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Full text of "What bird is that? A pocket museum of the land birds of the eastern United States, arranged according to season"

FRANK ML CHAPMAN 








Honoring 

Dr. Kenneth C. Parkes, '52 

CORNELL LAB 0/ ORNITHOLOGY 

Adelson Library 

At Sapsucker Woods 

Illustration of Snowy Ow] by Louis Agassiz Fuertes 



3 1924 090 201 454 

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'"t-V-t^C 





^yf~^ t^ / f o 





DATE 


DUE 




















































































































































GAYLORD 






PRINTED IN U S A 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924090201454 



WHAT BIRD IS THAT? 



By FRANK M. CHAPMAN 

AUTOBIOGRAPHY OP A BIRD-LOVER 

HANDBOOK OF BIRDS OF EASTERN 
NORTH AMERICA 

MY TROPICAL AIR CASTLE 

BIRD-LIFE 

CAMPS' AND CRUISES OF AN ORNI- 
THOLOGIST 

COLOR KEY TO NORTH AMERICAN 
BIRDS 

THE TRAVELS OF BIRDS 

OUR WINTER BIRDS 

"WHAT BIRD IS THAT? 

BIRD STUDIES WITH A CAMERA 



WHAT BIRD IS THAT? 

A POCKET MUSEUM 

OF THE LAND BIRDS OF 

THE EASTERN UNITED STATES 
ARRANGED ACCORDING TO SEASON 



BY 

FRANK M. CHAPMAN 

CURATOR 07 BIRDS IN THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF 
NATURAL HISTORY AND EDITOR OF "BIRD-LOBE" 




WITH 301 BIRDS IN COLOR 
BY 

EDMUND J. SAWYER 



D. APPLETON-CENTURY COMPANY 

INCORPORATED 
NEW YORK LONDON 

!935 



0£m nv 
■£%L3 



CoPYEIGHT, 1920, BY 

B. APPLETON & COMPANY 



All rights reserved. This book, or parts 
thereof, must not be reproduced in any 
form without permission of the publishers. 



365 



FEINTED IK TJMTID BTATIS OP AMEIiICA 



INTRODUCTION 

As Curator of the Department of Birds of the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History I have had exceptional 
facilities for the arrangement of collections designed to 
give students a comprehensive view of local bird-life with- 
out confusing them with unnecessary details. 

Among other aids to this end a collection of 'Birds 
Found within so Miles of New York' has been placed in a 
special hall and so grouped that the visitor who wishes 
to identify some bird seen within these limits may do so 
with the least possible difficulty. In addition to the 
'General Systematic Collection,' containing specimens of 
the 3 so-odd species of birds which have been recorded 
from the New York City region, there is also a 'Seasonal 
Collection.' This Seasonal Collection contains only the 
birds of the month. Its base is the 'Permanent Resident 
Birds,' or those which, like the Crow, are with us through- 
out the year. To these, the migratory species are added or 
subtracted, as they come or go. The collection of migra- 
tory species is therefore revised the first of each month. 
Birds which are due to arrive during the month are added, 
those which have left us are withdrawn The Seasonal 
Collection thus give us, at a glance, a picture of the bird- 
life of the month and correspondingly limits the field of 
our inquiry when we go to it to learn the name of some 
strange bird recently observed. In January, therefore, 
we have not to consider the birds of June, nor need we be 
concerned with winter birds in summer. The season of 
occurrence thus gives us an important clue to a bird's 
identity. 

vii 



viii INTRODUCTION 

For somewhat more than a quarter of a century this 
small collection has achieved its object so effectively that 
I have attempted to embody the idea it demonstrates in a 
series of drawings which have been admirably executed by 
Mr. Edmund Sawyer. As foundation plates or 'collec- 
tions,' we have first two 'cases' of the winter land birds of 
the Northeastern States, or from about Maryland north- 
ward, containing the Permanent Residents, which form 
part of the bird-life of every month of the year, and the 
Winter Visitants, or those birds which come from the 
North in the fall to remain with us until the following 
spring. 

Cases 3 and 4 contain the Permanent Resident and 
Winter Visitant land birds of the Southern States. 
Whether the student is in the North or in the South he has, 
therefore, a 'collection' of the land birds which he may 
expect to find during the winter months. 

Cases s to 8 contain the migrants arranged according to 
the order of their arrival from the South n the vicinity of 
New York City. Since it is not practicable to have cases 
containing collections of migrants for other latitudes, data 
are given showing what changes in dates should be made 
to adapt the schedule presented to other localities, includ- 
ing Washington, D. C, Ossining, N. Y., Cambridge, Mass., 
northern Ohio, Glen Ellyn, near Chicago, and south- 
eastern Minnesota. The records for these localities are 
quoted from the author's 'Handbook of Birds of Eastern 
North America' to which they were contributed respec- 
tively by Dr. C. W. Richmond, Dr. A. K. Fisher, William 
Brewster, Lynds Jones, B. T. Gault, and Dr. Thos. S. 
Roberts. 

With these facts, the cases in a large measure tell their 
own story, just as does our Museum Seasonal Collection; 
but further to assist the student I have added what may 
he termed a 'label' for each of the 'specimens' they 



INTRODUCTION h 

contain. These labels Include comments on each bird's 
distinctive characters, a statement of its nesting and 
winter range, the notes on its status at various localities, 
to which I have just referred, and brief remarks on its 
habits. 

It is the specimens, however, not the labels, which 
warrant the publication of this little volume, for I hope 
that, like their prototypes in the American Museum, they 
will be a means of acquainting us with "the most eloquent 
expressions of Nature's beauty, joy and freedom," and 
thereby add to our lives a resource of incalculable value. 

While the birds in the cases are small, they ire drawn 
and reproduced with such accuracy that no essential detail 
of color or form is lost. Above all, they have the rare 
merit of being all drawn to nearly the same scale. One 
will soon learn therefore to measure the proportions of 
unknown birds by comparison with those with which one 
is familiar, and since relative size is the most obvious 
character in naming birds in nature, this is a feature of 
the first importance. 

The student is strongly urged first, to become thoroughly 
familiar with the 'map' of a bird given in the frontispiece: 
second, to use an opera- or field-glass when observing 
birds: third, to write descriptions of unknown birds 
while they are in view stating their length, shape, and as 
many details of their color and markings as can be seen: 
fourth, to remember that one is not likely to find birds 
except in their regular seasons: and, fifth, to take this 
book afield with him and make direct comparison of the 
living bird with its colored figure. The wide margins 
are designed for use in recording field-notes. 

Frank M. Chapman. 

American Museum of Natural History; 
New York City. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Introduction . vii 

Birds and Seasons xi 

Abbreviations xxvi 

Land Birds of the Eastern United States i 

The Pocket Museum 

CASE FACING PAGF 

No. i Permanent Resident Land Birds of the 

Northern United States xviii 

No. 2 Permanent Residents (Concluded) and 
Winter Visitants Land Birds of the 
Northern United States xix 

No. 3 Winter Land Birds of the Southern 

United States xx 

No. 4 Winter Land Birds (Concluded) xxi 

No. s Early Spring Migrant Lajstd Birds of the 

Eastern United States xxii 

No. 6 Early Spring Migrant Land Birds 

(Concluded) xxiii 

No. 7 Late Spring Migrant Land Birds of the 

Eastern United States xxiv 

No. 8 Late Spring Migrant Land Birds (Con- 
cluded) xxv 

x 



BIRDS AND SEASONS 

Before a leaf unfolds or a flower spreads its petals, 
even before the buds swell, and while yet there is snow 
on the ground, the birds tell us that spring is at hand. 
The Song Sparrow sings "Spring, spring, spring, sunny 
days are here"; the Meadowlark blows his fife, the 
Downy rattles his drum, and company after company of 
Grackles in glistening black coats, and of Red-wings with 
scarlet epaulets, go trooping by. For the succeeding 
three months, in orderly array, the feathered army files 
by, each member of it at his appointed time whether he 
comes from the adjoining State or from below the equator. 

Besides the Blackbirds, March brings the Robin and 
Bluebird, Woodcock, Phcebe, Meadowlark, Cowbird, 
Kingfisher, Mourning Dove, Fox, Swamp, White-throated 
and Field Sparrows. 

Near New York City the New Year of the birds has now 
passed its infancy and in April each day adds percep- 
tibly to its strength. 'Pussy' willows "creep out along 
each bough," skunk cabbage rears its head in low, wet 
woods, and in sun-warmed places early vrild flowers peep 
from beneath the sodden leaves. With swelling ranks 
the migratory army moves more steadily northward. 
Species which arrived late in March become more numer- 
ous, and to them are soon added the Vesper, Savannah, and 
Chipping Sparrows, and other seed-eaters; and when, 
with increasing warmth, insects appear, the pioneer Phcebe 
is followed by other insect-eating birds, Eke the Swal- 
lows, Pipit, Hermit Thrush, Myrtle and Palm Warblers, 
Louisiana Water-thrush and Ruby-crowned Kinglet. 

The true bird student will now pass every available 
moment afield, eagerly watching for the return of old 



xll 



BIRDS AND SEASONS 



friends and more eagerly still for possible new ones. 
But enjoyment of this yearly miracle should not be left 
only to the initiated. We need not be ornithologists to be 
thrilled when the Robin's song in March awakes long silent 
echoes, or the Thrasher's solo rings loud and clear on an 
April morning. The Catbird singing from near his last 
year's home in the thickening shrubbery, the House Wren 




RED-WINGS WITH SCARLET EPAULETS GO TROOPING BY" 

whose music bubbles over between bustling visits to an 
oft-used bird-box, the Chimney Swift twittering cheerily 
from an evening sky, may be heard without even the 
effort of listening and each one, with a hundred others, 
brings us a message if we will but accept it. And I make 
no fanciful statement when I say that it is a message we 
can ill afford to lose. 



BIRDS AND SEASONS xiii 

With May come the Thrushes — Wood Thrush, Veery, 
Olive-back and Gray-cheek, the last two en route to the 
north — the Orioles, Cuckoos, Vireos, and the Bobolink 
who began his four thousand mile journey from northern 
Argentina in March. But May is preeminently the 
Month of Warblers, "most beautiful, most abundant, and 
least known" of our birds. To the eight species which 
have already arrived, there may be added over twenty 
more, represented by a number of individuals beyond 
our power to estimate. We may hear the Robin, Thrasher, 
and Wren, without listening, but we will see few Warblers 
without looking; and this, in a measure, accounts for the 
fascination which attends their study. 

After May 15 there is an evident thinning in the 
ranks of the migrating army, and by June 1 we shall 
see only a few stragglers. The Transient Visitors will 
have gone to their more northern homes and our bird 
population will then consist only of the ever present 
Permanent Residents and the Summer Residents which 
the great northward march of the birds has brought us 
from the South. 

Although June may be called the Month of Nests, 
nest-building begins long before the migration ends. 
Some Owls and Hawks lay in March, and the Bluebird, 
White-breasted Nuthatch and Robin have eggs by April 
20, while most of our birds go to housekeeping during 
the latter half of May. Nevertheless, it is in June that 
their domestic life is at its height; and to the student of 
birds' habits this is by far the most interesting month in 
the year. 

Birds that raise two or even three broods will still be 
occupied with household affairs in July, but one-brooded 
birds, having launched their families, will seek retirement 
to undergo the trying ordeal of molt, whereby they will 
get a complete new costume. Often this will be quite 



XIV 



BIRDS AND SEASONS 



unlike the one in which they arrived from the South— as 
the student will discover, sometimes to his confusion! 
In August, the Month of Molt, the seclusion sought by 
many of our summer birds induces the belief that they 



V 




THEE SWALLOWS 



RESTING IN ROWS ON WAYSIDE WIKES 



have left us, but toward the latter part of the month they 
reappear. The first week in August virtually marks the 
end of the song season. The Wood Pewee and Red-eyed 
Vireo remain in voice throughout the month, but the 
great chorus which has made May, June and most of 
July vocal, we shall not hear before another spring — so 



BIRDS AND SEASONS xv 

short is the time when we are blessed by the songs of 
birds. 

Meanwhile the feathered army has begun its retreat 
to winter quarters. As early as July 15, Tree Swallows 
will arrive and by the end of the month will be seen resting 
in rows on wayside telegraph wires, or en route to their 
roosts in the marshes. In the now heavily leaved forests 
the returning Warblers and Flycatchers will not be so 
easily observed as they were in May, but in September 
they become too abundant to be overlooked. The south- 
ward movement grows in strength until late September, 
when the greater part of the insect-eating birds have left 
us, and it is terminated by the frosts, and consequent 
falling leaves, of October. 

But just as in the spring some of the northbound 
migrants drop from the ranks to spend the summer with 
us, so in the fall some of the southbound travelers will 
remain with us for the winter. The Junco, which we are 
wont to think of as only a winter bird, arrives the latter 
part of September to remain until April, and with him 
come the Golden-crowned Kinglet, Brown Creeper and 
Winter Wren — all to stay until spring. October will 
bring the Horned Lark, Pine Finch, Snow Bunting, Tree 
Sparrow and Northern Shrike and these birds with the 
ones just mentioned, and the ever faithful Permanent 
Residents, give us a goodly winter company. 

But the possibilities do not end here; there may be 
Redpolls, American and also White-winged Crossbills, 
perhaps Pine Grosbeaks, and, best of all, Evening Gros- 
beaks, who of recent years have been coming to us more 
or less regularly from no man knows where. 

So from one year's end to the other, there is not a month, 
a week or day which has not interests of its own. The 
bird student may pass his life in one place, but he can 
never say "I have finished" for the morrow may bring 



xvi BIRDS AND SEASONS 

some new bird or new fact. How immeasurably this 
association with the birds adds to the joy of life! What 
new meanings their comings and goings give to the 
changing seasons; the very air is made eloquent by their 
calls and songs. Why should we not all "come at these 
enchantments"? 



*b- 




IN OCTOBER, WHEN MIGRATING HAWKS DOT THE SKY, THE 
GREAT SOUTHWARD MARCH OF THE BIRDS IS NEARINO 
ITS END. 




AMNBI 

OF THE 



MMD BUDS 

iftiAti OF THE 





mooi/mm 



d/frraii^ed accordina 

\ TOlSEASON i 



CASE NO. 1 FIGS. 1-19 

PERMANENT RESIDENT LAND BIRDS OF THE 
NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



I l2.|3|4l5l6|7|8|9|)0fTTT?2 
ONE FOOT 



Bob-white, male, p. i 
Bob- white, female, p. i 
Ruffed Grouse, p. 2 
Red-shouldered Hawk, adult, 

p. 12 
Red- tailed Hawk, young, p. 11 
Red- tailed Hawk, adult, p. 11 
Sparrow Hawk, male, p. 17 
Sparrow Hawk, female, p. 17 
Cooper's Hawk, young female, 

p. 10 
Cooper's Hawk , adult male , 

p. 10 



1 1 Sharp-shinned Hawk, adult 

male, p. 9 

12 Sharp-shinned Hawk, young 

female, p. 9 

13 Screech Owl, gray phase, p. 22 

1 4 Screech Owl , rufous phase , p . 2 2 

15 Barred Owl, p. 20 

16 Great Horned Owl, p. 22 

17 Long-eared Owl, p. 19 

18 Short-eared Owl, p. 20 

19 American Crow, p. 46 




/^^r ^ 



CASE NO. 2 FIGS. 20-63 

PERMANENT RESIDENT LAND BIRDS OF THE 
NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



1 121314 


|5|6 


1 7 | 8 | 9 |10l II 


12 




ONE 













Blue Jay, p. 44 
Flicker, male, p. 32 
Flicker, female, p. 32 
Meadowlark, p. 50 
Starling, winter, p. 47 
Starling, summer, p. 47 
Downy Woodpecker , male , 

p. 28 
Downy Woodpecker, female, 

p. 28 
Hairy Woodpecker, male, p. 28 
Hairy Woodpecker , female , 

p. 28 



30 English Sparrow, male, p. S7 

31 English Sparrow, female, p. 57 

32 Purple Finch, female, p. 57 

33 Purple Finch, male, p. 57 

34 Song Sparrow, p. 74 

35 Goldfinch, female, p. 60 

36 Goldfinch, male, p. 60 

37 Chickadee, p. 123 

38 White- breasted Nuthatch, 

male, p. 123 

39 White-breasted Nuthatch, fe- 

male, p. 123 

40 Cedar Wax wing, p. 85 



WINTER VISITANT LAND BIRDS OF THE 
NORTHERN UNITED STATES 
or those which come from the North in the Fall and 
usually remain until Spring: 

Pine Grosbeak, male, p. 56 
Pine Grosbeak, female, p. 56 
Siskin, p. 60 
Northern Shrike, p. 86 
Snow Bunting, p. 61 
Winter Wren, p. 120 
Brown Creeper, p. 122 
Red-breasted Nuthatch, male 
p. 124 

Red-breasted Nuthatch, fe- 
male, p. 124 

Golden-crowned Kinglet , fe- 
male, p. 127 

Golden-crowned Kinglet, male, 
p. 127 



41 


Saw-whet Owl, p. 21 


53 


42 


Prairie Horned Lark, p. 43 


54 


43 


Junco, p. 73 


55 


44 


Tree Sparrow, p. 71 


56 


45 


White-throated Sparrow, 


57 




adult, p. 70 


58 


46 


White- throated Sparrow, 


59 




young, p. 70 


60 


47 


Redpoll, female, p. 59 




48 


Redpoll, male, p. 59 




49 


American Crossbill, male, p. 58 


61 


so 


American Crossbill, female, 






P- 58 


62 


51 


White- winged Crossbill, male, 
p. 58 




52 


White-winged Crossbill , 
female, p. 58 


63 



CASE NO. 3 FIGS. 1-27 

WINTER LAND BIRDS OF THE SOUTHERN 
UNITED STATES 



12 13 1415 I 6 I 7 16 | 9 IIOMUI2 . 



ONE FOOT 



Permanent Resident species, or those which are present 
throughout the year, are marked "R:" Winter Visitant 
species, or those which come from the North in the Fall and 
remain until Spring, are marked "W." 



I 


Bob- white, male, R., p. I 


16 


2 


Bob- white, female, R., p. i 


17 


3 


Mourning Dove, R., p. 5 


18 


4 


Ground Dove, R., p. 5 




5 


Sparrow Hawk, female, R., 
p. 17 


19 


6 


Sparrow Hawk, male, R., p. 17 


20 


7 


Sharp-shinned Hawk, adult 
male, R-, p. 9 ^ 


21 


8 


Sharp-shinned Hawk, young 
female, R., p. 9 


22 


9 


Turkey Vulture, R., p. 6 




10 


Black Vulture, R., p. 7 


23 


II 


Bald Eagle, adult, R., p. 14 




12 


Red-shouldered Hawk, adult, 
R., p. 12 


24 


13 


Red-tailed Hawk, adult, R., 
p. 11 


25 


14 


Osprey, R., p. 18 


26 


15 


Marsh Hawk, adult male, R., 






P-9 


27 



Barred Owl, R., p. 20 

Barn Owl, R., p. 19 

Belted Kingfisher , male , R . . 

p. 26 
Screech Owl, gray phase, R., 

p. 22 
20 Flicker, male, R., p. 32 

Red-headedWood pecker ,adult , 

R.,p. 31 
Red-headed Woodpecker. 

young, R., p. 31 
Red-bellied Woodpecker, male 

R..P-32 
Hairy Woodpecker, male, R., 

p. 28 
Downy Woodpecker, male, 

R.,p. 28 
Yellow -bellied Sapsucker 

adult male , W . , p . 30 
American Crow, R., p. 46 



CASE NO 4 FIGS. 28-82 
WINTER LAND BIRDS OF THE SOUTHERN 

UNITED STATES 



I I I Z IS I 4- I 5 I 6 I 7 | B | 9 [IOIII 112 l 

r ONE FOOT J 

Permanent Resident species, or those which are present 
throughout the year, are marked "R." Winter Visitant 
species , or those which come from the North in the Fall and 
remain until Spring, are marked "W." 

Myrtle Warbler, winter, W., 

p. ioo 
Pine Warbler, R., p. 107 
Palm Warbler, winter , W . , 

p. 108 ' 
Yellow Palm Warbler, winter, 

W., p. 108 
Maryland Yellowthroat , male, 

R.. p. 113 
Maryland Yellowthroat , female , 

R.,p. 113 
Pipit, W.,p. 116 
House Wren, R., p. 120 
Carolina Wren, R., p. 119 
White-breasted Nuthatch, R., 

p. 123 
Brown-headed Nuthatch , R . , 

p. 124 
Tufted Titmouse, R., p. 125 
Carolina Chickadee, R., p. 126 
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, R., 

p. 129 

Ruby-crowned Kinglet, male, 

W., p. 128 
Ruby-crowned Kinglet , fe- 
male, W., p. 128 
Golden- crowned Kinglet, male, 

W., p. 127 
Golden-crowned Kinglet , fe- 
male, W., p. 127 
Florida Grackle, R., p. 53 
Blue Jay, R., p. 44 
Mockingbird, R., p. 117 
Hermit Thrush, W., p. 132 
Bluebird, male, R., p. 134 
Meadowlark, R., p. 50 
Robin, R., W.,*p. 133 
Catbird, R., p. 117 
Brown Thrasher, R., p. 118 

* Winter Visitant only in the more southern States; a Permanent 
Resident in North Carolina and Virginia. 



28 


Red-winged Blackbird , male 
R., p. 49 


56 


29 


Red-wingpd Blackbird, female, 


57 




R., p. 49 


58 


30 


Cowbird, male, R. f p. 48 




31 


Cowbird, female, R., p. 48 


59 


32 


Towhee, female, R., p. 76 




33 


Towhee, male, R., p. 76 


60 


34 


Cardinal, female, R., p. 77 




35 


Cardinal, male, R., p. 77 


61 


36 


Vesper Sparrow, "W., R., *p. 63 




37 


Fox Sparrow, W., p. 76 


62 


38 


House (or "English") Sparrow, 


63 


39 


male, R-, p. 57 
House (or "English") Sparrow, 
female, R., p. 57 


64 
6s 


40 


White- throated Sparrow , adult , 
W., p. 70 


66 


41 


Junco, W., p. 73 


67 


42 


Song Sparrow, R., p. 74 


68 


43 


Field Sparrow, R., p. 72 


69 


44 


Swamp Sparrow, W. t p. 75 




45 


Chipping Sparrow, winter, R., 
p. 71 


70 


46 


Tree Sparrow, W., p. 71 


71 


47 


Savannah Sparrow, W., p. 64 


72 


48 


Purple Finch, adult male, W., 


49 


p. 57 
Purple Finch, female and 


73 




young male, "W., p. 57 


74 


SO 


Goldfinch, male, summer, R., 


75 




p. 60 


76 


51 


Goldfinch, female and winter, 


77 




R.,p. 60 


78 


52 


Phoebe, R., p. 38 


79 


53 


Tree Swallow, W., p. 83 


80 


54 


Cedar Waxwing, R.,W., *p.85 


81 


55 


Loggerhead Shrike, R., p. 87 


82 



CASE NO. 5 FIGS. 1-38 

EARLY SPRING MIGRANT LAND BIRDS OF THE 
EASTERN UNITED STATES 



1 13 


3 


4- | 5 | 6 1 T ] S 1 9 


lOI 1 1 112 


ONE FOOT 



The birds are arranged in the order of their arrival from the 
South in the vicinity of New York City. Nos. 1-19, 22-24, 2 ^, 
2 7> 3°. 31 , 36-38 winter in the Southern (chiefly Gulf) States. 
The remainder winter in the tropics and reach the Southern 
States a month or more before they arrive at New York. 
Compared with the dates here given for New York City, 
Washington dates are from ten to fifteen days earlier; Boston , 
about a week later; northern Ohio, eight to twelve days 
earlier; northern Illinois, six to ten days earlier; southeastern 
Minnesota, about the same as those for New York. 

r Purple Grackle, male, p. 53 21 

2 Bronzed Grackle, male, p. 53 

3 Rusty Blackbird, female, p. 52 22 

4 Rusty Blackbird, male, p. 52 23 

5 Red-winged Blackbird, female, 24 

p. 49 25 

6 Red-winged Blackbird, male, 26 

p. 49 27 

7 Fox Sparrow, p. 76 28 

8 Cowbird, male, p. 48 

9 Cowbird, female, p. 48 29 

10 Kingfisher, male, p. 26 

11 Mourning Dove, p. 5 

12 Robin, p. 133 30 

13 Bluebird, male, p. 134 3i 

14 Field Sparrow, p. 72 32 

15 Phcebe, p. 38 33 

16 Vesper Sparrow, p. 63 

17 American Pipit, p. 116 34 

18 Yellow-throated Warbler, p. 

105 (Southern States) 35 

19 Sycamore Warbler, p 105. 36 

(lower Mississippi Valley) 

20 Bachman 's Warbler , female , p . 37 

94 (Southern States) 

38 



Bachman's Warbler, male, 

p. 94 (Southern States) 
Swamp Sparrow, p. 75 
Savannah Sparrow, p. 64 
Tree Swallow, p. 83 
Purple Martin, male, p. 82 
Hermit Thrush, p. 132 
Myrtle Warbler, p. 100 
Swainson's Warbler, p. 93 

(Southern States) 
Prothonotary Warbler, male , 
p. 93 (Southern States and 
Mississippi Valley) 
Sapsucker, male, p. 30 
Chipping Sparrow, p. 71 
Barn Swallow, p. 83 
Summer Tanager, male, p. 81 

(Southern States) 
Summer Tanager, female, p. 81 

(Southern States) 
Louisiana Water-Thrush.p.no 
Ruby-crowned Kinglet, male, 

p. 128 
Ruby-crowned Kinglet, fe- 
male, p. 128 
Yellow Palm Warbler, p. 108 



CASE NO. 6 FIGS. 39-74 

EARLY SPRING MIGRANT LAND BIRDS OP THE 
i EASTERN UNITED STATES 



1 1 2 


3 


4 15 16 


1 7 I e I 9 


IOI II 113 






ONE 


FOOT 





The birds are arranged in the order of their arrival from the 
South in the vicinity of New York City . Nos . 43 , 46 , 47 , 5 1 , 
57, 60-64, 6 7» 68, 70-72 winter in the Southern (chiefly Gulf) 
States. The remainder winter in the tropics and reach the 
Southern States a month or more before they arrive at New 
York. Compared with the dates here given for New York 
City, Washington dates are from ten to fifteen days earlier; 
Boston, about a week later; northern Ohio, eight to twelve 
days earlier; northern Illinois, six to ten days earlier; south- 
eastern Minnesota, about the same as those for New York. 



39 Nighthawk, male, p. 34 

40 Chuckwill's Widow (Southern 

States), p. 33 

41 Whip-poor-will, male, p. 34 

42 Chimney Swift, p. 35 

43 Red-headed Woodpecker , p . 3 1 

44 Least Flycatcher, p. 42 

45 Yellow-headedBlackbird.male, 

p. 49 (Mississippi Valley) 

46 Seaside Sparrow, p. 67 

47 Sharp-tailed Sparrow, p. 66 

48 Clay -colored Sparrow , p . 72 

(Mississippi Valley) 

49 Painted Bunting, female, p. 79 

(Southern States) 

50 Painted Bunting, male, p. 79 

(Southern States) 

51 Towhee, male, p. 76 

52 Blue Grosbeak, male, p. 
78 (Southern States) 

53 Blue Grosbeak, female, p. 

78 (Southern States 1 

54 Bank Swallow, p. 84 

55 Cliff Swallow, p. 82 

56 Rough-winged Swallow, p. 84 



58 



60 
61 

62 

63 

64 
65 

66 

67 
68 
69 
70 

7i 

12 

73 
74 



Black and White Warbler , 

p. 92 
Black- throated Blue Warbler, 

male, p. 99 
Black- throated Blue Warbler, 

female, p. 99 
Pine Warbler, p. 107 
Palm Warbler, p. 108 
Black- throated Green Warbler, 

p. 106 
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, p. 

129 (Southern States) 
Ovenbird, p. 109 
Bell's Vireo, p. 92 (Mississippi 

Valley) 
Red-eyed Vireo, p. 88 
White-eyed Vireo, p. 91 
Blue- headed Vireo, p. 90 
"Yellow- throated Vireo, p. 90 
House Wren, p. 120 
Catbird, p. 117 
Brown Thrasher, p. 118 
Veery, p. 130 
Wood Thrush, p. 129 



CASE NO. 7 FIGS. 1-39 

LATE SPRING MIGRANT LAND BIRDS OF THE 
EASTERN UNITED STATES 

For times of arrival at other localities see remarks 
under Case No. 6 



1 12 13 14 


|5|6 


1 7 1 8 1 9 110 1 II 112 




ONE 


FOOT 



1 Yellow- billed Cuckoo, p. 25 

2 Black-billed Cuckoo, p. 25 

3 Ruby- throated Hummingbird, 

female, p. 36 

4 Ruby-throated Hummingbird, 

male, p. 36 

5 Crested Flycatcher, p. 38 

6 Kingbird, p. 37 

7 Gray Kingbiid, p. 37 (Southern 

States) 

8 Baltimore Oriole, male, p. 52 

9 Baltimore Oriole, female, p. 52 

I o Orchard Oriole , adult male , 

p. Si 

II Orchard Oriole, female, p. Si 

12 Orchard Oriole, young male, 

P- 51 

13 Bobolink, female, p. 48 

14 Bobolink, male, p. 48 

15 Lincoln's Sparrow, p. 75 

16 Grasshopper Sparrow, p. 64 

17 Henslow's Sparrow, p. 65 

18 Leconte's Sparrow, p. 65 

Mississippi Valley) 

19 Lark Sparrow, p. 68 (Mis- 

sissippi Valley) 



20 Dickcissel, p. 80 (Mississippi 

Valley) 

21 Harris's Sparrow, p. 69 (Mis- 

sissippi Valley) 

22 White-crowned Sparrow, p. 69 

23 Indigo Bunting, male, p. 79 

24 Indigo Bunting, female, p. 79 

25 Rose-breasted Grosbeak, fe- 

male, p. 78 

26 Rose-breasted Grosbeak, male, 

P- 78 

27 Scarlet Tanager, male, p. 80 

28 Scarlet Tanager, p. 80 

29 Warbling Vireo, p. 89 

30 Philadelphia Vireo, p. 89 

31 Worm-eating Warbler, p. 93 

32 Orange-crowned Warbler, p. 96 

33 Nashville Warbler, p. 96 

34 Golden-winged Warbler, male, 

p. 95 

35 Blue-winged Warbler, p. 94 

36 Golden- winged Warbler , fe- 

male, p. 95 

37 Lawrence's Warbler, p. 95 

38 Brewster's Warbler, p. 95 

39 Parula Warbler, p. 97 




Tio>- ' m 




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'7 tA "W7\V ^/'-^l_.„ 




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^r 9 . 



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AJ 




H7/ 







CASE NO. 8. FIGS. 40-82 

LATE SPRING MIGRANT LAND BIRDS OF THE 

EASTERN UNITED STATES 

For times of arrival at other localities see remarks under 

Case No. 6. 



i 1213141516 l7l6'l9liolima 

ONE FOOT 



40 Yellow Warbler, female, p. 99 

41 Yellow Warbler, male, p. 99 
4a Magnolia Warbler, p. 101 

43 Chestnut-sided Warbler, male, 

p. 103 

44 Chestnut-sided Warbler, fe- 

male, p. 102 

45 Kirtland's Warbler, p. 106 

46 Cerulean Warbler, female, p. 102 

47 Cerulean Warbler, male, p. 102 

48 Prairie Warbler, p. 108 

49 Chat, p. 113 

50 Maryland Yellowthroat, male, 

p. 113 

51 Maryland Yellowthroat, fe- 

male, p. 113 

52 Kentucky Warbler, p. ill 

53 Canadian Warbler, p. us 

54 Hooded Warbler, male, p. 114 

55 Hooded Warbler, female, p. 114 

56 Northern Water-Thrush, p. no 

57 Redstart, female, p. ns 

58 Redstart, male, p. 115 

59 Olive-sided Flycatcher, p. 39 

60 Acadian Flycatcher, p. 41 

61 Yellow-bellied Flycatcher, p. 40 

62 Alder Flycatcher, p. 41 

63 Wood Pewee, p. 40 

64 Tennessee Warbler, p. 97 



65 Cape May Warbler, male, p. 98 

66 Cape May Warbler, female, 

p. 98 

67 Blackburnian Warbler, male 

p. 104 

68 Blackburnian Warbler, female, 

p. 104 

69 Bay-breasted Warbler, male, 

p. 103 

70 Bay-breasted Warbler, female,, 

p. 103 

71 Blackpoll Warbler, male, p. 103 

72 Blackpoll Warbler, female, 

p. 103 

73 Wilson's Warbler, female, 

p. 114 

74 Wilson's Warbler, male, p. 114 

75 Mourning Warbler, male, p. 112 

76 Mourning Warbler, female, 

p. 112 

77 Connecticut Warbler, male, 

p. in 

78 ConnecticutWarbler, female, 

p. in 

79 Long-billed Marsh Wren, p. 122 

80 Short-billed Marsh Wren, 

p. 121 

81 Olive-backed Thrush, p. 131 

82 Gray-cheeked Thrush, p. 130 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 

A. V. Accidental Visitant. A bird found beyond the 
limits of its usual range. 

L. Length of a bird from the tip of its bill to the end 
of its tail. Remember that living birds look 
shorter than the measurements of specimens 
given beyond. 

P. R. Permanent Resident. A species which is found in 
the same locality throughout the year. The Bob- 
white, Ruffed Grouse, most Owls, and Hawks, 
the Crow, Jays, Black-capped Chickadee and 
the White-breasted Nuthatch are Permanent 
Residents. 

S. R. Summer Resident. A species which comes from 
the South in the spring and, after nesting, returns 
to its winter quarters. 

T. V. Transient Visitant. A species which visits us in 
the spring while en route to its more northern 
nesting grounds, and in the fall when returning 
to its winter home in the South. Most Transient 
Visitants are found both in the spring and fall, 
but some, like the Connecticut Warbler, are found 
in the North Atlantic States only in the fall. 

W. V. Winter Visitant. A species which comes from the 
North to remain with us all, or part of the winter 
and then return to the North. Winter Visitants 
may arrive in September and remain until April, 
or they may come later and only for a brief stay. 



Note. Measurements are in inches. 



Land Birds of the 
Eastern United States 



GALLINACEOUS BIRDS. ORDER GALLING 

AMERICAN QUAIL. FAMILY ODONTOPHO- 
RID.E 

BOB-WHITE 

Colinus virginianus virginianus. Case I, Figs. I, 2 

The black and white markings of the male are respectively 
buff and brown in the female. In flight the Bob-white, or Quail, 
suggests a Meadowlark, but the tail is without white feathers. 
L. 10. 

Range. Eastern United States north to Minnesota and Maine 
south to the Gulf. A Permanent Resident. Severe winters and 
much, shooting have made it rare in the more northern parts of 
its range. 

Washington, common P. R. Ossining, common P. R. Cam- 
bridge, P. R. N. Ohio, not common P. R. Glen Ellyn, rare P. R, 
SE. Minn., common P. R. 

Except when nesting Bob-whites live in flocks or 
"coveys" usually composed of the members of one family. 
Their song, heard in spring and summer, is the clear, 
ringing two- or three-noted whistle which gives them 
their common name. Their fall and winter notes, which 
sportsmen term "scatter calls" are signals by which the 
members of a flock keep within speaking distance of one 
another. "Where are you?" "Where are you?" they 
seem to say. As with other protectively colored, ground- 
inhabiting birds, Bob-whites do not take wing until one 



2 GROUSE 

almost steps upon them. Then, like a bursting bomb, 
the covey seems to explode, its brown pieces flying in 
every direction. The nest is on the ground and the 
10-18 white, pear-shaped eggs are laid in May or June. 

The Florida Bob-white (C. v. floridanus, Case 3, Figs. 
1, 2), a smaller darker race is resident in Florida, except 
in the northern part of the state. It begins to nest in 
April. 

GROUSE. FAMILY TETRAONID^E 

CANADA SPRUCE PARTRIDGE 

Canachiies canadensis canace 

The male is a grayish bird with a jet black throat and breast, 
the former bordered with white; the skin above the eye is red. 
The female is barred with black and reddish brown with a 
black mottled tail tipped with brown. L. 15. 

Range. Northern parts of United States from New Bruns- 
wick to Manitoba. Other races are found throughout the 
wooded parts of Canada and Alaska. 

An unsuspicious inhabitant of swampy coniferous for- 
ests. Now rare in the United States. It nests on the 
ground in June, laying 0-16 eggs, buff, lightly speckled 
with brown. 

)f RUFFED GROUSE 

Bona s a umbellus umbellus. Case 1, Fig. 3 

The female resembles the male in color but has the black 
neck-tufts smaller. The tail-feathers vary from gray to bright 
rusty. L. 17. 

Range. Eastern United States south in the Alleghanies to 
Georgia. In the southern states the Grouse is often called ' Pheas- 
ant.' A Permanent Resident. 

Washington, not common P. R. Ossining, common P. R. 
Cambridge, P. R., formerly very common. N. Ohio, rare P. R. 
Glen Ellyn, rare and local P. R. 

On our western plains and prairies there is a Grouse 
which we call Prairie Hen and we might well apply the 



GROUSE 3 

name Wood Hen to this Grouse of our forests. To flush 
a Grouse in the quiet of the woods always makes the 
"heart jump." His whirring wings not only produce the 
roar which accompanies his flight, but they are also 
responsible for the "drumming" which constitutes the 
Grouse's song as sitting upright on some favorite log, he 
rapidly beats the air with his wings. 

The horny fringes which in winter border the toes of 
the Grouse, or Partridge, as he is also called, form in 
effect snow-shoes which help to support the bird on soft 
snow. At this season they also feed in trees on buds and 
catkins, and they may roost in trees or seek a bed by 
plunging into a snow-bank. 

The nest, lined with leaves, is placed at the base of a tree 
or stump; the 8-14 buffy eggs are laid in May. 

The Canada Ruffed Grouse (B. u. togata), of northern 
New England and northwards is grayer above and more 
distinctly barred below. 

PRAIRIE CHICKEN 
Tympanuchus americanus 

The Prairie Hen has a rounded or nearly square tail and a 
barred breast; in the Sharp-tailed Grouse the tail is pointed, 
the breast with V-shaped markings. L. 18. 

Range. Central Plains region from Texas to Manitoba, east 
to Indiana. Migratory at its northern limits. 

Glen Ellyn, P. R. local, S. E. Minn., P. R. much decreased in 
numbers. 

The Ruffed Grouse sounds his rolling, muffled drum- 
call in the seclusion of the forest, but the Prairie Hen beats 
his loud boom-ah-boom in the open freedom of the plains. 
Hardy and strong of wing, he can cope with winter storms 
and natural enemies, but against the combined assault of 
man, dog, and gun, he cannot successfully contend. 

About a dozen buff -olive eggs are laid on the ground in 
April or early May. 



4 WILD TURKEY 

HEATH HEN 
Tympanuchus cupido 

This is a close relative of the Prairie Hen, having the 
black neck-tuft of less than ten feathers with pointed, 
not rounded, ends. It is now found only on the Island of 
Martha's Vineyard, but formerly inhabited plains or 
barrens, locally, from New Jersey to Massachusetts. It 
nests in June. 

TURKEYS. FAMILY MBLEAGRID^I 
WILD TURKEY 

' Meleagris gallopavo silvestris 

The Wild Turkey was formerly found as far north as Maine 
and Ontario but it is unknown now north of central Pennsylvania. 
South of Maryland it is not uncommon locally. 

Range. Kansas and central Pennsylvania to the Gulf coast, 
and northern Florida. Non-migratory. 

Washington, rare P. R. 

Our domestic Turkey is descended from the Mexican 
Wild Turkey an like that race has the upper tail-coverts 
and tail tipped with whitish, whereas in our eastern 
Wild Turkey these tips are chestnut. The nest is on the 
ground and 10-14 eggs, pale cream-color finely speckled 
with brownish, are laid in April. 

The Florida Wild Turkey (M. g. osceola), of southern 
Florida, is smaller and the white bars on the primaries 
are narrower and more broken. 



DOVES S 

PIGEONS AND DOVES. ORDER COLUMB^ 

PIGEONS AND DOVES. FAMILY COLUM- 
BID;£ 

MOURNING DOVE 
Zenaidura macroura carolinensis. Case 3, Fig. 3; Case $, Fig. ir 

Except the southern little Ground Dove, this is our only Dove. 
Its long, pointed tail and the swift, darting flight are its field 
characters. It is often mistaken for the Wild or Passenger 
Pigeon, now extinct. The two birds differ in size and in color, 
but size is a matter of distance, and color, of comparison, so it 
seems probable that as long as there is a possibility^ of seeing 
a Passenger Pigeon, Mourning Doves will be mistaken for them. 
L. ni. The Wild Pigeon is about five inches longer. 

Range. North America. In a railway journey from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific one may expect to see the Dove daily. 
Winters from Virginia southward, migrating northward in 
March. 

Washington, P. R., common, except in midwinter. Ossining, 
common S. R., Mch. 3-Nov. 27; a few winter. Cambridge, 
rather rare T. V., Apl. 8-June 18; Sept. 18-Nov. 15. N. Ohio, 
common S. R., Mch. 20-Oct. 25; rare W. V. Glen Ellyn, toler- 
ably common S. R., formerly common, Mch. 12-Oct. 21. S.E. 
Minn., common S. R., Mch. 15-Dec. 25. 

Doves are particularly common in the southern states 
where, ranked as game-birds, they are shot in large num- 
bers. The Wild Pigeon's note was an explosive squawk; 
the Dove's is a soft, mournful coo-oo-ah, coo-o-o-coo-o-o- 
coo-0-0-. During the winter, Doves are usually found in 
small flocks but, unlike the Wild Pigeon, they nest in 
scattered pairs. The nest is in a tree or on the ground. 
Two white eggs are laid in April. 

GROUND DOVE 

Chamepelia passerina lerrestris. Case 3, Fig. 4 

The female is duller than the male. L. 6\. 

Range. Tropical and subtemperate parts of the Western Hemi- 



6 VULTURES 

iphere. Our form is found in Florida and on the coast region 
from North Carolina to Texas. 
Washington, accidental; two records, Sept., Oct. 

This dainty, miniature Pigeon is common in southern 
gardens and old fields. It runs gracefully before one, and 
when flushed rises with a whirring flight but soon alights, 
usually on the ground. Its call is a crooning coo. The 
nest is placed on the ground and in low trees and bushes. 
Two white eggs are laid in March. 



BIRDS OF PREY. ORDER RAPTORES 

AMERICAN VULTURES. FAMILY CATHAR- 
TID.E 

TURKEY VULTURE 

Calhartes aura septentrionalis. Case 3, Fig. 9 

Head red, plumage with a brownish cast. Young birds have 
the head covered with brownish down. L. 30. 

Range. Most of the Western Hemisphere in several sub- 
species; in the eastern states north to northern New Jersey and, 
locally, southern New York. Migrating south from the northern 
part of its range. 

Washington, abundant P. R. Ossining, A. V. Cambridge, 
casual, two records. N. Ohio, tolerably common S. R., Men. 5- 
Oct. 30. SE. Minn., common S. R., Apl. 27. 

The 'Turkey Buzzard' has a wider wing-stretch and is 
a better aviator than the Black Vulture. It is more a 
bird of the country than the last-named species which is 
the common Vulture of the streets in many southern 
cities. Extremely graceful in the air, it is far from pleas- 
ing when at rest. The two dull white, brown-marked 
eggs are laid on the ground under logs, in crevices in rocks, 
etc., in March in Florida, in April in Virginia, 



HAWKS 7 

BLACK VULTURE 
Catharisla urubu urubu. Case 3, Fig. 10 

Head black, plumage without the brownish cast of the Turkey 
Vulture. 

Range. Eastern U. S., north to Virginia; an abundant Per- 
manent Resident. Washington, casual, Mch., July, Dec. 

The Vulture of southern cities; a frequenter of slaughter 
houses and markets. In flight the under surfaces of the 
wing look silvery. It is by no means so impressive a 
figure in the air as the Turkey Vulture. Two pale bluish 
white eggs, generally with brown markings, are laid on 
the ground under logs, bushes, palmettoes, etc., in March 
and April. 

HAWKS, EAGLES, KITES, ETC. FAMILY 
BUTEONID.E 

SWALLOW-TAILED KITE 

Elanoides forficatus forficatus 

The head and lower parts are white, the rest of the plumage 
glossy black; the tail deeply forked. L. 24. 

Range. Florida to South Carolina, and up the Mississippi 
Valley rarely to Saskatchewan ; winters south of the United States, 
returning in March. 

Washington, three records, Aug.; Apl. SE. Minn., uncommon 
S. R., May 4. 

Color, form, grace, and power of motion combine to 
make the flight of the Swallow-tail an impressive demon- 
stration of the bird's mastery of the air. It feeds on lizards 
and small snakes which it captures when on the wing 
from the branches of trees. The nest is placed in the 
upper branches of tall trees, 2-3 eggs heavily marked with 
brown being laid in Florida in April; in Iowa in June. 



8 HAWKS 

WHITE-TAILED KITE 

Elanus leucurus 

A gray bird with white underparts, rather short white tail 
and black shoulders. L. 15 J. 

Range. Chiefly southwestern United States and southward 
east to the lower Mississippi Valley. 

This is a rare bird east of the Mississippi. It frequents 
open marshy places and feeds upon small snakes, lizards, 
grasshoppers, etc., which it captures on the ground. The 
nest is built in trees, and the 3-5 eggs, heavily marked 
with brown, are laid in May. 

MISSISSIPPI KITE 

Ictinia mississippiensis 

A slaty-blue bird with black tail and wings and red eyes. L. 14. 

Range. Southern United States, north to South Carolina, 
and southern Indiana; winters chiefly south of the United States 
and returns in April. 

A low-flying hunter of insects, snakes and frogs. It 
migrates in loose flocks sometimes near the earth, at others 
far above it. The nest is placed in tall trees. The eggs 
are laid in May; they number 1-3, and axe dull white, 
occasionally with a bluish tinge. 

EVERGLADE KITE 

Rostrhamus sociabilis 

A dark slate-colored bird with a white rump and a rather slender 
hooked bill. The young are quite different; black above, tipped 
with reddish brown, below mottled and barred with black, red- 
ish brown and buff, but with the white rump-patch of the 
adult. L. 18. 

Range. Tropical America north to southern Florida. 

The Everglade Kite is found in marshes and about 
lakes and ponds hunting for its favorite food of large snails, 
which it extracts from their shells by means of its hooked 



HAWKS 9 

bill. It is rarely seen north of southern Florida. The 
nest is placed in bushes or among reeds. The 2-3 eggs, 
which are heavily marked with brown, are laid in March. 



MARSH HAWK 
Circus hudsonius. Case 3, Fig. IS 

The immature bird and adult female are dark brown above, 
reddish brown below, but, in any plumage, the species may be 
known by the white upper tail-coverts which show clearly in 
flight. L., male, 19; female, 22. 

Range. North America, wintering from New Jersey southward; 
migrates northward in March. 

Washington, common W. V., July-Apl. Ossining, tolerably 
common S. R., Mch. 6-Oct. 30; a few winter. Cambridge, com- 
mon T. V., Mch. 20-Nov. 10, one breeding record. N. Ohio, 
not common S. R., Mch. 5-Nov. 30. Glen Ellyn, S. R., several 
pairs, Apl. 4-Nov. 6. SE. Minn., common S. R., Mch. 6-Nov. 1. 

The Marsh Hawk quarters low over the fields turning 
sharply here and there to follow the course of a meadow 
mouse in the grass forest below. As a rule the bird is 
silent but in the mating season he repeats a 'screeching' 
note. The nest is made on the ground in the marshes; 
the 4-6 white eggs are laid in May. 

SHARP-SHINNED HAWK 
Accipiter velox. Case 1, Figs. 11, 12; Case 3, Figs. 7, 8 

The sexes differ only in size, the female being much the larger. 
There is a marked difference in color between adult and immature 
birds, the latter being more commonly seen. L. male, 11 J; 
female, 13 J. 

Range. North America; wintering from Massachusetts south- 
ward. 

Washington, common P. R. Ossining, common P. R. Cam- 
bridge, common T. V., Apl. 3-May n; Sept. 5-Oct. 25; rare 
S. R., uncommon W. V. N. Ohio, not common P. R., a few 
winter. Glen Ellyn, not common S. R., Mch. 19-Dec. 9. SE. 
Minn., common S. R., Mch. 28-Dec. 28. 

This small, bird-killing Hawk dashes recklessly after 
its victims, following them through thick cover. It is 



io HAWKS 

less often seen in the open than the Sparrow Hawk, which 
it resembles in size, but from which it may be known by its 
different color, longer tail, and much shorter wings. It 




Shakp-Shinned Hawk. 

Note the Long Tail. 

nests in trees 15-40 feet from the ground. The eggs, 
3-6 in number, are bluish white or cream, marked with 
brown and are laid in May. 

COOPER'S HAWK 
Accipiter coo-peri. Case 1, Figs. 9, 10 

A large edition of the Sharp-shinned Hawk, with the tail 
more rounded, the adult with a darker crown. L. male, 15$; 
female, 19. 

Range. Nests throughout United States; winters from 
southern New England southward. 

Washington, common S. R., less common W. V. Ossining, 
tolerably common P. R. Cambridge, common T. V., not uncom- 
mon S. R., rare W. V., Apl. 10-Oct. 20. N. Ohio, not common, 
Mch. 20-Nov. 1 ; a few winter. Glen Ellyn, local S. R., a few 
winter. SE. Minn., common S. R., Mch. 3. 

This is the real 'Chicken Hawk,' but it is less often seen 
and heard than the soaring, screaming Buteos to which 
the name is usually applied. It resembles the Sharp- 
shinned in habits but being larger may prey on larger 
birds. The female may be easily distinguished from the 



HAWKS ii 

Sharp-shinned by her larger size, but the male is not 
appreciably larger than a female Sharp-shin. 

The nest is built in a tree 25-50 feet up. The bluish 
white, rarely spotted eggs are laid in late April or early 
May. 

GOSHAWK 

Astur alricapillus 

The adult is blue-gray above with a darker crown and a white 
line over the eye. The underparts are finely and beautifully 
marked with gray and white. Young birds resemble the young 
of Cooper's Hawk, but are much larger. L., male, 22 ; female, 24. 

Range. North America, nests chiefly north of the United 
States and winters southward, usually rarely, as far as Virginia. 

Washington, casual in winter. Ossining, rare W. V„ Oct. 10- 
Jan. 14. Cambridge, irregular and uncommon W. V. SE. 
Minn., W. R., Nov. 5-Apl. 4. 

Like its smaller relatives the Sharp-shin and Cooper's 
Hawks, this powerful raptor is a relentless hunter of birds. 
It is particularly destructive to Ruffed Grouse. For- 
tunately it does not often visit us in numbers. It nests in 
trees, laying 2-5 white eggs, rarely marked with brownish, 
in April. 

J( RED-TAILED HAWK 
Buteo borealis borealis. Case 1, Figs. 5, 6; Case 3, Fig. 13. 

This, the largest of our common Hawks, is a heavy-bodied 
bird with wings which when closed, reach nearly to the end of the 
tail. The adult has the tail bright reddish brown with a narrow 
black band near the tip. The immature bird has the tail rather 
inconspicuously barred with blackish, and a broken band of 
blackish spots across the underparts. L. male, 20; female, 23. 

Range. Eastern North America, migrating only at the northern 
limi t, of its range. There are several races, Krider's Red-tail, 
a paler form inhabiting the great Plains, and Harlan's Hawk, 
a darker form with a mottled tail, the lower Mississippi Valley. 

Washington, common W. V., rare S. R. Ossining, common 
P. R., less common in winter. Cambridge, rare T. V., locally 
W. V., Oct. 10-Apl. 20. N. Ohio, common P. R. Glen Ellyn, 
P. R., not common, chiefly T. V. SE. Minn., common S. R., 
Mch. 2. 



12 HAWKS 

The Red-tail resembles the Red-shoulder in general 
habits, but it is more a bird of the fields, where it may be 
seen perched on the limb of a dead tree or similar exposed 
situation. Its note, a long-drawn, squealing whistle, is 
quite unlike that of the Red-shoulder. The Red-tail 
feeds chiefly on mice and other small mammals. With 
the Red-shoulder it is often called 'Chicken Hawk,' but 
does not deserve the name. It nests in trees 30-70 feet 
up and in April lays 2-4 eggs, dull white sparingly marked 
with brown. 

^RED-SHOULDERED HAWK 

Buteo lineatus lineatus. Case 1, Fig. 4; Case 3, Fig. 12 

Seen from below the reddish brown underparts and black and 
white barred tail will identify adults of this species. Immature 




Rbd-shouldeeed Hawk. Adult. 

Note theJBarred Tail. 

birds are streaked below with blackish; the tail is dark grayish 
brown indistinctly barred, but the shoulder is always rusty, 
though this is not a marking one can see in life. L., male, i8i; 
female, 2oi. 

Range. Eastern North America from northern Florida to 
Canada; resident except in the northern part of its ranee. 



HAWKS 13 

Washington, common P. R. Ossining, common P. R. Cam- 
bridge, common, Apl.-Nov., less common in winter. N. Ohio, 
common P. R. Glen Ellyn, P. R., more common than the Red- 
tail; chiefly T. V. 

A medium-sized, heavy-bodied Hawk with wings which, 
when closed, reach well toward the tip of the tail. It 
lives both in the woods and open places, and may be flushed 
from the border of a brook or seen soaring high in the air. 
Its note, frequently uttered, as it swings in wide circles, 
is a distinctive Khe-you, Kee-you, quite unlike the call 
of any of our other Hawks. It is often well imitated by the 
Blue Jay. The Red-shoulder feeds chiefly on mice and 
frogs. It nests in trees 30-60 feet up and, in April, lays 
3-5 eggs, white marked with brown. 

The Florida Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus 
alleni), a smaller form with grayer head and paler under- 
parts, is a resident in Florida and along the coast from 
South Carolina to Mexico. It nests in February. 



BROAD-WINGED HAWK 
Buteo -platypterus 

With a general resemblance to the Red-shouldered Hawk, but 
smaller; no red on the bend of the wing, or rusty in the primaries, 
only the outer three of which are 'notched.' L., male, 15!; 
female, i6|. 

Range. Eastern North America. Breeding from the Gulf 
States to the St. Lawrence; winters from Ohio and Delaware to 
S. A.; migrates northward in March. 

Washington, uncommon P. R. Ossining, tolerably common 
S. R., Mch. 15-Oct. 23. Cambridge, uncommon T. V. in early 
fall, rare in spring and summer; Apl. 25-Sept. 30. N. Ohio, 
not common P. R. Glen Ellyn, not common S. R., Apl. 10- 
Oct. 4. SE. Minn., common S. R., Mch. 11. 

A rather retiring, unwary Hawk which nests in thick 
woods and is less often seen in the open than the Red- 
shoulder, but, when migrating, hundreds pass high in the 
air, with other Hawks. Its call is a high, thin, penetrat- 



14 EAGLES 

ing whistle. It nests in late April and early May, laying 
2-4 whitish eggs marked with brown. 

ROUGH-LEGGED HAWK 
Archibuteo lagopus sancti-johannis 

Legs feathered to the toes; basal half of tail white; belly 
black. Some individuals are wholly black. L., male, 21; 
female, 23. 

Range. Breeds in northern Canada; usually rare and irregular 
in the northern U. S., from November to April. 

Washington, rare and irregular W. V. Ossining, casual. 
Cambridge, T. V., not common, Nov.-Dec; Mch.-Apl. N. 
Ohio, not common W. V., Nov. 20-Apl. 3. Glen Ellyn, quite 
common W. V., Oct. 12-Apl. 30. SE. Minn., W. V., Oct. 15- 
Mch. 

Frequents fields and marshes, where it hunts to and fro 
after mice, which form its principal fare. 

GOLDEN EAGLE 

Aquila chrysaetos 

With the Bald Eagle, largest of our raptorial birds; with a 
general resemblance to the young of that species, in which the 
head and tail are dark, but with the legs feathered to the toes. 
L., male, 32J; female, 37^. 

Range. Northern parts of the northern Hemisphere; in the 
United States, rare east of the Mississippi. 

Washington, rare W. V., Ossining, A. V. Cambridge, 1 record. 
N. Ohio, rare W. V. SE. Minn., P. R. 

The Golden Eagle is so rare in the eastern United States 
and its general resemblance to a young Bald Eagle is so 
close, that only an experienced ornithologist could con- 
vince me that he had seen a Golden Eagle east of the Mis- 
sissippi. 



% 



BALD EAGLE 

Halimetus leucocephalus leucocephalus. Case 3, Fig. 11 

When immature the head and tail resemble the body in color, 
and at this age the bird is sometimes confused with the mor« 



FALCONS IS 

western Golden Eagle. The latter has the head browner and the 
legs feathered to the toes. L., male, 33; female, 35$. 

Range. North America but rare in the interior and in Cali- 
fornia, migratory at the northern limit of its range. 

Washington, not common P. R. Ossining, common P. R. 
Cambridge, of irregular occurrence at all seasons. N. Ohio, 
tolerably common P. R. SE. Minn., P. R., becoming rare. 

An adult Bald Eagle will at once be recognized by its 
white head and tail; the immature birds by their large size. 
Eagles are usually found near the water where fish may 
be obtained either on the shore or from the Osprey. The 
call of the male is a human-like, loud, clear cac-cac-cac; 
that of the female is said to be more harsh and often 
broken. Eagles nest in tall trees and on cliffs, and lay 
two or three dull white eggs, in Florida, in November 
and December; in Maine, in April. 



FALCONS, CARACARAS, ETC. FAMILY 
FALCONID^ 

GYRFALCON 
Falco rusticolus gyrfalco 

A large Hawk with long, pointed wings, the upper parts brown 
with numerous narrow, buffy bars or margins, the tail evenly 
barred with grayish and blackish, the underparts white lightly 
streaked with black. L. 22. 

Range. Arctic regions; south in winter rarely to New York 
and Minnesota. The Gray Gyrfalcon (F. r. rusticolus) a paler 
form, with a streaked crown, the Black Gyrfalcon OF. r. obsoletus) 
a slate-colored race, and the White Gyrfalcon (F. islandus) are 
also rare winter visitants to the northern United States. 

These great Falcons are so rare in the United States 
that unless they are seen by an experienced observer, 
under exceptionally favorable conditions, authentic records 
of their visits can be based only on the actual capture of 
specimens. 



16 FALCONS 

DUCK HAWK 

Falco peregrinus anatum 

The adult is slaty-blue above; buff below marked with black; 
and with black cheek-patches. Immature birds are blackish 
above margined with rusty, below deep rusty buff streaked with 
blackish. L., male, 16; female, 19. 

Range. Northern Hemisphere, breeding south locally to New 
Jersey and in Alleghanies to South Carolina; winters from New 
Jersey southward. 

Washington, rare and irregular W. V. Ossining, casual. 
Cambridge, rare T. V., casual in winter, SE. Minn., uncommon 
S. R., Apl. 4. 

As the Peregrine of falconry we know of the Duck Hawk 
as a fearless, dashing hunter of greater power of wing and 
talon. It nests in rocky cliffs in April and from its eyrie 
darts upon passing Pigeons and other birds. It is most 
often seen following the coast-line during migrations where 
it takes toll of Ducks and shore-birds. Three to four 
heavily marked, brownish eggs are laid in April. 

PIGEON HAWK 

Falco columbarius 

A small Hawk, about the size of a Sparrow Hawk. The adult 
is slaty blue above, with a rusty collar and a barred, white-tipped 
tail; below buff, streaked with blackish. Young birds have the 
upperparts blackish brown. L. n. 

Range. Breeds north of, and winters chiefly south of the United 
States. Migrates northward in April and May, and southward 
in September and October. 

Washington, not uncommon T. V. Ossining, tolerably common 
T. V., Apl. i-May 11; Aug. 10-Oct. 15. Cambridge, common 
T. V., Apl. 25-May 5; Sept. 25-Oct. 20; occasional in winter. 
N. Ohio, rare P. R. Glen Ellyn, regular but rare T. V., Apl. 26- 
May 5; Sept. 10-Oct. 16. SE. Minn., Apl. 13. 

We know this Hawk as a not common migrant generally 
seen in open places and along the shores. It feeds chiefly 
on small birds. 



FALCONS 17 

SPARROW HAWK 
Falco sparverius sparverius. Case 1, Figs. 7, 8; Case 3, Figs. 5, 6 

The male has the tail with only one bar; the breast unmarked; 
the abdomen with black spots; while the female has the tail with 
several bars, the underparts streaked with brownish. In both 
sexes the bright reddish brown o£ the upperparts, black markings 
about the head, and small size are gold field characters. L. 10. 

Range. Sparrow Hawks are found throughout the greater part 
of the Western Hemisphere. Our eastern race inhabits the 
region east of the Rockies and is migratory at the northern limit 
of its range. Southern Florida specimens are slightly smaller 
and darker and are known as the Florida Sparrow Hawk (,F. s, 
Qaulus). 




Spakrow Hawk Hoveking above its Prey. 

Washington, common W. V., rare S. R. Ossining, rather rare 
P. R. Cambridge, P. R., common in summer, rare in winter. 
N. Ohio, common P. R. Glen Ellyn, rather rare S. R., Mch. 10- 
Oct. 26. 

The Sparrow Hawk is one of our commonest and most 
familiar Hawks. He is a handsome little Falcon, and 
though his prey is chiefly humble grasshoppers, he captures 
them in a sportsmanlike manner by " waiting on" or hov- 
ering on rapidly beating wings over his game and dropping 
on it with deadly aim. His call is a high, rapidly repeated 
Killy-killy-killy. The three to seven eggs, finely marked 
with reddish brown, are laid in a hollow limb or similar 
situation in April. 



i8 OSPREY 

AUDUBON'S CARACARA 
Polyborus cheriway cheriway 

A falcon-like Vulture with a bare face, black cap, white throat, 
breast and nape; the rest of the plumage is black, the tail barred 
with white. L. 22. 

Range. Mexican border and southward; south central Florida. 

In the eastern United States the Caracara is found 
only in the Kissimmee prairie region of southern Florida 
where its presence, so far from others of its kind, furnishes 
one of the problems in distribution which stimulate the 
imagination of the faunal naturalist. 



OSPREYS. FAMILY PANDIONID^ 

X OSPREY 

Pandion haliatus carolinensis. Case 3, Fig. 14 

The Osprey or Fish Hawk is often miscalled ' Eagle,' but it is 
a smaller bird with white, instead of blackish underparts. L. 23. 

Range. The Osprey is found throughout the greater part of 
the world; the American form occurs in both North and South 
America and winters from the southern United States southward, 
starting northward in March. 

Washington, uncommon S. R., Mch. 19— Nov. 30. Ossining, 
common T. V., rare S. R., Apl. 3-May 26; Sept. 29-Oct. 20. 
Cambridge, rather common T. V., Apl.-May; Sept.-Oct. N. 
Ohio, rare S. R., Apl. 20-Oct. Gien Ellyn, two records, May 
and Sept. 

The Osprey, or Pish Hawk, feeds on fish and nothing 
but fish. He is, therefore, never found far from his fishing 
grounds, where no one who has seen him plunge for his 
prey and rise with it from the water will doubt his ability 
to supply his wants. Ospreys usually nest in trees at vary- 
ing distances from the ground, but sometimes on cliffs 
or even on the ground its If, and return year after year to 
fthe same nest. The Osprey's alarm note is a high, loud, 
.omplaining whistle, frequently repeated. The eggs are 



OWLS 19 

laid in late April and early May. They are usually four 
in number, buffy white, heavily marked with chocolate. 



BARN OWLS. FAMILY ALUCONID^I 

BARN OWL 
Aluco pratincola pratincole. Case 3, Fig. 17 

A light-colored Owl, looking almost white in the dusk. L. 18. 

Range. Barn Owls are found throughout the world. Our 
species is rare north of New Jersey and Ohio. It is migratory 
only at the northern limit of its range. 

Washington, not rare P. R. Ossining, A. V. 

This is the 'Monkey-faced Owl' of towers and steeples. 
Few who hear its loud, sudden scream or rapidly repeated 
crree-crree-crree know their author, who may live for years 
in the heart of a village a stranger to its human inhab- 
itants. The mice, however, have tragic evidence of his 
presence in the nightly raids he makes upon their ranks. 
The nest is made in the diurnal retreat, 5-9 white eggs 
being laid in April. 

HORNED OWLS, HOOT OWLS, ETC. FAMILY 
STRIGID^E 

LONG-EARED OWL 
Asio wilsonianus. Case 1, Fig. 17 

Distinguished by very long ear-tufts. L. 14}. 

Range. Temperate North America. Winters south to Georgia 
and Louisiana. 

Washington, common P. R. Ossining, common P. R. Cam- 
bridge, rare, P. R. but sometimes common in fall and winter. 
N. Ohio, uncommon P. R. Glen Ellyn, rare, fall records only, 
Nov. 7-Dec. 14. 

An Owl of evergreen clumps and dense growths, where 
its presence is often betrayed by the litter below of undi- 



no OWLS 

gested pellets of hair and bones which Owls eject at the 
mouth. It is not a " hoot " Owl, and even many ornitholo- 
gists have not heard its notes, which are described as a 
"soft-toned, slow wu-hunk, wu-hunk, and a low twittering, 
whistling dicky, dicky, dicky." It is not a hole-inhabiting 
Owl and like the Great Horned nests in an old Hawk, 
Crow, or Squirrel nest. Three to six white eggs are laid in 
April. 

SHORT-EARED OWL 

Asio flammeus. Case I, Fig. 18 

The 'ears' are barely evident, the eyes are yellow; underparts 
streaked. L. 15 \. 

Range. Found throughout the greater part of the world; 
migrating southward at the northern part of its North American 
range. 

Washington, common W. V. Ossining, casual. Cambridge, 
T. V., Mch. 15-Apl. 15, rare; Oct.-Nov., uncommon. N. Ohio, 
uncommon P. R. Glen Ellyn, rare, Dec. 11-May 15. SE. 
Minn., common S. R. 

This is a marsh Owl and we are therefore not likely 
to find it associated with other members of its family. 
Its notes are said to resemble the ki-yi of a small dog. 
Four to seven white eggs are laid in an open nest in the 
grasses in April. 

BARRED OWL 
Strix varia varia. Case ±, Fig. 15 

A large Owl with black eyes (the figure is incorrect) and no 
'ears.' L. 20. 

Range. Eastern North America. Generally a Permanent 
Resident. The Florida Barred Owl (S. v. alleni. Case 3, Fig. 16), 
is somewhat darker than the northern form and has nearly naked 
toes. It inhabits Florida and the coast region from South 
Carolina to Texas. 

Washington, not common, rare P. R. Ossining, rare P. R. 
Cambridge, P. R., sometimes common in Nov. and Dec. N. 
Ohio, common P. R. Glen Ellyn, rare and local P. R. SE. 
Minn., common P. R. 



OWLS 21 

An Owl of the woods* common in the less thickly settled 
parts of its range. Its loud, sonorous notes, whoo, whoo- 
whoo who-whoo, to-whoo-ah, are often uttered. When two 
birds come together their united calls produce some of the 
most startling sounds to be heard in nature. The Barred 
Owl feeds chiefly on mice. It nests in hollow trees in 
March, laying 2-4 white eggs. 

GREAT GRAY OWL 

Scoiiaplex nebulosa nebulosa 

Largest of American Owls, with a general resemblance to the 
Barred Owl, but nearly a third larger and with yellow eyes. 
L. 27. 

Range. Northern North America, rarely straggling to United 
States in winter. 

Cambridge, very rare and irregular W. V. SE. Minn., rare 
W.V. 

RICHARDSON'S OWL 
Cryptoglaux funerea richardsoni 

A small Owl about the size of a Screech Owl, but without ear- 
tufts. It is grayish brown above and both head and back are 
spotted with black; the underparts are white heavily streaked 
with grayish brown. 

Range. Northern Canada and Alaska, rarely visiting the 
eastern United States in winter. We are not likely to meet this 
Owl. 

Cambridge, very rare W. V. 

SAW-WHET OWL 
Cryptoglaux acadica acadica. Case 2, Fig. 41 

Smallest of our Owls; eyes yellow, no ear-tufts. L. 8. 

Range. Nests in the northern United States and northward, 
south in the Alleghanies to Maryland; winters rather rarely 
and irregularly southward to Virginia. 

Washington, rare W. V., Oct.-Mch. Ossining, rather rare 
W. V., Oct. 28-Jan. 13. Cambridge, not uncommon, W. V., 
Nov.-Mch. N. Ohio, rare P. R. SE. Minn., uncommon, P. R. 

A tame little Owl which sometimes may be caught in 
one's hand. It passes the day in dense growth, usually 



t2 OWLS 

evergreens. Its note resembles the "sound made when a 
large-tooth saw is being filed." 

SCREECH OWL 
Otus asio asio. Case i, Figs. 13, 14 

The two sexes are alike, the two color phases being individual 
and representing dichromatism. Among animals, gray and black 
squirrels furnish a similar case. The ear-like feather-tufts give 
the bird a cat-like appearance, hence the name 'Cat Owl.' The 
young are downy-looking creatures evenly barred with dusky. 
L. o*. 

Range. Screech Owls are found throughout the greater part 
of the Western Hemisphere. Our eastern form occurs in the 
eastern United States from Canada southward. The Florida 
race (0. a. floridanus. Case 3, Pig. 19) is smaller and of a darker 
gray than the northern bird. The 'red' phase is rare. 

Washington, common P. R. Ossining, common P. R. Cam- 
bridge, common P. R. N. Ohio, common P. R. Glen Ellyn, 
common P. R. SE. Minn., common P. R. 

This, the smallest of our 'horned' Owls, is also the com- 
monest. It lives near and sometimes in our homes even 
when they are situated in towns. Its tremulous, wailing 
whistle (in no sense a 'screech') is therefore one of our 
most characteristic twilight bird-notes. Mice and insects 
form the greater part of the Screech Owl's fare. Four to 
six white eggs are laid in a hollow tree, bird-box, or similar 
site in April. 



GREAT HORNED OWL 
Bubo virginianus virginianus. Case 1, Fig. 16 

Largest of the 'horned' Owls. L. 22. 

Range. Western Hemisphere in many forms; our form is 
confined to the eastern United States. A Permanent Resident. 

Washington, rare P. R. Ossining, tolerably common P. R. 
Cambridge, uncommon, autumn^or winter. N. Ohio, rare P. R. 
SE. Minn., common P. R. 

The Great Horned Owl retreats before the civilization 
that destroys the forests in which it lives. In thinly 



OWLS 23 

settled regions its deep-toned, monotone, whoo-hoo-hoo- 
hoo, wkooo, whooo is still a characteristic bird voice, but 
most of us hear it only when we camp in the wilderness. 
The bird's fierce nature has won for it the name of "tiger 
among birds." Rabbits, skunks, game birds and smaller 
prey form its fare. The 2-3 white eggs are laid in an 
abandoned Hawk, Crow, or squirrel nest in February; 
it is the first of our northern birds to nest. 

SNOWY OWL 
Nyctea nyctea 

A large Owl with no 'ear' tufts and yellow eyes; chiefly 
white with small brownish or blackish markings. L. 25. 

Range. Nests in Arctic regions, migrating southward irregu- 
larly in winter to the northern United States. 

Washington, casual W. V. Ossining, A. V. Cambridge, rare 
and irregular W. V. N. Ohio, rare W. V. Glen Ellyn, very 
rare W. V. SE. Minn., common W. V., Oct.-Apl. 

A rare winter visitant which is more often seen along 
the seashore. Unlike most Owls it hunts by day, feeding 
chiefly on mice but also on birds. 

HAWK OWL 
Surnia alula caparock 

A medium-sized Owl with a whitish face and yellow eyes and a 
long, rounded tail; the head is spotted, the back barred with 
whitish; the underparts are barred with white and blackish. 
L. is; T. 7i. 

Range. Northern North America, rarely visiting the northern 
United States in winter. 

Cambridge, very rare in late fall. N. Ohio, rare W. V. SE. 
Minn., uncommon W. V., Oct.-Mch. 

"The Hawk Owl is strictly diurnal, as much so as any 
of the Hawks, and like some of them often selects a tall 
shrub or dead-topped tree in a comparatively open place 
for a perch, where it sits in the bright sunlight watching 
for its prey " (Fisher). 



24 PAROQUET 

FLORIDA BURROWING OWL 

Speotyto cunicularia floridana 

A small, ground Owl, with nearly naked legs and feet and no 
ear-tufts. The upperparts are grayish brown marked with 
white ; the throat is white, rest of underparts barred with grayish 
brown and white. L. g. 

Range. Southern Florida, chiefly in the Kissimmee Prairie 
region. 

This is a representative of our western Burrowing Owl, 
which, in some way unknown to man, has established itself 
far from others of its kind in central southern Florida, 
where it is locally common. It nests in a hole in the 
ground, excavated by itself, and lays 5-7 white eggs in 
March. 



PARROTS, MACAWS, PAROQUETS, COCKA- 
TOOS. ORDER PSITTACI 

PARROTS AND PAROQUETS. FAMILY PSIT- 
TACIDiE 

CAROLINA PAROQUET 

Conuropsis carolinensis carolinensis 

A long-tailed, green Paroquet with a yellow head, orange fore- 
head and cheeks. L. izj. 

Range. Formerly southeastern United States north to Virginia, 
west to Nebraska and Texas; now southern Florida where it is 
on the verge of extinction, if not extinct. 

Washington, extinct, known only from specimens shot in 
Sept., 1865. 

The Paroquet has paid the penalty of wearing bright 
plumes, of making a desirable cage-bird, of being destruc- 
tive to fruit, and of having little fear of man. Once abun- 
dant and wide-spread, for nearly the past half a century 
it has been restricted to Florida, where the species will 



CUCKOOS 2S 

soon go out of existence, if it has not already done so. Its 
nesting habits are unknown. 



CUCKOOS, KINGFISHERS, ETC. ORDER 
COCCYGES 

CUCKOOS, ANIS, ETC. FAMILY CUCULID^E 

£ YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOO 

Coccyzus americanus americanus. Case 7, Fig. 1 

Broadly white-tipped tail-feathers, a partly yellow bill, and 
largely reddish brown primaries distinguish this species from its 
black-billed cousin. L. 12J, of which one-half is tail. , 

Range. Nests from northern Florida to Canada; winters in, 
tropical America, returning to the United States in April. 

Washington, common S. R., May 3-Oct. 13. Ossining, com- 
mon S. R., May 4-Oct. 31. Cambridge, common S. R., May 12- 
Sept. is. N. Ohio, common S. R., Apl. 20-Sept. 25. Glen 
Ellyn, quite common S. R., May 15-Sept. 29. SE. Minn., 
common S. R., May 21-Aug. 20. 

Cuckoos are common birds, but are more often heard 
than seen. Their notes are not like those of the cuckoo 
clock, which exactly imitates the voice of the European 
Cuckoo, but a series of cuck-cuck-cucks and cow-cows 
repeated a varying number of times. The Cuckoo rarely 
makes long flights but slips from one tree to another, seek- 
ing at once the inner branches and avoiding an exposed 
perch. The nest, a platform of sticks, thinly covered, 
is placed in low trees or bushes. The 3-5 greenish blue 
eggs are laid in May. 

BLACK-BILLED CUCKOO 

Coccyzus erythrophthalmus. Case 7, Fig. 2 

A wholly black bill (note that in both our Cuckoos it is slightly 
*urved), wings without reddish brown, and small, inconspicuous 



26 KINGFISHER 

white tips to the tail-feathers distinguish this species from the 
preceding. 

Range. A more northern species than the Yellow-billed 
Cuckoo. Nests from Virginia (Georgia in the mountains) to 
Quebec; winters in tropical America, reaching the southern 
States in April. 

Washington, rather rare S. R., May 5— Oct. 6. Ossining, com- 
mon S. R., May 3-Oct. 7. Cambridge, common S. R., May 12- 
Sept. 20. N. Ohio, tolerably common S. R„ May i-Sept. 25. 
Glen Ellyn, S. R., May 5-Oct. 21. SE. Minn., common S. R., 
May 8-Sejpt. 2^. 

The day after penning the foregoing notes on the Yellow- 
billed Cuckoo, I saw a Black-bill make a prolonged, dash- 
ing flight through the open, alight on the limb of a dead, 
leafless tree, directly over a young girl who was calling 
loudly to an active dog near her, and from this conspicuous 
perch utter its low coo-coo notes, both looking and sounding 
more like a Dove than a conventional Cuckoo. So while 
we may say that the Cuckoos are much alike in habits 
one must not accept generalized statements too literally. 
There is much individuality among birds, a fact that makes 
their study far more interesting than if all were_cast in the 
same mold. 

The notes of this species are softer than those of the 
Yellow-bill, but the difference between the calls of the two 
species must be learned from the birds, not from books. 
The nest of the Black-bill is the more compactly built of 
the two, and its eggs are of a deeper shade. 



KINGFISHERS. FAMILY ALCEDINID^J 

^BELTED KINGFISHER 
Ceryle alcyon. Case 3, Fig. 18; Case 5, Fig. 10. 

The female resembles the male, but the sides and the band 
across the breast are reddish brown. This is our only King- 
fisher. Crest, color, size, habits, all distinguish him. L. 13. 

Range. North America; winters from Illinois and Virginia 
southward; migrates north in early April. 



WOODPECKERS 27 

Washington, common P. R., except in midwinter. Ossining; 
common S. R., Apl. i-Nov. 23; casual in winter. Cambridge, 
common S. R., Apl. io-Nov. I; rare W. V. N. Ohio, common 
S. R., Mch. 20-Nov. 1; rare W. V. Glenn Ellyn, isolated pairs, 
Apl. i-Nov. 19. SE. Minn., common S. R., Mch. 21-Dec. 12. 

The Belted Kingfisher is a watchman of the waterways 
who sounds his loud rattle when we trespass on his terri- 
tory, a gallant fisherman, who, like a Falcon 'waits on' 
with fluttering wing, and the moment his aim is taken 
plunges headlong with a splash on some fish that has 
ventured too near the surface. 

The nest is made at the end of a burrow in a bank; 
5-8 white eggs are laid in May, 



WOODPECKERS, WRYNECKS, ETC. ORDER 
PICI 

WOODPECKERS. FAMILY PICID^E 

IVORY-BILLED WOODPECKER 
Campephilus principalis 

Our largest Woodpecker, black with a white stripe down each 
side of the neck, white showing in the wing in flight, the male 
with a flaming red crest, the female with a black one and both 
with an ivory-white bill. L. 20. 

f" Range. Formerly southeastern United States to North 
Carolina; now rare and local in the wilder, less settled portions 
of the Gulf States. 

When man appears, the Ivory-bill disappears. This 
is not alone due to the destruction of the birds' haunts 
but to the bird's shy, retiring nature. Its days are num- 
bered even more surely than are those of the forests it 
inhabits. 

The nesting cavity is usually made in a cypress some 
forty feet from the ground, and 3-5 white eggs are laid in 
March. 



28 WOODPECKERS 

)( HAIRY WOODPECKER 
Dryobates villosus villosus. Case 2, Figs. 28, 29 

The Hairy is a large edition of the Downy with white, un- 
marked outer tail-feathers. The male has a red head-band. 
L. o*. 

Range. Middle and northern states; a permanent resident. 
The southern Hairy Woodpecker (D. v. auduboni) inhabits the 
southeastern United States north to southern Virginia. It is 
smaller than the Hairy and has less white in the plumage. L. 8V10. 

The Northern Hairy Woodpecker (D. v. leucomelas) is found 
from the northern United States northward. It is larger and 
whiter than the Hairy. L. 10. 

The Newfoundland Hairy Woodpecker (D. v. terrcenovoe) is 
larger and darker than the Hairy; it inhabits Newfoundland. 

Washington, rare P. R. Ossining, rare P. R. Cambridge, 
uncommon W. V., one summer record. N. Ohio, common P. R. 
Glen Ellyn, fairly common P. R. 

The Hairy is not so common as his small cousin the 
Downy, and does not so readily make friends. He prefers 
the woods to our orchards and is for these reasons less often 
seen at our feeding-stands. The Hairy's notes are 
noticeably louder than the Downy's. The nest-hole is 
usually in a dead tree. The 2-4 white eggs are laid 
the last half of April. 

X DOWNY WOODPECKER 
Dryobates pubescens medianus. ' Case 2, Figs. 26, 27 

The Downy differs from the Hairy Woodpecker in color by 
having the 'outer tail-feathers with black bars, but it is the bird's 
obviously smaller size that will serve to distinguish it. L. 6V4. 

Range. From Virginia northward into Canada. A Permanent 
Resident. The Southern Downy Woodpecker (D. p. pubescens. 
Case 3, Fig. 25) is smaller, darker below and with the white mark- 
ings smaller. < L. 6. It inhabits the south Atlantic and Gulf 
States north to North Carolina. 

Washington, common P. R. Ossining, common P. R. Cam- 
bridge, common P. R. N. Ohio, common P. R. Glen Ellyn, 
common P. R. SE. Minn., common P. R. 

Our commonest Woodpecker; an alert, active little 
driller for insects and their eggs and larvae, and frequent 



WOODPECKERS 29 

visitor to our lunch-counters, particularly if we supply 
them with suet. His sharp peek, peek, running at times 
into a diminishing string of peeks, and his rolling tatoo, as 
he pounds a limb with amazing rapidity, are prominent 
parts of every-day bird language, the tatoo being a 'song' 
of the breeding season. 

Four to six white eggs are laid in a hole, usually in a dead 
tree, the first week in May. The Southern Downy nests 
in April. 

RED-COCKADED WOODPECKER 

Dryobales borealis 

Between the Downy and Hairy in size (L. 8J) with a general 
resemblance to both, but the male with a small tuft of red 
feathers on each side of the back of the head. 
_ Range. Southeastern States north to North Carolina. 

An inhabitant of the pine woods, who utters a coarse 
yank-yank note and may at times be seen feeding from the 
terminal tufts of pine 'needles' in the higher branches.' 
The nest is usually in a living pine; the 2-5 white eggs 
are laid in April. 

ARCTIC THREE-TOED WOODPECKER 
Picoides arcticus 

Two toes in front and one behind, a solid black back and an 
orange-yellow crown in the male distinguish this from all our 
other Woodpeckers. Size of the Hairy, L. oj. ' 

Range. Canada, and northern parts of our border states, rarely 
south in winter, as far as Nebraska and Ohio. 

Cambridge, one record. N. Ohio, rare W. V. SE. Minn., rare. 

An inhabitant of the spruce and balsam forests of our 
northern states, occasionally straggling southward in 
winter. Nests in May. 



3 o WOODPECKERS 

THREE-TOED WOODPECKER 
Picoides americanus americanus 

Two toes in front and one behind, an orange-yellow crest in 
the male, and a black back closely and evenly barred with white 
distinguish this bird; it is somewhat smaller than the preceding. 
L. 8J. 

Range. Canada, south to the northern parts of our boundary 
states; unknown south of Massachusetts. 

Not so common as the Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker, 
and less often found south of its breeding range. Nests in 
early June. 

tf YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKER 
Sphyrapicus varias varius. Case 3, Fig. 26; Case 5, Fig. 30 

The female has the throat white, and rarely, crown wholly 
black. Young birds have the throat whitish, crown dull black, 
breast brownish. The black breast-patch and red forehead, 
and red or white throat are distinguishing characters. L. 8 J. 

Range. Nests from northern New England and Minnesota 
(in Alleghanies from North Carolina) to Canada; winters from 
.Pennsylvania (rarely) southward to the Gulf States. 

Washington, common T. V., Mch.-May; Sept. and Oct., 
.occasional in winter. Ossining, common T. V., Apl. 5-May 13; 
Sept. 18-Oct. 23; casual in winter. Cambridge, not uncommon 
T. V., Apl. and Sept. 15-Nov. 1; occasional W. V. N. Ohio, 
common T. V., Apl. i-May 20; Sept. 15-Oct. 20. Glen Ellyn, 
common T. V., Mch. 31-May 12; Sept. 14-Oct. 13. SE. Minn., 
common S. R., Mch. 2S~0ct. 19. 

This is the mysterious maker of the rows of little holes 
•drilled in even lines, like hieroglyphics, on the trunks of 
apple and other trees. Using his brush-tipped tongue as a 
<swab, he drinks the sap that oozes from these punctures. 

As a migrant the Yellow-belly is not conspicuous. His 
.business takes him into the heart of living trees and he is 
usually seen only when flying from one to another. His 
'low 'snarling' note attracts the attention of only the 
observant. 

The nest-hole is 25-40 feet up; the 5-7 white eggs are 
laid in May. 



WOODPECKERS 31 

PILEATED WOODPECKER 

Phlceotomus pileatus pileatus 

Next to the nearly extinct Ivory-bill this is the largest of our 
Woodpeckers. (L. 17.) Both sexes have a flaming red crest 
(reaching the^ orehead in the male) the remainder o£ the plumage 
being black, with the throat, a stripe from the bill down the 
sides o£ the neck, and the basal half of the wing-feathers white; 
bill horn-color. 

Range. Southeastern and Gulf States, north to North Caro- 
lina. The Northern Pileated Woodpecker (P. p. abielicold) is 
found thence northward into Canada and west to the Pacific. 
It is a larger bird, with the white areas larger. 

In the south the Pileated is by no means rare and seems 
not averse to the presence of man; but in the north he 
retires to the wilder forested areas and we are apt to see 
him only when we go a-camping. And he is well worth 
seeing with his naming crest and powerful bill which, 
used either as a chisel or drum-stick, produces impres- 
sive results. Strangely enough the Pileated's notes 
resemble those of the Flicker but are louder. 

The nest is usually well up; the 3-5 white eggs are laid 
in April in the south, in May in the north. 

X RED-HEADED WOODPECKER 

Melanerpes erythrocephalus. Case 3, Figs. 21, 22; Case 6, 
Fig- 43 

Adults of both sexes have the whole head red; young, during 
their first winter, have the head grayish brown, and a black band 
across the white wing-feathers. L. 9$. 

Range. Eastern United States, west to Rockies; local east of 
the Alleghanies and north of Pennsylvania. 

Washington, rather common S. R., rare W. V. Ossining, rare 
P. R., common in fall, Aug. 27-Oct. 12. Cambridge, irregular 
at all seasons; sometimes common in fall. N. Ohio, common 
S. R., Apl. 20-Sept. 25; occasionally winters. Glen Ellyn, 
common S. R., Feb. io-Nov. 6; a few winter. SE. Minn., 
common S. R., Apl. 4-Sept. 17; rare in winter. 

Adding to the normal habits of a Woodpecker marked 
skill as a flycatcher, the Red-head stops his grub-hunting 



32 WOODPECKERS 

and swings out after a passing insect with a dazzling dis- 
play of red, white and blue-black. Noisy as he is con- 
spicuous, he beats his log-drum, rolls a tree toad-like 
krrring, or, with tireless persistency utters a whistled 
croak. In the northeastern states Red-heads are dis- 
tributed irregularly. They are rarely common in the 
summer, but in the fall they sometimes appear in num- 
bers. Whenever they come we are soon aware of their 
presence. 

The nest is generally in a dead tree; the 4-6 white eggs 
are laid in May. 

RED-BELLIED WOODPECKER 
Centurus carolinus. Case 3, Fig. 23 

Back and wings evenly barred with black and white, hence 
the name 'Zebra'; the female and young have the front part 
of the crown gray. L. 9 J. 

be Range. Eastern United States, north to southern Pennsyl- 
vania, western New York and southern Minnesota; casually 
further. 

Washington, locally common P. R. Cambridge, A. V., one 
record. N. Ohio, tolerably common P. R. SE. Minn., un- 
common P. R. 

A common, hoarse-voiced resident of orange groves 
and gardens who with a chuh-chuh, jerkily hitches himself 
upward in the routine of the daily grub hunt. It is rare 
at the northern part of its range, but resident wherever 
found. The nest is in dead or living trees; the 4-6 white 
eggs are laid in late April of early May. 

J< NORTHERN FLICKER 
Colaftes auratus luteus. Case 2, Figs. 21, 22; Case 3, Fig. 20 

The white rump and yellow wing-linings, displayed in flight; 
black breast-crescent, spotted underparts and fairly large size, 
readily distinguish this beautiful bird. The female very properly 
lacks the male's 'moustache.' L. 12. 

Range. Eastern North America, from North Carolina and 
southern Illinois to Canada and Alaska. The Southern Flicker 



GOATSUCKERS 33 

(C a. auratus) a smaller, darker race, inhabits the South Atlantic 
and Gulf States. 

Washington, common S. R., rare W. V. Ossining, common 
S. R., Mch. 25-Oct. 30; a few winter. Cambridge, very common 
S. R., common W. V. N. Ohio, common S. R., Mch. io-Nov. 15 
a few winter. Glen Ellyn, common S. R., Mch. 7-Dec. 24; 
a few winter. SE. Minn., common S. R., Mch. 21-Oct. 16. 

Thirty years ago the Flicker, High-hole or Yellow- 
hammer, was prey of any boy with a gun and was corre- 
spondingly wild and little known; now, thanks to the 
Audubon Society, he is almost ss domestic as the Robin. 
In search of ants and their eggs, he hunts our lawns and 
even accepts the hospitality of our nest-logs. A great 
acquisition to our dooryard life is this bird of beautiful 
colors, quaint habits, and strange notes. His loud, 
strongly accented call, kee-yer, his rapidly repeated mellow 
weechew, weichew, possess character even if they lack 
musical quality. 

The Flicker nests in holes and lays from 5-9 white eggs 
in late April or early May. 

GOATSUCKERS, SWIFTS, HUMMINGBIRDS. 
ORDER MACROCHIRES 

NIGHTHAWKS, WHIP-POOR-WILLS, ETC. 
FAMILY CAPRIMULGIOE 

CHUCKWILL'S WIDOW 
Antrostromus carolinensis. Case 6, Fig. 40 

A larger, browner bird than the Whip-poor-will, with branched, 
not simple bristles at the sides of the bill. Breast-patch whiter 
in the male than in the female. L. 12. 

Range. Southern states north to Virginia; wintering from 
southern Florida southward and migrating northward in March. 

Washington, one record. Cambridge, A. V„ one record, Dec. 

What the Whip-poor-will is to the north the Chuck- 
will is to the south. The difference in their names expresses 



34 GOATSUCKERS 

the syllabic difference in their calls, but the Chuck-will's 
notes are uttered more evenly and lack the marked accent 
on the first "Whip" of its northern cousin's song. 

The Chuck-will lays its two eggs in April on the ground 
in the woods, where it lives. They are white with delicate 
lilac markings and a few brownish spots. 

WHIP-POOR-WILL 
Antrostomus vociferus vociferus. Case 6, Fig. 41 

Outer wing-quills barred withTrusty, breast-band white in the 
male, buff in the female. L. 9$. 

Range. Breeds from northern Georgia north to Canada, winters 
from the Gulf States southward, starting north in April. 

Washington, common S. R., Apl. 13-Oct. 13. Ossining, com- 
mon S. R., Apl. 19-Oct. 17. Cambridge, formerly S. R„ now 
chiefly T. V., Apl. 30-Sept. 20. N. Ohio, locally common S. R., 
Apl. 25—Sept. 15. Glen Ellyn, rare, spring records only, Apl. 19- 
May 21, SE. Minn., common S. R., Apl. 17-Sept. 28. 

A mysterious, silent, flitting shadow, should we chance 
to arouse it from its sleep in the forest by day, at dusk the 
Whip-poor-will takes the center of the stage and announces 
his presence to the world. Whip" -poor-will, whip-poor-will 
he calls with a snap and a swinging rhythm that makes 
the twilight ring with the oft-repeated notes. 

Two eggs are laid on the ground in the woods in May. 
They are dull white with delicate obscure lilac markings, 
and a few brownish gray spots. 

PC NIGHTHAWK 
Chordeiles virginianus virginianus. Case 6, Fig. 39 

A white mark across the black outer wing-quills is very con- 
spicuous in flight; seen from below it suggests a hole in the bird's 
wing. The female has the throat buff and no white band in the 
tail. L. 10. 

Range. Eastern North America from the Gulf States and 
Georgia north to Canada and Alaska. Winters in the tropics 
coming north in April. The Florida Nighthawk (C. v. chapmani) 
a smaller race (L. 8}) is a Summer Resident in the Gulf States. 



SWIFT 35 

Washington, not common S. R.; abundant T. V., Apl. 19- 
Oct. 8. Ossining, common S. R., May 9-Oct. 11. Cambridge, 
rare S. R., common T. V., May 15-Sept. 25. N. Ohio, locally 
common S. R., May i-Sept. 20. Glen Ellyn, not common S. R., 
common T. V., May i-Oct. 14. SE. Minn., common S. R„ 
May 4-Sept. 30. 

Doubtless because we see the Nighthawk and only hear 
the Whip-poor-will the notes of the latter have been often 
attributed to the former, with the result that many people 
think there is but one species. While it is true that there 
is a general resemblance in form, in details of color and 
markings, the two birds are quite unlike, while so far as 
notes and habits are concerned, few members of the 
same family differ more. The Whip-poor-will haunts the 
shadows of the woods and rarely flies far above the ground, 
the Nighthawk, like a Swift, courses high in the open, even 
over city house-tops, where anyone who looks may see 
him. The Whip-poor-will's notes have made him famous, 
the Nighthawk calls only a nasal peent , peent, and, diving 
earthward on set wings, produces a hollow, booming 
sound. Both nest on the ground, but the Nighthawk 
lays in the fields or on pebbly roofs, and its two finely 
marked eggs (laid in May or June) are quite unlike those 
of the Whip-poor-will. 



SWIFTS. FAMILY MICROPODID^ 

X CHIMNEY SWIFT 
Ckatura pelagica. Case 6. Fig. 42 

A near relative of the Hummingbird, not of Swallows. Note 
the 'spine '-tipped tail-feathers. 

Range. Eastern North America; winters in Central America; 
reaches the Gulf States in March. 

Washington, abundant S. R., Apl. 6-Oct. 27. Ossining, com- 
mon S. R., Apl. 10-Oct. 23. Cambridge, abundant S. R„ Apl. 25- 
Sept. 20. N. Ohio, abundant S. R., Apl. 10-Oct. 20. Glen 



3 6 HUMMINGBIRD 

Ellyn, common's. R., Apl. 16-Sept. 29. SE. Minn., common 
S. R., Apl. 20-Sept. 18. 

A twittering courser of evening skies who makes his 
home in our chimneys. Here the bracket-like nest of 
dead twigs is attached to the bricks by the bird's saliva, 
to be loosened, at times, after heavy rains and fall to 
the fire-place below. In the fall great flocks roost in 
chimneys, generally large ones, returning night after 
night. 

The 4-6 white eggs are laid in May. 



HUMMINGBIRDS. FAMILY TROCHILIDiE 
•' RUBY-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD 

Archilochus colubris. Case 7, Figs. 4, 3 

Females and young lack the 'ruby' throat. 

Range. Eastern North America, nesting from Florida to 
Quebec; winters from central Florida to Panama. 

Washington, common S. R., Apl. 23-Oct. 23. Ossining, com- 
mon S. R., Apl. 30-Oct. 3. Cambridge, very common T. Vij 
uncommon S. R., May 10— Sept. 20. N. Ohio, common S. R., 
May i-Sept. 15. Glen Ellyn, rare S. R., May I-Sept. 22. SE. 
Minn., common S. R., May 10-Oct. 8. 

Any Hummingbird seen east of the Mississippi may, with 
confidence, be called a Ruby-throat; exceptions will prob- 
ably prove to be sphinx moths, which, it must be con- 
fessed, look singularly hummingbird-like as they hover 
before flowers. When the eggs are laid the male deserts 
the female, leaving to her the task of incubation and care 
of the young. 

The nest, most exquisite of bird homes, is saddled to a 
limb usually 15 or more feet up. The two bean-like 
white eggs are laid in May, 



FLYCATCHERS 37 

PERCHING BIRDS. ORDER PASSERES 

FLYCATCHERS. FAMILY TYRANNIC 

X KINGBIRD 
Tyrannus tyrannus. Case 7, Fig. 6 

Note the white-tipped tail; young birds lack the orange crest. 
L. 8J. 

Range. North America; nests from northern Florida to 
Canada; winters in South America, reaching Florida in March. 

Washington, common S. R., Apl. 18-Sept. 23. Ossining, 
common S. R., Apl. 29-Sept. 10. Cambridge, common S. R. 
May s-Sept. 1. N. Ohio, common S. R., Apl. 20-Sept. 15. 
Glen Ellyn, fairly common S. R., Apl. 16-Sept. 6. SE. Minn., 
common S. R., Apl. 26-Aug. 31. 

A valiant defender of his home who, at the approach of 
Crow or Hawk, utters his steely, chattering, battle-cry 
and sallies forth to attack. Fearlessly he plunges down on 
an enemy many times his size who dodging this way and 
that beats a hasty retreat before his active, aggressive 
assailant. In the fall migration Kingbirds gather in 
loose flocks. 

The nest is placed near the end of a branch about 20 feet 
up; the 3-5 white eggs spotted with dark brown, are laid 
in May. 

GRAY KINGBIRD 
Tyrannus dominiccnsis dominicensis. Case 7, Fig. 7 

Resembles the Kingbird but is lighter gray, and the tail lacks 
the conspicuous white tip. 

Range. West Indies, nesting north through Florida to south- 
eastern South Carolina; winters to South America; reaches 
Florida early in May. 

A not uncommon summer resident in parts of Florida 
and the coastal region of Georgia and South Carolina, 
with the general habits and appearance of our Kingbird, 



38 FLYCATCHERS 

but with a quite different call which suggests the words 
pittrri-pittrri. It nests in May, laying four salmon- 
colored eggs, marked with dark brown and lilac. 



>, CRESTED FLYCATCHER 
Myiarchus crinilus. Case 7, Fig. 5 

The reddish brown tail-feathers may sometimes be seen and 
the crest is usually evident. L. 9. 

Range. Eastern North America; nests from Florida to Canada; 
winters in the tropics, reaching Florida on its northward journey 
in March. 

Washington, very common S. R., Apl. 20-Sept. 29. Ossining, 
common S. R., May 7-Sept. 12. Cambridge, rare S. R., May 15- 
Sept. 11. N. Ohio, common S. R., Apl. 25-Sept. 15. Glen 
Ellyn, not common S. R. t May i-Sept. 18. SE. Minn., common 
S. R., Apl. 25. 

A character of the woods distinguished alike by appear- 
ance, voice and habits. His crested head seems too big 
for his body; his exclamatory whistle, which sounds like 
a shout above a monotone of conversation, his habit of 
always lining his nest with a cast-off snake skin, all mark 
him as an odd genius. Even his wife's eggs, with their 
long chocolate streaks, are quite unlike any other birds' 
eggs. They are laid in a hole in a tree in May or June. 

)f' PHCEBE 
Sayornis phcebe. Case 4, Fig. 52; Case 5, Fig. 15 

Head slightly crested, somewhat darker than body. In the 
fall the underparts are tinged with yellow. L. 7. 

Range. Eastern North America; nests from northern Missis- 
sippi and northwestern Georgia to Canada; winters from South 
Carolina to Mexico. The only Flycatcher to winter in the 
eastern United States and hence the first to reach us in the 
spring. 

Washington, common S. R., Feb. 25-Oct.; occasionally winters. 
Ossining, common S. R., Mch. 14-Oct. 29. Cambridge, common 
T. V., and not uncommon S. R„ Mch. 25-Oct. 10. N. Ohio, 
common S. R., Mch. 14-Oct. 15. Glen Ellyn, S. R., Mch. 13- 
Oct. 6. SE. Minn., common S. R., Mch. 22-Oct. 11. 



FLYCATCHERS 39 

The Phoebe is the best known member of a group of small 
Flycatchers which the beginner, and not infrequently the 
advanced student, names with more or less uncertainty. 
Fortunately for the field student, and as if to compensate 
for their close resemblance in plumage, they all possess 
distinctive, quite unlike, and easily recognizable calls, and 
consequently can readily be identified by their voices if 
not by their colors. 

The Phoebe shows so marked a fondness for our society, 
nesting under our piazzas, in barns or outbuildings, and 
calls his pewit-phmbe so plainly, wagging his tail the while 
in a friendly, sociable kind of a way, that there is never 
any doubt about his identity; but we will not make the 
acquaintance of his less common, less confiding relatives 
so readily. 

The Phoebe's 4-6 white eggs (rarely with a few brown 
spots) are laid the latter half of April. 

OLIVE-SIDED FLYCATCHER 
Nuttalornis borealis. Case 8, Fig. 59 

With the general appearance of a large Phcebe, but with the 
breast and sides the color of the back, and a tuft of white feathers 
on each flank. L. 74. 

Range. North America; nests from northern New England 
northward (southward in the Alleghanies to North Carolina); 
winters in the tropics. 

Washington, casual T. V. Ossining, tolerably common T. V., 
May 20; Aug. 15-Sept. 16. Cambridge, rare T. V., May 20- 
June 6; formerly not uncommon S. R., one Sept. record. Glen 
Ellyn, not common T. V., May 13-June 11; Aug. n-Sept. 15. 
SE. Minn., common T. V., May 10-Sept. 9. 

To most of us the Olive-sided is known as a rare migrant 
passing northward in May, among the later transients, and 
southward in September. When traveling the bird retains 
the fondness of its kind for perching on tall tree-tops, but 
its loud, unmistakable, whistled "come right here, come 
right here" is usually heard only on the nesting ground. 



4 o FLYCATCHERS 

The nest is placed in coniferous trees about 25 feet up, 
and 3-5 white, brown-spotted eggs are laid in June. 



X WOOD PEWEE 

Myiochanes virens. Case 8, Fig. 63 

Resembles the Phoebe but is smaller with relatively longer wings 
and more evident wing-bars. L. f>\. 

Range. Eastern North America; nesting from Florida to 
Canada; winters in the tropics. 

Washington, common S. R„ Apl. 29-Oct. 12. Ossining, 
common S. R., May 10-Oct. 2. .Cambridge, common T. V., not 
uncommon S. R., May 18-Sept. 15. N. Ohio, abundant S. R., 
May 2-Sept. 27. Glen Ellyn, fairly common S. R., May o- 
Sept. 29. SE. Minn., common S. R., May 10-Sept. 23. 

In color Phcebe and Pewee are much alike and both are 
Flycatchers, but the resemblance ends there. Pewee 
loves the solitude of the forest rather than the sociability 
of the barnyard, and his pensive pee-a-wee does not even 
suggest the business-like pewft-phoebe of his better-known 
cousin. Nor does his dainty lichen-covered nest saddled 
so skillfully on the limb of a forest tree, recall the Phoebe's 
bulky moss and mud dwelling. Finally, the Pewee's 
eggs, laid in May, are wreathed with brown. 



YELLOW-BELLIED FLYCATCHER 
Empidonax flaviventris. Case 8, Fig. 61 

The entire underparts, including the throat, are unquestionably 
sulphur-yellow. L. 5 J. 

Range. Eastern North America; nests from northern New 
York and northern New England northward into Canada; winters 
in the tropics. 

Washington, rather common T. V., May; July 28-Oct. 6. 
Ossining, common T. V., May 17-June 4; Aug. 8-Sept. 20. 
Cambridge, T. V., sometimes rather common, May 25-June 3; 
Aug. 28-Sept. 8. N. Ohio, rare T. V., May 10. Glen Ellyn, 
rather rare T. V., May 20-June 5; Sept. 3. SE. Minn., common 
T. V., May 19. 



FLYCATCHERS 41 

Known chiefly as a not common migrant who visits 
our woods on his journey to and from his northern home. 
He is a silent traveler and gives no clue to his identity 
by calling or singing, but his underparts are so much 
yellower than those of any other of our small Flycatchers 
that they make a definite field character. Nests in 
coniferous forests on the ground, laying 4 white, lightly 
spotted eggs in June. 

ACADIAN FLYCATCHER 
Empidonax virescens. Case 8, Fig. 60 

Throat white, upperparts bright, light olive-green, without 
tinge of brown as in the Alder Flycatcher. 

Range. Eastern North America; rather southern, nesting 
from Florida north to Connecticut and Michigan; winters in the 
tropics. 

Washington, common S. R„ May i-Sept. 15. Ossining, com- 
mon S. R., May 10-Aug. 27. N. Ohio, common S. R., May 4- 
Sept. 15. Glen Ellyn, not common S. R., May 6-Aug. 27, and 
probably later. 

On the low-sweeping limb of a beech over a stream is an 
ideal site for the frail nest of the Acadian. The bird is 
never found far from it and its low-ranging habits permit 
us to see its characteristic markings and hear its peculiar 
sudden, explosive little pee-e-ytik and more commonly 
uttered spee or peet. 

The creamy white, brown-spotted eggs are laid the latter 
part of May. 

ALDER FLYCATCHER 
Empidonax trailli alnorum. Case 8, Fig. 62 

Larger than the Least Flycatcher, but resembling it in having 
the back olive-brown instead of olive-green as in the Acadian 
and Yellow-bellied Flycatchers. L. 6. 

Range. Eastern North America; nests from northern New 
Jersey (locally) and mountains of West Virginia to Canada; 
Winters in the tropics. 



42 FLYCATCHERS 

Washington, irregularly common T. V., May 8-May 28; Aug. 
16-Sept. 17. Ossining, rare T. V., May 19-May 31; Aug. 29. 
Cambridge, rare T. V., May 28-June 6; Aug.; occasional in 
summer. 

Traill's Flycatcher (E.t.traitti), a slightly browaer bird is the 
Mississippi Valley form. N. Ohio, common S. R., May 7-Sept. 
10. Glen Ellyn, quite common .S. R., May 14-Sept. 19. S. B. 
Minn., common S. R., May 6- Aug. 10. 

A rare recluse of the alders who, traveling silently 
between his s umm er and his winter homes, makes few 
friends among men. Dwight describes its call note as 
"a single pep," and its song as ee-zee-e-up, resembling 
that of the Acadian. The bird places the nest low down 
in the crotch of one of the bushes among which it lives 
and lays 3-4 white, brown-spotted eggs in June. 



A LEAST FLYCATCHER 
Empidonax minimus. Case 6, Fig. 44. 

Smallest of the Flycatchers; like the Adler Flycatcher its 
back is olive-brown rather tthan] olive-green; no evident yellow 
on the underparts. L. 5 J. 

Range. Eastern North America; nests from Iowa, Pennsyl- 
vania and New Jersey to Canada; winters in the tropics. 

Washington, common T. V., Apl. 20— May 20; Aug. 13-Sept. 15. 
Ossining, tolerably common S. R., Apl. 25-Aug. 26. Cambridge, 
very common S. R., May 1— Aug. 25. N. Ohio, common T. V. 
Apl. 15-May 25; Aug. 25-Oct. 1; rare in summer. Glen Ellyn, 
not common S. R., chiefly T. V., May 4-Sept. 24. SE. Minn., 
common S. R., Apl. 30-Sept. 13. 

A Flycatcher of lawns and orchard, seldom going far 
from the tree in which its nest with its white eggs is 
placed. A dry-voiced little bird whose unmusical, but 
distinctly uttered chebic, chebec makes up in character 
what it lacks in sweetness. Between whiles he swings 
out for a passing insect only to call chebic, chebic, chebic 
when he returns to his perch. 



LARKS 43 

LARKS. FAMILY ALAUDID^ 

PRAIRIE HORNED LARK 
Otocoris alpeslris praticola. Case 2, Fig. 42 

Note the long hind-toe nail (or the track it leaves), the little 
feathered 'horns,' the black patch on cheeks and breast (less 
evident in winter). Smaller than the Northern Horned Lark, 
which visits the United States only in winter, with the line 
over the eye white, and throat but faintly tinged with yellow. 
L. 7I. 

Range. Nests in the Upper Mississippi Valley from Missouri 
and in the Atlantic States (locally), from Connecticut north- 
ward; winters southward to Texas and Georgia. The Horned 
Lark (Otocoris alpestris alpeslris), is a more northern race, nesting 
in the Arctic regions and migrating southward as far as Ohio and 
rarely Georgia, when it is often associated with the resident 
Prairie Horned Lark. It is larger than that race (L. 7!) and has 
the throat and line over the eye yellow. 

Washington, common W. V., Aug. 11-Apl. Cambridge, one 
record. N. Ohio, common P. R. Glen Ellyn, common P. R. 
SE. Minn., S. R., Mch.-Nov., a few in mild winters. 

A bird of open places — shores, plains, and prairies, 
and roadways — who runs (not hops) nimbly ahead of one, 
or, with a short note, rises, and on its long, pointed wings, 
flies on ahead. He usually returns to the ground, but 
may alight on a fence; his long hind toe-nail not being 
suited to grasping a small perch. The weak, twittering 
song is uttered on the wing, when the bird, like its relative 
the Skylark, mounts into the air. It also sings from a 
perch near the ground. 

The Prairie Horned Lark is the first of our small birds to 
nest, making its home on the ground and laying four 
finely speckled eggs early in March. After the nesting 
season the birds gather in flocks. 



44 CROWS AND JAYS 

CROWS, JAYS, ETC. FAMILY CORVID^E 

£ BLUE JAY 
Cyanocitta cristata cristata. Case a. Fig. 20 

Color, habits and voice combine to render the Blue Jay con- 
spicuous. L. iif. 

Range. Eastern North America from Georgia to Quebec; 
migratory only at the northern limit of its range. The Florida 
Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata fiorincola. Case 4, Fig. 75) is smaller 
(L. io{) and grayer above. It is found throughout Florida. 

Washington, rather rare P. R., common T. V., Apl. 28-May IS; 
Sept. 15-Oct. 15. Ossining, tolerably common P. R. Cambridge, 
common P. R., abundant T. V., Apl. and May; Sept. and Oct. 
N. Ohio, common P. R. Glen Ellyn, common P. R. SE. Minn., 
common P. R. 

If the Blue Jay were as good as he is beautiful he would 
be our most popular bird. But fine feathers do not always 
make fine birds, and to those who judge birds by human 
standards the Blue Jay's loud, harsh voice, overbearing 
manners, and nest-robbing habits are unpardonable. 
With all his faults, however, the true bird enthusiast loves 
him still. His bright colors, dashing ways and intelli- 
gence win our admiration and we feel honored when he 
makes his home near ours, building in early May a well- 
made nest in a tree-crotch, for the reception of the 4-6 
olive-green, thickly speckled eggs. 

FLORIDA JAY 

Aphelocoma cyanea 

Size of the Blue Jay but quite unlike it in color. The head; 
wings and tail are grayish blue without white markings; the 
back is pale brown, the underparts dirty white, with the throat 
inconspicuously streaked and a faint bluish breast-band. 

Range. Florida between lat. 27 and 30 , and chiefly along 
the coasts. 

This is the 'Scrub- Jay' of Florida and is not to be 
confused with the Florida Blue Jay. It lives in dis- 



CROWS AND JAYS 4S 

tricts where scrub palmetto grows, but also comes into 
gardens and grows where it soon responds to proper treat- 
ment and becomes semi-domesticated. It nests early in 
April. 

CANADA JAY 
Perisoreus canadensis canadensis 

Size of the Blue Jay; a gray bird with a black crown and white 
forehead, cheeks and throat. 

Range. Northern New England and northern New York; 
northward; resident, rarely straggling southward. 

Cambridge, A. V., one record, Oct. 

It is singular that the Canada Jay at the north and 
the Florida Jay in the south should show exceptional 
confidence in man, while the Blue Jay always seems to 
regard him with suspicion. The very day we make camp 
in the north woods the Canada Jay or Whiskey Jack 
becomes our guest. As though assured of a welcome he 
fearlessly joins our party, helping himself to such supplies 
as please his fancy. Long before our arrival, when snow 
still covered the ground, he has reared his family and for 
the rest of the year has only his own wants to fill. 

RAVEN 
Corvus corax principalis 

Much larger than the Crow, the throat with long, pointed 
feathers, instead of short, rounded ones. L. 24. 

Range. North America rare and local in the Eastern States; 
south to New Jersey on the coast and to Georgia in the mountains. 

Crows caw, while Ravens croak; but to be sure that you 
have actually seen a Raven he should be with Crows, when 
the Raven's much larger size is evident. Unless, however, 
you should visit the few localities in the eastern States 
where Ravens live you are not likely to make the bird's 
acquaintance. Ravens nest on cliffs as well as in trees. 



46 CROWS AND JAYS 

Their eggs, which resemble those of the Crow in color, 
are laid in April. 

,< CROW 

Corvus brachyrhynchos brachyrhynckos. Case I, Fig. 19; 
Case 3, Fig. 27 

Sexes alike in color. L. 19}. 

Range. North America; migratory at the northern limit of 
its range; roosting in colonies in winter. 

Washington, abundant P. R. Ossining, common P. R. Cam- 
bridge, common P. R, abundant T. V. N. Ohio, common P. R. 
Glen Ellyn, common P. R. SE. Minn., common S. R., Mch.- 
Nov., uncommon W. V. 

The Crow and the Robin are probably the best known 
of all our birds. The former we treat as an enemy and the 
latter as a friend, and one therefore is as wild as the other 
is tame. Whether the Crow deserves to be outlawed has 
not as yet been decided. But we should not condemn him 
out of court and let us remember that as an intelligent, 
self-respecting citizen, who animates wintry wastes with 
his shining sable form and clarion call, he has other than 
economic claims to our consideration. The nest is placed 
in a tree about 30 feet up, and 4-6 eggs, green thickly 
marked with brownish are laid in April. 

The Florida Crow (C. b. pascuus) is very near the 
northern bird, but has the wings and tail smaller, the bill 
and feet larger. It lives chiefly in the pine barrens of 
Florida and is much less common in the state than tha 
Fish Crow. 

FISH CROW 
Corvus ossifragus 

Brighter, more uniformly colored above and below, the feathers 
without dull tips. 

Range. Atlantic and Gulf coast region from the lower Hudson 
Valley and Long Island Sound southward. Migratory only at 



STARLING 47 

the northern limit of its range. Pound throughout Florida, but 
elsewhere usually not far from tidal water, if 

Washington, rather common P. R. Cambridge, A. V., one 
record, Mch. 

In life the Fish Crow may be distinguished from the 
common Crow by its smaller size and hoarser voice. The 
difference in size, however, is evident only when the two 
are together, but once the cracked, reedy tar (not caw) of 
the Fish Crow has been learned the species may always 
be identified when heard. It is somewhat like the note 
of a young Crow, but less immature. The nest and eggs 
are much like those of the common Crow. The eggs are 
laid in May. 



STARLINGS. FAMILY STURNID^J 

X STARLING 
Sturnus vulgaris. Case 2, Figs. 24, 25/" 

In winter conspicuously dotted with whitish; in summer with 
but few dots and a yellow bill; at all times with a short tail and 
long wings. L 8 J. 

Range. Introduced from Europe into Central Park, New York 
City, in 1890, now more or less numerous from Virginia to Maine; 
occasional west of the Alleghanies. It is a quick, active bird, 
probing the ground now this side, now that, as it walks rapidly 
over our lawns. The short tail and long wings are most notice- 
able in the air and distinguish the Starling from our other black 
birds. 

A long-drawn whistle, such as one calls to a dog, is the 
Starling's most common note, but it has many others. 
It nests in April, often after quarreling with Flickers for 
possession of a nest-hole in which to lay its pale bluish 
eggs. The young appear in mid-May and their harsh, 
rasping food-call is a common note for several weeks; 
then the birds begin to gather in companies which, later, 
form flocks of thousands. 



48 BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES, ETC. 

BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES, ETC. FAMILY 
ICTERIDiE 

\ BOBOLINK 
Dolichonyx oryzivorus. Case 7, Figs. 13, 14 

In July, after nesting, the male molts into a plumage resembling 
that of the female, when both are known as Reedbird. L 7$. 

Range. Nests from northern New Jersey and northern Mis- 
souri to southern Canada and westward to British Columbia; 
leaves the United States through Florida and winters chiefly in 
northwestern Argentina; returns to United States early in 
April. 

Washington, T. V., common in spring, abundant in fall; Apl. 
26-May 30; July 23-Nov. 14. Ossining, tolerably common 
S. R., May i-Oct. 5. Cambridge, very common S. R., May 8- 
Sept. 10. N. Ohio, common S. R., Apl. 16-Oct. 10. Glen 
Ellyn, S. R., Apl. 27-Oct. 9. SE. Minn., common S. R., Mch. 5- 
Aug. 27. | 

I A bird with a dual personality; welcome minstrel of 
the meadows when nesting, dread scourge of the rice- 
fields when traveling. With the loss of his trim suit of 
black, white, and buff, Bob loses also his merry tinkling, 
rippling song, and acquires with his streaked Reedbird 
suit a single watchword. Tink, tink he calls from some- 
where overhead, and tink, tink his comrades answer as they 
follow a trackless path through the sky on their 5000-mile 
journey. 

The nest is placed on the ground and 4-7 grayish, 
blotched eggs are laid late in May or early in June. 

\COWBIRD 
Mololhrus ater ater. Case 5, Figs. 8, 9 

The male's brown head distinguishes him from other Black- 
birds; the female wears a dull gray garb well designed to make 
her inconspicuous. L. 8. 

Range. North America; nesting from North Carolina an J 
Louisiana to Canada; winters from Virginia and Ohio southward. 

Washington, rather rare P. R., common T. V. Ossining, com- 



BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES, ETC. 49 

mon S. R., Mch. 22-Nov. 11. Cambridge, common S. R„ Mch. 
25-Nov. 1; occasional in winter. N. Ohio, abundant S. R., 
Mch. 10-Nov. 15. Glen Ellyn, common S. R., Mch. 15- 
Sept. 10. SE. Minn., common S. R., Apl. 11-Aug. 19. 

Outlaws among birds, they pair not neither do they 
build. Without moral standards or maternal instincts the 
female accepts the attention of any male that chances to 
win her fancy and deposits her eggs in the nests of other 
birds. She is a slacker and a shirker, who keeps much 
in the background during the breeding season. Color, 
habit, his sliding, glassy whistle, and guttural gurgling, 
make the male conspicuous. Leaving the care of their 
foster parents the young join others of their kind and 
flock in the grainfields or about cattle in the pastures. 

YELLOW-HEADED BLACKBIRD 
Xanthocepkalus xanthocepkalus. Case 6, Fig. 45 

Large size and a yellow head distinguish the male; the female 
is duller, the body brownish, the head yellowish. L. 10. 

Range. Mississippi Valley and westward, breeding from north" 
ern Illinois northward to Canada; winters from the west Gulf 
coast and southern Calif ornia into Mexico; accidental east of the 
Alleghanies. 

Washington, A. V., one instance, Aug. Cambridge, A. V., one 
record, Oct. Glen Ellyn, A. V., May 21, 1898. SE. Minn.; 
common S. R., Apl. 21. 

Hanging their cradle nest in the quill-reeds or rushes, 
the Yellow-heads are not found far from it until the young 
take wing. The male entertains his mate with a variety 
of strange calls and whistles, but leaves to her the hatching 
of the brown speckled eggs and care of the young while 
they are in the nest. Like other Blackbirds they migrate 
and winter in flocks. 

\fRED-WINGED BLACKBIRD 
Agelaius phxniceus phceniceus. Case 5, Figs. 5, 6 

The male in spring and early summer is unmistakable; in 
winter his feathers are tipped with brownish, more pronounced 



50 BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES, ETC. 

in the young. The streaked females require closer scrutiny. 
L. pi. 

Range. Eastern North America, nests from Florida to Canada; 
winters from Maryland southward, sometimes farther north. 
The Florida Red-wing (A. p. floridanus. Case 4, Figs. 28, 29) is 
smaller and with a slenderer bill. It inhabits Florida (except 
the southeast coast and Keys) and ranges west along the Gulf 
coast to Texas. The Bahama Red-wing (A. p. bahamensis) is 
still smaller. It is resident in southeastern Florida, the Keys 
and Bahamas. 

Washington, common P. R., abundant in migration. Ossin- 
ing, common S. R., Feb. 25-Nov. 11. Cambridge, abundant 
S. R.,|Mch. 10-Aug. 30; a few winter. N. Ohio, abundant S. R., 
Mch. i-Nov. 15. Glen Ellyn, common S. R., Mch. 5-Nov. 19. 
SE. Minn., common S. R., Mch. 8-Nov. 14. 

The Red-wing's mellow kong-quer-reee is as certain an 
indication of the presence of water as is the piping of frog3 
in the spring. It may be only a bit of boggy marshland, 
it may be a reedy lakeside, but water there will surely be. 
On a frequented perch he half spreads his wings, fluffs 
out his scarlet epaulets, bursting into bloom, as it were, 
when he utters his notes — a singing flower! The nest 
is in the alders, button-bushes, or reeds, or even on the 
ground, and although the birds come in March, their 
pale blue, spotted, blotched, and scrawled eggs are not 
laid until May. Except when nesting, Red-wings live in 
flocks. 

% MEADOWLARK 
Sturnella magna magna. Case », Fig. 23 

A large, quail-like bird which shows white outer tail-feathers 
when it flies; if one can obtain a front view, the yellow under- 
parts and black breast-crescent are conspicuous. L. loj. 

Range. Eastern North America, rare west of the Mississippi; 
nesting from North Carolina and Missouri to Canada; winters 
from southern New England and northern Ohio southward. 
The Southern Meadowlark (5. m. argutula, Case, 4, Fig. 79) is 
smaller and darker. It is resident in the south Atlantic and 
Gulf States. 

Washington, common P. R., less common in winter. Ossining, 
tolerably common S. R., Feb. 20-Nov. 27; a few winter. Cam- 
bridge, common S. R., not common W. V. N. Ohio, abundant 



BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES, ETC. 51 

S. R., Mch. 5-N0V. 15; a few winter. Glen Ellyn, common S. R.; 
Jan. 24-Nov. is; irregular W. V. SE. Minn., common S. R., 
Mch. 25-Oct. is, rare W. V. 

The Meadowlarkisafiferof the fields, whose high, clear 
whistle is one of the most welcome bird songs of early 
spring. In May, when nesting, it often sings an ecstatic 
twittering warble on the wing. The alarm calls are an 
unmusical dzit or yert and a string of beady, metallic notes. 

The nest is placed on the ground. The 4-6 eggs are 
white, speckled with brown. 

WESTERN MEADOWLARK 

Sturnella neglecta 

Grayer than the Eastern Meadowlark, with disconnected 
tail-bars and yellow spreading to the sides of the throat. 

Range. Western United States, rare east of the Mississippi. 
SE. Minn., common S. R., Mch. 25-Oct. 15. 

With the general appearance and habits of the Eastern 
Meadowlark, but differing in its call-notes and song. 
Instead of the sharp dzit or yert and metallic twitter of the 
eastern bird, the western species calls chuck, chuck, fol- 
lowed by a rolling 6-r-r-r-. The eastern bird plays the 
fife but the western uses the flute, and its bubbling grace- 
notes are easily distinguishable from the straight whistling 
of its eastern cousin. 

V ORCHARD ORIOLE 
Icterus spurius. Case 7. Figs. 10-12 

Adult males are unmistakable, but females and young males 
in their first fall wear a non-committal costume and must be 
looked at sharply. In their first nesting season, young males 
resemble the female but have a black throat. This is a smaller, 
more slender bird than the Baltimore Oriole, and the female is 
less orange. L. 7 J. 

Range. Eastern United States, nesting from the Gulf States 
to Massachusetts and Minnesota; winters in the tropics. 

Washington, common S. R., Apl. 20-Aug. 22. Ossining, com- 
mon S. R., May 2- Aug. 6. Cambridge, S. R., sometimes rather 



$2 BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES, ETC. 

common. May 15-July. N. Ohio, common S. R., Apl. 28- 
Sept. 5. Glen Ellyn, not common S. R., Apl. 28. SE. Minn., 
uncommon S. R., May 10-Aug. 26. 

In the northern part of its range, the Orchard Oriole is 
somewhat less common, and more local than the Baltimore 
Oriole, while its duller colors and more retiring habits make 
is more difficult to see. The voice is richer, more cultured 
— if one may use the term — than that of its brilliant 
orange-plumed cousin; indeed, in my opinion, this species 
deserves a place in the first rank of our songsters. The 
nest of finely woven grasses is not so deep as that of 
the Baltimore. Three to five bluish white eggs, spotted 
and scrawled with black, are laid the latter part of May. 

BALTIMORE ORIOLE 
Icterus galbula. Case 7, Figs. 8, 9 

The orange and black male needs no introduction; the female 
is tinted with orange strongly enough to show her relationship. 
L. 7*. 

Range. Eastern North America; nests from northern Georgia 
to Canada; winters in the tropics. 

Washington, rather common S. R., Apl. 29-Aug. 26. Ossining, 
common S. R., May 2-Sept. 1. Cambridge, very common S. R„ 
May 8 through Aug. N. Ohio, common S. R., Apl. 15-Sept. 10. 
Glen Ellyn, common S. R., Apl. 26-Sept. 4. SE. Minn., common 
S. R., May i-Sept. 1. 

This is the orange-and-black whistler of our fruit and 
shade trees, whose wife skillfully weaves a pendant cradle at 
the end of some drooping branch, therein to lay her white 
eggs curiously markeu with fine lines and blotches of 
black. The young, after leaving the nest in June, have a 
loud, babyish food-call, dee-dee-dee-dee, repeated time 
after time until their wants are satisfied. 

RUSTY BLACKBIRD 
Euphagus carolinus. Case 5, Figs. 3, 4 

The bird's common name is based on the fall plumage of the 
male, which is broadly margined with rusty. By spring these 



BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES, ETC. 53 

tips wear off and the bird is glossy black. Size of the Red-wing 1 
but with a whitish eye and no red; the female tmstreaked. 

Range. Eastern North America; nests from the northern part 
of the northern states to Canada; winters from New Jersey and 
Ohio to the Gulf States. 

Washington, common W. V., Oct. 13-Apl. 30. Ossining, 
common T. V., Mch. 26-May 8; Sept. 28-Nov. 27. Cambridge, 
very common T. V., Mch. 10-May 8; Sept. 15-Oct. 31. N. 
Ohio, common T. V., Mch. 5-May 10; Sept. 10-Nov. 15. Glen 
Ellyn, common T. V., Mch. 3-May 8; Sept. 12-Nov. 15; un- 
common W. V. SE. Minn., common T. V., Mch. 26-Nov. 24. 

This is the least conspicuous of our Blackbirds. It nests 
chiefly north of the United States, migrates in small flocks, 
and is less noisy than the Red-wing or Grackle and not 
so much in evidence as the Cowbird. Dwight describes 
its notes as "a confused medley of whistles, sweeter and 
higher-pitched than those of the Red-wing." It nests 
in May, building in coniferous trees or near the ground, 
and laying 4-7 greenish eggs, heavily marked with brown 
and purple. 

^PURPLE GRACKLE 

Quiscalus quiscula quiscula. Case 5, Fig. 1 

Plumage varied with metallic and iridescent reflections; tail 
long, fan-shaped, often 'keeled' in flight; eye pale yellow. Male, 
L. 124. The female is smaller and duller; L. io4. 

Range. Eastern North America; nests east of the Alleghanies 
from northern^Georgia to Connecticut; winters from Maryland 
southward. 

Washington, common T. V. and S. R., Feb. 20; a few winter. 
Ossining, tolerably common S. R., Feb. 15-Nov. 8. Cambridge, 
rare S. R. 

The Florida Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula aglaus, Case 

4, Fig. 74) is smaller than the Purple Grackle and has 
the head and neck violet-purple, the back bottle-green. 
It is resident in Florida and the Gulf States north to South 
Carolina. 

^ The Bronzed Grackle {Quiscalus quiscula osneus, Case 

5, Fig. 2) is the same size as the Purple Grackle, but ha* 



S4 BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES, ETC. 

the body bronzy without iridescent markings. It nests 

from Texas up the Mississippi Valley and eastward through 

central New York and Massachusetts to New Brunswick, 

north to Canada; and in migration is found in the range 

of the Purple Grackle. It winters from the Ohio Valley 

southward. 

Washington, rare T. V., Feb 20-Apl. 17. Ossining, common 
T. V., Apl; Nov. Cambridge, abundant. S. R„ Mch. 10-Nov-i; 
occasional in winter. N. Ohio, abundant, S. R., Mch. i-Nov. 15; 
rarely winters. Glen Ellyn, common S. R., Mch. 5— Nov. 15, SE. 
Minn, common S. R., Mch, 18- No v. 1; rare in winter. 

The Grackle is the largest of our northern Blackbirds. 
In the south it is exceeded in size only by the Boat- 
tailed Grackle. It migrates in flocks and nests in colonies, 
often in parks and cemeteries. It feeds chiefly on the 
ground and is frequently seen upon our lawns when it 
may be known by its rather waddling, walking gait, and 
its long tail. Its notes are harsh, cracked and discordant, 
but when heard in chorus make a pleasing medley. The 
nest is sometimes placed in pines about 30 feet up, 
but also in bushes and even in holes in trees. The 3-7 
eggs are usually pale bluish, heavily blotched and scrawled 
with brown and black. 

BOAT-TAILED GRACKLE 
Megaquiscalus major major 

The male is a long-tailed, glossy blue-black bird. (L. 16.) 
The female is much smaller (L. 12), blackish brown above, buff) 
below. 

Range. Florida north on the Atlantic coast to Virginia; weal 
to Texas. 

This giant Grackle frequents lakes, lagoons and bays, 
where it feeds along the shore or among aquatic plants. 
The male, a poseur among birds, strikes strange attitude* 
with bill pointing skyward, and with apparent effort 
forces out hoarse whistles. The female is quiet and 



FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. 55 

unassu ming. They nest in colonies, building in bushes and 
laying in April 3-5 bluish white eggs, strikingly blotched 
and scrawled with blackish. 

FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. FAMILY FRIN- 
GILLID^ 

EVENING GROSBEAK 

Besperiphona vesperlina vespertine 

A large, thick-set, heavy-billed, black and yellow Pinch. The 
male with the forehead and most of the body yellow, the crown, 
wings and tail black; the inner wing-quills white. The female 




Evening Grosbeak. 

Male and Female. 

is brownish gray, more or less tinged with yellow, the wings 
and tail black with white markings. L. 8. 

Range. Western North America, wintering regularly east- 
ward to Minnesota and irregularly to theiNorth Atlantic States. 

Glen Ellyn, one record, Dec. n, 1889. SE. Minn., common 
W. V., Oct. 17-May 19. 

The Evening Grosbeak is a notable traveler from the 
far northwest whose rare, irregular, and unheralded visits 



56 FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. 

and striking appearance make him always a welcome antf 
distinguished guest. Of recent years these birds have come 
to the east with greater frequency, arriving in November 
and remaining as late as May. They feed largely on tha 
buds and seeds of trees — maple and box-elder — and can 
often be attracted to our feeding-stations by the offer of 
sunflower seeds. They are usually associated in flocks 
of from six to eight to ten birds, and their notes when 
perching, have been described as resembling the jingle of 
small sleigh-bells, while their song is said to be a " wander- 
ing jerky warble." 

PINE GROSBEAK 
Pinicola enucleator leucura. Case 2, Figs. 53, 54 

Adult males are unmistakable; but young males and females 
might be confused with the female Evening Grosbeak, but they 
lack the conspicuous white markings in the wings and tail of that 
species. L. 9. 

Range. Northern North America, wintering southward 
irreguarly to Indiana and New Jersey; rarely as far as Kentucky 
and Washington. 

Washington, casual in winter. Ossining, irregular W. V., 
Dec. 18-Apl. 12. Cambridge, irregular W. V., frequently com- 
mon, sometimes abundant, Nov. 1— Men. 25. N. Ohio, occasional 
W. V. Glen Ellyn, uncommon and irregular W. V., Oct. 25-? 
SE. Minn., uncommon W. V. 

In the summer the Pine Grosbeak lives in coniferous 
forests, but on its irregular wanderings southward, like 
the Evening Grosbeak, it feeds upon the seeds of deciduous 
trees aad bushes. The Grosbeak's call-note is a clear 
whistle of three or four notes which may be easily imitated; 
its song is said to be prolonged and melodious. 

The Pine and Evening Grosbeaks would be notable 
figures in any gathering of birds, but coming at the most 
barren time of the year when our bird population is at the 
minimum and the trees are leafless, they are as welcome as 
they are conspicuous. 



FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. i7 



PURPLE FINCH 

Carpodacus purpureus purpureus. Case 2, Figs. 32, 33; Case 4; 
Figs. 48, 49 

The adult male is dull rose rather than purple, the female is 
sparrow-like in appearance but may be known by a whitish line 
over the eye and the company she keeps. Young males resemble 
their mother their first winter. L. 6J. 

Range. Eastern North America; nesting from northern 
Illinois and northern New Jersey northward to Canada; winters 
from the Middle States to the Gulf. 

Washington, common W. V., Sept. 12-May 26, largely a mi- 
grant. Ossining, rare P. R., common T. V. Cambridge, P. R. 
common from Apl. to Oct.; irregular, but sometimes abundant 
in winter. N. Ohio, common W. V., Sept. i-May 20. Glen 
Ellyn, fairly common T. V., Mch.-Apl„ Sept.-Oct., uncommon 
W. V. 

Erratic wanderers which travel on no fixed schedule 
but seem to feel at home wherever they find them- 
selves. Except when nesting, they usually live in small 
flocks which, if the fare of our feeding-stands please 
them, will sometimes live with us for weeks. The call- 
note is creak-creak, the song a flowing, musical warble 
often uttered in detached fragments. Four to six bluish, 
spotted eggs are laid in May; the nest being generally 
built in a coniferous tree. 

^ ENGLISH SPARROW; HOUSE SPARROW 

Passer domesticus domesticus. Case 2, Figs. 30, 31; Case 4, 
Figs. 38, 39 

Unfortunately too well known to require description. L. 6J. 
Range. First introduced into this country at Brooklyn, N. Y., 
from Europe in 1851; now found everywhere at all times. 

Hardy, pugnacious and adaptable, the Sparrow is a 
notable success in the bird world. We could overlook his 
objectionable traits if he possessed a pleasant voice, but 
his harsh, discordant notes and incessant chatter are 
unfortunately in harmony with his character. After all 
he gives a welcome touch of life to city streets and yards- 



$8 PINCHES, SPARROWS. ETC. 

Sparrows' nests are made of almost anything the birds 
can carry and built in any place that will hold them. 
The 4-7 finely speckled eggs are laid as early as March, 
and several broods are raised. 

AMERICAN CROSSBILL 
Loxia curvirostra minor. Case 2, Figs. 49, 50 

Crossbills have the mandibles crossed; the absence of wing* 
bars distinguishes this species from the usually less common 
White-winged Crossbill. L. 6i. 

Range. Nests from northern New England to Canada and 
southward in the Alleghanies to northern Georgia. Winters irreg- 
ularly southward, rarely as far as Florida and Louisiana. 

Washington, irregular W. V., sometimes abundant. Ossining, 
irregular; noted in almost every month. Cambridge, of common 
but irregular occurrence at all seasons. N. Ohio, irregular, 
often common, sometimes breeds. Glen Ellyn, uncommon 
and irregular, Oct. 20- June 11. SE. Minn., W. V., Oct. 25. 

Crossbills and Grosbeaks are among winter's chief 
attractions. While the latter, as I have said above, will 
leave their summer homes in coniferous forests to feed in 
winter on the seeds of deciduous trees, the Crossbills 
are less adaptable. They are specialists in cone-dissecting. 
Their singularly shaped bills prevent them from eating 
many kinds of food available to other birds, but no other 
birds can compete with them in extracting the seeds from 
cones. Having had too limited an experience with man 
to have learned to fear him, they are so surprisingly tame 
that I have known birds to be plucked from trees as one 
would pick off the cones on which they were feeding. In 
March, while the ground is still snow-covered, they lay 
3-4 pale greenish, spotted eggs in a well-formed nest, 
15-30 feet up in a coniferous tree. 

WHITE-WINGED CROSSBILL 

Loxia leucoptera. Case 2, Figs. 51, 52 

' Both sexes have white wing-bars and the male is of a paier, 
Snore rosy red than the male of the American Crossbill. K fi. 



FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. 59 

Range. Nests from northern New England to Canada; win- 
ters irregularly to southern Illinois and North Carolina. 

Washington, casual. Ossining, rare T. V., Oct. 29- Dec. 6. 
Cambridge, irregular W. V. N. Ohio, rare W. V. Glen Ellyn, 
rare, fall records only, Nov. SE. Minn., W. V., latest record 
Men. 4. 

A rarer bird than the American Crossbill which, however, 
it resembles in habits. Both climb about the branches of 
cone-bearing trees like little Parrots, while feeding keep 
up a low conversational chatter, and take wing with a 
clicking note. They have been found nesting in Nova 
Scotia as early as February 6. 

REDPOLL 
Acanthis linaria linaria. Case 2. Figs. 47, 48 

Any little sparrow-like bird with a red cap is a Redpoll. Adult 
males have the breast also red. L. 5 J. 

Range. Nests in Canada and Alaska; winters irregularly south- 
ward to Ohio and Virginia. 

Washington, very rare and irregular W. V. Ossining, regular 
W. V., Nov. 25-Mch. 26. Cambridge, irregular W. V., often 
very abundant, Oct. 25-Apl. 10. N. Ohio, rare W. V. Glen 
Ellyn, irregular W. V., Nov. 6-Mch. 7. SE. Minn., common 
W. V., Oct. 31-Apl. 7. 

A winter visitor from the far North whose coming 
never can be foretold. Years may pass without seeing 
them, then late some fall, they may appear in numbers. 
They are usually in flocks and feed upon seeds as well as 
birch and alder catkins. In notes and general habits the 
Redpoll resembles the Goldfinch. 

Holbcell's Redpoll (.4. holbxlli) is a slightly larger race, 
with a longer, more slender bill. It is a more northern 
form than the preceding, and rarely visits the United 
States. The Greater Redpoll {A. I. rostvatd) k, also larger 
than the common Redpoll, but has a shorter, stouter 
bill. It nests in Greenland and is of casual occurrence in 
the northern United States. The Hoary Redpoll (A. 
hornemanni exilipes) is a whiter bird than the preceding 



60 FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. 

with no streaks on the rump and comparatively few on the 
underparts. It nests within the Arctic Circle and rarely 
visits the northern United States in winter. 

Satisfactory identification of these races of the Redpoll 
can be made only by expert examination of specimens. 
The field student, however, may call any Redpoll he sees 
the Common Redpoll with the chances of being right 
largely in his favor. 

< GOLDFINCH 

Astragalinus tristis tristis. Case 2, Figs. 35, 36; Case 4, Figs. 

SO, Si 
r While he wears his ' Goldfinch' costume, the male will be known 
at a glance, but in winter, when he takes the dull yellow-olive 
dress of his mate, several glances may be required to recognize 
him, and this [remark, of course, applies to the female at all 
seasons. L. 5. 

Range. North America; the eastern form nests from Arkansas 
and northern Georgia to Canada and winters from the Northern 
to the Gulf States. 

Washington, common P. R. Ossining, common P. R. Cam- 
bridge, very common P. R. N. Ohio, common P. R. Glen 
Ellyn, common P. R. SE. Minn., P. R., common in summer, 
uncommon in winter. 

A beautiful, musical, cheerful bird, as sweet of disposi- 
tion as he is of voice. To hear a merry troop of Gold- 
finches singing their spring chorus is to hear the very 
spirit of the season set to music. Their call-note is a 
questioning dearie, dearie, their flight-call per-chiS-o-ree, 
per-chie-o-ree, as in long undulations they swing through 
the air. Their song is suggestive of a Canary's. They 
are late housekeepers, not nesting before the latter half 
of June, when 3-6 pale bluish white eggs are laid in a nest 
warmly lined with plant down. 

PINE SISKIN 

Spinus fiimis pinus. Case 2. Fig. 55 

A streaked, sparrow-like bird, with yellow markings in wings 
and tail which show in flight. L. 5. 



FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. 61 

Range. North America; nests from northern New England 
north to Canada and in the mountains, south to North Carolina; 
in winter southward to the Gulf States. 

Washington, irregularly abundant W. V., Oct. 24-May 20. 
Ossining, irregular P. R. Cambridge, irregular W. V., Oct. 15- 
May 10; sometimes very abundant; one breeding record. N. 
Ohio, tolerably common W. V., Sept. 20-May 15. Glen Ellyn, 
irregular T. V., Apl. 8-May 24; Sept. 8-Nov. 29. SE. Minn.i 
uncommon T. V., and W. V. Oct. 29-Apl. 9. 

The Siskin belongs in the group of winter visitants 
whose coming cannot be foretold. Some years it is rare 
or wanting, others abundant, a flock sometimes containing 
several hundred birds. In general habits it resembles 
the Goldfinch, feeding on weed seeds and catkins, par- 
ticularly of the alder, and on the seeds of conifers. The 
call-note is a high e-eep: its song like that of the Goldfinch 
but less musical. 



SNOW BUNTING 
Plectrophanes nivalis nivalis. Case 2, Fig. 57 

The prevailing tone of plumage is white, particularly when the 
bird is on the wing; the long, hind toe-nail should be noted. L. 
6i 

Range. Nests in Arctic regions, winters irregularly south to 
Kansas and Virginia. 

Washington, W. V., casual, one instance. Ossining, irregular 
W. V., Oct. 25— Mch. 22. Cambridge, common W. V., Nov. 1— 
Mch.^is; abundant in migrations. N. Ohio, tolerably common 
W. V., Dec. 10-Mch. is. SE. Minn., common W. V., Oct. 9- 
Mch. 14. 

Snow Buntings live in flocks and love open places, such 
as Horned Larks frequent, and are often found with them 
in fields or along the shore. Like the Horned Larks they 
are walkers, not hoppers, and like most walkers, it is 
exceptional for them to perch in trees. Hoffman de- 
scribed their notes as "a high, sweet, though slightly 
mournful tee, or tee-oo, a sweet rolling whistle, and a harsh 



62 FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. 

LAPLAND LONGSPUR 
Calcarius lapponicus lapponicus 

A sparrow-like bird, with reddish brown wings, a black or 
blackish breast, white, streaked underparts and„a brownish,back. 
L. 61. 

Range. Nests in Arctic regions, wintering southward, rarely 
and irregularly in the Atlantic States, to New York (casually 
South Carolina) and more commonly in the Mississippi Valley 
to Ohio and Texas. 

Washington, W V. one instance, Dec. Ossining, W. V., casual, 
Cambridge, one record. N. Ohio, tolerably common W. V., Nov. 




Lapland Longspur. 

Adult male in summer. In winter the throat and breast are mixed black 
and white. 



15-Apl. 25. Glen Ellyn, common W. V., Oct. 16-May 16. SE. 
Minn., common W. V. 

A rare visitor from the far North who, if we see it at all, 
will probably be found in the company of Horned Larks 
or Snow Buntings. It is a browner bird than either of 
them, sd while this is not a case of 'birds of a feather' 
it is a case of birds of a long hind toe-nail, since all three 
are distinguished by having a toe-nail actually longer than 
its toe. All three are walkers, which means also that 
they are ground-birds rather than tree-birds, and the 
tracks they leave in the snow, or on the beach, distinguish 
them from other birds if not from each other. 



FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. 63 



X VESPER SPARROW 
Poacetes gramineus gramineus. Case 4, Fig. 36; Case 5. Fig. 16 

Pater than any of our other field inhabiting Sparrows, except 
the Savannah, which is smaller; and differing from them all by- 
having a reddish brown shoulder-patch and white outer tail- 
feathers. L. 6. 

Range. Nests from North Carolina and Kentucky to Canada; 
winters from its southern nesting limits to the Gulf States. 

Washington, P. R., very common T. V., less so in summer and 
winter. Ossining, tolerably common S. R., Apl. 2-Nov. 4. Cam- 
bridge, common S. R., Apl. 5-Oct. 25. N. Ohio, abundant S. R.; 
Mch. 20-Nov. 7. Glen Ellyn, fairly common S. R., Mch. 21- 
Oct. 25. SE. Minn., common S. R., Apl. i-Oct. 29. 

A Sparrow of broad fields and plains whose song voices 
the spirit of open places. Neither words nor musical 
notation can describe it recognizably. It has somewhat 
the form of the Song Sparrow's song, just as the two birds 
resemble each other in form but are unlike in detail. 
One must, therefore, first learn to know the bird — an 
easy matter, since it is common and can be readily identi- 
fied by its white outer tail-feathers — and thereafter you 
will be the richer for a knowledge of this rarely appealing 
bit of bird music. 

The nest, as one might suppose, is built on the ground, 
and the 4-5 whitish spotted eggs are laid early in May. 

IPSWICH SPARROW 
Passerculus princeps 

With a general resemblance to the Savannah Sparrow (Case 5; 
Fig. 23) but larger, L. 6J, and decidedly paler. 

Range. Nests on Sable Island off Nova Scotia; winters south 
along the coast, regularly to New Jersey; rarely to Georgia. 
^Cambridge, casual, two instances, Oct. 

Few migratory birds have a more restricted breeding 
range than the Ipswich Sparrow. Confined to a sand- 
bar island during the summer where it is never out of 
sight or sound of the sea, it seeks similar haunts during 



64 FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. 

the winter when it is rarely found far from the immediate 
vicinity of the ocean. In general habits and nesting, 
it resembles the Savannah Sparrow, of which, indeed, 
it is doubtless an island representative. 

SAVANNAH SPARROW 

Passer cuius sandwichensis savanna. Case 4, Fig. 47; Case 5, 
Fig. 23 

In general color slightly paler than the Vesper Sparrow; 
smaller than that species; no white tail-feathers; a touch of 
yellow before the eye and on the bend of the wing. L. 5$. 

Range. Nests from Long Island and northern Iowa to Canada; 
winters from southern New Jersey and southern Indiana south- 
ward to Mexico. 

Washington, abundant T. V., Mch. 20-May 11; Sept. 21-Oct. 
23; a few winter. Ossining, common T. V., Apl. 3-May 13; 
Aug. 28-Oct. 28. Cambridge, abundant T. V., Apl., Oct.; 
breeds sparingly. N. Ohio, not common T. V., Mch. 20-May 12. 
Glen Ellyn, fairly plentiful S. R., Apl. 8-Oct. 20. SE. Minn., 
common S. R., Apl. 17-Oct. 23. 

An abundant Sparrow known only to bird students. It 
prefers fields to door-yards; lives much on the ground, 
and its darting flight, followed by a sudden dive to cover, 
and insignificant song all combine to make it rather dif- 
ficult of identification. It nests in May, laying 4-5 white, 
speckled eggs in a nest on the ground. 

GRASSHOPPER SPARROW 
Ammodramus savannarum austraUs. Case 7, Fig. 16 

A small, short-tailed Sparrow, without streaks on the under- 
parts and a back pattern which suggests ' feather scales.' L. 5 J. 

Range. Eastern United States, nesting as far north as southern 
Minnesota, and southern New Hampshire; winters from southern 
Illinois and North Carolina to the tropics. The Florida Grass- 
hopper Sparrow (A . s. floridanus) a smaller, darker race, is resi- 
dent in the Kissimmee prairies of south central Florida. 
I Washington, very common S. R., Apl. 17-Nov. 20. Ossining 
common S. R., Apl. 27-Oct. 23. Cambridge, rare S. R., May 16- 
Sept. 1. N. Ohio, common S. R., Apl. 20-Sept. 20. Glen Ellyn, 
not common S. R., May 4-Sept. 13. SE. Minn., common S. R., 
Apl. 25-Sept. 6. 



FINCHES, SPARROWS. ETC. 65 

r Grasshopper, he is called, because his unmusical little 
song, pit-t&ck, zee-e-e-e-e, sung from a low perch, resembles 
the sound produced by that insect. He is a common 
inhabitant of old fields, where sorrel and daisies grow, 
and when flushed at one's feet darts away to drop sud- 
denly to the ground beyond. The 4-5, white, spotted 
eggs are laid in a ground nest in late May or early June. 

HENSLOW'S SPARROW 
PasserherbiUus henslou-i henslowi. Case 7, Fig. 17 

With the general proportions of the Grasshopper Sparrow, but 
the underparts distinctly streaked and the nape olive. L. 5. 

Range. Nests from southern Missouri and Virginia to central 
Minnesota and New Hampshire; winters in the Southern States. 

Washington, common S. R., Apl. 10-Oct. 21. Ossining, rare 
T. V., Oct. 5-Oct. 10. Cambridge, very rare S. R. N. Ohio, 
S. JR., Glen Ellyn, not common S. R., May 8-Sept. 26. SE. 
Minn., common S. R. 

Henslow's Sparrow lives in isolated and sometimes 
widely separated communities, frequenting wet meadows 
in summer, but visiting, also, dry fields in winter. It 
has the general habits of the Grasshopper Sparrow and its 
notes are equally unmusical. The 4-5 grayish white, 
thickly speckled eggs are laid in a ground nest the latter 
half of May. 

LECONTE'S SPARROW 
Passerherbulus Ucontei. Case 7, Fig. 18 

The underparts are but slightly streaked, the crown is striped, 
and the nape reddish brown. L. 5. 

Range. Nesting in the interior of North America from our 
border States, northward and east to Minnesota; migrates south- 
ward and south-eastward, and winters locally from South Car- 
olina to Florida and Texas. 

Glen Ellyn, not common T. V., May 4-?; Sept. 8-Oct. 6. SE. 
Minn, uncommon S. R., May i-Oct. 17. 

This is the third and rarest member of the trio of small, 
retiring Sparrows of which the Grasshopper Sparrow is the 



66 FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. 

commonest. It is found east of the Mississippi only in the 
winter when it may be associated with the Grasshopper 
and Henslow's Sparrows. 

SHARP-TAILED SPARROW 

Passerherbulus caudacutits. Case 6, Fig. 47 

A buffy Sparrow with the underparts sharply streaked with 
black. L. si- 
Range. Salt marshes of the Atlantic coast; nests from Vir- 
ginia to Massachusetts; winters from New Jersey to Florida. 
Cambridge, formerly common S. R., but occurs no longer. 

An abundant inhabitant of salt marshes. There is, or 
was, a colony on the Hudson River immediately south of 
the long pier from which Piermont takes its name, but 
with this exception I have never seen this Sparrow beyond 
the sound of the surf. It runs about through the thick 
marsh grasses taking wing only when hard pressed. Its 
song is short and insignificant. It nests on the ground, 
the 3-4 grayish white, finely speckled eggs being laid 
in late May or early June. 

NELSON'S SHARP-TAILED SPARROW 

Passerherbulus nelsoni nelsoni 

Resembles the Sharp-tailed but is smaller and has the throat, 
breast and sides deeper, very slightly, if at all, streaked with 
blackish; the upperparts more broadly margined with whitish. 

L. Si- 

Range. Nests in the interior from South Dakota northward to 
Great Slave Lake; migrates south to Texas and southeast through 
New York and Massachusetts to North Carolina and Florida. 

Washington, rare T. V., May-Sept. Ossining, tolerably com- 
mon T. V., Sept. 28-Oct. 17. Cambridge, formerly uncommon 
T. V. Glen Ellyn, one record, Oct. 2, 1893. SE. Minn., un- 
common T. V. 

This is a fresh-water representative of the Sharp-tail 
which nests in the prairie sloughs of the interior and reaches 
the Atlantic coast during its migrations and in the winter. 



FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. 67 

It resembles the Sharp-tail in habits and when on the coast, 
may be found associated with it. 

The Acadian Sharp-tailed Sparrow (P. n. subvirgalus) 
is similar to the Sharp-tailed Sparrow but is paler above; 
the throat, breast and sides are washed with cream-buff 
and indistinctly streaked with ashy. It nests on the 
salt marshes of the Atlantic coast from Maine to Cape 
Breton and in Prince Edward Island; and winters from 
South Carolina to Florida. In general habits it resembles 
the two preceding. 

The three Sharp-tails may be distinguished chiefly by 
the color and markings of the breast. In the Sharp-tail 
these are pale buff distinctly streaked with blackish. In 
Nelson's they are deep buff lightly if at all streaked. In 
the Acadian they are cream-buff indistinctly streaked 
with grayish. The Sharp-tail may be known from the 
other two by its distinct black marks below, but the other 
two cannot certainly be distinguished from each other in 
life where both may be expected to occur. 

SEASIDE SPARROW 

Passerherbulrts maritimus maritimus. Case 6, Fig. 46 

An olive-greenish Sparrow, with a yellow mark before the eye 
and on the bend of the wing; the underparts not distinctly 
streaked. L. 6. 

Range. Salt marshes of the Atlantic Coast; nests from Vir- 
ginia to Massachusetts; winters from Virginia to Georgia. 

In the Piermont marsh, referred to under the Sharp- 
tailed Sparrow, there are Seasides as well as Sharp-tails, 
but this is the only place in which I have seen Seasides 
away from the sea. There they are abundant in the 
grassy marshes. Their song is weak and unattractive. 
Like the Sharp-tail they nest on the ground, laying 3-4 
white or bluish white eggs, clouded or finely speckled 
with cinnamon-brown, the latter part of May. 



68 FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. 

This northern Seaside Finch is migratory, coming the 
latter part of April and remaining until the latter hall 
of October, but in the South there are several races which 
for the most part are resident in the same locality through- 
out the year. Thus we have: : 

MacgiUivray's Seaside Sparrow (P. m. macgilliwaii). — i 
Atlantic Coast from North Carolina south to Matanzaa] 
Islet, Florida. Dusky Seaside Sparrow (P. nigrescens) ,'• 
an almost black species from Merritt's Island, at the head 
of Indian River, Florida. Cape Sable Sparrow {P. m. 
mirdbilis), Cape Sable, Florida. Scott's Seaside Sparrow 
(P. m. peninsula), Gulf Coast of Florida from Tampa to 
St. Marks; Northwest Florida Sparrow (P. m. juncicold) 
Coast of Florida west of St. Marks; Alabama Seaside 
Sparrow (P. m. howelli), Coast of Alabama and Mis- 
sissippi. Louisiana Seaside Sparrow (P. m. fisheri), 
Coast of Louisiana to Northeast Texas; and Sennett's 
Seaside Sparrow (P. m. sennetti), Coast of Texas from 
Galveston at least to Corpus Christi. 

LARK SPARROW 
Chondestes grammacus grammacus. Case 7, Fig. 19 

The chestnut and white head markings and the white-tipped 
tail-feathers are conspicuous field-marks. L. 6J. 

Range. Mississippi Valley; nests from Louisiana to Minne- 
sota and Ohio; winters from Mississippi southward; casual 
east of the Alleghanies, chiefly in the fall. 

Washington, A. V., Aug., two captures. N. Ohio, rare S. R. t 
Apl. 28. Glen Ellyn, local and uncommon S. R. SE. Minn., 
common S. R., Apl. 20-Aug. 2. 

Few field experiences have given me more pleasure than 
the discovery near my home at Englewood one November 
2, many years ago, of a Lark Finch — one of the 'casuals' 
which had presumably been carried far from its course 
by a severe storm of the preceding days. The bird's 
strongly -narked face and conspicuously white-tipped 



FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. 69 

tail-feathers made an impression which testifies to theii 
value as field-characters. In its own range this beautiful 
Sparrow is a sweet-voiced inhabitant of the fields, nesting 
on the ground or in low trees and bushes, and laying 3-5 
white eggs, spotted and blotched with blackish, in May. 

(HARRIS'S SPARROW 
Zonolrichia querula. Case"}, Fig. 21 

A large Sparrow, larger even than the Pox Sparrow; with a 
pinkish bill, the crown, throat and breast more or less blackish; 
cheeks buff. L. 7$. 

Range. Interior of North America, nesting in North Carolina; 
winters from Kansasjjto Texas; rare east of Wisconsin. Glen 
Ellyn, one record, May 19. SE. Minn., common T. V., May 6; 
Sept. 21-Oct. 25. 

When migrating this Sparrow reminds one of a White- 
throat. It has a sharp dink note and frequents brier 
patches and bushy places. 

^ WHITE-CROWNED SPARROW 
Zonolrichia leucophrys* Case 7, Fig. 22 

Resembles the White-throat but throat gray, like the breast, 
space before the eye black, not yellow, white in the crown more 
conspicuous. L. Of. 

Range. Nests in Canada; winters from Virginia and Ohio 
to Mexico; not a common migrant in the Atlantic States. 

Washington, irregularly common W. V. and T. V., May 1-17; 
Oct. 7— Nov. 20. Ossining, rare T. V., May 9-26; Oct. 3—30. 
Cambridge, uncommon T. V., May 12-22; Oct. 1-20. N. Ohio, 
common T. V., Apl. 22-May 20; Sept. 5-Oct. 16. Glen Ellyn, 
not common T. V.; chiefly spring, Apl. 24-May 31; Oct. 2-21. 
SE. Minn., common T. V., Apl. 30-; Sept. 26-Oct. 14. 

This distinguished-looking cousin of our White-throated 
Sparrow is rare enough in the Eastern States, always to 
command our attention when we are so fortunate as to 
meet him. He resembles the White-throat in habits 
and choice of haunts but his song has a tender, appealing 



70 FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. 

quality, lacking in the White-throat's more cheerful lay, 
charming as that is. 



WHITE-THROATED SPARROW 
Zonotrichia albicollis. Case 2, Figs. 45, 46; Case 4, Fig. 40 

The adults may be recognized at sight by their white throat, 
but this character is less prominent and sometimes almost wanting 
in young birds (Fig. 46) which will require close scrutiny. L. 6 j. 

Range. Nests from northern New England and central Min- 
nesota northward; winters from southern New England and 
Ohio to the Gulf. 

Washington, very common'W. V., abundant T. V., Mch. 18— 
May; Sept. 15-Dec. 16. Ossining, common T. V., Apl. 10- 
May 21; Sept. 20— Oct. 30; a few winter. Cambridge, very 
oommon T. V., Apl. 25-May 15; Oct. i-Nov. 10; a few winter. 
N. Ohio, common T. V., Apl. i-May 21; Sept. 10-Nov. 7. 
Glen Ellyn, common T. V., Apl. o-May 26; Sept. 13-Nov. 7. 
SE. Minn., common T. V., Apl. 8-; Sept. 2-Nov. 13. 

This clear-voiced whistler is known to many persons 
who have never seen it. When anyone returning from the 
bird's summer range tells me "I heard a bird sing like 
this,"» I know before he whistles a note that he will 
probably imitate the White-throat. Fortunately the song 
has so much character and its intervals conform so closely 
to those of our musical scale, that a recognizable imitation 
of it is within the power of everyone. There is much 
variation in the arrangement of the notes and migrants 
never seem to sing with th e power of nesting birds, nor 
do fall songs compare in volume or execution with those 
of spring. The call-note is a characteristic sharp clink. 

The White-throat is abundant, migrating and winter- 
ing in companies which frequent bushy places, hedge- 
rows and undergrowth generally. The nest is placed on 
the ground or in bushes in late May or early June. The 
e gg s ) 4-S in number, are bluish white, speckled or blotched 
with brown. 



FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. 71 

V TREE SPARROW 
Spizella monticola monticola. Case 2, Fig. 44; Case 4, Fig. 46 

A dusky spot in the center of the breast and a reddish brown 
cap and streak behind the eye are distinguishing characters. 
L. 6}. 

Range. Nests in Canada; winters from southernJCanada south 
to Arkansas and South Carolina. 

Washington, abundant W. V., Oct.-Apl. I. Ossining, common 
W. V., Oct. 10-Apl. 27. Cambridge, common W. V., abundant 
T. V., Oct. 25-Nov. 25; Mch. 20-Apl. 20. N. Ohio, abundant 
W. V., Oct. 24-May 3. Glen Ellyn, common W. V., Oct. 4- 
Apl. 28. SE. Minn., common T. V., Oct. 6-May 5; a few 
winter. 

From October to April companies of Tree Sparrows 
harvest the season's crop of weed seeds, feeding usually 
near woods or hedge-rows to which they go to rest and 
roost. Their merry chatter is one of the season's most 
cheerful notes, and in the spring we may hear their 
eanary-like song. 

k/ CHIPPING SPARROW 
Spizella passerina passerina. Case 4, Fig. 45; Case 5. Fig. 31 

In summer, the chestnut cap, black bill, and whitish line over 
the eye mark the ' Chippy ' ; but in the fall and winter the crown 
is like the back, the line over the eye is brownish, and the bill 
is brown; but the gray rump, shown well in flight, is a good 
character the year around. L. si. 

Range. Nests from Georgia and Mississippi to Canada; win- 
ters from South Carolina to the Gulf. 

Washington, common S. R., abundant T. V., Mch. o-Nov. 11, 
occasionally winters. Ossining, common S. R., Apl. o-Nov. 7. 
Cambridge, abundant S. R., Apl. 12-Oct. 25. N. Ohio, abundant 
S. R., Mch. 23-Oct. 10. Glen Ellyn, not very common S. R., 
Apl. s-Nov. 5. SE. Minn., common S. R., Apl. 8-Oct. 26. 

The friendly Chippy is the most familiar and domestic 
of any of our native Sparrows. He makes tentative 
visits to our piazzas and, cats permitting, will take up 
his residence there, building a neat, hair-lined nest in the 
rines or a nearby bush. Unassuming in voice as he is in 



72 FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. 

manner, his Chippy-chippy-chippy, many times repeated, 
expresses contentment, even if it does not attain high 
musical rank. Madame Chippy has fine taste in eggs, 
laying, in early May, little blue gems, beautifully marked 
with brown or black. 

CLAY-COLORED SPARROW 
Spizella pallida. Case 6, Fig. 48 

The Clay-colored Sparrow resembles a winter Chipping 
Sparrow, but is paler and has a white line over the eye and a 
brownish rump. L. 5 4. 

Range. Interior states east to Illinois; winters from Texas 
southward. SE. Minn., common S. R., Apl. 26-Oct. 19. 

A Chipping Sparrow of the Plains which nests on the 
ground and in low bushes. It is not common east of the 
Mississippi. 

FIELD SPARROW 

Spizella pusilla pusilla. Case 4, Fig. 43; Case 5, Fig. 14 

The upperparts are brighter reddish brown than in any of our 
other Sparrows, and the bill is 'pinker.' L. 5 J. 

Range. Nests from northern Florida and central Louisiana 
to Minnesota and Maine; winters from New Jersey and Illinois 
to the Gulf States. 

Washington, very common P. R. Ossining, common S. R., 
Apl. 2-Nov. 7. Cambridge, common S. R., Apl. 12-Nov. 1; 
casual in winter. N. Ohio, abundant in summer, Mch. 6-Oct. 25. 
Glen Ellyn, tolerably common S. R., Mch. 27-Oct. 11. SE. 
Minn., common S. R., Apl. i-Dec. 28. 

'Bush Sparrow,' Mr. Roosevelt always called this bird, 
and the name gives a better conception of its haunts 
than that of Field Sparrow, since it is found in bush- 
grown fields. From a bush-top it sings its clearly whistled, 
sweet, appealing song, varying the relation of notes and 
trills, but never their musical quality. In a bush also 
it nests, laying 3-5 white eggs, marked with reddish brown, 
in May. 



FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. -13 

■^SLATE-COLORED JUNCO 
Junco hyemalis hyemalis. Case 2, Fig. 43; Case 4, Fig. 41 

The plumage of the female is tinged with brownish, but the 
prevailing tone is slate-gray, unlike that of any of our other 
Sparrows. The white outer-tail feathers are conspicuously 
flashed in flight. L. 6J. 

Range. Nests from northern New England and northern 
New York to Canada and southward in the mountains to Penn- 
sylvania; winters in all the Eastern States. The Carolina Junco 
(/. h. carolinensis) , a slightly larger race without a brownish 
tinge, nests in the higher parts of the Alleghanies from Maryland 
to northern Georgia, descending to the adjacent lowlands in 
winter. 

Washington, abundant W. V„ Sept. 26-May 12. Ossining, 
common W. V., Sept. 19-May 4. Cambridge, rather common 
W. V., abundant T. V., Sept. 20-Nov. 25; Mch. 20-Apl. 20. 
N. Ohio, abundant W. V., Oct. 2-May 5. Glen Ellyn, W. V„ 
abundant spring and fall, Aug. 30-May 13. SE. Minn., common 
T. V., Mch. 4-; Sept. 20-Nov. 12. 

Gray skies and a snow-covered earth are the Junco 
colors, and when he flashes them along the hedgerows and 
wood borders we know that although it is only late 
September, winter will soon be with us. From that time 
until April the Junco is of our commonest birds. He 
visits our food-shelf and roosts in our evergreens, becom- 
ing almost as domestic as the Chipping Sparrow. The 
Junco's call-notes are a sharp tsip, a contented chew-chew- 
chew, and a sharp kissing call. Its modest, musical little 
trill we shall not hear until spring. The nest is built 
on the ground, and the 4-5 white, speckled, or spotted, 
eggs are laid late in May. 

BACHMAN'S SPARROW 
Peuctca astivalis bachmani 

With a general resemblance to a Field Sparrow but bill black 
and larger, cheeks and underparts more buffy, tail shorter, no 
evident wing bars. 

Range. Southeastern United States from central Georgia to 
Virginia and from northwestern Florida to central Illinois; 
winters from North Carolina to northern Florida. 



74 FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. 

Where 'scrub' oaks grow beneath the pines, or post, 
or white oaks form open woods, there one may look for this 
rather retiring, sweet-voiced Sparrow. If one can imagine 
a Hermit Thrush singing the Field Sparrow's chant, he 
will have some conception of the rare quality of Bachman's 
Sparrow's song. The nest is built on the ground, the 
white unmarked eggs being laid early in May. 

The Pine Woods Sparrow (P. <b. cBstivalis), is a darker 
race, more streaked above with black. It is resident in 
Florida (except the northwestern part) and southern 
Georgia where it frequents pine forests undergrown with 
scrub palmetto. 

SONG SPARROW 

Melospiza melodia melodia. Case x. Fig. 34; Case 4, Fig. 43 

Streaked below, with a conspicuous spot in the center of the 
breast. 

Range. Most of North America, the eastern form west to the 
Rockies, nesting from Virginia and Missouri to Canada and 
wintering from Illinois and Massachusetts to the Gulf. 

Washington, common P. R., abundant T. V., Mch. and Oct. 
Ossining, common P. R. Cambridge, very abundant S. R„ 
Mch. 10-Nov. 1; locally common W. V. N. Ohio, P. R., abun- 
dant in summer, common in winter; Olen Ellyn, common S. R. 
Feb. 12-Nov. 2. SE. Minn., common S. R., Mch. 16-Nov. 11. 

If the so-called 'English' Sparrow is the European Spar- 
row, the Song Sparrow is the American Sparrow. He is 
found in every State and from the Valley of Mexico to 
Alaska. He is abundant, musical, and familiar and 
probably better known than any other member of his 
family native to this country. His is one of the first 
birds' songs to be heard in the spring, and the last in the 
fall, and when in midsummer, the adults, while molting, 
are silent, the rambling, formless song of the young may 
be heard. 

Usually the Song Sparrow is found near water and not 
far from bushes into which he flies when alarmed. Then 



FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. 75 

we hear his characteristic call-note, an impatient chimp, 
chimp, unlike that of any other of our Sparrows. The 
nest is built on the ground and the 4-5 bluish white, 
brown-marked eggs are laid late in April. 

LINCOLN'S SPARROW 
Melospiza lincolni lincolni. Case 7, Fig. 15 

A broad band o£ buff across the streaked breast. 

Range. Chiefly western United States; in the East, nests from 
northern New York and northern Minnesota into Canada; 
winters from Mississippi to Central America; rare east of the Alle- 
ghanies. 

Washington, rare T. V., May 8-21; Sept. 30-Oct. 1. Ossining, 
rare T. V., Sept. 29-Oct. 16. Cambridge, not uncommon T. V., 
May 15-May 25; Sept. 14-Oct. 10. N. Ohio, tolerably common 
T. V., Apl. 25-May 25. Glen Ellyn, not common T. V., fall 
records only, Sept. 11-Oct. 9. SE. Minn., common T. V., 
Apl. 17-; Sept. 10-Oct. 30. 

We know the species only as a rare, retiring migrant, 
frequenting hedgerowsjfand undergrowth. I have never 
heard its song while migrating. 

SWAMP SPARROW 
Melospiza gcorgiana. Case 4, Fig. 44; Case 5, Fig. 32 

Note the bright chestnut cap, grayish, unstreaked breast, and 
reddish brown rump of the summer plumage; in winter, the crown 
is darker and streaked with black. L. 5}. 

Range. Nests from New Jersey and Illinois to Canada; win- 
ters from Nebraska and New Jersey to the Gulf. 

Washington, very common T. V., Apl. 12-May 19; Sept. 28- 
Oct. 29; a few winter. Ossining, tolerably common S. R., 
Apl. 4-Dec. 2; a few winter. Cambridge, abundant S. R., 
Apl. 12-Nov. 10; a few winter. N. Ohio, common T. V., Men. 
23-May 20. Glen Ellyn, tolerably common T. V., Apl. 2- 
May 26; Sept. 2-Oct. 24; possibly S. R. SE. Minn., common 
S. R., Apl. s-Nov. 18. 

The Swamp Sparrow is a Sparrow of the marshes whose 
tweet-tweet-tweet many times repeated, is associated with 
the music of Marsh Wrens. It nests on the ground in 
May, laying eggs not unlike those of the Song Sparrow. 



76 FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. 

FOX SPARROW 
Passer Ma iliaca iliaca. Case 4, Fig. 37; Case 5. Fig. 7 

A large, bright, reddish brown Sparrow, which, because of it* 
red-brown tail, and in spite of its stout bill, is sometimes mis- 
taken for the Hermit Thrush. L. 7 J. 

Range. Nests in northern Canada; winters from Ohio and 
Maryland to the Gulf States. 

Washington, very abundant T. V., Mch. 13-May n; Oct. 23- 
Nov. 15; a few winter. Ossining, tolerably common T. V., 
Mch. 4-Apl. 20; Oct. 14-Nov. 28. Cambridge, abundant T. V., 
Mch. 15-Apl. 12; Oct. 20-Nov. is; occasional in winter. N. 
Ohio, common T. V., Mch. 12-Apl. 23; Oct. i-Nov. 16. Glen 
EUyn, fairly common T. V., Mch. 11-Apl. 28; Sept. 22-Nov. 8. 
SE. Minn., common T. V., Mch. 12-; Sept. 17-Nov. 12. 

A vigorous scratcher in the undergrowth who, using 
both feet at once, kicks the leaves out behind him; 
a master musician among our Sparrows whose loud, 
clear, joyous notes form one of our most notable bird 
songs. We hear it only for a brief time in spring and 
fall as the birds pass us on their migration. 

j< TOWHEE 

Pipilo erythrophthalmus erylhrophthalmus. Case 4, Figs. 32, 33; 
Case 5. Fig- Si 

The female is brown where the male is black; both are unmis- 
takable L. 8 J. 

Range. Nests from northern Georgia and central Kansas; 
winters from Ohio and Potomac Valleys to the Gulf. 

Washington, common S. R., very common T. V., Apl. 5-Oct. 21; 
a few winter. Ossining, common S. R., Apl. 21-Oct. 31. Cam- 
bridge, common S. R., Apl. 25-Oct. 13. N. Ohio, common S. R„ 
Mch. 10-Oct. 25. Glen Ellyn, not common, S. R., Mch. 30- 
Nov. 18. SE. Minn., common S. R., Apl. 11-Nov. 8. 

Chewink, towkee, the clear, emphatic, strongly accented 
call announces the presence of a bird whose colors are as 
distinctive as its notes. The Towhee feeds on the ground 
in and near bushy places, but when the desire to sing 
comes upon him he leaves his lowly haunts and taking 
a more or less exposed perch, fifteen to twenty feet from 



FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. 77 

the ground, utters his sweet-bird-sin-n-n-g, with an earnest- 
ness which goes far to atone for his lack of striking musi- 
cal ability. The nest is built on the ground and the 4-5 
white, finely speckled eggs are laid during the first half of 
May. 

The White-eyed Towhee (P. e. alleni) of Florida and 
the coast region north to Charleston, South Carolina, 
has the eye yellowish instead of red and th°. white markings 
are more restricted. Its call is higher than that of the 
northern bird and its song shorter. 

1{ CARDINAL 

Cardinalis cardinalis cardinalis. Case 4, Figs. 34, 35 

The male, with his conspicuous crest and bright colors, can be 
confused with no other species; the female is much duller and 
the crest is less prominent but still evident. L. 8 J. 

Range. Resident from the Gulf States to southern New York 
and northern Ohio; rarely found further north. 

Washington, common P. R.; less common than formerly. 
Ossining, A. V. Cambridge, irregular but not very infrequent 
at all seasons. N. Ohio, common P. R. Glen Ellyn, rare S. R. 
SE. Minn., rare. 

Next to the Mockingbird's medley, the rich, mellow 
Whistle of the Cardinal is the most prominent bird voice 
in the choir of southern songsters. Passing most of the 
time in the undergrowth, where, in spite of his bril- 
liant colors, he readily conceals himself, he makes no 
attempt, when singing, to hide his fiery plumes, but select- 
ing a conspicuous perch, challenges the attention of the 
world. 

The female Cardinal also sings, but her song has much 
less volume than that of her mate, and is more rarely 
heard. The call-note of both sexes is a minute, sharp, 
cheep, which one would attribute to a bird half their size. 
The Cardinal nests in bushes, laying 3-4 whitish eggs 
speckled and spotted with brown, in April. 



78 FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. 

The Florida Cardinal (C c.floridanus), a slightly smaller, 
deeper colored (especially in the female) race of the pre- 
ceding, inhabits the peninsula of Florida. 

BLUE GROSBEAK 

Guiraca ctzrulea ccerulea. Case 6, Figs. 53, 53 

^ Should be confused only with the Indigo Bunting, but it is 
larger and the male is darker and has brown wing-bars. L. 7. 

Range. Nests from Florida to Maryland and southern Illinois; 
winters in the tropics, uncommon east of the Alleghanies. 

Washington, very uncommon, S. R., May i-Sept. 20. Cam- 
bridge, A. V., one instance, May. 

The Blue Grosbeak is an unfamiliar bird to most eastern 
students. Ridgway states that its haunts resemble those 
of the Field Sparrow or Indigo Bunting. Its call is a 
strong, harsh ptchick, its song a beautiful, but rather feeble 
warble. The nest is usually built in bushes and the 3-4 
pale bluish white eggs are laid in May. 

X ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK 
Zamelodia ludoviciana. Case 7, Figs. 25, 26 

The male needs no introduction; the streaked plumage of the 
female betrays her Sparrow ancestry; the white stripe over her 
eye is a conspicuous mark. Young males in the fall resemble 
the female, but have a rose-tinted breast. L. 8. 

Range. Nests from central Kansas and central New Jersey 
north to Canada, and, in the mountains, south to northern 
Georgia; winters in the tropics. 

Washington, rather common T. V., May 1-30; Aug. 29— 
Oct. 6. Ossining, tolerably common S. R., May 3-Oct. 1. 
Cambridge, very common S. R., May 10-Sept. 10. N. Ohio, 
common S. R., Apl. 27-Sept. 15. Glen Ellyn, fairly common 
S. R., common T. V., Apl. 27-Sept. 28. SE. Minn., common 
S. R., Apl. 27-Sept. 23. 

Distinguished alike by plumage and song, the Rose- 
breast is one of our most notable bird citizens. His 
song resembles in form that of the Robin, but has a more 
lyrical, flowing, joyous quality, and, unlike the Robin, 



FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. 79 

he often sings while flying. The call-note of both sexes 
is a sharp peek which, like the Cardinal's cheep, seems too 
small for the bird. 

The Rose-breast lives and nests in woodland, particularly 
second-growths, building a frail nest ten to twenty feet 
from the ground. The 4-5 blue, brown-marked eggs are 
laid the latter half of May. 

INDIGO BUNTING 
Passerina cyanea. Case 7, Figs. 23, 24 

The male, well seen, is unmistakable. The female is very 
'sparrowy' and, unless one gets a suggestion of blue in her 
plumage, can best be identified by her unsparrow-like, sharp 
pit. L. sJ. 

Range. Nests from Georgia and Louisiana to Canada; winters 
in the tropics. f"*i 

Washington, common S. R., Apl. 29-Oct. 9. Ossining, common 
S. R., May 4-Oct. 17. Cambridge, common S. R., May 15- 
Oct. 1. N. Ohio, common S. R., Apl. 26-Oct. 10. Glen Ellyn, 
fairly common S. R., May i-Sept. 22. SE. Minn., common S. R. 
Apl. 28-Oct. 2. 

"July, July, summer-summer's here; morning, noon- 
tide, evening, list to me " the Indigo sings in rather hard 
but brilliant little voice. To me the words express the 
rhythm as well as the spirit of the song. We hear them 
most often in bushy fields and open second-growths, 
along hedge-rows or from briery clumps in which the 
bird's nest may be hidden. The pale, bluish white eggs 
are laid the latter half of May. 

PAINTED BUNTING 
Passerina ciris. Case 6, Figs. 49, so 

The male is one of our most brilliantly colored birds, the female 
has the color of a Vireo but the bill of a Sparrow. 

Range. Southern States north to southeastern North Carolina 
and southern Kansas; winters from southern Florida southward, 

"Painted" Bunting he is called, but the brilliancy and 
luster of his plumage were not painted by human hands. 



80 TANAGERS 

'Nonpareil' he has also been named, and, in the eastern 
United States, at least, he is without equal in the bright- 
ness of his colors. The bird's haunts are not unlike those 
of the Indigo Bunting, and its song is said to resemble the 
Indigo's but to be more feeble. It builds in bushes and low 
trees, laying 3-4 bluish white, brown-spotted eggs in May. 

DICKCISSEL 

Spiza americana. Case 7, Fig. 20 

The yellow on the breast and, in the male, black crescent will 
distinguish this species from all its Sparrow kin. L. 6. 

Range. Chiefly prairies of the Mississippi Valley, from Texas 
and Mississippi north to Minnesota and southern Ontario; now 
rare east of the Alleghanies. 

Washington, formerly "very abundant," now seen only occa- 
sionally, May-Aug. Cambridge, casual, found nesting at 
Medford, June 9. 1877, where several birds were observed; not 
uncommon in 1833-34 (see Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, III, 1878, 
45. 190)- N. Ohio, rare S. R., May 1. Glen Ellyn, rather rare 
and local S. R., formerly common, May 3-Sept. 5. SE. Minn., 
common S. R., May 11-Aug. 20. 

The Dickcissel is a bird of the fields who, from a weed- 
stalk or fence by the wayside, sings his unmusical dick- 
dick cissel, cissel, cissel. The nest is built on the ground 
or in a bush and the 4-5 pale blue eggs are laid the latter 
half of May. 



TANAGERS. FAMILY TANGARIDiE 

^ SCARLET TANAGER 
Piranga erythromelas. Case 7, Figs. 27, 28 

The black wings and tail of the male will distinguish him from 
our other two red birds — the Cardinal and Summer Tanager. 
The olive-green female may be known from all our other olive- 
green birds by her larger size. L. 7I. 

Range. Nests from northern Georgia and southern Kansas to 
Canada; winters in the tropics. 



TANAGERS 81 

Washington, common T. V., less common S. R., Apl. 17- 
Oct. 15. Ossining, common S. R., May 4-Oct. 9. Cambridge, 
rather common S. R„ May 12-Oct. 1. N. Ohio, common S. R„ 
Apl. 28-Oct. 2. Glen Ellyn, not common S. R., Apl. 30-Sept. 29. 
SE. Minn., common S. R., Apl. 29-Sept. 11. 

As a family Tanagers are the most strikingly colored \ 
of American birds, but among the nearly 400 species none 
appears more brilliant in life than the male Scarlet Tana- 
ger. The leaf -colored female is as difficult to see as the 
male is conspicuous. Both have the same characteristic 
call — chip-cMrr, chip-cMrr. The song suggests a Robin's , 
but is more forced and has a hoarse undertone. They live ' 
and nest in the woods, building on a horizontal limb 
10-20 feet up. The 3-4 greenish blue, brown-marked ; 
eggs are laid late in May. 



SUMMER TANAGER 
Piranga rubra rubra. Case 5, Figs. 33, 34 ;, 

The male is usually red like the Cardinal, but lacks the Cardi- 
nal's crest; the female is more yellow than the female of the 
Scarlet Tanager. 

Range. Southern States; nesting north to Maryland and 
Illinois; winters in the tropics. 

Washington, uncommon S. R., Apl. 18-Sept. 19. Cambridge; 
one record. 

The "Summer Redbird's" chicky-tucky-tuck, is as clearly 
pronounced and unmistakable as the Scarlet Tanager's 
chip-ch&rr. Its song is somewhat sweeter than that of 
its scarlet cousin, but bears a general resemblance to it. 
Both pine and deciduous woods are inhabited by this bird. 
Its nesting habits resemble those of the Scarlet Tanager. 



8a SWALLOWS 



SWALLOWS. FAMILY HIRUNDINIM) 

PURPLE MARTIN 
Progne subis suits. Case 5, Fig. 25 

Largest of our Swallows. The female is duller above than the 
male, and below is brownish gray. L. 8. 

Range. Nests locally from the Gulf to Canada; winters in the 
tropics. 

Washington, rather common S. R., Apl. i-Sept. 14. Ossining, 
tolerably common S. R., Apl. 27-Sept. it. Cambridge, formerly 
locally common S. R., Apl. 20-Aug. 25. N. Ohio, common S. R. 
Apl. i-Sept. 5- Glen Ellyn, local S. R., Mch. 23-Sept. 10. SE. 
Minn., common S. R., Apl. i-Sept. 9. 

Fortunate is the man whose hospitality the Martins 
accept. Their cheery notes and sociability make them the 
best kind of guests. The Audubon Society will send one 
plans for a Martin house, and tell one where to place it. 
Martins nest in May and lay white egf* 

~< CLIFF SWALLOW 
Petrochelidon lunifrons lunifrons. Case 6, Fig. 55 

The rusty rump is distinctive. L. 6. 

Range. Nests locally from Georgia to Canada; winters in the 
tropics. 

Washington, raire S. R., Apl. 10-Sept. — ? Ossining, common 
S. R., May i-Sept. 12. Cambridge, S. R., much less than for- 
merly. Apl. 28-Aug. 25. N. Ohio, tolerably common S. R., 
Apl. 6-Sept. 25. Glen Ellyn, not common, local S. R., Apl. 25- 
Sept. 16. SE. Minn., common S. R., Apl. 13-Sept. 12. 

Cliff Swallow it is in the West, but "Eave" Swallow 
it should be in the East where the rows of flask-shaped 
mud nests cluster thick beneath projecting roofs. They 
prefer unpainted buildings and the modern bam rarely 
knows them. The white, brown-spotted eggs are laid in 
the latter half of May. 



SWALLOWS 83 

X BARN SWALLOW 

Hirundo erythrogaster. Case 5, Fig. 32 

Chestnut underparts and a forked tail are the chief characters 
of this beautiful Swallow. L. 7. 

Range. Nests from North Carolina and Arkansas* to Canada; 
winters in the tropics. 

Washington, common S. R., more abundant T. V., Mch. 30- 
Sept. 17. Ossining, common S. R., Apl. 15-Sept. 22. Cam- 
bridge, common S. R., but fast decreasing, Apl. 20— Sept. 10. 
N. Ohio, abundant S. R., Mch. 30-Sept. 22. Glen Ellyn, S. R„ 
fairly common and increasing. Apl. 7-Sept. 1. SB. Minn., 
common S. R„ Apl. 28-Aug. 31. 

Barn Swallows are far more beautiful, more graceful and 
more companionable than Purple Martins. But while 
we are erecting special dwellings for the Martins we are 
making our barns Swallow-proof. A pair of Barn Swal- 
lows are not only cheerful neighbors but good investments. 
Let us make it possible for them to enter the hay-mow. 
We may even supply shelves as foundations for their 
open mud nests. The white, spotted eggs are laid in the 
latter half of May. 

\ TREE SWALLOW 
Iridoprocne bicolor. Case 5, Fig. 24 

Silky white below and shining bluish green above; young 
birds are mouse-colored above but below are snowy white, un- 
marked, as in the adult. L. 6. 

Range. Nests chiefly from southern New England northward 
and winters from South Carolina to Central America. 

Washington, common T. V., Mch. 26-May 26; July 8-Oct. 14. 
Ossining, common T. V., Apl. 4-May 26; Aug. 4-Oct. 16. Cam- 
bridge, S. R., formerly common, now common only as a migrant, 
Apl. s-Oct. 8. N. Ohio, common S. R., Apl. 10-Sept. 20. Glen 
Ellyn, not common T. V., rare S. R., Apl. 21-Sept. 8. SE. Minn., 
common S. R., Mch. 30-Aug. 31. 

We see comparatively few Tree Swallows during the 
spring, but from July to October, as they journey slowly 
Southward, they are the most abundant members of their 
family. In countless thousands long ropes of Swallows 



84 SWALLOWS 

crowd the wayside wires from pole to pole. At night, 
with others of their tribe, they roost in the marshes. 

Tree Swallows they are called because they nest in 
hollow trees and, like some other hole-nesting birds, they 
may be induced to occupy nesting-boxes, making a 
welcome addition to our list of bird tenants. The 4-7 
white eggs are laid in May. 

./BANK SWALLOW 

Riparia riparia. Case 6. Fig. 54 

Note the small size, dull plumage, and breast-band. L. si- 
Range. A native of the Old World as well as of the New. 

In North America nesting from Louisiana and Virginia nearly 

to the Arctic Circle; winters in the tropics. 

Washington, common S. R., more common T. V., Apl. 13- 

Sept. 19. Ossining, common S. R., Apl. 18-Oct. 1. Cambridge, 

formerlyfcommon S. R., Apl. 28-Sept. 1; common T. V. N. 

Ohio, common S. R., Apl. 6-Sept. 20. Glen Ellyn, fairly common 

T. V.; a few S. R., Apl. 22-Sept. 3. SE. Minn., common S. R„ 

Apl. 10-Sept. 25. 

The Bank Swallow is a bird of the air who tunnels the 
earth for a nesting-place. Where river or road has left a 
bank, its face may be dotted with the entrances to the 
Bank Swallow's dwellings. At the end of two or three 
feet the nest of grass and feathers is placed, fit receptacle 
for the pearl-white eggs, which are usually laid the latter 
half of May. 

During the migrations the Bank Swallow travels with 
other members of its family, sharing their roost in the 
marshes by night and their wayside perch by day. 

ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW 

Slelgidopteryx serripennis. Case 6, Fig. 56 

With the general appearance of the Bank Swallow, but slightly 
larger, grayer below, and with no breast-band. L. si. 

Range. Nests from the Gulf States north to Massachusetts 
and Minnesota; winters in the tropics. 



WAXWINGS 85 

Washington, common S. R., Apl. 2-Sept. 3. Ossining, common 
S. R., Apl. 17-Aug. 12. N. Ohio, common S. R., Apl. 15-Sept. 20. 
SB. Minn., common S. R., Apl. 14- Aug. 26. 

Least common of our Swallows. It nests in small colon- 
ies of about half a dozen pairs, sometimes in holes, at others 
under bridges, crevices in cliffs and similar situations. 
In the fall, it flocks with other species of its family. Its 
4-8 white eggs are laid the latter half of May. 



' WAXWINGS. FAMILY BOMBYCILLID^I 

BOHEMIAN WAXWING 
Bombycilla garrula 

Similar to the Cedar Waxwing, but larger, the primary coverts 
and secondaries tipped with white, the primaries tipped with 
white or yellow, the under tail-coverts chestnut. L. 8. 

Range. Western Canada; in winter east to Minnesota and 
rarely as far as Connecticut. 

Glen Ellyn, one record, Jan. 22, 1908. SE. Minn., irregular 
W. V., until Apl. 1. 

There are comparatively few authentic records of this 
beautiful bird east of the Alleghanies. Enthusiastic 
bird-students are, I fear, apt to give Waxwings, seen in 
winter, the benefit of the doubt and call them ' Bohemians. ' 
Look especially for the white marks on the Bohemian's 
wings. Its large size might not be apparent unless the two 
species were seen together. 

/ CEDAR WAXWING 
Bombycilla cedrorum. Case 2, Fig. 40; Case 4, Fig. 54 

Crest usually conspicuous; tail tipped with yellow; a black 
'bridle.' 

Range. Nests from North Carolina and Kansas to Canada; 
winters irregularly throughout the United States. 

Washington, very common P. R., less so in winter. Ossining, 
common P. R. Cambridge, not common P. R., common S. R., 
abundant T. V. in spring, Feb. i-Apl. 25. N. Ohio, irregularly 



86 SHRIKES 

common in summer. Glen Ellyn, S. R., Jan. 21-Sept. 24; 
occasional W. V. SB. Minn., common S. R., Feb. 25-Sept. 28. 

A Waxwing's crest is as expressive as a horse's ears. 
One moment it points skyward the next it flattens and dis- 
appears. They are as sociable as "Love Birds," traveling 
in small flocks which, like one bird, dive into a tree and 
perch so close together that often several will be almost 
touching, and with common accord they take wing. They 
feed mainly on small fruit both wild and cultivated but are 
also expert flycatchers. They nest in June, usually in 
shade or fruit trees, building a well-made nest for the 
beautiful, clay-colored, black-spotted eggs. 



SHRIKES. FAMILY LANIID^ 

NORTHERN SHRIKE 
Lanius borealis. Case 2, Fig. 56 

Larger than the Migrant and Loggerhead Shrikes with a gray- 
ish, not black, forehead and a lightly barred, not plain white 
breast. L. ioj. 

Range. Nests in Canada, winters south to Texas and Virginia. 

Washington, rare and irregular W. V., Oct.-Peb. Ossining, 
tolerably common W. V„ Oct. 26— Apl. 17. Cambridge, common 
W. V., Nov. i-Apl. 1. N. Ohio, not common W. V., Nov. 6- 
Apl. 3. Glen Ellyn, not common W. V., Oct. 24-June 5. SE. 
Minn., common W. V., Oct. 17-Mch. 28. 

A grim, gray bird that comes out of the far North in the 
fall. His mission is death to birds and mice and he makes 
no attempt to disguise it but boldly advertises his presence 
by perching where he may be seen as well as see. Mice he 
can plunge on, but Sparrows, Siskins or Redpolls he may 
have to pursue on the wing, following every twist and turn 
until he reaches striking distance. Slowly he bears his 
victim, in his feet, to some tree there to hang it on thorn 
or in crotch from which it may be devoured at leisure. 
An executioner by birth, the Shrike or "Butcher Bird" 



SHRIKES 87 

evidently pursues his calling with no regrets and when 
spring time approaches adds his voice to the chorus of bird 
song. 



LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE 

Lanius ludovicianus ludovicianus. Cose 4, Fig. 55 

A gray bird with black wings and tail marked with white which 
shows in flight; smaller than the Northern Shrike with a black 
forehead and unmarked breast. L. 9. 

Range. Florida north to North Carolina, west to Louisiana. 

The Loggerhead has the general habits of his larger 
northern cousin the "Butcher-bird," but he feeds, as a rule, 
on smaller game. Grasshoppers and lizards form the 
larger part of his fare and the barbed wire fences not 
infrequently are his shambles. A flight is ended by an 
upward swing to the chosen perch which may be a tree- 
top, a telegraph wire, or lightning-rod tip. From such 
a lookout he keeps a sharp watch for his prey, which he 
detects at surprisingly long distances; meanwhile utter- 
ing the gurgles, squeaks and pipes which constitute his 
song. The nest is built in hedges or low trees in early 
March. The 3-5 eggs are dull white thickly marked with 
brown and lavender. 

The Migrant Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus migrans) is 
a northern race of the Loggerhead from which it differs 
only in being somewhat paler above and grayer below. 
It is a Summer Resident from Kansas and western North 
Carolina to Minnesota and Maine and winters from the 
Middle States southward. 

Generally speaking, it may be said that any Shrike found 
north of Maryland in the winter is a Northern Shrike; 
that any Shrike found north of Virginia in the summer is 
a Migrant Shrike, and that any Shrike found south of 
that state in the summer is a Loggerhead. 



88 VIREOS 

VIREOS. FAMILY VIREONID^ 

BLACK-WHISKERED VIREO 
Vireosylva calidris barbatula 

Resembles the Red-eyed Vireo but has a dusky streak on eacfr 
side of the throat. 

Range. Cuba and Bahamas, north in spring to southern 
Florida. 

This is a tropical species which reaches southern Florida 
early in May and returns to its winter home after nesting. 
In general habits and notes it resembles the Red-eye. 

% RED-EYED VIREO 
Vireosylva olivasceus. Case 6, Fig. 66 

An olive-green bird, silky white below, a white line, bordered 
by black over the red eye, a grayish cap and no white band 
on the wings. L.'6{. 

Range. Nests from the Gulf to Canada; winters in the tropics. 

Washington, very common S. R., Apl. 21-Oct. 17. Ossining, 
common S. R., Apl. 29-Oct. 19. Cambridge, abundant S. R., 
May lo-gept. 10. N. Ohio, abundant S. R., Apl. 27-Oct. I. 
Glen Ellyn, common S. R., May 5-Oct. 5. SE. Minn., common 
S. R., May 5-Sept. 15. 

A tireless soliloquist, the Red-eyed Vireo repeats from 
our shade and fruit trees in endless succession the broken 
phrases of his monotonous, rambling recitation. He sings 
all day and he sings throughout the summer, pausing only 
to sleep or to swallow the caterpillar he hunts while 
singing. Patient, persistent mediocrity is expressed by 
the Red-eye's song, and only his nasal, petulant call-note, 
whang, suggests that he is not altogether satisfied with life 
as he finds it. 

The nest, like that of our other Vireos, is a deep cup 
hung from between a crotch from 5 to about 40 feet above 
the ground. The 3-4 eggs, which are laid in late May, are 
white spotted with reddish brown. 



VIREOS 89 

WARBLING VIREO 

Vireosylva gilva gilva. Case 7, Fig. 29 

Smaller than the Red-eye, without black and white lines over 
the brown eye, the underparts faintly tinged with yellowish. 
L. 5i- 

Range. Nests from Louisiana'and North Carolina to Canada; 
winters in the tropics. 

Washington, rather common S. R., Apl. 21-Sept.' 12. Ossining, 
tolerably common S. R., May 3-Sept. 18. Cambridge, locally 
common S. R., May 5-Sept. 15. N. Ohio, abundant S. R., Apl. 
17-Oct. 10. Glen Ellyn, not common S. R., May i-Sept. 15. 
SE. Minn., common S. R., May 3-Sept. 15. 

While the Red-eye's song lasts the greater part of the 
day, the Warbling Vireo's continues for only about four 
seconds, then, after an interval, it is repeated. It is an 
unbroken strain running up and down the middle of the 
scale and has it in a reminder of the Purple Finch's lay. 
This species is less generally distributed than the Red- 
eye. It may be common in one locality and absent from 
another. Its nesting habits and eggs are much like those 
of the Red-eye, but the male has the singular custom of 
singing while it sits upon the nest. 

PHILADELPHIA VIREO 
Vireosylva Philadelphia^. Case 7, Fig. 30 

A small, olive-green Vireo, with pale yellow underparts and a 
whitish line over the eye. L. 

Range. Nests from northern New England and northern 
Michigan into Canada; winters in the tropics. 

Washington, very rare T. V., May; Sept. Ossining, rare T. V., 
Sept. 20-Oct. 20. Cambridge, rare T. V. Glen Ellyn, rather 
rare T. V., May 14, 15; Aug. 21-Sept. 30. SE. Minn., uncommon 
T. V., May 9. 

Rarest of our Vireos; but few students know it as a 
migrant and fewer still as a nesting bird. Its song and 
nesting habits resemble those of the Red-eye. 



9 o VIREOS 

^YELLOW-THROATED VIREO 
Lanivireo fiavifrons. Case 6, Fig. 69 

Breast bright yellow; a yellow ring around the eye, two white 
wing-bands, bill rather stout. L. 6. 

Range. Nests from Florida and Texas to Canada; winters in 
the tropics. 

Washington, common S. R., Apl. 19-Sept. 29. Ossining, 
tolerably common S. R., Apl. 30-Sept. 7. Cambridge, com- 
mon S. R., May 6-Sept. 10. N. Ohio, common S. R., Apl. 25- 
Sept. 25. Glen Ellyn, not common S. R., May 2-Sept. 26. SE 
Minn., common S. R., Apl. 27-Sept. 15. 

A less common bird than the Red-eye, but like it gen- 
erally distributed through woodland, garden and orchard. 
Its song resembles the Red-eye's in form but is richer 
in tone, more deliberately uttered, and not continuous. 
"See me — I'm here — where are you?" he seems to say, 
and after a pause repeats the query. 

The nest has the deep cup-shape of our other Vireo's 
but is externally covered with lichens. The eggs, laid the 
latter part of May, are white with a few specks of black 
or brown. 

BLUE-HEADED VIREO 
Lanivireo solitarius solilarius. Case 6, Fig. 68 

Eye-ring and lores white, head grayish blue, underparts white, 
the sides yellowish; two wing-bars. L. si. 

Range. Nests from the mountains of northern New Jersey 
and of Pennsylvania to Canada; winters from the Gulf States 
southward. 

Washington, common T. V., Apl. 6-May 18; Sept. 6-Nov. 3. 
Ossining, tolerably common T. V.,'"Apl. 23-May 14; Sept. 8- 
Oct. 20. Cambridge, common T. V., rare S. R., Apl. 20— May 8; 
Sept. 15-Oct. 5. N. Ohio, common T. V., Apl. 17-May 20; 
Sept. 1-30. Glen Ellyn, not common T. V., May 9-19; Aug. 11- 
Oct. 9. SE. Minn., common T. V., May 3-Sept. 28. 

We know this Vireo chiefly as a migrant, one of the 
earliest of the group of small arboreal wood-haunting 
birds (Vireos and Warblers) to reach us in the spring. 



VIREOS or 

Its song, as well as its movements, are deliberate. Vireo- 
like it peers beneath the leaves or inspects the blossoms, 
removing a caterpillar here or an insect's egg there, the 
while singing leisurely a rich-toned rendering of the Red- 
eye's theme. 

It nests late in May, hanging its cup-shaped basket to a 
crotch usually five to ten feet above the ground. The 
eggs are white with a few black or brown spots. 

The Mountain Solitary Vireo (L. s. alticola) has a slightly 
larger bill and bluer back. It nests in the mountains from 
Maryland to Georgia and winters southward to Florida. 



WHITE-EYED VIREO 
Vireo griseus griseus. Case 6, Fig. 67 

White or yellowish white eyes; whitish underparts, washed 
with yellow on the sides. L. si. 

Range. Nests from Florida and Texas to Wisconsin and Massa- 
chusetts; winters from South Carolina to the tropics. 

Washington, common S. R., Apl. 18-Oct. 19. Ossining, com- 
mon S. R., Apl. 29-Oct. 3. Cambridge, rare S. R., May 8- 
Sept. 20; formerly common. Glen Ellyn, rare, spring only. 
May 24- June 5. 

An inhabitant of bushy undergrowths whose snappy 
calls possess almost the character of human speech, so 
clearly and emphatically are the syllables enunciated. 
One's presence seems to excite both his curiosity and his 
disapproval, for he looks one over from this side and that 
all the while giving expression to remarks which sound 
far from complimentary. The nest is hung from a 
crotch, rarely more than 6 feet from the ground. The 
eggs laid in April, in the South, in May in the North, are 
white with a few blackish spots. 

The Key West Vireo (V. g. maynardi) has a longer bill 
and is somewhat paler below than the White-eye. It is 
resident in southern Florida and the Keys. 



92 WARBLERS 

BELL'S VIREO 
Vireo belli belli. Case 6, Fig. 65 

Smallest of our Vireos; crown ashy, lores and eye-ring whitish. 

L. 4i- 

Range. Mississippi Valley; nests from Texas to northwestern 
Indiana and South Dakota; winters in the tropics. 

Resembles the White-eye in habits, notes, and choice of 
haunts, but, according to Goss, its notes are not so harsh 
and emphatic. 

WOOD WARBLERS. FAMILY MNIOTILTID.E 



* 



BLACK AND WHITE WARBLER 
Mniolilta varia. Case 6, Fig. 57 



The female is less conspicuously striped than the male, but 
both are quite unlike any of our other birds. L. 5 J. 

Range. Nests from Georgia and Louisiana to Canada; winters 
from Florida southward. 

Washington, abundant T. V., less common S. R., Apl. 8- 
Oct. 18. Ossining, common S. R, Apl. 18-Oct. 1. Cambridge, 
very common S. R., Apl. 25-Sept. 5- N. Ohio, common T. V., 
a few S. R., Apl. 22-Sept. 26. Glen Ellyn, common T. V., Apl. 
28-May 28; Aug. 11-Sept. 27. SE. Minn., common T. V., un- 
common S. R., Apl. 23-Oct. 12. 

This species and the three Nuthatches are our only 
birds that creep down as well as up; but the Nuthatches 
wear no body stripes and are otherwise too unlike the 
Creeper to be confused with him. The Downy Wood- 
pecker 'hitches' himself upward advancing by jerks; 
the Brown Creeper, true to its name, creeps. The nest 
is built on the ground and the white, brown-marked eggs 
are laid in April in the South, in May in the North. 



WARBLERS 93 

PROTHONOTARY WARBLER 
Protonolaria citrea. Case 5, Fig. 29 

The female is duller than the male, but is too like him to be 
mistaken for the mate of any other Warbler, while he is in a class 
by himself. L. 54. 

Range. Nests from Florida to Delaware and southeastern 
Minnesota; winters in the tropics. 

Washington, of irregular occurrence in May. N. Ohio, one 
record, May 9. Glen Ellyn, rare, spring only, May 13-15. SE. 
Minn., common S. R., of Mississippi bottoms. May 7-Aug. 16. 

No description or illustration prepares one for the gleam- 
ing beauty of the Golden Swamp Warbler. Cypress 
swamps or willow-bordered sloughs, where it may nest 
in the opening in old stubs, are its chosen haunts, and in 
such places it is sometimes found in numbers. The 
white eggs, thickly marked with brown, are laid in May. 

SWAINSON'S WARBLER 
Belinaia swainsoni. Case 5, Fig. 28 

No wing-bars, plain brown above, white below. L. 5. 

Range. In summer from Florida and Louisiana north to 
southern Illinois and southeastern Virginia; winters in the 
tropics. 

Comparatively few bird students have seen this retiring 
Warbler in its haunts. "Water, tangled thickets, patches 
of cane, and a rank growth of semi-aquatic plants," 
Brewster states, seem indispensable to its existence. Its 
song in general effect, the same writer says, recalls that of 
the Northern Water-Thrush. The nest is built in bushes, 
canes, etc., and the white eggs are laid in May. 

X WORM-EATING WARBLER 
Helmitheros vermivorus. Case 7, Fig 31 

Head striped with black and buff; body unstreaked, no wing- 
bars. L. si. 

Range. Nests from South Carolina and Missouri to Connecti- 
cut and Iowa; winters in the tropics. 



44 WARBLERS 

Washington, quite common S. R., Apl. 28-Sept. 15. Ossining, 
common S. R., May 7-Aug. 23. Cambridge, A. V., one instance, 
Sept. 

Comparatively few bird students can claim close ac- 
quaintance with this slow-moving, dull-colored bird who 
lives on or near the ground, usually in dry woodlands. Its 
song, resembling that of the Chipping Sparrow, will attract 
only an attentive ear, while its local distribution further pre- 
vents it from being more commonly known. It nests on 
the ground, the white, brown-marked eggs being laid in 
May. 

BACHMAN'S WARBLER 
Vermivora bachmani. Case 5, Figs. 20, 21 

All but the central pair of feathers with white spots near the 
end; no wing-bars; size small, the bill sharply pointed and slightly 
decurved. L. 4$. 

Range. In summer known from Virginia, North Caroline, 
South Carolina, Kentucky, Arkansas and Missouri; in winter 
recorded only from Cuba. 

When migrating, this little-known species associates with 
other bird travelers and may be found high or low. When 
nesting, it frequents swampy woods and, although it 
usually sings from the tree-tops, it builds in bushes within 
a few feet of the ground, laying 3-4 white eggs in the latter 
half of April or in May. Its song has been compared to 
that of both the Parula Warbler and the Chipping Sparrow. 

BLUE-WINGED WARBLER 
Vermivora pinus. Case 7, Fig. 3s 

Outer tail-feathers white near the end; two white wing-bars J 
female duller than the male. 

Range. Nests from Missouri and Virginia north to Minne- 
sota and Connecticut; winters in the tropics. 

Washington, rather uncommon T. V., Apl. 26-May 22; Aug. 
13-Sept. 2 ; a few breed. Ossining, common S. R., May 4-Sept. 7. 
N. Ohio, common S. R., Apl. 27-Sept. 15. Glen Ellyn, irregular. 



WARBLERS 95 

possibly S. R., May i-Sept. 15. SE. Minn., uncommon S. R., 
Apl. 30-Sept. 1. 

In second growths, among birches, and at the border 
of the woods one may hear the wheezy, lazy, swee-ckee 
of the Blue-wing. I make it a rule to see the singer 
always with the hope that he may prove to be the rare 
Brewster's Warbler, which usually sings like the Blue- 
wing, but in color is nearer the Golden-wing, being, in 
fact, like the Golden-wing but with the underparts and 
cheeks white unmarked with black. It appears to be a 
hybrid between the Blue-wing and Golden-wing. (Case 

7, Fig- 38.) 

A much rarer supposed hybrid between these two 
Warblers is known as Lawrence's Warbler. It is yellow 
below, like the Blue-wing, but has the black throat and 
cheeks of the Golden-wing. Some individuals sing like 
the Blue-wing, others like the Golden-wing, and this is 
true also of Brewster's Warbler, (Case 7, Fig. 37.) 

The Blue-wing nests on the ground, laying 4-5 white 
delicately speckled eggs the latter part of May. 

X GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER 
Vermivora chrysoptera. Case 7, Figs. 34, 36 

A gray bird with a yellow patch on the wings and a black 
or blackish breast. 

Range. Nests from northern New Jersey and southern Iowa 
north to Massachusetts and central Minnesota and south in the 
mountains to northern Georgia; winters in the tropics. 

Washington, uncommon, T. V., May 1-30; Aug. 8-21. Ossin- 
ing, rare S. R, May 8-Aug. 25. Cambridge, rather common 
S. R., May 12-Aug. 25. N. Ohio, rare T. V.. Glen Ellyn, irregu- 
lar, not common T. V., May 4-18; Aug. 16-Sept. 24. SE. Minn., 
common S. R., May s-Sept. 9. 

The Golden-wing's zee-zee-zee-zee resembles the Blue- 
wing's song in tone but the syllables are all on one note. 
When nesting, ~the Golden-wing prefers second growths, 
2nd birches, but when migrating it may be found in the 



90" WARBLERS 

woods with others of its family. The nest is made on the 
ground, and the eggs, which resemble those of the Blue- 
wing, but are more heavily marked, are laid in May or 
early June. 

NASHVILLE WARBLER 
Vermivora rubricapilla rubricapilla. Case 7, Fig. 33 

No wing-bars or white in the tail; adult with a partly concealed 
chestnut patch in the gray crown; eye-ring white. L. 4}. 

Range. Nests from northern Pennsylvania and Nebraska to 
Canada; winters in the tropics. 

"Washington, uncommon T. V., Apl. 28-May 19; Sept. 5- 
Oct. 2. Ossining, tolerably common T. V., May 7-27; Aug. 11- 
Oct. 4; may breed. Cambridge, rather common S. R, May 5- 
Sept. is; abundant T.- V. N. Ohio, common T. V., Apl. 28- 
May 27; Sept. i-Oct. 16. Glen Ellyn, regular T. V., Apl. 27- 
May 25; Aug. 20-Oct. 19. SE. Minn., common S. R., May 1- 
Sept. 29. 

Thayer in " Warblers of North America " says that the 
Nashville is one of the most agile and restless of the 
gleaning Warblers. It prefers birches, but is found 
in rather open growths of other trees. Its commoner 
song consists of a string of six or eight or more lively rapid 
notes, running into a rolling twitter. It has also a flight- 
song. 

The nest is placed on the ground; the eggs, which are 
laid in May or early June, are white, spotted with reddish 
brown. 

ORANGE-CROWNED WARBLER 
Vermivora celata celata. Case 7, Fig. 32 

A dusky, olive-green bird, obscurely streaked below; without 
wing-bars or white patches in tail. L. 5. 

Range. Chiefly the interior, nests from Manitoba north- 
ward; winters in Florida and the Gulf States. 

Washington, casual T. V., two records, Oct. Ossining, A. V. 
Cambridge, rare T. V., in fall, Oct. 5-Nov. 15. N. Ohio, rare 
T. V., Apl. 27-May 21. Glen Ellyn, not common T. V., May 1- 



WARBLERS 97 

31; July 28-Oct. 7. SE. Minn., common T. V., Apl. 35-; 
Aug. 18-Oct. 16. 

The Orange-crown is a rare fall migrant in the North 
Atlantic States, but common in Florida and southern 
Georgia in the winter. It frequents the upper branches 
of trees though, as with most members of its genus, it nests 
on the ground. Its call-note is a sharp, characteristic 
chip; its song is said to resemble that of the Chipping 
Sparrow. 

TENNESSEE WARBLER 
Vermivora peregrina. Case 8, Fig. 64 

Adult male in spring with a grayish blue crown and white 
underparts; female and young bright olive-green above, yellowish 
below; no wing-bars. L. 5. 

Range. Nests from northern New England northward; winters 
in the tropics. 

Washington, T. V., rare in May; (occasionally common, 
Aug. 31-Nov. 30. Ossining, rare T. V., May 22-27; Aug. 22- 
Oct. 2. Cambridge, rare T. V., May 15-25; Sept. N. Ohio, 
common T. V., May 4-25; Sept. 10- Oct. 10. Glen Ellyn, com- 
mon T. V., Apl. 30-June 6; July 29-Oct. 9. SE. Minn., common 
T. V., Apl. 30-; Sept. 30-. 

A dull-colored little Warbler which we know as a rather 
rare migrant, associated with the traveling companies 
of its family on their northward and southward journeys. 
The song is described by Mrs. Farwell as noticeable but 
not musical and resembling that of the Chipping Sparrow. 

NORTHERN PARULA WARBLER 
Compsotklypis americana usnece. Case 7, Fig. 39 

A small, bluishfWarbler with a yellow patch on the back, a 
dark band on the breast, and white wing-bars. L. 4}. 

Range. Nests from Virginia and Louisiana to Canada; winters 
in the tropics. 

Washington, T. V., but dates not distinguishable from those 
of americana. Ossining, common T. V., May 2-28; Sept. 21- 
Oct. 7. Cambridge, common T. V., May 1—28; Sept. 10—30. 
N. Ohio, not common T. V., May 1-18. Glen Ellyn, not com- 



98 WARBLERS 

man T. V., May 3-28; Aug. 25-Oct. 1. SE. Minn., common T. 
V., May 5-Sept. 9. 

A common migrant, traveling with other Wood War- 
blers, but in summer usually restricted to swampy localities 
where usnea moss flourishes. Of, or rather in this, it 
makes its nest, laying 4-5 white, brown-marked eggs 
the latter half of May. To describe its song as several 
wheezy notes running into a little trill, conveys no idea of 
pleasing character. It is easily recognized and, in time, 
acquires associations with what, to bird-lovers, is the 
most delightful season of the year. 

The Southern Parula Warbler (C. a. americana) is a 
slightly smaller race with less black about the lores and 
on the breast in the male. It summers in the South- 
eastern States north to Virginia, and winters in the 
tropics. Its habits resemble those of the northern race, 
but it nests in the hanging, gray tillandsia or Spanish 
'moss' instead of in usnea. 



CAPE MAY WARBLER 

Dendroica tigrina. Case 8, Figs. 65, 66 

Male with chestnut cheek-patches and a white patch on the 
wing; female and young streaked below, the rump more yellow 
than the back; tail-feathers with terminal spots. L. 5. 

Range. Nests from northern New England northward; winters 
in the tropics. 

Washington, sometimes very common, usually uncommon 
T. V., May 1-20; Aug. 4-Oct. 17. Ossining, tolerably common 
T. V., Aug. 20-Oct. 1. Cambridge, rare T. V., May 15-25; 
Aug. 25. N. Ohio, not common T. V., May 4-18. Glen Ellyn, 
irregular T. V., Apl. 30-May 21; Sept. 8-15. SE. Minn., com- 
mon T. V., May 8. 

This beautiful Warbler was formerly considered one of 
our rarer migrants, but of recent years it appears to be 
increasing in numbers. On its nesting ground the bird 
is said to frequent the upper branches of tall evergreens 
(though one of the few nests which has been found was 



* WARBLERS 99 

within three feet of the ground), but when migrating it 
may be found in the trees of lawns, orchards, and wood- 
land and I have seen it among poke-berries. The Cape 
May's song is a thin squeak which is compared to the 
songs of the Black and White and also Black-poll Warblers. 

\ YELLOW WARBLER 
Dendroica astiva astiva. Case 8, Figs. 40, 41 

A small yellow bird streaked below with brownish; inner webs 
of tail-feathers yellow. L. 5. 

Range. Nests from Missouri and South Carolina to Canada; 
winters in the tropics. 

Washington, common S. R„ abundant T. V., Apl. 4-Sept. 28. 
Ossining, common S. R., Apl. 30-Sept. 27. Cambridge, abundant 
S. R., May i-Sept. 15. N. Ohio, abundant S. R„ Apl. 14- 
Sept. 10. Glen Ellyn, not very common S. R., Apl. 30-Sept. 6. 
SE. Minn., common S. R., Apl. 28-Sept. 10. 

Show me willows over water and any day in May or 
June I'll show you a Yellow Warbler. Shade and fruit 
trees also attract him and he may build his cotton-padded 
nest in their branches or in the shrubbery below. The 
song is a simple we-chee, chee, ckee, chee, cher-wee, resembling 
that of the Chestnut-side, but has its own distinctive 
tone which permits of ready identification, once it has been 
learned. The bluish white eggs, thickly marked with 
shades of brown, are laid the latter half of May. 

BLACK-THROATED BLUE WARBLER 
Dendroica carulescens carulescens. Case 6, Figs. 58, 59 

The male is unmistakable; the female may be known by the 
white spot at the base of the outer wing-feathers. L. si. 

Range. Nests from northern Connecticut, the mountains of 
Pennsylvania, and southern Michigan north to Canada; winters 
in the tropics. 

Washington, very common T. V., Apl. 19-May 30; Aug. 4- 
Oct. 9. Ossining, common T. V., Apl. 25-May 28; Aug. 26- 
Oct. 10. Cambridge, rather common T. V., May 10-25; Sept. 
20-Oct. 10. N. Ohio, common T. V., Apl. 27-May 29; Sept. 5- 



ioo WARBLERS 

Oct. 16. Glen Ellyn, common T. V., Apl. 29-May 29; Aug. 25- 
Oct. 10. SE. Minn., uncommon T. V., May 11. 

A true Wood Warbler, traveling through the trees with 
the scattered bands of other members of his family as he 
journeys to and from his summer home. This, in the 
northern part of his nesting range, is in coniferous forests, 
in the southern part, deciduous forests. In both, how- 
ever, the birds require heavy undergrowth in which their 
bark-covered nest is built within a foot or two of the 
ground. The grayish white, brown-marked eggs are laid 
in late May or early June. Miss Paddock in " Warblers 
of North America " describes the Black-throated Blue's 
song as "an insect-like buzzing note repeated three or 
four times with a rising inflection." 

Cairn's Warbler (D. c. caimsi) is a nearly related race 
having, in the male, black centers to the feathers of the 
back. It nests in the upper parts of the Alleghanies, from 
Maryland to Georgia, and winters in the West Indies. 

MYRTLE WARBLER 
Dendroica coronato. Case 5, Fig. 27 

The yellow rump is always evident, but in fall and winter 
the whole plumage is duller, more brownish and the yellow 
patches at the sides o£ the breast and in the crown are less con- 
spicuous. A rather large Warbler. L. si- 

Range. Nests from northern New England and northern 
Minnesota to Canada; winters from Kansas and southern New 
England to the tropics. 

Washington, abundant W. V., Aug. 7-May 23. Ossining, com- 
mon T. V., Apl. 13-May 28; Aug. 16-Nov. iij a few winter. 
Cambridge, abundant T. V., Apl. 12-May 20; Sept. i-Nov. 1; 
a few winter. N. Ohio, common T.V., Apl. 12-May 20; Sept. 15- 
Nov. 3. Glen Ellyn, common T. V., Apl. 8-May 28; Sept. 25- 
Dec. 29. SE. Minn., common T. V., Apl. 6-; Sept. 9-Oct. 28. 

A hardy Warbler which, like the Tree Swallow, can 
substitute bayberries for insects. When the former are 
available some individuals remain in the North, enduring 
our winters without apparent discomfort. Its call-note, 



WARBLERS lot 

tckep, is as distinctive as its markings, and this fact con- 
nected with its general distribution and abundance, 
makes it one of the best known members of this little- 
known family. 

Thayer in " Warblers of North America " describes its 
common song as "a loud silvery 'sleigh-bell' trill, a vivid, 
sprightly utterance." 

It nests in coniferous forests, building from four to 
twenty feet from the ground and laying 3-5 white eggs 
marked with shades of brown, in late May or early June. 

'% MAGNOLIA WARBLER 
Dendroica magnolia. Case 8, Fig. 42 

The female is duller than the male, but both have the crown 
gray, a white stripe behind the eye, a yellow rump and the white 
tail-patches near the middle of the tail, making the tail, when 
seen from below, appear white, broadly banded with black. 
L. 5. 

Range. Nests from northern Massachusetts and northern 
Michigan, and in the Alleghanies, from West Virginia to Canada; 
winters in the tropics. 

Washington, common T. V., Apl. 22-May 30; Aug. 15-Oct. 6. 
Ossining, common T. V., May 5—28; Aug. 13-Oct. 11. Cam- 
bridge, T. V., rather common, May 12-25; not uncommon, 
Sept. 10-25. N. Ohio, common T. V., Apl. 28-May 27; Sept. I- 
Oct. 10. Glen Ellyn, common T. V., May 3-June 5; Aug. 12- 
Oct. 9. SE. Minn., common T. V., May 6-; Aug. 12-Sept. 9. 

A common migrant distinguished by the beauty of his 
costume even in this family of gayly clad birds. When 
traveling, the Magnolia may be found in woods and 
woody growth of varied character, but when nesting, it 
shows a fondness for spruce forests, building in small 
spruces usually within six feet of the ground. 

The Magnolia's song resembles the Yellow Warbler's 
in tone. Thayer in " Warblers of North America " 
describes it as "peculiar and easily remembered; weeto: 
weeto-weeeete-eet, or witchi, witchi, wtichi tit, the first four 
notes deliberate and even and comparatively low in tone, 



102 WARBLERS 

the last three hurried and higher pitched, with decided 
emphasis on the antepenult weet or witch." 

The eggs, laid in the first half of June, are white marked 
with brown. 

CERULEAN WARBLER 

Dendroica rara. Case 8, Figs. 46, 47 

The adult male will be recognized at sight, but the female and 
young must be looked at sharply. The whitish or yellowish line 
over the eye, in connection with the white wing-bars make a fair 
field-mark. L. 4 \. 

Range. Nests from Texas and Alabama to Minnesota and 
western New York; locally from North Carolina to Delaware. 

Washington, several records in May, one in fall. N. Ohio; 
common S. R., Apl. 20-Sept. 20. Glen Ellyn, not common, 
local S. R., May 8-Aug. 19. SE. Minn., rare S. R. 

A tree-top Warbler of deciduous forests, nesting frorj* 
25 to 60 feet above the ground. Its song bears a marked 
resemblance to that of the Parula and its call-note is said 
to be like the tchep of the Myrtle Warbler. The white 
eggs, heavily blotched with brown, are laid in May. 

- CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER 
Dendroica pensylvanica. Case 8, Figs. 43, 44 

Adults are distinguished by their chestnut sides, yellow crown 
and wing-bars, but the young are wholly different, silky white 
below, yellowish green above. L. si. 

Range. Nests from northern New Jersey and, in the Alle- 
ghanies, South Carolina, north to Canada; winters in the tropics. 

Washington, abundant T. V., Apl. 19-May 30; Aug. 10-Oct. 14. 
Ossining, tolerably common S. R., May 2-Sept. 24. Cambridge, 
abundant S. R., May 5-Sept. 10. N. Ohio, T. V., May 2-25. 
Glen Ellyn, rare S. R., common T. V., May i-Sept. 26. SE. 
Minn., common S. R., May 3~Sept % 15. 

Scrubby second growths undergrown with bushes, road- 
side borders of trees and bushes, and the brushy margins 
of woods are all resorts of the Chestnut-side. Here 
he attracts our attention by his rather loud, frequently 



WARBLERS 103 

uttered song, which strongly suggests that of the Yellow 
Warbler. The nest is built within a few feet of the 
ground and the white, brown-marked eggs are laid the 
latter part of May. 

BAY-BREASTED WARBLER 
Dendroica castanea. Case 8, Figs. 69, 70 

The adult male is unmistakable; the female has chestnut on 
sides and crown, a grayish streaked back and white wing-bars; 
the young bird in the fall cannot, in the field, be certainly dis- 
tinguished from the young Blackpoll, but has the underparts 
tinted with buff instead of with yellow. L. sf. 

Range. Nests from northern New England into Canada; 
winters in the tropics. 

Washington, sometimes abundant, usually uncommon T. V., 
May 2-27; Aug. 29-Nov. Ossining, tolerably common T. V., 
May 14-28; Aug. 5-Sept. 26. Cambridge, rather rare T. V., 
May 15-25; Sept. 12-28. N. Ohio, common T. V., May 4-23; 
Sept. 7-Oct. 10. Glen Ellyn, tolerably common; T. V., May 
8-June 5; Aug. 13-Oct. 4. SE. Minn., uncommon T. V., May 
13-; Aug. 18-Sept. 15. 

The Bay-breast is one of the rarer members of its family. 
Most of us know it only as a migrant passing northward 
in May and southward in September, when it may be 
found in woodlands associated with other migrating 
Warblers. Its song resembles that of the Black and White 
Warbler. Mrs. Farwell describes it as "a poor, weak, 
monotonous saw-filing note." The nest has been found 
in hemlocks 15-20 feet from the ground. The white 
eggs, finely marked with shades of brown, are laid in 
June. 

BLACK-POLL WARBLER 

Dendroica striata. Case 8, Figs. 71, 72 

In the spring, a black cap, white cheeks and a gray, black- 
streaked back distinguish the male; a gray, black-streaked back, 
the female. In the fall, young and old are olive-green, streaked 
with black above; yellowish white below, and thus closely re- 
sembles the young Bay-breast. L. 5 j. 



104 WARBLERS 

Range. Nests from northern New England and northern 
Michigan into Canada; winters in the tropics. 

Washington, abundant T. V., Apl. 28- June 16; Aug. 31-Oct. 20. 
Ossining, common T. V., May 7- June 6; Aug. 30-Oct. 16. Cam- 
bridge, abundant T. V., May 12- June 5; Sept. 8-Oct. 20. N. 
Ohio, common T. V., May 6- June 2; Sept. i-Oct. 16. Glen 
Ellyn, common T. V., May 2-June 8; Aug. 23-Sept. 27. SE. 
Minn., common T. V., May 8-; Aug. 27.- 

Toward the end of the May Warbler ' waves ' the Black- 
polls come in force. They are excessively fat and, perhaps 
for this reason, move rather slowly for a Warbler. They 
are Wood Warblers, but at this season may overflow into 
the trees of our lawns and orchards. Mrs. Farwell 
describes the BlackpolTs song as " a succession of hesi% 
tating, staccato, unmusical notes varying greatly in vol- 
ume. The notes separated, not combined in twos, as in 
the Black and White Warbler's song." When nesting 
this Warbler frequents stunted spruce forests, placing 
its nest in these trees a few feet above the ground, and 
laying 4-5 white, brown-marked eggs the latter part of 
June. 

>.' BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER 
Dendroica fusca. Case 8, Figs. 67, 68 

The orange breast, fiery in the spring male, duller in the female 
and fall males, is distinctive. L. 5 J. 

Range. Nests from Massachusetts (locally) and central 
Minnesota north to Canada and southward in the Alleghanies to 
Georgia; winters in the tropics. 

Washington, common T. V., Apl. 30— June 3; Aug. 14-Oct. 7. 
Ossining, common T. V., May 10-29; Aug. 15-Oct. 15. Cam- 
bridge, T. V., uncommon, May 12-22; rare, Sept. 15-30. N. 
Ohio, common T. V., May 4-June 8; Aug. 12-Sept. 22. SE. 
Minn., common T. V., May 3-; Sept. 4. 

The remoteness of their homes prevents us from making 
the acquaintance of the brilliantly plumaged birds of the 
tropics, but among them all we will find none more 
beautiful than this flame-breasted Warbler, which each 



WARBLERS 105 

spring comes from his tropical winter home almost to our 
doors. In the summer he seeks the seclusion of coniferous 
forests and the higher branches of spruce or hemlock. 
There his nest is made sometimes 80 or more feet above 
the ground, and in late May or early June the white eggs, 
spotted, speckled and blotched with brown, are laid. The 
Blackburnian's song is described by Miss Paddock in 
"Warblers of North America" as "very shrill and fine, 
growing even more shrill and wiry as it rises toward 
the end." 



YELLOW-THROATED WARBLER 
Dendroica dominica dominica. Case 5, Fig. 18 

A gray Warbler with a yellow throat. L. si. 

Range. Southeastern States, nesting north to Maryland; 
wintering from central Florida southward. 

Washington, rare S. R., rather common late in July and Aug.; 
Apl. 19-Sept. 4. 

The loud, ringing ching-ching-ching, chicker, cherwee of 
the Yellow-throated Warbler is one of the characteristic 
bird songs of spring in southern woods. The bird usually 
sings from the upper branches of tall trees, often cypresses, 
in Florida, but further north, from pines, where he can 
be far more easily heard than seen. The nest is placed 
30-40 feet from the ground and the white eggs, thickly 
marked with shades of brown, are laid in April. 

The Sycamore Warbler (D. d. albilora, Case 5, Fig. 19) 
is a nearly related race of the Yellow-throat which inhabits 
the Mississippi Valley nesting as far north as southern 
Michigan and wintering in the tropics. It differs from the 
Atlantic coast form in having a smaller bill and no yellow 
in front of the eye. As its name implies, it favors sycamore 
trees. 



io6 WARBLERS 



BLACK-THROATED GREEN WARBLER 
Dendroica wrens rirens. Case 6, Fig. 62 

The female has a yellow throat and a band of black spots on the 
breast, but both sexes may be known by the yellow cheeks and the 
large amount of white in the tail. L. 5. 

Range. Nests from Long Island and northern Ohio north to 
Canada and south in the Alleghanies to Georgia. 

Washington, very common T. V., Apl. 22-May 30; Aug. 26- 
Oct. 21. Ossining, common T. V., Apl. 30-June 3; Sept. I- 
Oct. 26; a few breed. Cambridge, abundant S. R., May 1- 
Oct. 15. N. Ohio, common T. V., Apl. 25-May 24; Sept. 1- 
Oct. 16; a few breed. Glen Ellyn, common T. V., Apl. 29- 
June 6; Aug. 22-Oct. 12. SE. Minn., common T. V., uncommon 
S. R., Apl. 29-Sept. 22. 

The quiet little zee-zee, zee-ee-zee of the Black-throated 
Green announces the arrival of the vanguard of true 
Wood Warblers, which for the succeeding two weeks will 
pass in countless numbers through our woodlands, still 
almost leafless. At this time we may find him wherever 
trees grow, but his real summer home is coniferous forests, 
especially of hemlocks, in which he often builds his nests 
15-20 feet above the ground. The eggs, laid in late 
May or early June, are white spotted and speckled with 
brown. 

A southern form of this Warbler (D. v. waynei) has been 
described from the vicinity of Charleston, S. C. 

KIRTLAND'S WARBLER 

Dendroica kirtlandi. Case 8, Fig. 45 

A large Warbler, pale yellow below; crown slaty; back brown- 
ish streaked with black. 

Range. Nests in Oscoda, Crawford and Roscommon Coun- 
ties, Michigan, winters in the Bahamas; in migration has been 
found within the area from Minneapolis, Minn., to Toronto, 
Ont., south to St. Louis, Mo., and Fort Myer, Va., and south- 
eastward. 

Washington, one record, Sept. 25, 1887. N. Ohio, rare T. V. 
May 9 and 11. Glen.Ellyn, one record, May 7, 1894. SE. Minn., 
one record, Minneapolis, May 13. 



WARBLERS 107 

Kirtland's Warbler has one of the smallest nesting areas 
of any North American bird and consequently is one of 
our rarest species. In the summer it lives among 
the jack-pines of north central Michigan, nesting on the 
ground beneath them. When migrating, it may be found 
usually near the ground, where it may be identified 
by its habit of tail-wagging. Its song is described 
by Wood in "Warblers of North America" as belonging 
to the whistling type with the clear, ringing quality of the 
Oriole's. The 3-5 eggs, laid early in June, are white 
speckled with brown in a wreath at the larger end. 

PINE WARBLER 

Dendroica vigorsi vigorsi. Case 4, Fig. 57; Case 6, Fig. 60 

The male is bright greenish yellow below, sometimes duskily 
streaked; the female is tinged with brown above, below is soiled 
whitish, tinged with yellow. L. si- 
Range. Nests from the Gulf States to Canada; winters from 
southern Illinois and Virginia southward. 

Washington, quite uncommon S. R., Mch. 20-Oct. 29, abun- 
dant in fall. Ossining, casual. Cambridge, locally common 
S. R., Apl. 10-Oct. 20; occasional W. V. N. Ohio, rare T. V., 
Apl. 29-May 15. Glen Ellyn, not common T. V., spring records 
only, Apl. 17-May 24. SE. Minn., common T. V., Apl. 26-. 

Pine Warblers seem almost as much a part of pine 
woods as the trees themselves. They feed on the ground 
below the pines, they glean from the bark of the trunk, 
or frSm the clusters of 'needles' on the topmost boughs, 
the very peace of the pines is expressed in their calm, 
even, musical trill; and where there are no pines there 
are no Pine Warblers. During the migration, it is true, 
they may be found elsewhere, but at that season they are 
travelers, and travelers cannot always be responsible for 
their surroundings. Their nest, of course, is always built 
in pines, usually from 30-50 feet above the ground. The 
eggs laid in March in the South, and early June in the 
North, are white wreathed with brown at the larger end. 



io8 WARBLERS 

YELLOW PALM WARBLER 

Dendroica palmar um hypochrysea. Case 6, Fig. 61 

Underparts bright yellow streaked with reddish brown; cap 
reddish brown; line over the eye yellow. L. si- 
Range. Nests from Maine northward; winters from North 
Carolina to the Florida Keys; west to Louisiana. 

Washington, T. V., common, Mch. 31-Apl. 29; Sept. 4-Oct. 28. 
Ossining, tolerably common T. V., Apl. Il-May 5; Sept. 20- 
Nov. 8. Cambridge, usually common, sometimes abundant, 
T. V., Apl. 15-May 5; Oct. 1-15. 

A tail-wagging Warbler that frequents bushy places, 
weedy fields and open pine woods and gardens, living near 
the ground where it may be easily seen. Its call-note, 
chip, is distinctive and one learns in time to recognize 
it. Its song is a trill, clear and sweet, but by no means 
loud. 

The Palm Warbler (D. p. palmarum) is the Mississippi 
Valley form of the Atlantic coast race, from which it 
differs in having the line over the eye white instead of yel- 
low; the yellow of the underparts paler and confined to 
the throat and breast. It is not infrequent during the fall 
migration in the North Atlantic States and, in Florida, is 
far more common than the Yellow Palm. 

Washington, rare T. V., Apl. 22-May 18; Sept. 18-Oct. 11. 
Ossining, T. V., Apl. 29; Sept. 30-Oct. 12. Cambridge, uncom- 
mon T. V. in fall, Sept. 15-Oct. 10. N. Ohio, tolerably common 
T. V., Apl. 24-May 20; Sept. 10-Oct. 16. Glen Ellyn, common 
T.V.,Apl.23-May 19; Sept. 4-Oct. 18. SE. Minn., common T.V., 
Apl. 23; Sept. 17-Oct. 3. 

Both races nest on the ground. 

PRAIRIE WARBLER 
Dendroica discolor. Case 8, Fig. 48 

A small Warbler with a reddish brown patch in the back, 
yellowish wing-bars, and much white in the tail. L. 4f. 

Range. Nests from Florida and northern Mississippi to Michi- 
gan and New Hampshire. 



WARBLERS 109 

Washington, very common S. R., Apl. 12-Sept. 20. Ossining, 
rare S. R., May 2-Sept. 14. Cambridge, locally common S. R„ 
May 8-Sept. 15. N. Ohio, rare, .fypl. 29, May 9, and 14. 

Scrubby second growths, hillsides with scattered cedars 
and barberries, and, sometimes, bushy places in the pines 
are the haunts of the miscalled Prairie Warbler. Common 
and generally distributed in the South, it is local in the 
North and not always found in districts which seem to 
supply all its wants. Its song is composed of six or seven 
minute zees, the next to the last one usually the highest. 
The nest is generally built within 4 feet of the ground, the 
eggs, laid in May, are white marked with shades of 
brown, often wreathed about the larger end. 

X OVEN-BIRD 

Seiurus aurocapillus. Case 6, Fig. 64 

An olive brownish bird, white streaked with black below, with 
an orange, black-bordered crown and no white on wings or in 
tail. L. 6J. 

Range. Nests from Georgia and Missouri to Canada; winters 
from Florida southward. 

Washington, very common S. R., Apl. 10-Oct. 17. Ossining, 
common S. R., Apl. 27-Oct. 10. Cambridge, very common S. R., 
May 6-Sept. 15. N. Ohio, abundant S. R., Apl. 22-Oct. 1. 
Glen Ellyn, not common S. R., common T. V., Apl. 28-Sept. 30. 
SE. Minn., common S. R., Apl. 27-Sept. 22. 

The Oven-bird, and its near relatives the Water- 
Thrushes, bear so little resemblance in color and habits 
to the true Wood Warblers, that one might well think 
they were members of another family. Their plumage 
lacks the bright colors, white wing-bars and tail-patches 
possessed by most Warblers, and, instead of hopping and 
flitting from twig to twig, they spend their time chiefly 
walking on the ground, where they find their food. 

It is not so much its abundance as its song which makes 
the Oven-bird well known. Years ago Mr. Burroughs 
wrote it, teacher, teacher, teacher, teacher, teacher, and no 
one has improved on this description. The Oven-bird 



no WARBLERS 

also sings an ecstatic warbling on the wing; a tnfilErig 
performance. The nest is built on the ground and, like 
a Dutch oven, is roofed over with the entrance at one 
side. The eggs, laid in May, are white, marked chiefly 
at the larger end with brown. 

NORTHERN WATER-THRUSH 
Seiurus noveboracensis noveboracensis. Case. 8, Fig. 56 

Underparts white tinged with pale yellow, everywhere — includ- 
ing throat — streaked with black; no white in tail or wings. L. 6. 

Range. Nests from northern New England to Canada, south in 
the mountains, to West Virginia; winters in the tropics. 

Washington, common T. V., Apl. 22- June 2; July 21-Oct. 6. 
Ossining, tolerably common T. V., May 11-21; July 28-Oct. 3. 
Cambridge, abundant T. V., May 8- June 1; Aug. 10-Oct. 10. 
N. Ohio, common, T. V., Apl. 26-May 25; Sept. 1-15. 

The two Water-Thrushes and the Oven-bird are walking 
Warblers, and the Water-Thrushes, furthermore, are 
teeterers, nervously tipping tail and body with apparently 
exhaustless energy. When migrating, the Northern 
Water-Thrush often seeks refuge beneath the shrubbery 
of our lawns, but when nesting it frequents the borders 
of streams in deep woods, building its home on the ground 
or in the roots of an upturned tree. Its call-note is a sharp 
chink; its song a hurried rush of loud musical notes, clos- 
ing abruptly. The 4-5 eggs, laid in the latter half of 
May or early June, are white with numerous brown 
markings chiefly about the larger end. 

Grinnell's Water-Thrush (5. n. notabilis), a slightly 
larger and darker form, nests in the Northwest and is 
casually found as a migrant on the Atlantic coast. 

< LOUISIANA WATER-THRUSH 

Seiurus motacilla. Case 5, Fig. 5 

Line over eye and underparts white, the latter tinted with 
buff (not with yellow, as in the preceding species) ; the throat 
white unmarked; no white in wings or tail. L. 6 J. 



WARBLERS in 

Range. Nests from Georgia and Texas to southern New Eng- 
land and southeastern Minnesota; winters in the tropics. 

Washington, rare S. R., Apl. 2-Sept. 14. Ossining, common 
S. R., Apl. o-Aug. 24. N. Ohio, tolerably common S. R., Mch. 28- 
Sept. 15. SE. Minn., uncommon S. R., Apl. 17-Aug. 26. 

A shy spirit of woodland brooks, the Louisiana Water- 
Thrush resembles the Northern Water-Thrush in habits 
but is more difficult to see; its call-note is louder, its song, 
wilder, more ringing. Like the Oven-bird it also has a 
flight, or 'ecstasy '-song. It nests in a bank or among 
the roots of a fallen tree, laying 4-6 eggs, white with 
numerous brown markings, in late April or early May. 

% KENTUCKY WARBLER 
Oporornis formosus. Case 8, Fig. 52 

A yellow line from the bill around the eye; crown blackish; 
no white on wings or tail. L. 5 J. 

Range. Nests from Georgia and Texas to southern Wisconsin 
and the lower Hudson Valley; winters in the tropics. 

Washington, not very uncommon S. R., Apl. 29-Sept. 2. 
Ossining, common S. R. t May 2-Aug. 27. N. Ohio, rare, Apl. 27 
and May 12. 

Wet woodland with luxuriant undergrowth of bushes, 
ferns and skunk cabbage are the favorite haunts of this 
1 sweet-voiced Warbler, and its nest is usually built among 
vegetation of this character. Its freely uttered song is a 
loud, clear two-syllabled whistle, in tone like the voice of 
the Carolina Wren or Cardinal. Its 4-5 eggs, laid in late 
May or early June, are white, speckled chiefly about the 
larger end with shades of brown. 

CONNECTICUT WARBLER 

Oporornis agilis. Case 8, Figs. 77, 78 

A complete white eye-ring; male without black on the gray 
breast. L. si. 

Range. Nests in the interior from north Michigan to Manitoba; 
printers in the tropics. 

Washington, T. V., very rare in spring, May 24-30; common 



ii2 WARBLERS 

from Aug. 28-Oct. 24. Ossining, rare T. V., Aug. 26-Oct. t), 
Cambridge, fall T. V., sometimes locally abundant, Sept. 10-30. 
N. Ohio, tolerably common T. V., May 7-24. Glen Ellyn, 
fairly common T. V., May 12-June 28; Aug. 14-Sept. 22. SE. 
Minn., uncommon T. V., June 1. 

In the Atlantic Coast States this Warbler is found only 
as a fall migrant, at times in considerable numbers. It 
lives on the ground in or at the border of woods usually 
where there is dense undergrowth, and would easily escape 
observation were it not for its sharp call-note, peek, 
by which it may be identified. Its song, heard only on 
its migrations up the Mississippi Valley and on its nesting 
ground, has been described as resembling that of both the 
Oven-bird and Maryland Yellow-throat. The only nest 
recorded was found by Ernest Seton near Carberry, 
Manitoba, June 21, 1883. It was on the ground and 
contained 4 eggs, white with a few spots about the larger 
end. 

■v MOURNING WARBLER 
Oporornis Philadelphia. Case 8, Figs. 75, 76 

Male without white eye-ring; and with a black breast veiled 
with gray. L. si. 

Range. Nests from northern New York and Michigan to 
Canada, south in the mountains to West Virginia; winters in the 
tropics. 

Washington, very rare T. V., May 6-30; Aug. 17-Oct. 1. 
Ossining, rare T. V., May 28-29; Aug. l8-Oct. 1. Cambridge, 
rare T. V., May 22-June 5; Sept. 12-25. N. Ohio, tolerably 
common T. V., May 3-28. Glen Ellyn, rather rare T. V. May 
18-June 8; Aug. 17-. SE. Minn., uncommon T. V., May 13-; 
Aug. I-Sept. 10. 

The Mourning Warbler is one of the rarer Warblers 
which, by good fortune, we may occasionally see toward 
the end of the spring migration. It is usually found in 
the lower growth, being a brush and tangle haunter of 
woods and clearings. Its song, which is described as 
clear and ringing, is uttered frequently, often from a dead 



WARBLERS 113 

limb. The nest is built in briars or bushes within a foot 
or two of the ground. The eggs, laid in the first half 
of June, are white with a few brownish spots at the larger 
end. 

X MARYLAND YELLOW-THROAT 
Ceolhlypis trichas trichos. Case 8, Figs. 50, 51 

The gray-bordered, black mask of the male makes him unmis- 
takable. The female is without distinctive markings, but may 
easily be identified by her notes and actions. L. si. 

Range. Nests from Virginia and the lower Mississippi Valley 
northward; winters from North Carolina to Florida. 

Washington, abundant S. R., Apl. 13-Oct. 21. Ossining, com- 
mon S. R., Apl. 28-Oct. 23. Cambridge, abundant S. R., 
May 5-Oct. 20; occasional in winter. N. Ohio, abundant S. R., 
Apl. 25-Sept. 25. Glen Ellyn, common S. R., May 2-0ct. 2. 
SE. Minn., common S. R. 

A fidgety, inquisitive inhabitant of bushy undergrowth 
along roadsides and wood borders, whose impatient off- 
repeated call-note, chack, ckack, and energetic song of 
wichity, wichity, wickily, soon become familiar to the 
bird-student. It nests on or near the ground and the 
white, lightly spotted eggs are laid in the latter half 
of May. 

The Florida Yellow-throat (G. t. ignota), a more deeply 
colored race, is found from North Carolina to southern 
Florida. In the last-named State it usually inhabits 
■scrub palmetto growths. 

YELLOW-BREASTED CHAT 
Icleria virens virens. Case 8, Fig. 49 

A large bird, superficially, quite unlike the true Warblers but 
nevertheless agreeing with them in essential structure. L. 7 J. 

Range. Nests from Texas and northern Florida to southern 
Minnesota and (locally) Massachusetts; winters in the tropics. 

Washington, common S. R., Apl. 16-Sept. 28. Ossining, com- 
mon S. R., Apl. 28-Aug. 29. Cambridge, rather rare and 
irregular S. R., May 15-Sept. N. Ohio, common S. R„ May 1- 



H4 WARBLERS 

Sept. 15. Glen Ellyn, local, not common. May 10-Aug. 16, 
SE. Minn., rare S. R. (?). 

If the Chat lived in England what a wealth of lore, 
legend, and literature would owe its v origin to his strange 
ways and stranger notes ! Here he is known to few but the 
initiated, who find an endless interest in his odd song- 
medley and peculiar antics. Go yourself to the brush- 
grown, thickety wood borders and clearings he loves and 
let him be his own interpreter. You may even find his 
nest low down in some crotch with its white, evenly 
speckled eggs, and hear his angry ch&t as he resents your 
presence. 

HOODED WARBLER 
Wilsonia cilrina. Case~8, Figs, 54, 55 

The yellow face and black 'hood' distinguishes the -male, but 
both sexes may be known by the large amount of white in the 
outer tail-feathers. L. 5}. 

Range. Nests from Georgia and Louisiana north to Michigan 
and Connecticut; winters in the tropics. 

Washington, locally common, S. R., Apl. 19-Oct. 1. Ossining, 
rare S. R., to Sept. 1. N. Ohio, rare, May 8, 9, 12 and 22. 

Color, song, habit and temperament combine to make 
the Hooded Warbler one of the most attractive members of 
its family. As one sees it flitting from bush to bush in 
woodland undergrowth, displaying its white outer tail- 
feathers as it flies, pausing now and again to utter its 
simple, sweet whistled song, one is impressed not only 
by its beauty but by its gentleness. It nests in a bush 
within a foot or two of the ground, laying 3-5 white eggs, 
wreathed with shades of brown spots, early in May, in 
the South, in June, in the North. 

WILSON'S WARBLER 

Wilsonia pusilla pusilla. Case 8, Figs. 73, 74 

The female usually lacks the black cap, when she resembles the 
female Hooded, but is smaller and has no white in the tail. L. 5. 



WARBLERS nS 

Range. Nests from northern New England and northern 
Minnesota northward; winters in the tropics. 

Washington, rather common T. V., May i-26;1 Aug. 27-Oct.[6. 
Ossining, tolerably common T. V., May 9-30; Aug. 10-Sept. 9. 
Cambridge, common T. V., May 12-25; uncommon, Sept. 5-20. 
N. Ohio, tolerably common T. V.. May 5-June 2; Sept. 5-15. 
Glen Ellyn, not common T. V., May 7- June 26; Aug. 16-Sept. 21. 
SE. Minn., common T. V., May 2-; Aug. 23-Sept. 27. 

Wilson's Warbler, a flycatching Warbler of the lower 
growth, favors bushes near water, but is also found in 
dryer places. Thayer in "Warblers of North America" 
says that its "song has much of the ringing clarity of the 
Canada's and Hooded's songs." It nests on the ground, 
laying 4 eggs, usually with a wreath of spots at the larger 
end, early in June. 

i CANADIAN WARBLER 
Wilsonia canadensis. Case 8, Fig. 53 

Above gray, no white in wings or tail; breast with a necklace 

of black spots, paler and less numerous in the female. L. si- 
Range. Nests from Massachusetts and central Minnesota 

northward, south in the mountains to Tennesee; winters in 

the tropics. 

Washington, very common T. V., May 5-June 2; July 31- 

Sept. 25. Ossining, common T. V., May 6-June 2; Aug. 10— 

Oct. 11. Cambridge, common. May 12-30, rare, Sept. 1-15; 

rare S. R. N. Ohio, common T. V., Apl. 28-May 27; Sept. 1-18. 

Glen Ellyn, common T. V., May 5-June 6; Aug. 15-Sept. 22. 

SE. Minn., common T. V., May 8-; Aug. 18-Sept. 5. 

The Canadian Warbler haunts the lower growth of 
deciduous forests. It is " a sprightly, wide-awake, 
fly-snapping Warbler, vivid in movement and in song " 
(Thayer). "The song is liquid, uncertain, varied, bright 
and sweet" (Farwell). It nests on the ground early in 
June, laying 4-5 eggs much like those of Wilson's Warbler. 

X REDSTART 

Setophaga ruticilla. Case 8, Figs. 57, 58 

The female is yellow where the male is flame-color; young 
males resemble the female, but usually have more or less black 
an the breast. L. 5}. 



u6 PIPITS 

Range. Nests from Arkansas and North Carolina to Canada; 
winters in the tropics. 

Washington, very abundant T. V., Apl. i5-May;1Aug. 19- 
Sept. 30; a few breed. Ossining, common S. R., May i-Oct. 3. 
Cambridge, abundant S. R., May 5-Sept. 20. N. Ohio, common 
S. R., Apl. 27-Sept. 20. Glen Ellyn, not common S. R., common 
T. V., May 3-Oct. 5. SE. Minn., common S. R., May 2-Sept. 22. 

His bright colors, graceful, aerial pirouetting, abundance, 
and frequently uttered song make the Redstart the most 
conspicuous as well as one of the most attractive of our 
woodland Warblers. So exquisite a creature should be as 
widely known as are violets or daisies. The Redstart 
builds its well-made nest in a crotch, usually about fifteen 
feet above the ground. The 4-5 grayish white eggs, 
spotted and blotched chiefly at the larger end, are laid in 
mid-May. 



WAGTAILS AND PIPITS. FAMILY MOTA- 
CILLIDiE 

AMERICAN PIPIT 
Anlhus rubescens. Case 4, Fig. 62; Case 5, Fig. 17 

Outer tail-feathers white, bill slender, back grayish. L. 6}. 

Range. Nests from Newfoundland to Greenland; winters from 
Maryland to Florida and Mexico. 

Washington, W. V., sometimes abundant, Oct. 2-May 12. 
Ossining, common T. V., Mch. 26-(?); Sept. 24-Nov. 16. Cam- 
bridge, T. V., abundant Sept. 20— Nov. 10; rare Apl. 10-May 20. 
N. Ohio, common 'T. V., Apl. 6-May 20; Oct. 19. Glen Ellyn. 
not fcommon T. V., Apl. 15-; Sept. 30- Oct. 18. SE. Minn, 
common T. V., May 4-; Oct. 

At first glance a Pipit might be mistaken for a Sparrow — 
let us say, a Vesper Sparrow; but note that it walks, in- 
stead of hops, that it constantly wags or 'tips' its tail, 
that it has a slender, not stout bill. Meadows, pastures, 
plowed fields, golf-courses, are frequented by Pipits, 
usually in flocks of a dozen or more. When flushed, with 



THRASHERS AND MOCKINGBIRDS 117 

a faint dee-dee, they bound lightly into the air but usually 
soon return to earth. 

Sprague's Pipit (Anthus spraguei), a slightly smaller 
species, nests in Montana, Dakota, and northward, and 
is sometimes found in small numbers on the coast of South 
Carolina and Georgia in winter. 



THRASHERS, MOCKINGBIRDS, ETC. 
FAMILY MIMID^E 

MOCKINGBIRD 

Mimus polyglottos polygloltos. Case 4; Fig. 76 

To be confused in color only with the Loggerhead Shrike, but 
larger, with a longer tail, no black on the face and totally differ- 
ent habits. L. 10}. 

Range. Nests from the Gulf to Iowa and Maryland; rarely 
to Massachusetts; winters from Maryland southward. 

Washington, uncommon P. R., less numerous in winter. Cam- 
bridge, rare S. R„ Mch. to Nov. 

No southern garden is complete without a Mocking- 
bird to guard its treasures with his harsh alarm-note and 
extol its beauties in his brilliant, varied song. He is to 
the South what the Robin is to the North — and more, for 
he is present throughout the year while the Robin is with 
us only during the nesting season. 

The Mocker builds in bushes, orange-trees or other 
dense vegetation, from late March, in southern Florida, 
to early May in Virginia. The 4-6 eggs are blue heavily 
marked with brown. 

• CATBIRD 
Dumatella carolinensis. Case 4, Fig. 81; Case 6, Fig. 71 

Both sexes of the Catbird wear the same costume at all seasons 
and all ages. L. 9. 

Range. Nests from Florida and Texas to Canada' winters 
from South Carolina to the tropics. 



n8 THRASHERS AND MOCKINGBIRDS 

Washington, abundant S. R., Apl. 34-Oct. 11; occasionally 
winters. Ossining, common S. R., Apl. 28-Oct. 25. Cambridge, 
abundant S. R., May 6-Oct. 1; occasional in winter. N. Ohio, 
common S. R., Apl. 21-Oct. 5. Glen Ellyn, common S. R., Apl. 
ao-Oct. 6. SE. Minn., common S. R., Apl. 30-Oct. 6. 

If the Catbird's name were based on his song instead of 
on his call-note, he might have won the popularity he 
deserves, but which seems forever denied him. Taking 
kindly to civilization he makes his home near ours, asking 
only the shelter of our shrubbery and a share of our small 
fruits in return for three months of music such as but 
few birds can produce. 

The Catbird nests in bushes and thickets laying 3-5 
greenish blue eggs in May. 

/, BROWN THRASHER 
Toxostoma rufum. Case 4, Fig. 82 ; Case 6, Fig. 72 

Tail and bill much longer than in the Thrushes; white wing- 
bars; eye pale yellow. L. 11 J. 

Range. Nests from Florida and Louisiana to Canada; winters 
from North Carolina and SE. Missouri to Florida and Texas. 

Washington, very common S. R., Apl. 8— Oct.; occasionally 
winters. Ossining, common S. R., Apl. 22-Oct. 28. Cambridge 
common S. R., Apl. 26— Oct. 20. N. Ohio, common S. R., Apl. 6— 
Oct. 15. Glen Ellyn, common S. R., Apl. o-Oct. 11. SE. Minn., 
ftommon S. R., Apl. 15-Oct. 7. 

In the wealth of new experiences and awakened associa- 
tions which crowd the bird-lover's days in April and May, 
none stands out more clearly in my memory than the first 
Thrasher's song. 

The rich, distinctly enunciated notes ring loud and clear 
above all other songs as the bird from some tree-top gives 
his musical message to the world. The performance 
concluded he returns to the undergrowth whence one may 
hear his explosive, whistled wheiu or sharp kissing note. 
The nest is built in bushy growths or on the ground in 
May. The 3-6 eggs are grayish white finely speckled 
with reddish brown. 



WRENS 119 



WRENS. FAMILY TROGLODYTID^E 

CAROLINA WREN 
Thryothorus ludovicianus ludovicianus. Case 4, Fig. 64 

Largest and most brightly colored of our Wrens. Note the 
buff or whitish line over the eye. L. 5 J. 

Range. Gulf States north to Connecticut and Iowa; non- 
migratory. The Florida Wren (7". I. miamensis) a slightly larger, 
more richly colored form, inhabits Florida from Palatka south- 
ward. 

Washington, common P. R. Cambridge, rare or casual. N. 
Ohio, tolerably common P. R. 

The Carolina Wren is a bird of the woods, whose loud, 
musical whistles are among the most conspicuous of south- 
ern bird notes. They suggest those of both the Cardinal 
and Tufted Titmouse, but are more varied in character. 
A common scolding call is recognizably wren-like, while 
another suggests a tree-toad's krrring. The nest is built 
in holes, in April. The 4-6 eggs are white with numerous 
reddish brown and lavender markings. 

BEWICK'S WREN 
Thryomanes bewicki bewicki 

Size of the House Wren, but with the tail nearly half an inch 
longer; its outer feathers tipped with gray. 

Range. Mississippi Valley from the Gulf States to southern 
Michigan; rare east of the AUeghanies. 

Washington, rare and local T. V., Mch. 26-July-; may winter, 
Nov. 24-Dec. 22. 

A house Wren of the States west of the AUeghanies with 
a tail that seems to be at the mercy of passing breezes, 
and a song resembling the Song Sparrow's, but louder. 
Its nesting habits resemble those of the House Wren. The 
4-6 eggs, laid in April, are white speckled with reddish 
brown and lavender. 



i2o WRENS 

HOUSE WREN 
Troglodytes a'idon aidon. Case 4, Fig. 63; Case 6, Fig. 70 

No introduction is needed to this feathered tenant of many 
bird-lovers. L. 5. 

Range. Nests from Virginia and Kentucky to Canada; winters 
from South Carolina and lower Mississippi Valley to Mexico. 

Washington, common S. R., Apl. 13-Oct. 11. Ossining, com- 
mon S. R., Apl. 23— Oct. 14. Cambridge, formerly abundant S. R., 1 
Apl. 28— Sept. 25; now rare and local. N. Ohio, common S. R., 
Apl. 17-Oct. 5. Glen Ellyn, S. R. in isolated pairs; Apl. 26- 
Oct. 13. SB. Minn., common S. R., Apl. 27-Sept. 18. 

The familiar inhabitant of our bird-houses whose num- 
bers seem limited only by the nesting-sites we offer him. 
His little fountain of melody bubbles forth irrepressibly 
to cheer his mate or challenge a rival. With the exhaust- 
less energy of their kind they fill their nest-box with twigs, 
grasses and feathers, wherein are laid 6-8 minutely and 
evenly speckled pinkish eggs. 

WINTER WREN 
Nannus hiemalis hiemalis. Case 2, Fig. 58 

Smaller than the House Wren; underparts brownish, flanks 
and belly finely barred. L. 4. 

Range. Nests from northern New England and Central Michi- 
gan north to Canada and, in the Alleghanies, south to North 
Carolina; winters from the Northern States to the Gulf. 

Washington, rather common W. V., Aug. 10-May 1. Ossining, 
tolerably common W. V., Sept. 18-Apl. 27. Cambridge, T. V. 
uncommon, Sept. 20-Nov. 25; rare, Apl. 10-25; a very few 
winter. N. Ohio, tolerably common. W. V., Sept. 14-May 17. 
Glen Ellyn, fairly common T. V., Apl. i-May 10; Sept. o-Nov. 7. 
SE. Minn., common T. V., rare W. V„ Sept. 22-Apl. 3. 

The Winter Wren comes to us from the North when the 
House Wren leaves for the South and remains with us 
until the House Wren returns in the spring. But one 
by no means takes the place of the other. The Winter 
Wren is a wood Wren that lives in fallen tree-tops, old 



WRENS 121 

brush-piles or similar retreats, and his nervous chimp, 
chimp, as with cocked-up tail he hops into view for a 
second, is like the call of the Song Sparrow rather than the 
scolding note of most Wrens; nor does his rippling, trick- 
ling song resemble the House Wren's sudden outburst. 

The nest is built in the roots of a tree or similar location. 
The s - 7 eggs, laid in early June, are white, finely, bui 
rather sparingly speckled with brownish. 

SHORT-BILLED MARSH WREN 
Cistolhorus stellaris. Case 8, Fig. 80 

Smallest of our Wrens; the head and back streaked with white. 
L.4. 

Range. Nests from central Missouri and northern Delaware 
to Saskatchewan and southern Maine; winters from southern 
Illinois and southern New Jersey to the Gulf. 

Washington, very rare T, V., two instances. May. Ossining, 
rare S. R., to Oct. 16. Cambridge, formerly locally common 
S. R., May 12-Sept. 25; now chiefly T. V. N. Ohio, rare, May 
13, 14, 16 and 19. Glen Ellyn, fairly common S. R., May 8- 
Oct. 17. SB. Minn., common S. R., May 13-Sept. 19. 

Although we have only six species of Wrens in the eastern 
United States, they are so unlike in their choice of haunts 
that few localities which will afford them the hiding places 
they all love are without one or more of them. The 
House and Bewick's Wrens make their homes near ours; 
the Carolina and Winter Wrens prefer the woods; the 
Long-billed Marsh Wren's haunts have given him his 
name, and if we should call the present species Meadow 
Wren, its home would be similarly indicated, for it lives 
in wet, grassy places rather than among the cat-tails. 

Ernest Seton describes its note as resembling the sound 
produced by striking two pebbles together, while its song 
is a series of chaps, running into chap-r-r-rrr. The 
globular nest is built on the ground, and the 6-8 eggs, laid 
in May, are usually pure white. 



122 CREEPERS 



LONG-BILLED MARSH WREN 
Telmatodviss pulustris ppbairis, Can 8, Fig. 79 

Darker and larger than the Short-billed Marsh Wren, with a 
blackish brown crown and white stripe over the eye. L. 5 J. 

Range. Nests from Virginia to Canada; winters from southern 
New Jersey to South Carolina. Worthington's Marsh Wren 
(T. p. griseus) is the form of the Atlantic coast from South Caro- 
lina to Florida. Marian's Marsh Wren (T. p. marianas) is 
found on the more southern Atlantic coast and on the Gulf coast 
of Florida; while the Prairie Marsh Wren (T. p. iliacus) nests 
in the Mississippi Valley east to Indiana north to Canada, and 
winters along the Gulf coast. Where two races may be expected 
to occur together (for example, in the South, during the winter) 
field identification of the various races may be left to experts 
and the average observer must be content with plain "Marsh 
Wren." 

Washington, very numerous S. R., Apl. 15-Nov. 1. Ossining, 
commonS. R., May 10-Oct. 28. Cambridge, locally abundant 
S. R., May 15-Oct. 1; sometimes a few winter. N. Ohio, com- 
mon S. R., Apl. 21-Sept. 20. Glen Ellyn, fairly common S. R., 
May 10-Oct. 10. SE. Minn., common S. R., May 5-Sept. 9. 

As well look for pond lilies on a rocky hillside as a 
Marsh Wren outside a marsh. Give him cat-tails for cover 
and to support his bulky nest and he is at home. His 
scolding notes betray his ancestry and his reeling, rippling 
song, delivered both from a perch and on fluttering wings 
above the reeds, suggests in form, at least, that of the 
House Wren. The 5-9 eggs, laid in early June are uni- 
form chocolate or thickly marked with brown. 

CREEPERS. FAMILY CERTHIID^ 
BROWN CREEPER 

Certhia familiaris americana. Case 2, Fig. 59 

Tail-feathers with stiffened points, bill slender and slightly 
curved. L. si- 
Range. Nests from northern New England and south along^the 
Alleghanies to North Carolina; winters south to Florida. 

Washington, common W. V., Sept. 22-May 1. Ossining, toler- 
ably common W. V., Sept. 20-May 7. Cambridge, common T. V., 



NUTHATCHES 123 

rather common W. V., Sept. 25-May ij one summer record 
N. Ohio, common W. V., Oct. i-May 9. Glen Ellyn, tolerably 
common W. V., Sept. 15-May 19. SE. Minn., common T. V., 
uncommon W. V., Sept. 25-Mch. 30. 

To see the Brown Creeper is to know him but so incon- 
spicuous is he that unless you chance to observe him drop 
from one to tree near the foot of another, you may over- 
look the little figure creeping spirally upward. Nor are 
his thin, weak, squeaky call-notes more likely to attract 
attention than he is himself. A true bird of the bark, he 
not only hunts upon it but builds his nest behind it, 
laying 5-8 white, brown-spotted eggs in May. 



NUTHATCHES. FAMILY SITTID^ 
y WHITE-BREASTED NUTHATCH 

Sitta carolinensis carolinensis. Case 2, Figs. 38, 39; Case 4, 
Fig. 65 

Crown black, cheeks white; breast white; the female with a 
gray crown. L. 6. 

Range. Nests from Gulf States to Canada; a Permanent 
Resident. The Florida White-breasted Nuthatch (S. c. atkinsi) 
a slightly smaller form in which the female as well as the male 
has the crown black, is the race inhabiting Florida, the Atlantic 
coast to South Carolina and the Gulf coast to Mississippi. 

Washington, common T. V. and W. V., less common S. R. 
Ossining, common P. R. Cambridge, P. R., rare in summer, 
uncommon in winter, common in migrations; most numerous in 
Oct. and Nov. N. Ohio, common P. R. Glen Ellyn, fairly 
common P. R. SE. Minn., common P. R. 

During the summer we will see comparatively little of 
this bird who, with equal ease, climbs either down or up a 
tree trunk, but in the winter he will be a constant patron 
of the nuts and suet on our lunch counters. Habit, 
markings, his unmistakable yank-yank, all distinguish him 
from our other birds, except his Canadian cousin to which, 
after all, he bears only a family resemblance. 



124 NUTHATCHES 

In April, 5-7 white, brown speckled eggs are laid in a 
hole in a tree, lined with feathers, etc. 

RED-BREASTED NUTHATCH 

Sitta canadensis. Case 2, Figs. 60, 61 
4 

Underparts brownish, a line through the eye, black in the male, 
slate in the female. Smaller than the White-breasted Nuthatch. 
L. 4 f. 

Range. Nests from northern New England and northern 
Minnesota into Canada; south along the Alleghanies to North 
Carolina; winters from southern Canada to the Gulf States. 

Washington, irregularly abundant W. V., sometimes rare, 
Sept. 15-May 10. Ossining, irregular W. V., Aug. 8-May 8. 
Cambridge, irregular T. V., and W. V., Aug. 15-Nov. 25; Nov. 
25-Apl. 15. N. Ohio, tolerably common W. V., Sept. 4-May 22. 
Glen Ellyn, irregular T. V., Apl. 24-May 21; Aug. 19-Dec. 12. 
SE. Minn., common T. V., uncommon W. V., Sept. 24-Apl. 21. 

Late in August when I hear a note such as one might 
imagine a baby Nuthatch would utter, I know that the 
Red-breasted Nuthatch has arrived from the north per- 
haps to spend the winter, or, may be, to go farther souths 
He never seems quite as familiar as his larger, louder- 
voiced, white-breasted cousin, and if one wants to make his 
acquaintance it is well to follow the sound of his penny- 
trumpet-like notes until their author is discovered. 

BROWN-HEADED NUTHATCH 
Sitta pusilla. Case 4, Fig. 66 

The head is browner than in the figure; the nape has a downy 
white patch. Smallest of our Nuthatches. L. 4$. 

Range. Nests from Florida to southern Delaware and southern 
Missouri; a Permanent Resident. 

The Brown-headed Nuthatch is a bird of southern pine 
forests; one may travel for miles without seeing a single 
individual and then discover a company of a score or more. 
They pass most of their time among the upper branches 
uttering a pit-pit as they hunt for food, or all suddenly 



TITMICE 125 

joining in a metallic tnee-tnee-tnee, when they are apt to 
take flight to the adjoining trees. The nest is in a hole 
in a tree or stump, generally near the ground; 5-6 white, 
heavily marked eggs being laid in March. 



TITMICE. FAMILY PARID^E 

TUFTED TITMOUSE 
Bceolophus bicolor. Case 4, Fig. 67 

A large, gray Titmouse, with a conspicuous crest, black fore- 
head, and reddish brown flanks. L. 6. 

Range. Nests from the Gulf States north to New Jersey and 
Nebraska. Resident, except at the northern limit of its range. 

Washington, very common P. R., more so in winter. N. Ohio, 
common P. R. Glen Ellyn, only two records, Apl. 4 and Nov. 19. 

The loud peto, peto, peto of the Tufted Tit can be confused 
only with certain notes of the Carolina Wren, but while 
skilfull stalking is required to see the Wren, one may walk 
up and inspect the Tit with little or no caution. When he 
sees us he may change his call to a hoarse dee-dee-dee which 
at once betrays his relationship to the Chickadee. The 
nest is made in a hole, and the 5-8 white, brown-marked 
eggs are laid in April. 

X BLACK-CAPPED CHICKADEE 
Penthestes atricapillus atricapillus. Case 2, Fig. 37 

Crown black, wing-coverts margined with whitish. L. 5!. 

Range. Nests from central Missouri and northern New Jersey 
north into Canada, south, along the Alleghanies to North Caro- 
lina; winters south to Maryland. 

Washington, rare and irregular W. V., Oct. 19-Apl. 19. Ossin- 
ing, tolerably common P. R. Cambridge, common P. R., more 
numerous in fall and winter. N. Ohio, common P. R. Glen 
Ellyn, fairly common P. R. SE. Minn., common P. R. 

While the Chickadee is with us throughout the year, it 
is during the winter that he takes first place in our affec- 



126 TITMICE 

tions. Active, cheerful, friendly, he is an ever welcome 
visitor to our lunch-counters, and often shows complete 
and winning confidence in us by perching on our hands. 
His clearly enunciated chick-a-dee, with its variations, we 
accept as his characteristic language, but the sentiment 
expressed in his two- or three-noted whistle seems to 
belong to the Pewee rather than the sprightly Black-cap. 
It is, in fact, often falsely attributed to that bird, even 
when our books tell us that the Pewee is wintering in the 
tropics! 

The Chickadee nests in holes, usually within ten feet 
of the ground, laying 5-9 white, brown-speckled eggs in the 
first half of May, 



CAROLINA CHICKADEE 

Penlhesies carolinensis carolinensis. Case 4, Fig. 68 

Smaller than the Black-cap; without white margins on the 
wing-coverts. L. 4$. 

Range. Southeastern United States, north to northern New 
Jersey and central Missouri. The south Florida form (P. c. 
impiger) is slightly smaller and darker. 

Washington, very common P. R., particularly in winter. 

Whether because of a different temperament or because 
milder winters make him less dependent on man's bounty, 
the Carolina Chickadee does not show that unquestioning 
confidence in our good faith which makes the Black-cap 
so dear to us. 

The chick-a-dee note is less clearly and more hurriedly 
given by the Carolina, and the pe-wee whistle is not so loud 
and usually consists of four notes instead of two. The 
nesting habits and eggs of the two species are alike, but the 
southern bird begins to lay in March. 



KINGLETS AND GNATCATCHERS 127 

BROWN-CAPPED CHICKADEE 
Penthestes hudsonicus 

Similar to the Black-cap but crown dark brown; back brownish 
ashy. 

Range. Northern New England and Canada; rarely farther 
south in winter. Represented by three races: the Acadian 
Brown-capped Chickadee (P. h. littoralis) of northern New Eng- 
land, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland; the 
Labrador Brown-capped Chickadee (P. h. nigricans) of Labrador, 
and the Hudsonian Brown-capped Chickadee (P. h. hudsonicus) 
of the region west of Hudson Bay. 

Until recent years the Brown-capped Chickadee was 
rarely seen far south of its breeding range, but during sev- 
eral winters it has invaded New England in considerable 
numbers and has been found in the lower Hudson Valley, 
Long Island, Staten Island and northern New Jersey. 
At close range an experienced observer may know it by 
its dark brown head, while Brewster states that its "nasal, 
drawling, tchick, chee-day-day " at once distinguishes it 
from the Black-cap. All three races have been reported 
in these winter migrations and only expert examination 
of specimens can determine whether the little wanderer is 
from Labrador, New Brunswick, or the country west of 
Hudson Bay, 



OLD-WORLD WARBLERS, KINGLETS AND 
GNATCATCHERS. FAMILY SYLVIID.E 

V* GOLDEN-CROWNED KINGLET 
Regulus satrapa satrapa. Case 2, Figs. 62, 63; Case 4, Figs. 72, 73 

Very small, olive-green birds with a flame and yellow crown- 
patch in the male and a yellow crown -patch in the female. L. 4. 

Range. Nests from northern New England northward and, 
in the Alleghanies, soutlS to North Carolina. 

Washington, abundant W. V., Sept. 30-Apl. 27. Ossining, 
common W. V., Sept. 20-Apl. 28. Cambridge, very common 



128 KINGLETS AND GNATCATCHERS 

T. V., not uncommon W. V., Sept. as-ApI. ao. N. Ohio, com- 
mon W. V., Sept. ao-May 4. Glen Eflyn, common T. V., irregu- 
lar W. V., Sept. 10-May 8. SE. Minn., common T. V., Mch. 30-; 
Sept. 31-Dec. 1. 

It is surprising, in the depth of winter, when in great 
coat and muffler we keep warm only by vigorous exercise, 
to see these dainty, feathered mites, unconcerned by the 
temperature, flitting here and there in their search for 
insects' eggs and larvae. They have small fear of man and 
we may readily approach near enough to hear their thin 
ti-ti or see their golden-crown. In proportion to its size, 
this diminutive species lays a larger number of eggs than 
any other of our birds, as many as 9 or 10 white, brown- 
marked eggs being laid in their pensile, mossy nest in the 
latter part of May. 

H RUBY-CROWNED KINGLET 

Reguhis calendula calendula. Case 4, Figs. 70, 71; Case 5, Figs. 
36, 37 

A white eye-ring; two whitish wing-bars, no white in the tail; 
adult male with a ruby crown-patch; absent in females and 
young. L. 4$. 

Range. Nests chiefly north of the United States; winters from 
Virginia and Iowa southward. 

Washington, abundant T. V., Apl. 13-May IS; Sept. 35-Nov. 1; 
occasionally winters. Ossining, common T. v., Apl. 8-May 13; 
Sept. 16— Nov. 3. Cambridge, rather common T. V., Apl. 12— 
May s; Oct. 10-30. N. Ohio, common T. V., Apl. i-May 23; 
Sept. o-Nov. 3. Glen Ellyn, fairly common T. V., Mch. 33- 
May 19; Sept. o-Oct. 27. SE. Minn., Mch. ia-; Sept. 18- 
Oct. 24. 

A tiny, olive-green bird, with a large white eye-ring, 
fluttering actively among the yellowing leaves, uttering 
from time to time a wrenJike cack as he twitches his wings 
and showing little or no fear of man can be only the Ruby- 
crown, southward bound. He returns before the trees are 
clad, as the author of a song as marvelous in volume as it 
is musical in tone; a whistled song of rare sweetness. 



THRUSHES is 9 

BLUE-GRAY GNATCATCHER 

Polioptila ctzrutea azrulea. Case 4, Fig. 69 

A slender, gray mite with a comparatively long tail of which 
the central feathers are black, the outer ones white. L. 4$. 

Range. Nests from the Gulf States to southern Wisconsin and 
southern New Jersey; winters from the Gulf States southward. 

Washington, rather common S. R., Mch. 30-Nov. 23. N. 
Ohio, common S. R., Apl. 20-Sept. 15. Glen Ellyn, not common 
S. R., Apl. 3.2-Aug. 20; possibly later. SE. Minn., rare S. R. 

In color, form, proportions and voice, the Gnatcatcheu 
may properly be called 'dainty.' His slightly explosive 
call-note tin-ng, is louder than his exquisitely finished, 
varied, miniature song. The nest is almost as fine in 
workmanship as a Hummer's. The 4-5 white, thickly 
speckled eggs, are laid in April and early May. 



THRUSHES, BLUEBIRDS, ETC. FAMILY 
TURDID.E 

X WOOD THRUSH 
Eylocichla mustelina. Case 6. Fig. 74 

Head brighter than tail; underparts white, heavily spotted with 
large, round black dots. Largest of our Thrushes. L. 8}. 

Range. Nests from Florida and Texas north to central Min- 
nesota and southern New Hampshire; winters in the tropics. 

Washington, common S. R., Apl. ip-Oct. 10. Ossining, 
common S. R., Apl. 30-Oct. 2. Cambridge, locally common 
S. R., May 10-Sept. 15. N. Ohio, common S. R-, Apl. 20— 
Oct. 1. Glen Ellyn, fairly common S. R., Apl. 30-Sept. 29 
SE. Minn., common S. R., May i-Sept. 19. 

Most familiar of our Thrushes. From late April to 
early August his bell-like notes are heard, not only in the 
forest, but in wood-bordered village streets and from the 
shade trees of our lawns. His sharp, pebbly, pit-pit, is 
prominent in the chorus of protesting notes which greet 



130 THRUSHES 

the Screech Owl should he leave his retreat before diurnal 
birds have gone to bed. 

The nest is usually built in small trees about 8 feet from 
the ground. The 3-5 greenish blue eggs are laid in May. 
There is a second brood in June. 

VEERY 
Eylocichla fusccscens fuscescens. Case 6, Fig. 73 

Upperparts, including tail, uniform cinnamon-brown, breast 
bufi with indistinct brownish spots; sides white. L. 7}. 

Range. Nests from northern New Jersey and northern Illinois 
into Canada and south in the Alleghanies to Georgia; winters in 
the tropics. A closely related western form, the Willow Thrush 
{H. f. salicicola) nests in Minnesota and westward, and migrates 
through the Mississippi Valley. To the field naturalist it is 
essentially the Veery. 

Washington, common T. V., Apl. 26-June 3. Aug. 18-Sept. 35. 
Ossining, common S. R., Apl. 29-Sept. 5. Cambridge, locally 
abundant S. R., May 8-Sept. 5. N. Ohio, common S. R., Apl. 20- 
Oct. 1. Glen Ellyn, tolerably common T. V., Apl. 34-May so; 
Aug. 26-Sep t . 3 ; SB. Minn., common S. R. May 5 . 

Low, wet woods with considerable undergrowth, where 
skunk cabbage and hellebore flourish are the home of the 
Veery. Here he winds his mysterious double-toned spiral 
song, and here, on the ground, hidden beneath the rank 
vegetation, he builds his nest. The eggs, laid late in May, 
resemble those of the Wood Thrush. The Veery's common 
call is a clearly whistled whei-you, quite unlike the quirt or 
pit-pit of the Wood Thrush. Except in mountainous 
regions and some local 'stations,' the Wood Thrush and 
Veery are the only Thrushes which nest in the eastern 
United States south of Massachusetts. 

GRAY-CHEEKED THRUSH 

Eylocichla alicia alicia. Case 8. Fig. 8a 

Upperparts uniform olive; eye-ring whitish, not buffy as in the 
Olive-backed Thrush (Case 8, Fig. 81); sides of throat and 
breast less buffy than in the Olive-back. L. 7}. 



THRUSHES 131 

Range. Nests north of the United States. Bicknell's Thrash 
(H. a. bicknelli) a slightly smaller, southern form, nests in the 
higher parts of the Catskills, the mountains of northern New 
York and northern New England, and northward and eastward 
into Canada; both visit us in migration and both winter in the 
tropics. 

Washington, rather common T. V., May 8-31 ; Sept. 15-Oct. 20. 
Ossining, tolerably common T. V., May 15-June 1; Sept. 20— 
Oct. 17. Cambridge, uncommon T. V., May 18-28; Sept. 15- 
Oct. 9. N. Ohio, not common T. V., Apl. 29-May 23. Glen 
Ellyn, common T. V., May i-June 4; Aug. 26-Oct. 9. SE. 
Minn., common T. V., May 7-; Sept. 8. 

The Gray-cheeked and Bicknell's Thrushes are merely 
the larger northern and smaller southern forms, respec- 
tively, of the same species. They are known in the 
United States chiefly as migrants and can be distinguished 
with certainty in life only by an expert under favorable 
conditions. The larger form is the commoner. The spe- 
cies may be known from the Veery and Wood Thrush by 
its olive, instead of cinnamon-brown back, and from the 
Olive-backed Thrush by its whitish eye-ring and paler 
breast. 

Brewster describes the song of the southern form 
(Bicknell's Thrush) as exceedingly like that of the Veery 
but more interrupted, while the ordinary call-note is 
practically identical with the pheu of the Veery. The nest 
is placed in low trees or bushes. The eggs are greenish 
blue spotted with brown. 

OLIVE-BACKED THRUSH 

Hylocichla ustulata swainsoni. Case 8, Fig. 81 

Upperparts uniform olive; eye-ring buff; breast and sides of 
the throat deeper than in the Gray-cheeked Thrush. L. 7 J. 

Range. Nests from northern Michigan and northern New Eng- 
land northward into Canada and southward in the mountains to 
West Virginia; winters in the tropics. 

Washington, common T. V., Apl. 19- June 2; Sept. 2-Nov. 1. 
Ossining, tolerably common T. V., May 2-30; Sept. 19-Oct. 22. 
Cambridge, common T. V., May 12-28; Sept. 15-Oct. 5. N. 
Ohio, common T. V., Apl. 22-June 13; Sept. a-Oct. 24. Glen 



i 3 2 THRUSHES 

Ellyn, common T. V., Apl. 23- June 6; Aug. Ifr-Oct. 34. SB. ' 
Minn., common T. V., May 1-; Sept. 25-. 

We know this Thrush chiefly as a migrant when, in the 
latter part of May, and again in September and October, 
it passes us en route to and from its northern home. At 
these seasons we may even hear its whistled puit from the 
sky as it journeys through the night. " Its song," Dwight 
says, "lacks the leisurely sweetness of the Hermit Thrush's 
outpourings, nor is there pause, but in lower key and with 
greater energy it bubbles on rapidly to a close rather than 
fading out with the soft melody of its renowned rival." 

The Olive-back nests in bushes or low trees, and lays 
3-4 greenish blue brown-spotted eggs in June. 



HERMIT THRUSH 
Hylocichla guttata pallasi. Case 4, Fig. 77; Case 5, Fig. 36 

Back midway in color between Figs. 77 and 26 ; the tail noticeably 
brighter, more rusty. L. yi. 

Range. Nests from Long Island (locally) , the higher parts of Con- 
necticut, and central Minnesota northward to Canada, and south- 
ward in the mountains to Maryland; winters from New Jersey 
and Ohio Valley to the Gulf States and Cuba. 

Washington, very common T. V., sometimes not uncommon 
W. V., Apl. 6-May 17; Sept. 18-Nov. 12. Ossining, common 
T. V., Apl. S - May 9; Oct. 18-Nov. 26. Cambridge, very 
common T. V., Apl. 15-May 5; Oct. 5-Nov. 15; occasionally 
one or two may winter; one summer record. N. Ohio, common 
T. V., Mch. 21-May 10; Oct. 2-a'8. Glen Ellyn, common T. V., 
Mch. 18-May 11; Sept. 14-Nov. 1. SE. Minn., common T. V. 
Apl. I-; Sept. 13-Oct. 26. 

The Hermit is the only one of the Thrushes to winter in 
the eastern United States and it is, therefore, the first one 
to reach us in the spring. It comes early in April and takes 
about a month to complete its migration. It rarely sings 
at this season and then only an echo of the heavenly music 
which has won for it first place among American songsters. 

We may know the Hermit Thrush by the season in 
whiGh he visits us, by his reddish brown tail, which he 



THRUSHES 133 

slowly raises and lowers after alighting, and by the 
low chuck note with which he usually accomplishes this 
movement. 

The Hermit nests on the ground, laying, in the latter 
part of May, 3-4 greenish-blue eggs, slightly lighter in tint 
than those of the Wood Thrush. 

Xrobin 

Planesticus migratorius migratorius. Case 4, Fig. 80; Case 5. 
Fig. 12 

In spring and summer the head is blacker, the breast brighter, 
the bill more yellow than in fall and winter. L. 10. 

Range. Nests from Virginia (in the mountains, northern 
Georgia) and northern Mississippi to Labrador and Alaska; 
winters from New Jersey and Ohio Valley to the Gulf. Birds 
from the lowlands, from Maryland southward, are somewhat 
smaller and paler and are known as the Southern Robin {P. m. 
achrusterus). 

Washington, rather common S. R., abundant T. V., from Feb.- 
Apl. ; irregularly common W. V. Ossining, common S. R., Mch. 
4-Oct. 30; a few winter. Cambridge, very abundant S. R., com- 
mon but irregular W. V. N. Ohio, abundant S. R., Feb. 26- 
Nov. 30; a few winter. Glen Ellyn, very common S. R., raro 
W. V., Jan. 25-Nov. 19. SE. Minn., common S. R., rare W. V., 
Mch. 8-Nov. 11. 

The Robin is the best-known and probably most abun- 
dant of our native birds. Civilization agrees with him. 
Man has destroyed many of his enemies and has provided 
him with a bountiful supply of fruits and a vast area of 
lawns where worms are at his mercy. Sociable and trust- 
ful he has taken up his abode with us and become as much 
a part of our outdoor life as the flowers in our gardens 
and trees in our lawns. His varied calls have an intimate 
association with the hour and season and spring itself 
speaks through his cheerful song. 

Robins show their confidence in us by building their 
nests in situations where few birds would venture to rear 
a family, and from mid-April to July they are occupied 
with household cares. 



i 3 4 THRUSHES 

BLUEBIRD 
Sialis sialis stalls. Case 4, Fig. 78; Case 5, Fig. 13 

The Bluebird's red, white and blue mark him as a truly Ameri- 
can bird. L. 7.' 

Range. Nests from the Gulf States to Florida; winters from 
Connecticut and northern Ohio southward. 

Washington, common S. R., and W. V. Ossining, common 
P. R. Cambridge, common S. R., Mch. 6— Nov. 1 ; more numer- 
ous during migrations, in Mch. and Nov. N. Ohio, common 
S. R., Feb. 17— Nov. 18; a few winter. Glen Ellyn, fairly common 
S. R., Feb. 19-Nov. 18. SE. Minn., common S. R. t Mch. 16- 
Oct.31. 

Not many years ago the Bluebird was as familiar as he 
was welcome about our homes; but too gentle to battle 
effectively with English Sparrows and Starlings for the 
possession of bird houses, he has sought such nesting sites 
in the orchard as the 'tree surgeons' have left. If we 
would not lose this bird, "beloved of children, bards and 
spring," who wears our national colors so modestly, we must 
supply him with a home in which he may rear his family 
in peace. It may be placed not only in our garden, but 
also in the orchard where it is less likely to be occupied by 
Sparrows or Starlings. It should be erected not later than 
March 15, for the Bluebird's bluish white eggs are laid in 
the first half of April. 



INDEX 



Blackbird, Bahama Red- 
wing, 50 

Cow. See Cowbird 

Crow. See Grackles, Pur- 
ple and Bronzed 

Florida Red-wing, 50 ; 
Case 4, Figs. 28, 29 

Red- winged, 49; Case 5, 
Figs. S, 6 

Rusty, 52; Case 5, Figs. 

3,4 
Yellow-headed, 49; Case 

6, Fig. 45 
Black-cap, Wilson's. See 

Warbler, Wilson's 
Bluebird, 134; Case 4, Fig. 

78; Case 5, Fig. 13. 
Bobolink, 48; Case 7, Figs. 

13. 14 
Bob-white, 1; Case 1, Figs. 

1,2 
Florida, 2; Case 3, Figs. 

1. 2 

Bull-bat. See Nighthawk 
Bunting, Bay-winged. See 

Sparrow, Vesper 
Black-throated. See Dick- 

cissel 



Bunting, Indigo, 79; Case 7, 
Figs. 23, 24. 
Painted, 79 ; Case 6, Figs. 

49, 50 
Snow, 61 ; Case 2, Fig. 57 
Butcher-bird. See Shrike, 

Northern 
Buzzard, Turkey, 6; Case 
3, Fig. 9 

Canary, Wild. See Gold- 
finch 
Caracara, Audubon's, 18 
Cardinal, 77; Case 4, Figs. 

34,35 
Florida, 78 

Kentucky. See Cardinal 
Catbird, 117; Case 4, Fig. 

81 ; Case 6, Fig. 71 
Cedar-bird. See Waxwing, 

Cedar 
Chat, Yellow-breasted, 113; 

Case 8, Fig. 49. 
Chebec. See Flycatcher, 

Least 
Cherry-bird. See Waxwing, 

Cedar 
Chewink. See Towhee 



I3S 



136 



INDEX 



Chickadee, Acadian, 127 
Black-capped, 125 ; Case 

2, Fig. 37 
Brown-capped, 127 
Carolina, 126; Case 4, 

Fig. 68 
Florida, 126 
Hudsonian, 127 
Labrador, 127 
Chicken, Prairie, 3 
Chippy. See Sparrow, Chip- 
ping 
Winter. See Sparrow, 
Tree 
Chuck - will's - widow, 33 ; 

Case 6, Fig. 40 
Clape. See Flicker 
Cowbird, 48; Case 5, Figs. 

8,9 
Creeper, Black and White. 
See Warbler, Black and 
White 
Brown, 122; Case 2, Fig. 

59 
Crossbill, American, 58 ; 

Case 2, Figs. 49, 50 
White-winged, 58 ; Case 2, 

Figs. 51, 52 
Crow, 46; Case 1, Fig. 19; 

Case 3, Fig. 27 
Carrion. See Vulture, 

Black 
Fish, 46 
Florida, 46 
Cuckoo, Black-billed, 25 ; 

Case 7, Fig. 2 
Yellow-billed, 25; Case 7, 

Fig. 1 



Darter, Little Blue. See 
Hawk, Sharp-Shinned 
Big Blue. See Hawk, 
Cooper's 
Dickcissel, 80; Case 7, Fig. 

20 
Dove, Carolina. See Dove, 
Mourning 
Ground, 5 ; Case 3, Fig. 4 
Mourning, 5 ; Case 3, Fig. 

3; Case S, Fig. 11 
Turtle. See Dove, Mourn- 
ing 

Eagle, Bald, 14; Case 3, 
Fig. 11 
Golden, 14 

Falcon, Peregrine, 16 
Finch, Grass. See Sparrow, 
Vesper 
Lark. See Sparrow, Lark 
Pine. See Siskin, Pine 
Purple, 57; Case 2, Figs. 
32, 33; Case 4, Figs. 48, 

49 
Firebird. See Oriole, Bal- 
timore 
Flicker, Northern, 32; Case 
2, Figs. 21, 22; Case 3, 
Fig. 20 
Southern, 32 
Flycatcher, Acadian, 41 ; 
Case 8, Fig. 60 
Alder, 41 ; Case 8, Fig. 62 
Crested, 38 ; Case 7, Fig. 5 
Least, 42; Case 6, Fig. 44 



INDEX 



*3? 



Flycatcher, Olive-sided, 39; 
Case 8, Fig. 59. 
Traill's, 42 

Yellow-bellied, 40 ; Case 
8, Fig. 61 

Gnatcatcher, Blue-gray, 
129; Case 4, Fig. 69 

Goldfinch, 60; Case 2, Figs. 
35, 36; Case 4, Figs. 50, 

5i 
Goshawk, 11 
Grackle, Boat-tailed, 54 
Bronzed, 53; Case 5, Fig. 

2 
Florida, 53; Case 4, Fig. 

74 
Purple, 53 ; Case 5, Fig. I 
Grosbeak, Blue, 78; Case 6, 

Figs. 52, S3 
Cardinal. See Cardinal 
Evening, 55 
Pine, 56; Case 2, Figs. 53, 

54 

Rose-breasted, 78; Case 7, 
Figs. 25, 26 
Grouse, Canada. See Part- 
ridge, Spruce 

Canada, Ruffed, 3 

Pinnated. See Chicken, 
Prairie 

Ruffed, 2 ; Case 1, Fig. 3 

Spruce. See Partridge, 
Canada Spruce 
Gyrfalcon, 15 

Black, 15 

Gray, 15 

White, 15 



Hair-bird. See Sparrow, 

Chipping 
Hang-nest. See Oriole, Bal- 
timore 
Harrier. See Hawk, Marsh 
Hawk, Broad-winged, 13 

Chicken. See Hawks, 
Red - shouldered and 
Red-tailed 

Cooper's, 10; Case 1, Figs. 
9, 10 

Duck, 16 

Fish, 18; Case 3, Fig. 14 

Florida Red-shouldered, 
13 

Florida Sparrow, 17 

Harlan's, 11 

Hen. See Hawks, Red- 
shouldered and Red- 
tailed 

Killy. See Hawk, Spar- 
row 

Krider's, 11 

Marsh, 9 ; Case 3, Fig. 15 

Pigeon, 16 

Red-shouldered, 12; Case 
1, Fig. 4; Case 3, Fig. 
12 

Red-tailed, 11; Case I, 
Figs. 5, 6; Case 3, Fig. 
13 

Rough-legged, 14 

Sharp-shinned, 9; Case 1, 
Figs. 11, 12; Case 3, 
Figs. 7, 8 

Sparrow, 17; Case 1, Figs. 
7, 8; Case 3, Figs. 5, 6 



138 



INDEX 



Hen, Heath, 4 
Mud. See Rail, Clapper 

and Coot, American 
Prairie. See Chicken, 
Prairie 
High-hole. See Flicker 
Hummingbird, Ruby- 
throated, 36; Case 7. 
Figs. 3, 4 

Indigo-bird. See Bunting, 
Indigo 

Jackdaw. See Grackle, 

Boat-tailed 
Jay, Blue, 44; Case 2, Fig. 
20 
Canada, 45 
Florida, 44 
Florida Blue, 44; Case 4, 

Fig. 75 
Scrub, 44 
Joree. See Towhee 
Junco, Carolina, 73 
Slate-colored, 73; Case 2, 
Fig. 43 ; Case 4, Fig. 41 

Kingbird, 37; Case 7, Fig. 6 

Gray, 37; Case 7, Fig. 7 
Kingfisher, Belted, 26; Case 

3, Fig. 18; Case 5, Fig. 
10 

Kinglet, Golden - crowned, 

127; Case 2, Figs. 62, 

63; Case 4, Figs. 72, 73 

Ruby-crowned, 128; Case 

4, Figs. 70, 71; Case 5, 
Figs. 36, 37 



Kite, Everglade, 8 
Mississippi, 8 
Swallow-tailed, 7 
White-tailed, 8 

Lark, Field. See Meadow- 
lark 
Horned, 43 

Prairie. See Meadowlark 
Prairie Horned, 43; Case 

2, Fig. 42 
Shore. See Lark, Horned 
Longspur, Lapland, 62 

Martin, Bee. See Kingbird 
Purple, 82; Case 5, Fig. 

25 
Meadowlark, 50; Case 2, 
Fig. 50 
Southern, 50 ; Case 4, Fig. 

79 
Western, 51 
Merlin, 
Mockingbird, 1 17; Case 4, 

Fig. 76 
Moose-bird. See Jay, Can* 

ada. 

Nighthawk, 34; Case 6, Fig. 

39 
Florida, 34 
Nonpareil. See Bunting, 

Painted 
Nuthatch, Brown - headed, 
124; Case 4, Fig. 66 
Florida White - breasted 
123 



INDEX 



130 



Nuthatch, Red - breasted, 

124 ; Case 2, Figs. 60, 61 

White-breasted, 123 ; Case 

2, Figs. 38, 39; Case 4. 
Fig. 65 

Oriole, Baltimore, 52; Case 
7, Figs. 8, 9 
Orchard, 51 ; Case 7, Figs. 
10-12 
Osprey, 18; Case 3, Fig. 14 
Oven-bird, 109; Case 6, Fig. 

64 
Owl, Acadian. See Owl, 
Saw-whet 
Barn, 19 ; Case 3, Fig. 17 
Barred, 20; Case 1, Fig. 

15 
Cat. See Owl, Screech 
Florida Barred, 20; Case 

3, Fig. 16 

Florida Burrowing, 24 
Florida Screech, 22; Case 

3, Fig. 19 
Great Gray, 21 
Great Horned, 22 ; Case 1, 

Fig. 16 
Hawk, 23 

Hoot. See Owl, Barred 
Long-eared, 19; Case 1, 

Fig. 17 
Marsh, 20 
Monkey-faced. See Owl, 

Barn 
Mottled. See Owl, 

Screech 
Richardson's, 21 



Owl, Saw-whet, 21 ; Case 2, 
Fig. 41 
Screech, 22; Case I, Figs. 

13, 14 
Short-eared, 20; Case 1, 

Fig. 18 
Snowy, 23 

Paroquet, Carolina, 24 
Partridge. See Grouse, 

Ruffed, and Bob-white 
Canada Spruce, 2 
Peregrine. See Hawk, Duck 
Peewee, Wood, 40; Case 8, 

Fig. 63 
Pheasant. See Grouse, 

Ruffed 
Phoebe, 38; Case 4, Fig. 52; 

Case S, Fig. 15 
Pigeon, Passenger, 5 

Wild, 5 
Pipit, American, 116; Case 

4, Fig. 62; Case 5, Fig. 

17 
Sprague's, 117 

Quail. See Bob-white 

Raven, 45 

Red-bird. See Cardinal 
Redpoll, 59; Case 2, Figs. 
47, 48 
Greater, 59 
Hoary, 59 
Holboell's, 59 
Mealy. See Redpoll, 
Hoary 



140 



INDEX 



Redstart, 115; Case 8, Figs. 

57,58 
Reed-bird. See Bobolink 
Ricebird. See Bobolink 
Robin, 133 ; Case 4, Fig. 80; 

Case 5, Fig. 12 
Southern, 133 

Sapsucker, Yellow-bellied, 
30; Case 3, Fig. 26; 
Case 5, Fig. 30 
Shrike, Loggerhead, 87 ; 
Case 4, Fig. 55 
Migrant, 87 

Northern, 86 ; Case 2, Fig. 
56 
Siskin, Pine, 60; Case 2, 

Fig. 55 
Snail-hawk. See Kite, 

Everglade 
Snowbird. See Junco, Slate- 
colored 
Snow Bunting, 61; Case 2, 

Fig. 57 
Snowflake. See Snow Bunt- 
ing 
Sparrow, Acadian Sharp- 
tailed, 67 
Alabama Seaside, 68 
Bachman's, 73 
Bush. See Sparrow, 

Field 
Cape Sable, 68 
Chipping, 71 ; Case 4, Fig. 

45; Case 5, Fig. 31 
Clay-colored, 72; Case 6, 

Fig. 48 
Dusky Seaside, 68 



Sparrow, English, 57; Case 

2, Figs. 30, 31 ; Case 4, 

Figs. 38, 39 
Field, 72; Case 4, Fig. 43; 

Case 5, Fig. 14 
Florida Grasshopper, 64 
Fox, 76; Case 4, Fig. 37; 

Case 5, Fig. 7 
Grasshopper, 64; Case 7, 

Fig. 16 
Harris's, 69; Case 7, Fig. 

21 
Henslow's, 65; Case 7, 

Fig. 17 
House, 57; Case 2, Figs. 

30, 31 ; Case 4, Figs, 38, 

39 
Ipswich, 63 

Lark, 68 ; Case 7, Fig. 19 
Leconte's, 65 ; Case 7, Fig. 

18 
Lincoln's, 75 ; Case 7, Fig. 

15 
Louisiana Seaside, 68 
Macgillivray's Seaside, 68 
Nelson's, 66 
Northwest Florida, 68 
Pine-woods, 74 
Savannah, 64; Case 4, 

Fig. 47; Case 5, Fig. 23 
Scott's Seaside, 68 
Seaside, 67; Case 6, Fig. 

46 
Sharp-tailed, 66; Case 6, 

Fig. 47 
Song, 74; Case 2, Fig. 34, 

Case 4, Fig. 42 



INDEX 



141 



Sparrow, Swamp, 75; Case 
4, Fig. 44; Case 5, Fig. 
22. 
Tree, 71; Case 2, Fig. 44; 

Case 4, Fig. 46 
Vesper, 63; Case 4, Fig. 

36; Case 5, Fig. 16 
White-crowned, 69; Case 

7, Fig. 22 
White-throated, 70; Case 
2, Figs. 45, 46; Case 4, 
Fig. 40 
Yellow-winged. See Spar- 
row, Grasshopper 
Starling, 47; Case 2, Figs. 

24,25 
Swallow, Bahama 
Bank, 84; Case 6, Fig. 54 
Barn, 83 ; Case 5, Fig. 32 
Chimney. See Swift, 

Chimney 
Cliff, 82; Case 6, Fig. 55 
Eaves. See Swallow, Cliff 
Rough-winged, 84 ; Case 

6, Fig. 56 

Tree, 83 ; Case 5, Fig. 24 
White-bellied. See Swal- 
low, Tree 
Swift, Chimney, 35 ; Case 6, 
Fig. 42 

Tanager, Scarlet, 80; Case 

7, Figs. 27, 28 
Summer, 81 ; Case 5, Figs. 

33, 34 
Thistle-bird. See Goldfinch 
Thrasher, Brown, 118; Case 

4, Fig. 82; Case 6, Fig. 

72 



Thrush, Alice's. See 

Thrush, Gray-cheeked 
Bicknell's, 131 
Brown. See Thrasher, 

Brown 
Golden - crowned. See 

Oven-bird 
Gray-cheeked, 130; Case 

8, Fig. 82 
Hermit, 132; Case 4, Fig. 

77; Case 5, Fig. 26 
Olive-backed, 131 ; Case 

8, Fig. 81 
Swainson's. See Thrush, 

Olive-backed 
Tawny. See Veery 
Willow, 130 
Wood, 129; Case 6, Fig. 

74 

Titlark. See Pipit, Ameri- 
can 

Titmouse, Tufted, 125 ; Case 
4, Fig. 67 

Towhee, 76; Case 4, Figs. 
32, 33 ; Case 5, Fig. 51 
White-eyed, 77 

Turkey, Florida, 4 
Wild, 4 

Veery, 130; Case 6, Fig. 73 
Vireo, Bell's, 92; Case 6; 
Fig. 65 
Black-whiskered, 88 
Blue-headed, 90; Case 6, 

Fig. 68 
Key West, 91 
Mountain Solitary, 91 



142 



INDEX 



Vireo, Philadelphia, 89; 

Case 7, Fig- 30 
Red-eyed, 88; Case 6, Fig. 

66 
Solitary. See Vireo, 

Blue-headed 
Warbling, 89; Case 7, Fig. 

29 
White-eyed, 91; Case 6, 

Fig. 67 
Yellow-throated, 90; Case 

6, Fig. 69 
Vulture, Black, 7; Case 3, 

Fig. 10 
Turkey, 6; Case 3, Fig. 9 



Warbler, Bachman's, 94 ; 

Case 5, Figs. 20, 21 
Bay-breasted, 103 ; Case 

8, Figs. 69, 70 
Black and White, 92; 

Case 6, Fig. 57 
Black and Yellow. See 

Warbler, Magnolia 
Blackburnian, 104 ; Case 

8, Figs. 67, 68 
Black-throated Blue, 99; 

Case 6, Figs. 58, 59 
Black-throated Green, 

106; Case 6, Fig. 62 
Blackpoll, 103; Case 8, 

Figs. 71, 72 
Blue- winged, 94; Case 7, 

Fig. 35 
Brewster's, 95; Case 7, 

Fig. 38 
Cairns's, 100 



Warbler, Canadian, 115; 

Case 8, Fig. 53 
Cape May, 98; Case 8, 

Figs. 65, 66 
Cerulean, 102; Case 8, 

Figs. 46, 47 
Chestnut-sided, 102; Case 

8, Figs. 43, 44 
Connecticut, in; Case 8, 

Figs. 77, 78 
Golden- winged, 95; Case 

7, Figs. 34. 36 
Hooded, 114; Case 8, 

Figs. 54. 55 
Kentucky, 11 1; Case 8, 

Fig. 52 
Kirtland's, 106; Case 8, 

Fig. 45 
Lawrence's, 95; Case 7» 

Fig. 37 
Magnolia, 101 ; Case 8, 

Fig. 42 
Mourning, 112; Case 8, 

Figs. 75. 76 
Myrtle, 100; Case 5, Fig. 

27 
Nashville, 96; Case 7, 

Fig. 33 
Northern Parula, 97 ; 

Case 7, Fig. 39 
Orange-crowned, 96 ; Case 

7, Fig. 32 
Palm, 108; Case 6, Fig. 61 
Parula, 97, 98 
Pine, 107; Case 4, Fig. 57; 

Case 6, Fig. 60 
Prairie, 108; Case 8, Fig. 

48 



INDEX 



143 



Warbler, Prothonotary, 93; 

Case s, Fig. 29 
Redpoll. See Warblers, 

Palm and Yellow Palm 
Summer. See Warbler, 

Yellow 
Swainson's, 93; Case 5, 

Fig. 28 
Sycamore, 105; Case 5, 

Fig. 19 
Tennessee, 97; Case 8, 

Fig. 64 
Wilson's, 114; Case 8, 

Figs. 73. 74 
Worm-eating, 93; Case 7, 

Fig. 31 
Yellow, 99; Case 8, Figs. 

40,41 
Yellow Palm, 108 ; Case 6, 

Fig. 61 
Yellow - rumped. See 

Warbler, Myrtle 
Yellow - throated, 105 ; 

Case 5, Fig. 18 
Water - Thrush, Grinnell's, 

no 
Louisiana, no; Case 5, 

Fig. 5 
Northern, no; Case 8, 

Fig. 56 
Waxwing, Bohemian, 85 
Cedar, 85; Case 2, Fig. 

40; Case 4, Fig. 54 
Whip-poor-will, 34; Case 6, 

Fig. 41 
Whiskey-Jack. See Jay, 

Canada 



Woodpecker, American 

Three-toed, 30 
Arctic Three-toed, 29 
Downy, 28; Case 2, Figs. 

26, 27 
Golden - winged. See 

Flicker 
Hairy, 28; Case 2, Figs. 

28, 29 
Ivory-billed, 27 
Ladder - backed. See 

Woodpecker, American 

Three-toed 
Northern Hairy, 28 
Northern Pileated, 31 
Pileated, 31 
Red-bellied, 32; Case 3, 

Fig. 23 
Red-cockaded, 29 
Red-headed, 31; Case 3, 

Figs. 21, 22; Case 6, 

Fig. 43 
Southern Downy, 28 
Southern Hairy, 28 
Three-toed, 30 
Yellow-bellied. See Sap- 
sucker, Yellow-bellied 
Wren, Bewick's, 119 
Carolina, 119; Case 4, 

Fig. 64 
Florida, 119 
House, 120; Case 4, Fig. 

63 ; Case 6, Fig. 70 

Long-billed Marsh, 122; 

Case 8, Fig. 79 
Marian's Marsh, 122 
Prairie Marsh, 122 



144 



INDEX 



Wren, Short-billed Marsh, 
121 ; Case 8, Fig. 8o 

Winter, 120; Case 2, Fig. 
58 

Worthington's Marsh, 122 



Yellow-bird, 
finch 



See Gold- 



Yellow-bird, Summer. Se* 
Warbler, Yellow 
Yellow - hammer. See 
Flicker 

Yellow-throat, Florida, 113 
Maryland, 113; Case 8. 
Figs. 50, 51 



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