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Full text of "Proverbs & folklore of Kumaun and Garhwal"

Cornell University 
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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924089930774 



CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARy 




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CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




T^o. Registered under Act xxv of 1867. 



PROVERBS & FOLKLORE 

OF KUMAUN AND GARHWAL 

COLLECTED BY 

PANDIT GAEA DATT f RETI 

(Late Extra Assistant Commissioner) 



Pbinxed at the Lodiana Mission Press 



> 
M. Wtlie, Manager. 



1894, 
All rights reserved. 



Wh 



This Book is dedicated by kind permission 
TO 

EDMUND WHITE ESQ., C. S. 

Late Director of Public Instruction, 
N. "W. P. & OXIDE, 
as a token of gratitude for Hs patronage of literature, 
and great services in the cause of Education. 



PREFACE, 



The'present collection of proverbs Las beeu made in the re- 
mote and secluded districts of Kumann and Garhwal, which form 
a portion of the Sub-Himalayan region, formerly considered 
inaccessible by the people of the rest of India on account of their 
difficult natural features, and which exhibit both in physical aspect 
and the manners and customs of the people some remarkable di- 
vergences from the rest of India. Its folklore ma}' therefore be 
considered specially interesting. 

The excellent collection of Hindustani proverbs made by Dr. 
S. W. Fallon, though it contains many sayings current in Kumaun 
in a slightly modified form, yet lacks a great number of the local 
and peculiar proverbs found here. These I have myself taken 
down from the lips of aged people in the Province. They may 
not appear very enticing to some reacjers, but they are at any rate 
an addition to the archiseology and antiquities of India, which the 
Government has done so much to collect and render accessible to 
students. 

In this belief I have been induced to collect and translate 
the proverbs, maxims, sayings, and phrases and to illustrate 
the Folklore of these hills, during a course of years in the service 
of Government as a Deputy Collector in Garhwal and Knmaun, 
where I sought and obtained my information from old men of 
respectability and knowledge. I hastened to collect them as I was 
told that a good deal had already been lost. For with the changes 
of time everything of antiquity is receding further out of sight, 
and is liable to disappear altogether. 

On shewing a part of this work to Mr. Edmund White, C. S., 
Director of Public Instruction, N. W. P. and Oudh, I was encour- 
aged bj' him to complete it for submission to Government. When 



the specimen pages were submitied the work was approved of by 
many learned Europeans both in England and in India. It 
may not be out of place to quote the opinions of a few of these 
gentlemen : 

On submitting the specimen copies to Government N. W. P. 
and Oudb, the Director of Public Instruction N. W. P. and Oudh 
said: 

"The work of Pandit Ganga Datt is one of much interest 
and value in connection with the Folklore of the Province and 
well deserves the encouragement of Government." 

Sir W. Muir, Late Lieutenant Governor N. W. P. and' 
Oudh writes: 

"Your letter and pamphlet and sheets received. They are- 
very creditable to you." 

Sir A. E. Elliott, Lieutenant Governor of Bengal, says: 

"I have read your proverbs with much interest. They are 
well worth publishing." 

0. J. Conn ell. Esquire, C S., Collector and Magistrate of 
Bareilly, says: 

"Many thanks for the specimen pages of your collection of 
proverbs. They should be very useful and interesting when they 
are published in a complete form." 

D. C. Baillie, Esquire, C. S., Superintendent of Census 
operation, N. W. P. and Oudh, writes : 

"A collection of one thousand five hundred proverbs of 
Kamaun and Garhwal explained and illustrated on the same lines 
as the specimen proverbs you have sent would certainly be most 
interesting." 

S. Eardley Wilmot, Esquire, Conservator of Forest, writes: 

"Many thanks for sending me the specimen pages of your 
proverbs and Folklore of the Provinces of Kamaun and Garhwal. 
I am sure the subject is one which cannot fail to be of interest not 
ouly to those, comparatively few in number, who reside in or visit 



Ill 

'these districts but also to those who wish to improve their know- 
ledge of the people of India." 

W. Young Esquire, C. S., Judicial Commissioner and High 
Court Judge, Allahabad, saj's : 

"I think that the collection of proverbs is exceedingly inte- 
resting judging from 'the specimen shewn to me by the Author, 
and he tells me that they are quite original and not to be found in 
Fallon's Book." 

The specimen pages have also been kindly approved of by 
the North West Provinces, Madras, Bengal, and Punjab Govern- 
ments. 

My collection (under instructions from the Director of Pub- 
lic Instruction N. W. P. and Gudh) includes all the proverbs which 
are in vogue amongst the hill people without any reference to the 
fact that parallel proverbs are also in use in the Plains. At the 
same time I have not included those Sanscrit verses, generally 
used by the learned class, nor those verses in the Plains Hindus- 
tani dialect which are used by others. 

These proverbs give an insight into the character, habits, 
customs and traditions of the people who inhabit the districts of Ku- 
maun and Garhwal. To enable European gentlemen to understand 
them better I have briefly explained the appositeness of the pro- 
verbs, axioms, sayings and phrases to particular occasions, as well as 
the customs and manners out of which they arise. 

A description of the country where the proverbs are used is 
briefly given in the Introduction (hereafter printed) kindly contri- 
buted by the Rev. E. S. Oakley, Principal of the Eamsay College 
at Almora, who has also helped me by revising the work and cor- 
recting the Proof-sheets. I must also acknowledge my indebted- 
ness to H. 0. Budden Esq., the Revs. J. Messmoro and G. M. 
Bulloch, and Mr. M. Harris, Almora, who have at different times 
assisted me in preparing the volume. 

The transliteration of the proverbs is according to Duncan 



IV 



Forbes' Hiudastani Grammar (vide pages 136 and 137) with due 
regard to the hill accentuation, so that the pronunciation of the 
same by any European may be clearly intelligible to hill people. 

This is my first attempt to put my collection of proverbs and 
illustrations of Folklore into type : should this first edition find 
sale the second one will appear in an improved and more attrac- 
tive form. 

In conclusion, I must say a word about the difficulty of 
classifying under appropriate headings such a collection as this. 
No one, unless he had actually attempted such a task, could 
appreciate the difficulty. I have done what I could in this direc- 
tion, and must ask indulgence from those readers who may see 
imperfections in this or in other features of my work. 

Perhaps it is hardly necessary to caution my readers against 
misunderstanding some of these homely sayings, and regarding as 
indications of the "depravity" of the people, maxims which are 
obviously framed in an ironical sense and not seriously meant. 



Kapina, Almoea. ) 

The 9th November, 1822. j GANG A DATT UPRETI. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The Oriental must have his epigram. It is one of the chief 
necessaries of his life, and an untold solace. With a shrewd apo- 
phthegm for every occasion he can defy all "the slings and arrows 
of outrageous fortune ;" and a sententious phrase robs even defeat 
and disappointment of their sting. 

The wisdom of the East consists in such' sentences and pro- 
verbs rather than in any sustained effort of the reason, and 
consequently they assume much greater importance than in Western 
lands, and furnish better materials for a thorough study of the 
character and conditions of an Asiatic people than any other source 
of information can supply. We are indebted to Pandit Ganga 
Datt Upreti for a complete collection of the proverbs and folk- 
sayings of Kumaun and Garhwal, which he has diligently gathered 
together during a life-time of public service. Himself a native of 
the province, and having spent long periods in different and some- 
times remote parts of it, he has enjoyed peculiar advantages for 
carrying out such a task. These researches have been the favourite 
relaxation of his leisure hours: and the result which appears in 
this volume is a valuable addition to our knowledge of the people, 
and cannot fail to be interesting to many readers not only in 
India, but also, it is hoped, in Britain and America. They present 
a picture of primitive manners and a naive self- revelation which 
-will be delightful to the student of human nature, and will be of 
special value to all who are called on in the course of duty to enter 
into close relations with the people of India. 

The great merit of this collection is that it has been gathered 
entirely from original sources — taken down, in fact, from the 
lips of the people ; and is in no sense a mere literary compilation. 



Those who have a wide acquaintance with Indian folk-lore will 
at once perceive that many of the sayings and proverbs included 
here are not peculiar to the province of Kumnun and Garhwal, but 
are common, sometimes in sliohtly altered form, thron/jhout 
Kortl.ern India, i^rd rot a few of them will be found scattered 
about in various works of reference. The Pandit is aware of this, 
but his intention has bpen to make a complete collection of the 
proverbs of his own province, omitting nothing that is commonly 
prevalent ; and on the whole this seems the most satisfactory plan. 
Each proverb and story is a genuine popular saying, derived not 
from books, but from the Jiving speech of the people, and so 
possesses an intrinsic value. The stories given are such as are 
usually related by village wise-acres and rustic philosophers in 
illustrating or expanding a particular proverb, and many of them, 
ns well as many of the proverbs themselves, are quite peculiar to 
the province, and are now printed for the first time. 

By translation into another language it is inevitable that 
popular sayings should lose much of their force and pungency. 
Ingenious plays on words are completely lost, rhj-thm and rhvme 
are both sacrificed, and nothing is left but the bare bones of tho 
proverb. The present collection forms no exception to the rule. 
The brevity, point, and ingenuity of many a saying have vanished 
in the English translation, nor was there, as a rule, any possible 
means of retaining them. If poetry cannot be satisfactorily tran- 
laled into another language, still less can proverbs. Their power 
often depends on subtle associations of thought and language which 
no earthly skill can render into another tongue, while cumbrous 
attempts to throw them into poetical form are only so much tim& 
wasted. 

The proverbs are translated from the Kumauni and Garhwali 
dialects, which are off-shoots or rather sisters of the Hindi, and 
differ from the high or standard form of that language only in 
grammatical forms and a few peculiarities of pronunciation. £n 



in 



many cases a saying current in the plains of India seems to have 
simply been turned into the dialect, though there are many others 
which are quite local, and from their uature and allusions could 
only have become current in a mountainous countrj-. 

The province of Kumaun and Girhvval extends for about one 
hundred miles east to west and one hundred and ten miles north to 
south along the sourthcrn slopes of the Himalij'as, bej'ond which 
lies the mysterious land of Tibet, from which the province is sepa- 
rated by the snowy range. In this part of the range there are 
several peaks exceeding twenty thousand feet in height. These 
stupendocs features in the landscape are visible from most parts 
of the province and add a striking grandeur to the scenery. The 
whole country consists of an intricate maze of mountains and 
glens, through which flow several rivers and innumerable streams, 
all tributary, either directly or indirectly, to the G;inges. The 
hilly ranges of this sub-Himalayan region vary in height from 
eight thousand to five thousand feet, the valleys often descending 
to a level of only two thousand or three thousand feet above sea 
level. The hill-sides are usually very steep and frequently quite 
preicipitous, clothed in most part with forests of fir, and above 
the level of six thousand feet, with giant rhododendron, holm-oak, 
and beech. Towards the south the higher ranges of hills abruptly 
descend, being succeeded b^' a narrow stretch of low broken country 
called the Bhabar, and then by a gradual slope towards the great 
plain of Upper India, which is named the Terai. This lower 
belt is from two to fifteen miles broad, and is part of the pro- 
vince, having always been much used by the hill people, who 
drive their herds of cattle thither for forage during the dry months. 
In some parts of the province, especially around the capital town 
Almora, the hills are very barren. Bishop Heber sang of 

"Bleak Almora's barren steep;" 
but generally Kumaun may be called a forest land. After and 
during the rains the grass-covered slopes and verdant valleys are q 



lY 



lovely sight. Himalayan landscapes are distinguished more 
especially by their yastness : range after range of mountains fade 
away into the blue distance, crowned towards the north by the 
lowering "snowy summits old in story," with their well-defined 
peaks of Nanda Devi, Panch Chule. Trisiil, and Badri Nath. As 
the traveller advances into the province new vistas are disclosed 
at every turn of the road, as it winds along the steep mountain 
sides ; and the mingled charms of forest, cliff, glen, and distant 
snowy peak combine to form landscapes of singular beauty. The 
only drawback, as a rule, is the absence of water from the scene, 
though near Naini Tal this defect is abundantly supplied, and the 
blue waters of two or three lakes glancing in the brilliant sunshine 
amongst the fir-clad hills make the view from any of the neigh- 
bouring heights one of the finest in the world. 

The Pindari glacier, at the base of the great snowy range^ 
is a favourite object for tourists, and a moderately good road with 
rest-houses placed at suitable intervals, leads to it. The scenery 
at some points is indescribably grand. The celebrated shrines 
of Badri Nath and Kedar Nath in Garwhal, also situated among 
the snows, are yearly visited by many thousands of Hindu pilgrims 
from all parts of India and even fiom the extreme south. These 
temples are specially sacred as being intimately associated with 
the leading deities of Hindu mythology. Indeed, the Himalayas, 
as might he expected from their striking physical features, play 
a large part in Hindu story and legend, and may be called the 
Olympus of India; every peak, pool, and river has its tradition 
relating to the gods, and such a degree of sanctity pertains to 
these mountains that even the sight of them is said, in one of the 
sacred books, to remove the sins of the beholder, as the dew is 
dried up by the morning sun. 

The population is distributed mostly in small hamlets, perched 
here and there on the steep sides of the mountains, and often almost 
inaccessible, so that the proverbs in this collection which refer to 



people who have never been away from their native villages are no 
exaggeration. When one looks at some of these villages hanging 
like birdnests on the sides of the precipitous hills, approachable 
only by the faintest goat-track, one cannot help wondering how 
human beings can either reach them or get away from them. 
There are a few larger towns, among which we O'ay mention 
Almora, the capital, Srinagar and Pauri in Garhwal, and the two 
European health-resorts, Kanikhet, occupied by British troops, 
and Naini Tal, the beautiful summer headquarters of the North West 
Provinces Government. 

The agriculture of the province is necessarily of a limited 
character, owing to the hilly nature of the ground. Yet it is 
■wonderful what human perseverance has done to overcome these 
difficulties. The hill-sides are scooped into a number of terraces, 
supported by rough walls. In some places as many as a hundred 
of these narrow terraces, each of which is a cornfield, may bo 
seen one below another, occupying the whole of the steep side of 
a hill. The principal grains grown are different kinds of millet, 
wheat, and rice. Tea is successfully grown in several parts of 
the province by Europeans. The best kinds of tea are of excellent 
quality and are preferred by many to any other growth. 

The population of the province presents great variety as 
regards caste and origin. The aborigines exist in the servile 
race of Doms, who are dark, short and somewhat negro-like in 
appearance. They have for centuries been in a state of subjection to 
the Hindu castes, and are still regarded by them as unclean and de- 
graded. In former days a Dom who touched the drinking-vessel or 
hnqqa (tobacco pipe) of a Brahmin was at once put to death. A Dom 
was not allowed to wear a garment which reached below the knees. 
One of their customs which especially causes them to be abhorred 
by the fastidious Hindu is that of eating the carcases of cowh or 
bullocks which have died a natural death. They are chiefly 
employed as carpenters, masons, blacksmiths, and day-labourers 



VI 

of various kinds. It would be interesting to know something of 
their religious beliefs, but little has yet been determined on this 
point. They have adopted Hinduism to a large extent, though 
they generally worship the Dioty under the name of Nirakar 
(the Formless). These Doins have a tradition that they were the 
original inhabitants of the country, and that they were employed 
by Mahadov as drummers on the joyful occasion when he adopted 
the Himalaya mountains as his residence. 

According to a tradition of the Donis, as well as from other 
evidence, it appears certain that the next comers into the country 
were the Khasas or Khasiyas, whose descendants form the prin- 
cipal part of the pofiulation. They were probably among the 
first invaders of India — an Aryan race hailing from central Asia 
and at one time widely spread over Northern India — though 
distinct from and earlier than the well-known Aryan invasion 
of the Punjab. They now form a separate race or caste only 
in Kuraaun and Garhwal. They have been influenced greatly 
in the course of ages b^' contact with the IJrahmins and other 
Hindus of the plains, and differ little from the orthodox Hindu, 
They are distinctly Aryan in features, and are the cultivators of 
the soil and the coolie caste of Kumaun. 

The third class of inhabitants may be included under the 
general designation of immigrants from the Plains of India, It 
is related that a certain rajah named Kanakpal belonging to the 
Lunar Race visited Garhwal in the seventh century with his 
followers on a pilgrimage to the sacred shrines of Kedar Nath 
aud Badri Nath, and afterwards conquered the country. The 
successors of his dynasty still rule in Tihri or Independent 
Garhwal. At that time Kumaun was broken up into a number 
of petty Khasiya kingdoms, until a dynasty was founded iu the 
tenth century A. D. by Som Chand, said to be a scion of a royal 
family residing at Jhansi. There are very conflicting accounts 
of the manner in which he established his power in Kumaun. 



VII 

What is certain is that the Chand dynasty reigned in the country 
(not always over tho whole of it, and with interruptions of Khasiya 
revolts, Roliilla invasions etc.) until the end of the last century, 
when the Gorkhaiis of Nej:ial invaded the country and established 
their rule in Kumaun. So violent were the methods of the con- 
querers and so oppresr^ive their government that to this day any 
act of tyranny is s[ioken of as "Gorkhiyani" (rule of the Gurkhas). 
In 1815 the British took possession of the province, in retaliation 
for agressions by the Nepal Kingdom. 

As an example of the legendary history of Kumaun, 
(regarding which a large collection of stories and traditions has 
been gathered by Pandit Ganga Datt U[ireti, and will probably 
be issued by him in a separate volume), the following account 
of the foundation of Almora, the capital town, may be found 
interesting: — 

About six hundred years ago, when the Chand Rajahs held 
their court at Champawat in eastern Kumaun, the reigning king 
•was one day hunting on the Almorah hill, which was at that time 
covered with dense forest, a h;ire suddenly started up before him, 
and he began to pursuo it, whereupon it was transformed into a 
tiger, and on reaching the top of the hill disappeared. Tiie king 
consulted his Brahman astrologers concerning this strange event. 
They all accepted it as a most favourable omen, and counselled 
the king to found his capital on the spot where the tiger had 
disappeared. The site was accordingly examined, prior to begin- 
ninf building o[)erations, and a large crowbar was driven into 
the "round. It sank so deep that the astrologers declared it had 
pierced the back of the Seshnag, or great serpent which the 
Hindus suppose to support the universe, and they accepted the 
fact as a sign that the king's dynasty should endure for ever. 
But the king, impelled hy curiosity, insisted on the bar being 
dragged out of the ground, and, sure enough, the point of it was 
seen to be stained with blood. Thereupon the astrologers in wrath 



Till 



declared that as a punishment for the rajah's presumption and 
unbelief, his descendants should reign but for a few generations. 

Were it not for this valuable information, we should na- 
turally suppose that the real reason of Almora's selection as the 
capital was the abundant supply of water there, and the excellent 
quality of the soil on the slope below the ridge, where an im- 
mense amount of grain is grown for the food-consumption of the 
people. 

The Chand dynasty attracted many Brahman families from 
the plains, who settled in Kumaun and have multiplied exceeding- 
ly, so that this province contains an unusually large proportion 
of the Brahman caste. Many of them have entered Government 
service and prospered. Perhaps nowhere in India is the worldly 
as well as the spiritual predominance of the Brahman so marked 
as in Kumaun and its capital Almora. 

The Bhoteas are a Mongolian tribe inhabiting the northern 
parts of the province. They carry on a trade between Tibet and 
India, conveying borax and other commodities on the backs of 
their sheep and goats over the high passes of the snow range, 
from Tibet. They have a distinctly Chinese appearance, and their 
residence in the cold climate of the snows gives many of them 
quite a fresh colour. They dress in thick woollen garments and 
woollen mocassins, and are a cheery good-humoured folk, though 
unfortunately somewhat given to ardent spirits. They say that 
if they washed themselves they could never endure the intense 
cold of those altitudes, consequently they remain unwashed. They 
own much land (mostly fallow) in the northern part of" Kumaun, 
and some of them are quite wealthy, the Hindus in some places 
being their labourers and servants. Another industry which 
they practise is that of weaving carpets and blankets, which they 
also bring down to the markets of Bageshwar and Almorah. 
They still acknowledge some kind of fealty to the Tibetan govern- 
ment, though they arc really British subjects. Through contact 



IX 



with the Hindus they are rapidly adopting Hindu customs and 
ceremonies, but are looked down upon by the Hindus and re- 
proached for drinking tea with the Tibetans when visiting Tibet. 
This custom, though contrary tc Hindu caste rules, they cannot 
avoid, as the merchants of Tibet will conclude no bargain without 
the friendly preliminary of drinking tea. 

In character the (Hindu) people of Kumaun and Garhwa], 
as becomes a mountain race, are sturdier and more independent 
than the Hindus of the plains. They have enjoyed great advan- 
tages, particularly under the long and benevolent rule of the 
"king of Kuraaun," Sir Henry Ramsay, late Commissioner of the 
province. In former days the Kumaunis bore an excellent 
character for honesty, simplicity, and good-nature, and it is to be 
hoped that they will continue to keep this reputation. 

It would be an enjoyable task to give a sketch of the his- 
tory of the country from early times, abounding as it does in the 
romantic incidents always to be met with in the history of a 
mountain people. But such an account would take up too much 
space, and we can only recommend the reader who desires further 
information to consult the large and valuable treatise on the sub- 
ject (Gazetteer of the North West Provinces, vol XI) written by the 
late Mr E- T. Atkinson. Kumaun is closely connected through 
its early history, and by reason of its containing the sacro-sanct 
Himalayas, with the entire legendary system and mythology of 
India, (the references to it in the ancient Sanskrit scriptures being 
very numerous) while in many ways the story of the country illus- 
trates and throws light on the most interesting questions of history 
and archaeology. 

Almora, Nov. 7th. 1892 E. S. 0. 



CONTENTS. 



Subject. A 
Ability ... 


Fage. 
1 


1 


Absenf-miTifipfine^^ ...... ...... 


1 


Acp,i(i(*nf k ... a..... 


2 


Adversity ... 

Advice (bad) ... 

Aggravation of Evils 

Agriculture ... 

Alternative ... ••..•• ••••.. 


2 


4 


4 


4 


6 




6 


B 

Baniyas or shop-keepers ... ••..». 

Betrayers ... 

Bitt,er feelintr ... ...... 


7 


5 


9 


Bravery and Courage 

Bribery and Gifts 

c 

Calamity ... 

Caste ... 


10 


12 


13 


14 


Character ... 


14 


Charity and Alms 


16 


Chastity and Unchastity ... 


19 


Cheats ... 


19- 


Clear Conscience 


21 


Comfort and Discomfort ... 


22 


Common Property 

Consolation and Encouragement 


2.!? 


23 



Suhject. 

Contentment .•. 


D 

E 
F 


Fage. 
27 


Courage under despair 

Coward ... ...... 


29 


29 


Critical periods 

Debts, Loans, and Surety ... 
Deceit ... 


30 


30 


33 


Deferred hopes 


■ 36 


Dependence ... 


37 


Dilatory habits 


38 


Dilemma ... 


38 


Disappointment. 


41 


Dishonesty ... 


42 


Disinterestedness 


43 


Distress ... 


44 


Disunion ... 


46 


Doff in the manser 


47 


Dnplioity ... 


47 


Economy or frugality 


47 


Envy ... 


4Q 


Evil propensities and habits 


51 


Extravagance ... 


51 


Falsehood ... 


KA 


False alarm ... 


^f\ 


False hopes ... 


Ka 


False modesty 


Kft 


False promises 


fifi 


Family or household 


59 



Subject. Page 

Fate or destiny . 59 

Fault-finding ... 67 

Fear or Servility 69 

Folly or imprudence 69 

Foolish ambition ...... 80 

Fops, boasters, and fastidious people 82 

Forbearance ... 84 

Force or Compulsion 86 

Friendship and Estrangements ...... 88 

Future apprehensions or contingencies ... 89 

G 

Gambling ... 90 

Gifts from relatives 90 

Gift of the gab 90 

God's judgments 92 

Good luck ... 93 

Good or bad signs or omens 96 

Good words ... 101 

Gratitude ... 101 

Great men ... 102 

Greed ... 104 

Guilty conscience 105 

H 

Habits and nature 106 

Health ... 114 

Help ... ...... 114 

Helpfulness (true) 115 

Home ... 115 

Hope ... 116 

Hypocrites ... 116 

Hunger the best sauce ...... 118 



Subject. I 


Tage 
119 


111 recompense 

Ill luck ... 


119 


122 


Immodesty ... 

Impossibilities 

Improper friendship 

Improper union 

Inadequate or insufficient help 


122 


123 


125 


126 


126 


127 


Incompetency 

Incongruity ... 

Independence ... 

Indifference ... 


127 


130 

130 


134 


Indulofence ... 


134 


Industry ... 

Infiaence ... 


135 


141 


Inheritance ... .••••. 


141 


Injustice and Oppression ... 

Innocence •.• 


141 


157 


Inopportune acts ...... 

Insignificant or unprofitable business 

Interference ... 


158 


161 


162 


Intoxicating drugs 

Irony ... ..,,.. 

Irretrievable losses 


163 


164 


174 


J 

Jealousy ... ...... 

Joint property 

K 

Kindness ... 


174 


175 

I7(i 


King and his subjects 


176 



Subject. L 
Lame excuse ... 


Page. 
177 


Laziness, Sloth, or Sluggishness 


ISI 


Litigation and Justice 


1«8 


Management (bad) 


101 


Meanness ... 


lOj 


Meritorious acts, goodness, or virtue and honesty 


, IQ/i 


Middle or moderate course 


902 


Miscellaneous 


90^ 


Miser ... 


211 


Mock modesty 


2T2 


Modesty ... 


9iq 


Money ... 


.... 91^ 


Motives ... 


211 


Munificent men & heroes 


2T4. 


Mutability of worldlj' wealth 

Mutual respect 


215 

2]fi 


National unity .... 


217 


Natural capacity or genius ,... 


21 7 


Nature of world and human nature 


917 


New compared with old ... .... 


, 218 


Novelty ... .... 


21Q 




Obstinate and stubborn people .... 


210 


Old aTe ... » .... 


220 


One in distress wishes another to be so ... .... 


200 


One's own deeds etc., never bad .... 


226 


One's own faults and failings .... 


226 


Opportune acts ,,.. 


226 


Opportunity ... 


226 



VI 



Subject. 

Paramours ... 


P 

Q 
R 

on ...... 

:'s deeds 


Page. 
228 


Patience ... 


229 


Patronage ... 


229 


Peculiarities of low hill people 
Perseverence & Determination 


230 


231 


Petty transactions 

Polygamy ... 

Poor people ... 

Poverty ... 

Power and Position 


23r 


236 


237 


242 


244 


Precept and Practice 

Pride and Haunrhtiness 


246 


247 


Prosperity and Affluence ... 

Prostitutes ... 

Prudence and Precaution 

Quarrels and Discords 


252 


256 


257 


286 


289 


Readiness for contingencies 
Regret, repining, or dissatisfacti 
Rejoicing at other's calamity 

Relationship 

Remedy ... 

Reputation ... 

Requitals and retribution 
Responsibility or liability for one 
Ridicule and laughter 
Rivals ... . • 


291 

291 

3oi 


302 


313 


315 


316 


316 


326 


327 


Ruinous and fruitless efforts 


328 



Vll 



Subject. S 
Secrets ... 


Page. 
332 


Self-esteem ... ...... 


333 


Self-help and exertion 

Self-interestednesa 


334 


335 


Selfishness ... ...... ...... 


338 


Rhamelessness ... ...... ...... 


342 


Simpletons ... 

Slanderers and whisperers ... ...... 

Social habits and cnstoms ... ...... 


344 


345 


346 


Societj ... ...... 

Solitary man ... ...... ...... 

Stolen property ...... 

Suspicion ... 

Sympathy ... 

T 

Temptation ... 

Thieves, pick-poctets and bad characters ... 

Things in which one has no concern 

Trust in proridence ...... 

Truth and Sincerity ...... 

IJ 

Unanimity ... ...... ...... 

Unavoidable expences and things ...... 

Uncertainty of life and worldly things 

Ungratefulness ...... 

Unrequited affection ...... ...... 

Usefulness ... ...... ...... 


351 


351 


352 


3^2 


353 


354 


355 


356 


356 


„ 357 


358 


360 


360 


366 


366 


366 


TTsplpssness ••• •««■*• *•"•« 


367 


V 

Vacillation ... ...... ...... 


372 


Vanity, assumption and pretension 

Virtue of necessity r-.-, ...... 

Visiting foreign country ...... 


373 


376 


, 376 



Till 

Suhject. W ^m- 

• 377 

Want of appreciation 

Want of sympathy • ^'^^ 

Wickedness --. • • 

Wilfulness ... l^'^ 

Witness ... •••••• 

^ ... 384 

Women ••• 

Wort and >*ages °°' 

World ^^^ 

. r. 388- 

Appendix ... •••.•• •••••• 



PROVERBS & FOLK-LORE OF KUMAUN 
& GARHWAL 



ABILITY. 

1 ^^ fi[^TT «T58^ f% ^T^ ^TI«iT ^ f5|%T. Sarbi 
sbikara masurai ki dala barabara ke nibo. 

Is not even rotten meat better than ddla o masura {vetch)? 

E. g. Ability, though of a very iuferior kind, is better than 
incompetence. Masura is a kind of pulse. {Lentil urvum Idrsutum 
or cicer lens). 

2 ^I^ ^ ^IT ?TTT51T?T KT^T f^^r %m^. Cbora jai 
mora maranata bbabara rito bai janu. 

If thieves killed peacocks the jungle would have become 
clear of them. 

I. e. If fools are to do the work who will ask for wise tuen ? 

3 ^^T f^^T^ TT''C«TI?T ^T'f ^T 'T^. Kawa sbikara marana 
ta baja ko pala. 

If a crow could hunt, what need could there he for keep- 
ing a falcon? 

Used to show that if illiterate and ignorant people could 
be of use there would be no necessity for getting the services of 
learned and wise people. 

ABSENCE OF MASTER. 

1 5H5.f^f% ^ TiTS g^T 517=^^.. Jakba bili ni takba uiisa 
nacbani. 

When there is no cat mice dance. 

C. f. "When the cat is away the mice will play." People are 
iiable to go wrong when there is no control whatever over them. 

ABSENT MINDEDNESS. 

1 ailf^ ^^f II 5[^T ^ sll^r. Godi mc laraka sbabara 
me dhandola. 



( 2 ) 

The child is in one's arms, but search is made for him 
throughout the town. 

Applied to one's missing a thing' which is near at hand all 
the time — like the old lady looking for her spectacles, which 
are all the time on her own nose. 

2 ■^Tl «IT^ "^^f 'S'^^T^T. Bana banai balada harano. 

The bullock disappeared while in the act of ploughing. 

One wonders at his own carelessness when he loses sight of 
the tool with which he is working. 

ACCIDENT. 

1 ^l«!%f^ ^JZ fS^Wl. Analai ki cliota kanala. 

One who aimed at the anald {i. e. the lower edge of a field) 
hit the kandld {i. e. the upper edge). 

Applied to some attempt which has resulted differently from 
what was intended or expected. 

2 ^^T^T %j ^T1% ^13 ^I 5^*T. Ba3'ala ko lagano bota 
ko dhalanu. 

The tree fell down as the wind bleio. 

E. g. An old rotten tree fell before the blast of an ordinary 
wind. Used by an innocent person saying that he was blamed for 
nothing, for the ruin or catastrophe was certain to occur. Every 
effect must have a cause. People must find an explanation (in a 
wrong sense) for every misfortune. 

ADVERSITY. 

1 ^jw ^I ?:rT^T fTfT^T Tl'flt "^'5 ^T ^Z^ ^fT^l. Nawa 
nau itaro tataro pani pena ko phutyun pataro. 

Such a gi eat name and such a great fame but a broken 
vessel {lota) to drink xoater with. 

Applied by one who bemoans present adversiiy followinof 
former prosperity. 

2 l[^ f^^^ ^^^ *fi^ ^^r M^^ ^^ fsr^'sTT. Eka 
rikha ki dara le bhurha paitho wan tina rikha nikala. 



{ 3 ) 

To save himstlffrom one bear he entered a hedge where 
he found three. 

Out of the frying pan into the fire. 

Tborhi udhariyo jyada udharalo jo sudharano lagai so 

puro h olo. 

The portion of the wall which has given way is sure to fall, 
and also to fall further ; and the portion which is being built 
or repaired is sure to be finished. 

C. f. Adversity and prosperity do not come alone but in 
train." "It never rains but it pours." 

4 ^Tf^3l4')' '^ir TI^ ^^Wf^ jf^ ^T?/. Ghara ki jali bana 
gayun bana men duni aga. 

Being burnt out of my home I fed to the jungle where I 
found a fire twice as fierce. 

C. f. "Out of the frying pan into the fire. 

5 ^Tf% 5»*IT ^^T ^f^T. Thori jaga gilo ato. 
Narrow quarters and thin gruel. 

Used to denote wretched circumstances. 

6 »fit^ 'if?^ IT ^T^T^ SRTT ^TH^. Pbanda phutali ta 

karadorhi kya thambhali. 

If the stomach is ruptured, the waist chain {worn by mcfi 
as an ornament) will not be able to -tupport it. 

This means that if one's fate is adverse his friends and 
relatives cannot help him : they are only ornaments in prosperity. 

7 cRH'^^'at ^T ^T^T ^%T« Kamabakhati ko ato gilo. 

The dough of an unlucky man is too thin to irmke 
bread with. 

I. e. Nothing prospers in the hand of an unlucky man. 
Illustrated by the following story : — 

There was a family which consisted of husband, wife, and 
son. The family' being in very poor circumstances began to 



( 4 ) 

offer their prayers and penances to Maliodeva a god who seeing 
their sustained piety and devotion was pleased with them. 
He appeared to them and said be would grant one boon t* 
each. On this they asked permission to be allowed to 
present their requests the next day, accordingly the wife asked 
that she might become a queen ; instantly she became a most 
beautiful woman. Just then a king passing by that way became 
enamoured of her, and carried her off. After this the husband's 
turn came, He on hearing that his wife had been taken away by 
the king, was sore distressed and moved the deity to ■ change his 
•wife (who had already become a q-ae.en) into a sow and send her 
to him. This also eame to pass. After this the son, who saw 
what had happened before to his' father and mother, went t* 
Mahadeva and said that he wanted nothing but to have his 
mother become the wife of his father as befere. The deity 
granted this also-. 

ADVICE (BAD.) 

1 rf^T ^X ^Tf% ?i^T ^^ ^^' Tero ghara halidyuBlo 
main ke delai. 

What wiliyou give me if I ruin your house 1 
Applied to one vfho gives bad advice. 

AGGRAVATION OF EVILS. 

1 ^r'^TTT ^<!!« Dada ma lima. 

Applying salt to a hum, 

"To add insult to iniu^3^" 

Used by one whose feelings are hurt when he is in- distress-. 

2 »rfx:^T ^I^T '^'t^T '^%T^T« Marija syapa ka ankba? 
kbachorana. 

To prick the eyes of a dead snake. 

Applied to one who slanders or insults an enemy who is 
dead or is m distress or poverty. Hitting a man when he is down. 

AGRICULTURE. 

1 g^Tl^^lft ^^^ ^'S^ '^'SZ '^TWi^ f^^2 ^I»J. Uttam=* 
kk^ti madbyama bannja akbata cbakari bikata joga. 



( 5 ) 

Agriculture is best, cominerce comes next, service is full of 
trouble, but the life of an ascetic is the most difficult of all. 

Advice to all to follow the professions of agriculture and 
commerce, and dissuading them from taking service, or becoming 
hermits. 

2 tjj^ ^VT«!»Ti:^ ■^T5iT td Jigi»r« Dhana padbana madnwa 
raja gyun gulania. 

Rice the head man, millet the king, and wheat the slave. 

Applied by hill people to indicate the A'arying amounts of 
their staple crops. Also interpreted thus, that the paddy is sold 
and the proceeds of it go to the head-man of the village in payment 
of revenue or rent : the wheat is utilized in satiifying Chaprdsi» 
(peons) and government messengers &c, whereas the millet is the 
only support of the family. 

3 5T %T ^^T "l^^ %T ^^T. Dura ko sero najika ko kero. 

Irrigated fields at a distance are of no more value than 
the small plots of ground near the house. 

The plots close to one's house are as valuable as irrigated^ 
land which is far off, inasmuch as it requires more trouble andl 
expense to cultivate it. 

4 ^^T ^ ■^l^.'^TII ^1T^. Maila ki bala khaya kl gala. 
Manure produces fine crops and good food fat cheeks. 

Spoken in praise of good tillage and generous diet. 

5 iffTf 'a^T %fTT« Kheti khasama seti. 

The tillage {prospers only) when the master is there, or it 
veeds clase personal attention. 

Applies to other business also. 

6 ^^^J TT5IT «r^ ^%T fT^ *T15jr. Maduwa raja jaba sekaiB 
taba taja. 

Maduwd {millet) is a king, for itbecomes fresh when h^emtedL 

Poor people make bread of the maduwa flour which they 
take with them on a journey. They heat the eakes before they 
eat them. This process makes lliem as fresh as if they were 
eooked at the moment. 



( 6 ) 

7 ^t:^ '^r{ %j QTTT^ 73. Barklie liyun ta ko samala 

gyun. 

1/ snow falls, who will be able to gathei' in all the wheat ! 
(eV will be so plentiful). 

This is applicable to high table lands ; for the rain that falls 
there runs down the slopes, but the snow melts gradually and 
soaks into the ground, and thus causes better crops. 

8 H^ ^■^ '^^ TT5I« Mala kbeti bala raja. 

The tillage depends on manure, and the reign on 
strength {^army). 

Used to appreciate the power of manure. 

ALTERNATIVES. 

1 ^% fsi^^T ^^^^ f^TT^^ ^i ^%^ ^\W^m ^I^r HIT 

%% ^^^r 31^ ^1 ITT' Jfiiie ni dekho syii u dekha biralu, 

jaile ni dekhi bau u deklia .bau ko bhai, jaile ni dekho 

thaga u dekha nai. 

Whoever is anxious to see a tiger, or a bride or a cheat 
should gratify his curiosity by looking at their miniatures — 
viz, a cat, the bride s brother, and a barber. 

This is quoted when for some greater thing or business 
a lesser is made to answer. E. g. if a priest prescribes a buffalo 
for sacrifice the man offers only a cook. 

ANGER. 

1 ^'^T'^^T ^T^T^* Gussa barho hosyara. 

Anger is very wise. 

I. E. Anger breaks out against one's subordinates, not 
against those who are one's superiors. 

2 =^%isrT ^T^TfT ^T^ ^^^OT ^T^r"^* Chabauna ka danta 
aura dekhuna ka aura. 

The molar teeth are different from those that are seen. 

To show one's teeth represents anger, but to grind the teeth 
is a sion of great rage — represents different degrees of anger. 



f 7 ) 

apani mo buddbi khowa birani mo. 

Anger ruins one's own family, but wisdom that of 
one's enemy. 

Caution against losing one's temper. 



BANIYAS OR SHOP-KEEPERS. 

1 JJ^I.'g \j Jfill f%?lT >ff^^ ^'5 f^'^J' Gangoli ko kana- 

kiya bhali kai dana kiya. 

This man who brinfis flour {to sell) is of Gangoli (a par- 
gana of the Kamaun district) you should cheat him well. 

A resilient of Ganjroli, though seemingly simple, is very 
cnnning. Once a man of Gangoli brought some flour to Almora 
for sale. The Baniya who was to buy it had received a hint from 
his friend (another Baniya) in the words of the proverb, "to deceive 
him well." The man, though he understood the hint, kept silent, 
keeping his own counsel, but when he sold his flour and received 
the price, he replied to the baniyas as below, and disappeared. 

2 jri5ijf€ ^r^T^r ^^"^ ^rz ^i% ^^ ^z ^r^r* Grangoii ko 

lato pancha banta khadi eka banta ato. 

The dumb {simpleton's of Oangoli {who has brought) 
5 parts of powdered chalk mixed with one part o real flour 
for sale. 

This mortified the Baniyas and gave them a good lesson. 

Illustration. This trait extends even to the 'bullocks of 
Gangoli. A story is related that once a Gangoli bullock was pitted 
aoainst another bullock, the contest consisting in drinkins from a 
pool. The animal which drank the most water was to be declared 
the victor. The Gangoli bullock kept his mouth in the water 
feigning to drink without intermission. The other animal thinking 
his antagonist was continually drinking exerted himself to the 
utmost, and, being unable to endure the strain, fell down and died, 

3 '^f5?l7 % ^^I^r "^r^r* Baniya hai sayano baulo. 

Any man more acute than a Bania (merchaiit) is a 
madman. 



( 8 ) 

Another name for a Bania is "Sau" or "Saha" which also 
means one hundred, and so villagers say he is called "Sau ' because 
he has a hundred cunning ways. 

4 %T^ Jl"? ?^T^r W> ^^. ^^« Sau jyu gurba kliawau 
lekba, lekha, lekha. 

Sir, come and eat some treacle ! tvrite it down, write 
it down, write it down ! 

(The Baniya invites a simple fellow to come and eat his 

wares ; but at the same time instructs his servants to make an 

entry in the account-book against him, for the price of the 

article eaten). An ironical phrase used against Banij-as, who 

are outwardly very polite when offering their commodities for 

sale, but internally wishing to deceive their customers or visitors 
or guests. 

5 ^-^sj % ^^\m ^f^igj ^f^^T % ^?ITWT I^IT. Sabana hai 

sayano Baitiya Baniya bai sayano gawara. 

The Baniya who is most sly is exceeded by a villager 
in craft. 

I. c. The Banij'a is the most cunning of all, but he is no 
match for a villager. 

This is used to imply that no one can cheat a Baniya 
except a villager, or that no respectable man can cheat a Baniya 
(shop-keeper). 

6 5TT ^^T %r I^T ^?T *fiT« Kurba paitbo sau garba 
paitbo jbau. 

The entry of a Baniya into one's house and that of jhau 
{a kind of wild plant which overgrows fields) into a field 
{is ruinous). 

Applied to debt contracted, or credit accounts entered into 
with a Baniya, since the transaction will surely ruin the person 
concerned, just as a single plant of Jhau rooting itself in a field 
will overgrow the whole field. 

BETRAYERS. 

1 K^T ^I^T % >TT1T ^^K ^IIT^ ^^r^rTK ^m?;. Bbalo 
holo kai Bha2;a bulai Bbaga le bhadra men taf lajrai. 



f 9 ) 

Bhdgd was sent for in order to do good, but she on the 
contrary put the pan on the fire in an inauspicious moment. 

The cooking of sweetmeats for festivities such as tonsure 
marriage &c, &c, must be commenced in an auspicious moment. 
"Bhadra" is an unlucky portion of a certain day or night which 
is always avoided by consulting an almanack. Used of one who, 
being depended on for help, betrays one. 

2 »l^ ^^K tz TT^^T* Grurha dibera inta marano. 

To allure one with gui'ha (treacle) and then to smite him 
with a bric'c. 

Applied to one who betrays another after having taken him 
into his confidence. Such persons are generally likened to a jar 
which is full of poison, but a little milk is put on the top of the 
jar to tempt people with. 

3 »l^ cRj m^ f^^f^T' Crurlia ka satha bikha dino. 
With the sweet, poison is given. 

A pleasant manner covering an intention to deceive. 

BITTER FEELINGS. 

1 ^f%3 vr2 ^^l 5^« Aditha bheta dukhana thesa. 

We are sure to meet with a man we dislike and hate, and a 
sore part of the body is sure to be hit. 

2 ^ifT ^^^ ■^I^'tt ^T^TT l\^ ^T. Paile ta ullu basa ni 
basa ta gu khaun kara. 

Owls generally remain silent, but whenever they open their 
mouths they make a very melancholy and horrid sound. 
A gruff and surly person. 

3 ^g|t ^T ^^ 5)^r 'ntrgfl- ^ v;m »fiT?r« TelcLi ko 
tela jalau masbalachi kl gana phatau. 

The master's oil is being used, but the torch-bearer is afraid 
of wasting it. 

Applied to one who is jealous of another's generosity. 

B 



( 10 ) 

4 TT51T %1 ^TT 5iT^ V%Til %T f%^T ^TZT. Raja ko 

bhandara jawa mnhata ko liiyo phatau. 

As the treasure of a king is being spent the heart of the 
treasurer is rent. 

This refers to one who prevents another from giving to a 
third person, or his being benefitted by another. 

Story : Once a king gfive an order for a Inrge sum of money to 
be given to a poor mjin, who taking the order went to the treasurer 
to ask for the money. The treasurer having refus^ed payment 
wrote back on the order to the king saying that the sum ordered 
to be paid was too much, a king ought to store money to be used 
in time of distress. The man took the paper back to the king, who 
wrote on the same paper that a fortunate man hns no distress at all, 
and sent it again to the treasurer, who returned it to the kine, having 
written on it thus "If ntr.ny time God f fortune) should forsake you ?" 
The king rend the remarks of his treasurer, and wrote on the paper 
again, "If God is against me at any time, the wealth will also 
vanish " As soon as the treasurer read the final order he was quite 
convinced of the truth of the king's remark, and paid the money. 
Hence the proverb. 

BRAVERY & COURAGE. 
1 ''?f^?rr %^ ^JfT Ml^r* Bali3^a deklii bliutabbajau 

A ghost even flies before a strong man. No one can 
oppress the strotig. 

Once a man having become bankrupt left his village 
and went away to another country with his family and 
goods iu search of a livelihood. One night he happened 
to stop at a |il ice where dead bodies were burnt, callfd 
'"Shamashana" which is supposed to be full of ghosts and evil 
spirits. As soon as the night came on a murderous ghosl a[)peared 
before him. Tiie mafi at once told his daugnter-in-law to bind the 
ghost. She lost no tiuic in running after him with a cord for the 
purpose. He also told his son and wife to cut off the lieid of the 
ghost. As soon as thev got this order from the old man they both 
ran after the ghost with a sword and an axe, and having caught 
him were ab lut to behead him. The ghost implored them, and 
said if thev Sfiared him he would shew them five jars of gold 
coin buried in a certain place. On this the old man was shewn 
the place and took possession of the money, and then told the 
members of his family to let the ghost go uninjured. Thus 
having possessed himseif of the wealth the man returned to his 



( 11 ) 

home, where be began to live comfortnbly. This procedure of his 
struck his neighbours with nmnzpinent and suspicion as to how 
he hiid become rich. On close enquiry the story leaked out to 
some one who bad become very envious of the old man. The 
envious m;in having come to know bow the other man became 
rich, sold bis house and land to others and went away with his 
family to the s[)Ot haunted by the ghost. As the night came on 
the devil appeared before him ; he told bis dangliter-in-law to 
have him bound, but she fled away and bid her fice ; he al«o at 
the same time told his wife and son to cut off the ghost's bead, 
but they also ran away for fear of the ghost. The man himself 
was also frightened at his appearance, and thus the ghost, seeing 
them all timid and cowardly, killed them one by one. This illustra- 
tion is also applied to the following proverbs. 

1 He who is not afraid of dving will do every thing 
fvide under the head "Uonsolation and Encouragement''J. 

2 He who is afraid will die, (vide under the head •"Consola- 
tion and Encouragement''). 

2 ?Tr"'ct fl^^TT 51TT JT^^TT. ^laritalawaranamaguladara. 

Whoever wields a sword is called Guladdra ( a cliief). 

Thi-i is applied to a soldier (hero. J and also to one who does 
mischief and is therefore dreaded and cilled a champion. 

3 a*^f % ^T^ ^TlR f^^l^fsT. Junwan ki darale "ha- 
gari nikholini. 

One should not take off her shirt for fear of lice. 
Caution against unnecessary alarm. 

4 gJT^^^T^W^^^ ^^T ^1* Tumale cliucbo pechha 
maile ke ghuno pechliai. 

Did you alone suck the breast of your viofier ? and did I 
suck the Jcnee of my mother instead of her breast ? 
Used to intimidate. Are you a man and am I not ? 

5 ^TTTf% tiT^^T i ^15 ^T^TTX: %rfH liT^r. Namardi 
Parmeshwara le decbha mara mara taubhi kauno. 

God has made you a coward, but why do you not threaten 
to beat 1 



( 12 ) 

I. E. Brave words sometimes frighten people. They should 
be used to effect one's purpose. 

Story : Once a he-goat in spite of the remonstrance of his 
master, an agriculturist, went to a jungle in the evening. While 
in the jungle he was seen by a leopard, who followed him, and 
asked him, "Why do you wander in the jungle at night ?" To this 
the goat said, "I have killed many elephants, but I am now in 
search of a leopard, that 1 may kill him also." At this the leopard 
took fright. On hearing the conversation a jackal went after the 
leopard and said ''Shame to j'ou, leopard, that you are frightened 
by a goat. Let us go and kill the goat." To this the leopard 
said, "0 Jack^il, you are a very sly creature, and consequently not 
worthy of confidence, the goat is such a hero that he has killed 
many elephants." To this jackal rejoined "If you do not trust 
me, let us tie our tails together so that we may help each other in 
time of need, and kill the goat, which is a tasty morsel for both of 
us." After this they both set off to kill the goat. As soon as the 
goat saw these two fierce animals approaching him he said, 
"Well, my dear friend jackal^ you have done well in bringing the 
leopard to me, for I have just come here in search of him." This 
speech so frightened the leopard that he fled towards a precipice, 
while the jackal ran towards the goat. But, owing to the leopard 
being a stronger animal, he dragged the jackal with him, and 
falling down the steep precipice both were killed. This story also 
explains the proverb "The taste of eating "AuidaT fa wild fruit 
used for medicines) and the reason of an old man's warning are 
experienced afterwards." Vide under head "Old People." 

BRIBERY & GIFTS. 

1 "^tf^ ^T ^T^T TT^^T. Chandi ko joto mdrana. 
To beat a man with a silver shoe. 

Applied generally to getting a purpose accomplished through 
bribery, gifts, or by offering rewards. 

2 <qj^ ^j ^^3 "nill^T ^W. Chandl ko mekha tamasho 
dekha. 

Drive in a silver nail and see wonders wrought. 

The power of money, which is called the "Assistant God." 

3 wi^ ^ ^^3 ^W ^^ ^IVm k\^tf. Mirdagga ka 
mukha lepa le bhali awaja auncbhya. 



( 13 ) 

The kettledrum sounds well when its mouth is smeared 
with flour. 

By giving alms or bribes you can get any amount of praise. 

4 mjf^ ^T^ ^^^ f^'TTT* Khali hatha mukha me 
nijanu. 

An empty hand {fingers with no food in them) does 
not go into the mouth. 

Natives of India convey their food to their mouths 
■with their fingers, in other words, they do not ' enter the mouth 
without food, i.e. one will not thrust his fingers into his mouth except 
when taking food. 

No one will do any work without remuneration ; or used by 
one who is unwilling to do work without wages as an excuse 
for his denial. 



CALAMITY. 

1 ^1T ^ ^r^T* H"^^^ tTI^^« TJpara me chapara, ukala 
me takula. 

Sorrow upon sorrow, perplexity upon perplexity. 

E. g. One calamity or perplexity treading upon the beels of 
another. "Misfortunes never come single." 

2 ^^ f% TIT ^'^X •! 'BIT' Daiba ki mara khabarana sara. 

A judgment from God — one cannot provide against or 
remedy it. 

Applied to sudden loss without any opportunity of remedying 
or preventing it. 

3 ^T"<^ "^^l f^<'r T''C'!I« Thati harana pita marana. 

Birthright gone and father dead. 

An overwhelming calamity. This is also used to represent 
that the death of one's father is as ruinous as the confiscation 
of his hereditary home. 



( u ) 

Kakha ten bodun bipata ki bata eka eka bipata nau 

nau hatha. 

How shall T describe my misfortunes ? Each of them is 
nine cubits long. 

Used by one complaining of great mi9fortunes. 

CASTE. 

1 «T»II^ '3^3 »i]^ 1]^ f^l'J^^* Ma gala sahewa gotra 

gala ni sahewa. 

One can tolerate the slandering of his mother, but not 
that of his caste. 

Showing the high estimate in which caste is held. 

CHARACTER. 

1 'StzT ^r ^^amr ^2T ^T 'ir"^ ^I'ar. Beta kya dekhano 

beta ka yara dekhana. 

A sons character is to be judged by the character of his 
companions. 

2 y^j^^j ?lff ^TT^ TT^ST. Dhanun ko ganwa parala 

ten siijha. 

A village in which paddy is grown can be recognized by 
the straw it has produced. 

3 5IT^ %T^T ^fiWfV ^1^ 5liwt ^I^ ^mr SIT?. Nam£ 

eaukara kamaya khawa nami chora pakarha jawa. 

A noted merchant earns more and more, but a reputed 
thief will be arrested again and again. 

C. f. "Give a dog a bad name and hang him." 



( 15 ) 

4 »jf ^r ^'3'n*& ^I*f» Gaun ko lakshyana gyunda ten. 

The condition of a village is known by the path which 
leads to it. 

A man's character is known by his conduct. 

5 ^i^ ^T ^fT 'll?nf^^« Handi ko sita pachhyanida. 
The potful ot rice is judged by one grain taken out of it 

(as to whether the whole potful is well cooked or not). 

A man's character or disposition is known from a single deed. 

6 ^^'jl^ "^TW n/%3 ^T^. Jaiki chha bata taiki chha 
Bakba. 

Otily a man of good repute is trusted by all. 

So one ought to be very careful that his character should 
remain stainless. 

7 ^nn ^^7{ s! VT^T ^ITT. Sauna saputa na bhado kaputa. 

Neither is Sawana {July) a good son, nor Bhddo {August) 
a bad son. 

Used in comparing two characters equally noted for wickedness. 

8 ^T^ ^^T •! W^T ^^T« Sauna sukho na bhado haro. 
Neither Sauna (July) is dry, nor Bhddo (August) green. 

Used in comparing two characters equally noted for wickedness. 

9 fiit^^TiT ^ fTT'JWr ^^^'^ ^ ^^"^T* Tapyun gbama • 

ke tapano dekhyun mainsa ke dekhano. 

He who has felt the heat of the sun knows what sunshine 
is, and he who has once had dealings with a man knows 
what his character is. 

10 ^l^RT ^^lil 1^12 '^Z• Gaun ka lacbhyana (laksbyana) 
galyatba bati. 

One can foretell the condition of a village from the path 
leading to it. 

A man's character is evident from his dealings. 



( 16 ) 
CHARITY & ALMS. 

1 '^^tlfT Tt3T^17T« Rakba pata rakhawa pata. 

Be charitable to others, and you will he treated charitably. 

This is generally used in exhorting one not to expose the 
faults of others, so that they should do the same to you. 
C. f. "Judge not that ye be not judged." 
"Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy." 
The story related below illustrates the proverb. 
Story : One morning in the month of May, the Emperor 
Akabara the great, his son, and Birabara his prime minister went 
out for a walk together. They walked several miles. As soon as 
the sun had risen the monarch felt his cloak heavy and relieved 
himself of it by putting it on the shoulder of Birabara. As soon 
as he had done this, his son also followed his father's example. 
On this the Emperor looking at Birabara said ironically that the 
load was enough for one ass. To this remark Birabara said, "No 
sire, the load I am bearing is properly speaking the load of two 
asses. "Tit for tat." 

2 ^T^T ^ "^["IT^^I^T ^T^I^. Adara ka cbana be- 

adara ka dakba. 

Even gram given with courtesy is better than grapes 
bestowed with contempt. 

I. e. A little given kindly is better than much bestowed 
■with harshness or disdain. 

"Every man according as he purposeth in his heart, so let 
him give : not grudgingly, or of necessity ; for God loveth a 
cheerful giver" (2 Corin. 9. 7). 

3 ^^ ^ vt^ f^% ^5^^^ ^cT f%$T* Bbikba me 

bbikba dino tiaa loka jita lino. 

He who gives alms out of what he has received as alms 
{begged) wins three worlds. 

This proverb is generally quoted to encourage a poor person 
to give alms, or support others. 

4 >jfii iflWT ^TTTT; ^^T' Bbuji bono satai dino. 

To bestow an alms after many repulses is like sowing 
parched gi-ain {i. e. bears no good fruit). 



( 17 ) 

This is applied to one who gives help to another after 
putting him to great trouble and inconvenience. This kind of 
giving will meet with no reward (merit), just as parched grain 
will not grow. -C. /. "He doubles his gift, who gives in time." 
"He gives twice, that gives in a trice." "The Lord loveth a 
cheerful giver." 

5 ^^^t S«li f% ^'T ^t W«li (%• Swarga son teka ni dharma 
son chheka ni. 

Heaven {the sky) needs no props, and a virtuous act needs 

no special time, or alms need no future promises, {for its 

performance). 

This is used to encourage one to do good deeds without 
procrastination. 

6 ^^T ^"Si ^T%T ^r^T^« Jaiko chunna ui ko punya. 

The reward is his who gives ( the flour ) not of the one 

who receives. 



Used to encourage charity. 



7 fs!^ ejci ^ef[f ^^. Dinyun dana thukyun thuka. 

An alms once given, is as phlegm which has been ex- 
pectorated, not worth tahing back. 

8 si^T ilj^j ?T^T'3^T^T« Jaso bolo taso lawalo. 
As much as yoxh sow so much you will reap. 

Applied only to giving charities. In a future existence one 
will be blessed in proportion to one's gifts in this life. "Whatsoever 
a man soweth that shall he also reap." (Gal. 6,7.) 

Illustration. Once there was a poor, simple, and virtuous 
beggar living with his wife in a town. He used to earn only three 
clihatdks (six ounces) of flour a day, whether he begged at five 
houses or fifty, but never more. One day, when they bad 
cooked 1\ cakes with the three chhatdks of flour, a saint arrived 
there who said that he was very hungry. They gave him the l^ 
ready-made cakes, which the saint ate and departed. The hermit 
then went to God and interceded for the poor man, but God shewed 
him the account Book and said that, since he had given only 
1| Rupees in his former existence, he was not entitled to more 
than what he received, and, if he got that 1 J Rupees at one time, 

C 



( 18 ) 

after thai he would get nothing more. The kind-hearted saint 
then petitionod God to let him have the H Rupees :it once, and 
God ijave it to him. Then tlie saint came biick to earth again 
and advised the poor mnn th;it the 1 ^Rupees should be spent on 
charity, ;ind whatever he got rhereatter should also be devoted 
to the help of poor jiorsons. The beggar did ns he was told. The 
very next day having s|ient 1^ Rupees on charity he earntd Rs- 3. 
and, this sum also having been given to poor ])eople, the next day 
he got JRft- (5. in this way as his income increaserl he increased 
Lis alms also, sjiending all that he received on charity. Alter thLs 
the same saint went to p.nradise again and saw God in the form of 
an old man sitting in a bending posture. On his enquiring the 
cause of tliis, God said that the man who had received 1-J iinpees, 
some days ago, had becouie very charitable and that whatever 
he got he gave it awaj' to the poor, and that his charity had thus 
put a heavy burden upon himself After this the saint came to the 
man again, and s.id that he was a very pious man and pave him 
advice a* to his saving something for times of netd. The man 
being puffed up with ])i-ide began to withhold his hand fi-om 
charity, an(i the consequence was he became poor again very soon. 
6'./. '-Much is expected when much is given." "As you sow, 
so you shuil reap." 

9 >T^7 ^i7?T ^"^^igsf^ SHi[^« Bhala kama aibana kani 
dhnkani. 

The good deeds of a man cover his imperfections. 
C- /• '"Charity covereth a multitude of sins." 

10 ^^T ^Tf^ ^1 ^^T ^3 ^^T ^Tf^ ^^ ^31 f^"^' ^^"sa 

gliani laL'ai dula paitha kawa gliani lagai desha phira. 

Put a hell on a crow and he files to distant limits ; put a 
hell on a. mouse and he run-^ to his hole. 

Used to induce people to extend their charities to strangers. 
If vou do a kindness to a stranger he will praise you for it far 
and wide ; if you help a fellow countryman he will be ashamed 
to sj.eak about it and will keep silent. 

11 fe^"^ % f^Wi^"^ '^^T- Dinera bai diwonera barho. 

The person who induces another to give is hetter than tlie 
giver ( himself). 

Used as an inducement to charity. 



( 19 ) 
CHASTITY & UNCHASTITY. 

1 ^r^r ^^W '^T^ i^ ^(%r "^^^T '^J^' ^'-^^ t^^ apana apa ni 
rau tau apnna bapa. 

A woman loill remain chaste herself, hut not by her 
father's command. 

I. e. only her own sense of honour can be depended on. 

2 cf^T ^TW "^1^ WZT •^^^ -^X :?[?? "^rl; ^zr- Buba 
ghara tau cbarai kliuta buba gbara nata charai khuta. 

When my father is at home my mother is a quadruped and 
when he is away still she is the same. 
An unchaste woman. 

3 TI^ ^t^ ^ oftfT '^''C'^fT' Eanda sanda ki kya paratita. 

A icoman and a bidlock are not to be trusted. 

I. e. Neither the chastity of a woman nor the behaviour of a 
bull can always be depended on. 

4 ^^^ ^T^t^fT '^Wii' ^ '^fT* Syaini le kbola danta 

baika le pai anta. 

When a woman shoivs her teeth ( spealcs ) man finds 
her motive. 

Used to show the impropriety of a woraan conversing with 
men, as it is not the custom among nntive women to converse freely 
with men other than their own relatives. 

CHEATS. 

1 ^T^'t)- ^sj^ ■^J\■^■[ ^j^ f?lJT^^r' Lalcbi desba me 

basfarba bbukha ni luarana. 

Cheats never staive in an avaricious country. 

This is applied to one who is teinnted to lay out money at 
intffrest in an unsafe speculation by offers of high interest. The 
story noted below illustrates the proverb. In a certain citv a 
cheat once borrowed a small vessel from a rich merchant for 
cooking his food, and after making use of it returned the vessel 
in the evening with another new vessel smaller than the first one 



( 20 ) 

The merchant took back his own, but refused the other. On thi^ 
the cheat said that he could not help it, as his (the merchants') own 
vessel had given birth to it, and it justly belonged to him. After 
this argument the merchant was glad to take the other vessel, 
alleged to be the offspring of his own vessel. Such a bargain was 
repeated by the cheat several times, entirely to the profit of the 
merchant, who in the meantime became quite convinced of the 
man's honesty. Latar on the cheat began to borrow from him 
many things of higher value and returu them (with the several 
offspring of each) iu the same way as he used to do with the 
smaller things. Finally one day the cheat pretended that there 
was a marriage in his family, for which he wanted to borrow much 
jewellery and many silver vessels-; the merchant without any 
hesitation lent him all he had ; the cheat took them all away as- 
usual, and never appeared again. 

2 ^ef^i % STjeut' Sabana hai thaga nal. 
A barber is the greatest cheat of all. 

Used to represent the craft of a barber. The following story 
illustrates the pioverb. 

Illustration. Among the 36 arts and crafts a certain king: 
was skilled in 35. He went to an ascetic to learn the 36th or the 
art of metamorphosing. Contrary to the advice of his ministers- 
he took with him a barber who was a favourite of his. Though 
the king learnt the art in secret, the barber somehow managed ta 
become acquainted with it, but feigned ignorance. Once at night 
he entreated the king to shew him the wonders of the 36th art 
that he had learnt. The king accordingly after instructing the 
barber to constantly fan his body when he left it, and to prevent 
its being touched by a single fly, left his own body and entered into- 
that of a parrot, and turned the jungle into a large city full of men, 
women, elephants, horses, camels &c. In the meantime the 
barber lost no time fas be had also- learnt the art) in entering the' 
kino-"s body and returning to the metropolis. He began to reign 
over the country, but the Prime Minister of the empire perceived 
that some other soul had entered into the king's body. As hi3- 
own body was already taken possession of by the barber, the king 
remained a parrot. He was caught by a fowler, but entreated the- 
fowler to spare him, promising him nine lacs of rupees as a reward.- 
The fowler did not kill him, but took him to a great city for sale^ 
and, while there, took the parrot to a meeting of literary men. 
All of them were very much surprised at the parrot, and at 
the knowledge of science and literature which he displaj'ed. One- 
of the richest of the savans paid nine lacs of Rupees few 



( 21 ) 

ihe parrot and bought him. The parrot's fame for learning 
soon spread far and wide, and eventaally reached the Prime 
Minister of the said kingdom, who came to the city and saw the 
parrot and found him no less wonderful than fame had reported. 
The Vizier then gave many jewels and immense wealth to the 
rich man, who in return presented him with the parrot. Thereupon 
the Yizier, returning to his own country, took occasion to say 
to the false king, "Sire, you were wont formerly to assume the 
disguise of various animals, but I do not understand why you da 
not now do so." On this the new king to prevent suspicion 
ordered a ram-fight, and having caused one animal to be suffocated, 
entered its body, and began to fight with the real ram, thereupon 
the real king left the body of the parrot and entered into his 
former body. Hence the proverb that a barber is an emblenj 
of a cheat. 

CLEAR. CONSCIENCE. 

1 'R'^nT'T ^Zrf^ ^ 'i^T* Mana changa ta kathauti me 

Gano;a. 

To a pure mind the water in a shoe-mahers washbowl is as 
pure as the Ganges' water. (This water is considered so 
unclean that if a drop of it touches a Brahman he will fast 
for three days before he is considered a clean person). 

This proverb is generally made use of to show strong faith. 
It has its origin in the story related below. 

A shoe-maker named Eai Das is said to have been a 
very pious man. Whenever he knew of any one going on a 
pilgrimage to Hardwar he was in the habit of sending through 
him two pice as a present to the Ganges, on the condition that 
she (the Ganges^ would put forth her hand to receive it. Once 
the present was sent through a poor Brahman. After having re- 
ceived the shoe-maker's present, the Ganges, pitying the Brahman's 
poverty, presented him with a single gold bracelet which was 
richly embroidered and beautifully made. The Brahman being 
nnable to sell that bracelet was at last obliged to take it to a 
king for sale. The king bought it at the price demanded by the 
Brahman and sent it to his queen consort, who was so highly 
pleased with it that she insisted on having another one of the 
same make. The Brahman was consequently commanded t» 
produce another at the risk of bis life. The Brahman went to the 
Ganges and prayed to her, but in vain. After that he went to- 
Eai Das, and representing the case to him, begged him to save his 
life. Rai Das prayed to the Ganges and plunged his hand in his 



( 22 ) 

water pot (in which he used to soak his leather), and brought up 
another bracelet of the same kind, and gave it ta the Brahman 
to present to the king. 

Kathauti means a wooden cup. C. f. "To the pure all 
things are pure." 

COMFORTS & DISCOMFORTS. 

1 ^JIT f^'^ '^'T «fvr« Huna ta gyun runa kyun. 

If there had been a good crop of wheat^ why should 1 
complain ? 

E. g. No one cries or complains without some cause of 
suffering. 

2 ^f^ TT^ ^f^ ^I^. Eundi randa chundi panda. 
A weeping woman and a leaking upper story. 

Applied to persons or things that become very troublesome-. 
C /. "It is better to dwell in the wilderness than with a conten- 
tious and an angry woman." "Continual dropping in a very rainy 
day, and a contentious woman are alike." 

3 ^^ ^5j ri^i" ^*l. Jaiki jwe nai taiko kwe nai. 
He who has no wife has no one, 

I. E. A man without a wife has no comfort. 

4 ^f •IT ^f^ r^f^^T ^I^WT "?^I« Chadhana buni ligayo 
bokano parho. 

One has to carry the horse, which he had procured for the 
purpose of riding, on his own shoulders. 

Applied to bad trade or business, or to work which instead 
of being profitable proves tc be ruinous. 

5 ^TTrf ^I"'; ^^T' -A.ga ten angara mitho. 
Eed coals are better than a blazing jire. 

This means that moderate and lasting comforts are better 
than those of a more imposing kind and of a transient nature. 



( 23 ) 

6 <3ZTT ^ 'T^'T. Khatai mc parhanu. 

To be immersed into acid. 

A hobble. A nasty business. One entangled in an un- 
necessary trouble, and being unable to rid himself of it ironically 
■uses this phrase. Acid is representative of inconvenience and 
trouble. 

7 Wi^ ^^3 rT €t ^^ 'sf^T ^^3 fT ^T ^^t* KLandi bakhata 
kl kala sinda bakhata ko dliunwan. 

Quarrelling at dinner and srnoke at bed-time. 
Sources of discomfort. 

COMMON PROPERTY. 

1 JITT ^T 5I^T y^% RJ^T* Garba ko cbbalo dbura 

ko palo. 

The banks of a river and the vegetation of a mountain 
peak. 

Applied to denote that these things are nobody's property, 
every one having a common right to them. 

CONSOLATION & ENCOURAGEMENT. 

1 ^iST f% "^9 ^JWl f^ 'at^* Hnna ki risa jana ki kbfsa. 

One on the increase is envied, and one on the decline is 
laughed at. 

Used to console people concerned on appropriate occasions. 

2 ^Tfrr ^^ "zir^T ^TfS' ^fji^JiT:!' Auta dbana pyaro 
kodhi jyu. pyaro. 

Wealth is dear to a childless man, life is dear to a leper. 

This is spoken ironically of the above defects. A person 
having no descendants consoles himself with his wealth, and in 
the same way a leper having no enjoyment in life, wishes to live 
long to see the world. The perversity of human nature. 

3 %1'^r %T 'IvT* Jo darau so marau. 
He who is afraid will die. 



( 24 ) 

Once jn a jungle a man seeing a tiger coming climbed up a 
large tree to save himsf^lf, A monkey followed his example. The 
tiger came near the shadow of the man, and attempted to grasp it, 
but as the man knew that his shadow was not himself, he did not 
fear the tiger's approach. After this the tiger attacked the 
shadow of the monkey, and as soon as ho had stretched forth his 
claws to catch the shadow of the monkey, the monkey thought 
that he was being caught, and falling down in terror was eaten up 
by the tiger. 

4 ^% f^x %'^ ^X ^K^Ti ^^J. Jaile shira deehha ui 
serp, laga delo. 

Be who has given the head, will give also a seer (_of grain 
to support the man) . 

God supports every creature he has created. Encouragement 
to the poor and distressed. He who provides the mother's milk for 
him at his birth will still supply his wants. 

5 ^^ "^g 5i»l^3t rT^ ^I M^« J^i ^^'Q- dewa jagadisha 
taiki kya risba. 

One favored by God {the ruler of the world) should not 
he envied. 

Good people console themselves by this proverb even in view 
of the prosperity of their enemies. 

6 ^Ti'I^?!^ ^T^l f'C'^f* Wo nl rai ta yo laga ni rawa. 
As my former condition or circumstances have not lasted 

up to this time so the present state also will not last. 

E. g. A man poor before, has become a rich man now, and 
vice versa, and so speaks as in the proverb. Used to console 
one in adversity and make him careful and conscientious ia 
prosperity. 

7 a^a'g^ far?; ^^r ^^^ ^f%%^^^T' Wokhala me sliira 
<3eno mashala dekhi ke darano. 

If you put your head in a mortar, why should you fear 
the pestle ? 

Used to encourage one to cope with the difficulties and 
dangers of a business already started by him. 



( 25 ) 

Used to encourage one to cope with the difficulties and 
dangers of a business already started by him. 

8 Tf'S ^T f|3T3ir^ il"':! 2RT f^ ^J^' Randa ka dina 
jawana chhora ka dina awana. 

The day of the widow has gone, but the day of the orphan 
boy is to come. 

Often used to encourage an orphan son and his mother to try 
their best to help themselves. 

9 3^g f% "^f^ ^'C ^T WTT"!. Shyala ki buddhi Bhera 
ko tarana. 

Slyness of a jackal and courage of a tiger. 
Encouragement to try one's best. 

10 ^^Tirt %Tf^ %%^. Suwa mari kauni kaile bwe. 
No one sowed kauni ( a hind of millet ) after hilling 

parrots. 

Applied to one who needlessly anticipates the difficulties and 
obstacles to be met with in a work not already commencedj as kauni 
is generally eaten when growing by parrots. 

11 f%^^ ^riT 'rft^ !lf%fr. Sikhika syana padhika 

Pandita. 

Observation makes one cunning, and study makes one 
learned. 

Used to pursuade children, ignorant and inexperienced 
people to become clever and learned men. 

12 31^^'C^T''; %tsi«Ji^ H^T* Shakarakhora son shakara paida. 
God gives sugar to him who cannot eat without it. '^God 
tempers the wind to the shorn lamb." 

Story : — A great monarch once obtained God's permission to 
feed for one day all the animals within his kingdom. Accordingly 
he collected different kinds of food necessary for each animal on a 

D 



( 26 ) 

stnpendoua scale, so that at last great mountains of food were 
collected. Just at this time a certain creature came out of the 
ocean bordering upon the monarch's empire and complained of 
great hunger. By permission of the monarch the animal was 
allowed to eat as much as he desired from the provision made 
ready. The animal within a few hours' time consumed the whole 
amount. This fact made the Ruler mortified and penitent. He 
asked God for forgiveness and said "0 Lord, thou alone canst 
supply all thy creatures with food adapted to the nature of each, 
and secure to each the quantity daily required. No man in the 
world can support so great a charge even for a second." 

13 ^w{f^ '^JX^ %JX ^^^ ^H% ^?T. Mana ki hara le 

hara mana ki jita le jita. 

One has won if in his heart he feels so, and is defeated 
if he thinks so. 

14 %lt% ^(351 ^^f5| ^T^ 1^'?: Sauni kathina dekhani 
bala bazura. 

It is very difjicult for one to endure injustice, but the 
rvrong doer will certainly be requited. 

"It is better to suffer wrong than to do it." 

15 q^^*5T fli ^'l^'^T^. Parmeshwar ki Iambi banba. 
God's a7-m U long — (to help or to punish). 

16 ^T^^T TI^ 5JTH ^VT^ ^55iT«| sn^. Bbagi ko 
mala jawa abbagi ki jyana jawa. 

One who is fortunate loses his property, but the unfortunate 
loses life {either his own life, or the lives of other persons 
in his household). 

Consolation derived from Fatalism. 

17 ^I^ '^T«f ^T^ ^T^* Dadba baje, kala bbaje. 

Death flies away when the jaws work ( literally sound). 

Sick persons, who have lost their appetite, are thus induced 
to eat as much as they can so that they may get well soon. 



( 27 ) 

18 9T^ ^f^ e|ij«r f%^r* Kama kaui kama sikbau. 
Work teaches work. 

I. E. One who is initialed in or is made to do work will 
naturally find out how to do it. 

Used to encourage one to undertake work and not to be 
afraid of it ou account of ignorance or inexperience. 

"Experientia docet." 

19 ^T^ ?i^T Vf%?n f^^I'ir "^flr^ir* Lagi gaya bhutiya 
ni lago cbutiya. 

If I hit the mark it is like a lance ; if I miss I mil only 
he laughed at. 

Encouragement to venture boldly. 

20 %T H^siT % ^'^I ^T^^ ^ ^^* Jo marana bai ni 
darau so saba kucbba karau. 

Be who is not afraid of dying mil do every thing. 
Used to encourage people to chivalry. 

21 ^T^T "^T^ %^^ ^t:51Tf^. Dara ka pasa jaibera dara 
jancbbi. 

Fear or danger vanishes only when it is faced or 

coped vnth. 

Used to encourage people not to fear or flee dangers. C. f. 
"Better face a danger once than be always in fear." 

CONTENTMENT. 

1 Iri^T "^Xt %I^T OJI^T- Auto cbai sauto pyaro-] 

Better to have a stepson than to be childless. 

This is used by a woman who has no son of her own but 
finds comfort in the fact that her rival wife has one, so that hsz 
husband will not be childless. 



( 28 ) 

2 ^rf? 'IT^I ^ITK^ ^ ^T'^r* Thorbi khano Benares 
men rauno. 

It is better to live in Benares with a little food than with 
much food elsewhere. 

E. g. Benares being a sacred city, living there is considered 
a meritorious act. 

3 eji>f TSEi ^^1 ^♦f^fi3 Vf': "^W* Kabhain gbyu ghana 

kabhain muthi bbari cbana. 

Plenty of ghi at one time and a handful of gram 

at another. 

Denotes that no one, in any circumstances, can expect to 
have all days alike with regard to food, comfort, &c. 

4 i§rf% 'aiW ^^ vT^sir Thorbi kbano sukbi rauna. 

To eat a little and he contented and happy. 

C. f. "A little with quiet is th« best of all diet." This is 
used in deterring one from aspiring after a higher thing which 
will entail hardship and trouble, or in advising one to remain 
contented with his own circumstances, and not to envy others 
in better condition. 

5 ^T f% 'SITf^ ^f^' Gbara ki adbi bbali. 

Half a loaf at home is letter than a whole one abroad. 

Used to make one contented with his own lot at home in 
comparison with that of others abroad, though they may be in 
better circumstances. 

6 ^ife W ^Ul ^Tfe ^ ^JH ^ ^1^' I^oti ka santa roti 
ke marbi ke moti. 

Bread is bread, ^ho cares whether it be thick or thin ? 

E. g. If one has to eat bread what does it matter whether it 
be made thick or thin. 

Used of one who is contented with his circumstances whether 
good or adverse. 



( 29 ) 

7 ^f?r 5!T^^ ^fn- NIti jaika thiti. 

One wishes to stop after getting to Niti ( a village in Bhot 

in the snows in Garhwal on the borders of Thibet ). 

Applied to one who has accomplished his purpose and 
is satisfied. 

8 ^i^-^ SSI '^vai % ^I^T. ^T ^T'af* Adara ka chana 
beadara ka dakha. 

Even gram given with courtesy is better than grapes 

bestowed with contempt. 

I. E. A little given kindly is better than much bestowed 
■with harshness or disdain. 

COURAGE UNDER DESPAIR. 

1 WX:?T7 ^T ^ ^T*?T« Marta kya na karata. 

One about to be hilled, what will he not do f 

Applied to one who is in a desperate plight. C.f. "The drowning 
man catches at a straw." 

COWARD. 

1 ITinf IT ^T '»TT^T ^I»l^TT Wl ^7T«IT. Hanadara ka 
paithara bhagadara ka aithara. 

Behind one who is attaching, and in front of one who is 
running away. 

Applied to a coward. 

2 ^fvs 8BT ^^1 ^'5 ^T ^'sT' Syaini ka lekha na maisa 
ka lekha. 

Neither lihe a man nor woman. 
An effeminate, home-staying person. 



( 30 ) 
CRITICAL PERIODS. 

1 qf^ ^f^fT ^%T ^^T' Gharhi bachi ta gharho bacha. 

If a small pot escapes, the large jar may escape. 

I. E. If the critical or dangerous moment is passed then' 
there is no danger thereafter for years. 

2 ^5|f!^T^?i|^^7«i^iTl{3a(Tl^. Ye jatakala bacbun tau 
khasama thain baba kun. 

If I survive this confinement I will treat my husband as I 
do my father. 

The anguish of child-hirth : 

Applied to any trouble which a man has brought on himself 
and of which he repents. 



DEBTS, LOANS & SURETY. 

1 ^^l" 'i^ ^^H «3T^ Ochhi punji kbasama kbani. 

Small capital is {a fruitful source of ) swearing. 

I. E. To borrow money from a man of small capital is 
dangerous, because he will give much trouble in connection with 
the debt. C. f. "A poor man's debt makes a great noise.'' 

2 ^igf xm 51 ^nrj ^^. Leno eka na deno dui. 

Neither take one, nor pay bach two. 

One who borrows has to pay back with interest. There was 
once a washer-man in the service of a king. He was well off 
before he borrowed. As the king used to give money on interest 
to his other servants the washer-man was pursuaded by his wife 
(though not in need) to ask for a loan. He did, and received one 
gold Mohara which he brought to his wife. Though he did this, 
he was always fretting himself to make up the second Mohara 
required for interest. He spent only half his pay, refused 
delicacies, and overworked himself until he had earned the second 
Mohur. "When the day for payment came the king noticed how 
thin be had grown, and asked the reason, to which he replied that, 
"To borrow one and to pay hack two" made him lean. A caution 
against incurring debt : also used by one who repudiates a loaa 
or denies having borrowed. 



( 31 ) 

3 ^T*l ^T 'i\^ 'T^T ^T MfT^« Hatha ko dinyik jpatha 
ko bharyun. 

Given by one's hand, and measured in a measure. 

Bona fide loans which cannot be absolved either in this 
or the next world. 

4 frm "^^^ •!«BT5ft- Rina muchyate na Kaslii. 

Debt is not absolved even at Kashi ( by visiting and 
bathing at Benares ). 

The story given below is used to illustrate the proverb : — 

Once a man in very poor circumstanceg brought home 
•Rs- 2,000/ which he had borrowed from a man who did not know 
how poor he was. At night while he slept among the cattle, as is 
nsual among the poor, he overheard one of the bollocks saying 
to the others that as the man was quite unable in his life time to 
discharge the debt he had incurred, he would have to come and 
serve as a bullock to the lender of the money for years in his next 
existence. At this the man got frightened, and asked advice 
from the bullock about the matter, who told him to return the 
money and advised him to go to the king and wager Ss- 2,000 
with him on a fight between his bullock and the elephant of the 
king. The king thinking his elephant far superior in strength 
to the lean bullock accepted the wager of Ss- 2,000/- Both the 
animals were brought before the king to fight, but no sooner 
did the elephant see the bullock than he turned tail and ran away 
from him. Attempt to get up a fight was repeated thrice, but 
the elephant could not stand the snorting and pawing of the 
bullock. The king at last, finding his elephant thus vanquished 
by the bullock, paid the sum of Ss- 2,000 according to agreement ; 
on inquiring the cause of the elephant's fright both of the animals 
admitted that the elephant had owed and had not repaid Bs- 300 
to the bullock in his former life and so he could not face the 
"bullock. C /.• "Out of debt out of danger." "Better go to bed 
supperless, than rise in debt." 

5 ^j^ W«B^ ^?3 ^jfj". Mola lenl sukha sepi. 
Buy for cash and sleep well. 

Never borrow. 



( 32 ) 

6 %T 'JT MT ^T ^f ^T. Jo parha bhara so dewa ghara. 
He who stands surety will have to give up his own house. 

7 U^ Jif% Wl^ »Tf% ^ -^^T ^T?: fiJT '^t: ^ Eka gnli 
ka dui guli dyun alai balai shira para lyun. 

Why should one pay two bullets {two Rupees) for one 
borrowed, and take the extra dangers and trouble on 
his head. 

E. g. Generally in former times, and even now to a certain 
extent, one "who borrows money from another becomes in a manner 
his vassal. C. f. "The borrower is a servant of the lender." 
The usage is still prevailing in the country for borrowers to work 
in the fields of their creditors for a certain number of days 
without wages in each season. This is over and above the high 
interest stipulated for the loans. 

8 *3Tf% ^'i'T 'iT^ ^T^ f^f^ ^IW ^I^ ^T^« Khani 

bakhata khaba lala dini bakhata ankba lala. 

The mouth. gets red when the betel nut is eaten, but the eye 
becomes red when it has to be paid for. 

E. g. The people of India are very fond of chewing 
betel nuts ; these they generally get from the dealers on credit, so 
that when betel nuts are eaten (chewed) the chewers' mouths 
get red, but when a bill for the price- of the same is received 
by them their eyes get red (they become angry). Hence the 
proverb is used to condemn the practice of contracting debts. 
The borrower is glad when he gets the money but is angry when 
he is requested to repay it, 

9 ^^ %T 5«B ^IJI ^T ^^' Bairi ko eka rina ko sbekha. 

Of enemies not one, of debt not even a little ( or enemies 
and debts should be totally destroyed ). 

E. g. A single enemy not destroyed, and a little debt left ' 
unpaid will increase in time and prove troublesome. 

10 »T?^;)g^ ^^«3. Marun bhuka run sukha. 

3Iay I starve but remain comfortable {loithout anxieties). 

Used as a caution against incurring debts or against 
extravagance. 



( 33 ) 

11 sqTST TT7T W\ ^^^r* Byaja rata laga chaladau. 

Interest runs even at night, i. e. some animals move 
about in the day and others at night, but interest never ceases 
to accumidate. 

Used as a caution against getting into debt, 

12 ^^^% %T^«T5 H'^^T ^r«B"?^*. Kukura le daurhanu 
chha marano kankarha le cliba. 

The dog has only to hunt, it is the wild sheep that is killed. 

Used by one to induce another to stand security for him as 
the former fthe principal) is incurring the primary liability but 
the latter (the security) has only the secondary responsibility. 

13 «IT^I ''R3^ ^WT^T f^^^^T* Patho phutada udharo 
ni bagado. 

The measure breaks, but the loan remains. 

Means that a debt must be repaid even if the men dealt with 
or the witnesses to the transactions are dead. 

14 Z^J f%^r ifil'Rrf^* Taka diyo gaji pbarhi. 

Pay cash and tear the cloth {so much as you want) from 
the piece {belonging to merchant), i. e. pay and purchase. 
Caution against getting anything on credit. 

DECEIT. 

1 Tr^^ ^T^^r ^T^ m^T wi^ tr^. ^f t ^t ^^Ir. 

Marada bakbaro pakanda kukurbo kbandi danwa lingurba 

ko tbupurbo. 

One kills a goat, cooks a cocJc, but for dinner gives only a 

heap of Lingurhd (a wild vegetable). 

Applied to deceitful persona who make great profession but 
do little or nothing. 

E 



( 34 ) 

2 ^"T ^T*!! ^^"l '^^I'T. Apun khanu aurana chuthona. 

ne himself eats, hut makes another wash out his mouth, 
as if the latter had eaten. 

Clearing himself from his own guilt by implicating another. 
[ Chuthana=to wash one's hands and mouth after a meal eaten 
■with the fingers. ] 

3 ^r»l g^ ^T llf^ ^t %T?^. Aga lagai bera pani son 
daurhanu. 

One sets fire, and then runs for water to quench it. 
Applied to deceitful persons and mischief-makers. 

4 *rs ^T^^^ ^ ^^IT* Munda katika renda ki barliai. 
After having cut off the head, to praise the corpse. 

To eulogise a man after ruining him. 

5 %t"^ ^fx: ^^T %T^T^ W 5rr»I ff ^r« Chora then chori 
karau Saukara then jaga dilau. 

Telling the thief to steal, and the rich man to guard 
his house. 

Applied to tricky and deceiptful people who collude with 
both parties. 

6 ^j-!\ SSI ^naT ^fTT '^T^g %J »!%• Dhana ka dana 
bhitara chawala ko gudo. 

There is a grain of rice inside the hush {of paddy). 

It is said, that once the son of a king had conceived a strong 
friendship for the son of a minister. The king, for some reason 
of his own, wished that his son should give up this friendship, 
but failed to make him do so. At last he offered a great reward 
to any one who would accomplish this object for him. Many 
■wise and clever people accordingly tried various devices to effect 
this, but in vain. Whatever either of the friends was told by any 
one he informed the other of it, and thus strengthened the 
friendship day by day. After this a cunning woman contracted 
close intimacy with both of them, and one day while the two were 
sitting together, she went in and said she wished to tell a secret 
to the son of the minister, and then took him away for a minute 



( S5 ) 

io a private place when she whispered ia Lis ear. "There is a 
grain of rice inside the husk of the paddy." As soon as this was 
done she left the kingdom for good. The minister's son immediately 
repaired to his friend, and as usual, informed him of what the 
woman had really said to him. But the king's son did not believe 
it, and suspected his friend of having concealed the real matter 
told' him by the woman ; and from that time the king's son became 
alienated from his friend. Hence the proverb. 

Used to warn against deception, and applied to one who 
makes too much of a very little thing. 

7 ^^T W T^T I^T 8RT '^?T» Charha ka marha marha 
ka charha. 

Representing living birds as dead bodies, and dead bodies 
as living birds. 

Calling black, white ; and white, black. 

8 il^^I'/t ^^T* Nau tero gaun inero. 

In your name, but my village. 

The village is in your name but is really mine. Giving one 
Hominal authority in order to impose upon him. 

9 ^x m'K W^\ %jzt^ if ^T^ f^ 'StUT- Ghara bara tero 
kotharhi men. hatha ni laga. 

The house is yours but do not use the room. 
Applied to nominal trusts. 

10 ^?3 ?f TT^T ^3 ^f %T^ eBFT* Mukha men rama peta 

men. aura kama. 

God's name in the mouth, but another motive in the 
heart. 

"A wolf in sheep's clothing." 

E. g. A magnanimous man has the same thing in his heart, 
mouth, and actions, but a wicked man has one thing in his 
heart, another in his words, and a quite different one in hia^ 
deeds. 



( 36 ) 
DEFERRED HOPES. 

1 '^t'll *lfT*l«lI ^^ (% ^T^- Haiya marigaya buna 

ki Asa. 

My sons already born are dead : I can there/ore hope to 
have more born to me. 

One bases Ms hopes on past experience. Also used 
ironically to denote the precarious state of a thing which has 
already failed. 

2 W ^T ^^r ^^^T ^T^T ^«T^ ^^I^ =» 'K^T^I. Paind 

ko paino chukayo Baro bhitara bathaun na phukayo. 

1 was repaid for my present, but the wind blew through 
my house all night. 

Paina=any thing good that is distributed among the neigh- 
bours and kinsmen. 

I. E. One in hope of such a return from his neighbour 
kept bis doors open at night, so that the wind blew through the 
house io the inconvenience of the occupants. 

This is applied to one who instead of being benefitted by 
any transaction is put to extra troubles or loss ; also spoken of 
hopes which are deferred. 

3 ^TrIT% ^T H^T «tT ^^ ^^ ^^}^. Data hai Suma 

bhalo jo paili dide jababa. 

A miser wJio rejects one at once is a better man than a 
liberal man who Jceeps one long in suspense. 

This is used in regard to inconveniences that trouble one 
■whose hopes are not realized for a considerable time. C. f "Hope 
deferred maketh the heart sick." 

4 ^"^ ^rf^ sm^ 'B'^ ^Tfr ^T^- Kaba tbori byali kaba 
kbori kbali. 

When will the yearling buffalo calve and when will my 
shull eat 1 

An expression of impatience used when some desired good 
seems to be long deferred. For instance, a widow anxiously and 
impatiently waits for her infant sons to grow up when they will 
contribute to her support. 



( 37 ) 
DEPENDENCE. 

1 ^T^T^ ^^ «|a? ^ ^>1^ »r^' Dada le bahu bahu le 
sagali mau. 

The Bahu ( elder brother's wife ) depends on my elder 
brother, and the whole family depends on her. 

The chief person or moving spirit in a concern. 

2 7%r ')r'5 ^"0 "51^? s^I^r ^n^r "^R* Thulo gom luna 
bukawa nano thobarho chata. 

Full grown cows eat salt, but the calves lick their 
( mother's ) lips. 

Applicable to one who maintains an establishment. 

3 qj^ ^T ^T^ ^fl% "^1^' Paai ka sasa ghutarho basa. 
The frog croahs by the aid of the water. 

A poor and weak person can only achieve anything by the 
patronage of a greater man, or a poor man lives his life by 
support or in hope of support from some great man. C /. 
"Qaench not hope, for when hope dies, all dies." 

4 ^r** %T ^^r 'i^'^I if* Syapa ko jiyo mundala men. 
The soul or life of a snake is in its head. 

This is applied to the head of a family on whom all the 
members of the family are dependant. 

5 ^qq$T ^T^T ^''^T "^T^^ '^^'^^T* Apano khoro apana 
hatha le ni mudino. 

No one can shave his head with his own hand. 
Applied to mutual need of help. 

6 ^^j e»if% %J ^T'lT. Syurba dagarhi ko dhago. 

The thread follows the needle. 

Used by a member of one's family or by a dependant, or to 
one who is the head of a family or to a patron on whose movements 
all depend. Usually spoken by women in regard to their 
respective husbands. 



( 38 ) 
DILATORY HABITS. 

1 ^T'»T^ ^ ^r'» fill ^t^r^ %I ^I5l» Topala ki topa tapa 
chaundala ko raja. 

While the Topdl was getting ready his cannons, the Chaun- 
dala came and seized his kingdom. 

These two petty kings reigned over Pargannah Chandpur 
(Gardhwal; in the seventh century A. D. Used in advising one 
to be always ready for any thing that may happen, and not to let 
matters slide. (A pure Garhwali proverb}. 

2 5if «T^ >TT2^ ''T1 "^tf^ frt ri^ ^ ^fe« Jan taka Bhata le 
paga bandhi tan taka pethai uthi. 

While the bard was dressing his turban the market 
broke up. 

JE. g. Bards or bafifoons dress themselves up before they 
go to a public place, and if they are delayed in dressing they lose 
the opportunity of displaying their arts and making money. 

Applied to failure in any business due to diiatoriness. 

DILEMMA. 

Ata ko diyo bhitara randata musa khandana bhaira 

kawa lijanda na. 

A lamp made of flour {paste) if placed inside the house 
is eaten by mice, and if kept outside is taken away 
by the crows. 

( A dilemma ). 

2 ^rTT^ I:t ^HTf ft'T'^^ H^ ^^I^. Ye tarapha ran 
rabharha wl tarapha bhela kaphdrha. 

On one side a deep stream and a raging torrent, on the 
other a sheer precipice. 

C. f. "The sea in front of them, and the Egyptians behind 
them," or "between Scylla and Charybdis," 



( ^9 ) 

3 rfnTT f}i ^^ l^f. Tato dudha thukewa na ghutewa. 

Hot milk one cannot either spit out or drink. 

I. e. If you spit it out it is wasted, if you swallow it, it 
burns you. 

4 X:T3"51 ^% f?l5JfTIir. Rowai na hansai gija tanai. 

Could neither weep nor laugh. 

This is applied to one who is astounded at some sudden 
unexpected incident. 

5 ^fT^'^ %^ ^'ri'Km ^TT« Ye tarapha kuwa wl 
tarapLa khai. 

Either a well, and thither a ditch. 
A dilemma. 

6 *TT^I 5^ '^J'H ^ TT^? ^ ^ 5T%^' Tato dudha hatha 
men rakhewa na bhin chharhewa. 

Hot milk neither worth retaining in one's hand, nor wot*th 
dropping on the ground. 

E. g. signifies a dilemma which in either way suggests loss. 

7 %i5<T^ »TTfK5jt?Ei fJllrisgor m^ f fir ^W. Kaunchhu 

ta mai marl janchhya ni kaunyu ta bapa kutta khhanchha. 

If I speak out my mother will be beaten, if I keep silence 
my father will feed on dog's flesh. 

"Oa the horns of a dilemma." 

Story : — A certain man had a son (a boy of 12 years of age) 
by a former wife, and a young wife whom he had married after 
the death of the lad's mother. This woman had a paramour who 
instigated her to feed her husband with the flesh of a dog so that 
he might become mad. (For they suppose that when a man eats 
the flesh either of a dog or of an owl he becomes insane}. So, 
following his advice, she one day killed a dog and prepared the 
food and placed it before her husband. The boy, who had observed 
all this, was in great doubt whether he should tell his father or 
not. He said, "If I tell my father he will surely kill my mother ; 
but if I remain silent he will eat dog's flesh." 



( 40 ) 

8 ^ IJT^ ^T" ^^ ^r^ ^T^ ^rft" %T' Main aura bapu eka 

cliora aura lathi do. 

1 and my father are one, but the thief and his stick 
are two. 

E. g. In a certain house at night there were only father and 
son ; a thief came there with a stick in his hand ; the son says to 
himself. "If my father is killed it is a loss, and if I am killed 
it is also a loss." The stick is quite a separate thing from the 
thief, and so they are two. For if the stick is broken it is no 
loss to the thief, and if the thief be beaten it is also no real loss 
to the stick. 

9 ^1T % ^1 ^fJHSIT %'^* Kujaga ko dukha jathano 

baida. 

Abcess in the private part to be treated by her husband's 
elder brother, who is the doctor or physician. 

A younger brother's wife is looked upon as a daughter, and 
she in turn looks upon her husband's elder brother as a father, i. e. 
one is not allowed even to touch the other. So she feels 
ashamed or finds it difficult to expose herself to her husbands' 
elder brother. 

Used to represent a difficult position, a dilemma. 

ka larhu khala ta pachhatala ne khala ta pachhatala. 

The sweet balls of sawdust you will repent of whether 
you eat them or not. 

I. e. If you taste them you will regret your buying and 
tasting them, on the other hand you will also repent for not 
purchasing and tasting them, because they are elegantly made 
and tempting in appearance. Such balls used to be made 
to deeieve the hill people who weut to Hardawar in former 
times. 

A dilemma. 



( 41 ) 
DISAPPOINTMENT. 

1 ^T^T f^'Jr ^T^ 'STW. Haro miyan dadhi hatha. 
One who is vanquished seizes, his beard, 

I. e. In disappointment or chagrin. 

2 ^I^ 1 m^T ^T^TT 1 ^jit ^^ ^* Jogi ^^ chharo 
kumahara ku mati kakha ni. 

Is there any place where a Jogi ( ascetic ) cannot get 
itshes f and a potter earth f 

It is a very easy matter to become a Jogi, if a man fails ia. 
all other efforts to get a living. 

3 g»i% Sifz ^r^x: fqi fi|^. Tamarhi pbuti laskara 
ki bida. 

As the gourd is broken the people depart. 

I. e. The people who were in hopes of getting some of the 
seeds of the gourd went away on its being broken, either with 
their hopes realized or disappointed, for it was in existence no 
longer. When the matter is decided all the candidates go away. 

4 iK% ^fK ^f% ^N ft% f^^T *5»ITT ^ JII^. Jaikikari 
barhi asa wile diyo Jhungara ko gasa. 

He in whom I had a great hope gave me only a morsel 
cj millet ( inferior grain ), 

Applied to disappointment from a person in whom trust 
was placed. 

5 ^T{j ^xkj %Tf% szr^T ^5ir(^ ^T 2m ^i't ^^t^t- 

Mama alo tauli chhutalo nijani nau taka aura dandyalo. 

/ thought that when my maternal uncle came, he would 
redeem my {pledged) vessel, but did not think that he 
would cause me to be robbed of nine Takds {^four and 
half annas ) more. 

Used of bad treatment when help was expected. 

F 



( 42 ) 

6 ^TcRTSI '^T'BT* Akasha chano. 

Looking to heaven ( the sky ) ; ^. e. one having no hopes 
looks to the sky. 

Used of utter disappointment. 

7 ?3T^j •! «rr^T ITI! ^T ^T^r* Kbayo na payo marana 
80 ayo. 

Neither ate nor received any thing but came to die. 
Used by one mourning over great disappointment. 

DISHONESTY. 

1 ^ ^T ''^^T f^TT^' Dai ka pabara biralu. 
A <iat set to watch the curds. 

Applied to dishonest persons who are entrusted with property. 

2 ^Hf% (^ %(% ^T ^r TTTI- DamarM ki handi kutta 
ko imana. 

The trustworthiness of a dog is tried even hy a small pot 
( of food ) worth \ of a pice. 

Used in reference to petty dishonesty. 



3 ^g*! 3^^ ^Tl '^^^ ^^T* Duma gwera baga bakharwalo. 

To make a Dum cowherd, and a leopard a shepherd. 

Dums will eat beef, and so cannot be trusted with the 
care of cows. 

Applied to dishonest persons in charge of property. 



4 ^»H!!"gr f^^T f^lf% »l^T' Sungana son diyo nigali 



gayo. 

The "thing given to one for smelling has been devoured 
hy him. 

Applied to one who misappropriates a thing lent him for 
temporary use, or in his capacity of an agent or guardian &c. 



( 43 ) 

5 ^rit SRT ^51 ^sit^ ^ifg ^sff^T %tf • Sonthon ka 
feija ku janda pholi khandai aunda. 

One who goes to collect pulse comes home eating the hearts. 
Applied to dishonest persons or servants. 

DISINTERESTEDNESS; 

1 ^1 ^I 5SIT ^^Si^T- Duma ko bya ankhana da. 
The marriage of a Dum ( simply ) pains the eyes. 

The Hindu Bitha ( patrician ) castes do not participate in 
any ceremony or feasts held by a Dum. 

Applied to things in -which one has no concern at all and 
which instead of being beneficial turn out to be troublesome 
to- him. 

2 ?tTT ^T % 5|%»ilt ^TT i^T ^^T ^ ^^T % ^T5T« Mera 
gtara hai- nahaigechhl mera- lekha tera chelai chela 
hal jana. 

If you leave my house you may be blessed with so many 
sons {I do not care). 

The thing left or got rid of should be forgotten. Loss of 
interest in any thing with which we are no longer connected. 

3 %T ^ ^K ^T^T ^t» Sau ko sai bau ko bhai. 

Neither related to my father-in-law nor tojny mother. 

Applied to one who is no relation at all, or with whom one 
has no concern whatever. 

4 g ^^ ^%T ITT ^^T ^^T'?TT. Tu koll mai lohara 
tero mero ke byohara. 

You are a weaver, 1 am a blacksmith, what dealings are 
there between us ? 

This is said, by one who thints himself quite separate 
Irom the person addressed. 



( 44 > 

5 ^^i ^€r»ir ^TT ^^"T* Tero pallago mera kathapa. 

Your salutation is nothing to me. 

Expresses extreme hatred, contempt, or indiffepence. Iron- 
ically applied to one by whom the speaker is not properly treated. 

6 "^51 ^T^ % 'T^'^^T^f^. Tina loka hai ]\f athura Eyari. 

Mathurd is quite separate from the three worMs. 

Mathura is considered highly blessed because Krishna was 
born there. 

7 ^TJ 'if': l^lrf ^gi^T^i I'fS 517^. Apun marigayo ta 

kawa raja baithi jawa. 

One who is ahotit to die does not mind if a crow 
heeomes king. 

Spoken in reference to any thing in ■which o»e is no longer 
eoneerned. 

8 'V[Jri f^TT^5|% g^ (sf'TT'TT. Bhauta biralunale Musa 
m mjerana. 

Too many eats do not kill rats. 

C. f. "Too many cooks spoil the broth," 

9 aTf%^T^t ^I "T^T ^. Chhorhiyo gaun ko nato ke. 

What relation with a village one has deserted ? 

Used to indicate one'a disinterestedness in a matter witb 
which be has bo concern. 

DISTRESS. 

1 'Sfll^T ^f^ fri^^T ^T ^IT^T. Dubanera kani tinaka 

ko saharo. 

A drowning man clings to a straw. [ Also an English 
proverb. Which was the borroicer ? } 

1. e. One in distress is neglected and forsaken by all, and so 
if one gives him any small help in that state it is greatly 
appreciated. 



( 45 ; 

2 fSlTITf^ ^T 'TI5T. Nirapani ko machho. 
A fish out of water. 

Out of one's element. 

3 fi(4l3Tig7 ^T ^TiTTf% SfC. Nikhana gbara cbaumasi jara. 

No food in my house, and besides am down with fever 
( of the rainy season ). 

Accumulated woes. C. /. "Misfortunes never come singly." 

4 >lt3 5i^«i •Jj^if •! ^7»r^ Gantha na dama mukha na 
chatna. 

No money in hand, and no shin on the face. 
An old and poor man's plea. 

5 TJcI <^^ •! f^ ^51 ST. Rata ninda nai dina bhukha nai. 
No sleep at night, and no hunger in the day. 

A distressful state. 

6 %r ^^ %T ^^ 'T^ ^^ %T l^iT' Sau gbarbi ko sukba 
eka gbarbi ko dukba. 

An hour of misery is equal to a hundred hours of pleasure. 

7 51JR if f^^spi, Jagana men bigbana, 

A calamity during a sacrifice ( merry festival ). 

E. g. During the marriage, tonsure, and other like ceremonies, 
when all the kinsmen and guests are being feasted, if any one 
falls sick or dies, or some other adverse circumstance occurs, the 
people concerned are much troubled and use this phrase expressive 
of great sorrow and regret. 

8 ^^f^ ti% %T "^"^ '^''^17. Aluni marcba ko barabarata. 

Red pepper taken without salt causes greater irritation. 

I. e. Any inconvenience or distress shared with others is 
less painful (or more endurable) than when suffered alone. 



( 46 ) 

Used by one thus affected, and also by one imposed on 
or tasked for nothing (without any compensation for his work) 
or by one who receives punishment or reproof without any fault 
or offence committed by him. 



DISUNION. 

1 ^j3 ^ifj^ljg %J^^T, Atha patyala nau chula. 

Eight Brahmins of the village of Patiyd, but nine ovens. 

1. e. Eight Brahmin kinsmen of the village of Patiya, Kumaun, 
and one man, their coolie (a shudra or khassid by caste) went on a 
journey. At the first stopping place, each of the Brahmins 
began to build a separate cooking place for himself, no one being 
willing to eat the food cooked by another. The khassid coolie, 
who could not possibly object to eat the food cooked by a Brahmin, 
became suspicious and disgusted at their unexpected disunion, 
thinking they must all be of a low caste. So he determined to 
cook his own food separately by having a separate, or ninth, chuld 
for himself. Hence this proverb. Whenever there is want of 
unity among one set of people others suspect them. This proverb 
is also often quoted by the people of Garhwal against the 
Kumaunis, who are much more fastidious in such matters thaa 
the Garhwalis. 

2 ^BJI^T ^t ^^ "^t. Jhagula dui mukha dui. 

Where there are two Jhagulds ( long robes ) there are 
two mouth-openings, ( i. e. the part found the nech through 
which the head goes ). 

/. e. Each person, in a family, or community, has his own 
bent or motive. 

3 ^T^T^t %fT^T^ ^T^I^t ^^I^. Adha gaun ctaitwala 
adha ga-un bagwala. 

One half the village keeps the festival in one month, the 
other half eight months after. 

Illustrates the evil of disunion. 



( i^ ) 

DOG IN THE MANGER. 

1 s^j %^ ^T1 ^1 ^ ^IK^ ^t^ ^iim\ Budho balla 
apa laga na aurana kani laganade. 

An old buUoci will not himself woo, nor will he allow any 
other bullock to do -to ; i. e. -putting hindrance in the way of 
others without gaining any benefit yourself. 
C. f. "Dog in the manger." 

DUPLICITY. 

1 *ii3T Sir ^T^T ^. Jhuta bya sancha nya. 

Marriages will be effected by false representations, but 

justice will be obtained by speaking the truth. 

It is difficult to get a poor man married unless lie is falsely 
represented to be of a high caste and a man of property 
and wealth. 



ECONOMY OR FRUGALITY. 

1 lit cT ir^ f^«T5^TT. BMta dholi bbitanai. 

The wall was thrown down, but it fell inwards {and so 

all the stones were available for use again). 

If it had fallen outwards into the neighbour's field he might 
bave taken away the stones for his own use. E. g. One who is 
bound to give alms bestows them on his own relatives. 

2 5it ^1^9 fit ^^rfr^^. J^S cbalisa tan gbabatalisa. 
If there are 40, one or more can be included without 

making any material difference ; ( so small a difference is 
of no importance. ) 

"Six of one and half a dozen of the other." 



( 48 ) 

3 TIfT wi^T >TTfT 3m^T. Pata mugato bhata jugato. 

A broad leaf, but the rice in 7noderate quantity. 

This suggests that full provision should be made for any 
thing before-hand, but the expenditure should be carefully limited, 
and also that if one bring a broad leaf ( for begging rice ) we 
should give him rice or any food in limited quantity or according 
to our circumstances. 

4 5ig^ ^r %T^ <Tg% ^^ iT^T'';iT* Jatuka lambo saurha 
tatukai paira pasarna. 

One should stretch out his feet only so far as his quilt 
may cover them. 

C.f. "Cut your coat according to your cloth." 

5 ^^ QTef^'UT ^ror ■^T^Iiiir. Tela turkyona luna 
burkyona. 

Oil to be used in drops, and salt to be used in pinches. 

The smallest items of expenditure in a family amount to a 
great deal in the end, and so one should be cautioned against 
extravagance. 

6 qJl^ Tf^cR "Sf ^T^T. Pagarhi rakhi ka gbyu khano. 

©\ 

One should eat ghi without dishonoring his turban. An 

economical maxim. 

One should not endulge in pleasure to the injury of hi3 
wealth or reputation. C. f. "Hast thou found honey ? eat so 
much as is sufficient for thee, lest thou be filled therewith and 
vomit it." The turban or Pagarhi is an indispensable article of a 
respectable man's dress and honour, and is often the most costly 
part of it. 

7 ^T^T ^I^r ^ ltT'5 f^\ f^^ li TT^. Topo topo kai 
chliansa biyop. biyon kai rasa. 

Drop by drop the vessel (of curds) Jills, and grain by 
grain the corn-heap grows. 

C. f. "Many a mickle makes a muckle." ( Scotch proverb ). 



C 49 ) 

S *lf^JBT^'5T ^ ^n: %r ^rW. Dhaniyaa ka daua 

me rai ko dano. 

Adding a grain of mustard to that of coriander. 

This is applied either to one who is thrifty and thus adds 
to his possessions or to one who earns much with a small capital 
prudently invested in wise speculations. 

9 ^^ f^l "^I ^IIT^ •T'lT. Aura din a changd tyohara 

nanga. 

Well fed and clothed on ordinary days, naked and hungry 
on festival days. 

Bad economy, not saving for needy days. (On festive occasions 
the best of clothes and food obtainable should be used J. 

10 51^ T<TTr •T'i '<TTTJir. Jakha itaga takha tataga. 
When so much, then thai much will do. 

E. g. The difference of one or two in a large quantity is no 
difference i.«. is of no moment. 

This is used to induce a man to spend a little more than 
what has already been estimated or spent with a view to have an 
auspicious completion of the business. 

11 9rg^^^gf%^T ^^. Tela dekha tela ki dhdra 

dekha. 

Looh at the oil (i. e. see how much there is) and then 
regulate the jiow (^^ e. how much you will pour out). 

I. e. Restrict your expenses within your income, C. f. "Cut 
your coat according to your cloth." 

ENVY. 

1 ^VS\ miv:[ fk^ «^T ^ T^lt ^r. Apana jay an ki 

HI kaka ki rayan ki chhau. 

I do not complain of my own ruin, but why in the world 
has my uncle escaped f 

The regret of one fallen into misfortune that others do not 
share with him. 

G 



( 50 ) 

2 ^7 R%Tf%''I ^ ^t^. Ho parhosina mai jast. 

O, neighbour be like me. 

Story. Oace a man who had hia nose cut off for some 
offence happened to come to a certain city, where he was teased 
by being given the nickname "Nakatd" ( noseless ). For some 
time he patiently endured the disgrace, but at last invented a plan 
for revenging himself upon the residents of the town. So he sat 
down like a saint in -a conspicuous place in the city, and acted as 
if he was absorbed in the contemplation of God. Now and then 
he would address the Gods thus "0 Vishnu you are welcome," 
"0 Mahadeo you are welcome," "0 Brahma you are welcome," 
"0 Lachhmi, Parbati, Brahmani, you are welcome," 
"Come and sit down here ( pointing out in a respectful manner 
with his two hands a place for each ), and thanking them for their 
trouble and condescension in manifesting themselves to him. He 
did this every day for some time attracting the attention of the 
passers-by, and gradually the news spread throughout the city 
and the country. At first the people did not believe him, but 
seeing him so firm in his faith, piety, and adoration, some began 
to pay more attention and feel curious about the matter, and so 
they enquired from the feigned saint what it meant, as they could 
not see the deities with whom he had converse. To this he replied 
that no one could see the gods ( with the bodily eye ) until he 
got heavenly eyes by becoming a devotee. This naturally induced 
some to become devotees in order to have a constant vision of 
God like the saint, and consequently many of them wished and 
asked him to have mercy on them. The man said that they must 
become his disciples by learning the religious enchantments 
( power to fascinate the deities ) from him. Whereupon many of 
them volunteered to be his disciples, but the noseless man said to 
them, "0, my dear brothers, it is very difficult for one to become 
truly religious amidst the luxuries and endearments of worldly 
things. No one can ever see the deities until he divests himself 
of all worldly honors and subdues his senses for the sake of his 
God. The chief sense or pride of these worldly honors is the 
nose C the root of haughtiness and vanities ) which ought to be 
got rid of first of all in order to render man a humble and 
worthy being in the sight of the deities. This is the first and 
most important ordeal one has to go through in order to merit 
personal conversation with the deities. For as soon as one's 
nose is cut off he becomes absolved of all sins and sinful 
sensations. One man at first fell a victim to this plot, and 
submitted to the loss of his nose, and to his utter grief found 
his hopes of seeing the deities to be utterly false. On enquiry 
from his Guru { spiritual guide ) the new disciple was told. 



( 51 ) 

'*My dear son, do you not know that a- leper wishes to have the 
whole world become like himself, and so also a sinner ; since 
you have been unfortunately imposed upon now you must also 
make the same professions, so that more may become like ourselves, 
and then no one will be able to cast a slur on any of us." After 
this both the iVaiafas united in persuading others to follow their 
example, and succeeding in tricking many of their neighbours, 
until the news reached the king and his wise statesmen, who at 
once put a stop to this scandal of the noseless sect by driving 
them, out of their city and country. 



EVIL PROPENSITIES & HABITS- 

1 1?T^ ^ ^rq ^^r ^T2T ^"«IT3T ^^[. Chhati me sanpa 
ehalyo bata ku bata lagyo. 

If a snake has crept into one's bosom it Kas taken a 

wrong road. 

Applied to one who attempts iinproper acts wh'ich ought 
to be stopped at once before any injury is done. C. f. "Ill 
examples are like- contagious diseases." Evil habita should be 
nipped in the bud. 

2 ■^Tl 'iT3 % ^T^R^T f^l^T f^^^ ^ 1^ ^T1 ^\Z 1^%r ^F 

^^T Wi Baga gotha bai bakaro ligayo phikara nai. para 

baga gotha palako yo- phikara chha. 

Tlie leopard has carried away a goat out of a cowshed; Ida 

not care for that, hut I do care that the leopard has found a 

relish in {or way to) the cowshed. 

Applied to future apprehensions or dangers from the lure or 
clae someone has found to injure us. 

EXTRAVAGANCE. 

1 ^T CB^ WIIBIT %^. Ghara phuki tamasho dekha.. 

For the sake of a show he burns his own house.. 
Applied to extravagant persons. 



( 52 > 
2 ^J<^ ^jjq XEt Tnj igSr fSE^ ^'^It'IT. Pan-cha angula ghyu 
ma chhato sbira kadhai ma. 

Five fingers in Ghi but the sixth head on the pan. 

This is an ironical phrase applied to imprudent, extravagant, 
and voluptuous people. C. f. "S-hort pleasure long lament." 
"He burns the candle at both ends." 

A pan is a kind of oven in which cakes are cooked and 
grain parched. Food is eaten with five fingers and it is also taken 
•with Ghi mixed with it by rich and well-to-do persons, and so the 
fingers are besmeared with ferA* at dianer time, but the head of the 
eater ©f the Ghi is responsible for its price, for whjeh (if not paid), 
the head will be troubled (arrested). 

3 "q^ 'STw TT^ l>T^ ^5?^f5r %r^ f^iTT^ ^^-^ ^f^ %r 

^^T '^•^ ^t5l %r ^^T ^'Bl ^^. Chakha dalau mala aura 

dhana kani kaurM ni rakhau kafana suni, jo delo tanaf 

feuni so delo kafana auni. 

Enjoy all your property and mealth, having nothing for 
your eofiin, for God who gives for the nourishment of the 
body is sure to provide for the coffin also. 

Carpe diemr 

4 ^T»l %lf5l 'SRilWHTfT Kaja kauni akaja bhata, 

Kauni ( an inferior millet ) on a festival day (for meaSy 
and rice on ordinary days. 

Used of extravagant or iarproper conduct ra regard tc 
expenses. 

Poor people eat ^awni' as a general rtjle, but keep a small 
quantity of rice for festive occasions. An extravagant person' 
will use up his stock of rice for ordinary consumption, and' thus- 
when the feast comes round he will have to eat the meagre kauni. 



( 53 ) 

5 ^^T "IT^ ^T^r ^^ Sl^ ^I^r. Bhainso mari torho 
kurho dhali worbo. 

Ke kills his buffalo for the sake of "Torhd»" 
(tnd pulls down his house for the sake of stones for a 
boundary mark. 

"Torho" is a musical horn made of the horns of a buffalo and 
Bsed as a trumpet. "Worho" is a boundary mark made of a atone 
or stones which separate one's field from that of another. 

Applied to one foolishly extravagant. 

6 ^T«l^ "^I^ ^SJi^ ^12. Nau pala bachharu dasa 
pala ghantai. 

A calf weighing nine chhatdkas wears a bell of ten 

ehutdks' weight. 

Applies to one who wears sumptuous clothes and valuable 
jewelry beyond his position or means. 

7 t!^ ^T ir^T ^m ^it ^rt ^r 3»II ^ vrl Kanda ka 
cbbora lagyo loi boi mau dhunga me dboi. 

The pampered son of a widow in his arrogance and excess 
brought the wealthy family to ruin. 

This is applicable to one who has no one to look after him 
or control his bad conduct. 

8 »?Tf^TT %!? ^r ^'TT *iH %^ ^q^lf . Madiro kauacbba 
yo dbama dbama kaika upara cbba. 

The millet ( while being threshed or husked out ) says 
where does the sound come from, or on whom is the threshing 
being done ( i. c. on me). 

Used by the head of a family when he finds the members 
of his family extravagant. 



( 54 ) 
FALSEHOOD. 

1 ^J*\l ^'^. Kanakhuri. 

One hits the ear and foot at one shot. 

E. g. A sportsman said that he hit a deer on its ear and foot 
with one bullet while the animal was scratching its ear with its foot. 

Applied to liars who try to make their stories as plausible 
as they can. The story below will illustrate the proverb : 

St(yrii : — A man addicted to telling lies once went to 
Hardwara to bathe in the Ganges, with an express vow that after 
the bathing he would no longer tell lies. When he came back 
from the shrine his friends and' kinsmen came round him, and 
asked him how he performed his pilgrimage. The man said he 
had no trouble at all on his journey to and from that place except 
once when in the jungle he saw seven tigers, who, on seeing him-, 
came towards him. But being frightened at the sight of the 
tigers, he climbed up a tall tree by the side of the road. All the 
tigers came up to the trunk of the tree and seeing him seated at a 
safe distance beyond their reach became very furious, and began 
to roar and jump upwards, hut in vain. After this, with a view 
to catch him, one tiger in an erect posture stood on the head 
of the other, in this way the seventh animal attained a certain 
height, but still could not reach the bough on which he was. 
This frightful scene terrified him so much that the perspiration 
ran from his face in a stream. On this the tigers began to climb 
up the stream he was making, whereupon with great presence 
of mind, he whipped out a khukari ( a kind of short sword ) from 
his belt, and cut off the stream. This caused them all to fall 
on the ground and die. After that he descended the tree and. 
calmly resumed his journey homewards. 

2 . %T '^''li ^T51T ^T ^T'^ f^ 't^^ ^T f^iW. Sau rupayan. 

raja kd bhandara ki khankala ka gicha. 

One hundred Rupees is either in the treasury of the king,. 
or in the mouih of a liar. 

This is an old saying belonging to the times when money 
was very scarce. That so much money could only be found in 
the treasury of a king or in the mouth of a liar refers to the way 
in which liars exaggerate. C. f. "Liars begin by imposing upon 
others, but they end in deceiving themselves." 



{ 55 ) 

3 »fi2 f^ 511 \ JLuti ki jarha nai. 

Ji falsehood has no roots. 

G. f. "Falsehood has no legs." 

4 %rT VfiZJ ^T ztr. Jo jbuto so tuto. 

•One who resorts to lies is sure to be in poverty. 
I. e. Evil deeds must result in evil consequences. 

FALSE ALARM, 
i si^'l ^ vi'^. Junwan ki bhainsa. 

-.4 louse exaggerated into a buffalo. 

In a certain village lived a man and his wife. The man 
was a simple, cowardly, and lazy person, while his wife was a wise 
and energetic woman. Whenever the husband was told to work 
he used to become angry with his wife and frighten her by sayincr 
that he would leave his house for good and go to some foreio^n 
country. For some years the woman lived in great terror of 
being desertei, at length becoming callous of his threats she 
allowed him to go. On the day he was to set out to the Plains 
she equipped herself like a policeman with a sword and gun and 
waylaid her husband, whom she threatened with instant death if he 
did not return home and pledge his word never to come again that 
way. (It being the only pathway from the village to the Plains j. 
The poor coward returned home at once. She managed to reach 
home unobserved before the arrival of her husband. When the 
man returned she enquired of him the cause of bis return. 
"0 dear wife," said he, "how could I go to the Plains, for a 
hundred policemen came to kill me ?" To this she said, "Alas ! 
a hundred is too great a number, perhaps you mean fifty." 
"Yes you are right, fifty." On this the wife said again, "I think 
twenty-five even would have been more than sufficient to 
deter you," to which he said that there were indeed twenty-five. 
Thus the wife mentioned ten, then five, then two, and finally one, 
the husband admitting each number, and finally confessing that 
it was only one constable who had prevented his going away, 
the story is also applicable to other Proverbs viz. 

1 A falsehood has no roots funder heading Falsehood j. 

2 Theremedy of poison is poison ( Do. Remedy). 

3 WormiJ cannot be extracted without charming (under 
heading Remedy J. 



( 56 ) 

2 "^Tl 'sa. Baga dutha. 

Leopards and ghosts. 

This phrase is used to frighten children from going out in 
the evening when leopards and ghosts are said to be moving about. 

3 m^^ %T *TT^« Kamala ko bhalu. 
A bear made of blanket. 

Monkeys and deer are kept from the fields by a scare-crow 
in the shape of a bear made with a black blanket. 
Applied to any false alarm ; a canard. 

4 ^i^^U '^TT^ ^?I5^» Kande klesha Bamsu uklesha. 

Sickness in Kande but anxieties and fears in Bdmsu. 

Used in teaching that no one unnecessarily entertain fears 
for a danger which is not at hand. 

FALSE MODESTY. 

1 #R5 Sijtii f33^7 ^^T'HT' Chhansa ku iano titaro 

lukono. 

Why should one, who goes to ask for butter-milk, conceal 
the pot in which he has to bring it ? 

Applies to one who goes to another to ask for a thing, but 
is ashamed to make his request. 

FALSE PROMISES. 

1 5?^ (%ig ^kV »I^T "^^ ^^'i ^r ^75? ^^ II^T T?T K^r 

^sfT M^T ^^7^- Suwa Simala dharigayo barhe phalana 

kf asa, phala pako ruwa bhayo suwa bhayo nirasa. 

A parrot {which is very fond of eating fruit) seeing the 
big buds and flowers of a Simala tree in the month of 
February, left the place {where the Simala tree grew) hoping 
to come back when the fruit was ripe. But when the parrot 
returned in April to eat the fruit he found to his utter despair 
that there was nothing but cotton in the pods. 

Used of false promises. 



( 57 ) 

2 ^I3T SJJT^r 'll f^^T M^I. Banja byayo gobirho bhayo. 
An oak tree gave birth to Gobirha fa worm often 

found in the crachs of an oak tree J. 

Applied to oue whose many promises end in nothing, or in 
something which is of very little use. 

"Parturiunt montes, nasoetur ridiculus mus." 

3 m^T f;i% 5%«IT 'If'Sl^r. Bina dudi chba. maina 
paladau. 

Fostering a child for six months, without milk. 

Applied to one who puts off another with promises and 
never fulfils them. 

4 ^^i 5EIT 'SR^^I %T ^^^ if. Tero bya karunlo sau 
barasa men. 

I will get you married a hundred years hence. 

Applied to promises to do a thing after an unnecessary delay 
or at a time when it will not be needed. 

FALSE HOPES. 

1 T«l ^T '31^ ^TT. Mana ka larhu khana. 

JEJating the sweetmeats of fancy. Equivalent to "build- 
ing castles in the airP 

The story below illustrates the proverb; 

Story : — Once a poor man had a jar of oil to convey from 
one place to another at a wage of four annas. The man as usual 
took the jar on his head, and began to walk with it, amusing 
himself with his imaginings, as follows : — "For the conveyance 
of this load I will get four annas, with which I will buy a hen, 
which will in due time produce eggs and chickens. The sale of 
these will procure me a few rupees, which will enable me to 
purchase a herd of goats. After this the sale of the goats and 
their kids will supply me with money sufficient to purchase and 
keep cows, the sale of which, with their offspring, will make me 
possessed of money to buy buffaloes and herd them. The last 
occupation will give mc money enough to marry. When 1 get 

H 



'( 58 ), 

married 1 will have children who will call me, "Father dear, coni'e 
and take your meal:;" then I shall reply. "No, no." Suiting his 
-action to his word sie shook his head, fby this time he had arrived 
at the shop where he had to deliver the loadj and threw the jar 
'on the ground and spilt the oil. The owner of the oil began to 
*blame the coolie for the loss of his oil. But the coolie said to tha 
man to whom the oil belonged. "0 my dear friend, alas !. you 
should not m<>urn over the oil, which is of very little value ; for I 
have IoSj my family through the destruction of your oil." On 
being asked what he meant, the coolie narrated the imaginary 
prospects which he had based on the four annas that he had to 
receive for carriage of the oil jar. 0. /. "He that lives upon 
hopes will die fasting," and the story of Alnaschar in the 
"Arabian Nights." 

2 g^iHT ^It'ST »f!2T ^ff 5IS ^^, Uina dhubina jhuta 
muta dhandha sachi. 

ITie dream was false, but the pool of urine is a reality. 

Said by one who has had a terrifying dream, on awaking. 

This proverb is made use of to distinguish between the 
realities of life and the false fears and anticipations which are 
like dreams. 



3 Xjmj i^r^T HT^I Wl ^f^r ^'': ^^ ^rff ^T '^^T. Raja 
Bhoja bharama ka bhula ghara ghara mattl ka chula. 

JRdjd Bhoja is under an illusion. Every house has 
earthen hearths, 

1. e. all human beings doomed to death, pleasure, pains, 
prosperity and adversity. 

Rajah Bhoj was a famous King of Malwa, supposed to have 
flourished about the end of the tenth and beginning of the eleventh 
century. He is said to have been a great patron of learning, and 
is the hero of many stories and anecdotes, the best known of 
which is the beautiful story called "Raja Bhoj ka Swapna" or 
"King Bhoj's dream." 

4 HT1 f^ 7ff . Bharama ki tatti. 
xllusion's veil. 



( 59 ) 

Applied' to worldly honour and wealth which intrinsically 
are fallacious. E. g., it is used of a seemingly wealthy or great 
man' who on examination turns out to be a man of straw. A mani 
who possesses one lakh of rupees is often reckoned to have- 
ten lakhs. 

5 »TT?ITW ^^ 1T»T ^RTf^ ^T^T «B^^^IT. Maya ka 
tina nama Pharasi, Pharasa, Pharaaarama. 

Wealth has three names-. fMaya=illttsion, that which 
tempts all menj^ viz Fharsu^ I'harsd, Tharasram: 

One who has a competence is called Pharsu, a wealthier 
man is called Pbarsa fa better name), if he is very rich people 
^ill call him Pharasram (a very respectable name). 

Degrees of wealth and corresponding honour. 

FAMILY OR HOUSEHOLD.. 

I 'W^ ^^r ^^ ^^r It ■^T'^ ^r^r ^ ^. Ghara karau: 
ghara karau sau balaya khora me dharau. 

^et up house, get married, and bring one hundred 
troubles on your head. 

Used to dissuade one from marrying, or used by one who- 
becomes disgusted with the troubles and- discomforts he is having 
on. account of his family. 

FATE OR DESTINY. 

1 ^TI'OT ^I^T ^f^T'ST. Apano boiyo lawono; 

One is sure to get the fruit of what he has sown: 

"Whatsoever a man soweth that shall he also reap." 

A reference to- the doctrine of transmigration. A man will 

receive the fruit of the deeds done by him in former existences. 

This is so certain that a man. should be perfectly patient under 

alii circumstances. 

2 r^fk W^f% %^ ^^ ^T ^^T f^^'TW ^T ^g. Padhl 
pharasi becha tela yo dekhau kismata ko khela. 

A Persian scholar, yet obliged to sell oil ; such the- 
tyranny of fate. 



( 60 ) 

The story below is used to illustrate the proverb. 

Once when India was under the sceptre of the Mohamed'aH 
Rulers every one who knew Persian could get a post of some 
importance in the administration. But an unlucky man thoroughly 
educated in that language not having been able to get such a 
post was obliged to take up service with a Baniyd { merchant) who 
assigned to him the work of selling oil. 

An accomplished but unlucky man. 

3 ^^ Wn ^ ^nr^ fSl^rr mR TTTT 9[i^T Huni chba 
ta ekai sapaka ni huni ta sari rata ghepalo. 

The khira f rice pudding J is prepared hy stirring it 
with one stick ^ and an event which is fated not to occur 
cannot be brought round even if a whole crowd of men 
work all night to accomplish it. 

Fate will accomplish itself in its own way. 

4 SIT5I 'iT^T 'ITI '^T'^^TW HTT. Naja khano saga raja 

khano bhaga. 

One eats his meal fgravtij with vegetables aitd enjoys 
his kingdom by his luck. 

Fortune- decides all. 

Used as a caution against envying others who are in 
better positions. 

5 ^f f% ^ ^^(^ ^«Tf% ^^fw. Eunall ke dekhani muna- 

li dekhani. 

Why should one consult one's horroscope rather than 
(be contented with) his skull or fate. 

At the time of birth an astrologer is employed to draw out 
a chart or horoscope predicting the course of the child's lifa. 
The sutures of the skull are also supposed to indicate a man's 
lot. This proverb is a warning against constant and useless 
reference to one's horoscope (which is always carefully preserved, 
bmt which often turn- out felse) in&tead of being content with the 
course of one's life. 

The predictions of horoscopes are so unquestionably believed 
by illiterate people of these hills that they regard the things there- 
in predicted to take place as already in their posaessiou.. 



( 61 ) 

The under-noted fact is used to illustrate the matter. Once 
a man enquired of a youth (bachelor) of his acquaintance whether 
he was married. The latter replied to the query in the affirmative. 
But the other persons of his household present then and there 
contradicted his statement, saying that be was yet a bachelor. 
On this the youth said "Friends how do you say this ? you know 
that our Pandit (astrologer) has put down 2 wives for me in my 
horoscope." 

6 ^^iT ^T^»I ^^I KT1 f'l^. Khasama sohaga lelo 
bhaga nile. 

My husband, if angry, can deprive me of sohaga {of his 
society) but not of my luck. 

Applied to one who cares nothing for his superior's wrath, 
since every thing depends on one's fate. 
The extreme of fatalism. 

7 SIT^I *f^T^ '3T'n ^''I'5(' Jano Nepal klianu kapala. 
Though one may go to Nepal yet be cannot escape the 

decrees of fate. 

8 ^T^fx: ^T'lWT ^^T ^ ^^ ^^ fl^ I^T. Bakari apana 
bachcha ki khaira kaba taka man a. 

Sow long shall a she-goat pray for the life of her hid? 
{i. e. no one can escape his fate J. 

A bad man will certainly at last meet with punishment. 
There is a strange story current about kids which illustrates 
the proverb. 

Story : — There are nine festival days called "Nabratri" or 
"Durga Puja" generally occurring either in September or October 
every year. During these festivities he-goats or kids are killed 
or sacrificed by almost every family. Twenty-two days after this 
there is another festival called "Go Piija" or "Gobardhan" on 
which day all the cows, bullocks, and calves are fed with human 
food (viz rice, dal, cakes &c). One day some kids saw calves 
playing and jumping merrily on account of the feast they were 
looking forward to on the day of the ensuing "Go puja." The 
calves informed the kids of the approaching feast and the latter 



C 62 ) 

also began fco dance for joy, in expectation of that day. On seeing^ 
them so ignorant of their impending fate, the old goats said to- 
them. "0 kids, you are very foolish, for you are unaware of the- 
fact that the Gopiija festival will come a long time after you- 
will have been killed during the Durga puja, which is drawing 
near now. On hearing this all the kids playing so joyfully 
became very sad. 

Also used in the sense that the things of this world are- 
uncertain and fleeting. 

9 Slefi efiT •if^«j iTj ff . Dhaka ka tina pata. 

The JDhaka tree has three leaves only. 

The Dhaka tree is considered a very sacred tree. It 
has only three leaves. These are supposed to represent the' 
three universal stages of birth, life, and death. The proverb 
applies to any or every thing which is written in one's 
fate as inevitable. It is also used to represent insufficient or 
fallacious arrangement. It is also used to represent that no king: 
howsoever pleased with one can give him more than what is 
destined in his fate, as any amount of rain will not produce more- 
than 3 leaves in the Dhdka tree. 

10 3i?i<a ^ if?]^ '^(^ ^ ^f T^T. Jangala me mangala basti 

me karhaka. 

Feasting in the jungle and starving in a town. 

Good fortune spreads a table before us even in the wilderness^ 
while evil fortune reduces us to misery even in the most favourable- 
circumstances. 

11 VK^^ 51TW q^fl ^TT ^T ^t ^^ISI. Puraba jaw* 
pacbhama karama ka ui lakshyana. 

Whether I go east or west the same fate follows me^ 

Change of place will not change one's fate. C.f. Horace's 
"Patriae quis exsul se quoque fugit." 

12 ""^^ HT1 ^T1« Chala bhaga aga. 

"O Fate, move on." 

E. g. One wishes to try his fortune elsewhere by leaving: 
the place where his fate has failed to do anything for him, 
"Better luck another time." 



( 63 ) 

13 ^^ fifi f^ vf^f?T. AgrQ kin kin bhabishyati. 
What becomes hereafter. 

Once the skull of a man was found by a Pandit on which the 
under-noted inscriptions (sutures) were written. "This man will 
remain in poverty daring the whole of his life, and undergo 
10 years imprisonment ; after this he will die on the banks of the 
ocean ; what will become of him hereafter no one knows." The 
Pandit, who understood the divine writing, felt curious about the 
fate of the skull, since all other things which were written thereon 
had passed away, and he was quite unable to test its accuracy 
by comparing it with the real events of the man's life. So the 
Pandit wrapped the skull in a clean cloth and locked it in his box. 
After travelling for some time in foreign countries he at last 
returned home. There also he took proper care of the skull and 
kept it locked in his own safe. Some time afterwards being laid 
up with illness, his wife got possession of the key of her husband's 
safe. Intending to take out some money or valuables she opened 
it and found the skull. Suspecting it was the skull of her rival 
wife who had died many years before, and becoming jealous on 
account of her husband's attachment to the dead woman as evinced 
by the fact of his keeping her skull so safely, secretly she threw 
it into a latrine. She did this because it is supposed that when 
the bones of a deceased person are thus defiled that person's spirit 
will remain for ever in hell. The outcome of the skull's fate, 
when made known to the Pandit, convinced him that the writing 
on the skull was correct. 

14 vfvi ^Jf^. Dhuni pani. 

Fire and water, i. e. ministering to a Faldr. 

E. g. The fire used by a Fakir (ascetic) for warming himself 
is known as a "Dhuni.^' A Fakir needs only a fire to warm him, 
and water kept in a gourd, for he gets cooked food from other 
people by begging. Those who help him by supplying fuel and 
water are considered to have earned his favor. Ascetics who 
perform penances, and abstain from worldly affairs in this life 
are supposed to become kings, ministers, and wealthy people in the 
next life, and so in that existence they will repay the service 
rendered them in this world by giving good posts &c in their 
Government to those who gave them food, water and fuel. In the 
same way the people who now find favor with great men are 
believed to have served them in the former life when the great 
ofBcers and kings were ascetics. 



( 64 ) 

15 gr'fi^ ^Hf^ ^J^ SRT»T fk ^^ ^l^- Uphali uphali 

dyun phale karamaki dui nale. 

No matter Jiow hard I dig I can only get two nalis 
(four seers J. 

Used to dissuade people from excessive toil, and also used by 
one who is discouraged by the failure of his own efforts. 

16 «f7f^ ^T^ 7f% f%S^. Nani khori thuli ni huni. 

Whose fate fQismatJ is small can never become great. 

Applied to a poor man who after once having become 
prosperous relapses into his former wretched condition. 

Illustration 1. Once there lived a sage hermit in a certain 
forest far away from human habitations, where he had no other 
creature but a small mouse now and then playing around him. 
One day the mouse having been pursued by a cat entered the 
blanket worn by the hermit for covering. The hermit having 
pity on the helpless little creature wished him to be a cat. The 
mouse instantly became a cat. After a little time the transformed 
animal was pursued by a dog, when the sage was kind enough 
to turn him into a dog. On the dog being hunted by a leopard 
the sage made him also a leopard. The leopard used to move 
about fearlessly during the day-time and returned to the jungle 
in the evening. In course of time the leopard came to be known 
by the people of the neighbourhood as "the hermit's leopard." 
This epithet the leopard considered as a disgrace to himself, and 
thought that it would be uttered no more if he killed the hermit. 
So he went to kill the sage, who, knowing his evil intention, turned 
him again into a mouse. 

Illustration 2. Once a king while journeying in a forei^u 
country saw a most beautiful girl whom ha took to his harem 
though ignorant of her parentage. Soon after this it was observed 
that the girl was waning and losing her beauty day by day. On 
enquiry it was found that she did not take her food properly. 
Many learned and experienced phj'sicians were employed to benefit 
her, but in vain. She could not give any clue to her disorder. 
At last a wise man, having somehow found out the parentage 
of the damsel, volunteered to bring her round if he were allowed 
to feed her. The offer was accepted. After this the man havinf 
put a little food on a leaf began to feed her at short intervals, 
and she began to eat, as she was accustomed to. (For she was 
the daughter of a sweeper, a class who do not cook their own food. 



f 65 ) 

but live on wLai ttey get from the people they serve. Thus they 
take a little food as they receive it many times a day. (The girl 
also was accustomed to the habit). Under this regimen the girl 
began to grow fat and plump. Bat when the facts were made 
known to the king he was obliged to drive her out of his seraglio. 

17 ^q^T f^^^ ^'^r^T ^T^T« Apano dinera anyara 

kwarha. 

One who wishes to bestow a gift will give it even if the 
recipient is shut up ( hidden ) in a dark corner. 

Fate must fulfil itself whatever the outward circumstances 
may te. In other words, any one who wishes to give help to 
another will do so without regard to the other's position. 

18 ^ ^i f%fq % ?j 9t1T. K^i S0& ^pi J^ai son 
gboga. 

One gets shells, another pearls. (Fn diving for pearls). 
One man is fortunate, another uofortuiaate. 

19 ^TWT MUl ^T ^VHT. Apana bhaga ko khano. 

One will eat ( suffer ) what there is in store in his 
destiny, or what fate has decreed. 

This means thai no relatives are of any help to one in either 
prosperity or adversity. 

The story narrated below is quoted to explain the proverb. 
It is said that there was once a king who had seven daughters, 
all of whom were very dear to him. One day while sitting among 
them he enquired of each of them through whose luck she got 
her maintenance. All of them except the youngest said "0 Father, 
we as well as the world under your sceptre depend on your good 
luck for maintenance and protection." The seventh and youngest 
differed from the others and said, "0 Sire, though you have givea 
me birth, still I shall have to undergo whatever there may be in 
my luck. I do not at all depend on your luck." This statement 
made the king indignant against this daughter, and he ordered 
her to be expelled from his palace and placed where four roads 
meet, to be taken away by any body who might wish to have her. 
But he gave the other daughters to powerful and wealthy princes 
in marriage with an excessive amount of dowry, so that it might 
last for generations. The banished girl, as soon as she was thrown 

I 



( ^ } 

on the road far oflf from thie town of her father made a vow in her 
mind to make the first man she met her husband. The man who 
first came turned out to be a woodman, who used to earn his bread 
by selling firewood daily. According to her vow the girl took 
him for her husband and went to his home, where she began to 
live as his wife, doing the necessary domestic work for him. 
One day while he was about to take his load of firewood to the 
town she saw that the load consisted of sandal wood. On enquiry 
she found that her husband had supplied that kind of wood to the 
ting of the city ( her own father ) for many years past on 
credit, and received only two annas (about 1^ pence) a day. She 
prepared a bill for him, which, after deduction of what he had 
already received, amounted to a lac of Rupees as the price of the 
sandal, and instructed her husband to demand this sum from the 
king. The wood-man did as he was told, and received a lac of 
rupees, with which he came home. "With such a large sum in 
her possession she did not like to remain in the wretched hovel 
she and her husband were living in. So she selected a nice site 
for her palace and ordered it to be dug out, squared and levelled. 
While this was being done she found in the place four invaluable 
large rubies, besides immense wealth in gold, buried under-ground. 
The rubies on sale fetched her four lacs of rupees. This wealth 
she invested in prudent speculation as well as in buying innumerable 
villages in the neighbourhood and in various kinds of trade. All 
these transactions in time greatly added to their wealth, and her 
husband began to be called a king. Once after this the hereditary 
king was assailed and would have been defeated and driven out 
of his kingdom had it not been for the help the new king gave in 
defeating the assailants. This event put the original king under 
obligation to and made him acquainted with the new king. He 
was yet ignorant of the fact that his own daughter was the wife 
of the new king, and that the latter was his old woodman. After 
this one day the king with his royal family and train was invited 
by the woodman to a feast. The wife having put a drop of curd 
on her right foot (among the Hindus food is distributed with 
naked foot) served each course herself, disguising herself each 
time by putting on a diflferent costume. The guests were astonish- 
ed that instead of one the host had so many waiters. As soon as 
-the feast was-over the king and the royal family were seated in 
another apartment. The king was astonished to find here a woman 
saluting and addressing him as her father. He recognized his 
daughter and acknowledged that every one ought to depend on 
his or her own kismat (fate) and shewed her her other sisters, who, 
having lost all they had, had become dependant on him, and was 
convinced that no relation howsoever wealthy and powerful or 
poor he may be can make a man «itber prosperous or otherwise. 



( 67 ; 

20 Ji^Ti^T'^^1 %mr^r ^^T. Gaino bapu dela laino- 
ko delo. 

My father will give me jewelry ((gol'd and' silver 

ornaments) but who will give me the luch in store 

for m£ ? 

Used to teach people that they should depend on their lot, 
and not on getting from others. 

21 ^TgTT ^ 51^ ^H JfiT 1i^. Karatuta ka nala karma 
ka pbala. 

The stalks ( of crops ) come by indiistry, but the yield 

depends on luck. 

E. g. A cultivator can, only make the crops grow, but if he- 
has ill luck the crops will be damaged, or destroyed in some 
way or otheri. 

'^'^ ?5j qii'?T^ ^ 51^^. Eba kapali saha-. sharira, 

JSat O skull, and endure O- body; 

Used by one who is angry with his ill luck. Bjr skull he 
means his evil destiny. The sutures of the skull are supposed^ 
to be written words in which a man's destiny is recorded J, 

FAULT-FINDING. 

Apana ganda ko lekho na jokho paraya ganda ko. janthi 
to teko. 

Unmindful of his own large goitre he tells another to 
support his on a stick. 

Wa see the faults of others, but not our own. C. /. "The 
faults of our neighbours with freedom we blame, but tax not 
ourselves though we practise the same." 



( fi8 ) 

IMustrated Bt/ the following story :^ — 

While sittimg in Court before the Emperor Akabar the- 
Great, his chief minister Birbal was guilty of an act of indecency. 
At which the other ministers present being envious of his position 
cried out that Birbal had committed a very disrespectful act 
in the august presence of the Emperor, and that he deserved 
capital punishment. The kiag a>greeing with them ordered 
Birbal to be impaled. Birbal being thus convicted of hia 
unavoidable fault did not refute the charge at that time. But a 
few days before the date fixed for the execution d" the sentence 
he presented himself to the king and said to bim that he had 
already instructed him in all the aits and sciences of which bo 
was possessed, but the art of sowing pearls he had had no 
opportunity of imparting to him, and that after his death there- 
was no one who would be able to instruct bim in this mystery. 
The Emperor being interested in this speech ordered that he- 
should be executed after he had shewn him this art. So Birbal 
was allowed to sow the pearls. In order to revenge himself npoit 
his enemies (the other ministers) he selected the sites on which' 
their houses were built for the sowing of the pearls. The house* 
-were ordered to be razed to the ground and made into fields. He 
then asked for lacs of rupees in order to provide the seed pearls 
Having so far accomplished his purpose, he sowed barley on the- 
fields prepared for the purpose. After some time the barley sprung 
up and grewy when Birbal himself went to the Emperor and 
t»ld bim that the pearls were now ready for reaping early in the 
morning. (For in the early morning each dew-drop on the barley- 
appeared like a beautiful pearl). He also recommended that the- 
Emperor should reap them with his own bands, as the pearls would 
turn into water if touched by any one who was not in the habit 
of committing the act of indecency of which be had been guilty. 
Whereupon the king was sorely troubled and confessed that he was- 
unable to reap them, and the ministers and the other servant* 
of the Darbdra all confessed their inability to undertake the 
delicate work of reaping the pearls, not being free from the fault 
of which Birbal bad been found guilty. Birbal then said,^ 
"0 Lord of my soul and property, if no one is free from the 
fault of which I have been guilty, why should I lose my life for a 
habit common to all ?" The king was then obliged to grant him 
pardon. Compare the Sanskrit proverb. "The wicked blame 
others for small faults, though they be small as mustard seeds,. 
but will not see their own faults, though they be large as 
the bel fruit." 

Also the mote in another's eye and the beam in one's owa 
eye of the Gospel story. 



( 69 ) 

2 ^T^^lft »I5W5I'»Ar ^T^si ir ^T- Apun korhi garw. 
gana pakau aurana nau dharau. 

A leper rotting and full of sores, blames another on 
the same score. 

I. e. Exposing the faults of others with a view to conceal 
one's own. 

FEAR OR SERVILITY. 

1 ^rf^ ^%. Dara ki swasti. 

Giving salutation of ^^ Swasti" through fear. 

E. g. The salatation "SwasfC is only uttered by a Brahmana 
to a king, or to those who are of royal family after they have 
bowed down before or saluted him. But generally through fear 
the same word is used by a Brahmana before a king salutes him 
(in order to please him) or to any one in power though not 
entitled to it. 

Hence the proverb is applied to one who from fear acts 
contrary to his conscience and custom. 

2 •^JJ M%j ^gjg ^T fi[*| ^ -set (51317^, Basa parbo 

kalala ka bina mada rai nijanu. 

One in the power of a distiller cannot abstain from 
wine ( through fear or in order to please him ). 

FOLLY & IMPRUDENCE, 

1 ^^ ^^ ^T ^^T 11 "^^I ^^ ^T ^^ If. Un pana ka 
cbula pana cbula pana ka unpana. 

To bring in outsiders and place them near the hearth ^ 
and to drive away those of the household. 

The custom among Hindus prohibits persons, other than 
kinsmen and relations, to approach their kitchen, otherwise their 
food is rendered unholy and useless ; and thus by "hearth-people" 
is meant the members of the same house and near relations. 
So foreigners if taken into one's house, are sure to rain the house, 
having no sympathy with the family. For instance when a 
concubine is taken into the house and the married wife expelled 
from it. 



f 70 ) 

2 ^qf5i »TT^ fk^J^J ^XJ sjlt^ ^1^. Apani mani 
birana dera jaika khani. 

To eat one's own grain in another's home. 

Refers to one who is independent and not tinder obligation 
to others. In another sense this is also quoted of one who foolishly 
maintains independence, E. g. a man who is visiting another, is 
expected to live at the expense of his host. 

3 ^^g %T Z\ f^WTf% 5T^ ^^rf% "Vf. Akala ko tappu. 
pichharhi dhhala agharhi appu. 

One who loses his presence of mind holds his shield' 
behind him and puts himself in front. 

4 ^fcIT'Q f^ % ^T^^^T^ ^ ^. Babajyu ki jai ashirbada 
men gai. 

The "Jai" ( blessing ) of a Jbgi ( ascetic ) goes in 
blessings. 

This is applicable to one who neglects his own affairs for the 
sake of others. , 

This proverb is a slur on an ascetic, who instead of devoting 
his time and attention to the contemplation of the Almighty with 
the object of attaining the chief end of man, wastes his life in 
profusely throwing away his blessings saymg "Jai" (victory) to 
every one he comes across. An ascetic when saluted is bound to 
express his good wish (Jai) to the person making an obeisance 
to him. He wishes triumph to others but does not triumph over 
his own desires (lower nature). 

5 ^^?r ^^I^T. Bhekuwa kulyarho. 
A dull head is a blunted axe. 

Applied to a very stupid person. 

6 sirft ^^ "^r^llT S^'HT ^1?T ^TIT. 'Jatri Haridwar* 
gaya Humana dagarha laga. 

The pilgrims go to Saridicdra, but the ghosts also ga> 
loith them. 



{ 71 ) 

"Humanas" are spirits that take human forms, tut cannot 
perform human acts, and so cannot perform any religious rites at 
Haridwara (a famous place of pilgrimage). Applied to one who 
tries to do what is beyond his power ; imitating greater persons. 
Superstitious people stippoSe 'that evil spirits accompany human 
beings invisibly in order to take possession of them and also to 
imitate them, merely because they were human beings themselves 
before they died. 

7 5q-^ ^ ^f 71 ^^T 3T%- Gobara lya kayo gu 
libera tbarho^ 

One deputed to bring cow dung has brought human 
excreta. 

Applied to a very stupid man. 

8 HH^T^ ^^f^ '^r«I «IT^T. Gandu hatbi gbara ki 

pbauja marau. 
A wicked elephant destroys its oion army. 
Fouling one's own nest. 

9 V,^ ^^ JTS^T ^^ ^^ 1{3%T- Gurba dika gudalo 

cbuka dika rutbalo. 

One gets angry with a man who gives him treacle, and 
pleased with him who gives a sour liquid. 

Applied to a foolish man who is annoyed with another's good 
advice, but pleased with him who gives him bad advice. This 
corresponds with what is elsewhere said, that good advice to a 
foolish man makes him angry rather than wise, just as milk given 
to a snake will only increase the quantity of its poison. 

10 «»|^ ^^«T J^I^ S«H!FT- Hagani bakbata mwala 
dhununu. 

One begins to look for the door when lie is under the 
necessity of easing himself. 

Applied to imprudent persons who do not provide for future 
Qeceasities. 



( 72 ) 

11 ir7^ ^lf\ ^WJ ^TrJ ITKII'irr ^T ^"^^- Jora thorhi 
gussa bhauta marakhana ka lakshyana. 

One who has Utile strength but much anger carries the 
marks of one who will be beaten ( *. e. will surely 
get a licking ). 

Used as a caution to poor persons against shewing anger. 
C. f. "if you cannot bite, never shew your teeth." 

12 ^.'njJiT ^j^ f% ^pc -^jfz ;jT%3 q'^f% ^j^ xi^7 ^j^. 

Baniya bola ki meri hati na baitha paharhi bola puro tola. 

The Baniya ( shop-keeper ) says "Do not sit in my 
shop." Tlie Faharhi ( hill man ) answers, "please weigh 
me tlie full weight." {for the grain he has brought 
to sell ). 

This is applied to one who in spite of his being very much 
disliked by another asks him to do some thing for him which the 
other will not do. 

13 HTfT '^ri^^ 5^r<T TIE^. Bhata khaika jata puchbada._ 

After having eaten rice from a man^s hand to enquire 
about his caste. 

A man generally enquires about another's caste before he 
intermarries in his family or eats rice from his hand. If he has 
already entered into such an alliance without previous enquiry he 
should make no enquiries afterwards. If he does so, he exposes 
himself to ignominy and disgrace ; for after eating rice (not other 
kinds of food) from a man's hand you can refuse him nothing. 

14 f%^f ^^s^ ^^I'^ ^^' Sikhain akala cbadhayun pani. 

Borrowed wisdom and water thrown upward ( cannot 
be depended on ). 

Applied to one who being devoid of wits is instructed for a 
certain occasion, but fails to use properly the words taught him. 
Illustrated by this story. 

A villager had a younger brother who was a simpleton. 
One day, wishing to hear news of his father-in-law's family he 
sent him thither, instructing him to talk cheerfully and politely, 
and not sit like an owl, as was his usual custom. On arriving 
at the house, the members of the family gathered round him 



C 73 ) 

and began relating several misfortunes which had happened to 
them lately, such as the death of their father, the loss of their 
irrigated land by a flood etc. The simpleton, remembering his 
brother's instructions, replied to each recital, "Really now, 
that's very nice. I am glad to hear this," ■whereupon the family 
"were enraged, thinking he was making fun of them. Returning 
home, he told his brother what he had done. His brother 
called him all the fools and idiots under the sun, and told him 
that he ought to have expressed his sorrow and sympathy for 
their misfortunes. After some months the simpleton was again 
sent to the same house. This time they began telling him good 
news, about four sons born in the family, large profit made by 
dealing in bullocks etc, to which the fellow kept replying, 
"Good God 1 I'm very sorry to hear this;" whereat the people 
of the house were so angry that they kicked him out, and ordered 
him never to show his face there again. 



15 (li^Tf^ f3[^TT ^^ 'BHrar ^^ f^T(^ Shikari 

Bhikara khelani chutiya gaila phirani. 

Sportsmen hunt for game, but the foolish aimlessly 
follow them. 

Applied to people who idle away their time in the hope of profit- 
ing by the labors of others. 

16 ^5IT^ 'ilT^ ^51T^ ^ 5T^ ^'J^'^EIT^V Kanali 
khaika kafiali ki jarha ni pahachyanado. 

One who eats the nettle but does not know its roots. 

Applied to one who is utterly ignorant and never asks the 
reason or origin of the most ordinary things. 

17 %fqi^^ f^m %VH ^fz ^^ fVS- Lekhi bera dirtu 
hatha kati bera dinu. 

Giving writings is the same as cutting off the hand ? 

I. e. He who gives written obligations is in the power 
of another. 

Compare Proverbs, 22,26. Be not one of them that are 
sureties for debts. 

"If thou art surety for thy neighbour, thou art snared." Pro. 6. 1. 

J 



( 74 .) 

18 ^^ ^Tt^f^ ^rt* SIkha pai bechi khai. 

Se happened to learn something biCt sold his wisdom. 

Applied to one who makes poor or improper use of his 
resources. C. f. "Bay the truth, and sell it not ; also wisdom, 
and instruction and understanding." 

19 ^^Efl^ljjfx: c|i7 ^gj, Lachhuwa kothari ka chela, 

LacKhuwa hotharVs sons. 

Lachhuwa was, many years ago, living in a village known 
as "Kothyara" (Patti Bherang, Pargana Gangoli, District Kumaun). 
He had nine strong, stout, and good looking sons, but all dull- 
headed, foolish and stupid. They have become proverbial, and 
their names are used by people to bring home to their own youno- 
sons and relations their follies and imprudences, when they have 
not the common sense to do a thing properly, to encourage them 
to sharpen their wits. 

"A recital of a few of their acts will illustrate the proverb. 

Once their father proposed to build a house, and desired them 
to cut beams, sleepers and planks in the jungle for the purpose, 
and convey them home by a hand, or a span, (as the phrase goes in 
the hills when a thing is to be done at one's convenience) to the 
spot where the house was being built. Accordingly they went 
to the jungle, and cut trees, but instead of bringing them home 
they cut them into pieces of a cubit or span in length. The father 
(who was expecting the timber daily) on enquiry after many days 
found to his regret and astonishment that the timber had been 
completely spoiled. 

Again one day while cutting trees in the jungle they were 
panic-struck by seeing a tiger at a distance. Unnecessarily 
apprehending that perhaps one ot them had been taken away by 
the tiger, one of them began to count their number to ascertain 
whether they were nine or not. He counted and found eight only, 
because he did not count himself. The others tried and found the 
same result. They then began to lament and cry out that one of 
them had been taken away by the tiger. As soon as their father 
heard their cries and lamentations he was paralysed, and became 
as one thunder-struck. But on coming out and seeing all the nine 
present he began to mourn over the stupidity of his sons. 

A third time their father gave them cloth and desired them 
to make skirts for the women of his household. Instead of 
meas,nring the cloth on the person of each of the women before 



( 75 y 

the skirts were sewn, they measured cloth round the trunks of 
Chir trees, and sewed the skirts arouud them, and reported to their 
father that the skirts were ready, but could not be taken off. The 
father went to see what was really the matter, and was disgusted 
to find how stupid his sons were. 

Again, on another occasion, their father, in order to make 
them of some use, gave them a large sum of money to deal in cloth. 
They brought cloth from Kashipur fa market in the Tarai district 
adjoining Kumaun) and began to sell it. After some months the 
father asked them whether they were getting any profit by the 
trafiic. They replied "0 father, we are getting immense profit 
from the sale of the cloth ; what we purchased at only eight yards 
for the rupee at Kashipur, we are selling here at the enhanced 
rate of twelve yards for the rupee." 

On the fifth occasion the father requested them to dig some 
wells for the sake of merit as he himself had become very old 
and was about to die. The sons went out and had a talk among 
themselves. They arrived at the sage conclusion that there was ' 
scarcely any need of digging wells in the vi'lage, where there were 
already many water springs, so they had better furnish water on 
the tops of high mountains where it was most needed. Therefore 
they dug many ditches on the peaks of mountains to get water, 
but to no purpose. These ditches or dry holes or wells are still 
in existence in Pargannah Gangoli and are called after them. 
"Lachhuwa Kothari's sons' wells." 

Lastly, when their father died, all of them proposed to 
amuse themselves by flying about as birds. Knowing that they 
could not fly without wings, they tied large "Sups" with which 
corn is sifted, to their bodies and arms, and leaping down a high 
precipice perished like Icarus of old. 

20 ^^i^ ^7 ^.ft ^9 S»rT %J Vjt ^KT. Wokhala ko bhai 
Mushala Huma ko bhai Thuma. 

The brother of a mortar is a pestle and Swm&'s 
brother is Thvmd. 

Two persons wlio ar€ alike foolish and illiterate. 

21 ^^,^ 5f ti^f% *^'^^ TT^i^t* Sakani na pakani banduka 

takani. 

One unable to shoot straight aims at another with 
a gun. 



( 76 J 

Applied to one who vainly attempts any thing beyood his 
capacity ar power. C f. "If you cannot bite, ntrer shew 
your teeth." 

22 q|]^j 4t^ ^{^ f^^«B^T^^T' Kala shlkha dfnl silaka- 
do rayo. 

A foolish man broods over all he hear». 

Illustration, A fo&lish man once heard some one say that 
people about to die become cold in the hands and feet. This saying 
took hold of him so that he mever forgot it. One day he went out 
to dig Tairku, am edible root highly prized by the villagers, and 
■which is often dug from a depth of 3 or 4 " feet in the ground. 
"When the fool had finished digging and collecting the roots, his 
hands and feet became very cold, as it was the winter season. 
Remembering the saying that cold hands and feet are signs of 
approaching death, he left the basket of roots in the jungle and 
■went home, telling his friends that he was about to die. He thea 
laid himself down and soon assumed all the appearance of a dead 
man. His friends thinking he was really dead carried him to 
the junction of two streams, where they slightly scorched the- 
body and left it.. That evening two travellers passing that 
■way, and not knowing the road,, began to speak about the way they 
should take to reach a certain village. The fool hearing them said,. 
"When I was alive I used to goby such a path,, but 1 am dead 
now." The travellers -were frightened, and supposing that tho^ 
man was a ghost, stoned him to death. 

23 tj^ »TT ^T %1^J "e? ^tft ^1T ^^T^ ^T ^W. Bauli 

ma ka baula puta aundi ganga parala ka suta. 

The foolish son of a foolish mother wishes to cross the 
swollen torrent on a bridge of straw. 

Foolish people do or attempt foolish things. 

Illustration. Once the Emperor Akbar the Great desired 
iis vizier Birbal to produce three fools before him within a week. 
IBirbal accordingly went about in search of them. While thus 
engaged he saw a man riding a pregnant mare with a heavy load 
of fuel on his head, and enquired of him why he -was doing so. 
The man replied that he did so only to spare the mare as it was 
pregnant. Amused at his reasoning, Birbal noted him down as 
one of the three fools he was in search of. So- he took him to the- 



( 77 ) 

Emperor, who, after hearing from the man the reason he had to 
give for his conduct, declared that the man was right. After this 
he asked Birbal why he had brought only one fool instead of three. 
Birbal said "0 Sire, this is the first (natural^ fool ; your majesty 
is the second, who has declared his conduct to he right ; ^nd 
1 am the third, who have brought him before your majesty to 
be judged. 

24 %x H^T ^t^ ^T- Chora bhalo bekupha buro. 

A thief is better than a stupid man. 

I. e. A stupid man is worse than a thief to deal with. 

25 ^'^T't nxm ^l^T •f'l^^* Jabana tarasha khando 
Uajadlka. 

A cutting tongue and the term ( within which a debt is 

to be repaid ) will be short. 

No one can get his work done or purpose accomplished by 
using harsh words, or taking severe and improper measures. For 
instance, if one were to accost a woman as "mother" she would feel 
highly pleased, but would be greatly incensed if one in saluting or 
addressing her were to say to her "0 my father's wife" though 
both terms have the same signification. 

26 ^umi «srei ^ ^^f^' ^T'':!^- i-pana khuta me 
kulyarhi marani. 

One strikes an axe against his own foot. 
To do a thing which ruins one's own interest. 



""O 



27 "^f^'SIT if^^lT ^T^^ irf^llT* Chutiya marigaya 
aulada chhorhigaya. 

The foolish man is dead, but has left offspring. 

By this proverb the father is still accused of foolishness 
through his foolish son. His follies live after him. 



( 78 ) 

28 yfia %j <i^T ^^'g ^T ^^f. Gantha ko puro akala^ 
ko hino. 

Full of knots but witless. 

The villagers keep their money tied up in knots in their 
clothes ; so full of knots means very rich. 

Applied to one who is rich, but destitute of wit, and so 
deceived and cheated by every one. One who has more money 
than wit to use it properly. 

29 UTsfi ^TT«! ^t ^W ^T^'^^t ^t^T- Shukra aurana sort' 

sano apun son kano. 

The planet Venus [in JSindu astronomy, of the male sex) 

is two-eyed to other people, but blind (one-eyed) to himself. 

E. g. This planet is said to have only one eye, the other 
has been put out. In spite of this defect, according to astrologers 
he bestows good fortune while in the ascendant, but is unable 
to repair his own loss. This proverb is thus quoted in reference 
to a man who is engaged in doing good to others but neglects his- 
own affairs. The lesson usually drawn from this is that a man- 
ought first to look to his own welfare and then try to do good to 
other people. C.f. "Physician, heal thyself." 

30 5ir(!j *i q'^^r"! iT«fi^P^T^. Jana na pahachyana 

bhaka angwala. 

To embrace at once one who is a perfect stranger. 

Applies to one's revealing his secrets or making requests to> 
another with whose conduct and character he is unacquainted. 

31 ^Tilir ^f^ I^T^T- Pauna puchhi pakorha. 

He asks the guest what food he prefers. 

E. g. To enquire from the guest as to the kind of food he- 
likes to eat. It is improper and against etiquette for the guest- 
to say what he will eat. He who is to receive a gift should not be 
asked what is his choice. 



C 79 ) 

32 g qqisj ?i^ ^jn m %j ^i^Y^ ^q^T ^j% Tu kyana 
gaye haika ko kamaye apano khaye. 

Whi/ have you been ruined ? because you earned jor 
x)thers, but fed yourself at your own expense ( you did the 
work of others without food and wages ). 

E. g. The custom is for the employer to feed the labourer 
-and also pay his wages. 

Applied to foolish squanderers who do not care for wages. 

33 ^?5 "57^ ^^j: -ggr^ ^T ^"fT^ "Sltt, Dekha hale 

sahura buwari ko mutanai bati. 

I have seen the conduct of my daughter-in-law frojn 
the manner she performed the offices of nature. 

An unchaste woman reveals her character by trifling actions ; 
or, more generally, we can judge of a person's nature by small 
indications, e. g. untidiness or carelessness. 

34 ^t%«i f T^ qf^5l %^' Aghina daurha pachhina 
chaurha. 

Se runs forward but neglects behind. 

Applies to one who makes advancement or progress in hia 
Jesson or work, but neglects what he has already attained. 

35 gj^ "sqiRl^ m^ ^rfff ^1T- Lato apani jasi dhoti 
Liga'. 

The dumb (in spite of other's admonitions) will cover his 
loins ( or dress himself) in his own ^clumsy) loay. 

That is an idiot will not follow or act upon the good advice 

fiven him by others superior to him in every respect. C. f. "Fools 
espise wisdom." 



( 80 ) 

36 ^ ^i^?; mf^ Raif?El' Gai kasai kanl patyanchhya. 

A cow trusts in a butcher. 

Used of persons void of intellect who trust in cheats and 
thus suffer in consequence. 

37 ^r^^ %^'^IK W?T TT ^n ^ "^f ^T- Bolika kuma- 
hara ghorha ma laga ni charbado. 

A potter will not ride a horse even if told to do so. 

A potter always rides an ass, hence the proverb. 
/. e. Foolish people do not listen to any advice, even if for 
their own comfort or benefit. 

FOOLISH AMBITION. 

1 ^IT^^t^'ilfz ^ W^ ^f T*!. Gana son langoti nai 

tambd son mana. 

One who has no cloth for his loins (to hide his nakedness) 
longs for a tent. 

Preposterous desires. 

2 -^^ t»T ^\Z ^ ^I^ ^ 'aT^^' Badana para langota 
ni motyun ki kharida. 

One who has no cloth to cover his loins wishes to 
purchase pearls. 

Preposterous desires. 

3 Jm %I^ H^»ig%t #|t ^15 'S^f^TJ't. Mana boda 

margala khaun syundi ma ku dadela ni paun. 

I have not even the dadela (oil) for my head hut I have 
n longing for sweetments {cooked in oil). 

( I)adel=the oil left after cooking piiris ( cakes ) in the 
cooking vessel i. e. burnt oil ). 

Applied to one who longs for things beyond his means. 
Women apply oil to their head in order to decorate and tie 
their hair. 



( 81 ) 

4 W5!^5||"%^*r5|^I^^liT'tT^- Tanakonf dhotf 
mana boda lao moti. 

Nothing to wear, yet wishes for pearls, 

5 ITi! %T ^ ^^llt *r^ ^ ^R^'RT'J^' Tana ko nf langoti 
tambu ki farmayasba. 

Nothing to wear, yet asks for a tent., 

6 ■fR ^T 5^ ^RTT ^T1 ^Mi6 ^I^ItIT- Tana ko ni latta 
p4na cbabauncbba alapatta. 

No cloth to fiover his person, yet he wants to chew, 
betel nid, 

7 zm %j ^HTT 9'^<T lTl%9r- Mana hausiya karama gandiya. 
Seart ambitious, but fate imlv/cky. 

Used when poor people indulge in impossible wishes, 

8 ^^ ^T^t ^f*! ^^t^. Sabbi sbyalpn singa ni bondi. 

All jackals have not horns. 

Applied ironically to those who aspire to some dignity and pretend 
to importance. C. f. "All that glitters is not gold." 

The jackal who is supposed to possess a horn in his head is 
made king of the jackals. The horn comes out and becomes visible 
only at the time when it cries, at other times it shrinks and is there- 
fore not seen. Whenever the king of the jackals cries, all the 
jackals are obliged to acknowledge him as their lord by their 
howling response. If any pne does not do this his head breaks and 
he dies. The king of jackals is said to yell out to the other japkals. 
"Main Dilli ka Badshah hiin, Main Dilli ka Sadshah bun, Main 
Dilli ka Badshah bun." (1 am emperor of Delhi.) To thi§ jll the 
jackals say Ho, ho, ho. (Yes you are, yes yon are, yes you are). 
People attribute many strange properties to the horn of the jackal 
(Shyala singi). Whoever is in possession of the horn will get 
the king in his own power, will defeat his enemy, will drawmen to 
his side, make) women love him, will be prosperous, will not die even 
if struck with a deadly weapon &c. &c. 

The Shyala Singi (horn of the king of jackals) is reekoned 
as one of the Nid'his (talismans or charms) by virtue of which one 
can get everything he desires. 

ix. 



( 82 ) 

'9 ?|^ siigr ^ SSJTf^^^T- Gredi na palla dui byawatarula. 
Nothing in his pocket and purse, yet wishes to marry 
two brides. 

In Gnrhwal no one can get a bride unless he pays smartly for 
ier. Applied to one ambitious beyond his position and power. 

10 Tf% Jj^iTT ^T1 '^T^^t '?T^ '»'5T'^«T. Rasi gala laga harha 

son liatiia pasaranu. 

Soup sticks in the throat, bid he stretches forth his 
'^handfor a bone. 

Applied to one who cannot do what work is already in his 
hands 5'et asks for more, or being unable even io do an ordinary 
thing attempts matters beyond his power. 

11 TT^rr ^T 5T^T ^'S ^■'^T '51'liT. Raja ka jasa graba 
mera laga kai'a. 

Make my stars the samie as those of a king. 

By stars literally is meant circumstances or luck. This is 
applicable to a very irisignificant person who aspires after high 
things totally beyond his reach, or competes with his superiors. 

Stars= fortune. High ambition. 

FOPS, BOASTERS & FASTIDIOUS PEOPLE. 

1 »l^ ^T^I iT^JI^T«1 ^T 1^%3!. Grurha khano gulgulana 
ko paraheja. 

One who eats gurha ( treacle ) but abstains from 
sweet loaves ( made with gurha ). 
Foolish scruples. 

2 'gif^ t5!Tif% 5T(^ fi^T. JI^T ^Tl^r- Hathi nigali jano 
naacbhara gala lagano. 

To strain at a gnat and sicallow ah elephant 
or camel. 

E. g. To make much ado about the performance of un- 
important" duties, but to make no difficulties about neglecting much 
more important affairs. 



( 83 )) 

3 %f ZZ "^Tl^ %^T- r.^&^^ t^'tfli baganne-dero. ,t? ' - 
Encamped in the garden, but having onl'if a- •^ony 

and a half. , : 

Pride and poverty. . . 

4 »TTTf5| f^% 'V^^ «gf%?^- Marani Dilli hagani chuli. 

Professes to conquer Dehli but never stirs out of his 
oum house. 

A great boaster. 

5- »iiT^ HIT% f|fi mm %T^^T ^«I ^ ^^T. Marnai 

marnai Dilli janchha jo kbarho hatha kwe nikara. 

Se would fight his way to Dehli, but does not wish to 
strike a blow. 

A great boaster. 

6 ^f% 'grf^ ■^•ITf^ ^S!- Burhi ghorhi bandti jina.. 

An old mare with a saddle of broad clotlu 
A beggarly fellow in fine clothes. 

7 f^ %T f^^?.T^ ^m ^i%I ^2 ^T/%' Dilli ko dilwali 
mukha chuparho peta khali. 

Like the inhabitants of Dehli, who, though hungry (try to) 
look well fed. 

Applies to fops. 

8 -si^^ ^r 1^ ^T«T f*r^ ^ITf ^^'JtJT- Badana ko ni latta 

missi lagawa alapatta. 

Has no cloth for his person, but needs Missi ( a powder 
used for coloring the teeth ^by fashionable native women ). 

9 »lN l^f^f^ ^S|T ^r "fffwif. Ganda garibini reshama 
ko taniyan. 

A poor Than, but uses a silk thread to tie his trowsers with^ 



( 8^ ) 

10 %T^T ^fSTT '^JX %T «W- Sautina budtiya 
chiatai ko lahanora. 

4 foppish old lady has a shirt mae^e of a mat, ( when 
she cannot get anything else ). 

I. e. Oho accustomed to luxuries, or comforts cannot give 
them up. 

11 "vg^ ^r ^.i ^^Tft: ^ ^^T^. Dedha pau cLuna tebari 

men rasoi, 

■ Only- six ehhatdks of flour ( the smallest quantity necessary 
for one person ) but cooked in the Tehdri. 

The tehdri is that portion of a house -which is visible to all 
who pass by. 

This is used of one who beiag very poor has haughty airs- 
and makes vain show. 

12 ^f^ l.^T'l 'st'BT 'I^.Tf- TJnchi dnkana phlka pakawana, 
A lofty shop, hut tasteless or worthless sweets. 

A man of note whose dealings are not g€K)d, or one who is- 
great ia name, but has no wealth or property to maintain it. 

13 iT5R JT3I ^TT fSlT f%^T- Mana mana bbatr shira hilau. 
The heart desires, but the head is shaken in denial. 

14 ^l{J■^ %j -set J ^^«i ^y 9T^T« J^ama ko barliG darsliana 

ko chhoto. 

Well reputed, hut bad to deal with ( literally, great in 
name, but little to looh at ). 

Descriptive of a man who has managed to- get a good reputa- 
tion, but in private dealings is found to be roguish,, selfish etc., 

FORBEARANCE. 

Eka chula bikha ki wiki pini jaiki eka sau cbiila amrita 
M pi rakhi cbha. 



( 8& ) 

One cup of poison should be accepted at the hands of the 
man who has already given one a hundred of nectar. 

We should be willing to bear somewhat with the abuse or 
ill-treatment bestowed on us by a benefactor. 

2 ^^ ^f fsi^nf^ ^»I5I ^^IT ^uSt 41"31- Pancha 

lai ni khoni dumana dasa lai ni kboni bithana. 

A Dum ( a low caste man ) ought not to quarrel for the 
sake of five rupees, and a Bitha (^patrician) for ten rupees. 

This is used to show that one ought to forbear quarrelling 
with others for small amounts. C. f. Go not forth hastily to strife, 
lest thou know not what to do in the end thereof, when thy 
neighbour hatb put thee to shame." 

Hisalu ki bana barhi risalii najika jaibera udhlni dincbba. 

Ye bata ko kaile gato ni manano dudyala ki lata sauni 

parhyanchbya. 

The temper of Hisalu, a thorny wild berry ( wild rasp- 
berry ), is very bad ; for it pierces one who touches the 
plant ; no one ought to mind this, for the kicking of a milch 
cow must be endured by every one. 

AlHhe field-terraces are full of- this wild plant, the branches 
and leaves of which are full of sharp and crooked thorns. It is 
loaded with ripe berries in the months of May and June. The 
berries are soft, pulpy, and sweet, and afford a nice treat to the 
poor people, but every time a berry is plucked the fingers are in 
daager of being pierced with thorns. 

One ought not to mind the ill temper of those we are 
benefitted by. 

4 ^Tf^'I HKfm 'HKff. Kbani gama pairani sbarama. 

One ought to forbear and be modest. 

Used to admonish children or others not to bo fastidious or 
quarrelsome, but to lead a respectable life. 



( 86 ) 
FORCE OR COMPULSION. 

1 3SfT«! ^^T ^^'^T'l '^^r* Bbutana lakha dewatana dhakka. 
Ghosts have large goats sacrificed to them, but the deities 

are pushed aside. 

Ghosts are supposed to frighten and take possession of 
people by making them sick and die, so people thus attacked 
worship ghosts, and sacrifice big goats to them, whereas deities,, 
who, though they have far greater power to bless their devotees, 
and who do not thus trouble and attack people, are forgotten or 
neglected on the score of their being harmless. 

2 l^lHf^^T if %T f^'TT^r '^^R- Nimarhiyo gaun ko. 
ghinaurho padhana. 

The headman of a deserted village is the sparrow. 

E. g. In an inhabited village sparrows find a few nooks or 
holes to live iu, but in the village abandoned by human beings they 
can occupy any place without fear. 

Applied to a small man who exercises great authority, or 
oppresses others with inpunity, there being no great men or 
authorities in the locality. 

3 fTir f^i^^^T "^9 ir^I- Duna ni sakado bisa patha. 
Cannot lift up 32 seers, but can lift 40 seers. 

Applied to one who is not willing to do a little work, but 
will do much more by being goaded to it. 

4 %T ^^ ^»!! 5^rT^ mt ^^T'lT^- Ho meri swena 
natara katun tero nakha. 

Be my wife, or I will cut your nose off. 

Obtaining one's object by threats and violence. 

5 tH ^ ^^^ 5T^€|" ^^ ^f)"^ ]H%T ^^ff- Ran da- 
ki mundali dhola kl kundali kasika bhalo bulanda. 

The head of a woman and that of a drum give good 
sound when well tied and beaten. 
Martial authoritv commended. 



( ^7 ) 

^ TTf^ ^if^ %^ ^'i^lTI- Mari mari bera mu- 

talamana. 

Made a Musalman hy force. 

Applied to any one who is compelled to do anything 
contrary to his wishes. Adverting to the manner in which 
Hindus were forced to become Mahomedans by the Mahomedan 
rulers. 

J' ^^ '^^5ij ^TZJIJIT ^ '^^^ Mulaijai mulaija jethana 

ki swena. 

To become by pressure the unwilling wife of her husband's 
elder brother. 

E. g. According to cnstom a younger brother's wife is not 
allowed even to touch her husband's elder brother, and vice versa. 
So to become his wife is a most atrocious incest. 

Used of one who commits sin under compulsion. 

•8 ^'ct ^»l€t" ^^t ^T^^ ^^ ^TT ^1I^- Meri anguli 
tera ankba me teri mera mukha me. 

My finger is in your eye, and your finger is in 
my mouth. 

I. e. you are in my power every way ; you are in a 
perilous state. 

9 ^r^i ^r ^T^ '^T^t'<T f2| ^*ij^T' Laton ko yara baton 
ten ni bujbado. 

A man who needs blows to move him, will pay no 
attention to mere words. 

Applied to foolish and illiterate people who will not do 
anything without coercion or force. 



C 88 ) 
FRIENDSHIP & ESTRANGEMENT. 

1 aiW^ f%»ITf ^rc^ fSniTt'* Wa lani mitain jo rawa 
nitain. 

Make that kind of friendship which will last for ever. 

Caution against temporary friendships ■which are generally 
not sincere, but entered into from some selfish motive. 

"Those friends thou hast, and their adoption tried, 

"Buckle them to thy soul with hoops of steel." ShaJcspeare., 

2 ^^T ^T1 ^I^ Tl% ^it ^I^T ^'nr?: T^^T- Kaiko 

apa hoi rahano kol apano banai rakhano. 

Act as a friend to another and have another as 
your friend. 

"Do unto others as you would have them do unto you." 

3 ^'RIT f^ ^Tfe ^V^ ^T 'l^^' Rupaya ki dosti dawai 

ko sbarira. 

Friendship for money^s sake and the body fed on 
medicine will not last. 

4 ^^ ^fr f\^ %^J% ^T^^* ^6" i^eri prita kplain 
ka tuku. 

Your love and mine is on the top of a pine tree. 

This is used when friends are completely estranged from 
each other. 

5 «I^T ^r fSi^ 1^ ^T ^T3' Baba ko mitra ffurba ko katha. 

The friend of one's father and the treacle-wood ( dry 
sv^ar-cane). 

E. g. One's father's friend will do him good, i. e. notipiure 
him, as the sugar cane though dried up will prove to be sweet. 

Used to encourage one's father's friend to do some 
favour. 



r 89 ) 

FUTURE APPREHENSIONS OR CONTINGENCIES. 

1 ^S ^ ^^«fiT ^"^^T^ ^« Peta men larhaka karadorha 
bata. 

Twitt a chain for the hoy who is yet in the womb. 

As soon as a boy is born, a chain either of silver or of 
thread is put round his waist. An imprudent or impatient person 
wishes to make unnecessary provision for him while it is yet 
uncertain whether the unborn child will be a boy or a girl. (In the 
case of a girl, the waist chain is not required). 

Used of needless apprehensions. 

This is illustrated by an incident which took place during 
the time of one of the Native Princes at Almora. 

Once a contingent force composed of the Banias of Almora 
was ordered to go and fight with the army of an enemy, who 
had arrived at Haldwani (at the foot of the hills) to invade the 
hill-country. The raw recruits, in a great fright, drew out their 
swords from the sheaths and started on the expedition. The Raja 
asked the reason of their so doing, when they replied "Sire, we 
shall have hardly any time to draw our swords when we come 
in face of the enemy, and so we must keep them ready for the 
emergency." From this the Raja saw that they were a set 
of cowards, and so packed them off home again. 

2 % "^^IT ^T ^I fT ^^«T ^I ''Tf^* Jai bakhata ko dyo 
tai bakbata ko panl. 

When it rains, there will be water. 

One should not be anxious about the future. 
"Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof." 

3 ^^q ^TT^r ^^ "^^^rr Bapa maralo baila batala. 

The bullocks {^property) will be divided {among the 
brothers ) on the death of the father. 

The son imagines he will do many wonderful things with the 
property that comes to him, builds castles in the air. But all is 
contingent on his getting the property. 



r 90 ) 

GAMBLING. 

1 5IHT ^ft "^TT. Juwa mithi hara. 

Gambling losses are like sweets. 

I. e. One wants more, or the loser wants to try again. 

GIFTS FROIVl RELATIVES. 

1 ^TT f% 'I^T^ ^^- Pauna ki pakorhi swada. 
Dainties brought hy a guest who is a relative are delicious. 

Other peoples' food, possessions, &c seem to us better than 
our own. Or, the gift of a beloved one is sweet. 

Also that any dainty which one may have in plenty is not 
so delicious nor so highly appreciated as that which he baa not 
himself, but receives a little of from another person. 

GIFTS OF THE GAB. 

1 ^^ ^nt^T rT ^T ^'^ ^^- Jalko gicho tailto saba kuchba. 
Whoever has a tongue has everything. 

The power of eloquence. 

Once an illiterate but crafty and talkative man, professing 
bimself to be one of the greatest of Pandits, took his abode 
in a certain city where he was much respected, and regarded 
as a saint by the people. When his fame spread far and wide, 
another Pandit who was a real scholar came to see him with a 
view to test his learning, and sent him a letter in Sanscrit through 
his servant. A? soon as the letter was handed to the illiterate 
man he opened it and then threw it towards the servant saying 
that his master had no ability to address him in Sanscrit. After 
this the real Fandit sent him word that he would meet him in a 
literary contest. To this the pretended Pandit said "Alas ! how 
can a mouse stand before a cat, but let the mouse come to the 
cat at any time he likes." A day was fixed for their contest. 
In the meantime the pretender was asked by the people whether 
he would require any books for reference, and how they would 
be able to know which of the two was victorious. The false 
Pandit said that all books they had in their houses should at once 
be sent him, and that they should consider him defeated who wa& 



( 91 ) 

first silenced. After this the crafty Pandit separated all the 
leaves of the books the people had sent hiin, and on the appointed 
day sat almost buried under the heap of papers. The other Pandit, 
as soon as he saw the talkative man, gave his salutation (Namaskara) 
to which the latter replied by saying "Namaskara, Chamatkara, 
Dhamatkara," (mere meaningless words uttered in mimicry). The 
true Pandit was rather astonished at such behaviour on the part 
of the false Pandit. However, he asked him again "Kinchit Shastra' 
Charcha," "Will you have some discussion of learning ?'' The 
f&he Pandit answered him by howling "Charcha, marcha, kharcha,"^ 
(absurd mimicry). At this the true Pandit was astounded and 
Gould not say a word more, but silently withdrew from the place. 
By this the people, who were interested in the false Pandit, were 
fully convinced that he had won the victory, and began to beat, 
drums, ring bells, and blow conch shells and trumpets. 

Illustration No. 2. A she-fox being pregnant desired her- 
husband to build her a house for her youug ones. The fox agreed 
to do so, but as soon as he got his food he went out to another 
jungle, and there basked in the sun the whole day, and returned 
to his wife in the evening in time to eat the evening meal 
provided by her for him. In this way be loitered for days and 
months, always telling his wife that he was engaged in building 
a shed for her offspring. At last his wife gave birth to the young 
ones, and asked him to shew her the house. He took her and the 
young ones into the jungle to a den occupied by the cubs of a 
tigress, and placed them there, instructing his wife what to do 
and say on the approach of the tigress, viz., to squeeze 'the young 
ones so that they might scream out, and to tell him (the husband), 
on his enquiring the cause of their crying, that the young ones 
were crying for the fresh flesh of a tiger which they could not get, 
and that they would not eat the stale flesh of a tiger killed the 
day before. He then went and sat down on a ridge above the 
cavern. Just as the tigress came the she-fox caused her young 
ones to cry out, which enraged the tigress, who saw that her den 
was taken possession of by some other animals. The fox 
(as arranged) enquired why her young ones were crying, to which 
his wife replied as she was told to do. On hearing this the 
tigress, thinking that her young ones had been killed and that now 
she herself would be killed, took fright and ran away. While 
thus running through the forest the tigress met with a monkey, 
who, having beared why she was running, told her that her panic 
was groundless, since she was queen of all the animals of the forest, 
and offered to accompany her to her den. So the tigress appeared 
again before her don accompanied by the monkey. The she-fox 
repeated the process of squeezing and pinching her young ones,. 



( 92 ; 

and her husband made the same enquiry and the she-fox the same 
reply as before. This time the fox said to his wife. "Tell the 
young ones to have a little more patience : they will soon get the 
flesh of a live tiger, which his friend the monkey is kindly 
bringing for them.*^' This last speech of the fox put the tigresa 
into such terror that she left the place never to retarn. 



GOD'S JUDGMENTS. 

1 ^^ f^f^^T 'lf?T« Daivi bichitra gati. 

The ways of Providence are wonderful. 

C. f. "Man proposes, God disposes." 

Once a pair of doves, seated on a tree, were aimed at with 
an arrow by a fowler on the one hand, and on the other a falcon 
darted on them from the sky. At this crisis, while the she-dove was 
lamenting to her husband and telling him that they would surely 
be killed either by the one or the other, the shaft discharged by 
the hunter killed the falcon, and the sportsman himself was bitten 
by a venomous snake. So the pair, thus providentially preserved, 
narrowly escaped with their lives. 

2 Tit ^T I'^r? 1"^rr f% Tit- Kai ko parabata Parabata 

ii rai. 

A grain of mustard into a mountain, and a mountain into 

a grain of mustard again. 

Used to represent God's power, or providence, or the 
transient nature of things in this world. 

3 I'^^^T f^ ilT'IT % ^ % ^jm ParmesbM!-ara ki maya 

kain dhupa kain chhaya. 

Illusion of Gad, sunshine at one place, and shadows 

at another. 

The transient nature of wordly things, and the unequal distri- 
bution of human happiness and misery, regarded as "Maya" or 
Illusion. Used to teach patience. 



( 93 ; 

4 HSR f^*{ imi ^T 5«R f^ guiTT ^T- Eka dina buna ko 

eka dina jana ko. 

A certain day is ordained for one to rise, and another day 
to sink. 

Used to warn in prosperity and console in adversity with the 
thought that Fate rules all. 

5 'IT^'^^ «6T ^''^ ^ ^T5 '^^■^^. Parmeshwara ka ghara 
mu dera chha andbera ni. 

There is delay in God's judgment, but there is no in- 
justice in him. 

6 5lT^n% l>T^ STT'^I^nn ^B^ %T^- Nara satnaje aura 
narayana tare aura. 

Man proposes one thing, but God does another thirig. 
C. f. "Man proposes but God disposes." 

GOOD LUCK. 

1 ^VT ^I '^T^ ^^^ ^T'll« Andha ka hatha batera lago* 

A blind man happened to catch a quail. 

It is almost impossible to catch a quail, and for a blind man 
io catch one must be a great chance. Some events are entirely 
the result of the favour of Providence or fortune. Used to 
one who is puffed up, through having gained any thing by 
chance. 

2 f^TTH ^T HI»?% sft^r "^ fw^T f ^r- ' Biralu ka bbaga 
le siko ya chhinko tuto. 

It was the cat's good luck when the net broke. 

Milk and curds are generally kept in a vessel which la 
hung up in a net to one of the beams of the roof, to be out of the way 
of children and cats, but when the string breaks, the cat has a 
feast. Description of a stroke of unexpected good luck. C /. 
"It is an ill wind that blows nobody good." 



( 9i ) 

3 5=fi mz ^ ^T3! Eka bata dui kaja. 

One road, two jobs. 

This is used when one sets out for one business, but for- 
tunately accomplishes another object on his way. C. f. "To kill 
two birds with one stone." 

4 ^''^^'gx: W^'K ^jt^ ^^ fW^- Parmeshwara cTiliapara 
pharhibera dinchha. 

God gives even through the roof of one's house. 

This means that if one's fate is good he will get every thing 
be needs without care and trouble. 

5 ^\Z\ W[ %} m.ZJ' Lata ka pau bata. 

The feet of a simple man {lit. dumb) man are in the path 
{of profit). 

A simple man often prospers by good luck. 

Story. In a certain viliage there lived a very simple man' 
wbo had a hut and some cattle. His neighbours being envious of 
him, and taking advantage of his simplicity', tried to drive him 
out of the village. So one day, while his cattle were grazing in a 
jungle, they drove them down a precipice, and thus killed them. 
The poor simple man skinned the dead cattle and conveyed the 
skins for sale to a certain town. While on his way he was 
overtaken by the darkness, and stopped in a cave in a jungle ; 
after midnight some thieves with stolen property arrived and took 
shelter at the mouth of the same cave. Hearing their tread in 
the cave, the man became much alarmed, and tried* to conceal 
himself under the hides he had brought. The rattling of the 
hides inside the cave startled the thieves, who, panic struck, ran. 
away leaving all the money they had brought with them. The- 
simple man took possession of the money and went home. In 
order to measure the amount of money he had received he asked 
for the loan of a wooden measure from one of his neighbours^ 
The neighbour, being curious to know what he had brought, placed 
some tar at the bottom of the measure. As soon as the simple man- 
had measured his money he returned the measure, but a few 
rupees had stuck to the tar at the bottom. This aroused the avarice 
of his neighbour, who asked the simple man how and whence he- 



( 95 ) 

had obtained so much money ; he said that it was from the sale 
of the skins of his cattle. The envy he bore to the simple man, 
and greediness for money, caused his neighbour to kill his own 
cattle and take their skins for sale, but to no purpose, for he 
received only a few rupees by the bargain. Being enraged he set 
fire to the hut of the simple man, and reduced it to ashes. The 
simple man collected the ashes and put them in a bag, and set off 
to sell them. While on his way, he left his load by the road side 
and went to drink water at a spring which was at a little distance. 
In the mean time another man who had also left a load of flour 
there, went to drink water too. On returning he took up the load 
of ashes leaving his own by mistake and went his way. The 
simple man also returned and took the load left by the other man. 
Seeing some strange marks on the load he opened it and found 
that it contained flour. Then he took the load to his home where 
he again asked his neighbour's measure to ascertain the quantity 
of the flour. His neighbour, having found that the simple man 
received flour in lieu of the ashes of his shed, set fire to his own 
shed, but could not sell the ashes. 

This story is also applicable to the proverb. "Whoever digs 
a pit for another will himself fall into it." 

6 %^ ^T >TT1^ ^^ '^T^T- Helu ka bbaga le melu paka. 

-J vj 

( Wild) pears have ripened to the good lucJc of a jackal. 

The jackals, when other food is scarce, in the cold season, 
have wild pears to eat. 

Applied to one who, when on the brink of ruin, is saved by a 
lucky accident. 

7 fifi^fTfT 5BT ^irf% T^*r ^rf^ KT^. Kl&amata ka agarlii 
llama pani bharada. 

Knowledge will bring water (is a servant) before a luchy 

person. 

Story: — A very learned and a very lucky man by chance met 
each other in a foreign country, and being strangers there they 
agreed to divide equally whatever they might be able to earn. For 
some months they subsisted entirely upon the earnings of the 
learned man. But at last his income failed, and both were in 
danger of starvation. Whereupon the learned man said to the 
other, "Now it is your turn to do some thing for our support." 



( 96 ) 

The lucky man then went to the court of a king, and with his 
cluh knocked the crown off the king's head. When the courtiers 
•went to pick up the crown they saw a venomous snake entwined 
about it. Thinking the man had saved him from the snake, the 
king was very grateful, and asked what reward he should give him. 
The man replied 'I want nothing." The next day the man again 
went to the king's court, and taking the king by the hand, dragged 
him out of the building, the roof.of which fell in as soon as the king 
had got out. The king now more than ever thinking himself under 
obligation asked the man to name his reward, and when the half 
of his kingdom was asked, he freely gave it him. 



8 «liT^T 'Jt^ ^T ^1«!T «IT^- Kalagorukasapanabachharu. 

Perfect calves of a dumb cow. 

Applied to a clever man whose father is an idiot or a 
simple man. Used ironically. 

GOOD OR BAD SIGNS OR OMENS. 

1 Ji'^Jlf^ 'ST^ SRT ^^T ^^r '"Trf- Hunyari dali ka chala- 

chala pata. 

A promising tree hears shining leaves. 
Applied to promising boys or girls. 



2 %^ ^1 ^"SITSR %^J ^TH Mil* Jaika mukha subaka 



taika karama bhaga. 

One who has good words in his mouth has good luck 
in store. 

I. e. Whoever is affable will be fortunate. 

3 ^ta^Tf^ *^T ^"fTW f^ *IT'JrT. Anahoti kala betaina 
ki mala. 

To attempt impossibilities is like wearing a garland 
of the Betaina fruit or flowers. (^Melia sempervirens). 



( 97 ) 

The Belaina tree is supposed to be haunted by an evil 
spirit. A garland of the fruits or flowers of the tree is 
suggestive of an evil spirit, and so they are never used for this 
purpose. In the same way to attempt a work which is beyond 
one's power is suggestive of ruin. 

4 "^alT^t %J r^TT^T '»^T'T« Banja gaun ko ghinaurbo 
padhana. 

Sparrows are the headmen of deserted villages. 
C. f. "Among the blind the one-eyed is king. 

5 STTTTT ^f^ ^T^Rr* Jamana bati kamana. 

No sooner up than it quivers. 

If a plant, as soon as it has sprouted up from the ground, 
quivers, it is sure to wither ; the proverb is applied to boys and 
girls who learn bad habits from their childhood, and so are sure 
to be ruined. 

6 5T7r ^%T ^T^T ailf^- Jetbo cbelo bodalo ganti. 

Hhe eldest son is clothed in sackcloth. 

This is spoken by parents grieving for their eldest son who 
is in adverse circumstances ; or in regard to the first crop or th& 
first attempt at anything which has proved a failure. 

7 arrf% %^ ^Jfk %^l T^f^ ^^TJ? ^liTf%?n" %^T- Tyarbl 
dekha josbi dekhu, marani bakhata kararbiya dekba. 

While well all castes of Brahmans ( Tyarhi, Joshi 8fc) 
came to me, hut when at the point of death the Kararhiyd 
Srahmam, only comes. 

In the first instance this was used by the Banias of Almorah 
who employ Kararbiya, Brahmans as their priests. While well 
they have dealings with all sorts of people, but when they are at tha 
point of death, no one, except the Kararbiya Brahmans, who have 
to perform the last religious ceremony for the dying man, will come 
near them. Hence the proverb. 

This, is applied to adverse circumstances or evil omens which 
fill one with apprehensions of ruin or downfall. 

M 



( 98 ) 

8 1?^ ^^ qiT STT'IfTT ^^^ ^t^2^I- ETsa ghara ka nau 
noata kushala kan bata ho. 

If there are nine opinions in a household what peace 
can there be ? 

"A house divided against itself cannot stand." 

9 oJiT^ % ^rsf "^^Tf^"^. Byaha ko saguna rangwali 

bata. 

The prospects of a marriage are known from the time 
of the JRangwali (beginning J . 

E. g. When a marriage day is fixed the women of the 
households of both parties as a preliminary rite prepare a purple 
dye made of the infusion of Kusumhha flowers (safflower, carthamus 
tinctorius) in which first of all they tinge the sheet of the 
•would-be bride and after that their own sheets. If the color 
'On the sheets "turns out brilliant they take it as a good omen, 
and if otherwise they interpret it accordingly. 

One applies this proverb to himself when he is disappointed 
■by the failure of 'his first efforts in an undertaking. 

10 !l»?^WT it ^T ''^fl^^T TfJI*!- Namarhuwa gaun ko 
chamarbuwa padhana. 

The head man of a decaying village is chamarhuwd 
("pinched and destitute J. 

The village is as its headman, i. e. suffers from his in- 
competency etc. 

11 f^^fni^jf "ni Ta%t ?lt^. Nehianiyan puta ghurtdon 
ganaa. 

Boys doomed to be ruined get goitres on their Jcnees. 

Applies to one who is attacked early with diseases, or is 
addicted to bad habits from his boyhood. 

12 j)t ^T '5'Tr^T %^- Gaun ko sayano cbori. 

If the headman of a village is a thief then all 
will steal. 

Evil example. 



( 99 ) 

13 ^j^ ^i-f% eiij f^^ir^T 1T»T. Jani dali ka khasakhasa 
pata. 

A tree decaying has stiff leaves. 
Earlv signs of evil. 

Jaba shyala ki kambakhti aunchhya taba basti ka fcarafa 

aunchha. 

JSy ill luck a jackal has to run towards a populous 
place, f where it is hunted hy dogs or men J. 

One struggling with a stronger antagonist or superior numbers. 

15 ^J12^ airz ^T«6T2' ^IZl- Ugatadi gotba ka katai kata. 
Se-buffaloes are only- horn- in the cattle shed that is 

about to be ruined. 

Used of one who is baffled in all his purposes. 

16 rmx.fSi a[^ ?R^x: m\^ TTOftl%x:^r€t 'i^^gT'i Puna 

rapi shatru sbankara jage ugatadi kirmoli pankhara lage. 

The ant gets wings just before its death. When Kdm- 
deo awoke Mahddeo, he himself was killed. 

When men begin to act in a strange manner their ruin is 
near. Judicial blindness. 

Note. Kam deo, the Indian Cupid, a child of Brahma, or as 
some represent, of Vishnu and Lakshmi, was promised by Brahma 
dominion over the hearts of the inhabitants of the three worlds. 
On one occasion he ventured to discharge a shaft at Shiva or 
Mahadeo when he was engaged in ascetic meditation in the forest. 
Mahadeo was so incensed that with a glance from the eye in the 
centre of his forehead he consumed the god of love to ashes, 
though he afterwards took birth again. 

17 STT^ ^T •TT'^TZT- Naudi ka nau bata. 

Nine paths to Naudi fa village in Oarhwal having 
a separate path from, each of the neighbouring villages 
by which it is surrounded J. 

Applied to members of a family each having his own 
different opinion. 



( 100 J 

18 "^ig ^^I^ Tl%tsi 'ssjeRjg, Chala sukala grahana akalu. 

An earthquake (foretells J abundance of crops, but an 
eclipse (^foretells J scarcity and famine. . 

19 -^r ^JRtgjgj <T«T€srr^r' Budha bamatyala tana 

sutyala. 

If the old men of a household become mad fby marry- 
ing young wives, or doing something else totally unbecom- 
ing their age J the yownger men of that house are ashamed 
and mortified, 

(For they are not in a position to reprimand their elders-).. 

20 x^%7 ?IT^ T^fl" 1T»T- Pailo gasa makhi pata^ 

A fly fell on the first morsel. 

I. e. Misfortune overtook his first venture, an- ill omen of 
future success. 

21 ^ tr ^^^f% ^ ^ ^Tfl^Tf^ ^f%- Ke jaw 

beti wall kurhi ke jau roti wall kurhi. 

The house where there are many girls {daughters) anc^ 
the house which has to supply relatives with bread are 
sure to be ruined. 

Respectable people have to give a large dowry on the- 
marriage of their daughters, and so whoever has many daughters- 
has heavy expenses on their account, A rich or well-to-do man 
who is obliged to feed all his relatives at his own expense is alsa 
liable to be ruined. 

22 ^f fli ^fk. W!^■S^fZ^ Gaun ki siri galyatba bati. 

The condition of a village can he judged or guessed 
from the path which leads to it. 

A man's character can be judged from one of tig- 
actions. 



( 101 ) 

^Tf%. Baga ko gotha bati bakaro Iljana ki nai baga 
palakiya ki. 

The leopard has carried away a goat out of the coW' 

house : I do not care for that, hut I care that the leopard 

has found a relish in ^ or way to ) the cowshed. 

Apprehension of injury from an enemy who has hit on a 
means of doing one an ilUturn. 

GOOD WORDS. 

1 Hf% ^T(T 9^ ^TJrT* Bhali bata suna ki rata. 

A pleasant talk is like a golden night. 

A golden night, that is, a night during which one sleeps 
soundly. 

"Ointment and perfume rejoice the heart : so doth the 
sweetness of a man's friend by hearty counsel." Proverbs 27,9. 

GRATITUDE. 

1 1T^ ^^T 'WI^T 5^ if^^T* Pani pino magaro ni 
patyuuo. 

Drink all you want, but do not spoil the spring. 

This means that the things from which benefit is derived 
ehould not be injured. Censure of ingratitude. 

C. f. "Let every man praise the bridge he goes over." 

2 %^ VT*T ^T^T ^^T ^*T IT^T* Jail^o bhata kbano 
taiko gita gano. 

Sing the praises of the man who feeds you. 



( 102 ) 

SUiry. Once a man with his servant arrived in a foreign 
city. Soon after their arrival the servant bought along with the- 
other necessaries for food some egg plants. He kept an egg plant 
with him to shew to his master, and made of the others a dish 
of vegetable curry. On taking his meal, the master havincr 
exceedingly relished the vegetable praised it to his servant, and 
directed him to have the same every day for him. To this the 
servant said, "Very good Sir, I shall do so, you are quite right 
in admiring the vegetable. Let me shew you the raw plant. It is 
the best of all vegetables in the world, consequently God has made 
it after his own color and form (referring to the black stones, 
" Salic/rdma" which are worshipped and which the egg-plant 
resembles), and with a view to save it from sun and water He has 
attached an umbrella to it, freferring to the "Shinda" or small: 
twig to which the vegetable is fastened)." In consequence of eating 
the vegetable for many days in succession the man was attacked 
severely with a complaint which made him disgusted with the 
vegetable, and so he told his servant not to buy the vegetable 
any more, as it was a nasty thing. To this the servant rejoined. 
"Very good sir, I shall not get it again. It is the most obnoxious 
in the world, as is evinced by the verdict of God, inasmuch as 
its face is blackened ; and in addition to this a stick is thrust into, 
it (as a sign of its being cursed j." On this the man said to him 
again, "Well servant, you are an odd fellow, you were praising 
the vegetable the other day so highly, but now yon speak ill of it." 
To this the servant replied. "Sir, I certainly did as you 
say, but judge for yourself ; am I your servant or the- 
vegetable's ?" 



GREAT MEN. 

1 I^T ^T M ^^^^T *IT M« Puro tarau adamiro marau-^ 
An efficient man saves, but tlie inefficient one Mils. 

2 Z^ ^q^T %J zkxk'ri 5TI!?T ^'l^I %J ^J^J ^rT- Thula 

thuparba ko tbulo seta nana thuparho ko nano seta. 

The greater the dunghill the greater the heat, the 
smaller it is, tlie less heat. 

Great and rich men have more anxieties than other people. 



f 103 ) 

3 %T fs[iHVmj ^J ^iffT. Jo bidhigaya so moti. 

All that are pierced are pearls. 

E. g. The pearls which have been pierced and are ready 
to be worn are considered real pearls, and more valuable than 
those not pierced. 

Applied to men who having received some high position are 
afterwards always regarded as great men, 

4 ^f T ^13 fQ^f%^T2- Barha latha ki barhi kbata. 

JBig timber makes a biff bed. 

I. e. Great people should do noble deeds. 
This is often applied to great people either to encourage 
them to noble deeds or to dissuade them from doing a mean thino-. 

5 '^TT ^I I'^T ^*T^?T^» Barba ko gussa cbutarba tali. 

The anger of the great is under their haunches. 

I. e. They hide it by sitting upon it. A great man suppresses 
his anger, and does not give vent to it. 

Illustration. Once a scoundrel threw a stone at a nobleman 
■who was taking a drive on his own estate. The nobleman's 
attendants and companions were so angry with the man that they 
beo-an to abuse him and threatened to beat him, but the nobleman 
checked them, and threw a gold Mohara towards the man, saying 
"A fruitful tree, is generally pelted at by poor people for the sake of 
the fruit on it, and so the poor man, considering me to be a fruit- 
ful tree threw the stone at me in the hope of getting something 
from me ; and so he should have it." This noble conduct of the 
gentleman filled all with admiration for his gracious and for- 
giving disposition. 

6 i^T^T ^^ '^^T ^1T?!* Cbboto kboto barba samai. 
^IZJ f^lT'f f^l ^?T TT'fi 5|i^^- Chbota bigarbani barba 

Biafa karani. 

Small m£n (i. e. subordinates) err, and great men («. e. 
superiors ) have to forgive. 

C. f. "To err is human, to forgive divine." 



f 104 ) 

7 ^f^ ^T ^"nT '^^•' Hathi ka pauna hathf. 

An elephant must be the host of another elephant. 
E. g. The great can be entertained only by the great. 

8 ^TZT % ^"SI^^. Tota khai barha huni. 

A harhd is made hy being pierced in the centre. 

E. g. A man becomes great by willingly sustaining loss for 
the good of others. BarM is a cake of flour of Urda (a kind of pulse), 
■with a hole in its centre, *iud cooked either in gM or oil. It is 
called "Barlio^'' only when it is pierced. This is cooked only on 
festival days. 

9 ^ffsi sg^T ^T^^T TfT^T ^mr^T- Hathi jyuno lakha 
ko mariyo lakha ko. 

An elephant either alive or dead is worth a lac of 
JRupees ( equally valuable in either state ). 

A dead elephant is very valuable on account of its bones which 
are so much in demand that they are worth nearly as much as the 
living animal. 

Used of great men, who, whether in power or out of power are 
equally weighty and useful. 

10 ^f% W^. Syu ki khala. 

The skin of a tiger. 

Applied to exalt the value of a man formerly great, though 
how reduced to an ordinary level, comparing him with the skin of a 
tiger which though an inanimate thing (powerless or harmless) is 
eiill made use of for frightening animals. 

GREED. 

1 fvi «^mn 1 ^T^ ^T^T ^5511^1^ ^^T^I- Bhinde 
khana ku jogi hoyo paila basa bhukho rayo. 

One became an ascetic ( a wandering beggar ) in order 
to. get much food given him, but starved on the first stage 
of his journey. 

Beware of covetousness. 



f 105 ) 

2 wef^ ^^51 . Lalachi be chaina. 
A covetous man is always restless. 

C. f. "Covetous men are bad sleepers." 

3 ^mi ^T ^r ^^Tf5iHr ^rft ^r Jif f%ir« Apna ghara 
ko bura nibbau cliori ko gu/ha ini|;ho. 

The sugar of one's own house is not liked, iut the 
treacle obtained hy theft is found sweeter, 

^'Stolen waters are sweet." 

4 ^t^ ^f JIT"^?. Aunrai ktiaun gabai khaun. 
Should I eat the covering of an embryo or the embryo ? 

E. g. It is prolii'bited for any one to eat an sdibryo of aii 
(«dibl« ; anim.il but if one eats it he does so for greediness. 
C. f. "Is thy servant a dog that he should do this thino; ?" 
The reply of one charged with an act of great impropriety. 

5 ^7^"g "^f^: •^^. Lalacba buri balai. 

Covetousness is a great curse. 

That is, it brings one jnto trouble ; as when a jSy in its 
^reei for honey loses its life ia the honey-pot, 

GUILtY CONSCIENCE, 

1 ^IT ^T ^Tf%^ JtT'n^T. Chora ka dadhi men tinako. 
A straw on the beard of a thief 

A thief is suspicious of the slightest movement made by 
others, fearing he may be detected. It is said that once when 
many people suspected of theft were brought together, to find out 
t1ie culprit a wise man cried out, "There is a bit of straw on the 
beard of the thief." No sooner was this said than the real thief 
put bis hand on bis beard with a view to remove it, and in this way 
was detected. 

N 



( 106 ) 

2 J3JI ^T^ %^J ^J^\ %t%r. Mriga api hagau api 
cbaunkau. 

jT/^e deer is frightened hy the noise of his own 
droppings, {on dry leaves J. 

A guilty conscience. 



HABITS & NATURE, 

1 TT^ 'STW 'IT I^^T 1W t'T^t^'H. Masu khanu para 
harhako gala ni bandhanu. 

Eat animal fodd if you will, hut do not tie the bones 
round your neck. 

I. e. No one should be a slave to his passions or make 
a show of his evil habits. 

Note. The eatin* of animals, especiall3'- the cow, is regarded 
by all Hindu castes as extremely wicked. 

2 ^TIT '^T W f^l?;- Mau gai para lau nigai. 

Even when one's family is ruined the evil passion 
does not cease. 

3 ^IT ^Tf^ % I^T cT % %f^^(^ % iSJlTI^T- Chora chori hai 
gayo ta ke beripheri hai laga gayo. 

If a thief gives up stealing, will he also give up looTcing 
about him ? {as a thief looks about stealthily for articles 
to pick up). 

Applied to one who claims something on the merit of his 
bavin o- given up evil deeds, but who cannot be entirely trusted. 

4 "gyt ^T ^f T ^it "^W ^T %f T '^t^< Chai ka berha chai 
bansa ka berba bansa. 

Chdi will spring from the roots of Chdi, and bamboo 
from the roots of bamboo. 

The son will be as his father. "Chdi" is an inferior kind 
of bamboo. 



( 107 ) 

5 falTT'Sr ^■'^ <Tr<TI f% m^- Blrana ghara tata ki bana, 
Otie expecting to have fresh and warm food even at 

the house of another, or one accustomed only to warm 
food^ suffers in a strange hoWSe. 

Used of tine who becomes a slave to some habit, or who 
cannot change his habits easily ;. want of adaptability. 

6 "gfffJiT »T5T ■^flT^T'l f^lf'iTI'T. Chutiya mana batasana 
bina ni raunu. 

A self-indulgent and foolish fellow cannot live without 
hatdshds (a sweet made of sugar). 

Applied to- one who is addicted to self-indulgent habits. 

7 i^^]-^f%?ii J7^f5i«3T3 'iTlS^at* ^% '^TZ- Dindo gurbiya 
gurba ni khawa pacbba ut!iika larbo cbatau. 

One fond of gurh (treacle) will not eat it if it is given, 
hut afterwards {secretly I he will lick even the stone or the 
wood with which the sugarcanes are pressed. 

People addicted to certain (even harmless) habits are often 
ashamed of them in public. 

8 ^IT: f^i?r^ ^^^r m'^^ f HT"^ f5l"^^%f. Mora singarba 
badala jawana swabbaba ni badalewa. 

Door posts o,nd arches can be changed, hut not one's 
habits. 

I. e. when a man's character is formed, it is hopeles.3 to 
expect any radical change or improvement in him. 

9 ^r ^T "^ ir^T ^T^ l^WT'iTfl ^T'tT* Kutta ko 
pucbba tbola gbdlyo para bango bi bango. 

In order to make the tail of a dog straight it was put in a 
hollow bamboo and kept there for 12 years, but when it. was 
taken out of the bamboo it again became crooked. ■; 



C 108. ) 

Applied to natural defects or the stupidity of a man which 
is not changed by traininof or education. 

C. f. Protefbs 27,22 : "Though thou shonldst bray a Wl 
in a ino'tar among wheat with a pestle, yet will not his foolishness 
depart from hiin," 

C. f. "What God has made crooked cannot be made straight." 

Illustration. A Brahman finding his boy stupid and thick- 
headed sent him to Kashi (Benares) where he put him wnder the 
tuition of a Pandit so that be might turn out a learned man. 
After studying for 12 ypiirs at Benares he at hist came home 
professing to be a le:rned Sanscrit scholar. As the people of his 
family and neighbourhood were very anxious to hear some good 
doctrines expounded by him, they brought a book and placed it 
before him for the purpose. He took up the book and began to 
turn over the leaves, and at last fixing his eyes on a certain page 
tears began to flow from his eyes. The audience seeing him in 
this condition thought that he had met with a pathetic passage 
which had made him feci so deeply. They waited for some time 
ihat he might explain it to them, but when they found him still 
absorbed they asked him. "0 honorable Pandit, purify our ears 
by explaining what has afffcted you so keenly." On this the 
fandit cried oat. "I am very sorry to see that all the letters 
fof the alphabet) which were so big and large at Kashi have 
become so thin and small here. This has made me so sorrowful 
and anxious." 

On further examination it was found that during the 1 2 years 
the man resided at Kashi he was learning the alphabet alone, in 
which, for beginners, the letters are written very large either on a 
tablet or slate. When he saw the same letters written so small 
in the book he could not make out what made them so, and so ha 
began to ciy. 

This is something like a story told by IMTontaigne in bfs 
Essays, of a youth who was sent by his parents to Paris to be 
educated, and on his returning to his home in the provinces, his- 
father gave a great feast and invited all his friends and neighbours 
16 meet his son and observe his wonderful accomplishments. The 
young man, however, never opened his mouth, until, as the guests 
were departing, he caught sight of the moon rising, and exclaimed 
'■Bless my soul ! I do believe you have got the same moon 
here that we have at Paris." 

10 ^T^'^fl «1%T^ ^I^^ Horbabuddhinakorha aukhadha. 

Thi7'e is no wisdom or uH( for an idiot, and no medicine 
for leprosy. 



( 109 ) 

Illustration. Onc6 an idiot with a basket of cakes was seut 
by the head of the family to one of his rel.itives living at some 
distaftCe iri another viil-ge. When he had travelled a mile or 
iwo lio happert."d to l""k back and saw his own sh;idow. Thinking 
the shadow to be another man following him in nope of geitirtg 
something he threw a cake behind him and continued his way. 
After going on a few steps he again looked round and seeing the 
shadow he again threw a cake. In this way he went on throwing 
out cakes till, a little before sun-set, he had emptied the whole 
basket. Looking back at his shadow again, he asked "What would 
you have now ?" He then threw away the clothes he had on. Just 
at this time the sun went down. Then the idiot referring to his 
shadow Cof course supposing him to be another person following 
him) said, "Now he has gone, when he saw that I had nothing 
more to give him." 

11 'ftTT^T ^TT f5iir'^'«7T» Hira ko kira bigarbatd. 
A diamond is spoiled by a streak [flaw ) in it. 

C. f. Ecclesiastes x. i. "A dead fly causes the ointment 
of the apothecary to stink : so doth a little folly him that is in 
reputation for wisdom and honour." "A little leak will sink 
a great ship." 
And Tennyson. "It is the little rift within the lute, 

"Which, slowly widening, makes the music mute." 

12 %i'5T^r ^I^Slir ^I^^I 55^ IT^T- Jo dadbo so dadho 
jo rayo puna gado. 

Whatever has been burnt is burnt, but the rest should 

he saved. 

Used to pursuade one to abstain from evil habits which have 
already caused him much damage or loss, in order to save himself 
from further ruin. "Never too late to mend." 

13 It^'il^ 5Bf% m^ ^^^ %^f^ f^?T?'T. Mai kammala 
kani cbhorun kammala mai kani ni cbhorbanu. 

/ wish to leave the blanket, but the blanket does not 
leave me. 



( no ) 

E g. Ouce a black bear was seen floating down a river 
on the bank of which some people were washing and bathing. 
Thinking that it was a black blanket, one of them swam to it, 
but no sooner did he come near it than tho drowning bear tightly 
embraced the unfortunate man, who also began to sink with it. 
Seeing matters in that way the people on the shore called oat 
to the man to leave the blanket and save himself. But the man- 
being unable to rid himself of the supposed blanket replied as 
in the proverb. 

This phrase is generally used in reference to old habits which- 
cannot easily he given up. 

14 Kf^^TJ^ ^ZlKi T^\- Mari re randa khatai bina. 

A widow dying for want of acid. 

Used in condemning bad habits. Acid is tho most insignificant 
part of one's food, and can easily be dispensed with. To die for 
want of acid is to die for want of some thing that is not 
necessary, but one addicted to it cannot remain happy or contented 
without it. 

15 •?grT%t3iTg 'TT ^T^tT ^fiiiSin. lUata dhoi jawa. 

para adata kakba jawa. 

One can clear himself of his guilt, but how can he get- 
rid of his habits ? 

Habit is second nature. 
"A wicked man is his own hell." 
"The mind is its own place and in itself, 
"Can make a hell of heaven, a heaven of hell." Milton^ 

16 %tT S"! ^"'^ ^T^'^'l'?^ ^r 4"^^ %^ ^T JTim^T. Jo trina 
Lara so kancbana hara jo kanchana hara so prana hara. 

Ore who steals grass will steal gold, and one who steals 
gold toill commit murder. 

The habit of stealing should at once be checked in a man, to 
prevent his going on to commit graver offences. 

17 ^[ij 5lf%Jl^I ^'l f^^f%- Jyorho jaligayo paina 

ni jali. 

The cord is burnt up, but the tioist is not burnt (^. e. re- 
mains visible ) 



( 111 ) 

Applied to a man's retaining his proud and grave habits 
even after his prosperity has gone, or to one who, being naturally 
proud or conceited, will be so even when he becomes poor. 

18 oj^ qt^ % »I^5|^ ^XJ^m % ^m ^t. Purhipala 

hai gayun ta namo narayana hai laga gayun. 

Though lam excluded from food, yet how can I be precluded 
from uttering a salutation {namo narayana). 

Literally this is a saying of an ascetic who is entitled to food 
from other people. The Jbcfi says although he is not allowed the 
food, yet he will still have the right of uttering his blessings. 
(namo narayana). A Joel's duty is to utter "namo narayana" 
to the people he goes to, who in their turn have to feed him or 
give him alms, and so if the Jogi does not get anything from 
any one he will not abstain from his habit of saluting God, 
("name narayana" means God be saluted). 

This is used regarding one's own relations and acquaintances 
who are not only unwilling to help, but even to see one. 

19 i!3lT% e^l TI^ ^JT'^^I^T- Najara hai bacho mala 
yarana ko. 

As soon as a thing is out of sight it becomes the property 
if my friends {ironically) the thieves. 

A caution against habits of carelessness. 

20 ^T3i ffl^T ^T^f% ^T'^f f»>%T ^T^'^t* AJa gijo kakarbi 
bhola gijo bakari. 

One who is tempted today by a cucumber, will be tempted 
tomorrow by a goat. 

The beginnings of bad habits should be punished. Nip 
the sin in the bud. 

21 ^T^I ^'^■^IT '^T ^P^T?! Kano kachabai dundo anyai. 

A one-eyed person is a slanderer, and a lame man 
is unjust. 

I. e. Such persons are to be feared, since they usually make 
up for their defects by dishonesty. 



C 112 ) 

22 »TT5IT^T f% ^ ^1%J' Ma jarho ki me jarho. 
Whether cold in the month of Md ( Mdgha, January ) 

or whe7i it is raining. 

I. e., Cold is dup to rain, but not to the montli of January. 
Used when some effect is attributed to a wrong cause. 

23 ^T^T "^TTm jirTT 031 ?:i'»^f^ ^' Tf T^I* ^alo 

Bamana goro shudra inana dekhi kanpa maha Rudra, 

A darh-hued Brahman and a fair-skinned Shudra 
frighten even God (Rudra). 

Generally a Brahman's complexion is fair and a Shudra's dark. 
The contrary is much dreaded as a freak of nature ominous of 
disaster. 

24 ^T^ 'l^'T D^T f^T ^T^ ^T ^Ilfl"- Moclihi swarga 
gayo puira inoebbi ko mochbi. 

A shoe-maker went to heaven, but he became a shoe- 
maker again. 

Once in very old times a shoe-maker was taken to the king- 
dom of heaven by a virtuous king along with his other subjects, 
but on his arrival there, the shoemaker, not finding his ordinary 
food, which consisted of filthy things, asked permission to return 
to earth, where he became a shoe-maker again. The dog returning 
to his vomit. 

25 ^z ^Tilt ^T TTlft* Theta mochhi ko mcclihi. 
The shoe-maker again became a shoe-maker. 

The same meaning. 

26 »TT^ f^ '^f% ^fTfcr HT ^fTfW Vr TcTTf«3 Vt- Mala ki 
charhi yetani bhai utani bbai utani bhai. 

The bird of the Plains grew to such and such a size and 
then fell down. 

This is generally applied to wicked habits and conduct 
which, when contracted, gradually gain ground and eventually 
«nd in ruin.. 



( 113 ) 

2^ IR^I f%HT^ TTQ ^9^^- Hvuna Ilimala mala 

basakala. 

Main cotnes from the clouds which accumulate in the 
snowy range during the cold season, and from the plains 
during the rainy season. 

A proverb describing the Kumnun weather. 

28 ^icfsjj ^Tfis ^ff\ f^^ ^fx. ^r I'S f'ltr- Apnna 

■ « • 

ghara ki clilni nioliau cbori ko gurba mit'io. 

The sugar of one's own house is not liked, hut the 
treacle obtained by theft is found sweeter. 
"Stolen waters are sweet." 

29 ^T^ ^ "ST^ '^^i^ ^Rr ^T »?l^r' Cala kl bat£ 

khajanda dana ko gicho. 

Tlie hands of a child and the tongue of an old man 

transgress. 

Chilflren seize forbidden things and garrulous old people 
say many things they ought not to. 

30 %I^T^ ^T 5TT ■'CT'T ^r ^^- Chaumasa ko jara raja 

ko kara. 

Fever during the chaumasa (June to September J is 

like a tax levied by a king. 

Every one has to suffur more or less from such fever, it is 
common to all, C. f. '"Necessity has no laws." 

31 f^W^I ^^T f^ 'ITT. Bikha ko kirho biklia me rau. 

An insect which grows out of poison lives on poison. 

I. e. One brought up in bad society or in an unhealthy 
country lives on without any inconvenience or regret. 





C 114 ) 

HEALTH. 

1 ^I^PJI ^T^I ^^I5it- Arogya labho labhanan. 

Sealth is the best gain of all. 

C. f. "Eka tandurasti hazar nyamata" or "Health is more 
valuable than a thousand luxuries or dainties." "Health is above 
wealth." 

2 7T«i "^^ff ^ ?3^^ ^^»T« Mana basanta ki khalaka 

basanta. 

Tfhen it is spring time in the heart the whole world 
is green. 

-3 ^fx: ^(% ^Hg ^^^ ^^. Meri cbeli kushala mushalai 
mushala. 

When my daughter is well^ there are pestles without 
number {to husTc out paddy and millet). 

I. e. A man in health has no want of employment or tools 
to work with, and if he is sick his tools are useless to him. 
Used to encourage one not to despair of finding work. 

HELP. 

1 ^^f% ^'a ff m^\ »J% ^T ^^ ^^- Marani bakhata 
bakaro gusain ka mukha obanchha. 

A goat when being sacrificed looks round at its 
master. 

I. e. When a man is in straitened circumstances he resorts to 
his master or friend for help. 



( 115 ) 
HELPFULNESS (true). 

1 %T ^T1 ^'!r(%ir ^T ^f ^'n fnfa;.. Sau saga luno mitho 

sau chhuin dena mithi. 

Salt alone is better than a hundred vegetable dishes, 
and one gift is better than a hundred words. 

Deeds are better than words. 

H01VIE. 

1 ^wi ^X f^§|" rf ^^*li« Apano ghara DilU tea bht 

sujha.. 

^ven at Dehli- one remembers or things of his home 
^native land). 

C. f. "There is no place like Home." 

2 9tt^ ^5! '^ifl^T^T- Griorarha kana chanta pyaro. 

To the wild goat the precipice {where it is born and 
where it lives) is dear. 

A man is fond of his native land however bad it may be. 

3 ^^ f^ ^Tf^ vf^- Ghara ki adhi bhali. 

Salf a loaf at home is better than a whole one abroad^ 

Applied to dissuade one from leaving his home for a foreign 
country. 

4 ^siSlTTI «fif^ Zt^ fl^iig. Banjara kani Tandai sujanchha. 

A Banjdrd looks always towards Tdndd. 

I. e. The place from which he set out. Banjaras are Plains 
grain dealers who take grain to sell in the hills. The Banjaras of 
Tanda, a village on the road to Moradabad, are indefatigable grain 
dealers, but they love their home. Every one always looks forward 
to the accomplishmont of his undertaking. 



( 116 ; 

HOPE. 

1 ^T% ^ ^T^ ^TT^T "^T^' Tani ka sasa ghuturljo basa. 
•J > ■ 

The frog croaks by the aid (in hope) of the water. 

A 1 OOP and weiik person ciin only achieve anything by the 
patronage of a {ireater inaH. or a poor nsan lives his life by support 
or in hope of snp|)ort from some great man. 

C. f. "Quench not hope, for when hope dies, all dies." 



HVPOCRITES. 

1 ?"fT ^3?ir '».'% WfTT- Bi'iddha beshya patibrata. 

An old harlot becomes chaste {literally, faithful to 
her husband). 

1. e. One who loses the power (of doing evil) becomes 
discreet and pious. 

2 ?9fi^ ^^ ^?f?^ i^J^ ^^?^T iw ^^T ^i?^ iryg :#f f T 

fiTl ^57- Klianda klierl kanda inula liagada kheii musa, 

gala tera kotiiula m;it'mla kwirha tera usa. 

To all appearance the cat is living on mere roots and 
ve::etables, but hairs of mice and feathers of birds are 
found in her d>ing. There is a necklace on her neck 
but her speech is pious. 

Applied to hypocrites and deceivers. 

Story Once u cat thrust her head into a pot of ghi, but could 
not extricate it sigaiii. In the attempt to free herself the pot was 
broken, but its nfck remained round her neck as a necklace. 
Being i ■ this plight she was unable to catch her prey. She how- 
ever contrived a plan to obtain food, and went boldlv to the birds 
and mice, and said, '0 friends, I have sinned much, but now repent 
for what I have do'ie, and have therefore, in order to get forgive- 
ness and mercy, put on this necklace and vowed never to eat animal 
food, or kill any animals whatever in future. We animals are all 
sinners, let us now go to Hardwara (a famous place of pilgrimage") 
and get our sins washed away in the Ganges. When the birds and 
mice protested against this statement of their adversary, she swore to 



( iiT ; 

her abstinence from flesh, and began apparently to live on roots 
and vegetables. She thus overcame the suspicions of the birds and 
mice and started with them for the shrine. On the evening of the 
first day they enciinped in a cave ; the cat occupied the innermost 
part of it, telling her companions, with a view to frighten them, 
that the_iiingle was full of lions and tigers, and th.-it they might 
escape if they liked, but that she herself being fatigued would re- 
main in some safe corner of the cave (wishing all the time that the 
animals might ask to be allowed to occupy the inner part them- 
selves). To this the animals objected'and said, '"Friend, our safety 
depends on you, you are the most powerful among us. We are 
powerless to defend ourselves ; do you sit at the entrance to defend 
ns, and let us occupy the safer part of the cave."' The cat feigned 
to dislike this proposal, but eventually consented, and all went to 
sleep in their respective places. At night the eat quietly ate up 
some of the birds and mice. In the morning she said to the 
animals, "0 mice and birds, some of 3'ou are surely not true to 
your word, for I saw some of you run away last night, but 1 dare 
not arrest them for fear of blame." The animals being quite 
deceived by this stratagem thought that what the cat said was true. 
In this way their number began to decrease day by day, but no one 
disbelieved the cat's story, as in the daytime she apparently lived 
on leaves and roots. One day, somehow or other, the fact reached 
the ears of a fox, who advised the mice and the birds to examine 
the cat's dung. They did so and found it mixed with hairs and 
feathers. Then they got frightened and blamed themselves much 
for putting confidence in their natural enem}', and expressed their 
amazement in the proverb : — ("The cat eats only vegetables &o"J, 
Hypocrisy. Wolves in sheep's clothing 

3 gJl^T WlrT- Bagula bhagata, 

4 f^^J^ alW^- Bidal vaisbnava. 

5 ^J%^ sq;^ ^Jj. Go rupa byagbra karma. 
The heron looks like a saint. 

E. g. The heron, in order to catch fish, stands on one lew in 
the water, and looks as if it was praying to God, but as soon as it 
sees its prey it plunges in after it. 

So the cat becomes a vaishnav ( i. e. a worshipper of Vishnn 
one who abstains from all animal food ) and assumes this form the 
more easily to catch birds etcetera. 

So also 

A cow in form, a tiger in deeds. 



( 118 ) 

6 %j^ V HT^T »I«! ?f %(%. Hatha men mala mana men- 
kainchi. 

In his hands a rosary, hut scissors in his heart. 

7 %j%j Jf^j ^%x fkX}^ ^»l^t "l^^- Nau sau musa^ 
khaibera biralu haja son pahuncho. 

After eating 900 rats the cat has gone on a pilgrimage. 

This represents one who, after leading a loose life, falsely 
professes to be a most pious or religious man. 

8 ^'Sf^ 'S^f^ I5f% ^^f^- Mukharhi hasadi puchharhi. 

dasadi. 

Smiling face and stinging tail. 

Applicable to one who is very polite to others in their pre- 
sence, but in their absence injures them. 
"Fair to one's face." 

9 ^^ t'TET ^2 ^r- Mukha mishta peta dushta. 
Sweet mouth, wicked heart. 

10 TTT? ^T TfT"^T»I f^l.^T "^ ^T1- Kata ko rata baga 
dina ko padabaga. 

Hed leopard at night, and a Fada-bdga {small leopard) 
during the day. 

I. e. Very humble in appearance but dangerous. "Uriah 
Heep." "Wolves in sheep's clothing." 

HUNGER THE BEST SAUCE- 

1 'J'3 f%(3 f% ^T»l*l f^rSf- Bhukha mitbi ki bbojana 
mitbo. 

Is hunger delicious, or the food ? 
C. /. Hunger is the best sauce. 



C 119 ) 
IGNORANCE. 
1 ^x ^T ^<3 ^f?r« Andha ko mukha bbiti. 

A blind man turns his face towards a wall. 

I, e. One ignorant of n matter is always liable to take a wrong 
direction ; a blind man, not knowing whither he goes, is apt to run 
against a wall, or is often seen turning his face to the wall, perhaps 
to avoid the glare of the light. 

Applied to one who is labouring under wrong views 
tbrongh ignorance. 

ILL RECOMPENSE. 

1 ^frT ^^T ^T k^jm 1^ ^\XJ gRT 5^7 TT^T- Buti kard 

ka chhai mana gala mara ka nau mana. 

The labourer gets six mdnds {three seers) and he who 
blows his cheeks (one who talks hut does not work) 
receives nine mdnds {four and a half seers). A mAnd 
equals half a seer of capacity. 

Used by one who is ill-paid for bis work in comparison with 
another who gets well paid for very little or no work. 

This is also used ironically of educated men who are highly 
paid for their work. 

2 ^\^X. "S^rm ^Z^\fK % «)T^. Nazara baba patwari 
hai jawa. 

O Ndzir may you become a Fatwdri. 

One very much pleased with a man who holds the post of a 
Ifdzir wishes him to become a Patwari (an inferior post}. 

Applied by one who is ill-rewarded for his good services 
by an officer or master. 

3 ymimj m^ ^T^ ^T'5'l. Dhupaca kada angore dadana. 

In offering incense he gets his fingers burnt. 
Same as above. 



C 120 .) 

4 ^T1 ^T«li^ ^Bfsl^T' Homa karana me hatha jalo. 
In offering the sacrifice he burnt his hand. 

Samo nieaninn; as .nliove. 

Jfoma yCa7-ana=pouriDg ablutions of glii etcetera into the 
sacred fire. 

IJ^^r ^r ^sfT- Jaina gayo vishnix pada ui ko kuchha na 
katha, jaina gayo bhaganaulo uiko rupayon ko tbailo. 

One who sings the praises of Vishnu ( God) gets noticing, 
hut one who sings love ditties {obscene songs) gets hags 
of money. 

Used by one who is ill-rewarded for his good services. Evil 
is rewarded, but virtue is without recompense. 

6 ^!T ^^T ^^ "TK ftf ''T'lr ^T^- ^51 ^^T J^^T^T^ 
^^ fV^I'^IT. Jaina karo wara para wiku patha cbara. 
Jaina karo nika chara wiku dhika cbara. 

One who makes a show of work done is rewarded with 
eight seers, ( 2 quarts^l seer ) but he who has done 
honest work is driven out. 

Applied to one whose good services are not appreciated or 
ill rewarded. 



7 finfiSQ ?g-% ^T^utz %(^ »TT^T Miyan iyu kbusbi 

bhaya inta kbaincbi maro. 

When my husband is pleased icith me he flings a 
brick at m^. 



( 121 ) 

It is generally a custom among the villagers for the hasband 
to throw lightly a small bit of earth, stone &c towards bis wife as a 
token of his being pleased with her. But the person alluded to in 
the proverb hit his wife with a brick with such force that ho 
hurt her. 

Applied to one who having been relied on or entreated for 
help by another foolishly does something which injures the other. 
C. /. "More zeal than knowledge." 



ILL LUCK. 

Bagale maro tau dauno rito bhela parho tau dauno rito. 

The peg remains empty whether the animal has been 

killed by a leopard or has fallen down a precipice. 

Whatever the cause may be the loss is evident. There are 
particular pegs called "danna" in a cowshed for each cow and 
calf, to which they are tied at night. If any animal has been killed 
or has died, the peg remains empty, hence the proverb. 

2 "€1^7 V^iE ^^ f^ ^^l. Rito bharinchha toto ni 
bharinu. 

An empty vessel can be filled up, but the vessel with a 
hole in the bottom cammxtt be filled %p. 

Description of a very unlucky or discontented man. 

Nitya nama ko chutiya naina payo dhhis mu cbhayo beda 

mu ayo. 

My name is Nityd. I am called Chutiya ( foolish ). 

I was on a height, but have fallen low. 

Applied by one who is mourning over his misfortune which 
has caused him to be nicknamed a fool and brought about his 
degradation. 



( 122 ) 

1 ^^T ^i^f^^I «6^^RT ^\^ ^ SPTT^- Kala karun 

Vidya karun data ni deta mai kya karun. 

I use my skill and learning, but if God does not help 
me, what shall I do ? 

Applied by one who finding all his attempts to better his 
circumstances frustrated, bemoans his bad fortune. 

5 %%t ^t «li'T ^^t «RT- M^i j'^^^ """^5 karma lijaun kan. 
I shall go there, but where shall I leave my ill luck? 
I. e. Change of place cantiot change a man's ill luck. 

kaunchha duda bbata khaunla karma kaunchlia dagarhai 

raunla. 

The heart desires to eat milk and rice, but ill luck says 
she will not leave me. 

7 'ss^Tffl %J W^m "^^ ^T «R^ ^f% m^^^l 1- Akarami 
ko kapala burunsa ko phula jaiki basana nai. 

The forehead of an unfortunate man is like the flower 
of Burunsa {rhododendron), being without any scent. 

IMMODESTY. 

1 JJ* ^r rT ^T ^'g ^^T 1^^ ^r^ ft^r- Eka danta ko 
mola karo battisa kholadiya. 

Being asked the price of one tooth he showed 
thirty-tioo teeth. 

Want of due reserve. 

Also applied to shameless women. 



( 123 ) 

2 ^rfSr^ ^T'3TT<T TT^ ^^ ^«T. Saini le khola danta 

marada le pai anta. 

When a woman shows her teeth {speaks) man finds 
her motive. 

Used to show the impropriety of a woman conversing with 
men. It is not the custom among Hindu women to converse freely 
with men other than their own relatives. 

IMPOSSIBILITIES. 

1 »f^T T^^T 'J'sR WK.^ 5 ^T^T VII Marho maiyo 
bhukhana chhurkyon ku lawa dhana. 

One who has died- of starvation needs rice for his. 
funeral ceremony. 

If he had had the rice before, he would not have starved. 

2 ft^T ^Tf 'fiT^ ^^T"% TT^- Wika lyawa phaula jaika 
ni naula. 

Demanding fruit when we have not the fruit tree.. 

Asking for a thing which is not to be had. Phaul'z\so means a 
copper or brass jar, and naul also means a well. So the proverb 
may be rendered : Demanding a jar of that water of which there is 
no well — asking an impossibility.. 

3 5i^iJTT!l^^«Tg 'flTn^sJT'^- ^a Jiau mana tela jala 

na radha nacha. 

Neither will nine maunds of oil be burned, nor will 
Rddhd dance. 

Used regarding something which seems to be impossible for 
a man to accomplish by any amount of effort. 

4 T^ t|^T 'ST'ST ^1% "t^ ^Y^- Hyun parho danda budhi 
mari panda. 

The snow fell on the ridge, but the old lady died in the 
upper story. 

Used as an expression of wonder referring to things uniar- 
telligible or improbable. 



( 124 ) 

5 ^m ^%j ^ ^«^T "JT^ m^^h Jakha syurho ni 
akarbau takba sabalo. 

To thrust a thick iron bar in a place where a needle cannot go. 

Used to derote a small space or accommodation which too 
many persons wish to occupy ; or when a large number has to be 
supported on a small quantity. "The camel going through the 
needle's eye." 

6 TT3IT5BT^^ ^TW % ^^I'5l. Eaja ka gbara motyun 
ko akala. 

Dearth of pearls in the house of a king. 

This is used to express wonder and impossibility, and is 
need when a great person claims to be destitute of what every one 
supposes him to have. 

7 ft\ji\j '^\^ HT'ff^tT ^Tfw ^1 IRT- Titaro bani bhanajo 
dbani kakba chbaya. 

A partridge never learns to speak, and a maternal nephew 
never does any work. 

Applied to maternal nephews who belong to another caste 
and therefore do not like to work in their uncles' houses. 

8 fit^TT VZ "a^UR >ff ^^T ^^^T^r. Bbaun tera bbata 
bukanana bbaun tero balabano. 

/ will either chew your parched grain or plough your 
fields (I cannot do both at the same time). 

E. g. A woman employed a ploughman to plough up her fields. 
According io the custom the ploughman was to get a meal 
at noon. While eating his food he of course stops the ploughing 
and unties the bullocks. In order to make up or prevent this 
interruption she devised a scheme to feed him with parched 
Bhata { pulses ) instead of rice or Chapdtis, thinking that the 
ploughman while chewing the grain would continue ploughing. 
But the ploughman, on the Bhata being placed before him, said 
as in the Proverb. This means that no one can do two things at 
the same time. 

Applied by one who is pressed to do many things at the 
same time. 



( 125 ) 

9 «»T WTTI sn^^ Wi ^X.^ ir^HJ ^^ «3«ll^51- Duma 

cbhora byakbana bhukha marana prabatba kaleu sutyalana. 

The children of a Duma (a loio caste man) go supperless 

to bed, and in the morning they ash for what was left from 

the evenings' meal. 

( Breakfast usually consists of what was left from the 
evening meal ). Looking for impossibilities. 

10 ^T ^^T ^1 ^^^|5| ^7 ^TT ^^^ ^if^. Jo mera 
mukba ni bulani so mera gbara ke all. 

Will she, who does not talk with me, come to my house ? 
He who takes no interest in me will not do me any favour. 

11 ^f^«|QT^Z* Syai Binasara gbata. 

Water-mill on the mountains of Syai and Binasara. 
( These have no or very little water in them ). 
An impossibility. 

IMPROPER FRIENDSHIP. 

1 •n^T^ f^ ^I'flt «W(% 'SITI* Nadana ki dosti phusa 

ki aga. 

Friendship with a fool is like a fire of grass. 
I. e. Eises high at first but dies out quickly. 

2 ^^ ^1 ^lf^ ^ I^Tf^ '3'SF* Mukba lagai dumani 

lya gusyani luna. 

If you are kind to a JDumani (low caste woman) she will 

take the opportunity to ask for salt. 

A caution against being very intimate with the poor, as they 
will surely ask for help of some sort. 



( 126 ) 

3 ^fjJV ^"C ^H '^tIt* Larhyayun kukara jibha. 

chatau. 

A dog petted or caressed will lick one's mouth. 

Intimacy with poor and mean people should be avoided. 

4 TT^^ ^T'^ ^f T fr^« Randa ki yari sada khwari^ 
Association with a {vicious) woman is always ruinous. 

5 ^I^r f% '?1"<7 "^T^ f% Mtw« Ochha ki prita balu ki bhita. 

The friendship of a mean-minded man is like a wall 
of sand {will not last). 

Parallel to what is elsewhere said : — that the friendship of a, 
mean man is like the shadow of the first half of the day i. e. great 
at first bat declining every moment, while that of a noble-minded 
person is like the shadow of the second half of the day, i. e. very 
small at first but increasing every moment until sunset. 

IMPROPER UNION. 

1 ^K^Z ^ "^^ ^X^Z %J «3^^« Chharapata ki syainl 

barapata ko khasama. 

A wife picked up hy chance {out of the ashes or leav- 
ings) and a husband taken out of a number. 

Such a wife wishes to ruin her husband, to whom she is not 
properly married, and the latter in his turn wishes to cheat 
his wife. 

Caution against such unions. 

INADEQUATE OR INSUFFICIENT HELP. 

1 %\^ ^ Wm ""iX^ %T «S^. Hathi ki khaba pyurarhl: 
ko pbula. 

A flower of the Pyurarhi or pyuli in the mouth of {i. e. to 
feed) an elephant. 

Applied to inadequate or insufficient help given to another. 



( 127 ) 
INATTENTION. 

XJ^^ X.J^^W^ Bara barasa Ramayana suni bera pucbhana 

lago ki Rama raksbyasa cbba ki Rawana raksbyasa cbba. 

One who has heard the Ramayana recited for twelve years, 
at the end enquires whether Rama or Rawana was the devil. 

Used of one who pays no attention to what he reads or 
Jiears. A dullard. 

INCOMPETENCY. 

1 ^T'» ^^ ilf% ''^^'T Sfi^r ^f« "^^^ f^fM^IT^^T* Apa 
karma cbborbi para karma karau taiki akala bidbina barau. 

One who leaving his own profession or worh follows that 
of another is deprived by God of his wit or wisdom. 

Story : Once a fox having found an elephant drowned 
in a marsh mounted upon the corpse in order to eat its flesh. 
Seeing one of their brethren in that position and allured by 
the corpse, other foxes approached him. Seeing them come 
there he began to act boastfully over the dead body of the 
elephant, and forbade them to touch it, saying "How can you bo 
allowed to eat the elephant killed by me alone ?" This speech 
struck them with awe and astonishment. But hunger and 
natural rapacity for animal food compelled them to implore 
the fox again for permission to share the treat with him. 
He granted their petition on the condition that they ack- 
nowledged their allegiance to him as their future king. All 
agreed to do so. As soon as they all had devoured the flesh of 
the elephant the crafty fox ordered them to convey him on a 
throne (otherwise there was no distinction between him and the 
othersj and address him as their king, "Hathamalla" or destroyer 
of an elephant. So he was seated on a big throne made of grass 
and rags firmly tied to his tail, and was thus borne by the other 
foxes wherever he went. One day they all entered a sheep-fold, 
when no sooner was the alarm given than the watch-dogs were set 
on them. This caused a panic, the foxes dropped the throne and 
ran away. But the so-called king being unable to run on account 
of the heavy throne fastened to his tail, was torn to pieces 
by the dogs. 



( 128 ) 

2 ^Wt ^fT ^n^T^T iS^^fz mz^fZl^J- Naula kawa le gu 
khayo tbunai bati lata patayo. 

A young crow in attempting to tat filth smears its 
beak with it. 

Used to denote one who is caught in doing a sinful or 
unlawful act, and punished for it. 

3 ^T!i3|jin^ ^ h!»I 5ft^ 'T^ ^nr^ Zt»r. Anjanale khai 

bhanga niche munda upara tanga. 

One not acciistomed to hemp throws his legs upwards and 
bends his head downwards ( becomes senseless or mad ) 
when he eat'< it. 

Used of one who suffers in conseq[uence of his undertaking 
business beyond his control. 

4 ''^['5 ^%T if'^ ^^TT« Andu ghorbo gandu sawara. 

A vicious {uncastrated) horse, and a bad rider. 

Applied to one who fails in any new business through 
ignorance of the matter. 

5 ^T% «i^ Wl»\ %J '3*T'^. Kacho baida jyana ko 

khatara. 

A raw ( half trained ) qua^k is dangerous to life. 
Inefficiency in work. 

6 %^ m^J VT^T "m^ '^ ^^' Adakharho bhano bajanai 
runchha. 

An empty vessel continues to make a noise, 

C. f. "Empty barrels make most noise." 
Shallow-minded and incompetent people. 



( 129 ; 

^ ^^5^ ^^ ^'T ^ W^' Adapuri vidya jiya ki 
kala. 

A little learning is a calamity to the soul. 

■C. f. Pope's lines "A little learning is a dangerous thing : 

"Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring.' ' 

8 vlT^ oTT^ ^T^ ^re'S. Nakha joka poka aserhu. 

Leeches in the nose, aserhu applied to the rectum. {^Aserhu 
is>an irritating grass the smell of which causes sneezing). 

When leeches enter the nose of any animsl this grass is put 
inside its nostrils so that the leeches may come away with the 
sneezing which the grass produces. If the grass he applied to the 
rectum it will of course have no effect on one's nose. 

Applied to persons who are inefficient in their professions. 

9 ^T^f'I «fTp3 ^Z\ ^ir ITT^* Hani nijani khuta ai lagi. 
One not knowing how to u^e an axe cuts his own foot. 

10 ^f^ f|"^T ^^•»f% ^T'TW' Peta ki pirha ankhanaki 
aukhadha. 

Pain in the stomach and medicine to the eyes. 
Inefficiency in any business or profession. 

11 ^ %T ^T^r fsd^ ^^^. Sarpa ko khayo bichhi 
ko mantra. 

Bitten by a snake, but treated as if stung by a scorpion. 
Incapacity. 

12 *rTKf^5»Tt^ ^t^l ^T^ ^T^. Mara nijani kandha 
ai lagi. 

The unsMlful woodman strikes his own shoulder, 

Q 



f 130 ) 

13 ^%T ^TH TT qif^ 5T5T 5^^ ^TTT lf»IT '31131. Jaiko 

kama ui kani chhaja dusaro karata thinga baja. 

The work is profitable to one who is trained to the 
profession, but it proves ruinous if undertaken by any 
other person. 

INCONGRUITY. 

1 €fs f% Wl"^ 1^ ^T 2^T« Chhinta ki ghagari gaji 

ko tala. 

A shirt of chintz, patched with a piece of Gaji 
( coarse cloth ). 

Applied to inappropriate or incongruous things. 

INDEPENDENCE. 

1 IT IT^T «! ^T*' ^^I'lrr* Gurha klano na kana 

chherhono. 

One who does not eat Gurha {treacle) will not have his 
ears pierced. 

E. g. About the age of eight years boys have their ears 
pierced, and girls their noses and ears at the age of five years, 
and sweetmeats are given them at the time to take their thoughts 
off the pain. But if the sweets are refused, the ears will not be 
jiierced. So if one avoids putting himself under obligations 
to others he will be saved much trouble. 

2 ^fr ^T^ ^^T ^t 3111 ?.t ^^f% <T^ ^fz kl, Teri 

dathf tera jaun jakha bati sakadi takha bati lau. 

The sickle is yours, and the whole barley field is yours ; 
you can reap wherever you please. 

One is master of his own property in regard to its disposal. 



( 131 ) 

S ^IT^r^r ^^^ 1?!^ 'B'it^* Paibalo tau'amiri natara 
pbakirl. 

Enjoy what is within reach, forget what is unattainable. 

4 ^rfe ^T^T .^f ^T^T ^ fgl^ ^t^r* Sati hola tau naula 
men kuti kbaunla. 

If we have paddy we can husk it in our own navels. 

Used to denote tbat if one has enough food he is not 
dependent on any one. Paddy is husked in a mortar with, a pestle 
but if one has paddy but no mortar he can husk it in ' his navel. 
I. e. He can contrive some way of cleaning the grain. 

5 ^lf^ 1T^ ^[^ cTt'lf^' Apani gaji ball tapani. 

One can burn his clothes {or cloth) to warm himself. 

(The man would have died in the cold night if he had 
not burned it). 

The good things of others are of no use to a starving man. 
A man must use what he has got. 

Applied to one's own possession which he can dispose of in 
any way he likes. 

6 ^I^ vt "l^f^r Wnt« Bacbbi bbai na luti lagi. 

No calf was born, and hence no shin disease {very common 

among the calves) attached it. 

E,. g. If one has no wealth or property he is Hot troubled 
with it. Little goods little care. 

7 Sjf^f'i 'tT9T1TT?T fTTI^ '^I'ti- Jan dekbi tawa parata 
tan gawani rata. 

Wherever I shall find Tawd Parata { vessels used for 
kneading and baking their cahes ) there I ^ill stop 
the night. 



( 132 ) 

These vessels are absolutely necessary to a traveller, who has 
no vessels of his own, but has to borrow them. 

This is applied to one's settling in ft place where be finds a 
means of livelihood. 

8 ^t^T ^T ft^»)« Ankho phuto pirha ge. 

As soon as a sore eye is plucked out the pain goes. 

One finds relief as soon as he gets rid of troublesome thfngs. 

9 ^T'J^T Tnxn RT Tl ^3^1' Apano ranga raaga parai 
ranga dhaturo. 

The colour which I chose is the best colour, but the 
colour which others choose is like that of the poisonous 
plant called "Dhaturd." fThe thorn apple, Datura). 

We think our own advice and opinion the best, those of 
others worthless. 

10 f^f%f%^r ^ ?^f»I fwftlilT ^ IJ^T'^* Ni miliya 
ka tyagi miliya ka anuragi. 

Se despises a thing which it is impossible to get, but 
of which he would be fond if it were attainable. 
"The grapes are sour." 

11 ^'TOT ^T «liT ^ TT5IT* Apana ghara ka saba rdja. 
Every one is a king in his own household. 

This is used when one's actions in his own private affairs 
are called in question, C. f. "Every man's house is his castle." 

12 ^V^ ^X. if ^^;K 31^. Apana ghara men kukara 
shera. 

A dog is a lion in its own house. 

Applicable to one who treats others with disrespect while 
in his own house. C. /. "Every cock fights best on his own 
dunghill." 



( 133 ) 

13 ^^f^ mf^ ^'^•I V}}f^. Apani bar! sabana pyari. 

Every one has to take Ms own turn, or is vnlling to 
undertake his own turn and not the work of another. 

14 ^vm cTTt ^ (^f%1T ^m »I^«TT'r« Apana tana men 
cbirhiya laga masbtana. 

A bird is regaled hy its own song. 

I. e. Every man does what pleases him. Every one follows 
his own bent. 

15 ^qi^ Hlflr 5|?a Wd SJIt^ cT<i TU ^T«ft» Apani mani 
jakba muga jani takba muga kba^i. 

If one has his own grain it is available for food 

wherever he goes. 

Said by one who has no friends to feed him while away 
from home or on a pilgrimage. Expressing his independence. 

17 ^H«5 W[^ 5J»II^« Bojba cbborbi jagata ke. 

If I give up the load, why should I be taxed for it ? 

(In reference to the tolls that people have to pay on all sorts 
of loads &c). 

This is applied to one who gives up any duty or service, and 
thereby thinks himself freed from all further responsibility. 

18 ^Tf% 1TT1T if qT^T \\ % gT»i5. Basi bbata men 
Parameshwara ko ke lagancbba. 

Why should God be thanked for stale rice ? (that 
is, rice left over from a previous meal J. 

This is made use of in speaking of a thing already got 
or gained. 



( 134 ) 

19 ^^^T^T 5T3f «lt^r f3 ^^« Chala thaiila jakha. 
jaunla takha kbaunla. 

Come along, wallet, wherever we go we will have food. 

E. g. On a journey people take their own grain with them, 
in a bag, and so are certain of food wherever they may go. 

Applied to independent people, also used in reference to 
one's stomach (wallet) saying that he can fill it (with foodji, 
wherever he goes. 

INDIFFERENCE. 

1 ^Tf^ liT ^•l«fiT 1I1T. Hatbi ka kana ka makha. 

As flies to the ears of an elephant. 

Applied to one who disregards all advice, orders, or sugges- 
tions regarding a matter in which he is concerned. (The elephant 
is quite indifferent to flies on his ears). 

2 ^RT ^ 5IT 3|f%5i ^«TTTi!I ^f^^. Ghuna ghuna jalige 
kutarana kakhi ai. 

Where does the smell of burning come from ?' 
(Kutarana means the smell of burning cloth J. 

Applied to one who though already on the point of being 
ruined is still indifferent to his own interests, or though his 
character has been stained still he is indifferent. 



INDULGENCE. 

1 ^f% ^T? «RT '^f% ^31^. Barhi larha ka barhi kharha. 
The one greatly loved goes to a deeper ditch. 

Generally used with reference to children and young people 
whose ruin is due to the indulgence of their parents and 
guardians. 



( 135 ) 

2 ^ WSJT^ ^T^ "HT «?TT^ 5tST^. I^lii larhyai ka 
dari puta larhai ka bbikhari^ 

A daughter spoilt becomes a prostitute, and a spoilt 
son a beggar. 

Caution against indulging children. 

INDUSTRY. 

1 ^f2 ?Iia$T ^rt ^t ^I^TftS! ^jm ^Zji. Beti na 
jcbano kutai bbaun buwari na kbano katai. 

£oth one's daughter and one's daughter-in-law must 
thresh corn to live. 

This is only applicable to agriculturists who make use of 
this phrase in the sense that every member of their family must 
wor"k for his living. It is also us?d to imply that one's daughter 
must be treated as somebody's wife, as one's daughter-in-law 
is the wife of one's Bon. 

2 '^■^ ^tJT ^^T ^5 5^5JT. Barbi pbajara, cbula mu 
najara. 

The kitchen has to be looked to early in the morning. 

One must earn one's food first of all. 

Applies also iionieally to one who is more eager to eat than 
work in the early morning. 

3 ^It^ >n^T ^T^t" q^Tf'l^f^T* Bhikbon bbara osi 
gbarba ni bonda. 

No one can expect to get mu^h (lit. loads) by begging, 
or to fill jars with dew. 
Necessity of toil. 

4 ^^% ^in^ ^^% 'n^, Gbaskai lyalai pbasakal palai. 

If you bring much you will get much. 

Applied to one who is rewarded according to his labor, or the 
service rendered by him. 



f 136 ) 

5 «f5^ U^ «'g^ nt^r. Jatukai gurha, utukai mitho. 

The more treacle you put in, the sweeter will be 
the food. 

I. e. The more labor one bestows on his work or business 
the better result will he have. Equivalent to, the more a field 
is manured the better will be the crop. 

6 qri^T f%li ^tft" % ^T^ f^ f^r^tlt'f* Khano dhilai 
banti jau kama dhilai ni bantinu. 

A meal postponed is shared by others, but the work 
delayed will devolve on one's self. 

Prepared food, if not taken at the moment, is liable to be 
eaten by other people or thrown to the dogs and cats, but work, 
if delayed, will fall on himself alone. 

7 gr% ^I JBT^fJ ^1% ^»!!. Undo ko sabana ubho ko 

luna. 

Salt com^s from the high lands, and soap from the 
Tlains. 

E. g. In former times, when the country salt did not find 
its way to the hills, the people used to be supplied with the salt 
of the upper country (Thibet), and with soap from the Plains. 
The head of a family in his old age exhorts his family to be as 
industrious as he was. 

8 T^^T ^^i Mftii ^TJ' Rito batai bbariyun batai. 
Whether unburdened or with a load one has to travel 

the length of the road. 

This is used to induce one to take a load with him i. e. to 
lead a busy life. Since life is to be lived whether with work 
or without it. 

9 ^ifll ^^^T M^ Tjm^J. Sanji dharano, panji ra- 
khano. 

First earn and then take care of your earnings. 

C. f. "Much food is in the tillage of the poor : but there 
is that is destroyed for want of judgment.'' 



( 137 ) 

01 ^ffT ^T^T ^T*T ^IfT %r f^vt ^C? ^»IW. Satu kbayo 
sata bagata dhau ni bhal eka baofata. 

0»<? ate Sdtti ( me«Z o/" parched grain ) se«e;» times, 
but was not even once satisfied. 

Satu represents what is gained from begging ; better work 
and get sufficient to satisfy all needs. 

11 WTT'ft" ^^T'o'l" ^T ^ 'tt'ST ^I'bV. Tu rani mai rani 
ko kuta china dani. 

You are a queen, I am a queen, hut who loill husk 
the millet ? 

This is applied ironically to members of one's family to 
induce them to work, for if each thinks himself a lord or master 
no one will work, and in that case the family will be ruined. 

12 3^7«|T f%«iTQI J^fls ^tm. Nana ki bana thula H 

dhana. 

The young ought to accustom themselves to habits of 
industry, so that when they grow up they may know 
how to work. 

Custom in infancy becomes nature in old age. 

13 f^^f 'RWT ift'^T ^1 (^^'ft^T- Bi°a apna mariya 
ewarga ni dekbino. 

No one can see heaven without dying. 

I. e. If a man wishes to accomplish some good work, or gain 
some great end, he must do it himself, 

14 ^^T''^ % ^VilX H^T» Bekara hai begara bbalo. 

To work for nothing is better than to remain idle. 

R 



( 138 ) 

E. g. In native states every one is bound to do the work of 
the state without wages, which is called "Begara." This kind of 
work is taken by the ruling Prince in lieu of dues, and thereby 
absolves the subjects for some time from further calls. These 
services devolve on every one by turn in the native states. 
The phrase is also made use of and acted upon by one who keeps 
himself employed in some way or other instead of being idle. 



15 iqJi^T ^I^IIT ''^T'^ ^ '91'^T. Mangano apna bapa 
thain laga buro. 

To heg even of one's own father is bad. 
A censure on begging and laziness. 

16 ^T^T V"^ '3T^T ^ ^■^^T^' Matha bhari lano 

peta bbari khano. 

JBring a full load, and then eat your stomach-full. 
This is used to encourage labour or diligence. 

17 ^^^ T'^rf^ %T'!I {^ ^^rf^* P'^sa ki rasyari sauna 

ki gbasyari. 

A coohfor the month of Fusa C January J and a grass- 
cutter for the month of Sauna f July J . 

Used to induce one to do the work, saying that it is very 
easy, and that no one but a fool can refuse to do it. 

In January the weather is coll and so a cook is well off near 
the fire. In July (rainy season) grass grows everywhere in plenty. 

18 f^T, \j miM^ %T. Shira ko jamana paira. 

The feet are the surety of the head. 

This means to say that as long as one's feet move ( are alive 
to walk ) the head is safe. 

Used in regard to a business or household which will go 
on only so long as it is properly managed. 



( 139 ) 

19 «j^g ^ i|; ^cji^. Nakala me ke akala. 

What genius or intellectual power is required for 
copying a paper ? 

Used to pursuade one to do the work he is entrusted with 
by saying that it is easy to be done. 

20 %rl% '^f^ ^^ 'filf^^f^ Hlf^ Jorhi jhaguli na ki 

phari kari jhaguli. 

One ought to earn money for his clothes, hut not to take 
too much care of it. 

Ghara jani chhun batia jani chhun teri kheti ni hixni ta 
main ke karun. 

I worTc at my house and go to the jungle for the 
purpose ; if your husbandry fails what can I do ? 
I, e. I do my best, if the tillage fails it is not my fault. 

'±2 UTH %j ^uj \x^\ st^tHt* Maranu ko laga sobato 

nahati. 

JSfo leisure even to die. 

Used to signify refusal to undertake another business when 
one is already fully engaged. 

23 %T ^T^T ^^T^T ft"5RT ^I^ ^'Tf T %I^r- Jo ^ato saralo 
wlka hatha chuparha bola. 

Whosoever will mend a icicle will get his hands- 
greased. 



( 140 ) 

An encouragement to industry, for any one who will 
work will get something from the work. 

25 efijH 'zirTT f% ^[T «zjr^r. Kama pyaro ki chama 
pyaro. 

Is one to he valued for his work or for Ms skin ? 
Industry is worth more than beauty. 

27 ^il^T'': €t ^"^ ^T^ %\ ^^T* Kumhara ki sati 
dhobi ko murda. 

Tlie potter's wheel and the washerman's club. 

As these two tools are constantly in use they have become 
proverbial. 

Used of one who never has any spare time, being always 
engaged in work. 



'o o 



28 mJf^ %f7T1Tr?T ^Tf^ SlffTTfH. Adhikheti pati adhi 
jata pd.ti. 

Cultivation of the fields is only half the farmer's 
worh, for he must also watch his crops. 

Industry must be accompanied by care and thoughtfulness. 



29 5II31T f^'lT^T 517^7 ^1T^. Nana tina ko jarho dhunga 



men. 



The cold of children is on a stone. 

This means that a stone suffers or bears the cold on behalf 
of a child who moves about and works. 

Used to stir and pursuade children to work even during 
intense cold. 



( 141 ) 
INFLUENCE. 

1 ^T^ 'l^r «r^ 'ST^ %r^T 5^r I^itT ^T^. Hatha pujau 
eka hatha hato pujau hazara hatha. 

A hand (hatha) reaches a distance of one cubit, but the 
Hdtd, the influence of relationship reaches thousands 
of cubits. 

The far-reaching power of family influence. 

INHERITANCE. 

1 ^^^^'[ f* JR'TrC ^'T?! ^m. '^W^'ri ^l^. Baba ki kamain 
saputa khawa na kaputa khawa. 

Neither a good son nor a bad one enjoys the property 
left by his father. 

E. g. A good son ■will earn for himself and thus will not care 
for his father's property : and a bad son, who does not earn any- 
thing will have to sell the property bequeathed to him by his 
father. Hence the proverb is used to induce fathers not to leave 
anything for their sons. 

2 ^l^f ^T "^XZJ 1^1^ ^T^'3T« Bhayon ka banta 

bathaguli ka rekha. 

The shares of one's brothers and the marlcs on the 
palms of the hands cannot be obliterated. 

INJUSTICE & OPPRESSION. 

1 "^ilF ^»|T^ ^s^irf'^'^T^IT ^T^T^ ^^T* Banasungara 

le ujyarha khai ghara sungara ka thola thecha. 

The trespass was committed by wild pigs, but the snout 
of the domestic pig was criished (for it was easier to 
punish a domestic pig than the wild one J. 

This proverb denotes injustice in which a real culprit, owing 
to his being wealthy and crafty escapes the punishment, and an 
innocent poor person is punished, 



( 142 ) 

2 1(967 ^^I^^r 11^ %^t'2 ^T^. Kaika ghalaghala 
gasa kaison, pata upasa. 

One gets pulpy or dainty morsels, and the other has 

to starve. 

Used of mismanagement or injustice, under which one 
member of a certain community or sect is very much favored, 
and others totally neglected. 

3 zn ;ss\j ^JX ^^JX 4l ^I^ 'ST'S ^r^. Thaga thathero 
chora sunara khau koli dada Iwara. 

Cheats, vessel-makers, thieves, goldsmitlis, and weavers 

steal, hut the hlachsmith is scorched. 

E. g. The former five steal the precious metal they work io, 
but the blacksmith is scorched by the heat of his fire. 
Miscarriage of justice. 

4 ^^rif^ ^tl^TI Trf^ "^TfM ll^T- Kanali lagai dana 
mari bandhi sauda. 

Causing one to give alms hy heating him with 
nettles, and forcing one into a hargain by heating and 
binding him. 

Applied to oppression. 

5 ^% '^ "fT^ ^. Jaile sai taile pai. 

6 ^% ^^T^T %T^^ f^llT^T' Ji^ils saharo so kabhain 

ni baro. 

Whoever endures patiently attains his motive eventually^ 
Used to console aggrieved people. 

7 Jixt^ f^ "^T^ ej"^- Gariba ki aha buri. 

The sighs of a poor man are very bad (dangerous) . 
Used to dissuade people from oppressing poor people. 



( 143 ) 

8 ^ ^^Z >rs^t ^3- Kumun son ditha Garha son 
pitha. 

One looks towards Kumaun and turns his bach towards 
Garhwal. 

Said regarding the partiality of one in power who, while in 
Garhwal, favors those who are in Kumaun. 

Used only in Garhwal regarding injustice. 

9 f%^T?rT ^T "^S^- Bida dyo ko bajra. 

A thunderbolt out of a clear sky. 

Applied to one who suffers innocently, or to a sudden 
unexpected misfortune. 

10 f%X.\^ iTfr^T ^^SJ^ ^T f^ 'a^f ^^ f^^^T. 

Biralu mariyo sabanaledekhodudhakhatyonkailenidekho. 

The cat killed is seen by all, but the spilt milk is seen 
by none. 

This is used when one's own faults are exposed and those of 
another are hid. 

I. e. The woman is blamed for killing the cat whose dead 
body is seen, but the milk taken by the cat is not seen by 
any one. 

11 3131 ^f^ "^1 ^TT^t sfi^WTT' Chhota huni barho 
barha son Karatara. 

As a great man is to a poor one, so God is to the 
great man. 

I. e. Oppressors of the poor will be punished by God, 
Illustration. Once a small cow was pursued by a bigger 
cow to a jungle where a leopard having caught sight of the big cow 
began to go after it with a view to kill it, but before he killed it 
he was pursued by a fire which had caught the forest, and barely 
escaped with his life. 



( Hi ) 

12 %^y jjT. rr^ '^^^ I'?. Jaiko mara taiku pachisa 
parha. 

One in whose family a death occurs, will have to 
pay -Rs- 25I-. 

E. g. In old times the kings used to levy a tax on deaths 
called ^^Harlia Aara" =tax on bones. Hence the proverb applied 
to one who in addition to injury inflicted upon him is also punished 
by the Court. 

13 oR^sf ^TT ^.^ '^I^T' Kakha uro kakha parhyo. 
What threatens and what happens. 

E. g. This refers to clouds which, while hanging over in one 
place, thunder and lighten in another place. 

Used of injustice by which an innocent person is punished. 

14 %1T '^1^1 %T'!! Tf ir?I ft"^^ "^ftl^T Wi" Jaika 
ankha sauna men garha wi kana hariyo sujha. 

One whose eyes are taken out in the month of July 
believes the earth to be green always. 

Applied to one who does not try to see the present aspect or state 
of things but delivers his judgment on his past experience alone. 

Once during the prevalence of a certain famine a king, 
■while engaged in hunting deer, happened to stop at night at a 
peasant's shed, where he was fed by him with Gin and KhicharM, 
saying that no other edibles were to be had on account of the dearth. 
After a great many years there was another famine in his kingdom ; 
reports were made to him with prayers that some steps should be taken 
to prevent the people from starving ; but the king took no notice of 
their entreaty, and said that they could live on Ghi and Khicharhi. 
(Two parts of rice and one part of dala (pulse^ cooked together^. 

C, f. The story of the French Queen who wondered how 
the people could possibly be starving when there were such 
beautiful tarts to be had for sixpence each. 

15 ^^T ^TT^r^^r ^I^T' Jaiko jantbo wI ko banto. 
Sis is the share loho has a club {in his hand). 

Used to denote misgovernmcnt and injustice, where might 
is right. 



r 145 ) 

gaya titira chakhurha jibala parha musabhyakurha. 

The grain was eaten hy partridges, hut the Musa- 
hhydkurhds ( a kind of small bird ) were entrapped. 

E. g. Villagers have "jibdlds" (stone traps for birds^ fixed 
in places frequented by birds, with grain spread underneath them. 
Partridges being of a very shy nature pick up the grain from a 
-safe distance, and fly away, but the other birds (masabhyakarhas) 
being of more unwary nature enter the jihdlds of stones in order 
to eat the grain, and are crushed by the fall of the stone. A large 
stone or slate is set up on a stick at the bottom of which grain is 
placed. The slightest touch of the stick by the beak of the bird 
•displaces it, and the stone falls on the birds feeding below. 

Applied to cunning and crafty men who put their evil 
designs into execution entirely for their own benefit through some 
simple man, who often suflTers for them, but the real culprits 
escape with impunity. 

17 ^? f^ e|^ ^^TSIT ^T ^TTr. IJnta ki balai bhekana 
M khora. 

The punishment of a camel on the head of a frog. 

This is used when in order to save a great man a smaller 
person is punished or censured, as a scape-goat. 
Applied to injustice and partiality. 

18 ^g.^ ^T% ^1^ 'KT "^.J^^l ^mx. ^mj. Alasi kacho 
naja kha raja labara patya. 

A sluggard eats raw rice and a liar finds favor 
with a king. 

1. e. A lazy man will not cook his food, but chews it raw, 
and a king listens to others who backbite and thus poison his 
mind against people. 

19 gg^i ^r^ ^TW^r^ ^TT« Ulto chora kotwala danda. 

The arrest of a person other than the thief causes the police 

officer to he punished, or, in case the thief escapes, the 

chaukidar {watchman) heing there is caught and punished. 

This is used in speaking of a gross injustice done by any one. 

S 



( 1^6 ) 

20 tH ^t|^ wq^RT ?5TT;t ^^ ^'a^T. Randa dekhi mapa- 
ka chhoron dekhi danakha. 

Oppressing the widow (md frightening orphan children. 

This is used when poor people are oppressed by stronger ones. 
C. f. "He that oppresseth the poor to increase his riches, and he 
that giveth to the rich, shall surely come to want." "Rob not 
the poor, because he is poor : neither oppress the afflicted in 
the gate." 

21 ^v[[ \\ ^?3 ^^T "^TZ Sudha ko mukha kulcara 
chata. 

Tlie mouth of a simple man is licked even hy a dog. 

E. g. A simple man is not dreaded even by a dog, and so 
why should men fear him ? 

22 T51T ^f%^ sTT^^T '1^. Puja dekhika bakaro hansa. 

The lie-goat laughs at the slight worship any one is 
going to perform, in which its oivn life is to be taken or 
sacrificed. 

Applied to or by one who is punished more severely for a 
comparatively trifling offence, or without any formal investiga- 
tion or trial. 

23 m^ ^1% ^'st "^T^T- Kakha worho kakha torho. 

Where is the boundary of the field ? and where has 
the crop been reaped ? 

Applied to gross injustice, as illustrated by the story 
narrated below : — 

Illustration. A newly married prince was sleeping with 
his bride while, according to custom, the officiating priest slept 
in the next room. At night while the prince was asleep his bride 
saw a dagger {Katdra) in his belt, as is the custom among the 
Rajputs. She being curious about the weapon took it out of its 
sheath and then after having examined it tried to replace it in its 
sheath, but missed the sheath, and thrust it into the body of the 
Prince, who died instantly. The Princess was in great grief. 
Next morning the king, who was the father of this unfortunate 



{ 14.7. ) 

Princess, together with his people, was much distressed on. account 
of what had happened, and without any investigation regarded, 
the priest as the guilty one and ordered his hands and feet to 
be cut oiF in punishment for the crime, the Princess meanwhile 
through fear and shame keeping silent. 

24 ^ (?lT^T ^ ^^T 3%T ^'ir. •Mai giranera chhyuu: 
tero dheso laojo. 

I was about to fall myself, but now you have pushed 
me down. 

This means to say that one about to be ruined was finally 
ruined by the actioaof another who now gets the blame for what 
has happened. 

Illustration : Once a large palm-tree having all its roots 
rotten and turned up was about to fall, but it fell down just as a 
crow sat on one of its branches. Hence the proverb is used by 
one when he is injured by another. 

25 iTT^T ^3^ ^r "^ [ ^r- Maro ghundo phuto an.kho,. 

The hnee was struck but the eye was put out. 

Indicating injustice, or inftiction of penalty upon the wrong 
person or thing. 

26 »ri^^T^T^TT^Tl'!l^riT^T^* Magha khaya ama 

phaguna laga ghama. ' 

Mangoes eaten in Magha ( January ) fever caught in 
Phdguna (February J. 

Applied to unjust or illogical actions. 

27 %^ ^r 1T^ "W^T ^r^r ^I^* Tairhu kando para 
phusaro poko wara. 

The BasTcetful of "Tairhu" {a kind of sweet wild root 
which people eat as vegetable food) has gone over the 
other side, but one has- his thighs made white ( muddy % 
this side. 



( H8 ) 

E. g. This root is obtained by digging the earth to the depth 
of the loin, and so the person gets his thighs muddy in the attempt 
to get the root out of the ground. A man can get a basketful if 
he works a ■whole day. If the fruit of his toil is taken away by 
another he has nothing but the muddy thighs left to show, hence 
he says as in the proverb. Applied to one who is deprived of his 
earnings. C. f. "One beats the bush, while another catches 
the bird." 

28 5:^ ^T3 ^T ^T^ Eka hata dui bhawa. 

One market but rates two. 

Applied to injustice, or favor or disfavour shewn by an' 
officer of a court of justice, or by an administrative officer who is 
considered as the common master of all. 

29 ^-[^ q[^»i ^^ \j\r{\ ^N M'':- Nani khasama kara 

dohata danda bHara. 

The grandmother commits adultery, her granddaughtei^ 
suffers punishmient. 

30 f^«i f% XJH TIcT %r f^*f» Dina ki rata, rata ko dina.. 
Day is changed to night and night into day. 

Spoken of flagrant injustice. 

31 5^Tf^»lT^ ^^ f% 'fTI^. Pkari gali bajra ki tali 
Se who curses another without cause, upon his own 

head the curse shall come like a thunder-bolt. 

C. f. "Curses like chickens come home to roost." 

32 J]'^^ ^T eBT^ ^f%?ll ^T 351^' Grariba ka kala baliya 

ka shyala. 

lAke death to oppress a poor person, but like a jackal 
to fly before a strong and influential one. 

E. g. People in the world generally do not hesitate to oppress 
and rob a poor person, taking advantage of his distressed circums- 
tances, but they would shun a strong man for fear of his avenging 
himself. 



( 14'9 ) 

33 f^T^T^i ^ f^ai^II^T"- Gbinorhana me Sitaulo 
padhana. 

Among sparrows the Sitauld is head man. 

Amongst small men the mediocrity is a king. Generally 
used of oppression or compulsion. 

34 ^T''^^ ^ %TT ^ ^ »lf51^T ^T« Auran sun aura mai 

sun gujiya shaura. 

Others may he under others ( their superiors'), hut 
a Crujiyd has become my father-in-law ( i. e. rules 
over me ). 

Gajadharaor Gajey Singh=a man of high position. 
Gaja= Do. of middle do. 

Gujiya= Do. of lowest position. 

Used by one mourning over his circumstances when he 19 
unexpectedly oppressed even by poor men. 

35 '^[K. »!?:% <mT "^W '^T^i 511 ^fe ^f^ ^it. Andhera 

garadi pupabai cbaron juga bati buni ai. 

Injustice, disorder, and oppression have existed from 
time immemorial ; lit. during all the four ages. 

One oppressed by others generally consoles himself by 
quoting this proverb. 

36 -^si^T ^^ ^T^"':T ^T'T TT^T ^T ^^ '^T'a* Andba 

cbuni totara dbana maro gbunda pbuti ankba. 

A blind man gleans {blasted paddy) empty ears of 
corn, and when lie would strike the leg, knocJcs out 
the eye. 

I. e. One not qualified to do a particular work should not be 
employed on it, or else he will spoil it. It also illustrates the 
miscarriage of justice when the wrong man is punished by a 
biassed or inconsiderate judge. 



( 150 ) 

37 ^WTI^ f%^^ mfz ^^ ^^- Andhanale sirani bati 

gharai ghara. 

The blind distribute sweetmeats, hut comong them- 
selves only. 

This phrase is used by people regarding a neighbour who 
feasts his own particular cronies and excludes others, or also of" 
one who pretending to be a gentleman and unimpartial officer is 
interested in the good of his own people only, and does not look 
to the good of others. 

38 ^^T "fflTT ^ f«l^ Barho marau luna ni de. 

Tlie strong man not only beats one hut does not allow 
one to cry in consequence. 

This proverb is generally made use of when an officer gets 
angry at an appeal against his decision, and wrongly takes further 
steps to prevent the appellant being successful in his appeal. 

39 f^Tf^U ^ mrkj fi[gf%*»? ^^T^T. Bira Sing le khayo 

Shiba Sing wasayo. 

Bira Singh ate gluttonously, but Shib Sing's stomach 
has swelled {with indigestion). 

This proverb is made use of when an innocent person 
suffers because of the bad deeds of another, for want of proper 
investigation. 

C. f. "The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children's 
teeth are set on edge" (Ezek. 18. 2.) 

40 TH^j %T ga f5[T:^. Barha ko latha shira me. 

The club of the stronger must be borne on one's head. 
There is no remedy for what a stronger person^ 
does to the weaker — he must bear it patiently. "Might is 
right." 

41 v[j\j %:^f^ m%T ^ ^T^T^T* l^larau waisani jaiko 
ni rodaro. 

J3eat one toho has no one to grieve for him {no one to 
help him). 



( 151 ) 

This is considered safe, whereas to beat a stronger party 
would bring revenge on oneself. Also beat one who has no one to 
ask after him. 

42 jjj^j %^ ^TT^ 'IT^ ^rf ^^ ^T ^T^- Machho 
dekhi bbitara hatha sanpa dekhi bhaira hatha. 

Seeing a fish in the water he puts in his hand, but 
seeing a snake he pulls it out. 

This applies to one who is simple and poor and is therefore 
oppressed or injured by others ; but one who is strong and danger- 
ous is not touched by any one. 

43 ^riTf ^W %^'*i^^ ^^r Bhutana lakha dewatana 
dhakka. 

Devils get he-goats offered to them, but deities are 
pushed aside. 

This is applied when an honest and submissive man is driven 
out, and a dishonest and tricky one is respected. 

44 |-|15 €ti§t 'iw %^T ^T^T IT^* Waiki lini swena 
•we ko khayo kharhu. 

Mis wife was taken and his ram eaten. 
Denoting great injustice done to one. 

45 f^HT ^T «T€t ^SRT^T* Diya ka tali anyaro. 

Darkness under the lamp. 

This metaphor is used of a man who does good to o(hers but 
does not remember those who are immediately serving under him. 

46 siTSiT ^m if Z^\ StT^ ^5IT »It^ ^ '^Tl- ^ana goru 
men thulo goru thula goru men baga. 

A bigger cow assaults a smaller one, and a leopard the 
bigger cow. 

Used to threaten with divine vengeance those who oppress 
their inferiors. 



f 152 ) 

Illustration. It is related that Brahma, a god having four 
faces, became proud on this account, and thought himself superior 
to the other gods who had only one face. With the object of 
showing off his wonderful figure-head he began to move about 
in the aerial regions, but to his great chagrin one day met another 
Brahma who possessed eight faces, and in the utmost disappoint- 
ment he retired to his own place. The eight faced Brahma seeing 
him thus retreat in despair became very proud in his turn, ixntil 
he encountered another Brahma who had sixteen faces, and the 
last named again becoming too conscious of his superiority was 
sent by the Lord of the Universe to a region ruled over by a 
Brahma who rejoiced in thirty-two faces. The moral, of course, 
is that people should be humble. 

47 %f^T^ ^T^ ^T.]^ g5€iT^. Chaurasu goru pharasu 
ujyarha. 

The cattle in the village of Chaurasu are accused of 
trespassing in the village of Pharasu ( two villages in 
Garhwal 9 miles apart from each other ). 
Applied to false accusation. 

48 ^Tx: ^f?i2iT f^^Jl^rr-JT q^^I Irlil. Chora kutiya 
miligaya ta paharo kaiko. 

If a thief and the watch dog unite, who will guard the 
house ? . 

This is generally used in regard to corrupt Police officers 
who are in concert with thieves. 

49 |;tf jsm f^KT^^ ^^f^ ^j^ ^j: ^j{^. Dudha khawa 
birali pakarhi jawa gharawali. 

The milk is drunk hy the cat, hut the wife is held 
responsible. 

Applied to one who is responsible for the trust consio-ued 
to hor. ° 



( 153 ) 

-50 g^r^Tf% ^1^ sfi^ ^J^ ^imn^- Tusyara ki karha 
karha ghama auna taka. 

The frost is hard until the sun rises. 

This is applied by one who has been oppressed at home, 
bat as soon as he resorts to a Court of justice the oppressors 
tr&mble. 

51 ^^ Ji^r 5:% Jg;^ |rr l^r ^% 'S;^- Eka guno ekai 
shula sau guno ekai shula. 



vJ 



The same punishment for one crime or for one hundred 
crimes. 

May as well be hanged for a sheep as a lamb. 

"Shiila" is a sharp and long iron bar used by Native Princes 
to impale with as a capital punishment (as hanging is used by the 
British Government). 



52 ?jg ^jfz 33^T 'Irf^T* Shiila moti shulya patalo. 

The iron bar (shula) is very thick, but the man ordered 
to be impaled with it is very thin. 

Once a native prince sentenced a convict to death. On the 
offender being sent to be executed his person was found unsuitable 
for the thick iron bar fixed for the purpose. This fact was according- 
ly reported to the king by the executioners Cas said in the proverb). 
The king ordered that a stout man adapted to the thickness 
of the bar be secured and executed. The messengers selected a 
fat ascetic for the purpose, and on his being taken to the scaffold 
his spiritual guide (another fat ascetic) voluntarily came there, 
and insisted on being put to death in the room of his beloved 
disciple, and on the other hand his disciple also persisted in 
being put to death, and so they both quarrelled about the matter, 
to the utter embarrasment of the executioners. On this fact being 
also reported, the King sent for both the ascetics and enquired 
the reason why each of them offered himself for death, to which 
the elder dervish replied thus : — 

"While absorbed in devotion to-day, I beard an oracle from 
heaven saying that any man who should be sacrificed (put to death) 
on the iron bar would go to heaven, where he would be made a 
king of deities. Under such circumstances I most eagerly pray 

T 



( 15* ) 

tbat in consideration of my most rigid penances and devotions 
I may be allowed to be executed, as I alone deserve such a happy 
and blissful death." This speech of the hermit moved the whole 
Darhdra. Every one of the ministers, nay each member of the 
Royal family came forward and asked to be kindly allowed to 
suffer this death, but the king said that if this was the case he 
would willingly die himself, and was accordingly executed. 

Applied to gross injustice and anarchy, and also used by 
rich people who are unjustly and unnecessarily troubled or 
oppressed on no other grounds than their being rich, and also 
by one who innocently suffers only on account of his name. 

53 i^%j ^I^ ^ni ft'l'l'^- ^y^"^ ka santha ghuna pislni. 

The ghuna {loeevils) are ground with the wheat. 

"Wheat is often infested with weevils, which are ground 
v;ith the wheat. Applied to innocent persons when they are 
punished along with the culprits, only on the ground of their 
'having been found with them. This is also used as a caution 
against remaining in bad society. 

54 TO%T^ >f3 %T^- Gryun sola bbata sola. 

l^heat at the rate of 16 seers and Bhata at the same 
rate {16 seers a Rupee). 

f Although wheat is of much more value than Bhata). 
Applied to want of discretion or to injustice. Bhata is a kind 
of inferior pulse eaten by poor people alone. 

55 5}j^?5ijif^. Gorkhyani. 
Gorhhydni or the rule of the Gurkhas, 

Exemplification of oppression and injustice. People use 
this phrase whenever they complain of oppression or injustice. 
The province of Kumaun was ruled for a time by the Gurkhas 
a courageous though wild Nepalese tribe, before the Eno-Hsh 
occupation in 1815. 

56 ■^Hq ^^^ ^T^lt ^31^^^ ^^^ ^t ^^. Hamana 

kariti kala ki mesha ye chhana chalyun ka desha. 

/ acted in accordance with the customs of the times, hut 
this is a country of iviched men. 

Applied to one who is censured or punished though ho has 
done nothing wrong. 



( 155 ) 

57 ^"^7 gs rf^r >ffl. Jaiko latha taiko bhaisa; 

The buffalo is that maris who has a club in his hand, i. e. 
He who has the stick has the buffalo. 

Representing oppression or want of proper government 
or justice. The man who can beat off another takes his buffalo. 
G.f. "Might is right." 

58 ^v^ 5l?I^ ^sr*^ TI5IT zm^^ MT^ z^i^r: tsj^t- 
Andhera nagari bebujha Kaja taka sera bhaji taka sera- 
khaja. 

A town full of darkness (or injustice) ruled over by a 
careless ruler, where vegetables and sweetmeats sell at one 
and the same rate. {Descriptive of an unjust ruler). 

Once a saint and his disciple while sojourning in various 
countries and cities happened to arrive in the aforesaid town. 
The saint, who knew the ins and outs of it, did not wish to stay 
there, but his disciple being tempted and allured by the sweetmeats 
which were sold very cheap there said to the saint "0 Guru 
f spiritual guide ^ permit me to stay here for some time." The 
saint did not comply with his request, but said that it would not be 
safe for him to protract his residence in such a place as that, and 
the sooner they got out of it the better. But the imprudent disciple 
again eagerly asked permission from his Guru to allow him to live 
there for a short time. Thus the saint wasat last obliged to leave his 
disciple there, with great reluctance, and said to him, "Whenever 
you happen to get into any trouble remember me ; I shall help 
you." After some time a goat was killed there by the fall of a "wall. 
The owner of the goat sent a complaint against the owner of the 
■wall to the King, who ordered the latter to be hanged for having 
built such katcha (imperfect) walls, but the accused man pleaded 
his innocence, and said that the fault lay in the mason who Jjad 
built it. The ruler on this representation changed his mind and 
ordered the mason to be executed in his stead. The mason also 
in his turn denied his guilt, and reproached the labourer who 
supplied, him with mortar. On this the man who had supplied 
mortar for the wall was doomed to death, but the labourer set forth 
his innocence and blamed the Bhisti ( water-bearer ) for pouring 
too much -water into the mortar and making it too soft for use. 
On this the sentence of death devolved on the Bhisti who 
also cleared himself of the guilt and implicated the Kotawdl 



( 156 ) 

( Police Officer) who had driven his pony rapidly by him, and so 
frightened him that he happened to throw more water in the 
mortar than was required. At this the Kotaiml was sentenced 
to be executed, and as he had nothing to say in his defence he was 
brought to the scaffold to receive his doom. The noose of the 
cord was found too big for the head of the Kotawdl. The matter 
was reported to the king, who ordered that a fat man (whose head 
and neck were adapted to the noose) should be selected and 
executed instead. The servants of the king after great search 
found out the kind of man. they wanted in the disciple of the saint, 
who had become fat by eating cheap sweetmeats, and he was 
arrested and brought to the scaffold, where he remembered his 
Guru the saint, who made his appearance instantly and volunteered 
to be hanged in lieu of his disciple, but the latter ( wishing to 
save his Guni from death ) insisted on undergoing the sentence 
himself. Each persisted in dying for the other and there was a 
quarrel between them as to who should be hanged. This matter 
was also reported to the King who sent for both the Fakirs 
( the saint and his disciple ) and enquired why one wished to die 
for the other. The saint said to the king "0, just king, a 
heavenly vehicle was at hand to take to Paradise the soul of the 
man who should die this blissful death. Since I have performed 
various religious acts and have led a long life of penance I alone 
merit it and no other." On this the King, who coveted the 
heavenly vehicle for himself, volunteered to die, and was according- 
ly hanged. 

59 %% ^j-^j ^j^ iTT^ %W "^TIT 'JT^'ST '^T^- Kaile 
khayo khasu masu kaika aya pathana ansu. 

Who ate tlie fat weat and who shed a flood of tears 1 

Used in regard to an injustice by which a culprit escapes 
punishment and an innocent person is punished instead. 

60 ^ ^T^ 'Sr^T ^fT'<;- Kba koli dadau Iwara. 

The weaver gains hy stealing some of the yarn entrusted 
to him and makes up the weight with sizing. But all the 
iron the hlacksmith can steal is the sparks that fly off 
and hum him. 



( 157 ) 

61 %Ji?iT ^lf% ST^T l^ft I'lT 5WIT ^W* K-hai gaya 
darhiwala pakarhi gaya junga wala. 

Those with beards ate the spoil but those with mustaches 
were punished. 

(Mahommedans wear beards, and Hindus mustaches"). 

E. g. During the reign of some of the Mahommedan rulers 
Mahommedans used to commit crimes and charge them upon 
the Hindus. Hence the proverb applied to gross injustice 
through which the real offenders were let off and innocent persons 
arrested and punished. 

62 %Tx:^ %f f'l^l^T'Pr ■qT f% ^ ^t ^^ f%^^- Aurana 
son ni sakulo ta ghara ki jwe son leka ni sakun. 

If I cannot beat others, shall T not be able to lord it over 
my wife ? 

Used to imply that poor people can be oppressed by everyone. 

INNOCENCE. 

1 ^ ^[Jl^JTI f^^ '^\^J ft W§'^- Jai angula bikha lago 

wi jharhanchha. 

That finger which has been affected with poison shall 

fall or drop off. 

An assertion of innocence by people who have been mixed 
up with offenders. 

2 7ITf% oJTZT f%2^* Cr^l'^ bata hitali. 

Tlie curse {^abusive language) will go its way. 

I. e. It will fall on the unjust party and not injure the person 
abused, if he is innocent. 

Used by one who is unjustly cursed. 



( 158 ) 

hatha ni khoun gata parhi raun chaubata bata. 

If my hands and my person do not offend I can lie 
down without fear on the highway. 

I. e. If I do not do anything wrong why should I fear 
to rest in a public place ? 

Applied by one who considers himself innocent, and hence- 
secure from all danger. 

INOPPORTUNE ACTS. 

1 »ir^T^ ^TI^I^T ^T'l'!! ^"^T51T ^'^ ^^T* Ma bachhi. 
baga ligayo phaguna daroja banda karo. 

The leopard carried off the calf in the month of Mdgha 
(^January), and in Phaguna {February) they put the doors 
on the cowshed. 

C f. "Locking the stable after the horse has been stolen." 

2 HJX. ^ 5g co^ 51TWT "^^^T ^"^J- ^'ara kun jyun tyun., 

jano dwi chela pachha. 

If a woman is determined to go to a paramour, why 
should she go after she gives birth to two sons in her 
husband's house? 

I. e. She should go while young, not after she has begotten, 
children. 

Used to condemn inopportune actions. 

3 aiTT % '^^ ^Tf^*^- Tyara khai baisi ka dina. 

77^6 day after the festival {i. e. not in time). 

The day of the festival is spent in feasting and merriment. 
Any good thing received on that day is greatly appreciated, and 
any guest who comes on that day is well received, but not so 
after the close of the festival. 

Used of inopportune occasions. 



( 159 ) 

4 cfii^y sitRi^ ^T ^^I ^tir* Kato na phanto lyau mero 
banto. 

Neither cut nor divided, but one wishes to have his share. 

Applied to improper, impossible or inopportune requests 
made at a time when the other is not in a position to comply 
with them. 

5 '»Tf% f%fcr %T^ ^T^ ^lifilJi?;. Bhuki lini thaura bala 
jami gain. 

The place to he kissed is overgrown with hair. 

Infant children are generally kissed by their relatives. But 
if the latter are prevented from doing so by living at some distance, 
the former grow up and the time for kissing is passed. Hence tho 
proverb is applied to lost opportunities, and also to one who used 
to listen to prayers and requests but now turns a deaf ear. 

6 "^ZT if ^^jx. f%%T ^T'ST ^^T« B^t^ ™e^ Iwara milo 

aphara lagau. 

A blacksmith met on the road is asked to set his bellows 
to work. 

Applied to one who troubles another, to do some work away 
from home. Inopportune requests. 

7 ^T'H 'if^ ^r^ Kr^T'ssiT'IT ^^- Sauna mari sasu bhado 

ay a ansu. 

His mother-in-laio died in Sdwana {July) but his tears 
did not flow until Bhddo {August). 

Applied to one who wreaks his vengeance for any grievance 
after a long time, or to one who does a thing inopportunely. 

8 «ltl 'ITT'B ^^ "^^ ^TX^ *TT5I«I. Nanga jaika bastra 

bhukha jaika bbojana. 

One gets clothes after his nakedness has been covered, and 
food after his hunger is satisfied. 



( 160 ) 

Applicable to inopportune aid which is not appreciated. To 
give in time of need is considered an act of lasting merit, but to 
give otherwise is in no way a virtue. 

9 ^'»T^f^3TT ^ ^IW f^TTt. Kapala pithai ni poka 
pithai. 

Red colour applied not to the forehead but to the back. 

Bed colour {called "Pitbya" made of turmeric soaked in 
lemon juice for days to turn it red). 

When marriage or tonsure or a son's birth-ceremony takes 
place in a man's house he invites his relatives and gives them a 
feast. Soon after the ceremony is over, the Pithyd mixed with 
water is applied to their foreheads in one oblong streak (upwards) 
with a pinch of soaked rice put over it, and then money or other 
gifts are presented to them, and they take their departure. This 
is considered necessary etiquette. But if the relatives are allowed 
to go to their homes empty-handed, and without receiving the 
mark on their foreheads, and if presents are sent to them after the 
ceremony instead of during the feast, this is called applying the 
Pithyd to their backs instead of their foreheads. The saving 
is generally applied to inopportune actions. 

10 '^^fal^r^rl ■^f. Bunda ge bilayata son. 

The drop has gone to a foreign country. 

This proverb arose from the story noted below. 

Once some perfumers brought perfumes for sale to a king 
who bought some, but out of what he had purchased one drop 
fell on the ground, and the king at once tried to take it up with 
his own finger from the floor. This act on the part of the king 
was considered very mean by his ministers and all others, including 
the perfume sellers. In order to remove the impression, the 
ministers afterwards purchased many thousand rupees' worth of 
perfumes from the same strangers and got it sprinkled all over 
the royal stables, in order to augment their master's fame for 
munificence and liberality. Nevertheless the news of the drop 
had already gone to foreign countries through those strangers. 
Hence this proverb suggests a careful, reserved, and wise dealing 
with a stranger, and shews that an opportunity once lost cannot 
be regained. Also, "111 news travels fast." 



f 161 ) 

11 ^^T SJiri^^T ^r ^^^. Tero by a karulo sau 
barasa me. 

I will gel yott married a hundred years hence. 

Applied to promises to do a thing when it will not be needed. 

12 ^f f ^T? MTint ^T1 ^t^T ^>fT^- Khanda awa bhagi 
hatha dhonda abbagi. 

A fortunate man comes at the time when dinner is 
ready, hut an unlucky one arrives just after it is 
over, flit : at the time when people wash their hands 
after dinner J. 

Applied to one who asks for anj'thing when it is too late. 

INSIGNIFICANT OR UNPROFITABLE BUSINESS. 

1 ^fT ^Tlf^ ^T^ITT^. Kawa mari barha na masa. 

Sy killing a crow otie gets neither flesh nor hones. 

It is no use attempting to "squeeze" a foor man, by 
oppression &c. 

2 'sf?! ^ "^T "^Tfat^ ^^T^T- Danga me butyo baithika 

lawayo. 

One who sows seed in stony land has to reap the crop 
sitting. (because the stalks of the grain grown on 
such land are very short J. 

Applied to a small business which yields very little profit, or 
to business started unwisely. 

3 ^(%^ % '^^ fi^i»lZ ^r ^^- Totally a ko bala pi- 
langata ko baila. 

A plough of grass, and grass-hoppers for oxen. 

Applied in derision to one who has made inadequate provision 
for any enterprise. 



( 162 ) 
INTERFERENCE. 

1 ^TH mr^T fki ^^ ^rasiT' Ama khana ki perha ganana. 
^at the mangoes, do not count the mango trees. 

I. e. One ought to restrict himself to the work in hand ; 
meddle not with that which concerns you not. 

2 "ft^Tf^T frr^^I %J 1T^' Dwi raji tisaro ko paji. 
When two men have consented, a third who interferes 

is a fool. 

Applied io one who unnecessarily interferes in the affairs 
of others. 

3 HT ^ Sf fivi ^. Gau men na gadha men. 

One counted neitlier among the Tcine nor among asses. 

Applied to one who has no concern whatever in a matter, 
but who unnecessarily interferes in it^ or to one who is nobody. 

4 (^[Tl^r f%^ '51T^ ^T ^r^- Hira ko hira lala ko lala. 

Diamond to diamond, and ruby to ruhy. 

Used when one is injured by interference in a quarrel io 
which the principals make friends. Caution against interferenca 
with quarrels in which one is not concerned. 

5 ^ ^^rl^ «lrTX: ^ 9^- -'^^i ^7"? *^ ^J"? natara bhau 

khwe dyun. 

I may or may not buy a thing but I musi spoil the rate 
C increase it J. 

Applies to one who wishes to injure others in a business in 
which he himself has no concern whatever. 

6 ^T Jir^ V2 V3T "T^ IT'S f%^f%% T3T- "^ara garha 

bhata bhuta para garha chirha chirhai utha. 

Bhata {a hind of inferior pulse) being parched on thi» 
side of the river, but the crackling is heard on the 
oilier side.. 



f 163 ) 

Used of one who interferes in a quarrel or business v/itb 
which he has no concern. 

7. ^g f5| VTMTTT rm ^ V^HTTf^. Baila ni bhara 
bharanu guna jai bhara bharanl. 

The bullock does not stir or Jump, but the pannier. 

(Bullock an animal, but the pannier an inanimate thing). 
I. e. Another person is interfering on behalf of the interested 
party (who is inactive) in a certain matter. 

8> ^Tfsi ^ ^^W ^^ SIIT SRT "^^^T^- Kaji jyu dubala, 

kelai sabara ka andesa le. 

O, Cadi why have you become so thin f ThrougK' 
anxiety for the city. (The Cadi has nothing to do with 
public chairs ). 

Applied to one who unnecessarily interferes with matters in. 
which he is not at all concerned. 



INTOXICATING DRUGS. 

ebarasa ki karau badaboi wi ka bansha me nirau koi. 

Any one who speaks against charasa (a narcotic drug), 
may no one be left to him in his family. 

2 % ^f^T^ f^^ Htsil fli ^f% ft ^f W % ^?f% »T«t« 
Jai larhakale nipi ganja ki kali wI larhaka hai larhaki 

bhali. 

The boy who does not smoke charasa, a girl is better 
than he. 

Both the above are used by those in the habit of smoking; 
these drugs. 



( 164 ) 
IRONY. 

1 'R'n^lfz^T 9'fl%T ^T ^^. Anakatiyo tiimarho ko 
mukha. 

The mouth of a gourd uncut. 

E. g. As long as a gourd is not cut open it cannot be 
certainly ascertained what is inside it, though every one is 
practically aware of its contents. 

Applied to unnecessary reserve and precaution. 

2 53?1HT ^i'^IT •IT'^iffr ^^T- Sagalo bhanara nau rati 
suno. 

TFhat is nine ratis {18 grains) of gold compared witJi 
the whole treasure ? 

Used to induce another to give large sums by representing 
that nine ratis is a ridiculously trifling sum for a wealthy mans. 
Also as an expression of wonder that a man reputed to be rich 
or great should be unable to comply with a small request. 

3 jgj^t <«>T St^«RT ^■'^ ^T 'I'fi- Shyalon ka tolaka shera 
ko eka. 

A number of j achats hut one tiger. 

E. g. A she-jackal gives birth to two or three cubs and a 
tigress to only one. In other words a number of the former are 
not competent to face one of the latter. 

Applied when a number of small men set themselves fn 
opposition to a man of great influence and power. 

4 ^^1^ HT^flr fv^Z 1X^(i[« Salaun saradeshi pilang- 
ata paradeshi. 

He regards locusts as belonging to his own country 
and grass-hoppers as strangers. 

I. e. He cannot distinguish between those who are bis true 
friendp and those who are not. 



( 1C5 ) 

adimi meri pitha malasau taba mangala gaunlo. 

Four persons should ruh my back, then I icill sing 
the songs of peace. 

E. g. According to custom it is the duty of every person 
to sing auspicious songs, or to join a party of such singers of his 
own accord on a festive occasion, but if he refuses to do so it 
shows that he wishes to be bribed or earnestly entreated. 

Used ironically to induce one to do his own duty. 

6 -q-^ TI^ Wl€)" ^T 'BT'l- Budhi mathi mathi mero 
hatha. 

Old lady, my hand is uppermost. 

Ironically used of a person who either unnecessarily insists 
on having a thing done by his own will and choice, or pretends 
to put an obligation on others without any reason. For instance, 
if his friend is benefitted somehow, without his interference or 
help, he attributes the incident to his own instrumentality ; if his 
enemy meets with misfortune he wishes people to believe that his 
adversary was injured through his influence, and so he was 
revenged. 

7 ^fT %^ ^T^^T ^ ^^r« Grhauta dekha yo relo ni 

dekho. 

I saw Gahata {a hind of inferior pulse) hut not in 
such a heap. 

Ironically used to express astonishment at some one's extra- 
ordinary conduct which is either against some established custom 
or contrary to the course of nature. 

Miyan jyu kelai runchha shikalai yesi chha. shababa ke 

chha moharrama ki paidasa. 

JF'hy do you seem to cry ? my features were made so. 
What is the cazise of this ? I loas born during the 
Moharrmna ( ichen all Mahomedans are engaged in 
fasting and weeping ). 



( 166 ) 

Ironically used to condemn people who show their folly. 
by spoiled work» 

9 ^^lf% ^?I ^(SI VT^T' Paharhi kawa deshi bhakha. 
Sill crow and Plains language. 

Ironically applied to one who makes a vain display of his 
learning in a foreign tongue. 

10 ^^^T^ ^I si^t^ "qw^Tf ^T ^^' Sasurasa ko jawanl 

busaraha ko balada. 

A son-in-law in his father-in-law's house, and a bullock 
in the chaff of the threshing floor, are so well fed that they 
become notorious. 

Used of men who stay very long in their father-in-law's 
houses. 

11 ^lyst^T ^T^I«T' Samajnera so mauta. 
This is death to one who knows what it is. 

Said to or of one who is involved in a dangerous and dis- 
graceful affair of any kind. 

12 ^T^I«'5 f% mzj ^ifllir ^^' Baba jyu ki jata asbikba 
men ge. 

The hairs on an ascetic's head (an ascetic's hairs are 
uncombed lochs called "Jatds") are taken away or distributed, 
as blessings. 

The hairs of a Jogi are considered sacred and are supposed 
to act like talismans. 

Ironically used of a man who devotes all his earnings to 
helping other people. 

13 ^-q^T ^I^ ^'^f^ ^ZT* Kaba ko jogi kaba ki jata. 

Whenever did he become a Jogi, and how old are his Jatds 
{clusters of hair on his head) ? 



( 1<37 ) 

Used to deride a man's newh' acquired possessions when he 
gets proud of them and thinks himself superior to those who have 
been long in the enjoyment of such possessions. 

14 «j^?i f% r(lf^ fsjTTf^' Baga ki mausi birali. 

A cat is a miniature of a leopard or bears the same 
likeness, {a cat is said to be a step-mother of a leopard). 

Used of one who does little with much show or much less 
than was expected by other people. 

15 ^fi|% tj^gR ^TT T^?^ ^f^ V^. Maikani pasaka mera 
tnadhana kani pasaka. 

Give food to me as well as to my friend Madhan. 

This is applicable to one who besides himself brings other 
people with him to be fed or helped. C. f. "Love me love 
my dog." 

16 %«! ^ifT •!'BT *fi2T« Saiba sachcho naphara jhuto. 

The master is truthful, but the servant (slave) is a liar. 

This is an ironical phrase used by servants to their masters. 
As masters are always in the habit of censuring their servants 
whether rightly or wrongly, and also of finding faults and 
flaws in them. Also applied as in the fable of the wolf and 
the lamb. 

17 '^77^ ^«T IfTT ^WT ^^m^ ^^ Anta me suma 

aur data barabara huni. 

The miser's money goes as rapidly as the benevolent 
man's does. 

Ironically used to induce a miser to use his money properly. 
Money should be used for one's self or for others ; otherwise it 
will fly away. 

18 irTf^sRT^^- Putali ka khela. 
A puppet show. 



( 168 ) 

E. g. Girls while unmarried play with dolls, have dolls' 
marriages, and in sport perform all the ceremonies that are 
enjoined for boys and girls. Used to deride one who spends very 
little on the tonsure and marriage ceremonies of his children. 

19 ^^ ^^'^J^ ^^T ^^T 1I^« Harha na masa gala gala 
gasa. 

Having neither bone nor flesh one wishes to have dainty 
morsels. 

Ironically used of those who wish to have comfort and 
pleasure without taking any trouble to secure them. 

20 'gT ^jK g^^T ^I3f% ^ ^T^ 3l5l^»lTf T- Ghara bara 
tumaro kotharhi men hatha jana lagaya. 

The house is yours but do not use the room. 
Applied ironically to nominal trusts. 

Apani dyun ta apana baba kl jwe araka ki lyun ghagari 

khwe. 

I swear by my father that I shall not give anything of 
my own, but take that of others by stripping them of their 
skirts {clothes). Extreme selfishness, giving nothing and 
talcing every thing. 

A sarcasm against misers and selfish people. 

22 ojiy^ ^SI^T M^ '^^m'^' I^^'lo akshyara bhainsa 
barabara. 

A black character {letter) looks like a buffalo {to an 
illiterate person). 

23 5|?|t: sbx '^^^^ ^^?; ^1. Nagara ka Aswala bai- 

khai baikha. 

Tlie Aswals {first class Rajputs) of Nagara, a village in 
Garhival, consider themselves as masters, and so do not 
work them,sclves. 



( 169 ) 

Applied to members of a family who all think themselves 
lorcla (above work). An ironical expression used to induce such 
people to work. 

24 »^ii^ jjjfK ^^f% % ^j(^ f5l ?| -aiTf^^. Jbakha mari 
khicharhi khai saji ni khai basi khai. 

One kills a Jish and then eats the roe not fresh but stale. 

( The roe of a fish is called "khiehari" from its appearance ). 

Applied to one who at first refuses to do what he is asked, 
but afterwards asks to be allowed to do it. 

Story-: Once a man travelling to a -certain place haviug 
missed his way found himself in a desert, where he became 
very hungry. As he was wandering here and there in search of 
some village, he found a hut occupied by a man, with a tank 
before the hut full of fishes. The stranger asked for some food, 
but the owner said, "My rule is that whoever wants a fish must 
catct it himself ; give me the meat and keep the intestines for 
yourself." In spite of this, the traveller took a fish out of the 
pond, but insisted on having tbe whole fish himself. The owner 
refused his request. The stranger at this became sulky and lay 
down to sleep. In the mean time the proprietor cut the fish and 
set aside the inner part of its body for the other man, and ate up 
the rest. Next morning the stranger being further compelled by 
hunger was obliged to take the intestines, which he had refused to 
eat on the former evening. Hence the proverb. 



25 ^^T ^I'^ f^^I'HT Wl I':. Harare chora birana dhana 

para. 

O thief, why kill yourself for the wealth of others. 

An ironical fesson to a thief, telling him to forsake his 
•evil conduct. 

2Q »lTq UI^ 1T«RT '%V^- Magha masa paka ama. 

Do mangoes ripen in the month of Magha (JoMuary) f 

Applies to one who speaks impossible or absurd things. 



( 170 ) 

27 <5Tr fi ^TT'Q^T ^I^t 5IT^ 5!T^^ Duma twe mai 

rakhulo chorl jari nakari, 

O, Duma fa low caste man J I shall keep you if you 
do not commit theft and adultery 

Dumas are very useful to agriculturists inasmuch as they 
jilougb, do other works of tillage, make and sharpen agricultural 
implements, carry loads, build houses &c. But otherwise they are 
great scoundrels. As long as a Duma is innocent or harmless, 
everyone will like to have him for his work. Hence the proverb 
applies to a very shrewd person. 

28 f%V^ 31 stT^f^ 5*jfc'i f%f f%« Bigarhi ge natba ki 
Budbarige siddha ki. 

Failure is ascribed to a Ndtha, but success to a Siddha. 

Ndtluis are a sect of ascetics who take an active part in all 
worldly aflFairs, but one who makes himself noted by stringent 
penances, by separating himself from the world, and by abstinence 
is called a.-" Siddha" or "Santa." A "Siddha" is believed to be able 
one to get impossible things accomplished by means of his penance. 
He is revered and honored for the sake of his penances and 
saintliness. Hence the people attribute any thing spoiled or gone 
wrong to a JS'atha, and blessings to a Siddha. Hence the proverb 
applies ironically either to one who is unfortunate, or to one who 
is very lucky. 

29 ^r^ig %,% ^t ^wSr ^'frft^t- Bolanu cheli son 

Bunano buwari son. 

Lecturing one's own daughter in order that the daugJiter- 
in-law may hear fand get a lesson J. 

Parents often, even when there is no fault in their daughter- 
in-law, reproach or lecture her by addressing their own daughter 
in the presence of the former, for they do not wish to quarrel 
with the new bride. Hence when a man wishes to convey a hint to 
another he does so by addressing a third person on the subject. 

30 ciiigq -^ T^tsi %T V^- Nakba na mukba banja ko 

rukba. 

Sas no nose and no mouth, is an oak tree. ( The tree 
quercus incana or dilatata. A Simalayan oak J. 



( 171 ) 

This is used of one who is ugly. The oak tree which is very 
commou, is considered an ugly tree. A proverb ironically used 
by village women. 

31 ^'^ fij^T^r^fT %fcTT''^. Bapa binolo puta chautara. 

The father was a Binold seed, but the son Chautara, 
i. e. a beautiful lace made out of cotton. 

Binola is the small seed of the cotton plant. Chautara is a 
cotton lace. 

This is applied as a slur on a great man who is the soli 
of a poor man, and also to denote that great and noble men can 
come from a poor family. 

32 KT^^T *n^I aPIT ^^^ iti'IT ^^^« Bhasaro 

bhasaro ky^ bolana gandoi jl bolyo. 

JWhy do you say I am, hushy ? say at once that I 
have a goitre. 

(A man with a goitre talks haskilyj. 

/. e. Do not talk ironically, pretending to think me only 
husky, when you really mean to say that I have a goitre. 
Insinuating evil of a person. 

33 ^»Tf% %J ^T^ fz^'^ ^r "^1^- Damarhi ko sahu 

tiparhi ko rau. 

ITie man who has a Damarhi (i. e. \ of a pice) is called 
a "Sahu" and the man who possesses the top of a hill 
is called "Sau." 

1. e. In former times, in these hills, when money was very 
scarce a man who had a Damarhi (a copper coin=^ of a pice ) 
in cash was considered a rich man, and a man who tyranized over a 
few villages by taking possession of the top of a mountain (called 
a ^ar/w or fortress) was called a "Raii" or Haja. This was the 
case in Garhwal (the whole of the district having been portioned 
out by petty Rajas called Thakuri Rajas) before the conquest. 



( 172 ) 

of ttie country by Raja Kanaka Pala in tbe seventh century. 
Used to describe the anarchy and poverty of ancient Garhwal. 
It is also quoted in derision of one who claims to be descended 
from a Raja. 

34 ig'StT Wl 'i^^ f^^^ ^^ Mufata ka chandana ghisa 
bs Lallu- 

O, Lallu rub the sandal wood which costs nothing. 

Applies to one who is very fond of things which belong to 
other people and which cost him nothing. 

Sandal-wood is rubbed on a stone into a paste, and then 
applied to the forehead. 

35 ^i^ ^^^1 ^\l 5- Kya mai goru ka peta ko 
chhun. 

Am I born of a cow ? 
Do you ta£e me for a fool? 

36 3iT^^%T f^'^I^^ ^t '^T^ f% 5m^« Jan kukurho nl 

basanu wan rata ni byani. 

Will the morn not dawn should the cocJc not crow ? 
I. e. If you will not do the work, we can do without you. 

37 g?T"?T ^ ^T^ 'i^T ^^^T ^J'^- Jata na thata khalo 
khalo natha. 

No caste and no land, lord of nothing. 

Used ironically of poor people who have nothing to 
care about. 

■38 ^fx: ^T^ ^■^T ^^ ^ ^T(%- Teri tauli tera mukha 
men rauli. 

Your tauli {vessel in which riee is cooked): will remain 
in your mouth. 



( 173 ) 

I. e. I shall not spend anything for you but your own property. 
"When a Hindu dies the Brahmans get many gifts, but if the man 
has only a Tauli, this only will be given to the Brahmans, and only 
the merit of so small a gift will go with the spirit of the deceased. 
A term of abuse. 

39 T^^TT ^ ^Tfi" ^^'^ M%r f^H]^, Twe mera saun 
jo tu maikana bhalo ni manai. 

You are sworn on my nornie to love me. 

Used as an ironical phrase against another who does not love 
the speaker. This means to say that one loves another naturally, 
but not hy force. 

40 fT^ ^51 'BT'??t 5I5I "FT ^ TT'll'l'* Tumai kanu 

manadi janu tu mai manadi. 

Sow do you regard me ? I regard you just as you 

regard me. 

Used generally ironically between persons who are not 
very friendly. 

41 -^VW. '^T^^i'TT^ %\T.^ \j ^^Tt'TT. Kuraaiya apun 

kamaiya aurana so chumaiya. 

Natives of Kwrnaun earn for themselves, hut are 

miserly to others. 

This is a Garhwali proverb showing how the Garhwalis look 
upon the people of Kumaun, who are very keen in business but 
also very clannish. 

42 iiT^^T ^quiT 'n^T^f^ 1^^ 'i^iW- Parmeshwara 
apana gadha kani haluwa khaoncbha. 

God allows his asses to eat sweets. 

Applies to ignorant (incompetent) people who are promoted 
to high posts. 

Generally used by those who think that incompetent people 
have secured the places they themselves ought to have had. 



( 174 ) 
43 u%7 ri j}]'^^^ ^J\ gjailE. Eso ta gobara me laga 
laganchha. 



o 



Such use of the word "bara" {best) is also found in 
^'Gobara" {cow dung). 

Once the Emepror Akabar the great asked his chief Minister 
Birabar where the suffix "bara" should be used. The minister 
replied that it was used in qualifying such names Sitabara, 
iladhabara, Birabara. The Emperor again asked him why not in 
Akabara ? to this Birabara replied as in the proverb. Hence 
the origin of the proverb. Applied ironically to one to show that 
his position or power is too low in comparison with another of 
similar rank or name to cope with him. 



IRRETRIEVABLE LOSSES, 

1 «TT f%^T»T Ql^r ^ ^2 '»'^»T %^T ^' Chhorha diyo 

ta dhokho ke luta parhi ta lekho ke. 

Any thing given up should not be thought of, and of 
that which has been stolen why keep an account ? 

Used by one who has lost anything irretrievably. 



JEALOUSY. 

'Rl^ »1T ^f% 5i*lt^« BiranI dekhi lai paiarai apan£ 
dekhi nangi, bapa ki akala gai wahi na mangi. 

Seeing his wife naked, and that of another well clothed 
and adorned, the man says that his father was a fool 
inasmuch as he did not espouse the other woman to Mm. 

- Blaming others for one's own mismanagement or ill luck. 



( 175 ) 
2 "^^TeRt T*}^ aft^T ^'lt^« Hunda ki risa janda ki 



kblsa 



j4. well-to-do person is envied and a ruined man is 
laughed at. 

Used as consolation on appropriate occasions. No one should 
wonder at such treatment by the world. 



JOINT PROPERTY. 

1 ^T'tt «(T«R^I «IT1 '^^T^- Sajhi bakaro baga ni kbawa. 

T/ie goat that is the joint property/ of several persons 
is not killed even by a leopard. 

I. e. Such property is never taken care of by any individual, 
each leaves it to the care of others than himself and so it is not 
noticed by the leopard. C. f. "Every body's business is no 
body's business." 

2 ^^T '^'ir ^^T '^T TT^^ ^^T ^1 "^l- Sero bago sero 

bago maneka raero laga bago. 

7}he irrigated land was washed away, and a little of 
mine was also washed away along with it. 

Applied to those who do not care for the loss of their own 
shares in the joint property thus damaged. The application of 
this proverb is to any joint property which when damaged is not 
likely to be repaired as no one is much interested in it. 

This corresponds to what is elsewhere said that the loss 
or pain shared along with five or more persons is not painful 
at all. 



KINDNESS. 
1 ^T^T f^^T^- l^^lo biralu. 

Children and cats should be treated with equal kindness. 
Used against treating children and cats cruelly. 



( 176 ) 
KING & HIS SUBJECTS. 

1 5I%T''^T5ir r(f^ 'ITSTT' Jaso raja tasi parja. 
As the king is so are his subjects. 

(1). The (greatness of the King's station causes hiin to be 
imitated by all his subjects, and (2 > the laws which he ordains 
influence powerfully the character of the people. 

2 TSIT TTTT sillfTT 5TTi!jf« Raja marau jagatara janau. 

Whe7i a king punishes, the world knows the fact. 

This is used to lessen the mortification of receiving punish- 
ment from a ruling authority. 

3 TTW ^T fT^ 'l^T'7 T^- Raja ko tela pala me mela. 
The oil given by a Raja should he taken in one's skirt. 

I. e Never refuse the gift of a king no matter how much it 
may inconvenience you. It is also considered as good luck 
whatever be the value of the gift when it is given by a king. 

4 ^^j TTS?! f% ^f^ ^Kmj- Sela raja ki ghani parja. 
A kind-hearted king has nume"0us subjects. 

A cruel master and a tyrannical king are very often deserted 
by people on account of oppression and want of regard, and 
those of opposite nature are resorted to for the sake of justice and 
mercy. C. /. "In the multitude of people is the king's honor but 
in the want of people is the destruction of the prince." 

5 TTsTI '^^^ ^q "^^^f ^?: f^^'a^T* Eaja chalada 
megha barasada kui ni dekhado. 

No one knows when the king will move, and the 
cloud rain. 

(Alluding to the secret aud sudden moA'ements of the old 
Indian Kings). 

C. f. "The heaven for height, and the earth for depth, and 
the heart of kings is unsearchable." 



r 177 ) 

LAME EXCUSES. 

1 'S^VT^ ^T m\^1 ^Z^^l- Asaku bharl ka kakha 

tataofftrha. 

One unable to carry his load complains of the strings, 
{by which the load is tied on to the back,) being tight. 

This applies to one -who heing unable to do a thing, finds 
fanlts with or blames others. C. f. "A bad workman complains 
of his tools." 

2 ^1T^ % ?I^ l%r ^T«7 V."^ 1T^« Shyala ko gu cbainu 

parho sata samudra para. 

Jackals' dung, when asked for, is said to be seven 
vceans away. 

This is applied to a useless person who when told to do 
any work refuses to do so, or promises to do it aftprwards. 
Applied both to the lazy man, who is likened to jackal's dung 
which is very plentiful, and to his excuses. 

3 siT^t KTZ <ai!lft ^Tf %tg ^^jr^ HTW f^^T"S. Xakara 

bhata kbanadi kharha cbaunla bukaika bliata ni badha. 

O, beggar, do not dig a pit for yourself, if you have 
'already devoured the raw rice, how can the rice you are 
cooking increase ?. 

A small quantity of raw rice when cooked occupies a much 
larger space. The beggar having eaten some of the raw rice 
obtained in begging, in excuse for the small quantitv he cooks 
for his companions says the rice was bad, and is rebuked by the 
above saying, 

4 ill^ ^alT'ST ^r»n!F ^t»ir- Nacha nijano angan bango. 

Not knowing how to dance 9h3 complains of the floor 
being umeven. 

C. f. "Bad workmen quarrel with their tools." 

W 



( 178 ) 

5 ^a^t *lftl^T^»f^ ^ ^T^- Hala son marigayo rel)- 

harha ko kala. 

A bullock becomes as dead for the plough, but is death 
on his food. 

I. e. Devours his evening meal. 

Applied to one who makes lame excuses about doing any 
•work, but is very fond of food. 

6 ^rf^l^T ^^^^■ Pothi ka baingana. 

The Baingana (egg plants) of the books are quite 
different from that which is eaten. 

This is used as an ironical excuse for doing what 13 prohibit- 
ed by the scriptures. A story is connected with this which gave rise 
to the proverb. 

Story : — Once a Pandita expounded from his book some 
doctrines to his wife, among others this, that "one was not to eat 
Baingana'' in other words that "any one who eats Baingana will 
^o to hell." After hearing the precept the woman became disgusted 
with the Baingana, the only vegetable she had in her field. Next 
day she cooked bread for her husband, fthe Pandita; and placed it 
before him without any vegetable food. At this the Pandita 
became very angry, and reprimanded her for not having prepared 
the Baingana veget^ible. Whereupon she reminded her husband 
of the doctrine which he had explained to her regarding the 
vegetable ; the Pandita being thus silenced by his own doctrine 
cleverly explained that the real Bainganas are quite different from 
those spoken of in the book, and are therefore to be eaten. 

filTin f^vj. Sadliu santana kana kuchha roka thoka nahatr 

jo apna apa girani giranadiyau. 

Nothing is forbidden the Faquira ; lohy do 'gou stop the 
pieces of meat ? Let them come on. 

Ironically applied to those who never mind doing an 
improper or wrongful thing because they are great and rich men 
or like saints. 



( 179 ) 

A man of busiues one day invited an asectio ( Vaishnaba or 
devotee of Visbnu, of the sect who rigidly abstain from animal food 
living in the neighbourhood, to a grand feast. The hermit said 
he would never come to the dinner, because mutton was being 
cooked there. The pian admitted the fact but assured him that the 
meat would be cooked quite separate from the other kinds of food. 
On this condition the ascetic agreed to accept the invitation. The 
man went to his home and had the animal food cooked in a 
separate kitchen. When the dinner was ready all the people 
invited to the feast sat down in rows. The hermit also 
took his seat among them. All the various kinds of' 
food were put in dishes and placed before them all. The 
ascetic insisted on each kind of food in sufficient quantity being 
put in his dishes, so that he might not have occasion to ask for 
any thing more after the meat had come to the table. fFor they 
think that any food touched by the vessel in which meat is cooked 
becomes polluted). And so, after getting enough for himself, he 
permitted the other people to do what they pleased. After this the 
cooked meat came for distribution. While it was being given ta 
all, the ascetic being tempted by the savoury smell of the meat and 
soup said "I think the soup consists of nothing but Ganges, 
■water" to this all who were present said "Certainly.'* Then he 
said "I must have some of it, there is nothing wrong in taking it, 
for it is made of Ganges water, but the cook should take the 
greatest care that no pieces of the mutton come to my dish, 
otherwise I will leave the food and go away." They gave him 
the soup, which further tempted him, for he had not tasted it 
before. He again asked for it, by that time very little or no soup 
had remained in the vessel, and so the cook was obliged to empty 
the vessel into the Hermit's dish, putting a spoon to the mouth 
of the vessel so that all the remaining soup in the vessel should 
flow out, but none of the bits of the meat, as desired by the 
Faquira. Seeing this, the ascetic, wishing to have the taste 
of mutton also, used the expression which has become 
proverbial. 

8 fSlH^'OT ^'^ f% %n^ ^X- Nimakhana bhainsa ki 
bhaiseni kbira. 

The Khira {rice milk) prepared with the milk of a 
buffalo which one dislikes smells of the buffalo, or the 
milk of the buffalo which costs him, nothing, or the 
buffalo which ha^s no m,aster or owner {astray) smells^ 
0f the buffalo. 



( 180 ) 

This applies ta the conduct and services of one who is 
disliked, or to the thing disliked. The following story explains 
the lame excuses referred to iu the proverb. 

Story : The temple of Vishnu, where the idol or image 
is worshipped, is culled ''Thakurdora." In the ceieraony of 
worship the idol or image is first of all bathed with water, milk, 
ffJii, curds, and sugar mixed together. The water that drops trora 
the image as it is bithed is caught in a vessel, and is called 
*'Charnamrita" nectar of Vishnu's feet). After this the image is 
adorned with powdered sandal wood, garlands of flowers &Ci 
Subsequently it is illuminated with lights made of cloth 
soaked in ghi, and then sweetmeats and cleansed raw gram soaked 
in water are placed before it, which are thus called "Bhoffd" or 
^'Pars/idda" i e. an offering. This last ceremony concludes the 
worship. When the worship is finished, the water and the 
'^Pai-shdda^ are distributed to the spectators of the worship. 
Among the spectators once there stood an old woman. As usual, 
she was also asked to drink Cluxrandmrita. To this offer she said 
she had no teeth to.drink it. After this came the distribution of the 
Parsh&la. She was asked again whether she would take it, to 
which enquiry she said '"Why not' I am nourished only by this." 
The proverb implies that anything disliked is avoided with the 
aid of strange excuses. 

9 f%(%^T ^^T ^IT^T •TT* Nidino bhano akhano. 
nama. 

The vessel which one does not wish to give to another- 
is^said to be in use {not spare or empty). 

Applied to refusal of another's request for feigned reasons.. 

10 iiZ^T ^ ^ ^^T ^^I "^Vil- Lotanera mai cbhyua 
tero dbeso lago. 

iwas about to fall down when I came in contact with 

you {then I fell down at once). 

C. f. "Last straw that breaks the camels'back." 
A worthless man laying the blame of his misfortunes oa 
other people. 



( 181 ) 
LAZINESS, SLOTH, OR SLUGGISHNESS. 



1 ^^f% f% ^JV^ ^% ^T^ Alasi ki bana ekai gbana. 

A sluggard wishes to have all his work done in a 
single attempt. 

For instance, a lazy man will attempt to carry two loads 
at one time to save himself the trouble of two journeys. 

2 ^^flr ^T ^tlT STUT- Alasi ka banga junga. 

A lazy man^s mustaches are imtidy. 

I. e. In all the actions of an idle man his carelessness is 
apparent. A common rebuke of sloth and negligence. 

3 ^TZ^T ^T'l^I'T ^^ SRIT ^T3^T- Wotada katada ta 

bbela kya lotada. 

Sad he worked a spindle, would he have fallen down 
a precipice ? 

I. e. If he had worked for his living, he would not have 
been ruined. 

4 "^ c!^ ^rTST ^T^T^T "^^T'J'! vt»I "^T^* Batana batana 

gbara khoyo cbula pana bbanga boyo. 

One wasting his time in gossiping ruins his house. 
Sis hearth becomes overgrown with weeds. 

maina rayo harbi pacbbali danwa ligyo kbuto torbi. 

One lay idle for six months, and at the end went 
away with a broken leg. 

Caution against laziness, ■which oft^n results in a man being 
compelled to sell his property. 



f 182 ) 

6 5^f 9 Tt'S If^i Hfl[ ir^fr: «Jj|f% »Tg^T "fff^- Chhuyala. 

randa chhuyon bbuli dokhari pungarhi malasa phuli. 

A talkative woman, by indulging in conversation, has, 
her fields overgrown with weeds. 

Applied to one who lazily leaves his work undone, or indulges 
in useless amusements. 

7 f^U^Ji^ ^T2T *^ •'T^T 1 ^TZr- Nigalaganda mota na. 
napha na tota. 

A fat sluggard causes neitlier gain nor loss. 

khasama kani roji ni milau raai kani pakuno parhalo. 

My husband must not earn his livelihood, otherwise 
I shall have the trouble of coohing food for him 
( starving 'preferred to the trouble of coohing ). 

Used to convince persons fof one's own family or household)^ 
of the folly of being lazy in helping others. 

9 ^^ '^gsi ?ig 'iif^ ^t^ 3Tg. Duma bala na mala 
kbandi danwa jala. 

The Duma will neither plough nor manure the fields,, 
but at dinner time is envious. 

Said of lazy people, who are unwilling to work, but ready 
enough to eat. 

10 ^gft %f5l ^ f^mi^ f^T3^T'5T^l%T ^^T Vim. 

Alasi syaini ko dudha saga nirabudho bakama ko kasama 
bbaklia. 



( 183 ) 

A lazy woman eats her rice with milk alone, and a dull- 
headed officer disposes of his cases hy making the parties 
resort to an oath. 

E. g. A lazy woman will not take pains to cook curry or 
vegetables to eat with her rice, and so an incompetent officer will 
not take the trouble to find out the truth of a case by an exhaustive 
enquiry and investigation, but will save trouble by making the 
parties swear, and so deciding the case. 

11 JTf^I ^T'JT f^f^^T'n' ^'IfT ^\ZT ^^^f vjmi. 
Tukurha khaya dina bilaj^a kaparba phata ghara son 
bhaja. 

Lives on hits of broken meal, and when his clothes 

turn into rags runs back to his home. 

This is used of vagrants, especially young village boys who 
out of curiosity or from disinclination to work at home, run away 
to a town, but eventually come back to their relations, who are 
obliged to feed them for some time without any return, but they 
have to go to their own parents for renewal of their clothes. 
Also used of one who wastes his time unprofitably. 

Meri jai saila karana ki dasba buni tamera bapu ka bbaiea 

ni buna. 

Were I so lucky as to rove about my father would not 
have buffaloes. 

The speaker complains of his father having buffaloes (property) 
in grazing which he is employed. 

Applied to sluggards who wish to waste their time at any 
risk whatever. 

13 ^f?T ^fn ^ ^ W^tg ^ %IT. Kheti pati ke nai las- 
ana me jora 

No husbandry, but relies on garlic. 



( 184 ) 

i. e. One who does not do any work but talks of costly food. 
Applied to sluggards to stir them to be industrious. 

14 ?ixt^ •! "^tk ^^ ^t "Trfe Grai na bachbi ninda al 
achbi. 

One who has no cows or cahes sleeps soundly. 

Ironically used of one who is idle and will not take on him 
the responsibilities of life. 

15 n^scT ^fT ^ f^%r«>I If ^rt f;?TTr« Gamu ka 
kurba ki bisauna gamu ka i kurba ma. 

Gaminu rests, with his load on, in his own house. 

A stay-at-home who does no work. 

The reference is to coolies carrying load on their backs. 

16 liT fsi ?r^ 'siw ^^ ^T ^qr ^r %n.^^ ^r 5^* Jo 

ni dbowa apanu mukba so kya karau baika ko sukba. 

He who cannot wash his o-wn face, how can he he of 
any use to another ? 

An idle man is of service to nobody. 

17 ^ts ^ ^^ %I^T^^ IST %^1 11^1 ^rw sfiHl^T ^r^T. 

Randa ko sanda saudagara ko gborba kbalo bbauta kamalo 

tborba. 

The son of a widow and the pony of a merchant eat 
much but earn little. 

A widow's son is petted and lives in idleness, and a 
merchant's (riding) horse has but little work to do. Also used of 
an indolent fellow who boasts much but does little work. 

18 ip[^^ f^ M« Musbala cbanda pbirau. 

Moving like a pestle ; 

Applied to a vagrant person, "A rolling stone," 



{ 185 ) 

19 ?fffT ^T ^%m ^^ ^ "K^l' Kuwa ka mendaka kuwa 
me ray a. 

The frogs who live in a well remain in the well for ever. 

Applied to people who never leave their homes but remain in 
one place during their whole life. 

The following story is told to illustrate the effects of 
such a life. 

Story. Some men, who had never moved out of their 
village before, once went to another village in order to get one 
of their sons married to a maiden of that place. They arrived 
there in the evening. The marriage had to be performed in the 
latter part of the night. But soon after their arrival they saw 
the moon in the sky, and supposing that the moon belonged to 
their village only, and no other village had a similar moon over it, 
and that their own moon had been carried away by the people of 
this other village on the previous day, all of them became angry 
and began to return home without performing the marriage 
ceremony, charging the people of the village with the theft of the 
moon, which they considered exclusively their own. Seeing this 
ignorance the magnates of the neighbourhood became surety for 
returning their moon to the village the next day under penalty 
of Ss- 10,000. Having been thus assured that their moon would 
be returned they had the girl of their village married that night. 
On the next day they returned to their village with the sureties, 
who showed them the moon over their own village, and were 
then released. 

LITIGATION & JUSTICE. 

1 ^(^^rf ^ ^"3^ WT^ "^T"' Adalata men cLadhanu 
gadha men cliadhanu. 

To have a case in court is like mounting a donkey. {To be 
made to ride on an ass is the greatest mark of disgrace). 

This punishment was awarded by Hindu or Mahomedan 
rulers for the most atrocious crimes. In like manner a litigant, 
however respectable, while in court, is liable to be put to 
great inconvenience and dishonor. He is reprimanded by 

X 



( 186 ) 

peons for approaching the officials etc, he has to humble 
himself before each petty official down to a Chaprdsi, besides 
having to attend the precincts of the court like a vagrant. 
This kind of trouble follows him from the first to the last 
stage of the case. 

2 '^T'*^^ IT ^n^^- Bapa dewa ya chhapa dewa. 
Either father must give or the Court. 

This means that one's own father is to give a man his right, 
if not, he will obtain it by a decision of a court of justice bearing 
its seal (chhapa). 

3 ^jt? ^gtif TT5IT ^^''SIT* Bapa dewa gaun raja dewa 
nyau. 

A father gives a milage and a king does justice. 

I. e. A father is expected to give his property to his son, 
and the king to do justice to his subjects. 

4 ^jjj ^T^^T ^^ ^3 ''if^ ^W' Baga bakaro eka ghata 
-pani piwa. 

The leopard and the goat drinlc water at the same pool. 

This proverb is cited to represent good government by 
■which the strong are kept from oppressing the weak. 

5 «B$lff f^f% ^^t ^ «5T'^ «B?TTTf« Kanodi billi chuhon 
mu kana katarawa. 

The ears of an entrapped eat are gnawed by rats. 

Used to denote one who becomes partial in his judgments, 
or connives at the wrong actions of one to ■whom he may be some 
way or other under obligation. 

6 fyi %J fyi V\'m %I "^Tf^- Dudha ko dudha pani ko 
paui. 

Milk by itself and loater by itself. 



( 187 ) 

Applied to impartial justice. In legal cases truth and false- 
hood are mixed up as milk mixed with vater looks like milk, but 
the judge separates the truth from the falsehood and thus gives 
real justice. 

Stoi-i/. A man owed Jis- 5,000 to another as a simple debt. 
The money when demanded having been refused by the debtor was 
sued for by the creditor in a court of justice. There the debtor 
denied having owed anything at all to the plaintiff. The plain- 
titf's statement was that there was no other person present when 
the money was lent. After considering the case the judge asked 
the plaintiff whether there was any animal there at the time, to 
which query the plaintiff replied that there was a cat. The 
eat was ordered to be brought before the court. When the cat 
was placed he took it into his bosom and began to caress it. Just 
at this moment the defendant exclaimed that that cat was not 
present at the time (meaning that the one present at the time was 
some other cat). From this the judge at once concluded that the 
plaintiff was in the right, and after further inquiry, which still 
further convinced him, he gave judgment accordingly. 

Compare the story of Solomon's judgment. I Kings iii. 

N^ote. The expression Dudha ka diidha, pani ka pani. "Milk 
of milk, water of water," is also used to denote the best part or 
essence of anything. "CrSme de la creme." 

7 'il^T "l^^r ^Tf '^TSIT^^ %T ^J^' Panso parha so ddwa 

raja kara bo nyawa. 

Dice will the bet, and whatever the king does is~ 
Justice. 

This is used in representing the decision of a king as 
inevitable and final. 

8 'XfT ^^^ml sqTf 'J^T^T* Puta apano nyaw'a parayo. 

The judge must not favour the offender even if he is- 
his men son. 



( 188 ) 

^^51 51%I ^^r- Sbyala kasi buddhi syu kaso tarana, 

duba kasi jarha, dharati ko jaso chharha, akaaha 

jaso ucho. 

The cleverness of a fox, the courage of a lion, the roof 
of Duba grass, (Bent grass, parricum dactylon or cynodon 
dactylon) for its evergreen and spreading nature, the length 
and breadth of the earth, and the height of the heavens 
are proverbial, and all these toishedfor by mothers for their 
sons as blessings. 

The cunning of the fox is often illustrated by the following 
two stories. 

Stori/ No. J. Once a leopard was caught in a trap set in a 
jungle. A Pandita passing near was asked by the animal to 
extricate him. But the man said, "If I release you, you will kill 
and eat me." The leopard swore on his honor not to injure bis 
benefactor. So the animal was set free. But no sooner was he 
(the leopard) at liberty than he leapt upon the man who entreated 
the animal not to kill him after he had so generously liberated him. 
The contest continuing for some time, at last both parties sub- 
mitted their case to the arbitration of a cow, the Ganges, a snake, 
and a fox. The cow condemned the man, saying that he receired 
immense benefit from her, yet beat and starved her. The Ganges also 
concurred with the cow, saying that men were purified by her 
water, which they drink and make use of in various ways, yet 
do not forbear from throwing filth into her. The snake also 
delivered the same judgment, declaring that men first of all provoke 
him, and then kill him unjustly. Then came the fox's turn to 
pronounce judgment, who, after patiently hearing the findings of 
the other arbitrators, expressed a wish to see the position from 
which the leopard had been extricated. All therefore went to the place> 
and desired the leopard to lie within the trap once more, so that the 
arbitrators might have an idea of the facts of the case. As soon 
as he did so, the fox, to the great admiration of the other arbi- 
trators, said justice demanded that each party should remain where 
he was, and toll the man to go his way, leaving the leopard 
in the trap. 



( 189 ; 

Story No. 2, Once a traveller met a fox, who asked the 
traveller where he was going to. The reply was "Be oiF, you 
jackal ; don't meddle with me." The fox went away saying that 
though he treated hirn with contempt then, he would afterwards 
feel the need of his help. At night the traveller reached a cetain 
village and there he stopped, tying his pony to the Kolu (the oil 
press). The villagers wishing to rob him of his horse gave out 
that their oil-press had given birth to a pony, and in order to make 
the story public they distributed sweetmeats and congratulated 
each other on the event. Next morning when the stranger was 
about to unloose his pony, he was stopped and told that the pony 
was the offspring of their oil-press. The stranger was obliged to 
have recourse to the king for justice, who, during the investigation 
of the case, ordered the stranger to produce his witness the fox. 
When the stranger went to call the fox the fox said he would go to 
the king and give evidence, but he wanted the man to carry him 
on his shoulders Cas a revenge for the contemptuous treatment 
he had received from the man^ for fear of the city dogs which would 
kill him. As soon as the fox arrived in the court of the king he 
feigned to dose. The king asked him why he was so sleepy. The 
fox said "Sire, I could not sleep last night, as the sea had caught 
fire, and I was engaged all night in quenching the fire." The king 
laughed at the fox, and said "How could the sea catch fire, it is 
impossible." To this the fox replied "Sire, how can lifeless wood 
give birth to a pony ?" This stopped further proceedings, and the 
king ordered the pony to be made over to the traveller. 

10 %^7 f«i^ ^%T (q^« Jaiko binda taiko pinda. 

The body is his of whose seed it is created. 

The son belongs to father and the girl to the mother, for it 
is said that a son is born out of the father's element and a girl out 
of the mother's 



11 «([Zl^ tai^r %rfT^ ^^T^. Banta ten khano worha 
ten lawano. 

One must eat one's own allotted portion only, and reap 
crops up to the boundary mark ( i. e. in one's own 
field only ). 



( 190 ) 

This is made use of when one trespasses on another's right. 
Food is divided out carefully among the different members of a 
poor family. 

12 ^jvij JTT^ ^t jf)" ^7JX Hiq ^t'^* Mana matha gaun 
ni athara matha daun ni. 

No village beyond Mdnd (a village in the snowy range 
in Garhwdl) and no number {of dice) above eighteen. 

E. g. There are only eighteen spots in dice, and Mana is 
the last village on the Mana Pass route to Thibet. This proverb is 
also found in another form, viz. that "no flesh can he found beyond 
one's nails." 

This is used to denote the highest court one can appeal to, 
or the last remedy one has tried with a view to obtain justice. 
"Ne plus ultra." 

13 51^ ^^ ^^ ^^'^ Jasai mukha usai thaparha. 

As the face so the blow. 

E. g. Strike a little child a little blow, a big man a big blow j 
or, people of the same station should act according to that 
station, or as the crime so is the punishment. As the man so is 
the work. 

14 ^rqig ^^T ^T^r 'l'':^^^ ^ ^T^* Apanu suno khoto 

parakhanera ke dokha. 

It is no fault of the assayer when one's own gold i» 

counterfeit. 

This proverb is generally used of one who rightly loses his 
case or gets himself punished for his real guilt by a court of 
justice. (A guilty conscience needs no accuser^. 

15 ejijcj'l)- % ^f''^ ^3(5i ^- Kakarbi ko cbora muthagi 
glaau. 



( 191 ) 

Theft of d cucnmher should be punished with one stroke 
or Mow. 

This means to say thai light offences should meet with light 
punishment but should not be allowed to go unpunished. 

The cucumber is the cheapest of all vegetables and is freely 
given away. 



IVIANAGEMENT (bad). 

1 ^^ SR ^^«!T«T« ^^ H^f% ^^ *l[«I. Unne nuna unne 

nana unne wakbali unne dhana. 

As the nuna so is I^dna, as the mortar so the dhdna 
( paddy ). 

The members of a certain household and the arrangement 
of their work or business are equally bad. Niina and Nana are 
proper names, "Tweedledum and tweedledee." 

2 T7%^ ^T^fl I'^^T* ^'^^ kheti salama pabaro. 
Sis village is in Rau, and he keeps guard in Salama, 

E. g. "Rau" is ten miles distant from the place known 
as "Salama." 

This is used of one who lives away from the place where his 
business is, which in consequence suffers loss. C. f. The master's 
eye makes the horse fat." Rau, a patti (tract or Putwari circle) 
of Parganna Kali (eastern) Kumaun, and Salama that of Chau- 
garkha Zillah, Kumaun. 

3 ^rg ^T ^75 ^ ^"T^T^ ^'i "^^Tf^ 'S- Satu raigyo 

sasu mu saparhaka raige buwari mu. 

Sdtu {flour of parched grain) is with the moiher-in-law 
hut the dexterity ( sicill in management ) is in the 
daughter -in-laio. 



( 192 ) 

E. g. The persoa in charge of property is not competent to 
manage it, but the one who has the wit to manage it is not in 
charge of the property. 

f%g f^T- Sasu le buwari thain kayo buwari le kukura 

thain kayo kukura le puchharha hilai diyo. 

The mother-in-law told her daughter-in-law to do some- 
thing, the latter, instead of doing it, told the dog, and the dog 
in turn refused to do it by moving its tail. 

Want of control in a honsehold. 

5 «R?rTi'Spflf% ^Z =^'31'^ ^ ^n^^* Asliarfina ki luta 

kwelana me mohara. 

Gold mohars are allowed to he stolen, hut charcoal is 
kept carefully sealed up. 

"Penny-wise and pound-foolish." 

6 sm ^^3 W'n'fT ^IT (%5I ^fJT'fl* l^ya me khala khanu 

ta aura dina ke khanu. 

When chaff is given to be eaten on a marriage day what 
will be given on other days ? 

Either great poverty or great stinginess. 

7 f^^X. TTf^ n\^' Bigara rau ki mauni. 

A swarm of bees without a Rao {queen or leader). 

Bees that have no queen to lead them are scattered here and 
there, but those that have a queen keep together. 

Applied to subjects without a ruler, or children without 
parents, &c. 



f 193 ) 

8 •rrtffi I^T'T 3T|}^ ^r^T. I^al ki barata thakurai thakura. 

In the marriage procession of a barber every one 
invited thinks himself a lord Cos the barber is every- 
body's servant ) . 

Applied to a household or company which fails because none 
of the members work or help, all considering themselves 
to be masters. 

9 IT^ *it ^'^ r?f% VT* HathI kl larhain indaki 

barha. 

An elephant fight within a railing made of the 
castor-oil tree. 

Applied to small or ridiculous preparations for a great 
business or undertaking. 

10 ^^ IS ^^ ^T ^^If ^■';- JaikI chha dara so nichlia 
gbara. 

The one I am, afraid of is not at home. 

Applied to mismanagement in a house owing to the absence 
of the head of the family. "W^en the cat is away the mice 
will play. 

11 •^^ •^^\^J ^T ^\w ^T ^{fk T^w. I^tgi^r %?i5rr 

^T^TIT'fi" ^H. Tina lulaya tera aya dekbau yanki i ita. 
bbaira wala khaigayagbara ka gani gita. 

Three were invite^' ^ut thirteen came. See the custom 
of this place. Th strangers ate up the food, but those 
of the house had t sing for it. 

Used with re^rd to unwelcome guests who come in nn- 
expectedly just for ^e sake of a meal, and to want of proper 
management in oe's household or business. C. /. "Charity 
begins at home." 



( 194 ) 

12 %r f^ %Tf^^t (h '?r<r» Sau ki sau biyan ki.nata. 

One liundi'ed from one hundred, no seed left. 

1. e. If the whole is taken or spent nothing remains for 
further use (or for seed). 

Applied to bad management. 

13 5:2B '^': ^T ^T^TrTT ^31^ ^t "^f? %7f^« Eka ghara kri 
nau mata kushala kan bati holi. 

A household which is governed hy nine (different) 
opinions tcill not thrive. 

C. f. "A house divided against itself cannot stand. " 

MEANNESS. 

1 ^?T%^T^f^T ^TSfFT ^ '5^^^. Damarbi ko sauda 

bazara men khalabala. 

One in purchasing only ^ of a pice toorth makes a 
great noise throughout the bazaar. 

Applies to dealings with a mean man. Very small dealings 
in business. 

2 3ig% WlZ'i ^9% ^rST" Jatikai cbboto utukai kboto. 
The meaner the man the more wicked he is. 

3 ^imr 1^ '^^T^T* Fauna pucbLf_ pakorba. 

He asks a guest who is a relative whether he should 
cook cakes for him. 

The guest, though naturally willing to, e feasted splendidly, 
cannot without impoliteness express his wisl If the host puts 
such a question to hira he does it with somemean or impudent 
motive. Hence the proverb is applied to onevho does a foolish 
and unnecessary thing or acts with the ifention of putting 
another to shame. 



( 195 ) 

4 ITf^ f^'TrT^T ^^.t f% ■^efi^T- Pani si patalo dhunwan si 
bakalo. 

Thin like water hut thick Wee smoke. 

Used of a mean-minded and selfish set of people who to 
ohtaiu their own ends become very humble, but when others look 
to them for favours, turn haughty and offensive. 

5 Jig]?r "^[fil ?f ^c5 f%T ^»I »TT^^%^. Gulama Lathi me 

chadha phira laga madhara cboda. 

A slave though mounted on an elephant is nevertheless 
a mean man. 

Men of low descent or family however great they may 
become, are to be suspected and dreaded. 

6 ^iS^T %T ^"l 'S'?5'5!iT^'^T^. Apbula ko dhana daphua 

le baja. 

The little wealth of a mean persoti is made public hy 
the beat of a drum. 

Used as a caution against borrowing from or dealing "with 
one who is mean-hearted and has very little wealth. 

7 ^^T^^ ^r "WTW ^'i %^T'JT' Kacbyara me dhimgo 

balo mukba ai lago. 

Throw a stone into the mud and you splash your 
own face. 

I. e. Direct communication or conversation or dealing with 
vile persons should be carefully avoided. 

C. f. "You cannot touch pitch and not be' defiled." 

MERITORIOUS ACTS, GOODNESS OR VIRTUE. 

1 ^T'3'^ T^T ^T VW* Ankhara bbalo ko bbalo. 
A good man's end is good. 



( 196 ) 

2 Ht^^ H^^sf ft^T ^^ ^J^ ^7Tf%mT« Bhikha me bhi- 
kha dino tin a loka jita lino, 

Se who gives alms out of what he has received as 
alms {begged) wins three worlds. 

This proverb is generally quoted to encourage a poor person 
to give alms or support others. 

3 v^ \w\ ^Wlt ftw* Bliuji bono satai dino. 

To bestow an alms after many repulses is like sowing 
parched grain, i. e. bears no fruit. 

C. f. "He doubles his gift, who gives in time." "He gives 
twice, that gives in a trice." "The Lord loveth a cheerful giver." 

4 ^jf %t ^^[51 ^T ^t 9^if^» Swarga son teka ni dharma 

son chlieka ni. 

Seaven {the sky) needs no propSy and a virtuous act 
needs no special time, or an alms needs no future 
promises (for its performance J . 

This is used to encourage on« to do- good deeds without 
procrastination. 

5 r«.w t'l'WT'51 'W fS^IWT Nitya nimana dharma thi- 

kana. 

Only one who is free from pride always can he 
{truly) religious. 

6 z§\ ^«T *^ ffi" (si^l^I* Tuti lagau para jhuti ni 
lagau. 

Zet poe^rtff ee^ie, but do not be dishonest. 
'■Tell the truth sad shame the devil." 

7 w %^S «t^ \ii 17^ fr? «»i fsiii^fSj w ^ ^Tf5r- 

Dharma karnai karnai liai jau hani taba laga ni chharhani 
dharma ki bani. 

Follow righteousness stedfastly though you may be 
injured by it. 



( 197 ) 

Story. There was a very poor Brahmin beggar in the 
kingdom of a certain king who was noted far and wide for his 
munificence and virtue. The Brahmin and his wife being entirely 
destitute used to live on wild roots and vegetables. Hearing that 
the king gave money to every beggar who went to • him, the 
Brahmin was constantly urged by his wife to go to the king and 
ask for alms. But he always refused. At last having been 
prevailed upon and compelled by his wife, he went to the king 
one day and stood before him, but did not ask for any thing. 
On the King's offering to give him a quantity of Rupees 
the poor man refused to accept them, saying that it would injure 
him in his next stage of existence. Seeing him so firm and 
determined in bis refusal the king was very grieved and asked 
him to accept something again and again. At length the Brahmin 
said that be would not take the money for nothing, but if it would 
please the king to buy a certain thing from him he would then 
accept the money as payment. The king agreed to this proposal. 
Then the Brahmin said that he had nothing else but his poverty, 
■which he would sell for three lacs of rupees. On this the king 
ordered three lacs of rupees to be paid to the poor man and bought 
his poverty from him. The Brahmin departed. Immediately after 
the bargain was completed the king's wealth disappeared from his 
treasury, his kingdom was encroached upon by neighbouring 
kings, who left him nothing but his own house. There was 
constant quarrelling and estrangement among the members of his 
family. One night, while he was sitting in front of his house and 
broodinc over his misfortunes, a beautiful woman clothed in red 
came out of his palace and asked leave of him to go elsewhere, 
saying that she was Wealth and could not remain in his house on 
account of the poverty he had bought. The king gave her per- 
mission to go, and she went away. After half an hour another 
■woman in a black robe came out of his house and craved his per- 
mission to go, saying that she was his Empire and she could not 
stay with the poverty he had purchased. The king told her to go 
and she also went away. After a similar interval a third woman in 
•white clothes came out of his door, who also went away with the 
permission of the king, saying that she was his Wisdom, that she 
departed because he had embraced poverty. After this an old man 
came out of the king's house and asked permission to go saying 
that he was Righteousness or Virtue, and he wished to depart 
from his house on account of the poverty he had bought. The 
king however refused him permission, for, he said, how could 
righteousness forsake him when the poverty was purchased only 
for his sake ? Righteousness could give no reply to this reasoning 
of the king, but having been convinced of its force re-entered his 



( 198 ) 

house and stopped there. Later on the three women alluded to also 
returned to his palace, but the king forbade them to enter. On 
this they all entreated him to let them into his house where their 
husband Righteousness was living. They said they left his 
house as their husband (Righteousness) was also to leave it, but 
since he did not leave it they must return to remain with him for 
ever. Then they were also allowed to enter the house and remain 
with their husband. After this he became an emperor instead 
of a king, and possessed of incalculable wealth. 

8 sjf VT*t! 51^0 Jii^ dbarma tan jaya. 

JFliere virtue, there victory. 

I. e. Where there is honesty, truthfulness, and godliness 
there victory is sure and certain. 

9 ^j ^^ ^Tj^ ^^ ^(% 1'«:f%« Sau gharbi gbara ki eka 

gharbi haraki. 

One hundred gharhis ( 2^ gharhis inahe an hour ) to 
the house and one to God. 

This means that out of the abundance of time spent on one's 
own business a few minutes should be dovoted to the worship 
of God. 

10 ^mi T^^ ^^ TT"^^" Punya rekha men mekha 

maranchha. 

Meritorious acts drive a nail into the line of 
evil destiny. 

I. e. Into the sutures of the skull which are supposed to 
record one's fate. The nail obliterates the writing. 

Story : There was a pious man who had no son ; he longed 
for one very much, but in vain. Once a saint came to his house, 
to whom also he prayed that he might have a son. The saint, 
in order to find out whether or not the man would have children, 
went first to Brahma, and on Brahma's replying to his query 
in the negative, went to Mahadeva, who also told him that there 
were no children decreed in the pious man's fate. After this the 
saint repaired to Vishnu for the same purpose and received a 
similar reply. Then the saint came back to the devout man and 
informed him of his fate, and then went away. A few years after 



f 199 ) 

this event another saint came to the house of the religious man, 
and complaining of hunger told the man he would have as many 
sons born to him as he would give loaves of bread. The pions 
man gave him five loaves for his meal which he ate up and then 
went away. In due time five sous were born to the good man. 
The first saint after some time came back to the pious man and 
was amazed to find him possessed of five sons, contrary to the 
prediction. And consequently he became very angry, and regarded 
the aforesaid three deities as liars. Being indignant he went 
straight to the highest God Vishnu. As soon as he approached 
the God ho found him very ill (a form assumed by illusion in order 
to pacify the saint). Finding Vishnu in such a state the saint's 
anger subsided, and he asked Vishnu "0 God, thou hast never 
before become sick : now what medicine will cure thee ?" To this 
Vishnu said, "I can be cured only by the blood of saints." So tho 
saint went to other saints with a cup to bring their blood in, and 
asked them for their blood. Each of the saints after hearing 
the sad news gave each a drop of blood from his own body, and 
on the first saint's demanding more, all of them said that he could 
get more from his own body since he also was a saint. The saint 
then came back to Vishnu with a little dried blood which Vishnu 
rejected because there was so little, and it was dry. Then the 
saint said that he could not get more. On this Vishnu pointed 
out another saint in the neighbourhood, and told the saint to go 
to that one and bring a cupful of fresh blood. The saint "went to 
the hermit, and after representing the whole matter to him asked 
for his blood. No sooner had he heard this than the hermit, 
to the utter astonishment of the saint, gladly cut his own body 
in several places, and filled up the cup. Immediately the saint 
saw Vishnu standing before him, and heard these words. "0 saint, 
behold the hermit who spared nothing for me, shall I not cause 
his words to turn out true in that he promised five sons to the 
pious man. You have been to so many saints and you j'ourself 
are a saint, yet none has furnished me with his blood except 
this hermit." 

11 ^ji? fli 51^ ^^. Dharma ki jarha hari. 
The root of virtue is perennial. 

Story : There was a pious man in a certain town. He 
devoted 36 years of his life to the service of God and led a life 
of piety and righteousness. After this a son was born to him, 
concerning v/hom God informed the man that he would live only 
12 years. This made the parents sad and anxious. When the 



( 200 ) 

boy became 8 years old he one day asked his parents why they 
were always so dejected and sad. The parents at first wisely and 
prudently refused to acquaint him with the real state of affairs, 
apprehending that their doing so would dispirit him, but on his 
persisting to know the matter they disclosed the secret to him. 
On this, the son, seeing that he had shortly to die, left his home 
and went on pilgrimage, resigning himself to the will of Providence. 
While thus journeying he was seen by a king who was about to 
marry an ugly faced son to a fair damsel of another king. As this 
boy was very beautiful the king requested him to do him the 
service of taking the place of his own son in the marriage 
ceremony. The custom is that the son goes with a procession 
of men to the house of the father of the girl who is to be married. 
After visiting the girl in her house he returns to his own house 
with the bride. If the son is found to be defective in his person 
at the time of the ceremony the proposed marriage is rejected by 
the father of the girl. In that case the bridegroom has to return 
home without completing the marriage, which is considered a great 
disgrace. So the short lived boy was taken along with the 
marriage procession to the house of the other king, to whose 
daughter the king's ugly son had been espoused. Then the 
marriage of the girl was celebrated with the beautiful boy, and 
the procession returned homeward. During the first stage the 
short-lived boy was dismissed by the king, but, on seeing this, 
the bride also deserted the camp and followed her bridegroom. 
By this time the appointed twelve years of the boy's life were 
nearly ended, and so he went towards the Himalayan snows to die 
there. (^The belief is that one who dies in the snows will go to 
paradise). But while there he was seen by the deities, who having 
pity on the very young pair were anxious to avert the boy's death. 
The age of the girl was found to be fixed at 120 years, and so they 
found a way to increase the boy's age to 72 years by taking 60 
years from the age of his wife, to whom only 50 years more 
were then left, during which period they lived happily together 
and were also blessed with offspring. 

12 %I5l^tfil^ r.mj m'S^^\(mm ^mxj m. Dhan sanjika 
rajja ku jyu sanjika jyura ku. 

Money gathered or saved is sure to he confiscated by a 
king, {as was the custom in the time of native rulers), 
and the body carefully nourished is certain to be seized 
by death. 



( 201 ) 

13 ^t« f%i ^Tf2 51^ ■^ft ^Tf% "fTiif ^fz^sl * Khanda ki 
roti jakha bati torhi takna bati mlthi, 

A sugar loaf sweet on all sides. 

Applied to good and meritorious works which one ought to 
do at all times and under all circumstances. 

14 ?i^ ^5!5[fTT ^ ^TI f%5r« Gurha anyara me laga mitho. 

Treacle is sweet even in the darh. 

E. g. Good deeds though done in secret have the same effect 
and are appreciated as much as if they had been done publicly. 

Used to encourage people to perform good deeds even in 
private. 

15 Xjmi %\ fT'l srsiT ^T ^I'i- ^aja ko dana parja ko 
snaua. 

Maja^s alms, and bathing of a poor perso7i, are equal. 

E. g. To give alms is the duty of the rich, but the poor 
can get merit by bathing. 

16 ^^ ^K^l' ^^T f^ jIT'^' Bhali kari kherba nijani. 

Goodness fa good deed J is never loasted for 
fruitless J. 

17 ^f% ^j^ ^Ti: '^if^. wimr ^T ir^T ir^ ^t^ ^^%^> ^t. 

^«ff^ ^^[fJTr "^^^ ^^\ papilai phali, dharmatma ka chhora 
chliori papi ka hali, para anta me dharmatma ball 

The Kali yuga or iron age is prosperous to a sinner 
whom the son of a virtuous man serves as a ploughman, 
hut eventually the latter will he victorious. 

Used of strange and adverse results and incidents 

Z 



( 202 ) 
MIDDLE OR MODERATE COURSE. 

1 ^T5 ^Tf% T'? ^T TTf^^T*!* Apun rakhi tapa ghara 

rakhi dana. 

Ferform penance, but without ruining your health — 
Bestow alms but withoat wasting your wealth. 

Be not "righteous overmuch." 

2 ^if ^T^ ^^fT f^f<m ^«Tt^'! TT? fijz m\^wkm 

■^fTT^I. Daiirha daurha jandu ta dburiya batandana mathu 
mathu jandu ta sahela batandana. 

If I go quickly, i. e. running, people think me a bad 
character, and if I go slowly they call me an ass 
or lazy. 

A medium course is best. 

3 f^% ^TVT^f^^ fHxmX 7^RT f^% ^TT. Siru sira- 

■J 

dhara biru biradbara tukanya bicbe dbara^ 

Siru to Siradhdra fa mountain of that name J, 
Biru to Biradhar, and Tukanya in the middle of the 
two mountains. 

There were three brothers in a certain village named Siru, 
Biru, and Tukanya. When they were full-grown Siru, in pursuit 
of objects of his ambition, took an extreme course and was ruined, 
and in the same way Biru, who took the other extreme, was also 
ruined. But the third brother Tukanya always chose the middle 
course and prospered. 

4 ^I^T ^3^ "T^t ^T ^^ ^^ '^^T- Kano laga garbi jau 

pirba lagai ni bo. 

The thorn {which has pricked the foot) should be 
taken out loithout pain. 

Used to encourage one to go easily in all affairs or to pursue 
a moderate course. 



( 203 ) 
MISCELLANEOUS. 

1 '^T^^^f^T^. Arhu berbughingaru. 

Arhu (^apricot), BerJiu (wild figs), and Qhingaru. 

Wild fruits representing ignorant and mean people who are 
hardly to be trusted with any responsible work. 

2 ^wr ^^tOT T'S'^II'nT' Andho aluno pahachyanau. 

A blind man can discern food which has no salt in it. 

A man devoid of one sense can be made use of in other 
ways. 

3 ^^T*t 'f ^T'UT ^^' Andhana men kano mira. 
A one-eyed man is a lord among the blind. 

A figure among ciphers.- A triton among minnows. A castor 
oil plant is reckoned a free in a country where there are no 
other trees. 

4 %^ ^TT!! ^t^l "''I ^'^' Aiba karpa son laga guna 
chainchha. 

To commit a crime even requires skill. 

This proverb is often cited when an offender evades detection 
and punishment. 

5 f%^V^ m^^ m^ ^Tf% ^T2^. Bina guru bata nl 

bina kourhi Lata ni. 

iVb way (to heaven) without a spiritual guide, and no 
marhet (purchaser) without coivries (i. e. money). 

This is often made use of by one coming to market without 
any money with him. Villagers when urged by their wives to go 
to town and purchase necessaries strengthen their refusal by this 
phrase. This proverb also reminds them of their need of a 
spiritual guide. 



( 204 ) 

6 vg ^efi^T ^1^1151 »tlf . Blmla chuka ko bharadwaja 
gotra. 

One who does not know Ms own descent [gotra) 
belongs to the JShdradiodjagotra. 

This is applied to one who is of low birth but becomes a great 
or notahle man, or to one who justifies his actions and mistakes 
by quoting or inventing traditions ■which cannot be gainsaid. 

7 >rg f«i'5^ 5TIWT t^T« Bhula bisara janau Ishwara. 

Unconscious errors and mistakes are known to God. 

This is a phrase used by pious persons as a prayer for 
forgiveness. Also by those who have done their best in any 
undertaking, as an excuse for any mistakes or imperfections. 

nyafa ki ni jana kyata parawana bingi nijana. 

He who does not know how to tie up his oion pantaloons, 
what kind of a chief will he make ? He will not 
understand his people. 

This is applied to the head of a community who does not 
know even how to look after his own private affairs, and is an 
incompetent ruler. 

9 ■^ifi ^T ^f^^^IJ] ^C! %T ^f%^ ■^11. Baika ko dekb- 
yun taga syaini ko dekbyun baga. 

A vegetable seen by a man and a tiger seen by a 
woman are not to be trusted, i. e. should be considered 
as false reports. 

In villages the women cultivate the small fields of vegetables 
near their houses, and the men know nothing about them. So a 
man who professes to know where a certain vegetable is to be 
found is not to be believed any more than a woman who says sho 
has seen a ti"er. 



( 205 ) 

10 ^T^ ^ife^T ^T *TT^T« Hatha katiyo ko bbarho. 
Oiie has to pay for having his own hands cut off. 

E. g. If hands which are necessary members, are cut off, 
one has to pay for the operation. 

This is used regarding the loss of a thing in constant use 
expressing a double loss. 

11 T^si ^ ST ^■^ ^- Tina men na tera men. 

Neither among the "three" nor among the "thirteen" 

i. e. worth nothing. 

E. g. A prostitute was reputed to have thirteen lovers in 
one direction, and three in another. Over and above these sixteen, 
she had also contracted friendship with another one secretly, to 
whom now and then she used to say that he was the dearest of 
all her friends, and she would leave him a greater share of her 
property, after her death. In hope of this promise this man 
rendered her good and constant services. After she was dead 
all these seventeen appeared to claim her property, but as she 
had already bequeathed her property, some of it to the thirteen 
and some to the three, the name of seventeenth man was not 
found either among the thirteen or among the three, so the man 
exclaimed that he was neither among the noted thirteen nor the 
three. This became a proverb for people who think themselves 
unentitled to a thing, not being included amongst those eligible. 

12 ^T f^ ^Tfi] ^^ ■^TT'^T* Ghara ki muragi dala bara- 
bara. 

A hen in one's house is like Dala {pulse grain ). 

Dala is an article commonly kept in the house, and so 
can be cooked at any time. In the same way one can cook 
the hen in his own possession at any time he likes. 

Applied to things which are easily accessible or procurable 
and are consequently not much valued. 



13 %^Wl ^I^(?r^T Sim ^2T^T- Halka adami ka nakha 
men tosa. 



( 206 ) 

A small-minded man shows anger in his nose. 
C. f. "A little pot is soon hot." 

14 5lQITf^ ^TfT ^^lf%^rT« Junyali rata kulyali 

tbata. 

A moonlight night and irrigated land. 

E. g. A night with the moon shining is equal to irrigated 
land. Watered land is much valued, as crops on it never fail, 
and so a man walking in the moonlight will not stumble. 

15 ^"^^^IT 5^^T ST. §aba nara eka sara nai. 
All men are not alike. 

16 ^j-3(m wf%^fI^T ^i 'TT^nft ^TJl^T* Sabasa bhuli 

kangala paile panda bati mangala. 

Well done, sister Kangala, we should begin begging 
from the upper story. 

Beg from the rich, the poor have nothing to give. 

17 ^Tq^T '^ZT '^^Tf^^T ^T^ fs^^^^r- Sarapa ka khuta 

bathaguli ka bala ni dekbinda. 

No one sees the legs of a snahe or the hairs of 
one^s palm. 

This means that no one can tell at first glance what genius 
or skill a man may possess. 

18 ^qinj ^ISI i ^Wfa[^f^ ^^r« Apana batba le 
apano sbira ni mundino. 

No one can shave his own head himself. 



( 207 ) 

7. e. No one can properly speak his own praise ; or in 
reference to certain actions which cannot be accomplished without 
the intervention of others (friends or relations). 

19 tf ^^ ^mj ^^ ^T^ ^^g^T. Jaiku ni sujha 

apano ghara so ke akalabara. 

One who does not fake care of his own house, how can 
he be considered a wise man ? 

20 qx:-^ ^T1 '^^T ^T1 ^tI?: %I5I f f^5i i^7?i. Puraba roga, 

pachharaa soga uttara joga dakbina bboga. 

The east for disease, the west for sorrow, the north 
for penance, and the south for pleasure. 

This phrase is generally used by the hill people regarding 
the hills being not a place for enjoyment but a painful place of 
residence or of penance. 

21 ^r^*'T^ f^ ^^ ^^fT f^ Sau sunara ki eka Iwara ki. 

One hundred strokes of a goldsmith are equal to one 
of a blacksmith. 

This is used of one who after much forbearance amply repays 
another either for good deeds or for bad ones. 

22 ^^^(^ ^T ^H 'ir^^'I^T^* Sabana ka guru gobardhana 
dasa. 

Gobardhan Das is the spiritual guide of all. 

Used to denote the greatest person (the chief J in any 
business or profession. This is equivalent to "the paw of an 
elephant covering that of all other animals." 



( 208 ) 

23 "sqitnuj ^^ 5i7^T ^^T^J ^^ ^T^r. Apana pairajano 
paraya paira auno. 

One goes on his own feet, but he has to come bade on 
another's feet. 

1. e. If one goes to another of his own will for some 
object, it depends on the other to do the business sooner or later. 

24 w?T 151TT* Bhuta pujai. 
Material for ghost-worship. 

A ghost is worshipped with half cooked khicJiarJd (made of 
two parts of rice and one part of Ddla (pulsej and hastily. 
For the sufierstition is that while being thus worshipped the 
ghost might take possession of the soul of the worshipper, hence 
his worship is performed in a jungle, or in a place where four 
roads meet, and very hastily at night. Hence the proverb is 
applied to half-cooked food. 



saga teri boi na nikayo ankha malku takani. 

Your mother has not put salt in the vegetables, why do 
you stare at me with red eyes ? 

Spoken by the wife to her husband, who is blaming 
her on account of the food which has in fact been cooked by 
his mother. 

Used in convincing one of his fault or in proving one's 
own innocence. 

1^ %rfiil eRT ^^T 9Tf T^r ^^I« Jogi ka chela tumarlia ka 
mela. 

The disciples of a Jogi (ascetic) are as numerous 
as the seeds of a gourd i. e. too many to eotint. 

Used to denote a Jogl's popularity. 



( 209 ) 

27 ^\ TT^ir ^fa! m\ Ji'jit ^f%. Kan raja Bhoja kan Ganga 

teli. 

TVhat comparison is there between Rdjd Bhoja and 
Gangd Teli. 

E. g. Ganga was a king whose dominion was seized by Raja 
Bhoja, who in addition to this had his hands and feet cut ofF, and 
Jeft him in the jungle. A Tdi (oilman) who happened to see 
Ganga in such a pitiable condition took compassion on him, and 
also thinking that he could be made use of in driving his bullock, 
carried him home, and got his wounds healed up by putting him 
under the treatment of a physician. When the Teli died his 
house was made over to Ganga, hence he is called "G.nnga Teli." ■ 
Thence forward Ganga always ridiculed all the acts of Kaja Bhoja 
and, though himself now only an oilman, tried to oppose him as 
much as he could on account of the ill-treatment he received from 
him. Seeing this disposition in Ganga (and finding him always 
against the RajaJ people used to say among themselves Ganga 
T'eli cannot be compared with Raja Bhoja. 

Used whenever a small man attempts to measure himself 
with a greater. 

28 5|jf5i qgiT 117% ^fl^T 7f% ^"^1 'TJ^ VTSf • Nani i»uja 

panchai bhanda thuli puja panchai bhanda. 

Five vessels needed in small worshij), and five vessels 
in great worship. 

E. g. The same number of utensils are necessary to cook 
food for one person or many. All men whether great or small 
have the same necessities and the same fate. 

29 ^ifii^f 5}j^ 1S1'i%^'T< Lotiyo goru chha maniyan. 

A cow which has fallen down the hill {and been killed) 
is always said to have been a good coio, or to have given 
three seers of milk. 

A thing not to be had any more is always praised. 

30 %lfk »lf^^^«! 5^ ^T^r S6I^«T- Kodbi mari sukanu na 
bato cbhorbanu. 

Tlie leper can neither die nor get out of the way, 

A2 



( 210 ) 

E. g. A leper lay down on a road in such a manner that 
he almost closed it, every one disliking to pass that way for 
fear of touching him. 

Used of persons or things disliked. 

31 »i^y q'ft^. Gadha pachisi. 

The donkey age, up to twenty -five years. 
Youths are awkward and silly until that age. 



32 »T7 ^"^1% fT^^^^« Nau bharili taba dubali. 



Tlie boat will fill before it sinks. 

A man will continue to prosper under iniquities for some 
time, i. e. his sins and injustice will accumulate before he 13 
ruined by them. 

33 ^^ ^^I^ 'iTI^T'^''^ ^Sr S^fl^T* Perha bhrashta cha 

pangarau nara bhrashtn tu dangaro. 

A tree depraved becomes a chestnut tree f useless J 

and a man depraved becomes a Ddngara, i. e. one who 

professes to he inspired by a deity. 

E. g. Some people feign to be inspired by gods, and while 
nnder their influence dance and predict things, though their 
prophecies generally turn out false. 

34 •^^^^{ 5fTT^ MT1 ^"':^- Budba marani bhaga sarani 

Old people die, but their sayings descend to the 
progeny. 

That is, oral traditions are supposed to be based on facts. 

35 ^?I7 ^ lif^^T* I)bunga me dbarano. 

To place one on a stone {to ruin him or to deprive 
him of his loealth). 

To eject a man from his house and reduce him to the 
<rrcaiest want. 



( 211 )) 

36 ^g ^jf\ ^7^ SJir^. Khala sati bhola byau. 
JPaddy in the mortar and marriage to-morrow. 

Applicable to any important business for which the people 
concerned are unprepared as yet. 

37 ^7t %T^ aPTT'?!^ ^it ^T^ ^ 'TI^I^. Koi boda kya 
khaun koi boda ke ma khaun. 

One says "What shall I eat ?" another says "What 
sauce shall I eat with my^ food ?" 

Used to compare poor people with those who have plenty. 

38 ^j^T 'I 'TT^r K^M^T* Kacho iia pako bhasbhaso. 
Neither raw nor well cooked, but half done. 

Applied, to a man who is neither one thing nor the other. 

MISER. 

1 ff»lf^» ^^ 'JiJ ^ f^ HT'I %J ^I»I ^I^- Hinga ki dali 

phuta ni bina hinga ko saga ho ni. 

The ball of asafoitida {a spice) must not be broken,, 
but the pottage must nevertheless he seasoned with it. 

Applied to one who is a miser, but at the same time 
an epicure. 

2 Q^T ^r '' '^'^THfr %"t. Dhela ko lyun purha 

khaun. 

Would buy a dhela' s worth, but loould eat a plateful, 
{a dhela=^ of a pice). 

Applied to one who is a miser, but at the same time 
an epicure. 



almno sas;a howa nai. 



3 ^m <s,% ^Jifr "^ ^^$T ^11 ^T^^- Luna dali phutau nai 

e\ \j ^ 



( 212 ) 

The lump of salt should not be used, hut the food 
should not remain without salt. 

Applied to one who is a miser, but at the same time 
an epicure. 

4 ^ir^ ^IW ^T^ ^T?^ ^"'^T ^ %T^'I- Khala kbano 

kamala odhanu rupaya ke jorhanu. 

TFhat difficulty is there in earning money ? One can 
earn it by eating chaff and covering himself with 
a blanhet. 

Getting rich by scraping and meanness. 

MOCK MODESTY. 

1 •IT^'SI f^cfilx ^2 ^« Nachana nikashi gLungata ke. 

If you have come out to dance why should you veil 
your face f 

Applied to one who after having already undertaken a 
business abandons it for fear or shame or wishes to do it in private. 

Women of good family wear veils, but if one of them 
comes forward to dance why should she in that case cover 
bar face. 

2 %T?ir ^T'^T T^fT ^frj. Jota khaya ijjata bachi. 
/ received a beating with a shoe, hut saved my honor. 

To be beaten with a shoe is considered very disgracefuL 
Persons are often purposely dishonoured in this way by their 
enemies, whichis regarded as a public disgrace for them. 

The proverb is used by one who is injured &r insulted, but 
not in a public way, and so consoles himself. 



( 213 ; 

MODESTY. 

1 HTH (% ^^ 5i^T5I % MT^. Sharama ki ankha jahaja 
hai bhari. 

An eye full of shame or modesty is heavier than a ship. 
Fear of shame prevents many from doing wrong. 

2 ^?:^^iT ^fT*?^^ ^I^ ^it. Sharama ki boi 

gbarha para muha ghali roi. 

The mother of modesty hides her face in a jar when 

she weeps. 

Used to denote that a modest person would rather weep in 
secret than expose the causes of his doing so. 
Due reserve. 

MONEY. 

1 5!T TT IT. Jara men para. 

Money has wings. 

I. e. It can accomplish strange and seemingly impossible things. 

It is also used to denote that money having wings does not 
stay, is soon dissipated, and so one ought to invest it in property 
or ornaments, and thus "cut its wings." 

2 ^si^j ^l\jf^ ^fT^X •IT'^- Dhana ka agarhi makkara 

nacba. 

Haughty and wealthy people will dance for the sake 
of wealth. 

I. e. Everyone will condescend to do anything with a view 

to get wealth or money. 

C. f. "It's money that makes the mare to go." 
( Dancing in India is never indulged in by respectable 

people ). 



( 214 ) 
MOTIVES. 

1 "^IZ ^f% f% =^3^1?: ^ff • Chata barhi ki chaturai barhi. 

Is cleverness greater, or necessity ? 

This means to say that necessity makes one do odd things 
in spite of the suggestions of his cunning or cleverness. C. f. 
Necessity knows no laws. 

A man's skill is not always a match for necessity. 

2 fi(^j lIcR^I ^T ^^T ^^?T^T ^I* Piii^ pakado rau kawa 

kakarhado rau. 

When the bruised oil seeds are heating in the sun, never 
mind the clamors of the crows {inviting other crows to 
eat it). 

This is used to confirm another in his purpose against the 
criticisms of other people who have no concern in it. 

3 qirfg ^T =^1 T- Patala ka charha. 

Chirping birds in the hushes. 

I. e. Pay no heed to carping criticism. 

MUNIFICENT MEN & HEROES. 

1 ?^t ^T faC^Ht ^RT ^T ^^5^. .Sburonka sbirani 

daton ka gbara ni. 

Heroes have no heads, and munificent persons have 
no houses. 

I. e. The former do not care for their own lives, and the 
latter for their own possessions, as in the story related below. — 

Stoi-y : Shekha Naga is the name of one of the greatest 
snakes who bears on his head a most brilliant jewel called "Mani" 
and is so poisonous that any thing or animal that goes near him 
is burnt tc ashes. He is said to be the monarch of all kinds of 
seipents who inhabit the world known as "Pdtdla" below this 
world, One day a munificent man of this world happened to go to 



( 215 ) 

Shekha Naga, before whom he stood for a minute uninjured, dnd 
paid him his obeisance. At this the Shekha Naga was greatly- 
pleased with the man and gave him four rubies as a token of his 
favour. The quality of one of the rubies was to give its 
possessor as much grain as he wanted, and the second as much 
money, the third as large an army, and the fourth as much 
religious merit as he wished for at any time. As soon as the 
man with these four rubies came upon this earth he met with a 
very poor old mau who made known his poverty to the munificent 
man, who at once offered to let him have his choice of one of the 
rubies, after describing the power and property of each. At this 
the poor beggar said he would take one after consulting his family, 
and so he went back to his house, and on consulting his family 
his wife insisted on having the one which gave the grain, saying 
that all the family was starving, his son longed for the one which 
gave the army, saying that by having the army he would bring 
empires under his subjection, and then would become an emperor ; 
but his daughter-in-law asked for the one which gave money, 
saying that by having wealth they would live in splendour and 
comfort. In spite of all these demands the old man wanted virtue 
and piety. Thus they quarrelled for some time and each of the 
members insisted upon his own choice. After this the old man 
having become disgusted with his family went again to the 
munificent man and said that he would not take any cue of the 
precious stones, but the liberal-minded man knowing the cause 
from his dejected countenance gave him all four rubies and went 
away. The poor man returned to his home in great delight, 
blessing the munificent man who had such little desire for such 
valuable things. 

2 5^^ ^TT^ '*T^ %!^I5T« Kharha khaika bharha hondana, 

A hero is brave even though he has only grass to eat. 

Bravery depends upon the disposition of the man, not upon 
the food he eats. 



MUTABILITY OF WORLDLY WEALTH. 

1 %r| ^^7 3TT '^T^T ^T "^mj' Jo deyo ya kbayo so 
apano. 



( 216 ) 

Only lohat one has given ( in charity ) or eaten is 
one's own. 

C. f. "Hethat giveth to the paor lendeth to the Lord." 

MUTUAL RESPECT. 

1 ^T'5 f%TT^ ^rf^ "^^P: fsiTT^ ^Tf%- Sasa ni rakha 

Barhi buwari ni rakha dadhi. 

If a father-in-law does not hesitate to pull off the cloth 
of his daughter-in-law, why should the latter hesitate to 
pull out the beard of the former. 

A father-in-law is a most venerable person to a daughter-in- 
law, who in turn is also an object of careful regard to him, and 
neither of them should touch each other. 

Applied to mutual respect. 

2 'gJI «R^T ^'^T 3^' Hama kasa jasa tuma. 
How am Tl As you are to me. 

Mutual treatment. 

i^t^T I^TI «!>('' '^iV^- Jo apun kana ni chawa wi ka bapa 
kani ni chanu, jo apun kana chawa wi ka gulama kani 
chanu. 

If a man dislikes me, I shall not like his father, but of 
one who likes me I will like even his slave. 
C. f. "Love me, love my dog." 



4 71 ^fT "kifk. ^^% n If ^T^ >Tf< ^^rs^r, Tu beta bhari 

nyurhalai ta main hatha bhari nyurhulo. 

If you bend (condescend) a span before me, I will bend 
{concede) a cubit before thee. 

Used of mutual respect. 



( 217 ) 
NATIONAL UNITY. 

1 Ift^t ''^1^ ^ ^ "^T^' Jaun. jaun rashi gyun gyun 
rashi. 

Barley heaped on barley, wheat on wheat. 

Applied to national unity or the unity of castes and racea. 
C. f. "Birds «f a feather flock together." 

2 ^^TSIT '5'^IT ^Tlf. Rupaya rupaya kamawa. 
Money earns money. 

This is a common phrase shewing that money draws money 
and wisdom draws wisdom. I. e. Money goes to money. 

NATURAL CAPACITY OR GENIUS. 

1 ^ ^T ^^ ^T^ ''^^ ^T^ ^r ^^ ^T"»^^« Sui ko 

mukha Iwara palyunda kanda ko mukha ko palyunda. 

The point of a needle is sharpened by a blacksmith, but 
who sharpens the point of a thorn ? 

This is applied to a clever and able person who does not 
need to be tutored for any occasion. C. /. "Old foxes want 
no tutors." 

2 1?i!T?T ^Z%T- Khanuwa kutalo. 

A digging hoe. 

(A sharp and fault-finding person). 
A nagging and inquisitive disposition. 

NATURE OF WORLD & HUMAN NATURE. 

1 ^m '^^T "frr 511 'S^T- -^P dubo tau jaga dubo. 

The world is drowned to him who is drowned. 

I. e. The affairs of the world are of no interest to him. 

B2 



r ( 218 ) 

Slbry. Onee a jackal was drowning in a lake, and kept 
crying "The world is drowning," "the world is drowning." On 
hearing sach an extraordinary exclamation the by-standers (other 

S'ackals) wanted to know the meaning of this, and asked their 
ying brother how the world was about to perish. To this the 
crafty jackal said that he could only tell them from the shore. 
This made the other jackals all the more inquisitive and impatient, 
and so by their united endeavours they got their brother ashore, 
and then asked him the same question again, to which he replied 
as in the proverb. 

2 ^7q K%T ^t 5!JI >f^T -A-pa bhalo tau jaga bhalo. 
A good man finds the world good. 

C. f. "Good mind good find." 

3 ^T'HSFI il«l% oTT'O^ ^T^T T^ f% ^r^. Apana mana le 
janani parya mana ki bata. 

One's own feelings towards others suggest what others 
feel towards us. 

4 3TT ^T'nt ITT %I'I^ 'J^rfl- %Tf^ «f% fsi^nn)-. Wara 
kauni para kauni pakorhi joli kakhi ni pauui. 

Kauni (a coarse kind of millet grown in the hills) here, 
kauni there, but sweetmeats are no where to be had. 

This is used to denote that there are many people in the 
world, but none who are willing to help one. 

NEW COMPARED WITH OLD. 

1 %J^1 ^m ^T ^ 5^T ^^. Naula goru ka hau pula 
ghasa, 

Niiie bundles of grass for a new cow. 

Great care taken of any tkiog newly obtained. 



( 219 ) 

2 5|?ir 'U^TH T^I'HT 5^«r. Nayan. nau dama purana 
cbha dama. 

New coins fetch nine-fold, and the old ones only six. 

E. g. New things are more valued than old ones. Here 
"ddma" means value. 

NOVELTY. 

1 f% ^lf^r% '»T^r ^Tf^ ^T*T ^f^K <3T^r» NI paunlyan 
le payo adhi rata uthi bera khayo. 

One gets up at night and eats what was not procurable 
in his own home. 

Eagerness for a new thing. 

2 ^fil ^ ssrrsi tqj^T 1*? % mffi 'qr^T* P^nji hai byaja 

pyaro puta bai nati pyaro. 

Interest is valued more than capital, and a grandson is 

dearer than a son. 

I. e. Any small addition to one's possessions is valued more 
than things already in hand. 



OBSTINATE & STUBBORN PEOPLE. 

1 JIT^ SI^ ^ ^^t^T '»T 'J^ ^ ^^ siT^T^. Gall dhali 
rnai ni dindo para pusa ki poll na khaye. 

1 am not abusing you, but may you not live to eat the 
treacle cakes made in January. 



( 220 ) 

E. g. Obstinate men pride themselves on not withdrawing 
the language they have used. 

Once an obstinate beggar addressed a great man, whose 
complexion was black and who was mounted on an elephant, thus: — 
"0, Mr. Charcoal (referring to the black colaur of his skin) 
give me something. The great man, being provoked by this 
.Tddress, told him to hold his tongue. On this the beggar rejoined 
"0 Mr. Charcoal, do not crackle." . This stubborness on the part 
of the beggar astonished the great man and made him reflect. 
He concluded that the best thing to do would be to rid himself 
of the nuisance of the beggar's insolence by giving him money, 
so threw him two rupees. The beggar, delighted with the gift, 
blessed him saying "Remain red for ever," (again representing 
him as a piece of live charcoal). 

2 TT5I ^ %!?! %Z f^rf^^T iz. Raja hata joga hata tiriya 
bata 

• 

The firmness of a king, an ascetic, and a woman 
are alike. 

They will prevail in the end. 

3 gi2Tf%i^T^¥- Lata ki karhatarha. 

The indifference (^stubbornness) of a dumb man. 

I. e. A dumb man or an idiot will, in spite of instructions 
to the contrary, continue to do a thing in his own clumsy way. 

Used of one who spoils his work by disregarding the 
advice of others who are his superiors in knowledge and 
experience. 

OLD AGE. 

1 ^^7 ^57 fT^7 ^^. Jaiko budho tai ko kurho. 

So long as there is an old person in a family the reputa- 
tion and prosperity of the house is sure. 



( 221 ) 

Story. Once a man went to espouse a daaghter of another 
who granted his request on the condition that the bridegroom 
should bring no old man with him along with the marriage 
procession, but bring hundred strong men who should fulfil or 
accomplish all the conditions he might require of them, on the 
marriage day. On the fulfilment of all the conditions he would 
give his daughter in marriage, and not otherwise. On hearino' 
this, the would-be bridegroom came home and consulted all the 
old and wise people. All were of one opinion that it was necessary 
for at least one old man to be present to give advice in a case 
of emergency. So they managed to take an old man to the 
bride's house by having him concealed within a drum. (According 
to the custom the bridegroom accompanied by his kinsmen, and 
friends, with drums, trumpets etc goes to the bride's house in order 
to bring her to his home. This procession is called "Barydt" 
(party of the bridegroom). This party is well fed, and gratified 
•with pecuniary presents or rewards by the father or guardian 
of the bride). As soon as the marriage procession arrived at the 
bride's house, the bride's father supplied hundred goats, fifty seers of 
rice, and a hundred seers of Ghi to the hundred strong men who had 
gone there with the bridegroom, and said that if they would eat all the 
food he had given they would obtain his daughter for the intended 
bridegroom in marriage, and if not, they should return to their 
home without the bride. At this the party felt perplexed, but 
kept silent in order to secretly obtain counsel from the old man. 
The old man told them, Do not be afraid of this, say to the man 
'yes we will do so.' Then kill one goat and divide the meat 
among the hundred men, and each of you must then eat a little, 
concealing some in the mouth to be afterwards spitted out. In this 
■way you will be able to consume the hundred goats, fifty seers of rice, 
and hundred seers oi glii. They acted as advised, and thus consumed 
the whole quantity. After this, when the marriage had been 
performed, the bride's father found out the trick which had been 
effected t'nrough the ingenuity of the old man whom they had 
secretly taken with them. But he was helpless, for then the 
marriage could not bo cancelled on any account. Hence the 
necessity of old people as advocated by the proverb. C. f. "Old 
men for counsel, young men for war." 

2 %^T "STfln""^!^ fr% ^T^T^- Jai ko budho bauli tai- 
ko kurho bauli. 



( 222 ) 

When an elder of a household becomes mad all the 
members of the family are sure to become so. 

Hence the necessity that the head of a family should lead 
an exemplary life, as all his dependents -will be sure to imitate 
his conduct whether good or bad. 

3 «JK^ ^?17 "^j^H" ^m^ nt l^* Barasa bhaya asi akala 

gai nasi. 

When a man reaches the age of eighty his intellect 
leaves him. 

It is said that God at first appointed forty years as the limit 
of life for men, bullocks, dogs, cats, and owls. In conversation 
together, man expressed to the other creatures his dissatisfaction 
■with the brief age allotted to him, saying that forty years was too 
short for an intellectual being who had such responsibilities to 
fulfil both to God and man. On the other hand, the bullock, dog, 
cat, and owl were discontented because their age was too long, 
seeing that their life was so full of toils and annoyances ; therefore 
they desired to be limited to twenty years of existence. God granted 
their wishes, and reduced the age of the four beasts to twenty years 
each, adding the surplus to man's life, which thus was extended to 
hundred twenty years. So it comes to pass that during the first forty 
years of a man's life (his own age) he lives happily and fortunately.. 
During the next twenty years (the bullock's period J he is full of anxiety 
and ambition, toiling like a bullock for worldly advantages. From 
sixty to eightyfthe dog's period) he is without sense of honour or dis- 
crimination, caring only to suit his own convenience. From eighty to 
hundred his character becomes like that of a cat, timid, humble and 
pitiable, and from a hundred to a hundred and twenty he resembles an 
owl, being purblind and stupid. 

4 ^5TT %T ^r^ ^T^T ^T ^I^- Dana ko bolyun aunla ka 

swada. 

The advice of an old man is like the Aunld fruit {the tree 
emlia myrobalan, phyllanthus emblica). 

I. e. Though unpleasant to the taste, if eaten yields good 
results. 



( 223 ) 

5 ^T liT fT^'n ^ %f ^r^ W^^- Budbo kau taruna ni 
Bau budha ki lakh a rau. 

Whatever an old man says is unhearahle by a young 
man, hut the saying of the former turns out to he true in a 
lac of instances. 

Youncr people ought to mind what old people tell them. 

6 ^T^T ^T^«g W "T^TI ^I^ ?[^T- Dano dushmana 
bhalo nadana dosta buro. 

An enemy in an old person is better than a friend 
in a child. 

It is better to have an old (or wise) man for an enemy than 
a young (or foolish) person for a friend. 

ONE IN DISTRESS WISHES ANOTHER TO BE SO. 

(a), smx. f% tT%T ^ «lf%^n' Nagara ki randau mai jasi 
hovva. 

Oh cursed women of the town, be like me. 

ChJ. %5rr '»%'l)" t^ 5)%r- Haija parhosi mai jaso. 

Oh, neighbour he like me. 

A bad character or deformed person wishes others to be 
like himself. 

The story narrated below will illustrate the proverb : 
Once a man who had his nose cut off for some offence 
happened to come in a city, where he was teased by being given 
the nickname "Nakata" (noseless). For some time he patiently 
endured the disgrace but eventually invented a plan of revenging 
himself upon the residents of the town. So he sat down like a 
saint in a conspicuous place of the city, and acted as if he was 
absorbed in the contemplation of God. Now and then he used 
to address the gods thus. "0 Vishanu, you are welcome, 
Mahadeva, you are welcome, O Brahma, yon are welcome, 
Lakshmi, (wife of Vishanu), Parbati, (wife of Mahadeva^, 
O Brahmani, (wife of Brahma), (in this way addressing many 
important deities) "You are welcome, come and sit down here" 
(pointing out a particular place for each with his two hands as 



( m ) 

a total of respect, and thanking them for their trouble and 
condescension in manifesting themselves to him. He did this 
constantly every day. This conduct attracted the attention of 
the passers-by, and gradually the news spread throughout the 
city and the country. At first the people did not believe him, 
but seeing him so firm in his faith, piety, and adoration, at last 
some people began to pay some attention and feel eager about the 
matter, and so they enquired from the feigned saint into the cause, 
and said that they did not see the deities while he was addressing 
them as if present. To this he said that no one could see the 
gods with the bodily eye until he got heavenly eyes by having 
become a devotee. This naturally induced some to become 
devotees of God in order to have a constant vision of Him like 
the man, and so many of them besought him that he would have 
mercy on them also. The man said that they should become his 
disciples by learning the religious enchantments (fascination of 
deities} from him. On this many of them volunteered to be his 
converts, but the noseless man said to them, "0 my dear brothers, 
it is very diiHcult for one to become a truly religious man 
amidst the luxuries and endearments of worldly things. No one 
can ever see the deities unless he divests himself of all worldly 
ambition and desire for the sake of his god. The chief source of 
pride of these worldly honors is the nose (the root of haughtiness 
and vanities) which ought to be got rid of first of all in order to 
render man an humble and worthy being in the sight of the deities. 
This is the first (most important) preliminary ordeal one has to go 
through in order to deserve and merit personal conversation 
with the deities. For as soon as one's nose is removed or cut ofi^ 
he becomes absolved of all sins and sinful sensations." One man 
at first fell a victim to this plot, (i. e. became a convert by having 
his nose cut), and to his utter grief found his hopes of seeing the 
deities to be utterly false. On enquiry from his Guru (spiritual guide) 
the new disciple was told by the man, "0 my dear son, (disciple) 
do you not know that a leper wishes to have the whole world 
become like himself, and so a sinner ? Since you have been 
unfortunately imposed upon, now you should also make the 
same profession, so that more men may become like ourselves, 
and that then no one will have to cast a slur on any one of us 
singly, for then there will be more men like ourselves in the world." 
After this both of the men [Nakatas) began to play the trick 
conjointly, and thus entrap a good many men in their clutches, 
until the news reached the King and his wise statesmen, who at 
once put a stop to this misbehaviour of the noseless sect by driving 
them out of thoir city and country. 



( 225 ) 

2 S^f -Sim 51 ^T1 «I»I 5| V':'! *f^ ^HiH^. Budho baila 

na apa laga na aurana kani lagana de. 

An old bullock being unable himself to woo prevents 
others from doing so. 

A dog in the manger. 

3 •! ^r"* *T2 51 «RT^ %T- Na apa kata na kati sau. 

Se neither cuts himself nor suffers others to cut. 

Used of a presumptuous and envious man who will neither 
do a thing himself, nor allow it to be done by others. 
C. f. "A dog in the manger." 

4 fi\fx. W^ ^ ^31 ^"I^* Griri parhachhyun saja aigechha. 

I fell down, but found the place I fell on comfortable. 

Once a jackal while walking along the top of a 
mountain accidentally fell down a precipice and was caught in 
the wild creepers below. In the attempt to get np, be got mora 
and more entangled in the plants. At last^ being quite exhausted 
in his efforts to get out, he was obliged to remain there. Other 
jackals who came by, on seeing their brother thus seated below, 
called out to him to come up and join their company. To this 
call of theirs, he said that he would not find a more comfortable 
place in the world, and so he would not quit it. This statement 
of his tempted the other jackals to fall down the precipice and be 
thus entangled like their brother who was greatly pleased at the 
eticcess of his trick. 

Applies to one who himself being in trouble desires that 
others should share it with him, or tries to get others into the 
same plight. 

C. /.. The fable of the Tailless Fox. 



5 *^m!lT 5WT ^ ^^^r ^I^'^T ^hf* Apana jayan ki ni 
kaka ka rayan ki cbha. 

I do not complain of my own ruin, but why in the 
world has my imcle escaped ? 

The regret of one fallen into misfortune that others do not 
share it with him. 

C 2 



< 22« ) 

ONE'S OWN DEEDS ETC. NEVER BAt). 

1 ^Itrrr e ^f^ <a$r ^ f^^WT. Apana dai kani kbato 

kwe ni batunu. 

No one calls his own curds sour. 

E. g. A merchant never says his commodities are bad. i. e. 
no one exposes his own faults and defects. C. f. "Every cook 
praises his own stow" "No fishwife calls out stinking fish." 

ONE'S OWN FAULTS & FAILINGS. 

1 ^TI'^T ^^T ^^T l''C«3^^^ ^1^. Apano Buno khoto 
parkbanera ke dosba. 

It is no fault of the assayer when one's own gold 
is counterfeit. 

This proverb is generally used of one who rightly loses bis 
case, or gets punished for his real guilt by a court of justice. 

OPPORTUNE ACTS. 

1 "^^t s^T ^fr^ ^^T \\ ij^a Qt^- Bapa ko bya karyun 
subera ko mukba dhoyun. 

A marriage arranged by one's father, and ablutions 
performed in the morning. 

No Hindu according to custom can eat anything until be 
has washed his mouth, hands, and feet, after having got up in the 
morning ; but if he has performed these ablutions in the morning 
he can eat anything at any time during the day ; and in the 
same way, if one is provided with a wife by his father, he can 
utilize her services at any time and is also saved the trouble of 
providing hiuiself with one afterwards. 

OPPORTUNITY, 
i -sr^Si f^gjqrT ^r» Bunda ge bilayata so. 
The drop has gone to a foreign couxdry. 



f 227 ) 

This proverb arose froQi the story noted below : 
Once some perfumers brought perfume for sale to a king, 
•who bought some, but out of what he had pur(;hased one drop 
fell on the ground, and the king at once tried to take it up with 
his own fingers from the floor. This act on the part of the king 
was considered very mean by his ministers and all others including 
the perfume-sellers. In order to- remove the impression, the 
ministers afterwards purchased many thousand Rupees' worth 
of perfume from the same strangers, and got it sprinkled all over the 
royal stables in order to augment their master's fame for 
munificence and liberality. Nevertheless the news of the drop 
had already gone to foreign countries through those foreigners. 
Hence this proverb suggests a careful, reserved and wise dealing 
with a stranger, and sbows that an opportunity once lost cannot be 
regained. E. g. Ill news travels fast. 

2 'U'nilT ^T^ 5TJ15JT^. Apano hatha jagannatha. 

One's own hand is as that of Jagannath, (^the Lord 
of the world) . 

The word Jagannath means God. "When God is pleased 
with a man, He showers wealth and blessings on him ; so when a 
man has permission to help himself he will do so to the utmost. 
A man will bestow on himself benefits when he has the opportunity, 
as bountifully as God does. 

Self-help.. 

3 ^TT ^9;K^ f^i%[ if T^r VT^ *fit \v Bava barasa dilli 

men rayo bharha jhaunko. 

Se lived in Dehli for twelve years, only to heat the 
oven of a grain parcher. 

1. e. He accomplished nothing for himself. Dehli being 
the capitiil of the Moghal Kings, people thought that by going 
to Dehli they could make their fortunes. This is applied to one 
who has not availed himself of a very good opportunity of better- 
ing his circumstances. 

4 ^^«r»T ^%T 5W^T **r^- Bakhata chuko juga ko phera. 

One who loses an opportunity may be delayed 
for ages^ 



( 228 ) 
5 51^ 5^T ^"at TT^ TT f7| ^\ %^J- Jaba chhayo raintho 



taba tu ni ai baitho. 



When I had Rainthd (a kind of savoury dish) you 
did not come.. 

You did not come to me when I was in prosperity, and 
could benefit you. 



6 ^vm\ 1T^ ^rt 3111^ •? ^"n. Apana pasa ai ganga men 

nai linu. 

One ought to bathe in the Ganges ichen it comes 
to him. 

Seize every opportunity (of gaining merit etc), 

7 ^f% '^^TT ^^T '5[%. Gharhi bacbi ta gbarbo bacbo. 

If a small pot escapes the large jar may escape. 

I. e. If the critical or dangerous moment is passed then 
there is no danger thereafter for years. 

(A gharhi is equal to twenty-four minutes). 

This is a play on the words gharai a small po^, and gharho a 
jar, gharhi a small and light copper cup with a hole at its bottom 
■which is placed in a tubful of water in order to measure time. It 
■will fill with water in twenty-four minutes and then sink down. 



PARAMOURS. 

1 s^if)" ^T ^n^ ^*TT ^T 1T^- Syaini ko jar a juta ko 

gara. 

One^s wife's par am,ours and pebbles in the shoe (are 
very troublesome and embittering to the heart J. 

2 -^^^ ^g It WT ^^T5R 5T3r ^ ^ ^tH" VltT^. Badal- 
yan dewa ki gbama cbarhaka dhanta maisa ki latbf 

dharhakn. 



( 229 ) 

. Sunstroke on a cloudy d.ay is -like the stroke given 
by a paramour. 

A ■woman can willingly bear the ill treatment of her husband, 
on the consideration that she is married to him, but a stroke from 
her paramour, (or one with whom she lives without marriage bond) 
is unbearable, as sunstroke on a cloudy day causes more harm 
than on a bright day. 

PATIENCE. 

1 V^^T^a^»I^^^^T^I^^'j€t5l^^« Bhukhoboda 
wall gadani aghano boda pali gadani. 

The hungry traveller wishes to eat his food at the 
first spring he meets, hut the one who is not hungry 
wishes to eat at the next. 

The needy man has no patience. 

PATRONAGE. 

1 V^'^ ^ ^T2 ^<B» Paharha ki ota sika. 

A small stick hides a mountain from one^s eye. 

E. g. A small stick if placed close to one's eye will conceal 
a mountain from his sight. 

Used as an appreciation of patronage, however small it 
may be, which works miracles and gives one encouragement and 
consolation. 

C. f. "A drowning man will catch at a straw." "Little 
strokes fell great oaks." 

Used also in the same sense as, "To make a mountain of a 
mole hill." 

2 ^^1 ^ W^ f^fl^T W^' Kukurha ki phala sina ka 



The flight of a cock is only into the next hush 
of Sina. 

The cock when alarmed takes shelter in the next bush, i. e. 
a poor man or any person in distress seeks the help of his 
immediate patron, whosoever he may be. 



( 230 ) 

3 mjf^ flR \t^ H^fil^TT^. Kaji ki daurha masajida 
taka. 

The flight of a Cadi is as far as the Mosque fno further) .. 

I. e. The Cadi's course ends at the Mosque. 
That is, one in need or distress resorts only to his patron 
for help. 

4 J^^T «lir ^T"^ "m^ '^T^- Kila ka jora bachhi buraka. 

The calf jumps with all his might because he knows 
the peg to which he is tied will keep him from falling^ 

Applied to one's firmness or zeal in a certain business, which 
he shows on account of the patronage or help of another greater 
than himself. 

PECULIARITIES OF LOW HILLPEOPLE. 

1 mj ^r^^T^ ^^ *^T f^'': ^^ ^f% (SiHTSl^r. Jan khasl- 
ya le da pai kayo pbira eka gbarhi ni manano. 

When a Khasiya says ^'Da Pai" then nothing vnll 
stop his rage. 

A Khasiya is an illiterate hill villager who when ill-treated 
will forbear for a long time, but when he is unable to control his 
anger any longer he will say "Da Pai" ("very good, see now"^) 
and then nothing in the world will stop him from assaulting 
the offender. 

Used as a caution against enraging him. 
(For Khasiya, see Introduction^. 

2 ^f%^T ^ "^^ ^^ f^ 'fit'J. Kbasiya ki risa bbainsa ki 
tlsa. 

The anger of a Khasiya (a rustic villager) is like the 
thirst of a huffalo. 

A hhasiyd when in rage will not spare any one, just as a 
buffalo drinks up all the water of a pool from which he drinks. 



( 231 ) 

3 ^fnfj" IT"?! *^r ^NI^- Ochhi jata karau utpata. 

A mean man raises quarrels, {and a noble person 
does what is noble). 

Low birtli will show itself in vile deeds. 

4 q^Tfr f^ ^ %r ^I'lT f%» Paharhi ki nai sau rupaya 
ki. 

A hill-man's "No" is worth a hundred rupees. 

E- ^. If a hill man once refuse to do a certain thinor, he 
will not do it, even if one tries one's utmost to pursuade him 
to do it. 

5 «l^T^ ^»ri5» ^T*TT ^ f^s^I^lt f^^x: 5T. Paharha samana 

data nai bina lathi dinera nai 

No country so liberal as the hills {hill-men), but they 
will not give any thing without a stick. 

This is used to describe the nature of the hill-people, 
who will give a thing when they are forced to give it, but not 
otherwise. 

6 ^i\Xj m[ ^ifll^T IfTTT ffi "^Iiil Sungara ka pothila 
cbbara ki bana. 

Young pigs are accustomed to ashes. 

Applied to people of low and mean families, by way of 
criticism of their bad conduct and evil habits. For the evil and 
filthy habits to which they have become accustomed for a long 
time become a second nature which they are quite unable to 
forsake afterwards. 

7 ^Z ^ '^^^V[l f^^W ^N ITW- Bhata ka barbya 

bbitanai linda garbya. 

If a beggar's {or bard's) family increases they ease 
themselves inside their houses. 



( 232 ) 

7. e. People from a mean family are accustomed to live 
mean Uvea. A bh.S.ta is a particular caste of Khassia Brahmans 
■who beg from any ani everyone, by singing their praises, and 
will even take money out of a dead man's hands, a practice 
abhorrent to other Brahmanas. 

8 ^|%^T ^TT^ *!iT? ^*T^ ^T^IIIT clfH ^I^. Bhujelo 
badbata badha nitara kharsyana tabhi howa. 

Let a pumpkin swell as much as it will, whether it he 
large or small it will shrivel t(,p all the same. 

The nature of a thing cannot be changed. The evil nature 
of a man will not change in spite of all appearances to the 
contrary. 

9 ;g«T ^ 'SJ^m ^SRTT f% %T5(qTW ^f^ 'tf^ff^. Duma ki 
dumyana bokya ki bokyana kakhi ni jandi. 

The peculiar smell of a JDum and a he-goat never 
dies out. 

The evil propensities of people of low families. 

10 ^»?lt ^^'t ^rf f% f^S\m ^"^ITf^ %f • Duma ki tauli 
boda ki bithana kabari jaun. 

The JDmn's vessel says, " When shall I go to the dwellings 
of the Bithas ?" 

A Dura is always anxious to mix with the Bithas (Patricians) 
in any way possible. Applied to low caste people who are anxious 
to be allied with the higher castes. Even an injury done by a 
Bitha. to a Dam is welcomed by him so long as it also disgraces 
the Bitha caste. 

11 ^j -Ti^ HT $t efirj %j^ epif qi^. Mero nau cbha 

Bbadu mai kya bodun kya kadun. 

Ml/ name is Bhadu, what I say or do no one knows. 

Applied to people of low family who cannot be trusted. 
For they have no sense of shame in them. 



( 233 ) 

12 ^^ ^T^ ^T 'Srar ^'»T 'ill "^m fk Sllfi:. Ekal banaa 

ka dala supa ekai bansa ki topari. 

£ig and small baskets^ and fans, are made of the 
same bamboo. 

Similarity of members of the same family. C. f. "A chip 
of the old block." 

13 ^^ -^^^J -^T* Ekai tbaili ka batta. 
Tf eights of the same bag. 

Same meaning as above. C. f. "Tarred with the sam«s 
brush." 

14 "^^ gjT -^z '^T'J. Bansa ka kbunta bansa. 

^ - . - 

A bamboo grows out of the stump of a bamboo- 
As father so is son. 

15 ^^T 51%T rT^T «T%T» Jaiko jaso taiko taso^ 

Such as his { father \ 
Same meaning as above. 

16 5it ■^^'5 <Tf 'a'ym 5itT3Tirr n7»T3i'a'«T. Jan bammana 

tan langbana jan rajputa tan majabuta. 

Starving where Brahmans (reside), everything to be 
had where Ha j puts {reside). 

J^ g. Brahm;ins are very Inzj', and therefore live on begging 
fpriesthood) whereas Rajputs are very industrious and have every 
necessary in their hom«s available at any time. If .i traveller 
happens to be in a village settlt>d by Brahmans alone he is sure 
to starve there, but if be settles in one of Rajputs fnow also 
called Khassias, i. ,e. coolie race) he will get all kinds 
of food, 

D 2 



( 234 ) 

This is also used by Rajputs in regard to Brahmans, in- 
nsmuch as the latter being engaged iu their religious duties take 
their meal late, while the former who have nothing of the kind 
to do take their meal in good time. 

17 ^f%m ^T^T ^^T ar/q ailJI^r ^r^T- Khasiya bbola 

delo topi mangalo chola. 

The Khasiya (coolie or rustic) is so simple that he will 
demand a long coat in exchange for a cap. 

An ironical expression meaning that rogues combine great 
cunning with apparent simplicity. 

18 q'ST^ ^T ■'^T'JT "SlfH TTT^ \l TT31T llf^- Paharha ko 
Raja kliati mala ko Kaja liathi. 

A Khdti king in the hills, and a loild elephant in the 
Bhdbara {vlains commencing from the foot of the hills). 

E. p. Before the amalg;imation of the kingdom of Kumaun 
by Raja Kalyan Ohand of the Ohnnd dynasty into one state, Khati, 
a race of Kajpnt origin held sway for a time in the hills, 
while the plains below the hill ranges were full of wild elephants, 
and so people dreaded to j)ass through them. Hence the Khati 
tribe of the hills was appropriately compared to the wild elephant 
of the Bhabar. 

19 ^^m f%^ «l J1T«!I 1^^^■^ si. Khasiya mitra nai gana 

pawitra nai. 

The Khasiya will never prove to be a friend, nor a 
croton holy. 

20 ofiTfTJl ^ '^f%1T ^T'i'I ^5lf%^T« Jatana me Barhiya 
sagana me jarhiya. 

Of all castes the barhiya (gardener') (is the worst) 
and of all vegetables the jarhiyd \^roxburgh). 

The gardener or Mali caste is very selfish and unworthy of 
confidence, and so is the vegetable Jarhiyd which is bitterish in 
taste and unwholesome owing to its generating catarrh, colic, 
etc when eaten, 



( 235 ; 

21 I3f%?i7 »T«1I^r ^T j»ir« Khasiya manayo thanga 
thancro. 

A. Khasiya (villager') ichen entreated becom.es ungracious. 

I.e. Polite requests are lost on tho villager who will only 
serve you after being threatened, 

PERSEVERENCE & DETERMINATION. 

1 ^I^TT ^fTT«! «I'l vf- Saka rau santana jana rau. 

Let fame or reputation be established, thoiigh sons 
should perish. 

Applied by one who is determined to fight out his case to 
the end even at the risk of losing his own sons or property, for 
he wishes his own name to live after him on account of the 
affi>ir» 

2 flr'T 5^T^ l^"^^ f^3iT^■ Shlra jawa sbirarLi ni jawa. 
Let one's head perish, but not his determination., 

C. f. "Try, try, and try again." 

Illustration. Once a bird known as "SitoW" had seven 
young ones in a nest built in one of the branches of a tree. She 
brought seven grains of millet to feed them with. Six of tho 
j'ourig ones ate each its share, but the seventh grain fell into a 
crack of the tree from which the bird could not extract it. She 
went to a blacksmith and requested him to cut the tree, but he 
refused to do so. Then she appealed to the king of the realm 
to fine the blacksmith for his non-compliance with her request. 
But the king refused to do so. Then she went to a mouse and 
requested him to gnaw the bed of the king. The mouse also 
refused to grant her request. Then she went to a cat and requested 
her to kill the mouse, she also declined to do so. After this she 
entreated a crow to take out the cat's eyes, but the crow also 
refused to comply with her request. Then she went and requested 
the fire to scorch the feathers of the crow ; tho fire also refused. 
On this she went to the waterspring entreating it to quench the 
fire, and on its refusal she requested a ram to destroy the spring, 
on the refusal of the ram she requested to a leopard to kill the 
ram, the leopard, on this, said "Very good, shew me the ram, 



( 236 ) 

1 will do so." Then she brought the leopard to the ram, -who 
being frightened at the presence of the leopard agreed to destroy 
the spring, which in its turn to save itself from being injured 
promised to quench the fire. Then the fire promised to scorch 
the feathers of the crow, the crow, to pull out the eyes of the cat, 
the cat to kill the mouse, the mouse to gnaw the bed of the kin tr, 
and the king to punish the blacksmith, and the blacksmith to cut 
the tree and take out the grain of millet from its crevice. So the 
bird succeeded in her determination. 



PETTY TRANSACTIONS 

1 "^ST^ ^T'OT ^I'n'^T'^' Tina tepauria paune chara 

Three Tepauna if added to Us. 3/ amount to Ms. 
3 — 13 — (three Rupees and twelve annas ) only. 

E. g. A Tepauna is ^ of twelve nnnas (or f of a Rupee). 
Rupees '6j is a very small cnpitiil. If one ]{upee brings four 
annas profit (the highest) the whole will not amount in any way 
to more than Bs- 3—12—0. 

Applied to a small business in derision. C.f. "Six of the one 
and half a dozen, of the other." 



POLYGAMY. 

1 ItaE aiT "^sfi "^T-a^ ^?: sqi ^5'': iw)"- Eka bya chakra 
barati dui bya kuknragati 

Se who has one wife is as an emperor, but he who has' 
two wives is treated like a dog. 

Once a thief entered the house of a man who had two wives.- 
One occupied the lower story of the house and the other the upper 
one. When the husband after taking his evening meal began 
to ascend the steps to the upper story (intending to go to his other 
wife) the one who lived below began to drag him down. Seeing 
this, the other wife, who lived in the upper story, came and began 
to pull him upwards. Witnessing this amusing scene for some 
minutes the thief left the house, and proclaimed the proverb tO' 
the people at large. 



( 237 ) 
POOR PEOPLE. 

1 ^rfJl «fli^ '^^T ''Tl^ '^Tl^ ^fiZT- Jogi jogi larha pattara 
pattara phuta. 

When Jogis (ascetics) fight with each other their 
vessels iin which they collect their alms) are broken, 
and being of little value no great damage is done. 
Applied to quarrels or law suits between poor persons. 

2 ifi^r Jfir f%^T^I ^mxj ^l^J. Panda ka sikbaya 
wobara ka satha^ 

Those of the upper story were taught, but those of the 
lower story became clever. 

Sods of rich and well-to-do men notwithstanding the care 
and exfiense bestowed on their education do not jirofit by it, where- 
as the sons of poor men who listen attentively to the instruction of 
the former become learned. 

3 qrlf% 515 ^liB^I" f^^If* Patali clibanchba pani ni 
swawa. 

Tliin butter milk does not admit of more water being- 
mixed icith it. 

A very poor man cannot afford to support anyone but himself. 

4 %f%?IT ^ ^■^'^ ^T^T ^» Lestiya ki charbi gbercba 
men. 

The fat of the Lestiyd (a very small bird) is in its: 
Gherchd, i. e. a small sac in the intestines. 

Poor people need to hide away very carefully the little money 
they may have. 

5 »IT^T ^^(^ %^r f^ ^1^1 ^r- ^Jaro wesani jai ko nl 
rodaro* 



( 238 ) 

Kill or beat one who has none to cry for him, i. e. who 
has no one to support or protect him. 

This phrase is ironically used when a helpless poor person 
is injured. 

6 T^'^zj \j vjg %f v^ I\laduwa ko bLawa ko pucliba. 

Tf^ho will enquire the rate of Maduwa {millet) ? 

This means, who cares for a poor person ? Maduwa is a very 
cheap coarse grain eaten only by the poor. 

C. f. "Rattle his bones over the stones, 
"He's only a pauper whom nobody owns." 

7 ^tt[^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ HcT ^^5 :^ ^ ^q^. Arasi mukha 
saba dekliani tawa mukha kwe ni dekhanu. 

No one need look into an iron oven {which is sooty), 
instead of a looking glass. 

E. g. No one sides with or helps a poor and distressed person, 
but every one naturally wishes to please a party in position and 
power, 

Gariba le bbir'ua men chadiinu bhirho udbari gaj^o ta pali 

pali baitbi janu. 

A poor man may mount on a loall ; hut if the wall 
becomes insecure he should put himself in a safe place. 

A poor man should not fight for a thing of which he has been 
deprived by force though it was his by right. 

9 l\^^^^ ^T ^31 SRT^- Gariba ka dasha kala. 
A poor person has ten deaths or oppressors. 

I. e. Every man oppresses poor people. 

10 Jirt"^ «PT «qi^ %T ^^^T' Gariba ka bya men nau 

khechala. 



( 239 ) 

There are nine obstacles in the way of the marriage 
of a poor man. 

In arranging for a marriage many persons or relatives are 
concerned and have to be consulted. A poor man, not having the 
means to please all, cannot expect them to be in his favor, and conse- 
quently many obstacles are thrown in his way. 

11 ^riT f% ^TfT W% ^IT"^- Ghorlia ki lata gTiorhai 
saharanchha. 

A horse's hick can he borne by a horse only. 
A poor person cannot fight with a stronger one, 

Gbarha ma dhungo ta gbarba ki landa dhunga ma gharho 
ta gbarha ki ran da. 

If an earthen jar is struck by a stone it will break, 
and if the jar strikes the stone, it will suffer the 
same fate. 

Poor people have no chance against the rich. C. f. "It is 
useless striking your head against a stone wall." 

13 ^T f^'TJ^ ^^^JT"? ^ Nanga sitani ujyarha men. 
Naked men sleep in the jungle. 

E. g- They have no fear of being robbed of any thing- 
Applied to one who has nothing to lose. 

C.f. "You cannot take the breeks off a highlander." (Scotch 
proverb.) 

14 f^JT^rel" ^T T^^l f%^- Nimanasi ko madana singha. 
Madan Singha {is called for) ichen no other is to be had. 

Madan Sing is an inferior man. 

15 ^^^T ^t '^%'^J ^T ^T*!- Kukurba son takuwa ko 
dama. 



( 240 ) 

The prick of a thin hot iron bar is enough for a hen 
to bear. 

A Talclwd is a thin iron bar which is attached to the hand 
of a spindle. '■'■Ddma" is a slio;ht burn with a hot iron as a reme- 
dy for pain in different parts of the body. If a hen is burned even 
with the thin iron of the spindle it is enough for her. The meanino- 
is that even a little loss is enough for a poor man. 

16 ^ 3!?ig ^ ^ ^ ^T'? ^^'3 ^^5151 "^T^ ^1^- Ye jangala 

men mai na bapa alakha niranjana api apa. 

Orphaned in this jungle, unnoticed, alone, entirely 
by himself. 

This is said by one who thinks himself helpless in this 
world, which he considers as a desert. 

17 ^^T ^ ^ f^ 'rr^T '^T^'gx: ^j %\^. Andha ki jwe ki 
pati parmeshwara ka hatha. 

God alone is the protector of a blind man's wife. 
Said of poor people when oppressed by the rich, 

18 ^17 % aF^T 1'?TT^ ^T ^^X- Swarga ko chhuto patala 
ko phuto. 

Let fall from the slcy, and broken on the earth. 

Used of one who is extremely poor and has no one to support 
or help him. One who does not even know his own parentage or 
is ashamed of it, and is also in very poor circumstances. 

19 ^TT 5115 lf^ T^ SR^ ^g^'n Rri %t^ ■^ft- Mero nau 

chha padi iche kadun ahikhana bhinde lionda badi. 

My name is only Padi, but for my slight faults I am 
greatly defamed. 

Said by one bemonning himself as a poor and humble man 
■who is constantly blamed for slight faults, while great men do 
much worse things with impunity. 

One law for the rich and another for the poor. 



C 241 ) 

20 jTct^ sfiT ^^T ^^ ^] ^r^. Gariba ka chela ninda ko 
posba. 

For the children of the poor, sleep is the only nourishment. 

Poor people should not disturb their peace of mind by 
nndertnkinor such works as lead to quarrels and risks which they 
are unable to cope with. 

21 ^fr^T %r sg g3Tf% liT vr. Chbora ko jlu tumrhi ko 
gliyu. 

Tlie pluck of an orphan is only equal to the ghi 

contained in a tumrhi, i. e. very little 

A Tumrhi is a very smajl vessel cut out of a long pumpkin. 
A poor man has very little courage to undertake any thine. 

22 zi^ ^"TT TT ^^^\ %T XJTl. Phola damaun ma 
kamcb\'or, ko raira. 

The soft song of the Kimcha (fiddlers and minstrels) 
amidst the be iting of big drums. 

In other words the voice of a Tuti (a small bird) in a house 
full of sounding drums. 

A[i])lied by one who thinks himself too poor to have his 
prayers and petitions heard b_v a groat man or officer, who is 
inaccessible to iiiui; Khimcha means the players of musical 
instruments v;ho accompany singing and dancing girls. 

23 ^"^^Tl^ ^ f'^ f^ >Tlf%. Dubala ki jwe panchun ki 

bbabi. 

The wife of a poor wan is addressed hy all as ''Bhdbi" 
or '"'■JBahu'' (^. e. elder brother's wife). 

Every one looks on her with bad intentions, and amuses 
himself by chaffing her, which he would not dare to do in 
the case of a rich man's wife. 

E 2 



( 2U ) 

24: sfSir ^^ TSirr^^- Nan<To kuda ujyarha men. 
One naked does not hesitate to trespass. 

E. p. OiiP who is very poor and has neither property nor 
family will rot hesitate to commit a wrongful act, for he has 
nothing to lose. 

25 ^ f5ff ^ (5f ^T 'W^. Ke piddi ke piddi ko jhola. 
What is a piddi, and how much soup can he made 

from it ? 

PidHi is a very small bird. 

Used as ridicule when comparing small things with greater. 

26 f^Tl^l^T ^t ^ f* ^TT^- Kirmola son muta ki 
rewarha. 

A stream of urine is an unfordable river to an ant. 

Used by poor people to express their helplessness to do even 
a small thing. 

27 ^»?T *IT f^^I^ ^. Nanga nau nichorha ke. 

"What cloth icill a naked man wring dry if he bathes ? 

Applied to one who, having no property whatever, incurs 
debt. He will have nothing to pay back. 

Illustration. Once a washerman in hope of finding employ and 
live^hood repaired to a certain colony inhabited by naked people, 
called '"Digambars," having nothing else but the eight directions 
(East, west, north, south, northeast, southeast, northwest, and 
southwest) for their clothes. The man finding the inhabitants 
in such a condition lost no time in quitting the place. 

POVERTY. 

1 ^Tl («r?rt 'RHI^f^T ^ ^%T ?T^^« Apa miyan ma 

ganu pTiIra bhaira kharho darwaisha. 



( 243 ; 

A beggar is standing at the door of a man who himself 
lives by begging. 

C. f. "Begwarj nannot help boggars." 
'•Can the blind lead the blind Y' 

2 ^m ^ ^I^T \^\ ^ ^^T^r- PJiunga men dbojo poka 
men ubayo. 

Washed on a stone and dried on his loins. 

E. g. A man is so poor as to have only one dhoti (cloth to 
cover the loinsj which he is obliged to wash when bathing, but 
having only one he has to put it on again as soon as washed, before 
it is dry. 

Extreme indigence. 

3 ^ %^ ^ZlWKff %»?$ hjZl- Peta haigain tota karama 
haigain khota, 

A hole in the stomach (always hungry), deeds bad. 

One in poverty always feels hungry, and is therefore apt to 
resort to illegal or dishonest means of livelihood which are sure 
and certain signs of his total ruin. 

Used as a caution against falling into such errors as will 
lead to destruction. 

POWER & POSITION. 

1 »Jtot 1511 ^T'tt ^"^h Griini puja dokhi saja. 

A worthy man is respected and an offender is punished. 
Used to pursuade boys to become skilled and learned men. 

2 ^r ^T ^«^T ^tH" liT TTf%5|i ^^^T* Kutta kya 
dekhano kutta ko malika dekhano. 

It is not the filthy dog we respect but the position of the 
person to whom it belongs. 

Used of a great man's unworthy relations and servants who 
are dreaded only owing to their family connections, or to their 
position in a great man's house. 



( 2U ) 

3 •TK^f ^^5[. Nura son adesha. 

Sending (making obeisance) before a light or splendour 

(great man). 

I. e. Every ono respects or tries to please' a prosperous 
person. 

4 ^<ircji?TT »It^ ^ ^^TfTiTT «II1T sf)"- Mulaka ma ganwa ni 

dafutara ma nama ni. 

I have no village in the country and my name is nowhere 
in the office. 

H. g. Every ono who possesses an entire villncre or a 
])ortion ot one has his mine recorded in the public office. He 
who Lts no land has no name in the office. 

Used by one who laments his humble position in the world;. 

5 si'^ "^^. <TT ^^ 'r"5ITf';> Jasai dewata usai pujari. 

As is the god, so is the worshipper. 

1. €. As is the head, so are his attenrlent.=. 
Used to denote a man's ])osition as wrii as character (either 
good or badj judged from his servants and comrades &c. 

6 ^^f% ^f^^ ^^%* Miikliavbi dekbika tukarbi. 
To give one bread after seeing his face. 

K. g. A man g;ets re<rard or disre^iard from other people 
according to his position. To the great we give much, to the 
poor little. 

7 51^ 1? nm ^f* ^- Jasi ru tasa pbarista. 

As is the soul {of man^ so will he the angel {of death.) 

JC- g. It is said that when a man dies angels come to take 
his soul, [f he is a sinner the angels of iiell will come and take 
liim to hell, and if he is a righteous man an angel from paradise 
will descend from heaven to take him there. 

This is used by one bemoaning that he is visited by sickne.«sea 
one after the other, or by distresses (or of another in such a 
condition) in consequence of former bad deeds. 



( 2U ) 

8 IT^ ^Hf^ iiTfay. Gurha dagarhi makha. 
Files will flock round treacle. 

Applied to one who while in power is crowded by followers. 

9 ^iJT ^ TTT^ ^^ ^Z^. Giiama ki tarafa saba baithani. 
All sit on the side where the sun shines. 

This is to the same purport as the preceding one. 

10 '«'^U ^ ^^ ^IIT- PbecLuwa ki kbeba kurba 
ma, 

Fhechuwd's flight is up to the roof. 

E.g. A small bird called " P/iec/ntwa' can fly only as high 
as the roof of a house, hence the point of the [iroverb. It is 
applied to a poor man whose powers of action -are limited. 

11 ^'^ %f^^ l«f? ^fi^J \{^^ aTr^TT. Mukharhi 
dekhi ka tukarhi cbetana dekhi ka byohara. 

Alms according to appearance, and business dealings 
according to intelligence. 

E. g. One gives alms or gifts to another according to the 
position of the receiver, and deals with him according to his 
skill or wit. 

12 51^ SllJl^Tfl^ ^^f* ^'sT^. Jasai jagadyo tasai 

bbata ki pakbola. 

As is the deity Jdgdyo, such is the food made of JBhatcs 

(a kind of inferior pulse) offered to him. 

A man is honored or dishonored according to his position- 
er qualification. C. f- "As is the garden, such is the gardener."^ 



( 246 J 

13 si^t tH fT% f^^*!!. Jaai randa tasai disana. 
As the woman {dancing girl) so her carpet. 

As a man is in character, position &c, so will be his 
circumstances. 

14 ^T(*% 'Sf^^r af-^ 'JT'TT. Khali kbasiya bud'ai patara. 

A Khasiyd (a hill rustic or a man of coolie race without 
employ ), and an old prostitute ( do not meet with 
regard ). 

Used of those who are out of power. 

15 xfW^ *5ff l^r ^\ %\(k^\ ^^r- Puchbarha jharhi- 

gayo nau chauriya raigayo. 

Though the ox has lost his coloured tail lie is still called 
"Chauriya." 

This is applied to one who is nominally called after his former 
post or position, of which he has been deprived now. 

PRECEPT & PRACTISE. 

1 *rT^ 'aiT^ H^^TT- Masu khaika masakhara. 

One who eats animal food condemns it in others. 

Instead of this having any effect on the minds of people 
they laugh at the man. 

The eating of animal food is considered sinful. 

2 ^^^X^ ^T<\^\%r{ ^T'? 'fi'^^fT. Aurana bo nasbihata 

apa phajihata. 

One who is himself of a loose character gives instructions 
to others ( to no purpose J . 

I. e. No one will attend to him, knowing his character. 
"Practise what you preach." 



( 247 ) 

rana denda hako ddko apa randa na hurhakiya raklio. 

A female who lectures others {on chastity) is hersdf in 
love with a drummer, ( JSurhakiyd is a man of the loicest 
caste even among the JDumas ). 

PRIDE & HAUGHTINESS. 

1 ^fn ^gT^I SIT ZIX JJ. Ati chatura ka nau thaura gu. 

Se who thinJcs him,self very clever, loill find filth in 

nine places on his own person. 

E. g. A clever and proud man has many great defects in 
him, of which he is not conscious. 

2 ^Zof5jTTT v^ MXsy ^^wi^r ^^ ^T21- Batakj^ara 

bbukba marana cherhwalyo bhela lotana. 

One who is very fastidious about his food will starve, 

and he who thinks too much of himself {always looks up 

at the ky ) will fall down a precipice. 

This proverb advises one to be content with what he gets, 
and not to boast of any thing that he has in this world. C. f. 
"Fride cometh before destruction, and a haughty spirit before 
a full." 

3 f^ira^^ "SH^frilT ^"H- Bigachyun duma khiri ma 

luna. 

A very proud JDtima {low caste) who goes beyond the 
limits of his caste puts salt in the rice-milk {instead 
of sugar). 



( 2i8 ) 

/. e. One who is puffed up or proud, does a thing beyond 
his power or jiosition. A miin who places himself out of his 
natural and proper station in life, does odd things. 

4 vf ^ ^T<3T lirHif. Bhin men ankha nahatana. 
One never looking towards the earth 

Applied to a very proud person. 

5 ^^]^ ^ '^ff ^T- Bansa men charbiyo. 
One mounted on a bamboo. 

Denoting a very haughty person. 



6 ^7T"5 ifr^I^r ^^ ^"^TTr- Chutarha cbbarama sbe- 
kbi jihorbama. 

Saunches in ashes, but pride as if on a horse. 

Applied to one in poor circumstances who becomes very 
proud. One who sits in nshes ,'i. e. who is extremely poor) is as 
proud as a man who rides on a horse. A beggar on horseback. 

7 V^T f?B 'Sirf^ Z^I^ f%^r5I' Dbela ki dumani taka ko 
mijaja. 

A Dumani { feinale Dom) worth a quarter of a pice has 

the pride of two pice. 

E ff. A poor man leading a life beyond bis position or 
circumstances. 

8 ^'RTT^ T^T ^'l^l ^^ffT^T WiT^ ^rfl- Utarayan 
undo lamadana cbarbawalya kapala pborbana. 

Persons going out of their proper limits shall fall, and 

persons proud and haughty will come to grief. 

Applied to those who lead extravagant lives as well as 
to those who are haughty- 



( 249 ) 

9 ^^ f%i}t ^T^^I ^ 1^ 'ajT VW* I'aili miyan bawalo 
tai para kbai bhanga. 

t)ne who is already insane eats bhanga {hemp) for 
intoxication. 

This is used when one noted for pride becomes much 
haughtier on account of increase of fortune. To add crime to 
crime, to act in a very senseless manner. 

10 ^gf ^^fk^\ fjJTrpTf^ "sq^ ^jfir ^ \^1W- Paili budbiya 

gitanga cbbi aba nati jai baigocbba. 

The old woman who always sang for gladness of heart 
has her joys increased by the birth of a grandson. 

I. e. Excessive pride at one's good fortune. 

11 "^"i ^f%^T ^f J ^ "^f^^T- Apun sarbiyo gborba 

men cbarhiyo, 

Simself rotten ( utterly destitute ) but riding a 
horse. 

This phrase is used of a poor person who is haughty, or 
assumes the airs of a rich man. 

12 ^Ttjmj T«1W JI«!T ^T'^^T"!- Apana mana le guna 
baurana. 

Gund thinks herself the beloved loife of her husband 
(who, however, does not like her J, 

Self-praise is no recommendation. This is used of one who 
thinks too much of himself. 0. f. "It is not good to eat much 
honey : so far even to search their own glory is not glory." "Let 
another man praise thee, and not thine own mouth, a stranger, 
and not thine own lips." 

13 TT^ 5131^15 ft'^ 'inr^l^T'^^ Ransi nazaracbba 
bicba ganga dekhado nicbba. 

F 2 



( 250 ) 

Sis eye is turned upwards and he does not see the 

deep river that is below him. 

This is applicable to one who does not see how he is being 
ruined. C f. Let thine eyes look right on and let thine eye-lids 
look straight before thee. 

14 f?!^^ ^^'g f^ (tI5!T5^ ift^T* Shikala churerhaki 
mijaja pari ko. 

Face of a hag and the pride of a fairy. 

Ironically used in regard to one who being destitute of 
any qualification or worth assumes an air of superiority and 
haughtiness. 

15 \ TT^JT ^ ^f?l ^ ^f^. Raja ke dhani mai dhani. 

^ TTjsij ^TT ^ivh\ ^f%. Kaja mera dhana ko dhani. 

^ ^f%^T«T ^T^I^*^. Lecbhioyo ta kbayo kana. 
1 What is the king's wealth compared to mine. 
8 The king is wealthy by my wealth. 

3 If he took my wealth why could he not enjoy it ? 

The above are the three notes supposed to be sung by a 
small active bird known as '■'■FyurarliV which dances about 
singing on the branches and twigs of trees. 

Once while catching insects and worms on the ground she 
found a very small copper coin which she took in her bill and 
danced about singing note 1. The story reached the king, who 
being angry on account of her pride had the coin snatched away 
from her. After this the bird began to sing the second note. On 
hearing this, the king for fear of disgrace thought it advisable 
to return her the said coin. As soon as she got her wealth back 
she began to sing the third song. Whereupon the good king 
came to the conclusion that it was no use fighting with such a 
smsU creature as she was. Hence the proverb, teaching that no 
one can stop the mouth of the world, and that it is beneath the 
dignity of a great man to quarrel with, or tease, or oppress, poor 
people, for they have no strength or courage to face him, but will 
open their mouth to defame or revile him. They are puffed up 



( 251 ) 

■with the little they have, and so the proverb is also used of poor 
people who become haughty. 

16 *f5i tfsi^fV ^^T >TI»] (^\^ ^%^ ^^. Dhana dhana 

kirhi tero bhaga twipa lidecbha bheli. 

O Kirhi, you are the more fortunate of the tico 
that your husband gave you alone a Bheli ( treacle or 
gagry cake J.. 

A man had twd wives, one of whom was Kirhi. The man, 
who had gone to a foreign country, returned home with money 
and jewellery. He made over all the valuables to his younger 
wife, but in order to prevent Kirhi from quarrelling he gave her a 
cake of gagry (Bheli). She in consequence became puffed up and 
shewed her pride to her kinsmen and neighbours, who knowing 
what had taken place in the household ironically uttered the 
phrase which afterwards became as a proverb. Applied to those 
who become proud by having a little property. 

17 ^ •! >TI!1T 'g»I^T %J^T' Bbin na bbana duma ka 
bdna. 

Neither on the ground, nor in a vessel, hut in the head 
of a JDu/ma {a low caste man). 

This is made use of to represent a very haughty person who 
has no more reason to be proud than a Duma has. A haughty 
person is represented by a Duma. 

Story : Once a low-caste man was spoken to by a king. 
The man after having been thus honored came to his house, and 
contrary to his usual demeanor sat down silent. His wife, brother, 
and sons addressed him as usual, but he did not speak or reply 
to them. They then thought him to be possessed by a demon, 
and his wife eagerly entreated him to speak to her, and asked the 
reason of his having become angry with her. On this he beat 
her with a stick and said, "0, cursed woman you are a foolish one, 
how can I speak with you, a poor woman, with the mouth with 
which I have spoken with the King ?" Hence it is said that pride 
does not find a place for itself anywhere except in the head of a 
low person. 

18 ^TT ^X % ^T1 ^'i 1T*I "^^TIT >i^T- Mera gbara 
hai asra lige naraa baisbwanara dharo. 



( 252 ) 

You took fire from my house and then named it 
' 'Saishwdnara. ' ' 

f As it is called in Sanserif). 

Used of one who ungratetnlly shows arrogance to another 
on account of the very thing which he had received from him. 
.For instance a student will act proudly towards his teacher on 
account of the learning which he received from him. 

19 ^qT 511^ 3^^ UTT^ -^^ "^IVT WrflT- ^1J^ 'ITT^ 

■fTT *ilT^T ePTT llT'ffT* Upara jali nisa parali munha men 
bandha dbota. Ye hala hamare to nangon ka kya 
nahota. 

I have a net over me and straw under me, and my 
mouth is covered with a Dhoti fa loin cloth J. These 
are my conditions, but how do the naked live ? 

The speaker is really naked, but he thinks much of himself, 
and others to be naked. Applies to those who are puffed up at a 
little property they have, looking down upon others as their 
inferiors ; as elsewhere it is said that the man of low descent when 
made a king, the son of an illiterate man, who becomes a Pandita 
by learning, and a poor man who gets money, consider the world 
to be like a piece of grass (nothing). 



20 ^ ^T^r "^^^ ^ V[\^J '^t "U gborha chadhanchha 
mai pakha cbadhun. 

If he rides a horse I shall mount a roof. 
Applied to pride and haughtiness. 

PROSPERITY. 

1 %im ^TT^ '^^T W^ "^Tl"! i;^T ^r ^rr ■^I^- Aya sar£- 

dha phula kansa bamana kuda nau nau bansa. 

At the approach of kanydgata {fifteen days of the 
Shrdddha fortnight lohich according to astrological 
calctdations occitrs in the months of September and 



( 253 ; 

October) when the kdnsa grass used in sacrifices and 

religiously/ ( JPod. cynosuroides ) begins to flower, the 

JBrahmans leap with joy, nine bamboos ( a bamboo=fen 

cubits J high. 

This is an ironical phrase applied to the Brahmans by other 
castes who have to feed them during this period. 

Out of the four months of the rainy season called "CTiaumdsa" 
sixteen days are set aside for the worship of one's deceased ancestors 
for three generations back : these are called "the sixteen Shradhas," 
Shradha means a religious ceremony performed in the name of 
one's forefathers, the principal part of which consists in feastirrg 
as many Brahmans, kinsmen and relatives with dainties as possible, 
and giving as much alms as one's circumstances permit to the 
Brahmanas. This is performed annually on the anniversary of th« 
date on which one's father or mother died. It has also to be 
performed on the corresponding dates of the Shradha period. 
According to the doctrine of transmigration every one that dies 
is said to enter into another body, and anything given to God 
in his (deceased's^ name is enjoyed by him, and so every one 
wishing bliss and prosperity to bis forefathers feeds Brahmanas 
with expensive food and gives them as much alms as he can. 

In proportion to the number of Brahmins fed and the value 
of the offerings made to them will be the satisfaction and welfare 
of the forefathers, who in return will bring blessings on their 
descendants. 

The proverb is also sometimes used to describe a piece of 
good lack. 

2 ^g'fl^ ^7 !lT»I»lTf%* Chalati ko nama garhi. 
As long as the vehicle moves it is called Ihe "gdrhi." 

A man is considered wise and good as long as he is 
prosperous. 

. .3 . TTT^T 'Tf^ %^T %T^^- Tato pani selo cboparha. 
• TFarm,- water and cool oil. 

This is quoted in regard to one vi'ho is in very prosperotis 
circumstances, as only well-to-do persons can afford to have warm 
water to bathe in and oil to rub over their bodies. The oil is 
ynbbed oyer the bodv before they bathe in warm water. 



( 254 ) 

4 'i^ ^T^ '^^ Tr^ ^"^ ?Tf5a^. Pusu koli pusa ten 

rancha kucha takhi ten. 

The weaver "Ftlsu" gets employment with his weaving 

instruments up to the month of Pusa f January J. 

After this the work of weaving is stopped. 
"Make hay while the sua shines." 

5 5HTI>* ^^I ^TTin ^H^T- Sbaradha sukha, bamana bhu- 
kha. 

When Shrddhas are ended the JBrahmans are 

hungry. 

Vide above for a description of the religioiis ceremony called 
''Sharadhar 

6 T^ ^ZM 5 Vlfl ^^»D ^. Dudha ghutana ku bhata 
thukana ku. 

To drink the milk and to spit out the rice. 

Well-to-do persons generally mix rice and milk together for 
eating. But after they have eaten enough rice they drink the 
milk only. 

Applied to one who has enough and to spare. 

7 ^gi?^ mi ^^ ^. Chalati ka saba kwe. 

All are aJcin to the prosperous man, i. e. everyone 
seeks his friendship. 

Story: Rama Chandra king of Ajyodhya (now known a& 
Fyzabad) during twelve years' banishment once happened to visit 
the hut of the saint known as "Agasti." The saint paid no 
attention to him and did not receive him with the respect due 
to a king. But when after having killed Rawana he was on his 
■way to his capital Ajodbya io ascend his father's throne, then the 
same saint Agasti, along with the other saints also, came to pay his 
respects to the king (Rama Chandra). At this time Rama Chandra 
asked Agasti what was the cause of his being so courteous at this 



( 2'55 ) 

time, since both of them knew each other from the beginning ; to 
■which the saint replied "0 King, one's circumstances are worshipped 
or respected, but not his body." 

8 ^TT>^ ^T^T mTVn 5!T5nT ^^T^f fS^T^I m^^ (^H^T. 
Saradha laga bamana jaga saradha nimarha bamana chi- 
marha. 

The Saradha commenced, the JBrahmans awoke, the 
Sarddhas ended, the Brahmans became lean. 

I. e. The Brahmans who live on invitations to Saradhas or 
religious feasts rejoice and grow fat, while the festivals last, but they 
starve when the religious ceremonies come to an end. 

A satire on Brahmans, and ^Iso applied to one's prosperous 
and adverse daj-s. 

9 ^"»^T "^f% "^^^ Kaparha barhi bastu. 

Clothes are the chief thing ( for respect ), 

Once a man of some note -went to a certain town in his 
ordinary dress, but was not saluted nor shown any respect by 
any person he met with- After some daj's he visited the same 
town dressed in sumptuous clothes, when he was greeted and 
saluted by every person he met. In reply to every salutation 
the man instead of uttering "Udma Sdma" (the name of God), 
"jLshirldda'^ (blessing', "Live long'' "Be happy" <fec (forms of 
salutation), said as above, to show the people that no one regards 
man or God but every one has an eye to the apparent signs of one's 
prosperity which command the respect of mankind without any 
regard to his internal defects and failings. 

10 ^T'^^lfT ^^^ ^^^T^r» Harabakhata kukura gbyu 
ni kbano. 

Dogs do not eat ghi every day. 

One must not look for continual prosperity without a 
single cloud. 

11 fij^T^gr ^r 'TT'Sr- Bida dyo ka mapda. 
A shed for bright days. 



( 25G ) 

Houses in which one can find shelter orly during fine 
weather and not on a rainy day when they leak badly. Summer 
friends, who fail in time of trouble. 



PROSTITUTES. 

f%^Z%7. Patara ko yo kama khai pi satakau chatura ko 

yo kama patara so ni atakau. 

Ti is ihe harloVs business lo entice and roh a man 

and then discard him ; but the toise man wilt not be 

tempted by her seductions. 

Applied to all who selfishly wish to profit themselves at the 
«xpense of others. 

2 qj^^ %T ^^ 'l^T ^ 1^ ^T- Patara ko yara maro 
kai gall ko. 

Who hnows in ichat street a friend of a prostitute 

died ? 

This is nsed to sTiow that prostitutes have no real friends 
as they themselves are not such to others. As they have a great 
many customers, no one knows the whereabouts of the one who 
died. This is used by one who having a certain interest in a joint 
matter thinks himself too poor to do any thing in the matter. 

3 '^€t ^■<:'Tl€t 'lf?r m{Tk[ W^\^^^ Randi gbara mandi 

patibrata ko karhaka. 

. It is strange that a harlot has an abu7idance of every 

thing, and a chaste woman starves. 

This is used to console one on account of the transient nature 
of worldly pleasures, and to base hopes on good deeds, which 
secure everlasting bliss. 



( 257 ) 

Story : Once a servant of Mahadeva (called "Nandi)" was 
rubbing the body of the god with oil. On hearing a cannon-shot 
he enquired from the deity as to its cause. The latter said that 
Kawana was born. While continuing to serve him the servant 
again heard another shot. On enquiry he was informed that 
Rawana was made king of Lanka (Ceylon). This news grieved 
Jiim and caused him to repent of his long service rendered to 
Mahadeva, being envious of Rawana, who was anointed king of 
Lanka, so soon after his birth. While the servant was thus 
brooding over and lamenting his luck, he heard a third shot. He 
again asked of the deity the cause of it, and Mahadeva replied 
that Rawana was killed, and his death was being announced. 
This pacified the man and brought him to his senses. Then 
he began to appreciate the immortal life he had gained in 
ihe -divine service, and to despise the transient nature of 
worldly glory. 

4 %T ^TWT ^^S ^ f T^5i ^jmn 'g^ ^ W^T^- Jo khano 
hansiki dari na so khawa ghara ki buwari. 

Whatever money is spent on a harlot ought to go to 
on^s wife. 

Used as a caution against vicious folly. 

PIRUDENCE & PRECAUTION. 

1 ^I'nt^^^ ^fz'^T^T. Jogi haganai bati bhaja. 

The ascetic runs away from the place where he has 

eased himself. 

Applied to one who has no family or property to bind 
him to one place,' and so cannot be entrusted with a loan or 
anything. 

2 ^J57 ^T ^5? "af^^T ^T I''' Ochha ko dhana chukila ko 
gana. 



( 258 ) 

The wealth of a poor person and the eructation from 
acid food. 

C. f. "Great cry and little wool." 

3 HI»1^^ >f fT^ ^jft ^TT. Bhaganera bbuta ki langot£ 
labha. 

Even the rag of a flying goblin is a gain. 

I. e. The smallest thing received from a person who is 
leaving for good, may be regarded as a gain. 

4 |^^f%?lT % I^Hf%^T *T%T' Nimarliiya bai cbimarbiyo 
bbalo. 

{Any thing) even in a rotten and bad state is better than 
its non-existence. 

C. f. "Something is better than nothing." 

5 ^% "SiJX »lTi% ^IT H> 5«TTf^- Le kai bar a nali lyau kai 

cbba nali. 

If one is asked to take (purchase) he demands at the rate 
of twelve rtdlis {twenty-four seers of grain) : if he is asked 
to sell he will. do so at six ndlis for the Rupee. 



6 ^I»l ^T% SEflV ^^ tjT <iT^T '^f't ^^- Saga kbano 

byuni bera gaun kbano nyurbi bera. 

The crop of vegetables is to be gathered by thinning, and 
life in the village must be passed with meekness. 
Counselling thrift and caution. 

-T >T^ (%f^ 5!!^ 5l(% H5g(5| i?. Bbali cbbipi jancbbya 
uaki pbailani cbba. 



( 259 ) 

The goodness is concealed and the wickedness spread 
abroad. 

E. g. Anything good done to one is confined to him, 
but any wrong done to him he will spread by informing 
every body. 

Used to deter persons against doing an evil act. 

"The evil that men do lives after them." 

'The good is oft interred with their bones." (ShakspearJ. 



"1 



S ^9 ^T ^T^ V(^ cGTcbTT^ Bbainsa ko mola bbainsa ka 

dbamana. 

The large quantity of a buffalo's dung {used for manure) 
repays one for feeding it only. 

A large business requires a large capital, or large profits 
are the results of large outlays, also used to describe an unprofit- 
able business. 

9 ^g^ ^I^T^ ♦T'^^r^T''^* Paili ahara taba byohara. 
First food then worlc. 

Used of one who delays taking his food in preference to other 
things at the fixed or usual time. 

Don't attempt work on an empty stomach. 

10 «rq l'';^'^^. Pancba Parmesbwara. 
God in five persons. 

I. e. God's will shown in the opinion of the majority. 

It is said that once a king in ancient times tried to prove 
the truth of this maxim by bringing a jar of money, with its 
mouth closed and sealed up, before a number of people who were 
required to guess what it contained. All of them said that it 
contained a snake. On opening and emptying the jar a snake 
came out as predicted by the majority, to the utter astonishment 
of the King. 

11 ^^T^ 2TT« Tuka men taura. 

(J. stick of sugarcane) sour at the end. 



( 260 ) 

A sugarcane is sweeter towards its root, and insipid towards 
the end. 

Used of one who after having done some work cheerfully 
and carefully spoils it eventually by bad or unwise conduct. 

1^ %^T ^^T igfjfT^. Chelo bachau chhati taka. 
A son should live up to his sixth day:. 

On the sixth day after the birth of a son a religions rite is 
performed at which there are great rejoicings and festivities. The 
father distributes alms, feasts bi» relations, and gives dancing 
parties &c. The proverb means that it is better that a man should 
have a short life and a merry one, rather than live out a long and 
miserable esistence. 

Used to encourage sons to be industrious and wise with a 
view to their becoming wealthy and renowned. 

13 ^jq^vU ^y ■^■^^ ^ %T ^t^ ^TIT^l %• Jo garaja so. 

barag?? nai jo barasa so garaja nai. 

Tits dovA Chat thur.ders does not rain, and the one thai 
rams does not ihzinder. 

C. f. "The dogs that bark most bite least," 

14 tj^ ^ '^TT ^Jf^ f^^T?;* Munda ki mundai ghata k£ 

pisai. 

The bhaving of one's head and the grinding of one's corn 
{must le paid for). 

This is applied to denote expenses which are unavoidably 
neceacary. A man v/ho does not pay for his shaving will become- 
a barber in the jiezt birth. 

15 ^^T^I ^T^ '^J'<. ^ 'IT^T ^^ "^T* Dui khano bars 
bara rui khauo eka bara. 

One can milk a cow again and again, but can breaJc doum 
a hough {of fruit) only once. 



( 261 ) 

For instance living on the interest of money and not 
spending the capital itself, or living on the produce of land arid 
not selling the land itself, enjoying the fruit of a tree -without 
destroying it. To milk a cow gently and carefully. To break 
down, to nse roughly so as to destroy. 

Used to pursuade one to be satisfied with a little help given 
to him, giving hopes that he will be helped again and again if tha 
helper lives. 

C. /. "How lives the wise ? How doth he use 
"The gifts and sweetness qf the world ? 
"E'en as the bee that takes the dews 
"Of nectar in the flow'ret furled, 
"But mars nor hue nor scent nor worth — 
"So dwells the wise upon the earth." 
The undernoted story will further illustrate the proverb. 
Once a prudent man went to a foreign town with a piee 
in his hand, where he remained for twelve years. He lived on hia 
earnings all this time, but took diligent care of what he had in 
cash (i. e. one pice). The man could only earn his food, but not 
money for firewood, and so he bought one pice worth of firewood 
with the pice he had, but as soon as he had cooked his food be 
quenched the fire and preserved the charcoal which he sold to a 
goldsmith and got a pice again. In this way he continued for 
twelve years, at the end of which he returned home with his pice 
still in his possession. 

16 »T^ f^ ^7"fi ^1"^ ^T ^T1« Marda ki mauta namarda 

ka hatha. 

A brave person is often hilled hy the hand qf a coward. 

E. g. Great persons or plans are often thrown by trifling 
causes. C. f. "A small leak will sink a great ship." 
"The best-laid plans o'mice and men 
"Gang aft agley." (Burns). 

17 55*? ^T ^^T ^^"(T ^T ^WT* "Sata ko sawai asata to 

dewadho. 

Profit of four annas in the rupee invested in trade is fair, 
hut eight annas unfair. 

Used to inculcate that unfair profit will tend to one's ruin, 
tut the fair one will make the trader prosperous and happy. 



( 262 ) 

18 faTi^ ^TT^IT ^T^T ^TT^«T. Khano sarakhata 
rauno pharakhata. 

One ought to share his food with others, but remain aloof ^ 

A man should secure a certaia amount of privacy for his 
own afifairs even in his own house. 

19 ^t'cT*! ^r 'Sllf^ ^H 'B^tI^' Dantana ka agarhi jibba 
sayani 

The tongue is cleverer than the teeth. 

The tongue remains unhurt though close to the sharp teeth. 
Advice to deal wisely with the dangerous people among 
whom one has to live. 

20 »[^T ^1Tf% ■^T'lir %• Naika agarbi rasta nai. 
There is no other way in face of a refusal. 

I. e. If you refuse my request there's an end on't. 

21 ^n f% "^iTT"^^ f%^r^T ^^ ■<TTfn! fTrfnr »TT. Syapa 

ki barabari kitaulo kara tani tani mara. 

The insect or reptile called '^Kitaula" (a miniature of a 
snake) in its attempt to compete with a snake drags itself 
to death. 

An unequal match. 

Used as a caution against competing with a greater person^ 

22 ^^^^ ^im ktlX "3^1^^ ^fm HJ ff|^^. Rupayan, kani 
aura akala kani bbeta nibuni. 

Wealth and wisdom never meet together. 

E. g. A wealthy man has no wisdom and a wise man no 
wealth. A person while in the possession of wealth has no sense 
to take care of it, but it comes to him (in the way of repentance) 
when he has squandered his wealth. So he uses this proverb, 
bemoaning his conduct. 



( 263 ) 

23 ^imi "^W^ ^3 ^^ f^^^'15- Apana tllana bata tela 
nikalanchha. 

One gets oil from his own Tila {i. e. sesame). 

One may derive any amount of profit from bis own property 
or money. 

24 f^ ^^T ^T TTfT 'SJI'iot* Dina dusara ko rata apani. 
Day another's, hut night onis own. 

Leisure comes to all when the day's work is over. 

25 ^^TWr (5157^^7 ^7»Tg ^TT fi=IW7T^T ^»T^. Agliano 
ni chhorhano samala gliama ni chhorhano kamala. 

When one's hunger is satisfied he should not leave his 
provisions behind, nor his blanket because the sun is 
shining. 

E. g. Food and clothes are two things always needed, especially 
on a journey, where the traveller has to bear them on his shoulders. 
So the proverb tells one not to neglect to take these with him. It 
also teaches one to provide himself with all the necesaries of life 
for his future comfort while in good circumstances. 
Improvidence. 

26 V(m ^%J ^7^ f5l^il!7. G^asa dino basa ni dino. 

Feed the wayfarer but do not lodge him. 

For a stranger will find out the faults and failings of the 
owner of the house. 

^7 WH^ Ws;^ f% %T.i^ ^^^'M* Sunani sabana ki karani 
apani. 

One ought to hear everybody, but do wliat he wishes to. 

28 f^J >i^ ^n=ITT ^12. Bina guru andheri bata. 

The path is in the darJc without a teacher or spiritual 
guide. 

I, e. Every one is ignorant of the way he wishes to go 
until he is instructed or enlightened in the matter. 



( 264 ) 

29 "^^q If ^rs 'TT"»f% f^«itwl%« Tiratha men janu 
jhoparhi ni bandhani. 

One ought to visit a shrine or sacred place, but not build 

a shed there to live or settle in. 

A man's religious zeal should not interfere -with his other 
duties. Besides he is likely io commit fresh sins, if he protracts 
his stay there. For it is said that sins committed elsewhere can be 
absolved in a sacred place, but those committed in a sacred place are 
never forgiven, nor can be atoned for by any meritorious act- 

30 ^T** ^I"^ ^^ efiT^^T ^^' Papa aura pantha katlyo 

sukha. 

One gets peace of mind as soon as his sins are forgiven 

{absolved), and his pilgrimage finished. 

In other words so long as one's sins are not absolved or the 
necessary journey to a certain place not performed, they prick his 
heart, and remind him of the disagreeable necessity he is under to 
expiate them. 

31 ?n^l'^^ eRT^ f^i^i^^T' GfU khaika kala ni kata do. 

One cannot pass over famine (get over the time of scarcity) 

by living on human dung. 

I. e. One's poverty cannot be overcome by resorting to wick- 
ed and unlawful means, such as theft, falsehood &c. 

32 '^f?T ^T^I ^ Ati bhalo nai. 
Too much (of a thing) is not good. 

One should not go to extremes ia any thing. 

Sita the wife of Rama, owing to her remarkable beauty was 
carried off by Rawana. Rawana, king of Ceylon, boasting of his 
great power, was slain by Rama. Bali, an ancient Indian king, was 
very liberal in his charities. On one occasion in his form of dwarf 
Brahman went to him (Bamana Avatara) he went to Bali and asled 



( 265 ) 

for so much land as could be covered by his three feet. On receivmg 
tlie boon he expanded to such an enormous stature that he filledthe 
three worlds with his two feet alone and there remained no space 
for his third foot, for which he had stipulated. Therefore Bali in 
his excess of liberality proposed that the third foot should be 
placed upon his own head. Thus he was thrust down into the lower 
Tegion.s. 

S3 ^q- %5T %f |[ ^t ^5T ^31 ^ ^?I %^ qi;^3l ^. i-pun 

chainu gaun nai gaun cliainu desha nai, desha chainu 
paradesha nai. 

What a man needs for himself should not be given away 
or sold to his village, and what is needed for the village 
should not be allowed to go out therefrom, nor what is needed 
for one^s own country to go to a foreign land. 

f Else the man himself or his neighbours will eventually suffer 
want or inconvenience). 

A caution against exhausting the resources on which the 
people depend. 

34 ^T^T i-^^T ^%r -^J^J ^^ Ri ^t^ g^T2 ^Trz- Saro 
dhebaro mudo mado puehha ki danwa larata karata. 

The sheep kept silent while its body was sheared, but 
made a great outcry when they sheared the tail. 

Applied to one who after having almost settled or completed 
an affair, quarrels about some small detail. 

E. g. They agreed upon the price of the elephant, bat 
quarrelled about the Mahat's spear. 

25 %Jit ^j\jmj ftf^ ^T3% JHf^. Jai gaun ni jano wi 
ki bata ke puchhani. 

Why should one enquire after the pathway to a village 
lie does not wish to go to. 

Unnecessary interference. 

H 2 



( 266 ) 

36 TTT'JfT is l^jfr 'aW- Talo dyun na cbori lao-un. 

Neither loill I give you my hey nor accuse iioil of 
theft. "^ "^ 

I'll manage my own affairs. 

^^ ^%\ ^T^ 5l%t Tir^. Na jaun ali na khaun gali. 

If I do not trespass upon the land {belonging to 
another) why shoidd I be abused by him. 
Caution against trespass. 

38 -^rf^ ^T?| f^?i^7 ?T^^%T 'ST^^T ^^T- Bacbhi baga 
ligayo taba hulo halano sikbo. 

One learns to bolt his door after his calf has been talcen 
away by the leopard. 

Wise after the event. C. f. "A stumble may prevent 
a fall." 

39 TrT^cfi ■^'^ ^T^T^r '5TT^ ^=^ ^T^5i. Marlka bacha 

so dano khaika bacha so bija. 

He who has escaped from a fatal sickness is an 
experienced man, and the grain left after eating is 
for seed. 

40 SfiTT^ ^^I'? fsi^fif': ^'l^T fH^ ^ir- Nai thain salaha 
nikari munalo bhijai baitho. 

Lathering one's head {for being shaved ) without 
consulting a barber. 

E. g. Whenever one wishes to get his head shaved he 
engages the services of a barber for the purpose, but if he lathers 
his head without doing so he subjects himself to laughter and 
ridicule. 

One ought to make every arrangement necessary for a work 
or business before he starts, otherwise he will not get his work 
accomplished. 



( 267 ) 

41 51'SIT'^ ^T ^^ ^Tf^^T ^T'lTII f^^J- Juari ko dhana 

dokhila ka nana tina. 

Wealth in the hand of a gambler and children of 
ghost-affected {diseased) parents will not last long. 

42 ^^7 ^T^T ^T^T f% "T'sTT'O^T^r- Mero khoro saro ki 
pakhana saro. 

Is my head harder or the rock ? 

Applied to one who wishes to fight a stronger man, to dissuade 
him from doing so. 

43 iTTSlI % f^l'^'JIT f^'S'^T. Marana hai bigacbana ki 
dara. 

To he ruined is more to he dreaded than to die. 

44 ^^ ^ 5lf%^T 5T^ "^X^ ^^ ^- Duda ko jaliyo chhansa 

phukibera pe. 

One who happened to hum his lips hy drinking hot 
milk does 7iot drink even Chhansa {butter milk) without 
blotcing on it to cool it. 

Applied to one who, once cheated or betrayed by another, 
is suspicious of every one. A burnt child dreads the fire. C f. 
^'A scalded cat dreads cold water." 

45 ^^T "^m f<^^ i^T^T ^T W^T 'J^f ^T^T • Jaiko 

bapa rikba le kbayo so kala khunda so darau. 

One whose father was killed by a hear is afraid even 
of the hlack trunk of a tree. 

(A stumble makes one careful). 

46 ^T^ f^ ^\^ ^T^ f^ 5ff . Roka ki pboka pboka kt 
chbutti 



( 268 ) 

Cash {scattered and turned^ into goods {purchased 
with cash ) and the articles, if lent on credit, disappear 
or are lost through insolvent borrowers. 

Precaution against imprudent speculations and loans to 
persons who arc cheats. 

47 5if5i qfifSj ^trf l|»i. Naja kani danta chhana. 
Tke grain has teeth. 

I e. If you eat too much of it it will kill you (in the way 
of indigestion/. 

48 ^?r ■^Jim qg ^">f ^"T^- Kabhain baingana patha ka-- 
bhain apatha_ 

Egg-plants wholesome at one time and unwholesome 
at another. 

This vegetable when eaten is said to be injurious, but 
if one at any time eats it without any such effect this cannot be said 
to be a proof of its wholesomeness. For evil things ought always 
to be guarded against even if they do not hurt one on one occusion. 

49 ^J^ ^•q^ "^I^T ^^^T 5l3tJTT^. Apa dubante bamana 

le duba jajamana. 

In trying to save his priest, the man himself was 
drowned. 

Caution against rashly undertaking to help those in 
difficulties. 

50 'aqj'^ITS^ ^t ^% W^ "^X^J* Asamana son thuko 

muha men ayo. 

iSpitting towards the shy the spittle falls bach on one's 
own face. 

"Curses come home to roost." 

51 '^(irsi 5!T^T '^T'lT '^t'^I t^ ^T^T ^T^T- Anatha jaiTO 
ancro bango dull iano samo. 



( 2G2 ) 

One should enter one's hole straight, even though momng 
zigzag elsewhere, as a snake does. 

This enjoins submission and reserve with the strong and great, 
and simplicity towards the members of one's own family. As a 
snake wriggling about when abroad yet enters its hole straight ; 
s& a man should practice worldly arts in dealing with the world 
or with superiors, but be simple and natural with his own people. 

52 ^^g iFJ^ fgi ^Tf%%5^'ii f^TTfoi. Akalmanda ki laun- 
di kewakupha ki rani. 

To be the maid-servant of an intelligent man is better 
flian to be the queen-consort of a foolish Jcing. 

53 ^fgg ^r gj-^iT cff%^r f5^Tf% %\^. Aghila ko la- 
tarho baliyOj'pichharhi aunchha. 

The fire lohich burns at one end' of a piece of wood will 
gradually come to the other end. 

What is beneficial or the reverse to one will in the end be 
found the same for all. 

54 '^l\ W(^ *f T'*f% ^TT f^^^r ^T -^HH. i-ga lagi jhoparhi 
jo nikalau so labha. 

Any thing taken out of a burning house is a gain. 
"Something is better than nothing." 

55 Jjf ^T "^m ^ \j •1I^« Gaim ko basa kula ko nasba. 

To live in the country is to ruin one's oicn descendants. 

The children of one residing in a village are liable to contract 
the unpolished habits of their neighbours, and are debarred from 
the advantages of education which in India are found only in towns. 
Tillage life also renders young people awkward and clownish. 

56 ■^^T "qfT^I %T "^T^T 1T¥ (^^1T- Barobarlya ko soho 
garba ni bagau. 



( 270 ) 

The gold of one of eqtud rank cannot he sive^yt away 
even by a river {if throion into it). 

A person of equal position cannot be imposed upon, as he can 
claim redress in case he is put to any loss. 

57 ^T n»{ 511^7 ^^T ^NT ft^T ^T7- Jo dhana jano de- 

kho adha diyau banta. 

Wealth which is about to be taken away, give away 
half of it. 

I. e. If a case seems likely to be lost, spend liberally in order 
to better your chance of winning it. Also applied to those about to 
become bankrupt. 

58 %?]■ ^^7 ^f ■q^7 Jo nerho so perho. 

One who is near is dear 

The converse of "out of sight, out of mind". 

59 si'^rT^R '^7^^ ffJ ^"^7 ^ ^"^^ ^^- Jabataka balaka 
ni runo mai dudha ni dini. 

A mother does not give her child milk unless it cries. 
C.f. "Nothing ask nothing have." 

60 ^7^187 ?i7in ?i7^7 ^^ "^ ^^ Tfisn^T. Apano kbanu 
kbano duma tben cbbuwe mangano. 

To eat one's own food, after it has been touched by a 
'■'dumr 

The food of a Hindu of any of the higher castes {Bithas) if 
touched by a Diima is considered defiled and only fit to be thrown awaj-. 
Whenever there is any trouble or inconvenience in the manage- 
ment of one's own property through having intrusted it to another, 
this proverb is used. 

61 ^^^t: ^ f^^T57. Maranera ke ni karanu. 
0ns about to be killed, lohat will he not do ? 

A desperate plight. 



( 271 ) 

62 ^zj efiT 5Tf T %f^ ^\^ ^fT 9BT Z^^ fsi^^^T* Mitlia 

ka jarha khaini khanda karha ka tukulu ni chherbado. 

The roots of a sweet plant are dug out and eaten, but 
not even the leaves or shoots of a hitter one ard 
touched. 

This is applied to a man of good temper who is always being 
troubled and resorted to, whereas a person of cross temper 
is shunned; 

Story. Once the sweetmeat being oppressed and troubled 
hy every one in the world went to one of the gods and laid her 
complaint before him saying that every creature in the world 
attempted to eat her. The god after hearing the tale of her woes 
was thereby tempted to taste her himself in order to find out 
whether the universal liking for her was justified. Whereupon 
she returned to the earth in utter despair to undergo her fate. 

63 ^T^ cf.^$T ^'S^t ^["fT ^5$T %iT^^f' Thorhi ka- 

niuno aphun son bhauta kamuno aurana son. 

One who earns a little has enough for himself, but one 
who earns much benefits others {rather than himself). 

64 %f\ eST TTJl^T^T e|«l^t ^I ^^^« Beti ka magadara 

baladon ka lewaka. 

Those who come to espouse a daughter and those who 
come to buy bullocks are alike. 

In Garhwal, where daughters are sold like farm stock, those 
who come to make a bargain for a wife are treated like bullock 
dealers i. e. with scant courtesy. 

65 %f)" %T "^r^T "^^'^ ^r'^S^T^T^T- Beti ko baidwalo 

buwari ko pathyadaro. 

One who is sent to bring one^s daughter from her 
father-in-law' s house, and one who is sent to take one's 
daughter-in-law to her father'' s house. 

These two persons should be most honest and faithful. 



{ 272 ) 

66 c|TJI ZJZ ^^ *tf %r ^t^' Baga tata bhela kanda ko 
land a. 

TPho will embrace a tiger or p7'op up a falling Mil 
loitTi his shoulder ? 

Dangerous attempts. 

G7 f^TTIT ^IH •IT^'i^r* Biranu sonu nakha da. 

jLnother's gold Gav,ses pain in one's own nose. 

Applies to one who borrows and wears another's nosering. 
(Women do this on many occasions, especially during festivities 
and fairs) and thus suffer pain from the unaccustomed ornament, 
C. f. "Borrowed plumes." 

68 •^^f fJl^risJ Z\^J ^T"'rr f%^^«T SRjJiT. Balda nilyonu 

dhango apata ni karanu kango. 

Lean bullocks should not be jjurchased, and men in 
poor circumstances should not be made into relatives 
by marriage. 

69 ifT^T ^T^T SIT ^'3 "^^IT^ ^T^T* Chhoto chhoto na 

dekha chapagai saura. 

Do not think of hi/m as a harmless man, he is the son 
of a wild hull. 

A dangerous fellow. 

70 "^jfT igr HTT W- Anta cbbyo maramagliau. 

Excessive abuse, and a wound on a delicate part of 
the body. 

The effects of these are lasting and injurious. One can never 
forgive or recover from the effects of such abuse. C. /. "Some- 
times words wound more than swords." 



C 273 ) 

71 UT^ l> ^TT srlt^ ^ ^t^TfT iR^ ^ ^»!T^. Garha 
mai tera najika nai aunlo ta kaslkai bagali. 

O river, if I do not come near you, how can you wash 
way ? 

Safety by avoiding evil habits or men. 



me away ? 



72 ^ sn"f 'l'^ ^^ ^T 'sf^ T^T* Dui nawa para paira 

<3haro dubi maro. 

JHi? who puts one foot in one hoat and the other in 
another will be drowned. 

Falling between two stools. C. f. "No man can serve 
two masters." 

73 ^^ ^^ qjT ^T^T >T!fw vtfrr "^^T^T* Desha deshon ka 

ala bhanti bhanti bulala^ 

JPeople who come from different countries will speak 
in different dialects. 

Tot homines, tot sententiae. 

74 ^r 5f^^ ^gj -^^ ^^T"^ ^^T* Nau nakada bhala tera 
udhara bura. 

Nine fRupeesJ in cash are better than thirteen 
promised. 

C. f. "A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush." 

75 (si SR^^ ^<3 (% 'ir^^ ^3t. Ni karewa bhekba ni kha- 

yewa desha. 

One who does not adopt the disguise fi. e. customs and 
habits) of a foreign country, will not be able to live there. 

C. /. "In Rome do as Rome does." 

Story. Once a man -went to see his friend who lived in a 
foreign town. Not knowing his house he promised a by-stander 
that he would make him "K/iusk" (give him an appropriate 

I 2 



( 274 ) 

rowardj if the man showed him his friend's house. The native of 
that country accordingly led him to the house he wanted to go. to. 
On his arrival there the man gave the native Bs- 5/ (supposing 
that sum would satisfy him), and the native was not satisfied. Then 
he offered Rs- 10/, but the man was not satisfied with that amount 
even, and began to quarrel, and insisted on his being made 
"khusJia" (which also means "glad"). His friend at last came to 
know of the quarrel and came out, and after listening to what 
they both said he gave his friend the necessary advice as to bow 
be was to act in the matter, and went away. After this the man 
concerned took a club in his band and saying that be would show 
how Haniimana (the celebrated monkey spoken of in the Ramayana) 
destroyed Lanka (Ceylon) began to destroy every shed and house 
like a madman. This play of his made all the people standing by 
laugh heartily. Among them the man also laughed, and was told 
that since according to promise he had been made "'IChusha" (glad) 
he bad nothing more to expect as a reward ; the man was convinced 
that he had had the promised reward and went away ! 

76 sg^ci 1e7 frr ^%T*{ ^r* J3'ana chhau tau jahana 
clibau. 

The world is of use to one only so long as he is alive. 
"Let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die." Carpe diem. 

mana nandu ka khawana chhansa raangana nandu ka gLara 
jawana. 

NandiC s family eats nine maunds a day, and yet people 
go to him to ash for butter milJc. 

No one should go to ask a thing from a man who cannot 
afford to give it. 

78 T\\si ^j"^ Tt^ ^fJl ^r^ 'R't^' Ganwa khowa randa saga 
khowa manda. 

A widow ruins a village and the mdnda {water in ivhicl 
rice has been cooked) spoils vegetable food. 



( 275 ) 

On the ouo hand widows being disappointed of their position, 
envy others, and so become very cross and quarrelsome. On the 
other, unending quarrels and dissensions arise owing to their having 
contracted intimacy with some one in the village. Here the word 
"widow" also includes an unchaste woman. 

Td jjfii ?i^?; '^ftjJlT ^'IT'ffr' ^'^ji ganwai baniya sayano. 
The haniyd became clever after having lost his cloth. 
Wise after the event. 

80 ST ^grw si^x; ^jq ^I'Sj^T ^j^ t^x. ^t ^T^« Gbyu 

lihanu shakkara satba duniya kbani raakkara ka satha. 

Ghi should he eaten loith sugar, and the world subdued 
by pride. 

As GJii without sugar cannot be digested or relished, so the 
world cannot be imposed upon without some pretence or assumption 
of pride. 

81 ^[^ ^T^r «BI'ii^r ^'R- Grbasi gborbo kapbalya 
paika. 

A horse fed only on grass and a hero on vegetable food 
are strong and capable of doing great deeds. 

Refers to the swiftness of wild horses which live only on 
grass and to the bravery of soldiers who generally come from 
families that live on coarse food and vegetables. Implies that the 
swiftness of a horse and the heroism of a man are natural gifts 
and have nothing to do with food. 

82 J[m cRT ^^ i?JlTT tH "TiT ^ 1T^- Garba ka mukba 

pagara randa ka mukba gara. 

Who would build a wall across the mouth of a stream, 
and who would abuse a icidow to her face. 

One who abuses a widow brings upon himself a shower of 
abuse. Used of impossible or foolish attempts. 



( 27ff ) 

83 3T7^ f|$f ^^^11 %j^ f|(5j sisqf fT. Gom dlrio khad- 

yanta nauni dini najyanta. 

Cows should be sold to those who have plenty of grass 
and grazing ground, and daughters given to those who have 
much grain, otherwise the cows will suffer and their daugh- 
ters starve. 

84 '^T^ f% ji^JT ^?T ^^H- Hatba ki ganwai bhirha 
ki sana. 

Having lost what was in his hand he begins to try to seize 
a wall. 

Applied to one who has given or lent a thing to anothe-r 
■which he cannot be sure of getting back when needed. "Catching 
at the shadow and los^ing the substance." 

85 5igTf vfSJT T^lT ^f% '^'<.' Jala men rauno magara 

dagarhi baira. 

To live in xvater and bear enmity with a crocodile ( *? 
not wise). 

This is used to dissuade or discourage one from contending 
"with his superiors. 

86 ¥f;zj SSJT ^t^T "IT- Jbuta bya sancha nya. 

Marriages will be effected by false representatioiis but 
justice will be obtained by speaking the truth. 

It is difficult to get a poor man married unless he is falsely 
represented to be of high caste and a man of property and wealth. 

87 try f^^T ^\ ?3T^T ^T ^H^I- Jo diyo ya kbayo eo 

dpano. 

Only what one has given {in charity} or eaten is one's own^ 

88 ill ^j ^7 sj%j %. Jo kau so gbyu son jau. 
Whoever will talk of Ghi will have to go to fetch it. 



( 277 ; 

E. g. Whoever will inform any man of Ghi to be had at a 
certain place will be told to bring it. 

This is used to caution one against giving information of any- 
thing in which he is not concerned ; if he does, he will have the 
burden of procuring it or of proving it. 

89 -^Tl fk ^f% ^ '^T^ ^T^^T* Baga ki karbi men hatha 
halano. 

To touch the person of a lion. 

To enrage a great man in any way is dangerous. 
"To tread on the lion's tail." 

90 T^ ^T^T f% T?^ '^T^ "?T^5T. Jhimorha ki purha men 
hatha halanu. 

To thrust one's hand into a nest of hornets. 

I. e. To stir up a number of wicked people against one. 

91 ?i^ ^x;?! 5T7f^ llf^ ^«!!T ^Tf^ Guru karanu jani pani 

pino chhani. 

Strain your drinTcing water and use judgment in selectirg 
your Guru {spiritual guide). 

Act with deliberation. 

92 ^T$r ^i!fT T^T »nTi!!T- Phato syuno rutho manuno. 

That which is torn or ripped must be mended, and the 
angry must be soothed. 

Applied especially to daily life in the family. 

93 ^T T^lW ^H ^m- Paira rarhawa jibha dandawa. 
The foot causes one to slip and the tongue causes one to 

he punished. 

"Whosoever keepeth his mouth and his tongue keepeth his 
soul from troubles." 

94 31^ ^Tf% ^^T ^^^r» Shatru sakhidhhungo achaino. 



( 278 ) 

To choose an enemy as a witness and to take a stone- for a 
chopping block. 

A fatal mistake. 

95 ^ ^^1%[ 5llf %I f^»l^^r 5112^7- Sudharau tau nai 
ko bigarha tau jata ko. 

If the shaving is well done it i? creditable to the harber, 
and if any injury be caused it is to the head of the man who 
is shaved. 

Applied to people who are careless in working for others. 

96 ^^ ^T ^T^ "^TT Tl^ ^T 'GC* ^T''^' Sasti ro bara bara 
mahagi ro eku bara. 

One who purchases a cheap thing has to weep constantly, 
but one who pays a good price for a good article weeps, 
but once. 

97 5f% ^I'I't: ^ (^ %^^- Esi khira mai ni kbai sakun. 
/ shall not be able to eat rice pudding of that hind. 

"Not if I know it !" "Not for Joseph." 

Story. Once a blind beggar was promised a feed of khir 
(a pudding of rice and milk}. The blind man enquired what kind 
of food ''Khir' was. He was told that it was white. As the blind 
man had no notion of color, he asked what was meant by white ; 
For answer he was referred to the color of the heron which is pure 
white. The blind man then asked what a heron was like. On this 
some one made a figure of the bird by patting up his fore-arna 
representing the neck, and his hand with his fingers pointing down- 
wards representing the head and throat of the bird, which the 
blind man touched with his hand, and finding it of a crooked form 
said that "He could not eat Khira like that," for it would stick in 
bis throat. Hence the proverb ; which is applied to one's refusing 
to undertake any business which he thinks will go against his own 
interests or involve him in difficulties. 

98 tH >lt^ ^^'JT M^T f^Jl^ I^T ^T ^^W ^^T- Kanda 
bhanda arana bhainsa bigarha gaya to karana kaisa. 



( 279 ; 

If a widow, a buffoon, and a wild buffalo, become mad 
or angry, what is to be done P 

There is no remedy. 

Caution to deal carefully with violent people. [The widow 
in Hindu society, being neglected and despised and made to do the 
most menial duties, usually developes a shrewish temper.] 

99 J\'mx. %J tm 3^T^- Grawara ko mana thawara. 

You can only manage a villager by professing to agree 
with him. 

100 Jj^^ %%^ ^f,g %\^. Thokara khaibera akala aun- 
chhya. 

A stumble causes one to be careful inftoture. 
C f. "A stumble may prevent a fall. 

101 ^g % Kf% '^^. Saba hai bbali chupa. 

Silence is best of all. 

Illustrated in the following story. 

Birbal or Birbar the most intelligent and wisest man of his 
time, was the beloved minister of Akbar the great. In consequence of 
favour with the Emperor he was hated by the other ministers of the 
same court. As they could not surpass him in intelligence, wit, 
and capacit}^, they were alwaj's intent on finding out his flaws and 
faults. Failing in this, and knowing that his father was a stupid 
and ignorant man, they found a way of revenging themselves upon 
the hated minister by bringing Birbal's father before the king so 
that he might see bis failings. Birbal was not unaware of the plot, 
and he instructed his father to shew all proper marks of respect 
and homage to the king, but to keep silent. Soon after this the 
contemplated meeting took place, during which Birbal's father, in 
spite of the many questions put to him, on topics of conversation 
raised by the Emperor, remained perfectly mute as previously 
advised, to the great astonishment of the latter ; who, at last, asked 
Birbal himself for an explanation of his father's conduct. Birabala 
said, "My Lord, what should one do if he happened to be in the 
company of a fool ?" To this the Monarch readily replied "I presume 
nothing but maintain silence." (By this reply the King indirectly 
acknowledged himself to be a fool). 

C. f. "Speech is silver, silence is golden." 



C 280 ) 

102 ^T^TTgT^T'! ^^ ^1^1 ^T1 '»T^T ^T^If 'ift mj^. 

Wobarawalana kana llgayo baga panda walana parhi ja^a. 

Tlie tiger carried off the people of the lower story and 
those of the upper story awoke. 

Take warning from the distress of others. 



%m. Mala janu mala janu sabana le kayo ukala holara 

kaile bI dekha. 

Every one without due regard to the difficult ascents and 
descents of the hills wishes to go to the plains. 

I. e. One ought not to undertake a work without first 
acquainting himself with the obstacles that he is likely to meet 
on the way. C. f. "Look before you leap." [See Introduction 
for description of this feature of the country]. 

104 ^f% %•{ t}^ 5f% f^ ^. Mushti ko dhana drishti ki 
jwe. 

Money in one's hand, and a wife within one's sight. 

This means that money in one's own possession and a wife 
kept under surveillance are safe. This corresponds with the 
Sanscrit proverb. "The learning in books and the money in the 
hand of another person are of no use in time of need.'"' 

105 5iTin sfJl %T^r ^fl« Janu dhangu auno angu. 

One who goes to Dhdngu {a steep and precipitous portion 
of Garhwai) must come bach carefully and slowly. 
A perilous task. 

106 sin "^(% $^T?r ^JZ^' Nanga chunani kulyarha 

katani. 

The thing which could be nipped in the bud with the nails, 
if suffered to remain must be cut with an axe. 

C. f. "A small leak will sink a great ship." "A stitch 
in time saves nine.'-' 



( 281 ) 

107 q^T ^Tt% ^Z^ '«^T ^TT Tfij'i ^ If ^f^ %T^T Wala 
dhunga ki phataka pala dhunga pujige pai hatta harbL 

kauno. 

One should leap from one stone to the other before he 
boasts of the deed. 

C. f. "Praise not the day, till night comes." 

108 JFmf Jl^7 ?ra I^T- Gaya gaya gayai gaya. 

One gone to Gaya has gone for ever. 

In former times when there were no railways people repairing 
to Gaya, (a famous place of pilgrimage) had to travel for months 
on foot, and so only about one fourth of the average number 
nsed to return home and the rest perished. Still used to dissuade 
from undertaking a perilous pilgrimage or long journey. 

109 ?i5r ?|i7Tn ^T^T WJ- Grama kbanu ya kama klianu. 
One ought to forbear or eat little. 

To forgive and to eat little food are advised as the safest 
course one ought to take in this world. The first puts a stop to 
quarrels and contentions ; and the second protects a man from the 
evil consequences of an over-loaded stomach. 

110 K'3 'Ir? T<^Tf IfT- Kakha pata rakhawa pata. 

Be charitable {courteous) to others and you will be treated 
charitably {courteously). 

One morning in the pionth of May, the Emperor Akbar 
the Great, his son, and Birbar his Prime Minister, went 
out for a walk. They walked several miles. As soon as the 
sun had risen the monarch felt his cloak heavy and re- 
lieved himself of it by putting it on the shoulders of Birbal. 
As soon as he had done this his son also followed his father's 
example. On this the Emperor looking at Birbal said ironically 
that the load was heavy enough for one ass, to which Birbar 
said. "No Sire, tho load I am bearing is properly speaking the 
load of two asses." 

J 2 



( 282 ) 

111 q^r q]^ ^j(k •! ^i^rTT. Pakka pana kbansi na 
jukhama. 

Hipe betel causes no cough or catarrh. 

Applied to dealings with, and the society of, old people. 
This proverb teaches that friendship and dealings with boys 
should be avoided. Indians eat the leaf of the betel when they 
have cough or cold. 

113 Ji?i7 ^mjifj '3S|J!irft'5lT ^f^ %r^r i^^^l- Gaya bajaya 

anyariya kani auno chitaya. 

Sing and beat drums, but be teamed of the approach 
of Anydriyd. 

Caution against the consequence of a dangerous and trouble- 
some nndertaking. 

The proverb has its origin from the undermentioned tradition : — 
Aneriyakot is a village on the banks of the river known as 
"Swanla." On the bank of the same river is a GMta called 
Bishwa Nath about two miles east of Almora where all the dead 
bodies of the town of Almora are cremated. The road from 
Almora to Aneriyakota passes close to the Ghat. The Ghats 
where dead bodies are burnt are supposed to be haunted by ghosts 
or evil spirits. It is also supposed that these ghosts occasionally, and 
generally on the day Amabashya or the 30th of the lunar month 
fwhen the moon is invisible) rise up and beat their drums and 
dance after midnight. On one occasion a villager of Aneriyakot 
happened to go to his home from Almora late in the night and by 
mischance met with their procession and was greatly frightened at 
the horrible sight. For some of them were without heads, some 
without legs, some without arms, some with eyes jutting out 
and bleeding, some with eyes depressed looking like two holes, some 
with bleeding hair, some in huge shape with frightful faces and 
teeth, some walking on the ground and bearing their king f who was 
in a still more appalling form,) others flying and dancing round 
him, but all in hideous and prodigious human form with their feet 
turned backward. In the desperation of his terror he rushed forward 
and seized the leader, and notwithstanding the threats of the ghosts 
kept hold of him, until at last the king of the demons was forced to 
submit and ask him what he wanted from him. The villager there- 
upon conceived the happy idea of demanding from the demon king 
the greatest favour that he could imagine, viz that all manure 



( 283 ) 

heaps ?hould be carried from the village of Khatyarhi near Almora 
to his own village, and that all the millet crops in his village should 
he weeded. The king of evil spirits agreed to do this and pledged 
his faith- for it, whereupon he was released by the man. On the 
morning of the next daj to his satisfaction he found his village fall 
of heaps of manure, but to his utter grief saw all his millet crops 
uprooted (instead of being weeded, as promised by the king of the 
devils). He then started from his village and again laid wait for 
him, and overtaking him reproved him for the damage done to his 
crops, but the devils pleaded their innocence since they did 
not know how to weed. So the process was explained to them. 
They also gave their sacred vows to the villager that any person 
taken possession of by ghosts would be cured if he or any member 
of his village or their descendants should touch him, and that they 
■would remain at their will and pleasure in future to do any service 
for them. So the man releasing the king of ghosts returned to his 
home and found his crops properly weeded. Since that time the 
residents of the village have become famous and successful mendi- 
cant exorcisers of evil spirits and are employed as such wherever 
their services are required. At the same time the ghosts have be- 
come so cautious of the residents of the village that they never appear 
in their sight and always warn each other with these words, which 
have become proverbial. 

113 ^^ ^T^r H'^ IT^I^. Paili atma taba parama- 

tma. 

Mrst one's own soul, then God (are to he regarded J . 

That is one ought to take care of his own life before he 
undertakes to please God. For only so long as he is alive he can re- 
member God. 

Barha maisa ka nijano ditha kana ko boja ni lagono 

pitha. 

No one should go in the sight of a great man, or take 
a load of thorns on his back. 

Great men have to be obeyed and heeded. If a poor man 
does not obey him he will be a marked man. In the same way 
load of thorns if taken on one's back causes inconvenience.. 



( 284 ) 

115 (kH! firf^STT fi\V! f5lf%^. -Rina milija tina nimila. 

One can get a deht, hut not grass fin the cold season J. 

Used to warn people to provide grass for their cattle during 
the winter. 

116 '^^ IT^^'^. Anna Parmeshwara. 
Grain too is a God. 

Used to caution one against wasting grain, which supports life. 

117 qiqiTUJ ^»T JITI Papa pragata dharma gupta. 

Sin comes out, but righteousness remains silent or 
hid. 

That is, howsoever one may conceal his sins they will find 
him out eventually. 

Also that one ought to expose his sins to evade future- 
punishment, and to conceal his virtuous deeds ; since it is supposed 
that a good deed if done "in public is rewarded less than if done 
in private. 

118 ^\^^ ^??f% %f% f^??f% -^TST f5[f^»ll% ^T^ f%ilf%. 

Laundana dagarhi kheli dhingarhi aja ni bigarhi bhola 

bigarhi. 

Dealings with hoys will bring evil tomorrow, if not 
today. 

Caution against dealing with boys. 

119 ^T^TT ilfK^T fT^^TT- Darabara, pariwara, talawara. 
A Court, a house-hold, and a sword {^are difficult 

to manage). 

Used to denote that the management of each of these thing* 
requires a great amount of intelligence, care, and skill. 

120 frts JlT'fg 'TTT^T ^i|t ^Tg ^TTr liT" Eina garhanra 
pura ko dagarho karanu shura ka. 



( 285 ) 

Borrow money from a really rich man and have a 
hero for a companion. 

I. e. An ordinary money lender is troublesome, not so a 
hereditary rich man (banker). In the same way one is safe in the 
company of a hero or brave man. 

121 ^lT5IT^I^€T^'»T'«T^^lT5?T^I^'rif^^IW. Khai 

jano kela ko pata ni khai jano kapali hatha. 

If one knows how to eat his food on a plaintain leaf 
he can eat, but if he does not know it then he may put 
his hand to his forehead fa sign of disappointment J . 

E. g. One ■who is eating from a plaintain leaf must be very 
careful or the leaf will split and the food be spoiled. 
The need of carefulness in everything. 

122 ^f t: iH^(% "^i^ ^ %TiT '»Tf^ rf ^I^T ^if^. Kukura 

boda ki hadi ten kaunlo pani ten saro kuchha ni. 

A dog finds nothing softer than a bone and nothing 
harder than water. 

I. e. He loves bones and hates water. 

Applied to people who go contrary to custom in everything. 

123 ?5Ti!i ^Z^T^sfi HT^ M21TT^« Khanu ghatakaika 
maranu bhatakaika. 

To eat voraciously and die with difficulty. 

Used to teach that one should do everything bravely. 
(A quiet death is considered a cowardly one, while it is thought a 
brave thing to die with difficulty). 

124 ^TW ^ Hi^I^tT ^T^r ^Sir f;- Khano ni phasaku 

ta rono daaha ku. 

When I cannot get even plain tobacco to smoke why 
should I not lament ? 



( 286 ) 

Tobacco is prepared for smoking by mixing it with treacle. 
Hence to be unable to get even plain tobacco is a sign of extreme 
poverty. 

125 gift 'q^T 't^fgi ^T^ ^T'»f% ^^ ^^I- Kawa chalo 

hansa ki chala apani laga bhulo. 

The crow copied the movements of the swan and forgot 
her own. 

Applies to one who in imitating the actions of greater people 
neglects his own business and is thus ruined. 

126 ^rl'^T^I »J^V ^^% ^T1 '^T^r ^*% ^'^^T- Kutta 

ayo bhukado bhukado baga ayo lukado lukado. 

The dog came barhing, but the leopard came silently. 

One who rebukes or reprimands does not wish to injure, 
but one who is intent to injure does so secretly. 

127 eRj^j- ^JT "^^fK TTfT- Kalo chora andheri rata. 

A thief in black and darh night. 

E. g. A thing difficult to be found out or discovered. 



QUARRELS. 

1 ^^ 1T^^ *Tlf% f^'^T^ll'I- Eka hatha le tali ni bajani. 

Clapping cannot be done with one hand only. 
"It takes two to make a quarrel." 

2 s^^i^T JI^ 5^1^ Tt^ ^^- J we khasama eka chhuyala 

randa chheka. 

The wife and husband are one, and let the scandal- 
monger be a-ccursed. 



( 287 ) 

Applied to dissuade people from raising quarrels 
relatives. 



amonsr 



a 



3 «qt5^JT ^ ^^ j^ >TT?T €)• %g. Jwe khasama ki kala 
dudha bhata ki bela. 

The quarrel between a husband and wife ends like «, 
meal of rice and milk (i. e. quickly over, and will not 
last long). 

E. g. As elsewhere said, the fighting of goats, the ceremony 
performed for one's forefathers by a saint or hermit, a cloudy 
morning, a quarrel between husband and wife, will not last lono-, 

4 fz^m q^l^. Thinaka parhai. 

Striking a spark with flint and steel. 

(Villagers still get their fire in this way). 
Applied to quarrels which unexpectedly take place between 
parties without any evident or palpable cause"! A sudden quarrel. 

5 <STr ^ill% I'i/^l. I)uma dagarbi gugeli. 

A quarrel with a low-caste man is like playing tvith 
human excreta. 

I. e. Degrading to oneself. 

6 TT^^ ^ f%?pr •^T^'H "^T ^'^ ^^' Tu danda mai tris- 

hula nachana bait"ha tinu kuln. 

You are a club, I~am a Trishula (^trident) three 
generations began to dance. 

Among illiterate folk, deities and ghosts are supposed to 
possess people and make them dance. During festivals the people 
of every village assemble at night near the village temple, and a great 
fire is lighted (called "DMni" ) in the centre. One of the people 
gathered there, stands up and takes hold of the wooden club, while 
another takes the three-pointed iron bar which belong to the temple, 
to represent the deities. The drummers beat their drums ; the two 
men begin a wild dance. This stimulates and excites all the other 



( 288 ) 

people to dance and make a great shouting and noise. Thus the 
combination of two big persons is able to excite the whole popula- 
tion of a neighbourhood. That is, two persons combined and 
united can play a far better part than a single person can. "Two 
heads are better than one." This is also interpreted to mean that 
when two persons begin to quarrel one thinks or says that he is in 
no way inferior to the other ; if one claims to be the club the other 
says he is the Trishula (trident) and so the quarrel or contention 
arises. Hence the proverb. C. /. "If you are Turk I am a Tartar." 

7 ^^m ^^J^ %J^ ^ir% ^''^^T^^ Sutro na kapasa koli 
dagarhi karchha karchha. 

Neither thread nor cotton quarrel with the weaver. 
Applied to one who quarrels with others for no cause. 

8 ^tV ^ft W^ fijsnf f% m^^ ^^ %7i ^T^f. Teri meri kaba 

bigarbali jaba lena dena holo. 

When shall we quarrel with each other ? When we begin 
to lend to and borrow from each other. 

Another proverb says that three things des,troy friendship ; 
1 To converse with a man's wife in his absence ; 2 to lend 
to or borJow from him, 3 to debate with him. 

9 ^TT f^f%'IT ^ ^"^1 f^f^^T- Tera pisiya men mero 
misiyo. 

Your grist and mine are ground together. 

It is difficult to separate grist belonging to two or more 
parties without some disagreement. Hence the proverb refers to 
cause of quarrels. 

Applicable to division of joint property or cited to warn 
one against running the risk of such liabilities or to advise him to 
abstain from such a bargain. 

10 (^ ^ ^5 ^'^^T'^^T'^' Twe ku na main ku bhuichala 

rasa. 

Neither for thyself nor for myself, hut for the earth- 
quake. 



( 289 ) 

Tills means that the thing which we are quarreling about 
neither remained with you, nor with me, but was taken away by a 
third person while we were disputing. 

The lawyer milks the cows whilst the disputants struggle for 
its possession. 

11 *fiTf ^f2 *ii71f T. Jbarha kutl jhagarlio. 

One raises a quarrel by beating grass. 

Beating grass is nobody's business at all, or is a useless act, 
so if one beats it he does it to raise some contention without cause. 

Applied to those wbo are fond of quarrels, and seek an 
occasion of offence, or to critics who ar« alw-ays ready to find fault. 

12 fTlf^ f^lIT^*^ ^ ^T^f.W- Tali dwi hathana le bajan- 

chhi. 

'J}wo hands are needed for clapping. 

Applied to quarrels in which both parties are to blatoe. 

13 ^^ITt ^^'fi'^ 'T"<:t "^Jf^T. !ll%r^- Ival3^ari kalakari 
niarama ankbara naboli. 

Quarrel, but do not say anything that may give mortal 
offence. 

Quarrelling is allowable if it is not carried too far. 



RASH AND FOOLISH ACTS. 

1 ^T^g ^ ^1% ^JT. TiXJ WC^ ^*^T W^« A baila mai 
kani mara mera gala me pbanda dala. 

Come, bulloch, beat me, and put the yohe on 
my nech. 

I. e. A bullock is generally yoked and beaten. 
If one unnecessarily and rashly undertakes the liabilities of 
the bullock (another person) he will be treated accordingly. 

K2 



( 290 } 

2 ^I ?RX:5gT ^T^ ^r^r- Chhanda karchhula hatha 
dadono. 

In spite of having a spoon {to stir up the food in the 
potj he gets his hand burnt. 

Applied to one who rashly endangers himself by attempting 
unnecessary work, or to one who instead of taking a safe path goes 
by one which is evidently perilous. 

3 "^gT ^T '^T'^^'lIT ^TT* Cbatura ka cbara jaga laga. 
A wise man feels four difficulties. 

Before starting a thing a prudent man will reflect over its 
present and future consequences to himself and other people, 
whereas a fool will attempt a thing rashly and without any 
deliberation at all. 

4 ^cj '^f^T'I ^T ^^ '^'S'T. Chhana ankhana ka bhela 
parhanu. 

Falls down a precipice in spite of having eyes. 

Applied to one who does an evidently foolish thing rashly 
and without deliberation. 

5 %T^^ W^l TTg- Au khunda myara mnnda. 

O log, strike my head. 

I. e. No one should endanger himself by meddlinor in 
another's affairs. 

6 ^T^T ^T'^T ^ ^1^ Tl %. Ala kacha khai nakha 

mukha ai. 

The food rate and half-cooked if eaten comes out 
through the nose and mouth. 

E. g. As it is not digested it produces colic, causing vomiting 
and derangement of the stomach. 

Used to warn people not to do anything without deliberation, 
for one who does a thing rashly eventually suffers in consequence 
of it. "Look before you leap." "Haste makes waste." "The more 
haste the less speed." 



( 291 ) 

7 fTIW %t 5!f% T'5. Tatai khaun jali marun. 

One who eats hot food is sure to burn his mouth 
or lips. 

Used of one who unwisely and rashly is determined to do a 
ruinous work without regard to its consequences. 

Caution against doing a thing rashly or without prudence. 
C. /. "Hasty climbers have sudden falls." 

8 13^^ ^rf%^ 'gl IT l[l^. Khasama bolika duma para 
hatha. 

A caste woman lays her hand upon a Duma ( low 
caste man). 

Applied to one who thoughtlessly does something wrong. 

READINESS FOR CONTINGENCIES. 

1 ^T^ ^ 'sffTT ^T ^T ZT*!- Sbyala kl larhai shera ko 
thana. 

One who goes to hunt a jaelcal must provide himself 
with iceapons to fight with a tiger. 

Be ready for all possible emergencies. 

REGRET, REPINING OR DISSATISFACTION. 

1 'It^^T'^'^ 'It^ ^IZ* Sill wobarijhili khata. 
A damp cellar and loose bed. 

Destitution, or untoward circumstances. 

2 ^'t5I ^t Tf^^IT ^ "B'«l"fT ^f^T- fsanja ka mariya ku kaba 
ten rono. 

Sow long will kinsmen and relatives weep for one who 
dies in the evening. 

E. g. When one dies his kinsmen immediately take him to 
the ghata for burning, and so long as the body is in the house they 
weep over him, and as one who dies in the evening cannot be re~ 



( 292 ) 

moved until the next morning it has become a question "how long 
will his people mourn over him." 

Applied by one, who is either disabled or made unfit for any 
business in his early life, or is in constant distress, for his own 
consolation. 

3 ^TIIT f^^T^ 'TT'S ^ Icai^f- Kano biralu manda le 
patyayo. 

A one-eyed cat is deceived by rice water ( because it 
looks like milk). 

Applied by one (bemoaning his ill luck) who is obliged to be 
satisfied with a little in place of much, or by one who has been 
misled by false hopes, or has been deceived through his simplicity. 

4 gjl ^TJIT *l ^Jl{ ^W^^' L^ga lagau na dhata pahun- 
chau. 

I have no inediator, and no one hears my cry. 

Used by one who considers a certain thing totally out of 
his power. 

5 q'f I'l f515TriTi7 %^7 ^a[fil3l«l^r ^WT- Paharha nijanamau 

chelo desba nijanamau belo. 

Let me not he a man in the hills, or a he-buffalo in 
the Plains. 

Men in the hills have to carry heavy loads up the steep paths 
while those in the plains have not to do so. In the same way a he- 
buffalo in the hills has no work whatever to do, whereas in the 
plains he is always employed in heavy labour. 

Used by a Paharhi grumbling at his Jot. 

6 WTWI efi)" %fi: ^ ^^r '^ri- Machha ki boi ku sada shoga. 
The fishes' mother is always in sorrow for her children. 

{for they are caught). 

Applied to one who is incessantly in adverse circumstances. 

" ^lOT JfiT ^¥^ "Tf^ ^Z^- Ghana ka perha men garb 
ataki. 



( 293 ) 

A cart stopped by a stalk of gram. 
E. g. Great affairs hindered by trifles. 

8 figtq^ 3iii7. Chliappana taka. 

Fifty-six takas i. e. 112 pice the maximum amount 
of a gift. 

In ancient times when money was very scarce 112 pice was 
the greatest amount one could give another. This is still used by 
one who is not satisfied with what he has received, and says he 
expected at least 56 Takas. 

9 ^ ^^T ^■'^I "^"SiT ^T 'JI^ s^l^ir^ ^it ^WW» Se runo tera 
baba ka santha nahai gochba harhi runo chha. 

Sleep for me has gone with thy father, now I can only 
lie {like a log). 

Spoken by a widow to her son who tells her to sleep. 
This is made use of by one whose prosfierity or happiness 
has left him, and who can do nothing but grieve and repine. 

10 \TS ^^ ^ f^%imj g% ^t% ^T^^T % ^WT« Dukha 

sukha kai pain ni kauno sukhi sakhi lakarho bai runo. 

J3etter to shrivel up like a log of wood than to tell 
one's distresses to another. 

This is applied by one who bemoans his having no real 
friends and relatives, and so makes up his mind not to expose him- 
self to others, who, having no interest in or S3'mpiithy with him, 
are likely to laugh at or take advantage of his weakness. 

il ^ % '^f5i fTTl^ ^.fW« J^'e jai buni ta roi ke cbbi. 
■J 

If I had a wife, tohat should I cry for ? 

A wife is a very useful article to the Pahdrhi, as she does 
nearly all the work. 

12 %2l^ ^ ^Tf<: ^^ fz^T ^1^ ^\<- Jetha jyii ki khori 
phnti tika laini thaura. 



( 294 ) 

The husband's elder brother hurt the middle of his 
forehead {or defamed himself). 

I. e. When any great man does anything bad it becomes 
widely known. 

13 (%v}7^ eR7 fq^T^ fk^J^ \j V{^ mT^. Sinalu ka pinalu 
pinalu ko bliela paparha. 

Sinalu (yam or big sweet potatoes) if neglected ( not 
cultivated, but allowed to grow wild) degenerate into 
Pindlus (small roots) ; and if Findlus grow wild they 
become like grass and not fit for food. 

Used by ono bomoaning his degraded position due to his 
friends not taking proper care of him. 

14 -^^r ^T''^ ^T %W^¥T '»n^ '^i'^' Barba bapa ka chela 
barha papa le huni. 

To be the son of a big {rich) man is the consequence 
of great sins committed in a previous state of existence. 

E. g. The son of a rich and great man who is brought up in 
luxurious and lavish habits takes no trouble to learn any useful 
profesion and consequently is not in such easy circumstances as his 
father. After his father's death when he is unable to go on as 
before he feels ashamed and regrets bitterly that he was born a rich 
man's son, seeing himself now reduced to poverty. 

15 ttar ^ ^ CKT ^f^l^ir ^f^ ^Tf<: ^Tf% ^"^l- Jettia jyu 

phun phan karigaya meri kbori pborhigaya. 

My husband's elder brother in gratifying his own wish 

broke my head {I suffered much loss). 

E. g. If the husband's elder brother going here and there ort 
his own ends happens to touch the younger brother's wife (which 
is forbidden ) then she says, you have hurt my reputation. Used by 
one who suffers in consequence of the doings of others. 



( 295 ) 

16 ^TT ^qioT ?3?T^f% ^ TTf« Mora apana kbuta dekbi 
ka rowa. 

The peacock loolcing at Ids oven feet wept. 

The peacock was cheated out of his beautiful feet by a 
partridge, and in lieu of them he received the ugly ones of the 
partridge ; he mourns over his deception, of which his feet remind 
him whenever he sees them. (The fact is : While dancing the pea- 
cock is pleased by looking over the other part? of his beautiful body, 
but tears flow from his eyes when he sees his feet). 

• Story. Once a peacock and a partridge proposed to have a 
dancing party in a forest ; the condition entered into was that one 
should dance before the other by turns. The peacock was the first 
to please his comrade, the partiidge, with his dancing, but when 
the partridge's turn came he refused to dance unless the former 
exchanged feet with him for the dance, to which the peacock agreed 
and gave away his feet to the partridge. The partiidge after dancing 
a while flew away to the jnngle with the borrowed feet and left his 
own with the peacock, leaving him to disap[iointment. Hence the 
proverb applied to ooe who regrets his own foolishness in having 
lost something. 

17 ^"^T^ 5(f|-g ^ ^iist 5T»i-§^ €}■ ^^- Nahoi khila ki 

kauiii na mandala ki bbikha. 

JSi either did I get any kauni, {a land of milletj out 
of the jungle fields {neioly cultivated in the jungle) nor 
have I been able to collect grain by begging from in- 
habited places {villages). 

Used by one bemoaning that his labors and efforts to get a 
livelihood have been in vain. 

18 ^T^ t:?: q ^T^ J1?: -^ ^^ ^^ ^^rl vt. Ghara me 
rai na tirathagai munda mundaibera pbajita bhai. 

Neither remained at home nor went on a pilgrimage, 
but was disgraced by having her head shaved. 

The heads of those who become ascetics are first of all shaved, 
and after that they are ordered to quit their homes and spend 
their time in visiting sacred places. If one does not do this after 
having his head shaved he is regarded as depraved, being neither 
an ascetic nor a family man. 



C 206 ; 

19 1 T^ ^ Um h\T ^m- Hatha ra gata dhunga matha. 
Neither in his hand, nor on his body hut spilt on 

a stone. 

Apyilied to things lost and wasted without being in any way- 
used or enioved. 

"Spilt'milk." 

20 ^f% ?iTf% ^2^ f)- ^7 cijH ^^nj. Jaiki garhi ataki 
wi ko nama chutiya. 

The man whose cart sticks in a rut is called a 
stupid man. 

Unfortunate men are generally considered fools. 

21 ^f%^T ^ ^T^r ^f%?lT mi^X- Jarhiya ke khayo 
karbiya khayo. 

Why did I eat jarhiya {a vegetable, a kind of mustard) ? 
it proved to he an unholy thing to me. 

Applicable to one who repents for some acts of his which has 
resulted very differently from what he expected, to his trouble 
and harm. 

Jakha sono chha takha nakha ni jakha nakha chha takha 

sono ni. 

Where there is gold there is no nose, and where there 
is a nose there is no gold {nose-ring') for it. 

A rich man without a wife, or a man with a wife and family 
but no wealth. So a rich man without children or without culture. 
Plenty with ill health &c. 

23 ^'^T ^^ ^ 'SUfTOrTr* Thecha kuti ye achhana ma. 

This wooden block {on which all the chopping of fire- 
wood, meat etc, is done) gets all the heating and cutting. 

The head of tho family is made to bear all the expenses 
incurred by every member of his family. 

Used by the head of a family who grudges the expenditure 
which his household is incurring. "The willing horse is always 
burdened." 



( 297 ) 

24 ^1 '^J$lll ifii {^^ H^r ^r^T ^ia^t ^t (^^ v^T f^si 

"SiXJ ^Kt %T ^^T ^^r ^T ^if^ f^^r* Khilda bakhsha k» 
dina bhala Maula bakhasha ka dina bbala dina bura mera 
jo tera gharhau ko pani piyo. 

The fate of thy sons Khudd JSakhsh and Mauld Bakhsh 
will b6 good, but mihe is evil, because I have drunk water 
out of thy vessel. 

E. g. The Hindus are prohibited frovn drinking water out of 
the vessel of a Mahomedan ; if any one does so he is excommunicated. 
Once an astrologer travelling in the plains grew very thirsty. He 
happened to meet a woman, who enquired of him who he was. He 
said that he was an astrologer. On which she requested him to 
kindly predict the future of her sons, after consulting their 
horoscopes. To this the Pandit replied in the affirmative, and ask- 
ed her for water (taking her to be a Hindu woman, as in the Plains 
Hindu and Mahomedan women wear clothes of the same fashion).- 
As soon as the Pandit had drunk the water given by her, she laid 
the horoscopes of her two sons before him, and he began to examine 
them. He found one was that of Khuda Bakhsh and the other 
of Maula Bakhsh. At this he was astounded (fixing his eyes on the 
said names) and did not know what to do. She, seeing the attitude 
of the Pandit, supposed that he was absorbed in contemplation of 
the horoscopes, and therefore addressed him thus : "Panditji ! what 
is the future of Khuda Bakhsh and Maula Bakhsh?" To this earnest 
enquiry of hers the Pandit replied thus : — "The days of thy sons 
Khuda Bakhsh and Maula Bakhsh are fortunate, but mine are the 
evil days, inasmuch as I have drunk water out of thy pot. Hence 
the proverb. Applied'by one who regrets the evil consequences 
of his errors. 

kaputa pathayo cbori jhusalyana am lyayo torhi. 

A bad son sent to steal brought bach only green apricots. 

This is applied to one's own relations or kinsmen, who 
though they have had recourse to evil ways of getting money, 
are yet poor. 

L 2 



( 298 ) 

Suta katlka koli ki bhaudi puta saintlka buwarl ki 
bhaudi 

The thread spun is made over to a weaver, and the son 
nourished is made over to a daughter-in-law. 
Natural regret of parents. 



(^^ ®v ^ o^ 

putij kala na puti, keson phuli tau na puti. 

To day childless, tomorrow without issue, and when turned 
grey still without issue. 

This is applied to one who is never successful in any- 
undertaking, or one who never grows wiser or learns from 
experience. 

28 '9SIT5! ^T f^??!^ ^31% ^f^^T i^'ll^ ^T% Aja kapinalu 
kbarhai, bbola ka pinalu kharbai. 

The Pindlus {sweet yams) dug up to-day are buried, and 
those dug up tomorrow will also he buried. 

This vegetable root is generally covered over with earth 
after being dug up, otherwise it dries up or rots. Infant children 
when they die are buried under ground. So this proverb is cited 
with reward to one all whose children have died in infancj^. It is also 
applied to one who has failed in all his efforts to obtain some 
objeci!. 

29 ^g' IT^T ^ 'irf^''^ W^h Artba pajo na gobinda 
gayo. 

No wealth earned, nor yet a pious life led {the praises of 
Govind not sung). 

Recrret for having lost both this and next world. For the 
theory is that one must either get his human birth blessed by the 
adoration of God with a view to the nest existence, or by the 
accumulation of wealth for comfort and reputation daring the pre- 
sent life. 



( 299 ) 

30 ^rg ^T ^"^ f^^J^ %Tf% T'EIT^ ^r >T^ f%^lt ^r^- Bapu 
ka gbara nilai choli payala ka bhara ni khai poli. 

No good clothes when in my father's house, and no sweet- 
meats when in my father-in-law s house. 

"Poll" is a cake made oi gur.ha (treaclej and is given to young 
girls in order to make them grow up quickly. 

This proverb expresses regret at one's continued bad fortune. 

31 -mq ^ ^'ZT^ ^ Tiff f^^IT^ ^« Bapa ki katari ni, 

ma ki pitari ni. 

I have received 710 katari (a three-edged knife kept by 
Kshetrias or Majputs,\from my father, and no box (in which 
women keep cash and valuables) from my mother. 

Used by one who complains of his poor and unlucky circums- 
tances, or by one who boasts of his own earnings. 

32 st<T5T % i5fz »]^T ff ^t3^ ^ fsi l^'ft^T* Dantana hai 
ebhuti gayo ta onthana le ni pakarMno. 

A thing that has slipped from one's teeth cannot 'be held 
by the lips. 

Applied by one who bemoans that he has lost the favor of a 
greater man, which cannot be made up for by the favor of poorer 
people. This is also spoken of lost opportunities. 

33 qT^T^ ^T ^r^« Paraloka ko chora. 
The thief of the former existence. 

The theory is that one who does not get a thing in this life 
is supposed to have robbed another of it in his former life. 

Used to express regret and grief of one who is destitute 
and in want. 

34 fTT<TT «T^ %T '»Tf^* Tata tawa ko pani. 

Water on a red-hot oven. 

Used to represent one's insignificant income which is insuffi.- 
cicnt to meet his large expenses. 



( 300 ) 

35 ^ ^ ^7 ilT^T* ^^^ ^^^ k<? makho. 
A Jly in curd. 

E. g. If one finds a fly in curd he immediately throws it 
away in disornst. 

Used by one who is disliked, being a stranger and looked 
upon as an intruder. 

36 ^^T ^'5T ^t TI^TT ^^T «JiT ^W f^^|5| ^^j. Kasa kasa 
kari gaya musa ka chela diwana bhaya. 

l^hat has become of others that the sons of a mouse have 
become statesmen. 

Used to express regret as to pne of low family rising to an 
important post. 

37 ^^7^ % vl^ T'5») ZZ\- Kauali khai bhuti rarha ge 
tutl. ^ - -V 

He longed for nettles and ate them, but afterwards his 
longing was changed to aversion. 

One who follows after evil will suffer in the end. Also that 
all inordinate desire should be repressed. 

38 ^jini mtm »lf ^ ^faiT^T ^^ Khani pini gadha 

raige rauntyalo kumun. 

Food and drink is left in Garhwal, hut beautiful scenery 
in K/wmaun. 

A Garhwali saying. Garhwalis in Kumaun cannot get as 
good food and water as when at home. 

Khana kamuna ku bidoli ka danga dekhana darshana ku 

gostu ki barhe. 

The stony land of^ the village Bidoli is cultivated pro- 
fitably, but pleasant to be looked at is Gostu-Jci-bdrhe. 

These two villages are in Garhwal. All is not gold that 
glitters. 



( 801 ) 

40 ^g efiT tmjt "^^JX «Bt ^I'E. Kbala ka gusai dada- 

wara hi syane. 

One who was once the owner of threshing floors now 
longs for J)adwara {alms). 

E. g. When the crops are threshed aud winnowed the village 
blacksmith, the drummer who beats his drum before each house on 
festival days, the priest who performs the religious ceremonies, 
the tailor, the -weaver, the oilman, the ploughman etc, and other 
poor men go and get some grain from the owner of the threshing-floor 
as a gift ; this gift is called "Dadwdra." Hence the proverb which 
is applied to one who being once the master of -wealth has no-w 
become a beggar. 

DO 

41 % ^7^ "^^if^ ^^I^ ^QT. Khai ale buari pi ale 

sasura. 

What shall the daughter-in-laio eat and the father-in- 
law drink ? 

An ironical phrase used when there is very little to eat, or 
expressing regret and surprise when the supply is very small. 

42 ^Tfz^T IJlfl ^'^* Katiyan. machha dhara. 

Fish cut in pieces {for cooMng)fled away to a ridge. 

An impossible or astonishing thing. 

43 5T^^ f^5J^ ?E^rT TI^TI'lt ^rar. Kala mu binati 
karita rojahi Hgyo. 

Death on being requested to spare one took away 
the best. 

REJOICING AT OTHERS. CALAMITY. 

Bhalada marigayo bhali bbai duma kurbi ago lago bhali 
bbai. 



( 302 ) 

That our elder brother the bear {a compUmentry term, 
iised now when the bear is dead) loas Jcilled, was a good 
thing ; but that the house of the Duma (a lower caste) was 
burned down was also a good thing. 

This saying originnted from the story of a bear who once 
entered the house of a Duma after honey in a hive, and accidentally- 
set fire to the house by stirring up the cinders. So, according to 
the higher castes. (Bithas) of Gangoli, "Two birds were killed 
by one stone." 

2 q^t ^T "^T^^ f^W^T ^^' Bain ko bacliharu pijayo 

suklia. 

It is pleasant to see the milk of an anemy''s cow drunk 
up) by its calf. 

Rejoicing at the injury done to one's enemy. 

3 5^T W\ f^'SfT ^T. f^TT^ ^T ^^« Musa ka jiya para 
biralu ka khela. 

The raVs painful death is the sport of the cat. 

This proverb has the same meaning as Esops' fable of the 
boys and frogs. "What is fan to you is death to us." 

RELATIONSHIP. 

1 ^q^T ^i^J ^Vkl "^TT^r 'sTTf ^T^- Apano palo poso 
parayo kbarba kocbyo. 

One cherishes one's own, but beats to the ground 
another's. 

1. e. No one is as careful of another's property as he is of 
his own. 

2 ^\mi ^n f^^r ^T 5^^! ^T^ ^TSr- Apana goru diya 
ko punya aura posba. 

He who feeds his otcn coiv, obtains both virtue and 
nourishment. 



( 303 ) 

I. e To feed the cow is an act of merit, aud also repays one 
by supplying milk. Applies to maintaining one's own kinsmen 
and relatives. 

3 ^T'^'Ur ^1^5?! f^^nj 'FT%T?« Apano apanu biranu 
machoda. 

One's own j^eople are dear, a stranger is cursed in 
comparison. 

4 ^imj ^ifx^"^ iiItt f^TI^T «Tlf%%^ 'TT^T* Apano 
maribera palau birano palibera marau. 

A man will continue to love his own even if heaten by 
him, but an outsider even if tenderly cared for, will beat 
{not love) the benefactor. 

5 "3Sjt?^T ^ift^ ^%T 'I'^I^T »TTf^^ ^^r« Apano marika 

undo parayo marika phundo, 

One^s oion, even when beaten, loill come closer, but a 
stranger, if beaten, xoill leave. 

This teaches that we should chastise our own kinsmen for 
their good, but not beat strangers who are employed as 
servants &c. 

6 ^r'^Wr '^^^ ^iT ^siT 'ifl* Apana balada ka paina singa. 
The horns of one's own hulloclc are always considered 

very sharp hy every one. 

I. e. Every one thinks his own wit to be better than that 
of others. A man thinks that he possesses one full wit and that half 
a wit is spread over the rest of the world, since God has bestowed 
only one-and-a-half wits on the world. 

7 ^^^^[ %'\ ■^•if^ ^I^T H^7» Apana ko munakitolo bhalo. 

A tadpole caught by one's oion child is considered a • 
good fish. 

I. e. Even a mite earned by the industry of their own child- 
ren is considered great gain by the parents. 



( 304 ) 

8 %T ■^T'' ^r^'^f '^^ ^T "^T^TT 2fiT ^T ^- Jo bapa lyawa 
sya bai jo raja kara sya sai. 

Ani/ woman taken by one's father should be considered 
equal to a mother, and the decision arrived at by a Icing 
inust be right. 

Inevitable respect due to the deeds of fathers and officers 
owing to there being no remedy for such grievances. C. /. "What 
cannot be cured must be endured." 

9 ^T^f^ siT-g ^s^ITT m^T S: m^J- Apani jangba kanyai 
cbharo i cbliaro. 

One gets but ashes fscurf) by scratching his own thigh. 

IE. g. By scratching the thigh streaks like ashes become 
visible. This proverb is applied to one who exposes the fault 
of his own kinsmen or relations, to dissuade him from doing so. 
"Fouling one's own nest." 

10 "^T^r fJl^T^r '^''^ "^TtUT f% ^^f'HT* Baulya gijauuo 
para pauno nigijauno. 

A laborer may be treated well, but not a guest who is 
a poor relative, otherwise he will come again and again, 
and become dependent on one. 

11 W{^ ^1% "Trf?! ■^(^ %% ^\^- Chhoti cheli nangi barbi 

cbeli laja. 

Seeing her younger sister naked the elder one feels 
ashamed. 

Blood sympathies are absolute. Applied to induce one to 
help his relatives who are in distress. 

C. f. "Blood is thicker than water." 

12 ^^T ^T ^T^ ^^T ^T'^^T ^T ^T^ ^l^T^ Luwa ko kala 
luwa sora ko kala soro. 

Iron cujts iron., and a kinsman inju,res his own kinsman. 



,( 805 ) 

Applied to one who is injured by his own caste fellows. The 
trees of the forest heard that an iron axe was coming to injure them 
but the old trees on hearing this s;iid there was no danger as he 
belonged to another caste. But when they heard that the iron was 
joined to a piece of wood they were filled with fear, 

i J .J vj^ 

Jaga jagii kai dagarho nihunu raero chhai mero chhai kai 

apanu nihunu. 

No one can be sure of his company by requesting other 
travellers to wait for him, nor can any one be certain 
of a stranger becoming his friend, by assuring him 
that he is so. 

No one in the world feels true sympathy for another except a 
real relation. 

14 ^^7 ^TBI ^T'fr VT?. Daino hatha bayan dhowa. 

The right hand washes the left. 

E. g. The good deeds of a man cover his faults and failino's ; 
or a man ought to help his poorer kinsmen, who will do the same 
iu their turn. 

15 ^T W^ ^'^T f^ill^X* Ghara chhedu Lanka binasba. 

JLanha {^Ceylon) was destroyed through the information 
given by a traitor (member of the household) . 

Rawana was killed and Ceylon taken by Rama through "the 
secret information given by Rawan's own brother Bibhikhana ( vide 
Ramayan ) Applied to a member of one's family who has be- 
come estranged and turned an enemy and is dreaded in conse- 
quence. Ones worst enemies are those of his own household. 

16 »TT»TT 31^ %\ ^r^T f^ f^TT^ Sl^t^r ^WrlT jfj" Mama 
shariko pauno ni pitara shariko dewata ni. 

A man has no better guest than his own maternal uncle 
( i. e. mother^s brother ), and no better deities than his 
own father and mother. 

M 2 



( 306 ) 

Used to induce people to honor such relatives. C f. Honour 
thy father and thy mother. 

I'' llf^TT^'I^f^'iT'!!- Hani maranu bechi kbanu. 

I can heat Mm or sell Mm. 

Applied to one's own brother or son etc, wbom one can trea't 
as one likes. 

18 %rT I^T^^ ^T ^I^T ^T '^T'^^wt- Jo mabadeva gbara 
basau so parabati. 

Any woman living with MaJiddeva may he treated as 
Pdrbati (the renoioned wife of the God MahddevaJ . 

Applied to an unmarried woman who lives with a relative or 
some great man as a concubine, in regard to her being treated 
exactly as if she were married to him. 

19 3Jr '^^^^]Z ifr ^fni'^tZ- Jan apanyata tan kbanyata, 
TVUere there is kinship, there is enmity. 

Men of the same caste will be more bitter against one another 
than those of different castes. 

20 grf3 ^T^ fkx 'U^Jl ^"S^. Lathi marl sbira alaga 
nai bunu. 

No one can he beheaded hy the stroJce of a club. 

This is used to show that it is useless to try and sow discord 
among the members of a family. 

21 ^jfz Hff^ %^ ^J^ "^^l iW^'^r. Lathi mari bera pani 
alaga ni bunu. 

Water cannot be divided by the stroke of a stick. 

Applied to brothers and kinsmen who though they may some- 
times quarrel among themselves will eventually get reconciled, 
and it is of little use to try and separate them by sowing dissensions 
among them. 



f 307 ) 

22 -^j %«^ ^efi Jij^. Sau dhoti eVa goti. 

One hundred Dhotis {Brahmins) and one Goti {blood 
relation). C.f. "Charity begins at home" 

Applied to pursuade one to give to or help his own kins- 
men by saying that helping one kinsmen is equal to helping a hundred. 
Brahmins. 

23 ^ gz^r^ ^f% 5i?iT fsi^TT ^^T ^TF^ ^TTT ^TT- Ye 

latula ku kakhi jaga ni boi mera nakba bhitara hoi. 

This cluster of hairs ^ having no other place, found 'place 
withm my nostril. 

Used by one who laments on account of a useless and trouble- 
some member of his family. 

24 ^ ^grrr %T ^TT ^I M^T ^TT ^T1 ^T^T- Ye dewata 
ko koi nai bhayo mera anga ayo. 

This deity has no one else, and so he has come 
upon me. 

E. g. Deities and ghosts are supposed to enter into people and 
make them dance. Used by parents with respect to worthless child- 
ren or relatives dependent upon them, 

25 fiT?l T5?j ^g ^T^T <T ^^3T '^^r. ^^iya jyu ghaila holata 

haluwa khuula. 

If my husband is hurt I shall eat Saluwd (a dish 
made of flour, Ghi, and treacle or sugar) . 

This is a saying regarding a woman whose husband was a 
great miser, and who used to keep all supplies under lock and key, 
contrary to the common custom which allows such articles of food 
to be in the custody of the wives. Once the miser fell down a 
precipice and was advised by his physicians to eat Hahi,wd which 
is believed to cure hurts by dispersing bad blood in the body. The 
miser being unable at the time to give out the necessary ingredients 
himself was obliged to send the key of the store room to his wife, 
who instead of taking a little of each ingredient took every thing 
in plenty and so got much Haluwa cooked not only for the sick man 
but for herself also. The miser as soon as he was up took away 



( 308 ) 

tbe key from his wife and kept it in his own- possession which iil- 
duced the wife to pray that some accident might bofal her husband 
so that she might have the chance of eatino Haluwd. The proverb 
is applied to persons who wish injury to their own people or family, 
and ironically to the miser as well* 

26 5f«(f3 % TT5ir ^T ^T^ ^^■^^x. -a^fz h xmi %r ^tt. 

Syai bati ai raja ko dara binasara bati ai raja ko dara. 

The timber that comes from Syai {a great fir forest) 
belongs to the king, and that which is brought from 
Binsar ( another great fir forest ) also belongs to 
the king. 

Used to denote that any expense whatever incurred by any 
member of one's family at any time or place devolves on the head 
of the family. 

Syahi and Binsar are the two great forests which supply wood 
for building at Almora. 

21 m^X ^,^1 f^TT^ %^I ^ "tjfk ^^T* Kukura chela bl- 

ralu chela mai randi chela. 

The dogs have sons, the cats have sons, I, an accursed 
{unfortunate) woman, have also sons. 

This is a reply by a woman, indignantly mourning over her 
sons who proved useless and troublesome to her, to a query by 
another woman who asked her whether she had sons. 

E. g. In India the birth of sons is welcomed generally 
whereas those of daughters are regretted, far the former are 
valued and the latter depreciated for the reasons noted below. 

The sons inherit their fathers' property and remain 
at home, while the daughters have to be given away in 
marriage to others with a dowry ; but the sons who bring disgrace 
on thei° parents or family, squander property, and are either dis- 
obedient or troublesome to parents, are much bemoaned. 

28 iTrT ^^-^ tV b^I^T- P«ta kaputa guko walano. 
A bad son brings blame for excreta (trifling 
mischief). 



( 309 ) 

/ e. Ho eases himself in a forbidden place and thus his 
parents are chastised for the act by his neighbours. 

29 ^JTT I^I^T'O^ IT ^I^T f^'3T'H^« Soro ni kbanade ya 

khoro ni khanade. 

Neither will one's kinsmen of the same caste suffer 
him to enjoy or continue in his prosperity, nor the skull 
{the suture of the skull denoting good or bad luck). 

Used hv one bemoaninn losses due to either of the above 
sources. For kinsmen envy one another's prosperity through 
jealousy, and so take steps to ruin one another. 

30 f^Hi'^^lT WT 'kj'^1 ^^m'^* Bigaliya bhai sora bara- 

bara. 

Brothers, when they get separted from each other do not 
treat each other as brothers but as kinsmen. 

Living apart frcm each other they become wrapped up in 
their own interests. 

31 ^]2cqT 'y %^ ^^« Katanya Iwe bagyan sukha. 

One gets relief as soon as he has discharged the painful 
blood {referring to dysentery). 

Used of worthless and troublesome members of one's family 
whose absence or loss is welcomed instead of beino regretted. 

32 ^»IT vjfm fl^ "ff^ ^"J^g. Pina pani eka tela uprhaila. 

The choff ( the matter out of which oil has been 
extracted ) and water becom,e one, but the oil is a 
stranger (a separate thing ). 

Used by one bemoaning his estrangement from a friend or 
relation owing to another introduced by him to his friend having 
supplanted him in his esteem. For at first the chjifF was part of 
the seed and united completely with it and water was a foreign 
element, but in the oil press water and chaff have become one, 
and the oil is driven away as a stranger. 



( 310 ) 

33 ^^ f^ -fim^ %^X fk "^inf^I' Kerhai kl tapani dewara 

ki apani. 

The fire of dried-tungs is like the endearment of the 
Dewara ( husband^ s younger brother ). 

A husband will love his wife with the same tender love all alone 
or with a lastino; love. A husbiind's younger brother^after the decease 
of his brother, shews <T'"eat affection towards his sister-in-law for a 
while in order to impr»'ss her with his solicitude, but soon necrlects 
her as the fire of thin twiors burns up for a time and dies out. 

Used by women only. Small thin dry twii^s are called 

34 ^ ^jq ^T 'ir^T ^Tiat ^r ^TfT. Mai bapa ko gota pant 

ko sota. 

The descent of one'' s oion parents and the source of 
water {are never to be depreciated . 

This also denotes that by descent from his parents one has 
connection with people far and wide as a source of water has with, 
other waters and oceans. 

35 %V ^T^T ^St ft ^T ^T^r tS^r- Jaiko soro chKuto 
wi ko khoro phuto. 

He who is deserted by his relations is an unfortunate 
one. 

For he will be rendered an isolated and weak party in the 
world, as every one consults his relations in family alliances 
and other matters. 

36 ^TiiJT '^'^ '^WfiJ «»TT^r T7T H^r- Apana puta ra- 
khanta paraya puta bhakhanta. 

To protect one^s own son and to devour another's. 

Used to represent the custom and nature of relationship 
in this world. 



37 ^«V Tl^'i 7T^ JIH'^'^. Paili gai sukha taba garbha 
sukha. 



( 311 ) 

Mrst wish comfort to the cow and then to its embryo. 

If the head of a family is happy all the members are so, 
"and if he is in trouble all share with him. This teaches that every 
one should take proper care of aad look after the comforts of the 
head of the family. 

38 iTTTT 'S'R ^T 1KTT W^J "^^t ^T^TT- Mama phuphu ka 
bhai kaka barhon ka dai. 

Maternal uncles' sons and fathers' sisters' sons act 
like one's brothers, bat cousins act like enemies. 

E g. Generally the former live in separate villages and are 
entitled to alms and help from their relations, and so they are 
friendly with him (the speaker), but the latter, who have to live 
in the same village where he does, and have collateral and joint 
interest with him in every thing they possess, are liable often to 
have quarrels with him. 

39 ^3T^T ^^T ^^r JJ3ir it SI^JJT ^t g=TI. Khalo pelo 
mero guja chhaun dholana son tuja. 

My Guja, (.friend or relative ) loill have to eat and 
drinJc, but you shall throw aicay the filth or do my 
drudgery. 

Near relations are valued and well-treated, distant ones are 
of no consequence. 

40 «!3t^ ^T ^SITII ZT^ % ^7^« Najika ko dushamana 

tarha ko dosta. 

The one near is an enemy, and the one who is at a 
distance is a friend. 

Used of troublesome neighbours or members of the same 
household. This is further compared to a troublesome disease 
contracted in one's own body which certain herbs foreign to him 
cure him of. 

khana bati auni s^hunana bati ni auna. 



( 31S ) 

Tears flow from eyes and not from knees. 

A man's own relations will sympathize with him, but not 
a stranger. 

Story. Once a tj'rannical kin<;, not satisfied with taxing his 
subjects while they were alive, laid a tax on every dead body taken 
for cremation to the river side. After some years the king felt 
the approach of death, and sending for his eldest son instructed 
him to reign in sucli a manner that the peo()le siiould praise his 
(the father's) administration. After his f.ther's death the new 
king, in order to make his subjects regret the decease of their 
former ruler, issued orders to the effect that, in addition to the 
death tax, no body should he burnt at any ghat ( burning place) 
until a "'coffin officer'' had driven into it a wooden peg as a sign 
of final sanction Iriving been given for the cremation This new 
law caused great consternation among the people, for it was equi- 
valent to a public disgrace to the body of every dead person. The 
king's subjects, therefore, began to lament bitterly the new reign, 
and long for the old king, who, though oppressive enough, had yet 
never imposed such a shocking order on his people. Thus the son 
shewed his filial obedience and piety by making his father's death 
regretted and his administration praised, though at the expense 
of his own profmlarity. Such a duty would have been fulfilled by 
no one except tne king's own son Hence this story is often told 
as an illustration of the proverb quoted above. 

A Lakshmi mera ghara a, mera parhosha me a mera desha 
me a. 

O wealth, come to me (to enrich), or to my neighbour 
(to enrich him), or my country (to enrich it). 

Used by good and p^itriotic people who rejoice at the good or 
welfare of their kinsmen, neighbours and country. 

43 %T TIT ^T ^T"^ f^l ^rt % f% ^ ^1^ f^ ^f^ U.%^^ \-[ 
^7^. Hoiya ko baba,niiioiyai ki mai, asa ki baini, ni 
asa ko dosta. 

The father likes his son if the latter is in good 
circumstances, whereas the mother does so even if he is in 
adverse circumstances, the sister likes his brother, if she 



f 313 ) 

has some hope of advantage from him^ hut a friend will 
iove him even if he has no hope of Mm. 

REMEDY. 

1 '^^JT fifi ^3T •I'^r^V- Bahama ki dawa nabati. 
There is no remedy for a {groundless) suspicion or 

presumption. 

No one cac know what suspicion another has with regard to 
him in his mind. 

2 f^^^ qi7 ^ig ^g. Biklia ka mukha chisa. 

The poison will not heal without a scorch. 

The bite of a venomous creature must be cautorizoJ. Serious 
maladies re<juire sharp remedies. 

-3 f^^^ %IT^W f^^. Biklia ki aukhadha bikba. 

The remedy of poison is poison. 

Once during the intense cold in the month of January the 
Emperor Akbar the Great, while taking a walk round about his 
city, saw a tank of water, and enquired of his chief minister 
Birbal whether any man would be able to live a whole night in 
the cold water of the tank. A person who had overheard their 
conversation on the road came forward, and said that he would 
be the man to do it, if he were given a good reward. The 
Emperor said he would give him fis- 10,000/- if he should find 
him alive the next morning. The poor man accepted the stake. 
Accordingly he was put naked into the pool, the water of which 
came up to his neck, and a guard was placed there to watch him. 
The poor man thus spent the night, and was brought by the 
guard before the Emperor the next morning to receive the pro- 
mised reward. The Emperor asked him how ho spent the night 
in the water in such unbearable cold. The man replied, "My Lord. 
I saw a fire at a distance of four or five miles just in front of me ;" 
depending on which ( in hope that he would have such a fire to 
warm him next morning ) he had felt no cold during the night. 
At this the Emperor refused to give him any thing at all, since 
he had had fire before him during the night. But Birbal did 
not think the Emperor freed from his promise. He interceded and 
pleaded for the poor man, but in vain. After a few days the Prime 

N 2 



C 314 ) 

minister was ordered to aocompnny the king on a certain day at a 
given time. Tlie statesman in ttie meantime had a bamboo 5 yards 
long split up into three pieces and then made a Chfda fhearth 
stovej on them, which stood 5 yards high. On the top of this hearth 
he pnt the vessel containing rice and water, and lighted a fire 
below it on the ground. On the fixed day and at the appointed 
time Birbal was sent for by the Emperor. He gave answer that as 
soon as he had had his food he would present himself before 
the Emperor, who on hearing this waited for him for some time. 
As Birbal did not come, the Emperor sent his messenger again 
to command him to make haste. Birbal sent him the same message 
again. After waiting for some -time further, the Emperor became 
angry at the delay, and went to Birbal's house, whereupon 
Birbal prostrated himself at the feet of the Emperor and asked 
forgiveness for the unaviodable delay, and shewed him the pot of 
rice on the bamboo chiila. On seeing this the Emperor expressed 
his astonishment and said "What a fool you are; how can the rice 
be cooked with the fire lighted at such a distance from it I" To this 
Birbal said "My Lord, the rice will be cooked in the same way by 
the heat of the fire as the poor man in the tank was warmed by 
the fire so many miles away from him." The Emperor became 
convinced of his mistake, and at once ordered Jls- 10,000/- to bo 
paid to the poor man. 

4 T.1^^ ^if >f ^eR^. Rakasa ko bhai bhekasa. 

Oriio brother of a goblin is one lolio assumes Ms guise 
(^0 subdue him). 

A goblin can only be subdued by some one assuming the 
same form. I. e. A wicked man can be brought to his proper 
bearings by wickedness only ! 

leiii swaina rosarha ko khano banto. 

The tvife of one, loho falsely charges her with tmchastity , 
should be taken by others, and the share of one who gets 
angry at dinner time should be eaten by others. 
Ironical censure of such conduct 

6 557^ ^^f^ ^ f^ %Xkl' Sami anguli ghyu ni aundo, 
■J <^ 



( 315 ) 

A straight iinger cannot bring out any gJd [clarified 
butter) out of a narrow vessel. 

Simplicity cannot thrive iu this world; trickiness is needed. 

7 f^ VT^ f^^T f^'^^'lT- Bina blieda Idrlia ni jharhana. 
Worms cannot be extracted without charming. 

1. e. wickedness should be matched by corresponding arts. 
Worms infest sores in animals and incantations are used to exter- 
minate them. "Diamond cut diamond." 

Story. Once the Emperor Akbar the great ordered his prime 
minister Birbal to convert him into a Hindu. Fearing to offend 
the monarch by saying anything against his wishes he gave his 
assent. Next day Birbal stationed a man by the side of the road 
daily frequented by the Emperor, and ordered him to take a 
donkey with him, and to clean it by rubbing and scrubbing the 
animal with a stone. This process was going on, and owing to 
the rough usage that he was getting the animal was braying 
loud, when the monarch accompanied by Birbal approached the 
scene. Akbar asked what all this meant, and why the ass was being 
handled so cruelly. Birbal replied that the man was trying to 
turn the ass into a cow. On this the Emperor expressed his 
surprise and said that the roan was attempting an impossible thing. 
To which Birbal replied "Nay, Sire, it is as possible as to turn 
your majesty into a Hindu." The Emperor convinced of the 
force of Birbal's reasoning remained silent. 

This story is also applied to the proverb, "The remedy of 
poison is another poison used." (under the head of "Remedy"). 

REPUTATION. 

1 '^r'^^r. -A-ba rau. 

One ought to preserve his lustre i. e. reputation. 

One who has lost his reputation is disregarded, as pearls 
having vivid lustre sell dear, while the same, though bigger, but 
wanting in splendour, sell cheap. 

2 %TTT ^TT^T^T^T. Koro bhano moso. 

A new ( unused ) vessel ( soon ) gets black. 

A new vessel quickly shows the soot. 

A small fault tarnishes a good reputation, but it would not 
be noticed did a scoundrel commit it 



( 316 ) 
REQUITALS AND RETRIBUTION. 

1 %T ^X ZmT ^t %I %T WT. Jo kara tuno ui so ha 

runo. 

He loJio performs enchantments on another will ( have 
to grieve or) suffer in the end. 

JU. g. Oue who wishes to injure another will himself meet 
with the reward of his endeavours to ruin another. C f. "The- 
righteousness of the perfect shall direct his way : but the wicked, 
shall fall by his own wickeduess." 

2 f^*l %"';t^T ■'^iffT '^^^T- Din a khainya rati parhyo. 
Dug a jjit (for others) during the day time and fell into- 

it himself in the night. 

3 %T ^ITI %t ^TT '^'3 ^i; ^T ^?T fr?JTT. Jo aurana sob 

khada khona ui so kuwa tayara. 

W hosoever digs a pit for another will himself fall 
down a well. 

I . e. He who wishes to harm another will thereby achieve 
his own ruin. A bad deed has an evil end. 

Ps. vii. 15. "He made a pit and digged it and is fallen inta 
the ditch which he made." 

RESPONSIBILITY OR LIABILITY FOR 
ONE'S DEEDS. 

1 '^'^^ W^^ ^T^. HTTT^. Apani karani para utaranl 
Ones oion deed will save a man. 

1. e. One will get salvation by his own deeds alone. Any 
thin (T good or high to which a man aspiies must be attained by 

himself. . ,, 

"Work out your own salvation. 

2 M^T ^^ ^^T ^T^T %T^r ^^ ^''il ^T^r- Bbalo kara 
bbalo bolo sauda kara napha bolo. 



C 317 ) 

Do good so that you may get good; and trade so thai 
you may get profit. 

This is spoken to one wLo is engaged in good works or 
trade by way of encouragement. C. f. "Industry is never 
unfruitful." 

ko mala cbandala kbau papa ko mala prachita jau. 

Stolen property is {eaten ) enjoyed only by low caste 
people {i. e. by mean men) but property obtained by sin has 
to be spent in atoning for the crime. 

No good man can rejoice in the fruits of his evil doings, bat 
suffers sooner or later. C. /. "Evil got evil spent." 

4 e(i7?T fifi q^T^ ^"^T ^t'Bl Kama ki pachharha pacliha 
auncbhya. 

The effects of an act are felt afterwards. 

E. g. In performing a ceremony such as a marriage or 
tonsure every one wishes to make it as splendid as he can, but 
afterwards when he has to pay for every thing he feels it bitterly, 
and so one who is wise restricts expenditure as much as possible 
from the beginning by thinking of all items which are absolutely 
necessary and which he has to pay for. Used as a precaution 
against acting, or incurring liabilities, without due regard to their 
consequences. 

5 ^dl tf^ ?f '^f% Tif% ^ qjq f^T ^. I)bimgi dbupgi men 

cbarhi cbarhi men papa shira men. 

The stone to stones, the bird to other birds, but the sin on 
his own head. 

E. g. One threw a stone at a bird but missed his aim. The 
tird flew and joined other birds, the stone fell among the other 
stones, but the sin of wishing to kill the bird remained with 
bim, for the Hindu Scriptures strongly condemn the taking of 
animal life. 

dewata apana gbarun gaya meli lipani mai ku kai gaya. 



( 318 ) 

The gods and spirits have gone away to their homes but 
I have now to replaster ( repair ) the floor of my house. 

E.g. People said to be possessed bv deities aud spirits, dance 
inside a house with such wild force that they break up the floor 
("which needs repairiugj and eo the mistress of the house complains 
of the trouble she has in consequence. 

Applies to one's feasting the people and making them merry 
with eating and drinking but having to bear the expenses etc. 
consequent on it. C. f. "Dinner over, away go the guests." 
"Having to pay the piper." 

7 qji: faiT ^ •^T'3 ^^55 1?^ 1T55T %I^' Nai shira men 

bala katuka chbana hazara auni. 

O, barber how many hairs have I in my head ? 
Ansioer, They will socn lie bejore yoit,. 

To be over-anxious about things which tirce alone can 
disclose. Also used of the consequences of one's dark deeds, which 
are certain to appear at some time. 

8 f^^TTT ^r ^"T^ ^T^fT- Niyata ka santha ba.rakata. 

A man is blessed in propoi'tion as he uses his property 
icell. 

9 rni sfrf^ ^'?1IT ^T^r ^J V^T ^IT^T '^^m "^m- Ganga 
nani apana wasta gadhero nano apana wasta^ 

One who bathes in the Ganges does it for his own benefit, 
and one who bathes in a rivulet ( not in the Ganges ) does 
it for his own purposes. 

Applied to one's being answerable for his own deeds. 

vj vj ^ 

Kali yuga nahati kara yuga chha eka hatha le de dusard, 
hathale le. 

This is not the ^'Iron age" bid "the age ^ of the hand;' 
if you give with one hand you will receive with the other. 



( 319 ) 

Used against the teacliincr of the Hindu scriptures which 
says that in this age one who does evil will prosper but those who 
do good will come to trouble in this existence, as illustrated by the 
story No. 1; but the proverb which says this is not the iron age 
is illustrated by the story No. 2 narrated below. 

Story No. 1. it was at the time when the third age, known as 
"■DwdparaJuga," had departed and the fourth age, oalled"^aZz J«^a," 
had stepped in, that a man brought up in the righteousness of the 
former time felt exhausted and fatigued on account of hunger and 
thirst while journeying to a certain place distant from his home. 
He still travelled on in hope to find some village where he might 
refresh himself. But he could not find one. At last he saw a 
garden at a distance, to which he plodded on. On reaching the 
place he found the garden full of various kinds of trees bearing 
flowers and fruit, but no man or water were to be seen there. 
The honest man called out loudly, but no one answered him. He 
then, being compelled by hunger, plucked one citron and tied a 
gold mohar to the stem from which the fruit vvas taken, with a piece of 
cloth, believing that the price of the fruit did not exceed the gold 
coin, and that on looking for the fruit the owner of the garden 
would find the price, and so ho (the honest man) would be justified 
in taking the fruit in the absence of the owner. After doing this 
he resumed his way, having the fruit tied up in his handkerchief, 
in hope to find water where he could eat it after performing the 
iiecesary ablution. When he had gone a few furlongs from the 
garden he was called on to stop b}' a dark-coloured man behind 
him, who charged him v^ith having cut otf his son's head, and 
taken it away. The honest man thinking himself innocent stapped 
at his call. The black-faced man coming near him said again. "O, 
good man, why did you behead my sou and take away his head?" To 
this accusation the honest man related what he had really done. On 
this the black man said that it was not the fruit, but his son's head. 
After this the former put the handkerchief with its contents before 
the latter. On opening it to the utter amazement of the former they 
both saw the head of a boy freshly cut off (it was bleeding) in the 
cloth, instead of the citron. At this wondrous sight the honest- 
man became convinced, and with great sorrow admitted his guilt. 
Then the black man said. "0, my good man, I am Kaliyuga 
(Iron age) . My reign has begun now. Why should I be pleased 
•with one who does an honest act such, as was becoming to my 
predecessors. I can be pleased only with the man who does 
wrongful acts which add to the dignity of my reign. They alone 
are becoming during my sovereignty. I am glorified by such 
dark deeds. Righteous deeds cast a slur on my rule, therefore 
I afflict and render poor those who do such things during my 



C 320 ) 

i-frign. Had you destroyed many trees, eaten much fruit, stolen it 
without putting any price thereon, and then said that you did not 
do it, but some one else, I would have been pleased with your 
conduct. Beware now that you do not annoy me again by a 
repetition of such honest deeds in future. I forgive you this first 
time ; goto'your home, good bye ; and communicate my instructions 
to all whom you see, so that by following them they may become 
jirosperous, and escape the punishment inflicted by me on those 
who observe the righteous laws of my adversaries (predecessors) 
during my reign. 

Story No. 2. There was once, some hundreds of years ago, 
a king named Narhachiya, who, besides having a kingdom over 
which he ruled, was possessed of fifty sis crores of Rupees in his 
treasury. According to the ancestral custom in vogue he used to 
distribute three handfuls of parched grain to those only who had 
had no food at all during the past three days. Even this was felt 
as a hardship by the king, who was a great miser, and so he stopped 
this, in consequence of which God was very angry with the king. 
One day while the king was away from his palace, God sent auother 
man exactly of the same form, countenance, and stature as Narha- 
chiya. This new man sat on the throne and commenced the work 
of the realm as usual. All the people of the empire recognized him 
as king Narhachiya without the least suspicion of his being a 
man other than the real Narhachij'a. Soon after this the real king 
returned to his palace, but was refused admission and reviled by 
the new king and the people of the kingdom as an impostor. As 
no one in the place or kingdom discerned him to be the real king, 
he was obliged to take refuge in the jungles in order to save his life. 
While living in the forest he used to lead a secluded life, 
sustaining himself on wild roots and leaves. At last he came to 
his senses and sincerely repented of his wrongful conduct, and 
prayed to God saying, "0 Lord, if thou wilt give me even one 
twentieth part of the money I had in my treasury, I will devote 
it to the maintenance of poor people." God approved of this 
conduct and told him to go to his throne, and when he did so, 
he was greeted and accepted as a king by all the people. No 
sooner did he ascend his throne than he distributed all his wealth 
to the poor of his empire. Immediately after this he made over the 
kingdom to his heir, and himself became an ascetic. Ho began to 
live naked with a fire before him on the bank of a river caring for 
no wordly things whatever. After this one day a messenger came 
to him from another king to whom his own sister was married, and 
who hitherto was not aware of his brother-in-law having become 
ajogi. The messenger came to invite him to visit the other king 
whoso daughter had to be married on a certain day. Narhachiya had 



f 321 ) 

nothing to feed the messenger with,'and so he (Narhachiya^ told 
him to take any thing he wanted out of his Dhitni (fire). The man 
accordingly thrust his hand into the ashes of the Dhiini, and drew 
out some sweetmeats, to the utter amazeiuent of the messenger. 
The envoy stayed then for some days with Narhachiya and got 
all the food he wished for out of the Uhvni. At last he took 
leave of Narhachij-a and returned to his own king. At the time 
the messenger departed Narhachiya (having nothing else) gave the 
messenger three handfuls of the ashes as a gift, and a stone to be 
given to his niece on the marriage day as prescribed by the established 
usage, saying that he would be there on the fixed day, and would 
then present the stone to the girl personally. The messenger while 
on his way to his master found the ashes Cgiven by Narhachiva 
as a gift) to be gold dust. After this Narhachiya arrived at his 
brother-in-l.iw's house on the day his daughter was to be m.-irried. 
He was extremely sorry to see Narhachiya as a Faquir and 
regretted his having invited him, for he supposed it would be very 
disgraceful to him to acknowledge Narhachiya as his relation in tho 
presence of the other kings who were also invited for the occasion. 
And so he got Narhachiya lodged at some distance from his palace 
in a garden. But on that day God sent his angel with a gold 
chariot full of precious stones, clothes etc to Narhachiya so that 
lie might present it as a dowry to the daughter of the king. On this 
all the kings and other people left the palace and went to where 
Narhachiya was with the angel, to see the scene, and everybody 
paid his reverence and homage to Narhachiya and angel. The 
stone formerly sent b}' Narhachiya to be presented to the girl 
had become a Mani (a gem). So Narhachiya at the marriao-e 
presented all the valuables to his niece. Hence the proverb that 
this is not the iron age, but the hand age &c. 

12 ^^ *%T ^^I ^f *T^T- Hara kaso jasa son taso. 

God is to each as that person is towards Sim. 

C /. With the pure Thou wilt show thyself pure, and with 
the perverse Thou wilt show thyself froward. (II Sam. 22: 27). 

13 %T «B^ %T '♦IT* Jo kara so bhara. 
One will enjoy the fruit of his deeds. 

As a man does, so he will have to endure. 

14 ^^T '^n «?^T m^* Jaiko papa taiko bapa. 

O 2 



( 322 ) 

The crime is the father of the sinner. 

I. e. Whoever has committed the sin, the sin is his father. 
This literally means to curse (the father of) the sinner, for it says 
his father is sin, and sin's father is also sin which will be pa- 
nished sooner or later. This is applied to an unknown offender. 

Or, a man's sin is his father. I. e. He can never get rid 
of it. C. f. "Be sure your sin will find you out." 

15 '"ij^ >f^T ^T ^^T« Anta bhala ko bhalo. 
A good man's end is good. 

I. e. One who does good deeds will have a good end, as 
illustrated by the following story. 

Story. Once a goldsmith, a barber, a lion, and a .snake 
had fallen into a deep well in a dreary jungle, where a good man 
happened to pass. On perceiving him, each of them cried out 
for help, and each of tbem promised to help the traveller in time 
of need. So, first of all the good man took out of the well the 
lion, who presented him with a diamond ring, promised that he 
would come to his help whenever he should remember him, and told 
him not to take out the barber and the goldsmith, and then went 
away. After this the good man got the serpent up, who also having 
promised his help in time of need went away, giving his advice to 
the good man not to take out the goldsmith and the barber. The 
good man contrary to the admonitions of the lion and the snake 
helped the barber and the goldsmith out of the deep well, who also 
took their way after promising to reward the services of the good 
man. After some years when the barber had become a Kotwdl of 
a certain cit3', and the goldsmith was also trading at the same 
place, the good man, on arriving there, \vent to see his friends the 
barber and the goldsmith, who, though they knew him well, 
feigned ignorance of him, and, seeing the diamond ring on his 
finger, went straight to report him to the king, who, in the 
meantime, not knowing that his daughter who had worn the dia- 
mond ring on her finger had been killed by the lion, had issued 
proclamations throughout his kingdom that anv one finding any 
clue to her ornaments would be rewarded. The good man was 
consequent!}' arrested and put in charge of the Police, when the 
barber (now Kotwdl) unnecessarily troubled and tortured him. 
After that in spite of his ph^adiug innocence by representincr all 
the facts of the case the king sentenced him to be beheaded, 
on the proof of the diamond ring having been found with him. 
^t this moment the good man remembered his friend the snake, 



f 323 j 

who, after biting the qneen, came to the good man, and said that 
the queen would die unless she was treated by him. The queen 
was senseless in consequence of the snake-bite. All remedies and 
charms were administered in vain. Every one supposed her last 
hour had come. The n<?xt day, when the good man was about to 
be executed, he offered his services to cure the queen, and accord- 
ingly he was sent for and told to treat her. No sooner had he 
used his charms than she became quite convalescent. But the 
kins', notwithstanding this, said that he wonld not spare the life 
of the man. Then tiie good man adduced the lion as his witness, 
and as soon as he remembered the lien a great number of lions 
came to his help, so that the city became full of them. At this 
spectacle the king became convinced of the truth spoken by the 
good man, though the barber and the goldsmith denied the fuct, 
and ordered them to be beheaded iii his place. 

16 ^^T ^51 ff^r Ti?T. Jaikocliuna taiko punya. 
The reward is his icho gives the flour. 

Used to encourage charity. 

17 §rT 5p^T 'ST^ "JTset ^^ '^I^- '^^ J^anjya kha^a taiki 
gall dada. 

Whoever eats kaniyd ( a wild hut sweet vegetable which 
causes irritation in the throat) will have his throat inflamed. 

This teaches that every one will have to taste the bitter fruit 
of his own evil deeds. 

^^I ^% \'t{' Rama jharokha baitha kara saba ka mujara 
leta.. Jaisi jaiki chakari taisa wako deta. 

The God Rama sitting at the window sees every one's work, 
and gives wages for the work done hy each. 

This is quoted in regard to Rama who rewards or chastises 
people according to the nature of the work done by each. 

C. /. "The eyes of the Lord are in every place beholding 
the evil and the good," 



{ 324 ) 

19 g (%g ^iIt (^'3^ fl ^^T ^TJ f^^ (%^^T' Tu kbi- 
lawarho ni khanado ta tera bapu riliha nl khando. 

Sad you not cultivated a field in the midst of the forest, 
your father would not have been killed by a bear. 

Applies to one who suffers for his own unwise conduct. 

20 «ll^fU! ^gf^ 55^ ^ITf^I. Nachani kbelani muha 
Eamani. 

The dancers and players will come in front of each one. 

I. e. The result of each one's conduct comes home to him, 
just as in a dance the performers come in front of each of the- 
spectators. 

21 ^^TI^ *itTT;«fi 'sT'Iif^'lT^ W^- Kuirala kLaika khan- 
karyala kada. 

Whoever will eat Icuirdla ( a kind of wild tree the flowers 
of which are eaten by poor people ) will be liable to catarrh. 

I. e. Every one is himself responsible for any thing which 
he does without due regard to its consequences. 

22 5i^x ^f^T ff^T ^3T^T- Jaso bolo taso lawalo.^ 
As much as one sows, so much will he reap. 

Applied only to giving charities. In a future existence s 
man will be blessed in proportion to his gifts in this life. 

lUnstriition. Once there was a poor, simple, and virtuous 
beggar living with his wife in a town. He used to earn only 
three Chhataks of flour a day, whether he begged at five houses or 
fifty, but never more. One day when they had cooked one and 
a half cakes with the three Chhataks of flour, a saint arrived there 
who said that he was very hungry. They gave him the one and 
a, half (three chhataks) of ready made bread, which the saint ate and 
departed. The hermit then went to God, and interceded for the 
poor man, but God shewed him the account-book and said that since 
he had given on!}' one and a half rupees in his former existence, he 
was not entitled to more than what he received, and if he got that 
one and a half rupees at one time, after that he would get nothing 
more. The kind-hearted saint then petitioned God to let him have the 



( 325 ) 

one and a half rupees at once, and God gave it to him. Then the saint 
came back to earth again and advised the poor man that the one and 
half a rupees should he spent on charity, and whatever he got there- 
after should also be devoted to the help of the poor. The beggar 
did as he was told. The very next day, having spent one and half 
rupees on charity, he earned three rupees, and this sum also having 
been given to the poor, the next day he got six rupees. In this way 
as his income increased he increased his alms also, sjjending all he 
received on charity. After this the same saint went to Paradise 
again, and saw God in the form of an old man, sitting in a bending 
posture. On his enquiring the cause of this, God said that the man 
who had received one and a half rupees, some time ago, had become 
very charitable, and that whatever he got he gave it away to the poor, 
and that his charity had thus put a heavy burden upon himself. 
After this the saint came to the man again and said that he was 
a very pious man, and gave him advice as to his saving something 
for times of need. The man being puffed up with pride began 
to withhold his hand from charity and the consequence was that 
he became poor again very soon. 

C. f. "Much is expected when much is given." "As you 
sow, so you shall reap." 

23 5?g^ ^^g f>T5I wgi *TTfT. Jatuka kammala bhija 
tatuka bhari. 

The wetter the blanket gets, the heavier it becomes. 

Used in reference to liabilities and debts, for the sooner they 
are discharged and settled the better ; putting them off only makes 
them more burdensome. (The ordinary dress of a hill man consists 
of a blanket). Also used to denote that one's responsibilities 
increase with the increase of his family. 

24 ^^ ^?T^ ^'fl ^'fT "^T^ ^ZI ^^r «ri^r« Sasu buwari 

^» vj ■ 

unjo painjo bapa beta lekho jokho. 

Mother-in-law and daughter-in-law borrow and lend, and 
accounts are Tcept between fixther and son. 

The necessity of keeping accounts even in dealings with 
near friends. 

25 ^\m ^X.\ ^1^ ^f 5^1 ^ITl Zf^ ^tf* Nana kbora 
nani pirha thula khora thuli pirha- 



( 326 ) 

The small shull has little pain ( cares and anxieties ) th& 
big skull has great pain. 

The burdens and responsibilities of wealth and position. 

26 ^if siT^ % ^^W« Swarga naraka yain dekhinchba. 

One finds paradise and hell here ( lohile alive in this, 
world ). 

E.g. The doctrine of the Hindu scriptnres is that a man 
gets human life as a reward of good deeds after undergoing 
transmigration through eighty-four lacs of animal lives, as con- 
sequences of wicked deeds committed by him during his former 
human existence. So human life is said to be a period of probation 
(outof the eternity the soul has to pass through) and the last 
improved state in which he can cither obtain salvation through 
virtue, piety and contemplation of God, or earn other future lives^ 
or hells which are forty-five in number according to the sins he 
commits in human life. The illiterate or common belief is that one 
in blissful circumstances is enjoying his paradise here, and one in 
distressed circumstances is said to be enduring his portion of hell-, 
here (in the present human life). 

'^'^ %^ %mi^ "hxf^ ^^■^r^ Z%% Keku paunyali 

hoi tl keku dwara dhakadi. 

Why did you make alliance with me, and why do you now 
shut your doors against me ? 

E. g. As you have intermarried with me I must be treated 
as a relative. A thing agreed to should be maintained at any 
cost of trouble, risk or loss. 



RIDICULE AND LAUGHTER 

1 ^I'^^TfT ^ "fi^^Tft ^gRt %r '^r^^. Adbikarl ko- 
fethakari kukara ko chakara. 

The officer s servant keeps a servant for his own dog. 

The dog-keeper is a very menial servant, but gives commands 
as if he were an officer oppressing the people. 

Applied contemptuously to one who takes on airs of command; 
(a gentleman's gentleman). 



( 327 ; 

2 ^T1 l«7g^ ^t'lt »?iTI?I%T S^ 'l[T^- Roga ko mula 
khansi jhagarha ko mula hansi. 

Coughing a root of sickness, and ridicule a root of 
quarrels. 

An axiom cautioning people against mockery. 

RIVALS 

1 ^T»l %T^ %I"?T ^TT)" ^^ ^^- ^ga aura sauta tborhl 
laga buri. 

No one sJiould despise a spark of fire, era small rival 
wife (^. e. a second wife). 

Both these things are capable of causing much mischief if left 
nnsuppressed. 

2 ^ WS^X. Tl^ ?^T^^ ^Ti; W^iit. Dui talawara eka 
myana men ni rai sakani. 

Two swords cannot he kept in one sheath. 

Two rivals cannot live in the same place without quarrellinof. 

3 ^Tff '?«T,'^ ^l?l gfr. Sauta chuna ki laga buri. 

The rival wife, even if made of maduwa flour {inferior) 
is a nuisance. 

This proverb is used with keen appreciation by women who 
have rivals ; and is also applied to competetors in any business. 

The first or chief wife of a Hindu naturally resents with 
bitterness the idea of a rival in her husband's affections. In 
Bengal, according to a native writer, girls of tender age are taught 
to pray against such a calamity in the future and to pronounce 
curses on the possible future rival. 



( 328 ) 
RUINOUS AND FRUITLESS EFFORTS, 

1 f^lt ^T f^mm ^"^ ^' ^T ^^T '^T^* Bichhi ko nija'no 
mantra sarpa ka dula hatha. 

To pttt one's hand into the hole of a snake when one 
does not know how to charm a scorpion. 

1. e. To attempt work which is beyond one's power and 
dangerous. It is supposed that tho effrfcts of the posion of a 
snake or scorpion can be removed by incantations. 

2 ^I=! $tSt ^ITfT '^f%« Boja chhoti jagata barhi. 

A small load but a heavy tax. 

I. e. Much trouble attended with small gain. E. g. A 
small share in a village gives a great deal of trouble. 

3 S^T'l'^r ^Tf% 1^ ^1J ^I^TT Byo na syo laurbi ki 

khuta torbai. 

The legs of the daughter were broken, ( through fatigue 
in visiting all her friends and relations to say good-bye), 
and after all no marriage. 

Applied to some bargain which after having caused much 
trouble, does not come to any thing. 

4 if)"*!^!' HT^fT ^JT^t ^IfT- Bbitna son bharata swarga 
son lata. 

To wage a war with BMma is like kicking the sky, 

Bhima is another name of Bhima Sena one of the five 
Pandabas, a great hero, spoken of in the Mahabharata. 
Applied to fruitless attempts, 

5 vm^ zm ^TfT %T^ >T^r ^izm ^i^znni ^Ifll- Eka taka 
ka ten jogi bhayo nau taka jogyuna laga. 

One became a jogi ( ascetic) for the sake of two pice, 
but his being made a Jogi cost him eighteen pice, 
A bad investment. 



( 329 ) 

6 F^IW ^'^T^ 1«!T ^I«TH. Mehanata barbdda guna 
lajama* 

I/obour misspent proves a man guilty. 

One who is not successfal in this world is generally blamed. 
Compare the expresions ''Poverty is a crime," "Success justifies 
anything." 

7 3T ^j^ •^Jz Gu khana bata, 

«v ~ ■ • 

By eating excreta he gained nothitig. 

Applied tq atrocious conduct by vhich no advantage is gained. 

B f?Tfil^ ^T f^Tf^HT ^%?fT ^5}^T sfTIT ^%^r- Timila ka 
timila khataiya nange ka nanga dekbaiya. 

All the figs collected fell down, and at the same time 
the hody was exposed. 

The hill women wear only a small sheet wrapped round their 
loins and passed over their head. One.climbing up a tree to collect 
figs in her sheet, the sheet slips out of her hand, and so she loses 
the figs, and at the same time the upper part of her person is 
■exposed. - —t- . ; 

A double calamity, failure involving personal loss or disgrace. 

9 ^5f f% ^iTfTT S^^t ^TIT ^f IfT ^T»T W^Vi ^31^ ^^^ 
ki khatara dhebari laya eya dama dama kapasa kbawa. 

A sheep was kept for ike sake of her wool, hut she' ate 
np seers of cotton, 

.D&ma — Garhwal weight. An unprofitable speculation. 

10 ^ -^frft lif ^r^l %Tf I'': It ^T5nn fg'^r^ Ya buwari 
kucbba ku ni hoi para cbhaun barajana ku hoi. 

This bride is of no other use except that I have to take 
care not to touch her. 

P 2 



( 330 ) 

Applied to a woman who instead of helping -the family tarns 
ont useless and troublesome. The wife of a younger brother 
mast on no account be even touched by the elder brother, nor may 
she touch him. 

11 ^■'STIT ^^^^^En"'CT* Urhaya pdthatu gholyara. 
Young birds that had flown away return to the nest. 

Applied to grown up children who after they ar€ married 
become dependent on their parents. 

12 ^^^filf ^fr ^'^'It *il- Pharphaten meri tumdali 
kathen. 

Where is my wooden howl. 

A Dum (a low caste man) is in the habit of using this phrase 
all day and night, going in and out of his house asking "where is 
my wooden dish." 

This proverb is applied to one who is moving here and there 
in vain in search of employment. The Z'wmas are in the habit of 
eating a little food many times during the day, and as jnany times 
they need their respective dishes. 

13 ^^r ^j- %T^T 2^T f^^J^- Paisa ko kodo taka pisai. 

One pice oj millet (maduwd) hut two pice for 
grinding. 

C. f. "The game is not worth the candle." 

14 ^T^T 'l^T^T ^I^CJT ^TTi^T i^T^T "^l^^ ^T^ Poyo 
pakayo sagalina ghagaro doyo battisa hatha. 

The whole shirt after heing sewn and washed measured 
only thirty two handbreadths. 

This is used for any business which takes much trouble but 
affords little gain. C. f. "Great cry and little wool." 

Sukha ki khatara buwari lyawa sya roja uthi nialara 
gawa. 



( 331 ) 

A daughter in law was brought' to increase our comfort 
but when she rises in the morning she does nothing but 
sing. 

Applied to articles procured for the sake of comfort, but 
■which prove to be sources of trouble and loss. 

16 gyjiT ^^g^T ^t Ji^i ^=^^17^ ^^ 'V^T- trdhara nikala. 
nu son gayo paicha yada karai ayo. 

One went to borrow from a certain person, but only 
received a reminder to pay up a former debt.. 

C. f. "Going out for wool and coming back sheared." 

17 w^ %^^ %T»I«ir IW^ '^^'ST- Gurha bechi bera gana 

naoha men chusana. 
\. — - 

One who barters his treacle for sugarcanes has the 

extra trouble of chewing them. 

Unprofitable bargains. 

18 iKTfW*! ^(W ^11 ^ifaf^- Khanina plni gbuna ghuna 
thini. 

Feet benumbed to the knees but nothing to eat and drink. 

Great pains, small gains. 

19 "%^55i n^ ^T ^t 11T ^^1% 55 -^^r- Chaube jyu 

ehhabe buna son gaya awa dube jyu baithau. 

A Ghombe (once) went to another's house in the hope 
that he would be taken therefor a Chhabe {would be more 
respected), but the man said to him "O dube, come and 
sit down." 

A Chaabe=one who has read four vedas. 

A Chhabe= do. do. all the six yedas. 

A Dube= do. do. two vedas 

Excessive ambition meeting with a fall. 



,( 33-2 > 

20 it^T wf^ m^ ^Tf% vfr "^liTf^- Bela bhari nauni 
niali bbari kukaupi. 

A cupful of butter and one Ndli (2 seers) of dirt. 

Used of work or business which is more trouhlesome than 
profitable. This is also used of a person in whom there is a 
little good and much e'siiL 

21 ^^ ^% %t^T ^^ «RT f^ ^'i -'^ba ki jai khaamlo 

kunchhyun baba ki jaige. 

I wished to earn for myself, hut the undertaking deprived 
me even of what linherited from my father. 

Used of business which proves ruinous. 

22 qi7^ ^JTiUT^t I^T •IT'3 ^Tf3 ^»l^r« Kana lagupa son 
gayo nakha kati ligayo. 

One set out in order to fix or replace his ear {which 
was cut off), but his attempt to do so deprived him qf 
his nose. 

Used of business which proves ruinous. 

23 ^W^ ^T ^T9- Kammala ko satu. 

The flour of parched grain kept in a blanket. 

If the flour of parched grain is kept in a blanket, nearly aB 
of it sticks to the blanket. Bad investments. 

24 ^^T ^TST^IIW "^f^. Bharo chhoto jagata barhi. 

A little load hut heavy toll. 

Used of work or business which is more troublesome than 
profitable. 

SECRETS. 

1 5SB ^T't ^T Wl wt^T ^TSf ^1^- Eka kana dui kana 
tina kana maidana. 

One ear or two ears, hut if three ears, then the open plain. 



( 333 ) 

This is applied ito secrets-wbibb should be confined at most to 
two persons. If it reaches a third ear it will become public. 

2 ^Tsq f^ f^^ iirf^ STTl^ra. Sau jyu ki pliilanga paki 

janiya. 

The private disorder of a Baniyd is made known when 
it comes to a head. 

A JBaniyd is said to suppress the disease he is laboring under 
for fear of exposure, but when it comes to the worst stage be can- 
not bide it any longer. 

Applied to secret dark deeds or evil designs which are known 
only when their result appears. 

3 mifT IT^Ij ■^JlfT ^3 Machho pani kai bagata piwa. 
No one knows when the fish drinks water. 

Used to enjoin proper secrecy. '' - 

;4 ^T?r ^g ^J f%^r^- Dai mu peta chhiponu. 
To hide the person from a midwife. 

Applied to those who keep any business in which they are 
concerned secret from itheir parents, or superiors. 

5 ^Tf%T % ^Tf%^ %• Darhima khai darhimai ai. 

One ate pomegranate and discharged the same mtire, 
(i. e. could not digest its seeds). 

Used of one who breaks secrecy and promise. 
SELF-ESTEEM. 



1 ^t^ fi^T ^''^'IT^. Saisi ilaina daryawa chta. 

The work of a groom is like a deep stream. 

' ' Once a Syce was asked by a gentleman to brinjir another 
Syce for him: the Syce replied that the work of Syce is like an 
ocean ; i. e. requires great talents, and therefore one could not 
be found, though clerks were plentiful everywhere. This is used 
ironically to ridicule the qualifications of one who himself boasts, 
of them. 



f 334 .) 
SELF-HELP AND EXERTION 

1 ^^fzm K^^T ^^r^ ^J^ ^^ f%ir»!IT. Buti ka bharasa 
ni raunu hatha paira hilona. 

Do not trust altogether to charms, but use your hands 
and feet. 

E. g. A certain saint gave a man a talismanic herb wbicH 
■would secure his prosperity. The man was delighted with, 
the boon and asked leave to return home, whereupon the saint 
told him that he should not place his confidence alone on the herb,, 
but also exert himself to attain his purpose. 

C. f. "God helps them who help themselves." 
Or, as Cromwell once said to his soldiers, "Trust in God,, 
and keep your powder dry". 

2 ^T'T 5Sir Sfif r ^^'^^^t^T- Bapu bya kadau sanehu ni- 
lando. 

The father can arrange for the marriage {of his son) 
but cam,not create affection {in his son toward his wife). 

A teacher can do bis utmost in teaching, but cannot make bis 
pupil clever. This is equivalent to. "One man can bring a horse- 
to the water, but ten men cannot make bim drink." 

3 f%^fT "3^ 1^^ ^^J- Himmata banda madada Khuda. 

God helps a brave man. 

A man prospers through his own exertions and the help ot 
God. C f. "God helps them who help themselved." 

4 5iq?lT IT?: ^T TST^T fTf?1I JITS^T^ ^5!I$T. Jathaga 
hai ko manuno tataga garjyorhi kanyuno. 

Instead of exerting yourself to entreat another (to- 
scratch you) use your efforts in scratching yourself. 

This teaches that one should take the trouble himself of bis- 
own work instead of taking the trouble of inducing and entreating, 
another to do the work for him. 



( 335 ) 

S 'JT^ f^ ^I '^•??r^l ^» I'ani ki dhau panyara mu. 

One has to satiate his thirst by going to the spring 
itself. 

This is used to encourage one to take the trouble of repre- 
senting his own case personally, and not through others, to the 
highest officer, who is a fountain of justice. If you want a thing 
you must exert yourself to get it, and not expect it to come to 
you of itself. 

€ ^T^ f% ^ ^m cC'^ %• Mala ki lai kaba kaba kbai. 

How seldom do we eat the mustard produced in the 
Plains. 

1. e. One ought not to depend on others for help, because 
it cannot always be depended upon, for one will give help only 
for ouce, as we can get the mustard of the plains only occasionally 
since it requires to be fetched from the plains. 

7 ^^ f^flJ' ^t^'fl fl^- Ghoghanta bidya khodanta 

pani. 

Learning to be had by repeating lessons, and the water 
by digging. 

C. /. 'No gains without pains." "There is no royal road 
to learning. 

8 ^^^ ^ ITfl^T fil^IW* Akala le para mesh wara milan- 
chba. 

Genius and wisdom will even gain God. 

Used as an encouragement to one to exert himself to find 
out the causes of things and to surmount difficulties instead of be- 
ing daunted by them. 

SELF-INTERESTEDNESS. 

1 '^•lalT'^T ^•? <fT^ '85T5* Banajara kana tandai sujanchha. 
A Banjdrd looks always towards Tdnda, {i. e. the 
place from which he set out). 



( 336 ) 

Banjaras are Plains .graia-dealers who take grain to sell in 
the hills. E. g. The Banjiras of Tanda, village on the road tO 
Moradabad . are indefatigable grain dealers, but they love their 
home. 

Every one looks forward to the accomplishment of his' 
undertaking. 

2 ?3T^T '^Tf% ^TOF '^ifr* Khano barhi apana charhi. 
One eats hdrhi {food made of millet Jlour) for his 

own purpose. 

I. e. One takes trouble for his one. sake. Barhi is a very 
inferior kind of food which no one would eat who had not some special 
object in doing so. 

3 qT^'^X % ^tT^'^ "^T- Parmeshwara hai matalaba 
barho. 

One's object or purpose is g)'eater than God, 

Every one cares more about his owp desires than about God. 

Illustration : Once the Prime Minister Birbal was deprived 
of his post by the Emperor Akbar in consequence of the back- 
biting of his Mahomedan Ministers, who could not bear a Hindu 
being above them. Soon after this the Emperor asked the foijr 
Mahomedan Ministers who was the greatest man in the world. 
To this they replied the Emperor was above all, then he put an- 
other question to them as to who was above him ; they said "God". 
After this the Emperor asked them what was above God ; they 
were unable, to reply to this, but they said they would - answer the 
question within one month, the kiiig granted them the time.' In 
the meantime they consulted many wise men about the matter^ and 
fed many Faquirs in order to take their opinion about the question, 
but all in vain. On the last day of the month they left their home 
at nigfct under the guise of /o^'fs and went to the jungles. But 
Birbal being aware of this movement went ahead disguised as ajogii 
and stopped on the side of the road they had to come by, seating 
himself on a Chdrpdi 'bed-stead). The Ministers while going along 
that way saw the i^a^'ir (Birbal) _and taking him for a real faqir 
told him of the difficulty they were labouring under. The Faqir 
consoled them and told them that if they would take him to the 
king he would give him the proper answer to his question.' The 
ministpTS were only too happy to do this, and after stopping there 
for the remainder of the night they lifted up the Clidrpai and 



( 387 ) 

■conveyed him to the Einporor the next morning while he was sitting 
in his Court. Birbal while thus being convoyed to the Darhdr 
upon the C/idrpdi put on his own clothes before ho reached the 
Darbdr. Then he saluted the king and told him that man's object 
or purpose was greater than God, for had the ministers not had an 
object the_y would iiavo not borno him on their heads to the Court. 
With this the Emperor was fully satisfied and reinstated Birbal 
and the other ministers in their respective posts. 

■i ITTT^ o5T "^TT- Patala ka charLa. 
Chirping of birds in the bashes. 

Applied to the criticisms of various people to which one should 
pay no more heed than to the different notes of the various birds 
in the bu.~hes, but go on with one's work. C. f. "Many men 
many words." 

5 ?i^ 7T^^ siT'lT "m^X '^^T^t- T^li *^<2la ki nauna balon 
khalaki. 

The man who is grinding oil seeds is ihinking of his oil, 
but the children are anxious for the chaff or husks. 

When oil is ground the children eat the husks. 
Used to show that every one is interested in his own affairs. 
C. f. "Every one for himself and God for all." 

6 S5i[.T ^rf 5ii;75il?. Jyana chha ta jahana cbha. 

The vwrld is in existence or of use to a man so long as 

he is alive. 

Used to induce one to take proper care of himself and 
enjoy life. 

7 ^]"qf% '^lf% J]VT sigT^fni- Apani charlii gadha jawa- 
rani. 

One salibtes an ass for a purpose of his oion. 

E. g. Hindus do not touch donkeys, and consider them to 
be impure. 

Q 2 



( 338 ) 

Used to teach one to condescend to do every tiling possible 
in order to attain his object. As elsewhere said that one truly 
intent on a purpose ought to get it by placing disrespect and 
contempt in front of him and respect and courtesy behind him. 

SELFIGHNESS. 

1 %T ^ ^51 %^ ^T ^^T 3I^T %T ^ ^^ f^%n ^T ^TT W^J. 
Jo mai kana dewa so mero thakura jo mai kana ni dewa 
so mero kutta. 

The man who gives me anything is my master, iut Tie 
who does not give me anything is as a dog to me, (for 
which I care nothing). 

Badari natba apana ghara mai kana kya delo mera ghara 

kya lyalo. 

What ioill Badarinatha give me if I go to his house, 
and what will he bring me if he comes to my house ? 

The shrine of Badari Natha is considered by the Garhwalis 
as their own peculiar shrine, and they do not have to present any 
offerings to it like other pilgims, but instead ask something 
from it. 

Addressed by poor persons to the rich and great. 

Applied as a slur to one who is very Selfish. 

\_See Introduction.l 

3 ■^T^'^r ^T "^ ■^T'3"'^T «RT f'i'^T' Bakliara ko puchha 
bakhara ka gicha. 

The goat gets its oion tail. 

Each limb of a he-goat, which is sacrificed, is offered to' 
different deities. The tail is assigned to Vishnu, who alone has 
power to give salvation. Its tail is therefore cut off and put into its 
month so that the goat may get salvation as a compensation for 
having been killed. 

Applied to selfish people or when a thing taken from one is 
given back to him as a present. 



( 339 ) 

4 »ifjy j]^7 Tjjij ^T^ ^'^^1 I^T 51^5^1 ^J^. Ganga gayo 

Ganga dasa Jamuna gayo Jamuna dasa. 

When he goes to the Ganges he becomes Ganga das {i. e. 
the slave of the Ganges), and when to the Jamuna he be- 
comes Jamunddds. 

Applied either to a fickle-minded person, or to one who is 
selfish or a time-server. 

5 '^^T ^T ^I^ ^T^l f^^sT ^T ^*T^ '^'^^ Hukka ka santha 
nato chilama ka santha baira. 

Friendship} with the Jlukltd, but enmity icith the Chilam. 

The Hukkd and the Chilama are two parts which together 
form the pipe for smoking used by natives of India. 

Applies to one who bears enmity to a father, but befriends his 
son in order to gain some selfish ends. 

6 ^I^ f^ "afr rT^T f^ ^r^- Hatha ki teri tawa ki meri. 

The loaf which is being hieaded is yours, that in the 
oven is mine. 

E. g. The cako on the cooking-pan is sure to be ready sooner 
than the one which is being made ready: used when one is intent ou 
liavjng his own object attended to first; putting ofi" the interests of 
other people to a future time. 

7 ^^m ^ ^T^ ^1!^ ^*r^- Hasana ki dari dena ku 
chumarha. 

A fairy to laugh, but a miser in giving. 

Applied to people whose manners are very pleasant, but who 
are selfish and good for nothing. 

8 »B^ •rni^'lt. Phate nagaixhi. 

The drummer of one loho is victorious. 
Time-servers. 



( 3^0 } 

9 ^\X\ W^T ^'^^ ■^<a ^ ^TW ^rW »irtlT ^J^%\. Sara 
sara myara mukha men paula paula madharacboda ka. 

J?ut the best into m7j mnith, and give the refuse to 
others. 

10 ^sj %[^ ?T^*i T(TT f^'^TlT >TT5J. Sabai jogi marana 

mero hi pattara bharana. 

A Faqir wishes that all other Faqirs should die so 
that his oion dish may be filled. 

Applied to one who wishes to be profited by the ruin of 
others. Faquirs always inherit the possessions of their deceased 
reliitions. E. g. Every Hindu puts a little food into the dish of a 
Faqir. If all other Faquirs were to disippear fro:n the world by 
dying, householders would give the surviving one plenty (a dishful 
or plateful). 

11 ?[ ^TT ^«ir"^ "^^ ^ %t^r ^ni '^'^^T* Tu mero }'abari 
cbusa mai aunda bhado chusalo. 

If you worlifor me now I icil'l toork for you in the 
month of Bhado f August ) next, i. e. a long time hence. 

Illustration. A man once cried out in the Bazar, will any 
rascal lend me a lakh of rupees, I will pay him in the next world ? 
Some one replied yes, why not, you can have it, for your words are 
E-o nice, the amount you ask for is so- small, and the time of repay- 
ment is so near. 

12 ^r^7 551 fJlT'aT S"^ ^U. Lala jiu girala dhaba sanga. 
A baniyd is willing to fall if he can profit by it. 

E. g. Whatever a Baniyd may do or whatever course he may 
take it will not be without a motive. 

Stoi-y. There was once a Pandit who for some months had 
been reading and expounding religious books in a temple. One 
da)' when a Baniyd went to pay his homage to the deities therein 
one of the idols said to the other "whenever the Pandit finishes his 
book he mutt get one thousand rupees." After hearing this the 
Baniyd enquired from the Pandit when he would finish the book. 
The Fandit informed him. Then the Baniyd said that he would 
give the Pandit one hundred rupees in lieu of all the offerings that 



( 341 ) 

he might get on that day. The Pandit who di'l not expect even 
a few rupees, and who was not aware of the promise of one thousand 
rupees made by the deity, gladly accepted the offi^r and received 
one hundred rupees from the Baniyci m advance. The latter stayed 
there until the former finished his book. But to the great dis- 
appointment of the ^nyi/ya the Pandit did not got a single rupee 
on the appointed day. On this the Baniyd being exasperated 
slapped the idol with his hand, and said "tho god is false." But 
his hand stuck to the face of the idol, and he could not take it 
awav. After this, one of the gods asked this god whether the 
Pandit had received his one thousand rupees. He replied that the 
Pandit had already received one hundred rupees, and for the remain- 
ing nine hundred rupees the Baniyd had been arrested. On this 
the Baniyd was obliged to effect his release by paying nine hundred 
rupees. 

13 ^FTfT'SI'^ ^ ^^'^t- Matalaba ki duniyan. 
A selfish world. 

14 ?3T'nT ^t ^fT ^'^'W ^T ^T'il'^T- KLana son puta larba 
na son bhatljo. 

One feeds his sons but employs his nephews for fighting. 

15 ^TT ^2 f^'et ^7 f>lf^€]" ^r ^f^ KT'TJ. Tero ghata 
pisi ya ni pisi lya meri bhaga. 

Whether your watermill may or may not grind your grain 
give me my right or wages. 
Used of over-selfishness. 

16 Tiwt ^ f^fl"'^ 85"T^ ^T^r^ ^^it- Rapi mu ni dini 
cbbansa kumabari mu dabi. 

The queen is refused liotter-millc, but the potter's wife 
gets curds. 

Selfishness conciliates those who are wicked and given io 
slander. 

17 fq^OT ■^'ST? ^T ^TIET "^^ ^^^ 5BT '3^%'^ Pina bakbata 
ka bacbba cbadhaiii bakbata ka babarlia. 



( 342 ) 

Xiike a calf to suck the milk hut like a bull to mount. 

Applied to selfish people who are meek and humble iu ad- 
versity or when asking favours, but violent and offensive when so- 
licited for favours in return, or when thry get other people into 
their power. 

18 ^'5T^T ^^r *r5f?ir f^ H^ '^^'^r- P;ii l^filo mero 

malua ni pal bhela lialua. 

If I get sometliing from, him he is my sweetest friend, if 
not, he should be throivn down a ^^recipice. 

A selfish disposition. 

19 m^X f% JIT^ HT^fcj JITTT fli ^^^- Banara ki gala 
bhariiii gata ki kushala. 

The monkei/ s aUing his cheeks {mouth loitlifood) is 
only for himself. 

K. g. The monkey cares only for his own cnrcass and not 
even for his own young ones. No sooner does he find food than 
he will fill his mouth with it without regard to his youncr ones though 
present there. 

Used of selfish persons. 

20 ^r^2 xg^ ^^^» Lau leta khala ucherha. 

Grasping or sticking to one closely and then taking off' 
his skin. 

Used of one who is shamelessly selfish, and who would not 
leave another without extorting his object from him even to his 
-ruin or detriment. 



SHAMELESSNESS< 

1 ^tQsg^T >T13 «5Tlt =Er ^T^' Ananyuto bhata nauti ka 

sara. 

- A bard or Brahman uninvited is like the land of the 
village of Nmtti (hi Garhwal). 



( 343 ) 

1. e. An uninvited Brahman receives no attention from the 
people of the feast just as the land in the village of Nauti is aKvays 
uncared for and uncultivated (on account of its being too high to 
produce any thing). 

2 ^rr hR 5=ir^ ^TST "^TSI vf^ '^^r- Beta bliari nal<ha 

kato hatha bhari badho. 

The nose though cut doicn to a span, gre.w to one cubit 
length. 

1. e. When one after being reprimanded or punished for a 
crime instead oC repenting commits others much worse. Ibis 
proverb describes a shameless man, the nose being regarded as a 
seat of honour or sense of shame. 

3 ^^TiT ^T ^T^ ^ V^ ^T^T '^Tll %h ik ^.^ "a^^T* Be- 

sarama ka nakha men rukha jarao kauna baitho ki shela 
baithunlo. 

A shameless person says he will sit under the shade of 
the tree which has grown on his noee. 

This is exactly to the same purpose as the preceding one. A 
tree wrowing on one's nose is figuratively used of one who has been 
disf^raced by committing a sinful act, and regardless of the warn- 
ings or punishment given for it, gives himself up to an evil life. 

E. g. A man once convicted of theft determines to live in 
future by stealing. 

4 5ri7^ ^2' "^TT ^IHT TT1- Nakha katai nama shobha 
rama. 

After having his nose ctct off calls himself Shohhd 
Udma (i. e.full of grandeur and honour). 

Ironically applied to one who, after having his character 
tarnished, puts on the airs of a gentleman. The nose is considered 
to be the sole glory of the human face, and a sense of honor, (as 
represented by the nose ) is- the chief ornament of a man's 
character. 

5 »l^f2 ^1? ^Sl^J •IT"'* Nakati beti ujala nama. 



( S-41 ) 

A nose-less daughter called hy a good name. 
The explanation given above holds good here also. 

6 51^21 ''T^ ^^-l ^T ft^RT. Nakato nakha cbandana ko 

tika. 

One having no rose adorns his forehead with a Tilca 
of sandal. 

Used to denote that peoi)Ie destitute of the sense of honour do 
many odd or pompons things to hide their defects. "Tilca' here 
means a small dot of paint put on one's forehead as an adornment. 

7 aiT^^T^ ^«T ^'^T^Sr^T ^51 ^^^rt« Sbaramadarakana 

sharama besharama kana dubalai. 

A good man is ashamed of wrong, but a shameless 
person minds it not. 

Caution against dealing with one who is reckless and has no 
sense of shame. 

8 ^■a;^\ ■^\ ^^ iril'':«T ^t f^^^t- Sabana son sakl be- 

sbarama son ni saki 

One can conquer every one by proj^er reasons except 
a shameless person. 

For no arguments whatever will prevail upon one who is 
devoid cf common sense. Being deprived of the sense of honor or 
dishonor, nothing in the world can stop him from doing anythinor. 

Used of shameless persons. 

9 ^^^ qiT ^T'ST ^T^^T- Khankala ka kakha molaka. 

A shameless man's coat is very loose in the arms. 

£■. ^^f. When one's coat is very tight his movements are restricted 
by it. A. careless shameless man who is afraid of nothing is not 
restrained from doing whatever he wishes. 

SIMPLETIONO 



•v 



1 ^T^''^ ll!^- Gobara Ganesha. 
An idol of Ganesha, made of cotcdung. 



( 345 ) 

Applied to a very simple man who can be moulded into any 
form i. e. made to do anything one wishes. 



SLANDERERS AND WHISPERERS. 

1 '^^^ "BT ^% ^^T^t ♦^ % ^^* Bapa beta ekai chhuyalon 

na khai maike. 

Father and son being one, the man icho tries to create 
discord between them is cursed ( deserves to have his 
mother abused ). 

kana baithya mai ko jara bantana baithya chulL ko chbara. 

One accustomed to slander will abuse his own mother by 
naming her paramours, and one accustomed to give will 
not spare even the ashes of his kitchen. 



3 ^r^ "a^Tf^ 'C^ W^'[^ "Kv^ ^S|i« Sasu buwari eka chbu- 

yala randa chbeka. 

Mother-in-law or daughter-in-law are one, the woman 
who caused them to quarrel is cursed. 

C. f. "Whisperers separate chief friends." 

4 »TTT^^ liT ITW ^W^^ ^^T^^ %J % l^f 5T. Mdranera 

ko hatba pakarhanu bolanera ko ke pakarLanu. 

You can catch the hand of one who is about to strike you, 
but who can seize the tongue of the slanderer ? 

5 arf^^ir ^r"* ^T ^t^T ^^T^T- Mariya syapa ka ankha 
kbacborana. 

To prick the eyes of a dead snake. 

R 2 



( 346 > 

Applied to one wto slanders or insults an enemy who is dead 
&r is in distress or poverty. 

C. f. "To kick a man when he is down." 



SOCIAL HABITS AND CUSTOMS. 

1 ^57? ^It ^^ "n^ ■'fhl "^^ ^^ ^ ''rnfl'* -A. wa balthau 
piwa pani tinu bastu mola ni ani. 

Come, sit down, and drink water." This invitation 
cest» nothing. 

Nothing is lost by a kind word. 

2 ssiT^ IrT ^JT ftfT ^^1 'Sf 5BT5T. Byaba baira aura 

prita samana son karanra. 

Marriage hostility/ and friendship ought to be between 
equals. 

The infringement of this maxim entails penalty, and so it 
becomes the subject of a proverb. Natives generally attend to 
equality in caste and not in social status, hence the hindrance to 
civilization. 

3 gjf 51 %T ^31 fft ■?T%T ^^' J^? jiiso desha'tan taso bbesha. 
One ought to adopt the guise of the country in which 

he lives. 

C. f. "One in Rome must do what Rome does." 

Story. A man once arrived in a foriegn country to visit a friend. 
He enquired for the road leading to his friend's house from a boy 
standing by, telling him that on arrival at his host's house he 
■would give him plenty of sweetmeats. The boy led him there. 
The man before entering his friend's house gave him one rupee 
to buy sweetmeats. The boy did not accept it, saying that it was 
not enough. The man, for fear of disgrace, offered him five rupees 
but still the boy refused, and becoming very obstinate, began 
to quarrel with him. He was at a loss what to do. At last the 
noise of the quarrel reached his friend, who came out and enquired 
into the whole matter, and then told him the proverb, and g*ve him 
advice adapted to the occasion. The man according to his friend's 
advice bought some sweetmeats for one pice, and then divided 
it into two portions i. e. one greater and the other smaller, putting 
ap ortion in each hand he told the boy to take whichever he 



( 347 ) 

pleased, tbe boy took ihe greater portion with satisfaction, and 
tben went away.*' 

4 5^T%T^^^T^7^5^%^^^T^T^. Jyunda jog£ 
chaba chaba mua jogi daba daba. 

Ajogi while alive is constantly munching, but when he 
is dead he is buried again and again. 

This is applicable only to a, jogi' s life ; for while alive he is 
in the habit of eating as many times as he gets alms, and when 
dead he is buried by those of his disciples or relations who are 
present ; bat whenever an absent disciple Or near relation arrives 
at his tomb he also according to the custom adds earth to it or 
enlarges the tomb. 

5 ^t!T ^T "^Wl "'I^W %T '^I^I* Uttara ko talo pachhama 
ko nalo. 

A. thin hot iron bar with which infants are scorched on 
their stomachs is called "Told" and a thin stream of water 
poured on the head of infants is called "Ndld." 

This maxiom advises the application of the "Tala" (in the 
north=cold) and that of the Nala (in the west=heat) as established 
remedies for infant children against the attacks of diseases. 

Note. On the occasion of the Bikh Sankrant ( festival held 
at the time when the sun passes from one constellation into another ) 
an iron rod is heated and applied to the navels of children in order 
to drive out the poison (bikh ) caused by windy colic. 

Vide Gazeteer of N. W. P. Vol XI. p. 698j. 

6 ^i!I ^ ^2Rt int^^ ^ WT^'n. Rana mukha chhyatri 
tiratha mukha brahmana. 

A Kshatri in a conflict or a Brahman before a shrine 
should never turn his face. 

This is a maxim for persuading Brahmins to visit shrines and 
perform religious acts and to stimulate Rajputs to go to battle. 
It is said that if a Brahmin refuses to visit a shrine or a Rajput 
refuses to go to war their faces should not be looked upon by 
others. 

7 TiffI "^^WT MlfW ^HT^T* Kanti chalano bhanti bolano* 



( 348 ) 

Follow established customs and speak in a pleasant 
manner and to the purpose. "^ 

8 ^51 ^HSFI 11^ 'Slt^ «r ^Tm. Desha kano eka aukha le 

chanu. 

One ought to looTc at the country of one-eyed men 
with only one eye. 

C. f. "In Rome do as Eome does." 
Once a man happened to arrive in a village which was peopled 
only with noseless men (who had had their noses cut off for some 
crimes). No sooner had he arrived than he was ironically addressed 
by the nickname "Nacku' or the man having a nose. As the 
stranger was obliged to stay there for his livelihood he was con- 
temptuously treated and tormented by the villagers until he also 
had his nose cut ofif. 

9 ^T"!!! ^ ^r*^''^ TTI'UT ^ ^^' Fauna ki kbatara ma- 
gana hai paili. 

Courtesy to a guest before he asks for it. 

10 ^TTfJi %T'': ^T1 ^^%TT f^^^h Jogi aura syapa eka 
thaiira ni runa. 

A Fakir ( an ascetic ) and a snake do not stay at one 
place constantly. 

This being contrary to their natural habits. 

11 ^ir f^^J ^^(^ fT^T f>Tf T ^ ^t^T* Malo bhirho 
udhari tala bhirha men aundo. 

The wall of an upper field comes down into the lower 
one. 

Used only as as a lame excuse by certain sects of inferior 
Rajputs in Garhwal who keep the wives of their deceased elder 
brothers as their own without bringing any disgrace on their 
families. The practice would be considered as an incest by people 
of other castes, and would degrade the culprits. 

Ma muchi mauni phaguna muchi gai. Chaita muchi banara 
phala tipi kbai. 



( 349 ) 

Bees after Md ( January ) cows after Fhaguna ( Feb- 
ruary ) and monkeys after Chaita ( march ) enjoy fruits 
well. 

Strictly speaking this is a hill song but used as a proverb 
as well in consoling and encouraging one in distress, indicating that 
one has to suffer only for a brief period, which is sure to be follow- 
ed by plenty and pleasure. Bees are hard-up for food for want 
of flowers in January, cows in February for want of grass, and 
monkeys in March for want of fruits. After this period of scarcity 
each has plenty of good cheer and is happy and content. 

Shora ki nali katyura ko maDO jwe jai thuli khasama jai 

nano. 

The standard Ndli of Shora and the standard Mdnd 

of Katyura are here compared to a wife and a husband 

when the former is older than the later. 

E. g. According to the measure of capacity obtaining here: — 
4 manas make 1 nali. 

16 nalis „ 1 pirhai or duna. 

20 nalis „ 1 bista. 

20 bistas „ 1 khara or khari. 

20 kharis „ I biswa. 

The standard ndli in use in Pargana Shora (Kamaun district) 
consists of eight handfuls of any grain, whereas the standard 
Tjwfntf used in Patti (circle) Katyura (Pargana Danapura 2iil]ah 
Kumaun) contains twelve handfuis. Thus the iiidnd of Katyura 
is larger than the ndli of Shora. Hence the people commenting 
on the extraordinary usage compare it to an ill-matched pair, 
a grown up wife having a minor as a husband. So a "ndli" ought 
to be greater than a "mdnd" the latter being only one fourth of a 
ndli. This proverb is therefore used to denote things not fairly 
matched. Afdnd is also known by the names of "Baik'ara" "Beld ' 
or " Chhapiya." 

15 <aailf% %J mi\ ?i^l-f% ^r ^TI- Khatyarbi ko saga 
Gangoli ko baga. 

Khatydrhifor vegetables and Gangoli for tigers. 



< 850 ) 

The tigers in Gangoli are as common as vegetables in the 
village of Khatyarhi (almost the -whole town of Almora is sup- 
plied with vegetables by this village). Consequently the people of 
that part of the district hardly dread the animal. Once hearing 
screams and yells the neighbours went to see what was the matter, 
but finding that a tiger was the only cause of all the uproar they 
regretted coming there, and said that they thought that a court 
peon (messenger) had arrived, which prompted them to go to their 
help, and that, if they had known that it was only a tiger that 
•was the cause of alarm they would not have come. At the 
beginning of the British rule in this province people used to dread 
a court peon far more than a tiger. 

16 JSf^m ♦> ^T%X ^TT'SF % W^T- Khasiyd nai jarho 
Bamapa khai jarho. 

A Khasiyd feels cold after bathing, and a Brahman 
after dinner. 

E. g. A Khasij'a usually does not bathe at all, but when he 
does so on some festival or religious day he feels very cold, being 
Hninured to the practice, while a Brahman accustomed to bathing 
does not find it troublesome, but he takes his meals after putting 
off his clothes and so when done eating he feels cold, while a 
Khasiya (coolie caste) who eats his food with his clothes on, does 
net feel cold. 

47 $TT %'<-J^ ^n: "^n H^S^T ^fl" ^^T^« Shora harama 
khora bapa bharhuwa betl maitora. 

Shores livelihood is an evil one, fathers give their 
daughters to shame. 

The people of Shora, a pargana of Kamaun, are said to 
prostitute their own daughters, who therefore remain in the paren- 
tal home (a great disgrace in India). 

18 % Ti^ ft^^T ^^ f^' ^?- Kai randa diwara bhauja 
ni suvrawa. 

Is she not a cursed woman who does not like her brother- 
in-law, and vice versa. 

Among lower classes of Hindus these persons are allowed 
much freedom of intercourse, and hence such conduct is approved. 



( 351 ) 
SOCIETY, 

1 ^W^ ^f^ ITTT ^ *^«Jli ^^^ ^^l^^ Asala bati khata 
ni kamasala bati wapba ni. 

A noble man will not play false { betray ) but a mean 
man will not prove true. 

A warning against friendship with the latter. 

2 ^5|i WTIET ^I« ^3^1^ tT. Eka machho tala kharaba 
kara. 

A single fish infects the whole tanJe. 
C. f. One sickly sheep infects the flock. 

3 -^ ^fT iirf^T ^f^ *T?^I- Dudha bbata chhorhano 
sanga ni cbborhano. 

One may give up rice milk, hut never a companion 
on the road. 

A companion on a journey is considered to be a great 
support. 

4 in%fz ^ft ^I ^ ngqrfx:. Nakati devi ko padu pujyari. 

JPadu is the worshipper of a Goddess who has no nose. 

The name "Padu" signifies a mean or inferior person who is 
therefore fit to worship a goddess who has no nos,e fsense of shame). 
Worthy men have worthy companions and seryants, and unworthy 
men have unworthy companions. 

SOLITARY MAN, 

Bacbalo ta natp kati kbalo ato maralo ta nato kiriya na 
kdto. 

One withQut afapiily may live to eat as much food 
(flour ) as he can, but tchen he dies no one will perform 
hisfunerq^l perfmony. 



( 352 ) 

Used in ridicule of oue who is unmarried and has no children 
to urge him to marry. 

2 ^T^t ^5i CJlfj" ^^. Api naika apl paika. 

Simself a master as well as a hero ( servant ). 

E. g. A king has an army to fight with, and as the head of 
a family has many members of his family to execute his orders. But 
the proverb is applied to a solitary man who has neither family nor 
servants to help him in any business. 



STOLEN PROPERTY. 

1 ^T"^ ^r ^^ f^3f. Chori ko gurha mitho. 
GurJia ( treacle ) obtained by theft is sweeter. 
C. f. "Stolen waters are sweet." 

SUSPICIONS. 

1 ^7^ ^ ^T^T* Dala men kalo. 
Something blade in the DM. 

{Dal is a pulse cooked in turmeric etc, and eaten with rice), 
when cooked it becomes yellow, so the smallest speck of black in it 
is easily seen. Hence it means a cause of suspicion. 

Story. A Brahman being conscious of the intrigues and 
stratagems of the other sex repaired to a dense forest and began 
to live there quite concealed from every body. The man used to 
bring in khicliarhi ( raw rice and dala mixed together ) by begging, 
and his wife used to cook it for herself and her husband. In this 
manner they lived for some years there. One day his wife instead 
of the khicharhi he had brought, and against his wish, put the 
Dala and rice, cooked separately, before her husband as a dinner. 
This made him suspicious, and so he said. "There is something 
black (suspicion^ in the Dala." He left the food and went away. 
Subsequently by patient enquiries from the shepherd-boys, who 
used to graze their herds there, he found out that his wife was in 
love with a hermit fjogi) living in the same jungle, whom she used 
to feed with part of the khicharhi she used to cook for herself 
and her husband. And the hermit being tired of the khicharhi 



( 353 ) 

requested the woman one day to get hiiii rice and dal separately. She 
did not hesitate to undertake the trouble of separating the rico from 
the ddl,a,nd cooking them thus in order to satisfy her paramour. 

Used to express suspicions rising from odd circumstances 
occurring in the usual course of events. 

2 "^IJIM %^^ ^^fx: ^^^ Sau^andha khaibera kasturi 

bechani. 

One who sells musk with an oath as to its genuineness. 

J. e. One who recommends himself or his wares with sus- 
picious eagerness. The scent of the musk should be sufficient re- 
commendation. 



SYMPATHY, 

1 f^ f^cQ^r ri] %r^ lann. DI dhityuno ya boli patyunu. 

Either satisfy a man by giving him something, or let 
him be assured {of future help) by kind speeches. 

2 ^'^T %T ^13 ^r ^J^ Dusara ko dukha ko jaaa. 

W^/io knows the pain of another ? 

C. f. "None can feel the weight of another's burden." "The 
heart knoweth its own bitterness and no man intermeddleth with 
its joy." 

3 %rr IT ^] rTT. Jo mara so tara. 
A dead man has passed over pains. 

Used to console the relatives of the one who is dead. 

4 yi% ^T. m % '»TtTT ^31^ ^^■^^ ^rf«» -Eka ghara ka 
nau mata kushala kan bati boli. 

A household which is governed by nine ( dijfferent ) opi. 
nions will not thrive. 

S 2 



( 354 ) 

Used by members of a family when one of them dissents 
from another in regard to domestic affairs, in order to bring them 
to understand that disagreement among themselves is a sure sign 
of their impending ruin. 

C. f. "A house divided against itself cannot stand.'' 

3 »Tn TU\^1 f^^^I ^^7? "^ffW lt%. Ganwa egala bigala 

rita bha'nta ekai. 

Villages are scattered here and there, but the customs 
and manners of all are the same ( i. e. they are in similar 
circumstances. ) 

Used to induce the people to help and sj-mpathize with others 
in matters that affect the general welfare. 

6 '^7^7 f% f^ "'^r ^ ^"^r f% f*JTt:T s^. Bala ki ni marau 
mai budha ki ni marau jwe. 

May the mother of an infant child, and the wife of 
an old man not die ( otherwise no one loill take care 
of them) . 

These events render them helpless. 

7 161 ST ■^TT '^ '^^T ^2T •^- Chhoto badhau nai barho 

ghatau nai. 

May a mean man not he in 'power {for he will do mean 
things ), and a great man not come to poverty (^otherwise he 
will svffer bitterly). 

TEMPTATION^ 

1 'fT'lt ^T ^^ ^^^m IT f^lt ^T 3lT:»r ^l^^. Handi ko 

mukha khulo chha para billi ko sliarama chahenda. 

The mouth of the pot is open, but the cat ought to have 
some sense of shame. 

The good man will often be tempted, but he should obey 
his conscience and resist evil. C. f. "An open door will tempt 
a saint." 



( 355 ) 

2 m^l ^aillT f^ZJ^ ^TH' Jutho khano mitha ka lobba. 
One eats the leavings of another person in the hope of 
finding some thing sweei therein 

Men will condescend to do mean things for the sake of gain. 

THIEVES, PICKPOCKETS & BAD CHARACTERS. 

1 ^fT %\ ^T% »l3^5r Chora ko sakhi gathakato. 
A thief calls a pickpoclcet as his witness. 

Applied to the combination of wicked persons. 

2 %rT f^ 'ISIt: ^frt^j 5f. Chora ki nazara bogacha men 
A thief's eye is on the baggage. 

I. e. Waiting for an opportunity to take it away. 
Applied to a wicked man who waits for an opportunity to put 
his evil plans into execution. 

3 ^f''^ '^^ ^^T ^"["^ 51T 5|^T« Chora chara cbaro jara jara 

jaro. 

A thief loses his temper, and a paramour becomes 
indignant. 

I. e. Both try to hide their crimes under a mask of apparent 
innocence. 

4 %j^ $f ^rfr ^fT«T ^%' Hatha men cbori sarina sacbo. 

The stolen property in his hand, but the thief says he 
is an honest man. 

Applies to persons who try to hide their sins and crimes. 

5 ^IT ^fx: ^*T«B SITX: Wi\T. ^Jefi. Chora cbora sanka jara 
jara sanka. 

All thieves are real brothers, and so are all paramours. 

This is applied to ail bad characters as being unworthy of 
Bny trust. C. f. "Birds of a feather flock together.'' 



( 356 ) 

6 ^JK ?^'S5TT rijx W^V^ ^ft ^fK 11^ ^J^JX;. Warn 

khandwara para khandwara teri ineri eka anwara. 
Huin here, rum there, you and I have similar faces. 

1. e. You are ruined and I am ruined four character is stained) 
and EC we are in the same box. Union of bad characters. 

halo baga le lala khaba ni kbai baga le lalai khaba. 

The tiger's mouth is red whether he eats animal food 
or not. 

Used to denote those who have tarnished their character, for 
they are always taken for criminals, without any regard toYacts, 

THINGS IN WHICH ONE HAS NO CONCERN. 

1 gf^ ^ «! ^m g. Tuli mu na kaina mu. 

Neither scales nor weights . 

An unfit or insignificant person, or one who has no concero 
•with the matter in hand. 

2 ^^T SITT ii^T ^}^ ^T^- Kaiko byau kaika ankhog 
dau. 

Whose marriage and who got pain in his eyes. 

Who share the marriage feast and who get pain in the eyes'. 
People who are simply spectators of a marriage get nothing but 
aching eyes. 

Used when one gets trouble from an affair iu which he was 
not concerned, 

TRUST IN PROVIDENCE. 

1 'TTT^T ^ ^It '^^. Parmesbwar ki Iambi banba. 

God's arm is long ( either to punish or to help ^. 

/. e. He is might}' to accomplish anything that seems im- 
possible to a man. One already ruined or in distress draws hope 
frorrj this phrase, which is also used in encouraging or consolinor 
one in poor circumstances, so that he m&y have patience in distress 
and trust in the mercy of God for better days. 



( 357 ) 

2 ^afrr ^ZT ^f^ ^^^ XTT. Khawaya beta kani dewaya 
rama. 
A voracious eater is fed by God. 

This means that God supplies the wants of every ereature ia 
the world. 

TRUTH AND SINCERETY. 

1 VIX 5» ^T %r^ ^Tf %T ^JJT'^T^- Yarana so chorf 
pirana so dagabaji. 

Concealing things from friends, and acting deceitfully 
with one's elders. 

2 ^ ^J?^^?! ^t ^I ^^rf. Jai mun n£ sata ui ko nl pata. 

The man in whom there is no truth cannot be trusted. 
Monest and truthful persons are trusted hj every one. 

3 ^I^ ^ epjj ^7^. Sancha men kya ancha. 
There is no danger in the truth. 

This is used in encouragino; one to speak the truth and act 
truthfully^for his own safety. C. f. "The wicked fleeth when no 
man pursueth, but the righteous are as bold as a lion." "Tell the 
truth and shame the devil." 

Illustration. During the reign of native princes various 
crimes against the person were tried by means oi"I)ipa" a red hot 
iron ball. If any body was accused of such a crime his innocency 
had to be tried by his taking the red hot iron ball in his hand with 
seven green leaves of the pipala (ficus religiosa), the holj- fig treCj be- 
neath it, and then going round the parties and people where they 
had stopped. If this ordeal did not scorch the palm of the accused 
he would be acquitted of the charge, and considered innocent. Ia 
case the ball scorched his hand the accused had to be punished for 
the crime, and was made to pay compensation to the aggrieved 
party. Hence the proverb says that truth does not barm. 

4 ^'T'ft «iT^^ ^J^ ^^« Sanclii bolanu sulcLi rauno. 



( 358 ) 
One who speaks truth remains in peace. 

C. f. "Lying lips are abomination to the Lord ; but they that 
deal truly are bis delight." 

5 \\ TfTT ^T^^I Hl^r* Pau rati bauna tola. 
One fourth of a Rati is equal to fifty -ttco Tolas. 

E. g. There are thirteen mdshds in a Told, and eight Ratis in 
a Mdshd. (Two grains make a Rati). 

A hyperbolical expression denoting that a genuine unadul- 
terated article, though small, is worth more than a spurious one 
valued at fifty-two Tolas, or that the smallest thing if it is 
genuine is equal to fifty-two tolas, i. e. has its own excellence 
or worth. 

6 ^^ •^T'gr (% "i^T^T f% ^T'^r "^"^^ 2^ ^^^ '»%• Eka bacha 
dwi bacha tri bacba bacbana tale naraka parhe. 

I give my word once, twice, and the third time. If I 
break it I incur the punishment of hell. 

Used as an oath to assure another that he will be faithful to 
his word. 

7 TTTI 3i«}TSi. Imana jubana. 

Honesty and one's word {ought to be kept true ). 
Used to induce one to act up to his words. 

8 ^^ ^JW H^ ■^'JTi^r- Kbasa kbano bhasa bulano. 
Eat what you get and speak lohat you think. 

Do not be fastidious, and speak the truth. 

UNANIMITY- 

1 i^TfT ij^ f^ ^sslt im 3!fai%T%r*fi. SatapancLaki 
lakari eka jani ko bojba. 

When five or six persons gather each one stick it makes 
a load for one man. ( "every little helps" ). 

C f. "Union is strength," 



( 359 ) 

^ ^ ^T^ TT ^ ^^ ^rfif Dui rajf ta ke kara kaji. 
If two are agreed they have no fear of the cadi ^magistrate ) . 

"Union is strength." 

para dhanusha hatha me bana kahan se aj^e Dilli sulatana. 
Bana ke Eawa bikata ke Rana ankhara barhe ko barhe ne 
pahachydna. 

Saving a bow ( plough ) on your shoulder and an arrow 
(a stick to drive btdlocks with ) in your hand, where do 
do you come from O, Emperor of Delhi ? 0, Lord of 
jungles and master of opportunity you are a great person- 
age. Take me also for a great one. 

Used of wicked and mean unions. 

Once in a narrow ravine a fox unexpectedly met a plough- 
man. Having no opportunity to run away, and fearing that he 
■would bo beaten or killed by the ploughman, the fox bfgan to flatter 
him, as in the first half of the proverb, but the ploughman at the 
same time was also frightened at sight of the fox, taking him for a 
tiger, and flattered him as in the third verse of the same. Thus 
each of them passed on their way unhurt. But at this moment an- 
other man who bad observed the scene ironically uttered the 
fourth verse, i. e. A great man discerns a great man. 

4 ^TSTT ^ ^^T^T- Sona men suhago. 
Sorax in the gold. 

Borax unites well with gold. 

Used to describe unions when both parties have good 
qualities. 

5 ^T^T ^T^t ^ 'I'B Wf{* Kala kalon ki eka jata. 
All blacks are of one caste. 

Applicable to the union of wicked persons. 
C. f. "Birds of a feather flock together." 



( 360 ) 

6 mit ^WW 5)T^ TrT 5ffl«T ^^I^- Kuti jugata jaifhl 
puta jugata buwari. 

A hoe suited to its handle, and a son fit for the daughter- 
in-law, 

A good match. 

UNAVOIDABLE EXPENSES & THINGS. 

1 ^ fli W^T ^Z fh f^^I?!« Munda ki mundai gliata 
ki pisai. 

The shaving of one's head and the grinding of one's corn 
fmmt be paidforj. 

This is applied to denote expenses which are unavoidably 
necessary. A man who does not pay for his shaving will become 
a barber in the next birth. 

2 iTT^ ^ % 'iR s^. Marl kelai sasa ni. 

Wliy did you die? Because I had no breath. 
Applied to one's being unable to do a thing. 

UNCERTAINTY OF LIFE & WORLDLY THINGS. 

1 ^I^5T^ ^T^^. Akasha ka phala. 

The fruits of heaven (may or may not come down.) 

Used to denote uncertainty of success in a case which is in 
the hands of another person, in whom one has no confidence. 

2 ^T ^f^«l ^T s^r* ^au kwanrina ko by a. 

The marriage of nine virgins. 

E g. The marriage of a single girl takes a considerable time 
in selecting bridegroom for her, and then arranging for the mar- 
riage, notwithstanding objections brought forward by relatives of 
both parties who wish to cancel the arrangement made. Thus of 



( 361 ; 

course the marriage of nine maidens must take a considerably \ang 
time. Used to denote great delay and uncertainty. 

3 ^^yq ^TT^ %I''C %J ^I^- Awa ko nawa cbora ko sahu. 
: The (serviceable) boat is called Ndiva, and the thief 

gets the title of sahu {good man). 

l^dwa means a boat, but is in form the negative of Awa which 
nreans honor and blessing ; so that a boat which is really a useful 
thing is by its name said to be the opposite of a good thing. Sdhu 
means a rich and honest man, but is a title given to Baniyds who 
are notorious for their false dealings. 

Good things are called bad, and bad things good by. the 
world. 

4 ^'!!f%^'nl%. Swipa ki sampatti. 

Wealth of a dream. 

Applied to one's life and possession, and other short-lived 
things. 

5 fwfTTTT %1 ^^ ^ ^^l- Tirira ka mukba ki lakshndi. 

• Wealth in the mouth of a partridge {very difficult 
to get ). 

E. g. Titird is a very shy kind of partridge which flies away 
o6 the least alarm, and one cannot expect it to chirp its notes just 
when we wish it. 

Used by one who is very uncertain of success which depends 
on the judgment or discretion of another (a judge etcj who is not 
be cajoled or influenced by any means. 

6 fk^ ^,'% ^ %^r I^V- Chhina gharhi me kaiko • 
p^haro. 

After this moment whose turn conies next. ? . . 

. Utter uncertainty as to what will ha.ppen in the immediate 
fataro. 

C. f "After that— the Deluge." 

'7 517^^ ^ 5J^.5»IT ^- Naukari ki jarha dhunga me. 
"^ T 2 



f 362 ) 

The root of service is on a stone. 

1. e. It may wither at any time. 

Applied to its instability, uncertainty of duration. 

8 ^g ^7 ^^ ^J^'^ ^r TI^^. Aila ko maisa pachhiya 
ko rakasa. 

A man now, but a ghost this evening. 

Applies to the uncertainty of life. A man now livino; may 
Le found dead in the evening. C- f- "Death keeps no calendar." 
"Here to-day and gone to-morrow." 

9 wf ■<Ti'% ^ffT Pau tali mauta. 
DeatJi lurks under one's foot. 

Uncertainly of life. 

10 ^r(%iTiJir5r«!JST^f^5ilii^I'- Eaukljagadhanadhana 
ki jaga lau. 

Sand in place of pools, and pools in place of sand. 

The transient nature of worldly goods. 

€. f. "Boast not thyself of tomorrow ; for thou knowest not 
■what a day may bring forth. 

11 yjT^T ^T f^"! I^IT ^T 1T^ Dhara ma ko dina gala , 

ma ko gasa. 

The sun on the ridge of a hill and a morsel in the throat 
will both soon disappear. 

Applied to short-lived things, or to those who have but a 
short time to continue. 

12 ti^^r ^ •FT'JT ^^ ^ WTir Purusha kl maj^a briksha 

ki cbbaj'a. 

Tfealth lasts as long as a fortunate man lives, like 
the shadow of a tree which disappears with its removal. 

The transient nature of a man's wealth or prosperity which 
disaprpears with his life.' Anything amassed by him for the use 
of his posterity is squandered by his sons. 



( 363 ) 

■ 13. ^7 -rfts f^fif TTT ff^* Jan taka nibhi tan taka. 

A man should go on as long as he can. 

1. e. Every one ought to take advantage of his opportunities, 
and retain his advanta<fes as long as he can in view of the uncer- 
tainty of world!}' things. 

A story is related in connection with this saying. 

Once a rich Hindu, wishing to gain merit and sahation, em- 
ployed a number of Brahmans to repeat ^'Mantras" or invocations 
of the. divine name from the Shasti'as. Having secured the services 
of several Brahmans, he seated them in a row before himself to 
begin their ^^Japa" or iuvo:ations, which are repeated thousands 
of times in a low voice. Among the Brahmans was an illiterate 
poor Brahman who was anxious to se'care the fee, but had no 
knowledge of the Vedic scriptures. However, having already en- 
gaged himself for the sacred service and seated in the row with 
others concerned, he at first felt himself at a loss how to behave in 
this difficult position, but having no alternative fas he was too pru- 
dent to confess that he did not know the Sanscrit verse which was 
being repeated^ he at last began to encourage himself by muttering 
the above proverb in a low tone (for during all this tiuie he was in cons- 
tant fear and trembling lest his ignorance should be found out, with 
the risk of his being expelled from the companyj. Meanwhile his 
client and others thought that he was performing the work assigned 
to him. Afterwards he acknowledged the ruse to a friend, who in- 
formed the rich man. The latter, instead of being angry, declared 
thit the saying was a very good on«, and applicable to every con- 
dition of life. 

UNGRATEFULNESS. 

1 ^^ I'Slf^ TR% SI^^T^* Meri nathuli mai ku nakha 
chaula. 

Jffi/ own nose-ring sneers at me. 

This is applied by a mother to her own daughter when she 
"becomes proud and turns up her nose at her after having been 
married into a rich family ; or to a woman to whom the nose-rinc 
has been lent, and who is vain of herself although wearinor a 
borrowed nose-ring. Also to a student who disdains his teacher. 

2 ^T3J ^T f^^^ ^ "^If ^,%5IT ^r f^^T ^K m]% Aja ko 
dinera ji rayai beliya ko dinera maiMJayai. 



Zetihe m&n who gives me to-day live loiigy but let. the 
one loho gave me yesterday die. 

Ingratitude. 

3 fat^TT ^T ■^'^fT ^ffT^r 5RT 1»1<3I W^« Shikara ta 
bakhata kutiya kana hagana lagi. 

The bitch in the chase wants to ease herself. 

Used of one who has been fed and maintained for years, but 
, when his services are needed maeks some excuse, 

4 ^^JTr '^'^r^ ''^ ^^T'lt ^^T' Tela ma dubawa para 
rukho hi rukho. 

After being bathed in oil he is still found s(iff\ 
A most ungrateful person. 

5 ^15 <3T?!^ ^'S ^■'^T'^' Luna kbaika luiia haramf . 

One who eats another's salt to ruin him 

Once a man while reposing on his bed at night asked his ser- 
vant to go and see whether it was raining. The servant instead of 
. obeying the order said that it was (without going out of the doorj 
-for he had just seen that the claws of a cat were wet. The master 
remarked his conduct and remained silent on that occasion. On 
another occasion the same servant was told to put out the lamp, on 
which he said to his master, "Sir, it is needless to da so, you 
should close your eyes and sleep." Though this exasperated th& 
jinaster he nevertheless kept silent. After this one night the master 
encamped in a field, below which there was a deep precipice. The- 
master after taking his evening meal went to bed, and told tho 
servant to shampoo his legs. (As customary among the well-to do 
men in camp). The servant at first sat by the feet of the gentle- 
man to do the work, but after having placed his master's luggage 
near his feet quietly withdrew from the place, and seated himself 
at a distance. The man repeatedly called on bis servant to rub 
his feet, but the servant did not reply to his calls. He then 
thought that tho servant was asleep near his feet ; mistaking tho 
packet for the servant and remembering iiis former ill-conduct and 
words intending to kick the servant he gave a kick to tho packet 
and threw it down the precipice. After this the servant quietljc 
deserted his master, leaving him alone without any property^ 



•f 365 ) 

6 ^iT iRf^ Tpf, ^r»T f^^X ^f^ "WfTf •fr*T. Suma kani eka 

nama dinera kani bhauta nama. 

TJie miser is only blamed once {for being a miser) but 
a munificent person many times. 

The recipients of a generous man's Lounty are often dis- 
satisfied in various ways. 

Used by one who is troubled by beggars for more alms. 

7 ^ 17flf% ^ ^TTWI tt^ 5^*1 «BTH. Jai patali me khano 

* vl 

W'i me chhina karanu. 

He destroys the leaf from which he eats. 

Poor people in villages generally take their food on leaves 
Bewn together, instead of on dishes, if one pierces or tears the 
leaves, the food (especially fluid food) is lost 

Applied to an ungrateful person. 

8 %^ ^?; %x\^ %J ta^r %• Kbai p£ bera ye randi ko 
khato dai. 

After eating and drinking my curds you say they 
were sour. 

Used by a woman who, after having rendered long and good 
services, is at last rejected on the ground of some pretended fault. 

UNREQUITED AFFECTION. 

1 ^ »tPJ ^jxkX ^1\W: ^l^m "^X ^TT ^t- Mai jhurun 
yara son yara jhura apana gharabara son. 

I long for my lover, who longs for Ms own family. 
■Said to one who loves those who do not care for him. 

2 »TTTT^'^f'^^T?5lTTf sU^TTf^T^TliT. Ma rowa 
dhi ku dhl rowa jara ku jara rowa gharbara ku. 

The mother cries for her daughter, the daughter for hev 
paramour, and the paramour for his oicn family. 
Unrec[aited affection. 



( 866 ) 

USEFULNESS. 

^^if ^r^T *r%^ ^r^ Ghara men gborho matti men 
mola. 

A pjmy in the stable, and manure in cne's field. 
Will both be of much use. Always serviceable. 

2 ^J^rTT ^I 'SII ^'t^T f^ ^T1« Sagxvarba ko saga age la 
ki aga. 

The vegetable of fields dose to one's house, and the fire in 
the flint and steel fare always at hand ). 

Applied to their usefulness. 

3 gf% ■^}^ % 1l.'%??T^ V^T- Wtidyala hal padyala bhalo. 

The stranger, who is of vse to me, is better than the 
person with whom I have collateral interests or whose 
boundaries affect my lands. 

E. g. One is liable to have friction with the latter, while he 
is safe in dealing with the former. 

4 ^ (SjTT f%'^f%^« Ghyu giro klucbarlu men. 
The Ghi has fallen into the Khicharlii. 

E. g. Kldcharhi consists of two parts of rice and one part of 
dala (pulse) cooked together. It is delicious when eaten with 
.Ghi mixed with it. If GId by chance falls into the food it makea 
it better. Hence the point of proverb. 

Applies to a loss which results in some good thing. 

C. /. "All the fat's in the frying-pan now." 

5 f5»%^ % ^^ %J ^"mxj. KI maisa liai kuraaisa ko 
asaro. 

In a place where there is no one, even the presence of a 
had man ( not fit for one's society ) is a suppoH in a 
journey through a desert. 

C. f. Something is better than nothing. 



f 367 ) 

6 iBI'lt^^^ f^^ ^Tt 5Jt (^WIi ^ITH ^lt» Kdlf kanbala 
kucbal joi jaa bichhai uttama hoi. 

JBlack blanket and dirly loife are the best for uss everif 
where. 

Applies to usefulness of things without any regard to their 
beauty. 

7 %f?T ^Tf% ^T ^'^ ^Tf%f m- Klieti ball dyo ghara ball 
ban. 

It rains after the tillageis spoiled (for want of rain )atid 
the bride after splitting the house (becomes useful). 

J. e. As soon ns a mail is married he is separated, na a 
married man, from his parents (house- hold '. The rain is wished 
for, but comes at the wrong time or inconveniently, yet afterwards 
■will be useful ; so in the house a young wife causes sorrow at first 
(to her husband) but afterwards joy. 

8 ^nft V ^^X 5iT^ %7 fJ^m^. lihani ko pathara jati 
ko manakbl. 

Stone from a quarry and a man from a good family. 
Showing the advantage of good descent. 

USELESSNESS. 

1 ^sifr^T ^Z ^\ Ml IZ^r- Anyara pata ka bhaun mafca- 
ka. 

Making signs with one's eye-brows in the dark. 

This is quoted of one who is doing any thing uselessly. "A 
•wink is asgood as a nod to a lllnd horse." 

2 ^Ti!?! TI^I- Aranya rod an a. 
Crying in the jungle is not heard. 

Saying or doing what will have no effect. 



f 368 ) 

-3 ^t^ ^^^ ^rf^^ ^r f%^I^' Bansa diibana poryun kc> 

Lisaba. 

If the whole hamhoo goes down, lohat is the use of counting 
the knots ? . 

Bamboos are used in measurint; the depth of water, etc. 
VI. g. If a man is losing the whole of his property what is 
the use of troubling about small pai'ts of it ? 

4 ^T"?t «6T 'Sf'^ 'TSi %tj '^f^^T' Dhaurhi ka upara munja 

ko bakbiya. 

Dhaurhi {inferior and cheap kind of leather) sewn 
neatly and carefidly with Miwja {in the way in which 
good leather ought to be sewn). 

E. g. Much labor spent on a worthless object. A poor man 
sum])tuously dressed in a manner unsuited to his circumstances. 
"No man putteth a piece of new cloth on an old garment." 

o ^^3«ot ^T^^ ^T^T 'It^'? ^^'flT ^Rfll^t '^JZ\ #5^ ^T* 
Dekbani darsani daba si cbbarba karana kamuna son ata 
ki si larba. 

To look at a very heautiftd woman, like a reed of ddbd, 
{a kind of long grass that flowers in September), Intt for 
usefulness or worth like a string of paste. 

Applied to a lazy woman, more ornamental than useful. 

6 «|J5! 5«!T5l 'S1'!I ^T^« Naja ku naja dumana moti. 
The grain is had, and the woman is a fat and strong 

Dumani ( a low caste woman). 

These are of no use. Applied to a useless person. 

7 %f^ xn-|% frl^ TTfni <5'^g^%T ^'T'ar fTT^. Jaikl rani' 
taiki rani kbankala rayo ankha tani. 

S/ie is the queen of somebody or otkcr^ but n wicked 
man fixed his eyes on her. 

Caution aganist looking at another's wife. 



( 369 ) 

8 ?7«FT ^m ^^ fqfT ZZV % 2Zrr. Tatuwa khaya 
batuwa pliira tntuwa ko tatuwa. 

A pony after eating up a purse of money is still only 
a pony. 

Caution against spending money uselessly and to no purpose. 

9 n^TU "^g ^tx.^ fi'iM' Pakayun anna maiiyun man- 

aklii. 

Coolccdfood and a dead man ( should be disposed of 
quickly or else they wilt rot). 

10 f^^PJT %r Tf r ^«T 1 ^^T* Simala ko harho sukho na 

Barho. 

The trunk of the Simal tree, silk cotton tree {JBombax 
heptaphyllum) neither dry nor rotten. 

Thi.s is applied to one disliked for his being l.izy and use- 
less. Tlie useless man neither does Lis work nor dies. 

11 ^iFT ^T 'J^T' Lanka ko &uno. 

Gold at Lanka {Ceylon). 

It is snpj osed th;it the earth of Ceylon is all gold dust which 
to one who is not there is useless, for it is out of his reiich. Plence 
the point of the proverb apj>lied to a thing which, though it is 
his own, is out of reach at the time he needs it. C. f. ''Like the 
Datchinan's anchor." 

12 MfKTij ^^T m[ ^^ Jit!I«lT- Mariya cnela ka barsa 
ganana. 

To count the age of a son who is dead. 

Used when one occupies himself with things that have passed 
teyond control or are out of his reach. 

C. /. "It is no use crying over spilt milk." 

13 ^if^ 'gf^^ "5/% ^Jr{X' Khali khassiya budhi patar^i. 

"* U 2 



( 370 .) 

A Khassiyd without employ, and an old harlot, are 

useless. 

Spoken to a useless person with a view to goad him to 
industry. 

14 ^TO «R^11^t "^ITf^ ^- Hatha kankana son arasi 
ke. 

2^0 looking glass is needed for putting on bangles. 

No further proof is necessary. 

"Clear as a pikestaff." "Plain as the nose on one's face." 

15 ^jifT g^^ ^I^T ^^T« Kalo larhika khoto paisa. 
A dumb and deaf son and a counterfeit pice. 

Both are useless. 

16 ^sTT'^ f^^I 3?3gi g«g. Kharhu diyo wokhala luna. 

One gave a ram salt in the wokhala (mortar). 

E. g. The horns of the ram made it impossible for him to 
reach the salt with his mouth. 

Applied to useless benefactions. 

17 ^ifk MX. 5| 'q7$7 WTf • Kodhi mara na bato chhorha. 

The leper neither dies nor gets out of the way. 

An expression of displeasure applied to one who is both trouble- 
some and useless. 

18 ^ fi|'^^ %J *TI^T ^1^- Kai birasa ko tato pani. 

For what consideration or inheritance should I give 
you warm water ? 

(A. rich man gets warm water for bathing. Here ii is a 
symbol of comfort). 

Applied to one who is of no use to any one, and so why should 
people render him service or help ? 

19 f% MJT 'CTTT ^T %Tf% ^ ^T^ ^F- Dwi bhai Rama ka 
kaurhi na kama ka. 



( 371 ) 

Both brothers of Rdmd have neither money nor in- 
dtisfrt/. 

Used when all the sons of any one are idle and worthless. 

20 mi^i^ ^T^TSTT ^ ^f% f^f^^r. Katiya angula men 
muti ni dino. 

Se won't even make water on one's finger that is cut 

or hurt. 

E. g. It is believed that when the finger gets cut it is quickly 
healed if immediately washed with fresh nrine, which costs nothing 
fa common practice). So if one refuses to render thia small servica 
in time of need he is considered a worthless being. 

Used of one who is totally useless. 

21 fqe ^fSI. Pishta peshana. 

To grind four, i. e. to repeat arequest already rejected, 
or to say something over and over again. 

22 % ^ ^ps^T^Tf^* K^3,i kai kanya rashi. 
Told and told again but proved to 6e a virgin. 

Used of one who is instructed to no purpose. 

Told something over and over again, but either not attending 
to it or not understanding. "A virgin" here means a minor, 
a useless bit of a lass, unable to understand anything or do any 
work. 

23 ^HH 3! MT^ fsWT ^T ^^1^' Bhauua na bhasa jiya ko 
tipasa. 

Neither good words nor tact, but grieving (fasting ) of 

the soul. 

Used of one disliked both for his bad temper and incom- 
petency by another interested in Jhim by relationship, and who 
laments that he is good fornothing. 



( 372 ) 
VACILLATION. 

1 ^f^WT if ^ Jim *IT1T (^^ •> ^IT Dubidha men duwai 
gaya inaya niili na raina. 

Vacillation loses both wealth and salvation {lit. Ham). 

Thtt hesitating and undecided man can neither be soceessful 
in worlilly afFiirs nor can he devote himself thoroughly to th& 
couccrns of eternity. 

C. f. "Dnstfible aa water, he shall not excel." 

2 "^ ^^% I^T ^1^ %^V "^^r Si 'Tl^* Duwai dina hai 
ga3'o pande haluwa rayo na mande. 

The Pdnde has lost both worlds (objects), neither is he 
Saluwd (a valuable svoeet) nor mande {the water in which 
the rice teas cooked, or in other words "too fluid a 
Haluwa)." 

A[)[)lies to one who spent money on works, or laid it 
out in, speculations, which have failed. The business did not 
yield any profit as anticipated, and he lost both capital aod 
interest. 

3 %/% %j ^tJT ^^%r 51 W3 ^r- Dliobi ko kutta ghara 

ko na giiata ko. 

The washerman's dofj is neither at (he Ghat {river- 
bank or landing-place where he washes clothes) nor at 
home. 

1. e. A vagrant, belongino; to n-otody. On seeing a bundle 
on the shoulder of a washerman a dog followed him from a town 
to the ghat in the hope of getting something to eat when the 
parcel, which, the dog supposed, contained food, was opened. 
When the dog arrived at the (fhdt, to his utter disappointment ha 
saw nothing but clothes. The dog th'^n returned to the town, 
bat before his return the jieaple had done taking their nieals^ 
which threw him into a state of despair. As an act of charity, 
when Hindus finish their meals they bring a handful af the remain-, 
ing food to bo thrown out to the dogs and crows, etc. The vagrant 
dogs live on these morsels. 

Hence the proverb; the meaning of which is that by vacilla- 
tion one loses everything. 



( 373 ) . 
VANITY, ASSUMPTION AND PRETENSION. 

1 ^^5^ %T ^T sfR sisf^^* Ankljana ko andho naina 
nainasuk^ a. 

A man devoid of sight is named "Nainasukha." 

Thy phrase is ninde nse of in two wnys. 

First, that a blind ninn cannot get into trouhles due to the 
"lust of the eyes," so he is cjillpd Nainasnkha, which means "for- 
tunate as to hi? eyes.' Secon'lly, to express the iuconsistenciea 
of life, e. g. when u rogue. is called good etc. 

2 •^\^ f^ TTITI fltf"? ^^r vrkj frlX^jm Bapa ni maro 

gidirlia beta blia^^o tirandaja. 

The father has never killed even a jackal, but the son 
calls himself an archer. 

The son of a poor man who puts on airs and behaves 
haughtily. 

3 KW »T^r 'S'S ^15^ ^TflfT f% ^15!. Bhala bliald mukha 
cLani katari ki laj:i. 

When big people look at me I feel ashamed of 
my rags. 

The desire of havinc; things better than they are when visited 
by superiors, or by one whose favour we wish to gain. 

4 ^^S 51 5^ ■^'a^I 4t ^"I- Dukha na sukba bukharho 
ei niukha. 

TP ithout (cavse for) either pain or pleasure yet with a 
face like a deviVs. 

One who alwaj-s looks angry without cause. 

5 ^ifil 51 ITc^^r •iT'3 i^H- Pothi na patarho naraina 
pandita. 

Me has neither book nor almanack, but is called iVa- 
rain Fandit. 

An illiterate pretender, a quack. 



(374 ) 

6 ^^^ SI risi«J7 M51 TT»r ^T^^TT. Talaba na tanakha 

Bhaja Rama Hauladara. 

Neither pay nor wages, yet is called Bhaja Mama 
Savildar. 

This is said by a man when he is made to work without pay 
for another on account of friendship or relationship : or when 
one makes pretensions which are beyond one's deserts. 

7 ^?:j ^T^% TEi ^x^T ^^T ^I'': ^T* Mera babu le gbyu 
khayo mero jora dekbau. 

My father ate ghi, now see how strong I am! 

Applied to one who boasts of past prosperity or strength. 

8 ^^T«fT ^1 «T^TT ^T^iT- Bbekana laga jukbama lago. 

A frog even caught cold. 

Applied to one who makes undue preteusions, or assumes tha 
airs of a great man. 

A common saying throughout India. 

9 ^^T "^15^ HI ^T^T ^^T "51^ ^T« Mera bapu le gbyu 
kbayo mera batba sungau. 

My father ate Ghi and now there is the smell of Ghi in 
my hand. 

This is applicable either to one who demands respect on. 
account of his ancestry, or is suspected for the faults of others. 

10 $T^ W^ ^^f^ U^ Cbboto mukba barbi bata. 

Small mouth, but big words. 

An insignificant fellow who talks of great folks and censures 
them, or comments on their actions. 

11 Ti"! M|T ^5R^^Tf^^ ^^I- P»^ ^^^" ^^^^"'^ *^^^" 
tne dero. 



( 375 ) 

^l ^JH iTjft ^>i^^ if "Sfir* Baga mari baganbara men 
baitbo. 

One kills a leopard and then sits on its skin. 

Used of one who after some achievement grows proud and 
consequential, and does not remember his former position. 

Also applied to cheats and selfish persons who after obtaining 
their ends become stiff and unyielding, 

22 ^^ S) "mx '^%W('^J'^* Gbara na bara muballadara. 

A man having no house and family is called "Mo- 
halldddrP 

Applied to so called great persons, who have no property. 



23 WS ^T^I T'a'T^*^ ^T "^^^si. Gurba kbano gula- 

gulana ko parabeja. 

One eats gurha {treacle") bnt abstains from sweet loaves 
{made loith gurlia). 

C f. "Strain at a gnat and swallow a camel." 
Applied to showy and fastidious people. 

42 ^Tf^ t^lJras! fV^X. ?|gT ^*1^T« Hatbi ningalanu 
macbbara gala lagano. 

To choke over a fly and swallow an elephant. 

E. g. To make much ado about the performance of unim- 
portant duties, but to make no difficulties about neglecting much 
more important things. 

Applied to fastidious, haughty people. 

25 ^T^^T «Hf^ ^ f^ SfZt' Kala ko jogi kaba ki jata. 
An ascetic of yesterday but with very long hair* 

Applied to one who makes great pretensions with small 
foundation. 

^& ^it^r %T ^TI^I- Kanda ko gbagaro. 
A skirt for Kdndd. 

V 2 



( 376 ) 

People who are of no use but pretend to be, or wish to bo 
considered expert. 

16 ^s^ ZZ 'm^ ^^T- Derha tntu baga men dero. 

A pony and a ha/f encamped in a garden (or large 
camping ground ' . 

Applies to one who makes a great show of a very Httla 
property. 

17 fk^ If »T%iiT »I"? ^ ^7^ TicT »igfwi!iT ^Z- Dina men, 
guriiiya gurlui ni khawa lato gulainina cliatn. 

One who does not eat treacle in the day time lids the 
refuse of treacle at night. 

Used of one who Hfsumes a haughty or fastidious air in the 
presence of people, but his circumstances are totally incapable of 
maintaining his pride or his pretended position. 

18 ^T«^ ^T 'tTf'i ''UT'l^I i%^« l^ala ko jogi aja ko siddha. 

The ascetic if yei<terd<iy has become a saint to-day. 

An iiscetic becomes a saint after a long preparatory course 
dnring which lie has to lend a pure and pious life, undergo pen- 
ances, pmctising abstinence from worldly tliingt., jind subjecting 
or controlling his senses for the sake of meditation and devotion. 

Used of one who assumes an air of pride or is puffed up by 
the little he possesses. 

19 f ^T ^T ^T^ "^s^rf^i »/l2 '^Tfil ^^f^ ^^f^ "^sr- Musa 

ka hatlia balada ki gantha lagi pasari bani b:iitl)0. 

A mouse that happened to find a root of tuimeric bC' 
came a grocer. 

Conceit of small people. 

20 s^m •if^^I'Sl »JTT^ '^f%. phakina na bichhflna 
marorha barhi. 

Nothing under nor over him, yet very proud. 
C. f. "Pride and poverty." 



( 378 ) 

4 f5|iT^«!FT >T^ f5i M^(% ^T« Nlmakhana Bhainsa ki 
bhaisaini khira. 

Rice pudding prepared with the milk of a buffalo which 
one dislikes smells of the buffalo. 

Applies to the work and good services of one who is disliked 
being unacceptable. JS. g. If a Zemindar (agriculturist) who 
keeps three or four wives to work for him in the fields dislikes 
one of them, he will never be pleased with her work, and she will 
quote this proverb. 

5 >l«ir %^%\ 3ItOt f^ ''Ilt^' Grand duma ko gaiyo ni 
gaiyo. "^ 

The singing of a Duma {low caste) having a goitre in 
his throat is no singing at all. 

Used by one who being disliked by his superior finds that 
the work done by him is not appreciated. 

WANT OF SYMPATHY. 

1 ^T ?RT ^l»ITf% ^TII ^^ ^'»'9r ^1T« Andha fca agarhi 
roya ankha apana khoya. 

To cry before a blind man is but to pain one's 
own eyes. 

I. e. Nothing should be asked of a man who has no sym- 
pathy in the matter. Generally used when a reasonable request is 
rejected without consideration. 

2 ^qJOT JRT'aT ^T^3[T f%X^jmj m^ ^T^. Apana kala 
rowawana birana kala hasawana. 

One's own dumb children cause us to weep, but those of 
others make us laugh. 

Applied to one who gloats over the distress of another. 

3 ^T^^ X^^ ^T'J^T ^^ ^T^T ^^ ^T.rkj ^T. Balaka 
ni dekha apano ghara pauno ni dekha parayo gbara. 

A child does not know what there is in his own house, 
nor a poor relative who comes as a guest what there is in 
the house of his host. 



( 377 ) 

2 ^3t fM^T l^^^r ^I^. Desha bbiksbya paradesha 
chori. 

To beg in one's own country and sleal in a J^oreign 
country. 

A man sbould not beg in his own country, v?heTe he would ba 
disgraced by doing so, and so one who steals should not steal 
in a strange land where be will have no one to defend him or 
his cause. 

3 «rr5lT^ cR^^tIT ^ ^T? 'Sl^'^W- «^o j^wa Kalakatta gu 
khawa alapatta. "^ 

One who goes to Calcutta will have to eat human dung. 

Used to dissuade orthodox Hindus from going to Calcutta. 

4 TI31 T^iU ^qiSIT \'^ ^^ wmfC! 'J-^^SI. Ea'ja rajanu 

apana desha bhikha mangani paradesha. 

To reign in one's own country and to heg alms in a 
foreign country. 

1. e. Seek fame and good repute in j'our own countrv : it 
does not matter what ycu do in a foreign land, where nobody 
knows you. 

WANT OF APPRECIATION. 

1 "^^T eRT '^T^ ^TT^. Andha ka hatha arasa. 

A. looking glass in the hand of a Hind man. 

Want of appreciation. Giving a thing to one who does not 
know its value. 

2 oiRx: ^ -^m ^7^7 %i ^^^. Banara ke jana ada ko 
sawada. 

A monhey is no judge of the taste of ginger. 
C. f. "Throwing pearls before swine." 

3 V^ ^7 ^JI7f% Ji^Jl. Bhaisa ka agharhi mirdanga. 
Drumming {playing music) to a buffalo. 

C. f. "Throwing pearls before swine." 



( 379 ) 

JE. g. A child asks for things which the father cannot afford 
to give. So a poor relative often makes preposterous demands. 

4 ^^ f% fk\^ 12 ?iTW f% 'R^in ^^* Dekhanchhu ki 
pibala pata khanchhu ki aluna pata. 

Quite yellow to look at, but to the taste without any 
salt. 

Applied to one who is very polite and gentlemanly but 
good for nothing, i. e. has no sympathy or consideration for 
others. Nearly every kind of vegetable food has turmeric put 
into it which gives it a yellow colour. 

5 ti\z ^ ^'Slf^i ^f% ^^^T TT'H? si%^f%. Gantha men 

nai luna ki dali larhaka tnagancbha gbyu khicharhi. 

Se lias not even a hit of salt ( tied up in a corner of his 
sheet ) but his son asks for Ghi khicharhi ( an expensive 
article of food). 

6 ^% 311^ ^%T 5TT^ VJ^ 5(1 "m^ %\ ^r SITf- Jaiko jawa 
taiko jawa dhobi ka bapa ko kya jawa. 

A. dhobi washes clothes by beating them on a stone with 
such force that they are torn, since they do not belong to 
him, but to other people. 

Applied to one who injures the property of other people 
which has been consigned to him. 

7 ^z ^T VT^J ^'R «6T ^^r^» I-iuta ka dbana pbuphu ka 
saradba. 

One offers "sarddha" to his "phuphu" {father's sister) 
out of the rice he obtained by plunder or for nothing. 

E. g. The religious rites performed for one's fore-fathers, 
during which balls of rice are consecrated to them, and Brahmins 
and relatives are fed with rice &c. are called "Sarddh." No one 
ever performs this ceremony for his father's sister. But when he 
gets rice for nothing he remembers even his father's sister; which 
he would not do if he had furnished the rice at his own expense. 



( 380 ) 

Sicll Vealth inclines a man towards extravagance. This 13 all 
jStjtaivalent of the Peisian proverb which says that one's heart 
becomes cruelly liberal with the money or property of another 
which has cost him nothing. 

What is called "cheap kindness." 

8 ^fq^T Wl^T- Lai pichho janaro. 
Take the mill stone on your back. 

E. g. One who was carrying a load on his head was told 
by another to take his mill stone on his back also. 
A good-natured man is imposed on. 
C. f. "Riding a willing horse to death." 

9 ^fr ^JJH %m'[^ ^T^ ^T "^g^ ^1?J ^girf . Meri gbana 
aijawa barhe ka balada baga lijawa. 

If my fields are ploughed I do not care if the Darn's 
bullocks be killed by a leopard. 

This is applicable to one who after borrowing and using an- 
other's property, takes no care of it. 

10 ^T ^I^T"! '«IT'^ ^3 '^T^' ^^^ mausydna bapa katha 
bapa. 

{lam in sad plight) my mother is a step mother and I 
am but the bastard of my father. 

This is used when one represents his helpless condition, having 
no one to sympathize with him. 

11 f^^^a^l ^7 '^^^T ^''^T- Nimakbano gbata busa ka 
wera. 

The water millwhich has no master ( or no one to look 

after it) is made use of by putting into it handfuls of 

chaff ( for grinding, instead of grain). 

Used to denote the treatment an oiphan or poor person 
generally gets in the world. 



( 381 ) 
12 "Sfmx. f% QfI<T^. Bauara ki sukha puchbai. 
Enquiring after one's health like a monkey. 

m. g. A pet monkey taken into one's arms at first bites 
and scratches. So the proverb refers to a friend who either makes 
but one visit or commences his visit by quarrelling. Want of 
sympathy. 

WICKEDNESS. 

1 ^T'WnT ^J^ «RTfe f^^'^I^T ^^^T. Apano nakha kati 
birano asakunu. 

To cut one's own nose in order to act as a had omen 
for other people. 

1. e. To injure oneself in order to bring trouble on others. 

2 'axiT %fe ^TcTTT 'St'. Bura dekhi kartara dara. 

Even the creator fears a wicked man. 
1. e. Every one is afraid of a tricky person. 

3 ^^Ff % ^^ ^ «tSt ^T "^TTSi »15T^%r« Lanka men 
jo sabana hai chhoto so bauna gaja lambo. 

The shortest monster man found in Lanka ( Ceylon ) 

measured fifty-two yards. 

This is used to signify a very atrocious iniquity perpe- 
trated by the smallest person of his class or caste. 

4 x.j^ firSir %T^ ^^ ^«IT ^^ ^T?l"» Rama milai jorhi 
eka andha eka korhi. 

A God-made pair, one Mind and the other leper. 

By chance a blind man and a leper met and struck np friend- 
ship. This is applied to bad and mean people when they are in 
concert with each other for evil designs. Spoken ironically of 
two persons when one is as bad ^s the other. C f. "Birds of a 
feather flock together.'' 



( 382 ) 

5 ^7*11 f% 9^lt ^ f^HTT %t» Sona ki chhupai peta ni 
mara koi. 

A knife will cut even when made of gold. 

A man who is dangerous and untrustworthy must be avoided 
though he be of noble descent. 

6 ^ifk >rat si^^T f%% »TT^ 'a:^ ^W. Kali bhali na seta 
dwiyai marau ekai kheta. 

Neither the black nor the white are good, both should be 
killed ( at once ) at the same place. 

Applied to two persons who are alike in wickedness. (The 
black and white refer to two insects that destroy crops J. 

7 *iTT ^''f^ fH-^I ^ ^TTOf Wr{\ qif^ ^ri. Mai apani 
bhikshya ni de apana kutta kani thama. 

O, mother never mind giving me anything, but do 
not let your dog bite me. 

A beggar once went to the house of a woman to ask the 
usual alms, who instead of giving him anything set dog upon him 
to drive him away. He entreated her to keep her dog back, and 
he would not ask for alms. Hence the proverb is applied to one 
who instead of complying with the request of another tries to do 
him an injury. 

8 56TW ^\^\ f^ H^ 3!rw« Kala kalon ki eka jata. 

All black people belong to one caste. 

1. e. All who have evil designs in concert with each other 
remain in unity among themselves. 

C. f. "Birds of a feather flock together." 
"Honor among thieves." 

9 W^ ^I ^^ ^T'» 'll'^T'ST' Syapa ka paira syapa paha 
chanau. 

A snake discerns the way of {another) snake. 
C. f. "Set a thief to catch a thief." 



C 383 ) 

10 ^^x % "fz sf^^T. Pathara hai inta narama. 

A brick is softer than a stone. 

Used in comparing two wicked persons or actions, which 
though both bad, difFer in the nature or degree of atrocity, for 
instance a theft is less atrocious than a murder, a slanderer than 
a thief. 

11 %T '^^mj %J ^n ^T ^T^l ^r ^T^- Jo apana ko 
khawa so aurana kya rakha. 

One who devours Ms own people will hardly spare 
others. 

Applied to an extravagant and wicked person. 

WILFULNESS. 

1 «T«i ^T '^I^. Mana ko sauda. 

One's own choice, or such is my wish. 

Used when anyone acts in an unusual or irrational manner 
asserting his own independence, 

WITNESS. 

Chulo boda ki maina bara pakawana karena aundo boda 
main dagarhi cbhaun. 

"Chtild" fthe oven J said thai it had cooked 12 kinds 
of sweetmeats. "The Aundo" (which is adjoining J said 
"I was near at hand". 

Anything done in the presence of two or more persons 
cannot be concealed. Don't boast unless there have been no 
witnesses. Aundo is a small compartment adjoining to and behind 
a Chuld enclosed with the Chuld wall or stone. 

The custom of making a Chula or open oven upon the 
ground having an empty space behind is peculiar to Garhwal. The 
reasons of this arrangement are (1) to provide a receptacle for 
cooked food, and (2) to avoid the "evil eye." Cooked food thus 
"overlooked" is supposed to be injurious. 

W 2 



f 384 ) 
WOMEN. 

1 fVrft^lT '^f^'^ ^]^ ^ ^J ^^T »TTf^ ^ ^r* Tiriya 
charitra jane na ko khasaina mari satti ho. 

Kills her husband and then becomes a satti : who knows 

the ways of women ? 

A certain woman being in love with another man killed 
her husband at night at the instigation of her paramour, giving 
out that thieves had done it. But in the morning she went as a 
Satti with the body of her husband. 

2 %f^ ^^^ ^T. Syaini libera ghara, 
One^s household depends on a woman. 

If a woman is not dexterous in the management of the 
household affairs, or being clever, docs not give her attention to 
it the house will not thrive or prosper. The story noted below will 
illustrate the proverb. 

Once a king with his queen consort was taking a drive along 

a public road. Seeing a man in rags with a load of firewood orr 

his head, he remarked to the queen that this was evidently an 

improvident man, but the qneen instead of maintaining the king's 

opinion about the man said that he was not to be blamed for 

his poverty, but it must be due to his wife, who must either be a 

foolish woman or indifferent to her duty. The noble pair 

began to dispute about the matter. At length the king in anger 

directed his queen to go and manage the man's affairs for a certain 

time. The queen was very glad to obey this command of her 

husband. Accordingly she went to the house of the poor man 

and found his wife a lazy woman, and ascertained that the poor 

man used to earn only two pice a day by the sale of fuel, with 

which he used to buy flour whereon the man and his wife could 

barely subsist. The first thing the queen did was to direct the 

man to sell two loads of wood in a day instead of one as he used 

to do, and to get two pice worth of wheat instead of flour, and 

his wife was made to grind the wheat. This arrangement secured 

them enough food, and saved twa piee a day. After a time the 

saving amounted to five rupees, with which the queen bought 

him an ass foE conveyance of firewood. By this arrangement 

the poor man was enabled to sell sixteen loads of wood instead of 

two. Thus after some time she effected a further saving, with 

which she purchased many oxen and asses to convey the fuel to the 

g pital town for sale. She also employed many men to cut and 



( 385 ; 

prepare ^firewood in the jungle. In fhis vVay the p66f tlian 
monopolized the whole trade of firewood in the toWH. ^dbtl 
afterwards the jungle caught fire. On hearing of it the 
queen ordered that all the charcoal made by the fire should be 
brought to the poor man's house. All this charcoal, on being 
carried to his house, became gold (i. e. sold at a high rate). In 
this way the poor man became very rich. One day by the advice 
of the queen the man invited the king to a feast at his own house, 
when, seeing the immense wealth of which the man had become 
possessed, the king admitted the truth of what the queen had 
said. The king then took away his queen to his own palace. 

3 >T ''CI^ *{jR ^ ^T5! ^Tf^« Bhai randa nari ge laja sari. 
2Vb sooner does a icoman become a widow then she loses 

all shame. 

1. e. Having no one to control her she does what she 
pleases. 

4 TTl 5! ^I «JT^T if ^m "^t^r* Randa na ko panjo gaun 
parho banjo. 

If women manage a village it will become a desert. 

This corresponds with what is elsewhere said, that one who 
acts on the advice or direction of woman, boy, or enemy is sure to 
meet with ruin eventually. 

WORK AND WAGES. 
1 ys^ jfrTI'ft set IST^^ "S"^ Z^fF^ \l 1^- Unne ganguli 
ki ebhakull unne Tukanya ko hala. 

The ploughing of TuTcanyd is as the food given him by 
Ganguli. 

As the wages so will be the work (the man hired for plougk- 
ing is fed by those who hire him). 

WORLD. 
1 fr?T:t^ ^T f%^^- Tatah kin ya phira ke. 
What is to he done then ? or what to do in the end^ 
thereof?. 



( 386 ) 

E. g. This means that if one succeeds ia his enterprise what 
will he do thereafter since all worldly things are of transient na- 
ture and will vanish some time. 

Consolation used at a time of loss. 



2 of ^^f?: ^ ^T^fj^j'?;. Je sansara te manasara. 

What there is in my mind is also in that of the world 

( what I wish is also toished by the world ). 

Used to indicate that one can judge the state of the world 
by the suggestions of his own mind. 

3 ^f«|^T ^TI^* Duniyan sajhi 

The loorld is the joint property of all hvrnian being s. 

E. g. An act either good or bad, done by one individual 
affects others in this world. C. f. "As (he world leads we 
follow." 

Used to induce people to be careful of what they do, and «lso 
to do what the world does. C. f- "We are members one of 
another." 

4 ^xx f^5! f% ^T^f^l f^T "^fK TTfl. Chara dina ki chan- 
dani phira andheri rata. 

Moonlight for a few days and then the dark fortnight. 

This is used to impress on one's heart that prosperity and 
adversity will not last, but are of transient nature. C. f. "Make 
hay while the sun shines." "Work while it is called to-day, for 
the night cometh when no man can work". 

5 f^TTWT 1»I IT^ar^ Birano mana paradesha. 
The mind of another is as a foreign land. 

I. e. We do not know what is in the mind of others. 

6 ^1^ ^^ a^j^gi ^*^T^« Sapaka swada jhalaka sansara. 
Taste in a morsel, and the world in a glance. 



( 387 ; 

The saying of an ascetic, who declares that just as a man can 
tell from the first taste of a dish what all the rest will be like, 
so from a very briefer slight experience of the world he can find 
out its nature, the vanity of its pleasures etc. 

7 ^^T"'^ f^^Sf ^T ITfT* Sansara sisana ko pata. 
The world is (like) a leaf of nettle (priclcing on both 

No one can escape criticism, however he may act. 

8 ^%J tz git^T ^I^T »TT5i W^t^ ^21 «ri%T- Kapko ita 
kanko rorho bhanamati le kutuma jorho. 

The hricks of one 'place and stones of another formed 
the conjurer's family. 

1. e. The conjurer makes up his show from bricks and 
stones. 

This proverb declares that all human relationships and friend- 
ships are merely imaginary conditions, like the toys with which 
the conjurer constructs his plays. All is a dream. 



( 388 ; 



APPENDIX. 



1 f^«TT^ SRT^ f^^^t ff "^1%: Binashakale biparitabuddhih. 

Se wlio is about to perish becomes demetited. 

Illustration. Ram Chandra when in exile in the jangle of 
the Deccan was allured by a deer of golden hne, which was 
really a demon or phantasm. In pursuing this, Ram wandered' 
far from his home, and Rawan took this opportunity to carry off 
Raoa's wife, Sita. Had not Ram lost his senses and gone 
after this imaginary and inpossible animal he would not have 
lost his wife or rather had that loss not been fated, he would not 
have been so senseless. 



2 ^J?f% ^Tf'i'lT f^5flfw f5!^ri« Chugali lagija binati nt 

laga. 

Bachhiting leaves an impression in the mind ( of the 
hearer ) hut entreaty {makes no impression ). 

We remember a fault when it is told us regarding some- 
one, but we soon forget a request made for or recommendation of 
that person. 

3 q^^T'6'';'' M«fTf%i ^T51 «IiT5T ^^T* Pabaro karanu bbala 
ki kboja karanu bbalo. 

Is it better to watch one^s possessions, or to search 
for them when lost ? 

Prevention is better than cure. 

4 ^■^j; tff %j ^^T^ %3 51 "^^If- Bbaira gaun ko bbasar- 
ha jetha na asarba. 

A villager and clown who does not know Jetha ( the 
month of May )from Asdrha(June ). 
A stupid fellow, unable to discriminate. 



( 389 ) 

5 e^ efii ^5!T^ «iT^ ^T "^^^ ^r ^*TiE- J"'e ka daija le 

babu ka dhana le ko khanchha. 

JFlho will live on his wife\ dowry, or on his father's 
wealth ? 

Every man must earu his own living, and not depend on 
such sources of income. 

6 oiTfSl f{\K. "^f^^T y??T(w fKlT. ^JX. Jani mara baniyan 
pachhani mara chora. 

A hanya will cheat only those icith whom he is loell 
acquainted, and a thief tcill rob only those whom he knows 
( cannot bring him to justice or overpower him ). 

7 ^f2 Jl^IcT ^RiRt''^ "^f? '"'T fT '^wt'C ^fk. ?1?JT«T ^T Ghati 
gayata phakira badhi gayata amira mari gayata pira. 

Mussalmans, when they have no property, call them- 
selves faqirs ; if they are rich, they call themselves Amir 
( noblemen ); and when they die, they are called JPir 

( saints ). 

A satire on Mohammedans. 

8 5T^r 'EITT ir^f^« Chhala ghama balani. 
To expose a man's hide to the sun. 

To reveal a man's faults and secret crimes, 

9 TTTTSI W "»^^T« Taraju ka palarba. 
The scales of the balance. 

The alternation of prosperity and misfortune in people's lives, 
"The turning of the tables." 

10 q^^ ifci. Tala me puni. 

A small wisp out of the bundle ( of cotton, in spinning). 
I. e. A very small part of the work done. 



( 390 ) 

11 ^T'^T'^'^nT* Ankha bujana. 
To close ( lit. quench ) the eyes. 

Not to listen to or grant a request. 

12 ^J^i gfi7 fk<i\ ittT ^''^•IT- Kala ka dina pura karana. 

Completing the days of Fate {or Death). 

Said by an unhappy man, waiting for deliverance from 
this life. 

13 S^m ^t m\fz % ^l^m ^t flt/3»J- Tekana son janthi 
nai kholana son s;anthi nai. 

No stick for support, no knot to unloose (i. e. no money, 
which is usually tied up in the cotton garment ). 

Weak and patron-less. 

14 ?)t3T I'S'IT' Gantha ganana. 
To count knots. 

Build castles in the air. 

15 %r ^ttt ''T^ ^t wij %r ^r tit ^t ^tti %f^ ^t ^ 

^TlT '^^^ ^■'^ 5TW %t[J. Jo kutta pala so kutta jo kutta 

raara so kutta baini ghara bhai kutta sasura ghara jawain 

kutta. 

Se that cherishes dogs is a dog ; he that heats dogs 
is a dog ; he that lives in his sister's house ( spunges on his 
sister ) is a dog ; and he that lives in his father-in-law's 
house ( too long ) is a dog. 

A satire on spunges of this kind, who are considered 
disgaceful. 

16 ^TT 'TfT liT ^^5!% ^T^ %T ^Ti ^^T. %% f^ ^T^. Jo panta 
kau sabana le karanu jo panta kara kaile ni karnu. 

Whatever the Tant says, do it ; but do not do what he 
does. 



( s-oi ) 

The Pants are a powerful caste of Brahmins, and so can do 
■much as they please. 

17 s^sjjTfsi. Clihyuu karani. 

To sneeze. 

Sneezing is regarded as a bad omen, on setting out on a 

journey or commencing a business, if anyone sneezes, the project 

niTist be laid aside for a while. A man beginning a march and 

stopped in this manner will return for a few paces and then go on. 

The proverb means 'to dissuade' one from his purpose. 

18 ?]qr 3r]5ii f\ixj ^^^^J ^I fq^ ^I^ ^T'lT- Graya jaya 
myara baba ko pinda bati aya. 

■Oo to Gay a and offer Find to my father. 

The ceremony of shraddh can only be performed by tbe 
son, grandson, nephew or other near relations of the deceased. 
Hence to request a stranger to perform the -ceremony is absurd. 

Means "Look after your own affairs.^' If you want any- 
tliing done, do it yourself. 

19 ^^T 5i5|}"aiT "^ ^f ^J^. Grhorba jujma duba ko 
nasba. 

When two horses fight^ the dub grass is destroy ed- 

That is, when great powers come into collision, common 
folk suffer. 

A caution to poor people aganist interfering ia the quarrels 
of their betters. 

20 'a|%«lT fm Z^ S^f' Kbaslya manai thanga tbango. 

The Khasiya ( rustic hill-man ) the more he is hesought 
the surlier he becomes. 

I. e. The only way to manage him is by threais and 
compulsion. 

21 «l^JT 'fT^ ^IK^^T ^^W- Nakato nakha Paramesh- 

wara dekbalo. 

X 2 



< 392 ) 

A nose cut off {secret sin) is knotvfi to God. 

Cutting off the nose is a common figure of speech meaning 
to lose one's character, become disgraced, as in former days the 
punishment for shameful actions and heinous crimes took this 
form. Here the meaning is that though a man ma\- conceal his 
evil deeds from his fellow-men, God sees his wickedness, lie is 
disgraced in the sight of God. 

Ironically used in speaking of a person's secret or supposed 
sies. 

22 gqs^ f^tfj ^7 ^^J. Jyunu jiya ko rnelo. 

J^fe is a fair. 

t . e. As lo'ng as men are alive they meet. Spoken "when 
acquaintances come across each other. 

23 ^7cT ^fk. WKfk- Pota puri karani. 
To fill up one's basket. 

To do well by oneself, -to look after number one. 

24 ^•^^x:. Tioatera. 

All at sixes and sevens ( lit. three thirteen)^ 

Utterly ruined and done for. 

25 5^j- g5l7. Cbhakka panja. 

Fitch and toss (gambling with shells ). 

Means playing tricks, practising by dishonest methods. 

26 ^m %j ffji fj^ 5(if^ \rifx f^^J^^. Bhaipsa ko singa 
bhainsa kani bbari ni laganu. 

The horns of a buffalo are not heavy to him. 

One is not unwilling to incur cost or trouble for his owo 
people. 

27 097 117^107. Puwa pakana, 
Cooking sweetmeats. 

^Spoken of one raised to sudden prosperity. Having a "good 



( 393 ) 

28 S^ VSr?«T. Chhala jharhanu. 

Exorcising demons (or '^devil-driving"). 

A class of mendicant doctors profess to exorcise evil spirits 
by using force, E. g. burning, beating, shouting loudly in the 
ear of the possessed person etc. When one is threatened and 
bawled at by another the bystanders facetiously use this proverb. 

29 qsjH U5!«r ^Jat ^J^ ^]5jt. Pujanai pujanai aja kama 

lago. 

A/ier I have worshipped you so long you are of use to me 
only to-day. 

The Bairagis or Vaishnavs (devotees of Vishnu who worship 
the god in the form of a black stone called Saligram, found at 
Damudhar Kund ou the banks of the river Saligrama in Nepal), 
are exceedingly strict in their religious duties, and will not eat 
or do any work until they have offered the food to the Saligram 
stone or worshipped it. Once a Bairagi who had worshipped such 
a stone for many years was cooking his cakes in the Plains. 
After cooking he placed all the cakes in front of the stone by way 
ef offering, when a dag coming along suddenly snatched one of 
the cakes and made off. As there were no stones near, the man 
could not resist the temptation to fling his Saligram at the dog, 
who dropped the cake and fled. The Bairagi then made use of 
the above words. 

30 ^T^ »IT^ ^T^r ^IZT* Harha garha mato gabtho.. 

Sones go into the river, but earth remains in one's knot.. 

I. e. Cattle will die and their bones will be swept away into a- 
river, but land property or money invested in land is an enduring 
possession. 

The knot is equivalent to "the pocket," and hence often- 
means "money." The poorer class of Hindus carry their money 
tied up in a knot of their sheet. 

Used to encourage people to buy land and not to invest 
their money in, cattle. 

31 ^i MfK \k «»I ^fK HIT5C. Apun mari bera laga bairt 
maranii. 



( 394 ) 

One should kill himself in order to bring death on Ms 
enemy. 

It is a popular belief that if a man is unable to revenge hirrself 
oil his enemy in this lite he will be able to do so in the next life, 
if he has a strong desire to that effect on his death-bed. It is also 
believed that a man can torment his enemy after death by taking 
possession of him or bewitching him. 

Once there were two sworn enemies living in the sam.e 
village. One of them went to the temple of a goddess to pray 
for blessings, and the other, hearing of this, also went to the- 
same shrine, and besought the goddess to give him the same 
boon which his enemy had asked. The goddess, knowing his 
thoughts, told him he would have whatever he desired, but that 
the first petitioner would get double of the same ;. whereupon 
the cunning fellow, after a moment's thought, prayed the goddess- 
to deprive him of one of his eyes, so that his enemy might thu& 
lose both his eyes. 

32 ijf^T ^jg. Phuto dliola. 

A broken Drum, 

1. e. a broken drum when played makes all kinds of unexpected' 
noises. Applied to a talkative person who is always saying 
"awkward things," without due reserve. 

33 ?iTt-^i ^f% ^T''l% s^ %i^7T ^^7^ Tfjji. Garibale 
l)€chi apani jwe saukara udhara manga. 

_ The poor fellow was so hard up that he was obliged .to sell 
his wife, but the rich man to whom he was going to sell her 
wanted her on credit. 

Used when a man wants his money badly, but is put off to- 
a future date. 

34 ^j-f% %T'»fi'. Kaurhi to puta. 

The son of a shell (cowrie). 

A miser ; one who will do anything for money ; or who will 
not spend a fraction. 

35 H^ ^j ^^gj. Thuka ka thekala. 



( 395 ) 

Patching with spittle. 

Torn cloth if mended by stickiug bits of material upon it 
witli saliva used as paste will soon be as bad as ever. This is used 
of baseless statements or groundless pleas. 

36 ^T21^ ^?JT ^^r ^1^ '^'H^ %I^T« Lata le lagarba 
dekbo bao-arLa ba^arliai daurho. 

CD O 

A dumb idiot found a cake on a river hank, and ran along 
hoping to find more. 

One who pursues a foolish or useless course because he has 
been benefitted once by it. 

37 "Sifki arf^ %^ '^l\ ^^ 1^5. Bairi mari bera laga dukbu 
dicbba. 

An enemy, evtn when dead, will give trouble. 

A noted bad character once lived in a village, and was a 
great pest to all his neighbours, lodging false information ao-ainst 
them at the police-office etc, and being in every way a public 
nuisance. When on his death-bed he sent for all his neighbours 
and implored them to have mercy on him and save him from 
penalties in the future existence on account] of his many crimes. 
He besought them for this object to drag his corpse round to 
every house in the village before cremating it. Being touched by 
this his last request they all vowed to do so, and accordingly when 
the breath was out of the sly rogue, they began hauliuf him 
along the street. Here they were met by some police and "chau- 
kidars," who, supposing that they had beaten and killed the man, 
arrested them all and took them off to a magistrate. They were 
all sentenced to a long term of imprisonment. Thus their enemy 
had his revenge on them even after he was dead. 

38 ^^i ^T^T Wi ^r f'T^. Sai ko soro lakba ko mitra. 

A relation of the same caste ( with whom one has collateral 
interests ) is worth a . hundred rupees, but a relation by 
alliance, or a friend, ( who is a stranger ) is worth a lac of 
rupees. 

Used to appreciate the genuine usefulness of an allied 
relation or friend 



( 39G ) 

39 ^ "qj^^T ^T«IT^^*T1%* ^l^i chakalo bazara sangurhu 

Se is too big for the bazaar and the bazaar is too narrow 
for him. 

A conceited person, puffed np with pride. 

40 ir^ ^I'S. Worba kodiia. 

A mason or the leprosy (both very difficult to get ridof). 

The masons of this country are often verj' cunaino;, delay- 
ing the completion of their work from day to day, so that they 
may get the extra pay. Until their work is completed their 
employer cannot well dismiss them, and so is at their mercy, 
even though they add only a single stone to the wall in a day's work. 
In the same way leprosy, an incurable disease, is a. simile for 
anything that cannot be got rid of. 

41 ^^^ IT^'a^ (ir^S. Akala le Parameshwara mi- 
lanchha. 

God is found out by icisdom. 

By close application of the mind a man can rise even to* 
the knowledge of divine things. An exhortation to wisdom or 
mental activity, which gains all things. 

42 ^^f%gBT %!»! -Sif T ^1^ ^^ ^^ ^ ITT'ii ^If ft fT'^'fi ^^^« 

Ye basti ka loga barha bekupha cbhana kabbain ye tarapha 

kabbaiB wi tarapba basani. 

The people of this place are great fools, sometimes they live 
on one side of the street, sometimes on the other, 

A blind man led by another went begging. He found it 
troutlesome to pass from one side of the road to the other, and 
thus apostrophized the people of the village, instead of acknowledg- 
ing his own defect. 

The unreasonable criticism of ignorant and conceited people.- 

43 ^T^ % 51»n"»T ^Tf%* Mala bai jagata banki. 
The commodity not worth the tax or duty upon it. 

"Not worth the candle". 



( 3ar ) 

■44 "^ q?: 'ft- t)^'i ?^^'^ d^'i- 

Two for two. 

When an inferior puts himself on ^n equality with his 
superior or withstands him. Insubordination. 
"Jack's as good as his master". 

45 ^5^1^: ^r ^^Rffsi ^rf% ^«B'^r Sansara ko raukba kwe 

ni thami sakano. 

No one can stop the mouth of the world, for men's criti- 
cism ). 

A man should not heed people's remarks, but go his own wav. 

An illustration is given as follows : according to the story 
oT the Ramayan the god Kama took back his wife Sita after she 
had been carried off by Rawan. Once a dhobi ( washerman) was 
seen beating his wife, telling her that he was not like Rama who 
took back his wife under such disgraceful circumstances, he could 
not behave in such a way etc. Thus even the gods are not exempt 
from criticism. In consequence of this unfavorable popular opi- 
nion Rama was compelled to put his wife away. 

46 ^f?i^T- Titlro. 

A titira ( lit. a partridge ). 

A knowing person, wide-awake ; cunning. 

47 ^^^r f^ ^ilfS- Bbekula ki janthi. 

A stick of bhekuld ( a kind of free, the fibres of which 
are very slippery ) when used as a staff it slips from the 
hand of the holder. 

An untrustworthy man, who cannot be depended on for 
support, a broken reed. 



48 y% f^ \fk '^^J T{\j JJTW ^f r* Gusain ki deli badhau 
mero gasa badbau. 

»]W ^TiaT ^fZ 5»T5IT^ ^ %f^ *T5g. Gusainkaankba 
pbuti jana ta mai cbori karanyu. 

The dog withes the increase of the family ( so that his food 
or leavings may thereby increase^ but (he cat tvishes that all 



( 398 ) 

the members of the family should become blind {so that she 
may steal with impunity ). 

The dog is considered a grateful animal and auspicious, 
while the cat is regarded as ungrateful and unlucky. The cat 
is supposed to be the mnternal aunt of the leopard, whom she has 
taught all the evil he knows, excei.it the trick of climbing a tree, 
according to the saying that ''one thing should be reserved from 
a pupil." The leopard formerly used to feed on dead cattle, but 
the cat instructed him to kill live cattle, so that she also might 
have a share; since that time the leopard has preyed on live ani- 
mals. This is quoted as a reproach to the cat. 

The dog is supposed to have remarkable powers of hearing, 
and the cat of sight. Once a king set a dog and a cat to watch 
his horse. At night the dog began to bark, hearing some sound. 
The cat reproved him for making such a noise, saying that she 
had seen (in the dark ) only a hair falling from the horse. 

Evil spirits are supposed to appear often in the form of a 
cat, but never of a dog. 

49 ^T ^ ^T2 '5SITVT ^ ^JZ \^ ?i^I ^^ ^^^T f ^ ^f ^- 
^Urj % ^107. San ki sata adha k£ nata dasha dyunlo 
dasha deunlo dasha kokelino ke dino. 

Out of a hundred, sixty: out of that sixty, half lost ; I will 
give you ten rupees and have ten given to you by some 
other person ; then the remaining ten is not worth talking 
about. 

A man sent one hundred rupees by the hand of one of his 
couQtrymen, to his family in another country. The bear«r of the 
money oe arriving said he had only set out with sixty rupees, and 
half of that had been lost on the way. He very generously pro- 
mised to give ten -of the remaining thirty at some future time, 
and said he would cause some other men to pay them another 
ten. As for the remaining ten, he said it was not proper that 
they should take, such a paltry sum, nor for him to give it, so ho 
ended by giving them nothing at all. 

Ironically applied to dishonesty, and "cooked" accounts etc. 

50 ^f%%T ^rl»I f^'lt %[^V. Mudlyo jogi pisi aukhadha. 

A shaven jogi and powdered medicine ( are not dis- 
tinguishable ). 



( 390 ) 

No one can tell whether the jogi was a Brahman or Dom 
or to what caste he belonged, as all jogis are alike ; and so powder- 
ed aiedicine is difficult to analyse. 

Used of these two things, 

51 lii^fJr Ob ^"^ifj TcTg«I. Adami ki kasauti matalaba. 

Motive is the test of a man. 

We can only know whether a man is good or bad by know- 
ing his real motives. 

52 ^^T^ ^f%^t ■ft«'TT(% ^■m^ *lf^^ n^ SRiTf^- Akala 
dhaniyan dwi kaparhi sukala dhaniyan dwiyai kaparhi. 

In time of famine dhanyd {coriander seed) has two capsules, 
and in time of plenty two also. 

(Coriander seed when pressed or pounded separates into 
two parts. 

Used to express dissatisfaction with a small fixed income. 

53 f^j^{ l^i^T "^TfT t: 5ltf^« Dina ni runa bata rai 

janchhi. 

The time ( of need ) passes away, but the fact remains 
{for ever). 

"When some one has asked another for help and been refused, 
he tells him my time of need will soon be over, but your refusal 
will always be remembered. 

Used to induce another to give his help. 



54 TT^ ^T ^T' ^f^ ^IT'I ^T ^T'^ ^ftl^ Rawana ro 
apun suni Hanumana ro apun suni. 

Hdwan cries for himself, and Hanumdn cries for 
himself. 

Hanuman was the hero-monkey in the fiamayan, sent by 
Hama to look for his wife Sita, who was in the power of Rawan, 
king of Ceylon. Rawan tried to slay him with his wonderful sword 
with which it is said he could cleave mountains and even earth into 
two parts. With this sword he struck Hanuman, who turned his 

T 2 



( 400 ) 

back, so the stroke fell on his tail, and cut only one and a half 
hairs from it. Kawan was grieved at the failure of his sword, 
and Hanuman at the injury done to his tail. 

Used when both parties in a business are dissatisfied or 
unfortunate. 

55 »IT ^T^T HT^T' P^f^ gbara ko thano. 

Vessels of another^ s house. 

Daughters are thus spoken of in a depreciatory sense, inas- 
much as they do not stay in their father's house, but go to another 
family on their marriage. 

56 "a^ '^T^^T* Bansa balarho. 
The ear of a bamboo. 

When a bamboo grows ears, it is regarded as an omen poi- 
tending that it will soon be destroyed or uprooted. 

Used on seeing evil deeds and habits springing up in a 
family, regarded as signs of approaching ruin. 



57 tj^ cRT 'SSJT^, Thuka ka ansu. 
Tears of spittle. 

Unnecessary grief, or sorrow at the good fortune of others. 

58 f5|^^ f^Wrf^ ^T ^IT^T* Nimuvva pichharhi ko 
banolo. 

I%e dwarfed aftei^growth of the lemon crop. 

Lemon trees sometimes produce a second growth of fruit, 
but this is always oT a very stunted and poor d'ejcription. The 
simile is used to represent the last child of a married pair, or the 
last yield of anything. 

59 ^T'B?: •fl^ ilT^T ^T*S^ 'H'^ ''^r^T* Dophara taka mala 
dophara matha chala. 

Mala, friend in the morning, enemy in the afternoon. 

Mala is a village in Patti Boraki Ran, parganah Baramandal, 
Kumaun, the people of which have the reputation of being very 
untrustworthy and cunning. 



( 40] > 

60 ^n^i ^^7 H^^T f^^^^ ^^^T* Aigayo mero maliiwa 
ni ai bhela haluwa. 

If it comes back, it is my Maluwd ; if not, let it fall 
down a precipice. 

A certain man had an old and useless ox. named maluwa 
(sweet one ). One day the poor animal did not return home from 
grazing. Instead of going to seek it, the owner expressed himself 
as in the proverb. 

Used of a person or thing little cared for. 

Wala ki topi pal a ka khora pala ki topiwala ka khora. 

Putting the cap of one man on another's head, and 
vice versa. 

Double-dealing. 

62 ^ q^^ gsT fq^^T ^5i; g% fijx: fq^^^r- Ye murada 
ka pihala paira tu lai shira pitanai a. 

This dead body has yellow feet, come along, beating, 
your head. 

Expresses suspicion. 

The following story is told relative to the cunning and" dis- 
honesty of goldsmiths. Once a king required a number of ornaments 
made. In order to secure himself against dishonesty on the part 
of the goldsmiths employed, he had them fastened up in a room, 
and stripped and searched when they went home at night. One 
day, howeverj they represented that one of their number had died, 
and asked permission to carry out his corpse. In the meantime 
they had made a figure of solid gold, fetched from the treasury 
of the king, and dressed up this figure of gold in a winding sheet 
and carried it forth. As they were leaving the palace, a man caught 
sight of the golden feet of the figure, and cried out. ''This dead body 
has yellow feet." On hearing this from him the goldsmiths said, 
"Come along, and join the procession crying for the dead, you 
also will get a share." 

63 'sspgxl g^ft^T f^^ f^^ ^^f^^T ^I^rT- Amrita lapetiya. 
bikha bikha lapetiyo amrita. 



( 402 ) 

Outside, nectar ; inside y poison. Inside, nectar ; out- 
side, poison. 

The first is applied to gram, the husk or skin of which is 
considered good and digestive, while the inner part of gram causes 
dyspepsia. 

The second clause is used of urd dal, the inner part of which 
is considered very a nutritive while the black covering or shell is 
regarded as poisonous. 

Simple villagers relate the following about the respectiv& 
merits of dal, wheat and rice. Once theso three cereals had a 
dispute as to their relative superiority, and it was at last agreed io 
refer the matter to a king. The king at first put them off by 
saying that he would require twelve years to consider the case. 
At the end of the twelve years the three grains again went to the 
king and begged him to give his decision. This time the kino» 
said that they must go to a sick man and ask his opinion, and 
on that opinion the case must be decided. They accordingly re- 
paired to the house of a sick man, and laid the matter before 
him. He replied that he could not give the palm to urd dal 
because it disordered bis stomach whenever he ate of it. nor to- 
wheat, because he found it very difficult to digest. The onlv 
grain which he could eat with safety and comfort was rice, and 
therefore he considered rice to be the best. On this wheat was 
so enraged that he tore open his own body, and hence the form^ 
of the wheat grain with its split body ; and urd dal banged his- 
head so severely against the ground that he broke his pate, and 
ever since has had the mark of the wound (a white speck) oil 
his head. 



64 ^^ 5}f3 5q7^x;w. Ke mai gotha byanera cbhian. 
Am I one who has to lie-in in the loioer story ? 

A protest against ill-treatment. 

In ancient times men of wealth used to purchase girls and 
boys as slaves. The females were not permitted to give birth 
to a child in the upper story of the house, this being reserved for 
the lawful wife, and they were otherwise ill-treated. 

65 ^T5 TTf% 5^r %T^ Tlf^ ^T (f^lf T)- Mukha rakhi nyo 
hatha rakhi ghau (bigarhau). 

Se who speaks awry will not win his case or get justice, 
and he who strikes unskilfully will miss his aim. 



( 403 ) 

fLiterally will make a bad wound in the material in which he 
is working). 

66 ^*i ^TTIsir'Hlg 5i^T W^^r 't)-^. %J^m e^T ^I^T 

si '^^ ^ vj 

%T ^■^^T '^1^1 'lt^« £una ho raja Bhila jasa ku tasa 

rnila. Nau mana luwa ghunato kbau jarhaka ligayo 

chila. 

Sear, O Icing BhU, as a man is so he gets. Nine ma,imds 

of iron were eaten up by worms, and the eagle in like 

manner has carried off the child. 

A certain man deposited nine maunds of iron with a friend for 
safe keeping. On asking for his iron some months afterwards he 
was told that it had been devoured by insects. As he had no means 
of proving the deposit, he contrived a plan for forcing the dis- 
honest friend to give up the property. He one day saw his friend's 
infant playing outside in the sunshine, so darted upon him and 
carried him off. The father of the child appealed to the king, and 
the other man on being brought before the court declared that 
just as his iron had been eaten by insects, so the child had been 
carried off by an eagle. The king, seeing how matters stood, ordered 
the man to give up the child, and the dishonest friend in turn to 
give up the iron. 

Q7 ^{X. %\f^ f|5IJI?JT 1^5» %T^ 5!T»I^T- Nara kauni dina 
gaya dina kaimi nara gaya. 

Men say that Time 2oasses. Time says that men pass 
away. 

A warning that death comes to all. Each day brings a man 
nearer to his end. 

68 %^r ^%T ^T'^'HT ^■': ^^r "^^r fk'^im ^^' Chelo bad- 
hau apana ghara paisa badhau birana ghara. 

A son will flourish in his own {father's ) house, but not 
in a stranger's, but money ivill increase in another's house. 
Referring to putting money out at interest. 



( 404 ) 

69 ^Ilf^ ^^fvs ^^^ TII^« Apani apani saba gani. 

Every one sings his oion song. 

Illiterate but shrewd men in this country, seeing the strange 
variety of opinions among learned men and professors of diffe- 
rent religions, are often quite sceptical, and they assert that the 
doctrines of panishment for sin in the future world etc. are all 
inventions for the purpose of frightening people into good conduct. 
But they have never known any one return from the next world,, 
and so they disbelieve in a future life. There are many of these 
nastiks or atheistic philosophers, who attribute everything to 
chance, in Kumuon and Garhwal. They observe no sacred days,, 
and are frankly Epicurean. They say a tree has many leaves, 
which all fall in autumn, but the same leaves will not grow 
next spring. So men are like leaves, which flourish and decay, 
and the memory of them is lost. 

They quote in derision the story of the sweeper's religionj 
as follows : — 

The sweepers are considered lowest of all in the social scale :. 
even the doms will not eat with them. Their spiritual guide^ 
is called Lai guru or the Red Teacher, who presides over the- 
sweepers of a large district. When he visits a station all the sweep- 
ers gather around him with presents of sweetmeats etc; and treat him. 
with great reverence. He preaches to them on an appointed day, 
and also acts as a judge or umpire in cases of misconduct among 
the sweepers. He fines the culprit a certain sum which is spent 
in feasting all the sweepers, and then the offender is readmitted 
into their communion. In addressing them he tells them they 
are the best people in the world, and God honors them above all 
nations, and they alone will go to Heaven. Their souls will have- 
to pass three terrible rivers in going to Heaven, one consisting of 
ODw's blood, the second of pig's blood, and the third of filth. The 
Hindus will be unable to pass the first, the Mohammedans the se- 
cond, and the Christians will stop at the third, but the sweepers will 
go boldly on and attain felicit}^ (This is a keen sarcasm, no doubt,. 
on the cow worship of the Hindus, the Mohammedan dread of the 
pig, and the Christians' zeal for sanitation, to which they themselves 
owe their living j. 

70 ■S(\^ ^X.l{ ^X. %7lT ?li% 5rif% ^f^ ^ TT2T l^ui "?fm ^- 
5iTf%' Bapa marata mara kainja satti jali meri mai rota, 
pakuna huui raijali. 



( 405 ) 

If my father dies let him die. Then my stepmother 
may perform satti for him, but my mother will he left to 
cook my food. 

A man had two wives, one of whom he liked, but neglected 
the other. The latter wife had a son, whom he also disliked. The 
son when his father was iu distress and about to die, thus speaks. 
By Hindu custom both wives are obliged to perform satti, that 
iSj to be bnrnt with theirhusband's body, but in this case, the 
youth considers that the wife who was beloved should accompany 
her husband, while the ill treated and neglected wife ( his mother) 
should be allowed to live. 

Illustrates the truth that selfish conduct produces like selfish- 
ness la others also. 

.71 5|[^ »iTfT HT m^J »TTfT KK ^^ ^^f^ f^^^T. 

Goru mara ta mara bachho mara ta mara sera bhara duda 

dijl kara. 

Ijet the cow die and the calf too, but loe must have a 
seer of milk every day. 

In India, when a cow has a female calf, two teats of the 
udder are left for it to suck, when the calf is male, only one is 
left. As a rule the hill cows do not give more than one seer a day. 
If the calf should die through want of nourishment the cow will re- 
fuse to give milk. Thus the foolish man in the proverb demands an 
impossibility. Since no milk will be left for the calf, which will 
certainly die, and so the supply of milk will be lost altogether. ( The 
man is supposed to be addressing his wife ). 

Demanding an impossibilitiy. 

72 Ifififr ^T ^T'Tm HJl,'?T?ir ^T ^^T- Naumi ka bamana 
ghugatiya ka kawa. 

On the 9th of Asoj ( dark fortnight) JBrahmans ( are 
to be got with difficiolty ) and on the Makar Sankrdnti 
( 12th Jan ) crows are scarce. 

On the former date the shraddh or memorial rites for 
mothers is observed, when in almost every family the presence of 
Brahmans is required and so their services are greatly in request. 
On the latter date it is the religious custom to feed the crows. 
If the crows come to take one's offering it is considered auspicious, 



( 406 ) 

if not, it is ominous of evil. So on that day the crows finding 
abandance of food everywhere, are not so eager to come round 
the houses and pick up the food. 

Used ironically when any abundant and common article is 
suddenly found wanting. 

73 ^[^ ^T ^g. Hatha ko maila. 
The sweat, dirt of one's hands. 

Used to describe money — filthy lucre — when a man has lost a 
sum and pooh-poohs the loss as trifling. 

74 ^^ ^ifk^T^ ^ •IT'3 ■^l ^- ^i pauniya le pai nakha 

mukha ai. 

Se got what was beyond his reach, and it came out at 
his motith and nose ( he could not manage or digest it ). 

When a man exceeds the allowable limit on getting oppor- 
tunities which were formerly beyond him. Want of self-control 
under new circumstances. 

75 efit^^ '^Tf^ 'ir? Kankarba basi gocbba. 

The Kakar ( wild sheep ) bleats. 

Applied in au abusive way to denote a man's inaptitude or 
failure. "The thing has turned out to be a jungle in which the 
voice of the Kakar only is heard." (A Garhwal proverb). 

76 ^THJ ■^t(%'^T5' Kapuwa basi gocbba. 
Same meaning. The cuckoo titters his voice," 

In the Bhabar the people work diligently until about April : 
when they hear the cuckoo's voice they give up work, regarding it 
as a sign of the approach of the hot season, when they must retire 
from their fields etc. (A Bhabar proverb}. 

Used also to denote hopelessness or inability. 

77 ^ig^I '^T''"J!r fTtfi "BTJlf- Datulo apana tarpba ka 
tan ebb a. 

TJie sickle cuts ( grass ) to its own side {inwards ). 
Applied to clannishness. 



( ^07 ) 

78 <3^HT ^ *TT'nt- Khaluwa kubhagl. 

Khaluwd is a loretched bungler in speech. 

E. g. A man seeing a new house in process of erection by his 
neighbour finds fault with the arrangement of the doors, and makes 
the ill-omened remark, "when one of the members of your family 
die, how will you carry the body out of those doors" ? -Such an 
unfortunate speech would be considered as most ill-omened and in 
the worst taste, and the proverb above-quoted would be used. 

79 % ^% ^ ^%r« Le ghorho khwe ghoro. 

Take my horse and spoil it. 

A thing which no sensible person would do, as a horse is a 
valuable piece of property in the hills. Applied by a person who 
is asked to do hastily something damaging to himself. 



80 -^z %T f^^R 'gl^T 1^5 ^ fSf^IIIPI. Bitha ko ni- 
chhanu duma ko maranu kwe nijananu. 

No one believes the poverty of a Bith {patrician) or 
the dying {from starvation ) of a Dora. 

Bithas are always supposed to be wealthy, and Doms are a 
low and disregarded class, whose death is a matter of no concern. 
Used by these two classes of each other. 

81 >IT1^ ^T'RS! Wa ^T'T'I %f)"^lg« Gahakako mana 
kala ko mana ke thika chha. 

No one knows the mind of a customer or the will of Death. 

Both choose in an indiscriminate and uncertain way, and 
just as every article of goods in a shop will be sold some time or 
other, so every man will be taken by death some day. 

Mero chhai mero cbhai kai apano nihunu jaga jaga kai 
dagarho nihunu. 

No one becomes our { relation ) by our telling him " You 
are mine, you are mine" and ice cannot make friends 

z 2 



( 408 ) 

( on a journey ) with others by saying "Wait for me, wait 
for me" {for each man is bent on his own purpose ). 

83 ■^T ^^IW^^ T^T- S^"- say ana eka mato. 

Wise men {though there be a hundred of them) are 
of one opinion. 

Good sense always finds out the right course. 

A story is sometimes told in connection with this proverb as 
follows. A king once had a small tank made, and having collected 
ninety-nine of his wisest subjects and one foolish man ordered them 
all to pour in a certain quantity of pure milk at night time. The 
simple man did so, but each of the others thinking that a single 
seer of water would not be observed in so much milk, poured in 
water, so that in the morning there were ninety-nine seers of 
water and only one of milk. Thus the "truth of the proverb was 
established. 

84 T(KM "^T^ Garaja bauli. 

A. man in need is a man insane. 

He will go any length to obtaia what he wants, without 
regard to right and wrong. 



85 3T3T «1"^T'l. Juwa jabana. 

Gambling and malcing a promise ( are equal ). 

That is, when a man loses in gambling be must certainly pay, 
so a man who has made a promise must keep it. Used to urge 
another to keep to his engagement. 

86 1T«I ^r irr^ ^^r- Hatha sukho jogi bhukho. 

As soon as thejogi's hand is dry, he becomes hungry 
again. 

That is, as soon as he has eaten the portion given him by 
some benevolent person, he goes to another and begs, without 
telling him that he has already been fed. 

Applied to greedy and ungrateful people. 

87 f^^inr ^T '^TW» Sisano ko pata. 

A leaf of nettle (stinging on both sides ). 



( 409 ) 

A'pplied to a tricky, untrustworthy person, who will injure 
Both parties. 

The fact noted here is that the nettle leaf stings on which- 
ever side it is touched. So people say. "The world is like a nettle 
leaf." /. e. Whatever one does, people censure and criticize. 

88 ^7 f23S!^^2r^^« Kotishcha kitayate. 

There are millions of insects of the same kind'. 

A phrase used to one who is boasting about something, to- 
take down his pride ; or spoken by one who is complimented. 

89 >T f5|%t »I f%%t n (^%t ^ %%!• Gu nikhaun gu ni- 

Ov Ov ov - " 

khaun gu nikhaun ta ke khaun. 

The sitola chirps, I wont eat dirt, I wont eat dirt. 

(tThen he says). '^ If I don't eat dirt what shall I eat" ? 

Used of force, coercion ; E. g. When a man has lost his caste, 
and at first refuses to eat the food and follow the customs of his 
new associates, but is at last compelled to do soj nolens volens. 

90 "^ "^(a; ^i? Busa baithigechha* 

The chaff has got into the mill. 

The ordinary water-mill will grind grain,but if chaff creeps 
into the aperture the mill will be stopped.. 
Applied to inability or obstruction. 

91 ^^T f% SSJTtij. Kawa ki by ana. 

Giving birth to a crow. 

The crow is supposed to have offspring only once in. its lifetime. 
Applied to a woman who bears only one child. 

92 >iqt ^'S^T- Dhunwan dekbano. 

Watching the smoke. 

Seeing others in trouble or laboring hard, and not helping 
them. 

Derived from the analogy of a house on fire, which it is tbe 
dnty of persons concerned to help to put out. 



( 4i0 ) 

93 f^T.^^ i(5T '^T- Biralu ko glia. 

A cat's eating grass. 

Cats are sometimes observed eating a particular kind of grass^ 
■which is regarded as unnatural. Used of a man's beginning t-*' 
contract bad habits. 

94 If f^^lTBT* Chhain cbitona. 
Smelling one's object. 

Eager for a thing, like a cat scanting a mouse ete, 

95 ^«l^i»lf%. Kana anguli. 

Putting a finger in one's ear. 
At ease after an object is attained. 

96 '?:^^ ^^. Rasa me kasa. 
Adulteration of a pure or genuine thing. 

This is considered a sin, E. g. putting water in milk &c. 

97 si^ii'l)'. Nachanachi. 
The habit of dancing. 

Applied to established bad habits, which a man will practise 
even if he gains no profit thereby. 

Once a king was much pleased with the performance of a 
dancing girl, but contrary to custom he did not give her a present, 
but told her, "If ever you fee] inclined to dance again, 3'ou may 
come here," implying that a bad habit is practised for its own sake. 

98 %T ^T3T ^im ^l^T ^^ ^T^T f^. ^sif^T^ ^T w%t 



s^I^ ^'ST "T J^^^ 1^^^ katha matha suna kala tu. Anala 
le ghara muso daurha dunda tu. 

O dumb man, tell stories. O deaf man, listen to them; 
O blind man go a thieving, and lame man, rimaioay with 
the spoil. 

Bad choice of agents, or faulty management. 



( 411 ) 

99 ^q Kt^I ^ ^^ ^tSl ^« Rupa risba nai karma banto 
nai. 

. No one should envy another^ s fair countenance, and no 
one can share another's fate. 

100 ^f% ^g 51 TTT^ ^il5i 'l^^T^fT lf%«n ■^^^^TT 
^^^ 5ij^ e|7 ^, Hali hala ju mala halona parsa ka seta 
haliya bamorakheta balada goru ka peta. 

The plough share is being hardened in the fire, the yoke 
is in the Bhdbar, the handles are being matured in the dung 
hill, the ploughman is in Bamorlchet {in the plains )and 
the bullocks are yet unborn. 

A man wants his field ploughed at once, although none of 
the requisites are at hand. 

The plough is made of three different kinds of wood. The 
share has to be hardened in fire, the yoke is made of shisham or sal 
wood, hrought from the Bhabar, and the other parts are made of 
another wood, which is fitte d for nse by being buried in a dunghill 
for several months. 

Foolish and improvident haste. 

101 ^"5^^ «ilfT%^T ^^^ ^ITT llfa liT^. Babarha 
sudbariyo ko balada lorba nali ko ke. 

The Dom employed to castrate a steer demands a caS' 

trated steer as wages, and- wants something to pay Jor his 

tools as well. That is, he wants wages exceeding the 

value of the property to be dealt with. 

Expresses astonishment at the exorbitant rate of interest 
or wages demanded by one who has a monopoly of his particular 
business. 

102 5T^ »fl?IT fl^ ^T^- ^^^^ mangau taba bbola. 
Whenever he is asked, he says he will pay to-morroio. 

Breach of contract. 



( 412 ) 

103 %^T qg qg ^j f%^ 51T^T- Lekho pala pala ko liji? 
jalo. 

Every moment will have to be accounted for. 

Divine judgment on all actions, moral responsibilitj- ; used. 
as a religious admonition. 

104 ^^ ^^^ '^I^ ^T '?tf^''''T' Isbaka mushaka 

khansi kburrd ni chhipana. 

Love, music, and a cough cannot be suppressed or 
concealed. 

105 ^^Z ^^JW^- Un ki tun ni jananu. 

Se doesnt know un from tun i.e. the similar signs or- 
letters ^ and z 

That is, cannot tell a bee frooj a bull's foot ; a simpleton^ 
ignoramus. 

106 eBT3 %j ^^ Katha ko ullu. 
A wooden owl. 

A perfect booby. 

107 wTT lf% »t5» Pura parhigechha. 

You've finished it. 

You have been and gone and done it, made a fine mess of it; 
Used ironically. 

108 ^If »i7f% ^ sij- ^H^l^ llfV' Kabhain garhi me 
nau kabbaip nau me garbi. 

Sometimes a boat is carried on a cart, and sometimes 
the cart is carried on a boat. 

Mutual help or usefulness. 

109 '?|[^JTT«l '»T"?TT^' Asamana patala. 
( Makes ) Beaven of Kelt. 



( 413 ) 

Makes black white, a liar. 

110 TT5JI ^T *ITft^T f^ f^'ST^ irfe^r ^ ^T^% Raja 
ka mariya ki Lila me lotiya ki laja nai. 

There is no shame in being punished by a hing, nor 
in falling on a slippery place. 

111 ^^7 ^^r «lif^ f%5JTf%. Karo cbbiyo kari nijani. 

ISe did it, but bungled in the attempt {lit. did not know 
how to do it). 

112 ttlf%5lTf% »T^^|%« Jorhi jarhi maharurhi. 

Maharurhi ( was made) by gathering from here and 
there. 

Maharurhi is the name of a small parganah of the Kumaun district. 

Formerly it did not exist, but when the Gurkha Government 
■was obliged to assign villages, for the feeding ot pilgrims, to 
iBadrinath and Kedarnath, this new pargannah was formed by 
catting off portions from the neighbouring ones. 

•Used by one who tries to raise money from all quarters 
( by begging etc ) for some purpose. 

213 ?I7f?5| ^^ syt ^JSI- Nau dina chale dhai kosha. 
Nine days for going two and a half kosh ( five miles ). 

There are temples at the sacred places Kedar-nath and Badri- 
nath which formerly were connected by a road only five miles long. 
These temples were at that time served by the same pujari (priest), 
but he grew weary of having to perform service at both places on 
the same day. So the gods Kedar nath and Badri nath caused 
a huge landslip which made the road impassable, and the two 
temples are now separated by a nine-days' journey. 

Used by a traveller who misses his way. 

114 %g ^^Tf^ ^T ^%r ^5[T'^ ^T' Kbaila khilari ko 
ghorho sawara ko. 
Plays are for players, and horses are for riders. 

Things are only of value to those only who know their use 
and are able to handle them.