood about 1842, and another, a very 
beautiful old male, trapped in February about 
1876 by the keeper at Wilshamstead Wood, 
are both now in the writer's possession. One 
was found at Little Staughton in 1867, and 
a male, which had got its head through some 
palings and had been unable to extricate it- 
self at Warden in March 1873. Another 
male was trapped near Turvey Mill in April 
1880, and about 1882 another, a large speci- 
men, was trapped under an old archway at 
Sharnbrook ; all four were mounted by 
Mr. A. Covington. During the winter 
1878—9 a polecat was said to have been 
seen several times at Putnoe. One was 
killed at Chicksands Priory 28 March 1879 
[Zoologist), a male trapped 11 March 1883 at 
Henlow Grange {Field) and another trapped 
at Ickwell Bury 8 December 1883 [Field). 
One which I have seen in the head-keeper's 
possession at Woburn was killed in the park 
about 1886, and a fine old male, which I 
have also been able to examine, was trapped 
at Elstow Gorse 26 October 1898 and 
measured 22 inches when in the flesh. 

14. Stoat (Ermine). Putorius ermineus, Linn. 

Bell — Mustek erminea. 

Fairly common wherever its numbers are 

not rigidly kept down by game-preserving. 

Specimens that have more or less assumed the 

arctic winter dress are not at all uncommon, 
and many individuals that have undergone 
almost the complete change of dress have 
been obtained ; upwards of a dozen of these 
have passed through the hands of Mr. A. 
Covington, and in every instance he adds 
they were large old males. A correspondent 
writing to the Field 1879, respecting a stoat's 
nest and larder found by him on 26 May at 
Stratton Park, Biggleswade, mentioned that it 
contained four field mice, twenty-seven par- 
tridges' eggs (not one of which was injured) 
and parts of several rabbits. The female and 
eleven young were killed from the nest, a 
number considerably in excess of the usual 
litter of about six. 

15. Weasel. Putorius mva Us, hinn. 

Bell — Mustek vulgaris. 
Common generally, in spite of game- 
keepers' efforts to reduce its numbers. Several 
albinos have been obtained, one at Blunham 
and another at Great Barford, as I am informed 
by Dr. Sprigge. In the winter 1896-7 
another was taken in a stable at Luton, and 
still more recently one is recorded in the Field 
shot 25 October 1898 by Mr. Rouse Orlebar 
on his lawn at Hinwick. Two albinos at 
least have been received by Mr. A. Coving- 
ton, one from near Ravensden church in 
1 89 1 and another near the pond in Golding- 
ton village in 1889 ; in addition he mentions 
having had several varieties with the white 
chest and belly spotted with brown. 

16. Badger. Meles tneles, Linn. 

Bell — Meles taxus. 
Now rare, a few remaining in certain 
favoured haunts, whence those that are occas- 
ionally killed may have wandered. Until 
about the middle of last century it was fairly 
well known throughout the county, and 
badger-baiting at the local fairs was one of 
the attractions. Along the chalk-hill range, 
particularly in the neighbourhood between 
Sharpenhoe and Hexton, many have been 
killed in recent years, and in the former 
locality the remains of one were found by Mr. 
A. F. Crossman in June 1893 ; several bad- 
ger-earths have come under my personal ob- 
servation there, and from this locality they 
seem frequently to wander into the adjoining 
parishes. At Silsoe it has several times oc- 
curred. Davis [History of Luton, 1874) refers 
to one being caught at Barton some two or 
three years previously. A stuffed badger that 
I have seen in the boat-house at Luton Hoo 
was taken at Stockings Wood about 1887 and 
weighed 28 lb.; others I learnt have since been 
taken on that estate. Colonel Hanbury Barclay 



states that in March 1901 badgers had an earth 

at Tingrith, his keeper having seen a badger 

in the woods a week previously. In the 

spring of 1891 a mother with young was dug 

out of an earth at Harrold ; the female was 

preserved and is in the possession of Mr. A. 

Covington, who had received one a few years 

previously from Carlton. A young one about 

six weeks old was sent to him from Harrold 

in 1890, and two others some three months 

old and another young one from the same 

neighbourhood in 1899. In 1895 a female 

that had been obtained at Ampthill was also 

preserved by Covington, and he mentions that 

in the ' sixties ' two live cubs were brought to 

his shop that had been taken in the south of 

the county. A male weighing 18 lb. was 

trapped 26 October 1899 on Rowney Warren, 

and a female weighing 19 lb. on 19 April 

1900 at Sutton Park. 

17. Otter. Lutra lutra, Linn. 
Bell — Lutra vulgaris. 
The otter is by no means as rare in this 
county as is generally supposed, and probably 
more plentiful than formerly. It occurs 
throughout the whole course of the Ouse and 
the Ivel, and though the animal itself is not 
often seen its tracks are to be found on the 
land adjoining these streams. In one of Mr. 
J. King's meadows at Langford there is a 
track which has been constantly used for years. 
This track cuts off a bend of the river and 
possesses a curious feature in that the banks at 
either end have never shown any trace of 
scoring. Mr. King assures me that he has 
seen otters leap upon the bank from the im- 
petus gained in swimming. This may account 
for the difficulty experienced in trapping this 
animal. Mr. A. Covington states that he 
has mounted upwards of twenty otters that 
have been obtained locally, and Mr. J. S. 
Wright more than a dozen. A former water 
keeper at Biggleswade informed me that he 
had trapped and shot seven in that neighbour- 
hood. The following records form but a 
small proportion of the full list which might 
be given if dates and other particulars had in 
all cases been preserved : A male otter 
weighing 26 lb. was shot at Milton Mill 17 
April 1837 {Beacon and Beds Mercury). A 
young dog otter killed at its holt near Stev- 
ington church, and afterwards a female by 
Mr. Reeve's hounds 18 May 1837 {Beds 

Mercury). On 28 December 1878 three 
young, apparenly less than a fortnight old, 
found in a nest of sedge and rushes in the 
reed beds near Castle Mill {Zoologist). A 
female, weight 16 lb., trapped in the Ivel at 
Sandy 23 October 1879 {Field). An adult 
killed, weighing 21 lb., at Biggleswade 29 
July 1883 {Field). One about a third grown, 
killed at Langford 17 December 1883, and 
an old male in the same locality i April 1885. 
At Beeston one of 24 lb. weight was shot 

25 December 1885 {Field). A male was 
shot at Langford 19 January 1886, another 

26 September 1887, and others 18 December 
1893 and 28 May 1895. An old one and a 
young killed at Bromham Hall on the same 
day in 1890. In January 1886 one of three 
young, about four weeks old, was killed at 
Odell ; and at the same place in February 
1895 three young were found together on an 
old wooden bridge, evidently having been dis- 
lodged by the floods. A male weighing 30 
lb. obtained at Shefford 1894. Two young 
ones, taken below Bromham Bridge 1894, 
were reared by hand. An adult shot lo 
February 1895 on the island adjoining Bed- 
ford old baths, and two days later two young 
ones, about three weeks old, were taken from 
under the boards at the back of the bathing 
sheds. A female shot, and two of three young 
taken from a bed of rushes on the canalized 
barge-way near Cardington 30 October 1 898. 
Three half grown otters were seen by the 
writer 24 December 1900 on the islands near 
Roxton Bridge, and on 26 December one of 
about the same size was flushed on the Ouse 
at Blunham. During January 1 902 one was 
frequently seen disporting itself in the even- 
ing in the river close to Bedford Bridge. On 
24 January a male was caught and released 
again at Biddenham. In the same and follow- 
ing year during the months of June several 
were seen by the writer between Little Bar- 
ford and Great Barford. In the latter locality 
I found a much used holt, a large hole in the 
brickwork of the sluice at Old Mills some 
1 8 inches above the usual water level. It con- 
tained a quantity of dry rushes, and the edges of 
brickwork were considerably polished by the 
pads of the animals. Dr. Sprigge mentions 
that some young found at Great Barford were 
suckled by a cat. The writer has come 
across specimens with yellowish buff spots 
and blotches on the under parts. 


18. Squirrel. Sciurus leucourus, Kerr. and well-timbered parks, and very common 

Bell — Sciurus vulgaris. in the larger fir plantations. A variety in my 

More or less abundant in the woodlands possession obtained in November 1894 at 



Rowney Warren has the white of the under 
parts considerably extended, white feet, and 
a white line along the upper part of the back. 
Dr. Sprigge mentions seeing one in the woods 
at Clophill in 1898, which appeared to him 
to be quite black, and Mr. A. Covington 
once had one sent him which had the tail pied 
black and white. 

19. Dormouse. Mmcardinus avellanarius, 

Bell — Myoxus avellanarius. 
In an article upon the range of dormice in 
England and Wales {Zoologist, 1885), Mr, 
J. F. Woods, who formerly lived at Woburn, 
states that in 1856 he found several in that 
parish, also at Great and Bow Brickhill and 
on the Chiltern Hills in Buckinghamshire. 
Writing to me in reference to these particulars, 
he adds that the dormice were taken in Lowe's 
Wood, Charle Wood, about half a mile 
from the shire oak, the county border, and 
that since then he had also heard of their 
being in Milton Wood at Milton Bryant. 

20. Harvest Mouse. Mus minutus, Pallas. 

I have not yet met with this species in the 
county ; neither have I ever been able to 
trace any of its remains amongst the thou- 
sands of owls' pellets that I have examined 
from various localities. My father neverthe- 
less mentions that it was not uncommon 
around his home at Blunham about 1 830, and 
that he has found its nests there. Mr. J. 
King also assures me that when a resident at 
Southill about 1870 he found it tolerably 
common around there, but he never met with 
it elsewhere. 

2 1 . Wood Mouse or Long-tailed Field Mouse. 

Mus sylvaticus, Linn. 
Abundant everywhere, and at times a very 
destructive little animal, especially in the 
market gardening lands, where it feeds on 
cucumber and marrow seeds. During last 
year I was assured by one man that he had 
trapped over seventy of this species in a few 
days on a piece of land about an acre in 
extent, the traps being baited with the mar- 
row seeds only. 

22. House Mouse. Mus musculus, Linn. 
Very abundant generally. Pied varieties 

have been occasionally met with. 

Mus decumanus, Pallas, 
common. Two albinos in my 

23. Brown Rat, 

Far too 
possession were caught at Cockayne Hatley 
in May 1895, and two of the melanistic 
form were killed at Stotfold in December 

1896. Others which I have also been 
enabled to examine were killed — one in the 
neighbourhood of Luton about 1885, and 
another near Harlington in 190 1. A male 
and female were killed at Astwick Mills 8 
December 1896. One was obtained during 
the summer of the same year at Kempston, 
and several specimens have been received by 
Mr. A. Covington from other localities. 

24. Black Rat. Mus rattus, Linn. 
Probably at one time common enough ; 

the only information we have of its more 
recent existence is that Davis {History of Luton, 
1855) records it then as rare in that neigh- 
bourhood ; it is not improbable that he may 
have mistaken the black form of the brown 
rat {Mus decumanus) for this species. 

25. Field Vole. Microtus agrestis, Linn. 

Bell — Arvicola agrestis. 
Common generally. 

26. Bank Vole. Evotomys glareolus, Schreber. 

Bell — Arvicola glareolus. 
Fairly abundant. Since this species was 
first recorded in Bedfordshire (Zoologist, 1895) 
I have occasionally found it even exceeding 
the field vole in number. In some owls' 
pellets recently examined from Sandy, Brom- 
ham, Clophill, Sharpenhoe and Rowney 
Warren, the remains of 1 55 mice (chiefly Mus 
sylvaticus), 2 rats, 9 field voles and 10 red 
bank voles were found, besides 38 finches and 
8 insectivorous birds. 

27. Water Vole. Microtus amphibius, Linn. 

Bell — Arvicola amphibius. 
Common in the immediate vicinity of all 
our waterways, streams and larger pools. I 
have sometimes noticed considerable damage 
to osier beds caused by this vole gnawing and 
felling the osiers in a similar way to the 
beaver felling trees, but for what purpose 
I fail to understand ; no portion of the felled 
osiers had apparently been used as food. An 
albino of a dingy-cream colour with pink 
eyes was shot at Henlow Park 23 March 
1899. Several of the melanistic forms have 
been taken ; one from a pond at Clapham 
Park in 1867 ; also two from near the river 
ford of that village, and two or more from 
Biddenham many years previously. 

28. Common Hare. Lepus europteus, Pallas. 

Bell — Lepus timidus. 
Not so generally numerous as formerly, 
depending for its existence on the amount of 
protection aflForded it. A jack hare shot at 



Ickwell Bury on 28 October 1886 had the 
fore part of the body pure white, as far as the 
top of the shoulder {Field). Mr, T, Cane 
has given me particulars of another that was 
shot at Dunstable ; it also had the fore parts 
white, including the shoulders and fore legs, 
one eye being normal in colour, the other 
white with a black pupil. One of a uniform 
pale grey colour was sent in to Mr. A. 
Covington from Sharnbrook about 1868 ; also 

another, very similar but patched with white, 
from Wilshamstead shortly afterwards. 

29. Rabbit. Lepus cuniculus, Linn. 

Common, but varying considerably in 
numbers in various localities, and on the 
whole by no means so abundant as in many 
other counties. On 4 May 1901 I saw two 
entirely white young ones in company with 
others on the Sharpenhoe downs. 




'Jli» Edlnlrai'gli GiT)grap)ur»'l luHlituLc 





THE prehistoric remains found in Bedfordshire are numerous and 
of considerable importance, and it is interesting to note that 
through the action of Mr. (now Sir) John Evans some of the 
earliest English discoveries of palaeolithic implements were made 
in this county. Mr. Evans visited a gravel pit at Biddenham near Bed- 
ford in the expectation of finding palaeolithic implements, and although 
he did not at the time succeed in finding any, the search was vigorously 
and successfully taken up by the late Mr. Wyatt of Bedford, who as long 
ago as the early part of 1861 discovered an important series, the chief 
specimens of which are now in the British 
Museum. In 1830 a palaeolithic implement 
(fig. i) was picked up at Dallow farm near 
Luton by a farmer, who, although ignorant of 
its real nature, was struck by its odd shape and 
preserved it among some other curious stones. 
It came at length into the possession of the 
writer. It may be added that a large number 
of palaeolithic implements has been found in 
situ at Caddington in the same neighbourhood. 
As far as Bedfordshire is concerned there 
is reason to believe that man's first appearance 
was made in the early part of the quaternary period, or the pleistocene 
age, as it is termed by geologists. This was after the deposit of the 
boulder clays and gravels belonging to the glacial period or periods, and 
before the deposition of the contorted drift. 

Palasolithic stone tools have been found near Bedford at Biddenham, 
at Kempston, Harrowden, Fenlake and Cardington ; at all these places 
the writer has discovered examples, especially at Kempston, in large 
numbers. The valley of the Ouzel at Bossington near Leighton Buzzard 
has also yielded specimens. 

Eight miles to the east of Bedford, at Tempsford, the Great Ouse 
is joined by the Ivel ; at this place, and at eight miles to the south at 
Langford and Henlow, implements have been discovered. Palaeolithic 
flakes and remains of the mammoth have been procured at Eaton Socon, 
three and a half miles to the north of Tempsford, and paleolithic flakes 
at FUtwick two miles to the south of Ampthill. Near Henlow the Ivel 
is joined by the Hiz, and at Ickleford, four miles south of Henlow on 
the border of Hertfordshire, similar discoveries have been made. 
I 145 ^9 

Fig. I. 


Palaeolithic flakes and mammalian remains have also been discovered 
at Round Green and Ramridge End one mile north-east of Luton. Other 
localities are Houghton Regis one mile north of Dunstable, Stanbridge 
Ford two miles west of Dunstable, near Sewell and near the source of the 
Ver at Markyate Street at the extreme south of the county. 

The more remarkable discoveries are those made by the writer in 
the brick-earth and contorted drift on the hilltops south of the county, 
chiefly at and near Caddington, between Dunstable and Luton. 

The gravel pits at Bedford, in which palaeolithic implements and the 
bones of Pleistocene mammalia occur, rest on Oxford Clay and the Corn- 
brash, the upper portion of the Lower Oolite. Resting on the Oxford 
Clay and capping the adjoining hills is the Upper Chalky Boulder Clay. 
The valley has been excavated through the Boulder Clay and Oxford Clay, 
and the implement-bearing gravel contains materials derived from these 
deposits. No paljeolithic implements occur in the two clays, and it is 
obvious that the deposits in the valley are later in age than the deposits on 
the hills which have been cut through and exposed in section on the 

The valley gravel near Bedford is about 1 3 feet thick. It consists of 
subangular flints, yellow, ochreous and brown in colour ; oolitic debris ; 
pebbles of quartz and sandstone ; new red sandstone conglomerates, and 
other old rocks derived from the Boulder Clay or other glacial deposits. 
Its fluviatile character is shown by the numerous shells of land and fresh- 
water moUusca. 

Two implements from the Bedford gravels are illustrated in figs. 2 

Fig. 2. 

and 3. A third, made from a large natural flake of flint, is shown in 
fig 4. One side of this implement, shown on the right, is plain, and, 
with the exception of one or two human touches, it is natural and covered 
with glacial striae. No striae occur on the portions worked by human 



hands ; therefore the implement is of post-glacial age, otherwise the 
human and non-human work would be equally striated. Excellent 

examples of Bedford implements with the original crust striated and the 
worked parts not striated may be seen in the British Museum. 

Implements of the largest size and greatest beauty have been found 
in the Bedford gravels. They vary greatly in age ; some of the newer 
are sharp and lustrous, and white or yellow in colour ; others and older, 
abraded, dull and brown. Some again are highly finished, others are 
very rude. It is remarkable that ovate or roundish implements are rare 
at Bedford, the prevailing type being pointed. In the south of the 
county, however, pointed implements are rare and ovate common. 

Bedford implements are commonly full of natural fractures made by 
the pressure of other stones in the gravel bed, so that they are frequently 
cracked through whilst still in situ, and drop in pieces as soon as disturbed. 
Absolutely perfect examples are therefore not very common, whilst pieces 
such as butts, points or fragments from the bodies or sides of implements 


Fig. j. 

Fig. 6. 

are quite common in the excavated heaps of gravel in the pits or by the 



The accompanying illustrations are taken from characteristic imple- 
ments from the Bedford gravels : — 

Fig. 5 shows an implement in an initial state, roughed out but 
never finished ; the point has been accidentally broken off. 

Fig. 6 shows an implement spoilt in manufacture and discarded. 
The blow, indicated by the arrow, has ruined the implement, and a large 
flake, in place of a small one as shown by the surface at a, has been dis- 
lodged. The dotted line indicates the form of implement the maker 
probably had in view. 

Fig. 9a 

Fig. io. 

Fig. 7 shows a rude implement, made by flaking an, ovoid nodule of 
flint to a point. It is a tool probably made in haste for some temporary 

In fig. 8 is shown an implement made from an outside piece of flint. 
It is only flaked on one side, the crust side being left almost unworked, 
'^ 148 


Fig. 9 shows a typical Bedford implement, of ovate form, worked on 
both sides. 

Fig. 9A shows a chisel or wedge-shaped implement of a somewhat 
uncommon form. 

Fig. lo shows an implement resembling in shape a hafted dagger 
The stone from which it was made was obviously selected for its convenient 
natural handle. It was probably used for piercing and cutting. 

Fig. 1 1 shows an implement naturally perforated with a round hole 
at the base. The stone from which it was made was probably selected 
for this peculiarity. 

Fic. 1 1 . 

Fig. iz. 

In fig. 1 2 is shown a chopper-like implement, the natural crust of 
the flint being left at the base for convenience of handling. 

Fig. 13 shows an ovate, much abraded, dull, opaque brown im- 
plement, probably of the greatest palaeolithic antiquity as regards 
Britain, but as no glacial stride are found on implements of this class in 

Fig. 13. 

Fig. 14. 

Bedfordshire they are probably post-glacial. Pointed forms also occur. 
Implements and flakes of this age were sometimes reflaked or repointed 
by later races of palaeolithic men. 

Fig. 14 shows an implement apparently suitable for hammering or 
smashing bones. 

In fig. 1 5 are given views of two scrapers, made as usual from flakes. 
The scraping edges are indicated at a a. The bulb of percussion is on 



the plain side, not illustrated, but seen on the edge views at bb. 
These were probably used for scraping flesh from bones, chiefly perhaps 
by the older folk who had no teeth equal to the task. 

Fig. 1 6 shows a peg-like tool made from a flake, the bulb of per- 
cussion being on the plain side at a. Many examples of tools of this 
nature, some more highly finished, have been found. 
They somewhat resemble the neolithic fabricator or 

Fig. 15. 

Fig. 16. 

A fossil from the chalk named Coscinopora globularis is common in the 
Bedford gravels. These curious fossils are each about the size of a 
cherry, white in colour and furnished with a natural perforation. 
Collections of them have several times been found in company with 
implements and flakes, and it is possible that palaeolithic people used them 
for personal decoration as beads. Many have been found with the natural 
orifice enlarged as if for more convenient insertion of a ligament. Examples 
from Bedford are in the British Museum. 

Until quite recent times it was customary to speak of palaeolithic 
tools as river-drift implements because they were almost invariably found 
associated with beds of gravel, sand and clay, which had previously been 
laid down by our present rivers. The implements nearest a river and on 
the lower terraces were considered to be the newer, and those on the 
higher terraces the older. From the first however certain implements 
found on certain high positions and more or less removed from the present 
rivers were suspected to be of a still greater age, and to belong to the river 
drift of streams which, owing to the then different configuration of the 
country and a subsequent change in the valleys, did not run in the present 
river valleys. In some instances ancient affluents of present rivers, as 
shown by the contours on maps, must have been dry long prior to neo- 
lithic times, because neolithic implements and flakes are now spread 
generally all over the dry surfaces. There is a former affluent of the 
Lea of this class at No-man's-land Common near Wheathampstead, 
Herts, and when the dry banks of this earlier rivulet are excavated 
palaeolithic implements are found. 

A good palaeolithic flake was found by the writer at Dunstable 
in 1884. This, with one or two minor finds of the same class, and the 
finding of implements at Dunstable later on, led him to search the hills, 



and in 1889 he found at Caddington the first ochreous abraded imple- 
ment in situ. The height was 595 feet above the ordnance datum, and 
1 1 6 feet above the chalk valley. No river is in the neighbourhood, the 
nearest water, one and a half miles to the south, being a tiny brook, 
which becomes further southwards the river Ver, and still further south the 

There seems reason to believe that the living places of paljeolithic 
men were not confined to river banks, but that they often extended their 
place of habitation to inland lakes, ponds and swamps, whether on hills 
or in valleys. It is however certain that when they lived on what are 
now the Caddington Hills in south Bedfordshire the present valleys had 
not been excavated. What are now hilltops were valleys in palaeolithic 
times, surrounded by higher ground with upper chalk and red clay-with- 

All the implements on the hills, new and old alike, are without 
exception newer than the Tertiary deposit. The newer men and the older 
lived on the same swampy ground surrounded by higher lands. The old 
watercourses no longer exist as such, but they are represented by shallow 
dry valleys which in their lowest parts still sometimes give rise to 
temporary drains or brooks. 

The first implements found by the writer at Caddington belonged to 
the older, ochreous and slightly abraded type, but it was subsequently 
found that under the layer of abraded implements was a series of strata of 
brick-earth, and upon each stratum were paljeolithic implements and 
flakes. These implements were neither abraded nor ochreous. The 
lowest stratum was in some cases 40 feet below the present surface, as at 
Folly Pit near Caddington church, where, at this depth, implements rest 
direct on the chalk and are covered with brick-earth. The sharp-edged 
implements are the newer, and they are not confined to Caddington but 
occur in situ in brick-earth in different directions for several miles. In 
late palaeolithic times the neighbourhood of Caddington was extensively 
peopled. That the people actually lived and made their tools there is 
proved by the fact that nearly 600 flakes have been replaced on imple- 
ments or on other flakes. Examples of these restorations are in the 
British Museum, University Museum, Oxford, and elsewhere. 

The men who lived on the palaeolithic floors, chiefly of brick-earth, at 
Caddington, represented the latest of the palaeolithic races. They were in 
the same stage of savagery or barbarism as the palaeolithic men who lived 
in caves and under rock shelters. As the Caddington men had no homes 
of this kind they probably made rude shelters or huts of trees and branches. 
The tools they used were as a rule beautifully made and regular in shape. 
The ovate implement with a slightly thickened base prevailed as a type ; 
pointed tools were rare; and the scraper was well known. The flint for tool 
making and the pebbles of quartzite for the necessary hammers were close 
at hand in the Tertiary deposit, in the chalk- with-flints and the red clay- 
with-flints. A typical ovate example is shown in fig. 17 and a smaller 
specimen in fig. 18. The latter is now in the collection of Sir John Evans. 



A chisel-ended example is illustrated in fig. 1 9, and four views of another 
beautiful example of the same class in fig. 20. In fig. 2 1 is represented 
a well-made acutely pointed implement, a rare form in south Bedfordshire, 
and in fig. 22 is a sketch of a very rough specimen from the same deposits 

Fig. 17. 

Fig. 18. 

Fig. 20. 

Fig. 21. 

Fig. 22. 

with the highly finished examples, showing that rudeness alone is no 
criterion of age. This specimen was probably made by a beginner, or in 
some sudden emergency. Tools of this class do not indicate stages of 
evolution from lower to higher forms ; they are simply failures, make-shifts, 
attempts on intractable flints, or accidental abortions, made by the men 



who were capable of making and did make the finest and most regularly- 
shaped tools. 

In the brick-earth deposits scrapers are fairly common. A fine, 
elaborately worked example is shown in fig. 23 ; one with less work is 
illustrated in fig. 24. A few finely-worked, small implements and lance-like 

Fig. 23. 

Fig. 24. 

forms, some only 2 inches in length, have been found. Various forms of 
implements of erratic shape and some of uncertain use occur. One of these 
is illustrated in fig. 25. Flints of this class were possibly throw-stones or 

Fig. 25. 

Fig. 26. 

missiles ; the one illustrated weighs 6| oz. Several other specimens and 
some more symmetrical have been found. A core from Caddington is 
shown in fig. 26 for comparison. 

At Caddington the surfaces upon which the palasolithic folk lived 
are at times clearly visible on the sides of excavations, sometimes merely as a 
line of somewhat different colour from the mass of brick-earth. On a line 
of this sort have been found several implements without flakes or any other 
stones. At other times there have been many flakes, with implements 
finished and unfinished, broken examples, failures, cores, flakes and blocks 
of selected flints approximating in shape, and suitable for implements, all 
in the position in which they were left by the implement makers. It was 
possible to see, by careful observation of the surrounding litter of flakes, 
the places which the tool makers actually occupied while manufacturing 
implements. Certain of the flakes had been trodden upon and broken, but 
I 153 



the broken pieces remained in juxtaposition. Before these positions could 

be seen it was necessary to remove from i o feet to 40 feet of brick-earth. 

In fig. 27 is represented one edge and face of a large implement found 

at Caddington. In fig. 28 the back of this implement is shown, and on the 

right three conjoined flakes, which 
were found four years before the 
implement, in April and August 
1 890. These three flakes fit on to 
the back of the implement. Fig. 
29 shows, on the left, the appear- 
ance of the left edge with flakes 
conjoined to the back and one 
flake to the front at a. On the 
right is shown the front of the 
implement with one flake re- 
attached at A, and conjoined flakes 
behind. Fig. 30 is a representa- 
tion of the back of the implement, 
as covered with re-united flakes, 
part of the tool itself being seen at 
A and B, and on the right, the 
right edge of the implement with 

Fig. 27. 

Fig. 28. 

Fjg. 28. 

flakes conjoined. With the flakes re-attached the implement weighed 
2 lb. 9^oz. 

Palasolithic implements of apparently the greatest age occur in the 


Fig. 29. 


surface deposit named contorted drift. They almost invariably lie too deep 
to be turned up by the plough, so are rarely found on the surface. This fact 
is of great importance, for there must needs be some doubt as to the age 
and origin of implements found on the surface. The contorted drift at 
Caddington has usually the deep red colour and tenacity belonging to 
red clay-with-flints. Red clay-with-flints occurs in situ in the neigh- 
bourhood close by, and it must have been extensively present, to- 
gether with chalk-with-flints before the contorted drift was deposited. 
In a disturbed or relaid state both red clay-with-flints and chalk-with- 
flints are apparently extensively but irregularly deposited over the hills 
of south Bedfordshire. The contorted drift in its passage over the 
old land surface of chalk. Tertiary deposit, chalk-with-flints and 
red clay-with-flints, brick-earth, and ancient gravels, necessarily incor- 
porated the materials of these deposits into its own substance, and as 
paleolithic implements, both older and newer, were resting on these 
deposits it follows that palaeolithic implements of all ages are found in it. 
Such is the case, for a few implements with edges as sharp as knives have 
been found, together with others, which, from their general rudeness, 
peculiar colour and mineral condition are obviously very much older. 

The older palaeolithic implements range in style from very rude tools 
to occasional implements of the highest finish and regularity of form. 
There is no abrupt line of demarcation between rude and finished forms. 
The ruder predominate, but every intermediate form occurs. They vary 
in colour, according to the tint of the contorted drift in which they are 
found, from dark brown and liver colour to dark and pale red, and yellow. 
The progress is continuous throughout in workmanship, colour, mineral 
condition and abrasion. Notwithstanding these facts it is obvious that 
some of the older tools are very much older than others, but as no tools 
are glacially striated and no implements occur in the local and sometimes 
adjoining glacial deposits it seems desirable, with our present knowledge, 
to consider the oldest of the old tools as post-glacial in age. Every known 
form of palaeolithic implement occurs amongst these older tools; pointed, 
ovate, chisel-edged, fabricator-like tools, missile-like nodules, scrapers, 
cores, flakes and all the erratic forms common to implement-bearing 
gravels. The majority of the older tools are a little abraded, in a few the 
abrasion is considerable. 

Amongst these remains are numerous pieces of tabular flint with 
edges sometimes artificially but more often naturally chipped or bruised. 
The chipped edges of these flints vary in colour in exactly the same manner 
as the chippings upon the finished implements. The chipping therefore 
may be classed as older or newer, whether artificial or natural, and it is 
evident that it belongs to the latest palaeolithic period. 

In naturally broken flints it commonly happens that one part has a 
weak and thin edge. This thin edge is especially liable to become broken 
in a way that suggests a hollow scraper, but such natural stones must not 
be confounded with true hollow scrapers, which are amongst the latest, 
highly specialized stone tools. 



A skilfully made ochreous ovate and slightly abraded implement is 
illustrated in fig. 31. It is now in the collection of Sir John Evans. A 
more finished ochreous example, now in the British Museum, is shown 
in fig. 32. Specimens still ruder are frequent in the contorted drift. 
The same deposit at Caddington produced the original of fig. 33, an 
instrument of the highest possible finish. It is nearly perfect in shape, 
and its cutting edges are designedly incurved. Some of the flakes that 
were detached in its manufacture were minute and as thin as writing 

Fig. 31. 

Fig. 32. 

Fig. 33. 

paper. It is sUghtly abraded and chocolate-brown in colour. From the 
same deposit and close by in the same pit at Caddington an implement 
of the rudest class has been found, in precisely the same mineral con- 
dition, of precisely the same colour and abraded to precisely the same 
extent. The original of fig. 34, a pointed implement probably made in 
haste, by a few well directed blows, was also found in the same deposit 
as the last, and at the same place. 

The elaborate inplement was not, during the stay of primeval man 
in what is now Bedfordshire, evolved from the rude forms. Both were 
made at the same time, by men of the same race, and many examples by 
the same man. The original of fig. 33 seems to have been made with 
more care than was actually necessary for any work that a savage might 
have ever wished to execute. The rude tools had as much work ex- 



pended upon them as was necessary. The man who made the original 
of fig. 34 could have made the original of fig. 33 had he felt so disposed. 
The rude specimen doubtlessly possesses primitive characters, but the man 
who made it was not more primitive than the man who made the elab- 
orately worked implement. 

An example of a scraper is illustrated in fig. 35 ; and a smaller, finer, 

and more elaborate specimen in 
fig. 36. Both these have a well 
marked bulb of percussion on 
the plain side. 

A rude and remarkable 
palasolithic implement, roughly 
hewn from a massive bulbed 
flake of Hertfordshire conglo- 
merate, is illustrated in fig. 37. 
It is faintly ochreous and lustrous, and very different in appearance 
as regards colour from newly broken conglomerate. It was found in an 
excavation of contorted drift on Caddington Common. It appears to be an 
attempt at an implement of the well known hump-backed form, rather 

Fig. 37. 

Fig. 38. 

than a finished tool, and perhaps owing to the highly intractable nature of 
the stone it was left in a roughly hewn state. A flake of Hertfordshire 
conglomerate, found in a field near by, is illustrated in fig. 38, and two 
other palaeolithic flakes of the same material have been procured from 


There appears to have been a gap of unknown centuries between 
the departure of palaeolithic man from Britain and the arrival of his 
Iberian, non-Aryan, neolithic successor. The lapse of time was suffi- 
ciently long to allow of the covering up of such of man's implements 

* All the examples of palaeolithic implements illustrated in this article, with the exception of one 
or two given to Sir John Evans, have been presented to the British Museum. 



as were left in limestone caves, by thick coatings of stalagmite, and for 
a considerable encroachment of the sea owing to the gradual depression 
of the land between Britain, France, Germany, Denmark and Scandi- 

The palaeolithic and neolithic ages were probably continuous in 
southern Europe, northern Africa and in Asia ; the local break in Britain 
being caused by the depression of the land and its isolation from the 
continent of Europe. The general contour of the country and its river 
drainage was much the same in neolithic times as now. 

Neolithic man probably arrived in Britain across the Straits of 
Dover by means of rude canoes formed of tree trunks hollowed out by 
fire, or on rafts, but the actual date of his arrival is unknown. He 
came long before the introduction of bronze. Sir John Evans states 
that cutting tools of stone began to be superseded in this country 500 
or 600 years b.c' He probably migrated to this country from the east 
or south-east, from lands that were the native homes of some of the 
quadrupeds he brought with him, viz. from the central plateau of Asia. 
In this position domestic animals had been for long ages under the 
dominion of man. This conclusion as to the place from which neolithic 
man started is confirmed by the seeds he brought with him and planted, 
such as wheat, barley, culinary peas, etc. 

The land at the beginning of the neolithic period consisted of thick 
virgin forest, bush and bog ; there were probably few men and consequently 
no roads or trackways. The climate was wet, more hot in summer and more 
cold in winter than now. The exposed heights, such as the chalk hills 
of Bedfordshire, were probably covered with bush. The lowlands were 
forest and swamp. The neolithic folk in course of time occupied all 
parts of Great Britain. They were Iberians, a long-headed race which 
dominated northern and western Spain and gave the ancient name of 
Iberia to what is now Spain and Portugal. They were the Silures of 
Tacitus, the men who erected cromlechs, made avenues or alignments of 
unhewn stones, threw up long tumuli or barrows, and in places where 
large stones occurred constructed chambered tumuli and erected circles of 
large stones. 

There is what appears to be a remarkable long barrow on Dunstable 
Downs near Pascombe Pit, but its age must remain uncertain till it has 
been opened and the contents examined. On the northern base of Dun- 
stable Downs and on the northern side of the Icknield Way a consider- 
able number of interments are reported to have been disturbed in 1784. 
These, at the time, were considered to be comparatively modern, and to 
represent the people of Dunstable who had died of the plague in 1603 
and 1625. The remains of a long barrow standing east and west still 
exist in a mutilated state in Union Street, Dunstable. Fifty years ago 
this barrow was very distinct and was called Mill-bank, from its former 
use as a foundation for a windmill. Two hundred yards to the east was 

* Sir John Evans, Ancient Stone Implements, ed. 2, p. 147. 


a large round barrow, and an ancient trackway could be traced from 
between these barrows to the chief entrance of the British camp named 
Maiden Bower. Flint flakes are abundant round the sites of both 

The people of the later stone and bronze ages lived chiefly in places 
where water was conveniently at hand, in camps protected by ramparts, 
ditches and palisades. They had look-out huts on all the high positions 
and in places bordering their trackways. Their houses were huts or 
wigwams of sticks and skins. 

The chief neolithic weapons and tools were the axe and adze, often 
partly or wholly ground, the pick, lance, dagger, arrow, sling-stone, 
knife and scraper. There were also many minor tools, some of unknown 
use. These relics are generally distributed over Bedfordshire, being 
more commonly found in valleys, on plains, and near rivers and water- 
courses than on the hills. 

The newer stone implements are often called ' surface implements,' 
because they are commonly found on the surface of the ground. They 
are best seen in harrowed fields after showers of rain. They are con- 
stantly turned up by the plough, and are not uncommon on heaps of flints 
in fields, by the roadside and in cart ruts. They are often found in and 
near ancient camps, by water-courses, in sheltered places at hill bottoms, 
and in tumuli. 

It will be convenient to illustrate the neolithic and later surface 
weapons and tools of Bedfordshire at this place. Some examples are many 
years older than others, but none are so old as the palaeolithic age. 
These implements are spread irregularly all over Bedfordshire. Strange 
as it may appear, centuries of field cultivation have made but little 
difference in the nature of their positions. The interior of the camp 
called Maiden Bower near Dunstable contains, or has contained, many 
stone implements and flint flakes. For a certain number of yards 
outside the camp the same abundance prevails, but beyond a given cir- 
cuit both implements and flakes are rare. The camp and the adjoining 
fields have been under cultivation for centuries, yet the old average of 
worked and unworked stones still holds good. Under the turf on the top 
of the earthen bank which surrounds this camp, a group of several stone 
mullers was found, and at another time a collection of sling or throw- 
stones on the very spot where they were made and laid down for use. 

The same is true of the camp called Waulud's Bank near Leagrave, 

A little more than a mile south of Dunstable there is a place named 
on the ordnance maps Mount Pleasant, a large, high, wind-swept, almost 
treeless hill. Immediately to the south of this place surface implements 
and flakes have been found in abundance, but always within a given 
circuit ; outside this region even flakes are rare. Mount Pleasant in 
ancient British times must have been a living place and a place of manu- 
facture of stone tools. A similar prolific place occurs at half a mile south- 
west of Dunstable, just east of the place named ' California ' on the 

1 60 


ordnance maps. Other places of the same sort occur between the base 
of Dunstable Downs and the Icknield Way. 

The celt, so named from its chisel-like cutting edge, is one of the 
best known of neolithic implements. It occurs in an unground, partly 
ground, or wholly ground state, and was used mounted in a handle or 
unmounted. One out of several known methods of mounting a celt is 

Fig. 39. 

illustrated in fig. 39, where a wholly polished specimen is shown 
mounted as an axe. When the cutting edge is mounted in a horizontal 
position, the stone forms an adze. 

A common, wholly chipped form of celt from Mount Pleasant near 
Dunstable is illustrated in fig. 40. 

An unfinished specimen from Dunstable Downs is illustrated in fig. 

Fig. 41. 

41, where the left edge is finished and the right remains in a perfectly 
untouched state. 

An almost wholly polished specimen from Dunstable is shown m 

fig. 42. 

A wholly polished example, found on a heap of stones in a field at 
Bedford, is illustrated in fig. 43. This specimen both from its peculiar 
form and material is evidently of Irish origin. It is made of dolerite 
and is now in the collection of Sir John Evans. 

A fine example of a partially ground celt, 8 inches long, has been 
I 161 21 


found not far from Billington near Leighton Buzzard ; another example, 
shorter, thicker and heavier, was found at Soulbury near the same place. 
Small celt-like implements, especially when one side is left flat, are 
commonly termed chisels or gouges. A specimen from Waulud's Bank, 
Luton, is illustrated in fig. 44. Large attenuated examples have been 
described as picks. 

Fig. 42. 

Fig. 4.3. 

Fig. 45. 

Fig. 44. 

Celts from Dunstable and Waulud's Bank, Luton, Kempston and 
Pavenham are illustrated and described by Sir John Evans. 

Of perforated hammers but few Bedfordshire examples are recorded. 
A hammer made from a perforated quartzite pebble was found at Barton- 
in-the-Clay in 1903, and near by was found a small drilled bead-like 
pebble of translucent quartz. 

Hammer-stones unperforated tor handles, and sometimes in the form 
of pebbles, occasionally occur, but it is not easy to detect the marks of 
wear in every case. An example of a quartzite hammer-stone with both 
ends worn off by hammering, from Waulud's Bank, Luton, is illustrated in 

fig- 45- 



Examples of an elongate form of hammer-stone made of flint are 
much more easily found, and these are of fairly frequent occurrence. 
A specimen from Caddington, abraded at both ends, is shown in fig. 46. 

Fig. 46. 

This is illustrated in a mounted state fixed in a stem of bent sallow 
and tied with leather thongs. Such an instrument could be used not 
only as a hammer but also as a weapon. 

Spherical hammer-stones, mullers, or pounders are frequent. These 
are usually abraded all over. They were probably used for bruising corn, 
breaking bones, and pounding pieces of flint into small fragments for use 
in clay for pottery. The example illustrated in fig. 47 is from the foot 

Fig. 47. 

Fig. 48. 

Fig. 49. 

Fig. 50. 

of Dunstable Downs. Such implements are common in camps in com- 
pany with flakes. They have been found close to Maiden Bower. One 
specimen in the writer's collection was found close to the right hand of a 
contracted skeleton in a ruined tumulus on Dunstable Downs (see fig. 59). 

A class of tool most difficult to find is the polishing stone. These 
are pebbles of flint or quartzite, with one end rubbed flat by the final 
polishing of flint celts. A beautiful example from Maiden Bower, Dun- 
stable, is illustrated in fig. 48. It came from a hole into which broken 
pots, broken bones and flint flakes had been thrown in prehistoric times ; 
the upper abraded part is black, lustrous and finely striated. Another of 
somewhat larger size was also found at Maiden Bower. A larger example 
of quartzite from Waulud's Bank, Luton, is illustrated in fig. 49. 

Sling-stones or throw-stones are frequent in Bedfordshire, especially 
in or near camps. They are remarkably uniform in size and make. 
They are about the size of a large walnut and usually chipped all over to 
a circular or ovoid form. They were probably used with a wooden or 
leathern sling, and perhaps often thrown with the hand. An example, 



somewhat larger in size than usual, from Waulud's Bank, Luton, is illus- 
trated in fig. 50. One is often asked why stones of this class were made 
when pebbles and broken flints are so common in the fields, but the fact 
is there are very few pebbles or broken flints of suitable shapes and sizes 
for slinging or throwing. The natural stones are too large or too small, 
too flat, too angular or too long ; one has only to look over a stony field 
for suitable natural sling-stones to find that none are to be found. The 
evidence at Maiden Bower shows that these stones were kept in heaps 
on the rampart, ready for use. Slingers when on a slinging expedition 
probably carried a collection in a bag suspended at the waist. 

Simple flint flakes and the cores from which they have been 
struck are common in Bedfordshire. Many of the small implements 
now to be mentioned are made from flakes slightly trimmed. Some- 
times long flakes occur with one or both edges artificially serrated ; 
these are considered to be saws. 

Scrapers are amongst the commonest tools met with in neolithic 
positions ; they are generally horseshoe-shaped, plain on one side and 
worked on the other. They are usually a little larger than a penny 
and about | inch in thickness ; the upper edge was the part used 

Fig. 51. 

for scraping. In the accompanying illustration, fig. 51, the two lower 
scrapers are from Dunstable Downs ; the oblong example a is larger 
and more angular than usual ; the specimen b is typical ; the smaller 
example c is under the average size. 

Flakes are sometimes neatly chipped into the form of borers, 
awls or drills, as illustrated in the three examples from Leagrave near 
Luton, fig. 52. These finely pointed little tools were probably used 
for boring holes in skins, bone needles, etc. 

Common in neolithic positions are little tools called knives or 



trimmed flakes. They vary greatly in shape, but are always made 
from thm flakes, with the edges trimmed to a somewhat even cutting 

edge. They are often oval, sometimes resembling lanceheads, but 
sometimes they are circular. Two common forms are illustrated in 

Fig. 53 

fig. 53. The one marked A is from Dunstable, and b is from Kempston, 

Amongst the smaller antiquities in stone none are more beautiful 
than the spear-, lance-, javelin- and arrow-heads. As a rule these are all 
made from very thin flakes. As the finer articles are extremely delicate, 
and as Bedfordshire is a thoroughly agricultural county, it follows that 
many of the thinner and more highly finished examples are found in a 
broken state. Many javelin- and arrow-heads must have been lost by the 



makers, owing to their being thrown and shot about in all directions. 
They are often found as isolated examples long distances from camps. 
The larger examples are termed spear-, lance- or javelin-heads; three 

Fig. 54. 

are illustrated in fig. 54 ; those marked A and b are from Maiden 
Bower, Dunstable ; c is from Waulud's Bank, Luton. 

It is probable that all the recognized forms of arrow-head occur in 
Bedfordshire. In fig. 55 four tanged examples are illustrated from 
Leagrave and Dunstable Downs. 

Two sub-triangular specimens are shown in fig. 56 ; A is from Cad- 
dington, b from Leagrave, Luton. 

Three examples of the leaf-shaped class are illustrated in fig. 57, 
all from Maiden Bower, Dunstable. 

A bracer or wrist-guard of stone, made for the protection of the 
arm of the bowman against the blow of the string in shooting, has 
been found at Sandy, and is now in the collection of Sir John Evans. 

Fabricators and flaking tools are the last to be mentioned. They 
may have been used as punches, flakers or rubbers, and in some 
instances perhaps as strike-lights. Whatever these tools may have 
been designed for they are common in Bedfordshire, especially in 
camps. Sometimes they are very long, at other times shorter ; some- 
times the ends are comparatively sharp, at other times they are very 
blunt and abraded. 

Three examples are illustrated in fig. 58 ; the first is from Maiden 
Bower, Dunstable, with ends very much abraded as if from constant 
striking on a , pebble or block of iron pyrites for the production of 
fire ; the next is from Dunstable Downs, and is comparatively sharp 
although attenuated. Other much more elongated examples occur. The 
third is from Mount Pleasant, Kensworth, and is unusually stumpy in 
form, but undoubtedly of the flaking or fabricating class. 


Fig. Si. 


Fig. s6. 

Fig. s7. 



The later Celtic Aryans or Celtas were a tall race, the males averaging 
in height 5 ft. 8| in., and the women were also tall. The skulls of the 
CeltEe were broad or round, as seen from above, with strongly developed 
brow ridges and powerful jaws. 

Their houses were bee-hive huts, of stone where procurable ; else- 
where, as in Bedfordshire, the houses were of hewn planks and clay, 
roofed with straw or fern. Pottery was made, but the potter's wheel was 
unknown. Dyers used dyes of various colours. The trades of the bronze- 
smith and bronze-founder were introduced. The husbandmen used sickles 
of bronze. A vast number of bronze articles were imported, and others 

Fig. 59. 

were made in southern Britain where civilization was higher than in the 
north and the midlands. 

The people of the bronze age usually disposed of their dead by 
burning, but as bronze age customs progressed very slowly it is not un- 
common to find evidences of cremation and inhumation in one and the 
same round tumulus. Sometimes a central and older interment of a tumu- 
lus may represent inhumation, and subsequent interments round the circum- 
ference represent cremation, or cremations and inhumations may occur side 
by side round the circumference. In a cremation burial the small pieces 
of burnt bone were carefully collected and placed in a cinerary urn, which 
was then buried in the tumulus. In several instances on Dunstable Downs 
mere holes have been dug in the chalk near the circumference of the 



tumuli, and into them the pieces of burnt bone have been placed without 
urns and then covered with earth. 

The accompanying illustration, fig. 59, represents a contracted inter- 
ment in the circumference of a large round tumulus examined by the 
writer, which once existed on Dunstable Downs. The tumulus has now 
been levelled for agricultural purposes. Its position was one third of a 
mile south-east of the ' Five Knolls ' on Dunstable Downs, in the field 
on the east side of the road. The chief skeleton represents a woman, 
one of the bronze age dolichocephali, 4 ft. 1 1| in. in height and from 
eighteen to twenty-five years of age ; the child clasped by the mother 
was about five years of age. Near the head of the woman were two 
broken pots, near the right hand a stone muUer and a white pebble ; else- 
where in the grave were two other muUers, two scrapers and two very 
rudely chipped celts. About 200 fossil Echini were found surrounding 
the skeleton as illustrated. The owner of the land, Mr. F. T. Fossey, 
found an arrow-head in the excavated material but lost it again. Near 
by, in the same tumulus, the remains of a cremation were found buried 
in a small hole excavated in the chalk. Another tumulus, a little to the 
south of this, contained in its circumference the skeleton of a crouching 
boy about fourteen years of age ; between the hands was a nodule of iron 

Very few finds of bronze implements have been recorded from 
Bedfordshire, and the county is unrepresented in the bronze age collection 
of the British Museum. This is not because bronze antiquities have not 
been found in the county, but because they have not been preserved, and 
when found by field workmen have been lost again, or sold for old metal. 
The late Mr. Joseph Cooke, the former owner of Maiden Bower, the 
camp near Dunstable, once told the writer that when he was a boy his 
father had a quantity of bronze weapons in one of his barns at Sewell, 
but none are there now, and Mr. Cooke did not know what had become 
of them. There can be no doubt that the people of the bronze age were 
spread over the whole county, and further investigations may bring many 
remains of this age to light. Sir John Evans * records the finding of two 
bronze spear-heads, yf inches and 6 inches, near Toddington, and about 
sixty socketed celts at Wymington.* A socketed celt has been found at 

In fig. 60 is shown a piece of antler, from which a number of long 
narrow pieces have been sawn or cut 
out, as if for the manufacture of rude 
pins. In fig. 61 a bone is shown 
with the surface cut and end pointed 
with a knife to form a long bone peg. 
In fig. 62 two views of a bone are Fig. 60. 

given, showing numerous axe marks 
which have been delivered by a pohshed stone or bronze celt. These 

1 jincieni Bronze Implements, -f. 321. ^ Op. cit. p. 113. 

^ Man, the Primeval Savage, p. 316, fig. 230. 
I 169 22 


objects are from Maiden Bower, including the one illustrated at A in 
fig. 63, part of the humerus of Bos primigenius broken for the extraction 
of the marrow for food. This is one of the rarest of bronze age 
animals ; part of a similar bone of the Celtic ox, B. longifrons, is shown 
at B to illustrate the difference in size of the two animals. These bones 
were found with many hundreds of others in a bronze age excavation 
in the chalk on the west side of Maiden Bower. Amongst the bones 
were two human teeth, a lower human jaw with teeth much worn, 
four pieces of a human skull, and a small piece of one of the long 
bones of a human leg. 


There is no definite separating line between the ages of the later stone, 
bronze and iron implements. Stone implements continued to be exten- 
sively made and used during the whole of the bronze age and during the 
age in which iron was known, and its use was continued during the 
Roman and part of the post-Roman times. In the form of ' flint and 
steel ' for tinder boxes and in gun flints the last feeble remnants of the 
stone age in Britain have lasted till modern times. 

Sir John Evans states that the bronze age practically ceased for 
cutting instruments in the third or fourth century B.C. and that in the 
southern parts of Britain iron was known in the fourth or fifth century 
B.C. Prehistoric iron weapons and tools are rarely found in Britain, 
owing to the rapid destruction of the metal in the soil, and the writer has 
no record of the finding of any in Bedfordshire. In the iron age be- 
tween 200 B.C. and 100 B.C. the first British coins appeared, many of which 
have been found in Bedfordshire. 

Two of the most important late Celtic antiquities found in this 
county are in the form of vases fashioned on the lathe in Kimmeridge 
shale. They were discovered in a sepulchral deposit at Warden,' or Old 
Warden, and are now preserved in the Archaeological Museum at Cam- 
bridge. As will be seen from the accompanying illustration of one of 
the pair (fig. 64), they are of elongated and remarkably elegant form, 
each being made in two separate pieces and about 1 4 inches high. No less 
than ten cordons are turned round the body of the vases. The bases are 
deeply moulded, and the necks are short but highly finished. The 
resemblance of these vases, in form although not in material, to some 
of the late Celtic pottery found at Aylesford, Kent, is remarkable, and 
has been pointed out by Dr. A. J. Evans, V.P.S.A. 

The traces of pre-historic huts are common in south Bedfordshire ; 
there is a large group on Blows Downs near Messrs. Forders' lime works, 
Dunstable, with isolated examples distant from the group ; there are 
several isolated huts on Dunstable Downs, an extensive group on Tottern- 
hoe Hill, and many on the downs, on the east side of Valence-end farm, 
two and a half miles south-west of Dunstable ; others are on the Warden 

* Anhceoh^a, Hi. 352. 

N. 'i 


Fig. 6i. 


SCALE i"" 

Fig. 63. 

Fig. 62. 

Fig. 64. 



Hills and on Gully Hill, Luton. Some occur in old pastures in the valleys, 
where the surface has never possibly been disturbed since Roman times. 
One such pasture with huts occurs in the second field on the west of 
Totternhoe church. The hut remains are often most difficult to see, and 
when they occur in flat pastures no eyes but those which are highly trained 
and experienced can detect the sites. Even on grassy hillsides these sites 
are very easily overlooked ; they are best seen in sunshine either early in 
the morning or late in the evening. Even the pathways used by the pre- 
historic inhabitants can under these conditions sometimes be made out. 

It is impossible to tell the age of a prehistoric hut without explor- 
ation. Externally it is a slight depression in the soil, about 1 2 feet in 
diameter. When on a hillside a slight drain-like depression in the direction 
of the bottom of the hill may sometimes be seen. This cutting was made 
by the hut dwellers for carrying away water in times of sudden flooding 
of the floor during heavy rain-storms, although provision was also often 
made against too much wet by a circular cutting round the hut. 

Several prehistoric huts in south Bedfordshire have been excavated. 
They were all of Celtic, iron age or Romano-British period. The original 
excavation of each was about 4 feet. When the floor was reached 
sometimes nothing was found. On one hut floor, near Messrs. Forders' 
works on Blows Downs, there was a flint scraper, a fragment of a British 
pot, a metatarsal bone of a horse and a number of flint flakes. On the 
floor of an adjoining hut an extended human skeleton was found. The 
original owner of the bones was a little over 5 ft. 10 in. high. The skull 
and chief part of the bones were unfortunately put into the lime kilns 
with chalk for lime. On this hut floor were seven flint flakes, part of a 
British pot and a block of iron pyrites. 

A hut, in the pasture already mentioned, on the west side of Tottern- 
hoe church, was uncovered by the late vicar, the Rev. S. A. Woolward, and 
a friend in 1899. On the floor of this hut were parts of two Roman 
mill-stones or querns, seven flint flakes, two spindle- whorls, two sharpen- 
ing stones or hones, pieces of stag's antler, three pieces of Roman pots and a 
piece of a thick Roman tile with the impression of the foot of a large 
dog. Outside the hut was a collection of thousands of shells of the 
common garden snail, Helix aspersa. These were used for pounding up 
and mixing with clay for Romano-British pots, as was shown by the 
pottery found close by. 

Sometimes there is no indication whatever above ground that a hut 
floor exists beneath. Such a floor was accidentally found at Buncer's 
farm, Caddington, in 1895, A small shallow hole had been dug in this 
field on its southern boundary. On looking into this hole a thin hori- 
zontal line of flint flakes was seen a foot below the surface. Altogether 
1,142 flint flakes were exposed on a restricted level floor of earth, which 
was perhaps one half of the original number, as many flints had been 
lost in the digging of the test hole, some slipped into an adjoining pool 
of water, and others were taken to fill in the ruts of a road. In addition 
to the flakes there were two celts, four scrapers, one arrow-head, several 



hammer-stones and waste pieces, several bones, a horse's tooth, several 
pieces of Roman pottery and two corroded Roman coins. Many of the 
flakes were ultimately replaced on each other or on to the blocks from 
which they were originally struck. The position was the flint-working 
place of a Romano-Briton. 


Many ancient British coins in gold, silver, copper, brass and tin 
have been found in Bedfordshire,' though it is difficult to say how many, 
if any, were struck within the county boundaries. Some of the inscrip- 
tions show that the coins were produced at Verulam. Only the unin- 
scribed coins can be included as possibly of prehistoric date. It was 
after the invasion of Julius Cassar that British coins bore inscriptions, so 
that inscribed British coins really overlap Roman history. 

Leagrave near Luton is a famous position for both uninscribed 
and inscribed British coins, but the chief place, though invariably 
given as Leagrave, is really Limbury, one and a half miles north-east of 
Leagrave. The coins are found on the east side of the Icknield Way 
south-east of the Bramingham road, half a mile north of Limbury on 
the top of a hilly field called ' Gooseberry-bush Hill ' or ' Muswell Hill,' 
just north of a footpath and within the very small 400-feet contour 
marked on the 6-inch ordnance map, Bedfordshire, sheet xxx. N.E. 


Leagrave, gold ; Shefford, gold ; Sandy, gold ; Leighton Buzzard, gold ; Girtford, gold, tin ; 
Stondon, copper ; Dunstable, copper, brass. 


TASCIO RICON = Tascovian, Tasciovanus, whose capital was Verulam, father of Cuno- 

belinus B.C. 30— a.d. 5. Leagrave, Dunstable, Biggleswade. 
ADDEDOMAROS = perhaps to a prince of the Eceni. Leagrave. 
CVN = Cunobelinus, died a little before a.d. 43. Potton. 
CAMV ohv. — CVN rw. = Camulodunum (Colchester) — Cunobelinus. Potton, Stondon, 


TASC = Tasciovanus. Biggleswade. 


VERLAMIO = Verulam. Sandy. 

VER „ Sandy, Arlesey. 

VIR „ Upper Stondon, Arlesey. 

VIIR „ Langford. 

TASC. Biggleswade, 

CVNOBELINVS REX «^w.— TASCIOVANVS rev. Arlesey, Sandy, Langford. 

CVNO fliw.— TASCIO rev. Biggleswade. 

CVNOBELINI obv.—TA^CiO rev. Biggleswade. 

CVNOB o^w.— TASCIOVANTIS rev. Clifton, Sandy. 

RVFI (?) = Rufinus, a possible son of Tasciovanus. Biggleswade. 

' Sir John Evans, Coins of the Ancient Britons, and supplement to that work, E. Latchmore (Cam- 
bridge Antiq. See. May 1890). 



Topographical List of Prehistoric Antiquities in Bedfordshire' 

Arlesey. — British coins [Evans C, 546, 547]. 

Barton-in-the-Clay. — Neolithic quartzite hammer and drilled pebble, 

Bedford. — Palaeolithic implements [Evans S., 530, 645]. Neolithic hammer-stone [Evans 
S., 245]. British coin [Evans C, 315]. 

BiDDENHAM. — PaljEolithic implements [Evans S., 531-3, 680 ; JrcL xxxix. 69]. 

Biggleswade. — Palaeolithic implements [Evans S., 538]. British coins [Evans C, 79, 118, 
119, 218, 237, 255, 258, 263, 271, 299, 326, 328, 329, 332, 333, 352, 537, 569J. 

Caddington. — British hut floors found at Buncer's farm. Numerous palaeolithic imple- 
ments [tV.G.S. ; Evans S., 598-600]. 

Cardington. — Palaeolithic implements [Evans S., S31]. 

Dunstable. — Numerous neolithic implements and prehistoric camp at Maiden Bower 
[Evans S., 6g, 281, 301, 310, 334, 374, 376, 379, 415]. Numerous British hut- 
circles in the Dunstable districts [ff^.G.S. 323-5]- 
Dunstable Downs. — Neolithic implements and interments [Evans S., 72]. British coins 
[Evans C.y 541]. 

Flitton, Silsoe. — Coin of Cunobelinus [Evans C, 560]. 

Henlow. — Palaeolithic implements [Evans S., 536]. British coins [Evans C, 569]. 

Houghton Regis. — Part of palaeolithic implement [Evans S., 578 ; JV.G.S., 91]. 

Kempston. — Neolithic and palaeolithic implements [Evans S., 105, 125, 340, 353, 531, 
535 ; W.G.S., 117, 243]. British coins [Evans C, 558]. 

Leighton Buzzard. — Long neolithic celt [Evans C, 91]. British coins [Evans C, 50]. 

Luton. — Neolithic implement, a thin perforated stone [Evans S., 229]. Several neolithic 
hut-floors in the Luton district [fF.G.S., 323-5]. 
Dallow Farm. — Palaeolithic implement, found in 1830 [Evans S., 598]. 
Lilly Hoo. — British coins [Evans C, 1 23]. 

Leagrave. — Paleolithic implement [Evans 5., 598 ; W.G.S., 90]. British coins [Evans C, 

435, 539> 577]- 
Waulud's Bank. — Neolithic camp and implements [Evans S,, 68]. 
Pavenham. — Ground neolithic celt, found in Miller's Bog [Evans S., loi]. 
Potton. — British coins [Evans C, 300, 435, 559]. 
Sandy, — Stone wrist guard, or bracer (neolithic?) [Evans S., 427]. British coins [Evans C, 

229, 309, 329, 435, 439. 449. 475. 485, 568, 571]. 
Shefford, — British coins [Evans C, 447, 5^8], 
SiLsoE, — See Flitton. 

Stondon, Upper. — British coin [Evans C, 261]. 
Toddington. — Two leaf-shaped bronze spear-heads, with rivet-holes through the sockets 

[Evans B., 320 ; fT.G.S., 316]. 
ToTTERNHOE. — Neolithic bone [ff^.G.S.I 

Warden (or Old Warden). — Vases of Kimmeridge shale of late Celtic period [yirch. lii. 352], 
WooTTON. — British coins [Evans C, 63]. 
Wymington. — Hoard of about sixty bronze celts ; specimens are in the cabinet of Sir John 

Evans, K.C.B. [Evans £., 113, 466]. 

* The following abbreviations have been adopted : — 

Evans B. = Tie Ancient Bronze Implements, Weapons and Ornaments of Great Britain, by John Evans, 

F.S.A. (1 88 1). 
Evans C. = The Coins of the Ancient Britons (1864) and Supplement (1890) by John Evans, F.S.A. 
Evans S. = The Ancient Stone Implements, Weapons and Ornaments of Great Britain, ed. 2, by Sir John 

Evans (1897). 
W.G.S. = Man, the Primeval Savage, by W. G. Smith (1894). 





iiiD J-rfiiillOpgh Gr.i/1-nphluivl IiuiLl 



J & BartholnBiiw 



OF the centuries immediately succeeding the Roman withdrawal 
from Britain there is little to be learnt from history, and so far 
archjEology has afforded no clear knowledge of the period, 
though such excavations as those conducted by the late General 
Pitt-Rivers in Wiltshire and Dorset have done something to lift the veil. 
On the chalk range of the Chilterns, which form the southern boundary 
of Bedfordshire, only a few faint traces of early Anglo-Saxon settlements 
have as yet been noticed. Some years ago a considerable number of 
human skeletons were found in extended positions on the Limbury 
side of Waulud's Bank, an earthwork near Dunstable. A quantity of 
broken pottery that may have been Anglo-Saxon was found at the same 
time, but it is impossible now to decide on the date of the interments 
or the nationality of the interred. In this part of the country the new- 
comers seem to have preferred the plains and river-valleys. Groups of 
interments and sometimes large cemeteries mark the sites chosen by the 
Teutonic tribes when they first came to settle in this island, and it 
was not till the wide acceptance of Christianity, perhaps in the first 
half of the eighth century, that consecrated ground in the neighbourhood 
of churches was set apart for burials, and the haphazard selection of 
sites for this purpose in the open country prohibited by the Church. As 
a rule therefore interments, that from their contents or surroundings may 
be assigned to a pagan population, date from the obscure period between 
the Roman withdrawal and the establishment of Christianity in the 
various petty kingdoms in Britain ; and it is to the early practice of 
burying with the dead their weapons, ornaments and utensils that is due 
our knowledge, scanty as it is, of the rise and growth of the various 

In Bedfordshire the alluvial soil in the valleys of the Ouse and its 
tributaries, the Ivel and the Ousel, certainly attracted many of the early 
comers ; and, apart from considerations of water supply, facilities for 
agriculture no doubt constituted the main inducement. As will presently 
be seen, discoveries of this kind in the county are few and scattered, so 
that it is impossible to distinguish with any degree of certainty any local 
groups ; but it should be noticed that while to the north of the county- 
town only one interment is recorded, south of the Ouse a link between 
most of the sites as yet determined may perhaps be found in the road- 



system already existing at that date. Thus Leighton Buzzard and Tod- 
dington lie six miles apart on either side of the great Roman highway to 
Chester ; and Dunstable is at the point of junction between that and the 
still earlier Icknield Way, which probably led the advance bands of im- 
migrants into what is to-day the shire of Bedford. Fifty miles divide 
Dunstable and Newmarket ; and the British road which runs between 
them, sometimes flanked by the parallel Ashwell Street, seems to explain 
discoveries of characteristic West Saxon remains in its vicinity. Whether 
the defensive earthworks across Newmarket Heath were erected to stop 
such an advance may be doubted, but that and other parallel embank- 
ments are evidently directed against an enemy on the west, and no Saxon 
(as distinguished from Anglian) remains have been as yet discovered to 
the east of those lines. 

A summary description of the few and mostly unimportant dis- 
coveries in the county is necessary before any closer connection between 
them can be established ; and to convey some idea of the remains that 
probably await discovery within the county it will be advisable to start 
with a remarkable cemetery from which an extensive series of relics is 
exhibited in the British Museum. 

On the western boundary of the town of Bedford is the straggling 
village of Kempston ; and the road to Marston and Woburn, which 
branches off about two miles west of St. Mary's church, skirts a field 
that has long been dug for gravel. During the year 1863 the excava- 
tions in this field laid bare a certain number of human remains, and 
further exploration revealed a cemetery of Anglo-Saxon date. A de- 
tailed description ' of the graves was submitted to the Bedfordshire 
Architectural and Archaeological Society in the following year by Rev. 
S. Edward Fitch, M.D., who had watched the excavations and illustrated 
about forty of the antiquities discovered in five coloured plates.^ His 
comments on the cemetery were summarized by Mr. Roach Smith, who 
also published the notes of Mr. James Wyatt, a geologist whose attention 
was drawn to the burials while engaged on a geological examination 
of the gravel. 

The road formed approximately the northern limit of the cemetery, 
though a few interments were found beyond it ; and the large number 
of burials it contained were found to vary in size, depth and position, 
some being not more than 1 8 inches below the surface, others at a depth 
of nearly 5 feet. There was no attempt at a universal orientation, as 
skeletons were discovered lying at all angles with one another, and 
directed to almost every point of the compass. The fact that many 
skeletons of men, women and children were found entirely undisturbed 
shows that this was a common burial ground, and not the site of a 
battle where the fallen had been hastily interred. Various modes of 
burials were noticed ; some of the graves contained skeletons laid at full 

1 Rep. Assoc. Arch'U. Soc. 1864, p. 269. 

2 These and the journal of discoveries are reproduced in Roach Smith's Co//. Jnlif. vi. 201 

(see also p. 166). 



length face upwards, while many cinerary urns of pottery containing the 
ashes of the dead were also recovered whole, all lying near the surface 
and sometimes arranged in straight lines. Fragments of other urns could 
not be pieced together, and Mr. Fitch concluded that many cremated 
burials had been disturbed by Saxons or others who opened the ground 
to deposit, whether in an urn or the bare earth, the dead of a later gener- 
ation. He was of opinion that urn-burial was the more ancient rite 
practised in this cemetery, but that at a later date the burial of the 
unburnt body was contemporary with the deposit of human remains in 
urns. Observations on other sites confirm the priority of urn- burial, and 
there was no doubt a transition period during which cremation fell into 
disuse, but it would be difficult to prove that it persisted in this case till 
the cemetery was closed. According to all accounts there is here no 
question of Christian interments in coffins, neither the contents nor 
direction of the graves suggesting that any are later than the conversion 
of the English during the seventh century. Accepting therefore the 
chronology of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for the Saxon conquest of the 
district, the cemetery may be approximately dated between the years 
550 and 650, but there are some objects from the graves that were manu- 
factured, if not interred with their owners, about the middle of the 
fifth century,, and it is quite possible that the cemetery was in use for 
two hundred years, or longer if Dr. Arthur Evans is right in referring 
them to the third century. 

Forty years ago there were few to study Anglo-Saxon remains and 
fewer still to report at length on the exploration of a cemetery ; but, 
for the time, the find at Kempston is recorded with remarkable fidelity 
and detail. Still many particulars, not at that time regarded as essential, 
are omitted from the account, and the value of the important series of 
relics now in the national collection is thereby somewhat impaired. Of 
certain broad features there can be no doubt ; the burials were not ar- 
ranged according to any definite plan, and cinerary urns were discovered 
among unburnt interments in all parts of the cemetery. But besides 
these were a few that call for special remark. On 16 November 1863 
a pit was discovered in the cemetery, over 7 feet in length, from 3 to 
4 feet wide and the same in depth, where a body stretched at full 
length had been consumed by fire. About 2 feet from the surface was 
a large quantity of ashes, and among them were found portions of a 
human skull, vertebras and other bones, all charred, but the leg bones 
showing less traces of fire than the rest of the skeleton. In the ashes 
and on the left side of the body was a long iron spearhead with a 
portion of the wooden shaft left in the socket, and also an iron knife ; 
while surrounding these remains lay numerous pieces of charred wood, 
and ends of branches not quite burnt through. It seemed as if the pit 
had been partially filled with live embers, on which the deceased was 
laid, and then large branches heaped above it. Bones of some small 
animal, perhaps a rat, were also found, and had no doubt been burnt on 
the same occasion ; while an urn 9 inches high, half filled with the burnt 
I 177 23 


remains of some small animals, was found at the feet of a skeleton in 
another part of the cemetery. Three skeletons seem to have been dis- 
covered in a bent or sitting attitude, and one at least of these was that of 
a warrior who had been buried with his spearhead, knife and an urn. 
It is clear from this and other cases that urns of a considerable size 
were sometimes placed in the grave with an unburnt body, though in 
other cemeteries urns above 6 inches in height may generally be con- 
sidered as proof of cremation. Another peculiarity of certain graves at 
Kempston was the presence of rough slabs of stone placed irregularly 
over the unburnt body. Though there is here no mention of similar 
stones along the sides of the grave, it may be of interest to compare the 
more complete tombs built in this fashion at Long Wittenham and 
Frilford, Berks, as well as at places in Northumberland, Westmorland, 
Leicestershire and Gloucestershire. 

In the original account urns are frequently mentioned as being 
found with skeletons, generally lying near the head and filled with 

Pottery Vases from Graves at Kempston. 

earth. A few are expressly stated to have contained human bones, but 
in one instance it was doubtful whether these had been cremated. The 
smaller vases (see fig.), of which there are six from Kempston in the 
national collection, including one of Roman manufacture, are generally 
supposed to have contained liquid or food for ceremonial purposes, and 
the custom seems to have survived till the middle ages, when vessels of 
holy water were frequently placed in the tomb ; but there are nine urns 
(see fig.) plain or ornamented with impressed patterns from this site in 
the British Museum that were doubtless used to contain the burnt re- 
mains of the dead, and some had intentionally been buried in a line. 
Bone combs are frequently found in these cinerary vessels, and at Kemp- 
ston a fragment with four teeth was found that had been placed in the 
urn after the act of cremation and so had itself escaped the fire. Other 
cinerary urns contained a piece of fused bronze, a drop of molten glass 
that may have been a bead, and an earthenware spindle-whorl. 



From the unburnt burials the brooches are the most interesting and 
instructive relics. They appear to have been found even in the graves 
of men at Kempston/ and were generally w^orn in pairs by the other 
sex. First must be mentioned two brooches which are undoubtedly 

Cinerary Urns from Cemetery, Kempston. 
(i size) 

earlier than the bulk of the collection, and have been referred by Dr. 
Bernhard Salin to the first half of the fifth century.^ The claws at the 
head of one of these (see fig.) are survivals of the fastenings by which 
the long spiral spring of the pin was secured, and the facetting of the 
lower part is evidently derived from brooches and other ornaments of the 

Bronze Brooch, Kempston. 

Engraved Bronze Brooch, Kempston. 

late Roman period, that is prior to the fall of the western empire in 
the middle of the fifth century. The second brooch (see fig.) is of 
a peculiar form hardly represented in this country, only two other speci- 
mens being published,' both from Cambridgeshire. Behind the broad 

^ Roach Smith, Coll. Antiq. vi. 1 69, 171. 

' Kongl. Vitterhets Historie och Anttqmtets Akademiens Mdnadsbbd (1894), pp. 23, 29. 
' Op. cit. fig. 9, from Haslingfield ; and Hon. R. C. Neville, Saxon Obsequies, pi. 2, from grave 
35 at Little Wilbraham. 



head, which is similar in size and decoration to the lower end, are traces 
of two perforated projections to hold the wire on which was threaded 
the spiral spring of the pin ; and the length of the spring associates 
this and the other two examples rather with the brooches of the Danish 
moss-finds than with the specimens commonly found in England, which 
have no spiral but a simple hinge. The ornament too on the Kempston 
brooch, though not so well preserved or executed as that on the Hasling- 
field example, is directly descended from a Roman original and consists 
of floral scrolls. Four other types have been recovered from this site,* 
and three are illustrated on the plate. Perhaps the most characteristic 
are of circular form (figs. 1 1, 13), with a thin embossed gilt plate attached 
by cement to a bronze plate, which constitutes the base of the brooch 
and holds the pin and catch. Round the edge is a vertical band of 
bronze which serves to retain the cement and the ornamented face in 
position, though it is often itself found detached. A specimen of un- 
usual size, 2 J inches in diameter, was exhibited to the Society of Anti- 
quaries* in 1865, but the average diameter for brooches of this 'applied' 
type is 2 1 to 3 inches. As regards its origin, it should be observed 
that practically all the Saxon and Anglian brooches of the pagan period, 
as opposed to the jewelled specimens from Kent, are made all in one 
piece, while the type in question is formed of three metal parts in 
addition to the hinge-pin at the back. 

The embossed design on the Kempston specimens is generally in 
the form of a cross or star with human faces rudely delineated at the 
end of or between the arms (figs. 11, 13). It is unlikely that such a 
complicated pattern was a Teutonic invention of that time, and it may 
be possible to trace its beginnings to the late Roman period when models 
must have existed for such examples as those published from Gloucester- 
shire and Neufchatel, Seine-Inferieure.^ 

The second type, hardly less common at Kempston, is one that 
seems closely connected with the early occupants of the upper Thames 
valley, and there is sufficient historical evidence that this was one of the 
principal seats of the West Saxons. The ' saucer ' brooch (figs. 6, 7) is 
generally smaller than the ' applied ' variety just described, and has an 
average diameter of i| to 2 inches. It is made all in one piece, and 
consists of a concave disc of fairly stout bronze, with the face gilt and 
incised with simple geometrical designs such as stars and scrolls, or 
with rude representations of the human features (fig. 6). Diminutive 
specimens, sometimes known as ' button ' brooches and almost invariably 
engraved with the human face, are found in the Jutish districts of Kent 
and the Isle of Wight, also occasionally in Wiltshire and Berkshire, and 
a pair occurred in the Kempston cemetery, but must be regarded as ex- 
ceptional, though their design seems to have been copied on somewhat 
larger examples here. 

A comparatively large number of a type with a small bow and 

* Proc. Soc. Ant'iq. ser. 2, ii. 421. ^ Ibid. iii. 97. 

' Figured in Proc. Soc. Antiq. iv. 38 and 237 respectively. 

1 80 



square head (figs, i, 2, 4), averaging 3 inches in length, were found at 
Kempston and at Toddington and Leighton Buzzard, as well as in various 
parts of the country. They seem to have been derived from a Scandi- 
navian type of which only one or two examples have been found at 
Kempston (fig. 5), but do not seem connected with any particular tribe 
in England. The middle portion of a fine large square-headed variety 
of Anglian origin was recovered at Kempston, possibly from a cinerary 
urn ; but this was obviously exceptional, and the whole collection from 
Kempston has a decidedly Saxon appearance. 

By far the richest grave in the cemetery was that of a woman, with 
whom had been buried no less than 120 beads of glass, crystal and 
amber, some of which were found near the left wrist. A ring of toilet 
articles and a carbuncle pendant set in gold (fig. 8) were also found, as 
well as a remarkably well preserved glass cup (fig. 3), io| inches in 
height, with fine threads of glass applied to the surface. It is of conical 
form and pale green in colour, showing not the slightest trace of decay. 
The tapering end of a very similar cup from Longbridge, near War- 
wick, and a more complete specimen from East Shefford, Berks, are in 
the British Museum, but the form is a rare one and in this country is 
scarcely met with outside Kent.' 

Several other objects of special interest were found in female graves, 
chief among them being three small 

cylindrical bronze boxes that had evi- 

dently been attached by a chain to the 
girdle and served as workboxes (see 
fig.)* One that had been highly gilt 
lay by the right arm of a skeleton, and 
contained some spun thread and wool of 
two twisted strands, probably intended 
for embroidery. The lid had been kept 
on by the insertion of a small piece of 
coarse linen, but both parts were attached 
by separate chains to the longer girdle 
chain. In an adjoining grave another 
of these boxes lay on the right leg. 
This specimen also had been gilt and had 
the lid attached by an ingenious arrange- 
ment ; while within was a fragment of 
worsted fabric, and some linen textile 

of three distinct qualities. Traces of what may have been leather in- 
dicated that the box had been carried in a pouch of that material. 
Leather seems also to have been used for bracelets, though the clasps are 

Bronze Workbox, Kempston. 

' One from Ozingell is figured in Coll. Antiq. iii. pi. 3, fig. 8 ; two others from High Down, Sussex, 
in Arch. liv. 377, 378, pi. xxvii. fig. i. 

' This is shown by specimens found in the East Riding, Yorks, and at Hurdlow, Derbyshire, con- 
taining needles and thread {Catalogue of Mortimer Museum, Driffield, p. 21). Two others from East 
Riding;, Yorks, are in the British Museum, and one was found at Cransley, Northants, 



generally all that remain ; these are constantly found near the wrist, 
and a pair at Sleaford, Lincolnshire/ were still attached to the original 
material when found. 

In three or four of the graves shell fragments of combs and possibly 
of an armlet were found but they are in the last stages of decay ; 
unlike a fine buckle (fig. 9) of the same material, which both for size 
and decoration may be compared with specimens of crystal found in 
Prankish graves on the continent." Bracelets and perhaps armlets of 
beads had also been worn ; and large numbers of beads, probably in the 
form of necklaces or festoons, had been deposited in many of the graves 
of women. With the exception of a remarkable barrel-shaped specimen 
(fig. 12), the bronze partitions of which are filled with some kind of 
shell, they are of the usual kind, the majority being of variegated glass 
and many of roughly-shaped amber, while the central bead of a necklace 
was often a large crystal. A sphere of this material (fig. 10) was 
recovered in its double loop of silver, but the loop was more probably 
for attaching this amulet to the girdle than to the necklace. These 
mysterious crystals again are mostly found in Kent, but examples are by 
no means uncommon in the Prankish graves of Normandy and the 
Rhine. As long ago as 1793 Rev. James Douglas, the author of Nenia 
Britannica, considered that they were used for purposes of divination or 
crystal-gazing ; and against the view that they were merely ornaments 
attached to the girdle is the fact that more than once they have been 
found lying in metal spoons with perforated bowls.^ 

A list of known specimens has been prepared in recent years in 
connection with Scottish charms and amulets.* The assistant keeper of 
the museum at Edinburgh states that balls of rock crystal have been 
found in various parts of Europe, and especially in England, mostly in 
connection with interments of the (Scandinavian) Iron age, that is, 
from about the fifth century of our era. ' Many of these balls when 
found were enclosed within narrow bands of metal, chiefly of silver, but 
sometimes of gold or bronze. Pormerly these balls were considered by 
archseologists to have been used for magical purposes, but the general 
opinion now is that they were worn on the person as ornaments. At a 
much later period however the use of crystal balls for magical purposes 
appears to have been common in England.' The Clach Dearg, or stone 
of Ardvoirlich, much resembles the Anglo-Saxon specimens, and is 
figured along with the Glach-na-Bratach, or stone of the Standard, and 
another in a mount of the seventeenth century, in the papers referred to. 

The graves of warriors are marked by the spearhead and remains 
of the shield, such as the iron boss and handle ; while to one shield had 
been affixed by rivets a tin-plate device in the form of a fish (see fig.), 

^ Arch. 1. 387 ; other examples have been found at Warren Hill, Suffolk, and at Marston 

' Lindenschmit, Alterthtlmer mserer heidnischen Vorzeit, iii. pt. x. pi. 6. 

» V.C.H. Hants, i. 388, figs. 18, 22. 

* Mr. G. F. Black, in Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot. 1892-3, p. 522 ; cf. 1894-5, p. 439. 



very similar to an example found in an Anglian grave at Kenninghall, 
Norfolk.^ Four swords of the usual two-edged type were found in the 
cemetery, one near the surface and the others in separate graves. They 
were originally about 3 feet in length, and one lay on the left side of 

Tin-plate Badge, a Fish, Kempston. 

the skeleton between the arm and the body, reaching 2 or 3 inches 
below the knee ; in the same grave, 5 feet deep, was also a small bucket 
with bronze hoops and iron handle. Though now in poor preservation, 
this clearly belongs to the same class as others in the British Museum 
from Hampshire, Berkshire, Lincolnshire, Cambridgeshire and North- 
amptonshire, and perhaps served the same purpose as the small vases 
placed in the graves. 

The iron spearheads seem to have been at the right or left of the 
skull indifferently, and one at least had the blades alternately depressed 
in a manner common at that period.^ In two graves of men were 
found what appeared to be girdle-knives but without a cutting edge. 
These were perhaps made specially for funeral purposes, and may be 
compared with one from Lewes, 
and another found in a cinerary 
urn at Long Wittenham, Berks.^ 

In 1856, some years before 
the exploration of the cemetery 
described above, a relic of remark- 
able rarity was found at Kemps- 
ton, and described by Mr. James 
Wyatt.* In digging for gravel, 
perhaps in the same field, the 
labourers came upon remains of 
several human skeletons, and 
among them an iron spearhead, 
shield-boss and an earthenware urn 
(see fig.) of a peculiar character* Its shape is distinctive, the body 
being deeply fluted at intervals and the shoulder ornamented with groups 

1 The fish occurs as a decorative motive on a jewel from Hardingstone {F.C.H. Northants, i. 233, 
fig. I on plate), and on a buckle from Crundale, Kent, in the British Museum. 

^ Several of this kind have been published, and four were recently found in a cemetery at Drox- 
ford, Hants. 

3 Jrcb. xxxviii. 333, 342. * Coll. Antiq. iv. 159. It is now preserved in the Library at Bedford. 


Vase with Glass Disc, Kempston. 
(J ''") 


of dots enclosed in triangles. It is of dark ware, about 37 inches high, 
and in a hole made through the bottom a piece of greenish glass, about 
the size of a shilling, was inserted before the vessel was fired. Mr. 
J. M. Kemble drew attention to a similar vessel found on the Elbe near 
Bardewick, Liineburg, which had had two pieces of green glass, probably 
of Roman manufacture, let into the bottom and side ; but the nearest 
parallel in this country is a vase found at Richborough, though in this 
case the pieces of glass were fixed on, and not in, the body of the vessel. 
Another skeleton found shortly afterwards in the same field at Kempston 
had several thin discs of metal about the neck ; but as Roman remains 
have also been found there, this burial may have belonged to the earlier 

An urn that resembles that just described in having groups of dots 
enclosed in triangles or chevrons is preserved in the library of Clare Hall, 
Cambridge.* It is said to have been found at Dunstable, and probably 
contained cremated human remains. Another cinerary 
urn of remarkable size (see fig.),^ the ornament on the 
body of which is not by any means unusual, was 
found in 1850 near Cssar's Camp, Sandy, not on the 
Roman site at the foot of the hill, but to one side of 
it, near the railway bridge. This urn and another' 
were 9 inches high and 3 feet in circumference, and 
in the same place were found wooden coffins and a 
(iVizlT ""*""'' skeleton, on the chest of which had been placed a 
shallow vessel of lead, perhaps a chalice. Two such 
vessels of lead or pewter have in fact been found in what were no 
doubt the graves of Christian priests near Canterbury and at Reading.* 
From Sandy comes also a well made bronze bowl in the British 
Museum, but no particulars of its discovery are available. It seems to 
belong to the earliest Anglo-Saxon period, if not to the close of the 
Roman occupation, and may be the work of a British craftsman, 
though a larger specimen was found in the Anglian cemetery at Sleaford, 
Lincolnshire.* It is 9*3 inches in diameter and quite plain, with the edge 
turned inwards at an angle and slightly thickened, evidently belonging 
to the same class as several found at Irchester,* in the adjoining county 
of Northampton, and not far from the Bedfordshire border ; also at Stur- 
mere in the north-west corner of Essex.' It has been suggested that 
they were used for libations or other ceremonial purposes, and their 
discovery in sets with strainers lends support to the view. It is clear 
they were never intended for cooking, and examples of this type retain 

^ Coll. Antiq. ii. 233, pi. liv. fig. 2. 

2 Figured in Proc. Soc. Antiq. ii. 109 ; for the site see Rep. Assoc. Anhit. Soc. Beds, 1853, p. 427, 
and Coll. Antiq. ii. 234. 

' Probably that in the Library at Bedford. A smaller cinerary urn is in the British Museum. 

'' V.C.H. Berkshire, i. 'Anglo-Saxon Remains.' 

^ Arch. 1. 395. 

« Assoc. Archit. Soc. Northaitts, 1875, p. 90 ; V.C.H. Northants, i. 239. 

' Arch. xvi. 364, pi. Ixix. 


Cinerary Urn, Sandy. 


no handles or any traces of them, unUke another well known class 
chiefly found in Kent with a pair of drop handles, or a third kind, found 
in various parts of the country, that had three hooks for suspension 
attached by means of enamelled discs to the side just below the moulded 

Discoveries of Anglo-Saxon burials have been made in Toddington 
parish on several occasions, but all on Sheepwalk Hill. In 1861 a skele- 
ton was found close to a gravel pit there, but the only object associated 
with it was a bronze spiral finger-ring which was presented to the Society 
of Antiquaries by Major Cooper Cooper, from whose reports to the 
society* the following account is compiled. At the close of 1883 the 
ground was opened about 100 yards distant, almost in a direct line be- 
tween Toddington and Harlington churches, one mile from the former, 
half a mile from the latter, and one mile north of Foxborough Hill, the 
site of a Romano-British cemetery. 

On a spot where a skeleton had been found seven years before, 
another was discovered lying on a bed of concrete 4—6 inches thick, and 
not less than 9 feet square. It was nearly perfect and lay face downwards, 
the accompanying spearhead and knife of iron determining the sex. 
Close by was a third skeleton lying at right angles to the last and with 
the head to the south-east. On the shoulder were two bronze brooches^ 
of the small square-headed variety, similar to many found at Kempston 
(as fig. 4). They are of very frequent occurrence, and do not seem to 
have been confined to any particular locality. A year later bones that 
had been previously disturbed were 
found 5 yards off, and on a lower 

level, 3 feet from the surface, the ^^^^^^^^HJ^fcy- 
skeleton of a woman with the head /^ """^ ""^^^mzm/ ~^_ 
to the north-west. Below the waist ,^^ \ \ 

lay an iron knife, and an iron 
object which seems to have been a ^^ _^ 
'girdle-hanger,' or chatelaine, with 
holes for attaching a bag of some 
kind by means of thread. At the 
head was a small urn (see fig.) 

rightly described as of Merovingian Merovingian Urn, Toddington. 

type, with a white incrustation on a size) 

the inside. Six other skeletons were 

found here without any article of note, but in a woman's grave about 
3 feet from the surface, with the head to the south, was a circular 
brooch 1 1 inches in diameter (apparently of the ' applied' variety) laid 
upon the chest, with beads of jet and glass, a bronze pin and two finger- 

Early records of discoveries at Bedford are imperfect and unpro- 

* Free. Soc. Anttq. ser. 2, i. 399 ; x. 36, 173. 

* They are compared with fig. 45 1 (from Peterborough) of LI. Jewitt's Grave-mounds and their 

I 185 24 


vided with illustrations, so that there is now little opportunity of testing 
their accuracy or identifying relics said to be of Anglo-Saxon date. 
There is little internal evidence of such origin in several sharply pointed 
tines of deer-horn found at Bedford Castle about 1854, with a number of 
arrowheads, beads of vitrified paste and of agate or carnelian/ The tines 
measured about 3I inches in length and were thought to have served as the 
heads of missile weapons ; but though the beads may well have been of 
the glass and amber usually found in Anglo-Saxon graves, such primitive 
lance heads as those described suggest a much earlier period. In 1881 
a number of Roman and Saxon remains including pottery of both 
periods are said to have been discovered in Castle Lane, on what was 
thought to be the site of a Roman villa," but nothing that can be held 
to confirm the testimony of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle with regard to 
Bedford is recorded till 1896, when workmen employed in making a 
road through a field (now Russell Park), presented to the town by the 
Duke of Bedford, found three skeletons placed in a line east and west, 
the feet being towards the east. Close to two of the skulls lay spear- 
heads of a common type, and a few yards south of the bodies was found 
an iron sword^; this was of the ordinary two-edged kind just a yard in 
length including the tang, with a uniform breadth of 2 inches. The 

site is near Newnham, three 
quarters of a mile east of the 
county town on the north 
bank of the Ouse, and 50 
yards from the river. The 
skeletons were 3I feet below 
the surface in a bed of river 
alluvium, but though the sur- 
rounding soil was carefully 
sifted, no further relics of the 
period were discovered.^ This 
would not be surprising if, as 
is alleged, it was on this site 
that the Danes were repulsed 
from Bedford in the days of 
Edward the Elder, and these 
were the remains of burghers 
slain in action. The burial 
of weapons and ornaments with the dead would by that time be unusual, 
as the Church discouraged the practice. 

At the end of 1887 excavations for a malting in Home Lane dis- 
closed two bone combs, one of which at least belongs to a Danish type, 
perhaps three or four centuries later than the battle of 571. They were 

Bone Comb, Bedford. 
H size) 

Double Bone Comb, Bedford. 

(J size) 

' Joum. of Arch. Inst. xi. 295. 

8 Building News, 7 October, 1881. 

8 These are now in the Council Chamber at the old Harpur Schools, Bedford. 

* Report of Mr. J. Gwyn Elger, local secretary, in Proc. Soc. Antiq. xvi. 1 14.. 



found lo feet from the surface in a thick deposit of black mud over- 
lying a bed of peat, and representing, as Speed's map shows, a wide 
ditch or creek which joined the Ouse a few yards south of the spot/ 
The more perfect specimen (see fig.) resembles several from sites acces- 
sible to the Danish freebooters of the ninth and tenth centuries, such as 
York, the lower Thames and the Witham. It is 6 inches long, and the 
teeth, in five sections of ten or twelve each, are inserted in a tapering 
stem of circular section, the thickest end of which forms the handle. 
Iron rivets are used to keep the teeth in place, but the only ornament 
consists of wavy lines engraved round the butt and a rude design on one 
side. The second (see fig.) is a double comb, the teeth in sections as 
before and fastened with rivets, while the decoration takes the form of 
slanting lines engraved along the middle. 

At ShefFord, the name recalling an important West Saxon site in 
the Lambourn Valley, Berks, two saucer brooches characteristic of that 
people have been found in an ancient cemetery." The numerous vases 
and other remains from this site show however that the graves are of 
Romano-British origin ; and the saucer brooches, which were a pair 
with gilt faces and iron pins, are perhaps the only traces of early Saxon 
occupation. That these came from a grave is practically certain, as it is 
unlikely that two brooches of exactly the same pattern would have been 
accidently lost on the same spot and have remained together on or near 
the surface for thirteen centuries. 

A few relics from Leighton Buzzard ' were presented to the British 
Museum by Dr. Edward Lawford, F.S.A. Leighton Heath was brought 
under cultivation about fifty years ago, and on it at that time, about a mile 
north of the town, were two conspicuous grave mounds (tumuli), both 
circular and surrounded with a trench. About a quarter of a mile 
distant, at a place called Dead-man's Slode 
(Slade), there appears to have been an Anglo- 
Saxon cemetery where crehiation was exclusively 
practised. Several burial urns of dark clay, 
hand-made and imperfectly fired, had been pre- 
viously discovered, with the usual decoration 
consisting of rows of bosses, and zig-zags inter- 
spersed with dots and rings, impressed in the 
soft clay ; and in 1880 sand was being dug in 
an adjoining pit when three ornaments were 
noticed which had no doubt once been interred 


With their owner. A gut bronze saucer brooch, Leighton Buzzard. 

just over i| inches in diameter, with a central 

boss and design consisting of a five-pointed star (see fig.),* points to 
intercourse with the West Saxons ; though the probability that the burial 
was by way of cremation leaves the nationality of the original owner an 

* Proc.Soc. Jntiq.yai. 115. 

* Joum. of Arch. Inst. vii. 71 (fig. p. 79) ; see also a paper on ShefFord by Sir Henry Dryden in 
Pub. of Camb. Antiq. Soc. 410, vol. i. (1845-6). ^ Proc. Soc. Antiq. ix. 29. 

* Compare one from Fairford, Gloucs., in Akerman's Pagan Saxondom, pi. xix. fig. 8. 



open question, towards the solution of which the common bronze brooch 
and small crystal bead, found at the same time, contribute little. 

It will thus be seen that, apart from the discoveries at Kempston, 
there is as yet little material for a history of the district now known as 
Bedfordshire before the Chronicles become explicit and trustworthy. It 
is the province of archasology to supply the links that are missing in the 
written records, and at the same time to test the remainder ; and enough 
has perhaps been recovered from its soil to show that before the county 
was constituted there were Anglo-Saxon settlers of at least two branches 
of the race, who may have approached their future homes from opposite 
directions. It may be safely laid down as a general rule that in this 
country cremation was an essentially Anglian rite, as it is almost con- 
fined to the districts known to have been occupied by the people to whom 
we owe the name of England. Not that unburnt burials are by any 
means unknown in those districts ; they are in fact very plentiful, and in 
some parts of Northamptonshire, Cambridgeshire and East Anglia both 
rites were practised almost to the same extent. But in the centre and 
south of England cremation is certainly the exception, and is very rarely 
met with south of the Thames. The presumption is therefore that the 
Saxons of Essex, Sussex and Wessex, as well as the Jutes of Kent and 
south Hampshire, preferred to bury their dead in the extended position 
generally noticed in their districts. Where both methods of interment 
were adopted in the same cemetery, as at Kempston, the question arises 
whether the two classes of burials were contemporary, and if contem- 
porary whether they indicate difference of blood among the inhabitants 
at that time. 

Brief and spasmodic as are the early entries in the Chronicle, they 
do at any rate give some clue to the solution of the question. Authen- 
tic English history may be said to begin with the supremacy of Kent 
under Ethelbert in the closing years of the sixth century. Wessex was 
meanwhile extending her borders, and as the power of the ^scings 
declined, Northumbria came to the front and was the leading kingdom 
among the Anglo-Saxons, till the Anglians of Mercia, under the redoubt- 
able Penda, threatened the northern frontier of the West Saxons in the 
second quarter of the seventh century. In spite of sundry reverses 
Mercia maintained her role as the great midland power through this 
and the following century, but it was not apparently till the year 779 
that Wessex ceased to hold territory north of the Thames, and it has yet 
to be determined how far her dominion extended along the Chilterns and 
the Cotswolds before expansion was checked by the advance of the Mer- 
cian southward from the Trent. 

It is possible that cinerary urns, which occur in some numbers even 
at Long Wittenham and Frilford in Berkshire, mark in Bedfordshire an 
Anglian element in the population, before the general acceptance of 
Christianity rendered uniform the burial customs throughout English 
territory. If on the other hand cremation had here been the universal 
heathen rite, it is to be expected that the reformed burials would all be 



orientated in the Christian manner, with the head laid at the west end 
with the idea of facing the eastern sky at the resurrection. It has been 
already observed that no such uniformity exists in the Kempston ceme- 
tery, and graves are found in various directions elsewhere in the county. 
Hence the conclusion seems inevitable that we have to do with a mixed 
population which used the same burial ground but buried their dead 
each according to his ancestral traditions. Brooches of West Saxon type 
found at Kempston, ShefFord and Leighton Buzzard are evidence either 
of settlements from Wessex on those sites or of ready intercourse with 
the occupants of the upper Thames valley. Buckinghamshire has 
yielded similar specimens from several localities, and the conquest of 
Bedford rests on the same authority as the capture and occupation of the 
four towns in 571. Discoveries in the soil to this extent confirm the 
record of the Chronicle ; but if a West Saxon advance was possible 
under the escarpment of the Chilterns, it was also possible for immigrants 
from the eastern coast to gain a footing in the district. In addition to 
the fifth century brooches already described from Kempston, there may 
also be mentioned as indicating an early settlement in this part of Britain 
the peculiar jug-shaped cinerary urn discovered in the neighbouring 
county of Northampton at Great Addington.^ 

The late Mr. Grant Allen in a posthumous work ' expressed his 
opinion that, though the West Saxons held what is now Oxfordshire and 
Buckinghamshire for a considerable time after their victory at Bedcan- 
ford, they do not appear to have made any permanent settlement in Bed- 
fordshire itself. ' This flat and fenny district was first really occupied by 
the Middle English, a tribe of Teutonic colonists who effected their 
entry into Britain by the Wash, and advanced towards the interior by 
the marshy basins of the Nene and Ouse.' 

Where all is so problematical, it is idle to gainsay such a deduction 
from the county's natural features ; but the unmistakable West Saxon 
stamp of brooches found at Shefford, Kempston and Leighton Buzzard 
might serve as a still stronger argument in favour of its partial occupa- 
tion by that tribe before the spread of Christianity among them, and 
archeology suggests that they entered the district from the west and 
south-west. As already mentioned the urn-burials at Sandy, Kempston, 
Dunstable and Leighton Buzzard point to an Anglian connection, either 
with the Mercians of the midlands or with the inhabitants of East 
Anglia ; and another link in the chain that binds Bedfordshire to the 
Fen district has been discovered at Farndish in the extreme north-west 
corner of the county, near Irchester, Northamptonshire. In the British 
Museum are a number of amber beads from this site found about 1828 
with a skeleton in a bank which here forms the county boundary, and 
with them was a small bronze brooch of a peculiar type (see fig.) al- 
most identical with specimens from Soham, Cambs, and Kenninghall, 
Norfolk,^ in the same collection. Though no further details of the Farn- 


* F.C.H. Northants, i. 242. * County and Town in England, p. 87. 

' Another coincidence in this cemetery has been already noticed on p. 7. 



dish find are preserved, it is allowable to argue from such a coincidence, 

and to conclude that these horned brooches were 

^^^^^k made and worn by fellow-tribesmen in the two 

a^^^^ localities, who interred their dead without crema- 

a^^^i tion. It is to this district that the South Gyrwa 

fS^^m ^""^ assigned, and it is tempting to identify them 

Wm with this folk, who lived in Anglian surroundings 

%M^ and yet had different burial rites ; but it has been 

^^^^ suggested* that the Gyrwa were Britons who had 

^^^ra retained their territory and independence, and the 

^ question must remain an open one. 

H Two silver pennies of the Anglo-Saxon period 

^ ,..^ may be mentioned as having been found in the 

^^ ; county and published on account of certain special 

^^ ■' features. The earlier of the two, from the Can- 

^««ga^... terbury mint, was discovered at Bedford and can be 

BRONZE Brooch, , i-i-i y-\i i -i 

Farndish. dated withm three years. On the obverse is the name 

of Archbishop Ethelhard as 'pontifex,' and on the 
reverse that of OfFa, King of Mercia (757-96). The coin was described 
by Sir John Evans,* who assigned it to the years 790-3, the former being 
the date of Ethelhard's nomination to the see of Canterbury, and the 
latter that of his full recognition as archbishop on receiving his pall 
from Rome. The other piece is from Toddington, and was struck for 
King Ceolwulf of Mercia (822-3 °^ 4) '^X ^ moneyer whose name appears 
as iElhun, but who is supposed to be same as Almund.* 

An interesting relic of the late Anglo-Saxon period from the county 
may be mentioned in conclusion. Reference has already been made to 
some east-and-west burials in Russell Park that may conceivably be later 
than the seventh century, and contemporary with another sword pre- 
served at Bedford,* of the date and origin of which there is still some 
uncertainty. The place of its discovery is indefinite but not far from 
the county town, and this serviceable weapon may have been wielded by 
one of the Danes who made an unsuccessful attack on Bedford in 921. 
It is 35:1^ inches long, and complete except for the bone or wooden portion 
of the handle. The blade slightly tapers, and is double-edged with a 
shallow groove running down either face, as on most swords of the Viking 
period. The handle however is not quite so heavy as usual, the pom- 
mel being diminutive, and the straight guard of 3-3 inches somewhat 
short in proportion, in this respect resembling the early Anglo-Saxon 
type. On one face of the blade near the hilt is perhaps a trace of a 
damascened circular mark,^ a not uncommon feature on swords of this 
class, that are supposed to have been exported from Normandy and the 
mouths of the Rhine, and often bear the name of a maker VLFBERHT. 

* Rev. Edw. Conybeare, Popular History of Cambridgeshire, p. 42. 
'^ Numismatic Chronicle, new ser. (1865), v. 352, pi. xiv. No. 2. 

' Op. cit. p. 1 68 ; cf. Catalogue of Anglo-Saxon Coins (British Museum), i. 40. 

* Recently restored at the instance of the Bedford Arts Club. 

* Cf. A. L. Lorange, Den yngre jemalders Svard, pi. iii. fig. 5. 



^y-je - ^ - ■^s? 



Compiled by F. W. RAGG, M.A. 
With Notes by J. HORACE ROUND, M.A. 

In this map those manors in which the King had an 
interest have a scarlet line under them ; a blue line 
(broken) is under those in which the principal 
ecclesiastical tenant, Ramsey Abbey, held land ; a 
green line denotes those of which part or all was held 
by Hugh de Beauchamp, the greatest lay tenant in 
the county. The name of a manor or of a Hundred 
is often given in more than one form by Domesday, 
but only one of these forms can be shown on the 
map. It has been found impracticable to give the 
boundaries of the Domesday Hundreds, but their 
names will be found on the map together with index 
letters showing to which Hundred each manor apper- 
tained (as shewn below). The modern river names 
have been added for the convenience of the reader. 

The map illustrates the influence of the rivers, 
which were probably larger then than now, on the 
grouping of the manors, and the text illustrates their 
course and extent by its entries of meadows and 
watermills, both of them then valuable possessions. 


Stodene, Stodden. 
VVilga, Wilge. 

(Half) Buchelai, Bochelai, Bocheleia. 
(Half) VVeneslai. 
Bicheleswade, Bichelesworde. 
Wichestanestou, Wichenestanestou. 
Radeburnesoca, Radborgestoche, Radberne- 
stoch, Radborgestou, Ratborgestoc, 
I Manesheve. 
K Flictham. 
L Clistone, Cliftone. 
M (Half) Stanburge, Stamburge. 
N Odecroft (pre Domesday). 

Bedford itself is a Half Hundred. 

When, through the omission of the heading, a vil] 
seems to be placed in the wrong Hundred, the letter 
denoting that Hundred is added in parentheses. 

Kings Manors thus Hrsf/mr 

Ramsey Abbey s Manors " lif^l't^i/L<. 

Hugh de Beauchamp's Manors •. Sf/rn77ri 

Sokemen in King BdTvard's time, thus — X 

SmL. of En^Ii Miles 



B ' 


,' Mm 

op \ 

1 y ZttuJAt 


, 1 ^ — ■Segn 

J Wolmrtte ,>> 

o \ 

', Tj-m-xJunj. 

^ s 

1— 1 5 



J M^ 


\ LcsfoTtr 

I ' "" ^ ^ B n 



Boc7an^?iamscire ;' 



Assessment of the county, pp. 191-193 — The royal demesne, p, 194. — Bedford, p. 195 — 
The tenants-in-chief, spiritual and lay, pp. 1 95-204 — Fate of English holders, pp. 205-207 
— Problems of tenure, p. 207 — Legal antiquities, pp. 208-212 — Sources of wealth, p. 
212 — Identification of manors, pp. 213-216 — The Bedfordshire Hundreds, p. 217, 

IF the Domesday student were asked to name the feature of most 
interest to himself in the survey of Bedfordshire, he would probably 
name its ' hidage.' For it ranks next to its neighbour Cambridge- 
shire as a county illustrating the system of hidation, that is assess- 
ment, which was based on a unit of ' five hides.' This, which is the 
true key to Domesday, is a discovery of our own time. It was formerly 
supposed that the Domesday hide was either an actual measure of area 
or at least the representative of some definite value. But it is now known 
that manors (or more correctly vills) were assessed to the ' geld,' that is 
the land tax, in purely arbitrary multiples of the ' five-hide unit.' ^ A 
small matter, it may seem, and of no general interest. We have, how- 
ever, to remember what Domesday really was, and why the survey was 
made. ' One great purpose,' Professor Maitland says of Domesday, 
' seems to mould both its form and its substance ; it is a geld-book.' ^ And 
because it was the chief purpose of the survey to record assessment, we 
will deal with the assessment of the county first of all. 

The large number of assessments recorded as exactly ten or five 
hides can hardly fail to strike the intelligent observer ; but these are 
usually those of a vill (roughly speaking, a parish) in the hands of a 
single holder. When a vill was divided between two or more distinct 
tenants-in-chief, the assessment of each portion is recorded separately, 
and the total therefore is not obvious. Where, as at Husborne Crawley, 
a vill was divided into moieties, the assessment of each, it is true, is 
entered as five hides ; but in several cases the portions were unequal and 
the assessment consequently fractional. To ascertain the amount at which 
the whole vill was assessed we have to reconstitute the total by adding 
up the fractions, a task often of difficulty and sometimes open to doubt. 
In Feudal 'England (pp. 55—7) I adduced illustrations from Mr. Airy's 
' digest ' of the Bedfordshire survey,' and these I may here repeat : — 

it is only Mr. Airy's work that enables us to reconstruct the townships, and to show 
how fractions — apparently meaningless — fit in, exactly as in Cambridgeshire, with one 

^ See Feudal England, pp. 44-69, and Maitland's Domesday Book and Beyond, pp. 156-64, 450. 
* Domesday Book and Beyond, p. 3 . 

' Digest ojf the Domesday of Bedfordshire (Bedford), 188 1. 



another. His work is all the more valuable from the fact that he had no theory to 
prove, and did not even add together the factors he had ascertained. His figures there- 
fore are absolutely free from the suspicion that always attaches to those adduced to 
prove a case. 






H. T.l 

n. V. 

n. V. 



li. V. 

7 o 

I If 

o 3 



2 O 

I o 

I I 

3 o 



7i o 


4 I 

4 o 





2 O 


I o 

" i 


1 o 


lO o 

lO o 








M. V. 

H. V. 

n. V. 



H. V. 

5 o 

1* o 

I O 



3i o 

4 o 





6i o 

I o 


6i o 

lO o 

I o 

10 O 

10 o 



lO o 






n. V. 

n. V. 

H, V. 



4i i 

2-1 O 

S o 


5 If 

S o 

4 o 



zj o 

4i o 



lO O 10 O lO O 10 oj 

Of these fourteen ten-hide townships the last is selected as an instance of those slight 
discrepancies which creep in so easily, and which account for so many apparent 
exceptions to the rule. Passing to other multiples of the five-hide unit we have : — 







n. V. 

H. V. 

H. V. 

n. V. 

n. V. 

H. V. 


O 1 

4 I 


2 (less ^ virg.) 

I I 

8 I 

I o 

i o 

O I 

8 (plus J virg.) 

o 4 

I 3 

A o 


' I 

I I 

5 o 

O I 

10 o 



7i I 




8 3 


i o 






I now give three illustrations of slight discrepancies 

Streatley Sutton 

I O 

4 I 
44 o 

o § 

o I 

o 3 ^ 

I o 

14 o 

4 o 


9 31 

o 34 

o i4J 

2 O 

o 3 


1 o 

q oh 

Eaton Socon 



















* These letters stand for ' hides ' and ' virgates ' ; the ' virgate ' was the quarter of the * hide ' and 
was divided into thirty 'acres,' which it must be remembered were not measures of area. 



In the first case there is a deficiency of j-^, and in the second of ^, while in 
the third we find an excess of -j-^-g-- No one can doubt that these were really ten-hide, 
ten-hide, and forty-hide townships. We have to allow, in the first place, for trivial 
slips, and in the second for possible errors in the baffling work of identification in the 
present day. 

The essential point to be borne in mind is that the principle of 
assessment in units of ' five hides ' has to be tested by examining the 
survey of the county as a whole. When this is done the evidence in its 
favour is, in Bedfordshire, overwhelming. That it is not so absolutely 
perfect as in Cambridgeshire is largely due to the fact that we have for 
the latter county transcripts of the jurors' actual returns, hundred by 
hundred and vill by vill. These returns were broken up for the com- 
pilation of Domesday Book by re-arranging the contents under ' fiefs,' 
and thus the unity of the vill's assessment became obscured in what, as 
the above tables show, was often a multitude of fractions. Mr. Ragg, 
who has made an independent analysis for the purpose of the present 
work, has attempted the reconstruction of the vills hundred by hundred, 
and from his results we glean further cases in point : — 






H. V. 

H. V. 

H. V. 

H. V. 

H. V. AC, 

2 2 

7 li 


I I 

6 2 20 

5 o 

^ ^\ 

6 3 


3 I lo 

2 2 

9 I 

7 I 


20 O 10 O lO 

The last two instances are peculiarly striking, and we may observe 
that even the fractions adapt themselves to the payment of the ' geld,' for 
when this tax was at two shillings on the ' hide,' five ' acres ' would pay 
a penny and two and a half a halfpenny. 

Apart from assessment, the Bedfordshire Domesday is of interest for 
its surveys of the royal manors, for the light it throws on the difficult 
question of tenures on the eve of the Conquest, for disputed titles to 
estates, for allusion to exchanges of lands, and for the frequent mention of 
Ralf Tallebosc, who, although dead at the time of the survey, had left 
his mark on several places, and whose widow and daughter were holding 
lands which were often the subject of rival claims. 

King William's share in the spoils of the Conquest was represented 
in this county, at first sight, by those lands only which came to him 
as Crown demesne ; for, strange as it seems, Harold is not mentioned in 
its survey as having held any manor within its borders.* And this 
Crown demesne was of a very peculiar character. Instead of being 
scattered about the county as was usually the case, it lay in a belt 
along its southern border through the manors of Leighton Buzzard, 

"^ He had, however, annexed Weston(ing) to his manor of Hitchin (Herts) ; and it thus came to 
King William. 

I 193 25 


Houghton Regis and Luton/ The first and last of these were assessed 
at 30 hides apiece, the other at 10 hides. In the form of the revenue 
derived from these three manors we detect at once a note distinctive 
of Crown demesne in the half day's ferm {dimidiam diem ad Jirmam 
regis) that was due from each of them. The constituents of this antique 
render are specified as wheat, honey, and the other things recognized as 
part of it, the honey being probably required for mead. But in addition 
to this traditional due there was also a money payment, amounting to 
;^22 from Leighton, ^^3° from Luton, and £,10 from Houghton, payable 
in each case in weighed money. This is an unusual feature, but there is 
nothing in the text to show that it is a Norman addition. Of the an- 
tiquity of the miscellaneous dues there can be no question, for they are 
found occurring similarly in other counties ; for the queen's use Leighton 
and Houghton contributed each 2 ounces and Luton 4 ounces of gold ; 
for a sumpter-horse and for the king's hounds various amounts were paid, 
the payment for the former being here grouped with others. The pay- 
ment, however, for a sumpter-horse alone is found in Domesday as 
twenty shillings. In addition to all these payments Ivo (not Ralf) 
Tallebosc had enacted, it would seem, an additional payment {misit de 
cremento) of ^j apiece in the case of Leighton and Luton and of ^\ in 
that of Houghton, partly in weighed and partly in assayed silver, with 
an ounce of gold further from each of them to the sheriff himself. 

The closest parallel to the dues from these royal manors is found in 
the adjoining county of Cambridgeshire, where several royal manors, in 
the days of Edward the Confessor, paid their rent to the Crown partly 
in ' three days' ferm' {Jirmam trium dieruni) and partly in money. Wheat 
and honey are specified, in their case also, as comprised in the ' ferm,' 
but malt [brasium) is mentioned in addition. In Cambridge this pay- 
ment in kind had been commuted for money ; in Bedfordshire, appar- 
ently, it had not. The additional payments for special purposes due from 
the Bedfordshire manors are not mentioned in Cambridgeshire, and only 
occur, it would seem, elsewhere in Domesday among the payments due 
from counties as a whole. 

The churches of the three royal manors were, as was usually the 
case, important and richly endowed ; but they must be reserved for 
treatment in another section below. The point which remains to be 
considered here is the arbitrary action of Ralf (not Ivo) Tallebosc in 
annexing manors and altering hundreds when in charge of the Crown 
demesne. In the manor of Leighton Buzzard he had, we read, incor- 
porated two considerable estates which had formerly belonged to private 
owners ; in that of Houghton Regis he had similarly incorporated 
Sewell ; and in that of Luton, Biscot. In these last two cases the added 
estates were actually taken out of their Hundreds by Ralf, though he 
seems to have compensated the Hundred of Flitt by robbing another 
Hundred for its benefit. 

' Dunstable is not mentioned, because it was subsequently created, on the royal demesne, by Henry 
I., the bulk of it being taken from Houghton Regis. 



For a parallel to such action we must turn to Hitchin, not far 
away, in Hertfordshire. As held by King William in 1086 it had been 
swollen by the action of Norman sheriffs of that county ; but of one 
at least of its additions we read that it was Earl Harold who had annexed 
it to Hitchin/ ' by violence and wrongfully as the shire testifies.' The 
importance of such evidence lies in its suggestion that there may have 
been similar changes effected in the days before the Conquest in places 
where Domesday does not make any mention of the fact. 

Of Bedford itself the account in the Survey is singularly short and 
unsatisfying. As the county town it is entered apart from the rest of 
the shire, and is not even treated as included in the royal demesne* ; but 
it differs from the chief towns of the shires surrounding in the singular 
brevity of its description. Cambridge, for instance, fills a whole column 
of Domesday, and the account of Northampton is nearly as long ; to 
Huntingdon is assigned a column and a half, and to Buckingham and 
Hertford respectively the greater part of a column. Why the entry on 
Bedford should be restricted to seven lines it seems impossible to explain. 
Even of this terse entry more than half is occupied with an act of agres- 
sion on the part of the Bishop of Lincoln. We are left in ignorance of 
so important a matter as the annual value of Bedford to the Crown, and 
the only fact, indeed, on which we obtain information is the assessment 
of the town {villa) ; for it is not styled a borough {burgus), although we 
read, towards the end of the Survey, of its ' burgesses.' This assessment 
is akin to that of Cambridge and of Huntingdon ; for while Cambridge 
is assessed at a whole Hundred, and Huntingdon at 50 hides, Bedford is 
assessed at half a Hundred, that is, presumably, at 50 hides. So too 
Shrewsbury was assessed at 100 hides and Chester at 50,^ But the 
peculiarity in the case of Bedford is that its assessment was only for land 
and sea service, and implied probably a contribution of ten men to either.* 
It would seem from this that the town was not assessed to the ' geld,' 
and that such is the meaning of Domesday when it says that it was 
never apportioned into ' hides ' {hidatd) with the exception of one ' hide ' 
with which St. Paul's was endowed. 

In its regular and stately course the great Survey proceeds from the 
lands of the king himself to those of the spiritual lords. At the head 
of these are those alien magnates, the Bishops of Coutances and Bayeux, 
who held their great fiefs, extending over many counties, in a personal, 
not an official capacity. The former was a trusted friend of the Con- 
queror ; the latter was William's half-brother. In Bedfordshire as in 
Northamptonshire GeojffJrey, Bishop of Coutances, held the bulk of his 
estates as successor to an English landowner, Borgeret, Borgret, Borred, 
Borret, Burgret, Burred or Burret, ' thegn of King Edward.' These 
estates lay largely along the Northamptonshire border, namely at Knot- 

* ' Apposuit Heraldus comes in Hiz ' (fo. 133). 

* For the importance and the implication of this separate treatment see Maitland's Domesday Book 
and Beyond, pp. 176-80, 212. 

^ Compare Feudal England, p. 156 ; and my paper in Domesday Studies, pp. 11 7-21. 
4 Ibid. 



ting, Newton Bromshold, Rushden, Melchbourne, Yelden, Shelton, 
Dean and Riseley. From the Northampton Survey we learn that the 
bishop claimed as Burred's successor the ' homage ' of William Peverel's 
sokemen, at Rushden, Irchester and Raunds (fo. 225b), together with 
some land at Podington (in Bedfordshire) which had been held by ' two 
"men" of Burred' (fo. 229). The account of these lands illustrates 
alike the position of a great English landowner, with thegns and soke- 
men under him, on the eve of the Norman Conquest, and the system by 
which a Norman magnate was placed in the shoes of his English prede- 
cessor, all whose rights he thereby acquired. 

Two of his Bedfordshire estates, however, had come to the bishop 
in another way. They are alleged to have been held by him ' pro 
Excambio de Bledone,' a phrase which there is nothing to explain, but 
which recurs in Buckinghamshire, where two estates are similarly alleged 
to be held ' de Excambio pro Bledone ' (fo. 145b). It is clear that the 
place spoken of must be Bleadon, Somerset, although in the survey of 
that county there is nothing to connect it with the bishop. He must, 
however, have disgorged it in exchange for these lands in Beds and 
Bucks, such incidental mention of changes being found elsewhere in 
Domesday.' It can hardly be said that the bishop left any mark on 
the county, save through his tenant Geoffrey de ' Traillgi ' — who doubt- 
less derived his name from Trelly, a few miles to the south of Cou- 
tances — with whom originated the Bedfordshire family and ' barony ' of 

The fief of the Bishop of Bayeux was soon forfeited to the Crown, 
and is only remarkable in this county for two cases of subinfeudation, 
that is, of an under-tenant enfeoffing a man under him. Ansgot of 
Rochester and Herbert son of Ivo, who held here of the bishop, were 
considerable tenants of his in Kent, the sphere of his power. The 
Bishop of Lincoln, in whose diocese the county then lay, had only 
succeeded to a small estate in his official capacity, the others in his 
possession having previously been held by English owners, now for- 

Of the English religious houses some had lost by the Conquest, 
Harold's foundation at Waltham in honour of the Holy Cross being 
despoiled, here as in Essex, in favour of a Norman prelate, the Bishop 
of Durham. Ramsey Abbey complained bitterly that the valuable 
manor of Clapham belonged to the endowment of its monks, a claim 
which its neighbours endorsed, though Miles Crispin had possession at 
the time of the Survey. Probably, as happened in other cases. Miles 
had obtained it as successor to the Englishman, Brihtric by name, who 
had held it, not in his own right, but as a tenant of the abbey. 

At Bedford itself St. Paul's, a house of secular canons, had lost more 
than it gained. The Bishop of Lincoln had robbed it of its local en- 

* In this county we shall see below Ralf Tallebosc had received lands in exchange for Ware in 
Hertfordshire, and William Spech held two manors in exchange for ' Totingedone.' 



dowment, entered as worth no less than £^ a year ; and it was poor 
compensation for this that ' Leuiet,' an English priest, had bequeathed to 
it since William's accession one virgate at Biddenham, to which Ralf 
Tallebosc had added three more, for the whole of this was only worth 
1 3J. It held indeed of Countess Judith, seemingly as a fresh endowment, 
3 hides at Harrowden, but even this was only worth 30J. If, as I have 
assumed above, ' the church of Bedford with its possessions,' which was 
held by Bishop Remi, was identical with the endowment (of the same 
value) of St. Paul's, which he had annexed, the alternative descrip- 
tion is worth noting/ The well-endowed church of Leighton (Buzzard), 
worth ^4. a year, was also held by Remi, as it had been by his prede- 
cessor Bishop Wulfwi. Of the two royal manors, Luton and Houghton 
(Regis), the churches, with their appendant estates, were held by ' Wil- 
liam the Chamberlain.' 

In his erudite history of Luton church,' Mr. Cobbe has discussed 
the exact position of this ' William the Chamberlain,' contending that he 
was probably * an ordained clergyman,' but there is nothing to show that 
this was so beyond his holding the churches of Luton and Houghton ; 
and it is proved, as Mr. Cobbe observed, by the Gesta Abbatum of St. 
Alban's, that a younger ' William the Chamberlain * actually claimed to 
hold the church and its appendant estate of the Earl of Gloucester. The 
whole story is very curious, and illustrates the temptation presented by 
church endowments,^ when they were so valuable as at Luton, where the 
six ploughlands of glebe were assessed at 5 hides. Mr. Cobbe arrived 
at the conclusion that this estate is now represented by Dallow manor in 
Luton. There can be no reasonable doubt that William the Chamberlain, 
who also held lands in capite at Battlesden, Potsgrove, and Totternhoe, 
was identical with the man of that name who held land, also in capite, at 
Hartwell, Bucks, and at Wincot, Gloucestershire, who was joint-fermor 
of a Crown manor in Cambridgeshire, and who held of the Bishop of 
London at Stepney and of the abbot of Westminster in Essex. 

Mr. Cobbe, it would seem, was not acquainted with the cartulary 
of Ramsey Abbey, which contains charters of considerable importance 
in connection with William the Chamberlain.* These show us a man 
of that name, probably the Domesday tenant's son, residing at Luton 
under Henry I. and restoring to Ramsey Abbey its estate at Pegsdon (in 
Shillington) in this county, of which the abbey was in full possession 
at the time of Domesday. They further establish his identity as William 
the Chamberlain ' of London,' which accounts for the appearance of a 
tenant so styled on the Earl of Gloucester's fief, Luton having been be- 
stowed on Robert, the first earl, by his father, Henry I. 

* The similarly double entry of his tenure of the church of Leighton makes the identity certain. 

* Luton Church, by Rev. Henry Cobbe (1899). 

' A good instance in point is found at Colchester, where the church of St. Peter's, which 'two 
priests ' had held before the Conquest, was endowed with a good estate. A quarter of this endowment, 
at the time of the Survey, was in the hands of ' Eudo Dapifer,' and the rest was claimed by Robert son of 
Ralf de Hastings. 

* Ed. Rolls Series, i. 142-4. 



Of other than local religious houses, St. Neots (Hunts) had lost to 
Richard de Clare some of its lands in Eaton Socon across the Bedford- 
shire border, while it still held, as tenant to his wife, some land on the 
Huntingdonshire side of the river. The evidence of Domesday here 
affords an interesting confirmation of the statement in the Liber Eliensis 
that Richard (who is there erroneously styled Gilbert) de Clare took 
advantage of the Ely revolt to despoil the lands of Einulfsbury — as 
St. Neots was then termed — and to expel the Ely monks by whom it 
was then held. These, it alleges, he replaced by foreign monks from 

St. Alban's again appears to have lost a hide at Stotfold to Hugh 
de Beauchamp. From other sources we learn that it lost more than this. 
Oswulf the son of Frane, a wealthy thegn, had given to Abbot Leofstan 
under the Confessor land at Studham," which is found, however, at the 
time of the Survey, with the rest of Oswulf s estates, in the hands of the 
Norman lord of Belvoir. The gift had been witnessed by a neighbour- 
ing lord, Leofwine ' Cilt ' of Caddington, who himself held his lands at 
Caddington and Streatley for life only with reversion to St. Alban's under 
the gift of his father Eadwine.' Domesday ignores the gift under both 
these places, and shows us his Streatley land in the hands of Nigel ' de 

The cathedral church of London had acquired his estate at Cadding- 
ton ; and the great abbey of St. Edmund at Bury, which flourished under 
the Conqueror's rule, had received from Earl Waltheof and his wife a 
substantial addition to its endowment. Foreign monks had obtained as 
yet strangely little in the county, Nigel of Albini alone bestowing on 
those of St, Nicholas of Angers a small portion of the manor that he 
held at Henlow. The nunnery of Elstow, however, was an addition 
to the local houses, being founded since the Conquest by Countess 

As to the laymen holding lands, at the time of the survey, in the 
county, we must not expect to find their names or even their descendants 
in the male line among the local landowners of modern times. Even 
of the list of local gentry in the reign of Henry VI., Fuller, its editor, 
wrote in the seventeenth century : — 

Hungry Time hath made a [Gluttons Meal] on this [Catalogue of Gentry] and 
hath left but a very little [morsell for manners] remaining ; so few of these are found 
extant in this [Shire], and fewer continuing in a [Gentile Equipage]. 

The name of one, the Mordaunts of Turvey, is still found in the 
Baronetage (creation of 1611), and, although no longer connected with 
the county, invites mention here on account of the assertion still found 

' Liber Eliensis (Ed. Anglia Christiana Society), pp. 239-40 : ' Quam violenter locus de Enulfoe- 
bury abstractus sit Elyensi ecclesiae.' The Sudbury land in Eaton Socon, which belonged to St. Neots, 
had been wholly annexed by Richard ; while at Wyboston, which the house had formerly held ' in 
almoin,' it now held only as Richard's tenant. 

* Kemble, Cod. Dipl. iv. 280-1 (No. 945). 

* Ibid. iv. 259 (No. 920). 



in Burke's Peerage and similar works that its founder, ' Osbert le Mor- 
daunt,' obtained a manor at Radwell by the gift of his brother, Eustace 
de St. Gilles, who had received it from King WiUiam in return for his 
services in the Conquest. To this tale the Domesday Survey affords ho 
support, and I have elsewhere denounced as a mere concoction the charter 
on which it rests.' It was printed in that curious work. Succinct genealogies 
of the noble and ancient houses of . . . Mor daunt of Turvey (1685), for 
which the eccentric Earl of Peterborough, then head of the Mordaunts, 
and a rector of Turvey appear to have been jointly responsible. The 
family, however, was already seated at least as early as the thirteenth 
century at Turvey. 

The three great local barons whose fiefs had their ' heads ' in the 
county were Hugh de Beauchamp, Walter the Fleming, and Nigel ' de 
Albini ' — whose name, in French, would be represented by Neel d'Au- 
bigny. All three were succeeded in their lands by lines of heirs longer 
than was usual in the case of Domesday barons. The last of the Beau- 
champs ' of Bedford ' fell at the battle of Evesham (1265), his sisters 
succeeding him in his lands ; and the lands of Albini ' of Cainhoe ' simi- 
larly passed, a generation earlier, to the sisters of the last of the male 
line ; but the heirs male of Walter the Fleming continued to hold his 
barony of ' WahuU ' (now Odell) down to the days of Henry VIII. , 
and the Domesday fief remained afterwards in the hands of the heir- 
general.' Cainhoe and 'WahuU' were from the first part of their respec- 
tive baronies^; but the Domesday account of the town of Bedford is too 
meagre for us to discover what, if any, connection Hugh de Beauchamp 
had with it in 1086. As the Bishop of Coutances had, we have seen, 
brought with him a tenant from the region of his cathedral city, so had 
Nigel ' de Albini ' brought with him a namesake from what was probably 
the same district, the Cotentin. This was Nigel 'de Wast,' who derived, 
I think, his name from Le Vast, east of Cherbourg, as would his lord from 
(St. Martin d') Aubigny, north-east of Coutances. Under his lord he held 
five estates in Beds and one in Bucks, but these probably escheated after- 
wards, for his adjoining manors of Ampthill and Milbrook are subsequently 
found in the hands of the lords of the fief A noteworthy entry in its 
Domesday description tells us that Nigel ' de Albini ' was holding 25 acres 
in Maulden,* which John de Roches had annexed to the wrong of the 
men of that vill {super homines qui villam tenent). Under the holdings of 
Ramsey Abbey we read that at Barton-in-the-Clay the abbot had been 
wrongfully disseised, he claimed, by John de Roches of 12 acres of 
meadow, which were held at the time of the survey by Nigel ' de Albini ' 
and Walter the Fleming. Thus we have, in two places, incidental men- 
tion of John de Roches as a predecessor of Nigel, together with a hint 

* See ' The Companions of the Conqueror ' in Monthly Review, iii. 107. 

^ Domesday Book, with its entry of this fief, was actually produced in the House of Lords, some 
years ago, in the ' Wahull' peerage case. 

^ For the moated mounds at each, on which stood the barons' castles, see the section on ' Ancient 
Earthworks,' below. 

* Maulden lay between his manors of Ampthill and Clophill, 



that Walter the Fleming was also a successor of John. In Nigel's case, 
at any rate, we can connect this aggression with his tenure of land at 
Streatley adjoining Barton. 

Unlike Nigel 'de Albini,' whose lands had been held before the Con- 
quest by many and chiefly by small owners, Walter the Fleming held 
his fief mainly in Bedfordshire and wholly in Northamptonshire as suc- 
cessor to Leofnoth, a great thegn, whose ' men,' Ordric and Lant, are 
mentioned in the former county. But another thegn, Leofwine, had 
preceded him in some of his Bedfordshire estates. 

More than five columns of the survey are devoted to the fief of 
Hugh de Beauchamp, which is chiefly remarkable for its previous 
history. As I have shown in my introduction to the ' Domesday Survey 
of Hertfordshire,' ' a great estate in Bedfordshire as well as in that county 
had belonged to an English thegn Anschil (or Aschil) ' of Ware,' " who 
must have been so named from having there his chief seat. This estate 
had passed to Ralf Tallebosc, who exchanged Ware itself (which is found 
at the time of the survey in the hands of Hugh de Grentmesnil) for 
certain lands in Bedfordshire. The six entries of lands held 'pro 
excambio de Warres ' (or ' Wares ') relate to this exchange. As is 
usually the case in Domesday, we only learn the history of the fief by 
incidental allusions. For instance, we read of Hugh's valuable manor of 
Stotfold, which had belonged to ' Aschil,' that it was rented at ^^3° a 
year at the time of Ralf Tallebosc's death. For further allusions we 
have to turn to the entries of other fiefs. Thus under that of the Bishop 
of Lincoln we find William de Caron complaining that his father had 
been disseised by Ralf Tallebosc of land which Hugh de Beauchamp 
was holding at the time of the survey ; under that of William de Warenne 
we find Hugh de Beauchamp claiming land at Tillbrook on the ground 
that his predecessor {antecessor) Ralf Tallebosc had been duly seised of it ; 
and a few lines lower down we find ' Aschil ' spoken of as Hugh's pre- 
decessor with no mention of Ralf s intermediate tenure. On the opposite 
page of Domesday Eudo daptfer complains that Ralf 'when he was 
sheriff' disseised him of some woodland at Sandy, which Hugh now 
holds. So also the wife of Hugh de Grentmesnil complains that Hugh 
de Beauchamp is holding land which Ralf had wrongfully annexed 
' when he was sheriff.' 

There is thus abundant evidence to show that Hugh was the recog- 
nized successor of Ralf. But Ralf had left a widow, Azelina, who held 
some of his lands in dower. Of these some lay at Henlow, a ' berewick ' 

1 V.C.n. Herts, i. 284. 

2 I have there established the identity of ' Anschil ' and ' Aschil,' but the Bedfordshire survey en- 
ables us to go further still. In it we read of Hugh's manor of Colmworth that his predecessor there 
was ' Achi a thegn of King Edward.' As his predecessor is regularly styled ' Aschil ' in the survey of 
this county, ' Achi ' would be taken for a different man. Yet on the previous page (2 1 3) we read of 
Hugh's estate at ' Estone ' that its soke always belonged to ' Culmeworde,' a manor of * Aschil ' ; 
and of William de Warenne's estate there we similarly read that ' Aschil ' retained its soke in his manor 
of ' Colmeborde.' And both these estates had been held by ' men ' of ' Aschil.' We may therefore 
claim ' Achi ' as here yet another variant of Anschil or Aschil, and may therefore do so in the case of 
Hugh's manor of Haynes as in that of Colmworth. 



of the manor of Stotfold (in which Ralf had succeeded Anschil), and 
Hugh claimed these as not being part of her dower. Ralf had left a 
daughter as well as a widow, and in the adjoining county of Herts we 
find her entered as a tenant-in-chief of 4 hides at Hunsdon (' Hodes- 
done'), though these are described as 'of the fee of Hugh de Beau- 
champ ' (fo. 1 42b) . As restless there as in this county Ralf had trans- 
ferred one of these hides from Stanstead Abbots to Hunsdon. 

But the matter is further complicated by the devolution of the 
estates of a great Bedfordshire thegn, Wulfmar of Eaton Socon, the 
' Etone ' of Domesday.* His estates ran south through Wyboston, 
Chawston, Tempsford, Barford, Blunham and Sandy, to Sutton and Hat- 
ley Cockayne, extending over the Cambridgeshire border into Gamlingay 
and Hatley. With the exception of his land at Barford, the whole of 
his estates appear to have passed either to Eudo ' Dapifer ' or to Ralf 
Tallebosc's widow, who seems to have held her share, the smaller one, as 
part of her marriage portion. As with the three local baronies of which 
I have spoken above, that of which Eaton Socon was the head deserves 
special notice, because it has a part as the barony of ' Etone ' in the 
feudal history of the county. Escheating to the Crown in 1 120 on the 
death of Eudo ' dapifer,' it was granted to one of the house of Beau- 
champ, but it must be carefully distinguished from the barony of ' Beau- 
champ of Bedford.' " 

There would seem to be no actual proof of a connection between 
these two lines of the name of Beauchamp, however probable it may 
seem ; nor is it known whether either line was connected with the 
Worcestershire house. As bearing, however, on the origin of the Beau- 
champs ' of Bedford,' it is interesting to note the unusual circumstance 
that three, if not four, of their under-tenants derived their names from 
places within what is now a single canton^ that of Tilly-sur-SeuUes in the 
Calvados.' Wimund de ' Taissel,' William de ' Locels,' and Serlo de 
'Ros' were clearly named from Tessel (-Bretteville), Loucelles and 
Rots within this canton. Osbert de ' Broilg,' therefore, may possibly 
be named from Brouay, which was also within it, for the list of the 
knights of the barony, in 1 1 66, is headed by Robert de ' Broi * (or 

We have now dealt with the Domesday fiefs which became local 
baronies, all of them appearing as such in the returns of 11 66 except 
that of Eaton (Socon), which was not included in those returns." 

Of the other Bedfordshire tenants-in-chief the first in order is the 
Count of Boulogne, whose lands, in which he had succeeded Alwold, ' a 

^ See the section on ' Earthworks ' for its noteworthy early castle. 

^ There is confusion between them in Dngdale's Baronage (i. 224). See Geoffrey de Mandeville, p. 


' Beauchamp itself occurs as a place-name in Moyaux and in Vouilly, both of them in the Calvados. 

* Red Book of the Exchequer, p. 319. The Domesday name, however, is more suggestive of Breuil, 
a name borne by several places in the Calvados. 

^ See ibid. p. 318 for a later entry of it. 
I 201 26 


thegn of King Edward,' lay in the north-west of the county. They are 
chiefly remarkable as being held of him, with the exception of two hides 
at Sharnbrook by Ernulf of Ardres ('Arde'), from whom they de- 
scended to the Counts of Guines/ Stevington was the chief manor/ 
Walter GifFard belongs to the adjoining county of Buckingham, as does 
his great tenant Hugh de Bolbec, though he held of him Woburn and 
two other manors in Bedfordshire, William de Warenne held in Bedford- 
shire only dependencies of his lordship of Kimbolton across the Hunting- 
donshire border." In this county as in others William de Eu (' Ow ') 
held his lands as successor to a great Wiltshire thegn, ' Alestan ' of 
Boscombe, whose estates were scattered about the country. 

Short as is the entry of the lands held by Miles Crispin it raises some 
points of interest. I have already spoken of the complaint by the 
monks of Ramsey Abbey that his rich manor of Clapham had been held 
of them for life only by his English predecessor,* but the men of the 
Hundred also asserted that two sokemen with small holdings in Milton 
(Ernest) had been wrongfully added to Clapham by Robert de ' Olgi.' 
Now this statement distinctly implies that Robert had preceded Miles in 
his tenure of Clapham, a fact of much interest in view of the traditional 
belief that Miles married Robert's daughter. That Robert and Miles 
were in some way connected is proved not only by their both succeeding 
to lands of Wigod of Wallingford — a fact which attracted Mr. Free- 
man's notice and led him to suggest that they both married daughters of 
Wigod — but also by their both succeeding to lands of a certain Brihtric, 
a fact, it would seem, unnoticed. In Bedfordshire ' Brixtric, thegn of 
King Edward,' was the only English predecessor of Miles, and in Buck- 
inghamshire Miles had similarly succeeded, in fourteen cases, to the lands 
of a ' Brictric ' variously described as ' a thegn of King Edward ' and ' a 
man of Queen Edith.' In Buckinghamshire also Robert d'Ouilly was 
holding two valuable manors of which one had been held by Brihtric, 
' thegn of King Edward,' and the other by Brihtric of Queen Edith, 
while some land held by men of Brihtric at Wigginton across the 
Hertfordshire border had also passed to him. We can thus identify the 
Bedfordshire ' Brictric ' as a wealthy thegn who had "• men ' of his own and 
lands in more than one county.^ 

1 See Feudal England, pp. 462-4, where Mr. Freeman's errors on the point are corrected. 

^ It should be observed that 'Alwold {sic), a thegn of King Edward,' was the count's predecessor 
in all his Bedfordshire lands except at Stevington itself, which is entered as having been held by ' Ade- 
lold a thegn of King Edward.' The two names would certainly be deemed distinct, and yet the entry, 
on the fief of the Bishop of Bayeux, of land at Turvey which had been held by ' a man of Alwold of 
Stevington ' (' homo Alwoldi de Stivetone '), proves that the names were identical and incidentally that 
Stevington was Alwold's seat. I have elsewhere (p. zoo) shown that Anschil of Ware is indifferently 
styled ' Aschil ' and ' Achi ' in the survey of this county. These instances are important as evidence 
of the almost incredible variations in the forms of Englishmen's names given by the Domesday scribes. 

' See festa de Nevill, p. 249 ; ' Honor de Kenebauton verumptamen est in comitatu Huntedon, 
sed villate pertinentes sunt in comitatu Bcd[ford].' (Compare p. 214 below.) 

^ The complaint was clearly ineffectual, for Clapham continued to form part of ' the Honour of 
Wallingford' (as Miles' fief was termed). 

" He is also found in Worcestershire as ' a thegn of Queen Edith,' and possibly in Gloucester- 
shire as ' a thegn of King Edward.' 



William Spech who appears as the holder of considerable estates in 
the county must have been a predecessor of Walter Espec, the famous 
leader at the Battle of the Standard (i 138), for one of the three Cister- 
cian abbeys founded by the latter was at Warden in this county, a manor 
which was held by William Spech at the time of the Survey. Two of 
Walter's sisters and co-heirs married Trailly and Ros, names which ap- 
pear in the Bedfordshire Domesday as those of under-tenants, and the 
house of Ros became his heirs in the north. 

Robert de Toeni (of Belvoir) obtained, here as elsewhere, the lands 
of Osulf, son of Frane, a wealthy thegn, while the single manor held by 
Robert Fafiton illustrates the opposite system of devolution ; for the 
lands of his English predecessor Alwin ' Horim ' (or ' Home ') had been 
given in the adjoining county of Hertfordshire to Derman, and Robert's 
lands, which were in four counties, were derived from different owners. 

Flemings were well represented in this part of England, and the 
entry of Walter the Fleming's lands is followed by those of estates held 
by ' Walter brother of Seier,' who may possibly have been his father's 
brother, for a Seiher — the name is distinctively Flemish — is incidentally 
alluded to, under Southill, as having been Walter the Fleming's prede- 
cessor in the course of William's reign. Moreover, both these barons 
had the same English predecessor, the thegn Leofnoth ; and, lastly, Segen- 
hoe was afterwards held as part of the ' Wahull ' barony, which is very 
strong evidence. 

Fellow-countrymen of theirs soon follow in Hugh the Fleming and 
in Sigar and Gunfrey de Chocques (' Cloches') from what we call French 
Flanders, of whom the two latter were Northamptonshire barons. Gilbert 
of Ghent also held land in the county. 

It is strange to find Osbern Fitz Richard, the lord of Richard's 
Castle, Herefordshire, holding estates so far east as this, but he seems to 
have had a special grant of the lands of Stori, a Bedfordshire 'man' of 
Earl Tostig. There is nothing to show how Archbishop Stigand had 
come to hold a considerable estate in Biggleswade (with Stratton and 
Holme) and Dunton, with some outlying appendages, or why it was 
divided between Richard Pungiant and Ralf ' de Insula,' neither of 
whom appears elsewhere as succeeding him. Albert of Lorraine, as I 
have elsewhere shown,^ was a ' clerk ' or ' chaplain ' (although there is 
nothing to show it in the entry of his Bedfordshire estates), who enjoyed 
the favour alike of Edward the Confessor and of William, and received 
from them lands and houses. Of Chalgrave, in the south of this county, 
we read that he had held it in Edward's days. 

The three columns devoted to the lands of Judith, widow of Earl 
Waltheof, are of interest for the light they throw on the ' comital ' his- 
tory of the county. Mr. Freeman, in his special study on ' The great 
earldoms under Eadward,' arrived at the conclusion that the shires of 
Huntingdon and Northampton, which were appurtenant to the earldom 

' See ne Commune of London and other Studies, pp. 36-7. 


of Northumberland, passed to Earl Waltheof on the fall of Harold's 
brother Tostig in 1065. In Huntingdonshire, he wrote, Domesday 
' implies the succession of Siward, Tostig, and Waltheof by speaking of 
" men " and of rights which belonged first to Tostig and afterwards to 
Waltheof." But, he added, ' of Bedfordshire I cannot speak with any 
certainty.' " So far as actual possessions go, there is little to choose in 
Bedfordshire between Harold's brothers, Earl Gyrth and Earl Tostig ; as 
for Harold himself he had but one ' man ' in the county. Gyrth had 
held Kempston in its western, Tostig Potton in its eastern half, both of 
them important manors with satellites, which were held alike by Countess 
Judith in 1086.^ In the case of Potton, however, there is a peculiarity ; 
we read not only of Potton itself, but also its ' berewick ' Charlton : 
' Hoc M[anerium] tenuit rex Edwardus et fuit comitis Tosti.' This is an 
ambiguous phrase which I interpret as meaning that King Edward had 
held the manor after Tostig's forfeiture, but it might conceivably mean 
that the king had given it to Tostig. A further complication is intro- 
duced by the fact that lands at Cardington and Harrowden which had 
been held by a ' man ' of Tostig could not be sold without the leave of 
the lord of Kempston. 

The ' sphere of influence,' as shown by their ' men,' of the two 
earls was but small in the county. Of Tostig's man ' Stori,' I have al- 
ready spoken. Four other ' men ' of his are mentioned, and one of 
Gyrth's, but no succession of earls is indicated, nor are we shown how 
Countess Judith came by so much land in the county. Her husband, 
Waltheof, had but few ' men ' within its borders, while in Cambridge- 
shire he had a good number. 

From the lands of Countess Judith, the Conqueror's relative, to 
those of Bedford burgesses is a sharp change. Four of these bur- 
gesses who had been holding land in Biddenham before the Conquest 
continued to do so at the time of the survey, and their manors are 
followed by those of five other ' survivals,' who, in spite of the heading, 
had nothing, I take it, to do with the burgesses. Edward had been 
allowed by the king's writ to hold ' in almoin ' half a hide which had 
belonged to his father, and Almar similarly half a virgate. Godmund 
retained three virgates and Alric one virgate, which they had held respec- 
tively before the Conquest. The arrangement of Domesday here is bad ; 
on the next page (2 1 8b) we find, after the king's reeves, the names of 
more Englishmen who had been allowed to retain small holdings of land. 
These vary from three or four virgates to a quarter of a virgate. Holders 
of this class were usually grouped together, at the end of the survey of 
a county, as ' king's thegns,' and this was actually done with Alwin and 
his holding at Keysoe, under Huntingdonshire (fo. 207b) ; but Domes- 

1 Norman Conquest (1870), ii. 559. 

* Ibid p. 567. In the section dealing with 'Religious Houses 'there will be found a curious 
claim, in 1327, by the abbess of Elstow to the (earl's) ' third penny ' of Bedford under a charter of 
Malcolm IV. (Earl of Huntingdon under Henry II.). Although unsuccessful, the claim connects Bedford 
with the earldom of Huntingdon and Northampton. 

3 Compare pp. 257, 258 below. 



day seems by its arrangement to have deemed them an anomalous 

The small English holder, when he retained his land, was usually 
doomed to pass sooner or later beneath the domination of a foreign lord. 
Even Norman, who held at Beeston no less than seven hides under Wil- 
liam as under Edward, held them only, at the time of the survey, as a 
tenant of Eudo dapifer. Smaller men were fortunate indeed if they 
could retain their own land as tenants of a Norman lord. At Astwick, 
' Ledmar,' a man of Earl Tostig, had 'himself held the half-hide which 
he only held at the time of the survey under Hugh de Beauchamp ; at 
Thurleigh, Leofric, who held a virgate under Miles Crispin, had held it 
' himself ' in King Edward's time as a ' man ' of Miles' predecessor 
Brihtric, but he and ' Ledmar ' had power, we read, at that time to sell 
or assign their land. The change in their status is instructive. 

Of two Englishmen, each of whom held of Countess Judith, at the 
time of the survey, half a hide in Sutton, we read that they had been 
' the king's men and had power to sell.' Here we seem to detect the 
same alteration of status. At Dean there is a change of tenure of an 
unusual character : ' the very same ' eleven sokemen who had held an 
estate in King Edward's time with power to assign their land held it, in 
1086, as 'sokemen of King William ' ; but Ralf Tallebosc had assigned 
the land ' in ministerio regis ' — whatever that may mean. We must not 
think of these sokemen as holding the estate jointly, for the Domesday 
hundred rolls of Cambridgeshire show us that in such cases each of the 
sokemen had his own separate holding. There is, however, one entry 
unique for this county, if not for the whole country, in which tenure in 
common is actually asserted ; at Goldington we read of a hide which 
' the men of the vill held in common and could sell.' ' 

As contrasting with the instances given above of a change of status 
in those who had become under-tenants at the time of the survey, we 
may take the exceptional case of Leofwine, who continued to hold at 
Clifton, after as before the Conquest, a small estate (' one hide ') under 
the abbot of Ramsey. For Leofwine ' could not alienate this land from 
the abbey ' ; he had not the power to sell. 

The last section of the county survey is of value for the light it 
throws on the doings of the king's reeves. Entry after entry shows us 
the restless Ralf Tallebosc assigning, as sheriff, to the king's service {in 
ministerio regis) lands which had not belonged to it in King Edward's 
time. Ten small estates head the list, and others follow lower down at 
Beeston and Dean. It is exceedingly difficult to discover the precise 
effect of Ralf s action in connection with these estates. Sewell and Biscot 
he seems to have annexed, with King William's consent, to the royal 
manor of Houghton (fo. 209b), and seventeen hides to that of Leighton 
(Buzzard) ; but these estates (fo. 209) are found in the hands of royal 
bailiffs [prefecti or prepositi) — 'reeves,' the English would have called 

' See for this ' notable case' Domesday Book and Beyond, pp. 142-3- 



them, who claimed that they had the king's consent for holding them. 
These lands had belonged to thegns or sokemen who had power to dis- 
pose of them, but the Domesday commissioners hardly seem to be con- 
cerned with the wrongs of the previous holders ; they are rather 
examining the titles of those who were then in possession, and who 
' said ' they held by the king's grant. How closely the evidence of 
title was examined is seen in the entry that, of 3I virgates held by 
Chetelbert at Carlton, he had taken possession {pccupavit) of 2| for 
which he could neither prove livery of seisin nor vouch any man to 
warranty. Still more remarkable is the case, on an earlier page, of Ernwi 
the priest (fo, 21 1), who held a hide at Harrowden, which his father had 
held before him in King Edward's time. He could neither prove livery 
of seisin nor produce the king's writ to account for his possession of his 
father's land, which ' the Hundred ' consequently charges him with taking 
possession of to the king's injury [super regem) . Two burgesses of Bedford 
had similarly got into trouble by buying land since the Conquest without 
the transfer being ratified by the king. This was at Biddenham, where 
it was found, on scrutinizing the holdings of Godwine and Ordwi, that 
the former had ' done service ' to no one for that portion of his land 
which he had bought and could not prove livery of seisin [nee de ea liber- 
atorem habuit) , while Ordwi had similarly ' done service ' to no one for the 
land he had bought there. 

Of others, on the contrary, it is recorded that they were able to 
produce the king's writ and seal. At Henwick Edward duly produced 
both the writ and the witness of ' the Hundred ' that the king had 
granted him his small paternal estate ' in alms ' ; and so did ' Almar ' 
at Sharnbrook. Even the Church was not exempt from having to produce 
its title in the case of newly acquired land, and the canons of St. Paul's 
of London proved their right to Caddington by showing the king's writ.' 
The larger portion of Caddington, which lay in Hertfordshire and is sur- 
veyed under that county, had been held by the same thegn before the 
Conquest and had been similarly acquired by the canons. It is worth 
noting that Domesday is silent as to their producing, for that portion, 
any evidence that the king had sanctioned its acquisition. For what was 
done in the one case must have been done in the other, and I conclude, 
therefore, that in this, as in so many matters, the silence of Domesday 
is not evidence, and that in all such cases proof was called for and pro- 
duced. It must always be remembered in reading the survey that its chief 
object was the ascertainment of the king's rights and dues, and that it was 
this that the Commissioners would specially keep in view. 

Whether William actually promulgated any universal rule as to 
Englishmen and their lands, and, if so, what that rule was, can only be 
matters of inference. So far as we can judge, all but a few specially 
favoured individuals were deprived of the lands they had held, or at most 
were allowed to retain a fragment or were placed in subjection to a 

^ 'Canonici habent brevem regis in quo continetur quod ipse hoc manerium dedit secclesiae sancti 



Norman lord. And even the exceptions, there is reason to believe, were 
further reduced after Domesday.^ But it is probable that, with his usual 
policy, William did not, all at once, go so far as this. Bedfordshire sup- 
plies us with one of Domesday's hints to that effect in the case of 
Radwell, where the Norman lord alleged, of some land, that his pre- 
decessor who had held it in King Edward's time, had lost it under King 
William through non-payment of a due. Ralf Tallebosc is alleged to 
have obtained it by paying the due in his place.'' This predecessor would 
seem to have been Tofig the huscarl of King Edward, who held land at 
Sharnbrook and Radwell, in which case his tenure after the Conquest is 
remarkable enough. 

The problems raised by the tenure of land in England on the eve 
of the Conquest are among the most difficult of those with which the 
Domesday student has to deal. And this difficulty is greatly increased 
by the singular laxity of the scribes in their use of formulas. As I have 
observed in Feudal 'England (pp. 24—6) : — 

Dare, vendere, and recedere are all interchangeably used, and even any two of 
them (whether they have the conjunctive 'et' or the disjunctive 'vel' between them) 
are identical with any one. It would be possible to collect almost any number of 
instances in point. Further, the insertion or omission of the phrase ' sine ' (or 
' absque ') ' ejus licentia ' is immaterial, it being understood where not expressed. So 
too with the words ' cui voluit.' In short, like the translators to whom we owe the 
Authorized Version, the Domesday scribes appear to have revelled in the use of 
synonym and paraphrase. 

My illustrations were drawn from Cambridgeshire, but Bedfordshire 
is rich in examples. We read of the former English holders that they 
had power ' dare et vendere ' or ' dare vel vendere,' with the addition, at 
times, of ' cui vellet ' or ' quo voluit,' or ' ubi voluit,' or in other cases 
of ' sine ' (or ' absque ') ' licentia.' Or again we have such a vague 
formula as ' quod voluit de terra sua ' (or ' de ea ') ' facere potuit.' 
It is no matter, therefore, for surprise that even the genius of Professor 
Maitland has not enabled him to solve the difficulties presented by the 
complication of tenures, jurisdiction and personal relations which the 
Normans found in existence. 

We may select, however, from the county survey a few instances 
which appear to bear specially on questions of tenure. A four- 
hide estate at Dean had been held by six sokemen, who were the 'men' 
of Borred, but were (as I read it) of the king's soke. They had 
power to sell 3I hides of this land and to 'withdraw' themselves to 
another lord without Borred's permission ; but half a hide they could 
neither give nor sell without his leave. Of a two-hide estate at the 
same place we read that it had been held by the same three sokemen 

1 The most striking instance of this, perhaps, is the fief of Turchil of Warwick, which passed from 
his heirs before long into the hands of the Earls of Warwick. 

2 ' postquam rex W. in Angliam venit ille gablum de hac terra dare noluit, et Radulfus Taillgebosc 
gablum dedit, et pro forisfacto ipsam terram sumpsit.' This appears to bear on the curious statement 
in Heming's Cartulary (i. 278) that, under Cnut, an order was made that any one four days in arrear 
with his payment of taxes forfeited ipso facto his land, which then passed to the first person who came 
forward and paid the tax. 



who were holding it of William de Warenne in 1086. One of them 
could not ' give or sell ' his land without his lord's permission ; ' but 
the other two could do so ' (fo. 211b). In Tillbrook, the next parish, 
the sokemen who had held it ' were so [ita) of the king's soke that they 
could give and sell their land to whom they would and withdraw them- 
selves to another lord without the leave of him under whom they were ' 
(fo. 21 lb). At Tempsford again three sokemen, men of Wulfmar of 
Eaton (Socon) had held 4I hides ; ' one of them could not assign his land 
without his lord's permission; the other two could do as they would' 
(fo. 212). There are other entries resembling these. Of a holding at 
Warden we read that he who had held it ' could neither sell or assign it 
without the permission of him who held Biggleswade ' (fo. 217). Lastly 
we have the singular entry that Cainhoe had been held by iElfric, ' a 
thegn of King Edward,' who had power ' to assign and sell ' (the land) 
'without his leave' (fo. 214). Here the king appears in the position of 
a private lord. 

There is one entry indeed which seems to give us light ; at Stan- 
ford, we read, i|^ hides had been held by ' four sokemen,' of whom three 
were free, but the fourth . . . could neither assign nor sell (his land).' 
The antithesis here seems to be clear, and yet Domesday elsewhere speaks 
of men who, although free, ' could not sell ' their land.* 

At Easton (now in Hunts) three entries afford us instances of a 
man having power to sell his land, but not the piofits of jurisdiction over 
it, which ' remained ' the property of his lord. Two ' men ' of Anschil 
of Ware held there half a hide apiece, and in each case the profits of 
jurisdiction would remain annexed to Anschil's manor of Colmworth.' 
iElfwine, a man of the Bishop of Lincoln, could do what he would with 
his land, ' but the soke remained the bishop's.' 

Kempston, similarly, had over lands at Elstow, and at Willshamstead 
near it, inalienable rights of jurisdiction.* The Elstow case helps to 
illustrate the complication of the problem, for the sokemen there were 
' men ' of King Edward, and yet their ' soke ' belonged to Kempston, 
which was a manor of Earl Gyrth. A tenant might have the power 
to ' withdraw ' himself (recedere) and become, by the act of ' commenda- 
tion,' the ' man ' of another lord without thereby conferring on that 
lord the right of jurisdiction over his land. 

On the practice of ' commendation,' which seems to have played 
a considerable part in the eleventh century, the practice which placed 
the weak beneath the strong for safety, we may learn something from 

' ' tenuerunt 4 sochemanni, quorum 3 liberi fuerunt, quartus vero unam hidam habuit, sed nee 
dare nee vendere potuit ' (212b). 

* Feudal England, p. 34. 

' ' potuit vendere cui voluit, sed socam ipse Anschil retinuit in Colmeborde, manerio suo' (211b); 
' dare et vendere potuit, sed soca semper jacuit in Culmeworde manerio Aschil ' (213); 'quod voluit de 
ea facere potuit ; soca tamen semper episcopi fuit ' (210). The loose variation of formula should be 

* ' Hoc manerium tenuerunt iiii sochemanni ; homines regis Edwardi fuerunt ; terram suam dare 
et vendere potuerunt, sed in Camestone jacuit semper soca eorum.' ' Hoc manerium tenuerunt viii 
sochemanni et dare et vendere potuerunt . . . sed soca jacuit semper in Camestone' (217). 



Bedfordshire. Of the valuable manor of Aspley Guise we read that 
Leofgifu, who had held it, was ' commended ' to Earl Waltheof, but 
could betake herself with her land to whatever lord she would/ It is 
possible that these words were added to explain why the manor had not 
passed to the earl's widow and successor. That the act of homage in- 
volved in ' commendation ' gave the lord certain rights is shown by an 
interesting dispute between Hugh de Beauchamp and William de 
Warenne. ' Avigi,' a ' man ' of Anschil of Ware, Hugh's English pre- 
decessor, had held a virgate at Easton, which is found, in 1086, in 
William's hands, but is claimed against him by Hugh, presumably on 
the ground of the homage done to Anschil. 'Avigi' had also held there 
T.R.E. five virgates, which King William allowed him to retain — 
' granted ' them to him, Domesday puts it — ' commending ' him to Ralf 
Tallebosc's care for his life. But Avigi, on his death bed, had alleged him- 
self to be the ' man ' of William de Warenne and consequently William 
was found seised of it in 1086.^ Another case of the king's 'commend- 
ing ' an Englishman with his land to one of his officers is found in 
Wellow Hundred, where a sokeman was so ' commended ' to ' Osiet the 
king's bailiff' (of the Hundred), who was to provide him with food and 
clothing for life. As Osiet is found in possession at the time of the 
survey, it looks as if he had obtained the land on condition of paying to 
its former holder a kind of life annuity, the well known ' corrody ' system 
employed by religious houses. 

More distinctly entitled to rank as legal antiquities are the Domes- 
day manor, the cases of ' disseisin,' the mortgage, the marriage-portion, 
and the reversion after death. 

On that most perplexing question the meaning of ' manor ' {maner- 
ium) in Domesday the evidence of the Bedfordshire survey is of very great 
importance. For after recapitulating the theory at which he has 
arrived on the subject, Professor Maitland proceeds to make this admis- 
sion : — 

In later days we may well find a manor holden of another manor, so that a plot 
of land may be within two manors. If this usage of the term can be traced back to 
Domesday Book as a common phenomenon, then our doctrine is in great jeopardy. 
But we have noticed no passage which clearly and unambiguously states that a tract 
of land was at me and the same time ' both a manerium and also a part of another 

Now Wootton was a ' ten-hide vill,' the whole of which was held, 
as a single manor, by Albert of Lorraine. Domesday says of it : ' Hoc 
M\anerium\ tenuit Almar homo Tosti comitis,' and then immediately 
proceeds to state of Albert's three hides at Shelton (in Marston Mor- 
teyne adjoining) : ' Hoc Mlanertum] fuit et est membrum de Otone 
[Wootton] ; Almar tenuit homo Tosti comitis ' (fo. 2 1 6b) . On the 

* ' commendata Wallef comitis et quo voluit cum terra sua recedere potuit.' 

* ' Hie, die mortuus est, dixit se esse hominem W. de War' et idea Willelmus saisitus est de hac 

^ The italics are the professor's own. 

* Domesday Book and Beyond, p. 128. 

I 209 27 


opposite side of the county we read of Countess Judith's manors of 
Everton and Hatley (Cockayne), both near Potton, as follows : 

M[anerium] . . , Euretone . . . Hoc M[anerium'] comes Tosti tenuit et jacuit 
in Potone M[anerio] proprio comitissae M[anerium] ... In Hatelai . . . Hoc 
Aflanerium] Tosti comes tenuit et Jacet in Potone manerio proprio comitissae (fo. 

Nothing could well be clearer or less ambiguous than this ; in the 
above cases we have ' a tract of land ' entered as ' at one and the same 
time both a manerium and also a part of another manerium.' 

Again a Charlton entry is of value in this connection. Bedfordshire, 
Professor Maitland observed, is one of those counties in which ' the 
symbol M., which represents a manor,' is found in the margin of the 
text. From this and from the occurrence of the phrase ' tenuit pro uno 
manerio ' he concludes that manerium was ' an accurate term charged 
with legal meaning,' that ' manerium has some exact meaning,' and ' that 
this term has a technical meaning ... we cannot doubt.' * This 
conclusion I have elsewhere traversed, arguing that the phrase ' pro 
uno manerio ' is, on the contrary, mere surplusage, and that Domes- 
day uses indifferently the terms manerium and terra^ Now we read of 
Charlton, a manor assessed of ten hides, to which the symbol M. is pre- 
fixed : — 

Hoc manerium {sic) tenuit rex Edwardus et fait Tosti comitis. Hec terra fait 
Berew[ita] de Potone T.R.E.' ita quod nullus inde separare potuit (217b). 

The point of the second clause is that Charlton, though formerly an 
appurtenance of Potton, was now held by a different person ; but I cite 
it as showing the alternative use of the terms manerium and terra. A 
precisely similar entry is found on fo. 2 1 3b : — 

In Cochepol tenet Robertus de Hugone iiii hidas pro uno manerio . . . Hanc 
terram etc. 

So also on the fief of the Bishop of Coutances we read of a four-hide 
estate held of him by Geoffrey de ' Tralgi,' to which the symbol M. is 
prefixed : — 

Hoc Manerium tenuerunt iii soch[emann]i . . . Hanc terram tenet episcopus 

The entry which follows it and relates to Turvey contains precisely the 
same formula. Lastly we read of Count Eustace's estate at Odell, to 
which the symbol M. is not prefixed : — 

In Wadelle tenet Ernulfas de Arde ... pro uno Manerio de comite Eustachio 
. . . Hanc terram tenuit Alwoldus (211). 

The danger of crediting the Domesday scribes with a technical and 
exact use of terms is here further illustrated. 

Allegations of ' disseisin ' are not unfrequent in the survey. Ralf 
Tallebosc is charged with having ' disseised ' William de Caron's father 

' Domesday Book and Bejond,'g'p. 107-8, 120, 128. 
^ ' The Domesday Manor ' in English Historical Review, xv. 293-5. 
' The words 'Manerium Juditae comitissae ' are here interlined. 



at Easton (210), Eudo ' dapifer ' (apparently) at Sandy (212), and Nigel 
'de Albini ' at Clophill (214). In this last case it is expressly recorded that 
Nigel was ' seised ' of the land after he had possession of the ' honour,' * 
Hugh de Beauchamp claims seven acres at Chawston of which his pre- 
decessor was 'seised,' though he himself is 'disseised' (215), We 
advance a step further when, besides alleging the fact, the claimant further 
alleges that he has been wrongfully {injuste) disseised ; Rannulf brother of 
Ilger alleges that he has been ' wrongfully disseised ' of land at Pavenham 
(215). Alfred of Lincoln claims that Walter the Fleming has ' wrong- 
fully disseised him of land at Wymington, which his predecessor had 
been seised of in King Edward's time, and he himself subsequently. 
And the men of the Hundred support this claim and further testify that 
the Bishop of Coutances has ' wrongfully disseised ' Alfred of woodland 
which his predecessor had in King Edward's time (215b). The abbot 
of Ramsey claims that John de Roches had ' wrongfully disseised ' him 
of land at Barton ; and here again ' the Hundred ' testifies that this is so 
(210b). At times, with its usual love for variety, Domesday substitutes 
' occupavit ' for ' desaisivit ' ; at Maulden, for instance, ' the men of the 
Hundred ' allege that this John de Roches has ' wrongfully taken 
possession [occupavit) ' of land, to the injury of those who hold the vill 
(214). In another place Ralf Tallebosc is charged with having 
' wrongfully taken possession of land when he was sheriff* (217b). At 
Totternhoe violence (vis) occurs as accompanying the spoliation." The 
interest of all these phrases lies in their anticipation of that disseisin 
' injuste et sine judicio ' which formed the subject in the next century of 
the famous ' assize of novel disseisin.' * 

Mortgage — the gage of land to give it its exact description * — re- 
ceives illustration at Biddenham, where Ordwi, a burgess of Bedford, held 
a virgate ' in vadimonio ' (218). But its most interesting occurrence is 
in the case of a virgate of land at Southill which Leofwine, a wealthy 
thegn, had held as mortgagee in King Edward's day. The mortgagee, 
as we should now say, had been paid off since the Conquest, but Walter 
the Fleming kept hold of this with the rest of Leofwine's land. Oddly 
enough it is the king who is looked on as the injured party (235b).'' 

The marriage portion {maritagium) as distinguished from dower 
meets us chiefly on the fief of Ralf Tallebosc's widow, where it proves 
that she must have been the daughter of some considerable holder of 
land. It occurs, however, also, on the fief of Nigel 'de Albini,' one of 
whose tenants, Pirot, held 3 hides of his land at Streatley ' de maritagio 

' The use of the term ' honour ' in Domesday is always worth noting. 

* * reclamat W. camerarius ii hidas quas ejus antecessor tenuit T.R.E. sicut Hundret testatur, sed 
episcopus baiocensis /^r vim ei abstulit' (216). 

' See History of English Law (1895), ii. 44-52, and especially p. 44 : 'The necessity of keeping 
the peace is often insisted on by those who are describing the great possessory action, the assize of novel 
disseisin. Every disseisin is a breach of the peace ; a disseisin perpetrated with violence is a serious 

* Ibid. ii. 117-23. 

* ' postquam rex W. venit in Angliam ille ipse qui invadiavit hanc terram redemit, et Seiherus earn 
occupavit super regem.' Walter had succeeded Seiher. 



sus feminas ' (214b). A good instance of the gift of land in reversion 
to a religious house is found at Goldington, where Mlfvic ' Wintremelc ' 
so granted his half-hide to the canons of St. Paul's/ 

For agriculture the Bedfordshire survey is of no appreciable interest. 
But in those counties where Ramsey Abbey happened to hold land we 
can always, at least, compare the jejune figures of Domesday with the 
abbey's own survey of its lands in the reign of Henry I. The great 
manorial plough drawn by eight oxen, on which Domesday bases all its 
calculations, was the rule on the Ramsey Abbey manors, and two such 
teams are found at Barton and three at Shillington in the days of Henry 
I.* In Domesday the importance of the plough dwarfs all other sources 
of agricultural wealth ; but the right of multure, by which the peasants 
were compelled to bring their grain to be ground at the lord's mill, 
formed in certain cases an appreciable item in his revenue. Of the 
watermills on the Ouse one may select for mention as being of consider- 
able value those at Harrold and Odell, each of which was returned as 
worth j£i i6s. 8d. and 200 eels a year, while that at Tempsford returned 
£2 and 120 eels, and the two at Eaton Socon £1 16s. bd. and 100 eels. 
The eels so often found in Domesday as forming a portion of the mill's 
render came, of course, from the mill-pool. The two mills at Sandy on 
the Ivel were worth no less than £7. loj., and two at Biggleswade above 
it £z js. 

Woodland, though of service for many purposes, was valued in 
Domesday according to the ' mast ' it afforded as food for swine. Down 
by the streams the water-meadows provided hay for the plough-oxen ; 
and even pasture for the farm stock is entered at times in the survey. 
The rents paid in money or in kind for the use of some of these rights are 
of considerable interest to the student. At Meppershall, for instance, 
the woodland yielded ' de consuetudine silvae ' ten shillings in addition to 
providing feed for 200 swine, and at Westoning three shillings in 
addition to feeding 400 ; at Cranfield it yielded the ' iron for the 
ploughs ' in addition to feeding a thousand ; and at Westcote it similarly 
provided the ironwork in addition to supplying feed. At Segenhoe there 
were yearly received ten rams ' de consuetudine silv£e,' and at Harlington 
one ram and a load of beans in addition, in each case, to the feed. 
In the Ivel valley the Biggleswade meadows, besides providing hay for 
the ten plough-teams of the manor, produced from the surplus hay five 
shillings a year ; while at Langford, higher up the stream, they produced 
two shillings in addition to supplying hay for sixteen teams. The most 
notable entry of ' pasture ' is that at Langford, where we read that it 
produced six shillings besides providing feed for 300 sheep. At Henlow 
the ' pasture' produced tenpence. One may also, perhaps, mention here a 

* ' Quam postea canonicis S. Pauli sub W. rege dedit ut post mortem suam haberent omnino con- 
cessit ' (2 1 8b). It was of great importance to the canons to have their reversionary right thus recorded in 
Domesday. A contemporary of jElfric, named Edward, had similarly granted to St. Paul's his land in 
reversion, but Otto, the Domesday tenant, who married his widow, refused to let St. Paul's inherit it, as 
it was entitled to do, on her death {Domesday Studies, p. 556). 

" Cartularium monasterii de Ramesia (Rolls Series), iii. 274, 307. 



point relating to the woodland, nanaely that at Southill there are two 
entries of ' half a hide ' of woodland, and at Sandy one of three acres. 
The reckoning of woodland on this system is rare in Domesday, and at 
present obscure. 

Among miscellaneous rural features we may note Eudo Dapifer's 
two acres of vineyard — probably newly planted — at Eaton Socon, Hugh 
de Beauchamp's ' park ' for beasts of the chase at Stagsden, and the fish- 
stew (vivarium piscium) of ' Osbern the fisher ' at Sharnbrook. 

Of urban or commercial life Domesday tells us little ; and in Bed- 
fordshire this is peculiarly the case. We read of burgesses of Bedford, of 
market dues at Luton and Leighton (Buzzard), and that is about all. 
But in this connection one may note a point bearing on money, namely 
that two ' ores ' are entered as the value of some land on fo. 2 1 8b. It is 
proved by Cambridgeshire evidence that this ' ore ' was sixteen pence. 

No general statement can be made as to the effect of the Conquest 
on the wealth and prosperity of the county. Mr. Pearson's tables show a 
decrease of about twenty-five per cent in values, for the whole county, 
when those of 1086 are compared with those on the eve of the Conquest; 
and this decrease is most marked on the lands of the lay barons. But when 
we come to examine for ourselves the values, manor by manor, we find 
the variations between them at these two periods, and at that intervening 
date when the land was received by the grantee, varying in too erratic a 
fashion for any conclusions to be drawn from them. All that can be said 
is that the value was, as might be expected, usually lowest at the time of 
the grant. 

The last subject that we have to consider is that of identification. 
When dealing with the work of our predecessors in this branch of inquiry, 
we have to remember that they are sometimes found to have been misled 
by a fancied resemblance, and that they may even have fallen a prey to 
the pranks of perverse etymologists. Weston and Easton, for instance, 
are names not uncommon, the origin of which, one would have thought, 
must be obvious to all. Yet of Westoning — originally Weston — omitted 
in the Bedfordshire survey, we find Mr. Airy writing thus : — 

Westoning is not mentioned in the Record, nor is there any vacancy in or on 
the borders of the Hundred of Manshead for which it appears eligible. Early men- 
tion of it occurs by the name of Weston Tregos, and it became Weston-Ing after its 
purchase by Sir William Inge, Chief Justice of the King's Bench in 1 3 1 7, so that the 
original name of the place is merely Weston. Now, Mr. Monkhouse in his Bedford- 
shire etymologies tells us that Weston in Anglo-Saxon means a wilderness ; and that 
all the ' Westons ' and ' West Ends ' were tracts of waste and barren land. If such 
were the case with the present Westoning, its absence from the Record as a distinct 
manor or property is quite intelligible ; and looking at its position on the map I am 
inclined to think that it formed the 'westen ' or waste of Priestley (now a hamlet of 
Flitwick), and that whatever there was of taxable value about it is included in the 
return of that manor (p. 44). 

So too he endeavoured to identify the mysterious ' Estone ' by means 
of this etymology, arguing that ' the high clay table of Little Staughton 
. . . was one of a series of westens^ and that — 



there is no difficulty with regard to the omission of the W from Estone, as that letter 
was assumed or dropped according to the taste of the speaker. . , . Besides, in many 
parishes of the county the ' westen ' has actually dropped the * W ' at the present 
time, and appears as 'East End ' instead of 'West End,' in each case being the old 
westen or waste, and having no reference whatever to the points of the compass. 

Lastly he wrote of the puzzling ' Segresdone ' : — 

I take it for granted that Segresdone is only another form of ' sacristan ' or ' sex- 
ton,' and that the land which bore the name had some connection with an ecclesias- 
tical establishment. 

The absence of any history of the county and the paucity of printed 
records relating to its feudal tenures have greatly increased the difficulty 
of identifying Domesday manors ; for the surest identification is that 
which is proved by feudal descent. Some progress, however, has, it is 
hoped, been made. It has hitherto been insufficiently realized that in 
studying Domesday for a county, the surveys of adjoining counties have 
to be kept in view.^ Thus, in Bedfordshire, we find, along the Northamp- 
tonshire border, portions of Podington (| hide) and Farndish (| hide) 
surveyed under that county, while portions of Newton Bromshold and of 
Rushden are surveyed under Bedfordshire. Stanwick, although it all 
belonged to Peterborough Abbey, is surveyed partly under one and partly 
under the other. On the Buckinghamshire border, a third of Edles- 
borough, which is now wholly in that county, is placed by Domesday 
under Bedfordshire, while Meppershall was assessed partly under Bedford- 
shire and partly under Hertfordshire at the time of the Great Survey.' 
Caddington was then as now divided between the two counties. So also, 
on the Huntingdonshire border, Everton, which is now wholly in Bed- 
fordshire, was then surveyed as divided by the border, Rannulf brother 
of Ilger holding the Huntingdonshire portion (7 hides) in capite, and the 
Bedfordshire portion (5 hides) under the Countess Judith. 

These cases may serve to introduce the singular tangle of Beds and 
Hunts in the extreme north of the former county. Swineshead is still 
an island in Bedfordshire, Tillbrook bushes cutting it off from Hunting- 
donshire, to which it belongs. In Domesday it appears as a manor as- 
sessed at five hides, and all in the hands of Eustace the sheriff (of Hunts), 
who held there half a hide in chief, and the rest under WiUiam of 
Warenne, of whose lordship of Kimbolton it was part. This lordship, in 
which William had succeeded Harold himself, had clearly a disturbing 
effect on several estates in its neighbourhood, William, for instance, 
stretching out his hands over Tillbrook and part of Dean. Of the still 
mysterious ' Hanefeld ' we are told that it had always belonged to Kim- 
bolton, but was assessed rightly in Bedfordshire.^ Again, in Keysoe, 
adjoining Swineshead, 3 virgates are surveyed in Huntingdonshire as a 
part of the lordship of Kimbolton, and i virgate as lying in Beds, though 

1 I have appended at the end of the Domesday text extracts from the surveys of other counties 
which relate to lands now in Bedfordshire. 

" ' Pro iiii hidis se defendit in Bedefordescire. In Herefortscire ipsa villa se defendit pro iii hidis 
et una virgata ' (see p. 255 below, and compare the Fictoria History of Herts, vol. i.) 

^ ' Warram dedit semper juste in Bedefordscira ' (see p. 232 below). 



assessed in Hunts/ and as held, after as before the Conquest, by Alwin. 
I have no doubt that this was the Alwin surnamed ' Deule ' who had 
held Pertenhall (now in Bedfordshire), between Keysoe and Kimbolton, 
under the Bishop of Lincoln,^ and who had also preceded his Norman 
tenants on some other manors in Bedfordshire/ Of this Pertenhall (a 
place supposed to be unmentioned in Domesday *) we read that it lies in 
Bedfordshire, but renders (its) geld and service in Huntingdonshire/ 

From this tangle — which is continued along the border of North- 
amptonshire and Huntingdonshire — we may now pass to the great 'crux' 
of the Domesday Survey of Bedfordshire, the mysterious manor of 'Estone,' 
which is the subject of ten separate entries under seven different fiefs. 
Mr. Airy guessed, we have seen, that it was that of Little Staughton, 
but its name disappears from view, in Bedfordshire, after the date of 
Domesday.* The clue, which is faint but, I think, sufficient, is found 
among the ' claims ' {clamores) at the end of the Huntingdonshire survey. 
We there read of an ' Estone,' which (it is incidentally observed) is as- 
sessed in Bedfordshire, that it belongs to the abbot of Ely's manor of 
Spaldwick, but that Eustace (the sheriff of the county), a noted despoiler 
of the church, had seized a sixth of a hide there.' Of the identity of this 
' Estone ' there is no doubt whatever ; it is Easton some three or four 
miles north-east of Kimbolton, and a little more than a mile south-east of 
Spaldwick. The latter manor had dependencies in Easton, Long Stow, 
and Little Catworth lying round it.^ Assuming that this Huntingdon- 
shire Easton was the ' Estone ' of the Bedfordshire survey, we now see 
why William de Warenne is shown therein to have made himself master 
of certain lands there, as at Tillbrook and Dean ; Kimbolton was the 
centre of them all. That Easton was associated, as a fact, with Kim- 
bolton as with Sp,aldwick, is shown by the Hundred Rolls, where we 
read of one hide there that it is of the Honour of Kimbolton,* though 
the bulk of it appears to have been then dependent on Spaldwick." 

There is nothing stranger prima facie in this Huntingdonshire Easton 
being then a detached portion of the nearest Bedfordshire Hundred than 
is the converse phenomenon in the case of Swineshead ; but it is right 
to add that the identification rests wholly on the statement that the 
holding of Eustace there, and therefore presumably all Easton, was for 
purposes of assessment in Bedfordshire." Nor, so far as our limited 
knowledge of Huntingdonshire history extends, does Easton appear sub- 
sequently as part of Bedfordshire. That Domesday should enter it under 

' ' Jacet in Bedefordscira sed geldum dat in Hnnted'scire.' 

" See p. 266 below. 

^ See p. 227 below. It is singular that this Alwin Deule (who had also preceded Eustace, the 
sheriff, at Perry near Kimbolton) seems to be wholly omitted from Ellis' Domesday Index. 

* Airy. ^ See p. 266 below. 

" I have sought in vain for a manor of the name in Bedfordshire, and Mr. Ragg could only suggest 
that it was ' probably near Thurleigh.' 

"> ' Quae jacet in Estone et geldat in Bedefordscire' (fo. 208). 

^ See the Injuisitio Eliensis and the Inquisitio Comitatus Canta&rigiensh (ed. Hamilton, p. 166). 

9 Vol. ii. p. 632. 1" Ibid. p. 615. 

'^ The ^ hide held by Eustace is virtually just what is wanted to raise the total assessment to I o 



that county with no hint of its peculiar position further illustrates the 
character of the survey as essentially a record of assessment for geld. 

Westoning, supposed by Mr. Airy to be unmentioned in Domes- 
day, is surveyed under Hertfordshire as ' Westone,' the survey expressly 
recording that its assessment belonged to Bedfordshire." Wrestlingworth, 
he asserted, was surveyed under Cambridgeshire ; but ' Warateworde,' to 
which he referred, proves to be Wratsworth in Orwell. As Wrestling- 
worth was held of the Honour of Huntingdon, it must be sought for 
among the manors of the Countess Judith in Domesday. As illustrating 
the great uncertainty surrounding the identity even of important manors 
in the Bedfordshire survey one may instance the ' Lalega ' of Domesday, 
which lay in the Hundred of Willey and was divided between four of 
the local tenants-in-chief This was certainly the manor of ' La Leye,' 
as it is styled in the Hundred Rolls, the ' Lega ' or ' La Leye ' of the 
feudal aids ; but where was it ? The Public Record Office identifies 
it as Lee (now a farm) in Puddington." The British Museum, how- 
ever, no less confidently identifies the 'La Leigh' of 1357 as Thur- 
leigh.^ The question is virtually decided in favour of the latter by 
the ' Nomina villarum ' of 1 3 1 6, where ' Lega ' appears as a vill of 
the Hundred of Willey and Thurleigh does not * ; but in any case 
the feudal descent establishes that identity.* 

Of the places remaining unidentified 'Hanefelde' (i hide) and 
' Segresdone ' (i virgate) were in Stodden Hundred, and ' Chenemonde- 
wiche,' a considerable estate of 3I hides, in that of Biggleswade. Mr. 
Airy traced this last down to ' Kimwick ' in the cartulary of St. Neot's, 
and I have found it as ' Kym'yke ' in the Valor Ecclesiasticus {temp. Hen. 
VIII.) ; but its present identity is unknown. I suspect, however, that 
it lay in the neighbourhood of Blunham or Sandy. It is found in the 
Testa (p. 243), as ' Kenemu ' de' wyk,' held with Blunham (which pre- 
cedes it in Domesday) by Henry de Hastings as seneschal of St. Edmund's 
Abbey. ' Elvendone,' in Stodden Hundred, was not, I think, Yelden, of 
which the undoubted form was ' Giveldene,' and which is complete as a 
ten-hide manor without it. The credit of identifying ' Subberie ' as a 
manor in Eaton Socon belongs to Mr. Airy.* I do not accept his con- 
clusion that ' Cudessane ' was merely a scribal error for ' Chichesane,' 
because the former is found in two distinct entries ; but, as ' Cudessane ' 
and 'Chichesane' (Chicksand) between them amount to 10 hides, they 
may well have been adjacent holdings with a common termination. 

1 ' Sed Wara hujus manerii jacuit in Bedefordscire T.R.E. in hundreto de Maneheve, et ibi est 
Manerium et fUit semper ' (see the Victoria History of Herts, vol. i.) This use of ' Wara ' must be care- 
fully distinguished from that (also in the Bedfordshire survey) which is found in the phrase, ' dare 
warras,' though both relate to the payment of geld. ' Wares ' or ' Warres,' which occurs repeatedly 
on the fief of Hugh de Beauchamp, is, of course, quite distinct from either and denotes Ware, Herts. 

' Feudal Aids (1899), i. 614. This identification was probably suggested by the fact that half a 
knight's fee ' in Lega et Podyngtone ' was held of the great fee of WahuU. But this combination does 
not involve the proximity of the two places. 

' Index to the Charters and Rolls (1900), p. 742. 

* Feudal Aids, i. 17. ^ See the evidence printed in the Wahull peerage case. 

• It occurs four times in Feudal Aids, vol. i., but is not there identified, the name having vanished 
from the map. 



It may be expected that the exploration now being made among all 
our records for this history of the county will further diminish the 
number of the names still awaiting identification. 


The importance of the Hundreds in the Great Survey is far greater 
than any one could gather from the pages of Domesday Book. For the 
fortunate preservation of a transcript of the actual returns of the Inquest, 
in the case of the county of Cambridge, shows us that each Hundred 
was surveyed separately in turn, and that the return for each Hundred 
was made by its own sworn jurors. The contents of these returns were 
subsequently cut down and re-arranged under the fiefs of the several 

But although the surveys of the Hundreds, and even of the vills 
within them, were broken up for the purpose of this re-arrangement, 
traces of the system on which the survey was actually made are still to 
be found in the order in which the Hundreds recur. This is a point of 
considerable importance, to which, till quite lately, little attention has 
been given. In Bedfordshire the order in which the returns from the 
Hundreds were arranged appears to have been as follows: (i) Manshead ; 
(2) ' Stanburge ' ; ' (3) Redbornstoke ; (4) Stodden ; (5) ' Buchelai ' ; (6) 
Flitt ; (7) Willey ; (8) Barford ; (9) Biggleswade; (10) 'Weneslai'; 
(11) Wixamtree ; (12) Clifton." Three of these, which were 'half 
Hundreds, have subsequently disappeared, ' Stanburge ' becoming ab- 
sorbed in Manshead, ' Buchelai ' in Willey and ' Weneslai ' in Biggles- 

In addition to the Hundreds enumerated above there was the town 
of Bedford, which stood apart, and the royal demesne, which is not 
assigned to any Hundred by name. This belt of demesne, in the ex- 
treme south of the county, is now divided between the Hundreds of 
Manshead and of Flitt. As is sometimes the case in Domesday, there is 
incidental mention of yet another Hundred, the identity of which is 
obscure. We read of Sewell (under Houghton Regis), that it was 
formerly in ' Odecroft ' Hundred, but that Ralf Tallebosc took it thence 
and placed it in Houghton Regis, even as he took Biscot out of Flitt 
Hundred and placed it in Luton. This has yet to be explained. 

To the order in which the Hundredal headings occur in the text of 
the survey there is, as Mr. Ragg and I have observed, one conspicuous 
exception. The fief of Hugh de Beauchamp is entered in two portions ; 

' Standbridge, from which it derived its name, is a place between Leighton Buzzard and Houghton 

* Mr. Ragg, who has independently investigated this subject, is in entire agreement with this 
order. Only the relative position of ' Manshead' and ' Stanburge ' on his list as on mine seems doubtfiil. 

' 'Weneslai' had dropped out before Kirby's Quest (1284-6), in the returns to which, as in those 
of 1 3 1 6, the * half Hundreds ' of ' Stanbrigge ' (or ' Stanbrugge ') and of ' Boclowe ' (or ' Buckelowe ') 
are surveyed with Manshead and Willey respectively. After the returns of 1316, these half Hundreds 
also drop out of the list (see Feudal Aids, i. 1-2 1). 

I 217 28 


the second portion, which begins with Aspley (Guise) in Manshead 
Hundred, is devoted to those manors which were held of him by under- 
tenants, and in it the Hundreds recur in their regular order ; but in the 
first part, which deals with the manors he held in demesne, this order is 
not observed. In that part we begin with Stodden, ' Buchelai,' Wixam- 
tree and Clifton, but then proceed with Redbornstoke, Flitt and Barford. 
On comparing this arrangement with the regular sequence of the Hun- 
dreds, it will be seen that the fief is entered, as I said, in two portions, 
and, moreover, that the first portion can itself be divided into two 

Mr. Ragg has suggested, as the result of his careful analysis of the 
survey, that if we assumed the royal demesne to have formed a Hundred 
of its own, and reckoned Bedford as a half Hundred, Bedfordshire would 
have had at the time of the survey ten whole and four half Hundreds, 
representing, in all, the equivalent of twelve. Professor Maitland also 
reckons the Domesday Hundreds as twelve,* but he derived the figure 
from Dr. Stubbs, who must have obtained it differently, namely from 
the headings in the text. In any case it is noteworthy that the ' county 
hidage' assigns 1,200 hides to Bedfordshire,^ which is not far from the 
Domesday total. But we must not be tempted by these figures to 
hazard conjectures here as to an earlier state of things on which, in the 
present state of our knowledge, it is premature to speak. 

' Mr. Ragg has observed that the lands of St. Albans, in the adjoining county of Herts, present a 
similar exceptional grouping in two halves, of vehich the first deals writh the manors in hand. 
^ Domesday Book and Beyond, p. 459. 
^ Ibid. p. 456. 





The date of the Domesday Survey is 1086, and the 
two previous periods referred to are King Edward's time 
(T.R.E.), which is usually the time of his death, and the 
time at which the manor was acquired by the Norman 
holder. The letter ' M,' prefixed to an entry, stands for 
M[anor]. The ' hide ' is the unit of assessment to the 
' geld,' and the ' virgate ' its quarter ; thirty (geld) acres 
went to a virgate. The caruca was a plough drawn by eight 
oxen, and the arable land was reckoned by the number of 
ploughs required to till it ; * land for half a plough ' (or 
' for four oxen ') merely means half a plough land. The 
term ' demesne ' is used both of those manors which a 
lord kept in his own hands (instead of enfeoffing a tenant 
therein), and of that portion of a manor which was kept 
in hand (as a kind of home farm), the peasantry holding 
the rest of it under the lord. The ' bordars ' were a 
class of peasants intermediate between the villeins and the 

It should always be remembered that when Domesday 
enters a man as holding a certain place, it does not neces- 
sarily mean that he held the whole of it, for there may be 
similar entries relating to other portions of it. 


fo. aog 


Bedeford [Bedford] was assessed as {defendebat se pro) a half hun- 
dred T.R.E., and it is so {facit) now for the host and for ship service 
{in navibus). The land of this vill was never divided into hides, nor is 
it now except one hide which belonged to {jacuit in) the church of St. 
Paul in almoin T.R.E., and now belongs (thereto) of right. But Bishop 
Remigius put it out of almoin (and tenure) of the church of St. Paul, 
unjustly as the men say, and now holds it and all that belongs to it. 
It is worth I CO shillings. 




I King William 


II The Bishop of Bayeux 
III The Bishop of Coutances 


iiii The Bishop of Lincoln 


v The Bishop of Durham 


VI The abbot of St. Edmund 


VII The abbot of Peterborough 


VIII The abbot of Ramsey 
IX The abbot of Westminster 


X The abbot of Thorney 

XI The abbess of Barking 

XII The canons of London 




XIII The canons of Bedford 


xiiii Ernuin the priest 


XV Count Eustace 


XVI Walter Gifard 


XVII William de Warenne 


XVIII William de Ow 


XIX Milo Crispin 
XX Ernulf de Hesding 
XXI Eudo ' Dapifer ' 
XXII William Pevrel 





XXIII Hugh de Beauchamp 
xxiiii Nigel de Albingi 
XXV William Spech 


Walter the Fleming 

Walter brother of Seiher 

Hugh the Fleming 

Hugh the Butler [pincerna) 

Sigar de Cioches 

Gunfrid de Cioches 

Richard son of Earl Gil- 

Richard Pungiant 

William the Chamberlain 

William Lovet 


Henry son of Azor 

Osbern son of Richard 

Osbern son of Walter 

Osbern the Fisherman 

Turstin the Chamberlain 

Gilbert son of Salom(on) 

Albert of Lorraine 

David de Argentan 

Ralf ' de Insula ' 

Gozelin the Breton 

Countess Judith 

Adeliza wife of H (ugh) de 



XXVI Robert de Todeni 
XXVII Gilbert de Gand 
XXVIII Robert de Olgi 

XXIX Ranulf brother of Ilger 
XXX Robert Fafiton 

XXXI Alvred of Lincoln 

Lv Azelina wife of R(alf) 

Talgeb (osc) 
Lvi Burgesses of Bedford 
* LVI The king's bailiffs [prefecti) 
and bedells and almsmen 


M. Lestone [Leighton Buzzard] a de- 
mesne manor of the king is now assessed {se 
defendit pro) at 47 hides. T.R.E. there were 
but 30 hides (there)/ Of these 47 hides 43 
are in the king's hands. There is land for 
52 ploughs. On the demesne are 6, and the 
villeins have 46. There are 4 score and 2 
villeins and 30 bordars and 2 serfs and 2 mills 
worth {de) 30 shillings, meadow (sufficient) 
for 40 plough teams and woodland (to feed) 100 
swine. The toll from the market yields 7 
pounds. In all it pays yearly 22 pounds of 
weighed money {ad pensum) and half a day's 
(provision for the) king's ' ferm ' in grain and 
honey and other things pertaining to the 
' ferm.' For the queen's use it pays 2 ounces 
of gold ; and for i packhorse and for customary 
payment for the dogs 70 shillings ; and 100 
shillings weighed money {ad pensum) and 40 
shillings of blanch {albo) silver which [hoc) Ivo 
Talliebosc imposed in addition {misit de cremen- 
to) ; and I ounce of gold for the use of the 
sheriff yearly. 

Of the land of this manor Wenesi^ the 
chamberlain held 10 hides of King Edward 
which Ralf Talliebosc added to {apposuit in) 
Lestone [Leighton], whereto they did not be- 
long T.R.E., and again the same Ralf added 
{apposuit) to this manor other 7 hides which 
were not in it T.R.E. These 7 hides Star- 
cher, a thegn of King Edward, held. 

The church of this manor Bishop Remigius 
holds, with 4 hides which belong to it. These 
4 hides are reckoned in the 47 hides of the 
manor. There is land for 3 ploughs (in them). 
On the demesne is I, and the villeins have i, 
and there could be another. There are 6 
villeins and 6 bordars and meadow (sufficient) 
for 3 plough teams. This land, with the 
church, is and was worth 4 pounds.^ Bishop 
Wlwi held it T.R.E. 

M. LoiTONE [Luton], a demesne manor of 

* Because 1 7 hides had been added, as explained 
lower down in the entiy. 

^ He had also held the manor of Turweston, 
Bucks (J.H.R.) 

* Compare the entry on p. 227 below. 

the king, is assessed at {se defendit pro) ^O hides. 
There is land for 4 score and 2 ploughs. On 
the demesne are 4 ploughs. The villeins 
have 4 score all but 2. There are 4 score 
villeins and 47 bordars, and 6 mills yielding 
100 shillings, meadow (sufficient) for 4 plough 
teams, woodland (to feed) 2,000 swine, and 
from dues (come) 10 shillings and 8 pence. 
From the toll and the market (come) 100 
shillings. In all it yields yearly 30 pounds of 
weighed money {ad pensum) and half a day's 
(provision for the king's ' ferm ') in grain and 
honey and other customary dues pertaining to 
the king's ' ferm ' : to the queen 4 ounces 
of gold, and for {de) a packhorse and other 
small dues 70 shillings, and for customary pay- 
ments for the dogs 6 pounds and 10 shillings; 
for the additional payment which Ivo Talle- 
bosc imposed {misit) 7 pounds weighed money 
{ad pensum) and 40 shillings of blanch {albit) 
silver, and i ounce of gold for the sheriff. 

The church of this manor is held by Wil- 
liam the king's chamberlain with 5 hides of 
land which belong to it.^ These 5 hides are 
part of {de) the 30 hides of the manor. There 
is land (in them) for 6 ploughs. On the de- 
mesne is I, and the villeins have 5. There 
are 1 1 villeins and 4 bordars and 3 serfs, and 
I mill worth 10 shillings. The church yields 
20 shillings yearly. There is woodland (to 
feed) 50 swine. In all it is and was worth 
60 shillings. This church with its land Morcar 
the priest held T.R.E.« 

fo. 209b 

M. HousTONE [Houghton (Regis)] a de- 
mesne manor of the king is assessed at 10 hides. 
There is land for 24 ploughs. On the de- 
mesne are 2 ploughs and the villeins have 22. 
There are 38 villeins and 12 bordars, meadow 
(sufficient) for 1 2 plough teams and woodland 
(to feed) ICO swine. In all it yields yearly 
10 pounds, weighed money {ad pensum), and 
supply of half a day's (provision of) grain and 
honey and other things pertaining to the king's 

* So the MS. 

^ See Introduction. 

* His lands at Potsgrove and Battlesden (see 
p. 252) had similarly passed to William the cham- 
berlain Q.H.R.) 



* ferm.' For (de) small dues and a packhorse, 6 5 
shillings ; and for customary payments for the 
dogs 65 shillings ; and for the queen 2 ounces 
of gold ; and for the additional payment {de 
tncremento)-which Ivo Tallebosc imposed (misit), 
3 pounds, weighed money, and 20 shillings 
of blanch {a/bo) silver ; and i ounce of gold 
for the sheriff. 

The church of this manor is held by Wil- 
liam the chamberlain with half a hide which 
belongs to it ; this is part of the 1 hides of 
the manor. There is land (in it) for a half 
plough, which is there. It is worth 12 shil- 
lings yearly. 

Sewelle [Sewell ^] was assessed at 3 hides 
T.R.E. There is land for 2 ploughs. A 
plough and a half plough are there and there 
could be another half plough. Meadow is 
there (sufficient) for 4 oxen. There are i vil- 
lein and 4 bordars. This land is and was 
worth 20 shillings. Walrave, a man of 
Queen Eddid, held it and could assign it {dare) 
to whom he wished. It belonged to Ode- 
croft hundred" (T.R.E.) ; but Ralf Taillebosc 
added it to {apposuit earn in) the manor of 
Houstone [Houghton] with King William's 
consent, for the sake of the additional payment 
{J)er crementum) which it gave to him.* So 
state the men of the same Ralf according to 
what they heard him say. 

Flictham [Flitt] Hundret 

BissoPEscoTE [Biscot *] was assessed at 5 
hides T.R.E. There is land for 5 ploughs. 
There are 2 ploughs on the demesne, and 10 
villeins have 3 ploughs. There are 3 serfs 
and meadow (sufficient) for 4 plough teams. 
In all {totis valentiis) it is worth 40 shillings ; 
when Ralf Taillebosc held it (was worth) the 
same amount ; T.R.E. 60 shillings. This 
manor Edwin, a man of Asgar, the staller, held 
and could do with it what he wished. Ralf 
Talliebosc added it to Loitone [Luton], the 
king's manor, for the sake of the additional 
payment {per crementum) which it gave him ; 
and separated it {firas misit) from the hundred 
in which it was assessed T.R.E. On the 
other hand he took other 5 hides from another 
hundred and placed them in Flictham Hun- 

* In Houghton Regis near Totternhoe. 

' It would seem that this Hundred is not else- 
where mentioned (J.H.R.) 

* But this might be read as implying that the 
king gave his consent in consideration of the 
increased rent (J.H.R.) 

* In Luton near Leagrave and Limbury. 


In THE Half Hundret of Stanburge 
[Stanbridge] " 

M. The Bishop of Bayeux holds Eitone 
[Eaton (Bray)].° It is assessed at 12 hides and 
I virgate. There is land for 20 ploughs. In the 
demesne are 2 hides and on it are 4 ploughs 
and there could be 2 more. The villeins have 
8 ploughs and there could be 6 more. There 
are 20 villeins and 13 bordars and 2 serfs, 
meadow (sufficient) for 6 plough teams, wood- 
land (to feed) 300 swine, and from it (come) 
1 2 pence (besides). In all {totis valentiis) it is 
worth 16 pounds. When received (it was 
worth) 20 pounds ; T.R.E. the same sum. 
This manor Alsi, a man of Queen Eddid, 
held and could assign and sell. 

In the Hundret of Manesheve 

Ansgot of Rovecestre [Rochester] holds i 
hide in Evreshot [Eversholt] of the Bishop of 
Bayeux's ice{fedo). There is land for 2 ploughs. 
One is there and there could be another. 
There are 4 villeins and i bordar, meadow 
(sufficient) for i plough team, and woodland (to 
feed) 50 swine. In all it is worth 20 shillings ; 
when received 20 shillings ; T.R.E. 40 shil- 
lings. This land T.R.E. 4 thegns held and 
could assign and sell. 

The same Ansgot holds of the same bishop 
in Mildentone [Milton (Bryant)] 4 hides. 
There is land for 4 ploughs. On the de- 
mesne is I plough and there could be another. 
The villeins have 2 ploughs. There are 4 
villeins and 3 bordars and 8 serfs, meadow 
(sufficient) for 4 plough teams, and woodland 
(to feed) 30 swine. In all it is worth, and was 
worth when received, 4 pounds ; T.R.E. 40 
shillings. This land 7 sokemen held and 
could assign and sell T.R.E. 

In the Hundret of Stodene [Stodden] 

Tovi the priest holds half a hide of the bishop 
inBoLEHESTRE [Bolnhurst]. There is land for 
I plough and it is there and i villein and i 
bordar, meadow (sufficient) for a half plough 
team and woodland (to feed) 30 swine. In 
all it is worth 10 shillings and (was worth) as 
much when received, T.R.E. 12 shillings. 
This land Azor a man of Bored held and 
could sell to whom he wished. 

In the same (vill) 2 sokemen hold of the 

" Now part of Manshead Hundred. 

* See note under 'Etone' on p. 234 below. 



bishop half a hide. There is land for i plough 
and it is there with 2 bordars. There is 
woodland (to feed) 4 swine. In all it is worth 
10 shillings and (was worth) the same when 
received; T.R.E. 12 shillings. The same 
men hold it now who held it T.R.E. They 
could assign or sell it. 

In the Half Hundret of Bochelai ^ 

Herbert son of Ivo holds of the bishop 3 
hides and 3 virgates in Stachedene [Stags- 
den]. There is land for 4 ploughs. There 
are now 3^ ploughs and there could be a halt 
plough more. There are 12 villeins and 7 
bordars, meadow (sufficient) for i plough team 
and woodland (to feed) 40 swine. In all it is 
worth 7 pounds, (was worth) when received 
9 pounds, T.R.E. I2 pounds. This land 12 
sokemen held. They were King Edward's 
men and could sell it. 

In the Hundret of Wilga [Willey] 

Two sokemen hold in Carlentone [Carl- 
ton] I hide and i virgate of Herbert son of 
Ivo and he of the bishop.* There is land for 
i^ ploughs and these are there, and meadow 
(sufficient) for i plough team. In all it is 
worth 26 shillings and 8 pence ; when re- 
ceived and T.R.E. (was worth) 30 shillings. 
This land the same men held who now hold 
it and they could assign and sell it. 

In ToRVEiE [Turvey] Wimund holds ot 
Herbert and he of the bishop i hide.* There 
is land for i plough and it is there, and mea- 
dow (sufficient) for a half plough team. In all 
it is worth 20 shillings ; when received, and 
T.R.E. (was worth) 40 shillings. This land 
a man of Alwold of Stivetone [Steventon] ' 
held and could sell. 

In the Hundret of Bereforde 

M. Herbert holds of the bishop, and his 
nephew Hugh holds of him,* 5 hides in Wil- 
DENE [Wilden]. There is land for 16 ploughs. 
On the demesne there are now none ; there 
could be 3. The villeins have 10 ploughs 
and there could be 3 more. There are 20 

' Now part of Willey Hundred. 

* These exceptional cases of an under-tenant 
having under-tenants himself should be noted 

^ The previous holder of Steventon is recorded 
below as ' Adeloldus teignus R.E.,' but this Tur- 
vey entry suggests that he may have been the 
' Alwoldus ' who was the tenant of the other 
manors which had passed, with Steventon, to 
Count Eustace (J.H.R.) 

sokemen and 1 2 bordars and i serf ; meadow 
(sufficient) for 6 plough teams, woodland (to 
feed) 6 swine. In all it is worth 9 pounds ; 
when received 12 pounds; T.R.E. 20 pounds. 
This manor 24 sokemen held and could assign 
and sell their lands to whom they wished. 


In Stoden [Stodden] Hundret 

M. The Bishop of Coutances holds Cheno- 
tinga [Knotting]. It is assessed at 5 hides. 
There is land for 5 ploughs. In the demesne 
are 3 hides, and on it are 2 ploughs. The 
villeins have 3 ploughs. There are 8 villeins 
and 5 bordars and 4 serfs, meadow (sufficient) 
for 2 plough teams and woodland (to feed) 
400 swine. It is worth 4 pounds ; when re- 
ceived, (was worth) 3 pounds ; and as much 
T.R.E. This manor Burret held T.R.E. 

M. The bishop himself holds Melceburne 
[Melchbourne]. It is assessed at 10 hides. 
There is land for i o ploughs. In the demesne 
are 3 hides, and on it are 3 ploughs. The vil- 
leins have 7 ploughs. There are 13 villeins 
and 1 5 bordars and 3 serfs, meadow (sufficient) 
for [ ] plough teams, and woodland (to feed) 
100 swine. It is worth 8 pounds, when re- 
ceived (was worth) 100 shillings, T.R.E. 6 
pounds. This manor Burret held and there 
were 6 sokemen there. They could assign 
and sell their land without (his) leave. 

M. The bishop himself holds in Dena 
[Dean] 4 hides. There is land for [ ] 

and they are there. There are 6 sokemen and 
6 bordars and 2 serfs. It is worth 60 shil- 
lings ; when received (it was worth) the same 
sum ; T.R.E. 40 shillings. This manor 6 

fo. aio 

sokemen held. They were men of Borret. 
Three hides and a half which were of the 
king's soke they could assign and sell and put 
with themselves under another lord {ad alterum 
dominum recedere) without leave of Borred. 
Half a hide however they could not assign nor 
sell without his leave. 

M. GeoflFrey de Traillgi* holds of the 
Bishop of Coutances Giveldene [Yelden]. 
It is assessed at i O hides. There is land for i $ 
ploughs. On the demesne are 4 ploughs and 
the villeins have 1 1 . There are 1 7 villeins 
and I knight [miles) and 1 2 bordars and i serf, 
meadow (sufficient) for 4 plough teams and 
woodland (to feed) 20 swine. In all {totis 

* See Introduction. 



valent'tis) it is worth 9 pounds ; when received 
(was worth) 100 shillings ; T.R.E. 8 pounds. 
This manor Borred held and in it were 5 
sokemen who held 5 hides of this land and 
could assign or sell (them) to whom they 

M. Of the bishop himself William his 
steward {dapifer) holds Eseltone [Shelton]. It 
is assessed at 5 hides. There is land for 6 
ploughs. On the demesne are 2 ploughs and 
the villeins have 4. There are 14 (villeins ?) 
and 5 bordars and 3 serfe, and i mill (worth) 
3 shillings, meadow (sufficient) for 1 plough 
team, and woodland (to feed) 4 swine. It is' 
worth 100 shillings ; when received, (was 
worth) 60 shillings ; T.R.E. 4 pounds. This 
manor Ulveva held under Borret. She could 
not assign nor sell (it) without his leave. 

In EsTONE [Easton ^] 4 sokemen hold of 
the Bishop of Coutances 3 virgates of land. 
There is land for i plough and it is there. This 
land is and was worth lo shillings ; T.R.E. 5 
shillings. The same men who hold it held 
it (T.R.E.). They were men of Burred and 
could assign (it) to whom they wished. In 
these 3 virgates the bishop claims against 
Sigard de Cioches 20 acres of woodland which 
belonged to them [ibi jacuerunt) T.R.E. and 
this the men of the hundred (court) attest. 

M. In RisELAi [Riseley] 2 Frenchmen 
and 6 Englishmen hold of the bishop 6 hides. 
There is land for 7 ploughs and they are 
there. There are 6 villeins and 7 bordars 
and I serf, meadow sufficient for 3 plough 
teams, and woodland to feed 200 swine. It 
is worth 72 shillings ; when received, (was 
wort}i)the same ; T.R.E. 100 shillings. Of 
this land Burred held 2 hides in demesne, and 
6 sokemen, his men, held 4 hides, which they 
could assign and sell just as they wished {uhi 

In BuLEHESTRE [Bolnhurst] the same bishop 
holds 3 virgates of land in exchange for 
{pro excambio de) Bledone [Bleadon].^ There 
is land for i\ ploughs, and these are there. 
One villein is there and 4 bordars, and 
meadow (sufficient) for i plough team and 
woodland (to feed) 20 swine. It is worth 
15 shillings ; when received (was worth) the 

* Co. Hunts (see Introduction). 

2 A Buckinghamshire estate of the bishop (fo. 
145b) is described with more exactness as ' de 
excambio pro Bledone.' Each of these estates 
was alleged to form part of lands given to the 
bishop in exchange for Bleadon, Somerset (J.H.R.) 

same ; T.R.E. 20 shillings. This land Gud- 
munt, a man of King Edward, held and 
could sell to whom he wished. 

In Newentone [Newton Broomshold] 
the bishop's steward {dapifer) William holds 
of him I virgate.^ It is and was worth 1 2 
pence ; T.R.E. 16 pence. This land Alwin, 
a man of Borred, held ; he could not assign 
or sell it without his leave. 

M. In the Hundret of Wilga [Willey] 

Geoffrey de Tralgi holds of the bishop 4 
hides.* There is land for 5 ploughs. On the 
demesne are 2 and the villeins have 3. There 
are 14 villeins and 5 bordars and 4 serfs, and 
meadow (sufficient) for 4 plough teams. It 
is and was worth 100 shillings. This manor 
Turbert, a man of King Edward, held and 
could sell. This land the bishop holds in 
exchange for {pro excambio de) Bledone [Blea- 
don °]. So his men say. 

M. In ToRNAi ' [Turvey] the same bishop 
holds 4 hides. There is land for 6 ploughs. 
In the demesne are 2 hides, on it 3 ploughs. 
There 3 villeins have 3 ploughs and (there 
are) 8 bordars and i serf and 1 mill (worth) 
20 shillings, meadow (sufficient) for 2 plough 
teams and woodland (to feed) 40 swine. It 
is worth 6 pounds ; when received was worth 
40 shillings, T.R.E. 6 pounds. This manor 
3 sokemen, men of King Edward, held and 
could assign and sell. This land the bishop 
has in exchange for {pro excambio de) Bledone 
[Bleadon^], as his men say. 

In Henewic [Hinwick '] Turstan holds of 
the bishop i^ hides. There is land for 2 
ploughs. On the demesne is I , and 3 villeins 
have I plough and (? there is) I bordar. It is 
worth 20 shillings. 

In Sernebroc [Sharnbrook] a certain 

^ The rest of Newton Broomshold (2 hides less 
half a virgate) is surveyed under Northants, and 
was held of the Bishop of Coutances by 'William' 

* In the later Hundred of Willey, Biddenham, 
Chellington, and Hinwick are all associated with 
Trailli {Testa de Nevill, p. Z4.8 ; Feudal Aids, i. 
iz). But as Biddenham was in ' Buchelai ' Half 
Hundred at the time of Domesday, these 4 hides 
were probably in Chellington, which is not men- 
tioned by name in the Survey. Mr. Airy, how- 
ever, I find considered them to represent Souldrop, 
but he was not guided by feudal evidence (J.H.R.) 

* See note 2 above. 
^ i.e. Toruai. 

■^ In Puddington alias Podington. 




Englishman, Turgis, holds of the bishop half 
a hide. There is land for i plough and it is 
there and i villein, and meadow (sufficient) 
for I plough team. It is worth 6 shillings ; 
when received (was worth) 3 shillings ; T.R.E. 
15 shillings. This land Alwin, a man of 
Borret, held and could assign to whom he 

In the same vill 7 sokemen hold of the 
bishop 3 hides. There is land for 3 ploughs 
and they are there and woodland (to feed) 
24 swine. It is worth 24 shillings ; when 
received (was worth) the same ; T,R.E, 60 
shillings. The same men held it T.R.E, 
They were men of Borred and could assign 
or sell it without his leave. 

In the same (vill) Humphrey holds of the 
bishop half a hide. There is land for i plough 
and it is there, and 2 bordars, and woodland 
(to feed) 30 swine. It is worth 6 shillings ; 
(was worth) when received i o shillings ; 
T,R.E, 20 shiUings, This land Alvric, a 
man of Borred, held and could sell to whom 
he wished. 

In the same (vill) the bishop holds half a 
hide. There is land for 6 oxen,' There 
are 4 bordars. It is worth 3 shillings ; was 
worth as much when received ; T.R,E. 5 
shillings. This land Borred, a thegn of 
King Edward, held and could do (with it) 
what he wished. 

In RisEDENE [Rushden''] Alwold holds of 
the bishop half a hide. There is land for 
6 oxen. There is a half plough, and there 
is meadow (sufficient) for 6 oxen. It is 
worth 5 shillings ; was worth as much when 
received ; T.R.E, 10 shillings. This land 
Alvric held ; he was a man of Borred, and 
could sell to whom he wished. 


In Stodene [Stodden] Hundret 

Bishop Remigius holds in Dene [Dean] 2 
hides and half a virgate, and Godfrey holds it 
of him. There is land for 3^ ploughs. On 
the demesne are 2 ploughs and the villeins 
have i^. 

There are 8 bordars and 2 serfs 

' i.e. three-quarters of a plough-team. 

^ Partly in Northamptonshire. The bishop 
was claiming 6 hides of Rushden (' Risdene ') in 
Northants against William Peverel on the ground 
that they had been held by sokemen of (his pre- 
decessor) Borred. See the Victoria History of 
Northants, vol. i. (J.H.R.) 

and meadow (sufficient for) i plough team. 
It is worth 40 shillings ; when received (was 
worth) 30 shillings ; and as much T.R.E, 
This land Godric, a thegn of King Edward, 
held, and he could do what he wished with 
his land. 

In EsTONE [Easton^] William de Caron 
holds I hide and half a virgate of the bishop. 
There is land for i plough and it is there, 
and I bordar and 3 serfs, and meadow (suffi- 
cient) for I plough team, and woodland (to 
feed) 100 swine. It is worth 15 shillings; 
when received (was worth) 10 shillings; and 
as much T.R.E. This land Alwin Deule,* 
a man of the Bishop of Lincoln, held and 
could do with it what he wished. The soke 
however was always the bishop's. In this 
land belonging to the bishop's fee {episcopatus) 
William de Caron lays claim to 60 acres, 
field and woodland {jnter planum et silvam) 
against Hugh de Beauchamp,^ of which 
Ralf Taillebosc disseised the father of the 
same William who held this same land 
T.R.E., as the men of the hundred (court) 

In RiSELAi [Riseley] Godfrey holds i 
hide of the bishop. There is land for i 
plough, and it is there. One villein is there 
and I bordar, meadow (sufficient) for a half 
plough team and woodland (to feed) 20 swine. 
It is and was worth 10 shillings ; T,R.E. 20 
shillings. This land Godric, a thegn of King 
Edward, held and could do (with it) what he 

In the Half Hundret of Buchelai" 

Ernuin the priest holds of Bishop Remigius 

1 hide and i virgate in Bideham [Bidden- 
ham]. There is land for i plough, and it is 
there. One villein is there, and i mill yield- 
ing 25 shillings yearly, and meadow (sufficient) 
for I plough team. It is and was worth 40 
shillings. This land Levric, a man of the 
Bishop of Lincoln, held, but he could not 
assign or sell (it) without his leave. 

In the Hundret of Bereforde [Barford] 

Ivo Tallebosc holds of the bishop half a 
hide in Goldentone [Goldington], There 
is land for a half plough, and it is there with 

2 villeins. There is meadow (sufficient) for 

^ Co. Hunts (see Introduction). 

* Interlined. See page 227, note 2, below. 

^ As successor to Ralf Tallebosc (J.H.R.) 
® Now part of Willey Hundred. 



a half plough team. It is and was worth 6 
shillings. Alwin Sac,' a man of the Bishop 
of Lincoln, held it and could do with it what 
he wished. 

In the Hundret of Bichelesworde 

William de Caron holds of Bishop R. in 
Tamiseforde [Tempsford] i hide and i vir- 
gate and 3 quarters {partes) of i virgate. 
There is land for 2 ploughs and there is i 
villein. Meadow is there (sufficient) for i 
plough team, and 2 mills worth [de) 40 shil- 
lings, and 120 eels. It is worth 60 shillings ; 
when received (was worth) 40 shillings ; 
T.R.E. 100 shillings. Alwin Deule^ held 
it. He was the king's man and could do 
with it what he wished. 

u. 2I0b 

In the Hundret of Cliftone' [Clifton] 

William de Caron holds of Bishop R. 3 
hides and half a virgate in Cliftone [Clifton]. 
There is land for 2 ploughs. One is there, 
and there could be another. There are 3 
villeins and 2 serfs and meadow (sufficient) 
for 2 plough teams. It is worth 20 shillings, 
and (was worth) as much when received ; 
T.R.E. 4 pounds. This land Alwin Deule,^ 
a man of King Edward, held and could 
assign to whom he would [quo voluit). 

In Chichesane [Chicksand] the same 
William holds of the same bishop half a hide. 
There is land for a half plough. It is and 
was worth 12 pence ; T.R.E. 2 shillings. 
Alwin Deule' held it and could assign it to 
whom he would. 

The church of Bedeford [Bedford] with 
its endowments (adjacentibus) is worth 100 

The church of Lestone [Leighton] is 
worth 4 pounds.* These Bishop Remigius 


Bicheleswade [Biggleswade] Hundret 

The Bishop of Durham holds of the king 
in Melehou [Millow] 4|- hides. There is 
land for 4 ploughs. In the demesne are 3-5^ 
hides, and on it is i plough and there could 

* Interlined. 

^ He had held also at two places in Hunting- 
donshire Q.H.R.) 
' MS. has Clistone. 

* See details of its endowment on p. 222 above. 

be another. The villeins have 2, There 
are 4 villeins and i serf. It is worth' 40 
shillings ; was worth as much when received ; 
T.R.E. 60 shillings. This land KingEdw(ard) 
gave to the church of the Holy Cross of 
Waltham* — so the men of the hundred (court) 

In the Hundret of Cliftone [Clifton] 

The same bishop holds 8 hides in Alricesei 
[Arlesey] and 2 thirds {partes) of i virgate. 
There is land for 8 ploughs. On the 
demesne are 3 ploughs, and 8 villeins have 
4, and there could be a 5 th. There are 5 
bordars and 2 serfs, and 2 mills worth 26 
shillings and 8 pence, and meadow (sufficient) 
for 3 plough teams. It is and was worth 7 
pounds ; T.R.E. 8 pounds. This manor 
the canons of the Holy Cross of Waltham^ 
held in almoin T.R.E. 


In the Half Hundret of Bocheleia ' 

Abbot Balduin of St. Edmunds has in 
Bidenham [Biddenham] half a hide, and 
Ordui of Bedeford [Bedford] '' holds under him. 
There is land for a half plough and it is there, 
and there are 2 serfs and meadow (sufficient) 
for a half plough team. It is and was worth 
6 shillings. This land Ulmar, a priest of 
King Edward,^ held. He could assign it to 
whom he wished, but Ordui when he was 
reeve {prepositus) of the borough took it from 
him as forfeiture for something {pro quadam 
forisfactura), and now he says he holds (it) of 
the abbot of St. Edmund, but the men of 
the hundred (court) say that this was unjustly 
taking possession {quia injuste earn occupavit). 

In the Hundret of Bicheleswade 

The same abbot of St. Edmund holds 
Chenemondewiche [ ].° It is 

assessed at 3 hides and 3 virgates. There is 
land for 4 ploughs. In the demesne are i 
hide and 3 virgates, and on it are 2 ploughs, 
and 6 villeins have 2 ploughs and i mill worth 
13 shillings and 4 pence. There is meadow 

° Waltham Abbey, Essex (see Introduction). 

° Now part of Willey Hundred. 

' He appears among the burgesses of Bedford 
at the close of the county survey (p. 264 ) as hold- 
ing other land here of the king (J.H.R.) 

^ This was probably the same 'Ulmar' the 
priest who had a small estate at Streatley (J.H.R.) 

» ? Kendals in Wrestlingworth (F.W.R.) But 
see Introduction for this difficult locality (J.H.R.) 



(sufficient) for i plough team. It is worth 
60 shillings ; (was worth) when received 30 
shillings ; T.R.E. 4 pounds. This land 2 
sokemen held and could assign to whom they 
wished. This land Earl Wallef and his 
wife gave to St. Edmund in almoin T.R.W. 

In the Hundret of Wichestanestou 

The same abbot holds 4 hides and i vir- 
gate in Blunham [Blunham] of the king. 
There is land for 4 ploughs. In the demesne 
are 2 hides and 3 virgates and on it are 2 
ploughs. There 8 villeins have 2 ploughs, 
and there are 5 bordars and i serf and i mill 
worth 20 shillings, and meadow (sufficient) 
for 4 plough teams. It is worth 4 pounds ; 
when received (was worth) 70 shillings ; 
T.R.E. 6 pounds. This land 4 sokemen 
held and could assign or sell to whom they 


In Stodene [Stodden] Hundret 

The abbot of Burg [Peterborough] holds 
Stanewica [Stanwick^]. It is assessed at 
2^ hides. There is land for 2^ ploughs. 
One plough is there ; another and a half 
plough could be added. There are 2 villeins 
and 2 bordars, and meadow (sufficient) for 2 
plough teams. It is worth 30 shillings ; (was 
worth) when received 50 shillings ; T.R.E. 
40 shillings. This manor St. Peter of Burg 
held T.R.E. 


In Radeburnesoca [Redbornestoke] 

M. The abbot of St. Benedict of Ramesy 
[Ramsey] holds Cranfelle [Cranfield]. It is 
assessed at 10 hides. There is land for 12 
ploughs. In the demesne are 2 hides, and on 
it are 2 ploughs. There 18 villeins have 10 
ploughs. There are 2 bordars and 5 serfs, 
and meadow (sufficient) for 2 plough teams, 
and woodland (to feed) 1,000 swine and 
(rendering) iron for (the) ploughs.* In all 

» Waltheof. 

' This heading, having been omitted, has been 
inserted in the margin (J.H.R.) 

^ Now all in Northamptonshire. The rest of 
Stan wick (l hide and I virgate) is surveyed under 
that county, and was similarly held by the abbot 
of Peterborough (J.H.R.) 

* This phrase is explained by a Buckingham- 

it is worth 9 pounds ; when received (was 
worth) a like amount ; T.R.E. 12 pounds. 
This manor belonged and belongs to {jacuit et 
jacet in) the church of St. Benedict. 

In Flictham [Flitt] Hundret 

M. The same abbot holds Bertone [Bar- 
ton in the Clay]. It is assessed at 11 hides. 
There is land for 1 2 ploughs. In the demesne 
are 3 hides, and on it are 2 ploughs and there 
could be a third, and 20 villeins have 9 
ploughs. There are 7 bordars and 6 serfs and 

1 mill (worth) 2 shillings, meadow (sufficient) 
for 6 plough teams, and woodland (to feed) 
200 swine. In all it is worth 10 pounds ; (was 
worth) as much when received; T.R.E. 12 
pounds. This manor has, T.R.E. and since, 
belonged to {jacuit semper in) the church of St. 

With this manor the abbot claims against 
{redamat super) Nigel de Albini ^ and Walter 
the Fleming (Flamens') 12 acres of meadow 
which belonged to it {ibi jacuerunt) T.R.E. 
but John de Roches dispossessed him of it 
unjustly. The hundred (court) attests this. 

M. The abbot himself holds Pechesdone 
[Pegsdon].° It is assessed at 10 hides. There 
is land for 14 ploughs. In the demesne are 

2 hides, and on it are 2 ploughs and there 
could be a third. And 37 villeins have 11 
ploughs. There are 7 bordars and 5 serfs, 
and 2 mills worth [de) 27 shillings and 8 
pence, meadow (sufficient) for 3 plough teams 
and woodland (to feed) 60 swine. It is 
worth I o pounds ; (was worth) as much when 
received ; T.R.E. 12 pounds. This manor 
belonged and belongs to {jacuit et jacet in) the 
demesne of the church of St. Benedict. 

In Bereford [Barford] Hundret 

In WiBOLDESTONE [Wyboston]' Eudo Dapi- 
fer' holds I ^ virgates under the abbot of Ram- 
esy. It is waste, but yet worth 16 pence. 
This land belonged to (fuit in) the church of 
St. Benedict T.R.E. 

shire entry (fo. 146), which runs: 'Silva mille 
porcis et de redditu silvse ferra car' sufficienter.' 
In addition to providing feed for pigs the wood- 
land in such cases appears to have paid a rent in 
ploughshares or other iron for the 'ploughs.' 
There are some other instances in Bucks and 
another instance in Beds itself (J.H.R.) 

^ He held land in the adjoining parish of 
Streatley (J.H.R.) 

" In Shillington. 

'' In Eaton Socon. 

* He held Eaton Socon and part of Wyboston 



In Bicheleswade [Biggleswade] Hundret 

M. In Bereforde [(Little) Barford] Eudo 
Dapifer holds 5 hides of the abbot's fee, and 
Osbern holds of him. There is land for 5 
ploughs. On the demesne is i plough and 9 
villeins have 4. There are 4 bordars and 3 
serfs, and i mill (worth) 12 shiUings and 125 
eels, and meadow (sufficient) for 2 plough 
teams. It is worth 4 pounds ; when received 
(was worth) 3 pounds ; T.R.E. 4 pounds. 
This manor the abbot of St. Benedict holds 
and it belonged to St. Benedict {^fuit ibt) in 
almoin T.R.E. 

In Clistone [Clifton] Hundret 

In Clistone [Clifton] Lewin holds i 
hide under the abbot. There is land for a 
half plough and it is there and meadow (suffi- 
cient) for a half plough team. It is and was 
worth I o shillings ; T.R.E. 20 shillings. The 
same man held it then, but could not alienate 
it from the church {ab ecclesia separare non potuit). 

M. The abbot himself holds Sethlindone 
[Shillington]. It is assessed at 10 hides. 
There is land for 1 4 ploughs. In the demesne 
are 2 hides, and on it are 2 ploughs, and 27 
villeins have 12 ploughs. There are 5 bor- 
dars and 4 serfs, and a broken (down) mill 
which yields nothing, meadow (sufficient) for 
6 plough teams, and woodland (to feed) 100 
swine. It is worth 1 2 pounds, and was worth 
as much T.R.E. and after {semper). This 
manor belonged to {j'acuit in) the church of 
St. Benedict T.R.E. 

M. The abbot himself holds Holewelle 
[Holwell] for 3^ hides. There is land for 4 
ploughs. In the demesne is i hide, and on it 
is I plough, and 8 villeins have 3 ploughs, and 
(there are) i bordar and 2 serfs and meadow 
(sufficient) for i plough team. It is worth 
4 pounds and was worth as much T.R.E. and 
after {semper). This manor belonged and 
belongs to {j'acuit et jacet in) the demesne of 
the church of St. Benedict. 

In Standone [Stondon] the same abbot 
holds half a hide. There is land for a half 
plough and it is there. This land belongs 
and belonged to {jacuit et jacet in) the demesne 
of the church of St. Benedict. It is worth 
1 5 shillings. 

fo. 211. 

In Clistone [Clifton] Hundret 
M. The abbot of Westmonasterium [West- 

minster] holds 6\ hides in Holewella [Hol- 
well]. There is land for 6 ploughs. In the 
demesne are 3 hides and half a virgate and on it 
are 2 ploughs, and 1 1 villeins have 4 ploughs. 
There are 4 bordars and 3 serfs, and 2 mills 
(worth) 20 shillings, and meadow (sufficient) 
for I plough team. It is and was worth 100 
shillings. This manor belonged and belongs 
to {jacuit et jacet in) the demesne of the 
church of S. Peter. 


M. The abbot of Torny [Thorney] holds 
2 hides and i virgate of land in Bolehestre 
[Bolnhurst].*^ There is land for 5 ploughs. 
In the demesne is i carucate of land besides 
{extra) ^ the 2 hides and (i) virgate, and on it 
is I plough, and 9 villeins have 5 ploughs. 
There are 5 bordars, meadow (sufficient) for i 
plough team, and woodland (to feed) 106 
swine. It is worth 60 shillings ; when re- 
ceived 40 shillings ; T.R.E. 6 pounds. This 
manor iElfleda held of King Edward. She 
could assign (it) to whom she wished. It be- 
longed to {jacuit in) the church {monasterio) 
of Torni [Thorney] on the day on which 
King Edward was living and died. This the 
men of the hundred (court) attest. 


In Radbernestoch' [Radbornestoke] 

The abbess of Berchinges [Barking] holds 
Litincletone [Lidlington]. It is assessed at 
lo hides. There is land for 1 1 ploughs. In the 
demesne are 2 hides, and on it are 2 ploughs ; 
there could be a third ; and 23 villeins have 8 
ploughs. There are 16 bordars and 7 serfs, 
meadow (sufficient) for 8 plough teams, and 
woodland (to feed) 400 swine. It is worth 8 
pounds ; (was worth) as much when received, 
and T.R.E. 12 pounds. This manor be- 
longed and belongs to {jacuit et jacet in) the 
demesne of the church of St. Mary of Ber- 


In Flictham [Flitt] Hundret 
M. The canons of St. Paul of London 

1 In Stodden Hundred. 

* This is the ' inland,' or land not assessed for 
geld, found as demesne in some counties (J.H.R.) 



hold Cadendone [Caddington].' It is assessed 
at 5 hides. There is land for 6 ploughs. In 
the demesne are 2 hides, and on it are 2 ploughs 
and there could be 4 more. There are i 
villein and 4 bordars and 2 serfs and wood- 
land (to feed) 200 swine. It is worth 40 
shillings; (was worth) when received 10 shil- 
lings; T.R.E. 100 shillings. This manor 
Lewin Cilt ^ held T.R.E. The canons have 
the king's writ in which is contained {habetur) 
that he gave this manor to the church of St. 


In the Half Hundret of Buchelai* 

Osmund, canon of St. Paul of Bedeford 
[Bedford], holds in Bideham [Biddenham] of 
the king 3 virgates. There is land for i 
plough, and it is there, and I villein and i 
bordar, and meadow (sufficient) for i plough 
team. It is and was worth 10 shillings. This 
land Leviet the priest held in almoin of King 
Edward and afterwards of King William, 
which priest at death gave to the church of 
St. Paul I virgate of this land. Ralf Tallge- 
bosc added (the) two other virgates to the 
same church in almoin. 

In the same (vill) Ansfrid the canon holds I 
virgate. There is land for 2 oxen ° (to plough) 
and they are there, and meadow (sufficient) for 
2 oxen. It is and was worth 3 shillings. 
This land Marwen held (and) could sell to 
whom she^ wished. This land Ralf Tallebosc 
assigned {apposuit) in almoin to the church of 
St. Paul. 

and woodland (to feed) 4 swine. It is worth 
I o shillings ; (was worth) when received 5 shil- 
lings ; T.R.E. 10 shillings. This land the 
father of the aforesaid man held. He was a 
man of King Edward. Ernuin {iste) cannot 
prove livery or show writ [non habet lihera- 
torem nee breve), but he took possession of 
this land to the king's hurt [super regem), 
as the hundred (court) attests. 


In the Half Hundret of Bochelai^ 
Count Eustace holds in Bruneham [Brom- 
ham] i\ hides. Ernulf de Arde® holds of 
him. There is land for i^ ploughs. A half 
plough is there and there could be a plough 
(besides). There is meadow (sufficient) for 
i^ plough teams. It is worth 10 shillings, 
(was worth) when received 20 shillings, and as 
much T.R.E. This land Alwold and Levric 
men of King Edward held and could assign 
and sell to whom they wished. 

M. In Stiventone [Stevington] the same 
Ernulf holds of the same count 3 hides. 
There is land for 24 ploughs. On the 
demesne is i plough and there could be 3 
(more). And 10 villeins have 5 ploughs and 
there could be 15 more. There are 11 bor- 
dars and 2 serfs, meadow (sufficient) for 4 
plough teams and woodland (to feed) 20 
swine. In all [totis valentiis) it is worth 14 
pounds, (was worth) when received 20 pounds ; 
T.R.E. 30 pounds. This manor Adelold,^" a 
thegn of King Edward, held and could sell to 
whom he wished. 


In Wichestanestou [Wixamtree] 

Ernuin the priest holds i hide in Hergh- 
etone [Harrowden']. There is land for i 
plough and there is a half plough there, 
meadow (sufficient) for a half plough team, 

1 Another portion (10 hides) of Caddington 
lay in Hertfordshire and had similarly belonged 
to Lewin (Cilt) before the Conquest and be- 
come the property of St. Paul's before 1086 

^ Interlined. 

' Compare the Bedford entry at the opening of 
the survey (J.H.R.) 

* Now part of Willey Hundred. 

^ i.e. a quarter of a plough-team. 

" Marwen is probably a female name (J.H.R.) 

' In Eastcotts. 

In Stachedene [Stagsden] an Englishman, 
Godwi, holds I virgate of Count Eustace. 
There is land for a half plough, and i ox 
ploughs there.** This land is worth 2 shil- 
lings ; when received (was worth) 5 shillings ; 
T.R.E. 10 shillings, 

M. In Pabeneham [Pavenham] Ernulf de 
Arde^ holds 2\ hides. There is land for 3 
ploughs, but they are not there. There is i 
mill (worth) 20 shillings. There are 2 bor- 
dars and meadow (sufficient) for 3 plough 
teams. It is worth 25 shillings ; when re- 
ceived (was worth) 40 shillings ; T.R.E. 4 
pounds. This manor Alwold, a thegn of 
King Edward, held. 

8 Now part of Willey Hundred. 

* See Introduction, p. 202. 
1° See p. 224, note 3. 

** i.e. there was land for 4 oxen to plough, but 
only I ox was there (J.H.R.) 



In Wilge [Willey] Hundret 

Ernulf de Arde holds in Torveie [Turvey] 
of Count Eustace i hide. There is land for 
2 ploughs. On the demesne is i and there 
could be another. There are i villein and i 
bordar and meadow (sufficient) for i plough 
team. It is worth lo shillings, (was worth) 
when received 20 shillings, and as much 
T.R.E./ This land Alwold, a thegn of King 
Edward, held and could assign to whom he 

In Wadelle [Odell] Ernulf de Arde holds 
4^ hides and the third part of i virgate as i 
manor of Count Eustace. There is i plough 
on the demesne and there could be another 
and 3 villeins have 2 ploughs and there could 
be a third. There are 7 bordars and 2 serfs, 
meadow (sufficient) for 3 plough teams and 
woodland (to feed) 50 swine. It is worth 60 
shillings ; when received (was worth) 100 shil- 
lings ; T.R.E. 8 pounds. This land Alwold, 
a thegn of King Edward, held and could 
sell to whom he wished. 

In Serneburg [Sharnbrook] Robert son of 
Rozelin holds of Count Eustace 2 hides. 
There is land for 4 ploughs. On the demesne 
are 2 ploughs ; and 4 villeins have 2. There 
are 3 bordars and 4 serfs, meadow (sufficient) 
for 2 plough teams and woodland (to feed) 60 
swine. It is worth 40 shillings, (was worth) 
as much when received ; T.R.E. 4 pounds. 
This land Alwold, a man of King Edward, 
held and covild sell. 


In Manesheve [Manshead] Hundret 

M. Walter Gifard holds Woburne [Wo- 
burn]. It is assessed at 10 hides. There is 
land for 24 ploughs. Hugh de Bolebec ' holds 
of him. On the demesne are 2 ploughs and 
there could be other two. There 8 villeins 
have 6 ploughs and there could be 14 more. 
There are 7 bordars and 4 serfs, meadow 
(sufficient) for 6 plough teams, and woodland 
(to feed) 100 swine. It is worth 100 shil- 
lings ; (was worth) when received 1 2 pounds ; 
T.R.E. 15 pounds. This manor Alric, a 
thegn of King Edward, held, and in this 
manor were 6 sokemen ; they held 2 hides of 
this land and could do what they wished 

M. In Badelesdone [Battlesden] Richard 
' See Introduction. 

Talebot holds 9 hides of Walter Gifard." 
There is land for 8 ploughs. On the demesne 
are 2 ploughs and there could be a third. 

fo. 2izb 

There 7 villeins have 5 ploughs. There are 
10 bordars and meadow (sufficient) for 8 
plough teams. It is worth 1 00 shillings ; (was 
worth) as much when received ; T.R.E. 8 
pounds. This manor 7 sokemen held T.R.E. 
and could do what they wished with (de) their 

In Radborgestoc [Redbornestoke] 

In Merestone [Marston (Morteyne)] Hugh 
de Bolebec ^ holds of Walter Gifard 2 hides all 
but half a virgate. There is land for 3 
ploughs. On the demesne is i plough and 6 
villeins have 2 ploughs. There are 5 bordars, 
and meadow (sufficient) for 3 plough teams, and 
woodland (to feed) 300 swine. It is worth 
50 shillings ; (was worth) when received 20 
shillings ; T.R.E. 4 pounds. This land 2 
thegns held T.R.E. and could assign to whom 
they wished. In regard to this land Erfast a 
man of Nigel de Albingi ' claims a half of an 
enclosure {dimidiam sepem) which belonged to 
the manor of Erfast's predecessor, as the men 
of the hundret (court) attest. 

M. In Meldone [Maulden] Hugh Bolebec* 
holds of the same Walter 3 hides. There is 
land for 4 ploughs. On the demesne are 2 
ploughs and 5 villeins have 2. Meadow is 
there (sufficient) for 4 plough teams, woodland 
(to feed) 50 swine. It is worth 50 shillings ; 
(was worth) as much when received ; T.R.E. 
4 pounds. This manor Alwin brother of 
Bishop Wlui held and could assign to whom 
he wished. 

In Bicheleswade [Biggleswade] Hundret 

In Domtone* [Dunton] Ralf de Langetot ° 
holds of Walter Gifard i hide and 3 virgates. 
There is land for 2 ploughs and they are there 
and 4 villeins and 2 bordars. It is worth 33 
shillings and 4 pence and was worth as much 
T.R.E. and after {semper). This land 4 soke- 

" A Richard Talbot is returned as holding two 
knights' fees on the GifFard fief in 1 166 (J.H.R.) 

' He held of Nigel the rest of Marston, viz. 
8 hides and half a virgate (J.H.R.) 

* ' Bolebec ' is interlined. 

^ Probably a scribal error for 'Donitone' 


" He also held under Walter GiiFard in Suffolk 



men held and could sell their land. They 
were Archbishop Stigand's men. 

M. In Melehou [Millow] the same {ipse) 
Ralf holds of the same Walter 5 hides. There 
is land for 5 ploughs and they are there, and 8 
villeins and 4 bordars. It is and was worth 
100 shillings T.R.E. and after {semper). This 
manor 10 sokemen held and could assign or 
sell their land to whom they wished. 

In Stratone [Stratton*] Fulcher of Paris 
{Parisiacus^) holds of Walter Gifard i hide and 
i^ virgates. There is land for 2 ploughs. 
On the demesne is i plough and i villein is 
there and 5 bordars with i plough, and 
meadow (sufficient) for 2 plough teams. It 
is worth 28 shillings ; (was worth) as much 
when received ; T.R.E. 30 shillings. This 
land 3 sokemen held and could assign or sell 
to whom they wished. 

M. InCuDEssANE^ [Chicksand*] Germund 
holds of Ralf Langetot ^ 3^ hides as i manor. 
There is land for 3 ploughs. On the de- 
mesne is I ; and i villein and 3 bordars (are 
there) with 2 ploughs and (there is) i serf. 
Meadow is there (sufficient) for 3 plough teams 
and woodland (to feed) 40 swine. It is worth 
40 shillings; (was worth) when received 20 
shiUings ; T.R.E. 60 shillings. There could 
be I mill there. This manor 4 sokemen held 
and could assign and sell. 

M. In Chambeltone ' [Campton] Ralf de 
Langetot ° holds of Walter Gifard 4^ hides 
and the fourth part of I virgate. There is 
land for 4 ploughs. There is i plough on 
the demesne ; and 4 villeins have 3 ploughs 
and a mill is there worth 3 " shillings and 3 
pence ; meadow (sufficient) for 4 plough teams, 
and woodland (to feed) 40 swine. It is worth 
60 shillings ; when received (was worth) 20 
shillings; T.R.E. 70 shillings. This land 6 
sokemen held and could assign to whom they 

' In Biggleswade. 

^ He also held here under Countess Judith, and 
he held under her and under Nigel de Albini 
at Holme adjoining (J.H.R.) 

^ These two manors were in Clifton Hundred, 
but the hundredal heading has been omitted 

* See Introduction. 

^ Compare p. 231, note 6, above. The instance 
of holding under an under-tenant should be noted 

* ? corrected to 2. 


In Stodene [Stodden] Hundret 

William de Warenna holds in Dene [Dean] 
2 hides, and 3 sokemen hold of him. There 
is land for 3 ploughs and they are there. There 
are 5 bordars and i serf. It is and was worth 
30 shillings T.R.E. and after {semper). This 
land the same sokemen held who hold it now. 
One of these could not assign or sell his land 
without his lord's leave. The other two could 
do this. Of half a hide and half a virgate of 
this land William Spec was put in possession 
{sahitus) by the king and given livery {per ejus 
liheratorem), but William de Warenna, with- 
out writ from the king, disseised him and 
took away 2 horses from his men and has not 
yet restored (them). This the men of the 
hundred (court) attest, 

M. William de Warenne himself holds 
TiLEBROC [Tillbrook]. It is assessed at 5 
hides. There is land for 6 ploughs, and they 
are there and 20 sokemen and 4 bordars, and 
meadow (sufficient) for 5 plough teams. It 
is worth 100 shillings ; (was worth) as much 
when received ; T.R.E. 4 pounds. This manor 
the same sokemen held who hold it now, and 
they belonged in such way to the king's soke 
and sake {ha de soca et saca regis fuerunt) that 
they could assign and sell their land to whom 
they wished and put themselves under another 
lord {recedere ad alium dominum) without the 
leave of him under whom they were. This 
land of Tilebroc [Tillbrook] Hugh Beau- 
champ claims against William, and the men 
of the hundred (court) bear testimony in re- 
gard to it that Ralf Tallebosc, his predeces- 
sor, was seised of it by the king and held it. 

In Hanefelde [ ] William de 

Warenna holds 3 virgates of land. There is 
land for i plough and it is there. It is and 
was worth 10 shiUings T.R.E. and after 
{semper). This land always belonged to {jacuit 
in) Chenebaltone [Kimbolton], but gave its 
' wer ' {warram) always of right {juste) in 

In EsTONE [Easton ^] William de War- 
enne holds I virgate. There is land for 2 

'' That is to say, it belonged to William de 
Warrenne's manor of Kimbolton just across the 
Huntingdonshire border, but was assessed in 
Bedfordshire, in which it was locally situate 

^ Co. Hunts (see Introduction.) 



ploughs, and they are there, and i villein and 
2 bordars, and meadow (sufEcient) for i plough 
team and woodland (to feed) lOO swine. It 
is worth 20 shillings ; when received was worth 
40 shillings ; T.R.E. 20 shillings. This land 
was held by Avigi a man of Aschil, predecessor 
of Hugh Beauchamp.' He could sell to whom 
he wished, but the soke Aschil himself re- 
tained in his manor of Colmeborde [Colm- 
worth]. This land Hugh Beauchamp claims 
against William de Warenne. And all the 
sworn men of the sheriffdom {vicecomitatu) 
bear testimony that this land does not belong 
to William. 

In the same vill William de Warenne holds 
I hide and i virgate. There is land for i plough, 
and it is there, and 2 bordars, and meadow (sufE- 
cient) for I plough team. It is worth 10 shil- 
lings ; (was worth) as much when received ; 
T.R.E. 15 shillings. This land Avigi held 
and could assign to whom he wished T.R.E. 
This King William afterwards granted to him 
and by his writ commended (him) to Ralf 
Tallebosc that he might protect (servaret) him 
for his life." On the day on which he died 
he stated that he was William de Warenne's 
man and accordingly William is in possession 
of this land. 

In the same (vill) the same William holds 
I virgate of land. There is land for 2 oxen^ 
(to plough) and there are there 4 oxen. It is 
and was worth 2 shillings, T.R.E. 3 shillings. 
This land Blach, a man of Augi,* held and 
could assign to whom he wished. 

In the same (vill) Tedric holds of William 
I virgate and the fourth part of i virgate. 
There is land for i plough, and it is there, 
and meadow (sufficient) for i plough team and 
woodland (to feed) 24 swine. It is and was 
worth I o shillings ; T.R.E. 6 shillings. Godric, 
a man of the sheriff, held it and could assign 
to whom he wished. 


In Flictham [Flitt] Hundret 

M. William de Ow holds Sonedone [Sun- 
don]. It is assessed at 10 hides. There is 
land for 16 ploughs. In the demesne are 4 
hides, and on it are 4 ploughs. There 20 vil- 

' ' Belcamp ' interlined. 

* On this interesting case of commendation see 
the Introduction (J.H.R.) 

^ i.e. a quarter of a plough-team. 

* This name is clearly the same as the ' Auigi ' 
above, and the fact that a ' man ' of Aschil had 
himself a ' man ' under him should be observed 

leins have 1 2 ploughs. There are 1 1 bordars 
and 1 2 serfs, meadow (sufEcient) for 4 plough 
teams and woodland (to feed) 1 00 swine. In 
all {totis valentiis) it is worth 10 pounds ; (was 
worth) when received 8 pounds, T.R.E. 20 
pounds. This manor Alestan of Boscumbe," 
a thegn of King Edward, held. In this same 
vill I knight [miles) has i plough. 

fo. 312 

In Stradlei [Streatley] Walter holds of 
William de Ow i hide. There is land for 2 
ploughs. On the demesne is i plough, and 
2 villeins have i plough. (There are) 3 bor- 
dars and 3 serfs, meadow (sufEcient) for i 
plough team and woodland (to feed) 20 swine. 
It is worth 30 shillings ; (was worth) when re- 
ceived 20 shillings ; T.R.E. 40 shillings. This 
land Goduin, a man of Alestan, thegn of 
King Edward, held and could sell to whom he 

In Bicheleswade [Biggleswade] Hundret 

In Melehou [Millow] William de Ow 
holds half a hide. There is land for a half 
plough, and it is there with I bordar. It is 
and was worth 10 shillings. This land God- 
mar, a man of Alestan, held and could sell to 
whom he wished. 

M. In Edeworde [Edworth] 2 knights 
[milites) hold of William de Ow 7 hides and 
si virgates. There is land for 8 ploughs. 
On the demesne are 3 ploughs, and 8 villeins 
have 5 ploughs. There are 2 bordars and 5 
serfs and meadow (sufficient) for 2 plough 
teams. It is worth 8 pounds ; when received 
(was worth) 10 pounds ; and as much T.R.E. 
This manor Alestan of Boscum(b)e held, and 
2 sokemen, his men, were there and had i\ 
hides and could sell to whom they wished. 

In Holme [Holme*] Ulvric holds of William 
de Ow 3 virgates of land. There is land for 
I plough and it is there. It is worth 16 shil- 
lings ; (was worth) when received 1 2 shillings ; 
T.R.E. 20 shillings. This land .ffilveva, a 
'man' {homo) of Aschil, held and could assign 
to whom she ^ wished. 

In Clistone [Clifton] Hundret 
In Alriceseie [Arlesey] Burnard holds ° 5^ 
hides and two-thirds (partes) of i hide. There is 

^ See Introduction, p. zoz. 

' In Biggleswade. 

" '^Iveva' (^Ifgifu) is a female name. 

^ i.e. of William de Ow. Burnard was prob- 
ably the Bernard who held of him in Hants and 
Wilts (J.H.R.) 




land for 6 ploughs. On the demesne is i plough 
and 13 villeins have 5. And (there are) 10 
bordars, and i mill (worth) 10 shillings, and 
meadow (sufKcient) for 6 plough teams. There 
is a market worth {de) i o shillings. It is and 
was worth T.R.E. and after [semper) 7 pounds. 
This manor Alestan of Boscum(b)e held, and 
there was I sokeman, his man, there who had 
two-thirds (partes) of I hide and could assign 
to whom he wished. 

In Chambeltone [Campton] Fulbert holds 
half a hide of William de Ow. There is land 
for a half plough, and it is there with i villein. 
This land is and was worth 5 shillings T.R.E. 
and after {semper). This land Alwin, a man 
of Alestan, held and could assign to whom he 


In Stoden [Stodden] Hundret 

M. Milo Crispin holds Clopeham [Clap- 
ham]. It is assessed at 5 hides. There is 
land for 30 ploughs. Besides these 5 hides 
there are 10 carucates of land in the de- 
mesne ;' on it are 8 ploughs and there could 
be 2 more. There 1 8 villeins have 20 ploughs, 
and (there are) 1 5 bordars and 4 serfs, and mea- 
dow sufficient for 6 plough teams, and i mill 
(worth) 40 shillings, and woodland (to feed) 
200 swine and (worth) 6 pence (besides). In 
all (totis valentiis) it is worth 24 pounds ; (was 
worth) as much when received ; and T.R.E. 
12 pounds. This manor Bricxtric, a thegn 
of King Edward, held of the abbot of Ramesy. 
The abbot and monks claim {reclamant) this 
manor since it is and was, T.R.E., for their 
support {de victu earum), and the whole hun- 
dred (court) bears witness to the fact {de hoc). 

In Middeltone [Milton (Ernest)] 2 soke- 
men had 16 acres of land and gave their 
* wer ' {warram) in the same Middeltone, but 
could sell or assign their land to whom they 
wished. These sokemen Robert de Olgi* at- 
tached to {apposuit in) Clopeham [Clapham], 
unjustly, as the men of the hundred (court) 
say, because they never belonged thereto 
T.R.E. {nunquam ibi jacuerunt). 

In Wilga [Willey] Hundret 

In Lalega [Thurleigh] Levric holds of 
Milo I virgate of land. There is land for i 
plough, and it is there. It is and was worth 
10 shillings T.R.E. and after {semper). The 
same man held it T.R.E. He was a man of 
Brixtric and could assign or sell it. 

' See p. 229, note 2. 

* See Introduction, p. 202. 



In Manesheve [Manshead] Hundret 
Ernulf de Hesding holds Dodintone [Tod- 
dington] of the king. It is assessed at i5|- 
hides. There is land for 30 ploughs. There 
are 10 carucates of land in the demesne, and 
on it are 7 ploughs, and there could be 3 more : 
(this is) besides the 15^ hides.^ There 42 
villeins have 20 ploughs. There are 19 bor- 
dars and 19 serfs, meadow (sufficient) for 30 
plough teams, and woodland (to feed) 300 
swine. In all {totis valentiis) it is worth 25 
pounds ; (was worth) as much when received ; 
T.R.E. 30 pounds. This manor Wlward 
Levet held T.R.E. 

In Celgrave [Chalgrave] Ernulf holds the 
third part of i virgate of land. It is and was 
worth 2 shillings T.R.E. and after {semper). 
This land Edward Wit* held T.R.E, 



M. Eudo 'Dapifer' holds Etone [Eaton 
Socon°]. It is assessed at 20 hides. There 
is land for 16 ploughs. In the demesne are 
7^ hides and on it are 4 ploughs. There 38 
villeins have 12 ploughs. There are 7 bor- 
dars and 8 serfs, and 2 sokemen who could not 
assign or sell their land. There are 2 mills 
worth {de) 36 shillings and 6 pence, and 100 
eels, meadow (sufficient) for 12 plough teams, 
and woodland (to feed) 400 swine, and 2 acres 
of vineyard. In all it is worth 15 pounds, 
(was worth) when received 8 pounds, T.R.E. 
10 pounds. This manor Ulmar of Etone 
[Eaton Socon], a thegn of King Edward, held. 
In this manor were 2 sokemen who could 
assign and sell their land. Of this land Ted- 
bald a man of Countess Judith claims i hide, 
of which Eudo disseised him after he came 
to this manor. 

^ See p. 229, note 2. 

* ' Wit ' is interlined. 

^ Eaton Bray and Eaton Socon, which lie at 
opposite extremities of the county, are at first sight 
difficult to distinguish in Domesday, because the 
Hundredal heading is here omitted, and because 
both manors escheated from their Domesday 
holders to the Crown. But as ' Etone ' is here 
followed by Wyboston and Chawston, immediately 
south of Eaton Socon, we are clearly dealing with 
Barford Hundred, in which are situated all three. 
Moreover, it is noteworthy that Eaton Bray and 
Eaton Socon appear persistently as ' Eytone ' and 
' Etone ' respectively {Feudal Aids, vol. i.), just as 
they appear in Domesday as ' Eitone ' and ' Etone ' 
respectively. Eaton Socon is further discussed in 
the Introduction (J.H.R.) 



In WiBOLDESTONE [Wyboston *] Eudo holds 
6 hides and 3 virgates. There is land for 5 
ploughs. In the demesne are 4^ hides, and 
on it are 2 ploughs, and 8 villeins have 4 
ploughs. There are 8 bordars and 3 serfs, 
and meadow (sufficient) for 2 plough teams. 
In all it is w^orth 3 pounds ; (was worth) when 
received 20 shillings ; and T.R.E. 10 pounds. 
This land 4 thegns of King Edward held and 
could sell to whom they wished. 

In Chavelestorne [Chawston''] Eudo holds 
I hide and i virgate. There is land for i 
plough, and it is there. There are 4 villeins, 
and meadow sufficient for i plough team. It 
is and was worth 10 shillings ; T.R.E. 20 shil- 
lings. This land 2 men of King Edward held 
and they could assign and sell it. 

In Bicheleswada [Biggleswade] Hundret 
In Tamiseforde [Tempsford] Eudo holds 
I hide and I virgate of land. There is land 
for 2 ploughs. In the demesne is i hide, and 
on it is I plough, and there is i villein with 

1 plough and there are 2 bordars and i serf, 
and I mill (worth) 10 shillings, and meadow 
(sufficient) for 2 plough teams. It is and was 
worth 40 shillings ; T.R.E. 45 shillings. This 
land 2 sokemen held and could assign to whom 
they wished. 

In the same vill William de Carun^ holds 4 
hides and I virgate of Eudo Dapifer. There 
is land for 4 ploughs. On the demesne are 

2 ploughs, and 8 villeins have 2 ploughs and 
there are 6 serfs, and i mill (worth) 12 shil- 
lings, and meadow (sufficient) for 4 plough 
teams. It is worth 60 shillings ; (was worth) 
when received 40 shillings, and T.R.E. 60 
shillings. This land 3 sokemen, men of Ul- 
mar of Etone [Eaton Socon], held ; one of 
these could not assign his land without his 
lord's leave ; the other two could do what 
they wished (with their land). 

In the Half Hundret of Weneslai* 

M. Sandeia [Sandy] Eudo 'Dapifer' holds. 
It is assessed at 1 6 hides and i virgate. There 
is land for 16 ploughs. In the demesne are 
8 hides and I virgate, and on it are 3 ploughs, 
and 24 villeins have 8 ploughs and there could 
be 5 more. There are 6 bordars and 2 serfs, 
and 2 mills worth {de) 50 shillings, meadow 
sufficient for 1 6 plough teams, and pasture for 
the live stock of the vill. In all it is worth 

1 In Eaton Socon. 
^ In Roxton. 

^ Robert de Carun was holding here In 1 284-6, 
under the Beauchamp barony of Bedford (J.H.R.) 
* Now part of Biggleswade Hundred. 

12 pounds ; when received 8 pounds; T.R.E. 
10 pounds. This manor Ulmar of Etone 
[Eaton Socon], a thegn of King Edward, held. 
Eudo claims here 3 acres of woodland against 
Hugh Beauchamp which Ulmar held ; but 
R(alf) when he was sheriff disseised him, 
and accordingly Eudo has refused to give the 
* wer ' [warras) of this woodland.* This {hoc 
idem) the men of the hundred (court) attest. 

In SuTTONE [Sutton] Alwin holds of Eudo 
3 virgates of land. There is land for 6 oxen" 
(to plough), and they are there and i villein. 
There is meadow (sufficient) for the oxen. It 
is worth 6 shillings, (was worth) when re- 
ceived 3 shillings, and T.R.E. 10 shiUings. 
This land 2 sokemen held and could sell to 
whom they wished. 

In Wichestavestou [Wixamtree] Hundret 
In Sudgivele [Southill] William de Caron 
holds half a virgate of land of Eudo. There 
is land for 2 oxen' (to plough), and they are 
there, and meadow (sufficient) for 2 oxen. It 
is worth 3 shillings, T.R.E. 4 shillings. This 
land Alric held and could assign to whom he 

fo. 3I3b 

In Stanford [Stanford ^] William de Caron 
holds of Eudo 4 hides. There is land for 4 
ploughs. On the demesne are 2, and 3 vil- 
leins have 2 ploughs, and (there are) 2 serfs, 
and 2 mills worth {de) 29 shillings and 50 
eels ; meadow (sufficient) for 4 plough teams, 
and woodland (to feed) 60 swine and (worth) 
2 shillings (besides). In all it is worth 4 
pounds ; (was worth) when received 40 shil- 
lings ; T.R.(E.) 4 pounds. This land Ulmar 
of Etone [Eaton Socon], a thegn of King 
Edward, held. In this land was i sokeman, 
man of this Ulmar ; he had half a hide and 
could sell. 

In the same (vill) are 7 sokemen holding 7 
acres of land ; they were men of Ulmar and 
could assign their land. Hugh de Beauchamp 
(Belcamp) holds it now. 

In Bluneham [Blunham] Domnic' holds 
of Eudo I virgate of land. There is land 
for 2 oxen'' (to plough), and they are there, and 
meadow (sufficient) for 2 oxen. It is worth 
2 shillings ; (was worth) when received 3 shil- 
lings, and T.R.E. 5 shillings. This land 4 
sokemen held and could assign and sell. 

^ i.e. to pay what was assessed on it. 

' i.e. three-quarters of a plough-team. 

' i.e. a quarter of a plough-team. 

8 In Southill. 



In BisTONE [Beeston'] Rolland holds of 
Eudo 3 hides. There is land for 3 ploughs, 
and they are there. On the demesne are 2 
ploughs ; and 4 villeins have i plough. 
There are 2 bordars and i serf, and meadows 
(sufficient) for 3 plough teams. It is worth 
30 shillings ; (was worth) when received 20 
shillings, and T.R.E. 40 shillings. 

In the same (vill) Norman holds of Eudo 4 
hides. There is land for 4 ploughs. On the 
demesne is i plough ; and 4 villeins have 3 
ploughs. There are 2 serfs, and i mill 
(worth) 30 shillings, and meadow (sufficient) 
for 4 plough teams. It is worth 40 shillings ; 
(was worth) as much when received, and 
T.R.E. 50 shillings. These 4 hides and the 
3 above, this Norman held T.R.E. and 
T.R.W. Now Eudo holds it of the king, 
as his men say, but it is not part of the 
fee (of) Lisois.^ 

In the same (vill) Pirot^ holds of Eudo i 
hide. There is land for i plough and it is 
there with I bordar. There is meadow (suffi- 
cient) for I plough team. It is worth i o shil- 
lings ; (was worth) when received 5 shillings, 
and T.R.E. 20 shillings. This land Ravan, 
a man of Ulmar of Etone [Eaton Socon], 
held and could assign to whom he wished. 

In NoRTGiVE [Northill] Pirot^ holds of 
Eudo i^ hides. There is land for i^ ploughs. 
One plough is there and there could be a 
half plough (more) and there are 3 villeins 
and I bordar, meadow (sufficient) for i^ 
plough teams and i mill (worth) 14 shillings. 
It is worth 20 shillings, when received (was 
worth) 10 shillings and T.R.E. 25 shillings. 
This land Ravan, a man of Ulmar of Etone 
[Eaton Socon], held and could sell. 

In the same (vill) Ralf holds 1^ hides of 
Eudo. There is land for 2 ploughs and they 
are there and 5 bordars and 3 serfs and 
meadow (sufficient) for 2 plough teams and 
woodland (to feed) 100 swine. It is worth 
3 pounds, was worth when received 40 
shillings, T.R.E. 60 shillings. This land 2 
sokemen held and could assign and sell. 

In Cliston [Clifton] Hundret 
M. In Clistone [Clifton] William de 

* In Sandy. 

^ Fee of Lisois de Moustiers, Eudo's prede- 
cessor (J.H.R.) 

^ He also held under Eudo in Cambridgeshire, 
Essex and Suffolk, and must have been ancestor of 
Ralf Pirot who held 4 fees in 1 1 66 on the fief 
which had been Eudo's. See also p. 244, note 4 
below (J.H.R.) 

Caron holds of Eudo 6| hides.* There is 
land for 4^ ploughs. On the demesne are 2 
ploughs, and 9 villeins have 2^ ploughs. 
There are i bordar and 3 serfs, and 2 mills 
worth {de) 40 shillings and 150 eels, and 
meadow sufficient for 4^ plough teams. In 
all it is worth 100 shillings ; (was worth) when 
received 4 pounds ; T.R.E. 6 pounds. This 
manor Ulmar of Etone [Eaton Socon] held, 
and there were 3 sokemen there. They had 
I hide and half a virgate which they could sell 
to whom they wished. 


In Stanburge [Stanridge] Hundret" 

M. William Pevrel holds of the king 
PiLEwoRDE ° [Tilsworth] and Ambrose ' holds 
of him. It is assessed at i o hides. There is 
land for 8 ploughs. On the demesne is 1 
plough and there could be another, and 10 
villeins have 6 ploughs. There are 6 bordars 
and 3 serfs, meadow (sufficient) for 6 plough 
teams, and woodland (to feed) 100 swine. 
This woodland Oswi took away and the 
hundred (court) says that it belonged to 
{jacuit in) this manor T.R.E. In all it is 
worth 6 pounds ; when received (was worth) 
4 pounds, and T.R.E. 10 pounds. This 
manor Levric son of Osmund, and thegn of 
King Edward, held. 

In Wilga [Willey] Hundret 

In RisEDENE [Rushden ^ ] Malet holds of 
William Pevrel i virgate of land. There is 
land for 2 oxen° (to plough), and they are there. 
It is and was worth 1 6 pence ; T.R.E. 2 
shillings. This land Samar the priest, a man of 
Countess Goda, held and could assign to whom 
he wished. 


In Stodene [Stodden] Hundret 
M. Hugh de Beauchamp holds Chaisot 

* Robert de Caron gave a mill here to St. John's 
Abbey, Eudo's foundation at Colchester (J.H.R.) 

* (Half Hundred.) Now part of Manshead 

° This name was probably written in the return 
made from the Hundred, with the Anglo-Saxon 
J> (thorn) ; and this mistaken by the Domesday 
clerks for P (F.W.R.) 

' He also held of William Peverel in Notts, 
Northants and Bucks (J.H.R.) 

^ Partly in Northamptonshire, where William 
Peverel held in the portion lying there. 

* i.e. a quarter of a plough-team. 



[Keysoe]. It is assessed at 5 hides less i 
virgate.^ There is land for 5 ploughs, and 
they are there, and 9 villeins and 6 bordars 
and I serf, and i mill (worth) 2 shillings, and 
meadow (sufficient) for 4 plough teams, and 
woodland (to feed) 200 swine. In all {totis 
valentiis) it is worth 1 00 shillings ; when re- 
ceived 4 pounds, and T.R.E. 100 shillings. 
This land Aschil, a thegn of King Edward, 
held, and there were 12 sokemen there who 
had 3^ hides which they could assign and 
sell to whom they wished. 

In RisELAi [Riseley] Hugh holds i hide 
and it is an outlying part [berewich) of Caisot. 
There is land for 2 ploughs and they are 
there. This land Aschil his predecessor 

In Buchelai Half Hundret'' 

M. Hugh himself holds Putenehou [Put- 
noe^]. It is assessed at 4 hides. There is 
land for 5 ploughs. In the demesne are 2 
hides, and on it are 2 ploughs ; and 6 villeins 
have 3 ploughs. There are 4 bordars and 2 
serfs, and i mill (worth) 30 shillings and 100 
eels, and woodland (to feed) 1 00 swine. It is 
worth 4 pounds ; when received (was worth) 
40 shillings, and as much T.R.E. This 
manor Aschil, a thegn of King Edward, 

M. Hugh himself holds Stachedene 
[Stagsden * ] It is assessed at 5 hides. There 
is land for 5 ploughs. In the demesne are 2 
hides and on it are 2 ploughs ; and 12 vil- 
leins have 3 ploughs. There are 8 bordars 
and 2 serfs, meadow (sufficient) for i plough 
team and woodland (to feed) 100 swine. 
' There is a park for beasts of the chase 
[parchus ferarum silvaticarum). In all {totU 
valentiis) it is worth 1 00 shillings ; when 
received (was worth) 40 shillings, and T.R.E. 
100 shillings.'* This manor 2 men of King 
Edward and i man of Earl Harold held, and 
each could assign his land to whom he 

M. Hugh himself holds Chainhalle 

' This virgate is entered under Huntingdon- 
shire. See Introduction (J.H.R.) 

^ Now part of Willey Hundred. 

' Now in Goldington, which is in Barford 

* Now in Willey Hundred. 

^ The words within quotation marks are added 
at the foot of the folio, having been omitted in 
the text. 

[? Channells End°].'^ It is assessed at 5 hides. 
There is land for 5 ploughs. In the demesne 
are 2 hides, and on it are 2 ploughs, and 12 
villeins have 3 ploughs. There are 9 bordars 
and 5 serfs, meadow (sufficient) for 3 plough 
teams, and i mill (worth) 40 shillings and 
100 eels, and woodland (to feed) 100 swine. 
In all [totis valentiis) it is worth 8 pounds ; (was 
worth) when received 100 shillings, and 
T.R.E. 7 pounds. This manor Aschil, a thegn 
of King Edward, held. 

In the same (vill) Hugh holds half a hide 
which belongs to {jacet in) Putenehou [Put- 
noe^]. There is land for i plough and 4 oxen 
are there and 2 bordars. It is and was worth 

2 shillings. This land Anschil, a thegn of 
King Edward, held. 

In GoLDENTONE [Goldington] Hugh holds 

3 hides and I virgate which belongs to {jacet 
in) Putenehou [Putnoe]. There is land for 3 
ploughs, and they are there, and 7 villeins and 
I bordar, and meadow (sufficient) for i plough 
team, and i mill (worth) 30 shillings and 100 
eels. In all it is worth 60 shillings ; (was 
worth) as much when received, and T.R.E. 4 
pounds. Of this land Ralf Tallgebosc had 2 
hides and 3 virgates in exchange for {pro 
excambio de) Warres [Ware].* This land 9 
sokemen held and could assign or sell to whom 
they wished. 

In Wichestanestou [Wixamtree] 


In Sudgible [Southill] Hugh holds 2 hides 
and I virgate. There is land for 3 ploughs 
and they are there, and meadow (sufficient) 
for 3 plough teams, and woodland (to feed) 
100 swine. It is and was worth 40 shillings ; 
T.R.E. 50 shillings. This land 8 sokemen 
held and could do what they wished with it. 

In Stanford [Stanford^"] Hugh holds i 
hide and half a virgate of land. There island 
for i-^ ploughs, and they are there, and 4 vil- 
leins and I bordar, and meadow (sufficient) for 
i^ plough teams. It is and was worth 20 
shillings T.R.E. and after {semper). This 
land 4 sokemen held, of whom 3 were free ; 
the fourth had i hide but could neither assign 
nor sell. 

M. In Chernetone [Cardington] Hugh 
holds b\ hides, and 2 thirds of i virgate. 
There is land for 8 ploughs. In the demesne 

° In Colmworth. 

'' In Barford Hundred. 

* See Introduction. 

^ In Goldington 
" In Southill. 



are 2^ hides, and i plough is on it ; and 1 2 
villeins have 7 ploughs. There are 6 bordars, 
meadow (sufficient) for 3 plough teams, and 
woodland (to feed) 120 swine, and i mill 

fo. 313 

(worth) 40 shillings and 100 eels. In all it 
is worth 6 pounds ; (was worth) when received 
100 shillings ; T.R.E. 6 pounds. This manor 
13 sokemen held and could go to what lord 
{quo) they wished with their land. 

M. Hugh himself holds Welitone [Wil- 
lington]. It is assessed at 10 hides. There 
is land for 9 ploughs. In the demesne are 5 
hides, and on it are 3 ploughs, and there could 
be a fourth ; and 13 villeins have 5 ploughs. 
There are 8 serfs, and i mill (worth) 12 shil- 
lings and 100 eels ; meadow (sufficient) for 5 
plough teams and woodland (to feed) 40 swine. 
In all {totis valentiis) it is worth 7 pounds, (was 
worth) when received 40 shillings and T.R.E. 
6 pounds. This manor Aschil, a thegn of 
King Edward, held, and there were 8 sokemen 
there who could go {recedere) with their land 
to what lord {quo) they wished. Of this land 
they had 7 hides. 

In Clifton [Clifton] Hundret 

M. Hugh himself holds Stotfalt [Stot- 
fold]. It is assessed at 15 hides. There is 
land for 15 ploughs. In the demesne are 5 
hides, and on it are 3 ploughs; and 21 vil- 
leins have 12 ploughs. There are 14 bordars 
and 6 serfs, and 4 mills worth {de) 4 pounds 
and 400 eels, and meadow (sufficient) for 7 
plough teams. In all {totis valentiis) it is 
worth 25 pounds ; when received (was worth) 
12 pounds, and T.R.E. 20 pounds. On the 
day on which Ralf Tallebosc died it was 
farmed at {ad firmam pro) 30 pounds. This 
manor Aschil, a thegn of King Edward, 
held. He himself had 9^ hides, and 7 soke- 
men held the remainder of the land and 
could sell (it) to whom they wished. One hide 
of this land belongs to the church of St. 
Alban, and the men of the hundred (court) 
say it belonged to it {ibi jacuit) T.R.E. 

In Ratborgestou [Redbornestoke] 

In Meldone [Maulden] Hugh holds half 
a hide and half a virgate. There is land for 
I plough, and it is there, and i villein and i 
bordar ; meadow (sufficient) for i plough 
team and woodland (to feed) 20 swine. It is 
worth 10 shillings; when received (was 
worth) 5 shillings, and T.R.E. 12 shillings. 
This land Goduin, a man of Aschil, held 
and could assign and sell. 

M. In Houstone [Houghton (Conquest)] 
Hugh holds 5 hides. There is land for 6 
ploughs, and they are there, and 8 villeins and 
6 bordars and 2 serfs, meadow (sufficient) for 
6 plough teams, and woodland (to feed) 200 
swine. It is and was worth 100 shillings; 
T.R.E. 7 pounds. This manor 7 sokemen 
held and could assign to whom they wished. 

In Flictham [Flitt] Hundret 

M. Hugh himself holds Hagenes [Hawnes 
(or Haynes)]. It is assessed at 5 hides. There 
is land for 8 ploughs. In the demesne are 
2\ hides, and on it are 3 ploughs ; and 14 
villeins have 5 ploughs. There are 9 bordars 
and I serf, meadow (sufficient) for i plough 
team, and woodland (to feed) 500 swine. In 
all {totis valentiis) it is worth i o pounds ; when 
received (was worth) 7 pounds, and as much 
T.R.E. This manor Achi, a thegn of King 
Edward, held 

In Bereforde [Barford] Hundret 

M. Hugh himself holds Salchou [Sal- 
pho*^]. It is assessed at 5 hides. There 
is land for 8 ploughs and they are there. 
This land 1 1 sokemen hold and the same men 
held it T.R.E. and could assign and sell to 
whom they wished. There is meadow 
(sufficient) for 2 plough teams, woodland (to 
feed) 50 swine. In all it is worth 100 shil- 
lings, was worth as much when received, and 
T.R.E. 8 pounds. This land Ralf Tallge- 
bosc had in exchange for {pro excambio de) 
Wares [Ware], as his men say ; and when 
received, it was worth 8 pounds. 

In Manesheve [Manshead] Hundret 

M. AsPELEiA [Aspley (Guise)] is assessed at 
ID hides. Acard' de Ivri holds it of Hugh. 
There is land for 12 ploughs. On the de- 
mesne are 2 ploughs, and there could be a 
third ; and 16 villeins have 8 ploughs and 
there could be a ninth. There are 4 bordars 
and 5 serfs, and i mill (worth) 10 shillings ; 
meadow (sufficient) for 10 plough teams and 
woodland (to feed) 50 swine. In all {totis 
valentiis) it is worth 8 pounds ; when received 
100 shillings; T.R.E. 10 pounds. This 
manor was held by Leveva, (who was) com- 
mended to Earl Waltheof {commendata Wallef 
comitis) and could go to what lord {quo) she 
wished with her land. 

M. Saleford [Salford] is assessed at 5 
hides. There is land for 5 ploughs. On 

* In Renhold. Now corruptly ' Salph end ' 



the demesne is i plough, and 12 villeins have 
4 ploughs. There are 1 bordar and 4 serfs. 
A mill is there (worth) 9 shillings and 4 
pence, meadow (sufficient) for 5 plough 
teams, and woodland (to feed) 150 swine and 
through [de) other due(s) worth 10 shillings 
(besides). In all {totis valentiis) it is worth 
4 pounds ; (was worth) when received 60 
shillings ; T.R.E. 1 00 shillings. This manor 
Turchil, a thegn of King Edward, held and 
could assign to whom he wished. 

M. In EuRESHOT [Eversholt] Ralf holds 
7-^ hides of Hugh as i manor. There is 
land for 8 ploughs. On the demesne are 2 
ploughs, and 15 villeins have 6 ploughs. 
There are 4 serfs, meadow (sufficient) for 8 
plough teams, and woodland (to feed) loO 
swine. It is worth 100 shillings; (was worth) 
when received 3 pounds, and as much T.R.E. 
This manor Turgis, a thegn of King Edward, 
held and could sell. 

M. In MiDDELTONE [Milton (Bryant)] 
William Froissart holds of Hugh 6 hides 
as I manor. There is land for 6 ploughs. 
On the demesne are 3 ploughs, and 6 villeins 
have 3 ploughs. There are 3 bordars and 4 
serfe, meadow (sufficient) for 6 plough teams ; 
woodland (to feed) 40 swine. It is worth 6 
pounds, (was worth) when received 4 pounds, 
and T.R.E. 8 pounds. This manor Auti a 
housecarl of Earl Algar held and could do 
with it what he wished. 

M. The same William holds of Hugh 
Cravenhest [Gravenhurst].' It is assessed at 
3|- hides. There is land for 4 ploughs. On 
the demesne are 2 ploughs, and 4 villeins 
have I ; there could be another. There are 
3 bordars and 4 serfs, meadow (sufficient) 
for 4 plough teams, and woodland (to feed) 
100 swine. It is worth 60 shillings ; was 
worth as much when received, and T.R.E. 
100 shillings. This manor 5 sokemen held 
and could assign and sell their land to whom 
they wished. 

M. In Straillei [Streatley] * William de 
Locels holds 4 hides and i virgate of Hugh 
as I manor. There is land for 6 ploughs. 
On the demesne is i plough and there could 
be another, and 7 villeins have 4 ploughs. 
There are 5 bordars and i serf, and wood- 
land (to feed) 1 6 swine. It is worth 4 pounds ; 

* This and the two manors which follow belong 
to the Hundred of Flitt. The hundredal heading 
has been omitted. 

^ See note I above. 

(was worth) when received 40 shillings ; 
T.R.E. 100 shillings. This manor Aschil, a 
thegn of King Edward, held, and there was 
I sokeman there, his man, having i hide, 
which he could assign to whom he wished. 

M. The same William holds of Hugh, 
EcHAM [Higham (Gobion)*]. It is assessed at 
8 hides. There is land for 1 1 ploughs. On 
the demesne are 4 ploughs, and 14 villeins 
have 7. There are 2 bordars and 5 serfs, 
meadow (sufficient) for 6 plough teams, and 
woodland (to feed) 100 swine. It is worth 
8 pounds ; (was worth) as much when re- 
ceived ; and T.R.E. 12 pounds. This manor 
5 sokemen held and could assign their land 
to whom they wished. 

In Stodden [Stodden] Hundret 

In EsTONE [Easton*] Wimund" holds of 
Hugh half a hide. There is land for 3 
ploughs, and they are there. There are 2 
villeins and 6 bordars, and woodland to feed 
40 swine. It is worth 30 shillings ; when 
received and T.R.E. (was worth) 20 shillings. 
This land Oviet, a man of Aschil, held and 
could assign and sell ; but the soke always 
belonged to (Jacuit in) Culmeworde (Colm- 
worth), Aschil's manor. 

In RisELAi [Riseley] Alvric the priest holds 
of Hugh half a hide. There is land for a 
half plough, and it is there and 4 bordars. 
It is worth 5 shillings, when received (was 
worth) a like sum, and T.R.E. 8 shillings. 
This land Uvenot a man of Godric the 
sheriff held and could assign to whom he 

In MiDDELTONE [Milton (Ernest)] William 
Basset holds of Hugh 2 hides less half a 
virgate. There is land for 3 ploughs. On 
the demesne are 2 ploughs and i villein has 
I plough. There are 4 bordars and 2 serfs, 
meadow (sufficient) for 2 plough teams, and 
woodland (to feed) 6 swine. It is worth 30 
shillings ; (was worth) as much when re- 
ceived, and T.R.E. 40 shillings. 

In the Half Hundret of Bochelai" 

M. In Blecheshou [Bletsoe] Osbert de 
Broilg^ holds of Hugh 2^ hides. There is 
land for 4 ploughs. On the demesne is i 

' See note I above. 

* Co. Hunts (see Introduction) 

^ This must be Wimund de Taissel, who also 
held of Hugh at Barford and Colm worth (J.H.R.) 

* Now part of Willey Hundred. 
' See p. 240, note 4, below. 



plough and 7 villeins have 3 ploughs. There 
are 2 bordars and 2 serfs and a moiety of a 
mill (wrorth) 10 shillings, meadow (sufficient) 
for I plough team, woodland (to feed) 100 
swine. It is and was worth 60 shillings 
T.R.E. and after {semper). This manor 
Aschil held, and 3 sokemen had there 3 vir- 

fo. 213b 

gates and could sell (them) to whom they 

In BiDEHAM [Biddenham] Serlo de Ros' 
holds I hide of Hugh. There is land for i 
plough, and it is there ; and i bordar and I 
serf, and meadow (sufficient) for i plough 
team. It is and was worth 10 shillings 
T.R.E. and after {semper). This land was 
held by Alsi of Bruneham [Bromham^], a 
man of Queen Eddid, and he could assign (it) 
to whom he wished. 

M. In Bruneham [Bromham] Serlo de 
Ros^ holds 6 hides of Hugh. There is land 
for 6 ploughs. On the demesne are 2 
ploughs, and 16 villeins have 4 ploughs. 
There are 5 bordars and 6 serfs, and I mill 
worth 20 shillings and 125 eels, meadow 
(sufficient) for 6 plough teams, and woodland 
(to feed) 40 swine. In all it is worth 7 
pounds ; was worth when received 1 00 
shillings ; T.R.E. 4 pounds. This land Alsi, 
a man of Queen Eddid, held and could sell. 

In Wilga [Willey] Hundret 

In Torvei [Turvey] Warner holds i hide 
of Hugh. There is land for 2 ploughs. On 
the demesne is I plough and I villein (has) I 
plough. There are 4 bordars. It is worth 
lO shillings ; (was worth) as much when re- 
ceived, and T.R.E. 20 shillings. This land 
2 sokemen held and could assign to whom 
they wished. 

In Sernebroc [Sharnbrook] Osbern de 
Broilg* holds i\ virgates of Hugh. There is 
land for 3 oxen ^ (to plough). It is and was 
worth 2 shillings T.R.E. and after [semper). 
This land 3 sokemen held and could assign 
and sell. 

1 He also held at Biddenham under William 
Spech. See p. 246 below (J.H.R.) 

^ See the next entry. 

^ See note i above. 

^ This is the same as the Osbert (sic) de Broilg 
who held at Bletsoe, ' Osbern ' and ' Osbert ' being 
used indifferently (J.H.R.) 

° i.e. three-eighths of a plough-team, just as 
I ^ virgates was three-eighths of a hide. 

In Lalega [Thurleigh °] Leviet holds half 
a hide. There is land for 2 ploughs and they 
are there. There are 4 bordars and i serf, 
and woodland (to feed) 30 swine. It is 
worth 30 shillings ; when received was worth 
1 5 shillings ; T.R.E. 30 shillings. This 
land Moding, a man of Queen Eddid, held 
and could sell. 

In Bereford [Barford] Hundret 

In WiBOLDESTONE [Wyboston ''] Wimund 
holds half a virgate of Hugh and it is and was 
worth 2 shillings T.R.E. and after {semper). 
This land Aschil, a thegn of King Edward, 

In Calnestorne^ [Chawston®] Riwalo^" 
holds of Hugh 4 virgates. There is land for 2 
oxen (to plough). There are 2 bordars, and 
meadow (sufficient) for 2 oxen, and woodland 
(to feed) 60 swine. It is worth 10 shillings ; 
(was worth) when received, 1 5 shillings ; 
T.R.E. 20 shillings. This land 2 sokemen 
held and could assign to whom they wished. 

In RocHESTONE [Roxton] Rualon holds of 
Hugh I hide and i virgate. There is land 
for I plough ; meadow (sufficient) for I 
plough team ; woodland (to feed) 4 swine. 
There are 2 bordars and i serf. It is worth 
10 shillings ; when received and T.R.E. 
(was worth) 20 shillings. This land 4 soke- 
men held, men of King Edward, and could 

In Bereforde [(Great) Barford] Rualon 
holds of Hugh 3 hides.^' There is land for 
4 ploughs. On the demesne are 3 ploughs, 
and 3 villeins have i plough. There are 5 
bordars and 3 serfs, and i mill (worth) 22 
shillings and 4 score eels, and meadow (suffi- 
cient) for 2 plough teams. It is worth 3 
pounds ; (was worth) when received 30 shil- 
lings, T.R.E. 3 pounds. This land 3 soke- 
men, men of King Edward, held and could 

In the same (vill) Wimund de Taissel 
holds of Hugh 5 hides and 2 thirds {partes) 
of I hide. There is land for 11 ploughs. 
On the demesne are 5 ploughs and 1 6 villeins 
have 6. There are 6 bordars and i serf; 

° Land in ' Lega ' was subsequently held of the 
(Beauchamp) 'barony of Bedford' (J.H.R.) 
'' In Eaton Socon. 
® ? for Caluestorne. 
* In Roxton. 

*" This name is identical with the Rualon of the 
next two entries and is Breton (J.H.R.) 
^' MS. has car' corrected, by underlining, to hid. 



meadow (sufficient) for i plough team. It 
is worth I o pounds ; was worth when received 
20 shillings ; T.R.E. 60 shillings. This 
manor 3 sokemen held and could assign and 

M. The same (ipse) Wimund holds of Hugh 
CoLMEWORDE [Colmworth]. It is assessed at 
5 hides. There is land for 10 ploughs. On 
the demesne are 2, and 12 villeins have 8 
ploughs. There are 13 bordars and i serf, 
and woodland (to feed) 200 swine. It is and 
was worth 100 shillings, T.R.E. 4 pounds. 
This manor Achi, a thegn of King Edward, 
held ; and 8 sokemen were there, who could 
assign and sell their land to whom they 

In Bereforde [(Great) Barford] Anschetil 
the priest holds of Hugh i^ hides. There is 
land for 2 ploughs. On the demesne is i 
plough, and i villein (has) i plough. There 
are 6 bordars and 3 serfs, and i mill (worth) 
7 shillings, and meadow sufficient for i 
plough team. It is and was worth 40 shil- 
lings, T.R.E. and after {semper). This land 

2 sokemen held and could sell. 

In the same (vill) Tetbaud holds of Hugh 
I hide and 3 virgates and the third part of i 
virgate. There is land for 3 ploughs. On 
the demesne are 2, and i villein has i plough. 
There are 8 bordars and i serf, and meadow 
(sufficient) for i plough team. It is worth 
40 shillings ; (was worth) when received 20 
shillings, and T.R.E. 60 shillings. This 
manor 3 sokemen held and could assign and 

In Goldentone [Goldington] Roger son 
of Teodric holds of Hugh 2 hides. There is 
land for 3 ploughs. On the demesne arc 2 
ploughs, and 3 villeins have i plough. There 
are 2 bordars, and meadow (sufficient) for i 
plough team. It is worth 30 shillings ; when 
received (was worth) 20 shillings ; T.R.E. 40 
shillings. These 2 hides Ralf Tall[ge]b[osc] 
held in exchange for {pro excamhio de) Wares 
[Ware]. This land 3 sokemen held who 
could assign their land to whom they wished. 

In the same (vill) Richard holds of Hugh 

3 hides as i manor. There is land for 3 
ploughs. On the demesne are 2 ploughs, 
and 5 villeins have i plough. One serf is 
there, and meadow (sufficient) for 2 plough 
teams. It is worth 40 shillings ; (was worth) 
when received 10 shillings, and T.R.E. 60 
shillings. These 3 hides Ralf Tall[ge]b[osc] 
held in exchange for {pro excamhio de) Wares 
[Ware]. This manor was held by Almaer, 
a man of Aschil, and he could sell it. 

In the same (vill) Walter holds or Hugh 
I hide. There is land for i plough, and it 
is there ; and meadow (sufficient) for a half 
plough team, and there are 2 serfs. It is 
worth 1 5 shillings ; (was worth) when received 
10 shillings, and T.R.E. 15 shillings. This 
land is (held) in exchange for {est escambium de) 
Wares [Ware]. This land the men of the 
vill held in common and they could sell it. 

In Bicheleswade [Biggleswade] Hundret 

In HoLMA [Holme'] Mortuing holds of 
Hugh I virgate. There is land for 3 oxen 
(to plough), and they are there. It is worth 
3 shillings ; (was worth) T.R.E. 5 shillings. 
This land i sokeman held under Aschil and 
could sell and assign it. 

In EsTWiCHE [Astwick] Bernard holds of 
Hugh I hide and i virgate. There is land 
for 2\ ploughs. On the demesne is i plough, 
and 2 villeins have 2^ ploughs. There are 
3 bordars and meadow sufficient for 4 oxen. 
It is worth 20 shillings ; when received and 
T.R.E. (was worth) 10 shillings. This 
manor 6 sokemen held and could sell. 

In the same (vill) Wenelinc holds of Hugh 
half a hide. There is land for i plough, 
and it is there. There are 3 bordars. It is 
worth 10 shillings ; (was worth) when received 
5 shillings ; and T.R.E. 20 shillings — and 
they * could sell it. 

In the same (vill) Ledmar holds halt a 
hide. There is land for a half plough and 
it is there. There are 3 bordars, and i mill 
worth {de) 9 shillings and 4 pence. It is and 
was worth 20 shillings T.R.E. and after 
{semper). The same man who holds it held 
it T.R.E. He was a man of Earl Tosti, 
and he could sell (it) to whom he wished. 

In Wichestanestou [Wixamtree] 

In Stanforde [Stanford '] Roger holds of 
Hugh I hide. There is land for i^ ploughs, 
and they are there, and 4 villeins and i bor- 
dar, meadow (sufficient) for i^ plough teams, 
and woodland (to feed) 16 swine, and a 
moiety of a mill worth {de) 5 shillings. In 
all it is worth 1 5 shillings ; (was worth) when 
received 5 shillings ; T.R.E. 10 shillings. This 
land iEilmar of Ow {Ouu) held and could sell 
to whom he wished. 

In CoCHEPOL [Cople] Robert holds of 
Hugh 4 hides as i manor. There is land for 

' In Biggleswade. 
« In Southill. 


=> So MS. 



4 ploughs. On the demesne are 2 ploughs, 
and 6 villeins have 2 ploughs. There are i 
bordar and i serf, and meadow (sufBcient) for 
I plough team. There is wroodland all over 
{super totam) Chochepol [Cople] (enough, to 
feed) 100 swine. It is worth 6o shillings ; 
when received (was worth) 20 shillings, and 
T.R.E. 60 shillings. This land 3 sokemen 
held and could sell. 

In the same (vill) Raynald holds of Hugh 
I hide and i virgate. There is land for i 
plough, and it is there, and 2 bordars, and 
meadow (sufficient) for 4 oxen. It is worth 
10 shillings ; (was worth) when received 5 
shillings ; T.R.E. 10 shillings. This land 2 
sokemen held and could sell to whom they 

In the same (vill) Gunfrey (Gonfrid ') holds 
of Hugh I hide and half a virgate. There 
is land for I plough, and it is there. There 
are I villein and i serf, and meadow sufficient 
for 4 oxen. It is worth 10 shillings ; (was 
worth) when received 5 shillings, and T.R.E. 
10 shillings. This land 2 sokemen held. 
They were the king's men and could sell. 

In the same (vill) Norman holds of Hugh 
I hide. There is land for I plough, and 2 
oxen are there and meadow (sufficient) for 4 
oxen. It is worth 6 shillings ; when received 
(was worth) a like sum, and T.R.E. 8 shil- 
lings. Of this land Aschil held 3 virgates 

fo. 314 

which belonged to {Jacuit in) Weltone [Wil- 
lington], his manor, and Alestan held i virgate 
which he could sell to whom he wished. 

In the same (vill) Branting held i hide of 
Hugh. There is land for i plough, and it is 
there, and meadow (sufficient) for 4 oxen. It 
is and was worth 10 shillings T.R.E. and 
after {semper). This land 3 sokemen held 
and could sell to whom they wished. 

In the same (vill) Robert holds of Hugh 3 
virgates. There is land for i plough and it 
is there, and meadow (sufficient) for 4 oxen. 
It is and was worth 7^ shillings T.R.E. and 
after (semper). This land 2 sokemen held 
and could sell. 

In the same (vill) Roger the priest and 
Liboret hold half a hide and half a virgate. 
There is land for 6 oxen' (to plough) and they 
are there, and meadow (sufficient) for 4 oxen. 
It is and was worth 5 shillings T.R.E. and 
after (semper). This land 3 sokemen held 
and could sell to whom they wished. Nine 
hides of this manor of Chochepol [Cople] 
Ralf Tallgebosc had in exchange for {pro 
excambio de) Wares [Ware], his men say. 

and when he received them they were worth 
4 pounds. 

In NoRTGiBLE [Northill] Walter holds of 
Hugh half a hide. There is land for a half 
plough, and it is there, and meadow (sufficient) 
for a half plough team. It is worth 5 shil- 
lings ; when received (was worth) a like sum, 
and T.R.E. 10 shillings. This land Osiet, a 
man of King Edward, held and could sell to 
whom he wished. 

In Clistone ^ [Clifton] Hundret 

In CuDEssANE [PChicksand^] 3 sokemen 
hold of Hugh 2 hides. There is land for i^ 
ploughs, and they are there, and i bordar, and 
meadow (sufficient) for i^ plough teams, and 
woodland (to feed) 4 swine. It is worth 20 
shillings, (was worth) as much when received, 
and T.R.E. 30 shillings. This land 4 soke- 
men held and could sell to whom they 


In Manesheve [Manshead] Hundret 

M. In Crawelai [(Husborne) Crawley] 
Turgis holds of Nigel de Albini [Albinienst) 5 
hides as i manor. There is land for 5 ploughs. 
On the demesne are 2 ploughs ; and there 
could be 3 belonging to the villeins {villan- 
orum). There are i villein and 7 bordars 
and I serf, and meadow (sufficient) for 5 
plough teams. In all it is worth 30 shillings ; 
when received (was worth) 40 shillings, and 
T.R.E. 100 shillings. This manor 9 thegns 
held and could sell their land to whom they 

In the same Hundret Turgis holds of 
Nigel I hide. There is land for i plough, 
and the plough is there, and 2 serfs and wood- 
land (to feed) 10 swine. This land is worth 
1 5 shillings ; (was worth) when received i o 
shillings; T.R.E. 20 shillings. This land 
was held by Suglo, a man of Alric son of 
Goding, and he could sell it to whom he 

M. TiNGREi [Tingrith] Turgis holds of 
Nigel for 2 hides and i virgate. There is 
land for 3 ploughs. On the demesne is i 
plough and 4 villeins have 2 ploughs. There 
are 2 bordars, meadow (sufficient) for 3 plough 
teams, and woodland (to feed) 150 swine. It 
is worth 40 shillings ; was worth when re- 
ceived 30 shillings ; T,R,E. 100 shillings. 

' i.e. three-quarters of a plough-team. 

^ ForCliftone. 

* See Introduction. 



This manor 2 thegns held and could sell to 
whom they wished. 

In Prestelai [Priestley '] Turgis holds of 
Nigel 1^ hides. There is land for 2 ploughs 
and they are there ; meadow (sufficient) for 2 
plough teams ; woodland (to feed) 40 swine. 
There are i villein and 4 bordars. It is worth 
20 shillings ; (was worth) as much when 
received, and T.R.E. 60 shillings. This land 
5 thegns held and could assign and sell. 

M. Nigel holds Herlingdone [Harling- 
ton]. It is assessed at 5 hides. There is land 
for 10 ploughs. On the demesne are 3^ 
ploughs and there could be 2 more. There 
12 villeins have 5 ploughs. There are 6 bor- 
dars and 10 serfs, meadow (sufficient) for 4 
plough teams, woodland (to feed) 400 swine, 
and I ram and i load of oats (are proceeds) 
from the woodland. It is worth 6 pounds ; 
when received (was worth) 4 pounds ; T.R.E. 
9 pounds. This manor 4 thegns held and 
could sell to whom they wished. 

In Ratborgestoche [Redbornestoke] 


In EssELTONE [Shelton''] Erfast holds of 
Nigel I hide. There is land for i plough, 
and the plough is there ; meadow (sufficient) 
for a half plough team ; woodland (to feed) 40 
swine. There are i villein and 2 bordars 
and I serf. It is worth 20 shillings, (was 
worth) when received 1 5 shillings, and T.R.E. 
20 shillings. This land was held by Alward 
a man of Alric son of Goding and he could 
assign it to whom he wished. 

In the same (vill) Stephen holds of Nigel 
half a hide. There is land for a half plough 
and it is there with 2 bordars ; meadow is 
there (sufficient) for 2 oxen ; woodland (to feed) 
1 2 swine. It is worth 6 shillings ; when re- 
ceived (was worth) 3 shillings, and T.R.E. lo 
shillings. This land Fuglo, a man of Alric 
son of Goding, held and could sell to whom 
he wished. 

M. In Merstone [Marston (Morteyne)] 
Erfast holds of Nigel 8 hides and half a virgate. 
There is land for 10 ploughs. On the demesne 
are 3 ploughs, and 14 villeins (are there) with 
8 ploughs. There are 2 bordars and 4 serfs, 
meadow (sufficient) for 8 plough teams, wood- 
land (to feed) 300 swine. It is worth 7 
pounds ; when received 100 shillings ; T.R.E. 
12 pounds. This manor 21 sokemen held 

^ In Flitwick. 

=" In Marston Morteyne (J.H.R.) 

who could sell or assign their lands to whom 
they wished. 

M. Nigel de Wast' holds of Nigel de Albini 
{Alhiniensi) Melebroc [Millbrook]. It is assessed 
at 5 hides. There is land for 6 ploughs. On 
the demesne are 2 ploughs and 4 villeins (are 
there) with 4 ploughs. There are 2 bordars, 
and 2 mills worth [de) 6 shillings, meadow 
(sufficient) for 2 plough teams, woodland (to 
feed) 100 swine. It is worth 3 pounds ; (was 
worth) when received 30 shillings, and T.R.E. 
100 shillings. This manor Goduin son of 
Lewin held * who could all sell or assign 

their land to whom they wished, 

M. The same [ipse) Nigel de Wast holds of 
Nigel de Albini Ammetelle [Ampthill]. It is 
assessed at 5 hides. There is land for 8 
ploughs. On the demesne are 2 ploughs and 
6 villeins have 4 ploughs and there could be 
2 more. There are 2 bordars and i serf, 
meadow (sufficient) for 6 plough teams, wood- 
land (to feed) 300 swine. It is worth 4 
pounds ; when received (was worth) 40 shil- 
lings ; T.R.E. 4 pounds. This manor 7 soke- 
men held and could sell and assign their land 
to whom they wished. 

The same Nigel holds of Nigel Brume 
[Broom °]. It is assessed at 5 hides. There 
is land for 5 ploughs ; and so many are there 
with 9 villeins and 5 bordars. There is 
woodland (to feed) 30 swine. It is worth 40 
shillings. Seven sokemen held it and could 
assign and sell it. 

In Meldone [Maulden] John de Roches ° 
took unjust possession of 25 acres to the hurt 
of {super) the men who hold that vill ; so 
the men of the hundred (court) attest ; and 
now Nigel de Albini has them. 

M. Nigel de Albini [Albiniensis) holds Wes- 
COTE [ .'] It is assessed at 3 hides all but 

I virgate. There is land for 6 ploughs. Five 
are there and there could be a sixth. There 

^ See Introduction, p. 199. 

* MS. is probably defective. 

^ In Southill and near Biggleswfade, in Wixam- 
tree Hundred. This is probably the identification. 
The entry is inserted in the margin, having been 
omitted, and is placed next to the other holding 
of Nigel de Wast, without note of what Hun- 
dred it was in. I think it was in Wixamtree 

* See Introduction. 

^ Formerly Westcote, a hamlet in Willsham- 
stead, which was in Redbornestoke Hundred 



are 5 villeins and 1 1 bordars, meadow (suffi- 
cient) for 2 plough teams, woodland to feed 
100 swine and yielding iron {ferrum) for 
the ploughs.^ It is worth 60 shillings ; (was 
worth) when received 40 shillings, and T.R.(E.) 
6 pounds. This manor 7 sokemen held and 
could assign and sell their land to whom they 

In Flictham [Flitt] Hundret 

M. Nigel himself holds Clopelle [Clop- 
hill]. It is assessed at 5 hides. There is land 
for 8 ploughs. In the demesne are 3 hides, 
and on it are 2 ploughs ; and 5 villeins have 
6 ploughs. There are 5 bordars and i serf; 
meadow (sufficient) for 4 plough teams ; wood- 
land (to feed) 200 swine and (worth) 12 
pence (besides). It is worth 60 shillings, (was 
worth) when received 30 shillings, and T.R.E. 
8 pounds. This manor 2 thegns held, men 
of Earl Tosti. Of these 5 hides Nigel 
himself claims i virgate which his predecessor 
held T.R.E. Nigel himself was seised of it 
after he came into (possession of) the honour 
{ad honorem venit). But Ralf Tallgebosc dis- 
seised him. 

M. Nigel himself holds Chainehou [Cain- 
hoe].' It is assessed at 4 hides. There is 
land for 6 ploughs. There are 2 hides and 3 
virgates in the demesne ; 2 ploughs are on 
it, and there could be 2 others. There 3 
villeins have 2 ploughs, and (there is) I mill 
worth [de) 6 shillings, and meadow (sufficient) 
for 8 plough teams. There is woodland (to 
feed) 100 swine and (worth) 2 shillings be- 
sides. There are 3 bordars and 5 serfs. It 
is worth 60 shillings ; when received (was 
worth) 30 shillings, and T.R.E. 100 shillings. 
This manor Alvric, a thegn of King Edward, 
held and could assign and sell without his 

M. In SiwiLEssou [Silsoe] a certain concu- 
bine of Nigel's holds 2 hides. There is land 
for 4 ploughs. On the demesne is i plough, 
and 2 villeins have 2 ploughs and there could 
be a third. There are 3 bordars and i serf ; 
meadow (sufficient) for 3 plough teams ; 
woodland (to feed) 50 swine. It is worth 
30 shillings ; was worth as much when re- 
ceived and T.R.E. This land was held by 
Alvric the little {parvus)^ a thegn of King 

M. Roger and Ruallon hold of Nigel de 

* See Introduction, p. 2IZ. 

' This became the head of the barony (J.H.R.) 

Albini ' Polochessele [Pulloxhill]. It is as- 
sessed at 10 hides. There is land for 13 
ploughs. On the demesne are 2 ploughs and 
there could be 2 others, and 1 1 villeins have 9 
ploughs. There are 13 bordars and 2 serfs; 
meadow (sufficient) for 6 plough teams ; 
woodland (to feed) 1 00 swine. It is worth 
I o pounds ; when received (was worth) 8 

fo. 214b 

pounds, and T.R.E. 13 pounds. This manor 
8 sokemen held and could assign and sell their 
land to whom they would. 

M. In Stradli [Streatley] Pirot * holds of 
Nigel (de) Alb(ini) 4 hides and the third part 
of I hide as I manor. There is land for 6 
ploughs. On the demesne are 2 ploughs and 
4 villeins have i plough and there could be 3 
more. There are 4 bordars and i serf; 
meadow (sufficient) for 3 plough teams ; 
woodland (to feed) 20 swine. There a cer- 
tain ^ has I plough. It is worth 4 
pounds ; when received (was worth) 40 shil- 
lings ; T.R.E. 6 pounds. This manor Lewin 
Cilt held, and 3 other thegns of King Edward 
and they could sell their land to whom they 
wished. Three hides of this land Pirot 
holds by marriage as his wife's [de maritagio 
sua femina\ and I hide and a third part of i 
hide he holds in fee of Nigel de Albini. 

InMiLDENTONE [Milton (Emest)"] Turgis 
holds of Nigel 3 hides all but I virgate. There 
is land for 4 ploughs. On the demesne is i 
plough and 4 villeins have 2^ ploughs and a 
half plough ^ villeins and 3 bordars. There 
is meadow (sufficient) for 3 plough teams. It 
is worth 30 shillings ; (was worth) as much 
when received, and T.R.E. 40 shillings. This 
land 6 sokemen held and could assign or sell 
their land to whom they wished. 

In Wilge [Willey] Hundret 

In Carlentone [Carlton] Chetel holds of 
Nigel I hide and the third part of i hide. 
There is land for \\ ploughs, and they are 

3 ' ten' Nigell' de albin'.' 

* See p. 236, note 3. Ralf Pirot held 5 fees 
and John Pirot i fee of Robert de Albini on this 
fief in 1 166 (J.H.R.) 

^ Word probably omitted in MS. 

* Milton Ernest was in Stodden Hundred, but 
the hundredal heading is omitted. The 2f hides 
here entered is exactly the amount required, with 
the other Milton Ernest entries, to complete the 
10 hide unit (J.H.R.) 

'' So MS., apparently defective. Probably the 
text should read : ' And there could be half a 
plough more ' (J.H.R.) 



there, and 3 villeins and 2 bordars, and meadow 
(sufficient) for i^ plough teams. It is worth 
20 shillings; (was worth) when received 10 
shillings, and T.R.E. 15 shillings. This land 
Golderon a man of Levenot held and could 
assign to whom he wished. 

In the same (vill) Bernard holds of Nigel 
I hide and half a virgate. There is land for 
1^ ploughs, and they are there, and 5 bordars; 
meadow (sufficient) for i plough team, and i 
mill (worth) 13 shillings and 4 pence. It is 
worth 40 shillings ; (was worth) when re- 
ceived 20 shillings, and T.R.E. 30 shillings. 
This land 3 sokemen held and could assign to 
whom they wished. 

In Radewelle [Radwell*] Nigel Wast holds 
of Nigel de Albingi 7 hides and i^ virgates. 
There is land for 5 ploughs. On the demesne 
is I, and 6 villeins have 4 ploughs. There 
are 6 bordars and 3 serfs, and i mill worth 
(de) I o shillings, and meadow (sufficient) for 5 
plough teams. It is worth 4 pounds ; (was 
worth, as much when received, and T.R.E. 8 
pounds. This manor 10 sokemen held and 
could assign their land to whom they wished. 

In ToRNEiA* [Turvey] Nigel de Wast 
holds of Nigel de Albingi i hide and half a 
virgate. There is land for i^ ploughs and 
they are there and 5 bordars ; meadow (suffi- 
cient) for I plough team, woodland (to feed) 
20 swine. It is worth 13 shillings; (was 
worth) as much when received ; T.R.E. 30 
shillings. This land Alward a man of Bishop 
Wlwi held and could assign to whom he 

In Bereforde [Harford] Hundret 

In WiBOLDESTUNE [Wyboston*] Pirot* holds 
of the king 9 hides and i virgate of Nigel's 
fee. There is land for 9 ploughs. On the 
demesne are 4 ploughs and 12 villeins have 5 
ploughs. There are 6 bordars and meadow 
(sufficient) for 2 plough teams. It is worth 
6 pounds ; (was worth) when received 4 pounds ; 
T.R.E. 10 pounds. This manor 12 sokemen 
held and could sell to whom they wished. 

In Bicheleswade [Biggleswade] Hundret 

Fulcher of Paris ^ [farisiacensis] holds half a 
hide of Nigel. There is land for i plough, and 
it is there, and meadow (sufficient) for i plough 
team, and i serf. It is worth 52 shillings ; 

' In Felmersham. 

* For Torueia. 

^ In Eaton Socon. 

* See p. 244, note 4, above. 

* See p. 232, note 2, above. 

when received (was worth) 10 shillings ; 
T.R.E. 30 shillings. This land Samar, a 
man of Lewin held and could sell. 

In Holme [Holme'] the same {ipse) Fulcher 
holds of Nigel i hide and half a virgate. There 
is land for 2 ploughs, and they are there, and 
3 villeins, and meadow (sufficient) for i plough 
team. It is worth 20 shillings, was worth 
when received 10 shillings, and T.R.E. 30 
shillings. This land 7 sokemen held and 
could assign and sell. 

In Wichestanestou [Wixamtree] 

In Herghetone [Harrowden'] Nigel holds 
6 hides. There is land for 8 ploughs. In 
the demesne are i^ hides and half a virgate, 
and on it is i plough ; and 1 4 villeins have 7 
ploughs. There are 10 bordars and 2 serfs, 
meadow (sufficient) for 2 plough teams, and 
woodland (to feed) 50 swine. In all it is 
worth 1 00 shillings ; (was worth) when re- 
ceived 4 pounds, and T.R.E. lOO shillings. 
This manor 14 sokemen held and could 
assign and sell their land to whom they wished. 

In Clistone* [Clifton] Hundret 

In Clistone [Clifton] William de Caron 
holds 2 hides of Nigel. There is land for i^ 
ploughs. One plough is there, and there could 
be a half plough (more). Meadow is there 
(sufficient) for i plough team. It is worth 1 5 
shillings, when received (was worth) 10 shil- 
lings, and T.R.E. 20 shillings. This land 4 
sokemen held and could assign and sell. 

In Haneslau [Henlow] Erfast holds of 
Nigel 5^ hides. There is land for 5^ ploughs. 
On the demesne are 2 ploughs, and 10 villeins 
have 3I ploughs. There are 3 serfs and i 
mill worth {de) 5 shillings, and meadow suffi- 
cient for 5 plough teams. From pasture 
(come) 10 pence. In all {totis valentiis) it is 
worth no shillings, (was worth) when re- 
ceived 4 pounds, and T.R.E. 7 pounds. This 
land 9 sokemen held and could assign and 
sell to whom they wished. 

Of these 5^ hides the monks of St. Nicho- 
las of Angers now hold of Nigel 3 virgates in 

In Alriceseia [Arlesey] Erfast holds of 
Nigel 3 virgates and the third part of i 
virgate. There is land for i plough, and it is 
there and meadow (sufficient) for i plough 

° In Biggleswade. 
' In Eastcotts. 
8 For Cliftone. 



team. It is worth 1 7 shillings, (was worth) 
as much when received, and T.R.E. 20 shil- 
lings. This land 2 sokemen held and could 
sell to whom they wished. 


In Manesheve [Manshead] Hundret 
M. William Spech holds in Holecote 
[Holcutt] 4 hides as i manor, and Ralf Passa- 
q(uam) holds of him. There is land for 3 
ploughs. On the demesne is i plough, and 
5 villeins have 2 ploughs. There are 8 bor- 
dars and i serf, and i mill (worth) 5 shillings 
and 4 pence, and woodland (to feed) 50 
swine. In all it is worth 60 shillings ; when 
received 20 shillings ; T.R.E. 40 shillings. 
This manor Alward Belrap, a man of Alric, 
held and could sell to whom he wished. 
This land is (held by William) in exchange 
for {est de excambio de) Totingedone [Todding- 
ton'], which he exchanged for it. 

In Ratbernestoche [Redbornestoke] 

William son of Rainald holds of William 
Spech Stepigelai [Steppingley]. It is assessed 
at 5 hides. There is land for 7 ploughs. On 
the demesne are i\ ploughs, and 14 villeins 
have 5^ ploughs, and (there are) 2 serfs, 
meadow (sufficient) for 7 plough teams, and 
woodland (to feed) 100 swine. In all it is 
worth 4 pounds, (was worth) when received 
40 shillings ; T.R.E. 8 pounds. This manor 
was held by Almar, a man of Alvric of Flicte- 
wite [Flitwick*], and there were 2 sokemen, 
his men, there, who could sell their land to 
whom they wished. 

In Flictham [Flitt] Hundret 

In Stradlei [Streatley] Hugh holds of 
William two-thirds [partes) of I virgate. There 
is land for 2 oxen^ (to plough). It is and w^as 
worth 2 shillings T.R.E. and after {semper). 
This land Alvric, a man of Alvric the little, 
held and could sell to whom he wished. 

M. In Bideham [Biddenham] Ralf and 
Serlo de Ros hold of William 4 hides less 
1^ virgates. There is land for 4 ploughs. 
On the demesne are 2 ploughs, and 6 villeins 
have 2 ploughs. There are 2 bordars and 2 
serfs, and i mill (worth) 10 shillings, and 

* Toddington (' Dodintone ') appears above as 
held by Ernulf de Hesdin in 1086 (J.H.R.) 

' The name of the holder of Flitwick is given 
below as Alwin. 

' j.e. a quarter of a plough-team. 

meadow (sufficient) for 4 plough teams. It 
is worth 40 shillings ; (was worth) when 
received 20 shillings, and T.R.E. 40 shillings. 
This manor 1 1 sokemen held and could assign 
and sell their land to whom they wished. 
This land William states that he has in ex- 
change for {pro excambio de) Totingedone 
[Toddington *]. 

In Wilge [Willey] Hundret 

In Henewic [Hinwick] Walter holds of 
William i hide. There is land for 2 ploughs. 
A half plough is there, and there could be 
another and a half. It is worth 10 shillings ; 
(was worth) as much when received, and 
T.R.E. 20 shillings. This land was held by 
Ulnod, a man of Ulsi son of Borgret, and he 
could assign to whom he wished. 

In Wimentone [Wymington] Walter 
holds of William 3 virgates. There is land 

fo. S15 

for a half plough. It is worth 2 shillings ; 
(was worth) when received 10 shillings, and 
T.R.E. 10 shillings. This land Levric, a 
man of Borgred, held and could assign to 
whom he wished. 

In Bereforde [Barford] Hundret 

In Chavelestorne [Chawston °] William 
son of Raineward holds of William 7 hides 
and I virgate. There is land for 7 ploughs. 
On the demesne is i plough, and 16 villeins 
have 6 ploughs. There are 2 bordars and i 
serf, and i mill worth {de) 1 3 shillings and 4 
pence, meadow (sufficient) for 7 plough teams, 
woodland (to feed) 10 swine. In all it is 
worth 6 pounds, (was worth) when received 
4 pounds, and T.R.E. 9 pounds. This land 
12 sokemen held and could sell to whom- 
they wished. 

Of these 7 hides and i virgate the men of 
William Spech claim 1^ acres of meadow 
against {super) the men of Eudo Dapifer ; and 
the hundred (court) attests that his predecessor 
had it T.R.E. ; and the same William claims 
against {super) a certain man of Hugh de 
Beauchamp other 7 acres of land of which 
he was disseised, but of which his predecessor 
was seised. Of the aforesaid land Eudo 
Dapifer claims i acre against {super) Ruallon 
a man of Hugh de Beauchamp." 

In the same (vill) William Gros holds half a 
hide of William Spec. There is land for a 
half plough and it is there, and meadow 
(sufficient) for a half plough team. There 

* See note I. 

* In Roxton. 

® He held of him at Chawston, 



are 2 villeins. It is worth 5 shillings, (was 
worth) when received 5 shillings, and T.R.E. 
10 shillings. This land 2 men of King 
Edward held and could sell to whom they 

M. In RocHESDONE [Roxton] William 
Spec holds 8 hides and 3 virgates. There is 
land for 8 ploughs. In the demesne are 4 
hides and 3 virgates, and on it are 2 ploughs, 
and 12 villeins have 6 ploughs. There are i 
bordar and 1 serf, and i mill worth {de) 33 
shillings and 260 eels, meadow sufficient for 

3 plough teams, woodland (to feed) 20 swine. 
It is worth 7 pounds, (was worth) when 
received 50 shiUings, and T.R.E. 10 pounds. 
This manor 12 sokemen held and could sell 
their land to whom they wished. 

In Bicheleswade [Biggleswade] Hundret 

M. In Aisseworde [Eyworth] William 
Spec holds 9 hides as one manor. There is 
land for 9 ploughs. In the demesne are 5^ 
hides, and on it are 3 ploughs, and 13 villeins 
have 6 ploughs. There are 2 bordars and 6 
serfe, and i mill worth {de) 8 shillings, and 
meadow (sufficient) for 9 plough teams. It 
is worth 7 pounds, when received (was worth) 
the same, and T.R.E. 8 pounds. This manor 
20 sokemen held and could assign or sell their 
land to whom they wished without leave of 
their lords. 

In Wichenestanestou [Wixamtree] 

M. In Sudgivele [Southill] 2 Frenchmen 
hold of William Spech 5 hides and half a vir- 
gate. There is land for 7 ploughs. On the 
demesne are 4 ploughs, and 8 villeins have 3 
ploughs. There are 8 bordars and 6 serfs, 
meadow (sufficient) for 7 plough teams and 
woodland (to feed) 200 swine. It is worth 

4 pounds and 10 shillings; (was worth) when 
received 4 pounds ; T.R.E. 3 pounds. This 
manor 1 6 sokemen held and could assign and 
sell their land to whom they would. 

In Stanford [Stanford'] Hugh holds of 
William Spech i hide. There is land for i 
plough and it is there, and the moiety of a 
mill (worth) 5 shillings. There are 2 serfs, 
meadow sufficient for i plough team, wood- 
land to feed 20 swine. It is worth 15 shil- 
lings, when received (was worth) 20 shillings, 
and as much T.R.E. This land Lemar, 
a thegn of King Edward, held. 

M. In Wardone [Warden] William Spec 
» In Southill, 

holds 9 hides of the king as one manor. 
There is land for 9 ploughs. In the demesne 
are 3^ hides, and on it is 1 plough and there 
could be another. There 1 8 villeins have 7 
ploughs. There are 4 bordars and 4 serfs, and 
I mill (worth) 1 2 shillings, and meadow suffi- 
cient for 6 plough teams. It is worth 6 
pounds, (was worth) as much when received, 
and T.R.E. 8 pounds. This manor 8 soke- 
men held and could assign their land to whom 
they would. 

In BisTONE [Beeston*"] William Spech holds 
32 virgates. There is land for i plough. A 
half plough is there and there could be 
(another) half plough. There is meadow 
(sufficient) for a half plough team. It is 
worth 10 shillings, (was worth) as much 
when received, and T.R.E. 20 shillings. 
This land Lewin Cilt, a king's thegn, held. 

In Nortgivele [Northill] Walter Spec 
holds 6-^ hides as one manor. There is land 
for 7 ploughs. In the demesne are 4 hides 
and on it are 3 ploughs, and 10 villeins have 
4 ploughs. There are 4 serfe and a moiety 
of a mill worth {de) 13 shillings, meadow 
sufficient for 7 plough teams and woodland to 
feed 200 swine. In all it is worth 6 pounds, 
(was worth) as much when received, and 
T.R.E. 8 pounds. This manor 6 sokemen 
held. They could assign and sell to whom 
they wished T.R.E. 


In Stanburge [Staneridge] Hundret^ 

M. Rotbert de Todeni holds of the king 
Estodham [Studham], and Baldric holds of 
Robert. It is assessed at 6 hides. There is 
land for 6 ploughs. On the demesne are 2 
ploughs and 10 villeins have 4 ploughs. 
There are i bordar and 4 serfs, and woodland 
to feed 100 swine. It is worth 4 pounds, 
(was worth) when received 40 shillings, and 
T.R.E. 8 pounds. This manor was held by 
Osulf son of Frane, a thegn of King Edward.* 

[ "] 

In Achelei [Oakley] 2 knights {milites) 
hold of Robert 4 hides. There is land for 8 
ploughs. On the demesne are 3 ploughs and 

* In Sandy. 

^ Half Hundred. Now part of Manshead Hun- 

* See Introduction. 

* The name of the Hundred is apparently 
omitted. It should be ' Stodene.' 



there could be a fourth. There 7 villeins 
have 4 ploughs, and (there are) 3 bordars and 
5 serfs, and i mill (worth) 26 shillings and 
200 eels, and meadow (sufficient) for 4 plough 
teams. It is worth 4 pounds, (was worth) 
when received a like sum, and T.R.E. 4 
pounds and 10 shillings. This land Osulf, a 
thegn of King Edward, held. 

In Wilge [Willey] Hundret 

In ToRVEi [Turvey] 2 knights {milites) 
hold of Robert 2 hides and i virgate. There 
is land for 4^ ploughs. On the demesne are 
2 ploughs, and 3 villeins have 2 ploughs and 
there could be a half plough (more). There 
are 6 bordars and 2 serfs, meadow (sufficient 
for) I plough team, and woodland (to feed) 
10 swine. It is worth 40 shillings, (was 
worth) when received 60 shillings ; T.R.E. 
70 shillings. This land the aforesaid Osulf 



In THE Half Hundred of Stanburge' 

Gilbert de Gand holds Edingeberge [Edles- 
borough ^]. It is assessed at 10 hides. There 
is land for 7 ploughs. In the demesne are 5 
hides and on it are 4 ploughs, and 10 villeins 
have 4 ploughs. In all {totis valentiis) it is 
worth no shillings, when received (was 
worth) a like sum, and T.R.E. 10 pounds. 
This manor Ulf, a thegn of King Edward, 
held and could do with it what he wished. 



In Wilge [Willey] Hundret 

Rotbert de Olgi holds in Lalega [Thur- 
leigh], and Richard Basset holds of him, half a 
hide. There is land for 2 ploughs. One is now 
there and there could be another. There are 
I villein and 3 bordars and 2 serfs, and wood- 
land (to feed) 30 swine. It is and was worth 
40 shillings T.R.E. and since {semper). This 
land Oviet, a thegn of King Edward,' held 
and could sell to whom he wished. The 
men of Eudo claim this land through the 

1 Now part of Manshead Hundred. 

^ Now wholly in Bucks. Gilbert de Gand is 
entered under Bucks as holding 20 hides at ' Ed- 
dinberge,' so that one-third of it was reckoned as 
in Beds at the time of the Survey (J.H.R.) 

' This was probably the ' Oviet/ a man of 
King Edward, who had been succeeded by 
Countess Judith at Sharnbrook close by (J.H.R.) 

predecessor of their lord,* all whose lands King 
William gave to him [sihi). 

In the same (vill) Salomon the priest holds 
I virgate of Robert de Olgi. There is land 
for I plough and it is there with i bordar. It 
is and was worth 10 shillings T.R.E. and after 
[semper). This land Alwin, a man of Bishop 
Wlwi held, and could sell. 


In the Half Hundret of Bochelai^ 

Rannulf, Ilger's brother, holds 5 hides in 
Pabeneham [Pavenham] and Robert son of 
Nigel of him. There is land for 6 ploughs. 
On the demesne is i plough, and there could 
be another ; and 9 villeins have 2 ploughs and 
there could be other 2. There are 2 bordars 
and 3 serfs, and meadow sufficient for 6 
plough teams. It is worth 3 pounds, (was 
worth) when received 4 pounds, and T.R.E. 
6 pounds. This manor Goduin, a thegn of 
King Edward, held. Of this land Rannulf, 
Ilger's brother, claims 12 acres of arable 
against Gilbert son of Salomon,' and 4 acres of 
meadow against Hugh de Grentmaisnil,' of 
which Rannulf has been unjustly dispossessed. 
And the men of the half hundred (court) 
state that this land which Hugh and Gilbert 
are now holding belonged T.R.E. to {jacuit ad) 
the land which Rannulf, Ilger's brother, holds. 

In Flictham [Flitt] Hundret 

Rotbert Fafiton holds Flictha [Flitton] of 
the king. It is assessed at 5 hides. There 

fo. 915b 

is land for 6 ploughs. In the demesne are 2 
hides, and on it are 2 ploughs. There 3 
villeins have 2 ploughs and there could be 2 
others. There are 3 bordars and 4 serfs, and 
meadow (sufficient) for 6 plough teams, and 
woodland (to feed) 50 swine. In all it is 
worth 60 shillings, (was worth) as much 
when received, and T.R.E. 100 shillings. 
This manor Alwin Horim, a thegn of King 
Edward, held. 

* The predecessor in question was probably 
Lisois de Moustiers (see p. 236, note 2, above). 

" Now part of Willey Hundred. 

° He held at Felmersham, the next parish to 
Pavenham (J.H.R.) 

' Hugh's wife appears below as holding land 
in Milton (Ernest) facing Pavenham across the 
Ouse, on the banks of which this meadow must 
have been (J.H.R.) 

^ See Introduction. 





In Wilge [Willey] Hundret 

M. Alvered of Lincoln holds in Wimen- 
tone [Wymington] 3 hides, and Gleu holds 
of him.^ There is land for 4 ploughs. On 
the demesne is i plough and there could be 
another. There are i villein and 6 bordars 
and 3 serfs with 2 ploughs, and meadow 
sufficient for 2 plough teams. It is worth 40 
shillings ; (was worth) when received 50 
shillings ; T.R.E. 60 shillings. This manor 
Goduin Franpold held and could sell. With 
these 3 hides Alvered claims against Walter 
the Fleming half a hide of which he dis- 
possessed him unjustly, as the men of the 
hundred (court) bear testimony, since his pre- 
decessor was seised of it T.R.E., and the 
same Alvered was afterwards possessed of it.* 
With this land, besides, the same Alvered 
claims against the Bishop of Coutances^ wood- 
land (to feed) 100 swine, which land his 
predecessor had T.R.E. , but the bishop dis- 
possessed him of it unjustly, as the men of 
the hundred (court) attest. 



In the Half Hundret of Stanburge* 

M. Walter the Fleming holds Totenehou 
[Totternhoe] and Osbert holds of him. It 
was assessed at 15 hides T.R.E. But after 
that King William came to England it was 
assessed * only at {non se defendit nisi pro) 1 o 
hides, and the men who held and still hold (the) 
5 hides kept back all the king's dues and 
'gafol' {gablum) and still keep them back. 
There is land for i o ploughs. On the de- 
mesne are 2 ploughs, and 22 villeins have 4 
ploughs and there could be 4 others. There 
are 2 bordars and 4 serfs. There are 3 mills 
worth {de) 10 shillings and 8 pence, meadow 
(sufficient) for 4 plough teams, and woodland 

' He also held of Alvred in Lincolnshire at 
Cuxwold, Rothwell, and two other places (J.H.R.) 

* Opposite this entry in the MS., in the next 
column, stands the entry of this contested half- 
hide on the fief of Walter the Fleming O-H.R.) 

^ This may refer to the Bishop's holding at 
Rushden adjoining, entered at the end of his fief 
on p. 226 (J.H.R.) 

* Now part of Manshead Hundred. 

^ It is scarcely possible to give in English the 
exact force of the Domesday formula ' se defendit.' 
But, in this instance, the reduction must not be 
taken as an act of the authorities. It seems rather 
to represent an unauthorized pretension of the 
holders (J.H.R.) 

(to feed) 150 swine. In all it is worth 8 
pounds ; (was worth) when received 10 
pounds ; T.R.E. 1 6 pounds. This manor 
Levenot a thegn of King Edward held and 
could sell to whom he wished. 

In Stoden [Stodden] Hundret 

In MiLDENTONE [Milton (Ernest)] Rainald 
holds of Walter 2 hides. There is land for 

3 ploughs. On the demesne is i plough, 
and 2 villeins have i plough, and there could 
be another. There is i bordar ; meadow is 
there (sufficient) for 2 plough teams. It is 
worth 20 shillings, (was worth) as much 
when received, and. T.R.E. 25 shillings. 
This land 2 sokemen, men of Brictric, held 
and could assign to whom they wished. 

In Wilge [Willey] Hundret 

In ToRNEi ° [Turvey] Hugh holds of 
Walter i hide. There is land for 2 ploughs. 
On the demesne is i, and 8 bordars and i 
serf are there with i plough. Meadow is 
there (sufficient) for i plough team, woodland 
(to feed) 40 swine. It is worth 30 shillings, 
(was worth) when received 10 shillings, and 
T.R.E. 40 shillings. This land Levenot, a 
thegn of King Edward, held and could sell 
to whom he wished. 

M. In Wadehelle [Odell ^] Walter the 
Fleming holds of the king 5 hides and i virgate 
and two-thirds [partes) of i virgate. There is 
land for 5 ploughs. In the demesne are 2 
hides and on it are 2 ploughs, and there are 
13 villeins with 3 ploughs. There are 5 
bordars and 5 serfs, and i mill worth {de) 36 
shillings and 8 pence and 200 eels, meadow 
(sufficient) for 5 plough teams and woodland 
(to feed) 60 swine. It is worth 100 shillings, 
(was worth) when received 8 pounds, and 
T.R.E. 10 pounds. This manor Levenot a 
thegn of King Edward held, and there i 
sokeman had a half hide which he could 
assign to whom he wished. 

M. In PoDiNTONE [Puddington (or Poding- 
ton)] Hugh holds of Walter i hide and 3 
virgates. There is land for 5^ ploughs. On 
the demesne are 2 ploughs, and 4 villeins have 
3^ ploughs. There are 9 bordars and 2 
serfs, meadow (sufficient) for i plough team, 
woodland (to feed) 20 swine. It is worth 

4 pounds and 10 shillings ; (was worth) when 

• For Toruei. 

' This was the head of the barony (see Intro- 
duction, p. 199). 




received 50 shillings, and as much T.R.E. 
This manor Levenot, a thegn of King 
Edward, held. 

M. In WiMENTONE [Wymington] Osbert 
holds of Walter 4 hides as i manor. There 
is land for 5 ploughs. On the demesne are 
3 ploughs, and there are i villein and 8 bor- 
dars and 4 serfs w^ith I plough. Meadow is 
there (sufficient) for 2 plough teams. It is 
worth 3 pounds, (was worth) as much when 
received, and T.R.E. 4 pounds. Lant, a man 
of Levenot, thegn of the king, held this 
manor, and there I sokeman had I hide and 
could assign it to whom he wished. 

In the same vill the same Osbert holds of 
Walter half a hide. There is land for a half 
plough, but it is not there. It is worth 2 
shillings ; (was worth) when received 4 shil- 
lings ; and T.R.E. 10 shillings. This land 
Goduin Franpalt held and could assign to 
whom he wished. This same land Alvred of 
Lincoln claims against Walter the Fleming."^ 

In Lalega [Thurleigh^] Hugh holds of 
Walter 3 hides as I manor. There is land 
for 7 ploughs. On the demesne are 2 ploughs 
and 8 villeins have 5 ploughs. There are 12 
bordars and 3 serfs and woodland (to feed) 150 
swine. It is worth 1 00 shillings ; (was worth) 
when received 60 shillings ; T.R.E. 4 pounds. 
This manor Levenot, a thegn of King 
Edward, held. 

In the same (vill) Raynald holds of Walter 
half a hide. There is land for 2 ploughs. 
On the demesne is i plough, and 4 bordars 
(Jire there) with i plough. It is worth 20 
shillings, (was worth) when received 10 
shillings, and T.R.E. 5 shillings. This land 
Ordric, a man of Levenot, held and could sell. 

In Bicheleswade [Biggleswade] Hundret 

In Stratone [Stratton^] [ *] holds 

I hide and i virgate. There is land for i| 
ploughs, and a plough and a half plough could 
be there.* There are 3 bordars, and meadow 
(sufficient) for i plough team. It is and was 
worth 10 shillings T.R.E. and after {semper). 
This land Lewin a thegn ' of King Edward 
held and could assign and sell. This belongs 

1 See p. 249, note 2, above. 

^ A third of a knight's fee in Thurleigh (Lega), 
is found held of the barony of 'WahuU' (J.H.R.) 

^ In Biggleswade. 

* Name omitted in MS. 

^ Probably error for ' i plough is there, and 
there could be a half plough (more).' 

« MS. ' Steign.' 

and belonged to (j'acei et jacuit in) Langeford 
[Langford], the manor of the same Walter.'' 

In Holme [Holme *] Walter holds i hide. 
There is land for i^ ploughs. One plough 
is there, and there could be a half plough 
(more). There are 3 bordars ; meadow (suffi- 
cient) for i^ plough teams. It is worth 20 
shillings, (was worth) when received 16 shil- 
lings ; T.R.E. 20 shillings. This land 2 
sokemen held and could assign to whom they 

In EsTwiCHE [Astwick] Hugh holds i vir- 
gate of Walter. There is land for 2 oxen^ 
(to plough), and they are there. There are i 
bordar and i mill worth [de) 13 shillings. It 
is and was worth 16 shillings T.R.E. and 
after {semper). This land Lewin, a thegn of 
King Edward, held. 

M. Walter himself holds Langeford 
[Langford]. It is assessed at 10 hides. 
There is land for 16 ploughs. In the de- 
mesne are 4 hides and i virgate, and on it 
are 4 ploughs, and there could be a fifth. 
There are 1 2 villeins 7 bordars and 5 serfs with 
9 ploughs, and there could be 2 ploughs more. 
There are 2 mills worth {de) 26 shillings and 
8 pence, meadow (sufficient) for 16 plough 
teams, and worth 2 shillings besides {de super- 
plus). From pasture (come) 6 shillings, and 
there is pasture besides for 300 sheep. There 
is woodland (to feed) 16 swine. In all it is 
worth 15 pounds and 10 shillings, (was worth) 
when received 10 pounds, and T.R.E. 15 
pounds. This manor Lewin, a thegn of 
King Edward, held, and there i sokeman 
had I hide and could assign it to whom he 

In Wichestanestou [Wixamtree] 

In Sudgivele [Southill] Walter holds half 
a hide of woodland which his predecessor 
held T.R.E. 

In the same vill Alric holds of Walter i 
virgate. There is land for 4 oxen (to plough), 
and they are there, and meadow (sufficient) 
for 4 oxen. It is worth 5 shillings, (was 
worth) when received 3 shillings ; T.R.E. 10 
shillings. This land Lewin, a thegn of the 
king, held in mortgage {vadimonio) T.R.E. 
But after King William came to England he 

' The Langford entry comes three places lower 

* In Biggleswade. 

" i.e. a quarter of a plough-team. 



who had mortgaged this land redeemed it, and 
Seiher took possession of it to the king's hurt 
{super regem), as the men of the hundred 
(court) testify. 

In Cliston' [Clifton] Hundret 

In Hanslaue [Henlow] Hugh holds of 
Walter 3^ hides. There is land for 3^ 
ploughs. On the demesne is i plough and 
there could be another. There are 4 villeins 
with 2 ploughs, and (there are) 4 bordars and 
2 serfs, meadow (sufficient) for 3^ plough 
teams, and i mill worth {de) 34 shillings. In 
all it is worth 60 shillings, (was worth) when 
received 40 shillings ; T.R.E. 70 shillings. 
This land 6 sokemen held and could assign 
their land to whom they wished. 

fo. 316 


In Ratborgestoc [Redbornestoke] 

M. Walter, Seiher's brother, holds Segene- 
Hou [Segenhoe^]. It is assessed at 10 hides. 
There is land for 10 ploughs. In the demesne 
are 4 hides, and on it is 1 plough and there 
could be 2 ploughs (more). There 24 villeins 
have 7 ploughs. There are 4 bordars and 3 
serfs, meadow (sufficient) for 8 plough teams, 
woodland (to feed) 300 swine, and from dues 
of the woodland come 10 rams yearly. In 
all it is worth 6 pounds, when received (was 
worth) 10 pounds, T.R.E. 16 pounds. This 
manor Levenot a thegn of King Edward 
held, and there i sokeman had half a hide 
and could sell it to whom he wished. 

In Flictham [Flitt] Hundret 

M. In Sewilessou [Silsoe] Hugh holds of 
Walter 4 hides as i manor. There is land 
for lo ploughs. On the demesne are 2 
ploughs ; and 6 villeins and 8 bordars and 
4 serfs are there with 7 ploughs, and there 
could be an eighth. There is i mill worth 
(de) 26 pence. Meadow is there (sufficient) 
for 6 plough teams, woodland (to feed) 100 
swine and (worth) 2 shillings (besides). In 
all it is worth 8 pounds, (was worth) when 
received 100 shillings; T.R.E. ii pounds. 
This manor Levenot, a thegn of King 
Edward, held, and there 3 sokemen held half 
a hide and could assign and sell it to whom 
they wished. This half hide Hugh holds of 
the king, as his men say. 

» For Clifton. 

^ In Ridgmont. The Ordnance Survey's 
spelling Legenhoe appears to be a mistake. 


In Wilga [Willey] Hundret 

Hugh the Fleming holds of the king in 
Podintone [Podington] 2 hides and i vir- 
gate. There is land for 2-J- ploughs. In the 
demesne is half a hide, and on it is i plough, 
and 3 villeins have 1^ ploughs. There are 
6 bordars and i serf. It is worth 30 shillings, 
(was worth) as much when received, and 
T.R.E. 40 shillings. This land 4 sokemen 
held and could sell to whom they wished. 

Hugh himself holds in Hanewich [Hin- 
wick^] 1^ hides of the king. There is land 
for 3 ploughs. On the demesne are 2 
ploughs, and i villein and 4 bordars and 3 
serfs (are there) with i plough. It is worth 
30 shillings, (was worth) when received 20 
shillings, and T.R.E. 40 shillings. This land 
Alwold a man of Bishop Wlwi held and 
could sell. 

In Sernebroc [Sharnbrook] Robert holds 
of Hugh half a hide and one fourth part of I 
virgate. There is land for i plough and it is 
there, and i bordar and I serf, and meadow 
sufficient for i plough team. It is worth 10 
shillings, (was worth) when received 5 shil- 
lings ; T.R.E. 20 shillings. This land Levric 
a man of the abbot of Ramesy held and 
could assign to whom he wished. 


In Stoden [Stodden] Hundret 

Hugh the butler holds of the king in 
Estone [Easton*] 2 hides and 3 virgates. 
There is land for 4 ploughs. In the demesne 
is I hide and on it are 2 ploughs. There are 
4 villeins and i bordar and i serf with 2 
ploughs, and meadow (sufficient) for i plough 
team, and woodland (to feed) 200 swine. It 
is worth 40 shillings, (was worth) when re- 
ceived 70 shillings, and T.R.E. 40 shillings. 
This manor Wig a thegn of King Edward 
held, and there i sokeman had half a hide 
and could assign it to whom he wished. 

In Segresdone [ * ] Hugh holds i 

virgate, and it is worth 1 2 pence ; (was worth) 
T.R.E. 2 shillings. This land Alwin a man 
of Earl Harold held and could assign to whom 
he wished. 

3 In Puddington or Podington. 

* Co. Hunts (see Introduction). 

* See Introduction. 





In Stoden [Stodden] Hundret 

Sygar de Cioches holds in Estone [Easton'] 
2 hides of the king. There is land for 5 
ploughs. In the demesne are 2 carucates of 
land besides the 2 hides,^ and on it are 2 
ploughs, and 6 villeins have 3 ploughs. 
There are 12 bordars and 2 serfs, meadow 
(sufficient) for i plough team, wroodland (to 
feed) 60 sw^ine. It is w^orth 4 pounds ; when 
received (was worth) 3 pounds ; T.R.E. 4 
pounds. This land Wig, a thegn of King 
Edward, held and could assign and sell to 
whom he wished, 

In Wilga [Willey] Hundret 
Gunfrey [Gunfridus) de Cioches holds in 
Hanewic^ [Hinwick] i hide and 3 virgates. 
Tetbald holds of him. There is land for 3 
ploughs. On the demesne is I plough and 
there could be 2 (more). There are 3 villeins. 
It is worth 20 shillings ; (was worth) when re- 
ceived 10 shillings; T.R.E. 40 shillings. 
This land 2 sokemen held and could assign 
and sell to whom they wished. 


In Hereford [Barford] Hundret 

Richard son of Count Gilbert holds in 
Subberie [Sudbury"] i virgate of land which 
belongs to {^jacet in) the church of St. Neot, 
and belonged thereto (Jacuit in) T.R.E. 

In WiBOLDESTONE [Wyboston °] the monks 
of St. Neot hold of the aforesaid Richard 2 
hides and half a virgate. There is land for a 
half plough, but it is not there. Woodland 
(is there to feed) 100 swine. It is worth 11 
shillings, (was worth) when received a like 
sum; T.R.E. 21 shillings. This land be- 
longed to {Jacuit in) the church of St. Neot, 
T.R.E., in almoin. 

*• Co. Hunts (see Introduction). 

^ See p. 229, note 2. 

^ In Puddington or Podington. 

' yi/ias Richard 'de Clare' or 'de Tunbridge,' 
ancestor of the house of Clare and founder of St. 
Neot's priory (J.H.R.) 

" In Eaton Socon. Mr. Airy described it as 
' situated by the river at the northern extremity of 
the parish towards Little Paxton ' (J.H.R.) 

" In Eaton Socon, 

In Bicheleswade [Biggleswade] Hundret 

M. Richard Puniant holds of the king in 
Daintone [Dunton] 8 hides and [i ^] vir- 
gate as one manor. There is land for 8 
ploughs. In the demesne are 4 hides and i 
virgate, and on it are 3 ploughs. There 12 
villeins have 5 ploughs, and (there are) 2 
bordars and 3 serfs, and woodland (to feed) 60 
swine. In all it is worth 8 pounds, (was 
worth) when received 6 pounds, and as much 
T.R.E, This manor Archbishop Stigand 

In Tamiseforde [Tempsford] Robert 
holds of Richard P[un]g[iant] 2 hides of the 
king's fee. There is land for 2 ploughs. On 
the demesne is i plough, and (there are) 4 
villeins with I plough, and meadow (sufficient) 
for I plough team. It is worth 30 shillings, 
(was worth) when received 20 shillings and 
T.R.E. 20 shillings. This land 3 sokemen 
held and could assign to whom they wished. 

In Wichestanstou [Wixamtree] Hundret 

In Sudgivele [Southill] Richard Pungiant 
holds half a hide of woodland which Arch- 
bishop Stigand held T.R.E. 


In Manesheve [Manshead] Hundret 

William the chamberlain holds in Potes- 
grave [Potsgrove] i hide of the king. There 
is land for i plough and it is there, and mea- 
dow (sufficient) for i plough team. It is worth 
15 shillings, (was worth) when received a 
like sum and T.R.E. 40 shillings. This land 
Morcar the priest of Lintone ^^ [Luton] held 
and could sell. 

In Badelestone (Battlesden) Robert holds 
of William the chamberlain half a hide. 
There is land for a half plough. It is worth 
5 shillings ; (was worth) when received a like 
sum ; T.R.E. 7 pounds.^' This land Morcar 
the priest held and could sell. 

'' He held land in six counties, but his whole 
fief was not large (J.H.R.) 

^ This figure must be right, for the addition of 
the I hide and 3 virgates in 'Domtone' (p. 231, 
above) completes the 10 hide unit (J.H.R.) 

* See Introduction. 

'" For Liu tone (see p. 222). 

" So MS. ; probably error for shillings, 



In the Half Hundret of Stanburge* 

M. William himself holds Totenehou 
[Totternhoe] of the king. It is assessed at 7 
hides less i virgate. There is land for 6 
ploughs. In the demesne are 3 hides and 3 
virgates, and on it is i plough. There 4 
villeins have 3 ploughs. There are 4 bordars 
and 4 serfs and i mill (worth) 3 shillings, 
meadow sufficient for 3 plough teams, and 
woodland to feed 20 swine. It is worth 50 
shillings, was worth when received a like 
sum ; T.R.E. 8 pounds. This manor Lewine 
a man of Earl Waltheof {Wallef) held. 
With this manor William the chamberlain 
claims 2 hides which his predecessor held 
T.R.E., as the hundred (court) testifies. But 
the Bishop of Bayeux * took them from him 
by force and gave them to Adelulf his cham- 


In Manesheve [Manshead] Hundret 

M. William Lovet holds in Crauelai 
[(Husborne) Crawley] of the king 5 hides as 
one manor. There is land for 5 ploughs. In 
the demesne are 2 hides and 2 ploughs are on 
it ; and 5 villeins have 2 ploughs and there 
could be a third. There are 3 bordars and 
2 serfs, and 2 mills (worth) 10 shillings, and 
meadow sufficient for 5 plough teams. It is 
worth 40 shillings ; (was worth) when 
received 30 shillings ; T.R.E. 100 shillings. 
This manor Grimbald a man of King Edward 
held and could assign to whom he wished. 

In Radborgestou [Redbornestoke] 

M. William himself holds Flictewiche 
[Flitwick] of the king. It is assessed at 
5 hides. There is land for 7 ploughs. In 
the demesne are 2 hides and on it are 2 
ploughs. There 3 villeins have 3 ploughs 
and there could be 2 more. There are 7 
bordars, and i mill (worth) 4 shillings, meadow 
(sufficient) for 5 plough teams and woodland 
(to feed) 100 swine. It is worth 50 shillings, 
(was worth) when received 60 shillings, 
T.R.E. 8 pounds. This manor Alwin, a 
thegn of King Edward, held. 

' Now part of Manshead Hundred. 

" The bishop held the adjoining manor of 
Eaton Bray. Adelulf or Adelold, the bishop's 
chamberlain (compare Calendar of Documents in 
France, pp. 530-1) held under him in Kent and 
also had a grant from him at Southwark (J.H.R.) 

In Wilge [Willey] Hundret 

William holds of the king in Fernadis 
[Farndish^] 2 hides. There is land for 2^ 
ploughs. On the demesne are 2 ploughs and 
3 villeins have a half-plough. There are 2 
bordars and i serf and meadow (sufficient) 
for I plough team. It is worth 40 shillings, 
(was worth) when received 20 shillings, 
T.R.E. 40 shillings. This land 3 sokemen 
held and could assign and sell to whom they 

fo. 2i6b 


In Wilga [Willey] Hundret 

Henry son of Azor holds in Fernadis 
[Farndish^] of the king i hide. There is 
land for i plough, and it is there, and there are 
2 villeins and meadow (sufficient) for a half 
plough team. It is and was worth 10 shil- 
lings ; T.R.E. 20 shillings. This land 2 soke- 
men held and could assign to whom they 


In Stodene [Stodden] Hundret 

Osbern son of Richard holds in Estone 
[Easton^] half a hide and half a virgate and 
Hugh Hubald ' holds of him. There is land 
for I plough, and it is there with i serf. 
There is meadow (sufficient) for i plough 
team ; woodland (to feed) 20 swine. It is 
worth 10 shillings, when received (was worth) 
a like sum, and T.R.E. 12 shillings. This 
land Stori, a man of Earl Tosti, held, and there 
a certain sokeman had half a virgate which 
he could assign and sell. 

In RisELAi [Riseley] Hugh Hubald' holds 
of Osbert* son of Richard half a hide. There 
is land for a half plough and it is there with i 
bordar. There is meadow (sufficient) for a 
half plough team. It is and was worth 5 
shillings; T.R.E. 8 shillings. This land 
Alwin a man of Stori ° held and could assign 
to whom he wished. 

^ Now in Podington. 

* Lord of Richard's Castle, Herefordshire 

^ In Hunts (see Introduction). 

° A Henry ' Hubold ' is recorded to have held 
half a fee (but in Shropshire) on the Richard's 
Castle fief in 1212 (J.H.R.) 

' See note 6. * So MS. 

^ See p. 254, note 3. 



In Caissot [Keysoe] Hugh Hubald' holds 
of Osbert i virgate. There is land for 2 
oxen (to plough). It is and was worth 2 
shillings ; T.R.E. 4 shillings. 

M. The same {ipse) Hugh holds of Osbern 
Elvendone ^ [ ]. It is assessed 

at I hide and i virgate. There is land for 1^ 
ploughs and they are there, and meadow 
sufEcient for i plough team ; woodland to 
feed 34 swine. It is and was worth 10 
shillings ; T.R.E. 1 5 shillings. This manor 
Alwin a man of Stori' held and could assign 
to whom he wished. 


In Bicheleswade [Biggleswade] 


M. Osbern son of Walter holds of the king 
in Bereforde [(Little) Barford] 3 hides as one 
manor. There is land for 3 ploughs. On 
the demesne are 2 ploughs and 4 villeins have 
I plough. There are 2 bordars and 5 serfs 
and meadow (sufficient) for i plough team. 
It is worth 60 shillings ; (was worth) when 
received 40 shillings ; T.R.E. 60 shillings. 
This manor Ulmar of Etone [Eaton Socon] a 
thegnof King Edward held. 


In Wilge [Willey] Hundret 
Osbern the fisherman holds in Sernebroc 
[Sharnbrook] of the king half a hide. There 
is land for i plough and it is there. A mill 
is there (worth) 1 6 pence ; meadow (sufficient) 
for a half plough team, woodland (to feed) 
10 swine, and a fish-stew [vivarium piscium). 
There are i villein and 2 bordars. It is worth 
26 shillings ; (was worth) when received 10 
shillings, and T.R.E. 40 shillings. This land 
Tovi housecarl of King Edward held* and 
could sell. With this land the same Osbern 
claims i virgate and the fourth part of i virgate 
which his predecessor held T.R.E. But after 
King William came into England he refused 
the ' gafol ' [gablum) due from this land and 
Ralf Taillgebosc gave the ' gafol ' and took 

' See p. 253, note 6. 

2 ? = Giveldone, = Yeldon. But see Intro- 

3 This was evidently the ' Stori ' of the first 
entry, so that we have here a ' man ' of Earl 
Tosti(g) who has himself a ' man ' of his own as a 
his tenant (J.H.R.) 

* He had also held at Radwell,just to the south 
of Sharnbrook (J.H.R.) 

possession of the land itself as forfeit and 
handed it over to a certain knight {militt) of 

In Carlentone [Carlton] the same Os- 
bern holds of the king i hide and i^ virgates. 
There is land for 2 ploughs. On the de- 
mesne is I plough, and 2 villeins have i 
plough. There are 4 bordars, and meadow 
(sufficient) for 2 plough teams. It is and 
was worth 20 shillings (T.R.E.^) ; T.R.E. 
40 shillings. This land Goduin Frambolt," a 
thegn of King Edward, held and could sell. 


In Buchelai Hundret" 

Turstin the chamberlain holds of the 
king in Pabeneham [Pavenham] 2^ hides as 
one manor. There is land for 3 ploughs. 
In the demesne is i hide and i plough. 
There are 6 villeins with 2 ploughs and i 
bordar, and meadow (sufficient) for 3 plough 
teams. It is worth 40 shillings, (was worth) 
when received a like sum, and T.R.E. 45 
shillings. This land Alsi, a man of Alii his 
brother, held and could [sell ?] 

In Henewic [H in wick*] Turstin holds of 
the king i hide and 3 virgates. There is 
land for 2 ploughs. In the demesne is I hide 
and I plough and (there are) 2 villeins with 
I plough and i bordar, and meadow sufficient 
for I plough team. It is worth 30 shillings, 
when received (was worth) i o shillings ; 
T.R.E. 30 shillings. This land Goduin 
Frambolt, a thegn of King Edward, held. 

In Wichestanestou [Wixamtree] 

In Bistone [Beeston *^''] the aforesaid Turstin 
holds half a hide of the king. There is 
land for a half plough, but it is not there ; 
meadow is (sufficient) for i plough team. 
This land has been laid waste \devastata est), 
but when Turstin received it, it was worth 
10 shillings; T.R.E. 20 shillings. This land 
Goduin a man of Earl Tosti held and could 

5 MS. inserted by error. 

» He had also held at Wymington in this Hun- 
dred (see p. 250), and, as the next fief shows, at 
Hinwick near Wymington (J.H.R.) 

' He also held in Hampshire and Wiltshire. 

8 Half Hundred. Now part of Willey Hundred. 

' In Puddington or Podington. 

" In Sandy. 



In Clistone* [Clifton] Hundret 

In Chambeltone [Campton] Turstin 
holds of the king 2 hides (and) ^ all but the 
fourth part of i virgate. There is land for i ^ 
ploughs. In the demesne are i hide and i 
virgate and three-quarters {partes) of i virgate, 
and on it is i plough. There 2 villeins and i 
bordar have a half plough. Meadows is there 
(sufficient) for i \ plough teams ; woodland (to 
feed) 20 swine. It is worth 30 shillings, 
and was worth T.R.E. 40 shillings.^ This 
land 3 sokemen held and could assign and sell 
to whom they wished. 


In Clistone' [Clifton] Hundret 

M. Gilbert son of Salomon holds Mal- 
pertesselle [Meppershall] of the king. It is 
assessed at 4 hides in Bedefordescire ^ ; there 
is land for 4 ploughs. In Herefortscire^ 
(Herts) the same {ipsa) vill is assessed at 3 hides 
and I virgate ; there is land for 3 ploughs. 
In all there are 7 ploughs. In the demesne 
are 5 hides and on it 3 ploughs and there 
could be 2 more. There 5 villeins have 2 
ploughs and (there are) 4 bordars and 2 serfs ; 
meadow (sufficient) for 7 plough teams, wood- 
land (to feed) 200 swine, and from dues of 
woodland (come) i o shillings. It is and was 
worth 6 pounds ; T.R.E. 10 pounds. This 
manor Lewin Cilt, a thegn of King Edward, 
held,^ and in this manor were 4 sokemen. 
They held 2 hides and could sell them to 
whom they wished. 

In Wilge [Willey] Hundret 

M. In Flammeresham [Felmersham] 
Gilbert holds 7^ hides. There is land for 8 
ploughs. In the demesne are 4 hides, and on 
it are 3 ploughs, and 4 villeins have 4 ploughs. 
There are 6 bordars and meadow (sufficient) 
for 4 plough teams. It is worth 100 shillings, 
(was worth) when received 1 2 pounds and as 
much T.R.E. This manor 6 sokemen held 
and could sell. 

* For Cliftone. 

^ Erroneously inserted in MS. 
^ But possibly the scribe has omitted something 
between 'valuit' and ' T.R.E.' 

* For Cliftone. 

* i.e. 4 hides of it are assessed in Bedfordshire ; 3 
hides and I virgate in Hertfordshire (see the 
Victoria History of Herts, vol. i.) 

* See pp. 198, 230. 


In Manesheve [Manshead] Hundret 

M. Albert of Lorraine holds of the king 
Celgrave [Chalgrave]. It is assessed at 8 hides 
and two-thirds {paries) of I virgate. There is 
land for 10 ploughs. In the demesne are 3 
carucates of land, and on it are 2 ploughs. 
There 13 villeins have 8 ploughs. There are 
4 bordars and 6 serfs, meadow (sufficient) for 8 
plough teams, woodland (to feed) 50 swine. 
It is worth 7 pounds ; when received (was 
worth) 6 pounds, and as much T.R.E. 
This manor the same Albert held T.R.E. and 
could assign to whom he wished. 

In Radbernestoc [Redbornestoke] 

M. Albert himself holds Otone [Woot- 
ton]. It is assessed at 10 hides. There is 
land for 1 1 ploughs. In the demesne are 2 
hides and on it are 3 ploughs. There 20 
villeins have 7 ploughs, and there could be an 
eighth. There are 6 serfs, meadow (suffi- 
cient) for 5 plough teams, woodland to feed 
400 swine. It is worth 10 pounds, when 
received (was worth) 8 pounds; T.R.E. 10 
pounds and 15 shillings. This manor Almar 
a man of Earl Tosti held and could sell. 

In Esseltone [Shelton^] Albert holds 3 
hides. There is land for 5 ploughs. In the 
demesne is I hide, and on it are 2 ploughs. 
There are 7 villeins with 3 ploughs and there 
are 4 serfs, meadow (sufficient) for 3 plough 
teams, and woodland (to feed) 100 swine. 
It is worth 40 shillings ; (was worth) when 
received 20 shillings ; T.R.E. 45 shillings. 
This manor was and is a member of Otone 
(Wootton). Almar a man of Earl Tosti 
held it. 

In Wilga [Willey] Hundret 

In Sernebroc [Sharnbrook] Albert holds 2 
hides and the fourth part of i virgate. There 
is land for 3 ploughs. In the demesne is i 
hide, and on it are 2 ploughs, and there are 4 
villeins with i plough. There are 4 bordars 
and 4 serfs, and i mill (worth) 16 shillings, 
meadow (sufficient for 2 plough teams, 
woodland (to feed the swine. It is worth 50 
shillings ; when received (was worth) 30 shil- 
lings ; T.R.E. 60 shillings. This land Algar 
a man of Queen Edid held and could assign 
to whom he wished. 

^ See Introduction, p. 203. 
^ In Marston (Morteyne). 



In Stodene [Stodden] Hundret 

David de Argentan holds in Riselai 
[Riseley] i hide of the king. There is land 
for I plough, but it is not there. There are 
1 villein and 3 bordars. It is virorth 10 shil- 
lings, (was worth) when received 20 shillings 
and T.R.E. a like sum. This land Homdai 
a man of Earl Harold held and could sell to 
whom he wished. 

fo. 317 


In Bicheleswade [Biggleswade] 
M. Ralf de Insula^ holds of the king in 
Stratone [Stratton^] 4 hides as one manor. 
There is land for 8 ploughs. There are 7 
and there could be an eighth. There are 10 
villeins and 2 bordars, and meadow (sufficient) 
for 4 plough teams. In all it is worth 12 
pounds, (was worth) when received 3 pounds ; 
T.R.E. 100 shillings. This manor Stigand 
the archbishop held. 

M. Ralf himself holds Picheleswade 
[Biggleswade]. It is assessed at 10 hides. 
There is land for 10 ploughs. In the de- 
mesne are S2 hides and on it are 3 ploughs. 
There are 7 villeins with 7 ploughs and 
10 bordars and 3 serfs, and 2 mills worth 
{de) 47 shillings, meadow (sufficient) for 10 
plough teams and (producing) 5 shillings from 
the hay. It is worth 1 7 pounds, (was worth) 
when received 15 pounds ; T.R.E. 10 pounds. 
This manor Stigand the archbishop held, and 
there 2 sokemen had half a hide which they 
could sell and assign. 

M. In Holme [Holme*] the same Ralf 
holds 2 hides. There is land for 5 ploughs 
and they are there. There are 6 villeins and 
meadow (sufficient) for 1 plough team. It is 
worth 40 shillings, (was worth) when received 
30 shillings, and T.R.E. 40 shillings. This 
manor Archbishop Stigand held and there 3 
sokemen had 2 virgates of land and could 

In Wichestanestou [Wixamtree] 

belongs to (j'aat in) Bicheleswade [Biggles- 
wade] and it is valued {est appreciata) there ' ; 
and he who held it T.R.E. could not assign 
or sell it without the leave of him who held 
Bicheleswade [Biggleswade]. 


In Manesheve [Manshead] Hundret 

M. Gozelin the Breton holds of the king 
in Potesgrave [Potsgrove] 7^ hides as one 
manor. There is land for 7^ ploughs. In the 
demesne are 3 hides, and on it are 3 ploughs. 
There 3 villeins have 2 ploughs, and there 
could be 2 others and a half plough. There 
are 6 bordars and 3 serfs and meadow (suffi- 
cient) for 5 plough teams. It is worth 50 
shillings, (was worth) when received 100 
shillings ; T.R.E. I o pounds. This manor 4 
thegns held and could assign and sell their 
land to whom they wished. 

In the Half Hundret of Stanburge 
[Stanbridge] * 

Gozelin himself holds Gledelai [Gladley 
(farm) "] for 2^ hides. There is land for i 
plough, and there are there 4 oxen,' and i 
mill (worth) 16 shillings, meadow (sufficient) 
for I plough team, woodland (to feed) 100 
swine. It is and was worth 20 shillings ; 
T.R.E. 40 shillings. This land Wigot, a 
huntsman of King Edward, held and could 
sell to whom he wished. 


In Radborgestoc [Redbornestoke] 

M. Countess Judith holds in Meldone 
[Maulden] 5 hides and i^ virgates and the 
nuns of Elnestou [Elstow] hold of her in 
almoin. There is land for 5 ploughs. On 
the demesne are 2 ploughs, and 7 villeins 
have 3 ploughs. There are 2 serfs and i 
mill (worth) 3 shillings, meadow (sufficient) 
for 5 plough teams, and woodland (to feed) 
100 swine. It is worth 60 shillings, (was 

^ The reason for its being separately entered is 
evidently that it was assessed for ' geld ' in Wixam- 

In Wardone [Warden] the same Ralf tree Hundred as lying in Warden (J.H.R.) 

holds of the king i^ virgates. This land 

^ It is not certain how this name should be 
Englished (J.H.R.) 
' In Biggleswade. 

* Now part of Manshead Hundred. 

^ Formerly in Leighton Buzzard ; now in 
Heath and Reach. It was a separate manor 

° i.e. half a plough-team. 



worth) when received 4 pounds ; T.R.E. 7 
pounds. This manor Alwold, a thegn of 
King Edward, held, and there i sokeman had 
half a virgate and could assign to whom he 

In HousTONE [Houghton (Conquest)] Hugh 
holds of Countess Judith half a hide. There 
is land for 1 plough, and it is there ; and 2 
bordars, and woodland (to feed) 25 swine. It 
is and was worth 10 shillings; T.R.E. I2 
shillings. This land Lepsi a man of Earl 
Tosti held, and could assign and sell to whom 
he wished. 

M. The countess herself holds Wines- 
SAMESTEDE [WiUshamstead] and nuns hold it 
of her. It is assessed at 3 hides. There is 
land for 6 ploughs-. On the demesne are 2 
ploughs. There 1 1 villeins have 4 ploughs, 
and (there are) 1 1 bordars and i serf, and 
meadow (sufficient) for a half plough team. 
It is worth 7 poimds and 6 shillings ; when 
received (was worth) 45 shillings ; T.R.E. 10 
pounds and i o shillings. This manor 8 soke- 
men held and could assign and sell. Countess 
Judith gave it to St. Mary of Elnestou [Els- 
tow] in almoin, but the soke has always 
belonged to {jacuit in) Camestone [Kempston]. 

M. Elnestou [Elstow] is assessed at 3^ 
hides. The nuns of St. Mary hold it of 
Countess Judith. There is land for 7 
ploughs. On the demesne are 2 ploughs, 
and 14 villeins have 5 ploughs. There are 

1 1 bordars and 4 serfs, and i mill worth {de) 
24 shillings, meadow (sufficient) for 4 plough 
teams, and woodland (to feed) 60 swine. It 
is worth 100 shillings, (was worth) when re- 
ceived 40 shillings ; T.R.E. 10 pounds. This 
manor 4 sokemen held. They were men of 
King Edward and could assign and sell their 
land, but their soke always belonged to {Jacuit 
in) Camestone [Kempston]. 

M. Camestone [Kempston] is assessed at 
I o hides. There is land for 20 ploughs. The 
countess holds it. In the demesne are 2 hides 
and on it are 4 ploughs, and 18 villeins have 

1 2 ploughs and there could be 4 more. There 
are 12 bordars and 8 serfs, and i mill worth 
{de) 5 shillings, meadow sufficient for 20 plough 
teams, woodland (to feed) 200 swine, and from 
pasture come 2 shillings. In all it is worth 
18 pounds, when received 22 pounds ; T.R.E. 
30 pounds. This manor Earl Guert held, and 
there 2 thegns had 2^ hides and i| virgates 
and could assign and sell to whom they 

In Stoden [Stodden] Hundret 
In Bolehestre [Bolnhurst] Hugh holds 
half a hide of the countess. There is land 
for I plough, and it is there with 2 bordars. 
There is meadow sufficient for 4 oxen,' wood- 
land to feed 20 swine. It is worth 10 shil- 
lings ; (was worth) when received 5 shillings ; 
T.R.E. 12 shillings. This land Almar, a 
thegn of King Edward, held and could assign 
and sell. 

In AcHELEiA [Oakley] Milo Crispin holds 
of the countess i hide. There is land for i-^ 
ploughs. One plough is there and there could 
be a half plough (more). There are 3 bor- 
dars and meadow sufficient for i plough team. 
It is and was worth 10 shiUings; T.R.E. 20 
shillings. This land Goduin, a man of Earl 
Harold, held and could sell. 

In the Half Hundret of Buchelai* 

In Blacheshou [Bletsoe] Osbern holds of 
the countess 2^ hides. There is land for 4 
ploughs. On the demesne is i plough and 6 
villeins have 3 ploughs. There are 3 bordars 
and 3 serfs, and a moiety of a mill {dim' molin.) 
worth {de) i o shillings, meadow (sufficient) for 

1 plough team, woodland (to feed) 1 00 swine. 
It is and was worth 60 shillings T.R.E. and 
after {semper). This manor Leveva,^ a ' man ' 
{homo) of King Edward, held and could sell 
and assign to whom she wished. 

In Bruneham [Bromham] Hugh holds of 
the countess 2 hides. There is land for 2 
ploughs, and they are there, and 5 villeins and 

2 bordars, and i mill worth 40 shillings and 
100 eels.* It belongs indeed to the fee of 
the countess, but does not ' lie ' {jacet) in this 
land. There is meadow (sufficient) for 2 plough 
teams. It is worth 20 shillings ; when re- 
ceived and T.R.E. was worth 10 shillings. 
This land Goduin a man of Earl Harold 
held and could sell. 

In Stachedene [Stagsden] Hugh holds of 
the countess i hide. There is land for i 
plough, and it is there, and 2 villeins and 2 
bordars, and woodland (to feed) 40 swine. It is 
and was worth 10 shillings; T.R.E. 20 shil- 
lings. This land 2 sokemen, men of King 
Edward, held and could sell to whom they 

* i.e. half a plough-team. 

* Novir part of Willey Hundred. 

' This is a female name, ' Leofgifu' (J.H.R.) 

* MS. anguillus. 




In Wilga [Willey] Hundret 
In Falmeresham [Felmersham] Gilbert 
holds of the countess 3^ hides. There is 
land for 3 ploughs. On the demesne is 1 
plough, and there are 2 villeins with i plough 
and there could be another plough. There 
are 4 bordars, and i mill worth {de) 10 shil- 
lings, and meadow (suiEcient) for i plough 
team. It is worth 3 pounds, when received 
(was worth) 100 shillings and as much 
T.R.E. This land Alii, a thegn of King 
Edward, held. 

In Radewelle [Radwell*] Hugh holds 2 
hides and 25 virgates of the fee of the 
countess. There is land for i\ ploughs and 
they are there. There are I villein and I 
bordar and I serf, and meadow (sufficient) for 
I plough team. It is worth 20 shillings, (was 
worth) when received 10 shillings ; T.R.E. 
40 shillings. This land Tovi a housecarl 
of King Edward held. 

Gilbert de Blossevile holds of the countess 
Harewelle [Harrold].^ It is assessed at 10 
hides. There is land for 16 ploughs. On 
the demesne there could be 3 ploughs ; one 
is there ; and (there are) 10 villeins with 7 
ploughs, and there could be 6 more ; mea- 
dow is there (sufficient) for 6 plough teams, 
woodland (to feed) 200 swine, and i mill 
worth {de) 36 shillings and 8 pence and 200 
eels. In all it is worth 6 pounds ; when re- 
ceived was worth 16 pounds ; T.R.E. 20 
pounds. This manor 3 thegns of King 
Edward held and could sell to whom they 

In Sernebroc [Sharnbrook] Hugh holds of 
the countess 3 virgates of land. There is 
land for i plough and it is there. There 
are I villein and i bordar and meadow (suffi- 
cient) for I plough team. It is worth 10 
shillings ; was worth when received 5 shillings ; 
T.R.E. 20 shillings. This land Oviet a 
man of King Edward held and could assign 
to whom he wished. 

fo. 217b 

In the Hundret of Bereforde [Barford] 
Osbern holds 2 hides and 3 virgates.^ There 

* In Felmersham. 

* He held of the Countess also at Lavendon, 
Bucks, close to Harrold (J.H.R.) 

^ The only place in this Hundred with which 
the heirs of the Countess seem to have been 
associated was Sudbury in Eaton Socon, where 
half a fee was held of the Honour of Huntingdon 

is land for 3 ploughs. On the demesne are 
2 ploughs, and there are 3 villeins with I 
plough. There are 2 bordars and i serf, 
meadow (sufficient) for i plough team, wood- 
land (to feed) 200 swine. It is worth 40 
shillings ; (was worth) when received i o shil- 
lings ; T.R.E. 50 shillings. This land Ulfech 
a steersman of King Edward held and could 

In PoTONE [Potton*] Hugh holds of the 
countess half a virgate of land. There is 
land for I plough, and it is there with I bor- 
dar. It is and was worth 5 shillings ; T.R.E. 
2 shillings. This land Earl Tosti held in his 
manor of Potone [Potton].^ 

In Bicheleswade [Biggleswade] Hundret 

In Stratone [Stratton^] Fulcher of Paris 
{de parisio) holds 3^ virgates of the countess. 
There is land for 2 ploughs. On the demesne 
is I plough. There are i villein and 5 bordars; 
meadow (sufficient) for I plough team. It is 
and was worth 8 shillings ; T.R.E. 20 shil- 
lings. This land Alwin, a man of King 
Edward, held and could sell. 

In Holme [Holme®] Fulcher holds of the 
countess half a hide. There is land for a 
half plough, and a half plough is there ; 
meadow is there sufficient for a half plough 
team. There is i villein. It is and was 
worth 7 shillings ; T.R.E. 10 shillings. This 
land Alwin a man of King Edward held 
and could assign and sell. 

In the same (vill) 2 men hold of the 
countess I virgate. There is land for 2 
oxen ' (to plough) and they are there. It is 
and was worth 5 shillings T.R.E. and after 
{semper). This land Goduin, a man of King 
Edward, held and could sell. 

In the Half Hundret of Weneslai' 

M. Countess Judith herself holds Potone 
[Potton]. It is assessed at 10 hides. There 
is land for 12 ploughs. In the demesne are 
3^ hides and on it are 3 ploughs. There are 
18 villeins and 2 sokemen with 8 ploughs, 
and there could be a ninth plough. There 
are 13 bordars and 3 serfs and i mill worth 
5 shillings {v solidorum), meadow (sufficient) for 

in the fourteenth century {Feudal Aids, i. 15, 33) 

* Now in Biggleswade Hundred (J.H.R.) 

^ See the Potton entry below. 

° In Biggleswade. 

' i.e. a quarter of a plough-team. 

^ Now part of Biggleswade Hundred. 



12 plough teams, pasture for the live stock of 
the vill. In all it is worth 12 pounds ; when 
received (was worth) 100 shillings ; T.R.E. 

13 pounds. This manor King Edward held, 
and it was (before that) {fait) Earl Tosti's. 
There were 4 sokemen there who had i hide 
and I virgate and could assign to whom they 

In SuDTONE [Sutton] Torchil holds^ i\ 
hides. There is land for i^ ploughs. One 
plough is there and there could be a half 
plough more. There are 4 bordars, meadow 
(sufficient) for i\ plough teams and (worth) 
16 pence besides. It is worth 10 shillings, 
(was worth) when received 8 shillings ; T.R.E. 
20 shillings. This land 3 sokemen held and 
could sell. 

In SuDTONE [Sutton] Alwin holds of 
Countess Judith i hide. There is land for 

1 plough. There are 3 bordars and meadow 
(sufficient) for 2 plough teams. It is worth 
8 shillings. Six sokemen held it and could 
assign and sell (it).^ 

In the same (vill) Levegar holds half a hide. 
There is land for a half plough, and it is there, 
and meadow (sufficient) for a half plough team 
and (worth) 12 pence (besides). It is worth 
5 shillings ; (was worth) when received and 
T.R.E. 10 shillings. The same man who 
holds it now held it (T.R.E.). He was a 
king's man and could sell (it). 

In the same (vill) Robert holds 3-!^ virgates. 
There is land for i plough, but there are only 

2 oxen' there. Meadow is (sufficient) for i 
plough team. There are 3 bordars.* It is 
and was worth 8 shillings ; T.R.E. 10 shil- 
lings. This land 2 sokemen held and could 

In the same (vill) Sueting and Robert hold 
i^ virgates of land. There is land for 4 
oxen ° and they are there ; meadow (sufficient) 
for I plough team ; and i bordar. It is and 
was worth 4 shillings ; T.R.E. 5 shillings. 
This land Edward, a man of the abbot of St. 
Alban, held and could sell. 

In the same Half Hundret 

In SuDTONE [Sutton] Turbert holds 2 hides 
of the countess. There is land for 2 ploughs. 
On the demesne is i plough, and there are 4 
bordars with i plough, and meadow (sufficient) 

^ i.e. of the Countess. 

* This entry is in the margin by the side of the 
Sutton entry which precedes it in the text. 

' i.e. a quarter of a plough-team. 

* This clause is inserted in the margin. 

for 2 plough teams. It is and was worth 20 
shillings ; T.R.E. 25 shillings. This land 2 
sokemen held and could sell. 

In the same (vill) Goduin holds 3 virgates 
of the countess. There is land for i plough, 
but now it is not there. It is worth 3 shil- 
lings ; (was worth) when received 6 shillings ; 
T.R.E. 10 shillings. This land Ulmar a 
man of Ordui held and could sell. 

In the same (vill) Ederic holds half a hide. 
There is land for a half plough, and it is there 
with I villein. Meadow is there (sufficient) 
for a half plough team. It is and was worth 
5 shillings ; T.R.E. 10 shillings. The same 
man who holds it now held it (T.R.E.). He 
was a king's man and could sell (his land). 

M. In Hatelai [(Cockayne) Hatley] the 
Countess Judith holds 3 hides and 2^ vir- 
gates as I manor. There is land for 6J 
ploughs. In the demesne are I hide and 
half a virgate, and on it are 2 ploughs. There 
are 8 villeins with 4^ ploughs. There are 8 
bordars, and meadow (sufficient) for 2 plough 
teams, and woodland (to feed) 4 swine. It is 
worth 6 pounds and 5 shillings ; (was worth) 
when received 100 shillings ; T.R.E. 6 pounds. 
This manor Earl Tosti held and it belongs to 
[jacet in) Potone [Potton], the own [propria)' 
manor of the countess, and there a certain 
sokeman had i virgate. He could assign and 
sell (his land) and put himself under another 
lord {ad alterum dominum recedere). 

M. Rannulf, Ilger's brother, holds of the 
countess Euretone [Everton]. It is assessed 
at 5 hides. There is land for 5 ploughs. 
There are 2 ploughs and there could be 3 (more). 
There are 4 villeins and 5 bordars, and mea- 
dow (sufficient) for I plough team. It is 
worth 3 pounds ; (was worth) when received 
100 shillings, and as much T.R.E. This 
manor Earl Tosti held, and it belonged to 
{jacuit in) Potone [Potton], the own {propria)^ 
manor of the countess. 

In the Hundret of Wichestanestou 

In SuDGiVELE [Southill] Hugh holds of the 
countess i hide. There is land for 2 ploughs 
and they are there. There are 3 villeins and 
3 bordars and i serf ; meadow (sufficient) for 
2 plough teams ; woodland (to feed) 60 swine. 
It is worth 30 shillings ; (was worth) when re- 
ceived 40 shillings ; T.R.E. 60 shillings. 
This land TufFa a man of Earl Waltheof 
{Walkf) held and could sell. 

i.e. half a plough-team. 

i.e. demesne. Compare p. 258, note 5. 



In Hergentone [Harrowden ^] the canons 
of Bedeforde [Bedford] hold 3 hides of the 
countess. There is land for 3 ploughs, and 
they are there, and 6 villeins and 4 bordars, 
and meadow (sufficient) for 2 plough teams. 
It is worth 30 shillings ; when received (was 
worth) 20 shillings ; T.R.E. 40 shillings. This 
land Azelin a man of Earl Tosti held. He 
could not assign or sell without leave of 
him who held Camestone [Kempston], the 
countess' {com') manor. 

In Chernetone [Cardington] Hugh holds 
of the countess 3 hides and i virgate and the 
third part of i virgate. There is land for 4 
ploughs, and they are there. There are 12 
villeins and 3 bordars and 3 serfs, and meadow 
(sufficient) for i plough team. It is worth 40 
shillings ; (was worth) when received 20 shil- 
lings ; T.R.E. 40 shillings. This land Aze- 
lin a man of Earl Tosti held. He could not 
assign nor sell without leave of him who held 
Cameston [Kempston]. 

In CocHEPOL [Cople] Hugh holds of the 
countess i virgate of land. This land is 
and was worth 30 pence T.R.E. and after 
{semper). This Wlwin a man of King 
Edward held and could sell to whom he 

In Blunham [Blunham] the abbot of St. 
Edmund holds half a hide of the countess. 
There is land for i plough, and it is there, and 
meadow (sufiicient) for i plough team. It is 
worth 20 shillings, (was worth) when re- 
ceived I o shillings ; T.R.E. 20 shillings. This 
land a man of King Edward held and could 

In Clistone" [Clifton] Hundret 

In Clistone [Clifton] Alwin holds of the 
countess i hide. There is land for a half 
plough, and it is there, and meadow (sufficient) 
for a half plough team. It is and was worth 
5 shillings; T.R.E. 10 shillings. This land 
Ulvric a man of King Edward held and 
could sell. 


In Radborgestoch [Redbornestoke] 

Adeliz wife of Hugh de Grentemaisnil holds 
of the king half a hide in Eseltone [Shelton']. 
There is land for a half plough, and it is there ; 

' In Eastcotts. 

* In Marston Morteyne, 

= For Cliftone. 

meadow (sufiicient) for a half plough team, and 
woodland (to feed) 6 swine. There is i bor- 
dar. It is and was worth 6 shillings ; T.R.E. 
10 shillings. This land Goduin a man of 
Earl Guert held and could assign to whom he 

In Oustone [Houghton (Conquest)] Ernald 
holds of Adeliz 4.^ hides as one manor. There 
is land for 6 ploughs. On the demesne are 
2 ploughs, and (there are) 1 1 villeins and 7 
bordars with 3^ ploughs, and there could be 
another half plough. There are 3 serfs ; mea- 
dow sufficient for 2 plough teams ; woodland 
(to feed) 225 swine. Of this land'i sokeman 
holds I hide. It is worth 4 pounds, (was worth) 
when received 60 shillings ; T.R.E. 8 pounds. 
This manor 3 sokemen held who could assign 
and sell their land (to whom) they wished. 
In this same (vill) the aforesaid Adeliz claims 
half a virgate and 30 acres of woodland 
and field {xxx acras inter silvam et planum) 
against Hugh de Beauchamp ; and the men 
of the hundred (court) bear testimony that 
this land T.R.E. belonged to {jacuit cum) the 
other land which Adeliz holds and he who 
held this land could assign or sell it to whom 
he wished. This land Ralf * took possession 
of unjustly when he was sheriff. 

In Wichestanestou [Wixamtree] 

M. Adeliz herself holds Cerlentone 
[Charlton °]. It is assessed at 1 hides. There 
is land for 10 ploughs. In the demesne are 
5 hides, and on it are 2 ploughs and there 
could be 3 more. There are 16 villeins and 
9 bordars with 5 ploughs. There are 2 serfs, 
and I mill (worth) 30 shillings ; meadow (suffi- 
cient) for I o plough teams ; woodland (to feed) 
1 6 swine. In all it is worth i o pounds ; (was 
worth) when received 8 pounds; T.R.E. 12 
pounds. This manor King Edward held and 
it was (before that) {fait) Earl Tosti's. This 
land was an outlying part {berewich) T.R.E. of 
Potone [Potton], the manor of Countess 
Judith ' and in such wise belonged thereto that 
no one could alienate it therefrom. 

fo. 1x8 

In Stoden [Stodden] Hundret 

M. In Mildentone [Milton Ernest] Ivo 
steward {dapifery of Hugh de Grent[maisnil] 

* i.e. Ralf Tallebosc. 

^ In Blunham. 

° The words 'M[anerium] Juditae ComLt[issa8] ' 
are added below the line. 

' This was probably the ' Ivo ' who held as an 
undertenant of Hugh in Leicestershire and North- 



holds 3 hides and i virgate as one manor. 
There is land for 4 ploughs. On the demesne 
are 2 ploughs, and 8 villeins (are there) with 
2 ploughs. There is i serf, and there is i 
mill (worth) 20 shillings, meadow (sufficient) 
for 2 plough teams, woodland (to feed) 40 
swine. It is (and was) worth 60 shillings ; 
T.R.E. 4 pounds. This manor Goduin a 
man of Borret held and could sell. 


In Manesheve [Manshead] Hundret 

Azelina wife ^ of Ralf Tallgebosc holds of 
the king in Badelesdone [Battlesden] i^ hides. 
There is land for i ^ ploughs. One is there and 
there could be a half (plough) (more). There 
are 2 villeins and i bordar, and meadow (suffi- 
cient) for I plough team. It is and was worth 
20 shillings ; T.R.E. 40 shillings. This land 
2 sokemen, Anschil and Alwin, held and 
could sell to whom they wished. 

M. Azelina herself holds HocHELEiA [Hock- 
liffe). It is assessed at 10 hides. There is 
land for 8 ploughs. In the demesne are 5 
hides and on it are 2 ploughs. There are 1 3 
villeins and (11 ?) bordars with 6 ploughs, 
meadow sufficient for 4 plough teams, wood- 
land to feed 100 swine. It all it is and was 
worth 8 pounds; T.R.E. 12 pounds. This 
manor Anschil held T.R.E. and could sell. 

In Flictham [Flitt] Hundret 

In Cainou [Cainhoe] Turstin holds of 
Azelina i hide. There is land for 2 ploughs. 
On the demesne is i, and i villein has another. 
There are 3 bordars, and meadow sufficient 
for I plough team, and woodland to feed 100 
swine. It is worth 20 shillings, (was worth) 
when received 10 shillings ; T.R.E. 20 shil- 
lings. This land Ulvric, a sokeman of King 
Edward, held and could assign and sell to 
whom he wished. 

In Bereforde [Barford] Hundret 
In Wiboldestone [Wyboston^] Judichel 

ants. There is no reason to suppose that he was 
a tenant-in-chief. Moreover this estate was after- 
wards held of the Earls of Leicester as half a 
knight's fee. The occurrence, however, of Stod- 
den Hundred after that of Wixamtree is not in 
accordance with the regular sequence, and might 
be held to suggest the beginning of a new tenancy- 
in-chief as suggested by Mr. Ragg (J.H.R.) 

* The word is ' femina ' instead of the usual 
' uxor,' and it is clearly used here to mean ' widow ' 

" In Eaton Socon. 

holds 5i virgates ot Azelina. There is land 
for I plough, and it is there with i villein and 
2 bordars ; meadow is there (sufficient) for a 
half plough team. It is worth 10 shillings, 
(was worth) when received 5 shillings ; T.R.E. 
30 shillings. This land Almar, a man of 
Ulmar, held and could sell and assign to whom 
he wished. 

In Bicheleswade [Biggleswade] Hundret 

In AiEwoRDE [Eyworth] Brodo holds i 
hide of Azelina. There is land for i plough, 
and it is there with i bordar, (and there is) 
meadow (sufficient) for i plough team. It 
is and was worth i o shillings T.R.E. and after 
{semper). This land belongs to (Azelina's) 
marriage portion. This land the same Brodo 
held and could sell to whom he wished. 

In Weneslai Hundret ' 

M. In Hatelai [(Cockayne) Hatley] Aze- 
lina holds, (as) of her marriage portion, 5 hides 
and I ^ virgates. There is land for 8 ploughs. 
In the demesne are I hide and I virgate, and 
on it are 2 ploughs. There are 8 villeins and 
4 bordars with 6 ploughs. There are i serf, 
and I mill (worth) 18 shillings (xviit solid- 
orurri), meadow (sufficient) for 2 plough teams, 
woodland (to feed) 4 swine and (producing) 3 
shillings rent. In all it is worth 6 pounds, 
when received (was worth) 100 shillings; 
T.R.E. 6 pounds. This manor Ulmar a thegn 
of King Edward held, and there were 2 soke- 
men, his men, there. They had 2^ virgates, 
and could assign and sell them to whom they 

In Wichestanestou [Wixamtree] 

In Stanford [Stanford*] Roger holds 2 
hides of Azelina, and this is (part) of her mar- 
riage portion. There is land for 2 ploughs.. 
On the demesne is i plough, and 2 villeins 
and I bordar (are there) with i plough ; mea- 
dow is there (sufficient) for 2 plough teams, 
woodland (to feed) 30 swine, and i mill 
(worth) 13 shillings and 4 pence. It is worth 
60 shillings, (was worth) when received 20 
shillings ; T.R..E. 60 shillings. This land 2 
sokemen held and could assign to whom they 

In Wardone [Warden] Walter, a monk,° 

' Half hundred. Now part of Biggleswade 

* In Southill. 

* But possibly * monachus ' was, as in later 
times, a nickname. Walter also held of her at 
Tadlow in Cambridgeshire (J.H.R.) 



holds half a hide of Azelina, and this is (part) 
of her marriage portion. There is land for a 
half plough, but it is not there. One bordar 
is there, meadow (sufficient) for a half plough 
team and woodland (to feed) 40 swine. It is 
worth 10 shillings ; when received and T.R.E. 
(was worth) 20 shillings. This land Coding 
a man of Edric the bald {calvi) held and could 
assign to whom he wished. 

In Clistone' [Clifton] Hundret 

In Haneslawe [Henlow] Widrus holds i 
hide and 3 virgates of Azelina. There is 
land for 2 ploughs, and they are there. Two 
villeins and 2 bordars and 2 serfs are there, 
and meadow (sufficient) for 2 plough teams. 
It is worth 30 shillings, (was worth) when 
received 20 shillings ; T.R.E. 30 shillings. 
This land Anschil held, and it was an outlying 
part {herewiche) of Stodfald [Stotfold] T.R.E. 
This land Hugh de Beauchamp {Belcamp) 
claims against Azelina, saying that she holds 
it unjustly and that it was never (part of) her 

In the same vill Bernard holds I hide of 
Azelina. There is land for I plough, and 
it is there, and 3 villeins (and) meadow (suffi- 
cient) for I plough team. It is and was 
worth 23 shillings ; T.R.E. 28 shillings. This 
land 2 sokemen held, men of Anschil, and 
could assign to whom they wished. 

In Chichesana [Chicksand] 3 sokemen 
hold 3 hides of Azelina. (It is part) of her 
dower. There is land for 2 ploughs ; one 
is there and there could be another, meadow 
is there (sufficient) for 2 plough teams, wood- 
land (to feed) 20 swine. It is and was worth 
20 shillings ; T.R.E. 25 shillings. This 
manor 4 sokemen held and could assign and 
sell to whom they wished. 

In the same vill Walter holds i hide of 
Azelina, and this is (part) of her marriage por- 
tion. There is land for i plough, and it is 
there, meadow (sufficient) for i plough team, 
woodland (to feed) 50 swine, and i mill worth 
{de) 10 shillings. It is and was worth 20 shil- 
lings ; T.R.E. 30 shillings. This land Suete- 
man a man of Ulmer of Etone [Eaton Socon] 
held and could assign to whom he wished. 

In Standone [Stondon] Engeler holds 2|- 
hides of Azelina. There is land for 2\ ploughs. 
On the demesne are 2 ploughs, and (there are) 
3 bordars with a half plough. There are 2 
serfs, and meadow sufficient for 2\ ploughs. 
It is worth 60 shillings, (was worth) when 
received 40 shillings ; T.R.E. 4 pounds. This 

1 For Cliftone. 

land Ulmar of Eton [Eaton Socon], a thegn of 
King Edward, held ; and there were there 5 
sokemen, men of the same Ulmar, and they 
could assign and sell (their land) to whom 
they wished. 


In the Half Hundret of Bochelai* 

In BiDEHAM [Biddenham] Osgar of Bede- 
ford holds i virgate of land of the king. 
There is land for 2 oxen^ (to plough). It is 
and was worth 2 shillings T.R.E. and after 
{semper). He who now holds it held it T.R.E. 
and could assign to whom he wished. 

In the same vill Goduin a burgess holds of 
the king i hide and the fourth part of I vir- 
gate. There is land for i plough, and it is 
there, and meadow (sufficient) for I plough 
team. It is and was worth 10 shillings 
T.R.E. and after {semper). A half hide of 
this land he who now holds held T.R.E. and 
could assign to whom he wished ; half a hide 
and the fourth part of a virgate he bought 
after King William came into England ; but 
neither to the king nor to any one else has he 
done service for it, nor has he had possession 
given {Itberatorem) of it. Against him Wil- 
liam Spech claims i virgate and the fourth 
part of I virgate, which had been given into 
his possession {Itberata) and which he after- 
wards lost.* 

In the same vill Ordwi a burgess holds of 
the king i hide and the third part of a half 
hide. There is land for i plough, and it is 
there.^ There are 2 villeins and i bordar, 
and meadow (sufficient) for I plough team. 
It is and was worth 10 shillings T.R.E. and 
after {semper). Half a hide and the fourth 
part of I virgate of this land was held 
T.R.E. by him who now holds it, and he 
could assign (them) to whom he wished. One 
virgate however he held in mortgage T.R.E., 
and as yet holds it ; so the men of the 
hundred (court) attest. The same man 
bought I virgate and the fourth part of i 
virgate after King William came into England 
and renders no service for it to the king nor 
to any one else. 

In the same vill Ulmar a burgess holds of 
the king two-thirds {partes) of i virgate. 
There is land for i ox (to plough). It is 

^ Now part of Willey Hundred. 
' i.e. a quarter of a plough-team. 

* William held 4 hides less \\ virgates there 

* These fractions amount in all to i^^hide; 
but the man is said to hold i\ hide (J.H.R.) 



and was worth 12 pence T.R.E. and after 
{semper). The same man held it T.R.E. , 
and could assign it to whom he wished. 

In Wilga [Willey] Hundret 

In Henewich [Hinwick^] Edward holds 
half a hide of the king. There is land for a 
half plough. There are 2 oxen ^ and i bordar. 
It is and was worth 5 shillings, T.R.E. 10 
shillings. This land this man's father held 
and could sell T.R.E. This land King 
William granted to the same man in almoin, 
as to which he has the king's writ and the 
witness of the hundred (court). 

In ScERNEBROC [Sharnbrook] Almar holds 
half a virgate of the king. There is land for a 
half plough, but it is not there. It is and was 
worth 2 shillings ; T.R.E. 5 shillings. This 
land the father of the same man held, and 
King William gave it back [reddidit) to him 
by his writ. 

In Wichestanestou [Wixamtree] 

In Bistone [Beeston'] Godmund holds of 
the king 3 virgates. There is land for 3 oxen 
(to plough) and they are there and meadow 
(sufEcient) for 3 oxen. It is and was worth 
5 shillings ; T.R.E. 10 shillings. The same 
man held it T.R.E. and could sell (it) to whom 
he wished. 

In Clistone* [Clifton] Hundret 

In Hanslau [Henlow] Alric holds of the 
king I virgate. There is land for 2 oxen " (to 
plough), and they are there and meadow 
(sufficient) for 2 oxen. It is and was worth 
2 shillings T.R.E. and after {semper). The 
same man held it T.R.E. and could sell it. 

In Ajlricesei [Arlesey] a certain prebendary 
of the king, Ulsi, holds of the king two-thirds 
{partes) of I virgate. 

fo. 2l8b 




In Manesheve [Manshead] Hundret 
In EuREsoT [Eversholt] Herbert a king's 

' In Puddington or Podington. 

* i.e. a quarter of a plough-team. 
' In Sandy. 

* For Cliftone. 

^ i.e. a quarter of a plough-team. 

' The schedule at the beginning of the Survey 

inserts ' bedelli' between these two classes (J.H.R.) 

bailiff {prefectus) holds half a hide ; in Wo- 
berne [Woburn] 3 virgates of land ; and 
in PoTESGRAVE [Potsgrove] i hide. These 
three lands he holds in the king's service {in 
ministerio regis). They did not belong to this 
{jacuerunt Hi) T.R.E., but he states that after 
Ralf Tallgebosc was sheriff, he had these by 
grant {concessione) of the king.' There is I 
villein. In all this is worth 6 shillings ; was 
worth when received 20 shillings ; T.R.E. a 
like sum. This land 5 sokemen of King 
Edward held and could sell to whom they 

In the same Potesgrava [Potsgrove] a 
certain groom {equarius) of the king holds 
half a hide. There is land for a half plough 
and it is there. It is and was worth 5 shil- 
lings; T.R.E. 10 shillings. This land Oswi, a 
man of Earl Tosti, held and could assign to 
whom he wished. 

i.* In Prestelai [Priestley*] a king's bailiff 
holds I hide. There is land for i plough. 
There are i villein, meadow (sufficient) for i 
plough team ; woodland (to feed) 20 swine. It 
is worth 5 shillings ; (was worth) when received 
I o shillings ; T.R.E. 30 shillings. This land 
4 thegns held and could assign and sell to 
whom they wished. 

In Ratborgestoc [Redbornestoke] 

ii. In Meldone [Maulden] a certain king's 
bailiff holds half a hide. There is land for a 
half plough, and it is there with 2 villeins. 
Meadow is there (stifficient) for a half plough 
team. It is and was worth 3 shillings ; T.R.E. 
10 shillings. This land 2 sokemen of King 
Edward held and could assign to whom they 

In Bicheleswade [Biggleswade] Hundret 

iii. In Tamiseforde [Tempsford] Alwin 
a bailiff holds i hide and the fourth part of i 
virgate. There is land for i plough, and it is 
there with 3 villeins. Meadow is there (suffi- 
cient) for a half plough team. It is and was 
worth 20 shillings ; T.R.E. 27 shillings, This 
land 6 sokemen held and could sell to whom 
they wished. 

iiii. In Edeworde [Edworth] Alwin, a 

' The meaning of the text is somewhat obscure, 
and it is quite possible that this allegation was 
made by Ralf himself Q.H.R.) 

^ The meaning of these numerals is explained 
lower down in the text. 

» In Flitwick. 



king's bailiff, holds 2^ hides. There is land 
for 2 ploughs, and they are there with 2 
villeins. It is and was worth 30 shillings 
T.R.E. and after {semper). This manor 
Branting, a man of King Edward, held and 
could sell. 

V. In Holme [Holme*] Alwin, a king's 
bailiff, holds i^ hides. There is land for i^ 
ploughs. One plough is there and there could 
be a half plough (more). There are 2 villeins. 
It is and was worth 20 shillings T.R.E. and 
after {semper). This land Alvric and Lemar, 
bedells, held and could sell. 

vi. In SuDTONE [Sutton] Alwin holds i^ 
virgates. It is and was worth 4 shillings ; 
T.R.E. 5 shillings. This land 2 sokemen 
held and could assign and sell to whom they 

These 6 estates {terras) Ralf Talgebosc 
assigned to the king's service {apposuit in 
ministerio regis) when he was sheriff, for they 
did not belong to {non fuerunt ibi) this (service) 
T.R.E. They who now hold them hold 
them by grant of the king as they say. 

In Flictham [Flitt] Hundret 

In Stradlei [Streatley] the bailiff {pre- 
fectus) of the hundred holds two-thirds {partes) 
of I virgate for the king's use, which now 
belong to {jacent in) Lintone^ [Luton] the 
king's manor, but did not belong thereto 
{non jacuerunt ibi) T.R.E. Bondi the staller 
assigned (them) to {apposuit in) this manor ; 
Ralf Tallgebosc found them there belonging 
{ibi appositas). There is land for a half plough. 
It is and was worth 5 shillings ; T.R.E. 10 
shillings. This land Uimar a priest held and 
could assign to whom he wished. 

In Weneslai' Hundret 
In Sudtone [Sutton] Alwin holds i hide. 
On the demesne is i plough and there are 3 
bordars with i plough ; meadow (sufficient) 
for 2 plough teams and (worth) 12 pence (be- 
sides). It is and was worth 20 shillings ; 
T.R.E. 10 shillings. Of this land the same 
man held 3 virgates, and a certain Edward i 
virgate. They could assign or sell them to 
whom they wished. 

In Wilge [Willey] Hundret 

In Carlentone [Carlton] Chelbert holds 
3^ virgates. There is land for i plough, and 

' In Biggleswade. 
* For • Luitone.' 

' Half hundred. Now part of Biggleswade Hun- 

it is there with 2 villeins and 3 bordars. 
Meadow is there (sufficient) for i plough 
team. It is worth 10 shillings, when re- 
ceived (was worth) 2 * ores,' * T.R.E. 10 shil- 
lings. Of this land the same man held i 
virgate. He was a man of Queen Edid and 
could assign to whom he wished. Two vir- 
gates and a half however he took possession of 
for which he has produced {invenit) neither 
livery {libera terem) nor a warrantor {advocatum) ; 
which land Alii a thegn of King Edward 

In WiMENTONE [Wymington] 5 brothers 
with their mother hold 3 virgates {de do).'^ 
There is land for i plough, but it is not there. 
It is worth 3 shillings, was worth T.R.E. 15 
shillings. This land Lant their father, held 
and could assign and sell. 

In Bereforde [Barford] Hundret 

In CoLDENTONE [Goldington] Alric Win- 
trcmelc holds half a hide of the king. There 
is land for a half plough and it is there, and 
meadow (sufficient) for 3 oxen. It is and 
was worth 5 shillings T.R.E. and after {semper). 
He who now holds it held it T.R.E. He 
was a man of King Edward, and could 
assign to whom he wished. He afterwards 
gave it to the canons of St. Paul, under King 
William, and in such wise that they should 
have it after his death absolutely {omnino). 

In Wichestanestou [Wixamtree] 

In Stanford [Stanford °] Alric holds of the 
king the fourth part of i virgate. ' There is 
land for a half ox' {dimid' bovi) (to plough) and 
there is a ' half ox ' {semihos) '' there. It is 
and was worth 12 pence. He who now 
holds it held it T.R.E., and could assign (it) 
to whom he wished. 

In the same vill Ordui holds [ ] and 

the fourth part of i virgate.® There is land 
for 3 oxen (to plough) and they are there, and 
meadow (sufficient) for 3 oxen. It is and was 
worth 4 shillings T.R.E. and after {semper). 
The same man held it T.R.E. He was a 
man of King Edward, and could sell (it) to 
whom he wished. 

* The ' ore ' was the ounce of silver, namely 
sixteen pence. The land therefore had been 
worth, at that time, two shillings and eightpence 

^ These words are at the foot of the column, 
and their meaning is obscure (J.H.R.) 
" In SouthiU. 
' ? heifer (see Introduction). 

* ' tenet Ordui et quartam partem unius virgae.' 



In BisTONE [Beeston^] Alwin holds i^ 
virgates. There is land for a half plough. 
There are 2 bordars. It is worth 12 pence, 
when received (was worth) 4 shillings ; 
T.R.E. 10 shillings. This land was assigned 
to the king's service [apposita est in ministerio 
''^S")} to which (service) it did not belong 
T.R.E. ; but Dot who held it could assign or 
sell (it). 

In Radburnestoc [Redbornestoke] 


In Wescota [Westcote ? '] Ordui holds i 
virgate of the king. There is land for a half 
plough. There are 5 oxen with i bordar 
and I serf. It is and was worth 5 shillings ; 
T.R.E. 10 shillings. The same man held it 
then. He was a king's man and could sell it. 

In Stoden [Stodden] Hundret 

In Dene [Dean] 11 sokemen of King 
William hold 7 virgates of land and the 
fourth part of I virgate. There is land for 
2^ ploughs and they are there. It is and was 
worth 30 shillings T.R.E. and after {semper). 
This land T.R.E. the same sokemen held 
who now hold it, and they could assign it to 
whom they wished. This land Ralf assigned 
to the king's service, to which (service) it did 
not belong [apposuit in ministerio regis uhi non 
fuit) T.R.E. 

In the same vill Goduin Dere' of Bedeford 
[Bedford] holds half a virgate of the king and 
it is and was worth 12 pence T.R.E. and after 
{semper). The same man held it T.R.E. and 
could do with it what he wished. 

In Hanefeld* [ ] Saiet holds i vir- 

gate of the king's soke. There is land for 
a half plough, and it is there. It is and was 
worth 5 shillings ; T.R.E. i o shillings. The 
same man held it then and could do with it 
what he wished. 

In the same Hundred of Stoden 

Turgot and his mother hold of the king 
half a hide. There is land for i plough, and 
it is there with i villein and 2 bordars. 
Woodland is there (sufficient) to feed 4 swine. 

' In Sandy. ' See p. 243, note 7. 

' The Record Commission's edition reads 
' Godwidere.' 

* See Introduction. 

It is and was worth 10 shillings ; T.R.E. 12 
shillings. This land the father of this Tur- 
got held. He was a king's thegn and could 
assign and sell his land. 

In MiLDENTONE [Milton (Ernest)] a cer- 
tain bedell of the king holds half a virgate of 
the king. There is land for 2 oxen" (to 
plough). It is and was worth 12 pence. 
This land was held by the father of him who 
now holds it and he could assign it to whom 
he wished. 

In the Half Hundred of Buchelai* 

In Brimeham [Bromham] Osiet holds i 
virgate and two-thirds {partes) of I virgate. 
There is land for i plough, and it is there, 
and meadow (sufficient) for a half plough 
team. It is worth 10 shillings, was worth 
T.R.E. 5 shillings. The same man held 
it then and could assign it. 

In Wilge [Willey] Hundret 
In ToRVEi [Turvey] Alwin a priest holds 
of the king the third part of half a hide. 
There is land for 2 oxen '' (to plough), and 
they are there. It is and was worth 3 shillings. 
The same man held it T.R.E. and could do 
with it what he wished. But King William 
afterwards granted it to him in almoin. On 
which account he performs every week on 
the second day {ii feria) a mass for the souls of 
the king and the queen.^ 

In the same Hundret 
Osiet a king's bailiff holds half a hide of 
the king. There is land for a half plough 
and it is there. It is and was worth 3 shillings 
T.R.E. and after {semper). This land i soke- 
man held T.R.E. whom King William 
commended {commendavit), together with this 
land, to the aforesaid bailiff, to supply food 
and clothing to him as long as he lived. 

In Wim[in]tone [Wimmington] Turchil 
holds of the king i hide. There is land for 
I plough, and it is there. It is and was 
worth 5 shillings ; T.R.E. 10 shillings. The 
same man held it then, and could sell it to 
whom he wished. 

* i.e. a quarter of a plough-team. 
' Now part of Willey Hundred. 

^ i.e. a quarter of a plough-team. 

* This last sentence is added in a note at the 
foot of the column (J.H.R.) 




fo. 133 

King William holds Westone [Weston- 
(ing)]. It is assessed at 5 hides. There is 
land for 14 ploughs. In demesne are 2 hides, 
and 2 ploughs are on it (ibi) ; and 16 villeins 
with 3 bordars have 5 ploughs, and 5 more 
could be (employed). (There are) 4 serfs. 
(There is) meadov>r for 7 plough-teams ; pas- 
ture for the stock of the vill. (There is) 
woodland for 400 swine and (yielding) 3 shil- 


lings (besides). Earl Harold held this manor, 
which did and does belong to {et jacuit et jacet 
in) Hiz [Hitchin]. But the assessment [Wara) 
of this manor belonged to (^jacuit in) ' Bede- 
fordscire ' T.R.E. (namely) to {in) the Hun- 
dret of Maneheve [Manshead] ; and the 
manor is there and always was ; and since 
King Edward's death it has failed to pay the 
king's geld. 

fo. ao3b 

In Partenhale [Pertenhall] Alwin' had 
I virgate of land (assessed) to the geld. (There 
is) land for half a plough. This land is situ- 
ated in ' Bedefordescire,' but renders (its) geld 
and service in ' Hontedunescyre.' The king's 
officers claim it for his own use {opus). It is 
and was in King Edward's time worth 5 
shillings. William holds it of Bishop R[emi- 
gius] and ploughs (the land) there with his 
own demesne. 

fo. 205b 

S.* In Caissot [Keysoe] Allic (has) 3 vir- 
gates of land (assessed) to the geld. There is 
land for 6 oxen. (It is) soke (of Kimbolton). 
There (are) i sokeman, and 7 bordars, and 4 
acres of meadow, and 5 acres of woodland 
for feed {pastilis). 

fo. 307 

M. In EvRETUNE [Everton] Ingewar had 
7 hides (assessed) to the geld. (There is) 
land for 1 8 ploughs. There are now 2 ploughs 


on the demesne, and 1 9 villeins and 2 bordars 
who have 9 ploughs. There are a priest and 
a church and 15 acres of meadow, and 40 
acres of underwood {siha min'). In King 
Edward's time it was worth i o pounds ; now 
7 pounds. Rannulf brother of Ilger holds it 
of the king. 

fo. 307b 

In Caissot [Keysoe] Alwine had i virgate 
of land (assessed) to the geld with sac and 
soc. There is land for 2 oxen. It lies in 
' Bedefordscira,' but pays {dat) geld in ' Hunte- 
d[une]scyre.' He himself holds (it) now of 
the king, and has there i villein with 2 oxen 
in the plough {in caruca). In King Edward's 
time it was worth 16 pence ; now the same. 

fo. 208 

Of (the) I virgate of land of Alwin Deule 
in Partenhale [Pertenhall] King Edward had 
the soc. 


[WILLIAM PEVEREL'S LAND] Two sokemen have this (plough) there, 

fo. aasb 

In Farnedis [Farndish] (are) 3 virgates of In Potintone [Podington] (is) half a hide 
land of soke. (There is) land for i plough, of soke. There are 4 villeins with 1 plough. 

* This stands for Soke. 





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^^ Mounded Works 
*^ Mounded Works, Imperfect 
Cj "Camps"; Enclosures; or Dykes 


I 1 I I I >-■ .^^^ 

O 1 2 3 -1: 5 6 




THIS county possesses a very representative series of ancient 
defensive earthworks, although it has but few examples of the 
earlier types, and none of these has the large dimensions which 
distinguish them in other parts of the country. 

It is clear to the observer that some works were intended for the 
occupation of great bodies of men, perhaps a tribe or military force, 
whilst others were evidently the personal strongholds of chiefs or lords 
with a more or less numerous following. This distinction presents us 
with a rough but useful method of classification, whilst it still leaves open 
questions of actual date or origin. 

When we reach the period of the manorial stronghold, or its 
equivalent, whether of Norman or in some cases perhaps of even 
earlier foundation, it is interesting to note the gradual change which 
passes over the style of the work. At first these works, while providing 
for the residence of the lord, were of a strength and character fitted to 
withstand military attack, but as times became more settled they 
weakened into a form intended only for domestic defence or enclosure ; 
the same change, in fact, that has been remarked in our architectural 
antiquities. Thus we have a natural transition from the mounded and 
stockaded hold to the meaner defences of the homestead moat. In a 
county which was poor in building stone, and before the revival of brick- 
making, there was nothing left to those who desired even ordinary 
domestic security but to establish themselves by means of earth and timber. 

Of the ' homestead moat ' class our examples are very numerous. 
It is not by any means safe to suppose that they are all of later mediaeval 
times. There are good reasons for believing that not a few of them 
may have belonged to pre-Conquest inhabitants. This part of our subject, 
however, calls for fuller investigation. 

The very remoteness of many of our outlying villages and hamlets 
has tended to the better preservation of our earthworks and moats, but it 
has also increased the difficulty of access and study, so that this attempt 
to describe these works must be regarded only in the light of a prelim- 
inary survey. 

Very little has been written about the earthworks of this county, 
except in the case of a few outstanding examples. This fact has neces- 
sitated a personal examination of every instance described, and the omis- 
sion of some which might have proved well worthy of description. 



.1 \ 

1 \>uuwu^vii:iivii;7.'^.., 

I'll,, ■•'''''/Jli 


mil I '"" --^ '—^n. 

100 200 300 




(i) Wallud, or Waulud's Bank. — In Alfred's pact with Guth- 
rum, 878, he names the source of the Lea [Ligean) as the point at which 
the Anglo-Danish boundary was to leave that river and proceed north- 
wards to Bedford. This point is marked by a very early work, which 
stands a little to the north of the Icknield Way, on a slope rising out of 
the Leagrave marshes, not far from Limbury. It is an irregular oval in 
plan, with one straight side, and is said to enclose some 10 acres. To 
the north-west it makes a crescent-shaped bend about the well-head with 
its seven-branched springs, from which the Lea issues. The straight 
side next the river consists of a steep scarp 8 or 9 feet high at the south, 
but lessening in height towards the north. Here are no signs of rampart ; 
probably the river was held to be defence enough. On its curved 
sides there are still traces of a great rampart and a wide fosse, running 
round the oval, and of a second rampart and fosse outside this again. 
Old inhabitants still speak of this outer line and of its destruction, and 
the ordnance map of 1823 shows the remains as much more perfect than 
they are at present. A gap in the rampart on the north-east may have 
been an original entrance. The river also bends round the lines, and on the 
south in flood times creeps up to them. Over the whole of this area 
Mr. Worthington G. Smith has found hundreds of neolithic implements.* 
Sir John Evans also refers to numerous flint implements found on the 


(2) Maiden Bower, near Dunstable. — This famous work is thus 
described by Camden : ' At a little distance upon the very descent of 
Chiltern Hills, there is a round military fortification, such as Strabo has 
told us the British towns were. It contains 9 acres and is called Mad- 
ning-bowre and Madin-boure. . . . The swineherds now and then in 
the neighbouring fields find coins of the emperors, which they call to 
this day Madning money.' ^ Stukeley says ' Madan Castle is circular, 
perhaps oval, the space within is a fine plain ; the vallum is small, and 
the ditch much smaller ; so that I am persuaded it was made rather for 
spectacle than defence.' * But he forgets the gradual reduction of both, 
which has still further progressed since his day. 

An old green road, once an ancient way, parallel, and probably pre- 
vious to, the Roman Watling Street, passes the field in which Maiden 
Bower (or Burh) stands, its curving vallum well in view, owing to the 
level nature of its site. Originally enclosed by a single rampart and fosse, 
the area within is a little over 10 acres. The rampart at its strongest 
measures 28 feet at the base by 10 ft. 6 in. in height, but there remain only 
slight traces of the outer edge of the fosse, which was once 18 to 20 

1 Mr. Worthington G. Smith in Man, the Primeval lavage (p. 342), suggests that the place may 
have been the Lygeanburh taken by Cuthwulf in his campaign against Bedford (Anglo-Sax. Chron. [Rolls 
Ser.l, i. 3 3), and that the name survives in Limbury. 

'2 Evans' And. Stone Implements, pp. 62, 253, 271, 369, etc. 

3 Camden's Britannia (Gibson's ed. 1695), p. 289. 

* Iter. Boreale, p. 1 7. 


Maiden Bower. 


feet wide. On a portion of the northern circuit the rampart has 
disappeared. There were five entrances, on the north-west, north, 
north-east, south-west and south-east, from the last of which two ancient 

trackways led to a long 

<«i^^%miim«mmsrr:~" \ tumulus on ground 

where Dunstable now 
stands, and to the barrows 
on the downs, known as 
'Five Knolls.' The po- 
lar diameter is 775 feet 
across, and the transverse 
750. Mr. Worthington 
G. Smith kindly allows 
the reproduction of his 
plan from the book 
already mentioned, to 
which I am indebted for 
the details given above. 
He states that ' the in- 
terior of the camp, and 
the fields outside, are (or 
have been) full of neo- 
lithic implements, celts, 
scrapers, arrow-heads, 
hammer-stone fabricators and borers. Bronze tools, and a hoard of gold 
coins have been found, but I have not been able to trace them.' ' From 
the number of hut-circles, tumuli, and pre-historic remains which 
abound in the immediate neighbourhood, it is evident that these chalk 
downs must have been the home of man from a very early age. 

The prevalence of this name. Maiden Castle, or Maiden Bower or 
Burh, is a curious fact which should here be noted, as applied to pre- 
historic, or at any rate very early encampments. It does not follow 
that the name is pre-Roman, for out of thirty-two examples which have 
been listed and mapped,^ from Aberdeen in the north to Dorchester in the 
south, it appears only in the country where the Anglo-Saxon speech pre- 
vailed, or in the border lands influenced by it. In purely Gadhelic or 
Cymbric lands where there are many similar strongholds, such as Corn- 
wall, Wales, Ireland or Gaelic Scotland, it does not appear. This is how- 
ever not the place to enter into the vexed question of its significance. 

(3) Quint's Hill, or Quince Hill, Old Warden. — This is a 
mere fragment of a once redoubtable fortification. It stands on high 
ground to the north of the church. The site is so thickly covered with 
wood and undergrowth as to make it difficult even to examine it. There 
appear to be double ramparts and ditches of large proportions, which 
curve round towards the park, where the ground rapidly slopes away 

* Man, the Primeval lavage, 318, 321. 
a Antiquary, xxxviii. (1902), 256, and ensuing correspondence. 



to the east. Faint signs of continuation on the turf of the park seem 
to suggest that the work may have completed a circuit, either circular 

+ Roman 
■Finds here 



" " I 

loo 200 300 

or oval in shape, in that direction. Roman remains have been found in 
a neighbouring field to the north. 

(4) ' Cesar's Camp,' Sandy. — At Sandy, vv^hich has proved the 
most fruitful field for the discovery of Roman antiquities in the county, 
there are tvifo works of great interest, which may usefully be considered 
together. That it was a site of some importance in Roman days the 
remains which have been unearthed prove. Two Roman roads pass the 
spot, and the names Chesterfield and Stratford tell their own story of 
Roman influence. 

' Caesar's Camp,' so called, appears to be an early fortress or refuge 
statiofl not unlike Mam Tor, except for the double ramparts. It is 
placed along the highest ridge of a range of sandy hills, with steep 
lateral slopes, except at the rear to the north, where the heights broaden 
out and round themselves into the vales with easier descent. On this 
side therefore there was the more need of strong defensive lines, but un- 
fortunately this part of the work has been obliterated by the long-standing 
use of the ground for allotment gardens. The remainder is now occu- 
pied by the house and grounds of Guy Pym, Esq., M.P., and to that 
fact owes its better preservation. His boundary crosses the site from 
north-east to south-west, and along the whole circuit of the ridge within 
it the remains may be followed. They are strongest at the southern angle 
of the hill, which here rises some 80 feet or more above the plain. The 
enclosing rampart makes a sharp bend at this point, in following the 
line of the ridge, and ends in a small mound rising 3 or 4 feet above it, 
and about 1 1 feet above the present level of the interior. The rampart 
is 8 feet high inside and 20 feet outside, where its steep scarp ends in 



a broad terraced ledge which continues round about two-thirds of the 
east and west sides, where the descent is at the sharpest. This terrace 
may be the remains of an external fosse, or it may have been always a 
road, as it now is, for it slopes away down the hill on the west soon 

"c/esar's camp^ 


after leaving the mound. On the eastern heights the rampart, if there 
was one, has disappeared, but on the west it continues along the top of 
the ridge up to the boundary on the north, and there are clear signs of 
its course in the fields for some 500 feet beyond, until it dies out at the 



intersection of the old Cambridge road, which here crosses it at a right 
angle in the dip below. It is not unlikely that this marks the extent of 
the encampment at this point, and that the old road turned round its 
northern end. 

About half way along the eastern side, where the slope becomes less 
steep, the lower terrace referred to becomes a fosse, which follows with 
the rampart up to the boundary, where it is lost. The commencement 
of this fosse is close to an original entrance, which is commanded by a 
bend of the rampart on each side of it. A break of the edge of the 
heights on the west, near the mound, may also mark an entrance, al- 
though the rampart is here missing. 

The area of the part which can be defined is about 7 acres, and 
the interior has been much levelled to form a garden. 

In digging, small bronze coins of the minimi type, much defaced, 
are often found, and fragments of a coarse thick pottery, not made on 
the wheel. There are no springs in the enclosure ; well-water only 
occurs at a depth of 180 feet ; and the present channel of the Ivel below 
is a quarter of a mile distant. The slopes of the hill are now thickly 
covered with firs, but Lyson's drawing' shows the whole site bare, a 
long terraced hill, with rampart well marked, not unlike Old Sarum. 

Camden says that the Danes during their Tempsford campaign, 
' demolished (as 'tis thought) that British fort, the place whereof is now 
call'd Chesterfield and Salndy, which often gives fresh proof of it's an- 
tiquity by throwing up Roman money.' * On what authority is not 
stated. The position of the work on this commanding height, its irregu- 
lar following of the line of the ridge, and the style of its defences, seem 
to mark it as of native construction, before or about the time of the 
Roman occupation. 

(5) The Galley Hill Camp. — On a sister height, covered with well- 
grown firs, about three-quarters of a mile south from ' Caesar's Camp,' stands 
the second entrenchment, in the grounds of Lord Peel. It is a smaller work, 
nearly oblong, and shows strong signs of Roman influence, being nearly 
rectilinear and rectangular, with rounded angles. It is placed on the south- 
west end of the ridge, which sharply slopes away from the rampart on 
three sides to the plain 50 or 60 feet below. On the fourth side to the 
north-west a single vallum and fosse crosses the flat continuous ridge of 
the hill. Round the rest of the work the rampart is double, except 
above the eastern scarp, where all traces of it have disappeared. The 
lower rampart top is 6 feet below that of the upper, and between them 
the fosse continues round some 20 feet in width. The double work is 
strongest at the angles, as in the middle of the flanks it has worn away 
to little more than a lower terrace on the hillside. The interior measure- 
ment on the south is 343 feet, and on the east 273 feet ; thus its pro- 
portions are as i to i ^. There is a gap in the north-west rampart facing 
the ridge, a little east of the centre, which has the appearance of an 

' Add MS. 9460, f. 25. 
' Camden's Britannia (Gibson's ed. 1695), p. z88. 

I 273 35 


original entrance. A footpath also enters the work on this side near the 
north-west angle, where the rampart is again pierced and the moat partly 
filled, but this seems to be too near the edge of the scarp to be original. 
There is a further breach on the north-east, where the angle is entirely 
removed with all the eastern rampart. This breach shows the section 
of the vallum, which is here 9 feet above the bottom of the fosse, and 
about 4 or 5 feet above the interior level. It is composed of the sand 
and shaly ironstone which is native to the site. The fort could only 
have been approached on anything like even terms from the level ridge 
on the north-west. The whole area of the camp was under cultivation 
up to forty or fifty years ago. Trial trenches dug under Lord Peel's 


instructions within the entrances in the north-west vallum have revealed 
nothing of interest. 

There is the same want of water as in the case of 'Cassar's Camp,' 
and the Ivel is even further o£F. Chesterfield is the name of the level 
ground between these two hill stations, now partly occupied by the 
cemetery. All over this large area, including the part cut off by the 
Great Northern Railway, Roman remains continue to be found. On 
the heights round about Lord Peel's residence, Roman coins are dug up, 
mostly of the middle or later emperors, although there is no record of 
their having been found within the Galley Hill camp. There are also 
signs of other earthworks on these heights, which call for further ex- 



(6) BoLNHURST. — Partly in the ground occupied by the Manor 
farm, and partly to the south of it, there is a work of large extent, which 
is here included because of its size and irregular shape. It stands in 

fairly level country, and is cut in two by a road. It was surrounded by 
a great rampart and ditch, the lines not being straight but curving 
round the enclosure. It does not often happen that such works 



are divided between different ownerships, which is the case here, the 
Manor farm holding only about 5 acres of the northern end. It would 
appear as though the manor had planted its homestead and the moats 
belonging to it within the area of some earlier work. The interior ram- 
part is only strongly seen on its western side, where there is also a con- 
siderable stretch of a second rampart outside the moat, which here has 
much water in it. 

The southern portion of about i o acres is all pasture ; a great close 
known by the name of ' Obness.' The stretch of rampart to the south 
of it is very large and fine, with an apparent entrance towards its east 
end. At the west the corner of the work is gone, but the lines curve 
round northwards towards the upper portion, with the bank again 
large and the ditch in parts about 18 feet wide. The ground slopes 
away gently from the south side of the work. There are no signs of 
any outer rampart anywhere about this southern portion of the work. 
The present occupier speaks of finding a number of flints in his moat 
quite recently, which he describes as curiously shaped and cut. These 
may have been implements. He intends to try to recover them. Parts 
of the farm buildings are about two centuries old. 

There are three curious works in the low and once marshy lands 
watered by the Ivel and its branches. 

(7) Shillington. — Half a mile to the north-west of the high hill 
on which the church stands there is an entrenchment, obtusely semi- 
oval in plan, known as ' Church Panel.' It encloses a squat knoll, a 
little less than 3 acres in area, which must once have been an island in 
the midst of former swamps. The rampart is strong, and continues 
round the curving sides outside its fosse, which is 30 feet wide. A 
stream, 8 to 10 feet broad, flows past its straight north-eastern flank, 
banked up along a great part of its course, both within and without the 
enclosure. The knoll is highest at its south-east end, and is there 
scarped down to the ditch to a depth of some i o feet, but falls gradually 
towards the north-west, where a large interior bank is added round the 
lower portion of the work. An old watercourse, strongly banked, runs 
past this end, touching the outer rampart. The neighbouring fields are 
crossed in various directions by wet ditches and banked-up streams, and 
200 yards to the north a larger stream, 12 to 15 feet wide, runs past, 
diked up well above the level of the low-lying lands. In flood times 
all this low ground is covered and the knoll alone stands out. But for 
the banks which confine the streams it would lie continually under water. 
There is a small oblong sinking, near a disused gravel pit on the top of 
the knoll, which should be examined for foundations. The place has 
very much the appearance of an old refuge station in the fens, such as 
Alfred may have made at Athelney. Homestead enclosures were associ- 
ated with more serviceable land. 

(8) HiGHAM GoBioN. — Here is a somewhat similar work lying 
very low in the fields a quarter of a mile to the north of the church. It 
is called ' The Camp,' and is roughly triangular in shape, fenced in by a 



•^ **'' X*"* O'" » l\\ 



broad low external rampart with faint signs of a shallow interior ditch. 
The rampart averages 35 feet in breadth by some 4I in height, except 
near its north angle, where it suddenly widens to 5 1 feet. At this point 
a ditch runs through a break between the broad and narrow banks in 
the direction of the brook. In the centre of the enclosure is a low circular 
mound, about 100 feet across the base, and 45 at the top, with a shal- 
low trench round it. An old oak, 4I feet through the trunk, stands 
on its north slope. At the east angle of the external rampart are three 
narrow oblong depressions, with a lower bank enclosing them, which 
may have been fish stews. The internal area of the triangle is a little 
over 3 acres, and there seem to have been three entrances — one near the 
broad rampart on the north, and two near the ends on the south side. 
It is difficult to tell whether this place was a station secured by surround- 
ing marsh or a piece of artificial water with the mound for an island. 
In the first case it may be of early origin ; in the latter of much later, 
and perhaps connected with the former manor-house on the hill. 

(9) Etonbury or Stonbury, Arlesey. — These curious remains 
are within a stone's throw of Arlesey station on the Great Northern 
R ailway, which runs on a great embankment through the western side of 
the work, thereby making it impossible to decipher its plan. 

The position occupies the edge and slope of a great plain. The 
Ivel flows past it on the west, on the other side of the railway. 
It consists of two features — a main fort near the river, strongly held 
to the north by great ramparts and fosses, and with a wide expanse 
of broad moats on the south where the ground is low, probably fed 
from the Ivel ; and a very large oblong outer work, which still has the 
remains of strong entrenchments to the north and east, measuring about 
1,200 feet by 600. The rampart to the north of the oblong is still 
fine, standing in some places about 8 feet above the bottom of the 
broad outer ditch. Remains of a second rampart and ditch appear 
near its eastern end. Much of the larger ditch has been lately filled 
in, especially where it approaches the main work. There appears to 
have been an entrance at this point commanded by the towering ram- 
part and mound of the inner defences, of which the outer fosse is almost 
a ravine, about 50 feet across and 10 feet down to the water level, above 
which the rampart rises again to a height of 1 2 feet, and the mound some 
3 feet higher. Each of the ramparts of this inner work ends in a similar 
mound, and there is another on the east side of the moat, suggesting that 
there was a bridged main entrance here to all parts of the inner work, 
strongly commanded by these mounds. On the west, Lyson's drawing^ 
shows the two ramparts as ending suddenly at the top of the slope 
down to the river and without any return. This part has been broken 
through by the railway bank. The broad moat on the south is 
carried round a large flat area raised slightly above the general level. 
In many places there are the remains ot a low rampart on the outer edge 
of the broad moat, and on the west a small dam stretches across it, leaving 

1 Add. MS. 9460, f. 25. 



" " ' io o "zoo ^^° 

'-. "'"I'lm,',';;,",;:""'" •.,;„ 


only a narrow mouth for communication with the river. A small stream 
runs through the lower part of the site, which was a few years ago 
turned into the outer moat, possibly deepened for the purpose. Formerly 
it continued into the river, under the railway bank. Whether this 
stream flows in its original course is uncertain, as it has the appearance 
of a later straight cutting. There is a short moat-like sinking inside the 
inner rampart, as though further to divide the ward within. How the 
work was closed in on the south is not clear. Possibly the road covers 
the line of the defences. 

In the present state of the remains nothing can be suggested as 
to its origin, except that the small mounds at the ends of the ramparts are 
found in works reputedly Danish, and the shallows cut near the river, 
which are unlike defensive moats, may have sheltered their shipping. 

(lo) Dray's Ditches near Limbury. — Following along the old 
Icknield Way from Limbury, in a north-easterly direction, two isolated 
hills are reached — Warden Hill and Galley Hill. Under the east slope 
of the latter is a very large irregular enclosure, with slight bank and 
ditch, evidently not defensive, all round it. The stretch which lines 
the Icknield Way is more than half a mile in length. The ground 
within is a dead level and is under cultivation. On the slopes of the 
hill above, the ordnance map shows four tumuli. To the south, a 
strong line of entrenchment runs parallel with Dray's Ditch, i,ooo feet 
in length, pierced almost at right angles by the Icknield Way. Much 
of it has been levelled, but at the western end the rampart rises 9 
feet above the bottom of the external fosse to the north, which is 
here 1 2 feet across. What was the purpose of this great enclosure 
it is difficult to conjecture. 


There is an interesting series of earthworks along the line of the 

Ouse from Bedford to Tempsford, 8 miles distant, which appears to be 




The aouea line Inaicate* it» on/ *w 
apttprtsertt fiood'iino. •-.--•-'•■•, 



^— I.**"- 





T ■ 






connected with the campaign of 921 between Edward the Elder and the 
Danes and Northmen of East Anglia.' 

1 Jngh-Saxon Chon. (Rolls Ser.), i. 194. 


(i) The ' King's Ditch,' Bedford. — The Chronicle * tells us that 
King Edward ' went with the army to Bedanforda, and gained the burgh, 
. . . and he remained there four weeks and commanded the burg on 
the south side of the river to be built [atimbran) before he went thence.' 
This was in 919. Previously the town, with whatever fort commanded 
the ford, was on the north side. Mr. G. T. Clark assumes that this 
entry implied the rearing of a mound, for which there is no evidence, 
nor even a tradition. There is however a work on the south of the 
river which may fairly be attributable to this month of labour. It is a 
very ancient cutting which describes a circuit from a point on the river 
to the west of the town to a point on the east, about half a mile dis- 
tant. It is shown- in Speed's map of 1 6 1 o. The river still runs through 
this cutting, and in flood time it is full to the brim, 10 or 12 feet 
across. In recent times it has been shortened on the east, but the old 
course is still strongly marked, and flood water takes possession of this 
too. Some traces of an interior rampart are here still visible. This 
work goes by the name of the ' King's Ditch,' and when stockaded 
would form an effective defence for Edward's new garrison. The ditch 
is carefully maintained and is a notable boundary of property. 

It has also been suggested that this cutting may have been a water- 
way made at the time of Henry the Third's great siege of Bedford Castle 
in 1224, but this siege is described with so much minuteness in the old 
record ^ that an important detail such as the making of this ' ditch ' 
must have been recorded. Moreover it is evident that the besiegers 
with their engines were drawn round the castle very closely, and a 
comparatively remote water-way could have been of little service. It 
should also be noted that two Norman churches, one very early, stood 
half-way between river and ditch, on the line of the main road to the 

(2) Tempsford. — Two years later the East Anglian Danes abandoned 
Huntingdon, their headquarters, and moved up 

the Ouse to Tempsford, where they 'wrought TE M PSFOR D 
a work ' and established themselves. At this 

place, on the south of the Ivel, near its June- nmnfm^^ ""200" 30 
tion with the Ouse, there remains a strong 

little fort, which all our earthwork authori- iW^!"iiiW/% ^ 



ties assign to this occupation. Mr. 1. C. i^r 5 */ri5H -i 

Gould savs : ' This example is of great value, ' l§ ^ 5 if ~?=f 

as we know the date or its construction. S^'MlMUftHrtT^V^S 

Mr. J. H. Round describes it as ' an advanced ^">n,iuu,uuui> 

post of the Danes.' * It stands about 200 yards 
from the former bank of the river, and is oblong in shape, being about 
120 feet by 84 feet within the ramparts, which remain on three sides 
to a height of 1 1 or 12 feet above the bottom of the moat. The moat 

1 Anglo-Sax. Chron. (Rolls Sen), i. 192. * Ann. Mon. (Rolls Ser.), iii. 86-9. 

3 Jourv. Brit. Arch. Assoc. 'Early Defensive Earthworks,' p. 22. * Sluart. Review, July 1894. 

I 281 36 


averages 20 feet across, and is strong on all four sides. The eastern 
rampart has been mostly removed. The entrance appears to have been 
at the north-east angle close under a small circular mound on the 
rampart, rising a foot or two above it, and 20 feet across the top, 
which is edged all round by the root of a small bank which may 
have been the base of a stockaded tower. The fields to the south 
and east are scored with traces of other lines, where probably the rest 
of the station stood, but they are too faint to decipher. The ground 
slopes from east to west, so that the west end of the little fort rises 
considerably above the lower levels. It seems to have been a kind of 
projecting exterior keep. Its local name is ' Gannock's Castle ' or ' The 


Z. • 00. "nausts", 


Gannicks.* At the close of the campaign the place was stormed by the 
English with great slaughter of its defenders. It is very probable that 
this and other works of the kind became, later on, the site of defended 
homesteads, as they could easily have been adapted for the purpose. 

(3) WiLLiNGTON. — Four milcs nearer to Bedford, still on the south 
of the Ouse, there is another work with certain unusual features, which 
appear to mark it also as Danish. It stands on the old original bank of 
the river, which flows immediately beneath it. The former river bed 
lies between it and the northern original bank, half a mile across, and is 
wholly covered in times of flood. The site of the camp is a plain, 
and all the lines of entrenchment are dug out much on one level. 
There is an inner ward, an outer ward and a wide exterior enclosure. 



The London and North-Western Railway cut through the work 40 years 
ago, but the broken lines may be traced on each side of it. A moat, 
averaging 40 feet in breadth, pierced for the entrance on the south, en- 
closes the inner ward. There are remains of a strong interior rampart, 
which on the east side leaves the moat and turns back towards the river, 
starting from a circular mound commanding the entrance. The same 
moat then continues in a straight line on the west until it bends at a 
right angle to enclose the outer ward. It also is stopped for the entrance, 
and then continues, 30 feet wide, until it joins a much broader flat- 
bottomed cutting which comes up from the river at a right angle. This 
measures 68 feet across the top, and gradually widens to 104 feet at the 
bottom, shelving down towards the water all the way. It is 170 feet 
long to the point where the railway embankment interrupts it. On the 
other side of the line, the old river bank of hard gravel, 12 feet high, is 
sliced through to meet it, some 230 feet in width, and the water bays in at 
this point as into a harbour. The two other moat ends which appear on 
this side of the line are stopped before they reach the water, with only 
narrow runnels in communication with it, which may or may not be 
original. The Rev. A. Orlebar, vicar of the parish, remembers that 
before the line was made the water invaded the whole extent of this har- 
bour, and in winter it used to be a favourite haunt of skaters. At the 
harbour head there are ramparts on both sides, some 8 or 9 feet high 
above its bed ; and also on both sides of the moat which joins it. 

Outside all these works, and enclosing them, the outermost entrench- 
ment ran, well preserved on the east side and evident on the south, 
although a modern road occupies the fosse. The east fosse is 20 feet 
in width, and the inner rampart 6 feet above the bottom of it. Following 
down towards the river a curious feature occurs near the railway. The 
moat suddenly widens into a small oblong 35 feet wide by 72 feet long 
by 6 feet deep, and then continues down towards the harbour mouth. 
These dimensions are almost the same as those of the ' nausts,' ship- 
sheds or small docks of the old Vikings in Iceland, such as the Floka- 
naust on the Vatsnfiord, intended for the single ship of Hrafn Floki, 
one of the earliest settlers in the ninth century. His ' naust ' was close to 
his house, and the outer wall of it was an earthen bank, as here.' At 
the head of the harbour is another oblong sinking, 1 10 feet by 60 feet, 
and there is a gap in the rampart between it and the harbour of 25 feet 
to allow of communication. The west side of this enclosure is shelving, 
but the other two are clearly cut, and its level is slightly above that of 
the harbour. This may have been another 'naust' or dock. 

The distance between the side of the harbour and the small 'naust' 
is 60 feet. The latter has two shelving entrances at the foot, some 
1 8 feet wide, and there is a similar depression in the side of the harbour.' 
Close to the eastern entrance to the ' naust ' is the root of a circular 
mound, 25 feet in diameter by 3 feet high. There is a small additional 

' Thorsteinn Erlingsson, Ruins of the Saga Time (Viking Club), p. 87. 

* The Northmen were wont to drag their ships overland on rollers, which they carried with them. 



court to the east of the main enclosure, as though for extra defence to 
'naust' and harbour. Its bank and ditch are lost in ploughed fields after 
reaching the hedge, but their return may be traced on the other side 
of the line. 

The Northmen were accustomed to provide some such shelter for 
their fleets when campaigning,* and this work is described with some 
detail because of its situation on the line of their advance on Bedford. 
They may have left their ships under guard here before crossing to the 
north bank of the Ouse, where the fighting certainly took place. The 
harbour would have space for between twenty-five to thirty ships of the 
Gokstad type, which would allow for a force of about 2,500 men. That 
there is no reference to Willington in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle may 
be due to the fact that after their defeat the Danes withdrew on Temps- 
ford, where the next recorded fighting took place. Not having been 
itself the scene of battle, Willington might easily pass unnamed. 

(4) Renhold. — On the north bank of the river, opposite to Will- 
ington, there is a curious small circular work on a commanding height. 

It is surrounded by defences 









■" ■" 




of disproportionate size for 
the scale of the enclosure, 
which is only 120 feet in 
diameter, whilst the rampart 
is some 40 feet broad at the 
base, 8 feet high above the 
inner level, and 1 1 feet above 
the fosse outside, which is 
50 feet across, and at present 
of very flat section. This 
is due to the fact that 
twenty-five years ago it was 
drained of its water and then 
filled up. Formerly the 
depth must have been in 
proportion to its breadth. Now it is only 3 feet, and towards the 
rear the ditch has been almost obliterated. Water still stands in a portion to 
the south. There are entrances at the east and west, through which an old 
road once ran, the latter being double the width of the former. As the ram- 
part near it and especially to the north has evidently been tampered with, 
the gap here may have been widened. The high road between Bedford and 
St. Neots runs past the north rampart, and the ditch has here disappeared ; 
no doubt the shovel has been at work to level the sides of the road. 
An old man of eighty remembers the road before it was hedged, when 
the work lay open and untouched. On the high flat ground between 

1 The Jomsviking Saga speaks of a harbour made by Palnatoki the Viking at Jomsborg, perhaps 
on the Isle of Wollin. ' There he had a large and strong sea-burg made. He also had a harbour 
made within the burg in which 300 long ships could lie at the same time, all being locked in the burg ' 
{Tie Viking Age, Du Chaillu, ii. 1 62). 



it and the steep slopes to the river on the south and west, there are many 
old lines of trenched work now almost levelled out. As this place is 
only 3 miles from Bedford, and near the scene of the conflict,^ it is 
possible that it may have been an outpost of the Danes, by means of 
which, with Willington, they secured the passage of the river. The 
older ordnance maps call it ' a Roman amphitheatre.' 


The county is rich in various types of earthworks ot this class which 
have certain features common to most of them, such as a strong central posi- 
tion specially fortified for keep or hall; mills, fishponds, and more often than 
not, the church ; and, outside all, lines of entrenchment enclosing a wide 
area. In one matter these sites are much alike : they are either deserted 
and left to the possession of ' conies ' and great trees, or they are occu- 
pied by small farmhouses, often placed in the central hold. The first 
is nearly always the case with the moated mound series, which are the 
least adaptable to later habitation. In these the mounds are generally 
found in one of two forms, either (a) large, conical and flat-topped, 
often with a smaller mound superimposed ; or (^) small and semi-globular. 
(c) A third class consists of works with irregular mounds, or merely 


(i) Bedford Castle. — This was the chief and greatest of these.' It 
is first heard of in Stephen's siege (i 136). The only remains now of its 
great entrenchments are the lower part of the demolished mound, 1 60 feet 
in diameter by 25 feet in height, with, on the north and east, a fine seg- 
ment of surrounding ditch, 50 feet wide by 8 or 9 feet in depth ; and 
parts of mounded work further north again, now covered with buildings. 
Not many years ago the last of its moats was filled in to make a road 
down to the river, and traces of others have come to light during ex- 
cavation for the rebuilding of various business properties in the High 
Street, which stretched back some distance into the castle area. The 
mound, with the keep, which stood upon it, and the rest of the castle 
buildings were ordered to be destroyed after the great siege of 1224; 
since which time it has enjoyed centuries of peaceful life as a famous 
bowling-green. Leland, Camden, Defoe and Lysons all refer to it in this 
later capacity. There is no mention of any castle in Domesday. 

It is often stated that some earlier stronghold stood on the site to 

' Leland speaks of a number of skeletons having been found 2 miles nearer to Bedford ; and five 
years ago, whilst the ground was being levelled in making the Russell Park, several more were found, 
lying east and west, with Saxon swords and spearheads, which are now in the council chamber. Between 
that point and this Renhold work, also by the river, stands the barrow-like mound of Risinghoe, close 
to a small bridge, always known as 'Bloody Battle bridge.' 

" Castellum editissimo aggere vallatum {Gesta Stephani [Rolls Ser.], 32). 



dominate the ford, but nothing can be learned about it, and the descrip- 
tion of the Norman castle belongs to another section of this work. 

(2) Flitwick. — Near the church, on rising ground known as 
' Mount Hill,' stands a small ' mound and court ' work of the figure-of- 
eight type. A circular moat averaging 30 feet in width, and 6 feet 

at its deepest, encloses 
a mound which is 
102 feet in diameter 
across the top, and 
raised 4 or 5 feet 
above the general 
level. Its surface is 
fairly flat but slopes 
gradually up towards 
the west, where it is 
finished by a small 
round flat-topped 
mound, which rises 
14 feet above the 
bottom of the moat. 
There are remains of 
a strong rampart on 
the outer scarp of the 
moat, which towards 
the south commences 
its sweep to encircle 
the base-court, which was considerably larger than the inner enclosure. 
Towards this court the circular moat is stopped in two places for 
entrances. There are traces of outer lines in the fields adjoining, but 
not many years ago these formed part of a large pleasure garden, and the 
lines have been almost obliterated. 

This is true also of the north side of the base-court. The small 
upper mound was the site of a summer house and may have been modi- 
fied. The river Flitt, an arm of the Ivel, is near. There is Norman 
detail in the church.* 

(3) ' Conger Hill,' Toddington. — This place occupies the highest 
point of a lofty tableland from which wide views of the country are 
obtained. A great round moat, 30 to 32 feet wide and 5 to 6 feet deep, 
entirely encircles the mound, which rises 1 8 feet above the present bot- 
tom of it, with a flat top of 92 feet diameter. There is no trace of 
rampart on the summit, but here and there slight sinkings which suggest 
some sort of small enclosures. There are a few slight entrenched lines 
to the north-west in the direction of the church, which stands about 
100 yards distant, and a considerable length of moat 12 feet wide by 
2 feet deep runs past quite close to the great moat edge on the east. 



100 20O 


1 The whole of Flitwick was held in demesne by William Lovet in Domesday. 



This outer moat has no rampart, and proceeds almost due north and 
south, dying out before it shows any sign of turning. From this moat 

the site slopes gradually away to the south, where there are remains of a 
large bank near a brook, which was probably a dam. No signs of the 
outermost enclosing lines are now apparent. Fisher publishes a view of 
Conger Hill in his Collections (1812). The Lysons' stated that near it 
were ' considerable earthworks ' in their time.* 

(4) The ' Bury Hill,' Thurleigh. — Fisher's drawing finely shows 
the impressive nature of the great moated mound at this place, and its 
near association with the church, in which is a tower and north door of 
early Norman date. It also stands on a lofty height, which slopes rapidly 
down to a low-lying stream on the west and south. The mound was 
of the conical type with its summit in two levels, the higher of which is 
crowned by a small circular hold with low ramparted edge. In the 
centre of this stands a great walnut tree 1 2 feet in girth. There is no 
bank anywhere else on the mound, which rises some 23 feet above the 
bottom of the fosse, on the east, where the work is best preserved. The 
fosse is about 25 feet across and 8 or 10 feet in depth on the east, north and 
west. Here there are also fine remains of the great rampart on the outer 
edge of the scarp. On the south side all these features are almost worked 

^ Mag. Brit. i. 143. 

* At the time of Domesday Toddington was a large and very valuable manor held in demesne by 
Ernulf de Hesdin. 



out, and in recent years the mound itself has here been dug away in 
order to level the ground. This spoliation has now been stopped. During 
its progress many skeletons were found in the side of the mound, but no 
signs of masonry. A farmstead, some two and a half centuries old, occupies 


much of the site, with the result that no courts connected with the 
mound can now be traced. The outer enciente however, well defined 
by bank and ditch, remains almost entire, and encloses a very large area, 
within which stands practically the whole of the old village. At the 
north-east angle there are certain strongly marked projecting lines, which 



seem to mark a well-guarded entrance. At the bottom of the valley to 
the south the stream was originally taken through a pond of great 
length, now known as the ' Black Pond,' and then outside another, the 
' Westminster Pond,' very much wider, scooped out of the hillside to a 
depth of 12 feet on its steeply cut northern edge. The stream was 
evidently directed into the upper pond by a strong bank, and then flowed 
past the lower, between two similar dams. Thus the second pond was 
supplied from the first, which was slightly higher in level. Domesday 
names no mill, and these arrangements for the storage of water suggest a 
sluggish flow which was not always equal to the requirements, 

(5) Yelden or Yielden Castle. — This is one of the most inter- 
esting earthworks of its type in the county, both because of the strength 
of the remains, and because of the presence of masonry revealed during 
excavations made about twenty years ago. There is also some degree of 
certainty as to its date and origin. 

It differs from other examples in not standing on high ground but 
towards the base of a long gradual slope, which continues to rise beyond 
the site of the castle. From Domesday down to the thirteenth century, 
it was the stronghold of the Trailly family. Its main defences consist of 
a great conical keep mound, ending in a rounded oblong at the summit, 
and of two extensive baileys, inner and outer. Beyond these to the east 
and south are several large enclosures with strong entrenched lines round 

The area of the top of the mound at the highest is roughly 1 30 feet 
by 90 feet, and 40 feet above the bottom of its north moat. It is in two 
levels, and is not surrounded by the moat, its western scarp descending 
into the inner bailey. Small remains of stone foundations were discovered 
on the mound in 1882. The moat, which is in places 30, 40, 50, and 
on the west 100 feet in width, encloses both mound and bailey, and 
is strongly ramparted entirely round its inner edge. At the north-west 
angle the base of a stone wall was found during the excavations, and the 
bases of two small round projecting towers at the south-west angle ; 
also a length of stone foundation lining the south rampart of this wing. 
The west moat is of great length and of unusual breadth, and is con- 
tained along its west edge by a long bank, outside of which a small stream, 
the Til, runs. In two places this bank is pierced to admit the stream. 
Opposite the two tower bases referred to, a small mound rises out of this 
west moat, and the excavations revealed the remains of a round tower in 
stone, 30 feet in diameter and with 4 feet walls. A chamfered plinth 
stone which came from it was pronounced to be undoubtedly Norman 
work. There may have been a drawbridge over to the inner bailey at 
this point. The north end of this moat is closed by a projection from 
the outer bailey, where was probably another entrance. Where this pro- 
jection joins the bailey there is the base of another low mound. Exca- 
vation might have shown that there was another stone tower here to cover 
the entrance, although in 1882 no stone remains were found in this bailey. 
From this point a strong rampart encloses the west and north sides of the 
1 289 37 


bailey, and is returned along the short east end, where it ceases at the mound. 
Outside this the moat continues, joining those round the mound and the 
eastern enclosures. On the west side the brook runs through this moat, 
which appears to have been continued outside the long bank described. 

£ ~^»"i/,y 


""""MM,,,,. =^ 

I'''':;:;;:"•"fMn,^^^^ -= 

""""1,/,. - 

thus making a double moat along this flank. The road has here modified 
the works to some extent. There appears to have been an eastern approach 
to the mound and keep between two small nioats across the enclosure 
there. It was quite in keeping with such works that many of the ramparts 



should be stockaded between stone towers at salient points. The Lysons 
quote an inquisition of 1360, which states that the castle had then ' fallen 
entirely to decay.'' They also say, ' beyond the moat appear traces of 
walls for a considerable space.'" This may have been on the top of the 
south rampart already referred to. Nothing of the kind now remains. 
Much stone burnt red was found in different places, and especially in the 
round tower in the moat. 

In the Bedfordshire Architectural Society's Transactions'^ there is 
an interesting account of the castle and the excavations conducted by the 
writer. Rev. R. S. Baker, with an excellent plan which shows water and 
mud in all the moats. This is not now the case, but the Til is wont to 
flood both them and the road every winter. In the old days no doubt 
the moats were all well filled. By the roadside appear white posts 
marked in feet, to guide wayfarers as to the depth of water during the 
frequent floods. 

(6) TiLswoRTH. — In the rectory garden, which is said to have been 
formed out of the churchyard, there is a mound of considerable size, 
perhaps some 15 or 20 feet high, and flat on the top. Its western slope 
has been cut away in part to make room for a greenhouse, and from this 
a brick tunnel is formed in the heart of the mound. During the work 
for this tunnel a sword is said to have been found, which has not at 
present been traced. Other lines towards a stream on the east can be 
seen, but much broken and reduced. 

(i) Cainhoe Castle near Clophill. — This strong little work 
stands on a spur of high ground artificially scarped on the north down 
towards a small stream which partly envelops it, in old days probably 
making much marsh around it. The site is commanded by a superior 
height about 80 yards to the eastward. This may point to the construc- 
tion of the place before the common use of siege engines. 

The central mound is small compared with those already described, 
but its rounded shape rises well above all the rest of the defences, and it 
is surrounded by a deep fosse some 40 feet wide, except to the north, 
where it turns out into the steep scarp. This fosse could therefore never 
have held water. There are two considerable wards to the east and south, 
facing the superior heights, divided by a fosse which also continues 
along the greater part of this frontage, which is defended by a strong 
rampart. The entrance appears to have been on the west side, where the 
ground slopes up to a re-entering angle, between a small mounded pro- 
jection on the north and a large rounded platform, about 1 00 feet across, 
on the south. There are no signs of ramparts on either, but when 
stockaded they completely commanded the approach. They are separated 
from the mound and south ward by the interior moats, and are joined 
together at the rear by a small platform, slightly lower, which blocked 
the approach and may have formed the abutment for a flying bridge of 

' Mag. Brit. i. 156. "^ Ibid. p. 34. 

* Vol. xvi. (i88z), 251. The plan forms the basis of the one produced. 



timber to the keep-mound, as described in a passage relating to a French 
example, quoted by Mr. G. T. Clark/ If this entrance were forced, the 
assailants would find themselves under the necessity of moving round the 
deep inner ditches to attack the mound and several wards which towered 

above them, all of them no doubt with stockaded sides. A considerable 
portion of the lower slopes of the ground is enclosed by the outer enciente, 
with traces of rampart and ditch. At the western angle is a long piece 
of standing water towards which the outer lines are tending. There is 
no church or village here.^ 

^ Mediaval Military Archit. (1884), i. 33. The date of the stair and bridge was about the 
beginning of the twelfth century. 

^ This fortress was evidently the head of the barony of ' Albini of Cainho.' 



(2) ToTTERNHOE Castle. — This is just such another stronghold, 
perched on the end of a promontory of the chalk downs two miles to 
the west of Dunstable, at a point where with very steep sides to the west 





^=:zS^=r^ 7,1111 r/ncV ^ % 

^SS ft 



= ^n\III'/'//(/|(IiI,)(Ii>^- ^ = 

- — — ■^('iiiiiiniiiiniiiniuiiiiiw'y 



'/fn^:: ::::::' ■'■'-■' 



and south the downs rise out of the wide surrounding plain. It is thus only 
approachable by the old green trackway which leads along the heights 
from Dunstable past Maiden Bower. The surface of the plateau has been 
artificially levelled, and fine linches terrace the face of the hill on the east. 

From this side an oblong camp-like enclosure is first entered, with 
straight scarped sides and rectangular. There are no ramparts on the 
north or south, and the steeps on the latter side are precipitous. The 
east moat remains in good condition, but there is now no proper ram- 
part, the ground sloping up so as to make a steep scarp to the ditch. 
It has been maintained that this outer enclosure was originally a Roman 
camp, but this is not certain since such rectilinear oblongs do occur in 
connection with manorial strongholds.' On the other hand these mounded 
works might very well at times be inserted inside earlier stations, as 
appears to have been the case at Little Wymondley in Herts, where a 
moated mound and courts are placed within an almost quadrangular en- 
closure, in which Roman foundations of some length have been uncovered. 
Only excavation can settle the point. 

As to the class of work at the west end of the oblong there can be no 
question. A great rounded mound with wide enclosing fosse, except where 
its base touches the scarp of the steep descent, stands in the centre. It 
rises to a height of some 2 3 feet above the bottom of the fosse, and is ot 
the same globular form as Cainhoe, except that the top, 40 feet in dia- 
meter, is now flattened, and has a slight circular depression at the summit. 
There are two wards, one small, to the west, the other large and covering 
the mound both on the north and east, where it ends at the edge of the 
descent. Both were ramparted, and are separated from each other and 
the mound by the interior moats. The lev^l of the east ward is some 
6 feet above the larger one, and that is about the same above the outer 
plateau. There is a small stretch of rampart at the north-west angle, 
outside the exterior moat, and bending inwards, as though to cover an 
entrance at this point. The inner moat here is twice interrupted to 
form two banks of communication between the wards. Close to the 
inner rampart of the large court, near to the mound, is a small circular 
feature which has given rise to many conjectures. The rampart con- 
tinues round its edge, producing a central hollow 1 1 feet deep. It is 
known as the ' Money-pit,' from an old idea that any one jumping into 
the hollow could hear the rattle of coin below. The place may be the 
mouth of a shaft, perhaps leading down to the bottom of the heights 
near the brook.^ A smaller excrescence of the same kind adjoins it. The 
ground outside the work slopes gently away to the north-east. 

The position is a majestic one, and to those moving on the lower 
plains for miles round, the Totternhoe mound seems to keep watch on its 
height like some great conning-tower.* 

• As at Bletsoe, see p. 301. 

^ As at Huntingdon, where the mouth of such a passage was recently discovered leading to another 
part of the work. 

3 Compare for a very similar plan the Chateau de Grimbosc. — Du Caumont, Abicidaire i'Archio- 
lo^e, i. 298. 


I • . o..A^jH^;;i^i;;,,n^;;;;^^^ 



(3) Meppershall. — 'The Hills,' as they are called, form the 
central hold of a very interesting work of the ' mound and court ' 
type. Its exterior ward is outlined by a great ditch 32 feet wide, with 
rampart round three sides on the inner scarp, 8 feet high above the 
ditch bottom. The inner ward, again surrounded by its ditch, is smaller, 
but several feet above the level of the outer, which is itself 2 or 3 feet 
above the general field level around it. The rampart of the inner ward 
is strongest at the ends, where it is 11 feet above the ditch bottom. 
Higher again is the isolated circular mound, 15 to 16 feet above the 
floor of the encompassing ditch, which is 35 feet wide towards the ward 
and about 50 towards the west. Its summit is slightly rounded and 
measures 26 feet by 30 across its diameters. There is a trace of a ram- 
part on the outermost edge of its circular ditch, and also outside the 
north-east angle of the outer ward. 

There are some moat lines to the east of the hold, but these seem 
to have been connected with the manor house, as they turn to enclose it. 

The bank and sometimes the ditch of the outermost entrenchment 
lines are strongly marked, and form a rough square about the hold, 
enclosing, if the road to the west completes the outline, not less than 
30 acres. The question again arises as to whether this enciente is con- 
temporary with the main work. There seems little reason to doubt it, 
as the whole site is bare except for two or three houses at the extreme 
north-west corner, and most of the village lies away from it. The 
church, with fine early Norman detail, of the plainest wide-jointed type, 
stands in close association with the mounded stronghold, and the small 
intervening manor house of timber and plaster is early Jacobean. There 
is no mill. 

With the exception of Bedford Castle this is the only work of its 
kind in the county which has any direct connection with history. The 
editor of the Gesta Stephani ' has the following note with reference to it. 

'In the original edition of the Monastkon {1655)'' there is a charter granted by 
Stephen ' apud Maperteshalam in obsidione.' The chronicles mention no such event 
as a siege of Meppershall ; but there exists at the present day, close to the church of 
this small Bedfordshire village, a high mound witYi a double line of outer ramparts, 
answering in the clearest way to the type of the hastily-built stockaded ' castles ' of 
this reign. Stephen, it thus appears, had to capture this outpost, perhaps during the 
siege of Bedford in 1 138.' ^ 

It does not follow however that the work was of Stephen's time, as 
the detail in the church attached to it is sixty or seventy years earlier. 

(4) RisiNGHOE Castle. — In Goldington parish, about z\ miles 
east of Bedford, on the north bank of the river, on ground belonging to 
the ' Castle Mills,' stands the solitary mound of Risinghoe. In its 
present state it is more like a barrow than anything else, but the tra- 
ditions and statements that it is the remnant of a former stronghold are too 
numerous to be passed over without mention. Leland says, ' The great 

^ Gesta Stephani (Rolls Ser.),p. xxv. ^ Vol. i. p. 480. 

^ In Domesday, Gilbert Fitz Salomon held the manor of Meppershall, and before him Leofwyn 
Cilt, a thegn of King Edward. 



round hill where the keep or dungeon stood is clean hole.' ' The Lysons 
write, ' The keep of the castle is of considerable height, and adjoining it 
are large earthworks.'" Rev. W. Monkhouse in 1854 wrote to contest the 
view that there was ever a castle here,^ but he had only a stone structure 
in his view, and he does not appear to have examined the examples we 
have just described. No traces of earthworks now appear in connection 
with the mound, but the fields adjoining have been extensively worked 
out for brick earth. Old inhabitants describe a smaller mound which 
stood close to the one remaining, which was actually removed for the 
purpose named. The mound, about 20 feet high, is semi-spherical, 
though the summit has a small flat space on it made in recent times. 
There are no signs of a surrounding moat.* 

It should be noted here that the name Hrisingr is Scandinavian, and 
that haugr, pronounced hoy, is Old Norse and Icelandic for a mound or 
barrow ; in Danish hsj. The many instances of this suffix in the 
place-names of the county on the Danish side of Alfred's boundary is re- 
markable. Thus Staploe, Duloe or Devilhoe," Keysoe, Bletsoe, Backnoe, 
Segenhoe, Sharpenhoe and Silsoe, as well as the mounded sites referred 
to. Strip Totternhoe and Cainhoe of their outer works, and the result 
would be similar to the isolated mound of Risinghoe. Excavation only 
can make known whether these barrow-like mounds may not have been 
in existence prior to their incorporation with subsequent strongholds. 
Hows were constructed in Viking times for observation as well as for 
burial. ' There was usually a how near the houses, from ' which the 
master could look over his estate.' * 

At RoxTON there is a mound of unusual shape known as ' Round 
Hill,' which is a prominent object owing to the fence of large closely 
planted elms which surrounds it. It is 40 feet in diameter by some 
4 feet in height, with slight slopes and a flat top, and it stands in the 
midst of cultivated fields. It has no ditch and its purpose is unknown. 


(i) Eaton Socon. ' The Hillings.' — This formidable work, which 
has been illustrated and described by Mr. G. T. Clark, stands on the west 
bank of the Ouse about 4 miles north of Tempsford, and has certain 
distinctive features of its own. 

Its two inner wards are both mounded up some 1 5 feet above the 
outside level, and it is without the isolated moated keep-mound of the 
examples previously described. ' The work,' to quote Mr. Clark, ' is 
composed of three parts, an inner, northern and outer ward. The inner 
and northern wards lie side by side upon the river, separated by a cross 

' Dr. Prior on Earthworks of Bedfordshire, Beds Arch. Soc. 1886. 

2 Mag. Brit. i. 89. » ggds Arch. Soc. (1854), P- ^'il- 

* Almost all Goldington, in 1086, belonged to Hugh de Beauchamp (who held the mill in de- 
mesne), his predecessor, Ralf Talgebosc, having obtained it in exchange for Ware. — J.H.R. 

^ Alwin surnamed Deule held Pertenhall according to the Domesday Book (see Introduction to 
the Domesday Survey, p. 215). 

* Vigfussen's Icelandic Dictionary, p. 241 ; sustained by passages from the Sagas. 

I 297 38 


ditch. The two are contained within another ditch, which communi- 
cated at each end with the river. Beyond this, covering the south- 
western front, is the outer ward, and beyond this again the outer ditch, 
which commences at the south-east corner of the mill lead, covers the 
south-western front, and at the north-western angle sweeps round to join 





the ditch already mentioned, and thus, through it to communicate with 
the river at the north-east corner of the work.' ' 

The inner ward is slightly the higher of the two. Around it the 
fosse is some 40 to 50 feet wide, and still has water in the south return. 
Round three parts of this ward over the ditch the rampart still remains 

* Medtaval Militat-y Archil, ii. 36. 


very strong, some 8 to lo feet high. There was none on the river side. 
A sloping way enters the ward at the south-east, where the rampart ends, 
and the outer river scarp bends round to cover it. There is a modern 
path through the north-west angle, which appears to have been a narrow 
cut through the rampart, later enlarged. Placed centrally, but nearer the 
river side, is a flat low circular mound, about 40 feet across by 5 high. 

The northern ward is also ramparted round three sides, strongly to 
north and west, and only weakening when it has well covered the junction 
of the ditches at the south-west angle, and the entrance from the outer 
ward. At the outer angle to the north of this is the root of a round 
rampart, about 1 5 or 20 feet across, mounded up on the very edge of the 
external scarp. At this point the height and sweep of the work are very 
impressive. Mr. Clark suggested that there might be the foundations 
of a stone tower in this mound, but an excavation lately made revealed 
none. This was the case too oh the flat mound in the inner ward. The 
hole was dug near its edge to the west, but only small bits of broken 
pottery, a little piece of eighteenth century glass, and a few animal bones, 
were discovered. No signs of squared stone appeared in either place, and 
men who have dug about the work in former years report that nothing of 
the kind was ever found. At the east end of this rampart is a small 
oblong, slightly banked, apparently like the round referred to, at the other 
angle the base of a stockaded tower. Again at the south-west angle of 
this ward there is a low flat platform of irregular shape. There was 
certainly an entrance where the ditches join, or rather make for each 
other (for they do not join), with a slight inward and outward bend, at 
the south-west angle. For between ditch and rampart is a little triangu- 
lar berm, probably the starting place for the timber passage to the inner 
ward. Nearly facing this break in the ditches there is also a break in 
the outer ditch, at a point where its edge turns sharply inwards. Ex- 
cavation proved that the original bottom was higher here, sloping back 
on either hand to the ordinary depth of the ditch, and suggesting some- 
thing of a causeway, which might yet be under water, when emergency 
required the filling of the moats to a higher level from the river. Even 
in recent times there was much more water in the moats than at present, 
and when the stronghold was occupied, the river was much more in 
evidence. This outer ditch sweeps round all three sides to the river, 
although, on the north, extensive digging for gravel has obliterated its 
exterior edge. Lyson's plan shows it entire, and also continuing round 
on the river front, with a bank pierced about the centre to admit the 
water.' As the land between this bank and the river was very wet, its 
level was raised within the last twenty years by cutting down the sides of 
the mound along this front, thus making the scarp much steeper. 

A good many years ago skeletons were found in digging near the 
entrance in the outer ditch, and also certain long swords, which were re- 
ported to have gone to the St. Neots museum. Inquiry there failed to 
find any trace of them. Human skulls were also found recently in 

1 Add. MS. 9460, f. 25. 


digging for ferrets on the north side of the ditch dividing the two chief 
wards. Large fragments of coarse badly burned pottery came out of the 
river scarp of the inner ward quite lately. 

In the absence of all evidence of any stone buildings, and as there is 
no mention in the inquisitions of any castle here, in spite of Leland's 
' vestigia castelli,' it seems clear that this was a stronghold entirely of 
earth and timber.* Domesday shows that ' Ulmar of Etone,' or Wolfmar, 
had his chief seat here before the conquest. Certain unusual features in 
this earthwork, and the absence of masonry, may suggest a pre-conquest 

(2) Odell. — The Lysons write : ' At Odell, a mansion-house has 
been erected on the site of the castle, the ancient seat of the Barons WahuU, 
which was a ruin in Leland's time.' The house which has incorporated 
the earlier remains stands on a high mound, but as this has been much 
modified in recent times its original form cannot be clearly made out. 
There is a fine stretch of a great rampart proceeding in a straight line 
from the north of the mound, within which are the grounds, and out- 
side the high road on the site of the ditch, of which the outer edge can 
still be traced. To the north, about 80 yards away, stands the church, 
and round it the roads appear to occupy the lines of entrenchment which 
connected it with the mound. The site slopes away rapidly to the south, 
towards the mill on the Ouse. This also appears to have been inside 
the original enciente. Odell Castle was the head of the important barony 
of'Wahuir (Odell). 

(3) Sandye Place. — Here too the house stands on a fine mound, 
of which it is difficult, owing to changes due to the laying out of 
the grounds, to ascertain the original shape. On the west boundary of 
the property there appear to be the remains of former enclosing lines, 
tending towards remains of fishponds near the Ivel, which has here been 
widened. The church stands quite close on the north-east, and the mill 
on the river to the south-west. 

(4) 'John of Gaunt's Hill,' Sutton Park. — This deserted 
mound, on which stand great elms, one of them girthing 14I feet, is of 

quite different form from 
^^<\'V«'"//„^ any previously described. 

.OHNOrCAUNT'SH.LL. (f^ 1^:;^^^:^^ 

SUTTON PARK ''^^^^ ^3 across its diameters. The 

SCALE OF FEET ^\ f | grouud slopcs from east to 

o I'oo 5oo 300 ^ ^^ ^\^<? w^st towards a small tribu- 

^*^^'nn\{\\^"'^ tary of the Ivel, so that 

the eastern section of the 

surrounding ditch is much more marked than the western. At its 

widest the ditch measures 48 feet across by 10 feet in depth, and 

the mound rises out of it to a height of 16 feet. The surface of 

1 It must have been the head of the barony of Beauchamp ' of Eaton.' — J.H.R. 



the mound is now level. Red roofing tiles of modern make occur in 
different points on the south of the oval some few inches below the 
surface. It is possible that the mound has been occupied for gardening 
purposes, as the Elizabethan manor house, burnt down eighty years ago, 
stood near it to the north. The church stands on the south angle of the 
park, and near the narrow pack-horse bridge of the same date. There are 
various faint lines of what may possibly be works in the neighbourhood. 



1 1 1 1 1 I [ I 1 1 I 1 1 

lOO 2O0 30i 

(5) Bletsoe Castle. — The earthworks here are of interest be- 
cause of the fine fosse, averaging 55 feet in width by about 15 feet in 
depth, which originally enclosed the central hold. About two-thirds of 



It still exists. The space within is an irregular square with rounded 
angles, of which the west side measures about 250 feet. Much of the outer 
enclosing lines of bank and ditch may be traced in the fields around, and 
there are two rectangular enclosures jutting out from the main position. 
One to the north-east is small, outlined by a slight ditch ; the other to 
the south-east encloses a square of an acre and a half within its fine 
rampart, which in places stands 5 to 6 feet above the interior level. On 
two sides there is a small berm and then the outer ditch, averaging 15 
feet in width. On the south-west side the ditch has been widened up 



'■■'■'■■■■' L 



to the rampart and is full of water. There are remains of two fishponds 
close to the outer lines on the west, past which a small stream still runs. 
The ground slopes away in all directions from the centre. The great 
moat is so lined with trees and undergrowth that it is not possible to be 
sure whether the level of the central space has been artificially raised, 
but apparently not. 

The substitution of a great fosse, about a larger central area, for the 
moated mound, so as to admit of more space for stone erections, is the 
most noteworthy feature of this example. At Roxton, in Palace Yard or 
' Splashyard ' wood, there is a large circular moat, with a short straight 
one branching off from it. There are traditions of dressed stone having 
been found on the site, but at present there is no clue to its origin. A 



smaller circular moat is also to be found in a wood near the manor house 
at Westoning. 

(6) ' The Creakers ' near Great Barford. — The earthwork here 
stands on almost level ground, which in places collects much water, A 
considerable moat runs round two sides of an interior central area, after the 
fashion of Bletsoe. If it ever completed the circuit, the returning sides 
have been filled in, and a small eighteenth century farmhouse with 
its garden occupies the position. From this inner area a small mound 
of irregular shape projects to the south for about 70 feet into what is 
now a large pond. This mound, at the highest, rises 4 or 5 feet above the 
level behind it and 9 or i o feet above the water line. It tends to a point 
at the end of the promontory, and is about 30 feet across at the broadest. 
On its west side the moat referred to bends round to enclose it and is 
full of water, being now really a part of the pond. Following this moat 
along its whole course on both flanks is a large exterior rampart which 
dies out near the farm to the north and at the edge of the pond on the 
south. These inner works are covered by strong lines of entrenchment 
immediately outside them, which now form two sides of a square, the 
returning angle being still evident on the north-east and a trace of the 
third side. This square outer work has a large rampart and exterior 
ditch. Whether the water originally occupied all its present area about 
the mound is doubtful. There was perhaps a second court below it 
with surrounding ditch, which may have been converted into a pond for 
farm purposes. There are other faintly marked lines to the east and south, 
but nothing very decipherable. 


There are very many moated sites of this class all over the county, 
as there are throughout most of eastern and southern England, and but 
few parishes exist that could not provide us with several examples apiece. 

The monastic sites were many of them defended by earthen ram- 
parts and moats, and are of special interest because here we have the 
help of dates. They are for the most part on low ground near rivers. 

Newnham Priory near Bedford should be described because its 
main enclosing lines are still existing, and because in some places they 
are being obliterated by having the town rubbish distributed over 
them. The area enclosed is not less than 35 acres. This priory was 
founded by Simon de Beauchamp about 11 65. The rampart and moat 
which outlined the main enclosure may be seen round all its three sides, 
in parts of it very strong ; and to the east they are supplemented by a kind 
of terraced platform with a smaller moat inside it. The Ouse closed up 
the fourth side to the south. At the north-east and north-west angles 
the rampart is strengthened by small mounds ; in the latter case some 
10 feet high and 20 feet across the top, with a circular rim round 
about it and projecting considerably beyond the line of the ramparts. 
This type of mound has already been noted in several of the previous 
descriptions. No doubt both rampart and mounds were stockaded. 



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On the east of this main enclosure are two great closes, each 
of them also defended by a vigorous bank and moat. On the south near 
the river are remains of large fishponds. There is no doubt that we 
have here the original enclosing works of the priory, for at some time in 
the sixteenth century they seem to have been considered insufficient, and 
a wall was added outside the exterior moat, built of rubble and clay and 
coped in red brick. This may have been done when the mansion was 
erected after the suppression. The cottage belonging to the monastery 
mill still stands. 

At Warden (1135), Elstow, Biscot, Harrold and Ruxox there are 
similar remains of the enclosing ramparts and moats, and no doubt on 
other monastic sites which have not been examined. In these cases the 
rampart is always inside the moat. 

There are a few instances of moated works on high ground, with 
the central hold mounded up a few feet to a uniform level, and with a 
wide deep moat surrounding it. The area thus outlined averages some 
100 to 150 feet each way. These works have all the extensive outer 
enceinte of bank and ditch common to both manor and monastery, and 
often church and fishponds. There are examples at HocklifFe, Colm- 


worth and Podington. They are evidently manorial, but being of the 
weaker transitional type are included in this class. 

Amongst later works on lower ground are the castle sites of 
Someries near Luton, and Eaton Bray, where there were fifteenth-century 
brick buildings, with considerable remains of quadrangular moats. Later 
mediasval manor houses also, on low-lying ground, with considerable 
moats still remaining, stood at Netherstead, Beggary, Chawston, Wybos- 
I 305 39 


ton, Cotton End, Bassmead, Cardington and in many other places. 
Sometimes the moat forms a simple oblong; sometimes another moat 
divided the space into two. Many of these examples have exterior 
banks, which from their breadth and flatness apparently formed promen- 
ades. Sometimes another ditch is found outside these again, as at Riseley 
Old Domain and at Mavourn. In the latter the moat has a flat berm 
under the water line, and then suddenly drops to a depth of 9 feet, an 
ingenious device for embarrassing intruders. Most of these later works 
suggest enclosure rather than defence. 

A large number of works are found with the -bury in their names, 
and many of these stand on heights. Brogborough near Lidlington, a 
small stronghold originally of oval shape, is perched on a little hill-top, 
and has the remnant of a really mighty rampart turning round its south 
end, and also remains of a fine fosse. Here too are the remnants of an 
exterior rampart. 

Keysoe Park, or Berrystead, as it used to be called, is another 
example. This resembles Mr. Gould's 'stirrup-shaped ' works ^ in plan. 
The ditch was a formidable one, 40 to 50 feet across, with a low ram- 
part inside, of which considerable lengths remain, and a very large one 



outside, continuing round every side of the enclosure. It is best pre- 
served in a small spinney, where it is some 15 feet in height by 50 
broad. There is a narrow berm on both sides of the ditch, and the 

1 F.C.H. Essex, i. 303. 


space intervening between the tops of the two ramparts is at least lOO 
feet. Yet the inner area is only about 300 feet from the top of the 
stirrup to the bottom, and somewhat more across it. 

Mossbury, near Bedford, also stands very high on the end of a ridge, 
rising out of once swampy ground to south and east. Old trackways crossed 
the plain at its foot. There is a long stretch of exterior bank to the south 
and traces of it on the west. Its interior ditch is 35 feet in width, and 
the rampart top rises 14 feet above its base. On the northern flank the 
remains have been much levelled, but here there seems to have been a 
ditch outside the bank. Within this again at the east end a small en- 
closure 88 by 120 feet is cut off from the rest of the interior space by a 
narrower cross ditch. The hilltop near it, on the south, seems to have 
been levelled, thus producing a very visible terrace line round the work. 
Small bits of Romano-British pottery were extracted from a rabbit 
hole about a foot below the surface.* Water often stands in parts of the 

Shillington Bury and Holwellbury are both remains of strongly 
ramparted and moated sites. They stand on flatter, less elevated ground, 
as do also Newton Bury and ' Grimesbury,' miscalled Greensbury, both 
with fine exterior ramparts. 

There are many other ' bury ' sites in various parts of the county, 
and the whole group should be carefully examined and compared. The 
examples described have all the appearance of being very early home- 
steads, with a fallacious show of strong defence. 

Another type of early enclosed homesteads have a square moat in- 
side one corner of a larger square or oblong ; as at Moggerhanger, and 



— S3 

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III '"'''t^m I 






the 'Bigginwood ' near Tempsford. Sometimes the two moats are quite 
distinct, as at ' The Camps ' at Bushmead, with only a bank between. 
This example has also curious rounded banks inside two of its angles, 
and three or four small mounds. It has an exterior rampart. 

' Over much of the ground rough morsels of coarse burnt brick earth occur. The surface earth 
below the soil also shows signs of fire. These puzzling appearances may have been due to the burning 
of the clay of the ramparts dug down for ballast, a practice reported in various parts of the county. 



At Yarlswood near Thurleigh there is a strange little work of the 
kind, with a fair sized flat mound in one corner, and four other smaller 
tumps round about it outside. This site has certain strange tales told 
about it and is avoided by the villagers at night. It is known as the 
' Devil's Jumps.' 

All the moated places so far mentioned are distinct and isolated, 
but along the Wyboston road, on both side, for more than a mile, 
there is a continuous series of lesser moated sites, which must have be- 
longed to much humbler inhabitants. Domesday notes the former 
presence of twelve sokemen at Wiboldestune. This coincidence led to 
the special examination of other places where the settlements of soke- 
men are recorded ; as at Keysoe, where there were twelve, and Har- 
rowden (Herghetone), where there were fourteen. In both these places 
the same series of small, slightly banked and moated enclosures occur, 
over a distance of about three-quarters of a mile. If these sokemen 
were of Scandinavian origin, it would be quite in keeping with their 
custom at home to surround their small 'tunes' or farms with banks 
of earth. At any rate the coincidence is suggestive, and worthy of 
further examination. 

At Holme there is a small square moat about loo feet each way, 
with a circular raised platform in the centre some 50 feet across and 
about 3 feet above the rest of the ground. There are also several de- 
tached traces of moat lines in the fields near. At this place Domesday 
mentions two batches of sokemen, one of three, and the other of two. 
All these positions have small streams running past them. 

Curious works remain behind Limbury Manor farm, consisting of 
certain moats, which, with their dividing banks, interlace in a maze of 
squares and triangles, a little after the fashion of what is called the 
Etruscan, or ' key pattern.' These were certain fish-stews which were 
the subject of a lawsuit in the time of Edward II. 

As time goes on it may become possible, by means of further ex- 
amination and research, to bring our various earthworks more into 
relation with the periods of human life to which they belong. The spade 
is, however, the agent most in request to let in fresh light on the subject, 
and the only one that can really help us to any certain knowledge of 
those earliest works which are amongst the first achievements of man on 
the surface of our land. 



THE name of Bedfordshire is not connected with any of the 
more striking memories of early English Church History ; 
nearly all that can be said of its religious institutions before the 
Conquest is by way of inference and conjecture rather than solid 
fact. Some of the reasons for this will be found in its political history, 
and in its position as a border territory up to the tenth century ; 
but perhaps the most important is one which belongs properly to the 
present subject — it did not produce at that time any great religious houses 
like those which made the neighbouring counties of Hertford, Hunting- 
don and Northampton famous at an early date, and consequently had no 
chronicler specially interested in the details of its local history. 

It is not surprising that there should be little or no evidence found 
of Roman Christianity, which has left so few traces of its presence and 
influence anywhere. But when we reach what is usually the surer 
ground of the second conversion in the sixth and seventh centuries, there 
is still great poverty of information, and an approximate date can only 
be provisionally fixed. It is possible that the conversion of Bedfordshire 
had a double origin. If the boundaries of Mercia and Wessex given by 
Florence of Worcester' are correct, and the county was roughly divided 
between the two kingdoms by the River Ouse in the early part of the 
seventh century, it may have been partly evangelised by monks of the 
Roman school, coming from the West Saxon centre, and partly by the 
Scotic monks who were working for the conversion of Mercia. In any 
case its turn would probably come a little late, as it lay on the border of 
both kingdoms ; and its conversion is not likely to have been begun 
much before the reign of Wulfhere of Mercia (659-75). ^^^ ^^ ^^ 
extended his kingdom far beyond its previous southern limit, and ' utterly 
destroyed the worship of demons, and made the name of Christ to be 
preached throughout his dominions,'^ we may safely conclude that the 
conversion of Bedfordshire was well advanced before 675, and that it 
had already some established centres of the usual monastic type for 
teaching and administration of the sacraments. Where these may have 
been it is not possible to say with certainty. One might perhaps be 
connected with the town of Bedford, which was already a place of some 
importance in the days of OfFa (757-96) ; and it is just within the bounds 

* (Engl. Hist. Soc.) i, 279. =" Ibid. i. 32. 



of possibility that he bequeathed to a church in Bedford some valuable 
lands in Kent, which had originally been part of the endowment of the 
see of Canterbury/ There may have been another centre in the southern 
district, where the name of Bissopescote (the modern Biscot) points to 
an assignment of Church property in the neighbourhood, and is tradition- 
ally older than the time of OfFa — if indeed it is rightly numbered by 
the compiler of the St. Alban's Book of Benefactors among the original 
gifts of the royal founder to that abbey/ It is also stated in one of 
Offa's charters ^ that the ' five manses at Lygetun,' which he was pre- 
senting to St. Alban's, had belonged to the Church before his time ; they 
had been given to him by Abbot Ahlmund by way of reparation for an 
attempt to elude the obligations of the Fyrd. Ahlmund's name occurs 
among signatures to several charters between 791 and 796,* but there is 
no evidence to show what monastery he ruled ; it may quite well have 
been in some other county, though part of its property was in Bedford- 
shire. No certain conclusion can be drawn from indications such as 
these ; the utmost that can be said is that the earliest assignments of 
Church property, the earliest signs of Church life in this county, were 
probably connected with the town of Bedford and the neighbourhood of 

The tradition that OfFa himself was buried at Bedford ^ is of fairly 
ancient date ; the chapel containing his tomb, which was outside the 
town on the bank of the river Ouse, is said to have been overthrown 
by the violence of the stream, after long use, and finally submerged.* 
Matthew Paris evidently thought that this happened soon after the Con- 
quest; for he blamed not only the earlier abbots for failing to secure 
to St. Alban's the bones of their royal founder, but also the first 
Norman abbot, Paul of Caen.' By his own time its memory only 
survived in popular legend.* 

Such churches or monasteries as there were in Bedfordshire pos- 
sibly suffered from the plundering raids of the Danes in 870 and 
877,' and even after Alfred's second partition treaty the county was 
still the natural battlefield of Danes and English ; not until after 921 
could there have been much opportunity of restoration. It is therefore 
all the more interesting to find, only fifty years after the last attack, 
reference made by the English chronicler in 971" to an abbot of 

1 Kemble identifies the place referred to in a charter of Archbishop Athelheard {Cod. Dipl. mxix. 
' ecclesia quae sita est apud Beodeford ') with Bedanford or Bedford, and is followed by the Rev. H. 
Cobbe in Luton Church ; but Mr. W. H. Stevenson is of opinion that the identification is extreme