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3 1924 089 568 756 

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Henrg W. S^Qit 






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Cornell University 

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tine Cornell University Library. 

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I (> I; l: 1 1 I 
JOHNSON'S t.'i'im;tnv 

'' r,/,l;V 




C. H. WRIGHT, r.R.M.S., 











Johnson's " Cottage Gardener's Dictionary " was first pub- 
lished in 1846, and immediately took the position as the leading 
work on the subject. During the forty-eight years that have 
elapsed since that date the book has been issued in several forms 
and at various prices. No thoroughly revised edition has, how- 
ever, been published since 1863, though new supplements have 
twice been added. 

In the present edition the whole of the matter has been care- 
fully revised, and while the arrangement followed in previous 
editions has, in the main, been adhered to, several important 
alterations have been made. The limitation of genera laid down 
in Bentham and Hooker's " Genera Plantarum " has, in most 
cases, been taken as the standard ; but some genera which are 
there united have here been retained as distinct, e.g., Azalea 
is here kept up as sufficiently distinct from Rhododendron for 
horticultural purposes. Synonyms are quoted in the body of the 
work, instead of forming a separate list. The translation of a 
specific name was previously given whenever such name occurred, 
the result being that a name frequently used (e.g., angustifolius) 
was translated several hundred times in the course of the work. 
This repeated translation has been abolished as unnecessary, and 
replaced by a list at the end of the work, giving those names 
most frequently met with and their meanings, proper and geo- 
graphical names being omitted, Keference has been made to 
standard botanical and horticultural works, where reliable figures 
of the plants mentioned can be found, and in some cases to the 


places where the species were originally described. A list of 
these works is placed at the end of this volume. The cultural 
directions have been rewritten or amended in accordance with 
the improved systems of culture now in vogue. Additional 
insects have been described and figures of some of them given. 

The editors gratefully acknowledge assistance readily given 
upon various points by Messrs. J. G. Baker, F.E.S., N. E. 
Brown, A.L.S., B. Daydon Jackson, Sec. L.S., Maxwell T. 
Masters, M.D., F.E.S., G. Nicholson, A.L.S., and E. A. 
Eolfe, A.L.S. 

C. H. Weight. 

D. Dewae. 

EiCHMOND, Surrey, 

April, 1894. 


It seems only necessary to observe that, to facilitate the proper pro- 
nunciation of the -names, the vowel in the syllable on which the 
emphasis is to be laid is denoted by an accent placed after the 
vowel : — Thus, in Abe'lia, the emphasis is laid upon the be ; and in 
floribu'nda on the bun. The other particulars scarcely need any ex- 
planation. The specific name is followed by the height of the plant 
(where the figure or figures stand alone, either feet or the fraction of 
a foot being intended) ; the colour of the flower ; the month when it 
begins to bloom ; the native country ; the year of introduction ; and, in 
many cases, a reference to some standard work, in which a figure of 
the plant occurs, or in the case of some of the orchids (especially 
those described by the late Professor Eeichenbach) to the original 
description. The abbreviated titles of such works referred to are 
fully explained at the end of this volume. 




Abele Tree. The White Poplar. 
{Populus alba. ) 

Abelia. (After Dr. Abel, Physician 
to the embassage of Lord Amherst to 
China. Nat. ord., Capri/oliacece.) 

Ornamental shrubs, suitable for cool green- 
houses. Hardy in southern counties in sheltered 
spots ; may be turned out in summer in less 
favourable localities. Cuttings in summer, layers 
in spring. 

A. JUynhu'nda. 3. Kosy-purple. March. Mexico. 
1842. B. M. t. 4316. 

— rupdstris. 5. Pink and white. September. 

China. 1844. B. B. 1846, t. 8. 

grwndifio'ra. A garden variety. Hardy. 

Rev. Hort. 1886, p. 488. 

— spathvla'ta. White. Japan. 1881. B. M. 

t. 6601. 

— trifio'ra. 5. Pale red. September. Hindo. 

Stan. Pax. PI. Gard. t. 91. 

— unijMra. 3. China. B. M. t. 4694. Syn., 

A. serrata. 

Abelmo'schus. See Hibiscus. 
Aberrant. Deviating from a typical 

A'bies. Spruce Fir. (From aheo, 
to rise ; on account of the tall habit of 
the trees. Nat. ord., Corei/er-ce.) 

A genus of ornamental evergreen trees, mostly 
hardy. Per culture see PiNUs. Comparatively 
young plants ripen seed freely. 
A. Ajandm. Large tree. Siberia. 
^ aJlba. 60. May. N. Amer. 1700. Pin. Wob. t. 33. 
— . — ■ na'na. May. 

— Albertia'na. See Tsuga Mertensicma. 

— ama'bUis. 180. April. New California. 1831. 

G. C. 1880, v. 14, p. 136. 

— armnalUea. 100. Oregon. 

— tahordimi. 40 to 60. Algeria. 1864. Syn., 

A. nwmidica. 

— halm'mea. 45. May. N. Amer. 1696. Pin. 

Wob. t. 37. Balm of Gilead. 

hucLso'nica. N. Amer. Syn., A. Fraseri 


— H'fda. Japan. 1861. This is merely a form 

of A. jlrma. 

— brachyphyflla. 120. Japan. 1879. G. C. 

1879, V. 12, p. 656. 
T-ltraetea'ta. 120. California. 1863. V. M. C. 
p. 90. 

— Brunonia'na. See Tsvga Brunoniana. 

— canade!nsis. See Tiuga ca/nadensis. 

— eephaldnwa. 60. May. Mountains of Greece. 

1824. Syn., A. BegvruB AmalicB. 

— eili'cvM. 40 to 60. Asia Minor. 


80 to 150. 
p.. 178. 

California. 1851. J. 
Syns., A. Utswewrpoi 

A. eo'ncolor. 
L. S. 
and Pa/r'svnii. 

— Dtmgla'sii. See Paeudotsiiga Douglagii. 

— dumo'sa. See Tsuga Brunoniana. 

— Mi'chleH. 100. Caucasus. 

— Engekna'rmi, and var. cmiMdA'ssima. See 

Picea Mngelmarmi. 

— exce^lsa. See Picea excelsa. 
— falca'ta. 85. Oregon. 

—fi'rma. 100. MountainsofJapan. V.M.C.,p.96. 
1881. ' Syns., A. KJida and homolepis. 

— Fortu'nei. 30 to 40. China. 1850. Syn., 

Keteleeria, Fortunei. G. C. 1884, v. 21, 
p. 348. 

— Frasefri. 30. May. Pennsylvania. 1811. 

hudso^nica. See A. baZsa/mcea hudsonica. 

— na'na. Dwarf. 

— gra'ndis. 170. May. New California. 1831. 

V. M. C, p. 97. 

— heterophj^lla. See Tsiiga Mertemiana. 

— AojMoJe'jpis. See A. Jirma. 
■ — iTisviwn^. See Pinus. 

— Jezoe'nsis. 66. Japan. 

— Kh-uitraw. See Picea Morind/t. 

— lasiocafrpa. See A. eoncolor. 

— nutgniflea. See A. nobilis robusta. 

— Marie^sii. Japan. 1879. G. C. 1879, v. 12, p. 189. 

— Memie^sii. See Picea Menziesii. 

— merku'sii. See Pinus. 

— MertenMna. See Tsmga Mertenslana. 

— microphy'lla. 180. Oregon. 

— tninia'ta. See Picea erettiita. 

— Mori'nda. See Pieea Morimda, 

— mucrona'ta. 180. Oregon. 

— nigra. 60. May. N. Amer. 

Wob. t. 34. 

— m/bilis. 200 to 300. California. 

1886, V. 24, p. 663. 
rdbu'gta. 200. California. 

— Nordjmwmvia'na. 80. Crimea. 

t. 6992. 
horizoMa'lis. Gai den variety. 

— rvuirmfdica. See A. baboreims. 

— obova'ta. See Picea obovata. 

— orierUa'lis. See Picea orientalis. 

— Parso'nii. See A. concojor. 

— Patto'ni. Mt. Baker, Washington. 

1881, V. 16, p. 822. 

— pectina'ta. 80 to 100. Central Europe. 1603. 

— pi'ceay with vars. ApolWnis and leiocla'da. 

See Picea excelsa. 

— pi'chta. See A. sitmica. 

— Pindmm, 100. May. Himalayas. 

G. C. 1886, V. 26, p. 689. 

— Pinsa'po. 65. Spam. 1838. 

V. 24, p. 465. 
— poli'ta. See Picea polita. 

— Regi'nm Ama'lice. See A. cephalonica. 
" ' 'sa. 160. Mexico. 1839. B. 

t. 6763. 


1700. Pin. 
1831. G.C. 


B. M. 

G. C. 


G. C. 1886, 





A. Eoe'zlii. 50. Mexico. 1870. 

— ru'bra, with vars. arctica and violacea. See 

Picea rubra. 

— sadhalme'nsis. Island of Yesso. 1879. G. 6. 

1879, V. 12, p. 589. 

— Schrenhia'na. See Picea Schrenkiana. 

— sM'rica. 50. May. Siberia. 1820. Syn., 


— Sitchefnsis. See Picea Menziem. 

— Smithia'na. See Picea Morinda. 

— sutalpi'na. 80 to 100. High mountains of 


— trigo'na. See Sequoia Rafinesquei. 

— Tsu'ga. See Tsiiga Sieboldii. 

~ Tm'na. See Tsuga Sieboldii nana. 

— Vei'tchii. 140. Japan. 1861. J. L. S. 18, t. 20. 

— Webbia'na. 90. Himalayas. 1822. G. C. 

1886, V. 25, pp. 688 and 788. 

— William&o'ni. See Tsuga Pattoniatm. 

Abo'bra. (Its native name. Nat. 
ord., Cucurbitacece.) 

Stove or greenhouse plant. Seeds sown in 
light soil in April. The tubers can be stored 
during winter. 

A. viridifio'ra. Climbing perennial. Pale green. 

Abo'rtion. An imperfect develop- 
ment. In fruit, this frequently occurs 
from a defect in the male or female 
organs. If from the first, it may be 
remedied by using pollen from other 

Abra'xas grossvlaria'ta. Magpie 
Moth. The caterpillar of this moth 
often infests the leaves of the goose- 
berry bush, as well as of the currant, 
sloe, and even the peach, in early sum- 
mer. It is common during the evenings 
of July and August. Usually about one 
and a half -inch across the expanded fore- 
wings, which are very slightly yellowish- 
white, variously shotted with black, more 
or less like those in our drawing, for the 
marks are never uniform ; and there is 
a band of pale orange across each of the 
fore- wings. The hind-wings are of the 
same colours, but without any orange 
colouring. The body is orange, spotted 
with black. The feinale deposits her 
eggs upon the leaf of a gooseberry or 
currant-tree in summer, and from these 
little looping catei pillars come forth in 

September, and surviving the winter, 
begin to feed again upon the leaves as 
soon as these open in the spring. They 
are full-grown towards the end of May, 
and enter the chrysalis state between 
that time and the end of June. In this 
state they remain for about thi'ee weeks, 

and then the perfect moth comes forth. 
The caterpillar is yellowish white, with 
an orange stripe, more or less complete, 
on each side, and with numerous black 
spots, the largest on the back. The 
chrysalis is yellow at first, but after- 
wards black, with orange circles round 
the pointed end. The caterpillar pre- 
fers the leaves of the gooseberry and red 
currant ; but, after stripping these to 
their very stalks, it will feed upon those 
of the sloe, peach, and almond. The 
best method of getting rid of this insect 
is to gather up the fallen leaves, together 
with a little of the surface soil, from 
beneath the bushes in winter, and burn 
them, by which means the caterpillars 
(then in a dormant state) are destroyed. 
A ring of ashes and tar placed round 
each gooseberry stem, at a short distance 
from it, in spring, will prevent cater- 
pillars reaching it to feed upon the young 

A'bricock. An old mode of spelling 

Abro'ma. (From a, not, hroma, 
food ; on account of its deleterious 
qualities. Nat. ord., Sterculmcem.) 

Stove evergreen trees. Seeds in March in heat ; 
or cuttings of hall-ripe wood, April, in strong 
heat, under a bell-glass. 

A. angu'sta. 10. Purple. August. B. Ind. 

1770. B. E. t. 518. 
—fastuo'sa. 10. Purple. June to October. 

N.S.Wales. 1800. Jacq. Vind. vol. 3, t.l. 

— latifo'lia. B. M. t. 6546. 

— sinw/sa. Madagascar. 1884. 

Abro'nia. .(From abros, delicate; 
its involucre being so. Nat. ord. , Nycta- 
ginecB. AUied to Mirabilis. ) 

Half-hardy perennial trailers. Young cuttings 
in spring in sandy soil. Seeds in spring in hot- 
bed, or in autumn in cold frame, and planted 
out in May. 

A.fra'grans. 1. White. Eocky Mountains. 
1866. Night blooming. B. M. t. 5544. 
latifo'lia. li. Yellow. August. N. W, 
America. B. M. t. 6546. Syn., A. 

— melli'fera. i. Orange. July. California. 

1826. B. M. t. 2879. 

— pvXcMlla. i. Pinlc. July. California. 1848. 

— ro'sea. J. Kose. California. 1847. 
umbellata. i. Pink. April and May. Cali- 
fornia. 1823. 

A'brus. Wild Liquorice. (From 
abros, delicate ; the leaves being soft 
and delicate. Nat. ord. , Legwminosce. ) 
Deciduous stove climber. Cuttings in sand 
under a glass. Seeds in heat. The seeds are 
used for rosaries, also as weights, called Retti 
whence (according to some authorities) comes 
the word carat. It is also a reputed weather 

A. precato'rius. 12. Pale purple, or varying 
from rose to white. Native of India 
now cultivated in the W. Indies and 
other tropical countries. 




Abu'ta. (Native name. Nat. ord., 
_Melasto'macecB. ) 

Stove evergreen climber. Mixture of loam 
land peat. Cuttings in sand in heat. 
A. rufe'scens. 10. Grey outside, purple inside. 
March. Cayenne. 1820. 

Abu'tilon. (Arabic name for a plant 
like a Mallow. Nat. ord., Malvacem.) 

Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Cuttings of 
young wood, spring and autumn, in sand, under 
a close frame or a glass. Light turfy loam, peat, 
and sand. 
A. auramti'aeiiin. Orange. Brazil. 

— Bedfordia'num. 16. Yellow and red. Novem- 

ber. BrazU. 1838. B. M. t. 3892. 

— brazUie'nse. G. C. 1882, vol. 18, p. 498. 

— Darwi'nii. 4. Orange-red, veins blood-red. 

AprU. S. Brazil. 1871. . B. M. t. 6917. 
There are many handsome varieties of 

— escwle'ntwm. Yellow. Brazil. 1880. 

— fiaribu'ndAMn. Orange-red. Eev. Hort. 1881, 
p. 350. 

— grave' olens. 6. Orange and red, E. Ind. 

1842. Stove. 
'- insi'gne. White and carmine. January. New 
Grenada. Pax. Fl. Gard. vol. 1, p. 93, 
f. 66. 

— intege/rrimv/m. 14. Yellow. May. New 

Grenada. Stove. B. M. t. 4360. 

— fnegapotcdmicwm. 3. Yellow, with scarlet 

calyx. Spring. Eio Grande. 1864. Syn., 

A. vexiUariv/m. 

— vcmniflo'rwm. Pink. January. Brazil. 1846. 

B. M. t. 4170. 

— machdllwm,. 8. White; May. N.S.Wales. 


— mfine'rve. Pale yellow. August. Bio Janeiro. 


— strialtum. 10. Orange and red stripes. Con- 

tinually blooming. Brazil. 1837. B. 
M. t. 3840. In Hampshire and south of 
England, large old plants flower freely 
turned out under a south wall, being 
there all but hardy. 

Thomso'ni. Leaves green, mottled with yellow 

and cream-white. 1868. Eev. Hort. 
1886, p. 324. 

— veno'sum. Orange and red stripes. July. B. 

M. t. 4463. 

— vitifo'lium. 6. White. July. Chili. 1837. 

liis is more hardy than the other 
species. B. M. t. 4227. 

Abyssinian Primrose. Primula 

Jlcaca'llis. (Derfvation uncertain. 
Kat. ord., Orchidacece.) 
■ For cultivation, see Aganisia. 
A. eya'nea. 1. Light blue ; lip blue with pale 
veins. Brazil. Syn., Aganisia cyanea. 
Lindenia, 1. 110. 

Aca'cia. (From akazo, to sharpen, 
-on account of the prickUness of the 
species first noticed. Nat. ord., Legu- 
minosce.) — 

This genus is composed almost exclusively of 
greenhouse or stove shrubs and trees, variable 
in habit and leaves. Sandy loam and turfy 
peat ; cuttings of the shoots taken off at a joint, 
in sand and peat, under a glass, in bottom-heat. 
Seeds ; this is the best mode of propagating 
them. Sow in a slight hotbed in February or 
March ; soak the seeds in warm water for 
several hours before sovring. Although the 
Acacias are all more or less beautiful, yet most 
of them are so seldom seen in cultivation, that 

we have omitted great numbers. Those marked 
thus * are most desirable. 


A. acanthoca'rpa. See Mivnosa acanthocarpa. 

— acapulce^nHs. See Lysoloma acapulcerms. 

— ara/Mca. 12. White. July. Egypt. 1596. 

Syn., A. vera. Gum Arabic. 

— Baneroftia'na. See Cceaalpinea bijuga. 

— brachyac'a'ntha. See Mvmosa acanthocarpa. 

— burmarmia'na. 6. Ceylon. 1818. 

— cce^sia. 20. Yellow. E. Ind. 1773. Syn., 

A. Intsia. 

— catechu'. 40. Pale yellow. B. Ind. 1790. 

This tree produces that most powerful 
astringent, catechu. The bark of all the 
other species also abounds in astringent 
principles, useful for tanning. Bent, and 
Tr. t. 96. 
—-centrophy'Ua. 20. White. Jainaica, 1818. 

— cerato'nia. See Mimom ceraionia. 

— chry^osta'chys. See Piptadenia chrysostachys. 

— conei'rma. 20. White. E. Ind. 1823. 

— Comiordia'na. 12. E. Ind. 1818. 

— eopalli'na. 20. 1825. 

— comi'gera. See A. spacidigera. 

— coranillcefo'lia. 10. N. Amer. 1817. 

— di'ptera. See Prosf^is jiUiflora. 

— dvmo'sa. See A. latronum. 

— ebu'mea. 5. Yellow. E. Ind. 1792. 
— - e'dulis. See Prosopis ediUis. 
—farnegia'na. 20. S. Amer. 1824. Syn., A, 

—ferrugi'nea. E. Ind. 1818. 
— filiaina. 20. Mexico. 1825. 
—fmmo'sa. See Calliandra formosa. 
— froncLo'&a. See Leiiccena ^laitca, 
— frutico'sa. See Piptadenia laxa. 

— gira'ffoB. 40. Cape of Good Hope. 1816 


— gra'ta. See Piptadenia macrocarpa. 

— guayaqvMelnm. 10. Guayaquil. 1818. 

— guiwneims. See Stryphnodendrmi guiansTise. 

— haemato'xylon. 20. Yellow, white. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1816. 

— hetermna'lla. Yellow. June. Australia. 


— Pntsia. See A. ccesia. 

— *J(i£ara'nd<iB. 20. Yellow, white. S. Amer. 


— kalko'ra. 46. E. Ind. 1818. 

— kermesi'na. Purple. 

— latisHligua, See Lysoloma, latisUiq'ua. 

— latro'nvm. 20. E. Ind. 1818. Syn., A. 


— laurifo'lia. 4. Yellow. May. Tanna. 1775. 

— le'bbeh. See Albizzia lebbek. 

— lentise^fo'lia. 20. Mexico. 1824. 

— lepr&aa. Yellow. Australia. 1817. B. E. 

t. 1441. 
termifoflia. 1883. 

— leptophy'lla. See A. .famfsirma. 

— leucophloe!a. 12. Pale yellow. B. Ind. 1812 . 

Bedd. Fl. Syl. t. 48. 

— longifl&ra. 1884. 

— lu'dda. 40. E. Ind. 1820. 

— macramthaHAes. 20.' Jamaica. 1820. 

— ma'ngium. 10. YeUow. E. Ind. 1820. 

— mi<yrophy'Ua. See Piptadenia peregrina. 

— rmdijlo'ra. 30. White. 1823. Syn., A. Rohriana. 

— odarati'ssima. Syn., AlWzaa odoratissima. 

— oligophy'lla. 4. Yellow. 1817. 

— pifo'sa. 30. White. Jamaica. 1800. 

— jnnna'ta. See A. tamarindifolia. 

— plvmu/sa. 20. YeUow. A climber. B. M. 

t. 3366. 

— portiyrice'nsis. See CdlUandra portoricerms. 

— prixmaltvM. 6. YeUow. 1818. 

~ puichelrrima. Syn., Stryphnodendran fiori- 

^ quadrangula'ris. Syn., Calliandra tetragona. 
~ ripa'ria. 10. W. Ind. 1820. A climber. 

Syn., A. sarmentosa. 




A. Mohna'na. See A. madiflora. 

— Ro'sdi. 40. 1822. 

— sarrmnto'sa. See A. riparia. 

— sca'ndens. See Parkia accmdens, 

— semicorda'ta. 40. B. Ind. 1820. 

— Senega'l. 30. White. W. Africa. 1823. Bent. 

and Tr. t. 94. 

— Seri'ssa. 20. E. Ind. 1822. 

— *spacidi'gera. 15. Pale yellow. S. Amer. 

1692. Syn., A. eomigera. 

— speci(/sa. See Albizzia lebbek, 

— gpini. 15. Bed, yellow. Guadeloupe. 

— stipvJa'ta. See Albizzia stipulata. 

— su'ma. 10. E. Ind. 1820. Syn., A. WaX- 


— tamari'ndifo'Ka. i. White. W. Ind. 1774. 

Jacq. H. Sohoenb. t. 396. Syn., A. pin- 

— tomento'm. 20. B. Ind. 1816. 

— trich&des. See Leuccena trichodes, 

— va'ga. 40. White. Brazil. 1818. 

— vervu'sta. See Callicmdra portwicensis. 

— vefra. See A. aroMca. 

— mrdseens. 20. S. Amer. 1829. 

— WaUvihia'na, See A, Suma. 

A. aMetHrm. See A. limifotta. 

— *afflim. 5. Yellow. May. Australia. 1822. 

Green Wattle Mimosa. 

— ala'ta. 6. Yellow. May. Australia. 1803. 

B. E. t. 396. 

— amoe^na. 3. Yellow. May. Australia. 1820. 

— wngvita'ta. See A. discolor. 

— a/ngust\ft/lia, SeeA.loTWifolia, y&v.Jlor^mnda. 

— argyrophy'lla. See A, brachybotrya. 

— *arma'ta. 10. Yellow. May. Australia. 

1803. B. M. t. 1653. Syns., A. hybrida 
and A. iristis. 

— a'spera, 4. Yellow. May. Australia. 1824. 

Syns., A. Au^eldii and A. defmSolm. 

— biJMra. S. Yellow. May. Australia. 1803. 

— Imervalta. 8. Yellow. May. Australia. 1824. 

— brachyb&trya, 8. Yellow. April. Swan River. 

B. M. t. 4384. Syn., A. argyrophylla. 

— Jyrer^o'lia. 3. Yellow. May. Australia. 1820. 

Perhaps the same as A. lunata. 

— brdvipee. See A. Melcmoxjjlon. 

— Imxifdlia. 4. Yellow. April. Australia. 1824. 

Ic. PI. 1. 164. 

— calami^o'lia. Yellow, May. Australia, 1823. 

B. B. t. 839. 

— ca/iidlicula'ta. Yellow. May. Australia. 1824. 

— cetastri^o'lia. A variety of A. rmyrti^olioj, 

— dlialta. See A. strigosa. 

— cinera'scens. See A. glwucescene. 

— cochlea'ris. 4. Yellow. May. Australia. 1818. 

Pax. Fl. Gard. 2, p. 67, f. 164. 

— eotifefrta. Yellow. April. Australia. 1824. 

— coHa'cea. 5. Yellow. May. Australia. 1825. 

— crassica'rpa. 6. Yellow. April. Australia. 1824. 

— Gultra'ta. 15. Yellow. April. Australia. 1820. 

Ic. PI. 1. 170. Syn., A. cultriformis. 

— ewma'ta. Yellow. April. Swan Biver. 1837. 

— cuspida'ta. See A. da,ffusa. 

— eyanophy'Ua,. Yellow. April. Swan Biver. 


— Cyaldps. 4. Yellow. May. Australia. 1824. 

— eycwfrwm. See A. obscura. 

— Daviesiotfo'lia. 6. Yellow. June. Australia. 


— *de<dba'ta. 10. Yellow. May. Australia. 

1823. B. C. 1. 1928. Silver Wattle. 

— *deci'pien^ prcenu/rsa. 3. Yellow. May. 

Australia. 1830. 

— *deeu'rrens. 6. Yellow. June. N. S. Wales. 

1790. B. E. t. 371. 

— deTisifo'lia, See A. tispera. 

— denU'fera. Yellow. April. Swan Biver. 1839. 

Maund Bot. 4, 1. 179. 
'— depefndens. SeeA.longifoUajVSir.'rmteronata. 

— detinens. 3. Yellow. May. Australia. 1828. 

A. diffu'sa. Yellow. May. Tasmama. B. E. 
t. 634. Syn., A. cuspidata. 

— *J)Ulwynictfo'lia. 3. Yellow. May. Australia. 


— di'pteraeriofptera. Yellow. September. Swan 

Eiver. 1840. B. M. t. 3939. 

— di'scolor. 10. YeUow. May. N. S. Wales, 

1784. Syn., A. angulata. 

— divarica'ta. See I/gsoloma Schiedewna, 

— *dolabHfo'rmis. 6. Yellow. June. Australia, 


— Drvmmo'ndii. 10. Yellow. April. Swan 


— echi'ifmla. See A. juniperina. 

— elonga'ta. 6. Yellow. May. Australia. 1824. 

B. M. t. 3337. 

— ema/rgina'ta. See A. stricta. 

— erioea'rpa. Pale yellow. April. Australia. 


— eriocla'da. Yellow, June. Australia. 1849. 

— Eaterha'zia. i. YeUow. May. Australia. 


— *f<aea'ta. 6. Yellow. May. N. S. Wales. 

1790. B. C. 1. 1115. 
— faldfo'rmiB. See A. penninervis^ var. /did- 

— fixirdmlnda. See A. longifolia, var. Jloribunda, , 

— glmt'ca. See Leuecena gloMca. 

— glauce/scens. 5. Yellow. May. N. S. Wales. 

Syns., A. einerascens and A. h&mmnaMa^ 

— gra'ndi8,_ See A. pulchella, var. grandis, 

— graved olens. See A. vemicijlua. 

— gwmmifera. 30. Guinea. 1823. 

— hattvla'ta. 4. Yellow. May. Australia. 

1824. B. M. t. 3341. 

— heteraca'Titha. 15. Cape of Good Hope. 1816. 

— heterophy'lla. 5. Yellow. May. Australia. 


— hispidi'ssvma. See A. pulchella var, hispidis^ 

— *hologeri'cea. Yellow. April. Australia. 1820. 

Syns., A. leMcophylta and A.neurocarpa^ 
Ic. PI. 1. 168. 

— hommna'Ua. See A. glattcescens. 

— *Huege!lii. Pale yeUow. February. Australia. 


— hwmitfu'sa, Australia. 1820. 

— hy'hnda. See A. armata. 

— intermedia. See A. longifolia, var. JloribuTida^ 

— interte'xta. See A. longifolia. 

— *juniperi'na. 6. Yellow. N. S. Wales. B. C. 

t. 398. Syn., A. echirmla. 

— Lambertia'na. See Calliand/ra Lambertiana, 

— IwnSgera. 6. Yellow. April. Australia. 1824. 

B. M. t. 2922. 

— Iid/msdni. N. S. Wales. 

— Uptocdrpa, 6. Yellow. April. Australia. 


— leptoneu'ra. 6. Yellow. April. Swan Biver. 

B. M. t. 4860. 

— letKophy'lla. See A. holosericea. 

— ligula'ta. See A. salicina. 

— limea'ris. 3. Yellow. May. N. S. Wales. 

1820. B. C. t. 595. Syn., A. longissima. 

■—linifollia. 4. Yellow. May. N. S. Wales. 

1790. Syns., .4. a&ietmaand .4. discolor. 

— longifo'lia. 6. Yellow. May. Australia. 1792. 

B. M. t. 2166. Syn., A. intertexta. 
flonbvinda. 6. Yellow. April. N. S. 

Wales. 1816. Syns., A. angustifolia and 

A. intermedia. 
mim-ona'ta. Yellow. March. Taismania. 

1819. Syn., A. dependens. 
*So'phorce. 10. Yellow. May. Tasmania, 

1805. Syn., A. Sophorce. 

— longi'ssinM. See A. liTiearis. 

— Imm'ta. 2. Yellow. April. N. S. Wales. 

Syn., A. olemfolia. 

— Mei'enerii. Yellow. May. S. W. Australia. 

— melcmo'xylon. 6. Yellow. N. S. Wales, B. 

M. 1. 1669. Syn., A. brevipee. 

— Tn&llis. See Albizzia Julibrismi. 




A. myHifo'lia. 3. May. N. S. Wales. 1789. 

B. M. t. 302. 
celastrifo'Ka. 6. Yellow. May. Swan 

River. 1842. 

— N'e^Tmi. See Aibizzui Julibriasin. 

— ni'grioans. 6. Yellow. April. King George's 

Sound. B. M. t. 2188. 

— oiseu'ra. 2J. Yellow. Swan Eiver. 1862. 

Syn., A. Cfycnorum. 

— oUc^</lia. See A. lunata. 

— Qxycddrus. 10. Yellow. May. N. S. Wales. 

B. M. t. 2928. 

— p&wnme'rvis ^alcij'o'rmis. 6. Yellow. May. 

Australia. 1818. Byn., A. faMfarmis. 

— pentade'nia. 10. Yellow. May. N. S. Wales. 

B. E. 1. 1621. 
— plaiyphy'lla. 10. Yellow. June. Australia. 

—puMie'lla gra'nMs. Golden yellow. Maich. 

Australia. 1846. Syn., A. grandis. 
hispuLi'ssirrui, 3. Yellow. Swan River. 

1800. B. M.t. 4588. Syn., A. hispidismna. 

— Ricea'na. Yellow. May. Tasmania. Maund 

Bot. 1. 135. 

— Rwhardso'ni. 10. Yellow. June. Australia. 


— ruBGiffflia. See A. vertunllata lati^olia. 
'-salid'na. Yellow. March. N. S. Wales. 

1818. Sya., A, ligulata. 

— serwa'ta. Yellow. April. Australia. 1820. 

— Si'msii. Yellow. April. Australia. 1819. 

— S&phorce. See A. longi/olia, var. Sophtyroe. 

— * specta'biiis. Yellow. April. N. S. Wales. 

1837. B. B. 1843, t. 46. 

— squama'ta. Yellow. April. Australia. 1836. 

Ic. PI. t. 367. 

— stenophy'lla. Yellow. March. N. S. Wales. 


— striata. 2. Yellow. March. N*. S. Wales. 

1790. B. M. 1. 1121. Syn., A. emarginata. 

— ttrigo'sa. 4. Yellow. W. Australia. Syn., 

A. cUiaAa. 

— strombulUfera. See Prompis stromhulyfera. 

— suave^olens. 4. Yellow. April. N. S, Wales. 

1790. Bl C. t. 730. 

— suTyida'ta. 4. Yellow. May. Australia. 1824. 

— svUcdta. 2. Yellow. July. Australia. 1803. 

B. R. t. 928. 

— *taxif&lia. 4. Yellow. May. Australia. 1823. 

— trapezoi'des. 4. Yellow. April. Australia. 


— triiierBa'ta. 6. Yellow. April. Australia. 


— tri'stis. See A. armata. 

— urnbella'ta. Yellow. April. Australia. 1819. 

— wncina'ta. See A. undulatifol'M. 

— uneinophy'tta. 7. Yellow. April. Swan 


— undulatif&lia. 4. Yellow. May. Australia. 

1824. B. M. t. 3394. Syn., A. uncinata. 

— urophy'lla. Pale yellow. April. Swan River. 

18S6. B. M. t. 4673. 

— vemiei'fiua. 6. Yellow. April. Australia. 

1818. B. M. t. 3266. Syns., A. graveolene 
and A. virgata. 

— *vertieiUa'ta. 10. Yellow. April. Tasmania. 

1780. B. C. t. 635. 
angu'sta. 10. Yellow. April. Australia. 

*latiifoUa. 10. Yellow. April. Australia. 

1780. Syn., A. ruseifolia. B. M. t. 3195. 

— vestilta. 6. Yellow. June. Australia. 1820. 

B. B. t. 698. 

— vimina'lia. Yellow. April. Australia. 1820. 

— virga'ta. See A. vemmflua. 

^- vi-ndira'mis. See Xerocladia Zeyheri. 

— msWdula. Extra-tropical E. Australia. Gfl. 

1. 1109. 

— vamerifi/rmis. Yellow. April. Australia. 

Acsa'na. (From akaina, a thorn ; 
on account of the slender spines on the 

calyx. Nat. ord., Rosaeem. Allied to 

Hardy perennial sub-shrubs, with pinnate or 
pmnatlfid leaves, and heads of inconspicuous 
flowers. Suitable for rock-work. Divisions, 

A. rrdermhy'Ua. i. Green. Summer. New 
Zea,laiid.Syn., A. N^ovceZelandice. Avery 
beautiful plant, furnished with bunches 
of crimson spines. 

— ovcilifo'lia. J. Green. Summer. Chili. 1868. 

— pinnati'flda. 1. Green, stamens purple. May. 

Chili. 1828. B. B. 1. 1271. 

— pulche^lla. Leaves bronzy. 

— sangmso'rhx. New Zeala,nd. 

Aca'lypha. (From ahdepe, a nettle. 
Nat. ord., Euphorhiacece.) 

Stove, ornamental-leaved shrubs, with incon- 
spicuous flowers. Cuttings in sandy soil under 
glass in spring. 

A. Macfeea'na. Leaves red, blotched with bronzy- 
crimson. 1877. Rev. Hort. 1882, p. 288. 

— maeroph.y'Ua. Leaves blackish-green and 

crimson. 1876. 

— musa'iea. Leaves bronzy-green, variegated 

with orange and coppery-red. Polynesia. 

— otova'ta. Leaves green or bronzy, with cream 

or crimson margins. S. Sea Islands. 

— t</rta. 1 to 2. Leaves contorted, olive-green. 


— WUkeia'na. Leaves stained coppery and red. 

New Hebrides. 1866. Syn., A. tricolor. 

Tnargina'ta. Leaves lar^e, olive-brown, 

margined with rosy-carmme. Fijilsland. 

Aca'mpe, (From aJcampes, in- 
flexible ; in allusion to their very 
brittle, inflexible flowers. Nat. ord., 
OrchidecB; Tribe, Vandem, Sub-tribe, 
SarcantheoB. Allied to Saccolabium.) 

Epiphytal orchids, requiring stove tempera- 
ture. For cultivation, see Orchids. 
A. denta'ta. Whitish - yellow, blotched with 
brown. Sikkim, Moulmein. 1873. 

— rmiltiflo'ra. Yellow, crimson. China. Syn., 

Va/nda Tn/ultiflora. 
— papUlo'sa. Yellow, spotted red, lip whitish. 
August. India. Syn., Saoeolabiwm 
B. B. t. 1652. 

Acanthephi'ppium. (From acan- 
tha, a thorn, ana ippion, a horse ; but 
why, is not apparent. Nat. ord.. Or- 
Sandy peat in a rough state ; propagation by 
pseudo-bulbs as soon as growth com- 
mences. See Orchids. 
A. Keolor. Yellow and red. June. Ceylon. 
1833. B. R. 1. 1730. 

— Curti'sii. light rose, yellow, white, purple. 

Malay Archipelago. 
— java'niffwm. Crimson, rose. August. Java. 
1844. B. M.t. 4492. 

— gtria'twm. White-striped. June, Nepal. 

— gylhMnse. White. June. Sylhet. 1837. 

Aeantho'dium. See Blepharis. 

Acantholi'mon. (Derivation not 
stated; and uncertain, probably mean- 
ing prickly Statice. Nat. ord., Plv/m- 
baginem. Allied to Statice.) 

Hardy evergreen pereimials of dwarf tufted 
habit, with narrow prickly-pointed leaves. Re- 




quire a dry soil. Cuttings in autumn, layers in 

spring, seeds. 

A. acero'mmi. Armenia. Syn., Statiee acerosa. 

— gluma'ceum. ^. Finfe. Asia Minor. 1851. 

H. Ser. t. 677. Syn., Statw Ararati. 

— venu'stum. J. Pint. Gilicia. 1873.' Rev. 

Hort. 1866, p. 451. 

Acanthomi'ntha. (From akantha, 
a thorn, minthe, mint. Nat. ord., La- 
biatcE. ) 

Half-hardy border annual. Seeds sown in 
frame in spring. 

A. Uidfo'lia.' Purple, yellow, white. July. 
California. 1883. B. M. t. 6760. 

Acanthone'ma. (From akantha, 
a spine, and nema, a filament ; the fila- 
ments of the two lower stamens are pro- 
duced into a spine-like process behind 
the anther. Nat. ord., Gesneracece. 
Allied to Streptocarpus. ) 

Stove perennial herbj with the habit of Strep- 
TOCABPUS. Seeds. Bich sandy loam, with a 
little peat. Shade and moisture. 
A. strigo'sum. i. Deep purple, with whitish 

tube. Fernando Po. 1862. B. M. 

t. 5339. 


A. varidgatmn. 1884. 

Acanthophoe'nix. (From akantha, 
a spine, and phoinix, the Date Palm. 
Nat. ord., PatmecB. Allied to Areca.) 

Palms, with thorny stems. For cultivation, 
see Areca. 

A. erini'ta. Seychelles. 1868. Fl. Ser. 1. 1706. 

— rvJbra. Madagascar. 1861. Syns., Calamus 

dealbatus and C. Verfschaffelti. 

Acanthorhi'za. (Fiom akantha, a, 
spine, and rhiza, a root ; the stem is 
fuTnished with ascending spiny rootlets. 
Nat. ord., Palmacece.) 

Stove Palms. For cultivation, see Thrinax. 
A. aculBa'ta. Mexico. 1864. Syn., ChaTncerops 
stauracoffitha. Kerch. Palm. t. 24. 

— WaXKsii. Tropical America. 1879. Gfl. 

t. 977, f . 2. 

— Warscemlczii. Chiriqui. Gfl. t. 860, f. 3. 

Acanthosta'chys. See Ananas. 

Aca'nthus. Bear's Breech. (From 
akantha, a spine; some being prickly. 
Nat. ord., Acanthacece.) 

Herbaceous ornamental-leaved perennials. 
Seeds, and root division in autumn or spring ; 
light, rich garden-soil. The hardy species are 
very effective as isolated tufts on lawns. 
A. ca;pe'nsi8a/ndcardu'i^o'lvus. SeeBlephaHs. 

— Ca'roli-Alexa'nctiri. 1-1}. White, rosy. Greece. 


— hispa'nicus. 2. "White. August. Spain. 1700. 

— longifo'lius. 3} to 5. Purple-rose. Dalmatia. 

1869. Stove species. 

— mo'Uis. 3. White. August. Italy. 1648. 

The leaves of this are said to have given 
rise to the Corinthian style of architec- 
ture. Sibth. FI. Gr. t. 610. 

— monta'mua. Bose. W. Africa. 1866. B. M. 

t. 5516. Stove species. 

— ni'ger. 8. White. August. Portugal. 1759. 

— spvnosi'ssimus. 3. White. August. South of 

Europe. 1629. 

— Bipino'sus. 8. White. August. Italy. 1629. 

A'carus. The Mite. Those most 
frequent in our gardens are the follow- 
ing : ■ 

A. tdla'rius. The Red Spider. This 
is one of the gardener's greatest pests,. 

though so small as to be scarcely visible 
to the naked eye ; yet when a plant 
is much infested by it, it has the ap- 
pearance of being scorched. Colour 
sometimes yellowish, at others brown, 
but oftener a dull red ; on each side of 
its back is a blackish spot. In Novem- 
ber it may be found under the bark of 
the lime-tree ; but at all times it is to 
be found in greenhouses and hothouses, 
that have been kept too hot and dry. 
In the summer-time it may be found, 
occasionally in myriads, upon the under 
sides of the leaves of kidney-beans and 
limes. Even the apple, pear, and plum 
suffer much from its ravages, as well as 
various in-door plants. The injury they 
occasion by sucking chiefly the elabo- 
rated sap, and by their webs embarras- 
sing the breathing of the plant through 
the pores of its leaves, is told by the 
brown colour which these assume. To 
destroy these insects in the greenhouse, 
or hothouse, or cucumber-frame — for 
they attack this plant also — there is no 
plan so effectual as heating the hot- 
water pipes of the houses, or having 
hot-water plates, filled with boiling 
water, placed in the frames, sprinkling, 
upon them flowers of sulphur, which 
begin to vaporize at a heat of 170 deg.^ 
and then shutting up the houses or 
frames. The vapour of sulphur is 
fatal to these insects where the air is 
thoroughly impregnated with it; and 
the Work of destroying them is com- 
pleted by syiinging the infested plants 
with water, continuing rather frequently 
the operation. This last is the most 
practical remedy to plants in our borders, 
unless they can be covered over so that 
the fumes of the sulphur may be con- 




fined whilst the sulphur is volatilized 
over a hot-water plate. Potted plants 
may be submitted to the vapour of sul- 
phur in a similar way ; but in every in- 
stance be cautious that the sulphur does 
not burn, or you wiU kill your plants. 
The vapour of spirit of turpentine is said 
to be as effectual as sulphur. On walls, 
the best plan is to beat up soft soap in 
warm water, three ounces to the gallon ; 
and to add as much finely -dissolved clay 
as will make the whole a thick paint. 
To this add three or four handfuls of 
sulphur, and keep the mixture well 
stirred whilst applying it. Let it be 
daubed on every open space of walling 
the brush can reach ; and, if colour is an 
object, the glaring yellow can be readily 
subdued by adding plenty of soot, which 
by some is considered a necessary in- 
gredient. A similar mixture may be 
daubed over the stems of ordinary fruit- 
trees, choosing in this, as well as in the 
former, the beginning of April for the 
operation. Most good gardeners mix a 
considerable quantity of sulphur with 
the lime-wash which is applied to hot 
house walls. 

A. holoseri' ceits is another species, dis" 
tinguishable to an unscienced eye chiefly 
by their scarlet colour. To destroy them 
there is no plan equal to subjecting them 
to the vapour of sulphur. 

A. horte'nsis. The Garden Mite. Tho- 
rax ochreous, abdomen white ; has been 
found upon the roots of the cucumber, 
upon which it is said to prey. We be- 
lieve it to be the same Acarus often so 
abundant upon the root of cabbages 
affected wi& the Ambury. 

A. genicula'tus is a minute, brownish- 
red, shining mite, congregating, during 
spring, in prodigious numbers upon the 
bark of the plum and other fruit trees, 
near the base of the small branches, 
'and looking like a gummy exudation. 
They all injure the plants they infest 
by sucking their juices ; and, where the 
fumes of sulphur cannot be applied, as 
to the stems of trees, and to the soil, we 
recommend an application of spirit of 
turpentine, or gas ammoniacal liquor. 

Accli'ma'tiza'tion is rendering a 
plant capable of yielding the production 
desired from it, in a climate differing 
from that in which it is a native. In 
our climate it is usually required to 
enable a plant to endure lower tempera- 
tures than those to which it has oeen 
accustomed ; and this, though most are 
intractable, is more easy than inducing 
the natives of colder regions to live in 
our latitudes. When a new plant 

arrives from a tropical country it is 
desirable to use every precaution to 
avoid its loss ; but so soon as it has 
been propagated from, and the danger 
of sucn loss is removed, from that mo- 
ment ought experiments to commence, 
to ascertain whether its acclimatization 
is attainable. This should be done, be- 
cause the nearer such a desirable point 
can be attained the cheaper wiU be 
its cultivation, and, consequently, the 
greater will be the number of those who 
will be able to derive pleasure from its 
growth. Hence it is very desirable that 
an extended series of experiments should 
be instituted, to ascertain decisively 
whether many of our present green- 
house and stove plants would not endure 
exposure to our winters if but slightly, 
or not at all protected. It may be laid 
down as a rule, that all Japan plants 
will do so in the southern-coast counties 
of England ; but it remains unascer- 
tained to what degree of northern lati- 
tude in our islands this general power of 
endurance extends. Experiment, and 
experiment only, ought to be relied 
upon ; for we know that the larch was 
once kept in a greenhouse ; and such 
South American plants as Tropoi'olum 
pentaphy'llum and Gesne'ra Doucfla'sii 
nave been found to survive our winters 
in our garden-borders ; the first in Scot- 
land and Suffolk, and the second in 
Herefordshire. Many tropical plants, of 
various orders, have been found to suc- 
ceed with much less heat during the 
day, and more especially during the 
night, than gardeners of a previous cen- 
tury believed to be necessary. Many 
other plants have passed from the tropics 
to our parterres, and even to those of 
higher northern latitudes. The horse 
chestnut was originally a native of the 
tropics; but it now endures uninjured 
the stem climate of Sweden. Aucuba 
japonica and Pceonia Moutan have 
passed from stove to greenhouse, and 
thence to the open air. Every year ren- 
ders us acquainted with instances of 
plants being acclimatized. There is no 
doubt that aU the conifers of Mexico, 
which flourish there at an elevation of 
more than 8,000 feet above the sea's 
level, win survive our winters in the 
open au-. Among these are Pi'nus 
Llavea'na, P. Teoco'te, P. pa'tula, P. 
Hartwdgii, Cupre'ssus thwrvfera, Juni'- 
perus Jla'ccida, and some others. We 
have kept Plum'hago Larpdntm in an 
open border at Winchester during the 
severe winter of 1849-50 ; and we now 
know that it is quite hardy. In this 
instance — and the course should be pur- 




sued in all other cases — we selected a 
light soil, thoroughly well drained ; and 
we began early to introduce the plant to 
our climate by bedding it out in May. 
As to all plants of shrubby or tree 
character, there can be little doubt that 
a proper solidification of the wood — ^by 

fardeners termed ripening — is the true 
asis of acclimatization. The way to 
effect this is by encouraging a somewhat 
early and free growth, and an early 
and decided rest. Light, shallow soils, 
thoroughly drained, necessarily accom- 
plish this, by promoting an earlier root- 
action, and by exposing the roots more 
to the influences of the atmosphere, 
whereby the very droughts of summer 
become beneficial, by checking luxuri- 
ance, and bringing on the resting period 
betimes. In annual plants, it must be 
confessed that scarcely so much progress 
has been made as in those of a woody 
character. It is not quite plain that 
our kidney-beans, cucumbers, capsi- 
cums, tomatoes, etc., are any hardier 
than they were a century ago. Such 
facts, however, should by no means 
deter those who possess opportunities 
from trying every new plant as above 

A'eer. The Maple. {Acer, hard, or 
sharp; because the wood was used for 
lances. Nat. ord., Sapindacece.) 

Nearly all hardy deciduous trees and shrubs, 
with trivial flowers. Propagated by seeds sown 
as soon as ripe ; layers in autumn, and grafting 
or budding on the common maple. Cuttmgs will 
strike in open ground if inserted in sprmg or 
autumn. Sandy loam. 

A. austri'acwm. See A. caw/pestrey var. austria,- 

— baria'twm. 16. Green and yellow. April. 

N. Amer. 1812. Timber. 

— campe'stre. 26. Green and yellow. May. 

austri'acum. 30. Green and yellow. 

June. Austria. 1812. 
colli'Tmm:. 25. Green and yellow. April. 

hebeca'rpwm. 26. Green and yellow. 

June. Britain. 

Icemga'tum. 30. Green and yellow. June. 

na'nwm. 6. Green and yellow. June. 

tau'rumm. Leaveslargerandless divided. 

— va/riega'tum. 25. Green and yellow. May. 

Britain. Must be grafted or budded. 

— circina'tum. 30. Green and yellow. April. 

North West America. 1827. 

— cre^ticit/m. 6. May. Levant. 1752. 

— dasyca'rpwm. Green and yellow. April. N. 

Amer. 1725. Timber. Syns., A. erio- 
carpon, A. glauGwm. 

pulverule:ntum. Leaves spotted white; 

young shoots tipped with red. 

— di^ita'turti. Japan. 1864. 

— disie^ctwm. Leaves cut into narrow segments, 

bronzy-red. Japan. 1864. 

— Dougla'sii. See A. gtabrum. 

— erioca'rpon. See A. dasycairpum. 

— Omna'la. Leaf-stalks and midribs deeply 

coloured. Sometimes regarded as a 
variety of A. tartariawm. 

A. gla'brvm. IB to SO. Greenish-yellow. June. 
N. W. America. Syns., A. DouglaMi 
and A. trvpartUv/m. 

— glan'cmn. See A. daeycmpwm. 

— Heldrei'chii. Gfl. 1. 1186. 

— heterophy'llum. Green and yellow. May 

Levant, 1759. Evergreen. Syn., A. sent- 

— ibefrmm. 40. Green. Asiatic. Georgia. 

Yellow. 1826. 

— mnigne. B. M. t. 6697. 
— japo'Tdeum. Japan. 

vWiJ'o'Kimi. Japan. 1874. Syn., A. ja^ 

poniffum com^actv/m of gardens. 
There are several other varieties, such as Fre- 
derici, GhUielTniy jucwndwrn, polymwphum, prinr 
cepSy 8a/nguineum: var. argenteum is a garden 
name for A. rujvnerve albo-Umbatv/m. 
A. laurifo'lium. See A. oblongtHm. 

— loba'twm. 20. Green. Siberia. 1820. 

— lobeHii. Five-lobed, slightly heart-shaped. 

— Tnacrophyfllwrn. 25. Green. May. N. Amer. 


— mamwfra'tum. Leaves with pale yellow varie- 

gation. Japan. 1872. 

— Mi'cets. Japan. 1864. 

— Tnonspes&ulanum. 8. Green and yellow. May. 

France. 1739. 

— monta'num. 26. Green and yellow. N. Amer. 


— Negu'ndo. See Negimdo fraxinifoUum. 

— ni'grwm. 40. Green and yellow. April. N. 

Amer. 1812. Timber. 

— oblo'Tigum. 20. Green and white. Nepaul. 1824. 

— obtu^a't'wm. 40. Green and yellow. May. 

Hungary. 1826. This is the naipolita'- 
num of the Italians, and the hy'tridum 
of London nurseries. 

— obtusifo'livm,. 4. Green and yellow. May. 


— opalifo'lium. 20. Green and yellow. May. 

France. 1823. 

— o'paius. 50. Green and yellow. May. Italy. 


— OTTia'tuTn. Leaves dull red, mixed with 

coppery-red, afterwards greenish-red. 

Japan. 1867. 
— palma'tum. 10. Green. Japan. 1820. 

atropvjrpu'reum. Japan. 

cri'spuTn. Japan. 1871. 

disse'ctwm. 30. Eed. May. Japan. 1845. 

—— roseo-pi'ctmn. 1886. Garden variety. 

(yma'tvmi. Leaves brownish-red, vrith 

yellowish-green midribs. Japan. 1871. 
palmatiljidwm. Leaves deeply palmately 

cut ; light green. 1875. 
reticvZcetum. Leaves emerald-green, with 

dark-green veins. Japan. 1865. 
ro'seo-Tnargina'tv/m. Leaves light-green, 

edged rose. Japan. 1875. 
sangui'nemn. Leaves deep reddish- 
crimson. 1874. 
septemlo'bitm. Purplish. Spring. Japan. 


— pennsylva'nimim. 20. Green and yellow. 

May. N. Amer. 1755. A variety of 
this, stria'tum, must be increased by 
grafting or budding. 
—pi'ctum. Temperate Asia. 1879. Syn.y A. col- 
chicum rubrvmi. 

— plaianoi'deB and pseu'do-pZa'taniis : of these 

there are numerous garden varieties in 
cultivation. The best of the former are 
aureo-variegatum, mtegrUobuniy Schwed- 
leriy undvZatimh, and variegatwm; of the 
later albo-variegatumy flavo-variegatum, 
and longifoliv/m. 

— platanoi'dee. 50. Green and yellow. June. 

Europe. 1683. Timber. 

lacmia'twm. 30. Green and yellow. June. 

Europe. 1683. Must 'be grafted or 
budded. Timber. 




A. platanoi'des Loie'lli. 60. Green and yellow. 

May. Naples. 
variega'twin. 30. Green and yellow. June. 

Europe. 1683. Must be grafted or 


— pseu'do-pla'tanus. 50. Green and yellow. 

April. BritaJn. 

purpu'reum. Purple. May. 1828. 

subobtu'sum. 50. Green and yellow. May. 

variega'tum. 50. Green and yellow. 

Apru. Britain. Must be grafted or 


— ru'brum. There are two varieties, one with 

leaves variegated with white, and the 
other with yellow. 20. E«d. April. 
N. Amer. 1666. 

— rufin^'rve albo-limba'tum. Green. May. Japan. 

.— saceharinvmi. 40. Yellow. April. N. Amer. 

1735. Timber. Sugarismadefromitssap. 

. nUgrwrn. 40. April. N. Amer. 1812. 

.— sempervi'reTis. See A. heterophyllum, 

— Semeno'm. Turkestan. 1879. 

— septemZo'bwm, Japan. 1864. 

bi! color. Leaves variegated with bronze- 
red and rose. Japan. 1874. 

e'legans. Leaves tipped with red when 

young. Japan. 1874. 

margina'twn. Leaves green, vrith pale 

reticulated edges. Japan. 1874. 

— Sieboldia'nwm. 

— tarta'ricum. 20. Green and yellow. May. 

Tartary. 1759. Timber. 

— Vam Volxe'mii. Greenish. Leaves silvery be- 

neath. Caucasus. 1877. 

— veluti'num. 

A'ceras. (From a, without, and 
keras, a horn ; the lip has no spur. Nat. 
ord., OrehidacecB. Allied to Orchis.) 

A. cmthrop&phora, the Green Man-Orchis, is 
an interesting terrestrial orchid, not uncommon 
on the chalk in the South of England, and will 
not thrive in any other soil under cultivation, 

A. semmdijU/ra. B. E. t. 1525. See Habenaria 

Aceta'rious Plants. Salading. 

Achille'a. Milfoil. (^cAiWes, pupil 
of Chiron, first used it in medicine. 
Nat. ord., Compositce.) 

All hardy herbaceous plants, except A. aegyp- 
Waca, which is a greenhouse evergreen shrub. 
This is propagated by cuttings, and the others by 
root division, cuttings, and seed. Common soil. 
A. abrotanifo'lia. 2. Yellow. July. Levant. 

— aeumina'ta. 2. White. August. 1830. 

— cegypti'aca. 1. Pale yellow. August. Levant. 


— ageratifdlia. i. White. May. Greece. 1874. 

— agera'twm. 2. Yellow. Septelnber. South 

of Europe. 1570. 

— al'bida. 1. Pale yellow. July. 1819. _ 

— alpi'na. 6 inches. White. September. Siberia. 


— aspUnifo'lia. Ih Pink. July. N. Amer. 1803. 

— atra'ta. White. August. Austria. 1596. 

— au'rea. 1. YeUow. July. Levant. 1739. 

— auricmla'ta. 1. Yellow. July. Asia Minor. 


— chamcemelifo'lia. 9 inches. White. July. 

France. 1826. ^ „ i,, * 

— coa/rcta'ta. 4. YeUow. August. South of 

Europe. 1816. 

— eomva'cta. 1. Pale yellow. July. 1803. 
-erf!twa. 1. White. July. Candia. 1739. 

— msta'ta. Cinches. White. July. Italy. 1784. 

— deco'lorans. 1. White, yellow. July. 1798. 

A. dem'mbeng. 6 inches. Yellow. July. Kamt- 
schatka. 1816. 

— Eupato'rmm. 4. Yellow. July. Caspian 

shore. 1803. One of the best, continuing 
long in flower. Syn., A. filipendula. 

—falca'ta. 6 inches. Pale yellow. July. Levant. 

— JUipe^ndula. G. C. 1881, vol. 16, p. 429. See 

A. Eupaiorvwm. 

— glomera'ta. 1. Yellow. July. Caucasus. 1818. 

— grcmdiflo'ra. 1. White. July. Caucasus. 1818. 

— holoseri'cea. IJ. White. August. Parnassus. 


— impa'tiens. 2. White. August. Siberia. 1759. 

— kma'ta. 1. White. July. 1804. 

— leptophy'lla. Pale yellow. July. Tauria. 1816. 

— macrophy'Ua. 3. White. July. Italy. 1710. 

— mUlefo'lium. 2. White. August. Britain. 

Found sometimes with reddish flowers. 

— mong&Kca. IJ. White. July. Siberia. 1818. 

— moseha'ta. 2. White. June. Italy. 1775. 

— myriophy'lla. IJ. White. August. 1798. 

— na'na. 6 inches. White. July. Italy. 1759. 

— nc/bilis. 2. White. Germany. 1640. 

— oehroleu'ca. Ih. Pale yellow. August. 1804. 

— odora'ta. 6 inches. White. July. Spain. 1729. 

— pectina'ta. IJ. Pale yellow. August. Hun- 

gary. 1801. Thought by some to be the 
same as oehroleu'ca. 

— pta'rmwajloreple^no. 1. White. August. 

— jmbe'ecem. 1. Light yellow. August. Levant. 


— puru^a'ta. 1. Straw. July. Naples. 1820. 

— recurmfo'lia. 1^. White. July. Pyrenees. 


— rupe'stris. J. White. South Italy. 1887. 

B. M. t. 6905. 

— samtoli'na. 1. Pale yellow. July. Levant. 1759. 

— santoliTWi'des. 1. White. July. Spain. 

— seta'cea. 1. White. July. Hungary. 1806. 

— spedo'sa. IJ. White. August. 1804. 

— sguarro'sa. 1. White. July. 1755. 

— tau'rica. 1. Pale yellow. July. Taurisl. 1818. 

— tenuifo'lia. 1. Yellow. July. Switzerland. 


— t&mento'sa. 2. Yellow. July. Britain. 

— vermicida'ris. IJ. Yellow. August. Bussia. 


Achime'nes. (-From cheimaino, to 
suffer from cold, and a prefixed as an 
augmentive ; alluding to the tenderness 
of the genus. Nat. ord., GesneracecB.) 

These are all beautiful, and are stove herba- 
ceous perennials, unless otherwise distinguished 
in the following list. When done flowering, and 
the tops die down, allow the tubers to remain in 
the pots, laid on their sides, where frost and 
wet cannot reach them, until the latter part of 
January ; then begin to place in a gentle heat ; 
where a steady, moist heat can be maintained. 
Shade in hot days. Place the pots upon others, 
inverted, and keep the bottom of the pit moist, 
closing up early in the afternoon, and giving air, 
in clear weather, about eight in the morning. 
This beautiful genus is becoming overloaded 
with varieties. 
A. ama'biUs. White. Mexico. 

argyrosti'gma: White and rose. June. 

Grenada. This is a hardy herbaceous 
plant. Not worth growing. 

— atrosangui'nea. IJ. Crimson. August. 

— ca'ndida. IJ. July. White. Guatemala. 


— chontale'nm. See Spiaem. 

— coeei'nea. Scarlet. August. Jamaica. 1778. 

A variety, major, is good. 

— cuprea'ta. Scarlet. July. New Grenada. 

— Esche'rii. Purple, crimson. June. Gardens. 





A. fltn-ibu'nda e'legcms. Purple, crimson. Octo- 
ber. Gardens. 1848. 

—formo'm. Eose. September. 

JMra. BuB-spottea. December. 
Mexico. 1848. 

'\'i'ra. Pale crimson. October. Mexico. 
1842. This is a greenhouse herbaceous 
plant. A variety of this, Skinn&rii, is a 
stove plant. Guatemala. Shaded scarlet. 

— heterophyilla. Scarlet. Van Houtte. July. 

— hirsu'ta. 2J. Kose. September. Guatemala. 


— intermedia. 1. Scarlet. Au^st. Gardens. 


— Jaure'guice. 1. White. Carmine eye, striped. 

October. Mexico, 1848. 

— Jay'ii. Violet purple. June. Gardens. 1848. 

— Kledi. \. August. Pink and purple. Guate- 

mala. 1848. 

— Lwpma'md. 1^. Pale crimson. July. 

— lilacvne^lla. Lilac. 1880. Syn., £Incodonia 


— longijl&ra. This is a greenhouse herbaceous 

plant. Violet August. Guatemala. 

1841. A stove variety, major, is good. 
a'lba. White. October. Guatemala, 

1849. Sajae&aA.JwtireguieB? 

latifiyiia. Lilac. Guatemala. 

— 'ma'jor. Violet. Guatemala. 

— magni'Jica. 2. Scarlet, New Grenada. 

— ma/rga'rita. White. Ceutral America. 

— mi'sera. 1. White and purple. July. Guatc 

mala. 1848. 

— JUoimtfiyrdii. Scarlet. August. Garden. 1847. 

— mvZtiflcfra. 1. Lilac. October. Brazil. 1843. 

— ncegelioi'des and na'na multijl&ra, are garden 

hybrids of 1870. 

— oeMa'ta. IJ. Bed. July. Panama. 1847. 

— pa! tens. 1. Violet. June. Mexico. 1846. 

A small variety of this is not worth 
— pedunada'ta. 2. Scarlet, yellow. June. 
Guatemala. 1840. 

— pi'cta. IJ. Scarlet, yellow. June. Mexico. 


— pyropoE!a. 1. Crimson. May. Mexico, 1848. 

— ro'sea. 1. Pink. June. Guatemala. 1841. 

— SHnn^ri. 2. Bose. July. 1847. 

— apU'ndem. Violet. Guatemala. 

— Tyrianthi'na. IJ. Violet-blue. August. 

Mexico. 1849. 

— venu'sta. IJ. Purple. July. Hybrid. 1848. 

— VerachaffeHtii. White. Garden hybrid. 

Achyra'nthes Verschaflfeltii. 
See Iresine Herbstii. 

Acine'ta. (From ahmeta, immo- 
vable ; the lip being jointless. Nat. 
ord., Orehidacew.) 

Allied to Periate'ria. Intermediate or cool 
house orchids, cultivated in baskets lightly filled 
with sphagnum and fibrous peat. The flowers 
grow through the bottom of the baskets. 
A. A'rcei. Yellow. Central America. 1866. 

— Barke!H. 2. Yellow. May. Mexico. 1837 

Pax. Mag., vol. 14, p. 145. Syn,, Peri- 
steria Barkeri. 

— de'nsa. IJ. Golden yellow, speckled red. 

October. Central America. 1889. B. M. 
t. 7143. 

— Hrubya'na. White, purple. New Grenada, 


— Humho'ldtii. 2. Chocolate and crimson. May. 

Venezuela. 1841. Syns., B. R. 1843. 
1. 18, Piristeria Bumboldtii, and Angu- 

straminea. Straw, dotted. Columbia. 


— svlca'ta. Columbia? 1879. 

— WH'ghtii. See Lacama spectabilis. 

Acio'tiS. {Akis, a point, and ous, an 
ear ; from shape of petals. Nat, ord., 
Melastomacece. ) 

Stove evergreen plants, allied to Osbeckia, 
but may be grown in a warm pit or frame until 
the spring, and then put into a greenhouse. Cut- 
tings in sand, under a beU-glass ; equal parts 
rich loam and peat. 
A. ama'tica. 9 inches. White and red. June. 

S. Amer. 1793. Pots stood in shallow 

pans of water. 

— di'seotor. 1. White and red. June. Tnnidad. 


Aeiphy'Ua. (From ake, a point, 
and phyllon, a leaf ; in allusion to the 
sharply pointed leaf segments. Nat. 
ord., Umbdliferce. Allied to Angelica. ) 

Hardy herbaceous perennials suitable for 
rock-work ; remarkable for their rigid leaves, 
which are pinnate, and sharp-pointed. There 
are several species, all equally ornamental, but 
only three have yet been introduced ; all are 
natives of New Zealand. Seeds. Light soil. 
A. Colem(/i. 6. White. New Zealand. 1876. 

— Lya'tli. New Zealand. 1889. 

— squarro'sa. 6. White. New Zealand. G. C. 

1884, vol. 22, p. 328. The Bayonet 

A'cis. See Leucoium. 

Acisanthe'ra. {AMs, a point ; an- 
thera, an anther ; having pointed an- 
thers. Nat. ord., Melastomacece.) 

An evergreen stove-shrub ; allied to Cuphea ;, 
cultivated like Aciotis. 
A. quadra'ta. 3. Jamaica. 1804. 

Acmade'uia. (Acme, a point ; aden,. 
a gland ; the anthers having glands. 
Nat. ord., Butacem.) 

Greenhouse evergreen shrub ; allied to Diosma. 
Cuttings of young wood two inches long, planted 
in sand, under a bell-glass ; turfy loam and 
A. tetra'gona. 2. White. June. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1798. Syn., Adenandra tetra- 


Acme'na. See Eugenia. A.flori- 
hwnda is most conspicuous from its 
bright purple berries. A. ovata was in- 
troduced in 1882. 

Acmospo'rium trice'phalum. 

A fungus parasitic on Cryptomeria 
japonica, which see. 

Acoka'nthera. (FromaAoAe, amu- 
cron, and anthera, an anther ; the an- 
thers are mucronate. Nat. ord., Apo- 
cynacece. Allied to Carissa. ) 

Greenhouse shrubs. Seeds, cuttings in bottom- 
heat. Any rich, light soil, with top dressings of 
manure, or occasional watering with manure 
water. The members of this genus are all very- 
poisonous ; a decoction of the bark was used by 
the Bushmen of South Africa for poisoning 
their arrows. 

A. lyeM'des. 6. White. Summer. S. Africa. 

— specta'Ulis. 10. White. Spring. Natal. 1872. 

Syn., Toxicophloea: spectabilis. B, M. 
t. 6369, 

— veliena'ta. 6, White, S, Africa, 1787, Syn,, 

Toximphlwa Thuniergii. Gfl, 940. 




Aconio'pteris. (From akonobo, 
sharp, and pteris, a fern ; alluding to 
the junction of the veins. Nat. ord., 
FUices — PolypodiacecE. ) 

Stove fern. Spores and division of roots. 
A, sub-dia'phana. 1. St. Helena. 

Aconi'tum. (Being plentiful near 
Acona. Nat. ord., Mammculacece.) 

All hardy herbaceous plants. Many are very 
beautiful, and will do well in plantations, even 
if a little shaded by the trees. Division of the 
roots and seeds ; common garden-soil. 


A. acumvua'tum. 3. Blue. July. Switzerland. 

— acu!tv,m. i. Blue. June. South of Europe. 


— alH'd/wm. 3. White. June. Europe. 1824. 

— amoelnwm. 4. Blue. June. South of Europe. 
■ — amvglifio'rvjm. 4. Blue. June. Austria. 1823. 

— angustifo'liutn. 4. Blue. June. Europe. 


— B&nih.ardia'nu'm. 4. Blue. June. Europe. 


— Mfio'rwm. J. Pale blue. June. Siberia. 1817. 

— Bravlnii. 4. Blue. July. Switzerland. 1821. 

— ccUlybo'tryon. 4. Blue. June. South of 


— CaJtrnnarv/m. 3. Purple. August. Austria. 


— ce'muvm,. 3. Blue. July. Switzerland. 1800. 
Jlexicau'le. 3. Blue. July. Switzerland. 


paueiflo'rwm. 3. Blue. July. Switzer- 
land. 1821. 

ramdawm. 3. Blue. July. 

— Clu'm. 3. Blue. July. Switzerland. 1819. 

— camrrmta'tum. 3. Blue. June. South of 

Europe. 1823. 

— delphinifo'lvwm. IJ. Blue. June. N. Amer. 


— ela'tum. 4. Blue. June. Europe. 1822. 

— ^minens. 4. Blue. June. Europe. 1800. 

— erwstdnKm. 4. Blue. June. Europe. 1821. 

— eiista'chyon. 4. Blue. June. Europe. 1824. 

— exalta'tv/m. 6. Blue. June. Siberia. 1819. 
— fl^'cffidfwm. 5. Blue. July. Siberia. 1822. 

— Florkea'num. 8. Blue. July. Siberia. 1822. 
bi'colm: 3. Blue, white. June. Switzer- 
land. 1801. 

—farmo'sum. 4. Blue. June. South of Europe. 

— Fu'rHdi. 3. Blue. June. Switzerland. 1825. 

— gaUctanwin. 4. Blue. June. Hungary. 1822. 

— gibbo'mm. 4. Blue. July. Caucasus. 1818. 

— Bmdtni. 4. Blue. July. Siberia. 1821. 

— gra'eiU. 2. Blue. July. Switzerland. 1821. 

— McUle'ri. 4. Blue. June. South of Europe. 


— bi' color. 4. Blue. June. Switzerland. 


— hama'tum. 4. Pale blue. July. Italy. 1810. 

— hebdgynum. 3. Purple. July. Switzerland. 

mvMi'fidum. 3. Purple. July. Switzer- 
land. 1819. 

— heteraphy'llum. Greenish - yellow, violet. 

Himalayas. 1874. Unlike most mem- 
bers of this genus, its roots are not 
poisonous, being used as a tonic in 
India, where it is called Atees. 

— Warn. 4. Blue. June. South of Europe. 1823. 

— Ho'ppii. 4. Blue. June. Carinthia. 1823. 

— aUni'tum. 4. Blue. July. 1821. 

— interme'dimn. 6. Blue. July. 1820. 

— inu'netwm. 4. Blue. July. Europe. 1822. 

— iapc/nicum. 6. Flesh. August. Japan. 1790. 
eceru'leum. 4. Blue. July. Japan. 


A. Kcelea'num. 4. Blue. June. South'of Europe. 

wm. 2. Blue. June. South of 
Europe. 1822. 

— Kohldri. 4. Blue. June. Europe. 1824. 

— lacinio'eum. 3. Blue. July. Switzerland. 


— Itsltvmi. 4. Blue. June. South of Europe. 


— la'xum. 4. Blue. June. South of Europe. 


— UtKointhum. 3. White. June. 1823. 

— ma'ximum. 6. Blue. July. Kamtschatka. 


— Tneliyctonum. 4. Blue. June. 1821. 

— Ueyflri. 3. Blue. June. Switzerland. 1826. 

— mo'ne. 5. Blue. July. 1820. 

— napeHlvui. 4. Blue. June. Europe. 1596. 

Of this there are numerous varieties, 
such as : bwolar, grcmdifoUimi, pyrami- 
dcUe, pyreTiawum, rubrv/m, and undna- 

a'Unis. 4. White. June. Switzerland. 


rvhe'llus. 4. Blue. June. Switzerland. 


— nmu'twn. 3. Purple. July. Siberia. 1818- 

— neonhontalnwin. 3. Blue. July. Europe. 1799. 

— neMberge'nse. 4. Blue. June. South of 

Europe. 1822. 

— nitidum. 3. Blue. June. Switzerland. 1825. 

— oligocalrpwin. 4. Blue. July. Europe. 1823. 

— Ottimio^nwrn. 4. Blue. June. Europe. 1824. 

— panicula'tmn. 3. Pale blue. July. France. 


— plwa'tum. 3. Blue. June. Switzerland. 1825. 

— produ'ctum. 1. Blue. July. Siberia. 1821. 

— pubefieens. 4. Blue. June. Europe. 1824. 

— reeo'gnitum. 4. Blue. June. 1824. 

— rhyncha'nthum. 4. Purplish -blue. July. 

Switzerland. 1821. 
bi' color. 4. Whitish-blue. July. Switzer- 
land. 1819. 

— rigidwm. 3. Blue. June. Switzerland. 1826. 
grandijlo'rwm. 3. Blue. June. 1826. 

— rostra'tum. 3. Blue. July. Switzerland. 1810. 
pilosiu'saulimi. 3. Purple. July. Car- 
pathian mountains. 1800. 

— Sclileichdri. 2. Blue. June. Switzerland. 


— s&migalea'tv/m. 1. Blue. July. Siberia. 1818. 

— meeio'sum. 3. Blue. July. 1823. 

— Spren^e!Ui. 4. Blue. June. Europe. 1824. 

— squarro'swm. 4. Blue. August. Siberia. 1822. 

— stri'ctwm. 4. Blue. June. Siberia. 1824. 

— tau'ricwm. 4. Blue. June. Tauria. 1752. 

— tartuo'smn. 6. Purplish-blue. June. 1812. 

— to'xiewm. 3. Blue. June. Switzerland. 1825. 

— umbro'sum. 3. Blue. July. Switzerland. 1825. 

— wrmrwitum. 2. Blue. July. N. Amer. 1768. 
MichawKia'num. 2. Blue. July. N. 

Amer. 1800. 

— variega'twrn. 6. Purplish-white. Jtily. South 

of Europe. 1697. 

albiflo'rum. 4. White. July. Switzer- 
land. 1819. 

bi'color. 4. Whitish-blue. July. Switzer- 
land. 1821. 

cosru'lewm. 4. Blue. July. Switzer- 
land. 1819. 

— venu'stwrn. 3. Blue. June. • Switzerland. 


— mrga'ttmi. 4. Blue. June. South of Europe. 


— volu'bile. ' 6. Blue. July. Siberia. 1799. 

— WiUderw'vii. 3. Blue. June. Europe. 1823. 

— zoo'ctomim. 3. Blue. June. Switzerland. 



A. a'lbmn. 4. AVhlte. July. Levant. 1762. 

— A'nthora. 1}. Pale yellow. July. Pyrenees. 





A. Anthoroi'deum. li. Pale yellow. July. Jura. 

— austra'le. 2^. Purple. July. Denmark. 1821. 

— aittwrmia'le. IJ. Lilac, white. November. 

N. China. 1846. 

— barWtiim. 2. Pale yellow. June. Siberia. 


— carpa'ticwm. 2J. Purple. July. Carpathian 

mountains. 1810. 

— chine^nse. 4. Blue. September. China. 1833. 

— cyn&ctonum, 3. Pale yellow. July. France. 


— Decandcfllii. IJ. Pale yellow. July. Siberia. 


— decc/rum. i. Blue. June. Pyrenees. 1824. 

— eu'lophum. IJ. Pale yellow. June. Caucasus. 


— gramdifio'rwm. IJ. Pale yellow. July. Jura. 


— hi'spidmm. 2. Pale yellow. June. Siberia. 


— Jacqui'ni. IJ. Pale yellow. June. Austria. 


— LiX/ma'rckii. 2. Pale yellow. July. Pyrenees. 


— laxifio'rwm. 3. Pale yellow. July. Switzer- 

land. 1823. 

— Iwpy^dwm, 2. Pale yellow. July. Europe. 


— lyco'cUymmh. 3. Purple. July. Alps. Europe. 


— Ttiaerophy'llum. 2. Pale yellow. July. 

— molda'vicmn. 6. Purplish. August. Mol- 

davia. 1830. 

— nemordiwm. 2. Pale yellow. July. Cau- 

casus. 1823. 

— Nutta'Uii. 6. Pale blue. August. N. Amer. 


— ochra'nthwm. 4. Yellow. August. Russia. 


— ochroleu'cum. 3. Light yellow. July. Cau- 

casus. 1794. 

— ova'twn. 2J. Purple, green. June. Cash- 

mere. 1839. 

— Palla'sii. 2. Pale ytUow. July. Siberia. 


— pyrena'icv/m. 4. Yellow. June. Pyrenees. 


— refctum. S. Pale yellow. July. Europe. 1824. 

— rubieu'ruLv/m. 2^. Purple. July. Siberia. 


— septentriona'le. 4. Blue. July. North of 

Europe. 1800. 

— StoercUa'rmm,. 4. Blue. August. Austria. 


— therio'phonum. Zi. Pale yellow. June. 

Europe. 1824. 

— tragc^cton/u/m. 2J. Pale yellow. July. Switzer- 

land. 1822. 

— verH'color. Blue and white. August. Siberia. 

1820. About the best. 

— milpa'ria. 3. Pale yellow. July. Alps. 

Europe. 1821. 

Aco'ntias. See Xanthoso'ma. 

A'corus. (From a, privative, and 
kore, the pupil of the eye ; referring to 
its medical qualities. Nat. ord., 

A small genus of evergreen plants, having 
sword-like leaves. A. calamus is a useful medi- 
cinal plant — a native of our marshes. Hardy 
marsh perennials. 
A. ca'lamus. 2. June. Britain. Eng. Bot. t. 891. 

■ variega'tus. A handsome garden variety. 

terreitris. 1. June. China. 1822. Sch. 

Gen. Ar. t. 98. 
— grand'neus. J. February. China. 1796. 

variega'tus. A garden variety, useful for 


Acrade'nia. (From aJcros, the top, 
and aden, a gland ; there are five glands 
on the top of the ovary. Nat. ord., 

Cool greenhouse evergreen shrub, with oppo- 
site trifoliolate, gland-dotted leaves, and clusters 
of white flowers at the ends of the branchlets. 
Seeds, cuttings under a bell-glass. Rich loam 
and leaf -mould. 
A. Frankli'nioe. 8. White. Tasmania. 1846. 

Acre is the usual land measure in 
Great Britain. The Statute Acre 
throughout the United Kingdom now 
contains 4 square roods; a rood con- 
tains 160 sqaare perches, rods, poles, or 
luc/s ; and a perch contains SOj square 
yards. A Statute Acre, therefore, con- 
tains 4840 square yards. The Irish 
Acre contains 7840 square yards, or 
nearly equal to 1 acre, 2 roods, and 19 
perches, Statute measure. The Scotch 
Acre contains 6150 square yards. 

Aeridoca'lTpUS. (From akris, a 
locust, and karpos, fruit ; on account of 
some fancied resemblance of the fruit to 
a locust. Nat. ord. , Malpighiace(B. ) 

Handsome evergreen climber, suitable for 
stove or warm greenhouse. Imported seeds, 
cuttings in bottom-heat. Rich loam and sand ; 
requires plenty of water, but must have free 

A. natali'Hus. Yellow. July. Natal. 1867. 
B. M. t. 6738. 

Acrio'psis. (From ahros, top, and 
opsis, eye. Nat. ord., OrchidecB.) 

A small genus of pretty stove epiphytal or- 
A. densifl^ra. Green and pink. Borneo. 1846. 

— i'ndiea. Ochre and light brown. Wight loon. 

1. 1748. 
—java'nica. White; green, and purple. August. 
Bantam. 1842. Syn., A. picta. 

AorOChse'ne. (From akros, top, 
and chaino, to gape. Nat. ord., Orchi- 
decB ; Tribe, Eptdendrece ; Sub -tribe, 
DendrohiecB. ) 
A, Rima'nni. Lilac purple. Tropical Asia. 

Acrocli'nium. See Helipterum. 

Acroeo'mia. (From akros, top, and 
kome, a tuft ; referring to the way 
the leaves are produced. Nat. ord., 
Palmem. ) 

A genus of South American Palms ; a race of 
plants including some of the most majestic speci, 
mens of the vegetable kingdom, whose products, 
of fruit, root, stems, and leaves are applied tg 
numerous economical purposes. Suckers ; ricli 
sandy loam. Warm greenhouse. 
A. euhdmie. See A. lasiospatha. 
—fimfo'rmis. 40. Trinidad. 1731. 

— gloio'sa. 20. St. Vincent. 1824. 

— guiane'mis. 30. Demerara. 1824. 

— ho'rrida. 30. Trinidad. 1820. 

— laHospa'tha. Para. 1846 Syn., A. cubensis. 

— mi'nor. 20. Trinidad. 1820. 

— seleroea'rpa. 40. W. Ind. 1731. Syn., A. 


— tenviifo'lia. 30. Brazil. 1824. 

Acrony'chia. See Medicosma. 




Acrope'ra. See Gongora. 

A. Loddig^sii. E. M. t. 3563. See Gongora 

Acro'phorus. See Davallia. 

Acrophy'llum. (From akros, top, 
and phyllon, a leaf ; referring to the 
way m which the leaves are produced 
at the summit of the branches above 
the flowers. 'i^Sit. oxd.., Saxifragece.) 

Cool greenhouse evergreen shrub. Cuttings 
of young shoots in July ; soil, sandy peat and 

A. veTto'mm. 6. Pink and white. May. Aus- 
tralia. 1836. B. M. t. 4060. Syn., A. 

Acro'pteris. (From akros, a point, 
and pteris, a fern. Nat. ord., Filices 
— Polypodiacece. ) 

Allied to Asplenium, the Spleenwort. Stove 
Ferns, propagated by division ; soil, light loam 
and peat. See Asplenium. 
A. austra'lis. Brown. Australia. 

— caTiarie'nsis. Brown. Canaries. 1824. 

— cauda'ta. Brown. I. of Luzon. 1824. 

— falca'ta. 1. Brovm. India. 1843. 

— las&rpibifdlia. Brown. I. of Luzon. 1843. 

— oxyphy'lla. Brown, yellow. I. of Luzon. 


— pellu*cida. Brown. I. of Luzon. 1843. 

— platyphy'Ua. Brovm, yellow. Malacca. 1843. 

— prcem&rmm. |. Brown. Jamaica. 1793. 

— radia'ta. Brown. N. Amer. 1793. 

~~ ru'ta nmra'lia. i. Brown. Britain. 1793. 

— se'rra. Brown. North of Europe. 1844. 

— septentriona'le. i. Brown. Britain. 1844. 

— spathuli'na. I. of Luzon. 1844. 

— va'riaTis. I. of Luzon. 1844. 

Acro'stichum. (From akros, top, 
and sUchos, order ; in reference to the 
lines on the back of the leaves ; but the 
application is not very obvious. Linn., 
FUices — Polypodiacece. ) 

Nearly all stove Ferns. Seed and root division ; 
loam and peat, equal parts. Winter temp, not 
below 600. 

A. alcico'rne. 1. September. N. S. Wales. 

— appendicula'twm. 2. W. Ind. 1824. 

— asplenifo'lium. 1. Brown, yellow. July. 

Braail. 1833. 

— au'reum. 4. August. W. Ind. 1815. 

— citrifo'Hum. J. Yellow, brown. September. 

W. Ind. 

— erini'tum. 1. July. W. Ind. 1793. 
— finilyna'tum,. Brazil. 1824. 
—flagelKfenum. 2. E. Ind. 1828. 
—fvxifo'rme. 1. Brown, yellow. July. Ma- 

— glcmdvlo'sfu/m. 1. Jamaica. 1826. 

— granlde. 6. Moreton Bay. 1828. 

— Herminie'ri. Tropical America. 1871. 

— jugUmdifo'lmm. 2. Yellow, brown. August. 
Surinam. 1832. 

— latifo'lium. 1. Yellow, blue. Jamaica. 

— longifolium. 1. August. Jamaica. 1817. 

— nieotiami/o'Uum. 2. Brown. October. W. Ind. 

— pHoselloi'des. 2. Brown, yellow. July. E. 

Ind. 1822. „ ^ , 

— scolopefndrivm. 2. Brown. August. E. Ind. 

— sSw/plex. 1. Jamaica. 1793. 

— Stema'ria. 1. July. Guinea. 1823. 

— evbdialpha/na. Brown. India. 

AcrQtre'ma. (From akros, a point, 
and trema, a perforation. Nat. ord.^ 
Dilleniacece. ) 
Stove evergreen plants. For culture, see DOLio, 


A. Walkefri. Yellow. June. Ceylon. 1861. 
B. M. t. 6363. Warm greenhouse. 

Acro'triohe. (From akros, top, and 
thrix, hair ; referring to the hairs on 
the sepals. Nat. ord., Epacridece.) 

Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Cuttings of 
young shoots in sandy peat, under a bell-glass,. 
in cool house or frame. 

A. divarica'ta, i. White. May. Australia.. 

— ovalifo'lia. J. White. May. Australia. 

1823. B. M. t. 3171. Syn., A. cordata. 

Actse'a. (From aktaia, the elder ; re- 
ferring to the leaves. Nat. ord., Banun- 
culacecB. ) 

Hardy herbaceous perennials, useful for rock- 
ery or vrild garden, shady positions. Propaga- 
tion by division and seed. 

A. spica'ta. 3. White. May. Britain. Eng. 
Bot. ed. 3, t. 49. 



Actine'lla. (From aktin, a ray. 
Nftt. ord., Compositoe.) 
A. grandifio'ra. ^. Yellow. Colorado. 

— lana'ta. See Erwsperimi'm coBspitorum. 

Actini'dia. (From aktm, a ray ;. 
the styles radiate like the spokes of a 
wheel. Nat. ord., Temstrcemiacece.) 

The species of this genus are ornamental de- 
ciduous climbing shrubs, and perfectly hardy ; in 
autumn the leaves of A. Kolamicta change to- 
white and redj when it is very handsome and 
effective, and is especially suitable for trellis- 
work, or a verandah. Any light soil. Seeds, 
layers, or cuttings. 
A. Kolomi'cta. White. N. E. Asia. 1880. Eev. 

Hort. 1874, f. 395. 
—poli/gama. White. Japan. 187-0. 

— volu!bUU. White. Japan. 1874. Kev. Hort. 

1874, f. 395. 

Aetinoca'rpus. See Dama- 

Actinole'pis. (From aktin, a ray, 
and lepis, a scale. Nat. ord., Com- 
positce. ) 

A. corona'ria. 1. Yellow. California. Sep- 
tember. 1839. Syns., Eceria coronaria, 
and HyTnenoxys califomica. B. M. 
t. 3828. 

Actinome'ris. (From aktin, a ray, 
and meris, a part ; referring to the 
radiated aspect of the plants. Nat. ord., 
Compositce ; Tribe, Helianthoidem. ) 

Hardy herbaceous plants, allied to Helianthus, 
and of easy culture. Propagated by division 
and seed. 

A. aia'ta, with its var. alba, and A. helioM- 
thai'des. See Verbesina. 

— sQuarro'sa. 3. Yellow. July. N. Amer. 

1640. Jacq. Vind. 1. 110. Svas., 
cera and Coreopsis alternifolia. 




Actinio'pteris. (From ahtin, a ray, 
and pteris, a fern ; the fronds are radi- 
ately cut into narrow segments. Nat. 
ord. , Filices — A spleniece. ) 

Beautiful stove ferns, with fan-shaped fronds, 
cut into narrow segments ; the type is somewhat 
difiScult to cultivate, but thefollowingnnethodis 
given in the Florist and Pomologist for 1869. For 
soil, break up crocks and charcoal in equal parts, 
and as small as peas, and put with them a good 
bit of silver sand, and a very small portion of 
loam and peat, or little bits of turfy loam, but 
only sufficient to set this rough sharp compost. 
Half fill the pots with broken crocks, on which 
place a small bit of sphagnum moss ; fill up with 
the aboye compost, and plant. Syringe the plants 
two or three times a day, and give plenty of water ; 
the atmosphere must also be kept veryTnoist. In 
summer keep them in a mean temp, of 780 to 80", 
not letting the night temp, fall below 650 ; in 
winter a mean temp, of about 73", the night temp, 
not below 600. 

A. radia'ta. India. 1869. Ic. PI. t. 975. 
austra'lis. lo. PI. t. 976. 

Actino'tns. (From actinotos, mean- 
ing radiated, on account of the form of 
the involuerum. Nat. ord., Umbelli- 
ferce. ) 

Greenhouse herbaceous perennials. Seeds 
and root division ; loam and peat. They may be 
grown in the open air in summer. 
A. helia'nthi. 2. White. June. Australia. 

1821. B. B. t. 664. 
— Uueocelphalvs. Swan Eiver. 1837. Ic. PI. 

t. 847. 

Aculeate. Armed with prickles. 

Acil'minate. Having along, slender 

Acu'te. Sharp pointed. 
Acy'nos. See Calami'ntha. 

A'da. (A complimentary name. Nat. 
ord., OrchidacecB.) 

Cool stove orchid. Peat and sphagnum in 

equal parts. Thorough drainage, and plenty of 

water. Division as soon as growth commences. 

A. aurtmti'aca. Orange. New Grenada. 1864. 

B. M. t. 6436. There is a variety mesoa- 


Adam's Needle. See Yu'cca. 
Ada'mia. See Dichro'a. 
Ada'msia sdUoi'des. See Pusch- 

A. rotwndifo'lia, and glacialis. See Geum. 

Adanso'nia. (In honour of Adan- 
son, a French naturalist, who travelled 
in Africa. Nat. ord., Malvacem.) 

A. digita'ta. White. Senegal. 1724. B. M. 
t. 2791-2. This tree, known as the Bao- 
bab or Monkey-bread, is a native of the 
warmer parts of Africa, and is remark- 
able for the immense diameter, some- 
times 30 feet, which its trunk attains 
in proportion to its height. A second 
species, A. Gregorii, is a native of North 

A'dder's - Tongue. A genus of 
Perns. Ophioglo' ssum. 

Adela'ster albive'nis is probably a 
species of Eranthe/nwrn,. It is a hand- 
some foliage plant, with leaves of a very 
dark green, veined with white. 

Ade'lges aliie'tis. Spmce Gall 
Chermes. At the ends of the shoots of 
the Larch, Spruce Fir, and some of the 
allied species, are often to be found 
swoUen structures, which much resemble 
miniature cones (Fig. 1). These are galls 
formed by the Adelges. This insect 
seems to have two distinct generations, 
though the connection between the two 
does not seem to have been thoroughly 

worked out. In the first generation the 
insect is blackish, with a cottony cover- 
ing. It is of a roundish form, and wing- 
less, with six very short legs, and a long 
slender sucker, with which it pierces 
the young buds between the scales, and 
sucks their juices. The eggs are de- 
posited outside the bud in clusters, and 
are stalked ; from them are developed 
minute, six-legged, active larvae, which 
crawl about over the leaves, and attack 
the bud ; and it is from their attacks, 
probably united with the sucking of the 
juices of the bud by the mother insect, 
that the formation of the gaU is caused. 
In the second generation the female 
Adelges (Fig. 3, magnified), according 
to a wnter in the Gardeners' Chronicle, 
1874, n. s. I., p. 635, deposits her eggs 
in April at the base of the gall, which 
has already grown to a considerable 
size ; the eggs are yeUowish-green or 
grey. The larvae are covered with a 
wool-like secretion ; ^t first they are 
OTeenish, afterwards changing to a red- 
dish hue, and have conspicuous dark 
eyes. Soon after they are hatched, they 
crawl over the gall, and place them- 
selves in lines along the sutures of its 
scales, effecting an entrance to the in- 
ternal cavities of the gall (which are 




already formed) by means of small hori- 
zontal slits, ■which, after the entrance of 
the larvae, close up and do not open 
again until the insects are full grown, 
when the lips of the cavities separate, 
and the pupte creep out and become 
transformed into winged insects. Fig. 2 
represents a section through two cavi- 
ties containing pupse, magnified. This 
insect often commits great havoc in Fir 
plantations, checking growth, and en- 
tirely spoiling the beauty of the trees 
attacked. The only remedy is to cut 
off the infested branches and burn 

Ade'lia. (From a, not, and delos, 
visible ; in reference to the minute parts 
of fructification. Nat. orA., Euphorbia- 

Stove evergreen shrubs. Peat and loam ; cut- 
tings in san<^ loam, after their cut end is dry. 
A. addo'ton. 3. Greenish-white. June. Ja- 
maica. 1768. 

— Bema'rdia. 6. Green. July. Jamaica. 1768. 

— rieine'Ua. 6. Greenish-white. July. Jamaica. 


Adelobo'trys. (From adelos, ob- 
scure, and botrys, a cluster. Nat. ord. , 
MelastomacecB. ) 

Stove epiphytes. 
A. Limde'ni. White, changing to purple. Brazil. 

— sealndens. White. Guiana. 

Adena'ndra. (From aden, a gland, 
and aner, the stamen or male organ ; re- 
ferring to the aspect of the anthers. Nat. 
ord., ButacecB. Thisgenus was formerly 
included in Diosma, imder which name 
most of the figures cited below will be 
found. ) 

Dwarf greenhouse shmhg. Turfy loam. Peat, 
and sand cuttings of the young tops, in sand 
under a bell-glass, in cool house. Seed. 
A. ama'na. 2. Red or white. June. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1798. B. K. t. 563. Syn., 

A. acwminata. 

— mria'cea. 2. Pink. June. Cape of Good Hope. 

—fra'grans. 3. Pink. June. , Cape of Good 
Hope. 1812. B. M. t. 1519. 

— marginata. 2. Pink. June. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1806. 

— tetra'gona. See Acnuidenia tetragona. 

— vmbdla'ta. 2. Pink. June. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1790. 

gpeci&sa. 2. Pink. June. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1789. liere are two forms of this, 
viz. , multiflo'ra and pauetjlo'ra. 

— unifio'ra. 1. Pink. June. Cape of Good 
Hope. 1775. B. M. t. 273. 

" I'ris. 1. White. June. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1800. 

pute'seens. 2. Pink. June. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1786. Syn., A. mllosa. 

Adena'nthera. (From aden, a 
gland, a,nd anthera, an anther; referring 
to the gland on each anther. Nat. ord., 
LeguminoscB. Allied to Mimosa.) 

Stove evergreen trees. Loam and peat ; cut- 
tings in sand under a bell-glass. 
A. chryiosta'chys. See Piptadenia. 
— falca'ta. See Albizzia procera. 

— pavoni'na. 5. Yellow, white. July. B. Ind 

1759. Wight, HI. t. 84. 

— sca'ndens. See Entada. 

Adena'nthos. (From aden, a gland, 
and anthos, a flower ; referring to the 
glands on the flowers. Nat. ord., Pro- 

Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Sandy peat 
cuttings in spring, under a glass, in sand in gentle 
bottom-heat ; soil, peat, and loam. 
A. ba/rbi'gera. Swan River. 

— cuneata. 5. Red. July. West Australia. 


— obova'ta. 5. Red. July. West Australia. 


— seri'cea. 5. Red. West Australia. 1824. 

— termina'lis. Swan Eiver. 

Ade'niuin. (From Aden, where it 
is native. Nat. ord. , Apocynacece. ) 

Greenhouse evergreen shrub, allied to Alstonia, 
It is propagated from cutting of the young 
shoots in sand, under a glass, with bottom-heat, 
in spring. Soil, sandy loam and peat, in equal 

A. obe'swm. 3. June. Pinky-crimson. Aden. 
1845. B. M. t. 6418. Syn., A. houghel 
of B. R. 1846, t. 54, but not of De 

Adenocaly'mna. (From aden, a 
gland, and calymna, a covering ; refer- 
ring to the conspicuous glands on the 
leaves and floral coverings. Nat. ord., 
BignoniacecB. ) 

A. genus of stove evergreen climbers. Loam 
and peat ; cuttings in sand, under a bell-glass 
with Dottom-heat. 

A. cmrw'swm. 20. October. Yellow. Brazil. 
1841. B. M. t. 4210. 

— Irnigeracemo'suvfi. Yellow. October. Brazil 

— ni'tidAim. Yellow. Brazil? 1869. Pax. El. 

Gard. t. 2. 

Adenoea'rpus. (From aden, a 
gland, and carpus, fruit ; referring to 
the glands on the fruit. Nat. ord., 
Leguminosm ; Tribe, Genistem. Allied 
to Laburnum.) 

All are yellow-flowered. The first two green- 
house plants, the remainder deciduous and 
hardy ; sandy loam. Seeds sown in March, and 
cuttings any time in spring and summer. 
A. deco'rticam. May. Sierra Nevada. Kev. 
Hort. 1883, p. 166. 

— foliolo'sus. 6. May. Canaries. 1629. B. M. 

t. 426. Syn., Cytisus foliolosus. 
—frarikenioi'des. 2. June. Canaries. 1815. 
These two are evergreen, and require 
protection from frost. 

— hispa'nvyus. 3. June. Spain. 1816. 

— imterme'dms. i. June. Sicily. 

— parvifo'lms. 4. June. South of France. 1800. 

— telone'rms. S.June. South of France. 1800. 
Adeno'phora. (FromarfcTO,agland, 

a,ni phoreo, to bear. Nat. ord., Cam- 
panulacecB. ) 

Hardy herbaceous plants, like Campanula, in 
which genus some of the species wete formerly 
placed Ordinary garden-soil. ='""'= ah h=va 
blue or bluish flowers. 

Seeds. All have 




A. mrona'ta. 2. July. 1818. B. E. 1. 149. Syn., 
.4. mairswpifiora. 

— corimopiifcnia. 1. June. Dahuria. 1822. 

Swt. H. G. 104. 

— denticvla'ta. 1. July. Siberia. 1817. Swt. 

H. G. 116. Syn., A. tricuspidata. 

— Fieche'H. 2. August. Siberia. 1819. 

— Gmeli'ni. 2. June. Siberia. 1820. 

— intermedia. 2. August. Siberia. 1819. 

Swt. Fl. G. ser. 2, 1. 108. 

— Lama'rcHi. 2. July. Siberia. 1820. 

— liliifcflia. 4. July. Siberia. 1810. B. E. 

t. 236. ,Syn., A. convmunie. 

hy'brida. 2. June. Siberia. 1816. 

suave^olens. 2. June. Siberia. 1816. 

— peresicicBfo'lia. 2. June. Siberia. 1821. 

— periplocifo'lia. 1. August. Siberia. 1824. 

— Sabelaisia'na. 2. August. Siberia. 1823. 

— reticula'ta. 2. July. Siberia. 1820. 

— styl&m. 2. May. Siberia. 1820. 

— vertiffiUa'ta. 2. June.^ Siberia. 1783. Swt. 

Fl. G. n. 160. 

Adeno'stoma. (From aden, aglarid, 
and stoma, a pore. Nat. ord., Bosacece; 
Tribe, SpirmecB. Ahardy evergreenshrub, 
allied to the Lady 's Mantle (AlchemUla). ) 
Propagated by cuttings of the young shoots in 
spring or autumn, under a glass, in sand. Soil, 
nch loam and peat, in equal proportions. 
A. fascicula'ta. 3. White. California. 1848. 
J. Hort. Soc, vol. 6, p. 66. 

Adenotri'ehia. See Sene'cio. 

Ade'smia. (From a, not, or without, 
and desmos, a bond ; in reference to the 
stamens being ffee. Nat. ord., Legumi- 
noscB ; Tribe, Hedysarem. Greenhouse 
and half-hardy plants, allied to Hedy- 
sarum, all more or less of a trailing 
habit. ) 

Annuals only grown in botanical collections. 
The others are greenhouse shrubs or climbers. 
Soil, loam, peat and sand. Cuttings, in summer, 
in sandy loam, under a glass. 


A. rmmca'ta. 1. Yellow. June. Patagonia. 

— pajypo'm. 1. Yellow. June. Chili. 1823. 

— pe'ndula. 1. Yellow. June. Buenos Ayres. 

1826. Swt. Fl. G. Ser. 2, t. 322. 


A. baXsa'mica. Yellow. March. Chili. B. M. 
t. 6921. 

— glutino'sa. Yellow. Chili. 1831. 

— Loudo'nii. 2. Yellow. May. Valparaiso. 

1830. B. E. 1. 1720. 

— microphy'tta. Yellow. Valparaiso. 1830. 

B. C. 1. 1692. 

— uspallate'nsis. 1. Yellow. July. Chili. 

1832. Swt. Fl. G. ser. 2, t. 222. 

— visco'sa. 12. Yellow. August. Chili. 1831. 

Swt. Fl. G. ser. 2, t. 230. 

Adhato'da. (Native name. Nat. 
ord,, Acanthacece. Allied to Justicia.) 

Small ornamental stove shrubs. Soil, loam, 
fibry peat and sand. Cuttings of young shoots 
in spring, in sand under a bell-glass, with bottom- 

A. cydonieefo'lia. 5. Purple, white. August. 
BrazU. 186B. B. M. t. 4962. 

— Va'Hca. 10. Purple. July. E. Indies. 1699. 

B. M. t. 861. Syn., juetieia Adhatoda. 

Adianto'psis. (From adiantum and 
opsis, like ; resembling the Maidenhair. 

Nat. onA.., Filices—PolypodiacecB.) This 
genus is sometimes regarded as a section 
of Cheilanthes. 

Stove ferns. 
A. ptero'ides. Java. 

— radia'ta. 1.- S. America. 

Adia'ntum. Maidenhair. (From 
adiantos, dry, as if plunged .in water, 
yet remaining dry. Nat. oxA.., FUiees — 
rolypodiacecB. ) 

Greenhouse and stove Ferns. Loam and peat. 
Boot division, or seeds scattered on a moist shady- 
surface. Greenhouse temp, in winter, 40° to 45% 
and stove winter temp., 50° to 55°. 


A. aff!n6. 1. New Zealand. 

— assi'mile. Same as A. oethiopicum. There is 

a variety eristatum, from Victoria. 

— Bou'mei. 1882. 

— Bu'mii. Garden variety. 1887. 

— capl'llus Veneris, f . July. Britain. Ca^il- 

laire is so called from being made with 

this plant. 

digUa'tum. Dwarf. 1887. 

imbrica'timi. A garden variety with com- 

pact'habit. 1887. 

— chilelnee. 1. Chili. 1862. 

— Colli'sii. See A. lunvlatum. 

— cwnea'twm. 1. August. Brazil. 1820. 
disse'ctvm,. 1879. 



— cycloso'rwm. IJ. Ecuador. 1887. 

— Jja'dd^i. Hybrid between A. cuneatum and 

A. amaWle. 1887. 

— doldbriffo'rme. 1882. 

— fdstum. Hybrid between A. cuneatum and 

A. a/mabUe. 1887. 
— folio' sv/m. August. 
—foTTno'sum. 1. July. Australia. 1820. 
—fragramU'smnwm. 2. Garden variety. 1887. 
— fu'timm. New Zealand. 

— Mams. New Caledonia. 1887. 

— hispi'dAtlvim. 1. August. Australia. 1822. 
teneHlwm. J. 

— Legra'ndii. 1882. 

— Mairi'sii. Hybrid. 1885. Syn., A. Roperi, 

— Marie' sii. Central China. 1880. 

— Cweni. Hybrid between A. amabile and A. 

euTieatwm. IJ. 1887. 

— Paet/ttii. Deep green. 1882. 

— Paradi'aece. i. S. Africa. 1889. 

— puhe:seens. 1. April. Australia. 1830. 

— pulvenMntum. 2. July. W. Ind. 1793. 

— nnifo'rme. |. July. Madeira. 1699. 

— rhodophy'llvim. Young fronds rosy-purple. 

A hybrid (?). 1884. 

— rhmiiboi'dewm. 1. July. S. Amer. 1820. 

Syn., A. variv/m of gardens. 

— sudlyrwm. Chili. 1862. 

— sulphvJrewm. 1. Chili. 1862. 

— titwtwm. Peru. 1862. 

— Vioto'rim. 1882. A form of A. tenerum. 

— Walto'ni. Garden variety, probably derived 

from A. amabUe. ,1887. 

— Weiga'ndii. 1. America. 1883. 

— Willia'meii. Mountains of Peru. 1877. 


A. (s^nrndv/m. Brazil. 1877. 

— cethi&picum. 2. September. 1838. 

— ama'bUe. Peru. 1868. 

— aneite!nse. Aneiteum Isles. 1880. 

— asarifo'lium. I. of Bourbon. 

— Bau'sei is a garden hybrid. 1879. 

— be'Uvm. Bermuda. 1879. 

— brazilie'nse. 2. Brazil. 1844. 

— cardioehlc^na. See A. polyphyllum. 

— cauda'twm. B. Indies. 




A. colpo'des. Ecuador. 1865. 

— amci'nnum. 2. June. Australia. 
la'tum. Muna. 1868. 

— corda'tum. Brown. Yellow. Mindenao. 

— crista'tum, 1. Brown. Jamaica. 1844, 

— cidtra'tv/m, 2. W. Indies. 

— curva'twm, 2. Brazil. 1841. 

— deco'rwm. Peru. 1868. 

— deltoi'deum. 1. S. Amer. 1820. 

— denticula'timi. Brown. July. W. Indies. 

— Farley ef nee. Barbadoes. 1865. Syn., A. teiie- 

ru/m Farleyense. 
Moritzia'num. 1. S. Amer. 1838. 

— Fergmo'ni. Ceylon. 1884. 
—flabeUifafliwm. 1. Brown. September. Ja- 

— flabellula'tum. E. Ind. 

— Jlave'scem. Yellow. June. W. Ind. 

— folio' sum. 1. Brown. August. 

— Foma'num. 1. Brown. May. W. Ind. 1840. 

— Ghwsbre'ghtii. 

— graei'llimum. 1. Fronds yeUowish-olive- 

green. 1874. 

— Benderso'ni. Young fronds rosy -tinted. 

Columbia. 1873. 

— BeTisloma'num. Columbia, Peru. 1873. Syns., 

A. sessUifolvum and A. Rekhenbiwhii. 

— hirsu'twm. Luzon. 

— vnterme-diwm: 1. Brazil. 

— lAnde'ni. Amazons. 1866. 

— lu'ddum. 1. Brown. August. S. Amer. 

— luna'tum. J. July. Mexico. 1823. 
cdelKaim. Celebes. • 1879. Syn., A. 


— lunula'tum. Luzon. Syn., A. dolabrifomw. 

— macrophy'Uum. 1. July. Jamaica. 1793. 
glau'cum. New Grenada. 1875. 

— Moo'rei, 3. Pinnules very large, trapeziform. 

Peru. 1870. Syn., A. peruvianum of 
some gardens. 

— Moritzut'mmi is a variety of A. Farleyense. 

— nrnlndvlwrn. ^. 1879. 

~~ neoguinef^nse. New Guinea. 1877. 

— TUjvoB-caledo'nioB. 1883. 

^ obli'quwm. 1. April. W. Ind. 1826. 

— palma'tum. Peru. 1877. 

— pa'teng. 1. July. Brazil. 1824. 

— peda'tuvfh. 1. N. Amer. 1640. 

— pentada'ctylon. July. Brazil. 1828. 

— p&ruvia'nwm. Peru. 1869. 

— polyphj/llum. 3. Peru. Syn., A. ea/rdio- 
' chltsnii. 

— pri'nceps. Fronds 3 ft. long, drooping. New 


— prianophy'llum. Tropical America. 

— radia'twm. f . July. W. Ind. 1776. 

— rube'llum. J. Younger fronds reddish. 

Bolivia. 1868. 

— Seema'nni. Central America. 1868. Syn., 

A. Zahnii of gardens. 

— semda'twm. 1. August. Jamaica. 1822, 

— sessilifo'lium. Peru. 1870. 

— setulo'sv/m. 1. Norfolk Island. 1805. 

— apecio'sum. A scajident species, Peru, Ecua- 

dor. 1873. 

— stria'tum. June. W. Ind. 1822. 

— tdnerum. 1. July. Jamaica. 1793. 

— temaltwm. \. July. S. Amer. 1819. 

— tetraphj/ Hum. Tropical America. 1879. 
oUu'sum. |. Congo. Dl. Hort. 1889, 

t. 86. 

— trapeafo/rme. 1^. June. W. Ind. 1793. 

— tnaungvXaltwm. July. Trinidad. 1824. 

— va'rium. 1. July. S. Amer. 1820. 

— VeUchia'num. Young fronds red. Peruvian 

Andes. 1868. 
~veluti'imm. Columbia. 1866. 

— villo'sum. 1. July. Jamaica. 1775, 

— WUesia'nv/m. Jamaica. 

— WUso'ni. i. Jamaica. Syn., A. Seemarmi of 

some gardens, but not the true plant. 

Adi'na. (From adinos, crowded ; the 

flowers being crowded into a head. Nat. 
ord. , Rubiacew. ) 

A pretty little evergreen shrub, requiring a 

cool stove. Cuttings in sandy loam, under a 

bell-glass. Sou, sandy loam and peat. 

A. gloUfio'ra. 3. White. July. China. 1804 

Par. Lond. 1. 116. S^n., NoAuHea Adina. 

Adlu'mia. (Named after Adlum, an 
American author. Nat. ord., Fwma- 
riacece. ) 

A hardy herbaceous climber, requiring com- 
mon soil. Seeds. 

A. elrrho'm. 15. White, August. N. America 

Ado'nis. (Named after Adonis of 
the Classics. Nat. otA.., BanunculacecB.) 
Pretty hardy herbaceous plants ; common gar- 
den soil ; the annual species from seeds, and the 
Eerennial from seed or root division. Useful 
order or rock plants. 


A. cestiva'lis. 2. Scarlet. June. South of Europe. 
1629. Echb. Ic. Crit. IV. 317. Syn., A. 

— cmtumma'lis. 1. Crimson. July. Britain. 

Echb, Ic, Crit. IV. 319. Pheasant's eye. 

— citn'na. 1, Orange. June. South of Europe. 

—Jla'Tnmea. 1. Scarlet. Austria. 


— disto'rta. 1. April. Yellow. Naples. 1827. 

— pyrena'wa. IJ. July. Yellow. Pyrenees. 


— verna'lia. 1. March. Yellow. Europe. 1629. 

B. M. t. 134, Syns., A. appenina and 

ma'jor. Dwarfer, flowers larger. 1879. 

G. C. 1879, v. 11, p. 621. 
sibi rica. 2. April. Yellow. Siberia. 


— volgefnsis. 1, April. Yellow. Russia. 1818. 

Syn., A. davurica. 

.^clinie'a. (From aichme, a point ; 
in reference to the rigid points on the 
calices or flower-envelopes. Nat. ord., 
BromeliacecB. ) 

Suckers ; light turfy loam and leaf mould ; 
very handsome. Stove herbaceous perennials, 
-tfi. Barle'ei. 3. Primrose. Brit. Honduras, 

— bractea'ta. Yellow, bracts crimson. W. Ind. 


— calycula'ta. J. Yellow, bracts red. 1862. 

Syns., Eohenbergia calyculata, Hoplo- 
phytum calyculatuTn, and Macrochor- 
dium IwteuTn. 

— caeU'stis. Sky-blue. Brazil, Syns,, Hopla- 

phytum cceleste and Hohenbergia co&lestis. 

— Cisrule^scens. 1, Bluish, S. America. 1870. 

Syns., AE. ecerulea, Ltmiprococcus, and 
JSoplophytum ccerutesceTitt. 

— Co'mui. A form of nudicaulis. Rev. Hort. 

1886, p. 36. 

— di'scolor. 2. Scarlet, purple. June. 1844. 

— disticha'ntha. 1. Ked-purple. S, Brazil. 

1852, Syn,, Hohenbergia distichantha. 

— erythrosta'chya. Rose, red. Brazil. 1864, 

Syn,, Hohenbergia erythrostachya. 

— exsu'dans. 2, White. W. Ind. 1824. Syns., 

Bromelia exsudans, Hohenbergia exsu^ 
dans, H. cantata. The flowers exude a 
white greasy substance. 
fasna'ta. l|. Pink, bracts rose. Rio Janeiro. 
1826. Syns., Billbergia fasciata smd £. 





A. Fema'ndce. 2. Yellowish. Para. 1872. Syns., 
Ananas Mensdorfiana and Brcrmelia Fer- 

—flemw'sa. See ^. apectaKlis. 

—fu'lgens. 1. Scarlet, blue. September. Cay- 
enne. 1842. 

■^ Furstenbe'rgii. 1. Eose. Bahia. 1879. 

^ Germinya'na. 2. Beddish - white. New 
Grenada. Syna., Bromelia daguenns and 
Ch&valiera Germmyana. 

— Glazw'vi. 7. Eed-purple. S. Brazil. 1880. 

Belg. Hort. 1881, 1. 13. 

— glamera'ta. Violet, bracts crimson. Bahia. 

1866. Syn., Pironneava glomerata. 

— Hookdri. Scarlet, purple, yellow. Brazil. 

1864. ' 

— hy'strix. 2J. Violet, bracts scarlet. Feb- 

ruary. Cayenne. 1880. 

— Lali'ndei. HI. Hort. t. 481. 

— Legrellia'na. J. Eed-purple. 1866. Syn., 

Hohenbergia LegreUiana. 

— Linde'ni. 1. Yellow, bracts red. S. Brazil. 

1864. Syn., Hoplovhytum Lvndmi. 

— Luddemannia'na. Red, green. S. America. 

1866. Syn., Piron/neavaLuddemanniaTia. 

— ma&raca'Titha. See jE. Schiedeana. 
Pettie'ri. 3 to 4. Whitish, bracts carmine. 


— Mari'oB Regilrue. Blue, white, bracts car- 

mine. April. Costa Eica. 1863. 

— Melino'nii. 1. Crimson, pink. S. America. 

— Merte'nsii. 2. Green, red. March. Demerara. 


— 'mexiea'na. 2. Green, crimson. Mexico. 

— Marrenia'na. 2. Purple. S.America. 1875. 

Syn., Piro7ineava Morrenniana. 

— mueronifto'ra. J. Yellow. Demerara. 1855. 

— myruiphy'lla. 2*. Pink, fading to lilac. 

Trop. America. 1887. B. M. t. 6939. 

— nudicau'tu. 1. Yellow. Tropical America. 

1825. Syns., Billbergia and Hohenbergia 

— o'dora. 7. Yellowish. Guiana. 1879. 

— Ortgie'sii. Bed. 1860. Syn., Ortgiesla til- 


— panicMla'ta. 2. Eosy purple, bracts white, 

woolly. Summer. Mexico. 1877. 

— pamcuWgera. 3. Eed-purple. Jamaica. 1882. 

Syn., Hohenbergia paniculigera. 

— Pinelia'rM. 1. Yellow, bracts red. Brazil. 

1862. Syns._, Echviwstaehys and Macro- 
chordium Pineliam/um. 

— purpu'rea. 1 to 1^. Leaves, crimson-purple. 

Columbia. 1889. 

— reguia'rie. 1. White, bracts "red. S. Brazil. 


— Schiedea'na. Pale yellow. Central Mexico. 

1880. Syn., j^, ma^aeantha. 
^~ apecta'bUis. Eose-crimson. Guatemala. 1875. 
Syn., ^. Jlexuosa. 

— suavflolens. 2J. Pink. April. Brazil. 1838. 

Syn., Billbergia melanacantha. 

— Vei'tchii. 1. Scarlet. Columbia. 1877. 

Syn., Chevalliera Veitchii. 

— Weilbachii. IJ. Pink, light violet ; scape 

and bracts scarlet. Brazil. 1854. 

leodie'nsis. Scarlet, violet, green. Brazil. 


.ZEjCi'dium. A genus of minute cup- 
shaped fungi, parasitic on the leaves and 
stems of various plants. The best known 
species is .M. berberidis, which lives on 
the leaves of the common Berberry. 
Puccinia graminis, parasitic upon wheat, 
has been shown to be but a phase in the 
life history of .^. berberidis, and the 
same is probably true of the numerous 
(ither species, such as ^. convallarim, 
'-M, ficaria, and jE. violce, of which men- 

tion will be made under the plants in- 
fested by them. 

.^gi'ceras. (From aix, a goat, and 
kerbs, a horn ; alluding to the shape of 
its fruit. Nat. ord., Myrsinacece.) 

Small greenhouse evergreen tree. Propagated 
from cuttings of the half-ripe shoots in summer, 
under a glass, in sand, and gentle heat. Soil, 
sandy loam and peat ; flowers, fragrant. 
jS. ma'jus. White. Australia. 1824. Wight 
111. 1. 146. Syn., ^. fragrans. 

.^gi'phila. (From aix, a goat, and 
philos, dear ; referring to its being a 
favourite with goats. JJat. ord., Ver- 
benacece. ) 

Ornamental stove evergreen shrubs. Eich 
sandy loam ; cuttings in sand, under a glass, 
with bottom-heat. 
M. arbore'scens. 10. White. Trinidad. 1823. 

— diffu'sa. 2. Yellow. July. W. Ind. 1824. 

Andr. Eep. vol. 9, p. 678, f. 1. 

— ela'ta. 12. Pale yellow. August. Jamaica. 

1823. B. E. t. 946. 
—fce'tida. 2. Lilac. July. W. Ind. 1820. 

— grandifio'ra. 2. Yellow. November. Ha- 

vannah. 1843. B. M. t. 4230. Syn., 
j^. verrucosa. 

— If^ms. June. Yellow. Guinea. 1824. 

— martinist^nsis. 6. White. W. Ind. 1780. 

Jacq. Fr. t. 46. 

— obova'ta. 2. Yellow. September. W. Ind. 

1804. Andr. Eep. yol. 9, p. 678, f. 2. 

— tri'Jlda. 4. White. June. Jamaica. 1826. 

.^'gle. Bengal Quince. (From .tSgle, 
one ofthe Hesperides. Nat. ord. Euia- 

The Marmelos or Bael is a delicious Indian 
fruit, possessing high medi«inal qualities. Stove 
evergreen tree. Cuttings of ripe- wooded shoots, 
in sand, under a bell-^ass, with bottom-heat ; 
rich loam. 

jS. ma'rmelos. 6. Whitish red. E. Ind. 1759. 
Bedd. Fl. Syl. 1. 161. 

.ffigochlo'a. See Navarre'tia. 

.^oUa'nthuS. (From aiolo, to vary, 
and anthos, a flower ; referring to the 
variableness of the flowers. Nat. ord., 
LabiatcB. ) 

Stove annual. Sandy loam ; seeds. 
JE. Livingsto'nii. Brown. E. Africa. 1869. 

— suave' olens. 1. White. July. Brazil. 1825. 

.fflo'nium. See Sempervi'vum. 

.fflra'nthus. (From aer, air, and 
anthos, a flower ; referring to the way 
in which the plant grows. Nat. ord. , Or- 
chidacem; Tribe, Vandece, Sarcanthece.) 

Stove orchid. Division of root ; on wood, or 
in a basket. 
yE. arachni'tis. J. Green. Madagascar. 1873. 

— Curnowia'nus. Madagascar. 1883. 

— grandiflo'rus. 1. Yellow, green. June. Mada- 

gascar. 1823. 

Aera'tion. Exposing soil to the air. 

Ae'rides. (From aer, the air : in 
reference to the power these have of 
living on the air. Nat. ord., Orchidacew; 
Tribe, Vandece, Sarcanthece.) 




Stove orchids. These all require a summer 
temp, of 60° to 85°; winter, er to 66°. Grow 
best in baskets filled with sphagnum or ^hite 

A. agi'ne. Rosy. India. Syn., A. rosewm. A. 
afflne, of B. M. t. 4049, is A. multifiorum. 

— Burbi'dgeisplefndens. Rich purple, ochre. 1886. 

— eraamfalium. Purplish. Burmah. 1877. 

— cri'spum. 1. White, rose. May. B. Ind. 1840. 

Syns., A. Brookii, lAndieymvwm^ and 

— eyli'ndricum. B. M. t. 4982. SeeA.vandarum. 

— dasyca'rpum. Brownish, rosy. India ? 1866. 

— diffo'rme. See Omithoohilusfuscus. 

— Erne' rial. 4. Pale lilac. May. Andaman 

Islands. 1882. B. M. t. 6728. 

— expa'nswm. White, light rose. 1882, Syn., 

A.faleatum, var. expansutm, 

Leo'niae. Spur green. 

— falca'tvmi. White, pale violet. Tenass'erim. 

1862. SYas.,A.Larpent<e3,-aA1Mendalii. 

— Farmelri. IJ. White, yellow. June. E. Ind. 

— FieUXngH. Purple, white. India. 1856, 
Wuliolmsli. White, rose. India. 

— formo'sum. 1882. 

*— gutta'tutn. See Shynchostylis retuia. 

»— HouUetia'nwm. Yellow, purple, lip white and 

amethyst. E. Tropical Asia? 
■— Sutto'ni. See Saccolabiwm. 

— illu'stre. White. India. 1882. 

•— japo'nicwm. i. Vellowish, white, purple. 
June. Japan. 1862. Greenhouse. 

— Lavyrencia'num. White, carmine. Trop. Asia. 


— lelpUmn. White. India. 1883. 

— Lvndleya'n'wm. 1. White, iiink. E. Ind. 

— macula' turn formo'suTn. Whitish, rose. June. 

— Tnaculo'swrn. IJ. Purple spotted. May. 

Bombay. 1840. 

— margina'tum. Yellow, blotohedpurple, brown. 


— mitra'tum. White, lip violet. April, Moul- 

mein. 1864. 

— multyfio'nmi. 1. White, rose. India. 1837. 

Syns. A. agme-, B. M. t. 4049, Lobbii, 
trigonum, and Veitohii. 

— odont&ckilwm. 2. Sylhet. 1837. 

— odora'tum. IJ. White. August. E. Ind. 1800. 

Syn., A. comutum. 
iirma'nicum. Light purple line on tips 

of the lateral sepals ; mid lobe of lip, 

purple. Burmah. 

Demido'Ji. White, rose. Lindenia 1. 14. 

purpura' scene. G. C. 1881, vol. 16, p. 596. 

— Ortgiesia'num. White, purple. 1885. 

— pachyphy'llum. Crimson-laKe. Burmah. ISiJO. 

— panicula'tmm. B. R. t. 220. See Sa/rcanthus. 

— Pico'ti. Cochin-China. Orch. 1890, f . 288. 

— quingv^vu'lnera. i. Pink. June. Philippines. 


Schadenbergia'na. More compact than 

the type. 1886. 

— RoebeUnii. Greenish, rosy, yellow. 1884. 

— Scmderia'nwm. White, purple, yellow. E. 

Tropical Africa? 1884. 

— Schrodderi. IJ. White, pink. E. Ind. 

— suavi'ssimum. White, lilac. June. Malacca. 

Syns., A. Balla/ntia/auYn,,7U}lyUe, Rcichen- 
bachii, and JRohaniatvum. 

— tessela'tum. White, green, and purple. June. 

E. Ind. 1838. 

— testa'ceum. See Vanda. 

— Thibautia'nvm. White, amethyst. Polynesia. 


— vanda'rum. White, yellow. India. 1867. 

Syn,, A. cylindHewm. 
~~ vi'rens. Whitish, purple. April. Java. 1843. 
■ Mli'sii. White, tinged with rose. Warn. 

Orch. Alb. t. 298. 

— Wightia'nvm. See Yamda parmflora. 
There are also the following garden hybrids :— 

A. Dominia'na (1866), A. hybri'dmm (1861). 

.ffi'nia. (From eroua, its Arabic 
name. Nat. ord., Amarantacece.) 

Stove herbaceous plants ; flowering in June. 
Propagated by dividing roots. 
JEJava'raca. 2. White. E. Ind. 1768. Wight 
Icon. t. 876. 

— loma'ta. 1. White. E. Ind. 1691. 

.ffischyna'nthus. (From aischuno, 
to be ashamed, and anthos, a flower. 
Nat. ord., Oesneracece.) 

Handsome twining stove shrubs ; often grown 
on blocks with green moss, but they are more 
satisfactory as pot or basket plants. Seeds, and 
cuttinea of half -ripened wood, with all but a few 
of the top leaves removed. In sand under a bell- 
glass with bottom-heat. Soil, light rich loam, 
sand, and well-decayed leaf -soil. 
JB. atropurpu'reus. Java. 1846. B. M. t. 6131. 

— atroswngui'Ticus. Dark red. July. Guate- 

mala. 1848. 

— Boschia'nus. Scarlet. July. Java. 1843. 

— cordifo'lius. Red. Borneo. 

— F^e'i. Mexico. Scandent. 

—fu'lgens. Crimson, yellow. October. E. 
Indies. B. M. t. 4891. 

— grwndiflo'nus. 5. Scarlet. August. E. Ind. 


— Horsfi'eldii. 2. Pale scarlet. August. Java. 

1844. Gfl. t. 297. 
— ja/va'nicus. Red, yellow. Java. 1849. B. M- 
t. 4503. 

— Li'ndeni. Amazons. 1866. 

— Lobbia'rms. 1. Scarlet. June. Java. 1845. 

B. M. t. 4260. 

— longifio'rus. 2. Scarlet. June. 1846. B. M. 

t. 4328. 

— macula'tu^. 3. Scarlet: August. India. 


— marmora'tue. 1882. 

— miniaftus. 1^. Scarlet. June. Java. 1846. 

Pax. Mag. vol. 16, p. 66. 

— Paxto'nii. Scarlet. April. Khasea. 1839. 

J. Hort. Soc. vol. 4, p. 79. 

— pu'lcher^ Scarlet. 1. July. Java. 1845. 

Pax. Mag. vol. 16, p. 161. 

— purpura' scans. 1. Purple, yellow. March. 

Java. 1845. B. M. t. 4236. 

— radi'cans. Red. August. Sumatra. 1845. 

— rainosi'ssvmus. 3. Scarlet. June. Khasea. 

1837. B. M. t. 4264. 

— Roxbu'rghii. Scarlet. July. E. Ind. 1837. 

— spealo'sue. 2. May. Orange. Java. 1846. 

B. M. t. 4320. Syn., .M. Aucklandi. 

— sple^ndid/us. 1881. 

— tricolor. Red, yellow, black. Borneo. B. 

M. t. 6031. 

— veluti'numi. Columbia. 1866. 

— zebri'nus. Green, brown. Autumn. Java. 


iEschyno'mene. (From aischuno, 
to be ashamed ; in reference to the sup- 
posed sensitiveness in the leaves. Nat. 
ord., LegummoscB. Allied to Hedysa- 

Herbaceous and shrubby stove plants. The 
annuals by seed in a high temperature, and the 
shrubs by cuttings in sand, under a bell-glass, in 
a good bottom-heat ; rich sandy loam. 


JB. america'na. 2. Yellow. July. Jamaica. 

— a'spera. 2. Yellow. June. E. Ind. 1769. 

Wight Icon. t. 299. 

— hi'spida. 2. Yellow. N. Amer. 1803. 

— i'ndiea. 2. Yellow. June. E. Ind. 1799. 

Wight Icon. t. 405. 




JE.pu'mila. 3. Yellow. July. E. Ind. 1818. 

— aubvmo'sa. 1. Yellow. July. E. Ind. 1816. 

— irisci'dMla. 1. Yellow. July. Florida. 1816. 


^. ere'pitans. 4. Yellow. July. Caraocas. 
1820. Jacq. Framn. t. 42, f. 2. 

— pa'tttla. 4. Yellow. .July. Mauritius. 1820. 

— pe'nclMla. 3. Yellow. July. Mauritius. 1826. 

— sensiti'va. 3. White. W. Ind. 1733. 

.ffi'sculus. (A name given by Pliny 
to a kind of oak, having an edible fruit. 
Nat. ord., Sapindaeece.) 

Hardy, showy, deciduous trees for pleasure 
Itarks or lawns. They thrive best in a deep, 
rich, loamy soil. Seeds, or layers of the branches 
in spring. Also grafts or buds on the common 
horse chestnut. 

.1®. califo'mica. 20. White. July. California. 
B. M. t. 6077. 

— ca'mea. See JE. rvMcunda. 

— chine'nsis. China. 1889. 

— gla'bra. 12. Greenish-yellow. May. N. 

Amer. 1812. Grafts. Syn., JB. oliio- 
ensis. B. B. 24, t. 61, and ^. pallida. 

— hippoca' sternum. 40. White. May. Asia. 1629. 

Seeds. Common Horse C. 

Jlo're-pUlno. 40. White. May. Gardens. 


fo'liw arge!rvteis. 40. White. May. Gar- 
dens. Grafts. 

variega'tum. 16. White. May. Asia. 

1629. Layers. 

— i'ndica. 40. White. July. B. Indies. B. M. 

t. 5117. 

— oKioe/nsis. See .X. glabra. 

— pa'Uida. See JBI. glalbra. 

~parnjl&ra. 2 to 4. White. July. United 
States. 1786. Syn., .iE. ■macrostachya. 
B. M. t. 2118. 

^rvMeu'nda. 12. Bed. June. N. Amer. 1820. 
B. O. t. 1242. Syn., .Ol. camea. 

i^thione'ma. (From aitho, to 
scorch, Aninema, a filament ; in reference 
to some burnt appearance in the stamens. 
Nat. ord., Crucy^erce.) 

A pretty genus of annual, biennial and peren- 
nial plants ; the latter suitable for the rockery. 
Common light soil ; seeds and cuttings. 

.M. Bwcbau'mii. ^. Pale red. June. Levant. 

— gra'cUe. i. Pale red. June. Camiola. 1823. 

— saxa'tile. }. Flesh. June. South of Europe 



jE. monospe^rmam. J. Pale purple. July. Spain. 


JE. coridifo'lium. Rosy-purple. May. Asia 
Minor. 1871. Gff. 1. 1160. 

— grandiflo'rum, IJ. Bose. May. 1879. Gfl. 

t. 1102. 

— heteroca'rpvm. J. Purple. July. Armenia. 


— membrcma'cev/m. J. Lilac. July. Persia. 1829. 

Swt. Fl. Gard. ser. 2, t. 69. 

— parviflo'rum. i. Lilac. July. Persia. 1830. 
^ pulchefUuTn. Very much like coridifolium. 


^tho'nia. See To'lpis. 

African Almond. Srabe'j'um std- 

African Fleabane. Tarehona'n- 


African Lily. Agapa'nthus. 

African Marigold. Tage'tesere'cta. 

Afzelia. (In honour of Dr. A. Afze- 
Kus. T!ia,t. Old., Legwminosce. Allied ta 

Stove evergreen tree. Sandy peat and leaf- 
soil. Cuttings in sand, under a bell-glass, with 
good bottomJieat. 

A. afruM'na. Crimson. June. Sierra Leone.. 

Aga'lma. (From agalma, an orna- 
ment. Nat. ord., AraliaoecB.) 
A, vitie^nsis. Leaves digitate ; leaflets entire.. 
Fiji. 1887. 

Aga'lmyla. (From agalma, an orna- 
ment; and hule, a forest. Nat. ord., 

Handsome stove plants^ with scarlet and crim- 
son tubular flowers, suitable for growing in 
baskets or pots, in the moist stove. Cuttings of 
ripened wood, under a bell-glass. Sandy fibrous 
peat, moss, charcoal, and a little leaf -soil. 
A. longisty'la. Crimson. Java. 1873. Rev. 
Hort. 1873, p. 271. 

— sta/mi'nea. Scarlet. Summer. Java, 1846. 

B. M. t. 6747. 

Agani'sia. (From aganos, desirable j 
in reference to the beauty of these neat 
little plants. Nat. ord., Orchidew.) 

Epiphytal orchids, requiring to be grown on 
blocks in moist atmosphere m tropical house. 
Division of roots previous to commencement of 

A. cceru'lea. Blue, with darker blue blotches. 
Brazil. 1876. 

— cya'nea. 1. White, blue. August. Columbia. 

1843. Syns., Warrea eyanea, B. E. 1845, 
t. 28. Lindeniat. 100 is Acaeallis cyanea.. 
—flmbria'ta. White, lip blue, fringed. i>eme- 
rara. 1874. 

— grami'nea. J. Yellow, red. January. Guiana. 

1836. SyTis.,Ma!i!illariaa,ndEoeUenstemiat 
graminea. B. M. t. 6338. 

— iom/ptera. White, violet. Peru. 1871. Syn., 

Koellensteinm ionoptera. 

— pvXchiUla. J. Cream-coloured. June. Deme- 

rara. 1838. B. R. 1840, t. 32. 

— tri'color. Yellow, faint blue, lip red and 

orange. Amazon. 1888. 

Agano'sma. See Ichnooarpus. 

Agapa'nthus. (From agape, love, 
and anthos, flo-wer. Nat. ord. , Liliacece. > 

Half-hardy plants from the Cape of Good 
Hope, standing in sheltered places in the open 
air m mUd seasons. Useful for greenhouse or 
conservatory, either planted out, or in pots 

A. umbella'tus. 3. Blue. April. 1692. B. M. 
t. 500. 

a'lMdus. 2. Whitish. September. 

aUrifio'rus. White. Maund Bot. vol. 2, t. 86. 

ca'ndidus. White. S. Africa. 1880. 

fio're-a'lbo. 1879. 

giga'nteus. 3. Dark-blue. 1879. 


Lewhtlilnii. 1. Blue. 1879. 

Tfia'xvmus. B. R. 1843, t. 7. 

mi'nimus. B. R. t. 699. 

Moorea'nus. Blue. September. S. Africa. 


mUnar. IJ. Dark blue. 1879, 

mriega'tus. 2. Blue. April. 




Agape'tes. (From agapetos, ad- 
mired ; alluding to the brilliant flowers. 
Nat. ord., Vacciniacem.) 

Intermediate, or stove evergreen shrubs. Cut- 
tings in sand, under a bell-glass with good 
bottom-heat. Sand, peat, and turfy loam. 
A. Imxifo'lia. 5. Red. Bootan. B. M. t. 6012. 

— seti'gera. Scarlet. Khasia. 1837. 

— vaccina'cea. Khasia. 1837. 

— variega'ta. Scarlet. Khasia. 1837. Syn., 

Thiebaudia variegata. 

Aga'ricus. (From Agaria, the name 
of a town in Sarmatia. Nat. ord. , Fungi. ) 

A genus of fungi, consisting of numerous 
species, which are more or less umbrella-shaped, 
and bear on their under side radiating gills, 
whose surfaces are covered with minute spores, 
by which the plants are reproduced. The best- 
known species in this country is A. campestris, 
the Mushroom, which see. 

Agari'sta. (A name in mythology, 
the beautiful daughter of Clisthenes ; on 
account of the beauty of the flowers. 
Nat. ord., Ericacece.) 
_ Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings of the half- 
ripened wood, in sand, under a bell-glass. Sandy 
loam and peat about half and half. Summer 
temp. 70° to 76° ; winter, 65° to 70°. 
A. caUiopsi'dm. Ij. Orange. California. 

Agasta'chys. (From agastos, ad- 
mirable, and stachys, a spike. Nat. 
ord., Proteaeece.) 

A greenhouse evergreen shrub. Cuttings of 

ripe wood in sand, under a glass, and placed in 

a cool house ; equal parts loam, sand, and peat. 

A. odwa'ta, 3. Pale yellow. June. Tasmania. 

1826. Ic. PI. t. 1266. 

Agathse'a. See Peli'cia. 

Agathe'lpiS. (From agathos, plea- 
sant, and thelis, a woman. Nat. ord., 

Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Cuttings of 
half-ripe shoots in April, in sandy loam, under 
a glass without heat. Soil, peat and sandy 
loam, equal parts. 

A. angustifo'lia. White. May. Cape of Good 
Hope. 1823. 

— parvifo'ha. White. May. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1816. 

Agathophy'Uum. See Raven- 

Agatho'sma. (From agathos, plea- 
sant, and osma, smell. Nat. ord., JRuta- 
cem. Allied to Diosma. ) 

Handsome heath-like greenhouse evergreen 
shrubs, all from the Cape of Good Hope, and all 
blooming in May and June. Peat and sand ; 
cuttings of young shoots in sand, under a glass, 
in coolhouse. Winter temp. 40° to 45°. In sum- 
mer they require a rather snady place. 
A. acu/mina'ta. 5. Violet. 1812. 

— amid'gua. 2. White. 1810. 

— brevifo'lia. 2. Purple. 1818. 

— Bruni'ades. 2. Purple. 1820. 

— eerefo'lia. 2. White. 1774. 

— eilia'ta. 2. White. 1774. B. E. t. 366. 

— ere: eta. 2. Blue, white. 1816. 

— Mrta. 2. Purple. 1794. B. R. t. 369. 
exsicca'ta. 2. Purple. 1718. 

A. hi'rta pwrpu'rea. 2. Purple. 1791. 
Ventenatia'na. 2. Purple. 1794. 

— M'mida. 1. Violet. 1786. 

— vmorica'ta. 3. Pink. 1774. 

rejle'xa. 2. Purple. 1820. 

rugo'sa. 2. White. 1790. 

— linifo'lia. 2. White. 1823. 

— orbmUa'ris. 2. White. 1800. 

— proH'fera. 2. White. 1790. 

— pulte'seens. 1. White. 1798. 

— vesti'ta. 2. White. 1824. 

— iMlo'sa. 2. Violet. 1786. 

Agathy'rsus. See Laotu'ca. 

Aga'ti. See Sesba'nia. 

A'gave. Aloe. (From agavos, ad- 
mirable ; referring to the stately form in 
which some of them flower. Nat. ord., 
AmaryllideoB ; T-nbe, Agavece.) 

The fibre of some species of aloe has been 
manufactured into ropes and paper, and the 
juice into an intoxicatmg liquor called pulque, 
from which, in its turn, brandy is distilled. 
Stove and greenhouse succulent plants. Rich 
loamj soil, decayed vegetable mould, and brick 
rubbish ; suckers. 
A. a'lhicans. 4. Greenish-yellow. Mexico. 1860. 

— AUiie/rti. 4. Mexico? 1882. Syiis., AUibertia 

intermedia and Agave intermedia. 

— ameriea'na. 24 to 36. Yellowish. Tropical 

America. About 1654. B. M. t. 3654. 

MiOe'ri. A dwarf variety. 1768. 

pi: eta. Leaves variegated. Syn., .4. or- 

varkga'ta. 12. Yellow. August. S. 

Amer. 1640. 

— wmoina. See A. Seolymms. 

— amMre'nsis. A dwarf form of A. xylonaecmtha. 

— applana'ta. Mexico. 1869. 

— aspflrrima. 2. Yellow. Mexico. 1864. 

— atrmii:rem. 26-30. Yellow. Mexico. Syn , 

A. SaUfma/im. 

— attenuiCta. 12. Greenish-yellow. Mexico. 

1834. Syns., A. glaucescens and A. spec. 

— awica'ntha. A form of A. Scolymus. 

— Baxt^ri. 8-10. Yellow. Mexico? 1888. 

— Beauca'mei. Mexico. 

— Bemha'rdii. Mexico. 1868. 

— Besseria'na. 2. Green. Mexico. 1869. There 

are two' forms of this : one, vi'ridis, vrith 
green leaves : the other, glau'oa, with 
glaucous leaves. B. M. t. 6940. This is 
the same as A. macrantha. 
hj/strix. S. America. 1869. 

— Botte^rii. 6-. Greenish. Mexico. 1875. 

— Bou'ch&i. 6. Yellowish-green. Mexico. 1861. 

— brachysta'chys. 3. Green. Mexico. 1820. 

— bracte&sa. 3-4. N. Mexico. 1881. 

— BrawiMna. Mexico. 1866. 

— bromeliaefdlia. Mexico. 1834. 

— butbo'sa. Columbia. 1871.*' 

— califo'mica. 3 to 8. N. Mexico. 1869. 

— camdela'brwm. 20. Green. Mexico. 1877. 

— caTibbce:a. Martinique. 1877. 

— Celsia'na. 4. Green. May. Mexico. 1839. 
a'Unda. Mexico. 1871. 

— chloraca'ntha. 6. Green. Mexico. 1842. 

— cocci'nea. 2. Mexico. 1859. 

— cochlea'rU. 25. Yellowish-green. Mexico. 


— coeruWscens. Mexico. 

— cimeinna. Mexico. 1877. 

— cmvduplica'ta. Mexico. 1866. 

— Ctyrdero'yi. Mexico. 1872. 

— <yrena'ta. Mexico. 

— ewnilla'ta. Mexico. 1860. Closely allied to 

this are A. Simsii, A. Croucheri, and 
' A. rotwndifolia. 

— dasylirioi'det. 10. Green. Mexico. 1846. 




A. dealba'ta. 10. Mexico. 1865. 

angustifo'lia, Mexico. 1871. 

comipa'ata. Mexico. 1871. 

— Secaisnea'na. Mexico. 1689. 

— Bemeest&ria'na. Mexico. 

— cLmdfio'ra. 6. Green. September. Mexico. 


— Desefrti. 4 to 10. Yellow. California. 1877. 

— JOesmetia'na. S. America? 1869. 

— diplaca'ntha. Mexico. 

— echinoi'des. Mexico. 1869. 

— JEhrenbe'rgii. 5. Mexico. 1864. 

— Elemeetia'na. 14. Yellowish-green. Mexico. 


— elonga'ta. Mexico. 

— enHfera. Mexico. 
~ exce^lsa. Honduras. 

— ea^a'nsa. Mexico ? 

— Fenzliaina. Allied to A. Hookeii, but liaving 

smaller pricl^les. 
—felrox. Mexico. 1861. 

— fila/ment&sa, 10. Green, purplish. Mexico. 
— fili'fera. 6. Greenish. Summer. Mexico. 

variega'ta. 1881. 

— fia'eeHa. Mexico ? 1872. 

— jiave^ scens. See A. Tnacrantha. 

— fcetuUt. See FurcroBa gigantea, 

— Fuerstenbe^rgii. Mexico. 

— Fv/nkia'TM. Mexico. 

— Galeo'ttii. Mexico. 1877. 

— gemina'ta. 

Willia'tnsii. Tropical America. 1872. 

— geminifio'ra. 16. Beddish-brown. Mexico. 


— Ohiesbre^ghtii. Mexico. 1862. 

— Oi'lbeyi. Mexico. 1873. 

— glauee^scffns. B, M. t. 5333. See A. attenuata. 

— Ooeppertia'na, 8. Mexico. 1865. 

— Quedeney'ri, 12. Yellowish-green. Mexico. 


— gutta'ta. Mexico. 1860. 

— Haselo'ffl. 7. Grepn. Mexico. 1864. 

— Bayna'ldii. 10. Pale green. Autumn. 1879. 

— Henrique! zii. 12. Green, tinged brown. 

Mexico. 1887. 

— heteraca'ntha. 6. Olive-green. Mexico. 

— Hookdri. 30. Greenish. Mexico. B.M.t.6639. 

— horizomta'lie. 6. Beddish-brown. Mexico? 


— h&rrida. 6 to 8. Yellowish-green. Spring. 

Mexico. 1862. 
le'viar. Leaves longer and narrower. 

Mexico. 1870. 

inacrodo'nta, Mexico. 1876. 

mwraca'ntha. Mexico. 1876. 

— HmiUe'tii. Mexico ? 1866. 

— Euwtioldtia'na. Mexico. 1865. 

— vnr^trica'ta. Mexico. 

— iTw'rmis. Mexico. 

— intermedia. See A. AUbertii. 

— i'xtli. 10. Greenish. Mexico. 

— ixtlioi'des. 10. Yellowish-green. Summer, 

Mexico. 1871. 

— Jacguinia'na. 14. Green. September. Hon- 

duras. 1843. 

— Kara'tto. 6. Green. S. Amer. 1768. 

— Kercho'vei, Mexico. 1864. 

— keioe'n.sis. Mexico. 1865. 

— latici'ncta. Mexico. 1869. 

— lati'seima. Mexico. 

— La/urentia'na. Mexico. 1865. 

— la'xa. 1834. 

— Legrellia'na. Mexico. 1865. 

— Leguaya'Tia. Mexico. 1862. 

— Li'ndleyi. Mexico ? 1867 

— longifouia. Mexico. 

— lopha'ntha. 10 to 12. Mexico. 

-^ lu'rida. 8. Green. June. Vera Cruz. 1731. 

— maeraca'ntha. 8. Greenish. Mountains of 

Mexico. 1830. Sjn., A. flaveicent. 

— maerodo'nta. Mexico. 

A.maciUa'ta. l}to3. Purplish-green. Texas> 

1856. Syn., A. maculosa. 
tni'Twr. 6. Leaves entire. 1869. 

— Maigretia'na. Mexico. 

— Martia'na. Mexico. 1864. 

— MammMia'na. Mexico. Syn., A. QuatavUma, 

— Mamnuyuriezia'na. 6J. Green. 1889. 

— melanaca'ntha. Mexico. 1863. 

— Me' seal. Mexico. 

— mexica'na. 6. Green. Mexico. 1817. 

— mioraca'ntha. 6. Greenish-yellow. Mexico. 


— wdradore'nsis. 20. Yellowish-green. Summer. 

Mexico. 1869. 

— mi'tis. 10. Yellowish. Mexico. 1860. 

— Moorea'na. New Grenada. 1873. 

— Morri'sii. 15 to 20. Bright yeUow. Jamaica. 


— Afuilma'nni. 5. Mexico. 1871. 

— Nisso'ni. Mexico? 1874. 

— oblonga'ta. 8. Mexico. 1868. 

— Ogoya'na. Mexico. 1862. 

— oligophi/lla. Mexico ? 1878. 

— Ortgiesia'na. Mexico. 1876. 

— Pmry'i. 8 to 12. Yellow-green. New Mexico 


— pamafo'lla, 5. Green. Spring. Mexico? 1877, 

— Peaco'ckii. Mexico. 1873. 
— peetinalta. Mexico. 1869. 

— polyaca'ntha. 6. Green. August. 1800. 

— polyaeanthoi'des. Mexico. 1835. 

— Foselge^ri. 6 to 10. Purplish. Texas. 

— potat&rtmi. 12. Greenish-yellow. Mexico, 

— pruiTi&Stt. Mexico. 1863. 
■—puie'scens. 3. Greenish. Mexico. 1870. 
— pugi&nif{/rmi8. Mexico. 1830. 

— putche^rnma. Mexico. 1836. 

— recu'rva. Mexico. 

— BegeHii. Mexico. 1865. 

— re'gto. Mexico ? 1872. 

— revolu'ta, 4. Greenish. Mexico. 1840. 

— ri'gida. Mexico. 

— Roezlia'n^. Mexico. 1869. 

— Roha'nii. Mexico. 1862. 

— rvielseenB, Mexico. 1834. 

— ru'dis. Mexico. 1864. 

— rupicola. 8. Yellowish. Mexico. . 1858. 

— Salmaa'TM. 20 to 30. Greenish-yellow. Mexico.. 

Syns., A. atrovirenSt A. tehuacensis, A, 

— sapona'ria. Brown. July. Peru. 1838. 

— Sarto'rii. 6. Green. Mexico. 1860. Syns.,. 

A. Seachii, A. ccespitosa, A. pendula. 

— Saunde'rsii. 14. Green. Mexico. 1865. 

— schidi'gera. 6. Greenish. Mexico. 1861. 

— Schnittspa'hni. Mexico. 

— Sco'lynms. 14. Greenish-yellow. Mexico.. 

1830, Syns., A. a/moena and A. auri- 

— Seema'tmi. 6. Nicaragua. 1868. 

acu'ta. Nicaragua. 1869. 

papUlo'sa. Nicaragua. 1869. 

poirvispi'na. Nicaragua. 1869. 

— semda'ta. Mexico. 1842. 

— Sha'wii. 10. Yellowish-green. California. 


— Si'msii. Mexico. 1871. 

— Smithia'nat Mexico. 1866. 

— soboli'fera. 10. Yellow. W. Indies. 1678, 

— spica'ta. 15. Greenish. Cuba. 1802. 

— sple!ndens. Mexico. 

— stria'ta. 6. YeUow, green. Mexico. 1856.. 
Richa'rdni. Mexico. 

— etri'cta. Mexico. 1869. 

— Theome'tel. 10. Yellowish-green. Mexico, 

— Thamsonia'na. Mexico. 1865. 

— Tonelia'na. 2. Mexico ? 1881. 

— tria/ngyla'rit. Mexico. 1869, 

— VMdma'ta. 3, Mexico, 1840, 

— uni-mUa!ta. Green. Mexico. 1830.. 

— Yatidermlnneni. Mexico. 




A. variega'ta. IJ. Green. Leaves gieen, with 
dark blotches. Texas. 1865. 

— Verachaffe'ltii. 12. Green. Mexico. 1868. 
variega'ta. Leaves with a central yellow 

stripe. Mexico. 1871. 

— Victo'rice Begi'noe. 8. Mexico. 1876. Syn., 

A. consideranti. 

— mlla'rum. Garden hybrid. 1886. 

— virgi'nica. 3. Purple. N. Amer. 1765. 

— viriM'ssima. Mexico. 1877. 

— vivi'^ara. 15. Green. September. S. Amer. 

1731. Syns., A. cantvZa, A. bidbifera. 

— Walli'sii. Columbia. 1867. 

— Warellia'na. Mexico ? 

— Weisseniurge'nais. 8. Greenish-yellow. 

Mexico? 1885. 

— Wisliz^ni. 12, Mexico. 

— xalape^nsis. 13. Mexico, 1875. 

— xylaca'ntha. 8. Green. Mexico. Syn., A. 

vitta'ta. Syn., A. hybrida. 

— yuecoefo'lia. 6. Yellow. 1816. 

Ageno'ra. See Seri'ola. 

Agera'tum. (From a, not, and geras, 
old ; in reference to the flowers being 
always clear. Nat. ord., Compositce.) 

Half-hardy annual, biennial, and perennial 
herbs, but may be kept perennials if not allowed 
to ripen seeds. Light rich soil ; seeds and cut- 
tings in autumn. A. mexicanum is largely used 
for summer beddings. 

A. amgvMWiiliwin. 1. White. July. Monte 
Video. 1827. 

— coervHewm. 1. July. W. Ind. 1800. 

— cot^leatinum. 4. Blue. B. M. 1. 1730. 

— C(myz(n!d68. 1. Light blue. July. America. 


— LasReau'xii. Bose. Monte Video. 1870. Rev. 

Hort. 1870, p. 90. 

— latifo'livm. 2. White. July. Peru. 1800. 

— jnexica'nwm. 2. Blue. June. Mexico. Swt. 

Fl. Gard. t. 89. 

The best of the garden varieties are, 
Snowflake, Cupid, Swanley blue, Queen, 
Imperial dwarf. Lady Jane, and the 
white flowered and variegated forms. 

— pwncta'tum. Jacq. H. Schcenb. t. 300. See 


— stri'ctum. 2. White. June. Nepaul. 1821. 

— suffrutico'swm. Gfl. 1. 108. 

— Wendla'ndi. i. Blue. Mexico. 1886. 

Agla'ia. (The name of one of The 
Three Graces. Nat. ord., Meliacem.) 

Stove evergreen tree or shrub. Light loam, 
decayed dung, and peat ; half-ripe cuttings in 
sand, under a glass, m a cool house. 
A. odmra'ta. Striped. February. China. 1810. 
Wight Icon. t. 511. 


Aglaone'ma. (From aglaos, bright, 
and nema-, a thread ; probably referring 
to the shining stamens. Nat. ord., 
AroidecB. ) 

Stove evergreen perennials ; leaves often varie- 
gated. Moist atmosphere. Sandy loam and 
peat. Seeds, divisions, or by cuttings of the 
stem, under a hand-glass in heat. 
A. acutispa'thum. Light green; leaves dark 
green, paler beneath. Canton? 

— commuta'twn. 1. White ; leaves blotched 

with greyish. Philippines. 1863. Syn., 
A. maranteefolium maoulatwm. B. M. 
t. 6600. 

See Polypo- 

A. Bookerittlnum. Spathe green, paler inside. 
Cachar. 1874. 

— Lava'lleei. See Sakismatoglottis Lavalleei. 

— Ma'nnii. IJ. Whitish. Victoria Mountains, 

W. Africa. 1868. B. M, t. 6760. 

— Tieiulo'sum. Leaves bright dark green, irre- 

gularly blotched with whitish-green. 
Java. 1887. 

— ni'tiduTn. 4. Cream colour. Penang. 

— pi'ctum. 1 to 2. White; leaves blotched. 

August. Borneo. 1880, 
compa'ctum,. Shining green, Java, 1888. 

— si'mplex. 2 to 3. White. July. Java. 

Agno'stus. See Stenoca'rpus. 

Agonio'pteris. See Acro'sti- 

Agrimo'nia. Agrimony. (From 
agremone, a plant used by the Greeks in 
cataract of the eye. Nat. ord.., Bosacem.) 

Hardy herbaceous plants. Seeds or division ; 
common garden-soil. 

A. Eupatc/ria. 3. Yellow. June. Britain. 
Eng. Bot. ed, 3, t, 417, 

— nepalefnsis. 3, Yellow, June, Nepaul, 1820 

— odora'ta. 4, Yellow, July, Italy, 1640, 

Eng, Bot. ed, 3, t, 418, 

— siMve'olms. 3, Yellow. July. Virginia. 1810 

Agromy'za Vio'lse. PanSy Fly. 
Attacks the flower by puncturing the 
petals, and extracting the juice; the 
puncture causes the colouring matter to 
fade. Very minute ; shining black ; 
bristly ; eyes green ; head orange. Ap- 
pears in May. 

Agro'stemma. See Ly'chnis. 

Agro'stiS. Bent grass. (Fiom agros, 
a field; the Greek name for a kind of 
grass. Nat. ord., Graminece.) 

Seeds in spring, in ordinary soil, in the open. 
A. e'legans. 1. Russia. 1834. 

— nebulo'sa. IJ. 

— pulche'lla. J to 1, Russia. 

— spica-ve'Titi. England. 

Agro'tis. The Turnip Moth. See 

Aila'nthus. (From ailanto, tree of 
heaven ; referring to its lofty growth. 
Nat. ord., Simarubem.) 

Tall deciduous trees, effective on lawns, etc. 
Cuttings of the roots in pots of sand with bottom- 
heat ; sandy loam and peat for stove species. 
The hardy ones thrive best in light humid soil, 
and are best in sheltered situations. 
A. erythrooa'rpa. Fruit, coral red. Hardy. 1867. 

— exce'lsa. 60. Green. E. Ind. 1800. Stove. 

— glwndiMsa. 20. Green. China. 1761. Hardy. 

Ainslse'a. (In honour of Br. White- 
law Ainslie, author of a work on Indian 
drugs. Nat. ord., Compositce.) 

Pretty, herbaceous perennials, which, although 
tolerably hardy, require protection from severe 
frosts. Light rich soil. Seeds or division. 
A. a'ptera. Purple. Sikkim Himalaya. 1882. 

— WalMH. 1, White. Hong Kong. 1875. 

••> B. M. t. 6225. 

Air is the name popularly applied to 
the gaseous envelope surrounding the 




earth, and extending to a distance of 
about 45 miles above sea-level. It con- 
sists of a mixture of gases, existing in 
an almost unvarying proportion, from 
whatever station taken, viz :— 

Oxygen, by weight, 23 parts ; by 
volume, 20-8 parts. 

Nitrogen, by weight, 77 parts ; by 
volume, 79 '2 parts. 

Carbonic anhydride (incorrectly called 
carbonic acid), although present to only 
an average proportion of '03 per cent. , is 
of immense importance to plant life, 
being the chief source whence the plant 
derives carbon, which forms such a large 
proportion of its substance. Watery 
vapour and ammonia gas are also con- 
stantlypresent, but in varying quantities, 
in atmospheric air. From the ammonia 
the plant derives part of its nitrogen. 
It is of great importance that plants 
should have a constant supply of pure 

Air (Giving) is a term commonly 
used by gardeners to denote lowering 
the upper sashes of the house, pit, or 
frame, to allow the escape of excessive 
heat, bad air, and vapour, and opening, 
at the same time, the front sashes to 
admit fresh air. The openings should 
be so regulated as to equalize the escape 
and supply, according to the require- 
ments of the plants under treatment. 

Ai'ra. (From aira, the Greek name 
for Solium, tremulentwm. Nat. ord., 
Graminem. ) 

Hardy grasses. Ordinary garden-soil. Seeds 
in spring. 

A.Jlexuo'sa. IJ. Shining brown. Engla,nd. 

— pulche'Ua. i. South Europe. 

Air-plant. Aerides, and other Epi- 

Aito'nia. (In honour of Mr. W. 
Alton, once head - gardener at Kew. 
Nat. ord., Sapindace(B.) 

Greenhouse evergreen shrub. Loam and peat ; 
cuttings of young wood, in sandy loam, under a 
glass, with bottom-heat. Care must be exer- 
cised, as they are apt to damp off. 
A. cape'nsis. 2. Pink. July. Cape of Good 
Hope. 1777. B. M. 1. 173. 

Aizo'on. (From aei, always, and 
zoos, alive. The plants are fleshy, and 
retain their vitality for a long time. ' 
Nat. ord., Ficoidece.) 

Greenhouse succulent annuals, biennials, or 
evergreen sub-shrubs, chiefly natives of S. Africa. 
Seeds, cuttings. Light sandy soil. Dry atmo- 
sphere, no shade. 

A. sarmento'eum-. Greenish-white. S. Africa. 
1862. Bef. Bot. t. 6. 

Ajar. Used to denote the smallest 
amount ot opening to allow the entrance 

of air, and usually applied to the front 
sashes or lights. 

A'juga. Bugle. (From a, not, and 
zugon, a yoke ; in reference to the 
calyx being one-leaved. Nat. ord., 
Labiatce. ) 

Hardy plants. Common garden-soil ; division, 
or seeds. 


A. chamce'pitys. 1. Yellow. July. England. 

— I'va. 1. Yellow. May. South of Europe. 



A. austra'lis. 1. Blue. July. Australia. 1822 
—folio'sa. 1. Blue August. Switzerland. 1826. 
r~furca'ta. See Anisomeles. 

— geneve^nsis. 1. Flesh. July. Switzerland. 

1656. Syns., A. alpina and A, rugosa. 

— integrifo'lia. 1. Blue. June. Nepaul. 1821. 

— mienta'lis. 2. Blue. June. Levant. 1762. 

— pyranvida'lis. J. Blue. May. Britain. A 

beautiful plant. 

— re'ptans. ^ to 1. Blue purple. May. Britain. 

Some forms have dark leaves. Eng. Bot. 
ed. 3, t. 1088. 

— ru'bra. 1. Red. May. Britain. 
variega'ta. 1. Blue. Ai>ril. Britain. 

— rupe'stris. 1. Blue. May. Switzerland. 1826. 

Ake'bia. (The name it bears in 
Japan, where the fruit is used as an 
emollient medicine. Nat. ord., Ber- 
beridecB. ) 

A. quina'ta. Lilac-pink. March. Chusan. 1845. 
B. M. t. 4864. Evergreen twiner, hardy 
in the southern counties of England 
against walls. May be grown in the 
open in Scotland, but requires protection, 
in severe weather. Useful as twiner for 
cool greenhouse or conservatory. Boot 
division, cuttings, and seed. Sandy 
loam, peat, and leaf -soil. 

Akee-tree. BU'ghia sa'pida. 

Ala'ngium. (The Malayan name 
for two trees, bearing fruit not palatable 
to Europeans. Nat. ord. , Cornacem. ) 

Showy stove evergreen trees. Loam and peat ; 
cuttings under glass, with bottom-heat. 
A. decape'talwm. 10. Pale purple. E. Ind. 
1779. Wight Icon. t. 194. 

— hexape'talum. 15. Purple. E. Ind. 1823. 

Wight 111. t. 96. 

Alate'rnus. Bha'mnus alate'rnus. 

Albi'zzia. (In honour of an Italian 
gentleman. Nat. ord., Leguminosce. 
Allied to Acacia. ) 

Handsome greenhouse or hardy trees and 
shrubs. For cultivation, see Acacia, under 
which genus the species were formerly included. 
A. lophantha is a fine greenhouse plant, largely 
used in window gardening, and house decora- 

A. JuUbn'ssin. Pink. Sub-tropical and Tem- 
perate Asia. 1745. Syns., A. rosea, 
Acacia mollis, and A. Nemu. 

Le'bbek. White. Tropical Africa and Asia 
1786. Bedd. Fl. Syl. t. 53. Syns., Acacia 
Lebbek and A. spedosa, 

lopha'ntha. White. S. W. Australia. 1803 
B. E. t. 361. 

— odorati'ssima. 40. White. E. Ind. 1790. 
Syn., Acacia odoratissima. 





1800. Syn., 

-4. prdcera. 5. Yellow. E. Ind. 
4(2ena7itAera falcata, 

— gtipw^a'ta. 20. White. Bengal. 

Acacia stipula'ta. 

Albu'ca. (From albicans, or albus, 
white ; referring to the prevalence of 
white flowers in the genus. Nat. ord., 
LUiacem. ) 

A genus of beautifiil bulbous plants requiring 
creenhouse treatment ; all from the Cape of 
Good Hope, except the flrst-named. Sandy loam 
and leaf -soil ; offsets from the old bulbs, or seeds. 
Well adapted for planting out in a border of 
light loam, in front of a greenhouse ; to be covered 
from frost like Ixias. 

A. aiyssi'nica. 2. White. August. 1818. Jacq. 
Ic. t. 64. 

— AUe'n(e. 3. Greenish-white. Zanzibar. 1887. 

— alti'ssima. i. White. May. 1789. Jacq. 

Ic. t. 63. 

— angole'nsis. 3. Yellow, green. Angola. Eef. 

Bot. t. 336. 

— au'rea. 2. Greenish-yellow. June. 1818. 

Jacq. Ic. t. 441. 

— cauda'ta. 2. Yellow. June. 1791. Jacq. 

Ic. t. 442. 

— coarcta'ta. 2. White. June. 1774. 

— Coope'ri. |. Yellowish-green. S. Africa. 

1862. Bef. Bot. t. 334 as A.Jlaccida. 

— carymbo'sa. 1. Yellow, banded green. Port 

Elizabeth. 1886. 

— exuvia'ta. See Urginea exuviata. 
—fastigia'ta. 2. Wliite. June. 1774. B. R. 

t. 277. 

— jibro'sa. 1. Yellow, green. S. Africa. 

— filifo'lia. See Urginea filifolia. 
—fla'ccida. 2. Yellow, green. June. 1791. 

Jacq. Ic. t. 444. 
—fra'grans. 1. Yellow, green. July. 1791. 

Jacq. H. Schcen. t. 84. 
— fu'gax. See Urginea fugax. 

— GarAdni. B. M. t. 4842. See Speirantha 


— glandul&sa. J. White, green, yellowish. 

S. Africa. 

— nmcifo'lia. 1. Yellow, green. S. Africa. 1876. 

B. M. t. 6395. 

— ma' jar. 3. Green, yellow. May. 1759. B. M. 

t. 804. 

— mUnor. 1. Yellow. May. 1768. B.M.t.720. 

— Nelso'ni. 4. White, dull-red. June. Natal. 

1880. A very fine plant. 

— physo'des. See Urginea physodes. 

— pdlyphy'lla. J. White, green. March. S. 

Africa. 1872. 

— seto'sa. 1. Green. June. 1795. Jacq. Ic. 

t. 440. 

— spiralis. 1. White. June. 1795. Jaoq.Ic. 

t. 439. 

— tenuifo'lia. i. Pale yellow, green. S. Africa. 

Eef. Bot. t. 336. 

— tricophy'lla. Bright yellow. Natal. 1889. 
^ viridiflo'ra. 1. Green. June. 1794. Jacq. 

Ic. t. 446. 

— viico'sa. 1. AVhite, green. June. 1779. 
^ vitta'ta. See Omithogalum vittatum. 

— Wakefie'ldii. 1. Green. Summer. E. Tropical 

Africa. 1879. Syn., A. Elwem. B. M. 
t. 6429. 

Albu'mum. The layers of young 
wood next beneath the bark, in which 
layers the vessels are situated for con- 
veying the sap from the roots to the 

Alchemi'Ua. Lady'sMantle. (From 
alkemelyeh, its Arabic name. Nat. ord., 
JRosacecB. ) 

Hardy herbaceous or greenhouse perennials. 
Adapted for rockeries or borders. Ordinary 
garden-soil ; seeds, or divisions. 


A. cape'nsis. 1. Green. June. Cape of Good 
Hope. 1818. 

— sibhaldioBfo'lia. 1. White. June. Mexico. 


A. alpi'na. 1. Green. June. Britain. Fl. Dan. 

1. 1. 49. 
—fl'ssa. 1. Green. July. Switzerland. 1826. 

Echb. Ic. Crit. t. 4. 

— pentaphy'lla. 1. White. July. Switzerland. 

— pube^scens. 1. Green. July. Caucasus. 1813. 
Echb. Ic. Crit. t. 4. 

— seri'cea. 1. Green. July. Caucasus. 1813. 

Alco've. A recess with seats, an 
ornamental building. 

A'lder. See A'lnus. 

Ale'tris. (From aleiar, wheaten- 
flour ; referring to the powdery appear- 
ance of the whole plant. Nat. ord., 

A. fa/rino'sa is the most intense of bitters 
known. Hardy herbaceous perennials. Shady 
situation. Peat or loam and leaf -soil ; offsets, 

A. au'rea. 1. Yellow. July. N. Amer. 1811. 

— cape'nsis. See Veltheiniia viridijlora. 
—farino'sa. 1. White. June. N. Amer. 1768. 

B. M. 1. 1418. Star grass. Colic root. 

Aleuri'tes. (The name is the Greek 
word for meal'y ; in reference to the 
mealy appearance of the plants. Nat. 
ord., EuphorbiacecB. Allied to Croton.) 

Stove evergreen trees. Loamy soil. Eipe cut- 
tings root readily in sand, under a glass, in heat. 
A. corda'ta. Japan. 1818. 

— tri'loba. 10. October. Society Islands. 1793. 

Aleyro'des prolete'Ua. The Cab- 
bage Powdered-wing is produced some 
years in such innumerable quantities as 
to become a very troublesome pest, as it 
deteriorates the value and quality of the 
various kinds of cabbages it attacks, 
weakening or destroying their leaves by 
sucking their juices. The perfect insect 
(Fig. 1, magnified) is about one-tenth of 
an inch in length, the head and thorax 
are blackish, the abdomen yellowish, and 
the legs black, powdered with white. 
All the wings are snowy white; the two 
front ones are marked with one or two 
spots of pale grey. In places where they 
are abundant, when disturbed they rise 
in the air and resemble miniature snow- 
flakes. The eggs are deposited upon 
the under side of the leaf. The larvse, 
soon after hatching, form a scale (iver 
themselves, and thus resemble a scale 
insect (Fig. 3 A, magnified), and produce 
the dull yellow-and-white incrustation 
which cover the infested part of the cab- 
bage-leaf. The larva changes to the pupa 
state (Figs. 3 and 4, magnified) under 




the protection of its scale-like shield, 
and the perfect insect emerges through 
the shield in rather less than a month 
(according to Curtis) from the deposi- 
tion of the egg. The only remedy likely 

to be of avail in badly affected places is 
complete rotation of crops. For our illus- 
tration, we are indebted to the proprie- 
tors of the Gardeners' Chronicle. Fig. 5 
represents a portion of a cabbage leaf, 
with larvae, pupae, and perfect insects 
(natural size). 
Alexander or Alisander. (Smy'r- 

nium olusa'trum) received its common 
name from the Greek, which means " a 
defender of man," because formerly be- 
lieved to possess powerful medicinal 
properties. It was jilso much cultivated 
for its stems, when blanched, to be eaten 
as celery, which it slightly resembles in 

Hardy perennial, not ornamental, propagated 
by division or seeds. 

Alexandrian Laurel. Bu'seus 

A'lhagi. (The Arabic name of the 
plant. Nat. ord., Leguniinoace ; Tribe, 
Hedysarece. ) 

The secretion from the leaves and branches of 
A. Mawrarwm, due to their being punctured by 
an insect, is supposed by some to be the manna 
oi Scripture. It is worthy of remark, that 
this secretion is found only in northern Persia, 
where it is highly esteemed as food for camels, 
whence it is called camel-thorn. Greenhouse 
shrubs or sub-shrubs. Sandy loam and peat; 
young cuttings and seeds, the first in sand. 
A. avmeWrvm,. 2. Red. July. Siberia. 1816. 
— Uauro'rum. 2. Bed. July. Egypt. 1714. 

Sibth. Fl. Gr. t. 720. Syn., 


Alibe'rtia. (In honour of Alibert,. 
a French chemist. Nat. ord. , Bubiacew. )■ 

Ornamental stove evergreen tree. Cuttings in 
sand, under a bell-glass, in moist heat ; sandy 
A. eHMU. 12. Cream-coloured. Guiana. 1823. 

Alibre'xia tomento'sa. See 
Alisa'nder. See Alexander. 

Ali'sma. Water Plantain. (From 
the Celtic word aiis, water. Nat. ord., 
Alismacece. ) 

Hardy agnatios. Division or seed, loamy soil 
immersed m water. 
A. Damaso'nium. See Damasonium. 

— na'tcms. See Eliema. . 

— planta'go. 2. Pure white. July. Britain. 

Eng. Bot. ed. 3, 1. 1437. Syns., A. par- 

vijwra and trvmUie. . . . 

_ latweola'ta. 2. Pure white. July. Bntam. 

— ranuncvloides. 1. White. August. Britain. 

Eng. Bot. ed. 3, 1. 1439. 

Alkane't. Anchu'sa tincto'ria. 

AUama'nda. (In honour of Dr. 
Allamand, of Leyden. Nat. ord., Apo-. 
cynacecB. ) 

This order is remarkable for handsome flower- 
ing plants, with deleterious qualities. An infu- 
sion of the leaves of A. cathartica, is a valuable 
purgative. Handsome stove evergreen climbers. 
Eicn loam ; cuttings root readily in sand, with 
good bottom-heat and moist air. 
A. Aiible'tii. Yellow. Guiana. 1848. B. M., 
t. 4411. 

— cafha'rtiea. 12. Yellow. July. Guiana. 

1785. B. M. t. 338 and t. 4351. 

— Chelso'ni. Yellow. West coast of Africa. 1871.; 

— granciijio'ra,. Same as A. cathartica. 

— Uenderso'ni. Yellow. British Guiana. 1865. 

111. Hort. vol. 12, t. 452. Syn., A. cathar- 
tica, var. Hendersoni. Gfl. 1887, p. 554. 

— ■magnHjica. Clear yellow, throat orange. A 

variety of A. Schottii. 

— nerii/o'lia. Yellow. June. 1851. B. M, 

t. 4694. 

— no'iilis. Yellow. July. Brazil. 1867. B. 

M. t. 6764. 

— Scho'ttii. Yellow. September. Brazil. 1847. 

— verticilla'ta. June. E. Indies. 1812. 

— viola' cea. Purple. Brazil. 1869. Ee-intro- 

duced 1889. B. M. t. 7122. 

— Wardlea'na. Yellow, outside maroon. New 

Grenada. 1881. 

Allanto'dia. (From allantos, a 
sausage ; in reference to the cylindrical 
form of the indusium, or the case which 
incloses the seeds of ferns. Nat. ord., 
Filices — Polypodiacece. ) 

Greenhouse ferns; division of the roots, or 
sowing spores ; equal parts, turfy peat and loam. 
A. austra'Us. Brown. Van Diemen's Land. 

— aceUa'ris. 2. Brown. Madeira. 1779. 

— strigo'sOf, 2. Brown. Madeira. 

— te^nera, 1. Brown. Australia. 1820. 

— wmiro'sa. 4. Brown. Madeira. 1779. 

AUa'rdtia. See Tilla'ndsia. 

Alleys are of two kinds : — 1. The 
narrow walks which divide the com- 
partments of the kitchen-garden ; and. 




2. Narrow walks in the shrubberies and 
pleasure-grounds, closely bounded and 
overshadowed by the shrubs and trees. 

Alligator Pear. Pe'rseagrati'ssima. 

AUio'nia. (In honour of C. Allioni, 
an Italian botanist. Nat. ord., Nycta- 
ginaeew. Allied to the Marvel of Peru, 
Mirabilis. ) 
Hardy annual. Seeds ; sandy loam. 

A. incama'ta. 1. Flesh. August. Cumana. 

— am'ta. See Oxyia'phus floribu'ndiis. 

— mola'cea. See Oxyba'phus viola'cetis. 

Allium. (From the Celtic all, mean- 
ing hot, or burning; referring to the 
well-known qualities of the onion. Nat. 
ord., LUiacece.) 

Hardy bulbs of easy culture. Many of them 
are showy, and useful for the borders of rockery. 
Seeds and offsets ; ordinary soil. A. neapolita- 
num is largely imported for forcing in early 

A. acumina'tum. J. Deep rose. July. N. W. 

America. 1840. 
ru'irum. Deep red-purple. California. 

— Alexia'nwm. Whitish, striped brownish- 

purple. Turkestan. 1890. 
— amblyophy'Uum. 2. Purple. Turkestan. 1885. 
Gfl. 1. 1190. 

— aw/m&philuTn, Whitish-yellow, with red 

nerves. Austria. 1890. 

— ampelopra/etimy. 2. Purple. May. England. 

— a'nceps. J. Purple. May. California. 1876. 

— Anders&nii. 1. Purple. July. Siberia. 1818. 

— angul&swm. 1. Light purple. June. Ger- 

many. 1739. 

— ascaZi/nicum. 1. Purple. June. Palestine. 


ma'jus. 1. Purple. July. South of 


— a'sperum. 1. Purple. August. South of 

Europe. 1800. 

— azu'reum. 1. Blue. October. 1830. 

— Backhmma'num. 3. Himalayas. 1886. 

— Baueria'num. 1. Pale red. Cyprus. 1874. 

— Bidwi'Uioe. |. Bright rose. July. Sierra 

Nevada. 1880. 

— brachystf^mon. 1. "White. June. Europe. 


— Brewe^ri. f. Deep rose. July. California. 


— ccETu'leum. Blue. June. Kussia. 1840. 

— ca'ipium. 3. Green. May. Astrachan. 

— ce/pa. 3. White. June. The Onion. 

aggrega'tUTti 1. White. June. 

pauci/lo'ruTn. 2. White. June. 

— cepaefdrme. 2. White. August. 1824. 

— cme!reu7n. 1. Straw. July. Siberia. 1829. 

— confe'rtum. i. Purple. August. Europe. 

— cong^stutn. 1. Purple. May. Siberia. 1818. 

— controvefrsuTn. 1. Purple. 1816. 

— eya'neum. Blue. Kansu, N. China. 1890. 

Syn., A. cyaTieum, var. fnacrostemon, 

— descdmens. 1. July. Purple. Switzerland. 


— Dioscdridis. 


— ela'twm. 3. 

Purple, green, white. June. 
1832. Syn., Nectaroscordum Si- 
B. B. 1. 1913. 

Purple. Central Asia. 1887. 
Gfl. 1. 1251. 

— ErdeHii. J. White. Palestine. 1879. 
—falcnfdlivm. i. Pale rose. August. N. W. 

America. 1880. 
—faleifdrme. J. White. California. 1882. 

— Fetiso'wii. Bosy-lilac. Turkestan. 1879. 

A. Fischdri. 1. tilac. July. Siberia. 1829. 

— fistuldsum. 2. Green, yellow. April. Siberia. 

—fla'mtm. 1. Yellow. Italy. 1759. 
—fra'grans. B. E. t. 898. See Nothoscordvm 

— giga'ntewm. IJ. Rose lilac. Merv, not Hima- 

layas. 1883. Gfl. 1. 1113. 

— glau'cum. Pink. June. Siberia. 1800. 

— gra'cUe. Andr. Rep. 1. 107. See Nothoscordum. 

— gutta'tum. 1. White, purple. Tauria. 

— hierosdlymcB. J. White. Palestine. 1889. 

— BoUzdn. IJ. White, anthers rose. Turkestan. 

1880. Gfl. t. 1169. 

— illy'ricum. 1. Purple. July. Austria. 1820. 

— inddarum. B. M. t. 1129. See Nothoacordum. 

— interim' dium. 2. White. August. South 

of Europe. 1827. 

— Itaneudnse. Blue. Kjinsu, N. China. 1890. 

Syn., A. eyaneum, var. brachystetnon. 

— kanatavie'nse. i. White. Turkestan. May. 


— littdreum. 2. Purple. Italy. 1818. 

— Imgi/dlium. 1. Dark purple. July. Mexico. 


— Maclea'nii. Mauve, purple. Cabul. Summer. 

1882. B. M. t. 6707. 

— Macnabia'num. 1. Deep rose. N. America. 

— maora'nth'mii. 2 to 3. Deep purple. E. Hima- 

layas. 1883. B. M. t. 6789. 

— Tna'gicum. See A. nigrum. 

— •nwldivm. 1. White. June. Hungary. 1820.. 

— mdly. 1. Yellow. June. South of Europe. 


— Murray al num. 1. Lilac. N. America. 

— mutttlhUe. 1 to 2. White or rose. July. N.. 

America. 1824. 

— narcissijldrum. f. Deep purple. Italy. 1875. 

— neapoMalnvim. \\. White. S. Europe. 1823.. 

— jieuode'jise. J. White or rose. Sierra Nevada. 


— ni'grura. 3. Violet or whitish. June. S.. 

Europe. Syn., A. m,agieum. 

— ddorum. 1. White, pink. July. Siberia. 

— ophioscdrodon, 4. Pale red. August. Greece. 

— oredphilvm,. 1. Reddish-purple. Turkestan. 

— orienta'le rubdlltmi. Bright rose. 1889. 

— Ostrowsleia''num. 2. Purple. W. Turkestan. 

1882. Gfl. 1. 1089. 

— ovtjldrum,. 8. Dark lilac. Tibet and Sikkim. 

Gfl. 1. 1134. 

— oxypdtalum. 2. White. August. South of 

Europe. 1818. 

— paraddicum. 1. White. Siberia. 

— parcifldrum. f. Purple. Corsica and Sar- 

dinia. 1888. 
— pedertwnta'num. 1. Eeddish-violet Pied- 
mont. 1879. 

— pdrrum. 2. White. Switzerland. 1562. Th& 


— proli'ferum. 3. White. 1820. 

— Priewalskia'num. Rosy-Ulac. Kansu, China. 


— pu'lchrum. Yellow. June. South of Europe. 

— Pu'rshii. 2. Pink. August. N. Amer. 1818. 

— ramdswm. 2. Pale yellow. June. Siberia. 


— reticula'tum. 1. Pink or white. Summer. 

N. W. America. 1882. 
altemifdliuwy. N. W. America. 

— ro'seum,. 1. Pale rose. Summer. S. Europe. 


— sati'vum. 2. White. June. Sicily. 1648. 

The Garlic. 

— achcmopra'sum. i. Flesh. May. Britain. 

— acorodopra'mm. 3. Light purple. July. 

Denmark. 1696. 

— gcorzoneraifdiium. 1. Yellow. June. South 

of Europe. 1820. 

— SerrmM'm. Yellow. Alatan Mts. 1884. Gfl. 

1. 1166. 

— semiretsehenekia'nmn. Flesh-coloured. Wer- 

uoe. 1879. 




■A. aphceroce'phalum. 2. Beddish-purple. S. 
Europe. 1759. 

— Sprenge'ri. Yellowish. Jaffa. 1889. 

— gpidrium. 1. Purple. June. Siberia. 1820. 

— stipUa'tv/m. 6. Purple violet. Bokhara. 1881. 

— strami'n£um. 1. Straw-yellow. Manchuria. 


— stria'tum: B. M. tt. 1035, 1524. See Nothos- 


— stibhirsu'him. 2. White. July. S. Europe. 

— trique'trum. IJ. White, green. S. Europe. 

— umfo'lium. 1 to 2. Mauve-pink. July. Cali- 

fornia. 1873. 

— urtXnum. 1. White. Summer. Britain. 

— vaUHum. 2. White or rose. Summer. Cali- 

fornia. 1881. 

— Victoria'lis. 2. Green, yellow. May. Aus- 

tria. 1789. 
angustifo'lium. 1. Green, yellow. April. 

~ viola' eeim. 1. Violet. Jane. Europe. 1823. 

— WalcUtetlnii. 2. June. Hungary. 1826. 

AUople'ctus. (From alios, diverse, 
and plekein, to plait ; in reference to the 
leaves. Nat. ord., Gesneracece.) 

Pretty stove evergreen shrubs. Light, rich 
soil ; cuttings. 

A. W color. Leaves velvety-green, with a cen- 
tral silvery -grey band. S. America. 1869. 

— capita'tus. 3. Red, yellow. March. S. 

America. 1848. B. M. t. 4452. 

— chrysa'nthus. Yellow. Columbia. 1853. 

— co'ncolor. Bed. Brazil. 1846. B. M. t. 4371. 

— dichro'us. 2. Purple, yellow. Brazil. 1845. 

B. M. t. 4216. Syns., Hypocysta discolor, 
A . Schottiif and aparsijlorus. 

— pelta'tus. 1. Yellow. August. Costa Eica. 


— re'pens. Yellow, brown. February. St. 

Martha. 1845. This is a climbing plant. 

— Schli'mii. Purple, yellow. N. Grenada. 1851. 

Fl. Ser. t. 827. 

— vitta'tus. Yellow, calyx crimson. Peru. 1870. 

— za'more'nsis. 1. Yellow, calyx orange-red. 

Columbia. 1875. 

AUoso'rus. (Nat. ord., Filices.) 
A. acrostichoi'des. See Cryptogrmmne eri$pa var. 

— calomellcmos. B. M. t. 4769. See Pteris calo- 

Tnela/nos. ■ 

— corda'tus. B. M. t. 4698. See Pdlaia, cordata. 

— cri'spus. See Cryptogramme erUpa. 

— jlexiio'sus. See Pellcea cordata fiexuosa. 
^ imbruia'tus. See Jo/mesonia. 
-^ Karvn'nskii. See Llaved cordi^olia. 

Allotment. A space of land divided 
amongst so many labourers or artisans, 
and generally at the same price as that 
Vvhicri the farmer pays. It may just be 
such a piece of ground as a man and his 
family may successfully cultivate in 
their over-hours, after attending to their 
usual employment during the day. The 
term allotment thus becomes synony- 
mous with garden ; and, if near to the 
occupier's home, such a piece of ground 
is of great importance to him, socially 
and morally. These allotments are let 
for one year only, and may be re-let to 
the same occupier, if his character has 
been satisfactory, and his allotment has 
leen kept clean, and well cultivated 
during the preceding year. 

Allseed. Polyca'rpon. 

Allspice. Calyca'nthus. 

Allspice-tree. Pime'nta. 

Alluvial Soil is so called from the 
Latin word alluere, to wash down ; be- 
cause the soil so named is that rich de- 
posit of finely-divided earths and decom- 
posing vegetable matters which, forming 
the land in valleys, and on the banks of 
rivers, is evidently formed of the richest 
and finest portions, washed down from 
higher-situated soils. Alluvial soils are 
usually very fertile, and excellent for 

Almei'dea. (After J. B. P. de Al- 
meida, a Brazilian. Nat. ord. , Mutacece. ) 
Evergreen stove shrub. Light loam, sand and 

Eeat. Cuttings of half-ripened wood under a 
ell-glass In heat. 
A. ru'bra. 5. Pink. September. Brazil. 1850. 
B. M. t. 4648. 

Almond. Prunus Amygdalus, also 
known as Amygdalus oowrniiimis. 

A'lnus. The Alder-tree. (From al, 
near, and Idn, the bank of a river ; in 
reference to the situationwhere the Alder 
delights to grow. Nat. ord., Cupuliferm; 
Tribe, Betulem.) 

Hardy deciduous trees. The flowers have no 
petals. Layers, or seeds ; light loam, in moist 
A. harba'ta. March. Bussia. 1838. 

— canade'Tms. June. Canada. 

— card^fo'lia. June. Naples. 1818. 
— fi'rma. Japan. 

— glalnca. June. N. Amer. 1820. 

— glutmdsa. April. Britain. 

avlreob. Leaves golden -coloured. 

emargina'ta. April. Britain. 

f&liie varkga'tis. April. Britain. 

inci'sa. April. Brirain. 

lacinia'ta, April. Britain. 

qu&rcifo'lia. April. Britain. 1838. 

— inca'na. 20. June. Europe. 1780. 
a/ngula'ta. 20. 

pmnafta. 26. June. Europe. 

— japo'nica. Japan. 1886. 

— JcmUle^neis. Mexico. 

— macroca'rpa, 20. June. 

— inaGTophylla. 20. June. Naples. 

— obcorda'ta. March. Bussia. 

— oblonga'ta. 20. June. South of Europe. 1730. 
elli'ptica, 20. June. 

— oxyacanthifo'lia. 20. June. 

— pu'TnUa, 10. June. 

— rhomMfo'lia. California. 1886. 

— ru'bra. 20. June. 

— rv^o'sa. March. N. Amer. 

— serrulalta. 20. June. N. Amer. 1769. 

— sibi'rica, Siberia. 1820. 

— subrotu'nda. 23. April. 

— vi'ridie. Mountains of the N. Temperate Zone. 

Aloca'sia. (From a, without, and 
Colocasia. Nat. ord., Aracem. Allied 
to Colocasia. ) 

Stove perennials, usually with large and hand- 
somely variegated leaves. Natives of India, 
Indian Archipelago, and' Pacific Isles. Bich 
sandy loam, fibrous peat, sphagnum, and small 
pieces of charcoal, well drained ; moist atmo- 
sphere, with shade. Seeds, and division of the 
stem or rhizome. See also Caladium. 

ALO [ 29 ] 

A. a'lba. IJ. White. Java. 1854. 

— ama'bUis. 1. Whitish. Borneo. 1877. 

— Auguttia'na. Bright green above, paler be- 

neath. Papua. 111. Hort. t. 693. 

— euculla'ta. 2. Green, whitish. Spring. India. 

1826. , 

— cu'prm. 1 to 1}. Purplish, white. Borneo. 

1860. Syns., A. metallica, A. plumbea, 
and Xanthoaoma jptumbea. 

— e^miTiens, Leaf dark green above, purple, 

with pale green veins beneath. Spathe 
green. E. Indies. 1887. 

— Gaulai'nii. Leaves dark green, vyith silvery 

nerves above ; light violet, with blackish 
nerves beneath. 1890. 

— gra'ndis. 5. Spathes white, striped carmine 

outside. E. Indian Archipelago. 

— gutta'ta, 2J. Spathe white, spotted with 

purple. Leaf-stalkalsospotted. January. 
Borneo. 1879. 

— illu'stris. Leaves rich green, with oUve-black 

patches. India. 1873. 

— i'ndica. 2. Whitish, green. India. 

— Jenni'Tigsii. Leaves green, with blackish 

patches between the veins. India. 1867. 

— JohTisto'ni. Leaves red-veined, stalks spiney. 

Solomon Isles. 1876. See Cyrtosperma 

— lAerva'lii, Leaves bright green. Philippines. 


— lAncie'ni. Spathe pale green, gpadix white. 

Papua. HI. Hort. t. 60S. 
■ — longilo'ba. li. Green^ whitish. Leaves green, 
with silvery veins. Java. 1864. Syn., 
A. gigantea of ^rdens. 

— L&vni. 1. White ; leaves dark green above, 

with the midrib, veins, and margin 
whitish, under side deep purple. Borneo. 
1862. Syn., Caladimn Lowii. 

— macrorhi'za. 5. Green, whitish. Polynesia. 
variegalta. Leaves blotched with cream. 

— mwgariftoB. Dark green. Java, 1886. 111. 

Hort. t. 611. 

— margina'ta. 8J. Dark green. Spathe greenish, 

with dark lines and dots. Brazil. 1887. 

— Marsha'Uii. Leaves green, with dark blotches, 

and broad central silvery band. India. 

— namcula'ris. 1. Whitish. May. India. 1856. 

— ^ri'ncepg. Leaves olive green, greyish beneath, 

with prominent chocolate-brown veins. 
Malay Archipelago. 1888. 

— pu'mila. i. Green. January. Borneo. 1879. 

— Putze'ysi. Leaves dark green above, purple 

beneath ; veins pale green. Sumatra. 
1882. m. Hort. t. 439. 

— Eegi'nce. Leaves dark green above, brownish- 

purplebeneath. Spathewhitish. Borneo. 
1884. m. Hort. t. 644. 

— revdrsa. 1. Leaves grey-green, veins darker. 

Philippine Islands. 1890. 

— Jioe^zlii. See Caladiwm Tnarmoratwm. 

— Sanderia'na. Leaves metallic blue, veins 

white. Indian Archipelago. 1884. Gfl. 
1886, p. 462. 

— scabriu' scuta. Spathe and spadix white. N.W. 

Borneo. 1878. 

— singaporefTisis. 1^. Penang. 

— sinua'ta. Spathe green, spadix white. Philip- 

pines. 1886. 

— Thibautia'na. 2. Leaves dark green, with 

white venation above, purple beneath. 
Borneo. 1878. 

— variega'ta. 1. Whitish. India. 1864. Leaf- 

stalk mottled with violet. 

— VillaTieu'vei. Dark green. Borneo. 1886. 

ni. Hort. vol. 34, t. 21. 

— zebrilna. 3. White. June. Philippine Isles. 

There are besides several garden hybrids, as : 
A. Chantri'eri (Eev. Hort. 1887, t. 92), Chelso'm,'gas,A.hy'bncla,A.mtermefdia,A. Lucia'na 


(111. Hort. vol. 34; t. 27), A. Pucmiia'm CRey^ 
Hort. 1887, p. 466), A. Sede'nii. 

Aloe. (From alloch, its Arabic name. 
Nat. ord,, Liliacece.) 

Greenhouse evergreen succulents, chiefly from 
the Cape of Good Hope: Sandy loam and peat, 
with a little decomposed manure, and plenty of 
broken bricks and lime-rubbish, to insure good 
drainage. Give very little water in winter. Pro- 
pagated from suckers or leaves, inserted in sandy 
soil. As purgatives, the Juice of the tree-aloes is. 
vulgariSy purpvrascens, and spicata. 
A. abyssi'nica. 3. Yellow. Abyssinia. 1777. 

Peaco'ckii. Yellow. Abyssinia. 1879. 

percra'ssa. Eed. Abyssinia. 1873. 

— acuTn/ina'ta. A variety of A. humilii. 

— africa'na. 1. Yellow. October. Cape of 
Good Hope. 1823. B. M. t. 2617. 

— agavefo'lia. Eed, green. Autumn. 1879. 

— otbispi'tM. Scarlet. June. 1796. 

— albod'ruita. Orange. June. 1812, 

— arbort! scens. Eed. June. 1731. B. M. 1. 1306.. 

— arista'ta. Eed. 1824. G. C. vol. 19 (1883), 
p. 284. Syn., A. langiaristata. 

leiophy'Ua. 1879. 

— Athersto'nei. S. Africa. 1878. 

— otrovi'reTis. See Haworthia. 

— Ba'rberoB. 60. Kaffraria. Syns., A. Bainesii 
and .A. Zeyheri. 

— Bayfie'lcLii. See Qasteria. 

— Boyji'ea. Pale green, tinged with red. 1822.- 
Syn., Bovyiea africmia. 

— Bolu'sii. S. Africa. 1878. 

— brei^o'lia. Orange. June. 1810. B. E. o. ^96. 

— casfsia. 2. Orange. July. 1818. 
ela'tior. 9. Eed. June. 1821. 

— chinelnm. Yellow. June. 1821. B. M. t. 6301. 

— chloroleu'ca. 6 to 10. Pale yellowish. S.Africa.. 

— ComTnelUni. 

— commuta'ta, 

— consobri'na. 

— Coope!ri. 1. Orange, greenish. Natal. 1862.. 
Syn., A. SchTnidtiana. B. M. t. 6377. 

— depre'sm. Orange. August. 1831. 

— dicho'toTna. Eed. July. 1781. 

— dis'tans. 6. Eed. July. 1732. 

depre'ssa. 6. Eed. .July. 1820. 

refie'xa. 4. Eed. July. 1820. 

— drepanophy'lla. 8 to 10. Whitish, green. S.. 
Africa. 1862. 

— echina'ta. 6. 1820. 
— JUtvispi'na. Eed. August. 1793. 
— frvte'seens. Eed. June. 1818. 

— gasterwi'des. 1. Scarlet. S. Africa. 1875. 

— gla'uca. Eed. April. 1731. B. M. t. 1278. 
rhodaca'ntha. i. Eed., May. 1731. 

— gra'cilis. Orange. June. 1822. 

— Gree'nii. 2. Eed. S. Africa. 1875. B. M.. 
t. 6620. 

— BoMburyd'na. 2 to 3. Coral-red. Kaffraria.. 

— heteraca'ntha. 3. Bright red, whitish. B. M. 
t. 6863. See A. inermis. 

— midbra'ndtii. i. Coral red, yellowish, green.. 
E. Trop. Africa. 1888. B. M. t. 6981. 

— hu'milis. Orange. April. 1731. Jacq. H. 
Schoenb. t. 420. 

acvmina'ta. Orange. April. 1796. B.. 

M. t. 767. 
iruyulrva. Orange. May. 1731. B. M.. 

t. 828. 

macUe'nta. Leaves tinged with purple. - 

mbtubercula'ta. Orange. June. 1620. 

ine'rmis. Arabia. Probably the same as A^ 


— iim'gnis. Coral red to whitish. April. 1886- 
Garden hybrid. 

See A. ndtraiformis. 
2. Coral-red. May. S. Africa. 

2. Eeddish-yellow. S. Africa.. 





B. M. 


A. latifdlia. Scarlet. July. 1795. 

— linea'ta. Scarlet. 1789. 
ffUmee' scene. Scarlet. 1789. 

— langiansta'ta. See A. aristata. 

— longiflo'ra. IJ. Pale yellow, green. 1888. 

— liynehii. 2i. Pale yellow, greenish. 1881. 

Hybrid between A. stnata and Qasteria 

— maora'ntha. Yellow, red. March. 1862. B. 

M. t. 6580. 

— maeroaa'rpa. 1. Coral-red. April 

sinia. 1870. 
•— rmi/rginallis. See Somatophyllv/m. 

— 7nitrc^(/rmis. Red. August. 1731. 

1. 1270. Syn., A, Cormnelini. 
• — pachyphf/Ua. S. Africa. 1862. 

— Morvtei'rm. Dull red. Delagoa Bay. 
•— myriaca'ntha. 2. Bed, green, May. 

of Good Hope. 1823. 

— ni'tens. S. Africa. 1878. 

— no'bilis. Blue. August. 1800. 

— palle'scens. Bed. July. 1820. 

— panieuZa'ta. See A. striata. 

— penduUjU/ra. Pale yellow. Zanzibar. 1888. 

— percra'ssa. Coral-red. May. Mountains of 

Abyssinia. 1879. 

— Pdrryi. li. Green. Socotra. 1879. B.M. 

t. 6596. 

— platyUlpis. 10. Coral-red or yellow. S. Africa. 


— plmaJtxIAs. 10. Beddish-yellow. 1731. Syn., 

A. distwhavar. 

— plu'ridens. Red. July. 1823. 

— prate^nsis. IJ. Scarlet. S. Africa. 1862. B. 

M. t. 6706. 

— proU'fera. Orange. April. 1819. 
Tna'jor. Orange. April. 1819. 

— pit/rpura'scens. Purple. August. 1789. 

— rhodaca'ntha. See A. glaiiea var. 

— sapona'ria. Red. July, 1727. 
iuteostria'ta. Red. July. 1821. 

— Schimpe'ri. 2. Orange-acarlet. June. Abys- 

sinia. 1876. 

— se!rra. Orange. July. 1818. 

— sigrula'ta. Red. July. 1789. 

— s&mwi'dea. 4. Kaffraria. 1862. 

— socotri'na. Red. March, 1731. 

— spica'ta. Red. 1795. 

— spin&sior. Red. April. 1820. 

— stria! ta. Scarlet. July- 1796. Syn., A. pani- 


— stria'tvia. Bed. June. 1821. 

— suierefcta. Scarlet. April. 1789. 
serrdgutta'ta. Orange. May. 1819. 

— stiMiibercula'ta. Orange. June. 1620. 

— tenmfo'Ua. Orange. June. 1881, 

— term'ior. Orange. June. 1821. 

— Thra'sUi. 5. S. Africa. 1860. 

— tri'color. IJ. Coral-red, flesh, yellow. Spring. 

S. Africa. 1875. B. M. t. 6324. 

— fubercula'ta. Orange. April. 1796. 

— variega'ta. Pink. June. 1790. 

— vi'rens. J. Red. Autumn. B. M. 1. 1365. 
■ macile^nta. 

— xanthaca'ntha. Orange. June. 1817. 

— Zeyhdri. See A, Baroaaroe. 

Alo'mia. (From a, not, and loma, 
a fringe. Nat. ord. , CompositcB. ) 

Half-hardy evergreen. Sandy loam ; cuttings ; 
temp, not below 36° in winter. 
A. ageratoi^des, IJ. White. July. Mexico. 1824. 

Alo'na. (Letters of the primitive 
name, Nolana, transposed from Nola, a 
little bell; in reference to the form of 
the flowers. Nat. ord., Convolvulaeeoe ; 
Tribe, Nolanece.) 

A small order of pretty Chilian sub-shrubby 
greenhouse evergreens, with large flowers ; cut- 

tings root freely in sandy loam, with bottom- 
heat ; peat and loam. 
a:, baeca'ta. Yellow. Coquimbo. 

— cceMstis. 2. Blue. Chili. 1843. B. B. 30, 

t. 46. 

— eamo'sa. Blue. Coquimbo. 

— glandrulo'sa. Blue. Valparaiso. 

— long^o'lia. See Nola/na. 

— obtu'sa. Blue. July. Coquimbo. 

— revolu'ta. See Dolia. 

— rostra'ta. Blue. July. Coquimbo. 

— tomento'sa. See Dolia. 

Alonso'a. (In honoiir of Z. Alonzo, 
a Spaniard. Nat. ord. , ScrophMlariacecE. ) 

A genus of half-hardy shrubs, herbaceous pe- 
rennials or annuals. Cuttings, or seeds, the 
first in sandy loam in August or- March ; the 
seeds in March in gentle heat, or in open air in 

A. aeatifo'lia. 3. Scarlet. June. Peru. 1790. 
Gfl. t. 849. 

— albifio'ra. 2. White, yellow. Mexico. 1877. 

— cavXiala'ta. 3. Scarlet. June. Chili. 1823. 

— imsieifo'lia. 2. Scarlet. June. Chili. 1796. 

— mterme'dia. 2. Scarlet. June. Hybrid. Lodd. 

B. C. 1. 1466. 

— Hnea'ris. 2. Scarlet. June. Peru. 1790. Swt. 

m. Gard. vol. 6, t. 240. 

— Knifo'Ka. IJ. Scarlet. Australia. 

— Matthe!wsii, 1, Scarlet. Peru. Bef. Bot. 

1. 158. 

— myrtifo'lia. Scarlet. 

— Warscewi'czii. 1^. Crimson. July. Central 

America. 1868. Gfl. t. 978. 

Aloy'sia. See Li'ppia. 

Alpi'nes, strictly speaking, are plants 
from alpine, that is, Inountainous dis- 
tricts ; as a rule perfectly hardy in our 
gardens, but requiring a specially pre- 
pared rock garden, which see. 

Alpi'nia, (In honour of Alpini, an 
Italian botanist. Nat. ord., ScitaminecB; 
Tribe, Zingiberem.) 

Stove herbaceous perennials, except A.peni- 
eillatat which does well with greenhouse treat- 
ment. Rich sandy loam and peat, leaf-soil, or 
well rotted manure and sand. They like plenty 
of moisture and pot-room in the growing season ; 
root division after the plants have started into 
growth in spring. 
A. ala'ta. 3. Bed. May. E. Ind. 1823. Syn., 

A. Hoecoeana, 

— albolinea'ta. 3. Leaves banded with white. 

New Guinea. 1880. 

— AUu'ghes. 2. Red. February. E. Ind. 1796. 

Andr. Rep. t. 601. 

— OMtUla'rvm. 4. Flesh. May. W. Ind. 1826. 

— auricula'ta. 5. Reddish-yellow. E. Ind. I8I4! 

— bractea'ta. See A, Boxbwrgii. 

— calcara'ta. 3. White. September. E. Ind 

1800. B. R. t. 141. 

— Cardamdmwm. See Elettaria. 

— ce'rniM. 6. Pink. April. E. Ind. 1804. E. M 

t. 1900. 

— como'sa. See Costus. 

— difflssa. 6. Purple-blue, yellow. April. E. 

Ind. 1818. 

— exalta'ta. See Renealmia. 

— Gala'nga. 6. White, yelloTV. October. E. Irid. 
■— limgucefo'rmis. See Blettaria. 

— magntjim. See Ammnum. 

— rmlacee!nsis. 6. White. April. E. Ind 1799 

B. B. t. 328. 

— me'dia. See JElettaria costata. 

— mu'tioa. 5. White, red, yellow. August. 

Borneo. 1811. B. M. t. 6908. 




A. nu'tans. 13. Pink. May, E. Ind. 1792. 
B. M. 1. 1903. Syn., Eenealmia nutans. 

— occiden;ta'lis. See RenealTnia januticensis. 

— ofinna'rum. White, red. S. China. B. M. 

t. 6995. Chinese Galangal. 

— penid,Ua'ta. 3. Pint. May. China. 

— pumi la. Pink. April, E. China. 1883. B. M. 

t. 6832. 

— puni'cea. See Elettaria. 

— racemo'sa. 5. White. August. W. Ind, 1762. 

— Soscoea'na. See A. alata. 

— Roxbu'rgii. 3. White. May. E. Ind. 1824. 

Syn., A. bracteata. 

— spico'to. 2. Sumatra. 1822. 

— spira'lis. See Costus Pisonis. 

— stria'ta. i. E. Ind. 1818. 

— tubula'ta. 2. Red. July. Demerara. 1820. 

— vitta'ta. Leaves green, striped with white, 


— zingiieri'na. 6. Greenish -yellow, white, crim- 

son. Siam. 1886. B. M. t. 6944. 

Alseno'smia. (From alsos, a grove, 
and eu-osme, a perfume, Nat. ord.; 
" •"'■ E.) 

A. macrophy'Ua. 10. Creamy white, red. New 
Zealand. 1884. B. M. t. 6961, 

Alsi'ne. See Arena'ria. 

Alsodei'a. (From alsodes, leafy, 
Nat, ord., Violarim.) 

Ornamental stove evergreen shruhs. Rich 
loam and sand.; cuttings in sand, under a bell- 
A. latifo'lia. White. Madagascar. 1824. 

— pauc^'ra. White. Madagascar. 1824. 

Alsomi'tra. (From alsos, a grove, 
and mitra, a mitre ; here probably mean- 
ing covering, or the cap of the wood. 
Nat. ord., Cucurhitacece.) 

Stove evergreen climber. Seeds, cuttings in 
bottom-heat. Rich loam. Give more water 
during the growing and flowering season than at 
other times. 

A. ia/rcophy'lla. White. Winter. Burmah, Siam. 
1870. Syn., Zanonia sarcophylla. 

Also'phila. (From alsos, a grove, 
and phileo, to love ; in reference to the 
situation best suited for the plants. 
Nat. ord,, Filices — PolypodiacetB.) 
' Greenhouse tree ferns. Peat and loam ; divi- 

A. aculea'ta. S. America, 
^ a'spera. W. Indies, 

— atrovirens Keria'na. 2. S. Brazil, 1887, 

— austra'lis. Australia. 1833. 
Willia'msii. 1874. 

— conta'minans. S. E. Asia. HI. Hort, t, 458. 

— gla'uca. Manilla, 1862, 

— hi'spida. New Grenada, 1881, 

— Hostma'nni. Guiana, 

— lateva'ga/ns. New Grenada, 1881, 

— Leichardtia'na. Australia, 1867, Syn., A 


— lumda'ta. 25, Fiji. 1880, 

— Mique'lii. Java, 

— Moorea'na. N. S, Wales, 1847. 

— podophy'lla. New Grenada, 1881, 

— ra'dens. Brazil, 

— Rebe'eciB. 8, Queensland. 1882. 

— sagittifo'Ua, Trinidad. 1872. 

— Scottia'na. Sikkim. 1872. 

— ToenHtis denticula'ta. Brazil. 

Alsto'nia. (In honour of Dr. Alston. 
Nat. ord., Apocynacem.) 

Stove evergreen shrubs or trees, allied to the 
Oleander. Loam, peat, and sand ; cuttings root 
readily in moist bottom-heat. 
A. schola'ris. 8. White. May. E. Ind. 1825. 
Wight Icon. t. 422. 

— venena:ta. 6, White. June. E. Ind. 1825. 

B. C. 1. 1180. 

Alstrome'ria, (In honour of Baron 
Alstromer, a Swedish botanist. Nat. 
ord., AmaryllidaceCB.) 

All the species of this beautiful genus live out 
of doors with us, with a slight protection from 
frost, excmt A.oaryophyllcBa, erroneously called 
ligtu, in B, M. t. 125 ; and this requires stove 
heat and absolute rest in winter. AU the spO' 
cies, also, have one uniform mode of upright 
growth, by which they are easily distinguished 
from Bomai-eas, the species of which are all 
twiners. The golden Alstromer from Chiloe (,A. 
aurantUtca), is perfectly hardy in England, and 
prefers a damp situation and strong loam ; the 
other species are chiefly from the alpine regions 
of Chin, and require sunshine and lighter soil— 
their long fascicled (or tufted) roots are not well 
adapted for pot cultivation. They succeed in 
deep, rich, light loam, or loam, peat, and sand," 
ana should be planted eight or ten inches deep, 
and receive abundance of water while they are 
growing. Alstromerias have a strong natural 
tendency to variation, but will not cross with 
Bomareas, as has been asserted. No limits can 
be assigned between species and varieties in this 
family ; a race of endless variations has been ob- 
tained from A. hcema'ntha and its varieties. 
These are called Van Soutte's seedlings. The 
following are the most distinct forms of the genus 
in our gardens ; but many more are recorded and 
described, which remain to be introduced : — 
A. auramti'a^M. 2. June. Orange. Chili. 1831. 

Swt. Fl. Gard. ser. 2, t. 206. Syn., A. 


— ca/ryophy'llaea. 1. Scarlet. February. Brazil. 

1776. Jacq. Hort. Schoenb. t. 465. Syn., 
A. ligtu of B. M. 1. 125. 

— chUefnsis. 2. Yellow, red. July. Chili. 1849. 

— Cwmmingia'na. Chili. A variety of A. revo- 


— densi^ra. Scarlet. Peru. 1866, 

— haemAtlnAha. Swt. Fl. Gard. ser. 2, t. 168. 

Syns., A. pulchella (B. M, t. 2364) and 

A. Simsii. 

Barclaya'na. 2^. Crimson, July, Chili, 


— Wgtu. 2. Whitish or pale red. Chili. B. R. 

1889, t. 3. 

pu'lchra. B. M. t. 2421. Syns., A. bicolar 

(B. C. t. 1147 and 1497) and A. Flos- 
Martini (B. R. t. 731). 
Many forms of this species are in cultivation, 

and have been described as distinct species. 

Amongst these are ; A. angustifolia, A. Hookeri 

(B. C. 1. 1272), A. Hookeriana, A pallida (B. M. 

t. 3040), A. pulchra, A. rosea, and A. tricolor. 

A. (yva'ta. See Boma/rea edulis, var. ovata. 

— peregrilna. 1, Striped, July, Chili, 1754, 

B. M, t, 139, 

a'lba. White, yellow. 1877. 

— perwma'na. Crimson, white, green, black. 

Peru. 1876. 
nHveo-margina'ta. Leaves white mar- 
gined. 1876. 

— psUtaeilna. Crimson. September. Brazil. 

■ Erembou'ldtii. 

— spathula'ta. i to 1. Reddish. Chili. 
. Neniii. B. M. t. 3106. 

Altema'nthera, (Alluding to the 
alternate stamens being barren. Nat. 
ord., Amarantacece.) 




Well-known stove and greenhouse perennial, 
biennial, and annual ornamental Joliaged plants, 
largely used at the present time in carpet bed- 
ding, etc. light rich loam. Cuttings root 
readily, end of March and April, in hot bed, 
with a steady bottom-heat of 76° to 80". 
A. achyra'Titha. 1. White. July. Buenos Ayres. 

— ama'bilis. Leaves rose coloured, shading off 

to green at the margin. Brazil. 111. 
Hort. 1868, t. 568. 

— cant^scens and caracasa'rM. See Telanthera. 

— denticvla'ta. White. July. 1822. 

— ficoi'dea. Leaves green and red. India. 1866. 
versil color. White. Leaves claret-coloured, 

when young pink with darker veins. HI. 

Hort. 12, t. 440. 
~ fiUfo'rmii. White. July. E. Ind. 
—frute'scens. White. July. Peru. 1820. This 

will do in a greenhouse. 

— nodijlo'ra. ^Vhite. May. Australia, 1826. 

— paronychioi'des. i. 

— procu'mbens. 4. White. July. Brazil. 1818. 

— seri'cea. See G&mphrena. 

— se'ssilis. J. July. Brown. E. Ind. 1778. A 


amos'na. Lower leaves dark green, upper 

reddish. 111. Hort. 1865, t. 447. 

— spathula'ta. Leaves reddish-brown. HI. Hort. 

1866, t. 445. 

— spiru/sa. Yellow. June. 1823. Stove annual. 

Althse'a. Marsh-mallow. (From 
altheo, to cure ; in reference to the me- 
dicinal qualities. Nat. ord. , Malvacem. ) 

Hardy ornamental annual, biennial, and pe- 
rennial herbaceous plants. Increased by divi- 
sion or seeds. Those of the annual and biennial 
in spring where intended to bloom. Seed of the 
perennials sown as soon as ripe often produce 
flowering plants the following year. Ordinary 
garden soil. A . ro'sea is the Hollyhock, which see. 


A. acau'lie. 2. Purple. July. Aleppo. 1680. 

— hirsu'ta. 2. White. July. Britain. Rchb. Ic. 

1. 172. 

— Ludwi'gii. 2. Pink. July. Sicily. 1791. 

— chindnsis. 1. Red. July. China. 1818. 


A, caribce'a. 3. Pink. Stove. April. W. Ind. 

— fieifo'lia. 6. Orange. July. Levant. 1697. 

— FrolcmMna. 3. July. Siberia. 1827. 

— pa'Uida. 6. Pale purple. July. Hungary. 

1805. Kchb. Ic. 1. 176. 

— ro'sea. Bed. August. China. 1573. Rchb. 

Ic. 1. 175. The Hollyhock. 

bilo'ba. 8. Red. July. Syn., A. grandi- 


— Siebe'ri. 4. Purple. July. Sicily. 1829. 

— stria'ta. 6. White. July. 


A, cannabi'na. 6. Purple. July. South of 

Europe. 1697. Rchb. Ic. 1. 173. 
— fleaeuo'sa. 3. Pink. July. B. Ind. 1803. 

— fru'tex. SeeHibi'scus syri'atyus. 

— narboTie'nsis. 6. Pink. August. South of 

Europe. 1780. 

— nudyflo'ra. 6. White. July. Siberia. 1827. 

Syn., A. levxantka. 

— offlcina'lis. 4. Flesh. July. Britain. Rchb. 

Ic. 1. 173. Marsh-mallow. 

— taurine^nsis. 4. Red, August. Turin. 1817. 

Rchb. Ic. 1. 174. 

Alti'ngia. See Arauoaria. 

Altitude, or elevation above the sea, 
has a great influence over vegetation. 

The greater the altitude the greater the 
reduction of temperature ; so much so 
that every 600 feet of altitude are be- 
lieved to reduce the annual temperature 
as much as receding a degree from the 
equator, either to the north or to the 
south. But this rule is far from uni- 
versally applicable ; for the limit of per- 
petual snow at the equator is at a height 
of 15,000 feet, whereas in the 35th de- 
gree of N. latitude the limit is at 11,000 
feet, being an average of about 120 feet 
of altitude for every degree of recession 
from the equator. In the 45th degree 
the limit is 8,400 feet, being an average 
of 146 feet for every degree ; in the 50th 
degree 6,000 feet, or 180 feet for each 
degree ; in the 60th, 3,000 feet, or 20a 
feet for a degree ; and in the 70th, from 
1,200 to 2,000 feet, or about the same 
for each degree as to the 60th degree of 
latitude. Now we know of no reason 
why the temperature of elevations be- 
low the snow-line should not follow the 
same gradations ; and if this be so, these 
may be taken as a rule. All plant* 
growing above 7,000 feet under the 
equator ought to grow in the open air 
in London. 

Alu'minous, applied to land, means 
heavy, owing to the presence of clay. 

Aly'ssum. Madwort. (From a, 
not, and lyssa, rage ; in reference to a. 
fable that the plant allayed anger. Nat. 
ord., Cruciferm.) 

Annual or dwarf shrubby perennial plants. 
The flowers are usually produced in spring, and 
add much interest to the Rockery or mixed 

A. alpe'stre. 1. June. S. Europe. 1825. 

— arge'nteum. 1. April. Switzerland. 

— atla'nticum. 1. Yellow. April. Crete. 1817. 

— Bertolo'nii. 1. July. Switzerland. 1823. 

— awneifo'Uwm,. 1. July. Italy. 1820. 

— dasyca'rpum. J. Yellow. July. Siberia. 1819. 

Syn., Anodontea dasycarpa. 

— diffu'mm. 1. July. Italy. 1820. 

— ede'ntvlwm. 1. Yellow. July. Hungary. 

1820. Syn., Anodontea edentulum. 

— gemone'nse. 1. Rich yellow. April. Europe. 

Jacq. Ic. t. 603. 

— hirm'twm. 1. June. Tauria. 1817. 

— macroca'rpum. |. White. June. France. 1823. 

Syn., Anodontea vmerocarpa. 

— marltimvm. White. S. Europe. 1722. Syns., 

A. halimifolium, B. M. t. 101, and Ano- 
dontea halimifolia, 

— marschallia'num. 1. April. Caucasus. 1820. 

Syn., A. alpestre Bieb. not Linn. ' 

— miera'nthum. 1. August. Russia. 1836. 

— mieropeftalum procu'mbens. Iberia. 
monta'num. 1. Yellow. June. Germany. 

1713. B. M. t. 419. 

— mura'le. 1. July. Hungary. 1820. 
obova'tvm. \. Yellow. June. France. 1830. 

Syn., Aifwdontea obovata. 
oUu^fo'liwm. 1. April. Tauria. 1828. 

— olympwum. 1. Deep yellow. June. 1700. 

— onenta'le. 1. Yellow. April. Crete. 
variega'tum. Onrden variety. 




A. rwpe'stre. J. White. June. Naples. 1825. 
Syn., Anodontea rupestre. 

— saxa'tUe. 1. May. Crete. 1710. B. M. t. 1B9. 
— vwriega'twrn. 

— serpyllifol,ium. 1. Pale yellow. August. S. 

Europe. 1822. 

— gpathvla'tum. 1. April. Siberia. 1818. 

— spinxt'sy/m. i. "White. June. South of Europe. 

1683. Syn., Aiiodontea spinosa. 

— tortuo'sum, 1. Yellow. April. Hungary. 


— umlella'tum. 1. July. Tauria. 1821. 

— utrieula'tum. Ydlow. April to June. Levant. 

1739. B. M. 1. 130. 

— vemafle. 1. June. 1819. 

— Waraeha'Ui. June. Yellow. S. Europe. 1847. 

— Wiersie'cldi. IJ. Deep yellow. Summer. 

Asia Minor. 

— Wulfenia'nimi,. J. Golden-yellow. April. 

Carinthia. 1819. 
A. PodoHcum, see SchvverecJcia. A. cheiranthi- 
folium, Farsetia. A. llnifolius, Meniocus, A. 
Tesicaria, Vesicaria reticulata. 

Aly'xia. (From aluxis, grief ; in 
allusion to the deep, sombre green of 
several species. Nat. ord., Apocymce.) 

Stove shrubs, cuttings of ripened shoots in 
sand under a bell-glass. Soil, sandy loam and 

A. bracteol&m. Climber. Pale yellow. Kji. 

— da/phnoi*des. A low shrub. White, tube 

yellovrish. Norfolk Island. 1830. B. M. 
t. 3313. 

— ruseifo'Ua. A low shrub. Flesh-colour. Scent 

like Jasmine. New South Wales. 1820. 
Syn., A. Riehardsoni, B. M. t. 3312. 

Alza'tea. (in honour of a Spanish 
naturalist, named Alzaty. Nat. ord., 
CelastrinecE. ) 

Greenhouse evergreen tree. Cuttings in hot- 
bed ; sandy peat. 
A. vertieilla'ta. 20. Peru. 1824. 

Amarabo'ya. (Nat. ord., Mdasto- 


Stove, or warm greenhouse evergreen shrubs ; 
cuttings of young shoots in brisk bottom-heat 
under a bell-glass. Soil, turfy loam, and a little 

A, ama'bilig. Pinkish -white, edged with car- 
mine. New Grenada. 1871. 111. Hort. 
6. 34, t. 9. 

— pri'nceps. Bright carmine; stamens white. 

New Grenada. 1871. 111. Hort. 5. 34, 
t. 4. 

— spldndida. Carmine shading into white. 

New Grenada. 1871. HI. Hort. 6. 34, 

t. 3^. 
Amara'nthUS. -Amaranth. (From 
a, not, and maraino, to waste away; 
in reference to the durabiKty or " ever- 
lasting " quality of the flowers of some 
species. li&%. otA.., Amaranthacew.) 

Hardy annuals. Eich loam ; seeds sown in 
hotbed in March, or in open ground in April. 
A. atropwmu'reus. 3. Purple. September. B. 

Ind. 1820. Fl. Ser. t. 2860. 

— Wcolcrr. 2. Bed, green. August. E. Ind. 


— cauda'tus. i. Bed. August. E. Ind. 1B96. 
ma'xinms. 6. Bed. August. 1820. 

— fastyia'tus. 2. July. E. Ind. 1816. Wight 

Icon. t. 717. ^ , ^. 

— Jto'ws. 4. Light yellow. August. India. 

A. Bende'ri. 3. Orange, carmine, golden yellow, 
green golden hybrid, pyramidal. 

— hypochondn'aeue. 2. Pume or green. Brazil. 

— lancec^o'liiis. 3. Bed. July. E. Ind. 1816. 

Wight Icon. t. 716. Syn., Euxolws 

— MargarHtce. Garden variety. 1887. 

— mela/ncho'lieus ru'ber. Leaves crimson purple, 

Japan. Half-hardy. 

tricolor. 2. Beddish-violet, green. August. 

E. Ind. 1648. 

— olera'ceus. 6. Pale red. July. E. Ind. 1764. 

Syn., Evaxlus oleraceus. 

— panicula'tus. 5. Bed, green, or yellow. July. 

India. Syn., A. speciosits, B. M. t. 2227. 
erudntus. 3. Dark red. July. China. 1728. 

— salic^o'Hus. 2*. Leaves ^een, bronzy, or 

orange-red. Philippine Isles. 1871. 
II. Ser. 1. 1929. 

— sungui'neuB. 3. Bed. August. Bahama. 


— specMsus. See A. paniculatus. 

Ama'ryllis. (A classical name, after 
Virgil's Amaryllis. Nat. ord., Ama- 
ryllidece.) A large number of species, 
formerly placed in this genus, are now 
referred to Hippeasirum, which see. 

Half-hardy or hardy, deciduous bulbs. Equal 
parts of fibrous loam, leaf mould, and sand ; 
A. adve'na and au'lica. See Hippeastrwm. 

— Atama'sco. B. M. t. 239. See Zephyrwnthes 


— australa'sica. B. B. t. 426. SeeCrinwmfiaeci- 


— Bankeia'na. B. B. 1842, t. 11. See Brwm- 

vigia Slateriana. 

— Bellad&nna. Ih. March. Bose-red. Cape 

Colony. 1712. B. M. t. 783. Syns., A. 

pwdioa, A. rosea, Coburgia Belladonna, 

and Belladonna purpurascens. 
bla'nda. 3. Pale rose. March. 17B4. 

B. M. 1. 1460. Syn., Coburgia blanda. 
pa'llida. 2. Flesh. August. 1712. Bed. 

LU. t. 479. 

— Brougaon^tii. B. M. t. 2121. See Crinum 

— ca'ndvia. B. B. 724. See Zephyranthes Can- 


— colchidfio'ra. See Stembergia colchicifiora. 

— Colefnsoi. See Crinum Moorei. 

— coracina. B. B. t. 139, and var. pallida, 

B. B. 1. 1219. See Ammocharis falcata. 

— coru'sca. See Nerine samienHs, var. corusca. 

— cri'spa. Jacq. Hort. Schaenb. t. 72. See 

Sessea crispa. 

— ewrvifo'lia. B. M. t. 725. See Nerine eurvi- 


— di'sticha. See Buphane dieticka. 

— du'bUt. See Nerine samiensia. 

— falca'ta. See Ammocharis falcata. 

— formosi'ssima. See Svrekelia formoeissima. 

— FatherglUi. Andr. Bep. 1. 163. See Nerine 

eurvifolia, var. Fothergilli. 

— giga/ntea. See Crinwm gigantewm. 

— hu'milie. B. M. t. 726. See Nerine humilis; 

■ B. M. 1. 1089, N. samiensia, var. corusca. 

— hyaeinthi'rui. B. E. t. 163. See Qriffinia 


— vngi'gnia. B. E. t. 679. See Crinum lati- 


— Joaephi'nce and Joaephima'oa. See Bruns- 

vigia Joaephince. 
—Jatico'Tna. B. M. t. 497. See Nerine lueida. 

— Leea'na. Garden variety. 1888. 

— longifo'lia. B. M. t. 661. See Crinvm Imgi- 


longifio'ra. B. B. t. 303. See Crinum 


— Jfacfte'mi. See Crinum Hoarei. 





A. margina'ta. See NervM marginata. 

— nataWnsis. See Crirmm Moorei. 

— orienta'lis. Jacq. Hort. Schoenb. t. 74. See 

B, tmsvigia gigantea. 

— orna'ta. B. M. 1. 1171. , See Crinum zeylani- 

cum; B. M. t. 1263, C. distichum; 
B. M. t. 923, C. gigamteum. 

— pa'Uida. A variety of A, Belladonna'. 

— jmldica. See A. Belladorma. 

— pwrpwra'scens. H. Ser. t. 911. is probably a 

variety oi A. Belladonna. 

— purpu'rea. See Vallota purpurea. 

— Ba'dula. Jacq. Hort. Schoenb. t. 68. See 

Brv/nsvigia Badula. 

— reticula'ta. See Hijppeastrum. 

— revolu'ta. B. M. 915, and var. gracilior, 

B. M. t 623. See Crinum Hneare. 

rohu'stior. B. M. t. 615. See Crinum 


— ro'sea of Lamarck Is A. Belladonna; of 

Sprengel is Zephyrantbes rosea. 

— Rougielri. See Hippeastrum aulicum. 

— ru'bra. Fl. Ser. 1. 1416 is probably a form of 

A. Belladonna. 

— — sanm'nsis. B. M. t. 294. See Nerme sar- 


— specta'hilis, Andr. Eep. t. 390. See Crinum 

yuccaflorum; B. C. t. 159, is a hybrid 

— stella'ris. Jacq. Hort. Schoenb. t. 71. See 

Hesaea stellaris. 

— stria'ta. Jacq. Hort. Schcenb. t. 70. See 

Brunsvigia striata. 

— Tetta'ni. Garden variety. 1888. 

— Trea'tii. See Zephyranthes Treatii. 

— tubispa'tha. B. M. 1. 1686. See Zephyranthes 


— undula'ta. B. M. t. 369. SeeNerineundulata. 

— varia'bilis. Jacq. Hort. Schoenb. t. 429. See 

Crinwin variabile. 

— versi'color. See Zephyranthes versicolor, 

— vivi'para. See Crinum dejvffu/m. 

— z&yla'nica. See Crmum zeylanicuTn. 

For A. Alber'ti, A. pardi'na, A. pro'cera, A. 
Ray'Tieri, and A. Solandrifio'ra, see Hippeas- 

Amaso'nia. (In honour of an Ame- 
rican traveller, named Amason. Nat. 
ord., VerbenacecB.) 

Stove sub-shrubs. Sandy loam and leaf-soil. 

A. calyei'na. 2. Bracts large, red ; calyx red ; 
corolla sulphur yellow. September. 
British Guiana. 1885. B. M. t. 6916. 
Syn., A. punicea. 

— ere'-cta. 2. Yellow. September. Maranhao. 

Brazil. 1823. 

Amate'ur. As the true qualifica- 
tion of an amateur sometimes is ques- 
tioned at local horticultural shows, we 
give our definition. We consider that 
person is an amateur who has a taste 
for a pursuit (floriculture, or horticul- 
ture, for instance), but who neither fol- 
lows it as a profession, nor for pecuniary 

Amatungnla. Carissagrandiflora. 

Amber, Sweet. Hypericum An- 

Amber Tree. Anthospermwm mthi- 

Amblosto'ma. (From amUos, 
blunt, and stoma, a mouth. Nat. ord., 

Orchidece; Tribe, Epidendreco; Sub-tribe, 
Stenoglossea. ) 

A. cdmuwm. 1. Yellowish-green. Brazil. Eef. 
Bot. t. 101. Syn., A. tridactylum. 

Amblyole'pis. (From amhhts, 
blunt, and hpis, a scale ; involucre scales 
being blunt. 'Hat. orA.., Compositm.) 

Hardy annual, flowering all through the 
summer. Seeds sown in spring in ordinary 
garden-soil ; sunny position. 
A. seti'gera. 1-2. Golden-yellow. July. Prairies 
of Texas. Syn., Heleniwm setigerwm. 

Ambrosi'nia. (Commemorative of 
Professor Giacinti Ambrosini, of Bo- 
logna. Nat. ord., Aracem.) 

Half-hardy tuberous perennials, remarkable 
for the curious structure of their inflorescence. 
In A. Bassii the spathe is divided lengthwise 
into two compartments, the solitary ovary being 
in the front compartment, and the anthers in 
the hinder one, attached in two rows to the 
back of the partition^ which has a small hole at 
the top through which insects can crawl, by 
whose means only the pollen can be transmitted 
to the stigma, and fertilization effected. Seeds 
sown as soon as ripe in warm greenhouse division, 
as growth commences in spring. Any light soil ; 
must be protected in winter. 
A. Ba'ssii. J. Green. Spring. Corsica, Sardinia. 

There are three varieties of this plant, 
viz., angustifo'lia, leaves narrow ; m^acu- 
la'ta, leaves spotted, veins red; and 
retieiUa'ta, pale leaves, with dark-green 

— cilia'ta. See Cryptocoryne. 

AmburVj also known as Anbury, 
Club, and Finger and Toe., is a disease 
in the cabbage and turnip caused by a 
fungus, Plasmodiophora l>rassic(B, and 
not by a weevil as was previously 
thought. See Cabbage. 

Amela'nchier. (This is the Savoy 
name for the Medlar, to which this genus 
is closely allied. Nat. ord., Bosacew.) 

Hardy deciduous shrubs, closely allied to the 
Medlar, and cultivated for their, showy white 
flowers, which are produced in early spring. 
Layers ; common rich loam. They are also 
propagated by grafting on the hawthorn, or on 
the quince. 

A. alnifo'lia. 6. Dark purple. N. W. Americi. 

— asia'tica. White. 1879. 

— botrya'piwm. 12. N. Amer. 1746. 

— canadensis. White. April. Canada. 1746. 

Syn., Pyrus botryapium-. 

— flo'rida. 12. N. Amer. 1826. B. E. t. 16S9. 
parvif&lia. 3. 

— oligoca'rpa. 2 to 4. Blue-purple. E. United 

States. 1888. 

— ova'lis. 8. N. Amer. 1800. 

semi-mtegrifo'lia. N. Amer. 

suboordata. N. Amer. 

— samgui'nea. i. White. Fruit deep purple. 

N. Amer. 1800. B. E. 1. 1171. 

— mdga'ris. 6. South of Europe. 1696. G. C. 

1878, p. 793. 

Ame'Uus. (A name employed by 
Virgil for a blue aster-lookmg plant 

f rowing on the banks of the river Mella. 
[at. ord. , CompositcB; Tribe, Asteroidew. ) 




Allied to Aster. A greenhouse evergreen 
"trailer. Loamy soil ; cuttings in a bell-glass in 

A. lychni'tis. 1. Violet. July. Cape of Good 
Hope. 1768. B. E. t. 586. 

— sinnulo'sus. See Haplcrpmppus spinulosus, 

— vill&sus. See Chrysopsis vUlosus. 

American Aloe. A'gave ameri- 

American Blight. The insect at- 
tacking our apple-trees, and known by 
this name, is the Schizoneura lanigera, 
belonging to that group of Aphides, 
which is not provided with honey tubes, 
has the third vein of the front wing with 
a single fork, the antennae, or horns, 
short and thread form, and the whole 
body more or less cottony or tomentose. 
The presence of these insects is shown 
by the white cottony matter in the 
cracks and excrescences of apple-tree 

branches in the spring. When crushed 
they extrude a reddish fluid. These 
insects are iniurious by piercing the 
sap- vessels of the tree, sucking the juice, 
and causing wounds which ulcerate, and 
finally destroy the branch attacked, by 
corrodingthroughallthesaprvessels. The 
cottony matter is abundant ; and being 
wafted to other trees, conveys to them 
infection by bearing with it the eggs or 
embryo insects. The females are wing- 
less ; the males are winged, and appear 
in July and August. These insects 
sometimes retire underground, and prey 
•upon the roots of the apple-tree. A tree 
thus ravaged at all seasons will soon be 
killed, if prompt and vigorous remedies 
are not adopted. The affected roots 
may be bared and left exposed for a few 
days to the cold, and the earth, before 
being returned, be saturated with am- 
moniacal liquor from the gas-works. In 
early March the branches should be 
scraped and scrubbed with the same 
ammoniacal liquid, or a strong brine of 
common salt ; but, whatever liquid is 
employed, the scraping and hard bristles 
of tne brush should penetrate every crack 
in the bark. We nave found spirit of 

turpentine, applied thoroughly to every 
patch of the insect by means of an old 
brush, the most effective destroyer of 
these insects. The spirit must be ap- 
plied carefully;, because it kills every 
leaf on which it falls. The codlin and 
June eating-apple trees are particularly 
liable to be infected ; but we never ob- 
served it irpon any one of the russet 
apples ; ahdT the Crofton pippin is also 
said to be exempted. Our woodcut re- 
presents the insect of its natural size as 
well as magnified. The head, antennae, 
and proboscis, by which it wounds the 
sap-vessels, are stUl further magnified. 

American Cowslip. Dodeca'- 

American Cranberry. Vacci'- 
niwm maeroca'rpon. Soil hght, and oc- 
casionally manured with rotten leaves. 
Peat has been considered indispensable 
by some cultivators ; but we much ques- 
tion whether this be not a mistaken im- 
pression,, and should not be allowed to 
deter persons from planting in any ordi- 
nary dark vegetable matters, soft allu- 
vium, or humus which may happen to 
be within reach. On making an artificial 
compost, we would advise one-third peaty 
or other dark and unctuous material, 
one-third leaf -soil, or old decayed weeds, 
and one-third light and sandy loam or 
ordinary soil. Situation : They require 
a constant supply of water ; and, on a 
south bank, where this supply can be 
obtained, they may be planted in rows 
four feet apart each way, and the water 
made to circulate ina smallditchbetween 
the rows. But the edge of a pond will 
suit them almost as well, provided that a 
little soil of a proper character is intro- 
duced round the margin. It is well to 
state, however, that a very considerable 
amount of success has been attained in 
beds of a peaty soil, without any system 
of irrigation. After-culture: The shrubs 
require no other attention than to be 
kept free from weeds. A top-dressing 
annuaHy, in November, of heath-soil or 
rotten, leaves has been stated to prove 
of much service. The American cran- 
benyis considered of easier culture than 
the English, or Oxyco'ccuspalu'stris, the 
latter requiring more moisture than its 
American ally. Produce: The fruit, 
used for tarts and preserving, is so abun- 
dant, that a bed six yards long is suffi- 
cient for the largest family. Propaga- 
tion : Suckers, cuttings, or seeds ; the 
two former planted eany in the autumn. 

American Cress. Barha'reapre'- 
cox. Soil and situation : For the winter 
standing crops, a Hght, dry soil, in an 




open but warm situation ; and, for the 
summer, a rather moister and shady bor- 
der — in neither instance rich. Sow every 
six weeks from March to August, for 
summer and autumn ; and one sowing, 
either at the end of August or beginning 
of September, for a supply during winter 
and spring. Sow in drills nine inches 
apart. vulture: Water occasionally 
during dry weather, both before and 
after the appearance of the plants. Thin 
to three inches apart. In winter, shelter 
with a little litter or other light cover- 
ing, supported by some twigs bent over 
the bed, or some bushy branches laid 
among the plants ; keep clear of weeds. 
In gathering, strip off the outside leaves, 
which enables suocessional crops to be- 
come rapidly fit for use. When the 
plants begin to run, their centres must 
be cut away, which causes them to shoot 
afresh. To obtain Seed, a few of the 
strongest plants, raised from the first 
spring sowing, are left ungathered from. 
They flower m June or July, and perfect 
their seed before the commencement of 

Ameri'num Bro'vmei and strigu- 
lo'sum. See Dalbergia AEaerinum. 

Amethy'stea. (From amethystos, 
the amethyst ; in reference to the blue 
colour of the flower. Nat. ol-d., Labi- 

Hardy annual. Seed ; ordinary garden-9oiI. 
A. cteru'lea. 2. Blue. July. Siberia. 1769. 

Amhe'rstia, (In honour of the 
Countess Amherst. Nat. ord., Legumi- 
nosce; Tribe, Amherstiece.) 

This splendid flowering tree was first flowered 
in England, by Mrs. Lawrence, in 1849. The in- 
dividual flowers sustain the praise lavished on 
them ; but they are so ephemeral, lasting hardly 
three days, as to render its cultivation less de- 
sirable. Stove evergreen tree. Bichj strong 
loam ; cuttings of half-ripened wood, in sand, 
under a bell-^ass, in a strong bottom-heat. 
A. no'bilis. 40. Rich vermilion. Burmah. 1837. 
B. M. t. 4453. 

Ami'cia. (in honour of John Bap- 
tiste Amici, of Modena. Nat. ord., Le- 
ffuminoscB ; Tribe, Hedysa/rem. ) 

A greenhouse or half-hardy perennial, may be 
planted in sheltered spots in the open. Rough 
sandy loam ; cuttings m sand, under a bell-glass 
in heat. 

A. zygo'Ttieris. 8. Yellow. June. Mexico. 
1826. B. M. t. 4008. 

Amia'nthium. See Helo'nias. 

Ammo'bittin. (From ammos, sand, 
and bio, to live ; in reference to the sandy 
soil in which it thrives. Nat. ord., Com- 

Half-hardy annual or biennial everlasting. 
Seed ; common garden-soil. 

A. ala'twm. 2. White. June. Australia. 1822. 
B. M. t. 2469. 

grwndifit/rum. The heads nearly twice- 
larger than the type. It comes true from 

— plrnitagi'Tieum. 1. White. August. Aus- 

tralia. 1827. 

Ammo'charis. (Derivation un- 
certain. Nat. ord., Amaryllidece.) 

Showy greenhouse bulbous plants. For culture,, 
see Brunsvigia. 

A.faka'ta. }. Bright red. Winter. Cape 
Colony. Syns., A. eoranica, Amaryllis^ 
coranica, B. R. 1. 139, a,nAfalcdta, Crinum 
faXcalum, Jacq. Hort. Vind. t. 60. There 
is also a variety pallUa, figured in B. B.. 
1. 1219. 

— Slate^riana. See BruTisvigia Slateriana. 

Ammode'ndron. (From ammos,. 
sand, and dendron, a tree ; in reference: 
to the situation it grows in. Nat. ord., 
Leguminosoe ; Tribe, Sophorem. ) 

A hardy evergreen silky leaved shrub, layers^ 
and seed. Allied to Sophora. 

A. Sieve'rsii. 4. Purple. June. Siberia. 1837. 

Syn., Sophora bifolia. 

Ammoge'ton scorzonerifo'- 
lium. See Troximon glaucum.. 

B. M. t. 3462 ; also a variety, B. M.. 
t. 1667. 

Ammy'rsine. See Leiophy'l- 

Amomopliy'llum. See Spathi- 

Amo'mum. (From a, not, and ttio- 
mos, impurity ; in reference to the^ 
quality of counteracting poison. Nat. 
ord., ScitaminecB ; Tribe, Zingiberacete.) 

Stove deciduous herbaceous perennials. For^ 
merly used in embalming ; whence the word 
nmmmny on account of their aroma. Root divi- 
sion ; nch, light loam ; require, when growing, a 
high, moist heat. 

A. aeulea'tum,. 10. Orange. May. E. Ind. 

— AJzellU. 3. Pink. May. Sierra Leone. 

1796. This is regarded by some to be the 
same as A. Chmi. 

— emgustifo'lium. 8. Bed. June. Madagascar. 

— aroma' ticrnn. 3. Purplish-yellow. June. 

E. Ind. 1823. 

— eardamjo'miwm. 4. Pale brown. June. E. 

Ind. 1823. 

— Clu'eii. Yellow. Fernando Po. B. M., 

t. 6250. 

purpw'reum. 2J. Red. W.Africa. Syn.,. 

A. Da/nielli. 

— dealba'trnm. 3. White. April. Bengal. 1819 

— gra'na pmadi'si. 3. Red. Match. Mada- 

ffiiscar. B. M. t. 4603. 

— gramMjlo'rum. 3. White. July. Sierra. 

Leone. 1795. 

— latifdliAim. 4. Purplish-yellow. June. 

Sierra Leone. 1824. 

— magni'jkum. 10. Bed. July. Mauritius. 

1830. Syns., Alpinia magnijusa, B. M. 
t. 3192 ; Nicolaia irni/perialis. 

— ma'ximum. 5. White. June. E. Ind. B 

E. t. 929. 

— Melegm!ta mi'nor. Pale pint. May. Sierra 

Leone. 1869. B. M. t. 6987. 

— soe'ptrum. 5. Bose purple. January. Oldi 

Calabar. 1863. B. M. t. 6761. 




A. seri'ceum. 6. White. July. B.Incl. 1819. 

— mbula'tum. 3. Yellow. April. Bengal. 1822. 

— ti/lv^stre. 1. White. April. W. Ind. 1819. 

— viteUi'num. 2. Yellow. May. E. Indies. 

— Zi'Tigiber. See Zingiber oJfuHnale. 

Amoo'ra. ( Amoor of the Bengalese. 
Nat. ord., Meliacew.) 

Stove ever^een shrub. Cuttings in sand, under 
a bell-glass, in a hotbed ; soil, light, rich loam. 
A. eueuMa'ta. Yellow. May. Delta ot the 
Ganges. 1884. Eoxb. PI. Corom. vol. 3, 
t. 268. 

— Sohitu'ka. Yellow. E. Indies. Bedd. 11. 

Syl. 1. 132. 

Amo'rpha. Bastard Indigo. (From 
•a, not, and morpha, form ; in reference 
to the irregularity of the flowers. Nat. 
ord., LeguminoscB ; Tribe, Galegece.) 

Hardy deciduous shrubs. Common soil ; layers 
•or cuttings of the ripe wood in autumn, and 

A. cane^scens. 3. Blue. July. Missouri. 1812. 
B. M. t. 6618. 

— ero'ceo-lana'ta. 5. Purple. July. N. Amer. 

— fra'grams is A. nana of B. M. t. 2112, but not 

of others. 
— friMtieo'sa. 6. Purple. July. Carolina. 1724. 

B. B. t. 427. 
ar)^itst\fo'lia. 9. Purple. June. South 

Carolina. 1812. 

ciem'lea. 9. Blue. June. South Carolina. 

emwrgina'ta. 6. Purple. July. Carolina. 

miaropliy'Ua, 2. Purple. June. Carolina. 

— gla'bra. 3. Purple. July. N.Amer. 1818. 

— herta'cea. 3. Blue. July. Carolina. 1803. 

Syn., A. puieseens. B. C. t. 689. 

— Leim'sii. 3. Purple. July. N. Amer. 1818. 

— Tnicrophy'Ua. A synonym of A. nana. 

— na'^Aa. 2. Blue. August. Missouri. 1811. 

B. M. t. 2112. These last three require 
a little protection in winter. 

Amorphopha'llus. (From amor- 
jphos, deformed, and phallos, a mace ; 
referring to the misshapen, barren ap- 
pendix of the spadix. Nat. ord. Aracece.) 

Stove or greenhouse tuberous-rooted plants, 
natives of Sonthem Asia and the Indian Archi- 
pelago. The solitary branched leaf usually ap- 
pearing after the flowers, which are generally 
extremely fetid. Eich loam and leaf -mould, with 
a dash of sand. They require shade, and to go 
to rest during part of the year, during which 
time they require to be kept dry, and warm. 
When growing give abundance of water ; A. catn- 
panulatus thrives best if its roots are allowed to 
descend into a tank of water. Imported seeds 
or tubers. They rarely make tubers, or produce 
seeds under cultivation. 

A. cmrvpamda'tus. 2. Lurid purple. India. 1817. ' 
Syn., Arwm ea/mpanulatum. HI. Hort. 
1865, t. 424. 

— Cha'tty. 3. India. 1872. 

— du'Uns. 2. Purple. June. Ceylon. 1857. 

B. M. t. 6187. 
.— Ei'ehUri. H. Purple, white ; spadix brown. 
W. Trop. Africa. B. M. t. 7091. 

— gra'nais. 3. Spathe green, white inside ; 

spadixpurpUsh. Java. 1865. 
•— Laamrii. Leaves marked with round white 

spots. Cochin China. 1879. 111. Hort. 

h. s. t. 316. 
,— Jeome'Tms. Spathe and spadix purplish brown. 

Sierra Leone. 1845. CorynophaUus? 

— •nivc/sus. See DrOAxmtium aigpervm. 

A. no'bilis. Spathe livid purple, spotted with 
white. Java. 1867. 

— papiZlo'ms. Greenish and dark brown 

— pictua. Java. 1865. 

— Sivie'ri. Spathe and spadix lurid purple. 

Cochin China. Syns., Proteinophallus 
Bivieri and .4 . Eonjac. Eev. Hort. 1871 
t. 573. 

— specio'sus. Java. 1865. 

— Ttta'num. 10. Spathe and spadix black 

purple. W. Sumatra. 1879. An extra- 
ordinary plant, of gigantic dimensions, 
the leaf -stalk being 10 ft. high, and the 
divided blade covermg an area of 46 ft. ; 
the spathe is about 3 ft. across, and 
the spadix 5 ft. high, l^is species 
flowered for the first tune at Kew in 1890. 
B. M. tt. 7153-7165. 

— viro'sus. Spathe pale green outside with a 

broad purple margin ; Inside, purple in 
lower and upper part, cream-c(uoured in 
the middle. Siam. B. M. t. 6978. 

— WcUli'sii. Brazil. 1862. Gfl. 1862, t. 360. 

— zebri'nus. Java. 1865. 

Ampelo'psis. (From ampelos, a 
vine, and opsis, resemblance, in reference 
to its resemblance to the grape-vine. 
Nat. ord., Ampelidem.) 

Nearly allied to VitiS. Quick growing, orna- 
mental, hardy deciduous climbers. Flowers in- 
conspicuous, but on account of their handsome 
leaves some of the species are very popular for 
walls and buildings. Cuttings in sand under 
a handlight in September in the open border, 
will be fit to plant out in spring. They may 
also be Increased by layers. Ordinary garden- 
A. acanitifo'lia. Leaves much divided. China. 

1868. Syns., A. lu'cida, A. trilo'ba, A. 

triparti'ttit and Vitis disse'cta. 

— Hprnna'ta. Green. June. N. America. 1700. 

— eitrullai'des. 16. Greenish. Eev. Hort 

1868, p. 10. 

— na^fo'rmiis. Greenish. China. 1870. 

— quinquefo'lia. Greenish-purple. N.America. 

1629. The Virginian Creeper. Syn., A. 
hi/nvlta. May. N. America. 1806. 

— aempervi'rems. An evergreen species. 1881. 

— eerjanifo'lia. Green. Japan. 1867. Gfl. 1867, 

p. 451. Syns., A. t'u3)ero'sa, li'ssue, and 

— tricuspida'ta. Japan. 1868. Syns., A, 

Vei'tchii, and Vi'tis japo'nica, 

Ampelovi'tis. (Nat. ord., Ampe- 
lidecB. ) 

A deciduous climber, probably hardy in the 
Southern Counties. 

A. Dawi'di. Leaves shining green above, glau- 
cous below. N. China. Eev. Hort. 
1889, p. 204. 

Ampely'gonum chme'nse. See 
Polygonum chinense. 

Amphere'phis. See Centran- 

A. arista'ta. See Centrcmtherum, punctatum. 

Amphible'mma cymo'sum. See 
Melastoma corymbosum. 

Amphicarpse'a. _ (From ampM, 
aromnd, or on either side, and karpos, 
fruit ; in reference to the plant bearing 
pods on the stem and on the shoots. 




Nat. otA., Leguminosce J- Tiihe, Phase- 
olece. ) 

Curious twining, hardyperennial plants ; allied 
to Wistaria readily increased by seeds, or root 
tubers, in common soil. 
A. rmmoi'ca. 4. September. N. Amer. 1781. 

— sarmenMsa. 2. September. N. Amer. 1820. 

Amplli'COIUe. (From amphi, 
around, and kome, hair ; in reference to 
the winged seed. Nat. ord., Bigno- 
niaeex. Syn., IncarvUlea.) 

Ornamental greenhouse herbaceous plants. 
They may be increased by seeds, or by cuttings, 
which root readily in sandy peat, in spring, if 
placed under glass. Loam, leaf -soil, and sand. 
A. argu'ta. 1. Lilac. August. Himalaya 
Mountains. B. B. 1838, 1. 19. 

— Emo'di. IJ. Bose, orange. October. E. 

Indies. 1852. B. M. t. 4890. 

Amphilo'phium. (From amphi- 
lophos, encompassing the neck. Nat. 
ord., BignoniacecB.) 

A handsome stove evergreen climber, requiring 
the same treatment as Bignonia. Cuttings root 
readily under glass, on bottom-heat, in the spring 
months. Soil, loam and peat. 
A.panicula'tum. 20. Purple. W. Ind. 1738. 
Syn., Bigntmia panwulata. 

Amiphisco'pia PoMia'na. See 

Amphitha'lia. (Nat. ord., Legu- 
minosce. ) 

A. erwifo'lia. 2, Pink. January. S. Africa. 
1821. Syn., Borbonia erici/olia. 

Amso'nia. (In honour of Charles 
Amson, a scientific traveller in America. 
Nat. ord., Apocynacece.) 

These are handsome herbaceous perennials, 
with blue flowers, and will grow in any garden- 
soil ; rooting readily from cuttings durmg the 
summer months, or they may be divided at the 
root in autumn or spring, seeds. 
A. wng'mtifQ'lia. 2. N. Amer. 1774. 

— TabermKfmoytAaJnn. 2. N. Amer. 1759. B. M. 

t. 1873. Syns., A. latifoUa and salwi- 

Amy'gdalus. (From amysso, to 
lacerate, in reference to the fissured 
channels in the stone of the fruit ; but 
some suppose from a Hebrew word sig- 
nifying vigilant, as its early flowers an- 
nounce the return of spring. Nat. ord., 
BosacecE.) This genusi and Persica 
should be united to Prunus, of which 
they are but sections. 

These are very ornamental plants ; the tall tree 
kinds are very pretty in the middle or back 
ground of shrubberies ; the dwarf kinds, also, as 
front plants to the same. The true varieties are 

increased by budding them upon seedling plum- 
stocks. In the south of France, Italy, Spain, 
and' different parts of the Levant, they are 
cultivEtted for their fruit. Almost any soil suits 
A. BoisMH. Pale rose. Asia Minor. 1879. 

— cochmchmefnsis. Pink. March. Cochin 

China. 1826. 

— eommm'nia. 16. Red. April. Barbary. 1648. 
ama'ra. 1. Red. April. Barbary. 1648. 

A. commM'nit du'lcis. 16. Bed. March. 1548.. 

— flore-ple'no. 16. Red. March. 1548. 

fo'liw variega'tis. 16. Red. March. 

fra'gUis. 16. Red. April. Barbary. 

gramdiflo'raro'sea. 16. Rose. March. 

maerom'rpa. 15. Red. April. Barbary. 

1648. B. B. 1. 1160. 
persieoi'des. 16. Bed. April. Barbary. 


p^ndMla. 16. White. March. 1648. 

salicifo'lia. 15. White. March. 1648. 

— vncaJna. 2. Red. April. Caucasus. B. B. 

1839, t. 58. •* 
campelstris. 2. Bed. April. Podolia. 

geo'rgiea. 3. Red. April. Georgia. 


— rm'na. Pink. Russia. B. M. 1. 161. 

— arienta'lis. 10. Red. April. Levant. 1766. 

— pedMneuMta. 10. Bed. April. Levant. 


— pelriica. See P&rtAca. 

ru'bra. Leaves deep redin spring. White. 


— pvImOa. 4. Red. April. China. 1683. 

B. M. t. 2176. 

— prostra'ta. 2. Red. April. Crete. 1802. 

— giti'rica. 6. Red. April. Siberia. 1820. 

B. C. 1. 1699. 

Amy lis. (From a, intensive, and 
myrrha, myrrh ; in reference to its 
powerful perfume. Nat. ord., Burse- 
racecB. ) 

This genus is famed forits resinous gum. The 
species are all ornamental, white-flowered, ever- 
green stove trees, growing well in loam and peat, 
and readily increased by cuttings in sand and 
peat, on bottom-heat, under a hand-glass, in the 
spring months. 
A. acwndna'ta. See Bwsera. 

— brazilidTms. 20. August. Brazil. 1823. 

— heptaphy'lla. 10. E.lnd. 1820. 

— Luna'ni. 12. July. Jamaica. 1820. 

— Tnari'tima. 12. S. Amer. 1810. 

— na'na. 5. E. Ind. 1822. 

— Plumie^H. 20. W. Ind. 1820. Syn., A, 

— eylva'tica. 16. July. Carthage. 1793. 

— tecoma'ca. 20. Mexico. 1827. 

— toxi'fera. 10. W. Ind. 1818. Syn., A^ 


— zeylalnica. See BaUa/modendron. 

Ana'basis. (From the Greek, re- 
ferring to its upright habit. Nat. ord., 
ChenopodiaceK. ) 

Hardy shrub. 
A. aimmode!nilron. Yellow. Central Asia. 1888. 

Anaca'mpseros. (From anak- 
ampto, to cause to return, and eros, love ; 
an ancient name for a plant fabled to 
possess the virtue of restoring the soft 
passion. Nat; ord., Poriulacece.) 

These are very pretty little succulent green- 
house plants ; do well in sand and loam, mixed 
with a little lime-rubbish, and are increased 
either from seeds sown in spring, or from cuttings 
at any time ; even a single leaf will make a plant. 
The cuttings should be laid to dry a day or twc 
before planting. 

A. cmgustifo'lia. 1. Pink. July. Cape of 
Good Hope. 1820. 

— arachnoi'des. IJ. Pink. August. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1790. B. M. t. 1368. 




A. fitamento'sa. 1. Pink. September. Cape of 
Good Hope. 1796. B. M. 1. 1367. 

— interme^dia. Pink. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1824. 

— loMceola'ta. 1. Pink. September. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1796. 

— polyphy'Ua. 1. Pink. August. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1818. 

— rotwndifo'lia. 1. Pink. August. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1732. B. C. t. 691. 

— ru'bens. 1. Bed. August. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1796. 

— rufe'scens. 1. Pink. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1818. 

— va'riarui. 1. Pink. August. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1818. 

Anaca'rdillin. (From ana, like, 
and kardia, the heart ; in reference to 
the form of the nut. Nat. ord., Ana- 
eardiacem. ) 

A. occidenta'le produces the Cashew-nut. A 
stove evergreen tree, ornamental^ producing 
panicled corymbs of sweet-smelling flowers. 
Soil, rich loam ; ripe cuttings root readily, with 
their leaves on, in a pot of sand, under a glass, 
in heat. 
A. oeeidenta'le. 20. Green, red. W. Ind. 1699. 

Bedd. Fl. Syl. 1. 163. 
i'ndicwm. 20. Green, red. E. Ind. 1699. 

Anacardium langifoliwm and Cassuvium. See 
Semecarpus anacardiv/m, 

Anacy'clus. (From ana, like, and 
kyklos, a circle ; in reference to the rows 
of ovaries in circles round the disc. Nat. 
ord. , CompositcE ; Tribe, Anthemidece. ) 

Pretty hardy annuals allied to Anthemis. 
They should be sown in the open ground in 

A. alexandri'rms. Yellow. June. Egypt. 1828. 
Syn., Cyrtolejns alexandrina, 

— au'reus. See Anthemis aurea. 

— elava'tus. 2. White. August. Barbary. 

1810. Syn., Anthemis incrassata. 

— pyr^ thrum. 2. White. August. Barbary. 

1837. B. M. t. 462. Syn., Anthemis 

— radia'tus. 2. Yellow. August. South of 

Europe. 1596. 

purpura' seens. Outer rays purple. Gfl. 

t. 1074. 

— tOTTCento'sMS. 1. White. July. South of 

Europe. 1803. Sya.tAnthemispvbescens. 

Anade'nia, See Grevillea. 

Anaga'llis. Pimpernel. (From ana- 
gelao, to laugh ; fabled to possess a vir- 
tue to remove sadness. Nat. ord., Pri- 
mvlacecB. ) 

A favourite genus with gardeners. They are 
very interesting plants, of easy culture ; all the 
perennial kinds, with the exception otA. tenella, 
require greenhouse protection during winter, 
and are readily increased by cuttings, in spring, 
in the hotbeds. The whole of them make excel- 
lent rock and border plants for the summer. 
Seeds of the annuals may be sown in April in 
open border. 

A. altemifo'lia. Yellow, pink. April. Rio 
Janeiro. 1839. Herbaceous perennial. 

— a/rvelnsis. Bright red. June. Europe. 

Syns., 4 cornea B,ni phaenuiea. 

— ewru'lea. Blue. June. Europe. 

— coUi'na. 3. Vermilion. August. Morocco. 

1803. Greenhouse biennial. Syn., A. 
grandiflara. Andr. Bot. Kep. t. 367. 

A. colli'na a'lba compa'cta. White. 1883 Gfl 

t. 1126. 
WillwM'ea'na. i. Purple. August. 

Madeira. 1834. 
—frutieo'sa. 3. Red. August. Morocco. 1802. 
Phili'msii. Deep blue. 1889. 

— i'ndiea. 1. Blue. July. Nepaul. 1824. 

Hardy annual. 

— lati/o'lia. 1. Purple. August. Spain. 1769. 

Greenhouse biennial. 

— limif&lia. Blue. August. Portugal. 1796. 

Greenhouse biennial. 

— Marrya'ttoe. 1. Copper. July. Hybrid. 1828. 

Half-hardy evergreen trailer. 

— Mone'lli. 1. Blue. July. Italy. 1648. This 

and the next five are greenhouse herba- 
ceous trailers. B. M.t. 319. 

Brewe!ri. }. Bed. June. Gardens. 1648. 

lilad'na. 1. Lilac. May. 1836. 

Phceni'eea. Scarlet. May. Morocco. 


Phili'psii. }. Rich blue. June. Gardens. 


— Willmorea'na. A variety of A, collina. 

B. M. t. 3380. 

— tene'lla. J. Rose colour. July. Britain. 

A creeper. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, 1. 1148. 

— Webbia'na. 1. Blue. July. Portugal. 1828. 

Half-hardy trailer. 

— Wellsia'na. 1. Copper. August. English 

hybrid. 1830. Half-hardy trailer. 

Ana'gyris. (From ana, like, and 
gyros, a spiral, or turning in a circle ; in 
reference to its curved pods. Nat. ord., 

Small ornamental shrubs or trees, allied to 
Podalyria ; requu-e the protection of the green- 
house ; soil, loam and peat ; young cuttings root 
readily in sand and peat, under glass, planted in 
A, foe'tida. 9. Yellow. April. Spain. 1750. 

B. C. t. 740. 
glau'ca. 6. Yellow. April. South of 

Europe. 1800. 

— latifo'lia. 19. Yellow. April. Teneriffe. 1815. 

Anaphalis. (Altered from Gna- 
phalium. Nat. ord. , Compositm ; Tribe, 

A.Eoylea'na. White, yellow. September. India. 

A'nanas. (From nanas, the local 
name for the pine-apple in South Ame- 
rica. Nat. ord., Bromeliacew. Syn., 

For culture, see Pine- Apple. 
A. bracamore'nsis. Brazil. 1879. 

— bractea'ta. 3. Crimson. April. Brazil. 1820. 

B. R. 1. 1081. 

— ddWlis. 3. Crimson. April. Brazil. 1820. 

— lu'cMa. 3. Pink. April. S. Amer. 1820. 

— sativa. 3. Purple. April. S. Amer. 1690. 

The Pine-apple. 

— macrodo'ntas. Reddish. Belg. Hort. 1878, 

t. 5. Syn., Bromelia imdulata. 

— MordiZo'na. Columbia. 1869. 

— M&nsdorfia'na. A synonym of JEchmea Fer- 


— Pmiea'na. Philippines. 1866. Leaves yellow- 

banded. Belg. Hort. 1872, 1. 16 to 19. 

Ana'ntherix viridis. See Gom- 

Anarrhi'num. (From a, not, and 
nose. The snout-like form of the 




allied genus Antirrhinum is wanting in 
this. Nat. ord., Scrophulariacem.) 

Allied to Snapdragon. These plants are half- 
hardy annuals or perennials, and are very pretty. 
Seeds maybe sown in the open borders in spring. 
The perennials may be perpetuated by cuttings. 
A. bellidifo'Hwm. 2. Blue. July. France. 1629. 

B. M. t. 2056. 
— frutic(/sum. 2. White. August. South of 

Europe. 1826. 

— Mrm'tum. IJ. Whitish. Portugal. 1818. 

Syn., A. Duritniniurn. 

— pube^scem. 12. White. August. South, of 


Anasta'tica. (From anastasis, re- 
surrection ; in reference to its hygro- 
metrical property. Nat. ord. , Cruciferce. ) 

An annual plant, native of the Egyptian and 
Syrian deserts, and called the Rose of Jericho. 
When full grown it contracts its rigid branches 
into a round ball, and is then tossed about by 
the wind. When it alights in water, or on damp 
^ound, the branches relax and open out, as if 
its life was renewed ; hence its name of Resurrec- 
tion Plant, Among the superstitious tales told 
of it is, that ' ' it first bloomed on Christmas Eve, 
to salute the birth of the Kedeemer, and paid 
homage to his resurrection by remaining ex- 
panded till Easter." The seeds of this curious 
annual, must be sown in a warm pit, where it 
may be kept until early summer, when it should 
be planted out in a warm border. 
A. Hierochu'ntiGa. . 1. White. July. Levant. 
1697. B. M. t. 4400. Bose of Jericho. 

Anasce'tum crassi folium. See 
Polypodium (Drynaria). 

Anchie'ta. (In honour of a Brazilian 
•writer on plants of that name. Nat. ord., 
ViolacecB. ) 

An ornamental evergreen stove climber. Loam, 
peat, and sand. Young cuttings under a bell- 
glass in a gentle heat. 

A. pyrifo'lia. 3. White, with red veins. July. 
Brazil. 1822. 

Aneho'vy-pear. See Grias. 

Anchoma'nes. (An ancient name 
for some plant. Nat. ord., Araceoe. 
Allied to Amorphophallus.) 

Stove tuberous pereanials. Like Aristema, 
Amorphophallus, etc the leaf dies to the 
ground every autumn ; the tuber should then be 
repotted in rich sandy loam, and leaf -soil ; free 
drainage, and very little water given it until the 
following spring. During growth give abundance 
of water and keep in a moist atmosphere. Seeds, 
and offsets from the tubers. Summer temp. 60° 
to 85° ; winter, 55° to 60°. 
A. du'bius. Spathe purplish outside, cream- 
coloured within. G. C. vol. IS (1885), 
p. 669. 

— Hooke'ri. 3. Spathe purple, spadix whitish. 

June. Eeriiando Po. 1832. Syn., Cala- 
dium petiolatwm. 

pa'llida. Spathe paler. 1862. B. M. 

t. 6394. 

Anchu'sa. (From anchousa, a cos- 
metic paint, formerly made from A. 
tincto'ria, for staining the skin. Nat. 
ord., BoragmecB.) 

A reddish-brown substance, thought to be a 
peculiar chemical principle, used by dyers, is ob- 
tained from the roots of A. tincto'ria, oralkanet. 

Ornamental hardy annual, biennial, or perennial 
plants of the easiest culture. Propagation, either 
by seeds in early spring, or division in autumn. 
A. eape'nm requires a little frame-protection 
during the winter months. 


A. aggrega'ta. J. Blue. June. Levant. 1827. 

— ffmos'na. 1. Blue. June. South of Europe. 

1817. A form of A. italiea. 

— Ky'brida. 2. White, blue. July. Italy. 1820. 

— XUlelri. IJ. Blue. May. Mount Sinai and 

Egypt. 1824. 

— parviflora. 1. Blue. June. Levant. 1827. 

Sibth. Fl. Gr. t. 167. 

— stylo'sa. 1. Blue. May. Siberia. 1802. 

— tene'Ua. See Bothriosperm/um tenellum. 

— verruco'sa. See Lycopsis orientalist. 


A. aspe'rrinui. See Arnebia hiapidissima. 

— capflnm. 1. Blue. June. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1830. B. M. 1. 1822. 

— Omeli'ni. 2. Blue. August. Podolia. 1817. 

— latifo'lia. See Nonnea rosea. 


1. Blue. August. Siberia. 

A. Aga'rdhii. 

— Bwrrelie'ri, 


— tcespito'sa. 

2. Blue. July. South of Europe. 
B. M. t. 2349. 

i. Blue. June. Levant. 1833. 
Sibth. Fl. Gr. 1. 169. 

— cri'spa. 1. Blue. June. Corsica. 1835. 

— hi'spida. 2. Blue. July. Egypt. 1817. 

— incarna'ta. 2. Flesh. August. South of 

Europe. 1816. 

— ita'lica, 3. Bright blue or purple. Summer. 

S. Europe, 1810. Syns., A. azurea and 
pamculata. B. B. t. 483. 

— la/na'ta. See Solenanthus lanatus. 

— longifo'lia. 3. Blue. July. Italy. 1819. 

— macula'ta. 2. Blue. May. Bussia. 1824. 

— myosotidifio'ra. 1. Pink. August. Levant. 

1713. Syn., Wyosotis macrophylla. 

— officina'Ug. 2. Blue. August. Tauria. 1825. 
angustifo'Ua. 2. Purple. May. S. 

Europe. 1640. Syn., A. procera of 
B. M. 1. 1897. 
inewmaHa. Flowers flesh-coloured. 

— ochroleu'ca. 2. Purple. July. Britain. 
leptophy'lla. 2. Purple. August. Europe. 

1640. Syn., 4. procera of Bchb. Ic. Crit. 
t. 471, not B. M. 1897, which is A. offici- 
nalis, var. angustifolia. 

— peiiola'ta. See Cynoglossum petiolatum. 

— rupe'stris. See M-itrichium rupestre. 

— serKpenfi'rens. IJ. Blue. Europe. 

— seri'eea. See Myosotis scrwea. 

— tinclo'ria. 2. White. August. Montpelier. 

1596. Syn., AVcanna tinctoria. 

— undula'ta. 2. Purple. July. Spain. 1752. 

— zeyla'nwa. See Bothri^sper'mAmi tenellum. 

Ancylo'gyne. (Prom anhylos, 
curved, and gyne, a female ; ihe pistil is 
curved. 'S&t. oii., Acanthotcece. Syn., 
Sanchezia. ) 

Stove sub-shrub. For culture, see Bahleria. 
A. longifio'ra. Purple. April. Guayaquil. 1866. 
B. M. t. 6588. 

— no'bUis. Yellow, bracts red. June. Ecuador. 

1863. B. M. t. 6594. 

AMerso'nia. (In honourof William 
Anderson, surgeon, who accompanied 
Captain Cook on two voyages ; also of 
Dr. Alexander Anderson, Prefect of the 
Botanic Gardens at St. Vincents. Nat. 
ord., MpaeridacecB.) 




Very pretty and delicate gr^enhotise shrnts. 
Sandy peat; cuttings root readily, in autumn 
or spring, under a bell-glass in gentle heat. 
^. axru'lea. 2 Calyx pink, corolla blue. King 

George's Sound, W. Australia, aff 

1. 1180, fig. 2. 

— depre'ssa. j. Blue and white. W.Australia. 

Gfl. 1. 1180, f. 1. 

— homalosto'ma. 1. Calyx pink, corolla blue. 

King George's Sound, W. Australia. 
Gfl. 1. 1180, fig. 3. 

— sprengeloi'des. 2. Pink. March. Australia. 

1803. B. M. t. 1645. Syn., Sprmgelia 

Andi'ra. (Its local name in the 
Brazils. Nat. ord., Leguminos(B.) 

Large ornamental stove evergreen trees. Soil, 
loam and peat ; cuttings root readily under a 
bell-glass, in heat. 

A. ine'rmis. 20. Purple. Jamaica. 1773. The 
Cabbage Tree. 

— racemo'sa. 20. Purple. Brazil. 1818. 

Androcy-'mbium. (From aner, a 
man, and cymhos, a cavity; the stamens 
are inclosed in a hollow formed by the 
folding of the limb of the petals. Nat. 
ord., Liliacece ; Tribe, Anguillariece.) 

Greenhouse bulbs of curious habit ; the leaves 
spread out upon the ground, and the flowers are 
sessile in the middle of the tuft. Light sandy 
soil, dry atmosphere, and no shade; they re- 
quire a season of rest, during which theyrequire 
scarcely any water. Seeds, and oflfsets. 
A. eueomoi'des. 1. Green. April. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1794. B. M. t. 641. Syn., 

M&lanthiwm eucomoides. 

— leuca'nthum. White. Cape of Good Hope. 

Syn., A. eucomoides, Swt. Fl. Gard. 
t. 166. 

— Ttielanthoi'des. 1. White. July. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1823. 

— puncta'tum. Whitish. S. Africa. 1874. 

— voluta're. 1. White. April. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1816. 

Androle'pis. (From aner, a man, 
and lepis, a scale ; referring to the scaly 
stamens. Nat. ord., Bromeliaceee. This 
genus is now placed in yEchmea. ) 

Stove evergreen epiphyte. Seeds, and ofi^sets, 

which are produced abundantly after flowering. 

Tor culture, see ./Schmea. 

A. Skinnelri. IJ. Calyx green ; corolla yellow. 

Guatemala. 1850. Syns., Billbergia 

Skirmeri and JBehmea Skinneri. 

Androma'chia. (Nat. ord., Com- 
positce. ) 

Greenhouse herbaceous perennial. 
A. Mar&ni. 2. Pale yellow. Brazil. 1887. 

Andro'meda. (A classical name, 
after the daughter of Cepheus and Cas- 
siope. King and Queen of ^Ethiopia. 
Nat. ord., Ericacece.) 

Dwarf hardy shrubs, requiring peaty soil. 
Showy. Seeds sown when ripe, or by layers 
pegged down in autumn. The majority of the 
aptcies are now removed to other genera. 
A. a/yumina'ta. See Leueothoe acuminata. 

— angustifo'lia. See Cassandra angustifolia. 

— arbo'rea. See Oxydendj'on a/rboreum. 

— axilla'ris. S6e Leueothoe axillaris. 

— huxifo'lia. See Agwuria. 

— calycula'ta. See (jassandra. 

A. eamparmla'ta. Greenish-white, tinted with 
red. Japan. 

— cane' seem. 3. White. June. N. America. 

— CatesbaH. See Leueothoe spinulosa. 

— chinelnsis. Pink, white. August. Canton 

. 1829. B. C. 1. 1648. 

— coria'cea. See Leueothoe eoriacea. 

— eri'spa. See Cassaridra angustifolia. 

— deaUia'ta. 2. Pink. April. N. America. 

1824. B. E. 1. 1010. See Zenobia speciosa. 
—faseieula'ta. See Lyonia/asciculata. 
..-fastigia'ta. See Cassiopefastigiata. 
-^fioriWnda. B. M. t. 1666. See Pieris flori- 


— glavMphy'lla. Is a form of A. polifolia. 

— hypnoi'des. B. M. t. 2936. See Casmope hyp- 

— jamaice'mis. B. C. t. 1873. See Lyonia jo- 

—japo'nica. With its var. elegant! ssma. See 

Pieris japonica. 

— Ufaria'na. B. M. 1. 1679. See Leueothoe eori- 


— Turiife'lia. See Leueothoe neriifolia,. 

— oval^o'lia. See Pieris ovalifolia. 

— phillyrec^oflia. B. B. 1844, t. 36. See Pieris. 

— pHuU'fera. 3. White. June. Florida. 1842. 

— polifoflia. 1. Pink. July. Arctic and Alpine 

Europe. 1842. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, t. 883. 

glaucophy'lla. 1. Pmk. July. N. Ame- 
rica. 1812. 

grandifio'ra. 1. Pink. April. Ingria. 


latifo'lia. 3. Pink. July. N. America. 


m^dia. 1. White. July. Britain. 1799. 

rminima. 1. Pink. April. Britain. 1790. 

oleifo'lia. 1. Pink. April. Britain. 1790. 

revolu'ta. 1. Pink. April. N. of Eu- 
rope. 1783. 

Tosmariniftilia. 2. Pink. July. N. 

America. 1736. 

' — srabuloltB,. 1. Pink. July. N. of Eu- 
rope. 1783. 

—^aeemdsa, with varieties latifo'lia and stri'eta. 
See Zenobia racemosa. 

— rubigino'sa. See Lyonia rubiginosa. 

— salicifo'lia, B. M. 3286. See Agauria. 

— sineinsis. 2. Beddish. June. China. 1826? 

— specio'sa. B. G. t. 551, with varieties glauea, 

nitida, pulverulenta, and spicata- See 
Pieris speciosa. 

— tetra'gona. See Cassiope tetragona. 

Andromy'cia. SeeXanthosoma- 

Andro'pogon. (From aner, a man, 
and pogon, a beard. Nat. ord., Gra- 

A large genus of grasses, of little horticultural 
value. A few may be used in sub-tropical 
bedding. Seeds, or division. 
A.farmdsus. March. 1882. 
— furca'tws. N. America. 

— halepe'nm. See Holms halepensis. 

— muriea'tus. India. 

— pube^scens. Dalmatia. 

— Schoma'nthus. 2. India. 1786. Syn., .4. 

eitratum. Lemon grass ; very fragrant 
when bruised. 

— squarro'sus. 

— stri'atus. Malabar. 

Androsa'ce. (From aner, a man, 
and sakos, buckler ; in reference to the 
resemblance of the anther to an ancient 
buckler. Nat. ord., Primulacece.) 

A favourite family of small alpine plants. All 
do well in tlie, open air ; they are very interesting 
plants for rockeries, etc. ; increased by seeds ; 




and the perennials by division, stolons, or by 


A. alpi'na. J. Rose, with yellow throat. June. 

Switzerland. 1776. Syns., A. glcuiialis 

and Hem^smanni, Leyd. 

— arge/ntea. i. White. June. Pyrenees. 1826. 

Syn., A. vmbricata. 

— britalnnica. One-tenth. White. 1890. 

— ca'mea. 1. Flesh. July. Europe. 1768. 

Syns., A. Lachenalii and ^. pube-rula. 

exHrtiia. Rose-purple. Spring. Auvergne 

Alps. 1871. B. M. t. 6906. 

— carina'ta. 1. Yellow. April. N. America. 


— cha/mceja'ftme. i. Pink, with yellow eye. 

July. Austria. 1768. Syn., A. villosa, 

— cilia'ta. f . Carmine, white. June. Pyrenees. 

— coronop^{/Ha. 1. White. April. Russia. 

1756. B. M. t. 2022. 

— elonga'ta. 1. White. April. Austria. 1776. 

Tholna. 1. White. April. Denmark. 1803. 

— filifo'rmie. 1. White. May. Siberia. 1820. 

— folio' sa. Lilac. May to September. W. 

Himalaya. B. M. t. 6661. 

— HoAissma'nni, Leyd. See A, alpiTM. 

— helve^tica. White, yellow. May. Switzerland. 

1775. Syn., A. aretia. 

— la'ctea. 1. White. July. Austria. 1752. 

Syn., A, pattaiflora, B. M. t. 981. 

— lactifio'ra. 1. Wbite. August. Siberia. 

1806. Syn._, A. alismoides. 

— Laggdri. J. Pmk. Pyrenees. 1879. 

— Icmugino'sa. i. Rose, lilac. June. Hima- 

layas. 1842. 
Lei'chtlini. White, with red eye. 1890. 

— linea'ris. J. White. April. N. America. 1806. 

— maeroca'rpa. 1. White. July. Siberia. 1827. 

— mm'xima. 1. White. April. Europe, Asia, 

Africa. 1797. 

— na'na. A variety of A. elongata. 

— oUun^tilia. 1. Pink. April. Italy. 1817. 

Syns., A. aretioides and A. brevifoUa. 

— pube'scena. White, with yellow eye. June. 

Central Tyrolese Alps. 1869. B. M. 
t. 6808. 

— pyrenai'ca. One-twelfth. White, with yellow 

eye. Summer. Pyrenees. 

— rotvndifo'lia maeroca'lyx. Pale rose. June. 

Himalayas. 1796. B. M. 6617. 

— sarment&m. J. Rosy purple. April. Hima- 

layas. 1876. B. M. t. 6210. 

— septentruma'lis. 1. White. July. Siberia. 

1825. B. M. 2021. Syn., A. aeaulis. 

— viUo'sa. Pink. June Pyrenees. 1790. Syn., 

A. penicillata. B. M. t. 743. 

— Vitalia'na. J. Yellow. Alps. 1787. Syn., 

Oregoria Vitalicma. 

— Wulfenia'Tm. i. Rosy. Summer. Styria. 

Perhaps a form of A. alpitia. 

Androsse'muin officinale. See 
Hypericum Androssemum. 

Androste'phium. (From aner, a 
man, and Stephanos, a crown ; some of the 
stamens are barren and petaloid, forming 
a corona. Nat. ord., LUiacece. Allied 
to Brodisea.) 

Hardy bulb of dwarf habit, with umbellate 
flowers. Seeds, offsets. Rich sandy loam. Pro- 
tection of a frame in winter. 
A. viola' cernn. J. Violet-blue. Spring. Texas. 

Andry'ala. (Of unknown meaning. 
Nat. ord., CompositCB. Allied to Hiera- 
cium. ) 

Both the greenhouse and hardy species are 
rather pretty, and will grow in any common 

soil ; they are increased by seeds and root di- 
vision. All are hardy, except those otherwise- 

A. arg^ntea. 1. Yellow. August. Pyrenees; 
1817. Biennial. 

— che.iram,thifo'Ua. 2. Yellow. June. Madeira. 

1777. Greenhouse perennial. 

— crithmifo'tia. 1. Yellow. August. Madeira. 

1778. Greenhouse biennial. 

— inca'na. 1. Yellow. June. Pyrenees. 1818. 


— integrifo'lia. 1. Yellow. August. S. of 

Europe. 1711. Biennial. 

— mogadordnm. 2. Yellow. April. Morocco. 

1871. ^ ^ 

— ni'gricatis. 1. Yellow. August. Barbary. 

1804. Annual. 

— pim,nati'fida. 1. Yellow. July. Madeira. 

1778. Greenhouse biennial. 

— Ragusi'na. 1. Yellow. August. Grecian 

Archipelago. 1753. Greenhouse peren- 

— runeina'ta. 1. Yellow. July. S. of Europe. ' 

1711. Biennial. 

— va'ria. lto3. Yellow. 1882. 

Aneile'ma. (Froma,not,ande«7em«, 
involucrum ; in reference to the absence 
of the involucrum. Nat. ord., Comme- 
UnacecB. ) 

Greenhouse and stove perennials and pretty 
little trailing-plants, except A. gigcmtewm and 
A. si'nicum. They are increased by seed and 
root division ; soil, loam, peat, leaf -mould, and 


A. Mflo'rum. 1. Blue. August. Australia. 
1829. Evergreen. 

— grami'neum affi'Tie. 1. Blue. August. Aus- 

tralia. 1820. Evergreen. 

— nndiflo'rum. 1. Blue. July. E. Indies. 

1824. Biennial. Rchb. Ic. Exot. 1. 136. 
Syn., Commelina nudifiora. 

— si'nicum. 1. Purple-blue. May. China. 

1820. Herbaceous perennial. Syn., A. 
secundum. Wight Ic. t. 2075. 

— spira'twm. 1. Blue. July. E. Ind. 1783. 

Evergreen. Wight Ic. t. 2077. 


A. atyumiTia'twn. 1. Blue. August. Australia. 
1822. Evergreen. 

— cequi/noctia'le. 1. Blue. July. Guinea. 1820. 


— ambi'guum. 3. Blue. July. Sierra Leone. 

1822. Herbaceous. 

— crispa'tum. See Pollia mspata. 

— gigalntewm, 1. Blue. July. Mozambique. 

1826. Herbaceous perennial. Wightlc. 
t. 2074. Syns., A. ermfolium and A. Ian- 

— nudifl&rum. 1. Blue. July. E. Ind. 1818. 

Evergreen. Syn., A. nudicaule. 

— serrvHa'ta. 1. Blue. July. Trinidad. 1824. 


Ane'mia. (From aneimon, naked ; 
in reference to the naked inflorescence. 
Nat. ord., Filices — PolypodiacecB.) 

Handsome stove and greenhouse ferns, allied 
to Schizsea; soil, loam, fibrous peat, leaf -soil, 
and sand. See Feens, for general culture. 
A. adicmtifo'lia. 3. August. W. Ind. 1793. 

— cocci'nea. 1. August. W. Ind. 1830. 

— coUi'na. 1. August. Brazil. 1824. Syn. 

A. hirta. 

— deltoi'dea. See A. tom^ntosa. 

— Dregea'na. J. Natal. 

— fi^mio'sa. ^&Q A. mmentosa, 

— hilrta. See A. collirui. 




A. hirsu'ta. 3. June. Jamaica. 1704. Syn., 

A. repens. 
tene'Ua. 1. May. W. Ind. 1843. 

— hu'milis, 1. July. S. America. 1823. 

— mandiocca'na. 1. Mandiocca district, near 

Eio Janeiro. Hook. Gard. Ferns, t. 36. 

radi'cana. 1. Yellow. May. Brazil. 


— Phylli'tidis. 1. June. Trinidad. 1830. Syn., 

ATiemidictyon PhyllitiMs. 

frasAniJo'l'm. 1. June. Brazil. 1828. 

lacmiata. 1. August. W. Ind. 1794. 

lanceola'ta. 2. Au^st. "W. Ind. 1820. 

Knea'ta. Fronds, with a yellowiah-green 

central stripe. S. America. 1868. 

longifo'lia. 1. August. Brazil. 1831. 

teseella'ta. Pinnse dark green, with bright- 
green centre, and leaden-grey border. 
Brazil. 1876. Syn., A. phyUitidis 

— radi'cana. See A, matidioccanat var. radicans. 

— re'peTis. See A. hirsuta. 

— tene^Ua. See A. hirsuta, var. tenella. 

— tomento'sa. 1. Tropical America. Syns., 

A, deltoidea, A. Jiexuosa, and A, villosa. 

— villo'sa. See A. tomentosa. 

Anemidi'ctyon. See Anemia. 

Anemio'psis. (From aneimon, 
naked, and opsis, like ; stems almost 
leafless. Nat. ord., Saururacece.) This 
genus is referred to Houttnynia in the 
Genera Plantarum. 

Hardy sub-aquatic perennial. See Aquarium. 
A. ccUifofmica. White. California. 1862. B. 
M. t. 5292. 

Anemo'ne. Wind-flower. (From 
anemos, the wind ; inhabiting exposed 
places. Nat. ord., Banunculacew. Syn., 

They are all hardy, except A. cape'nsis, which 
requires the protection of a greenhouse in winter. 
The tuberous-rooted are propagated from offsets ; 
and tlie herbaceous from divisions of the roots ; 
and, both from seeds. They all require a light, 
rich, and well-drained loam. 


A. apmni'na. i- Blue. April. England. Eng. 
Bot. ed. 3, t. 10. 

— haJde'Tms. J. White. May. Switzerland. 


— hla'nda. J. Deep blue. Winter. Eastern 


— cceru'lea. IJ. Blue. May. Siberia. 1826. A 

form of A. nemorosa. 

— carolinia'na. 1. White. May. Carolina. 


— earcmaJria. J. Striped. June. Levant. 1596. 
a76a. White. 1882. 

plefna. J. Striped. April. 

— Fitcheria'na. J. White. Apnl. Siberia. 1827. 

— hort^nsie. |. Striped. April. Italy. 1697. 

Forms of this are A. fulgens, pavonia, 
and stellata. 
minia'ta. J. Bed. May. Gardens. 

— hmcifdlia. J. White. April. N. Amer. 1822. 

— nemor(^sa. J. White, red. April. Britain. 

Eng. Bot ed. 3, 1. 11. 
cceru'lm. J. Light blue. May. Gardens. 

Syn., A. nenwrosa Robinsoniana. 
flo're-pliirw. i. White, red. April. 


ro'sea. Bose-coloured. 

—palma'ta. i. Yellow. May. Portugal. 1697. 

pire-dVtndo. J. Whitish. May. 

ju>' re-fa' vo. \. Yellow. May. Portugal. 

fio're-pUno. |. Yellow. May. 

A. pwniific/ra. }. WMte. May. N. Amer 1824 

— qmngvgo'lia. i. White. AprU. N. Amerl 

— ranunculoi'dei. J. Yellow. April. Enfflanrl 

Eng. Bot. ed. 8, 1. 12. 
-rf^xa. i YeUow. April. Siberia. 1818. 

— Stella ta. See A. hortemis. 

fio're-pUno. I. Bed. May. Europe. 

/« mns. 1. Bed. May. South of Europe- 

^I^'^"^- *■ I'i'Tle. April. Italy., 

— umbella'ta. 1. Blue. April. Levant. 1824. 


A. acutipe'tala. J. Blue. May. Switzerland. 

— a'lba. i. White. June. Siberia. 1820. 

— alba'na. i. White. May. Caucasus. 1821. 

— alpi'na. J. White. Austria. 1658. 
sulphu'rea. J. Sulphur. May. Europe. 

1816. J i- 

— amguMsa. }. Blue. March. N. Amer. Syn.,. 

JSepatica angulosa. 

— eapdnxis. 1. Purple. April. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1795. Greenhouse. 

— ce'rmua. i. Bed, white. May. Japan. 1806. 

— deeape'tala. 1. Creamy. May. N. W. Amer., 

— deltai'dea. White. May. Columbia.! 1827. 

— dicho'toma. 1. Bed, white. May. N. Amer. 


— Fanni'nii. White. Natal. 
— fu'lgens. See A. hortensis. 

— Gavamia'na. Nepaul. 1844. 

— BalUri. J. Purple. April. Switzerland. 

1816. Syn., Pulsatilla Balleri. 

— Jiepa'tica. J. Blue. March. N. America., 

1800. Syns., Hepatica americana and 

H. triloba. 
acutilo'ba. i. Blue. March. N. Amer. 


a'lba. i. White. March. N. Amer. 1835. 

marmora'ta. J. Blue. Leaves blotched 

with greyish-green. Mentone. 
ru'bra. J. Bed. March. N. Amer. 

— japdniea. 2. Bose. September. Japan.. 


a!lba. White. August. 

fllegans. Pale rose. Garden hybrid. 

— langisca'pa. White. June. North India. 1839. 


— miera'ntha. J. White, purple. April. Austria. 


— monta'na. 1. Purple. June. Switzerland. 


— multi'fida. 1. Red or yellow. June. N. Amer. 

Syn., A. Hudsoniana. 
~ narciiSiJWra. 1. White. May. Siberia. 1773. 

— obsole^ta. 4. Purple. May. Germany. 

— obtusifo'lia. White. June. Himalaya. 1844. 

— obtusilo'ba. i. White. June. Himalaya. 


— pa' tens. 1. Purple or light yellow. June. 

Siberia. 1752. 
Nuttallia'na. J. White. July. N. Amer. 

ochroleu'ca. 1. Cream. April. Siberia. 


— Paw'nia. See A. hortensis. 

— pennsylva'nica. 1. Green. May. N. Amer. 

— polya'nthes. White. Himalayas. B. M. 

t. 6840. 

— prate: nsis. J. Dark purple. May. Germany. 

1731. Syn., Pulsatilla pratensis. 

— puisataila. J. Violet. May. England. Eng., 

Bot. ed. 3, t. 9. 
a'lbida. i. Whitish. April. Germany. 

dahu'rica. J. Flesh. May. Dahuna. 

lilaci'na. Lilac. 




A vulsati'llaru'bra. Beddish-purple. May. Ger- 
many. 1834. 

— Riohardso'nia i. Yellow June. N. Amei. 


— ridula'ris, 2. White. 1882. 

— rivula'ris. IJ. White. June. North Ind. 


— sibi'riea. J. White. June. Siberia. 1804. 

— sylve'stris. i. White. May. Germany. 1596. 

— trifo'lia. i. White. April. Central and S. 

Europe. 1697. B. M. t. 6846. 

— uriite'rms. J. Blue. May. Siberia. 1824. 

— veuM'lis. J. Purple. April. Switzerland. 

1752. Syn., Pulsatilla vemalis. 

fio're-lu'teo. J. Yellow. April. South 

of Europe. 

— Virginia' na. J. White. May. N. Amer. 


— vitifo'lia. 3. White. September. Nepaul. 


The anemone, the florist's flower of our 
gardens, is the offspring of the A. coro- 
na'ria (poppy anemone). 

Characteristics of a good single ane- 
mone.— The stem strong, elastic, and 
erect, not less than nine inches high ; 
the flower at least two inches and a half 
in diameter, consisting of large, substan- 
tial, well-rounded petals, at fust horizon- 
tally extended, and then turning a little 
upwards, so as to form a broad, shallow 
■cup ; the colour clear and distinct when 
diversified in the same flower, or brilliant 
and striking if it consists only of one 
•colour, as blue, crimson, or scarlet, etc. 

A double anemone should have the 
outer petals quite flat, the second series 
a little shorter, the third shorter still, 
and so on till the centre "is quite full, 
when the whole should form a rather 
flat hemisphere. Every double flower 
should be of one full colour. 

Propagation. — Offsets from the root, 
and new varieties from seed. 

By offsets, all the best kinds should be 
taken up annually at the decay of the 
leaf, and the root divided into as many 
pieces or knobs as are furnished with an 
■eye or bud, observing, however, that if 
they are divided very small, they flower 
Tenr weak the first year. 

The time for taking up the roots is 
May and June, when the leaf and stalk 
are withered ; for then the roots cease 
to grow for a month or six weeks. 

Take them up in dry weather, spread 
in an airy place out of the sun for about 
a week, then clear from earth, and store 
in bags or boxes. 

The seed. — Sow from the best single or 
semi-double flowers. 

Somng. — Make the beds in a sheltered 
part of your garden, facing the south ; 
trenching them to the depth of sixteen 
or eighteen inches. If it is low and 
swampy, with a wet, clay bottom, drain 
well, and do not dig so deep ; if high and 
dry, or with a sandy or gravelly subsoil, 

you may go a little deeper. Make the 
surface very fine, and then sow. Ane- 
mone-seed requires to be well rubbed 
with the hand, either amongst some 
sharp sand, or finely-sifted coal-ashes, to 
separate the seeds. When the seed is 
sown, cover it immediately with some 
sifted, light, sandy soil, half an inch. It 
will soon come up, and should be fre- 
quently watered in dry weather. Beds 
so made will flower the same year; mark 
the best, and preserve them for planting 
the next year. 

Time for planting is October, or early 
in November, and the plants will come 
into flower in April and beginning of 
May ; but if some are planted in the 
middle of September, and a second parcel 
towards the middle or latter end of Oc- 
tober, they will afford a succession of 
bloom from the beginning of April until 
the middle of May ; and, if a third plan- 
tation is made in February or beginning 
of March, they will come into flower 
about the middle of May, and continue 
until the middle of June. 

Soil and site. — The situation should 
be thoroughly drained, and open to the 
south. Any common, moderately light 
earth suits the anemone ; overmoist and 
stiff soils rot the roots in winter. 

Planting in borders. — Plant five roots 
together, in a patch of five or six inches 
in Dreadth, two or three inches deep. 

B&is should be three feet and a half 
broad, with alleys eighteen inches wide 
between bed and bed, and fifteen or 
eighteen inches deeg; break the earth 
small, but do not sift it; elevate the beds 
three inches above the general surface ; 
but, if there is danger of moisture stand- 
ing in winter, double or .treble that is a 
proper height, working the whole a little 
rounded, and after planting, rake the 
surface smooth. 

Plant six rows lengthwise, the roots 
at six inches distance in each row, and 
two inches deep. 

The autumn plantation comes in leaf 
in November ; but, as the plants are 
hardy, nothing is required to be done 
till the bloom begins to appear, and then 
arch the beds with hoops , to support 
mats, to protect them from frost. 

Forcing. — Double anemones, potted in 
September or in October, in some com- 
post, as above particularized, may be 
E laced in a cold frame or pit, and watered 
ut sparingly until the following spring, 
when they may be put into a warmer 
place. They will not stand much forcing. 
A second blooming may be obtained, by 
planting more roots, in a similar way, in 




Mildew. — This disease first appears as 
pale spots on the under sides of the 
leaves. These spots gradually rise into 
tubercles, and a minute fungus bursts 
through. This parasite is Mci'dium 
quadri'fidum. Sea-sand, or a little salt 
mixed with the compost of the bed, is a 
good preventive ; and sprinkling with 
sulphur is the best remedy. Anemones 
are liable to have distorted, swollen 
leaves, the cure for which is to render 
the soil more free from stagnant 

Anemono'psis. (From anemone, 
and opsis, resemblance ; on account of 
its Anemone-like flowers. Nat. ord., 
RanwheulacecB. Allied to Cimicifuga.) 

Hardy perennial herb, with handsome flowers 
resembling Anennone japonica. Seeds, division 
of the root-stock. Any light rich soil. 
A. rruierophy'lla. 2 to 3. Lilac. July. Japan. 
1879. B. M. t. 6413. 

Anemopse'gma. (From areemo*, the 
wind, and paigma, sport. Nat. ord., 

Handsome stove climbing shrubs. For culti- 
vation, see BlONONIA. 
A. rcKemo'sum. Buff. Brazil. 1879. 

— cUmaWdeum, See Pithecoctenium clemati- 

Bianonia Chamberlaynii, figured in B. R. t. 741, 
and B. M. t. 2148, is probably a species of this 

Ane'thum. Dili, or Fennel. (From 
ana, upwards, and theo, to run ; in 
reference to its quick growth. Nat. 
ord., UmhelKferce.) United with Pen- 
cedanum in the Genera Plantarum. 

A genus of no garden value, except the species 
A. graveolens, which is called Dill. It is used 
for flavouring soups, sauces, etc. The seeds 
should be sown broadcast or in drills in March 
or April. Only the young leaves are used. All 
hardy, readily increased by seed or root division. 
A. fa&mcvla'eeum. See Fc&niculaeeu7n mUgare. 
du'lce. See F(»niculaeeum dulce. 

— gravefolens. 3. Yellow. July. Spain. 1670. 

— pipera'tum. 6. Yellow. July. Italy. 1824. 

— sege'tum. 1. Yellow. July. S. Europe. 

Jacq. Hort. Vind. t. 132. Syn., A. pu- 
silluTn, Hort. 

— So'wa. 1. Yellow. July. E. Ind. 1810. 

Angelica. (In reference to its fabled 
angelic virtues in medecine. Nat. ord., 

A genus of no particular garden value. A. ofi- 
cinalis was at one time used in confectionery, and 
was supposed to have medicinal properties. 
A. officina'lis. 4. July. Green. England. Syn., 
A. arehamgelica. 

— songo'riea. White. Central Asia. 1879. 

Ange'lica-tree. Ara'lia spino'sa. 

Angelo'nia. (From angelon, its 
local name in South America. Nat. 
ord., Scrophidariace(B. Allied to Hemi- 

Pretty stove herbaceous perennials ; seed in 
heat, sown in February ; division of the roots of 

several kmds, and cuttings of young shoots in 
April, mserted in sand under a bell-glass ; must 
not be kept too damp, air must be given daily - 
loam and peat. 

A. ajngvxtijo'lia,. IJ. Deep violet. June. Mexico. 

— eomi'gera. 1. Purple. August. Brazil. 1839. 

B. M. t. 3848. 

— floribu'nda. 1. Purple. August. Brazil. 1839. 

— Qardnelri. 1. Purplish-white. May. Per- 

nambuco. 1838. B. M. t. 3764. 

— grandiflo'Ta. 1. Purplish-white. May. Per- 

nambuco. 1838. 

— minia'ta. 1. Purplish-white. May. Per- 

nambuco. 1838. 

— salicarioefo'lia. 2. Light blue. August. S. 

Amer. 1818. B. M. 2478. 

Angia'uthus. (From aggeion, a 
vase, and anthos, a flower ; referring to 
the inflorescence. Nat. ord., Compositce; 
Tribe, Inuloidece.) 

A. au'reus. See Cassinia aurea. 

— pusi'Uus.^ Dark straw-coloured. July. Aus- 

tralia. 1868. Syn., Chrysocoryne cmgmn- 

Angio'pteris. (From aggeion, a 
vessel, and pteris, a wing. Nat. ord., 

Stove ferns, requiring plenty of room to fully 
develop, and a plentiful supply of water. Soil 
loam, peat and sand, with tliorough drainage. 
A. evdcta. 2 to 6. June. Tropics of Old World.. 
Hook. Fil. Exot. t. 76. 

— pruino'm. Java. 

— Teysw/mnia'TM. Java. 

Ango'phora. (From aggos, a ves- 
sel, and phero, to bear ; in reference tO' 
the shape of the fruit. Nat. ofd., 

Greenhouse evergreen ornamental shrubs ; cut- 
tings of ripened shoots under a bell-glass ; loam, 
leaf-soil, peat anjl sharp sand. 
A. cordifo'lia. 6. Yellow. August. Australia.. 
1789. Syns., Eucalyptus hirsuta^ Metro- 
sideros aTuymala, M. hirsuta, and Jf. his- 
pida (B. M. 1. 1960). 

— lanceola'ta. 6. Yellow. May, Australia. 


Angrse'cum. (From angweh, the 
Malayan term for air-plants. Nat. ord., 
OrchidaceoB ; Tribe, vandew, Sarcan- 
them. ) 

By offsets in spring, sphagnum moss, and 
broken potsherds, and pieces of wood ; kept 
moist and hot when growing in summer ; cool m 
winter ; hot and dry when coming into bloom. 
Summer temp. 70° to 86° ; winter, 65° to 60°. 
A. apicula'tum. B. M. t. 4169. See A. bilobum. 
itorma/ma'nwni. Ovaries and tips of se- 
pals flaked vermilion. 

— areualtwm. J. White. Natal. Syn., Listro- 

stachys areuata. 

— armem'acum. Yellowish-pink. Sierra Leone. 


— articula'tum. White. Madagascar. 1872. 

— ash(mte'nse. i. Cinnamon. June. Ashantee. 


— avicula'rium. i. White. 1887. 

— Inlo'bum. J. White. September. Cape Coast. 

1841. Syn., A. apiculatum. 

Ki'rhei. Zanzibar. 1875. 

eaUi'gerum. White. 1887. 

— eauda'tum. Ih White, green. August. 

Sierra Leone. 1834. 




A. caulefseens. IJ. Green, white. September. 
India. 1834. 

— cephalo'tee. White. Tropical Africa. 1873. 

Syn., Listrostachys cephalotes. 

— Ckaillua'num. White. Gaboon, W. Africa. 


— Christya'tmm. Whitish. 1880. 

— citra'tum. Cream. Madagascar. 1866. B. M. 

t. 6624. 
^, clanddttinum. \. Green, white. September. 
Sierra Leone. 1835. 

— cri/ptodon. White. Madagascar. 1S83. 

— descelndens. G. C. 1882, voh 17, p. 668. 

— di'stwhum. E. M. 1. 1781. See Mystaeidiwm. 

— ebu'meum. 1}. Whitish. Madagascar. 1826. 
vi'rens. Lip green in the centre. B. M. 

t. 5170. A. ebm'neum, of B. R. 1622, and 
B. M. 4761, is A. iuperbmn. 

— SichleriaJnwm. Light green, lip white. 

Loango, W. Africa, 1882. 

— Mli'sii. 1. White, buSE. Madagascar. 1870. 
— falca'tum. Pure white. Japan. 1815. B. M. 

t. 2097. Syn., Limodorumfalcatum. 

— fastuo'svm,. White. Madagascar. 1881. 

— florule/ntum. G. C. 1885, vol. 23, p. 787. 

— fra' grans. White. January. Bourbon. 1887. 
B. M. t. 7161. 

— fwna'le. B. M. t. 4295. See Dendrophylax 

— fusca'tvmi. Ochre, white. Madagascar. 1882. 

— Germinya'nuTn. Pure white. Madagascar. 

1889. B. M. t. 7061. 

— gladiifo'lium. White. February. Bourbon. 

B. B. 1840, t. 68. 

— glomera'titm. White. Sierra Leone. 1884. 

— Gra/ndidi&ria'num. Ivory white. Comoro Is- 

lands. Eev. Hort. 1887, p. 42, f. 9. Syn., 
Aercmthus Grandidieranus. 

— hyaloi'des. Whitish. Madagascar, 1880. 

— ichTieumo'Tiewm, Ochreous-white. W. Tropical 

Africa. Syn. ^ Listrostachys ichneumonea. 

— imbrica'tum. Creamy-white ; lip orange and 

yellow. 1887. 

— Kimiallia'num. See A. polystachys. 

— Ko'tschyi. White. Zanzibar. 1880. 

— micra'nthum. B. B. 1772. See Campylocen- 

tron Tmcra/nthum. 

— mode^stumy. White, April. Madagascar. 

B. M. 6693. 

— odffrati' ssim/um. White. Sierra Leone. 1832. 

— ophiople'etron. Greenish-yellow, spur, ochre- 

reddish. Madagascar. Syn., Aeram,thus 

— omithorrhy'ruihimi,. See Aeranthm amithor- 


— pellvleidum. J-. White. November. Sierra 

Leone, 1842. 
— pertu'sum. J. White. October. Sierra 
Leone. 1836. B. M. t. 4782. 

— Pescatorea'nv/m. White. Bourbon. 

— polysta'chyum. See Aermithus polystachyus. 

— polysta'ohys. Whitish-green. 1889. Syn., A. 


— ri'ngens. Yellowish-white. Cameroons. 1878. 

Syn., Listrostachys ri'ngens. 

— rostella're. G. C. 1886, vol. 23, p. 726. 

— Sanderia'num. White. Comoro Islands. 1888. 

Eev. Hort. 1888, p. 516. 

— Soottia'num. White. Comoro Islands. 1878. 

B. M. t. 6723. 

— Seddni. B. Tropical Africa. 1878. Syn., 

Listrostachys Sedeni. 

— sesquipeda'le. 2. White. Madagascar. 1867. 

B. M. t. 5113. 

— subula'tum. Wliite. Sierra Leone. 1832. 

— supe'rhum. Green ; lip white. Madagascar. 

Syn., A. eburneum of B. R. t. 1622, and 
B. M. t. 4761. 

— tt!nue. Syn., A. purpuraseens. G. C. 1862, 

p. 390. A doubtful plant. 

— teretijo'liuTn. White. Sierra Leone. 

— tmdactyliltes, Bult Sierra Leone. 1888. 

Anguilla'ria. (From anguilla, an 
eel ; in reference to the twisted seeds. 
Nat. ord., Melanthacece. Allied to 
Veratrnm. ) 

Half-hardj; herbaceous plants, requiring a 
little protection in winter ; division of roots, and 
cuttings, under a hand-light ; peat and loam. 
A. dioi'ca. 1. Purple. May. N. S. Wales. 

higlandulo'sa. 1. Purple. May. Aus- 
tralia. 1826. 

— i'Tidica. See Iphigenia indica. 

Angulo'a. (In honour of Angulo, a 
Spanish naturalist, Nat, ord., Orchi- 
dacecB. ) 

Stove orchids, requiring the same culture as 

A. Clowe'sii. IJ. May. Sepals and petals 
yellow, lip white. Columbi?i. 1842. 

fl</ribus fia'vie. IJ. May. Pale yellow. 


— du'Ha, White, blotched with purple, U. S. 

of Columbia. 1882. 

— grandifio'ra. 1. July. S. Amer. 1823. 

— interme'dia. Garden hybrid. 1888. 

— Bu'ckeri. IJ. Yellow, crimson. May. 1845. 
a'lba. White. 1888. 

rn^dia. Yellow, spotted crimson, lip 

crimson. Columbia. 1887. 

retu'sa. Lemon, blotched purple, 1883. 

sarmui'nea. Bed. May. 

— supe'rba. See Adneta Hurnboldtii. 

— vmifto'ra. Cream-coloured. Columbia. 1844. 

There is a variety with pink flowers. 

ebn'mea. White, lip spotted with pink. 

New Grenada. Will. Oroh. Alb. t, 133. 

Angu'ria. (One of the Greek names 
for the cucumber, Nat. ord., Cucurbi- 
tacecB. ) , 

Stove evergreen climbers ; seed and cuttings ; 
peat and loam. 

A. Maekaya'na. Vermilion. Guatemala. 1846. 
Fl. Ser. t. 222. 

— pedalta. 20. Yellow. July. S. Amer. 1820. 

— triloba' ta. 20. Pink. July. Carthage. 1793. 

— trifolia'ta. 10. Yellow. July. St. Domingo. 


— vmbro'sa. 10. Yellow. July. S. Amer. 1827. 

— Warscewi'czii. Scarlet. Panama. 1862. B. 

M. t. 5304. 

AnhalO'nium. (From an, without, 
and helos, a nail or spike, Nat, ord., 

Warm greenhouse succulent perennials ; soil, 
sandy loam and finely broken bricks ; full ex- 
posure to sun ; seeds. 

A. prisma' ticum. J. St. Louis, Potosi. Berl. 
Gart. Zeit. 1885, p. 541. 

— Engelma'nni. lU. Hort. 1869, t. 605a. 
—fissma'twrn. Wien. Gart. Zeit. 1887, p. 428. 

— Lewi'nii. Dwarf. Pale rose. Mexico. Gfl. 

1888, p. 411. 

— prisma' ticum. See Mammillaria aloides. 

— WUliamsii. Gfl. 1888, p. 411. 

A'nia bieo'mis. B. R, i844, t, 8, 
See Tainia. 

Anigoza'nthus, (Fiom anoigo, to 
expand, and anthos, flower ; in reference 
to the branching expansion of the 
flower. Nat. oiA. ,,Hmmodoraccce.) 




Cool greenhouse herbaceous plants, with 

curious elongated woolly flowers. Division of 

roots in spring ; one part loam to three of peat. 

A. bi'color. S. Scarlet, green. May. Swan 

River. 1837. 

— eocei'nea. 6. Crimson. June, Swan Eiver. 


— fla'vida. 3. Yellowish-green. May. Austra- 
lia. 1808. Red. Lil. t. 176. Syns., A. 
coccinea, A. gromdifioray and A. Man- 
ghsii, Maund Bot. t. 67, but not of Don. 

— fuligino'sa. See Macropodiafuliginosa, 

— hu'wfilis. Red or yellow. Swan River. 

— Mangle' Hi Don. 3. Green. May. Swan 

River. 1833. Swt. Fl. Gard. ser. 2, 
t. 265. 
angustifo'Ka. 3. Green, red. July. Aus- 
tralia. 1836. B. R. t. 2012. 

— pulche'rrima. 2^. May. Yellow, white. 

Swan River. 1840. 

— ru'fa. 2. Purple. June. Australia. 1824. 

— tyriantMna. 3. Purple, white. May. Swan 

River. B. M. t. 4607. 

Animal Matters, without any ex- 
ception, are beneficial as manures ; for 
they all yield, during putrefaction, gases 
and soluble substances, that are taken 
up by the roots of plants. That this is 
the case, affords no cause for wonder, 
because animal matters and vegetable 
matters are alike compounded of carbon, 
hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, with a 
small addition of saline matters. The 

feneral consideration of Manures will 
e found under that title, and other 
relative information imder the heads 
Dung and Vegetable Matters; and 
in this place, we shall confine our atten- 
tion to some of the most available of 
strictly aifimal matters. See, also, the 
article Bones. 

• Fish, generally, such as sprats, her- 
rings, pilchards, five-fingers, and shell- 
fish, owe their powerful fertilizing quali- 
ties not only to the oilthey contain, but 
also to the phosphate of lime in their, 
bones. From 25 to 45 bushels per acre 
are the extreme quantities to be applied 
broadcast ; but if in the drills, with the 
crop, 16 bushels are ample. They are 
beneficial to all the gardener's crops, but 
especially to asparagus, parsnips, car- 
rots, beets, onions, and beans. Shell- 
fish should be smashed before being 

Blood is a very rich manure, and has 
been applied with especial benefit to 
vines and other fruit-trees. The blood 
of the ox contains about eighty per cent, 
of water, and twenty per cent, solid 
matter. The latter contains, in IGO 
parts, when dried — 



Hydrogen . 


Nitrogen . 


Oxygen . 




of lime, with a little oxide of iron. 
Sugar-haker's skimmings owe their chief 
fertilizing qualities to the blood used in 
clarifying the sugar, and which is com- 
bined with vegetable albumen, and ex- 

_ Woollen Bags, cut into very small 
pieces, are a good manure, decomposing 
slowly, and benefiting the second as 
much as the first crop. Hops and tur- 
nips have been the crops to which they 
have been chiefly applied. Half a ton 
per acre is a fair dressing. "Wool is 
composed of — 

Carbon 50.663 

Hydrogen 7.029 

Nitrogen 17.710 

fuYpfu"r \ . . . . 24.608 
It leaves a very slight ash, containing 
minute quantities of muriate of potash, 
lime, and probably phosphate of lime. 
Feathers and hair closely resemble it in 
their components. Horns are composed 
of — 

Hydrogen . 
Nitrogen . 
Oxygen ) 
Sulphur J 



besides minute proportions Of sulphate, 
muriate and phosphate of potash, phos- 
phate of lime, and other less important 

Shells. — Those of the following are 
thus composed : — 

Lobster . 
Hen's Eggs 

phate of 

nate of 








The ashes contain various salts, as chlo- 
ride of sodium (common salt), phosphate 

They have all been found good, in a 
pounded form, as manures for turnips, 
and must be for aU other plants, and on 
all soils where calcareous matters are 

Anisa'nthus. See Antholyza. 

A. sple'ndeng. See Antholyza caffra. 

Anisca'ntha. (From anisos, un- 
equal, 3,ndLa:kantha, a spine. Nat. ord., 
Ghenopodiacece. ) 

Cool greenhouse evergreen shrub ; cuttings of 
young snoots, a little hard at bottom, in April ; 
peat and loam. 
A. divarica'ta. 2. N. Holland. 1824. 

Ani'se. Pimpine'lla ani'sum. 

Hardy annual, used for garnishing or season 
ing Sow during latter end of April on warm 
south border, and when large enough to handle, 
thin the plants to six inches apart. The seed is 
ripe in August or September. It does not bear 
transplanting well. 

A'niseed-tree. llU'dum anisa'tum. 




Anisochi'lus. (From anisos, un- 
equal, and cheilos, lip, referring to the 
unequal lips of calyx and corolla. Nat. 
ord., Labiates.) 

Stove ornamental biennial ; seeds in heat, or 
cuttings in sandy soil, under a bell-glass. 
A. camo'm. 2. lilac. June to September. 
E. Ind. 1778. 

Aniso'meles. (From anisos, un- 
equal, and melos, a member. Nat. ord., 

Chiefly evergreen stove or greenhouse orna- 
mental shrubs ; cuttings of stove species in 
April, in heat, under a bell-glass. Greenhouse 
species, under glass, without heat. Sow the 
annual in March, in heat ; loam and peat. 
A.furca'ta. 1. Blue. August. Nepaul. 1824. 
■ Greenhouse. Syn., Ajuga furcata. 

— malaba'rica. 2. Violet. July. E. Ind. 1817. 

B. M. t. 2071. 

— moscha'ta. 2. Purple. August. K. Holland. 


— ova'ta. 2. Pink. August. E. Ind. 1823. 

Stove annual. Wight Icon. t. 865. 

Anisope'talum Careya'num. 
See Bulbophyllum. 

Aniso'pia horticola, is a beetle 
which often attacks the rose-flowers 
about June. Its maggots live under 
turf, and feed on its roots. 

Annuals are plants which live but 
one year, and, consequently, require to 
be raised from seed annually. 

Hardy Annuals, or those requiring 
no protection, are sown where they are 
to remain in the open borders, from the 
end of February to the beginning of 
May. To flower late in autumn, some 
may be sown in the middle of June. 
Whether sown in patches or broad 
masses, whether mixed or separate, 
must be left to the taste of the sower, 
guided by his knowledge of the colours 
of the flowers, which should be well 
contrasted. Every patch should be pro- 
perlj labelled, which is easily done by 
having some deal laths, one inch broacl, 
planed smooth, cut into nine - inch 
lengths, and painted white. On these 
the name can be written with a lead 

Half-hardy Annuals, such as require 
artificial heat while seedlings, are sown 
in a gentle hotbed in March and April. 
The seedlings, when an inch or two 
high, to be transplanted into another 
gentle hotbed, or greenhouse, to remain 
until the middle of May, then to be 
transplanted into the borders, and at- 
tended like other annuals. 

Tender or Greenhouse Annuals, re- 
quiring artificial heat and shelter during 
their whole growth are sown early in 
March on a hotbed, transplanted when 
ready to handle, and finally into pots to 

bloom in the greenhouse. Some of them 
if planted out on a warm border in 
June, will bloom freely and even ripen 

Anne'slia gravdiflo'ra is a synonym 
of Calliandra grandiflora, and A. 
spinosa of Euryaleye^'oa;. 

Ano'da. (From a«0(^as, impervious; 
cells more united than in Sida. Nat. 
ord., MalvacecB.) 

Half-hardy sub-shrub. For culture, see Cris- 


A. Grenatifio'ra. Mexico. Syn., A. parviJUyra. 

— BUlenia'na. 3. Purple. July. Mexico. 1755. 
Syn., Sida cristata. B. M. t. 330. 

— Ochse'ni. Purple. Chili. 1866. 

— hOfSta'tOr. White or purple. Mexico. 1799. 

Anodo'ntea. (From a, not, and 
odontos, a tooth ; in reference to the 
stamens. Nat. ord., Cruci/ercB.) The 
following species of this genus, which 
have been in cultivation, are now re- 
ferred to Alyssum, viz., Anodontea. 
dasycarpa, A. edentula, A. halimifolia, 
A. macrocarpa, A. obovata, A. rupesfris, 
and A. spinosa. 

Anoectochi'lus. (From anoikios, 
open, and cheilos, a lip ; in reference to 
the spreading apex of the lip. Nat. ord. , 

Very handsome stove terrestrial orchids, re- 
quiring to be grown under glass-oases or bell- 
glasses, giving air occasionally to prevent the 
plants drawing or damping oSE. The flowers as 
a rule small and inconspicuous, should be re- 
moved as soon as they appear, this will assist 
colouring of the leaves, which are the chief 
attraction in these charming and delicate sub- 
jects ; soil, flbry peat, finely chopped sphagnum, 
a little loam and sand ; propagation by stem 
cuttings. A strong plant should be selected, 
cutting below the first joint, and with a root, 
keeping close until established. Thorough drain- 
age is essential to success, great care being 
required in watering, etc. 
A. a/rge'nteus pi'ctus. See Phymrus pictus. 

— argyrce:us. Brazil. Physurus ? 

— argyronetura. Java. 

— JBoi/lei. Olive-green vrith golden veins. India. 

— Bulle^nii. Leaves coppery-red striped. Bor- 
neo. 1861. 

— chryso'prasm. Leaves become coppery and 
green-veined. Java. 

— coruA'nwm. Dark olive-green, veins coppery 
red. Assam. 

— Dawsonia'nus, and var. pi'ctw. See Hcemeria, 
discolor Bawsonianus. 

— Day'i. See Bossvnia ma/rmorata JDayi. 

— Domi'nii. Dark olive-green, main ribs pale. 
A hybrid between Ooodyera discolor and 
A. Friderici Augusti, 

— Eldora'do. Dark green, veins lighter. Cen- 
tral America. 

— Fri'derici Augu'sti. Dark green with broad 
orange stripe down the centre. Syn., 

_ A. xanthophyllus. 

— Herio'tii. Dark mahogany colour with golden 
veins. India. 1881. 

— hierogh/phims. Dark green with silver grey 
blotches. Assam. 

— interme'dijis. Dark olive-green, veins gold. 
— jam'iiictut. Pink. Leaves olive-green, pinkish 

beneath. Java. 




A. Lansbe'rgice. Dark green, central nerves 
lighter green, the more external reddish. 
Malaya. HI. Hort. 1887, 1. 1. 

— latima'culatiis. Dark green with silver mark- 

ings. Borneo. 

— Lobbia'nus. Flowers white with a pinkish 

lip. Java? Fl. Ser. t. 619. 

— Lo'wii. A synonym of Dossinia marmorata. 

There is a variety A . Lowii virescejis with 
leaves a brighter green. 

— MeiTie'rii. Sumatra. 1881. Syn., Doesinia 


— Nevi'Ueana. Green with orange-yellow vein's. 

— Ordia'mts. Leaves deep green, with silvery 

veins. Java. 1869. Jenn. Orch. t. 43, f . 1. 

— Ortgie'sii. See Physwrus Ortgiesii, 

— pi'ctus. See Physurus pictus. 

— querceti'cola. See Physurus querceticolus. 

•— rega'lii. Velvety-green with golden veins. 
Syn., A, setaceiis. June. Java. 1836. 
B. M. t. 4123. The natives of Ceylon, 
where it grows in the hedge-rows, much 
admire this species and give it the regal 
name of " The King of the Woods ;" and 
well it deserves the title ; but yet the 
leaves are the only part that attract 
admiration. The flowers are not at 
all beautiful ; the leaves, however are 
very handsome. The ground colour is 
of a dark velvety -green, tinged with a 
metallic lustre, curiously inlaid, as it 
were, with streaks of golden net-work. 
If examined with a moderate micro- 
scope, when the sun is shining, this 
golden net-work is really glorious, having 
the appearance of the richest rubies. 
But no description can do justice to the 
beauty of the leaves of this plant. The 
variety named puitus, or painted — 
brought home, we believe, by Mr. Gib- 
son, from the Khasia Hills, India — has 
a broad stripe of yellow down the centre 
of each leaf, in addition to the golden 
net-work. It is equally beautiful with 
the original species, but, if anything, 
more difficult to cultivate. Messrs. Low 
and Co., of the Clapton Nurseries, have 
imported another variety, from Borneo, 
of a stronger growth, and on that account 
worth cultivating, though not c^uite so 
beautiful as the other two varieties. 

albo-margina'tiis. Leaves with white 


eoria'tus. Leaves with broad gold marks. 

granHfo'liug. Light green with a net- 
work of golden veins. 

iTuyniaHus. i. Flowers white. Java. 

B. M. t. 6208. 

pi'ctus. Leaves with central golden stripe. 

N. India. 

— R&inwalrdtii. Bronze with golden lines. Java. 

— Jtoxbu'rghii. J. White. E. Indies. 

— Rucke'Tt. Leaves with six rows of pale spots. 

Borneo. 1861. 

— SchoMe'ri. Leaves silver-striped. Costa Bica. 

1862. Physurus? 

— seta'ceus. See A. regalis. 

— stria' tus. See Zeuxfine regia. 

— Tunulri. Leaves bronzy, veined with yellow. 


— Ve'itchii. Java ? See Macodes Petola. 

— zebri'nus. Coppery-lined. India. 1863. 

Anoiga'nthus. (From anigo, to 
expand, and anthos, flower. Nat. ord., 
Amaryll'idecB. ) 

Greenhouse bulb. For treatment, see Cyetan- 

A.breviflo'rus. 1. Bright yellow. Natal. 1888. 
Syn., Cyrtanthus lutescens of some 
gardens. i 

Anomathe'ca. (From anomos, sin- 
gular, and theca, a capsule, or seed-pod. 
Nat. ord., IridacecB.) 

Very neat, Ixia-like, dwarf, bulbous plants, 
which flower in the sheltered border all summer 
in any light garden-soil: they require the pro- 
tection of a frame in winter, or very warm south 
border in open air. Propagated from seeds and 
offsets ; light, sandy loam and common soil ; 
bulbs require, in most places, to be kept in a 
frame during winter. A. erue'nta, especMly, is 
well fitted for a flower-bed. 
A. eruelnta. 1. Crimson. July. B. Trop. Africa. 
1830. B. B. 1. 1869. 

— ju'ncea. 1. Bright pink, with dark spot at 

base of the perianth. May. Cape of 
Good Hope. 1791. Syns., Gladiolus 
polystachus, Andr. Eep. t. 66, G. excisus, 
jEicq. H. Sohcen. t. 491. Free flowering, 
but rarely met with in gardens. 

Anomochlo'a. (From anomos, law- 
less, and chloa, grass; alluding to its 
differing from other grasses in having 
four stamens instead of three, which is 
the usual number. Nat. ord., Grami- 

Stove perennial grass, remarkable for the dis- 
tinctly stalked leaves. Seeds, divisions. Eich 

A. marantoi'dea. 1. Green. Brazil. 1882. 
B. M. t. 6331. 

Ano'na. (From menona, its local 
name in the West Indies. Nat. ord., 

Stove evergreen trees and shrubs with fragrant 
leaves ; cuttings of ripened wood, in strong heat, 
under a glass, in April ; rich loam. 
A. mmplexicau'lis. 12. Yellow, green. Mauri- 
tius. 1824. 

— asia'iica. 12. Yellow, green. Asia. 1816. 

— Cherimo'lia. 18. Brown. August. Peru. 

1739. III. Hort. 1886, p. 109, t. 663. Syn., 

A. tripetala. B. M. t. 2011. 

— cine'rea. 16. Yellow, green. W. Ind. 1818. 

— gla'bra. 16. Brown. August. W. Ind. 


— Icmrif&lia. 15. Brown. W. Ind. 1773. 

— longifo'lia. 20. Purplish. Guiana. 1820. 

— mexica'na. 12. Yellow, green. Mexico. 1823. 

— muco'sa. 12. Yellow, green. E. Ind. 1820. 

— 'murica'ta. 10. Green, yellow. W. Ind. 1666. 

The Sour Sop. 

— obtusifo'lia. 15. Yellow, green. W. Ind. 1810. 

— paludo'sa. 4. Green. Guiana. 1830. 

— palu' stria. 16. Yellow. S. Amer. 1788. B. 

M. t. 4226. The cork-wood, or Alligator 

— punctata. 12. Yellow, green. Trinidad. 1818. 

— reticula'ta. 20. Whitish-yellow, brown. Brazil 

1690. B. M. tt. 2911-2. Custard Apple, 
or Bullock's Heart 

— rhiza'ntha. 16. Bed. Brazil. 1882. 

— senegale'nsis. 10. Yellow, green. Guinea. 


— squa/mo'sa. 20. White, green. S. Amer. 1731. 

B. M. t. 3096. The Sweet Sop. 

Ano'nyiaosbractea'ta. SeeZomia 

Anopla'nthus. See Phelipsea. 

Anoplophy'tum. See Tilland- 

For A. strami'neuvh and A. vitta'tum see 
Schlumbergeria virescens. 





Ano'pterus. (From ano, upwards, 
and pteron, a wins ; alluding to the 
wing at the top of the seed. Nat. ord., 
Saxifragece. ) 

A greenhouse evergreen shrub, very orna- 
mental; cuttings under s. bell-glass, in heat; 
sandy loam anapeat. Usually in a cold pit or 
greenhouse, but would probably prove hardy in 
the South and West of England on a wall, with 
slight winter protection. 
A. glanduMsus. 3. April. White tinged with 
rose. Tasmania. 1846. B. M.t. 4377. 

Anre'dera. (Derivation doubtful. 
Nat. ord., Chenopodiacece.) 

Greenhouse perennial climber. 
A. sca'ndens. White. Texas. 1889. 

Anse'llia. (In honour of Mr. Ansell, 
the botanical collector who accom- 
panied the ill-fated Niger Expedition. 
Nat. ord., Orchidacece. Allied to 
Aganisia. ) 

Stove epiphytal orchids. Division of bulbs 
after flowering ; turfy peat and broken potsherds. 
With plenty of moisture at root. During Che rest- 
ing season little or no water will be required, 
the plants being kept in a moist atmosphere. 
A. africa'na. 3. Sepals and petals greenish- 
yellow with brownish spots ; lip yellow. 
February. Fernando Po. 1844. B. M. 
t. 4965. 

— c(ynfu'ga. Greenish-jreUow, brown, purple 

marks on green side lobes of lip. West 
Tropical Africa. Lind. 2, t. 36. Syn., 

A. africana, B. R. 1846, t. 30. 

— c<yngo€fnsis. Sepals and petals yellowish -green 

with brown markmgs ; lip yellow, with 
white side lobes marked with purple. 
Congo. Lind. 2, t. 64. 

— giga'ntea. Yellow, brown. Natal. 1847, 
dtrina. Lip orange-citron. Flowers 

destitute of spots. 
hjtltea. Light yellow. Natal. 

— nilo'tica. More dwarf than A. africana, but 

flowers brighter. E. Tropical Africa. 
Syn., A. aSricama, var. nilotica. 

Ant. See Fo'rmica. 

Antenna'ria. (From antennce, 
feelers ; in reference to the downy heads 
of the seeds. Nat. ord., Compositce. ) 

Dwarf, hardy perennials ; division and seeds ; 
common, light soil. In most places the Nepaul 
species require the protection of a cold pit in 

A. alpi'na. 1. Pink. June. Alpine. Europe. 

— carpa'tica. 1. Pink. June. Carpathian 

Mountains. 1775. 

— oonto'rta. 2. White. July. Nepaul. 1821. 

B. E. t. 605. 

— dioi'ca. 1. Pink. June. Britain. 1821. 

Syn., dnaphalium dioieum. Eng. Bot. 
ed. 3, t. 747. 

hyperbc/rea. 1. Whitish. June. Isle of 

Sk^e. 1821. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, t. 748. . 

— margmita'cea. 2. White. July. England. 

1821. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, t. 746. 

— plcmtcMinifo'lia. 1. White. July. Virginia. 

1759. Syn., A. plantaginea. 

— t07nent(/sa. One-twelfth. Summer. Silvery- 

leaved. Syn., A. ca/nMAa. 

— - triplineltmis. 1. White. August. Nepaul. 


A'nthemis. Chamomile. (From 

Anthemon, a flower ; in reference to the 
great number of flowers produced. Nat. 
ord., Compositce.) 

With a few exceptions, they are hardy plants. 
Bivision of plant, and seeds ; common soil. The 
single-flowering A. no'Ulis is superior to the 
double for meificinal properties, but is less fre- 
quently cultivated, owing to its producing a 
smaller bulk of flowers. 


A. alpi'na. 1. White. July. Austria. 1824. 

— JSarrelie'ri. 1. White. August. Italy. 1825. 

— JBieberstei'nii. Yellow. Gfl. t. 936. 

Marschallia'na. 1 to 2. Yellow. Cau- 
casus. 1879. 

— chamomi'Ua. See Matricaria chammmUa. 

— coronopifolia. See Ormcnis mixta, 
—frutimlo'aa. 2. White. August. Caucasus. 


— gloho'sa. See CMliophylVwm globomm. 

— grwndijlo'ra. See Pyrethrwm sinense. 

— ib^rica. 1. White. August. Iberia. 1820. 

— imycrasea'ta. See Anacyclus clavatus. 

— Zitaibe'lUi. 1. White. June. Central Europe. 

1820. Syn., A. earpatica. 

— MarshaUia'na. 2. Yellow. July. Caucasus. 

Rudolphia'na. 1. Yellow. July. Cau- 
casus. 1824. 

— melampodiTia. 1. White. August. Egypt. 


— mcnta'na. 1. White or purplish. July. Cen 

tral Europe. 1769. Syn., A. saxatilis. 

— parthenioHdes. 2. White. July. China. 1819. 

B. E. t. B27. Syn., A. apiifolia. 

— petroeta. 1. White. July. Italy. 1825. 

— pubefscens. See Anaegchis tomentosus. 

— tinctcfria. 2. Yellow. July. Britain. 

discoHdea. 1. Yellow. June. Italy. 1800. 

Triumfe:tti. 1. Pale yellow. August. 

Switzerland. 1819. 

— tomentafsa. 1. White. July. Levant. 1795. 

Probably the same as A. peregrina. 


A. aizcfon. J. White. Summer. N. Greece. 

— altfsatma. 4. White. July. South of Europe. 

1731. Sibth. m. Or. t. 881. 

— avlrea. 1, Yellow. August. Levant. 1570. 

Syn., Anacyclus aureus. 

— aimtrHaca. 1. White. August. Austria. 1759. 

— buphthalTtio^des, See Rum/ordia buphthal' 

—fa'Uax. See AchHtea. 
—fmca'ta. 1. White. July. Portugal. 1805. 

— mariltima. 1. White. July. Mediterranean. 

1800. Sibth. Fl. Gr. t. 882. 

— mUxta. 1. White. August. France. 1731; 

— nma'onvXa'ta. Italy. 1836. 

— rufhitnica. 2. White. June. Taurida. 1823. 


A. no'bUis (common chamomile). 1. White. 

August. Britain. 
fio're-ple^no. 1. White. August. Britain. 

— puncta'ta. 1. White. August. Barbary. 1818. 


Anthe'phora. (From anthos, a 
flower, and phoreo, to bear. Nat. ord., 
Graminem. ) 

Seed in March or April. Peat and loam. 
They are pretty, and, with the exception of re- 
quiring a greenhouse in winter, as easuymanaged 
as any other grass. 
A. e'legams. A petal. August. Jamaica. 1776. 

— viMsa. August. W. Ind. 1824. 

Anthe'ricum. (From anthos, a 
flower, and kerkos, a hedge ; in reference 




to the tall flower stems. Nat. ord., 
LiliacecB. ) 

Chiefly hardy bulbs. Eich, light soU, or a 
mixture of fibrous loam, leaf mould, and coarse 
«and. Division of roots, or by seeds, sown soon 
after ripening. 

A. albwooi'des. See Omithogalum suaveolens, 
Jacq. Ic. t. 431. 

— canalicula'twm. 1. White and green. May. 

Cape of Good Hope. 1774. B.M.t.ll24. 

ru'fum. 1. Copper. June. Cape of Good 


— caeru'lmim. See PasitJiea ccerulea. 

— cro'eewm. 1. White. June. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1800. 

— echeandioi'des. 1. Yellow with green keel. 

November. Mexico? 1883. B.M.t.6809. 
—falca'tum. 1. White. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1826. Syn., A. vespertinum. 

B M. 1. 1040. 
— flUfo'lium. See Urginea filifolia. 
— flexi/o'lium. 1. White. June. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1796. 
—floribu'ndum. 1. White. April. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1774. 
—fra'grans. See Urginea fragrant, 
—frutefscem. B. M. t. 816. See Bulbine cau- 

— Gerra'rdi. |. White, green. Natal. 1876. 

— graH'Ummm,. i. White. 1879. 

— graptophj/Uvm. J. White. Summer. Socotra. 


— hirsu'tum. 1. White. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1820. 

— hi'spidum. 1. White. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1820. Syn., A. squwmewm. 

— Bookeln. IJ. Yellow. New Zealand. 1848. 

Syn., Chrysohactron Eookeri. B. M. 
t. 4602. 

— Lilia'go. IJ. White. May. S. Europe. 1596. 

Syns.,Phalangiuma,nd Watsonia lAKago. 
St. Bernard's Lily. 

— lilia'strum and var. majut. See Paradisia 


— longifo'lmm. 1. White. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1824. Jacq. Ic. t. 413. 

— Makoya'nwm. 2 to 3. White leaves striped 

and margined with white. 1880. Gfl. 
1. 1007. 

— pUo'svjm. See Omithogalvmi hispidum. 

— plu'mo'sum. See Bottmcea tkyscmotoides. 

B. M. t. 3084. 

— pomeridia'num. See Chlorogalum pomeridia- 

num. B. R. t. 664. 

— ra/mo'swm. White. June. S. Europe. 1570. 

Syn., A. grajninifolvwm. 

— revolvltwm. 2. White. October. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1731. B. M. 1. 1044. 

— sero'tinum. See Lloydia. 

— spira'le. See Eriospermwm spirale. 

— mtphvlreum. See Omithogalum pyrenaicum; 

var. Jlavegcens. 

— trifio'rum. 1. White. September. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1782. Syn., A. Mpedunou- 
latwm. Jacq. Ic. t. 410. 

— undula'tum. 1. White. June. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1825. Jacq. Icon. t. 411. 

— vwriega'tum. Leaves green, striped with 
white. S.Africa. 1875. Syns.,^. Tr«. 

and Phalangium 

— villo'sum. 1. White. July. Cape of Good 
Hope. 1826. 

Anthoce'rcis. (From anthos, a 
flower, and kirkis, a ray. Nat. ord., 
Scrophulariacem. ) 

Handsome evergreen greenhouse shrubs. Cut- 
tings of ripened wood in April, placed in sand 
under a glass in a mild bottom-heat. Sandy 
loam and peat, well drained. 

A.a'lUcam. 3. White. June. N. S. Wales. 

—Jloribu'nda. 8. White. N. S. Wales. 

— iViafo'lia. 6. Yellowish-green. June. Swan 

Elver. 1843. 

— lito'rea. 3. White. June. N.Holland. 1803 

B. E. t. 212. Maund Bot. vol. 3, 1. 102 ' 

— msc&sa. 6. White. May. N. Holland. 1822. 

B. M. t. 2961. Maund Bot. vol. 2, t. 69. 

Anthoclei'sta. (From anthos, a 
flower, and cleistos, shut up. Nat. ord., 

Cuttings in heat ; peat and loam. 
A. macrophy'Ua. 20. White. Sierra Leone. 1820. 

A'nthodon. (From aji</io«, a flower, 
and odon, a tooth. Nat. ord., Celas- 
trinece. Syn., Salacia.) 

Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings of half- 
ripened wood, under a bell-glass ; in hotbed ; 
sandy loam and peat. 

A. elli'pMmmi. 12. Yellow, green. Eio Janeiro. 

— pamieula'tum. 12. Yellow, green. Eio Janeiro. 


Antholo'ma. (From anthos, a 
flower, and loma, a fringe. Nat. ord., 
Tiliaeem. ) 

A stove evergreen tree ; cuttings of ripe wood, 
under glass, in sand and in heat ; light, nch loam. 
A. monta'na. 20. White. May. New Cale- 
donia. 1810. 

Antholy'za. (From amthos, a flower, 
and lyssa, rage ; in reference to the 
opening of the flower like the mouth of 
an enraged animal. Nat. ord., Irida- 
cece. Syns., Cunonia, Petamenes, Ani' 
santhus. ) 

Bulbs requiring the assistance of a frame or 
greenhouse in winter, or to be planted deep 
enough beyond the reach of frost in a dry, shel- 
tered situation ; it will be safest, however, to 
lift and winter in dry place. When grown in 
pots an occasional dose of weak liquid manure 
will be found beneficial. Light, sandy soil; 
offsets. Seeds when ripened, or if procurable 
should be sown soon after being received in a 
cool house or frame. 
A. oeOiMimea. 3. Scarlet and green. June. 

Cape of Good Hope. 1759. Syns., A. 

jU>ribwnda unA A. praealta. B. M. t. 561. 
oi'color. 2. Flowers nodding, upper half 

scarlet, lower yellowish-green. May. 

Cape of Good Hope. Syn., A. oethiopica, 

var. mvnor^ B. E. 1. 1159. . 
rilngens. Eed, yellow. November. Cape 

of Good Hope. Syn., A. vittigera. B. 

M. 1. 1172. 

— ca'ffra, 2. Scarlet. June. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1828. Syn., Anisanthits splendens. 
Swt. M. Gard., series 2, t. 84. 

— Cuno'nia. 2. Scarlet, black. June. Cape 

of Good Hope. 1756. Syn., Aniscmthits 
Cwnonia. Eed. Lil. t. 12. 

— fuea'ta. 2. Yellow, red. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1807. Syn., Tritonia fucata. 
B. E. 1838, t. 36. 

— rrumta'na. 1. Brown. June. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1769. 

— quadrangula'ris. 2. Yellow, red. April. 

Cape of Good Hope. 1760. Syns., 
Gladioliis abbreviatus, Andr. Eep. 1. 166 ; 
G. quadra/ngiila/ris, B. M. t. 667. 




A, epica'ta. Flesh-colour. Cape of Good Hope; 
1794. Andr. Eep. t. S6. 

— tubul&m. Crimson. Cape of Good Hope. 

1796. Andr. Eep. 1. 174. 

Anthomy'ia. A genus of flies, the 
following species of which are injurious 
to plants. Descriptions of them will he 
found under the plants, which they 
A. he' tee. The Beet Fly. 

— bra'ssicoe and radicum. See Cabbage Fly. 

— cepa'nam. A synonym of Phoriia cepetorum, 

the Onion Fly. 
—fiora'lis. The Eadish Fly. 

— lactn'cce. The Lettuce Sly. 
^ platu'ra. The Shallot Fly. 

— tuber&sat attacks the potato. 

Anthono'mus pomo'rum. . Ap- 
ple Weevil. This insect shelters itself 
heneath the scurfy bark during the 
winter, awaiting the return of spring to 
renew its attacks upon the blossom- 
buds. " This insect, says Mr. Curtis, 
" commits great devastation in apple- 
orchards, by destroying the stamens, 
pistil, and receptacle of the flower. As 
sQon as the blossom-buds swell, the 
female beetle begins to deposit her eggs. 
In cahn weather, she selects a good bud, 
and makes a hole in it with her rostrum 
(long beak) ; she fixes herseU at the hole, 
lays one egg, and goes on till she has de- 
posited a considerable number of eggs in 
separate buds.. The bud continues to 
swell, and the petals (flower-leaves) 
nearly expand, when suddenly the 
growth ceases, and the petals wither, 
and assume a shrivelled appearance. If 
one of these flower-buds be examined 
when nearly expanded, a small, white 
grub, with a black head, will be found 
in the centre, which begins to assume a 
yellowish colour ; a few days later the 
grub will be found either wholly or par- 
tially changed to a beetle, and should 
there be a small hole on the side of the 
receptacle, the beetle will have escaped, 
the transformation from the egg to the 
perfect state not having occupied more 
than a month. When this beetle, or 
weevil, leaves the receptacle, it feeds 
during the summer on the leaves of the 
trees, and is seldom to be seen. In the 
autumn, the weevils leave the trees and 
search for convenient hiding-places, un- 
der stones about the trees, or under the 
rough bark, in which theypass the winter. 
Consetjuently, as they commence their 
operations early in the spring, care should 
be taken to remove all stones, dead 
leaves, and other litter from under the 
trees, as well as to scrape off the rough, 
dead bark from them in the winter sea- 
son. The apple-weevil is also very in- 
jurious to pear-trees. This beetle, or 

weevil, is scarcely one line and a half 
long ; its wing-cases are dark-brown, 
witn whitish grey stripes ; its antennae 
(horns or feelers) spring from the middle 

of its beak, and all these parts, as well as 
its eyes and the under part of the body, 
are black." 

There are several nearly -allied species 
of predatory weevils, which will be found 
under the name of CurcU'lio. 

Anthospe'rmuin. (From anthos, 
a flower, and sperma, seeds. Nat. ord. ,, 
BubiacecB. ) Amber Tree. 

An ornamental greenhouse evergreen shrub j 
cuttings in santl, under a bell-glass ; peat, loam,, 
and sand. 

A. cethic/picwm, 2. Male brownish, female green. 
June. Cape of Good Hope. 1692. 

Anthu'rium. (From antfws, a 
flower, and oura, a tail ; referring to the 
spadix, or Arum flower-spike. Nat. 
ord. , Aroidece. Allied to Pothos. ) 
A. acau'le. 3. Green or violet. Spring. W.. 
Indies. 1853. 

— acu'tuin. 1. Dark green. Brazil. 1887. 

— cera'nthe. 3. Spathe green, spadix red-brown. 

Tropical America. 

— aJi'Tie. Yellowish-green. 1855. 

— amce^num. Spathe green. Venezuela. 1848. 

— andi'colv/m. 1^. Spathe olive-green, spadix 

brownish-purple. Mexico. 1855. Syn., 
A. GucvUatwm. 

— Andrea'nvAn. 1. Spathe scarlet, spadix 

yellowish, whitish. Columbia. 1876. 
Extremely beautiful. Of this species 
there are numerous varieties and hybrids, 
e.g., AUan^'rfii, atro purpu'reum, fiore 
a'lbo, Gruso'nif K&lMi, Ortge'sn, and Witt- 
ma'ckii. See Gfl. t. 1293, and Eev. 
Hort. 1889, p. 169. 

— aralicefcfliv/m, from New Caledonia, probably 

does not belong to this genus. 

— Appunia'n'um. Spathe green, spadix violet. 

Venezuela. 1860. 

— Auble^tii. Green. Guiana. 1870. 

— Augusti'nwm. Tropical America. 1865. 

— Bake'ri. 1. Green. Berries scarlet. Spring. 

Costa Eica. 1872. 

— be'llum. 3. Green, red-brown. Brazil. 


— Bindti. 1. Olive-green. Autumn. Brazil. 

— Bomhainum. Spathe green, spadix violet. 

Venezuela. 1855. 

— brachyaona'tum. Mexico. 1860. 

— breviMbum. 2. Purplish. 1887. 

— Bro'wnii. 3 to 5. Spathe green, reddish: 

spadix purplish. Columbia. 1877. 

— bur/ordie'nse. Bright scarlet. Hybrid. 1889. 




A. ea'ndid'wm. See SpathiphyUum. 

— calmeum. Eed. Hytind between A, Andre- 

cmum and A. nymphceifolium. 1884. 

— Chamberlai'ni. i. Spathe pale dull puce 

outside, ehining crimson within ; spadix 
dull reddish purple. Venezuela? 1888. 

— Chantinia'num. Hybrid between A. Houleti- 

anum and A. Ancbreanuvn. 

— Chantrie'ri. White. Hybrid between A. 

nymphoBifolvwm and A. subsignatum. 

— Chelseie'rms. Yellowish at apex, white at 

base. Hybrid between A. Veitchii and 
A. Andreanwm. 

— eolocaswefo'lium. 2. Spathe green, spadix 

red-brown. Tropical America. 1871. 

— caria'tum. Whitish, green. Tropical America. 


— ^ordifo'lium. 2}. Green. W. Indies. 

— coria'ceum. 3. Green. Brazil. 
~— erass^fo'lium. Spathe light green, spadix 

dull green. 1883. 

— ffrassine'rviwm. 2. Green. 

— crue!ntum. Blood red. Garden hybrid. 1886. 

Syn., A. Andreamt/m^ var. roseuTii. 

— crystalli'nuTn. 2. Greenish. Leaves velvety 

green, with frosted veins. Columbia. 

— cvZirifo'lmm. IJ. Green. Brazil. 1860. 

— euspida'tum. 2 to 3. Beddish, purplish. 


— eymbif&rme. Spathe white, spadix salmon- 

pink. Columbia ? 1889. 

— Decha'rdi. See SpathiphyUum ca/nmxtfoUuTn. 

— denta'tuTn. 3. Green. Garden hybrid. 1884. 

— Desmetialnum. Garden hybrid. 111. Hort. 

1888, t. 62. 

— Devansaya'num. Garden hybrid. 

— digita'tv/m, 1. Spathe green, spadix violet. 


— d&minwe''nS6. 1. Dominica. 1860. 

— egre^giv/m. Venezuela. 1860. 

— Edua'rdi. 2. Leaves green, tinted satin violet. 

— e^lega/ns. Spathe green ; spadix green or 

violet. Columbia. 1876. 

— eUi'pticitmi. Caraccas. 1853. 

— emargina'tum. 1. Green, brownish. Tropical 


— eaxe^lsior. Hybrid between A, Veitchii and 

A. omatum. 1890. 
— ferriere^nae. Pale rose to deep red. 1868. 
— fi'ssum. 2. Green. Columbia. 1868. 
— Jla'mdum. 1. Violet- pink. Columbia. 1886. 
— fioribu'ndum. See SpathiphyUum. 

— Frcebe^lii. Deep carmine. Hybrid between 

A. Andreanwm and A. omatum. 1886. 

— GaZeo'ttii. Brazil. 1858. 

— Gaudiehaudia!num. 2J. Green. S. Brazil. 

— Oeitneria'num. 2. Green. Tropical America. 


— gladiifo'lium. IJ. Spathe green, spadix red- 

brown. Brazil. 1860. 

— gla/uce^scens. Green. Tropical America. 

— Glazio'vii. Purple. Brazil. 1880. B. M. 

t. 6833. 

— gra'cile. Green. Guiana. 1833. 

— grandifo'lium. Caraccas. 

— Gusta'vi. 1877. Gfl. t. 1076. 

— Hardya'num. Hybrid between A. Andreanum 

and A. Eduardi. 1889. 

— Harri'sii. Spathe greenish, spadix violet- 

brown. Brazil. 1826. 

pulchrum. Spathe whitish, spadix 

brownish-crimson ; leaves variegated. 
Brazil. 1879. 

A. assi'Tnile, A. Beyrichia'num, A. con- 
sangui'neum, A. erythropo'dium, A. mn- 
thopodium, A. intermedium, A. Jile'ldi, 
A. hmgifo'lmm, A. rubricau'le, A. undu- 
la'tum, and A. UrvUlea'nv/m, are all of 
them but slight varieties of a long-leaved 
form of A. Harri'sii, having a green or 
reddish-brown spathe. and a reddish 
brown or violet spadix. 

A. He'ro. A hybrid between A. Veitchii and A. 

— Hooke'ri. 3. Spathe green, spadix green or 
violet. Tropical America. 1840. Syn., 
A, HuegeHii. 

— HoMetialmum. Eose red. Hybrid between 
A. rrutgnijiawm and Andreanum, 

— Bvmboldtia'num. Spathe yellowish -green, 
spadix rosy-violet. Venezuela. 1854. 

— iiuionspi'cuum,. 2. Spathe bright green, 
spadix brownish-violet. BrazU. 1885. 

— Miterme'diMm. Spathe pale red, spadix rosy- 
Hybrid between A. hybridvjm and orys- 

— isare^nse. Garden hybrid. 1888. 

— Kalbreye'ri. A climber. New Grenada. 

— KeUerma'nni of gardens is a hybrid. 1888. 

— Lai'ngi. Garden variety. 1888. 

— lanceola'twm. Several varieties of A. Harrisii 
are cultivated under this name. The 
true A. Zanceolaty/m is the same as A. 

— LoAUihea'num. 2. Brownish-purple. 1857. 

— Lawreneeal num. Garden hybrid. Rev. Hort. 
1888, p. 12. 

— Uptostal chyumi. Brazil. 1855. 

— leucimcu'rum. Green. Mexico. 1862. 

— Uwtikya'nwm. 2. Ked-brown, blackish- 
violet. Brazil. 1860. 

— Liionia'num. Green. S. America. 1868. 

— Lindenia'nvm. 8. Spathe white, spadix white 
or purplish. Columbia. 1866. Fragrant. 
Syns., A. lAndeni and A. ImMgi. 

— longi/o'lium. 1. Mexico. 1829. 

— lo'ngipes. Green. Bahia. 1854. 

— UmgispaJthum. 3. Guadeloupe. 1888. 

— lu'cidum. 4 to 5. Eeddish-brown, purplish. 

— macrolo'biim. Hybrid between 4. JettcomuMrum 
and vedato-radiatuTn. 1883. 

^ Tnaaroph'jfUum. 2J. Green, glaucous purple. 
W. Indies. 

— maerospa'dix. Guiana. 1862. . 

— Ma'lyi. 1. Reddish-violet, blackish-violet. 
BrazU. 1860. 

— jiutrgarita'ceum. 2i. Sp4the white, spadix 
purplish. Columbia? 

— UaseimiUa'ni. 3. Spathe green, spadix red- 
brown. Brazil. 1860. 

— meta'Uieum. Green. 1860. 

— Miguelia'num. 6. Green, purplish. Brazil. 
1869. Syn., A. Fendleri of gardens. 

— Moorea'num. Purplish-green. Hybrid between 
A. erystaUvnum and A. subsignatum. 

— Mortfontane^me. Spathe crimson, spadix 
white. Hybrid between A. Andreanwm 
and A. Veitchii. 1886. 

— nymphceifo'lium. Spathe white, spadix pur- 
plish. Venezuela. 1854. 

— oehra'nthum. 2. Spathe greemsh-yellow, 
spadix yellow. Costa Rica. 1853. 

— Olfersia'num. 4. Green, purplish. Brazil. 

— oma/tum. 2i. Spathewhite, spadix purplish- 
tinted. Spring. Venezuela 1889. 

— Ottonia'num. Spathe green, spadix bluish- 
green, becoming purplish. Brazil, byn. 
A. Saamdersii. 

— pa'rmm. Purple-brown. Brazil. 1880. 

— ya'timi. See SpathiphyUum. 
-pedati'fidi^- Spadix purple. Brazil. 186e 

— peda'to-radia'tum. 2. Green. Mexico. 1869. 

— per^tapWJl^!^. 185^^^^^ Mexico. 1859. 

— polyto'mmm. Mexico. 1859. 
-yaLta'tum. Vs. Greenish. Ecuador 1886. 

— vurpu'rewm. 2. Purple. Brazil. 1887. 
-radi'cam. i. Dull green. .Brazil ;„ 

— recusa'tum. Tropical America. 1860. 

— refl^xum. Tropical America. 1867. 
-rega'le. Green, pale-veined. E. Peru. 1866. 
-Roe'dii. 3. White. Andes of Santa Martha. 




A. ro'seum. Garden hybrid. 1888. 

— Bothschildia'num. Garden hybrid. 1884. 

— rube^scens. Reddish. September. Brazil. 


— rugo'mm. 2. Spadix violet-brown. Caraccas. 


— Sagitta'ria. 1860. 

— sagitta'tum. Glaucous-green. 1860. 

— ScherzeHa'num, 1. Spathe and spadix scarlet. 

Costa Rica. 

atboUnea'tum. Garden variety. 1888. 

andagave'nse. Back of spathe crimson 

•with white spots, front white, blotched 
red. Fl. Ser. t. 2464. 

bispatha'ceum. Spathes 2, opposite, red. 

lU. Hort. 1890, 1. 107. 

bnixelWnse. III. Hort. vol. 34, 1. 18. 

-. giga'nteum. Blood red. 1884. 

■ lafcteum. White. 111. Hort. t. 607. 

ma'xvmum, a'lbum. White. Seedling 

variety. HI. Hort. 1890, 1. 100. 

muta'Mlis. Spathe white, gradually be- 
coming scarlet. Seedling variety. 1883. 

nebulo'sum. Spathes 2, white dusted 

with red. 

pariMnse. Illust. Hort. vol. 34, 1. 16. 

pygmc^um. Spathe small, spadix stalked. 


Mothschildia'num. Spathe creamy, red- 
spotted ; spadix creamy. 1880. 

Vervcenea'num. Spathe white, with red 

tip, 1884. Syn., A. Vermeneanum. 

— — Waroquea'nwm. Spathe white, spotted 

red ; spadix yellow. 1888. 111. Hort. 
vol. 35, t. 51. Other forms of this species 
have been called atroeav^uinewm, nigH- 
caTis, rotundifiorum, and sanguinewm. 
See Wien. Gart. Zeit. 1889, p. 113. 

WUUa'msii. 1. Spathe white, spadix 

yellowish. Costa Rica. 1874. Syn., A. 
ScherzeriaTmm album. 

— Sellmma'num. Brazil. 1841. 

— signa'tum. 1}. Green. 1858. 

— miilaa/o'rme. Brazil. 1855. 

— spathiphy'Uwm. IJ. Spathe white, spadix 

yellowish. Tropical America. 1875. 

— spUfndidmn. White, tinged pink. Yellow. 

S. Amer. 1884. 

— stri'etum. 1. Bluish-green. Brazil. Syn., 

A. Dombeya/niPm of gardens. 

— mbsagitta'twm. Venezuela, 1860. 

— eubsigna'tum. 11. Yellow. Central America. 


A. subula'tum. Spathe white ; spadix purple- 
red. Columbia. 

— tetra'g<mum. Green. 1860. 

— trilo'bwm. IJ. Spathe and spadix reddish- 

brown. 1877. Syn., A. tHfidum. 

— trine! rvium. 2. Green. Brazil. 

— triu'mphans. Spathe green ; spadix white. 

Brazil. 1852. 

— unda'tum. Purplish. Brazil. 1860. 

— undula'twm. 1860. _ 

— varia'bile. Spathe green, spadix violet. 

Brazil. 1832. 

— Vei'tchii. 2i. White. Columbia. 1877. A fine: 

foliage plant. 

acwnixna'tum. Columbia. 1885. Leaves. 

gradually tapering to a point. 

— Vellozia'num. 1. Spadix brownish-violets 

. Brazil. 1860. 

— mola'c&um. Tropical America. 1859. 
leucoca'rpwm. Mexico. 1859. 

— viola' scens. Spathe greenish, spadix dark 

violet. Venezuela. 1854. 

— Virgo/ sum. Spathe green, spadix reddish. 

• Brazil. 1860. 

— vi'ride. Brazil ? 1855. 

— Waaneria'nwm. Caraccas. 1853. 

— Wculilsii. 2i. Green. Columbia. 

— WahiU^wi. 2. Venezuela. 1880. 

— Waroq'MaJnum. 3. Green. Columbia. 1878> 

— WarecewUczii. 2J. Purplish. 1860. 

— Wildmo'wii. 1. W. Indies. 1860. 

Anthy'llis. (From anthos, a flower, 
and ioulos, down ; literally, downy 
flower. Nat. Ord., LeguminosoB ; Tribe, 
LotecB. Allied to Trefoil.) KidneyVetch. 

Hardy herbaceous, or shrubbyplants ; propaga- 
tion by seeds, division, and cuttings ; the hardy- 
perennial and annual species like a light, well- 
drained soil; the greenhouse varieties should 
have a little peat. 


A. comin'na. 1. White. July. Spain. 1759. 

— hamo'sa. 1. Pale yellow. July. Barbary. 

1821, .Syn., A. comici/na of Poiret, not 

— Iptoi'des. 1. Yellow. July. Spain. 1739. 

— tetraphyflla. 1. White. July. South of 

. Europe. 1640. B. M. 1. 108. 


A. aspcUa'thi. 1. Yellow. July. Cape of Good; 
Hope. 1824. 

— Ba'ria Jo'vis. 4 to 8. Pale yellow. April- 

South of Europe. 1640. ' 

— cytisoi'des. 2. White. June. Spain. 1731. 

— echina'ta. 1. Purple. June. South of Europe.. 

— eriha'cea. 1. Purple. April. Spain. 1759.. 

Syn., Erinacea hispanica. 

— Herma'nniae. 2. Yellow. April. Corsica* 

1739. B. M. t. 2676. 

— heterophy'lla. 1. Pink. July. South of 

Europe. 1768. 

— tenuif&lia. 2. Yellow. July. Capeof Good] 

Hope. 1818. 


A. alpi'na. 1. Yellow. August. Britain. 

— ere'tica, B. M. 1. 1092. See Ebmm eretica. 

— cunea'ta. See Lespedeza. 

— Gera'rdi. 1. White. August. Provence. 


— monta'na. I. Purple. June. Alps. 1769. 

Swt. El. Gard. t. 79. 

a'lba. 1. White. July. South of Europe. 


— onobrychoi'des. 1. Yellow. July. Spain. 

1817. "^ 

— polyce'phala. 1. Yellow. July. Barbary. 


— vulnera'ria. 1. Yellow. July. Britain. 




A. mlnera'ria aMflo'ra,. 1. White. July. Bri- 
tain. Syn.,^4. rustitia. 

hirsuti'ssiTna. *. Bed. July. Europe, 


^olyphy'lla. 1. Yellow. July. South of 

Europe. 1816. 

ru'bra. 1. Red. July. Britain. 

rubrijlo'ra. J. Red. July. South of 

Europe. 1816. Syn., A. Dillemii. 

— Webbia'na. 1. Pale rose. Teneriff e. 1829. 

B. M. t. 3284. 

Antia'ris. (From antja, its Javanese 

name. Nat. ord., Urticacem.) 
Stove tree, cuttings of fiiin wood in sand under 

a bell-glass in bottojn-heat ; soil, sandy peat, 

fibry loam. 

A. tomca'ria. 40. Green. Java. 1844. This is 
the Upas Tree of Java, the milky juice 
of which is used as a poison for arrows, 
and contains a most deadly substance, 
antiarin. It was formerly thought, 
from reports made by a Dutch surgeon 
at the end of the last century, that 
owing to the exhalation of a poisonous 
vapour, neither animal nor vegetable 
lite could exist for several miles around 
the spot where it grew. It has since 
been proved that for this the tree was 
not responsible, but that it was due 
to carbonic acid and other volcanic gases 
escaping from fissures in the ground in 
the low valleys of Java. Severe effects 
have been produced on persons climbing 
the tree. The juic6 of an allied species, 

A. innoojia (Hooker's Companion to 
Bot. Ma«. t. 17, A. toxicaria, by error), 
is harmless. The bark of A. saecidora 
is converted into sacks by the natives of 

Anti'gonon. (From anti, against, 
or opposite, and gonia, an angle. Nat. 
ord., Polygonacece.) 

Very ornamental stove climbers, comparable 
in beauty with Bougainvillea. Difficult to flower, 
and will probably do better planted out in a 
well-drained border, the stem being trained as 
near the glass as possible. 
A, ama'bile. Bright rose. 

— insi'gyie. Rose-pink. Columbia. 1876. Gard. 

Chron. vol. 7 (1877), p. 789. 

— lelptopus. Crimson. Autumn. Mexico. 1868. 

B. M. t. 5816. 

albiflo'ra. White. 1888. 

Antigra'mma. See Scolope'n- 

Antirrhi'num. (From anti, like, 
and rhin, a snout, or nose ; flowers like 
the snout of an animal. Nat. ord. Scro- 
phulariacem. ) 

Hardy herbaceous annual and perennial herbs 
grow freely from seed sown in spring ; the best 
varieties by cuttings, inserted in sandy soil, 
nnder a hand-light. Common soil, if not reten- 
tive of moisture. All hardy herbaceous peren- 
nials, except when otherwise specified. Excellent 
for banks and under trees, but above either for 
the tops of walls. The varieties are very nume- 
rous, and many of them very handsome. 
A, aljti'num. See Linaria alpma. 

— asari'na. 1. White. June. S. France. 1699. 

B. M. t. 902. Half-hard;' evergreen 
— fru'tiocms. See Nememt. 

— glanctuZo' svrni. 2. Roan, yellow. September 

California. 1834. B. R. 1. 1893. Hardy 

Rose, yellow. Summer. 
Syns., A. latifolium and 

A. hifjpa'niewin, 1. 
Spain. 1878. 

A. rupeatre. 

— lani'gerum. See Linarm lanigera. 

— lina'ria. See lAnaria vulgaris. 

— linarioi'des. See Linaria vulgaris. 

— macroea'rpum. See Nemeaia chammlrifotia. 

— ma' jus. 2. Pink, with yellow palate. July. 

England. Syn., A. montevidense. 

hil color. 2. White. July. England. 

cocaineiis. 2. Scarlet. July. England. 

fio're-ple:no. 2. Flesh. July. England 

variega'tum. 2. Red. July. England. 

— me'dium. 2. Pink. August., Europe. 1821. 

— mo lie. 1. White, yellow. July, Spain. 1762. 

Half-hardy evergreen trailer. 

— Nvitallia'num. 1 to 2. Purple. California. 

1888. Gfl. 1. 1275, f. 3. 

— ochroleu'cwm. 4. Pale yellow. July. 

— o'dorum. See Linaria odora. 

— oro'ntivm. 1. Rose purple. June. Britain. 

Eng. Bot. ed. 3, t. 954. Hardy annual. 

grandiflo'rum. 1. Red. July. Spain. 

1810. Hardy annual. Syn., A. caly- 

— s&mpervi'rens. 2. Pink. August. Pyrenees. 

1821. Syn., A. meonanthuTn. 

— Si'culum. 1. White, or yellowish, rarely 

purple. July. Sicily. - 1804. Syn., A. 

— spu'ria. See LinaHa spv/ria. 

— stri'ctum. See lAna/ria apwrinoides. 

— tortuo'sum. 1}. Purple. June. Italy. 

Antler Moth. See Cera'pteryx. 

Antro'phynm. (From antron, a 
cavern, and phuo, to grow ; referring to 
its pleioe of growth. Nat. ord., Filices.) 

Stove Ferns. Division of the roots ; sandy 
loam and peat in a shady situation. 

— cayenne'nse. Cayenne. 

— coria'ceum. Himalayas. 

— lanceola'tum. August. W. Indies. 1793. 

— laU/o'limn. Island of Luzon. 

— obtu'sum. Island of Luzon. Very closely 

allied to A. Boryanimi. 

— reticula'tum. Distributed from the Himalayas 

and Malacca to Aneitnm and Queens- 

— semicosta'tum. Island of Luzon. 

Antwerp Hollyhock. AUhce'a 


Anu'bias. (Nat. ord., Aroidece.) 
A. heterophj/lla. 1. Leaves brightgreen, blotched 
dull yellow. Congo. 1889. 

Ao'pla reniformis. See Habe- 
na'ria renifo'rmis. 

Ao'tUS. (From a, riot, and ous, ear; 
the ear-like appendages to the calyx are 
wanting. Nat. ord., Leguminosce.) 

Handsome small greenhouse evergreen shrubs. 
Seeds sown in heat. Cuttings of haU-ripened 
wood in April, in sand, under a bell-glass. 
Sandy loam and peat, with a little charcoal. 
A. gra'cilis. April. Australia. 1830 

— graci'llima. . 3. Yellow, crimson. May. W. 

Australia. 1844. B. M. t. 4146. 

— inca'na. 2. Yellow. June. Australia 1824. 

— lani'gera. Crimson, yellow. April. Moreton 

Bay. 1838. 

— villo'sa. 2. Yellow. April. Australia. 1790. 

B. M. t. 949. 

^ ericoi'des. 2. Yellow. June. Australia. 

1810. Pax. Mag. vol. 6, p. 61. 
ferriiginea. 2. Yellow. June. Australia. 





A. viUo'sa mrga'ta. 2. Yellow. June. Australia. 

Apa'rgia. See Leo'ntodon. 

Apei'ba. (The local name of one of 
the species in Brazil. Nat. ord., Tilia- 

Stove evergreen trees and shrubs. Cuttings 
of ripe wood, under a glass, in strong heat ; 
peat and loam. Should be curbed in the Chinese 
fashion, by pruning their roots, or ringing the 
bark which induces to flowering. 
.4. aJapera. 30. Golden-yellow. May. Cayenne. 

— kefvis. 10. Green. Cayenne. 1817. 

— Peteu'nw. 40. Yellow. August. Guiana. 

1817. Syn., A. hispida. 

— Tiboulrbmi. 7. Dark yellow. August. S. 

Amer. 1766. Syn., A. hirsuta. 

Ape'ra amndina'cea. An elegant 
grass, whose panicle has slender droop- 
ing branches. 1882. 

Aphela'ndra. (From apheles, sim- 
ple, and aner, a male ; the anthers being 
one-celled. Nat. ord., Acanthacew.) 

Handsome stove evergreen shrubs. Allied to 
Justuna. Cuttings of small side-shoots, taken off 
in March or April, inserted in very sandy peat, 
under a bell-glass, and in a strong bottom-heat. 
Bough loam, peat, and sand well drained, and 
liberally supplied with water during summer, 
until flower-buds appear ; kept dryer and cool 
during winter while resting. A fuU account of 
the culture of this genus is given in The Cot- 
tage Qurdener^ iv. 395. 

A. acutifo'lia. Vermilion-red. October. Co- 
lumbia. 1868. 

— amcefna. Leaves deep green, with silvery 

veins. Brazil. 1888. 

— atrovi'rffns. Yellow. Bahia. 1884. HI. Hort. 

vol. 31, t. 527. 

— av/rantifaca. 3. Orange, scarlet. December. 

Mexico. 1844. B. B. 1845, 1. 12. 

Roe;zlii. Orange-scarlet. Mexico. 1868. 

Syn., A. Roezhi. 

— Chwmissoia'Tia. Yellow or scarlet. November. 

S. Brazil. 1881. B. M. t. 6627. Syn., 

A, punctata. 

— chri/sops. 1887. Syn,, A. squarrosa Leopoldi. 

— crista ta. 3. Scarlet. August. W. Ind. 1733. 

Syn., Justida pulcherrima. 
— fascvna'tor. IJ. Scarlet. Autumn. New 

Grenada. 1874. 111. Hort. 1874, 1. 164. 
— fu'Zgens. Ih. Orange. "Autumn. 1847. 

— glabra'ta. 1^. Yellow. Autumn. S. Amer. 1848. 

— Leopo'ldi. Citron yellow. Brazil. 1854. 

— Libonia'na. Crimson, yellow. Brazil. 1864. 

B. M. t. 5463. 

— Maeedoia'na. Leaves dark green, 

lighter, violet purple beneath. 
1886. m. Hort. vol. 33, t. 583. 

— macida'ta. 1. Yellow. Mexico. 

B. M. t. 4556. 

— MargarHtae. Orange. Leaves dark green above 

with nerves a lighter green ; under sur- 
face rose. Belg. Hort. 1883, 1. 19. 

— rMdiaura'ta. Leaves ^een, with yellow cen- 

tral band. Brazil. 1871. Syn., Grap- 
tophyllum mediauratum. 

— ni'tens. 3» Vermilion. May. Columbia. 

1867. B. M. t. 5741. 

Snitzi'ni. Scarlet. E. Peru. 1876. III. 

Hort. vol. 23, t. 231. 

— orna'ta. Yellow, purple. Brazil. 1864. 

Belg. Hort. 1865, t. 3. 

— Portea'na. 2. Orange. Brazil. 1854. Fl. 

Ser. t. 984. 



A.pu'mila. J. Scarlet. Summer. Brazil 

1878. B. M. t. 6467. 
sple/ndens. Brazil. Gfl. 1. 1104. 

— puncta'ta. Yellow. S. America. 1881. 111. 

Hort. n. s. t. 467. 

— squarro'sa eitrina. Yellow. Brazil. 1851. 

Fl. Ser. t. 809. 
Leopo Idi. See A. chrysops, 

— sidphu'rea. Yellow. Guayaquil. 1872. B. 

M. t. 6951. 

— tetra'gana. 2. Autumn. 1846. 

gra'ndis. September. Merida, Venezuela. 

— viiriega'ta. IJ. Yellow. Brazil. B. M. 4899. 

Aphele'xis. See Helichry'sum. 

A'phis. The plant-louse, or green fly ; 
called sometimes the puceroti, or vine- 
fretter. It is usual to consider that 
every plant liable to be attacked by this 
insect is the victim of some especial 
species ; but we think that further exa- 
mination will reduce the number of 
species very considerably. Difference in 
colour certainly does not constitute a 
specific difference ; for the rose-louse is 
green when the shoots of the rose are 
green, but red when the shoots are of 
this colour. The amount of injury they 
cause to a plant, by robbing it of its 
sap, is proportioned to their number, 
and the time they are allowed to in- 
fest the subject of their attack ; and the 
amount of that injury may be appreci- 
ated by the fact that the hop-louse 
{Aphis hwmuli) sometimes nearly de- 
stroys the entire crop. The green fly on 
oup roses (Aphis roses) is that of which we 
will now offer a few particulars. It is 
curious that these always are most abun- 
dant after the prevalence of easterly 
winds ; and Mr. Jenyns observed in 
Cambridgeshire, during October, and 
Mr. White, at Selbome, in August, 
myriads of aphides, in both instances, 
after the wind had been for some time 
easterly. So fast do they multiply, 
twenty generations being producible in 
one year, and the young in the autumn 
being born alive, and not from an egg. 
Reaumur has shown that one female 
may be the ancestor of nearly six mil- 
lions in five generations. It is needless 
to describe minutely the rose aphis. It 
is usually light green, with green wood ; 
and red, with red wood, with brown an- 
tennse and legs, and transparent iriJ 
descent wings. They frequently change 
their skins ; and these may be seen hang- 
ing about the leaves and shoots of the 
rose. The males may be known by a 
double row of black dots on each of their 
sides. The most effectual of all applica- 
tions for their destruction is tobacco 
smoke ; and the best mode of applying 
it is to cover the bush with a sheet, and 
fill the space inclosed with the or smoke, 
to syringe them with tobacco water. 




Aphis pyrima'li is of a grass-green 
colour, attacking the apple and pear. To 
prevent its appearance, the following 
treatment is said to he very effectual. 
The application must he made every 
other if not every year ; hut once in two 
years may he sufficient, if thoroughly 
well done. Take 1 Ih. sulphur, 1 Ih. 
Scotch snuff, 1 lb. quicklime, J Ih. lamp- 
black, 1 lb. soft soap, and of water suffi- 
cient to make it into the consistence of 

paint. Unnail your trees about Feb- 
ruary, before the hlooni-huds begin to 
swell, and with a common paint-Tsrush 
paint every branch from the ground up- 

A. pe'rsicoB is dark green, and is pecu- 
liar to the peach and nectarine.'ni ravages the plum tribes, and 
is a very light green. 

A /a 6(E, known popularly as the £tocA; 
Dolphin and Elephant, is black, and at- 
tacks the common bean. The tops of 
beans attacked by the black dolphin 
should he forthwith removed ; and 
smaller plants may he syringed with 
tobacco- water, or water in which elder- 
leaves have been boiled ; which applica- 
tions are all fatal to the aphis ; syringing 
with soap-suds, on two or three following 
days, is also effectual. 

A. pi' si is green, and affects the pea. 

A. loni'cera, woodbine louse. Dingy 

A. ce'rasi, Morello cherry louse. Ap- 
pears black. Infests the under sides of 
the leaves, especially on wet soils. 

A. co'ryli, nut louse. Pale green. 

A. da'hlicB, dahlia louse. Amber-co- 

A. ri'his, red-currant louse. Blackish. 

A. ligu'stri, privet louse. Dark brown. 

A. ribis-ni'gri, black-currant louse. 
Transparent green. 

A. la'thyri, sweet-pea louse. Dark 

A. (Cinara) ra'phani, radish louse. 
Females, ^een ; males, lightish-red. 

The aphides on the peach appear the 
earliest, being, as are all the others, the 
produce of eggs deposited during the 
previous autumn. Dxiring the spring 
and summer they are viviparous, and 
breed with extraordinary rapidity. The 
gardener does well, therefore, to scrub 
the branches of his wall-trees, and to 
change the shreds every winter, for he 

thus destroys the pest in embryo. So 
soon as they appear in spring, over each 
wall-tree a mat should be fastened, and 
tobacco, in some mode, burnt beneath it. 
Peas, whilst the dew is upon them, may 
be dusted with Scotch snuff. Over the 
apple, plum, and other standards, the 
only available remedy is a repeated ap- 
plication of quicklime, at the same early 
period of the day. 

The larvEe of the Cocdnella or Lady- 
bird, especially C. punctata, the Syrphus, 
or bee-uke fly, the Hemerohius per la, or 
golden-eyed fly, the ant, some caterpil- 
lars, and many of th,e IchHeumonidce, are 
treat destroyers of the aphis, and should 
e encouraged rather than removed. See 
American Blight. 

The following directions are applicable 
to the destruction of every kind or aphis. 
Whenyouintend tofumigateyour plants, 
in a house, pit, or frame, choose a still 
evening, and let your plants be quite 
dry. Place them closer together, and in 
the clear space thus obtained put either 
an iron pan, or, if you have not such a 
thing, use a hard-burnt garden-pot ; put 
in it a few red-hot cinders that do not 
smoke ; upon those cinders put your to- 
bacco, or tobacco-paper, rather damp. A 
cloud of smoke will immediately rise, and 
will soon fill the frame. As soon as you 
judge it to be well filled with smoke, 
remove the pan, or pot, and carry it to 
the next frame, if you have more than 
one that requires smoking. Be extremely 
careful that the tobacco does not break 
out into a flame, as it is that which does 
the mischief. If you perceive a likeli- 
hood of blazing out, prevent it with a 
sprinkling of water, very gently applied. 
Cover up the frames with mats to keep 
in the smoke as long as possible, The 
next morning examine the aphides, or 
green flies, and if you find any alive re- 
peat the smoking the following evening. 
This second appfication will most effect- 
ually destroy all your enemies. You 
may now syringe the plants pretty se- 
verely, to wash away the dead bodies 
of the slain, and the plants will again 
thrive and flourish in perfect health and 

The green fly on plants out of doors, 
so situated that the smoke of tobacco 
cannot be so perfectly combined as to de- 
stroy them, require a different mode of 
attack, though the same herb furnishes 
us with a remedy against the foe, only it 
must be applied in a different form ; that 
is, as tobacco-water. This can be had at 
any tobacco manufactory, or it may be 
made by steeping 4 oz. of tobacco in a 
gallon of hot water to which a little soft 


■ [58 ] 


soap has been added, in order to make it 
somewhat adhesive, the skin of the aphis 
heing of such a nature as to allow the 
water to run off. Another receipt given 
by Miss Ormerod (consulting Entomolo- 
gist to the Royal Agricultural Society) 
is :^sof t soap 28 lbs. , tobacco J lb. , water 
100 gallons. Another mixture is made 
of 8 parts soft water and 1 part soft soap, 
boiled until the soap is dissolved, then 
add a little paraffin oil, and again boil 
until the whole is thoroughly mixed. 
Apply it to standard roses, by dipping 
the infested branches in it during a dry 
evening, and syringing them the next 
morning. For roses on pillars, or against 
walls, use the syringe filled with clear 
liquor, and applied gently all over the 
shrubs. Verbenas and Calceolarias m 
beds are often, during the summer 
months, much injured, and their beaiity 
deteriorated, by these insects ; also roses 
in beds suffer much from the same cause. 

Aphylla'nthes. (Prom aphyllos, 
leafless, ard anthos, a flower ; the flowers 
on rush-like branches. Nat. ord., Lilia- 
cece; Tribe, Johnsoniece.) 

A charming hardy herbaceous perennial. Divi- 
sion ©f the roots and seeds sown as soon as ripe 
in cold frame ; sandy peat ; requires a warm 
situation, dry during winter. 
A. monspelie'ngis. Blue. June. South of France. 
1791. B. M. 1. 1132. 

Api'cra. (From (micros, not bitter. 
Nat. ord., LiliacecB ; Tribe, AloinecB.) 

Warm greenhouse succulents, allied to Aloes. 
Increased by suckers and cuttings ; soil, sandy 
loam. They are better kept rather dry during 

A. a'spera. 1. Grey. June. Cape of Good Hope. 

ma'jor. More robust. 

-- asjoe'rula. See Haworthia aspervXa. 

— nusarinalta. Cape of Good Hope. 1820. 

— conge'sta. 1. Whitish. 1843. 

— Mtoildea. 1. Whitish. May. S. Africa. 

.— foliolo'sa. 1. Grey. July. Cape of Good 
Hope. 1795. 

— nUgra. See Ha/worthia nigra. 

— penta'gona. If. Grey. June. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1731. B. M. t. 1338. Syn., 

Saworthub pentagona. 
bvllula'ta. H. Yellow. May. Cape of 

Good Hope. Syn., Aloe bullulata. Jaca. 

Ft. 1. 109. 
spire^lla. IJ. Grey. June. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1790. 
Willden&mi. f. Greenish. Syn.,.4. gpi- 

ralis, Willdenow, not Linnseus. 

— ri'gi&a. See Haworthia rigida. 

— spiralis. 1. Grey. June. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1790. Syn., A. inwricata. B. M. 
1. 1455. 

A'pios. (From apion, a pear; in 
reference to the form of the roots. Nat. 
ord., Leguminosce ; Tribe, Phaseolece.) 

Hardy tuberous-rooted climbing herbaceous 
plant, allied to Glycine. Division of roots and 
seeds ; rich garden-soil, useful for trellises, etc. 

A. tutero'sa. 6. Brown, pink. August. Southern 
States of N. Amer. 1640. Syn., Qlymie 
apioa. B. M. 1. 1198. Ground nut. 

—frute'scem. See Wisteriafrutescens. 

A'pium. (From upon, Celtic word 
for water; water plant. Nat. ord., Um- 
belUferce; Tribe, Ammineoe.) 

Allied to Parsley. Seeds, spring, and superior 
rich soil, for the culinary kinds ; common soil for 
others. See Celery. 
A. chiUnse. 1. White. Chili. 1836. 

— grave'olens. i. White. July. Britain. Eng. 

Bot. 1. 1210. 

tricolor. Leaves glossy green, with a. 

silvery grey central stripe, and creamy 
white margins. 1882. 

Aple'ctrum. (From a, not, and 
plektron, a spur ; the flower spurless. 
Nat. ord., Orchidece; Tribe, Lipariem.) 

A hardy terrestrial orchid, requiring a daini» 

shady spot in peat and leaf -soil. 

A, hyenut'le. 1. Greenish-brown, N. Amer. 
1827. The conns of this plant are ealled 
"Putty Boots" in the United States. 

Apo'cynum. (From apo, from, and 
kyon, a dog ; poisonous to dogs. Nat.. 
ord., Apocynacece.) 

Hardy herbaceous perennials. Suckers, divi- 
sion when starting growth in spring, and seeds ; 
common garden-soil. 

A. androsaemif&Kum. 2. Pale red with darker 
stripes. July. N. Amer. 1688. B. M. 
t. 280. 

— (xmnahi'num. 3. Yellow. August. N. Amer. 

— frutelseens. See lehnoca/rpui. 

— hyperieifo'lium. 2. White. June. N. Amer. 

1768. Jacq. Vind. vol. 3, t. 66. Syn., A. 

— venerium. 2. White. June. Adriatic Is- 

lands. 1690. 

Aponoge'ton. (From apon, Celtic- 
for water, and geiton, neighbour ; indi- 
cating its place of growth. Nat. ord., 
NaiadacecB. ) 

Ornamental aquatics, the most useful being. 
A. distachyonf Cape pond weed or Winter Haw- 
thorn, from the delicious fra^ance of its flowers. 
Quite hardy, and may be cultivated in any shallow- 
pond or tank, not less than 6 to 12 inches under 
water. Increases freely by offsets, and self-so-wn 
seeds. Also useful for small aquaria. Offsets, 
loam and peat. 

A. angustifo'liwm. 1. White. July. Cape of 
Good Hope. 1788. HaU-hardy. 

— cri'spv/m. l; White. August. Ceylon. 1820. 


— dista'chyon. 1. AVhite. June. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1788. B. M. 1. 1293. 
ro'seutn. Rosy tinted. 1885. 

— juncifo'Uum. White. 1847. Stove. 

— numosta'chyon. 1. Pink. September. E. Ind. 

1803. Stove. 

— spatha'ceu'm^vl'iiceum. J. Pinkish. Autumn. 

S. Africa. 1879. Half-hardy. B. M. 
t. 6399. 

Apo'rum. See Dendro'bium. 
Apple. See Py'rus ma'lus. 
Aptera'nthes. See Boucero'sia. 




Aqua'rium is the place devoted to 
the cultivation of aquatic or water- 
plants. The majority ot those cultivated 
are exotic, and require the protection of 
glass. If there are only a few of these, 
they may he successfully grown in cis- 
terns, placed in a warm house ; but if 
the collection be extensive, it requires a 
separate edifice. The tank-system of 
heating by hot-water offers a very su- 
perior mode of keeping the water at 
a fitting temperature. The handsomest 
form of house for this purpose would be 
a circular building, devoted entirely to 
the aquatics, because they do not thrive 
satisfactorily in parts or comers of a 
house in which other plants are culti- 
vated. The size wUl depend upon the 
will or the means of the owner. If the 
cultivation of the imperial Victoria regia 
is intended, it ought not to be less than 
26 feet diameter. This will allow a tank 
of 20 feet diameter, and a walk 3 feet 
wide rou nd it. To made it hold water, 
the sides should be made of thick slates, 
fitted so as to be water-tight ; or it may 
be built with bricks set in cement, and 
lined with the same. It should be, at 
least, 3 feet deep, for the Victoria loves 
deep water. The water should be heated 
with 4J-inch hot- water pipes, coiled three 
times round the tank, and two pipes 
should be carried round the house, near 
to the outer wall, to heat the air of the 
house. The roof should be formed with 
wrought -iron bars, and should be sloped 
to allow the rain-water to run off freely. 
The Victoria should be planted on a 
mound of strong earth, the oaseof which 
should be, at the least, 5 feet in diameter, 
and the top 2 feet, and it should be 
brought up within a foot of the surface 
of the water. The heat of the water 
should be never lower than 70°. Abun- 
dance of air will be necessary in the hot 
days of summer, and may be given by 
means of the side, as well as the roof 
lights, of This will cause the necessary 
circulation of air. If the Victoria is not 
intended to be grown, the house need 
not be more than half the size. 

The Victoria house, at Chatsworth, is 
a noble structure for the purpose. It is 
a square building with a circular tank 
in the centre, and the corners filled up 
with eight small tanks, in whichare grown 
plants of a semi -aquatic habit. A walk 
i-Uns round the central tanks, and is 
entered by a short one from each side 
of the square. A walk, too, is formed 
into each comer ; and another runs close 
along the front, thus forming the small 
tanks alluded to above. The diameter 
of the central tank is 33 feet, which will 

give some idea of this truly noble aqua- 
rium. The old lily-house at Kew is of 
similar structure, and is now entirely 
devoted to the culture of Tropical Nym- 
phseas ; the smaller tanks in the corners 
being reserved for the Nelumbium, Sagit- 
taria montevidensis, Aroids, etc., etc. 
The Victoria Regia tank in the new 
house in the T-range is four-cornered, a 
little longer than broad, the corners, 
being devoted to such interesting plants 
as AzoUa, Trianiea, Salvinia, Pistia, 
Pontederia, etc., etc 
ThefoUowingare aquatic stove-plants : 

Arum venosum. 
Cyperus altemifolius. 


Damasonium indicuiu. 
Euryale f erox. 
limnocharis Humboldtii. 
Menyaathes indica. 


Nelumbium speciosum. 
Nymphsea cserulea. 





■ versicolor. 

Philydrum lanuginosum. 
Pistia sttatiotes. 
Pontederia crassipes. 


■ dilatata. 

Sagittaria lancif olia. 


Thalia dealbata. 
Victoria regia. 

Propagation and culture. — Being all 
herbaceous plants, they are to be propa- 
gated as these generally are. Some are 
raised from seeds, which, in general, 
should be sown as soon as ripe, and the 
pots plunged in shallow water. When 
the plants come up, they may be trans- 
planted into other pots, and shifted as 
they advance in growth, till in a pot of 
sufficient size to admit their flowering, 
which will generally take place the same 
season. Instead of being kept in pots, 
they may be planted in a bed of earth,, 
on the bottom of the aquarium. Keep 
the water warm, say from 70° to 75° in 
summer, and leave them nearly dry in 
winter. Nelu'mbium specio'sum requires 
a water heat of 84°. 

Cyperus, Papyrus, Nelumbium, Nym- 
phsea, Limnocharis, Hydrocharis, and 
Sagittaria, will furnish variety enough. 
Aquarium for hardy Aquatics. — -For 
this choose the lowest part of your gar- 
den ; dig out the soil or clay to a mode- 
rate depth ; it may either be of a re- 
gular form, as a circle or oval, or irre- 
fular, which latter we prefer, with a 
ay in one part, a jutting promontory in 
another, a shelving shore here, and a. 
steep bank there, covered with shrubs. 




However small the piece of water may- 
be, a little good taste and judicious 
management will have the best effect. 
Having formed the shape by digging out 
the soil to the required depth, from two 
to three feet, the next point is to make 
it hold water. There is nothing better 
than clay for this purpose : it will re- 
quire preparing to make it retentive of 
water. Take a small portion, say a 
barrow-load, and chop it into small pieces 
with a sharp spade. If it be dry, add 
a little water to it ; then, with a 
■wooden hammer having a long handle, 
beat it well till every part is of a uniform 
consistency, having the appearance of 
clay dough. Spread this on the bottom 
of the pond, about six inches thick. 
Proceed with mixing up and beating 
barrow-load after barrow-load till the 
bottom is entirely covered ; when the 
"whole should be closely and evenly 
trodden down. Do this well and pro- 
perly, and the bottom will never leak. 
As soon as that part is finished, mix 
and beat more clay for the sides. As 
soon as it or a portion of it is ready, dab 
it with the spade against the sloping 
bank, commencing at and joining it to 
• the clay bottom. As soon as this is done, 
beat it with the wooden hammer firmly 
against the bank. If you have plenty of 
clay, ei^ht inches will not be too thick 
for the sides. Remember, the more firmly 
the clay is beaten to the sides, the better 
it will hold water. The clay must be 
quite pure ; that is, have no stones or 
other matter left amongst it. If there 
are any such left, they will serve as con- 
duits tor the water to escape by, and all 
your labour wiU be in vain. Proceed 
-with adding layers of clay upward, until 
you reach the level you intend the water 
to be. CaiTy the clay-puddle two or 
three inches higher, level the natural 
soil down to it, and let this soil be two 
inches or more higher than the clay. 
This will prevent it cracking away from 
the bank. Your aquarium is now ready 
for the water. Previously to filling it, 
however, cover the bottom, upon the 
clay, with a coating of loam about a foot 
thick. This is intended to encourage the 
water-plants to root in. If you can pro- 
cure a sufficient quantity of rough stones 
or pebbles, place them against the banks. 
These will prevent the water from wash- 
ing away the clay-puddle. All being 
now ready, let in the water. 

Planting. — As soon as the aquarium 
is full of water you may plant the aqua- 
tics. The best mode is to have some 
■wicker baskets of various sizes, to suit 
the size of each plant. Fill one with 

soil, planting the species intended for it 
at the same time ; lace them firmly 
down with some strong tar twine, pass- 
ing it under the rim of the wicker basket, 
so as to keep in it the soil and the plant. 
Throw either a plank or a long ladder 
across the water. On this you can walk, 
carrying the plant with you. Drop it 
into the place you intend for it, and so 
treat all the other water-plants. Some 
of them — the water-lily, for instance^ 
have their leaves floating on the surface ; 
but this is not needful at first. They 
(the leaves) -will soon rise to the surface, 
and assume their natural position. The 
water-violet has both its roots and leaves 
floating ; all that is required, then, is to 
cast it into the water, and let it flourish 
as it pleases. 

Some of our readers may wish to have 
aquatics cultivated in tanks formed -with 
masonry, the water to be used for water- 
ing plants in pots, etc. This can be easily 
accomplished by puddling the bottom 
■with clay, as mentioned above, and build- 
ing upon it sloping walls, using Port- 
land cement for mortar. These, if well 
executed, are very ornamental, and of a 
neat appearance. If the tank walls are 
carried up three or four feet above the 
level, the plants are then brougjht nearer 
to the eye. An example of this may be 
seen in the Boyal Gardens at Kew. 
Single plants of this kind may be culti- 
vated in vases, or even in troughs, the 
only thing they ■will require being a por- 
tion of mud at the bottom to root in. 
The after-culture the aquatics will re- 
quire is, if possible, to change the water 
frequently, and keep the surface clear 
from algse, a very difficult process in hot 
summers, even ■with a good supply of 

The following are some of the best 
hardy aquatics : — 

Stra'tiotes aloi'des (water - soldier), 
native of Britain. 

Aponoge'ton dista'chyon, a very pretty 
floating aquatic, from the Cape of Good 
Hope ; yet, although from a ■warm coun- 
try, it is sufficiently hardy to survive 
our severest winter. It has very fragrant 
white flowers. 

Bu'tomv^ umbella'tus (Flowering 
Rush), one of the best of our native 
aquatics, found in ditches. It has beau- 
tiful heads of pink flowers, and does not 
require deep water ; consequently, it may 
be planted near the edge. Cattle are 
very fond of its leaves. 

Ca'lla palu'stris, a native of North 
America, and 

Micha'rdia afriea'na, both plants of 
great beauty. The latter is, on that 




account, ctiltivated as a greenhouse and 
window plant, and is commonly called 
the " arum Hly. " This species is rather 
tender, but will survive our winter if 
planted in deep water. 

Hotto'nia palu'stris, flesh-coloured 
flowers : a native of Britain. 

Menya'nthes trifolia'ta (Buckbean), 
with white flowers. This is another 
native species, growing in shallow waters. 
It is very pretty, and worth cultivation. 

Nu'phar lu'tea, a fine water-plant, 
native of Britain. 

Nu'phar a'dvena, yellow and red : a 
fine species, from North America. 

Nympho^a a'lba (White Water-LUy). 
It loves deep water, with plenty of room, 
and a muddy bottom to root in. It then 
will produce numbers of its beautiful, 
large white flowers. 

N. a'lba, var. ro'sea, one of the finest 
of our hardy water plants, flowers like 
the type, but of a beautiful delicate rose 

N. odora'ta and var. ro'sea, flowers 
large and fragrant (N. America). 

N. tuherc/sa, nearly allied to the above, 
flowers white (N. America). 

N. tubero'sa, var. Jlave'scens (Mar- 
liacea), is one of the most desirable of 
this family. It is perfectly hardy, _pro- 
ducing rich yellow flowers m profusion. 

N. fla'iia, and N. pygmm'a are not 
hardy unless in the southern counties. 

Ty'pha latifo'lia. Though not so 
showy as some species, this plant is 
worth growing, producing its large 
flower-heads abundantly in shallow 

Besides these there are : Alistnaplan- 
tago and A. ranuncvloides ; Elisma 
natans ; Lobelia Dortmarma; Myrio- 
phyllum spicatwm and vertieillatum, 
jPolygonum amphibium, Sagittaria sa- 
gittifolia axidfl. pi., Villarsia nymphao- 
ides, Braseniapeltata, Hydrochmis Mor- 
sus-rance, Pontederia ccerulea and P. 
eordata, Orontium aguaticum. Ranun- 
culus Lingua, Cladium mariseus, Spar- 
gam/wms, etc., etc. 

Aquila'ria. (From aquila, an eagle, 
locally called Eagle-wood in Malacca. 
Nat. ord., Thymelceacece.) 

The Eagle-wood is the inside of the trunk of 
AquUaJria malacoensis and A, Aga'Uochv/m — 
esteemed a cordial in Asia. Cuttings in heat, in 
sand, and under a bell-glass. Sandy loam, with 
a little peat. 
A. malacce'mis. 6. Whitish-green. Malacca. 

1823. A stove evergreen shrub. Syn., 

A. ovata. 

Aquile'gia. Columbine. (From 
an eagle ; in reference to the 

Alps of Switzer- 
Fl. Gard. t. 218.. 

July. Altaia.. 

N. America.. 
May. N. 

form of the petals. Nat. ord., Ranun- 
culacew ; Tribe, Helleborem.) 

A useful ornamental genus of hardy biennial 
or perennial herbaceous plants eminently fitted 
for choice mixed borders and beds. Seeds sown 
in pans, id cold frame in March or open air in 
April, occasionally bloom the first season but 
generally the second. Each species should, if 
possible, be kept a good distance apart, so liable 
are they to cross with each other. A. alpma is a 
rare and choice rock plant. 

A. alpi'na. 1. Blue. May. 
land. 1731. Swf. 
Syn., A. grafidifiora. 

— o/neTrumoi'dee. 1. Purple. 


— a'rctica. See A. formosa. 

— atropurpu!rea. Dark purple. May. Siberia- 

B. E. t. 922. Syn., A. davurica. 

Mscheria'na. 1. Purple. June. Siberia- 


— Bentol&ni. 1. Blue violet. June. Syn., A.. 


— H' color. See A. sibirica. 

— trachyoe^ras. i. May. North of Europe. 


— canade'nsie. 2. Scarlet. June. 

1640. B. M. t. 246. 
aulrea. Greenish-yellow. 

1872. Syn., A. a/wrea. 
hCtea. 1. Pale yellow. 

America. 1836. 

— chrysa'ntha. 2 to 4. Yellow. California- 

1873. Syn., A. leptoceras chry&antha^ 
Gfl. t. 896. B. M. t. 8073. 

fiave^scens. Same as A. caTiadensis awrea.. 

— coaru'lea. "White, blue. Rocky Mountains.. 

1864. Spurs very long. Syns.„A. lepto- 
ceras and A. macrantha. Flor. Mag. 
t. 264. 

— eoem'leo-chrysa'ntha. Garden hybrid. 1889. 
hy'bHda. Blue, white. Of garden origin- 

— flabella'ta. Garden variety. Rev. Hort- 

1887, p. 648, f. 110. 

na'rM a'lba. Dwarf, white. Garden 


— formo'sa. Yellow. Spurs red. July. Rocky 
Mountains and California. Syns., A. 
arotica and emmia. B. M. t. 6652 should 
be A. Hookeri. 

— fra'grans. J. Yellow striped. ■ May. Hima- 
layas. 1839. Maund Bot. vol. 4, 1. 181. 

— Gameria'na. See A. siberioa.' 

— gUmdflilo'sa. 2. Lilac. June. Siberia. 1822- 

Maund Bot. t: 219. 

co'neolm: 2. Violet. July. Altaia. 1822- 

discolor. Bluish-white. June. Siberia- 

jucu'nda. H. Blue. June. Siberia- 

1844. B. R. 1847, t. 19. 

— gloM'ca. * 2. White tinted with pink. June. 

Himalayas. 1839. B. R. 1840, t. 46. 

— gra/ndijlo'ra. See A. alpina. ■ 

— Hooke'rl is the correct name for the plant 

figured in B. M. t. 6662 as A. formosa. 

— hy'brida. 2. Purple. Siberia. B. M. t. 1221. 

— jucu'nda. B. R. 1847, 1. 19. See A. glandw- 

losa, var. jv£unda. 

— karmorie'nsis. 1. White, , blue. June- 

Himalayas. B. M. 4698.. 

— lepto'ceras. See A. coerulea. B. M. t. 4407. 

— Imtgi'smna. Yellow, straw, or reddish. Texas 

and Mexico. 1888. 

— maara'ntha. El. Ser. t. 631. See A. ccerulea. 

— rd'gricans. 1. Purple. Transylvania. Belg. 
Hort. vol. 4, 1. 1 

IJ. Mauve-blue, White. 1880. 
Siberia. 1890. 
1. Purple. June. Siberia. 

— oxyse'pala. 

— parvifio'ra. 

— pvMflo'ra. Pale purple. June. India. 1839. 




A. pyrena'iea. 1. Blue. July. [Pyrenees. 
1818. Flor. Mag. 1867, p. 322. 

— Reute'rl. See A. BertoUni. 

— sibi'Hca. 2. Bright lilac, petals sometimes 

white. Siberia. 1806. Swt. Fl. Gard. 
ser. 2, t. 90. Syns., A. bicolor, A. Gar- 
niericma and A. speciosa, 

— Slcinndri. J. Eed, green. May. Guatemala. 

1841. B.' M. t. 3919. 

— specio'sa. See A. sibirica. 

— specta'bilis. Violet. Siberia. 18G4. 

— Stua'rtii. Garden hybrid. 1888. 

— thalictriftyiia. 2. Blue. Summer. Tyrol. 

1879. Gfl. t. 961, f. 1. 

— viridifio'ra. 2. Green, yellow. June. Siberia. 


— visco'sa. 2. Purple. June. Montpelier. 

1762. Belg. Hort. vol. 4, 1. 1. 

— vulga'ris. 2. Variously coloured. June. 

Britain. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, t. 46. 

a'lha. Pure white. 

atra'ta. Dark violet. Germany. 1890. 

comiffula'ta. Blue, white. June. Europe. 

de'geiwr. 2. Blue, white. June. Europe. 

e'legans. 1. Purple. June. Europe. 

hy'brida. Lilac purple, white. 

inve'rsa. 2. Blue, white. June. Europe. 

stella'ta. 2. Blue, white. June. Europe. 

Vervcenea'na. Leaves variegated. 

WittTna/nnia'na. Lilac purple, white. 

A'rabis. Wall-cress, Rock-cress. 
{Derivation doubtful. Nat. ord., Cruci- 
form ; Tribe, Arahidem.) 

Pretty dwarf rock plants ; division ; seeds in 
Harch or August in pans in cold frame or open 
air ; cuttings under nand-lights ; common soil. 
Hardy perennial trailers, except where otherwise 

A. a'lMda. 1. White. January to May. Cau- 
casus. 1798. Syn., A. caucasiea. B. C. 
1. 1469. 
variega'ta. |. White. February. Gar- 

— alpdstris. 1. White. July. Switzerland. 

1819. Hardy biennial. 

— alpi'na. 1. White. March to May, Switzer- 

land. 1696. B. M. t. 226. 
Clitsia'Tia, 1. White. May. Pyrenees. 

na'na, 1. White. May. Switzerland. 


— amM'gua. 1. White. July. Siberia. 1824. 

Hardy biennial. 

— areno'sa. f. Eose or purplish. April to July. 

France. 1866. 

— bellidifo'lia. 1. White, yellow. June. Switzer- 

land. 1773. 

— blepha/rophj/lla. Rosy-purple. Spring. Cali- 

fornia. 1874. Will flower in January in 
a cool frame, where it seems to do better 
than in the open border. B. M. t. 6087. 

— cceru'lea. 1. Pale blue. June. Switzerland. 


— cilia'ta. 1. White. June. Ireland. Hardy 

biennial. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, 1. 117. 

— coZM'nct. White or pale purple. Naples. B. M. 

t. 3021. 

— crispa'ta. 1. White. May. Camiola. 1818. 

— curtisi'liqua. 1. White. June. North of 

Europe. 1826. Hardy biennial. 

— dasyca'rpa. 1. White. June. Podolia. 1827. 

— fiexuo'sa. Naples. 1832. 

— lasiolo'ba. 2. White. June. Mexico. 1820. 

Hardy biennial. 

— lilaci'na. 1. Lilac. August. Europe. 1836. 

— longifo'lia. 1. White. June. Persia. 1820. 

— lu'cida. J. White. June. Hungary. 1790. 
variega'ta. 1. White. June. Gardens. 

— mo'Uis. 2. White. May to July. Caucasus. 


A. nu'tans. 1, White. May. Switzerland. 
1668. B. M. 2219. 

— ovirie'nsis, 1. Pale red. June. Carinthia. 

1824. Jacq. lo. t. 126. 

— p^ndula. White. May to June. Siberia, 

Jacq. Vind. vol. 3, t. 34. 

— petrce'a. i. White. June. Austria. 1800. 
hastula'ta. 1. Purple. June. Britain. 

Syn._, Carda/miTie hastulata. 
hi'spida. 1. White. June. Scotland. 

— prodcox. |. White. April to June. Hungary. 
variega'ta. 1. White. June. Gardens. 

— procu'rrens. J. White. June. Hungary. 1818. 
variega'ta. White. Handsome rocktrailer. 

— pu'mila. 1. White. June. Austria. 1816. 

Jacq. Flora Austr. t. 281. Syns. , A. bellidi- 
flora, Crantz, not Jacquin, and.^. ciliaris, 

— retrofra'eta. Blush. June. N. Amer. 1827. 

— ro'aea. 1. Hose. May to July. Calabria. 

1832. B. M. t. 3246. 

— SchiverecMa'na. 1. White. June. Austria. 


— Stellula'ta. 1. White. June. Italy. 1817. 

— stenope'tala. 1. White. June. 1818. Hardy 


— stoloni'/era. 1. White. June. Carniola. 1818. 

— stri'cta. Cream. May. England. Eng. Bot. 

ed. 3, 1. 114. 

— Todaro'i. May. 1881. 

— toxophj/lla. 1. White. July. Volga. 1823. 

Hardy biennial. 

— undula'ta. 1. White. June. South of 

Europe. 1810. B. C. t. 1710. 

— ve'rna. 1. Purple. May. S. Europe. 1710. 

Hardy annual. 

A'rachis. Earth-nut, or Monkey- 
nut. (From a, not, and rachis, a branch; 
Nat. ord., LeguminoscB; Tribe, Hedy- 
sarem. ) 

Economic stove annual. Seeds, sandy loam. 
A. hypogala. 1. Procumbent. Yellow. May 
W. Ind. and W. Africa. 1812. 

Ara'lia. (Meaning unknown. Nat. 
ord., Araliacece.) 

Hardy species, division of the plants, and also 
division of the roots. Greenhouse and stove 
species ; cuttings of the ripe wood, in a gentle 
heat, strike quickly. Sandy loam and peat ; 
common treatment. All stove evergreens, except 
where otherwise specified. 
A. aculea'ta. White. Nepaul. 1820. 

— arbo'rea. 16. Green. Jamaica. 1820. 

— arma'ta. See Panax. 

— capita'ta. 12. Green. W. Ind. 

— Chabrie'rii. See Eloeodendron orietitale. 

— chine'nsis. 5. White. 1838. Syn., 4. oanescens. 

— cocd'nea. See Leea. 

— cochtea'ta. Leaves light green, stem and 

petiole marbled. S. Sea Islands. 1882. 

— corusi'nna. New Caledonia. 1879. . Syns., 

A. spectabilis, and Delabra speciosa. 

— erassifo'lia. 10. Green. New Zealand. 1846. 
pi' eta. See Panax longissimum.' 

— Delana'na. See fruticosum, var. Dela- 


— digita'ta. See Heptapleurum venulosum. 

— Vu'ncam. Mauritius. 

— e'dulis. 5. Green. Japan. 1843. 

— eleganti'ssima. Polynesia. 1873. 

— exce'lsa. See Leea cocdnea. 

— ferrugi'nea. 40. White. Trinidad. 1826. 
—Jmfo'lm. Leaves green, with purplish midribs. 

Polynesia. 1876. 
—fra' grams. White. Nepaul. 1818. 

— ge'mma. New Caledonia. 1876. 111. Hort. 

vol. 30, t. 477. 

— Gheisbre'ghtii. See Monopanax. 

— glomera'ta. See Braasaiopsis speciosa. 




A. graeVllima. See A. Veitchii graciUima. 

— granate'nsis. Columbia. 1874. 

— GuUfo'yUi. Polyriesia. 1876. 

— M'spida. 8. White. July. N. Amer. 1799. 

Hardy deciduous. Syn., A. Muhlenber- 
— japo'nica. See Fatsia. 

— kerehovea'na. S. Sea Islands. 1883. 

— leptophy'Ua. 1862. 

— lo'Tigipes. 1883. 

— macrophy'Ua. 6. White. Norfolk Island. 

1831. Greenhouse evergreen. 

— TTMCula'ta. Leaves green, petioles blackish 

purple, dotted with green. Polynesia. 

— MaxiTnoud'ezii. Japan. 1874, Syn., Acantko- 

panax ridnifoUum. 

— mi' cane. 40. White. Trinidad. 1846. 

— moTistro'sa. Leaflets white-margined, grey 

blotched. Polynesia. 1880. 

— no'biUs. 1882. 

— Osya'na. Polynesia. 1870. 

— palma'ta. 10. Moluccas. 

— papyri' fera. See Fatsia. 

— pelta'ta. Tropical America. 1869. 

— pentaphy'lla. 20. White. Japan. 1810. 

Greenhouse evergreen. Syn., Panax 
variegal ta. Leaves margined with cream- 
colour. Japan. 1874. 

— pube'scem. 6. White. W. Ind. 1818. 

— guercif&lia. New Britain. 1880. 

— quinquefo'lia. Garden seedling. 

— racemo'sa. 4. White. July. N. Amer. 1658. 

Hardy herbaceous. 

— regi'noe. New Caledonia. 1879. 

— retieiUa'ta. Leaves dark green vrith lighter 


— rotu'nda. Polynesia. 1882. 

— sambiicifo'lia. o. White. August. N. Hol- 

land. 1823. Greenhouse evergreen. 

— Schegiefri. New Zealand. Greenhouse species. 

— sciadopky'UuTn. See Scuzdophyllum Brovmii. 

— Shephe^raii. Green. New Zealand. 1842. 

— specta'iOis. See A. condnna. 

— spina' sa. 8. White. Virginia. 1688. Hardy 


— spimtlo'sa. Bark green, margined with reddish 

crimson spines. 1881. 

— tema'ta. New Britain. 1879. 

— Thibau'tii. See Oreopa/nax. 

— trifo'lia. See Pseudopanax Lessani. 

— wmtrracuU'fera. 40. White. B. Ind. 1818. 

— Yei'tchii. Leaves brownish. New Caledonia. 


graei'ttima. Leaves with white midribs. 

Polynesia. 1876. Syn., A. graeillima. 

Aranca'ria. (From Araiicanos, the 
name of the people in whose district 
Arauca'r'ia imbrica'ta grows in Chili. 
Kat. ord., Corviferm.) 

A noble genus of chiefly cool conservatory or 
greenhouse evergreen trees. Seeds of A. iinbri- 
ca'ta are wholesome when roasted. Seeds when 
procurable ; cuttings of the leading shoots under 
a bell-glass, in a cool ^lace, but shaded. Good, 
friable loam. A. imbrica'ta wants no protection. 
A. brasilie^nsis is tender. A. Cunningha'mii 
will live in sheltered places near the sea. A. ex- 
etllsa ornamental in a conservatory. 

A, Bala'nsce. 130 to 160. New Caledonia. 1875. 
m. Hort. new ser. 1. 197. 

— Bidwi'llii. Bunya-Bunya Pine. 150. More- 

ton Bay. 

— brasilie/nsis. 70 to 100. Brazil. 1819. Fl. 

Ser. t. 2202. 



— Coo'kii. 20O. New Caledonia. 1851. B. M. 

t. 4635. Syn., A. columnaris. 


A. Cunningha'mii. 100. Moreton Bay. Syn., 
AUingia Cunninghami. Cunningham's 
or Moreton Bay pine. 



— e'legans. New Caledonia. 1866. 

— exce'lsa. 120. Norfolk Island. Fl, 

t. 2304-6. Syn., Altingia excelsa. 

folk-Island pine. 

glau'ca. Leaves silvery ; glaucous. 

— robu'sta. 

— Goldiea'na. New Caledonia. Flor. and Pom. 

1877, p. 39. 

— imbrica'ta. 50 to 100. Chili. 1796. Fl. Ser. 

t. 1577-1680. Monkey Puzzle, or Chili 

— Mwellelrii. 60. New Caledonia. 1866. 111. 

Hort. vol. 29, t. 449. 

— Ru'Ui. 60. Papuan Archipelago. Syn., 

Eutacta Eulei. 111. Hort. new ser. 
t. 204. 

Arau'ja. (Native name. Nat. ord., 
Asclepiadacece. ) 

Stove or warm greenhouse evergreen climbers. 
Cuttings of firm stubby side shoots in slimmer in 
sandy soil, under a glass in a gentle heat. Seed 
sown in a hotbed in spring. Soil, sandy loam and 
flbry peat, with good dramage. A. sericofera is 
a good greenhouse climber.for pillars or rafters, 
and when planted out in light rich soil flowers 
and fruits freely. A variety called albicans undu- 
latus, from South America, is said to have lived 
for several years against-a wall in the Fulham 

A. angustifo'lia. Green, white, purple. Uru- 
guay. 1865. 

— grave' alms. White. October. BrazU. Syns., 

Pkysianthus auric<ymus, B. M. t. 3891, 
Schubertia graveolens, B. R. 1846, t. 21. 
Sckubertia grandifiara of gardens. Tho 
flowers turn yellowish in decaying, and 
some have regarded this as a yeUow- 
flowered variety. 

— serie&fera. White ; pale rose in bud. August. 

Buenos Ayres. 1830. Syns., Physianthus 
albens, B. M. t. 3201 ; B. E. 1. 1759. 

Arbore'tum is a collection of trees 
and shrnbs capable of enduring exposure 
to our climate, and arranged either for 
pleasure or instruction. An arboretum 
should be arranged with a view to pictu- 
resque beauty, and not according to a 
system, as in Botanic Gardens. 

Arbour is a seat surrounded by 
lattice work, and shaded by trees. 
Sometimes these are trained over a 
wooden or iron trellis-work, mingled 
with the everlasting sweet-pea, clematis, 
and othercUmbing.sweeb-scented plants. 
When the treUis-work is complicated, 
and the structure more elaborate, with 
a preponderance of the climbers already 
named, together with the honeysuckle, 
etc., they are described as French or 
Italian arbours. 

A'rbor vi'tse. Thu'ja. 

Arbu'tus. Strawberry-tree. (From 
arboise, a Celtic word for rough fruit. 
Nat. ord., Ericacece; Tribe, Arbutece.) 




Seeds, budding, inarching, the first being gene- 
rally adopted. The finer sorts may also be 
budded, inarched, or grafted upon the common 
A. Unedo. Common soil for the hardy species ; 
sandy loam and peat for those which require 
the protection of a greenhouse in winter. All 
those are hardy evergreens which are not other- 
wise described. 
A. alpi'na. See Arctostaphyllos alpina. 

— Andra'chne. 10. White. April. Levant. 

1724. B. B. t. 113. 

serratifo'lia. 6. Yellowish. Greenhouse 

evergreen. B. C. t. 580. Syn., A. serrati- 

— cttnaridngie. 8. Whitish-green. June. Ca- 

naries. 1796. B. M. 1. 1677. Greenhouse 
evergreen. Syn., A. Umgifolia, Andr. 
Bep. t. 664. 

— den^flo'ra. 20. White. Mexico. 1826. Green- 

house evergreen. 

— h^lyrida. 10. White. September., Garden 

hybrid. About 1800. Syn., A. andrach- 
noides. B. B. t. 619. 

— lamrifo'lia. 20. White. Mexico. 1825. Green- 

house evergreen. 

— MemU/sii. White. N. Amer. September. 

1827. Syn., A. procera. 

— MUle'ri. 10. White. September. Hybrid. 


— mo'Uie. 6. Eose. June. Mexico. Green- 

house shrub. B. M. t. 4595. 

— ■mucrtma'ta. See Pemettya rducronata. 

— pilo'sa. See Pemettya pilosa. 

— phitlyrecefo'lia. See Pernettya phillyreatfoUa. 

— pu'mila. 4. White. Magellan. 1825l. Green- 

house evergreen. 

— speeio'sa. Mexico. 1837. 

— t&mento'sa. See Arctostaphylos tomentosa. 

— Wnedo. 10. White. October. Ireland. 

The Strawberry Tree. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, 

t. 882. 

cri'spa. 8. White. October. 

Croo'imi. Bed. 

integrifo'lia, 6. Pink. October. 

pUna. 5. White. October. 

aalwiSdlia. 6. White. October. 

schizope^tala. ^ White. October, 

ru'bra. 10. Pink. October. 

— uva-u'rsi. See ArctoHaphylos uva-ursi. 

— ■oa'rians. Paxt. Fl. Gard. n., p. 118, f. 197. 

— xala^nsis. 6 to 9. Beddish- white. April. 

Mexico. Joum. Hort. Soc. vol. 5, 
p. 193. 

Arcade is a walk arched over with 
trellis-work, and this covered with 

Archangel, or White Dead Nettle. 
La'mium a'lbum. Yellow Archangel, 
Lamiuw, Galeo'bdolon or Galeobdolon 

Arehange'lica. (From arche, chief, 
and angelica, from its supposed virtues. 
Nat. ord., Umbelliferce ; Tribe, Sese- 
linece. ) 

A. offleinaHis. 4. Gr^en. July. England. 
Eng. Bot. ed. 3, t. 608. 

This is the same as Ange'lica arehange'lica. 
There are two other species, but wonhless. 
Seeds in April ; common soil. 

Arctosta'phylos. (From arktos, a 
bear, and staphyle, a berry. Bears eat 
the fruit of some species. Nat. ord., 
Ericacem ; Tribe, Arbutece. ) 

Handsome liardy or half-hardy evergreen, 
trailing or shrubby plants, requiring treatment 
similar to Arbutus. 

A. alpi'na. 1. Flesh. April. Scotland. De- 
ciduous trailer. Syn., Arbutus alpina* 
Black Bearberry. 

— califo'miea. A variety of A. uva-ursi. 

— earhifo'lia. See A. tomentosa. 

— discolor. Calyx red ; corolla white. Mexico. 

1837. B. M. t. 3904, A. nitida, by error, 

— glau'ca. 8 to 24. Fruit red. California. 

— nitida. 4. White. May. Mexico. 1836. 

Half-hardy evergreen shrub. B. E. 1845, 
t. 32. 

— pa'ngens. 1. White. February. Mexico.. 

1839. Half-hardy evergreen shrub. B. 
M. t. 3927. 

— tom&rdo'sa. White. December. N. Amer. 

1826. B. B. 1. 1791. Evergreen shrub. 
Syns., A. cordifolia and Arbutus tomen- 
tosa. B. M. t. 3320. 

hi'spida. White. December. Mouth of 

the Columbia Biver. B. M. t. 3320. 

nufda. A variety with glabrous branches. 

— u'ua-u'm. 1. White. April. Britain. Ever- 

green trailer. Syn., Arbutus uva-ursi, 
Eng. Bot. ed. 3, t. 881. 

Arctothe'ca. (From arktos, a bear, 
and theke, a capsule ; seed-pod, or cap- 
sule, as rough as a bear. Nat. ord.,. 
CompositcB; Tribe, Arctotidece. Allied 
to Arctotis.) 

Greenhouse herbaceous perennials. Division 
and seeds ; peat and loam. A. repens does well 
in the open border in summer. 

— hi'rta. 1. Yellow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1820. 

— refpens. 1. Yellow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1793. Syn., Arctotis repent, Jacq. 
H. Sohcenb. t. 306. 

grandifio'ra. IJ. Yellow. July. Cape 

ofGoodHope. 1833. Syn.,A.gramdiflora. 

Arcto'tis. (From arktos, a bear, and 
ous, an ear. Shaggy fruit. Nat. ord., 
Compositw ; Tribe, Arctotidece.) 

A very ornamental genus of half-hardy peren- 
nial and biennial plants. Most of them may be 
grown effectively m the open border during the 
summer and autumn months. Easily propagated 
by cuttings in summer in sand under a bell-glass, 
in a shady, cool place, and also by seeds in 
spring. AU greenhouse perennials except where 
otherwise specified. 

A. acau'lie. 1. Yellow, red. May. Cape of 
Good Hope. 1759. Syns., A. scaptgera, 




A. tricolor, A. undvlata (B. E. t. 122), 
and A. specwsa (B. M. t. 2182). 
A. a/rbordecerus. 2. White, pink. July. Cape 
of Good Hope. 1818. 

— arge'ntea. 1. Orange. August. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1774. Biennial. 

— a'spera. 3. Yellow. August. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1710. 
migustifo'Ka. 2. Purple. August. Cape 

of Good Hope. 1739. Jacq. H. Sohcen. 

t. 168. Syns., A. angustijoUa, and A. 



dchova'cea. 1. White, red. July. Cape 

of Good Hope. 1812. Syn., A. bieolor. 
inci'sa. 1. Yellow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1795. Jacq. H. Schcen. t. 169. 

Syn., A. auriculata. 
sca'bra. 2. White, orange. June. Cape 

ofGoodHope. 1812. Syn., .^. TnoouZatot. 
wndula'ta. See A. aureola. 

— aureo'la. 1. Orange. August. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1710. Syns., A. aspera, var. un- 
dmlata, B. M. t. 6836, and A. euprea. 

— bellidiflo'ra. 2. White, red. May. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1816. Jacq. H. Schoen. 
t. 380. Syn., A. pcmiculata. 

— ea'ndida. 1. Yellow, purple. July. Cape 

of Good Hope. 1794. Greenhouse. 
Jacq. H. Schcen. 1. 170. Syn., A. glauco- 

— emera'ria. 2. Yellow, orange. July. Cape 

of Good Hope. 1824. Jacq. H. Schcen. 
1. 174. 

— deeu'rrens. 2. White, red. July. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1794. Jacq. H. Scncen. 
1. 166. 

— ela'tior. 2. Yellow, purple. July. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1820. Jacq. H. Schoen. 

1. 172. 
— fa'stuosa. 2. Orange, red. June. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1795. Biennial. jEicq. H. 

Schcen. 1. 166. 
epiniUcfsa. 2. Orange. June. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1795. Annual. Jacq. H. 

Schcen. 1. 167. Syn., A. spinulosa. 
— fia'ccida. 1. White, red. June. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1794. Annual. 

— Icdms. 2. Orange, purple. June. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1774. Syns., A. glabrata 
(Jacq. H. Schcen. 1. 176), A. grandiflora, 
and A. squarrosa. 

— Leiditlinia'na. 3. Golden-yellow. (Probably 

is the same as A, revoluta.) 

— leptorhi'za. Orange-yellow, coppery outside. 

Cape of Good Hope. Annual. 

brevisea'pa. Flower stalk short. 

— longisea'pa. Flower stalk long. 

— meioMocj/da. 1. White. Purple. June. 

Cape of Good Hope. 1812. 

— plaintagi'nea.' See Venidiimi semipapporum, 

var. vlo/dtaginewm, 

— ripens. See Arctotheca repens. 

— re'ptans. 1. White, orange. July. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1795. 

— revolu'ta. 1. Orange, with darker centre. 

June. Cape of Good Hope. 1820. Jacq. 
H. Schoen. 1. 173. B. M. t. 6835. 

— ro'sea. 1. Pink. September. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1793. Jacq. H. Schoen. t. 162. 
Syn., A, staechadifolia, var. decurnbens, 

— Schrade'ri. Pink. May. Cape of Good Hope. 

1832. Annual. 

— virga'ta. 1. Yellow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1816. Hardy annual. 

Arcua'tion. The same as Layer- 

Ardi'sia. (Fromardis, a spear-head; 
in reference to the sharp-pointed divi- 
sions of the flower. Nat. ordi , Myrsinew. ) 

Mostly useful stove or greenhouse evergreen 
trees or shrubs. Half-ripened cuttings from the 
stem, or pieces of the roots inserted in light soil, 
and placed in strong heat, soon root; also by 
seeds, which require a rather long period to 
vegetate; peat and loam. Stove evergreens, 
except where otherwise specified. Weak manure- 
water given occasionally until the berries be^in 
to colour vrill he found beneficial. 
A. acumina'ta. 7. July. Guiana. 1803. 

— canalicula'ta. 6. July. 1821. B. C. 1. 1083. 

— canari^nsis. 10. Bed. July. Canaries. 

1820. Greenhouse. 

— capita' ta. Greenish-white ; berries bright red. 

Fiji. 1887. 

— colora'ta. 10. Bed. July. E. Ind. 1816. 

— com^laTM'ta. 6. Pink. Penang. 1824. 

— coria'cea. 7. Scarlet. Antilles. 1824. 

— cremda'ta. 3 to 6. Red. July. Mexico. 1809. 

— cri'spa. 2. E. Ind. Berries scarlet. 1809. 

Syns., A. crenata, B. M. 1. 1960, A. cremi- 
Zafa, Lodd., and Jl. lentiginosa. 

eHegaris'. 10. Red. August. E. Ind. 

1809. Andr. Rep. t. 623. 

— exce^Ua. See Heberdenia excelsa. 

— horto'rum. White. Japan. 1866. Berries 

red. Gfl. 1866, t. 491. 

— hymena'nd/ra. See Hymenandra Wallichii. 

— hu'milis. 3. Bed. July. Ceylon. 1820. 

Syns., A. Utoralis, Andr. Eep. t. 630, 

A. solanacea, B. M. 1. 1677, and A. vm- 

— japo'nica. 1. White. June. Japan. 1884. 

— lanceola'ta. 6. Bed. July. E. Ind. 1809. 

— lateriflofra. 6. White. W. Ind. 1793. 

— litora'lis. 4. Red. July. E. Ind. 1809. 

— maeroca'rpa. 6. Flesh. Nepaul. 1824. 


— mamiila'ta. Dwarf. White, tinged rose ; 

berries rose-red. China. 1887. 

— meta'llica. Rose. Sumatra. 1881. 111. Hort. 

vol. 28, t. 421. Leaves with a violet tint 
on the upper surface. 

— odontqphi/Ua. 6. Pale salmon-red. July. 

Bengal. 1834. 

— Olive'ri. Rose-purple, white eye. July. Costa 

Rica. 1876. B. M. t. 6357. 

— panicula'ta. 12. Bed. July. E. Ind. 1818. 

B. E. t. 638 ; B. M. t. 2364. 

— pi'cta. 1885. 

— pwbtdcens. 6. July. 1820. Greenhouse. 

— puncta'ta. 10. White. July. China. 1823. 

— pyrarmda'Ks. 25. Red. July. Santa Cruz. 


— serrula'ta. 3. Red. July. China. 1821. 

— thyrsifio'ra. 6. Pink. Nepaul. 1824. Green- 


— tinifo'lia. 10. Red. July. W. Ind. 1820. 

— villo'sa. Whitish. October. China. 
Tno'llis. Has fine red berries. 

— Walli'chii. 2. Red. July. B. Ind. 

Ardui'na, (In honour of P. Arduini, 
curator of the economical garden of 
Padua, in the time of Linnaeus. Nat. 
ord., Apocynacece.) Now referred to 

A. Hspino'sa. See Carissa Arduvna. 

Are'ca. The Cabbage Palm. (Called 
areec, in Malabar, when an old tree. 
Nat. ord., Palmeas ; Tribe, Arecece.) 

Ornamental and very effective stove palms. 
Loam, peat, leaf -soil, and sand will be found the 
best m&ture. Seeds in good bottom-heat. The 
Catechu yields a most powerful and astringent 
medicine, and its berry is the Betel-nut, chewed 
by the natives of Hindostan, and its charcoal as 
a dentifrice. 
A. a'lba. 30. Mauritius. 1842. 





A. AW CUB. N. Australia. 

— au'rea. Petioles yellow. Seychelles Islands. 


— Bau'eri. See Bhopalostylis JBatteri, B. M. 

t. 6985. 

— Ca'techu. 30. White. E. Ind. 1690. B. and 

W. 276. 

— ctmd'nna. 8 to 12. Ceylon. 

— erini'ia. See Acanthophoenix crvnita. 

— exi'lis. 30. W. Ind. 1828. 

—fla'va. Stem and petioles yellow. Madagascar. 

— giga'ntea. See Pinanga tematensis. 

— glandulifo'r'mis. 30. Moluccas. 

— hu'milis. 6. White. B. Ind. 1814. 

— lute'scens. See Eyophorbe indica. 

— ma'micot. 30. S. Amer. 1822. 

— Tfumosta'chya. See JBaeularia monostachya. 

— Tnonta'na. 30. S. Amer. 1820. 

— n(/bUis. See Oncosv&rma Van HoutteanuTn, 

— Norma'Tibyi. See PtychosperTna Nomumbyi, 

— olera'cea. See Oreodoxa oleracea. 

— pwrpu'rea. Stem aJid petioles bronzy-purple. 

Madagascar. 1877. 111. Hort. n.s. t. 298. 

— ru'hra. Of gardens, see Dictyosperma rubra. 

— sa'pida. See Rhopatostylis Baueri, Eev. Hort. 

1878, p. 360. 

— ieycheUa'rwm. See PTuenicopTionmi. 

— specio'sa. See Hyophorhe aniaricaulis. 

— tria'ndra. 20. E. Ind. 1826. 

pumi'la. 10. .TaTa. B. M. t. 6025. 

Syn., A. pumila. 

— Verschaffe'ltii. See Hyophorhe. 

Arena'na. (From arena, sand ; in 
reference to the sandy soil in which the 
plant grows. Nat. ord., CaryophyllacecB ; 
Tribe, Alsinew. Allied to Alsine. ) 

All hardy herbaceous perennials, except when 
otherwise described. Seeds ; division of the 
plant ; ordinary garden-soil. 
A. ausiri'aca. J. White. July. Austria. 1793. 

— balea'rica. J. White. July. Majorca. 1787. 

Hardy evergreen trailers. 

— Hfio'ra. i. White. March. Switzerland. 

1818. Jacq. Ic. t. 83. 

— br&mcavHis. See A. lanceolata. 

— cce^ito'sa. J. White. July. Switzerland. 

1826. Syn., A, vema ccespUosa. 

— calyci'na. See A. Mediterranea. 

— calycula'ta. J. White. July. Hungary. 1817. 

— caTmdffnsis. f . Red. July. N. Amer. 1812. 

Hardy annual. 

— cane' scene, i. White. July. 1817. 

-^ capiLla!cea. \. White. July. Piedmont. 

1819. Hardy annual. 

— capilla'ris. J. White. July. Siberia. 1820. 

— cherlerioi'des. See Alsine la/nceolata. 

— cilia'ta. J. White. July. Ireland. Eng. 

Bot. ed. S, t. 238. Syn., A. rmdtieavMs. 

— controve'rm. \. White. ' July. Portugal. 

1817. Hardy annual. Syn., A. covnwri- 

— dahu'rica. 1. White. July. Dahuria. 1824. 

— de!nsa. See A. gracilis. 

— fascicula'ta. i. White. July. Scotland. 

Hardy annual. 
— filifo'lia. i. White. July. Arabia. 
— formo'sa. i. White. June. Dahuria. 1824. 

— Gera'rdi. See A. vcma. 
' ^rrima. J. White. July. Caucasus. 


J. Purple. June. Europe. 1820. 

Hardy annual. Jacq. H. Schoenb. t. 355. 

— glomera'ta. See Alsine. 

— grammiifo'Ua. i. White. July. Siberia. 

1817. Syn., A. procera. 

— gra'cilis. J. White. July. Hungary. 1824. 

Syn., A. densa. 

— gramdiflo'ra. J. White. July. Switzerland. 

1783. Bjns.,A.jimii>erinaa,xiAA.trifl(rra. 

A. grave^olens. White. July. 1820. Syn., A. 
' "aides. J. White. Asia Minor. 

— HeUmii. i. White. July. Siberia. 1826. 

— hirsu'ta. \. White. July. Caucasus. 1820. 

— imbrica'ta. See A, tetraquetra. . 
— junip&ri'rM.. See A. grandifiora. 

— lanceola'ta. J. White. June. Switzerland. 

1823. Syn., A. brevicaulis. 

— Imicifo'lia. J. White. June. Switzerland. 

1816. Syn., Alsine laricifolia. 

— langifo'lia. J. White. July. Siberia. 1823. 

— maeroca'rpa. \. White. July. N. Amer. 


— mari'na. See Spergulwria salina. 

— margina'ta. See Spergularia murina. 

— mediterra'nea. J. White. July, Barbary. 

1816. Hardy annual. Syn., A. calycina. 

— moUugi'nea. i. White. July. Spain. 1516. 

Syn., Alsine moUuginea. 

— monta'nd. \. White. June. France. 1800. 

B. M. 1. 1118. 

— mititrona'ta. ^. White. June. Mediter- 

ranean. 1823. Hardy annual. Syns., 
A. mediterranea, A. triandra, and 
Alsine nvucronata. 

— multicau'lis. See A. ciliata. 

— nardifo'lia. J. White. July. Siberia. 1827. 

— nemoro'sa. J. White. S. Amer. 1832. Hardy 

evergreen undershrub. 

— norvefgica. i. White. July. Orkney and 

Shetland Islands. Hardy evergreen 
plant. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, t. 237. 

— otitoides. White. July. Siberia. 1820. 

— pe^ndula. White. July. Hungary. 1816. 

— peploi'des. White. June. Britain. Ever- 

green creeper. 

— pinifo'lia. White. July. Caucasus. 1823. 

— polygonmldes. Eed. July. Switzerland. 1822. 

— procera. See A. gramiinifolia. 

— proculmiiens. Purple. July. Egypt. 1801. 

Half-hardy deciduous trailer. 

— pube'scens. See A. graveolens, 

— purpvjra'scens. i. Pink. May. Pyrenees. 


— purpu'rea. White. July. Spain. 1823. Hardy 


— ramosi'ssivna. White. July. Hungary. 1816. 

Hardy biennial. 

— recu'rva. White. July. Alps. 1822. 

— ri'gida. J. White. July. Siberia. 1823. 

— rostra'ta. J. White.' August. Hungary. 1816. 

— rotundifo'lm. i. White. July. Siberia. 

— rubeHla. i. Eed. July. Scotland. Syn., 

Alsine rubella, Eng. Bot. ed. 3, t. 242. 

— rti'bra. See Spergularia rubra. 

— sali'na. See Spergularia rubra. 

— saxa'tUis. J. White. July. • Germany. 1732. 

— sca'bra. J. White. July. Alps. Europe. 

— segeta'lis. 1. White. July. France. 1806. 

Syn., Alsine segetalis. 

— seta'cea. See Alsine. 

— stria! ta. J. White. July. Switzerland'. 1683. 

— stri'cta. See Alsine recurva. 

— subula'ta. J. White. June. Caucasus. 1822. 

— tenuifo'lia. J. White. July. England. 

Hardy annual. Syn., Alsine tenwfblia. 
Barrelielri. J. White. July. South of 

France. 1820. 
hy'brida. i. White. July. South of 

Prance. 1827. 
visci'dula. J. White. July. France. 


— tetraque'tra. J. White. August. Pyrenees. 

1731. Syn., A. imbricata. 

— trifio'ra. See A. grandifiora. 

— tria'ndra. See A, mucronata. 

— uligino'sa. i. White. July. W. Europe. 

1817. Syns., Spergularia stricta and 
Alsine stricta. 

— vdma. I. White. May. Britain. Syn., 

A. Qerardi. 




A. vertieillalta. See Aeanthophyllum vertieilla- 

Are'nga. (Derivation uncertain. 
Nat. ord., PalmecB; Tribe, Arecece. Syn., 
Saguerus. ) 

Useful and highly interesting stove palms. 
Rich loam, leaf -soil, and sand. Seeds. 

June. Moluccas. 1829. 
t. 277. Syn., Saguerus 

A. sacchari'fera. 40. 
Bent, and Tr. 

— Wi'ghtii. India. 1882. 

Arethu'sa. (A classical name ; one 
of Diana's nymphs, who was transformed 
into a fountain. Nat. ord., Orchidew; 
Tribe, Neottiem ; Sub-tribe, Arethusece. ) 

A handsome hardy terresti-ial orchid ; damp 
shady spots in peaty soil, mixed with charcoaJ 
and sphagnum ; division. 
A. bulbo'sa. |. Bose.purple. June. Carolina. 
B. M. t. 2204. 

— dlia'ris. See Bartholina pectinata. 

— pliai'ta. Andi. Bep. t. 321. See Pogania 


— ro'sea. Syn., Crybe rosea. B. E. 1. 1872. 

Are'tia. (Named in honour of a 
Swiss professor, Aretius. Nat. ord., 
PrimulacecB.) This is now regarded as 
a sub-genus of Androsace, with peren- 
nial species. The species in cultivation 
are A. alpina, argentea, helvetica, and 

A.Yitalia'na. B.C. 1. 166. SeeDionyiia. 

Arga'nia. (From argam, its abori- 
ginal name. Nat. ord., Sapotacew.) 

Fine greenhouse evergreen tree ; layers and 

cuttings, warm pit, in autumn or spring ; the 

latter under a bell-glass. The specific gravity 

of the wood is so great that it sin^s in water. 

A. sidero'aeylon. 14. Greenish-yellow. July. 

Morocco. 1711. Syns., Ekeodendron 

Argo/ay Bhwmnus p&ntaphyllus a/nd sicu- 

lus, and Sid&roxylon spinosum. 

Argemo'ne. (From argema, a cata- 
ract of the eye ; in reference to its sup- 
posed medicinal qualities. Nat. ord., 
Fapaveracem. ) 

Showy border, annual and perennial herbs. 
The seed of A. Tnexica'na is the Fico del i'nferno 
(infernal fig) of the Spaniards ; a purgative and 
powerful narcotic, especially if smoked with 
tobacco. In the West Indies they are used as a 
substitute for ipecacuanha. Hardy annuals, 
except where otherwise specified ; seeds, suckers, 
and divisions in March ; common soil. 
A. albiflo'ra. 2. White. July. Georgia. 1821. 
B. M. t. 2342. 

— Barclaya'Tia. 5. Cream. June. Mexico. 

1827. Half-hardy herbaceous perennial. 
Syn., A. intermedia. 

— grandiflo'ra. 3. White, with yellow anthers. 

July. Mexico. 1827. Hardy herba- 
ceous perennial. B. E. t. 1264. 

— hi'spida. 2. White. California. 1879. B. M. 

t. 6402. 

— mexioa'na. 2. Yellow. July. Mexico. 1592. 

B. M. t. 243. 

— oehroleu'ea. 2. Sulphur. July. Mexico. 

1827. Swt. El. Gard. t. 242. 

^Arge'nteus. Silveiy. 

Argola'sia plumo'sa. See La- 
na'ria plumo'sa. 

Argyrei'a. Silver-weed. (From ar- 
gyreios, silveiy; in reference to the 
silvery hue of the leaves. Nat. ord., 
ConvolvulacecB. ) 

Blegant stove or warm greenhouse evergreen 
climbers. Cuttings, half-npened wood, iirsand, 
under a beU-glass, in April, and in nice bottom- 
heat ; rich loam and peat. 
A. acu'ta. White. July. India. 1838. Syn., 

A. /estiva. 

— bo'na^nox. See Rivea btma-nox. 

— mpita'ta. Purple. July. B. Ind. 1823. 

— cunea'ta. 6. Purple. August. E. Ind. 1822. 

B. E. t. 661. 

— eynw'sa. 10. Pink. Malabar. 1823. 

— kirau'ta, 10. Lilac. June. E. Indies. 1850- 

B. M. t. 4940. 

— Hookefri. Eose-coloured. Himalayas. 

— malalba'rica. Cream, throat pink. July. 

B. Ind. 1823. 

— oma'ta. See Rivea ornata. 

— poma'cea. Pink. Mysore. 1818. 

— specie/ sa. 10. Bed. July. E. Ind. 1818. 

B. M. t. 2446. 

— sple'ndens. 1. Pink. November. E. Ind. 

1820. Syns., Iponuea splendens, B. M. 
t. 2628, and Lettsomia eplendens. 

— unijk/ra. See Rivea hypocrateriformis. 

— zeyla'nica. Bosy, crimson eye. India, Ceylon. 

1869. Syns., Calonyctionsanguinev/m&jid 
Rivea zeyUmica. 

Argyrochse'ta. See Parthe'- 

Argyrophy'ton Dougla'sii. See 
Argyroxy'phium sandwice'nse. 

Argyroxy'phium. (From argyros, 
silver, and xyphion, a corn-flag ; on ac- 
count of the silvery leaves, which in form 
resemble those of a Gladiolus. Nat. ord., 
Compositm. ) 

An exceedingly ornamental greenhouse peren- 
nial. Seeds. Rich sandy loam and leaf-mould. 
A. sa/ndwieelnse. Sandwich Islands. 1872. Syn,, 
Argyrophyton Douglasii. Ic. PI. t. 76. 

A'ria. See Py'rus. 

Arisse'nia. (From aron, an arum 
and Sana, a standard ; in reference to 
the close affinity to Arum. Nat. ord., 
Aracem. ) 

Interesting cool greenhouse tuberous-rooted 
perennials. Division of their tubers ; loam and 
peat. For general culture, see Abum. 
A. ano'malwm. f. Greenish, and brown. Perak. 

— atrorvHens. Spathe green outside, purple 

and white within. May. N. America. 
Syn., Arwm triphyllv/m, var. zehrinum. 
B. M. t. 960. 

— eoncinnum. 2. Spathe striped white and 

green, or white and purple ; spadix green 
or purple. Spring. Sikkim. 1871. B. M. 
t. 5914. 

— curva'tum. 2 to 4. Spathe green and purple- 

brown ; spadix green. Spring. Hima- 
layas. 1871. Syn., A. heUiborifoliwm. 
B. M. t. 5931. 

— draco'ntivm. 2. June. Green. N. Amer. 

1769. Hardy. B. E. t. 668. 




A. fimbria' turn. Spathe brownish purple, with 
whitish longitudinal bands ; spadix 
whip-Uke, covered with purplish threads. 
G. C. 1884, vol. 22, p. 680. 

H.OWEKS OF ARISjEMA dracontium. 

— galea' turn. Spathe green, with white ribs ; 

spadix white. SikMm. May. 1879. 

— Grifl'thii. ItolJ. Spathe brown-violet, with 

green veins ; spadix brown-violet. Sik- 
lim. Spring. 1879. A remarkably hand- 
some plant. Syn., A. Bookerianwm, 
probably hardy, 

— macrospa'tha. Pink. July. Morelia. 1839. 


— Murra'yi. li. March. Bombay. 1847. Stove. 

B. M. t. 4388. 

— nepetnhaiJdas. Spathe ochre, brown and 

green; spadix yellowish. E.Himalayas. 
1879. B. M. t. 6446. 

— papSlo'sum. Green, white. Ceylon. 1864. 

— pu'khrum. IJ. Spathe green and white ; 

spadix green. Spring. India. 1879. 

— ringens. \. May. .Japan. 1800. 
prfkccx. Green, white, purple. Japan. 

B. M. t. 6267. 
Siebo'ldii. Japan. 1857. 

— 8peGi&8v/m. 2. Purple, greenish. March. 

Temperate Himalayas. 1872. G. C. 
1879, vol. 12, p. 585. 

— tema'tum. |. Purple. May. Japan. 1774. 


— triphy'Uum. %. Brown. May. N. Amer. 

1664. Hardy. Syns., A. zebrina and 
Arum trvpTvyllwm. 

— u'tiU. 1 to ij. Spathe purple-brown, vrith 

green ribs ; spadix purple-brown. Sik- 
kim. Spring. 1879. B. M. t. 6474. 

— Wi'ghtii. Green. Ceylon. 1864. 

— Wra'yi. IJ. Green, white. Perak. 1889. 

Arisa'rUm. (Derivation doubtful. 
Nat. ord., Aroidem.) 

Curious hardy herbaceous perennials, of little 
horticultural value, peaty soil, division, or seeds. 
A. probosci'dewm. Eootstook creeping. Spathe 
greyish below, olive-green above. Feb- 
ruary. S. Italy. B. M. t. 6634. 

— mdga're. 1. Rootstock tuberous. Spathe 

livid purple. May. S. Europe. 1696. 
B. M. 6023. Syn,t ArumArisaruTn. 

Ari'stea. (From arista, a point or 
beard ; in reference to the rigid points of 
the leaves. Nat. ord., IridacecB; Tribe, 

The least conspicuous plants of this order. 
Their leaves form the chief herbage for cattle 
at the Cape of Good Hope. Greenhouse plants. 
Seed and divisions in March or April ; sandy 
loam and peat. 

A. capita'ta. 3. Blue. July. Cape of Good 
Hope. 1790. B. M. t. 605 (excluding 
synonyms). Syn., .4. major. Andr. E«p. 
1. 160. 

— cya'nea. J. Blue. June. Cape of Good Hope. 

1759. B. M. t. 458. 

— melaleu'ca. 1. Pale blue. June. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1796. B. M. t. 1277. 

— platycau'lis. 1. Blue. Pondoland. 1887. 

— pusi'lla. i. Blue. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1806. B. M. 1. 123. 

— spira'lis. 1. Pale blue. May. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1796. B. M. t. 520. 

Aristolo'chia. Birthwort. (From 
aristos, best, and locheia, parturition ; 
its supposed medicinal character. Nat. 
ord., AristolochiacecB.) 

Herbaceous and climbing plants, the first by 
division of the roots ; hardy climbing ones by 
division of the roots, and layers in spring or 
autumn. Stove plants ; cuttings of fine wood, 
in sand, in heat, under a bell-glass. Sandy loam 
for the hardy; peat and loam for the tender 


A. arka'nsa. 20. Purple. July. Arkansas. 
1824. Deciduous climber. 

— bceftiea. 6. Purple. June. Spain. 1696. 
Deciduous climber. 

— chMnsis. 6. Purple, green. September. 
W. Ind. 1832. Deciduous hall-hardy. 

— clemati'tis. 2. Yellow. July. Britain. 
Herbaceous perennial. 

— lo'jiga. 2. Purple. July. South of Europe. 
1548. Deciduous trailer. 

— rruwrade'nia^ Green, brown. May. Mexico. 

— pa'llida. 2. White, purple. Italy. 1640. 
Herbaceous perennial. 

— pistolo'chia, 2. Purple. July. South of 
Europe. 1597. Deciduous trailer. 

— sagitta'ta. 1. Purple. July. N. Amer. 
1819. Herbaceous perennial. 

— serpenta'ria. 1. Dark purple. July. N. 
Amer. 1632. Decidnous trailer. 

— sma'rujn. Green. China. 1859. 

— si'pho. 30. Yellow, brown. July. N. Amer. 
1763. Deciduous climber. 

— tamento'sa. 20. Purple. July. N. Amer. 
1799. Deciduous climber. 


A. alti'ssvma. Yellow, brown. June to August, 
Sicily. . B. M. t. 6586. 

— a/rbore' scene, 20. Yellow, purple. July, 
America. 1737. Evergreen shrub. 

— eilia'ta. Purple, yellow. Buenos Ayres. 

— glam'ea. 6. Purple. Barbary. 1786. 

— hi'rta. 2. Purple. June. Asia Minor. 1769. 
Herbaceous perennial. 

— rotu'nda. 2. Dark purple. July. South of 
Europe. 1596. Herbaceous perennial. 

— eaUpvnx. Cream, veined purple. Lip vnth 
central yellow blotch. Paraguay. 1886. 

— sempervirens. 4. Purple. June. Candia. 


A. aeumina'ta. 10. Purple. Mauritius. 1822. 

— wnguiei'da. 6. White, brown. December. 
New Grenada. 1846. Twining evergreen. 

— a/rbdrea. Brown, purple. New Grenada. 1862. 

— ba/rba!ta. Brown, reticulated witli green, and 
bearded with dark purple hairs. Vene- 
zuela. 1870. 

— bUoba'ta. 10. Purple. 1824. 

— bractea'iM. 3. Purple. July. E. Ind. 1793. 
Evergreen trailer. 

— braeUie^nsis. 20. Yellow. Brazil. 1620. 

— caudalta. 5. Lurid. June, Brazil, 1828, 
Deciduous twiner. 




A. ea/udatafae!tem. 20. Purple, yellow. June. 
W. Ind. 1832. 

— eHi&sa. 6. Purple, yellow. September. 

BrazU. 1829. 

— clypea'ta. White, deep purple. Columbia. 

~ eordifo'lia. 80. Creamy -yellow, lurid purple. 
Mexico. 1871. 

— eymbi'fera. 20. Purple. July. St. Paul. 1^9. 

— deltoi'dea varwga'ta. Leaves variegated with 

white. Columbia. 1870. 

— DuchaJrtei. Cream-white, brown. Upper 

Amazons. 1868. Syn., A. Ruiziana. 

— ^legans. Yellowish-green, white, and red- 

puiple. Brazil. 1885. B. M. t. 6909. 
— fioribu'nda. Purplish -red, with yellow veins. 

Brazil. 1868. 
— fcdtida. 20. July. Mexico. 1822. 

— gtUea'ta. Climber. Cream-coloured, with 

purplish veins. New Grenada. 1873. 

— Qibelrtii. Yellow, purple. Paraguay. 

— gwa'ntea. 20. Yellow, brown. July. Brazil. 

— gigas. 6. White, brown. June. Guate- 

mala. 1842. Deciduous' climber. 

— Goldiea'TM. Climber. Flowers enormous, 

measuring 23 in. in length, by 11 in. 
diameter ; outside greenish, inside deep 
yellow with chocolate veins. Old Cala- 
bar River. 1867. The native children 
use the flowers as hats. 

— grandifio'ra. 20. Jamaica. 1824. 

— hasta'ta. 16. July. Cuba. 1822. 

— hi'ans. Bronzy-green, veined and spotted 

purple-brown. Venezuela. 1887. 

— hyperoo'rea. 20. Purple. May. India. 1836. 

— i'ndiea. 10. Purple. July. B. Ind. 1780. 

— labia' sa. 20. Purple, green, yellow. July. 

Brazil. 1821. 

— leuemwulra. Purple-brown. September. 

Magdalena. 1858. 

— longicavda'ta. Climber." Creamy-white vrith 

purple veins. British Guiana. 1890. 

— Ivngifo'lia. Purple-brown. Climber. Hong 

Kong. B. M. t. 6884. 

— ma'xima. 20. Purple. July. New Spain. 


— odorati'ssvma. 10. Purple. July. Jamaica. 


— t)mithoce!phala. 20. Purple, brown. October. 

Brazil. 1838. 
— pcmd/urif&rmis. 10. CaraccEis. 1823. 

— ridi'ciUa. Tawny, with purple-brown veins. 

Stove climber. B. M. t. 6934. 

— ri'ngens. 20. Purple, green, yellow. July. 

Brazil. 1820. Syn., A. brazUiermi'. 

— Roxbu'rghU. September. India. 1881. 

— sacca'ta. 20. Purplish-red. September. 

Sylhet. 1829. Deciduous climber. 

— suriname^fisis. See A, trUobata. 

— Thwaite'sii. 3. Yellow. March. Old Calabar. 


— tricauda'ta. Dark purple-brown. August. 

Mexico. 1866- 

— tri'fiia. 15. Green. Caraccas. Deciduous 


— trUoba/ta. 6. Purple. June. S. Amer. 1775. 

Syn., A. surina/mensis. 

— ungidifo'lia. Brownish-purple. June. La- 

buan. 1880. 

— Westla'neii. Climber. Greenish-yellow, veined 

purple-brown. China. 1888. B.M.t.7011. 

Aristote'lia. (In memoiy of the 
gcsaA Aristotle. Nat. ord., Tiliacece.) 

A. Ma'cqid produces edible berries, of a dark 
purple colour, and vfine is made from them m 
Chili. It is a hardy evergreen shrub. Layers 
in autumn, and cuttings in April, in sand, under 
a hand-light. Common, sandy soil. 
A. Braithwai'tei. White. New Hebrides. 1881. 

— Ma'cgui. 4. Whitish-green. May. Chili. 

1735. Wats. Dendr. 1, t. 44. 

A. Ma'cgui vwHega'ta. 4. Whitish-green. May. 

— raoemo'sa. 6 to 20. New Zealand. 1873. 

Armeni'aca. SeePnmus. A. vul- 
garis is the Apricot. 

Arme'ria. Thrift. (The Latin name 
for a species of Pink. Nat. ord., Flum- 

All ornamental hardy herbaceous perennials, 
except when otherwise specified. Division of 
the plant ; seeds in spring ; sandy, loamy soil. 
The tender kinds require a well drained soil, and 
should receive the protection of a frame, or pit, 
during winter. 
A. alpi'na. 1. Purple. July. Carinthia. 

— arena'ria. 1. Piik. June. France. 

— ba/tiea hi'rta. 1. Pink. July. N. Africa. 

1820. Greenhouse. 

— ccBpit&sa. 1. Pink. June. South of Europe. 

1817. Gfl. 1. 1192. Syn., A. humUis. 

— oephalo'tes. 1. Rose. June.. S. Europe. 1800. 

B. M. t. 4128. Syns., A. farmosa, lati- 
folia, mawritamca, and paeudo-a/rmeria. 

— dmtitmla'ta. 2. Mesh. June. . Naples. 1816. 

— dianthoi'des. 1. Pink. June. Europe. 1810. 
— faseicula'ta. 2. Purple. July. Portugal. 

Greenhouse evergreen shrub, B. E. 
1841, t. 21. 

— hi'rta. See A. bcetica hi/rta. 

— hu'Tnilis. See A. ccespitosa. 

— ju'ncea. J. Rose pink. June. South Europe. 
— juniperi/o'lia. J. Pink. June. Spain. 1818 

— latijo'lia. See A. cce^tosa. 

— litora'lis. 1. Pink. July. South of Europe. 

— mari'tvma. See A. vulgaris. 

— maurita'niea. See A. cephalotes. 

— pinif&lia. 1. Pink. June. Portugal. 

— pla/titagi'nea. 1. Bed. June. South of 

Europe. 1818. Eng. Hot. ed. 3, 1. 1154. 

leuca'Ttitha. White flowered. Syns., A. 

(dliacea, plcmtaginea cUba, and A. scorzo- 

— pu^ngens. 1. Pink. June. Spain. 1818. 

— UTidvia'ta. White. Greece. 1888. 

— mUga'ris. 1. Red. July. Europe. Syns., 

A. maritima and Statice Armeria. Eng. 
Bot. ed. 3, 1. 1152. 

a'lba. i. White. September. Gardens. 

eocei'nea. J. Red. September. Gardens. 

Ame'bia. (Arabic name of the plant. 
Nat. ord., Boraginacece.) 

Pretty, hardy herbaceous plants. A echioides 
propagated by the offsets taken with a heel -in 
autumn, in sand under a bell-glass, and by root 
cuttings pegged in saucers of sand in warm pit. 

A. comu'ta. li. Yellow, brown. Afghanistan 

— eehioi'des. f. Yellow. June. Armenia. 

B. M. t. 4409. 

— GriM'thii. |. Orange, black. Afghanistan. 

Annual. B. M. t. 5266. 

— hispidi'ssima. 2. Blue. May. Egypt. 1817. 

Syn., Anchusa asperrima. 

A'mica. (From amahis, lamb-skin ; 
in reference to the texture of the leaves. 
Nat. ord., Cornpositm; Tribe, Senecioni- 
decB. Allied to Groundsel.) 

Hardy, dwarf herbaceous plants ; division of 
the plants in spring or autumn. Seeds. They 
like a little peat incorporated with the soil. 
A. Ardnievum. See Doronicum latifolium. 

— bellidia' strum. See Aster bettidiastrum. 

— Chamisso'nis. 2. Yellow. July. N. America. 

— Clu'sii. See Doronicum glaeiale. 




A. cm'da'ta. See Dtyronicum coluTtints. 

— co'rswja. See Doronicum corsicum. 

— doro'nicv/m. See Senedo Dwonicv/m, 
—folio' 8a. 2. Pale yellow. August. United 

— glacia'lia. Yellow. July. Switzerland. 1823. 

— Imii'gera. Sea Senedo la/natus. 

— mtmtttlna. 1. Yellow. July. Europe. 1731. 

B. M. 1. 1749. Mountain Tobacco. Syn., 
A. helvetica. 

— scorpimldes. See Doronicwm latifolium. 

Amoldia. SeeDimorphothe'ca. 

Amopo'gon. SeeUrosjje'rmum. 
(Nat. ord., Compositce ; Tribe, Cicho- 
racecB. ) 

A. a'sper. See Urosp&nmt/m ^^croideSy var. aspe- 

— eapdnsis. See Uroepermmm picroides, var. 


— Dalecha''mpi. See TfrospermuTn Dalecha/mpii. 

— picroi'des. See UrospentvuTn picroides. 

Aro'nia. See Pyrus, 

Aro'nicum alta'icum. SeeDo- 
ronicum altaicum. 

Arpophy'Uum. (From arpe, a 
scimitar, and phyllon, a leaf ; the leaf 
is scimitar or sword-shaped. Nat. ord., 

stove evergreen epiphyte. Soil, turfy loam, 
fibrous peat and cbarcoal, with thorough drain- 

A. ea/riina'le. 1. Rose. Summer. New Gre- 
nada. Fescatorea, vol. 1, t. 45. 

— giga'nteum. 2. Dark purple, rose. April. 

Mexico. Warn. Sel. Oroh. t. 39. 

— spica'tum. 1. Purple. April. Guatemala. 

1839. B. M. t. 6022. 

Arraca'cia. (its Spanish name in 
South America. Nat. ord., UmbellifercB; 
Tribe, AmminecB. Allied to Conium.) 

Half-hardy perennial, producing large tube- 
rous esculent roots, not unlike parsnips, but of 
a better quality, highly esteemed in South 
America, where it is prepared in the same man- 
ner as potatoes. Division of the roots; rich 
A. eaculelnta. 2. White. July. Santa F6. 

1823. Syn., Cmiwin Arraeacha. B. M. 

t. 3092. 

Arrhenathe'rtun. . (From arrhen, 
a male, and ather, a point ; on account 
of the awns on the male spikes. Nat. 
ord., ChramineeB; Tribe, Avenem.) 

Perennial grasses ; seeds ; division. Common 
soil, as for any other grass. 
A. avenalcewm. 5. June. Britain. Syns., Avena 

elatiar and Solcus avenaceus. Eng. Bot. 

ed. 3, 1. 1742. 

iriM'tieiun. 4. Apetal. July. Scotland. 

podo'mm. 3. Apetal. July. Germany. 

Arrow-head. Sagitta'ria. 

Arrow-root. Marantaarundinacea. 

Arta'botrys. (From artao, to sus- 
pend or support, and hotrys, grapes ; in 
reference to the way the fruit is sup- 
ported by the curious tendril. Nat. ora., 

In Java the leaves of this plant are held to be^ 
invaluable against cholera. Stove evergreen 
shrub. Cuttings of ripened wood in sand, under 
a bell-glass, and in bottom-heat, in March or 
April. Sandy loam and peat, with a little rotten 
A. odarati'asima. 6. Eeddish-brown. July. 

Malay Archipelago. 1768. B. K. 

t. 423. Syn., Anona hexapetala. 

Arta'nthe. See Piper. 

Artane'ma. (From artao, to sup- 
port, and nema, a filament; in reference 
to a tooth-like process growing on th& 
longer filaments. Nat. ord., Scrqphu- 
lariaceoe. AUied to Torenia. ) 

A greenhouse evergreen shrub. Seeds ; cut- 
tings of the half-ripened shoots in autumn or 
sprmg. May be grown in the open during sum- 
mer, but it will require the shelter of a frame or 
pit in winter. Sandy loam and a little peat. 
A. fimbria' twm. 3. Pale blue. August. More- 
ten Bay. 1830. Sweet Fl. Gard. ser. 2,, 
t. 284. Syn., Torenia scalrra, B. M. 
t. 3104. 


Artemi'sia. Wormwood. 
Artemis, one of the names of 
Nat. ord., Compositas; Tribe, 
mJdecB. ) 

Various species of Artemisia, or Wormwoods, 
have been used as tonic, bitter, and aromatic- 
medicines from remote ages. All hardy herba- 
ceous perennials, except where otherwise speci- 
fied. Annuals, by seed ; those with branching, 
shrubby stems, and the greenhouse varieties,, 
which are mostly shrubby, by cuttings ; thehardy 
species, by dividing the roots. For greenhouse 
kinds, sandy loam, well drained ; for the others, 
common soil. The dwarf growing silvery leaved 
species are favourite rock plants. 
A. abro'tanum. 4. Yellow, green. August. 
Europe. 1648. Hardy deciduous shrub.. 

hu'itme. \i. Yellow, green. September.- 

South of Europe. 
toholiskia'nwm. 5. Yellow, green. Sep- 

— Ada'msii. 10. Yellow, green. October- 

China. 1732. Syn., A. tenui/olia. 

— A'fra. 3. White. August. Greenhouse ever- 

green shrub. Jacq. H. Schcen. t. 467 

— alpi'na. 1. Yellow, green. July. Caucasus 


— anethUo'lia. 4. Yellowish-green. Autumn- 

Siberia. 1816. 

— apri'ca. See A. frigida. 

— arhore' scene. 10. July. Levant. 1640. Hardy- 

evergreen shrub. Sibth. Fl. Gr. t. 866 

— arge^ntea. IJ. Yellow, green. June. Ma- 

deira. 1777. Greenhouse evergreen 

— armeni'aca potentilltBfo'lia. 1. July. Sibe- 

ria. 1818. Syn., A. potentillcefolia. 

— arragone'nsis. 1. Yellow, greon. July. 

Spain. 1839. Half-hardy evergreen- 
Syn., A. Valentine. 

— OMStri'aea. 1. White; October. Austria 
orientalis. 2. Yellow, green. July. Ar- 
menia. 1816. Syn., A. orientalis. 

re'pens, 1. Brown. June. Tartary. 

1806. Hardy trailer. Syn., A, repens. 

— bie^Ti/nis. Yellowish. October. 1823. Copper- 

mine Biver, N. America. B. M. t. 2472. 
Syn., A. hispanica, Jacq. Ic. 1. 172. 

eannpk&rata eaxa'tilis. 3. Brown. July.. 
August N. America. 

- ca'na. S. Yellow. 




A. cauca'sica. See A. Umata, var. cauca»ica. 

— chine'nsis. i. Yellow. July. China. 1818. 

Chinese Moxa. 

— ccenMscens. 2. Bluish. August. S. Europe. 

Hardy evergreen shrub. 
'- dracu'nculus. 2. White, green. July. South 

of Europe. 1548. 
—fri'gida. 1. Yellow, green. August. Siberia. 

1826. Syn., A. apriea. 
—furca'ta. See A. trifwrcata. 

— ga'Uica. See A. maritima. 

— glaeia'lis. 1. Yellow, green. July. Switzer- 

land. 1739. 

— hispa'nica. See A. biennis. 

— inadora. See A. Marschalliam^. 

— Juda'ica. 2. Yellow. August. 1774. Half- 

hardy eveM;reen. 

— laeinia'ta. N. China. 

— lactiflo'ra. 2. Pale white. November. Nepaul. 


— Ledmicdnsis. 2. YeUow. July. Carpathia. 

1826. Hardy deciduous shrub. 

— Icmalta cauca'sica. Corolla wooUy at top. 


— mari'tima. 1. Reddish. August to Septem- 

ber. Britain. Syn., A. gallica. 

— ISarschaUia'na. 1. Yellow. Caucasus. 1816. 

Syn., A. vnodora. 

— mutelli'na. 1. Yellow, green. July. Alps. 

Europe. 1815. Syn., A, Wulfenii. 

— Tunnelgica. 1. Yellow. July. Norway. 1818. 

— onentaHis. See aiLstriacaj var. orientalis. 

— Pallasia'na. 1. Yellow, green. July. 

Siberia. 1820. 
— peetma'ta. 1. Brown. June. Dahuria. 1806. 
Hardy annual. 

— ped/unmtla'ris. See A. Bplendens. 

— po'ntica. 3. Yellow.* September. Austria. 

— potentUkBf(/Vki<. See A. cmneniaoa, var. poten- 

— ramo'sa. 2. Canaries. 1816. Greenhouse 


— ripens. See A. austriacdt var. repens, 

— rupe'stris. ^. Brown, August. Norway. 


— saxa'tUis. See A. ca/mphorata. 

— seopa'ria. 3 to 5. Whitish. Autumn. S. 


— aeri'cea. 2. White. June. Siberia. 1796. 

— ^pica'ta. 1. Brown. June. Switzerland. 1790. 

— Stelleria'na. }. Yellowish. Kamtschatka. 

— sple'ndens. See A. ped/imeula/ns. 

— tcmacetifo'lia. IJ. Brownish. Summer. Si- 

beria. 1768. 

— taa'rlca. 1. White, green. July. Tauria. 


— tenuifo'lia. See A. Adamsii. 

— Toumefo'rtiana. 2. Greenish. Echb. Hort. 

vol. 1, t. 5. 

— trifuna'ta. 1. Yellow, green. July. Siberia. 

1820. Syn., A. furcata. 

— Valenti'na. See A. arragonensis. 

— milga'ris. 1. Silvery. August. Eng. Bot. 

ed. 3, t. 732. Common wormwood. 

au'rea. Leaves yellow. 1879. 

variefgata. 2. Purple. August. Gardens. 

— Wulfe'nii. See A. rmetellina. 

Arthrophy'Uum Madagasca- 
rie'nse. See Phyllarthron Boje- 

Arthropo'dium. (From arthron, a 
joint, and perns, a foot ; in reference to 
the flower-stalks being jointed. Nat. 
ord., LiliacecB. Allied to -Anthericum.) 

Greenhouse herbaceous perennials. Seeds, off- 
sets, and suckers. Sandy loam, and a little 

A. cirrha'tmn. 3. White. May. New Zealand. 
1821. B. M. t. 2350. 

— fimbria'tum. 2. White. July. Australia. 


— ne:o-caledo'nicum. U. White. May. New 

Caledonia. 1877. 

— panicula'tvm. 3. White. May. N. S. Wales. 

1800. Greenhouse bulb. B. M. 1. 1421. 
Syns., Anthericum paniculatuin, Arthro- 
podium minus of B. E. t. 866, but not of 
R. Brown. 

— pe!ncMum. 2. White. July. Australia. 1822. 

Bed. Lil. t. 360. Syn., Phalangium pen- 

Arthro'pteris. (From arthron, a 
joint, and pteris, a fern ; alluding to the 
articulated stripes. Nat. ord., Filices — 
Polypodiacem. ) 

Greenhouse ferns. See FERNS. 
A. cUbo-puncta'ta. I. of Bourbon. 
— fl'Hpes. New Zealand. 

Arthroste'mnia. (From arthron, a 
joint, and stemma, a crown ; the flower- 
stalks being jointed. Nat. ord., Melasto- 
nwtcece. Alhed to Osbeckia.) 

Cuttings of small, firm side-shoots in August 
or April, under a glass, in sandy soil. The stove 
species with heat; sandy loam, and a little 
A.fra'gile. 3. Eosy. June. Mexico. 1846. 

Stove evergreen. Joum. Hort. Soc, vol. 

3, p. 75. 

— ni'tidum. 2. Pale lilac. June. Buenos 

Ayi'es. 1830. Greenhouse evergreen, 
B. M. t. 3142. 

— versicolor. |. Pink. September. Brazil. 

1825. Stove evergreen. B. M. t. 3678. 
Syn., Rhexia, versicolor, B. R. t. 1066. 

Arthrota'xis is often erroneously- 
used for Athrotaxis. 

Artichoke. (Cy'nara seo'lymus.) 
The word artichoke is the English mode 
of spelling its French name, artichaut; 
and this is said, by old writers, to be a 
corruption of the Arabic name for it, 
alcocalos, which has reference to the 
shape of its heads being like that of the 
pine-apple. The Arabs prize it highly, 
not only for its edible heads, but its roots 
as a purgative, and its gummy exuda- 
tions as an emetic. 

Varieties. — There are two varieties in 
cultivation, the conical, or French, of 
which the heads are green, and the scales 
of their calyx spreading ; and the globe, 
tinged with purple, with the scalescurved 
inwards and compactly. Crown or Globe 
earliest. Drumhead is the best. The 
artichoke is sometimes called the globe 
artichoke, on account of the round out- 
line of its heads. These heads are 
bqiled, and the bottom of each scale, or 
calyx, eaten with butter and salt. The 
bottom of these heads, which is the part 
named "the receptacle" by botanists, 
because it is the receptacle or part con- 
taining all the members of the flower, is 
very fleshy, and is cooked in various 




ways ; being,- also, sometimes dried, and 
used in winter. 

Propagation. — It may be raised from 
seed ; out the most expeditious and usual 
way is to plant suckers from the old 
roots in the spring. When the suckers 
are eight or ten inches high, in open 
weather, about the end of March, or 
early in April, select the strongest, and 
such as are sound, and not woody. The 
brown, hard part by which they are at- 
tached to the parent stem must be re- 
moved, and, if that cuts crisp and tender, 
the suckers are good, but, if tough and 
stringy, they are worthless. Further, to 
prepare them for planting, the large, out- 
side leaves are taken oil so low as that 
the heart appears above them. If they 
have been some time separated from the 
stock, or if the weather is dry, they are 
greatly invigorated by being put into 
water for three or four "hours before they 
are planted. They should be set in rows, 
four feet and a half by three feet apart, 
and about half their length beneath the 
surface. Turn a large flower-pot, or a 
sea-kale pot, over each, and water them 
abundantly every evening until they are 
established, as wellasduringthe droughts 
of summer. The only other attention 
they require, during the summer, is the 
frequent use of the hoe, and an occasional 
supply of liquid manure. It is also an 
excellent plan to have some mulch kept 
about their roots during dry weather, 
immediately after planting, and during 
the whole summer, and to remove all 
small, weak suckers about June. The 
plants will produce a succession of heads 
from July to October of the year they 
are planted. For about five years they 
will continue similarly productive during 
May, June, and July. At the end of 
five years a fresh bed should be made. 

No vegetable is more benefited than 
the artichoke by the application of sea- 
weed, or any other manure containing 
common salt. 

. To obtain Chards. — Those who require 
chards must make a plantation annually; 
for making the chards destroys the 
plants. After the best heads have been 
cut, early in July, the leaves are to be 
cut over within half a foot of the ground, 
and the stems as low as possible. In 
September or October, when the new 
shoots or leaves are about two feet high, 
they are bound close with a wreath of 
hay or straw, and earth or litter is drawn 
round the stems of the plants. The 
blanching is perfected in a month or six 
weeks. If the chards are wished late in 
the winter, the whole plants may be dug 
up before frost sets in, and laid in sand 

in their blanched state. In this way they 
ma^ be kept for several weeks. 

G0660.— The Italians, to make this, 
bend the stem of an artichoke down to a 
right angle, and the stalks of the leaves 
are bound together, and covered over so 
as to blanch. The result is a lump, 
which is eaten raw, with salt, and is 
tolerably good. In Italy it is used in 
the autumn and winter, and replaces 

Winter Dressing. — As soon as a stem 
is cleared of all its heads in the summer, 
it should be broken down close to the 
root ; and early in November the beds 
should be dressed for the winter. Cut 
away the old leaves close to the ground, 
but without injuring the centre or side- 
shoots. Fork over the bed, throwing the 
earth in a ridge, about eight inches high, 
over each row, putting it close round 
each plant, but being careful to keep the 
heart free from the crumbs of soil. After 
this has been done, pile round every plant 
some long litter, or pea-haulm, three or 
four inches thick; and, to keep this from 
blowing away, as well as to help in pre- 
serving the roots from severe frosts, cover 
over the litter, or haulm, two inches 
deep with coal-ashes. The ashes may be 
turned into the soil in the spring, being 
a manure much liked by the artichoke. 

Soil and Situation. — The finest heads 
are produced in a soil abounding in 
moisture ; but in such they will not sur- 
vive the winter. They should have a 
rich, deep loam allotted to them. Manure 
must be applied every spring ; and the 
best compost for them is a mixture of 
three parts well-rotted dung, and one 
part of fine coal-ashes. They should 
always have an open exposure, and, above 
all, be free from the influence of trees ; 
for if beneath their shade or drip the 

Elants spindle, and produce worthless 

Insect. — The leaves of the artichoke 
are liable to injury by a beetle. See 
Cassida viridis. 

Saving Seed. — Select any number of 
the earliest and finest heads ; and as soon 
as the flowers begin to decay, the heads 
should be turned, and tied downwards, 
so as to prevent the wet lodging in them, 
which would rot the seeds. 

Artoca'rpus. Bread-fruit. (From 
artos, bread, and carpos, fruit. The 
fruit, baked, resembles bread. Nat. 
ord., Urticacece; Tribe, Artocarpece.) 

In this order we meet with such anomalies as 
the invaluable bread-fruit tree of the tropics, the 
useful cow-tree of Garaccas, and the virulent 
poison of the upas-tree of Java, side by side. 
Stove evergreen trees requiring a moist tempera- 




tare. Cuttings of ripened wood in sand, under 
a, hand-light, and in a brisk bottom-heat, difficult 
to manage. Lightrich loam, leaf-soil and sand. 
The flowers of all'the species are whitish-green. 
A. Canno'ni. Leaves bronzy-crimaon, tinted 

purplish. Society Islands. 1875. Fl. 

and Pom. 1876, p. 211. 

— heterophj/lla. 60. E. Ind. 1778. 

— imd'sa. 60. South Sea Islands. 1793. B. M. 

tt. 2869-71. 
niun'fera. 60. B. Ind. 1793. 

— integrif&lia. 60. June. E. Ind. 1778. 

B. M. tt. 2833-4. Jack-tree. 

— ladnia'tiLS, Polynesia. 

VLeta'Uicus. Leaves bronzy above, red- 
dish-purple beneath. Polynesia. 

A'rum. (From aron, supposed to be 
an ancient Egyptian word. Nat. ord., 

All are propagated by division of the roots ; 
best done when the plants cease growing, in 
autumn, or when they commence growing, in 
spring. Sand^ loam will suit most of them; 
the stove species should have a portion of peat. 
All are herbaceous perennials, except where 
otherwise particularized. 

A. arini'tum. 1. 
— detruruia'tv/m. 

July. N. Amer. 
April. Bengal. 


A. atro-ru'bens. 1. Brown. 

bulbi'ferum. S. Purple. 


— byzwnti'num. Spathe green or purple. Crete. 


— condnna'tum. Syria. 1859. 

— Diosco'ridis. Spathe spotted inside. 1. Levant. 

— draco'ntiwm. 1. Green. June. N. Amer. 

1759. B. E. t. 668. 

— d/rcuyufnculus. 3. Brownish-purple. July. 

South Europe. 1548. 

— eHongdtum. Spathe green and purple outside. 

blackish purple within. Crimea. 1882. 

— gra'tum. Spathe spotted Inside. Taurus. 


— hygro'phUwm. Greenish. Asia Minor. 1860. 

— iia'Vtewm. 2. Light yellow. June. Italy. 


— Liepo'TMii. Spathe spotted inside. Asia 

Minor. 1869. 

— longispa'thum. Spathe yellowish. Dalmatia. 


— mcuyula'tum. |. Spathe greenish. Leaves 

spotted. Britain. 

— Ma'lyi. Spathe greenish. Montenegro. 1860. 

Syn., A. Zelebori. 

— marmara'tum. Leaf mottled with various 

shades of green and white. Island of 
Naxos. 1859. 

— Nicke'lii. Spathe greenish. Levant. 

— ni'grum. Spathe blackish inside. 

— nrnni'dicv/m. Algeria. 1859. 

— orienta'le. Levant. Syn., A. alpimw 

— patma'tum. 2. 1825. 

— Pett^ri. Greenish. Dalmatia. 1860. 
— philistcefwn. Spathe spotted inside. 


— piletuin. 2. Corsica. 1801. 

— probosci'deum. 1. July. Apennines. 

— specta'bile. 1. Spathe spotted inside, 


— syri'acum. 1. Spathe spotted inside. Syria. 


— tenuifo'lvwm. 1. White. June. South Europe. 


— triphj/Uwm,. 1. Brown. June. N. Amer. 


— variola' turn. Spathespottedinside. Dalmatia. 

1859. ^ „ , 

— zebri'nwm. 1. Brown. June. I*. Amer. 






Brown. April. Minorca. 1777. 
Greenish - yellow, spotted 
purple. Asia Minor. 1889. 
'iTOm. Dark purple. Jerusalem. 1864. 
re-mtroduced 1880. 

— n'ngens. 1. June. Japan. 1800. 

— sa nctum. Blackish purple. 1889 

— tema'tum. See Pinellia tiiberiifera. 

A. campamila'tum. 2. Purple. May. B-. Ind. 

— coloca'Ha. See Coloeasia cmtiquvrum 

— divanrn'timt. 2. Green. Julv. B Ind 
1759. Tuberous-rooted. 

— hedera'ceum. 1. Purple. June. W Ind 
1793. Epiphyte. 

— t'ndimm. See Coloeasia mdiea. 

— integrifo'lium. 3. Green. June. 1825. Ever- 

— limgula'tum. 6. W. Ind. 1793. Epiphyte 

— margiTia'tum. 2. E. Ind. 1820. 

— obtusi'ldbwm. 2. 1824. 

— orixdnae. 1. Purple. June. S. Amer. 1820 

— pedtitwm. 1. S. Amer. 1820. 

— pentaphy'llum. 1. E. Ind. 1818. 

— ramomm. 3. June. 1810. Evergreen. 

— sagittifo'Kum. 2. 1824. 

— mrmento'sum. Brazil. 1836. 

— spira'le. 1. Brown. May. China. 1816. 

— iriloba'tum. 1. Purple. June. Ceylon. 

1714. Tuberous-rooted. 

— auricula' turn. 1. Purple. June. Ceylon. 

1714. Tuberous-rooted. 

— veno'mm. B. R. t. 1017. See Saurmnatmn 


Ani'ndina. (From arundo, a reed. 
Nat. ord., OrehtdcuiecB.) 
A, barnbu^ce/o'lia. 3 to 6. Magenta, orange, 

white. July. N. E. India. Warn. Orch. 

Alb. 3, 1. 139. Syn., CyTrMiivm bambu- 


Arundina'ria. (From arundo, a 
reed. Nat. ord., Graminea.) 

Hardy, or nearly hardy evergreen shrubby 
grasses. Indispensable for sub-tropical garden- 
ing; very ornamental, as isolated tufts in sheltered 
positions. Deep rich soil, with plenty of moisture ; 
division ; usually grown under the name of Bam- 

A./alca'ta. 3 to 6. India. Syn., Bambusa 
gracilis of gardens. 

— khasm'na. Ijt to 2. India. 1881. 

— Moitimovn'cisii. Japan. See Bambvsa Sirrumii. 

— Meta'ke. 4 to 6. Japan. Syn., Bambusa 


Anindine'Ua. (Diminutive of 
arundo, a reed. Nat. ord., Graminece.) 
A. ano'mala. . Japan. 1889. Dwarf grass suit- 
able for lawns and requiring to be cut 
only twice yearly. 

Aru'ndo. Reed. (A word of doubt- 
ful derivation ; perhaps from the Latin 
word arundo, a reed. Nat. ord., Gra- 
minece. ) 

A charming group of hardy plants of easy cul- 
ture in damp, sheltered situations. A. conspicua, 
which is the hardiest, does well in ordinary gar- 
den soil, but inferior in beauty to the Pampas 

A. conspi'cua. 3 to 8. Pale straw colour. New 
Zealand. 1843. Very ornamental, hold- 
ing its large panicles for several months. 




A. do'nax. 10. July. South Europe. 1648. 

There is a form with variegated leaves. 
verH' color. 3. July. South Europe. 1648. 

Fl. Ser. tt. U25-6. 
— nmurita'nica. 12. N. Africa. Greenhouse. 

Mediterranean reed. 

Narthex asafoe- 


A'sarum. Asarabacca. (From a, 
not, and saron, feminine ; the applica- 
tion not obvious, but perhaps because 
too violent a medicine for women. Nat. 
ord., Aristolochiece.) 

Interesting hardy herbaceous plants, more 
curious than pretty. Division in spring ; com- 
mon border or rockery, a little peat added to the 
soil will be found beneficial. 
A. aliKodniwrn. Green, purple ; leaves white- 
veined. Japan. 1864. 

— arifo'lium. 1. Bfown. June. N. Amer. 

1823. Syn^ A. grwndifoliurn. 

— canaMnse. 1. Brown. June. Canada. 1713. 

B. M. t. 2769. 

— cavda'tuvfi. Brownish-red. July. California. 

1880. This may be the same as A. Hookeri 

— europee^um. 1. Dull brown. May. England. 

— ge&philum. J. Bed-purple, spotted white, 

edged golden yeUow. November. S. 
China. 1888. B. M. t. 7168. Cool green- 

— grcmdif&lium. See A. wrifolium. 

— macra'nthum. Pale brown, yellow, purple. 

Kelung, Formosa. 1877. B. M. t. 7022. 

— parmflalra. Purple, green. Japan. 1863. 

— ThunMrgii. i. Puroliah-green. May. Japan. 

1839. Syn., Meterotropa aearoides. B. 
M. t. 4933. 

— virgi'nicum, 1. Brown. May. Virginia. 


Ascarici'da. See Vemonia. 

Ascle'pias. Swallow-wort. (The 
Greek name of yEsculapius of the Latins. 
Nat. ord., Asclepidacece.) 

All hardy herbaceous and sub-shrubby peren- 
nials, except when otherwise specified. The 
hardy species, most of which are highly orna- 
mental border plants, by seeds and division in 
spring ; the stove and greenhouse kinds, by the 
same process ; and cuttings of the young shoots, 
when they begin to grow, in heat ; and also 
seeds, and sown in heat, in February. Peat and 
loam, but most of the latter. 
A. acu/mma'ta. ■ 2. Bed, white. July. N. Amer. 
1826. Syn., A. laurifolia. 

— amce^na. 3. Purple. July. N. Amer. 1732. 
^ amplexica/u'lis. 2. Red. July. N. Amer. 1816. 

— anguBtif&lia. See A. Nichauxii. 

— a/roord scene. See Gomphocarpus. 

— atrosangui'nca au'rm. Blood-red, corona 

yellow. Bolivia. 1881. 

— tyvndrea. 2. Brown. July. N. Amer. 1825. 

— eitrifo'lia. Jacq. Ic. t. 848. See A. variegata. 

— cormivens. See A. phytolaecoidee. 

— com/u'ti. See A. Syriaca. 

— Curassa'vica. 3. Scarlet. July. S. Amer. 

1692. Stove herbaceous. B. B. t. 81. 

a'lba. 1. White. July. S. Amer. Stove 


— decu'rnbens. See A. tuherosa. 

— Dougla'sii. 2. Red. Autumn. West America. 


— exalta'ta. See A. phytolaccoides. 

— giga'ntea. See CcUotri^. 

— nybrida. See A. purpurateens. 

A. ineanta'ta. 2. Purple, July. Canada. I7ia 
B. B. t. 260. 

— laurifo'Ua. See A. aewmmata. 

— Ima'ria. 2. White. July. Mexico. 1802. 

Greenhouse herbaceous. 

— Ivnifo'lia. See A. verticillata, var. linifolia. 

— longi/o'lia. See Gomphocarpus longi/olius. 

~ imxiea'na. 3. White. July. Mexico. 1821. 
Greenhouse evergreen. 

— Xichaw'mi. 3. White. July. Mexico. 1817. 

Syn,, A. angust\folia. 

— ni'vea. 3. White, August, N, Amer, 1730. 

— obtusifo'Ua. 3. Purple. July. N. Amer, 1820. 

Syn,, A. pur^raicens of some authors, 
but not of Iiinnseus, 

— parmflalra. See Metastelma parmflora. 

— paiupefrcula. 2, Bed. July. N. Amer. 1817. 

— phytolaceoi'des. 3. Purple. July. N. Amer. 

1812. Syn,, A. connivens. 

— polysta'chia. 4. White. July. N. Amer. 1826. 

— pu'lchra. See Oxypetalum pulchrwm. 

— jntrpura'acens of Lmnseus. 3. Purple. July. 

N. Amer. 1732, Syn,, A. hybrida. 

— quadrifcflia. 1. White, red. July. N. 

Amer. 1820. 

— r&sea. 1. Bed, July. Mexico. 1824. Green- 

house herbaceous. 

— ru'bra. 1. Red. July. Virginia. 1826. 

— sca'ndens. See Dtsmia. 

— SuUiva'nti. Deep purple. Closely allied tO' 

A. syriaca. 

— syri'aca. 4. Purple. July. N. Amer. 1629. 

Syn., A. Comuti. 

— tenaci^ssvma. See Gymnema. 

— tubero'sa. 2. Orange. August. N. Amer. 

1680. Hardy tuber. Swt. Fl. Gard. ser. 
2, t. 24. Syu._, A. dety\mi})ens. 

— variega'ta. 4. White. July. N. Amer. 1697. 

B. M. t, 1182. 

— verticilla'ta. 3. White, yellowish -green, July. 

N. Amer. 1759. 

Ivnifo'lia. 3. White. July. Mexico. 1818. 

Greenhouse herbaceous. Syn., A. lini- 

— vesti'ta. 3. Yellowish-green. October. N. 

Amer. 1844. 

— mnina'lis. See Sarcostemma Swartzianv/m. 

Ascy'rum. (Froma,not, and*%ro*, 
roughness; plants not hard to the touch. 
Nat. ord., Uypericinece.) 

All, but one, half-hardy evergreens ; cuttings- 
of small shoots, pretty hard ; placed in very 
sandy soil, under a bell-glass, any time during 
summer ; peat and loam ; they do well in th& 
open during summer, but require the protection 
of a frame through the winter. 
A. mnplexicam'le. 2. YeUow. August. N. 
Amer. 1823. 

— Crux- Andrei OB. 2. Yellow. July. N, Amer. 

1769, St, Andrew's cross. 

— hypericoides. 2. Yellow. August. N. Amer. 


— pu'milwm. 1. Yellow. July. Georgia. 

1806. Half-hardy herbaceous. 

— stains. 2. Yellow. August. N. Amer. 1816. 

St. Peter's Wort. 

Ashes are the remains of a substance 
which has undergone burning, and are 
as various in the t)roportions of their 
components as are the bodies capable 
of being burnt. Whatever be the sub- 
stance burnt, the process should be 
made to proceed as slowly as possible ; 
for, by such regulation, more carbon, 
or charcoal, is preserved in the ashes, 
which is the most valuable of their con- 
stituents. The simplest mode of effect- 




ing a slow combustion is to bank the 
burning substance over with earth, leav- 
ing only a small orifice, to admit suffi- 
cient air to keep up a smouldering fire. 

Ashes are usually recommendea as a 
manure most useful to heavy soils. As 
fertilizers they are beneficial upon all 
soils ; and they can never be applied in 
sufficient quantity to alter the staple of 
a too tenacious soil. To thirty square 
yards, twenty-eight pounds are an aver- 
age application ; and they cannot be put 
on too fresh. 

Peat-ashes contain — 

Silica (flint) 

Sulphate of lime (gypsum) 
Sulphate and muriate of soda (Glau- 

her anl common salt) . 
Carbonate of lime (chalk) . 

Oxide of iron 

Loss ... ... 

They are an excellent application to 
lawns, turnips, cabbages, potatoes, and 

Coal-ashes contain carbon, silica, alu- 
mina, sulphate of lime, iron and potash, 
carbonate of lime, and oxide of iron. 
They are a good manure for grass, peas, 
and potatoes. Sprinkled half an inch 
deep on the surface, over beans and 
peas, they hasten the germination of the 
seed, and preserve it from mice. They 
are also used for forming dry walks in 
the kitchen department. 

Soap-boilers' ashes contain — 

Silica ... . . 35.0 

Lime. ... . 35.0 

Magnesia . . .2.3 

Alumina (clay) .... 1.5 

Oxide of iron 1.7 

manganese . . .1.8 

Potash (combmed with silica) . 0.5 

Soda (do.) 0.2 

Sulphuric acid (combined with 

lime) 0.2 

Phosphoric acid (do.) . . .3.5 
Common salt . . . . . 0.1 
Carbonic acid (combined with lime 

and magnesia) . . . .18.2 

They are good for all crops, but es- 
pecialfy grass and potatoes. 

Waod-ashes and the a^hes of garden 
weeds generally contain silica, alumina, 
oxides of iron and manganese, lime, 
magnesia, potash, partly in the state of 
a sUicate, soda, sulphates of potash and 
lime, phosphate of lime, chloride of so- 
dium (common salt), and carbonates of 
lime, potash, and magnesia, with a con- 
siderable portion of charcoal. They are 
a good application to cabbages, potatoes, 
and peas. 

Turf-ashes contain silica, alumina, 
oxides of iron and manganese, lime, 
magnesia, sulphates of potash and lime, 
phosphates of lime and magnesia, com- 
mon salt, and charcoal. They have been 

used beneficially to grass, onions, carrots, 
beans, potatoes, and beet-root. 

Ash-tree. Fra'xinus exce'lsior. 

Asiatic-poison Bulb. Cri'num 

Asi'mina. (A Canadian name, not 
explained. Nat. ord., Anonacem.) 

A. trilo'ba is a fit companion to such plants as 
Da'phTieSy Illi'd'um^, etc. Sometimes by seed, 
but chiefly by layering the branches, towards 
the end of summer. Peat and loam. Seedlings 
require protection until of a good size. 
A. grandifio'ra. 3. White. June. Georgia. 1820. 

— parmflo'ra. 3. Brown. May. N. Amer. 1806. 

— pygma!a. 2. White. N. Amer. 1812. 

— truo'ha. 15 to 30. ' Dull brown, yellow. May. 

Pennsylvania. 1736. Syn., Anona tri- 
loba, B. M. t. 6864. Papawor custard 
apple of the TTnited States. 

Aspa'lathus. (From a, not, and 
spao, to extract ; in reference to the 
difficulty of extracting its thorns from a 
wound. Nat. oid., Leguminosce; Tribe, 
GenistecB. ) 

With one exception, all greenhouse evergreen 
shrubs. Cuttings of half -ripened wood, in April, 
in sand ; placed over sandy peat, well drained, 
kept shaded, and little water given, as they are 
apt to damp off. Loam and lumpy peat. Bare 
in cultivation. 

A. ajfi'nis. 3. Yellow. July. Cape of Good 
Hope. 1822. 

— a'lbens. 4. White. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1774. Syn., A. cwndicans. 

— arachnoi'dea. Shrubby, erect. Corolla silky. 

— ararKo'sa, 3. Yellow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1795. B. M. t. 829. 

— argefntea. 2. Yellow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1759. 

— asparagoi'des. 3. Yellow. July. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1812. 

— astroi'des. 2. YeUow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1818. 

— callo'm. 3. Yellow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1812. B. M. t. 2329. 

— ca'nAicaTis. See A. albeTis. 

— camo'sa. 3. Yellow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1795. B. M. 1. 1289. 

— capita'ta. 2. Yellow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1823. 

— clwno'poda. 3. Yellow. July. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1769. B. M. t. 2226. 

— cUia'ris. 2. YeUow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1799. 

— erassifo'lia. 2. YeUow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1800. Andr. Bep. t. 353. 

— erimfo'lia. 2. YeUow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1789. 

— galiffi'des. 2. YeUow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1817. „ .„ J 

— genittoi'des. 2. YeUow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1816. , „ , „ J 

-^globo'sa. 3. Orange. July. Cape of Good 
Hope. 1802. 

— hi'spida. See A. thymifoiia. , „ ^ 

— Mstrix. 2. YeUow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1824. . ^. ^^ 

— i'ndica. See Indigofera aspalathoides. Wight 

Icon. t. 332. ^ . „ , „ J 

— Urieifc/lia.. 2. YeUow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1823. Syn., A. larieina. 

— lotoi'des. 2. YeUow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1816. Syn., A. qumqiu^oM. 

— miKraructa, See VHoriea armata. 

— muttiflo'ra. See A. thymifolia. 




A. peduncula'ta. 6. Yellow. July. Cape of 
Good Hope. 1776. B. M. t. 344. Syn., 
A. scrtmrrosa. 

— quinque/fflia. See A. lotoides. 

— seri'cea. 2. Yellow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1816. 

— spinc/m. 2. Yellow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1824. 

— sqnarro'sa. See A. pedunculata. 

— tubula'ta. 2. Yellow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1789. 

— thymifo'lia. 2. Yellow. July. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1825. Syii3., A. hispida 
and muUiJlara. 

— unifio'ra. 3. Yellow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1812. 

Aspa'ragUS. (From a, intense, and 
■sparasso, to tear ; in reference to the 
strong prickles of some species. Nat. 
•Old. ,Luiace(e ; Inhe, AsparagecB.) 

A handsome genus of climbing or erect shrubs 
■or herbs, some of which are amongst the most 
elegant of foliage plants, and are largely used 
for cutting and as room decorative plants. All 
Tvarm greenhouse species, unless where other- 
wise stated ; these require a rich sandy soil and 
plenty of moisture ; division. The hardy species 
require a rich garden-soil, propagated chiefly by 
seeds and division. A. o^cdnalis is well known 
in our kitchen gardens. 

A. acwtifo'lius. 2. Whitish-green. Spain. 1640. 
Evergreen ; hardy. Sibth. Fl. Gr. t. 337. 

— (Bthio'picus. 3. White. Cape of Good Hope. 

1816. Evergreen shrub. Syn., A. lan^us. 

ternifo'Uus. White. August. South 

Africa. 1872. 

— africa'nus devfindens. 4. White. June. Cape 

of Good Hope. 1819. Evergreen climber. 

— a'Vyiis. 12. White. Spain. 1540. Hardy 

against a wall. 

— aynolrvA. See A. Tnaritvmus. 

— aphy'Uus stipvZa'ris, 4. White. June. South 

of Europe. ' 1800. Hardy evergreen 
climber. Ked. Ijl. t. 282. Syn., A. 

— asia'ticus. 3. White. Asia. 1769. Ever- 

green shrub. 

— Brov^tm^ti. 10. May. Canaries. 1822. 

— capinm. 4. Green. April. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1691. Evergreen shrub. Jacq. 
H. Schoen. t. 266. 

— Coope'ri. Whitish. S. Africa. 1862. Climber. 

— cormore^vMs. Very slender. Leaves emerald 

green. 1888. 

— eri'spue. 3. Whitish-green. Summer. Cape 

of Good Hope. 1792. Jacq. H. Schoen. 
t. 97. Syns., .4. decumbens and fiexuosus. 

— davu'ricus. 3. Green. April. Davuria. 

1823. Syn., A. glyeycarpus. 

— decliitui'tvx. 6. Whitish-green. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1769. Half-hardy. 

— decu'nibffns. See A. orients. 

— depe'nd£n8. See A. africarms depending. 

— faUa'tue. 3. Whitish-green. India. 1792. 
— falsiifo'rme. See A. nheaelmdes falciforma. 
— f£ocuo'su£. See A. eri^pus. 

— glycycalrpus. See A. davurieus, 

— grandiJUi'rus. See A. wmbeUatug, 

— ho'rridus. See A. aphyllus stipula/ris. 

— la'rweus. See A. cethiopuyus, 

— larici'nus. White. May. Cape of Good Hope. 


— longifo'lius. 3. White. July. Siberia. 1827. 

— mari'tinms. 3. Green. July. France, 1824. 

Syn., A. amarus. 

— medeloi'des falcif&rme. Greenish-white. S. 

Africa. 1869. Syn3.,^./a2c</'ormc, Bot. 
Eef. t. 47, and Mymiphyllum falciforme. 

— Nvvmia'nue. Whitish-purple. May. Cape 

of Good Hope. 1811. 

A. offlcina'lis. 4. Greenish-white. August. 
England. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, t. 1515. 

— peotmia'tus. Bed. Lil. t. 407. See A. scandens. 

— plwmo'ms. White. South Africa. 1876. 
na'mis. South Africa. 1880. 

— racemo'sus. 3. Whitish-green. B. Ind. 1808. 

Evergreen shrub. Wight loon. t. 2056. 

— roTrwsi'ssimus. Cream colour. South Africa. 


— retrofra'ctus. 4. White. July. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1769. Evergreen climber. 
arbo'reus. Gard. 1890, p. 256. 

— sarmento'sus. 6. Whitish-green. August. 

Ceylon. 1810. Evergreen climber. 

— sca'Tideris. 6. Green. Cape of Good Hope. 

1795. Evergreen climber. Bot. Bef. t. 21. 
Syn., A. pectinatus. 

— Smithia'nue. TenerifEe. 1529. Evergreen 


— Sprenge^ri. Natal. Gfl. 1890, p. 490. 

— stipula'ceit^. 4. White. Cape of Good Hope. 

1821. Evergreen climber. 
— - sutnila'tus. 3. Cape of Good Hope. 1811. 
Evergreen shrub. 

— sylva'ticus. See A. Unuifolius. 

— tenuifo'lvm. 2. Green. July. Hungary. 1819. 

Syn., A. sylvaticus. Hardy. 

— tenui'ssimus. Foliage light gre&n. South 

Africa. 1881. 

— tricarina'tus. Ked. Lil. t. 451. See A. ver- 

~ umbella'tus. White. July. Teneriffie. 1828. 
Herbaceous climber. Syn., A. gra-ndi- 

— umbellula'tus. Greenish. Mauritius. Syn., 

A, crigpuB. 

— vertieUla'ris. 2. White. July. Caucasus. 

1752. Syn., A. trica/rmatug. Hardy. 

— virga'tuB. 5. Green, South Africa. 1862. 

Aspa'ragUS (Aspa'ragus officina'lis) 
was, by the old gardeners, called sperap'g, 
and by the modern vulgar, grass, or 
sparrow-grass. The small heads are 
sometimes spoken of as sprue. 

Varieties. — Those most esteemed at 
the present time are Connover's Colossal, 
Giant, and Mammoth Emperor. There 
are also a few sub-varieties, which derive 
their names from the place of their 
growth, and are only to be distinguished 
for superior size or flavour, which they 
usually lose on removal from their native 

Soil best suited to this vegetable is a 
fresh, sandy loam, made rich by the 
abundant addition of manure. It should 
be trenched from two feet to two feet 
and a half deep. This depth of good, 
rich soil, on a dry sub-soil, is ample to 
yield the very best of heads, if the yearly 
successive management be attended to. 

Sittiation.—The bed should enjoy the 
influence of the sun during the whole of 
the day, as free as possible from the in- 
fluence of trees and shrubs, and ranging 
north and south. The sub-soil should 
be dry, or the bed kept so by being 
founded on rubbish, or other material 
to serve as a drain. The supply will of 
course be regulated by the demand, eight 
square perches will be capable of afibrd- 




ing one hundred heads at a time. Six- 
teen perches will, in general, afford two 
or three hundred every day, in the 
height of the season. 

Sowing. — To raise plants, sow any 
time, from the middle of February to 
the beginning of April, in driUs, one 
inch deep, and one foot apart, if the 
seedlings are to be transplanted ; but 
two feet apart, if they are to remain 
where sown, as sometimes practised, for 
the purpose of taking up every alternate 
row for forcing. It thus leaves a per- 
manent crop on the level ground in two 
rows, at four feet distance. Between 
these siunmer crops may be planted, 
such as French beans, lettuce, spinach, 
or cauliflowers. Finer heads are to be 
expected by this wide-row system ; but 
the most complete and neatest way is to 
line out beds, four and a half feet wide, 
in which to sow four rows of seeds, one 
foot apart, as directed above, leaving 
three-feet alleys. This will be found 
the best, for small gardens in particular. 

Culture in Seed-oed. — If dry weather, 
the bed should be refreshed with mode- 
rate but frequent waterings ; and, if 
sown as late as April, shade is required, 
by means of branches, old pea-stakes, 
etc., during the meridian of hot days, 
until the seeds germinate. Care must 
be taken to keep free from weeds, though 
this operation should never commence 
until the plants are well above ground, 
which will be in the course of three or 
four weeks from the time of sowing. 
Sprinkle them about twice a month 
with salt, and supply them once a week 
with a good soaking of liquid-manure, 
during the growing season. Towards 
the end of October, as soon as the stems 
are completely withered, they must be 
cut down, and weU-rotted dung spread 
over the bed, to the depth of about two 
inches, This serves to increase the 
vigour of the giants the following year. 
About March in the next year thin the 
plants to one foot apart ; and those re- 
moved may be transplanted into a bed, 
twelve inches apart, if it is intended 
that they should attain another or two 
years' further growth before being finally 
planted out ; or they may be planted 
immediately into the beds, for produc- 
tion. It may be here remarked, that 
the plants may remain one or two years 
in the seed-bed. They wiU even succeed 
after remaining three ; but if they con- 
tinue four, they generally faU when 

Time of Plantincf.— The best time is 
the end of March, if the soil is dry, and 
the season warm and forward ; other- 

wise it is better to wait until the com- 
mencement of April. A very deter- 
minate signal of the appropriate time for 
planting is when the plants are beginning 
to grow. If moved earlier, and they 
have to lie torpid for two or three 
months, many of them die, or, in gene- 
ral, shoot up very weak. 

Construction of the Beds.— B.a,ye them 
four and a half feet wide. The situation 
should be fixed upon a month or two 
previously to making and planting the 
beds. The whole should oe trenched 
two feet to two feet and a half deep, and 
thoroughly well manured, as the work 
goes on, with rich, thoroughly-decayed 
manure. When all is trenched and 
manured in this way, give a good sur- 
face-dressing of salt, which wifl wash in 
with rains. After lying in this way for 
a month, give the whole another sur- 
face-dressing with similar manure, and 
double-dig or trench the whole over 
again, leaving the surface rough and 
open, giving the whole another salting, 
and let it He in this way until the time 
for planting. Previously to marking 
out the beds, the whole should have 
another thorough good digging over, 
making the surface neat and even as the 
work goes on. 

Mode of Planting. — The plants being 
taken from the seed-bed carefully with 
a narrow-pronged fork, with as little 
injury to the roots as possible, they must 
be laid separately and evenly together, 
for the sake of convenience whilst plant- 
ing, the roots being apt to entangle, and 
cause much trouble and injury in parting 
them. They should be exposed as short 
a time as possible to the air; and, to 
this end, it is advisable to keep them, 
until planted, in a basket covered with 
a little moss. The mode of planting is 
to form drills, or narrow trenches, five 
or six inches deep, and one foot apart, 
cut out with the spade, the line-side of 
each driU being made perpendicular ; 
and against this the plants are to be 
placed, with their crowns one and a half 
or two inches below the surface, and 
twelve inches apart. The roots must be 
spread out wide, in the form of a fan, a 
little earth being drawn over each, to 
retain it in its position whilst the row 
is proceeded with. For the sake of con- 
venience, one drill should be made at a 
time, and the plants inserted and covered 
completely before another is commenced. 
When the planting is completed, the 
bed is to be lightly raked over, and its 
outline distinctly marked out. Care 
must be taken never to tread on the 
beds (they are formed narrow to render 




it unnecessary) ; for everything tending 
to consolidate them is injurious, as, from 
the length of time they have to continue, 
■without a possibility of stirring them to 
any considerable depth, they have a 
closer texture than is beneficial to vege- 
tation. Water must be given, in dry 
weather, daUy, until the plants are estab- 
lished. The paths between the beds 
are to be three feet wide. The first 
season after planting the beds, a crop of 
radishes may be sown upon them with- 
out much injury to the young plants, if 
the radishes are all drawn off early. It 
too often happens that new asparagus- 
beds are ruined by being pestered with 
other crops ; but a rpw, or even two 
rows, of either lettuces or spinach, may 
be sown in the alleys. 

Subsequent Cultivation. — Throughout 
the year care must be taken to keep the 
beds clear of weeds ; and, in May and 
summer, apply liquid manure twice a 
week plentifully, giving a sprinkling of 
salt once a month. In the latter end of 
October, or commencement of Novem- 
ber, the beds are to have the winter 
dressing. The stalks must be cut down 
and cleared away ; the beds cleaned, 
if weedy, and carefully forked up. A 
thoroughly good dressing of manure is 
put aU over the beds equally, and the 
alleys forked over too ; whilst, for the 
sake of giving the whole a finish, a line 
is put down each side of the alley, the 
edges made up a little, and a few crumbs 
from the alleys thrown upon the beds, 
and the edges marked out with the point 
of the spade. The work is then done for 
the winter. 

Spring Dressing. — In the month of 
March the beds are again forked over 
carefully, the manure and soil well 
broken up and mixed together, and some 
of the rougher parts of manure, with 
all the Takings, forked into the alleys ; 
after which the beds are raked over, and 
lettuces are there sown or planted in 
succession for the summer months. 

Production. — In the May of the second 
year after planting, if they are very 
highly cultivated with liquid manure, 
cutting may commence ; but, under or- 
dinary culture, cutting had better not 
begin until the third, year. We recom- 
mend the heads to be allowed to grow 
about six inches above the ground before 
they are cut, and then to be cut level 
Witn the surface. By this mode, first 
suggested by Mr. Weaver, the .whole 
shoot is eatable, all risk of injuring other 
rising shoots is avoided, and the flavour 
is much superior to that cut when only 
just rising above the surface. Cutting 

should cease at the end of June, or very 
early in July. 

Forcing may be commenced at the end 
of November. For this purpose, take 
up the plants from an old bed, or others 
raised purposely, when they are three or 
four years old. Carefully commence on 
one side one of the outer rows of the 
bed, by digging out a trench, forking 
the earth as much as possible from 
underneath the plants, so that they may 
easily, and without straining or iniuring 
their roots, be moved out entirely, by 
thrusting down the fork behind them. 
Be very careful, a,t the same time, that 
the buds about the crowns of the plants 
are not injured by the fork, or trampled 
upon, or bruised in any way during 
tneir removal. Obtaining handsome, 
strong shoots depends much upon the 
care with which the plants are thus 
handled. Asparagus is very easily 
forced, and is very productive under the 
treatment when properly managed. It 
may be forced in various modes through 
the winter ; but those who have the 
command of hot water, to give it a 
moderate bottom-heat, will find this 
give the least trouble. It may also be 

frown in winter, in any kind of forcins- 
ouse, either in boxes filled with earth, 
or in a pit filled with leaves, tan, or 
other fermenting materials. Melon-pits 
and frames may be used for the same 
purpose. The hotbed of fermenting 
materials, thoroughly, well worked pre- 
viously to being made up into the beds, 
may give but a slight heat, and on it 
may be put six inches of old tan, or leaf- 
mould. Put the asparagus-plants into 
this, and keep them, during the winter 
months, about one foot from the glass. 
Cover them, at first, only slightly with 
the old tan, or leaf-mould ; but, in ten 
days or a fortnight, add three or four 
more inches of the same kind of covering. 
Take care that altogether the crowns of 
the plants are not covered more than five 
or six inches deep. When the plants 
have begun to grow freely, and the 
shoots begin to appear through the sur- 
face, give them some weak, slightly- 
warmed, or tepid liquid manure, adding 
to each gallon of it two ounces of com- 
mon salt. 

Quantity to he Forced. — To keep a 
supply during the winter months, com- 
menoine the first week in November, use 
two or three light cucumber-frames ; and 
a successional bed should be made up in 
about a fortnight or three weeks after- 
wards, and so on until the end of March, 
taking the advantage of fine, open 
weather for taking up and planting. 

ASP [ 79 ] 

Insects. See Crioceris Asparagi, 

To obtain Seed. — Some shoots should 
■be marked, and left in early spring; for 
those which are allowed to run up after 
the season of cutting is over are seldom 
forward enough to ripen their seeds per- 
fectly. In choosing the shoots for this 
purpose, those only must be marked 
which are the finest, and have the closest 
heads ; those having quick-opening heads, 
or are small or flat, are never to be 
left. More are to be selected than would 
be necessary if each stem would as- 
suredly be fruitful; but, as some of 
them only bear unproductive blossoms, 
that contingency must be allowed for. 
Each chosen shoot must Ibe fastened to 
a stake, which, by keeping it f^'om in- 
jury by winds, etc., more surely insures 
a crop of seed. The seed is usually 
ripe m September, when it must be 
collected, and left in a tub for four or 
six weeks, for the pulp and husk of the 
berry to decay, when it may be well 
cleansed in water. The seeds sink to 
the bottom, and the refuse floats, and 
wiU pass away with the water as it is 
gently poured off; By two or three 
washings, the seeds will be completely 
cleansed, and, when perfectly dried by 
exposure to the sun and air, may be 
stored for use. 

Aspa'sia. (From aspazomai, I em- 
brace ; the column embraced by the 
labellum. Nat. ord., Orchidece.) 

Stove epiphytal orchids, hest grown in baskets 
containing sphagnum, peat, and broken crocks, 
with charcoal ; rather dry during winter, and 
molster when growing. 

A. epidendroi'des. 1. Whitish-yellow. Panama. 
1833. B. M. t. 3962. 

— luna'ta. 1. Green, white, brown. February. 

Brazil. 1844. Pax. Fl. G. vol. 1, p. 108. 

— lu'tea. Yellow. March. Guiana. 1838. 

— jpapUUma'cea. f. Yellowish, brownish, orange, 

violet. Costa Bica. 1876. 

— prinei'pisga. Light green, buff. 1888. 

— pnttaeHna. Green, brown, purplish. Ecuador. 


— variega'ta. 1. Green and yellowish-red. 

February. Panama. 1836. B. M. t. 3679. 

Aspen. Po'pulus tre'mula. 

Aspe'rola. Woodruff. (The diminu- 
tive of asper, rough ; in reference to the 
rough leaves. Nat. ord., Bubiacece.) 

All hardy herbaceous plants, except where 
otherwise described. Division when growth 
commences in spring. Seeds; common soil. 
They do hot dislike shade generally. A. odorata 
being especially useful for bare spaces under 
dense pine trees, etc. A. trichodes from seed. 
A. alpi'na. J. White. July. Caucasus. 1820. 

— arcadi^rmt. J. Red. April. Arcadia. 1819. 

B. M. t. 2146. 

— arista' ta. 1. Yellow. July. South of Europe. 


— azu'rea seto'ea. 1. Pale blue. Caucasus. 1867. 

Syn., A. orientalis. 


A. bremfdlm. }. Purple. July. Europe. 1825. 
Half-hardy evergreen trailer. 

— mlatmca. See Putoria calalmca. 

— crassifo'lm. See A. tmnentosa. 

— curm'rKhwa. i. Pinkish. July. England. 
Eng. Bot. ed. 3, t. 661. 

'^"'titis. 1. Flesh-coloured. July 

Spain. 1821. Syn., A.mirenaica. 

— gahm'des. 1. White. July. South of Eurone 
1710. ^ 

— ——tyra'ica. }. White. May. Levant. 1829. 

— hvrsuta. 1. White. June. Portugal. 1819. 
Syn., A. rep&ns, 

— hi'rta. J. Purple. July. Pyrenees. 1817. 

— inca'na. Purple. June. Crete. 1823. Sibth. 
Fl. Gr. 1. 11. 

— Iceviga'ta. 1. White. June. South of Europe. 
1775. ^ 

— langifio'ra. J. Yellowish-purple. July. Hun- 
jary. 1821. 

o'lia. 1. Red. July. South of Europe. 
1820. Sibth. Fl. Gr. 1. 118. 

— monta'na. }. Pink. July. Hungary. 1801. 

— ni'tida. 1. Pink. August. Greece. 1829. 
Sibth. Fl. Gr. t. 124. 

— odaralta. 1. White. June. Britain. Eng. 
Bot. ed. 3, t. 660. Sweet-scented Wood- 

— (ynenta'lis. See A. azurea setosa. 

— pyrena'ica. See A. cyrLanchica, var. saxatilis. 

— ri'gida. 1. Bed. July. Greece. 1819. Sibth. 
Fl. Gr. t. 121. 

— sca'bra. 1. White. July. Italy. 1824. 

— scutella'ris. 1. Russia. 1838. 

— supi'na. 1. Pink. June. Caucasus. 1821. 

— tmiH'na. 1. White. April to June. Italy. 

— tincto/ria. 1. White, pink. July. Europe. 

— tomenMsa. 1. Red. July. South of Europe. 
1817. Syn., A. crassifolia. 

— trieMdes. White. June. Persia. 1838. Hardy 

Asphalt, Bitumen, or Jew's 
Fitcn, is found floating on the Dead 
Sea, and elsewhere. It becomes very 
hard by exposure to the air; and its 
name has been appropriated to various 
artificial preparations, all of which owe 
their properties to the boiled gas-tar 
which enters into their composition. 
Thus the asphalt felt is rendered water- 
proof for shed-roofing, etc., by being 
soaked in that tar ; and asphalt walks 
are most dry and excellent when made 
as follows : — Take two parts of very dry 
lime-rubbish, one part coal-ashes, and 
one of sand, sifted fine. In a dry place, 
on a dry day, mix them, and leave a 
hole in the middle of the heap, as 
plasterers do when making mortar. Into 
this pour boiling-hot coal-tar; mix, and, 
when as stiff' as mortar, put it three 
inches thick where the walk is to be. 
The ground should be dry, and beaten 
smooth. Sprinkle over it coarse sand : 
when cold, pass a light roller over it, 
and in a few days the walk will be solid 
and waterproof. 

Asphodeli'ne. (From Asphodelus, 
Nat. ord., LUiacew.) 

Nearly allied to Asphodelus, but easily distin- 
guished by their erect leafy stems ; common 




garden-soil. Division, and seeds. A.lutea,lihii/r- 

nica and taurica are especially fine. 

A. bremeau'lie. YelloWj with green veins. 

— damascefna. 2. Wliite. Asia Minor. 

— liiu'mica. 2. Yellow. June. Soutli of Europe. 

1812. B. C. t. 916. Syns., Asphodelm 
capillaris, Red. Lil. t. 380, and A. cre- 

— lu'tea. 3. Yellow. June. Sicily. 1696. B. M. 

t. 773. Syn.,Aspho(3£lus luteus. 

sMrica. 2. Pale yellow. May. Siberia. 

1829. B. E. t. 1607. Syn., Asphodelua 
siberiffus. There is also a form with 
double flowers. 

— proWfera. 1. White. August. Armenia. 1824. 

Hardy annual. Syn., Asphodelvi proli- 

— tau'rica. 2. White, with green stripes. June. 

Tauria. 1812. Bed. Lil. t. 470. Syn., 
Asphodelus tauricus. The plant in B. C. 
1. 1102 is not true A. tawica. 

— tmu'ior. 2. Yellow. July. Siberia. 1824. 

Syn., Asphodelus tenuior. 

Aspho'delus. Asphodel. (From 
a, not, and sphallo, to supplant; the 
stately flowers not easily surpassed. 
Nat. ord, Liliacece.) 

Useful, hardy herbaceous perennials, except 
where otherwise s_pecified. Division and seeds, 
which may be raised from seed ; common soil. 
A, interm^dius requires the protection of a cold 
pit in winter. 
A. OBSti'vus. See A. fistvlosus, var. tenuifolvm. 

— al'Hcs. See A. ramosus^ var. albus. 

— asia'ticizs. White. June. Levant. 1824. 

— capilla'ris. See Asphodeline liburnica, 

— clava'tv^. See A. fistulosus, var. clavatus. 

— camdsui. 2. White, green. N. W. Himalaya. 


— cre^tiens. See Asphodeline libumica, * 

— flstul&sus. IJ. White. July to August. South 

of Europe. 1696. B. M. t. 984. 
clava'tvJs. 1. White. July. E. Ind. 1808. 

Stove annual. 
tenuifo'lius. 2. White. July. Spain. 

1820. Syn., A. cestivus, 

— intermeldius. See A. ramosus^ var. inter- 


— lu'teus. See A^hodeline lutea, 

— Ttiicroca'Tpus. See A. raiifiosus, var. miero- 


— proiaferus. See AsphodelvtieproVi^era. 

— ramo'SMS. 4. White. April. South of Europe. 

dllms. 2. White. April. South of Europe. 

intermeldius. 2. White. July. Canaries. 

1822. Half-hardy perennial. 
rnuroca'rpus. Dalmatia. 1831. 

— siM'ricus. See Asphodeline lutea, var. siMrwa. 

— tau'ricus. See Asphodeline taurica. 

— tenu'ior. See Asphodeline tenuior. 

— Villa'rsii. 2. White. Eastern Fiance. 1888. 

Aspidio'tus conchifo'rmis. Mus- 
sel Scale. This infests the bark of 
Apple and Pear trees. It receives the 
name of Mussel Scale from the form of 
the scale which covers the mother Coccus 
and her eggs ; it is tranversely wrinkled 
and of rich dark brown colour, paler at 
the narrow end. 

About May the eggs hatch and the 
y oun§ Cocci spread about the tree, chiefly 
selecting the younger branches; it is 
just previous to this that the insect may 

be best dealt with. The best plan to 
get rid of this pest, is to scrape off thin 
slices of the infested bark and bum 
them, afterwards brushing the tree over 
with paraffin, and scrubbing it with a 

hard brush. Our illustration, for which 
we are indebted to the Gardener's 
Chronicle, represents :— Fig. 1, a portion 
of a branch infested with Mussel Scale, 
natural size ; 2, a scale seen from above, 
magnified ; 3 to 5, the same seen from 
below, containing a mother Coccus (4) 
and her eggs (5) ; 6, the insect magnified 
— the small o by its side shows the 
natural size. 

Aspidi'stra. (From aspidiseon, a 
little round shield ; shape of flower, or 
probably, in reference to the mushroom- 
shaped stigma by which Apidistreae are 
characterized. Nat. ord., Liliacea.) 

Greenhouse evergreen perennials ; useful orna- 
mental f oliaged plants for rooms and corridors ; 
suckers ; loam, leaf-soil, and sand-soil. It is 
questionable whether these would not all be 
hardy in the south of England. 
A. e'latior and elatior variega'ta. See Plecto- 
gyne va/riegata. 

— lu'rida. 1. Purple. July. China. 1832. 

B. E. t. 628. 

— puncta'ta. 1. Purple. March. China. B. E. 

t. 977. 

Aspi'dium. (From aspidion, a little 
buckler ; in allusion to the form of the 
indusium. Nat. ord., Filices — Poly- 
podiacem. ) 

Spores or seed, and division of the roots, chiefly 
the latter ; doing so before they begin to grow 
freely. Shady situation ; loam and peat. The 
greenhouse and stove kinds should have their 
appropriate treatment ; those of the latter should 
not have the temperature lower than 50° in 
winter. See Febns for general culture. 


A.aerostiehoi'des. 2. N.America. Syn., PoJ;/- 

stichum acrostichoides. 
gra'ndieeps. Tips of frond crested. 

Garden variety. 
inci'suTn. Pinnse acute. 

— aculea'tv/m. 1 to 3. Cosmopolitan. A vari- 

able species. ' 

— cUpi'mum. 1. South of Europe. 1825. 




A.amguMre.l. Cosmopolitan. The varieties of 
this in cultivation are very numerous. 

gra'ndiceps. A narrow form, with crested 


— atanrn'rivm. 1. N. America. 1820. 

— huUyi'ferum. 1. N. America. 1638. Repro- 

duced by buds formed on the fronds. 

— denta'tum. 1. June. Wales. 

— dilata'tum. 2. June. Britain. 

— dumeto'mm. 1. July. Britain. 
—fm'gile. 1. July. Britain. 

— Batle'ri. April. Switzerland. 1824. 

— im'guum. 2. July. Britain. 

— LonchitU. 1 to 2. Britain. Syn., Polysti- 

chum LonchUis. 

— momta'num. 1. June. Switzerland. 1819 

— muni'twm. 1 to 2. California. Syn., Poly- 

stichwm munitUTn. 

— re'gium. 1. July. Britain. 

— rhaltiemn. J. June. Britain. 


A. c^nmlum. 2. July. Madeira. 1779. 

— wrieta'tum. lto2. Japan te Australia. Syn., 

Polystwhwm a/nstatum. 

corm^o'liuTn, lYonds finely cut. 

vanegaltwm, Kachis striped with a 

lighter green. 

— cape'nse. lto2. June. Cape of Good Hope. 

Syns., A. coriaceum and Polystichwm 

— falcine^llum. 1. May. Madeira. Syn., Poly- 
stichwm faZcmellwni. 

— foemieida'ceum. 1 to 2. Sikkim. Sja., Poly- 
stichwm focnicvZacewm. 

— frondo'swm,. IJ. Madeira. Syn., Polystichum 


— laserpitiif&lium. 2. Japan. Syns., Lastrea 

Standishii and Polystichwm laserpitii- 

— lepidoeoM'lon. 1. Japan. Syn., Polystichum 


— mohrioi'dei, 1. Patagonia. Syn,, Polystichwm 


— pu'ngens. 2 to 3. Cape Colony. Syn., Poly- 

stichwnp pwngens. 

— tri'pteron. 2to3. Japan. Syn., Polystichwm 


— va'rium. IJ to 2. Japan. Syns., Lastrea 

varia and Polystichum varium. 

A. aJa'tum. July. E. Indies. 

— ama'bile. 2. Ceylon. Syn., Polystichum 


— ano'malum. 3 to 6. Ceylon. Syn., Polystichum 

— auricula'tum. lto2., India. Syns., A. ocel- 

latwm and Polystichwm auHcuiatwm. 

le'ntum^. Pinnae lobed. India. 

. Tnargina'fum. Texture more coriaceous. 

— eicuta'riwm. 2. July. Jamaica, 1820. 

— crietaltum. See Nephrodium enstatum. 
Cli/ntonia'num,. See Nephrodium crista- 

turn Clintonianwm. 

— decu'rreiM. 2. May. Isle of Luzon. 

— exalta'twm. i. July. Jamaica. 1793. 

— falca'tuTn. 1 to 3. E. Asia. Syn., Cyrtomvum 

caryoti'deum. Syn., Cyrtomium caryo- 

Fortu'nei. Narrower than type. Syn., 

Cyrtomium Fortunei. 
— flefxum. 2 to 3. Juan Fernandez. Syn., 

Polystichum Jleopum. 

— gra'nde. May. Isle of Luzon. 

— heracleifo'liwm. June. 

— Hookdri. June. E. Indies. Syn., A. nephro- 

dioides and Cyelodium Hookeri. 

— imlivi'sum,. 2.. July. Jamaica. 1824. 

— latifo'lium. May. Isle of Luzon. 

— maerophy'llum. 3. August. W. Indies. 1816. 

A. meniscioi'des. 3 to 6. W. Indies Syns A 
confeHum and Cyelodium mmiseioides ' 

— mucronaltum. 1 to 2. W. Indies. Syn 
Polystichwm mucronatum. '' 

— pa'tem. 2. July. Jamaica. 1784 

— pectina'tum. 1. July. W. Indies. 1826 

— pungens. 2 to 3. Cape Colony. Syn., Poly- 
stichwm pungens. 

— repa'ndum. 2. island of Luzon. 

— rhizophy'llum. J. July. Jamaica. 1820. 

— semicordaitum. 2 to 4. Tropical America. 
Syn., Polystichwm semieardatum. 

— smgaporia'mim. April. Malacca. 

— triamgu'lum. 1. W. Indies. Syn., Poly- 
stichum trUingulum. 

— trifolia'tum. 2. July. W. Indies. 1769. 
heracleifo'lium. More cut than the type 

— mvipa'rum. 2. July. Jamaica. 1824. Syn., 
A. trapezoides. 

Asple'nium, Spleenwort. (From 
a, not, and splen, spleen ; referring to 
its supposed medicinal properties. Nat. 
ord., VUiees.) 

For general management, see Aspidium and 
Perns. In propagating from the spores on the 
baclc of a frond, prepare a pot well-drained, with 
some peaty soil ; shake the spores all over it ; 
cover with a square of glass ; and set the pot in 
a shady place until the plants are up. 

G = greenhouse species ; S = stove species. 
A. ai)8c^'sswm. 1. Trop. America. Syn., .4. ;!r- 
mum. S. 

— acwmina'tum. 2. Sandwich Islands. Syn., 
A. polyphyllum. 

— acu'tum. 2. April. TenerifEe. 1818. 

— adia'tumyni'grvm. 1. August. Britain. Ene. 
Bot. ed. 3, 1. 1874. 

acu'tum. 1. Ireland. Eng. Bot. ed. 3. 

1. 1875. 


crista' tum. Crested. 1881. 

gra'iuticeps. ^ to 1. Crested. 

oxyphj/llum. ^. Segments acute. 

— a£il7ie. 2. Mascaren Islands. Syn., A. spathU' 

linwm. S. 

— ala'tum. S. America. 1864. S. 

— alism<Bfo'liwm. 1. Philippines. Syn., Aniso- 

gonium alismmfolium. 

— a'ltemans. j. India. Syn., A. Dalhousice. G. 

— altema'twm. 1. July. Australia. 1824. 

— altemi/o'lium. See A. germa/nicum. 

— ambi'guum. 1. W. Indies. 

— amboindnse. 1. S. Sea Islands. 1887. 

— anqustifo'lium. 1. July. N. America. 1812. 

— anisoph^llum. 2. S. Africa. G. 

— api'cidens. See A. Vieillardii. 

— arbore'scens. 3 to 4. Mauritius. 1826. Syn., 

Diplazimn arborescens. S. 

— Amo'ttii. 1. Sandwich Islands. 1877. Syn., 

A. diplazioid^ and Diplazium Ar- 
nottii. G. 

— aspidim'des. 2. Trop. America. Syn., A. 

maMiseetwrn. G. 

— athj/riwm. 2. August. N. America. 1823. 

— attenualtum. 1. Queensland. G. 

— aulrewm. See A. Geterach, var. a/urewm. 

— auricula'tum. 2. Trop. America. 1820. S. 

— auri'tum. ^ to 1. Trop. America. S. 

— australa'sicwm. See A. nidus. 

— Bapti'sti. 1. S. Sea Islands. 1880. S. 

— Belange'ri. 2. Malay Peninsula. Syns., A. 

Veitchimiwm and Darea Belangeri. S. 

— biauri'twm. 1. July. W. Indies. S. 

— biparti'tum. 2. August. Jamaica. 1820. S. 

— Mse'ctwm. 2. July. Jamaica. 1821. S. 

— brachy'ptercm. J. Madagascar. Syn., Darea 

brachypteron. S. 

— brazilie'nse. 1. July. Brazil. 1822. S. 

— breviso'Twrn. 3. S. Africa. Syn., Athyrium 

brevisontm. S. 





A. hulWferum. 1 to 2. July. New Zealand. 

1820. Syn., A. laxum. G. 
Fabia'nvmi. Sori submarginal. Syn., A. 


— calophi/lkim. June. Island of Luzon. S. 

— C'anvpb^Uii. G. C. v. 24, p. 7. 

— cmiarie^nse. July. Canary Islands. 1824. G. 

— cavda'tum: Polynesia. G. 

— Ce'terach. \ to 4. Britain. Syn., Ceterach 

offidnarum. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, t. 1883. 

au'reum. Canary IslandS( Syns., A. 

aureum and Ceterach aureum. 

— cicuta'rium. 1. August. W. Indies. 1820. S. 

— Col^nsoi. I to 2. New Zealand. Syn., A. 

Hookerianum. G. 

— comfpre^ ssum. 2 to 3. St. Helena. S. or G. 

— consi'mile. Chili. HalfTiardy. 

— conWguuTn. 2. Sandwich Islands, G. 
fi'ssum. S. Sea Islands. 1880. 

— crena'turri: 2. N. Europe. 

— cultrifo'lium. 1. W. Indies. 1820. S. 

— cunea'tum. 1. W. Indies. 1832. S. 

— Dalkou'sice. See A. alternans. 

— decussa'tum. 3 to 6. Polynesia. See Aniso- 

gonum decussatwm. S. 

— denta'tum. 1. W. Indies. 1820. G. 

— defntex. S. Africa. 1790. G. 

— depre' ssuTti. 1. August. S. 

— d-iffo'rme. Fronds deep green. New Zealand. 

1867. G. 

— dimidia'tum. September. W. Indies. 1827. S. 

— dimo'rphum. 2 to 4. Norfolk Island. Syns., 

A. diversifolium of some gardens, and 
Darea dimorpha. G. 

— diplazioi'des. See A. Amottii. 

— diver sifo'lvwm. See A. dimorpkum and A. 


— eb^nmmi. 1. July. N. America. 1779. 

— elega'ntulum. Japan. 

— elonga'tum,. June. Malacca. 1840. S. 

— ero'&wm. June. W. Indies. S. 

— eBml^ntwm. 5 to 9. India. 1822. Syn., .4mso- 

goTvwm esculentuTTb. S. 

— ext^nsvmfh. 1 to 2. Andes of Columbia and 

Peru. G. 
— falca'tum. 1. Polynesia. 1825. 

— fejee'nee. 2. Fiji. S. 

— femandezia'num,. Montevideo. 1869. G. 

— ferula' cewm,. .IJ-. Columbia. S. 

— jtUccLu'le. One-twelfth. New Grenada. 1881. S. 

— fiUx-fce'Tfiina. 1 to 3 Britain. Syn., Athy- 
riuTih Jilix-fo&mma The varieties of this 
species are endless ; the best are : 
acrocla'don, aewmina'tivm, apieula'twm, 
Applebya'nvmij Bam^sii, ca'lothrix, con- 
to'rtimi, corona'tivm, corymhi'ferum,, 
cr'ispum, disse'ctum, Elwo'rthii, Me^ldice, 
Frise'llioet gra'ndice^s^ Jonefsii, mi'ni- 
mum,, Moo'rei, multi'fidv/m, panno'sum, 
plumo'^wniy Pritcha'rdii, ra/mo'sa^ sco'poB, 
subluna'tuTtif and Victo'riaz. 

— fi'ssum. S. Europe. 1825. 

— fiabeUif</lium. 1. July, Australia. 1820. G. 
• m-a'jus. Larger. 

— fla'cddAim. lto3. New Zealand. Syns., .4. 

odontites and Darea flacdda. 
— fonta'num. 1. July. England. Eng. Bot. 

ed. 3, 1. 1872, Syn., A. Ealleri. 

refra'ctv/m, Pinnse larger, reflexed. 

~-f(yrmo'sum. 1. W. Indies. 1822. S. 

— fr a! grans. 1. August. Jamaica. 1793. S. 

/osnicu^a'cewm.. Se^ents narrower. 

— Franco' nis. 1 to 3. Mexico. Syn., iJip^azittm 

Franconis, S. 

— furca'tum. 1 to 2. Tropics of both hemi- 

spheres. Syn., A. prcemorswm. S, 

— Oardne'ri. IJ. Ceylon. 1873. S. 

— gernna'nicum. h N. Europe. Eng. Bofc.' ed. 3, 

t. 1881. Syn., A. altemifolvu/m. 

— Goringia'nv/m pi'etv/m. See A. macroca/rpum. 
^-~ grtmdifo'lvwm. 3 to 5. Trop. America. 1793. 

Syn., Dipktmt/m grandifQlvum, 

A. Grevi'llH. 1. India. S. 

— Halle'ri. See A. fontanum. ' 

— Hemioni'tis. f. S.Europe. Syix.t A. palmor- 


crista'tum. Crested and tasselled. Ma- 
deira. 1864. Syn., A. pahnatvm eriS' 

nvulti'fidv/m. Azores. 

— heteroca'rpum. 1 to 3. S. E. Asia. S. or G. 

— ho'rridAim. 1884. 

— inci'sum. 1. Japan. G. 

— java'nicwm. See Allantodia JBrimonia/na. 

— la'cteum. W. Indies. S. 

— Ic^tu/m. W. Indies. S. 

— Laffania'num. Bermuda. 1880. 

— lanceola'tvmfb. 1. W. Europe. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, 

1. 1873. 

crispa'tmn. Margins curled. 

mi'GTodon. Very finely toothed. 

— la'nAi&wm. 1. Himalayas. Byns,., A. submLua- 

tu/m and Diplaziwm la/nceum. G. 

— laserpitiiifo'liv/m. 1 to 5. Polynesia. G. 

— linea'tiMth. 1 to 2. Mauritius. S. 

— longiso'rum,. New Grenada. 1881. S. 

— longi'ssimwm. 2 to 9. Malacca. 1840. S. 

— lunula'tv/m. ^ to 2. Tropics of both Hemi- 

spheres. Syn., A. ereetwm. S. 

— mwsroca'rpv/m. 1 to 3. Himalayas. G. Syn., 

A, GoringianuTn pictum. 

— macrophy'Uumof some gardens. SeeA.nitens. 
— 'inari'num. 1. Britain. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, 

1. 1876. Amongst the many varieties of 
this may be mentioned : cor<^nans, ere- 
na'tvmfhy mvra'bile, plumo'sum, ramo-plU' 
mo'sum,, ramo'sum, sttb-Hpinna'tv/m, and 

— ma'oMmim. 4. N. India. Syns. , A . diversi- 

foliv/m and Diplazium detmrrens. S. 

— m^Zanocau'lon. 1. N. America. 1812. S. 

— Michau'xii. 2. N. America. 1823. 

— mona'nthemum. 1, S. Africa. 1790. G. 

— monta'numi. 1. N. America. 1812. G. 

— multis^ctumi. See A. aspidioides. 

— myriophy'llv/m. Mexico. 1861. Syn.,A.flahel- 


— ni'dus. 2. India. 1820. Syn., A. musoe 

folium. S. 

-^ australa'sicum. Australia. Syn., Tham- 

nopteris australasieum. 

— ni'tens. |. Mauritius. Syn., A. macrophyllvm 

of gardens. S. 

— ni'tidum. 2 to 3. India. G. 

— n&vce-caledo'nice. New Caledonia. 1866. G. 

— obtusa'tum. 1. New Zealand, and Aus- 

tralia. G. 

diffo'rme. Pinnse cut to the rachis. 

luddum, "W. Indies. G. 

— obtusifo'Hvm. W. Indies. 1838. S. 

— obtusilo'buTn. New Hebrides. 1861. 

— oligopky'llv/m. Brazil. 1841. S. 

— otvtes. Tropical America. 1841. S. 

of A. pulchellu/m. 

~ oxyphy'llum. 1 to 2. Himalayas. ^^ , 

Athyrvwm oxyphyllum ajidLastrea ebur* 
nea. G. 

— palea'ceum. Australia. 1879. S. 

— palma'twrn. See A. Hemionitis. 

— persidfo'lium,. Island of Luzon. S. 

— petra'rche. i. France. 1819. 

— pa'rvulvm. Ic. PI. t. 222. See A. trilobum.. 

— pinnati'fidum. ^. Pennsylvania. G. 

— planicau'le. 1. Himalayas. 1841. G. 

— plantcMi'neum. 1. W, Indies. 1819. 

Diplazium plantagin&um. S. 

— polyo'don. New Zealand. 1843. G. 

— polyphy'llum-. See A. acuminatum. 

— prcemo'rsum. See A. furcatum-. 
r- pulche'llvm. J. Tropical America. 
—pu'lchrum. Jamaica. S. 

— pwmi'lim,. 1. W. Indies. 1823. S. 

— rachirhi'zon. Tropical America. Syn., 

rachirhvncBy S. 


A form 






A. radi'eans. . 3 to 6. Tropical America. Syns., 
A, giganteum, Diplazium radicans, and 
D. wmbroswm, S, 

— rese^ctv/m. 1. Mauritius. 1820. S. 

— rhizo'phorwm. 1 to 2. Tropical America. S. 

— rhizophy'llum. 1. N. America. 1680. G. 
•myrioph'j/llv/m. Broader. 

— rutcefo'lium. 1. Cape Colony. Syns., A. 

proUmgatv/m oaaDairea rutafolia. G. 

— ruta-rmira'ria. J. Britain. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, 

t. 1880. 

— saMcifo'lium. 1. W. Indies. G. 

— salidnum. 1. E. Indies. 1839. G. 

— Sanders&ni. |. Natal. 1880. S. 

— sca'ndens. 1. Sumatra. 1887. S. 

— schi'zodon. See A. Vieitlardii. 

— Schku'rii. 3. Ceylon. Syn., Diplaziuin 

Schkurii. S. 

— scolopendroi'des. Island of Leyte. 1840. S. 

— Selo'sii. J. Tyrol. 

— septentriona'le. 1. Britain. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, 

1. 1882. 

— serra'tum. 2. August. W. Indies. 1793. S. 

— serrula'tum. June. India. S. 

— Shephe/rdii. 1 to 2. S. America. Syn., Dipla- 

zium Shepherdii. G. 
vnoBquila't&ruin. PinnsB unequal-sided. 

— spinulo'sum. 1. Amer. Syns., Athyriwm 

spinuloswm and Cystopteris spin/ulosa. 

— spldndem. 1. Cape Colony. G. 

— stria' turn. 1. W. Indies. 1793. S. 

— nidcaltum. July. W. Indies. 1827. S. 

— sylva'tieum. 2. India. S. 

— thelypteroi'des. 1. N. Amer. 1823. Syn., 

Athyriv/m thelypteroides. 

— Thwaitelsii. 1. Ceylon. Syn., Biplazium, 

Thwaite&ii. S. 

— trich(/mane8. i. Britain. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, 

t. 1878. 

Varieties of this are ; crista'twmj in- 
ci'sum, mulWfidum, and ramo'sum. t 

— trilo'bum. J. S. Brazil. Syn., A. parvulwm. 

— umbro'sum. 3 to 5. Madeira to Himalayas. 

Syns., AUwntodia austraU and Atkry- 
riv/m umbrosum. G. 

— vafrlane. J. Himalayas. G. 

— Vieilla'rdii. New Caledonia. 1871. Syns., A. 

apicidens and A. Bchizodon. S. 
fa'cile. J. New Caledonia. 1881. S. 

— m'ride. 1. Britain. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, 1. 1877. 

— vittcefo'rine. Island of Luzon. Syn., .4. swn- 

dense. S. 

— vivi'parwm. 1. Mauritius. 1820. S. 

— indca'nixum. 1 to 3. Malay Islands. Syn., 

A. heterodon. S. 
-^zamuBfo'Kum. 2. Caraccas. 1820. S. 

— zeylaJnicwm. 1. Ceylon. Syn., Diplazvwm 

■ Asprella. (Diminutive of asper, 
rough. Nat. ord., Graminece.) 
4. hy'strite. Hardy annual. Wien. Gart. Zeit. 
1889, p. 228, f. 45. 

Assam Tea. The'a assame'nsis. 
Asso'nia. See Do'mbeya. 

Asta'rtea. (A classical name, after 
Astarte, a goddess of the Phoenicians 
and Syrians, called in Scripture Ash- 
taroth. 'Sa.t. ovA.., MyrtacecB.) 

A pretty greenhouse evergreen shrub. Cut- 
tings of small shoots, half-ripe, in sandy soil, 
under a bell-glass, and kept shaded for a time ; 
sandy loam and peat. 

A. fm<Miu,la'ris. 6 to 9. White. May. West 
Australia. 1830. 

Aste'lia. (From astelos, wanting a 

pillar ; in allusion to its having no stem 
or trunk. Nat. ord., Liliacew; Tribe, 

Eare greenhouse tufted perennials, with long 
grass-like, hairy- leaves. Divisions in spring 
Peat and loam, about half and half. 
A. Ba'nksii. Greenish. New Zealand. Hort 
Vanh. t. B. 

— Kvitta'ta. New Zealand. 1864. 

— Cunfiingha'mi. Green. February. North 

Island, New Zealand. B. M. t. 6175. 
This species might prove hardy in the 
South of England. 

— Sola'tidn. Greenish, New Zealand. 1864. 

B. M. t. 5603. 

Aste'lma. See Heli'pterum. 

Aste'phanus. (From a, without, 
and Stephanos, a crown ; in reference to 
the stamens. Nat. ord., AsclepiadaceoB). 

Greenhouse twining evergreen plants ; division 
and cuttings in sandy soil in heat ; peat, leaf -soil, 
and sandy loam. 

A. Ivnea'ris. 4. White. July. Cape of Good 
Hope. 1816. 

— triflo'rus. 4. White. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1816. 

Astei?. Starwort. (From aster, a 
star. The flowers of Composites, or 
Starworts, are called florets, and, being 
collected together on a receptacle, as in 
the daisy or dahlia, the rays of their 
circumference resemble stars. Nat. ord. , 
CompositcB ; Tribe, Asteroideoe. ) 

To this family we are indebted for many of our 
autumn ornaments in our flower-borders. The 
greenhouse- species are evergreen shrubs, propa- 
gated by cuttings, under a hand-glass, in sandy 
peat, and flounshing in peat and loam. The 
hardy species are deciduous herbaceous plants, 
propagated by division, and flourishing in com- 
mon garden-soil. 

A. a'crw. 2. Lilac. August. Central Europe. 
1731. Syns., A. c^oGwrumZoides, hyssopi- 
Joliits, linifoliuSi and punctatus, 

— aculea'ttts. See Qlearia ra/mulosa. 

— acumma'tus, 2. Pale red. September. 

N. America. 1806. B. M. t. 2707. 

— alm'nus. 1. Purple. June. Europe. 1658. 

B. M. 1. 199. 

fit/rea'lio. 1. White. July. Europe. 1828. 

rot/mo' gu8. 1. Blue. June. Europe. 

spedo'siis. A fine large flowered variety. 

— altai'eus. 1. Blue. June. Siberia. 1804. 

Syn., A.emguati/olius. Jacq. H. Schoenb. 
t. 370. 

— alwarte!rms. B. M. t. 2321. See Erigeron 


— ameHl'US. 2. Purple. August. Italy. 1596. 

B. R. t. 340. Italian starwort. Syns., 

A. Allrus, B. B. 1. 1666, mmlloides, and 

anguslifdliim. 2. Pale blue. August. 

South of Europe. 1596. 
bessara'bwus. Purple. September. Bussia. 


— ameffiysli'nus. 3. Bright lilac. October. 

United States. Syn., A. bostoniensis. 

— aragoninsis. 1. Blue. June. Spain. 1826. 

Syn., A. lusitanicus, 

— argophy'Uus. B. M. t. 1563. See Olearia 


— azvlreuis. 3. Violet. United States. 

— bellidia' strum, 1. White. June. Austria. 

1670. Syns. BelUdimtrum Michelii and 
Voronicum Michelii. 




A. Wcalor. J. Changing from white to purple. 

— Bi^elo'vii. 2J. Purple, yellow. Summer. 

Colorado. 1878. Hardy. Syn., A. 
Tmmehmdii. B. M. t. 6430. 

— cabu'UcKs. See Microglosm aHiescens. 

— cam! scene. 2. Violet. September. N. 

America. 1812. Syn., DvpUypa^ipus in- 
ccmm. B. 1£. t. 3382. 

— ca'nus. 2. Purple. August. Hungary. 1816. 

— carolinia'nus. 3. Purple. September. Caro- 


— cmiea'sicus. L Purple. July. Caucasus. 1804. 

— Chapma'nni. 4. Bright blue. United States. 

— cM-ne'nsis, See CaUistejohus hortensis. 

— chrysophy'ttue. White. 

— cc/ncolor. 1. Purple. October. N. America. 


— amyzoi'des. See Felicia amguitifolia. 

— cordiSdlins, 2. Blue. July. N. America. 

1769. B. B. 1. 1597. 

— coconom/b'ZiMS. Yellow. N. America. 1878. 

Syn., BieUffvi coronopi^olia, 

— corymbt/xus. 2. White. October. N. America. 

1765. B. E. t. 1532. Syn., A. divari- 

— Cv/rti'sii. 2. Bright lilac. United States. 

— cymbula'ruie. 2. White. September. S. 

Africa. 1786. Greenhouse. 

— (JdftM'ricKS. 2. PaJe blue. Central Siberia. 

— deeerto'rum. 2. Blue. July. Siberia. 1820. 

— diffu'sua. 2, White. October. N. America. 
• 1777. Syns. A. pendulus and recurvatns. 

— diploetephioi'des. IJ. Lavender blue. Alpine 

region of Himalayas. 1884. B. M. 
t. 6718. 

— Drmnmo'ndii. S. Pale lilac. United States. 

— dumo'sus. 3. White. October. N. America. 

1734. Sjos., A. coridi/oliue,foliosus, a,iid 

— eriayi'des. 3. White. September. N. America. 

1758. Syn., A. pUoBits. 

— enibe'scens. See Olearia Tnyrsirwides. 

— exaspera'tus. See Olearia ramulosa. 

— flUf&lius. 3. White. May. South Africa. 

1812. Greenhouse. 
—flaribu'ndus. 4. Purple. September. N. 


— glau'cus. 2. Bright lilac. United States. 

— gra'cilis. 1. Green. August. N. America. 

— graminifo'lius. See IBh^geron hyssopi/olius, 

— grandifidrus, 2. Blue. November. N. 

America. 1720. B. M. t. 273. 

— gym/noc^phalus. 1-2. Bose-purple. Mexico. 

1878. Syn. Aplopa/ppus gym/nocephalus. 

— Hefrveyi, 2. -Lilac. Massachusetts. 

— heterovhy'llus. 3. White. August. N. 

America. 1811. 

— hi'spidus. 1. Lilac. September. S. Africa. 


— inci'sus. 2. Blue. August. Siberia, 1818. 

— infilrmis. 1. White. September. N. America. 

1699. Syn., A. hwrnilis. 

— vmdoVdes. See Srigeron multiradiat'u^, 
—ju'ncews. 4. Flesh-coloured. September. 

N. America. 1768. B. E. 1. 1614. 

— lafvie. 2. Blue. September. N. America. 

1758. B. E. 1. 1500. Syns., A. cyaneus, 
Ifxmgatus^ politus, and rvhricavXis. 

— Tma/rifo'lvus. 1. Pale blue. September. N. 

America. 1699. Syns., A. pulchenrimus 
and rigidus, and Biplopa/ppvs linarii- 

— linosy'ris. 1. Bright yellow. Autumn. Eu- 

rope. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, t. 777. Syns., 
Chrysocoma linosyrie and hmosyris iml- 

— longi/o'lius. 3. White. October. N. America. 

1798. B. E. 1. 1614. Syns., A. cestivus, 
bicolor, and laxijlorus. There is also a 
variety, formosus, 

— Iyra!tu8. B. M. t. 1609. See Olearia stellu- 


A. nutorophy'Uus. 2. White. August. N. 
America. 1739. Syn., A. Schreben. 

— margina'tm. 1. Violet. July. New Grenada. 


— mi'ser. 2. White. August. 1812. Syn., ^. 

vfvuY ii fo ti/UiS 

— multifio'rus. 3.' White. September. N. 

America. 1732. 

— myrmtai'des. See Olearia myrsinmdes. 

— nemara'lis. 1. Lilac. August. N. America. 


— no'voB a'nglioe. 6. Purple. September. N.. 

America. 1710. B. E. t. 183. Syns., 
A. ampleadcaulis, concinmis, and spurius. 

ru'ber. 6. Bed. July. N. America. 


— TW'vi be'lgii. 4. Purple. September. N. 

America. 1710. Syns., A. admlterinut. 
(B. E. t. 1671), eminens, laams, Itiau- 
rianSt nvutabilis, praealtiis^ and sero- 

ifo'lius. 2. Lilac. July. N. America. 

1797. Syn., A. graveolens. 

— obtma'tus. 4. White. June. S, Africa. 

—paliido'sus. 3. Blue. August. N. America. 

— pamicula'tus. 4. Blue. September. N. 

America. 1640. Syns., A. bellidifiorus, 
lanceolatus, salignv,s, saTiguitieus, sim- 
plex, and strictus. 

— paJtenis. 2. Purple. October. N. America. 

1773. Swt.Tl. Gard. t. 234. 

— pa'tulus. 3. LUac. September. Canada 

and United Slates. Syns., A. cMrema- 
tus Siod pallens. B. E. 1. 1509. 
— pamdjio'rus. 1. White. September. Mis- 

— peregri'nus. 1. Blue. July. N. America. 

— plantagino^o'lius. See Sericocarpus cony- 

— plurifo'lius, 2. White. June. S, Africa. 

1769. Syn., A. fruticulosus, B. M. 
t. 2286. 
— polyphy'lVui. 3. White. September. N. 

— prena/nihoHdes, 3. Blue. September. N. 

America. 1821. 

— ptarmicoi'des. 1-2. White. N. America,. 

— pvXcheHlus. See Erigeron pulckellus. 
^■pwnilceus. 3. Blue. September. N. America. 

1710. Syn., A. blandus, B. 0. t. 959. 

demi'ssus. 2. Blue. September. 1820. 

Garden variety. 

— pu'tens. 4. Lilac. N. America. Hardy. 

— pyreru^us. 2. Violet. July. Pyrenees. 

Syn., A. prascaz. 

— ra'dvXa. 2. White. October. N. America. 

1785. Syns., A. biflorus and nudijUyrus. 

— ra/mo'sus. 1. Purple, red. June. N. America. 


— reflt^xits, B. M. t. 884. See Felicia rejlexa. 

— reticular tus. 3. White. July. N. America, 


— sagittifo'lims. 2. Flesh-coloured. June. N. 

America. 1760. 

— salieifo'lius. 6. Flesh-coloured. September. 

N. America. 1760. Syn., A. rwidulus. 

— salsugino' sus. B. M. t. 4940. See Frigermi 


— scorzorterifo'lius. 1. Pale purplish. California. 


— seri'ceue. 3. Bright violet. August. United 

States. 1786. Greenhouse. Syns., .4. ar- 
genteus and montanus. 

— sessilifio'rus. 5. Eed. October. N. America. 


— Sho'rtii. 3. Bright lilac. October. United 


— siM'ricus. 2. Blue. August. Siberia. 1768. 

— sikkvme'Tms. 3. Bluish-purple. October. 

Sikkim Himalayas. 1850. B, M. t. 4567. 




^. solida^Tuyi^des, Q&e Sericocarpus soUdagiTieus. 

— specta'bilis. 2. Blue. August. N. America. 

1777. B. E. t. 1627. SYn.,A.eleg<ms. 

— squarro'sus. 2. Blue. June. If. America. 


— stellula'tus. See Olearia stellulata. 

— subula'tus. 2. Pale blue. September, N. 


— eurculo'siis. 2. Purple. August. N. America. 

— tcmacetifo'lius. 1. Purple. July. New 

Mexico. 1851. Syn. MaclioErtmthera 
tanacetifolia^ B. M. t. 4624. 

— tata'rieus. 1. White. August. Tartary. 


— tenem'us. 1. Blue. August. S. Africa. 

1769. Greenhouse biennial. B. M. t. 33. 

— tenuifo'lius. 3. White. August. N. America. 

1723. Syns., A. fiemw«us and spa/rsi- 

— Thomao'ni. 1-3. Whitish. W. Himalayas. 

— tomento'sus. See Olearia dentata. 

— tortifo'lius. 1. Purple. September. N. 


— Tradesea'nti. 3. White. August. N. America. 

1633. Syn., A. artemisiifiorus. 

— trin^rms. 2. White. August. S. France. 


— Tripo'lium. 2. Blue. August. Shores of 

Europe. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, t. 776. Syns., 
A, pmumieus and TripoUum imlgwre. 

— turHn^llus, 2. Bright lilac. October. 

United States. 
' — unAella'tus. 2. White. August. N. America. 
1759. &JDS., A.amygaalinusBMUHplo- 
pappus umbellatus. 

— undvMtus. 3. Purple. September. N. 

America. 1699. 

— versicolor. 3. White, purple. Au^st. N. 

America. 1790. Syn., A. Icevis, B. B.. 
t. 1600. 

— vUlo'gus. See Felicia mllosa. 

^- vimi'Tieus. 3. Blue. September, N. America. 
1800. Syn. A. folioloBus. 

Asteraca'ntha. See Hygrophila. 

Aste'ricus mari'timus. See Odon- 
tosperraum maritimum. 

Asteroce'phalUS. (From astron, 
a star, and kephale, a head ; in reference 
to the seed.) See Scabiosa. 
A. arge^nteus. See Scabiosa ucranica. 

— Bieberstei'nii. See Scabiosa mierantlia, 

— ca^Ua'tvs. See Scabiosa mollis. 

— ^Ugans. See Scabiosa caitcasica. . 

— inca'nus. See Scabiosa suaveolens. 

— lu'cidus. See Scabiosa nitens. 

— Tiwllissvmus. See Scabiosa pyrenaica. 

— rota'tus. See Scabiosa stellata. 

— rwpe'stris. See Scabiosa Isetensis. 

— rutcBfo'lius. See Scabiosa urceolata. 

— Sieulus. ' See Scabiosa ueranica. 

— simplex. See Scabiosa monspeliensis. 

— tomento'sus. See Scabiosa pyrenaica. 

Asterosti'gma. See Stauro- 

Astilbe. (From a, not, and stilbe, 
brightness ; flowers not very conspicuous. 
Nat. ord., Saxifragacem.) 

Hardy herbaceous perenniaL Division ; rich 

A. deea'ndra. 2. White, June. Carolina. 1812. 

—japdnica. IJ. White. Japan. Syns., A. 

barbata, Spircea barbata japonica, and 

Boteia japonica. There is a variety with 

variegated leaves. A useful rock plant. 

— rimUa'ris. 3. Greenish-yellow. Late summer. 


A. ru'br^ ^ ^Knk. July. E. Indies. 1861. 

— Thtmbe'rgii. IJ. White, Japan. 1878. Flor 

Mag. n. s. t, 467. 

Asti'ria. (From a, not, and steiros, 
sterile ; referring to the absence of bar- 
ren stamens, one-half of these being 
barren, generally, ta this order. Nat, 
ord. Sterculiacem.) 

Allied to Dombeya. Stove evergreen shrub • 
cuttings in sand, under a bell-glass, in heat : peat 
and sandy loam. 

A. ro^ea. Pink. May. Mauritius, 1843, 
B. B. 1844, t. 49. 

Astra'galus. Milk Vetch, (An 
ancient Greek name for some leguminous 
plant, Nat. ord., Legwminosce.) 

All hardy, except where otherwise specified. 
Annual species, seed, in common, sandy soil, in 
March. Perennial herbaceous species, division 
of the plant. The under-shrubs, cuttings, under 
a hand-light ; common, sandy soil for all. 


A. cegi'eeras. 1. Pale yellow. July. 1818. 

— alopeleias. 3. Yellow. June. Siberia. 1800. 

— arrnvMris. \\. Purple. July. Egypt. 1800. 

Trailer. Syn., A. trimarphus. 

— baitMfus. 1. Pale yellow. July. South of 

Europe, 1769. Trailer, 

— bracliycilrai. \. Yellow, July. Tauria. 1828. 

— bu'ceras. 1. Pale yellow. July. 1818. Trailer, 
• — canalicula'tits. See A. scorpioides. 

— caryoca'rpus. 1. Purple. July. N. America, 

B. K. 1. 176. 1800. Biennial. 

— ci'cer. 2. Yellow. July. Europe. 1570. 


— contortvplica tus. 1. Pale yellow, July. 

Siberia. 1764. Trailer. 

— erucia'tus. IJ, Violet. July, 1820. Trailer. 

— cymbaBca'rpus. J. White, July. Spain, 

1800. Trailer. 

— gla'ux. i. Purple. July. Spain. 1596. 

— lotoi'des. See A. sinicus. 

— m,areo'ticus. J, Lilac. July. Egypt, 1817. 


— Nuttallia'nus. \. Blue. July. America. 

1820. Trailer. 

— oxyglo'ttis. J. Blue. July. Tauria, 1817. 


— pentaglo'ttis. }. Purple. July. Spain. 

1739. Trailer. 

— reticula'ris. Blue. July, Iberia. 1828. 

— scorpioi'des. 1, Pale blue. July. Spain. 1816. 

Syn., A. caTialiculatus. 

— sesa'meus. 1. Pale blue. July. South of 

Europe. 1816. Trailer. 

— si'nictis. J. Eed. August, China. 1763. 

Syn., A. lotoides. 

— triangula'ris. 1. Pale yellow. July, 1818. 

— tribuloi'des. J. Purple. July. Egypt, 1817, 


— trime'stris. J. Pale yellow, July. Egypt, 

1730. Trailer. 

— trvmo'rphus. See A. annularis. 


A. acuti/o'litis. J. July. Persia. 1826. 

— adsu'rgens. J. Purple. July. Siberia. 1818. 

Syn., A. Laxmann% Jacq. 

— prostra'tus. J. Pui^le. July. Siberia. 

1818. Trailer. 

— adu'ncus. 1. Purple. July. Caucasus. 1819. 

— alopeffuroi'des. 2. Light yellow. July. Si- 

beria. 1737. 

— ammuody'tes. i. White. July. Siberia. 

1820. Bverfflreen under-shrub. 

— arena'riue. 1. Blue, July, Scandinavia, 

1798. Trailer. 




A. arista' Im. 1. Purple. July. Pyrenees. 
1791. Evergreen. 

— a'eper. 3. Pale yellow. July. Astracan. 1796. 

— aMStrHacua. J. Pale blue. July. Austria. 


— baicale'nsis. 1. August. Yellow. Siberia. 


— bayone/neit. J. Purple. July. France. 1816. 

— irachyea'rpua. IJ. Purple. July. Caucasus. 

1820. Trailer. 

— breviJU/ru8. See A. eriocephalus. 

— Buchtomw^nsis. See Oxytropis Palldsii. 

— cwnaMnsis. IJ. Pale yellow. July. N. Amer. 

1732. Syn., A. carolinianus. 

— ealyd'rms. August. Caucasus. 1819. 

— capita'tut. See A. emarginatus. 

— capri'nus. 1. Pale yellow. July. Barbary. 


— carolinm'nus. See A. canaderisis. 

— caryoca'rpus. 1. Purple. July. N.America. 

1827. Syn., A. succiUentits. 

— camca'eieus. J. White. July. Caucasus. 

1821. Evergreen. 

— chinefnsis. 1. Pale yellow. July. China. 

1795. Greenhouse. 

— chloroeta'chys. 3. Greenish-yellow. Sep- 

tember. Nepaul. 1824. 

— Christia'nus. 3. Pale yellow. July. Asia 

Minor. 1737. So called by Dioscorides, 
because a native of the birthland of 

— ddhu'ricus. J. Purple. June. Dahuria. 1822. 

— dctsya'nthus. 1. June. Hungary. 1819. 

— dasyglo'ttis. See A. hypoglottis, 

— depre^ssus. \. Pale y^ow. July. Europe. 

1772. Trailer. 

— dalichophifUus. J. Pale yellow. July. 

Caspian. 1820. Syn., A. diffusus, 

— Donia'mts. J. Purple. July. Nepaul. 1818. 


— emargina'tue. 1. Pale yellow. July. South 

of Europe. 1825. Syn., A. capitatits. 

— epiglo'ttis. J. Pale yellow. July. South of 

Europe. 1737. Trailer. 

— erioce'phalus. i. Purple. July. Armenia. 

1826. Hafi-hardy evergreen. Syn., A. 

— exsca'pus. J. Yellow. July. Hungary. 1827. 
— falca'tus. 3. Greenish-yellow, July. Siberia. 
— falcifo'rTnis. IJ. Pale yellow. July. Algiers. 

— frutic&sus. H. Violet. July. Siberia. 1804. 
Syn., A, vimvneue. 

— galegif&rmis. 2. Yellowish-green. June. 

Siberia. 1729. 

— glyciphylloi'des. 1. Pale yellow. July. Si- 

beria. 1818. Trailer. 

— glycyphyflVus. 3. Yellowish-green. July. 

Britain. Trailer. Eng. Bol. ed. 3, t. 377. 

— grafnlis. f. Purple. June. N. Amer. 1821. 

— haHea'cabm. J. Pale yellow. May. Armenia. 


— hamo'sue. 1. Pale yellow. July. Spain. 

168S. Trailer. 

nuwroca'rpus. J. Pale yellow. June, 

South of Europe. 1820. Trailer. 

— hypoglo'ttia. i. Purple. July. Britain. 

Trailer. Eng. Bot. ed, 3, t. 376. Syns., 
A, dasyglottis fmd purpureus. 

a'Ums. i. White. June. Gardens. 


— hymenoca'rpus. 4. Yellow. July, Bussia. 


— inca'nus. i. Purple. July. Montpelier. 


— mfla'tiis. 1. Purple, July. Mendoza. 1827. 

— lactifio'rue. See A. tesHcularis. 

— Umigerus. J. Yellow, June. Egypt. 1791, 

— Iioxma'nni. Jacq, Vind. 3, t. 87. See A. 

—leimti'nus. J. Blue. July. Austria. 1816, 

A. leptophy'Uue. }. White. July. Barbary. 1811.. 

— leueophce'us. J. Whitiah-yellow. July. 1776, 

— Ivnemifc/lms. See A. onotrychis. 

— Imgijlo'rus. i. Yellow. July. Tarfary. 1806. 

— macroce'phaVus. 4. Yellow. June. Caucasus. 

1831. Trailer. 

— ma'xinms. 3, Yellow, June, America. 

— melilotm'des. 3. Purple. June, Siberia. 


— miara'nfhus. 1, Pale yellow. July. 1800. 

— mwrophy'llut. 1, Yellow. June, Siberia. 


— Tnompesaula'mis. 1. Purple, July, S. E. 

Europe. 1710. Evergreen trailer. 

a'Vms. 1. White. July. South of 

Europe, Evergreen trailer. 

— narbone'nsis. 3. Pale yellow. July. South 

of Europe. 1789. 

— negU'ctus. J, July. Siberia, 1826, 

— odora'tus. 2, Pale yellow. July. South of 

Europe. 1820. 

— onobrychiai'des. 1. Purple. July, Iberia. 


— <mobri/cMs. 1}. Purple. July, Austria. 

1640. Trailer. Syn., A. Hnearifolius. 

— ot&pterus, 1. Pale blue. July, Altai, 1817. 

— PaUa'sii. h Purple. July. Caspian. 1818. 

— paUe^scens. 1. Pale yellow. June. Siberia. 

— pentaglo'ttis. li. Yellowish-blue. May. Chili. 

1832. Half-hardy. Syn., A. procnnibens. 

— phyao'des. J. Purple. July. Siberia. 1769. 

— plalyphy'llus. 1. Pale yellow. July. Siberia. 

1824. Trailer. 

— po'ntims. 2. Pale yellow. Tauria. 1820, 

— potdrium. J. White. July. Levant, 1640. 


— procu'inhens. B&& A. pentaglottis. 

— purp^reus. See A. hypoglottis, 

— r^ptcms. J. White. July. Mexico. 1818. 

Greenhouse evergreen creeper. 

— Schtt/nginia'nus. 1. White. Siberia. 1832. 

— semibuoaila'ris. IJ. Pale yellow. July.. 

Siberia, 1804, 

— ste!Ua. i. Blue. July. South of Europe. 

1668, Trailer, 

— stipula'tus. 1, Yellow. June. Nepaul. 1822. 

B. M. t. 2380. 

— subula'tus. i, PuiTJle, July, Siberia. 1820. 

— sixcule'ntus. See A. caryocarpus. 

— sulca'tus. 4. Light blue. July, Siberia. 1785. 

— sylm'colus. See Oxytropis sylvatica. 

— tau'ricus. i. Purple. July. Tauria. 1826. 

— testicula'tus. i. Fleshy- white. July. Tauria. 

1818. Syn., A. lactijlorus. 

— t&mento'sus, 3. Pale yellow. July. Egypt. 

1800. Half-hardy. 

— tragaca'nfha. Pale yellow. July. South of 

Europe. 1640. Evergreen, 

— tu'midus. i. Pale yellow. July. Egypt. 

1816. Evergreen. 

— uligino'sus. 2. Pale yellow, July, Siberia. 


— u'triger. \. Yellow. July. Russia, 1818. 

— vesica'rius. 1. Whitish-yeUow. July. Europe. 

1737, Trailer, 

— vimi'Tieus. See A. fruticosus, 

— virga'tus. 3. Violet. July. Siberia. 1806.. 

— vulpi'nus. 2. Light yellow. July. Turkestan 


Astra'nthus. See Horaalium. 

Astra'ntia. Masterwort. (From. 
astron, a star, and anti, comparison ; re- 
ferring to the disposition of the flower- 
umbels. Nat. ord., UmbellifercB ; Ttihe, 

Hardy herbaceous perennials; dividing the: 
ilants in March or October ; seeds ; sandy loam. 


e dwarfer species are pretty rock plants. 


A. Bieberstei'nii. 2. May. Cancainis. 1835. 

— eamio'lica. 1. White. June. Carniola. 1812. 

— hellebori/o'lia. 2. Pink. July. Caucasus. 

1804. B. M. 1. 1663. Syns., A. heterophylla 
and A. maxima. 

— intermedia. J. Pint. July. Caucasus. 1818. 

Syn., A. caucasica. 

— ma'jcrr. 2. Striped. June. Alps of Europe. 

1596. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, t. 567. 

— mtnor. J. Pink. June. Switzerland. 1686. 

variega'ta. Aflnevariegated-leavedform. 

— pavmflo'ra. i. White. July. Sicily. 1820. 

Astrapse'a. See Dombeya. 

A. visco'sa. See Dombeya ATnelioe. 

AstroGa'ryum. (From astron, a 
star, and karyon, a nut ; referring to 
the disposition of the fruit. Nat. ord., 

Ornamental stove pajms. Allied to Cocos. 
Seed in hotbed, in spring ; rich loam and leaf- 
A. aeau'le. 10. Brazil. 1820. 

— cumlea'tum. 40. G-uiana. 1824. 

— argdnteum. Columbia. 1875. 

— aureo-pictum,. See Phuenimphorwrn seychel- 


— Borsigia'num.l See Phoenicophorum, seychel- 


— cam-pel stre. 10. Brazil. 1826. 

— de'corwm. Columbia. 1870. 
—JUa're. Columbia. 1875. 

— grarutte'iise. Columbia. 1876. 

— iriastai'des. Gfl. 1. 1022, f. 3. 

— mexica'num. Mexico. 1864. Eev. Hort. 1878, 

p. 148. 

— Uurumu'ru. 40. Brazil. 1825. Bl. Hort. 

n. s. t. 213. 

— ni'veum. Panama. 1866. Leaves glaucous 


— rostra' turn. 30. White. Bahia. B M. t. 4773. 
I're. 30. Brazil. 1825. 

Astrolo'biiim. See Omithopus. 

Astrolo'ma. (From astron, a star, 
and loma, a fringe ; in reference to the 
bearded fringe on the corolla. Nat. ord., 
Epacridacem. ) 

Greenhouse evergreen shrubs, very handsome 
and usefuL Young cuttings, firm at their base, 
in sand, under a bell-glass ; sandy loam and 
turfy peat. 

A. denticula'twm. 1. Pale red. May to July. 
Australia. 1826. 

— divariea'tum. 2. Pink. Australia. Syns,, 

A. splendena, Fl. Ser. t. 1018, and Sty- 
pheUa splendens. 

— hmni/u'eum, 1. Scarlet. May to June. 

N. S. Wales. 1807. B. M. 1. 1439. 

— pmifo'liwm. 2 to 3. Corolla reddish at base, 

yellow above, tip green. June. Aus- 
tralia. 1816. Syn., Stenanthera pini- 
folia. B. E. t. 218. 

Astrophy'tum. (From astron, a 
star, and phyton, a plant ; referring to 
the form of the pubescence. Nat. ord., 

For cultivation, see Cactus. 
A. myriotti'gm/i. Yellow. B. M. t. 4177. Syn., 
Eehvnocactus myriostigma. 

Asysta'sia. (From a, without, and 
stachys, a spike, the inflorescence ; not 
in spikes, as is often the case in Acan- 
thaceie. Nat. ord., Acanthacea.) 

[ 87 ] ATH 

stove evergreen shrub; cuttings of young 
shoots m April, in sandy soil, under a bell- 
glass ; peat and loam, with a little sand, and, to 
induce vigour, a little dried cow-dung will be 
found beneficial. 

A. chelonioi'des. Reddish-purple, white. India. 

— coromandelia'na. 4. Deep lilac. July. India. 
1845. B. M. t. 4248. Syn., Justicia 

— macrophylla. 8 to 10. Purple, white. June. 
Fernando Po. 1867. 

— sca'ndens. Climber. Cream-coloured. Siena 
Leone. B. M. t. 4449. 

— viola'cea. 1 to 2. Violet, white. India. 
1870. B. M. t. 6882. 

Ata'ccia. See Taeca. 

A. aspe'ra. See Tacca integrifolia. 

Atala'ntia. (A classical name, after 
Atalanta, daughter of Schcenus, King of 
Scyrus. " She being wearied with the 
importunities of her suitors, consented 
to nave the man that could outrun her. 
Hippo'menes did so by the help of 
Venus's golden apples. He cast three 
before her, and she lost ground in gather' 
ing them." The fruit is golden-coloured, 
Nat. ord., Awantiacece.) 

Stove evergreen shrub ; ripe cuttings in heat, 
under a bell-glass ; sandy loam and peat. 
A. monophy'lla. i. White. July. E. Ind. 1777. 

Atamasco-lily. Zephra'nthes Ata- 

Atela'ndra. See Hemigenia. 

Athalia spinarum. The Turnip 
Saw-fly. "The grub of this insect — 
known as the Black Caterpillar, Black 
Canker, Black Palmer, Negro, and Nig- 
ger, or Black Grub — sometimes destroys 
thousands of acres of our turnips. Its 
body is cylindrical, as thick as a crow- 
quill, about half an inch long, greenish- 
black, with a darker line down the 
back; then a line of dull, yellowish- 
grey, and a third of dark slate. Under- 
neath, the body is paler ; it is wrinkled, 
and the head is black. When alarmed, 
this grub curls itself together in a some- 
what spiral form. They feed on the leaf 
of the turnip, leaving nothing but its 
largest ribs, from the middle of August 
until about the same period of October. 
They never attack the Swedish turnip. 
When full grown, the grubs bury them- 
selves just below the surface of the 
earth, each forming a small, oval cocoon 
of earth, formed into a paste with a 
gummy moisture from its mouth. It 
remains in the chrysalis state until July, 
when the perfect insect, or Turnip Saw- 
fly, comes forth. Our drawing represents 
it magnified, the natural size being shown 
by the cross lines. It is the Athalia 
centifolioe of some, and A. spinarum of 
other naturalists. Its colour is bright 




orange, head black, upper lip pale yel- 
low, antennae black, thorax has two large 
dark spots, and other dark marks are 
about the body and wings. On small 
plots of turnips the black grub may be 
easily removed by hand-picking, and 
from larger breadths by turning upon 
them some broods of ducks." — Cottage 
Gardener, iii. 149. 

Athama'nta. (From Mount Atha- 
mas in SicUy. l^a-t. oxA.., Umbelliferce.] 

A pretty foliaged harder herbaceous plant. 
Common garden-soil ; division, and seeds. 
A. MattlMli. 2. White. Summer. Carinthian 
Alps. 1302. 

Athana'sia. (From a, not, and tha- 
natos, death ; in reference to the flowers 
being what is called " everlasting.'' 
Nat. ord., Corrvpositm ; Tribe, Anthe 
midece. ) 

Ornamental greenhouse evergreens ; all natives 
of the Cape of Good Hope. Cuttings of half- 
ripe wood in spring, in sand, under a bell-glass ; 
two parts loam to one of peat. Winter tempera- 
ture, 40° to 45° ; summer, 60° and upwards. 
A. a'nnua. B. M. t. 2276. See Lonas inodora. 

— eane'scens. See A.pubescens, 

— capita'ta. IJ. YeUow. March. 1774. 

— crena'ta. 2. Yellow. July. 1816. 

— enthmifo'lia. 2. Yellow. July. 1723. 

— cuneifo'rmis. 2. YeUow. July. 1816. 

— denta'ta. IJ. Yellow. July. 1769. 

— filifo'rmig, 2. Yellow. August. 1787. 

— Icmugino' m. See A, pubescent. 

— longifo'lia. 2. Yellow. July. 1800. 

— parvifio'ra. 2. Yellow. April. 1731. Jacq. 

H. Schcen. 1. 149. 

— pectma'ta. IJ. Yellow. July. 1774. 

— pimm'ta. 1}. Yellow. July. 1818. 

— pubeficens. 6. Yellow. July. 1768. Syns., 

A. ewnescerts and lanugirwm. 

— pwncta'ta. 3. Yellow. June. 1822. 

— tomento'm. 2. Yellow. May. 1774. 

— tricu'spis, 3. Yellow. July. 1816. 

— trifurca'ta. 3. Yellow. July. 1710. 
virga'ta. 1. Yellow. July. 1816. 

. Athero'pogon. See Boutelona. 

A, aplvdoi'des. See Boutelona raceTnosa. 

Atherospe'rma. (From ather, an 
awn, and sperma, seed ; seeds awned. 
Nat. ord., Monimiacece.) 

This beautiful Australian greenhouse ever- 
green tree attains the great height of 150 feet, 
and has the aspect of a stately conifer, with a 
girth of 6 to 7 feet. The colonists make a plea 

sant tea-beverage from the bark, either dried 
or in a green state. " Its effects are, however, 
slightly aperient."— BocftAoMse. Cuttmgs ; loam 
and peat. 
A. moscha'ta. 40. White. June. Victoria. 1824. 

Athri'xia. (From a, not, and thrix, 
a hair ; the receptacle beitig destitute of 
hairs. Nat. ord., Compositm ; Tribe, 
InuloidecB. Allied to Leyssera. ) 

Greenhouse evergreen shrub ; cuttings of rather 
young wood, under a bell-glass, in sandy soil ; 
lumpy loam and peat. 

A. cape'rms. 3. Bed. April. Cape of Good 
Hope. 1821. B. E. t. 681. 

Athrota'xiS, (From athroos, 
crowded together, and taxis, arrange- 
ment ; in reference to the arrangement 
of the scales of the cones. Nat. ord., 

All the species are small Tasmanian evergreen 
trees, possibly hardy in sheltered localities, 
otherwise they require a greenhouse. Cuttings. 
A. mpresem'det. 30. Ic. PI. t. 569. 

— Gunnea'na. 1869. Eev. Hort. 1869, p. 114. 

— laxifdlia. 26. lo. PI. t. 573. Syn., A. 


— selaginoi'des. 40. Syn., A. imbricata of 


Athy'rium. See Asplenium. 

Atime'ta. (From atimetos, despised. 
Nat. ord., AracecB.) 

Stove evergreen climbers. For cultivation, 
see Philodendron. 
A.ftlamento'sa. Spathe yellowish. Brazil. 1860. 

Atra'gene. (From athros, pressed, 
and genos, birth ; in reference to the 
manner in which the branches clasp 
their supports. First applied by Theo- 
phrastus to our Traveller's Joy — Cle'- 
matis vita'lba. Nat. ord., Banuncu- 
lacece ; Tribe, Clematidem.) Referred to 
Clematis in the Genera Plantarum. 

Hardy deciduous climber shrubs j seeds in 
spring in gentle heat, and pricked oft into pans 
as soon as ready to handle ; layers in summer 
and autumn ; cuttings in spring and summer, 
under a hand-light ; common soil. 
A, alpi'Tia. Varying from blue to white. May. 

Mountainous parts of Europe. 1792. 

Syns., A. sibirwa and ClematU alpina. 
austri'aca, 8. Blue and white. July. 

Austria. 1792. B. M. t. 630. 

— qmerlca'na. 16. Purple. June. N. Amer. 

1797. Syn., Clematis vertMllaris, B. M. 
t. 887. 

obKqua. 15. Purple. June. N. Amer. 


— macrope'tala. Twiner. 8. Blue. Manchuria. 

1870. Gfl. t. 661. 

— ocddentallis. 10. July. 1818. 

— ochoUnsw. 12. White. June. Siberia. 1818. 

— Sibi'rica. A form of A. alpina. 

— zeyla'nica. See Na/ravelia z&ylanica. 

A'tripiex. Orach, or Arach. (From 
ater, black, a,nd plexus, woven together, 
on account of the dark colour and habit 
of some of the species. Nat. ord., Cheno- 
podiacecB. ) 

A. ha'limus is a hardy evergreen shrub, rather 




ornamental, and A. portulacoi'des is a hardy 
under-shrub ; but the species most deserving 
notice is A. harte'nsis and its varieties, garden 
Orach. See Orach. There are many other 
species quite undeserving of notice. 
A. ha'limics atrosangui'nea. i. Tartary. 

— kalimoi'des monumentalis, 9. Seedling. Gfl 

1890, p. 105, f. 24. 

A'tropa. Night-shade. (Named 
after Atropos, one of the three Fates, in 
reference to its poisonous qualities. 
Nat. ord., Solanacece.) 
A. Bella-do'nna. 2 to 4. Green and purple, 
Summer. Britain. Eng. ]3ot. ed. 3, 
t. 934. 

We introduce this native weed for the 
purpose of warning country people from 
eatmg its berries, fatal accidents fre- 
quently occurring in consequence. The 
berries are at first green, but become 
black and juicy, of no horticultural value. 

— procu'mbens and vmibella'ta. See Saracha. 

Atta'lea. (From attaltts, magnifi- 
cent ; in reference to the beauty of these 
palms. Nat. ord., Palmaceoe. Allied 
to Cocos.) 

Handsome stove palms. Seeds ; rich loam and 
peat. They like copious waterings, 
A. amygdoM'na. New Grenada. 1847. Syn., 
A. nucifera. 

— Cohu'ne. 50. Honduras. 

— co'mpta. 22. Brazil. 1820. 

— exeellsa. 70. Brazil. ^.1826. 

— fumlfera. 40. Brazil. 1824. The Pissaba 

Palm. Bev. Hort. 1878, p. 149. 

— hu'miUs. 10. Brazil. 1820. 

— nucifera. See A. amygdalina. 

— B&isii. 20. Brazil. 1825. 

— speeio'sa. 70. Brazil. 1826. 

— specta'bilis. 70, Brazil. 1824. 

Aubrie'tia. (Named after M. Au- 
hriet, a French botanical draughtsman. 
Nat. ord,, CrucifercB. Allied to Arabis,) 
Hardy evergreen trailing plants. Division in 
spring or autumn ; cuttings under a hand-glass, 
in sandy soil. Seeds ; any dry soil. Useful rock 

Slants. There are many named varieties in ad- 
ition to those mentioned here. 
A. deltoi'dea. J. Purple. April. Levant. 1710. 

Bouganm'llei. Light violet. Very dwarf. 

Camphe'Ui. Deep violet-blue. Syn., A, 


Ey'rei. Violet-purple. 

gralca. J. Lilac-purple. Greece. 1872. 

Gfl. t. 697. Syn., A. superba. 

-. r- gra/ndiflo'ra. Large flowered. 

Leichtli'ni. Deep rose, very ornamental. 

pwrpu'rea. J. Purple. April. Greece. 

viola'eea. Deep violet-purple. 

— Henderso'ni. See A. deltiMea, var. Campbelli. 

— hesperidifio'ra. J. Purple. March. South 

Europe. 1823. B. C. 1. 1706. 

— oly'mpica. Probably the same as A. deltoidea, 

var. Eyrei. 

— supe!rba. See A. deltoidea^ var, grceca. 

Au'cuba. (The name of the shrub 
in Japan, Nat. ord., Cornacece.) 

Hardy evergreen ornamental berried shrubs, 
most suitable for towns, thriving in a smoky 
atmosphere better than any other plant. Cut- 
tings m spring and autumn, in any light soil, 
without covenng ; common soil, if drained. It 
is sometimes called the Variegated Laurel, 

A. '^^'-««;-«. ^^•^^Purple.^green. Himalaya, 
-japo'nwa^ 6. ^ Green. June. Japan. 1783. 

Numerous varieties of this species, both male 
and female, differing in the variegation of the 
leaves, are now in general cultivation. They may 
be had of any nurseryman. There are also va 
rieties, such as — albo-variega'ta, au'rea, bi'color, 
e'legaiis, JUtve'scens^ grandidenta'ta macula'ta, 
gra'ndis, latifo'lia, latitnacula'ta, lirnba'ta, longi- 
tura'ta, py'gmtea, py'gmcea sulphu'rea, Ycm'ngii, 

Audibe'rtia. (Named after M. Au- 

dibert, a noted nurseryman of Tarascon. 

Nat. ord., Labiat(B. Allied to Monarda.) 

Hardy evergreen. Seeds, in March or April ; 

common soil. 

A. inca'na. 1}. Pale blue. August. Columbia. 
1827. B. B. t. 1469. 

— polysta'chya. 2. White. October. California. 


Audoui'nia. Named after ^McZowm, 
a celebrated entomologist. Nat. ord,, 

Ornamental greenhouse evergreen shrub. 
Cuttings of halfripened wood, in sand, under 
a bell-glass ; peat and loam. 
A. capita'ta. H. Purple. June. Cape of 
Good Hope. 1790. 

Aulacophy'llum. See Zamia. 

Au'lax. (From avlax, a furrow ; in 
reference to the furrowed under side of 
the leaves, Nat, ord., Proteacece.) 

Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Ripe cuttings, 

in sandy soil, under a bell-glass ; loam and peat. 

A. pmifo'lia. 2. Yellow. August. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1780. Andr. Eep. t. 76. 

Syn., Protea pinifolia. 

— wnibella'ta. 2. Yellow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1774. B. B. 1. 1016, male ; Andr. 
Bep. t. 248, female. 

Auri'cula. See Primula. 
Auri'cula disease. See Trama 


Ave'na. (Derivation obscure. Nat. 
ord., GraminecB.) 

Agricultural grasses of no garden value. 
A. ela'ticr. See Arrhejuitherum avenaceum 
Avena bitlbosa is a variety of this species, 

— sati'va. The Oat. 

— ste/rilis. 2. Barbary. 1640. 

Avens. See Geum. 
Averrho'a. (Named aiteiAverrhoes, 



a Moorish physician, who lived in the 
twelfth century. Nat.ord., Oxalidacew.) 
The leaves of A. cwra'mbola exhibit that kind 
of irritability called " sensitive." Both species 
are cultivated in India, and their fruit eaten. 
Stove evergreen shrubs ; half-ripened cuttings 
in April, in sand, under a bell-glass, and in bot- 
tom-heat ; loam and peat. 
A. Mli'mbi. 8. R«ddish-purple. August. 1791. 

Native country uninown. Bedd, FI. 

Syl. 1. 117. 
— eara'mbola. 10. Greenish-red. 1733. 

Averruncator (from the Latin aver- 
runco, to prune). A small pair of power- 
ful shears, on a long handle, for severing 
boughs on lofty tree.s. 

Aviary. This building, devoted to 
the preservation of live birds, distin- 
guished for the beauty either of their 
notes or plumage, is rarely admitted 
within a garden ; and still more rarely 
is it sufficiently ornamental, or suffi- 
ciently free from disagreeables, to be a 
source of pleasure. 

Avocado. Pe'rsea grati'ssima. 

Axii. This term, meaning, literally, 
the m-m-pit, is used by botanists to indi- 
cate the point of the angle between a 
leaf and a branch, or between a branch 
and the stem. 

Aye'nia. (Named after the Duke d' 
Ay en. Na,t.0Td., Sterculiacem. Closely 
allied to Biiettneria. ) 

Stove plants; cuttings in sand; rich soil; 
ordinary stove treatment. 
A. Icemga'ta. 2. Scarlet. Jamaica. Evergreen 

— pumUla. 1. Purple. August. Jamaica. 
1756. Biennial. 

Azalea. (From azaZeos, dry; in refe- 
rence to the habitation of the plant. 
Nat. ord., Mricacea.) This genus is 
united by Bentham and Hooker to Rho- 
dodendron, but for gardening purposes 
it can be kept distinct. 

It was said that the Pontic honey which stu- 
pefied the Greek soldiers was collected from 
Wwdoddnciron po'nticuTn ; but Pallas believes it 
to have been gathered from Am'lea po'ntica. 
All the greenhouse species are evergreen, except 
A. squama' ta ; and all the hardy species are 
deciduous. The hardy species, by layers, made 
in summer and autumn, and doing best in sandy 
peat, though many will thrive well in peat and 
loam ; the Indian species and varieties are pro- 
pagated by seed, and cuttings of stiff, but not 
over-hard shoots, inserted in sand, under a bell- 

flass ; sandy peat. Summer temperature, 60° to 
5", if required to bloom early ; winter, 45° to 55°. 
A lower temperature will suit, if late bloom is 



A. ariore'scens. 10. Red. June. N. Amer. 
1818. Syn., Rhododendron arborescens. 

— W color, i. Scarlet. June. N. Amer. 1734. 

Syn., Bhododendron nudMtrum, 

— cane'scem. 3. Red. Tune. N. Amer. 1812. 

— calendula! eea. 4. Orange. June. N. Amer. 

1806. Syn., RhododendroncaleTidulaceum. 
chrysole'cta. 4. Yellow. June. N. 

Amer. B. M. tt. 1721 and 2143. 
— ero'cea. i. Saffron. June. N. Amer. 

eulprea. 4. Cogper. June. 

4. Red. June. 

N. Amer. 
N. Amer. 

4. Orange. June. N. 

Red. June. N. Amer. 
Orange. June. N. Amer. 
4. Orange. June. N. 







igne^scens. 1. 

splf^ndeng. 4. 


— gla/ii'ca. 2. White. June. N. Amer. 

Syn., Rhododendron viicosum. 

— hi'spida. 5. White. July. N. Amer. 

— ledifo'lia. 2. White. April. China. 

Syn., A. liliifolia. B. M. t. 2901. 

— ni'tida. 4. White. April. N. Amer. 

Syn., Rhododendron nitidv/m. 

— nudifio'ra. 3. Deep pink. June. N. Amer. 

1734. Syn., Rhododendron nudiflorum. 

a'lba. 4. White. June. N. Amer. 

a'lba-ple'na. 4. White. June. N. Amer. 

bla'ndOt. 4. Blush. June. N. Amer. 

ca'wi£a. 4. Pale red. June. N. Amer. 


carolinia'na. 4. Scarlet. June. N. Amer. 

Cobu'rghii. Scarlet. June. N. Amer. 

cocci'nea. 4. Scarlet. June. N. Amer.. 

corymbo'sa. 4. Scarlet. June. N. Amer. 

cri'spa. 4. Pink. June. N. Amer. 

4. Scarlet, pink. June. 


N. Amer. 
discolor . 4. 



JMrida. 4. 

globo'sa. 4. 


incalna. 4. 



White, scarlet. June. N.. 

4. Pink. June. N. Amer, 
Pink. June. N. Amer. 
Pink. June. N. Amer 
4. Pink. June. N. Amer. 
Pink. June. N. Amer. 
4. flesh. June. N. Amer. 
4. Scarlet. June. N. Amer. 
- magni'fica. 4. Scarlet. June. N. Amer. 

monta'na. 4. Scarlet. June. N. Amer. 

pa'llida. 4. Pale red. June. N. Amer. 

-paludo^sa. 4. Pale red. June. N. Amer.' 

pa^luma'cea. 4. Striped. June. N.. 


parti' ta. 4. White and red. June. 

N. Amer. 

parvifio'ra. 4. June. N. Amer. 

prolifera. 4. June. N. Amer. 

pu'Trdla. 4. White. June. N. Amer. 

purpura' scens. 4. Purple. June. N, 


-purpu'rea. 4. Purple. June. N. Amer. 

purpu'reo-plefno. 4. Purple. June. N, 


ro'sea. 4. Red. June. N. Amer. 

rvMrrima. 4. Bark red. June. N, 


nM scens. 4. Red. June. N. Amer. 

rvHc/i^nda. 4. R«d. June. N. Amer. 

rt^bra. 4. Rfid. June. N. Amer. 

Ti^tilans. 4. Dark red. June. N. 


semidu'plex. 4. White. June. N. Amer. 

stami'nea. 4. Red. June. N. Amer. 

Stella' ta. 4. Red. June. N. Amer. 

tri' color. 4. Scarlet, white. June. N- 


varia'bilis. 4. Red. June. N. Amer. 

variega'ta. 4. Red and white. June 

N. Amer. 




A. nudifl&ravenHeolar. 4. Red and white. June. 

N. Amer. 
viola'cea. i. Violet. June. N. Amer. 

— po'ntica. 6. Yellow. June. Turkey. 1793. 

Syn., Rhododendron flavwm. 111. Hort. 
1864, t. 415. 

albijio'ra. 6. White. May. Turkey. 

corona'ria. 7. Yellow. June. Hol- 
land. 1832. 

eu'prea. 6. Copper. June. Turkey. 

glau'ca. 6. Yellow. June. Turkey. 

— pa'llida. 6. Pale yellow. April. Turkey. 

tricolor. 6. Pale red. April. Turkey. 

^ spedo'sa. 4. Scarlet and orange. June. N. 
Amer. Syn., Shododendron 8pecio»um. 

amtijo'lia. i. June. N. Amer. 

aura'ntia. 4. Orange. June. N. Amer. 

dlia'ta. 4. June. N. Amer. 

-cri'spa. 4. Scarlet. June. N.Amer. 

eucuUa'ta. 4. June. N. Amer. 

ma'jor. 4. Scarlet. June. N. Amer. 

obli'qua. 4. June. N. Amer. 

prmiif&lia. 4. June. N. Amer. 

revolu'ta. 4. June. N. Amer. 

■ tortulifo'lia. 4. June. N. Amer. 

undula'ta. 4. June. N. Amer. 

— visco'sa. 2. White. July. N. Amer. Syn., 

JRhododendron mscosum. 

cri'spa. 4. White. July. N. Amer. 

• dealba'ta. 4. White. July. N. Amer. 

fi'isa. 4. White. July. N. Amer. 

• ni'tida. 4. White, red. United States. 

1812. B. R. t. 414. 

odora'ta. 4. White. July. N. Amer. 

penicUla'ta. 4. White. July. N. Amer. 

pube'acens. 4. White. July. N.Amer. 

rvbe'scens. 4. White. July. N. Amer. 

variega'ta. 4. White. July. N. Amer. 

vitUi'ta. 4. White. July. N. Amer. 


A. amoeina. 1. Crimson, purple. April. Shanghae. 

— balsaminoefio'ra. Salmon-red. Japan. 

— crispiflo'ra. Rose. April. China. 

— Danielsia'na. 3. Carmine. June. China. 


— dianthiflo'ra. Rose, or violet, dotted brown. 

Japan. 1889. 

— i'ndica. 4. Scarlet. June. China. 1808. 
auranti'aca. 4. Orange. April. China. 


igne^scens. 2. Brown. April. China. 

later!! tia. 2. Red. May. China. 1833. 

phcenicea. 3. Purple. April. China. 

purpu'reo-ple'na. 4. Purple. May. China. 

variega'ta. 4. Striped. June. China. 


— linearifo'lia. Rose. February. Japan. 1869. 

— nw'llii. Yellow, rose, orange, white. Japan. 

gla'brior. Orange. Japan. 1868. 

— obtu'ea. IJ. Red. March. China. 1844. 

— oceidenta'lis. White, yeUow. California. 

— Oldha'mi. See Shododendron Oldhami, 

— ova'ta. 8. Pink. China. 1844. 

a'aa. 8. White. May. N. China. 1844. 

— ramenta'cea. White. March. Hong Kong. 


— roBc^lo'ra. Lake-red, flowers double. Japan. 


— serpt/Uifo'lia. White. Japan. 1882. 

— Hne'nms. 3. Yellow. May. China. 1823. 

— aqua/ma'ta. 2. Rose, crimson. March. China. 

1844. Syn., shododendron Farrerce. 

— stenopdtala. Rosy. Japan. 1864. 

Azaleas (Ghent or American). 
These include what are called Ghent 
Azaleas, which are seedling varieties of 
A. calendula cecB, A. nvdiflo'ra, A. 

specw sa, A. visco'sa, etc. The varieties 
were first raised in the neighbourhood of 

Propaaation.—BylayeTS in the month 
of March : the layers require notching 
or twisting. If the part buried in the 
ground is covered with moss they will 
root more freely. They should not be 
taken off the parent till after the second 
year's growth. 

5017.— Sandy peat, in a dry situation, 
at least eighteen inches deep ; but, in a 
damp one, a foot deep will be sufficient. 

Culture. — In spring, protect the young 
shoots and flowers by hoops in low situa- 
tions, as the late frosts often destroy the 
young, early shoots. 

Diseases. — Sometimes the plants die 
off just at the surface of the soil, owing 
to too much moisture. The remedy, 3 
the situation is low and damp, is either 
to drain it thoroughly, or to raise the 
bed completely above the general level 
of the ground. 

Varieties may be raised by crossing 
the kinds in such a way as is likely to 
effect a pleasing change. Choose the 
best forms and brightest colours ; let the 
plants with flowers of the best form be 
the seed-bearing mother, and rely for 
the colour upon the pollen of the male. 
Sow the seed in April, in pans, placed 
under a cold frame ; prick the seedlings 
out the year following in beds, four 
inches apart, to remain till they flower. 

Azaleas (Indian or Chinese). 

Raising varieties.— The best and most 
certain way to obtain new varieties is by 
impregnating the best-shaped flowers 
with the pollen of some fine, high- 
coloured variety. Remove the anthers 
before they burst from the one intended 
to seed ; cover with fine gauze the flower 
impregnated, to prevent fertilization by 
insects. When the seed is ripe, gather 
it, and sow it the February following in 
shallow pans, in a gentle heat. As soon 
as the seedlings have two or three leaves, 
transplant them ioto fresh, sandy peat, 
in deeper pans. They may remain in 
these pans tUl the spring following; 
then pot them singly into 2i-inch pots, 
and grow them on, re-potting them as 
they require it, till they flower. 

Propagation by cuttings, — Take the 
young tops, three inches long; dress 
them by cutting off the bottom leaves. 
Fill a pot, to within an inch of the top, 
with sandy peat ; fill up the rest with 
silver sand; put in the cuttings thickly; 
water gently, and fit a bell-glass just 
within the rim of the pot ; place them 
in a temperature of 55° to 60°, and shade 




from the sun. They should thus remain 
till rooted ; then place them in a green- 
house for a week or two ; and remove 
the bell-glass every night, replacing it 
during the day. They may then be 
potted off singly into small pots, and 
placed in a close frame till fresh roots 
are made ; then gradually inure them to 
bear the full sun and air; re-pot, and 
grow on to any size required. 

Propagation, hy grafting. — See Graft- 
ing. The best mode is that called side- 
grafting. The grafts must be very small, 
— not more than 1 to l^-inch long ; tie 
them with worsted, or thick cotton 
thread, to the stock. The best time is 
early spring. Place the grafted plants 
in a close frame, in gentle neat, or under 
hand-glasses, upon sand, in a propaga- 
ting house. The stock most suitable is 
the Aza'lea i'ndica a'lba, ai A.phmni'cea, 
Ijoth easy to strike. 

Soil. — Sandy peat three-fourths, light 
loam one-fourth. 

Summer cul1m,re — Azaleas require the 
same treatment as Camellias. After the 
bloom is over give them a moderate de- 
gree of artificial heat, 55° to 60°. Syringe 
them freely during that period. As soon 
as they have made their growth, give 
plenty of air for a fortnight, and then 
set them behind a low, north wall till 

Wintesr culture. — As soon as there is 
any fear of frost, remove them into an 
airy greenhouse, keep them from frost, 
and give very moderate supplies of water. 
When they begin to show flower, give 
more heat, and a more liberal supply of 

Insects,— The Thrips is the great pest 
•of Azaleas ; but the Greenfly is also apt 
to trouble them when growing. Both 
insects may be destroyed by tobacco- 
smoke frequently applied. 

Diseases, — These plants are often at- 
tacked by a disease which causes them 
to die off just at the crown of the roots. 
The small-leaved varieties, such as A. 
i'ndica, var. Gledstane'sii, lateri'tia, and 
variega'ta, are especially subject to die 
off thus prematurely. To prevent this, 
they should be all grafted upon the free- 
growing stocks. 

Azsle&'siT\3.xa.alhiflorum, SeeBAo- 
dodendron albiflorum, 

Aza'ra. (Named after J. N. Azara, 
a Spanish patron of botany. Nat. ord., 
BiximecB. ) 

Charming hardy and half-hardy everereen 
shrubs. _ In the north a slight protection is ne- 
cessary in winter ; they do not require covering 
In the southern counties, but thrive best against 

walls. Cuttings in sand, under glass, in slight 
heat. Sandy loam. 

A. denta'ta. 10. Yellow. Chili. 1830. B. R. 
t 1788 

— Gille'^i. 16. Yellow. Spring. Chili. 1869. 

B.M. t. 6178. 

— integrifo'lia. 18. Yellow. Autumn. Con- 

ception. 1832. 

— microphy'Ua. Greenish. Chiloe and Valdavia. 

1873. Fl. and Pom. 1874, p. 220. 

— serra'ta. 12. Chili. 1832. 

Azi'uia. (From azimena, the Mala- 
gasy name of a shrub, which this re- 
sembles. Nat. ord., Salvadoracece.) 
A. tetraca'ntha. S. White. July. India. 

1768. Wight. El. 1. 162. Syn., Manetia 


Azo'Ua. (From azo, to dry, and olio, 
to kill ; being killed by dryness. Nat. 
ord., MarsilacecB.) 

Stove or greenhouse aquatics, also suitable 
for a window aquarium. They are small float- 
ing plants, with minute overlapping leaves, re- 
sembling a Jungermannia, having two kinds of 
fruit on the under side of the branches. It sur- 
vives the winter best in shallow saucers of moist 
soil, kept in a warm frame, or pit. Pretty in 
outdoor tanks in summer, where it assumes a 
rich red purple colour. 

The species in cultivation usually bears the 
name of ^. pinna'ta, but according to Mr. Baker 
it is not that species, but A. carolinia'na. It 
has never been seen in fruit in Britain. 


Babia'na. (From hahianer, the 
Dutch for baboon ; in reference to the 
bulbs being eaten by the baboons. Nat. 
ord., IridacecB,) 

All highly ornamental bulbous plants, natives 
of the Cape, with one exception. Useful as pot 
plants, by which treatment the flowering season 
may be considerably prolonged. Offsets ; sandy 
peat and loam ; water freely when growing. 
Keep dry when at rest. Those potted in autumn 
must be kept in a cold pit or greenhouse during 
winter. Those planted in spring, in a warm 
border, should be taken up before winter, and 
kept secure from frost. Perhaps the most satis- 
factory treatment, however, is to plant them out 
in low frames of light soil in a sunny position, 
wardingoff heavy rains, etc., lifting the bulbs, 
and drying off when the resting season comes 
B. bi'color. Blue, white. June. 1843. 

— di'stieha, J. Blue. June. 1774. Fragrant. 

B. M. t. 626. 

— niucrona'ta. J. Purple. June. 1825. Syn., 

Gladiolus mucroTiatus, Jacq. Ic. t. 253. 

— na'na. i. Blue. April. 1807. Andr. Eep. 

1. 137. ^ 

— plica' ta. i. Purple. May. 1774. Syns., B. 

ccerulescens, fragrang, Jacq. H. Schoen. 
1. 14 and refiexa, B. M. , t. 676. Fragrant. 
— mu'lUplex. J. Purple. June. 1834. 

— ri'ngem. i. Scarlet. May. 1762. B. C. 

t. 1006. Syn., Antholyza ringens. 

— sambu'cma. J. Purple. April. 1799. B. M. 

t. 1019. 

— socotra'na. Violet, blue. September. Socotra. 

B. M. t. 6686. 

— spatha'cea, i. Light blue. June. 1801. B. M. 

t. 638. 

— stri'cta. 1. Blue, white. May. 1767. B. M. 

t. 621 and 638. 




£. stri'cta angustifcflia. 1. Blue. May. 1757. 

B. M. t. 637. 
obtusif&lia. J. Blue. May. 182S. Syn., 

Ixia villosa, Jacq. Ic. t. 284, but not of 

purpu'rea. |. Purple. May. 1806. 

B. M. t. 1052. 
rubrodj/a'nea. }. Blue, red. May. 1794. 

B. M. t. 410. 
sulphu'rea. J. YeUow, anthers blue, 

stigmas yellow. B. M. t. 1053. Syn., 

Gladiolus sulphureus. 
villo'aa. J. Crimson, anthers violet blue. 

August. 1778. B. M. t. 683. 

— tenuifldra. J. Purple. May. 1825. 

— Thunbe'rgii. 1. White and red. April. 


— tuba'ta. |. Yellow and red. June. 1774. 

. Syns., Gladiolus tubatus, Jacq., Ic. 
t. 264, and G. longifiorus, Andr. Rep. t. 5. 

— tubifio'ra. i. Dstrkred. May. 1774. B. M. 

t. 847. Syn., Gladiolus tvMfiarus. 

Babingto'nia. See Bseckia. 
Baca'zia. See Bamadesia. 

Ba'ccharis. Ploughman's Spike- 
nard. (From Bacchiis, wine ; referring 
to the spicy odour of the roots. The 
ancients sometimes boiled down their 
wines, and mixed them with such 
spices. Nat. ord., Compositce; Tribe, 

Cuttings under glass, with or without heat, 
according as the species are stove, greenhouse, 
or hardy ; loam and peat. Not by any means 


B. ala'ta. 5. Pale yellow. December. 1829. 

— angustif&lia. 2. White. July. N. Amer. 


— ivcefo'lia. See Conyza ivcefoKa. 


B. adna'ta. See Pluchea siibdecurrens. 

— amftlrta. White. July. Mexico. 1826. 

— glutino'sa^ 3. White. August. Peru. 1824. 

— i'ndica. See Pluchea indica. 

— margina'lis. 3. White. July. Peru. 1820. 

Syn., B. pani\flora. 

— scopa'ria,. 3. Cream-coloured. July. Ja- 

maica. 1820. 

B. Diosco'ridis. See Pluchea Dioscoridis. 

— glffmerulifl&ra. 3. White. August. N. Amer. 


— halimifo'lia. 6 to 12. White. July. Nor- 

thern United States. Groundsel Tree. 
lyeopodioi'des. 'See Eriothriz lycopodioides. 

— neriifo'lia. See Brachylmna neriifolia. 

Backho'usia. (Named in compli- 
ment to Mr. James Backhouse, of York. 
Nat. ord., Myrtacex.) 

A greenhouse evergreen shrub. Cuttings of 
halt-ripened shoots in April, in sand, under a 
bell-glass in cold house or frame. Peat and 
loam, both fibry, and a little white sand. 
B. myrtifo'lia. 16. White. May. N. S. Wales. 
1844. B. M. t. 4133. 

Ba'ctris. (From haktron, a cane ; 
the young stems being used for walking- 
sticks. Nat. ord.,Paimacea5. Allied to 

Very ornamental prickly stove palms. Suckers, 
or seeds ; sandy loam, peat and leaf -soil. Most 
useful perhaps in a young state. 

B. bamUi'fera. Leaves pinnate. 2 to 6 feet 
long. S. America. 

— caryoteefi'lia. 30. Brazil. 1825. Mart. Palms, 

t. 74. 

— cuspida'ta. 20. Brazil. 1826. Syn., B. floccosa. 

Mart. Pahns, t. 73b. 

— globo'saTni'nor. ^ee Aeroc(ymia mirior, 

— guiane^nsis. 16. Guiana. 1820. 

— macroaca'ntha. 20. Brazil. 1823. 

— ma'jor. 25. Greenish-yellow. Carthagena. 

1800. Mart. Palms, t. 73. 

— Mara'ja. 30 to 50. Yellow. Bahia. 1868. 

Mart. Palms, t. 71. 

— mi'nor. 12. S. Amer. 1691. 

— pallidii^'na. Brazil. Syn., B. fiavispina. 

— peatina'ta. 15. Brazil. 1825. Mart. Palms, 

t. 60 and 73a. 

Badger's Bane. Aconi'tum melo'c- 


Bse'a. (Named in honour of the Rev. 
Dr. Beau, of Toulon, brother-in-law to 
Commerson, the discoverer of the genus. 
Nat. ord., Gesneracea. Allied to Strepto- 
carpus. ) 

Greenhouse perennial herbs, but probably 
hardy in sheltered positions, with rosulate radi- 
cal leaves, and slender leafless scapes. Seeds 
Bich sandy loam. 

B. hygroTne'trica. J. Pale blue, yellow throat. 
Summer. N. China. 1868. Syn., Dor- 
coceras hygrometrica. B. M. t. 6468. 

Bse'ckia. (Named after Dr. Bmek, 
a Swedish physician. Nat. ord., Myr- 

Pretty greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Cuttings 
of young wood in spring, under a glass ; sandy 
peat, and lumpy, fibry loam. 
B. astarteoi'des. 3. White, shaded pink. June. 
Australia. 1881. 

— eamphora'ta. S. July. Australia. 1818. B. M. 

t. 2694. 

— eamvphorc/mue. 7. Pinkish. July. Swan 

River. 1841. B. R. 1842, t. 10. Syn., 
Babingtonia caTtvphorosTiue. 

— densifo'lia. 3. September. N. S. Wales. 

— diosnuefo'lia. S. August. Australia. 1824. 
—frute^scens. 3. November. China. 1806. B. M. 

t. 2802. 

— gra'cUis. 2. Australia. 1826. 

— Ivmfo'lia. 3. August. Australia. 1818- 

Linn. Trans., vol. 8, 1. 12. 

— pa'rmla. White. New Caledonia. 1877. 

Gfl. t. 886, f. 2. 

— ramosi'ssima. 3. ' Australia. 1824. 

— saxi'cola. B. M. t. 3160. See Thryptomene 


— virga'ta. 3. September. New Caledonia. 

1806. B. M. t. 2127. 

Bseobo'trys i'ndica (B. M. t. 2052). 
See Msesa indica. 
B. pubefscens. See Mcesa pubescens. 

Bae'ria. (Named after Professor BcEr, 
of the University of Dorpat. Nat. ord., 
CompositCB ; Tribe, Selenioidecs. Allied 
to Callirhoe.) 

Hardy border annuals. Seeds, in March and 
April ; common soil. 

B chryso'stoma. 1. Yellow. May. California. 
1835. Swt. H. Gard. ser. 2, t. 395. 

— gra'eUis. Yellow. California. Syn., Same. 

lia graeiUs. B. M. t. 3758. 

Baked is a term descriptive of the 




hard, impervious state of clayey soils, 
long exposed to drought. It can be pre- 
vented only by altering the staple of the 
soil, by the admixture of sand, chalk, 
coal-ashes, and other matters less cohesive 
than clay. 

Bake'ria of Andr6, not of Seemann, 
which is now reduced by Plerandra. 
(After J. G. Baker, F.R.S., of Kew. Nat. 
ord., Bromeliacece.) 

Stove or warm greenhouse treatment. 
B, tUlcmdsioi'des. IJ. Eosy-purple. Brazil. 
Eev. Hort. 1889, p. 84. 

Balani'nus nucum. The Nut- 
weevil. See Co'rylus. 

Bala'ntitim. See Dickso'nia. 

Balbi'sia. (Dedicated to Giovanni 
Battista Balbis, a Professor of Botany 
at Turin. Nat. ord., Geraniacem.) 

A beautiful half-hardy evergreen shrub, re- 
quiring a cool, but dry atmosphere, being very 
liable to damp off. Seeds ; or cuttings of the 
half-ripe wood, in sand, under a hand-glass. 
Light sandy loam. May be planted out in sum- 
mer, but does best in a dry greenhouse. 
B. verticitta'ta. 3 to 6. Yellow. Chili. 1846. 

Syn., Ledocarpum verticillata. B. M. 

t. 6170. 

Balcony. A word probably derived 
from the Persian, signifying an orna- 
mentally-barred window, and now ap- 
plied to a frame, usually of iron, and en- 
compassed with a balustrade, placed in 
front of one window, or of several win- 
dows. It is an excellent place for giving 
air to room-plants, and for the cultiva- 
tion of some flowers. 

Ballo'ta. (The Greek name. Nat. 
ord.. Labiates.) 

Stove or half-hardy annual. 
S. cvne'rea. See Roylea elegans. 
— suavefolens. Blue. West Indies. 1889. 

Balm. See Meli'ssa. 

Balm of Gilead. Cedrone'lla tri- 

Balsam and Balsamina. See Im- 

Balsam. Apple. Momo'rdica hal- 

Balsam of Cape'vi. Copai'fera. 

Balsam-tree. Clu'sia. 

Balsami'ta. (From halsamon, 
greasy ; the plants being ^easy to the 
touch. Nat. ord., Composite^; Tribe, 
B. gratiMflo'ra. Yellow. 1884. 

Balsamode'ndron. (From haUa- 
vnon, balm, or balsam, and dendron, a 
tiee. Nat. ord., Burseracece.) 

Stove trees. Sandy loam, and a little leaf -soil; 

cuttings of ripe young wood in April, under a 

glass, and in heat. 

B. madaga'icariense. Whitish, Anthers yellow. 
July and August. Madagascar. Syn., 
Coftmnvphora madagascariermSt Jacq. H. 
Schoen. t. 249. 

— leyla'nievm. 30. White. Ceylon. 

Baltim.o'ra. (Commemorative. Nat. 
ord., ComposiicB.) 

Stove herb, of little beauty. Seeds. Rich 
loam. Ordinary stove treatment. 
B. re'cta. 1. Yellow. July. Syn., Fougerowda 

Bam.bu'sa. Bamboo Cane. (From 
bambos, its Indian name. Nat. ord., 
Graminece. ) 

Very ornamental greenhouse or hardy shrubs. 
The latter thrive best in a well-drained soil, in a 
sheltered position, and are extremely beautiful 
outdoor shrubs in the southern counties, where 
they rarely get damaged in winter. B. Fortunei, 
the variegated kinds nana^ Ragamoslcii, and 
others are very useful rock plants. Suckers, in 
spring or autumn ; rich loam. 
B. arista'ta. 20. B. Ind. 1824. 

— arwndina'cea. 40. B. Ind. 1730. 

— au'rea. 10. China. Hardy. 

— Castillo'ni. Stems square, variegated. Japan. 

1886. Bev. Hort. 1886, p. 613. 

— Fortu'nei. 2. Japan. Hardy. There is a 

variety of this, B. argenteo-vittata. Fl. 
Ser. t. 1535. 

— gra'cilis. See Arundinaria falcata. 

— heteroci/cla. Japan. 1878. 

— japo'nica. See ArufndiTwjria Metake. 

— Maximowi'czii. Japan. Hardy. 
mtta'ta. Striped variety. 

— Meta'ke. See Arundinaria Metake. 

— mi'tis. 40. Japan and Cochin China. 

— na'na. 8. India. 1826. Hardy. Syng., B. 

glauca and viridi-glaucesceTis. 

— ni'gra. See Phyllostachys nigra. 

— puMscens. 20. E. Ind. 1826. 

— Quilio'i. N. Japan. 1869. Syn., B. Duquilioi. 

— Magamo'skii. Turkestan. 1879. Hardy. Syn., 

B. tessellata. 

— Simo'nii. 10. Leaves some green, others 

white. Hardy. China. 1866. 

— spiru/sa. 20. B. Ind. 1820. 

— stria'ta. Purple, stems striped with yellow. 

China. 1874. 

— stri'cta. See Dendrocalanvus strietus. 

— sulphu'rea. Stems and branches sulphur- 

yellow. 1873. 

— tessella'ta. Leaves bright green above, bluish- 

green beneath, yellow in autumn. 
Japan. 1888. Syns., B. palmata and 
Veitchii and 'Arwndinaria kurUensiSt 
var. paniculata. 

— variega'ta. N. China. Leaves white-striped. 

Hardy. Syn., B. Fortvnei niveo-vittatis. 
There are several other variegated kinds, 
such as wrge^nteo-stria'ta, aureo-stria'ta. 

— verticilla'ta. See Gigantochloa verticillata. 

— viola'scens. China. 1869. 

— vi'ridi-stria'ta. 2. Leaves striped with yellow 

and green. Japan. 1869. 

— TTeisene'W. Japan. 1887. 

Bana'na, or Plantain. Musa. 

Bane-Berry. Actaea. 

Baniste'ria. (Named after the Eev. 
J. Banister, a zealous botanist. Nat. 
ord., Malpighiacece.) 




Stove trees or shrubs sometimes climbing. 
Sandy loam, leai-soil, and peat ; cuttings of 
lalf-ripened wood in heat under glass. 
B. auri'culata. See Stigmaphyllon auriculatum. 

— chrysophy'lla. Deep orange. Brazil. 1793. 

Jacq. H. Schoen. t. 105. 

— eilia'ta. 10. Yellow. Brazil. 1796. 

— dicho'toma. See Stigmwphyllon convoluti- 


— emarffina'ta. See Stigma/phyllon emargiTia- 

— ferrugi'nea. 10. Yellow. Brazil. 1820. 
—fu'lgens. 6. Yellow. W. Ind. 1759. 

— heterophy'lla. See Stigmaphyllon fulgens. 

— Hwrriboldtia'na, 19. Yellow. S, Amer. 1824. 

— laur^o'lia. 10. Yellow. Jamaica. 1733. 

— ni'tens. See Heteropterys. 

— ova'ta. See Brachypterys borealis. 

— pleriploecef&lia. See Stigmaphyllon pUriplo- 

— sen'cea. 6. Yellow. July. Bia.zil. 1810. 

— miemarie'nsis. See Stigmaphyllon pv^erum. 

— sple'nd&ns. 10. Yellow. S. Amer. 1812. 

Syn., B.fulgens. 

— te^nuis. See Heteropterys glabra. 

— tilicefo'lia. See Stigmaphyllon Huniboldtia- 


— tomsnto'sa. See Stigmaphyllon ennarginatum. 

— zanziba'rica. See Acridoea/rpus zamnbarious. 

Banks sloping are very desirable 
in a kitchen-garden, not only because 
they aid in forwarding the crops on their 
south front, and retarding those on their 
north front, but because they much in- 
crease the cultivatable surface. Sup- 
posing the banks to run east and west, 
the south side, especially as respects all 
low-growing things, such as French 
beans, potatoes, etc., will produce eight 
days earlier than when cultivated on a 
level; while the north side wiU retain 
lettuces, etc., during summer, much 
longer fit for the table. The surface 
of the ground is also increased, not- 
withstanding assertions to the con- 
trary. In making them, at first, in 
shallow soils, they should not be wider 
than six feet at the base ; but, as the 
soil becomes improved, they may be 
from ten to twelve feet in width. In 
deep soils, the banks may be formed by 
trenching in the usual manner, only 
throwing them into shape by a line and 
stakes. In thin soils, care should be 
taken to have plenty of room in the first 
opening to stir the sub-soil, and then re- 
place again the surface-soil on the sur- 
face. The accompanying sketch will 



give some idea as to how they are formed, 
each ridge being twelve feet wide at the 
base. A B is the ground level, c the apex 
of the ridge, and d d paths between. Of 
course they could not be raised so high, 
at first, without impoverishing the other 

ground. If drained beneath the paths, 
all the better ; for, in heavy land, with- 
out drainage and deep stirring, the 
moisture will be lone retained. If at c 
there is a board fixed, or even a row of 
dwarf, hardy peas, the south side will 
be rendered still warmer, and the north 
side more cool and late. Such banks, 
therefore, may not only be used for vege- 
tables, but also for accelerating and re- 
tarding fruits, such as the strawberry. 
Owing to the depth of soil thus obtained, 
if the surface is kept stirred, you will 
never need much of the water-pot, even 
in the driest weather. The riglit hand, 
or south side, should be ttie longest ; and, 
in a succession of ridges, the northern- 
most one should be the highest. 

Ba'nksia. (Named after Sir Joseph 
Banks, a distinguished patron of" natural 
history. Nat. ord., Proteacew.) 

All interesting greenhouse evergreen shrubs, 
from Australia. Seeds, when obtainable, should 
be sown in spring, in sandy peat, and placed in 
the greenhouse ; the seedlings should be potted 
off aa soon as they can be handled, otherwise 
they will damp off. Some kinds are most easily 
propagated by layers, and a few rare ones by 
grafting ; but most may be obtained by cuttings 
of the ripened shoots, with most of the leaves 
attached, insei'ted round the sides of a pot, 
placed under a hand-light, kept close, and 
shaded from sunshine during the day, the glass 
should be removed occasionally and wiped. 
Sandy peat, with a little loam to the more 

B. a/mnla. 20. Yellow. 1824. B. M. t. 2671. 

Syns., B. elatior and B. midulata, B. E. 

t. 1316. 
— alteniM'ta. 6. Yellow. 1794. Syn., B. eylim- 

— austra'lis. See B. murginata. 

— Bau'eri. Red. 

— Baxtdri. 8. White. 

— Bro'wnii. 1830. 

— CaUyi. 6. 1830. 

— cocci'nea. 6. Scarlet. 1803. 

— coUi'na. 6. Yellow. 1800. B. M. t. 3060. 

Syns., B. Cwmanghami, Udifolia and 

— aim/par. See B. integrifolia, var. cmmpar. 

— Cunnvngha'Tnii, See B. collina. 

— cylindrosta'chya. See B. attenuata. 

— denta'ta. 4. Yellow. 1822. 

— Dryandroi'des. 6. Yellow. 1822. 

— elatior. See B. cemula. 

— ericifo'lia. 6. Yellow. 1788. B. M. t. 738. 
— fdrrea. See B. marginata. 

— Goo'dii. 1830. 

— gra'ndis. 2. Yellow. 1794. 

— Hookeria'na. 6. Purple. 1853. 

— Huge'lii. Yellow. 1837. 

— hypoleu'ca. See B. margimata. 

— Uidifo'lia. Scarlet. 1837. 

— iTisula'ris. See B. marginata. 

— integrifo'lia. 12. Yellow. 1788. Syns., B. 

maerophylla, B. oleifolia (B. M. t. 2770), 

and Hakea pubescens. 

co'm/par. 6. Yellow. 1824. 

palwdtita. 2. Yellow. March. 1805. 

— laMfdlia. 30. Green. July. 1802. B. M. 

t. 2406. 

— ledi/dlia. See B. collina. 

— litora'lis. See B. collina. 

— macrophy'lla. See B. integrifolia. 




B. marc^scens. 6. Yellow. 1794. Syn., B. 
mcemarsa, Andr. Bep. t. 268. 

— mmgina'ta. 6. Yellow. July. 1804. Syna., 

B. australis, ferrea, hypoleucaj insuiaris 
and aUcmgifolia. 

— meldia. 6. YeUow. 1824. B. M. t. 3120. 

— Menzie'nm. Yellow. 1837. 

— nu'tana. 4. Yellow. June. 1803. 

— oblmgifo'lia. B. C. t. 241. See B. marginata. 

— oeeidenta'lis. 8. Bed. April to August. 

King George's Sound. B. M. t. 3535. 

— ole^o'lia. See £. mtegri^olia. 

— paludo'sa. B. E. t. 697. See B. integrifoUa, 
var. paludosa. 

— proitra'ta. 2. Yellow. 1824. 

— pulcJie'lla. 6. Yellow. 1805. 

— guereifo'lia. 5. YeUow. 1805. B. M. 1. 1430. 

— serra'ta. 20. Ked. B. R. 1. 1316. 

— SolaJndri. 6. 1830. 

— spedo'ta. 6. Yellow. July. 1805. 

— spmulo'm. 6. Yellow. August. 1788. Andr. 

B«p. t. 457. 

— sphceroca'rpa. 6. Yellow. 1803. 

— undula'ta. B. B. t. 1316. See B. temula. 

— verticiUa'ta. 12. Yellow. August. 1794. 

Hook. Ex. Fl. t. 96. 

— Vieto'rice. 12. Yellow. Swan River. 1842. 

B. M. t. 4906. 

Ba'obab-tree. Adansonia. 

Ba'phia. (From baphe, a dye ; the 
Camwood or Barwood, from which a 
brilliant red-colour is obtained, is from 
B. ni'tida. Nat. ord., LeguminosiB ; 
Tribe, Sophorew. Allied to the Carob- 

Stove tree. Cuttings ; sandy peat and loam. 
B, ni'tida. 30. White. August. Sierra Leone. 
1793. B. C. t. 367. 

Bapti'sia. (From hapto, to dye; 
some of the species, notably B. tinctoria, 
possessing dyeing properties. Nat. ord. , 
LeguminoscB ; Tribe, JPodalyriecB. Allied 
to Fodalyria.) 

All hardy herbaceous plants useful for borders 
or beds. Division or seeds, the latter in sandy 
soil in the open or in pans in cold frame. 
B. a'lba. 2. White. June. N. Amer. 1724. 
B. M. 1. 1177. Syn., Padalyria alba. 

— auriculalta. Blue. June. N. Amer. 1812. 

— austra'lis. 2^. Blue. June. N. Amer. 1768. 

B. M. t. 609. 

— confu'sa. Blue. June. N. Amer. 1812. 

— exalta'ta. 3. White. June. N. Amer. 1724. 

Swt. Fl. Gard. t. 97. 

— lanceola'ta. 1. Yellow. July. N. Amer. 1818. 

— leucophce/a. White. July. N. Amer. 1870. 

B. M. t. 5900. 

— mi'nor. li. Blue. June. N. Amer. 1829. 

— mo'llis. ' l|. Blue. June. N. Amer. 1824. 

— perfolialta. 3. Yellow. August. Carolina. 

1732. B. M. t. 3121. 

— tinetdria. 3. Yellow. July. N. Amer. 1760. 

B. C. t. 588. Syn., Fodalyria tinetoria. 
B. M. 1. 1099. 

— versi'color. 4. Light purple. July. N. Amer. 


— villo'm. 2. Yellow. June. N. Amer. 1811. 

Barbace'nia. (Named after M. 
Barhacena, a governor of Minas Geraes. 
Nat. ord., AmarylUdeoB ; Tribe, Vel- 
losicB. ) 

Handsome stove herbaceous perennials. Divi- 
sions ; sandy loam. 

B. gra'ailis. See Datylirion acrotrichum. 

— purpu'rea. IJ. Purple. July. Brazil. 1825. 

— Bogie'rii. IJ. Purplish-violet. July. 1869. 
hy'bridts. Fl. Ser. t. 1152. 

samgui'Tiea. Deep crimson. 1847. 
eouama'ta. i. Bright red. March. Brazil. 
1841, remtroduced 1890. B. M. t. 4136. 



Cedar. Juni'perus 

Barbadoes Cherry. Malpi'gMa. 

Barbadoes Gooseberry. Pere'- 

Barbadoes Lily. Hippea'strum- 

Barbadoes Pride. Adena'nthera 

Barba'rea. Winter Cress. (From 
being formerly called the herb of Sta. 
Barbara. Nat. ord. , Crucifercs ; Tribe, 
Arabidece. AUied to Arabis.) 

All hardy herbaceous perennials, except B. 
stri'cta. B. vulgaris furnishes a wholesome salad. • 
Division or seed ; common soil. 
B. arma'ta. 2. Yellow. July. Germany. 1833. 
Bng. Bot. ed. 3, 1. 121. 

— orthoce^rus. 1^. Yellow. June. Siberia. 

— prc^cox. 1. Yellow. April to October. Eng- 

land. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, t. 124. Early 
Belle-isle cress or American cress. 

— vulga'ris. IJ. Yellow. May to August. 

Britain. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, t. 129. 

stri'cta. Yellow. Britain. Hardy bien- 
nial. Raised from seed. Eng. Bot. 
ed. 3, 1. 122. 

variega'ta. A pretty form. It comes true 

from seed. 

Jlo'repWno. A handsome border plant 

with double flowers. 

Barbe'ria. See Barleriola. 

Barberry. {Be'rberis vulga'ris.) 
There are several varieties of the Com- 
mon Barberry : the red berried, with 
stones ; the black sweet, which is tender, 
and requires a sheltered border; the 
purple ; and the white. The seedless 
\B. vulga'ris aspe'rma) is mostly pre- 
ferred for preserving purposes. The 
fruit is acid, and the bark is very as- 

Propagation. — Suckers, cuttings, and 
layers may be employed, either in the 
spring or autumn. Seeds, if sown soon 
after being collected, will germinate in 

SoU. — A sandy or calcareous soU, with 
a dry sub-soil, suits it best. 

Culture. — It requires no other pruning 
than such as is necessary to keep it 
within bounds. Their spines are so for- 
midable, that we have known the com- 
mon kinds used with good effect to stop 
gaps in hedges liable to much trespass. 

Fruit. — This is fully ripe in October, 
and is gathered in entire bunches for 
preserving, pickling, and candying. 




Diseases. — It is liable to be infected 
with a blight, which causes the green 
leaves to assume a chalky- white appear- 
ance. This is known to be a stage in the 
life-history of the same fungus as that 
which is the mildew on wheat; but 
they are still placed in different genera. 
That which preys upon the Barberry 
is Mcidiuw, berberidis (shown in our 
figure), and that which attacks Wheat 
is Puccinia graminis. 

Barbie'ria, (Named after J. B. G. 
Barbier, M.I)., a French naturalist. 
Nat. ord. , LepuminoscB ; Tribe, Galegem. 
Allied to Cajanus. ) 

An ornamental stove evergreen shrub. Cut- 
tings of half-ripened wood in sand, under a 
glass ; sandy peat and loam. 
B. polyphi/lla. Beddish-purple. Porto Eico. 

1818. Syns., Clitarea polyphylla and 

Gaiactia pinnaia. 

Bark. The refuse bark from the 
tanner's yard is employed by the gar- 
dener as a source of heat, and, when 
thoroughly broken down by decay, as a 

As a source of heat, it is much less 
used than formerly, the hot-water sys- 
tem having very generally and most 
deservedly superseded it. Bark for 
heating requires frequent stirring and 
renewing, and, if too much moisture be 
added, is apt to give out an excessive 
and irregular heat. In addition, it is 
a troublesome harbour for predatory 

Bark fresh from the tan-yard, being 
thrown lightly together under a shed, 
must be gently moistened, if dry, and 
turned over twice a week, to expose it 
thoroughly to the air. Unless this be 

done the fermentation will not be gene- 
ral or regular. This is to be continued 
for a month or five weeks, in warm 
weather the shorter time being requi- 
site ; and then, having acquired a gene- 
ral and equal heat, it is ready for use in 
the stove. Usually it will continue to 
afford heat for a period varying between 
three and six months, but sometimes 
ceases to ferment without any apparent 
cause. Whenever the heat declines, the 
tan must be taken out, sifted, the dusty 
parts removed, and some fresh tan added. 
Sometimes turning the old tan and 
moistening it will be sufficient. 

It is desirable, on the first formation 
of a bed, to mix new and old tan to- 
gether, in which case the quantity of 
new bark to be brought into the pit will 
depend upon the quality of the bark, 
and the bottom-heat required. As much 
new tan as will fill two-third parts of 
the pit, with a mixture of old, rotten, 
reduced almost to earth, will produce a 
bottom-heat of about 85°. When old 
tan with higher remains of strength is 
used to modify the new, the same heat 
may be produced if the quantity be not 
more than half the capacity of the pit. 
This refers to a new pit. After a bark- 
bed has been in action, partial renewals 
of bark, to keep up the heat, are fre- 
quently sufficient, in the reduced pro- 
portion of one-third, one-sixth, one- 
twelfth, or less. At intermediate stages 
between the partial renewals, the bed 
requires only to be excited to a brisker 
fermentation by forking up. About 
five-sevenths of the pit from the bottom 
should be occupied by the new and old 
tan as a fermenting body; and about 
two-sevenths from the top, or a little 
more than the depth of the pot, what- 
ever that may be, should consist of old 
tan incapable of heating, so as to burn 
the roots of the plants. At least, such 
should be the ordinary distribution of 
the tan ; but, where peculiar circum- 
stances require a speedy augmentation 
of heat without displacing the pots, and 
when fruit is to be swelled off in the 
last stage, the earthy tan at top may 
be taken away, and new tan substituted. 

As a manure. — See Vegetable 

Bark. The exterior part of the stem 
of plants. 

Bark-bound. When a tree is af- 
fected with this disease, cracks will 
appear in it partially, and, in the case 
of the Cherry, Apricot, Peach, and Nec- 
tarine, gummy discharge will follow. 
It is a sure indication that either the 





soil is too rich or not sufficiently drained. 
The latter is usniallj the source of the 
evil. Under-draimng, and scrubbing 
the stem with brine, often effects a cure. 
Scoring the bark lengthwise with a knife 
is a rude mode of treatment, often fol- 
lowed by canker, more fatal than the 
disease intended to be removed. If 
scoring be adopted, it should be done 
early in spring ; and the knife should 
not penetrate below the dry, outer 

Bark Stove, or Moist Stove, is 
a hothouse which, either by having a 
mass of fermenting matter, or an open 
reservoir of hot water, has its atmo- 
sphere appropriately supplied with mois- 
ture, congenially with the habits of 
some tropical plants. It received the 
name of Bark Stove, because tanner's 
bark was formerly a chief source of the 
heat employed. See Stove. 

Barke'ria. See Epidendrum. 

Barking Irons, or Bark Scalers, 
are for scraping off the hard outer bark, 
or dry scales from the stems and branches 
of trees. 

Ba'rklya. (In honour of Sir H. 
Barkly, Governor of S. Australia. Nat. 
ord., LeguminoscB ; Tribe, SophorecB.) 

Greenhouse tree. Loam and leaf-soil. Seeds 
or cuttings of half-ripened wood under a bell- 

B. syringoeflo'ra. 30. Fink. Moreton Bay. 

Barle'ria. (After the Mev. J. Bar- 
relier, of Paris. Nat. ord., Acanthacece.) 

Ornamental stove evergreens, except B. longi- 
folia. Seeds or cuttings of the perennial species 
of young wood under a bell-glass in heat. Rich 
loam and peat. 

B. alVba. 3. July. N. Holland. 1815. B. C. 
t. 360. 

— huxifo'lia. 2. WTiite. July. E. Ind. 1768. 

— cceru'lea. 2. Blue. July. E. Ind. 1823. 
sponta'nea. 2. Blue. July. E. Ind. 

1820. Syn., B. striaosa. 

— crista'ta. 2. Blue. July. E. Ind. 1796. 

— dicho/toma. 2. Purple. July. B. Ind. 1823. 
—fla'va. 3. Yellow. July. E. Ind. 1816. 

Syn., B. ndtis, B. M. t. 4113. 

— Gibsdni. Purple. India. 1867. B. M. 

t. 6628. 

— involucra'ta ela'ta. 6. Bark blue. Singapore. 


— Leichtensteinia'Tia. S. Africa. 1870. G. C. 

1870, p. 73. 

— longifio/ra. 3. July. E. Ind. 1816. 

— Imigifo'lia. 2. White. August. E. Ind. 


— lupuli'na. 2. Yellow. August. Mauritius. 


— Maeke'nii. Purple. Spring. Natal. 1870. 

B. M. t. 6868. 

— mi'tis, Se&B.fiava. 

— monta'na. 2. Purple. September E. Ind. 

1818. B. C. t. 344. Syn., B. purpurea. 

— prioni'Hs. 3. Orange. July. E. Ind. 1769. 
— ptirpu'rea. See B. montana. 

B. re'pem. Rose. E. Trop. Africa. 1887. B. M. 
t. 6964. 

— 8ola/nifo'lia. See Barberiola solanifolia. 

— strigo'sOf. See B. cxrulea, var. spontanea. 

Barleri'ola. (From Barleria. Nat. 
ord., Acanthacece.) 

B. solanifo'lia. 2. Blue. W. Ind. Syn., Bar- 
beria solanifotia. 

Barley. (Ro'rdewm mdga're.) This 
genus of grasses, being interesting only 
to the farmer and botanist, has not been 
included in this work. 

Barnade'sia. (After Bamadez, a 
Spanish botanist. Nat. ord., Composites; 
Tribe, MutisiaceoB.) 

B. ro'sea, a very pretty deciduous shrub, re- 
quiring to be kept nearly dry, in a greenhouse, 
in winter. Seeds, in hotbeds, in March ; cuttings 
of half-ripened wood in April, in sand, under a 
B. gra/ndifldra. 2. Pale rose. S. Amer. 1844. 

An evergreen requiring a cool stove or 

intermediate house. 

— ro'sea. 1. Pink. May. S. Amer. 1840. B. 

M. t. 4232. 

— spm&sa. 4. June. Peru. 1825. This has 

been called Baca'zia spvtio'sa. Green- 
house evergreen. 

Bama'rdia. (Named after^. 5a»'- 
nard, F.L.S. Nat. ord., Li'/aceiB.) See 

B. scUUddes. See Scaia ehimnsis, B. E. 1. 1029. 

Baro'meter, or Weather Glass, 
so called from two Greek words, signi- 
fying a measurer of weight, because it 
indicates the weight or pressure of the 
air. We only admit a notice of this be- 
cause, as a guide to approaching changes 
of weather, it is useful to the gardener. 

Mr. P. Christenson, of Cowes, in the 
Isle of Wight, lectui'er upon astronomy, 
etc. , has arranged a table, which no one 
having a weather-glass should be with- 
out. This "Companion to the Baro- 
meter " is the result of thirty-two years' 
observation; and the following is aii 
epitome of the information it gives. 
During the first six months of the year, 
when the mercury is rising, if the weather 
has been bad, and the mercury reaches 
to 29-62 inches, there will be a change ; 
if to 30-12, the weather will be fair ; if 
to 30-29, set fair. If the mercury has 
been high, and begins /aZ^mg', there will 
he a change if it declines to 29-90 ; rain, 
if it descends to 29-50 ; and wind, with 
rain, if it reaches 29-12. During the last 
six months of the year, if the weather 
has been foul, and the mercury berins 
rising, there will be a change if it reaches 
to 29-48 ; fair, if to 30-13 ; and set fair 
if to 30-45. If the weather has been 
fair, and the mercury begins falling, 
there will be a change if it sinks to 29 'S? s 
rain, if to 29-55 ; and wind with rain, if 




to 29-28. At any time of the year, if the 
mercury fall to 28-10, or even to 28-20, 
there -noil be stormy weather. These 
conclusions are from observations made 
at thirty feet above the sea's level, and, 
therefore, one-hundredth part of an inch 
must be added to the height of the mer- 
cui-y for every additional ten feet above 
the sea's level, where the barometer may 
happen to be. 

Baro'sma. (From harys, heavy, 
and osme, odour ; referring to the power- 
ful scent of the leaves. Nat. ord., Ru- 
tacece. Allied to Diosma. ) 

Greenhouse evergreen shrubs, all natives of the 
Cape. Cuttings of half -ripened wood in June, 
under a bell-glass, in sand, without heat ; sandy 
loam and peat. 

B. betuli'na. 2. White. February to September. 
1790. Syn., Diosma crenata, B. C. t. 404. 

— crenula'ta. 3. Bluish. April. B. M. t. 3413. 

— dioi'ca. 2. White. June. 1816. B. B. 

t. 602. 

— laWo'lia. 1. White. July. 1789. 

— ma:ta. 2. White. May. 1790. Syn., Bioww, 

ovata, B. M. 1. 1616. 
— pulche'Ua. 1 to 3. Purple. February. 1787. 
B. M. 1. 1367. 

— serratifo'Ua. 1 to 3. White. March to June. 

1789. B. M. t. 466. Syn., Diosma serrati- 

Barred. Thatpart of aplantissaid' 
to be barred which is striped with a 
lighter or darker colour than the pre- 
vailing colour of that part. 

Barren Plants. The male or sta- 
minate flowers of the cucumber, melon, 
and other monoecious plants are popu- 
larly known as barren flowers ; and the 
plants of the asparagus, mercury, and 
other dioecious plants bearing only male 
flowers, are usually termed barren, i.e., 
they do not produce fruit. There is also 
a barrenness arising from disease, or the 
consequences of bad cultivation. If a 
tree, or any other plant, does not yield 
the desired produce of fruit of which it 

IS capable, the gardener may be assured 
that the soil, bad drainage, the manuring, 
or the pruning, is injurious. Even a 
bhnd or barren cabbage may be made 

E reductive; for its barrenness arises 
•om the central bud being abortive, 
and it will produce lateral buds, if all 
but one leaf and the place of the abor- 
tive bud be out away. When a flower 
has no pistil it is incurably barren. A 
very high temp eratu re caused a water- 
melon to bear male blossoms only ; and 
a very low temperature made cucumber- 
plants jdeld female flowers alone. Mr. 
Knight had little doubt that the same 
fruit-stalks might be made, in the plants 
just noticed, to support flowers of either 
sex, in obedience to external causes. 
Our own observations lead us to the con- 
clusion that the cucumber and vegetable 
marrow, when grown in too cold a tem- 

Eerature, produce a majority of male 

Barren Soil. No soU is absolutely 
incapable of production ; and when it is 
spoken of as being barren, no more is 
meant than that, in its present state, it 
will not repay the cultivator. The un- 
productiveness arises from a deficiency 
of some of the earths or of water ; from 
an excess or deficiency of animal and 
vegetable matters ; or from an excess of 
stagnant water. No soil can be pro- 
ductive where nineteen parts out of 
twenty are of any one earth or other 
substance. If either chalk, or sand, or 
clay, be in exce'ss, the remedy is found 
in adding one or both of the other two. 
An excess of organic matter only occurs 
in peat soils; and these are reclaimed 
by draining, paring, and burning, and 
the addition of earthy matter. Drainage 
is also of course the cure for an excess 
of water. 

Barrenwort. Epime'dium. 

Barringto'nia. (Named after the 
Hon. Daines Barrmgton. Nat. ord., 
MyrtaeetB. Syn., Stravadium.) 

Stove evergreen trees and shrubs, difficult to 
cultivate wefl. Cuttings of ripe shoots with all 
the leaves left on, under a glass, in a strong heat ; 
lumpy loam and peat. 

B. acuta'ngiUa. 20. Purple. Moluccas. 1822. 
Syn., Stravadium acuta/ngulwm and ru- 

— eehinalta. 20. White. Moluccas. 1820. 

— platyphy'Ua. 3. White. June. Moluccas. 

— racemo'sa. 30. Red. Moluccas, Malabar and 

Delta of the Ganges. 1820. B. M. t. 3831. 
Syns., Eugenia racemosa, Stravadium 

— specio'sa. 2 to 8. Scarlet. Indian Archi- 

pelago. 1786. 

Barro'tia panche'ri. See Pan- 




Bartholi'na. (Named after Bar- 
tholin, a Danish physiologist. Nat. ord., 
Orchidacece. Allied to Serapias. ) 

One of those terrestrial orchids from the Cape 
which we have not yet succeeded in cultivating 
easily. Greenhouse orchid ; division of the root; 
sandy loam. 
B. peotma'ta* 1. Lilac. November. Cape. 

1787. B. E. t. 1663. Syn., Arethusa 


Barto'nia. (Named after Dr. Bar- 
ton, an American botanist. Nat. ord., 
Loasacew. In the Genera Plantarum 
this is regarded as a section of Ment- 
zelia. ) 

Half-hardy plants ; seeds ; the biennials should 
be sown in summer, and protected in a cold pit 
during the winter ; the annuals may be sown in 
the open air, in April, or in a slight hotbed, and 
transplanted ; most of them debght in a sandy 
soil and a little peat. B, aurea does best in a 
light sandy soil. 


B. (Ob^scma. 2. White. Chili. 1831. Swt. FL 
Card. 2, 1. 182. 

— mt'reOi. 3. Yellow. June. California. 1834. 

B. M. t. 3649. 


R ni^da. 2. White. August. Missouri. 1811. 

B. M. t. 5483. 
^oma'ta. 2. White. August. Missouri. 1811. 

Syn., B. deeapetala, B. M. 1. 1487. 

Ba'rtsia. (Named after J. Bartch, 
M.D. l!ia,t. Old., Scrophulariacece. Al- 
lied to Euphrasia.) 

These require the treatment of choice alpines ; 
hardy annuals ; seeds in April, on ropk-work ; 
difficult to manage well. 

3. alpi'na. J. Purple. August. Britain. Eng. 
Bot. ed. 3, t. 995. 

— coeci'nea. See Ca»tilleja. 

— latifo'lia. See Eufragia latifoUa. 

— odontites. |. Pink. August. Britain. Eng. 

Bot. ed. 3, t. 993. 

— pa'Uida. See Castiileja pallida. 

— visoo'sa. i. Yellow. July. Britain. Eng. 

Bot. ed. 3, t. 994. 

BarwOOd. Ba'phia ni'tida, an 
African dye-producing wood. 

Baryo'sma. See Barosma. 

B, Tongo. See Bipterix odorata. 

Base'Ua. Malabar Nightshade. (Its 
Malabar name. Nat. ord., Chenopo- 
diacem. ) 

B. a'lba and ru'bra are used as spinach in the 
East Indies. Stove biennials, except where other- 
wise specified, and mostly climbers. If sown in 
good heat in February, and treated as a border 
annual, they will bloom freely the same season ; 
rich, lumpy soil. 
B. a'lba. 8. White. August. E. Ind. 1888. 

— cordifo'lia. 6. Pale purple. August. E. Ind 


— lu'cida. 6. White. August. E. Ind. 1802. 

— margina'ta. See Boussingaultia. 

— nigra. 3. White. August. China. 1822. 


— ramo'sa. 6. August. 

— ruibra. 8. Pink. August. E. Ind. 1731. 

— ttOier&sa. 6. Yellow. September. S. Amer. 
., 1824. 

Basil. (O'cymum.) There are tw(V 
kinds, the Sweet-scented (0. basi'lieum), 
and the Dwarf -bush ( 0. mi'nimum). The 
young leaf-tops are the parts made use 
of in soups and salads, tneir flavour re- 
sembling that of cloves. 

The supply is never-failing during: 
summer, as they shoot out rapidly for 
successional supplies. 

Sow on a very gentle hotbed, under 
glass, about the end of March or first of 
April, to raise plants for the principal or 
main crop. The frame should be filled 
up with earth to within three or four 
inches of the glass, or very shallow 
frames may be used for such purposes. 
When the plants are up, give a little 
air by tilting the lights ; and, as they 
advance, and the weather is warmer, 

five them more air, until the lights may 
e taken off altogether during the day, 
and put on at night. By the above 
management, good, hardened plants will 
be fit for planting out towards the end of 
May, or beginning of June, into warm 
borders, or beds of light, rich earth. If 
the weather be dry at the time of plant- 
ing out, let the beds be well watered 
previous to planting, which will be better 
done in the evening. Lift the young 
plants from the seed-bed with a small 
fork or trowel, and plant them out with 
care, eight or ten inches apart, and water 
them, to settle the earth to the roots. 
Attend to watering when required, until 
the plants are well established. If green 
tops are required for earlier use, sow in 
pots, pans, or boxes, and place in any 
heated structure. 

To obtain seed. — Some of the earliest- 
raised plants must be left ungathered 
from. These flower from July to Sep- 
tember, and, accordingly, ripen their 
seed in early or late autumn. 

Basining-up. By this term is meant 
raising a small bank of earth entirely 
round a plant, so as to retain water im- 
mediately about the roots. 

Baskets, employed by the London 
gardeners, being made of osier or deal 
shavings, vary triflinglyin size more than 
measures made of less flexible materials. 
They are as follows : 

Pottle— a. long, tapering basket, made 
of deal shavings, holding about a pint 
and a half. 

Sea-kale punnets — eight inches dia- 
meter at the top, and seven inches and 
a half at the bottom, and two inches deep. 

Badish punnets — eight inches dia- 
meter, and one inch deep, if to hold six 
hands ; or nine inches by one inch for 
twelve hands. 




Mushroom pttnnets — seven inclies by 
one inch. 

Salading punnets — five inches by two 

Half sieve — contains three imperial 
gallons and a half. It averages twelve 
inches and a half diameter, and six 
inches in depth. 

Sieve — contains sevenimperial gallons. 
Diameter, fifteen inches ; depth, eight 

Bushel sieve — ten imperial gallons and 
a half. Diameter at top, seventeen inches 
and three quarters ; at Dottom, seventeen 
inches ; depth, eleven inches and a 

Bitshel basket — ought, when heaped, 
to contain an imperial bushel. Diameter 
at bottom, ten inches ; at top, fourteen 
inches and a half ; depth, seventeen 
inches. Walnuts, nuts, apples, and pota- 
toes are sold by this measure. A bushel 
■of the last-named, cleaned, weighs fifty- 
six pounds ; but four pounds additional 
are allowed if they are not washed. 

Baskets (Rustic). These are often 
suitable ornaments for the reception of 
liowering-plants upon lawns, and other 
parts of the pleasure-grounds and are 
easily made. Having fixed on the sizes 
you wish for, procure some inch boards, 
«ither of sound oak, which is the best, 
or of well-seasoned elm or deal. Cut 
them into the proper lengths, and naU 
them together the right width ; they will 
then form a square. Mark then the de- 
sired fopm (round or octagon) on this 
fiouare, and cut it into the desired figure. 
When this is done, you have the ground- 
work of jrour basket ; make the basket 
ten or eight inches deep ; and, if your 

farden is moderately extensive, you may 
ave them the largest size to be manage- 
able, that is from three to five feet in 
diameter. If a small garden, this size 
would be inconvenient, and take up too 
much room. Yet there is no reason why 
you should not have two or three of 
these ornaments. For such a garden, 
the most proper dimensions would be 
two feet ; and for that size, six inches 
deep would be proportionate. Then 
proceed to nail to the circular or octagon 
Dottom the sides. If the shape is round, 
let the pieces of wood to form the sides 
be narrow, bevel inwards the sides, and 
shape them- so as to form the circle ; but 
if of an octagon form, the pieces will be, 
of course, of the width of each of the 
eight sides, and planed to fit at each 
■comer. Fasten them firmly together 
■with nails, and the main foundation and 
walls of your baskets are complete. On 

the top of the side put some split hazel 
rods, of sufficient thickness to cover it, 
and hang over the outside edge about 
half an inch. Place some of the same 
kind close to the bottom ; then, between 
the two, cover the plaia boards with 
some rough oak or elm bark, or, what is 
more expensive and troublesome, but 
certainly more ornamental, cover the 
sides with (split or whole, as you may 
fancy) hazel rods, formed into tasteful 
forms. These should fit so close as to 
hide completely the material of which 
the sides are formed. The bark-plan 
will not rec^uire anything more doing to 
it after it is neatly fitted and securely 
nailed to the sides ; but the hazel rods 
should have a coating of boiled linseed- 
oil applied. 

Baskets, formed of various materials 
such as wire, wood, terra-cotta, cork, 
etc. , are now largely used for the adorn- 
ment of rooms, corridors, windows, etc., 
fiUed with handsome foliaged or flower- 
ing plants. Ferns make a charming dis- 
play when tastefully arranged in them. 
In filling the baskets, the inside should 
first be uned with moss, next to which a 
layer of fibry loam, and finally the soil 
most suitable to the plants. Baskets and 
cylinders made of oak are generally used 
for orchids. The truck basket, made of 
wUlow wood, is generally used in gardens 
now. It is both light and durable. 

Bass or Bast Mats. These are 
chiefly made in Russia, from the inner 
bark of trees {bast in the Russ language). 
They are very serviceable, however, to 
place over beds of early spring radishes, 
etc. , to prevent the night radiation. This 
is quite as effectual, much cleaner, and 
less troublesome than a covering of straw. 
Shreds of these mats are also useful for 
many gardening purposes where a liga- 
ture or string is required. One of Qie 
principal of these is for binding a bud or 
scion in its place on the stock after graft- 
ing. For this we prefer the new Cuba 
bast; but the finest of the ordinary 
Russian mats will answer equally well, 
perhaps better, provided the material is 
very fine and very tough. In selecting a 
mat for this purpose, the best may be 
distinguished by two or three qualities : 
— First, whatever colour the bast be, it 
must feel silky and somewhat oily to the 
touch. A full reliance must not be placed 
on this alone, however ; but the strength 
should be tested by cutting off' a fine- 
looking strand, and stripping off a nar- 
row piece as fine as twine. This, if good, 
should withstand a considerable amount 
of tension. 




Ba'ssia. (Named after M. Bassi, 
curator of the Botanic Garden at Bou- 
logne. Nat. ord., SapotacecB.) 

The Bassias are trees of some importance in 
India. B. butyra'eea yields a thick, oil-like 
butter from its fruit, or mahva. B. latifo'lia fur- 
bishes a kind of arrack, called mowra, by distil- 
ling the leaves. The fruit of the lUupie-tree, B. 
langifo'lia, yields oil for lamps, soap-making, and 
also for food ; and Mungo Park's Butter-tree was 
a species of Bassia. Stove trees. Cuttings of 
ripened young shoots in April, in heat, under a 
bell-glass ; peat and loam. 
B. butyra'eea. 30 to 70. Nepaul. 1823. Brandis 
F. Flor. t. 35. 

— latifdUa. 40. Yellow. E. Ind. Bedd. Fl. 

Syl. t. 41. 
^longifo'Ua. 40. E. Ind. 1811. Bedd. Fl. 
Syl. t. 42. 

Bata'tas. (Aboriginal name. Nat. 
ord., ConvolvulacecB. This genus is 
joined by Hooker and Bentham to 
Ipomcea. ) 

All free-growing stove or greenhouse deciduous 
climbers, excellent for pillars or trellis-work. 
Cuttings of stumpy side-shoots, or young shoots 
slipped from the tubers, just as they begin to 
grow ; in sandy soil, in bottom-heat, and under 
a hand-glass ; rich, sandy loam and fibry peat, 
with manure-water when grovring. They require 
to be kept comparatively dry while dormant. 
B. beta'cea. 6. Pale violet. Demerara. 1839. 
B. E. 1840, t. 66. 

— bignonioi'des. Dark purple. July. Cayenne. 

1824. B. M. t. 2646. 

— bonarie^n^. 10. Purple. Pax. Mag. vol. 8, p. 25. 

— Cavanille'Sii. White, red. August, 1815. 

— e^dulie. White, purple B. Ind. 1797. Sweet 


— qlmusifoUa. Purplish. June. Mexico. 1732. 

— heterophi/Ua. Blue. September. Cuba. 1817. 
—jala'pa. Rose. August. Mexico. 1845. 

— vamiusuMia. Purple. July. E. Ind. 1799. 

B. E. t. 75. 

— pentavMlla. White. August. E. Ind. 1739. 

Wight, Icon. t. 834. 

— senegaldnsU. White. July. Guinea. 1823. 

— tema'ta. White. July. Brazil. 1824. Syn., 

Ipovwea temata. 

— venc/sa. Purple. July. Mauritius. 1820. 

Syn. J Ipomcea venosa. 

— Vttide'cldi. White and purple. S. Amer. 


— WUldenc^vii. Purple. July. 1818. Syns., 

Jpomaea heterophylla, Pharbitts hetero- 

Batema'imia, (Called after Mr. 
Bateman, a keen collector and ardent 
cultivator of orchids, and author. of a 
splendid work on the Orchids of Mexico 
and Guatemala. Nat. ord., Orc/iidacew. 
Allied to Maxillaria.) 

Easily grown and usually free-flowering stove 
orchids ; divisions and offsets ; peat and sphag- 
num ; plant raised considerably above the surface 
of pot, or suspended in shallow baskets. 
B. armilla'ta. Green, white. 1875. Echb. Xen. 
t. 316. 

— Bu'rtii. Brown, yellow, purple, white. Costa 

Eica and Ecuador. 1872. B. M. t. 6003. 

— Co'lleyi. i. Purple, green. August, Demerara. 

1834. B. E. t. 1714 ; B. M. t. 3818. 

— fimbria' ta. See Oaleottiaftmbnata. 

— yramdijlo'ra. Olive, brown, white, purple. 

New Grenada. 1866. Syn., Galeottia 
grandiflora. B. M. t. 6667. 

B. le'pida. Brownish-red, white. Brazil. 

— melea'gris. White at base, tessellated with 

purplish -brown on a yellow ground. 
June. Brazil. 1838. syn., mmtleya 

— WalK'sii. 1. Brown, crimson. Columbia. 


Ba'tschia. (Named after J. G. 
Batsch, a German botanist. Nat. ord., 
Boraginete.) See Lithospermum. 

B. caroHne'Tisis and Chneli'ni. See Lithospermum. 

Bau'era. (Named after Fraricis and 
Ferdinand Bauer, German botanical 
draughtsmen. Nat. ord., SaxifragecB.) 

Useful greenhouse evergreen shrubs, flowering: 
nearly throughout the year. Cuttings in sandy^ 
soil. Under a glass ; sandy loam and peat. 
B. lvulmiXi&. 1. Eed. September. N. S. Wales. 
1804. B. C. t. 1197. By some this is re- 
garded as synonymous with B. rubioides. 

— rvtnm'des. IJ. Pink. September. N. S. 

Wales. 1793. Andr. Eep. t. 198, B. M. 
t. 715. Syn., B. rvMoefoha. 

microphyftta. Slender and prostrate. 

Port Jackson. Syn., B. galioides, Echb. 
Ic. Exot. t. 77. 

Bauhi'nia. Mountain Ebony. 
(Named after the brothers John and 
Caspar Batihin, botanistsin the sixteenth 
century. Nat. ord., Leguminosos; 
Tribe, Bauhiniem.) 

All showy stove evergreen shrubs, except where- 
otherwise specified. Half-ripe cuttings in sum- 
mer, in sand, placed under a glass, and in 
moist bottom-heat ; light, sandy loam, and a 
little peat. 
B. aculea'ta. 6. White. W. Ind. 1737. 

— acwmma'ta. 8. White. July. E. Ind. 1808. 

— wngui'na. 30. White. E. Ind. 1790. Climber. 

Syn., B. sca/ndens. 

— arma'ta. 6. White. Brazil. 1824. Climber. 

— auri'ta. 6. White. August. Jamaica. 1766. 

— chine'mis. 6. Bed. China. 1800. Green- 


— corymbo'sa. 6. White. Summer. B. Ind.- 

1818. Climber. B. M. t. 6621. 

— mmane'nsis. 20. White. July. Cumana. 

1826. Climber. B. E. t. 1133. 

— divarwa'ta. See B. Lamarckiana. 
—ferrugi'nea. 10. White. E. Ind. 1820. 

—forjim'ta. 6. White. Brazil. 1823. B. M. 
t. 3741. 

— gla'bra. 16. White. Carthage. 1810. Climber. 

— glauee'seens. 6. White. Cumana. 1817. 

— grandjfl&ra. 4. White. Peru. 1820. 

— I'ndysa. 6. White. E. Ind. 1820. 

— vnelrmie. 6. Yellow, red. Acapulco. 1810. 

— LamarcMa'na. 6. White. S. Amer. 1818. 

Syns., B. divaricata and retusa of som& 

— latifo'lia. 6. White. W. Ind. 1818. 

— leptope'tala. 6. Yellow, green. New Spain. 


— hma'ria 6. White. Acapulco. 1820. 

— madagaecari^nsis. 4. Madagascar. 1826. 

— malaba'ruia. 16. White. E. Ind. 1810. 


— mierophjfUa. 6. White. S. Amer. 1817. 

— mvltme'rvia. 20. White. Caraccas. 1808; 

— nataidnsie. White. Natal. 1870. B. M. 

t. 6086. Greenhouse. 

— PoMleftia. 4. White. Panama. 1737. 
—petiola'ta. White. Autumn. Columbia. 1862. 

B. M. t. 6277. Syn., Casparia speciosa. 




B.porrdeta. White or rosy. October. W.Indies. 
1815. B. M. t. 1708. Syn., Casparia 

— puhe'scens. 4. White. Jamaicai. 1778. 

— purpu'rea. 6. Purple. E. Ind. 1778. Rev. 

Hort. 1886, t. 249. 

— racemo'sa. 20. White. E. Ind. 1790. Stove 

climber. Bedd. Fl. Syl. 1. 182. 

— retu'sa. 7. White. E. Ind. 1820. 

— rotundif&lia. 6. White. Acapulco. 1820. 

Syn., B. subrotundifolia. 

— sca'ndens. See JS. anguina. 

— speaio'sa. 10. White. 1820. Stove climber. 

— subrotUTidifo'lia. See B. rotwndifolia. 

— tmnento'sa. 6. Tellow, white, with red spot 

on claw. E. Ind. 1808. 

gla'bra. This is tomentosa without being 

downy. Yellow, purple. 1866. 

— tria'ndra. 15. White. E. Ind. 1823. Stove 


— variega'ta. 6. Striped. June. E. Ind. 1790. 

B. M. t. 6818. 

chine' tms. Lilac, with purple spot. China. 


Bean. See Paba and Phaseolus. 

Beato'nia. (Named by Dr. Herbert 
after D. Beaton, a Scotch gardener ; one 
of the contributors to the " Cottage 
Gardener" and to this "Dictionary." 
Nat. ord. , Iridaeeos ; Tribe, Morece. ) See 

B. purpu'rea. See Tigridia violacea. 

Beauca'mea. (A commemorative 
name. Nat. ord., Liliacece.) 

Curious greenhouse ornamental foliaged 
plants. Seeds, cuttings when obtainable. Bich 
hbrous loam and sand, with plenty of water 
while growing. 

B. glau'ca latifo'lia. 3. Mexico. A robust form 
of B. glauca. 

— gra'cilis. Mexico. 1845. Probably the same 

as B. Hartwegiana. 

— Hooke'ri. 3. Purplish. Mexico. 1846. B. M. 

t. 5099. Syns., Dasylirion Hartwegianum 
and Hookerh, . 

— longifo'lia. 10. White. Mexico. 1868. Syn., 

Vasylirum l<mg\folium. 

— reewva'ta. White. Mexico. 1861. Syn., 

PiTicenietitia tuber(nilaia. G. C. 1870, 
j>. 1445. • 

tnterme^dia. Leaves shorter, less re- 

ru!bra. Leaves red at base. 

— stri'eta. Mexico. 1870. Syn., Pincenictitia 


Beaufo'rtia. (Named after Mari/ 
Duchess of Beaufort. Nat. ord., M'yr- 

Handsome free-flowering greenhouse evergreen 
shrubs. Cuttings of haJf-ripened shoots, under 
a glass, in sand, without heat ; loam and peat. 
B. comma' ta. 3. Scarlet. N. HoUand. 1823. 

— Dampidri. 2. Pink. May. Hartog's Island. 

B. M. t. 3272. 

— dceuisa'ta. 3. Scarlet. May. N. Holland. 

1803. B. M. t. 1733. 

— maeroatefmon. Purple. July. Australia. 1843. 

— purpu'rea. Purple. July. Australia. 1841. 

— epa'rsa. 3. Scarlet. West Australia. 1803. Pax. 

Mag. vol. 12, p. 145. Syn., B. splendens. 

Beaumo'ntia. (Named after Mrs. 
Beaumont, of Bretton Hall, Yorkshire. 
Nat. ord., Apocynacece.) 

Handsome stove twiners, with large, white 
trumpet-shaped flowers, produced in clusters at 
the end of the shoots. They succeed best planted 
out in the borders of an intermediate house 
Cuttings of half -ripened wood ; rich, lumpy loam 

B. grandifio'ra. 20. White. June. E Ind 
1820. B. M. t. 3213. 

— longifo'lia. 20. White. E. Ind. 1818. 

— specitisa. Garden, voL xxxii. 

Bed is a comprehensive word, applic- 
able to the detached space on which any 
cultivated plants are grown. It is most 
correctly confined to small divisions, 
purposely restricted in breadth for the 
convenience of hand-weeding, or other 
requisite culture, and, in the flower-gar- 
den, for the promotion of beauty. • This 
involves the question of form, one of the 
most difficidt that is submitted to the 
gardener, because few tastes agree as to 
their estimate of the beautiful. Under 
the head Flower Garden we shall 
give a few general observations upon 
this subject; and here will merely ob- 
serve that, in making flower-beds, they 
should always be proportioned to the 
size of the plants which are to be their 
tenants ; and that though, for large 
masses of shrubs and trees, we have seen 
rectangular forms so planted as to look 
solid and grand, yet that we believe no 
arrangement of dwarf -flowers would ever 
make a separate square or parallelogram 
bed of them otherwise than decidedly 

Bedding-in is a mode of sowing seed. 
In this method, the ground being dug, 
and formed by alleys into beds,' four or 
five feet wide, each alley being a spade's 
width or more between bed and bed, and 
the earth being drawn off the top of the 
bed with a rake or spade, half an inch or 
an inch deep into the alleys, the seed is 
then sown all over the surface of the 
bed ; which being done, the earth in the 
alleys is immediately cast over the bed, 
well covering the seeds, and the surface 
is raked smooth. 

The method of bedding-in sowing by 
sifting is sometimes practised for very 
small seeds of a more delicate nature, 
that require a very light covering of 
earth when sown. To bury them as 
shallow as possible, they are covered by 
sifting fine earth over them. 

Bedding-out is removing plants 
from the pots or boxes in which they 
have been growing into the beds where 
they are intended to remain durin^g the 
summer and autumn. The following is 
a list of flowers for bedding-out, arranged 
according to their colours, the first- 
named being the most dwarf : — White, — 




Verbena pulchella, Lobelia Erinus albus, 
Campanula pusllla, Campanula carpa- 
tica alba, Senecio elegans flore albo, 
White Ivy-leaved Geranium, White- 
flowered horse-shoe Geranium, Phlox 
Drummondii white, Double White Snap- 
dragon, CEnothera taraxifolia, QE. spe- 
cioaa, Nierembergia calycina, Variegated 
sweet Alyssum, Calendula hybrida, 
White Clarkia, Petunia nyctaginiflora ; 
White Salvia patens. Scarlet. — Of Ver- 
benas, Boule de Fea, Inglefield Scarlet, 
or fulgens, Melindre's latifolia, Satellite, 
and Emperor of Scarlets ; of Geraniums, 
Shrubland Scarlet, Tom Thumb, Im- 
proved Frogmore, Gem of Scarlets, 
Koyalist, and Compactum. Purple. — 
Of verbenas, Walton's Emma, Heloise, 
Venosa, and Sabina; Petunia phojnicea. 
Lobelia unidentata, Lantana Sellowii, 
and Phlox Drummondii. Pink. — Sapo- 
naria calabrica, Silene Shaftse, Silene 
pendula, Silene compacta ; of Geraniums 
the Pink Ivy-leaf, Mangle's variegated 
Pink, Pink Nosegay, Judy, Lucia rosea, 
and Diadematum ; Anagallis carnea ; of 
Verbenas, MiUer's Favourite, Beauty 
Supreme, Duchess of Northumberland, 
and Standard of Perfection. Yellow. — 
Tagetes tenuifolia, Sanvitalia procum- 
bens; of Calceolarias, integrifolia, ru- 
gosa, Kayii, viscosissima, corymbosa, 
and amplexicaule ; Orange African Ma- 
rigold, Double Yellow French Marigold, 
and Coreopsis lanceolata. Blue. — Lobelia 
Erinus and ramosa, Charieis hetero- 
phylla. Salvia chamEedrioides, and Iso- 
toma axillaris. 

Bedeguar. See Csmips rosse. 

Bedfo'rdia. (Named in honour of 
the Buke of Bedford. Nat. ord., Com- 
positcB ; Tribe, SenecwidecB. Allied to 

Greenhouse evergreen shrub. Cuttings a little 
dried before inserting them in rough, sandy 
soil ; sand, peat, loam, and brick rubbish, in 
equal proportions. 

B. salwSna. Yellow. April. 1820. Syn., 
Cacalia salicina, B. JEl. t. 923. 

Beet. There are two sections of this 
esteemed vegetable cultivated by gar- 

1. Leaf Beet. Beta Cicla, and B. 
niaritima were cultivated at one time, 
for the leaves and midrib, which were 
boiled and used as Spinach. Some of 
the varieties of B. Cicla, when well 
blanched are said to equal Asparagus. 
Those grown for this purpose now are 
Beck's Seakale, Perpetual, Spinach, 
Silver, etc. 

2. Red Beet (B. vulgaris). The 
varieties now in cultivation are some- 
what numerous, every seedsman having 

a particular strain. Pine Apple, Nut- 
ting's dwarf red, Bed Castelnaudary, 
Dell's Crimson, selected blood-red. 
Carter's Perfection, etc., are among the 
red-fleshed kinds. Small yellow and 
long yellow are the best of the yellow 
fleshed. Egyptian turnip rooted, is a 
fine flavoured variety, excellent for 
summer salads. 

Use. — The Red Beet, after being 
cooked, is used sliced in salads, or alone 
with an acid dressing. It is much better 
baked than boiled. 

Soil cmd Situation. — Beet requires a 
rich, deep, open soil. Its richness should 
rather rise from previous application, 
than the addition of manure at the time 
of sowing ; and, to efiect this, the com- 
partment intended for the growth of 
these vegetables is advantageously pre- 
pared as directed for Celery. On the 
soil depend the sweetness and tender- 
ness for which they are esteemed ; and 
it may be remarked that on poor, light 
soils, or heavy ones, the best sorts will 
taste earthy. The situation should be 
open and free from the shade of trees. 
We have always found it beneficial to 
dig the ground two spades deep for 
these deep-rooting vegetables, and to 
turn in the whole of the manure in- 
tended to be applied with the bottom- 
spit, so as to bury it ten or twelve 
inches within the ground. Salt is a 
beneficial application to this crop ; one 
reason for which undoubtedly is, the 
Beet being a native of the sea-shore. 

Time and mode of sowing.— Qow from 
the close of February until the begin- 
ning of April, it being borne in mind 
that the seed must not be sown until 
the severe frosts are over, which inevit- 
ably destroy the seedlings when young. 
The best time for sowing the mam crop 
of red Beet-root for winter supply is 
early in April. The Brazilian and Thick- 
leaved Beets may be sown at the same 
time for supply in summer ; and, at the 
beginning of July or August, a succes- 
sional crop of these may be sown for 
supply in the winter and following 

The seed is best sown in drills, a foot 
apart, and an inch deep. The Brazil 
Beet requires eighteen inches between 
the rows. 

During the early stages of growth, 
the beds, which, for the convenience of 
cultivation, should not be more than 
four feet wide, must be looked over 
occasionally, and the largest of the 
weeds cleared by hand. In the course 
of May, according to the advanced state 
of growth, the plants must be cleared 




thoroughly of weeds, both by hand and 
small hoeing ; the Red Beet thinned to 
ten or twelve inches apart, and the 
White to eight or ten. The plants of 
this last variety which are removed may 
be transplanted into rows at a similar 
distance, though transplanting is not 
generally satisfactory. Moist weather 
IS to be preferred for performing this, 
otherwise the plants must be watered 
occasionally until they have taken root. 
They must be frequently hoed, and 
kept clear of weeds throughout the 

It is a great improvement to earth up 
the stalks of the White Beet, in the 
same manner as Celery, when they are 
intended to be peeled, and eaten as 
asparagus. No vegetable is more bene- 
fited by the application of liquid -manure 
than the White and Brazil Beets. 

Taking %ip the, Bed Beet. — In October 
the Beet-root may be taken up for use 
as wanted, but not entirely, for pre- 
servation during the winter, until No- 
vember, or the beginning of December, 
if the weather continues open ; then to 
be buried in sand, in alternate layers, 
under shelter. Before storing, the leaves 
and fibrous roots must be trimmed off, 
but the main root not wounded, and a 
dry day selected for performing it. 
Beet-root may be kept exceedingly well 
if stacked up neatly, sloping to a point, 
against a north wall, or other cool place, 
upon a dry bottom, and covered with 
sifted coal-ashes. The thickness of this 
covering must depend upon the weather. 
Gathering from the Green and White 
Beet. — In gathering from these, the 
largest outside leaves should be first 
taken, and the inner left to increase in 
size, when the same selection must be 
continued ; but, at the same time, it 
must be remembered that they are to 
be used whilst perfectly green and vigo- 
rous, otherwise they are tough and 

To obtain jSeei^.— Some roots must be 
left where grown, giving them the pro- 
tection of some litter in very severe 
weather, if unaccompanied with snow ; 
or, if this is neglected, some of the finest 
roots that have been stored in sand, and 
have not had the leaves cut away close, 
may be planted in February or March. 
Each species and variety must be kept 
as far away from others as possible, and 
the plants set at least two feet from 
each other. They flower in August, 
and ripen their seed at the close of Sep- 
tember. Seed of the previous year is 
always to be preferred for sowing ; but 
it will succeed, if carefully preserved, 

when two years old. The seed is often 
benefited by being steeped in water 
before sowing. 

Beet for bedding piorposes. — Brazilian, 
Ornamental Chilian, Carter's new flower 
garden, Belvoir Castle, and Dell's Crim- 
son, are all highly ornamental foliaged 
plants. For this purpose the seeds may 
be sown in the reserve garden, and the 
young plants transferred to the flower 

farden, at bedding-out time. When a 
ed or line in the ribbon border is re- 
quired, it will be best to sow there, and 
thin out to the required distance. 

Befa'ria. (Named after M. Bejar, 
a Spanish botanist. Nat. ord., Eri- 
cacece. Syn., Bejaria.) 

Greenhouse evergreen shrubs, except where 
otherwise specified. Cuttings of young wood, 
firm at the Dase ; loam and peat. 
B. c^etuans. 12. Rose. Peru. 1846. G. C. 
1848, p. 119. 

— cinnanmo'inea. Peru. 1874. 

— eoareta'ta. 5. Purple. Peru. 1847. B. M. 

t. 4433. 

— glau'ca. 3. Purple. June. New Grenada. 

1826. Stove evergreen. 

— ledifo'lia. 6. Purple. May. 1847. Fl. Ser. 

1. 194. 

— Lindenia'na. Pink. Peru. 1847. Pax. PL 

G. vol. 1, p. 84. 

— Matthev/m. Yellow. March. Peru. 

— racemo'sa. 4. Purple. June. Florida. 1810. 

— tricolor. Crimson yellow. Peru. 

Bego'nia. (After Jf. Began, a French 
patron of botany. Nat. ord., Begonia- 

Stove evergreen shrubs, except where other- 
wise specified. Many Jreely by seeds, sown as 
soon as ripe, or in the following spring ; cuttings 
in spring or summer, after drying their base, in- 
serted in sandy soil, in a little heat, also by buds 
from the leaves when laid on sand, and the 
principal veins cut across. The tuberous kinds 
are easily propagated in abundance by division, 
when beginning to grow, and they will stand 
more cold in winter by 6° or 10' than the others ; 
peat and sandy loam, and thoroughly-decayed 
dung. ^ 

B. acerifo'lia. 3. Whitish. Brazil. 1829 

— a'eida. 1. White. Braail. 18t7. 

— acumina'ta. 1. White. August. W. Indies. 

-- cuiut\fo'lia. 1. White. August. W.Indies. 

— aeutilo'ba. White. Mexico. Syn., B. pur- 


— ce'jieffi. Leaves purplish-coppery. Assam. 


— a'lba-pi'cta. Leaves glossy green, spotted 

silvery white. Brazil. 1885. 

— a'lbo-cocci'iwa. 1. White, scarlet. E. Indies. 

_ alchemittoi'des. Rose. Brazil. 

— ama'tilis. Rose or white. Assam. 1859. 

— Anw'lwe. Rose. Hybrid between B. Bruanti 

and B. Eoezlii. 

— ama!na. Pale rose. N. India. 1878. Syn., 

B. erosa. 

— a'mvla. lto2. Rose. Guiana. 

— alptera. 3. White. July. Stove herbaceous 


— arhiyre: scene. 8. White. Brazil. 

— m'gelntea. Assam. 1859 




B. argyrosti'gma. See B. mamlata. 

— Amo'tiii. See B. oordifolia. . 

— aseoUlnm. 3. Bright red. 1874. A hybrid? 

— micubcefo'lia. See JB. incamata. 

— aurixulafo'rmia. White. Guatemala. 1860. 

— awntfo'rmis. See B. vncam,a. 

— hoAxa'ta. White. Isle of St. Thomas. 1866. 

— barba'ta. White or pink. India. 

— Barke'ri. 4. White. January. Mexico. 1837. 

— BaMma'rmi. 1. Carmine-rose. 1890. 

— Beddo'mei. Pink. December. Assam Hilla. 

1883. B. M. t. 6767. 

— bipe'tala. See B. dipetala. 

— bwerra'ta. 2. Pale pink. June. Guate- 

mala. 1847. B. M. t. 4746. 

— Bowrimgia'na. BrOse. Hong Kong. 1858. B. 

M. t. 6667. 

— Brua'ntii. White or rose. Hybrid between 

B. SchTnidtii and B. senvperflorefis. 1883. 

— bulbSfera. 1. Pale pink. July. Peru. 

1827. Greenhouse herbaceous perennial. 

— ca'ffra. A variety of B. Dregei. 

— carolineiB/o'lia. 2. Rose. Winter. Mexico. 


— Ca/rrie^ri. Garden hybrid. 1884. 

— castmuefo'lia. 2. Pink. February. Brazil. 


— Ce'Vbia. White. August. Brazil. 1883. 

— ChelB&ni. Orange-red. Hybrid between B. 

sedeni and B, boliviensis. 

— cirvnabari'na. Vermilion. Bolivia. 1848. 

B. M. t. 4483. 

— Cla'rkii. Bose. Boliviam Andes. 1867. 

— cocd'neeb. 3. Scarlet. April. Brazil. 1842. 

B. M. t. 3980. A garden hybrid also 
received the same name in 1889. 

— co'rrvpta. Leaves satin green, midrib tinged 

silver. Brazil. 

— conchcBf&lia. Pinkish. Mexico. 1861, 

— coralli'mi. Ked. Brazil. 1875. 

— cordifo'lia. \. Winter. India. Syn., B. Amot- 


— coria'cea. J. Red. Summer. Bolivia. 

— erassicau'lis. 3. Whitish-pink. February. 

Guatemala. 1842. 

— Credift^H. Hybrid between B. Seharjia/na 

ajid B. metaUica. Gfl. 1890, p. 562. 

— erini'ta. 1. Bose. July. Bolivian Andes. 


— citcuZla'ta. A variety of B. Berr^erfioren^. 

— cyclophj/lla. Bose-pink. S. China. B. M. 

t. 6926. 

— daeiotlea. Pinkish ; leaves brown-netted. 

Mexico. 1861. 

— VavewualTia. See Pellionia Davecmwna. 

— Davilsii. i. Crimson-scarlet. July. Peru. 


tiupe^rba. Crimson. Double-flowered. 


— delcora. Ijeaves dark green, dotted silvery 

grey. Brazil. 

— diadema. Leaves green, blotched white. 

Borneo. 1882. HI. Hort. t. 446. 

— dicho'toma. 2. White. Garaccas. Winter. 


— digita'ta. 3. White. June. Brazil Stove 

herbaceous perennial. 

— Digswellia'TKi. Pale pink. Winter. Garden 


— dipe/tala. 3. Pink. July. India. 1828. 

B. M. t. 2849. Syn., B. bipetala. 

— di'ptera. 1. White. July. S. Africa. 1822. 

— discolor. See B. Hvansiana. 

— diversifo'lia. See B. gracilis. 

— Dre'gil 2. White. July. S. Africa. 1838. 

Syna., B. eafra and B. rervifiyrmis. 

— dv!bia. 1. Ai^Tiite. July. Brazil. 1818. 

Stove herbaceous perennial 

— echinoselpida. 1. White. June. Brazil 

1872. Gfl. t. 707. 
■^egrdgia. White. Brazil. 1887. 
•— mi'ptitM. See B. scandene. 

Bright reddish-pint. 

B. M. 

A goof 

B. ere'cta muUiflofra. 
Garden variety. 

— ero'sa. See B. a/mcena. 

— Evmma'na. 2. Flesh-coloured. E.Asia. 1812. 

B. M. 1. 1804. Syns., B. discolor and B. 

— exi'mia. Hybrid between B. mbro^mnia and 

B. Thwaitesii 
—fagifo'lia. 3. White. April. Brazil. 1838. 
—fagopyroi'des. 8. White. Caraccas. 
—fcUcyfo'lia. 1. Rose. Winter. Peru. 1867- 

B. M. t. 5707. 
— ferrugi'nea. Red. Summer. Bogota. 

B. magmfica. 

— Fischelri. 2. June Brazil 1835. 

t. 3532. 
— fionbulnda,. Pink, white. 1882. 
—folio'sa. White. Columbia. 186 

basket plant Ref Bot. t. 222. 

— fri'gida. 1. White. 1860. B. M. t. 5160. 

— Prosbdlii. Scarlet. Winter. Ecuador. 1874. 

vema'lis. December to March. 1879. 

—fuchsioi'des. 5. Scarlet. December. New 

Grenada. 1844. B. M. t. 4281. 
minia'ta. Cinnabar red. Fl. Ser. t. 787. 

— gemmi'para. 1. White, or with rose stripes.. 

Summer. Himalayas. 

— geraniifo'lia. 2. Pale red. September. 

Lima. 1833. Stove, tuberous rooted. 

— germiioi'des. White. Natal 1866. B. M. 

t. 6583. 

— glmuhili'fera. i. White. February. Trini- 

dad. 1867. 

— glandMi&sa. i. Greenish-white. Costa Rica. 

1854. B. M. t. 6256. Syns., B. her- 
na/ndi(e/&lia and B. nigro-venia. 

— goegoe'rms. Pink, white. Sumatra. 1881. 

— gra'<yilis. Pink. Mexico. 1829 B. M. 

t. 2966. There are several varieties, such, 
as annulata, divergij'olia, and Ma/rtiana.. 

— grwndifo'ra. See B. octopetaia. 

— gra'ndis. See B. rex, B. Bvansiana, and 

B. vitifolia. 

— Brifi'thii. i. White. E. Indies. 

M. t. 4984. 

— gunnerctf&lia. White. Columbia. 

— Meegea'na. White. Mexico. 1886. 

— Hasska'rlii. See B. peltata. 

— heradeifo'Ua. 2. Rose. Spring. 

1831. B. M. t. 3444. Syns., 

pTio^olia, B. punctata^ and B. radiata. 
tongipi'la. Leaves greyish in centre,. 

bronzy around, blotched green. 
ni'gricans. White. Leaves with blackish 

margins. B. M. t. 4983. 
pmuita'ta. Rose, spotted red on outside. 

— herba'eea. i. White. March. Brazil 1873. 

Syn., B. attenuata. 

— hemanMafdlia. See B. glandulosa, B. nelum- 

biifolia, and for B. M. t. 4676, B. peltata. 

— hirsu'ta. See B. humilis. 

— hirtdUa. 1. White. September. 1824. 

Stove herbaceous perennial 

— Sooke'ri. See B. semperflorens. 

— Hookeria'na. 6. White. Spring. Brazil. 


— hmminyma. 3. White. June. Brazil. 

— hu'mUis. }. White. Summer. Trinidad. 

1788. Syn., B. hirmta. B. humilis of 
B. R. t. 294 is B. suaveolens. 

— hi/hrida jlorSm'nda. Bright rose. Summer. 

Hybrid between B. fuchsioides and £. 
nmltijto'ra. Pink. Winter. 1882. 

— hydrocotylif&lia. 1. Rose. Summer. Mexico. 

1841. B. M. t. 8968. Stove herbaceoua 


asarifo'lia. White. Mexico. 

— ": — h}/brida. IJ. Pink. March. 

— vmperia'lia. i. White ; leaves olive-green, 

with bright green venation. Mexico. 

1856. B. 

B. jatro- 


[ 107 ] BEG 

B. imperia'lis smaragdi'na. J. White ; leaves 
emerald-green. Mexico. 1861. 

— imca'na. White. Winter. Mexico. 1838., 

Stove herbaceous perennial. 
auTifo'rmis. Flowers glabrous. 

— inoama'ta. 2. Pink. Brazil. 1829. Syns., 

B. auctiboefolia, B. insignis, and B. 

Lindleyana. B. M. t. 2900. 

maoulom. White spots on the leaves. 

meta'llica. Leaves bronzy -purple. 

papiUo'sa. Leaves with rose-coloured 

margins. B. M. t. 2846. 
pur^'rea. Leaves deep bronzy- purple. 

— Ingra'mi. Scarlet. Hybrid between B. fwch- 

sioidea and B. nitida. 1849. 

— vnsi'grwi. See B. vncamata. 

— inmluera'ta. IJ. White. Winter. Central 


— jatrophcefo'lia. See B. heracleifoUa. 

— Jaure'zi. Semi-double garden variety. 1890. 

— Johnsto'ni. 1. Pale rose. E. Trop. Af lica. 

1887. B. M. t. 6899. 

— Jos^phi. 1. Rose. Summer. Himalayas. 

— kaUi'sta. Fl. and Pom. 1877, p. 221. , 

— Enowlleya'na. G. C. 1882, vol. 18, p. 435. 

— Kunthia'na. White. Tropical America. 1862. 

B. M. t. 6284. 

— ladnia'ta. 2. White. E, Indies. B. M. t. B182. 

Syn., B. BowriTigiana. 

— lauri'na. 3. Pink. July. Stove herbaceous 


— Lemahou'tii. White tinged rose. 1889. 

— Leopo'ldii. Hybrid between B. Griffithii and 

B. splendida, 1858. 

— lAndleya'na. 8. White. Winter. Guatemala. 

— liTi^a'ta. \. Pale pink. Java. 1882. 

— lo'iwives. 3. White. March. Mexico. 1828. 

B. M. t. 3001. 

— Ifmgvpi'la. Leaves greyish-ribbed. Mexico. 


— LiMdrsii. White. Brazil. 1884. Belg. Hort. 

1883, 1. 13. 

— lu'cida. See B, scandens. 

— luxufriaTis. Bluish-white. S. America. 

— Lynchea'na. 1. Deep crimson. Winter. 

Mexico. 1880. B. M. t. 6758. Syn., B. 

— maeraph^lUt. 


— vnacula'ta. White to red. 

1821. ■ B. E. t. 666. 
mralU'na. Coral-red. 

— magni'fica. Carmine. New Grenada. 1870. 

— mamica'ta. 3. Pale pink. Winter. Mexico. 


— Ma'tmii. 3. Rose-red, Winter. Fernando Po. 

1862. B. M. t. 6434. 

— Margarl'tce. Garden hybrid. Rev. Hort. 1884, 

p. 200, f. 48. 

— mamu>'rea. A variety of B. xanthina. 

— Martia'na. 3. Pink. July. Brazil. 1829. 

Stove tuberous-rooted. 

raeemijUra. Flowers darker than in the 

type. 1886. 

— Ttia'mma. 6. White. Mexico. 

— megaplvjflla. White. Winter. Mexico, 

— meta'llica. 1, Pink, Mexico, 1875. 

— Meyelri. 3, White. February. Brazil. 1838. 

— miffrophy'lla. See B. foliosa. 

— Tniero'ptera. IJ. White, pink. December. 

Borneo. 1866. 

— Meysseliafna. Leaves olive-green, spotted 

white. Sumatra. 1883. 

— minia'ta. See B. fuchsioides. 

— mmu^ptera. 2, White. Brazil, 

t, 3564, 

— Moritzia'na. See B. scamdens. 

— nmltibulbillo'sa. 2, White, 

Stove tuberous-rooted. 

— muriea'ta. 3. White. September. Brazil. 

Stove herbaceous perennial. 

3. White, July, Jamaica, 

Syn,, B. 


1826. B. M. 

Brazil. 1830. 

B. rmtale'nsis. Pale rose. Winter. Natal. 1865k 

— nelumbiifo'lia. 1 to 2. White or rose. Winter 

Mexico. Syn., B. hemandiaifolia. 

— nemc/phila. See B. Cathcartii. 

— ni'gro-vdnia. See B. glandulosa. 

— ni'tida. 4. Deep rose. Jamaica. 1777 B M 

t. 4046. Syns., B. obliqua, B. mlchra 
and B. purpurea. 

— oHlUqua. See B. nitida. 

— Octdme. Garden hybrid. 1889. 

— octopdtala. 2. Greenish-white. Autumn 

Peru. 1835. B. M. t. 3659. Syn., B. 

Lemoi'nei. Garden hybrid. Eev. Hort 

1889, p. 32, f . 7. 

- odora'ta. See B. suaveolens. 

- Ohlendmrgia'na. 1. Pink ? Brazil. 1879. 

Syn., B. plantanifolia OhlendorMana. 

- opulifio'ra. 1. White. Spring. New Grenada. 


- Ottorda'na. Hybrid between B. corwhcefolwe 

and B. coriacea. 1859. 
-palma'ta. 1. White. August. NepauL 1819. 
-papilla' 8a. See B. inca/mata pa/pillosa. 

- parmfio'ra. White. 1881. 

-parmfo'lia. 3. Vfhite. May. S, Africa. 1836. 

?a'tula. 3. Pink. Brazil. 1889. 
^ea'reei. Yellow. Summer. Bolivia. 1865. 
-pelta'ta. }. White. Brazil. 1816. Syns., B. 
eoriaceay B. Hasskarliij B. hemandioB^ 
folia, and B. pelti/olia. 

- peltif&lia. See B. peltata. 

- pentaphy'lla. 3. White. July. Brazil. 

- phyUomania'ca. Pale rose ; stem clothed with 

minute leaves. Winter. Guatemala, 

1861, B, M, t. 6264. 

-p^cta. 1. Pink. August. Himalayas. 1818. 

- plantmniifo'lm. 6. Pale pink. Summer. Brazil. 

1834. B. M. t. 3691. 
~ polype! tala. Bed. Winter. Andes of Peru, 

- prestonie^nsie. Orange-red. Hybrid between 

B. cinnabarina and B. nitida. 

- pri&matoca'rpa. J. Yellow. Summer. Fer- 

nando Po. 1861. B. M. t. 6307. 
-pruina'ta. White. Central America. 1870. 
-piUclufUa. J. White, July, Brazil, 1823. 

Stove annual. 

- pu'lchra. See B. nitida. 

- puncta'ta. See B. heracleifolia. 

- purpu'rea. See a^utifolia and nitida. 
-Putzeysia'na. White. Winter. Venezuela. 


- radia'ta. See B. heracleifolia. 

- radi'cans. A climber. 

-ramenta'cea. Pink and white. Spring. Brazil. 
1830. Stove herbaceous perennial. 

- renif&rmis. See B. Dregei and B. vitifolia. 
-rex. Pink. Assam. 1858. B. M. t. 6101. 

There is also a variety grcmdis. 

- rhizo-ca/u'lis. Pink. August. 1866. 

- Richardsia'na. 1. White. Natal, 1871, 
dia^ma. Rose. Summer. 1881. Pro- 
bably a hybrid. 

-ricinifo'lia. Pink, Leaves green to. bronze, 

-RoiaU. Whitish, Peru, 1876. 
-rosttlcea. J. White. September. New 


- roscefio'ra. J. Bright rose. July. Andes of 

Peru. 1866. 

- rube'lla. Leaves bronzy-green, with pale green. 

veins ; red beneath. • India. 1883. 

- rubrieau'lis. 1. White, tinged rose outside. 

Summer. Peru. 1834. B. M. t. 4131. 

- ru'bro-vefnia. 1. White, rose. Summer. India. 

1862. B. M. t. 4689. 

-rape! stria. 2. Pink. April. Brazil. Stove 

-ru'tilans. 4. White, rose. October. 1855. 

- sagittal ta. Fink. S. America. 1868. 




B. Sandnso'ni. Pink. 1882. 

— mnnui'ivia. 3. White. Spring. Brazil. 1829. 

— sca'brida. White. Venezuela. 1857. 

— sca'Tiderts. White. South America. 1874. 

Syns., B, elliptica, B. lucida, and B. 

— sc^vtrwm, BrazU. 1883. 

— Schar^a'na'meta'Hica. Garden hybrid. 1890. 

— Schrmdtia'na. 1. White. Brazil. 1879. 

— scutella'ta. See B, conchcefolia. 

— ■ sede'ni. Hybrid between B. boliviensis and 
B. Veitchii 

— sello'wii. ■ White. September. Stove herba- 
ceous perennial. 

oerjkirens. White or rose. Autumn. 
Brazil. 1829. Sjn.,B.epathulata,'S.'M.. 
t. 2920. Varieties : cammiea, grcmdi- 
jlora, gigantea, rosea, etc. 

— mrnalta. 2. White. June. Brazil. 1836. 

— socotra'na. Rose-pink. December. Socotra. 

1880. B. M. t. 6555. 

— spathula'ta. See B. semperfioreTis. 

— stigm&sa. 1. White. Brazil. 1845. 

— strigillo'm. Pink. Summer. Central America. 


— suave' oleMS. 1. White. Winter. Central 

America. 1816. B. C. t. 69. Syn., B. 

— sulca'ta. 3. White. Columbia. 

— - Sutherla'ndii. 1 to 2. Orange. June. Natal 
1862. B. M. t. 5689. 

— Teusche'ri. Leaves deep green, spotted and 

blotched with whitish; margins red. 
Butch Indies. 1879. 

— ThwatUsii. White. Ceylon. 1862. B. M. 

t. 4692. 
toraento'm. 3. White. Brazil. 

— tubero'sa. ^. White. August. Amboyna. 

1810. Stove tuberous-rooted. 

— ulmifo'Ua. 2 to 4. White. Winter. Venezuela. 

1854. B. C. t. 638. 

— vmdu,la'ta. 2. White. Winter. Brazil. 1826. 

B. M. t. 2723. 

— mophiflla. White. Spring. Brazil. B. M. 

t ASib. 

— Vei'tchii. Scarlet, yellow. Peruvian High- 

lands. 1867. Hardy. 

— vendicUa'na. September. 1880. 

— vemico'-sa. White, rosy. BraziL lfi69. 

— Verschaffe'Ui. Bright ros . 1881. 

— mllo'sa. 2. White. Brazil. 

— vitifo'lia. 3. White. Winter. Brazil. 1833. 

B. M. t. 3225. Syns., B. gramdie and B. 

— Wagneria'na. S. White. May. Venezuela. 

1866. B. M. t. 4988. 

— WaUenstei'nii. Leaves dark green and choco- 

late. 1884. 

— Wallichia'na. 3. White or rose. E. Indies. 

— W'arsee^tnfezii. See B. cfmohcefolia. 

— Weltonie'nsis. Light pink. Garden hybrid. 


— Villia'ttusii. White, with small yellow disc. 


— xamthi'rm. 1. Golden yellow. Summer. 

Bhotan. 1860. B. M. t. 4683. 

^ Lazuli. Leaves purple, with bluish tinge. 

■pictifo'lia. Pale yellow. Leaves with 

silvery spots. 

Beja'ria. See Befaria. 

Bellanthe'ria. See Brillan- 

Belladonna Lily. Amary'llis 


Bellesisle Cress. Barha'rea prce' • 
cox. See American Cress. 

Bellende'na. (Complimentary to 

J. Bellenden Ker, an English botanist. 
Nat. ord., Proteacece.) 

Greenhouse shrub. Imported seeds and cut. 
tings. Sandy peat. 
B. monta'na. IJ. White. Tasmania. 

Belleva'lia. (Named after P. B. 
Belleval, a French botanist. Nat. ord., 
Liliacce. ) See Hyacinthus. 
B. opercula'Ut. See Hyacinthus romanus. 

Bell-Flower. Campa'nula. 

Bell-glass, or cloche is so called 
from its usual form being that of a bell. 
It is formed of one entire piece, and of 
common bottle-glass, called cloche, and 
used for sheltering cauliflowers, etc. , in 
the open borders ; but of white, or very 
pale-green glass, for preserving moisture 
to cuttings. Formerly they were made 
with a top almost flat, whence, to pre- 
vent drip upon the cuttings, etc. , it be- 
came necessary to wipe them frequently. 
They are-now much improved by being 
cone-topped, because the moisture con- 
densed consequently trickles down into 
the soil. Inverted they are useful as 
small aquaria, the smaller water plants 
being easily grown in them. 

Bellidia'strum. See Aster. 

B. Miclie-lii. See Aster BellidiastruTn. 

Be'llis. The Daisy. (From bellus, 
pretty ; referring to the flowers. Nat. 
ord., CompositcB ; Tribe, AsteroidecB.) 

All the cultivated kinds are hardy herbaceous 
perennials. Seeds, but chiefly division of the 
roots; common soil. There are now numerous 

tarden varieties of the daisy, both single and 
ouble, white and red, and these t^re largely 
used in spring bedding, etc. 
B. hy'brida. i White. April. Italy. 1824. 

— integrifo'lia. i. White, pink. July. Texas. 

1881. B. M. t. 3466. 

— per^nnis, J. White. June. Britain. This is 

the common Daisy, t Eng. Bot. ed. 3. 
t. 772. ' 

aueubcefo'lia. Red ; leaves white-veined. 

conspi'eua. Red. 

Jistulo'sa. J. Red. June. 

horte'tms. i. Red. June. 

proli'fera. J. Striped. June. Com- 
monly called The Hen and Chickens. 

— rotundifo'lia ccerule' scene. See Bellmm roturb' 

difolium cosrulescens. 

— sylvt! stris. J. White. June. Portugal. 1797. 

B. M. t. 2511. 

Be'Uium. (From hellis, a daisy; 
the flowers being like the daisy. Nat. 
ord., CompositcB; Tribe, Asteroidem.) 
This genus is reduced to BeUis in the 
Genera Plantarum. 

Seeds and divisions ; they thrive best in light 
sandy soil. 
B. bellidioi'des. J. White. July. Italy. 1796. 

Hardy annual. Swt. El. Gard. ser. 2. 

t. 176. 

— erassifo'lium. }. Whitish-yeUow. June. Sar- 

dinia. 1831. Half-hardy perennial. 
Swt. Fl. Gard. aer. 2, t. 278. 




S. interme'dium. |. White. August. Hardy 

herbaceous perennial. 
—■minu'twm. i. Wiite. August. Levant. 1772. 

Hardy herbaceous perennial. 
— rotundifo'lmm. J to 1. White. Algeria. 1873. 
■ ccETule'scens, Pale blue, yellow. Morocco. 

1873. B. M. t. 6016. Syn., BelHs rotun- 

di/olia ccerulescens. 

Bellows, formerly used for fumi- 
gating, but now replaced by the ordinary 
fumigators in general use. The sulphur 
bellows is used largely on vines, roses, 
etc. , infected by mildew. It resembles 
those in ordinary use, with the excep- 
tion of a fine rose attached to the nozzle, 
through which the flowers of sulphur is 



Ca'psicum gro's 

Belope'rone. (From helos, an 
arrow, and perone, a band, or strap ; in 
reference to the arrow-shaped connecti- 
vum. Nat. ord., Aeanthacece. Allied 
to Justicia. ) 

_ Pretty stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings ; 
light loam, leaf-soil, sand, and peat. 
B. eUia'ta. See Diamthera. 

— oblorwa'ta. 3. Rosy -purple. September. 

Brazil. 1832. Belg. Hort. vol. 9, t. 9. 

— mola'cea. 3. Violet. New Grenada. 1SS9. 

B. M. t. 5244. 

Belospe'rmaatropurpu'rea. See 
Siraonsia chrysophylla. 

B ending-down. This term is 
chiefly applied to the bending of the 
annual or other shoots of fruit-trees, for 
the purpose of making them fruitful, or 
to make them assume some desired 
form. Balls of clay or weights are fas- 
tened to the extremities of the shoots, 
to weigh them down into the position 
req^uired ; or by fastening them by a 
string to pegs driven into the ground. 
By this means the sap is diverted from 
the stronger to the weaker shoots. 

Bengal Quince, ^'gle ma'rmelos. 

Benjamin-tree. Fi'cus Benjami'na 
and Lau'rus Be'nzoin. 

Bentha'niia. (Named after George 
Bentham, Esq., F.R.S., a distinguished 
English botanist. Nat. ord. , Cornacece. ) 
See Comus. 

B. fry^i'/era. See Comue capitata. 

Bera'rdia. (J^famei skiter M. Berard, 
a botanist of Grenoble. Nat. ord., Bru- 
niaeece. ) 

Greenhouse evergreen shrubs, from Cape of 
Good Hope, except S. sviacaulis. Cuttings ; divi- 
sions ; common soil.'m. 2. White. July. 1816. Syn., £)-K»m 

— mierophy'lla. 1. White. Syn., Brunia mioro- 

—pcdea'eea. 2. White. July. 1791. 

B. phylicoi'des. 2. White. July 1805 

— subaemt-lis. i. Whitish. Moimtains of W. 


Berberido'psis. (From Berberis, 
and opsis, like; resembling the Bar- 
berry. Nat. ord., Berberidece.) 

Handsome hardy evergreen climbing shrub 
Seeds or young cuttings in spring ; layers in 
autumn. Ordinary garden-soil. 
B. caralli'na. Crimson. Chili. 1862. B M 
t. 5343. 

Berbe'ris. The Barberry. (From 
berbery s, its Arabian name. Nat. ord., 
Berberidece. ) 

We have reunited with this genus all the 
species separated from it, and called Mahonias. 
Seeds, sown in spring ; cuttings root freely if 

Slanted early in autumn ; and suckers are abun- 
antly produced. Grafting is resorted to with 
rare species. Deep, sandy soil. All are hardy, 
except where otherwise specified. 


B. actinaca'ntha. 3. Yellow. June. Straits of 

— rmgulo'sa. ' Yellow. Northern India. 1844 

— aquifo'lium. 6. Yellow. April. N. Amer. 

1823. Syns., B. repens, B. E. t. 1176, 
and Mahonia aqw'folia. 

— arista' ta. B. M. t. 2549. See A umbellata. 

— asia'tica. 4. Yellow. Nepaul. 1823. Syn., 

B. hypoleuca. 

— aurahuace'nsis. See jB. Lyciwm. 

— Bea'lei planifo'lia. Yellow. China. 1850. 

— bux\fo'lia. S. Yellow. Straits of Magellan. 

1827. Half-hardy. 

— cond'nna. 2. Yellow. Sikkim Himalaya, 

B. M. t. 4744. 

— Darwi'nii. 2. Orange. May. South Chili. 

1849. Ic. PI. t. 672. 

— dealba'ta. 6. Yellow. May. Mexico. 1833. 

B. E. 1. 1750. 

— du'leis. 8. Yellow. March. Straits of Ma- 

gellan. 1830. ■ Swt. Fl. Gard. 1. 100. 

— Ehrenbe'rgii. Yellow, white. Mexico. 

— e'legans. See B. Lyciwm. 

— emargina'ta. 3. YeUow. May. Siberia. 1790. 

— empetrif&lia. 2. YeUow. May. Straits of 

Magellan. 1827. Half-hardy. 
— faselcvZaris. ' See B. pinnata. 

— Fortu'ni. Yellow. July. China. 1846. 

— glvma'cea. 1. Yellow. N. W. America. 

— heterophy'Ua. 4. Yellow. May. Straits of 

Magellan. 1805. A form of B. vulgaris. 

— hy'brida autumna'lis. 4. Orange. 1884. 

— hypoleu'ca. See B. asiatica. 

— Uieifo'lia. 4. Yellow. July. Terra del Fuego. 

1791. PL Ser. 1850, p. 68. A form of 
B. vulgaris. 

— in^rrdis. 2. Yellow. Straits of Magellan. 

1827. Half-hardy. 

— Ja'm,ies(/ni. Yellow. Quito. 
— japo'nica. Japan. 

— Lesch^naitlltii. 5. Yellow. Neilgherries. 

— loxe'Tisis. Yellow. Peru. 

— lu'tea. IS. Peru. 

— Ly'mim. Yellow. June. Himalaya. B. M. 

t. 7075. Syns., B. aurahuacensis and 
B. elegans. 

— maerophy'lla. J. Hort. Soc. 1850, p. 4, is B. 

Wallichiana ; of others B. asiatica. 

— mi'tis. Yellow. N. Amer. 1834. 

— nepale'nsis. 4. Yellow. Nepaul. 

— nervo'sa. YeUow. June. N. Amer. 1804. 

— pallida. Yellow. April. Mexico. 1844. Green- 


— pangha/ranghe'mis. 1848. Half-hardy. 

— parviflo'ra. 3. Yellow. May. S. Amer. 1846. 





£. pinna'ta. S. Yellow. April. California. 1820. 
Syns., B. Jascicularia, B. M. t. 2396, and 
Mahonia fOBciaiUa/ns. 

— re'peTis. See B. aquifolia. 

— ruscifo'lia. 5. Yellow. May. Buenos Ayres. 

1823. Greenhouse. 

— stenophy'lla, is a hybrid between B. empetri- 

foliaj and B. Darmnii. 

— tenu'Q'o'lia. Vera Cruz. 1836. 

— tintto'ria. Yellow. Neilgherries. 

— trifolia'ta. Yellow. May. Mexico. 1839. 


— wnibeUa'ta, 6. Yellow. Nepaul. 1842. Syns., 

B. aristaia, B. M. t. 2549, and B. chUria. 

— undjulaJta. 6. Yellow. Peru. 

— virga'ta of J. Hort. Soc. is B. pwrvijiora; of 

Hort. Koch, 5. aetinaecmtha. 

— Wallichia'na. 4. Yellow. May Nepaul. 1820. 



B. arista'ta. 6. Yellow. N. India. 1825. Syns., 
B. Goria/na^ B. umbellata, B. K. 1844, 
t. 44, and B. chitHa. 

— canade'nsis. 6. Yellow. May. Canada. 1769. 

Syns., B. cwroliniana and B. Fischeri. 

— cona'ria. Yellow. June. Nepaul. 1841. 

— coria'ria. See B. aristata. 

— crato^gina. 6. Yellow. May. Asia Minor. 


— ere^tica. S. Yellow. April. Candia. 1759. 
serratifo'lia. Yellow. May. Candia. 


— dau'rica. 8. Yellow. May. Dauria. 1818. 
— Jloribu'nda. 10. Yellow. June. Nepaul. 

— ibe'riea. 5. Yellow. May. Iberia. 1818. A 

form of B. vulgaris. 

— promneia'lis. 8. Yellow. June. France. 1821. 

— rotwndifo'lia. Clear yellow. 1881. 

— siM'rica. 2. Yellow. July. Siberia. 1790. 

— Sieho'ldii. Pale yellow. Japan. 1890. 

— einelnm. 4. Yellow. May. China. 1815. 

— ThwiMrgii. Bed, straw. April. Japan. 1882. 

B. M. t. 6646. 

— trifu'rea. China. 1852. 

— unibeUa'ta. B. B. 1844, t. 44. See B. ariMata. 

— vire'seens. B. M. t. 7116. Syn., B. Bel- 


— vulga'ris. 10. Yellow. April. England. Engl. 

Bot. 3, t. 61. 

a'lba. 8. Yellow. April. 

aspe^rma. 6. Yellow. April, Europe. 

du'lcie. Yellow. May. Austria. Ever- 

^'IvU purpu'reix. 10. Yellow. May. 


glau'ca. 10. Yellow. May. 

langifo'lia. 10. Yellow. May. 

lu'tea. 10. Yellow. May. Europe. 

— - — mi'tis. 10. Yellow. May. 

ni'gra. 10. Yellow. May. Europe. 

purpu'rea. 10. Yellow. May. Europe. 

viola'cea. 10. Yellow. May. Europe. 

Berche'raia. (Named after M. Ber- 
chem, a French botanist. Nat. ord., 

Seeds, cuttings, and divisions ; sandy loam 
and peat. All twiners. Greenhouse treatment 
for the two species first named. B, volv/bUie is 

B.JUrribu'nda. White. Nepaul. 1827. 

— linealta. 8. Green. June. China. 1804. 

— volu'bilis. 15. Greenish white. June. Caro- 

lina. 1714. 

Berge'ra. (Named after M. Berger, 
a botanist at Kiel. Nat. ord., Auran- 
tiacecE. ) See Murraya. 

B.integen'ima. See Micromelwm puieecens. 

Be'rgia. (Named after P. J. Ber- 
giics, M.D. Nat. ord., Elatinacece.) 

Hardy annual. Seeds ; sandy soil. 
B. agua'twa. 1. Whitish yellow, stigmas red 
June. Egypt. 1820. Eoxb. PI. Corom, 
vol. 2, 1. 142. Syn., B. vertimllata. 

Berkhe'ya. (Named after M. J. L 
de Berkhey, a Dutch botanist. Nat. 
ord., ConmositcB; Tribe, Arctotidece. 
Allied to Gorteria.) 

All from South Africa, and greenhouse ever- 
greens, except where otherwise specified. Bien- 
nial species by seed, herbaceous ones by seed, but 
chiefly divisions, in spring; evergreens by cut 
tings under a glass, in sandy soil ; sandy loam. 
B. cdmua. 1. Yellow. June. 1774. Stove Men- 
niaJ. Syn., Didelta cernua. 

— eunea'ta. 2. Yellow. June. 1812. 

— eynaroi'des. 1. Yellow. June. 1789. Green 

house herbaceous. 

— grmdifio'ra. 2. Yellow. July. 1812. B. M. 

t. 1844. 

— inea'na. 2. Yellow. July. 1793. Syn., Gorteria 

ast&roides, Jacq. Ic. t. 591. 

— obova'ta. 2. YeUow. July. 1794. 

— palma'ta. S. Yellow. July. 1800. 

— pectina'ta. See Ciillv/mia pectinata. 

— pirma'ta. 1. YeUow. July to November. 

1813. Syn., Stobam pinnata, B. M. 
1. 1788. 

— purpu'rea. 3. Purple. S. Africa. Syn., Stobcea 

purpurea, G. C. 1872, p. 1261. 

— spinoei'asiirrM. 2. Yellow. July. 1821. Green- 

house herbaceous, Syn., Rohria spimo- 

— uniflo'ra. 3. Yellow. July. 1815. B. M. 

t. 2094. 

BemiTida Cedar. Juni'perus her- 

Berry. A succulent, indehiscent 
fruit formed of several united carpels, 
as in the gooseberry, currant, grape, and 
orange. The term is often used in a 
loose manner to include all succulent 
fruits, as raspberry, mulberry, etc. 

Bertero'a. (Named after C. J. Ber- 
tero, a friend of Decandolle's. Nat. ord., 
CrudfercB ; Tribe, AlyssiriecB. Allied 
to Alyssum, with which Bentham and 
Hooker unite it.) 

Biennial and perennial species from seed and 
cuttings; the shrubby and rather more tender 
species from cuttings under a hand-glass, in 
summer ; garden-soil. 

B. inea'na. 2. White. July. Europe. 1640. 
Hardy biennial. 

— rmita'bilie. 2. White, pink. July. Levant. 

1802. Hardy herbaceous perennial. 

— obli'gua. 1. White. July. Sicily. 1823. Sbth. 

Fl. Gr. t. 626. 

Bertholle'tia. Brazil or Para Nut. 
(Named after L. C. BerthoUet, a distin- 

fuished chemist. Nat. ord., Myrtacece; 
'ribe, Lecyihidece.) 

The Brazilian nuts of the shops are the pro- 
duce of this stove evergreen tree. Cuttings of 
ripened wood, in sand, and in bottom-heat ; peat 
and loam. 
B. exce'lea. 100. Ps,ra. 

Bertolo'nia. (In honour of A. Ber- 




toloni, an Italian botanist. Nat. ord., 
Melastomacece. ) 

Small creeping or dwarf growing stove plants, 
desirable on account of their ornamental fbliage. 
Gentle moist heat, which may be best obtained 
under a bell-glass. Seeds or cuttings. 
B. afnea. J. Purple. Brazil. A garden hybrid. 

— gutta'ta. B&Q Gravegla guttata, 
^maeulalta. J. Pink, purple. Brazil. 1850. 

B. M. t. 4451. 

— margarita'cea. See GraveHa guttata. 

— marmora'ta. i. Purple. Brazil. 1858. 

— prirrmlmflo'ra. See Monolena. 

— pube'scens. Leaves varied green. Ecuador. 

— superbi'ssiTna. See Gravesm guttata superba, 

— vitta'ta, is a hybrid with pale rose flowers. 


Berze'lia. (Named after Berzelms, 
the celebrated chemist. Nat. ord., 
Bruniacece. ) 

Handsome greenhouse evergreen shrubs, from 
the Cape of Good Hope. Cuttings of half- 
ripened wood in sand, under a glass ; loam and 

B. abrotanoi'des. IJ. White. June. 1787. B. C. 
t. 355. 

— lanugino'sa. 3. White. July. 1774. B. C. 

t. 572. 

Beshcome'ria. (In honour of M. 
Beschorner, a German botanist. Nat. 
ord., Amaryllidacece. Allied to Agave.) 

Greenhouse evergreen succulents. They re- 
quire the same method of cultivation as Agave 
and Aloe, which see. 

B. bractea'ta. 2. Beddish. March. Mexico. 
B. M. t. 6641. 

— Decoiteria'na. 8. Green, tinged with red. 

February. Mexico. 1880. B. M. t. 6768. 

— du'bia. 2i. Greenish. Mexico ? 1877. Possibly 

the same as B. tubifiora. 

— Tonellii. 4. Red, green. Mexico. 1872. 

B. M. t. 6091. 

— tuWfio'ra. 4. Green, red. February. Mexico. 

1846. B. M. t. 4642. Syns., B. Colinianit 
and FourGToya tubifiora. 

— yuaxA'des. 4. Green. April. Mexico. 1860. 

Besle'ria. (Named after Basil Bes- 
ler, an apothecary at Nuremberg. Nat. 
ord., Gesneracew. Allied to Gesnera.) 

Prettjf stove evergreen sub-shrubs. Cuttings, 
placed in bottom-heat, in rough, sandy soil ; 
peat and loam. 
B. cocH'nea. 3. Yellow. Guiana. 1819. Climber. 

— crista'ta. 3. Yellow. June. W. Ind. 1739. 

Stove evergreen climber. 

— ^i'ohms. \ ^^ Mloplectus dUhrui. 

— gramdifo^lia. 3. Yellow. August. Brazil. 

1823. , 

— I'mrayi. Yellow. Dominica. 1862. B. M. 

t. 6341. Herbaceous perennial. 

— incama'ta. 2. Purplish. Guiana. 1826. 

. Stove herbaceous perennial. 

— lemcosto'ma. 1. Orange. New Grenada. Syn., 

Hypocygta leucostwmt. B. M. t. 4310. 

— lu'tea. 3. Yellow. July. Guiana. 1739. 

— TnelUtifo'lia. See EpisGia melittifolia. 

— mo'Uis. 3. Yellow. S. America. 1823. 

— pidche'Ua. B. M. 1. 1146. See Tussaeia. 

— serrula'ta. Jacq. H. Schoenb. t. 290. See 

f— tigri'na. 4. White, crimson. December. 
Caraccas. 1853. 

— viola'cea. 6. Yellow. Guiana. 1824. Stove 

evergreen climber. 

Besom, or Broom, received its 
second name from being often made of 
the broom-plant; but the best, both 
for flexibility and dui-ability, are made 
of the hng, or heath. Birch-brooms are 
most commonly used in gardens, and 
are those to which the name besom ap- 
plies ; beso, in the Arrmorican language, 
being the birch. But whatever tiie 
material, they will endure much longer 
if soaked in water for some time before 
using. Where walks are liable to be- 
come mossy, a broom made of wire is 
frequently employed for sweeping them. 
Mossy walks are, however, best cleaned 
with the patent weed destroyers, of 
which there are several now in general 
use in gardens. 

Be'ssera. (Named after Dr. Besser, 
professor of botany atBrody. Nat. ord., 
LUiacECB ; Tribe, Alliece. Elegant little 
Mexican bulbs, allied to the Squills. ) 

Offsets ; sandy peat ; kept dry and cool, but 
secure from frost when not growing ; kept moist 
when growing and flowering. They require a 
cold pit or greenhouse. When planted out a 
sunny position should be chosen, preferably 
against a wall with a southern aspect. Bj; some 
authors this genus is regarded as consisting of 
a single species with flowers of various colours. 
B. dlegans. 2. Scarlet. September. Mexico. 

1860. B. E. 1839, t. 34. 
— fistula' sa. 1. Purple. September. Mexico, 

1831. Syn., Pharium fistulosum, B. E. 

1. 1646. 

— Herbe'rti. Purple and white. September. 

Mexico. 1840. 

— minia'ta. Scarlet, white. Mexico. 1850. 

Fl. Ser. t. 424. 

Be'ta. Beet Root. (From hett, the 
Celtic word for red ; in reference to the 
red colour of the beet. Nat. ord., 
ChenopodiacecB. ) 

Hardy biennials, except where otherwise de- 
scribed. Seeds in March or April ; deep rich 
soil. See Beet. 
B. Ci'cla. 6. Green. August. Portugal. 1670. 

variega'ta. Chilian beet. A handsome 


— eri'spa. 6. Green. August. South of Eu- 

rope. 1800. 

— horte'nsii meta'llica. Leaves blood-red. 

— macrorMza. 6. Green. August. Caucasus. 


— mari'tima. 1. Green. August. Britain. 

Eng. Bot. ed. 3, 1. 1184. 
—pa'tuia. Green. Madeira. 

— tri'gyna. 3. White. July. Hungary. 

Hardy herbaceous perennial. 

— mUga'ris. 4. Green. August. 

Europe. 1648. „ „ . 
lu'tea. 4. Green. August. South of 



ru'bra. 4. Green. 


South of 

- vi'ridis. 4. 


South of 
South of 


Be'tckea. (Named after M. Betake, 
a botanist. Nat. ord., Valerianacece.) 
See Plectritis. 




Betel or Betle Nut. See Pi'per 
Be'tle. ■ 

Beto'nica. Betony. (This genus, 
named after the Celtic title, Bentonic, 
is now united to Stachys.) 

Be'tony. Sta'ckys and Teu'crium 
heto' nicum. 

Be'tula. Birch. (From its Celtic 
name, betu. Nat. ord. , Betulacece. ) 

Ornamental and very graceful hardy deciduous 
trees and shrubs, except where otherwise speci- 
fied. B. nana is a very pretty rockery subject. 
Seeds sown as soon as ripe, or kept dry, and 
sown in the April following, in fine soil, and 
scarcely more than covered ; deep, dry soil suits 
them best. Shrubs and particuliir species by 
suckers and grafting. The flowers of all are 
inconspicuous, having no petals. 
B. a'lba. 40. February to March. Britain. 

Eng. Bot. ed. 3, 1. 1296. 

• albo-purpu'rea. 

— daleca'rica. 40. May. Europe. 

fo'liis variega'tis. May. 

glutmo'sa. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, 1. 1296. 

laeinia'ta pe'vdula. 

macroca'rpa. 40. June. Europe. 

pe'Tidula. 40. April. Britain. 

po'ntiea. 70. May. Turkey. Wats. 

Dendr. t. 94. 

pube'scens. 30. June. Germany. 1812. 

urticifo'lia. 40. May. 

verraco'sa. 40. April. Britain. Eng. 

Bot. ed. 4, 1. 1296. 

— Bhojpa'ttra. 50. May. Himalayas. 1840. 

— carpinif&lia. See B, lenta. 

— dau'rica. 30. July. Siberia. 1785. 
panrifo'lia. July. Siberia. 

— eaxe'tsa. See B. lutea. 

— frutico'sa. 6. June. Siberia. 1818. Wats. 
Dendr. t. 95. 

— glandulo'sa. May. N. Amer. 1816. 

— gra'ndis. N. Amer. 1834. 

— lanulo'sa. 70. July. N. Amer. 1817. 

— lenta. 60. July. N. Amer. 1769. Syn., 

B. carpini/oUa. Wats. Dendr. 1. 144. 

— lu'tea. 20. May. N. Amer. Syn., B, excelsa. 

— Medwedie'wi. Transcaucasus. 1887. Gfi. 

1887, p. 383. 

— mo'llis. E. Ind. 1840. 

— na'na. 4. May. N. Europe. Eng. Bot. 

ed. 3, t. 1297. 

macrophy'Ua. 6. May. Switzerland. 


1736. Syn., 

• stri'cta. May. 
^ ni'gra. 60. July. N Amer 
B. rubra. Black birch. 

— ova'ta. 6. May. Hungary. 1820 

— paUe'scens. 6. 

— papyra'cea. 50. June. N. Amer. 1750. 
fu'sm. May. Carolina. 

platyphy'lla. 50, June. Carolina. 

trichocla'da. June. Carolina. 

— popuUfo'lia. 30. July. Canada. 1750. 

Hardy evergreen. 

ladnia'ta. 30. July. 

. pe!ndvXa. July. 

— pu'mila. 6. May. N. Amer. 1762. 

. Gra'yi, British Columbia. 1890. 

— Raddea'na. Caucasus. 1887. Gfi. 1887, p. 383. 

— ru'bra. See B. nigra. 

— Scopo'Ui. 6. 

— tri'stis. 10. May. Kamtschatka. 

Bia'ncea sca'ndens. See Csesal- 
pinia sepiaria. 
Bia'ruiu. (An ancient name of a 

plant. Nat. ord., Aracem. Allied to 
Sauromatum. ) 

, Hardy tuberous perennials. Any light, well- 
drained soil ; oft'sets. 

B. angusta'tum. J. Sjjathe and spadix blackish- 
purple. Syria. 1861. Syn., Ischarwm 

— eri'sputum. i. Blackish-purple. Asia Minor. 


— exi'mium. J. Blackish-purple. Asia Minor. 


— Eo'tschyi. J. Blackish-purple. Syria. 1860. 

— Py'rami. J. Spathe and spadix blackish- 

purple. Palestine. 1862. 

— tenuij'o'liunb. ^. Dark brown-purple. June. 

S. Europe". 1670. Syns., B. grmninenm, 
B. constrictum, Arum tenui/olium. B. R. 
t. 612. 

Bibio Marci. St. Mark's Fly. Mr. 
Curtis says : — " The larvse, or grubs, of 
this insect generally live, in large groups 
of a hundred or more, in strawberry- 
beds, vine -borders, flower -pots, and 
similar undisturbed spots, feeding upon 
the roots, and sometimes destroymg the 
entire plant. Bouch6 says they com- 
pletely demolished his bed of Kanun- 
culuses for several successive years, by 
eating up the tubers. The larva is dark 
brown, somewhat cylindrical, the belly 
flattened, moderately broad, and nearly 
linear ; the head is comparatively small, 
deep brown, and very shining. It 
changes to a chrysalis, generally, to- 
waircS the end of March. This is of a 
pale ochreous colour, the head being 
brightest. The female lays her eggs in 
the earth, and in the dung of horses and 
cows, in May. They do not hatch until 
August. " 

Bi'dens. Bur Marigold. (From bis, 
twice, and rfe?js, a tooth ; in reference 
to the seed. Nat. ord., Compositm ; 
Tribe, HelmnthoidecB. -Allied to Core- 

Hardy ones may be grown in the common 
border. The others are scarcely worth culti- 
vating ; but we have named the best. The 
annuals and biennials from seed, and the peren- 
nials by divisions and suckers. All hardy, except 
when otherwise specified. 
B. argu'ta. Yellow. June. Mexico. 1825. 
Herbaceous perennial. 

— atrosangui'nea. 3. Dark crimson. Autumn. 

Mexico. B. M. t. 6227. Tuberous-rooted 

— Berteria'na. See Cosmos caudatus. 

— bipinna'ta. 2. Yellow. July. N. Amer. 

1687. Annual. 

— corona'ta. Yellow. August. 1829. Biennial. 

— ferulcefo'lia. 2. Yellow. Autumn. Mexico. 

1799. B. M. 2069. 

— grandifio'ra. 2. Yellow. June. S. Amer. 

1800. Annual. Syns., B. serrulata and 
Cosmos lutea. B. M. 1. 1689. 

— heterophf/lla. 2. Yellow. August. Mexico. 

1803. Greenhouse herbaceous perennial. 

— hu'milis. Yellow. Peru. Half-hardy peren- 

nial. 1861. Best grown as an open-air 

— leuoa'ntha. IJ. White. July. S. Amer 





B. maeroape/rma. See B. parvifiora. 

— odora'ta. 3. White. June. Mexico. 1825. 


— parviflo'ra. 1. Yellow. June. Siberia. 1829. 

Annual. Syn., jB. maerosperma. 

— pro'cera. 6. Yellow. November. Mexico. 

1822. Herbaceous perennial. E. K. 
t. 684. 

— reopens. 2. Yellow. July. Nepaul. 1819. 

Deciduous creeper. 

— sca'ndens. See Salmea, 

— serrula'ta. See B. grandiflora. 

— stria' ta. 3. Rays white, disk yellow. Autumn. 

Mexico. B. M. t. 3156. 

— tripartata. 1. Yellow. Late summer. Great 

Britain and Ireland. Bng. Bot. ed. 3, 
t. 764. 

Bidwi'Uia. (Named after Mr. Bid- 
well., of Sydney, an ardent cultivator of 
bulbs. Nat. ord., Liliacece. Allied to 

Greenhouse bulb. Divisions and offsets ; light, 
rich soil. 
B. glaucefscens. White. May. Australia. 1843. 

Bietaerstei'nia. (Named after M. 
Von Bieberstein, who wrote a Russian 
Flora. Nat. ord., Geraniacece.) 

Half-hardy herbaceous perennial. Cuttings 
under a hand-glass, in the beginning of summer ; 
seeds, in a slight hotbed, in a frame in March 
or April. Bequires the protection of a cold pit 
during winter, or a very dry, sheltered place. 
Loam, peat, and sand. 

B. cfdora. 1. Yellow. May. Altaia. 1837. 
Royle m. t. 30. 

Bienzdal, from biennis, the Latin 
for of two years' continuance, is a plant 
which, being produced from seed in one 
year, perfects its seed and dies during 
the year following. Biennials may often 
be made to endure longer if prevented 
ripening their seeds ; and many exotics, 
bienniafe in their native climes, are 
perennials in our stoves. 

Hardy Biennials. — Some of these ripen 
their seeds as early as August, in which 
case they may be sown as soon as har- 
vested. Others, ripening their seeds 
later, must have them reserved until 
May. The double varieties of wall- 
flowers, stocks, etc., are propagated by 

Frame Biennials. — These require the 
shelter of a frame during the eany stages 
of their growth ; to be removed thence, 
in May, to the borders, where they bloom 
in July and August. 

Bifrena'ria. (From his, twice, and 
fraemum, a strap ; in reference to a 
double strap, or band, by means of 
which the poUen masses are connected 
with their gland. Nat. ord., Orchida- 
cew; Tribe, Vandece-MaxillariecB. Allied 
to' Maxillaria.) 

Pretty stove orchids. Offsets and divisions. 
Peat, sphagnum, charcoal, and broken pots ; 
raised above the surface of pots, or in shallow 

B. a'tro-purpu'rm. Dark purple. Eio Janeiro. 

nV; 4 S'4 '^"■^I'^i^a atro-pwrpm-ea. 
Jj. U. t. 1877. 

— OMranH'am. f. Orange-spotted. September 

Demerara. 1834. B. R. 1. 1875 

— au'reo-fv!lva. Orange. October. Rio Ja- 

neiro. 1843. Syn., Maxiawrta aureo- 
fidva. B. M. t. 3629. 

— Badw^nii. IJ. Green, chocolate, white 

June. BrazU. 1851. B. M. t. 4629. 
— bt/Ua. Cinnamon, with sulphur markings 

inside, whitish-yellow outside. 
pa/rdali'na. Yellow, brown, white, purple 

1880. ^ 

— Barrisc/ni(B, White, with yellowish tips ; lip 

with purple veins. September. S. 
America. Syns., MaaillariaHarrisimue, 
B. B. t. 897, and M. pungens. 

— — a'lba. White, tipped red ; lip yellow, 

white, purple. Gfl. 1. 1312, f. 2. 
Buchmiia'na. Violet-purple, green, yel- 
low. 1879. 

— inf^dora. Green and purplish. Brazil. Rchb. 

Xen. vol. 1, 49. 
xa/iithi'na. Yellow. Bahia. 1866. 

— leucorrho'da. White ; lip with rosy veins. 

— longico'mis. Orange, brown. Demerara. 

— meli' color. Honey-colour, red. Brazil. 1877. 
—pa'rmda. Deep tawny yellow; lip pumlish 

with darker lines. Organ Mts. 1827. Syn., 
Maxillaria, parmda. Hook. Ex. Fl. 
t. 217. 

— racemo'sa. Sfcraw-colour ; lip white, spotted 

vrith crimson. Brazil. Syn., maxillaria 
racemosa. B. M. t. 2789. 

— tyrianthi'na. Violet-purple. Brazil. 1836. 

Syn., Lycaste tyrianthina. Gfl. t. 422. 

— vitelXi'na. 1. Yellowish-purple. July. Brazil. 


Biglandula'ria. See Sinningia. 

Bigno'nia. Trumpet Flower. 
(Named after Abh6 Bignon, librarian 
to Louis XIV. Nat. ord. , Bignoniacece. ) 

This order furnishes themostgorgeousclimbers 
in the world ; natives of the tropical forests in 
either hemisphere, a tenth part of which are said 
not to be yet introduced to our gardens. Stove 
evergreen climbers, except where otherwise 
specified. PropEigated easily by young, stiff side- 
shoots, taken off in summer, inserted in sand, 
under a bell-glass, and placed in bottom-heat ; 
peat and loam. These mostly produce their 
flowers on short shoots, proceeding from well- 
ripened buds of the previous year's wood. Few 
do well as pot-plante ; they Inse to ramble over 
the roof of a cold stove. If the wood is well 
hardened in summer, many of them do well on 
the rafters of a common greenhouse, and flower 
more freely than they would do in a stove ; but 
you must have patience until they fairly mount 
the rafters. B. ja&minoides may be taken as a 
type of these. The only hardy species is cayreo- 
la'ta, which is an ornamental waill-climber in a 
sheltered situation ; propagated easily by cut- 
tings of its roots, or shoots, under a hand-glass, 
in spring or autumn. It has been recommended 
to try cnunlgera, in similar situations, grafted on 
capreola'ta. B. ra'dicaris has been transferred 
to Tecoma, which see ; the difference in the 
genera consisting chiefly in the partition of the 
fruit, being parallel in Bigno'nia, and contrary 
in Teco'ma. 

See Heterophragma adeno- 

B. adenophi/lla. 

lis. 40. Yellow. June. Guiana. 


— (Esculifio'ra. 


— a'lba. See Spathodea bracteosa. 

— allia'eea. 10. Yellow. Guiana. 

See TaberTUBmontana aesculi- 





B. amalna. See Sieroimmmim hypoitiotum. 

— apure'nsis. 10. Yeflow. Orinoco. 1824. 

— argy'reo-viola'scens. Leaves white - veined, 

young leaves violet. S. America. 1866. 
H. Mag. 1865, p. 267. 

— artiGula'ta. See PhyllaHhron TWronhiwn/wm. 

— auranti'aca. Orange. S. America. 1874. 

— hiju'ga. 6. Madagascar. 1822. 

— ccBTu'lea. See Jacaranda haha/mensUt. 

— ca'ndwwns. See Arralndcea candicans. 

— cape^nsis. See Tecfyma capensis. 

— capreola'ta. 15. Scarlet. June. N. Amer. 


atrosangui'nea. Red-purple. S. United 

States. 1879. B. M. t. 6501. 

— Caroli'ruE. 10. Cream. Carolina. 

— Chcmiberlay'nU. 40. Yellow. August. Brazil. 

1820. B. M. t. 2148. 

— chelonoi'des. See Stereospermwm ehelonaideg. 

— Chertfre. 10. Red, orange. Guiana. 1824. 

B. R. t. 1301. Sometimes spelt Kerere. 

— Chi'ca. 10. Orinoco. 1819. 

— chine^nsis. See Tecoma grandijlora. 

— chrysa'ntha, 10. Yellow. Guiana. 1823, See 

Tecoma chryscmtha. 

— chrysoleu'ca. 10. Yellowish - white. July. 

S. Amer. 1824. 

— CWmatia. 15. Caraccas. 1820. 

— conw'sa. See AdenocaZyTrvna c(ytnoswm. 

— crena'ta. 10. B. Ind. 1823. 

— crucigera. 20. Yellow, scarlet. S. Amer. 


— ded'piens. 10. B. Ind. 1823. 

— diversifo'Ha. 10. Mexico. 1825. 

^ echina'ta. See Pithecoctenium Aubletii. 

— elmwa'ta. 8. Purple. S. Amer. 1820. 
—flonim'nda. 12. White. Caraccas. 1816. 

— gra'cilis. B. C. t. 1706. See B. unguis. 

— /raxinif&lia. See SpathodeafraoAnifolia. 

— grandijic/ra. See Tecoma grandiflora. 

— grandifo'lia. 60. Purple, red. June. Carac- 

cas. 1816. 

— heterophy'lla. See B. Cherere. 

— incama'ta. 4. White, orange. Guiana. 


— i'ndwa. See Oroxylon ? indiffwm. 

— imminifdlia. 10. White. Orinoco. 1826. 
— ja^minoi'des. 30. Purple. Moreton Bay. 


— Eere^re. See B. Cherere. 

— lactiJU/ra. See Distiohis lactiJUyra, 

— latT^</lia. See CaZlichlamys riparia. 

— la/urifo'lia. 20. Guiajoa. 1804. 

— leuc&xulon. See Tecoma l&ucoxylon. 

— LvnMeyl. 10. Variegated. S. Amer. 1833. 

Syn., B. pwta. B. R. t. 46. 

— KTiea'rts. See Chilopsis saligna. 

— litora'lis. Pink, red. Mexico. 1824. 

— longi'ssima. See Catalpa lofngissima. 

— luldda. 10. E. Ind. 1823. 

— magni'fica. Flowers varying from mauve to 

purplish crimson, throat yellow. Co- 
lumbia. 1879. Gfl. 1880, p. 34. 

— microphy'Ua. 16. White. Hispaniola. 1820. 

Syn., Catalpa microphylla. 

— meonalntha. Se6 Tecoma australis. 

— mo'llis. 10. Guiana. 1818. 

— moUi'ssima. 10. Caraccas. 1820. 

— multi'fida. 10. E. Ind. 1823. 
—pallida. 16. White. July. W. Ind. 1823. 

B. R. t. 966. 

— Pando'rea. See Tecoma australis. 

— panicula'ta. See Amphilolmi/nipa/niculatv/m. 

— pentaphy'Ua. See Tecoma pentaphylla. 

— per/ara'ta. August. Brazil. 1881. 

— pi eta. B. E. t. 45. See B. Lindleui. 

— pube'scens. 15. YeUow. June. Campeachy. 

— purpu'rea. 6. Purple. S. Amer. 1822. 

— quadrangula'rie. 10. E. Ind. 1823. 

— quadrttocula'ris. See Heterophragma Box- 


B. radi'eans. See Teconm radieans. 

— regaHis. Red, yellow. British Guiana. 1885. 

— retieulalta. Columbia. 1873. 

— Roe'zlii. Columbia. 1870. 

— rugo'ga. Primrose. October. Caraccas. 

1872. B. M. t. 7124. 

— ealicifo'lia. 10. YeUow. Trinidad. 1824. 

— taim&ricafdlia. This is a synonym of Tecoma 


— serratifo'lia. 'See Tecoma serratifoUa. 20. 

YeUow. W. Ind. 1822. 

— serra'tula. See Stereoepermwm serratulwm. 

— spatha'cea. See Dolicharidrone Rheedii. 

— spedo'm. 20. Pink. May. Uruguay. 1838. 

— speeta'bilis. 10. Purple. W. Ind. 1820. 

— apica'ta. Trinidad. 1822. 

— atami'nea. 10. Yellow. Hispaniola. 1825. 

— ata'ns. See Tecoma atana. 

— si^ero'aa. See Stereospermwm auaveolena. 

— ttymetito'sa. See Paulovmia vmperialia. 

— triphy'Ua. See Tabebuia triphylla. 
—Tweedia'na. 20. Yellow. June. Buenos Ayres. 


— unca'ta. Andr. Rep. t. 530. See Macfadyena 


— u'ngms. Yellow. April. S. Amer. 1810. 

Syn., B. gramlia, B. C. 1. 1706. 

— varia'Mlis. 10. Yellow, white. W. Ind. 


— venu'sta. 4. Orange. September. S. Amer. 


Bilberry. Vacci'mum myrU'llus. 

Bilimbi-tree. Averrho'a h&i'mbi. 

Bill, a sharp-edged tool, employed in 
cutting hedges, sharpening stakes, etc. 
It should never be used in pruning ; but, 
where the branch is too strong to be cut 
with the knife, the saw ought always to 
be applied. An implement well adapted 
for this purpose is Dean's bill ; for it has 
a narrow blaide with a keen-cutting edge, 
and a saw at the back, made expressly 
for cutting green wood, warranted not 
to buckle or stick fast. 

Billardie'ra. AppleBerry. (Named 
after LahUlardUre, a French botanist. 
Nat. ord., Pittosporacece.) 

Ornamental greenhouse evergreen climbers. 
Seeds sown in a little heat, in April, from cut- 
tings in May or June, in sand, under a bell- 
glass ; loam and peat. 

B. aTigustifo'lia. 2. Cream. July. N. Holland. 
1820. Bauer Ic. t. 1014. 

— cgmo'aa. ' Violet. S. Australia. 1868. 

— daphnoi'des. Yellow, purple. May. N. R. 

Wales. 1840. 
—fusifdrmia. See Sollya anguatifolia. 

— longijlcfra. 20. Greenish yellow, often chang- 

ing to purple. July. Van Diemerfs 
Land. 1810. B. M. t. 1507. Syn., B. 

— mMta'bilia. 8. Crimson. August. N. S. 

Wales. 1796. B. M. 1. 1313. 

— ova'lia. See B. longijUyra, 

— parmfio'ra. 12. Blue. July. N. Holland. 


— aca'ndens. 12. Purple. August. N. S. Wales. 

1790. B. M. t. 801. 

Billbe'rgia. (Named after BUlberg, 
a Swedish botanist. Nat. orA., Brome- 

Stove plants. Suckers and divisions ; sandy 
loam, peat, and a little rotten cow-dung. Sum- 
mer temp., 60' to 75° ; winter, 65° to 60". 




B. amo^na. 2. Yellow. June. S. Amer. 1817. 

— andegave^nsis. Centre red, bordei indigo. 

Garden hybrid. 1886. 

— (vngttstif&lia. Ked. S. America. 1866. 

— Bake'ri. Green ; bracts rose. 1878. 

— BaraquirMna. White, green. Brazil. 1865. 

— bi' color. §. Rose, blue. May, Eio Janeiro. 


— hi'frons. Red, yellow. Brazil. 1852. 

— Mvittalta. See Nidularium bivittatum. 

— blireia'na. Hybrid between B. nutams and 

B. iridifoUa. 1889. 

— Breautea'na. Leaves banded white. Bracts 

rosy. Flowers blue. 1884. Syn., B. 

— Brua'nii. Garden hybrid. 1885. 

— Ca'ppei. See B. Breauteana. 

— Chcmti'ni. Bed, yellow ; bracts red. Sum- 

mer. Amazons. 1877. 

— chlorosti'cta. Leaves bronzy, with green spots. 

Brazil. 1871. 

— clava'ta. 1}. Blue. February. Trinidad. 


— cruefnta. 1. Blue, red. August. Rio Janeirp. 


— e'Ugans. See B. speeiosa. 

— Ende'ri. Bracts coral-red. Flowers blue. 

BrazU. Gfl. 1. 1217. 

— Euphe'm-Us. Dark purple, green. Brazil? 

— fascm'ta. See JEGhirnea. 

— Gireondia'na. Garden hybrid. 1887. 

— Glazioma'na. Bed ; bracts white. Brazil. 

Gfl. 1. 1203. 

— CHymia'na. Yellow, purple ; bracts crimson. 

Tropical America. 1866. 

— iridAfo'Ka. 1. Scarlet, yellow. March. Rio 

Janeiro, 1825. 

— Erameria'na. Garden hybrid. 1888. 

— Libonia'na. 1. Blue. August. Brazil. 1858. 

— Ue'tzei. Brazil. 1881. Belg. Hort 1881. 

tt. 5-7. 

— maaroca'lyx. IJ. Blue, green. Brazil. 1858. 

— vielanacantha. See JEch'mea suaveolens. 

— Morelia'na. 1. Pink, blue. February. Brazil. 


— nudiea/u'lis. See ^chtnea. 

— nu'taTis. IJ. Yellowish, rosy, blue ; bracts 

rosy. Winter. BrazU. 1868. 

— o'Uns. Purple, crimson. Tropical America. 


— palle!scen8. 1^. White, green, violet. Winter. 

Brazil. 1856. Syns;, B. pallida and B. 

— Perringia'na. Hybrid between B. nutans 

and B. Mxmiana. 1890. Gfl. 1. 1318. 

— polysta'chya. Crimson, blue. Brazil. 1862. 

— Portea'Tta. 3. Green. Summer. Bahia. 

1849. B. M. t. 6670. 
— purpu'rea. Rose, purple. October. Brazil. 

— pwrpu'rea-ro'sea. Rose, purple. November. 

Brazil. 1831. 

— pyramida'lis. 2. Crimson. February. Rio 

Janeiro. 1817. 

— quintumb' 7M. Bracts carmine ; calyx green 

tinged rose j petals greenish tipped blue. 
Brazil. Gfl^. 1890, p. 202. 

— Rancou'gnei. Garden hybrid. 1884. 

— rhodocya'nea. See ^chmea fasciata. 

•^ roseo-margina'ta. IJ. Blue ; bracts rose. 
January. Tropical America. 1880. Syns., 
B. rubro-margiffiata, and Quesn^lia roseo- 

— ru'fa. 6. Violet ; bracts red. Guiana. 1874. 
Syn., Qu£snelia rufa. 
'e'rm. Blue; bracts crimson. Brazil. 

- SM'nneri. See Androlepis. 

o'm. IJ. Carmine, violet ; bracts car- 
mine-rose. Brazil. 1877. Syn., B. 

B. thyrsoi'dea. Scarlet. November. Brazil 

— variegaita. Belg. Hort. 1881, p. 73 

— »ea;iZfa'ria Hybrid between B. thyrsoidea 

splenaMa and B. Mareliama. 

— vilta'ta. 2. Bed, violet, green. South 

Braril. 1847. Syns., S. LeopoUi, B 

pulchemma, B. Sohamiami, and B 


ama'bilis. Blue ; bracts crimson. Brazil 

forrm'm. Bracts orange. 1879. Syn 

B. formosa. ' 
Boha'ni. Gfl. 1890, p. 306, f . 60. 

— Wethereflli. Blue and yellow. December 


— Wi'ndii. Hybrid between B. nutans and B. 

Ba/raquiniana. 1884. The same name 
was oven to a hybrid between B. nutans 
and B. decora in 1889. 

— Worlea'na. Rose, blue. Hybrid between B. 

nutams and B. Moreliama. 1886. 

— zebri'na. IJ. June. S. Amer. 1826. 

— ama'ta. IJ. White. March. Brazil. 1843. 

Billo'tia Jlexuo'sa. See Lepto- 
spevmaxa. flexuosum. 

Sinding. A term applied to ad- 
hesive soils, to describe the closeness 
and hardness of their texture in hot, 
dry seasons. (Also called baking). This 
term applies, also, to some gardening 
processes. Thus, fastening a graft or 
Wd in its place, by means of bast or 
other material, is termed binding in 
some counties. 

— sphaoda'ta. See Gregia. 

Bindweed. Convo', 

Bio'phyttun. Oxa'lis biophy'tum. 

Bio'ta, a genus which only contains 
the Thujas that are not American. 

Birch. Be'tula. 

Birds are benefactors, as well as in- 
jurers, of the gardener. They destroy 
millions of grubs, caterpillars, and 
aphides, which would have ravaged his 
crops ; but at the same time some com- 
mit havoc upon his fruit and seeds. The 
wisest course, consequently, is to scare 
them from the garden at such times, or 
from the portions of it in which they 
can be prejudicial, but to leave them to 
visit it unmolested whenever and wher- 
ever they cannot be mischievous. Thus, 
in early spring, a hoy or two will drive 
them away during such time as the buds 
of the gooseberry, currant, and plum are 
open to their attacks ; and again during 
the time that the cherries are ripe. To 
keep them from the fruit of late goose- 
berries and currants, it is sufficient to 
interlace thickly the bushes with red 
worsted. To keep them from attacking 
peas and other vegetables just emerging 
from the soU, a similar display of white 
thread, fastened to pegs about six inches 
from the surface, is also sufficiently de- 
terring. Nets, where available, are also 
effectual guardians. By these aids, but 




especially by the watching during cer- 
tain seasons, the gardener may protect 
himself from injury at a very trifling 
expense, without depriving himself of 
the services of the most sharp-sighted, 
most unwearying, and most successful 
of all insect-killers. 


One of the most exclusively insect- 
eating birds is the golden-crested wren 
(Regulus cristatus, Ray), the smallest of 
the birds of Europe. The species which 
come nearest to the gold-crest, in appear- 
ance and habits, are the wood-wren 
(Sylvia sibilatrix), and the willow-wren 
or hay-bird (S. fttis). The chiff-chaff [S. 
loquaas) also ranks with these as an in- 
sect-eating bird, but is least common. 
The nightingale (Sylvia Itiscinia) does 
considerable service to the cultivator, by 
devouring numbers of caterpillars and 
grubs, as well as the moths, butterflies, 
and beetles from which they are pro- 
duced. The whinchat (Sctxicola rubetra), 
the stonechat (S. rubicola), and the 
wheatear (S. cenanthe) may be ranked 
as insectivorous birds ; the stonechat 
particularly. The whinchat frequents 
cabbage-gardens' and turnip-fields after 
the breeding season, and ought to be 
protected, because it not only eats in- 
sects, bnt small sheU-snails, while it 
never touches fruits or seeds. The 
wheatear is equally beneficial in clear- 
ing crops from insects, without levying 
any contribution for its sei-vices. 

The wagtails, particularly the yellow 
one (Motacillajlava), feed wholly on in- 
sects, particularly gnats, midges, and 
other flies that tease cattle. They wiU 
also follow the spade, to feed upon the 
worms and grubs turned up ; and, in 
this way, no doubt, thousands of wire- 
worms and other destructive vermin are 
effectually destroyed. The tree-pipet, 
or titlark (Anthus arboreus), and the 
meadow-pipet [A. pratensis), are com- 
mon hedge-birds, which search busily 
after the autumnal hatches of cater- 
pillars and grubs, or the smaller flies 
and beetles, which they find among the 
herbage. The cuckoo, the common fly- 
catcher, and the flusher, or lesser but- 
cher-bird, may be classed among the in- 
sectivorous-feeding birds. To these many 
other hedge-birds might be added, such 
as the nightjar, the sedge-bird, the wry- 
neck, the creeper, and the bottle-tit, 
none of which are in the least destruc- 
tive ; while, from their feeding exclu- 
sively, or nearly so, on insects, they are 
of much service in diminishing the num- 

ber of such as are injurious to field and 
garden crops. 


These are the common wren, the- 
hedge-sparrow, or dunnock, the red- 
breast, the redstart, the tom-tit, the 
cole-tit, the marsh-tit, and the greater- 
tit. The weeds and insects wMmi thes& 
birds destroy will, however, certainly 
more than compensate for the few heads- 
of grain, the flower-seeds, or small fruit 
which they may occasionally pilfer. 


In this list are the black-cap, babU- 
lard (Curruca garrula), the garden- 
warbler, the whitethroat, the missel- 
thrush, the song-thrush, the blackbird^ 
and the starling. 


The greater portion of those to he 
enumerated are exclusively grain-eaters, 
and make no return for their depreda- 
tions by destroying insects, though they 
no doubt contribute to keep down the 
diffusion of weeds by the quantity of 
seeds whieh they devour. The goldfinch, 
the yellow-hammer, the cirl-bunting, 
the reed-bunting, the corn-bunting, the 
skylark, the woodlark, the linnet, the 
chaffinch, the mountain-finch, the bull- 
finch, the house-sparrow, and the tree- 

Bird Cherry. Pm'nus pa'chis. 

Bird Pepper. Ca'psicumbacca'tvm,. 

Bird's Bill. Trigone'lla ornithopo- 

Bird's Eye. Pri'mulafarino'sa. 

Bird's Foot. Qmi'thopus. 

Bird's-Foot Fern. PelMa orni'- 

Bird's-Foot Trefoil. Lo'tus. 

Bird's Nest. Asple'nium ni'dus. 

Bird's Tongue. Omithoglo'ssum, 

Birthwort. Aristolo'chia. 

Biscute'Ua. Buckler Mustard. 
(From bis, double, or twice, axidiscutella, 
a saucer ; in reference to the shape ef 
the seed-vessel when bursting. Nat. 
ord. CrucifercB; Tribe, Thlaspidece. 
Allied to Thlaspi and Capsella. ) 

All hardy. The annuals, by seed in March 
and April ; the perennials, by division in apring^ 
or autumn. 


B. amM'gua. J. Yellow. June. Italy. 1820. 
— coronopyfo'lia. J. Yellow. June. Italy. 1790, 




& lamga'ta. 1. Yellow. Jane. Italy. 1777. 

alpilttris. 1. Yellow. June. Hungary. 


— longifo'lia. See B. aaxatUis, var. longifolia. 

— monta'na. 1. Yellow. Spain. 1823. 

— rapha/nifo'lia. 1^. Yellow. July. Sicily. 1822. 

— sa3ea!tUis. 1, Yellow. June. South Europe. 

lon^o'lia. Switzerland. 1832. 

— sempervilr&ihs, 1, Yellow. June. Spain, 1784. 

— stenophy'Ua. 1. Yellow. June. Spaiu. 1826. 


B, vUia'ta. 1. Yellow. June. South of Fiance. 

— Colu'mnce. 1. Yellow, June. South of Italy, 

1823, Sibth, Fl. Gr. t. 629. 

— d£pre^88a. J-. Yellow. June. Egypt. 1811. 

— lyraHa. IJ. YeUow. July. Spjun. 1799. 

— mari'tima. IJ. YeUow. June. Naples. 1824, 

— obova'ta. 1, Yellow. June, Europe. 1817. 

Bise'mla. Hatchet Vetch. (From 
■his, twice, and serrula, a saw ; in re- 
ference to the seed -pods being armed 
with teeth. Nat. ord., Leguminosce ; 
Tribe, GalegecB. Allied to iistragalus.) 

Hardy annual. Seeds in April or September. 
iSandy soil. 

£. pel^cvnus. 1, Purple, July, South Europe. 
1640. Sibth. Fl. Gr. t. 737. 

Bismarckia. (Named after Prince 
Bismarck. Nat. ord., Palmem; Tribe, 
Borassece. ) 
£. no'bilis. Madagascar. GS. 1. 1221. 

Bitter Almond. Amy'gdalus cem- 
mu'nis ama'ra. 

Bitter Apple. Cu'cumiscolocy'nthis. 

Bitter Oak. Que'rcus ce'rris. 

Bitter-sweet. Sola'num dulca- 

Bitter Vetch. Oro'hus. 

Bitter Wood. Xylo'pia. 

Biyonse'a. (After A. Bivona Ber- 
nardi, a professor of botany in Sicily. 
Nat. ord., Cruci/erce ; Tube, Lepidiece. 
Allied to Lepidivm,.) 

Hardy annual. Seeds ; garden-soil. 
B. lu'tea. J. Yellow. April. Sicily. 1824. 

Bi'xa. Amotta. (Its native name 
in South America. Nat. ord., Biodnece.) 
The reddish pulp which surrounds the seeds of 
B. (yrella'na is the Amatta of commerce, used in 
the preparation of chocolate, and by farmers for 
•colouring cheese, and also by dyers for a reddish 
colour. Stove evergreen trees. Cuttings of half- 
ripened shoots in sand, under a bell-glass, and 
in heat ; lumpy peat, loam, and sand 
e. arella'na. 30. Pint. June. W. Ind. 1690. 

B. M. t, 1466, 
aeumina'ta. 20. Purple. July. Mau- 
ritius. 1817. Syn., B. purpurea. There 
are two forms of this, viz., aZba^ flowers 
white, and purpurea, flowers rosy. 

— urucura'na. 20. Pink. July. Brazil. 1820. 

Bizarre. See Carnation. 

Black Adiantum. Asph'nium 

Black Arch-Moth, 


Blackberry. Ra'busfrutico'sus. 

Black Bryony. Ta'mus commu'- 
nis. Poisonous weeds, which need not 
be further noticed. 

Black BuUace. Pru'nm insWtia. 

Blackbu'rina. (Named after Mr. 
Blackburn. Nat. otA., Rutacece.) See 

Black Caterpillar. See Athalia 

Black Flea. (Saltica nemorum.) 
No insect is more insidious or more 
sweeping in the destruction it brings 
upon some of the farmers' or gardeners' 
crops than the turnip-flea {Maltica ne- 
mermn). Turnips of all kinds, beet- 
root, mangold-wurtzel, radishes, and 
flax, are all liable to be destroyed by 
this insect. It is a singular misapplica- 
tion of terms, that this insect is known 
among cultivators of the soil as the 
black and the turnip flea or fly, none of 
them ever calling it a beetle, which 
it really is ; and the most descriptive 
name is the turnip-flea beetle, for this 
describes not only its real nature, but 
its favourite food, and its extraordinary 
power of skipping or leaping like the 
common flea. This insect is represented 

in our drawing of its natnial size and 
magnified. The body, one-eighth of an 
inch long, is rather flattened, and of a 
brassy-black colour, thickly dotted ; the 
wing-cases are greenish-black, with a 
pale-yellow, broad line on each ; the 
base of the feelers (antennae) and the 
legs are pale clay-coloured. The eggs 
are laid on the under side of the rough 
leaf of the turnip from April to Septem- 
ber. They hatcn in two days. Their 
maggots live between the two skins or 
cutides of the rough leaf, and arrive at 
maturity in sixteen days. The chrysalis 
is buried just beneath the surface of the 




earth, where it remains about a fort- 
night. The beetles are torpid through 
the winter, and revive in the spring, 
when they destroy the two first or seed 
leaves of the young turnip. There are 
five or six broods in a season. These 
insects are most to be feared in fine 
seasons. Heavy rains, cold springs, and 
long droughts destroy them. Their scent 
is very perfect : the beetles fly against 
the wind, and are attracted from a dis- 
tance. The rapid growth of a plant is 
the best security against them; to secure 
which, sow plenty of seed, all of the 
same age. Burning the surface of the 
land is beneficial, by destroying the 
chrysalides. Deep digging is an excel- 
lent practice when the chrysalides are 
in the soil. Drilling is a far superior 
practice to sowing the seed broadcast. 
Destroy charlock : it affords support to 
the beetles before the turnips come up. 
The most effectual banishment of the 
turnip-fly, we think, is secured by sow- 
ing the surface of the soil with gas-lime 
two or three mornings after the turnip- 
seed has been sown. This is so offensive 
to the insect as to drive it away just at 
the time the young plants are appearing 
above ground. — The Cottage Gardener, 
ii. 93. 

Black Grub. Atha'lia spina'rum. 

Black Jack Oak. Que'rcm ni'gra. 

Black Pine. Pi'nus austri'aea. 

Black Saltwort. Glau'xmari'tima. 

Black Thorn. Pru'nus spina' sa. 

Black Varnish-tree. Mdanor- 


Black Wattle. Callico'ma aerrati- 

Bladder Blight. See Peach— 

Blistering of Leaf . 

Bladder Catchfly. Stte'neinfla'ta. 

Bladder Ketmia. Eibi'scus tri- 

Bladder Nut. Staphyle'a. 

Bladder PLtuns. Our illustration 
represents a condition of the fruit of 
various kinds of Plum that is not very 
uncommon. When the other parts of 
the flower have fallen off, the ovary 
turns yellowish, and commences to swell 
at a rather rapid rate, finally assuming 
the form here shown; but, instead of 
being plump and fleshy, they are merely 
hollow bags filled with air. This dis- 
torted growth is caused by a fungus, 
which after a few weeks develops as a 
greenish mould on the surface ; the 

bladder then blackens and shrivels, 
and speedily decays.— The Gardeners* 
Chronicle for 1872, p. 940. 

Bladder Senna. Colu'tea. 

Bladder -wort. See Utricu- 

Blse'ria. (Named after Dr. Blair, a 
physician. Nat. ord., Ericacece.) 

Pretty greenhouse evergreen shrubs, from the 
Cape of Good Hope. Cuttings of young wood in 
sand, under a bell-glass; sandy peat. For treat- 
ment, see Erica. 
jB. articvia'ta. 1. Pink. May. 1795. 

— bractea'ta. See Syttvpieza capUella, 

— cUia'ris. See GHsebachia cUiaris. 

— dwmo'sa. 2. 1806. 

— ericoi'des. 2. Purple. September. 1774.. 

Syn., Erica orbicidaris, B. 0. 1. 153. 
— fascieula'ta. See Sympieza. 

— purjnilrea. 2. Purple. June. 1791. 

Bla'kea. (Namedafter MartinBlake,. 
an active promoter of useful knowledge. 
Nat. ord., Melastomacece. Allied to 

Ornamental stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings 
from rather firm shoots, in sandy peat, In bottom- 
heat, under a glass ; peat and loam, with a- 
liberal supply of water in spring and early 

B, qui'nquene!rvia, 10. Flesh-colour and white. 
June. Guiana. 1820. 

— trim'rvia. 8. Rose. June. Jamaica. 1789.. 

B. M. t. 461. 

Blanching, or Etiolation, is 
effected by excluding the light from the 
plants, and the more completely the 
light is excluded, the more entire is the 
absence of green colour from the leaves, 
and stems of the plants. The colouring 
matter of these is entirely dependent 
upon their power to decompose water 
and carbonic acid gas — a power they do 
not possess when Tight is absent. The 
effect of blanching is to render the parts 
more delicately flavoured, more pleasing 
to the eye, and more crisp — properties 
very desirable in sea kale, cdery, rhu- 




barb, endive, lettuces, etc. Wherever it 
can be accomplished, blanching-pots 
should be employed, in preference to 
covering the plants with earth or other 
materisHs. The flavour is better, and 
the plants less liable to decay. Lettuces 
and cabbages are usually whitened by 
tying the leaves over the heart, or 
centre-bud. In some instances, blanch- 
ing is undesigned and a positive evil, as 
when geraniums and other plants be- 
come pale and weak, from being con- 
fined under vines in a greenhouse, where 
the relative heat and light are dispro- 

Blandfo'rdia. (Named after ffewgie. 
Marquis of Blavdford. Nat. ord. , fieme- 
rocaUidem. Allied to Hemerocallis. ) 

Beautiful greenhouse bulbs, requiring the 
9ame treatment as Ixias. Seeds and onsets. 
Loam and peat. 

B. av!rea. 1 to 2. Golden-yellow. Summer. 
N. S. Wales. 1870. B. M. t. 5809. 

— Backhou'sU. See B.grandiflora. 

— Cuwaingha'Tnii. 3. Ked, yellow. June. New 

South Wales. B. M. t. 5734. 
— hi/brida. Red with yellow margin. 

— fia'mmea. Dull yellow. Australia. 1836. 

B. B. t. 924. 

— ■ e'legafis. Crimson, tipped with yellow. 


— grcmdijlo'ra. 2. Crimson. July. N. S. Wales. 

1812. B. B. t. 924. Syns., B. Baakhousii 
and marginata. 

iTiJtermddia. IJ. Yellow. September. 

N. Holland. 1844. 

— margina'ta. B. E. 1846, 1. 18. See B. gran&i- 


— ru/mU. 2. Orange. July. N. S. Wales. 

1803. B. M. t. 2003. 

— pri'nceps. 1. Scarlet-yellow. Summer. Aus- 

tralia. 1873. STO^.y B. fiawmiea princeps. 
B. M. t. 6209. There is also a variety 
splmdens. Garden, Oct. 27, 1883. 

Bleaberry, or Bilberry. Vacei' 
nium myrti'Uus. 

Ble'chnuui. (From hlechnon, a 
Greek name for a Fern. Nat. ord., 

Spores or seed, and divisions at the root ; peat 
and loam. The Cape of Good Hope and New 
Holland species will thrive in the greenhouse ; 
the South American and Indian require the 
stove, though none of them will find fault with 
its heat. Summer temp., 60° to 90° ; winter, 55° 
to 60°. 
B. angueV/dVmm. 1. Brown. July. W. Ind. 

— OMstra'le. |. Brown. June. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1691. 

— hcrrea'le and var. Aitk&ma'nv/m. See LoTnaria 


— bra^lie'Tise. f . Brown. June. Brazil. 1820. 

— cartUagi'neum. 1. Brown. July. N. Holland. 


— corcmadd'me. 4. Brown. July. Brazil. 1837. 

— denticula'tum. Brown. June. Teneriffe. 1826. 

— Finitaysonm'nwm. Brown. Malacca. 

— Fontcmesia'num. Brown. July. Brazil. 

— glandvio'ium. J. Brown. April. Brazil. 1823. 

— gra'eile. f. Brown. November. Brazil. 1830. 

— hasta'tium. 1. Brown. July. ChUi. 1841. 

— intermedium. 1. Brown. July. Brazil. 1841. 

— lamce'ola. 3. Brown. September. BrazU. 


B. lance'ola fraxi'neum. More dense than the 

, type. Syn., B. fraxinii/olium. 
-laangatum. 1. Brown. July. N.Holland. 

-langifo^iwm. 1. Brown. July. Caraccas. 

— ni'tidum. Brown. Isle of Luzon. 
contra'ctum. Philippines. 1863. 

— ocmdenta'le. 1. Brown. August. Brazil 1823 

— orienta'le. Brown. July. E. Ind. 

— pectina'twm. 1. Brown. August. S. Amer 


— polypodioi'des. See B. unUaterale. 

— rugo'sum. G. C. 21, p. 408. 

— serrula'tum. |. Brown. July. Florida. 1819. 

Hardy. Syn., B. atriatwm. 

— trumgula're. Brown. July. Mexico. 1841. 

— trifolia'tum. Brown. July. Brazil. 1841. 

— wnilatera'le. 1. September. Brazil. 1829. 

Syn., B. polypodioides. 

Ble'chum. (From a Greek name for 
an unknown plant, supposed to be Mar- 
joram. Nat. ord., AcantJvacece. Allied 
to Dicliptera. ) 

Stove herbaceous perennials. Cuttings of 
young, firm shoots in spring or summer ; peat 
and loam. 

jB. amgwstifo'lium. 1. Blue. June. Jamaica. 

— hrazUielnse. See Stenwndrv/m Tnandioccanum. 

— Bro'vmei. 2. White. June. W. Ind. 1780. 

— larifio'mm. 2. White. Jamaica. 1818. 

Bleeding. See Extravasated 

Ble'pharis. (From blepharis, the 
eye-lash ; in reference to the fringed 
bracts. Nat. ord., Acanthacece. Allied 
to Acanthus. ) 

Stove and greenhouse shrubs or herbs. The 
annuals and oiennials by seed in hotbed, as 
tender annuals ; the trailers and under shrubs 
by the same means, and by cuttings in heat, 
under a bell-glass. 

B. Boerhaavicefo'lia. 1. Blue. July. B. Ind. 
1829. Stove annual. Wight Icon. t. 458. 

— cape^nsis. 1. Blue. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1816. Greenhouse biennials. 
Syn., Acanthodiwm capense. 

— carduUo'lia. 1. Blue. August, Cape of 

Good Hope. 1816. 
—furca'ta. 2. July. Cape of Good Hope. 1816. 
Greenhouse evergreen shrub. Syn., 

— linearifo'Ua. 2. Blue. July. Guinea. 1823. 

Stove annual. Syn., Acanthodiwm Kir- 

— proeu'mbens. 1. July. Cape of Good Hope. 

1825. Greenhouse evergreen trailer. 
Syn., Acanthodium procwmbens. 

Blephi'lia. (From blepharis, the 
eye-lash ; in reference to the fringed 
bracts. Nat. ord., Labiatce. Allied to 
Monarda. ) 

Hardy herbaceous perennials. Seeds, and 
dividing the roots in spring and autumn. Gar- 
B. cilia'ta. 3. Blue. July. N. Amer. 1798. 

— kirsu'ta. 1 to 2. Purple or blue. August. 

N. Amer. 1798. 

Blessed Thistle. Cnicus benedic- 
tus. Syn., Carbenia benedicta. 

Ble'tia. (Named after g, Spanish 




botanist of the name of Blet. Nat. ord. , 
Orchidacem. ) 

Pretty stove terrestrial orchids, except where 
otherwise specified. Division of the roots, when 
done flowering or starting into growth ; peat, 
loam, and a little sand, enriched with top dress- 
ings of manure, watering plentifully when 
jB. aAmtvpdtaXa. See B. verecmida, 

— camjiamiMta. Purple and white. Peru. 
—fldrida. 2. Rose. February. Trinidad. 1786. 

Syn., B. pallida. 

— Gebi na. See B, hyacmthina, 

— grafdlis. IJ. Pale greenish white, July. 

Mexico. 1830. B. E. 1. 1681. 

— havane'rms. 2J. Purple. Havannah. 1835. 

— hyacmthi'na. 1. Rose and crimson. April. 

China. 1802. Garden, Nov., 1879. Syn., 
B.Gebina. Has been proved quite hardy. 

— macuXa'tus. See Phaius macudatus. 

— pa'llida. See B. fiorida. 

— ParMnso'ni. 1. Rose. January. Mexico. 

— pa'tula. 2. Purple. March. Hayti. B. M. 
t. 3518. 

— rejlelxa. 2. Purple. Green. Mexico. B. R. 

1. 1760. 

— iecu'iida. Green,- crimson. Mexico. 1840. 

— Shephdrdii. 2. Purple and yellow. January. 

Jamaica. 1825. B. M. t, 3319. 

— Sherrattia'na. Purple, white, yellow. New 

Grenada. 1867. B. M. i. 6646. 

— Ta/rikervi'llee. See Phaius grandifolvus, 

— verecu'nda. 3. Purple. March. W. Ind. 1733. 

B. M. t. 930. Syn., B. ouMtipetala. 

— Woodfo'rdii. See Phaius maculatus. 

Bli'ghia sa'pida. The Akee-tree, 
the berry ef which is so much esteemed 
in the West Indies. It was named after 
Captain Bligh, the introducer of the 
Bread-fruit i&om the Society Islands. It 
is now included under Cupania. 

Blind Plants frequently occur in 
the cabbage and others of the Brassica 
tribe. They are plants which have failed 
to produce central buds ; and, as these 
are produced from the central vessels, if 
the top of their stems be cut away, they 
usually emit lateral or side-buds from 
the edge of the wound. See Barren 

Blistered Leaves. See Peach. 

Blight. A general term for plant- 

Bli'ttun. The Strawberry Elite, or 
Spinach, is scarcely worth growing. B. 
capita' turn, B. mrga'tum, and B. mari'- 
turn are sometimes cultivated. 

Blood. See Animal Matters. 
Blood-flower. Hcema'nthus. 
Bloodwort. Sanguina'ria. 
Bloom, or Blossom, is the popular 
name for the flowers of fruit-bearing 

The organs of fructification are abso- 
lutely necessary for the production of 
seeds, and are always producible by 
garden-plants properly cultivated. They 

may be deficient in leaves, or stems, or 
roots, because other organs may supply 
their places ; but plants are never mca- 
pable of bearing flowers and seeds, for, 
without these, they can never fully at-' 
tain the object of their creation — the 
increase of their species. Of course, we 
exclude the mushroom, and others of 
which the seed-producing parts are 

Most flowers are composed of the fol- 
lowing parts, viz. ; — The calyx, which is 
usualfy green, and enveloping the flower 
whilst in the bud ; th» corolla, or petals, 
leaves so beautifully coloured, and so 
delicate in most flowers ; the stamens, or 
male portion of the flower, secreting the 
pollen, or impregnating powder; the^is- 
tUs, or female portion, impregnatable by 
the poUen, and rendering fertile the 

The stamens can be removed without 
preventing the formation of fertile seed; 
but their loss must be supplied by the 
application to the pistils of pollen from 
some kindred or other flower. 

The calyx is not useless so soon as it 
ceases to envelope and protect the flower; 
for the flower-stalk continues increasing 
in size until the seed is perfected, but 
ceases to do so in those plants whose 
calyces remain long green, if these be 
removed. On the other hand, in the 
poppy and other flowers, from which the 
calyx falls early, the flower-stalk does 
not subsequently enlarge. 

The corolla, or petals, with all their 
varied tints and perfumes, have more 
important ofiices to perform than thus to 
denght the senses of mankind. Those 
bright colours and their perfumed honey 
serve to attract insects, which are the 
chief and often essential assistants of 
fertilization ; and those petals, as ob- 
served by Linnseus, serve as wings, giving 
a motion assisting to effiect the same im- 
portant process. But they have occa- 
sionally a still more essential office ; for, 
although they are sometimes absent, yet, 
if removed n-om some of those possess- 
ing them, the subsequent processes are 
rarely duly performed. 

The corolla is not always short-lived, 
as in the Cistus ; for some continue until 
the fruit is perfected. The duration of 
the petals, however, is in some way con- 
nected with the impregnation of the seed, 
for in most flowers they fade soon after 
this is completed ; and double flowers, in 
which it occurs not at all, are always 
longer enduring than single flowers of 
the same species. In some flowers the 
calyx is large and petaloid, while the 
petals are inconspicuous and nectar- 




bearing. A familiar example occurs 
in the Christmas rose (Hellebo'rus ni'ger), 
the petals of which are white, but 
which become green so soon as the seeds 
have somewhat increased in size, and the 
stamens and other organs connected with 
fertility have fallen off. 

Bloom. This term is also applied to 
the line exudation on the surface of some 
fruit — ^purple on the Black Hamburgh 
Grape, and on some plums, and green 
on the cucumber. It so improves their 
appearance that an apparatus has been 
suggested for adding it artificially. It 
saems of a resinous nature. 

Blue-bells. Campa'nrda rotundi- 
fo'lia and Sci'lla nu'tans. 

Blue-bottle. Centau'rea cya'nus. 

Bluets. Vaeci'nmm angustifo'lium. 
In France this name is applied to Cen- 
taurea eyamis. 

Blumenba'chia. (Named after 
J. F. Blumenhach, of Gottingen. Nat. 
ord., Loasaceos.) 

Half-hardy annuals unless where otherwise 
stated. Seeds in April ; rich mould. 
B. ckuquite'nses. Bed, yellow. Peru. 1863. 
Hardy. B. M. t. 6143. 

— emit&rta. Orange-red, green. July. Peru. 

1874. B. M. t. 6134. 

— corona'ta. li. Orange-red. Chill. 1872. 

Syn., Cai(^hffra coronata. 

— ingHgnis. 1. White. July. Monte Video. 

1826. Trailer. B. M. t. 2866. Syn., 
Loasa paVmata. 

— lateri'tia,. 20 Bed. May. Tncuman. 1836. 

Syns., Loaaa lateritia (B. M. t. 3632), and 
coeciTieay half-hardy perennial requiring 
the protection of a frame in winter. 
-r^ tmUtiljida. 1. Greeiush-red. July. Buenos 
Ayres. 1826. B. M. t. 3599. 

Boatlip. Scaphyglo'ttis. 

Boba'rtia. (Named in honour of 
Jacob Bobart, professor of botany at Ox- 
ford in the seventeenth century. Nat. 
ord., Iridacem.) 

Many of the species referred to this genus 
have now been united to Aristea. Seeds in April ; 
divisions in autumn or spring. Sandy loam ; 
protection of a cool greenhouse or pit in winter. 
B. aphj/Ua. 1. White, purple. South Africa. 
Sifn., Marica aphylla. 

— awraint'ilaca. See JBomerUt awrantiaea. B. 

M. 1. 1612. 

— filifo'rmis. 1. Purple. South Africa. Syn., 

Marica filiformis. 

— gladia'ta. 2. Yellow. June. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1816 Syn., Manoa gladiata. 
B. fe. t. 229. 

— spatha'cea. J. Yellow. June. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1798. 

Bocco'nia. (Named after P. Boc- 
cone, M.D., a Sicilian. Nat. ord.,Pa^a- 
veracem. ) 

B. cordata is a hardy herbaceous perennial, 
the others greenhouse shrubs. Division, cuttings 
with a heel early in summer in sand, under a 

B. cordata. Whitish. Summer. Japan. 1866. 
Syns., B. eordata-japanica and Macleayn 
yedoensis. B. M. t. 1905. A handsome 
foliaged plant. 

— frute' scene. 10. White, yeUow. October. 

W. Ind. 1739. B. C. t. 83. 

— integrifo'lia. 9. Greenish. Peru. 1822. 
Bqe'bera. (Named after Baber, a 

Russian botanist. Nat. ord., Com^osiioe; 
Tribe, Helenoidem.) See Dysodia 

Bog-bean. Menya'nthes trifolia'ta. 
Bog -earth, Heath -mould, or 
Peat. By gardeners this is understood 
as not meaning that mass of moss, or 
sphagnum, dug out of wet, fenny places 
for fuel, but a sharp, sandy soil, mixed 
with the dead, fibrous roots of heath, 
and usually of a dark -grey colour, such 
as is found upon the surface beneath the 
heath on Wimbledon, Bagshot, and 
many other dry commons. Peat of the 
best description is thus constituted. Of 
400 parts : 

Fine silicions sand 166 

Unaltered vegetable fibre ... 2 
Decomposing vegetable matter . . 110 
Silica (Bint) .... .102 

Alumina (^clay) . . ... 16 

Oxide of iron 4 

Soluble, vegetable, and saline matter . 4 

Muriate of lime 4 

Loss 2 

Bog-earth Plants. Plants which 
require to be grown in bog-earth, such as 
Bhododendrons, Ericas, etc. 

Bog-moss. Spha'gnum. 

Boiler. The vessel employed to sup- 
ply the pipes or tanks with hot water or 
steam, when either of these is used for 
heating purposes. Many are the inge- 
nious and intricate boilers from time to 
time offered to the gardener ; but, after 
much experience with boilers of all de- 
scriptions, we can confidently say the 
most simple is the best. The smaller 
the boiler and the fireplace, compatible 
with efficiency, the greater is the economy. 
We can tell the gardener, also, most de- 
cidedly, that the total size of the boiler 
has nothing to do with that efficiency; 
the only point to be secured is, that a 
sufficient surface of the boiler be exposed 
to the fire. The following table shows 
the amount of boiler-surface which must 
be exposed to the fire to heat given 
lengths of pipe, respectively 4 inches, 3 
inches, and 2 inches in diameter : 

Surface of boiler exposed 4-inch 3-inch 2-inch 
to the fire. pipe, pipe, pipe. 

ft ft. ft. 

3* square feet will heat 200 or 266 or 400 

5i „ „ 300 „ 400 „ 600 

7 „ „ 400 „ 633 „ 800 

8} „ „ 600 „ 666 „ lOOO 

12 ,, „ 700 „ 933 „ 1490 

IT „ ,) 1000 „ 1333 „ 2000 




To prevent the sectle, or limy crust, 
which is often so troublesome, dissolve 
in the water at the rate of one ounce of 
sal ammoniac (muriate of ammonia) to 
every sixty gallons. Do this twice in 
the year ; as, in October and April. 

Bois-perdix (Partridge-wood). 

Bolbophy'Uum. See Bulbo- 
Boldo'a. United to Salpianthus. 

Bo'lemn. (From bolos, a ball; in 
reference to the shape of the seed-pods. 
Nat. ord., CrucifercB ; Tribe, IsaMece. 
Allied to VeUa.) 

Desirable hardy evergreen shrub, useful for 
rockeries. Seed in spring in a frame or in the 
open border during summer. Light, rich soil. 
B. a'sperwm. 1. Cream. June. Spain. 1818. 

Boliva'ria. (Named after Bolivar, 
the late republican chief in South 
America. Nat. ord., Okacece.) See 
Bo'Uea. See Zygopetalum. 
Bolto'nia. (Named after J. B. Bol- 
ton, an English professor of botany. Nat. 
ord., Compositm; Tribe, Asteroidem. 
Allied to Stenactis.) 

Hardy herbaceous perennials. Division in 
spring or autumn, useful border plants for 
flowering in late autumn ; garden-soil. 
B. asteroi'des. 3. Pale violet or purplish. Sep- 
tember. N. Amer. 1758. B. M. fc. 2564. 
Syn., B. glasti/olia. B. M. t. 2381. 

decv!rren8. Larger flowered and finer, 

with winged stems. 

— inci'ga. See Calimeris indsa. 

— i'ndica. White. Upper Burmah. Syn., 

Calistemon imdicwm. 

— latisqualma. Blue-violet. Autumn. N. 

America. 1879. 

Bo'mbax. Silk. Cotton-tree. (From 
homboiX, cotton ; in reference to the woolly 
hairs which envelope the seed, like those 
of the cotton-plant. Nat. ord., Mai- 
vacecB. ) 

Stove-trees more remarkable for their pro-- 
digious size than for their use. Cuttings of rather 
young shoots, but firm at the base, placed in 
sandy soil, under a bell-glass, and in bottom-heat ; 
rich loam. 
B. Cei'ba. 100. Pale red. S. Amer. 1692. Syn., 

B, quinatum. 
~- co'ngo. See Cochloepermwm goseypiwm. 

— erieHnthoB. See Eriodendron lewMtherimt. 

— globo'swm. 60. Guiana. 1824. 

— goasy'piwm. See Cochlospertnv/m gossypium. 

— grwndijl&rum. SeeCochlospermuTngossypium. 

— heptaphy'll'wm. See Bombax septenatum. 

— malaia'rimm,. 60. Scarlet. Malabar. Wight 

m. t. 29. 

— penta'iuhrmn. SeeJEriodendrontmfractuoeum. 

— quvna'twm. See Bombax Ceiba. 

— aeptena/tvnn. 60. White. Carthagena. 1899. 

Syn., B. heptaphyllwm. 

— vitifdlvwm. SeeCochlospermum serraHfolium. 

Bo'mbyx neu'stria. Syn., 
campa neustria. The Lackey, or Barred- 

Tree Lackey Moth. " The eggs of this 
insect, in winter, may be detected easily, 
in broad bands, round the twi^ of our 
pear, apple, and other trees. They are 
arranged with such admirable art, that 
they seem set by the skilful hands of 
the jeweller (see the annexed drawing). 
Each bracelet, as the French gardeners 

call it, contains from two hundred to- 
three hundred eggs, fastened by their 
ends, in a series of from fifteen to seven- 
teen close, spiral circles, round the twig. 
The spaces oetween the eggs are filled 
up wiwi a tenacious, brown gum, which 
protects them from inclement weather, 
as well as from all attacks except those 
of man. The eggs thus placed look like 
a ring of seed-lac ; and we think its name 
may nave been thence derived. They are 
easily crushed by the gardener's knife. 
The caterpillars — striped lengthwise, 
blue, red, and yellow, slightly hairy,, 
and with a white line down the back — 
appear from these eggs in the April or 
May following. They congregate early 
in the morning, or during rain, in large 
nests, at the forks of the small branches, 
and are then easily crushed. They enter 
the chrysalis state at the end of June, 
and then they are to be found in cocoons, 
or oval webs, powdered with white or 
yellowish dust, between two leaves, etc. 
The chrysalis, or pupa, is longish, and 
dark brown, in which state it remains 
for three weeks or a month. In July the 
moth appears ; its colour is light yellow 
or reddish-yellow ochre. The upper 
wings have a darker band across their 
middle, which band is bordered by tw» 
light cross-lines ; the fringes of the wings 
are whitish, spotted with brown ; the 
lower wings are of a uniform brownish 
or light-yellow colour. The male is 
readily known from the female by his 
comb-like (pectinated) antennae (feelers) 
and thinner body. The insect flies only 
at night, and, consequently, is rarely 
seen. The caterpillars often appear in 
considerable numbers, and do not confine 
their ravages to fruit-trees, but attack 




many others ; such as beeches, elms, 
poplars, oaks, and even pines. In May, 
when the caterpillars arelivingin society, 
the nests containing them should be col- 
lected and destroyed. Care must be 
taken when collecting the nest ; for, if 
the caterpillars are much disturbed, they 
let themselves down to the ground by 
means of a thin, silken thread, and 
escape. In July their cocoons should be 
looked for on the trees, in the roofs of 
sheds, in hedges, and even on the tops of 
walls." — The Cottage Gardener, i. 207. 

Bonapa'rtea. (Nat. ord., Brame- 
liacecE.) See TiUandsia. 

B. gra'cilis. See Daaylirion acrotrickum. 
— jv/ncea. See Agave getniniflo'ra. 

Bona'tea. (Named after M. Bonato, 
a distinguished Italian botanist. Nat. 
ord., Orchidem ; Tribe, Habenarieie. 
Allied to Habenaria. ) 

Handsome terrestrial cool house orchid. Divi- 
sion of the roots, or semi-bulbous tubers ; peat 
and loam. 

jB. speeM'sa. 2. Green, white. May. Caie of 
Good Hope. 1820. B. M. t. 2926. 

Bones are beneficial as a manure, 
because their chief constituent (phos- 
phate of lime) is also a constituent of 
all plants ; and the gelatine which is also 
in bones is of itself a source of food to 
them. The bones of the ox, sheep, 
horse, and pig, being those usually em- 
ployed, their analyses are here given : 

Phosphate of lime . 
Carbonate of lime . 
Animal matter . . 














The bones must be applied to the crops 
in very small pieces or powder ; and ten 
pounds, at the time of inserting the seed, 
are enough for thirty square yards, if 
sown broadcast ; and a much smaller 
quantity is sufficient if sprinkled along 
the drills in which the seed is sown. 
There is no doubt that bone-dust may be 
employed with advantage in all gardens 
and to all garden-crops ; but it has been 
experimented on most extensively with 
the turnip and potato, and with unfail- 
ing benefit. Mixed with sulphur, and 
drilled in with the turnip-seed, it has 
been found to preserve the youn^ plants 
from the fly. Mr. Knight found it bene- 
ficial when applied largely to stone- 
fruit at the time of planting ; and it is 
quite as good for the vine. To lawns, 
the dust has been applied with great ad- 
vantage when the grass was becoming 
thin. As a manure for the shrubbery, 
parterre, and greenhouse, it is also most 
valuable ; and, crushed as well as ground, 

is employed generaUy to mix with the 
soil of potted T)lants. It promotes the 
luxuriance and beauty of most flowers. 
One poimd of bone-dust, mixed with 
twelve ounces of sulphuric acid (oil of 
vitriol), and twelve ounces of water, if 
left to act upon each other for a day, 
form super-phosphate of lime, a wine- 
glassful of which has been found benefi- 
cial to pelargoniums. Applied as a top- 
dressing, mixed with half its weight of 
charcoal-dust, it is a good manure for 
onions, and may be applied at the rate 
of nine pounds to the square rod. There 
is little doubt of this super-phosphate 
being good for all our kitchen-garden 
crops, being more prompt in its effects 
upon a crop than simple bone-dust, be- 
cause it is soluble in water, and there- 
fore more readily presented to the roots 
in a state for them to imbibe. Bones- 
broken into small pieces are generally 
used as drainage for pelargoniums and 
other potted plants. 

Bouga'rdia. (Named after Heinrich 
Gustav Bongard, a German botanist. 
Nat. ord., BerberidacecB.) 

A very pretty hardy tuberous perennial ; the 
leaves are all radical and pinnate, and are re- 
markable from having a dark purple blotch at 
the base of each leaflet. In Syria and Persia it ia 
used as a pot-herb. The soil should be of a dry 
sandy nature, and the tubers should be protected 
from wet by a hand-light during the winter, as 
they are very apt to rot. 
S. Sauwo'lfii. i. Yellow. Spring. Syria. Persia. 

1740. B. M. t. 6244. Syn., Leontice chry- 


Bonna'ya. (Named after the Ger- 
man botanist, Bonnay. Nat. ord. , Scro- 
phulariaeem. Related to Torenia. ) 

Stove plants. Seeds for the annual and bien- 
nial, divisions and cuttings for the perennial ; 
rich, sandy loam. 

B. brachyca'rpa. Violet. June. E. Ind. 1829. 

— re!pt(me. J. Blue. July. E. Ind. 1820.^ 

Perennial trailer. 

— veroniccefo'lia. i. Pink. August. E. Ind. 

1798. Biennial trailer. Wight Icon.. 
1. 1411-2. 

BoiUie'tia. (Named after O. Bonnet, 
a distinguished naturalLst. Nat. ord., 
TemstromiacecB. ) 

Elegant stove tree. Cuttings of firm young 
shoots in sand, under a glass, in heat ; loam and. 
B. palu'stris. See Mahurea paltLstris, 

— se'ssUis. 15. Purplish. Mount Boraima, 

British Guiana. 1819. 

Bo'ntia. (Named after J. Bont, a. 
Dutch physician. Nat. ord., Myopo- 
rinecB. ) 

Stove evergreen shrub, requiring similar treat- 
ment to Bonnetia. 
B. daphnoi'des. Yellow, purple. June. W. Ind- 




Borage. {Bora'go ojfkina'lis.) Its 
young leaves are sometimes used in 
salads, or boiled as spinach. Being 
aromatic, its spikes of flowers are put 
into negus and cool tankards. 

Soil and Situation. — For the spring 
and summer sowing, any light soil and 
■open situation may be chosen, provided 
the first is not particularly nch ; for 
those which have to withstand the win- 
ter, a light, dry soU, and the shelter of a 
south wall, are most suitable. A very 
fertile soil renders it luxviriant, and in- 
jures the flavour. 

Times and mode of sowing. — Sow in 
March or April, and at the close of July, 
for production in summer and autumn, 
and again in August or September, for 
the supply of winter and succeeding 
spring, in shallow drills, twelve inches 
apart. When of about six weeks' growth, 
the plants should be thinned to twelve 
inches apart. 

To obtain Seed. — Some of those plants 
•which have survived the winter must be 
left untouched. They will begin to 
flower about June ; and when their seed 
is perfectly ripe the stalks may be col- 
lected, and dried. 

Bora'gO. (Derivation doubtful. Nat. 
-ord., BoraginecB.) 

Hard}r plants. Annuals from seed ; perennials 
!by divisions ; garden-soil. 
B. erassi^o'lia. See Caccinea glauca. 

— erotica. See Trachystemon. 

— laxiflo'ra. 1. Blue. June. Corsica. 1813. 

Trailing perennial. B. M. 1. 1798. 

— longifo'lia. 1. Blue. July. North Africa. 

1825. Annual. 

— oJUtiTui'lis. 3. Blue. August. England. 

Annual. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, 1. 1114. 

albifio'ra. 2. White. August. England. 


— orwnta'lis. See Trachysterrum. 

— zeyla'nicwm. See Trichodesma zeylwnieu/m. 

Bora'ssus. (One of the names ap- 
plied to the spathe of the date-palm. 
_Nat. ord., Palmacece.) 

Palm-wine, or toddy, a grateful beverage, is 
made from the juice which flows from the 
wounded spathe of this and some other palms. 
Stove trees. Seeds in a strong bottom-heat; 
loam, leaf-soil and sand. 

B.ftabellifi'rmis. 30. White, green. W. Tro- 
pical Africa. 1771. Widely cultivated 
m India. Boxb. PI. Corom. t. 71-2. Syn., 
B. xtMopievmi, 
— pirma'tifrons. Jacq. H. Schoenb. t. 247-8. See 
Cha/mcedorea gracUig. 

Borbo'nia. (Named after Gaston 
«?6 Bourbon, son of Heniy IV. of France. 
Nat. ord., Legwminosm; Tribe, Genistece. 
Related to Scottia.) 

This genus and its allies— Hotiea, Lalage, Tem- 
vletonia, and others of that group— have always 
been great favourites with gardeners. All green- 
house evergreen shrubs, from the Cape of Good 
Hope. Cuttings in sand, in April, under a bell- 

glass, in a cool house or pit ; peat and loam and 

B. hm-ba'ta. i. YeUow. July. 1823. 

— cUia'ta. See B. perforata. 

— corda'ta. 3-6. YeUow. August. 1769. Jacq. 

H. Schcenb. t. 218. 

— crena'ta. 6. Yellow. July. 1774. B. M. 

t. 274. 

— ericifo'lia. See Amphifhalia encc^olia. 

— lanceola'ta. 3. YeUow. July. 1752. Jacq. 

H. Schoenb. t. 217. 

— perfo'liata. See Vascoa perfoliata. 

— perfora'ta. 3. Yellow. July. 1816. Syn., 
B. ciliata. 

— rvseifo'lia. 3. YeUow. July. 1790. B. M. 

t. 2128. 
— 'trme-'rvia. 6. Yellow. July. 1759. 

— undula'ta. i. Yellow. July. 1812. 

Border is a name applied to that 
narrow division of the garden which 
usually accompanies each side of a walk 
in the kitchen-garden, and to the narrow 
bed which is near to the garden-waU on 
one side, and abuts on a walk on the 
other. In fact, any bed which acts as a 
boundary to a walk, or grass-plot, or the 
main quarters of a garden, may be pro- 
perly described as a Dorder. 

1. Fruit-Borders. — Next to the wall 
should be a path, eighteen inches wide, 
for the convenience of pruning and 
gathwing. Next to this path should be 
the border, eight or nine feet wide ; and 
then the broad walk, which should al- 
ways encompass the main compartments 
of the kitchen-garden. The whole of 
the breadth from the wall to the edge of 
this main walk should be excavated to 
the depth of four feet ; the bottom of the 
excavation rammed hard ; brickbats and 
large stones then put in, to the depth of 
one foot and a half ; and the remaining 
two feet and a half filled up with suit- 
able soil. From the under-drainage of 
brickbats, etc. , draining pipes shomd be 
laid with an outfall into some neigh- 
bouring ditch. No fruit-tree wiU be 
healthy if it roots deep, or if its roots 
are surrounded by superfluous water ; 
that is, more water than the soil wiU 
retain by its own chemical and capillary 
attractions. Shallow-rooting crops do 
no harm to the trees grown on fruit- 
borders sufficient to require their total 
banishment. See Pruit-trees and 

2. Flower-Borders. — These, like the 
preceding, and, indeed, Uke every other 
part of the garden not devoted to aquatic 
and marsh plants, should be well drained. 
In plotting them, it must also be remem- 
bered that, if narrow, no art will impart 
to them an aspect of boldness and gran- 
deur. Indeed, narrowness of surface is 
inseparably connected with an impres- 
sion that the grounds are of limited 
extent; and no disposal of the plants 




wiU remove the littleness' thus sugges- 
ted. If the pleasure grounds are small, 
narrow horders are permissible; but, 
even then, the broader they are the less 
is the appearance of meanness. Neat- 
ness must be the presiding deity over 
flower-borders ; and no application of 
the hoe and rake, no removal of decayed 
leaves, no tying up of straggling mem- 
bers, can be too unremitting. See 

Forking -Berders.—'^o border, whether 
occupied by the roots of fruit-trees or 
flowering-shrubs, should be ever dug 
with the spade. The surface turned up 
roughly with the fork, to benefit by the 
winter frosts, and manure as necessary, 
turned in with the same implement, are 

Borecole. Bra'ssica olera'cea fim- 

Varieties. — Amongst the best are 

Cottagers' dwarf purple. 

Ragged Jack. 

Tall Green curled. 

Imperial hearting. 

Dwarf Green curled Scotch. 

Variegated Borecole. 

Melville's variegated. 

Asparagus Kale, etc. 

Somng. — The first crop sow about the 
end of March, or early in April, the 
seedlings of which are fit for pricking 
out towards the end of AprU, and for 
final planting at the close of May, for 
production late in autumn and com- 
piencement of winter. Sow again about 
the middle of May.; for final planting, 
during^ July ; and, lastly, in August, for 
use during winter and early sprmg. 

Prick out the seedlings when their 
leaves are about two inches in breadth ; 
set them about six inches apart each 
way ; and water frequently until estab- 
lished. In four or five weeks they will 
be of sufficient growth for final removal. 

Planting. — Set them in rows two feet 
and a half apart each way : the last 
plantation may be six inches closer. 
They must be watered and weeded ; and 
some of them being of large-spreading 
growth, the earth can only be drawn 
about their stems during their early 
growth. If, during stormy weather, 
any of those which acquire a tall growth 
are blown down, they should be sup- 

Eorted by stakes, when they will soon 
rmly re-establish themselves. 
To raise Seed. — Select such plants of 
each variety as are of the finest growth, 
and either leave them where grown or 
remove them during open weather in 
November, or before the close of Feb- 

ruary (the earlier the better), into rows 
three feet apart each way, and planted 
deeply. The seed ripens about the be- 
ginmng of August. 

Boro'nia. (Named after 5o»-om, an 
Italian servant of Dr. Sibthorp's. Nat. 
ord. PutacecB.) 

Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Cnttings of 
young or half-ripened shoots, inserted in sand 
under a glass, where there is the mildest heat • 
water must be given sparingly while in the cut- 
ting state; sandy peat and loam. Though green- 
house plants, most of them like a little extra 
heat in spring. 
B. ala'ta. 3. Bed. May. Australia. 182S. 

— cmemomefo'lia. 2. Eed. May. Australia 

anetkifo'lia. Australia. 1841. 

— ■ — — varia'bilis. Tasmania. 

— crentila'ta. 2. Bed. July. King George's. 

Sound. B. M. t. 3916. 

— cymo'sa. Pink. Swan Eiver. Syn., B. tere- 


— dentieiila'ta. 2. Red. March to August. 

Australia. 1823. B. B. 1. 1000. 

— dicho'tmna. See B. svathulata, var. elatior. 

— Drwmrno'ndii. 2. Pink. May. W. Aus- 

tralia. M. Ser. t. 881. 

— ela'tior. i. Deep red-brown. May. W. 

Australia. 1874. B. M. t. 6286. 
— faleifo'lia. MoretonBay. 1841. 

— Frase'ri. 3. Bed. May. New South Wales. 

1821. B. M. t. 4062. Syn., B. anenunue- 
folia. Pax. Mag. 9, p. 123, but not of 

— latif&lia. Eed. April. Australia. 1824. 

— ledifo'lia. 2. Bed. March. N. S. Wales. 

-^megasti'gnut. 1. Brown-yeUow. S. W. Aus- 
tralia. 1873. Very sweet scented. B. 
M. t. 6046. 

— microphy'lla. 2. Pink. Australia. 1846. 

— mo'Uis. Australia. 1841. 

— ma'ta. Crimson. May. Swan Eiver. 1841. 

— pinna'ta. 2. Purple. February to May. 

New South Wales. 1794. B. M. 1. 1763. 

— polygalcEfo'lia. 2. Red. May. Port Jack- 
-» son. 1824. 

— scU'bra. 1 to IJ. Pink. Swan River. 

— serra'tula. 3. Scarlet. June. N. S. Wales. 

1816. B. M. t. 842; 

— spathula'ta. Pink. Swan Eiver. 1846. 
ela'tior. Rose. October. Australia. 

1841. Syn., B. diehotoma. 

— tetra'ndra. 2. Pale purple. May. Aus- 

tralia. 1824. Pax. Mag., 16, p. 227. 

— teretifo'lia. See B, cymosa. 

— triphj/lla. 2. Pink. May. Australia. 1840. 

Perhaps a variety of B. ledifolia. 

— mtni'nea. Pink. Swan Eiver. 

Borre'ria. (Named after J. W. 
Borrer, a British cryptogamist. Nat. 
ord., Pubiacew.) See Spermacoce. 

B. comTnuta'ta. See Spermacoce vertieillata. 

Bo'scia. (Named after L. Base, a 
French professor of agriculture. Nat. 
ord. Capparidacece.) 

Stove-cuttings of firm wood in heat, in sandy 
under a glass ; lumpy, flbry loam and peat. 
B. gensgale'nsis. 3. White. Senegal. 1824. 

Bosche'ria minaha'ssce, is a garden 
name for what appears to be an Artocar- 
pad. (1872.) 

Bossise'a. (Named after M. Bossier 




LcMnartinik-e, who accompanied La Pi- 
rouse on his fatal voyage. Nat. ord., 
LeguminoscB; Tribe, Genistece. Allied 
to Hovea. ) 

Greenhouse evergreen shrubs and trailers , 
cuttings of half-ripe shoots in sand, under a 
hell-glass, in April ; peat and loam, both flbry, 
■with a portion of silver-sand, and some pieces of 
charcoal, to keep the soil open ; also seeds sown 
in a slight hotbed, in March. 
B. buxifo'lia. i. Yellow. May. N. Holland. 
1824. - 

— cine^rea. 3. Yellow. May. Van Diemen'a 

Land. 1802. B. M. t. 3896. Syns., B. 
cordifolia and B, tenuioaulis. 

— di'sticha. 2. Yellow. May. N. Holland. 

1840. B. E. 1841, t. 65. 

— ensa'ta. 6. Yellow. May N. Holland. 

1824. Syn., B. mfa, Maund Bot. t. 82, 
but not of il. Brown. 

— erioea'rpa. 1. Yellow. May. King George's 

Sound. 1837. 

— folio' sa. 4. Yellow. May. N. Holland. 1824. 

— Henders&nii. Yellow and bronze. N. S. 

Wales. 1844. 

— heteraphy'Ua. 3. Yellow. September. N. 

S. Wales. 1792. Syns., B. lanceolata, 
B. M. t. 1144, B. ovata, PlatyloHwn 
lanceolatwm, Andr. Rep. t. 205, and P. 
ovata, Andr. Rep. t. 266. 

— lenticula'ris. See B.rhoinbifoZia. 

— Urmceoi'des. Yellow. May. N. Holland. 1824. 

— Unophy'lla. 3. Orange. August. N. Hol- 

land. 1803. B. M. t. 2491. 

— microphy'Ua, 3. Yellow. July. N. S. Wales. 

1803. B. C. t. 666. Syn., PlatyloUwm 
microphyUv/m, B. M. t. 863. 

— ova'ta. See B. heterophyUa. 

— pa/udfc/lia. See B. rufa^ var. mr'gata. 

— prosira'ta. J. Yellow. August. N. S. 

Wales. 1803. 

— rhoinbifo'lia. 1. Y'ellow. May. N. Holland. 

1820. Syn., B. lenticularis. 

— rotundi/o'lia. 3. Yellow. May. N. Hol- 

land. 1824. 

— ru'fa of E. Brown not of Maund, which is B. 

ensata. 6. Orange. August. N. Hol- 
land. 1803. 

folio' sa. Yellow. Australia. 1843. B. 

R. 1843, t. 63. Syn., B. gpiTiescens. 

iiirga'ta. 2. Yellow, reddish-brown. 

June. Swan Elver. 1841. B. M. t. 3986. 
Syns., B. pcmcifolia and virgata. 

— scolope'ndria, 10. Yellow. June. N. S. 

Wales. 1792. 

— tenuicau'lis. See B. dnffrea. 

Bostri'chus, a class of beetles, many 
of which are very injurious to the crops 
of the garden. 

B. di'spar, Apple-bark beetle. The 
female of this insect bores into the wood 
of the apple-tree, and there deposits her 
eggs, generally in the mouth of May ; 
and its perforations are so numerous and 
extensive, as frequently, on the con- 
tinent, to destroy the tree. In England 
it rarely occurs. The perforations are 
confined to the alburnum, or young 

B. typo'graphus. Typographer - bark 
beetle. This attacks the pine-tribe, es- 
pecially the silver-fir. A drawing of 
this insect is given at page 329, vol. iii. 
of The Cottage Oardener. 

B. pina'stri, Pinaster, or Red-hark 

beetle, confines its attacks to the pines, 
leaving the firs untouched, as the B. 
feVm* lives exclusively on the larch, and 
the B. ortho' graphus on the spruce-fir. 

Boswe'Uia. Olibanum-tree. (Named 
after Br. Boswell, of Edinburgh. Nat. 
ord., BurseracecB.) 

The brittle resin of Boswellia, boiled with oil 
to render it soft, is used in the East as pitch for 
the bottoms of ships, and, in the dry state, as 
frankincense. Stove trees ; cuttings of half- 
ripened shoots, in sand and peat ; peat and 
B. gla'ira. 39. Pale yellow. Coromandel. 

1823. Bedd. Fl. Syl. 1. 124. 
— serra'ta. 20. Pale yellow. E. Ind. 1820. 

Linn. Trans. 16, t. 4. 

Bothy. A residence for under gar- 
deners, usually in or near the kitchen gar- 
den. Besides the usual accommodation, 
rooms are often set apart for library and 
class purposes. These are always bene- 
ficial, as papers on gardening subjects are 
read alternately by the gardeners, fol- 
lowed by discussion, in which all may 
take part, and receive much benefit. 

Mutual improvement societies should 
be encouraged by head gardeners where- 
ever practicable. 

Botry'ceras. (From Spfr^/*, a bunch, 
and heras, a horn ; in reference to the 
bunches of horn like racemes. Nat. 
ord., A'nacard'iacecB.) 

Greenhouse evergreen shrubs; cuttings of 
ripened shoots in sand, under a hand-light, in a 
frame, and the hand-light tilted up at night ; 
sandy peat. 
B. Icmri'num. i. Cape of Good Hope. 1823. 

Botry'chium. Moonwort. (From 
botrys, a bunch; in reference to the 
bunch-like formation of the seed-appa- 
ratus on the back of the leaf. Nat. ord., 

Perennial ferns, requiring greenhouse protec- 
tion, with the exception of B. lunaria and mr- 
giniarmm, which are quite hardy. Peat, and 

Himalayas. Syn., B. sub- 
Britain. Bng. Bot. ed. 3, 

rich loam! 
B. dauGifo'liv/m. 1. 

— Iwnalria. ^. May. 
1. 1837. 

— tema'tvm. 1. Hudson's Bay Territory. 

Syns., B. fwmarioides and luna/roides. 

a-ustra'le. J. June. Australia and New 

Zealand. 1823. Syn., B. australe. Half- 

disse'ctum. J. July. United States. 

1806. Syn., B. dissectwm. 

limarioi'des. India. 

obli'quum. J. August. 

1821. Syn., B. oUigimm. 

— wrginia'num. 1. August. 

1790. Syn., B. gnuMis. 
Ferns, t. 29. 

Botryode'ndron. See Meryta. 
Bottle Gourd. Lageiia'ria. 
Bottle-tree. Stercu'lia rupe'stris. 
Bottom-heat. Naturally the tem- 

N. America. 

N. America. 
Hook. Gard. 




perature of the soil always bears a due 
relative proportion to that of the air. 
When the temperature of the air de- 
creases, that of the soil also decreases, 
biit more slowly ; and, when the atmo- 
spheric heat increases, that of the soil 
also gradually rises. Bottom-heat, or 
heat applied to the roots of plants, is the 
artificial mode of imitating this proceed- 
ing of nature in our hothouses and other 
structures of that kind. If the tempera- 
ture of the soil be too cold in proportion 
to the temperature of the atmosphere, 
the roots are not stimulated sufficiently 
to imbibe food as fast as it is required 
by the branches and foliage ; and, as a 
consequence, the leaves or fruit will fall 
or wither. On the other hand, if the 
temperature of the soil be too great in 
proportion to that of the atmosphere, the 
roots absorb food faster than it can be 
elaborated by the leaves ; and, as a con- 
sequence, over-luxuriant shoots and an 
extra development of leaves are caused, 
instead of blossoms and a healthy pro- 
gress in all the parts. 

Every plant obviously will have a par- 
ticular bottom-heat most congenial to 
it. Plants growing in open plains will 
require a higher bottom-heat than those 
growing in wie shade of the South Ame- 
rican forests, though the temperature of 
the air out of the shade may be the same 
in each country. That gardener will 
succeed in exotic plant-culture best, 
who, among his other knowledge, has 
ascertained the relative temperature of 
the and soil in which any given plant 
grows naturally. At present, such in- 
formation from actual observation is not 
obtainable ; but it is not so difficult to 
ascertain the maximum and minimum 
temperature of the air of a country ; and, 
-these being obtained, the gardener may 
adopt this as a safe rule : — Let the bot- 
tom-heat for plants of that country be 
always 5° higher than the average tem- 
perature of each month; that is, if the 
lowest temperature of the month is 40°, 
and the highest 70°, the average is 55° ; 
and, if we add 5° to that, we shall have 
60° as the bottom-heat for that month. 
If the average maximum temperature of 
the air only be known, let the bottom- 
heat be less by 10° than the maximmn 
temperature of the air. 

Bottoming. A term usually applied 
to the drainage of pots, although equally 
applicable to any kind of horticultural 
drainage. (See Draining.) It is also 
applied to mowing grass on lawns, and 
signifies that the mower should take 
extra pains in mowing, cutting down 

almost to the surface of the turf in 
order to facilitate future mowings' bv 
the production of an entirely fresh her- 
bage, free from moss and the residue of 
former mowings. 

Boueero'sia. (Prom houkeros, 
having the horns of an ox ; in reference 
to the curved lobes of the corona. Nat. 
ord. , Asclepiadacece. Allied to Stapelia. ) 
Greenhouse succulent perennials. For culti- 
vation, see Stapelia and Caralluma. 
B. mropala. J. Purple-brown, yellow. Summer 
SicUy._ 1833. B. B. t. 1731. Syns., 
Stapelia Qussoniana, S. europoea, Apte- 
ranthes Gus8onia/na. 

— marocca'na. J. Purple-brown, yellow. Sum- 

mer. Morocco. 1876. B. M. t. 6137. 

— tessella'ta. faee ■Mchichnopsis cereifarmis. 

Bou'chea. (In honour of C. and P. 
Bouche, two German naturalists. Nat. 
Ord., Verbenacece. Allied to Stachytar- 

Stove perennials. For cultivation, see Ver- 
B. cuneifo'lia. i. White. April. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1821. Syn., Chaseanum 


— psevdogerva'd. 2 to 5. Purple, white. Sep- 

tember. Brazil. 1874. B. M. t. 6221. 

Bougainvi'llea. (Named after the 
French navigator, Bougainville, who 
died in 1811. Nat. ord., Nyctaginece.) 

Greenhouse climbers, some of which are very 
showy. They are always best planted in the 
borders, and trained up pillars or rafters. When 
the blooming period is over, about November, 
they should be kept dry, and in February they 
should be closely spur-pruned, as practised with 
the vine. Cuttings of half -ripened wood in sand 
under a b'eU-glass. Eich turfy loam and leaf- 

B. gla'Jrra. Yellow ; bracts large, pale rose. 
Brazil. 1861. 

— refvJlgens. Purple-mauve. Brazil. 1887. 

— speoio'sa. Yellow ; bracts large, rosy. Brazil. 

1861. Flor. Mag. vol. 1, t. 62. 

variega'ta. Leaves variegated. Garden 

variety. 1890. 

— gpeeta'bUis. 16. Pink. S. Amer. 1829. Syn., 

Josepha a/nmista. B. M. t. 4810. 

lateriltia. Bracts brick-red. 111. Hort. 

• t. 466. 

— splilndens. S. America. 1848. 

— mtifo'lia. S. America. 1848. 

Bourbon Palm. Lata'nm. 

Boussingau'ltia. (Named after 
the celebrated chemist, Boussingault. 
Nat. ord., ChenopodiacecB.) 

Half-hardy tuberous-rooted plants. Seeds; 
division of the tuberous roots and the tubercules 
produced on the stem. Peat and rich loam. 
B. baselloi'des. White. July. S. Amer. 1836. 
B. M. t. 3620. 

— Lachau'mei. Eose. Cuba. 1872. Constantly 

in flower. 

Bouva'rdia. (Named after Dr. 
Bouvard, curator of the Botanic Garden 
at Paris. Nat. ord., jBttftiaceos; Tribe, 




Greenhouse evergreen nnder-shrubs, except 
where otherwise specified. Seed at times, in 
heat. Cuttings of young shoots in heat, in 
March or Apiu, Shut up during the day, and 
air given at night Also by roots, cut into pieces, 
and inserted in sandy soil, and placed in a brisk, 
sweet heat, in spring. Light, fibry soil. The 
species of this genus readily hybridize. 
B. attgustifo'lia. 2. Red. September. Mexico. 
1838. Pax. Mag. vol. 7, p. 99. 

— CavanUUiii. IJ. Scarlet. May. Mexico. 

— Jla'va. IJ. Yellow. September. Mexico. 
1844. B. B. 1846, t. 32. 

— hirte^Ua. Scarlet. Mexico. 

— Bumbo'ldtii c(yrymtyijlo'ra. White. 1879. 

— Jacqui'nii. See B, trvphyUa, 

— jasminifio'ra. White. S. America. 1869. 

— Uia'ntha. 2. Scarlet. July. Guatemala. 

— longijlo'ra. 2. White. Mexico. 1827. B. 

M. t. 4223. 

— ■muitifio'ra. 1. White, violet. S. America. 

— nealbra. 1. Bright pink. January. Mexico. 


— strigillo'm. 3. Yellow. March. 1846. 

— triphy'tta,. 2. Scarlet. July. Mexico. 1794. 

B. B. t. 107 ; B. M. t. 1864. Syn., B. 


gla'mra. 2. Scarlet. July. Mexico. 1794. 

piibe! scene. 2. Scarlet. July. Mexico. 

8ple!ndens. 2. Scarlet. April. Mexico. 

1838. Syn., B. splendens. B. B. 1840, 

t. 37. 

— versi'color. 2. Bed. August. S. Amer. 1814. 

B. B. t. 245. 

Bowe'nia. (in honour of Sir G. 
Bowen, governor of Queensland. Nat. 
ord., Oycadacew.) 

For cultivation, see Cycas. 
B. specta'bilis. Queensland, Australia. B. M. 
t. 5398 and 6008. 

sermla'ta. Bockingham Bay. 1863. HI. 

Hort. t. 366. 

Bower. See Arbour. 

Bowie'a. (In honour of J. Bowie, 
Kew collector. Nat. ord., Liliacece.) 

Half-hardy bulb. Seeds, offsets. Any light 
ogen soil. Placed in a sunny border, under the 
wall of a stove or greenhouse facing the south, 
this curious and interesting plant does well. At 
first the bulb throws up a single slender leaf, 
and afterwards a long leafless twining stem, 
which branches and flowers freely. Must be 
protected from frost. 

B. volu'bilis. Green. S. Africa. 1866. Stem 
twining. B. M. 6619. 

Box (Bu'xus sempervi'rens), is noticed 
by the gardener chiefly as a plant suit- 
able for edgings. For this purpose it is 
neat ; but it is an exhauster of the soil 
more than any other that can be so em- 
ployed, and is a favourite lurking-place 
for the snail. For plants that may be 
substituted, see Edging. The best 
months for planting Box are September 
and February. Small-rooted slips are 
employed, and are planted against the 
perpendicular side of a small trench, 
along the edge of the border or bed they 
are desired to bound. The best month 
for clipping Box is June, and it should 
be done in showery weather. With 

great attention to not injuring the roots, 
and to washing earth in among these in 
their new position, large Box-trees or 
bushes have been moved in May, June, 
and July. See The Cottage Gardener, 
iv. 328, 350. 

Box Elder. Negu'ndo. 

Box Thorn. Lyfcium. 

Brabei'um.. African Almond. 
(From brabeion, a sceptre ; in reference 
to the flower-racemes. Nat. ord,, Pro- 
teacem. Allied to Persoonia. ) 

Greenhouse evergreen tree. Cuttings of ripe 
shoots under abeU-glass, in sand. Sandy loam. 
B. ateUa'tmn. 15. White. August. Cape of 
Good Hope. 1731. Sweet scented. 

Braehychi'ton. (From braehys, 
short, and chiton, a tunic. Nat. ord,, 
Sterculiacece. ) 

Greenhouse shrubs, allied to Sxercdlia. Cut- 
tings in sand. Soil, rich loam. 
B. acerifo'lium. 60 to 120. Bright red. Australia. 

— Bidivi'lU. Bed. September. N. E. Aus- 

tralia. 1851. B. M. t. 5133. 

— diversifo'liwm. 20 to 30. Australia. 1824. 

Braohyco'me. (From braehys, 
short, and kome, hair. Nat. ord., Com- 
positce ; Tribe, Asteroidew. Allied to the 

Annuals. Sown in a gentle hotbed in March, 
and transplanted as a half-hardy annual, or 
sown in the open with the other annuals in 
April. B. diversifolia by cuttings of half-ripe 
shoots, under a bell-glass ; peat and loam. 
B. diversifo'lia. J, White. May. Australia. 
1824. Greenhouse evergreen. Syn., 
Pyrethrwm diveni^oliwm, B. B. 1. 1026. 

— iberidifdlia. J. Purple. May. Swan Eiver. 

1840. HaU-hardy annual. B. B. 1841, 
t. 9. 

ra. J. White. SwanBiver. 

Brachylae'na. (From braehys, 
short, and Icena, a cloak, or covering ; 
referring to the shortness of the in- 
volucre. Nat. ord.. Composites; Tribe, 
Inuloideas. Allied to Tarchonanthus, ) 

Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Cuttings of 
half-ripe shoots, same as Brackycome diversi- 

B. denta'ta. Yellow. Cape of Good Hope. 
— nereifdlia. 4. White. September. Cape of 
Good Hope. 1752. 

Brachyo'tura. (From braehys, 
short, and otos, the ear ; in reference 
to the short appendages at the base of 
the anthers. Nat, ord,, Mdastomacece.) 

Stove shrub. For cultivation, see Pleeoma, 
to which it is allied. 

B. coTifdrtum. Violet ; bracts white, Andes, 
Peru. 1873. B. M. t. 6018. 

Brachy'pteris. (From braehys, 
short, and pteron, a wing. Nat. ord. , 
Malpighiaeem. ) 

Stove climber, 
B. horea'lia. 6, Yellow, July, Columbia 




Srachyse'ina. (From SrocAj/*, short, 
and Sima, standard ; the flowers having 
the standard petal short. Nat. ord., 
LeguminoscB ; Trihe, PodalyriecB.) 

Greenhouse evergreen climbers. Seeds in 
Marcli, in heat ; cuttings of half -ripened shoots 
in summer, in sand, under a bell-glass^ in a mild 
bottom-heat ; loam and peat, with a little sand. 
B. actimina'tum. Scarlet. Australia. Eev. Hort. 
1866, t. 21. 

— aphy'llum. Brownish-crimson. N. Holland. 

1849. B. M. t. 4481. 

— bracteol&ffwm. 3. Crimson. April. Swan 

Biver. 1843. 

— hj/bridv/in. Crimson, cream. March. 

— lanceola'tum. 3. Scarlet. February, Swan 

River. 1848. B. M. t. 4652. 

— lactifo'lium^ 3. Crimson. May. N. Hol- 

land. 1803. B. M. t. 2008. 

— mela/rwpe^tdlwm. 4. Blackish-purple. April. 

S. W. Australia. 1874. 

— platy'ptera. Crimson, May. Swan River. 


— pr(emo'rsum. Red. N. S. Wales. 1848. 

— undula'tum. 3. Green. March. N. S. Wales. 

1828. B. R. t. 642, B. M. t. 6114. 

— mllo'aum. 3. Crimson. March. Swan River. 

Brachyspa'tha. (From hrachys, 
short, and spatha, a spathe ; the spathe 
is much shorter than the spadix. Nat. 
Old., Araeem.) 

Stove tuberous perennial. For cultivation, 
see Amorfhofhallus, to which it is allied. 
B. varia'Wlis. 3. Spathe greenish-purple, spadix 
whSish. E. Indies. 1876. 6. C. 1876, 
p. 680. 

Brachyste'lma. (From brachys, 
short, and stelma, a crown ; referring to 
the coronal processes of the flowers. 
Nat. ord., Asclepiadacem.) 

Greenhouse tuberous perennials, from the Cape 
of Good Hope. Cuttings in sandy soil, in heat ; 
division of the roots ; fiory loam. 
B. Amclttii. 4. Brown, green. S. Africa. 1868. 
Bef. Bot. t. 9. 

— Barbdrx. Purple, speckled with yellow. S. 

^rica. 1866. B. M. t. 6607. 
-~ cri'spimi. J. Brown, yellow. September. 

— ma'tum. 1. Yellowish-green. S. Africa. 1872. 

Bot. Ref . t. 226. 

— spatvla'twm. 1. Green. June. 1826. B. R. 

t. Ills. 

— tiibero'eum. IJ. Purple. June. 1821. B. M. 

t. 2343. 

Bract. A reduced leaf in the axil of 
which one or more flowers are situated. 
Sometimes numerous hracts are arranged 
in a ring which is called an involticre, 
e.g., Daisy and Carrot. In the Liroe- 
tree (Tilia europcea), the bract is partly 
united to the flower stalk. 

Bracteole. A secondary bract. 

Bra'hea. (Named in honour of 
Tycho Brake, the celebrated astronomer. 
Nat. ord., PalmacecB.) 

Dwarf greenhouse palms. Imported seeds 
Rich light loam and fibrous peat, 
JS. du'lds. Mexico. 1865. Mart. Palm. 1. 137. 

— filamento'ea. Lower Cadifomia. 1879. Syns., 

Pritchardia jUifera, and Washingtoivia 
B. ni'tida. Mexico. Rev. Hort. 1887, p. 344. 

— Boefzlii. California. 1876. 

Brai'nea. (After C. J. Braine, ' 
Esq., of Hong Kong. Nat. ord., Filices 
— FolypodioAieos. ) 

Stove Fern. See Ferns. 
B. irm'gnie. Hong Kong. 1866. Hook. Fil. 
Exot. t. 38. 

Brake. Pte'ris aguili'na. 

Bramble. Bu'busfmtim'sus. 

Branching Axmual stock. Mai- 

eo'ima mari'tima. 

Br ase'nia. (Derivation unexplained, 
Nat. ord., Nymphwaeem; Tribe, Cabom- 

B. pata'ta. Red. July. N. America. 1798. Syn. 
Hydropeltw purpurea. 

Brassa'vola. (Named after A. M. 
Brassavola, a Venetian botanist. Nat. 
ord., Orchidacew; Tribe, Epidendrece- 
LceliecE. ) 

Epiphytal orchids, requiring an intermediate 
house. Divisions ; best grown on blocks of 
wood, with a little sphagnum. Water plentifully 
during the grovring season. 
B. acav'lis. J. Cream-coloured. June. Central 

America. 1862. Pax. Fl. Gard. v. 2, 


— amazo'nica. Brazil. B. E. 1839, sub t. 6. 

— tmgusta'ta. Yellowish-green. June. Deme- 

rara. , „ 

— carda'ta. 1. White,green. May. Brazil. B. M. 

t 3782 
~ cuculla'ta. J. Purple and white. June. W. 

Ind. 1790. Syns., B. odoratissima, Gfl. 

t. 33, and JEpidendrum cuetiMatum, B. M. 

t. 643. . . , , 
cttspida'ta,. J. White. March. Tnnidad. 

1839. B.M. t. 3722. 

— Siabua'na. }. Yellow, white, and purple. 

July. Honduras. 1844. B. M. t. 4474. 

— e^legans. Lilac. Antigua. B. M. t. 3098. Syn. 

Bletia rigida. 

— eibbsia'na. White, spotted with chocolate. 

— glau'ca. 1. Orange, white. March. Vera Cruz. 

1837. B. M. t. 4033. 

— grandillo'ra. See B. nodosa, var. grandi- 

flora. _ ,, 

— linea'ta. Light yellow. S. Amer. 1860. B.M. 

t. 4734. Syn., B. Mathieuana. 

— Uartia'na, 1. White. March. Berbice..l838. 

— nodo'sa. 1. Yellowish-green. October. Mexico. 

1838. B. M. t. 3229. 

grandiflo'ra,. Yellow, white, purple. S. 

America. 1865. 

— odMrati'ssima. See B. eucullata. _ 

— Pern'nii. 1. Green. September. Rio Janeiro. 

1831. B. M. t. 3761. 

— retu'm. White, green. March. Maracaybo. 

— rhopalorrha'chis. Guatemala. 

— tubercula'ta. i. White. July. BotafBay. 

1827. B. M.t. 2878. 

— vmo'sa. 1. While. March. Honduras. 1839. 

B. B. 1840, t. 39. 

Bra'ssia. (Named after Mr. Brass, 
a botanical traveUer. Nat. ord., Orchi- 
dacece. Tribe, Vandew.) 

Stove orchids. Divisions ; rough peat, in pots 
or baskets, well drained. Those from Guatemala 
require less heat than those from the West 




Indies; water freely when growing, but give 
little when at rest. 

B. angvleta. See B. Lawrencecrndf var. trngusta. 

— (mther(/teg. Deep yellow, blackish-purple. 

Tropical America. 1879. Warn. Oroh. 
Alb. 1. 159. 

— arcui'gera. Peru. 1869. 

— arista/ta. Yellow, brown. August. Guate- 

mala. 1844. 

— Mdens, Brown, yellow. May. Brazil. 1842. 

— bracMa'ta. 2. Yellowish-green and brown. 

September, ,Guatemala. 1843. B. B. 
1847, t. 29. 

— cavda'ta. 1. Yellow and brown. February. 

W. Ind. 1823. B. E. t. 832. 

hierogly*phica. The brown marks on the 

sepals and petals are in the form of bars, 
not spots. W. Ind. 111. Hort. 1881, 
t. 410. 

— cwmamo'mea. Dull brown, lip whitish, 

speckled with purple. New Grenada. 
Syn., B. havanensis. 

— ehlcfropa. |. Green, 1>lackish. Costa Bica. 


— Clowe^sii. Brown, yellow. August. Brazil. 


— cochlea' ta. See B. La/ujretviewna, var. cochleata, 

— cryptophtha'lmia. Yellow, blackish-violet. 

Winter. Peru. 1876. 

— euo'des. Brownish-red, yellow. May. Co- 

lumbia. 1880. 
— faHni'fera. Red, brown. Ecuador. 1870. 

— Oireondia'na. Yellow, spotted with deep red. 

Costa Bica. 

— gluTna'eea. Greenish-yellow, with brown rings 

and spots. Venezuela. 1868. 

— gutia'ta. See B. macuLata, var. guttata. 

— havane'nm. See B. cirmanwfmea. 

— Keilia'na. Orange. Brazil. 1862. 

tri'stis. Deep amber brown ; lips pale 

lemon, with brown spots near base. 
Caraccas. Warn. Orch. Alb. t.' 347. 

— Lancea'na. f . Yellow - brown spotted. 

January. Surinam. 1843. B.E.t. 1754. 
— macrosta'chya. 2. Green, brown. Deme- 

rara. Syn., B. macrostachya. 

~ pu'nifila. Yellow, purple. 1844. 

viridifi&ra. |. Green. March. Demerara. 


— Lawrencea'na. 1. Yellow, brown. April. 

Brazil. 1839. 

cmgu'sta. Yellow. October. Brazil. 

1839. Syn., B. angusta. 

cochl^a'ta. 1. Green, brown. April. 

Demerara. 1834. Syn., B. cochleata. 

^ longi'ssi'rna. 1. Orange-yellow, purple- 
brown. September. Costa Bica. 1868. 
B. M. t. 6748. 

— Tnacrosta'chya. See B. La/nceana, var. Tnacro- 


— Ttiacnda'ta. 1. Yellow-red spotted. April. 

Jamaica. 1806. B. M. 1. 1691. 
~ :- gutta'ta. Green, yellow. August. Guate- 
mala. 1843. B, M. t. 4003. Syn., B. 

I'na., 1. Yellow, green. April. 1844. 
-pu'Tnila. See B. Lanceanaj yax. pumUa. 
^- signa'ta. Green turning to yellow, with brown 
lines at base ; lip white, with purple and 
orange spots. 1881. 

— thyrso'des. Yellow, spotted with greenish. 

. Peru. 1868. 

— verruco'sa. Green, with dark purple blotches ; 

lip white. March. Guatemala. 

— grandijlo'ra. Larger and paler than the 


— Wra'yce. See B. maeulata, var. guttata. 

Bra'ssica. Cabbage. (From Iresic, 
tlie Celtic name for Cabbage. Nat. 
ord., Cruciferce.) 

Seeds, chiefly spring and autumn ; but at all 
intermediate periods during summer, according 
as the produce is wanted young; deep, rich, 
loamy soil. We shall only mention the specific 
names of the most useful, the cultivation of each 
of which will be found under its common name. 
B. botry'tis. Brocoli. 

— camliflo'ra. Cauliflower. 

— cau'to.ra'pa. Kohl Babi. 
— Jvmbria'ta. Borecole. 

— na'pa-bra'ssica. ■ Turnip-cabbage. 

— na'pus. Bape. 

— olera'cea. Cabbaofe. 

— Rutaba'ga. Swede. 

Bravo'a. (Named after Bravo, a 
Mexican botanist. Nat, ord., Amaryl- 
lidem. ) 

Pretty Mexican small bulbs, requiring slight 
protection in winter, admirably adapted for the 
greenhouse. Offsets or seeds sown as soon as 
ripe ; light, rich loam, leaf -soil, and sand. 
B. BuUia'na. 2-3. Whitish, tinged with greenish- 
purple outside ; dull yellow within. 
Mexico. 1884. 

— geminiflcfra. Orange-red. July. Mexico. 1841, 

B. M, t, 4741. 

Brazil-nut. BertkoUe'tia. 
Brazil-wood. Casalpi'nia bra- 

Bread-fruit. Artoca'rpus. 

Bread-nut. Brosi'mum. 

Bread- root. Fsora'ka escule'nta. 

Breaking. A tulip's flower is broken 
when it has attained its permanent 
colours, A bulbous root is said to break 
when its foliage begins to be thrust 
forth ; and a bud breaks when it bursts, 
to allow the expansion of the leaves or 

Breast-wood. The shoots which 
grow out directly from the front of 
branches trained as espaliers, or against 

Bre'dia. (Dedicated to the memory 
of Professor J. G. S. van Bred, Nat. 
ord,, MelastomacecB.) 

Greenhouse shrub. Seeds, cuttings of the 
ripened- shoots in sandy loam, under a hand- 

tlass, in heat. Eich light loam and peat, 
ummer temp. 60° to 75° ; winter, 50° to 60°. 
B. hvrsu'ta. Eosy. Autumn. Japan. 1870. B. M. 
t. 6647. 

Bremontie'ra. Bois de Sable. 
(Named after M. Bremontier. Nat. ord. , 
LeguminoscB ; Tribe, Hedysarece. Allied 
to Hedysarum. ) 

Stove evergreen shrub. Cuttings in sand, 
under a glass, in heat ; flbryloam and peat, with 
a little sand. Summer temp. 60° to 75° ; winter, 
60° to 65°. 
B. anvmo'ixylon. 4. Purple. Mauritius. 1826. 

Brevoo'rtia coccinea. B. M. 
t. 5857. See Brodisea coccinea. 

Bre'xia. {Proia brexis, rain; in re- 
ference to the protection from rain given 




by the large leaves of some of the species. 
Nat. ord., Saxifragece; Txihe, Escallo- 

Stove evergreen trees. Half -ripened shoots in 
sand, under a bell-glass, in bottom-heat ; sandy 
peat, and a third loam. Summer temp. 60° to 
75° ; winter, 60" to 65°. 

B. chryso'phylla. 80. Mauritius. 1820. B. B. 
t. 730. 

— madagasearie'nHs. 30. Green. June. Mada- 

gascar. 1812. B. R. t. 872. 

— spina' sa. 30. Green. June. Madagascar. 

1812. ^ 
integrifo'lia. Echb. Hort. t. 222. 

Brickellia. (Nat. ord., ComposUm ; 
Tribe, Eupatoriaceai.) Syn., Bul- 

Stove plants. Cuttings in sand, with bottom- 
heat, under a bell-glass ; loam and peat. 
B. CavcunMdsii. IJ. Purple. August. Mexico. 
1827. Evergreen undershrub. 

— pe!ndula. Yellow. August. Mexico. 1832. 

— veroniccefo'lia. IJ. Blue, August, Mexico. 


Bricks. As the gardener often may 
want to know how many bricks will be 
needed for an intended structure, it 
will be a guide to know that all bricks 
sold in England were required by statute 
(17 Geo. III., c. 42) to be eight and a 
half inches long, four inches wide, and 
two and a half mches thick. Pantiles, 
by the same authority, were required to 
be thirteen and a half inches long, nine 
and a half inches wide, and half an inch 
thick. But as the duty is now taken oflf 
these articles, we hope to see them made 
larger, and of various forms, so as to 
reduce the amount of bricklayers' la- 
bour, which is one of the most costly 
items in the construction of garden- 

Bridges, says Mr. Whately, are in- 
consistent with the nature of a lake, but 
characteristic of a river. They are, on 
that account, used to disguise the termi- 
nation of the former ; but the deception 
has been so often practised that it no 
longer deceives, and a bolder aim at the 
same effect will now be more successful. 
If the end can be turned just out of 
sight, a bridge at some distance raises a 
belief, while the water beyond it re- 
moves every doubt of the continuation 
of the river. The supposition imme- 
diately occurs, that if a disguise had 
been intended, the bridge would have 
been placed further back, and the dis- 
regard thus shown to one deception 
gains credit for the other. 

As a bridge is not a mere appendage 
to a river, but a kind of property which 
denotes its character, the connection be- 
tween them must be attended to. From 
the want of it, the single wooden arch, 
once much in fashion, seemed generally 

misplaced. Elevated, without occasion 
so much above it, it was totally detached 
from the river, and often seen straggling 
m the air without a glimpse of the water 
to account for it ; and the ostentation of 
it, as an ornamental object, diverted all 
that train of ideas which its use as a 
communication might suggest. The 
vastness of Walton Bridge cannot, with- 
out affectation, be mimicked in a garden 
where the magnificent idea of inducting 
the Thames under one arch is wanting ; 
and where the structure itself, reduced 
to a narrow scale, retains no pretension 
to greatness. Unless the situation makes 
such a height necessary, or the point of 
view be greatly above it, or wood or 
rising ground, instead of sky, behind 
fiE up the vacancy of the arch, it seems 
an effort without a cause, forced and 

The vulgar footbridge of planks, only 
guarded on one hand by a common rail, 
and supported by a few ordinary piles, is 
often more proper. It is perfect as a 
communication, because it pretends to 
nothing further j it is the utmost sim- 
plicity of cultivated nature ; and, if the 
banks from which it starts be of a 
moderate height, its elevation preserves 
it from meanness. No other species 
of bridge so effectually characterizes a 
river. It seems too plain for an orna- 
ment, too obscure for a disguise ; it must 
be for use, it can be a passage only. 
It is, therefore, spoiled if adorned ; it is 
disfigured if only painted of any other 
than a dusky colour. But, being thus 
incapable of all decoration and impor- 
tance, it is often too humble for a great, 
and too simple for an elegant, scene. A 
stone bridge is generally more suitable 
to either; but m that," also, an extra- 
ordinary elevation is seldom becoming, 
unless the grandeur compensates for the 
distance at which it leaves the water 

A gentle rise and easy sweep more 
closely preserve the relation. A certain 
degree of union should also be formed 
between the banks and the bridge, that 
it may seem to rise out of the banks, not 
barely to be imposed upon them. It 
oughtnot, generally, to swell much above 
their level ; the parapet- wall should be 
brought down near to the ground, or 
end against some swell ; and the size 
and the uniformity of the abutments 
should be broken by hillocks or thickets 
about them. Every expedient should 
be used to mark the connection of the 
building, both with the ground from 
which it starts, and the water which it 




In wild and romantic scenes may be 
introduced a ruined stone bridge, of 
which some arches may be still stand- 
ing ; and the loss of those which have 
fallen may be supplied by a few planks 
with a rail thrown over the vacancy. It 
is a picturesque object — it suits the situ- 
ation and the antiquity of the passage. 
The care taken to keep it stul open, 
though the original building is decayed, 
the apparent necessity which thence re- 
sults for a communication, give it an 
imposing air of reality. 

Brillantai'sia. (In honour of M. 
Srillaint. Nat. ord., AcanthacecB. Syn., 
Belantheria. ) 

Store evergreen. Fqr culture, see Bablb'ria. 

B. owarie'Tms. 3. Purple. March. Western 

Africa. 1853. B. M. t. 4717. Syns., 

Belantheria Belvisiana, and B. lamivm. 

— Vogelia'na. Syn., Belantheria Vogeliana, 

Brining. See Steeping. 

Bri'za. (From brizo, to nod. Nat. 
ord., GraminecB.) 

Omamentsbl hardy grasses, largely used for 
bouquets and decorative purposes ; the branches 
should be collected when full grown, and placed 
in stands to dry. B, media is a useful rock 

Slant. B. spicata requires a stove or Intermediate 
ouse. Seeds and division. 
B. Clu'sii. 1}. June. South Europe. 1820. 

— ma'xima. li. June. South Europe. 1633. 

B. M. t. 357. Annual. 

— me'dia. 1. June. Britain. Eng. Bot. ed. 

3, 1. 1744. Common quaking grass. Pe- 

— minor, i. ' July. England. Syns., B. 

gracilis and Tninirmi, Eng. Bot. ed. 3, 
1. 1775. Annual. 

— rotunda'ta. Mexico to Chili. Gfl. 1887, 

p. 638. Perennial? 

— ru'bra. 1. June. South Europe. 1820. 


— spica'ta. i. Brazil. About 1883. Very 


Brocchi'nia. (Nat. ord., Brome- 

Stove tree. 
B. eordylinoi'des. 16. Yellow. British Guiana. 

Brodise'a. (Named after J. J. Bro- 
die, a Scotch cryptogamist. Nat. ord., 
Liliacece. Allied to Allium. ) 

Charming hardy bulbs requiring a light rich 
soil and sunny position ; offsets, and seeds. 
B. Bridge'sii. Blue. California. 1888. 

— cali/o'mica. Pale brown. July. California. 


— capita'ta. 1. Violet. May. California. 

1871. Syn., Millacapitata. 

— cocd'nea. Blood-red, yellow, green. June. 

California. 1870. Syn., Bremortia 
coccinea, B. M. t. 5857. 

— cmyr'stn. 1. Blue. July. Georgia. 1806. 
a'Uia. White. 

— DouyaJni. White. July. N. Amer. 1826. 

B. M. t. 0907. Syn., Trttdeia grandi- 

B. grandifio'ra. IJ. Blue. N. Amer. 1805 
B. E. 1. 1183. Syn., Hookera eoronaria. 

— Benderse'ni. Yellow striped green, and 

purple. W. North America. 1890. 

— Bowe'lHt. li to 2. Bluish purple. July. 

Califonua. 1880. B. M. t. 6989. 

— ixioi'dei. See JUilla. 

— la'ctea. 1 to 2. White. June. California.. 

1833 Syns., Hesperoeardon lactewm, and 
Milla hyacinthina. 

— rmUtiflo'ra. Blue-purple. California. 1872. 

B. M. 6989. 

— Palme'ri. 1 to 2. Bright purple. California. 


— volu'bilis. 4 to 12. Bose. California. 1874. 

B. M. t. 6123. Syn., Stropholirion volu- 
Hookera pvlchella. Sails. Parad. t. 117, is pro- 
bably a Brodicea. 

Broine'lia. (Named after Bromel, 
a Swedish botanist. Nat. ord., Bro- 
meliacecB. Belated to the Pine Apple. ) 

Stove herba<!eou's perennials. Suckers ; rich,, 
lumpy soil, well-diained. Summer temp. 60* 
to 85% with moisture ; winter, 60° to 60°, dryish. 
B. agavoi'dea, 1881. 

— ana/rbos. B. M. 1. 1654. .See AnaTiassa sativa.. 

— amtiaca'ntha. Purple, scarlet. Brazil. 1864. 

— Kcolar. Scarlet. Chili. 1872. Syns., £.. 

Joinvillei and B, pitcaimic^olia. 

— traetea'ta. i. Tlnk. September. Jamaica. 


— chrysa'ntha. 2. Blue. Caraccas. 1819.. 

Jacq. H. Schosnb. t.'S6. 

— clande'etma. See Gregia sphacelata. 

— crudnta. 2. Blue, white. August. Rio- 

Janeiro. 1824. 

— di'scolor. Pink. April. South Europe. ,, 

— exu'dmia. See JEchmea. 

— /astuo^sa. 4. Purple. August. S. Amer. 

— Fema'nd<e. Yellowish ; bracts orange-red- 

Para. 1872. 

— hu'milit. , See Karatas. 

— Kara'tas. 2. Pink. W. Ind. 1739. Bed. 

Lil. t. 467. 

— lingvla'ta. IJ. Yellow. May. S. Amer. 


— longifoflia. 2. Pink. August. Guiana. 1862. 

— paueyio'ra. White, blue ; bracts white. 

Tropical America. 1866. 

— Fi'nguin. 3. Red. March. W, Ind. 1690. 

Bed. Lil. t. 396. 

— searlati'na. 1881. 

— sce^ptrum. Purple, scarlet. 1864. Syn. £. 

fcistuQsa Bergmanni. 

— sylve'atris. 3. Crimson. July. S. Amer. 

1820. B. M. t. 2392. 

Bromhea'dia. (Named after Sir 
E. i\ Bromhead, Bart. Nat. ord., 
OrchideoB. Allied to Ansellia. ) 

Stove orchid. Offsets or division after flower, 
ins, sandy, flbry peat with plenty of drainage. 
Water plentifully during the growing season. 
B. palu'etris. 3. White, yellow, and purple. 
June. Sumatra. 1840. B. M. t. 4001. 

Bronffllia'rtia. (NamedafterBrowff- 
niart, a French botanist. Nat. ord., 
Leguminosce ; Tribe, GalegecB.) 

Ornamental greenhouse evergreen under- 
shrubs. Cuttings in sand, under a bell-glass, of 
young shoots, but firm at the base ; sandy loam 
and nbry peat. 

B. Podalyrioi'des. 1. Flesh. September. New 
Spain. 1827. 

— seri'cea. 1. Purple. September. Mexico. 



[ 133 ] 




Broom (Spanish) 

See Besom, 

Spa'rtium and Ci/tisus 



Broom-Cypress. Ko'chia scopa'- 

Broom.-Rape, Oroba'nche. 

Brosi'mum. Bread-nut. (From 
brosimos, edible, or good to eat ; the 
fruit being edible. Nat. ord., Urti- 

The far-famed Cow-tree of South America, 
whose milky juice is as rich and wholesome as 
the milk of the cow, is Brosimwm Humboldtii, 
Another species, B. alicastrum, produces nuts, 
which are roasted and eaten as bread ; and a 
third species produces the beautifully-marked 
wood, called snake-wood. Its gummy juice is 
also made into India-rubber. Stove evergreen 
shrubs and tree. Cuttings of ripe wood, in a 
hotbed ; rich, Sbry loam. 
£, dlica'stnwi. 6. Jamaica. 1776. 

— sjm'rmm. See Pseudolmedia spuria. 

— Hwmbo'ldtii. 50. Caraccas. 1829. Eev. 

Hort. 1874, p. 314. Syn., Galaetodead/ran 

Brote'ra ova'ta. See Melhania. 

Broughto'nia. (Named after Mr. 
Broughton, an English botanist. Nat. 
ord., Orehidece; Tribe, Epidendrew- 
LceliecB. ) 

stove evergreen orchids allied to Laelia, 
thriving best on blocks with a little sphagnum. 
Water abundantly during the growing season ; 
B. au'rea. See Epidendrum aurantiacum. 

— ni'tida. H. Bed. June. E. Ind. 1824. 

— sartguifnea. f . Crimson. May. Jamaica. 

1793. Syn., B. eoccinea, B. M. t. 3636. 
B. M. t. 3076 is a form with longer leaves 
and narrower petals. 

Broussone'tia. (NamedafterBrtms- 
sonet, a French naturalist. Nat. ord., 
UrticacecE. ) 

. In general aspect resembling the mulberry- 
tree ; out less hardy. Suckers and cuttings of 
ripened wood, inserted in autumn, and seeds 
sown when ripe, or kept over to the following 
March ; good garden-soil. 
B. papyri'/era. 12. June. Japan. 1751. B. M. 

t. 2358. 
cuculla'ta. 12. June, Japan. 1824. 

Syns., B. navifolia and spathidata. 

fru'ctu-a'lbo. 12. August. 

tacinia'ta. 1847. Syn., B. papyrifera, 

var. disseeta. 

macropky'Ua. Leaves large. 

variega'ta. 1846. 

— PlUTnie'ri and tinct&rUi. See Chlorophora 


— spctthula'ta. See B. papyrifera^ var. citcul- 


Browa'llia. (Named after J. Bro- 
wallius, bishop of Abo. Nat. ord., 
ScrophvJariaceee. ) 

Ornamental shrubs or herbs, hardy unless 
where otherwise stated ; seeds sown in a mild 
beat, in March ; potted and re-potted, and kept 

in the greenhouse during summer ; light, rich 

B. atbrevia'ta. Light red. 1852. Gfl. t. 94. 

— demi'ssa. }. Blue. August. S. Amer. 

1735. B. M. t. 1136. Syns., B. elata 
(B. M. t. 34), B. elongata and laclea. 

— grandifio'ra. 2. Light yellow. June. Peru. 

1829. B. M. t. 3069. Syn., B. cordata. 

— Jameso'ni. B. M. t. 4605. See Streptomlen 


— Eoelzlii. IJ to 2. Light blue or white. 

Summer. Eocky Mountains. Green- 

— specio'sa. 2. Purple, September. Quindin. 


Bro'wnea. (NamedafterDr.Sroiwi. 
Nat. ord., LeguminoscB ; Tribe, Am- 
herstiece. Allied to Caesalpinia and 
Amherstia. ) 

Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings of ripe wood 
in sand, under a glass, and placed in a strong 
bottom-heat ; peat and loam. 
B. Ari'za. 30. Crimson - scarlet. March. 

Columbia. Syn., B. princepa. B. M 

t. 6469. 

— BirsdkeHlii. 10. Bose. La Guayra. 1872. 

B. M. t. 6998. 

— coecSnea. 6. Scarlet. July. W. Ind. 1793. 

B. M. t. 3964. 

— erdcla. 10. Scarlet. S America. 

— gra'ndiceps. 6. E«d. Caraccas. 1829. B. M. 

t. 4859. 

— latifo'lia. 6. Scarlet. Trinidad. 1824. Jacq. 

Frag. 1. 17. 

— maerophfUa. Orange - scarlet. Central 

America. 1879. 

— ramm&m. 6. Rose. Caraccas. 1§26. 

— ro'sa del Mo'nte. 8. Scarlet. June. S. Amer. 

1820, Syn., B. speciosa. 

Brownlo'wia. (Named after Lady 
Brmvnlow. Nat. ord., TiliacecB. Allied 
to Grewia.) 

Stove tree. Cuttings of ripe shoots in heat ; 
rich, loamy soil. 

B. ela'ta. 60. Yellow. May. E. Ind. 1820. 
B. M. 1. 1472. 

Brown-tailed Moth, Porthe'sia. 

Bru'cea, (Named after Bruce, the 
African traveller. Nat. ord., Simaru- 

This genus possesses that intense bitter, for 
which Quassia, the head of this small order, has 
long been celebrated. Stove evergreen shrubs. 
Bipened cuttings in sand, under a glass, in 

B. antidyse'ntrica. 8. Green. May. Abyssinia. 
1775. S^n., B. ferrugivxa. 

— swmatra'na. 20. Green. May. Malay 

Archipelago. 1820. Syn., B. gracilit. 

Bni'chus. A genus of small beetles, 
which confine their depredations chiefly 
to the seeds of leguminous plants. 

JBru'chusgrana'rius. The tJrain Beetle. 
Every one who is acquainted Avith the 
seeds of the pea and thp bean must have 
noticed that in many of them were small 
round holes ; and these occasionally are 
so numerous as to spoil the sample, and, 
indeed, render the seeds totally valuele-ss 
for sowing ; for not one of those thus 




pierced but would produce either a weak, 
unhealthy plant, or not vegetate at all. 
Those holes in the " worm-eaten " peas 
and beans are made by a small beetle 
(Bruchus granarius), produced from a 
grub, or caterpillar, which has eaten 
away the vital parts of the s6ed ; and, 
when it has passed through the chrysalis 
state, and given birth to this beetle, the 

latter makes the hole in order to escape 
into the open air, there to perpetrate 
more mischief upon the growmg crops. 
The body of the oeetle is a dull hrown ; 
but the elytra, or wing-covers, are black, 
dotted with white, but scarcely percepti- 
bly so, unless magnified, as in our draw- 
ing. Naturally it is the size of the smaller 
figure ; that is, scarcely two lines long. 
The antennae, or feelers, are eleven- 

i'ointed, black, and thinnest near the 
lead, where they are also tinged with 
red. The head droops, the eyes are 
prominent, the fore-legs are rusty-co- 
loured. This little beefle may be found 
upon various flowers durmg seven 
months of the year. In February it may 
be found on the furze-blossom, in June 
upon the white-thom, and in July and 
August upon the Spiraea and rhubarb 
flowers. The female pierces through the 
pod of the pea and bean whilst very 
young, and often deposits an egg in each 
seed. Probably the best mode of destroy- 
ing this insect would be to subject the 
seed, as soon as harvested, for some 
hours, until thoroughly heated, to a 
temperature of 150°. This, we think, 
would krU the grubs without injuring 
the seed. 

Bru'ckus a'ter. The Furze-Beetle. This 
little insect is shown in the annexed cut 
of its natural size, as well as magnified. 
It is black, with its elytra (wing-cases) 
marked with lines and lighter-coloured 
dots ; antennae (feelers) divided into 
eleven joints. The females, in February, 
deposit their eggs in the germs, or young 
seed-vessels, of the winter-blooming 
furze ; and the same insects may be 
found again, in June, similarly employed 
upon the summer-blooming furze. The 
grub hatched from her eggs lives upon 
the seeds ; and every one who has noticed 

this plant must be aware that its ripe- 
seed vessels often contain nothing but a 
little rough powder — a powder which is 
the refuse of the seeds destroyed by the 
grub of this insect. Another member of 
this family of beetles, Bruchus pi' si, is- 
greatly destructive to the pea crops. It 
is a small, brownish beetle, usually 
found at the time the plants are in flower, 
and depositing eggs in the tender seeds 
of leguminous plants, and sometimes in 
different kinds of com. In these the. 

larva — a small, white, fleshy grub— finds 
both a suitable habitation and an abun- 
dance of food. It undergoes all its trans- 
formations in the seed ; and the perfect 
insect remains init till the spring, though 
in fine autumns the perfect insects appear 
at that season also. The larvae possess 
the singular instinct of never attacking 
the vital part of the seed till the last. 
We have often observed the seed -pots of 
Chorizema, and other delicate and 
scarce leguminous plants in greenhouses, 
pierced by the £>-McAws^m. The more 
effectual remedy is to pull up and burn 
the haulm and pods altogether, and not 
attempt to get a crop at all. — Cottage. 
Gardener, i. a,nd iii. 

Brugma'nsia. See Datura. 

B. Jloribu'nda. Paxt. Mag. vol. 9, p. 3. See; 

Bruise. See Canker. 

Brunfe'lsia. {'Na.meda.heTBrwnfelSr 
a German physician. Nat. ord., Scrophu- 
larinece ; Tiibe, Salpiglossidew. Allied 
to Salpiglossis.) 

Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings in sa-ndy 
soil, in a moist heat ; rich, lumpy, flbry soil. 
B. acwmina'ta. 2. Purple. April. Rio Janeiro.. 

B. M. t. 4189. 
— america'na. i. Pale yellow. June.' W. Ind. 

1736. B. M. t. 393. 
amgustifo'lia. i. Pale yellow. July. 

latifo'lia. i. Pale yellow. June. W, 





B. angu'eta. 2. Purple. April. 
— calyei'na. 2. Pale purple. June. Brazil. 
1850. B. M. t. 4683. 

— conferUfio'ra. 1}. Blue. January to June. 


— exi'mia. 2i. Purple. June. Brazil. 1847. 

B. M. t. 4790. 

— gracilis. 2. Pale cream. June. 1847. 

— grandiflo'ra. 3. Green. June. 

— HopeaJna. 1. Blue-purple, throat yellow. 

Brazil. 1828. Syn., Franciseea Hopeana, 
B. M. t. 2829. 

— hydra/ngecefo'rmis. i. Purple. April. Brazil. 

1840. B. M. t. 4209. 

— latifo'lia. t. Purple. April. Eio Janeiro. 

1840. B. M. t. 3907. 

— Lindenia'na. Purple. Brazil. 1865. Syn., 

Franciseea Lindeniafia. Belg. Hort. 
1866, p. 226. 

— Lockha'rtii. Purple. April. W. Ind. 1840. 

— rrumta'na. 4. White. July. S. Amer. 


— ni'tida. 

jo7naice'nsi«. 5. Yellow. June. Jamaica. 

1844. B. M. t. 4287. 

— Pohlia'na. Blue, white. April. Brazil. 


— undvlaHa. 4. White. June. Jamaica.. 1820. 

— unifio'ra. 3. White, purple. July. Brazil. 

1826. B. C. 1. 1332. 

— vwlolcea. 3. Livid purple. July. W. Ind. 

1816. B. C. t. 792. 

Bru'nia. (Named after C Brun, a 
traveller in the Levant. Nat. ord., 
Bruniacece. ) 

Greenhouse evergreen shrubs and under- 
shrnbs, from the Cape of Good Hope. Cuttings 
of young shoots in sand, under a hand-light, in 
summer; sandy peat. 
B. abrotavm'deg. See Berzeiia abrotanoides. 

— cilia'ta. See Staavia. 

— ccrmo'sa. See Berzeiia lanuginosa, var. glabra. 

— e'legans. 2. White. July. 1817. 

— ericoi'des. See Berzeiia squarrosa, 
—farmosa. 2. White. 1817. 

— globo'sa. See Berardia globosa, 

— glutino'sa. See Staavia. 

— lalms. . 2. White. July. 1822. 

— maerophy'lla. 1. White. July. 1815. 

— microphy'Ua. See Berardia microphylla. 

— nodiflb'ra. 6. White. July. 1786. 

— palea'eea. See Berardia panacea. 

— phylicoi'des. See Berardia phylicoides. 

— radia'ta. See Staavia. 

— squarr</sa. See Berzeiia squarrosa. 

— supe'rba. See Berzeiia lanuginosa^ var. Imigi- 


— virga'ta robu'stior. 3. White. July. 1794. 

Syn., B. vertidllata. 

Brtmni'chia. (Named after Brun- 
nich, a Danish hotanist. Nat. ord., 
Polygonacece. ) 

Greenhouse evergreen climber. Cuttings root 
freely ; fibry loam, with a little sand. 
J5. cirrho'sa, 6. Pink. July. Carolina. 1787. 

Bnmo'nia. (Named after 2>. Brown, 
the celebrated English hotanist. Nat. 
ord., BrunoniacecB.) 

Dr. Brown himself, and other great authorities, 
have been in doubts as to the true position and 
affinity of the solitary genus of which this order 
is composed. Herbaceous perennial. Seeds and 
divisions ; sandy loam and fibry peat. It re- 
quires the protection of a frame or greenhouse 
in winter ; fragrant. 

B. austra'lis. 1. Blue. Australia. 1834. B. 
B. 1. 1833. 

Brunsvi'gia. (Named after the 
noble house of Brunswick. Nat. ord . 
Amaryllidem; Tribe, Amaryllew.) 

This genus bears the same relation to Amaryllis 
which Azalea does to Rhododendron. It is a 
well-marked section of Amaryllis itself, when 
divested of "the mass of discordant plants ac- 
cumulated under that name."-H«rI>e5-«. Half- 
hardy bulbs, from South Africa. Offsets ; loam 
and libry peat; either in greenhouse or in a 
wa,rm situation out of doors, where the bulbs, 
being planted deep, are secure from frost and 
from wet by coverings, such as glazed sashes 
or tarpaulmg ; or the hulbs may be taken up at 
the approach of winter, and stored. 
B. cilia'ris. B. E. 1. 1163. See Buphane eUiaris. 

— Coopdn. IJ. S. Africa. 1872. 

Eef. Bot. t. 330. 

— Cora'nica. See Amnwcharis falcata. 

pa'llida. See Ammocharis falcata pallida. 

— di sticha. See Buphane distieha. 
—falca'ta. f. Bed. May. 1774. B. M. t. 1443. 

— giga'ntea. 1. Bed. July. Cape Colony. 

1700. Syns., B.multiflora, B. M. t. 1619, 
and Amaryllis orientalis. 

— granAMra. 1. Pink. August. 1827. B. 

B. t. 1335. 

— Josephi'nce. IJ. Scarlet. July. 1814. B. 

R. 1. 192-3. Syn., Amaryllis Josephinoe. 
mi'nor. 1. Scarlet. July. 1814. 

— —-stria'ta. Ij. Scarlet. July. 1823. 

— lu'cida. See Nerine lucida. 

— margina'ta. See Neirine marginata. 

— rm'nor. |. Pink. July. 1822. B. R. t. 954. 

— muUiflo'ra. See B. gigantea. 

— ra'dula. J. Bed June. 1790. Syn:, 

Amaryllis radttla, Jacq. H. Schcen. t. 68. 

— Slateria'na. Bright rose-red. Cape Colony. 

Syn., Amaryllis Banksiana, B. B. 1842, 
1. 11. 

— stria'ta. i. Pink. July. Cape Colony. 1823. 

Syn., Amaryllis striata, Ja,cq. H. Schoen. 
t. 70. 

— toxica'ria. B. E. 667. See Buphane distieha. 

Brussels Sprouts. See Bore- 

Bry'a. (From hryo, to germinate; 
the seeds, at times, sprouting in the pod. 
Nat. ord., LeguminosoB ; Tribe, Hedy- 
sarece. Allied to Hedysarum . ) 

Stove evergreen shrubs. Seeds and cuttings 
in hotbed ; rich, fibry loam. 
B. e'bemus. 12. Yellow, green. July. Jamaica. 
1713. B. M. t. 4670. Jamaica ebony. 

— leone'nsis. 12. Yellow, green. Sierra Leone. 


Brya'nthus. See Menziesia. 

Bryo'nia. (From bryo, to sprout; 
in allusion to annual growth from the 
tuber. Nat. ord., CucurbitacecB.) 

Tuberous-rooted perennial herbaceous pjants, 

producingannualclimbingstems. Seeds, division 

of the tubers. Bich loam. 

B. dio'ica. Greenish yellow; berries bright 

red. Summer. Britain. Hardy. Eng. 

Bot. ed. 3, t. 517. 

— lacinio'sa. Yellowish ; berries scarlet, striped 

with white. India. 1865. Syn., Bryonop- 
sis laffiniosa. Stove. 

Bryono'psis. See Bryonia. 

Bryophy'Uum. (From bryo, to 
sprout, andphyllon, a leaf. Nat. ord., 




A greenhouse succulent plant, chiefly regarded 
as a curiosity ; but asingle leaf laid down on a 
damp surface will throw out young plants all 
round its margin. 

B. ealyn'nwm. 3. Yellowish-red. April. India. 

Bubro'ma. See Guazuma. 

B. guazu'ma. See Guazujna ulmifolia. 

Bu'cco. (Nat. ord., .BMtocete.) 
B. crena'ta. See Baromna crenata. B. H. 

t. 3413. 
— proU'fera. See Agathosma prolifera. 

Buchne'ra. (Nat. ord., Scrophu- 
lariacecB. ) 
B. viaeo'sa. See Sphenandra vlscoea. B. M. 217. 

Bu'cida. Olive Bark-tree. (From 
bous, an ox ; in reference to the fruit 
being like an ox's horn. Nat. ord., 
Combretacem. ) 
B. bu'ceras. See TerminaUa. 

Buck-bean. Menya'nthes trifolia'ta. 

Buckla'ndia. (Named in honour 
of Dr. Buckland, Dean of Westminster 
and Professor of Geology at Oxford. 
Nat. ord., Hamamelidece. Allied to 

Greenhouse shrub, growing to a tall tree. 
Foliage ornamental in young plants. Cuttings 
of ripened shoots in sandy loam, under a hand- 
glass, and in moderate heat. Bich loam and 
peat, or leaf-mould. 

B.popu'lnea. 100. Himalaya. 1876. B. M. 
t. 6607. 

Buckler Mustard. Biscute'lla. 

Buckthorn. Bha'mnus. 
Buckwheat. Poly'gmum fagopy" 
Buckwheat-tree. Myloca'ryum. 

Bud. The buds are organized parts 
of a plant, of an oval, round, or conical 
form, and containing the rudiments of 
future branches, leaves, and flowers, 
which remain without breaking, on pro- 
ducing them, until circumstances favour 
their development. The same buds, ac- 
cordingly, as circumstances vary, produce 
either flowers or leaves. Buds are formed, 
at first, only in the axils of leaves, that 
is, in the angle between the leaf and the 
branch ; but, if these buds are destroyed, 
what are termed achentitious or latent 
buds are formed, yet chiefly in the neigh- 
bourhood of the regular buds. 

Budding is the art of making a bud 
unite to the stem or branch (then called 
the stock) of another tree or shrub, in- 
dependently of its parent. _ The object 
thus attained is a rapid multiplication of 
that parent, and, in the case oi seedlings, 
an earlier production of fruit than if the 
buds were left upon the parent. Deli- 

cate kinds are strengthened by being 
worked, as it is technically termed, upon 
more robust stocks, as when a tender 
vine is budded on the Syrian, and the 
Double Yellow Kose upon the common 
China. Variegated roses often lose their 
distinctive marks it grown upon their 
own roots. Some roses, budded upon 
the common briar, afford liner flowers 
than upon their own stems. Buds from 
seedling peaches and pears are earlier 

E reductive, and produce finer fruit, if 
udded upon a robust stock ; but buds 
of the pear, inserted earlier than the 
close of August, produce branches, and 
not blossoms. 'Wnere the bud comes in 
contact with the wood of the stock, a 
confused line is visible, between which 
line and the bark of the bud new wood is 
produced, having solely all the charac- 
teristics of the parent of the bud. Buds 
of almost every species succeed with 
most certainty if inserted in shoots of 
the same year's growth ; but the small 
walnut-buds succeed best which are 
taken from the base of the annual shoots, 
where these join the year-old wood of 
that from which the bu^ is taken. Buds 
are usually two years later than grafts in 
producing fruit ; but then every bud will 
produce a new plant ; but each graft has 
at least three upon it. Buds succeed 
more readily than grafts ; and, if a graft 
inserted in the spring has failed, a bud 
may succeed in the summer of the same 
year. Buds are ready for removal when 
their shield, or bark attached to them, 
separates readily from the wood. This 
is usually in July or August, and is inti- 
mated by the buds being well-developed 
in the axils of the present year's leaves. 
Scallop-budding may be done almost at 
any season. Buds should be taken from 
the middle of the shoot ; those from its 
point are said to make wood too freely, 
and those from the base to be more unex- 
citable, and, consequently, less prompt 
to vegetate. 

Stocks for budding may be much 
smaller than for grafting, even on the 
same year's shoot. Several buds may be 
inserted on older branches, and thus a 
good headbe obtained sooner. On stocks 
of long-standing, scallop-budding is to 
be adopted. Just after rain, and when 
there is no violent wind, is a time to be 
preferred for budding. Whatever mode 
of budding is adopted, quickness in the 
operation is indispensable ; for, if the 
wound in the stock or that of the bud 
becomes dry, the budding will fail. The 
bark of thestock should be cut and raised 
firstj and, if possible, on its north side. 
A f>iece of moist bast may be twisted 




<)ver the wound whilst the bud is prepar- 
ing; and the moment this is done it 
should be inserted, and the ligature put 
on forthwith. 

The following practical details of bud- 
ding fruit-trees and roses — details appli- 
cable to all other trees and flowering- 
shrubs capable of being thus propagated 
— we have copied from the pages of The 
Cottage Gardener : 

If the bark does not rise well, that is, 
does not part freely from the wood, the 
buds will not succeed. 

A good budding-knife is the first thing 
to be provided : any respectable nursery- 
man will furnish this."^ Next, some 
really good matting : we prefer the new 
Cuba ba^t ; but the finest of the ordinary 
Russian mats will answer equally well, 
perhaps better, provided the material is 
very tine and very tough. 

The bast must be cut into lengths, and 
adapted to the size of the stocks, be they 
what they may. A mere novice may 
soon determine the length necessary, by 
twisting a piece round any twig of simi- 
lar size, as in the act of budding. 

Before describing the process itself, it 
will be well to speak of the condition of 
the stocks, or subjects to be operated on. 
Budding, as before observed, is performed 
at various seasons ; and in very early 
budding, it is considered, in the majority 
of cases, prudential, if not absolutely 
necessary, to insert the whole of the 
shield, or bud, with its own system of 
wood attached. When the summer is 
far advanced, however, and the buds are 
become individually perfect, or nearly so, 
in their organization, the case alters ; 
and the less of intervening matter there 
exists between the bud and its imme- 
diate appurtenances of petiole and bark, 
the better. 

Budding, then, in spring or early sum- 
mer, is generally accompanied, it may be 
presumed, by a copious current of sap. 
Not so, however, late summer-budding 
on all occasions ; for the season may 
have been unusually warm and dry ; the 
stock, or subject, may be short of sap, 
or, in other words, be beset with a para- 
lyzed root-action : all these are impedi- 
ments. A copious watering, the evening 
previous to the process, will, however, 
promote the free rising of the bark, on 
•which so much depends. In addition to 

1 The best budding instrument we have ever 
seen is made by Mr. Turner, Neepsend, Sheffield. 
It has a budding-knife at one end, and a grooved 
hook at the other end. This hook being inserted 
in the t cut made with the knife, keeps it open, 
and allows the bud to be slipped easily down the 

froove into its place. It really supplies the 
adder with a third hand. 

this, a cloudy day is preferable to a 
sunny one. 

In former days the chief criterion of 
the eligibility of a tree for the budding- 
process was the cessation of growth, or 
rather, of extension in point of length, 
in the stock. Such generally happens in 
fruit-trees — such as the peach, apricot, 
cherry, plum, etc., — about the first or 
second week in August ; the period, of 
course, being liable to be modified by 
several circumstances, as heat, drought, 
etc. Instead, however, of thus waiting 
until the eleventh hour, it is better to 
make an earlier commencement ; and 
there is little occasion to delay after the 
middle of July has passed, unless the 
stocks, or scions, are subjects of late 
growth and excessive luxuriance. 

The exact position of the bud being 
determined, the incision is made across 
the stock transversely, in length suffi- 
cient to create an opening for the bud. 
This slit forms the head of the incision, 
which, when the next slit is made, will 
form the letter T- In making this slit, 
or incision, a somewhat bold cut must 
be made ; in fact, the point of the knife 
must be made to reach the surface of the 
wood of the stock. 

The perpendicular slit is made from 
the bottom upwards ; and an experienced 
budder gives a peculiar flirt, or jerk, to 
the knife when he approaches the head 
of the T- This jerk at once rifts up the 
bark better than any slower process could 
do it ; and the haft of the budding-knife 
is in a moment turned round, and the 
point introduced ; and, by pressing it 
close to the wood, right and left, the 
bark is, as it were, ploughed up, or libe- 
rated from the wood. 

All is now ready for the reception of 
the bvd, which is, indeed, by most good 
hudders, prepared first, as follows : — 
The cutting, or shoot, of the kind to be 
inserted, being wood of the current year's 

frowth, is generally kept in a waterpot, 
rst cutting off all the leaves : care must, 
however, be taken to leave most of the 
petiole (leaf -stalk) to handle the bud by. 
This, also, doubtless assists in forming a 
speedy union. _ 

The bud, with its bark and a little of 
the wood of the tree, is then cut off in 
the form of a shield ; and the point of 
the knife and thumb-nail of the right 
hand, by a. little nice handling, are made 
to remove the portion of woody matter 
from the centre. The bud is instantly 
introduced beneath the bark in the T in- 
cision of the stock, where, as before ob- 
served, it is found in the same relation 
to the stock, or stem, of its new parent as 




existed between it and the shoot whence 
it sprang. This done, it is carefully and 
closely, but not tightly, bound with the 
bast. The operator generally begumiug 
to bind at the lower end, gives an extra 
tug with the matwhen he comes tolerably 
close to the lower end of the petiole. 
This is an old practice, and not particu- 
larly intelligible ; the meaning, we sup- 
pose — if meaning it have — being, that 
the tightness of the ligature in that pre- 
cise position impedes slightly the rehirn- 
ing sap, thereby concentratmg it about 
the bud. 

Some persons employ a grafting wax 
to cover the parts where air may enter. 
The following mixture will make a very 
useful kind : — Sealing-wax, one part ; 
mutton fat, one part ; white wax, one 
part ; honey, one-eighth part. The white 
wax and fat are fast melted, and then 
the sealing-wax is to be added, gradually, 
in small pieces, the mixture being kept 
constantly stirred: lastly, the noney 
mtist be put in, just before taking it oif 
the fire. It should be poured into j)aper 
or tin moulds, and kept slightly agitated 
till it begins to congeal. 

We before observed, that when the 
season is late, and the bark rises some- 
what badly, it may be excited to rise. 
A liberal watering with liquid-manure, 
of the temperature of 90°, the day before 
the operation, will, in general, facilitate 
the proceeding. When the bud , or shield, 
after the woodis removed, appears hollow 
at the bud part, it is commonly rejected. 
Such are not always barren ; but they 
are apt to lie dormant for a year or two. 

When a choice of position oiTers itself, 
we prefer the shady side of the stock. It 
is of more importance, however, to select 
a clear portion of the stem, free from 
knots, although some fancy the bud 
takes better if placed in a position from 
whence a natural bud has been removed. 
It should be taken as a maxim, that only 
those buds should be selected, the leaves 
of which have become fully developed ; 
the leaf, also, should, if possible, be un- 

Cloudy weather is, in all cases, to be 
preferred to sunny periods. 

For budding Bases, and, indeed, for 
all budding, the best time of the day is 
either early in the morning, at least as 
early as seven o'clock, a.m., or after 
three o'clock in the afternoon ; cloudy, 
moist days are most suitable. Cut off 
the head of your stocks, and all the side- 
branches to three, that is, for standards. 
For dwarfs, cut off to within six inches 
of the ground ; then, with the knife, 
make an incision on the upper side of 

the young side-branches, as close to the. 
main stem as possible. The incision 
should be about an inch long, lengthwise' 
on the branch. Cut a cross just at the 
top of this intasion, in a direction some- 
what more slanting than in the annexed 
drawing (fig. 2). Then take off the bud, 
previously cutting off the leaf, leaving- 
part of the leaf -stalk. Cut away with 
the bud a portion of the bark from th& 

1. The bud, with the wood taken out, and ready- 

to be put into the stock side-branches. 

2. The branch, or stem, with the incisions made,. 

previously to raising the bark. 

3. The bark raised for receiving the shield of the 


4. The bud fitted into its place. 

6. The bandage put over the parts. It is here 
represented as done with a shred of bass- 
mat ; but stout worsted tliread is better. 

parent stem which is technically called 
the shield of the bud, and a portion of 
wood with it. This bud, and the bark 
and wood with it, should be, altogether^ 
rather more than three-quarters of an 
inch long. Turn the bud over between 
your finger and thumb, and dexterously 
take out the greater part of the wood ;: 
but be careful to leave the wood full in 
the eye of the bud. Then raise one side 
of the bark of the incision, in the shape 
of a T made in the stock, and with the' 




ivory handle of the hudding-knife slip 
in one side of the bark attached to the 
hud, then turn your knife, and lift up 
the other side of the incision, and the 
bud will drop into its place. Press the 
bark of the bud to the farther end of the 
incision ; and if any projects beyond the 
cross incision on the stock cut it off. 
Then tie with worsted neatly, and the 
operation is complete. A laurel -leaf 
fastened at each end by a ligature round 
the stock, so as to arch over the bud, will 
complete the arrangement ; and thus the 
sun's rays, the air, and wet will be most 
effectually excluded, the admittance of 
any one of which is fatal to the union of 
the bud with the stock. We feel it almost 
impossible to give instruction to be under- 
stood, in words only, for such a complex 
operation. We have, therefore, given 
the preceding woodcuts, to show all the 
several parts of this interesting process. 

Buddle'ia. (Named after j4. Buddie, 
an English botanist. Nat. ord. , Logania- 

Stove evergreen shrubs, except where other- 
wise speoifled. B. globo'sa, a hardy species, re- 
quires a dry, sheltered situation in the north of 
the island. Seeds are sometimes procured in 
the south of England, and should he sown in the 
spring following. Plants are also easily procured 
from well-ripened cuttings, placed under hand- 
lights, in September, and slightly protected 
during winter frosts. The greenhouse and stove 
species may all be propagated freely from cut- 
tmgs ; and, for general management, the latter 
merely recLuire a higher temperature than the 

B. ameriea'na. 10. Yellow. August. Mexico. 
1826. Syn., B. occidentalis. 

— asia'tica. 3. White. E. Indies. 1874. Half- 

hardy. B. M. t. 6323. 

— auricitla'ta. Cream colour. Greenhouse shrub. 

G. C. 16 (1881), p. 633. S. Africa. 

— braiilie'Tme. 10. Oiange. Brazil. 1822. 

B. M. t. 2713. 

— ea'mea. Ulac. Eev. Hort. 1879, p. 90. 

— conna'ta. 5. Orange. May. Peru. 1826. 

B. M. t. 2853. 

— cri^apa. 13. Purple. 

B. M. t. 4793. 

— curviflo'ra. Rosy-violet. 

1870. Hardy. 

— divers^fo'lia. 6. Java. 

— globo'sa. 15. Orange. 

Hardy herbaceous. 

— Jieterophy'lia. See B. madagoBcariensis. 

— inei'gnis. Purple. 1878. Kev. Hort. 1878, 

March. Himalaya. 
Loo Choo Islands. 


May. Chili. 
B. M. 1. 174. 


p. 330. 


— intermedia. Purple with white centre. 

Hort. 1873, p. 160. 

— Lindleya'na. 6. Violet. September. China. 

1844. Greenhouse evergreen. B.B. 32, t.4. 

— madagaacarie'mis. 10. Orange. Madagascar. 

1824. B. M. t. 2824. Syn., B.heterophylla. 

— Neelmda. 16. White. June. Nepaul. 1824. 

— oakdenta'lii. See B. americana. 

— panimUa'ta. 14. White. August. Nepaul. 


— reJfe'aM. Adwarfplantwith prostrate branches. 

Bev. Hort. 1879, p. 90. 
~ aoMeyo'lia. Jacq. H. Schcenb. t. 29. See 

See Chilianthus arboreus. 

B. ealmfo'lia. 3. Crimson. August. Cape of 
Good Hope. 1760. Greenhouse ever- 

— thyrmi'dea,. Yellow. S. Amer. 1823. 

Buettne'ria. (Named after Buett- 
ner, a German Professor. Nat. ord., 
Sterculiaeece. ) 

Erect or trailing. Stove shrubs, cuttings under 
a bell-glass, flbry loam. 

B. dasyphy'lla. See Rulingia pannosa. B. M. 
t. 2191. 

— Hermannicefo'lia. See Rulingia Hermannice- 


— mierophy'lla. 6. White, purple. S. Amer. 


— soa'bra. 6. Purple. July. W. Ind. 1793. 

Bugle. -A-'juga re'ptans. 

BugloSS. Anchu'sa. 

BugWOrt. Cimici'fuga. 

Buisson is a fruit-tree on a very low 
stem, and with a head closely pruned. 

Bulb. A bulb is really an under- 
ground bud. Its fibrous or real roots die 
annually ; but the bulb remains stored 
with elaborated sap, and retaining the 
vital powers of the plant, ready for re- 
production at the appropriate season. 
Besides root bulbs (as are the onion, etc. ), 
there are stem, or caulinary bulbs, 
equally eificient for propagation. 

The stem-bulb consists of a number of 
small scales closely compacted together 
in an ovate or conical form, inclosing the 
rudiments of a future plant, and origina- 
ting, sometimes in the axil of the leaves, 
as in Denta'ria hulbi'fera and several 
Lily worts, and sometimes at the base of 
theumbel of flowers, as in .47ZmOTcarirea'- 
tmn and others, in both which cases it is 
neurished by the parent plant till it has 
reached maturity, at which period the 
bond of connection is dissolved, and the 
bulb falls to the ground, endowed with 
the power of striking root in the soil by 
sending out fibres from the base, and so 
converting itself into a new individual. 

Every bulbous-rooted plant has its 
management given in its proper place ; 
but there are a few rules of general ap- 
plicability. They should be moved, 
where necessary, whilst in a state of rest. 
This occurs to the summer-flowering 
flowering in spring. Many require to be 
taken up annually, or, at fartheist, every 
second or third year, to remove the 
accumulated offsets. No bulb should be 
kept long out of the ground ; and, even 
during the time it is necessarily so kept, 
it should be stored in a dry well venti- 
lated room or shed. 

Bulbi'ne. (From holbos, a bulb. 
Nat. oidi., Lilioiceoe; T!ri}as,Asphodelem.) 




The name BulMne is a misnomer ; for many 
more have the herbaceous habit of Antheri- 
<?um than that of true bulbs. Bulb species by 
offsets; herbaceous plants, suckers, and divi 
sions ; the shrubby species, by cuttings under a 
hand-glass. Sand, loam 
B. alooi'des. 1. Yellow. June. Cape of Good 

Hope 1732. Syn., Anthericum alooides, 

B M. 1. 1317. 

— a'rmua. |. Yellow. May. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1731. Syn., Anthericum amnuiim. 
B. M. 1. 1461. 

— asphodeloi'des. 2. White. July. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1759. Syns., AnthericuTn 
anphodelmdes, Jacq. Vind. t. 181, and 
SulMne gra/mmea. 

— austra'lis. See Bulbine bulbosa. 

— bisulca'ta. 1. Yellow. November. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1823. 

— iulbo'sa. 1. Yellow. June. Australia. 

1820. Syns. , Bulbine australis and suavis, 
Anthericum bulboswm, B. M. t, 3017, 
and A. semibarbatum, B. M. t. 3129. 

— could seem. ' 2. Yellow. June. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1702. B. M. t. 816. Syn., 

B. frviescene. 
-7- cilia'ta,. See Antkervmrn ciliatum, 
—florUm'nxLa. See B. semibarbata. 

— frute'scens. See B. caulescens. 

— glau'ca. 2. White. Bolivia and Pern, 1828. 

Syn., Anthericum glaucvm,, B. M.t. 3610. 

— grwmi'nea. See B. asphodeloides. 

— hi'spida. See Anthericum hi^pidum. 

^- lat^o'Ua. 2. White. July. Cape of Good 
Hope. 1812. Syn., AntheHcwm lati- 
folium, Jacq. Ic. t. 408. 

— longiscafpa. 1. Yellow. June. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1759. Syns., Anthericwm 
altissitrmm Hill, and A. l&ngiscapu/m, 
B. M. 1. 1330. 

— Macke'nii. 1. Yellow. July. Natal. 1870. 

— mesenAryanthoi'des. J. Yellow. May. Cape 

of Good Hope. 1822. 

— nwrcis^fo'lia. IJ. Yellow. Cape of Good Hope. 

— nu'tans. 1. ' Yellow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1820. Syn., Antheri&UTn nutcms, 
Jacq. Ic. t. 407. 

— prcem^'rsa. 1. Yellow. June. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1818. Syn., Anthericum prcemor- 
snm, Jacq, Ic. t. 406. 

— pmgicmifo'rmis. 1. Yellow. May. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1793. Syn., Anthericum, 
pttgioniformis, B. M. 1. 1454. 

— rostra'ta. 2. Yellow. June. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1812. Syn., Anthericum rostra- 
turn., Jacq. Ic. t. 403. 

— eea'bra. See Anthericum scabrum: 

— semibarba'ta. 1. Yellow. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1820. Syns., B. fiorihunda and 
Anthericwm semibarbatmn, B. C. t. 300, 
not B. M. t. 3129. 

— sva'ms. See jB. bulbosa. 

— trique'tra. See Anthericum triquetrujm. 

Bulboco'dium. (From bolbos, a 
bulb, and hodion, wool ; referring to the 
woolly covering of the bulbs. Nat. ord., 
LUiacecB ; Tribe, Colchicece.) 

Small hardy bulbs, having the aspect of 
Crocus. Offsets ; sandy loam, well drained. , 
B. Aitch^o'rvl. See Merendra persica. 

— Mchie'ri. Gfl. 962. See Merendra caucasica, 

var. Eichleri. 

— trlgy'nvm,. See Merendra coMcasica. 

— vefrnum. J. Purple. February. Spain. i629. 

B. M. 1. 153. 

versicolor. J. Purple. August. Crimea. 

1820. B. E. t. 571. 

Bultaophy'llum. (From holbos, a 
bulb, and phyllon, a leaf ; referring to 

the leaves issuing from the apex of the 
pseudo bulbs, as in our figure. Nat. 
ord., Orchidew; Tribe, Epidendrem.) 

Stove orchids. Division of the plant, when 
fresh potting ; sandy, lumpy peat, potsherds, 
charcoal, and hard chips, raised above the pofc, 
well drained, and the plant fixed there, or on 
blocks. Summer temp. 60° to 90°, and moist ; 
winter, 65° to 66°, and dry. Tew of the species 
are worth growing. 

B. adenope'talum. Yellowish. Sweet scented. 

— alopeau'ram. Burmah. 1880. 

— amvplelrractea'tum. Buitenzorg, 1866, 

— angustifo'liwm: Java. 1866. 

— CMiran(i'aci*TO. Australia. 1870. 

— auri'cmnmm. India. 1866. 

— balce'niceps. Phillipines ? 1863. 

— barbi'gerwm. J. Greenish-brown. June. 

Sierra Leone. 1835. B. R. t. 1942. 

— Beceafrii. Brown, violet. Borneo. 1875 A 

remarkable and gigantic climbing spe- 
cies, with leaves 2 ft. by 1 to li ft., and 
very thick. B. M. t. 6617. 

— Bereni'cis. 1880. 

— bif/t&rum. Java. '1866. 

— blephari'stes. Yellow. Burmah. 1872. 

— Boufringia'num. White, green, spotted sepia- 

brown. Assam. 1881. 

— bracteola'tum. 1. Yellow, purple. July. 

Demerara. 1836. B. E. 1. 1838, t. 57. 

— calama'ria. IJ. Yellow, dull purple. Sierra 

Leone. 1844. B. M. t. 4088. 

— cosspito'sum>. Bourbon. 1858. 

— eaipi'llipes. Moulmein. 1872. 

— capital turn,. Java. 1866. 

— Careya'nwm. }. Brown, purple. October. 

Nepaul. 1832. B. M. t. 4166. 

— ce'rrmum. Purplish. Java. 1866. 

— cheilri. Manilla. 

— chloroglo'ssvm. Whitish, or rosy, lip green. 

Brazil. 1871. 

— cilia'tum. Java. 1866. 

— clande'stinum, Singapore. 




B. eocoi'mmn. 1. Flesh. October. Sierra Leone. 
1835. B. E. t. 1964. 

— vynvprf! sswm. Sumatra. 1866. 

— cro'ceuTn. Java. 1866. 

— cvl^ewm. Copper-colour. Manilla. 1837. 

B. M. t. 5316. 
— jla!vu7n. Yellow. 

— Daya'num. Green, yellow, purple. Burmah. 


— Dea'rei. 1883. Syn., Sareopodium Dearei, 

— ere'ctum. Mauritius. 1834. 

— Jlavefscens. Java. 1866. 

— Jia'vidum. Yellow. March. Sierra Leone. 

—fu'scum. Chocolate. AprU. Sierra Leone. 


— gibbo'sum. Java. 1866. 

— graJcUe. \. Green, brown, July. Moulmein. 


— grafnMfidrwm. Pale yellowish green. New 

Guinea. 1866. Flowers 8 inches in 

— henrniniosta'chys. Sierra Leone. 

— hi'rtum. Whitish. B. Ind. 1846. 

— imbriea'tum. Purple. March. Sierra. Leone. 


— vncRqua'le. Orange, nerved with purple, lip 

dark purple. Java. 1866. 

— inflrg. White. Assam. 1880. 

— ino'ps. Greenish, purple. 1880. 
-^java'niewm. Java. 1866. 

— khasya'num. Ochre, brown. Khasia Hills. 


— lasCa'nthwm. \. Purple. Sumatra. 1855. 

— lemnisca'twm. i. Purple, green. Moulmein. 

1872. B. M. t. 5961. 

— leopardi'mmi. Yellowish-green. E. Ind. 1837. 

— limba'twm. 1. Purple. February. Singapore. 


— Ldbbii. 1. Yellow, brown. March. Java. 


sUvmelnse, Yellowish, purple. Siam. 

1867. Kef. Bot. 1. 116. 

— macra'TUhuTih. ^. Lemon. March. Sierra 

Leone. 1844. B. E. 1844, 1. 13. 

— fnacula'tum. India. 

— mcmdibula're. Brown, light green, purple, 

white. N. Borneo. 1882. 

— Ttiembrana'ceum. Java. 1866. 

— mucrona'tum. Pale yellow. Java. 1866. 

— nasu'tum. Sulphur, purple, orange. 1871. 

— neUgherre'nse. ^. Green,.brown. January, 

Neilgherries. 1849. B. M. t. SU50. 

— ocuWtum. Java. 1866. 

— ocGu'ltum. Sierra Leone. 

— odera'tum. Java. 1866. 

— oligoglt/ssum. Yellowish, white. Burmah. 


— oxyo'don. See Megadiniwm oxyodon, 

— Pahu'di. See Cirrhopetalum. 

— palea'cewm. |. Yellowish green, purple- 

brown. Autumn. Assam. 1877. Syn., 
lone paieacea. 

— pa'rmUum. Orange. Java. 1866. 

— pammenta'tum. Deep red. Tropical Africa. 

1862. B. M. t. 5329. 

— pUea'tum. Ochre yellow. Singapore. 

— pi'pio. W. Tropical Africa. 1877. Xenia, 

vol. 3, p. 45, t. 219, f . 7-13. 

— psittacoglo'ssum. Yellow, purple. Moulmein. 

— pyscko'on. Green. Assam. 1878. 

— radia'tum. Brownish-yellow. March. India. 


— recu'rvum. Green, white. September. Sierra 

Leone. 1822. Syn., Tribrachia pendula, 
B. R. t. 963. 

— reticula'tum. Cream, purple. Borneo. 1866. 

B. M. t. 5605. 

— retusiu'sculuTn. Moulmein. 1869. 

— rhizo'phorce. Purplish. Tropical Africa. 1862. 

B. M. t. 5309. 

— ri'ngens. Burmah ? 1865. 

B.'num. India. 1881. 

— Baltato'rivm. i. Greenish-brown. December.' 

Sierra Leone. 1835. B. E. t. 1970. 

— seti'gerwm. Purple. December. 

— siaTne'nse. See B. Lobbii, var. siametise. 

— SiUemia'num. Orange, mauve, whitish 

Burmah. 1884. 

— Shephe'rdi. Australia. 1860. 

— s&rdidum. Olive-brown, mottled with bright 

purple inside. Guatemala. " 

— sulca'tUTn. Java. 1866. 

— tene'llum. Light orange, lip dark purple 

Java. 1866. 

— tenuifo'Uum. Java. 1866. 

— tetrafgonum. Sierra Leone. 

— tri'ste. 1. Greenish, purple. Khasia. 1864. 

Eef. Bot. 1. 117. 

— wa^ella'tum. i. Yellow, spotted with red, 

lip red or purple. B. Ind. 1837. 
Bergema'nni. Gfl. t. 244. 

— vagina'tum. Brown. March. Singapore. 


— vUta'tum. Java. 1863. 

Bulbo'styles. (From bolbos, a bulb, 
and stylos, the style. Nat. ord., Com- 
positm ; Tribe, Eupaioriacew.) See 

Buli'mus Gooda'llii. This is a 
small snail, with a narrow-conical spiral 
shell, about half an inch long, that was 
accidentally imported from the West 
Indies, and has now got spread into 
many stoves, sometimes proving very 
troublesome and destructive. It is noc- 
turnal in its habits, and should be sought 
for at ni^ht and destroyed ; the earth in 
the vicinity of its haunts should also be 

BuUace-tree. Pru'nus insiti'tia. 

Bull Grapes. Vi'tis rotundifo'lia. 

Buncho'sia. (From hunchos, cofTee ; 
the seeds resembling coffee-berries. Nat. 
ord., Maipighiacew.) 

Stove shrub and tree ; cuttings of ripe shoot» 
under a glass, in moist bottom-heat ; sandy loam 
and peat. 
B. arge'ntea. 10. Yellow. July. Caraccas. 1810. 

— cane'seens. 20. Yellow. July. W. Ind. 1742. 

— elli'ptica. Yellow. 1877. 

— glmiduWsa, 10. Yellow. April. Dominica. 


— ni'tida. 10. Eed. July. St. Domingo. 1800. 

Syns,, MalpigKia media,, and S[. poly- 
stachya, Andr. Eep. t. 604. 

— odora'ta. 10. Yellow. July. Carthagena. 1806. 

— panicula'ta. See Triopteris ovata. 

Bupha'ne. (From bous, an ox, and 
phone, slaughter ; the bulbs when eaten 
by cattle are said to be fatal to them. 
Nat. Old., Amaryllidece; Tiibe,Amaryl- 

For culture, see Brunsvigia. 
B. dlia'ris. i. Dull purple. Cajje Colony. 1795. 

Syns., Brunsvigia eiliaris, B. E. 1. 1153 ; 

Crossyne ciliaris. 
putta'ta. Leaves narrower. 

— di'sticha. li. Cape Colony. Syns., Brunsvigia 

disticha, and B. toxiearia, B. R. t. 567 ; 
Mcemanthus toxicants, B. M. 1. 1217. 




BupMha'lmum. Ox-eye. (From 
hous, an ox, and ophthalmos, eye ; the 
disk of the flower ox-eye-like. Nat. 
ord., CompositcB ; Tribe, Inuloidece.) 

Showy perennials ; division in Maich ; ordi- 
nary garden-soil. 


B. agua'ticum. See Odontospermum, 

— eordifo'lium. 4. Yellow. July. Croatian and 

Bannatian Mts. 1739. Syn., TeleHa 
speciosa, B. M. t. 3166. 

— grandijlo'rum. li. Yellow. August. Austria. 

1722. Herbaceous perennial. 

— salwifo'lium. IJ. Yellow. September. 

Austria. 1769. Herbaceous perennial. 

— speGiosi'sHTWUTn. 2. Yellow. July. South 

Europe. 1826. Herbaceous perennial. 

— spmo'sum. See PaUenis spinoia^ Sibth. Fl. 

Gr. t. 898. , 


B. laeisiqa'tum. See Jasania Icevigata. 

— Tnari'timuTn, See Odontoapermuin, 

— sericewm. See Od/mtospermuw,. 

— stanophy'Utmi. See Odontospermmn. 

Bupleu'rum. Hare's-Ear. (From 
bous, an ox, and pleuron, a side ; the 
leaves, if eaten, are supposed to swell 
cattle. But this derivation is very doubt- 
ful. Nat., ord., UmheUiferce. Tribe, 
Amminece. ) 

Hardy annuals and herbaceous perennials, 
except where otherwise specified. Seed of the 
annuals in conunon soil, in March and April ; 
divisions of herbaceous plants in autumn or 
spring ; cuttings, or divisions of greenhouse 
species, in March and Aoril ; dry, sandy loam. 


£. glau'cum. J. Green, yellow. July. South 
Europe. 1819. 

— gra'cile. J. Green, yellow. July. Cauca,sus. 


— heterophy'Uwm. 1. Green, yellow. July. 

Tauria. 1820. Biennial. Syn., B. land- 
—' jvlnceum. 1. Green, yellow. July. South 
Europe. 1772. Syn., B. Oerardi, Sibth. 
El. Gr. t. 262. 

— odonti'tes. Yellow. July to October. Austria. 

Jacq. Vind. 3, t. 91. 

— oppositifo'liwm. 1. Green, yellow. July, 

Pyrenees. 1819. 

— Pollilchii. See B. tenuissirmim. 

— protra'ctum. f. Yellowish. July. Portugal. 

1824. Twiner. Syn., B. subovatutn. 

— rotundi'folvwm. 2. Green yellow. June. Bri- 

tain. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, t. 689. 

— semi-comp&aitum. J. Green, yellow. July. 

Spain. 1778. 

— guio'vatum. See B. protraetum. 

— tenuiissimum. J. Green, yellow. July. Eng- 

land. Bug. Bot. ed. 3, t. 691. Syn., B 

— tri'fidum,. 2J. Yellow. July. Italy. 1824, 



B. arista' tv/m. Pale yellow. June. Britain. Eng. 
Bot. ed. 3, t. 690. 

— au'rewm. 1. Yellow. May. Siberia. 1820. 

— coria'ceum. See B. gibraltaricum, 

— falca'tum. i. Green, yellow. August. Ger- 

many. 1739. 
— frute'scens. 2, Yellow. August. Spain. 1762. 

— gramini'^foUum. J. Green, yellow. June. 

Switzerla,nd. 1768. Jacq. Ic. t. 66. Syn., 
B. petroeum. 

B. long^o'lium. 3. Green, yellow. June. Swit- 
zerland. 1713. 

— multine'rve. 3. Yellowish. Altai. 

— panicula'twm. IJ. Yellow. July. Spain. 1824. 

— petrcElwm. See B. grajminifoliv/m. 

— polyph)/Uum. 1. Green. Yellow. May. Cau- 
casus. 1823. 

— seorzonercefo'limn. Yellow-streaked. June. 

Germany. 1818. 

— spimo'sum. Yellow. July. Spain. 1762. 

Evergreen shrub. 


B. cane^scens. 5. Yellow. August. Barbary. 
1809. Evergreen shrub. 

— frutieo'sum. 3. Yellow. July. South Europe. 

1696. Evergreen half-hardy. 

— giiralta'rieum. Yellow. June. Gibraltar. 1784. 

Evergreen half-hardy. Syns., B. arbo- 
rescens, Jacq. Ic. t. 351, and B. eoria- 

— plantagi'neum. 3. Yellow. July. Mount 

Atlas. 1810. Evergreen half-hardy. 

Blirbi'dgea. (Named in honour of 
Mr. F. W. Burbidge, a traveller in N. 
W. Borneo, and author. Nat. ord., 
Scitaminece; Inhe, Zingiberacece. Allied 
to Hedychium.) 

Stove herbaceous perennial, readily increased 
by divisions of the rootstoek. Light sandy loam, 
leaf -mould, and a little fibry peat, well drained ; 
moist atmosphere and shade. Only one species 
of the genus is known ; the flowers are large, 
very bruliant, and freely produced. 
'-B. ni'tida. 2 to 4. Orange-scarlet. Summer. 
N. W. Borneo. 1872. B. M. t. 6403. 

Bureha'rdia. (Named after H. 
Burchard, M.D. Nat. ord., Liliacem ; 
Tribe, Anguillariece. Allied to Vera- 
trum. ) 

Greenhouse herbaceous perennial ; offsets and 
divisions ; sandy peat. 

B. umbella'ta. 2. White, green. August. 
Australia. 1820. 

Burche'Uia. (Named after Burchell, 
an African traveller. Nat. ord., Bubia- 
cecB. Allied to Gardenia. ) 

Stove evergreen shrubs, from Cape of Good 
Hope. Cuttings of young shoots, getting firm 
at the base, in April -and May ; flbry loam and 
sandy peat. 
B. cape'nsis. 12. Scarlet. March. 

parvijlcyra. 3. Scarlet. 1818. B. M. 

t. 2339. Syns., B. buhalina, and B. 
parmfiora. B. E. t. 891. 

Burlingto'nia. SeeRodriguezia. 
Bum Onion. See Potato Onion. 

Burnet. (Pote'rivmi sanguiso'rba.) 
Small, or Upland Burnet. Used in cool 
tankards, soups, and salads. 

Soil and Situation. — It delights in a 
dry, unshaded, poor soil, abounding in 
calcareous matter, with a dressing of 
brick rubbish, or fragments of chalk. 
A small bed will be sufficient for the 
sum)ly of a family. 

Propagation is either by seed or by 
slips and partings of the roots. The 
seed sown towards the close of February, 
if open weather, and until the close of 




May. But the best time is in autumn, 
as soon as it is ripe ; for, if kept until 
the spring, it will often fail entirely, or 
lie in tlie ground until the same season 
of the following year without vegetating. 
Sow in drills, six inches apart, thin, and 
not buried more than half an inch. Keep 
clear of weeds. When two or three 
inches high, thin to six inches apart, and 
place those removed in rows at the same 
distance, in a poor, shady border, water 
being given occasionally until they have 
taken root, after which they will require 
no further attention until the autumn, 
when they must be removed to their final 
station, in rows a foot apart. When 
established, the only attention requisite 
is to cut down their stems occasionally 
in summer, to promote the production 
of young shoots, and, in autumn, to 
have the decayed stems and shoots 
cleared away. 

If propagated by partings of the roots, 
the best time is in September and Octo- 
ber. They are planted at once where 
they are to remain, and only require 
occasional watering until established. 

To obtain Seed some of the plants 
must be left ungathered from, and al- 
lowed to shoot up early in the summer. 
They flower in July, and ripen abundance 
of seed in the autumn. 

Burning Bush. Euo'nymus ameri- 

Burrie'lia gra'cilis. See Bseria 

Bursa'ria. (Named from bursa, a 
pouch. Nat. ord., Pittosporacece.) 

Greenhouse evergreen shrub. Cuttings of 
young shoots in sand, under a. bell-glass ; sandy 
peat and fibry loam. 

B. spino'sa. 10. White. October. N. S. Wales. 
1793. B. M. 1. 1767. 

Bu'rsera. (Named after Burser, an 
Italian botanist. Nat. ord., Burse- 

Stove trees ; cuttings under a glass, with bot- 
tom-heat ; loam and peat. 
B. gummi'fera. 20. White, green. W. Ind. 

— serra'ta. 30. Whitish. E. Ind. 1818. 

Burto'nia, (Named after D. Burton, 
a collector for the Kew Gardens. Nat. 
ord., Leguminosce ; Tribe, PodalyriecB. 
Allied to Pulteneea.) 

Greenhouse evergreen under-shrubs ; seeds in 
March and April, in sandy peat ; cuttings of 
half -ripened shoots in sand, under a bell-glass ; 
fibry peat, sandy loam, and pieces of charcoal, 
mixed with soil and drainage. 
B. Brunwi'des. Ih Vellow. June. N. Hol- 
land. 1844. 

— canfe'rta. 2. Violet. July. N. Holland. 

1830. B. B. t. 1600. 

— mi'nar. See Gompholobmm minus. 

B. sca'bra. 1. Yellow. June. N. Holland. 
1803. Syns. B. pvJchella, B. M. t. 4392, 
and B. sessilifiora. 

— villo'sa. 2. Purple. May. Swan Eiver 

1844. B. M t. 4410. 

Bushel. See Basket. 

Butcher's Broom. Bu'scus acu- 

Bu'tea. (Named after John, Earl of 
Bute. Nat. ord., Leguminosce ; Tribe, 
Phaseolece. Allied to the Coral-tree. ) 

Stove evergreen trees; cuttings of shoots, 
young, but firm, in sand, in a moist bottom-heat, 
under a glass, removed, or tilted to admit of air 
being given, during the night ; loam and peat 
B. /rondo' sa. 30. Scarlet. E. Ind. 1796. Bedd. 
H. Syl. 1. 176. 

— parvifl&ra. See Spatholohus Roxburghii. 

— supe^rba. 30. Scarlet. E. Ind. 1798. 

Butomo'psis. (From Butomus, and 
opsis,]ike. Nat. oid.,AlismacecB; Tribe, 

B. la/nceola'ta. 1. White. June. Nepaul. 
1823. Syn., Butomus latifolius. 

Bu'tomus. Flowering Bush. (From 
bous, an ox, and temno, to cut ; in refe- 
rence to its acrid juice, causing the mouth 
ta bleed. Nat. ord., .d^isTwaceosy Tribe, 

Hardy perennial aquatic ; divisions ; rich loam 
in water. 
B. latifo'liug. See ButoTnopsis la/nceolata. 

— umbella'tus. 2. Pink. June. Britain. Eng. 

Bot. ed. 3, 1. 1443. 

Butter Nut. 


Petasi'tes vulga'ris. 
Caryo'cars.-DA Ju'glans 

Butter and Eggs. Narci'ssus in- 
compara'bilis, var. aura'ntia. 

Butter and Tallow Tree. Penta- 

Butter-tree. Ba'ssia. 

Butterfly Plant. 



Butterwort. Pinguecula. 

Button Flower. Go'mphia. 

Button Tree. Conoca'rpus. 

Button Weed. Spermaco'ce. 

Button Wood. Cephala'nthus. 

Bu'xUS. Box-tree. (From pyknos, 
dense ; referring to the hardness of tlie 
wood. Nat. ord., EuphorUacece.) 

Hardy evergreen shrubs and trees ; seed sown 
in light, well-drained soil, as soon as ripe ; cut- 
tings, from four to six inches in length, of the 
young shoots, inserted in a shady place in August 
and September ; layers of either old or young 
wood ; division of the variety sufrutici/sa, gene- 
rally used as edgings to walks ; cuttings of 
ialea'rica will require protection in vrinter. The 
New Holland species requires a cold pit or green- 
house in winter. 



B. auatra'lis. 6. N. Holland. 1820. 

— bcUea'rica. 8. Yellow, grain. July. Minorca. 


— chine'nsis. See Simmondsia californica. 

— Fortu'nei. Green. Spring. China. 1871. 

— longifo'lio. Green. Spring. NeiKiiil. 1871. 

— sempervi'rens. 8. Yellow, green. April. 

England. Eng. Bot. ed. 3, 1. 1262. 

(Migtistifo'lia. 8. Yellow, green. April, 

arbore'scens. 30. Yellow, green, 


arge'ntea. 30. Yellow, green. 

au'rea. 20. Yellow, green. 

margina'ta. 30. Yellow, green. 

myrtifo'lia. 8. Yellow, green. 

ohcorda'ta^ariega'ta. Green. 


nuffrutico' sa. 1. Yellow, green. 

variega'ta. 30. Yellow, green. 


By'blis. (A classical name, after 
Byblis, daughter of Miletus. Nat. ord., 

Greenhouse aquatic; seeds; flbry-black peat, 
immersed in water. 








£. liniflofra. 

i. Blue. May. 
Salis. Farad, t. 95. 

N. Holland. 

Bsnrso'nima. (From byrsa, a hide ; 
in reference to the tanning properties of 
the genus. Nat. ord., MalpighiacecB.) 

In Brazil the bark of these trees is in common 
use by the tanners, under the name of murice. 
The fruit of some of them is eaten in the West 
Indies. Stove evergreens ; cuttings of half- 
ripened shoots in sandy peat, under a bell- 
glass, and in a moisb^^bottom-heat ; loam and 

B. alti'SBiina. 60. "White. July. Guiana. 

— chryaophy'lla. 10. Yellow. August. Orinoco. 


— c(yna'eea. 30. White. June. Jamaica. 1814. 

— crassif&Ua. 20. Yellow. July. Guiana. 1793. 

— laur^fo'lia. 10. Yellow. July. Cumana. 


— lu'ada. 6. Pink. July. W. Ind. 1769. 

~ Mourenlla. 20. Yellow. August. S. Amer. 

— nervo'm. 8. Yellow. July. Brazil. 1820. 

— pa'Uida. 4. Pale. Cayenne. 1820. 

— retieula'ta. See Heteropterys platyptera. 

— spica'ta. 6. Yellow. August. Antilles. 


— verbascifo'lia. 6. Pale red. July. Guiana. 


— volu'bilis. See Hircea Simsicma. 

Bystro'pogon. (From hyo, to close, 
and pogon, a beard ; in reference to the 
throat of the flower being closed up with 
hairs. Nat. ord., Labiatce ; Tribe, iSa- 
tureinece. Allied to Thyme. ) 

Greenhouse evergreen under-shrub ; cuttings 
of stubby side-shoots in sandy soil, under a glass ; 
peat and loam. 

B. canarie'nsis. IJ. Pale purple. July. Canaries. 

— angamfo'lius. IJ. Pale purple. July. 

Canaries. 1815. 

— pVwma'sus. 1^ Pale purple, June. Canaries. 


— pmuta'tut. \\. Pale purple. June. Madeira. 




Cabaret. See A'sarum. 

Cabbage. Nearly all the varieties 
of this delicious vegetable have been de- 
rived from Bra'ssica ohra'cea, a native 
of the rocky parts of the sea-shores of 
England and Scotland, and which i» 
said to possess in its wild state a most> 
nauseous taste. It will grow in almost, 
any soil, but prefers a light stony one, 
made rich with stable manure. Seed& 
should be sown broadcast from the be- 
ginning of July to the middle of August. 
When the plants have attained a suffi- 
cient size, plant them out about a foot 
apart, in rows fifteen inches from each 
other, where they will remain until 
ready for cutting the following spring. 
When the heads are cut, remove the 
lower leaves as well, the lateral buds 
will then develop into sprouts ready for 
use the following winter. To obtain a. 
succession, seeds may also be sown in 
February, in a slight hotbed. 

To obtain seeds, select some of the 
strongest plants, and remove their lower 
leaves to allow the nourishment to be 
concentrated on the terminal inflore- 

The best sorts of White Cabbage to 

gow are: — Atkins' Matchless, Carter's 
eartwell. Defiance, Enfield Market,, 
Early Battersea, Early Dwarf York, 
Early Kainham, EUam s Early Dwarf, 
Hill's Dwarf, Little Pixie, Oxheart, St. 
John's Day, Sugar-loaf, Wheeler's 
Cocoa-nut and Imperial, and Portugal 
or Couve Tronchuda. 

The Red Dutch Cabbage, which should 
be sown in August or February, is the 
best for jpickling purposes. 

See also Savoy. 

Cabbage diseases. The disease 
that affects the roots of Cabbages, Tur- 
nips, etc., which takes the form of tuber- 
cles and swollen distorted growths, and 
is known under the several terms of Am- 
BURY, Clubbing, Club-eoot, Fingers 
AND Toes, etc., seems to be due to more 
than one cause, or at least is the result 
of two combined causes. 

It would appear that in some instances 
the so-called disease is but a greater or 
lesser tendency to revert to the wild 
form of root. In other cases it is a true 
disease caused by a fungus ; whilst in 
others still it appears to be due to the 
attacks of the larva of a weevil [Cento- 
rhynchus sulcicollis), as described below; 
although Mr. Woronin, who has care- 
fully studied the disease, maintains that 




the weevil is not the cause of the dis- 
ease, but is merely an accessory to it. 
Howeverthis may be, whether the weevil 
does or does not actually produce one 
form of the disease, it is certain that the 
fungus, which was discovered and named 
Plasmodiophora brassicce by Mr. Woro- 
nin, if not the only real cause of the dis- 
ease, as maintained by that gentleman, 
is one of the chief causes of it, and it may 
be that Mr. Woronin is right, and that 
the weevil larva does not attack healthy 
roots and produce the disease, but only 
those affected by the fungus, in which 
case it is probable that it feeds upon the 
fungus and is therefore of some cienefit 
in checking the ravages of the fungus. 
This is an important question that re- 
quires to be cleared up. We shall here 
confine ourselves to the fungus, as an 
account of the weevil has already been 
given as above quoted. 

The Plasmodiophora is a member of 
that remarkable group of plants, the 
Myxomycetes, which completely unite in 
themselves the Animal and Vegetable 
Kingdoms in their lowest phases ; since 
they have during a portion of their life 
a purely animal existence, and during 
another portion of it a purely vegetable 

The Plasmodiophora commences its 
existence as a spore, which in water or 
moist earth gives birth to a minute jeUy- 
like body endowed with life, called a 
myxamoeba, which is capable of moving 
about and assuming various forms, but 
never encases itself in a cell wall. The 
myxamoeba enters the roots of the Cab- 
bage, Turnip, and other Cruciferous 
plants, and passes from cell to cell, con- 
suming their contents, and causes great 
irritation and consequent swelling of the 
tissues it comes in contact with, thus 
producing the "clubbing." After a 
time the Plasmodium (as the body of 
the fungus is termed when inside the 
tissues of the root) breaks up into a 
inultitude of exceedingly minute spores, 
which in their turn develop into 
myxamoeba, plasmodia, and spores again, 
and so increase and perpetuate the 

If sections of roots in the very earliest 
stages of disease be examined under a 
microscope, the cells attacked by the 
fungus will be seen to be larger than 
those not attacked, and filled with an 
opaque granular substance ; in later 
stages of the disease, this substance will 
be found to have increased in size, and 
some of the cells of the diseased plant 
will be found to contain some minute 
globular colourless bodies ; these bodies 

are the spores, and the granular sub^ 
stance is the body, or plasmodium, of the 
Plasmodiophora. Such is the curious 
life history of this insignificant but 
terrible enemy to our Cabbages, Turnips, 

Young seedling Cabbage plants, bear- 
ing only their seed leaves, or one or two 
stemleaves, are often attacked by another 
kind of fungus, which causes them to 
decay at about ground level, and very 
soon to perish. This fungus (Chytridium 
brassicce) consists of a minute globular 
bladder with a slender neck ; the bladder 
part is buried in the tissue of the young 
Cabbage stem, below the seed leaves, 
and the neck, which is longer or shorter 
according to the depth at which the 
bladder part is seated in the tissue, 
penetrates through the epidermis to the 
outside of the Cabbage stem. The » 
Chytridium reproduces itself by zoo- 
spores, which are very minute globose 
bodies, furnished with a single whip-like 
cilium, or hair, by the lashing of which 
they are enabled to move about. The 
zoospores are either ejected through the 
neck of the Chytridium on to the out- 
side of the young Cabbage stem, or the 
globular portion breaks up and the zoo- 
spores swarm in the interior tissues. It 
also propagates itself by resting spores. 

As remedies Sgainst clubbing several 
plans have been tried, of which the fol- 
lowing two have been much recom- 
mended : 

1. Mix soot with a rather smaller 
quantity of sifted earth, into a rather 
thin paste with water, and dip the seed- 
ling plants in the mixture up to the base 
of the leaves before planting. Some who 
have tried this remedy consider it to be 
very effectual. 

2. Mix some of the Gishurst compound 
and Pooley's tobacco-powder in a pail of 
water, adding a little stiff loam to give 
it consistence, and well puddle the roots 
with it before planting, after which give 
the plants another good watering, espe- 
cially round the collar. 

To both the above mixtures we think 
a little powdered phosphate of lime 
might be added with advantage. Wood 
ashes are also said to form a good appli- 

In transplanting Cabbages from the 
seed bed, any that show the least signs 
of disease should be burnt, as this wiU 
be an effectual means of preventing the 
spread of the disease from that source. 
In the way of experiment we would 
suggest the following as worthy of a 
trial. In the winter, or at any other 
time when the ground upon which it is 





intended to plant Cabbages is empty of 
crop and dry, dig in and well mix with 
the soil some unslaked lime, and then 
well water. This would in all proba- 
bility burn and destroy any fungus 
spores and insect eggs that may be con- 
tained in the earth, But the ground must 
not be planted until the destructive 
powers of the lime have abated. The 
quantity of lime to be employed must 
be regulated by the nature of the soil, 
and the experience and judgment of the 

Another experiment that might be 
tried, would be to water the ground, 
wlien there is no crop upon it, witn dilute 
sulphuric acid, as mentioned by us under 
Potato Disease for this acid is very 
destructive to fungi, and it is evident 
that to cope with the disease effectually 
it must be dealt with when in the spore 

Cabbage plants are frequently infected 
■with Ambuky in the seed-bed, which in- 
fection appears in the form of a gall or 
■wart on the stem near the roots. This 
wart contains a small white maggot, the 
larva of a little insect called the weevil. 
If on the gall and its tenant being re- 
moved, the plant is again placed in the 
earth, where it is to remain, unless it is 
again attacked, the wound usually heals, 
and the growth is little retarded. On the 
other hand, if the gall is left undisturbed, 
the maggot continues to feed upon the 
alburnum, or young woody part of the 
stem, until the period arrives for its pass- 
ing into the other insect form, previously 
to which it gnaws its way out through 
the exterior Dark. The disease is now 
almost beyond the power of remedies. 
The gall, mcreased in sizei encircles the 
■whole stem ; the alburnum being so ex- 
tensively destroyed, prevents the sap as- 
cending ; consequently, in dry weather, 
sufficient moisture is not supplied from the 
roots to counterbalance the transpiration 
of the leaves, andthediseasedplantisvery 
■discernible among its healthy compa- 
nions by its pallid hue and flagging fo- 
liage. The disease now makes rapid 
progress, the swelling continues to in- 
crease, for the roots continue to afford 
their juices faster than they can be con- 
'veyed away ; moisture and air are ad- 
mitted to the interior of the excrescence, 
through the perforation made by the 
maggot ; the wounded vessels ulcerate, 
■putrefaction supervenes, and death con 
eludes the stinted existence of the mise- 
lable plant. The tumour usually attains 
the size of a large hen's egg, has a rug- 
ged, ulcerated, and even mouldy surface, 
smelling strong and offensively. The 

fibrous roots, besides being generally 
thickened, are distorted and monstrous 
from swellings which appear throughout 
their length, apparently arising from an 
effort of nature to form receptacles for 
the sap. These swellings do not seem 
to arise immediately from the attacks of 
the weevil. When it attacks the turnip, 
a large excrescence appears below the 
bulb, gro'wing to the size of both ha,nds, 
and, as soon as the winter sets in, it is, 
by its own nature, brought to maturity, 
becoming putrid, and smelling very offen- 
sively. The parent weevil is of a dusky- 
black colour, with the breast spotted with 
white, and the length of the body one 
line and two-thirds. The ambury of the 
turnip and cabbage usually attacks these 
crops when grown for successive years on 
the same soil. This is precisely what 
might be expected ; for, where the parent 
insect always deposits her eggs, some of 
these embryo ravages are to be expected. 
The ambury is most frequently observed 
in dry seasons. This is also what might 
be anticipated ; for insects that inhabit 
the earth just beneath its surface, a,re 
always restricted and checked in their 
movements by its abounding in moisture. 
Moreover, the plants actually affected 
by the ambury are more able to contend 
against the injury inflicted by the 
larva of the weevil by the same copious 

Anthormjiia hra'ssicce, cabbage-fly, 
says Mr. Curtis, is found through the 
summer, and is the parent of a maggot 
which has been known to lay waste whole 
fields of cabbages, by diseasing the roots 
on which they feed, as well as the base 
of the stalk. Successive generations are 
feeding until November ; the latter fami- 
lies lying in the pupa state through the 
winter, and most probably some of the 
flies survive that season, secreted in holes 
and crevices. When the cabbage leaves 
assume a leaden or yellow colour, and 
droop in midday from the effects of the 
sun, such plants, being diseased, should 
be taken up, carried away, and burnt, 
and brine or lime put into the holes. 
Gardeners, in some instances, have col- 
lected large quantities of the pupae from 
the roots by drawing away the earth. 

The male of A. hra'ssicce is dark, bright 
grey, 'with black bristles ; there is a 
black stripe half way down the middle 
of the thorax, and a curved one on each 
side ; the body has a more decided black 
stripe down the centre, and the seg- 
ments are marked by a line of the same 
colour : legs and antennse blackish ; 
wings a little smoky. The female is 
pale, ashy grey ; the eyes remote, with 




■a dark chestnut-coloirred stripe on the 
-crown ; the wings are similar in tint to 
those of the foregoing species, but the 
insects are consideramy smaller. — Gwr- 
dener's Chronicle. 

Cabbage Butterfly. See Pieris. 

Cabbage - Garden Pebble - 
Moth. Pyralis. 

Cabbage Moth. Mamestra. 

Cabbage Powdered-wing. See 
Alejrrodes proletella. 

Cabbage Tree. Andira inermis. 

Cabo'mba. (Native name. Nat. 
ord., Nymphceacem.) 

A small watet-plant, with floating shield-like 
Isavea, and small yellow flowers, whioli look, at 
.a distance, like so many Crowfoot-flowers. An 
interesting species, propagated by root division, 
■requiring oiuy greenhouse culture in summer, 
and to rest in a cool part of the stove in winter. 
A shallow pan of wafer, with three inches deep 
of rich loam in the bottom, wUl suit it well. 
C. aqua'tiea. Yellow. May. Guiana. 1823. 

Cacalia. (From Tcakos, pernicious, 
and lian, exceedingly ; supposed to be 
liurfcful to the soil. Nat. ord., Com- 
positcB. ) 

Propagated by division of the root, when 
tuberous. Also by cuttings in sandy soil ; sandy 
loam, fibry peat, equal parts ; lime rubbish and 
very rotten cow-dung, equal parts of each. 
C. alpi'na. See Aderwstylis glabra. 

— artimtla'ta. See Kleinia articulata. 

— atriplicifo'lia. 3 to 6. White. August. 

. United States. 

— Weolmr. See Gynura Wcolar, B. B. 1. 110. 

— camo'sa. See Kleinia camosa. 

— cocei'nea. B. M. t. 564. See Emilia sagittata. 

— cordifo'lia. 1. White. August. Mexico. 

1823. Hardy tuberous-rooted. 

— cyli'ndrica. See Othorma cylindrica. 

— hasta'ta. 1. White. September. Siberia. 

-^ Hawdrthii. See Kleinia Haworthii. 

— Kleinia. See Kleinia neriifolia. 

■ — lonffifolia. See Kleinia pugioniformis. 

— ova'lis. See Gynura ovalis. 

— papilla'ris. See Kleinia papillaris. 

— pugumiifo'rmis. See Kleinia pugioniformis. 

— radi'cans. See Kleinia radicans. 

— renifo'rmis. H. White. July. N. America. 


— retiaula'ta. 2. Yellow. Bourbon. 1823. 

— sca'ndens. See Senecio voluhilis. 

— nuaviolens. 6. White. August. N. America. 


— tubero'sa. 1. August. N. America. 1812. 

Hardy tuberous-rooted. 

Cacci'nia. (Nat. ord., Compositce.) 
G. glau'ca. 1883. 

Cacou'cia. (The Indian name. Nat. 
ord., Combretacece. Allied to Combre- 
tum. ) 

A fine Stove climber, requiring the same treat- 
■ Jnent as Combre'tum pwrpu'reum. Cuttings of 
stiff side-shoots in sand, under a bell-glass, in 
bottom-heat. Peat and loam, both sandy and 
C. cocei'nea. Scarlet. May. Guiana. 

Ca'ctus Da'hlia. Dahlia Jua- 

Ca'ctus. Melon Thistle. (A name 
applied by Theophrastus to some spiny 
plant. ) A large number of plants were 
formerly grouped under the generic 
name of Cactus, but have now been 
separated into well-marked genera, and 
the name Cactus dropped. The species 
enumerated here may be regarded as 
typical of those genera, detailed lists 
being inserted under the various generic 
names in other parts of this work. 

A. Calyx-tube produced beyond the ovary. 
Stem covered with elongated tubercles or ribs, 
which are aculeate, rarely leafy. 

Meloca'ctus commu'nis. B. M. tt. 3090-3091. 

Mamilla'ria (Syn., Anhalo'nium) 
M. atra'ta, B. M. t. 3642. 

— da'va, B. M. t. 4358. 
—flaribvinda, B. M. t. 3647. 

— Lehma'nni, B. M. t. 3634. 

— pycna'ntha, B. M. t. 3972. 

— te'nuis, B. M. t. 3646. 

— tetraca'ntha, B. M. t. 4060. 

— turbina'ta, B. M. t. 3984. 


H. centetelriui, B. M. t. 3974. 

— coryno'des, B. M. t. 3906. 
^ Leea'rms, B. M. t. 4184. 

— longihama'ttts, B. M. t. 4632. 

— JfocftMBa'wMS, B. M. t. 3661. 

— multijlofrus, B. M. t. 4181. 

— rtiyriosti'gma, B. M. t. 4177. 

— Otto'nix, B. M. t. 3107. 

— oxi/qonus, B. R. 1. 1717. 

— pectinifems, B. M. t. 4190. 

— Pentlalndi, B. M. t. 4124. 

— rhodophtha'lmuSt B. M. t. 4486. 

— sessilifio'rus, B. M. t., 3569. 

— streptocau'lim, B. M. t. 4562. 

— tenuisvi'nus, B. M. t. 3963. 

— UiMfiSruB, B. M. t. 3627. 
— Visna'ga, B. M. t. 4559. 

— Willia'rmii, B. M. t. 4296. 

Ca'ctus phylla'nthus, B. M. t. 2692. 

— speciosi'ssimuSj B. M. t. 2306. 
Ce'reus Ackerma'nni, B. M. t. 3598. 

— crena'tm, B. E. 1844, t. 31. 
Discoca'ctus Wformis, B. E. 1845, t. 9. 

Ca'ctus trunca'tus, B. M. t. 2562. 
Bpiphy'Uum Russellia'nwm, B. M. t. 3717. 

B. Calyx-tube not produced beyond the ovary. 
Stem branched, jointed. 

Ca'ctus ala'tus, B. M. t. 2820. 
Bhi'psalis Cassu'tha, B. M. t. 3080. 
—faseicula'ta, B. M. t. 3079. 

— grandiflo'ra, B. M. t. 2740. 

— mesembrianthemoi'deSt B, M. t. 3073. 


Ca'ctus cocheniUi'fer, Andr. Eep. t. 633. 

Opu'ntia auranti'aca, B. R. 1. 1606. 

— brasilie'nsis, B. M. t. 3293. 

— cyli'ndrica, B. M. t. 3301. 

— decu'mbens, B. M. t. 3914. 

— Drumnto'ndiiy Maund Bot. 5, t. -246. 

— inonaca'ntha, B. M. t. 3911. 

— Salmia'na, B. M. t. 4542. 

CAD [ 148 ] 


Perdskia, aculea'ta, B. E. 1. 1928. 

— Ble'o, B. M. t. 3478, B. B. 1. 1473. 

Culture.- — The features of cultivation 
common to all these genera are a high 
temperature and a somewhat moist 
atmosphere when growing in summer ; 
a dry atmosphere when ripening their 
growth ; and a dry atmosphere — dryness 
comparatively at the roots — and a low 
temperature when in a state of rest. 
Though a temperature of from 80° to 
95° will not he too high in the one case, 
one not below 40° will suffice in the 

Ca'dia. (Derivation uncertain. Nat. 
Ord., Legwminosce ; Tribe, Sophorece.) 

Dwarf shrub, requiring stove treatment. 
C. EllimilrM. Rose-red. December. Madagas- 
car. 1870. B. M. t. 6686. EemarkaWe 
for having regular flowers resembling 
those of a mallow. 

Cseno'pteris. (From hainos, new, 
and pteris, a fern. Nat. ord. , Filices. ) 
Divisions, like most Ferns ; peat and loam. 


C appendicula'ta. J. Brown. July. N. Hol- 
land. 1822. 

— odonti'tes. See Aspleniwrnfiaceidum, 


C. myrwphylla and rhizophy'Ua. See Aspleniuvn 

— thalictroi'des. 1. September. Jamaica. 

Csesalpi'nia. Bra-siletto. (Named 
after Ccesalpimts, physician to Pope 
Clement VIII. Nat. ord. , LeguminoscE ; 
Tribe, EucmsalpinecB.) 

"As hard as Brazils" refers to the Brazil- 
wood — that of Ccesalpi'nia hrasilie'nsis. Stove 
evergreens, except where otherwise stated. 
Seeds and cuttings in sand, and in bottom-heat. 
Peat and loam. 

C. altemifo'lia. Orange. Central America. 

— haha/me^Thsis, 15. White. Bahama. 1820. 

— irrasilie'nsis. 20. Orange. Jamaica. 1739. 

— cassioides. 6. Yellow. S. Amer. 1821. 

— chinelnm. See C. N-uga. 

— digv/na. 16. Yellow. E. Ind. 1820. Syn., 

C oleospernha. 

— Gillie'sii. Mendoza. 1829. Deciduous. 

— ja^o'nica. Yellow. Japan. Hardy. First 
flowered in 1887. Syn., C. crista, G. C. 
1888, vol. 4, p. 613. 

— mi'nax. White, purple. April. Canton. 

— Nu'ga. 10. Yellow. B. Ind. 1820. Syn., 

C. chinensis. 

— oleospe'rma. See C digyna. 

— panicula'ta. 6. Yellow. Malabar. 1817. 

— pectvna'ta. See Coulteria tinctoria, 

— pro'cera. 30. Yellow. Cuba. 1824. 

— mUche'rrima. 12. Red, tipped yellow. W. 

Ind. Maund Bot. 4, t. 161. 

— puncta'ta. 6. Yellow. Brazil. 1820. 

— Sa'ppan. 20. Yellow. B. Ind. 1773. 

— sea'ndens. 20. Yellow. E. Ind. 1800. Climber. 

— sepia'ria. Climber. Yellow. April, India. 

1857. Syn., Biamcea sccmdens. 

— tiiicto'ria. See Ccyulteria tmctoria. 

— vesiea'rm. See CouUeria mexicana 

Cse'sia. (Named after F. CcBsicu 
Nat. ord., Liliacece ; Tribe, Aspho- 
delecB. Allied to Anthericum. ) 

Greenhouse tuberous-rooted perennial. Seeds 
in March, in heat ; division of the roots ; loam, 
and peat. 

C. vitta'ta. 1. Pale blue. July. N. S. Wales. 

Caio'phora. SeeBlumenbaehia. 

Caja'nus. Pigeon Pea. (From its 
Malabar name, Catjang. Nat. ord., 
Leguminosm; Tribe, Phaseolece. Allied 
to Phaseolns. ) 

Stove evergreen shrubs. Seeds in spring ; 
young cuttings under a bell-glass in heat ; sandy 
loam and peat. 
C. i'ndicus. Yellow. E. India. B. M. t. 6440. 

Mcolar. 4. Yellow. July. E. Ind. 1800.. 

fia'ini^- *• Yellow. July. E. Ind. 1687. 

Cajeput-tree. Mdaleu'ca Uu' 

Cajo'pliora. This genus is now 
united to Blumenbachia. 

C. Pentla'ndii. See Loasa Pentla'yidii. 
Calaba-tree. Calophy'llum ca'laba. 
Calabash. Cresce'ntia Ouje'te. 

Calade'nia. (From kalos, beauti- 
ful, and aden, a gland. Nat. ord., 
OrchidecB. Allied to Limodorum. ) 

Greenhouse terrestial orchids. Division of the 
roots ; loam, peat, sand, and broken pots in 
equal portions. They must be kept cool in 
C. ala'ta. June. Tasmania. Fl. Tasm. t. 125. 

Probably a form of C. carriea with smaller 


— aeru'lea. Blue. Australia. 1804. 

— ca'mea. Flesh-coloured. July. Australia. 


a'lba. White. July. Australia. 1810. 

Syn., C alba. 

— clavi'gera. June. N. S. Wales. 

— defi/r7ni£. Yellow. August. Swan River. 

Syn., C. UTiguiculata. 

— dUata'ta. See C. Patersonii, var. dUatata. 

— elonga'ta. See C. latifolia. 

— JUamento'sa. Yellow. Swan River. Syn., 
C denticidata. 

— gem/ma'ta. §. Soft deep blue. W, Australia. 

— gra'cUis. See C testacea. 

— hi'rta. Yellow. May. Swan River. 

— ixixyi'des. Yellow. May. Swan River. 

— latifo'lia. Yellow. Swan River. Syn., C. 


— longicau'da. See C. Patersonii, var. dilatata, 

— margina'ta. Purple. May. Swan River. 

— Paterso'nii. N. S. Wales. 

dilata'ta. Yellow. Lip broad. June. 

Swan River. Fl. Tasm. t. 122, flg. B. 
Syns., C. dilatata and C. longicauda. 

— pUi'/era. Purple. September. Swan River. 

— re'ptans. Purple. August. Swan River. 

— testa' eea. July. Australia. 1824. Syn., C, 


— unguwula'ta. See C. de/ormis, 

Cala'dium. (A word of uncertain 
derivation, perhaps from kaladion, a. 
cup. Nat. ord., Aroidem. .Allied to 

The ginger-like roots of C. M'colar, etc., are 
used as common food in tropical countries, under 




'the name cocoa-roots ; but the roots of others 
Are very acrid. Stove plants. Interesting chiefly 
on account of their stems and leaves. Herbaceous 
kinds by division of the plants, and suckers ; 
sub-shrubs, cuttings, and dividing the roots ; 
rich, lumpy soH, and abundance of vpater. 
-Summer temp. 60° to 85" ; winter, 50° to 55". 

■C aculea'tum. See Montrickardia aouledta. 

— atrhore'scens. See Montrickardia arborescens. 

— arbo'reum. 9. White. Cumana. 1820. 

— argyri'tes. 111. Hort. 1858, t. 185. See C. 


— argyren^ura, 2. S. America. 

— auri'tuTn. See Syngonium auritum, 

— Baraqui'nii. Para. 1858. 111. Hort. 1860, 

t. 257. 

— Belley'mii. HI. Hort. 1858, p. 61, is a variety 

of C. picturatimi. 

— bi'color. 1. White. June. Madeira,. 1773. 

BYQ.,Arumbicolor. B. M. t. 820. Varie- 
ties of this species have received the fol- 
lowing names ; — albomaculatuTti, argy- 
rospiluTTb, Curwadli% Devonianum (ID, 
Hort. 1862, t. 322, f. 1. Syns., C. Ottmis 
and G. Wallisi), Duchartrei^ Sckhartii, 
hcBTTuistigTna (Syn., C. discoliyr, in part), 
Hendersoni, Houbyanum, Homletis 
Kettleri, KodhH^ Kra/merianum, Leo- 
poldi% Lvndeni, ma/rgmatumy rmrabile 
(Hi. Hort. 1863, t. 354), Nevmmmi C^. 
M. t. 5199), pellucidum, rubellum, Sie- 
boldii, splendens (Syn., C. roseumX 
Stangeanutn, ThelemMTvni^ trcmsparens^ 
Vellozianwrn (Syn., C. pusillimiy Belg. 
Hort. 1860, vol. x. p. 169), etc, 

— Brognia'rtii. Para. 1858. 

— Canna'rtii. Leaves green, with pale blotches, 

veins deep red. Para. 1863. 

— cardina'le. 1882. 

— Chanti'nii. Para. 1858. 

— ciicuUa'tum. See Alocasia cucullata. 

— (Mi'prewm. See Alocasia cuprea. V. cuprev/m 

of HI. Hort. 1861, t. 297, is C.picturatum, 
var. porphyroneuron. 

— Devosia'nuTn. Para. 1862. Leaves angular, 

blotched white and pink. 

— e'd/ule. See Xanthosoma edule* 

— erythroEfa. 1. S. America. 

— escule'ntwm. See Colocasia cmtiquorimi, var. 


— fragranti'ssiTmtm. B. M. t. 3314. See Philo- 

dendron fragrantissiTnuTn. 

— hcematosti'gma. Crimson-spotted. S. America. 

— Ha'rdii. Leaves red-tingedandslightly white- 

spotted. Para. 1862. 

— hasta'tum. HI. Hort, 1858, p. 68, is a variety 

of C. picturatuTTh. 

— helleborifo'lium. See Xanthosoma hellebori- 


— Hymibo'ldtii. Para. 1858. Syn., C. argyrites. 

— Jenni'ngsii. See Alocasia. 

— Ko'chii. Leaves white-spotted. Para. 1862. 

— la'cerum. See Philodendron lacerum. 

— Lemmrea'num. Leaves green, with whitigh- 

green venation. S. America. 1861. fil. 
Hort. 1862, t. 311. 

— Leopo'ldii. Leaves green, marbled with red, 

and blotched with pink. Para. 1864. 

— li'mdum. 1. Dingy. September. W.Indies. 


— Lo'wii, See Alocasia. 

— lu'ridum. B. C. t. 1590. See Stawostigma 

•— mOiCrophi/lluTn. Leaves palish green, blotched 

vrith greenish-white. Para. 1862. 
'— Tnacula'tum. 6. Green. August, S. Amer. 


— mamwra'tum. Yellow. Guayaquil. Syn., 

Alocasia Roezlii. 

— mira'bile. Leaves white-mottled. Para. 1863. 

— myriosti'gma is a variety of C. Humboldtii. 

C. nymphcByfo'lium, A variety of Colocasia antv- 


— odora^tum. B. C. t. 416. See Alocasia mac. 

rorrhiza. Syn., C. odorum. B. B. t. 641. 

— ova twm. See Lagenandra toxicoHa. 

— peda'tum. See Philodendron ladniatum 

— Perrie'ri. Leaves green, with red blotches. 

Brazil. 1861. 

— petiola'tum. See Anchomanes difformis. 

— pi'ctum. S. America. 

— pictura' tum. Greenish . S . America. 

— pinnatifidv/m. See Philodendron pimiatifi- 


— poeci'le. White. Brazil, Syn., C. pallidi- 


— pu'milum. See Gonatanthus sarmentosus.B. 

M. t. 5275. 

— rega'le. Leaves of a mottled green, with white 

blotches. Brazil. 1861. 111. Hort. 1862, 
t. 316. Syns., C. surinam^ense and Wag- 

— Mougie'ri. Leaves green, with white spots ; 

the centre pale green, with red veins. 
Para. 1864. 

— rubrove'nivm,. Leaves greyish-^een in the 

centre, with red veins. Para. 1862. 
Syn., 0. mbroTierviwn. 

— sagittoefo'lium. 2. White. W. Ind. 1710. 

— sangmnole'ntwm. Leaves with a white centre 

blotched with red. Amazons. 1872. 

— sca'ndens. See Culcasia scdndens. 

— Schombu'rgkii. Leaves green, with white veins. 

Brazil and Guiana. 1861. HI. Hort. 
t. 297, f. 2. Syns., C. Schoellerit Alocasia 

Schmi'tzii. Centre of leaf whitish, with 

green network, midrib and Veins red. 
Brazil. 1861. Syn., Alocasia erythrcea. 

— Segui'num, Mill. Ic. t. 295. See Dieffenbachia 

— smm^agdi'numi.. White. Caraccas. 

— specta'bile. Leaves with blotches of pink and 

white. Brazil. 1861. 

— ^le^ndidvmn. A synonym of C. bicolor. 

— splendidi'ssvmum. Leaves red-centred. Para. 


— stria'tipes. Brazil. Syn., Philodendron stria- 


— syibrotu'ndum,. Leaves roundish, spotted vrith 

red and white. Brazil. 1858. 

— triparti'tum, Jacq. H. Schcenb. t. 190. See 

Philodendron tripartitv/m. 

— Troutbe'tskoyi. M. Ser. t. 1379 is a form of 

C. picturatum. 

— VerschaffeHtii. Brazil. B. M. t. 5263. 

— virgi'nicum. See Pelta/ndra virginica. 

— vivi'pa/rv/m. See R&musatia vivipara. 

— Walli'sii. Leaves green, spotted with white ; 

veins pale. Para. 1864. 

— Wi'ghtii. Leaves green, vrith blotches of pink 

and white. Brazil. 

— xanth&rhi'zwm. See Xa/nthosoma sagittce- 


— ^micefo'lium. See Zamioculcas. B.M.t.598. 

Calais. See Microseris. 

Calami'ntha. Calamint. (From 
Icalos, beautiful, and mintha, mint. 
Nat. ord. , Labiatce ; Tribe, Satureinece, 
Allied to Melissa. Syn., Acinos.) 

Hardy herbaceous jjerennials, except where 
otherwise stated. Division and seeds ; common 

C. Ad'nos. i. Bluish purple. July. England. 
Eng. Bot. ed. 3, t. 1048. Syns., Acinos 
vilMSus and vulgaris. 

— a'lba. |. White. July. Hungary. 1818. 

— alpi'na. i. Purplish. S. Europe. 1731. 

Syn., Acmos alpinus. B. M. t. 2153. 




C. carolmialiia. 1. Flame-coloured. June. 
Carolina. 1804. 

— coceinea. Scarlet. June to October. S. 

United States. 1834. Syns., Gardoquia 
Hookeri, B. M. t. 1747, and Metisea 

— ere^tica. J. Purple. June. South Europe. 

1596. Half-hardy evergreen. 
— fructict/sa. See Otostegia scariosa. 

— gramdiflo'ra. 1. Bed. July. Italy. 1596. 

Syn.,' Acinos grcmdiflorus. 
variega'ta. 1. Eed. July. Gardens. 

— grave'oleTis. 1. Purple. June. S. Europe. 

1820. Syns., Aekws graveolens (Sibth. 
Fl. Gr. t. 576) and purpurascens. 

— marifo'lia. See Jfieronwria Tnarifolia. 

— mimuloi'des. li. Yellow. September. Cali- 

fornia. 1849. 

— patavi'na. J. Reddish. S. Europe. 1776. 

— rotu7idif(/lia. i. Purple. June. Spain. 

1829. Syn., Acvnos rottmd^olius. 

— suave'olens. 1. Reddish-purple. ' S. Europe. 

1817. Syns., Acinos heterophylhis and 

Calampe'lis. A synonym of 

Calamus (From kalom, the Arabic 
■word for a reed. Nat. ord., Palmacece; 
Tribe, Lepidocaryece. Syn., Dcemono- 
rops, which diflfers only in having de- 
ciduous spathes.) 

The dark-coloured resin called Dragon's-blood 
is the natural secretion of the fruit of C. dra'co. 
Stove palms. Seed; sandy loam. Summer 
temp. 60° to 80° ; winter, 60° to 65°. 

C. acce'd^na. India. 

— adspe'rsu^. 20. Java. 1866. 

— a'llms. 60. E. Indies. 1812. 

— aspdrrimus. Climber. Java. 1877. 111. Hort. 

t. 275. 

— wuMra'lis. Fitzroy Island. 1861. 

— calica'rpue. Malacca. 

— caloldj^s. Java. 

— dlia'ris. B. Indies. 1869. 

— dnna/mo'Tnea, Java ? 1870. 

— delica'tvlus, Ceylon. 

— dra'co. 60. E. Indies. 1819. 

— erelcl-ut. Silhet. 

— fcirino'ma. Sumatra. 1873. 
— fi'sevs. Borneo. Syn., Dcemonorops fissits. 
— flage'llvm. 6. Sikkim Himalaya. 
—Jloribu'ndMS. Upper Assam. 

— guinee'nm. SilU£un. 
-^ heteroi'detts. Java. 

— Iw'strix. Malacca and Java. 

— jenkensia'rms. Assam and Sikkim Hima/- 

— leenticefo'rmis. G. C. 1884, vol. 21, p. 711. 

— lat^fo'li'm. Chitta^ong and Burmah. 

— l^ospadix. Khasia Mts. 

— Lewisia'nue, Java. 1878. 

— Lvnde'ni. 

— margina'tm. Borneo. 

— melmwchaltet. 160. Malay Archipelago. Syn., 

Damumorops Tnelanochcetes. 

— micra'nthus, Malaya. 

— monta'nus. Sikkim Himalayas. 

— MtLeUefn. Tropical Australia. 

— Nimla'i. Kerch. Palm. p. 237. 

— nilmr. B. Indies. 1824. 

— obSyngus. 60. Java. 1867. 

— oma'tits. Java. 1875. Sjm., Dcenumorops 


— owi'dens. Java. 1872. 

— oxbya'rms. Java. 

— paehyMmonos. Ceylon. 

— palemba'nicus. Java. 1872. Syn., Dcemono- 


C. periaca'nthue. Java. 1872. Syn., Dcsmono- 
rovs periaca/nthus. 

— pri'ncepe. Java. 1872. 

— re'gis. Papua. 

— Moftang. India. Syn., Arwndo Rotang. 

— MoxMrghii. Java. 1872. 

— Baytea'rmg. N. W. Himalayas. 

— rudelntum. 200. Java. 1812. Probably the-' 

same as C. <dbue. 

— schizospa'thus. Sikkim and Khasia Mts. 
■ — specta'Hlis. Malacca. 

— subcmgula'tus. B. Indies. 

— te'rmis. Silhet. 

— tricho'its. Sumatra. 

— trine'rms. E. Indies. 

— Verschafefltii. Madagascar. 1861. 

— verticilfa'ris. Malacca. 1873. Syn., Bcenw- 

Tuyrops vcrticiUaris. 

— vefrm. 20. Cochin China. 1812. Syn., C:- 


— tnimina'li^. 60. Java. 1847. 

— Wi'ghtii. Deccan. 

— ZalaJcca. See Zalacca ed/uZis or WallU 


Cala'ndra grana'ria. Granary- 
Weevil. This insect is a very trouble- 
some pest, not only to the farmer, whose 
corn it destroys wholesale, but to the 
gardener also ; attacking his seed stores 
and devouring some of his fruit. The^ 
beetle averages about two lines in length 
(the line [a] oy the side of our illustra- 
tion repres.ents the length of a rather 
large individual from which our draw- 
ing was made); it is of a blackish-brown. 

colour, punctate on the thorax, and; 
striato-punctate on the elytra ; the 
roundish head is furnished with a rather 
long proboscis. The eggs are deposited 
in various kinds of grain, but only one 
egg is deposited in each seed, in which 
the larva feeds, and changes to the pupa, 
state, from which in a short time the 
perfect beetle emerges. The whole pro- 
cess, from the laying of the egg to the 
development of the perfect insect, is 
completed in a space of six or seven 
weeks, so that many generations are 
produced in a year ; and if not constantly 
checked, and every possible means 
taken to lessen their numbers, they will 
be found to have destroyed a very large 
proportion of the crop they have at- 
tacked, in the course of one summer. 
Neglected bams and granaries are their 
chief resorts; and from these they spread 
in myriads, doing damage to everything 




that is agreeable to them. Tins insect 
is very difficult to get rid of ; perfect 
cleanliness in all grain stores, and the 
destruction of the beetle whenever seen, 
is the best way to contend against its 
ravages. In all places where it is trouble- 
some, traps should also be set for it, 
such as sopped bread, or bits of fruit, or 
shallow plates of milk, and the insects 
destroyed in boiling water. 

Calandri'nia. (Named after Calan- 
drini, a German botanist, ^fat. ord., 
PortulacecB. ) 

When grown from seeds, the hardy, as well as 
the greenhouse and stove kinds, like a little pro- 
tection, such as may be given by a slight hotbed, 
in Apnl, and a hand-light over it. Cuttings, 
also, strike freely ; light, sandy soil, well drained, 
suits them well. 


C. arena'ria. J. Orange, red. July. Val- 
pajuiso. 1831. Herbaceous perennial. 
B. R. t. 1605. 

— caule'scens. Rose. August. Mexico. 1827. 


— compre'ssa. J. Rose. August Chili. 1826. 


— Menzie'sii. Crimson-purple. Summer. Cali- 

foi-nia. 1831. B. R. t. 1698. Syn., C. 
speciosa, B. M. t. 3379. 

— mona'ndra. }. Red. August. Chili. 1837. 

Annual. Syns., C glandulosa and par- 

— oppoaitifo'lia. Prostrate. Pearly-white. Sum- 

mer. Oregon and N. California. 1888. 
B. M. t. 7061. 

— proeu'mhens. J. Rose. August. Peru. 1827. 


— specio'sa. See C. M&nziesii. 

— umjiella'ta. J. Rose. July. Peru. 1826. 

Annual. Pax. Mag. vol. 12, p. 271. 


C. Andre'wm. Rose. August. W. Ind. 1812. 
Deciduous shrub. Syn., Talinum An- 

— discolor. IJ. Rose. July. Chili. 1834. 

Herbaceous perennial. B. M. t. 3357. 

— glau'ca. Rose. August. Chili. 1827. Annual. 

— Lockha'rti. Rose. June. Trinidad. 1825. 

Deciduous shrub. Sja., Talinum gra-n- 

— nUtida. }. Red. August. Chili. 1837. Annual. 

— phacosp/rma. Red. August. Chili. 1837. 



C. cUia'ta. i. Purple. August. Chili. 1823. 

— com/pr^ssa asee'Tidens. J. Purple. Brazil. 

Herbaceous pereniual. Syn., C ascent 

— gramdiflofra. 1. Purple. July. Chili. 1826. 

Herbaceous perennial. JB. M. t. 3369. 

— Lla'vea. April. Mexico. Herbaceous peren- 


— panicula'ta. IJ. Purple. July. S. Amer. 

1816. Herbaceous perennial. 

Cala'nthe. (From kalos, beautiful, 
and anthos, a flower. Nat. ord., Orchi- 

Terrestrial orchids, all evergreens except C. 
vesti'ta. Divisions and suckers ; loam and 
peat, lightened with sand and charcoal, and en- 
riched by top-dre,ssings of old cow-dung ; extra 
well-dramea, constantly moist, and the plants 
well exposed to light. Summer temp. 60° to 
80" ; winter, 60° to 66°. 

C. anchori'/era. Pale ochre. December Poly- 
nesia. 1882. 

— aiistra'lis. See C. veratri/olia. 

— Barberia'na. White, yellow, occasionally 

light purple. 1881. Hybrid between C. 
vestita and C. Turneri. 

— be'Ua. LUac ; lip carmine bordered white 

spur pale yellow. 1881. Hybrid between 
C. Veitehii and C. Tumen. 

— bi'color. See C. striata. 

— iracteo'sa. White. Samoa. 1883. 

— brevico'mu. Rose. White. August. Nepaul. 

— Ceci'liee. Light ochre, shaded purple, calli 

yellow. Malay Peninsula. 

— co'lorans. G. C. 24, p. 360. 

— curmligai'des. 2. Orange. October. Ma- 

lacca. 1844. B. R. 1847, t. 8. 

— Curti'sii. Rose outside, white within ; lip 

yellow with purple calli ; column white. 
Sunda Islands. 1884. 

— demsiflo'ra. |. Yellowish. September. E. 

Ind. 1837. B. R. 1. 1646. 

— di'pteryx. Purple. Sunda Islands. 1884. 

— di'scolor. Dark purple ; lip white, tinged 

rose. Japan. 1837. 

— Dom/i'mi. Lilac- purple, white ; lip becoming 

deep red. Hybrid between C. Itasuca 
and C.furcata. Dr. Lindley states this 
to be the first hybrid orchid raised. 
Seed obtained in 1864, flowered 1856. 

— emargina'ta. Lindley not Wight. Violet, 

orange. Java. 1866. 

— fia'vicans. White, blue. April. E. Ind. 1838. 

— Forsterma'nni, Yellow ; lip pale yellow. 


— furca'ta. White. Luzon Isles. 1836. 

— gra'dUs. Greenish-yellow, or nearly white. 

September. Khasya. 1861. 

— Ha'lU. Garden hybrid. 1888. 

— La'vxfei. Deep yellow. New Caledonia. 

— lentigino'sa. White ; lip spotted with purple. 

Garden hybrid, probably between C 
labrosa and C. Veitehii. 

— Masu'ca. 2. Purple ; lip darker. June. E. 

Ind. 1838. B. H. 1844, t. 37. 

— 'TMtale'Tme. Pale lilac ; lip salmon-colour. 

Natal. B. M. t. 6844. 

— ochra'cea. Pale yellow. April. Japan. 1836. 

— Pe'tri. White, yellow. Polynesia. 1880. 

— plantagi'nea. Lilac. February. Nepaul. 1839. 

— pleiochr&ma. Whitish, purplisli, ochre, 

orange. Japan. 1871. 

— porphy'rea. Purple ; lip yellowish at base. 

Garden hybrid. 

— probosd'dea. White, or light ochre; calli 

vermilion. Sunda Islands. 

— Begnie'ri. White ; column and lip crimson- 

purple ; spur yellowish-green. Cochin 
China. 1883. 
fau'sta. Purple. 

— r&sea. Pale rose, white. Moulmein. 1851. 

B. M. t. 5312. 

— SaTidhurstia'na. Similar to C vestita, but 

with an eye-spot on the Up. 

— sa/nguineb'ria. Blood-red, pale purple. Seed- 

ling form. 

— Sietio'ldii. 1. Yellow. Japan. 1837. Gfl. t. 63B. 

— Steve'risii. Cochin China. 1883. 

— stria'ta. H. Yellow, brown. Japan. 1888. 

B. M. t. 7026. Syn., C. Sieboldii. 

— sylva'tiea. White, changing to yellow. Mada- 

gascar. 1823. 

— Textori. Cream-white, violet, red changing 

to ochre. 1879. 

— Twme'ri. Gard. Chron. 1882, vol. 17, p. 49. 
niva'lis. Pure white. 1882. 

— Veitehii. Pure white with rose-coloured eye. 

There are several varieties of this. 
S^., Limatodes rosea. B. M. t. 6376. 

— veratr^o'lia. 2. White. April. Java. 1819. 
mMirolo'ia. Polynesia. 1878. 



C. versi'color. Whitish-blue, August. Mauri- 
tius. 1836. 

— vesti'ta. 2^. White and pink. November. 

This has pseudo-bulba. No water given 

between December and March, its time 

of rest. 
ocula'ta giga'ntea. White, with fiery-red 

blotch on base of Up. Borneo. Warn. 

Orch. Alb., t. 211. 
WiUia'mftii. Beep crimson. 1884. 

— vi'ridi-fu'sca. Greenish-brown. April. Assam. 

— WUlia'msii. See C. vestita, var. WiUiamsii. 

Cala'thea. (From kalathos, a bas- 
ket ; in reference to the leaves being 
worked into baskets in South America. 
Nat. ord., Scitaminece ; Tribe, Ma/ran- 
tacem, ) 

Stove herbaceous perennials. Divisions ; 
sandy peat and fibry loam. Summer temp. 
60° to 75' ; winter, 55° to 60° 
C. apai8, 1879. 

— AUou'ya. Guiana. 

— angustifo'lia. 1879. 

— applica'ta. White. Brazil. 1875. Syn., Ma- 

ra/nta pinnato-picta. Belg. Hort. 1875, 
t. 18. 

— argyrc^a. 1. Bahia. 1859. 

— arre'cta. Ecuador. 1872. Syn., Maranta 

arrecta. HI. Hort. 1871, t. 77. 

— Backemia'na. Leaves silverj^, with green 

lines and blotches. Brazil. 1875. 

— Baraquinia'na. Leaves with two silvery 

bands. Amazons. 1868. Syn., Maranta 

— Mlla. Leaves greyish-green, with the margins 

and two series of central patches deep 
green. Brazil. 1875. Syns., Maranta 
oella and M. tessellata Eegeljani. 

— t^llula. Leaves dark green, with rosy-white 

festoons along the midrib. Amazons. 
1872. Syn., Maranta bellula. 

— chimhorac^nsis. See Ma/ranta. 

— dne'rea. Amazons. 1872. Syn., Maranta 


— croea'ta. Orange. Brazil. 1875. 

— d^nsa. Brazil. 1865. Hyn., Phrynvwm den- 


— exUmia. 1857. Syn., PhryniuTn eximmm. 

Gfl. t. 686. 

— fascia' ta. 1. Brazil. 1859. Syn., Maranta 

faseiata. Gfl. t. 255. 
— flave'scens. 1^. Yellow. August. Brazil. 

— grandifo'Ua. 2. Yellow. July. Rio Janeiro. 


— hierogly'pfiica. Leaves deep gjeen, paler along 

the midrib, with two white lines between 
each pair of veins. Columbia. 1873. 111. 
Hort. 1873, t. 122. 

— Ulu'stris. Leaves creamy -zoned, red beneath. 

Ecuador. 1866. Syn. , Ma/ramita illitstris. 

— inscri'^ta. Leaves opaque green, with curved 

silvery lines, Brazil. 1875. Syn., ilfa- 
ranta mscripta. 

— Eerchovia'na. h Leaves green, with two 

rows of brown blotches. Brazil. 1879. 
Syn. , M. leuconeura Kerchoviana. 

— Komickia'na. White. Brazil. 1874. Syns., 

C. propinqua and liiedeliana. 

— KuTnmeriu'na. Leaves dark gi-een, with sil- 

very bands. Brazil. 1875. 

— Legrellia'na. Ecuador. 1867. Syn., Maranta 


— Lei'tzei. Leaves deep green, with short yellow- 

gi-een bands. Brazil. 1875. Gfl. t. 935. 

— leopardi'na. 2. Yellow. Brazil. 1875. Syn., 

Maranta leopardina. Gfl. t. 893. 

— leuconeu'ra. White, purple. Brazil, 1875. 

Syn., Maranta leucoTieura.^ 


. leucosta'ekys. 1. White. October. Costa- 
Rica. 1874. 

- Lindenia'na. Leaves banded with pale and 

dark green. Peru. 1866. Syn., Maranta 
Lindeniana. 111. Hort. 1871, t. 82. 

- longibraetea'ta. 1. Purple. July. BraziL 


- Luoia'ni. Leaves shining green, the midnb 

festooned with silvery white. Tropical 
America. 1872. Syn., Maranta, Luaia/ni, 

- MaTcoya'na. Leaves greyish, with oblong dark 

green patches. Tropical America. 1872. 
Syns., Maranta Makoyana and M. oli- 
varis. Gard. Chron. 1872, p. 1589. 

- Massangea'na. White. Brazil, 1875. Syn., 

Maranta leitconeura Massangeana. 

- m^dio-pi'cta. Purple ; leaves dark green, 

with feathered white central stripe. 
Brazil. 1878. 

- meta'Uica. Violet. New Grenada. 1855. 

- mi'caTis. Brazil. 

ama'bilis. 1879. Syn., C. amdbilie. 

- ni'gro-costa'ta. Columbia. 1874. 

- ni'tens. Brazil. 1880. 

- Oppenheimia'na. Leaves deep green, with 

white bands. Brazil. 

- orUcula'ta. 2. Yellow. August. W. Ind. 1830. 

- oma'ta. 1. Columbia 1849. Syn., Maranta 

a'lbo-linea'ta. Columbia. 1848. Syn., 

Mara/nta albo-lmeata. 
maje'stica. Rio Purus. 1866. Syn., 

Maranta nutjestica. 
rega'lis. Peru. 1856. Syn., Maranta> 

regalis and M, corii/oUa. 
ro'seo-linea'ta. 1. 1848. Syn., Maranta 


- paci'Jica. Leaves emerald green, purple be- 

neath. E. Peru. 1871. Syn., Maranta 

- pardvna and pavoni'na are white-spotted. Fl. 

Ser. 1. 1101. 

- pictura'ta. Brazil. 1866. 

- porphyrocau'lis. Columbia. 1875. Syn., Ma- 

ranta porphyrooaulis. 

- prasi'na. Leaves vrith a yellow-green central 

band. Brazil. 1876. Syn., Maranta 

- pri'nceps. 2. Leaves metallic green, with two 

yellow bands, purple beneath. Peru. 
1869. Syn., Maranta princeps. 

- propi'ngua. See C. Komickia'na. 
-pruinata. Nicaragua. 1872. Syn., Maranta 


- ptUche'lla. Leaves bright green, with two 

series of deep green blotches, alternately 
large and small. Brazil. 1859. Syn., 
Mara/nta pulchella. 

- Jtiedelia'na. See C. Kornickia/na. 
-ro'seo-pi'cta. Leaves rose-banded, red beneath. 

Upper Amazon. 1866. Syn., Maranta 
roseo-pieta. Gfl. t. 610. 
Wagne'ri. Syn., Maranta Wagneri. 

- rotundi/o'lia. 1857. Syn. , Ma/ranta orbifolia. 

- rufiba'rba. Brazil. 1879. 

- Seema'Tvni. Leaves satiny emerald -green, 

midrib whitish. Nicaragua. 1872. Syn., 
Maranta Seema/nni. 

- smaragdi'na. See Maranta. 

- sple'ndida. Leaves green-banded, purple be- 

neath. Brazil. 1864. Syn., Maranta 

- tcenio'sa. White. Brazil. 1876. 

- tubispa'tka. Yellow ; leaves brown-blotched. 

W. Tropical America. 1865. B. M. 
t. 5542. 

- undula'ta. Leaves bright green, with silvery 

central stripe, Peru. 187L Syn., Ma- 
ranta unduLata. 

- Va'nden He'ckei. Leaves deep green, marked 

withgrey. Brazil. 1865. Syns._, Maranta 
and Phrynium Vanden Heckei. 




C. va'rians. 1856. 

— variega'ta. li. Tropical America. 1857. 

— villo'sa. 3. April. Brazil. 1825. 

— vwlalcea. \\. Purple. July. Brazil. 1816. 

— virgina'Us. Amazons. 1868. Syn., Maranta 


ma'jor. Peru. 1869. Syn., Maranta mr- 

giiialis nu^or. 

— iritta'ta. Brazil. 1867. Syn., Maranta vit- 


— Veitchialna. Wliite ; leaves green-blotched. 

W. Tropical America. 1866. Syn., Ma- 
ranta Veitchii. B. M. t. 5635. 

— vesti'ta. U. Wliitisli. Baliia. 1872. Eef. 

Bot. t. 311. 

— Wallisii. South America. 1867. Syn., Ma- 

ranta Wallisii. 

di'scolor. Leaves bright velvety green, 

with the centre and margins grey. S. 
America. 1871. 

— Warszewi'caii. 1. White. February. Tro- 

pical America. 1879. Syn., Maranta 
Warszemczii, Gfl. t. 515. 

— Wio'ti. Leaves bright green, with two series 

ot olive-green blotches. Brazil. 1875. 
Syn., Maranta Wwti. 

— zebri'na. Red, yellow. Brazil. 1815. B. M. 

t. 385. 

Calcea'ria pi'cfa. See Corys- 

Calathian Violet. Gentia'jia 

Calcareous Soil is a soil in which 
chalk (carhonate of lime) predominates. 
The colour apj)roaches to white, in pro- 
portion. No soil is productive which does 
not contain some carhonate of lime, or 
in which it exceeds nineteen parts out 
of twenty. From one to five per cent, 
is the usual proportion in fertile soils. 
Calcareous soils are rarely productive ; 
they are so feehly retentive of moisture, 
that the crops upon them are hurnt tip 
in summer ; and they reflect the sun s 
rays so fully, that they remain un- 
heated, and vegetation is late upon 
them in spring. The hest addition to 
such soUs, to improve their staple, is 

Calceola'ria. Slipperwort. (From 
calceolus, a slipper ; in reference to the 
shape of the flower. Nat. ord., Scrophu- 

Herbaceous kinds, to bloom early, sow seeds in 
August and September, and cuttings at the same 
time. Shrubby kinds, for flower-garden decora- 
tion, by cuttings of firm young shoots, under 

slass, m September; and agam, in heat, in 
March. Soil for pots, light and rich compost, 
well-drained ; for beds, a good loam should pre- 

ponderate. Summer temp. 50° to 60° ; winter, 
36° to 46°. 


C. chelidonioi'des. 1. Yellow. June. Peru. 



€. amplexwau'lis. H. Yellow. June. Peru. 

1846. B. M. t. 4300. 

albe'scens. Pale yellow. 1882. 

— arachnoi'des. 1. Purple. June. Chili. 1827. 

B. M. t. 2874. 

a'lba. 1. White. June. 

o'enatifio'ra. Garden hybrid 1888. 

C. bellidifo'lia. i. Yellow, red. Chili 1861 

— Burbi'dgei. 2-4. YeUow. Autumn. 1882 

Hybrid between C. Pawmia and C. 

— conna'ta. B. M. t. 2876. See C. petiolaris. 

— corymbo'sa. 1. YeUow. May. Chili. 1822. 

B. E. t. 723. 

— crmatiflo'ra. IJ. Yellow-spotted. June 

ChiU. 1831. B. M. t. 3265 

— cuneifo'rmis. IJ. Pale lemon. Bolivia. 1846. 
—fiexuo'sa. 3. Yellow. Peru Mountains. 1847 

B. M. t. 6164. 

— Fothergi'Ui. i. Orange. April. Falkland 

Isles. 1777. B. M. t. 348. 

— Berbertia'na. B. E. t. 1318. See C. racemosa. 

— Ka'yU. Tall. Yellow. Card. Chron. 1882, 

vol. 17, p. 828. 

— loba'ta. J. Yellow, spotted with purple-red. 

Peru. 1877. Half hardy. B. M. t. 6330. 

— Pavo'nii. 2. Yellow. July. Peru. B. M. 

t. 4626. 

— petiola'ris. 3. Yellow. Chili. 1824. Bien- 

nial. Syn., C. connata. 

— pirma'ta. 2. Yellow. July. Peru. 1773. 

— plcmtagi'nea. 1. Yellow. August. Chili. 
1827. B. M. t. 2805. 

— polyfo'lia. 1. Yellow. July. Chili. 1827. 

B. M. t. 2897. 
■•-purpu'rea. 1. Purple. July. Chili. 1827. 
B. M. t. 2775. 

— purpu'rea e'legans. 1. Pale purple. June. 

Chili. 1832. 

pi'cta. 1. White, purple. June. Chili. 


— racemo'sa. J. Yellow. June. Chili. 1828. 

Syn., C. Herbertiana. 

— sua'vis. 1. Purple. Chili. 

— tene'Ua. }. Yellow. 1873. Hardy. B. M. 

t. 6231. 


C. a'lba. IJ. White. JunS. ChUi. 1844. B. M. 
t. 4167. 

— andi'na. 2. Yellow. April. Valparaiso. 

1836. Syn., C. Herbertiana parviAora. 
B. E. t. 1576. 

— angustiflo'ra. B. M. t. 3094. See C. verticil- 


— adsee'ndens. 1. Yellow. July. Cordilleras. 

1826. B. E. t. 1216. Syns., C. crenata. 
(B. E. t. 790) and C. rugosa (B. E. 1. 1688). 

— bi'eolar. 2. Yellow. August. Peru. 1820. 

B. E. 1. 1374. Syn., C. diftisa. 

— conna'ta. See C. petiolaris. 

— crenatiflcfra. Yellow-spotted. July. Chili. 

1831. Syns., C. anomala and pendula. 

— denta'ta. 2. Yellow. August. Chiloe. 183Qi 

Syn., C. chiloenm. B. E. 1. 1476. 

— diffa'sa. See C Ucolor. 

— ericoi'des. 2. Yellow. Chili. 1863. 

— floribu'nda. B. E. 1. 1214. See C. petiolaris. 

— fuchsicefo'lia. 1 to 2. Yellow. Peru. Spring. 
1878. Syn., C. defiexa of gardens. Gar- 
den, 1879, p. 258. 

— Hem/ri!ci. 2. Yellow. Andes of Cuenca. 

1865. B. M. t. 6772. 

— Herbertiana parvi' flora. See C. andina. 

— hyssopifo'lia. 2. Yellow, white. June. 

Quito. 1852. B. M. t. 5548. 

— integri^o'lia. See C. rugosa. 

— Kellya'na. Orange, spotted reddish-brown. 


— pdncMa. Swt. Fl. Gard. ser. 2, 1. 155. See 

C. crenatifljjra. 

— petiola'ris. IJ. Pale yellow. September. 

Quito. 1843. Syns., C. connata, B. M. 
t. 2876, and C.floribunda. 

— pisaeomefnMS. Orange-red. Peru. 1868. 

— puncta'ta. 3. Purple, yellow. Chili. 1863. 

— rugo'sa. 2. Yellow. August. Chili. 1822. 

B. E. t. 744. Syn., C. integrifolia. 




C rugo'ta angustifollia. 2. Yellow. August. 

ChUl. 1822. 
viscoffi's&ima. 3. Yellow. August. Chili. 


— soabiosoef&lia. 2. Yellow. May. Chili. 1822. 

Trailer. B. M. t. 2406. 

— selssilU. IJ. Yellow. September. Valpa- 

raiso. 1832. B. B. 1. 1«29. 

— Sinclai'rii. 1-2. Lilac, spotted red-purple 

within. June. New Zealand. B. M. 
t. 8597. 

— stri'cta. 3. Yellow. September. Peru. 1862. 

— tetra'gona. Yellow. July. Peru. 1852. 

— thyrdjlo'ra. li. Yellow. June. Chili. 1827. 

B. M. t. 2916. 

— viola'cea. 2. Purple. June. Chili. 1853. 

B. M t. 4929. 

Calceolaria as a Florist's 

Flower. — Propagation hy Cuttings. — • 
In August, immediately after flowering, 
and in March. In August, from a spent 
hotbed, remove the soil, and place six 
inches of dry coal-ashes or saw-dust. 
In spring, prepare a hotbed of leaves, or 
stable litter, a month before it is wanted, 
to allow the strong heat to subside ; 
then cover it with the same depth of 
coal-ashes of saw-dust. Fill a sufficient 
number of pots, within an inch of the 
top, with light, sandy loam ; fill up to 
the rim with sUver-sand, and water 
gently, to settle the sand firmly. Take 
off the cuttings (the young tops are the 
best) ; cut off the bottom leaves, leaving 
two or three at the top ; put them in 
the sand by the aid of a small, sharp- 
pointed stick, pressing the sand about 
them firmly. The herbaceous varieties 
should be placed rather thinly round the 
edge of the pot ; the half -shrubby ones 
may be pat in all over the pot, neatly, 
in rows ; then give a gentle watering. 
AUow the water to dry off, and then 
plunge them into the hotbed, in the 
ashes or saw-dust, up to the rims of the 
pots, taking care that the heat is mode- 
rate. Shade for a week aU the day ; 
afterwards, only when the sun shines. 
If the sand becomes dry, water in the 
morning of a fine day ; but very little 
water will be necessary. Remove all 
decaying leaves, or dead cuttings, as 
they occur. As soon as the cuttings are 
rooted, pot them off in the same kind of 
soil, and in 2J-inch j/ots, and set them 
on the surface of the same bed till they 
make fresh roots ; then remove them 
into a shady part of the greenhouse for 
a week previously to re-pqtting. 

By Seed. — Sow twice, as soon as the 
seed is ripe, and in early spring. Sow 
in wide, shallow seed-pans, rather 
thinly, and very slightly covered. A 
similar situation as for cuttings will 
answer ; but, as soon as the seedlings 
are up, place them on a shelf, near the 
glass, in an airy greenhouse. When 

thejr are large enough, pot them into 
2J-inch pots, singly, and keep re-pot- 
ting, as they require it, till they are in 
6-inch pots ; then allow them to flower ; 
and such as are of a good form, bright, 
distinct colours, and a fair size, re-pot 
again, and keep them to propagate by 
cuttings ; but all others either throw 
away or plant them out to ornament the 
flower -borders till the frost kills them. 

To save Seed. — Impregnation is neces- 
sary in order to produce good seed and 
to produce variety. Choose the pollen 
from a bright-coloured, clear-spotted 
variety, and apply it to the best-formed 
ones destined to bear the seed — ^the male 
parent for colour, and the female for 

SoU. — Light, sandy, yellow loam, two 
bushels ; leaf -mould, half a bushel, 
much-decayed cow-dung, one peck ; mix 
thoroughly, and use in a moderately dry 
state. If the loam is not sandy natu- 
rally, add as much sifted river-sand as 
will make it so. 

Summer Culture. — Commence potting 
as early in spring as possible ; autumn- 
struck cuttings early in March ; and the 
spring-struck as soon as they are fit. 
Old stools never make such fine speci- 
mens as cuttings : they had better be 
thrown away as soon as they have 
yielded a crop of cuttings. Drain plenti- 
fully with broken poteherds, using a 
greater quantity every time. Ee-pot 
about three times, and leave the plants, 
at last, in 11 -inch pots to bloom. No 
flower-stems should be allowed to re- 
main until the plants have attained 
their full growth. Keep them as near 
the glass as possible, in a light, airy 
gree^ouse. After the last potting, the 
plants should present a. healthy appear- 
ance, with large, broad leaves, of a 
dark-green colour. The flower-stems 
may now be allowed to grow : each 
should be tied to a neat, small, green 
stick. Place the sticks so as to slope 
outwards, to allow room for the heads 
to bloom. Plenty of air should be given, 
to cause a stout growth. They should 
be in perfection early in July. Each 
plant will be then two feet high, and as 
much in diameter. They will be fine 
objects either for the greenhouse, when 
few other things are in bloom, or for 
exhibition purposes. 

Winter Culture. — As soon as the 
flowers are all dead (if no seed is re- 
quired), the stems ought to be cut 
down, and the plants either removed 
out of doors, or, still better, into a cold 
pit. Plenty of air should be given on 
all favourable occasions ; and, as soon 




as the frost of winter begins to aopear, 
remove them into the greenhouse, place 
them as near the glass as possible, and 
keep them there till the time of propaga- 
tion arrives. Take off' the cuttings then, 
and throw the old stools away. 

Forcing. — On account of their impa- 
tience of heat, Calceolarias, excepting a 
few shrubby ones, do not force well. 
These may be re-potted in January, and 
put into a heat of 55° to 60°. Give 
water moderately, and allow the flower; 
stems to grow from the first. They will 
then flower in AprU and May. 

Diseases. — The herbaceous varieties 
are subject to a disease very like that 
which has attacked the potato of late 
years. They appear quite nealthy, until 
dark-brown spots appear on the leaves 
and stems ; and in a week's time the 
disease spreads, and the plants are dead. 
No cure is known. As soon as it ap- 
pears on any plant, remove it at once, 
and throw it away, because the disease 
is contagious, and soon spreads to the 
healthy plants. Too much wet at the 
root, or damp in the house, wUl accele- 
rate the disease. 

Insects. — ^The most destructive is the 
green fly (Aphis). Whenever it appears, 
fill the house with tobacco-smoke. Red 
spider (Acarus) will sometimes appear, 
if the house be kept hot and dry. Dust 
iiie leaves with sulphur where it is ob- 

Calceolarias for hedding-out should be 
propagated in the autumn, and kept in 
the cutting-pots through the winter. 
Pot them singly in the spring, place 
them in a cold frame, and gradually 
harden then off by May. Then plant 
them out in a rich, light soil, where they 
are to flower. 

Calda'sia. See Bonplandia. 

C heterophy'Ua. See B. geminiflora. 

Caldclu'via. (t^ earned aiter A. Cald- 
cleugh, F.H.S., who collected botanical 
specimens in Chili. Nat. ord. , Saxifra- 
gem; Tribe, Cunoniece. Allied to 
Cunonia. ) 

The principal character of this and other 
Cunoniese is the leaves growing opposite, with 
stipules between the leaf-stalks. The panicles 
of little white flowers have a pretty appearance. 
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs ; cuttings of haJf- 
ripened wood in sand, under glass, and a little 
bottom-heat ; peat and loam. 
C. pcmicula'ta. White. June. Australia. 1831. 

Ca'lea. (From kalos, beautiful ; re- 
ferring to the flowers. Nat. ord., Com- 
positcB ; Tribe, EelianthoideoB. Allied 
to Galinsoga. ^ja., Caleacte.) 
Stove evergreen shrubs ; seed in March ; side- 

shoots strike freely at any time, in sand, and 
placed in bottom-heat, under a glass. 
C.jamaice'mis 3. Purple. June.' Jamaica. 

1739. byn., C. cordifolia. 

— loba'ta.B M. t 1734. See Murolama lohata. 

— pmnatifiaa. Yellow. June. Brazil. 1816 

— scopa'ria. See Bacchwris scoparia. 

— eoUdagi'nea. i. Caraccas. 1817 

— urtiaefo'lia. 2. Yellow. July. Vera Cruz. 

1740. Syn., Solidago urtiece/olia, 

Calea'cte. See Galea. 

Calea'na. (Named after G. Caley, 
superintendent of the Botanical Garden, 
St. Vincent. Nat. ord., Orchidacew ; 
Tribe, Neottieos; sub. tr. Diuridew.) 
Syn., Caleya. 

Greenhouse terrestrial orchids ; division of the 
plants ; flbry peat, lumpy loam, and a little 
charcoal, well drained. 

C. ma'jor. Green, brown. June. N. S. Wales. 
1810. Fl. Tasm. 1. 107. 

— mi'nor. Green, brown. June. N. Holland. 


— nigri'ta. Dark. Swan River. 

Calecta'sia. (From kalos, beauti- 
ful, and stachys, a spike. Calectasias 
are branched herbs, with dry, permanent, 
starry flowers, of a bright violet. Nat. 
ord., Juncacecs. Allied to Baxteria.) 

Greenhouse herbaceous perennial ; divisions ; 
peat and loam. 

C. cya'nea. Blue. June. Australia. 1840. 
B. M. t. 3834. 

Cale'ndula. Marigold. (From ca- 
lendm, the flrst day of the month ; its 
flowers produced almost all the year 
round. Nat. ord., Compositce; Tribe, 
Calendulacem. ) 

Hardy annuals may be sown in the border, in 
April ; tenderer ones in a slight hotbed, and 
transplanted in May. Greenhouse varieties by 
cuttings ; sandy loam, and loam and peat for the 
greenhouse ones. See Marigold. 


C. wrbordsixns. Jacq. Ic. t. S96. See Tripterif 

— ehrysanthemifo'lia. B. M. t. 2218. See 

Dvmorphotheca chrysanthemifolia. 

— denticula'ta. li. Yellow. May. Cape of 

Good Hops. 1790. Syn., C. dentata. 
— fla'ccida. See Dwwrphotheca Tragus, var. 

— fruticdsa. See DvmorphotJiecafruticosa. 

— murica'ta. See Tripteris arborescejis. 

— oppoHtifo'lia. See DiTnorphotkeca oppositi- 


— suffrutic&sa. 1. Yellow. December. Cape 

of Good Hope. 1823. 

— Tra'gus. See Dvmorphotheca Tragus. 

— visco'sa. See Dimorphotheca Tragus. 


C. cegyptia'ca. Yellow. Egypt. 

— arve^nsis. 2. Yellow. June. 1597. 

— astefrms. IJ. Yellow. August. Europe. 1838. 

— Dalge^sirwm. See C. ma/rginata. 

— gra'cUis. Yellow. June. Persia. 1836. 

— grrnmmiifdlia. See Dimorphotheca gramini- 


— hispa'nica. See C. marginata. 

— hybrida. See Dimorphotheca pluvialis. 

— inca'na, li. Yellow. July. Barbary. 1796. 

— madere'nsii. 2. Orange. Madeira. 1795. 




C. margiiia'ta. Yellow. Gibraltar. Syns., C. 
Dalgesirmn and hispanica. 

— nudica/u'tis. tjee Bimorphotheca nudicaulis. 

— ojldna'lis. 2. Orange. June. South of 

Europe. 1573. B. M. t. 3204. Common 

Jio're-pUna. 3. Orange. June. 

proli'/era. The central head is sur- 
rounded by several smaller ones. 

— pe^rsica. Yellow. June. Persia. 1880. 

— pluvia'lis. See Bimorphotheca pluvialis. 

— so!ncta. 2. Yellow. June. Levant. 1731. 

— sHcula, 1. Yellow. June. Sicily. 1816. 

— stella'ta. 2. Yellow. July. Barbary. 1796. 

Cale'ya. See Caleana. 
Calico-bush. Ka'mia latifo'lia. 

Califomian Maybush. Photinia 

Califomian Pepper-tree. Schi- 
mis mollis. 

Califomian Poppy. Platystemon 


Cali'nea sca'ndens. See Boliocarpus 

Calime'ris. (From calyx, a cup, 
and meris, part ; referring to the in- 
volucre. Nat. ord., Compositm ; Tribe, 
Asteroidece. ) 

Hardy. Ordinary garden-soil. Seeds, divi- 

C. Albe'rti. % Lilac-purple. Turkestan. 1884. 
Perennial. Gfl. 1. 1152, f. 2. 

Calipliru'ria. (Derivation not ex- 
plained. Nat. ord., Amaryllidem. Al- 
lied to Enrycles. ) 

Pretty greenhouse bulbs, flowering, when not 
in leaf, lite the Guernsey lily. Offsets ; sandy 
loam and a little peat, l^ey may also be grown 
in a cold pit, or a warm border, and protected 
during winter. 

C. Hartwegia'na. 1. White. July. Columbia. 
1843. B. M. t. 6269. 

— Herhertia'na. 

— siibedenta'ta. See Mueharis subedentata. 

Calisaya-bark. Cincho'na cali- 

Ca'Ua. (From kalos, beautiful. Nat. 
ord., Aroidecej Tribe, Callece.) 

Hardy aquatic division ; rich loam and peat. 
Useful for shallow ponds, etc. 
C. (Bthio'pim. B. M. t. 832. See Bichardia 

— aroma' tiaa. B. M. t. 2279. See Homalonema 


— occu'lta. B. C. 1. 12. See Hotnalonema am- 


— palu'stris. J. White. July. N. Amer. 1768. 

Perennial aquatic. B. M. 1. 1831. 

— pertu'sa. See Monstera pertusa. 

Callia'ndra. (From kalos, beauti- 
ful, and aner, a man ; referring to the 
stamens, or male organ ; literally, beau- 
tiful-stamened. The long, silky, purple 
or white stamens of this genus are very 
beautiful. Nat. ord. , Legv/minoscB ; 
Tribe, IngeoB. Allied to Inga. ) 
Stove evergreen shrubs ; cuttings of rather 

firm young wood in sand, under a glass, in heat; 

peat and loam. 

C. br^mpes. 5. Pink. October. Brazil. 

— diadema'ta. Lem. Jard. H. vol. 3, t. 306. 

Syn., C. bicolor, 

— formo'sa. 10. White. Mexico. 1825. 

— gra'oilis. Yellowish-white. Columbia. 1870. 

Eef. Bot. t. 294. 

— hcematocepha'la. 30. Crimson. February. 

Mauritius. B. M. t. 6181. 

— Barri'sii. 20. Eose. Brazil. 1846. B. M. 

t. 4238. 

— portorice'nsis. 6. White. July. W.Indies. 


— quadrangula'ris. 4. White. August. 1825. 

— Twee'dii. 6. Scarlet, crimson. Mexico. 

1845. B. M. t. 4188. 

Calliea'rpa. (From ^afo«, beautiful, 
and carpos, fruit ; referring to the beau- 
tifml berries. Nat. ord., VerbenacecB ; 
Tribe, ViticecB. Allied to Petresea.) 

The leaves of C. lana'ta are eaten by the Cin- 
galese as a substitute for betel leaves. Stove 
evergreens, except where otherwise specified ; 
cuttings in sandy soil, in bottom-heat ; loam and 
C. america'na. 6. Red. June. N. Amer. 1724. 

Greenhouse deciduous shrub. Syn., 

Johnsonia, ainmi£ana. 

— arbo'rea. 12. Purple. August. E. Ind. 1820. 

— ca'na. 3. Purple. E. Ind. 1799. B.M. t. 2107. 
— ferrugi'nea. 2. Blue. June. Jamaica. 1794. 

— inca'na. 4. Red. July. E. Ind. 1800. 

— integr^o'lia. See jEgiphila arborescens. 

— japo'niea, 3. Pink. August. Japan. 1861. 

Pax. Fl. G. vol. 2, p. 166. 

— lama'ta. 4. Purple. June. B. Ind. 1788. 

— longifo'lia. 3. White. April. China. 1826. 

— laffhceola'ria. 4. Purple. July. B. Ind. 1822. 
subglabra'ta. White, edged with pink. 

March. Syn., C. longifolia, B. B. t. 864. 

— macrophy'lla. 6. Pink. India. 1808. 

— purpurea. 3. Purple. July. E. Ind. 1822. 

Fl. Ser. 1. 13.59. 

— reticulata. 4. Red. July. Jamaica. 1820. 

— rube'lla. 2. Red, May. China. 1822. B. R. 

t. 883. 

Callichro'a. (Fromfej!?o«, beautiful, 
and chroa, colour ; referring to the bright 
yellow colour of the flowers. Nat. ord. , 
Compositm.) See Layia. 
C. platyglo'ssa. B. M. t. 3719. See L. platyglossa. 

Callico'ma. (From kalos, beautiful, 
and coma, hair ; in reference to the tufted 
heads of its yellow flowers. Nat. ord., 
SaxifragecB. Allied to Weinmannia. ) 

Greenhouse evergreen shrub ; cuttings of half- 
ripened wood, under a bell-glass, in sandy peat. 
C. serratifo'lia. i. Yellow. June. N. S. Wales. 
1793. B. M. 1. 1811. 

Calli'gonum. (From Aafos, beauti- 
ful, and gonum, a joint ; in reference to 
its leafless joints. Nat. ord., Polygona- 
CRCB ; Allied to Polygonum. ) 

This is a curious leafless shrub, a native of 
Siberia, where the Calmucks, in times of scarcity, 
pound and boil the roots, from which they obtain 
a nutritious gum resembling tragacanth, to allay 
their hunger; while, by chewing the acrid 
branches and fruit, they quench their thirst. 
Hardy evergreen shrub ; cuttings under a hand- 
glass, in spring and autumn ; sandy loam. 
C. Palla'Ha. 4. Green, white. May. Caspian 
Sea. 1780. 




Callio'psis. Synonym of Coreo'psis, 
which see. 

Callipro'ra. (From Jmlos, heautiful, 
and prora, a front ; referring to the front 
view of the flowers. Nat. ord. , Liliaceai ; 
Tribe, Alliece.) See Brodisea. 

C. lu'tea. B. M. t. 3688. See B. ixioides. 

Callipsy'che. ( From A;aWo.s, beauty, 
and psyche, a butterfly ; in reference to 
the beauty of the flowers. Nat. ord., 
AmarylUdacecB. Allied to Eucrosia. ) 

Greenhouse bulbs. Seeds, offsets. Sandy 
loam and leaf -mould. Requires shade. 
C. amranliaca. 2. Orange. February S 
America. 1868. Ref. Bot. t. 167. 

— euarosioi'des. ^. Scarlet, green. March. 

Mexico. 1844. B. R. 1845, t. 45. 

— mira'bilis. 3. Greenish-yellow. July. Peru. 

1844. Eef. Bot. 1. 168. 

Calli'pteris. Synonym of Asple- 
nlum, section Diplazium. 

Callirho'e. (Named after Callirhoe, 
a daughter of the river-god Achelous. 
Nat. ord., Malvaceae.) 

Very beautiful and elegant, hardy annual or 

perennial herbs, with tuberous roots. Seeds, 

divisions. light sandy loam and leaf-mould. 

C. digita'ta. 3. Purple. August. Texas. 1824. 

Syn., Ifuttallia digitata, Swt. Fl. Gard. 

1. 129, and C. grandiflara. 

— involuera'ta. Cherry -red, purple tinged. July. 

N. America. 1861. Syns., C. verticUlata 
and Malva involuerata, B. M. t. 4681. 

— Papa'ver. Violet-red. Lousiana. 1863. Syn., 

Ifuttallia Papaver, B. M. t. 3287. 

— peda'ta. Cherry-red. August. Texas. 1824. 

Annual. Rev. Hort. 1867, p. 148. 

— tricmgula'ta. Pale purple. August. N. Ame- 

rica. 1836. Syn., Nuttallia cardata. 
B. R. 1. 1938. 

— spica'ta. See Sidalcea jnalvcefl^a. 

Calli'sia. (From kalos, beautiful. 
A pretty genus. Nat. ord., Commely- 
nacem. .AOied to Tradescantia.) 

Stove evergreen trailer ; division of its creeping 
stems ; sandy loam and a little peat. 
C. Martensia'na. 1. White. Mexico and Gua- 
temala. Powerful odour of violets. 
Syn., Tradescantia MartensiaTia. B. M. 
t. 4849. 

— reopens. ^. Blue, June. W. Ind. 1776. 

Callista'chys. (From kalos, beau- 
tiful, and stachys, a flower-spike. Nat. 
Old., LeguminoscE.) See Oxylobium. 

C. euneif&lia. See Isotropis striata. 

— lanceola'ta, B. R. t. 216 ; C. longifo'lia, Paxt. 

Mag. vol. 8, p. 31 ; C. ova'ta, B. M. 
1. 1925 ; and C. retu'sa, B. C. 1983. See 
Oxylobium callistachys. 

— liniariGefo'lia and C. linea'ris, B. M. t. 3882. 

See OxylobiuTn lineare, 

Calliste'mnia. China- Aster. (From 
kalistos, most beautiful, and stemma, a 
crown. Nat. ord., Compositce.) See 

Calliste'mon. (From kalistos, most 
beautiful, and stemon, a stamen ; refer- 
ringtothegraceful, long, scarlet stamens. 

Nat. ord., Myrtacece. 
spermum. ) 

-Allied to Lepto- 

Greenhouse evergreen shrubs, from New Hol- 
^nd, except _C. mRcus, with pea-like blossoms 
Seeds sown m a hotbed, in March : cuttings of 
,^!i '^'°"'*''l'^'.f''°'l' ™ ^ndy loam, under 
n J'.f 'if "^f ■ ™ ^^"} "J *^ay ; turfy peat sandy 
and flBry loam, and a few pieces of charcoal. 
C. brachya'ndrus. 3. Yellow. October. 1S48 
—fornw'sus. 5. 1824. 

— i'ndicm. 1. Blue. July. E. Ind. 1820 
Syn., Boltoniaindica. 

— lameeola'tus. 10. Crimson. June. 1788 
Syns., C. scaier, B. C. 1. 1288 ; C. mar- 
ginatus; C. semperfiorens ; Meteroside- 
ros carina, B. M. t. 260 ; and M. semper- 
fiorens, B. C. t. 623. 

— leptosta'chyui. 6. Green. June. 1820. 

— linea'ris. 6. Scarlet. June. 1728. 

— miarophy'llus. 6. 1824. 

— micTosta'chyus. 6. Bed. March. 1836. 

— phomi'ceus. 3. Purplish. March. 1843. 

— pinifo'lius. 6. Green. June. 

— pu'ngens. 6. May. 1827. 

— ri'gidus. 6. Cream. April. 1800. B. R. 
t. 393. Syn., C. viminalis. 

Ivnerurifo'lius. 10. Bed. May. 1820. 

Syn., Meterosideros linearifolia. 
rugulo'sus. 6. Pink. May. 1821. 

— sali'gnm. 6. June. 1788. Syn., C. lopharv- 
thus, B. C. 1. 1302. 

viridifi&rus. 6. Green. July. 1818. 

Syn., Meterosideros viridifiora, B. M. 
t. 2802. 

— speeio'sus. 10. Crimson. April. 1822. B. 
M. 1. 1761. Syns., C. glaums and Mete- 
rosideros spedosa. 

Calliste'phus. China-Aster. (From 
kallistos, most beautiful, and stepJianos, 
a crown. 'S3,t. or A. , Compositce ; Tribe, 
AsteroidecB.) Syri., Callistemma. 

Hardy annuals. Seeds sown in a slight hot- 
bed, in March, hardened and transplanted in 
May. If pricked out in a similar way to celery, 
they will well repay the labour. Seeds may 
also be sown in the beginning of April, where 
the plants are to bloom ; an open situation and 
a rich, loamy soil will answer best. 
C. hortelrms. IJ. Blue. July. China. 1731. 
Syns., C. chinensis, Gfl. t. 213, and Calli- 
stemma hortense. 

a'lbus. IJ. White. July. China. 1731. 

braehya'nthus. IJ. Blue. July. China. 


mulltvplex. IJ. Variegated. July. 

China. 1731. 

nilms. \\. Red. July. China. 1731. 

variega'tus. 1*. Variegated. July. 

China. 1731. 

Callistephus Culture.— -Pj-opa(7a- 
tion. — These, being annuals, must be in- 
creased by seed every year. It should 
be saved from the best-formed and most 
double flowers. Those with quilled 
flowers are most esteemed. The colours 
should also be taken into consideration 
in saving seed. The self-colours should 
be clear, divided, and bright ; such as 
have striped blooms ought to have the 
colours well defined, not run into each 
other, but distinctly separated. 

Soil. — The soil should be light and 
moderately rich; and the situation where 
they are to bloom should be fully ex- 




posed to the sun. They make heautiful 
beds in the parterre, but are not so last- 
ing as some other flowers. 

Culture. — Sow the seeds in March, on 
a gentle hotbed, either in pots or on a 
bed of earth laid upon the heating mate- 
rial at least six inches thick ; transplant 
the seedling as soon as the frosts are 
over, either in beds of separate colours, 
in mixtures, or in patches, in the general 
flower-border. Whichever way is deter- 
mined upon, the soil should be prepared 
by the addition of a portion of fresh loam 
and very much decayed dung, well mixed 
with the soil. 

Diseases. — China- Asters are subject to 
die off suddenly. There is no remedy, 
when this occurs, but to pull up the 
sickly plants, and remove the soU ; put 
in some fresh, and replant from the re- 
serve stock — a stock that ought always 
to be kept ready for such occasions. 

Insects. — The green fly sometimes 
during a dry season attacks these plants. 
Either sprinkle with tobacco-water or 
Scotch snuff, to destroy them. Do this 
in the evening of a fine day, and wash it 
off in the morning with the syringe. 

Callithau'ma. (From kallos, 

beauty, and thauma, a wonder ; in 
reference to the wonderful green colour 
of the flowers. Nat. ord., Amarylli- 
dacem.) See Stenomesson. 

C. amgiistifo'lmm. B. M. t. 3866 b. See 5. viri- 
dijiorwm, var. angustifolium. 

— vmdifio'rum. B. M. t. 3866 a. See S. viridi- 

mwdsii. See S. viridifiorum, var. Elwesii. 

Calli'tris. (From hdos, beautiful; 
referring to the whole plant. Nat, ord. , 
Goniftrm; Tribe, Cwpressineae. AUied 
to Thuja.) Syn., JVeneto, 

The wood of C. quadrivallms is in great demand 
Dy the Turks, who use it for the ceilings and 
floors of their mosques, as they believe it to be 

.Indestructible. GreenhousCj evergreen, cypress- 
like trees. Seeds and cuttmgs, under a hand- 
light, in autumn, and protected by a cold pit ; 
sandy loam, generally protected under a glass 
in winter, though there seems reason to believe 
they would flourish out of doors, in the warmer 
parts of England, nearly as well as several of 
the Cypresses. 
C. cupreasifo'mm. 20. N. Holland. 1826. 

Syns., C. armwsa, C. rhamboidea, and 

^enela rhoinboidea. 

— quadriva'lms. 20. September. Barbary. 


— trique'tra. April. Cape of Good Hope. 


Callixe'ne. (From hallos, beautiful, 
and zenos, a stranger ; being first dis- 
covered on the inhospitable shore so un- 
likely to have such a plant — Magellan's 
Land. Nat. ord., Ziliacece.) See Lu- 

Half-hardy, evergreen, climbing shrub. Cool 
greenhouse. Light loam. Division. 

C. polyphy'Ua. B. M. t. B192. See L. ereeta. 

Callu'na. Ling. (From kalluno, to 
adorn ; in reference both to the beauty 
of the Ling, and to its use as a scrubbing- 
brush or broom. Nat. ord., Ericaceee.) 

Callu'na vulga'ris, amongst the common Ling 
(Eng. Bot. ed. 3, t. 894), and all its varieties, are 
the best bee-flowers of our native Flora. The 
C. vulga'ris is a native of many parts of the 
British Islands, and its flowers are purple, 
opening in April ; but there are the double- 
blossomed, the white, the scarlet, the red, the 
decumbent, the spiked, the downy, and varie- 
gated varieties. See Em'CA. 
C. vulga'ris a'lba na'na. White. Flowers soli- 
tary on the wearker branches. 

— . . au'rea. White. Leaves yellowish. Loose 

cocci'nea. Violet. Spreading. 

— ■ globo'sa. Flowers solitary, rosy -like. 


rigida. White. Dwarf, compact. 

tenui^o'lm a!lba. Flowers 2-ranked. 

Callus. A cushion of tissue formed 
over a wound in a plant, such as when 
a limb of a tree has been cut off. Its 
peculiarity consists in being developed 
from cells which had ceased to grow, 
but which are stimulated by the injury 
to renew their growth. 

Calochi'lUS. (From Icalos, beauti- 
ful, and cheilos, a lip ; referring to the 
beauty of the labellum, or lip. Nat. 
ord. , Orchidem ; Tribe, Neottiece. Allied 
to Listera and Neottia. ) 

Greenhouse terrestrial orchids. Divisions of 
the plant : sandy loam and turfy peat, enriched 
with a little lumpy, old cow-dung. Encouraged 
to ^ow, when done flowering, by heat and 
moisture ; kept cool and dry after they are 
pretty well matured, and heat given again when 
to be started into bloom. 

C. Mowpelstria. |. Green, brown. April to 
June. Queensland. 18-24. B. M. t. 3187. 
Syn., C. herbaceus. 

— paludo'sus. f Brownish. May. New South 

Wales. 1823. 

Calocho'rtus. (From kalos, beau- 
tiful, and chortus, grass ; referring to 
the leaves. Nat. ord. , Xj^z'acece ; Tribe, 
Tulipem. Allied to the Tulip and Fri- 
tUlaria.) Syn., Cyclobothra. 

The gayest of our hardy or half-hardy bulbs, 
mtroduced by the unfortunate and intrepid 
Douglas from Colombia. Half-hardy bulbs. 
Offsets ; sandy loam and peat, in equal propor- 
tions. If planted ont, the bulbs should be taken 
up, dried and replanted before winter ; if in pots, 
keep in a cold pit, and pot afresh when the bulbs 
begin to grow. 

C. a'lbus. 1. White. August. California. 
1832. Syn., Cyclobothra alba. 

— barba'tiis. 3. Yellow. August. Mexico. 

1827. Syn., Cyclobothra iarbata. 

— Bentha'mi. J. Yellow. Eed-brown. .Tune. 

California. 1877. Syn., C. elegans, var. 

— eceru'leus. J. Lilac, dotted with dark blue. 

July. Sierra Nevada. 

— e'legans. J. Whitish, purple. June. Cali- 

fornia. 1828. B. M. t. 6976 is C 

— Clunniso'ni. Lilac, yellowish. Eocky Moun- 





0. Gunnieo'iii Krelaa'gii. Yellow, -white, green, 
black. California. 1873. 

— Bowflllii. White, brown. Summer. Oregon. 

— - lilaeiJnus. }. Lilac, purplish. California. 

1868. Syns., C. unijiorus of some gar- 
dens, and C. wmbeUatus, B. M. t. 5804. 

— longibarba'tus. 1. Pale purple with darker 

stripes. July. Oregon. 1890. 

— lu'teus. 1. Yellow-spotted. September. 

California. 1831. B. R. 1. 1667. 

ocula'tus. Bright yellow, with an eye 

inside each petal. 

— macrocalrms. 2. Purple. August. Cali- 

fornia. 1826. B. B. 1. 1162. 

— madrelnsis. Orange-yellow. 'September. 1890. 

— Mawea'nus. 1. White, purplish. California. 

Syn., 0. elegant, B. M. t. 6976. 

— monopliy'Uus. J. Bright yellow. California. 

1848. Syn., Cyclobothra monophylla. 

— ni'tidus. J. Purple. Augu^. CaUfornia. 


— Nutta'Uii. i. White, purple. California. 

1869. Syn., C. Leichtlimii. B. M. t. 6862. 

— obispce'nns. 1.2. Orange, purple, greenish. 

California. 1889. 
^pa'Uidus. 1. Brown. Mexico. 1860. 

' he'llus. 1. Yellow. Summer. California. 

1832. Syn., Cydobotlwa pulcheUa, B. E. 

t. 1662. 
paroijlo'rus. Yellow. California ,1876. 

— pwrpvJreus. 3. Purple, green. August. 

Mexico. 1827. Syn., Cyclobothra pur- 
purea, Swt. Fl. Gard. ser. 2, t. 20. 

— spWridens. 1^. White-spotted. August. 

California. 1832. Syn., C. Boezlii. 

— unifio'rus. f . Pink. Santa Cruz. 1868. 

— venu'stus. IJ. LUac. August. California. 

1836. B. E. 1. 1669. 
brachyse'palus. White, yellow, red, 

brown. California. 1876. 
lilaai'mis. 1. Lilac, red-brown, yellow. 

California. 1877. 
— purpu'reus. 1. Purple-lilac, red-brown, 

yellow. California. 1877. 

— Wee'du. 1. Yellow. Summer. Cahfomia. 

1876. Syn., C. citrinus. 

Calode'ndron. (From Jcalos, beau- 
tifn), and dendron, a tree. Nat. ord., 
ButacecB. Allied to Diosma. ) 

One of those beautiful Diosma-looking genera 
which abound in our Cape Colony, remarkable 
alike for their pretty flowers and for their power- 
ful and' generally offensive odour. The settlers 
call them Bucku-plants. Greenhouse shrub. 
Cuttings of half -ripened -wood in sand, under a 

bell-glass, and with a little bottom-heat ; sandy 
loam. ' 

C. cape'nsis. 40. Pink. Cape of Good Hope. 
1789. Gfl. 1884, p. 210. 

. Calodra'con. (From kalos, beau- 
tiful, and dracon, a dragon ; intimating 
that it is a very handsome Dracwna, 
or Dragon Tree. Nat. ord., Lilicicece.) 
Now referred to Cordyline. 

Greenhouse evergreen. For cultivation, see 

C. n&bilis. Japan. 18B2. Fl. Ser. tt. 682, 683. 

Calony'ction. See Ipomsea. 

Calope'talon. (From kalos, beau- 
tiful, and petalon, a petal. Nat. ord., 
Pittosporacem.) This genus is united 
by Bentham and Hooker to Marian- 
thus, from which it differs in having a 
3-celled ovary and dilated filaments. 

Greenhouse evergreen cUmbers. See MjfBI- 


C. ri'rigens. Golden-red. November. Swan 
Elver. B. M. t. 6233. Sya., Maricmthus 

.Calophaca. (From kalos, beauti- 
ful, and phake, a lentil ; in reference to 
the lentil-like flowers. Nat. ord., Legu- 
minoscB ; Tribe, GalegecB. Allied to 
Astragalus. ) 

Loudon says of them, "Grafted standard high 
on the common Laburnum, it forms an object 
at once singular, picturesque, ^d beautiful." 
Hardy deciduous shrubs. Seeds sown in March ; 
or cuttings, under a hand-light ; common, light 

C, grandifio'ra. Yellow. Eussia. 1886. Gfl. 
t. 1231. 

— Hove'riii. Yellow, shaded with red. Eglan- 

dular. Eussia. Gfl. t. 287. 

— wolga'rica. 2. Yellow. Glandular. May, 

Siberia. 1786. Wats. Dendr. t. 83. 

Calopha'nes. (From kalos, beau- 
tiful, and phaino, to appear. Nat. old. , 
AcanthacecB. Allied to Ruellia. ) 

Hardy herbaceous perennial. Dividing the 

roots in March ; loam and peat, or sandy loam. 

C, oblongifo'lia. 1. Blue, lower lobe marked 

with purple spots. August. Carolina. 

1832. Swt. Fl. Gard. ser. 2, 1. 181. 

Calophy'Uum. (From kalos, beau- 
tiful, and phyllon, a leaf. Nat. ord., 

Stove evergreen trees ; cuttings of half-ripened 
shoots in sand, under a glass, and in bottom- 
heat ; peat and loam. 
C. Cala'ba. 30. White. India. 1780. Calaba-tree. 

— InopWllum. 90. White. B. Ind. 1798. Wight. 

Ic. t. 77. Pinnay tree. 
spu'rium. 30. White. Malabar. 1800. 

— Tacamaha'ea. 30. White. Bourbon. 1822. 

Calo'pogon. (From kalos, beauti- 
ful, send pogon, a beard ; in reference to 
the fringe on the lip, or labellum. Nat. 
ord., Orchidem ; Tribe, NeottiecB ; Sub- 
tribe, ArethusecB. AUied to Pogonia. ) 

Greenhouse, or hardy orchids. Division of 
the tuberous roots ; peat and loam. 




C. multijl&rwi. Amethyst purple, lip with gol- 
den-yellow lamellEe. 1884. 

— piilche'Uus. 1}. Purple. July. N. Amer. 

1771. Swt. Fl. Gard. t. 116. Syn., 
lAmodorum tuberosum, B. M. 1. 116, 

Calosa'nthes. (From kalos, beau- 
tiful, and anthos, a flower. Nat. ord., 
BignoniaeecB. ) 

This genus is established on a species taken 
from Bignonia. 

C. i'ndica. 40. Purple. India. 1775. Wight 
Ic. 1. 1337-8. Syn., Bignonia ijidica. 

Calosco'rclxuia. (From kalos, beau- 
tiful, and scordon, garlic. Nat. ord., 
LiliacecB ; Tribe, Alliece. ) See Notho- 

C. nermefio'rum, B. B. 1847, t. 5. See Notho- 
scordum nerineflorwm. 

Caloste'rama. (From kalos, beau- 
tiful, and stemma, a crown. Nat. ord. , 
Amai-ylUdece ; Tribe, Amaryllece. Al- 
lied to Coburgia. ) 

Greenhouse bulbs. Offsets ; sandy loam and 
a little leaf -mould ; a cold pit, or the greenhouse 
in winter. 

C. a'lbwn. 1. White. May. Gulf of Carpen- 
taria. 1824. 

— Cunnmgha'mi. See Eurydes Cunninghami, 

— lu'teum. 1. Yellow. November. Queens- 

land and New S. Wales. 1819. B. M. 
t. 2101. 

— purpu'reum. 1. Dark purple. November. S. 

Australia and New S. Wales, 1819. B. 
M. t. 210O. 

ba'mev/m. 1. Pale purple or white, 

Australia. 1837. B. R. 1840, t. 26. Syn., 
C. camewm. 

Calotha'mnus. (From kalos, beau- 
tiful, and thamnus, a shrub. Nat, ord., 
Myrta/xcE. Allied to Melaleuca. ) 

Greenhouse evergreen shrubs, -natives of Aus- 
tralia. Cuttings of young wood, firm at the 
base, in sand, under a bell-glass ; sandy peat 
and fibry loam. 
C. clava'ta. 2. Scarlet. July. 1824. 

— gra'cilis. 3. Scarlet. July. 1803. 

— Kni'ghtii. Blooms all year. 1839. 

— guaSn'Mut- 3- Scarlet. July. W. Aus- 

tralia. 1803. B. M. 1. 1606. 

— mllo'sa. 3. Scarlet. July. W. Australia. 

1803. B. B. 1. 1099. 

Calo'tis. (From kalos, beautiful, 
and ous, an. ear ; in reference to the 
chaffy scales of the pappus, or seed- 
head. Nat. ord., Cojraposite. Allied to 
Bellium. ) 

Greenhouse herbaceous perennial. Divisions ; 
sandy loam. 

C. cuneifo'lia. 1. Blue. June. Australia. 
1819. B. B. t. 604. 

Calotro'pis. (From kalos, beauti- 
ful, and tropis, a keel ; referring to the 
flower. Nat. ord., Ascl&piadacece, Al- 
lied to Schubertia. ) 

C. giga'ntea is the Afcund-yercum, or Mudar- 
plant of India, whose thick, milky juice is a 
powerful purgative. Stove evergreen shrubs. 
Seeds in a hotbed, in March ; cuttings of half- 
ripened shoots in sand, under a glass, in April ; 

good, common, fibry loam and leaf-soil and 

C. giga'ntea. 6 to 15. Rose, purple, August. 
India. 1690. B. B. t. 68. 

— pro'cera. 6. White. July. Persia. 1714. 

B. R. 1. 1792. 

Calpica'rpum. (From kalpis, an. 
urn, and karpos, fruit. Nat, ord. , -4^0- 
cynaeecB. ) 

For cultivation, see KOPSIA. 
C. aUriflo'rum. White, crimson. Moluccas. 
1864. Stove shrub. 

— omaltwm. Coram. 

Calpi'dia. See Pisonia. 

Ca,lpu'mia. (After T. Jul. C. Cal- 
purnius, a Sicilian. Nat. ord., Legu- 
minoscB ; Tribe, SophorecB.) 

A small tree, with the habit, etc., of La- 
C. Icmogy'ne. Yellow. NataL 1890. 

Ca'ltha. Marsh Marigold. (A con- 
traction of halathos, a goblet ; referring 
to the form of the flower. Nat, ord., 
Ranunculacece ; Tribe, Helleborew. Al- 
lied to Hellebore. ) 

Hardy herbaceous perennials. Seeds, or di- 
visions, in March or April ; common soil. A 
moist place, near a running stream, is where 
they flourish best. 
C. a'rctwa. Yellow. May. N. America. 1827. 

— aaariifo'lia. ^. Yellow. April. Unilas. 1824. 

— biJUt'ra. See C. palustris, var. bicolor. 

— Jtabellifo'lia. 1. Yellow. April. N. Amer- 

— Govenia'na. North India. 1848. 

— mtege'rrvma. Yellow. May. N. Amer. 1827. 

— leptose'paZa. 1. Yellow. May. N. Amer. 


— mi'nor. i. Yellow. May. Britain. 

-na'tans. Yellow. May. Siberia. 1816. 

—paho'atris. 1. Yellow. April. Britain. Bng.Bot. 
ed. 3, t. 40. There are several double- 
flowered forms of this known as Jlore^ 
pleno, monstroso-plenOt and Ttaiw-pleno, 

K color, J. White. June. N. Amer. 

1827. Syn., C. Uflora. 

pamassifo'lia. J. Yellow. April. N. 

Amer. 1815. Syn. C. ficanoides. 

purpura' scene. Shoots purplish. S. 


— polype! tala. Yellow. Caucasus. 1875. 

— radi'cans. i. Yellow. April. Scotland. 

— sagitta'ta. i. Green, yellow. November. 

Cape Horn. 1840. B. M. t. 40S6. 

Caltrops, Tri'bultcs. 

Caltrops, Water. Tra'pa na'tans. 

Calumba, False. Cosci'niumfene- 

Calumba Root. 


Calumba Wood. 


Calyca'nthus. Allspice. (From 

kalyx, a calyx, and anthos, a flower ; in 

reference to the coloured calyx. Nat. 

ord., Calycanthaeece.) 

The bark of C. flo'ridus, from its aromatic fra- 

Jateorrhi'ea Ca- 




grance, ia used as a substitute for cinnamon in 
the United States of North America. Hardy 
deciduous shrubs. Layers, as fruit is seldom 
produced ; rich, sandy loam, in a shady situa- 
tion. It IS said, that by pulling out the ter- 
minal bud of a shoot two flower-buds are pro- 
duced ; and thus the flowering season is pro- 

C. fe^rtilis. B. R. t. 404. See C. glaucus. 

— fio'ridus. 6. Brown. June. Carolina. 1726. 

B. M. t. 503. 

asplenifo'liits. 6. Brown. July. 

fe'rax. 6. Brown. July. 

ituydorus. 6. Brown. July. 

longif&lius. 6. Brown. July. 


• ova'ttts^ 6. Brown. July. 

variega'tus. 6. Brown. July. 

— glwu!<ms. 6. Brown. May. Caroliria. 1726. 

Syn., C.fertilis. 

oblongifo'lius, 4. Brown. May. N. 

Amer. 1820. Syn., C. oblang^folius. 
ja'tug. 8. Brown. June. N. Amer. 1806. 
B. M. t. 481. 

— 'inaffrophi/Uiis. 6. California. 1848. 

— oblmigyo'lius. See C. glaucus, var. oblongifo- 


— omdenta'lis. 1^. Scarlet. September. Cali- 

fornia. 1831. B. M. t. 4808. 

— pennsylva'nums. 4. Brown. May. Penn- 

sylvania. 1820. 

— pra/eox. See Chvnumard,lm8 fragrant. 

Calyciflo'rse. That subdivision of 
Polypetalous Dicotyledons in which the 
corolla and stamens are inserted upon 
the calyx. 

CSilycifonn. Resembling a calyx, 
e.g., the involucres of Anemone hepatica 
(see figure) and Eranthis hiemalis. 

Calycophy'Uum. (From hdyx, 
calyx, and phyllon, a leaf ; referring to 
a division of the calyx expanding into 
the form of a leaf. Nat. ord. , Rubiaceoe ; 
Tribe, Cinck(mece. Allied to Bouvardia. ) 

Stove evergreen shrub. Cuttings of half -ripe 
shoots in sand, under a bell-glass, in heat ; loam, 
peat, and a little sand and charcoal. 
C. ecmUdi'smrmm. 20. White. Cuba. 1830. 

Ca'lycothrix. See Calythrix. 

Caiyculate. Same as Calyci- 

Calyme'nia cmgustifo'Ua. See 
Oxybaphus angusUfoUm. 

Caly'pso. (From kalypto, to con- 
ceal ; in reference to its place of growth 

Nat. ord., Orchidew ; Tribe, Epiden- 
drece. Allied to Liparis.) 

Hardy terrestrial orchid. Offsets from the 
bulbs ; sandy loam and peat. Open pit or frame, 
or close to the side of a wall in shade. 
C. barea'lu. }. Rose, brown. January. N. 

Amer. 1820. B. M. t. 2763. Syn., C. 


Calyptra'nthes. (From kalyptra, 
a veil, and anthos, a flower ; referring 
to the way the flower-bud is hid by the 
cohesion of the tips of the calyx, which 
falls off like a cap when the flower ex- 
pands. Nat. ord., Myrtacem. Allied to 

The dried flower-buds of C. aroma'Ucus are a 
good substitute for cloves. Stove evergreen 
trees. Layers and cuttings in heat ; loam and 
C. caryophyllif&lia. See Eugenia. 

— chytracvflia. 12, White. April. Jamaica. 


— Jambola'na, See Eugenia, 

— syzy'gium, 20. White. June. W. Ind. 1778. 

Calyptra'ria. (From iMlyptrfx, a 
veil ; referring to the calyx. Nat. ord. , 
MelastomacecB.) This genus is reduced 
by Bentham and Hooker to Cen- 

stove shrub. Cuttings under a bell-glass in 
heat. Soil, fibry loam, leaf.soil, and sand. 
C. htxma'miha. 4. Crimson. New Grenada. 1856. 

Fl. Ser. t. 924. Syn,, Centronia ha- 


Caly'ptrion. (Nat. ord., Violacece.) 
See Corynostyles. 

Calyptrocalyx. (From kalyptra, 
a veil, and halyx, a cup. Nat. ord., 
Palmem ; Tribe, Arecece. ) 

For culture, see Calamus. 
C. spiea'tus. 12. Moluccas, Syns., Arena globosa, 
and PijMnga alobosa. 

Calyptrogy'ne. (From kalyptra, a 

veil, and gyne, a female. Nat. ord., 

Palmem; Tribe, Arecece.) Syn., Ca- 

Handsome stove palms. Soil, strong loam, 

leaf-soil, and sand*, requiring plenty of drainage. 


C, Ghiesbreghtia'na, 2 to 5. Mexico. B. M. 
t. 6782. Syns., Geonoma Ghiesbreghtiana, 
G. magnifica, and G. Verschaffeltii. 

— ipici'gera. 5. Guatemala. 

— Swa'rtzH. 60. Jamaica. 1878. Syn., Caiyp- 

trtmoma Swartzii. 

— te'res. British Guiana. 1882. 

Calyptrono'ma. See Calyptro- 

Calyste'gia. Bearbind. (From 
kalyx, a calyx, and stega, a covering ; 
in reference to the calyx being hiddenby 
two bracts, as is the case witn a section 
of Bindweeds. Nat. ord., Convolvulacece. 
Alhed to Convolvulus. ) 

C. pube'scens, received from China as a double 
flower, has become single with Mr. Beaton. — 





" Cottage Gardener," iv. 302. Hardy deciduous 
plants, except where otherwise mentioned. Both 
the creeping and twining species may be propa- 
gated by divisions of the plant and roots or by 
seeds. Common soil. 

C. CaMshiana. Bose. July. Carolina. 1816. 

— dahu'rica. J. Pink. July. Dahuria. 1823. 

Twiner. H. Ser. 1. 1076. 

— hedera'cea. Rose. June. Nepaul. 1826. 

Half-hardy twiner. 

— margina'ta. 3. Pink. July. Australia. 1824. 


— pute'scens. 16. Pale rose. June. China. 1844. 


— reni/o'rmis. A synonym of C. Soldcmetta. 

— sdpium. 6. White. July. Britain. Eng. 

Bot. ed. 3, t. 924. Common Bindweed. 
Syn., Convolvul'us gemum. 
incama'ta. 6. Eed. July. N. Amer. 

— Solda/ne^Ua. Eosy-purple. June. Sandy shores 

of Britain. Evergreen trailer. Eng. Bot. 
ed. 3, t. 296. Sea Bindweed. Syns., 
C. reniforinis and Convolvulus soldanella. 

— spithaTruffa. 1. White. July. N. Amer. 

1796. Twiner. Syn., C. tomentosa. 

— sylva'tica. 18. White. July. Hungary. 1815. 


Ca'lytrix, (From calyx, a calyx, 
and thrix, hair ; in reference to the di- 
visions of the calyx ending in long, 
bristly hairs. Nat. ord., Myrtacece.) 
Syn., Calycothrvx.. 

Beautiful little bushes, often not unlike 
Heaths, with the fragrance of the Myrtle. 
Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Cuttings of points 
of shoots, in April or May, in sand, under a bell- 
C. wngula*ta. Yellow. May. Swan River. 1842. 

— aurea. Bright yellow. Swan River. 

— brevisefta. Pale lilac. May. Swan River. 


— ericoi'des. See C. tetragona. 

— florOm'nda. 4. White. N. Holland. 1820. 
^- gla'ira. B. R. t. 409. See 0. tetragmia. 

— glutvno'm. Yellow, purple. May. Swan 


— pv^scens. See C. tetragona. 

— swpphirilna. 2. Blue. May. Swan River. 


— sca'bra. See C. tetragona. 

— tetra'gona. 4. White. Australia. 1824. Syns., 

C. bruniodeSt C. ericoides, C. glabra, C. 
pubescene, C. scabra, and C. mrgata, 
B. M. t. 3323. 

— varia'bilis. Lilac. May. Swan River. 1842 

— virga'ta. See C. tetragona. 

Camari'dium. (From camara, an 
arched roof ; in reference to the arched 
tip of the stigma. Nat. ord. , Orchide(B ; 
Trihe, Vandece ; Sub-tribe, Maxillarie(e. 
Allied to Maxillaria.) 

Stove orchids ; division ; shallow basket, or 
raised above the surface of the pots, with sphag- 
num and broken pots. 

C. a'lbmn. White. November. Trinidad. 1833. 
Syn., Ornithidmm album. B. M. t. 3306. 

— ochroleu'cum. 1. White. Brazil. July. Trini- 

dad. 1823. B. B. t. 844. Syn., Cym- 
bidium ochroleucwm, B. R. 4141. 

Camaro'tis. (From camarotos, 
arched ; the apex of the lip being 
arched. Nat. ord., Orchidem ; Tribe, 
Vandem-SarcantheoB. ) 
Stove orchid. 

C. eoehinchinenm. Yellow, brown. Cochin 
China. 1877. 

Cama'ssia. (From Qunmash, so 
called by the North American Indians, 
who eat the bulbs. Nat. ord., Liliacew ; 
Tribe, SciUem. Allied to Scilla, or 

Beautiful hardy bulbs; offsets and seeds, 
which may be sown when ripe ; good border 
plants, common soil. 
C. CuM'ckii. li-2. Purple. July. California. 

— Englema'imi. 1. Bright blue. Rocky Moun- 

tains. 1889. 

— esaMnta. 2. Purple. July. Columbia. 

1837. B. R. 1. 1486. 
__ — flQ'rea'lbo. Ih White. Columbia. 1826. 

Syn., Scilla esculenta, var. Jlort albo. 

B. M. t. 2774. 
LeichtKnii. 2. Greenish-white. Spring. 

British Columbia. 1853. B. M. t. 6287. 

Syn., Chlorogalum Leichtlmii. — The 

White Camassia. 

— Frase'ri. IJ. Pale blue. May. Ohio and 

Texas. Syn., SaMa eaculentfl,, B. M. 
t. 1674.— The Missouri Squill or Qua- 
mash, eaten by the Indians. 

Cambessede'sia. (Named after 
James Cambessedes, a botanical author. 
Nat. ord., Melastomacew.) 

Charming herbaceous stove shrdb, flbry peat, 
and sand. Cuttings of half-ripened shoots in 
heat under a bell-glass. 

C. paraguaye'nsis. IJ. Rose red. July. Para- 
guay. 1874.' Krst flowered 1881. B. M. 
t. 6604. 

Ca'mbilUU. That tissue which 
causes increase in diameter in the stems 
and roots of phanerogams, by the divi- 
sion of its cals to form other tissues. 
In Dicotyledons and Conifers it forms a 
ring, whxch develops wood on its inner, 
and bark on its outer, side. 

Camellia. (Named after Camellns, 
a Moravian Jesuit. Nat. ord., Tern- 
stromiaeece. ) 

A good table-oil is extracted from the seeds of 
C. Sasanqua. Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. In- 
arching and grafting, the latter mode entailing 
least trouble, using a slight, sweet hotbed, and 
shading from bright sun until the scions have 
taken : March and April is the best time. Cut- 
tings of ripened shoots ; everyjoint, if necessary, 
will form one, inserted firmly in the sand ; set in 
a close, shady situation, and, after a time, placed 
in mild bottom-heat ; peat and loam, with alittle 
cow-dung, dried, and charcoal. By bringing for- 
ward in a vinery they may be induced to flower 
at almost all seasons. Some of the sorts do well 
in sheltered spots in the open air, in southern 

C. axilla'ris. B. M. t. 2047. See Gordonia 
a/iuymala. Syn., Polyspora axillaris, 
B. M. t. 4019. 

— Donckelaa'ri. Crimson, marbled white, 

— drupi'fera. 10. White. May. China. 1818. 

Syn., C. Kissi, B. M. 1. 1816. 

— euryffi'des. See Thea malifiora. 

— Guiseppi'rM Mercatellli. White, with a few 

red stripes. Bull. Soc. Tosc. 1881, 
p. 299. 

— jwpo'nica. 10. Red. May. China. 1739. 
a'lba semidu'plex. 10. White. March. 

China. 1822. 




C.japo'nicaAlbe'rti. Bed. White. May. China. 


ela'ta. Bright crimson. May. 

imtriea'ta. 10. Crimson. March. China. 

pceonicefio'ra a'lba. 10. White. February. 

China. 1820. 
Pa'rksii. 10. Bright rose. February. 

' Eeevesia'na. 10. Crimson. September. 

China. 1829. 
ro'sea. 10. Rose. February. China. 

Sabinia'na. 10. White. February. China. 

specio'sa. 10. Deep red. March. China. 


— Ki'ssi. See C. drwpifera. 

— malijyra. See Thea malifiora. 

— oleifera. See C. Sascmqua. 

— reiicula'ta. 6. Bed. April. China. 1824. 

B.M. t. 4976. 

flo're plefno. B. B. 1. 1078. This double 

form was known twenty years before 
the single. 

— roeceJWra. 3. Pink. China. 

— SasaJnqua. 4. Wliite. February. China. 

1811. B. M. t. 2080. Syn., C. oMfera. 
anemonxJU/ra. Yellow, white. China. 

B. M. t. 5152. 
pUlna-a'lba. i. White. February. China. 

: ple'jia^ru'bra. Bed. February. China. 

se'mi-ple^na. 4. Bed. February. China. 


Camellia Cvltvire.— Propagation. 
— By Cuttings. The double varieties do 
not grow nor flower so well on their own 
roots. Cultivators, therefore, propagate 
by cuttings the original single-flowered 
species, and when these plants become 
strong enough for the purpose, inarch 
or graft upon them the fine double va- 
rieties. The best time to put in these 
cuttings is when the new wood has be- 
come nearly ripe, which is generally 
about the end of June. Prepare, first, 
■the pots, six inches wide, for the cuttings, 
by putting about an inch of broken pot- 
sherds in bottom, and another inch of 
pieces no larger than peas upon them ; 
cover these with a thm layer of moss, 
and then fill the pots to the top with 
sandy loam, sifted pretty fine ; press 
this firmly down, andT fill the pot again 
quite up to the brim, making it very 
firm. Then take the cuttings of the 
single - flowering species ; make them 
■about four or five inches long ; cut the 
bottom off smoothly and level just under 
a bud ; then cut off two of the lowest 
leaves, leaving as many on the cutting. 
Make as many ready as will fill the first 
pot. As soon as they are ready, insert 
/them into the soil thickly all over the 
pot ; place them in a cold frame, or 
■spent hotbed, and in two or three months 
.they wiU nearly every one be rooted. 
Then pot them off singly in 3-inch pots, 
in peat and sandy loam, and replace 
them in the frame, where they may re- 

mam till winter approaches ; then to ba 
removed into the greenhouse, and have 
the usual treatment of the older plants. 
Let them have a little extra heat during 
the growin" season ; and most of them 
will be ready for grafting or inarching 
the following season. 

Sy Grafting.— The time from Sep- 
tember to February. The method called 
tongue-grafting is the best for Camellias. 
(See Grafting.) As soon as grafted, 
place them under hand-glasses, upon a 
surface of coal ashes, in a deep pit or 
shadv part of the greenhouse, to remain 
till the grafts have united to the stocks, 
and begin to grow ; the hand-glasses 
may then be removed, and the plants 
graduaUy inured to the open air, and 
finally placed in the greenhouse, and 
receive the same culture as the other 

By Inarching. — The time for this 
mode of increasing the double varieties 
is just before the growing season, in 
April. Place the stocks in a warm 
place, to start them, and, as soon as this 
takes place, bring them into a position 
near to the variety intended to work 
upon. (See Inarching.) It is a more 
certain mode of increase than by graft- 
ing, and also more expeditious ; but the 
plants are generally longer-stemmed, 
and do not make so neat a joint as by 
the former mode. 

Soil. — ^A moderate, strong, turfy loam 
and sandy peat, in equal parts, will 
grow these plants well. Some growers 
use peat alone ; but it is too li^t, and 
the plants do not thrive long in it. 

Summer Culture. — The bloom will be 
over before summer commences. It will 
then be necessary to give the Camellia 
a little artificial heat, to encourage a 
free growth. A moist atmosphere, also, 
must be produced, by syringing the 
plants, walks, and walls every morning 
and evening, and keeping the floor de- 
luged with water. Shade from bright 
sunshine, and give air, to reduce the 
temperature to 65° by day, and 55° by 
night. Continue this Kberal treatment 
tiU the buds and the new leaves are 
fully formed ; then give more air, and 
about the middle of July re-pot them, 
using plenty of drainage ; and set them 
out of doors, behind a north wall, where 
the sun cannot reach them after 10 
o'clock. There they may remain till 
the autumn. 

Winter Culture. — As soon as there is 
the least fear of frost prepare for housing 
the plants for the winter. Cleanse and 
repair the house, wash the pots, and 
top-dress before arranging them in the 




house. Give abundance of air, both 
night and day, when there is no frost ; 
and when there is frost, only just use 
fire enough to keep it out. This treat- 
ment is proper till the blooming-season 
is over. Water must be judiciously ap- 
plied ; too much or too little will cause 
the buds to drop off prematurely. 

Insects. — The white scale is the most 
troublesome insect. Strong soap- water 
will destroy it. The black fiy, also, 
sometimes makes its appearance, and is 
very injurious to the flower-buds. That 
and the green fly maybe destroyed in 
the usual way by smoking with tobacco. 
The black fly requires a stronger dose. 

Diseases. — Sometimes young plants 
will die suddenly, and if the roots are 
examined, a brownness will be observed 
at the ends. This arises from stagnant 
water, caused by imperfect drainage. 
To prevent it, pay particular attention 
to that point. 

Camomile or Chamomile. 

A'nthemis no'bUis. 

Varieties. — There are two kinds, the 
common single species and the double- 

SoU and Situation. — They require a 
poor, dry soil, otherwise they are less 
powerful in their medicinal qualities. 
They will grow in almost any situation, 
but the more open the better. 

Time and Mode of Propagation. — 
^Generally by parting the roots, and by 
ofi'sets, planted from the close of Feb- 
ruaiy until the end of May ; the earlier, 
however, the better. Seed-sowing may 
be in any of the early spring months ; 
but, as parting the roots gives much 
less trouble, it is generally pursued. 
Still, after a lapse of several years, raise 
fresh plants, tne old ones often then 

Cultivation. — They should not be 
planted nearer to each other than eigh- 
teen inches. Water must be given 
moderately at the time of planting, if 
dry weather. If raised from seed, the 
seedlings require no further cultivation 
than to be kept free from weeds in the 
seed-bed, and when three or four inches 
high to be thinned to about six inches 
apart, and may remain thus until the 
following spring, then to be thinned and 
remain, or to be removed to the above- 
mentioned distance apart. A very small 
bed will supply the largest family. 

Gathering. — In July the flowers are 

fenerally in perfection for gathering, 
'he period for performing it, however, 
must be governed by the flowers them- 
selves, as the best time is when they 

are just opened. Particular care must 
be taken to dry them thoroughly before 
they are stored, otherwise they will be- 
come mouldy. If seed be required, the 
only attention necessary is to leave some 
of the first-opening flowers ungathered r 
the seed will ripen early in September, 
when it may be dried and rubbed out. 

Camera'ria. (After Joachim, Came- 
rarius, a botanical writer in the six- 
teenth century. Nat. ord., Apobyrm- 
C. dM'Ua. B. M. 1. 1646. See Wrightia. 

— lu'tea. See MaZanetia Tamaquarina. 

Camoe'nsia. (Named in honour 
of Luis Camoens, a celebrated Portu- 

fuese poet. Nat. ord., Leguminosm r 
'ribe, Sophorece.) 

A magmficent stove shrub, wtiich has not yet- 
flowered in this country (1891). It is the most, 
striking and largest-flowered leguminous plant 
known ; the flowers are nearly one foot long.- 
Imported seeds sown in a hotbed ; cuttings in 
sandy loam in bottom-heat and under a oell- 
glass. Bich loam and leaf -mould. 
C. Tna'xiTtia. Cream-colour, yellow, Angola. 
1878. Le Jard. 1887, p. 199. 

Campa'nea. (From campana, a 
bell : alluding to the shape of the 
flowers. Nat. ord., Gesneracece.) 

Stove herbaceous perennial. Por cultivation^, 
see Gesnera. 

C. grandiflo'ra. }. White, crimson. New 
Grenada. 1851.'n'ola. Bell Flower. (The 
diminutive of campana, a bell ; literally,, 
a little bell, Nat. ord., Campanulaceos.) 

The cmnuals are chiefly pretty, low-growing 
plants, the seed of which may be sown in the 
common border, at the end of March. The^ 
biennials may be sow?i in April or May ; many 
of them will bloom the same year. By cuttings, 
a perennial habit will be given to many of them. 
PerennialSy chiefly by division of the plant and. 
roots. Those from the West Indies, New Hol- 
land, and the South of Europe, require the pro- 
tection of a greenhouse, or cold pit, in winter. 
Even the well-known, beautiful window-plant, 
C ^pyrwmidaHis, makes a poor show in the open, 
air in most places. Common soil for most of 
them ; a little peat and dung for those in pots, 


C. Broussonetia'na. 1. Blue. July. Mogador. 

— dicho'toma. 1. Blue. July Sicily. 1820. 

Sibth. FI. Gr. t. 2J1. 

— drabi/o'lia. 1. Pale blue. June. Athens. 


— Eri'nus. 1. Pale blue. July. South of Europe. 

1768. Sibth. Fl. Gr. t. 214. 

— ermoi'des. 1. Pale blue. July. Africa. 1823. 

— Hermi'nii. 1. Blue. July. PortugaL 1823. 

— hiepi'dula. 1. Blue. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1817. 

— Lceffli'ngii. 1. Blue. July. South of Europe. 

1818. B. E. 29, 1. 19. 

— Lore'yi. 2. Purple. June. Italy. 1824. B. M. 

t. 2681. 

— maerosty'la. 1 to 2. Pale violet spotted lilac- 

purple. Summer. Taurus Mountains,. 
1877. Annual, 




>C. puncta'ta. 1. White. May. Siberia. 1813. 
B. M. 1. 1723. 

— ramoH'sHma. 1. Blue. July. Greece. 1820. 

Sibtli. Fl. Gr. t. 204. 

— sylva'tica. IJ. Blue. June. Nepaul. 1840. 

Paxt. Mag. xii. p. 245. 


>C. Ada'mi. 1. Blue. July. Caucasus. 1821. 

— affl'nis. 2. Blue. July. South of Europe. 


— america'na. 1. Blue. July. Pennsylvania. 


— arme'na. 1. Blue. July. Bussia. 1826. 

— bellidifo'lia. 1. Blue. Jiuy. Pyrenees. 1823. 

— betonicafo'lia. Sibth. H. Gr. t. 210. See C. 


— eermea'ria. 3. Light blue. July. Germany. 

1808. B. C.t. 452. 

— corymbo'm. 2. Blue. May. Crete. 1820. 

— divkraens. 2. Blue. June. Hungary. 1814. 

Swt. Fl. Card. ser. 2, t. 256. Syns., C. 
Pentagonia and spathulata. 

— lamigino'sa. 2. Blue. May. 1814. 

— maerophy'lla. White. July. Caucasus. B. M. 

t. 912. 

— maerosta'chya. 2. Blue. June Hungary. 


— me'divm. 4. Blue. July. Germany. 1597. 
flo're-a'lbo-ple/no. 3. White. July. 


a'lbwm. 3. White. July. 

fla're-purpu'rea-pletno. 3. Purple. July. 

— purpu'rea. Purple. July. Germany. 

— neglelcta. 2. Blue. June. 1818. 

— ohli'gua. 3. Blue. June. 1813. Jacq. H. 

Schoenb. t. 836. 

— parmfio'ra. 2. Blue. June. Iberia. 1819. 

— Pemtagdnia. B. R. t. 66. See C divergens. 

— peregri'na. 2. Blue. June. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1794. Jacq. H. Schtenb. t. 337. 

— prmmlcefo'lia. 3. Purple. July. S. Europe. 

B. M. t. 4879. 

— siMriea. 1. Blue. July. Siberia. 1783. 

B. M. t. 659. 

— spiea'ta. 1. Blue. July. Switzerland. 1786. 

— stri'cta. 2. Blue. June. Syria. 1819. 

— thyrsoi'dea. 2. Cream. June. Switzerland. 

1785. B. M. 1. 1290. 

— violce/o'lia. 1. Blue. July. Siberia. 1817. 


C. acumina'ta. 3. Blue. August. N. Amer. 

— aggrega'ta. 2. Blue. August. Bavaria. 1817. 

B. C. t. 506. 

— alliaricBfo'lia. 1. Blue. July. Caucasus. 

1803. B. M. t. 912. 

— AUio'ni. 1. Blue. July. South of France. 


— alpCna. 2. Blue. July. Switzerland. 1779. 

B. M. t. 957. 

— angiistifo'lia. Blue. July. France. 1818. 

— azn'rea. 2. Light blue. June. Switzerland. 

1778. B. M. t. 651. 

— barba'ta. 2. Light blue. June. S. Europe. 

1752. B. M. 1. 1268. 

cya'nea. 1. Blue. July. 1836. Swt. 

PI. Gard. ser. 2, t. 409. 

— BarreWri, See C. froffUii. 

— Bella'rdi. 1. Blue. July. Italy. 1813. 

— Bieberstemia'na. 1. Blue. June. Caucasus. 

1820. Syn., C. rupestrw. 

— bmmie'nsu. 2. Blue. August. Europe. 1773. 

— carolinia'na. Blue. August. N. America. 

— aespito'm. 1. Blue. July. Austria. 1819. 

— calyci'na. 1. Blue. July. Taurla. 1820. 

— capita'ta. B. M. t. 811. See C. Kngulata. 

— carpa'thica. 1. Blue. July. Carpathian Alps. 

1774. . Jacq. Vind. t. 57. 

a'lba. i. White. June. Gardens. 

pelvy'o'rmis. Lilac August. 

C. carpa'thica twrbina'ta. i. Deep purple. 

— cauca'sica. 1. Purple. July. Caucasus. 1804. 

— ceni'Ha. 1. Blue. June. Switzerland. 1775. 

— cephala'ntha. 1. Blue. August. Russia. 1817. 

— cephaZotct. 1. Blue. June. 1818. 

— cermcaroi'des. 1. Blue. July. Italy. 1822. 

— cichora'cea. See C lingulata, 

— coUi'na. 1. Blue. July. Caucasus. 1803. 

B. M. t 927. 

— colaralta. 2. Purple. September. Sikkim 

Hunalaya. 1849. B. M. t. 4665. Syn., 

C. Motyreroftiana. 

— congenita. 1. Blue. July. France. 1823. 

— erena'ta, 2. Blue. July. Bussia. 1820. 
■ — diffu'sa. See C. fragilis. 

— Bla'tine. 1. Pale blue. July South of 

Europe. 1823. Trailer. 

— c'legans. 1. Pale blue. July. Siberia. 1811 

Syn., C. spedosa. 

— elli'ptica. 1. Blue. July. Hungary. 1826 

— erioca'rpa. See C. latifolia^ var. eriocmpa. 

— excXia. 1. Blue. June. Switzerland. 1820 

B. C. t. 561. 

— fiexMo'ea. See C. Waldsteiniama. 

—folio'sa. 1. Blue. July. Italy. 1826. 

—fra'gilis. Blue. August. Alps. 1826. Half- 
hardy. Syns., C. Barreherii and diffusa, 

hirsu'ta. 1. Blue. August. Italy. 1833. 

B. B. 1. 1738. 

— garga'nica. J. Pale blue. July. Italy. 1830. 

B. E. 1. 1768. 

hirsu'ta. Leaves hairy. 

— glmnera'ta. 2. Violet. May. Britain. Syn., 

C. betonicOBjQlia. 

dahu'rica. Eich deep purple. Dwarf 

form. 1888. 

— - — fio're-a'lbo. 1. White. May. Britain. 

pUlna-a'lba. 1. White. May. Britain 

Jlo're-pl^ifUt'purpvlrea. 2. Pale purple 

June. Gardens. 
specio'sa. B. R. t. 620. 

— grarniinifo'lia. 1. Blue. June. Hungary 

1817. Sibth. FL Gr. t. 206. 

— gra'ndis. 3. Purple. August. Siberia. 1842. 

Half-hardy. Paxt. Mag. x. p. 31. Syn., 
C. latiioba. 

— gwmmi'fera. See C. samuttiea. 

— Eenderso'ni. Bright blue. 1881. Probably a 


— lieterodo'xa. 1. Blue. June. Hungary. 1824. 

— itt^undi'butv/m. 2. Purple. July. Siberia 


— irifimd-ibuZifo'mm. 2. Blue. July. Siberia. 

182?. B. M. t. 2632. 

— isophy'lla. i. Lilac-blne. August. Apennines 

1868. Syn., C. floribumda. 
— a'lba. White. 

— ladnia'ta. 2. Blue. June. Greece. 1788 

Andr. Eep. t. 385. 

— lactifl&ra. 3. White or blue. August. Siberia. 

1816. B. M. t. 1973. 

— lamiifo'lia. 3. Pale yellow. June. Iberia 


— laruieola'ta. 1. Blue. July. France. 1819. 

— latifo'lia. 4. White. July. Britain. B. M. 

t. 2653. 

a'lba. White. 1883. 

flo're-aflbo. 3. White. July. 

erioca'rpa. Calyx hairy. 

macra'ntha. Blue purple. August, 

Russia. 1822. B. M. t. 3347. 

— lingula'ta. 1. Violet. July. Hungary. 

1804. Syns., C. capitata and dchoracea. 

— linifo'lia. 1. Blue. July. Switzerland. 

1819. B. C.t. 1267. 

— longifo'lia. 4. Blue. July. Pyrenees. 


— lyra'ta. 2. Violet. July. South of Europe. 

macra'ntha. B. M. t. 3347. A variety of C. 

~ microphy'tta. 1. Blue. June. Hungary. 1820. 




C. Moorcrofiia'na. SeeC. colorafa. 

— Tmira'lis. See C. Portenachlagiajia. 

— negWcta. See C rapwnculoides. 

— niccee'nm. 1. Purple. June. Piedmont. 


— ni'tida. See C. planifiora. 

cceru'lea. 1. Blue. July. N. Amer. 

flfi're-cceru'leo-ple'no. f. Blue. July. 

— no'Mlw. 4. Pale purple. July. China. 

1844. ¥1. Ser. t. 247. 

a'lba. White. Fl. Ser. t. 663. 

— Nutta'Uii. 1. Blue. July. N. Amer. 1829. 

— obliquift/lia. 3. • Blue. July. Italy. 1S23. 

— pa' tula. 1. Violet. July. Europe, 

— perneifo'lia. 8. Blue. July. Europe. 1696. 

B. M. t. 397. 

■ a'lba. 3. White. July. Europe. 1696. 

a'lba-pleina. 3. White. July. Europe. 


Calyx petaloid, blue. Fl. 

3. Blue. July. Europe. 

3. Blue. July. Europe. 

Blue. July. Europe. 1696. 
Blue. August. N. America? 

corona.' ta. 

Ser. t. 699. 



ple'na. 3. 

— planiflo'ra. 2. 

1817. Syn., C. nitida. 
flo're-c(lbo-pleino. J. White. July. 

— PortenBchlagia^rM. i. Purple, blue. June to 

July. S. Europe. Syn., C. muralis. 
— prismmtoca'rpus. White. S. Africa. 1787. 

B. M. t. 2733. 
^pube' scene. 1. Blue. July. Bohemia. 

— pu'lla. 1. Blue. June. Austria. 1779. 

B. M. t. 2492. 
a'lba. White. 

— pu'mila. 1. Blue. July Switzerland 

B. M. t. 612. 

— pusi'Ua. 1. Blue. June. Switzerland. 

a'lba. White. 1882. 

— pyra/mida'lis. 4. Blue. July. Camiola. 

fio're-a'lbo. 4. White. July. Europe. 

— quadri'fida. 1. Blue. June. N. Holland. 


— Raine^ri. 1. Blue. July. Italy. 1828 

— rapunculoi'des. 3. Blue. June. England. 

Eng. Hot. ed. 3, t. 869. Syn., C. neglecta. 

— rapvfneulus. 3. Blue. July. Britain. 

— rhomboida'lia. 2. Blue. July. Switzerland. 

1776. B. C. t. 603. 

rufbra. 1. Bsddish-lilac. July. Swit- 


— rige'scens. 1. Blue. June. Siberia. 1820. 

— Soe^zlii. }. Blue. Eocky Mountains. 1873. 

— rotwndif&lia. 3. Blue. June. Britain. Syn., 

C. EostU. 

flo're-a'ttio. 1. White. June. Britain. 

fidre-pUno. f. Blue. July. Gardens. 

Scheuz^ri. 1882. 

— rupelstris. See C, Biebereteiniana. 

— rutMmica. 2. Blue. June. Caucasus. 1816. 

B. M. t. 2663. 

— iarma'tica. 2. Blue. June. Siberia. 1803. 

B. M. t. 2019. Syn., C. gummifera. 

— saxa'tilis. 1. Blue. May. Candia. 1768. 

— Scheuchze'ii. 1. Blue. July Europe. 1813. 

B. C. t. 485. 

— simplex. 3. Blue. July. South of France. 


— soldamelloeMra pUna. Purplish. 1870. 

— speculum. Purple. Summer. Greece. B. M. 

t. 102. 

— speeio'sa. B. M. t. 2649. See C elegans. 

— sprdta. •> Blue. July. Siberia. 1820. 

— 'teno'ni. 2, Blue. June. Naples. 

— tenwfdlio . 1. Violet. July. Hungary. 


— tomenXd ta. 1. White. June. Levant. 1810. 

C. Tommasinia'na. J-1. Pale blue. August.. 
Istria. B. M. t. 6690. 

— TracheHium. 4. Blue. June. Britain. 
a'lba. 3. White. July. Britain. 

— ^u'lba'pldna. 3. White. July. Britain. 
pldvM. 3. Blue. July. Britain. 

— trae&loi'des. 3. Blue. July. Caucasus. 

flo're-purpu'rea-ple'na. 3. Purple. July. 

— trichocalyci'na. 4. Blue. July. Italy. 


— tridenta'ta. Blue. Asia Minor. 

saxi'fraga. Violet. Caucasus. 1875. 

— turJmM'ta. i. Purple. Mountains of Tran- 

sylvania. 1868. 

a'lba. Mauve. September. 

Dickso'ni. White. 

— urtic^fo'Ha. 3. Blue. August. Germany. 

fio're-ple'na. White. July. Germany. 

— VanddH. 1. Cream. June. 

— Van Bmi'ttei. Blue. 1863. Hybrid. Syn., 

C. hybrida. 

— mluti'na. 1. Blue. May. South of Europe^ 


— versicolor. 4. Striped. July. Siberia, 1788. 

Andr. Rep. t. 396. 

— virga'ta. 1. Blue. June. N. Amer. 1823. 

— Waldsteinia'na. 1. Blue. June. Hungary* 

1824. Syn., C. flexuosa. 

— Zo'ysii. 1. Bark blue. June. Camiola. 

1813. Jacci. Ic. t. 334. 


C. au'rea. 3. Yellow. August. Madeira. 

Evergreen shrub. 1777. Jacq. H. 

Schoenb. t. 472. 
angusti/o'lia. 2. Yellow. August. 

Madeira. 1777. 
latifo'lia. 2. Yellow. August. Madeira. 


— capdnsis. 1. Blue. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1803. Annual. B. M. t. 782. 

— cdrmm. 1. Blue. June. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1804. Biennial. 

— deMscens. 1. Blue. July. E. Ind. 1818. 


— gra'eUis. 1. Blue. June. N. S. Wales. 

1794. Biennial. B. M. t. 691. 

— litora'lis. 1. Blue. April. N. Holland. 

1820. Biennial. 

— Tno'Uis. 1. Purple. June. Sicily. 1788. 

Herbaceous perennial. B. M. t. 404. 

— Ottonia'na. 1. Blue. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1826. Evergreen shrub. 
•strigo'sa. J. Purple. Syria. 1858. 
- Yida'lii. if. White. July. Azores. 1881. B. M. 

t. 4748. 


C. capUla'ris, B. C. t. 1406, is Wahlenbergia 

— coroTia'tat B. R. 1. 149, is Ad£nophora marsu^ 

- coronoptfo'lia is 

- elonga'ta — 

- Fiscke'ri — 
-frvMco'sa — 

- gramdifio'ra — 

- intermedia — 

- interru'pta — 

- La/ma'rehli — 

- lobelioi'dea — 

- periskioefo'lia — 
-periplmoefo'lia — 

- party sa — 
-Mabelaisia'na — 

- stylo' sa — 

- tricus^ida'ta — 

- vertimlla'ta — 

Ad^nophara cmanopifolia. 
Wahlenbergia capensis. 
Adenophora liliifiora. 
Ldghtfootia subulata. 
Platyciidmi grandifiorvs. 
Adenophora Lamarckii. 
Prismatocarpus interruptus, 
AdeTwphora liliijlora. 
Wahlenbergia lobelioides. 

— latiifolia. 

— periploie^olia. 
Sanwlus Valerandi. 
Adenophora Gmelini. 

— denticulata. 

— verticillata. 




Campanumae'a. (A name altered 
from Campanula. Nat. ord., Campanu- 

Greenhouse herbaceous perennials, with tube- 
rous rootstoclcs. Seeds, divisions. Rich sandy 
loam and a little peat. 

C. java'nica. Yellowish with red veins. Java, 
in moist woods. 1863. Climber. Syn., 
CocUmopsis cordata. B. M. t. 5372. 
— lanceola'ta. Climber. Green. N. China. 
1861. Fl. Ser. t. 927. 

Campe'lia. (Frem kampe, bending, 
and helios, the sun ; in reference to the 
flowers bending round to the sun. Nat. 
ord. , CommelynacecE. Allied to Trades- 
can tia.) 

Stove herbaceous perennials ; seeds in spring ; 

rich loam ; ordinary stove treatment. 

C. zano'nia. 2. Blue. July. W. Ind. 1759. 

Leaves pubescent beneath. Syns., C 

mexicwna. Gfl. t. 833, and Commelvna 

zanonia. Bed. Lll. 1. 192. 

glabra' ta. Leaves glabrous. Costa Kica. 

Camphor. A concrete volatile oil, 
obtained by dry distillation from Cinna- 
Tnomum Camphora (formerly known as 
Camphora officinarum). It is obtained 
exclusively from Formosa and Japan. 
Borneo camphor is a product of Dryoba- 
lonops aromatica. 

Camploso'rus, a synonym of Anti- 

Campomane'sia. (Named after 
Ca», a Spanish naturalist. Nat. 
ord.., MyrtcuxcB. Allied to Psidium. ) 

Its yellow, sweet-scented fruit, called palUlo, 
is eaten by the nafives. Greenhouse evergreen 
shrub ; cuttings of rather ripe shoots in sand, 
under a bell-glass. 
C. Uneatifo'lia. White. April. Peru. 1824. 

Campsi'diiiin. See Tecoma. 

Campte'ria. (Nat. ord., Filices.) 
This is now regarded as a section of the 
genus Pteris, characterized thus : Veins 
all free, except those of the last divisions, 
which are more or less connected near 
the base by arching veins. 

C. Uauri'ta. See Pteris biaurita. 
— nemora'lw. See Pteris nemm-alis. 

Ca'mptopus. (From kamptos, 
curved, and po^ls, a foot ; on account 
of the downwardly curved flower stalk. 
Nat. ord., Bubiaeeoe.) 

An ornamental stove shrub. Cuttings in sandy 

loam, in bottom-heat, under a, hand-glass. 
Moist atmosphere. 

C.Ma'nnii. 15. MTiite. Winter. Fernando Po 
1863. B. M. t. 5766. 

CamptOSe'ma. (From kamptos, 
curved, and sema, standard ; the standard 
has a curved appendage on both sides 
of the base. Nat. ord., Leguminosce ; 
Tribe, Phaseolem. ) 

Greenhouse climbers with handsome flowers, 
rich flbry loam and leaf -soil. Seeds and cuttings. 
C. rubicu'ndum. Bright red. S. Brazil. Climber. 
B. M. t. 4608. 

— tpldndens. Scarlet. October. S.America? 

Syn., Kewnedya splendens, Paxt. Mag. 
vol. 3, p. 26. 

Campy la'nthera e'legans. See 
Marianthus earuleo-punctatus. 

Campyla'nthus. (From kampylos, 
a curve, and anthos, a flower. Nat. 
ord., ScrophulariacecB. Allied to Digi- 

Greenhouse evergreen shrub ; cuttings in sand, 
of half -ripened shoots, under a beU-glass ; sandy 
peat and flbry loam. 
C. re'pens. IJ. Tropical America. 1810. 

— ta&oloi'des. 1. Purple. March. Teneriffe. 

1825.'lia. A section of the Pelar- 

Campylobo'trys. (From kampy- 
los, a curve, and botrys, a bunch : allud- 
ing to the form of the inflorescence. 
Nat. ord., Bubiacece.) United to Hoif- 
maimia, in the Genera Plantarum. 

Small stove shrubs, with very ornamental 
foliage. Cuttings of side-shoots under a bell- 
glass in heat. Sandy peat and leaf -mould, 
C. argyroneu'ra. i. Mexico. 1857. 

— dfseolar. J. Bed. Bahia. 1850. B. M. 

t. 4530. 

— Ghiesbre'ghtii. Mexico. 1861. 111. Hort. 

t. 279. 
fo'liis variega'tis. 111. Hort. n. s. t. 498. 

— pyrophj/lla. South Mexico. 

— refu'lgens. Leaves satiny, white ribbed. 


— rega'lis. 1. Mexico. 1859. 

— STtiaragdi'na. ^. Mexico. 1859. 

Campyloneu'ron. See Polypo- 

Canada Balsam., Eesin obtained 
from Abies balsamea. 

Canada Rice. Tizania aquatica. 

Canari'na. (So named from being 
natives of the Canary Islands. Nat. 
ord., CampanulacecB. Allied to Lighb- 

Greenhouse herbaceous perennials ; cuttings 
of small side-shoots in sandy loam, under a hand- 
light, but rather difficult to manage ; division of 
the roots in spring, just as they begin to grow ; 
and at that time, for a month or two, they like 
the assistance of a hotbed ; at other times the 
common treatment of the greenhouse will suit 
them ; flbry loam, turfy peat, and a good portion 
of sand ; pots, well drained. 




C. eampaJmHa, 3. Yellowish purple, or orange 
with red nerves. January to March. 1696. 
B. M. t. 444. Syn., Cam/pcmvlacanarien- 

— l<emga'ta. S. Orange. January. 1825. 

Cana'rium. (From Canari, the 
Malay vernacular. Nat. ord., Burse- 
racece. ) 

Stove trees. Cuttings of half-ripened wooa 
under a bell-glass in heat. Soil, flbry peat and 

C. c(yrmmi!'ne. "White. Calyx large, green. India. 
Bent, and Tr. t. 61. 

Canary-bird Flower. Tropm'olum 

Canary Grass. PJui'laris. 

Canavalia. (From Canavali, its 
native name in Malabar. Nat. ord., 
LeguminoscB ; Tribe, Phaseolew. Allied 

Stove perennial twiners, except where other- 
wise specified ; seeds anl cuttings in sandy soil, 
and in heat, under a beh-glass ; sandy losCm ana 
leaf -soil. 
C. Icmaridnm. B. R. 1. 1199. See C. parcmensig. 

— ensifc^rmis. Purple. November. Jamaica. 

1842. B. M. t. 4027. Syn., Bolwhos 

acin^forvniSf Jacq. Ic. t. 559. Jamaica 
horse bean. 

— gladia'ta. 6. White, red. June. E. Ind. 

1790. Syn., Solichos gladiatus, Jacq. Ic. 
t. 660. 

— I/umarefti. 3. Rosy flesh-colour. Japan. 

Rev. Hort. 1881, p. 236. Japanese haricot 

— obtusifo'lia. 6. Purple. July. Malabar. 1820. 
.— emargina'ta. 6. Purple. July. E. Ind. 

1800. Syn., Dolwhos emajrginatus, Jacq. 

H. Schoenb. t. 221. 
'~- pa/ra/ne.7isis. 10. Purple. July. Buenos 

Ayres. Syn., C. horuj/rienms. 
-.— ro'sea. 3. Purple. July. Jamaica. 1812. 

Evergreen creeper. 

— ru'tilans. Scarlet. 1847. Greenhouse ever- 

green twiner. 

Ca'nbia. (Named in honour of W. 
M. Canby, of Delaware, U.S.A. Nat. 
ord., PapaveraceoB.) 

Greenhouse perennial, light sandy loam, seeds. 
C. ea'ndida. One-twelfth. White. Petals per- 
sistent. S. E. California. 1876. 



Candelabrum or Chandelier 
Tree. See Pa'ndanus candela'bntm. 

Candleberry Myrtle. My'rica 

Candleberry Tree. AUuri'tea tri- 

Candle Tree. Parmentie'ra ceri'- 

Cando'Uea. (Named after the great 
botanist, De CandoUe. Nat. ord., Dille- 
niacecB. ) 

Greenhouse evergreen shrubs, from Australia ; 
cuttings in sandy peat, under a glass ; sandy 
peat and fibry loam. 
C. Brww'nis. 6. Yellow. May. 1837. 

Kesembling lattice- 

0. cuneif<yrmiB. 7. Yellow. July. W. Australia. 
1824. B. M. t. 2711. 

— Cvmnmgha'mi. Maund Bot. vol. 2, t. 85. See 

Sibbertia Cimningha/nii, B. M. t. 3183. 

— HugeHii. 6. Yellow. May. W. Australia. 


— tetra'ndra. 7. Yellow. June. W. Australia. 

1842. B. M. 1843, t. 50. 

Candy Carrot. Athama'nta Mat- 
Candy-tuft. Ihe'ris. 

Cane Brake. Arundina'ria. 

Cane'Ua. (From canna, a reed ; the 
form of the inner bark when peeled off. 
Nat. ord., Canellacem.) 

This is the wild cinnamon of the West Indies, 
so-called on account of its aromatic fragrance. 
Canella, or white wood bark, jields, by distilla- 
tion, a warm, aromatic oil, which was formerly 
mixed with the oil of cloves in the West Indies. 
Stove evergreen trees ; cuttings of ripe shoots in 
sand, under a glass, and in bottom-heat, in April 
or May ; sandy loam and fibry peat. 
C.a'lba. 40. White. W. Ind. 1735. 

— lamrifo'lia. 30. White. S. Amer. 1817. 

This is probably only a variety of C. alba. 

Cani'struin. (Fromte«o«,abasket; 
in allusion to the resemblance of the in- 
florescence to a basket of fiowers. Nat. 
ord., Bromeliacece. Allied to Nidu- 
larium. United to JEchmea by Bent- 
ham and Hooker. ) 

Stove epiphytes. The inflorescence is rather 
showy, and retains its beauty for two or three 
months. Suckers and divisions. Fibrous peat, 
turfy loam, and charcoal. 

C. auranti'aeum. Orange. Brazil. 1873. Belg. 
Hort. 1873, 1. 15. 

— ebu'meum. 2. White, green ; bracts ivory 

white. May. 1876. Syns., Xidulanwm 
IdndeniajidGuzmanniafragrans. "Belg. 
Hort. 1879, tt. 13-14. 

— ro'seum. White, green ; bracts rosy. 1879. 

Belg. Hort. 1883, tt. 14-15. 

— m'ride. 2. Green. Brazil. 1875. Belg. 

Hort. 1874, 1. 16. 

Canker. This disease is accompanied 
by different symptoms, according to the 
species of the tree which it infects. In 
some of those whose true sap contains a 
considerable quantity of free acid, as in 
the genus Pyrus, it is rarely accompanied 
by any discharge. To this dry form of 
the disease it would be well to confine 
the term canker. In other trees, with 
sap abounding in astringent or gummy 
constituents, it is usually attended by a 
discharge. In such instances it might 
strictly be designated ulcer. This dis- 
ease has a considerable resemblance to 
the tendency to ossification, which ap- 
pears in most aged animals, arising from 
their marked tendency to secrete the 
calcareous saline compounds that chiefly 
constitute their skeletons. The conse- 
quence is, an enlargement of the joints 
and ossification of the circulatory vessels 
and other parts — phenomena very analo- 
gous to those attending the cankering of 




trees. As in animals, this tendency is 
general throughout their system ; but, 
as is observed by Mr. Knight, "like 
the mortification m the limbs of elderly 
people," it may be determined, as to its 
point of attack, by the irritability of 
that part of the system. 

This disease commences with an en- 
largement of the vessels of the bark of a 
branch or of the stem. This swelling 
invariably attends the disease when it 
attacks the apple-tree. In the pear the 
enlargement is less, yet is always pre- 
sent. In the elm and the oak sometimes 
no swelling occurs ; and in the peach we 
do not recoUect to have seen any. The 
swelling is soon communicated to the 
wood, which, if laid open to view on its 
first appearance by the removal of the 
bark, exhibits no marks of disease be- 
yond the mere unnatural enlargement. 
In the course of a few years, less in 
number in proportion to the advanced 
age of the tree, and the unfavourable 
circumstances under which it is vegeta- 
ting, the swelling is greatly increased in 
size,,and the alburnum has become ex- 
tensively dead ; the bark above it cracks, 
rises in discoloured scales, and decays 
evenmore rapidly than the wood beneath. 
If the canker is upon a moderately-sized 
branch, the decay soon completely en- 
circles it, extendmg through the whole 
alburnum and bark. The circulation of 
the sap being thus entirely prevented, 
all the parts above the disease perish. 

Trees injudiciously pruned, or growing 
upon an ungenial soil, are more fre- 
quently attacked than those which are 
advancing imder contrary circumstances. 
The oldest trees are always the first 
attacked of those similarly cultivated. 
The golden pippin, the oldest existing 
variety of the apple, is more frequently 
and more seriously attacked than any 
other. The soil has a very considerable 
influence in inducing the disease. If the 
subsoil be an irony gravel, or if it is not 
well drained, the canker is almost cer- 
tain to make its appearance amongst the 
trees it sustains, however young and 
vigorous they were when first planted. 

Bruises and wounds of all kinds 
usually are followed by canker in the 
wounded part, if the tree is predisposed 
to this disease. 

All these facts before us unite in as- 
suring us that the canker arises from the 
tree's weakness, from a deficiency in its 
vital energy, and consequent inability to 
imbibe and elaborate the nourishment 
necessary to sustain its frame in vigour, 
and much less to supply the healthy de- 
velopment of new parts. 

It IS quite true that over-luxuriant 
trees are particularly liable to this dis- 
ease ; but over-luxuriance is really a de- 
monstration that the tree does not digest 
and secrete its juices healthily. 

If over-luxuriance threaten to intro- 
duce canker, the best remedy is to re- 
move some of the main roots of the tree, 
and to be particularly careful not to add 
any manure to the soil within their 
range. On the contrary, it will be well 
if the continued exuberant growth shows 
the necessity for the staple of the soil 
to be reduced in fertility Dy the admix- 
ture of one less fertile, or even of drift 
sand. If there be an excess of branches, 
the saw and the pruning-knife must be 
gradually applied. It must be only a 
tree of very weak vital powers, such as 
is the golden pippin, that will bear the 
general cutting of the annual shoots. A 
vigorous variety would exhaust itself the 
following year in the production of fresh 
wood. Nothing beyond a general rule 
for the pruning can be laid down. Keep 
a considerable vacancy between every 
branch, both above and beneath it, and 
especially provide that not even two 
twigs shall chafe against each other. 
The greater the intensity of light, and 
the freer the circulation of air amongst 
the foliage of the tree, the better the 
chance for its healthy vegetation. If 
the disease being in a fruit-tree be a 
consequence of old age, it is probably 
premature, and induced by injudicious 
management ; for very few of our varie- 
ties are of an age that insures to them 
decrepitude. We have never yet known 
a tree, unless in the last stage of decay, 
that could not be greatly restored by 

g'ving it more air and lignt, by careful 
sading in pruning, improvement of the 
soil, and cleansing the bark. 

If the soil, by its ungenial character, 
induces the diseases, the obvious and only 
remedy is its amelioration ; and, if the 
subsoil is the cause of the mischief, the 
roots must be prevented striking into it. 
In all cases it is the best practice to re- 
move the tap-root. If the trees are 
planted shallow, as they ought to be, 
and the surface kept duly fertile, there 
is not much danger of the roots striking 
into the worst pasturage of the subsoil. 

Scrubbing the bark of the stem and 
branches with a mixture of soapsuds and 
urine, and, where any pruning has taken 
place, keeping the wounds covered with 
a mixture of clay and cow-dung or with 
tar, are the best local applications. We 
once thought resinous plasters the best; 
but subsequent experiments have altered 
our opinion. 




The canker in the auricula is a rapidly- 
spreading ulcer, which, destroying the 
whole texture of the plant where it 
occurs, prevents the rise of the sap. 
Some gardeners believe it to be infec- 
tious, and therefore destroy the speci- 
men in which it occurs, unless it be very 
valuable ; but this we believe to be 
erroneous, the reason of the disease ap- 
pearing to be infectious, or epidemic, 
being, that it occurs to many when they 
are subjected to the injurious treatment. 

It appears to be caused by the appli- 
cation of too much water, especially if 
combined with superabundant nourish- 
ment. Therefore, although cutting out 
the decaying part, when it first appears, 
and applying to the wound some finely- 
powdered charcoal, will effect a cure, if 
the disease has not penetrated too deeply, 
yet itwill be liable to return immediately, 
if a less forcing mode of culture be not 
adopted. No auricula will suffer from 
this disease if it be shifted annually, and 
the tap-root at the time of moving be 
shortened, a thorough system of drain- 
ing adopted, and excessive damp during 
the winter being prevented by proper 

Parsley, grown in a poor soil, is also 
liable to cankerinthewinter. Mr. Barnes 
says he neverfoundanyapplicationwhich 
eradicated this disease so effectually as 
a mixture, in eq^ual parts, of soot and 
slacked lime tlirown over the plants. 
The cure is complete in a few days, the 
vigour of the plants restored, indicating 
that this species of ulceration arises from 
deficient nourishment. 

The tubers of the potato, also, are 
liable to the speck, black spot, or canker, 
a disease which we once thought occa- 
sioned by the calcareous earth, lime, or 
chalk contained by the soil ; but, on 
more lengthened observation, we find it 
in all soils, and in seasons characterized 
by opposite extremes of wetness and dry- 
ness. Hence we are induced to .consider 
that the disease arises from some defect 
in the sets employed, or to potatoes being 
grown too often on the same site. It is 
quite certain, that in ground tired of 
potatoes, the disease most extensively 
appears. This suggests that it is occa- 
sioned by a deficiency of some consti- 
tuent in the soil, a suggestion confirmed 
by the fact, that in the fields of the 
market-gardeners near London, which 
are supplied without stint with the most 
fertilizing manure, this disease of the 
potato is comparatively unknown. 

The stems of succiilent plants, such 
as the cacti, mesembryanthemums, and 
the balsam, as well as the fruit of the 

cucumber and melon,' and the stalk of 
the grape, are all liable to canker in. 
some form. 

Ca'nna. Indian Shot. (The Celtie 
name for a catie, or reed. Nat. ord., 
Scitaminece ; Tribe, Cannece.) 

Stove and greenhouse herbaceous perennials,, 
extensively employed in su'b-troplcal and other 
bedding. Divisions of the root ; seed sown in 
hotbed ; rich, open, loamy soil. 
C. Achi'ras. 5. Dark red. August. Isle of 
Mendoza. 1829. 

— angustifo'lia. 2. Scarlet. April. S. Amer. 


— aurmiti'aca. 4. Orange. December. Brazil, 


— ca'mea. 4. Flesh. December. Brazil. 1822. 

Syn., C. vanabilis. 

— chitie^rms. See C. orientalis. 

— coeei'nea. 2. Scarlet. December. S. Amer, 

1731. B. C. t. 739. Syn., C. rubra. 

— cmrvpa'cta. 2. JEled. April. B. Ind. 1820, 

— ero'cea. . 2. Red. May. 1823. 

— cwrmfio'ra. 4. Pale red. Central America. 

— dermda'ta. 2. Scarlet. June. Brazil. 1818, 
latifo'lia. 3. Bed. May. Brazil. 1818, 

— di'scolar. 10. Scarlet. November. Trinidad, 

1827. B. R. 1. 1231. 

— e'dulis. 3. Red. September. Peru. 1820. 

B. E. t. 775. Syn., C r^Aiyricaulis. 

— Ehema'nni. 6. Crimson. 1881. Syn., C, 
• iridifiora, var. Bhemanni. 

— erefcta zetri'na. Leaves variegated. 1832. 

— escvXe'nta. 4. Red. December. S. Amer, 


— excellsa,. 16. Scarlet. January. Brazil. 1820, 

B. C. t. 743. 

— fia'ccdda. 5. Red. July. South Carolina. 

1788. B. C. t. 662. 

— giga'ntea. 5. Red. Yellow. December, 

Brazil. 1809. B. B. t. 206, B. M. t. 2316, 
Syn., C. latifolia. 

— glavltxt. 2. Yellow. January. S. Amer, 

rvlbrolu'tea. 4i. Yellovi'iah-red. August. 

Jamaica. 1834. 
rjt'/a. 2. Reddish-brown. July. Mexico. 

is. M. t. 2302. Syn., C. mexwana. 

— helieanic^o'lia. 6-8. Red, yellow. Mexico. 

— i'ndiea. 2. Scarlet. December. India. 1670t 

B. E. t. 776. B. M. t. 464 is C. patene. 
Berti'ni, Garden variety. 1889. 

— macula'ta. 2. Reddish-yellow. December. 


— iridifio'ra. 6. Red. December. Peru. 1816. 

B. R. t. 609. Syn., Achirida iridifiora. 
— jvfncea. 1. Red. May. Indies. 1820. 

— lagwn^Tisis. 5. Yellow. September. Laguna, 

1828. B. R. 1. 1311. Syn., C. sulphurea. 

— Lwmbefrti. 4. Scarlet. May. Trinidad, 

1819. B. R. t. 470. Syn., C. muxima. 

— lamceola'tOt. 3. Red. December. Brazil, 


— lanugirw'sa, 6. Scarlet. April. Marant, 


— latifo'lia. See C. gigantea. 

— Uliiflo'ra. 8-10. Yellow, rosy. Veraguas, 

Rev. Hort. 1884, p. 132. 

— limba'ta. 3. Red. December. Brazil. 1818. 

B. E. t. 771. 

— lu'tea. 2. Yellow. October. E. Ind. 1829, 

B. M. t. 2086. 

— ma'xima. See C Lairtberti. 

— mexica'na. See C. glauea, var. r^fa, B. M. 

t. 2302. 

— ocdderMlie. 3. Reddish -yellow. June, 

W. Ind. 1822. B.jR. t.772. 

— orientallit. 4. Red. June. E. Ind. 1820. 

Syn., C chirt^nsis. 
fia'ix''- i- Yellow. June B Ind. 1820. 




C. orienta'lis macula'ta. Scarlet, yellow. August. 
E. Ind. 1570. 

— pa'Uida. 4. Pale yellow. June. W. Ind. 


latif&lia. 3. Yellow. June. W. Ind. 


— panicula'ta. Peru. Kemer Hort. t. 840. 

— pa'tens. 2. E«ddish-yellow. May. St. Helena. 

1778. Syn., C. indica of B. M. t. 464. 

— peduncula'ta. 6. Orange. October. 1820. 

— polymo'rpha. 3. Red. December. S. Amer. 


— Reefve^i, See Euryatylus Reevesii. 

— Roscoeal'na. 3-4. Yellow with red spots. W. 


— rv!bra^ See C. coccinea. 

— rubricmi'lis. See C. edulis. 

— swnguinea. See C WarszevAczii. 

— sped&sa. 3. Red. August. S. Amer. 1820. 

B. M. t. 2317. 

— stolmifera. 8. Yellow, lip reddish. Monte- 


— suZphu'rea. See C. lagunensis. 

— sylve'strU. 5. Scarlet. December. S. Amer. 


— Vamhou'ttei. Bright scarlet. 

— varia'bilis. See C. carnea, 

— Warazewi'czii. SJ. Scarlet. Costa Rica. 

1849. B. M. t. 4854. Syn., C. ganguinea. 

— xalape'rms. 4-5. Red, yellowish. Jalapa. 

— zebri'na. 6-8. Orange. Stem and leaves 

tinged with violet-purple. 
Plants have also been grown in gardens under 
the following names, but have never been pro- 
perly described, and probably belong to some of 
the above-mentioned species : — Canna aurea, 
C. caripenHs, C. unacrocarpa, C. TtiutabUis, C. 
ovatay C. tvinjlora, C. wndata^ and C. vitellina. 

Ca'nnabis. Hemp. (A name used 
ty Dioscorides for a plant. Nat. ord., 

Ornamental hardy annual. Seeds in spring. 
C. sati'va. 4-10. Greenish. June. India and 

Cansco'ra. (FioiaKansfan-cora,the 
Malabar name for C. jaer/oliata. Nat. 
ord., GentianacecB.) 

Greenhouse or stove annuals. Treatment 
similar to that for Bai£ams. 
C. Pari'iihii. 2. White. Moulmein. 1864. B. 
M. t. 6429. 

Cannon-ball Tree. Courou'pita 

Canterbury BeUs. Campa'mda 

Ca'nthium. (From Cantix, its Ma- 
labar name. Nat. ord. , Buhiacece. ) This 
genus is now united to Plectronia. 

C chine/nse and corona'tum. See Ramdia dume- 

— du'Uum. B. R. t. 1026. See Diploapora 


Ca'ntua. {Cantu is the Peruvian 
name. Nat. ord., Polemoniacece.) 

Handsome greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Cut- 
tings in sand, under glass; sandy loam and 
C. aggrega'ta. See Gilia aggregata. 

— H'color. i. Reddish-yellow. May. Peru. 

1846. B. M. t. 4729. 

— ImxiWlia, 4. Rosy. April. Peruvian Andes. 

1849. B. M. t. 4682. Syn., C. tomentom. 

— depe'ndem. 4. Eosv-Ted. April. 1881. 

C. ligustrifo'lia. See Vestia Lycioides. 

— ova'ta. Peru. Syn., C.unijlara. 

— parvijlo'ra. See GUia inconspicita. 

— pyrifollia. 3. Cream. March. Peru. 1816. 

B. M. t. 4386. 

^ Cape Gooseberry. Phy'salis 

Cape Jasmine. Garde'niaflo'rida. 

Cape Philly'rea. Cassi'n& cape'n- 


Cape'Ua plu'mbea. See Phalo- 
callis plumbea. 

Capno'dium australe. A fungus 
consisting of black filamentous threads, 
which occasionally attacks conifers. 

Capo'llin, Capouli'nos, Capu- 
li'nos. Names for the fruit of Frmius 

Ca'pparis. Caper-tree. (Prom ka- 
bar, the Arabic name for capers. Nat. 
ord., CapparideoB.) 

The flower -buds of C spitut'sa form a well* 
known pickle. Stove or greenhouse evergreen 
shrubs, except where otherwise specified. Cut- 
tings of ripe shoots in sand, under a glass, in 
moist heat ; sandy loam and fibry peat. All re- 
quire protection, and most of them the usual 
treatment of the plant-stove. 
C. acumina'ta. 6. White. B. Ind. 1822. 

— amiifo'Ua. 4. White. July. China. 1827. 

Syn., C. chinensis. 

— (zgyptSaea. 2. White. Egypt. 1822. 

— wmygdaU'na. 6. White. W. Ind. 1818. 

— aphy/Ua. 4. White. E. Ind. 1822. 

— mhmtlscens. See C. pvleherrima. 

— auricvla'ta. 6. White. 

— Bra'ssii. 4. White. Gold Coast. 1793. 

— Bre^ynia. 11. White. W. Ind. 1752. 

— chir^nsis. See C. acutifolia. 

— cynophaUo'phara. 8. Green, white. W. Ind. 


— eustacMa'na. 6. Striped. St. Eustach. 1822. 
— ferrugi'nea. 4. White. Jamaica. Syn., C. 


— Fontwne'sii. 3. White. July. South of 

Europe. Half-hardy deciduous. Syn., 
C. ovata. 
— f rondo' sa. 7. Green. Carthagena. 1806. 

— herha'cea. 2. White. Tauria. 1818. Herba- 

ceous half-hardy. 

— hetero'clita. See Niebuhria oblOTWifolia. 
— jaimaeMiim. 4. White. Jamaica. 1793. 

— linearis. 15. White. "W. Ind. 1793. 

— Loddige'sii. 6. White. Syn., C. undulata. 

— maria'na. 4. White. Timor. 1820. Jacq. 

H. Schoenb. 1. 109. 

— odorati'ssima. 6. White. Caraccas. 1814. 

— ova'ta. See C Fonta/nesii. 

— pelta'ta. 6. White. Trinidad. 1827. 

— pulehe'rrima. 10. White. Carthagena. 1700. 

Syn., C. arborescent. 

— sali'gna. 8. White. Santa Cruz. 1807. 

— sepia'ria. 4. White. E. Ind. 1823. 

— spino'sa. 3.- White. June. South of Europe. 

1596. Half-hardy deciduous. 

— tenuisi'liqua. 6. White. Caraccas. 1823. 

— torulo'sa. 6. White. Jamaica. 1822. Syn., 

C. uTLcinata. 

— trijlo'ra. 4. White. S. Amer. 

— trijfolia'ta. See Cratceva tapioides 

— uncina'ta. See C. torulosa. 

— uvdula'ta. See C. Loddigesii. 

— verruco'sa. 8. White. Carthagena. 1820. 

— zeyla'niea. 6. White. Ceylon. 1819. 




Capra'ria. See Freylinia. 

Caprifo'lilim. Honeysuckle. (From 
ca/oir, a goat, 3,nA. folium, a leaf ; poeti- 
cally, goat-lejif, for its climbing habit. 
Nat. ord., Occprifoliobcex. United to 


C dioi'awm. See Lonicera parvijlora,. _ 

— JDougla'sii, See Lonicera Doiiglasii. 

— etrustywm. Seei 1/onicera etrusca, 

— fia'vum. See Lonicera jiava. 

— m-a'twm. See Lonicera grata. 

— hirsu'tum. See Lonicera pubescens. 

— hispi'dulum. Rose. July. S. Amer. 1833. 

— hortdnse. See Lonicera Capnfoliwm. 
— ' ita'lwwm. See Lonicera Caprifoliv/m. 
ru'brmn. See Lonicera Ca^/oUum, var. 


— l&ngyio'rwm. See Lonicera, longifiora. 

— ocmdenta'le. 20. Orange. July. Ft. Van- 

couver. 1834. 

— parmfio'rum. See Lonicera parmjlora. 

— periclym£!nwm, with its varieties helgicum, 

querdfoliwrn, serotinvmi, and va/riega- 
twm. See Lonicera periclymenuTn. 

— pube^scens. See Lonicera puhescem, 

— aempervi'rens, with its varieties Brownii, major 

(B. M. t. 781), and minor (B. M. 1. 1763). 
See Lonicera sempermreTis. 

— tulmlo'stmi,. Mexico. 1846. 


€. chinernse. See Lonicera chmen»is. 

— cilio'sum. See Lonicera dliosa. 

— iTnpWayum,. See Lonicera implessa. 
halealriewm. See Lonicera implexat var. 


— japo'nicwm. See Lonicera confitsa. 

— nepale^nse. See Lonicera muerantha. 
^- sple'noLidmn. See Lonicera splendida. 

Ca'psicuza. Chili Pepper. (From 
kapto, to bite; referring to its pungency. 
Nat. ord., Solanacem.) 

Cayenne pepper is the ground seeds of Capsi- 
cum. Seeds sown in a hotbed, in March, and, 
after being pricked o£E finally, potted, to be 
grown in a house, such as a vinery, or trans- 
planted against a wall, or any sheltered place 
t)ut of doors. 


C a/ngido'sum. 1. White. June. India. 
'—a'nnvMm. 1. White. June. India. 1648. 
*— cerasiifo'rme of Willdenow. 1, Red, yellow. 

June. W. Ind. 1739. 
• ■ — cerasifio'ruTn. 2. White. June. 1823. 

— co'nicum,. 2. White. June. Guiana. 1820. 

— cordifp'rme. 1. ' White. June. India. 

— ■ lo'ngum. 1. White. June. India. 1648. 

— tetra^o'num. 1. White. June. India. 

— ustula'tvmi. 2. White. June. Chili. 


C. america'nwm. See C. d/alce. 

— hacca'tum. 3. White. June. 1731. Syn., 

C. cerasyforme, Hort. 

— Wcolor. 4. Purple. June. W. Ind. 1804. 

B. M. 1. 1839. 

— c<eml<iscens. Purple. June. S. Amer. 1827. 

— cere'olmn. South America. 1862. Paxt. 11. 

Gard. ii. p. 131, f. 202. 

— conoi'des. 3. White. A^ril. India. 1750. 

— du'lce. 2. Syns., C. anwricanum and tcmati- 

forme, var. matorwm. 

— frtMecens. 1. Pale yellow. July. India. 

tortuU/awm. 2. White. E. Ind. 1820. 

— gloWfervmi. 2. White. June. Guiana. 


July India. 1752 

C gro'ssum. 1. White. 

Biennial. , , 
a'fldwm. White. May B. Ind. 1768. 

globo'mm. 1. White. July. E. Ind. 

havcme'nse. See C. pendidmn, ya,r. minus. 

— lu'teum. 1. White. July. E. Ind. 1820. 

— miera'nthum. S. White. May. BrazU. 


— microca'rpon. 2. White. May. 

— Mille'rii. 1. White. June. W. Ind. 1824. 

Annual. Syn. , C. cerasiforme of Miller's 

— mi'ninmm. White. May. E. Ind. 1728. 

— ova'ttim. 3. White. July. 1824. 

— pe'nduliim. 2. White. May. 1760. 
mi'nm. White. May. Havannah. 1826. 

Syn., C. hava/nense. 
—pyramida'le. 2. White. May. Egypt. 1760. 

— sine'nse. 2. White. July. China. 1807. 

Jacq. Vind. iii. t. 67. 

— sphoe!rimm. 2. White. May. 1807. 

— tamatifiinm. \\. Whitish. July. Biennial. 
viato'Tmn. See C. dulee. 

Capsicum. For pickling purposes 
the following are thespecies and varieties 
usually employed : 

Ca'psicum a'nnuum (Guinea pepper), 
the long-podded, short-podded, and oval 
short-podded. C. cerasifo'rme (Cherry 
pepper), cherry-shaped red and yellow- 
podded. C. gro'ssum (Bell pepper). 
Sorts also grown as greenhouse orna- 
mental plants are : little gem, red pod- 
ded, Pnnce of Wales, yellow podded, 
long yellow, long red, round red, round 
yellow, etc. 

Soil and Situation. — They do best in 
a light, rich loam, and against a fence 
or south wall. 

Time and mode of Sowing. — Sow to- 
wards the end of March or Beginning of 
April. Sow in pots or pans, and place in 
a hotbed, with the shelter of a frame ; 
but, in default of a stove, hotbed, or 
frame, they may be raised under hand- 
glasses on a warm border, the sowing, in 
such case, being deferred until settled 
warm weather, in May. The seeds 
covered a quarter of an inch deep. When 
the plants have still their seed-leaves, 
thin to four inches apart, and plant those 
removed in four-inch pots, three in 
each, and keep them in a moderate hot- 
bed, being shaded from ihe mid-day sun, 
and moderately watered with tepid water 
until they have taken root ; but little 
shading will be required if the roots 
of the seedlings are carefully moved. 
During the whole of their continuance 
beneath a frame, air be admitted 
freely, to preventtheir being drawn ; and, 
as May advances, they must be accus- 
tomed gradually to the open air, taking 
off the glasses during the day, and by 
degrees leaving them open of an even- 
ing : this prepares them for their final 
removal at the close of that month, or 
early in June. Those raised in a border 
beneath hand - glasses must also be 




thinned as directed above, and those 
removed planted in a similar situation. 
When planted out finally, set them two 
feet apart, screened from the sun, and 
water freefy until rooted. Continue the 
watering in dry weather throughout 
their growth. They flower during July 
or beginning of August, and the pods 
are ready to be gathered for pickling at 
the close of this last month, or early in 

fo obtain Seed. — A plant bearing some 
of the forwardest and finest fruits of 
each variety must be preserved, that it 
may be ripe before the frost commences, 
the first of which generally kills the 
plants. When completely ripe, cut the 
pods, and hang up in the sun, or in a 
warm room, until completely dry, and 
keep the seed in them until wanted for 

Cairaga'na. Siberian Pea - tree. 
(From Caragan, the name of C arbore'- 
scens among the Mogul Tartars. Nat. 
ord. , Leguminosm ; Tribe, Gcdegece. 
Allied to Colutea. ) 

These handsome shrubs inhabit the whole of 
north-eastern Asia, from Pekin in China, west- 
ward, to the banks of the Wolga. They are 
increased principally in the nurseries, by graft- 
ing on C. arhorelseens, which is a deciduous tree ; 
but all the others are deciduous shrubs. The 
larger-growing species are best propagated by 
seeds sown in spring, or by cuttings of the roots. 
Shrubby, low plants, by seed and layers ; and 
the rarer Chinese, Siberian, and drooping kinds 
by grafting in spring ; sandy loam. 

C. aUaga'rm. 3. Yellow. May. Siberia. 1789. 
Syn., Bobinia altagana. 

— arhor^ scent. 15. Yellow. May. Siberia. 

1752. Syn., Robinia Caragana. 
ine^rmis. 10. Yellow. May. Siberia. 

. pefTidvZa. Garden variety. 1887. 

— arena'ria. 1. Yellow. June. Siberia. 1802. 

Syn., JioHnia Caragana^ var. inter- 
media, B. M. t. 1886. 

— arge^ntea. See Halvmodendron argentewm. 

— charrUa'gu. i. Yellow. May, China. 1773. 
-^/efrox. See C. spiTiosa. 

— frutef scene. 2. Yellow. April. Siberia. 

1752. Swt. Fl. Card. t. 227. Syns., 

Jtobinia frutescens, mollis, and tomen- 


cmgustif&lia. 6. Yellow. April. Odessa. 

latif&lia. 6. Yellow. April. 

— Ttw'Uis. 2. Yellow. May. Tauria. 

1818. Syn., C. mollis. 

— grandiflo'ra. 1. Yellow. June. Iberia. 1823. 

Syn., Robinia grandijlora. 

— Gerardia'na. Himalayas. 1839. 
—juba'ta. 2. Pink. April. Siberia. 17fl6. 

— maffroca'ntha. 2. Yellow. June. Siberia. 
— microphi/lla. 2. Yellow. May. Bussia. 

interme'dia. 6. Gfl. t. 336. 

— Tno'Uis. See C. .frutescens, var. mA)llis. 

— mongo'lica. Yellow. AprU. Tartary. 1826. 

— p^ndula. See C. arborescens, var. pendula. 

— pygm/da. 1. Yellow. May, Siberia. 1761. 
arena'rvi. 1. Yellow. April. 

— Redo'wski. 3. Yellow. June. Siberia. 1827. 
prce'cox. 3. Yellow. April. 

C. spino-m. 6 Yellow. May. Siberia. 1775. 
syn., C. ferox. 
traga^anthoi'des. 4. Yellow. May. Siberia. 

— triflo'ra. Oreenish-yellow. 1847. j 

Caragua'ta. (A South American 
name for several Bromeliads. Nat. ord., 
BromeliacecB. Allied to Tillandsia.). 
Stove epiphytes. For cultivation, see Bill- 


C. Anctrea'na. 2. Bracts carmine ; flowers bright 
yellow. AprU. Andes. 1881. B M 
t. 7014. 

— migustifo'lia. Lemon-yellow, scarlet. New 


— cwrdina'lix. See C. lingulata, var. cardinalis, 

— Furstenbergia'na. July. 1883. 

— lAndelni. Leaves light green, banded with 

violet-brown. Peru. 1878. Syn., Mas- 
sangea Lindeni, ni. Hort. 1878, t. 309. 

— lingula'ta ca/rdvna'lis. IJ. White; bracts 

scarlet. Columbia. 1880. Syn., C. car- 
dinalis, Kev. Hort. 1883, p. 12. 

— Morrenia'na. IJ. Bracts red ; flowers yellow. 

April. New Grenada. 1887. Rev. Hort. 
1887, p. 12. 

— musa'ica. 1. Orange, white ; bracts vermilion. 

Spring. Columbia. 1873. Syns., Mas- 
sangea musaica, Belg. Hort. 1877, t. 8-9, 
Mllbergia, Vriesia, and Tillmidina mu- 

— Osya'na. Bracts red ; flowers yellow. Sep- 

tember. Ecuador. 1875. Belg. Hort. 
1885, tt. 26, 27. 

— Peaeo'chii. Bracts purple ; flowers white. 


— sangui'nea. 1. Pale yellow. November. 

Andes of New Grenada. 1883. B. M. 
t. 6765. 

— Schlvmberge^rii. 3. Pale yellow. Peru. 18S2. 

Syns., Massangea Morrenia/na, and 
SchluTribergeria Morreniana. 

— serra'ta. See NidvXwriurti Scheremetiewii. 

— sple'ndens. Outer bracts scarlet, inner yellew. 

1856. Fl. Ser. 1. 1091. 

— Va'n Volxe'mii. 2 to 3. Yellow ; bracts rose. 

Columbia. 1879. 111. Hort. t. 326. 

— Za'hnii. 1. Yellow ; bracts scarlet. Chirioui. 

1870. B. M. t. 6059. 

Carallia. (From CaralUe, its name 
in India. Nat. ord., Bhizophoracece.) 

This, like the rest of the Mangroves, grows, 
only along the tropical shores, where it forms 
impenetrable thickets, and sends down roots. 
from the branches, like the Banian-tree. In 
time such roots raise the main trunks high above 
their original level ; hence the usual name of the 
order — Bhizophoracese, or root-bearers. Cuttings 
and treatment as for Ganthium. 
C. lu'aAa. 20. Yellow. B. Ind. 1820. Wight 

Icon. t. 605. Probably a form of C. 


Carallu'ina. (Its Indian name. 
Nat. ord., AsclepiadacecB. Allied to Sta- 

Stove evergreen shrubs, natives of East Indies. 
Cuttings well dried, and laid, rather than 
fastened, among gravelly and calcareous soil, 
until they strike ; sandy loam, broken pots, and 
lime-rubbish : little water given, unless when 
growing freely. 
C. adsce'ndem. 2. Pink. July. 1804. 

— crenula'ta. i. Greenish-yellow, - streaked 
with purple. September. S. India. 


t. 1774. Syn., £oucerosia. 




C./imbria'ta. J. Pale yellow. 1829. B. C. 
1. 1863. 

— unibella'ta. 1-2. Purple striped. S. India. 

Syn., BovMrosiaumbettata. 

Carambo'la-tree. Averrho'a ca- 


Cara'ndaS. Cari'ssa Cara'ndas. 

Cara'pa. (From Caraipe, its name 
in South America. Nat. ord., Me- 

_ The flowers are small, but numerous ; and, 
like tlie rest of the Meliaceaj, this genus possesses 
bitter astringent and tonic qualities. Stove 
trees. ' Cuttings of ripened shoots in sand, under 
a glass, and in bottom-heat ; loam and. peat. 
C guimie'nsis. 20. Yellow, stained with red. 
Guiana. 1824. 

— guyanefnsis. See C. procera, var. splendens. 

— molitcce/nsis. 20. Yellow. B. Ind. 1820. 

— pro'cera. 40. Yellow. W. Ind. 

sple^ndens. 12. Yellow. W. Tropical 

Africa. 1795. Syn., C. guyanensis. 

Ca'raway. Ca'rum ca'rui. 

Carbe'ma benedi'cta. See Cnicus 

Cardami'ne. Lady's Smock. (From 
kardaTnon, watercress ; referring to the 
acrid flavour. Nat. ord., Crticiferce. 
Allied to Arabis.) 

Like the rest of the Crucifers, Cardmn^Tie is 
antiscorbutic and stimulant. All that we de- 
scribe are hardy herbaceous perennials, except 
C thalictroi'des and C. gra^ca^ which are an- 
nuals ; seeds in any common sod, provided it be 
moist; the herbaceous and marshy plants by 
division ; marshy, peaty soil. 
C. miia'ra. 1. White. April. Britain. Aquatic. 
Eng. Bot. ed. 3, 1. 108. 

— asarifo'lia. 1. White. June. Italy. 1710. 

B. M. 1. 1735. 

— bellidifo'lia. 1. White. April. Scotland. 
alpi'na. 1. White. April. Austria. 


— carno'sa. 1. White. June. Hungary. 1824. 

Hardy herbaceous. Syn., Pteroneuron 

— chelido'nia, 1. White. June. Italy. 1739. 

— glavlca. 1. White. June. Calabria. 1827. 

— grcf/ca. J. White. June. Mt. Parnassus. 

1710. Hardy annual. Syn., Ptertmeurm, 

— latifalia. 2. Purple. June. Spain. 1710. 

Marsh-plants. Bev. Hort. 1860, p. 463. 

— macroph^Ua. 1. Purple. May. Siberia. 


— prate'nsix. 1. Purple. April. Britain. 

Cuckoo-flower. Marsh-plant. Eng. Bot. 
ed. 3, 1. 109. 

pldna. 1. Purple. April. Marsh-plant. 

pldna a'lia. 1. White. ApriL Marsh- 
plant. Gfl. 1. 1099, f. 1. 

— rotundifo'lia. White. March. United States. 


— thalictroi'des. 1. Wliite. June. Piedmont. 

1818. Annual. 

— trifo'lia. 2. White. May. Switzerland. 1629. 

— uligino'm. 1. White. April. Tauria. 1819. 


Cardamoin. Eletta'ria Cardamo'- 

Cardamo'nmm me dium. See 
Slettaria costata. 

Cardia'ndra. (From kardios, a 
heart, and aner, anther. Nat. ord., 
Saxifragem ; Tribe, HydrangecB.) 

Half-hardy shrub. For cultivation, see Hy- 

C. altemifdlia. White, lilac. Japan. 1866. 
Gfl. t. 486. 

Cardinal flower. Lohe'lia cardi- 

Cardoon. (Cyna'ra cardu'nculus.) 
The stalks of the inner leaves, when 
rendered tender by blanching, are used 
in stews, soups, and salads. 

Soil and Situation. — A light, rich, 
soil, dug deep, and well pulverized, suits 
it best. 

Time and mode of Sowing. — Sow at 
the close of April, as those plants raised 
from earlier sowing are apt to run ; for 
a late crop, a sowing may be made in 
June. The best practice is to sow in 
patches of three or four, six inches apart, 
in rows four feet apart, to be thinned 
finally to one in each place, the weakest 
being removed. If, however, they are 
raised in a seed-bed, they will be ready 
for transplanting in about eight or ten 
weeks from the time of sowing, and 
must be planted at similar distances. 

When about a month old, thin the 
seedlings to four inches apart, and those 
removed may be pricked out at a similar 
distance. When of the age suflficient for 
their removal, they must be taken up 
carefully, and the long, straggling leaves 
removed. The bed for their reception 
must be dug well, and laid out in 
trenches, as for celery, or a hollow sunk 
for each plant ; but, as they are liable 
to suffer from excessive wet, the best 
mode is to plant on the surface, and 
form the necessary earthing in the shape 
of a ridge. Water abundantly at the 
time of planting, aswell as subsequently, 
until the plants are established; and 
also in August, if dry weather occurs, 
regularly every other night, as this 
is found to prevent their running to 
seed. When advanced to about eighteen 
inches in height, which, according to 
the time of sowing, will be in August, 
and thence to October, the leaves must 
be tied together, as in lettuce, etc. , and 
then earthed up like celery. It must 
be done on a dry day. As the plants 
grow, use more tying and more earthing, 
until blanched about two feet high. 
The blanching is completed in about 
eight or ten weeks. If litter is thrown 
over the tops during severe weather, 
the plants will continue good through 
the winter. 

To obtain Seed. — Being a native of 




Candia, seed in this country seldom 
comes to maturity ; but, in dry seasons, 
& few plants may bs set in a sheltered 
situation of the April sowing, not earthed 
Tip, but allowed the shelter of mats or 
litter in fi'osty weather. The flowers 
malie their appearance about the begin- 
ning of July, and the seed should ripen 
in September. 

Cardopa'tmm. (Derivation not 
stated. Nat. ord., Compositce.) 

■Perennial thistle-like herb, ELlmost hardy, but 
requires protection from frost. It is ornamental 
■where tall plants are required, as at the back of 
borders, etc. For cultivation, see ECHINOPS. 
C. corymbo'swm. 1. Blue. Greece. 1871. Gfl. 
t. 692. Syn., Carthatnus corymbosiis, 
Sibth. Fl. Gr. t. 844. 

Cardu'ncellus. (The diminutive 
of cardunculus, the Cardoon. Nat. ord., 
Compositce; Tribe, CynaroidecB. Allied 
to Carthamus.) 

Hardy herbaceous perennials, natives of Spain 
and the South of France. Division of the roots ; 
common soil. 
C. cceru'leus. Blue. Syn., Carthamus eaeruleus. 

B. M. t. 2293. 

— miU'ssimiis. |. Blue. June. 1776. Syns., 

C. vulgaris and Carthamus mitissivvus. 
^— m(ms^elie!nmmn. |. Blue. June, July. 1776. 

Syn., Carthamus carduncellus. 

Ca'rduus. Thistle. (A name used 
oy Virgil. Nat. ord. , Connpositm; Tribe, 
Cynaroidem. ) 

Notwithstanding the proverbial weediness of 
Thistles, there are some handsome garden- 
species among them. All hardy. Seeds or 
divisions ; conimou soil. 


C. a'lbidus. 2. Purple. July. Tanria. 1816. 

— ara'lncus. ^. Purple. July, Arabia, 1789. 

Jacq. Ic. 1. 166. 

— argenta'tus. 1. Purple. July. Egypt. 1789. 
^ cine'r&us. 3. Purple. July. Caucasus. 1818. 

— clamda'tus. 2. Purple. July. Canaries. 

1827. Syn., Clavena canarieTisis. 
•— peregri'nMS. 2. Purple. July. 1816. 

C. ala'tus. 2. Purple. July. 1812. 

— ca'ndicans. 3. Purple. July. Hungary. 


— carlinecBfo'lius. 2. Purple. July. Pyrenees. 


— carlinm'des. 1. Purple. July. Pyrenees. 

1784. Syr.,f Ca/riina pyrenaica. 

— colWnus. 3. Purple. July. Hungary. 1818. 

— cmrymbo sus. 4. Purple. July. Naples. 1824. 

— ari'spus. 2. Purple. July. Europe. 1804. 

— hamulo'sus. 5. Purple. June. Hungary. 


— Zanugino'sus. 3. Purple. July. Armenia. 


— mmito'sus. 3. Purple. July. South of 

Europe. 1820. 

— myriaca'nthus. Purple. July. N. Africa. 


— nigre'scens. 4. Purple. July. South of 

France. 1819. 

— persona'ta. 4. Purple. July. Austria. 1776. 

— seminu'dus. 3. Purple. Caucasus. 1819. 

— mwina'tus. 6. Purple. July. Tauria. 1817. 

— nrdii. 2. Bed. Boeky Mountains. 1871. 


C. aM'nis. Pink. July. Naples. 1830. 

— alpe'stru. IJ-. Purple. July. Croatia. 1805. 

— atrvplunftilxus. 10. Purple. August. Siberia. 

— owcJioi'des. 2. Purple. July. Oarniola. 1804 

— Argemo'iie. IJ. Purple. July. Pyrenees. 

— crassi/o'lms. 2. Purple. July. 1806. 

— deflora'tm. 6. Bed. August. Austria. 1B70. 

— du'Uus. 2. Purple. July. 1816. 

— maeroce!phalus. 2. July. Numidia. 1827. 

— ms'dim. 2. Purple. June. Piedmont. 1819. 

— onopordioi'des. IJ. Purple. July. Iberia. 


— podaca'nthus. 3. Purple. July. France. 1819. 

— pymoce:phalus. IJ-. Purple. July. South 

of Europe. 1739. Jacq. Vind. t. 44. 


C. a'fer. Jacq. H. Schoenb. t. 146. See 
Cnicus afer. 

— ala'tus. See Jurinea alata. 

— alti'ssvm/us. See Cnicus altissimus. 

— atriplieifo'lius. See Centaurea atriplicifoUa 

— Barrelie^ri. See Cnicus. 

— chi'us. Jacq. H. Vind. iii. t. 5. See Cnicus. 

— cichora'ceus. See Serratula dchorcea. 

— cyanoi'des. See Jwinea cycmoides. 
— fimbria'tus. See Serratulajtinbriata. 

— leuca'nthos. See Serratula leucantha. 

— Uucogra'phus. See Tyrvmnus leucographus. 

— ni'tidus. See Serratula heterophylla. 

— orienta'lis. See Ctmsinia carduiformis. 

— panicada' tus. See Cniaus semidecurrens. 

— panno'nicus. See Cnicus pannonieus. 

— parvijio'rus. See Cnicus. 

— polya'nthemus. See Cnicus. 

— serratuloi'des. See Cnieus pa/nnonicus. 

— wolge'nsis. See Cousinia wolgensis. 

Ca'rex. Sedges. (Derivation ob- 
scure, perhaps from keiro, to cut ; the 
leaves of most species are very sharp 
along their edges, which cause them to 
cut the hand if drawn rapidly along 
them. Nat. ord., Cyperacece.) 

A very large genus of hardy perennial grass- 
like herbs, of very easy cultivation, but mostly 
grown only in botanical gardens. Seeds ; di- 

C. Gra'yi. 3. Brown. July. North America. 

— follicula'ta. 2. Brown. Linn. Trans, viii. 

t. 9, f. 4. 

— intume'scens. 1^. Brown. June. N. America. 

Linn. Trans, viii. t. 9, f. 3. 

— scapo'sa. Brownish-red. S. China. 1887. 

B. M. t. 6940. 

— se'cta. 1 to 6. Brownish. New Zealand 

Care'ya. (Named after Dr. Carey, 
a celebrated divine and Indian linguist, 
who devoted his leisure hours to garden- 
ing and botany. Nat. ord. , Myrtacece. ) 
These splendid plants are fit associates of 
Barringtonia and Gustavia. Stove-plants, from 
Dhe Bast Indies ; cuttings, and division of the 
roots ; sandy loam one part, to two parts fibry 
peat, "with pieces of charcoal, and plenty of 
drainage, and careful watering. 
C. arbo'rea. 8. Bed and yellow. India. 1823. 

Wight ni. tt. 99-100. 

— herbal cea. 1. Bed and white. July. 1808. 

Himalayas and Khasia. Wight. Ic. 
t. 667. Herbaceous perennial. 

— sphac'rica. 3.. Bed. . 1803. Mountains of 

Chittagong. Wight Ic. t. 147 and t. 666. 
Evergreen shrub. 




Cari'ca. Papaw-tree. (Named from 
an erroneous idea that it was a native of 
Caria. Nat. ord., PassiflorcB ; Tribe, 
PapayacecB. ) 

One of the tropical fruits grown in our stoves, 
more for curiosity than for use. The Papaw 
fruit (C. vwpa'ya) is eaten, when cooked, in some 
parts of South America, but not much esteemed 
by Europeans. Stove evergreen trees ; cuttings 
of ripe snoots In sandy soil, under a bell-glass, 
and in sweet bottom-heat ; rich, loamy soil^ 
C. aurantHaca, Columbia. 1873. 

— eauUflo'ra. 20. Green. Caraccas. 1806. Jacq. 

H. Schoenb. t. 3U. 

— citrifo'rmu. 20. Yellowish. Lima. 1820. 

B. M. t. 3633. 

— ctCTMZinowwtrce'ngis. 6. Green ; fruit yellow, 

eatable. Ecuador. 1874. Syn., C. can- 
damarcenffU, B. M. t. 6198. 

— erythroca'rpa. 4. White. Ecuador. 1871. 

m. Hort. 1871, t. 51. 

— gra'cilis. 6. Columbia. 1879. Syns., Pa- 

paya and Vasconcellea gracilis. 

— microca'rpa monoHca. 20. "Whitish-green. 

1818. Jacq. H. Schoenb. tt. 309-310. 

— papa'ya. 20. Green. July. India. 1690. 

B. M. tt. 2898-9. Common Papaw. 

— pyrifo'mm. 20. Pinkish. Peru. 1823. Syn., 

Vasconcellea peltata, 

— spino'sa. See Jacaratia spinosa. 

Caricature plant. 

lum, horte'nse. 


Cari'ssa. (The derivation is not 
ascertained ; but krishna-pakphula is 
the Sanskrit name of C. Cara'ndas. 
Nat. ord., Apocynacew.) 

The milky juice of this and others in this order 
of Dogbanes is manufactured into India-rubber. 
The fruit of C. Cara'ndas furnishes a substitute 
for red-currant jelly. Stove trees and shrubs ; 
cuttings of ripe wood in sand, under a glass, in 
bottom-heat ; peat and loam. 
C. Ca/ra'ndas. IS. White. July. Drier sandy 
and rocky soils of India. 1790. B. C. 
t. 683. 

— fe^rox. White. Fragrant. S. Africa. Syns., 

C. bispinosa AndArdui/iutMspinosa, B. C. 
t. 387. 

— grandiflo'ra. White. May. Natal. 1862. 

In Natal the fruit of this is used for 
jam, tarts, puddings, etc. ; it is called 
the " Amatungula." B. M. t. 6307. 

— lameeola'ta. 6. White. July. N. Australia 

and Queensland. 1822. 

— ma'ta. 16. White. August. Queensland 

and New South Wales. 1819. 

— spina'rum. 20. White. July. Drier parts 

of India. 1819. B. C. t. 162. 

— xylopi'cron. 12. White, July. Mauritius. 


Carli'ua. (Named after Charle- 
inagne. Nat. ord., a section of Com- 

Hardy herbaceous perennials, except where 
otherwise specified. Seeds of annuals in April ; 
seeds and divisions of perennials. The Cape 
species require protection. Common soil. 
C. acanthifo'lia. 2. White. June. Carniola. 

^ aoa'ma. See Cnicus. 

— acavHis. |. White. June. Italy. 1640. G. C. 

xii. 1880, p. 720. 
cauldscens. 1. White. June. Switzer- 
land. 1819. 

— aggrega'ta. 2. White. July. Hungary. 1804. 

C. earymbo'aa. 3. Yellow. July. South of 
Europe. 1640. 

— la/na'ta. 3. Purple. June. South of Europe. 

1683. Hardy annual. Sbth. Fl. Gn. 
t. 836. 

— lyra'ta. 1. June. Cape of Good Hope, 

1816. Greenhouse biennial. 

— nelyrode!nsis glabriu'scula. 2. August. Cau- 

casus. 1816. Syn., C. Biebersteiniama. 
- — pyrenai'ca. See Carduus carlinmdes, 

— racemo'sa. 3. Yellow. July. Spain. 1658, 

Hardy biennial. Syn., C. svlphurea. 

— si'eula. 1. July. Sicily. 1827. Hardy 

biennial. Syn., C. bracteata. 

— sUmplex. li. White. June. Hungary. 1816, 

Carludo'vica. (Named after C%aWe* 
IV., of Spain, and Louisa, his queen, 
Nat. ord., Pandanacece.) 

Stove, palm-like perennials ; suckers ; sandy- 

C. wngnst^fo'lia. 2. Greenish-yellow. Peru. 

— <xfput-medAi scB. 6-7. White. 1887. Native 

country unknown. B. M. t. 7118. 

— Dru'dei. 4. White. Columbia. 1878. 

— elUgtms. 3. 1889. 

— engifor'mis. 2. White. Costarica. 1875. 
—funiyera. 4. White. Trinidad. 1824. Ever- 
green climber. Syn., Ludoviafwrvt^era. 

— jamiaicelTms. 4. White. Jamaica. , 1825, 

Evergreen climber. 

— lanccefc/lia. Yellowish. Guiana. 1862. Syn., 

Lud^ma lancoEfolia. 

— lati/o'lia. 3. Green. July. Peru. 1818, 

Syn., Ludovia latifoUa, B. M. tt. 2960-1. 

— palma'ta. 3. White. July. Peru. 1818. 

— palmifo'lia. 1889. 

— rotundifo'lia. 6. Costa Rica. B. M. t. 7083. 

— WcMHsii. Columbia. 1879. 

' Carmichae'lia. (Named after 
Capt. n. Carmichael, author of the 
Flora of Tristan da Acunha. Nat. ord., 
Leguminosce ; Tribe, Galegece. Allied 
to Indigof era. ) 

Greenhouse evergreen ornamental shrubs; 
cuttings of side-shoots under glass,. in sand, in. 
April, or May; sandjr peat, and a very little 
fibry loam. C. Ih).y'sii a/nd unifio'ra form densft 
compact masses scarcely an inch high, 
C, auetra'lif. 2. Blue, June, N. Holland. 

— JEfni/Bii. One-twelfth. New Zealand, 1887, 

— Muileria'na. 2. Whitish, striped with purple. 

New Zealand? 1887. 

— unifio'ra. One-twelfth. New Zealand. 

Ca'rob-pods. Cerato'njia si'liqua. 

Carnation. (Dia'ntJvus caryophy'l- 
lus. ) Propagationby Layers. — Tnelatter 
end of July and beginning of August is 
the best time for this operation. By 
performing it tlius early the layers be- 
come rooted in time to be taken off, 
potted, and well established before winter. 
Having a very sharp, small knife, some 
fresh-sifted compost of lightloamandleaf- 
mould in equal parts, and some hooked 
pegs (the best are made of the fronds of 
the common Braken Fern, or, when 
they cannot be had, of bh-ch or hazel- 
twigs), proceed to dressthe stem intended 
to be layered by trimming off the bottom 
leaves, leaving about six on, nearest to 




the top. Do not shorten those left on. 
If there are more in the pot than can be 
conveniently layered, take the surplus 
ones off, and make pipings of them. 
Dress all intended to be layered in one 
pot before any are tongued. This pre- 
vents breakage and confusion. Then 
tongue the layer ; to do which, hold the 
first layer on one side, and with the 
knife make an incision on the under- 
side, just below the third joint, bringing 
the knife slanting upward through the 
joint ; then drop the knife, and with 
the other hand take up a hooked peg, 
thrust the sharp end into the soil, catch- 
ing the layer with the hooked end of the 
Eeg as it descends ; press it gently but 
mily down to the soil. Proceed with 
the layer next to the one done, and so 
on all round the plants, till the first pot 
is finished ; then cover the slit joint an 
inch deep with the compost, and proceed 
to the next pot or plant. It is not ad- 
A-isable to water the newly-layered plants 
the first day, because withholding it will 
give time for the wounds to heal a little. 

Soil. — The best compost to grow and 
bloom carnations is in three parts loam, 
taken from an upland pasture, the top 
turf four inches thick ; lay it up in a 
heap for twelve months, turning it over 
once a month, to sweeten and pulverize, 
and looking out diligently for the wire- 
worm, the grand enemy of the carnation. 
One part two-years-old cow-dung, and 
one part well-decayed vegetable-mould. 
Mix them together three months before 
using, and turn them over together 
three or four times. 

Spring and Summer Oulture. — About 
the end of March is the right time to 
put the carnations into their blooming- 
pots. They are generally grown in 
pairs: but this is not a necessary point. 
The pots for blooming should be eleven 
inches across, well drained witii broken 
potsherds, and the compost not sifted ; 
but in using it keep a sharp eye upon 
the wire-worm. As soon as all are 
potted, set them upon a bed of coal- 
ashes, in a sheltered part of the garden ; 
givingwater when necessary. Whenever 
the plants begin to send up their flower- 
stems, place sticks to them of the size 
and height they will require when in 
bloom. Tie very loosely, or the stems 
will become knee'd, and perhaps break ; 
to prevent which, pay attention con- 
stantly to the ties. 

When the buds are nearly full-grown, 
thin out the least promising, leaving the 
most plump and healthy. Just before 
they break, or burst, place an India- 
rubber ring round each bud, or a ribband 

of bass-mat; this prevents the buds 
bursting on one side. Shade them from 
sun and heavy rains. 

Autumn and Winter Culture.— As 
soon as the bloom is over, cut down the 
flower-stems, and expose the plants to 
the full sun and rain. Take off the 
layers as soon as they are rooted ; put 
them into 5-inch pots, in pairs ; pl^ce 
them in cold frames, shading them from 
the sun until they make fresh roots ; 
then expose them again to the weather 
tiU the winter frosts begin to take 
place ; and then keep the lights on, pro- 
tecting them from heavy rains and frost ; 
but, on all favourable occasions, during 
mild, fine weather, draw the lights 
entirely off during the day, shutting 
them up at night, and covering them up 
securely whenever there is an appearance 
of severe frost. 

Forcing. — Carnations may be success- 
fully forced, choosing the freest growers, 
potting them singly, early, into 8-inch 
pots, and placing them in gentle heat 
(55°) early in January. Tree Carnations 
are propagated yy^f pipings ; and, as the 
same method of propagating by pipings 
is proper for the florists' varieties, we 
shall describe it briefly. It is done as 
follows :— Prepare as many pots as are 
wanted for the purpose ; fill them nearly 
full of the compost above described, and 
the remaining space with silver-sand ; 
prepare the piping by cutting off a stem 
quite smootn at the third joint, then 
carefully slit the joint just through, and 
insert the pipings in the sand pretty 
thickly all over the pot ; place them 
upon a gentle hotbed, on a layer of 
sifted coal-ashes, or river sand ; place 
the lights on, and shade from the sun 
till they are rooted, then harden them 
off gradually, and pot them into small 
pots ; if Tree Carnations, singly ; if show 
varieties, in pairs of the same "kind, and 
re-pot them as directed above. 

Exhibiting. — In June, or beginning of 
July, the plants will be considerably 
advanced towards flowering, and they 
should be put upon stages or stands. 
The posts, or supporters, of the stage 
should be surrounded at the bottom by 
small cups of water, to exclude slugs ; 
and, by placing the plants on a stage, 
having the platform eighteen inches or 
two feet high, the flowers are viewed to 
more advantage ; and if there is erected 
an awning over the top, supported four 
feet above the platform, the flowers, 
being screened from the heat of the mid- 
day sun, and defended from heavy rains, 
will continue much longer in beauty. 

With respect to the cups of water 





above mentioned, they are earthern or 
leaden, about fifteen inches wide, and 
three or four deep, having a hollow or 
vacancy in the middle six inches wide, 
like a socket, to receive the posts, which 
ia formed by a raised rim in the middle, 
equal in height to that of the circum- 
ference, and the hollow, or socket, so 
formed as to receive the bottom of the 
posts quite through to the ground ; and 
the space between the outer and inner 
rim IS filled with water, so that each 
post standing in the middle of such a 
cistern sufficiently guards the plants 
against creeping insects. 

For want of a covered stage to screen 
the flowers, you may contrive a small 
umbrella, or round-spreading cap, either 
of tin or canvas, nine or ten inches in 
diameter, one for each plant, having a 
socket in the middle, to receive the tops 
of the support-sticks. Those umbrellas 
which are formed of tin are the best ; 
but, if you make them of canvas, first 
make little round frames, having the 
rim formed with slips of wire, cane, etc. , 
the above width, with cross slips of the 
same materials, contriving a socket of 
lead or tin in the middle, for the support- 
stick to go quite through, as just ob- 
served ; and upon these frames paste or 
sew canvas, which paint with oil-colour. 
Either covers are placed over the flowers 
by running the support-stick up through 
the hole, or socket, in the middle, and 
resting the cap upon a piece of wire or 
peg, put across through holes in the 
stick at such a height from the flower as 
to screen it from the sun and rains. 

Give attention to continue to tie up 
neatly the flower-stalks of the plants as 
they advance in stature. When they 
are arrived at their full height, support 
them erect at top with wires, having a 
small eye, or ring, at one end, for the 
reception of the flower-stalk ; so put the 
other end into holes made in the sup- 
port-sticks. These wires should be five 
or six inches long, and several holes are 
made in the upper part of the sticks ; 
the first at the height of the bottom of 
the flower-bud, the other above that, an 
inch or two distant ; and place the wires 
in the holes lower or higher, that the eye 
or ring may be just even with the case 
of the calyx, to support the flower in an 
upright position ; and, by drawing the 
■wire less or more out, the flower is pre- 
served at such distance from the support 
as shall seem necessary to give it proper 
room to expand ; and if two or three of 
the like wires are placed also in the 
lower parts of the support-sticks, placing 
the stem of the flowers also in the eye 

of the wires, all the tyings may be cut 

To have as large flowers as possible, 
clear oflf all side-shoots from the flower- 
stem, suffering only the main or top- 
buds to remain to flower. 

When the flowers begin to open, atten- 
tion should be given to promote their 
regular expansion, they being apt to 
burst open on one side ; and, unless 
assisted by a little art, as by India- 
rubber rings already noticed, the flower 
will become very irregular. Therefore, 
attending every day at that period, ob- 
serve, as soon as the calyx begins to 
break, to cut it a little open at two other 
places in the indentings at top, with 
narrow-pointed scissors, that the open- 
ings may be at equal distances, observ- 
ing if one side of any flower comes out 
faster than another, to turn the pot 
about, that the other side of the flower 
be next the sun, to assist the more regu- 
lar expansion of the flower. 

Likewise, to bloom any flowers as 
spreading as possible, place paper collars 
round the bottom of the flower, on which 
to spread the petals to their utmost ex- 
pansion. These collars are made of stiff 
white paper, cut circular, aboui three or 
four inches diameter, having a hole in 
the middle, to receive the bottom of the 
petals inside of the calyx, the leaves 
of which are made to spread flat for its 
support ; and then spread or draw out 
the petals upon the collar to their full 
widtn and extent, the longest under- 
most, and the next longest upon these, 
and so of the rest quite to the middle, 
observing that the collar must nowhere 
appear wider than the flower when they 
begin to burst. 

Diseases. — These plants are subject to 
the mildew; and, when it is not checked 
in time, it not only destroys the plants 
it first appears on, but will, in time, 
spread to the whole stock. As soon as 
it is observed, sprinkle the affected 
plants with sulphur, and keep the air 
inside the frames as dry as possible. 
The black spot caused by the plants 
being kept too wet, is only mildew in a 
severer form. Cut eff the leaf on which 
it appears, and treat as for mildew. 

Insects. — The great enemy is the wire- 
worm, which eats away the inside of the 
stem, and destroys the plant. Search 
for it in the soil previously to using, and 
bury there, after the plants are potted 
in the blooming-pots, some slices of 
potatoes. Examine these daily, and 
destroy the wire-worms you may find in 
the baits. The ^reen fly, also, attacks 
carnations, sometimes even in the frames. 




These are easily destroyed by fumigating 
•with tobacco-smoke. The red spider is 
olten troublesome in dry springs. The 
best remedy is washing the leaves with 
a small sponge, repeating the operation 
till the plants are quite cleared. 

Caroli'nea. Pachira. (Named after 
Sophia Caroline, Margravine of Baden. 
Nat. ord., Sterculiacece. Allied to Adan- 
sonia. ) 
C. a'.lba. B. C. t. 752. See Pachira alba. 

— insi'gnis. B. C. t. 1004. See Pachira in»ignis. 

— macroca'rpa. See Pachira macrocarpa. 

— minor. B. M. 1. 1412. See Pachira minor. 

— pri'nccps. See Pachira aquatiaa. 

Canpente'ria. (After Prof. Car- 
penter of Louisiana, who in<vestigated 
the botany of that state. Nat. ord., 

A very ornamental evergreen shrub, quite 
nardy a^inst walls, most useful in greenhouse, 
or planted out in conservatory, common soil, 
seeds, and cuttings. 
C. caitifo'miea, 2. White. Sweet smelling. 

Sierra ISev&da, CaHfomia. 1880. B. M. 

t. 6911. 

Carpi'nus. Hornbeam. (From car, 
the Celtic for wood, and pix, a head ; in 
reference to the wood being used to 
make the yokes of oxen. Nat. ord., 

C. be'tulus is the only one of the Hornbeams 
that is of much use or ornament ; it is one of the 
best nurse-Rlants in young plantations, and for 
making fast-growing hedges. Hardy deciduous 
trees. Seeds sown when ripe, or kept in dry 
sand, until the following spring ; suckers and 
layers for the varieties ; layers for the common 
plants ; but they are inferior to plants raised 
from seed. Common soil. 
C. amtrica'na-. 20. N. Amer. 1813. 

— be'tulus. 30. March. Britain. 
inei'sa. 15. March. 

queraifo'lia. 30. May. Europe. 

~ variega'ta. 20. March. Britain^ 

OAi'rea-variega'ta. 20. March. 1845. 

— dmine'nsis. 12. Levant. 1739. Syn., C. mri- 

enialis. Wats. Dendr. t. 98. 
— japo'nicus. A dwarf tree. Japan. 

— ostry'a. See Ostrya carpinifoUa. 

Carpoca'psa pomone'lla. 
CktdUn Moth. 



Every grower of the apple knows how 
liable his fruit is to be "worm-eaten." 
He finds basketsful of " windfalls " even 
in the calmest weather, and that the 
cause of the loss is a small grub, which 
has fed upon the pulp of the fruit ; but 

how, when, or where these grubs cot 
there he has not the slightest notion. 
As it IS one of the most injurious of in- 
sects to one of our most useful of fruits 
we shall give- more full particulars than 
usual, borrowing them chiefly from Mr 
Westwood's essay in the " Gardeners' 
Magazine," iv. 235, N. S. The grub in 
question is the larva of the Codlin Moth, 
Carpocapsa pomonella oi some entomo- 
logists, but Tinea pomonella, Pyralis po- 
mona, and Tortrix pomoniana of others. 
It is upon the ^ulpy parts of the apple 
that the grub chiefly feeds. When, how- 
ever, it has nearly attained its full size, 
it feeds on the pips of the apple, which, 
thus attacked in its most vital part, soon 
falls to the ground. No sooner is the 
apple fallen, than the grub quits the fruit 
by the passage which it had previously 
gnawed. A hundred apples may be 
opened, and not more than two or three 
larvae observed within them ; the orifice 
by which they have escaped being open, 
and not concealed by a little mass of 
brown grains, which is the case with 
those apples from which the larva has 
not made its escape. These little grains 
are the excrement of the larvse, which 
are also to be seen in the burrows formed 
by them within the apple. The grub is of 
a dirty -white colour, with a brown head, 
varied with darkish-brown marks. The 
body is slightly hairy ; the first segment 
after the head is whitish, with minute 
brown spots ; the other segments are of 
a pale colour, with about eight small 
tubercles on each; each of the three 
anterior segments is furnished with a 
pair of legs ; and there is a pair of feet 
at the extremity of the body. In its 
early state it is of a dirty-reddish or flesh 
colour. The caterpillar wanders about 
on the ground till It finds the stem of a 
tree, up which it climbs, and hides Itself 
in some little crack of the bark. The 
fall of the ap]gle, the exit of the grub, 
and its wandering to this place of safety 
usually take place in the night-time. 
It gnaws away the bark a little, and, 
having made a smooth chamber, spins a 
little milk-white silken case, in which, 
after a few weeks, it becomes a chry- 
salis ; and in this state it remains 
through the winter, and until the fol- 
lowing June, when the moth comes 
forth, and is to be seen hovering round 
the young apples on a midsummer even- 
ing. The moth itself, of which we give 
a cut, of the natural size and magnified, 
is a very beautiful insect, about three- 
quarters of an inch in expanse : fore 
wings ashy-brown, with very nume- 
rous, rather obscure, darker, transverse 




streaks, united into a broadish band 
towards thebase, giving themadamasked 
appearance. On the hind border of the 
fore wings is a large reddish-brown patch, 
spotted, and surrounded with a golden 
mark. The hind wings reddish-brown, 
tinged with yellow. The moth lays its 
eggs in the eyes of the young apples, one 
only in each, by inserting its long ovi- 
positor (egg-tube) between the divisions 
of the calyx. As soon as the egg is 
hatched, the little grub gnaws a hole in 
the crown of the apple, and soon buries 
itself in its substance ; and it is worthy 
of remark, that the rind of the apple, as 
if selected for the purpose, is thinner 
here than in any other part, and, con- 
sequently, more easily pierced. The 
apple most commonly attacked is the 
codlin. It will be evident, from the 
preceding details of the habits of this 
moth, that there are considerable diffi- 
culties in the way of its extirpation. 
It is impossible, for instance, to be 
aware of the presence of the enemy 
within the fruit until the mischief is 
actually completed ; and, in like manner, 
the destruction of the moth, from its 
small size, and its habit of secreting it- 
self in crevices of the bark, etc., is 
equally impracticable. The gathering 
up of the worm-eaten apples immediately 
after their fall, and before the inclosed 
caterpillar has had time to escape, can- 
not but be attended \\'ith good effect : 
care, however, must be taken to destroy 
the larvse, which would otherwise very 
speedily make their escape. The cocoons, 
also, may be destroyed in the chinks of 
the bark during the autumn and winter. 
— The Cottage Gardener, ii. 63. 

Carpode'tes recurva'tus. See Ste- 
nomesson recurvatum. 

Carpodi'nus. Sweet Pishamin. 
(From karpos, a fruit, and dineo, to turn 
round ; in reference to the form of the 
fruit. Nat. ord., ApocyrMcece. Allied 
to Carissa.) 

Stove evergreen climbing shrub. Cuttings of 
half-ripened shoots, in heat ; loam and peat. 
C du'leis. 8. Green. June. Sierra Leone. 

Cai?podo'ntos lu'cida. See Eu- 
Cryphia Billardieri. 

Carpoly'sa. (From harpos, a fruit, 
and lyssa, rage ; in reference to the 
three-celled fruit, or seed-pod, opening 
like the mouth of an enraged animal. 
Nat. ord., ArrmryllidecB ; Tribe, Ama- 
ryllecB. Allied to Gethyllis and Lapie- 
A very neat little bulb, with spiral leaves, and 

starry pinkish flowers, having green tops, re- 
quiring the same treatment as Ixia. 
C. apira'Us. Pink. Cape of Good Hope. 1791. 
Syns., CrinuTTi spirale, Andr, Rep. t. 92,, 
Crinum Unellwm and Strumaria spiralis ~ 
B. M. 1. 1383. 

Carrot. Dau'cus caro'ta. 

Varieties. — Those with a long tapering 
root are called Long Carrots ; and those 
having one that is nearly regularly 
cylindrical, abruptly terminating, are 
denominated Horn Carrots. The first 
are employed for the main crops ; the 
second, on account of their superior deli- 
cate flavour, are advantageously grown 
for early use, and for shallow soils. 

Horn Carrots. — Early Bed. Common 
Early. Dutch, for forcing. Long. This 
last IS the best for the summer crop. 

Long Carrots. — While Belgium, Yel- 
low, Long Yellow, Purple, Long Red, 
Chertsey, and Surrey. Superb Green- 
topped, or Altringham, and James's in- 
termediate are the best for main crop. 

Soil and Situation. — Carrots require a 
warm, light, rich soil, dug full two spades 
deep. With the bottom-spit it is a good 
practice to turn in a little well-decayed 
manure ; but no general application of it 
to the surface should be allowed in the 
year they are sown ; but a spot should 
be allotted them which has been made 
rich for the growth of crops in the pre- 
vious year, or else purposely prepared 
by manuring and trenching in the pre- 
ceding autumn. The fresh aj)plication of 
manure is liable to cause their growing 
forked, and to expend themselves in 
fibres, as well as to be worm-eaten. If 
the soil is at all binding, it should be 
well pulverized by digging very small 
spits at a time. Pigeons' dung is a good 
manure for the carrot. 

Time and Mode of Sowing. — The first 
sowing for the production of plants to 
draw whilst young should take place in 
a moderate hotbed, during January, and 
in a warm border at the end of February, 
or early in March. At the close of the 
last month, or, preferably, in the first 
half of April, the main crop must be 
sown ; though, to avoid the maggot, it is 
even recommended not to do so until its 
close. In May and July the sowing may 
be repeated for production in autumn, 
and lastly in August, to stand through 
the winter, and produce in early spring. 
For sowing, a, calm day should be se- 
lected ; and the seeds should be separated 
by rubbing them between the hands, 
with the admixture of a little sand or 
dry coal-ashes, otherwise they cannot 
be sown regularly. Sow thinly, in drills 
eight inches apart for the horn, and ten 
or twelve inches for the long ; and the 




beds not more than four feet wide, 
for the convenience of after-cultivation. 
The larger weeds must he continually 
removed hy hand ; and when the plants 
are seven or eight weeks old. or when 
they have got lour leaves two or three 
inches long, they should he thinned, 
those intended for drawing young, to 
four or five inches apart, and those to 
attain their full growth to ten. At the 
same time, the ground must be small- 
hoed, which operation should he regu- 
larly performed every three or four 
weeKs, until the growth of the plants 
becomes an effectual hindrance to the 
growth of the weeds. The crop to stand 
through the winter should, in frosty 
weather, be sheltered with a covering 
of litter, as, if it occurs with much 
severity, it is often destroyed. The 
hotbed for the first sowing of the year 
must be moderate, and earthed about 
sixteen inches deep: two or three linings 
of hot dung, as the heat decreases, will 
be sufficient to bring them to a state fit 
for use. These are the first in produc- 
tion, but are closely followed by those 
that have withstood the winter. The 
temperature must never exceed.73°, nor 
fall lower than 55°. They need not be 
thinned to more than three inches apart. 
At the close of October, or early in 
November, -as soon as the leaves change 
colour, the main crop may be dug up, 
and laid in alternate layers with sand, 
in a dry outhouse, previously to doing 
which the tops and any adhering earth 
must be removed. A dry day should 
always be chosen for taking them up. 

To obtain Seed. — Leave some where 
raised; but, if this is impracticable, some 
of the finest roots should be selected, and 
their tops not cut so close as those for 
storing. These, likewise, must be placed 
in sand until February or March, then 
to be planted out two feet apart in a 
stiff, loamy soU. Those left where grown, 
or those planted at the close of autunm, 
must, during frosts, have the protection 
■of litter — to De removed, however, during 
mild weather. As the seed ripens in 
August, which is known by its turning 
brown, each umbel should be eut, other- 
wise much of the seed is often lost during 
stormy weather. It must be thoroughly 
■dried, by exposure to the sun and air, 
before it is rubbed out for storing. For 
sowing the seed should always be of the 
previous year's growth; it it is more 
than two years old it will not vegetate 
at all. 

Insects. — The carrot is liable to the 
attacks of the wire-worm (see Elater), 
as well as of those next mentioned. | 

CarrotMaggot. (Psi'laro'sm.) The 
parent fly is dark, with a metallic-green 
lustre, and rather hairy ; head, reddish- 
yellow ; legs, yellow; wings, very trans- 
parent. Very much resembles the An- 
thomyia. The grub, or maggot, is cylin- 
drical and yellow ; it eats holes in the 
main root of the carrot. This under- 

f round enemy of the carrot is said to be 
anished by applying to the soil pre- 
viously to diggmg gas-lime or wood 
ashes. Sand saturated with paraffin oil 
has also been successfully employed; 
but we find trenching and manuring, as 
we have directed, a sufficient protective. 
Thinning should be done while the plants 
are still young, or the plants should be 
watered after it, so as not to leave the 
soil around the remaining ones loose, by 
which an entrance would be open for 
the insect to deposit its eggs. 

Carrot Moth. See Depressaria. 

Ca'rthamUS. (From quartom, to 
paint, in the Arabic ; referring to the 
flowers yielding a fine colour. Nat. ord. , 
a section of Compositw; Tribe, Cyna- 
roidecB. ) 

Hardy annuals. Seeds sown in April ■where 
they are to grow, or in a slight hotbed, in March, 
and then planted out ; common soil. 
C. arb&re^scens and arWreug. See Kentrophyllum 

— cceru'leus. B. M. t. 2293. See CarduTicellus 


— cardimce^llus. See CariMneellusTnonspeliensis. 

— ere^tims. 2. White. June. Cajidia. 1731. 

— cynaroi'des. See Cousinia cynaroides. 

— glau'cus. See Kentrophyllum glaucum. 

— lana'ttts. B. M. t. 2142. See Kentrophyllum 


— leucQcau'lix. See Kentrophyllum leucocaulon. 

— miti'ssimiis. See Carduncellits mitissimtts. 

— oxyaea'nthus. 2. Yeflow. July. Caucasus. 


— tau'ricus. See Kentrophyllum tauricuTn. 

— tineto'rius. 3. Orange. June. Egypt. 1561. 

B. E. 1. 170. 

Cartone'ma. (From kartos, shorn, 
and nema, a filament ; referring to the 
formation of the filaments, or threads, 
which support the pollen-bags. Nat. 
ord., Commelynacece.) 

Greenhouse herbaceous perennial. Seeds sown 
In alight hotbed ; light loam and sandy peat ; 
requires the protection of a greenhouse, or a 
warm situation. 
C. spiea'tum. 1. Blue. July. Australia. 1822. 

Ca'mni. Caraway. (From Caria, in 
Asia Minor, where it was first discovered. 
Nat. ord. , Umbelliferce; Tribe, Amrmnece. 
Allied to the weed Ammi.) 

The seed of C. ca'rui is our Caraway, esteemed 
for its aromatic qualities. Hardy biennials. 
Seeds ; open ground, in March or April. Com- 
mon soil. 
C. ca'rui. 2. White. May. Britain. 

— PetroseWnum. 1-2. YeUow. June. Europe. 
Syn. Petroselinum sativum. Parsley. 




A garden escape in Britain. See 
C. verticilla'tum. 1. White. July. Brijtain. 
This species is removed here from Sismi, 
a genus of weeds. 

Cam'mbitim. See Sapium and 

Ca'rya. Hickory. (The Greek name 
for the Walnut, so named on account 
of Carya, daughter of Dion, King of 
Laconia, said to have heen changed by 
Bacchus into a Walnut-tree. Nat. ord., 
Juglandaeeos. ) 

This is the Hickory so celebrated in North 
America for the purposes of the cabinet-maker. 
Their best chairs they call their Hickories. 
Hardy deciduous treeg. Seeds ; the nut should 
be sown where the tree is intended to stand ; 
layers. Good, common soil. 
C. a'lba. 50-70. April. 1629. Shell-bark Hickory. 
Wats. Dendr. 1. 148. 

— amm'ra. 60-60. May. 180O. 

— agua'tica. Carolina and Georgia. Water 


— emmpre'sm. 30. April. 1730. 

— ladm&sa. 30. April. 

— Tnieroca'rpa. 30. April. 

— olivcB/c/rmis. 30. April. 1766. Pecan Nut. 

— pord'na. 30. May. 1799. Pig Nut or Broom 

Hickory. Syn., Juglans porcina. 

gla'bra. May. 

obcorda'ta. 30. May. 1812. Wats. 

Dendr. 1. 167. 

— mlca'ta. 30. April. 1804. 

— tomenMsa. 60-70. April. 1766. Mocker 

Nut or white-heart Hickory. 
ma'xima. 60. May. 

Caryo'car. Butter Nut. (From 
karyon, a nut ; in reference to its fruit. 
Nat. ord. , Ternstrcemiacece. Syns. , Pekea 
a,nd Mhizobolus.) 

Two genera of Immensely large trees, bearing 
large flowers and edible nuts, are contained in 
this order. The Suwarrow (Sauari)^ nuts of the 
shops are the produce of the C. nuci'ferum. Oil 
not inferior to olive-oil is extracted from the 
kernels. Cuttings in sand, in heat, under ^ass. 
Loam and peat. 
C. gla'irwm. 100. Green. Gniana. 1820. 

— nuel'ferum. 100. Eed, yellow. Guiana. 

1820. B. M. t. 2727-8. 
tomentc/svm. 100. White. Guiana. 1820. 

Caryophy'llus aroma'ticus. See 
Eugenia ca/ryophyllata. 

Caryo'pteris. (From karyon, a nut, 
and pteron, a wing ; fruit winged. Nat. 
ord., VerbenacecE.) 

Hardy herbaceous or sub-shrubby perennial. 
Seeds, divisions, or cuttings. Garden-soil. 
C. mastaca'nthus. 1-6. Bright blue. Autumn. 
China and Japan. 1844. E. M. t. 6799. 
Syn., Mastacanthus sinensis. 

— mongolica. 3. Violet-blue. Chinese Mon- 

golia. 1872. 

— Wallichia'na. 4. Eed. NepauL 1823. Syn., 

Clerodenctran odoratum. 

Caryo'ta. (From karyon, a nut. 
The Greeks first applied this name to 
their cultivated date. Nat. ord., Pal- 
macem; Tribe, Arecece.) 

A nable member of a noble family of plants, 
most valuable to the natives of the countries they 
inhabit, C. vtrens furnishing a highly nutritious 
sago, besides abundance of palm-wine, or toddy. 
Stove palms. Seeds ; rich, sandy loam and peat. 
C. AVbe'rti. Tropical Australia. 

— Bltmcdi. Philippine Islands. 

— Cummi'ngii. 26. Philippine Islands. 1841> 

B. M. t. 5762. 

—fiiirfura'cea. 30. Java. 1848. 
limba'ta. Java. 

— ho'rrida. See Bactris caryotoefolia. 

— maje^stica. 

— ma/xiffna, -Java. 1849. 

— mi'tis. White. China. 1820. 

— ochla'nda. China. 

— plumo'sa. 

— propi'nqua. Java. 1850. Wien. Gart. Zeit.. 

1888, p. 278. 

— purpura' cea. 30. Java. 1848. 

— Mumphia'na. Indian Archipelago. 

— soboli'/era. Malaya. 1843. Kerch. Palm. 

t. 21. 

— spedo'sa. Phillipine Islands. 1881. 

— vJrem. 60. White. E. Ind. 1788. Jacq. 

Pragm. 1. 12. 

CascadejOrWaterfall, is agreeable 
only when properly associated with the 
scenery around. Nothing is more mis- 
placed or tasteless than a sheet of water 
falling into another uniform collection 
of water, in an open, unwooded plain. 
Mr. Whateley justly observes, that a rill 
cannot pretend to any sound beyond 
that of a little waterfall. The roar of a 
cascade belongs only to larger streams ; 
but it may be introduced by a rivulet to a- 
considerable degree, and attempts to do- 
more have generally been unsuccessful : 
a vain ambition to imitate Nature in her 
great extravagances betrays the weak- 
ness of art. Though a noble river throw- 
ing itself headlong down a precipice be 
an object truly magnificent, it must be 
confessed that in a single sheet of water 
there is a formality which its vastness 
alone can cure ; but the height, not the 
breadth, is the wonder. WTien it falls- 
no more than a few feet the regularity 
prevails; and its effect only serves to 
expose the vanity of affecting the style 
of a cataract in an artificial cascade. 
It is less exceptionable if divided into 
several parts, for then each separata 
part may be wide enough for its depth ; 
and, in the whole, variety, and not great- 
ness, win be the predominant character. 
But a structure of rough, large, detached 
stones cannot easily be contrived of 
strength sufficient to support a great- 
weight- of water. It is sometimes, from 
necessity, almost smooth and uniform;, 
and then it loses much of its effect. 
Several little falls in succession are pre- 
ferable to one greater cascade, which, in 
figure or in motion, approaches to regu- 

Wnen greatness is thus reduced to 




number, and length becomes of more 
importance than breadth, a rivulet vies 
with a river ; and it more frequently runs 
in a continued declivity, which is very 
favourable to such a succession of falls. 
Half the expense and labour which are 
sometimes bestowed on a river to give it, 
at the best, a forced precipitancy in any 
one spot only, would animate a rivulet 
through the whole of its course; and, 
after all, the most interesting circum- 
stance in falling waters is their anima- 
tion. A great cascade fills us with sur- 
prise ; but all surprise must cease ; and 
the motion, the agitation, the rage, the 
froth, and the variety of the water are 
finally the objects whiiJi engage the 
attention. For these a rivulet is suffi- 
cient ; and they may there be produced 
without that appearance of eflbrt which 
raises a suspicion of art. To obviate 
such a suspicion, it may sometimes be 
expedient to begin the descent out of 
sight ; for the beginning is the difficulty. 
If that be concealed, the subsequent 
falls seem but a conseq^uence of the 
agitation which characterizes the water 
at its first appearance ; and the imagina- 
tion is, at the same time, let loose to 
give ideal extent to the cascades. 

Cascari'lla grandifo'lia. See Cos- 
luibuena obtusifolia latifoUa. 

Ca'shew Nut. Anaca'rdiwm, occi- 

Casea'ria. (Named after J". Caserius, 
the coadjutor of Kheede in producing 
the Hortus Malabaricus. Nat. ord., 
SamydacecB. ) 

Stove evergreen trees, chiefly valued for their 
astringent and medicinal qualities. Cuttings in 
sand, under a glass, in heat. Light, sandy, Hbry 
C. hirsu'ta. 8. Yellow, green. Jamaica. 1825. 

— parvifio'ra. 6. Yellowish-green. S. Amer. 

1818. Syn., C. decanira. 

— parvifo'lia. 6. Yellowish-green. Martinique. 


— Tamifio'ra. 4. YeUowish-green. Guiana. 


— semla'ta. 6. Whitish-green. Jamaica. 1818. 

— sylvefstris. 8. Whitish-green. Jamaica. 1823. 

Casirairo'a. (Dedicated to Cardinal 
Casimiro Gomez. Nat. ord., Butacem. 
Allied to Skimmia. ) 

Stove shrub or tree with small flowers and 
edible fruit. Seeds in a hotbed ; cuttings in 
sandy loam, in heat, and under a hand-glass. 
Bich loam and flbrous peat. 
C. eldiUie. Green ; fruit apple-like. Mexico. 
1866. Evergreen tree. 

Caspa'ria specio'sa. SeeBauhinia 

Cassa'ndra. (Name of mythological 
origin. Nat. ord., Ericacece.) 

A genus of hardy shrubs, seeds, layers, sandy 
loam or peat. 

C. amgusti/o'lia. 1 ■ 2. Snow-white. April. 
Carolina. 1748. Syns., C. crupa and 
ATuiromeda angustifolia. 

— calycula'ta. 1-3. Snow-white. April. N. 

America. 1748. B. M. t. 1286. Syns., 
Andromeda calyculata. 

Cassa'va. Jani'pha ma'nihot. 

Cassebee'ra. (Nat. ord.. Films. 
Allied to Platyloma. ) 

Divisions ; peat and loam ; hardy greenhouse 
and stove treatment, according to their native 

C. arge'ntea. i. Brewn. July. Siberia. 1816. 

— auricula' ta. Brown. July. Stove. 

— cunea'ta. Brown. July. 1831. Stove. 

— farino'm. H. Brown. May. Isle of Luzon. 

1840. Stove. 

— hasta'ta. 2. Brown. August. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1823. Greemouse. 

— intramargiTia'lis. Brown. September. Mexico. 

1828. Greenhouse. 

— peda'ta. J. Brown. Virginia. 1820. Hardy. 
pinna' ta. Brown. June. Stove. 
pteroi'des. Brown. July. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1776. Greenhouse. 
triphy'lla. Brown. July. 1824. Stove. 
vespertilia'nis. 3. Brown. August. N. 

Holland. 1823. Greenhouse. 

Ca'ssia. (From the Greek name of 
a plant, kasian of the Bible. Nat. ord., 
Leguminosce; Tribe, CassiecE.) 

Allied to Caesalpinia. Annuals and biennials 
and perennials by seed, sown in March or April, 
in heat ; the biennials and perennials by cuttings, 
in April, of half -ripened shoots, in heat. A few 
will thrive in the greenhouse ; but most of them 
require stove treatment in winter ; that is, a 
temperature of from 60° to 60° ; and where there 
is much room they deserve it. C. corymbosa may 
be grown against a south wall in summer. 


C. ceschyno'mene. 1. Yellow. June. W. Ind. 
1810. Stove. , ,, X J 

— angusti'ssima. 1. Yellow. July. B. Ind. 

1820. Stove. . ,„,„ 

— a'spera. 1. Yellow. July. Georgia. 1818. 

— Burmalnni. 1. Yellow. June. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1810. Half-hardy. 

— fletmo'sa. 1. Yellow. July. Brazil. 1810. 

Stove. „ „ . 

— jUyribu'nda. 4. Yellow. June. New Spam. 

1818. Stove. B. E. 1. 1422. 
—Jio'rida. 6. YeUow. June. E. Ind. 1820. 

— glandulo'sa. 5. Yellow. September. W. Ind. 

1822. Stove. B. M. t. 3436. 

— hi'spida. Yellow. June. Cayenne. 1826. 

— hu'milisJ\. YeUow. June. S. Amer. 1800. 

Stove biennial. ,, .^ 

— ita'lica. 3. YeUow. June. South of Europe. 

— mi7K0S0t°dM. 2. Yellow. July. Ceylon. 1806. 

TeyMrea'na. Yellow. E. Tropical Africa. 

_ nictitansl 2. YeUow. July. N. Amer. 1800. 

— oiovcaa! I.' YeUow. July. Egypt. 1640. 

— oUu»if&m. YeUow. July. Jamaica. 1732. 

-proctt'TniOTS. YeUow. June. N. Amer. 1806. 

-vu'maaJ I' Yellow. June. E. Ind. 1814. 
Stove traUer. 




C Tage'ra. Yellow. July. E. Ind. 1803. Stove 

— Thormi'ngii. Yellow. June. Guinea. 1824. 


— trifio'm. 1. Yellow. June. W. Ind. 1816. 

Stove. Jacq. H. Schoenb. t. 480. 

— Wallichia'na. 1. Yellow. June. Nepaul. 

1817. Stove. Syn., C. dimidiata. 


C. cegypti'aca. 3. Yellow. May. Egypt. 1822. 

— artemisioi'des. 2. Yellow. June. N. Holland. 


— amtra'lia. B. M. t. 2676. Syn., C. Barren- 


— Barelaya'na. i. Yellow. July. N. Holland. 


— Berte'ri. 10. Yellow. June. W. Ind. 1827. 

— biewpsula'ris. 4. Yellow. May. W. Ind. 

1739. Syn., C. Remwardtii. 

— UJWra. 6. Yellow. August. W. Ind. 1766. 

B. R. 1. 1310. 

— hrwAea'ta. 6. Yellow. August. W. Ind. 


— }yracteo'8a. Orange. Highlands of Angola. 


— brevlfo'lia,. Yellow. June. Madagascar. 1824. 

— caXlia'ntha. Brazil. 1869. 

— cape^nsis. 1, Yellow. June. Cape of Good 

Hope. 1816. B. C. t. 611. 

— chine^nsis. 4. Yellow. June. China. 1807. 

Jacq. Ic. t. 73. 

— Flinde'mi. Yellow. June. N. S. Wales. 1818. 
— /rondo' sa. 3. Yellow. April. W. Ind. 1796. 

— gtutirw/sa. 3. Yellow. June. N. Holland. 


— Imea'ris. 3. Yellow. June. Carolina. 180O. 

— mafrila'ndwn, 3. Yellow. September, N. 

Araer. 1723. Hardy herbaceous peren- 

— nigricans. 1. Yellow. June. Egypt. 1817. 

— Remwa'rdtii. See C. bica^sularis. 

— ruscifo'lia. 2. Yellow. June. Madeira. 

1816. Jacq. Ic. t. 71. 


C. aeapuloe'nsis. i. Yellow. June. Acapulco. 

— ala'ta. 12. Yellow. W. Ind. 1731. 

— apoucoui'ta. 8. Yellow. Surinam. 1820. 

— arbore'scens. Yellow. May. North Spain. 


— atoma'ria, 4. Yellow. June. N. Amer, 


— aurieula'ta. 4. Yellow. E. Ind. 1777. 

— aversifl&ra. Yellow. Sununer. Brazil. 1825. 

B. B. t. 2638. 

— bamlla'ris. 3. Yellow. E. Ind. 1782. 

— cha/rrueeri'sta. 1. Yellow. July. America. 

1699. B. M. 1. 107. 

— chr^so'tricha. Yellow. June. Guiana. 1828, 

— cilia'ris. 1. Yellow. June. E. Ind. 1817. 

Herbaceous perennial. 

— cilia'ta. 1. Yellow. June. Cuba, 1820. 

— coqumibe'nsis. Yellow. Chili. 1888. B. M. 

t. 7002. 

— coromandelia'na. 8. Yellow. June. Coro- 

mandel. 1823. 

— eorymio'sa. 3. Yellow. July. Buenos 

Ayres. 1796. B. M. t. 633. 

— cuepida'ta. 4. Yellow. July. S. Amer. 


— diphy'lla, 2. Yellow. June. W. Ind. 1781. 

— di'spar. 3. Yellow. S. Amer. 1824. 

— elli'ptica. 5. Yellow. June. Trinidad. 1818. 

— ema/rgina'ta. 15. Yellow. May. Jamaica. 

—fattigia'ta. 4. Yellow. June. B. Ind. 1818. 

— gigantea. Yellow. June. Jamaica. 1825, 

— glau'ca. 4. Yellow. June. E. Ind. 1818. 

— gra'cilis. 2. Yellow. June. Orinoco. 1817. 

— Herbertia'na. 9. Yellow. November. Bar- 

badoes. 1828. B. B. 1. 1422. 

— hi'rta. 3. Yellow. August. N. Amer. 1820. 

C. Mrm'ta. 4. Yellow. July. America. 1778. 

— Howtonia'na. Yellow. July, Jamaica. 1817. 

— loeviga'ta. 3. Yellow. July. 

— lanceola'ta. 1. Yellow. July. levant. 

Syns., C. acutiloba and orientalis. 

— ligustri'na. Yellow. June. Bahamas. 1726. 

B. E. 1. 109. 

— linea'ta. 1. YeUow. June. Jamaica. 1818. 

— limgisi'Uqua. 6. Yellow. June. W. Ind. 


— lotoi'des. 2. Yellow. June. Trinidad. 1820. 

— maera'nthera. 3. Yellow. June. Brazil. 


— margina'ta. 3. Yellow. June. Surinam. 


— mexica'na. 5. Yellow. June. Mexico. 

1824. Jacq. H. Schoenb. t. 203. 

— melct/noca'rpa. Yellow. June. Jamaica. 1825. 

— moUi'sgvma. 6, Yellow. S. Amer. 1820. 

— monta'Tia. Yellow, May, E, Ind, 1822. 

— multigiamdul&sa. Jacq. Ic. t. 72. See C. 


— oecidenta'lie. 3. Yellow. June. W. Ind. 

1759. B. E. t. 83. 

— Potrtma'no. 2. Yellow. August. Deme- 

rara. 1817. 

— pa' tula. 2. Yellow. August. W. Ind. 


— pe'ndula. 3. YeUow. July. S. Apier. 1820. 

— penta'gona. 1, Yellow, June. Peru. 1700. 

Herbaceous perennial. 

— pilo'ea. 1. Yellow. June. Jamaica. 1818. 

Herbaceous perennial. 

— planin'liqua. 4. Yellow. June. W. Ind. 


— polyph}/lla. 4. Yellow. June. W. Ind. 

1816. Jacq. Ic. t. 460. 
.— pube^scens. 2. Yellow. June. S. Amer. 1812. 

— pulcMtta. 3. YeUow. July. Mauritius. 

1826. B. C. t. 1839. 

— purpvirea. 4. Yellow. July. E. Ind. 1821. 

B. E. t. 866. 

— quinqwmguia'rU, 6. YeUow. June. Cay- 

enne. 1818. 

— retimla'ta. 10. YeUow. August. S. Amer. 


— Riehtt/rdia'na,. 2. Yellow. July. Cumana. 

^ rdbmMlda. 10. YeUow. July. S. Amer. 

— sennoi'des. 3. Yellow. July. E. Ind. 1808. 

Jacq. Ic. t. 70. 

— sermti'va. Yellow. Jacq. Ic. t. 70. 

— seri'cea. YeUow. May. S. Amer. 1731. 

— So'phora. 4. YeUow. July. E. Ind. 1668. 

B. B. t. 866. 

— speci&sa. 6. Yellow. June. Brazil. 1816. 

— specta'bitie. 4. YeUow. June. Caraccas. 


— itimda'cea. 3. YeUow. ChiU. 1781. 

— muca'ta. 3. Yellow. June. S. Amer. 1820. 

Syn. C. cemua. 

— sumatra'na. YeUow. June. Sumatra, 1823, 

— tara'ntan. 2. YeUow. July. Cumana. 1817. 

— ten^lla. 2. YeUow. July. Orinoco. 1820. 

— tomento'sa. 15. YeUow. July. S, Amer. 

1822. Syn., C. rmUtiglandulosa. 

— uniflo'ra. Bed. June. Brazil. 1824. 

— venu'stula. Yellow. July. Cumana. 1826. 

— vimi'nea. 3. YeUow. W. Ind. 1786. 

— virga'ta. 1. YeUow. June. W. Ind. 1810. 

Cassi'da vi'ridis. Artichoke Tor- 
toise-beetle. The common artichoke's 
leaves suffer during the summer, some- 
times, though rarely, from the attacks 
of the larva of a very curious small 
beetle, which may be called the Arti- 
choke Tortoise-beetle, Cassida viridis. 
The beetle, which is found in May and 




June, is not more than one-sixteenth of 
an inch long ; the antennae are black ; 
the dotted wing-cases and other outer 
coverings green ; but the body beneath 
them black ; and the legs pale, with 
black thighs. It is found upon the 
water-mints, as well as upon thistles 
and artichokes. The larva has a very 

a, larva ; 6, the same on a leaf, with its canopy 
of excrement ; c, pupa ; d , the perfect insect. 

flat body, with spines upon its edges; 
and it has the singular habit of coverinjg 
itself with its own excrement, which it 
attaches together in a mass, and carries 
on a kind of fork attached to its tail. 
The pupa is also very flat, having thin 
toothed appendages at the sides of the 
body, with a broad thorax, prolonged 
for\vard into a rounded expansion, which 
covers the head. — The Cottage Gardener, 
iiL 317, 

Cassi'ne. (A name given by the 
North American Indians to a plant now 
referred to the Holly — I'lex vomito'ria. 
Nat. ord., Celastrinece.) 

Greenhouse evergreen shrubs ; cuttings of 
half -ripened shoots in sand, under a, glass ; 
loam and peat. 
C. cethio'pica. See Elceodendron capense. 

— ba'rbara. See Elceodendron. 

— cape'nsis. See Elceodendron capense. 

— colpo'on. See Elceodendron. 

— exce'lsa. 18. White. June. Nepanl. 1820. 

— Iceviga'ta. See Elceodendron tricuspidaium. 

— Mauroce'nia. 5. White. August. Cape of 

Good Hope. 1890. Hottentot cherry. 
Syn,, Maurocenia capentis. 

— oppositifo'lia. 5. White. 

^- xyloca'rpa. See Elceodendron xylocarpum. 

Gassi'nia. (Named after Cassini, a 
French botanist. Nat. ord., Compositce. 
Allied to Amobium. ) 

The annual hy seed, in March ; the others by 
dividing at the roots, and cuttings of half- 
ripened shoots, in sand, in April; loam and 

C. aculea'ta. 2. May. N. Holland. 1820. 
Greenhouse evergreen. Syn., C. aMnis. 

— au'rea. 1. Yellow. July. New South Wales. 

1803. Greenhouse herbaceous perennial. 
B. R. t. 764. Syn., An^ianthus aureus. 

— denticula'ta. Pale yellow. Australia. 1826. 

Greenhouse evergreen. 

— fu'lvida. White. New Ireland. Gfl. 1890, 

p. 241, f. 66. 

— leptophy'lla. 2. White. August. New 

Zealand. 1821. Greenhouse evergreen. 
Paxt. FI. Gard., vol. iil., p. 16. 

C. longifo'lia. 2. May. N. Holland. 1822. 
Greenhouse evergreen. 

specio'sa. N. S. Wales. Greenhouse herba- 
ceous perennial. 

speeta'Mlis. 6. Yellow. July. N.Holland 
1818. Hardy annual. B. B. t. 678. 

Cassi'ope. (After a queen of Ethio- 
pia. Nat. ord., Ericaeew.) 

Cultivation same as hardy heaths. 
C. /astwia'ta. J. White. Hardy evergeen 
B. M. t.| 4796. Syn., Andromeda fat- 
tigiata and A. cupressiformis. 

— hypnoi des. 1. White, red. June. Lapland. 
Half-hardy deciduous creeper. Syn., 
Andromeda hypnoides. B. M. t. 2936. 

— tetra'gona. 1. White. April. Lapland. 

1810. Half-hardy. Syn., Andromeda 
tetragona. B. M. t. 3181. 

Casta'lia, See Nymphsea. 

C. my'stica. See If. Lotus. 

Castalis fla'ccida. See Dimor- 
photlieca tragus, var. flaccida. 

Casta'nea. Chestnut. (From a town 
of that name in Thessaly. Nat. ord., 
CupulifercB. ) 

Hardy deciduous trees ; seeds gathered in 
autumn, preserved in dry sand, and sown in 
March ; deep, sandy loam ; varieties by grafting. 
C. america'na. See C. vulgaris, var. americana, 

— chme/nsis. 50. Green. May. China, 

— chrysophy'lla. See Castanopsis chrysophylla. 

— i'ndica. See Castanopsis irtdica. 

— japo'nica. See C. milga/ris, vslt. japonica. 

— pu'mila.. 12. Green, yellow. July. N. Amer. 


— milga'ris. 60. Green. June. Naturalized 

in England. Syn., C. vesca. 
aWo^margina'tis and cmreo^margina'tis 

are garden varieties of 1886. 
america'na. 60. Green. May. N. 


asplenifo'lia. 60. Green. May. Europe 

cochlea'ta. Green. May. 

coralli'rui-variega'ta. Green. May. 1846. 

cuculla'ta. Green. May. 1846. 

fo'liis-au'reis. 50. Green. June. 

gla'bra. Green. May. 

qlau'ca. Green. June 

japofnica. Young leaves white beneath. 

Japan. 1885. Syn., C. japonica. 

lu'Hda. Green. May. 1846. 

meldia. 50. Green. June. Europe. 

— Pri'ncei. Green. May. 1846. 

pu'mila. Green. May. 1846. 

variega'ta. Green. May. 

Chestnut (Spanish, or Sweet). 
This, the Castanea vulgaris of the above 
genus, in the southern parts of England 
is cultivated for its fruit, as well as 
for the value of its timber. There are 
several varieties in cultivation in this 
country, and, of course, many in France 
and Italy. 

Propagation. — The better sorts are 
propagated by grafting on the ordinary 
chestnut of our nurseries, which is raised 
from seed. 

Soil and Culture. — Any free upland 
soil is adapted to its culture, provided 
it is dry beneath, and not too adhesive. 
For the dwarfing system we recommeijd 




the platform mode, allowing only half 
a yard in depth of soil. Little if any 
pruning is necessary, the fruit being all 
produced in clusters on the extremities 
of the shoots. No other culture is ne- 
cessary ; but a warm sheltered situation 
is of much importance. 

Fruit-seeds, how to keep. — It is almost 
needless to observe that chestnuts are 
generally eaten roasted, mostly with a 
little salt. They are also stewed in 
cream, and eaten with salt fish. In 
keeping them, dryness is necessary ; but 
it must be accompanied with as low a 
temperature as possible. They should 
be taken out of their exterior or rough 
coating as soon as ripe ; and it is well to 
subject them to an artificial heat of about 
sixty to seventy degrees in a warm room 
for a couple of days afterwards. They 
may then be packed away in dry sand, 
or dust, and placed in a very cold but 
dry room or cellar, where they will keep 
for months. They are very excitable as 
to sprouting ; a very little moisture, with 
warmth, will bring on germination. 

Castano'psis. (From Castanea, and 

opsis, like ; resembling the chestnut. 

Nat. ord., Cupuliferce.) 
C. chrysophylla is a dwarf hardy evergreen 

shrub ; common soil in sheltered situation ; 

cuttings. C. indica requires a stove ;. cuttings 

in sand under a bell-glass ; seeds. 

C. chrysophy'Ua. Mexico. 1848. B. M. t. 4953. 
Syn., Castanea chrysophylla. 

— i'ndica. 40. E. Indies. 1827. Stove ever- 
green. Syn., Castanea indica. 

Castanospe'nnuin. Morton Bay 
Chestnut. (From castanea, the chest- 
nut, and sperma, a seed. Nat. ord., 
Legwminosce. Allied to Sophora. ) 

Greenhouse evergreen ; seeds when procurable; 
layers and cuttings ; deep, loamy soil ; green- 
house or conservatoi? wall. 
C. austra'le. 40. Saffron. Queensland and 

New South Wales. 1828. Hook. Bot. 

Misc. I. t. 61. 

Castela. (After an author named 
Castel. Nat. ord., Oehnacece. Allied to 
Elvasia. ) 

The Goatbust, C. Nickolso'ni, is as bitter as 
Quassia. Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings of 
rather firm shoots in sand, under a bell-glass, 
and In bottom-heat ; peat and loam. 
C. ere'cta. i. Dominica. 1821. 
— Nieholso'ni. 4. Copper. Antigua. 1830. 
Hook. Bot. Misc. 1. 1. E6. 

Castille'ja. (Named after a Spanish 
botanist of that name. Nat. ord., 
Scrophulariacece. Allied to Euphrasia.) 

The stove species by cuttings of half-ripe 
shoots in sandf, in bottom-heat, under a glass ; 
loam and peat. Hardy species, by seeds in early 
March in hotbed, pncking on when ready to 
handle, planting out in May ; light sandy soil in 
sunny position ; very ornamental, 
C. eoccinea. 1. Scarlet. July. N. America. 

1826. B. E. t. 1136. Hardy perennial. 
Syn., Buchroma coccinea. 
C. indivi'sa. i to 1. Greenish- yellow ; bracts 
scarlet. Texas. 1878. 

— integrifo'lia. 1. New Grenada and Guate- 

mala. 1825. Stove evergreen. 

— lithospermoi'des. Scarlet. August. Mexico. 

1848. Greenhouse. 

— minia'ta. 1. Yellow, scarlet. California. 


— morane'nsis. Mexico. 1825. Prostrate stove 


— pa'Uida. 1. Light purple. July. Siberia, 

1782. Hardy herbaceous perennial. Syn. 
£artsia pallida. 

— leptentriona'lis. 2. White, green. August. 

Labrador. 1824. Hardy annual. B. E. 
t. 995. 

— serra'ta. 1. Blue. June. 1829. Stove ever- 

green. Syn., Bartsia coccinea. 

— sesgUiflo'ra. §. Greenish. United States, 

Sjfns., C.grandiJloraa,ndEuchromagran 

Casuari'na. Beefwood. (Supposed 
to be derived from the resemblance of 
the long, weeping, leafless branches to 
the drooping feathers of the Cassowary. 
Nat. ord^, CasnarinecB.) 

This includes the "Native Oak, or Beefwood" 
of the Australian colonists, and probably the 
most singularly picturesque tree of the Austra- 
lian flora. Large trees, with weeping branches, 
the individual branches being jointed like a 
bamboo, and streaked between the joints, hav- 
ing no leaves. The timber is as good as our Oak, 
and of the colour of raw beef, whence *he colo- 
nial name. Cattle are extremely fond of the 
young branches of the She Oak (C. stri'cta), and 
colomsts chew them to allay their thirst. From 
what we know of C. equiset^o'lia in this country 
we would rank the Beefwoods as amongst the 
most remarkable for the winter decoration of 
the conservatory. Greenhouse evergreen trees. 
Seeds, and cuttings of half-ripened shoots, in 
April, in sand, under a bell-glass ; loam and 
peat, with a portion of sand, and lumps of char- 
coal. They might be tried in sheltered places 
out of doors, especially in the south of England 
and in Ireland. 
C. distf/la. 16. Australia and Tasmania. 1812. 

— equisetifo'lia. 16. September. North Austra- 

lia and Queensland. 1776. B. C. t. 607. 
Syn., C. muricata. 

— glau'ca. 15. Bast side of the Bay of Bengal. 

— murica'ta. 15. E. Ind. 1822. 

— nodifio'ra. 16. New Caledonia. 1823. 

— stri'cta. 16. May. New South Wales. 1775. 

Andr. Eep. t. 346. Syn., C. quaAri. 

— mmatra'na. 4-6. Sumatra. 1882. 

— temwSssima. 10. N. Holland. 1825 

— toruUsa. 15. West Australia. 1772. 

Catakidoza'mia. See Macro- 

Cata'lpa. (The Indian name. Nat, 
ord., Bignoniaceoe. 

The North American species by seeds sown 
m spnng, root-cuttings, layers in autumn, and 
cuttings of the ripened shoots in autumn ; deep, 
rich loam. The West Indian species by cuttings 
of the npe shoots in heat, and under a glass : 
usual stove-treatment. 

C. Ugnonioi'des. 30. White, red. N. America. 
1798. There are many varieties of this, 
such as aurea, foliis argenteis variegcMt, 
grandifiora, purpvrea. 




C. Bu'ngei. Greenish-yellow, red. N. China. 
heterophy'lla. Le<ives entire, and lobed. 

— cassinoi'des. Intermediate between C. speciosa 

and C. Burwei. 1890. 

— cordifc/Ua. Probably the same as C. bigno- 

niaides. 1890. 

— E<Bimpfe'n. Yellowish, white, crimson. Ja- 

pan. 1862. B. M. t. 6611. 

— longi'ssima. 20. White. W. Ind. 1777. Syn., 

Bignonia longissima. 

— Tmcrophy'lUi. See Bigrumia Tnicrophylla, 

— Po'ttsii. 6. Pink. Mexico. 1861. 

— pu'mila. Wein. Gart. Zeit. 1890, p. 317. 

— specio'sa. White. June. United States. 1879. 

— syringxfo'lia. 20. White. July. N.America. 


au'rea. Leaves golden. 1881. 

erube'scens. 1869. Syn., C. erubescens. 

fo'liisarge'nteis. Leaves variegated. 1887. 

— Thunbelrgii. Wein. Gart. Zeit. 1890, p. 318. 

— umhraeidi'fera. 12. China. 1888. 

— Wallichia'na. Thought to be a Chinese form 

of C. Kaempferi. Syn. , C. Kcemp/eri, var. 

Catana'nche. (From katanangke, 
a strong incentive ; in reference to an an- 
cient custom among the Greek women 
of using it in love-potions. Nat. ord., 
CompositcE ; Tribe, Cichoracem.) 

Division of the roots in March, and seed sown 
in March or April ; common soil. 
C. coeru'lea. 3. Blue. August. South Europe. 
1696. Hardy herbaceous perennial. B. 
M. t. 293. 
bi' color. 3. White. Blue. August. Gar- 
dens. 1827. 

— lu'tea. 1. Yellow. June. Candia. 1640. 

Hardy annual. Sbth. PI. Gr. t. 821. 

Catase'tum. (From kata, down- 
ward, and seta, a bristle ; referring to the 
Sosition of the two horns of the column, 
[at. ord., Orchidece; Tribe, VandeoB.) 
Stove orchids. ' Divisions ; peat, moes, broken 
pots, and charcoal, elevated above a jpot, or in 
shallow, open baskets ; cool and dry in winter ; 
a high temperature and moist atmosphere^when 
making their growth. 

C. abru'ptwmi. 1. Greenish-yellow. September. 
Brazil. 1841. 

— atraHwm. 1. Dark. July. Brazil. 

— BwrtKminia'nu'm. Olive, streaked with brown: 

lip white, streaked with pale bron-ni 
Brazil. 1862. 

— barbdtum. \. Green, purple. May. Deme- 

rara. 1836. Syn., Myajnthui barbatus. 

immacula'tum. J. Green, pink. Septem 

ber. Demerara. 1835. 

labeHlo-a'lbvjm. %. Greenish-white. Sep- 
tember. Demerara. 1836. 

probosci'deum. Brownish -green. May. 

Sertao. 1839. 

— Bungero'thii. Creamy-white. Tropical Ame 

rica. Lind. t. 57. 

a'lbum. White ; lip with rose spot. 


au'remn. Light yellow. Venezuela. 1887. 

Lind. t. 116. 

Pottsia'num. Petals and lip with purple 

spots. 1887. Lind. t. 104. 

Ba'ndi. Yellow ; spur with a deep apri- 
cot-yellow spot. 111. Hort. 1. 117. 

— caMaum,. 1. Brovrnish-yeUow. June. La 

Guayia. 1840. 

gramdific/rwm. 1. Green, brown, purple. 

December. Columbia. 1845. 

— c^rmtum. li. Pale green. Eio Janeiro. 1832. 

— Christya'nwm. Keddish-brown, ochre. 1882. 

C. Christya'num obscu'mm. 1884. . 

— citri'num. Pale yellow. August. 

— Claveri'ngi. See C. tridmtatwm, var. Cla- 


— comu'tum. Greenish-purple. March. Deme- 

rara. 1840. 

— coeta'tum. Yellow ; lip ribbed. 1887. 

— crwta'twm. 2. Green. August. Brazil. 1823. 
stenosdpalum. Sepals purple-brown - 

petals purple ; lip green. HI. Hort. 34r 
t. 26. 

— jyarwinia'nwm. British Guiana. 1888. 

— deei'piem. Eeddish-brown, yellow. Venezuela 


— ieltoi'deum. IJ. Green, brown. March. De- 

merara. 1842. 

— di'scolor. J. Green. Brazil. 1844. 

— Jimbria'tvm,. Pink. August. Brazil. 1837_ 
fi'stum. 1881. 



— ' platy'pterum. Pale green, marked pur- 

Ijle-brown. 1889. 
mrildulum. Green, spotted with reddish 

purple. 1887. 

— fioribvlTiduTn. See C. iridentatuTn, var. JUyri- 

bundum. * 

— fuligino'sum. Green, purple. August. Mexico. 

— galeri'tum. Pale green, spotted brown ; lip- 

yellow inside, striped brown. Columbia? 
1886. Lind. t. 67. 
pachyglo' ggrnn. Lip square, thick. 1889^ 

— GarneUia'num. Light green, spotted choco- 

late ; lip white. 1888. 

— glaucogl&ssuTn. Brown, glaucous. Mexico* 

Gard. Chron. 1886, vol. 24, p. 652. 

— globiJWrum. 1. Olive, brown. June. Mexicc 


— Hoohe'ri. 2. Green, brown. October. Brazil.. 


— inc^rvum. Green, purple. Central America. 


— integelrrmvam. Purple, brown. June. Guate- 

mala. 1839. 

intermddiwm variega'tum. Black, white,. 

yellow. Brazil. 

— laTnina'tum. Brown, purple. April. Mexicc 


ebu'mevm. White, green. April. Mexicc 


— lanci'ferum. Pure green. March. Brazil. 


— LwndBbdrgii. 1. Green, purple. June. Carac- 

cas. 1861. 

— Lekma'nni. Green, orange-yellow. Colum- 

bia. Gfl. 1. 1223, ag. 

— longifdUum. 2. Orange, violet. August. De- 

merara. 1837. 

— macroca'rpuTti be'llum. Brown, purple. Bra- 

zil. Gard. CSiron. 1886, vol. 26, p. 74. 

— macroglcfssum. Ochre and green, fight and 

dark green, fight and da^k yellow, or 
browmsh-purple ; very variable. Ecua- 
dor. 1878. 

— maeula'tum intege'rrimum. 3. Green and 

purple-spotted. September. Mexico. 

— m^diwm. 

— MilUri. 2. Purple-spotted. September. Bra- 

zil. 1837. 

— na'so. White, purple. August. Mexico. 1843. 

— ochra'cewm. Yellow. ' Columbia. 1844, 

— pha/nma. Green, purplish-brown, white. Bra- 

zil. 1878. , 

— pilealtum. Light red, white. Venezuela. 1882.. 
— pla'niceps. 1. Green and yeUow. Spanish 

Main. 1840. 
— probosei'deum. Brightish green. Demerara.. 

— pu'lehrum. Light green with chocolate bars, 

yellow. Brazil. 1888. 
—pu'rwm. 1. Green. October. Brazil. 




C ro'seo-a'lbum. 2. White, red. April. Para. 

— Russellia'num. 3. Green. July. Guatemala. 


— mcea'twm. Yellow, purple. March. Deme- 

rara. 1840. 

;pliciJferuTn. Green, brown, white. Peru. 


— sangui'Tiewm. Green, red. October. Central 

America. 1852. 
integra'le. Lip entire. 1887. 

— Bcu'rra, White, green, violet, orange. Deme- 

rara. 1872. 

— Bemiape^rtv/m. 1. YeUow. November. Brazil. 


— serra'tum. Green, yellow. September. Pa- 

nama. 1844. 

— ipin&aum. 1. Green, brown. Brazil. 1840. 

— tabula're. Pale green. Guatemala. 1843. 

brachyglo'sswm. Lip short. 1880. 

Mve. 1881. 

rhino' phorutn. Greenish, brown, white. 

Columbia. 1880. 
— serrvla'tum. Greenisli-yellow, dotted 

red. Andes of Columbia. Gil. t. 1223, 

vi'r&ns. Greenish, purple-brown. 1880. 

— tapi'riceps. Green, brown, orange. Brazil. 


— tigri'num. White, cinnamon. 1881. 

— tndenta'twm. 2. Yellow, brown. April. Trini- 

dad. 1822. This sports into the six fol- 
lowing, and even into Waiie^sii. 

atropurpu'reum. 2. Darlc purple. Au- 
gust. Demerara. 

au'reuTti. 2. Yellow. August. Demerara. 

Claveri'Tigi. 2. Yellow, brown. August. 

Brazil. Ig22. Syn., C. Claveringi. 

toribu'ndum. 2. Yellow, brown. Novem- 
ber. Trinidad. 1824. Syn., C. Jlori- 


August. Brazil. 
viHdiflo'rum. 2. 

- tri'fidwm. 2. Green. 

2. Yellow, purple. 

Green. May. Deme- 

June. Trinidad. 
■ trvmerochi'lum. Green, red. Mexico. 1863. 

— trio'don. Yello— ish-green. Brazil. 1879. 

— tru'lla. Green, brown. September. S. Amer. 

maeuiati'smnu/m. Brown spotanumerous. 

suMmbe^rbe. Lip not fringed. 1887. 

— mridifla'vum. 1. Yellow, green. June. S. 

Amer. 1841. 

— TTaiZe'fiii. 1. Green. September. Honduras. 

-^ Warecem'czii. Green. April. Panama. 1851. 

Catchfiy. Sile'ne. 

Cai'tecIlU. Aca'cia ca'techu. 

Caterpillar. Scorpiw'rus. 

Caterpillar. This is the young of 
•either the butterfly or the moth, in its 
first state after emerging from the egg. 
There are many kinds ; and the best 
mode of preventing their invasions is to 
destroy every butterfly, moth, chrysalis, 
and egg that can be found. Hand-pick- 
ing, dusting with lime or soot, and other 
modes of destroying the caterpUlar are 
mentioned when noticing the plants they 
attack ; but we may here observe that 
the powder of White Hellebore is by far 
the most effectual for dusting over this 
marauder. Sparrows and other small 

birds, in early spring, should not be 
scared from the garden, for they destroy 
myriads of caterpillars : at that season 
they can do no harm if the gardener 
properly guards his seed-beds. Boys 

Eaid a halfpenny per dozen for leaves 
aving eggs or smaller caterpillars upon 
them, nave been found to keep a garden 
free for a whole season for about seven 

Catesbse'a. Lily Thorn. (Named 
after M. Catesby, author of a Natural 
History of Carolina. Nat. ord., Ru- 
biacecB ; Tribe, Catesbceece. Allied to 
Pentagonia. ) 

Stove evergreens. Cuttings in sand, under a 
glass, in heat, in April. Sandy loam and fibry 

C. latiifo'Ua. 6. Yellow. June. W. Ind. 1823. 
B. E. t. 868. 

— Lindenia'na. 2. July. 

— parviflo'ra. 2. White. June. Jamaica. 1810. 

— spin</sa. 12. Yellow. June. Isle of Provi- 

dence, Bahamas. 1726. B. M. t. 131. 

Ca'tha. This genus has now been 
united to Celastrus. 
Cathara'nthus. See Vinca. 

Cathca'rtica. (In honour of J. F. 
Cathcart, Esq., B.C.S., Judge of Tirr- 
hoot. Nat. ord., Papaveracece.) 

A hardy herbaceous perennial, useful for 
shady spots on rockery ; rich peaty soil ; seeds 
and division. 

C. viUo'sa. 1. Yellow. June. Sikkim-Himalaya. 
1860. B. M. t. 4696. 

Cat-mint. Ne'peta. 
Cat-thyme. Teu'crium ma'rum. 

Catteridge-tree. Euo'nymits euro- 

Ca'ttleya. (Named after jlfn Catt- 
ley, a distinguished patron of botany. 
Nat. ord., Orchidem; Tribe, Epiden- 
drea^-LmliecB. ) 

Stove orchids. Divisions. Moss, peat, and 
broken pots, either in shallow baskets, or raised 
above the surface of the ^ot. 

C. Aokla'ndiae. }. Purple, brown. July. BrazU. 




C. amethystoglo'ssa. White, rosy-purple. Brazil. 

■ sulvhu'rea. Sepals and petals lemon- 
yellow, lip cream colour. 1866. 

— au'rea. New Grenada. 111. Hort. 1881, t. 81. 

Syn., C. labiata Dowiana aurea. 

niarnwra''ta. Rose, crimson, yellow. 


— Arenbe'rgii. Lilac. July. Brazil. 1842. 

— Ballantinia'na. Hybrid between C. Triance 

and C. Warscewiczii. 1890. Rchb. t. 91. 

— bi'color. 1. Olive-^reen. September. Brazil. 

1837. There is a variety with a white- 
margined lip named Measuresia'na. 

— bogote'nsis. White, yellow. New Grenada. 


— Boissie'ri. lilac, yellow. Columbia. 1873. 

— Bowringialna. Purple, maroon, white. Central 


— BryTneria'na. Purplish-rose, lilac, magenta, 

orange. BrazU. 1883. Natural hybrid ? 
Warn. Orch. Alb. t. 184. 

— bulbo'sa. J. Rose, purple. April. Brazil. 


— BvMidri. A form of C. Triance. Rev. Hort. 

1886, p. 444. 

— adumna'ta. Blush-pink, spotted violet. 

Hybrid between C. AcklaTidke and C. 
intermecLia^ var. amethystina. 1883. R«v. 
Hort. 1883, p. 664. 

— ca'ndida. White, pinlc. Brazil. 1838. 

— Cassa'ndra. Garden hybrid. 1888. 

— Cha7>ti>erlainia'na. Purple. Garden hybrid, 

between C. Leopotdi and C. Dowiana. 

— chocoe'nsis. Yellow, purple. Columbia. 1873. 

— eitri'na. Citron. April. Mexico. 1838. 

— citrino-interme'dia. Garden hybrid. 1888. 

— cocd'n^a. See Sophronitis grandijlora. 

— - eri'spa. 1. White, purple. September. 

Brazil. 1826. 
grandiflo'ra. White, crimson, orange. 

viola' cea. Deep violet and white. Guiana. 


— erooa'ta. White, orange. 

— Dawso'ni. Yellow, crimson. Brazil. 1863. 

— dolo'sa. See C. Walkeriana, var. dolosa. 

— daminge'nsis. AprU. St. Domingo. 1844. 

— Dormannutf'Tia. See Ltelia Dormanniana. 

— Dmma'na. Straw, purple. Costa Rica. 1866. 

Derived from C. labiata. 

chrysoto'xa. Bright yellow ; lip blotched 

gold, veined dark crimson-purple. Rchb. 
t. 71. 

— Vuhea'na. 2. Light ochre, mauve-purple; 

lip white, mauve-purple and yellow. 

— ela'iwr. 1. Green-spotted. Brazil. 1827. 

— eldora'do. White, purple, orange. Central 

America. 1869. 
oma'ta. Purple, tipped with a darker 

shade. 1883. 
sple'ndens. Rose, orange, white, violet. 

Rio Negro. 1870. 
mrgina'lis. Warn. Orch. Alb. t. 388. See 

C. virginaZis. 

— eHegans. Purple and white. Brazil. 1852. 

— exoni^nsis. Garden hybrid. 1874. 
—fiave'ola. Garden hybrid. 1888. 

— Forbe'sii. J. White, yellow. June. Brazil. 


— Gaskellia'na. A form of C. labiata. 

pi'cta. Sepals and petals variegated. 

1890. ^ . , 

— ai'gas. Rose, purple, yellow. Tropical 

America. 1873. Garden. 1882. May. 

— gramiMsa. 1. Wtitish-green. May. Guate- 

mala. 1841. 

aspera'ta. Brownish spotted purple, 

yellow. 1886. 

C. granulo'sa Buyssonia'na. Ivory white G C, 
1890, vol. 8, p. 688. • v.. x./. 

-fiwseiim'na. 1. Green, white, orange 

May. Mexico. 1839. 

Schojiadia'na. 2. Greenish-yellow ; lip 

whitish, and amethyst-purple. 1879 
Syn., 0. Schofieldiana, Warn. Orch. Alb! 

— guatemale'nsis. Buff, purple, crimson. Guate- 

mala. 1861. 

Wischhusenia'na. Rose-purple, brown 

yellow. Panama. 1888. ' 

— guttata. 1. Green, red. April. Brazil 


elaltior. April. Brazil. 1827. 

immacula'ta. Mauve brown ; lip white, 

front lobe purple. 
Keteledrii. 2\. Blush-white, violet-rose. 

Uopardi'rm. Spotted dark brown ; lip 

white, front lobe purple-red. Lind. 

1. 19. 
Leopo'ldi odorati'ssima. Yellow, purple. 


Ulaai'na. Pale lilac. 1881. 

mu'nda. Greenisli to yellow. 1888. 

phoenico'ptera. Deepest purple : lip 

whitish. 1883. 
Prinzii. White, spotted with purple ; 

lip, amethyst-coloured. Brazil. 1866. 

mmctula'ta. Sulphur, purple. 1880. 

Russellia'TM. Green, red. August. Brazil. 

Willianma'na. Purple, white. 1884. 

— Hardya'na. Rosy-mauve ; lip magenta, yel- 

low. Columbia. Warn. Orch. Alb. 
t. 231. 

— Harri'sii. Amethyst dotted purple ; white, 

sulphur, purple. Hybrid between C. 
Mendelii and C. guttata. 1887. 

— Barriso'nice. 1. Rose, yellow. April. Brazil. 

Syn., C. Loddigesiif var. Harrisonice. 
Regneria'na. Purple, yellow. 1888. 

— — viola'cea. Violet. 1881. 

— hy'brida. Garden hybrid. 

— interme^dia. 1. Rose, white. April. Brazil. 

angtistifo'lia. 1. Light purple. Septem- 
ber. Brazil. 1S36. 
— ca'ndida sple'ndida. White ; front lobe of 

lip carmine-purple. Rio Janeiro. 1890. 

Gfl. t. 1313. 
Gibe^zice. White, orange. 1883. Syn., 

C. GibezuB. 
pa'llida. 1. Light red. June. Brazil. 


Parthe'nia. White. 1888. 

purpu'rea. Purple. 

variega'ta. 1. White, red. May. Brazil. 


— intrica'ta. Pale rose, purple. 
macula'ta. Rosy with 

Natural hybrid between 
and C. guttata? Brazil. 

— in'color. Sulphur, orange, violet. 1874. 

— irrora'ta. See Lcelia. 

— Kimballia'na. Pale rose ; lip white, yellow, 

purple. Venezuela. 1887. Lind. t. 89. 

— Eramenria'na. Pale rose ; lip white, purple. 


— labia'ta. 1. Crimson, lilac. May. Brazil. 


a'lba. White. 

atro-purpu'rea. Lilac, purple. Novem- 
ber. La Guayra. 1839. 

atra-sangui'nea. 1. Dark red. July. S. 


autumna'lis. Rose - purple, 

Autumn. Lind. t. 112. 

be^lla. Mauve, white, yellow. 

brillianti'ssiTna. Bright rose, 

purple, yellow. 1885. 


purple spots. 
C. intermedia 






C labm'ta chooB'nsie. 

croca'ta. White, or pale rose, deep 

orange. 1886. 


Doviia'na, Nankeen yellow, crimson- 
purple. Syn., C. Domana, B. M. t. 6618. 

eldora'do. Fl. Ser. 1. 1826. See C. eldorado. 

Gashellia'na. Rosy-purple, petals darker 

at tip. There are several forms of this. 
— la'eera. White, purple. Central America. 


leucophoia. Pale rose, yellow. 1888. 

tnagni'fica. Rosy-purple, yellow. 1888. 

■ oma'fa. Purple, deeper at" tips. 

Pereivalia'na. Deep purple. W. South 

America. 1882. There is a variety beflla. 



Pilche'ri. Lip pale, with purple blotch. 

regi'Tui. Rosy-purple, yellow. 1884. Syn., 

C. speciosisHmat var, regina. 

jRaefzUi. Purple, yellow. Columbia. 1874. 

Ruckefri. Rose ; lip entirely dark rose. 

Sanderia'na. Light purple, gamboge, 

whitish. 1882. 
Schroederia'na, White, lip sfriped with 

mauve and orange. 
sple^ndejis. Deep rosy-purple. 111. Hort. 

1870, t. 7. 

Tria'ncB. See C. Trmnee. 

virgina'lie. White. HI. Hort. 1876, 

t. 267. 
Warnelri. Pale rose, amethyst, purple, 

WarocqueaJTia. Rosy -mauve ; lip crim- 
son-purple, yellow. S. America. 1890. 
Wilsanialna,. Amethyst, dark purple, 

yeUow. 1887. 

— Lavireneia'na. Purple-lilac, yellow. British 

Guiana. 1886. 

co'ncolor. Light purple. 

ocula'ta. Centre of lip buff. 

ro'sea-supe/rba. Rosy -purple, striped 


— Lenumia'na. 3. Rose, yellow. August. Brazil. 


— Leop&ldii. 1. Yellow, crimson. Brazil. 1852, 

— Lmde^ni, Rose, veined white ; lip magenta, 

bright yellow. 

— Lindleya'na. Rose. Bahia. 1864. 

— lobalta. Purple, violet, and crimson veins. 

Brazil. 1847. 

— Loddige'sii. 1. Rose, lilac. August. Brazil. 


ea'ndida. White ; disc of lip yellow. 

Harriso'nioB. See C. HarrisonicB. 

macvXalta. Flowers dotted with purple. 

mclaJcea. Deep violet-purple. 

— LwAenia'rm. Brown, purple; lip purple, 


— lu'tea is a name given by error in some works 

for Cautleya lutea. 

— lute'ola. i. Light yellow. November. Brazil. 

Roe'aU. Peru, 1881. 

— Xanglefsii. Purple ; lip white and ochre. 

Garden hybrid. 1880. 

— margina'ta. J. Pink, crimson. November. 

BraaU. 1843. 

— mwHItvma. Lilac, white. Buenos Ayres. 

— Massaia'na. Eosy-mauve, magenta, yellow. 

— Xassangea'na. A form of C. labiata, w,r. 


— ma'xima. IJ. Dark pink. May. Guayaquil. 

a'lba. White ; lip marked yellow and 

apMelbia. Lip not reticulated, disc 

yellow. Ecuador. 1884. 
malona'na. Dark purple. 1889. Lind. 

t. 211. 

C. ma'xvma Narchetia'na. Rosy-purple, magenta, 
yellow. Ecuador and Peru. 1889. Warn. 
Orch. Alb. t. 404. 

Measure! sii. Reddish-brown ; lip pale 

rose. Garden hybrid. 1886. 

— MendeHii. Lip mauve. 1884. 

be'lla. Warn. Orch. Alb. t. 225. A 

synonym of C. labiata^ var. bella. 

pulche'rrima. White tinged lemon and 

peach-colour. 1881. 

— Mo'ssiiB. 1. Crimson, lilac. July. La Guayra. 

1836. A form of C labiuta, 

— a'lba. White and purple. Brazil. 

Arnoldia'na. Palest rose, orange, sul- 

au'rea gramiifio'ra. Garden variety. 


Boimesia'na. Marbled with rosy-purple. 

1889. Lind. t. 186. 

Hardya'na. Lilac, purple. La Guayra. 

1884. Warn. Orch. Alb. t. 125. 

reticula'ta. Lip veined with crimson. 

■ varia'bilis. Blue to rose. 1888. 

Warocquea'na. White tinged rose, 

orange. 1889. Lind. t. 192. 

— Nilso'ni. 

— nobi'lior. 111. Hort. t. 485. See C. Walkeriana, 

var. nobilior. 

— Obrienia'na. Rose. 1890. 

— odorati'ssvma. Purple. Demerara. 1836. 

— pa'llida. 1. White, pink, yellow. Tepic. 


— Papeiansia'na. 

— Percivalia'na. Rosy-lilac, lip-magenta, crim- 

son. January. N. Brazil. 1882. 

Smchenba'chiL Mauve-purple, lip yellow 

veined red. Lind. t. 39. 

— Perri'nii. 1. Purple. Brazil. 

— Pinellia'na. Doubtful whether this andp«'- 

mila are not identical with margina'ta, 

— porphyroglo'ssa. 

■ rmncta'ta. Crimson spotted. 

— porphyrophle'bia. Pale mauve, yellowish. 

Hybrid between C mtermedia and C. 
superba. 1886. 

— pu'mila. See Lcelia pumila, 

— quadHcolor. White, yellow, purple, lilac. 

New Grenada. 1866. 

— RegneHli. J. Purple, green, pink. Brazil. 


— Reineckia'na. 

superbi! ssvma. White. 1884. 

— resple'ndens. Olive-brown, spotted purple ; 

lip white, amethyst. 1886. Natural 
hybrid ? 

— re'x. White ; lip purple, veined with gold, 

and fringed with white. This is the most 
handsome plant of the genus. 1890. Pro- 
bably a variety of C. aurea. Lind. t. 265. 

— Roe'zlii. A synonym of C labiata^ var. Roezlii. 

— Rucke'ri. White, yellow. 1866. 

— Schilleria'na. Reddish-brown, purple, white. 

Brazil. 1867. 

Amalia'Tia. Lip white with bright purple 

veins and yellow disk. Brazil. 1887. 
Lind. t. 108. 

— Schofieldia'na. A variety of (7. gra/nulosa. 

— SchToedeHa'na. Light purple, lip with orange 

disk. 1887. Syn., C. Sckroederce, 

— sci'ta. Pale ochre, blotched purple, lip pur- 

ple, sulphur, white. 1886. 

— Skinne'ri. IJ. Rosy-purple. August. Gua- 

temala. 1836. 

a'lba. White, sulphur. Costa Rica. 


a'tro-ro'sea. IJ. Dark rose. May. Gua- 
temala. 1836. 

ocula'ta. Lip with maroon-purple blotch. 

— soro'ria. Greenish, yellow, wliite, purple. 

Brazil. 1887. Warn. Orch. Alb. t. 307. 

— specinfti'usima. 

Buchania'na. Rosy-lilac, lip magenta. 




yellow. Venezuela. 1887. Warn. Orch. 

Alb. t. 261. 
C. speciosi'ssima Lo'wii. Flesh, amethyst, yellow. 

Venezuela. 1868. A very fine form. 
1 malana'na. Eose-purple, lip veined 

darker. Lind. t. 47. 

— siui'vior. Bright rose, lip pale lilac, purple. 

Hybrid between C. intermedia and C. 

— imfe'rba. 1. Purple. May. Guiana. 1838. 

a'lba. Pure white. Brazil. 1890. 

spU'nde'm. Bnse, violet, white, yellow. 

Rio Negro. 1870. 

— Tria'nce. Pale purplish, deep purple, yellow. 

Cordilleras of Quindiu. 1860. 
A'nnm. Eosy-purple, white, yellow. 

Lind. t. 31. 
Colema'nni. Rosy, crimson. Columbia. 

Dodgso'ni. Pink, crimson, pale yellow. 

Emi'luB. Light blush, lip deep crimson- 
plum, yellow. 1884. 

form&m. Colours deep and rich. 1880. 

fu'lgens. Lip rich crimson. 1890. 

Hardya'na. White, purple, ochre. 1879. 

Soolea'na. Lip rich magenta-purple, 

orange-yellow. New Grenada. Warn. 

Orch. Alb. t. 265. 

Leea'TM. Rose, throat pure white. 1884. 

margina'ta. Lip rich crimson edged with 

white. 1890. 
Massangea'na. Warn. Orch. Alb. t. 242. 

A variety of C. labiata. 
Oema/nii. Mauve, deep purple, yellow. 

Columbia. 1879. 
pa'Uida. Pale rose, disk of lip yellow. 

1890. Lind. t. 231. 

— Popa'yan. Lilac. 1884. 

purpura'ta. Light mauve, lip magenta 

vrith yeUow throat. 1890. Lind. t. 229. 

ro sea. Rose, with orange throat. 1883. 

JRy^sellia'na. Pale mauve, magenta, 

yellow. Columbia. 1884. Warn. Orch. 

Alb. t. 219. 
Schroederia'na. Green blotch at base of 

splendidi'ssima. White, lip magenta, 

orange. 1884. 
stria'ta. Rosy-purple, midrib-carmine, 

lip carmine with yellow disk. 1890. 

Lind. t. 232. 
Vanneria'na. Striped omnge, lip purple, 

orange, light rose. 

Ve'sta. Whitish. 1880. 

velutHna. Olive-green, purple, rose. 

Brazil. 1870. 
T- triophtha'lma. li. Eosy-purple, pale yellow. 

Garden hybrid. 1882. 

— velTiti'Tui Lie'tzei. Dusky orange, spotted 

purple ; lip white, veined purple. Brazil. 
1888. Gfl. 1. 1265. 

puneta'ta. Flowers larger, more thickly 

dotted ; lip edged yellow. Brazil. 1888. 

— mrginallis. White, yellow. Amazons. 1877. 

Lind. t. 101. Syn., C. eldorado^ var. vir- 

— WaUceria'na. Lilac, crimson. May. Brazil. 


dolo'sa. The side lobes of the lip overlap 

half their length, 

nobi'lior. The side lobes of the lip over- 
lap their entire length. Syn., C. nobilior. 

Schroederia'na. Eosy-purple, marked 

with darker purple. 

— WaUi'sii. White, yellow. Brazil. 1882. 

— Warne'ri. Mauve, crimson, white. Brazil. 

See C. labiata, var. Waroe- 

— Warocguea'na. 


— Warscewl'czii. 


Rose, purple, orange. 


C. Warsceim cm. delica'ta. White, lip rosy-lilac 
with orange blotch. ' 

— Whi'tei. BraziL 1882. 

— Wilsonia'na. Purple, white, yellow, violet 


— seno'bia. Garden hybrid. 1887. 

The following are hybrids of this genus:— C. 
Acla'ndi-Loddige'sii, C. Braba'ntUe, C. devonian- 
sis ; C. Daminia'na, and its vars. a'lba, and Mtea • 
C. exonie'nsis, C. fau'sta, C. fe'lix, C Mangle' sii, 
C. Marde'Uii, C. Masterso'nice, C. Mitche'li, C. 
pictura'ta, C. quingue' color, C. Sidneriana, C. 

Cauliflower. Bra'ssica olera'cea, 
variety cauUJlo'ra. 

Varieties. — There are many to be 
found in local catalogues ; but' they are 
only different names for the following : — 
Early London, Early Erfurt, and 
Waleheren. Large Asiatic, Veitch's 
Auttmin Giant, and Dwarf Mammoth, 
are also desirable varieties. 

Sowing. — There are three seasons for 
sowing this vegetable. 

First Soimng. —For the first main crop, 
a sowing should be made about the third 
week in August, to raise plants for 
winter protection, to form the first prin- 
cipal and main crops of the following 
year. Should the weather be very dry 
at the time of sowing, the soU should be 
thoroughly well watered before the Seed 
is sown, and so continued as to encourage 
the growth of the seedlings. As soon as 
these are up large enough to handle, 
beds should be formed in an open situa- 
tion, well broken up, made nch, lined 
out neatly, and, if the weather is dry, 
well watered before planting, as well as 
afterwards. The best time for pricking 
out young plants of any kind, in dry 
weatlier, is late in the afternoon or in 
the evening. By this attention, strong, 
healthy plants will be ready for either 
finally planting out under hand-glasses, 
about the middle of October, or for pro- 
tection in frames, or at the foot of walls. 
These protected plants are to form a 
second crop to those which were planted 
out under the hand-glasses, and may be 
finally planted out towards the end of 
February, if the weather is favourable, 
two feet and a half apart each way; 
and should severe weather set in again, 
flower-pots just large enough to cover 
the plant may be turned over each, but 
taken off in all favourable weather. 
Care should always be taken to lift up 
the plants out of the nursery-beds, so as 
to insure uninjured roots. 

Should the weather be very severe in 
the winter, the hand-glass crop must 
have a little protection more than that 
of the hand-hght itseK. But particular 
attention should be paid to airing at all 
times when the weather will permit, by 




either taking the lights entirely off, or 
tilting them. 

If, through some mismanagement or 
misfortune, the winter stock should be- 
come short, a sowing towards the end of 
January becomes of importance. A very 
little seed must then be sown in a pan 
or box, placed in some moderate-heated 
structure, or in a gentle hotbed made up 
for the purpose ; and when the seedlings 
are up, and large enough to handle, they 
should be pricked out on other very 
gentle hotbeds, care being taken to keep 
the plants up close to the glass, ana 
inured to the open air. Plants raised 
in this way wiU be nearly as forward as 
those sown in August, and protected in 
cold frames through the winter. 

The second Somng should be at the 
nde of February or beginning of March, 
nda then either in a cold frame, or warm, 
poen border ; or, if the weather be very 
unfavourable, a sowing may be made on 
a very gentle hotbed even at this time, 
attention to pricking-out, etc. , given as 
before directed. Prom this sowing a 
third planting is made. 

The third Sowing should be made 
about the last week in April, or first 
week in May, and the seedlings at- 
tended to as before, as to pricking-out, 
etc. From this sowing a fourth planting 
is made. 

Fitness for Use. — When a cauliflower 
has arrived at its full size, which is shown 
by the border opening as if it was about 
to run, pull up the plant, as it never 
produces any useful sprouts ; and if hung 
up thus entire, in a cool place, it may be 
preserved for several days. The best 
time to cut a cauliflower is in the early 
morning, before the dew is evaporated : 
if it is done during the meridian or after- 
noon of a hot day, it loses much of its 
firmness, and is said to boil tough. 

To preserve from Frost. — As frost de- 
stroys the cauliflower, it is a practice in 
November, before it sets in, to pull up 
the late-standing plants, and the leaves 
being tied over the head, to hang each 
up in a dry shed or cellar, by which 
means they remain good for some time. 
But a better mode is to bury them in 
sand, laying them in alternate layers 
with the earth, in a dry situation. By 
this means they may be preserved to the 
close of January ; or they may be put in 
a trench dug at the bottom of a wall, 
eighteen inches wide and deep, the plants 
being laid with their roots uppermost, in 
an inclining position, so that the roots of 
the second cover the top of the one 
preceding. The earth to be laid over 
them thick, a considerable slope given 

to it, and beaten smooth with the spade, 
to throw off rain. 

Saving Seed. — Some should be from 
the first planted out of the hand-glass 
crop. The best with well-formed heads 
should be selected for this purpose, and 
marked for seed, by placing a strong 
stake to each for the future tyin