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Full text of "The birds of North and Middle America : a descriptive catalogue of the higher groups, genera, species, and subspecies of birds known to occur in North America, from the Arctic lands to the Isthmus of Panama, the West Indies and other islands of the Caribbean sea, and the Galapagos Archipelago"

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CORNELL LAB 0/ ORNITHOLOGY 

LIBRARY 

At Sapsucker Woods 



Illusrracion of Snowy Owl by Louis Agassis Fuertes 




3 1924 090 256 870 





DATE 


DUE 




















































































































































GAYLORD 






PRINTED IN U.S A \ 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924090256870 



SMITHSOISriAM INSTITUTION. 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



BULLETIN 



UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



isro„ 5o, 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1901. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



This work (Bulletin No. 50) i.s one of a series of papers intended to 
illustrate the collections belonging to, or placed under the charge of, 
the Smithsonian Institution, and deposited in the United States National 
Museum. 

The publications of the National Museum consist of two series: the 
Bulletin and the Procendingii. 

The Bulletin^ publication of which was commenced in 1875, is a series 
of elaborate papers, issued separately' and based for the most part upon 
collections in the National Museum. They are monogi-aphic in scope 
and are devoted principally to the discussion of large zoological groups, 
bibliographies of eminent naturalist^, reports of expeditions, etc. The 
Bulletins, issued only as volumes with one exception, are of octavo 
size, although a quarto form, known as the Special Bulletin, has 
been adopted in a few instances in which a larger page was deemed 
indispensable. 

The Proceedlru/K (octavo), the first volume of which was issued in 
1878, are intended primarily as a medium of publication for newly 
acquired facts in biologj', anthropology and geology, descriptions of 
new forms of animals and plants, discussions of nomenclature, etc. A 
volume of about 1,000 pages is issued annually for distribution to 
libraries, while a limited edition of each paper in the volume is printed 
and distributed in pamphlet form in advance. 

In addition, there are printed each year in the second volume of the 
Smithsonian Report (known as the ' ' Report of the National Museum ") 
papers, chiefly of an ethnological character, describing collections in 
the National Museum. 

Papers intended for publication by the National Museum are usually 
referred to an Advisory Committee, composed as follows: Frederick 
W. True (chairman), William H. Holmes, George P. Merrill, James 
E. Benedict, Otis T. Mason, Leonhard Stejneger, Lester F. Ward, and 
Marcus Benjamin (editor). 

S. P. Langley, 
Secretary of the SmitJisoniati Institution. 

Washington, U. S. A., July i, 1901. 



THE BIEDS 



NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA; 



A DESCRIPTIVE GATALOaUE 



HIGHEK GEOUPS, GENERA, SPECIES, AND SUBSPECIES OF BIRDS 

KNOWN TO OCCUR IN NORTH AMERICA, FROM THE 

ARCTIC LANDS TO THE ISTHMUS OF PANAMA, 

THE WEST INDIES AND OTHER ISLANDS 

OF THE CARIBBEAN SEA, AND THE 

GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO. 



OURATOE, DIVISION OF BIRDS. 



Paet I. 

Family FRINGILLIDJl— The Finches. 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT FEINTING OFFICE. 

1901. 



DEDICATED TO THE MEMORY 



'SPENCER FULLERTON BAIRD, 

America's first and best systematic ornithologist; whose guiding 
principle, "What is worth doing is worth doing well," is evident 
through all his works; who labored for the advancement of science, 
not for fame. Originator of the term "Middle America," and pioneer 
in the ornithology of that geographic field, his Review of American 
Birds, although scarcely more than begun, remains a perfect type of 
systematic ornithology and the model from which many later writers 
have drawn their inspiration. 



PREFACE. 



Although preparations for the present work have been more or less 
actively conducted for some twenty years past, as time and opportu- 
nity permitted, the actual work of putting together the vast amount 
of material accumulated during that period was not begun until Sep- 
tember, LS!)4, when the author was directed by Dr. G. Brown Goode, 
Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, in charge of the 
National Museum, to consider of paramount importance among his 
official duties the task of "making available, through publication, the 
results of the ornithological work of the Government, as represi'nted 
in the collections of the Smithsonian Institution." The labor of collat- 
ing references pertaining to more than 3,000 species of birds, verifying 
citations of original descriptions, measuring many thousands of speci- 
mens, and other time-consuming details connected with the preparation 
of such a work has necessarily delayed the beginning of its publication; 
but most of this drudgery having been disposed of, it is hoped that 
future progress may be more rapid. 

In the following pages the attempt is made to describe every species 
and subspecies, or definable form, of bird found on the continent of 
North America, from the arctic districts to the eastern end of the. 
Isthmus of Panama, together with those of the West Indies and other 
islands of the Caribbean Sea (except Trinidad and Tobago), and the 
Galapagos Archipelago; introduced and naturalized species being 
included, as well as accidental or casual visitors. 

The classification presented is essentially that of the most recent and 
advanced authorities,^ with such minor modifications as in the judg- 
ment of the present author seem desirable. The imperfection of our 
knowledge concerning the internal structure of many groups of birds, 
however, makes an entirely satisfactory classification impossible at the 
present time, and that here adopted must therefore be considered as 
provisional only. An entirely sound classification of birds is a matter 
of the future, requiring vastly extended investigations in the field of 
avian anatomy and the expenditure of an enormous amount of time 
and labor in elaborating the results. 

Some effort has been made to establish the proper terminology of 
the higher groups, no fixed rule having been followed in this respect, 

' These are specially mentioned on pages 6, 7. 



VIII PREFACE. 

and the law of priority, so rigidly applied to genera and species, quite 
generally ignored. The synonymy of these higher groups, as given, 
is by no means complete, however, but little time being available for 
its compilation. 

The matter of determining the limits of families and genera among 
birds is one of great difficulty, especially among the Passeres; partly 
because such groups are often not clearly defined, but also because the 
material necessary for determining such questions is not always avail- 
able. The question of what constitutes a "family" or a "genus" 
being involved, and, moreover, one concerning which there is much dif- 
ference of opinion among systematists, the author's views may be stated, 
in order to make clear the principles which have been his guide in the 
present work. 

Accepting evolution as an established fact — and it is difficult to 
understand how anyone who has studied the subject seriously can by 
any possibility believe otherwise— there are no "hard and fast lines," 
no gaps, or "missing links" in the chain of existing animal forms 
except as they are caused by the extinction of certain intermediate 
types 5^ therefore, there can be no such group as a family or genus (nor 
any other for that matter) unless it is cut oflf from other groups by the 
existence of such a gap; because unless thus isolated it can not be 
defined, and therefore has no existence in fact. These gaps being very 
unequally distributed, it necessarily follows that the groups thus formed 
are very unequal in value; sometimes alternate links in the chain may 
be missing; again, several in continuous sequence are gone, while occa- 
sionally a series of several or even numerous links may be intact. It thus 
happens that some family or generic groups seem very natural or homo- 
geneous, because the range of generic or specific variation is not great 
and there is no near approach to the characters of another coordinate 
group, while others seem verj^ artificial or heterogeneous because 
among the many generic or specific forms none seem to have dropped 
out, and therefore, however great the range of variation in structural 
details, no division into trenchant groups is practicable — not because 
extreme division would result, but simply because -there can be no 
proper definition of groups which do not exist.* In short, no group, 
whether of generic, family, or higher rank, can be valid unless it 
can be defined by characters which serve to distinguish it from every 
other. 

In groups of wide geographic range it is of course necessary to have 
all its components in hand in order to detemiine its limits and the 
number and boundaries of its subdivisions, for what seem distinct 

'In some cases such apparent gaps are no doubt filled by existing forms which are 
as yet unknown to science. 
^ Certain so-called genera of the family Fringillida) afford a sirikiug illustration. 



PREFACE. TX 

families or genera within the limits of a fauna may, when all the forms 
of an entire continent or zoOgeographic " region," or the world at large, 
are examined, be found to be connected by intermediate " extralim- 
ital" forms. Sometimes, however, this test proves exactly the reverse 
to be true. Therefore, in the present work the families and genera 
recognized have not been based on the species belonging to North and 
Middle America alone, but on all others that were available, so far as 
time permitted. 

It is often difficult to weigh accurately the value of structural dif- 
ferences; there are many cases in which the author has long remained 
undecided what course to adopt, but decision, one way or another, has 
been necessary, and it only remains to be said that in such cases the 
benefit of any doubt has been given to established usage, in order not 
to disturb current nomenclature by unnecessary innovations. 

The question of whether a given form should be considered as a 
species or a subspecies is very much a matter of material, both from 
a geographic and a numerical point of view. The greater the number 
of closely related forms, hitherto regarded as specifically distinct, that 
are examined — especiallj' when representing intermediate localities — 
the fewer becomes the number of those which are really specifically 
distinct. As in the case of genera, very different extremes are often 
connected by a series of intergrading forms, approaching one or 
the other of the extreme types exactly in proportion to their geo- 
graphic position between them; and other forms much less different 
appear to be really distinct through absence of "intergrades." In 
determining questions of this class the author has exercised the fullest 
independence, without reference, so far as North American forms are 
concerned, to the rulings of the committee of the American Ornithol- 
ogists' Union; ^ not from lack of. confidence in the committee's judg- 
ment, but from a full knowledge of the unsatisfactory conditions as 
to time and material under which their conclusions were usually 
reached. Satisfactory decisions affecting the status of described but 
still dubious forms is a question both of material and investigation, 
and the author holds that no conclusion in such a matter should be 
accepted unless based upon an amount of material and careful invest! 
gation equal to that bestowed by the original describer. 

Recognizing the fact that in the present stage of zoological nomen- 
clature trinomials are a "necessary evil," the author has not hesitated 
to use them when such relationship was clearly indicated by the evi- 
dence. He has not, however, often done so on theoretical grounds, 
because, in the first place, the facts when known may or maj^ not 
justify the step, and in the second because a binomial is preferable to 
a trinomial when there is any good excuse for its adoption. The 

1 As set forth in the Check List of North American Birds (editions of 1886, 1889, 
and 1895) and various supplements to the same. 



X PREFACE. 

greatest difficulty in deciding questions of this kind is in the case of 
insular forms, among which occur every possible degree of difference 
between related forms inhabiting different islands, so that it not only 
becomes largely a matter of individual judgment as to which should 
be given specific and which subspecific rank, but furthermore the dis- 
tinction made must, in the case of any author, necessarily be more or 
less arbitrary, since no "hard and fast rule" for determining such 
questions seems possible. 

As observed before, the more familiar one becomes with the subject 
through the medium of specimens representing continuous geographic 
sequence of localities the fewer in number really distinct species become, 
and what have long been considered such resolve themselves, one by 
one, into a connected scries of subspecific forms, each representing a 
definite geographic area of more or less marked peculiarities of topog- 
raphy, climate, or other physical features. Such forms are fixed, or 
"true," over territory of uniform physical character, the intergrades 
coming from the meeting ground of two such areas. Such a group of 
conspecific forms may aptly be compared to the colors of the solar 
spectrum, which form a graded scale from red, through orange, yellow, 
green, and blue, to violet, with intermediate hues of greater or less 
number, according to the nature of the case requiring their indication 
by name. These colors of the spectrum, though imperceptibly run- 
ning into one another, are obviously distinct, and the necessity of recog- 
nizing them by name has never been questioned. 

•To carry the comparison still further, a certain species may include 
six subspecies or conspecific forms, which for convenience may be 
designated by the subspecific names rnhra,^i(in'a)itiaca,Jlava,viridis, 
cyanea, and violaceu. Intermediates between these might be designated 
as ruhro-aurantiaca (or rmrantiaco-ruira, according to which form the 
intermediate most resembles), aurantiaGO-jiava (or flamo-aurantiava)^ 
flavo-olridis, niridi-cyanea. and cyaneo-viohicea^ i. e., red-orange (or 
orange-red), orange-yellow (or yellow-orange), yellow-green, green- 
blue, and blue-violet of the color scale. The necessitj' for such a 
nomenclature is just as great in zoology (and botany) as in chromato- 
graphy; and to ignore this necessity is neither scientific nor sensible, 
but on the other hand is nothing less than suppression or perversion 
of an obvious truth. The only question that can possibly exist in the 
mind of those who ha\^e this matter to deal with is the degree of dif- 
ference which should be recognized in nomenclature, and in this respect 
there is excuse for more or less difference of opinion, according to one's 
ability to discern differences and estimate the degree of their con- 
stancy, the extent and character of material studied, and the amount of 
time which has been devoted to its investigation. No doubt many of 
the forms which the author has recognized as subspecies in the present 
work may appear trivial to others, especially those who have not had 



PEEFACE. XI 

advantage of the material upon which they are based; but in all caHo.s 
it has been the author's desire to express exactly the facts as they appear 
to him in the light of the evidence examined, without any regard 
whatever to preconceived ideas, either of his own or of others, and 
without consideration of the inconvenience which may result to those 
who are inclined to resent innovations, f oi-getful of the fact that knowl- 
edge can not be complete until all is known. This question of species 
and subspecies and their nice discrimination is not the trivial matter 
that some who claim a broader view of biological science affect to 
believe. It is the very foundation of more advanced scientific work; 
and without secure foundation no architect, however skillful, can rear 
a structure that will endure. 

The nomenclatural rules followed are those of the American Orni- 
thologists' Union, as presented in their "Code of Nomenclature." 
These have been strictly adhered to in all respects. 

The synonymies of this work have proven by far the most laborious 
part of its preparation, great pains having been taken to verify refer- 
ences whenever practicable, to include all which may be of use to those 
desiring an index to the literature of each species and to exclude those 
which would not serve some particular purpose. Special features are 
the mention of the type locality and location of the type specimen 
whenever it has been practicable to determine the same; the mention 
of all nomenclatural combinations and variations, and reproduction of 
the exact form in which the name accompanying each citation was 
originally given. When the locality to which a citation refers can be 
ascertained it has been given, the purpose being twofold: Future 
workers in a more limited geographic field may thereby more easily 
consult the literature concerning it, and when it mav hereafter become 
necessary to further subdivide a given species or subspecies the refer- 
ences may be assorted without the time-consuming labor of consulting 
the numerous books and papers cited. Regarding the matter of 
orthography, etc., in citations, the extreme exactness which has been 
attempted may seem both useless and pedantic. It is believed, how- 
ever, that while the utmost accuracy of this kind can do no harm it 
may — in respect to some aspects of the case certainly will — do much 
good as a reaction from the gross carelessness which has hitherto 
prevailed. Anyone who has had occasion to verify citations must 
know that the amount of inaccuracy and misrepresentation in current 
synonymies, even the most authoritative and elaborate, is simply 
astounding. They abound with names which do not even exist in the 
works cited, with-those which do not correspond with the orio'inals in 
orthography, and others which have no meaning or use whatever, 
being evidently culled from indices without reference to what their 
status may be on the pages indicated. The correction of an author's 
orthographical errors is a pernicious practice, though much in vogue; 



XII PREFACE. 

"science is not litei-ature," neither has it any concern with what an 
author should have done or meant to do, but only with what he 
actually did. 

Without the special arrangements for the preparation of this work 
made by the late Dr. G. Brown Goode (as mentioned at the beginning 
of this preface) and continued by his successors, Dr. Charles D. Wal- 
cott and Mr. Richard Rathbun, the accomplishment of the task would 
have been quite impracticable. These arrangements, it should be 
stated, are all that are possible under existing circumstances, though 
by no means all that could be desired for its early completion. 

Notwithstanding the great extent of the collection of birds in the 
United States National Museum, which is much the largest and most 
nearly complete of any in America, and of North American birds 
unquestionablj' the finest in existence, so many groups are inadequately 
represented that it has been necessary to borrow specimens from other 
collections for study in connection with this work. It is a great pleas- 
ure to the author that he is able to say that such aid has, almost with- 
out excejjtion, been most willingly and promptly rendered by those 
having it in their power to do so. The unrivaled collection of Mexican 
birds,' as well as very numerous specimens from the United States 
(including Alaska) and the British Provinces, belonging to the United 
States Biological Survey (Department of Agriculture) has been kindly 
placed in the author's hands for study by the Dire^ctor of the Survey, 
Dr. C. Hart Merriam. The entire collection of each family belonging 
to the American Museum of Natural History, New York City, has 
been lent for the same purpose, whenever requested,'* by the authori- 
ties of that institution, through Dr. J. A. Allen, Curator of the Depart- 
ment of Vertebrate Zoology, these including many types of Mr. George 
N. Lawrence, so essential to any investigation of the birds of tropical 
America. The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, through 

1 For this magnificent collection of Mexican birds ornithologists are indebted to 
the intelligent and energetic labors of Mr. E. \V. Nelson, whose careful, thorough, 
and protracted field work has covered nearly every portion of that most interesting 
section of the continent. It illustrates, to a degree which no other collection from 
that country approaches, the remarkable variations, often within small areas, mani- 
fest in many of the birds, resulting from unusually varied topographic features and 
climatic conditions. Without a careful study of Mr. Nelson's collection, which 
includes the types of numerous new species and subspecies described by him, a fairly 
accurate knowledge of the geographic distribution and variations of Mexican birds 
would not be possible. The inestimable value of this collection in the preparation 
of the present work has been greatly enhanced by Mr. Nelson's kind assistance, both 
verbally and by means of a map, colored by him to show the different faunal areas, 
thereby explaining most clearly why marked variations often occur in birds of locali- 
ties not far separated as to distance but in reality very different in physical character. 

^ These include, to date, their entire representation of the families of Fringillidie, 
Icteridss, and Corvidse. 



PREFACE. XIII 

Mr. Witmer Stone, Conservator of the Ornithological Section/ and 
the Field Columbian Museum, Chicago, through Mr. C. B. Cory, Cura- 
tor of the Department of Ornithologj',' have likewise responded most 
generously to requests for the loan of specimens, as has also the Boston 
Society of Natural History, the last-mentioned establishment furnishing 
a number of Lafresnaye's types. 

The Costa Rica National Museum, through its former Director, 
Senor Anastasio Alfaro, has materially aided in the preparation of this 
work by the loan and gift of a large number of most interesting sjiec- 
imens. The author is likewise greatly indebted for similar assistance 
to Seiior Jos6 C. Zeledon, of San Jose, and Mr. George K. Cherrie, 
formerly connected with the Costa Rica National Museum, especially 
the former, who has not only donated many hundreds of specimens to 
the United States National Museum, but has in addition given mucli 
valuable information through correspondence. 

Besides the public institutions and their officers mentioned above 
the author is under obligations to many individuals for similar aid. 
These are far too numerous to permit all being mentioned by name. 
Those who have rendered the greatest assistance are Mr. William 
Brewster, of Cambridge, and Mr. Outram Bangs, of Boston, Massachu- 
setts; Mr. A. W. Anthony, of San Diego, Mr. R. C. McGregor, of 
Palo Alto, and Mr. Joseph Grinnell, of Pasadena, California. 

Although the drudgery of measuring thousands of specimens and 
compiling practically all the references for the synonymy has fallen on 
the author, considerable assistance in these matters has been rendered 
by others. Most of the FringillidaB, Corvidse, and Mniotiltidse were 
measured by Mr. J. H. Riley, Aid in the Division of Birds; the 
IcteridaB, the' Ccerebidse, and part of the Mniotiltidse were measured 
by Mr. Sidney S. Wilson. Dr. C. W. Richmond, Assistant Curator 
of the Division of Birds, has supplied many references, especially 
of uncited combinations, while Mr. W. P. Hay has gone carefully 
over the manuscript of the first volume and supplied, from the origi- 
nals, such data as to pagination, type locality, etc., as had been omitted 
or mai'ked as doubtful. 

In conclusion, the author desires to say that while unavoidable limi- 
tations have prevented the realization of his ideal in the present work, 
no pains nor labor have been spared to make it the best that was prac- 
ticable under the circumstances. 

Robert Ridgway. 

United States National Museum, 

Washingtcni, D. (7., JuVy i, 1901. 

^The Academy's entire collection of Icteridaj and Corvidse, with ttie exception of 
certain specimens whicli can not be lent owing to conditions accompanying their gift 
to the Academy. 

^ Large aeries of the West Indian genera Euelheia, and Pyrrliulagra. 



NOTE. 



The necessity for beginning this work with the highest instoiul of 
the lowest forms is to be regretted, and may be explained by briefly 
stating that owing to inadequate facilities for properly arranging the 
larger birds in the National Museum collection these are not available 
for study, and consequently it became necessary either to begin with 
the smaller birds, already systematically arranged, or else postpone 
the work indefinitely. 

The descriptions arc limited to essential characters, but extreme 
brevity has been avoided in order to render identification more certain. 
In the case of subspecies, however, only those characters which are 
peculiar to each are mentioned, the fuller description of the first in a 
group of conspecific forms applying to all of those which follow, except 
as modified by the diagnosis pertaining to each of the latter. 

Measurements are in millimeters, and are made in the following 
manner: 

(1) Length, from tip of bill to tip of tail of the dried skin. This 
measurement is really of little value, and is given merely as a sort of 
clue to the general size of the bird. It varies greatly in the same 
species according to the "make " of the skin,' and is usually materially 
different from the same measurement before skinning. 

(2) Wing, measured with dividers, one point resting against the 
anterior side of the bend the other touching the extremity of the 
longest primarj^ 

(3) Tail, measured with dividers, one point of which is inserted 
between the shafts of the middle pair of rectrices at the base and 
pressed forward as far as they will go without splitting the integu- 
ment, the other point touching the extremity of the longest rectrix. 

(4) Cuhnen, measured with dividers, either from the extreme base 
or exposed base — that is, the base as seen without parting the frontal 
feathers — the character of the measurement always being indicated as 
"culmen from base" and "exposed culmen." 

(5) Depth of Mil at hase, measured with dividers from lower edge 
of mandibular rami to highest portion of the culmen. 

' Specimens of conspicuously extended or abbreviated make liave, however, been 
excluded from measurement. 



XVI NOTE. 

(6) Width of hill, at iase, measured across the chin l)ctween the out- 
side of the gnathidea at their base. 

(7) Tarsus^ measured from the tibio-tarsal or heel joint 07i the outer 
side to the lower end. This last point is often more or less indefinite 
and sometimes very difficult to locate, but in such cases may usually 
be ascertained by flexing the toes. 

(8) Middle toe, measured from the lower end of the tarsus to the base 
of the claw, the length of the latter not being included, unless so stated. 

(9) GradiMtion of tail, measured from the extremity of the outer- 
most rectrix to that of the middle or longest, the tail being closed. 

Owing to the considerable individual variation in measurements in 
almost all birds, measurements of a single specimen are of little value as 
part of a description of a species or subspecies. In such a case the meas- 
urements are quite as likely to represent the maximum or minimum 
dimensions of the form as the average. Therefore, in connection with 
the present work, a series of specimens of each form has, whenever 
practicable, been carefully measured, and the minimum, maximum, 
and average of each separate measurement given with the descriptions. 

The average measurements, as given, do not always express actual 
difference or agreement, as the case may be, between allied forms 
because, in the first place, the series measured are too often unequal and 
inadequate, and in the second, determination of sex by collectors is 
not always to be relied on, measurements of one sex sometimes almost 
certainly figuring among those of the other. Besides, a certain allow- 
ance must be made for errors of measurement, it being a well known 
fact that the same person can rarely measure the same specimen twice 
and obtain exactly the same results. It may be stated, however, that 
great care has been taken to have the measurements given represent the 
facts as nearly as possible, by selecting as nearlj^ equal a series of each 
allied form as the available material would allow, and by eliminating 
immature specimens and those with abraded primaries and rectrices, 
as well as those whose sex had not been determined by the collector or 
is otherwise not obvious. 

In describing the wing-formula or relative lengths of the primary 
remiges, these are counted from the innermost one outward, not con- 
versely, as has been the general practice. Hence, in "ten-primaried" 
birds the outermost primary is designated as the tenth, and in "uine- 
primaried" birds as the ninth. The advantage of this innovation, 
which no doubt will at first cause inconvenience, is that in the case of 
"nine-primaried" birds the outermost obvious primary (the ninth) 
receives its correct numerical designation, whereas according to the old 
inethod of numeration it was designated as the first while being in 
reality the second.' 

•See Forbes, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, p. 256, note 2; Gadow, iu Newton's 
Dictionary of Birds, pp. 118, 741, 780. 



NOTE. XVII 

The analytical keys of the present work are on the same plan as 
those in the author's Manual of North American Birds;' that is, 
the diagnostic characters of all subdivisions are contrasted in dichoto- 
mous series of antithetical phrases. Many modifications of this plan 
and others essentiallj^ different have been experimented with or tested, 
but none have been found to possess equal simplicitj'^ of construction 
or facility of practical use. The keys of the present work differ from 
those of the Manual in this respect, however; the latter are a com- 
bination of "key" and diagnosis, while the former consist entire!}' of 
a key based only on the exclusively diagnostic characters. Although 
the plan of these keys is so simple that directions for their use seem 
hardly necessarj^ it may be as well to explain the method of their use. 
The dichotomous characters are arranged alphabetically, thus, "a" is 
the antithesis of "aa " , ' ' ^ " that of " 55 ", etc. ; therefore if the characters 
mentioned following- "a " do not apply to the specimen in hand then 
they must be sought for under after "aa". It will, of course, be 
found that either the characters following "a" or those following "aa " 
do apply, unless the specimen happens to be a new species or the key 
to the wrong genus (or other group) is being used. When its posi- 
tion as to "a" or "aa" has been fixed, the next step is to find whether 
it belongs to "5" or " W under "a" or "aa," as its position may 
have been determined; then whether in "c" or '■''cc,^'' and so on, or 
until the species or subspecies is "run down.'"' 

The names of colors used are those of the author's Nomenclature of 
Colors.' 



' A I Manual |. of | North American Birds. | By | Robert Bidgway. | — | Illustra- 
ted by 464 outline drawings of the | generic characters. | — | Philadelphia: | J. B. 
Lippincott Company. | 1887. | 

Royal 8 vo, pp. [i]-xi, 1-631, pis. i-cxxiii. 

(Second edition, revised, with new preface and appendix, published 1896.) 

' I A I Nomenclature of Colors | for Naturalists, | and | Compendium of Useful 
Knowledge | for Ornithologists. | By | Robert Ridgway, | Curator Department of 
Birds, United States National Museum. | With ten colored plates and seven plates | 
of outline illustrations. | Boston: | Little, Brown and Company. | 1886. | 

17024—01 II 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Ornithology 1 

Class Avbs 2 

Key to the Subclasses of Aves 3 

Key to the Orders of the Subclass Ornithurse 8 

Order Passeriformes 12 

Key to the Suborders of Passeriformes 14 

Key to the Superfamilies of the Suborder Eleutherodactyli 16 

SUPERFAMILY OsCINES 17 

Key to the Families of Oscines 18 

Family FringillidjE 24 

Key to the Genera of Fringillidre 28 

Genus 1. Hesperiphona Bonaparte 37 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Hesperiphona 38 

1. Hesperiphona vespertina vespertina (Cooper) 39 

2. Hesperiphona vespertina montana Kidgway : 41 

3. Hesperiphona vespertina mexicana Chapman 43 

4. Hesperiphona abeillii (Lesson) 44 

Genus 2. Loxia Linnaeus 46 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Loxia , 46 

5. Loxia curvirostra minor (Brehm ) 47 

6. Loxia curvirostra bendirei Ridgway 50 

7. Loxia curvirostra stricklandi Ridgway 52 

8. Loxia leucoptera Gmelin 53 

Genus 3. Pyrrhula Brisson 56 

9. Pyrrhula caasini Baird 57 

Genus 4. Pinicola Vieillot 58 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Pinicola 1 59 

10. Pinicola enuqleator canadensis ( Cabanis ) 60 

11. Pinicola enucleator alascensis liidgway 63 

12. Pinicola enucleator flammula ( Homeyer) 64 

13. Pinicola enucleator californica Prk e 65 

14. Pinicola enucleator montana Ridgway 66 

Genus 5. Leucosticte Swainson 67 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Leucosticte 68 

15. Leucosticte tephrocotis tephrocotis Swainson 68 

16. Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis ( Baird ) 71 

17. Leucosticte tephrocotis griseonucha (Brandt) 72 

18. Leucosticte atrata Ridgway 75 

19. Leucosticte australis Allen .- 77 

Genus 6. Acanthis Bechstein .' 78 

XIX 



XX OONTENTa. 

rage. 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Acanthis 80 

20. Acanthis hornemannii homemannii ( Holboll ) 80 

21. Acanthis hornemannii exilipes (Cones) - 82 

22. Acanthis linaria linaria (Linnseus) - 85 

23. Acanthis linaria holboellii (Brehm) 89 

24. Acanthis linaria rostrata (Cones) - - • 91 

25. Acanthis brewsterii Eidgway - - 92 

Genus 7. Carduelis Brisson 93 

26. Carduelis carduelis (Linnseus) 94 

Genus 8. Spinus Koch - - 95 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Spinus 96 

27. Spinus pinus pinus (Wilson) 97 

28. Spinus pinus macroptems (DuBus) ',00 

29. Spinus atriceps (Salvin) 100 

30. Spinus notatus notatus (DuBus) 102 

31. Spinus notatus forreri (Salvin and Godman) 103 

32. Spinus cucullatus (Swainson) 104 

33. Spinus xanthogaster (DuBus) 105 

Genus 9. Loximitris Bryant 106 

34. Loximitris dominicensis (Bryant) 107 

Genus 10. Astragalinus Cabanis ....- 107 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Astragalinus 108 

35. Astragalinus tristis tristis (Linnseus) 109 

36. Astragalinus tristis pallidus (Mearns) Ill 

37. Astragalinus tristis salicamans (Grinnell) 112 

38. Astragalinus psaltria psaltria (Say) _ 114 

39. Astragalinus psaltria arizonse (Cones) 115 

40. Astragalinus psaltria mexicanus (Swainson) _ 117 

41. Astragalinus psaltria croceus ( Jouy) 118 

42. Astragalinus psaltria jouyi Ridgway 120 

43. Astragalinus psaltria columbianus (Lafresnaye) 120 

44. Astragalinus lawrencii (Cassin) 121 

Genus 11. Carpodacus Kaup 123 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Carpodacus 124 

45. Carpodacus cassinii Baird 126 

46. Carpodacus purpureus purpereus (Gmelin) . 128 

47. Carpodacus purpureus californicus (Baird) 130 

48. Carpodacus mexicanus mexicanus (Miiller) 131 

49. Carpodacus mexicanus roseipectus (Sharpe) 133 

50. Carpodacus mexicanus rhodocolpus ( Cabanis) 134 

51 . Carpodacus mexicanus sonoriensis Ridgway 135 

52. Carpodacus mexicanus ruberrimus Eidgway 136 

53. Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis (Say) 137 

54. Carpodacus mexicanus dementis (Mearns) 140 

55. Carpodacus mcgregori Anthony _ 141 

56. Carpodacus ampins Ridgway 142 

Genus 12. Passer Brisson _ 143 

Key to the American (introduced) Species of Passer 143 

57. Passer domesticus (Linnseus) I43 

58. Passer montanus (Linnseus) I45 

Genus 13. Passerina Vieillot 146 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Passerina I47 

59. Passerina nivalis nivalis (Linnseus) _ 14g 



CONTENTS. XXI 

Page. 

60. Passerina nivalis townsendi Eidgway 152 

61. Passerina hyperborea Ridgway 153 

Genus 14. Oalarius Bechstein 154 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Oalcarius 155 

62. Oalcarius lapponicus lapponicus (Linnieus) 165 

63. Oalcarius lapponicus alascensis Ridgway 158 

64. Oalcarius pictus (Swainson) 160 

65. Oalcarius ornatus (Townsend) 162 

Genus 15. Rhynchophanes Baird 164 

66. Rhynchophanes mccownii (Lawrence) 165 

Genus 16. Calamospiza Bonaparte 167 

67. Oalamospiza melanocorys Stejneger 168 

Genus 17. Spiza Bonaparte 170 

Key to the Species of Spiza 171 

68. Spiza americana (Gmelin) 171 

69. Spiza townsendii (Audubon) 174 

Genus 18. Ohondestes Swainson 175 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Ohondestes 176 

70. Ohondestes grammacus grammacus (Say) 176 

71. Ohondestes grammacus strigatus (Swainson) 178 

Genus 19. Pooecetes Baird 181 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Pooecetes 181 

72. Pooecetes gramineus gramineus (Gmelin ) 182 

73. Pooecetes gramineus confinis (Baird) 184 

74. Pooecetes gramineus affinis Miller 186 

Genus 20. Passerculus Bonaparte 187 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Passerculus 188 

75. Passerculus princeps Maynard 189 

76. Passerculus sandwichensis sandwichensis (Gmelin) 190 

77. Passerculus sandwichensis savanna (Wilson) 192 

78. Passerculus sandwichensis alaudinus (Bonaparte) 194 

79. Passerculus sandwichensis bryanti Ridgway 197 

80. Passerculus beldingi Ridgway 198 

81. Passerculus rostratus rostratus (Cassin) 199 

82. Passerculus rostratus sanctorum ( Ooues ) 200 

83. Passerculus rostratus guttatus (Lawrence) 201 

84. Passerculus rostratus halophilus (McGregor) 202 

Genus 21. Oentronyx Baird 202 

85. Oentronyx bairdii (Audubon) 203 

Genus 22. Ooturniculus Bonaparte 205 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Ooturniculus 205 

86. Ooturniculus savannarum savannaruni (Gmelin) 206 

87. Ooturniculus savannarum passerinus (Wilson) 207 

88. Ooturniculus savannarum obacurus (Nelson) 209 

89. Ooturniculus savannarum bimaculatus (Swainson) 209 

Genus 23. Ammodramus Swainson 211 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Ammodramus 212 

90. Ammodramus maritimus maritimus (Wilson) 214 

91. , Ammodramus maritimus mcgillivraii (Audubon) 216 

92. Ammodramus maritimus peninsulse Allen 216 

93. Ammodramus maritimus fisheri Ohapman 217 

94. Ammodramus maritimus sennetti Allen 218 

95. Ammodramus nigrescehs Ridgway 219 



XXn CONTENTS. 

Page. 

96. Ammodramus caudacutus caudacutus (Gmelin) 220 

97. Ammodramus caudacutus nelsoni Allen 221 

98. Ammodramus caudacutus subvirgatus Dwight - 223 

99. Ammodramus leconteii (Audubon) - 224 

100. Ammodramus henslowii henslowii (Audubon) 226 

101. Ammodramus henslowii occidentalis Brewster 228 

Genus 24. Plagiospiza Ridgway - - - 229 

102. Plagiospiza superciliosa (Swainson) 229 

Genua 25. Aimophila Swainson - - 230 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Aimophila 233 

103. Aimophila quinquestriata (Sclater) 236 

104. Aimophila mystacalis (Hartlaub) 236 

105. Aimophila humeralis Cabanis - - 237 

106. Aimophila ruficauda ruficauda (Bonaparte) 238 

107. Aimophila ruficauda lawrencii (Salvin and Godman) 239 

108. Aimophila acuminata Salvin and Godman 240 

109. Aimophila sumichrasti Lawrence 240 

110. Aimophila carpalis (Coues) 241 

111. Aimophila notosticta (Sclater and Salvin) 242 

112. Aimophila rufeacens rufescens Swainson 243 

113. Aimophila rufescens pallida Nelson and Palmer 245 

114. Aimophila rufescens sinaloa Ridgway 245 

] 15. Aimophila mcleodii Brewster _ 246 

116. Aimophila ruficeps ruficeps (Cassin) 246 

117. Aimophila ruficeps sororia Ridgway 248 

118. Aimophila ruficeps scottii (Sennett) 248 

119. Aimophila ruficeps australis (Nelson) 250 

120. Aimophila ruficeps fusca (Nelson) 250 

121. Aimophila ruficeps eremoeca (Brown) 251 

122. Aimophila ruficeps boucardi (Sclater) 252 

123. Aimophila cassinii (Woodhouse) _ 253 

124. Aimophila sestivalis sestivalia (Lichtenstein) 254 

125. Aimophila sestivalis bachmanii (Audubon ) 256 

126. Aimophila botterii botterii (Sclater) 257 

127. Aimophila botterii sartorii Ridgway 259 

128. Aimophila botterii petenica (Salvin) 260 

Genus 26. Amphispiza Coues 261 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Amphispiza 262 

129. Amphispiza bilineata bilineata (Cassin) 263 

130. Amphispiza bilineata deserticola Ridgway 265 

131. Amphispiza bilineata grisea Nelson 266 

132. Amphispiza belli belli (Cassin) 267 

133. Amphispiza belli cinerea Townsend 269 

134. Amphispiza belli nevadensis Ridgway 270 

Genus 27. Junco Wagler 271 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Junco 272 

135. Junco aikeni Ridgway 277 

136. Junco hyemalis hyemalis (Linnseus) 278 

137. Junco hyemalis carolinensia Brewster 282 

138. Junco oreganus oreganus (Townsend) 283 

139. Junco oreganus shufeldti (Coale) 285 

140. Junco oreganus thurberi (Anthony) 287 

141. Junco oreganus pinosus (Loomis) 288 

142. Junco montanus Ridgway 289 



CONTENTS. XXIII 

• Page. 

143. Junco mearnsi Ridgway 291 

144. Junco townsendi Anthony 293 

145. Junco insularis Kidgway 293 

146. Junco bairdi Belding 294 

147. Junco caniceps ( Woodhouse) 295 

148. Junco dorsalis Henry 297 

149. Junco phajonotus phseonotus Wagler 299 

150. Junco phseonotus palliatus Kidgway 301 

151. Junco fulvescens Nelson 302 

152. Junco alticola Salvin 303 

153. Junco vulcani (Boucard) 304 

Genus 28. Spizella Bonaparte 305 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Spizella 305 

154. Spizella monticola monticola (Gmelin) 307 

155. Spizella monticola ochracea Brewster 309 

156. Spizella socialis (Wilson) 311 

157. Spizella socialis mexicana Nelson 313 

158. Spizella socialis pinetorum (Salvin) 314 

159. Spizella socialis arizonae Goues 315 

160. Spizella pusilla pusilla (Wilson) 318 

161. Spizella pusilla arenacea Ohadbourne 320 

162. Spizella wortheni Ridgway 321 

163. Spizella atrogularis- (Cabanis) 322 

164. Spizella pallida (Swainson) 324 

165. Spizella breweri Cassin 327 

Genus 29. Zonotrichia Swainson 329 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Zonotrichia 330 

166. Zonotrichia querula (Nuttall) 331 

167. Zonotrichia coronata (Pallas) , 333 

168. Zonotrichia leucophrys leucophrys (Forster) 336 

169. Zonotrichia leucophrys gambeli (Nuttall) 339 

170. Zonotrichia leucophrys nuttalli Ridgway 342 

171. Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmelin) 343 

Genus 30. Brachyspiza Ridgway 346 

Key to the Subspecies of Brachyspiza 347 

172. Brachyspiza capensis peruviana (Lesson) 347 

173. Brachyspiza capensis insularis Ridgway 349 

Genus 31. Melospiza Baird 349 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Melospiza 352 

174. Melospiza cinerea melodia (Wilson) 354 

175. Melospiza cinerea montana (Henshaw) 358 

176. Melospiza cinerea merrilli (Brewster) 361 

177. Melospiza cinerea fallax (Baird) 362 

178. Melospiza cinerea rivularis (Bryant) 363 

179. Melospiza cinerea heermanni (Baird) 364 

180. Melospiza cinerea mexicana Ridgway - . 365 

181. Melospiza cinerea adusta (Nelson) _ 366 

182. Melospiza cinerea goldmani (Nelson) 366 

183. Melospiza cinerea cooperi Ridgway 367 

184. Melospiza cinerea clementse (Townsend) 368 

185. Melospiza cinerea graminea (Townsend) 369 

186. Melospiza cinerea samuelis (Baird) 369 

187. Melospiza cinerea pusillula Ridgway 370 

188. Melospiza cinerea cleonensis ( McGregor) 371 



XXIV CONTENTS. 

Page. 

189. Melospiza cinerea morphna ( Oberholser) 372 

190. Molospiza cinerea rufina (Brandt) - ^'3 

191. Melospiza cinerea caurina Ridgway 375 

192. Melospiza cinerea kenaiensis Bidgway 375 

193. Melospiza cinerea insignia (Baird) - 376 

194. Melospiza cinerea cinerea (Gmelin) - 377 

195. Melospiza lincolnii (Audutfon) - 379 

196. Melospiza georgiana (Latham) 382 

Genus 32. Passerella Swainson 384 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Passerella 885 

197. Passerella iliaca iliaca (Merrem) 386 

198. Passerella iliaca unalaschensis (Gmelin) 389 

199. Passerella iliaca insularis Eidgway 391 

200. Passerella iliaca annectens Ridgway 392 

201. Passerella iliaca townsendi (Audubon) 392 

202. Passerella iliaca fuliginosa Ridgway 394 

203. Passerella iliaca schistacea (Baird) 395 

204. Passerella iliaca megarhyncha (Baird) 397 

205. Passerella iliaca Stephens! Anthony 398 

Genus 33. Oreospiza Ridgway 399 

206. Oreospiza chlorura (Townsend) 400 

Genus 34. Pipilo Vieillot 402 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Pipilo 403 

207. Pipilo torquatus torquatus Du Bus _ 406 

208. Pipilo torquatus alticola (Salvin and Godman) 408 

209. Pipilo nigrescens (Salvin and Godman) 408 

210. Pipilo macronyx macronyx Swainson 409 

211. Pipilo macronyx virescens (Hartlaub) 410 

212. Pipilo maculatus maculatus Swainson 410 

213. Pipilo maculatus arcticus (Swainson) 412 

214. Pipilo maculatus magnirostria Brewster 414 

215. Pipilo maculatus megalonyx (Baird) 415 

216. Pipilo maculatus clementae (Grinnell) 418 

217. Pipilo maculatus atratus Ridgway 419 

218. Pipilo maculatus oregonua (Bell ) 420 

219. Pipilo consobrinus Ridgway 422 

220. Pipilo carmani Baird 422 

221. Pipilo erythrophthalmus erythrophthalmus (Linnseus) 423 

222. Pipilo erythrophthalmus alleni Couea 426 

223. Pipilo aberti Baird : 427 

224. Pipilo rutilus (Lichtenstein) 428 

225. Pipilo fuscus fuscus Swainson 430 

226. Pipilo fuscus potosinus Ridgway 431 

227. Pipilo fuscus intermedins Nelson 432 

228. Pipilo fuscus mesoleucus (Baird) 432 

229. Pipilo albigula Baird 433 

230. Pipilo crisaalis crissalis (Vigors) 434 

231. Pipilo crissalis carolse (McGregor) _ _ 435 

232. Pipilo crissalis senicula (Anthony) _ _ 436 

Genus 35. Melozone Reichenbach 437 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Melozone _ _ 438 

233. Melozone kieneri (Bonaparte) 439 

234. Melozone rubricatum rubricatum Cabani.s 440 

235. Melozone rubricatum xantusii (Lawrence) 44I 



CONTENTS. XXV 

Page. 

236. "Melozone cabanisi (Sclater and Salvin) 441 

237. Melozone biarcuatum (Provost) 443 

238. Melozone leucotis Cabanis 444 

239. Melozone occipitalis Cabanis 445 

Genus 36. Arremonops Eidgway 445 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Arremonops 446 

240. Arremonops ruflvirgatus rufivirgatus (Lawrence) 474 

241. Arremonops ruflvirgatus crassirostris Ridgway 448 

242. Arremonops superciliosus superciliosus (Salvin) 449 

243. Arremonops superciliosus sumichrasti (Sharpe) 450 

244. , Arremonops superciliosus sinalose Nelson 450 

245. Arremonops verticalis Ridgway 451 

246. Arremonops chloronotus (Salvin) 452 

247. Arremonops conirostris conirostris (Bonaparte) 453 

248. Arremonops conirostris ricbmondi Ridgway 453 

Genus 37. Arremou Vieillot 454 

249. Arremon aurantiirostris Laf resnaye 455 

Genus 38. Lysurus Ridgway ■ 457 

Key to the Species of Lysurus 458 

250. Lysurus crassirostris (Cassin) 458 

Genus 39. Atlapetes Wagler 459 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Atlapetes 460 

251. Atlapetes pileatus pileatus Wagler 460 

252. Atlapetes pileatus dilutus Ridgway 461 

253. Atlapetes gutturalis (Lafresnaye) 461 

254. Atlapetes albinucha (D'Orbigny and Lafresnaye) 463 

Genus 40. Buarremon Bonaparte 464 

Key to the Species of Buarremon 465 

255. Buarremon briunneinuchus (Lafresnaye) 465 

256. Buarremon Adrenticeps Bonaparte 467 

257. Buarremon assimilis (Boissoneau) 468 

Genus 41. Pselliophorus Ridgway 469 

258. Pselliophorus tibialis (Lawrence) 470 

Genus 42. Pezopetes Cabanis 471 

259. Pezopetes capitalis Cabanis 472 

Genus 43. Platyspiza Ridgway 473 

260. Platyspiza crassirostris (Gould) 474 

Genus 44. Camarhynchus Gould 476 

Key to the Species of Camarhynchus 476 

261. Camarhynchus psittaculus Gould 477 

262. Camarhynchus habeli Sclater and Salvin 480 

263. Camarhynchus affinis Ridgway 481 

264. Camarhynchus compressirostris Ridgway 481 

265. Camarhynchus incertus Ridgway 482 

266. Camarhynchus pauper Ridgway 483 

267. Camarhynchus prosthemelas Sclater and Salvin 484 

268. Camarhynchus salvini Ridgway 486 

269. Camarhynchus pallidus (Sclater and Salvin) 487 

Genus 45. Geospiza Gould 489 

Key to the Species of Geospiza 493 

270. Geospiza magnirostris Gould 495 

271. Geospiza strenua Gould 496 

272. Geospiza pachyrhyncha Ridgway 498 

273. Geospiza conirostris Ridgway 498 



XXVI CONTENTS. 

Page. 

274. Geospiza propinqua Ridgway 499 

275. Geospiza darwini Eothschild and Hartert 500 

276. Geospiza bauri Ridgway 500 

277. Geospiza dubia Gould 501 

278. Geospiza albemarlei Ridgway 502 

279. Geospiza simillima Rothschild and Hartert 502 

280. Geospiza fortis Gould 502 

281. Geospiza fratercula Ridgway - - 504 

282. Geospiza f uliginosa Gould 504 

283. Geospiza minor (Rothschild and Hartert) . . - 506 

284. Geospiza acutirostris Ridgway - - - 506 

285. Geospiza dentirostris Gould 507 

286. Geospiza harterti Ridgway 507 

287. Geospiza ditficilis Sharpe 507 

288. Geospiza debilirostris Ridgway 508 

289. Geospiza scandena (Gould) - 509 

290. Geospiza septentrionalis ( Rothschild and Hartert) 510 

291. Geospiza intermedia Ridgway - - 511 

292. Geospiza fatigata Ridgway 511 

293. Geospiza abingdoni (Sclater and Salvin ) _ 513 

294. Geospiza brevirostris Ridway 514 

Genus 46. Cocornis Townsend 515 

295. Cocornis agassizi Townsend 516 

Genus 47. Acanthidops Ridgway 517 

296. Acanthidops bairdi Ridgway 519 

Genus 48. Haplospiza Cabanis 520 

297. Haplospiza unif ormis Sclater and Salvin 521 

Genus 49. Sicalis Boie 521 

Key- to the Species of Sicalis 522 

298. Sicalis jamaiae Sharpe 523 

299. Sicalis chrysops Sclater 523 

Genus 50. Volatinia Reichenbach 625 

Key to the Subspecies of Volatinia 526 

300. Volatinia jacarini splendens ( Vieillot) 526 

Genus 51. Euetheia Reichenbach 529 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Euetheia 530 

301. Euetheia olivacea olivacea (Linnteus) 5.S0 

302. Euetheia olivacea coryi Ridgway 532 

303. Euetheia olivacea bryanti Ridgway _ 533 

304. Euetheia olivacea intermedia Ridgway 533 

305. Euetheia olivacea pusilla (Swainson) 534 

306. Euetheia canora (Gmelin) 536 

307. Euetheia bicolor bicolor (Linnasus) 537 

308. Euetheia bicolor omissa ( Jardine) 538 

309. Euetheia bicolor marchii (Baird) 541 

310. Euetheia bicolor sharpei (Hartert) 543 

311. Euetheia grandior Cory 543 

Genus 52. Melanospiza Ridgway 544 

312. Melanospiza richardsoni (Cory) 545 

Genus 53. Loxipasser Bryant 545 

313. Loxipasser anoxanthus (Gosse) 546 

Genus 54. Pyrrhulagra Bonaparte 547 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Pyrrhulagra 548 

314. Pyrrhulagra portoricensis (Daudin) 550 



CONTENTS. XXVII 

Page. 

315. Pyrrhulagra grandis (Lawrence) 550 

316. Pyrrhulagra violacea violacea (Linnaeus) 551 

317. Pyrrhulagra violacea ruflcollis (Gmelin) 552 

318. Pyrrhulagra violacea affinis (Baird) 553 

319. Pyrrhulagra noctis noctis (Linnaeus) 554 

320. Pyrrhulagra noctis sclateri (Allen) 555 

321. Pyrrhulagra noctis dominicana Ridgway 556 

322. Pyrrhulagra noctis crissalis Ridgway 557 

323. Pyrrhulagra lioctis ridgwayi Cory 558 

324. Pyrrhulagra noctis coryi Ridgway- 559 

325. Pyrrhulagra noctis grenadensis CJory 560 

326. Pyrrhulagra barbadensis Cory 561 

Genus 55. Melopyrrha Bonaparte - 501 

Key to the Species of Melopyrrha 562 

327. Melopyrrha nigra (Linnseus) 562 

328. Melopyrrha taylori Hartert 563 

Genus 56. Sporophila Cabanis 563 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Sporophila 564 

329. Sporophila grisea schistacea (Lawrence) - 566 

330. Sporophila minuta niinuta (Linnreus) 567 

331. Sporophila minuta parva (Lawrence) 568 

332. Sporophila gutturalis (Lichtenstein) 569 

333. Sporophila cofvina (Sclater) 571 

334. Sporophila aurita (Bonaparte) 573 

335. Sporophila morelleti (Bonaparte) 575 

336. Sporophila torqueola (Bonaparte) 577 

337. Sporophila albitorquis (Sharpe) 578 

Genus 57. Amaurospiza Cabanis .-- 579 

338. Amaurospiza concolor Cabanis 579 

Genus 58. Cyanospiza Baird -. 580 

Key to the Species of Cyanospiza 581 

339. Cyanospiza cyanea (Linnaeus) 582 

340. Cyanospiza amoena (Say) 584 

341. Cyanospiza ciris (Linnseus) 586 

342. Cyanospiza leclancheri (Lafresnaye) 589 

343. Cyanospiza rositse Lawrence 590 

344. Cyanospiza versicolor (Bonaparte) 591 

Genus 59. Cyanocompsa Cabanis » 594 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of Cyanocompsa ._ 595 

345. Cyanocompsa concreta concreta (DuBus) 596 

346. Cyanocompsa concreta cyanesceus Ridgway 597 

347. Cyanocompsa cyanoides (Lafresnaye) 599 

348. Cyanocompsa parellina parellina (Bonaparte) 601 

349. Cyanocompsa parellina indigotica Ridgway , 602 

350. Cyanocompsa parellina sumichrasti Ridgway 602 

Genus 60. Oryzoborus Cabanis 603 

Key to the Species of Oryzoborus 604 

351. Oryzoborus nuttingi Ridgway 604 

352. Oryzoborus funereus Sclater 605 

Genus 61. Guiraca Swainson 606 

Key to the Species and. Subspecies of Guiraca 607 

353. Guiraca cserulea caerulea (Linnseus) 607 

354. Guiraca caerulea lazula (Lesson) 510 

355. Guiraca caerulea chiapensis (Nelson) 612 



XXVIII CONTENTS. 

Page, 

Genus 62. Zamelodia Coues 613 

Key to the Species of Zamelodia 614 

356. Zamelodia ludoviciana (Linnaeus) 614 

357. Zamelodia melanocephala (Swainson) 617 

Genus 63. Pheucticus Eeichenbach 621 

Key to the Species of Pheucticus 621 

358. Pheucticus chrysopeplus (Vigors) 621 

359. Pheucticus aurantiacus Salvin and Godman 623 

360. Pheucticus tibialis Baird 623 

Genus 64. Pyrrhuloxia Bonaparte 624 

Key to the Subspecies of Pyrrhuloxia 625 

361. Pyrrhuloxia sinuata sinuata Bonaparte 625 

362. Pyrrhuloxia sinuata peninsulae Ridgway 627 

363. Pyrrhuloxia sinuata texana Ridgway 628 

Genus 65. Cardinalis Bonaparte 629 

Key to the Species and Subspecies of CardinaUs 633 

364. Cardinalis cardinalis cardinalis (Linnaeus) 635 

365. Cardinalis cardinalis canicaudus Chapman 639 

366. Cardinalis cardinalis floridanus Ridgway 641 

367. Cardinalis cardinalis coccineus Ridgway 642 

368. Cardinalis cardinalis littoralis Nelson 643 

369. Cardinalis cardinalis yucatanicus Ridgway 644 

370. Cardinalis cardinalis saturatus Ridgway 645 

371 . Cardinalis cardinalis superbus Ridgway 645 

372. Cardinalis cardinalis igneus (Baird) 647 

373. Cardinalis cardinalis aflSnis Nelson 648 

374. Cardinalis cardinalis sinaloensis Nelson 648 

375. Cardinalis cardinalis mariae Nelson 649 

376. Cardinalis carneus Lesson 650 

Genus 66. Pitylus Ouvier 651 

377. Pitylus grossus (Linnaeus) 652 

Genus 67. Caryothraustes Reichenbach 654 

Key to the Subspecies of Caryothraustes 655 

378. Caryothraustes poliogaster poliogaster ( Du Bus ) 655 

379. Caryothraustes poliogaster scapularis Ridgway 656 

Genus 68. Rhodothraupis Ridgway _ 657 

380. Rhodothraupis celaeno (Lichtenstein) 657 

Genus 69. Saltator Vieillot 659 

Key tx) the Species and Subspecies of Saltator 660 

381. Saltator atriceps atriceps Lesson 661 

382. Saltator atriceps lacertosus Bangs '. 663 

383. Saltator magnoides magnoides Lafresnaye 663 

384. Saltator magnoides medianus Ridgway _ 664 

385. Saltator magnoides intermedins (Lawrence ) 665 

386. Saltator grandis (Lichtenstein) 666 

387. Saltator plumbiceps Lawrence 668 

388. Saltator albicoUis isthmicus ( Sclater) _ 669 

389. Saltator guadelupensia (Lafresnaye) 671 

Addenda 673 

Index 673 

List of figures illustrating generic details xxix 

Errata xxxi 



LIST OF FIGURES ILLUSTRATING GENERIC DETAILS. 



Figure. 



1. 
2. 
3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

0. 
10. 
U. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 



40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 
44. 
46. 
46. 
47. 



Hesperiphona Bonaparte 

Loxia Linn^ua 

Pyrrhula Brisson 

Pinieola Vieillot 

Leucostlcte Swalnson 

Acanthis Bechstein , 

Carduelis Brisson 

Spinus Koch- 

Loximitris Bryant 

Astragallnus Cabanis 

Carpodacus Kaup 

Passer Brisson 

Passerina Vieillot 

Calcarius Bechstein 

Rhynehophanes Baird . . . 
Calamospiza Bonaparte. . 

Spiza Bonaparte 

Chondestes Swainson 

Pooecetes Baird 

Passerculus Bonaparte. . . 

Centrony X Baird 

Coturniculus Bonaparte . 
Ammodramus Swainson. 

Plagiospiza Ridgway 

Aimophila Swainson 

Amphispiza Coues 

Junco Wagler 

Spizella Bonaparte 

Zonotrichia Swainson . . . 
Brachyspiza Ridgway . . . 

Melospiza Baird 

Passerella Swainson 

Oreospiza Ridgway 

Pipilo Vieillot 

Melozone Eeichenbach.. 
Arremonops Ridgway ... 

Arremon Vieillot 

Lysurus Ridgway 

Atlapetes Wagler 

Buarremon Bonaparte. . . 
Pselliophorus Ridgway . . 

Pezopetes Cabanis 

Platyspiza Ridgway 

Camarhynchus Gould . . . 

Geoapiza Gould 

Cocomis Townsend 

Acanthldops Ridgway. . . 



I. 
I. 
II. 
I. 

III. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
II. 
IV. 
II. 
III. 
III. 
III. 
IV. 
IV. 
IV. 
IV. 
V. 
V. 
V. 
V. 
VI. 
V. 
VI. 
VI. 
VI. 
VII. 
VII. 
V. 
VII. 
VII. 
VIII. 
VIII. 
XI. 
IX. 
IX. 
X. 
X. 
IX. 
X. 
XIII. 
XIII. 
XIV. 
XIV. 
XI. 



1 

2 

1 

3 

1 

6 
2 
4 
6 
3 
3,5 
7 
2 
3 
4 
4 
6 
1 
2 
1 
2 
3 
4 
1 
5,6 
2,4 
3 
6 
1 
2 
7 
3,4,6 
5 
1,2 
3 
5 
1 
2 
3 
1 
3 
2 
1 
2,3 
1,2 



XXIX 



XXX CONTflNTS. 

List of Figures Illustrating Generic Dbtailk — Continued. 



Genus. 



Plate. 


Figure. 


XI. 


1 


XI. 


6 


XI. 


2 


XVII. 


3 


XII. 


1 


xn. 


2 


XII. 


4 


XII. 


5 


XII. 


3 


XI, 


4 


XV. 


4 


XV. 


2 


XV. 


1 


XV. 


3 


XVII. 


1 


XVI. 


1 


XVIII. 


1 


XVIII. 


2 


XIX. 


1 


XVII 


2 


XIX. 


2 


XX. 


1,2 



Pap 
text. 



48. Haplospiza Cabanis 

49. Sicalis Boie 

50. Volatinia Reichenbach 

51- Euetheia Reichenbach 

52. Melanospiza Ridgway 

53. Loxipasser Bryant 

54. Pyrrhulagra Bonaparte 

55. Melopyrrha Bonaparte 

56. Sporopbila Cabanis 

57. Amaurospiza Cabani.s 

58. Cyanospiza Baird 

59. Cyanocompsa Cabanis 

60. Oryzoborus Cabanis 

61. Guiraca Swainson 

62. Zamelodia Coues 

63. Pbeucticus Reichenbach 

64. Pyrrhuloxia Bonaparte 

65. Cardinalis Bonaparte 

66. Pitylus Cuvier 

67. Caryothraustes Reichenbach 

68. Rhodothraupis Eidgway 

69. Saltator Vieillot 



520 
521 
525 
629 
544 
545 
547 
561 
563 
579 
580 
594 



613 
621 
• 624 
629 
651 
654 
657 
659 



EERATA. 

Pages 60, 65, 68, 71, 72, 74, 75, and 87.— For Kodiak read Kadiak. 

Pages 74 and 75. — For Unalashka read Unalaska. 

Pages 74, 84, 87, 89, 90, and 91. — For Kamtschatka read Kamehatka. 

Page 74. — For Aliaska read Alaska. 

Page 90, third line from top. — For Herschell read Herschel. 

Page 134. — In vernacular name, for Cuernevaca read Cuernavaca. 

Page 166. — In second paragraph, of synonymy, for mccownii read maccownil. 

Page 183. — In seventh line from bottom, for Pooecetes read Poec.etes. 

Page 184. — In beginning of last paragraph, for Pooecetes read Pooecetes. 

Page 192. — In vernacular name for Savannah read Savanna. 

Page 242. — In vernacular name for Oaxaca read Ejutla. There is another Oaxaca 
Sparrow {Aimophila ruficeps australis, p. 250). 

Page 250. — In vernacular name, for Etzatlan read Jalisco. There is another Etzat- 
lan Sparrow {Aimophila rufescens pallida, p. 245). 

Page 596. — In fourth line from top, for concrete read concrela. 



THE BIRDS 



NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 



By KOBEET RiDGWAY, 

Cwrator, Diris'ion of Binh. 



Ornithology ("from opviO-, crude form of opvig, a bird, and Xoyla, 
allied to Xoyos, commonly Englished a discourse")' is '"the method- 
ical study and consequent knowledge of birds, with all that relates 
thereto.'" 

There are two essentially different kinds of ornithology: systematic 
or scientific, and 2^opular. The former deals with the structure and 
classification of birds, their synonymies and technical descriptions. 
The latter treats of their habits, songs, nesting, and other facts per- 
taining to their life-histories. Although apparently distinct from one 
another, these two branches of ornithology are in reality closely related 
and to a degree interdependent. The systematist who does not possess 
an intimate knowledge of the habits of birds, their mode of nidifica- 
tion, the character of their nests, eggs, and young, is poorly equipped 
for the work he has in hand, while the popular writer who is ignorant 
of scientific ornithology and who neglects to keep in touch with its 
progress is placed at an equal disadvantage — his writing's may enter^ 
tain, but are far more apt to mislead, through erroneous statements, 
than educate. Popular ornithology is the more entertaining, with its 
savor of the wild wood, green fields, the riverside and seashore, bird 
songs, and the many fascinating things connected with out-of-door 
Nature. But systematic ornithology, being a component part of 
biology — the science of life — is the more instructive and therefore 
more important. Each advance in this serious study reveals just so 

^ Newton, Dictionary of Birds, 1894, p. 657. 
^Idem., introduction, p. 1. 
17024—01 1 1 



2 BULLETIN 50, UJSriTED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

much more of the hidden irij^steries of creation, and adds proportion- 
atel}' to the sum of human knowledge/ 

Birds constitute a far more homogeneous group than any other class 
of the animal kingdom, and their classification is therefore a matter of 
unusual difficulty. According to universal agreement, they constitute 
a single class, Aves, whose characters and subdivisions (according to 
our present knowledge) are as follows: 



CLASS AVES.— BIRDS. 

Birds iiXQ feathered veirtebrate animals. ^ 

The more recent investigations of comparative anatomists have grad- 
uall}' eliminated the supposed exclusive characters of birds, as a Class 
of the Animal Kingdom, until only the single one mentioned above, 
the possession of feathers, remains. No other structural character is 
possessed by them which is not shared either bj^ the Class Reptilia or 
Class Mammalia; but "no bird is without feathers, and no animal is 
invested with feathers except the birds. " ' Indeed, so closely are birds 
related to reptiles that in all other structural characters whereby they 
differ from mammals they agree with reptiles; and notwithstanding 
their extreme dissimilarity in appearance and habits they are essentially 
"an extremely modified and aberrant Reptilian type."* 

Birds differ from all Mammals in the following characters: 

(1) Possession of feathers. 

(2) Absence of milk glands. 

(3) Single occipital condyle. 

'The most complete review of the history of ornithology is that forming the 
introduction to Professor Newton's Dictionary of Birds (London: Adam and Charles 
Black, 1893-1896; The Macmillan Company, New York). 

■^ The following diagnosis of the class is given by Gadow, in Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 
1892, p. 236: 

Oviparous, warm-blooded, amniotic vertebrates which have their anterior extrem- 
ities transformed into wings. Metacarpus and fingers carrying feathers or quilla. 
AVith an intertarsal joint. Not more than four toes, of which the first is the hallux. 

This later (A Classification of Vertebrata recent and extinct, 1898, p. 30) amended 
as follows: 

Warm-blooded, oviparous, Amniota, AUantoidae. Occipital condyle single. Quad- 
rate movable. Anterior extremities transformed into wings. Covered with feath- 
ers. With intertarsal joint. Not more than four toes, of which the first is the 
hallux. 

■' Stejneger, Standard Natural History, i\-, 1885, p. 1. Dr. Stejneger's most excel- 
lent article (pp. 1-20 of the work cited) should be consulted by those who desire 
more detailed information on the subject. 

■'Newton, in the article on Ornithology in the Encyolopredia Britannica; also 
HtrxLEY, Lectures on the Elements of Comparative Anatomy, p. 69; Caeus, Hand- 
buch der Zoologie, p. 192. 



BIRDS OF NOETH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. d 

(4) Articulation of the lower jaw with a separate bone {ox quad- 
Tdtum), which again articulates with the skull. 
(.5) Absence of a diaphragm. 
They differ from Reptiles in — 

(1) Possession of feathers. 

(2) Complete circulation of warm blood. (In this, Birds agree with 
Mammals.) 

The fact that Reptiles, as well as Birds, lay eggs, and that the nidi- 
fication of some members of the two Classes is practically identical (e. 
g. , the reptilian Crocodilia and avian Megapodidte (a group of Peri- 
steropode Gallinse), is too well known to require more than mere men- 
tion here; but the mammalian Monotremata also lay eggs, while 
furthermore one of the latter {Ornitliorhynclms^ the duck mole of 
Australia), possesses a very duck-like beak. 

KEY TO THE SUBCLASSES OF AVES. 

<'. Metacarpals separate, the first finger with 2, the second and third each with 3, 
digits; caudal vertebrje about 21, not terminating in a pygostyle; primaries not 
more than 7; rectrices attached in pairs (about 12), each to a caudal vertebra. 

Subclass SaurursB.^ 

an. Metacarpals fused; caudal verjebrse not more than 13, of which about half are 

usually fused into a pygostyle;^ primaries 10-16;^ rectrices not attached to 

separate vertebrae '. Subclass Ornithuree.' 

The Subclass SaururtB (Archgeornithes of Gadow) is represented 
only by the extinct (Upper Jurassic) ArcJimopteryx; all existing birds 
belonging to the Ornithurse (Neornithes of Gadow). 

The construction of a "key" to the orders and other supergeneric 
groups of the Subclass Ornithurse, which shall serve for ready identi- 
fication and at the same time express the mutual relationships and com- 
parative taxonomic value of the different groups, has been found a 
most difficult task. When the highest authorities disagree, as they 

^Sauriuras Haeckbl, Gen. Morph. Org. 1866, — . — Saururw Huxley, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1867, 418; Carus, Handb. Zool., i, 1868,367; Newton, Enc. Brit., xviii, 1884, 
44; Stejneqbr, Stand. Nat. Hist, iv, 1885, 21; Cope, Am. Nat, xxiii, 1889, 869; 
Beddaed, Struct, and Classif. Birds, 1898, 529. — Ondthopappi Stejnegee, Stand. Nat. 
Hist., iv, 1885, 21; Cope, Am. Nat. xxiii, 1889, 869. — Archornithes Fuerbeixger, 
Unters. Morph. Syat.Vog., ii, 1888, 1565. — Archxornithes Gadov/, Bronn'sThier-Eeichs 
Vog., ii, 1893, 86, 299. — Archseopterygiformes and Archasopteryges Fueebeingee, Unters. 
Morph. Syst. Vog., ii, 1888, Ib^b.—Saurorniihes Beddaed, Struct, and Classif. Birds, 
1898, 529. 

* Exceptions to the presence of a pygostyle are the Division Ratitje, Orders Oryptu- 
riformes and Sphenisciformes, and Suborder Podicipedes. 

^Sometimes the tenth (outermost) primary is rudimentary, even to such a degree 
that it is apparently absent." 

^Ornithurie Habckel, Gen. Morph. Org., 1866, — ; Beddaed, Struct, and Classif. 
Birds, 1898, 167 .—Neornithes Gadow, Bronn's Thier-Reiohs, Vog., ii, 1893, 90, 299; 
Classif., Vertebr. 1898, xiv, 30. 



4 BrLLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

do, concerning the position or rank of certain fox'ms, it of course 
becomes necessary to consider carefully the points of disagreement, to 
weigh impartiallj' the evidence and arguments adduced by the advocates 
of such divergent decisions, and, if possible, decide independentlj^ as 
to the seemingly better allocation of the form in question. This has 
been attempted in the following scheme, but the author is fully con- 
scious that his disposition of such doubtful cases may still not be final, 
especially when different from previous decisions, as in a few cases 
has been the result of his revision. 

It is unfortunate that those who possess the most thorough knowl- 
edge of avian anatom}^ and morphology do not always seem to have 
succeeded in satisfactorily diagnosing the groups which they adopt, 
nor in clearly presenting a synthetic summary of the facts revealed 
through their investigations. So-called diagnoses are sometimes 
found, when carefully analyzed, to be really not diagnostic at all; 
more often thej'' prove to be so in part only. A by no means extreme 
example, the case of the Limicolse and Lari (suborders of the Order 
Charadriiformes), as defined in Gadow's Classification of Vertebrata 
(1898, p. 35), may be given for illustration. These two groups are 
thus characterized by Dr. Gadow: 

LimicoljE. — "Nidifugous, schizognathous, without spina interna 
sterni; hypotarsus complicated." 

Laei. — ' 'Aquatic, schizognathous, vomer complete. Without basip- 
terygoid processes. Front toes webbed; hallux small or absent. Large 
supraorbital glands." 

Of the characters mentioned in these two diagnoses the following are 
common to the two groups, and therefore are not diagnostic of either: 
(1) Nidifugous young;' (2) schizognathism; (3) complete vomer; 
(4) absence of spina interna sterni; (5) absence of basipterygoid proc- 
esses;' (6) webbing of front toes;' (7) small or obsolete hallux; 
(8) aquatic habits.* 

The difl'erential characters of the two groups are thus reduced to 
the following: 

LiMicoLiE. — Hypotarsus complicated; supraorbital glands small. 

Laei. — Hypotarsus simple; supraorbital glands large. 

With this example of so-called Suborders which are characterized 
by a verjr small number of relatively unimportant differences may be 
contrasted that of the several subdivisions of the Order Gruiformes. 
to which Dr. Gadow only allows family rank, although apparently far 
better characterized than the so-called suborders of Charadriiformes, 

' The young of the Lari are not, it is true, strictly nidifugous, but they are often 
more nearly so than nidicolous. 

'' Basipterygoid processes are present in some Limicohv, absent in others. 
'The front toes are webbed in some Limicolje (e. g., Himantopus). 
* The Phalaropes are quite as truly aquatic as Gulls. 



BIRDS OP NOETH AKD MIDDLE AMEEICA. 

if, indeed, they be not more distinct from one another than are the 
two orders Charadriiformes and Gruiformes themselves.' These 
Gruiform g'roups differ as follows:*^ 

a. Metastemum entire; deep plantar tendons of Type I, the tail not large and fan- 
shaped; young nidifugous. 
b. ISTasals holorhinal or else (Jacanidse), the claws excessively elongated; hallux 
large, incumbent; cervical vertebrae 14-15; metastemum with a long lateral 

proceess Ealli ( =Rallidae of Gadow). 

bb. Nasals schizorhinal ; hallux small, elevated, or else (Aramidse) first primary 
faloate-spatulate; cervical vertebrae 17-20; metastemum entire. 

Grues (=Gruidse of Gadow) 
aa. I\Ietasternum 2-notched or else (Eurypygae) powder-down patches present and 
the tail large and fan-shaped; deep plantar tendons of Type II or IV, or if of 
Type I (Eurypygae) the tail large and fan-shaped; young nidicolous. 
b. Rectrices 12; aftershaft present; oil gland nude (except Eurypygse, part) ; deej) 
plantar tendons of Type I or IV; toes not lobated; young ptilopaedic. 
c. Furcula Y-shaped; nasals holorhinal; cervical vertebrae 14-15; myological 
formula BXY; biceps slip absent; deep plantar tendons of Type IV; quinto- 
cubital; tail moderate; no powder-down patches; bill shorter than head, 
strong, the maxilla decurved; hallux elevated, with strongly curved claw. 
(Terrestrial and arboreal; cursorial. )..Cariam9e ( =Dicholophidse of Gadow)' 
cc. Furcula U-shaped; nasals schizorhinal; cervical vertebrae 18; myological for- 
mula ABXY; biceps slip present; deep plantar tendons Type I; aquinto- 
cubital; tail large, fan-shaped; powder-down patches present; bill longer 
than head, straight; hallux decumbent, with small and moderately curved 
claw. (Aquatic and arboreal; grallatorial). 

Eurypygae (=Eurypygid£e + Rhinochetidae of Gadow). 

66. RectriceslS; aftershaft absent; oil gland tufted; deep plantar tendons of Type II; 

toes lobated; young gymnopaedic--Heliornitlies(=Heliornithida3 of Gadow). 

Reverting to the order Charadriiformes, it may be stated that Dr. 
Gadow recognizes four suborders (Limicolse, Lari, Pterocles, and 
Columbse) as groups of equal value; nevertheless, that the Columbse 
are far more different from the Limicolse or Lari than these two are 
from one another is perfectly obvious from the evidence, which may 
be summarized as follows: 

Limicol^-|-Laki. — Aquatic, limicoline, or cursorial; vomer well 
developed; syrinx tracheo-bronchial ; cseca functional; young nidi- 
fugous (or at least not strictly nidicolous) and ptilopsedic. 

CoLUMBJE. — Arboreal and terrestrial; vomer rudimentarjr or absent; 
syrinx tracheal or sterno-tracheal; cajca nonfunctional; young nidi- 
colous and gymnopgedic. 

^So far as I am able to ascertain, the essential anatomical differences between 
Charadriiformes and Gruiformes, as constituted in Dr. Gadow' s scheme, are as follows: 

Chaeadriifoembs. — Dorsal vertebrae opisthocoelous; metastemum 4-notched. 

Geuifoemes. — Dorsal vertebrae heterocoelous; metastemum 2-notched or entire. 

^ The author is, of course, perfectly aware that groups are more often characterized 
by combinations than by sets of absolutely exclusive characters; but in an analytical 
"key" it becomes necessary to employ the latter, when they can be discovered, 
without regard to their relative taxonomic value, otherwise the keys become com- 
plicated and unmanageable. 



6 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

The Pterocletes agi-ee with the Columbge in rudimentary vomer; with 
Laro-Limicolse in tracheo-bronchial syrinx, functional cseca, and nidi- 
fugous, ptilopasdic j^oung; but thej^ possess so many characters not 
shared by either of the other two groups that it is diiBcult to under- 
stand whj^ they should- not constitute a group equal in taxonomic rank 
with that composed of the Limicolse and Lari together.' 

It is chiefly in matters of this kind wherein the arrangement shown 
in the following key to the higher groups of Ornithurse differs from 
Dr. Gadow's latest scheme,^ which in the main appears so satisfactory 
that no deviation from it seems called for. Among the difficulties con- 
nected with its preparation perhaps the greatest arises from the fact 
that in most cases groups have been defined by characters not mentioned 
in the diagnoses of allied groups, thus necessitating a laborious tabula- 
tion of characters gleaned from all available sources, and rendering 
the sifting and weighing of evidence extremely difficult and perplexing. 

Nothing original is claimed for the classification here given, except 
as to the form in which it is presented. It is simply the result of an 
elective process, the evidently good of other systems being retained 
and the obviously bad rejected, according to the author's ability 
to correctly interpret the evidence." 

'In the Systematischer Thiel of Bronn's Thier-Reichs. V6gel (1893, pp. 195, 207), 
Dr. Gadow divides the Order Oharadriiformes into two series — I, Verband der JLaro- 
Limicolx, and II, Verband der Pteroclo-Columhx; but this subdivision is abandoned 
in his later work. 

^The "Suborders" of Dr. Gadow's scheme are, however, in the following one 
raised to the rank of Orders. This may seem unadvisable if, indeed, not entirely 
unwarranted from the standpoint of comparative anatomy alone; but it must be 
evident to most ornithologists that in the Class Aves' a different standard of value 
must be given to the groups from that of other classes of Vertebrates, for, notwith- 
standing the peculiar uniformity of fundamental structure among birds, the variations 
of type are certainly not less numerous than in other classes of Vertebrates. As Dr. 
Gadow truly remarks (Classification of Vertebrata, pp. vi, vii), "Each class has 
* * * its own standard units, just as one nation reckons with £, s., d., another 
with dollars and cents, and a third with marks and pfennigs, which again are not 
the same as francs and centimes," and "it is obvious that a class which consists of 
more than 10,000 recent species may call for more subdividing than one which com- 
prises scarcely one-third of that number." 

' The works which have been most frequently consulted in the preparation of the 
following " Key to the Orders of the Class Aves," as well as in connection with the 
higher groups in general, are the following: 

Beddakd, Frank E. The Structure and Classification | of | Birds | by | Frank E. 

Beddard, M. A., F. R. S. | Prosector and Vice-Secretary of the Zoological Society 

of London | Longmans, Green, and Co. | 39 Paternoster Row, London | New York 

and Bombay | 1898 | . (8™, pp. [i]-xx, 1-548; numerous cuts in text.) 

CoPB, E. D. — Synopsis of the Families of Vertebrates. American Naturalist, xxiii, 

Oct., 1889, pp. 849-877 (Aves on pp. 869-873). 
FiJEBEiNGBE, Max. DntersuchungBn | zur | Morphologie und Systematik | der | 
Vogel I Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Anatomie der Stiitz-und Bewegungsorgane | 
von I Max Fiirbringer | o. o. Professor der Anatomie und Director des anatom- 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. i 

The Orders being based on anatomical characters, and some of them 
embracing forms of extremely diverse habits and correspondinglj^ dif- 
ferent in tlieir external structure, it has been found impracticable to 
introduce into the "Key" extei'nal characters by means of which a 
bird belonging to such a composite ordinal group may with certainty 
be identified. External characters are more in evidence in the diag- 
noses of the Suborders and groups of lower grade, and consequently, 
after the ordinal relationship of a particular form has been deter- 

isohen Institutes unci des | Museum Vrolik der Universitat zu Amsterdam | mit 

30 tafeln | ["Mach' es Wenigen recht; Vielen | gefallen, istschlimm" | ] | 

I. Specieller Theil | Brust, Schulter und proximale Fliigelregiou der A'ogel | 

I Amsterdam | Verlag von Tj.van Holkema | 1888. | (Pp. i-xlixj 1-834.) 

[II. Allegmeiner Theil | Resultate und Reflexionen aus morphologischen 
Gebiete | Systematische Ergebinsse und Folgurengen | | Amsterdam | Ver- 
lag von Tj. van Holkema | 1888 | (4''', pp. 837-1751, pis. i-xxx.) 
Gadow, Hans. (1) Dr. H. G. Bronn's | Klassen und Ordnungen | des | Thier- 
Reichs; 1 wissenschaftlich dargeatellt | in Wort und Bild. | — | Sechster Band. 
Vierte Abtheilung. | Vogel. | Von | Hans Gadow, Ph. D., M. A., F. R. S. | 
Lecturer fiir Morphologie der Wirbelthiere und Strickland-Curator der Universi- 
tat Cambridge. I — I II. Syatematischer Theil. | — | Leipzig. | 0. F. Winter' sche 
Verlagshandlung. | 1893. | (8 vo, pp. [i]-vii, 1-303, [304].) 
(2) A I Classification | of Vertebrata | Recent and Extinct ] By | Hans Gadow, 
M. A.,Ph.D.,F.R.S. I Cambridge. [ London | Adam and Charles Black | 1898. | 
(Small 8vo; Class Aves on pp. xiv, xv, and 30-38.) (See also in Newton's Dic- 
tionary of Birds.) 
Newton, Alfred. A | Dictionary of Birds | By | Alfred Newton | Assisted by | 
Hans Gadow | with contributions from Richard Lydekker, Charles S. Roy | and 
Robert W.Shufeldt,M.D. | Partl(A-GA) | London | Adam and Chr.rles Black I 
1893. I Part II (GA-MOA), 1893; Part III (MOA-SHEATHBILL), 1894; 
Part IV (SHEATHBILI^ZYGODACTYLI, together with Index and Introduc- 
tion), 1896. 
[The articles on avian anatomy in this most excellent and useful work (chiefly by 
Dr. Gadow) have been carefully consulted, as ha\-e also that portion of Professor 
Newton's historical sketch of systematic ornithology (in the Introduction) pertaining 
to the later and more advanced works on the subject.] 

Stejneger, Lbonhakd. The Standard | Natural History. | Edited by | John Sterling 
Kingsley. 1 Vol. IV. | Birds. | Illustrated | by two hundred and seventy-three 
wood-cuts and twenty-live full-page plates. | Boston: | S. E. Cassino and Com- 
pany. I 1885. I (4to, p. 558.) 
[All the articles in this work, except those on the Opisthocomi, Gallinte, Ptero- 
cletes, Columbse, Accipitres, Striges, Paittaci, and Trochilidse are by Dr. Stejneger, 
and are replete with information, both novel and valuable, concerning the classifica- 
tion of birds. See Newton, Dictionary of Birds, Introduction, pp. 98-100.] 

In addition to the above-mentioned works, which deal with the general subject of 
avian morphology and classification, various papers on the osteology, myology, 'and 
pterylography of particular forms by Parker, Huxley, Garrod, Forbes, Lucas, Wray, 
Clark, and others have been consulted, some of these being specially mentioned in 
the following pages. 



8 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

mined — which, after all, is not so difficult when the ordinal diagnoses 
which follow in their appropriate places have been consulted — little 
difficulty need be experienced in locating any bird in the particular 
group to which it belongs by means of chai-acters which are evident 
in the museum specimen. 

KEY TO THE ORDERS OF THE SUBCLASS ORNITHUR^E. 

a. Jaws with teeth'; mandibular rami separated anteriorly'; distal ends of ilium and 
ischium separated; extinct (Cretaceous). (Series Odontornithes.') 
h. Sternum without keel; teeth in grooves or furrows; dorsal vertebrae heterocoe- 

lou=i ; wings rudimentary, f unctionless Odontolcae.' 

hh. Sternum keeled; teeth in sockets; dorsal vertebrae amphicoelous; wings well 

developed, used for flight Odontotormae.* 

aa. Jaws without teeth; mandibular rami united anteriorly; distal ends of ilium and 
ischium united; recent and living, (^eries Eurhipidurafi) 
b. Sternum without keel; lumbar vertebrae, 20; carpals, 3; furcula absent; coracoids 
coalescent with scapulae; iliac bones parallel; wings rudimentary, not used 
for flight. (Division Raiitoc.^) 
c. Hallux absent; tibial bridge absent; head of quadrate bone single; deep 
plantar tendons of type IV; bill shorter than head, with nostrils basal; 
wings evident. 
d. Ambiens muscle present; wings well developed; aftershaft wanting; rectrices 
present. 



' In these characters agreeing with the Subclass Saururte. 

'' Odoriiondihes Marsh, Am. Journ. Sci., ser. 3, v, 1873, 161, 162. 

'' OdoiitiAat: Marsh, Am. Journ. Sci., ser. 3, x, 1875,403-408; Cope, Am. Nat. , xxiii, 
1889, 8e9.—Xeoriiithes OdoMolca; Gadow, Bronn's Thier-Reichs, Vog., ii, 1893, 114, 
299. — Oduiitoholcir Ste.ineger, Stand. Nat. Hist. , iv,1885, 27. — Dromseopappi Stejneger, 
Stand. Nat. Hist., iv, 1885, 27; Cope, Am. Nat., xxiii, 1889, ?,&%.— Hesperornithes +Ena- 
Huriiithes Fuerbringer, Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., ii, 1888, 1152. 

* Odonlotorma: Marsh, Am. Journ. Sci. , ser. 3, x, 1875, 403-408; Cope, Am. Nat. , xxiii, 
1889, 869. — Ichihyorniihiformes Fuerbringer, Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., ii, 1888, 
1566. — Ichthyornithes Fuerbringer, Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., ii, 1888; Gadow, 
Bronn's Thier-Reichs, Vog., ii, 1893, 119, 299. — Odontormx Stejneger, Sci. Rec, ii. 
May 15, 1884, 155. 

^ Eurhipldiira Gill, in Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway's Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, Jan., 
1874, p. xiii, in text. — i?to-7(ipidur« Stejneger, Sci. Rec, ii, 1884, 155; Stand. Nat. Hist., 
iv,1885,31; Cope, Am. Nat, xxiii, 1889, 869. This series equals the i\"eoniiftes of Gadow 
minus Neornithes Odontolcse + Ichthyornithes. Fuerbringer's classification has no group 
of even approximate character, its equivalent being represented by all his "Orders" 
except Archornithes {^Saururx) with his "Suborder" Ichthyomithifonies emi "Gens'' 
EiMliornithes -\- Hesjti'ronnflies eliminated. 

'^Proceri Illiger, Prodr. Orn., 1811,246 (includes Casvmius + Struthio + Rhea). — 
Aves RalUii' SIerrem, Tent. Syst. Av., 1813, — . — Raiitx Huxley, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 
1867, 418; Gadow, Bronn's Thier-Reichs, Vog. , ii, 1893, 103, 299.— iVcorm«7ies Ratitx 
Gadow, Bronn's Thier-Reichs, Vug., ii, 1893, 90, 298. — Brevipennes Cuvier, Regne An., 
ed.2,i, 1829, 494.— Pinri/s^cniajNiTzsOH, Syst. Pterylog., 1840, — .— Oo-roi/es Nitzsch, 

Syst. Pterylog., 1840, . — Rudipennes Bonaparte, Compt. Rend., xxxvii, 1853, 646. — 

Proceres Sundevall, Met. Nat. Av. Disp. Tent., 1872, 151 (ex Proceri Illiger). — 
i7ow)otosiernn BlancHard, Ann. Sci. Nat. (Zool.), xi, 1859, 22. 



BIRDS OP NOKTH AND MIDDLE AMEBICA. 9 

e. Toes 2; 2 carotid arteries; syrinx wanting; palatines very long; maxillo- 
palatines articulating with vomer, the latter touching neither palatines 
nor pterygoids; with symphysis pubis;' muscle formula ABXY; neck 

naked; primaries 16 Struthioniformes.'' 

ce. Toes 3; only 1 carotid artery (the left); syrinx present;' palatines short; 
maxillo-palatines not articulated with vomer, the latter articulating 
with palatines; without symphysis pubis; muscle formula BXY; neck 

feathered; primaries 12 Bheiformes.'' 

d(h Ambiens muscle absent; wings rudimentary; aftershaft enormously devel- 
oped, equal in length to the feather; rectrices absent.... Caauariiformes.^ 
re. Hallux present; tibial bridge present; head of quadrate bone double; deep 
plantar tendons of Type II; bill much longer than head, with nostrils ter- 
minal; wings wholly concealed Apterygiformes.^ 

^ Unique in Class Ave;^. 

' Slruthiocameli Haeckel, Gen. Morph., 1866, — . — Struihioideie Stejneger, Sci. Rec, 
ii, :May 15, 1884, 155; Stand. Nat. Hist.,iv, 1885, 33.— Struthiones 'Nev.'to:^, Enc. Brit., 
xviii, 1884, 44; Fuerbrikger, Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., ii, 1888, 1565; Gadow, 
Bronn's Thier-Eeichs, Vog., ii, 1893, 103, 299; Olassif. Vertebr., 1898, 31.— Struthi- 
crnithes Fuerbkingee, Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., ii, 1888, 1565. — Struihioniformes 
FuEKBRiNGER, Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., ii, 1888, 1565; Sharpe, Rev. Rec. At. Classif. 
Birds, 1891, 67. 

' Unique in Order RatitK. 

* ik/tfir Newton, Enc. Brit., xviii, 1884, 44; Fuerbrixger, Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., 
ii, 1888, 1565; Gadow Bronn's Thier-Reichs, Vog., ii, 1893, 103, 299.— liheoidea; Stejne- 
ger, Sci; Rec, ii. May 15, 1884, 155; Stand. Nat. Hist., iv, 1885, 37 .—Rheifonues 
FuERBRiNGEE, Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., ii, 1888, 1565; Sharpe, Rev. Rec. At. Classif. 
Birds, 1891, 67. — Rheornithes Fuerbringer, Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog.,ii, 1888, 1565. 

^ Casuarii Sclater, Ibis, 1880, 411; Fuerbringer, Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., ii, 
1888, 1565; Sharpe, Rev. Rec. At. Classif. Birds, 1891, 67; Gadow, Bronn's Thier- 
Reiohs, Yog. ii, 1893, 299. — Casuaroideas Stejneger, Sci. Rec, ii. May 15, 1884, 155; 
Stand. Nat. Hist., iv, 1885, 39. — Megistanes Newton, Enc. Brit., xviii, 1884, 44. — Hip- 
palectryornithes Fuerbringer, Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., ii, 1888, 1565. — Casuariiformes 
Fuerbringer, Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., ii, 1888, 1565; Sharpe, Rev. Rec At. Classif. 
Birds, 1891, 67. 

^[Proceres'] Subnobiles Sundevall, Met. Nat. Av. Disp. Tent., 1872, 153. — Apieryges 
Sclater, Ibis, 1880, 410; Newton, Enc. Brit., xviii, 1884, 44; Stejneger, Sci. Rec, ii, 
1884, 155; Stand. Nat. Hist., ii, 1885, 48; Fuerbringer, Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., ii, 
1888, 1567; Cope, Am. Nat., xxiii, 1889, 870; Sharpe, Rev. Rec. At. Classif. Birds, 
1891, 67; Gadow, Bronn's Thier-Reichs, Vog., ii, 1893, 104, 299.— Apterygiformes 
Fuerbringer, Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., ii, 1888, 1567 (incl. Dinornithes!). 

The extinct Ratite Suborders Dinornithes and ^piornithes (or Orders Uinornithi- 
formes and iEpiornithiformes) agree in some characters with the Apterygiformes, in 
others with the Casuariiformes. Their structure is so imperfectly known, however, 
that I have omitted these groups from the above "key." Their synonymy is as 
follows: 

Dinornithes.— /mmanes Newton, Enc. Brit., xviii, 1884, 44 (includes Palaptery- 
gidte). —Dinornithoideie Stejneger, Sci. Rec, ii, May 15, 1884, 155; Stand. Nat. Hist., 
iv, 1885, i3.— Dinornithes Gadow, Bronn's Thier-Reichs, Vog., ii, 1893, 105, 299.— 
Dinornithidie Beddaed, Struct, and Classif. Birds, 1898, 523. 

jEpioenithes.— ^j)2/o)-m'«/ies Newton, Enc. Brit., xviii, 1884, iA.—Mpioniithes Stej- 
neger, Stand. Nat. Hist., iv, 1885, 4:7.—Aepyornithes Fuerbringer, Unters. Morph. 
Syst. Yog., ii, 1888, 1565; Gadow, Bronn's Thier-Reichs, Yog., ii, 1893, 106, 299.— Aepy- 
ornithiformes Fueebeinger, Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., ii, 1888, 15&5.—^Epyornithidie 
Beddard, Struct, and Classif. Birds, 1898, 522. 



10 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

hh. Sternum keeled ; ^ lumbar vertebrae 15 ; carpals2; furoula present;^ coracoids not 

coalescent with scapulse; iliac bones divergent; wings well developed, used 

for flight (Division Carinatic.*) 

u. Metacarpals united only at extremities; biceps patagii absent; wings destitute 

of remiges, covered' with small horny scale-like feathers, used only as rowing 

paddles Sphenisciformes. 

cc. Metacarpals fused for entire length; biceps patagii present; wings with remiges 
and otherwise normally feathered, used for flight.^ 
d. Tibia with long, triangular epicnemial process; aquatic, with well-developed 
hallux; anterior toes fully webbed or else lobated, with broad, flat nails, 

and rectrices absent; bill compressed and acute Colymbiformes. 

dd. Tibia without epicnemial process; if aquatic, full webbed anterior toes 
not combined with a well-developed hallux and acute compressed bill, 
nor lobated toes, with broad, flat nails and absence of rectrices. 
(-. External nostrils tubular; hallux absent or reduced to a single phalanx; 

anterior toes fully webbed Prooellariiformes. 

ee. External nostrils not tubular, or else hallux present and anterior toes 
not webbed. 
/. Ambiens muscle present; deep plantar tendons of Type I, II, III, IV, 
V, or VII, never of Type VI nor VIII.'' 
g. Toes not zygodactylous. 
h. Palate desmognathous.' 

' The keel obsolete or rudimentary in a member of the Cuculiformes (genus Strin- 
gops, Suborder Psittaci). 

^ Except in Slringops and a few other Psittaci. 

^Not used for flight, though well developed, in Slringops. 

*^l(es Carinatie Merrem, Tent. Syst. Av., 1813, — . — Carinatx Huxley, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1867, 418. — Xeornithes CarmoteGADow, Bronn'sThier-Reichs,Vog., ii, 1893, 
119, 299. The EiwrnMes of Stejneger (Soi. Rec, ii, May 15, 1884, 155; Stand. Nat. 
Hist., iv, 1885, 64) are nearly equivalent, hat the S'phenisciformes and Cn/jiiuriformea 
are excluded, the latter being referred to the Droinxognathic {=Ratilx^Orypturi- 
formes). The Dromieognathie of Huxley (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 456), it may 
be remarked, included only the Crypturiformes. 

° A few exceptions to the use of the wings for flight are exemplified, in addition to 
the case of Stringops, already mentioned, in certain large aquatic birds, as the now 
extinct Great Auk (Flauttis impennis, a member of the Charadriiformes) and Pallas's 
Cormorant {Pkalacrooora.r pcrxpiciUatus, belonging to the Ciconiiformes); and, among 
existing birds, the large cormorant of the Galapagos Archipelago (Phalaa-ocorax 
harrisi) and adults of the Steamer Duck ( Tachyeres cinereus, of the Anseriformes) of the 
Straits of Magellan. In all these, however, the wings, although normally feathered, 
are much too small in proportion to admit of flight, their principal function being for 
propulsion beneath the surface of the water, as in the case of the penguins (Sphenisci- 
formes) and most diving birds, including even the Passerine genus Cinclus. 

''See Gaerod, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1875, pp. 339-348; Gadow, Bronn's Thier- 
Keichs, Vogel, ii, 1893, pp. 224, 225, footnote, and in Newton'.s Dictionary of Birds, 1894, 
pp. 615-618. The numeration of types here used corresponds with that of the Thier- 
Eeichs and of the text in the Dictionary of Birds, but not of the figures on page 617 of 
the latter, where eleven instead of eight types are shown. 

'For definitions of the terms desmognathous, schizognathovs, xgillmgnallioiis, and 
dromseognathous, frequently employed in the present key, the reader is referred to the 
important paper, by Prof. T. H. Huxley, On the Classification of Birds, and on the 
taxonomic value of the modifications of certain cranial bones observable in that 
Class (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, pp. 415-472). 



BIEDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 11 

). Feet not raptorial, but fitted for wading or swimming; tip of 
maxilla not uncinate or else (Ciconiiformes, part) the hallux 
connected with inner toe by a full web. 
j. Basipterygoid processes absent; coraco-humeral groove distinct 
(deep); one pair of tracheo-sternal muscles; cseca rudimen- 
tary; wading birds with very long legs and toes not fully 
webbed, or if with toes fully webbed the bill bent abruptly 
downward from the middle (Suborder Phcenicopteri); or 
swimming birds with the hallux connected with inner toe by 

a full web (Suborder Steganopodes) Ciconiiformes. 

jj. Basipterygoid processes present; coraco-humeral groove indis- 
tinct; two pairs of tracheo-sternal muscles; cteca well devel- 
oped, functional; swimming birds, with short Wgs, the ante- 
rior toes fully webbed, or else (Suborder Palamedes) wading 
birds with the bill short and decurved and the feet enor- 
mously developed Anseriformes. 

n. Feet raptorial, the toes never fully webbed; tip of maxilla 

uncinate , Falcouiiformes. 

hh. Palate schizognathous, dromaeognathous, or incompletely desmog- 
nathous. 
i. Palate dromjeoguathous; head of quadrate bone single; distal ends 
of ilium and ischium separated; accessory femoro-caudal mus- 
cle witji a slip arising above the sciatic foramen.^ 

Crypturiformes. 

n. Palate schizognathous or incompletely desmognathous; head of 

quadrate bone double; distal ends of ilium and ischium 

united; accessory femoro-caudal muscle without slip above 

sciatic foramen. 

j. Basal end of coracoids.united and crossed; spina interna sterni 

present; intestinal convolutions of Type V, plagiocrelous;'' 

bill short, the maxilla more or less decurved, vaulted, not 

compressed Galliformes. 

jj. Basal end of coracoids separated; spina interna sterni absent; 

intestinal convolutions of Type I, peri-opisthocoelus;^ bill 

more or less elongated or else the maxilla compressed, not 

decurved or vaulted. 

k. Dorsal vertebrje heterocoelous; metasternum 2-notched or 

entire Grniformes. 

kk. Dorsal vertebras opisthoccelous; metasternum 4-notched. 

Cliaradriiformes. 

gg. Toes zygodactylous Cuculiformes. 

ff. Ambiens muscle absent; deep plantar tendons of Type I, V, Va, V&, 
yi, VII, or VIII— never of Type II, III, or IV; if of Type I the feet 
desmopelmous (Striges,^ Desmodactyli*), or the palate fegithognath- 
ous (Desmodactyli,* Cypseli*). 

' In all these characters agreeing with the Katitse and Odontornithes, and differing 
from all other Carinatse. 

^Gadow, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1889, pp. 303-316, and in Newton's Dictionary 
of Birds, 1893, pp. 140-148;. Beddaed, Structure and Classification of Birds, 1898, 
pp. 23-30. 

'SuVjorder of Ooraciiformes. 

■"Superfamily of Passeriformes. 

^Superfamily of Ooraciiformes (Suborder Macrochires). 



12 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

f/. Deep plantar tendons of Type I, V, Va, 'Vh, VI, VII, or VIII, or else 
palate desmognathous, or schizognathous in combination with rap- 
torial feet (Striges^) or with only 6 secondaries and extensile tongue 
(Trochili'''), or aegithognathous in combination with fissirostral gape 
and 10 greatly elongated primaries (Cypseli^); feet synpelmous, 
desmopelmous, heteropelmous, or antiopelmous, or if schizopel- 

mous' (Upupidae*) the palate desmognathous Coraoiiformes. 

ffg. Deep plantar tendons of Type VII; or if of Type I the palate 
segithognathous(Desmodactyli); palate segithognathous; feetschi- 
zopelmous, or else (Desmodactyli) the palate segithognathous. 

FasseriformeB. 

Order PASSEKIFORMES. 

FASSEIinrE BIRDS. 

X 7Vr.vs(Tf'.s Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, i, 1758, 85,162 (includes Columbse and 
Caprimulgidse; excludes Certhia, Sitta, Oriolus, Corvus, etc.) ; ed. 12, i, 1766, 
119, 279. — Stbjnbgkr, Stand. Nat. Hist., iv, 1885, 458. — Fuehbhingbr, Unters. 
Morph. Syst. Vog., ii, 1888, 1405. 

Fasseriiue Nitzsch, Obs. Av. art. carot. com., 1829, — ; Syst. Pterylog., 1840, 
— .— Oaeus, Handb. Zool., i, 1868, 258. 

"^Fasaeridx Fuerbringer, Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., ii, 1888, 1405 (excludes 
Pseudoscines). 

= Passeriformes Gadow, Bronn's Thier-Keichs, V6g.,ii, 1893, 270, 301; Classif. 
Vertebr. 1898, xv, 37. 

= Coracomorphx Huxley, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. , 1867, 469. 

.^githognathous,' anomalogonatous birds with short (nonfunc- 
tional) colic ceeca and nude oil-gland; first toe (hallux) directed back- 
ward, the second, third, and fourth toes directed forward; first toe 
with its flexor muscle {flexor hallucis longus) independent of the flexor 
23erforans digitorum; hinder plantar tendon free from the front plantar; 
ambiens and femoro-caudal muscles absent; tensor patagii hrevis spe- 
cialized (except in Superfamily Pseudoscines); spinal pteryla uninter- 
rupted between the crown and upper back (except in Superfamily 
Desmodactyli °) ; young highly ' ' altricial " (nidicolous) and gymnopsedic. 

Additional characters are as follows: Only the left carotid artery 
present; atlas perfoi'ated by odontoid process; spina externa sterni 
large, spina interna sterni absent; basipterygoid processes absent; 

' Suborder of Coraciif ormes. 

■^Superfamily of Coraciif ormes (suborder Macrochires). 

•'Stejneqer, Stand. Nat. Hist. IV, 1885, pp. 368-371, where the various modifications 
of the deep flexor or plantar tendons, as worked out by Garrod (see footnote on 
p. 10, antea) are fully explained. 

■•Family of Coraoiiformes. 

^The Clamatorial (Mesomyodian) family Furnariidai is said to be schizognathous, 
while other Passeres exhibit a modified segithognathism; therefore this character 
can not be considered strictly diagnostic, especially since two "Picarian" (Coracii- 
form) groups (Indicatoridfe and IMicropodidse) are said to be completely segithog- 
nathous, while two others, of Gallo-Gralline affinities, are incompletely so. (See 
Newton, Dictionary of Birds, p. 878. ) 

* A Coraciif orm family, Upupidse, also possesses these two characters. 



BIKDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 13 

metasternuin usually 2-notched, rarelj^ 4-notched; biceps slip and 
expansor secundarinruin absent; tendon oi patagiaUn irevls not ending' 
on tendon of extensor, but continued independently and attached to 
extensor condyle of radius. Muscle formula AXY or (very rarely) 
AX;^ deep plantar tendons of Type VII or (in Suborder Desniodactyli 
only) Type I;^ intestinal convolutions of Type VII or VIII. ' Hallux 
on the same level as anterior toes, more or less distinctly (usually con- 
spicuously) larger or stouter than lateral anterior toes, its claw usually 
larger than that of middle anterior toe; phalanges of toes always 
2, 3, 4, 5 from first to fourth. Primaries 10, but the outermost fre- 
quentljr rudimentary or vestigial and quite concealed; secondaries i), 
quinto-cubital; wing-covex'ts arranged in three distinct series, or 
tracts, as follows: (1) Lenser core/is, a well-defined tract covering the 
pliai idaris^ consisting of small feathers in several rows but alternating- 
in more or less squamate or imbricate fashion; (2) middle o>»Krts, con- 
sisting of a single row, immediately behind the last row of lesser 
coverts, of larger feathers, most of which overlap proximally — that 
is, have the outer web of one feather covered by the inner web of 
the one next to it; (3) greater coverts, consisting of still larger and 
much longer feathers with distal overlap, covering not more than the 
basal half of the secondary remiges. Rectrices usually 12 (rarely 10 
or 14). 

Nearly seven thousand species and subspecies,* or more ttian one-naif 
of all existing birds, belong to the Order Passeriformes. Notwith- 
standing this enormous number of specific forms, however, the type of 
structure is remarkably uniform, and the group far more homogeneous 
than the lower gi;oups of equal rank. Consequently, subdivision of 
the Passeriformes becomes a matter of extreme difBculty, and no 
arrangement has thus far been proposed which can be considered 
entirely satisfactory. Indeed, it seems impossible to subdivide the 
order, beyond a very limited extent, into lesser groups which are 
equivalent in taxonomic rank to the families of other orders, and the 
extent to which this may be done is a matter concerning which S3'stem- 
atists differ widelj^ in their views. 

The latest authority on the classification of birds" allows but three 
families of Passeriformes, while in the Catalogue of Birds in the British 
Museum no less than forty-one are recognized. Surely between these 
extremes there is ample room for difference of opinion and variety' of 

iGarkod, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1874, pp. 111-123, pi. 17. 

^Gaerod, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1875, pp. 339-348; Gadow, in Bronn's Thier- 
Reichs, Vogel, 1892, p. 195; in Newton's Dictionary of Birds, pp. 615-618. 

'Gadow, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1889, pp. 303-316; in Bronn's Thier-Reichs, 
Vogel, ed. 1891, p. 708. 

''The number recognized in the Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum is 6,480, 
but to this number may safely be added 500 more to cover forms ignored in that 
work and those subsequently described. 

"Hans Gadow, in Bronn's Thier-Reichs, Vogel, ed. 1893, pp. 299-302. 



14 BULLETIN" 50, UNITED, STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

treatment! It ma}' be, and doubtless is, perfectly true that no more 
than threo Passeriform groups can be defined which will be equal in 
taxonomio rank to the families of other orders of birds; but the objection 
to this meager allowance — and it is a Verj' serious one — is that two of 
the three groups contain together only about one-fifth the total num- 
ber of species, so that there are still left about five thousand species in 
the third. Obviously, these five thousand species (more or less) must 
be susceptible of segregation into a considera))le number of more or 
less trenchant groups; and there being so few grades of rank between 
a family and a genus, what to call these groups becomes a verj' serious 
question. The ordinary terminology of zoology evidently will not 
sufiice; and if no more than three families of Passeriformes are recog- 
nized, a new and complicated nomenclature for the intermediate groups 
becomes necessary. 

As a provisional expedient, I propose to call the Passerine ''families" 
of Gadow ^' svperf(t)nil-ies,''' and retain the former term for such groups 
of genera as can be trenchantly separated from all others. Whether 
this action will necessitate a reduction or an increase in the number of 
so-called families over that generallj^ accepted can only be determined 
after careful and thorough studj^ of the entire order. This is a task 
for which the author of this work is unprepared, either as to time or 
material. The best that he can do here is to limit investigation in this 
direction to the American forms. Of course the result of such limited 
research can not be entirely satisfactory; but it may serve to show, 
perhaps more clearly than has been done before, which currently recog- 
nized families can and which can not be characterized. Nothing is 
more certain than that the commonly accepted limits of some of the 
so-called families of the Superfamily Oscines are purely artificial and 
arbitrary. On the other hand, it is equally obvious that some groups 
to which family rank seems due have been ignored or overlooked. 
Until more is known concerning the internal structure of various forms 
any classification of the Oscines mu^t be considered imperfect and 
provisional. 

KEY TO THE SUBOKDERS OF PASSEKIFORMES. 

a. Hallux weak; feet syndactyle,^ the deep plantar tendons of Type I^ (desmopel- 

mous'); cervical vertebree 15; spina externa eterni long, simple Desmodaotyli. 

aa. Hallux the strongest toe; feet eleutherodactyle,^ the deep plantar tendons of Type 
VII^ (schizopelmous^); cervical vertebras 14; spina externa sterni short, 
forked Eleutherodactyli. 

^In the syndactyle or desmopelmous foot the flexor perforans digitorum and flexor 
halluds longus tendons are united at their crossing point by a vinculum. In the 
eleutherodactyle or schizopelmous foot, on the other hand, these tendons are quite 
separated from one another. 

''Gakrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1875, pp. 339-348; Gadow, in Bronn's Thier- 
Eeichs, Vog., 1891, p. 195, ii, Systematischer Theil, 1893, pp. 224, 225; in Newton's 
Dictionary of Birds, pp. 615-618. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 15 

In Dr. Gadow's latest classification of birds (Bronn's Their-Reichs, 
Vogel, ii, Systematischer Theil, 1893, pp. 299-302; Classification of 
Vertebrata, 1898, pp. 37, 38) the main divisions of the Passeriformes 
are somewhat difl^erent, the order being- divided into two suborders, 
as above, but with different limits: Passeriformes ani.somyodi, with 
groups Subclamatores ( = Desmodactyli) and Clamatores; and Passeri- 
formes diacromyodi, with groups Suboscines (=Pseudoscine8) and 
Oscines. (See also Newton's Dictionary of Birds, Introduction, p. 
105.) It will thus be seen that instead of making a primary division 
of the Desmodactyli, as opposed to all the remaining Passeriformes, 
Dr. Gadow draws the line more nearly through the middle of the 
order, with Desmodactyli (his Subclamatores) and the Clamatores on one 
side and the diacromyodian Eleutherodactyli (Oscines and Pseudoscines) 
on the other. This arrangement of Dr. Gadow's appears to be based 
mainly, if not entirely, upon differences in the arrangement of the 
vocal muscles, as follows: 

a. Syringeal rtiuscles "unequally inserted, either in the middle or upon only one or 

the other, dorsal or ventral, end of the [bronchial] semirings" Anisomyodi. 

aa. Syringeal muscles "attached to the dorsal and some to the ventral ends [of the 
bronchial semirings] , those ends being, so to say, equally treated." 

Diacromyodi. 

In the arrangement of the syringeal muscles the Desmodactyli there- 
fore agree with the Clamatores, these two groups constituting the 
Anisomyodi of Gadow. While hesitating long to commit myself in 
opposition to so learned and distinguished an authority, I nevertheless 
can not, in the absence of other reasons in support of Dr. Gadow's 
views (and none appear to have been adduced), believe that this agree- 
ment between the Eurylaimidse and the Clamatores outweighs the differ- 
ences set forth above, which trenchantly separate the former not only 
from the Clamatores but from all other Passeriformes — the more 
especially so since such disposition of the Eurj'laimidifi does not affect 
the classification of the remaining members of the order on the lines 
drawn by Dr. Gadow. 

The Suborder Desmodactyli' has no representation in America. It 
is a small group (of about a dozen species and five genera) confined to 
the Indo-Alalayan region, where it takes the place of the rather closely 
related haploophone Clamatores (especially the famil}^ Cotingidse) of 
the Neotropical region. 

^Desmodactyli Forbes, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1880, 390, 391. — Ewylaimoidtx 
Stejnegee, Stand. Nat. Hist., iv, 1885, 462. — E'tirj/Za^xi Seebohji, Classif. Birds, 1890, 
vii, xi, 4; Shakpe, Rev. Reo. At. Classif. Birds, 1891, 84. — Passeres Subclamatores 
G.4D0W, Bronn's Thier-Reichs, Vog., ii, 1893, 274. — Subclamatores Gadow, Bronn's 
Thier-Reichs, Vog., ii, 1893, 301; Classif. Vertebr., 1898, 3'. 



16 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

The principal subdivisions of the Suborder Eleutherodactyli are as 
follows: 

KEY TO THE SUPERFAMILIES OP THE SHBOKDEK ELEUTHERODACTYLI.' 

a. Syringeal muscles anisomyodous. '' ( Mesomyodi ' ) Clamatores. 

aa. Syringeal muscles diacromyodous.'' {Acromyodi.'") 

h. Syringeal muscles consisting of 2-3 pairs; propatagialis (tensor patagii brevis) 

muscle ' ' picarian " Pseudosoines.^ 

bh. Syringeal muscles consisting of 4-5 pairs; propatagialis (tensor patagii brevis) 
muscle passerine - Oscines. 

Of these superfamilies the second (Pseudoscines) is represented only 
in Australia. It is a very limited group, consisting of only two fam- 
ilies, Menuridge (lyre-birds) and Atrichornithidse (scrub-birds), each 
with only a single genus and very few species. The other two are 
well represented in the Western Hemisphere, the Clamatores being 
chiefly American. Further consideration of the last-named group 
must be deferred until after the Oscines have been disposed of. The 
latter, containing as thej' do much the greater number of passerine 
birds (approximate^ 5,000 species and subspecies), and representing a 
very uniform type of structure, offer by far the greatest difiiculties 
to the systematist of any portion of the entire class of birds. The fol- 
lowing arrangement of the so-called familiesis by no means supposed' 
by the author to be an entirely satisfactory one, and none that can not 
in some respect be criticised will be possible until the anatomy of a 
far greater number of forms has been exhaustively investigated and 
the results carefully analyzed and tabulated. 

^Eleutherodactyli Forbes, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1880, 390, 391. 

^The syringeal muscles unequally inserted in the middle or upon only one end 
(either the dorsal or ventral) of the bronchial semirings. 

^Mesomyodi Garkod, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, '507. (Equivalent to the 
Anisomyodi or Anisomyodfe of Gadow minus Eurylaimidse. ) 

*The syringeal muscles attached to both ends (the dorsal and ventral) of the 
bronchial semirings, the two ends of the latter being thus equally connected. 

^Acromyodl Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, 507; Forbes, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1880, 391. —Passeres diacromyodi Gadow, Bronn's Thier-Reichs, Vog., ii, 1893, 
301. — Passeres diacromyodx Gadow, Classif. Vertebr., 1898, 38. 

^Pseudoscines Sclater, Ibis, 1,880, 345. — Fuerbringer, Unters. Jlorph. Syst. Vog., ii, 
1888, 1556. — Acromyodi abnormales Forbes, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1880, 391; Newton, 
Enc. Brit., xviii, 1884, 41. — Menuroidex Stejneger, Stand. Nat. Hist., iv, 1885, 460. — 
Passeres suboscines Gadow, Bronn's Their-Reichs, Vog., ii, 1893, 277. — Suboscines 
Gadoav, Bronn's Their-Reichs, Vug., ii, 1893, .301; Cl.assif. Vertebr., 1898, 38. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. i7 



Sviperfai-nily OSCINKS. 
SONG BIRDS, 1 

Osc'mes Keyserlinq and Blasiits, Wirbelth. Europ., 1840, pp. xxxvi, 80. 

Acromyodi normales Gaerod, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1876, 518. 

Laminiplantares -\- Scutelliplanlares (part) Sundevall, Meth. Nat. Av. Disp. Tent,, 

1872, 2, 53. 
Passeroidess Stejneger, Stand. Nat. Hist., iv, 1885, 481. 

Passerine birds with the syrinx diacromyodous, anterior toes eleu- 
therodactyle, palate gegithognathous, intestinal convolutions of Type 
VII, myological formula AXY or AX, and only one (the left) carotid 
artery. 

Metasternum 2-uotched or with 3 fenestree; spina externa sterni 
long; vomer large; hallux stouter than lateral anterior toes, with its 
claw larger than that of the inner toe; planta tarsi covered by two 
longitudinal plates closely apposed along their posterior margin, where 
forming a sharp ridge (except in family Alaudidse); syrinx complex, 
the intrinsic muscles composed of 4-5 pairs, inserted into the extremi- 
ties of the bronchial semirings; propatagialis (tensor patagii brevi&) 
muscle specialized; deep plantar tendons of Type VII. 

No classification of the Oscines has hitherto been proposed that will 
stand a careful test with reference to the number and limits of the so- 
called family groups or the characters upon which they are based; 
nor can the present author say, after weeks of patient, persistent, and 
at times hopeful effort, that he has been able to solve the problem. 

The following arrangement is presented as provisional only, as, 
indeed, every scheme must necessarily be until the anatomy of numer- 
ous ^ forms whose internal .structure is now unknown shall have been 
carefully investigated. It maj' be observed that certain somewhat 
radical innovations have been introduced in the waj^ of additional 
" families " and changes to the limits of some of those currentlj- recog- 
nized; but these innovations seem unavoidable if any advance is to be 
made, for if anything has been made clear by the author's recent 
study of the subject it is that improvement is possible only by greater 
or less radical departure from stereotyped lines, which draw arbitrary 
limits to many of the so-called family groups, thereby rendering them 
palpably artificial, genera which obviously belong to one group being 
often assigned to another, while other groups are made too compre- 

^It is unfortunate that no better vernacular name for this group of Passerine birds 
has been invented or seems available. The term is certainly both inappropriate and 
misleading, since by no means all Oscines are songsters (some of them, in fact, being 
almost voiceless, e. g.,AmpeHs), while the Pseudoscines and many of the Clamatorea 
are as much gifted with musical ability as the average oscinine songster. 

^In reality the vast majority of genera since those which have been thus studied 
are comparatively few in number. 

17024—01 2 



18 BULLETIlSr 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

hensive by the inclusion of forms so "abeiTant" as to complicate any 
diagnosis of the group and obscure its true characters. 

Excepting the Hirundinidse and Alaudidse, both of which are sharply 
cut off from all other Oscines by most obvious external characters, no 
group of Oscines can be considered as very trenchant unless such rad- 
ical treatment as is here given be applied. Allowed their commonly 
accepted limits, their intelligible definition is in some cases (e. g., the 
Fringillidse, Tanagridae, Coerebidae, Mnlotiltidse, and "Ampelidse" 
(=Ampelidfe + Ptiliogonatidse + Dulidse) simply impossible; but by 
reconstructing the limits of these groups a fairh^ rational diagnosis of 
each may be accomplished. It is not unlikely that several genera may 
yet have to be withdrawn from the families in which they are now 
placed and raised to independent family rank,^ examples being Phai- 
nojJtila (here, as heretofore, associated with Ptiliogonys and Phainope- 
pla), Poliojptila (usually placed in the Sylviidse, where it certainly does 
not belong, and here provisionally referred to the Mimidse), Cdbypto- 
philms, and Rhodinocichla, the last being here provisionally referred 
to the Mnlotiltidse. ^ 

KEY TO THE FAMILIES OF OSCINES. 

a. Tarsus sharply ridged posteriorly, the ridge coinciding with the posterior median 
line, or else outside the latter; inner posterior edge of acrotarsium coinciding 
with the lateral median line or anterior to it, and at least as far separated 
from the posterior ridge of the planta tarsi as is the outer posterior edge of the 
acrotarsium; planta tarsi usually undivided.' (Acutiplantar Oscines.*) 

^ It is of course to be understood that by family rant the Oscinine standard only is 
meant. 

' Calyptophilus has been considered a member of the Tanagridse, and placed next to 
Phsenicophilus, but being a ' ' ten-primaried ' ' bird it certainly does not belong there. 
Rhodinocichla was first described as a member of the Clamatorial family Furnariidse, 
but, after its Oscinine character had been demonstrated, was placed by some author- 
ities among the Mimidfe, by others among the Troglodytidte; both these groups, how- 
ever, belong to the "ten-primaried" section of the Oscines, while Rhodinocichla is 
typically "nine-primaried," and therefore, being obviously out of place in either of 
these groups, must be otherwise disposed of. 

'A notable exception to the usual undivided planta tarsi in this section is seen in 
the genus Salpinctes (Troglodytidre), in which the planta tarsi are more or less dis- 
tinctly divided into transverse segments. Something of the same sort is seen in 
most Corvidee, in which also the lateral plates of the planta tarsi are usually more or 
less distinctly separated along the posterior ridge. In all these exceptional cases, 
however, the posterior ridge of the planta tarsi is well defined and the tarsal envel- 
ope as a whole very distinct in its character from that of the group {Latiplantar 
Oscines) containing the Alaudidfe. 

*The terms Laminiplantar and Scutelliplantar, commonly adopted from Sundevall, 
are rejected by me because these terms are misleading, some " Laminiplantares" 
(e. g., Salpinctes, Corvida;, part) having scutellate planta tarsi, while the Alaudidse 
(forming part of Sundevall's SciileUiplaniares) sometimes (in very old birds) have 
the planta tarsi entire or "booted;" furthermore, the latter group included, besides 
the Alaudidse, the superfamily Clamatores. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDIiE AMERICA. 19 

6. Outermost obvious primary (ninth) much more than half as long as the next, 
usually longer than the secondaries, frequently longest or equal to the longest; 
the primaries apparently only nine.' {" Nine-primaried Osdnes.") 
c. Tip of maxilla not abruptly uncinate, or else the bill short and broad at 
base, or with maxillary tomium toothed subterminally (Tanagridse, part) 
or mandible falcate and angle of chin posterior to nostrils (Coerebidse, part). 
d. Longest primaries much less than twice as long as secondaries. 
e. Width of bill at rictus much less than length of culmen. 
/. Tertials not distinctly, if at all, elongated, or else (Fringillidse, part) 
the bill conical. 
g. Bill usually more or less stout and conical, not distinctly compressed 
(or else the maxilla with tip uncinate and tomium toothed); if 
slender, the maxillary tomium notched subterminally, or else tip 
I if bill acute and rictal bristles obsolete. 
h. Bill conspicuously flattened laterally, with culmen and gonys very 
broad and flattened and mandibular rami very thick; plumage 
of forehead and crown dense, erect, plush-like. 

CatamblyrliynoliidBe (extralimital) .^ 
hh. Bill not flattened laterally, etc. ; plumage of forehead and crown 
normal. 
i. Rictal bristles obvious, usually very distinct; maxillary tomium 
usually more or less distinctly notched, or else the bill stout or 
wedge-shaped and nostrils hidden by antrorse plumules. 
j. Commissure distinctly and more or less abruptly angulated or 
deflexed basally, or else mandibular rami less than one-fifth 
as long as gonys and width of mandible at base equal to length 
of gonys; mandibular tomium distinctly elevated, usually 
more or less angulated, sometimes toothed, postmedially. 

Fringillidae. 
jj. Commissure not distinctly angulated or deflexed basally; man- 
dibular tomium not distinctly elevated, never angulated nor 
toothed, postmedially (or if elevated the maxillary tomium 

not abruptly deflexed basally) Tanagridae. 

ii. Rictal bristles obsolete; maxillary tomium without subterminal 
notch ; if the bill stout or wedge-shaped the nostrils not hidden 

by antrorse plumules loteridae. 

gg. Bill slender, or if relatively deep, compressed and with culmen regu- 
larly or distinctly curved; if approaching a conoidal shape the 
basal depth not more than half the distance from nostril to tip of 
maxilla and the commissure not angulated or deflexed basally. 
h. Tip of maxilla abruptly and conspicuously uncinate; mandible fal- 
cate, broad, and stout at base, with rami very short and angle of 

chin far posterior to nostrils Coerebidae, part.^ 

hli. Tip of maxilla not abruptly and conspicuously, if at all, uncinate; 
mandible not falcate nor otherwise peculiar; angle of chin ante- 
rior to nostrils. 

^The tenth always present, however, but rudimentary and quite concealed. (See 
footnote on page 21. ) 

^Represented only by the monotypic genus Catamblyrhynchas Lafresnaye (Rev. 
Zool., 1842, 301; type, C. diadema Lafresnaye); range, northern Andes, Colombia 
to Peru. (Usually placed in the Fringillidfe. ) 

'' Diglossime, comprising the genera Diglossa and Diglossopis. 



20 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

1. Bill much longer than head, subulate, slightly decurved termi- 
nally, or else slender-conoid, with tip acute; if the latter and not 
decurved terminally, the tail decidedly longer than distance 

from bend of wing to tip of secondaries ' Coerebidse, part. 

a. Bill always shorter than head, subulate, slender-conoid, or rather 
stout but compressed; never decurved; if acute at tip the tail 
not longer than distance from bend of wing to tip of secondaries; 
if rather stout the culmen decidedly but gradually curved. 

Hniotiltidae.^ 
ff. Tertials conspicuously elongated, reaching nearly if not quite to tips of 

longest primaries, the bill slender, almost subulate Motacillidae. 

ee. Width of bill at rictus equal to or greater than length of culmen. 

ProcniatidsB (extralimital).' 

(id. Longest primaries more than twice as long as secondaries . . .Hiruudinidae. 

cc. Tip of maxilla abruptly uncinate, the bill narrow and straight; maxillary 

tomium not toothed subterminally; mandible not falcate; angle of chin 

anterior to nostrils Vireonidae, part. 

' According to the above diagnosis Coniroslrum sitticolor would not be one of the 
Coerebidse, but referable to the Mniotiltidse, and I am by no means sure that 
such is not its proper position, together with the other species of the same genus. 
At any rate, I fail to find any external differences whatever, of more than generic 
value, between these birds and the supposedly Mniotiltine genus Oreothlypis. Possi- 
bly the latter should be referred to the Crerebidse, but if so it is difficult to see why 
Compsothlypis should not go with it. I would also eliminate from the Coerebidas part 
of the genus Dacnis, transferring D. pulcherrima to the Tanagridse (as a new genus, 
Iridophanes) and the Atelodacnis section to the Mniotiltidse, near Compsothlypis, Hel- 
minikophila, etc. Whether such disposition of these forms is really the proper one 
can only be determined by study of their anatomy; but unless this course be adopted 
it is, apparently, impossible to intelligibly characterize the Ccerebidse and Mniotil- 
tidfe as distinct groups, which undoubtedly they are if properly circumscribed. 

^ Certain genera of Coerebidse are distinguished from all Mniotiltine genera whose 
osteology has been studied by the following characters: 

Coerebidse. — Interpalatine process small or abortive; transpalatine process slender, 
spine-like; palatines produced posteriorly and overhanging anterior ends of ptery- 
goids; tongue slender, with terminal portion extensively bifid or trifid, and brushy 
or laciniate. 

Mniotiltidse. — Interpalatine process well developed; transpalatine process short and 
bluntly angular; palatines not produced posteriorly over pterygoids; tongue shorter, 
broader, with terminal portion but slightly cleft or brushy. 

The above distinctions hold good between Cosrcia, Cyanerpes, and Glossiplila (CcBre- 
bidfe) on the one hand and Dendroica, " Perissoglossa ," Geothlypis, Compsothlypis, and 
Certhidea (Mniotiltidse) on the other. (See Lucas, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvii, 1894, 
299-310.) The supposedly Coerebine genera Chlorophanes, Oreoinanes, Hemidacnis, 
Dacni-i, Atelodacnis, and Conirostrum have not been examined anatomically, and until 
these have been investigated, together with the supposedly JIniotiltine genus 
Oreothlypis and Tanagrine genera Iridophanes (type, Dacnis pulcherrima Sclater), 
Hemithraupis, and Chlorochrysa-, the line separating the Coerebidse from the Mniotil- 
tidse on the one side and from the Tanagridaj on the other can not be considered as 
established. 

'Lucas, The Auk, xii, April, 189.i, 186; Proc. U. S. Xat. Mus., xviii, 1895, 505-507; 
RiDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xviii, 1895, 449, 450. This family is represented by 
a single nlonotypic genus, Procnias Illiger (Prodromus Orn., 1811, 228; type, ^impelis 
tersa Linnseus), which ranges from Colombia over the Amazonian and Brazilian 
provinces of South America. 



BIBD8 OF NOKTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 21 

66. Outermost obvious primary (tenth) not more than half as long as the next, 
usually shorter, sometimes rudimentary.' {" Ten-primaried" Oscines.) 
c. Basal phalanx of middle toe adherent for entire length to both lateral toes, 

the hallux not longer than outer toe Vireonidae, part. 

cc. Basal phalanx of middle toe free from inner toe for most if not all its length, 

and from outer toe for (approximately) half its length, or else (Oerthiida?, 

Troglodytidse) hallux decidedly longer than outer toe. 

rf. Bill short, broad, and depressed at base, the length of gonys decidedly 

less than basal width of bill; feet weak with tarsus decidedly shorter 

than middle toe with claw, or else (Ptiliogonatidas, part'') the acrotarsium 

booted, the young not spotted, and tenth primary half as long as ninth.' 

e. Wing-tip long and pointed, the longest primaries exceeding secondaries 

by much more than one-third the length of wing; tenth primary minute, 

less than half as long as primary coverts, the ninth longer than seventh, 

sometimest longest; tail shorter than distance from bend of wing to 

tip of secondaries; loral feathers dense, velvety, filling greater part of 

nasal fossae Ampelidse. 

ee. Wing-tip short, rounded, the longest primaries exceeding secondaries 
by less than one-fourth the length of wing; tenth primary well devel- 
oped, much longer than primary coverts; the ninth primary shorter 
than third, sometimes shorter than first; tail longer than distance from 
bend of wing to tip of secondaries, usually equal to or longer than 

wing; loral feathers normal Ptiliogonatidae. 

dd. Bill not short, broad and depressed at base, etc., or else (Turdidee, parf) 
acrotarsium booted, young spotted, and tenth primary much less than 
half as long as ninth. 
e. Bill neither elongate-conical, with broad and flattened mesorhinium, nor 
thick-conical (fringilline) ; outermost (tenth) primary more than half as 
long as primary coverts, usually much longei' than the latter. 
/. Bill deep and compressed (depth at nostrils more than half length of 
exposed culmen), the culmen strongly curved. 

' Considerable care is necessary to determine whether the outermost obvious pri- 
mary is the ninth or tenth, since in case the latter is rudimentary, though exposed, 
it may easily be overlooked. The present section includes all forms in which there 
is a visible rudimentary primary, those of the first section having the tenth primary 
still more rudimentary and entirely concealed. In so-called ten-primaried birds in 
which the tenth primary is rudimentary it consists of a minute, narrow, and pointed 
quill, less than half as long as the primary coverts, lying upon the inner side of the 
basal portion of the outer web of the outermost large primary, whereas in all so- 
called nine-primaried Oscines it is still more minute and lies upon the outer side 
of the wing next to the outermost primary covert. (See Baikd, Review of American 
Birds, p. 325, footnote. ) 

^ Reference of the genus Phainopiila to the Ptiliogonatidae complicates the diagnosis 
'of this group, which otherwise would be very easily characterized; but unless Phai- 
nopiila is placed with the Ptiliogonatidse it must constitute a family by itself. So far 
as the adult is concerned, there is nothing in its external structure that I can dis- 
cover which would forbid its reference to the Turdidse (subfamily Myadestinse), 
without materially modifying the diagnosis of the latter; but the young are abso- 
lutely plain-colored, have the acrotarsium distinctly scutellate, and the tenth pri- 
mary half as long as the ninth. 

' In the Myadestinse the tenth primary is less than half as long as the ninth, the 
young conspicuously spotted, and with the acrotarsium indistinctly if at all scutellate. 

* Subfamily Myadestina?. 



22 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

g. Nostrils wholly exposed, circular, in anterior portion of distinct nasal 
fossee; maxilla with culmen gradually curved terminally, tip not 
distinctly uncinate, and with indistinct subterminal tomial notch 
and tooth; tail decidedly shorter than wing, even; tenth primary 
much less than half as long as ninth; under parts conspicuously 

streaked Dnlidae. 

gg. Nostrils partly hidden by bristly loral feathers, longitudinally oval, 
bored directly into the horny rhinotheca; maxilla with culmen 
abruptly curved terminally, tip distinctly uncinate, and with 
subterminal tomial notch and tooth distinct; tail nearly as long as 
wing, sometimes longer, much rounded or graduated,- tenth pri- 
mary half as long as ninth; under parts not streaked Laniidse. 

ff. Bill more slender (depth at nostrils less than half as long as exposed 
■ culmen); the culmen not strongly curved, or else (Corvidae, part) 
the nostrils circular, without superior membrane or operculum. 
g. Nostrils covered (at least partly) by tuft of antrorse plumules, or else 
(Corvidse, part) exposed, circular, without superior membrane or 
operculum, or else (Corvidse, part) longitudinal, with superior 
operculum, the bill elongate-conical, with broad and depressed 
mesorhinium, and the tenth primary half as long as ninth. 
h. Hallux not distinctly, if at all, longer than longest lateral toe, its 
claM' not conspicuously large; outer toe not conspicuously, if at all, 
longer than inner toe; tarsus equal to or longer than middle tne, 
with claw. 

1. Larger ( wing more than 102 mm. ) ' 1 Corvidse. 

n. Smaller (wing less than 89 mm)' Paridse. 

hh. Hallux distinctlj- longer than longest lateral toe (the outer), its 
claw conspicuously large; outer toe conspicuously longer than 

inner; tarsus shorter than middle toe with claw SittidaE. 

gg. Nostrils exposed, but not circular and without superior membrane 

or operculum, nor bill elongate-conical with broad and depressed 

mesorhinium, or if the latter the outermost (tenth) primary less 

than half as long as primary coverts (Sturnidse) ; or if covered, the 

covering a single plumule and the acrotarsium booted (Sylviidae, 

part) . 

/(. Hallux distinctly longer than lateral toes; basal phalanx of middle 

toe adherent for whole of its length to both lateral toes. 

i. Rectrices rigid, with tips acuminate; claw of hallux as long as or 

longer than its digit Certhiidse. 

ii. Bectricea soft, with tips normally broad and rounded; claw of 

hallux shorter than its digit Troglodytidse. 

hh. Hallux not distinctly if at all longer than lateral toes; basal pha- 
lanx of middle toe free for most if not all of its length from inner 
toe, and (approximately) for half its length from outer toe. 
i. Acrotarsium booted, at least on outer side. 

' I must confess my inability to discover any external structural characters which 
will serve to distinguish these two groups as a whole. The Garrulinfe and typical 
Paridee seem to differ externally only in size, every one of the supposed distinctive 
characters (as alleged peculiar modification of the planta tarsi in Corvidte, differences 
in proportions of primaries, etc. ) breaking down when all the genera are compared. 
The variations of form and in external details in the group called Corvidse are so 
great that its diagnosis is very difficult. 



BIRDS OB' KOETH AKD MIDDLE AMERICA. 23 

,?'. No trace of rictal bristles, the plumage of whole head short, 

dense, velvety; body covered with down; aquatic Cinclidae. 

jj. Rictal bristles more or less obvious (usually distinct) , the 

plumage of head normal; body without down; not aquatic. 

k. Tail much longer than wing, graduated for about half its 

length ; ninth primary shorter than secondaries . . ChamaeidEe. 

kk. Tail not longer than wing, not graduated; ninth primary 

longer than secondaries, sometimes longest. 

I. Size (of American forms) very small (wing not more than 

70 mm. ) ; plumage of young not spotted Sylviidae.' 

U. Size larger (wing not less than 82 mm.); plumage of 

young spotted Turdidse. 

a. Acrotarsium scutellate (on both sides) Mimidse. 

ee. Bill elongate-conical, with broad and flattened mesorhinium, or thick- 
conical (fringilline); outermost (tenth) primary less than half as long 
as primary coverts. 
/. Bill elongate-conical (icterine); nostrils exposed, overhung by conspic- 
uous horny operculum; wing-tip long, the longest primaries exceeding 
secondaries by much more than length of tarsus; tail emarginate. 

Sturnidae.' 

ff. Bill stout-conical (fringilline); nostrils hidden or nearly hidden by 

loral feathering, without superior operculum; wing-tip short, the 

longest primaries exceeding secondaries by much less than length of 

tarsus; tail graduated Ploceidse.' 

a« Tarsus rounded posterioi-ly, or if ridged the ridge distinctly inside the median 
line; inner posterior edge of the acrotarsium decidedly posterior to the lateral 
median line, and separated from the planta tarsal ridge by a narrow groove; 
planta tarsi scutellate (divided into transverse segments).'' {Latiplantar 
Oscines *) Alaudidse. 

'Including Regulinae (the Regulidse of some authors) but excluding Polioplila, 
which is here referred, provisionally, to Mimidse. 

^ Genus Slurnus only. 

' Genera Sponegintlius and Spermestes only. 

The Anaerican representatives of the Sturnidse and Ploceidse are introduced species 
only, that of the former {Stumus vulgaris) from the Palsearctic Region, those of the 
latter {Sporseginthus melpodus and Spermestes cucullata) from the African Region. The 
above characters are drawn exclusively from these introduced species, no account 
being taken of the numerous exotic forms, among which, as in other groups, great 
variations in structural details are presented. 

* Except in very old birds, in which they sometimes become fused into a continu- 
ous plate (as in most " Laminiplantares" ) The divisions or segments of the planta 
tarsi correspond with those of the acrotarsium. 

^Corresponding to part of Sundevall's Scutelliplantares, which consist otherwise of 
the superfamily Clamatores. The alaudine tarsal envelope is, however, very different 
from the clamatorial type, being even more distinct from the latter than from that 
of the acutiplantar Oscines. 



24 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



Family FRINGILLID^. 

THE FINCHES. 1 

Conirostral, "nine-primaried," acutiplantar Oscines, with ttie com- 
missure distinctly' and more or less abruptly angulated or deflexed 
basally, or else with the mandibular rami less than one-fifth as long as 
gonys, the mandibular tomium distinctly elevated (often angulated, 
sometimes toothed) post-medially, thence distinctly (usually abruptly) 
deflected to the rictus; rictal bristles obvious, usually distinct. 

The above brief and in many respects unsatisfactory diagnosis cov- 
ers the extreme variations in certain external structural details among 
a very large assemblage of species arbitrarily considered as forming 
a family Fringillidfe. As here limited the family includes the whole 
of the Fringillidse as treated bv Dr. Sharpe in the twelfth volume of 
the Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum ^ (the latest author- 
ity on thegroup), onlj^ the genus Catmi'ibylyrh.ynclms being withdrawn,' 
with the addition of the genera Pyrrhocoma, Pezopetes, Buarremon,*^ 
ArreriKm, Diucopis. Cofiot/iraup/i^, 0/vothraupis (?), Saltator, and 
'''' Pitylvf:"^ which Dr. Sclater, in the eleventh volume of the same 
work" (and elsewhere), has placed among the Tanagridse. 

The group most closely related to the Fringillidae is, of course, that 
called Tanagridse, or at least certain members of the latter, which pos- 
sibly is, even after the above-mentioned eliminations, too comprehen- 

' Four vernacular names belong exclusively or specially to this family as a whole 
or in part, and from these I have selected the one which seems to be most appro- 
priate, although it is difficult to decide between /nc/i and sparrow. The fact is that 
each of these names really has a restricted applicability, being commonly applied to 
minor though more or leas arbitrary groups, and based on the comparatively scant 
European fringilline fauna. They are therefore of still more limited applicability to 
America forms, of which a great majority are very different from those of Europe, 
and without any distinctive name. The term grosbeak can scarcely be considered in 
this connection, having been applied indiscriminately to heavy-billed forms with- 
eut regard to their real relationship to one another, not only crass-billed Fringillidse 
but also Ploceidae having been thus designated. 

^ Catalogue | of the | Passeriformes, | or | Perching Birds, | in the | Collection of 

the I British Museum. | | Fringilliformes: Part III, | containing the family | 

Fringillidse. | By | R. Bowdler Sharpe. | London: | Printed by order of the Trus- 
tees. I 1888. I (Pp. i-xv, 1-871, pis. i-xvi.) 

'This I have felt obliged to consider of separate family rank. (See page 19.) 

* An artificial genus which I have been obliged to divide into several {Buarremon, 
Allrijirlf'x, Pselliophorus, and Lysurus). 

'Another heterogeneous group which consists of several generic types {Pitylus 
Caryolhruiisti's, Pi;rij)orj)hynis, and Rhodoihraupis) . 

"Catalogue | of the | Passeriformes, | or Perching Birds, | in the | Collection | of 

the I British Museum. | | Fringilliformes: Part II. | Containing the Families 

Ccerebidfe, Tanagridse, and Icteridw. | By | Philip Lutley Sclater. | London: | 
Printed by order of the Trustees. | 1886. | (Pp. i-xvii, 1-431, pis. i-xviii.) 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMElRiDdA. , ) 25 

sive and therefore may require still further restriction. As commonly 
understood and accepted, the two supposed families are clearly purely 
artificial, and the arbitrary line that has usually been drawn between 
them is manifestly far out of place, the Tanagridw having been made 
to include forms (those mentioned above') which are unquestionably 
fringilline in their relationships. 

In the absence of any knowledge concerning the internal structure 
of a large proportion of the genera comprised in the two groups any 
dividing line must necessarily be more or less arbitrary; but I feel 
sure that by shifting its position as hei'e indicated the tw(j groups 
become much more natural, since they are now susceptible of fairly 
definite characterization, whereas until this was done their intelligi- 
ble diagnosis was simplj^ impossible. I am not at all sure but that 
still further subdivision, at least of the Tanagridse, would better 
express the facts of relationship, since even now, with their respective 
limits certainly more correctly drawn, each of the two groups contains 
forms extremely different in their general appearance, structural 
details, and habits.'' However, this question as to whether the Frin- 
gillidae and Tanagridae are reallj^ distinct family groups or not, and if 
they are, where the line between them should be drawn, is one which 
can not now be exactly determined. 

While, as above stated, the reference of the genera Buarreinon^ 
Arremon, Pxtyliis^ and Saltator to the Fringillidae renders possible an 
intelligible diagnosis of the two supposed families, it does not in the 
least lessen the difficulty of defining the genera or of arranging them 
into definite subordinate groups. This is indeed a matter so extremely 
difficult that after repeated, patient, determined, and prolonged 
attempts I must confess my inability to solve the problem. It is 
very evident, according to mj^ judgment, that Dr. Sharpe's so-called 
subfamilies, Coccothraustinse, Fringillinse, and Emberizinse, are 
unnatural groups, especially the first; certainly Geospiza, Guiraca, 
Spermojahila, Cardinalis, etc., are not at all closely related to Cocco- 
thraitstes, Ilesjaeriphona, JEophona, Pyciiorhamphus, and Mycerobas, 
which together form a very distinct group, though evidentlj^ closely 
related to, if not directly connected with, the group which Dr. Sharpe 
designates as his " Subfamily Fringillinse." The latter is another very 

^The only reasonable doubt pertains to the genera " Pitylus" and Saltator. 

^Compare the heavily built, crass-billed, short-legged, and arboreal true grosbeaks 
(Coccothraustese) with the slender, small-billed, long-legged, and terrestrial grass 
buntings (genera ^-Immotiramus, Passerculus, etc) on the one hand, and the broad- 
billed, short-tailed, and long-winged frugivorous Euphonire (genera Euphonia and 
Chlorophonia) with the slender-billed, long-tailed, insectivorous genera Tachyphorms, 
Nemosia, etc., on the other. 

'In the wider sense, as these genera are given by Dr. Sclater. 



/; 



, 26 , BIJLLETlEiN" 50, UNITKD STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

natural and fairly well characterized group if the genera Acanthidops 
and Sicalis be taken out' and Chloris and ChaunoproGtus added. ^ 
Indeed these two groups (i. e., the " CoccothraustinsB " and "Fringil- 
linse " as properly linaited) together eome very near being trenchantly 
separated from all other Fringillidae; but the genus Passerina seems 
to connect them, the latter being in all respects (as to external charac- 
ters) except the shape of the bill like Leucosticte (a typical "fringil- 
line" form), while the bill is very similar to that of a typical Eynbe- 
riza. All of the forms comprising the above-mentioned groups are of 
northern distribution (many of the genera being circumpolar), only the 
genus Spiniis extending into the Neotropical Region proper, excepting 
its near relation, Loximitris, confined to one of the Greater Antilles. 

These northern groups present little difficulty, except as to the 
determination of the question whether they should be regarded as 
constituting one large group distinct from all other Fringillidse or as 
comprising a greater or less number of smaller grotips, of equal value 
with similar groups in the larger assemblage of purely American 
forms to be considered separately. Although -unable to fully satisfy 
myself as to which course would be best, I have, for the present, con- 
cluded to adopt the latter alternative; and, therefore, instead of recog' 
nizing two groups, equivalent to Dr. Sharpe's Coccothraustinse and 
Fringillinffi, as amended, or one group including the two, four groups, 
Coccothraustese, Loxise, Pyrrhulse, and Fringillse, are provisionally 
adopted. 

These coccothraustine and f ringilline types having thus been tempo- 
rarily disposed of, there remains the very numerous assemblage of 
peculiarljr American ^ genera. These, with the exception of the group 
which 1 have here named Calcarieee (comprising the genera Passerhia, 
C'alcarius, and RhyncJwphanes^ which are evidently related to Pala;- 
arctic types *), are all peculiar to America (mostly to the Neotropical 
Region) and with few exceptions not at all like any Old World types. 
It is this group which presents the greatest difficulties in the way of 
satisfactory classification. Not only do the different groups (or what 
seem to be natural groups) run into one another in a most perplexing 

' Aavnthidops is certainly not a member of the Fringillinse, its nearest relation being 
undoubtedly the "emberizine" genus Haplospiza. I am reasonably sure that S'caWs 
also is an "emberizine" form (related to Haplospiza, Pseudochloris, etc.), notwith- 
standing the remarkable superficial resemblance of some of the species to the truly 
fringilline genus Si'rI.nus. 

'' Chaunoproctus seems to be a crass-billed Carpodamx, an approach to its characters 
being seen in the insular Carpodaciis dmplus. 

'Excepting only Passerina and Calcarius, the latter chiefly American, since \:\o of 
the three known species are peculiar to the Nearctic Region. 

' Whether there are terrestrial Fringilhe or specialized EmberiziB I am unable to 
determine. 



BIRDS OF NOETH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 27 

manner, but the genera themselves are often poorly defined (e. g. , Aimo- 
pMla), or when thej^ seem clearly natural it is found on close compar- 
ison of the component species that they present such great variations 
in structural details (e. g. , Oyanospiza, Cyanocompsa, etc.) that the fram- 
ing of a satisfactory diagnosis is by no means an easy matter. Certain 
members of this extensive series of genera present a close superficial 
resemblance to the Coccothraustese in fact, they are "grosbeaks" so 
far as the large size of the bill is concerned, though not otherwise, for 
there is very great difference in the form of the beak between such 
genera as Pheucticus, Zamelodia, Geospiza, Orysoborus, Cardinalis, 
etc. , and that of liesperiphona, Goccothraustes, etc. , not to mention rad- 
ical differences in other respects. 

Notwithstanding the immense difference in appearance, structural 
details, and habits between different minor groups of this assemblage 
of American types, I have failed to discover characters whereby verj^ 
trenchant groups may be defined. Four genera [Oalamospiza, Spiza, 
CJumdestes, and Pooecetes, all Nearctic) do not fit into any of the 
groups that seem susceptible of more or less exact definition, nor do 
they constitute a group by themselves. Leaving them out of account, 
the remaining genera may be rather roughly and arbitrarily separ- 
ated into two series; one composed of the smaller billed and more 
plainly colored (usually conspicuously streaked ^) species, and repre- 
sented by the genera Passerculus, Gentronyx, GoPurnicuhis, Amino- 
dramus, Plagiospiza, Aiinophila, Amphispiza, Junco, . Sjnzella, 
Zonotriohia, Brachyspiza, Melospiza, Passerella, Oreospiza, Pipilo^ 
Melozone, Arremonops, Arremon, Lysurus, Atlapetes, Buarremon, 
Pselliophorus, and Pezopetes; the other comprising the larger billed 
or more brightly colored forms, or those with more uniform colors, 
the genera being Platysptza, Gam.arhynchus, Geospiza, Gocornis^ 
Acanthidops, Ilaplospiza, Volatinia, Euetheia, Melarwspiza^Loxipasser, 
Pyrrhulagra, Mdopyrrha, Sporophila, Amaurospiza, 8 i calls, Gyano- 
■spiza, Gyanocompsa, Oryzoborus, Guiraca, Zam,elodia, Pheucticus, Pyr- 
rhuloxia, Gardinalis, Pitylus, Garyothraustes, Rhodotliraupis, and 
Saltator^. While the characters given above as distinguishing these 
two groups are artificial, even trivial, I feel convinced that when the 
internal structure of all the genera becomes known the line of first 
division will be drawn somewhere near that here indicated. 

Although an effort has been made in the following analytical key to 
keep the component parts of the different groups together, it has been 
found impracticable in some cases to arrange the groups in what seems 
to be their most natural sequence; in fact, to do this in a linear arrange- 

'The young always(?) streaked, even if the adults are plain colored. 
^ The genera peculiar to South America are not enumerated. 



28 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

ment is in this, as in so many other cases, practically impossible/ The 
key is therefore confessedly to a large extent artificial, the main object 
sought being the easy identification of the genera. 

KEY TO THE GENERA OP PKIKGILLID^. 

a. Mandibular rami very short (less than one-fifth as long as gonys); width of man- 
dible at base nearly equal to length of gonys (sometimes greater); nasal fossae 
obsolete, the nostril bored directly into basal lateral margin of the horny rhino- 
theca; commissure not abruptly deflexed basally, or else'' basal width of man- 
dible greater than length of gonys. ( Coccothraustex. ) Hesperiphona (p. 37) 

aa. Mandibular rami longer (at least one-third as long as gonys); width of mandible 
at base much less than length of gonys; nasal fossse more or less obvious (some- 
times, however, hidden by small feathers); commissure abruptly deflexed 
basally. 
b. Mandibular rami less than one-half as long as gonys; nasal fossse shorter, more 
or less hidden by tuft of antrorse latero-frontal plumules, 
c. Maxilla and mandible with tips falcate and crossed. {Loxise. ) . . .Loxia (p. 46) 
cc. Maxilla and mandible with tips neither falcate nor crossed. 

d. Culmen strongly curved; bill very short and thick, the distance between 
nostrils not less than half the length of gonys. ( Pyrrhulse. ) 
c. Width of mandible at base greater than length of maxilla from nostril; 
pileum (or at least forehead) black; wings and tail at least partly pur- 
plish black Pyrrhnla (p. 56) 

ee. Width of mandible at base less than length of maxilla from nostril; pileum 
without black; wings and tail without purplish black. .Finicola (p. 58) 

^The arrangement followed in the following pages is as follows: 

Group CoccothratiBteae. — Genus Hesperiphona. 

Group Loxiffi. — Genus Loxia. 

Group Pyrrhulse. — Genera Pyrrhuia, Pinicola. 

Group Fringillse.— Genera Leucosticte, Acanthis, Oarduelis, Spinus, Loximitris, 
Astragalinus, Carpodacus, Passer. 

Group Caloariese. — Genera Passerina, Galcarius, Rhynchophanes. 

Group Calamospizse. — Genus Oalamospiza. 

Group Spizae. — Genus Spiza. 

Group ChondestesB. — Genera Chondestes, Pooecetes. 

Group Ammodrami. — ^Genera Passerculus, Centronyx, Ooturniculus, Ammodramus. 

Group Zonotricliiae. — Genera Plagiospiza, Aimophila, Amphispiza, Junco, Spizella, 
Zonotrichia, Brachyspiza, Melospiza, Passerella, Oreospiza, Pipilo, Melozone, 
Arremonops, Arremon, Lysurus, Atlapetes, Buarremon, Pselliophorus, Pezopetes. 

Group GeospizBB, — Genera Platyspiza, Camarhynchus, Geospiza, Cocornis. 

Group Haplospizse, — Genera Acanthidops, Haplospiza, Sicalis, Euetheia, Melano- 
spiza. 

Group SporopMlse. — Genera Loxipasser, Pyrrhulagra, Melopyrrha, Sporophila, 
Amaurospiza. 

Group Cyauospizae. — Genera Cyanospiza, Gyanocompsa. 

Group Oryzoboreae. — Genus Oryzoborus. 

Group Guiracae. — Genera Giiiraca, Zamelodia, Pheucticus. 

Group CardinaleBB. — Genera Pyrrhuloxia, Cardinalis. 

Group Pitylese. — Genera Pitylus, Caryothraustes, Rhodothraupis, Saltator. 

^ In the Asiatic genus ilycerobas. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 29 

dd. Culmen slightly, if at all, curved, the bill conical or wedge-shaped; distance 

between nostrils much less than half the length of gonys. (Fringillss.) 

e. Wing more than four and a half times as long as tarsus; plumage with red 

or yellow, or else under parts streaked, or else plumage of body uniform 

brown; gonys straight. 

/. Tarsus equal to or longer than middle toe with claw; terrestrial or 

rupicoline Leuoostiote (p. 67) 

ff. Tarsus shorter than middle toe with claw; arboreal. 

g. Tail at least three-fourths as long as wing; nasal tufts extending 

beyond nostrils Aoanthis (p. 78) 

gg. Tail much less than three-fourths as long as wing; naaal tufts not 
extending beyond nostrils. 
h. Width of bill at base less than half exposed culmen, its tip acute. 
i. A band of clear yellow or red across basal portion of secondaries, 
or else (Loximitris) this band olive-green and the tail largely 
yellow. 
j. No yellow or red on tail; fore part of head red; under parts 
without yellow (mostly white, unstreaked)-.Cardiielis (p.93) 
jj. Tail more or less extensively yellow, or red, toward base; fore 
part of head without red; under parts yellow, or else white 
streaked with dusky. 
k. Secondaries with a broad basal band of clear yellow or red; 
bill acute, with nearly straight outlines (extremely varia- 
ble as to relative length and thickness) Spinus (p. 95) 

kk. Secondaries with a broad basal band of olive-green; bill 
obtuse, somewhat swollen, with decidedly convex cul- 
men Loximitris (p. 106) 

a. No clear yellow band across basal portion of secondaries; if a 
yellowish olive band {A. lawrencei) , inner webs of rectrices 

with a white patch Astragalinus (p. 107 ) 

hh. Width of bill at base much more than half exposed culmen, its 
tip not acute; remiges and rectrices without any yellow, red, 

or white Carpodaons (p. 128) 

ee. ^V'ing not more than four times as long as tarsus; plumage without yellow 

or red, the under parts not streaked; gonys convex Passer (p. 143) 

66. Mandibular rami more than half as long as gonys, or else the bill much elon- 
gated and the nostrils wholly exposed; nasal fossse larger, usually at least 
partly exposed, or if covered by antrorse laterb-frontal plumules (Passerina) 
the wing-tip about twice as long as tarsus and claw of hallux longer than 
its digit, 
c. Hallux not distinctly larger or stouter than inner toe, its claw either nearly 
straight or else longer than the digit; scutella of toes shorter, more promi- 
nent, and pads of under surface broader, more corrugated; ' claws of anterior 
toes very small and nearly straight, or else {Passerina) nasal fossfe covered 
by antrorse latero-frontal plumules; wing-tip more than one- third the total 
length of wing, or else ( Calcarius, part) claws very small and nearly straight. 
( Calcariese. ) 

^ These peculiarities of the feet, while perfectly obvious on comparison, are very 
difficult to express in exact terms, since they have defied all methods of measure- 
ment which I have been able to apply. The toes appear to be relatively shorter or 
with relatively shorter phalanges than in the forms which follow, but measurements 
apparently do not confirm this impression. 



30 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

d. Maxilla conspicuously shallower than mandible; gonys not longer than 
mandibular rami; claws distinctly arched; secondaries mostly white. 

Passerina^ (p. 146) 

dd. Maxilla not conspicuously shallower than mandible; gonys longer than 

mandibular rami; claws small (especially the anterior ones), slightly 

curved or nearly straight; secondaries without any white, or with merely 

the inner webs edged with this color. 

e. Bill comparatively small and slender (depth at base decidedly less than 

distance from nostril to tip of maxilla); gonys shorter than hallux 

(without claw), its base about midway between base of mandibular 

rami and point of mandible; tail more than two-thirds as long as wing. 

Calcarius (p. 154) 
ee. Bill large and stout (depth at base nearly or quite equal to distance from 
nostril to tip of maxilla) ; gonys decidedly longer than hallux (without 
claw), its base nearer to base of mandibular rami than to point of man- 
dible; tail much less than two-thirds as long as wing. 

Shynchopli^nes (p. 164) 
ce. Hallux distinctly larger or stouter than inner toe, its claw distinctly arched, 
usually shorter than the digit, or if not shorter, stout; scutellaof toes rela- 
tively longer, less prominent, and pads on under surface narrower, less 
corrugated;/' claws of anterior toes normally large and curved; nasal fossse 
not wholly, if at all, covered by antrorse latero-f rental plumules; wing-tip 
less than one-third the total length of wing. 
d. Conspicuously crested.' [Cardinalesi.) 
e. Culmen etrongly curved; maxilla conspicuously shallower than mandible, 
its tomium deeply incised in middle portion; distinctly toothed angle 
of mandibular tomium but little if any posterior to middle portion; dis- 
tance from nostril to tip of maxilla less than basal width of mandible. 

Pyrrhuloxia ''p. 624) 
ee. Culmen slightly or moderately curved; maxilla not distinctly, if at all, 
shallower than mandible, its tomium not deeply, if at all, incised (if 
incised the incision decidedly posterior to middle portion); slightly 
toothed angle of mandibular tomium decidedly posterior to middle 
portion; distance from nostril to tip of maxilla equal to or greater than 

basal width of mandible Cardinalia (p. 629) 

dd. Not conspicuously, if at all, crested. 
e. Wing-tip equal to or longer than tarsus; wing more than 76.20 mm. 

'In all external structural characters except the bill, Passerina is very closely 
similar to Leucostide, while in its style of plumage it greatly retembles the genus 
Monti fringilla, a very near ally of Leucostide. Whether these very close resem- 
blances to two unquestionable true finches (Fringillse) indicate real affinity or merely 
adaptation to similar habits (all three inhabiting, during summer, cliffs and other 
rocky places), I am unable to say. I believe, -however, that Passerina is really 
a "finch," and not, as commonly supposed, a "bunting." Whether Calcarius and 
Rhynchophanes (which are meadow birds) are really closely related to Passerina, I am 
somewhat doubtful. 

'' See footnote on page 29. 

3 From here on the arrangement is mainly artificial, easy identification of the genera 
being the chief aim. The genera are kept in what appear to be natural groups as far 
as this has been found practicable, but I am compelled to acknowledge my inability to 
clearly define all the groups that appear to be natural ones, and no effort is made to 
arrange the genera or groups of genera in the sequence that seems to be most appro- 
priate, and which is followed in the body of the work. (See footnote on page 28. ) 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 31 

/. Outermost (ninth) primary longest; tail emarginate, the rectrices pointed 

at tip, the middle pair acuminate. {Spizx.) Spiza (p. 170) 

/'. Outermost (ninth) primary not longest; tail even or slightly rounded, 
all the rectrices broad and rounded, or at most subaeuminate, at tip. 
g. Tarsus decidedly longer than middle toe with claw; bill relatively 
small (culmen, from base, less than two-thirds as long as tarsus). 
(Chondestes!.) 
h. Tail longer than distance from bend of wing tu tips of distal second- 
aries, decidedly rounded; all the rectrices broad and rounded 

terminally, including middle pair Chondestes (p. 175) 

hh. Tail shorter than distance from bend of wing to tips of distal 
secondaries, even, or slightly emarginate; lateral rectrices nar- 
rowed terminally, the middle pair subaeuminate. 

Pooecetes (p. 181) 
gg. Tarsus not longer than middle toe with claw; bill large (culmen, from 
base, nearly equal to, sometimes longer than, tarsus) . {Ghciracse. ) 
//. Bill much swollen, with superior and lateral outlines decidedly 
convex; mandibular tomium strongly convex anterior to the sub- 
basal angle; wing 114.50 mm., or more. ) 

Phenotious (p. 621) 
hh. Bill tapering gradually from base, its superior and' lateral outlines 
nearly straight; mandibular tomium very slightly convex ante- 
rior to the subbasal angle; wing less than 114.50 mm. 
i. Maxilla not conspicuously shallower than mandible, the angular 
indentation of its tomium directly beneath the longer than 
broad nasal fossae; subbasal angle of mandibular tomium 
toothed; adult males without blue, but with black, white, and 
rose red, or black, white, cinnamon, and yellow; females and 

young conspicuously streaked Zamelodia (p. 613) 

f(. Maxilla conspicuously shallower than mandible, the angular 
indentation of its tomium distinctly anterior to its broader than 
long nasal fossae; subbasal angle of mandibular tomium not 
toothed; adult males blue with rufous or chestnut wing-bands; 

females and young not streaked Guiraca (p. 606) 

ee. AVing-tip not as long as tarsus, or else [Cyanospiza, part, Slrxdis, part) 
wing less than 76.20 mm. 
/. Tail less than twice as long as tarsus; outstretched feet reaching beyond 
end of tail. ( Oeospizie. ) 
g. Culmen more strongly and regularly curved, more distinctly ridged; 
sides of bill more flattened, or else angle of mandibular tomium 
toothed; adult males with uniform black confined to head, neck, 
and chest, sometimes without any black. 
h. Bill broader (basal width of mandible decidedly greater than length 
of gonys); commissure more strongly angulated or deflexed 
basally, the angle of mandibular tomium toothed. 

Platyspiza (p. 473) 

hh. Bill narrower (basal width of mandible not greater than length of 

gonys, sometimes decidedly less); commissure less strongly 

angulated or deflexed basally, the angle of mandibular tomium 

not toothed Camarhynchus (p. 476) 

gg. Culmen less strongly and regularly curved (sometimes nearly straight 
for part of its length), less distinctly ridged; sides of bill less flat- 
tened; angle of mandibular tomium not toothed; adult males 
entirely black, except under tail-coverts. 



32 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

h. Bill stouter (depth at base more than half length of culmen, some- 
times equal to length of culmen) Geospiza (p. 489) 

hh. Bill more slender (depth at base less than half length of cul- 
men) Cocornis (p. 515) 

ff. Tail more than twice as long as tarsus; outstretched feet falling short 

of end of tail. 

g. Commissure equal to or exceeding length of middle toe without 

claw; tip of maxilla distinctly uncinate.' (Pitylese.) 

h. Culmen, from base, decidedly shorter than tarsus; under parts with 

neither yellow nor red; if gray, the upper parts olive-green, and 

bill black Saltator (p. 659) 

hh. Culmen, from base, not decidedly if at all shorter (sometimes 

longer) than tarsus; under parts with yellow or red, or if gray 

the upper parts slate color and bill red. 

i. Angle of mandibular tomium not distinctly, if at all, toothed; bill 

more compressed, with lateral outlines less convex; upper parts 

uniform slate color; bill red Pitylus (p. 651) 

1). Angle of mandibular tomium distinctly toothed or otherwise 
prominently produced; bill broader, with lateral outlines more 
convex; upper parts at least partly red or olive-green, the 
pileum sometimes black. 
j. Culmen, from base, equal to or longer than tarsus; mandibular 
tomium concave (the mandible narrowed) or excised imme- 
diately anterior to the middle portion, behind this a broad 
truncated prominence; upper (and under) parts (except 

head) red Periporpliyrus (extralimital) ^ 

jj. Culmen, from base, shorter than tarsus; mandibular tomium 
convex, or at least not concave immediately anterior to mid- 
dle portion, the toothed subbasal angle immediately preceded 
by a notch; upper parts olive-green, olive-green and gray, 
or black with red band across hindneck. 
k. Tail .not longer than distance from bend of wing to end of 
secondaries; bill broader (basal width of mandible greater 
than distance from nostril to tip of maxilla) ; sexes alike 
in coloration, adult males and females without any red, 
and with pileum olive-green or yellow. 

Caryothraustes (p. 654) 
kk. Tail decidedly longer than distance from bend of wing to 
end of secondaries; bill narrower (basal width of mandi- 
ble less than distance from nostril to tip of maxilla) ; sexes 
different in color (adult male with head, chest, and upper 
parts black, the under parts and broad collar across hind- 
neck pinkish red; adult female and young male with 
olive-green replacing red) Bhodothranpia (p. 657) 



' That is to say, forming a distinct, though short, decurved point, with an obvious 
tomial notch immediately behind it. There is sometimes an approximation to this 
condition among the forms under gg, but in such cases the bill is smaller and 
more slender, the culmen much less curved, and the tip of the maxilla less decidedly 
decurved. 

' Periporphyrus Reicheubach, Av. Syat. Nat., 1850, pi. 77. Type, Loxia erythromelas 
Gmelin. This genus is introduced because it is the only extralimital one of the 
group, and also to show the reasons, in part, for subdividing the genus Pitylus as 
recognized by authors. 



BIEDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEBICA. 33 

gg. Commissure shorter than iiiuldle toe -Hithout cluw, (jr el.se tip of 

maxilla not midnate.' 

h. Species mostly of unicolored plumage, or el^c particolored and the 

colors bright; the adult males blue, slate color, black or yellow, 

sometimes with two or more of these ecjlors cc^mbined; so0](^- 

times black with chestnut or rufous areas (but with tail sliorter 

than wing); only the females and young dull colored, ajid these 

very rarely streaked beneath. ( Orijzubnrene.''- ) 

i. Bill exceedingly broad and thick, the \yidth of mandible at base 

decidedly greater than distance from nostril to tip of maxilla. 

Oryzoborus (p. 60.3) 

ii. Bill narrower, the width of mandible at base not decidedly, if at 

all, greater than distance from nostril to tip of maxilla. 

j. Culmen (from concealed base) equal in length to tarsus, or else 

outermost (ninth) primary shorter than third; adult males 

plain (mostly dull) blue Cyanocompaa (p. 594) 

jj. Culmen (from concealed liase) shorter than tarsus; adult males 
not blue, or else outermost (ninth) primary longer than 
third. 
k. Mandible conspicuously deeper than maxilla, ©r else culmen 
strongly convex, the maxilla subfalcate. 
/. Width of maxilla at base much less than basal depth of bill. 
)?!. Wing more than 63.50 mm.; plumage not blackish. 
)i. Greatest depth of mandible less than half its length. 
0. Distance from nostril to tip of maxilla much more 
than one-third length of tarsus; adult males with 

more or less (jf blue Cyanospiza (p. 580) 

00. Distance from nostril to tip of maxilla scarcely, if 
at all, more than one-third length of tarsus; 
adult male without any blue (olive-green, with 
black head, yellow carpus, and rufous under 

tail-coverts) Loxipasser ( p. 545) 

mi. Greatest depth of mandible at least one-half its 

length; plumage blackish Melopyrrha (p. 561) 

mm. Wing less than 63.50 mm .Sporophila (p. 563) 

//. Width of maxilla at base equal to basal depth of bill. 

Amaurospiza (p. 579) 

i-i-. Mandible not conspicuously deeper than maxilla, the latter 

not subfalcate or with culmen strongly curved (the latter 

sometimes nearly straight) . 

I. Bill longer (distance from nostril to tip of maxilla equal to 

half length of tarsus) ; adult males uniform slate color. 

m. Bill more slender (depth at base much less than half 

length of commissure) AoautMdops (p. 517) 

' See footnote on page 32. 

'' A satisfactory group name can not be derived from any of the genera, and the one 
adopted is selected as being the least objectionable of any that may be so derived. 
The group is not a strictly homogeneous one, but I have not been able to satisfac- 
torily subdivide it. The characters given above are confessedly unsatisfactory, but, 
although the group as a whole is obvioiisly distinct from any of those which follow, 
I am unable at present to construct a better diagnosis. (See arrangement on page 
28, where an attempt at subdivision is made. ) 

17024—01 3 



34 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

mm. Bill thicker (depth at base more than half length of 

commissure) Haplospiza (p. 520) 

U. Bill shorter (distance from nostril to tip of maxilla less 
than half length of tarsus) or else' plumage yellow. 
m. Outermost (ninth) primary longer than sixth; wing-tip 
equal to or longer than tarsus; plumage yellow or 

yellowish Sicalie (p. 521) 

•mm. Outermost (ninth) primary shorter than sixth; wing- 
tip much shorter than tarsus; plumage not yellow 
or yellowish, 
n. Oulmen decidedly convex; adult males with chestnut 

or rufous on throat, etc Pyrrhulagra (p. 547) 

mi. Culmen straight or nearly so; adult males without 
chestnut on throat or elsewhere. 
0. Wing more than 63.50 mm.; adult male entirely 

black, with whitish feet Melanospiza (p. 544) 

00. Wing less than 63.50 mm.; adult males not entirely 

black, or else the color glossy blue-black and the 

feet dusky. 

p. Tail even or very slightly rounded; adult males not 

glossy blue-black; females and young not 

streaked Euetheia (p. 529) 

pp. Tail much rounded or graduated; adult males 
glossy blue-black; females and young con- 
spicuously streaked Volatinia (p. 525) 

lih. Species of mostly variegated plumage, without any bright colors 
(except sometimes yellow on under parts or edge of wing) ; often 
streaked, the young nearlj' always ; if plumage of adult male, 
largely black and chestnut, the tail longer than wing. '' 
i. Outermost (ninth) primary longer than sixth, or else {Ammodra- 
mus, part) rectrices narrow and acuminate. 
j. Wing more than 82.55 mm.; adult male (in summer) black 
with white wing-patch. ( Calamospizie. ) . Calamospiza ^ (p. 167) 
jj. Wing not more than 82.55 mm.; adult male never black nor 
with white wing-patch. (Ammodrami.) 
I: Outermost (ninth) primary longest or equal to longest; tail 
emarginate, with lateral rectrices longer than media;n pair. 

I. Hallux little if any longer than inner toe; wing exceeding 

tail by decidedly more than length of tarsus; rectrices 
• broader, less acuminate Passerculus (p. 187) 

II. Hallux decidedly longer than inner toe; wing exceeding 

tail by very little more than length of tarsus; rectrices 
narrower, more acuminate, the lateral pair relatively 
shorter. 
VI. Sixth primary not abruptly shorter than seventh; hal- 
lux longer than outer toe, its claw longer than distance 
from nostril to tip of maxilla; edge of wing white; 
adult with a black rictal streak and with chest streaked 
with black Centronyx (p. 202) 

I ^Sicalis, part; i. e., iS. co?u»iMcma Cabanis, which, notwithstanding its close resem- 
blance in coloration to the typical species, differs so much in form that it should 
probably be separated generically. 

''A heterogeneous assemblage, comprising several minor groups. As to above 
unsatisfactory diagnosis, see footnote on page 33. 

•' This genus is rather an isolated form, and I do not know where it really belongs. 
It seems to show points of relationship to Rhynchophmies, Spita, and Chondestes. 



BIEDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEEIOA. 35 

iniii. Sixth primary abruptl>- sliortei- than seventh; liallux 
shorter than outer toe, its claw shorter than dis- 
tanee from nostril to tip of maxilla; edge of wing 
}'ellofl-; adult without black rictal streak or streaks 

on chest Coturniculns (p. 205) 

l-k. Outermost (ninth) primary shorter than seventh; tail 
rounded or graduated, the lateral rectrices decidedly 

shorter than middle pair Ammodramus (p. 211) 

ii. Outermost (ninth) primary not longer than sixth ( usually shorter 

than fifth), or else (Ophelia, oart) wing-tip equal to length of 

middle toe without claw ; rectrices not narrow and acuminate. 

{Zonotrichi;e.) ' 

j. Outer toe reaching to middle of subterminal phalanx of middle 

toe, its claw reaching nearly if not quite to middle of middle 

claw Passerella (p. 384) 

jj. Outer toe not reaching to middle of subterminal phalanx of 

middle toe, its claw not reaching nearly to middle of middle 

claw. 

k. Outermost (ninth) primary longer than second; tail gradu- 

j ated for much less than length of middle toe without claw. 

I. Claw of hallux equal to the digit in length; lateral claws 

reaching decidely beyond base of middle claw; remiges 

and rectrices olive-green Oreospiza (p. 399) 

n. Claw of hallux shorter than the digit; lateral claws not 
reaching beyond base of middle claw; remiges and 
rectrices not olive-green, 
m. Tail longer than distance from bend of wing to tip of 
secondaries, or else (Jmico, part), lateral rectrices 
largely white; middle rectrices not barred with black; 
wing-tip longer than exposed culmen. 
n. Head plain gray (lores darker); lateral rectrices largely 
white, or else back streaked with dusky, and wing 
without distinct light-colored markings. 

Jnnco (p. 271) 
nn. Head not plain gray, or else {Spizella, part) lateral 
rectrices without any white, and tail longer than 
wing; lateral rectrices not largely (if with any) 
white, or else head with white stripes. 
0. Upper parts not grayish, or else (Spizella, part) the 
back cinnamon-brown streaked with black, and 
tail longer than wing. 
p. Tarsus at least one-third as long as wing. 

q. No rufous collar around hindneck; no black on 
pileum, except in form of narrow streaks; the 
pileum sometimes plain chestnut. 

Melospiza (p. 349) 
qq. A rufous collar around hindneck; pileum with 
two broad lateral bands of black and a median 
one of gray, never plain chestnut. 

Brachyspiza (p. 346) 
pp. Tarsus decidedly less than one-third as long as 
wing. 

1 1 am unable to characterize supergeneric divisions of this group. 



36 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

7. Tail rounded, the middle rectrices longest, or 
equal to longest, and decidedly longer than 
lateral pair; pileum largely black, or with two 
broad lateral bands of chestnut and a median 
one of buffy, or with a yellowish patch; larger 
(wing not less than 68.58 mm., usually much 

more than 71.12 mm.) ZonotricMa (p. 329) 

qq. Tail emarginate or double-rounded, the middle 
rectrices decidedly shorter than the longest, 
usually shorter than lateral pair, never 
longer; pileum, plain chestnut, rufous, or 
gray, or narrowly streaked with black; 
smaller (wing notmorethan 71.12 mm., usu- 
ally less than 68.58) mm Spizella (p. 305) 

00. Upper parts grayish, including the back, the latter 
usually unstreaked; tail shorter than wing. 

Amphispiza (p. 261) 

);(/;(. Tail shorter than distance from bend of wing to tip of 

secondaries; lateral rectrices without white; middle 

rectrices barred with black; Tjing tip shorter than 

exposed culmen Plagiospiza (p. 229) 

ik. Outermost (ninth) primary shorter than second (sometimes 
shorter than secondaries), or else {Aimophila, part) the 
tail graduated for as much as length of middle toe, with- 
out claw, or more. 
I. Back streaked, or else pileum and back plain purplish 
grayish brown, passing into gray on rump, upper tail- 
coverts, and tail Aimophila ^ (p. 230) 

U. Back not streaked, nor purplish grayish brown in color. 
m. Tail more than three times (sometimes nearly four 
times) as long as tarsus; outermost (ninth) primary 
not distinctly, if at all, shorter than secondaries 

(sometimes longer) . _ Pipilo (p. 402), 

n. Tail not more than three times as long as tarsus, 
usually less; outermost (ninth) primary distinctly 
shorter than secondaries. 
0. Eighth primary longer than secondaries. 
p. Tibial feathers short (normal), not clear yellow. 
q. Tail shorter than wing. 

/•. A white loral spot, or else outermost primary 
edged with white; edge of wing white, or 
else a yellow patch on side of neck and a 

white auricular spot Melozone (p. 437) 

rr. No white loral spot nor edging to outermost 
primary; back olive-green, or if gray a 
black or grayish brown band across chest; 
edge of wing yellow or olive-green, or, 
if white, a black or grayish brown band 
across chest; no yellow patch on sides of 
neck nor white auricular spot. 



'A very heterogeneous and probably unnatural genus, which, however, I am 
unable to subdivide. ~ 



BIRDS OF NOETH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 37 

8. Pileum 3-striped and a gray or white super- 
ciliary stripe, or else {Arre'nion, part) 
pileam and sides of head uniform black; 
throat and abdomen white. 
(. Sides of head grayish, relieved by a nar- 
row postocular streak of black or brown; 
superciliary stripe gray; tail olive-green, 
like back and -wings. Arremonops (p. 445) 
tt. Sides of head black, sometimes relieved 
by a white superciliary ytripe ; tail more 
or les^ dusky or slate color. 

Arremon (p. 454) 

ss. Pileum uniform chestnut; no superciliary 

stripe; throat dusky; abdomen yellow 

or olive-green Lysurus (p. 457) 

qq. Tail longer than wing, or else {Buarremon, part) 
very little shorter, and the bill very nar- 
row, with mandibular tomium straight to the 
prominent subbasal tooth, and maxilla with 
distinct subterminal tomial notch. 
r. Bill stouter, with mandible relatively deeper 
and shorter (depth at gonydeal angle nearly 
if not quite equal to half length of gonya, 
and nearly equal to depth of maxilla in 
front of nostril) ; under parts at least partly 

yellow' Atlapetea (p. 459) 

rr. Bill more slender, with mandible relatively 
shallower and longer (depth at gonydeal 
angle equal to about one-third length of 
gonys and much less than depth of maxilla 
in front of nostril); under parts white 
( except sides, etc. ) , with or without a black 

band across chest Buarremon (p. 464) 

pp. Tibial feathers long, covering tibio-taraal joint, 
clear yellow, in conspicuous contrast with gen- 
eral dark gray and black color of plumage. 

Pselliophorns (p. 469) 
on. Eighth primary shorter than secondaries. 

Pezopetes (p. 471) 



Genus HESPERIPHONA Bonaparte. 

Hesperiphona Bonapakte, Compt. Rend., xxxi, 1850, 424. (Type, FringiUa vesper- 

tina Cooper.) 
Hesperophona (emendation) Ooues, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, Oct., 1882, 250. 

Large, long-winged, short-tailed, short-legged, and heavy-billed 
Fringillidse, with the wing nearly twice as long as the tail and pointed 
'ninth or eighth and ninth primaries longest) ; the tail slightl}- emargi- 
aate; tarsus not more than one-fifth as long as wing,. and little, if any, 
longer than culmen; adult males j^ellowish and black, with white on 

' Except in some South American species. 



38 BULLETIN" 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

wings; females grayish, with wings and tail blackish, varied with white; 
_young not streaked. 

Bill A'cry large, but decidedlj^ longer than deep, with culmen very 
broad, not ridged, decidedly convex onlj- at base and tijD; gonys A'ery 
long, nearly or quite equal ti^) length of maxilla from nostril; depth of 
bill at base greater than length of hind toe with claw, and nearly 
equal to length of tarsus; distance between nostrils more than half the 
length of the gonys; maxillary tomium gently concave for terminal 
half or more, nearly straight basallj', where not abruptly deflexed; 
mandibular tomium without subbasal angle, but gently arched, the 
summit of the arch nearly midway between the base and tip. Wing 
long (nearly five to more than five times as long as the short tarsus), 
pointed (ninth, eighth, and seA'enth primaries longest, the ninth longer 
than the sixth) ; primaries with normal tips, the longest exceeding the 
secondaries by nearly twice the length of the tarsus. Tail short 
(about three times as long as tarsus), emarginated, more than half 
hidden by the upper coverts. Tarsus very short, little if sluj longer 
than the culmen, about equal to middle toe and half its claw; lateral 
toes short, their claws falling considerably short of base of middle 
claw; hallux decidedly shorter that lateral toes, but much stouter. 

Colors. — Plumage rather compact; adult males largelj* yellow, the 
wings and tail black, with innermost secondaries and greater wing- 
coverts whitish; at least the crown and occiput black; females with 
grayish, or yellowish gray, replacing the yellow; young not streaked. 

Range. — Western temperate North America, from British Prov- 
inces to highlands of Gruatemala. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AM) SUBSPECIES OF HESPEEIPHONA. 

a. Forehead and superciliary region yellciw. 

h. Bill relatively shorter and thicker (culmen averaging 19.05, depth at base 16.51, 
width of mandible at base 14.48); yellow frontal band broader (averaging 
8.89). (Interior of Xorth America, northward, east of Rocky Mountains, 
straggling eastward in winter. ) .Hesperipiona vespertina vespertina, male (p. 39) 
lib. Bill relatively longer and narrower (culmen averaging 20.-32 or more, depth of 
bill at base averaging not more than 16.00, width of mandible at base averag- 
ing not more than 13.97); yellow frontal band narrower (averaging not more 
than 7.62). 
0. Bill larger and stouter (culmen averaging 20.57, depth at base 16.00, width of 
mandible at base 13.97); yellow frontal band broader (averaging 7.62). 
(Western North America south to northern Mexico.) 

Hesperiphona vespertina montana, male (p. 41) 
ce. Bill smaller and narrower (culmen averaging 20.32, depth at base 13.97, width 
of mandible at base 12.70); yellow frontal band narrower (averaging 5.59). 
(Highlands of southern Mexico. ) 

Hesperiphona vespertina mexioana, male (p. 43) 
aa. Forehead and superciliary region not yellow. 

h. Head and neck entirely black. (Highlands of southern Jlexico and Guate- 
mala. ) Hesperiphona abeillii, male (p. 44) 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 39 

bb. Head and neck not entirely black. 

c. Pileum black Heaperiphona abeillii, female (p. 45) 

(V. Pileum grayish brown. 

d. (leneral color grayer; bill relatively shorter and thicker (culmen averaging 
18.54, depth at base 15.75, width of mandible at base 13.97). 

Hesperipliona vespertina vespertina, female (p. 39) 

dd. General color more buffy or browner; bill relatively longer and narrower 

(culmen averaging 20.07 or more, depth at base averaging not more than 

17.27, width of mandible at base 13.72 or less). 

e. Pileum paler (grayish brown or deep hair brown) ; culmen averaging 20.07, 

depth of bill at base 15.75, width of mandible at base 13.72. 

Hesperiphona vespertina montana, female (p. 42) 
ce. Pileum darker (dark grayish brown or sepia); culmen averaging 19.81, 
depth of bill at base 17.27, width of mandible at base 12.45. 

Hesperiplioua vespertina mexicana, female (p. 43) 

HESPERIPHONA VESPERTINA VESPERTINA (Cooper) 
EVENING GROSBEAK. 

Adult male. — Forehead (more or less broadly') and superciliary 
region yellow; rest of pileum black; rest of head with neck and upper 
back plain olive, lighter and more yellowish olive on throat, changing 
gradually to clear lemon j^ellow on scapulars and rump and to lighter 
(more citron) yellow on posterior under parts, the longer under tail- 
coverts sometimes partly white; upper tail-coverts and tail black; 
wings black, except innermost greater coverts and secondaries (ter- 
tials) which are white or pale grajdsh, the former sometimes edged with 
yellow; bill light olive-yellowish or pale yellowish green; iris brown; 
legs and feet light brownish; length (skins), 171.45-195.58 (182.12); 
wing, 105.66-11Y.35 (111.00); tail, 62.99-71.12 (66.55); culmen, 17.27- 
20.57 (19.05); depth of bill at base, 15.49-17.78 (16.51); width of 
mandible at base, 13.21-15.2-i (14.48); tarsus, 20.57-23.11 (21.84); 
middle toe, 16.76-19.06 (17.78).' 

Adalt female. — Above plain deep smoke gi'ay, the head darker (more 
mouse gray), the rump paler (pale smoke gray or light drab-gray), the 
hindneck more or less tinged with j'ellowish olive-green; throat, abdo- 
men, and under tail-coverts white, the first with a du.sky (submalar) 
streak along each side; rest of under parts light buffy grayish, usually 
more or less tinged with j-ellow, especially on sides of chest; axillars 
and most of under wing-coverts light yellow; wings dull black, with 
innermost greater coverts largel}' dull white, tertials largely light 
gray with white terminal mai'gins, the primaries more or less edged 
with white and pale gray, all except the three outermost quills white 
at base, forming a distinct patch; upper tail-coverts black with large 
terminal spots of pale buffy grayish and white; tail black, with inner 

^Varying in width from 5.08 to 15.24, averaging 8.89. 
^Twenty-two specimens. 



40 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

webs of rectrices broadly white at tips; length (skins), 165.10-190.50 
(176.28); wing, 105. -11-112.52 (108.46); tail, 62.74-70.61 (66.04); cul. 
men, 15.75-20.32 (1S.54); depth of bill at base, 15.24-17.27 (15.75); 
width of mandible at" base, 13.21-14.73 (13.97); tarsus, 20.32-22.86 
(20.83); middle toe. 17.27-19.05 (17.78).' 

Young. — Similar to adult female, but colors much duller and more 
brownish, with markings less sharply defined; duskj^ submalar streak 
less distinct, sometimes obsolete; under parts paler and more buffy, 
with little if anj' gray; bill dull horn color or brownish. 

Interior districts of North America east of Rocky Mountains; north 
(in winter) to the Saskatchewan; south, in winter, more or less irreg- 
ularly, to Kansas,' Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Ohio, etc.; eastward, 
irregularly and in winter onlj% to Ontario, New York, and New Eng- 
land. (Breeding range unknown.) 

Pringilla vespertina Cooper (W. ), Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., i, pt. ii, 1825,220 
(Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan).— Bonaparte, Am. Orn., ii, 1828, 75, pi. 15, fig. 
1; Ann. Nat. His. Lye. N. Y. ii, 1828, 113; Zool. Journ., iv, pt. ii, 1828, 2.— 
NuTTALL, Man. Orn. U. S. and Canad., i, 1832, 526. — Audubon, Orn. Biog., iv, 
1838, 515; v, 1839, 235, pLs. 373, 374. 

Coccothraustes vespertina Swainson and Richardson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 
269, pi. 68 (Saskatchewan and shores of Lake Superior in summer). — Jar- 
dine, ed. Wilson's Am. Orn.,iii, 1832, 432, pi. 15, fig. 1. — Bonaparte, Geog. and 
Comp. List, 1838, 30.— Audubon, Birds Am., oet. ed., iii, 1841, 217, pi. 207.— 
Cottle, Canad. Journ., iii, 1855, 287 (historical and descriptive). — American 
Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 514, part. — Thompson, Auk, iv, 
1887,256 (Toronto, Ontario, Apr. 2); vii, 1890, 211 (Kingston, Toronto, and 
Hamilton, Ontario, winter). — Pindar, Auk, iv, 1887, 257 (Hickman, Ken- 
tucky, Mar.); vi, 1890, 314 (do.).— Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 177 
(Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin; localities and dates); Auk, vii, 1890, 210 
(Burlington, Vermont, Feb. ). — Keyes, Auk, v, 1888, 114 (Iowa City, Charles 
City, Griunell, and Burlington; Iowa, winter). — Coleman, Auk, v, 1888, 
425 (Nemaha Co., Nebraska, Mar.).— Wintle, Auk, vii, 1890, 209 (Mon- 
treal, Canada, Jan.). — Bergtold, Auk,, vii, 1890, 209 (Erie Co., New York, 
Jan. 18, Apr. 15). — Clark, Auk, vii, 1890, 210 (Amherst, Massachusetts, 
Jan.). — FoRBusH, Auk, vii, 1890, 210 (East Brimfield, Massachusetts, Feb. 
1). — Averill, Auk, vii, 1890, 211 (Gay lords ville, Connecticut, Mar. 10). — 
Poling, Auk, vii, 1890,238 (Champaign, Illinois, Nov. 12, Apr. 1). — Brent, 
Auk, vii, 1890, 2S9 (Taunton, Jlassachusetts, Mar. 8).— Morris, Auk, vii, 
1890, 289 (Springfield, Massachusetts, Mar. 21).— Warren, Birds Penn- 
sylvania, 1890, 224 (numerous records). — Goss, Birds Kansas, 1891, 412 
(rare winter visit.). — Marshall, Auk, ix, 1892, 203 (Steuben Co., New York, 
Feb.).— Nehrling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 21, pi. 21, fig. 1. 

('.[occotliraustes] vespertinus Ridgway, Ann. Lye. N. Y., x, 1874, 371 (n. Illi- 
nois in winter); Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 387, part, 601. 

Coccothraustes vespertinus Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 
426, part (in synonymy, etc.) . — Thompson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1891, 
584 (Manitoba, winter A'isit; habits). — Butler, Auk, x, 1893, 155 (Indiana, 
Wisconsin, Michigan, and Ontario records; habits); Birds Indiana, 1897, 911 



' Twenty-nine specimens 



BIRDS OF KOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEEICA. 41 

(winter visit, n. and central parts, s. to Indianapolis). — Sage, Auk, x, 1893, 
207 (East Hampton, Connecticut, Mar. 2). — Americax Okxithologists' 
Union, Check List, 2d ed., 1895, no. 514.— Tuttle, Auk, xii, 1895, 190 (Erie 
Co., Ohio, Jan.). — Knight, Bull. Univ. Maine, no. 3, 1897, H9 (Androscog- 
gin, Oxford, and Penobscot counties, Maine, casual in winter). 

C. loccothraustesj vespertina Eidgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 387, part. 

ficsperip/iono wsperiina Bonaparte, Compt. Rend., xxxi, Sept., 1850, 424. — Baird, 
Rep. Pacific E. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 409, part (in synonymy, etc.); Cat. N. 
Am. Birds, 1859, no. 303, part.— Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1858, 
191 (n. Illinois) .—Kirtland, Ohio Farmer, ix, March 24, 1860 (Ohio).— 
Blakiston, Ibis, 1862,5 (Forks of Saskatchewan, Nov.); 1863,69 (Saskat- 
chewan, Nov.-Apr. 22). — Lawrence, Ann. Lye. N. Y., viii, 1866, 289 
(vie. New York City). — Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 136, part; Birds 
N. W., 1874, 104, part; Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879,65, part (synonymy 
and biography). — Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 
1874, 449, part. — Snow, Birds Kansas, 3d ed., 1875, 6 (e. Kansas, Nov. ). — Tif- 
fany', Am. Nat., xii, 1878, 471 (Minneapolis, Minnesota, winter; habits). — 
Roberts, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 237 (IMinnesota, till May 19).— 
Eidgway, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 165.— Hay, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 
vi, 1881, 179 (Woodford Co., Illinois, fall).— Agersborg, Auk, ii, 1885, 279 
(s. e. South Dakota). — Seton, Auk, ii, 1885, 334 (Toronto, Ontario, Dec). — 
Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 32, part (in synonymy, etc.). 

[Hesperiphona] vespertina Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 505, part. — Coues, 
Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 127, part. 

H. [esperiphonal vespertina Nelson, Bull. Essex Inst., viii, 1876, 104 (n. e. Illinois, 
winter). 

Hesperophona vespertina Coues, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, Oct., 1882, 250 
(Onondaga Co., New York, July 8); Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 189, 
part. — WiLLAKD, Auk, iii, 1886, 487 (Brown Co., AVisconsin, Nov. 28). 

H.lesperophonal vespertina Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 18S4, 344, part. 

[^Hesperiphona vespertina'] var. vespertina Baird, Brewer, and Eidgway, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 449. 

[Hesperiphona vespertina.] Var. vespertina Baird, Brewer, and Eidgway, N. 
Am. B., i, 1874, 450, in text. 

Hesperiphona vespertina, var. vespertina Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. 
Am. Birds, i, 1874, pi. 22, fig. 1. 

Coccohorus vespertinus Hoy, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1853, 383 ("Wisconsin). 

Loxia honapartei Lesson, Ferussac's Bull. Scient. Nat., xxvi, Aug., 1831, 190. 

" Coccothraustes bonapartii Less[on], 'lUust. de Zool., 1834, pi. 34 (J, Melville 
Isl.)." (CoUES.) 

Hesperiphona vespertina, var. montana {nomen nudum) Ridgway' Bull. Essex 
Inst., V, 1873, 189 (Waukegan, Ills.; crit. ). — Baihd, Brewer, and Ridgway, 
Hist. N. Am. Birds, iii, 1874, 508 (AVaukegan, Illinois; not of vol. i, p. 449). 

HESPERIPHONA VESPERTINA MONTANA Ridgway. 
WESTEElf EVENING GROSBEAK. 

Similar to II. v. vespertina, but witli somewhat longer and relatively 
narrower bill; adult male not appreciabl}^, or at least not constantly, 
different in coloration from ttat of II. v. vespertina, but with A'ellow 
band across forehead averaging narrower^ and perhaps with flanks 

' Varying from 5.08 to 9.40; averaging 7.62. 



42 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

and abdomen more strongly tinged with olivaceous ; adult female more 
buffy than that of II. v. ivyjerf/iin, especially on under parts. 

^Uult //;«/.'.— Length (skins), 170.18-185.42 (177.04); wing, 105.92- 
116.59 (109.73); tail, <',3. 50-73.15 (Od.Ol); culmen, 19.56-22.61 (20.57); 
depth of bill at liasc, 15.19-17.27 (16.00); width of mandible at base, 
12.15-15.21 (13.97); tarsus, 20.32-22.86 (21.34); middle toe, 17.53-19.81 
(18.03).^ 

.l^////;'/;'//»(/c'. —Length (skins), 165.10-185.42(174.75); wing, 104.14- 
111.76 (107.70); tail, 60.96-70.61 (65.02); culmen, 19.05-21.08(20.07); 
depth of bill at base, 14.99-16.51 (15.75); width of mandible at base, 
12.95-14.73 (13.72); tarsus, 20.07-22.35 (21.34); middle toe, 16.51-18.29 
(18.03).- 

Western United States and Northern Mexico; east to and including 
Kocky Mountains; north to British Columbia. 

Frhigilla ccsperlina (not of "\V. Cooper, 1825) Townsexd, Journ. Ac. Xat. Sci. Phila., 
viii, 1839, 154 ( Columbia E. ) . 

Coccothrauates veupcrlina 'R'ETS'R'i , Proc. Ac. Xat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 312 (Xew Mex- 
ico). — Anthony, Auk, iii, 1886, 168 (Washington Co., Oregon). — American 
Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 514, part. — Scott, Auk, iv, 
1887, 196 (Sta. Catalina Mts., s. Arizona, Nov.).— Townsexd, Proc. U.S. 
Nat. 5Ius., X, 1887, 215 (Ft. Crook and Yreka, n. California). — Swinburne, 
Auk, V, 1888, 113 (AVhite Jits., Arizona, breeding; descr. next and eggs). — 
Merrill, Auk, v, 1888, 357, (Ft. Klamath, e. Oregon; habits; color of bill, 
etc.). — Shufeldt, Auk, vi, 1889, 73 (Ft. Wingate, New Mexico; habits, etc.); 
vii, 1890, 93 (habits in captivity). — JIearns, Auk, vii, 1890, 49 (n. e. Arizona). 

Coccothraustes vespertinits Gameel, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., i, 1847, 49 (near 
Salt Lake City, Utah, Oct.). — Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 123 (n. Mexico) .— 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 426, part (in synonymy, 
etc.). 

[Coccothraustes'] iesjiertimis Sclatek and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 34, part. 

i'.[occothraMstes'] KcsperlUim Ridgw.vy, Jlan. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 387, part, 
601. 

C.[qccotliraustes'\ respcH'uia Eidgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 387, part. 

Hesperiphona rcspertlna Baird, Kep. Pacific E. E. Surv., ix, 1858, 409, chiefly (Co- 
lumbia E.; Ft. Vancouver, Washington; Ft. Thorn, New Mexico) ; Cat. N.Am. 
Birds, 1859, no. 803, part.— Henry, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1859, 107 (New 
jMexico) . — Cooper and Suckley, Eep. Pacific E. E. Surv., xii, pt. ii, 1859, 196 
(Ft. Vancouver, Washington). — Ooues, Check List, 1873, no. 136, part; Birds 
N. W., 1874, 104, part. Bull Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 65, part (sjTionymy, 
biography). — Cooper, Am. Nat., iii, 1869,75 (Montana); Orn. Cal., 1870, 174. — 
Aiken, Proc. Bost. Soc. N.H., xv, 1872,199 (Wyoming) . — Henshaw, Rep.Om. 
Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1873 (1874), 109 (s. of Apache, Arizona, Sept. 11) ; ZooL 
Exp. W., 100th :\[erid., 1875, 239 (do.); List Birds Arizona, 1875, 158.— (?) 
Snow, Birds Kansas, 3d ed. , 1875, 6 (Ellis, w. Kansas, Nov.) . — Stephens, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 93 (New :Mexico).— Allen, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 
iv, 1879, 237 (s. New ilexico, Jan., May). — Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. 3Iua., i, 
1879,412 (Soda Springs, California, Sept.). — Eidgway, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 
1881, no. 165, part.— Drew, Auk, ii, 1885,15 (Colorado, 5,000-8,000 ft.).— 
Scott, Auk., ii, 1885, 349 (s. Arizona). — Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 
1888, 32, part (Brit. Columbia; Oregon). 

'Sixteen specimens. ^Thirteen specimens. 



. BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 43 

IHcsperiphona] resperfina CouEs, Key X. Am. Birds, 1872, 127, part. 
Hesperpliona vcxpcrtina Coues, Proc. Ac. Nat. Soi. Phila., 1866, 80 (Ft. Whipple, 

Arizona). 
Hesperophona vespcHina Codes, Check List, 2(1 ed. , 1882, no. 189, part. — Beewstee, 
Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 227 (Walla Walla, e. Washington) .—Scott, 
Auk, ii, 1885, 174: (s. Arizona). 
H.[espcriiphoiHi^ respieriina Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 342, part. 
Hesperiphona vespertma, var. montana Ridgway, Bull. Essex lust., v, Nov., 187.3, 
181 (Colorado; nomennudumj). — Baied, Beewek, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, i, 1874, pi. 22, fig. 4. 
IHesperiphona respertina} var. montana Ridgway, in Baird, Brewer, and Ridg- 
way's Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 449, part^ (type from Cantonment Bur- 
gwyn, New Mexico; U. S. Nat. JMus.). 
\_Hesperiphona vespertina.'] Var. montana Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. 

Am. Birds, i, 1874, 450, in text. 
Hesperiphona vespertina montana Goode, Bull. U. S. Nat. 3Ius., no. 20, 1883, 323. 
C'occothraustes vespertina montana Meaens, Auk, vii, July, 1890, 246 (crit. ; descr.), 
258 (Ft. Verde, Arizona).— Meeeiam, North Am. Fauna No. 5, 1891,101 
(head waters Payette R., centr. Idaho, July). 
Coccothraustes vespertinus montanus American Oenithologists' Union Committee, 
Auk, viii, Jan., 1891, 85, part; Check List, 2d ed., 1895, No. 514 a, part. — 
Fishee, North American Fauna No. 7, 1893, 79 (Auburn, California, 
Oct.).— Lowe, Auk, xi, 1894, 269 (Wet Mts., Colorado, 10,000 ft.).— 
Meeeill, Auk, XV, 1898, 14 (Ft. Sherman, Idaho, May to July 29).— 
SwAETH, Bull. Coop. Oru. Club, i, 1899, 95 (summit Mt. Wilson, Los 
Angeles Co., California, Oct. 30). 
C.[pccoth.raustes\ vespertinus montanus Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 
601, part. 



HESPERIPHONA VESPERTINA MEXICANA (Chapman). 
MEXICAN EVENING GKOSBEAK, 

Similar to If. v. montana, but bill smaller and more slender; adult 
male with yellow frontal band narrower,^ and adult female with color 
of the pileum decidedlj^ darker. 

Adult wirtA/.— Length (skins), 165.10-175.26 (170.18); wing, 109.22- 
112.27 (111.25); tail, 64.77-70.61 (66.80); oiilmen, 19.56-20.83 (20.32); 
depth of bill at base, 13.97; width of mandible at base, 12.70-13.21 
(12.70); tarsus, 20.32-21.69 (21.08); middle toe, 17.78-19.05 (18.03); 
width of yellow frontal band, 5.08-6.86 (5.59).' 

Adult female.—L&ngih [skins), 154.94-160.02 (157.73); wing, 106.43- 
109.73(107.95); tail, 61.72-64.52 (63.25); culmen, 18.54-20.32 (19.81); 

' First characterized (but unfortunately not named) by Professor Baird in Cooper's 
Ornithology of California (1870, p. 175), and a colored figure of the head of the adult 
male (the same as that afterwards published in History of North American Birds) 
given, the form being referred to as one of "two strongly marked varieties" which 
had been differentiated b}^ me. 

^ Varying from 5.08 to 6.86, averaging 5.59. 

^ Four specimens. 



44 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

depth of bill at base, 13.97-15.49 (11.73); width of mandible at base, 
12.19-12.95 (12.15); tarsus, 19.05-21.59 (20.32); middle -toe, 16.00- 
18.29 (IT.27).^ 

Mountains of southei'n Mexico, in States of Oaxaca (Sierra San 
Felipe), Vera Cruz (Orizaba, L:is Vigas, Mirador), Puebla (Chalchico- 
mula), Mexico (Monte Alto), Durango (El Salto), etc. 

IHespeiijtIiona] vespertimi (not FringiUa vespertina W. Cooper, 1825) Bonaparte, 

Consp. Av., i, 1850, 505, part (Mexico). 
Hesperiphona i-esjiertiuii Si'michkast, Mem. Bost. Soc. X. H., i, 1869, 550 (Monte 

Alto, near City of Mexico, May). — Cooper, Orn. Cal., 1870, 174, part 

(Me.^ico. ) — Baird, Brewer, and Bidgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 449, 

part.— CouES, Birds N. W., 1874, 104, part; Bull Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 

65, part (in synonymy). — Ridrway, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 165, part. — 

Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 32, part (Vera Cruz). 
Coccothraustes vespertinus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1860, 251 (Orizaba, 

Vera Cruz).— Sata-in, Cat. Strickland Coll., 1882, ,211 (Mexico).— Salvin and 

GoDMAS, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 426, chiefly (Monte Alto and 

Orizaba). 
[^Coccoihra itxtes'] vespertinus Sclater and Salvin, Xom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 34, part. 
Cloccothrm^tesl vespcrtixus Ridgway', Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 387, part. 
Coccothraustes respertiim American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, 

no. 514, part (Mexico). 
[Hesperiphona resperthial var. inontnna Ridgway, in Baird, Brewer, and Ridg- 

way's Hist. X. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 449, part (mts. of Mexico). 
Coccothra axles respertlna montana SIearns, Auk, vii, July, 1890, 246, part (Mirador, 

Vera Cruz). 
Coccothraastes vespertinus niontanus American Ornithologists' Union Committee, 

Auk, viii, Jan., 1891, 85, part (Mexico); Check List, 2d ed., 1895, no. 514o, 

part. 
C.[occothraustes1 respertinus montaans Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 

601, part CN'era Cruz). 
Coccothraustes vespertiims me.ricamis Chapman, Auk, xiv, July, 1897, 311 (Las 

Vigas, Vera Cruz, e. 3Iexico, alt. 8,000 ft.; Am. Mus. Xat. Hist.). 



HESPERIPHONA ABEILLII (Lesson). 
ABEILLE'S GROSBEAK, 

Adult male with head entirely black (all round); adult female with 
pileum black and without dusky streak on sides of throat. 

Adult male. — Head and neck all round uniform deep black; back, 
scapulars and rump light oliA'e-green, more j^ellowish on rump; under 
parts (except throat and foreneck) olive-A'ellow, paler posteriorly; 
thighs black, the feathers more or less margined with light olive or 
grayish; wings, tail, and upper tail-coverts black; innermost second- 
aries (tertials) and corresponding greater Aving-coverts mostly graj'ish; 
fourth to seventh primaries sometimes with a white spot at base; 
bill olive-grayish, with tip and tomia yellowish; feet light brownish; 

' Four specimens. 



BIRDS OF NOKTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 45 

length (skins), 105.10-177.80 (170.69); wing, 100.33-106.17 (l"o.63); 
tail, 59.69-63.50 (61.9S); culmen, 20.32-21.59 (20.83); depth of bill at 
base, 14.99-16.51 (15.49); width of mandible at base, 13.97-14.73 
(14.48); tarsus, 19.81-20.57 (20.32); middle toe, 15.75-17-27 (10.51)'. 

Adult female. — Entire pileum, including nape, uniform black; lores, 
anterior portion of malar region, and chin black or dusky; sides of 
head (except as described), back, scapulars, and rump grayish olive- 
greenish; under parts light yellowish olive, washed Avith brownish 
bufi'y posteriorlj', the throat dull buiiy whitish or pale graj'ish; wings 
and tail as in adult male, but the black duller; innermost primaries 
always (?) with a white spot at base, and inner webs of one to three 
outermost rectrices with a more or less extensi\-e white terminal spot, 
the upper tail-coverts also sometimes tipped with white; length (skins) 
163.32-182.88 (172.21); wing, 101.60-104.14 (102.87); tail, 50.69-62.23 
(60.96); culmen, 19.80-22.36 (20.57); depth of bill at base 14.99-17.78 
(16.00); width of mandible at base, 13.72-15.49 (14.48); tarsus, 19.56- 
20.83 (20.32); middle toe, 15.49-16.76 (16.26).' 

Highlands of southern Mexico, in States of Vera Cruz (Jalapa, 
Orizaba), Puebla (Huachinango), and Mexico, and Guatemala (Duenas, 
Coban, San Geronimo, Volcan de Fuego, etc.).'' 

(xuiraca a6ejH(i Lesson, Rev. Zool., 1839, 41 (Mexico). 

[^Hesperiphonci] abeillii Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 505. 

Hesperiphona abeillii Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. 8oc. X. H.,i, 1869,550 (temperate 

region. Vera Cruz). — Coues, Bull. Xutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 67, footnote 

(synonymy). 
Hesperiphona aheillxi Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mns., xii, 1888, 34 (near City of 

Mexico; Jalapa, Vera Cruz; Coban, San Geronimo, and Volcan de Fuego, 

Guatemala) . 
H. [esperiphond] abeillii Baird. Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 

1874, 449. 
Coccoi/iraustesafeeiH/i ScLATER and Salvin, Ibis, i, 1859, 19 (Guatemala). — Sclatbr, 

Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 365 (Jalapa); Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 123 

(Jalapa). — Salvin, Ibis, 1861, 352 (Volcan de Fuego, Chilasco, and Coban, 

Guatemala) ; 1866, 206. 
[CoccothraustesJ abeillii. Gr.ay, Hand-liet, ii, 1870, 87, no. 7289. 
C. lodcothraxistes'] abeillii Ridgway, JIan. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 387. 
\_Coccothrau8tes] abeillcei Sclateb and Salvin, Nom. Av. Xeotr. , 1873, 34. 
Coccothraustes abeillsci Salvin and Godman, Biol. Ceutr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 426. — 

CHAP5I.4.N, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., x, 1898, 30 (Jalapa, Vera Cruz; habits). 
Coccothraustes abeillei Lantz, Trans. Ivans. Ac, 1896-97 (1899), 222 (Coatepec, 



^Five specimens; four from Vera Cruz and Puebla; one from Guatemala. 

^ Five specimens; four from Huachinango, Puebla (January), and one from Duenas, 
Guatemala (September). 

^The single adult male from Guatemala examined is appreciably less greenish 
olive-yellow on the back, and the rump and under parts are decidedly deeper yel- 
low than in any of the four ^lexican specimens with which it has been compared. 
The single Guatemalan female examined has a larger and stouter bill than any of the 
Mexican females, and the under parts are more strongly washed with huffy brownish. 
A larger series may, however, show that these differences are not constant. 



46 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

[Hesperiphona^ respeHina (not Fringilla vespertina W. Cooper, 1825) Bonapaete, 

Consp. Av., i, 1850, 505, part (supposed young). 
Coccothraustes macuUpennis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1860, 251, pi. 163 

(Orizaba, Vera Cruz; coll. P. L. Sclater ;=adult female). — Sclateb and Sal- 

Tix, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1860, 398 (Altotenango, Guatemala). — Salvin, 

Ibis, 1865, 206. 

Genus LOXIA Linnaeus. 

Loxia Linnaeus, Syst. Xat.,ed. 10, i, 1758, 171. (Tjrpe, liy elmination, L. curvi- 

rostra Linnaeus. ) 
Cntcirostra Leach, Syst. Cat. Mamm., etc., Brit. Mus., 1816, 12. (Type, Loxia 

curvirostra Linnteus. ) 
Curtirostra Brehm, Ornis, iii, 1827, 85. (Type, Loxia currimstra Linnaeus.) 

Large to rather small arboreal finches, with the falcate maxilla and 
mandible crossed at tips. 

Bill much compressed terminally, with both maxilla and mandible 
falcate and crossed in adults; culmen and gonj'S both distinctly' ridged; 
mandibular tomium straight for basal half, concave thence to the tip; 
maxillary tomium without distinct basal deflection. Nasal plumules 
conspicuous, quite concealing nostrils. AVing long (about five and a 
half times as long as tarsus), pointed (three outermost primaries longest, 
the ninth decided^ longer than the sixth); primaries exceeding sec- 
ondaries bj' more than twice the length of the tarsus. Tail short (more 
than half as long as the wing) and narrow, deeply emarginated or 
forked, more than half hidden by the upper coverts. Tarsi short, little 
if any longer than commissure, not more than one-third as long as the 
tail, shorter than' middle toe with claw: lateral claws falling short of 
base of middle claw; hind toe as long as inner toe, its claw shoi'ter 
than its digit, but strongly curved. 

CuJni'f!. — Adult males red, with wings and tail black or dusky, the 
former with or without white bands. Adult females and immature (?) 
males with olive-greenish and j'ellowish replacing the red. Young 
.conspicuously streaked. 

RaiKje. — Palsearctic and Nearctic regions in general, except warmer 
parts; in the latter, south to high mountains of Guatemala; Philippine 
Islands (in mountains). 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OP LOXIA. 

a. "Wings dusky relieved only by narrow and usually indistinct edgings of paler. 
[Lox'ia ciirrirostra^) 
b. Smallest: Wing of male ad. averaging 87.38, tail 50.04, exposed culmen 16.51, 
depth of bill at base 10.16, tarsus 16.51, middle toe 13.72; colors slightly 
darker and duller. (Northern and eastern North America. ) 

Loxia curvirostra minor (p. 47) 

^ Loxia curvirostra curvirostra has been introduced; from Europe, into the United 
States, and may, unless lost by interbreeding with the native races, have become 
naturalized. It is intermediate in size between L. c. bendirei and L. c. stricklandi, 
but is duller colored than either. 



BIRDS OK NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 47 

bb. Larger: Wing of male ad. averaging 92.20 or more, culmen averaging not less 

than 18.54; colors slightly lighter and brighter. (Western United States 

and southward. ) 

c. Smaller: Wing of male ad. averaging 92.20, tail 52.58, culmen 18.54, depth of 

bill at base 11.43, tarsus 17.27, middle toe 13.97. (AVestcrn United States 

in coniferous forests. ) Loxia ourvirostra bendirei (p. 50 ) 

re. Largest: Wing of male ad. averaging 98.55, tail 56.13, culmen 19.81, depth of 
bill at base 12.45, tarsus 18.29, middle toe 15.24. (High mountains of south- 
ern Arizona and New Mexico to highlands of Guatemala. ) 

Loxia curvirostra stricklandi (p. 52) 

:a. Wings black relieved by two conspicuous white bands. (Northern North 

America; western Europe.) Loxia leucoptera (p. 53) 



LOXIA CURVIROSTRA MINOR (Brehm). 
AMERICAir CROSSBILL. 

Similar to i. c. curvirostra, but much smaller and with coloi-ation 
dai'ker. 

Adult mah'. — General color dull red (varying from dull brownish 
scarlet or almost orange-chrome in summier to a hue more or less 
approaching dragon's blood red in winter), the red brightest on rump, 
dullest on back and scapulars, where the feathers have more or lews 
distinct duskj' brownish centers; orbits, upper part of auricular 
region, spot at posterior extremity of malar region and another on 
each side of occiput dusky brownish, these markings not sharply 
defined, sometimes indistinct, but always evident; middle of abdomen 
more or less extensiA^ely light grajdsh; bill horn color, more dusky at 
tips; iris brown; legs and feet dusky brownish; length (skins), 128. 27- 
161.04 (143.00); wing, 80.77-93.22 (87.38); tail, 43.69-54.86 (50.04); 
exposed culmen, 14.48-18.54 (16.51); depth of bill at base, 8.89-11.08 
(10.16); tarsus, 14.73-18.29(16.51); middle toe, 12.70-15.49 (13.72).^ 

Adult female. — The red of the adult male replaced by grayish olive 
or olive-grayish more or less extensivelj^ overlaid by bright yellowish 
olive or dull saffron yellow, this brighter color always evident on 
rimip and sometimes prevalent over under parts (except abdomen and 
under tail-coverts); wings and tail less dark, more grajdsh dusky; 
length (skins), 125.22-153.92 (128.27); wing, 78.74-90.68 (85.09); tail, 
38.10-53.85 (48.61); exposed culmen, 13.72-17.78 (16.00); depth of bill 
at base, 8.38-11.43 (9.91); tarsus, 14.73-17.78 (16.51); middle toe, 
12.70-14.48 (13.72).' 

Immature {?) male. — Exactly like the adult female in coloration. 
(Many specimens determined \>j dissection to be males are quite indis- 
tinguishable from adult females in coloration; others are variously 
intermediate in coloration between adult males and females; whether 

1 Seventy-six specimens. ^Forty-two specimens. 



48 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



these are really immature birds is doubtful, and it has been suspected 
that some males never acquire the red plumage.) ^ 

Young. — Wings and tail as in adult female; upper parts pale gray- 
ish, more or less mixed or tinged with olive on back and scapulars 
(sometimes almost white on head, neck, and rump), everywhere broadly 
streaked with dusky; beneath whitish, usually more or less tinged 
with olive, conspicuously streaked with dusky or dusky olive. 

Northern and eastern Xorth America, breeding in coniferous forest 
districts from southern Alleghanies in northern Georgia (sporadically 
toward coast in Maryland, Virginia, etc.), Michigan, etc., to Nova 
Scotia, to Fort Anderson in the interior, and to western Alaska, and 
southward through Pacific coast district to western Oregon; in winter 
irregularly southward to South Carolina (vicinity of Charleston); Lou- 
isiana (Mandeville, New Orleans, etc.); Nevada (East Humboldt Moun- 
tains), etc.; casually to the Bermudas. 

Loxia . . curvirostra (not Linnseus) Forstee, Philos. Trans., Ixii, 1772, 402 
(Severn River). 

Loxia curvirostra Swainson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 264.— Nuttall, Man. Orn. 
U. S. and Canad., i, 1832, 583.— Audubon, Orn. Biog., ii, 1834, 559; v, 1839, 511, 
pi. 197; Synopsis, 1839, 128; Birds Am., Oct. ed., iii, 1841, 186, pi. 200.— J ae- 
DiNE, ed. Wilson's Am. Orn., ii, 1832, 37, pi. 31, iigs. 1, 2. — Huedis, Jardine's 
Contr. Orn., 1850, 37 (Bermudas, 1 spec. Jan., 1849). — Shahpe, Catt Birds Brit. 
Mus., xii, 1888, 435, part. 



' The same question applies to so-called immature males of Pinicola, Carpodcicus, etc. 
Considering the very great extent of country inhabited exclusively by this small 
form, the considerable variations of size and coloration observable seem to be purely 
individual and not at all correlated with difference of locality. The following aver- 
age measurements of several series, grouped according to locality, will serve to show 
that there is certainly no material variation of size according to latitude: 



Locality. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 


Depth 
of bill 
at base. 


Tarsus. 


Middle 
toe. 


MALES. 

Eight adult males from coast of Oregon to Alaska. . 
Ten adult males from Michigan to Pennsylvania 


85. 09 

S7.12 
89.41 
83.82 
87.38 

89.15 

83.57 
86.36 
82.30 
59.69 
86.87 


•18. 26 

49.78 
62. 58 
49. 7S 
49.53 

51.31 

47.50 
50. 04 
45.97 
48.26 
50.55 


1.5.49 

16.51 
17.27 
iri. 49 
16.26 

17.27 

14.73 
17.27 
15. 75 
16.00 
17.27 


9.91 

10.92 
10.16 
9.40 
10.16 

10.67 

9.40 
10.41 
9.65 
9.65 
10.41 


16.26 

16.51 
16.51 
16.51 
16.51 

17.02 

16.26 
17.02 
16. 26 
16. 51 
16.76 


18.46 
13 97 


Six adult males from Massachusetts to Maine 


13.72 


Thirty-three adult males from District of Columbia. 
Thirteen adult males from South Carolina (Charles- 
ton) 


13.72 


FEMALES. 

Four adult females from coast of Washington to 




Four adult females from Massachusetts to Maine . . . 

Three adult females from Nebraska (Omaha) 

Twenty-six adult females from District of Columbia. 
Four adult females from South Carolina ( Charleston ) 


13.72 
13.72 
13.72 
18.72 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 49 

Curvirostra americana (not Loxia americana Gmelin, 1788) Wilson, Am. Orn., iv, 
1811, 44, pi. 31, figs. 1, 2.— Baihd, Rep. Pacific E. E. Surv., ix, 1858, 426, part 
(Pennsylvania; New York; Fort Steilacoom and Shoalwater Bay, Washing- 
ton); Cat. N.Am. Birds, 1859, no. 318. — Coopek and Suckley, Eep. Pacific 
E. E. SuTv., xii, pt. ii, 1860, 198 (coast of Washington). — Dall and Bannis- 
TEH, Trans. Chicago Ac. Sci., i, 1869, 281 (Sitka, Alaska).— Coopee, Orn. Cal., 
1870, 148, part. 

[Curvirostra] americana Codes, Key N.Am. Birds, 1872, 129, part. 

Loxia americana (not Gmelin, 1788) Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 
38. — Bonaparte and Schlegel, Mon. Lox., 1850, 5, pi. 6. — Sclater, Cat. Am. 
Birds, 1862, 121 (Nova Scotia).— Finsch, Abh. Nat. Ver.Brem.,iii, 1872, 56 
(coast of Alaska). — Baird, Bretveh, and Eidgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 
1874, pi. 23, figs. 1, 4.— Eidgway, Orn. 40th Parallel, 1877, 455 (E. Humboldt 
Mts., Nevada, August, Sept.). — Lanqdon, Birds Cincinnati, 1877, 8 (Hamil- 
ton Co., Ohio, Nov. 30).— Brewer, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 50 (breed- 
ing at Eandolph, Vermont; nesting habits). 

L. loxia} americana Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1845, 888. — Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 
1850, 527. 

[Loxia curvirostra'] /S. americana Blasius, List Birds Europe (ed. Newton), 
1862, 14. 

Loxia curvirostra . . . var. americana Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 143. 

L. [oxia] curvirostra . . . var. americana Eidgway, Ann. Lye. N. Y., x, Jan., 1874, 
372 (Illinois in winter). 

Loxia curvirostra var. americana Baihd, Brewer, and Eidgway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, i, 1874, 484, part.— Bicknell, Am. Nat., x, 1876, 237 (breeding at 
Eiverdale, s. e. New York). — Jouy, Field and Forest, ii, 1877, 155 (District 
Columbia). 

L. [oxia] curvirostra var. americana Nelson, Bull.- Essex Inst., viii, 1876, 105 
(n. e. Illinois in winter). 

[Loxia curvirostra var. americana] b. americana Coues, Birds N. W., 1874, 109. 

Loxia curvirostra americana Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, July, 1878, 117 
(descr. supposed female juv. = female ad.?). — Bicknell, Bull. Nutt. Orn. 
Club, V, 1880, 7 (breeding at Eiverdale, s. e. New York; breeding habits; 
descr. nest and eggs); Auk, i, 1884, 327 (song). — Smith, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 
vi, 1881, 56 (Cumberland plateau, e. Tennessee, Aug.). — Eidgway, Nom. N. 
Am. Birds, 1881, no. 172; Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., ii, 1884, 105 (crit.); Auk, i, 
1884, 292 (Laurel, etc., Maryland, probably breeding). — Coues, Check List, 
2d ed., 1882, no. 199.— Nelson, Cruise "Corwin," 1881 (1883), 66 (St. 
Michael, Alaska, 1 spec). — Finsch, Journ. fiir Orn. 1883, 274 (Portage Bay, 
Alaska, Feb.). — Browne, Auk, ii, 1885,105 (Framingham, e.. Massachusetts, 
bTeeding). 

L. [oxia] curvirostra americana Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 349. 

[Loxia crucirostra] var. americana Dvsois, Bull. Mus. Eoy. Belg., i, Oct., 1882, 6, 
part (synonymy; geog. range). 

Crucirostra minor Beehm, Naumannia, iii, 1853, 193, fig. 12 (coniferous forests of 
United States; ex Loxia minor Lichtenstein, MS.). 

Loxia curvirostra minor Eidgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, Sept. 2, 1885, 354. — 
American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 521, part. — Brews- 
ter, Auk, iii, 1886, 107 (Black Mts., North Carolina, above 5,000 feet in 
summer). — Anthony, Auk, iii, 1886, 168 (n. w. Oregon). — Seton, Auk, iii, 
1886, 322 (w. Manitoba in winter). — Turner, Contr. Nat. Hist. Alaska, 1886, 
170 (St. Michael, Alaska, 1 spec. Aug. 4).— Nelson, Eep. Nat. Hist. Coll. 
Alaska, 1887, 173 (coast Alaska south of peninsula).— Wayne, Auk, iv, 1887, 

17024—01 4 



50 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

287 (near Charleston, South Carohna, Dec, 1886 to Feb., 1887, abundant); v, 
1888, 115 (do., Xov.).— Allex, Auk, v, 1888, 325 (MandevUle, Louisiana, 
Mar. 27).— CooKE, Bird Migr. Miss. Yal., 1888, 180 (dates, etc.).— Ever- 
MAN.N', Auk, vi, 1889, 24 (Carroll Co., Indiana, Dec. 26 to Apr. 23).— Millek, 
Auk, vii, 1890, 228 (breeding near Cape Cod, Massachusetts). — Chapman, 
Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., iii, 1890, 143 (Brit. Columbia).— Faxxix, Check List, 
Birds Brit Columbia, 1891, .34 (throughout). — Macfaelake, Proc. D.S.Nat. 
Mus.,xiv, 1891, 440 (Fort Anderson, June 20).— Thompson, Proc. V. S. Nat. 
Mus., xiii, 1891, 585 (Manitoba, winter; breeding?). — Butler, Proc. Ind. 
Acad. Sci.,1892, 63 (range in Ohio Valley). — L.-vwrence (R. H.), Auk, ix, 
1892, 45 (Gray's Harbor, Washington, resident). — Kennard, Auk, .xii, 1895, 
304 (Hamilton Co., New York, breeding). — Nehrling, Our Native Birds, 
etc., ii, 1896, 39.— Grinnell, Auk, xv, 1898, 128 (Sitka). 

L. loxici] curvirostra minor TiiDGWAY, Man. N. 'Am. Birds, 1887, 392. 

Loxia minor Nelson, Rep. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 174. 



LOXIA CURVIROSTRA BENDIREI Ridgway. 
BENDIRE'S CROSSBILL. 

Similar to Z. c. minor, but decidedly larger; adult male averaging 
rather lighter or brisrhter in color, the adult female slightly lighter and 
grayer. 

J/a/tf.— Length (skins), 135.13-158.24 (148.08); wing, 87.38-97.03 
(92.20); tail, 45.47-57.40 (52.58); exposed culmen, 16.26-20.83 (18.54); 
depth of bill at base, 10.16-11.94 (11.43); tarsus, 16.51-19.30 (17.53); 
middle toe, 12.70-15.49 (14.22).^ 

^emaZe.— Length (skins), 137.16-151.89 (145.29); wing, 88.82-92.96 
(87.88); tail, 43.18-54.36 (50.04); exposed culmen, 16.76-19.05 (18.03); 
depth of bill at base, 9.91-11.43 (10.67); tarsus, 16.51-17.78 (17.27); 
middle toe, 12.95-14.73 (13.97).' 

More northern and central mountain districts of western United 
States, from Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado to the Cascade Moun- 
tains and Sierra Nevada; during migration east to eastern Nebraska 

1 Thirty-eight specimens, 
^ Thirteen specimens. 

The following average measurements show the slight amount of variation in size 
according to locality: 



Locality. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 


Depth 
oi bill 
at base. 


Tarsus. 


Middle 
toe. 


MALES. 


92.96 
92.20 
91.44 

89.41 
88.90 
86.36 


62.32 
53.59 
51.56 

52.07 
49.53 
49.02 


17.78 
19.80 
18.29 

17.78 
18.03 

17.78 


11.43 
11.43 

11.43 
10.67 
10.16 


17.27 
17.78 
17.27 

17.02 
17.78 
17.02 


13.97 




14 48 






FEMALES. 






14.22 
13.97 







BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIci.. 51 

(Omaha) and Kansas (Lawrence, Manhattan, Emporia, etc.), west to 
coast district of California (Santa Cruz), casually to Guadalupe Island, 
Lower California, and south to New Mexico (upper Pecos Eiver, Las 
Vegas, etc.). 

Loxia americana (not Cun-irostra americana Wilson) Newberry, Rep. Pacific 
R. R. Surv., vi, pt. iv, 1857, 87 (Cascade Mts., Oregon; mts. n. Califor- 
nia). — (?) Allen, Proc. Bost. 'See. N. H., xvii, 1874, 55 (Bighorn and 
Musselshell rivers, etc., Montana). 

Ourvirostra americana (not of Wilson) Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 426, 
part (Des Chutes R., Oregon; Laramie Peak, '\\Voming), 924 (Rocky 
Mts. and Pacific slope), 927 (Ft. Bridger, Wyoming); Cat. N. Am. 
Birds, 1859, no. 318, part.— Cooper,, Orn. Cal., 1870, 148, part. 

Zioxia cwrvirostra . . . var. americana Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's 
Surv., 1873 (1874), 79 (mts. of Colorado, breeding), 158 (s. Rocky Mts.); 
Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 248 (do.) .— Bendike, Proc. Boston Soc. 
N. H!., 1877, 116 f Camp Harney, e. Oregon, winter).— Drew, Bull. Xutt. Orn. 
Club, vi, 1881, 143 (San Juan Co., Colorado, breeding at 7,500 ft.). 

Loxia curvirostra var. americana Nelson, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xvii, 1875, 844 
(30 m. s. of Ft. Bridger, Wyoming). 

Loxia curvirostra, /3. americana Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 412 (Sum- 
mit Meadows, California, Oct.) . 

L.[oxia'] cuTvirostra americana Henshaw. Orn. Rep. Wheeler's Surv., 1879, 293 
(e. slope Sierra Nevada) . 

Loxia curvirostra americana Drew, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1881, 143 (San Juan 
Co., Colorado, breeding at 7,500 ft.); Auk,ii, 1885, 16 (Colorado, breeding 
at 5,000-8,000 ft.).— Henshaw, Auk, ii, 1885, 333 (upper Pecos R., New 
Mexico, Oct. 20; breeding at Ft. Garland, Colorado). 

[Loxia crudrostral var. americana Dubois, Bull. Mus. Roy. Belg., i, 1882, 6, part. 

Curvirostra mexicana (not Loxia mexi^ana Strickland) Stevenson, Prelim. Rep. 
IT. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., 1871 (1872), 462 (Bitter Cottonwood, Green R., etc., 
Wyoming). 

Loxia curvirostra var. mexicana Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., v, Nov., 1873, 181, 
189 (Colorado).— Scott, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 93 (Twin Lakes, 
Colorado). 

Loxia curvirostra . . . var. meiicaMa Henshaw, Zool. Exp. AV. 100th Merid., 1875, 
248, part (Pagosa, Colorado). 

Loxia curvirostra, y. mexicana Ridoway, Field and Forest, iii. May, 1877, 197 
(Colorado, breeding). 

Loxia curvirostra mexicana Minot, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, Oct., 1880, 229 
(mts. of Colorado). — Allen and Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, viii, 1883, 
161 (Austins Bluffs, Colorado, Apr.; crit.). 

L. [oxia} c. [Urvirostra'] mexicana Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 350, part. 

Loxia curvirostra bendirei Ridgway', Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., ii, April 28, 1884, 101, 
part (type from Ft. Klamath, e. Oregon; TJ. S. Nat. Mus.); Man. N. Am. 
Birds, 1887, 392, footnote.— (?) Batchelder, Auk, ii, 1885, 128 (Las Vegas, 
New Mexico).— Merriam, North Am. Fauna, no. 16, 1899, 123 (Mt. Shasta, 
n. California; crit.) . 

Loxia curvirostra strichlandi (not Ridgway, 1885) American Ornithologists' 
Union, Check List, 1886, no. 561o, part (Colorado) . — Dyche, Auk, iii, 1886, 
258 (Lawrence, Kansas, Nov. 1 to Jan. 26) .-Brewster, Auk, iii, 1886, 260, 261 
(Lawrence, Kansas; crit.).— Bryant, Bull. Cal. Ac. Sci., no. 6, 1887, 297 
(Guadalupe I., Lower California). — Merrill, Auk, v, 1888, 358 (Et. Kla- 
math, e. Oregon). — Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. VaL, 1888, 180 (Lawrence, Man- 



52 BULLETIN 50, TINITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

hattan, and Emporia, e. Kansas, Nov. 5, 1885 to Jan. 26, 1886); Birds Colo- 
rado, 1897, 97 (resident).— Goss, Birds Kansas, 1891, 420 (winter resident).— 
Fisher, North Am. Fauna, no. 7, 1893, 81 (s. Sierra Nevada, near timber 
line, June to Sept. ) .— Lantz, Trans. Kans. Ac. Sci. for 1896-97 (1899), -263 
(Lawrence, Manhattan, and Emporia, Nov.). 

Loxia slricklandi Nelson, Eep. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 174, part (Colorado). 

Loxia curdrostra minor (not Crucirostra minor Brehm) American Ornitholo- 
gists' TJxioN, Check List, 1886, no. 521, part (Rocky Mts. to Colorado).— Town- 
send, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1887, 2l6 (Mt. Shasta, etc., n. California; 
habits).— Merrill, Auk, xv, 1898, 15 (Ft. Sherman, n. w. Idaho, breeding). 



LOXIA CURVIROSTRA STRICKLANDI Ridgway. 
UEXICAN CROSSBILL. 

Similar to Z. c. hendirei, but decidedly larger (the largest of Amer- 
ican forms). 

J/afe.— Length (skins), 150.88-161.29 (155.19); wing, 93.22-102.87 
(98.55); tail, 52.83-58.93 (56.13); exposed culmen, 18.80-21.84(19.81); 
depth of bill at base, 11.43-13.46 (12.45); tarsus, 17.53-18.80 (18.29); 
middle toe, 13.72-16.26 (15.24).' 

Female.— l^Qngth. (skins), 145.29-160.02(150.62); wing, 86.87-98.55 
(92.71); tail, 47.75-54.36 (51.31); exposed cuhnen, 17.78-20.57 (19.30); 
depth of bill at base, 10.41-12.45 (11.68); tarsus, 17.02-18.29 (17.78); 
middle toe, 12.70-15.24 (14.22).^ 

High mountains of central and southern New Mexico and Arizona 
(Chiricahua, Santa Catalina, and Mogollon ranges. Mount Graham, 
San Francisco Mountains, etc.), along higher ranges in Mexico (in 
coniferous belt) to Guatemala (Chaucus). 

Loxia mexicana (not of Linnseus) Strickland, Jardine's Contr. Orn., 1851, 43 
(City of Mexico). — Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 365 (Jalapa, Vera 
Cruz); 1864, 174 (City of Mexico); Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 122 (Jalapa).— 
Salvin, Ibis, 1866, 193 (Chaucus, Guatemala); Cat. Strickland Coll., 1882, 
202 (Mexico). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 424. 

Var. Curvirostra mexicana Baird, Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 318o. 

1 Thirteen specimens. 

^ Nine specimens. 

Specimens from Guatemala, Mexico, and Arizona average separately as follows: 



Locality. 


wing. 


Tail. 


Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 


Depth 
oJ bill 
at base. 


Tarsus. 


Middle 
toe. 


MALES. 


93.47 
100.33 
97.79 

90.93 
96.27 
90.93 


65.88 
56.39 
65.88 

52.07 
50.80 


20.07 
19.81 
19.81 

19.56 
19.66 
18.80 


11.43 
12.95 
12.45 

11.94 
12.45 
10.41 


18.03 
18.03 
18.29 

18.03 
17.78 
17.27 


16.24 




15.49 




14. 9» 


FEMALES. 


14.48 




14.73 


Four adult females from Arizona 


13 72 







BIBDS OF KOETH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 53 

\_Curvirosira americana.l Ya,r. mexicana CouES, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 129. 

Loxia curvirostra . . . var. mexicana Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 143«. — Hen- 
SHA-n-, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1873 (1874), 158 (Mt. Graham, s. 
Arizona); Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 248 (Jit. Graham, s. Arizona). 

Loxia curvirostra, var. mexicana Baikd, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. K". Am. 
Birds, i, 1874, 488, part. — Henshaw, Am. Sportsman, Feb. 20, 1875, 328 
(pine region of Arizona). 

[Loxia curvirostra, var. americana} c. mexicana Coues, Birds K". W., 1874, 109, 
part (synonymy). 

Loxia curvirostra mexicana Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, Aug. 24, 1880, 
176; Nom.N.Am.B., 1881, no. 172a.— Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 
200.— Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 193 (Chiricahua Mts., s. 
Arizona). 

L. [pxial c. [y.rvirostra'] mexicana Coues, Key N". Am. Birds, 1884, 350, part. 

[Loxia CTudrostra] var. mexicana Dubois, Bull. i\Ius. Boy. Belg. , Oct. , 1882, 7 (syn. ; 
geog. range) . 

Curvirostra mexicana Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., i, 1869, 551 (alpine region 
of Vera Cfuz, Mexico). 

Loxia americana (not Curvirostra americana Wilson) Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc, 
1864, 174 (Valley of Mexico). 

[Loxial americana Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 34. 

Curvirostra americana Sumichrast Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., i, 1869, 551 (alpine reg., 
Vera Cruz). 

Loxia curvirostra stricklandi Ridgway, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. , viii, no. 23, Sept. 2, 
1885, 354 (substitute forname mexicana, preoccupied). — American Ornithol- 
ogists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 521a (part). — Scott, Auk, iv, 1887, 
197 (Sta. Catalina Mts., s. Arizona).— Mearns, Auk, vii, 1890, 258 (MogoUon 
Mts., Arizona, breeding in pine belt). — Meeriam, North Am. Fauna, no. 3, 
1890, 40 (Grand Canyon of the Colorado), 95 (San Francisco Mt., in balsam 
belt). — Stone, Proc. Ac. Nat. Soi. Phila., 1890, 215 (Chalchicomula, Vera 
Cruz, 9,000 ft.) .—Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H. , x, 1898, 41 (Las Vigas, Vera 
Cruz, 8,000 ft.). 

Loxia stricklandi Nelson, Rep. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 174, part (Arizona). 

Loxia curvirostra (not of Linnseus) Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 435, 
part. 

LOXIA LEUCOPTERA Gmelin. 
■WHITE-WINGED CKOSSBIXL. 

Wings black or nearly so, marked with two conspicuous broad 
bands of white across tips of middle and greater (sometimes also last 
row of lesser) coverts; tertials also more or less marked at tips with 
white, except in worn plumage; upper tail-coverts and tail black or 
nearly so, with narrow paler edgings. 

Adult male. — Head, neck, median portion of back, rump, and most 
.of under parts red (usuallj^ pinkish red or light carmine, occasionally 
more orange-red, rarely orange-yellowish); abdomen and flanks pale 
grayish or dull white, the latter more or less streaked with dusk}-; 
under tail-coverts black, broadlj- margined with white (sometimes 
tinged with pink); scapulars black, this color extending across the 
lower back; lores, part of orbital region, and spot at end of auricular 



54 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



region dusky; bill horn color, darker terminally; legs and feet dusky; 
length (skins), 137.16-166.13 (148.34); wing, 84.58-91.44 (88.65); tail, 
50.80-59.44 (54.86); exposed culmen, 15.75-17.53 (16.51); depth of 
bill at base (three specimens), 9.14-9.91 (9.65); tarsus, 15.49-17.02 
(16.26); middle toe, 11.18-13.21 (12.19).' 

Adult female. — Wings and tail as in adult male; scapulars dusky 
centrally, margined with olive or grayish; rump light yellow (usually 
maize or naples yellow) ; rest of upper parts with feathers dusky cen- 
trally, broadly margined with olive or olive-yellowish, producing a 
spotted or streaked appearance; posterior under parts as in the adult 
male, but more anterior portions dull light olive-grayish, the feathers 
with more or less conspicuous central spots or streaks of dusky, the 
breast usually more or less strongly tinged or overlaid with olive- 
yellowish; length (skins), 132.08-157.99 (143.61); wing, 82.80-90.17 
(85.34); tail, 48.77-59.18 (54.36); exposed culmen, 16.24-16.76 (15.75); 
depth of bill at base (one specimen), 10.16; tarsus, 15.24-17.27 (16.00), 
middle toe, 11.18-12.70 (11.94).^ 

Yoiong. — Conspicuously streaked, both above and below, with dusky 
on a dull whitish or partly pale olivaceous ground; wings and tail much 
as in adult female, but the white markings of the former more restricted 
and more or less tinged with pale buffy or yellowish. 

Breeding in coniferous forest districts of northern North America, 
south to Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Maine, New Hamp- 
shire (White Mountains), northern New York (Adirondacks), northern 
Michigan (Mackinac Island), etc;' in winter south, irregularly, to 
District of Columbia, southern Ohio (near Cincinnati), central Indiana 
(Indianapolis, Bloomington, etc.), southern Illinois (Richland County), 
Kansas, Colorado, Nevada (East Humboldt Mountains), British Colum- 

^ Eighteen specimens. 

^ Fifteen specimens. 

Eastern and northwestern specimens differ in average measurements, as fdllows: 



Locality. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 


Depth 
of bill 
at base. 


Tarsus. 


Middle 
toe. 


MALES. 

Nine adult males from Ungava and northeastern 


93.47 
88.90 

85.09 
86.11 


54.61 
55. S7 

54.36 
54. 61 


16.76 
16.51 

15.75 
16.00 


9.14' 
9.91 

10.16 


16.51 
16.26 

15.75 
16.00 


12.19 


Nine adult males from Alaska, etc . . 


12.19 


FEMALES. 

Ten adult females from Ungava and northeastern- 
United States '. 


11.94 




11.94 







There is not a sufficient number of comparable specimens available to enable me 
to determine whether there is any difference in plumage between specimens from 
the two regions. 

' Southern limit of breeding range on Pacific side not yet ascertained. 



BIEDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIC A. 55 

bia, etc. ; more or less frequent in southern and eastern Greenland 
and western Europe (British Islands, Heligoland, etc.). 

[Loxia] leucoptera Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, pt. ii, 1788, 844 (Hudson Bay and New 
York; based on White-winged Crossbill Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, ii, pt. i, 
108). 
Loxia leucoptera Bonaparte, Am. Orn., ii, 1828, 84, pi. 15, flg. .3. — .S^^•AINS0N and 
Richardson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 263. — Jakdixe, ed. "Wilson's Am. Orn., 
ii, 1834, 42, pi. 31, fig. 3; iii, 440, pi. 15, flg. 3.— Temminck, Man. d'Orn., ed. 
1835, iii, 243.— Gould, Birds Europe, iii, 1837, pi. 203; Birds Gt. Brit., iii, 
1864, pi. 48.— Audubon, Orn. Bidg.,iv, 1838, 467, pi. 364; Synopsis, 18.39, 129; 
Birds Am., oct. ed., iii, 1841, 190, pi. 201. — Keysbeling and Blasils, "Wirb. 
Eur., 1840, 164.— Gray, List Brit. Birds, 1863, 111.— Macgillivray, Brit. 
Birds, ii, 1845, 28. — Bonaparte and Schlegel, Mon. Lox., 1850, 8, pi. 9. — 
LicHTENSTEiN, Nom. Av. Mus. Berol., 1854, 48. — Reinhakdt, Ibis, 1861, 8 
(Greenland; several occurrences). — Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 122 
(Nova Scotia).— Harting, Handb. Brit. Birds, 1872, 116.— Coues, Check 
List, 1873, no. 142; 2d ed., 1882, no. 198; Birds N.W., 1874, 110.— Finsch, 
Ab. Nat.Ver. Bremen, iii, 1873, 55 (coast of Alaska); Journ. fiir Orn., 1883, 
274 (Chilcoot and Portage Bay, Alaska, Jan., Feb.). — Snow, Birds Kansas, 
1873, 6 (e. Kansas, rare in winter). — Baibd, Brewer, and Ridqway, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 488, pi. 23, figs. 2, 3.— Ridqway, Ann. Lye. N. Y., 
X, 1874, 372 (Illinois in winter) ; Bull. Essex Inst., vii, 1875, 20 (East Hum- 
boldt Mts., Nevada, August, Sept.); Orn., 40th Parallel, 1877, 456 (do.); 
Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 173.— Newton (A.), Man. Nat. Hist. Green- 
land, 1875, 99 (e. and s. Greenland, 5 specs. ). — Cordeaux, Ibis, 1875, 181 
(Heligoland, irregular, but occasionally numerous visitant). — D'Hamond- 
viLLE, Ois. Eur., 1876.— Jouy, Field and Forest, ii, 1877, 155 (District of 
Columbia, rare in winter). — Langdon, Birds Cincinnati, 1877, 8 (very abun- 
dant winter of 1868-69); Revised List, 1879 (do.). — Dresser, Birds Europe, 
iv, 1877, 137, pi. 204.— Newton, ed. Yarrell's Hist. Brit. Birds, ii, 1877,218.— 
Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 117 (descr. bright-colored speci- 
men) ; Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 254 (Magdalen Islands, breeding; 
descr. female juv. ) ; Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xxii, 1883, 373 (Antioosti I., July 
24).— KuMLiEN, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 15, 1879, 75 (off Bonne Bay, New- 
foundland, Aug. 15; Conception Bay, Newfoundland, Oct.). — Drew, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1881, 89 (Bakers Park, Colorado, 1 spec); Auk, ii, 
1885, 16 (mts. of Colorado, 10,000 ft., in winter).— Dubois, Bull. i\Ius. Roy. 
Belg., i, 1882, 7 (synonymy; geogr. range). — Merriam, Bull. Nutt. Orn. 
Club, vii, 1882, 235 (Point de Monts, prov. Quebec, July) . — Chamberlain, 
Bull. N. H. Soc. N. B., no. 1, 1882, 37 (New Brunswick, breeding).— British 
Ornithologists' Union; List Brit. Birds, 1883, 58. — Seebohm, Hist. Brit. 
Birds, ii, 1884, 37.— Turner, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 239 (Ft. Chimo, 
Ungava, abundant in winter) ; Contr. Nat. Hist. Alaska, 1886, 171, pi. 7, upper 
feg. (young; Yukon district and St. Michael, Alaska). — American Orni- 
thologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 522. — Anthony, Auk, iii, 1886, 168 
(n. w. Oregon in winter). — Nelson, Rep. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 174. — 
CooKE, Bird Migr. Miss. Valley, 1888, 181 (dates, etc.); Birds Colorado, 1897, 
97 (Bakers Park, s. w. Colorado, 9,500 ft., 1 spec.) .^Evermann, Auk, vi, 
1889, 24 (Carroll Co., Indiana, Feb., Mar., rare).— Palmer ("W.), Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., xiii, 1890, 263 (Magdalen Islands, breeding). — Goss, Birds Kansas, 
1891, 421 (rare winter visit.) .—Macfarlaxe, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiv, 
1891, 440 (Ft. Anderson). — Faxnin, Check List Birds Brit. Columbia, 1891, 
34 (Rocky Mt. district).— Dwight, Auk, x, 1893, 11 (Prince Edward I., breed- 
ing). — White,, Auk, x, 1893, 226 (Mackinac I., Michigan, rare summer 



56 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

resid.).— Ddtchee, Auk, x, 1893, 276 (Flatlands, etc.. Long Island, New- 
York, 1848, 1864).— Nehkling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 43, pi. 21, 
fig. 4.— Knight, Bull. "Univ. Maine, no. 3, 1897, 92 (resident).— Butler, 
Birds Indiana, 1897, 920 (s. in winter to Indianapolis and Bloomington).— 
Brooks, Auk, xvii, 1900, 106 (Chilli wack, Brit. Columbia).— Armstrong, 
Auk, xvii, 1900, 175 (Johnstown and Pawtucket, Rhode Island, Jan., Feb.). 

X. loxia] leucoptera Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1845, 388. — Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 
1850, 527.— Cabanis, Mus. Hein., i, 1851, 168.— Nelson, Bull. Essex Inst., 
viii, 1876, 105 (n. e. Illinois, winter).— Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 
1884, 348.— RiDGWAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 393. 

[Loxia] leucoptera Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 108, no. 7636. 

Loxia cucoptera (err. typ.) Nelson, Cruise "Corwin," 1881 (1883), 66 (Alaska). 

[Loxia hifasdata.'] Subsp. a. Loxia leucoptera Shakpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mug., xii, 
1888, 443. 

[Loxia leucoptera} var. leucoptera Baied, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, i, 1874, 483. 

Orucirostra leucoptera Brehm, Isis, 1827, 720; Naumannia, iii, 1853, 254, fig. 20. 

Curmrostra leucoptera Wilson, Am. Orn., iv, 1811, 48, pi. 31, fig. 3. — Baird, Rep. 
Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 427; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 319.— Ball 
and Bannister, Trans. Chicago Ac. Sci., i, 1869, 281 (Nulato, Alaska, Feb. 8- 
Apr. 9).— Cooper, Orn. Cal., 1870, 149.— Stevenson, Prelim. Rep. U. S. Geol. 
Surv. for 1871 (1872), 464 (Box Elder Creek, Wyoming) .—Maynard, Proc. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., xiv, 1872, 371 (Umbagog, Maine, and Franconia, New 
Hampshire, breeding). 

[Curvirostra'] leucoptera Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 129. 

Loxia (Crucirostra) leucoptera Naumann, Vug. DeutschL, pi. 385, fig. 4. 

Loxia falcirostra Latham, Index Orn., i, 1790, 371. — Yarrell, Hist. Brit. Birds, 
ii, 1843, 38. 

Loxia alrata Homeyee, Journ. fiir Orn., xxvii, Apr., 1879, 179 (North America; 
=male ad. in worn breeding plumage; see Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
iii, 1890, 234). 

Genus PYRRHULA Brlsson. 
Pyrrhula Brisson, Orn. , iii, 1760, 308. (Type, P. europxa Vieillot. ) 

Medium-sized or rather small arboreal finches of short, thick build, 
very fluffy plumage, the bill verj'^ short and thick (length, depth, and 
breadth about equal), the plumage more or less varied, but plain. 

Bill very short, thick, and broad, its width at base equal to or greater 
than the length of the exposed culmen; the latter strongly convex, 
indistinctly ridged; maxillary tomium with notch obsolete, the anterior 
half concave, then slightly convex, the basal portion with a decided 
deflection; mandibular tomium stronglj^ convex terminally; the sub- 
basal angle produced into a rounded, tooth-like process, Nostrils 
entirely hidden by a dense fringe of antrorse plumules. Rictal bristles 
very strong. Wing rather long (about five times as long as tarsus), 
rather pointed (four outermost primaries longest, the ninth longer than 
the fifth); primaries exceeding secondaries bj' decidedlj" more than the 
length of the tarsas. Tail shorter than wing by more than length of 
tarsus, neariy even, about two-thirds hidden by the very long upper 
coverts. Tarsus shorter than middle toe with claw; lateral toes rather 



BIRDS OF NOETH AND MIDDLE AMEBIC A. 57 

long, the outer with its claw reaching beyond base of middle claw; 
claws rather strong, that of the hallux about equal to its digit. 

Colors. — More or less of the head and greater part of wings and 
tail glossy black; rump and under tail-coverts usually white; rest of 
plumage plain gray, brown, or yellowish above; plain gray, brown, 
pinkish red, or yellowish below. 

Range. — Northern and central portions of Europe and Asia. (One 
species of eastern Siberia casual in Alaska.^) 

PYRRHULA CASSINI (Baird). 

cAssnrs bullfinch. 

Adult male. — Pileum, lores, postocular region, lower eyelid, ante- 
rior portion of malar region, and chin black, that of the pileum with 
a bluish gloss; hindneck, back, scapulars, and lesser and middle wing- 
coverts uniform ash gray; cheeks, throat, and under parts back to anal 
region uniform pale drab-gray; anal region, under tail-coverts, under 
wing-coverts, and rump pure white; greater wing-coverts black, broadly 
but not sharply tipped with pale gray; remiges black, the secondaries 
(especially tertials) with a purplish blue gloss; upper tail-coverts, middle 
tail-feathers, and outer webs of other rectrices gloss}^ violet-black; inner 
webs of rectrices " dead " black, the outermost usually (?) with a white 
streak, of greater or less extent, next the shaft; bill black; legs and 
feet dark brown; length (skin), 163.32; wing, 90.68; tail, 69.34; exposed 
culmen, 9.40; tarsus, 19.05; middle toe, 12.70.^ 

Adult female. — Similar to the adult male, but under parts light 
vinaceousdrab or ecru drab instead of gray; length (skin), 167.64; 
wing, 84.33-87.38 (85.85); tail, 64.77-68.58 (66.56); exposed culmen, 
9.91-10.16; tarsus, 16.51-17.53 (17.02); middle toe, 12.19-12.70 (12.45).' 

[The adult female of this species is verj' similar to that of P. pyr- 
rhula Jcamtschatica, but is appreciablj'' darker and the back less purely 
gray.] 

Eastern and central Siberia, west to valley of the Yenesei and south, 
in winter, to Turkestan; accidental in Alaska (Nulato, Yukon Eiver, 
one specimen, January 10, 1867). 

Pyrrhula rubicilla {not Loria rubicilla Guldenstadt) Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso- Asiat. , 
ii, 1826, 7 (female, part). 

^Itia possible that one of the two European forms occurs, or has occurred, acci- 
dentally in northeastern North America. In Bulletin No. 15 of the U. S.^ National 
Museum, 1879, p. 74, Mr. Ludwig Kumlien mentions that a bullfinch (recorded as 
"Pyrrhula ?") was seen by him July 19, 1879, near Oosooadluin Harbor, Cum- 
berland Sound, which he was sure was a bird of this genus. 

2 One specimen. No. 100223, U.S.N.M, Kutluk, Lake Baikal, Siberia, March 2, 188?. 

'Two specimens; the type, No. 49955, "^," Nulato, Alaska, January 10, 1867, 
W. H. Dall, and No. 101978, Onon, Siberia, January 11, 1873, B. Dybowski. The former 
represents the maximum, the latter the minimum measurements, as given above, 
except as to length of culmen, in which the reverse is the case. 



58 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Pyrrhula coccinea, var. cassini Baikd, Trans. Chicago Ac. Sci., i, 1869, 316, pi. 29, 
fig. 1 (Nulato, Alaska; IT. S. Nat. Mus.). — Dall and Bannister, Trans. Chi- 
cago Ac. Sci., i, 1869, 281 (Nulato).— Coues, Check List, 1874, p. 127. 

Pyrrhula cassmi Tristram, Ibis., April, 1871, 231 (crit.).— Cab amis, Journ. fiir 
Orn., 1871, 318; 1873, 315 (crit.).— Finsch, Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen, iii, 1872, 
54. — Baird, Am. Nat., vii, 1873, 239 (Lake Baikal, Siberia; crit.). — Taczan- 
owsKi, Journ. fiir Orn., 1873, 95 (e. Siberia); 1874, 39 (crit. ).— CouES, 
Check List, 1873, no. 138; 2d ed., 1882, no. 19L— Baird, Brewer, and 
Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 457, pi. 23, fig. 11; iii, 1874, 508 
(Lake Baikal, etc.). — Dybowski, Journ. fiir Orn., 1874, 39 (Kultuk, Dauria; 
crit.). — Dresser, Birds Europe, iv, 1876, 100, part. — Ridgway,' Nom. N. 
Am. Birds, 1881, no. 167. — American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 

1886, no. 516.— Turner, Contr. Nat. Hist. Alaska, 1886, 169, pi. 7.— Nelson, 
Eep. Nat'Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 172.— Stejneger, Proc.U. S. Nat. Mua.,x, 

1887, 104 (synonymy; crit.).— Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus.,xii, 1888, 451 
(Onon River and Kultuk, Lake Baikal, Siberia). 

[Pyrrhuki] cassinii Coues, Key X. Am. Birds, 1872, 128. 

P-lyrrhula} cassini Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 344. — Ridgway, 
Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 389. 

Pyrrhula cineracea Caeanis, Journ. fiir Orn., xx, July, 1872, 316 (Lake Baikal, 
e. Siberia; Berlin Mus.); 1873, 314 (crit); 1877, 223.— Dybowski, Journ. 
fiir Orn., 1874, 40, pi. 1 (crit.).— Severzow, Journ. fiir Orn., 1875, 173.— 
Taozanowski, Journ. fiir Orn., 1875, 254 (Ussuri); 1881, 185 (Kultuk, 
Dauria; Ussuri) ; Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1876, 183; 1880, 138.— Gould, Birds 
Asia, V, 1875, pi. 40. — Dresser, Birds Europe, iv, 1876, 100, part. — Homeyee, 
Journ. fur Orn., 1879, 178 (crit.).— Stetnegee, N. Mag. Naturv., 1881, 115.— 
Bolau, Journ. fiir Orn., 1882, 334. — Seebohm, Ibis, 1882, 424 (Krasnoyarsk, 
Onon River, Siberia; Askold Island, near Vladivostok; Turkestan; Asia 
Minor) . 

Pyrrhula nipalensis (not of Hodgson) Severzow, Turkest. Jevotn., 1873, 64, 117. 

Pyrrhula cineracea pallida Seebohm, Ibis, 5th ser., v, Jan., 1887, 101, in text 
(Altai Mountains and Ussuri Valley) . 

Genus PINICOLA Vieillot. 

Pinicola Vieillot, Ois. Am., Sept., i, 1807, p. iv. (Type, P. ?-u6ro yieUlot,= 
Loxia enucleator Linnseus. ) 

SlrobUophaga Vieillot, Analyse, 1816, 29. (Type, Dur-Bec B\ifion,= Loxia enu- 
cleator Linnseus.) 

"Strobiliphaga Boie." 

Corythus Cuvier, RSgne Anim., i, 1817, 301. (Type, Loxia enucleator Linnseas.) 

Enucleator Brehm, Vogelf., 1855, 89. (Type, Loxia enucleator Linnaeus.) 

"Bensirostra Wood" (Gray, Gen. Birds, 1855, 81). 

Very large (more than 177 mm. long) arboreal finches with long wings 
and tail; very short, broad, and thick bill with culmen strongly curved 
and tip of maxilla hooked, and small feet; the plumage mostly plain, 
without streaks or spots on under parts; the adult males in full plum- 
age more or less red. 

Bill short, broad, and thick, with the culmen strongly convex from 
the base, its width at the base nearly, equal to the distance from the 
nostril to the tip of the maxilla; width of mandible at base little if any 
greater than length of gonys, the latter nearly sti'aight, with the basal 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 59 

angle very prominent; maxillary tomium gently concave basall}^ 
strongly so terminally, mandibular tomium decidedly angulated pos- 
terior to the middle, but the angle not toothed; nasal plumules con- 
spicuous, quite hiding the nostrils; wing long (about five times as 
long as the tarsus), rather pointed (four outermost primaries longest, 
the ninth decidedly longer than the fifth) ; primaries exceeding second- 
aries by more than li times the length of the tarsus but less than half 
the length of the tail; tail long (shorter than wing by only about half 
the length of the tarsus), emarginated; tarsus short, less than twice 
as long as exposed culmen, nearly as long as middle toe with claw; 
anterior claws very slightly curved, the lateral ones reaching beyond 
base of middle claw; hallux shorter than the lateral toes, but much 
stouter, the rather Aveak claw decidedly shorter than its digit. 

Goloration. — Adult males: General color dull rose pink or madder 
pink (rarely varying to a light vermilion tint), changing to ash gray 
on scapulars, flanks, belly, and under tail-coverts, the plumage every- 
where being of this color beneath the surface; scapulars and feathers 
of back dusky centrally, causing a spotted appearance; wings and tail 
dusky, the middle and greater coverts broadly tipped with white (this 
sometimes tinged with pink) and tertials broadly edged with same; 
secondaries, primaries, and tail-feathers narrowly edged with light 
grayish. Adult females with wings and tail as in the male, but rest 
of plumage graj'ish, without any red, but changing to a more or less 
bright olive-tawny tint on head and lower rump, the breast sometimes 
tinged with same. Young similar to adult female, but colors duller 
and more blended, the wing-bands dull buffy instead of pure white, 
and texture of plumage very different. 

[Note. — Numerous apparently adult males have the plumage not 
distinguishable from that of the female; in others, the general plumage 
is that of the female, except that the olivaceous or tawny color on 
head, etc. , is replaced by a more reddish tint (varying from light dull 
orange-red to deep madder brown).] 

Range. — More northern parts of Palsearctic and Nearctic regions 
(including Boreal "islands" southward). 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OP PINICOLA. 

a. General color of wings and tail grayish brown. 
h. General color of head, neck, and body red (adult males), 
c. Smaller, except the bill (wing averaging 107.19, tail 81.03, exposed culmen 
16.00, width of mandible at base 9.40, tarsus 21.34). ^ (Europe, etc.) 

Pinicola euucleator enucleator, adult male.^ 

^ These average measurements include both sexes. 

^[Loxia] enucleator LiNNiEus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, i, 1758, 171, part (based primarily 
on Fauna Suecica, 176) ; ed. 12, i, 1766, 299, part. — Pinicola enucleator Oabanis, in 
Ersch. u. Gruber's Encycl., 1st. sec, i, 1849, 219; Mus. Hein., i, 1851, 167. Of the 
American forms this resembles most closely the Alaskan coast subspecies (P. e.flam- 
mula), but is duller colored, the female more olive. 



60 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

cc. Larger, except the bill (wing averaging 112.52, tail 86.11, exposed culmen 
15.75, width of mandible at base 10.41, tarsus 22.61). (Coast of Alaska 
from Kodiak southward. ) . . .Pinlcola enucleator flammula, adult male (p. 64) 
66. General color of head, neck, and body grayish and olive-yellowish (adult 
females and immature males), 
f. General color olive-yellowish or yellowish olive, becoming gray posteriorly, 
the rump and upper tail-coverts very slightly tinged with olive-yellowish. 
Piaicola enucleator enucleator, female and young male. 
cc. General color brownish gray, with head, neck, and rump olive-yellowish, 
the breast sometimes, but not usually, tinged with same. 

Pinioola enucleator flammula, female and young male. 
ca. General color of wings and tail slate-dusky or dull blackish, much darker than 
in the preceding. 
6. General color of head, neck, and body red (adult males) . 

c. Bill relatively short and thick; feathers of back conspicuously dusky cen- 
trally; more red on under parts, the breast and sides mostly "solid" red. 
d. Smaller, with relatively narrower bill; gray parts darker; wing averaging 
114.05, tail 86.36, exposed culmen 14.99, width of mandible at base 9.91, 
tarsus 22.35. (Northeastern North America.) 

Pinlcola enucleator canadensis, adult male (p. 60) 

dd. Larger, with relatively shorter and broader bill; gray parts paler; wing 

averaging 116.59, tail 91.95, exposed culmen 14.73, width of mandible 

at base 10.16, tarsus 22.86. (Northwestern North America, except 

coast district east of Alaskan peninsula. ) 

Pinlcola enucleator alascensls, adult male (p. 63) 
cc. Bill relatively long and slender; feathers of back not distinctly, if at all, 
dusky centrally; less red on under parts where mainly confined to ante- 
rior half, and there more or less broken. 
d. Smaller, especially the bill; wing averaging 111.76, tail 89.92, exposed cul- 
men 13.97, width of mandible at base 8.64, tarsus 22.10. (High moun- 
tains of California.) Pinlcola enucleator callfornlca, adult male (p. 65) 

dd. Larger, especially the bill; wing averaging 119.63, tail 94.49, exposed cul- 
men 16.00, width of mandible at base 9.91, tarsus 23.37. (Rocky Moun- 
tains. ) Pinlcola enucleator montana, adult male (p. 66) 

bh. General color grayish, with more or less of olive-yellowish on head, neck, 
rump, etc. (Adult females and young males. ) 
c. Bill relatively short and thick; rump olive-yellowish. 
d. Smaller and slightly darker, with relatively narrower bill. 

Pinlcola enucleator canadensis, female and young male. 
dd. Larger and slightly paler, with relatively shorter and broader bill. 

Pinlcola enucleator alascensls, female and young male. 
cc. Bill relatively long and slender; rump gray, like back (upper tail-coverts, 
howeveT, slightly tinged with olive-yellowish) . 
d. Smaller, with more slender bill. 

Pinioola enucleator callfornlca, female and young male. 
dd. Larger, with stouter bill. 

Pinlcola enucleator montana, female and young male. 

PINICOLA ENUCLEATOR CANADENSIS (Cabanis). 
CANADIAD' FINE GROSBEAK, 

Adiolt male. — General color of head, neck, and under parts (except 
abdomen, flanks, anal region, and under tail-coverts) rather light 
poppy red (in summer) or dull pinkish red (in winter), the feathers 



BIED8 OF NOETH AND MIDDLE AMEKICA. 61 

grayish beneath the surface, this more or less exposed in places, espe- 
cially on chest; nasal tufts and part of loral and orbital regions dusky; 
abdomen and upper portion of sides and flanks rather light dull ash 
gray or smoke gray; under tail-coverts similar, but in part darker, 
broadly margined with white; interscapulars dusky, broadly margined 
with red ; scapulars dark grayish margined with paler gray ; rump, super- 
ficially, red; upper tail-coverts broadly margined with red; wings dull 
slate-dusky, most of the feathers edged with light grayish and white 
(the edgings broader and decidedly white on tertials), the greater and 
middle coverts broadly tipped with white, forming two conspicuous 
bands, which are sometimes, especiall}^ the anterior one, tinged with 
red; tail slate-dusky edged with grayish (sometimes tinged with red); 
inaxilla dull blackish, mandible horn brownish, tipped with blackish; 
legs and feet black; length (skins), 195.58-220.98(208.03); wing, 108.20- 
121.92 (114.05); tail, 81.Y9-93.22 (86.87); exposed culmen, 13.97-16.00 
(14.73); depth of bill at base, 11.43-12.70 (12.19); width of mandible at 
base, 8.89-10.16 (9.91); tarsus, 21.59-23.11 (22.35); middle toe, 14.48- 
16.76 (15.49).^ 

Adult female. — General color plain smoke gray, the pileum and 
rump and part of upper tail-coverts bright yellowish olive, tawny-olive 
or russet, the back and anterior under parts, especially chest, some- 
times more or less tinged with the same; otherwise like adult male; 
length (skins), 200.66-226.06 (208.53); wing, 107.70-116.84 (113.79); 
tail, 81.28-91.44 (85.60); exposed culmen, 14.73-16.00 (15.24); depth 
of bill at base, 12.70 (one specimen only); width of mandible at base, 
9.65-10.41 (10.16); tarsus, 22.10-23.62 (22.61); middle toe, 14.48- 
16.61 (15.75).^ 

Immature {?) male. — Exactly like the adult female in coloration; 
some specimens with the pileum, rump, etc. , reddish instead of olive- 
yellowish. 

Young. — Similar in coloration to adult female, but duller, the wing 
bands, etc. , dull light grayish brown instead of white. 

Northeastern North America, breeding from New Brunswick (Resti- 
gouche Valley), Maine (Upton, etc.). New Hampshire (White Moun- 
tains), Province of Quebec (Point de Monts), etc., north to limit of 
coniferous forests; south in winter to southern New England, New 
York, New Jersey, northern parts of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, Iowa, 
etc. , casually to District of Columbia, Kentucky (Fulton and Hickman 
counties), and Kansas (Leavenworth); west to eastern Kansas, Minne- 
sota, Manitoba, etc. 

\_Loxia] enucleator (not of Linnaeus, 1758) Linn^us, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, i, 1766, 
299, part.— FoESTBR, Philos. Trans., Ixii, 1772, 383, 402 (Severn River).— 
Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, 1788, 845, part. 
Loxia enudeaior Wilson, Am. Orn., i, 1808, 80,. pi. 5, fig. 2. 

I Thirteen specimens. ' Nine specimens. 



62 BTJLLETIK 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Pyrrhula {Coryihus) enudeator Swainson and Richardson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 
1831, 262. 

Coryihus enudeator Swainson and Richahdson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, pi. 53. — 
Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 38, part. — Jakdine, ed. Wilson's 
Am. Orn., i, 1832, 79, pi. 5, fig. 2; iii, 1832, 465, pi. 16, fig. 3.— Audubon, 
Synopsis, 1839, 127; Birds Am., oct. ed., iii, 1841, 179, pi: 199.— Giraud, Birds 
Long I., 1844, 128. — Putnam, Proc. Essex Inst., i, 1856, 211 (Massachusetts, 
winter). — Teippb, Proc. Essex Inst., vi, 1871, 116 (Minnesota, winter). 

ICorythus] enudeator Bonaparte, Consp. Av.,i, 1850, 528, part. 

Pyrrhula enudeator Bonaparte, Synopsis, 1828, 119; Am. Orn., iii, 1828, 16, pi. 16, 
fig. 3. — NuTTALL, Man. Orn. U. S. and Canada, i, 1832, 535. — Audubon, Om. 
Biog.,iv,,1838, 414, pi. 358. 

[Pinicola'] enudeator CouES, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 127, part. 

Pinieola enudeator Ooues, Check List, 1873, no. 137, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 190, 
part; Birds N. 'W.,1874, 104, part. — Baied, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. 
Am. Birds, i, 1874, 453, part, pi. 21, figs. 1, 2. — Snow, Birds Kansas, 3d ed., 
1875, 6 (Leavenworth, Kansas, winter). — Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 
iii, 1878, 116 (Upton, Maine; descr. young) ; Auk, vii, 1882, 254 (Magdalen 
Islands, breeding); xii, 1895, 245-256 (remarkable migration). — Roberts, 
Rep. State Geol. Minn., 1880, 380 (Minneapolis, winter). — Ridgway, Nom. 
N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 166, part.— Meeeiam, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 
120, 225 (breeding near Point de Monts, prov. Quebec). — Stearns, Proc. U. 
S. Nat. Mus.,vi, 1883, 117 (Labrador, "fall and winter").— Tuhnbe, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 239 (Fort Chimo, Ungava, breeding).— Seton, 
Auk, iii, 1886, 322 (Red River Valley, etc., in winter; "probably breeding 
in the Winnipegoosis region"). — Bicknell, Auk, i, 1884, 327 (song). — 
American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 515, part. — Chad- 
bourne, Auk, iv, 1887, 104 (White Mta., New: Hampshire, July). — Keyes 
and Williams, Proc. Davenp. Ac. Nat. Sci., v, 1888, (28) (Charles City, Iowa, 
winter). — Pindae, Auk, v, 1888, 321 (Hickman County, Kentucky, Feb.); 
vi, 1889, 314 (Fulton Co., Kentucky, Feb., Mar.).— Cooke, Bird Migr. 
Miss. Val., 1888, 178 (Alda, s. e. Nebraska, May; Mitchell, Iowa; Kansas, 
Illinois, etc. ) . — Beittain and Cox, Auk, vi, 1889, 117 (breeding in Restigouche 
Valley, New Brunswick).— Claeke, Auk, vii, 1890, 322 (Fort Churchill, 
Hudson Bay). — Thompson, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1891, 584 (Manitoba 
localities). — Goss, Birds Kansas, 1891, 414 (rare winter resid.). — Foster, 
Auk, xiii, 1896, 175 (Westchester Co., New York, Feb. 12).— Beeiee, Auk, 
xiii, 1896, 175 (Wortendyke, New Jersey, Mar. 8).— Furness, Auk, xiii, 1896, 
175 (Poughkeepsie, New York, winter). — Knight, Auk, xiii, 1896, 21 (habits 
in captivity), 77 (Bangor, Maine). — Butler, Birds Indiana, 1897, 914 (n. 
Indiana in winter). 

P. [inicola'] enudeator Nelson, Bull. Essex Inst., viii,-1876, 105 (n. e. Illinois, win- 
ter) .— CouEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 343, part. 

Corythus canadensis Beehm, Vog. Deutschl. , 1831, 247 (ex Coccothraustes cana- 
densis Brisson, Orn., iii, 1760, 250, pi. 12, flg. 3). " 

(?) Coryihus splendens Brbhm, Isis, 1840, 590. 

Enudeator canadensu Brehm, Vogelf., 1855, 89. 

Corythus enudeator canadensis Bkehm ( A. E. ), Verz. Samml. 0. L. Brehm, 1866, 10. 

P. linicola] canadensis Cabanis, Mus. Hein.,i, Aug., 1851, 167 (Illinois). 

Pinieola canadensis Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv.,ix, 1858, 410; Cat. N.Am. 
Birds, 1859, no. 304.— Coues, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila. , 1861, 221 (Labrador, 
breeding); Proc. Essex Inst., v, 1868, 280 (Maine; Essex Co., Massachu- 
setts; New Haven, Connecticut). — Sclatee, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 122 
(Nova Scotia). — Coues and Prentiss, Smithsonian Rep. for 1861 (1862), 411 



BIKDS OF NOKTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 63 

(District of Columbia, accidental). — Wheatox, Ohio Agric. Rep., 1860, no. 
136 (Columbus, Ohio). — Lawkence, Ann. Lye. N. Y., viii, 1866, 288 (vicinity 
New York City).— Tuenbull, Birds E. Penn. and N. J., 1869, 21 (rare in 
winter). — Sxow, Birds Kansas, 1873, 6 (Leavenworth, e. Kansas in winter). 
P. [^inicola] enucleator . . . vtir. ccmadensis Ridgway, Ann. Lye. K. Y., x, Jan., 

1874, 371 (Illinois iu winter). 
P. [inicola] enucleator canadensis Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 388, part. 
Pinicola enucleator canadensis Nehrling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 25, pi. 
21, fig. 6 (P. enucleator on plate). —Ridgway, Auk, xv, Oct., 1898, 320 
(crit. ). — American- Ornithologists' Union Committee, Auk, xvi, 
1899, 113. 



PINICOLA ENUCLEATOR ALASCENSIS Ridgway. 
ALASKAN FINE GROSBEAK, 

Similai- to P. e. canadensh, but decidedlj' larger, with smaller or 
shorter bill and paler coloration, both sexes having the gray parts of 
the plumage distinctlj' lighter, more ashy. 

Admit male.— LL&s\gi\ (skins), 218.44-246.38 (227.33); wing, 112.01- 
127.25 (117.09); tail, 84.84-102.62 (92.71); exposed culmen, 13.97- 
15.24 (14.48); depth of bill at base, 11.68-12.95 (12.19); width of 
maxilla at base, 9.91-10.41 (10.16); tarsus, 22.10-23.37 (22.86); middle 
toe, 14.48-16.00 (15.24).^ - 

Adult female.— h^ng^h (skins), 195.68-220.98 (213.11); wing, 114.05- 
120.40 (116.08); tail, 87.88-97.54 (98.47); exposed culmen, 14.48-15.49 
(14.99); depth of bill at base, 11.68-12.70 (12.19); width of mandible 
at base, 10.16-10.67 (10.41); tarsus, 22.35-23.37 (22.61); middle toe, 
14.73-15.24 (14.99).' 

Northwestern North America, except Pacific coast, breeding in in- 
terior of Alaska; south, in winter, to eastern Bi'itish Columbia, Mon- 
tana' (Bitter root Valley), etc. 

Pinicola canadensis (not Corythus canadensis 'Brehra) Dall and Bannister, Trans. 

Chicago Ac. Sci., i, 1869, 281, part (Nulato and throughout Yukon Valley). — 

Cooper, Orn. Cal., 1870, 151, part. 

P. [inicola'] enucleator canadensis Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 388, part. 

Pinicola enucleator canadensis Fannin, Check List Birds Brit. Columbia, 1891, 34, 

part (e. sideCascade Mts.). 
[Mnicola] enucleator (not Loxia enucleator Linnaeus) CouES, Key N. Am. Birds, 

1872, 127, part. 
Pinicola enucleator Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 137, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 190, 
part; Birds N. W., 1874, part. — Bated, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, i, 1874, 453, part (Yukon district, Alaska). — (?) Bendiee, Proc. Bost. 
Soc. N. H., xix, 1877, 116 (Camp Harney, e. Oregon, winter).— (?) McChes- 
NEY, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 187 (Fort Sisseton, South Dakota, Jan. 
6). — Ridgway, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 166, part.— Nelson, Cruise 
Corwin, 1881 (1883), 66 (head of Norton Sound, Alaska); Rep. Nat. Hist. 
Coll. Alaska, 1887, 170, part (Alaska, north and east of Alaskan Mts.; 



' Ten specimens. ' Six specimens. 



64 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

crit.).' — American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 515, 
part.— Turner, Contr. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1886, 168 (St. Michael, 
Nulato, Anvik, Fort Yukon, and Nushagak).— Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus., xii, 1888, 459, part (Bitterroot Valley, :\Iontana; Bear Lake and Fort 
Simpson, Brit. Am.; Fort Yukon, Alaska).— Macfarlane, Proc. V. S. Nat. 
Mus., xiv, 1891, 440 (Fort Simpson, breeding) .—Rhoads, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1893, 47, 63, part (e. side of Cascade Mts., Brit. Columbia). 

P. [inicola] enucleator Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 343, part. 

Pinieola enudeaior alascensis Kidgway, Auk, xv, Oct., 1898, 319 (Nushagak, 
Alaska; TJ. S. Nat. Mus.). — American Ornithologists' Union Committee, 
Auk, xvi, 1899, 114 (Check List no. 515c). 



PINICOLA ENUCLEATOR FLAMMULA (Homeyer). 
EASIAE FINE OROSBEAE. 

Similar to P. e. canadensis in length of wing, tail, and tarsus, but 
with much larger, relatively longer, and more .strongly hooked bill; 
in size and shape of bill and in coloration more like P. e. enucleator, 
but decidedlj^ lai'ger (except bill), the adult male with the red rather 
brighter, especially on upper parts, the adult female and immature 
male usually with much less of yellowish olive on breast and with 
more of the same color on rump and upper tail-coverts. 

Adult «iafe.— Length (skins), 193.04-228.60 (204.47); wing, 111.76- 
116.08 (113.28); tail, 83.31-91.44 (86.61); exposed culmen, 14.48-16.26 
(15.75); depth of bill at base, 11.94 (one specimen); width of mandible 
at base, 10.16-10.67 (10-16); tarsus, 21.84-23.37 (22.61); middle toe, 
15.24-17.27 (16.26).' 

Advlt female.— Length, (skins), 191.77-220.98 (203.45); wing, 108.20- 
114.05 (111.51); tail, 79.50-91.44(85.34); exposed culmen, 14.48-16.26 
(15.49); depth of bill at base, 11.68-12.70 (12.45); width of mandible 
at base, 10.16-10.41 (10.41); tarsus, 21.34-23.62 (22.61); middle toe, 
16.26-17.53 (16.76).' 

Island of Kadiak, Alaska, and Alaskan coast southward, at least to 
Sitka (probably also coast district of British Columbia, at least in 
winter). 

[Of all the American forms this is decidedly most like true P. enu- 
deaior of Europe, having the bill almost precisely similar in size and 
shape and the coloration very nearly the same. In general dimensions, 
however, the present bird is decidedly larger, the average length of 
wing, tail, and tarsus being practically the same as in P. e. canadensis. 
In coloration the resemblance to P. e. e/iucleator is very close indeed, 
the latter and P. e. flammula having the dusky centers to the feathers 

' This form was well characterized by Mr. Nelson iu the work cited, but unfortu- 
nately he neglected to name it. 
^ Eight specimens. 
' Six specimens. 



BIRDS OF NOETH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 65 

of the back in adult males much less distinct than in P. e. canadensis 
and its northwestern relative, P. e. alascensis. P. e. flammula is a 
little more brightly colored than P. e. enudeator, however, or the red, 
if not more intense, is of an appreciably purer hue. The female and 
immature (?) male has, usually, much less of an olive-yellowish wash 
on the breast, though the golden olive of the head and neck are brighter, 
and there is much more of golden olive on the rump and upper tail- 
coverts than in P. e. eniteleator. 

The much larger, stouter, and more hooked bill alone will serve to 
readily distinguish this coast form from the two more southern moun- 
tain forms, P. e. calif ornica and P. e. montana.] 

Pinicola canadensis (not of Cabanis) Brown, Ibis, 1868, 423 (Fort Rupert, Van- 
couver I., winter). — Ball and Banxistee, Trans. Chicago Ac. Sci., i, 1869, 
281, part (Kodiak and Sitka, Alaska).— (?) Coopee, Orn. Cal., 1870, 151 
part (Kodiak). 
(?) Pinicola enucleator canadensis Fannin, Check List Birds Brit. Col., 1891, 34, 

part (w. side Cascades). 

Pinicola enucleator (not Loxia enucleator Linnseus) Finsch, Abh. Nat. Forh.,iii, 

. 1872, 54 (Kodiak; crit); Journ. fiir Orn., 1883, 274 (Chilcoot, Alaska, Jan., 

Mar.; Portage Bay).— CouES, Check List, 1873, no. 137, part; Birds N. W., 

1874, 104, part. — Baird, Beewee, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 

453, part (Sitka and Kodiak, Alaska). — American Ornithologists' Union, 

Check List, 1886, no. 515, part.— Nelson, Rep. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 

170, part (Sitka and Kodiak, Alaska; crit. ) .^ — (?) Rhoads, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. 

Phila., 1893, 47, 63, part (w. side of Cascades, Brit. Columbia) . 

Pinicola flammula Homeyee, Journ. fiir Orn., xxviii, July, 1880, 156 (" Nordwest- 

amerika;" coll. von Homeyer). 
Pinicola enucleator flammula Stejneger, Auk, i, Apr. , 1884,149, footnote. — Ridg- 
way, Auk, XV, Oct., 1898, 320 (crit.). — American Ornithologists' Union 
Committee, Auk, xvi, 1899, 114 (Check List, no. 515d). 
P. [inicola} enucleator kodiaka Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, Sept., 1887, 388 (Ko- 
diak Island, Alaska; U. S. Nat. Mus.). 
Pinicola enucleator kodiaka Chapman, Auk, v, 1888, 397. — Ridgway, Man. N, 

Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 613. 
Pinicola enucleator kadiaka Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 592. 

PINICOLA ENUCLEATOR CALIFORNICA Price. 
CALIFORNIA FnrE GROSBEAK. 

Similar to P. e. flammula, but slightly smaller, with the bill much 
smaller and proportionatel}^ very much narrower; adult male with the 
red color less extended and less uniform, especially on under parts, 
and interscapulars with dusky centers obsolete or wanting; adult female 
with very little if any olive tinge to gray of rump and upper tail- 
coverts. 

Adult mafe.— Length (skin), 196.85;' wing, 109.98-114.81 (113.54);' 

^ Both this form and the interior Alaskan race are well characterized by Mr. Nel- 
son, but he unfortunately neglected to name them. 

* One specimen. ' Five specimens. 

17024—01 5 



66 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

tail, 91.44-106.93 (99.31);' exposed culmen, 13.97-14.99 (14.73);' depth 
of bill at base, 9.91-11.18 (10.16);' tarsus, 22.10;' middle toe, 15.49.' 
Adult female.— Length, (skins), 187.96-201.93 (194.82);' wing, 
107.95-115.06(111.25);* tail, 90.93-102.87(95.00);* exposed culmen, 
13.97-15.75 (14.73);* depth of bill at base, 9.91-11.18 (10.41);* tarsus, 
21.69-22.61 (22.10);' middle toe, 15.49-16.51 (16.00).' 

High Sierra Nevada, California, breeding from 7,000 feet to timber 
line. 

Pinicola canadensis (not Cory thus canadensis 'Brehm)pooFER, Proc. Cal. Ac. Sci., iv, 
1868, 8 (Sierra Nevada); Orn. Cal., 1870, 151, part (resident on high Sierra 
Nevada).— Belding, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 392 (Soda Springs and 
Summit Meadows, California, summer). 
Pinicola enucleator, §. canadensis Eidgway, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 66 
(Soda Springs, Placer Co., California, Sept. 28); Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 
412 (do.). 
P. [inicola'] enucleator canadensis Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 388, part. 
[Pinicola] enucleator (not Loxia enucleator Linnaeus) CouES, Key N. Am. Birds, 

1872, 127, part. 
Pinicola enudeaior Cov^ Check List, 1873, no. 137, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 190, 
part; Birds N. W., 1874, 104, part. — Baird, Brewer, and Eidgway, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 453, part; iii, 1874, 508 (summit Central Pacific E. E. 
Pass, California, alt. 7,000 ft.). — Eidgway, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 
166, part. — American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 515, 
part. — Fisher, North Am. Fauna, no. 7, 1893, 79 (head of San Joaquin E., 
California, July 30) . 
Pinicola enucleator californica Price, Auk, xiv, April, 1897, 182 (Pyramid Peak, 
El Dorado Co., California; coll. Leland Stanford Jr. Univ.).. — Eidgway', 
Auk, XV, 1898, 320. — American Ornithologists' Union Committee, Auk, 
xvi, 1899, 113 (Check List, no. 5156). 

PINICOLA ENUCLEATOR MONTANA Ridgway. 
ROCKY MOTTNTAIN PINE GROSBEAK. 

Similar to J^. e. californica, but decidedly larger and coloration 
slightly darker, the adult male with the red of a darker, more carmine 
hue. 

Adult male.— Length (skins), 203.20-217.17 (209.30); wing, 119.89- 
123.44 (121.92); tail, 93.47-101.60 (96.27); exposed culmen, 15.49-17.27 
(16.00); depth of bill at base, 11.43-12.45 (11.68); tarsus, 22.10-24.13 
(22.86); middle toe, 16:51-17.02 (16.76).= 

Adult female.— Length (skins), 203.20-210.82 (207.01); wing, 118.11- 
119.13 (118.62); tail, 88.39-88.90 (88.65); tarsus, 23.62-23.88; middle 
toe, 9.91-10.16.' 

Rocky Mountains of United States, from Montana and Idaho to New 
Mexico. 

Pinicola canadensis (not Corythus canadensis Brehm) Stevenson, Prelim. Eep. 
U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1870 (1871), 464 (Uintah Mts., AVyoming). 

' Five specimens. 'Two specimens. ° Four specimens. 

^ One specimen. ■• Six specimens. 



BIRDS OF NOETH AND MIDDLE AMEKICA. 67 

Pinicola enudeator var. canadensis Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., v, Nov., 1873, 181 
(Colorado). 

Pinicola enudeator, /3. canadensis Ridgway, Field and Forest, iii. May, 1877, 197 
(Colorado). 

P. [inicola'\ enudeator canadensis Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 388, part. 

{Pinicolal enudeator (not Loxia enudeator Linnteus) Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 
1872, 127, part. 

Pinicola enudeator Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 137, part; 2d ed. , 1882, no. 190, part; 
Birds N. \V., 1874, 104, part ( Uintah Mts., Wyoming; mts. of Colorado, breed- 
ing). — Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 453, part. — 
Nelson, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1875, 344 (30 m. s. of Fort Bridger, Wyom- 
ing).— Ridgway, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 166, part.— Drew, Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Club, vi, 1881, 89 (San Juan Co., Colorado, breeding); Auk, ii, 1885, 15 
(Colorado, 10,000-11,500 ft. ).— American Ornithologists' Union, Check 
List, 1886, no. 515, part.— Merhiam, North Am. Fauna, no. 5, 1891, 101 (Sal- 
mon R. Mts., etc., s. Idaho, breeding). — Richmond and Knowlton, Auk, xi, 
1894,305 (Mystic Lake and Trail Creek, Montana, breeding). — Cooke, Birds 
Colorado, 1897, 96 (breeding near timber line). 

Pinicola enudeator montana Ridgway, Auk, xv, Oct., 1898, 319 (Bear Creek, Gal- 
latin Co., Montana; U. S. Nat. Mus. ). — American Ornithologists' Union 
Committee, Auk, xvi, 1899, 113 (Check List. no. 515 a). 

Genus LEUCOSTICTE Swainson. 

Leucostide Swainson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, App. 1, 493. (Type, Linaria {Leu- 

costide) tephrocotis Swainson.) 
Hypolia Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., sec. ser., i, no. 2, May 

11, 1875, 67. (Type, Passer arctous Pallas.) 

Long-winged, short-legged, essentially terrestrial finches, with nor- 
mally shaped bill (i. e. , with maxilla not distinctly shallower than man- 
dible and with gonys decidedly more than half the lateral length of the 
mandible), and dark-colored plumage. 

Bill much shorter than head, short-conical; distance from nostril to 
tip of maxilla less than half the length of the tarsus, equal to or a little 
more than depth of bill at base; culmen very slightly convex or nearly 
straight to near the tip, where more convex; gonys straight, barely 
shorter than distance from nostril to tip of maxilla; lateral basal por- 
tion of mandible sometimes with an oblique ridge. Nasal plumules 
distinct, quite covering nostrils. Wing long (more than five times as 
long as tarsus), pointed (three outermost primaries — usually the ninth — 
longest) ; primaries exceeding secondaries by nearly or quite twice the 
length of the tarsus. Tail about two-thirds as long as wing, or a little 
more, emarginated, more than half hidden by the upper coverts. Tar- 
sus equal to or slightly longer than middle toe with claw; lateral claws 
reaching to about base of middle claw; hind claw equal to or longer 
than its digit, strongly curved. 

Coloration. — Adults with more or less of pink or reddish, at least 
on flanks, or else with remiges and rectrices silverj^ gray or whitish. 
Young not streaked, but nearly unicolored, and wholly dark colored 
(sooty, grayish, or brownish) beneath. 



68 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Range. — Colder parts of eastern and central Asia and western North 
America. 

From this genus I exclude Montifringilla^ Brehm, on account of its 
even tail, with broad-ended rectrices, and Fringillauda^ Hodgson, by- 
reason of its longer tarsus (decidedly more, instead of less, than one- 
fifth as long as wing), both genera being also very different from Leu- 
costicte in their style of coloration. Both are exclusively Palsearctic. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OP LEUCOSTICTE. 

a. Adults ' with sides of head at least partly gray, like posterior portion of pileum. 
h. Larger (wing averaging 118.36 in male, 114.30 in female); coloration darker 
(chest and upper back deep chestnut-brown). (Islands of Bering Sea, 
including Commander group, Aleutians, and Shumagins. ) 

LeTicosticte tephrocotis griseonuoha (p. 72) 

66. Smaller (wing averaging 106.68 in male, 101.85 in female); coloration lighter 

(chest and upper back cinnamon-brown or light chestnut-brown). (Coast 

district of Alaska, from Kodiak eastward and southward; in winter south to 

Nevada, Utah, and Colorado, east to edge of Great Plains. 

leucostiote tephrocotis littoralis (p. 71) 

aa. Adults with sides of head brown or dusky, never gray or partly so (except, 

rarely, a spot on lores or beneath eyes). 

6. Lateral (and usually whole posterior) portion of pileum distinctly gray, in 

marked and more or less abrupt contrast with contiguous brown or dusky of 

auricular region and hindneck. 

c. Chest, etc., light chestnut-brown or cinnamon-brown (as in L. t. littoralis). 

(Interior mountain districts of North America, breeding south to southern 

Sierra Nevada, above timber line; in winter to Utah, Colorado, and 

Nebraska. ) : Leuoosticte tephrocotis tephrocotis (p. 68) 

cc. Chest, etc., brownish black ("male) or dusky slate-brownish (female). (Moun- 
tains of Idaho, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. ) Leuoosticte atrata (p. 75) 

66. Lateral and posterior portions of pileum not distinctly gray, the color not 
sharply contrasted with contiguous brown of auricular region and hindneck. 
(Mountains of Colorado and New Mexico. ) leucostiete anstralis (p. 77) 

LEUCOSTICTE TEPHROCOTIS TEPHROCOTIS Swainson. 
GRAY-OROWUED LEUCOSTICTE. 

Tarsus not more than 20.83, usually less; whole side of head, below 
eyes, brown. 

Adult male in summer. — Forehead and part of crown black; nasal 
tufts grayish white; sides of crown (from above eyes backward) and 
whole of occiput plain light ash gray, very strongly contrasted with 
the contiguous brown color of the auriculars and hindneck;* whole side 

1 Montifringilla Beehm, Isis, 1828, 1277. (Type, Fringilla nivalis Linnaeus. ) 

^ Fringillauda Hodgson, in Cray's Zool. Misc., 1844, 84. (Type, F. nemoricola 
Hodgson. ) 

"The young are not sufficiently well known' to permit their introduction into the 
key. I have seen only those of L. tephrocotis griseonucha and L. australis. 

*ln very much worn midsummer specimens, the black of the crown sometimes 
runs backward to the brown of the hindneck, thus throwing the gray into two lateral 
patches, which in some midsummer females are more indistinct. This, however, is 
not a variation of the pattern, but the result of wearing away of the gray tips to the 
feathers. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 



69 



of head below eyes (whole of auricular and malar regions), neck, back, 
scapulars, and under parts, chestnut-brown, darker on throat, lighter 
on back where indistinctly streaked with dusky, feathers of rump and 
flanks, together with upper and under tail-coverts, broadly and abruptly 
tipped with pink, the remaining portion of the feathers more or less 
dusky, especially on the rump and upper tail-coverts; wings and tail 
dusky; the lesser and middle coverts broadly tipped with pink, the 
greater coverts, primary coverts, and part of remiges edged with pink 
or light scarlet; rectrices also with lighter edgings but with less of 
pink; bill entirely black; legs and feet black. 

Adult male in winter. — Similar to summer male but scapulars and 
interscapulars with distinct edgings of lighter brown, feathers of breast, 
etc., with narrow, pale margins, the pink markings, especially on 
wings and flanks, of a softer hue, and the bill j-ellowish with dusky 
tip. 

Adult female. — Similar to adult male, with the same seasonal differ- 
ences of color, but averaging paler and duller. 

Adtclt mafe.— Length (skins), 145.03-173.23 (156.72); wing, 101. 85- 
111.76 (106.43); tail, 61.47-71.12 (66.04); exposed culmen, 10.67-12.19 
{11.43); depth of bill at base, 7.87-9.40 (8.64); tarsus, 18.29-20.83 
<19.81); middle toe, 12.70-15.24 (13.97).' 

Adult female.^'Le^ngth (skins), 142.24-165.10 (154.43); wing, 96.52- 
106.68 (101.85); tail, 60.71-70.61 (63.50); exposed culmen, 10.92-12.45 
(11.68); depth of bill at base, 7.87-9.40 (8.89); tarsus, 18.80-20.83 
(20.07); middle toe, 12.70-16.51 (14.22).' 

^ Thirty-seven specimens. 

'' Twenty-eight specimens. 

A series of summer birds from the White Mountains and Sierra Nevada of southern 
California, in the collection of the Biological Survey, seems to be referable to true 
L. Uphrocotis; at least I am not able, in the absence of a series of summer birds from 
other localities, to detect any differences which are not probably due to difference of 
season, all other specimens being winter and spring birds, chiefly the former. The 
average measurements of these southern California birds and those of a still larger 
series from more northern and eastern localities are as follows: 



Locality. 



Wing. 


Tail. 


Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 


Depth 
of bill 
at base. 


Tarsus. 


107.70 


66.80 


11.94 


8.89 


20.32 


105.41 


65.28 


11.18 


8.13 


19.05 


102.11 


64.01 


11.94 


9.14 


20.32 


100.84 


62.99 


11.43 


7.87 


19.56 



Middle 
toe. 



MALES. 

Eighteen northern and eastern specimens (Novem- 
ber to March) 

Eighteen southern California specimens (June, July, 
August) 

TEMALKS. 

Eighteen northern and eastern specimens (Novem- 
ber to March) 

Nine southern California specimens (June, July) . . 



14.73 
13.46 



14.48 
13.72 



70 BULLETIK 50, NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 

Interiol' districts of North America; breeding on higher parts 
(11,000-12,000 feet) of White Mountains and Sierra Nevada, south- 
eastern California, and probably also north wax'd; during migration 
east to western Nebraska, eastern Colorado, Manitoba, etc. ; south to 
Colorado, Utah, etc. ; west to Cascade and Sierra Nevada ranges; north 
to plains of the Saskatchewan (May). 

Linaria (Leucosticte) tephrocotis Swainson, Fauna Bor.-Am., i, 1831, 265 (plains of 
the Saskatchewan, May). 

Leucosticte tephrocotis Swainson, Fauna Bor.-Am., i, 1831, 494, pi. 50. — Baird, in 
Stansbury's Eep. Gt. Salt Lake, 1852, 317, part (Salt Lake City, Mar. 21); 
Eep. Pacific E. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 430, part; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 
322, part; in Cooper's Orn. Cal., 1870, 164, colored fig. (near Lake Tahoe, 
California, winter). — Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 123 (Nebraska). — Blak- 
isTON, Ibis, 1863, 71 (Saskatchewan). — Salvador:, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1868, 580.— CouES, Check List, 1873, no. 144, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 203.— 
Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., v, 1873, 182 (Colorado); Nom. N. Am. Birds,- 
1881, no. 175. — Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds,i, 1874, 
504, part, pi. 23, fig. 8.— Bendike, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1877, 117 (Camp 
Harney, e. Oregon, Nov. 8 to Mar. 22; crit. on plumage of sexes, etc.). — 
Merrill, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 75 (Fort Shaw, Montana, winter; 
crit. on plumage of sexes). — Shufeldt, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1881, 
177 (habits in confinement) . — Drew, Auk, ii, 1885, 16 (Colorado, 6,000 
ft., in winter). — American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 
524.— Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 181 (Nebraska, in winter).— 
Fannin, Check List Birds Brit. Col., 1891, 34 (Rocky Mts. distr., occ. w. of 
Cascades in winter). — Thompson, Auk, x, 1893, 50 (Manitoba, winter). — 
Fisher, N. Am. Fauna, no. 7, pt. ii, 1893, 82 (White Mts. and southern Sierra 
Nevada, California, breeding at 11,000-12,000 ft.). — Rhoads, Proc. Ac. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1893, 47, 63 (summit of Rocky Mts., near Field, Brit. Columbia).— 
Thornb, Auk, xii, 1895, 216 (Fort Keogh, Montana, Dec. 6 to last of Mar. ).— 
Nehrling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 46. — Brooks, Auk, xvii, 1900, 
106 (Chidiwack, Brit. Columbia). 

L. leucosticte'] tephrocotis Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 351. — Ridgway, 
Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 394. 

[Leucostictel iep/iTOCoiis Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 536. — Coues, Key N. Am. 
Birds, 1872, 130. 

\_Leucoslicte tephrocoiisl a. tephrocotis Coues, Birds N. W. , 1874, 111, part. 

[Leucosticte tephrocotis'] var. tephrocotis Baikd, Beewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. 
Am. Birds, i, 1874, 504. 

Leucosticte tephrocotis . . . var. tephrocotis Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. 
Surv. Terr., sec. ser., no. 2, May, 1875, 68, 71 (monogr.). 

Leucosticte tephrocotis var. tephrocotis Allen, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. 
Terr., ii, 1876, 350 (Camp Harney, e. Oregon; measurements, etc.). 

Erythrospiza tephrocotis Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 34. — Audubon, 
Synopsis, 1839, 126; Birds Am., oct. ed., iii, 1841, 176, pi. 198. 

IHngilla tephrocotis A-VTiVBOTS, Orn. Biog., v, 1839, 232, pi. 424. 

F. [ringilla] tephrocotis Gray', Gen. Birds, ii, 1844, 372. 

Montifringilla tephrocotis Bonaparte and Schlegel, Men. Lox., 1850, 37, pi. 
43.— HoMEYER, Journ. fiirOrn., 1880, 201. — Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xii, 1888, 273. 

[Linaria] tephrocotis Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 110, no. 7657. 



BIRDS OF NOKTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIC A. 71 

LEUCOSTICTE TEPHROCOTIS LITTORALIS (Baird). 
HEPBTTKN'S LEUCOSTICTE. 

Similar to L. t. tephrocotls, but with more or less of the sides of the 
head gray; in typical examples the entire head, except the black 
frontal patch and the throat, light ash gray, sometimes even the throat 
also gray. 

Adult tnale.— Length, (skins), 153. -±2-172. 73 "(159.00); wing, 101.85- 
109.73 (106.68); tail, 59.91-69.85(66.04); exposed culmen, 10.92-12.45 
(11.94); depth of bill at base, 8.38-9.40 (8.89); tarsus, 19.81-20.83 
(20.57); middle toe, 13.72-16.24 (14.73).^ 

Adult female.— Length (skins), 154.69-164.59 (159.00); wing, 100.08- 
104.14 (101.85); exposed culmen, 11.43-12.45 (11.94); depth of bill at 
base, 8.38 (one specimen); tarsus, 19.81-20.57 (20.07); middle toe, 
13.72-14.99 (14.48).' 

Mountain districts of northwestern North America; doubtless breed- 
ing above timber line on the coast mountains of Alaska, from the 
Aliaska peninsula eastward and southward; " in winter south to Nevada, 
Utah, and Colorado, and east to eastern base of Rocky Mountains 
(casually to Minnesota), and along the Pacific coast to Kodiak, Sitka, 
Vancouver Island, etc. 

Leucosticte tephrocotls (not of Swainson) Baikd, Stansbury'a Rep. Gt. Salt Lake, 
1852, 317, part (Salt Lake City, Utah, March); Rep. Pacific K. R. Surv., ix, 
1858, 430, part (do.); Oat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 322, part. 

Leucosticte griseinucha (not Fringilla griseonucha Brandt) Brown, Ibis, 1868, 422 
(Vancouver I.).— Elliot, lUustr. New and Unflg. N. Am. Birds, pt. x, 1868, 
pi. 12. 

Montifringilla . . . ^riseinuc/iaHoMEYEK, Journ. fiirOrn., 1880, 153 (Oregon). 

\_Leuco8ticte tephrocotis] b. griseinucha Coues, Birds N. W., 1874, 111, part. 

Leucosticte teplvrocostis . . . var. griseinucha Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 1 Ha, 
part. 

Leucosticte littoralis Baied, Trans. Chicago Ac. Sci., i, 1869, 318, pi. 28, fig. 1 
(Sitka, Alaska; U. S. Nat. Mus.); in Cooper's Orn. Cal., 1870, 162 (Sitka; 
Ft. Simpson, Brit. Columbia). — Dall and BannisTek, Trans. Chicago Ac. 
Sci., i, 1869, 282 (Sitka). — Baikd, Bkbwbk, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, i, 1874, pi. 23, flg. 6.— Ridgway, Orn. 40th Parallel, 1877, 461 (Vir- 
ginia City, Nevada, Jan. 5). — Bendiee, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1877, 117 
(Camp Harney, e. Oregon; winter resid., possibly breeding on mountains; 
descr. supposed egg, etc.).* — Bebwbe, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1878, 189 
(descr. song). 

[Leucosticte tephrocotis.] Var. littoralis Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 130. 

^ Seventeen specimens. 

^ Six specimens. 

'Supposed breeding localities of this form in Washington and Oregon (see synon- 
ymy) may, in reality, pertain to X. tephrocotls tephrocotis, no specimens having been 
obtained, apparently, to determine the question. 

■'This supposed breeding record may refer to L. tephrocotls tephrocotls. 



72 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Lemosticte tephrocoiia, var. littoralis Baied, Beeweb, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, i, 1874, 507.— Allen, Bull. U. S. Gqol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., ii, 1876, 
349 (Camp Harney, e. Oregon, Jan., Feb.; measurements, etc.) .— Mberill, 
Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 75 (crit. on sexual differences in plumage). 
Leucosiicte tephrocotis . . . var. ZittomZis Bidqway, Bull. Essex Inst., vii, Jan., 
1875, 36 (Nevada); Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Terr., sec. ser., no. 2, May, 
1875, 74 (monogr.). 
Leucosticte tephrocotis, /3. littoralis Ridgway, Field and Forest, ii, May, 1877, 198 
(Colorado). 

Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, Aug. 24, 1880, 
177, 216; Norn. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 175a.— Deew, Auk, ii, 1885, 16 
(Colorado, 5,000-8,000 ft. in winter).— American Ornithologists' Union, 
Check List, 1886, no. 524a.— Nelson, Rep. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 
177 (Sitka, Kodiak, Brit. Columbia, etc.).— Cant well, Auk, vi, 1889, 341 
(Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1 spec. Jan. 3, 1889).— Thoene, Auk, xii, 1895, 
216 (FortKeogh, Montana, winter).— (?) Dawson, Auk, xiv, 1897, 92 (Okano- 
gan Co., Washington, 8,000 ft., breeding'), 177 (do.).— Meerill, Auk, xv, 
1898, 15 (Ft. Sherman, Idaho, Nov. 3).— Brooks, Auk, xvii, 1900, 106 
(Brit. Columbia, breeding above timber line on Cascades). 

L. leucosticte'] t.[ephrocotis] Utoralis CouBS, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 351. 

L. leucosticte] tephrocotis littoralis Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 394. 

Leucosticte tephrocotis litoralis Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 204. 

ILinaria] littoralis Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 110, no. 7663. 

Montefringilla littoralis Finsch, Abh. Nat. Yer. Bremen, iii, 1872, 58 (Sitka; Ft. 
Simpson). 

Montifringilla littoralis Shaepe, Cat. Birds. Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 277. 

Tephrocotis [Zopsus] littoralis Fannin, Check List Birds Brit. Col., 1891, 35 (Ash- 
croft, Clinton, Burrard Inlet, Port Simpson, etc.). 

Leucosticte campestris Baied, in Cooper's Orn. Cal., 1870, 163, colored fig. (Den- 
ver, Colorado; U. S. Nat. Mus.). — Baied, Beewee, and Ridgway, Hist. N. 
Am. Birds, i, 1874, pi. 23, fig. 7. 

ILeucostiete tephrocotis.l Var. campestris Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 130. 

Leucosticte tephrocotis, var. campestris Baied, Beewee, and Ridgway, Hist. N. 
Am. Birds, i, 1874, 507. 

Leucosticte tephrocotis campestris Goode, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 20, 1883, 327. 



LEUCOSTICTE TEPHROCOTIS GRISEONUCHA (Brandt). 
ALEUTIAN LEUCOSTICTE. 

Similar to Z. t. 'littoralis but much larger (decidedly the largest form 
of the genus) and darker; wing averaging not less than 111. 30; tar- 
sus, 24.13. 

Adult male in summer. — Forehead and part of crown black; throat 
dusky grayish or blackish, becoming lighter or more decidedly gray 
on chin; rest of head uniform light ash gray; general color of body 
deep chocolate brown, the scapulars and interscapulars with dusky 
shaft-streaks and paler brown margins, the feathers of rump, abdo- 
men, flanks, and the upper and under tail-coverts broadly and abruptly 



' Apparently no specimens were obtained and the form may have been X. tephro- 
cotis tephrocotis. 



BIRDS OF NOETH AND MIDDLE AMEBICA. 



73 



tipped with pink; wings and tail dusky, the lesser and middle wing- 
coverts broadly tipped with pink, the greater coverts, primary coverts, 
and remiges edged with the same; rectrices edged with pale grayish 
or grayish white, usually more or less tinged with pink; bill entirely 
black; legs and feet black. 

Adult male in winter. — Similar to the summer male, but bill yel- 
lowish, tipped with dusk}'-, the pink markings of a softer hue, and 
feathers of breast, etc. , narrowly margined with paler. 

Adult female. — Quite similar in coloration to the male, with the 
same seasonal differences; possiblj^, but very doubtfuU}'', averaging a 
very little duller in colors.^ 

Young. — Uniform grayish brown, more or less washed with a more 
umber tint; wings and tail dusky slate, the feathers margined with 
paler; edges of greater wing-coverts and tertials dull buflfy; no trace 
of pink on tail-coverts, etc. , nor of gray or black on head. 

AdxAtmale.—L&xig'Ca. (skins), 177.80-213.36 (195.07); wing, 111.76- 
124.21 (118.36); tail, 72.64-85.09 (80.26); exposed culmen, 13.46-15.2i 
(14.22); depth of bill at base, 8.89-10.67 (9.91); tarsus, 23.37-25.40 
(24.13); middle toe, 16.51-19.81 (18.03).' 

Admit female.— l^ii^gih. (skins), 182.88-198.12 (190.25); wing, 109.22- 
123.70 (114.30); tail, 73.66-82.04 (77.22); exposed culmen, 13.21-15.24 
(14.48); depth of bill at base, 9.40-10.67 (9.91); tarsus, 23.11-25.65 
<24.38); middle toe, 17.27-19.81 (18.03).' 

Breeding, and resident, on islands of Bering Sea (St. Matthews 
Island, Otter Island, Pribilofs, Aleutians, Commander group,), Shu- 

^ This statement is of course based upon the material which I have been able to 
examine, and if incorrect many specimens have been wrongly determined as to sex. 

^ Twenty-one specimens. 
• ' Eleven specimens. 

Series from different localities average as follows: 



Locality. 



Wing. 



Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 



Depth 

ot bill 

at base. 



Tarsus. 



Middle 
toe. 



MALE. 

Eight specimens from Pribilof Islands and Otter 
Island , 

Ten specimens from Aleutian Islands (Unalashka 
to Adakh Island) 

Three specimens from Commander Islands (Kam- 
chatka) 

FEMALE. 

Six specimens from Pribilofs and Otter Island , 

Three specimens from Aleutians (Attu and Kyska 

islands) , 

Two specimens from Commander Islands (Copper 

Islandj 



117.86 
117. 60 
121. 92 

113. 28 
112. 78 
119. 13 



81.28 
78.49 
83.06 

78.23 
74. 42 
77.72 



14.48 
14.22 
33.97 

14.48 
14.22 
14.73 



9.91 
9.65 
10.67 

9.65 
10.16 
10.67 



24.38 
24.13 
25.15 

24.13 
24.64 
25.15 



18.03 
18.03 
18.80 

17.78 
18.28 
19.05 



74 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

magin Islands, and lower portion of Aliaska Peninsula (Belkovsky); 
island of Kodiak, in winter (November to March). 

Passer arctous, var. y. Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso- Asiat. , ii, 1826, 23, pi. 40. 

Fringilla {Linaria) griseonueha Brandt, Bull. Sclent. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersb., 
X, for Nov. 26, 1841 (pub. 1843), 252 (based on Passer ardour, var. y. Pallas, 
Zoogr. Rosso- Asiat., ii, 23, pi. 40); Isis, 1844, 136.— Kittlitz, Denkw. Reis. 
Russ. Am., i, 1858, 278. 

F.[ringiUa'] griseonuclia Geay, Gen. Birds, ii, 1849, 372. 

Montifringilla {Leucosticte) griseinucha Bonaparte and Schlegel, Mon. des Loxiens, 
1850, 35, pi. 41. 

Montefringilla griseonueha Finsch, Abh. Nat. Bremen, iii, 1872, 57 (Unalashka). 

Montifringilla griseinucha Sbavfe, Cat. Birds Brit. JIus., xii, 1888, 275. 

[Leucosticte'] griseinucha Bo^afartie, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 537 (Aleutians). — Salva- 
DORi, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.,1868, 580, 

L.\_eucosticte\ griseinucha Caba'Sis, Mus. Hein., i, 1851, 154 ("Siberia"). — CouES, 
Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 351. 

Leucosticte griseinucha Baird, in Stansbury's Rep. Gt. Salt Lake, 1852, 331 (Aleu- 
tian Islands) ; Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv. , ix, 1858, 430; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, 
no. 323; Trans. Chicago Ac. Sci., i, 1869, 317, pi. 28, fig. 2 (Unalashka and St. 
Georges I. , Alaska) . — Dall and Bannister, Trans. Chicago Ac. Sci. , i, 1869, 282 
(Pribilof and Aleutian islands; habits; song; descr. nest and eggs). — Elliot, 
New and Unfig. N. Am. Birds, i, 1869, pi. 11.— Dall, Proc. Cal. Ac. Sci., v, 
1873 (11) (Aleutian islands; descr. nest and eggs) ; vi, 1874, (Ky ska I., east- 
ward). — Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, pi. 23, fig. 
5. — Ridgway, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 174. — Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 
1882, no. 205.— Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1882, 148 (Shumagins; Una- 
lashka). — Taczanowski, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1882,393 (Bering I., Kamt- 
schatka).— Nelsox, Cruise, "Corwin," 1881 (1883), 67 (Aleutian, Pribilof, 
and St. Matthews islands). — Dy'bowski, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1883, 364 
(Bering I.). — Stbjneger, Naturen, 1884, 34 (Bering I.). — Turner, Auk, ii, 
1885, 157 (nearer Aleutians). 

Leucosticte griseonueha Stejnbgbr, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 29, 1885, 261, 322 (Com- 
mander Islands, Kamtschatka; breeding habits etc.); Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
X, 1887, 142 (Commander Islands). — American Ornithologists' Union, 
Check List, 1886, no. 523.— Turner, Contr. Nat. Hist. Alaska, 1886, 171, 
part, pi. 7 (Aleutian and Pribilof islands; Belkovsky, Aliaska Peninsula; 
habits). — Nelson, Rep. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 176 (habits, etc.); 
Cruise "Corwin," 1885 (1887), 100 (Otter I., Bering Sea, etc.).— Ridgway, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 664 (Unalashka). — Nehrling, Our Native 
Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 49. 

L. [eucosticte} griseonueha Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 393. 

[Leucosticte tephrocotis.'] Var. griseinucha Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 130. 

Leucosticte tephrocotis . . . var. griseinucha Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 144o. 

Leucosticte tephrocotis, var. griseinucha Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, i, 1874, 508.— Coues, in Elliott's Affairs in Alaska, 1875, 174 (Pribilof 
Islands; habits, etc. ). — Elliott, Mon. Seal Islands, 1882, 127 (habits, etc. ). 

Leucosticte tephrocotis griseinucha Goode, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 20, 1883, 327. 

[Leucosticte tephrocotis'] b. (/mfiinuc/ia Coues, Birds N.W., 1874, 111, part (synon- 
ymy; includes L. tephrocotis littoralis). 

Leucosticte {tephrocotis, Swainson, var.?) griseinucha Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Geol. and 
Geog. Surv. Terr., sec. ser., no. 2, May, 1875, 77 (monogr. ). 

Linaria griseinucha Kittlitz, Denkw. Reis. Russ. Am., i, 1858, 878. 



BIRDS OF NOETH AND MIDDLE AMEEICA. 75 

Leucostiete griseogenys Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1843, 10-1 (no locality given) ; 

Zool. Voy. "Sulphur," 1844, 42, pi. 23. 
F. [rmgUla] griseogenys Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1849, 372. 
Moniifnngilla pustulata Cabanis, in Ersch. u. Grub. Encyc, i, sect. vol. 50, 1849, 215 

(ex Fringilla pustulata Liohtenstein, MS.). 
Fringilla pustulata Kittlitz, Denkw. Reis. Russ. Am. , i, 1858, 278. 
MontifringUla tephrocotisf Finsch, Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen, iii, 1872, 58 (Una- 

lashka). 
M. lontifringilla'] speciosa Finsch, Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen, iii, 1872, 60 (Unalashka^ 

Bremen Mus. ). 
Leucosticte tephrocotis (not of Swainson) Hakting, Fauna Prybilov Islands, 1875, 16. 
Leucosticte bramuinucha (not Fringilla brunneonucha Brandt) Stbjnbgbe, Proc. 

TJ. S. Nat. Mus., vi, 1883, 71 (see Auk, i, 1884, 82, footnote). 
Leucosticte hadiaka McGregor, Condor, iii, Jan., 1901 (pub. Nov. 25, 1900), & 

(Karluk, Kodiak Island, Alaska; coll. E. C. McGregor). 
Leucosticte tephrocotis hadiaka Grinnell, Condor, iii, Jan., 1901, 21 (crit.) . 



LEUCOSTICTE ATRATA Ridgway. 
BIAGE lETTGOSTICTE. 

Similar in size and pattern of coloration to L. tephrocotis teph- 
rocotis, but the chestnut-brown of that species replaced by brownish 
black (adult male) or dusky slate-brownish (adult female and immature 
male). 

Adult male in summer. — Forehead and part of crown black; nasal 
tufts white; sides of crown (over eyes and auriculars) and entire occiput 
uniform light ash gray; auricular and malar regions, chin, throat, and 
under parts generally brownish black or deep clove brown, the feathers 
of the sides, flanks, and abdomen broadly tipped with peach-blossom 
pink; under tail-coverts and anal region pink, more or less mixed with 
white, the feathers more or less extensively grayish centrally; hind- 
neck, back, and scapulars dark sepia brown, the feathers with more or 
less distinct lighter brown or buffy edgings; rump peach -blossom pink, 
the feathers gray basally, a dusky bar or space separating the gray 
from the pink; upper taU-co verts similar, but the underlying darker 
colors more exposed; lesser and middle wing-coverts peach -blossom 
pink; greater coverts broadly edged with peach-blossom pink, the 
concealed portion of the feathers dusky; primary coverts and remiges 
dusky edged with pink; rectrices dusky edged with light grayish and 
pink; bill, legs, and feet black. 

Adult male in winter. — Similar to the summer male, but bill yel- 
lowish, tipped with dusky; light brown or buflfy edgings to scapulars 
and interscapulars broader and more distinct; feathers of breast, etc., 
more or less margined with light buflfy grayish, and the pink markings 
of a softer, more rosy, hue. 



76 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Immature male. — Similar to adult male, but the pink marking^s paler, 
replaced on middle and greater wing-coverts and part of secondaries 
by broad tips and edgings of buffy white. 

Adult female. — Much duller in color than the male, the under parts 
dusky grayish brown instead of brownish black, the back more brown- 
ish, and the pink markings decidedly paler, less extensive, and largely 
replaced bj^ whitish, especially on wings. 

Immature female. — Still duller and browner than adult female, with 
pink markings more extensively replaced by whitish and pale buffy; 
scapulars and interscapulars conspicuously margined with brownish 
buffy, and feathers of breast, etc. (sometimes of whole anterior under 
parts), margined with pale grayish buffy. 

Adult 7nale. —Liength (skins), 149.86-159.26 (153.92); wing, 107.19- 
108.71 (107.95); tail, 66.56-69.85 (68.33); exposed culmen, 10.41-12.19 
(11.43); depth of bill at base (one specimen), 8.38; tarsus, 19.81-20.32 
(20. 07) ; middle toe, 14. 22-14. 99 (14. 48) . ' 

Adult female.^-Ijength (skins), 142.24-156.97 (150.88); wing, 98.81- 
106.43 (102.36); tail, 60.45-65.53 (63.50); exposed Culmen, 11.43-11.94 
(11.68); tarsus, 19.81-20.32 (20.07); middle toe, 13.72-14.73 (14.22).' 

Breeding above timber line on high mountains of Idaho (Salmon 
River range), Wyoming (Uintah Mountains), etc. ; south, in winter, to 
Colorado (El Paso County, etc.), and southern Utah (St. George). 

Leucosticte tephrocotis (not of Swainson) Stevenson, Prelim. Kep. TJ. S: Geol. Surv. 
Terr, for 1871 (1872), 464 (Uintah Mountains, Wyoming).— Holden, Proc. 
Boat. Soc. N. H., xv, 1872, 199, part (black specimen; Sherman, Wyoming). — 
Baikd, Brewer, and Bidgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 505, part (sup- 
posed young from Uintah Mts.). 

Leucosticte atrata Eidgway, American Sportsman, iv, July 18, 1874, 241 (El Paso 
Co., Colorado; coll. C. E. Aiken) ;' Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geod. Surv. Terr., 
2d ser., no. 2, May 14, 1875, 68, 69 (monogr.); Field and Forest, iii, 1877, 
198 (Colorado); Nom. N.Am. Birds, 1881, no. 176.— Ooues, Check List, 2d 
ed., 1882, no. 201.— Drew, Auk, ii, 1885, 16 (Colorado, 5,000 feet in winter) .— 
American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 525. — Meeriam, 
North Am. Fauna, no. 5, 1891, 102 (Salmon River Mts., s. Idaho, breeding 
above timber line). — Fisher, North Am. Fauna, no. 7, pt. ii, 1893, 83 (St. 
George, s. Utah, Jan. 21). — Nehrling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 45, 
pi. 22.— Cooke, Bull. Col. Agric. Coll., no. 44, 1898, 164 (Colorado Springs, 
Colorado, up to Apr. 2). 

L. leucosticte] atrata Coubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 350. — Eidgway, 
Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 394. 

Montifringilla atrata Sharpe, Oat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 274. 



' Three specimens. 

' Six specimens. 

"Type now in collection of U. S. National Museum. 



BIEDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEKICA. 77 

LEUCOSTICTE AUSTRALIS (Allen). 
BROWN-CAPPED LETJCOSTICTE. 

No distinct or clear gray markings on head/ 

Adult male in summer. — Pileum dusky grayish Drown, becoming 
nearly or quite black on forehead; nasal tufts whitish; rest of head, 
together with neck, chest, and breast, deep cinnamon-brown or dull rus- 
set, deepest on throat, where often, as on chest and breastalso, tinged or 
flecked with bright red; hindneck, back, and scapulars similar, but 
duller (between wood brown and broccoli brown), with narrow, more 
or less indistinct, shaft-streaks of dusky; feathers of rump and upper 
tail-coverts broadly and abruptly tipped with peach-blossom pink; the 
remaining portion of the feathers grayish brown, more dusky next to 
the pink; sides, flanks, and abdomen mostly carmine-pink, the feathers 
grayish brown beneath the surface; under tail-coverts deep grayish 
brown or dusky centrally, broadly and abrupt^ margined with pink 
and white; wings dusky, with lesser and middle coverts broadly 
tipped with peach-blossom pink, the greater and primary coverts and 
remiges edged with the same — the color very bright, almost scarlet, 
on the wing-coverts in some midsummer specimens; tail dusky, edged 
with pale brownish gray and pinkish; bill and feet black. 

Adult male in winter. — Similar to the summer male, but bill yellow- 
ish, tipped with dusky; pileum light brownish gray posteriorly and 
laterally, with dusky centers to feathers; dusky feathers of forehead 
and crown margined with pale grayish brown, scapulars and interscap- 
ulars conspicuously margined with pale buJffy brown; feathers of breast 
and other anterior under parts margined with pale buffy, and the pink 
markings and areas of a lighter and softer, more rose pink, hue. 

Immature m,ale. — Similar to adult males, as described above, but 
greater wing-coverts edged with bufify (in winter) or dull whitish (in 
summer). 

Adult female. — Much duller in color than adult male, but with the 
same seasonal changes; breast, etc., wood brown; back, etc., more 
grayish brown, and the pink markings indistinct. 

Young. — Plain light grayish buffy brown, including whole head, 
much paler on posterior under parts; lesser and middle wing-coverts 
and tail-coverts tipped with dull light buffy; greater wing-coverts 

^ In very fresh plumage there is a quite well defined area covering exactly the same 
parts of the pileum as in L. tephrocoiis tephrocotis and L. atrata, that is differently colored 
from the contiguous parts, but instead of this area being clear and perfectly uniform 
light ash gray the feathers are dusky brownish gray centrally, margined with light 
brownish gray, producing a more or less squamate or scale-like appearance; further- 
more, the brown color whicn borders this somewhat grayish area is decidedly lighter 
and duller, or less rufescent, than in L. tephrocotis. 



78 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

broadly edged with brighter buffy; wings otherwise, and tail, much 
as in adult female. 

Adult male.— hBngth. (skins), 145.03-164.85 (164.18); wing, 101.60- 
111.76 (107.95); tail, 60.71-72.64(66.55); exposed culmen; 10.16-12.70 
(11.68); depth of bill at base, 8.38-8.89 (8.64); tarsus, 18.29-20.57 
(19.81); middle toe, 13.97-15.24 (14.48).^ 

i^emaZ^.— Length (skins), 143.00-156.21 (149.10); wing, 99.06^108.20 
(103.63); tail, 60.96-68.53 (64.52); exposed culmen, 11.43-11.94 (11.68); 
depth of bill at base (one specimen), 8.13; tarsus, 18.80-19.81 (19.30); 
middle toe, 13.72-14.99 (14.22).' 

Breeding above timber line on high mountains of Colorado (Mount 
Lincoln, Mount Harvard, Mount Evans, Red Mountains, etc.); de- 
scending to lower valleys and plains and south to New Mexico (Mount 
Blanco, etc.) in winter. 

Leucosticte griseinucha (not Fringilla griseonucha Brandt) Allen, Am. Nat., vi, 
June, 1872, 350 (Mount Lincoln, Colorado, above timber line). 

Leucosticte tephrocotis (notof Swainson) Allen, Am. Nat., vi, 1872, 162, 284 (Mount 
Lincoln, Colorado, breeding); Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, no. 6, 1872, 121 (in 
text), 162, 177, part (mountains of Colorado above timber line). — Baikd, 
Bkbwer, and Eidgway, Hist. N. Am. B., i, 1874, 504, 505, footnote, pi. 23, fig. 
9 (supposed breeding dress). 

^Leucosticte tephrocotis} a. tephrocotis Coues, Birds N. "W., 1874, 111 (part; see espe- 
cially footnote). 

Leucosticte tephrocotis, var. australis Allen, Bidgway, Bull. Essex Inst., v, Nov., 
1873, 189 (Mount Lincoln, Colorado; coll. Mus. Comp. Zool.) ; Dec, 1873, 197 
(redescribed). — Baird, Bkewee, and Eidgway, Hist. N. Am. B., iii, 1874, 
App., p. 509 (descriptions). 

Leucosticte australis Eidgway*, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Survey Terr., 2d ser., no. 
2, May 11, 1875, 79 (monographic); Field and Forest, iii, 1877, 198 (Colo- 
rado); Nom. N. Am. B., 1881, no. 177. — Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's 
Surv., 1873 (1874), 79 (South Park, Mount Harvard, Mount Evans, Eed Mts., 
etc., Colorado, July; habits); Zool. Exp. W; 100th Merid., 1875, 249, pis. 5, 6 
(South Park, Colorado; Mount Blanco, New Mexico, Sept. ). — Coues, Check 
List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 202.— Dkew, Auk, ii, 1885, 16 (Colorado, breedmg from 
12,000-13,500 ft.; in winter, 6,000-10,000 ft.).— American Ornithologists' 
Union, Check List, 1886, no. 526.— Anthony, Auk, iv, 1887, 257 (Boulder Co., 
Colorado, Jan.; descr. winter plumage). 

L. leucosticte'] australis Coues, Key N.Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 350.^Eidgway, 
Man.N. Am. Birds, 1887, 395. 

Jjeucosticte tephrocotis, — var. australis Drew, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1881, 89 (San 
Juan Oo., Colorado, breeding above timber line; notes; descr. young). 

Montifringilla australis Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 275. 

Genus ACANTHIS Beehstein. 

Acanthis Beohstein, Orn. Taschenb., 1803, 125. (Type, Fringilla linaria Linnseus; 

see Stejneger, Auk, i, 1884, 145. ) 
Acanthys Des Muns, Traits d' Ool., 1862, 334, 546. 
Linaria (not of Brisson, 1760) Vieillot, Analyse, 1816, 30. (Type, L. rufescens 

Vieillot.) 

' Twenty specimens. ^ Five specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 79 

i' Cabanis, Mus. liein., i, Aug., 1851, 161. (Type, Fringilla linaria 

Linnaeus. ) 
JEgiothus (emendation) Auctorum. 
LinacantMs Des Murs, End. Hist. Nat., pt. 5, 1854, 304. (Type, Linaria rufescens 

Vieillot.) 
Agriospiza Sundevall, Av. Met. Nat. Disp. Tent.,, 1872, 32. (Type, Fringilla 

flavirostris Linnseus. ) 

Small, streaked, red-capped, and often rosy-breasted finches with 
long and distinctly emarginate tail and small acute bill. 

Bill conical, strongly compressed terminally and usually acute at 
tip, nearly the basal half (except in summer plumage) covered by the 
conspicuous nasal plumules; culmen and gonys nearly straight, the 
former always much shorter than the tarsus. Wing long (five times 
as long as tarsus or more), pointed (three outermost primaries longest, 
the ninth longer than the seventh); primaries exceeding secondaries by 
nearly twice the length of the tarsus. Tail long (at least three-fourths 
long as wing), deeply emarginate or forked. Tarsus very short — 
about one-quarter as long as tail and not more than one-fifth as long 
as wing, a little longer than middle toe with claw; lateral toes much 
shorter than the middle, their long and strongly curved claws reaching 
to about the middle of the middle claw; hallux nearly as long as outer 
toe, its slender, slightly arched claw longer than the digit. 

Coloration. — Above streaked with dusky upon a brownish, grayish, 
or whitish ground, the rump sometimes immaculate white or pinkish; 
top of head bright red (except in A. hrewsterli) ; wings and tail duskj', 
the feathers edged with paler, the middle and greater wing-coverts 
tipped with whitish or pale brownish; superciliary region and lower 
parts chiefly whitish, but anterior lower parts (except in A. irewsterii) 
more or less tinged with red in adult males, and sides usually more or 
less streaked with dusky; a more or less distinct dusky spot on chin 
and upper part of throat (except in A. hrewsterii). 

Admit females. — Similar to the males but without any red on breast, 
etc., the crown, however, red, as in male. 

Young. — No red whatever on crown or elsewhere; whole head 
streaked with dusky and grayish or brownish white, the latter color 
prevailing on under portions; otherwise much as in adult females, but 
under parts more extensively streaked, plumage of much softer, more 
"woolly," texture and markings less sharply defined. 

[Both sexes have in summer a blackish bill, the red of a brighter 
tint, and the colors darker than in winter, during which season the bill 
is yellow, tipped with black, the lighter markings more pronounced, 
and the plumage in general more or less strongly suffused with buffy 
or light ochraceous-brown.J 

Range. — Northern portions of Northern Hemisphere. 

' "Von aiyio^o'i 6 nom. prop." 



80 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF ACANTHIS. 

a. Chin dusky; adults with crown red. 

b. Under tail-coverts wholly pure white, or else with only a few indistinct dusky 

streaks; rump immaculate white or pale pink. {Acanthis hornemannii.) 

c. Larger, the wing not less than 80.01 (averaging 84.3.3), depth of bill at base 

not less than 7.37 (averaging 7.87). (Greenland, and, in winter, adjacent 

parts of North American continent. ) . Acanthis hornemannii hornemannii ( p. 80) 

cc. Smaller, the wing not more than 77.98 (averaging 74.17), depth of bill at base 

not more than 6.86 (averaging 6. 35). (Continental arctic districts of North 

America, Europe, and Asia.) Acanthis hornemannii exilipes (p. 82) 

bb. Under tail-coverts with distinct mesial streaks of dusky; rump distinctly 
streaked with dusky. {Acanthis lindria.) 
c. Smaller, the wing usually less than 76.20 (averaging 74.17), depth of bill at 
base lessthan 7.11 (averaging 6. 10). (More northern continental portionsof 

North America, Europe, and Asia.) Acanthis linaria linaria (p. 85) 

cc. Larger, the wing usually more than 76.20 (averaging 79.25') ; depth of bill 
at base not less than 7.11 (averaging 7.62^). (Greenland; south in winter 
to more northern United States east of Rocky Mountains. ) 

Acanthis linaria rostrata (p. 91) 
[Intermediate between the two preceding, with a larger and relatively longer 
bill than linaria, and more acute, as well as relatively longer, bill than ros- 
trata; northern parts of Europe, Asia, and North America, chiefly along 

coasts.] Acanthis linaria holboellii (p. 89) 

aa. Chin not dusky; adults without red on crown. (Cambridge, Mass.'). 

Acanthis brewsterii (p. 92) 



ACANTHIS HORNEMANNII HORNEMANNII (Holboll). 
GREENLAND REDPOII. 

The largest and lightest-colored form of the genus. 

Adult male in spring. — Forehead grayish, finely mottled with dusky; 
crown bright vermilion or poppy red; occiput, hindneck, back, and 
scapulars grayish white streaked with dusky, the dusky streaks broad- 
est on back and scapulars; upper tail-coverts dusky centrally, their 
margins broadly white; entire rump white, usually faintly tinged with 
delicate pink; sides of head dull brownish white, darkest on auricular 
region; loral streak and chin dusky; nasal tufts light grayish brown; 
under parts white, the chest usually more or less tinged with delicate 
pale peach-blossom pink, the sides, flanks, and under tail-coverts 
usually quite iipmaculate; wings and tail grayish dusky; middle and 
greater wing-coverts tipped with white, forming two distinct bands; 
remiges edged with white, their edgings broadest on tertials; greater 
and primary coverts narrowly edged with pale grayish; outer webs of 
rectrices narrowly edged with grayish white, the inner webs broadly 
edged with pure white; bill mostly or wholly dusky; legs and feet black. 

1 Thirty-one specimens. 

* Twenty-eight specimens. 

' Only one specimen known, possibly a hybrid of Acnnthis linaria and Spinus pinus. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 81 

Adult male hi winter. — Similar to tlie spring male, but head, neck, 
back, and scapulars more or less tinged with pale buff, the dusky streaks 
on back, etc. , narrower, white edgings of wings and tail broader, and 
bill yellowish with dusky tip. 

Adult female in sprbig. — Similar to the spring male, but without 
any pink tinge on rump or chest, and usually (?) with the sides and 
flanks (rarely under tail-coverts also) narrowly streaked with grayish 
dusky. 

Adult female in winter. — Similar to the spring female, but head, 
neck, back, etc., more or less strongly tinged with buff, the dusky 
streaks of back, etc., narrower, the white edgings of wings and tail 
broader, and the bill yellowish with dusky tip. 

[Many adult males are quite similar in coloration to adult females, 
lacking any trace of pink on chest or rump. Younger birds, appar- 
ently, are more strongly tinged with buff in winter plumage. First 
plumage not seen.] 

Adxdt maZe.— Length (skins), 135.89-151.13 (Ml. 73); wing, 81. OS- 
GO. 93 (85.85); tail, 57.91-66.55 (63.26); exposed culmen, 8.6J-10.16 
(9.14); depth of bill at base, 7.62-8.38 (8.13); tarsus, 15.75-17.27 (16.51); 
middle toe, 8.38-9.65 (9.14). ^ 

J.6Z'MZi!/emaZe.— Length (skins), 131.57-144.78 (137.92); wing, 80.52- 
86.87 (82.80); tail, 58.93-68.58 (62.99); exposed culmen, 8.13-10.41 
(8.89); depth of bill at base, 7.37-7.87 (7. 62); tarsus, 16.26-17.27 (16.51); 
middle toe, 8.13-9.40 (8.64).' 

V Resident in Greenland, where breeding north to latitude 70°; Ice- 
land; Spitzbergen; Jan Mayen Land. In winter southwestward to 
Ungava (Fort Chime, September 1 to Maj^ 15), irregularly to west 
side of Hudson Bay (Fort Churchill), Ontario (Gait, 2 specimens, 
Januarj^, 1860); also occurring accidentally in England (Whitburn, 1 
specimen, April 24, 1855) and France (Abbeville). 

FringUla borealis (not Linaria borealis Yieillot) Temminck, Man. d'Orn., iii, 1835, 
264. — Wernek, Atlas, Granivores, 1827, pi. 17. — Selys-Longchamps, Faune 
Beige, 1842, 73. 

[Linaria'] borealis (not Vieillot) Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 110, no. 7653, part 
(Greenland). 

lAnota hornemannii Holboll, Naturh. Tidsskr., iv, 1843, 398 (Greenland). — Sal- 
via, Cat. Strickland Coll., 1882, 206. 

Linota hornemanni Newton, ed. Yarrell'sHist. Brit. Birds, ii, 1876-82, 143, 144, in 
text. — Drbssbe, Birds Europe, pts. 55, 56, 1876 (p. 55), part, pi. 189, fig. 2, pi. 
190, upper fig. (Greenland, Iceland, Spitzbergen, Whitburn, England, 1 spec. 
Apr. 24, 1855; Abbeville, France, 1 spec). — British Ornithologists' Union, 
List Brit. Birds, 1883, 54.— Brooks, Ibis, 1883, 383, 384 (Gait, Ontario, 2 speci- 
mens Jan., 1860; crit.). — Clarke, ZoDlogist, 1890, 9 (Jan Mayen Land; 
Iceland; see Fischer and Pelzeln, Arzt. osterreich. Exp. Jan Mayen, 1886, — ). 

[Linarial hornemanni Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 110, no. 7654 (excl. syn. rostra- 
tus Coues). 

' Thirteen specimens. ^ Twelve specimens. 

17024—01 6 



82 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Linaria hornemanni Hombyek, Journ. fiir Orn., xxxiii, April, 1879, 182 (crit.). 

F.lringilla] hornemanni Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1849, 372. 

Fringilla hornemanni Beebobm, Hist. Brit, Birds, ii, 1884, 117. 

jEgiothus hornemanni CouES, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 209. 

^. Igiothus} hornemanni CouES, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 353. 

Acanthis hornemanni Dresser, Birds Europe, iv, 1871-1881, 55 (descr. eggs).— 

Turner, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 239 (Fort Chimo, Ungava, Sept. 

1 to May 15). 
Acanthis hornemannii Ste.tneger, Auk, i, April, 1884, 152.— American Ornitholo- 

Gisrs' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 527.— (?)Clarke, Auk, vii, 1890, 322 

(Ft. Churchill, Hudson Bay).— McIlwraith, Birds Ontario, 1892, 300 (Gait, 

Ontario, small flock). 
A. Icanthis] hornemannii Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 396. 
[Acanthis exilipes.'] Subsp. a. Acanthis hornemanni Sharpe, Cat, Birds Brit. Mus., 

xii, 1888, 256. 
Acanthis canescens (not Linaria canescens Gould) Bonaparte and Schlegel, Mon. 

des Loxiens, 1850, 47, pi. 51. 
[Acanthiil caraesccres Bonaparte, Consp.Av.,i, 1850, 541 (Greenland). 
A. legiothus] canescens Cabanis, Mus. Hein., i, Aug., 1851, 161 (Greenland). 
Aegiothus canescens Baird, Eep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 429 (excl. syn. part); 

Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 321. — Finsch, Zweite Deutsche Nordpolfahrt, ii, 

1874, 188, part (e. Greenland; crit.) . 
JEgioihus canescens Coves, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1861,388 (monogr.).— Baird, 

Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 498, part. — Ridgway, 

Norn. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 178. 
[JUgiothus canescens} var. canescens Ridgway, in Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway's 

Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 493. 
iiVinj/iSa canescens Reinhardt, Ibis, 1861, 7 (Greenland; resident). 
Linota canescens Newton, Man. Nat. Hist. Greenland, 1875, 99 (Franz- Josefs Fjord, 

Greenland; breeding n. of lat. 70°). 
Acanthis hornemanni typica Brewster, Auk, iv, April, 1887, 164, in text. 
Linota linaria (not FringUla linaria Linnteus) Newton, in Baring Gould's Ice- 
land, 1863, 409, part. 
F. [ringilla] linaria (not of Linnseus) Newton, Ibis, 1865, 502, in text (Spitz- 

bergen). 
Aegiothus Hnanus Finsch, Abh. Nat. Brem., 1874, 104, part(s. w. Greenland; crit.). 

ACANTHIS HORNEMANNII EXILIPES (Coues). 
HOARY REDPOLL. 

Similar in coloration to A. h. hornemannii, but very much smaller and 
averaging somewhat darker; rump less extensively white; sides, flanks, 
and under tail-coverts more frequently streaked with dusky, and pink 
of chest and rump in adult male averaging decidedly deeper, that of 
the chest also usually more extended. (Sexual and seasonal differences 
exactly the same as in A. h. hornemannii.) 

Adult maZe.— Length (skins), 116.59-137.16 (126.49); wing, 72.39- 
77.98 (75.18); tail, 64.10-63.50 (57.40); exposed culmen, 6.86-8.64 
(7.87); depth of bill at base, 5.84-6.86 (6.35); tarsus, 13.46-15.24 
(14.48); middle toe, 7.11-8.38 (7.87).' 

' Thirty-one specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 



83 



Adult female.— Ijength (skins), 116.8i-131.06 (123.95); wing, 69.60- 
74.68 (T1.12); tail, 53.34-58.17 (56.13); exposed culmen, 6.86-8.64 
(7.87); depth of bill at' base, 5.84^6.60 (6.10); tarsus, 13.46-15.24 
(14.48); middle toe, 7.11-8.38 (7.62).' 

Circumpolar continental districts, especially in Arctic America and 
northeastern Asia. Breeding from Ungava (Fort Chimo) to western 
Alaska (St. Michael, etc.). South in winter to more northern United 
States; Maine (Westbrook); Massachusetts (Swampscott, Eevere Beach, 
Nantasket Beach); Ontario (Hamilton Beach); Michigan, northern 
Illinois (Chicago, Mt. Carroll), etc., and in eastern Asia to Commander 
Islands and northern Japan. 

Fringilla linaria var. /3. Nilsson Faun. Svec, i, 1817, 150. 

Linaria rufescens (not of Vieillot), male, Boux, Orn. Prov., 1825, pi. 99. 

Fringilla borealis (not lAnaria borealis Vieillot) Audubon, Orn. Biog., v, 1839, 87, 
pi. 400. 

Linota borealis Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 34, part. 

Linaria borealis (not of "Vieillot) Audubon, Synopsis, 1839,114; Birds Am., oct. 
ed., iii, 1841, 120, pi. 178. 

JEgiothm borealis Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, 386 (north China) ; Ibis, 
1874, 160 (Hakodate, Japan); 1878, 245 (Yezo, Japan). 

(?) Acanthis linaria {not Fringilla linaria Linnseus) Bonaparte and Schlegel, 
Mon. des Loxiens, 1850, pi. 52. 

Fringilla linaria (not of Linnaeus), male, Schlegel, Yog. Nederl., 1854, pi. 171. 

Linota linaria Blakiston and Phyer, Trans. Asiat. Soc. Japan, viii, 1880, 233 
(Yezo, Japan); x, 1882,174 (Yezo, Japan). 

Fringilla (Acanthus) linaria var. canescens (not Linaria canescens Gould) Schbbnck, 
Eeise Amurl., i, 1860, 296. 

Fringilla canescens Sommebfeldt, Ofv. Sv. Vet.-Ak. Forh., 1861, 81 (East Fin- 
mark). 

Cannabina canescens Swinhoe, Ibis, 1861, 335 (n. China). 

J£giothus canescens Ross, Edinb. Philos. Journ.,1861, 163 (62° n. lat., Hudson Bay 
region). — Vebrill, Proc. Essex Inst., iii, 1862, 157 (Maine; rare winter 
visit.). — Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, 299 (n. China, winter). — 
Blakiston, Ibis, 1863, 71 (Carlton House, Brit. America, Nov. to Mar.). — 
Baird, Brewer, and Eidgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 498, part. — David 
and Oustalet, Ois. Chine, 1877, 336 (n. China, winter). 



' Eighteen specimens. 

There is apparently little geographic variation in measurements, as the following 



averages will show: 



Locality. 



MALES. 

Twelve specimens from Fort CWmo, Ungava 

Twelve specimens from Alaska 

Seven specimens from northeastern Asia — 

FEMALES. 

Eight specimens from Ungava 

Five specimens from Alaska 

Five specimens from northeastern Asia 



Wing. 



74.93 
7B.44 
75.18 

72.39 
71.63 
72.14 



Tail. 



Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 



67.40 
58.42 
55.63 



55.63 
56.90 
56.64 



Depth 
of bill 
at base. 



7.87 
7.62 
7.87 



8.13 
7.62 
7.62 



6.35 
6.10 
6.60 

6.35 
6.10 
6.10 



14.73 
14.48 
14.48 



14.48 
14.48 

14.48 



Middle 
toe. 



7.62 
7.62 
7.87 

7.62 
7.87 
7.62 



84 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

JE.lgiothm'] canesccres Nelson, Bull. Essex Inst, viii, 1876, 105 (n. e. Illinois, rare 
in winter). 

Aegiothus canescens Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 429, part (in syn- 
onymy). — Samuels, Birds Mass., 1864, 9. — Brewee, Proc. Bost. Soc, xx, 1879, 
270 (Swampscott, Massachusetts, Nov. 16). 

Acanthis canescens Dybowski and Pakvex, Journ. fiir Om., 1868, 335 (Dauria). — 
Taczanowski, Journ. fiir Orn. , 1878, 92 (Dauria) ; 1874, 336 ( e. Siberia) ; Bull. 
Soc. Zool. France, 1876, 180 (e. Siberia); Orn. Fauna Vost. Sibir., 1877, 40. 

A. [canthis] canescens Dybowski, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1883, 366 (measurements). 

Linota canescens Seebohm and Harvie Brown, Ibis, 1876, 116 (Petchora Valley, 
Siberia). 

JEgiotKus exilipes CovBS, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila.,Nov., 1861, 385 (Fort Simpson, 
Arctic America; U. S. Nat. Mus.) ; Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 210.— Elliot, 
Illustr. New and XJnfig. Birds N. Am., 1867, pi. 8.— Harvie Bbown, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, ii, 1877, 51 (Petchora, n. e. Russia). — Jeffries, Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 121 (Swampscott, Massachusetts, Nov. 16, 1878).— Gibbs, 
Bull. U. S. Geol.and Geog. Surv. Terr. , v., 1879, 486 (Michigan; rare winter 
visit.). 

JE.[giothus1 exilipes Cooes, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 353. 

[^Aegiothus linaria.'] Yar. exilipes Coves, Key, 1872, 131. 

JEgiothus linaria . . . var. exilipes CouES, Check List, 1873, no. 1466. — Pal- 
men, Vega-Exp. 1887, 277 (Tschuktsch-halfon, e. Siberia, June). 

JE.[giothm] canescens . . . var. exilipes Ridqway, Ann. Lye. N. Y., x, Jan., 
1874, 372 (Mount Carroll, n. Illinois, winter). 

{^Egiothus canescem] var. exilipes Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, 1874, i, 493. 

JEgiothus canescens, var. exilipes Baird, Brewer, and Ridqway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, i, 1874, pi. 22, fig. 2. 

JEgiothus canescens exilipes Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii. Mar. 27,1880,2 
(crit); Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 178«.— Bean, Proc.U.S. Nat. Mus., v, 
1882, 149 (Chamisso Island, Kotzebue Sound, breeding). — Nelson, Cruise 
"Corwin" in 1881 (1883), 67 (coasts Bering Sea; habits, etc.).— McLenegan, 
Cruise "Corwin," 1884, 115 (Kowak R., n. w. Alaska). — Murdoch, Exp. 
Point Barrow, 1885, 105 (Point Barrow, breeding). 

Acanthis homeniannii exilipes Stejneqee, Auk, i, April, 1884, 152; Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., no. 29, 1885, 258 (Bering Island, Kamtschatka, winter) ; Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus.,x, 1887,142 (Commander Islands, winter).— Turner, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., viii, 1885, 239 (Fort Chimo, Ungava, resident) ; Contr. Nat. Hist. Alaska, 
1886, 171 (breeding at St. Michaels, etc.). — American Ornithologists' Union, 
Check List, 1886, no. 527a.— Townsend, Cruise "Corwin," 1885 (1887), 100 
(PortClarence, June).— Nelson, Rep. Nat. Hist. ColL Alaska, 1887, 178 (St. 
Michaels and throughout n. Alaska; descr. young, nest, and eggs, etc. ). — 
Brewster, Auk, iv, 1887, 163 (Swampscott, Massachusetts, Nov. 16, 1878; 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, Nov. 15, 1880; Revere Beach, Massachusetts, Mar. 
8, 1879, March 3, 1883; Nantasket Beach, Massachusetts, Feb. 22, 1883).— 
Macfarlane, Proc. TJ. S. Nat. Mus., xiv, 1891, 440 (lower Anderson R., 
breeding).— Thompson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1891, 586 (Manitoba in 
winter) .—McIlwraith, Birds Ontario, 1892, 301 (Hamilton Beach, Apr. 6, 
1885).— Knight, Bull. no. 3, Univ. Maine, 1897, 89 ( Westbrook, Maine, Jan. 
26,1896). 

A. [canihis} homeniannii exilipes Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 396. 

[Linana] exilipes Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 110, no. 7651. 

Linaria exilipes Homeybr, Journ. fiir Orn., xxviii, 1880, 155 (crit.). 



BIEDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 85 

Linota emlipes Dresser, Birds Europe, pts. 57, 58, 1877, 51, pi. 189, fig. 1.— Newton, 
Zoologist, 1877, 6.— Beooks, Ibis, 1885, 382 (crit. ). 

Acanthis exilipes Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. , xii, 1888, 254 (localities in Finmark, 
Norway, Lapland, Russia, and Siberia). 

Linaria dbiriea (not of Boie, 1822), "Severzow (in litt.)," Homeyer, Journ. fiir 
Orn., xxvii, April, 1879, 185 (Onon and Baikal, Siberia; coll. von Homeyer). 

Linota sibirica Homeyee and Tancre, Mitt. Orn. Yer. Wien, 1883, 89 (crit.). 

L. linaria] pallescens Homeyer, Journ. fiir Orn., xxviii, Apr., 1880, 156 (= L. sibir- 
ica Homeyer, 1879). 

Acanthis hornemannii pallescens Stejnegeh, Auk, i, Apr., 1884, 153. 



ACANTHIS LINARIA LINARIA (Linnaeus). 
REDPOLL, 

About the size of A. hornemannii exilipes, but wing and tail (especially 
the latter) averaging shorter, bill and toes decidedlj- longer, and colora- 
tion much darker; the rump never white, and the under tail-coverts 
always conspicuously streaked with dusky. 

Aokilt Triolein hreeding dress. — Forehead (narrowly) dusky; crown 
bright poppy red; general color of remaining upper parts dark gray- 
ish brown or sepia, indistinctly streaked with darker, and more or less 
streaked with grayish white, especially on hindneck, lower back, and 
median portion of upper back; rump mixed pink and grayish white, 
broadly streaked with dusky; upper tail-coverts grayish brown edged 
with paler; wings and tail dusky grayish brown, the remiges and 
rectrices narrowly edged with pale brownish gray or dull grayish 
white, the middle and greater wing-coverts narrowly tipped with 
grayish white; chin and upper portion of throat dusky; cheeks, lower 
throat, chest, and sides of breast deep peach-blossom pink, often tinged 
with bright poppy red; rest of under parts white, the sides, flanks, 
and under tail-coverts broadly streaked with dusky; bill horn color 
basally, dusky at tip; legs and feet dusky brown or blackish. 

Adult male in winter plumage. — Much lighter colored than in sum- 
mer, the prevailing color of back, scapulars, and hindneck light, more 
or less buffy grayish brown, distinctly streaked with dusky; the lower 
back and rump streaked with dusky and whitish (the latter often more 
or less mixed with pink on lower rump) ; the wing-bands and lighter 
edgings of remiges, etc., more or less inclining to buffy; the pink of 
chest, etc., paler (rose pink), and the bill light yellow with black at 
tip or along terminal portions of culmen and gonys. 

Adult female {and some apparently adult males). — Similar to the 
male, but without any pink or red on the' under parts, the portions so 
colored on the male being pale buffy or whitish; the seasonal differ- 
ences exactly as in the adult male. 

Young. — No red on crown, the whole pileum being broadly streaked 
with duskj'^ and pale grayish buffy; sides of throat, chest, and sides of 



86 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



breast buffy or dull buffj^ whitish, streaked with dusky; otherwise 
much like adults, but wing-bands and edgings dull buffy, and back and 
scapulars browner. 

[Young birds in first winter are like adults, but with upper parts 
browner, and with head, etc. (whole anterior under parts in females), 
more strongly tinged or suffused with buff.] 

Adult male.— Length (skins), 109.47-135.13 (123.44); wing, 70.61- 
76.45 (74.93); tail, 48.51-58.17 (54.10); exposed culmen, 7.87-9.65 
(8.89); depth of bill at base, 5.33-7.11 (6.10); tarsus, 13.46-15.76 
(14.73); middle toe, 7.62-9.65 (8.64).' 

Adult female.— Length (skins), 108.97-138.18 (122.68); wing, 70.10- 
76.20 (73.91); tail, 50.55-58.42 (53.85); exposed culmen, 7.62-9,65 
(8.38); depth of billatbase, 5.59-6.86 (6.10); tarsus, 13.97-15.49 (14.73); 
middle toe, 7.62-9.14 (8.38).' 

More northern portions of northern hemisphere, the northern limit 
of its breeding range inosculating with the southern portion of the 
breeding range of A. Juyrneniannii exilipes (Ungava to western Alaska); 
breeding southward to islands in Gulf of St. Lawrence;' in winter 
south to more northern United States generally, iri-egularly and more 
rarely to Virginia (Alexandria Co.), northern Alabama (Stevenson), 
southern Ohio (Hamilton Co.), southern Indiana (Franklin, Decatur, 

' Forty-six specimens. 

^ Thirty-four specimens. 

Specimens from Europe and northeastern Asia average a littl ; larger than those 
from North America, although the difference is slight and with more nearly equal 
series, perhaps even less than that indicated by the following averages: 



Locality. 



Wing. 



Tail. 



Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 



Depth 
o£ bill 
at base. 



Tarsus. 



Middle 
toe. 



MALES. 

Sixteen adultmales from northeastern North Amer- 
ica 

Sixteen adult males from northwestern North Amer- 
ica 

Eleven adult males from northeastern Asia 

Three adult males from Europe 

FEMALES. 

Fifteen adult females from northeastern North 
America 

Six adult females from northwestern North America 

Eight adult females from northeastern Asia 

Five adult females from Europe 



73.66 

74.42 
74.68 
75.95 



72.14 
71.63 
73.15 
73.15 



54.36 
54.86 
53.85 



53.69 
53.59 
54.10 
64.10 



9.14 

8.89 
8.38 
8.64 



5.84 

«.35 
6.10 
6.10 



6.84 
6.84 
6.35 
6.60 



14.73 

14.73 
14.99 
14,99 



14.73 
14.99 
14.73 
14.73 



8.64 
8.64 



8.38 
8.64 
8.64 
8.38 



The series of European specimens ia much too small to afford satisfactory compar- 
ison with North American birds. They show certain differences of coloration, which 
may or may not prove to be constant, and comparison with larger series is therefore 
very desirable. 

Said to breed in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick; also, according to Hatch (Birds 
of Minnesota, p. 299), in Vermont and northeastern Minnesota. 



BIRDS OF JSrOETH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 87 

Carroll, and Monroe counties), Kansas (Neosho Falls, Manhattan), 
Colorado (San Juan Co.), southeastern Oregon, coast of Washington, 
etc.; casual in Bermudas. 

IFringilla'] linaria Linnaeus, Syat. Nat., ed. 10, i, 1758, 182 (Europe); ed. 12, i, 
1766, 322.— Gmblin, Syst. Nat., i, pt. ii, 1788, 917.— Latham, Index Orn., i, 
1790, 458. 
Fringilla . . . linaria Forstsr, Philoa. Trans., Ixii, 1772, 405 (Severn R. ). 
FringUla Knorin Wilson, Am. Orn., iv, 1811, 41, pi. 30; ix, 1814, 126.— Tem- 
MiNCK, Man. d'Orn., i, 1820, 373.— Naumann, Vog. DeutschL, v, 1826, 173, pi. 
126. — NuTTALL, Man. Orn. U. S. and Canada, i, 1832, 512.— Audubon, Orn. 
Biog., iv, 1838, 523, pi. 375.— Kittlitz, Denkw., i, 1858, 321 (Kamtschatka).— 
Seebohm, Hist. Brit. Birds, ii, 1884, 116 (excl. syn. part.); Birds Jap. Emp., 
1890, 125 (Japan in winter) . 
Spinus linaria Koch, Syst. Baier. Zool. , 1816, 233. 
Passer linaria Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat. , ii, 1826, 25. 
FringUla (Acanthis) linaria Keyserling and Blasius, Wirb. Eur., 1840, 161. 
lAcanthis'] Knana Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 541. 

Acanthis linaria Bonaparte and Schlegel, Mon. Loxiens, 1850, 48, pi. 52. — 
Dybowski and Parvbx, Journ. fiir Orn., 1868, 335 (Dauria). — Taczasowski, 
Journ. fiir Orn., 1873, 92 (Dauria); 1874, 335 (e. Siberia); 1876, 200 (Ussuri); 
Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1876, 180 (e. Siberia); 1882, 394 (e. Siberia); Orn. 
Faun. Vost. Sibir., 1877, 39. — Stejneqee, Auk, i, 1884, 152 (synonymy); 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 29, 1885, 252 (Bering Island, etc., Kamts- 
chatka, breeding on mainland); Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1887, 142 (Com- 
mander Islands in winter). — Turner, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 
239 (Fort Chimo, Ungava, resid.); Contr. Nat. Hist. Alaska, 1886, 172 
(whole of Alaska except Aleutians). — American Ornithologists' Union, 
Check List, 1886, no. 528.— Nelson, Rep. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 179 
(habits, etc.). — Sharpb, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 245. — Evermann, 
Auk, vi, 1889, 24 (Carroll Co., Indiana, Nov. 5 and Dec, 1884).— Goss, Birds 
Kansas, 1891, 422 (rare winter visit.) . — Macfarlane, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
xiv, 1891, 440 (lower Anderson R., breeding). — Hatch, Birds Minn., 1892, 
299 (said to breed in n. e. Minnesota, also in Vermont) . — Park, Auli, x, 

1893, 205 (Stevenson, n. Alabama, 1 spec. Sept., 1874). — Ridgway, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 664 (Kodiak, Alaska).— Palmer (W.), Auk, xi, 

1894, 333 (Alexandria Co., Virgmia, Feb. 19, 1875).— Thorne, Auk, xii, 

1895, 216 (Ft. Keogh, Montana, Nov. 7 to mid. Feb. ).— Nehrling, Our Native 
Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 50, pi. 21, fig. 3.— Fisher (W. H.), Auk, xiv, 1897, 219 
(Baltimore, Maryland, 1 spec. Jan. 17, 1897).— Butler, Birds Ind., 1897, 
922 (rare in s. Indiana; Camden, Nov. 5, Franklin Co., Feb. 10; Blooming- 
ton Dec. and Apr. 12; Decatur Co.). — Lantz, Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci. for 
1896-7 (1899), 263 (Neosho Falls; Manhattan). 

*A. Icanthis} linaria Dybowski, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, viii, 1883, 365 (Kamtschatka). — 

Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 397. 
A-legiothus} linarius Cabanis, Mus. Hein., i, Aug., 1851, 161 (Germany; Norway). 
Aegiothns linarius Finsch, Journ. fiir Orn., 1883, 273 (Chilcat and Portage Bay, Alaska, 

Jan., Mar.). 
Aegiothns linaria Baied, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 428; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 

1859, no. 330. — Cooper and Suckley, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., xii, pt. ii, 

1860, 198 (coast Washington in winter). — Dall and Bannister, Trans. Chi- 
cago Acad. Sci., i, 1869, 281 (Nulato, Alaska, resid.). — Stevenson, Prelim. 
Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv 1871, 461 (Green R., Wyoming, etc.). 



88 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Mjiothus linaria Blakiston, Ibis, 1863, 71 (China). — Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1S63, 299 (China); Ibis, 1874, 160 (Hakodate, Japan).— Beown, Ibis, 1868, 
421 (Vancouver I.)-.— Gould, Birds Europe, iii, 1870, pi. 51.— Cooper, Orn. 
Cal., 1870, 159 (Washington in winter).— Coues, Birds N. W., 1874, 114; 
Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 207.— Snow, Birds Kans., 3d ed., 1875, 6 
(winter visit.). — David and Oustalbt, Ois. Chine, 1877, 336 (n. China). — 
Langdon, Journ. Cine. Soc. N. H., 1878, (5) (Avondale, near Cincinnati, 
winter 1869-70). — Blakiston and Pkyer, Ibis, 1878, 245 (Yezo, Japan). — 
KuMLiEN, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 15, 1879, 75 (Cumberland Sound and 
Kikkertonislds., Sept., Oct.). — Bolau, Journ. fiirOrn., 1880, 127 (e. Siberia); 
1882, 335 (e. Siberia).— RimwAY, Xom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 197; Proc. 
TJ. S. Nat. Mus., vi, 1883, 371 (Sapporo and Tate-Yama, Japan; crit. ). — Drew, 
Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1881, 90 (San Juan Co., Colorado, in winter).— 
Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1882, 149 (Chugachik I., Cook Inlet, Alaska, 
July 1; Chamisso I., Alaska, Aug. 31). — Bkewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 
1882, 255 (Amherst, Grindstone, and Magdalen islds.. Gulf St. Lawrence, 
breeding; descr. young). — Nelson, Cruise "Corwin" in 1881 (1883), 68 
(Alaska, except Pribilofs and Aleutians; breeding habits). — McLenegan, 
Cruise 'Corwin,' 1884, 115 (Kowak R., Alaska). 

M.\_giolhus\ linaria Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 352. 

[Jigiothus] linarius Coues, Key, 1872, 130. 

yEglothus Unarms Covs^BS, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1861, 382 (monogr. ); Check 
List, 1873, no. 146.. — Baied, Beewee, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 
1874, 493 (part), pi. 22, flgs. 3, 5.— Bendire, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1877, 116 
(Camp Harney, e. Oregon, winter). — Langdon, Rev. List Birds Cincinnati, 
1879, 9 (Ispec. Jan.). 

[Mgiothus linarius] var. linarius Bated, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, i, 1874, 493, 494. 

Cannabina linaria S^\■lSIlo^E, Ibis, 1861, 335 (n. China). — Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 
1862, 122 (e. United States). 

[Linaria'] linaria Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 109, no. 7649. 

Linota linaria Harting, Handb. Brit. B.,1872, 28. — Newton, ed. Yarrell's Brit. 
B., ii, 1876, 133.— Dresser, Birds Eur., iv, 1877, 37, pi. 187.— British Orni- 
thologists' Union, List Brit. B.,1883, 53.— Brooks, Ibis, 1884, 234; 1885, 
381. 

IFringilla] flammea "Lmi^Mus, Syst. Nat.,ed. 12, i, 1766, 322. 

[Fringilla] rids MiJLLER, Syst. Nat. Suppl., 1776, 163. 

Linaria borealis Vieillot, Mem. R. Acad. Sci. Torino, xxiii, 1816, Sc. Fis., p. 199. — 
Macgillivray, Hist. Brit. B.,i, 1837, 388. 

Linota borealis Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 34, part?. — Yaerell, 
Hist. Brit. B., i, 1843, 308. 

F.[ringiUa] borealis Gray, Gen. B., ii, 1849, 372. 

J^giothus borealis Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, 386. 

Linaria minor (not of Leach) Swainson and Richardson, Faun. Bor.-Am., ii, 
1831, 267.— Jardine, ed. Wilson's Am. Orn., ii, 1832, 33; Contr. Orn., 1848, 
82 (Bermudas).— Audubon, Synopsis, 1839, 114; Birds Am., oct.ed., iii, 1841, 
122, pi. 179.— HuRDis, Jardine's Contr. Orn., 1850, 8 (Bermudas, Oct. to 
Feb.).— Willis, Ann. Rep. Smithson. Inst, for 1858 (1859), 287 (Bermu- 
das).— Adams, Ibis, 1878, 425 (St. IMichaels, Alaska). 

Linaria agroruni Brbhm, Vog. Deutschl., 1831, 281. 

Linaria belularum Brehm, Vug. Deutschl., 1831, 282. 

Fringilla linaria betularum Sundevall, Sv. "Vet. Ak. Handl, 1840, 59. 

Linaria canescens Gould, Birds Eur., iii, 1834, pi. 193. 

Fringilla canescens Schlegbl, Rev. Crit., 3844, p. Ixiii. 

Aegiothus fvscescens Coues, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad., 1861, 222 (Henly Harbor, 
Labrador; U. S. Nat. Mus.); 1869, 186. 



BIRDS OF WORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 



89 



JSgiothus fuscescena Coues, Proo. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1861, 380 (monogr.). 

[Linaria'] fuscescem Geay, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 110, no. 7655. 

[Mgiothus ttnarius.'} Var. fuscescem Coues, Key, 1872, 131. 

jEgioihus Knarius . . . var. fuscescem Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 146a. 

^giothus linaria, var. fuscescem Baird, Bkewee, and Bidgway, Hist. N. Am. 

Birds, i, 1874, pi. 22, figs. 3, 5. 
■Fringilla rufescem (not Linaria rufescem Vieillot) Elwes and Buckley, Ibis, 1870, 

193 (Turkey, winter). 
JEgioihus rufescem Alston and Habvie Brown, Ibis, 1863, 64. 
Linota rufescem Seebohm and Harvib Beown, Ibis, 1876, 116 (lower Petchora, 

Siberia) . 
Linota rufescem (?) Blakiston and Peyee, Trans. Asiat. Soc. Japan, viii, 1880, 233- 

X, 1882, 174. 
-Liraaria ammcona Maximilian, Joum. fiir. Orn., vi, 1858, 333. 
Fringilla linaria brevirostris Holmgeen, Skand. Fogl. , i, 1866, 328. 
Acanthis intermedins Dybowski, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, viii, 1883, 366. 
A.{canthis'] innominatus Dybowski, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, viii, 1883, 366 (Kamt- 

schatka). — Reichbnow and Schalow, Joum. fiir Orn., xxxiv, 1886, 106. 



ACANTHIS LINARIA HOLBCELLII (Brehm). 
E0LB(ELL'8 REDPOLL. 

Exactly like A. I. linaria in coloration, but averaging decidedly 
larger, especially the bill, the latter usually relatively longer. 

Achdt male.— Length (skins), 118.11-139.70 (127.25); wing, 72.14^ 
77.47 (75.18); tail, 53.59-59.69 (56.90); exposed culmen, 8.89-10.41 
(9.91); depth of bill at base, 7.11-7.62 (7.37); tarsus, 14.73-16.00 
(15.24); middle toe, 7.87-9.91 (8.89).^ 

Adult female.— LQr\gi}i (skins), 120.65-134.62 (126.73); wing, 69.09- 
76.20 (72.90); tail, 54.86-61.47 (57.15); exposed culmen, 9.65-10.41 
(9.91); depth of bill at base, 7.11-7.62 (7.11); tarsus, 13.97-16.75 
(14.99); middle toe, 7.62-8.13 (7.87).' 

' Twenty specimens. 

^ Seven specimens. 

Series from different localities average as follows: 



Locality. 



Wing. 



Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 



Depth 
of bill 
at base. 



Tarsus. 



Middle 
toe. 



MALES. 

Five adult males from Bering Island, Kamtsehatka. 
Two adult males from Petropaulski, Kamtsehatka. . 

Four adult males from Hakodadi, Japan 

Three adult males from Krasnoyarsk, Siberia 

Four adult males from Sweden and Norway 

Two adult males from Quebec, Canada 

FEMALES.. 

Two adult females from Bering Island 

One adult female from Hakodadi 

Three adult females from Sweden and Norway 

One adult female from Quebec 

One adult female from Herschel Island (breeding) . 



75.95 
74,42 
74. C8 
75.44 
76.95 
72.90 



73,91 
73,15 
73.15 



57.40 
57.15 
55. 12 
69.69 
57.40 
54.61 



58.67 
64.86 
57.15 
56,37 
61,61 



10.16 
9.40 
9.65 

10.16 
9.91 
9,91 



9.91-t- 
9,66 
10.16 
9.91 



7.37 

7.37 

7,11 

7,62 

7.37+ 

7.62 



7.11 
7.11 
7,37 
7.11 
6.36 



14.99 
14.99 
14.99 
15.24 
15,24 
14.99 



16.24 
15,49 
14.48 
14,99 
16.24 



9.40 
8.13 
8.64 
8.89 
9,14 
9.40-1- 

8.13 
7,87 
9.40 



90 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Extreme northern portions of Europe, Asia, and North America; 
Norway to Commander Islands, northern Japan, and islands off Arc- 
tic coast of North America (Herschell Island, breeding); occasional 
during migrations in portions of northeastern North America (vicinity 
of Quebec; Lome Park, Ontario; North Bridgeton, Maine; Swamp- 
scott, Massachusetts, etc.)' 

Passer linaria (not Fringilla linaria Linnaeus) Pallas, Zoogr. Eosso-Asiat., ii, 
1826, 25, part. 

Linaria holboeUii Brehm, Handb. Vog. Deutschl. , 1831, 280 (middle Germany, 
winter).— SuNDEV ALL, Ofv. K. Vet.-Ak. Forh. Stockh., 1840, 59.— Fallon, 
Ois. Belg., 1875, 105, footnote.— Homeyeh, Journ. fiir Orn., 1879, 183 (Pome- 
rania; Thuringia; crit.). 

A. Icanihis] holbollii Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 541 (n. and w. Europe). 

ILinarial holboeUii Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 110, no. 7652. 

Acanihis holbollii Bonaparte and Schlegel, Mon. Loxiens, 1850, 50, pi. 53 (Ger- 
many; Saxony; Belgium). 

Acanihis holboolli Selys-Longchamps, Rev. et Mag. Zool., 1857, 126. 

Aeg. [iothus'] holboeUii Cabanis, Mus. Hein.,i, Aug., 1851, 161, footnote. 

^■Egiothus holboelli Coues, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1861, 385 (monogr. ). 

Acanihis linaria /?. holbOUii Dubois, Consp. Av. Eur., 1871, 18. 

\_^giothii£ Unarius] var. holbolli Baihd, Brewer, and Bidgway, Hist. K. Am. 
Birds, i, 1874, 493, 494, part. 

M. [gioihusl I. {inaria'] holboelli Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 353, 
part. 

ylcani/iis MioZK Taczanowski, Journ. fiir Orn., 1874, 324 (e. Siberia); Bull. See. 
Zool. France, 1876, 180 (e. Siberia); Orn. Faun. Vost. Sibir., 1877, 40. 

A.{canthis'] holbolli Dybowski, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1883, 365 (Kamtscbatka). 

Acanihis linaria holboeUii Stejnegee, Auk, i, April, 1884, 153 (synonymy) ; Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 29, 1885, 256 (Bering I., Kamtscbatka, breeding); Proc. 
U.S. Nat. Mus., X, 1887, 142 (Commander Islands, resident); xiv, 1891, 497 
(Japan); xv, 1892, 354 (Hakodate, Japan). — American Ornithologists' 
Union, Check List, 1886, no. 528a.— (?)Townsend, Cruise "Corwin," 1885 
(1887), 93 (upper Kowak E., Alaska, July); Auk, iv, 1887, 12 (do.).— Brews- 
ter, Auk, iv, 1887, 163 (Swampscott, Massachusetts, Mar. 26, 1883). — Cooke, 
BirdMigr. Miss.Val., 1888, 181 (n. Illinois).— Thompson, Trans. Canad. Inst., 
iii, 1892, 29 (Lorne Park, Ontario, Mar.).— Powers, Auk, xiv, 1897, 219 
(North Bridgton, Maine, winter). — Knight, Bull. no. 3, Univ. Maine, 1897, 
93 (North Bridgton, Cumberland Co., Maine, 1 spec. Nov. 25, 1878). 

A. \^canthia\ linaria holboeUii Eidgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 397. 

\_Acanthis linaria.'] Subsp. a. Acanthis holboeUii Sharps, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xii, 1888, 250 (Norway; Finmark; Sweden; e. Siberia). 

Fringilla alnorum Brehm, Handb. Vog. Deutschl., 1831, 281. 

Fringilla linaria alnorum Sundevall, Sv. Vet.-Ak. Handl., 1840, 59. 

Fringilla canescens (not Linaria canescens Gould) Selys-Longchamps, Faune 
Beige, 1842, 73. 

Imiaria longirostris '&KEnii, Naumannia, 1855, 277 {nomen nudum). 

Fringilla linaria magnirostris Holmgren, Skand. Fogl., i, 1866, 328. 

'The characters of this form being intermediate between those of A. linaria linaria 
and A. linaria rostrata, it necessarily follows that intermediates or "intergrades" 
between these two would be practically indistinguishable from ^1. I. holbcellii. Doubt- 
less some of the specimens from the more eastern portions of North America are 
really not true A. I. holbmllii, but with our present imperfect knowledge of the range 
of the last it is scarcely possible to determine the question. 



BIRDS OF KOETH AND MIDDLE AMEEIOA. 91 

Linaria alnorum magnirostris Mevbs, Journ. fiir Orn., 1880, 155. 

Linarta brunnescena Hombyee, Journ. fiir Orn., xxvii, April, 1879, 184, part (Swe- 
den; Lapland). 

A.{canthis] intermedius Dybowski, Bull. Soc. France, 1883, 365, in text (Kamts- 
chatka) . 

ACANTHIS LINARIA ROSTRATA fCoues). 
GREATER REDPOLL. 

Similar to A. linaria holhadlii, with the same seasonal changes, etc. , 
but much larger and with a relatively thicker and more obtuse bill; 
coloration rather darker and browner, with the dusky stripes on sides 
and flanks usually heavier or broader; adult male with the pink or red 
of chest, etc., apparently less extensive as well as less intense. 

Adult mafe.— Length (skins), 127.00-151.89 (138.18); wing, 77.47- 
83.82 (80.62); tail, 55.37-65.58 (59.94); exposed culmen, 8.89-10.41 
(9.91); depth of bill at base, 7.37-7.87 (7.62); tarsus, 15.75-17.53 
(16.51); middle toe, 9.14-10.41 (9.65).^ 

A&itlt female.— Length (skins), 137.00-143.51 (133.60); wing, 75.69- 
81.28 (78.23); tail, 56.39-62.99 (58.67); exposed culmen, 8.89-10.67 
(9.65); depth of bill at base, 7.11-7.87 (7.62); tarsus, 15.24-17.53 
(16.26); middle toe, 8.64-10.16 (9.14).' 

Breeding and resident in Greenland; in winter southwestward through 
Ungava (Fort Chimo, Sept. 1 to May 1), Labrador, and Provinces of 
Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba to Massachusetts (common), south- 
eastern New York (lower Hudson Valley), northern Indiana (Starke 
Co.), Michigan, northern Illinois (Lake Co.), Colorado (near Mag- 
nolia), etc. 

Fringilla linaria (not of Linnseus) Reinhardt, Ibis, 1861, 7 (Greenland). 
^giothus rostraius Coues, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1861, 378 (s. Greenland; U. S. 
Nat. Mus.). — Eeinhaedt, Vid. Medd. For. Kjobenhavn, 1875, 187 (Green- 
land; crit. ). 
Acanthis linaria rostrata Stejt^egeb., Auk, i, Apr., 1884, 153 (crit.; synonymy). — 
Turner, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 240 (Fort Chimo, Ungava, Sept. 1 to 
May 1). — American Oknithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 5286. — 
Thompson, Trans. Canad. Inst., iii, 1892, 29 (Toronto, Feb.; Lome Park, 
Ontario, Nov.).— Powers, Auk, xiv, 1897^ 219 (Gardiner, Maine, Deo. 30).— 
Knight, Bull. no. 3, Univ. Maine, 1897, 93 (Gardiner, Kennebec Co., Maine, 
Dec. 30, 1896).— Butler, Birds Indiana, 1897, 924 (Starke Co., Indiana, 1 
spec. Jan. 1). — Cooke, Bull. no. 44, Colorado A-gric. Coll., 1898, 165 (near 
Magnolia, Colorado, alt. 7,500 ft., 1 spec. Dec. 9, 1895). 
A. Icanthus] linaria rostrata Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 397. 
lAcanthis IbiaHa.] Subsp. /3. A canihis rostrata Ska-rpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 

1888, 251 (Lichtenfels, Greenland; Chicago, Illinois). 
ILinarial hornemanni (not Linota homemanni Holboll) Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 

110, no. 7654, part. 
Linota hornemanni (not of HolbOU) Dresser, Birds Europe, pt. Ivi, 1876, pi. 190, 
lower fig. (vol. iv, p. 55, part). 

' Fifteen specimens. ^ Nine specimens. 



92 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Aegiothus Unarius (not Fringilla linaria Linnaeus) Finsch, Abh. Nat. Brem., 1874, 

104, part (s. w. Greenland; crit.)- 
Linota linaria Newton, Man Nat. Hist. Greenland, 1875, 99. 
Acanthus linaria y. lanceolata Dubois, Consp. Av. Eur., 1871, 18 (ex Linaria 

laneeolata Selys-Lonqchamps, MS.). 
Aegiothus canescens (not Linaria canescens Gould) Finsch, Zweite Deutsche 

Nordpolfahrt, ii, 1874, 188, part (e. Greenland; crit.). 
[yEgiothus Unarius'] var. holbolli {not Linaria holbcelliiBrehm) Eidgway, in Baird, 

Brewer and Eidgway' s Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 493, 494, part. 
JEgiothus holbolli Kumlien, Bull. V. S. Nat. Mus., no. 15, 1879, 76 (Grinnell Bay, 

1 spec. Sept. 3). 

JEgiothus linaria holbolli Eidgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, Aug. 24, 1880, 177; 

Nom. N. Amer. Birds, 1881, no. 179a.— Gibbs, Bull. TJ. S. Geol. and Geog. 

Surv. Terr., v, 1879,, 486 (Michigan, 1 spec. Mar.). 
JEgiothus linaria holboelli Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 208.— Bkewstee, 

Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, viii, 1883, 95-99 (Massachusetts, com. in winter; 

crit.).- Fisher, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, viii, 1883, 121 (Sing Sing, New York, 

2 spec, Feb. 12 and 13, 1883).— Ooale, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, viii, 1883, 239 
(Chicago, Illinois, 1 spec. Nov. 2, 1878). 

(?) Aranthis linaria holbcellii McIlweaith, Birds of Ontario, 1892, 303 (winter 

visit.). 
JE.lgiothus] Llinaria] holboelli Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 353, part, 
(?) Acanthis linaria holbodlii Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 181 (n. Illinois). 
lAnaria brunnescens Homeyer, Journ. fiir Orn., xxvii, pt. 2, Apr., 1879, 184, part 

(Greenland). 



ACANTHIS BREWSTERII Ridgway. 
BREWSTER'S LIITNET. 

Somewhat like an immature female of A. linaria linaria, but with- 
out any red on the crown or dusky on the chin, and with portions pi the 
plumage tinged with sulphur yellow. 

Adult female {male unknown). — Above olive-brownish, streaked with 
dusky, the rump tinged with pale sulphur yellow, beneath whitish, 
faintly tinged with dull bufly or pale fulvous on chest, the sides and 
lower tail-coverts streaked with dusky; wings with two pale fulvous 
bands across tips of middle and greater coverts; primaries and rec- 
trices narrowly edged with pale sulphur yellow; wing, 76.20; tail, 
63.50;' tarsus, 12.70; middle^ toe, 7.62. 

This bird continues to be known only from the type specimen, taken 
at Waltham, Massachusetts, November 1, 1870, having been shot from a 
flock of A. linaria. Possibly it is a hybrid of Acanthis linaria and 
Spinvs pinus. 

JEgiothus {Aavirostris, var.?) brewsterii Eidgway, Am. Nat.,vi, July, 1872, 433 (Wal- 
tham, Massachusetts; coll. W. Brewster). 

ILinota] flavirostris var. brewsterii Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 131. 

jEgiothus flavirostris, var. brewsteri Baird, Brewer and Eidgway, Hist. N. Am. B., 
i, 1874, 501, pi. 22, flg. 6. 

' Measured from base of coccyx. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 93 

^giothus brewesteri Beewee, Proc. Bost. Soc, xvii, March 3,1875,441. — Ridg- 

WAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, Aug. 24, 1880, 177; Norn. N. Am. B., 1881, no. 

180. 
Linota flavirostris . . . var. ftrewsteri Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 147. 
JEgiothus flavirostris brewsteri Goode, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 20, 1883, 305. 
Linota flavirostris brewsteri Codes, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 211. 
L. [inoial flavirostris brewsteri f Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 353. 
Linota brewsteri Maynaed, Birds E. N. Am., 1881, 519. 
Acanthis brewsterii Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, no. 23, Sept. 2, 1885, 354. — • 

Ameeican Oenitholoqists' Union, Check List, 1886, 354 (hypothetical list, 

no. 17). 
A. Icanthis] brewsterii Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 398. 



Genus CARDUELIS Brisson. 
Carduelis Bkisson, Orn., iii, 1760, 53. (Type., Fringilla carduelis Linn^us.) 

Small arboreal finches with elongate-conical, acute bill, long, pointed 
wing, rather short, deeply emarginate tail, much yellow on wings, head 
partlj^ red (in adults) and under parts white medially; sexes alike in 
coloration. 

Bill elongate-conical, with the exposed portion of the very slightly 
curved culmen nearlj' as long as the tarsus, and longer than the middle 
toe (without claw), its basal depth decidedly less than the distance 
from the nostril to the tip of the maxilla; gonys straight, its length 
greater than depth of bill at base. Nasal plumules short, but quite 
covering nostrils. Wing long (at least five times as long as tarsus), 
pointed (three outermost primaries longest, the ninth sometimes 
longest) ; primaries exceeding secondaries by about twice the length 
of the exposed culmen. Tail narrow and rather short (less than two- 
thirds as long as wing), deeply emarginate, more than half hidden by 
upper coverts, the reotrices pointed, except middle pair. Tarsus short 
(less than one-third as long as tail, a little longer than exposed culmen, 
and about equal to middle toe with claw) ; outer claw reaching about 
to base of middle claw, the inner claw falling a little short; hind claw 
shorter than its digit. 

Colors. — White and graj', or white and brown, beneath, the mantle 
brown or gray; wings and tail black, the former with yellow on greater 
coverts and basal portion of outer webs of remiges, the latter with 
white on inner webs of rectrices; adults with forepart of the head 
(except lores) red, the under parts unspotted; young without red on the 
head, the under parts more or less spotted with dusky. 

Range. — Palsearctic Region. (One species introduced into, and 
partially naturalized in, northeastern United States.) 



94 BULLETIN 50. UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

CARDUELIS CARDUELIS (Linnaeus). 
GOLDFINCH. 

AdMlts {sexes alike).— Fore part of head, all round, crimson; lores, 
hinder part of crown, occiput, nape, and bar from the latter halfway 
across side of neck black; rest of head white, more or less tinged with 
brownish buff; back, scapulars, and rump plain brown; upper tail- 
coverts white; wings and tail mostly black; greater portion of greater 
coverts, basal portion of outermost secondaries, and basal half or more 
of exposed portion of outer webs of primaries bright lemon yellow; 
secondaries, primaries, and middle rectrices tipped with white, the 
inner webs of lateral rectrices also partly white; sides of bx'east, sides, 
and flanks plain cinnamon-brown or wood brown; rest of under parts 
white; bill whitish (tinged with flesh color or lilac in life); iris brown; 
legs and feet dull flesh color (in life). 

Young. — Wings and tail- as in adults, but the former with middle 
and greater coverts tipped with pale brownish, forming two bands; 
no red on head nor black on head or neck; pileum and hindneck light 
grayish brown, mottled or streaked with darker, the back also more 
or less streaked with dusky; chin and throat whitish, the latter flecked 
with sooty brown, the foreneck, chest, and breast mottled or spotted 
with the same. 

Adult «(a/6^.— Length (skins), 121.92-129.54 (126.49); wing, 74.42- 
81.28 (77.47); tail, 47.75-49.53 (48.51); exposed culmen, 11.94-13.72 
(12.70); depth of bill at base, 8.13-8.38 (8.38); tarsus, 14.73-15.49 
(14.99)4 middle toe, 10.92-12.70 (11.68).^ 

Adult female.— Length (skins), about 121.92-127.00; wing, 73.41- 
76.71 (74.68); tail, 48.26-50.29 (49.02); exposed culmen, 10.92-12.45 
(11.94); depth of bill at base, 7.62-8.38 (7.87); tarsus, 14.73-15.24 
(14.99); middle toe, 11.68-12.70 (12.19.)^ 

Europe in general, except extreme northern portions; south, in 
winter, to Palestine and Egypt. (Introduced into the northeastern 
United States and naturalized in Cuba, in New York City and vicinity, 
and Cincinnati, Ohio; accidental (?) at New Haven, Connecticut, near 
Boston, Worcester, etc., Massachusetts, Toronto, Ontario, etc. 

IFringilla] carduelis LiNNiEns, Syst. Nat.,ed. 10, i, 1758, 180 (based on Carduelis, 
Gesner); ed. 12, i, 1766, 318.— Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, 1788, 903.— Latham, 
Index Orn., i, 1790, 449. 

Fringilla carduelis Temminck, Man. d'Orn., i, 1820, 377. — Rorx, Orn. Prov., 1825, 
pis. 97, 98.— Naumann, Vog. Deutschl., v, 1826, pi. 124, flgs.l, 2.— Wekner, 
Atlas, Granivores, 1827, pi. 52. — Keyserlino and Blasius, Wirb. Eur., 1840, 
p. xli. — Yaebell, Hist. Brit. Birds, i, 1843, 490. — Schlegel, Kev. Crit., 1844, 
p. Ixiii; Vog. Nederl., 1854, pi. 167; Dier. Nederl., 1861, pi. 16, figs. 11, 12.— 
Keulemans, Onze Vogels, i, 1869, pi. 34.— Fkitsch, Vog. Eur , 1870, pi. 25, 
fig. 7.— Haeting, Handb. Brit. Birds, 1872, 27.— Seebohm, Hist. Brit. Birds, 
ii, 1884, 87. 

1 Four specimens. ^ Three specimens. 



BIRDS OP NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 95 

F.[ringiUa] carduelis Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1844, 371, 
[Pringilla] carduelis Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 80, no. 7171. 
Emberiza carduelis Scopoli, Ann., i, 1769, 144. 

Acanthis cardudis'B'ECiisTEi's, Naturg. Deutschl., 2d ed., ii, 1807, 199. 
Passer carduelis Tajjlas, Zoogr. Rosso- Asiat. , ii, 1826, 15. 
Spinus carduelis Koch, Syst. baier. Zool., 1816, 233. 

Carduelis carduelis Schaffer, Orn. Mus.,1789, 23. — Boie, Isis, 1822,554. — Lich- 
TBNSTEiN, Nomencl. Av. Mus. Berol., 1854, 46. — Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xii, 1888, 185, part (excl. syn. Carduelis major Taczanowski, Fringilla albigu- 
laris Madarasz, etc.). — American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 
abridged ed., 1889, p. 71. — Churchill, Auk, viii, 1891, 314 (Worcester, 
Massachusetts, breeding). — Howe, Auk, xii, 1895, 182 (Brookline, Massa-< 
chusetts, 1 spec. May, 1892) . — Nehrling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 65. 
C. [arduous'] carduelis Ridgway, Man. N". Am. Birds, 1887, 401. 
Carduelis degang Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool., xiv, 1826, 30. — Gould, Birds 
Europe,-iii, 1837, pi. 196; Birds Gt. Brit., iii, 1870, pi. 36.— Macgillivray, 
Brit. Birds, i, 1837, 393.— Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 33.— 
Degland and Gerbe, Orn. Eur., i, 1867, 279. — Loche, Expl .Sci. Alg^r. Ois., 
i, 1867, 154.— Heuglin, Orn. N. 0.-Afr.,i, 1870, 640.— Salvadori, Faun. Ital. 
Ucc, 1871, 154.— Shelley, Birds Egypt, 1872, 152.— Newton, ed. Yarrell's 
Hist. Brit. Birds, ii, 1876, 117.— Dressbb, Hist. Birds Europe, iii, 1877, 527, 
pi. 116.— Allen, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 120 (e. Massachusetts; 
introduced). — Langdon, Journ. Cine. Soc. N. H., iv, 1881, 342 (introduced 
at Cincinnati, Ohio, 1872-74). — British Ornithologists' Union, List Brit. 
Birds, 1883, 47. — Tristram, Fauna and Flora Palestine, 1884, 64. — Giglioli, 
Avifauna Ital., 1886, 30. — Adney, Auk, iii, 1886, 409 (breeding in Central 
Park, New York City, etc.). — ^Bbodie, Auk, v, 1888, 211 (Toronto, Ontario, 
May 21, 1887, 4 specimens). — Verrill, Auk, x, 1892, 301 (New Haveu, Con- 
necticut, 1 spec. May 9, 1892).— Cory, Cat. W. I. Birds, 1892, 123 (Cuba; 
introduced) . 
C. larduelis'] elegans Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 518. 
Cardueles elegans Cory, Revised List Birds W. I., 1886, 35 (Cuba). 
Chrysomitris elegans Brewer, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xx, 1879, 271 (near Boston, 

Massachusetts, 1 spec, spring 1878). 
Carduelis septentrionalis Brehm, Vog. Deutschl., 1831, 288. 
Carduelis germanica Brehm, Vog. Deutschl., 1831, 289. 
Carduelis aurata Eyton, Cat. Brit. Birds, 1836, 20. 
Carduelis communis Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, xiv, 1845, 554. 
Carduelis accedens Brehm, Naumannia, 1855, 277. 
(''xrduelis meridionalis Brehm, Naumannia, 1855, 277. 
Carduelis auranliipennis Brehm, Naumannia, 1855, 277. 
Carduelis vulgaris Doderlein, Avifaun. Sicil., 1869, 81. 

Genus SPINUS Koch. 

Spinus^ Koch, Bayr. Zool., 1816, 233. (Type, by elimination, Fringilla spinus 

Linnaius.) (See Stejneg&r, Auk, i, 1884, 360.) 
Chrysomitris BoiE, Isis, 1828, 322. (Type, Fringilla spinus Linnseus. ) 
Hypacanthis^ Cabanis, Mus. Hein., i, Aug., 1851, 161. (Type, Carduelis spinoides 

Vigors.) 
Pyrrhomitris Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, Sept. 15, 1850, 517. (Type, Carduelis 

cucullata Swainson. ) 

^ "^Tti'vog, 6, the name of a small bird, as given by Aristophanes." (Stejneger.) 
' "Von v«6 und ccKavS'ii, iSoi, ri Distelfink." 



96 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Sporagra Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1850, pi. 79, fig. 14. (Type, FringiUa 

magellanica Vieillot. ) 
Melanomitris Cassin, Proo. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., xvii, 1865, 91. (Type, Carduelis 

atratus Lafresnaye and D'Orbigny. ) 

Small arboreal finches, with small or moderate-sized conical acute 
bill, long, pointed wings, rather short, eiaarginate tail, short tarsi, 
and with the plumage mainly black and yellow (sometimes olive-green 
above and yellowish below in adult females and young), in one species 
black and red (male), or gray and red (female); the remiges and rec- 
trices (except middle pair of the latter) yellow or red at base. 

Bill moderate in size, conical, compressed, sometimes attenate ter- 
minally, its depth at base not more than length of maxilla from 
nostril (usually less), its basal width (across base of mandible) much 
less than the depth; exposed culmen not longer than middle toe with- 
out claw (except in /S. notatus and S. n. Jbrreri), nearly straight, some- 
times slightly convex, more rarely appreciably concave in middle 
portion; gonys about equal to length of maxilla from nostril or slightly 
shorter, straight or slightly concave; maxillary tomium nearly straight, 
but always' with appreciable sinuation anterior to the very decided 
basal deflection; mandibular tomium nearly straight to the strongly 
convex, arched, or occasionally prominently angled subbasal portion. 
Nostril small, roundish, more or less covered by antrorse latero-frontal 
plumules; rictal bristles inconspicuous, or else having lateral barbules 
and these modified into plumules like those covering the nasal fossae. 
Wing long and pointed (ninth primai'y much longer than fifth, usually 
equal to sixth, sometimes nearly equal to eighth, the eighth, or seventh 
and eighth, longest); primaries exceeding secondaries bj' moi"e than 
length of tarsus; tertials not longer than secondaries. Tail much more 
than half but less than two-thirds as long as wing, distinctly emar- 
ginate. Tarsus decidedly longer than exposed culmen, its scutella 
distinct; middle toe, with claw, equal to or longer than tarsus; lateral 
claws reaching about to base of middle claw; hallux about as long 
as lateral toes, but much stouter, its claw not longer (usually shorter) 
than the digit. 

Coloration. — Basal portion of remiges and rectrices (except some- 
times in young) yellow or red, often exposed as conspicuous patches; 
adults, at least adult males, with the plumage mamly black and yellow, 
or black, olive-green, and yellow (black and scarlet or grayish and 
scarlet in S. cvxiullatus) ; adult females (if different from males) olive- 
greenish above, yellowish beneath, the wings and tail marked with 
yellow, as in males. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF SPINUS. 

a. No red in the plumage. 
6. Under parts distinctly streaked, at least on under tail-coverta. 
".. Pileum (but not sides of head) uniform black or dusky. 



BIRDS OF WOETH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 97 

d. Throat dusky or mottled with dusky. (Palrearctic Region; introduced into 

Oregon, etc.) Spinus spinus, adult male' 

dd. Throat without any dusky; under parts mostly light gray or olive-green. 
(Highlands of Guatemala and Chiapas.) 

Spinus atrioeps, adult male and female (p. 100) 
cc. Pileum not uniform black or dusky. 
d. Pileum darker than back, especially the forehead; under parts plain light 

gray, only the under tail-coverts streaked Spinus atriceps, young 

dd. Pileum not darker than back; under parts whitish, more or less distinctly 
streaked with dusky or grayish. 
e. Rump with ground color yellow or yellowish; back, etc., yellowish olive 

or olive-greenish Spinus spinus, female and young 

ee. Rump with ground color grayish or whitish ; back, etc. , grayish or brown- 
ish olive.^ 
/. Smaller (wing not more than 76.20, usually much less, averaging 72.39) ; 
under parts usually heavily or conspicuously streaked with dusky. 
(North America, except Mexico.) 

Spinus pinus pinus, male, female, and young (p. 97) 
ff. Larger (wing usually more than 76.20, averaging 76.45) ; under parts 
usually (?) indistinctly or obsoletely streaked with grayish or dusky. 
(High mountains of Mexico, in coniferous belt.) 

Spinus pinus macropterus (p. 100) 
bb. Under parts without streaks, except sometimes on longer under tail-coverts.' 
c. Head black all around, including foreneck. 
d. Sides of neck, hindneck, back, and rump black. (Costa Rica to Venezuela 

and Ecuador. ) Spinus xanthogaster, adult male ( p. 1 05 ) 

dd. Sides of neck yellow; hindneck and back olive-green; rump olive-green or 
yellow. 
e. Snialler and brighter colored, the breast, etc. , deep lemon to nearly saffron 
yellow; wing averaging 64.01, tail 39.12, exposed culmen 11,43, tarsus 
12.95. (Eastern Mexico to Honduras.) 

Spinus notatus notatus, adult male and female (p. 102) 
ee. Larger and duller in color, the breast, etc., dull gamboge or olive-yellow; 
wing averaging 66.55, tail 40.39, exposed culmen 11.94, tarsus 13.46. 
(Mountains of western Mexico.) 

Spinus notatus forreri, adult male and female (p. 103) 

cc. Head without any black | ^"^^""^ '""^^t^^ "0*^'°= ]. voung 

( Spinus notatus forreri J 

aa. Plumage partly red. (Cuba; Porto Rico; Trinidad; Venezuela.) 

Spinus oucullatus (p. 104) 

SPINUS PINUS PINUS (Wilson). 

PINE SISKIN. 

Adult. — Above grayish or brownish, conspicuously streaked with 
dusky, the ground color of the rump paler (whitish or light grayish), 
sometimes tinged with pale yellow; wings and tail duskj', or dull 

' Although introduced, with other European birds, into Oregon, there is no record 
to the effect that this species has become naturalized. [Fringillct] sjjiims Linnseus, 
Syst. Nat., ed. 10, i, 1758, 181 (based on Fauna Suecica, 203, etc.); ed. 12, i, 1766, 
822. — Spinus spinus Stejnbqer, Proc. TJ. S. Nat. Mus. ix, Feb. 14, 1887, 651. 

^ I have not been able to discover a single positive character whereby the adult 
female and young may be infallibly distinguished from S. pinus, but, as a rule, the 
above-mentioned characters are diagnostic. 

^ In young birds chieiiy. 
' 17024—01 7 



98 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



blackish; middle and greater wing-coverts tipped with whitish and 
tertials more or less edged with same; basal portion of remiges (espe- 
cially secondaries) and rectrices pale yellow, mostly (often entirely) 
concealed; under parts dull white, everywhere (except on abdomen 
and anal region) streaked, more or less distinctly (usually conspicuously, 
sometimes very broadly, rarely indistinctly), with dusky. 

Youn;/. — Similar to adults but wing-coverts tipped with buffy; 
under parts often (but not always) tinged with sulphur yellow. 

Adult w«/^.— Length (skins), 106.68-123.19 (115.57); wing, 69.09- 
Y6.20 (73.15); tail, 39.88-16.48 (43.69); exposed culmen, 9.65-11.18 
(10.67); depth of bill at base, 5.84-7.11 (6.35); tarsus, 12.70-14.99 
(14. 22); "middle toe, 10.67-12.19 (11.18).^ 

Adult female.— L,ength (skins), 107.44-130.81 (116.59); wing, 66.80- 
75.44 (71.63); tail, 40.64-45.97 (43.18); exposed culmen, 9.91-11.94 
(10.67); depth of bill at base (two specimens), 6.35-6.60; tarsus, 12.95- 
15.24 (14.22); middle toe, 10.67-12.45 (11.43).' 

Northern coniferous forest districts of North America, breeding 
south to Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, parts of New England, lower 
Hudson Valley (Sing Sing, Cornwall on Hudson, etc.), mountains of 
Pennsylvania, and southward to high mountains of North Carolina, 
Minnesota, etc. , and on the high western ranges quite to the southern 
boundary of the United States; in winter, south to the Gulf coast 
(including Florida and Texas), valleys of California, etc., and into 
Mexico; casual or accidental in Cuba. 



' Twenty-two specimens. 
'' Twenty-one speoLmens. 

Specimens from the Atlantic, Rocky Mountain, and Pacific coast districts compare 
in average measurements as follows: 



Locality. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 


Depth 
of bill 
at base. 


Tarsus. 


Middle 
toe. 


MALES. 














Nine adult males from eastern United States 


72.39 


44.45 


10.67 


6.35 


13.97 


11.18 


Five adult males from Rocky Mountain district 


72.64 


41.91 


10.16 


6.60 


14.22 


10.92 


Eight adult males from Pacific coast district 


74.42 


44.20 


11.18 


6.86 


14.48 


11.68 


FEMALES. 














Nine adult females from eastern United States — 


72. 64 


43.69 


10.92 


6.60 


13.97 


11.18 


Four adult females from Rocky Mountain district . 


69.34 


42.16 


10.16 


6.35 


13.97 


11.18 


Eight adult females from Pacific coast district 


71.88 


43.43 


10.92 




14.22 


11.43 



Although specimens from the Rocky Mountain district appear to have the tail 
decidedly shorter and the bill smaller than those from the Atlantic and Pacific dis- 
tricts (which are practically identical in measurements), it is possible that a larger 
series would show differently. I am unable to discover any color differences. The 
individual variation in the latter respect is very great, but I have failed to make out 
any correlation between these variations of coloration and geographic areas, both 
the darkest and the palest, the brownest and the grayest, or those with heaviest 
streaks on under parts, and those with these streaks almost obsolete, often occurring 
in the same locality. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 99 

Fringilla pinuft Wilson, Am. Orn., ii, 1810, 133, pi. 17, fig. 1. — NuTT.iLL, 31an. 
Om. U. S. and Canad., i, 1832, 511.— Audubon, Orn. Biog., ii, 1834, 455; v, 
1839, 509, pi. 180. 

F.[ringilla] pinus Gray, Gen. Birds, ii„ 1849, 371. 

[Fringilla] pinus Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 81, no. 7182. 

Fringilla ( Carduelis) pinus Bonaparte, Obs.AVilson, 1825, no. 103. 

Carduelis pinus J ARDius, ed. Wilson's Am. Orn., i, 1832, 275, pi. 17, fig. 1. 

ClirysomitHs pinus Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 33. — Baikd, Rep. 
Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 425; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 317.— Cooper 
and SucKLEY, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., xii, pt. ii, 1860, 197 (Washington, 
resid. ). — Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 124. — Blakiston, Ibis, 1862, 6 (plains 
of Saskatchewan, near Rocky Mts.); 1863, 71 (do.). — Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1865, 91.— Brown, Ibis, 1868,421 (Vancouver I.).— Cooper, Orn. 
Cal., 1870, 172.— CouEs, Check List, 1873, no. 148; 2d ed., 1882, no. 212; 
Birds N. W., 1874, 115.— Finsch, Abh. Nat. Ver., Bremen, iii, 1872, 60 (coast 
of Alaska) ; Journ. fiir Orn., 1883, 273 (Portage Bay, Alaska, Feb.) . — Baird, 
Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 480, pi. 22, fig. 16.— 
Hbnshaw, Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 246 (Fort Garland, Colorado, 
and Mount Graham, Arizona, breeding) . — Ridgway, Orn. 40th Parallel, 

1877, 463 East Humboldt Mts., Nevada, and Wahsatch Mts., Utah, breed- 
ing) ; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 185. — Maynard, Birds Florida, pt. iv, 

1878, 91 (Florida in winter) .— Bkewstek, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 
117 (descr. young); vii, 1882,194 (Chiricahua Mts., Arizona); viii, 1883, 57 
(migration). — Belding, Proc. TJ. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 414 (centr. Cali- 
fornia, breeding at Big Trees, etc.) ; v, 1883, 537 (La Paz, Lower California, 
winter). — Batchelder, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 148 (upper St. 
Johns R., Maine, breeding) .—Fisher, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, viii, 1883, 180 
(breeding at Sing Sing, s. e. New York; descr. nest and eggs). — Bicknell, 
Auk, 1, 1884, 328 (song). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr. -Am., Aves, i, 
1886,428, part.— Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 227, part. 

\^Chrysomitris'] pinus Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 515. — Coues, Key K. Am. 
Birds, 1872, 131.— Cory, Revised List Birds W. I., 1886, 35 (Cuba, fide 
Gundlach, Journ. fiir Orn., 1856, 9; Repert. Fisico-Nat. Cuba, 1866, 397). 

C.[hrysomitris'] pinus ^EL&oifi, Bull. Essex Inst., viii, 1876, 105, 152 (n. e. Illinois 
in winter; Indianapolis, Indiana, in summer) . — Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 
2d ed., 1884, 354. 

Linaria pinus Audubon, Synopsis, 1839, 115; Birds Am., oct. ed., iii,1841, 125, 
pi. 180. — Hbermann, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. iv, 1859, 49 (California, 
etc., winter). 

Spinus pinus Stejnbger, Auk, i, Oct., 1884, 362. — American Ornithologists' 
Union, Check List, 1886, no. 533.— Brewster, Auk, iii, 1886, 107 (Black 
Mts., North Carolina, breeding at 5,200 ft.).— Allen, Auk, iv, 1887, 284 
(Cornwall on Hudson, New York, breeding; breeding habits). — Cooke, 
Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 183 (Wallace and Manhattan, Kansas, May 29, 
and 16) . — Mearns, Auk, vi, 1889, 258 (Mogollon Mts., Arizona, breeding) . — 
Palmer (W.), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.', xiii, 1890, 264 (Magdalen Islands; 
Newfoundland). — Warren, Birds Peimsylvania, 1890, 231 (breeding in 
Lycoming Co.). — Brewster and Chapman, Auk, viii, 1891, 137 (Gainesville 
and Suwanee R., Florida, winter). — Thompson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 
1891, 587 (Manitoba, migr.) .—Cory, Cat. W. I. Birds, 1892, 111, 147 
(Cuba). — Hatch, Birds Minnesota, 1892, 302 (breeding in pine districts). — 
Nehrling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 62. — Morrell, Auk, xvi, 1899, 
252 (River Herbert, Nova Scotia, breeding; descr. nest and eggs). 

S. [piniis] pinus Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 400, part. 



100 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

SPINUS PINUS MACROPTERUS (Du Bus). 
MEXICAN PINE SISKIN, 

Similar to S. i?. pinus but with decidedly longer wings and tail, and 
usually with the under parts less distinctly streaked. 

Adult maZ<?.— Length (skins), 115.06-123.19 (117.85); wing, 75.44- 
78.23 (76.71); tail, 46.18-18.26 (47.50); exposed culmen, 10.16-11.18 
(10.92); depth of bill at base, 6.86-7.11 (7.11); tarsus, 12.70-14.22 
(13.72); middle toe, 10.92-11.18 (11.18).^ 

^&jZi! /emaZe.— Length (skin), 119.38; wing, 78.23; tail, 48.26; ex- 
posed culmen, 10.67; depth of bill at base, 6.86; tarsus,. 14.73; middle 
toe, 11.68.' 

Higher mountains of southern Mexico, in States of Vera Cruz (Las 
Vigas, Jalapa, etc.), Puebla (Mount Orizaba), Mexico (Salazar), Zaca- 
tecas (San Juan Capistrano), and Miohoacan (Patzcuaro). 

C [hrysomitris'] macroptera Bonapaete, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 515 (Guatemala; Mex- 
ico; ex " Carduelis macroptera 'DxibViS, Esq., Orn. t. 23," ined.). 

Spinus pinus macropterus Chapman, Auk, xvi, July, 1897, 311 (Las Vigas, Vera 
Cruz, Mexico, alt. 8,000 ft. ; Am. Mus. N. H. ) ; Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., x, 1898, 
42 (Las Vigas, breeding) . 

Chrysomitris pinus (not Fringilla pinus Wilson) Sclatbk, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1864, 174 (valley of Mexico).— Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 
1869, 362 (City of Mexico).— Sumichkast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., i, 1869, 
550 (plateau and alpine region of Vera Cruz) . — Baird, Brewer, and Ridg- 
TVAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i,- 1874, 480, part (Mexico).— Coues, Birds N. W., 
1874, 115, part (Mexico). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 
1886, 428, chiefly (Mexican references and localities). — Sharpe, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 227 part (Jalapa, Vera Cruz). 

{Chrysomitris'] pinus Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 34. 

Spinus pinus American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 533, part 
(Mexico) . 

S.lpinus} pinus Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 400, part (Mexico). 

SPINUS ATRICEPS (Salvin). 
GUATEMALAN FINE SISKIN, 

Adult male. — Entire pileum uniform black; back, scapulars, rump, 
upper tail-coverts, and lesser wing-coverts plain dark olive-green; 
under parts paler olive-green, the chin and upper part of throat suf- 
fused with dull blackish; under tail -coverts yellow, with distinct mesial 
streaks of blackish; greater wing-coverts with basal half (of exposed 
portion) black, the terminal half bright olive-green; tertials black, 
broadly edged and tipped with olive-green; secondaries black, with 
terminal half or more edged with olive-green; primaries black, nar- 
rowly edged with olive-green, and with a basal patch of bright yellow, 

^ Four specimens. ^ One specimen. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 101 

about 6.35 mm. or more in length, the concealed basal portion of the 
secondaries likewise j'ellow; primary coverts and alula uniform black; 
tail black, with about the basal half yellow, except middle rectrices, 
which are blackish throughout, edged with olive-green, as is likewise 
the blackish portion of the outer rectrices; bill horn color; legs and 
feet similar, but darker. 

Immature malef^ — Similar to the preceding, but the olive-green of 
upper parts inuch duller, becoming decidedly gray on hindneck; sides 
of head and under parts dull gray, with a slight tinge of olive-green on 
chest and sides; under tail-coverts pale grayish, with scarcelj^ a trace of 
yellowish tinge; yellow at base of remiges both brighter and more 
extended. 

Immature (f) male.^ — Similar to the preceding, but back and scapu- 
lars gray, slightly mixed with olive-green, the interscapulars distinctly 
but narrowly streaked with dusky; sides of head and under parts, 
including whole throat and chin, plain light gray, becoming white on 
abdomen. 

Younger {sex not determined).— SimilsiV, but pileum dull olive, the 
feathers with dusky centers, producing an indistinctly spotted appear- 
ance; iianks indistinctly streaked with duskj'. 

Adult mafe.— Length (skins), 114.30-116.8i (115.57); wing, 71.12- 
72.39 (71.63); tail, 45.72-48.51 (47.60); exposed culmen, 10.41-11.43 
(10.92); depth of bill at base, 5.84^7.11 (6.35); tarsus, 13.97-14.73 
(14.22); middle toe, 10.92-12.19 (11.43).' 

Highlands of Guatemala (Quezaltenango, Hacienda Chancol, etc.) 
and Chiapas (San Cristobal). 

This very distinct species is apparently more nearly related to 
S. pinus than to S. notatus, the size and proportions being very nearly 
the same. The fully adult male somewhat resembles in coloration 
that of S. Hpinescens, of Colombia, but, besides having a much longer 
wing and tail and differently shaped bill (the last broader basally but 
more attenuated terminally), has the color of the under parts very 
different (yellowish olive or gray instead of bright olive-yellow), and 
the olive-green tips to the wing-coverts and margins to tertials much 
broader. S. spinescens likewise has no dusky on the chin or throat, 
and no dusky streaks on the under tail-coverts. 

^Possibly the adult female, since the date is the same as that of the adult male 
described and the plumage is somewhat worn, thus indicating that it is at least a 
bird of the second year. (Both specimens from. Quezaltenango, Guatemala, August, 
1862, in the Salvin-Godman collection. ) 

2 No. 143725, U. S. Nat. Mus. (no. 3375, coll. U. S. Biol. Survey) , Hacienda Chancol, 
Guatemala, Jan. 9, 1896; Nelson and Goldman. 

' Four specimens. No adult female seen by me. 



102 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Chrysomitris atriceps Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, 190 (Quezaltenango, 
Guatemala, alt. 8,000 ft.; coll. Salvin and Godman); Ibis, 1866,194 (Quezalte- 
nango).— Eidg way, Ibis, 1884, 43 (crit.).— Salvin & Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Am., Aves, i, 1886, 429, pi. 31,figs. 1, 2.— Shakpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 
1888, 200. 

[Chrynomitris'] air ic«ps Solater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr. , 1873,34. 

[Fringilla] atriceps Gkay, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 81, no. 7180. 

S. [pinus'] atriceps Eidgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 400. 



SPINUS NOTATUS NOTATUS (Du B<is). 
BLACK-HEADED SISKUT. 

Adult male. — Head, all i-ound, and foreneck, to upper part of chest, 
deep black; hindneck, back, and scapulars j'ellowish olive-green, the 
feathers with black central spots (sometimes mostly concealed and 
inconspicuous) ; rump and under parts of body deep wax yellow or 
dull gamboge yellow; wings, tail, and upper tail-coverts deep black, 
the former relieved by a conspicuous area of bright lemon yellow on 
the basal portion of the remiges (mostly concealed on secondaries but 
occupying exposed third or more of primaries), the basal half, or more, 
of rec trices (except middle pair) also lemon yellow; bill horn color 
(sometimes bluish gray basally); legs and feet horn color. 

Adult female. — Similar to adult male but colors duller, with yellow 
areas of wings and tail rather less extended. 

Young. — Wings as in adult female, but yellow on remiges still more 
restricted, and middle and greater coverts tipped with pale yellow, 
foi-ming two bands; rectrices dusky becoming yellow basally (but not 
abruptly, as in adults) ; rest of upper parts dull j^ellowish olive, some- 
what darker on crown, where indistinctly streaked with dusky; under 
parts, including chin, throat, foreneck, and sides of head and neck, 
light wax yellow; under tail-coverts more or less sti-eaked with dusky. 

Adult maZ^^.— Length (skins), 101.60-115.06 (106.43); wing, 60.96- 
67.56 (63.75); tail, 35.56-42.16 (39.12); exposed culmen, 10.92-12.19 
(11.43); depth of bill at base (two specimens), 7.37-7.62 (7.49); tarsus, 
12.45-13.21 (12.95); middle toe, 9.91-11.18 (10.67).' 

Admit female.— \j&\^^ (skins), 100.33-105.92 (103.12);*= wing, 60.71- 
64.01 (62.48);' tail, 36.32-39.88 (37.85);' exposed culmen, 10.41-11.18 
(10.92);' tarsus, 12.70-13.46 (12.95);' middle toe, 10.41.' 



2 



' Eight specimens. 

'' Two specimens. 

' Three specimens. 

Owing to the insufBciency of material, many specimens being undetermined as to 
sex, I am unable to give comparative average measurementa according to locality. 

Five specimens from Santa Ana, Honduras, are, unfortunately, all immature birds 
(one of them in first plumage, the other four in transition dress), and I am therefore 
unable to say whether the Honduras birds differ from ilexican examples. I can not 
discern any difference between the immature birds. There are likewise no perfectly 
adult birds from Guatemala in the collection. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 103 

Highlands of southeastern Mexico, in States of Vera Cruz (Jico, Ori- 
zaba, Jalapa, etc.), Puebla (Huauchinango, Teziutlan, etc.), Mexico 
(near City of Mexico), Oaxaca (mountains near Santo Domingo, La 
Parada, Totontepec, etc.), and Chiapas (Gineta Mountains), through 
Guatemala (Volcan de Fuego, Volcan de Agua, near Antigua, Santa 
Barbara, Coban, etc.) to western Honduras (Santa Ana). 

Carduelis notata Du Bus, Bull. Ac. Roy. Belg., xiv, pt. 2, 1847, 106 (Jlexico; Brus- 
sels Mus.) ; Rev. Zool., 1848, 247; Esquis. Orn., pi. .37. 

F. Iringilla] notata Gr-vy, Gen. Birds, ii, 1849, 371. 

[Fringilla} notata Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 82, no. 7196. 

[Chrysomitris'] notata Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 516 (Mexico). — Sclater 
and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 34. 

Ch.lrysomitrisi notata Cabanis, Mus. Hein., i, 1851, 160 (Mexico). 

ChrysomitrisnotataSc-LATER, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1856, 304 (Orizaba, Vera Cruz); 
1858, 303 (Orizaba) ; 1859, 365 (Jalapa, Vera Cruz) , 380 (La Parada and Toton- 
tepec, Oaxaca); 1864, 174 (City of Mexico); Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 124 (Ori- 
zaba). — Salvin and Sclater, Ibis, 1860, 275 (Volcan de Fuego, etc., 
Guatemala). — Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 174 (City of 
Mexico). — CASSiN,Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865,92 (Mexico; Guatemala). — 
Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 4, 1876, 22 (Gineta Mts., Chiapas).— 
Salvin, Cat. Strickland Coll., 1882, 214 (Guatemala) . — Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 428 (Volcan de Fuego, Volcan de Agua, 
near Antigua, Santa Barbara, and Coban, Guatemala, etc.). — Sharpe, Cat. 
Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 221. 

Chryso7nitris notatus Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., i, 1869, 550 ^temperate 
region. Vera Cruz). 

A.[stragalinus] notatus CouEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 356. 

Spinus notatus (not of Stejneger, 1884) American Ornithologists' Union, Check 
List, 1886, no. 532, part (Mexico; Guatemala) . —Feerari-Perez, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 149 (Teziutlan, Puebla).— Ridgtv ay, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., xiv, 1891, 470 (Santa Ana, Honduras). — Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. 
N. H., x, 1898, 30 (Jalapa,, Vera Cruz). 

S.lpinus'] notatus Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 400, part (Mexico; 
Guatemala). 

SPINUS NOTATUS FORRERI ( Salvin and Godman) . 
PORRER'S SISKIN. 

Similar to S. n. notatus, but adults with back, etc. , more decidedly 
olive-green, or less yellow, and the yellow of rump and under parts 
decidedly duller and more greenish (dull olive-yellow instead of wax- 
yellow or dirty gamboge yellow); size also decidedly larger (except 
feet). 

Admit male.— Length, (skins), 112.78-114.81 (113.79); wing, 65.53- 
67.56 (66.55); exposed culmen, 11.68-11.94(11.81); depth of bill at 
base, 7.62-7.87 (7.74); tarsus, 13.72; middle toe, 10.16-10.41 (10.28).' 

Adult f emale.— Length. {s\ims), 111.25-112.01 (111.76); wing, 63.50- 
68.33 (66.29); tail, 38.61-41.15 (39.88); exposed culmen, 11.43-12.95 

' Two specimens. 



104 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

(12.19); depth of bill at base, 7.62-8.13 (7.87); tarsus, 13.95-13.21 
(13.21); middle toe, 9.91-11.43 (10.67).^ 

Mountains of southwestern Mexico, in States of Durango (El Salto, 
Chacala, Ciudad Durango), Zacatecas (San Juan Capistrano) and 
Jalisco (San Sebastian) and Territory of Tepic (Santa Teresa). 

The adult male of this well-marked form resembles in coloration the 
adult female of S. n. noiat-ics, but the olive-yellowish color of the rump is 
much more strongly contrasted with the olive-green of the back, and 
the black of the throat extends much further backward. In fact, the 
pattern of coloration is precisely the same as in the adult male of 
S. n. woto^tts, and I therefore believe that the type of S.forreri^ supposed 
by its describers to be an adult male, is in reality an adult female. At 
any rate, it agrees minutely in coloration with adult females in the 
collection of the Biological Survey, obtained in the States of Zacatecas 
and Jalisco, by Messrs. Nelson and Goldman. 

Chrysomiiris forreri Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, pt. 54, Nov., 
1886, 429 (Ciudad Durango, Durango; coll. Salvin and Godman).— Shaepe, 
Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 222. 

»S'. [pinusl forreri Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 400. 

SPINUS CUCULLATUS (Swainson). 

KED SISKIN. 

Adult male. — Head, all round, including whole throat, uniform 
black; wings and tail mostly black; rest of upper parts glossy brown- 
ish vermilion red, brightening into orange-vermilion on rump and 
under tail-coverts; sides of neck, chest, and lower parts generally 
bright scarlet or flame scarlet, paler on under tail-coverts; abdomen 
and thighs white; lesser wing-coverts like back; middle and greater 
CiO verts broadly tipped with red, forming two distinct bands; basal 
portion of remiges and rectrices orange chrome or saturn red on outer 
webs, salmon color on inner webs, forming a conspicuous mark on the 
wing, especiallj^ on basal portion of primaries; bill horn color, legs 
and feet similar but paler; length (skins), 101.60-102.87 (102.36); 
wing, 58.67-59.69 (59.18); tail, 33.02-35.05 (34.04); exposed culmen, 
9.40-9.66; tarsus, 12.70; middle toe, 10.16. ^ 

Adult female. — "Dark ashy gray above, with a slight tinge of 
vermilion on the back; lower back, rump, and upper taU-coverts ver- 
milion; wings and tail as in the male, but more orange-scarlet than 
vermilion on the red parts; lores whitish; sides of face and throat 
pearly gray, whiter on the chin; foreneck and breast orange-scarlet; 
lower breast and abdomen white, as also the thighs, and under tail- 
coverts; sides of body and flanks ashy gray with a brownish tinge."* 

1 Three specimens. '' Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 222. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 105 

Venezuela and Trinidad; Cuba (introduced ?); Porto Rico (intro- 
duced ?). 

Cardudis ciicallata Swainson, Zool. Illustr., i, 1820-21, pi. 7. 

F. \ringilla\ cucullaia Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1849, 371. 

[Fi'ingilla] cucullata Geay, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 82, no. 7199. 

[Pyrrhomitris] cucullata Bonaparte, Oonsp. Av., i, 1850, 517 (Cumanti, Venezuela; 
Antilles) . 

Pyrrlwmitris cucullata Gundlach, Eepert. Fisico-Nat. Cuba, i, 1876, 397; Orn. 
Cuba, 1876, 21; Journ. fiir Orn., 1878, 160 (Porto Rico); Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. 
Nat.,-vii, 1878, 207 (Porto Rico). —Cory, Auk, iii, 1886, 207 (synonymy and 
description); Birds W. I., 1889, 94 (do.); Cat. W. I. Birds, 1892, 111 (Porto 
Rico; Cuba; introduced). 

Pyrrhomitris cucuUaius Lawrence, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vii, 1860, 269 (Cuba; crit.) . 

Chrysomitris cucullata Solater, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 123 (Trinidad). — Cassin, 
Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, 91 (Trinidad; Venezuela; Cayenne). — 
ScLATBE and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, 167 (Carampano and 
Caracas, Venezuela). — Shabpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 225 (Caru- 
pano and Caracas, Venezuela; Trinidad; Cuba). 

IChrysomiiris'] cuccullata Coey, List Birds W. I., revised ed., 1886, 12. 

IChrysomitris] cucullata Sclatee and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 34 (Vene- 
zuela). 

Fringilla cuhse Geevais, Mag. de Zool., 1835, Gig., pi. 44 (Cuba). — Oabanis, Journ. 
fiir Orn., 1856,10 (Cuba); 1857, 241 (Cuba).— Gundlach, Journ. fiir Orn., 
1859, 295 (Cuba); 1861, 412 (Cuba); 1871, 282 (Cuba). 

Spinus cucullata Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., vi, 1894, 33 (Trinidad). 

Spinus cucullatus Fs-Ei^vs, Auk, xiv, 1897,364 (San Antonio, Venezuela). 

SPINUS XANTHOGASTER (Du Pus). 
BRYANT'S SISKIlf. 

Adult male. — Head and neck, all round, and entire upper parts uni- 
form black, relieved by a large lemon yellow patch on basal portion of 
primaries and secondaries (except outermost of the former and three 
innermost of the latter); tail (except middle rectrices), with basal half 
or more light yellow; underparts, except chin, throat, and foreneck, 
lemon yellow, more or less tinged with olive, especially on chest and 
sides, the flanks more or less streaked or clouded with blackish; bill 
horn color, darker terminally; legs and feet horn brownish; length 
(skins), 93.98-95.25 (94.49); wing, 63.50-64.26 (63.75); tail, 35.56- 
37.34(36.32); exposed culmen, 9.65-10.16(9.91); depth of bill at base, 
7.62; tarsus, 13.21-13.46; middle toe, 10.41.' 

Adult yemale.— Above uniform olive-green, somewhat lighter on 
the rump; wings and tail blackish, marked with yellow as in the male, 
but the yellow areas more restricted, especially on tail; lesser wing- 
coverts olive-green, with darker centers, the middle and greater coverts 
tipped with olive-green, and primaries narrowly edged with the same; 

' Two specimens, one the type of Chrysomitris bryanti Cassin, both from Dota, 
Costa Rica. 



106 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

underparts light yellowish olive, more grayish on chin and throat, more 
j^ellow on middle of breast and upper part of abdomen, the lower por^ 
tion of the latter, with anal region and under tail-coverts, whitish; 
length (skin), 96.52; wing, 63.75; tail, 37.59; exposed culmen, 9.65; 
depth of bill at base, 8.13; tarsus, 13.21; middle toe, 10.41.^ 

Young. — Above buffy yellowish olive; beneath buffy brownish yel- 
low, paler, more sulphur yellow, on abdomen, etc.; wings and tail 
dusky, or dark grayish brown; middle and greater wing-coverts 
broadly tipped with light buffy; tertials broadly edged terminally with 
dull white; secondaries edged for terminal half with dull buff, and pri- 
maries edged with light olive; rectrices edged with light yellowish 
olive; no 3'ellow at base of remiges or rectrices. 

Costa Rica to Venezuela and Ecuador. 

Chrysomitris xanthogastra Da Bus, Bull. Roy. Ac. Belg., xxii, pt. i, 1855, 152 
(near Ocana, Colombia). — Sclatee and Salvis, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1870, 
781 (Merida, Venezuela), 785, part (Merida, Venezuela; Ocaiia and Bogota, 
Colombia; Costa Rica); 1879, 508.— Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, 321 (Ocaiia, Canute, 
and Cauca Valley, Colombia, 5,000-6,000 ft.). — Zeledon, Cat. Aves. de Costa 
Rica, 1882, 9. 

[Chrysomitris] xanthogastra Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 187.S, 34, part 

(Venezuela to Costa Rica) . 
Clirysomltris xanthogaster Sai^yis and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 
430, part, pi. 31, fig. 3 (Dota, Frailes, and Irazu, Costa Rica; Colombia; Vene- 
zuela; Ecuador). — Shakpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 209. 

Spinus xanihogasira Zbledon, An. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 112 (Cartago, 
Sarchi, and Dota, Costa Rica) . 

Chrysomitris bryanti Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, 91 (Dota, Costa Rica; 
U.S. Nat. Mus.).— Stimpson, Trans. Chicago Ac. Sci., i, 1868, 128, pi. 17.— 
Lawrence, Ann. Lye. N. Y.,ix, 1868, 104 (Costa Rica).— Frantzius, Journ. 
fiirOrn., 1869,302 (Costa Rica).— Boucaed, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, 56 
(Volcan de Irazii, Costa Rica). 

IFriiigilki] bryanti Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 81, no. 7191. 

IFHngilla] columbiana (not Carduelis columbianus Lafresnaye) Gray, Hand-list, 
ii, 1870, 81, no. 7187, part (fide Sharpe) . 

Genus LOXIMITRIS Bryant. 

Loximilris Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xi, 1866, 93. (Type, Chrysomi- 
tris dominicensis Bryant. ) 

Similar to Spinus but bill much stouter, more swollen, and less acute 
(depth at base nearly equal to length of maxilla from nostril); wing 
more rounded (ninth primary shorter than seventh) and wings without 
any yellow. 

Hange. — Island of Haiti, Greater Antilles. (Monotypic.) 

V 'One specimen, from Dota, Costa Rica. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 107 

LOXIMITRIS DOMINICENSIS (Bryant). 
HAITIAN GOLDFINCH. 

Adult male. — Head, all round, uniform black; back, scapulars, and 
lesser and middle wing-coverts yellowish olive-green; rump olive- 
yellow; wings blackish, with olive-green edgings, these absent from 
basal portion of secondaries; middle pair of rectrices blackish, edged 
with olive-green; remaining rectrices yellow, broadly tipped with 
black, the external one with outer web black; under parts (except chin 
and throat) yellow, tinged with olive laterally; bill whitish (light 
brownish in dried skin); legs and feet deep brownish or horn color; 
length (skin) about lOtt.li; wing, 67.31; tail, 44.46; culmen (about), 
10.16; depth of bill at base (about), 10.16; tarsas, 16.24; middle toe, 
8.13. 

Adailt female. — " Head and back, dull olive, lightly mottled with 
dusky brownish, the rump and upper tail coverts ... a little 
brighter olive and without any mottling; . . . quills . . . narrowly 
margined with bright olive yellow; . . . greater, middle, and lesser 
coverts . . . margined with the dull olive of the back, but the greater 
and middle coverts . . . also broadly tipped with light olive yellow, 
forming two distinct wing-bands; . . . rectrices blackish brown, nar- 
rowly margined with yellowish on . . . inner webs; . . . throat, upper 
breast, and sides . . . duskj'^ olive-gray; bellyandcrissum whitish, . . . 
all mottled with blackish-brown shaft streakings; . . . under tail cov- 
erts broadly marked with blackish shaft streaks." ^ 

Ymmg. — " Similar to adult females, but brighter olive (yellow) above 
and decidedly yellowish, or yellowish olive, in place of grayish or whit- 
ish below. "^ 

Island of Haiti, Greater Antilles (Port au Prince, Le Coup, and 
mountains near Petionville, Haiti; Aguacate and Catarre, Santo 
Domingo.) 

Chrysomitris dominicensis Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soo. N. H., xi, Dec. 5, 1866, 93 
(Port au Prince, Haiti; U. S. Nat. Mus.).— Coryj Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 
1881, 152 (near Petionville, Haiti) . 

IFringilla} dominicensis Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 81, no. 7185. 

Loximitris dominicensis Coey, Birds Haiti and San Dom., 1885, 67, pi. (11) (Le 
Coup and Port au Prince, Haiti); Auk, iii, 1886, 207; Birds W. I., 1889, 94; 
Cat. W. I. Birds, 1892, 15, 111, 131.— Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 
234.— Chbrrie, Pub. 10, Field Columb. Mus., Orn. ser., i, no. 1, 1896, 16 (Agua- 
cate and Catare, Santo Domingo; descriptions). 

l^LoximHris] dominicensis Cory, List Birds W. I., 1885, 12. 

Genus ASTRAGALINUS Cabanis. 

Astragalinus'' Cabanis, Mus. Hein., i, July, 1851, 159. (Type, Fringilla tristis Lin- 
naeus. See Ridgway, Auk, xv, 1899, 79. ) 

Pseudomitris Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Soi. Phila., 1865, 93. (Type, Fringilla psaUria, 
Say.) 

iCherrie, Pub. 10, Field Columb. Mus., Orn. ser.,i, no. 1, 1896, 16. 
^ "Von a.(3TpayaXtvo(;, b Distelfink." 



108 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Similar to Spinu-s but bill relatively smaller, or less produced,' and 
none of the species with yellow at base of remiges nor rectrices. 

Owing to the circumstance that the numerous species of Spiniis and 
AstragaUnus differ so much among themselves in structural details, I 
am unable to give a better diagnosis of the present group than the 
above. The difference between the two groups in style of coloration 
seems all the more important when it is taken into consideration that 
in other respects as to coloration there is a very great range of varia- 
tion in both groups. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF ASTKAGALINUS. 

a. No yellow on outer surface of wing-coverfs nor remiges. 
h. Under tail-coverts white; upper tail-coverts white or grayish; inner webs of 
exterior rectrices with white at tips, but not at base nor in middle portion, 
c. White or otherwise light-colored markings of wings and tail more restricted 
(adult male averaging, wing, 72.64; tail, 46.99). (Eastern United States, 

west to Great Plains. ) Astragalinus tristis tristis (p. 109) 

cc. White or otherwise light-colored markings of wings and tail more extended. 
d. Larger and paler than A. t. tristis (adult male averaging, wing, 74.93; tail, 
50.29) . (Rocky Mountain district of United States. ) 

Astragalinns tristis pallidus (p. Ill) 
dd. Smaller and darker than A. t. trislis (adult male averaging, wing, 70.10; 
tail, 44.45). (Pacific coast district of the United States.) 

Astragalinns tristis salicamans (p. 112) 
66. Under tail coverts yellow; upper tail-coverts black or clive-green; inner webs 
of exterior rectrices with basal or middle portion white or else without any 
white, 
c. Inner webs of exterior rectrices partly white. 
d. Pileum glossy black; inner webs of exterior rectrices white to near tips. 
e. Back, scapulars, and auricular region olive-green. (Rocky Mountains to 

California. ) Astragalinns psaltria psaltria, adult male (p. 114) 

ee. Back, scapulars, and auricular region glossy black or partly so. 
/. Back, scapulars, and auricular region mixed black and olive-green (in 
varying relative proportion ) . ( Southwestern border of United States 
and northern Mexico, occasionally to California and Colorado. ) 

Astragalinns psaltria arizonse, adult male (p. 115) 
ff. Back, scapulars, and auricular region uniform glossy black. 

g. Under parts pale yellow (canary yellow or between canary yellow 
and citron yellow) ; wing and tail longer, averaging 64.77 and 41.15, 
respectively. (Mexico in general, and southern Texas.) 

Astragalinns psaltria mexioanns, adult male (p. 117) 

gg. Under parts bright yellow (lemon yellow) ; whig and tail shorter, 

averaging not more than 62 48 and 38.10, respectively. 

h. Larger, with under wing-coverts mostly blackish and with more 

black on flanks; wing averaging 62.48; tail, 38.10; exposed cul- 

men, 9.91; depth of bill at base, 7.62; tarsus, 12.70. (State of 

Chiapas, southern Mexico, to Panama. ) 

Astragalinns psaltria crocens, adult male (p. 118) 

^ A few of the South American species of Spinus have the bill essentially like that 
of AstragaUnus, but the style of coloration is always different and diagnostic of the 
group. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 109 

hh. Smaller with under wing-coverts mostly white or yellow and 
with less black on flanks (usually none); wing averaging 57.15; 
tail, 35.31; exposed culmen, 8.89; depth of bill at base, 7.11; 
tarsus, 12.19. (Yucatan.) 

Astragalinus psaltria jouyi, adult male (p. 120) 
dd. Pileum olive-greenish, like back, etc^ ; inner webs of exterior rectrices with 
a white spot in middle portion. 

Astragalinus psaltria and subspeciew, adult females and young.' 
CK. Inner webs of exterior rectrices M'ithout any white, or with only an indica- 
tion of it. 
d. Upper parts glossy black.. Astragalinus psaltria columbianus, adult male 

(p. 120) 
dd. Upper parts olive-green.. Astragalinus psaltria columbianus, adult female 
and young. 
aa. Outer surface of greater wing-coverts and remiges partly yellow. (California 
and northern Lower California; Arizona in winter.) 

Astragalinus lawrencii (p. 121) 

ASTRAGALINUS TRISTIS TRISTIS (Linnseus). 
AMERICAN GOLDFINCH. 

Back yellow, brownish, or grayish; inner webs of rectrices dusky, 
becoming white or whitish termi nally ; under tail-coverts white ; r emi ges 
without any yellow, and without white at base of primaries. 

Adatlt male in sttmmer. — General color pure lemon or canary yellow, 
the lores, forehead, and crown, together with wings (except small cov- 
erts) and tail, black; tail-coverts, middle (sometimes also lesser) wing- 
coverts, tips of greater coverts,>and part of edges of remiges, white; 
bill orange or orange-yellow tipped with black; iris brown; legs and 
feet light brownish. 

Adfiiit female in summer. — Above olive-brownish or grayish, some- 
times tinged with olive-greenish, the wings and tail blackish or dusky, 
marked with white or whitish, much as in the male; upper tail-coverts 
pale grayish or grayish white; under parts dull grayish white, more 
or less tinged with yellow, especially anteriorly and laterallj", some- 
times entirely soiled yellow, except under tail-coverts; bill horn 
colored. 

Adult male in winte)\ — Similar to the adult female, but wings and 
tail deeper black, with whitish markings more conspicuous. 

Adult female in winter. — Similar to the summer female, but more 
tinged with brownish, the lighter wing-and tail-markings broader and 
more or less tinged with buffy brownish. 

Young. — Somewhat like winter adults, but much browner, ati the 
wing-markings pale cinnamon, the plumage generally being suffused 
with this color. 

Adult male.— Length (skins), 108.46-121.92 (115.57); wing, 70.61- 
75.18 (72.64); tail, 43.43-61.31 (46.99); exposed culmen, 9.66-10.41 

' Owing to insufBciency of material I am unable to give differential characters for 
females and young of the several forms. 



110 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

(10.16); depth of bill at base, 7.11-7.62 (7.37); tarsus, 12.70-11.73 
(13.72); middle toe, 10.16-11.13 (10.67.)^ 

Adult female.— \j^xigi\ (skins), 108.71-121.16 (113.28); wing, 65.79- 
70.87 (68.58); tail, 39.62-46.71 (13.43); exposed culmen, 9.40-10.41 
(9.91); depth of bill at base, 7.11-7.37 (7.37); tarsus, 12.95-14.73 
(13.97); middle toe, 10.16-11.18 (10.67).' 

United States and more southern British Provinces east of Rocky 
Mountains, north to Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, southern Labrador, 
etc.; breeding southward to limits of Upper Austral life-zone; winter- 
ing southward to Gulf coast. 

[Fringilla'] Irisds LiNN^as, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, i, 1758, 181 (based on Carduelis 
americana Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, i, 43, pi. 43); ed. 12, i, 1766, 320.— 
Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, 1788, 907.— Latham, Index Orn., i, 1790, 452.— Gray, 
Hand-list, ii, 1870, 82, no. 7192. 

Fringillatristw\VihSOii, Am. Orn., i, 1808, 20, pi. 1, fig. 2. — Bonaparte, Am. Orn., i, 
57, pi. 8, fig. 4; Ann. Lye. N. Y., ii, 1828, 111.— Audubon, Orn. Biog., i, 1831, 
172; V, 1839, 510, pi. 33.— Nuttall, Man. Orn. U. S. and Canada, i, 1832, 507. 

F.lringilld] tristis Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1849, 371. — Bonaparte, Journ. Ac. Nat. 
Sci. Phila.,iv, 1825, 56. 

Carduelis (ristis Audubon, Synopsis, 1839, 116; Birds Am., oct. ed., iii, 1841, 129, 
pi. 181. 

Spinus tristis Boie, Isis, 1828, 974. — Stejneger, Auk, i, Oct., 1884, 362. — Burner, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 240 (oH Cape Mugford, Labrador; Fort 
Chimo, Ungava?).— (?) Seton, Auk, iii, 1886, 322, part (Red R. Valley, 
Manitoba, breeding) . — American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, 
no. 529, part. — Scott, Auk, vi, 1889, 321 (Tarpon Springs, s. w. Florida, Dec. 
30 to Feb. 20; Punta Eassa, s. w. Florida, Jan. ) . — Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss.Val., 
1888, 182, part (n. Illinois in winter; localities in Wisconsin and Missouri; 
Minnesota?; Gainesville, Texas?). — Jackson, Trans. Canad. Inst., i, 1890, 2 
(Toronto, Ontario, Jan. 19).— (?) Thompson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1891, 
586 (Manitoba, summer resid.). — Dwight, Auk, x, 1893, 11 (Prince Edward 
I., breeding). — Nehrling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 54, pi. 15, fig. 5. 

S. [pimis'] tristis Ridgway', Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 398, part. 

Chrysomiiris tristis Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List., 1838, 33. — Baird, Rep. 
Pacific E. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 421, part (Carlisle, Pennsylvania, St. Louis, and 
Independence, Missouri; Leavenworth and Fort Eiley, Kansas?); Cat. N. 
Am. Birds, 1859, no. 313, part; Ibis, 1867, 289 (Bermudas, Mar.).— Sclater, 
Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 123 (e. U. S.).— Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1865, 92, part.— Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ii, 1871, 271 (e. Florida, 
winter) .—CouES, Check List, 1873, no. 149, part; Birds N. W., 1874, 116, 

^ Eighteen specimens. ' Thirteen specimens. 

Average measurements of a nearly equal series from east and west of the AUeghe- 
nies are as follows: 



Locality. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 


Depth 
of bill 
at base. 


Tarsus. 


Middle 
toe. 


MALES. 


V3.41 
71.88 

68.58 
69.09 


48.01 
45. 97 

43.69 
42.42 


10.16 
10.16 

9.91 
9.91 


7.37 
7.87 


13.46 
13.97 

13.97 
13.72 


10 41 




10 67 


FEMALES. 

Nine adult females frorn Atlantic coast States 


10.67 







BIRDS OP NOKTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 



Ill 



part; Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 577 (Pembina, 
North Dakota).— Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 
471, part, pi. 22, figs. 7, 8.— :Mayxard, Birds Florida, 1878, 89.— Brewster, 
Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1S7S, 117-(descr. young).— Kumlien, Bull. U.S. 
Nat. Mus., no. 15, 1879, 76 (off Cape Mugford, Labrador, Aug. 22).— Sharpe, 
Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 195, part (e. United States localities). 

[Clirysomitris'] iristis Bonaparte, Consp. Av,, i, 1850, 517. — Coties, Key X. Am. 
Birds, 1872, 132, part. 

Chrysometris tristis Maynard, Proc. Bost. Soc, xiv, 1871, 371 (Lake Umbagog, 
Maine, and Quebec, Canada, breeding). 

A. [slragalinus'] tfistis. Cabasis, Mus. Hein., i, July, 1851, 159. — CouBS, Key N. 
Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 354, part. 

Astragalinus irklis Allen, Proc. Essex Inst., iv, 1864, 69 (Springfield, Massa- 
chusetts). — CouEs, Proc. Essex Inst., v, 1868, 280 (Essex Co., Massachusetts, 
Dec); Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 96; Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 
213.— RiDGWAY, Nbm. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 181.- Merriam, Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 235 (Point de Monts, prov. Quebec, Canada, July). — 
Batchelder, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 147 (upper St. Johns, New 
Brunswick, winter). — Bicknell, Auk, i, 1884, 329 (song). — American Orni- 
thologists' Union Committee, Auk, xvi, 1899, 115. 

Fringilla iaria MiJLLER, Syst. Nat. Suppl., 1776, 163 (New York; based on Twin, 
de la nouvelle Yorck Buffon, PL Enl., pi. 292, figs. 1, 2). 

Carduelis americana Swainson and' Richardson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 268 
("Fur Countries ").—Jardine, ed. Wilson's Am. Orn., 1832, 11, pi. 1, fig. 2. 



ASTRAGALINUS TRISTIS PALLIDUS (Mearns). 
WESTERN OOLDFINOH. 

Similar to ^4. t. iristis, but decidedly larger; adult females, winter 
males, and young much paler and grayer, with the white or otherwise 
light-colored markings of wings and tail more extended. 

Adult male.— 'Length (skins), 109.22-129.29(119.89); wing, 71.3T- 
78.23 (74.93); tail, 43.69-52.07 (50.29); exposed culmen, 10.16-10.92 
(10.41); depth of bill at base, 7.11-7.37; tarsus, 13.72-14.73 (14.22); 
middle toe, 9.91-11.18 (10.67).' 

Adult female.— Length (skins), 112.27-127.00 (120.40); wing, 68.83- 
74.17 (72.39); tail, 43.18-51.56 (46.74); exposed culmen, 9.91-11.18 
(10.41); tarsus, 13.21-14.78(13.97); middle toe, 10.16-11.43 (10.67).' 

' Seventeen specimens. 

^ Thirteen specimens. 

Specimens from the type locality (Fort Verde, Arizona) are paler and have the 
wings and tail longer than those from other portions of the arid region, following being 
average measurements of the two series : 



Locality. 


Wing-. 


Tail. 


Exposed 
culmen. 


Depth 
of bill 
at base. 


Tarsus. 


Middle 
toe. 


MALES. 


76.71 
73.91 

73.66 
70.61 


51.05 
47.24 

48.01 
44.45 


10.41 
10.67 

10.41 
10.16 


7.11 
7.37 

7.11 


14.22 
14.22 

13.97 
13.72 


10.67 


Eleven adult males from New Mexico, Colorado, etc . 

FEMALES. 

Eight adult females from Arizona ( Fort Verde) 

Fiveadult females from westernTexas.Nebraska.etc. 


10.67 

10.92 
10.41 



112 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES , NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Rocky Mountain ]olateau district of the United States, north to east- 
ern British Columbia, western Manitoba, etc., south to northern and 
eastern Mexico (Monterey, Nuevo Leon, February; Texola, Vera Cruz, 

March). 

Chrysomiiris tristis (not Fringilla iristis Linnaeus) Woodhousb, Eep. Sitgreaves' 
Expl. Zuni and Col. R., 1854, 82 (Texas, and Indian Terr.). — Baihd, Rep. 
Pacific K. E. Surv., ix, 1858, 421, part (Fort Lookout, etc., Nebraska; Fort 
Laramie, Wyoming) ; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 313, part. — (?) Blakiston, 
Ibis, 1863, 70 (Saskatchewan?) .—Deesser, Ibis, 1865, 486 (San Antonio, 
Texas, breeding). — Butcher, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1868, 149 (Laredo, 
Texas, Dec.) .—Cooper, Orn. Cal., 1870, 167, part.— Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., iii, 1872, 176, part (Ogden, Utah; e. Colorado). — Aiken, Proc. Best. 
Soc. N. H., 1872, 199 (Denver and Pueblo, Colorado, Nov.).— Meeri.^m, Rep. 
U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., 1872, 679 (Ogden, Utah; Fort Hall, Idaho).— CouES, 
Check List, 1873, no. 149, part; Birds N. W., 1874, 116, part.— Baird, 
Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 471, part. — Henshaw, 
Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1873 (1874), 60 (Platte E., Colorado); 
Annot. List Birds Utah, 1874,5; Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 243 
(localities in Ne\ada, Utah, and Colorado). — Ridgway, Orn. 40th Parallel, 
1877, 461, part (localities in Nevada and Utah.— (?) McCauley, Bull. U. S. 
Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iii, 1877, 663 (Washita Creek, etc., n. Texas). — 
(?) Bendire, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xix, 1877, 116 (Camp Harney, e. Ore- 
gon, May). — Allen and Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, viii, 1883, 161 
(Colorado Springs, Colorado). — Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 
195, part. 

[Chrysomitris] iristis CouEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 131, part. 

CanilMfKs imits Maxi.mili AN, Journ. fur Orn. , 1858, 281 (up. Missouri E. ) . 

Astragalinus irislis HiDGVi \y , Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 177, part; Nom. N. 
Am. Birds, 1881, no. 181, part.— Coues, Check List, 2ded., 1882, no. 213, part— 
(?) Ogiley, Soient. Proc. Eoy. Dubl. Soc, iii, 1882 [28] (Navarro Co., Texas, 
Oct. to Feb.). 

Spinus tristis (not of Boie) American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, 
no. 529, part. — Seton, Auk, iii, 1886, 322, part (Assiniboine R., w". Mani- 
toba, breeding) .—Scott, Auk, iv, 1887, 197 (Pinal Co., Arizoija, winter).— 
Allen, Auk, iv, 1887, 198 (Arizona; crit.).— Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 
1888, 181, part (Minnesota?; South Dakota?; Manitoba? ; San Angelo, Texas) ; 
Birds Colorado, 1897, 98 (resident) . 

S. Ipinusl tristis Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 398, part. 

Spinus tristis pallidus Meaens, Auk, vii, July, 1890, 244 (Fort Verde, Yavapai Co., 
Arizona; coll. E. A. Mearns) . — American Ornithologists' Union Commit- 
tee, Auk, ix, 1892, 106; Check List, 2d ed., 1895, no. 529a.— Ridgway, 5Ian. 
X. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 601. 

Astragalinus tristis pallidus Ridgway, Auk, xvi, Jan., 1899, 79. — American Orni- 
thologists' Union Committee, Auk, xvi, 1899, 115. 

ASTRAGALINUS TRISTIS SALICAMANS (Grinnell). 
CALIFOBNIA GOLDFINCH. 

Similar to A. t. tj'istis, but wings and tail shorter, and coloration 
darker; adult male in summer plumage with back always (?) tinged 
with pale olive-green, and winter adults and young decidedly darker or 



BIRDS OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMEBICA. 113 

browner than corresponding plumages of A. t. tristis, with the broader 
white or otherwise light-colored wing- and tail-markings of A. t. 
pallidus. 

Adult «ia^e.— Length (skins), 103.63-122.43 (113.54:); wing, 66.04- 
73.41 (70.10); tail, 43.18-46.23 (44.45); exposed culmen, 9.91-10.67 
(10.16); depth of bill at base, 7.62; tarsus, 12.95-14.48 (13.72); middle 
toe, 10.16-11.43 (10.67).^ 

Adidt female.— luength (skins), 108.71-119.63 (113.03); wing, 66.80- 
69.09 (68.33); tail, 43.18-45.47 (44.20); exposed culmen, 9.91-10.67 
(10.16); depth of bill at base, 7.62; tarsus, 13.21-13.46; middle toe, 
10.67.' 

Pacific coast district, north to Washington (Shoal water Bay), south 
to Lower California (Cerros Island). 

Chryaomitris iristis (not Fringilla tristis Linnaeus) Newbekry, Rep. Pacific R. R.. 
Surv., vi, pt. iv, 1857, 87 (California; Oregon). — Baibd, Rep. Pacific R. R. 
Surv., ix, 1858, 421, part (ShoalwaterBay, Washington; San Francisco, Sacra- 
mento, and Fort Tejon, California) ; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 313, part. — 
CoopEK and Suckley, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., xii, pt. ii, 1860, 197 (coast of 
Washington; lower Columbia R.). — Cooper, Orn., Cal., 1870, 167, part (Cali- 
fornia; Oregon); Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1875, [6] (Saticoy and Haywards, 
California ; descr. eggs ) . — Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 149, part; Birds N. W. , 
1874, 116, part. — Baied, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 
471, part. — Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1876, 238 (Los Angeles, 
California; habits). — Ridgway, Orn. 40th Parallel, 1877, 461, part (Sacra- 
mento, California). — Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 413 (Stockton; 
Marysville, etc., California). — Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 195,, 
part (California). 

[Chrysomitris] iristis Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 181, part. 

CardueKs ins(i.s Heermann, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x,pt. iv,1859,50 (California). 

Astragalinus tristis Ridgway, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 181, part. — Coues, 
Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 213, part; Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 354, 
part. — Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1883, 531 (Cerros I., Lower 
California). 

Spinus tristis American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 529, 
part. — Anthony, Auk, iii, 1886, 168 (Washington Co., w. Oregon); (?) 
Zoe, iv, 1893, 240 (San Pedro Martir Mts., Lower California, winter).— 
BvEEMANN, Auk, iii, 1886, 182 (Ventura Co., California, resident). — Towns- 
end, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1887, 217 (Red Bluff and Humboldt Bay, 
California). — Lawrence (R. H.), Auk, ix, 1892, 356 (Gray's Harbor, Wash- 
ington). 

SjMnus tristes Morcom, Bull. Ridgw. Orn. Club, no. 2, 1887, 48 (Sau Bernardino, 
May). 

S. Ipinus} tristis Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 398, part. 

Spinus tristis salicamans Grinnell, Auk, xiv, Oct., 1897, 397 (Pasadena, California; 
coll. J. Grinnell); Pub. ii, Pasadena Acad. Sci., 1898, 35 (Los Angeles Co., 
California, resident) . — Brooks, Auk, xvii, 1900, 106 (Okanagan, Brit. Colum- 
bia, winter) . 

Astragalinus tristis salicamans Ridgway, Auk, xvi, Jan., 1899, 79. — ^American 
Ornithologists' Union Committee, Auk, xvi, 1899, 115 (no. 5296).— Mbe- 
RiAM, N. Am. Fauna, no. 16, 1899, 124 (Sisson and Shasta Valley, California). 

' Nine specimens. - Three specimens. 

17024—01 8 



114 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

ASTRAGALINUS PSALTRIA PSALTRIA (Say). 
ARKANSAS GOLDFINCH. 

Adult male.— Vi\eam glossy black; auricular region, hindneck, 
back, scapulars, and rump, olive-green; wings black, with a large white 
patch at base of primaries; greater wing-coverts tipped with white or 
pale grayish; primaries narrowly and tertials broadly (in fresh plum- 
age) edged with the same; upper, tail-coverts black, margined with 
olive-green; tail, blackish, with inner webs of several outermost rec- 
trices mostly white (tips blackish); under parts light yellow (canary 
yellow), paler onunder tail-coverts, tinged with olive-greenish laterally; 
bill, horn color, darker at tip; legs and feet brownish; length (skins), 
97.28-106.43 (101.85); wing, 62.23-64.77 (64.01); tail, 38.61-40.89 
(40.13); exposed culmen, 89.8-9.91 (9.65); depth of bill at base, 7.11- 
7.37(7.24); tarsus, 12.19-12.95(12.70); middle toe, 9.91-10.16(10.03).' 
Adult female. — Above, including pileum, olive-greenish, the pileum 
sometimes indistinctly streaked with dusky; wings as in adult male, but 
general color grayish dusky instead of black, and white patch at base 
of primaries smaller, sometimes obsolete; tail with the white on inner 
webs of exterior rectrices restricted to a squarish spot in middle por- 
tion; under parts, light olive-yellow; length (skins), 96.77-107.44 
(100.33); wing, 60.71-63.25 (62.23); tail, 37.59-41.66(39.37); exposed 
culmen, 8.89-9.91 (9.40); tarsus, 12.45-12.95 (12.70); middle toe, 9.14- 
10.41 (9.91).' 

Young. — Similar to adult female, but tinged with buffy brownish 
above, the lighter wing-markings more or less buffy, and the under 
parts paler and duller, or more buffy, yellow. 

Western United States, from coast of California to eastern base of 
Rocky Mountains; north to northern California (Shasta County), 
southern Idaho (Boise), Utah (Wahsatch and Uintah mountains), and 
Colorado; south, in winter at least, to southern Lower California (Vic- 
toria Mountains) and southern New Mexico and Arizona; breeding 
south to San Pedro Martir Mountains, northern Lower California. 

Fringillapsaltria Say, Long's Exped. Eocky Mts., ii, 1823, 40 (Arkansas Eiver). — 
BoNAPAKTE, AiQ. Orn., i, 1825, 54, pi. 6, fig. 3; Ann. Lye. N. Y., 1828, 111.— 
NuTTALL, Man. Orn. U. S. and Canada, i, 1832, 510. — Audubon, Orn. Biog., v, 
1839, 85, pi. 394. 

Cardiielis psaltria Jakdinb, ed. Wilson's Am. Orn., iii, 1832, 311, pi. 6, fig. 3. — 
Audubon, Synopsis, 1839, 117; Birds Am., oct. ed., iii, 1841, 134, pi. 183. — 
Heermann, Bep. Pacific R. E. Surv., x, pt. iv, 1859, 50 (California). 

Chrysomitris psaltria Bonaparte, Geog. & Comp. List, 1838, 33. — Gambel, Journ. 
Ac. 'Sut. Sci. Phila., 2d ser., i, 1847, 52 (California). — Newberry, Eep. Pacific 
E. E. Surv., vi, pt. iv, 1857, 87 (California) . — Baird, Eep. Pacific E. E. Surv., 
ix, 1858, 422 (California) ; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 314.— Xantus, Proc. 
Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 191 (Fort Tejon, California). — Kenneely, Eep. 

' Seven specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 115 

Pacific R. R. Surv. , x, pt. vi, 1859, 28 (Bill Williams' Fork, Arizona) . — Sclatek, 
Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 124.— Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1S65, 93 (Califor- 
nia) .—Cooper, Orn. Cal., 1870, 168.— Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 
167 (Ogden, Utah), 178 (Kansas?; Utah).— Coues, Check List, 1874, no. 131.— 
Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, pi. 22, figs. 9, 10. — • 
Yarrow and Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1872 (1874) , 13 (s. 
Utah) .—Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1873 (1874) , 109 (Inscrip- 
tion Rock, New Mexico; Apache and Gila R., Arizona); ib., 1876, 238 (s. 
California); Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 244, pi. 4, fig. 2 (Washington 
andSt. George, Utah; Pueblo, Colorado, etc.) .—Nelson, Proc. Bost. Soo. N. H., 
xvii, 1875, 358 (Nevada, California, Aug., Sept.). — Ridgway, Bull. Essex 
Inst., V, 1873, 181 (Colorado); vii, 1875, 33 (Wahsatch Mts., Utah); Orn. 40th 
Parallel, 1877, 462 (Wahsatch and Uintah Mts., Utah, breeding) .— Belding, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.,i, 1879, 413 (Stockton, Marysville, etc., California).— 
Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 194 (Chiricahua Mts., Arizona; 
crit.) . — Allen and Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, viii, 1883, 161 (Colorado 
Springs, Colorado) . — Sharpb, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 204. 
[Chrysomitris] psaltria Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 516. — Coues, Key N. Am. 

Birds, 1872, 132. 
Chrysomitris (Pseudomitris) psaltriaC Assiii, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, 93 (Cali- 
fornia). — Coues, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866,80 (Fort Whipple, Arizona, 
breeding; crit.). 
Chrysomitris pstiUria, var. psaltria Ridgway, Am. Journ. Sci., iv, Dec, 1872,454, 

foot-note. — Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 474. 
[Chrysomitris psaltrial a. psaltria Coues, Birds N. W., 1874, 116. 
Chrysomitris psaltria psaltria Goode, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 20, 1883, 313. 
Astragalinus psaltria Coues, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 96; Check List, 2d ed., 
1882, no. 215.— Ridgway, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 182.— Drew, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1881, 90 (Rio Animas, Colorado, Oct.). — Belding, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1883, 53l'(Cerros I., Lower California) ; vi, 1883, 347 
(Victoria Mts., Lower California), 537 (La Paz, Lower California). — Beck- 
ham, Auk, ii, 1885, 141 (Pueblo, Colorado). — American Ornithologists' 
Union Committee, Auk, xvi, 1899, 116. 
A. [stragalinus'] psaltria Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 355. 
Spinus psaltria Stejneger, Auk, i, Oct., 1884, 362. — American Ornithologists' 
Union, Check List, 1886, no. 530.— Evbrmann, Auk, iii, 1886, 182 (Ventura 
Co., California).— TowNSEND, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1887, 217 (Red Bluff 
and Baird, n. California).— Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 183 (San 
Angelo, Texas, fall).— Mearns, Auk, vi, 1890, 258 (Mogollon Mts. and Verde 
Valley, Arizona). — Anthony, Zoe, iv, 1893, 240 (San Pedro Martir Mts., 
Lower California, resident on lower slopes). — Nehrling, Our Native Birds, 
etc., ii, 1896,60. 
S. [_plmis~\ psaltpa Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 399. 

ASTRAGALINUS PSALTRIA ARIZON.ffi Coues. 
ARIZONA GOLDFINCH. 

. Similar to A. p. jasaltria, but adult male with the olive-green of the 
auricular region, back, scapulars, and rump more or less intermixed 
with black, sometimes principally black; wing and tail averaging 
slightly longer. 

Adnlt mafe.— Length (skin), 96.27-107.19 (102.62); wing, 64.01- 
66.29 (65.02); tail, 38.61-41.45 (41.40); exposed culmen, 8.89-9.91 



116 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

(9.40); depth of bill at base, 7.11-7.37; tarsus, 12.19-13.31 (12.70); 
middle toe, 9.65-10.41 (9.91).' 

Adult firiude.—Li&ngt]x (skin), 97.03; wing, 61.21; tail, 38.10; 
exposed culmen, 9.40; tarsus, 12.70; middle toe, 9.91.^ 

Southwestern border of United States, from western Texas to central 
California, and south into northwestern Mexico, in States of Chihua- 
hua, Sonora, and Durango (Chacala); north, at least occasionally to 
Colorado. 

This is scarcely a definite form, but is rather a series of specimens 
connecting A. p. psaltria and A. ]). inexlcanus, hardly two examples 
being exactlj^ alike, and the geographic range not very definite. The 
name may be retained, however, as a convenient means of designating 
the intergrading series in question. 

Chrysomitris inexicatia (not Carduelis mexicanus Swainson) Baied, Bep. Pacific 
R. E. Surv., ix, 1858, 423, part (Copper Mines, Arizona) ; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 
1859-, no. 315, part.— Coues, Ibis, 1865, 159, 164, in text (Fort Whipple, 
Arizona). 

Chrysomitris (Pseudomitris) mexicanus Var. arizonx Coues, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1866, 82, in synonymy (Fort Wingate, New Mexico, or Fort Whipple, 
Arizona;' U. S.Nat. Mus.?). 

[Chrysomitris Pseudoviitris viexicamis.} [C. var. anzonx'] Comes, Proc. Ac. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1866, 82. 

Chrysomitris mexicana, var. arizonse Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, i, 1874, pi. 22, fig. 11. 

\_Chrysomitris mexicanus.'] Var. arizonx Baird, in Cooper's Orn. Cal.,1870, 170 
(Arizona). 

Chrysomitris mexicana arizonx Sennett, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., 
v,1879, 390 (Lomita,- Texas, May). 

[Chrysomitris psaltria.l Var. arizonse OouBS, Key N. Am. Birds, Oct., 1872, 132. 

Chrysomitris psaltria var. arizonie Ridgway, Am. Journ. Sci., iv, Dec, 1872, 454, 
footnote. — Baied, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 476; 
iii, 1874, 509 (30 m. n. of &n Diego, May 7, and near San Buenaventura, Cal- 
ifornia, Jan. ) . 

Chrysomitris psaltria . . var. arizonx Coues, Check List, 1874, No. 151ci. — Hen- 
SHAw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Survey, 1873 (1874), 109 (Gila-R., Arizona, 
Sept.); Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 245, pi. 4, fig. 1 (Gila R., Camp • 
Grant, and Apache, Arizona; Santa Fe, New Mexico). 

Chrysomitris psaltria arizonie GoOBE, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 20, 1883, 313. 

[Chrysomitris psaltria'] b. arizonx Coues, Birds N. W., 1874, 117 (synonymy). 

Astragalinus psaltria arizonse Coues, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, April, 1880, 96; 
Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 216.— Ridgway, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., iii, Aug. 24, 
1880, 177, 216, 232; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. ISSo; Auk, xvi, 1899.— 
American Ornithologists' Union Committee, Auk, xvi, 1899, 116. 

1 Eleven specimens. ' 

'^ One specimen. 

'Neither type specimen nor type locality were designated; four specimens are men- 
tioned by National Museum catalogue numbers, namely, 37088, 37091, and 37092, 
from Fort Wingate, New ilexico, and 39094, from Fort Whipple, Arizona, of which 
only the last, apparently, is now in the National Museum collection. The form is 
characterized, inferentially, on page 83. 



BIRDS OF NOETH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 117 

A.[siraga}mus'] i>. [saliria} arizonse CouES, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 355. 

Splnus paaliria arizonx Stejnegbr, Auk, i, Oct., 1884, 362. — American Ornithol- 
ogists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 530a.— Emerson, Zoe, i, 1890, 44 
(Hayward's, Alameda Co., California, 1 spec. Jan. 10).— Attwater, Auk, 
ix, 1892, 337 (San Antonio, Texas, winter) . — Fisher, North Am. Fauna, no. 
7, 1893,85 (lower Santa Clara Valley, Utah, breeding).— CooKB, Birds Colo- 
rado, 1897, 99 (summer resid., breeding from plains to 6,0C0 ft.) . 

S-ipiims} psaltria arizome Eidgwa\-, Man. I\. Am. Birds, 1887, 399. 

lCIiri;somHris psaltria.} Subsp. a. Chrysomitris arizonx Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus.,xii, 1888, 206. 



ASTRAGALINUS PSALTRIA MEXICANUS (Swainson) 
MEXICAN GOLBFIlfOH. 

Adult male. — Upper parts, including whole auricular region and sides 
of neck, uniform glossy black; otherwise exactly like adult males of 
A. p. psaltria and A.j)- arizonce; length (skins), 97.79-109.22 (104.66); 
wing, 61.98-68.68 (64.77); tail, 38.10-44.45 (41.16); exposed culmen, 
9.40-10.67 (9.91); depth of bill at base, 7.11; tarsus, 11.94-13.21 (12.70); 
middle toe, 9.40-10.41 (9.91).' 

Adult female. — Not distinguishable from females of A. p. psaltria 
and J..^. arizonm; length (skins), 101.85-106.43 (104.14); wing, 60.96- 
65.53 (63.50); tail, 38.10-42.93 (39.88); exposed culmen, 8.89-10.16 
(9.65); tarsus, 12.45-13.21 (12.70); middle toe, 9.91-10.41 (10.16).^ 

Young. — Not appreciablj' different in plumage from those of A. 2^- 
psaltria and A. p. arizQiice. 

Mexico in general, except extreme southern and northwestern por- 
tions (States of Chiapas, Yucatan, Sonora, etc.); southern Texas (north 
to Kinney, Mason, Eastland, and Bexar counties); accidental in Colo- 
rado (Denver). 

(?) [Fringilla] caJo/oZ Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, 1788, 914 (based on" Ca/oior' Buffon.) 
Carduelis mexicana Swainson, Philos. Mag., n. s.,i, 1827, 435 (Real del Monte, 

Hidalgo, Mexico). — Wagler, Isis, 1831, 525. 
Chrysomitris mexicana'BotsAFA-R'iB, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 33. — Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., 1856, 303 (Cordova, Vera Cruz) ; 1858, 303 (Oaxaca); 1859, 
265 (Jalapa, Vera Cruz) , 380 (Totontepec, Oaxaca) ; Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 124, 
part (Mexico). — Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 423, part (Nueva 
Agua, Coahuila; Santa Catarina, Nuevo Leon; Parras) ; ed. 1860 ("Birds 
N. Am."), atlas, pi. 14, fig. 1; Rep. U. S. Hex. Bound. Surv., ii, pt. ii, 1859, 
14, pi. 16, fig. 1; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 315, part.— Cassin, Proc. Ac. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, 93, part (Mexico; Texas; New Mexico; "Lower Cali- 
fornia") . — DuGEs, La Naturaleza, i, 1868, 140 (Guanajuato) . — Cory, Revised 
List Birds AV. I., 1886, 35 (Cuba, fide Gundlach, Repert. Fisico-Nat. Cuba, i, 
1866, 397).— Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 431, part 
(Mexican localities and references) . — Sharps, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 
-06, part (Mexican references and localities). 



^ Thirteen specimens. '■' Five specimens. 



118 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Chrysomitris me.ricanus Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., i, 1869, 550 (temp, 
region, Vera Cruz) .—Cooper, Orn. Cal., 1870,- 169 (n. Mexico).— Grayson, 
Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xiv, 1872, 282 (Tres Marias). 

[Chrysomitris] mexicanus Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 576. 

ICIirysomitris'] mexicana Solatek and Salvin, Norn. Av. Neotr., 1873, 34, part 
(Mexico). 

[Chrysomitris Pseudomitris ineodcanus'] \_X.\a.r. mexicanus Swains.] Ooues, Proc. 
Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 81 (crit.; synonymy). 

[Chrysomitris psaltria.] Var. mexicana Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, Oct., 1872, 183. 

Chrysomitris psaltria . . . var. mexicana Coves, Clieck List, 1874, no. 1516. 

Chrysomitris psaltria var. mexicana Eidgway, Am. Journ. Sci., iv, Dec, 1872, 455, 
part. — Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 478, part, 
pi. 22, fig. 13.— Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., ii, 1874, 278 (Tres 
Marias). 

[Chrysomitris psaltria] c. mexicana CouES, Birds N. W., 1874, 117, part (in 
synonymy). 

Chrysomitris psaltria mexicana Goode, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 20, 1883, 313. 

[Chrysomitris mexicana] var. mexicana Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, i, 1874, pi. 22, fig. 12. 

A.[stragalinus] mcricanus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., i, July, 1851, 159 (Mexico). 

Astragalimts psaltria mexicanus CouBS, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 96; Check 
List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 217.— Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 177, 
229, 232; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 1826.— American Ornithologists' 
Union Committee, Auk, xvi, 1899, 116. — Cooke, Auk, xvi, 1899, 187 (near 
Denver, Colorado, 1 spec, summer 1888). — Nelson, North Am. Fauna, no. 
14, 1899, 52 (Tres Marias). 

A.[stragalinus] p. [saltria] mexicanus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 355, 
part. 

Spinus psaltria mexicanus Stejneger, Auk, i, Oct., 1884, 362. — American Orni- 
thologists' Union, Check List., 1886, no. 5306. — Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. 
VaL, 1888, 183 (Mason, Texas, breeding).— Att water. Auk, viii, 1892, 337 
(San Antonio, Texas, breeding). — Jouy, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1894, 
780 (Soledad, San Luis Potosi; Hacienda el Molina, Jalisco; crit). — Rich- 
mond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xviii, 1896, 630 (Alta Mira, Tamaulipas) .— 
Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., x, 1898, 30 (Jalapa, Vera Cruz). 

S. [pinus] psaltria mexicana Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 399, part. 

8. [pinus] psaltria mexicanus Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d. ed., 1896, 399, part. 

Spinus mexicanus Coby, Cat. W. I. Birds, 1892, 147 (Cuba ?). 

Fringilla melanoxantha Lichtenstbin, Preis-Verz. Mex. Vog., 1830, 2 (Journ. fiir 
Orn., 1863, 56).— Wagler, Isis, 1835, 525. 

[Chrysomitris] melanoxantha 'Licwrsssi^is, Nom. Av. Mus. Berol., 1854, 46. 

Fringilla texensis Giraud, Sixteen Sp. Texas Birds, 1841, pi. 5, fig. 1 (Texas; type 
inU. S. Nat. Mus.). 

ASTRAGALINUS PSALTRIA CROCEUS (Jouy)i 
CENTRAL AMERICAN GOLDFINCH. 

Similar to A. p. mexicanus but smaller and brighter yellow beneath, 
the adult males with under parts rich lemon yellow instead of canary 
or citron yellow; similar in color of lower parts to A. p. jouy i but 
larger, and with more black on under wing-coverts and flanks. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 



119 



Adult maZe.— Length (skins), 90.93-lli.81 (100.08); wing, 58.17- 
66.04 (62.18); tail, 36.56-43.18 (38.10); exposed culmen, 9.11-10.41 
(9.91); depth of bill at base, 7.37-7.62; tarsus, 12.19-12.95 (12.70); 
middle toe, 8.64-10.41 (9.65).' 

Adult female. — Length (skins), 96.77-114.81 (2 specimens only); 
wing, 56.90-64.52 (61.72); tail, 35.31-40.89 (38.10); exposed culmen, 
9.11^10.16 (9.65); depth of bill at base, 7. 87; tarsus, 12.19-12.95 (12.45); 
middle toe, 8.8-)-9.91 (9.40)." 

Extreme southern portion of Mexico (State of Chiapas), and south 
through Central America to Isthmus of Panama, occasionally to Santa 
Marta, Colombia, and even to Ecuador (Valle del Mira). 

Specimens from Guatemala and Chiapas average slightly larger, at 
least in length of wing and tail, than those from farther southward, 
and are appreciably paler j^ellow below; but the difference is much 
less between those from Chiapas and Guatemala on the one hand and 
those from the Isthmus of Panama than between the former and those 
from more northern parts of Mexico. Average measurements of the 
males in the two series, together with those from Costa Rica (an inter- 
mediate district) and those of A. p. mexicanus, are as follows: 



Locality. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


posed 
culmen. 


Depth 
of bill 
at base. 


Tarsus. 


Middle 
toe. 


Thirteen specimens from Mexico (except Chiapas) 
and Texas 


64.77 
63.25 
62.74 
61.47 


41.15 
38.61 
37.85 
37.85 


9.91 
9.91 
9.91 
9.66 


7.11 
7.87 
7.62 
7.62 


12.70 
12.70 
12.70 
12.45 


9.91 


Seven specimens from Chiapas and Guatemala 

Five specimens from Costa Rica 


9.91 
9.91 


Five specimens from Isthmus of Panama . , 


9.65 







Chrysomitris tnexicana (not Carduelis raexicana Swainson) Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 
1859, 19 (Guatemala); Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 853 (Lion Hill, Panama, 
R. R.). — Salvin and Solatek, Ibis, 1860, 34 (DueSias, Guatemala). — Sclater, 
Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 124, part (Guatemala). — Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1865, 93, part (monogr.).— Lawrence, Ann. Lye. N. Y., ix, 1868, 103 
(Barranca and San Jos6, Costa Rica). — Salvin, Ibis, 1869, 314 (Costa Rica; 
crit. ) ; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 190 ( Veragua) ; Cat. Strickland Coll., 1882, 
214 (Guatemala). — Zelbdon, Cat. Aves de Costa Rica, 1882, 9. — Salvin and 
GoDMAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 431, part (Costa Rica, Veragua, and 
Panama references and localities). — Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit^ Mus., xii, 1888, 
206, part (Guatemalan, Costa Rican, Veraguan, and Panama references and 
localities). — Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xii, 1898, 139 (Santa Marta, Colom- 
bia). — Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool. , etc. , Torino, xv, 1899, 27 (Valle 
del Mira, Ecuador, May). 

[Chrysomitris] mexicana Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 34, part 
(Central America; Panama). 

Chrysomitris mexicanus Lawrence, Ann. Lye. N. Y.,vii, 1862,332 (PanamaR.R. ). 

Adragalinus mexicanus Cabanis, Journ. fur Orn., 1861, 7 (Costa Rica). 

Spinus mexicanus Zeledon, An. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 112 (San Jos^, 
Cartago, and Volcan de Irazii, Costa Rica). — Cherkie, Auk, ix, 1892, 249 
(San Jos^, Costa Rica). 



^ Seventeen specimens. 



' Four specimens. 



120 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Chrysomitris paaltrki var. mexkana Ridgway, Am. Joum. Sci., iv, Dec, 1872, 4o5, 
part.— Bated, Bkewek, and Bidgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 478, part. 

Spinus psaltria- mexicanus American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, 
no. 530 h, part. 

S. [pinus] psaltria mexicana Eidgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 399, part. 

Spinus psaltria croceus J ovY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, no. 975, Apr. 18, 1894, 

780 (Panama; U. S. Nat. Mus.). ' 
A.lstragalinusi m.\_e.vicanu8'\ croceus Kidgway, Auk, xv, Oct., 1898, 320. 

ASTRAGALINUS PSALTRIA JOUYI Ridgway. 
YUCATAN GOLDFINCH. 

Similar to A. p. croceus, but smaller; adult male with under wing- 
coverts mostly white or light j^ellow, and flanks with very little, if any, 
admixture of black. 

Jfa^e.— Length (skins), 89.41-96.52(93.98); wing, 53.09-58.42(57.15); 
tail, 33.53-37.85 (35.31); exposed culmen, 8.64-9.91 (8.89); depth of 
bill at base, 7.11; tarsus, 11.43-12.45 (12.19); middle toe, 9.14-10.16 
(9.65).' (Females and young not seen.) ' 

Yucatan. 

Chrysomitris mexicana (not Carduelis mexicana Swainson) Boucard, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. Lond., 1883, 445 (Yucatan). — Salyin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., 

Aves, i, 1886, 431, part (Yucatan).— Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 

206, part (n. Yucatan; Mugeresl., Yucatan). 
Spinus, species J ovY, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1894, 781 (Yucatan). 
Astragalinus mexicanus jouyi Eidgway, Auk, xv, Oct., 1898, 320 (Temax, Yucatan; 

U. S. Nat. Mus.) . 

ASTRAGALINUS PSALTRIA COLUMBIANUS (Lafresnaye). 
COLOMBIAN GOLDFINCH. 

Similar to A. p. croceus, but without any white on inner webs of 
exterior rectrices. 

JfoZe.— Length (skins), 96.52-106.41 (100.33); wing, 59.69-65.02 
(63.25); tail, 36.83-39.88 (38.35); exposed culmen, 9.14-9.91 (9.65); 
depth of bill at base, 7.37-7.62 (7.62); tarsus, 11.68-12.95 (12.45); mid- 
dle toe, 9.14-9.91 (9.65).^ (Females and young not seen.) 

Costa Rica to Venezuela (Caracas, Merida, etc.), western Ecuador 
dor (Mebli) and central Peru (Vina, etc.). 

The overlapping of the ranges of typical A. p. columliianvs and J[.j9. 
croceus being quite extensive (Costa fiica to Colombia), intermediates 
are quite numerous. Such specimens have much less white on the 
rectrices than A. p. croceus (sometimes merelj" a trace), while in some 
it is asymmetrically developed, one side of the tail being as in tj'^pical 
A. 2>- croceus, the other side as in A. p. columhianus. 

' Ten specimens. ^ Eight specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 121 

Chrysomitris columbiana Lafresnaye, Revue Zool., 1843, 292 (Colombia; type in 
coll. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. ). — Solater, Proc. Zool. See. Lond., 1855, 759 (Bogota, 
Colombia); Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 124 (Bogota).— Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. 
Pliila.,1865, 93 (crit.).— ScLATERand Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, 167 
(Caracas, Venezuela); 1875,234 (Merida, Venezuela) ; 1879,508 (Concordia, 
Retiro, Santa Elena, and Medellin, pro v. Antioquia, Colombia). — Lawrence, 
Ann. Lye. N. Y., ix, 1868, 103 (San Jos(§, Costa Rica). — Fkantzius, Journ. fiir 
Orn., 1869, 302 (Costa Rica).— Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1880, 199 
(Callacate, n. Peru); Orn. du P^rou, iii, 1886, 51 (Chota, Bambamarta, Cu- 
tervo, etc.,n. Peru). — Zeledon, Cat. Aves de Costa Rica, 1882, 9. — Salvin, 
Novit. Zool., ii, no. 1, 1895, 7 (Vina, centr. Peru, alt. 5,500 ft.) . — Bangs, Proc. 
Biol. '3oc. Wash., xii, 1898, 139 (Santa Marta, Colombia). — Salvadori and 
Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool., etc., Torino, xv, 1899, 27 (Niebli, av. Ecuador). 

Chrysomitris columbianus Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 423, footnote. — 
Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1879, 230 (Tambillo, n. Peru). 

[_Chrysomitris1 columbiana Solater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 34. 

C.[hrysomitris'] colambiana Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 
431, in text. 

Chrysomitris colombiana Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 208. 

A.[stragalinus'] columbianus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., i, July, 1851, 159 (Colombia). 

Astragalinus columbianus Cabanis, Journ. fiir Orn., 1861. 94 (Costa Rica) . 

Astragalirms psaltria columbianus Allen, Bull. Am, Mus. N. H., xiii, Aug. 25, 1900, 
165 (Bonda, etc., Santa Marta). 

IChrysomitrii Pseudomitris mexicanus.'] B. Ya,r. columbianus Coues, Proc. Ac. 
Nat. Sci.Phila., 1866,82 (synonymy). 

XChrysomitris psaltria.l Var. columbiana Coves, KeyN. Am. Birds, Oct., 1872, 133, 
in text. 

[Chrysomiiris psaltria'] var. columbiana Baibd, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. 
Am. Birds, i, 1874, 471. 

Chrysomitris psaltria Y&r. columbiana 'RiOGW ay, Am. Journ. Sci., iv, Dec, 1872, 455. 

[Chrysomitris psaltria] d. columbiana Coues, Birds N.W., 1874, 117 (synonymy). 

Chrysomitris mexicana columbiana Berlbpsch, Journ. fiir Orn. , 1884, 296 (Bucara- 
manga, Colombia; crit.). 

S. [pinus] psaltria columbiana Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 398, in text. 

Spinus psaltria columbianus Phelps, Auk, xiv, 1897, 364 (San Antonio, Venezuela) . 

Spinus columbianus Zeledon, An. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 112 (Costa Rica) . 

(?) C. [hrysomitris] nana Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, Sept. 15, 1850, 516 (Colombia; 
Paris Mus. ;= female or young?) . 

Chrysoviitris mexicana (not Carduelis mexicana Swainson) Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 431, part. 

ASTRAGALINUS LAWRENCII (Cassin). 
LAWRENCE'S GOLDFINCH. 

Outer webs of wing-coverts and remiges partly yellow; inner webs 
of rectrices (except middle pair) with a subterminal white patch. 

Adult male. — Anterior portion of head, all round, including throat 
and fore part of crown, black; above brownish gray (the back some- 
times tinged with olive-green), changing to yellowish olive-green on 
rump; sides of head and lateral under parts paler brownish gray, 
becoming white on under tail-coverts and abdomen; chest and median 
portion of breast yellow; length (skins), 99.57-118.36 (110.24); wing, 



122 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

66.29-70.10(68.07); tail, 45.97-50.80 (47.50); exposed culmen, 7. 87-8.38 
(8.13); depth of bill at base, 6.86-7.11 (7.11); tarsus, 12.70-13.21 (13.95); 
middle toe, 10.16-10.92 (10.41). ^ 

Adult femaIe.—SimU.a,v to adult male, but without black on head, 
the colors in general duller, with yellow less distinct; length (skins), 
102.87-114.30 (109.98); wing, 62.99-67.06 (65.53); tail, 42.16-47.50 
(44. YO); exposed culmen, 7.87-8.89 (8.13); depth of bill at base, 6.10- 
7.11 (6.60); tarsus, 12.70-13.72 (12.95); middle toe, 9.65-10.41 (10.16).^ 

Young. — Similar to adult female, but colors duller, with yellow, 
especially on breast, less distinct, and under parts obsoletely streaked. 

California and northern Lower California (breeding south to San 
Pedro Martir Mountains); in winter to Arizona (Fort Yuma, Pinal 
Couaity, Fort Whipple, etc.). 

CarduelislaivrenciiCAsaiis, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., v, 1851, 105, pi. 5 (Sonoma and 
San Diego, California; coll. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. ).—Heerm.\nn, Rep. Pacific 
E. E. Surv., X, pt. iv, 1859, 50 (San Diego; upper Sacramento Valley). 

Chrysomitris lawrenceii Baied, in Stansbury's Gt. Salt Lake, 1852, 330 (San Diego). 

Chrysomitris lawrencei Bonaparte, Compt.Rend., xxxvii, 1853, 913. — Cassin, Proc. 
Ac. Nat. Sci., 1865, 93 (crit.).—CouES, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 83 (Fort 
Whipple, Arizona, winter) ; Check List, 1873, no. 150. 

IChrysomitris] lawrencei CottES, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 132. 

Chrysomitris laurencil Baird, Rep. Pacific R. E. Surv., ix, 1858, 424; Cat. N. Am. 
Birds, 1859, no. 316.— Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 124 (California).— 
Elliot, Illustr. New and Unflg. N. Am. Birds, 1869, pi. 8. —Cooper, Orn. Cal., 
1870, 171.— Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 478, 
pi. 22, figs. 14, 15.— Henshaw, Rep. Wheeler's Surv., 1876, 239 (Santa Barbara, 
California; habits).— Ridgway, Orn. 40th Parallel, 1877, 463 (w. foothills 
Sierra Nevada).— Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 414 (Marysville and 
Murphys, centr. California). — Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 223. 

Chrysomitris lawrenci Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1873 (1874) 
158 (Fort Whipple, Arizona) . 

[Fringillci] laurencei Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 81, no. 7179. 

Astragalinus laurenceii Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, Aug. 24, 1880, 177. 

Astragalinus lawrencei Ridgway, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 183. — Price, Bull. 
Coop. Orn. Club, i, 1899,92 (Yuma, Arizona, Dec). — American Ornitholo- 
gists' Union Committee, Auk, xvi, 1899, 116. 

Astragalinus lawrencii Coues, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, Apr., 1880, 96; Check List, 
2d ed., 1882, no. 214. 

A. [^stragalinus^ lawrencii CouEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 355. 

Spiyms lawrencii Stejnegee, Auk, i, Oct., 1884, 36'-' 

Spinus lawrencei American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 531. — 
MoRCOM, Bull. Ridgw. Orn. Club, no. 2., 1887, 48 (San Diego and San Ber- 
nardino counties, California). — Scott, Auk, iv,'1887, 199 (Pinal Co., Arizona, 
1 spec. Feb. 28, 1886).— Anthony, Zoe, iv, 1893, 240 (San Pedro Martir Jits., 
Lower California, resid. up to 4,000 ft.). — Nehrling, Our Native Birds, etc., 
ii, 1896, 61. 

S.\_pinus} lawrencei Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 399. 

' Seven specimens. ^ Four specimens. 



BIKDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEKIOA. 123 



Genus CARPODACUS Kaup. 

Carpodacus Kaup, Entw. Eur. Thierw., 1829, 161. (Type, Loxia erythrina 
Linnasus. ) 

Erythrothorax Brehm, Vog. Deutschl., 1831, 249. (Type, Loxia erythrina Lin- 
naeus. ) 

Hsemorhous (not of Boie, 1826) Swainsox, Claspjf. Birds, ii, 1837, 295. (Type, 
Fringilla purpurea Gmelin. ) 

Pyrrhulinota Hodgson, in Gray's Zool. Misc., 1844, 85. (Type, Loxia erythrina 
Linnaeus. ) 

Burrica Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 390. (Type, Fringilla mexicana 
Miiller. ) 

Rather small or medium-sized (occasionally large) arboreal tiiiches, 
with the bill moderately developed, short-conical; adult males with 
the plumage at least partly red, adult females and young males olive, 
brownish, or grayish, the under parts whitish conspicuously streaked 
with the color of the upper surface. 

Bill shorter than head, conical, thick, its depth at base greater than 
its width at same point and about equal to (or a little more or less than) 
length of maxilla from nostril; culmen mostly nearly or quite straight 
(purpureus, cassinii, roseiis, etc.), or decidedly curved throughout {mexi- 
canus, erythrinus, thura, etc.) ; maxillary tomium straight or even faintly 
convex in middle portion {purpureus, cassinii, roseus) or concave nearly 
throughout {mexicanus, erythrvnus, -thura). Wing less than four to 
more than five times as long as tarsus; ninth, eighth, and seventh, or 
eighth, seventh, and sixth primaries longest, the ninth usually equal to 
or longer than the sixth, sometimes equal to the eighth, rarely shorter 
than sixth; primaries exceeding secondaries by less than length of tar- 
sus {thura) to nearly twice as much. Tail less than three-fourths as 
long as wing to five-sixths as long {thura), deeply emarginate {pur- 
pureas, cassinii, etc.) to nearly or quite even {uiexicamis). Tarsus 
short, about equal to middle toe with claw. 

Coloration. — Adult- males with more or less of red, and more or less 
streaked; adult females and young conspicuously streaked, especially 
on under parts. 

Bange. — Temperate portions of Europe, Asia, and JSlorth America, 
southward, in the last, to southern Mexico. 

1 have been strongly inclined to separate the conical-billed, fork- 
tailed species from those with convex culmen, more or less arched 
maxillary tomium and less forked (sometimes quite even) tail, but find 
the extremes so nearly connected by species of more or less interme- 
diate character that I have finally concluded to follow the usual custom 
of keeping them all in one genus. To do this, however, requires a 
very ' ' elastic " generic diagnosis, as may be seen above. I have not 
been able to examine more than three ^ of the considerable number of 



^ See note 2 on page 124. 



124 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Old World species assigned to the genus/- and it is possible that if 
all the known species could be examined at once good reasons for a 
justifiable subdivision of the genus could be found. Of the species 
examined (including, besides all the American forms, the Palaearctic 
C. erythi'lnus, C. roseus, and C. thnra^), C. thura is decidedly the most 
aberrant, in its relatively long tail and shoi't wing — the former nearly 
equaling the latter in length and the latter decidedlj' less than four 
times as long as the tarsus — all the others having the tail little if any, 
more, usually less, than three-fourths as long as the wing and the 
latter from four and a half to more than five times as long as the 
tarsus. O. thura is also peculiar in its short, rounded wing-tip, the 
primaries exceeding the secondaries by less than the length of the 
tarsus instead of by nearly twice the length of the latter; but it agrees 
essentially with O. erythrinus and C. mexicanus in the form of the bill. 
The habits of C. mexicanus are exceedingly difi'erent from those of 
C. jmrpureus and ('. cassinu, resembling very closely those of the 
house sparrow (Passer domestlcus), in nearly everj^ respect; but those 
of O. erythrinus, which comes A-ery close to C. mexicanus in form, 
appear to be essentially like those of C. j)urpiirevs. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF CAEPODACUS. 

a. Tail deeply emarginate, shorter than wmg by much less than length of tarsus; 
adult males with wing-feathers edged with reddish; adult females and immature 
males with upper parts conspicuously streaked with dusky, or else the ground- 
color decidedly olive or olive-greenish. {Carpodacus.) 
b. Wing more than 86.36, averaging 91.19; exposed culmen not less than 11.94, 
usually much more, averaging 12.70; under tail-coverts conspicuously streaked 
with dusky. (Mountains of western United States south to southern Mexico.) 

Carpodacus cassinii (p. 126) 
bb. Wing not more than 86.36, averaging not more than 81.79; exposed culmen 
usually much less than 11.94, averaging not more than. 10.92; under tail- 
coverts without streaks, or else with only some of the longer feathers 
■ streaked. ( Carpodacus purpnreus. ) 
c. Wing longer (averaging 83.31 in male, 80.26 in female), with ninth primary 
usually longer than sixth; tail shorter (averaging 58.42); adult male 
brighter colored, with rump light pinkish wine purple; adult female with 
general color above olive-grayish. (Eastern North America.) 

Carpodacus purpureas purpureus (p. 128) 
cc. Wing shorter (averaging 79.76 in male, 77.22 in female), with ninth primary 
usually shorter than sixth; tail longer (averaging 58.67); adult male 
darker and duller in color, with rump dark wine purple or maroon 
purple; adult female with general color above decidedly olive-greenish. 
(Pacific coast, from southern California to British Colmnbia. ) 

Carpodacus purpureus californicus (p. 130) 

aa. Tail very slightly, if at all, emarginate at tip, shorter than wing by much less 

than length of tarsus; adult males with wing-feathers edged with pale grayish; 

adult females and immature males with upper parts brownish gra\- obsoletely 

streaked with darker. {Burrica.) 

' Except Hiematospiza sipalii, which Dr. Sharpe (Cat. Birds Brit, ilus., vol. xii., pp. 
388, 097) refers to Carpodacus, taut which certainly possesses excellent generic 
characters. 

^ Since the above Avas written C. severtzori, C. rhododikiini/x, C. (jrandis, and C. 
stolitzkx have been received at the U. S. National Museum. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 125 

6. Smaller and more slender (but with relatively longer wing and tail) and bill 
much smaller (depth at base not more thaii 10.67, usually much less). ( Car- 
podacus mexicanus. ) 
c. Adult male with red (or yellow) of under parts extending no farther back- 
ward than throat or upper chest, and there abruptly defined, or else with 
breast merely pinkish or pale red, in contrast with deep red of throat; 
crown (between red or yellow supra-auricular stripes) grayish brown, with- 
out any tinge of red (or yellow). 
d. Bill smaller (male with exposed culmen averaging 10.67, depth at base 
averaging 9.14); redi parts of adult male lighter in color (bright poppy 
red or crimson in summer, pinkish wine purple in winter). (Southeast 
ern portion of Mexican plateau, in States of Hidalgo, Vera Cruz, Puebla, 

and Mexico.) Carpodacus mexicanus mexicanus (p. 131) 

dd. Bill larger (male with exposed culmen averaging 11.68, depth at base 
averaging 10.16) ; red parts of adult male darker (dark crimson in sum- 
mer?, deep vinaceous wine purple or maroon purple in winter). 
(Extreme southern portion of ilexican plateau, in State of Oaxaca.) 

Carpodacus mexicanus roseipectus (p. 133) 
cc. Adult male with red of under parts extended over whole chest, sometimes 
over breast or even over abdomen; red of forehead and superciliary region 
rarely sharply defined, the crown usually more or less (often distinctly) 
tinged with reddish, even the back sometimes washed with red. 
d. Larger (adult male with wing averaging more than 76.20, tarsus averaging 
17.78 or more). 
e. Wing averaging 80.52 in male, 78.74 in female, tail averaging 61.21 in 
male, 59.18 in female; adult male with red always (or nearly always) 
extending over breast to abdomen, the pileum and back more or less 
tinged or washed with red. (Southwestern portion of Mexican pla- 
teau, in States of Morelos, Michoacan, Colima, Jalisco, and Guanajuato.) 

Carpodacus mexicanus rhodocolpus (p. 134) 

ce. AVing averaging not more than 78.49 in male, less than 76.20 in female, 

tail averaging not more than 59.18 in male, not more than 56.90 in 

female; adult male with red more restricted, rarely extending over 

breast to abdomen or strongly tinging pileum or back. 

/. Bill smaller (exposed culmen averaging 10.41 in male and female, 

depth at base averaging 9.65); coloration slightly paler. (Northern 

Mexico to Colorado, California, etc. ) 

Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis (p. 137) 

ff. Bill larger (exposed culmen averaging 11.18 in male, 10.92 in female; 

depth at base averaging 10.16 in male, 9.91 in female); coloration 

slightly darker. (Santa Barbara islands, California; Todos Santos 

Island, Lower California.) Carpodacus mexicanus dementis (p. 140) 

dd. Smaller (adult male with wing averaging less than 76.20, tarsus averaging 

less than 17. 78. ) (Adult males extensively red, as in C. m. rhodocolpus. ) 

e. Wing and tail shorter, bill slightly larger (wing averaging 73.91 in male, 

71.63 in female; tail 58.93 in male, 54.61 in female). (Southern Lower 

California.) Carpodacus mexicanus ruberrimus (p. 136) 

ee. Wing and tail longer, bill slightly smaller (wing averaging 75.95 in male, 
72.90 in female; tail 60.96 in male, 57.91 in female.) (Coast district 
of southern Sonora and southwestern Chihuahua. ) 

Carpodacus mexicanus sonoriensis (p. 135) 

66. Larger and stouter (with relatively shorter wing and tail), and bill much larger 

(depth at base not less than 11.43, usually much more). 

c. Bill smaller, distinctly compressed basally; exposed culmen averaging 12.45 

in male, 12.70 in female; depth of bill at base averaging 11.94; upper parts 

paler and grayer. (San Benito Island, Lower California.) 

Carpodacus mcgregori (p. 141) 



126 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



cc. Bill larger, not compresaed basally; exposed culmen averaging 12.95 in male, 
13.46 in female; depth of bill averaging 13.21; upper parts darker and 
browner. (Guadalupe Island, Lower California.) 

Carpodacus ampins (p. 142) 

CARPODACUS CASSINII Baird. 
CASSrN'S PITKJ'I.E FINCH, 

Wing not less than 87.13 (averaging 91.19), exposed culmen not less 
than 11.94: (averaging 12.70); under tail-coverts usually conspicuously 
streaked. 

Adult male.— Tileam dull crimson (brighter in summer), in con- 
spicuous contrast with general color of upper parts; back and scap- 
ulars pale vinaceous or vinaceous-pink, more or less mixed with 
brownish gray, and conspicuously streaked with dusky; wings and 
tail dusky, with pale vinaceous edgings; rump, postocular stripe; 
malar region, chin, throat, chest, and upper breast dull rose pink, 
passing into white on more posterior under parts, the under tail- 
coverts usually (but not always) with conspicuous mesial streaks of 
dusky, the sides and flanks sometimes narrowly and indistinctly 
streaked with the same; auriculai region and a more or less conspic- 
uous submalar patch brownish; length (skins), 137.16-160.02 (149.61); 
wing, 89.41-96.52 (92.20); tail, 59.69-69.09 (64.01); exposed culmen, 
11.94-12.95 (12.70); depth of bill at base, 10.16-11.43 (10.41); tarsus, 
17.78-20.32 (19.05); middle toe, 13.97-16.51 (15.24).^ 

Adult female. — Above olive-grayish, conspicuously streaked with 
dusky; underparts white, sometimes faintly tinged with pale dull 
buffj' dn chest and sides, everywhere, except on abdomen, conspicu- 
ously streaked with dusky, the streaks on throat, chest, etc. , of sharply 
cuneate form; length (skins), 140.97-153.67 (145.54); wing, 87.12- 
91.44 (88.90); exposed culmen, 12.45-12.70 (12.57); depth of bill at 
base, 10.16-10.41 (10.28); tarsus, 17.78-20.07 (18.80); middle toe, 
13.72-15.49 (14.99).' 

' Twenty-four specimens. 

^ Twelve specimens. 

Specimens from different localities compare in average measurements as follows: 



Wing. 


Tail. 


Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 


91.44 


62.99 


12.45 


92.71 


65.02 


12.70 


93.98 


66.28 


12.45 


88.90 


61.47 


12.70 


88.90 


60.96 


12.70 


88.90 


62.99 


12. 70 



Depth 

of bill Tarsus, 
at base. 



Middle 
toe. 



MALES. 

Twelve adult males from California, Oregon, and 

western Nevada 

Ten adult males from Rocky Mountain district 

Two adult males from southern Mexico (Vera Cruz 
and San Luis Potosi) 

FEMALES. 

Seven adult females from California, Oregon, and 
western Nevada 

Pour adult females from Rocky Mountain district. 
One adult female from San Luis Potosi 



10.67 
10.16 



10.16 
10.16 
10.16 



19.1 
19.1 



14.99 
15.49 



16.49 



14.73 
1.5.24 
14.99 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEKIOA. 127 

Iimnature (?) male. — Exactly like the adult female in coloi'ation. 

Young. — Similar to adult female, but streaks on lower part.s nar- 
rower and less distinct, and wing-edgings more or les.s ochraceous or 
buffy. 

Western United States (breeding in mountains), from eastern base 
of Rocky Mountains to Pacific coast; north to British Columbia, south 
over plateau region of Mexico to Vera Cruz (Mount Orizaba, Mirador, 
etc.), San Luis Potosi (Charcas), Vallej^ of Mexico, etc. 

Carpodacus purpureus (not Fringilla purpurea LinnaBus) Woodhodsb, in Eep. 
Sitgreavea' Expl. Zuni and Col. R.,1853, 88, part (New Mexico). — Allen, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.,iii, 1872, 156, 162 (South Park, Colorado), 167 
(Ogden, Utah) .—Williams, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 62 (Belt Mts., 
Montana). 

Carpodacus cassinii Baird, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., vii, June, 1854, 119 (Colo- 
rado River; U. S. Nat. Mus.); Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 414; ed. I860 
("Birds N. Am."), atlas, pi. 27, fig. 1; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 307.— 
Kenneely, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., iv, pt. vi, 1856, 10 (75 m. w. of 
Albuquerque, New Mexico); x, pt. 1859, 27, pi. 27, fig. 1 (Pueblo Creek and 
Albuquerque, New Mexico). — Lokd, Proc. Roy. Art. Inst. Woolw.,iv, 1864, 
119 (bet. Rocky Mts. and Cascades, Brit. Columbia). — Sclater andSALviN, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1869, 362 (City of Mexico).— Cooper, Orn. Cal., 1870, 
155.— Merkiam, An. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr, for 1872 (1873), 678 
(Yellowstone R. and Snake R., Montana). — Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. 
Wheeler's Surv., 1874, 78 (Fort Garland, Colorado). — Rhoads, Proc. Ac. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1898, 47, 63 (int. Brit. Columbia). 

[^Carpodacusl cassinii CouES, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 128. 

Carpodacus cassini Coues, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 80 (Fort Whipple, Arizona, 
breeding; crit); Check List, 1873, no. 140; 2d ed. 1882, no. 195; Birds N.W., 
1874, 106. — Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 460, 
pi. 21, figs. 4, 5. — Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1873 (1874), 
109 (near Zufii, New Mexico); Zool. Exp.W. 100th Merid., 1875, 240 (localities 
in Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico); Auk, ii, 1885, 333 (upper Pecos R., 
New Mexico, breeding). — Ridgway, Orn. 40th Parallel, 1877, 457 (localities 
in Nevada and Utah; habits, descr. nest, etc.); Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, 
no. 169.— Bendire, Proc. Boat. Soc. N. H., 1877, 116 (Blue Mts., e. Oregon, 
breeding) . — Drew, Auk, ii, 1885, 16 (Colorado). — American Ornithologist!" 
Union, Check List, 1886, no. 518. — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., 
Aves, i, 1886, 420 (Valley of Mexico; pine belt of Mount Orizaba).— Town- 
send, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1887, 215 (Mount Shasta, etc., n. Califor- 
nia). — Merrill, Auk, vi, 1888, 357 (Fort Klamath, e. Oregon, resident); 
XV, 1898, 15 (Fort Sherman, n. w. Idaho, breeding).— (?) Cooke, Bird 
Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 180 (Gainesville, Texas).— Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus., xii, 1888, 412.— Meeriam, North Amer. Fauna, no. 5, 1891, 102 
(Salmon R. Mts., Idaho).— Fannin, Check List Birds Brit. Col., 1891, 34 
(both sides Cascade Mts.). — Anthony, Zoe, iv, 1893, 289 (San Pedro Martir 
Mts., Lower California, resident).— Jouy, Proc. U. S. Nat. jMus., xvi, 1893, 
780 (Charcas, San Luis Potosi, Mexico, 7,000-8,000 ft., Nov. 13).— Nehrling, 
Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 34. — Grinnell, Pub. ii, Pasadena Ac. Sci., 
1898, 34 (mountains of Los Angeles Co. , California, breeding above 4,000 ft.). 

\^Carpodacus'] cas.frai Sclater and Salvix, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 84. 

Clarpodacusl casitini Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 347. — Ridgway, 
Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 390. 



128 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Carpodaeus pileatus [nomen nudum} Kennerly, Rep. Pacific E. R. Surv., iv, 
pt. vi, 1856, 10 (75 m. w. of Fort Albuquerque, New Mexico), 11 (Pueblo 
Creek, New Mexico). 

Carpodaeus californims (not of Baird) Henry, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 
107 (New Mexico). 



CARPODACUS PURPUREUS PURPUREUS (Gmelin) 
PURPLE FINCH. 

Wing not more than 86.36 (averaging 81.79); exposed culmen not 
more than 11.94 (averaging 10.92); under tail-coverts without streaks, 
or else with only some of the longer feathers so marked. 

Adult male. — Pileum deep wine purple (more crimson in summer); 
rump paler, more pinkish wine purple; back and scapulars reddish 
brown or wine purplish, streaked with darker (feathers margined with 
light brownish or grayish in winter) ; wings and tail dusky with light 
brownish red or light brown edgings, the middle and greater coverts 
broadly tipped with dull wine purple or light brownish red; nasal 
plumes and greater part of lores dull whitish; orbital and auricular 
regions and a more or less distinct postmalar spot duskj'- brownish 
red; rest of head, together with more anterior and lateral under parts, 
pinkish wine purple; abdomen, anal region, and under tail-coverts 
white; flanks usually more or less streaked with brown, and longer 
under tail-coverts rarely marked with narrow mesial streaks of dusky; 
length (skins), 133.35-149.86 (141.22); wing, 80.77-86.36 (83.31); tail, 
54.61-60.96 (58.67); exposed culmen, 10.41-11.94 (11.18); depth of 
bill at base, 10.16-10.67 (10.41); tarsus, 15.49-18.80 (17.78); middle 
toe, 12.70-15.24 (13.97).' 

Ad^ilt female. — Above olive or olive-grayish (more olivaceous in 
winter), streaked with dusky and, to a less extent, with whitish, the 
latter mostly on median portion of pileum, hindneck, or upper back; 
wings and tail dusky with light olive or olive-grayish edgings; a broad 
stripe of olive on side of head, involving orbital and auricular regions, 
and a more broken stripe or patch of the same on sides of throat; 
supra-auricular and malar regions mostly whitish, streaked with olive; 
under parts white (more or less tinged with bufl' in winter) broadly 
streaked with olive, except on abdomen, anal region, and under tail- 
coverts, the. streaks distinctly wedge-shaped or deltoid on chest, etc.; 
length (skins), 129.54-147.32 (139.70); wing, 76.71-82.55 (80.26); 
exposed culmen, 10.41-11.43 (10.93); depth of bill at base, 9.91-10.41 
(10.16); tarsus, 17.27-18.80 (17.78); middle toe, 13.21-14.99 (13.97).' 

Immature (?) male. — Exactly like adult female in coloration. 

Young. — Similar to adult female, but colors duller, markings less 
distinct, and wing-edgings more or less buflfy. 

^ Fifteen specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 129 

Eastern North America; ))reeding from Pennsylvania (especially in 
mountains), northern New Jersey, Connecticut, southern Ontario, 
northern Illinois (Ogle, Cook, and Lake counties, etc.), Minnesota, 
and North Dakota (Turtle Mountain), north to more eastern British 
Provinces, Hudson Bay (Moose Factory), Manitoba (Saskatchewan, 
Swan Lake House, etc.); in winter south to Gulf coast (Florida to 
eastern Texas.) 

[Fringilla'] jmrpureii, Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, pt. ii, 1788, 923 (Carolina; based on 
Pijrrhula caroUnensis violacea Brisson, Orn., iii, 324, no. 8; Purple Finch 
Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, i, pi. 41, etc.). — Lathaji, Index Orn., ii, 
1790, 446. 

Fringilla purpurea Wu.soN, Am. Orn., i, 1808, 119, pi. T, fig. 4; v, 1812, 87, pi. 
42, fig. 3. — BoN.vPAKTE, Ann. Lye. X. Y., ii, 1S2S, 114. — Audubon, Orn. 
Biog., i, 1831, 24, pi. 4; v, 1839, 500. — Swaixsox and Richardson, Fauna 
Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 264.— Nuttall, Man. Orn. U. S. and Can., i, 1832. 

Erytlironpiza purpurea Jakdine, ed. Wilson's Am. Orn., i, 1832, 119, pi. 7, fig. 4. — 
BoN.i-PAETE, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 34. — Audubon, Birds Am., oct. 
ed., iii, 1841, 170, pi. 196.— Baird, Am. Jom-n. Sci. and Arts, xlvi, 1844, 269. 

H.\_iemorhous'] pwyureus Swainson, Classif. Birds, ii, 1837, 295. 

Carpodacus purpureua Baird, Lit. Kec. and Journ. Linn. Assoc. Peun. Coll., i, 
Oct., 1845, 254; Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 412; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 
1859, no. 305. — Bonap,4.rte and Schlegel, Mon. Loxiens, 1850, 14, part, pi. 
15. — WooDHOusB, in Sitgreaves' Expl. Zuniand Col. R., 1853, 88, part (Indian 
Territory) .—Blakiston, Ibis, 1862, 6 (Forks of Saskatchewan); 1863, 70 
(Forks of Saskatchewan). — Turnbull, Birds E. Penn. and N. J., 1869, 21 (a 
few breeding) .—CouES, Check List, 1873, no. 139, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 194; 
Birds N. W., 1874, 106, part; Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 
577 (Turtle Mt., North Dakota, July). — Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 462, pi. 21, figs. 7, 8.— Merri.vm, Trans. Conn. Ac. Sci., 
iv, 1877, 34 (Connecticut, breeding) . — Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 
1878, 116 (descr. young) ; Auk, iii, 1886, 107 (mountains w. North Carolina, 
breeding?). — Maynard, Birds Florida and E. N. Am., pt. iv, 1878, 110 (excl. 
syn., part) .— Pearsall, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 122 (Bayside, Long 
Island, breeding). — Mearns, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 35 (lower Hudson 
Valley, winter resid.) . — Rathbun, Revised List Birds Centr. New York, 1879, 
17 (Mar. to Oct. ).— Brown (N. C. ), Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 7 (Coosada, 
Alabama, winter) .—Kumlien, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 15, 1879, .75 (off 
Resolution Island, 1 spec. Sept. 1) .— Ridgw-vy, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 
168. — Brooks, Ibis, 1884, 235 (Milton West, Ontario; crit. as to plumage of 
male; descr. nest and eggs) .— Bxcknell, Auk, i, 1884, 327 (song) .-Turner, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885,239 (Moose Factory; off Resolution I.).— 
American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 517. — Seton, Auk, 
iii, 1886, 322 (Red R. Valley and Swan Lake House, Manitoba, breeding) . — 
Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mu8.,xii, 1888,409, part (Washington, D. C.,New 
Jersey, New York, Illinois, Maryland, and Ohio).— Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. 
Val., 1888, 179 (Ogle Co., n. lUinois, breeding; Gainesville, Texas, in winter; 
dates of migr., etc.); Birds Colorado, 1897, 96 (Denver, 1 spec. Nov. 15, 
1885). — AVaeren, Birds Pennsylvania, 1890, 227 (breeding in Lycoming 
Co.). — Thompson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1891, 585 (Manitoba, summer 
resid.)— MclLwR.iiTH, Birds Ontario, 1892, 297 (breeding in S.Ontario).— 

lY02i— 01 9 



130 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Stone, Auk, xi, 1894, 182 (Pocono Mts., Pennsylvania, July). — Baily, Auk, 

xiii, 1896, 294 (Elk Co., Pennsylvania, breeding) .—Nehrling, Our Native 

Birds, etc., ii, l,s9(>,-29. 
C.[arpo(Jacus] pnrpureus Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1844, 384. — Oabanis, Mus. Hein., 

i, 18.51, 165.— Nelson, Bull. Essex Inst., viii, 1876, 105, 152 (n. e. Illinois, 

a few breeding).— Coues, Key N.Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 346, part.— 

RiDGW.n-, ]\Ian. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 381. 
\^Carpodaeus'\ piirpurem Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 533. — Gray, Hand-list, 

ii, 1870, 101, no. 7509.— Coues, Key X. Am. Birds, 1872, 128, part. 
\_Cii-rpO(1(tciix piurpjufens] var. ]itirj)iircii>i Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. 

Am. BivdH, i, 1874, 459. 

CARPODACUS PURPUREUS CALIFORNICUS (Baird). 
CALIFORNIA PURPLE FINCH. 

Similar to ('. p. ]_mrj>vrcH><, but wing shorter, with the ninth (outer- 
most) primary usually shorter than sixth, tail longer, and coloration 
different in both sexes. 

^ V(hilt ■male. — Similar to adult male of C.j^-pufpureus, but darker, the 
rump much darker wine purple, and the back more decidedly reddish, 
thus giving to the upper surface a more uniform aspect; length (skins), 
132.08-154.94 (141.73); wing, 1-6.96-81.28 (79.76); tail, 57.91-61.72 
(59.69); exposed culmen, 10.67-12.45 (11.68); depth of bill at base, 
8.89-10.16 (9.91); tarsus, 17.78-18.80 (18.29); middle toe, 12.95-15.24 
(13.97).^ 

AdiiUfeinal'. — Similar to adult female of C. p. purj>urem, but color 
of upper parts a^'eraging darker, more uniform, and decidedl_y more 
olivaceous or olive-greenish; length (skins), 129.54-14^1.59 (139.70); 
wing, 74.93-78.74 (77.22); tail, 53.34-59.18 (57.40); exposed culmen, 
10.41-12.45 (11.43); depth of bill at base, 9.40-10.41 (9.91); tarsus, 
17.27-18.2i> (17.78); middle toe, 12.70-14.99 (13.72).' 

Pacific coast district of North America, from southern California 
to British Columbia (including Vancouver Island), breeding in moun- 
tains; east to Cascade Mountains and Sierra Nevada; during migration 
southeastward (casually ?) to southeru Arizona (Santa Catalina Moun- 
tains, Nov. to Feb.). 

lii-jlthroKphu purpurea (not FriiigiUd ^JurpureaGyxLelui) Gajibel, Journ. Ac. Nat. 

Sci. Phila., 2d ser., i, 1847, 53 (Jlonterey, California, winter). 
(hrpodacus ])nrpiireu.i (not of Baird) Heermanx, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci., 2d eer., ii, 
1852, 267 (California); Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. iv, 1859, 50 (Calave- 
ras R., California). — Newberry, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., vi,pt. iv, 1857, 88 
(California; Oregon). — Brown, Ibis, 1868, 421 (Vancouver I.). — CouES, 
Check List, 1873, no. 139, part; 2d ed., ,1882, no. 194, part; Birds N. W., 
1874, 106, part.— Nelson, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xvii, 1875, 358 (Nevada, 
California, Oct.).— Hexshaw, Rep. Orn. vSpec. Wheeler's Surv., 1876, 238 
(Mount AVhitney, California, Oct.). — Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 
1888, 409, part (Brit. Columbia; California). 



' Seventeen specimens. ' Thirteen specimens. 



BIRDS OF NOETH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 131 

ICcn-podacus] 'pin-pumis Coues, Key N. Ajii. Birds, 1872, 128, part. 

C.[arpodacu8\ purpureus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 346, part. 

Cnrx)odacus calif ornicus Baihd, Eep. Pacific E. K. Surv., ix, 1858, 413 (FortTejon, 
southern California; U. S. Nat. I\Ius.); ed. 1860 ("Birds X. Am."), pi. 72, 
figs. 2, 3; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 306.— Xantus, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1859 (Fort Tejon).— Cooper and Suckley, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., 
xii, pt. ii, 1860, 196 (Fort Steilacoom, Straits of Fuca, etc., Washington).— 
Cooper, Orn. Cal., 1870, 154.— Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Xat. Mus., i, 1879, 
391 (Calaveras Co., California). 

Oirpodacvfi purpureus, var. californinif: Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. 
Am. Birds, i, 1874, 465.— Cooper ("W. A.), Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 8 
(habits; descr. nest and eggs). 

Carpodacus, var. californicus Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. X. Am. Birds, 
i, 1874, pi. 21, figs. 10, 11. 

Carpodacus purpureus, fi. californicus Ridgway, Proc. IT. 8. Xat. Mus., i. Mar. 21, 

1879, 413 (Big Trees, Calaveras Co., California, breeding; ilarysville, Stock- 
ton, etc. , in winter) . 

C-larpodacus'] purpureus californicus Henshaw, Orn. Rep. Wheeler's Surv., 1879, 

293 (Dalles, Oregon).— Ridgway, Man. X^. Am. Birds, 1887, 390. 
Carpodacus purpureus californicus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Xat. Mus., iii, Aug. 24, 

1880, 176; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 168a. — American Ornithologists' 
Union, Check List, 1886, no. 517<i.— xInthony, Auk, iii, 1886, 168 (Wash- 
ington Co., Oregon, breeding). — Evermanx, Auk, iii, 1886, 181 (Ventura 
Co., California, rare in winter). — Scott, Auk, iv, 1887, 196 (Santa Catalina 
Mts., Arizona, Nov. toFeb.).— Townsend, Proc. IT. S. Xat. Mus., x, 1887, 215 
(Baird and Mt. Lassen, n. California, June; Humboldt Co., Dec). — Moecom, 
Bull. Ridgw. Orn. Club, no. 2, 1887, 48 (Coahuila Valley, San Diego Co., Cali- 
fornia, winter resid. ). — Fannin, Check List Birds Brit. Col., 1891, 34 (chiefly 
"w. side of Cascades, including Vancouver I. ; breeding). — Lawrence (R. H.) , 
Auk, ix, 1892, 355 (Gray's Harbor, Washington). — Grinnbll, Pub. ii, Pasa- 
dena Acad. Sci., 1898, 34 (Mount Wilson, Los Angeles Co., California, June). 



CARPODACUS MEXICANUS MEXICANUS (Miiller). 
MEXICAN HOUSE FINCH. 

Adult male. — Forehead (broadlj'), iDroad supra-auricular stripe 
(extending from forehead to occiput), malar region, throat (sometimes 
upper part of chest also^), and rump bright red (varying from poppy 
red to crimson ^) ; rest of upper parts hair brown, obsoletelj' streaked 
with darker, the wings and tail dusky, with pale gi^ayish brown and 
brownish gray edgings; under parts (except throat, etc.) dull whitish, 
thickly streaked with hair brown, the breast sometimes tinged with 

' There is considerable variation in the extent of the red on the under parts. 
Usually it includes not only the entire throat, but also the upper part of the chest; 
frequently it is confined to the throat; occasional!}' even the breast is faintly tinged 
with red, but in such cases the intense red of the throat or upper chest is still sharply 
contrasted with the pale red or pink behind it; in fact, all the red areas are always 
sharply defined in this form. 

^ There is also much variation in the hue of the red, the color being more scarlet 
or crimson in summer, more purplish (sometimes almost pinkish wine color) in 
winter. Occasionally the color varies to orange or even yellow. 



132 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

pale red;' maxilla dark horn brownish, mandible paler; iris brown; 
legs and feet horn brownish; length (skins), 139.70-149.86 (144.53); 
wing, 79.25-83.82 (81.28); tail, 63.25-68.58 (65.53); exposed culmen, 
10.16-11.18 (10.67); depth of bill at base, 8.89-9.65 (9.14); tarsus, 
17.78-19.30 (18.64); middle toe, 13.97-16.24 (14.48).' 

Adult fonaJe. — Similar to the adult male, but without any red, that 
of the upper parts replaced by the general hair brown, that of throat, 
etc., by streaks of white and grayish brown, like rest of under parts; 
length (skins), 137.41-142.75 (141.22); wing, 74.17-78.99 (76.96); tail, 
56.90-63.60 (69.44); exposed culmen, 10.16-10.92 (10.67); depth of 
bill at base, 8.89-9.65 (9.40); tarsus, 17.02-19.05 (18.03); middle toe, 
12.95-14.48 (13.72).' 

Immature (J) male. — Exactly like adult female in coloration. 

Southeastern portion of Mexican plateau, in States of Tamaulipas 
(Miquihuana)?, Morelos (Tetela del Volcan), Hidalgo (Real del Monte; 
Pachuca), Vera Cruz (San Andres Gorion, Jalapa, Cordova, etc.), 
Puebla (Barrio de Santiago; Mount Orizaba; Chalchicomula), Mexico 
(City of Mexico; Tlalpam; Temascaltepec), and Tlaxcala. 

\_Fnngilla\ mexlcaiia Muller, Syst. ]Sfat. Suppl., 1776, 165 (based on Bruant, de 
.Vexique Buffon, PI. Enl., vi, pi 386, fig. 1). 

Emberiza mexicana Boddaeht, Tabl PI. Enl., 1783, 23 (based on Therese jaune 
Buffon, viii, p. 88; Brisson, Orn., iii, o.) 

\_Emberiza\ mexicana Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, pt. ii, 1788, 873. — Latham, Index 
Orn., i, 1790, 412. 

Carpodaeus mexicanus'Rii)GV,-AY, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., ii, Apr. 28, 1884, 111 (in 
text). — Febeaei-Peeez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 149 (Barrio de San- 
tiago, Puebla, Dec). — Salvix and Godjian, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 
422, part (Temascaltepec, Mexico; Real del Monte, Hidalgo; plateau of 
Vera Cruz; San Andres Gorion, Vera Cruz). — Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xii, 1888, 422 (Valley of Mexico; Puebla).— Stone, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1890, 215 (Chalchicomula, Puebla). — Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus., x, 
1898, 29 (Jalapa; crit.). 

C-larpudacus] frontalis memcanus Eidgway, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., ii, Apr. 28, 
1884, in text. 

Clarpodamsl mexicanus Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 391. 

Pyrrliula frontalis (not Fringilla frontalis Say) Swainson, Philos. Mag., newser., 
i, 1827, 435. 

Eryihrospiza frontalis 'BoiiAFA'RTE, Oss. Cuv. Regne Anim., 1830, 80; Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lond., 1837, 112 (City of Mexico). 

Carpodaeus frontalis Bonapaete and Schlegbl, Mon. Loxiens, 1850, 15, part, pi. 
16, fig. 2. 

l_Carpodaais'] frotitcdis Bonapaete, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 533, part. 

C [arpoc?acH.s] /routoKs Cabanis, Mus. Hein., i, 1851, 166 (Mexico). 

Carpodaeus mexicanus frontalis Cox, Auk, xii, 1895, 357 (Mount Orizaba). 

' In many winter specimens (perhaps younger males) the under parts are more or 
less tinged with buff, especially on sides and flanks, and the brown strfeaks are 
broader. In such specimens the red areas are of a soft pinkish wine purple hue, as 
described above. 

^ Eleven specimens. 

' Eight specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 133 

Fringilla haemorrhoa Lichtenstein, Preis-Verz. Mex. Vog., 1830, 2 (Mexico; Ber- 
lin Mus. See Cabanis, Joum. fiir Orn., 1863, 56).— Wagler, Isis, 1831,525. 

"PyrrhuKnota hsemorrhoa Bp. Comptea Rendus, 1856." (Sclatee.) 

Corpodacus hamorrhous Sclatee, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1856, 304 (San Andres 
Gorion, near Cordova, Vera Cruz); Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 122, part.— Baird, 
Rep. Pacific B. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 417, footnote (City of Mexico, etc.; crit.); 
Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 309.— Sdmicheast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
i, 1869, 550 (Orizaba, etc.. Vera Cruz).— Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.,iii, 
1880, 236.— Salvin, Cat. Strickland Coll., 1882, 205 (Mexico). 

ICarpodacus'] hiemorrhous Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 101, no. 7513.— Sclatbr 
and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 34. 

Carpodacus frontalis var. hiemorrhous Bidgway, Am. Joum. Sci., v, Jan., 1873, 
39.— Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 460, 
pi. 21, fig. 12. 

Carpodacus frontalis . . var. ?ia?norr-/iou« Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 141a, part. 

ICarpodaous frontalis.] c. hiemorrhous, Coubs, Birds N. W., 1874, 108 (synonymy). 

Pyrrhula crv.entata'L^asoN, Rev. Zool., 1839, 101 (Mexico; mus. Abeill^). 

CARPODACUS MEXICANUS ROSEIPECTUS (Sharpe). 
0AX4.CA HOirSE FINCH. 

Similar to C. in. mexicanus, but bill decidedly larger and coloration 
darker; adult male with the red of head, throat, and "rump varying 
from deep vinaceous wine purple to maroon purple. 

Adult 7?i«2^e.— Length (skins), 141.73-143.26 (142.49); wing, 79.76- 
81.53 (80.62); tail, 62.23-65.28 (63.75); exposed culmen, 11.68; depth 
of bill at base, 10.16; tarsus, 18.29; middle toe, 14.48.' 

Southern extremity of Mexican plateau, in the State of Oaxaca 
(Huajualpam). 

I am by no means certain that the bird here separated is the O. 
roseipecttis of Sharpe, since the two specimens examined lack entirely 
any tinge of red on the breast, the red ending abruptly on the extreme 
upper part of the chest. Since, however, C m. mexicanus may or may 
not have a tinge of light red on the bx'east, it is likely the present 
form varies in the same manner, and Sharpe's bird coming also from 
Oaxaca it is most likely the present bird is the same form as his. 
Whether the C. rosdpectus of Sharpe or not, however, this form may 
be distinguished from C m. mexicanits, to which it is most nearly 
allied, by its larger bill and decidedly darkey coloration, especially of 
the red areas in the adult male. 

(?) Carpodacus frontalis (not Fringilla frontalis Say) Bonaparte and Schlegel, 

Mon. des Loxiens, 1850, pi. 17, upper fig. 
[Carpodacus} frontalis Bonapaete, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 533, part. 
Carpodacus hamorrhous (not Fringilla haemorrhoa Lichtenstein) Sclater, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. Lond., 1858, 303 (Oaxaca); 1859, 380 (do.). 
Carpodacus mexicanus (not Fringilla mexicana Miiller) Salvin and Godman, 

Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 422, part (Oaxaca). 
Carpodacus roseipectus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 424 (Oaxaca, 

s. w. Mexico; Brit. Mus.). 

' Two specimens. 



134 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

CARPODACUS MEXICANUS RHODOCOLPUS (Cabanis). 
OUERITEVAOA HOffSE FINCH. 

Adult male. — Similar to the adult male of C. m. uiexicanus, but the 
red much more extended, with outlines oJ: the different areas less 
sharply defined; the occiput, hindneck, and back usually more or less 
tinged with red (whole pileum sometimes bright red) and the red of 
under parts extending posteriorly over the breast to the abdomen 
(sometimes covering the latter also, occasionalh^ tinging even the under 
tail-coverts);^ length (skins), 133.35-162.56 (145.80); wing, 78.74-83.82 
(80.52); tail, 55.88-64.77(61.21); exposed culmen, 10.16-11.43 (10.92); 
depth of bill at base, 9.40-10.67 (9.91); tarsus, 17.53-19.05 (18.03); 
middle toe, 12.70-14.48 (13.72).' 

Adult female. — Apparently not distinguishable from that of C. m. 
mexkanuHj length (skins), 136.40-152.40 (141.99); wing, 77.47-80.01 
(78.74); tail, 57.66-60.45(59.18); exposed culmen, 10.16-10.92 (10.67); 
depth of bill at base, 9.40-10.16 (9.91); tarsus, 16.76-17.78 (17.27); 
middle toe, 13.21-14.48 (13.97).' 

Southwestern portion of Mexican plateau, in States of Morelos, 
Jalisco (Zapotlan; Mascota; Bolafios; Talpa; Colotlan), Colima, Mich- 
oacan (Lake Patzcuaro), Guanajuato, and Durango (Ciudad Durango; 
Papasquiaro; Guanacevi; Inde). 

Friiigilla frontalis (not of Say) Audubon, Orn. Biog., v, 1839, 230, pi. 424 
(Mexico?*). 

Carpodacus frontalis Duges, La Naturaleza, i, 1868, 140 (Guanajuato; Guadala- 
jara). — Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., ii, 1874, 278, part (Guadalajara, 
Jalisco; Durango). 

Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis Stone, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, 218 (Lake 
Patzcuaro). 

Carpodacus frontalis Bonaparte and Scrlegel, ]\Ion. Lox., 1850, 15, part, pi. 16, 
fig. "1" (i. e., upper fig. ). 

[Carpodacus'] frontalis Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 533, part,(Cuernavaca, 
Morelos). 

' In the great extension of the red, which characterizes the adult male of this form 
as compared with that of C. Hi. mexicanus, C. ni. rhodocolpus agrees very closely with 
the other conspecifio forms of western Mexico, C m. sonoriensis and C. m. ruberrimus, 
many specimens of the three being practically identical in coloration. In size, how- 
ever, there is a very marked difference between C. m. rhodocolpus and the above- 
mentioned allies, the former being nearly if not quite as large as C. in. mexicanus, 
while the other two are decidedly the smallest members of the group. C. m. rhodo- 
colpus also averages darker, in both sexes, than either C. m. sonoriensis or C. m. 
ruberrimus. 

' Eleven specimens. 

' Three specimens. 

■* See Baird, Eep. Pacific R. R. Surv. , ix, 1858, p. 416. The specimen referred to, and 
doubtless the original of Audubon's colored plate and description, agrees very closely 
v/ith examples from Guanajuato and other parts of southwestern Mexico. 



BIRDS OF NOKTH AND MIDDLE AMEEIOA. 135 

Clarpodaeusl rhodocolpvs Cabaxis, Mus. liein., i, Aug., 1851, 166 ("Mexico," 

i. e., Cuernavaca, Morelos;' Berlin ]Mus. ). 
Carpodacvs mexicanus (not of Fringilla mc.ricana jMiiller) Salvin and Godman. 

Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 422, part (Guadalajara, Jalisco; Durango; 

Guanajuato). 



CARPODACUS MEXICANUS SONORIENSIS Ridgway. 
SONORAN HOTTSE FINCH, 

Similar to G. «?. r/wdocoljjus but decidedly smaller and coloration 
averaging paler, the back more grayish, and the streaks on under parts 
narrower. 

Adult male.— Length (skins), 129.54-142.24: (135.64:); wing, 73.66- 
76.71 (75.95); tail, 58.42-63.50 (60.96); exposed culmen, 9.91-11.43 
(10.16); depth of bill at base, 8.38-9.91 (9.40); tarsus, 15.75-17.78 
(17.02); middle toe, 12.70-14.22 (13.46).' 

Adult female.—Length (skins), 119.38-137.16 (132.33); wing, 68.58- 
75.69 (72.90); tail, 63.34-62.23 (57.91); exposed culmen, 9.6.5-11.43 
(10.41); depth of bill at base, 8.89-9.65 (9.40); tarsus, 16.51-18.03 
(17.27); middle toe, 12.95-13.97 (13.72).= 

^Although first named by Cabanis, the latter cites "Bonap. Consp.,p. 533, no. 9, 
jun." and " Bonap. Schleg. Mon. Lox., p. 15, tab. 16, fig. 1, jun." The name C. rhodo- 
colpus is cited by Bonaparte as a synonym of C. frontalis, but he fortunately gives the 
exact locality, which Cabanis fails to do. Bonaparte (loc. cit. ) states that the male 
example of C. rhodocolpus Cabanis is from Cuernavaca (Morelos) and Cabanis cites 
plate 16, fig. 1 of the Monographie des Loxiens. Reference to the figure in question 
shows, however, that so far as coloration is concerned it does not represent either 
C. m. mexicanus or the present form in their typical condition, having the greater 
extension of red on the under parts of the latter with the restriction of red on upper 
parts characterizing the former. Possibly the figure is wrongly colored as to the lat- 
ter respect. At any rate, Cabanis's description leaves no doubt as to which form is 
meant, his description being as follows: 

"It is scarcely smaller than the preceding species [C. inexicanas'] and resembles it 
very much. It differs from it by the shade oi red, which is not poppy red, but 
resembles the red of C. pjiirpureus very much. The demarcation of the red is less 
sharp, the crown, the back, and the entire breast being more or less suffused with 
red. A male of this species is in the Berlin Museum. It was referred to by Bona- 
parte and Schlegel in their 'Monographie des Loxiens,' but was considered by them 
to be a young male of C frontalis [i. e. C. mexicanus']." (Cabanis, Mus. Hein., i, p. 
166, footnote; translation.) 

The specimen described by Cabanis was evidently a bird in winter plumage, this 
form, like all the others, exhibiting a remarkable seasonal difference in the hue of 
the red. 

^Eleven specimens. 

'Seven specimens. 

Specimens from southwestern Chihuahua (Batopilas) agree in coloration with those 
from southern Sonora (Alamos and Batamotal) but apparently average smaller. 



136 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Southern Sonora (north to Guaymas on the coast) and southwestern 
Chihuahua (Batopilas, etc.). 

Carpodacus frontalis rlwdocolpus (not Carpodacm rhodocolpus Cabania) Belding, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vi, 1883, 343 (Guaymas, Sonora). 

Carpodacus frontalis {not Fringilla frontalis Bay) Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Am., Aves, i, 1886, 421, part (Guaymas). 



CARPODACUS MEXICANUS RUBERRIMUS Ridgway. 
SADfT LTJCAS HOUSE FINCH. 

Similar to C. m. sonoriensis, but wing and tail shorter and bill 
larger. 

Adult mafe.— Length (skins), 128.27-148.08 (135.13); wing, 72.14^ 
74.93 (73.91); tail, 66.39-62.99 (58.93); exposed culmen, 10.16-11.18 
(10.67); depth of bill at base, 9.65-9.91 (9.78); tarsus, 16.76-17.53 
(17.27); middle toe, 12.70-13.46 (12.95).^ 

Adndt female.— L&ngth (skins), 119.38-129.54 (124.46); wing, 68.58- 
76.20 (71.63); tail, 60.80-57.40 (64.61); exposed culmen, 10.16-10.92 
(10.41); depth of bill at base (one specimen), 12.45; tarsus, 17.02- 
17.78 (17.63); middle toe, 12.70-13.97 (13.21).' 

This is decidedly the smallest of the several geographic forms of 
Carpodacits mexicanus, only that found immediately across the Gulf 
of California ( O. in. sonoriensis) closely approaching it in measurements. 
From the latter this peninsular form differs, so far as I can see, only 
in its shorter wings and tail and slightly larger bill, the coloration 
being quite identical. In this latter respect both these allied forms 
are scarcely, if at all, different from C. m. rhodocolpus, of the south- 
western border of the Mexican plateau, but their decidedly smaller 
size will serve to readily distinguish them. 

Carpodacus frontalis (not Fringilla- frontalis Say) Baikd, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1859, 301, 304 (Cape St. Lucas; crit.) .—Cooper, Orn. Cal., 1870, 156, part(Cape 
St. Lucas). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 421, part 
(Lower California) . 



although the series is too small to show whether this is ac 
specimens examined average as follows: 


tually the case or not 


The 


Locality. 


Wing. 


Tall. 


Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 


Depth 
of bill 
at base. 


Tarsus. 


Middle 
toe. 


ADULT MALES. 

Eight adult malea Irom southern Sonora . 


76.20 
75.18 

73.41 
71.12 


61. 47 
59.44 

58.67 
65.88 


10.16 
10.41 

10.16 
11.18 


9.40 
9.40 

9.14 
9.40 


17.02 
17.53 

17.27 
17.02 


13 46 


Three adult males Irom southwestern Chihuahua . . 

ADULT FEMALES. 


13.46 
13 72 


Two adult females from southwestern Chihuahua.. 


13.97 



' Eight spet'imens. 



'^Four specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 137 

Clarpodacus] mexicanus frontalis Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 391, part 
(Lower California) . 

Carpodacus frontalis, var. rhodocolpus (not Carpodacus rhodocolpus Cabanis) 
Ridgway, Am. Journ. Sci., v, Jan., 1873, 39, part (Cape St. Lucas) .—Baird, 
Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 468, part (Lower 
California) . 

Carpodacus frontalis rhodocolpus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, Aug. 24, 1880, 
176, 216, part; v, 1883, 537 (La Paz, Lower California; crit.) ; Norn. N. Am. 
Birds, 1881, no. 170a, part.— Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 197, part— 
American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 519a, part. 

Clarpodaais} flrontalis'] rhodocolpus Coues, Key N.Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 
348, part. 

Carpodacus frontalis . . . var. hxmorrlwms (not Fr'mgilla haemorrhoa Llchten- 
stein) Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 141a, part. 

Carpodacus frontalis ruherrimus Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 391, footnote, 
in text (La Paz, Lower Cahfornia; XJ. S. Nat. Mus.) .—Bryant, Proc. Calif. Ac. 
Sci., 2d ser.,ii, 1889, 23 (Comondu, Lower California; descr. eggs) .—Town- 
send, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1890, 137 (Cape St. Lucas) . 

C. [arpodacus] mexicanus ruberrimus Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 594, in 
text. 

Carpodacus mexicanus ruberrimus Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 592; 2d ed., 
1896, 391, footnote, 613. — American Ornithologists' Union Committee, 
Suppl. Check List, 1889, 12; Check List, 2d ed., 1895, no. 5196. 

Carpodacus ruberrimus McGregor, Condor, iii, Jan., 1901, 13 in text (San Jos6 
del Cabo) . 



CARPODACUS MEXICANUS FRONTALIS (Sa^). 
HOUSE FINCH. 

Smaller than C. to. Tnexicaivus and C. m. rliodocolpus, but larger than C. 
m. sonoriensis and O. in. ruherrifmis ; in coloration, the adult male inter- 
mediate between the first named and the rest in extent of the red, this 
being less restricted and less sharply defined and less intense than in 
C. TO. mexicanus, the crown, occiput, and back often tinged with red, but 
rarely to the same extent as in G. to. rhodocolptis, C. in. sonoriensis, and 
C. in. ruher7'iinus; female rather grayer and more distinctly streaked 
above than that of C. to. mexicanus. 

Admit OTffi^f.— Length (skins), 121.92-165.19 (137.67); wing, 75.95- 
84.33 (78.49); tail, 54.36-66.04 (56.39); exposed culmen, 9.65-12.70 
(10.41); depth of bill at base, 8.89-10.16 (9.65); tarsus, 16.00-18.80 
(17.78); middle toe, 12.45-14.73 (13.46).^ 

AdAilt female.— \,%xigih (skins), 127.00-142.75 (135.13); wing, 70.61- 
77.72 (74.93); tail, 50.80-60.96 (56.90); exposed culmen, 9.91-11.18 

^ Eighty-one specimens. 



138 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

(10.41); depth of bill at base, 9.14-10.16 (9.65); tarsus, 16.51-18.03 
(17.53); middle to.e, 1:^.70-14.48 (13.21).' 

Western United States and Northern Mexico; north to southern 
Wyoming, southern Idaho, and Oregon; south to Tamaulipas, Nuevo 
Leon (Monterey), northern Chihuahua (Casas Grandes), northern 
Sonora, and northern Lower California (as far as Cerros Island); east 
to western border of the Great Plains (middle Texas to western Kansas 
and southeastern Wyoming). 

FringUla frontalis Say, Long's Exped. Rocky Mountains, ii, 1823, 40 (Arkansas 

Valley) .—Audubon, Orn. Biog., v, 1839, 230, part. 
Pyrrkula frontalis Boxaparte, Am. Orn., i, 1825, 49, pi. 6, figs. 1, 2, — Nuttall, 

ilan. U. S. and Canada, i, 1832, 534. 

' Twenty-six specimens. 

Average measurements of specimens from different localities are as follows: 



Locality. 



Wing. 



Tail. 



Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 



Depth 
of bill 
at base. 



Middle 
toe. 



MALES. 

Thirty-two adult males from California 

Twenty adult males from Arizona 

Nine adult males from Nevada and Utah 

Twenty adult males from Colorado, Kew Mexico, 
and western Texas 

FEMALES. 

Twelve adult females from California 

Six adult females from Arizona 

Two adult females from Utah 

Five adult females from New Mexico and western 
Texas 



78.23 
78.49 

78.74 



74.68 
76.20 
74.93 



58.93 
68.93 
69.94 



66.13 
56.90 
66.64 



10.41 
10.92 
10.16 



10.41 
10.16 
10.16 



9.14 
9.65 
9.65 

9.91 

9.66 
10.16 
9.65 



17.78 
17.78 
17.27 



17.53 
17.78 
17.78 



13.46 
13.46 
13.46 

13.72 



13.21 
13.21 
13.97 



With a very good series of specimens for comparison, embracing altogether about 
one hundred adult males and nearly forty adult females, I am unable to detect any' 
differences of coloration or proportions that, in my judgment, would warrant the 
further subdivision of the present form. Selecting from the series of adult males 
those which have the red most limited in extent, that on the upper surface being 
strictly confined to the forehead, supra-auricular stripes, and rump, the occiput and 
back being without any reddish tinge, it is found that they come from San Francisco, 
Fort Tejon, Santa Barbara, and Argus Mountains, California; Pinal County, Arizona; 
San Diego, Chihuahua; Salt Lake City, Utah, and Fort Garland, Colorado. Then 
separating those which have the red most extended , the back being strongly tinged 
with red and the occiput more or less red, it is found that they represent several 
localities in California, Fort Bowie and Tucson, Arizona, and Fort Clark and Fort 
Hancock, Texas. It is thus seen that variation in the extent of the red is not 
geographical. 

Specimens of the former group have the red areas occasionally as sharply defined 
as in C. in. mexkmms, but the red is much less intense and the general coloration 
decidedly lighter and grayer. Extreme specimens of the latter group, on the other 
hand, are very similar in coloration to C. m. rliodocolpus, except that the brown por- 
tions of the plumage are paler and grayer, taut they are considerably smaller. 



EIEDS OF NOETH AND MIDDLE AMEBIC A. 139 

Fringilla {Pyrrhula) f,viitall.i Gambel, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., i, 1843, 262. 

Erythroapiza frontalis BoxAP.iRTE, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1837, 112; Geog. and 
Comp. List, 1838, 3.5. — Jardine, ed. Wilson's Am. Orn., iii, 1832, 306, pi. 6, 
fig. 1. — AuDUBOx, Birds Am., oct. ed., iii. 1811, 17.5, part. — Gambel, Proc. Ac. 
Nat. Sci., i, 1843, 262 (New Mexico; California). 

C. larpodacus'] frontalis Gray, Gen. Bird.", ii, 1844, 384. — Goues, Key X. Am. Birds, 
2d ed., 1884, 347. 

Carpodacus frontalis Bonaparte and Schlegel, Mon.desLox., 1850, 15, part. — 
McCall, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1851, 219.— Newberry, Rep. Pacific B. R. 
Surv., vi, pt. iv, 1857, 88 (valleys of California). — Baihd, Rep. Pacific R. R. 
Surv., ix, 1858, 415; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 308; Rep. U. S. and Mcx. 
Bound. Surv., ii, pt. 2, 1859, 14 (Frontera, New Jlexico; Monterey, Nuevo 
Leon) . — Kexxekly, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. vi, 1859, 28 (New Mexico; 
Arizona). — Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 122 (California; n. Mexico). — 
CouEs, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 80-(Fort Whipple, Arizona, breeding; 
crit.); Check List, 1873, no. 141, 2d ed., 1882, no. 196.— Cooper, Orn. Cal., 
1870, 156, part.— Aiken, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1872, 199 (e. Colorado).— 
Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 465. — Henshaw, 
Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1873 (1874), 78 (Fort Garland, Colorado), 
109 (Apache, Arizona); Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 241 (habits, etc.); 
Rep. Wheeler's Surv., 1876, App. JJ, p. 238 (Santa Barbara, Walker's Basin, 
and Fort Tejon, s. California; habits). — Ridgway, Orn. 40th Parallel, 1877, 
458 (Sacramento, etc., California; localities in Nevada and Utah; habits, etc.); 
Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 170.— Drew, Auk, ii, 1885, 16 (Colorado, 5,000- 
8,000 ft.). — American Ornithologists' Uniox, Check List, 1886, no. 519. — 
TowNSEND, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., x, 1887, 215 (n. California).- Sharpe, Cat. 
Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 421 (chiefly).— Kellogg, Auk, xi, 1894, 260 (Fin- 
ney County, w. Kansas, Jan. ) . 

[Carpodacus'] frontalis Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 533, part. — Gray, Pland- 
List, ii, 1870, 101, no. 7508.— Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 129, part. 

Carpodacus frontalis var. frontalis Ridgway', Am. Journ. Sci., v, Jan., 1873,40. — 
Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 466, pi. 21, 
figs. 3, 6. 

[Carpodacus frontalis'] a. /rowta/is Coues, Birds N. W., 1874, 107 (synonymy). 

[Carpodacus frontalis'] a. frontalis Ridgway, Orn. 40th Parallel, 1877, 458. 

Carpodacus frontalis frontalis Goode, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 20, 1883, 311. 

Carpodacus mc.ricanus frontalis Bond, Auk, vi, Oct., 1889, 341 (Cheyenne, Wyo- 
ming, 1 spec. Apr. 14). — Anthony, Zoe, iv, 1893, 240 (San Pedro Martir Mts., 
Lower California); (?) Auk, xii, 1895, 140 (San Fernando, Lower Cali- 
fornia). — American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 2d ed., 1895, no. 
519. — Nehrling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 35, pi. 20, fig. 6. — Lantz, 
Trans. Kans. Ac. Sci. for 1896-97 (1899), 263 (Finney Co., w. Kansas, flock, 
Jan. 5). 

(?) Pyrrhula inornata Vigors, Zool. Voy. "Blossom," 1829, 20 (no locality; = 
female, or male without red?). — Baird, in Stansbury*s Rep. Gt.- Salt Lake, 
1852, 331. 

Carpodacus obscurus McCall, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., v, 1851, 220 (Santa Fe, 
New Mexico; Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.; female or male without red). — Baird, in 
Stansbury's Rep. Gt. Salt Lake, 1852, 331 (Santa Fe). 

Carpodacus mexicanus ohscurus Oberholser, Auk, xvi, Apr., 1899, 186, in text. — 
Merriam, North Am. Fauna, no. 16, 1899, 123' (Sisson and Shasta Valley, 
n. California). 



140 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Carpodacus familiaris McCall, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., vi, 1852, 61 (Santa 
Fe, New Mexico; coll. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. ).—Baied, in Stansbury'a 
Eep. Gt. Salt Lake, 1852, 331 (New Mexico) .—Heeemann, Journ. Ac. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 2d ser., ii, 1852, 267 (California); "Rep. Pacific R. E. Surv., x, 
pt. i, 1859, 50 (California; New Mexico). — Woodhousb, in Sitgreaves' Expl. 
Zufii and Col. R., 1853, 88 (Santa Fe; California). — Cassin, lUustr. Birds 
Cal., Tex., etc., 1854, 73, pi. 13. 

Carpodacus rhodocolpus (not of Cabanis) Solater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1856, 
304 (crit.) ; 1857, 127 (San Jos6, California) .— Ridgway, Proc. TJ. S. Nat. Mua., 
i, 1879, 391 (Calaveras County, California). 

Carpodacus frontalis var. rhodocolpus Ridgway, Am. Journ. Sci., v, Jan., 1873, 39, 
part (California). — Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 
1874, 468, part, pi. 21, fig. 9 (California).— Cooper, Am. Nat., 1876, 91, in 
text. 

^Carpodacus frontalis} b. rhodocolpus Coues, Birds N. W., 1874, 108, part (in syn- 
onymy). 

Carpodacus frontalis, y. rhodocolpus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, Mar. 21, 
1879, 413 (centr. California). 

Carpodacus frontalis rhodocolpus Ridgway, Proc. TJ. S. Nat. Mus., iii, Aug. 24, 1880, 
176, 216, part; Norn. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 170a, part.— CouES, Check List, 
2d ed., 1882, no. 197, part.— Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.,v, 1883, 531 (Cerros 
I., Lower California). — American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, 
no. 519a, part. — Evermann, Auk, iii, 1886, 181 (Ventura Co., California). — 
Emerson, Bull. Cal. Ac. Sci., no. 7, 1887, 422, 428 (Volcano Mountains and 
Poway, San Diego Co., California). 

C-larpodacus] f.[rontalis'] rhodocolpus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 
348, part. 

Carpodacus californicus (not of Baird) Coues, Ibis, 1865, 164, in text (Foit Whip- 
ple, Arizona). 

Carpodacus purpureus var. californicvs Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, ii, 1877, 
37 (descr. nest and «ggs) . 

Carpodacus niexicanui (not Fringilla mexicana Miiller) Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr. -Am., Aves, i, 1886, 422, part (Frontera, New Mexico; Monterey, 
Nuevo Leon). 



CARPODACUS MEXICANUS CLEMENTIS Mearns. 
SAN c'lEUENTE HOUSE FINCH. 

Similar to C m. frontalis, but wing and tail averaging shorter, the 
bill decidedly and feet slightly larger; coloration somewhat darker. 

Adult rna^e.— Length (skins), 132.08-148.34 (140.72); wing, 74.17- 
80.52 (77.22); tail, 53.59-61.47 (58.17); exposed culmen, 10.16-12.70 
(11.18); depth of bill at base, 9.65-10.92 (10.16); tarsus, 17.02-19.30 
(18.03); middle toe, 13.21-14.48 (13.97).' 

Adult fm,ale.—LQngi\i (skins), 135.13-143.76 (139.95); wing, 74.17- 
76.20 (75.44); tail, 53.34-58.42 (55.63); exposed culmen, 10.41-11.68 

'Twenty-one specimens. 



BIRDS OF NOETH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 



141 



(10.92); depth of bill at base, !». 65-10. 16 (9.91); tarsus, 16.76-19.05 
(18.29); middle toe, 13.21-13.72 (18.46).' 

Santa Barbara Islands, California; Todos Santos Island, Lower 
California. 

Carpodacus frontalis (not FrimjlUa frontalis Say) Townsend, Proc. U. R. Nat. ilus., 

xiii, 1890, 139, 140 (Santa Barbara, San Clemen te, and Santa Rosa islands, 

California). 
CariMdacus mexicanus frontalis Gmm^Ei.^ Auk, xv, 1898, 235 (Santa Catalina I., 

California); Pub. no. 1, Pasadena Ac. Sci., 1897, 6 (Santa Barbara I.), 10 

(San Nicolas I.), 16 (San Clemente I.; crit.). 
Carpodacus dementis jMeaens, Auk, xv, July, 1898, 2,58 (San Clemente I., Santa 

Barbara group, California; TJ. S. Nat. Mns.). 
Carpodacus mexicanus dementis American Ornithologists' Union Committee, 

Auk, xvi, Jan., 1899, 114 (no. 519c). 



CARPODACUS McGREGORI Anthony. 
SAN BENITO HOUSE FINCH. 

Similar to C m. frontalis^ but much larger (the bill especially), 
with relatively shorter wing and tail; upper parts much grayer and 
more distinctly streaked with dusky; adult male with the red (con- 
fined to forehead, supra-auricular stripe, malar region, chin, throat, 
chest, and rump) paler, more flesh-colored, or often dull yellow. Much 
more nearly related to C. ampins, but rather smaller, with bill distinctly 
compressed basally, upper parts grayer, and flanks, etc. , with dusky 
streaks darker and more .sharply defined. 

Adultmale. — Length (skin), one specimen, 146.05; wing, 81.79-82.55 
(82.04); tail, 63.50-64.77(64.26); exposed culmen, 11.94-12.95(12.45), 
depth of bill at base, 11.43-12.70 (11.94); width of mandible at base, 
8.89-9.91 (9.40); tarsus, 17.78-19.05 (18.54); middle toe, 14.73-14.99 
(14.86).' 

^ Four specimens. 

Specimens from the different islands vary somewhat among themselves, but with 
the exception of San Clemente, Santa Catalina, and Santa Rosa, there are not a suffi- 
cient number to indicate whether the local variations are reasonably constant. 

Average measurement of specimens from the different islands are as follows: 



Locality. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 


Depth 
of bill 
at base. 


Tarsus. 


Middle 
toe. 


MALES. 

Eight adult males from San Clemente Island 

Six adult males from Santa Catalina Island 

Four adult males from Santa Rosa Island 


77.47 
77.22 
77.72 
75.69 
79.25 
79.60 

78.23 


58.42 
56.90 
59.44 
56.13 
61.47 
58.67 

60.20 


11.43 
10.92 
10.67 
1L18 
11.43 
11.18 

10. 92 


10.41 
10.16 
10.16 


18.29 
18.03 

17.78 


13.97 
13.72 
13 46 






One adult male from Santa, Barbara Island; 


9.65 
10.41 

9.65 


19.05 
18.80 

18.03 


14 ''2 






Four adult males from Todos Santos Island, Lower 


14 22 







' Four specimens. 



142 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Adult f,'i,>ah'.— Wing, TS.T4; tail, 59.44-60.i5 (59.94); exposed cul- 
men, 12.70; depthof bill at base, 11.43-12.45 (11.94); width of mandible 
at base, 9.40; tarsus, 19.05; middle toe, 13.97-14.73 (14.48).^ 

San Benito Island, Lower California. 

This local insular form is much more nearly related to V. ampltis, of 
Guadalupe Island, than to C. met'lcanns eleiiicntis or anj' of the con- 
tinental races of C. ■ine.r/'cam/g, but may at once be distinguished by 
the different form of the bill, which, viewed from above, shows the 
edges of the maxilla to be nearly or quite parallel for the basal half 
(approximatelj^), then almost abruptly contracted to the tip, and also 
loj the grayer coloration of the upper parts and paler hue of the red 
or yellow in adult males. The latter apparently never assume the 
bright red color often seen in adult males of C. amj>Iiis. 

Ciirpudacns mcgregor! AiiTB.ot!!Y, Auk, xiv, Apr., 1897, 165 (San Benito I., Lower 
California; coll. A. W. Anthony); xv, 1898, 265 (descr. young). — American 
Oksithologists' Union Committee, Auk, xvi, 1899, 114 (no. 520.1). 

CARPODACUS AMPLUS Ridgway. 
GTIADAITrPE HOUSE FINCH. 

Similar to C. mexicai-iva hic.ricaiuis, but much larger, the bill espe- 
ciallj-; coloration darker and browner above, more broadly streaked 
with dusky beneath; the adult male with red (or yellow) of throat, etc., 
extended over breast. 

A/Iult male.— Length (skins), 142.24-158.75 (151.89); wing, 80.01- 
84.33 (81.79); tail, 62.74-66.04 (63.75); exposed culmen, 12.19-13.97 
(12.95); depth of bill at base, 12.70-13.97 (13.21); width of mandible 
at base, 9.91-12.19 (10.67); tarsus, 20.07-21.59 (20.57); middle toe, 
14.99-16.26 (16.00).= 

A<hdf female.— Length (skins), 147.32-158.75 (152.91); wing, 74.17- 
81.28 (78.49); tail, 59.44-63.50 (61.47); exposed culmen, 13.21-14.22 
(13.46); depth of bill at base, 12.95-13.72 (13.21); width of mandible at 
base, 10.16-10.92 (10.41); tarsus, 18.80-20.83 (20.32); middle toe, 
14.99-17.53 (15.75).=' 

Guadalupe Island, Lower California. 

Occasionally, as in C. nn'.ricanus and its several subspecies, the usual 
red of the adult male is replaced by dull yellow (saffron or gallstone). 
The normal red is rather duller than that of C. inexiccnnis vici'ieaiuifi, 
but is equally restricted and sharply defined, except that of the under 
surface, which extends over the chest. 

CarpodacuK amplus Ridgway, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., ii, no. 2, 
April 1,1876, 1S7 (Guadalupe Island, Lower California; U.S. Nat. Mus.); 
Bull. Xutt. Orn. Club, ii, 1877, 60, 61; Norn. X. Am. Bird^-, 1881, no. 171.— 
Ajieeioan Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 520. — Bbyant, 

' Two specimens. ^ Thirteen specimens. ' Five specimens. 



BIEDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 143 

Bull. Cal. Ac. Sci., no. 6, 1887, 293 (habits; descr. nest and eggs).— Sh.vepe, 
Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 424.— Townsend, Proe. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 
1890, 138. 
C-larpodacus'] am2^Ius Eidgway, ]Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 391. 

Genus PASSER Brisson. 

Passer Beissox, Orn., ii, 1760, 71. (Type, Fringilla domestica Linnseus. ) 
Pyrgiia CtiviER, Regne Animal, i, 1817, 385. (Type, Fringilla domestica Linnreus. ) 
Salicipasser Bogd.\now, Orn. Caucas. , 1879, 60. (Type, Fringilla montanahmnseus. ) 

Rather small, essentially arboreal finches, with gonys more or less 
convex, the wing not more than four times as long as tarsus, the 
plumage without red or yellow and without streaks on under parts. 

Bill rather shorter than head, rather stout, deeper than broad at 
base, its length from nostril to tip of maxilla about equal to or a little 
shorter than inner toe (without claw); gonj's about equal to or a little 
longer than hallux, faintly convex; tomia distinctlj'^ inflexed. Nasal 
plumules rather small, barelj' covering the nostriis. "Wing about four 
times as long as tarsus, pointed (ninth, eighth, and seventh primaries 
longest and nearly equal) ; primaries exceeding secondaries hy about 
the length of the tarsus. Tail about three-fourths as long as wing, or 
a little more, about half hidden b}^ the upper coverts, the rectrices not 
pointed at tips. Tarsus short (shorter than middle toe with claw), 
rather stout; lateral claws reaching nearly or quite to base of middle 
claw; hallux about equal to the inner toe, its claw shorter than the 
digit. 

Colors. — Back conspicuoush' streaked with black on a brownish 
or rufescent ground; wings with one or two white bars; adult male 
at least (both sexes in some species) with throat black; no streaks on 
under parts. 

KEY TO THE AMEEIC-\X (iNTEODUCEd) SPECIES OF PASSEK. 

o. Larger (wing more than 71.12, averaging 75.69) ; pileum grayisli, postocu^ar region 
chestnut in adult male; sexes very different in coloration. 

Passer domesticus (p. 143. ) 
aa. Smaller (wing less than 71.12, averaging 69.34); pileum and postocular region 
vinaceous-brown; sexes alike, and young not very different from adults. 

Passer montauus (p. 145. ) 

PASSER DOMESTICUS (Linnaeus). 
HOUSE SPAREOW. 

Adult male.— Yilenm deep gray or olive-gray, bordered laterally by 
a broad postocular patch of chestnut extending to sides of neck; lores, 
chin, throat, and chest black; a small white spot above posterior angle 
of the eye; back and scapulars rusty brown streaked with black; lesser 
wino--coverts chestnut; middle coverts blackish, tipped with white, 



144 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

forming a conspicuous bar: rest of wings dusky, with light brown and 
rusty brown edgings; rump olive or olive-grayish; tail dusky, edged 
with light olive or olive-grayish; malar region and sides of throat 
white; under parts of body dull grayish white, more grayish laterally; 
bill black (the mandible more or less light colored in winter) ; legs and 
feet brownish; length (skins), 139.45-157.99 (146.30); wing, 71.63- 
78.99 (75.95); tail, 52.83-58.17 (54.61); exposed culmen, 12.19-13.46 
(12.70); depth of bill at base, 9.40-9.91 (9.65); tarsus, 18.29-20.32 
(19.30); middle toe, 13.21-16.00 (14.99).^ 

Adult female. — Pileum (including postocular region) and hindneck 
grayish brown or olive; lores, chin, throat, and chest dull brownish 
white or pale brownish gray, like rest of under parts; otherwise like 
the adult male, but back browner, less rufescent; length (skins), 
134.11-153.92 (144.27); wing, 74.42-76.45 (75.44); tail, 52.07-55.88 
(54.10); exposed culmen, 9.65; tarsus, 18.03-20.07 (19.30); middle toe, 
13.72-15.75 (14.99).' 

Young male. — Similar to adult female, but throat more or less dusky 
grayish. 

Young female. — Similar to young male, but throat white. 

Europe in general, except Italy; introduced into the United States, 
where thoroughly and ineradicably naturalized in all settled districts, 
except southern Florida and a few other extreme outposts; also intro- 
duced into Bahamas (island of New Providence), Cuba, Nova Scotia, 
Bermudas, and southern Greenland. 

\_Fnngilla\ domestica XiYS'smvs, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, i, 1758, 183 (Europe; based on 
Passer domesticus Gesner, Av.,643, etc.) ; ed. 12, i, 1766, 323. — Gjielin, Syst. 
Nat., i, 1788, 925.— Lathajf, Index Om., i, 1790, 432. 

Fringilla domestica Temminck, Man. d'Orn., i, 1820, 350. — Naumann, Yog. 
Deutschl., iv, 1826, 453, pi. 115.— Wernee, Atlas, Granivores, 1827, pi. 39.— 
Yabeell, Hist. Brit. Birds, i, 1843, 474. — Kjjeebolling, Danm. Fugle, 1852, 
pi. 26, fig. 4. — SuJSDEVALL, Svensk. Fogl., 1856, pi. 6, figs. 1, 2. — Schlegel, 
Dier. Nederl. Yog., i, 1860, 120, pi. 16, figs. 1, 2. 

Passer domesticus Koch, Syst. bayer. Zool., 1816, 219. — Pallas, Zoogr. Kosso- 
Asiat., ii, 1826, 29.— Macgillivkay. Hist. Brit. Birds, i, 1837, 340.— Keysek- 
LiNG and Blasius, Wirb. Eur., 1840, p. xl. — Schlegel, Rev. Grit., 1844, p. 
Ixiv; Yog. Nederl., 1854, pi. 161.— Geay, List Brit. Birds, 1863, 100.— Deq- 
land and Geebe, Orn. Eur., i, 1867, 241. — Gould, Birds Gt. Brit., iii, 
1870, pi. 32.— Feitsch, Yog. Eur., 1870, pi. 20, fig. 16.— Hartinq, Handb. 
Brit. Birds, 1872, 28.— Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 167 (Ogden, 
Utah); Am. Nat., vi, 1872, 287 (Salt Lake Valley, Utah) .— Cohes, Check 
List., 1873, no. 187; 2d ed., 1882, no. 192; Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. 
Surv. Terr., v., 1879, 175-193 (status in America; bibliography). — Dees- 
see, Birds Europe, iii, 1876, 587, pi. 176, fig. 1.— Newton, ed. Yarrell's 
Hist. Brit. Birds, ii, 1876, 89.— Beace, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xix, 1877, 240 
(New Providence, Bahamas). — Cory, Birds Bahama I., 1880, 88; Auk, iii, 
1886, 211; Birds W. I., 1889, 98; Cat. W, I. Birds, 1892, 112 (New Provi- 
dence, Bahamas; Cuba); Auk, viii, 1891, 395 (Nassau, New Providence 

' Seven specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 145 

I.).— EiDGWAY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 238; Man. N. Am. Birds, 

1887, 593.— Bkitish Ornithologists' Union, List Brit. Birds, 1883, 51.— 
Seebohm, Hist. Brit. Birds, ii, 1884, 63.— Meeeiam, Auk, i, 1884, 295 (near 
Point de Monts, prov. Qviebec, 3Iay 27); North Am. Fauna, no. 5, 1891, 
102 (Pocatello, Idaho) .—Baetlett, Mon. Ploceid. and Fringillirl., pt. ii, 

1888, pi. 3.— Shaepe, Oat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 307, part (excl. syn. 
Passer milieus, etc.) .— Oooke, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 184 (localities, 
etc.); Birds Oolorado, 1897, 99 (resident); Bull. Ool. Agric. Coll., no. 44, 
1898, 165 (e. base of foothills for 200 miles) .— Hageeup, Auk, vi, 1889, 297 
(s. Greenland; introduced) .-Coues (W. P.), Auk, vii, 1890, 212 (Cape 
Breton, Nova Scotia) .—^NIoetimee, Auk, vii, 1890, 342 (Orange Co., Florida, 
1 spec. March, 1887) .— Caulfield, Canad. Rec. Sci., 1890, 149 (Montreal, 
resident) .—Nehhling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 66.— Prentiss', Auk, 
xiii, 1896, 239 (Bermudas) .-Pearson, Auk, xiv, 1897, 99 (Archer, Florida, 
1 spec. July, 1896). 

P-lasser'] domesticus Geay, Gen. Birds, ii, 1849, 372.— Cabanis, ilus. Hein., i, 
1851, 155.— CouBS, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 344.— Eidgivay, Man. N. 
Am. Birds, 1887, 401. 

[Passer} domesticus Bonapaete, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 509. 

[Passer] domesticus Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 85, no. 7257.— Coues, Key N. Am. 
Birds, 1872, 146.— Coey, List Birds W. I., 1885, 13 (Cuba; "Antilles"). 

Pyrgita domestica Gvvi-e:r, Eegne Anim., i, 1817, 385.— Beehm, Yog. Deutschl., 
1831, 264.— Gould, Birds Europe, iii, 1837, pi. 184.— Bonapaete, Geog. and 
Comp. List, 1838, 31.— Baied, Brewer, and Eidgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 
1874, 525, pi. 23, fig. 12. 

Pyrgifa pagoruvi Ti-REHii, Vog. Deutschl., 1831, 265. 

PyrgitarusticaBB.BHM, Vog. Deutschl., 1831, 266. 



PASSER MONTANUS (Linnaeus). 
ETTROPEAN TREE SPARROW. 

Adults {sexes alihe). — Pileum and hindneck uniform vinaceous-brown 
or light chocolate; lesser wing-coverts chocolate-brown; rest of upper 
parts light grayish brown, the back streaked with black; middle and 
greater wing-coverts tipped with white, forming two narrow bands; 
lores, orbits, anterior part of malar region, chin, and median portion 
of throat black; rest of under parts dull white, becoming olive-bnffy 
or buffy grayish on sides and flanks, the chest also more or less shaded 
with pale buffy grayish; cheeks and sides of neck white, inclosing a 
black spot on auricular region; bill mostly dusky; legs and feet light 
brownish; length (skins), 134. 11-138. i3 (136.40); wing, 68. 58-70. 8T 
'(69.34); tail, 60.80-52.58 (51.66); exposed culmen, 10.92; tarsus, 17.2T- 
17.78 (17.53); middle toe, 12.70-12.95 (12.82). ^ 

Young. — Similar to adults, but color of pileum, etc., lighter, more 
brown, and black markings of throat, etc., replaced hj less sharply 
defined areas of dusky grayish. 

Europe in general, and eastward through Asia to China and Japan; 

1 Three specimens. 
17024^01 10 



146- BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

introduced into eastern United States and naturalized in vicinity of 
St. Louis, Missouri. 

[Fringilla'] monimia LiNNiEUS, Syst. Kat., ed. 10, i, 1758, 183 (Europe; based on 
Paxser montanus Aldrovandus, Orn., pi. 15, fig. 15, etc.); ed. 12, i, 1766, 
324.— Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, 1788, 925.— Latham, Index Orn., i, 1790, 433.— 

Fringilla montanaTEHMiKCK, Man. d'Orn., i, 1820, 354.— Xaumann, Vog. Deutschl., 
iv, 1826, 480, pi. 116, figs. 1, 2.— "Werner, Atlas, Granivores, 1827, pi. 42.— 
Yahrell, Hist. Brit. Birds, i, 1843, 469.— KjiEKBOLLiNG, Danm. Fugle, 1852, 
pi. 26, fig. 5.— SuNDEVALL, Svensk. Fogl., 1856, pi. 5, fig. 7.— Schlegbl, 
Dier. Nederl., Vog., i, 1860, 120, pi. 16, fig. 3. 

Passer montanus Koch, Syst. bayer. ZooL, 1816, 219.— Macgillivray, Hist. Brit. 
Birds, i, 1837, 351. — Keyserling and Blasius, Wirb. Eur., 1840, p. xxxix. — 
ScHLEGEL, Rev. Crit., 1844, p. Ixiv; Yog. Nederl., 1854, pi. 162.— Gray, List 
Brit. Birds, 1863, 100,— Deglaxd and Gerbe, Orn. Eur., i, 1867, 246.— Gould, 
Birds Gt. Brit., iii, 1870, pi. 33.— Fkitsch, Yog. Eur., 1870, pi. 20, fig. 13.— 
Habting, Handb. Brit. Birds, 1872, 28.— Dresser, Birds Europe, iii, 1875, 
597, pi. 178.— Newton, ed. Yarrell's Hist. Brit. Birds, i, 1876, 82.— David 
and OrsTALET, Ois. Chine, 1877, 340.— Eidgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 
1880, 238 (St. Louis, Misaouri) ; Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 593.— Blakiston 
and Fryer, Birds Japan, 1882, 178.— Dates, Birds Brit. Burma, i, 1883, 348.— 
CouEs, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 193. — British Ornithologists' Union, 
List Brit. Birds, 1883, 51.— Seebohm, Hist. Brit. Birds, ii, 1884, 69; Birds 
Jap. Emp., 1890, 130.— Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Load., 1887, 606 
(Corea) ; 1888, 466 (do.) .— Salvadori, Elench. Ucc. Ital., 1887, 169.— Sharps, 
Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 301.— Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 184 
(St. Louis, Missouri). — Neheling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 73. 

IPasser} montana Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 508. 

\_Passer] montanus Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 86, no. 7258. 

P. \_as8er] montatius Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1849, 372. — Cabanis, Mus. Hein., i, 1851, 
156 (Germany; Manila).— Eidgw ay, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 402. 

Pyrgita montana Cuvier, Eegne Anim., i, 1817, 385. — Gould, Birds Europe, iii, 
1837, pi. 184.— Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 31.— Allen, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 121 (St. Louis, Missouri) .—Widmann, Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Club, v, 1880, 191 (St. Louis, Missouri; habits). 

Salicipasser montatnis 'BoQTiA'SOw, Orn. Caucas., 1879, 60. 

T.lPasser} montanus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 345. 

[Loxial hamburgia Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, 1788, 554 (Hamburg, Germany; based 
on Pyrrhula hamburgensis Brisson, Orn. , iii, 314) . 

Passer hamburgensis Leach, Syst. Cat. Mamm. and Birds Brit. Mus., 1816, 14. 

Fringilla campestris Schrank, Fauna Boica, 1798, 181. — Nordmann, in D6mid 
Yoy. Buss. Merid., iii, 1840, 180., 

Passer moratanina Pallas, Zoogr. Kosso-Asiat., ii, 1826, 30. 

Pyrgita septentrionalis IBreh-m., Yog. Deutsohl. , 1831, 268. 

Passer arboreus Blyth, in Eennie's Field Naturalist, i, 1833, 467. 

Genus PASSERINA Vieillot. 

Passerina Yieillot, Analyse, 1S16, 30. (Type, by elimination, Emberiza nivalis 
Linnfeus.) (See Eidgway, Auk, xv, no. 4, Oct., 1898, 324.) 

Pkclrophanes (notof Meyer, 1815) Kaup, Entw. Eur. Thierw., 1829, 138. (Type, 
Emberiza ^liaiUs Linnseus. ) 

Pleetropheiia.i' Stejnegbr, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, June 5, 1882, 33. (Type, 
Emberiza niralis Linnieus. ) 

1 "TtXf/KTpov = spur; (peva^ = impostor." 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 147 

Long-winged, small-billed terrestrial finches, with the maxilla much 
narrower, vertically, than- the mandible, the gonj'sverj' short (little if 
anj' more than half the lateral length of the mandible), the hind claw 
long and stronglj^ curved, and the plumage largely (sometimes chiefly) 
white. 

Bill peculiar in shape, the maxilla being much shallower than the 
mandible and the gonys very short (little if any more than half the lateral 
length of the mandible) ; maxillary tomium slightly concave anteriorly, 
then almost imperceptibly convex, with an abrupt basal deflection 
beginning directly beneath the nostril. Nostrils quite concealed bj^ a 
distinct appressed tuft of antrorse latero-frontal plumules. "Wing 
long (nearly five times as long as tarsus) and pointed (ninth, eighth, 
and seventh, usuallj' the ninth, primary longest); primaries exceeding 
secondaries bj- twice the length of the tarsus; tertials not elongated. 
Tail about three-fifths as long as wing, about two-thirds hidden bj' 
the coverts, emarginated, the middle pair of rectrices pointed at tip. 
Tarsus slightly longer than middle toe with claw, its scutella indistinct 
or obsolete on outer side; lateral claws scarcely reaching base of middle 
claw; hind claw about as long as its digit, slender, arched. 

Coloration. — Prevailing color white, the inner webs of rectrices 
(except sometimes of two middle pairs) entirely so. Adult males in 
simimer with head, neck, entire lower parts, lower back, rump, second- 
aries (except, sometimes, tei'tials), and greater part of wing-coverts 
entirely pure white; back and scapulars black or white; bill entirely 
deep black. [In winter, the upper parts, sides of head, and chest 
washed with rusty; bill j^ellow, the extreme tip dusky.) Adult females 
smaller than males, the upper parts entirely streaked, the wings with 
much less white, etc. Young: Pileum, hindneck, back and rump dull 
grayish, indistinctly streaked with darker; lower parts dull whitish, 
more or less tinged anteriorly with grayish (sometimes uniformly 
grayish on throat, chest, etc.). 

Bcmge. — Arctic and subarctic districts of northern hemisphere (south- 
ward in winter). 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OP PASSERINA. 

a. .nner webs of primaries witli much less than basal half white; adults with back 
and scapulars black or at least with central portion of feathers extensively black. 
h. Smaller, with relatively shorter bill (adult male averaging, wing 110:49, tail 66.04, 
exposed culmen 10.41, depth of bill at base 6.10, tarsus 21.84, middle toe 
14.22; adult female averaging, wing 102.11, tail 63.50, exposed culmen 10.16, 
depth of bill at base 6.10, tarsus 21.34, middle toe 14.22). (Circumpolar, 
but not on islands of Bering Sea or Aleutian chain.) 

Passerina nivalis nivalis (p. 148) 

hb. Larger, with relatively longer bill (adult male averaging, wing 113.03, tail 70.87, 

exposed culmen 12.70, depth of bill at base 6.60, tarsus 23.11, middle toe 

14.99; female adult averaging, wing 106.68, tail 65.02, exposed culmen 12,19, 

depth of bill at base 6.60, tarsus 22.61, middle toe 14.73). (Pribilof, 



148 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Aleutian, and Shumagin islands, Alaska; Commander Islands, Kamchatka; 

Siberian coast of Bering Sea.) Passerina nivalis townsendi (p. 152) 

aa. Inner webs of primaries with at least the basal half white; adults with back and 
scapulars white (streaked with black in female). (Breeding on Hall and St. 
Matthew islands, Bering Sea; coast of Alaska in winter. ) 

Passerina hyperborea (p. 153) 



PASSERINA NIVALIS NIVALIS (Linnaeus). 
SNOW BTJNTING; SNOWFIAKE. 

Adult male In sumiaer. — General color pure white; back, scapulars, 
alula, innermost secondaries and greater wing-coverts, greater part of 
primaries, and four to six middle tail feathers (sometimes rump also) 
black; bill black; legs and feet black, or the former sometimes dark 
brown. 

Adult male In ininter. — Similar to the summer plumage, but the 
white parts (except under parts of body) stained with rusty brown, 
especially on pileum (where sometimes rich dark brown) and hind- 
neck, and the black of the back, scapulars, etc., broken (sometimes 
almost Concealed) by broad margins of rusty and butfy whitish; bill 
yellow. 

Adult female In sumuier. — Pileum dusky, .the feathers margined 
with dull whitish or pale grayish buffy; hindneck dull whitish or pale 
dull buffy, streaked with dusky; back and scapulars (sometimes rump 
also) dull black or duskj^, the feathers more or less distinctly mar- 
gined with dull whitish (their edgings quite worn off in midsummer 
plumage); lesser and greater wing-coverts blackish, margined and 
edged with whitish; greater part of secondaries, three outermost rec- 
trices, and under parts (sometimes rump also) white; bill dusky. 

Adult female in winter. — Similar to summer female, but upper parts 
more or less stained with rusty brown, especially on crown, auricular 
region, and sides of chest, and paler margins to feathers of back, etc., 
broader, more buffy or buffy grayish; bill yellowish. 

Young. — Head, neck, back, scapulars, and rump brownish gray, 
more or less tinged with olive, the back streaked with dusky; anterior 
under parts paler gray than upper parts, the chest and sides of breast 
usually obsoletely streaked with dusky; under parts of body mainly 
white, usually tinged, more or less, with pale olive-yellowish; wings 
and tail much as in winter adults. 

Adult 7nale.—LQ\\gt\i. (skins), 148.59-183.39 (164.08); wing, 106.43- 
116.33 (110.49); tail, 60.96-73.91 (66.04); exposed culmen, 9.66-11. 4'-l 
(10.41); depth of bill at base, 5.84-6.86 (6.35); tarsus, 20.57-23.li 
(21.84); middle toe, 12.95-14.99 (14.22).^ 

Adult f emcde.— Length, iskms), 151.13-168.15 (160.27); wing, 99.06- 
104.14 (102.11); tail, 60.71-66.55 (63.50); exposed culmen, 9.65-10.92 



' Thirty-six American specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 



149 



(10.16); depth of bill at base, 5.59-6.86 (6.10); tarsus, 20.3^-22.35 
(21.34); middle toe, 13.21-14.99 (14.22).' 

Northern parts of Europe, Asia, and North Ameriou, breeding in 
arctic and subarctic districts; in North America breeding on the barren- 
ground or tundra region from northern Labrador (Ungava) to Alaska, 
north and east of the coast ranges, and north to islands of Arctic 
Ocean (at least to latitude 82^); in winter south to more northern 
United States, irregularly to District of Columbia, Georgia, southern 
Ohio (near Cincinnati), southern Indiana (Franklin, Decatur, Carroll, 
and Knox counties), Kansas, Colorado, and eastern Oregon (Camp 
Harney), casualh' to the Bermudas. (In Alaska occurs in winter on 
Unalaska, the Shumagins, at Portage Bay, Sitka, etc. ; and on the 
Asiatic side at Plover Baj^, Petropaulski, etc., and south to northern 
Japan and China.) 

[Emberiza] nivalis Lixn/bus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, i, 1758, 176 (Lapland, Hudson 
Straits, etc.; based on Fauna Suecica, 194, t. 1. f., 194, etc.); ed. 12, i, 
1766, 308.— Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, pt. ii, 1788, 866.— Latham, Index Orn., i, 
1790, 397.— Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 116, no. 7727. 

Emberiza . . nivalis Foestee, Piiilos. Trans., Ixii, 1772, 403 (Severn R.). 

Emberiza nivalis Meyee and Wolf, Taschenb. , 1810, 187. — Wilson, Am. Orn., 
iii, 1811, 86, pi. 21, fig. 2.— Temminck, Man. d'Orn., 1820, 319.— Naumann, 
Vog. Deutschl., iv, 1824, 297, pis. 106, 107.— Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso- Asiat. , ii, 
1826, 32.— Weenek, Atlas, Granivores, 1827, pi. 28.— Nuttall, Man. Orn. 
U. S. and Canad., i, 1832, 458.— Audubon, Orn. Biog., ii, 1834, 315; v-, 1839, 
496, pi. 189.— AVoLLEY, Jardine's Contr. Orn., 1850, 108 (Faroe Islands, 
breeding). — Kjaeeeolling, Orn. Dan., 1852, pi. 25, fig. 5. — Schlegel, A'og. 
NederL, 1854, pi. 159; Dier. Nederl., Vog., 1861, pi. 15, figs. 10, 11.— Suxde- 
VALL, Svensk. Fogl., 1856, pi. 7, figs. 5-7. — A. Newton, in Baring Gould's 

' Seventeen American specimens. 

I am unable to detect differences in either measurements or coloration according 
to locality, the individual variation in both respects being, however, very consider- 
able, adult males from the same locality having the upper rump and lower back 
either pure white or deep black. Average measurements, according to locality, are 
as follows: 



Locality. 



MALES. 

Five males from northern Europe 

Two males from northeastern Asia ■ 

Seventeen males from northeastern North America 

(including Greenland) 

Nineteen males from mainland of Alaska (includ- 

ing Unalaska Island) 

FEMALES. 

Three females from northern Europe 

Nine females from northeastern North America . . . 

Sixteen specimens from Alaska east to Great Slave 

Lake 



Wing. 



111.25 
114. 30 



110. 49 
110. 74 



103. 63 
102. 11 



Tail. 



Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 



67.82 
70.36 



65.63 
66.80 



61.72 
63. 75 



Depth 
of bill 
at base. 



10.16 
9.65 



10.41 
10.41 



9.91 
10.41 



C. 35 
6.35 



6.10 
6.10 



Tarsus. 



21.1 
21. ( 



21.84 
21.84 



21.34 
21.08 



Middle 
toe. 



13.97 
12. 70 



14.22 
14.22 



14.73 
13.97 



150 BULLETIlSr 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Iceland, 1863, 409.— Hakting, Handb. Brit. Birds, 1872, 25.— Sbebohji, Hist. 
Brit. Birds, ii, 1883, 125; Birds Jap. Emp., 1890, 140. 

Pr(s.Sf rma n»((?/.s ViEiLLOT, Faune Fran?., 1820, 86. — Roux, Orn. Prov., 1825, pi. 
103. — EiDGw.iY, Auk, XV, Oct., 1898, 324.— American Ornithologists' Union 
Committee, Auls, xvi, 1899, 116. 

Embei-hii (Plectrophanes) nivalis Swainson and Richardson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 
1831, 246. 

Plectrophanes niralis Meyer, Zus. u. Bericht. Myeru. Wolf, -Taschenb. , 1822, 57. — 
Gould, Birds Europe, iii, 1837, pi. 170. — Macgillivray, Hist. Brit. Birds, i, 
1837, 460. — Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 37. — Audubon, Synopsis, 
1839, 99; Birds Am., oct. ed., iii, 1841, .55, pi. 156. — Keyserling and Blasius, 
Wirb. Eur., 1840, 154.— Schlbgel, Bev. Grit., 1844, p. Ixxii.— Gray, List 
Brit. Birds, 1863, 104.— Jardine, Contr. Orn., 1848, 83 (Bermudas, in winter),— 
HuHDis, Jardine's Contr. Orn., 1850, 8 (Bermudas, Nov. toFeb. ). — Baird, 
Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 432; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 325.— 
ScHRENCK, Reis. Amurl., 1859, 275. — Willis, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst, for 
1858 (1859), 287 (Bermudas).— Reinhardt, Ibis, 1861, 7 (Greenland).— 
Radde, Reis. Sibir., Vog., 1863, 156. — Degland and Gerbe, Orn. Eur., i, 1867, 
332.— TuRNBULL, Birds e. Penn. and N. J., 1869, 22 (Dec. to Mar.).— Dall 
and Banni.ster, Trans. Chicago Ac. Sci., i, 1869, 282, part (Sitta, St. Mi- 
chaels, Unalaklik, etc., Alaska). — Cooper, Orn. Cal., 1870, 177 (no California 
record).— Fritsch, Yog. Eur., 1870, pi. 25, figs. 17, 18.— Salvadori, Faun. 
Ital., Ucc, 1871, 145.— Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 152; 2d ed., 1882, no. 
219; Birds N. W., 1874, 118.— Fixsch, Abh. Nat. Ver. Brem., iii, 1872, 54, 
part (Yukon; Sitka); 1874, 106 (s. w. Greenland; crit); Zweite Deutsche 
Nordpolfahrt, ii, 1874, 191 (e. Greenland, crit.); Journ. fiir Orn., 1883, 273 
(Chilcat Inlet, Chilcoot, and Portage Bay, Alaska). — Dresser, Birds Europe, 
iv, 1873, 261, pi. 225.— Snow, Birds Kansas, 1873, 6 (e. Kansas in winter).— 
RiDGWAY, Bull. Essex Inst. , v, 1873, 182 ( Colorado in winter) ; Nom. N. Am. 
Birds, 1881, no. 186. — Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 
1874, 512, pi. 24, fig. 2.— Newton, Man. Nat. Hist. Greenland, 1875, 99; ed. 
Yarrell's Hist. Brit. Birds, ii, 1876, 1.— David and Oustalet, Ois. Chine, 1877, 
320. — Langdon, Birds Cine, 1877, 8 (rare winter visit.); revised ed. 1879, 
9 (occasional). — Bendire, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xix, 1877, 117 (Camp 
Harney, e. Oregon, winter). — Feilden, Ibis, 1877, 404 (Shift-rudder Bay, 
Smith Sound, lat. 81° 52', Aug. 28; lat. 82° 35', Sept. 14; near lat. 83°, 
Jlay 27).— Adam.s, Ibis, 1878, 426 (St. Michaels, Alaska).— Kumli en. Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 15, 1879, 76 (Cumberland Sound, etc.; habits, etc.).— 
Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1882, 149, part (Port Clarence, Point Belcher, 
and Icy Cape, Alaska).— Nelson, Cruise "Corwin" 1881 (1883), 68 (breed- 
ing on St. Lawrence I., Wrangel I. , Plover Bay, etc.; habits). — (?) Blakis- 
TON and Pryer, Birds Japan, 1882, 172. — British Ornithologists' Union, 
List. Brit. Birds, 1883, 60. — Blakiston, Amend. List Birds Japan, 1884, 
22. — Murdoch, Rep. Point Barrow Exp., 1885, 105 (Point Barrow, Alaska, 
Apr. 9 to Sept. 20).— (?) Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1888, 459 
(Corea, Feb.). — Clarke, Zoologist, 1890, 10 (Jan Mayen Land; habits; see 
Fischer and Pelzeln, Arzt. osterreich Exp. Jan Mayen, 1866, — ). 

P.[lectrophanes'] niralis Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1844, 379. — Cabanis, Mus. Hein.,i, 
1851, 127 (Lapland).— Ridgway, Ann. Lye. N. Y., x, 1874, 372 (Illinois in 
winter, rarely s. of 39°).— Nelson, Bull. Essex Inst., viii, 1876, 105 (n. e. 
Illinois, Nov. 1 to middle Mar. ).— Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 356, 
part. 

[P/ectmjjhanen^ nicd/i.v Bonaparte, Consp. Av.,i, 1850, 462. — Coues, Kev N. Am. 
Birds, 1872, 133. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 151 

FringUla nivalis Haymond, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, 292 (Franklin Ct>., 
Indiana, Oct. to May). 

Pleclrophenax nivalis Stejneger, Proc. U. IS. Nat. Mus., v, June 5, 1882, 33. — 
Turner, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 240 (Fort Chimo, Ungava, breed- 
ing); Contr. Nat Hist. Alaska, 1886, 172, part (St. Michaels, etc.; habits). — 
American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 534. — Nelson, Eep. 
Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 180, part (Yukon district. Point Barrow, etc.; 
habits).— Salvadori, Elench. Ucc. Ital., 1887, 160.— Cooke, Bird iligr. Miss. 
Val., 1888, 184 (n. Missouri, e. Kansas, n. Illinois, etc.; rarely south of 39°); 
Birds Colorado, 1897, 100 (Boulder, Denver, Ft. Collins, and Loveland; 
La Plata Co., 1 spec. Mar. 1); Bull. Col. Agric. Coll., no. 44, 1898, 165 (Colo- 
rado Springs, 2 specs, winter 1877-78). — Sharpb, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 
1888, 573, excl. syn. part. — Evermann, Auk, vi, 1889, 24 (Carroll Co., Indiana, 
rare visit, Jan., Feb.). — Hagerup, Auk, vi, 1889, 295 (Ivigtut, Greenland, 
;\Iar. 30 to Oct. 25; habits).— Thompson, Proc. U, S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1890, 587 
(Manitoba, fall, winter, and spring; habits). — Goss, Birds Kansas, 1891, 428 
(rare winter visit. ) . — Stone, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1892, 151 (McCormick 
Bay and Uppernavik, Greenland; notes on plumage); 1895, 504 (Tuctoo 
Valley, w. Greenland, breeding), 565 (Disco I., July 16). — Nehkling, Our 
Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 74.— Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., viii, 1896, 
9 (changes of plumage). — Dawson, Auk, xiv, 1897, 178 (Okanogan Co., e. 
Washington, winter). — Butler, Birds Indiana, 1897, 927 (rarely s. to Knox, 
Decatur, and Franklin counties). — Clarke, Ibis, 1898, 255 (Franz Josef Land, 
breeding; habits). — Merrill, Auk, xv, 1898, 15 (Ft. Sherman, Idaho, 
winter). 

P. [lecirophenax] nivalis Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 402. 

Clcilcariusl nivalis Jordan, Man. Vertebr. E. N. Am., 4th ed., 1884, 88. 

Calcarius nivalis Giglioli, Avif. Ital., 1886, 56. 

Emberiza notaia MtJLLER, Syst. Nat. Suppl., 1776, 157 (based on Buffon). 

[Emberiza} mustelina Gjielin, Syst. Nat., i, 1788, 867 (Europe, North America, 
etc.; based on Tawny Bunting, Brit. Zool., i, no. 121; Latham, Synop. Birds, 
ii, pt. i, 164, etc.) . 

Plectrophanes mmteVums Brehm, Vog. Deutschl., 1831, 306. 

[Emberiza'] montana Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, 1788, 867 (England; based on Mountain 
Bunting, Brit. Zool., i, no. 123; Latham, Synop. Birds, ii, pt. i, 165, etc.). — 
Latham, Index Orn., i, 1790, 398. 

ffortulanus monianus Leach, Syst. Cat. Mamm., etc., Brit. Mus., 1816, 16. 

Plectrophanes montanus Hrebm, Yogelf., 1855, 119. 

lEmberiza} lotharingica Guslis, Syst. Nat., i, 1788, 882, part (Europe; based on 
Ortolan de Lorraine Buffon, Hist. Nat. Ois., iv, 323, etc. ).— Lathaji, Index 
Orn., i, 1790, 404. 

[Emberiza} ghicialis Latham, Index Orn., i, 1790, 398 (England, etc.;=E. mustelina 
Gmelin, and E. niralis Linnseus, Fauna Suecica, no. 227B) . 

Emberiza glacialis Yaerell, Hist. Brit. Birds, i, 1843, 425. 

Hortulanus glacialis Leach, Syst. Cat. Mam., etc., Brit. Mus., 1816, 15. 

Plectrophanes hiemalis Brehm, Yog. Deutschl., 1831, 304. 

Plectrophanes borealis Brehm, Vog. Deutschl., 1831, 305. 

Emberiza borealis Degland, Orn. Eur., i, 1849, 273. 

(?) Plectrophanes airolarvatus Haetlaub, Naummania, 1852, 56 (Argali R., n. w. 
North America; ex Paul von Wurtemberg, MS.). 



152 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



PASSERINA NIVALIS TOWNSENDI Ridgway. 
ALEUTIAN SNOWFLAKE. 

Similar to P. n. nivali.-f, but decidedly larger, with relatively longer 
bill. 

Adult inalc.—h&ngih. (skins), 153.67-188.4:7 (175.26); wing, 108.71- 
1-20A() (113.03); tail, 66.29-7l.l7 (70.87); exposed culmen, 12.19-13.46 
(12.70); depth of bill at base, G. 35-7. 11 (6.60); tarsus, 21.84-24.38 
(23.11); middle toe, 14.48-16.00(11.99).^ 

^(^i////(^//?a/e.— Length (skins), 155.70-177.80 (169.16); wing, 102.87- 
115.8^ (106.68); tail, 62.23-68.58 (65.02); exposed culmen, 10.92-13.46 
(12.19); depth of bill at base. 6.10-6.86 (6.60); tarsus, 20.83-23.37 
(22.61); middle toe, 13.7;>-15.49 (14.73).' 

Aleutian Islands, including Commander Islands, Kamchatka; Pribi- 
lof Islands; Shumagin Islands; Siberian coast of Bering Sea (breeding 
at Plover Bay, etc.).'* 

Plectropliitnes rmalis (not Emberiza nivalis Linnseus) Dall and Bannister, Trans. 
Chicago Ac. Sci., i, 1869, 282, part (St. Georges I., Pribilof group) . — Finsch, 
Abh. Nat. Ver. Brem., iii, 1872, 54, part (Pribilofs).— Ball, Proc. Cal. Ac. 
Sci., V, 1873, 27 (Unalaska) ; vi, 1874, 273 (Attu and other Aleutian islands; 
Pribilofs). — Coues, in Elliott's Affairs in Alaska, 1875, 176 (Pribilof Islands, 
resident; habits). — Haeting, Fauna Prybilov Islands, 1875, 17. — Elliott, 
Mon. Seal Islands, 1882, 128 (habits, etc.).— Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.,v, 
1882, 149, part (Shumagin Islands, Alaska; Plover Bay, Siberia). 

^Twenty-two specimens. 

''Twelve specimens. - 

The largest specimens are those from the more western Aleutian Islands, including 
the Commander Islands, Kamchatka; the smallest are from Unalaska and the Shu- 
magin Islands, at the opposite end of the chain. These latter are in reality inter- 
mediate between the island form and true P. nivalis, but seem nearest the former 
and, therefore, best referred to it. Average measurements are as follows: 



MALES. 

One adult male from Bering Island 

Five adult males from western Aleutians (Attu, 

Kyska and Adak islands) '. 

Twelve adult males from Pribilof Islands 

One adult male from Plover Bay, Siberia (breeding 

bird) 

Three adult males from Unalaska and Shumagins . 

FEMALES. 

Five adult females from western Aleutians 

Six adult females from Pribilofs 

One adult female from Unalaska 



\Ving. 



115. 57 
112.27 



113. 03 
109. 22 



1U7. 95 
106. 68 
102. 87 



Tall. 



72. 14 
70.61 



70.87 
68.83 



U.5. 53 
(;2. 23 



Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 



12. 70 



12.95 
12.70 



12.19 
12.46 



12. 70 
11.94 
10. 92 



Depth 
of bill 
at base. 



7.11 
6.60 

6.60 
6.36 

6.60 
6.60 
6.35 



23.88 
23.11 

21. 84 
22. 10 

23.11 
22.61 
20.83 



Middle 
toe. 



16.24 

15.49 
14.99 

14.73 
14.73 

14.73 
14.73 
14.73 



"Winter birds (some at least) from Plover Bay, also from Unalaska and Shuma- 
gins, are P. n. nivalis. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 153 

Plectrophenax nivalis Stbjnegek, BuH. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 29, 1885, 248, excl. 
syn. part (Commander Islands, Kamtschatka, resident; habits); Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., X, 1887, 142 (Commander Islands). — Amebican Ornithologists' 
Union, Check List, 1886, no. 534, part.— Turner, Auk, ii, 1885, 157 (Nearer 
Islands, Aleutian chain); Contr. Nat. Hist. Alaska, 1886, 172, part (Attu, 
Atkha,Amchitka, etc., w. Aleutians). — Nelson, Rep. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 
1887, 180, part (Pribilof and Aleutian islands; Plover Bay and n. coast 
Siberia?; habits) .— Townsend, Cruise "Corwin", 1885 (1887), 100 (Pribilofs; 
Otter I., June 8).— Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 572, part (St. 
Paul I., Pribilofs). 

P.[lectrophena,r1 niralis townsendl Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 403 (Otter 

Island, Bering Sea; U. S. Nat. Mus.) . 
Plectropheriax nivalis townsendi'RrDGV! AY, yi&n.T^i. Am.. Birds, 1887, 592. — Chapman, 
Auk, V, 1888, 397. — American Ornithologists' Union Committee, Suppl. to 
Check List, 1889, 12 ; Check List, abridged ed. , 1889, and 2d ed. , 1895, no. 534a. 

Plectrophenax townsendi Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 840. 

Passerina nivalis tmonsendi Ridgway, Auk, xv, Oct. , 1898, 324. — American Orni- 
thologists' Union Committee, Auk, xvi, 1899, 117. 

PASSERINA HYPERBOREA Ridgway. 

MoKAY'S SNOWFLAKE. 

Similar to I*, nivalis townsendi, but with much more white. Adult 
male with back and scapulars entireh" white, or (rarely) with onlj^ 
a few narrow streaks of black on the former and the more poste- 
rior feathers of the latter blotched with black; primarj' coverts 
(usually the alula also) and basal half or more of primaries wholly 
white; adult female with pileum and hindneck always white, very 
rarely with merely a trace of streaks on the former; only two middle 
rectrices dusky to base, or else next pair dusky on inner web onlj^;^ 
primary coverts mostly white, usually entirely white; young very simi- 
lar to that of P. n. townsendi, and not with certainty distinguishable. 

Adult ??ia?e.— Length (skins), 156.21-187.71 (165.61); wing, 109.73- 
118.62(114.30); tail, 65.53-74.68 (70.61); exposed culmen, 11.18-12.70 
(12.19); depth of bill at base, 6.35-7.37 (6.86); tarsus, 21.08-23.62 
(22.35); middle toe, 13.97-16.00 (15.24).^ 

Adult female.— l^'e.ug\h (skins), 162.40-171.96 (159.00); wing, 104.14- 
109.47 (107.19); tail, 64.01-68.58(66.80); exposed culmen, 10.67-11.68 
(11.18); depth of bill at base, 6.10-6.86 (6.35); tarsus, 20.83-23.11 
(21.84); middle toe, 14.48-15.75 (14.99).^, 

Breeding on Hall Island and St. Matthew's Island, north-central part 
of Bering Sea; migrating in winter to western portion of Alaskan 
mainland (Nushagak, Kuskokwin River, St. Michaels, etc.). 

Plectrophenax hyperboreus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vii, no. 5, June 11, 1884, 
68 (St. Michaels, Alaska; U. S. Nat. Mus. ) ; Auk, iii, 1886, 135 (as to vernacu- 
lar name) , 276 (Hall I., Bering Sea, breeding; St. Matthews I.?).— American 

^ In the female of P. n. townsendi four to six middle rectrices are wholly or chiefly 
dusky. 

^ Thirteen specimens. 
' Fourteen specimens. 



154 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 535. — Townsbnd, Cruise " Cor- 
win", 1885, 1887, 100, colored plate (Hall I.). — Henshaw, in Nelson's 
Rep. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 182 (St. Michaels, Nushagak, Hall I., etc., 
Alaska). — Shakpe, Cat. Birds Brit. ]Mus., xii, 1888, 577. — Stone, Auk, xv, 
1898, 269 (Bethel, Kuskokwim K., Alaska, 90 m. from coast, Jan. 4). 

P. [ledrophencm] hyperboreiis Eidgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 403. 

Passerlna hi/jKrhorca Ridgway, Auk, xv, Oct., 1898, 324. — American Ornii'holc- 
gists' Union Committee, Auk, xvi, 1899, 117. 



Genus CALCARIUS Bechstein. 

Calcarius Bechstein, Orn. Taschenb. Vog. Deutschl., 1803, 130. (Type, Frin- 

gilla lapponica Linnaeus. ) (See Stejneger, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1882, 32. ) 
Plectrophanes (not of Kaup, 1829) JIeyer, Vog. Liv-u. Estl., 1815, p. xii. (Type, 

Fringilla lapponica Linnseus. ) 
Cenirophanes Kaup, Entw. Eur. Thierw., 1829, 158. (Type, Fringilla lapponica 

Linnaeus.) 
Leptoplectron Reichenbach, Av. Sy.st. Nat., 1850, pi. 75. (Type, Emberiza picta 

Swainson. ) 

Medium-sized or rather small terrestrial finches, with long, pointed 
wings, small bill, long and slender hind claw, and plumage much varied. 

Bill small (commissure shorter than middle toe without claw), acutely 
conical, deeper than broad at base; culmen nearly straight, sometiaies 
appreciably depressed in middle portion; gonys straight, shorter than 
hallux without claw, its base about midway between tip and lateral 
base of the mandible; depth of bill at base decidedly less than distance 
from nostril to tip of maxilla. Nasal plumules indistinct, the nostrils 
quite exposed. Wing long (about four and one-third to more than four 
and one-half times as long as tarsus), pointed (three outermost prima- 
ries longest, with the ninth longer than the sixth, sometimes longer 
than the eighth); primaries exceeding secondaries by one and one- 
quarter to one and one-half times length of tarsus; tips of secondaries 
emarginate. Tail more than two-thirds as long as wing, double- 
rounded or deeply emarginate {ornatus), more than half hidden by the 
pointed upper coverts. Tarsus nearly or quite one-third as long as 
tail, longer than middle toe with claw, its scutella nearl}' obsolete; 
lateral claws scarcely or not reaching base of middle claw; hind claw 
nearly equal to — sometimes longer than — its digit, very slender, slightly 
arched or nearly straight. 

Coloration. — Adult males with top of head black; hindneck deep 
rufous or buff; rest of upper parts light brownish, broadly streaked 
with dusky or black; outer tail-feathers with more or less of white. 
Adult females similar above to males, but without black on head, 
and usually without distinct rufous or buff on hindneck; lower parts 
mainly dull whitish or buffy. 

The three species of Calcarius differ considerably in details of form. 
C. ficiMS is very similar to the type species, C. lajpj>oniGm, but has a 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 155 

more slender and pointed bill, like that of C. nmaticn. The latter 
differs from the two preceding in having the tail much shorter than the 
distance from the carpal joint of the wing to the end of the tertials, in 
which respect it agrees with Rhynchoj>liane)i incanoiili, but this differ- 
ence is apparently owing to greater development of the secondaries 
rather than to a really reduced length of the tail; the outermost (ninth) 
primary is also relatively shorter. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OP CALCARIUS. 

a. Four outermost rectrices dusky at base, at least on inner web. 
h. Abdomen white; less than half the inner web of outermost rectrix white, 
c. Back heavily streaked with black or dusky, the dusky centers to feathers 
wider than the lighter grayish brown edgings. 
d. Paler, with outer webs of greater wing-coverts and tertials grayish brown 
or but slightly rufescent. (Northern Europe and northeastern North 

America. ) Calcarius lapponious lapponious (p. 155 ) 

dd. Darker, with outer webs of greater wing-coverts and tertials bright rusty 

brown or chestnut. (Commander Islands, Kamtschatka, and other 

parts of northeastern Asia. ) . .Calcarius lapponious ooloratus^ (extralimital) 

cc. Back more narrowly streaked with black or dusky, the dusky centers to 

feathers not wider than the pale huffy brown or grayish buffy edgings. 

(Northwestern North America, including Pribilof and Aleutian Islands.) 

Caloarius lapponious alasoensis (p. 158) 
hb. Abdomen buffy or ochraceous, like rest of under parts; more than half of inner 
web of outermost rectrix white. (Great Plains of United States and Brit- 
ish America. ) Calcarius piotus (p. 160) 

aa. Four outermost rectrices extensively white at base, on both webs. (Great Plains 
of United States and Mexico. ) Calcarius ornatus (p. 162) 



CALCARIUS LAPPONICUS LAPPONICUS (Linnaeus). 
LAPLAND LONGSPUK. 

Inner web of outermost rectrix chiefly dusky; under wing-coverts 
and axillars grayish white, distinctly grayish beneath surface; breast 
and abdomen white in adults. 

Adult male in summer. — Head and chest deep black, relieved by a 
broad white or buffy stripe behind eye, continued downward (verti- 
cally) behind ear-coverts and then backward along sides of chest; sides 
broadly streaked or striped with black; rest of under parts white; hind- 
neck deep chestnut -rufous; lesser wing-coverts grayish, feathers black 
in center. 

Adult male In winter. — Black of head confined to crown, posterior 
and lower border of ear-coverts, lower part of throat, and patch on 

^Calcarius lapponicus coloratus Ridgway, Auk, xv, Oct., 1898, 320 (Copper Island, 
Commander group, Kamchatka; U. S. Nat. llus. ). 

This form is introduced on account of the possibility of its occurrence, as a straggler, 
in the westernmost Aleutian Islands, aa well as for comparison with the other sub- 
species. 



156 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



chest, and more or less obscured b}" whitish or pale brownish tips to 
feathers; sides of head (including lores and greater part of ear-coverts), 
mostly dull light brownish; rufous on hindneck also similar Ij' obscured. 

Adult female in summer. — Much like winter male, but markings 
more sharply defined, black areas of chest, etc. , more restricted and 
still more broken, hindneck streaked with blackish, and size smaller. 

Adult female in winter. — Similar to summer plumage, but browner 
and less sharply streaked above, hindneck often without trace of 
rufous, lower parts dull brownish white, and duskv markings of chest, 
etc., very indistinct. 

Yi'uiKj. — Above dull builj^ everj-where (except on wings and tail) 
broadh' streaked with black; beneath pale buffy, the lower throat, 
chest, and sides of breast broadly streaked with blackish. 

Adult male.— hangth. (skins), 14±.27-172.72 (159.26); wing, 90.17- 
100.58 (96.01); tail, 59.69-66.55 (62.99); exposed culmen, 10.41-12.19 
(11.43); depth of bill at base, 6.10-7.11 (6.86); tarsus, 20.57-22.61 
(21.84); middle toe, 13.21-14.99 (13.97).' 

Adult female.— L&ngth. (skins), 135.89-157.48 (146.03); wing, 87.63- 
92.:i0 (90.17); tail, 58.42-64.77 (60.96); exposed culmen, 10.41-11.43 
(10.67); depth of bill at base, 6.10-7.37 (6.60); tarsus, 20.57-22.85 
(21.08); middle toe, 12.96-13.97 (13.46).' 

Breeding in arctic and subarctic districts of Europe, northeastern 
North America, including Greenland, and for an undetei"mined distance 
westward), Melville peninsula, shores of Cumberland Sound, Ungava, 
etc. , and at least the more western portions of Siberia; in North America 
migrating south in winter (more or less irregularly) to Virginia, South 
Carolina, Kentucky, eastern Kansas, Indian Territory, and even to 

^ Sixteen specimens. 

- J^ine specimens. 

European specimens are apparently the same in coloration as those from northeast- 
ern North America, but the series of the former which I have been able to examine 
is very small, consisting of only two adult males and three adult females. The aver- 
age measurements reveal some differences, which, however, appear to be the result 
of too great inequality in number of the specimens of the two aeries, the length of 
wing, tail, and culmen being decidedly greater in the European males, but smaller in 
the European females. The averages are as follows: 



MALES. 

Two adult males from northern Europe 

Fourteen adult males from northeastern North 
America (including Greenland) 

FEMALES. 

Three adult females from nnrthern Europe 

Six adultfemales from northeastern North America 
(including Greenland) 



Wing. 


Tail. 


Ex- 
po.sed 
culmen. 


Depth 
of bill 
at base. 


Tarsus. 


98.04 


65.02 


11.94 


6.86 


20.67 


96.01 


62.99 


11.43 


6.K6 


21. S4 


W. 15 


59. 69 


10.41 


6.10 


21.08 


90. 17 


60. 96 


10. IJ7 


6.00 


21.08 



Middle 
toe. 



13.46 
13.97 

13.46 
13.46 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 157 

Texas (Cook and Navarro counties); west during migration to eastern 
portion of Great Plains (Manitoba to Texas). 

\_Fri.ngiUa] lappordca Linn^ds, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, i, 1758, 180 (Lapland) ; ed. 12, i, 
1766, 317.— Gmelin, Syst. Nat, i, 1788, 900.— Latham, Index Orn., i, 1790, 440. 

Fringilla . . . Zappomca Fokstbr, Philos. Trans., Ixii, 1772, lO-i (Severn R) . 

Fringilla lapponica Meyer and AVolp, Taschenb., i, 1810, 176. 

PasseriiM lapponica Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., xxv, 1817, 12. 

Emberiza lapponica 'Navma'ns, Yog. Deutschl., iv, 1824,319, pi. 108. — Bonaparte, 
Am. Orn., it, 1828, 53, pi. 13, figs. 2, 3.— Acjdubox, Orn. Biog., iv, 1838, 472, pi. 
365.— Schleqel, Vog. NederL, 1854, pi. 160; Dier. Nederl., Vog., i, 1860, 118, 
pi. 15, figs. 12, 13. — SuNDEVALL, Svensk. Fogl., 1858, pi. 7, figs. 3, 4. — Hart- 
I^'G, Handb. Brit. Birds, 1872, 25.— Seebohm, Hist. Brit. Birds, ii, 1884, 131. 

[Emberiza'] lapponica Gkay, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 116, no. 7728. 

Plectrophaneslapponica Selby, Trans. Lin. Soc, xv, 1827, 156, with plate. — Jardine, 
ed. Wilson's Am. Orn., iii, 1832, 413.— Gould, Birds Europe, iii, 1837, pi. 169.— 
Macgillivray, Hist. Brit. Birds, i, 1837, 469. — Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. 
List., 1838, 36. — Keyserling and Blasius, Wirb. Eur., 1840, 154. — Audubon, 
Synopsis, 1839, 98; Birds Am., oct. ed., iii, 1841, pi. 152.— Yarrell, Hist. Brit. 
Birds, i, 1843, 421. 

Emberiza (Plectrophanes) toppojiica Swainson and Richardson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 
1831, 248, pi. 48. 

l^Plectrophanes'] lapponica Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850,462. 

Plectrophanes lapponicus Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 433, part; Cat. 
N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 326, part.— Reinhardt, Ibis, 1861, 7 (Greenland).— 
Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 121.— Gray, List Brit. Birds, 1863, 105.— 
Degland and Gerbe, Orn. Eur., i, 1867, 334. — Salvador:, Faun. Ital. , Ucc. , 
1871, '145.— Dresser, Birds Europe, iv, 1872, 253, pi. 223.— Coues, Check 
List, 1873, no. 153, part; Birds N. W., 1874, 120, part.— Snow, Birds Kansas, 
1873, 7 (common in winter). — Baird, Brewer, and Ridgw.vy', Hist. N.Am. 
Birds, i, 1874, 515, part, pi. 24, fig; 7.-Finsch, Abh. Nat. Brem., 1874, 107 
(s. w. Greenland, crit. ); Zweite Deutsche Nordpolfahrt, ii, 1874, 194 (e. 
Greenland) . — Newton, Man. Nat. Hist. Greenl., 1875, 99 (Greenland; Melville 
peninsula, breeding); ed. Yarrell's Hist. Brit. Birds, ii, 1876, 15. — Langdon, 
Journ. Cine. Soc. N. H., 1878 (5) (Avondale, and Madisonville, s. Ohio, Dec. 
11) ; Revised List Birds Cine. , 1879, 9 (rare winter visit). — Trotter, BullNutt. 
Orn.Club, iv, 1879, 235 (near Philadelphia, 1 spec.).— Kumliex, Bull. U.S. 
Nat. Mus.,no. 15, 1879, 77 (Cumberland Sound, etc.; habits). — Allen, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 54 (Chester Co., South Carolina, Jan. 1). — Seton, 
Auk, ii, 1885, 334 (Toronto, Ontario, winter). 

. [Plectropliams] lapponicus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 134, part. 

PXlectrophanes] lapponicus 'Ridgwxy, Ann. Lye. N. Y., x, 1874, 372 (Illinois in 
' winter) . 

Cenirophanes lapponica Kaup, Natiirl. Syst., 1829, 158, 192.— Fritsch, Vog. Eur. 
1870,. pi. 25, figs. 22, 23.— Gould, Birds Gt. Brit., iii, 1873, pi. 30.— Coues, 
Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 328 (Fort Smith, Arkansas, Nov. to Feb. ) 

Clentrophanes^l lapponica Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1844, 379.— Cabanis, Mus. Hein., i 
1851, 127 (Lapland). 

Cenirophanes lapponicus Coues, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 97; Check List. 
2d ed., 1882, no. 220, part.— Ridgway, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 187, 
part.— Merriam, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1881, 229 (Lewis Co., New York, 
winter) .—Ogilby, Sci. Proc. Roy. Dubl. Soc, iii, 1882 (29) (Navarro Co., 
Texas, Nov. to Mar.).— Looms, Auk, ii, 1885, 190'(Ohester Co., South CarO' 
lina, 1 spec. Jan. 1, 1881). 



158 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

C.lentrophane,s'] lapponicus CouES, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 357. 

Calcarius lapponicus Bechstein, Orn. Tasohenb., 1802, 130.— Tueneb, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 240 (Fort Chimo, Ungava, breeding) .—American 
Onithologists' Uniox, Check List, 1886, no. 536, part.— Dutchee, Auk, iii, 
1886, 440 (Long Island, New York, Feb., Apr.).— Henshaw, Auk, iv, 1887, 
347 (Fairfax Co., Virginia, Dec. 11).— Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 185 
(s. to Caddo, Indian Territory, and Gainesville, Texas; localities and dates) . — 
Shabpe, Cat. Birds. Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 579, part.— Gault, Auk, vi, 1889, 
278 (Lake Co., Indiana, June 14, 1889, 1 spec.) .— Wakeen, Birds Penn., 1890, 
232 (winter visit, shores Lake Erie) . — Thompson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 
1891, 588 (Manitoba, spring and fall; habits).— Stone, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1892, 151 (Disco I., Greenland); 1895, 505 (Disco I., Greenland).— 
Beimley, Auk, X, 1893, 242 (Raleigh, North Carolina, Jan. 13 and 14, 1893) .— 
Nbheling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 77. — Knight, Bull. Univ. Maine, 
no. 3, 1897, 95 (rare winter visit.).— Claeke, Ibis, 1898, 255 (Franz Josef 
Land, May 28) . — Davis, Auk, xvi, 1899, 80 (Massachusetts records) . 

C. [alcanus] lapponicus Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 404, part. 

Emberiza calcarata (not Fringilla calcarata Pallas) Temminck, Man. d'Orn., i, 
1820, 322.— Weenee, Atlas, Granivores, 1827, pi. 29.— Kj^ebolling, Orn. 
Dan., 1852, pi. 54, fig. 2.— Fallon, Ois. Belg., 1875, 90. 

Pleclroplianes calcarata Claeke, Zoologist, 1890, 10 (Jan Mayen Land, May 17 
(see Fischer and Pelzeln, Arzt. osterreich. Exp. Jan Mayen, 1866, — ). 

Fhctrophanescalcaratiis'M.-EY-EB., Zus., etc., Meyer and AVolf, Taschenb.; 1822, 56. — 
Beehm, Vog. Deutschl., 1831, 307. — Schlegel, Rev. Crit., 1844, p. Ixxii. 

C.\_entrophanes\ calcaratus Gray, List Gen. Birds, App., 1842, 11. 

Hortulanus montanus (not Emberiza moniana Gmelin) Leach, Syst. Cat. Mam., 
etc., Brit. Mus., 1816, 16. 

Plectrophanes groenlandtcus Brekm, Vog. Deutschl., 1831, 307. 

CALCARIUS LAPPONICUS ALASCENSIS Ridgway. 
ALASKAN LONGSPTTR. 

Similar to C. I. lapponicus, but decidedly lighter in color, especially 
in winter plumage; in summer, adults with ground color of upper parts 
light buffy grayish brown, with little, if any, rusty tinge, even on wing- 
coverts and tertials, and the black streaks relatively narrower than in 
C. I. lapponicus, the chestnut-rufous or deep cinnamon-rufous of the 
hindneck also averaging paler than in O. I. lapponicus,' winter speci- 
mens (adults and young) with upper parts conspicuously paler and more 
buffy than corresponding plumages of O. I. lapponicus; young in first 
plumage much brighter buffy, both above and on chest, than that of 
C. I. lapponicus, with the blackish streaks narrower, and outer webs of 
greater wing-coverts and secondaries much lighter chestnut-brown. 

^W;//;; 7rt«?f'.— Length (skins), 146.30-166.37 (156.46); wing, 91.19- 
99.57 (95.76); tail, 58.42-68.07 (63.25); exposed culmen, 10.41-12.45 
(11.68); depth of billatbase, 6.60-7.37(6.86); tarsus, 20.57-22.61 (21.84); 
middle toe, 12.95-16.75 (14. 48) . ' 

Adult female.— \j^w^ (skins), 135.89-158.75 (148.34); wing, 86.11- 

' Twenty-two specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 



159 



93.22 (89.15); tail, 56.63-62.99 (58.42); exposed culmen, 10.16-11.94 
(10.92); depth of bill at base, 5.S1-T.11 (6.60); tarsus, 20.32-22.35 
(21.34) middle toe, 12.95-15.24 (13.72).^ 

The whole of Alaska, including (and breeding-on) the Pribilof and 
Aleutian Islands, Unalaska, and the Shumagins; east to Fort Simpson; 
south, in winter, through more western parts of North America to 
Nevada (Carson City), eastern Oregon, Colorado, western Kansas, etc. 

Plectrophanes lapponicus (not Fringilla lappoiiica Linnaeus) Baird, Eep. Pacific 
R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 433, part (50 m. w. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas) ; Cat. N. 
Am. Birds, 1859, no. 326, part.— D all and Bannister, Trans. Chicago Ac. Sci. , 
i, 1869, 283 (Nulato and St. Michaels, Alaska, May to Sept.).— Cooper, Orn. 
Cal., 1870, 178 (no California record). — Finsch, Abh. Nat. Ver. Brem., iii, 
1872,54 (coast Alaska); Journ. fiir Orn., 1883,273 (Portage Bay, Alaska).— 
CouES, Check List, 1873, no. 153, part; Birds N. W., 1874, 120, part; in Elliott's 
Affairs in Alaska, 1875, 177 (Pribilof Islands, resident; habits). — Dall, Proc. 
Cal. Ac. Sci., V, 1874, 273 (Attn, Kyska, and Adak Islands, Aleutians) .—Baird, 
Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 515, part. — Hartixg, 
Fauna Prybilov Islands, 1875, 17.— Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., vii, 1875, 
13 (Carson, Nevada, Jan.); Orn. 40th Parallel, 1877,464 (do.).— Bexdire, 
Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1877, 118 (Camp Harney, e. Oregon, winter resid.). — 
Elliott, Mon. Seal Islands, 1882, 128 (Pribilof Islands, resident; habits). 

[Plectrophanes] lapponicus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 134, part. 

' Twenty-four specimens. 

Specimens from the mainland of Alaska are less typical than those from the islands, 
but do not differ appreciably in coloration, except in the nestling plumage, which is 
intermediate between that of the island birds and that of true C. lapponicus (Green- 
land specimens). The mainland birds average even smaller than true C. lapponicus 
and have the wing and tail decidedly shorter than those from any of the Alaskan 
islands, as the average below will show. 

The great contrast in coloration is just as marked between specimens from the 
extreme western Aleutian Islands ( Atkha, Adak, and Attu) and the extremely dark 
form ( C. /. coloratus) of the Commander Islands, as between the latter and specimens 
from the Pribilofs and Unalaska. 



Locality. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Exposed 
culmen. 


Depth 
of bill 
at base. 


Tarsus. 


Middle 
toe. 


MALES. 

Five adult males from westernmost Aleutian 


97.03 
97.03 

96.27 
93.73 

89.92 
89.66 

90.17 
88.39 


65.28 
64.77 

64.01 
S9. 69 

58.93 
58.67 

58. 42 


12.19 
n.43 

U.68 
11.43 

11. 18 
10.92 

10.92 


7.11 
6.60 

7.11 
6.60 

6.86 
6.60 


22.35 
2L84 

21.84 
21.69 

21.59 
21.84 

21.34 
21.08 


14.99 






Seven adult males from Unalaska (including one 


14.22 






FEMALES. 

Four adult females from westernmost Aleutians . . . 


14.22 
13.72 


Six adult females from Unalaska (including one 




Klpyen adult fpni?lle<i from mm'nlfiTid 


57.91 10.92 


13 21 











160 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Pkclwphanes lapponica Baied, Kep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 927 (Fort Lara- 
inie, Wyoming). — Adams, Ibis, 1878, 425 (St. Michaels, Alaslia). 

Centrophanes lapponicus Ridgway, Field and Forest, iii, 1877, 197 (Colorado, win- 
ter); Norn. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 187, part.— Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v. 
1882, 150 (Cape Lisburne, Point Belcher, Port Clarence, and Belkoffsky, 
Alaska; habits). — Nelson, Cruise "Corwin" in 1881, 1883, 69 (Point Barrow, 
St. Lawrence I., etc., Alaska). — McLenegan, Cruise "Corwin", 1884, 115 
(KowakR., Alaska, breeding; habits; song). — Murdoch, Exp. Point Barrow, 
1885, 106 (Point Barrow, Alaska, May 20 to Sept. 4). 

Ccdcarius lapponicus Tuknek, Auk, ii, 1885, 157 (Nearer Islands, Aleutian chain); 
Contr. Nat. Hist. Alaska, 1886, 173 (St. Michaels, May 5 to Oct. 5; habits, 
etc.). — Americ.vn Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 536, parf. — 
Nelson, Rep. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 183 (habits, etc.). — Townsend, 
Cruise "Corwin" in 1885, 1887, 101 (Kotzebue Sound, Alaska); Auk, iv, 
1887, 12(KowakR.).— Ridgway, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 664 (Shu- 
magins, Alaska). — Cooke, Birds Colorado, 1897, 100 (winter resid.). 

C. [^alcarius] lapponicus Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 404, part. 

Calcarlns lapponicus alascensis Ridgway, Auk, xv, Oct., 1898, 320 (St. Paul I., 
Pribilof group, Alaska; U. S. Nat. Mus.). — American Ornithologists' Union 
Committee, Auk, xvi, 1899, 117 (no. 536a). 



CALCARIUS PICTUS (Swainson) . 
PAINTED lONGSPUE. 

Inner web of outermost rectrix chiefly white; under wing-coverts 
and axillars wholly pure white; entire lower parts bufly. 

Adult male in stvmmer. — Pileum and sides of head deep black, 
relieved by a broad white stripe behind eye, a narrow white stripe 
along middle portion of ear-coverts, and a white malar stripe, much 
widest posteriorly ; hindneck and entire lower parts deep ochraceous- 
buff, the first streaked with dusky; anterior lesser wing-coverts deep 
black, posterior ones pure white, forming a conspicuous bar, widest 
above. 

Adult male in winter. — Black of head entirely replaced by streaked 
brownish, the throat and chest also more or less streaked with dusky; 
otherwise much as in summer, but middle and greater wing-coverts 
distinctly tipped with white. 

Adult female in summer. — Much like winter male, but smaller, paler, 
and grayer, without deep black or pure white on lesser wihg-coverts; 
in winter, similar, but more buffy. 

Adult «ia/e.— Length (skins), 148.59-172.97 (157.48); wing, 86.36- 
96.27 (91.69); tail, 59.18-68.83 (63.25); exposed culmen, 10.16-11.18 
(10.67); depth of bill at base, 5.84-6.85 (6.10); tarsus, 19.81-20.32 
(20.06); middle toe, 13.97-15.24 (14.99).' 

Adult female.— Li&ngth. (Skins), 140.46-146.56 (143.76); wing, 86.61- 
89-92 (87.63); tail, 55.37-58.93 (57.66); exposed culmen, 10.16-11.43 
(10.92); depth of bill at base, 5.84r-6.35 (6.10); tarsus, 20.07-20.57 
(20.32); middle toe, 13.72-15.24 (14.48).' 

' Seven specimens. ^ Six specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 161 

Interior plains of North America east of the Kocky Mountains 
breeding in the Mackenzie Kiver Valley, from the Arctic coast south 
at least to Great Slave Lake and west to the upper Yukon (Fort 
Yukon) ; south in winter as far as Indian Territory, Texas (Bonham, 
Gainesville, etc.), east, regularly, to prairies of Illinois and north- 
western Indiana, casually to South Carolina (Chester Count}'). 

Emberim (Plectroplianes) picta Swainson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 250 (Carl- 
ton House, Hudson Bay Terr. ) 

Pledrophanes picta S^vAisson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, pi. 49. 

Emberiza picta AvvvBoyi, Orn. Biog., v, 1839, 91, pi. 400. 

lEmberiza} picta Geay, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 116, no. 7729. 

Plectrophanes pictus Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838,37. — Audubon, Syn- 
opsis, 1839, 99; Birds Am., oct. ed., iii, 1841, 52, pi. 153.— Baied, Rep. Pacific 
R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 434; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 327.— Sclatbk, Cat. 
Am. Birds, 1862, 121 (Great Slave Lake).— Blakiston, Ibis, 1862, 6 (Rocky 
Mts., lat. 49°); 1863, 72 (Hudson Bay, Mackenzie R., etc.).— Call ^nd 
Bannister, Trans. Chicago Ac. Sci., i, 1869, 283 (Fort Yukon, Porcupine R., 
Alaska; Mackenzie R. district). — Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 154; Birds 
N. W., 1874, 121; Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 578 (Souris 
R., North Dakota, Oct. 1). — Snow, Birds Kansas, 1873, 7. — Baied, Brewer, 
and RiDGWAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 518, pi. 24, figs. 4, 5.— Nelson, 
Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, i, 1876, 42 ( Calumet Lake, n. e. IlUnois, Mar. ; habits) .— 
Ragsdale, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 92 (Gainesville, Texas, Nov. 23 to 
Dec.22).— LooMis, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi., 1881, 115 (Chester, South Caro- 
lina, 1 spec. Dec. 1). — Maynard, Birds, E. N. Am., 1881, 519 (Illinois in 
winter) .— Seton, Auk, i, 1884, 23 (Manitoba) . 

P. [lecirophanes'] pictus Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1844, 379. — Nelson, Bull. Essex Inst., 
viii, 1876, 106 (n. e. Illinois, common migrant). 

Pl.lectrophanes} pictus Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 463. 

[Plectrophanes'} pictus Ooubs, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 134. 

Clentrophanes'] pictus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., i, Mar., 1851, 127, footnote. — Coues, 
Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 358. 

Centraphanes pictus Coues, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, Apr., 1880, 97; Check List, 
2d ed., 1882, no. 221.— Ridgway, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 188.— 
LooMis, Auk, ii, 1885, 190 (Chester, South Carolina). — Ageesboeg, Auk, ii, 

1885, 280 (s. e. South Dakota). 

Calcarius pictus Stsjubgsr, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, June 5, 1882, 33. — Ameri- 
can Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 537. — Seton, Auk, iii, 

1886, 323 (Big Plain and Winnipeg, Manitoba, spring and fall). — Nelson, 
Rep. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 186 (Fort Yukon).— Sharps, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 584 (Repulse Bay, Fort Anderson, Fort Simpson, Slave 
Lake, and Rendezvous Lake, Arctic America; Riverside, Illinois). — Cooke, 
Bird Migr. Miss. VaL, 1888, 185 (Bonham, Texas, Nov. 10; Caddo, Indian 
Territory, Nov. 17 to Feb. 26; Fayetteville, Arkansas, Feb. 28) . — Poling, Auk, 
vii, 1890, 240 (w. lUinois, spring and fall; habits).— Thompson, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., xiii, 1891, 591 (Manitoba, spring and fall; habits). — Macpaelane, 
Proc. XT. S. Nat. Mus., xiv, 1891, 441 (e. of Fort Anderson and Lower Ander- 
son R., breeding; descr. nest).— Loomis, Auk, viii, 1891, 167 (Chester, South 
Carolina, Feb. 9); x, 1893, 152 (plumage of female).— Neheling, Our Native 
Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 79.— Butlee, Birds Indiana, 1897, 932 (Lake Co., com- 
mon during migration) . 

C. {alcarius} pictus Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 405. 

17024—01 11 



162 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Pleclrophanes smiiliii Audubox, Birds Am., oct. ed., vii, 1844, 336, pi. 487 (near 

Edwardsville, Madison Co., s. \v. Illinois; type in U. S. Nat. Mus.). 
Pl.lectrophanes'] smitld Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 468. 
C.[entrophanes\ smithi Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1, Mar., 1851, 127, footnote. 



CALCARIUS ORNATUS (Townsend). 
CfiESTNUT-COLLARED LONGSPUR, 

Wing not more than 88.90; all the rectrices (except middle pair) 
with basal portion of inner webs white (outer webs also, except two 
middle pairs). 

Adult male in summer. — Pileum, stripe behind eye, spot on lower 
part of ear-coverts, chest, breast, and abdomen black, the lower parts 
sometimes touched with rufous or chestnut; hindneck deep chestnut- 
rufous; broad superciliarj^ stripe, chin, and throat white; cheeks pale 
biiff, this sometimes overspreading lores, ear-coverts, chin, and upper 
throat; in full plumage, the lesser wing-coverts deep black, with pos- 
terior row pure white. 

Adult male in winter. — Black of head and lower parts and chestnut 
of hindneck more or less obscured or even concealed by light brownish 
or dull buffy tips to the feathers; otherwise, essentiallj^ as in summer. 

Adult female. —Above light grayish buffy brown, streaked with 
dusky; beneath pale graj'ish buffy brown, or dull grayish buff, the 
breast and belly sometimes streaked with darker; under tail-coverts 
dull buffy whitish. (Plumage softer and colors more blended in 
winter.) 

Young. — Above duskj^ the feathers edged and margined with dull 
whitish and pale brownish buff; wing-coverts tipped with dull whitish; 
an indistinct stx'eaked whitish superciliary stripe; ear-coverts streaked 
duskjr and pale brownish ; malar region, chin, and throat white flecked, 
more or less, with grayish dusky; rest of lower parts dull grayish buff, 
streaked, especially on breast, with dusk3^ 

Adult ma^f^— Length (skins), 117.60-149.61 (136.11); wing, 81.28- 
90.17 (85.34); tail, 51.05-60.71 (55.88); exposed culmen, 9.65-11.18 
(10.41); depth of bill at base (two specimens), 5.84-6.35 (6.10); tarsus, 
18.80-20.67 (19.81); middle toe, 12.19-14.22 (13.21).^ 

Adult female.— h&ngih. (skins), 118-87-143.26 (133.35); wing, 75.44- 
84.58 (80.26); tail, 48.01-57.15 (52.32); exposed culmen, 9.91-10.92 
(10.41); depth of bill at base, 5.59-6.10 (5.84); tarsus, 18.29-21.08 
(19.56); middle toe, 12.45-13.72 (13.21).^ 

Great Plains of North America, breeding from middle and western 
Kansas and eastern Colorado north to the plains of the Saskatchewan; 
in winter south to southern portion of Mexican plateau (in States of 
Vera Cruz, Puebla, Mexico, etc.), and southAvestward to Arizona, (^hi- 

' Fifteen specimens. ^ Ten specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 163 

huahua, Sonora, etc.; casual eastward, during migration, to Maine 
(Pine Point, Scarborough), Massachusetts (Gloucester), Long Island 
(Long Island City), etc. 

Plectrophanes omata Townsbnd, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., Vii, 1837, 189 (prai- 
ries of the Platte River) ; Narrative, 1839, 344. 

Plectrophanes ornatus Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 37. — Audubon, 
Synopsis, 1839, 99; Birds Am., oct. ed., iii, 1841, 53, pi. 154.— Woodhouse, 
Rep. Sitgreaves' Expl. Zufii and Ool. R., 1853, 88 (Indian Territory).— Baied, 
Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 435; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 328.— 
Blakiston, Ibis, 1862, 6 (Saskatchewan plains. May); 1863, 74 (80 m. s. w. 
Fort Carlton). — Dhesser, Ibis, 1865, 486 (San Antonio, Texas, spring.) — 
Allen, Bull. Mps. Comp. Zool, iii, 1872, 135 (Fort Hays, Kansas, breed- 
ing; descr. habits, nest, and eggs, etc.); Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xvii, 1874, 
25 (Ft. Rice, etc., North Dakota; habits, plumage, etc.). — Coues, Check 
List, 1873, no. 155; Birds N. W., 1874, 122; Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. 
Surv., iv, 1878, 579 (Souris R., etc., North Dakota, breeding; descr. habits, 
nest, etc.) . — Baied, Brewee, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 520, 
pi. 24, fig. 3; iii, 1874, 512 (crit.).— Hbnshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's 
Surv., 1873 (1874), 109, 158 (Bowie, Camp Grant, San Pedro, and Gila R., 
etc., Arizona, Sept., Oct.); Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 250 (do.).— 
Snow, Birds Kansas, ed. 1877, 7 (mid. and w. Kansas) . — Beewstee, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 118 (descr. young ).~Bebwee, BuU. Nutt. Orn. 
Club, ii, 1877, 78 (Gloucester, Massachusetts, 1 spec. July 28, 1876); Proc. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., xix, 1878, 305 (do.).— Scott, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 
143 (Johnson Co., Missouri, Apr.). — Roberts and Bennee, Bull. Nutt. Orn. 
Club, V, 1880, 14 (Grant and Traverse counties, w. Minnesota, breeding). 

P. [lectrophanes'] ornatus Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1844, 379. 

Pl.letrophanes'] ornatus Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 463. 

[^Plectrophanes'] ornatus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 134. 

Emberiza omata Audubon, Orn. Biog., v, 1839, 44, pi. 394, fig. 1. 

[Emheriza'] omata Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 116, no. 7730. 

C.[_eni,rophanes'\ ornatus Oabanis, Mus. Hein, i, March, 1851, 127, footnote. — 
Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 358. 

Centrophanes ornatus Ridgway, Field and Forest, iii. May, 1877, 197 (Colorado); 
Norn. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 189.— Coues, Bull. ISfutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 
97; Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 222.— Beown, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 
1882, 37 (Kendall Co., Texas, Feb., Mar.). — Allen and Beewstee, Bull. 
Nutt. -Orn. Club, viii, 1883, 161 (Colorado Springs, Colorado, May 9).— 
Agersborg, Auk, ii, 1885, 280 (s. e. South Dakota, breeding).— Drew, Auk, 
ii, 1885, 16 (Colorado, spring and winter).— Henshaw, Auk, ii, 1885, 333 
(upper Pecos R., New Mexico, 1 spec. Sept. ,12) . 

[Plectrophanes ornatus] var. ornatus Baied, Brewer and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, i, 1874, 511. 

Calcarius ornatus Stejneger, Proc. V. S. Nat. Mus., v, June 5, 1882, 33.— Ameei-" 
can Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 538. — Seton, Auk, iii, 
1886, 323 (w. Manitoba, May 16 to Aug. 30).— Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Am.,Aves,i, 1886, 419 (Valley of Mexico; Orizaba; plateau of Vera 
Cruz).— GooDALE, Auk, iv, 1887, 77 (near Pine Point, Maine, 1 spec. Aug. 
13)._Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 586 (Puebla, near City of 
Mexico, etc.). — Swinburne, Auk,v, 1888, 321 (Apache Co., Arizona, winter). — 
Cooke, Bird. Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 186 ( Warrensburg, Missouri, Apr.; 
breeding in s. e. Dakota, Grant and Traverse counties, w. Minnesota, w. 
Manitoba, etc. ) ; Birds Colorado, 1897, 100 (resident, more rare in summer).— 



164 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Hendkickson, Auk, vi, 1889, 190 (Long Island City, Long Island, 1 spec. 
Feb. 16, 1889).— Thompson-, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus.,xiii, 1891, 591 (Manitoba, 
summer resid. ; habits, song, etc. ) . — Goss, Birds Kansas, 1891, 436 (resident 
in w. and n. Kansas; whole State in winter). — Hatch, Birds Minn., 1892, 
308 (breeding in ii. and w. Minnesota). — Anthony, Auk, ix, 1892, 365 (s. 
w. New Mexico, Oct. 1 to Apr. 10).— Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., v, 1893, 38 
(San Diego, n. w. Chihuahua, Feb.). — Nehkling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 
1896, 80.— Knight, Bull. Univ. Maine, no. 3, 1897, 95 (Scarborough, Cumber- 
land Co., Maine, 1 spec. Aug. 13, 1886) . 

C. [alcarius'] omatus Bidgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 405. 

Plectrophanesmelanomus Baird, Eep. Pacific E. K. Surv., ix, 1858, 436 (Fort Thorn, 
New Mexico; U. S.Nat. Mus.); ed. 1860 ("Birds North America"), pi. 74, 
fig. 2; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 329.— Hebkmann, ]Rep. Pacific R. E. 
Surv., X, 1859, 13 (w. Texas, etc., winter). — Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
Lond., 1860, 251 (Orizaba, Vera Cruz); Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 121 (Vera 
Cruz). — Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 486 (San Antonio, Texas). — Coues, Proc. Ac. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 84 (Fort Whipple, Arizona, 1 spec. Oct. 17).— Sujii- 
CHHAST, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., i, 1869, 551 (plateau of Vera Cruz and 
down to Orizaba). — B.\ied, Beewek, and Eidgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, 1, 
1874, pi.' 24, fig. 6. 

[Plectrophanea'] melanomus Solater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 34 
(Mexico). 

[Emberha'] melanomus Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 116, no. 7731. 

Plectrophanes omatus var. melanomus Baird, Brewer, and Eidgway, Hist. N. 
Am. Birds, i, 1874, 521. 

Plectrophanes omatus melanomus Goode, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 20, 1883, 337. 



Genus RHYNCHOPHANES Baird. 

Rhynchopha-iies Baird, Eep. Pacific E. E. Surv., ix, 1858, 432, in text. (Type, Plec- 
trophanes mccoumii Lawrence. ) 

Rather small terrestrial Fringillidee related to Calcarvus, but differing 
in much larger and relatively thicker bill (with maxilla equal in depth 
to the mandible) and relatively shorter tail (decidedly shorter than dis- 
tance from carpus to tips of longest secondaries, instead of longer). 

Bill stout, conical, much deeper than broad at base; culmen appre- 
ciablj' depressed in middle portion; maxilla about equal' in depth to 
mandible; angulation of maxillary tomium considerably posterior to 
middle; gonys nearly straight, but appreciably convex, longer than 
hallux without claw, and exceeding basal depth of bill; the latter 
nearly or quite equal to distance from nostril to tip of maxilla. Nasal 
plumules well developed, nearly concealing nostrils, the stiff rictal 
plumules quite covering the deflected basal portion of the maxillary 
tomium. Wing long (nearly five times as long as tarsus), pointed 
(three outermost primaries longest, the ninth nearly equal to eighth, 
much longer than sixth); primaries exceeding secondaries by nearly 
twice the length of the tarsus; tertials decidedly longer than second- 
aries. Tail between one-half and two-thirds as long as wing, 
(decidedly shorter than distance from carpus to tips of longest 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 165 

secondaries), emarginated, the middle rectrices pointed, more than half 
hidden by the pointed upper coverts. Tarsus longer than middle toe 
with claw, its scutella nearh' obsolete; lateral claws not reaching base of 
middle claw ; hind claw about equal to its digit, slender, nearly straight. 

Colors. — Conspicuously streaked above; tail white, with broad dusky 
terminal band, the middle rectrices wholly dusky; adult male with 
black forehead and jugular patch and chestnut patch on middle wing- 
coverts. 

Range. — Interior plains of North America, east of Rocky Mountains. 
(Monotypic.) 

RHYNCHOPHANES McCOWNII (Lawrence). 
ffloCOWN'S LONGSPUB. 

Tail (except middle pair of recti'ices) white, broadljr tipped with 
dusky. 

Adult male in summer. — Forehead and anterior portion of crown, 
more or less distinct rictal streak, and crescentic patch across chest, 
black; posterior portion of pileum and hindneck pale brownish gray, 
streaked with dusky, especially the former; back and scapulars pale 
wood brown, or pale buffy brown, broadly streaked with duskj^; rump 
and upper tail-coverts grayer (especially the latter), less distinctly 
streaked; more anterior lesser wing-coverts ash gray with dusky 
(mostly concealed) centers; posterior lesser coverts and middle coverts 
chestnut; rest of wing grayish dusky with pale brownish gray edg- 
ings, the primaries narrowly edged with white (outer web of first pri- 
mary almost entirely white), the greater coverts and secondaries 
rather broadlj- (but not distinctly) tipped with white; middle pair of 
rectrices dusky grayish brown margined with paler; rest of tail white, 
broadly tipped with dull black, except outermost rectrices, where the 
blackish, if present, is very much reduced in extent; under parts 
(except chest) white, tinged with pale gv&y laterally, the plumage 
deep gray beneath the surface; bill brownish, dusky at tip; iris brown; 
tarsi brown; toes dusky. 

Adult male hi uunter. — Black areas concealed hj broad tips to 
feathers, brown on pileum, buffy on chest; otherwise not essentially 
different from summer plumage. 

Adult female in sumvier.— Above, light buffy brown (pale wood 
brown or Isabella color), streaked with blackish, the streaks broadest 
on back and scapulars; wings dusky, with light buffy brown edgings 
(broadest on greater coverts and tertials, narrower, paler and grayer 
on primaries, and primary coverts), the middle coverts broadly tipped 
with buffy, the lesser coverts pale brownish gray; tail as in adult 
male; sides of head (including broad superciliary stripe) light dull 
buffy, relieved hj a rather broad postocular streak of brownish; under 
parts pale buffy, passing into white on abdomen and under tail-coverts; 
a brown or dusk}' streak (submalar) along each side of throat. 



166 BULLETIN 50, TJNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Adult female in winter. — Similar to summer plumage, but dusky 
streaks on back, etc. , narrower and less distinct, and under parts rather 
more strongly tinged -with buffy. 

Young. — Back, scapulars, and rump dusky, with distinct pale buffy 
margins to the feathers; pileum and hindneck streaked with dusky 
and pale buffy; middle wing-coverts broadly margined, and greater 
coverts broadly tipped with pale buffy or buffy whitish; chest rather 
broadly streaked with dusky; otherwise much like adult female. 

Achtlt 7?ia?e.— Length' (skins), 133.86-1-1:5.03 (139.19); wing, 88.90- 
93.73 (91.44); tail, 48.26-55.88 (53.59); exposed culmen, 11.18-13.21 
(11.94); depth of bill at base (two specimens), 8.13; tarsus, 19.05- 
20.83 (19.56); middle toe, 12.70-13.72 (13.21).^ 

Adult female.— L&ngth (skins), 127.51-137.67 (133.86); wing, 80.01- 
86.87 (84.33); tail, 45.72-50.29 (48.26); exposed culmen, 10.67-11.94 
(11.18); depth of bill at base, 7.62-8.38 (8.13); tarsus, 18.03-19.81 
(19.05); middle toe, 12.19-13.72 (12.70).' 

Great Plains district of North America; breeding from eastern Col- 
orado (sparingly), northwestern Kansas, and Nebraska northward to 
Assiniboia and plains of the Saskatchewan; during migration south 
ovet plains and prairies of Texas (to Galveston, Laredo, etc.), south- 
west through New Mexico and Arizona (Bowie, Gila River, etc.) to 
northern Sonora and Chihuahua (San Diego; Gallego); casual eastward 
to Illinois (Champaign, January), westward to Idaho (Birch Creek, 
August), and even to eastern British Columbia (Chilliwack, June, two 
records). 

Plectrophanes mccownii Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., v, 1852, 122 (w. 
Texas; coll. G. N. Lawrence). — Cassin, lUustr. Birds Cal., Tex., etc., 1855, 
228, pi. 39.— Heeemann, Rep. Pacific K. R. Surv., x, pt.iv., 1859, 13 (New 
Mexico, winter). 

Plectrophanes mccownii Baikd, in Stansbury's Rep. Gt. Salt Lake, 1852, 331 (w. 
Texas); Eep. Pacific R.R. Surv., ix, 1858, 437; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 
330.— Haydbn, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc, xii, 1862, 165.— Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 
487 (s. Texas). — Coues, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 84 (s. Arizona, win- 
ter) ; Check List, 1873, no. 156; Birds N. W., 1874, 124; Am. Nat., viii, 1874, 
602 (Milk R., Montana, breeding). — Butcher, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1868, 149 (Laredo, Texas, winter). — Stevenson, Prelim. Rep. U. S. Geol. 
Sury. for 1871 (1872), 464 (Camp Reynolds, Wyoming) .—Allen, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. ZooL,iii, 1872,145 (Cheyenne, Wyoming) ; 177 (Cheyenne; w. Kansas 
in winter). — Snow, Birds Kansas, 1873, 7 (Fort Hays, w. Kansas, winter). — 
Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1873 (1874), 110 (Bowie and 
Gila R., Arizona, Oct.; Fort Bayard, New Mexico, Oct.). 

Plectrophanes maccowni Baikd, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 
523, pL 24;, fig. 1.— Allen, Proc. Bost. Soc. N.H., xvii, 1874, 46 (near Fort Rice 
and Fort Lincoln, North Dakota, June), 47 (Big Muddy R., North Dakota, 
June, July), 56 (Yellowstone R., etc., Montana; habits; descr. nest and 
eggs).— Henshaw, Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 252 (Arizona and New 
Mexico, Oct.; habits).— Co ale, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, ii, 1877, 52 (Cham- 

' Six specimens. ^ Seven specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 167 

paign, Illinois, Jan.).— Coues, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iv, 
1878, 583 (Milk R., N. Dakota, breeding habits; song; descr. nest and eggs). 

Rhyncophanes maccownii Henev, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 107 (New 
' Mexico). 

Rhyncophanes maccowni Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 589. 

Rhyncoplianes maccownii Swinbuhne, Auk, v, 1888, 321 (Apache Co., Arizona, 
winter). 

Rhyncophanes mccownii Brewster, Auk, x, 1893, 237 (Chilhwack, British Colum- 
bia, June 2, 1887 and 1890) . 

Rhynchophanes maccowni 'RiDG-w AY, Field and Forest, ii. May, 1877, 197 (Colo- 
rado); Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 178; Norn. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 
190.— Sennbtt, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 16 (Gal- 
veston, Texas, Feb..; habits).— Co l:es. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 97; 
Check List, 2ded., 1882, no. 223— Allen apd Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. 
Club, viii, 1883, 161 (Colorado Springs, Colorado, May). 

R. Ihynchophanes'] maccowni Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 359. 

Rhynchophanes mccownii American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, 
no. 539.— CooKB, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 187 (localities, dates, etc.); 
Birds Colorado, 1897, 101 (winter resident).— Merriam, North American 
Fauna, no. 5, 1891, 102 (Birch Creek, Idaho, 1 spec. Aug. 6).— Fannin, 
Check List Birds British Columbia, 1891, 35 ( Chilli wack).—Goss, Birds 
Kansas, 1891, 438 (winter resid., chiefly west and middle parts, Oct. to 
Mar.).— Nehrling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 81. 

R. [hynchophanes'] mccownii Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 406. 

Rhynchophanes mccowni Thompson, Auk, x, 1893, 50 (Dalesbro, Assiniboia).— 
Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., v, 1893, 38 (San Diego, n. w. Chihuahua, 
Feb. )— Brooks, Auk, xvii, 1900, 107 (Chilliwack, British Columbia, 3 specs. 
June). 

Genus CALAMOSPIZA Bonaparte. 

Calamospiza Bonaparte, Geog., and Comp. List, 1838, 30. (Type, Fringilla 

bicolor Townsend, = Calamospiza melanocorys Stejneger. ) 
Cory dalina^ AmvBOi^, Synop., 1839,129. (Type, Fringilla bicolor Townsend, = 

Calamospiza melanocorys Stejneger. ) 

Medium-sized or rather large terrestrial Fringillidse (wing more 
than 76.20 mm.) with rather s^tout bill (exposed culmen more than 
half as long as tarsus, basal depth greater than basal width); wing 
rather long (nearly four times as long as tarsus), with truncated tip 
(ninth to sixth primaries abruptly longest, but ninth shorter than sixth) ; 
tail about three-fourths as long as wing, nearly even; tarsus more than 
one-third as long as tail, stout; adult male in summer black, with a 
large white patch on wing-coverts; adult male in winter, adult female, 
and young, conspicuously streaked. 

Bill rather large, conical, much deeper than broad at base; exposed 
culmen more than half as long as tarsus, gently convex terminally and 
basally, nearly straight in middle portion; gonys nearly straight, its 
length about equal to basal width of mandible; maxillary tomium 
faintly notched near tip, nearly straight to beneath nostril, where 
abruptly deflected at an angle of about 45°, but soon turned backward 

'"Name from KopvSaX/\.6i, a lark." 



168 ' BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES .NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

to the rictus, producing a conspicuous convex lobe; mandibular tomium 
faintly convex anteriorly, then straight to the distinctly angulated 
basal deflection. Nostril small, nearly circular, exposed, but" nasal 
f oasse otherwise filled with feathers. Rictal bristles obvious, but very 
weak. Wing rather long (nearly four times as long as tarsus), its tip 
nearly truncated (four outermost primaries abruptly longest, but 
ninth shorter than sixth); primaries exceeding secondaries by less 
than length of tarsus; tertials slightly produced beyond secondaries. 
Tail about three-fourths as long as wing, much inore than its basal half 
overlaid by upper coverts, slightly double rounded or nearly even, the 
rectrices rather narrow. Tarsus rather long (more than one-third as 
long as tail), stout, its scutella indistinct, especially on outer side; 
middle toe with claw about as long as tarsus or a very little shorter; 
lateral claws not reaching to base of middle claw; hallux about as 
long as inner toe, its claw nearly as long as the digit. 

Coloration. — Adult male in summer uniform black, with white 
wing-coverts; adult male in winter, female, and young conspicuously 
streaked, the wing with a more or less conspicuous whitish or pale 
buffy patch. 

Range. — Interior plains of North America. (Monotypic.) 

CALAMOSPIZA MELANOCORYS Stejneger. 
LARK BUNTING. 

Adult male in summer. — Uniform black, with more or less of a 
grayish cast on back, etc.; middle and greater wing-coverts mostly 
white, forming a conspicuous patch; tertials edged with white, and 
tail-coverts (especialh' the lower) margined with white; outermost 
rectrices edged with white and sometimes with a large white spot at 
tip of inner web.^ 

AcIaM female in summer. — Above grayish brown streaked with duskj' ; 
wings with a white patch, as in the male, but this smaller, more inter- 
rupted, and more or less tinged with buffy; under parts white, streaked 
on breast, sides, etc., with dusky. 

Adult male in winter. — Similar to adult female, but feathers of under 
parts, especially on abdomen, black beneath the surface (this showing 
where feathers are disarranged); chin black. 

Adidt female in vjinter. — Similar to the summer female, but less 
grayish brown and with the paler markings more stronglv tinged with 
buff. 

Young. — Siioilar to adult female, but more buffj', with feathers of 
upper parts margined with buffy white, and streaks on under parts 
narrower. 

^ These minor white markings are conspicuous only in fresh plumage and disappear 
by abrasion, being therefore usually absent in midsummer specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 169 

Adult male.— I^eiygth (skins), 154.94-184.15 (163.32); wing, 85.09- 
91.95 (87.88); tail, 65.53-71.12 (68.58); exposed culmen, 13.21-14.73 
(13.97); depth of bill at base, 10.67-12.19 (11.43); tarsus, 22.86-25.91 
(24.38); middle toe, 16.76-18.03 (17.27).' 

Adult female.— Length (skins), 144.78-165.10 (157.23); wing, 81.79- 
85.09 (83.31); tail, 60.45-68.58 (66.04); exposed culmen, 12.70-13.21 
(12.70); depth of bill at base, 10.16-11.94 (10.67); tarsus, 22.35-25.16 
(23.88); middle toe, 16.61-17.78 (17.02).' 

Great Plains between Missouri River and Rock^^ Mountains, breed- 
ing from middle and western Kansas, eastern Colorado, western Min- 
nesota, etc., to Manitoba and Assiniboia; migrating south and south- 
west in winter, through Texas (to Gulf coast), New Mexico, and 
Arizona to plateau of Mexico (States of Guanajuato, Chihuahua, 
Sonora, etc.), Lower California, and coast of southern California (San 
Diego and Los Angeles counties, etc.); occasional west of Rockj^ 
Mountains (Utah, Nevada, Idaho, etc.), and accidental in Atlantic 
States (Massachusetts, New York, including Long Island), and South 
Carolina during fall migration. 

FringiUa bicolor (not of Linnseus) Townsend, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., vii, 1837, 
189 (plains of Platte E.; type in U. S. Nat. Mus.) ; Narrative, 1839, 346.— 
Audubon, Orn. Biog., v, 1839, 19, pi. 390. 

Calamospiza hicolor Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 30. — Baied, Eep. 
Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 492; Rep. U. S. and Mex. Bound. Surv., ii, pt. 2, 
1859, 16 (Espia, Sonora); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 377; Proc. Ac. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1859, 301, 304 (Cape St. Lucas) .—Hebemanx, Rep. Pacific R. R. 
Surv., X, pt. iv, 1859, 15 (Arizona, New Mexico, etc.). — Sclatee, Cat. Am. 
Birds, 1862, 121 (Mexico).— Deessek, Ibis., 1865, 490 (San Antonio, Texas, 
■winter). — Butchee, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1868, 150 (Laredo, Texas, 
Nov.).— CouES, Proc- Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1868, 83 (s. Arizona); Check 
List, 1873, no. 190; 2d ed., 1882, no. 286; Birds N. W., 1874, 163; Bull. U. S. 
Nat.« Mus., no. 7, 1877, 11 (Angel I., Pichilinque Bay, Lower California); 
Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 597 (Montana).— Duges, 
La Naturaleza, i, 1868, 140 (Guanajuato, Mexico). — Coopee, Orn. Cal.,1870, 
225 (Cape St. Lucas, Sonora, etc.). — Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 
137 (Fort Hays, w. Kansas, breeding; descr. habits, notes, etc.) , 177 (South 
Park, etc., Colorado; Cheyenne, Wyoming) ; Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xvii, 
1874, 28 (Dakota and Montana; descr. habits, nests and eggs, etc. ) ; Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 48 (Lynn, Massachusetts, 1 spec. Dec. 5, 1877).— 
Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., v, 1873, 172 (Parleys Park, Utah, 1 spec, young, 
July 30); vii, 1875, 33 (do.); Orn. 40th Parallel, 1877, 487 (do.); Nom. N. 
Am. Birds, 1881, no. 256. — Baird, Beewee, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, ii, 1874, 61, pi. 29, figs. 2, 3.— Henshaw, Rep. and List Birds Wheeler's 
Surv., 1873 (1874), 63 (Denver, Colorado), 119 (Zuni, New Mexico, July 25; 
San Pedro R. and Gila R., Arizona, Oct.), 159 (s. e. Arizona, abt. in fall) ; 
Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 294.— Yaeeow and Hexshaw, Rep. Orn. 
Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1873 (1874), 15 (Snake Valley, Nevada) .—Meeeill, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1878, 128 (Fort Brown, Texas, winter).— Sexnett, 
Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., v, 1879, 381 (Corpus Christi and 

^Six specimens. 



170 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Point Isabel, Texas, Mar.) .— Eobeets and Bbnner, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 
y, 1880, 15 (Grant and Traverse counties, w. Minnesota, breeding) . — May- 
NAED, Birds E. N. Am., 1881, 519 (e. Massachusetts, accidental).— Brew- 
ster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 200 (Tombstone, Arizona, Apr. 13).— 
Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1883, 343 (Guaymas, Sonora, Dec.).— 
HoLTERHOFF, Auk, i, 1884, 293 (near San Diego, s. California, Apr.). — Drew, 
Auk, ii, 1885, 16 (Colorado, up to 8,000 ft.) .—Cooke, Auk, ii, 1885, 32 (Lanes- 
boro, s. e. Minnesota, May 11, June 19); Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 232 
(localities, dates, etc.). — Agersborg, Auk, ii, 1885, 281 (s. e. South Dakota, 
breeding; habits). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 
417 (Espia and Guaymas, Sonora; Guanajuato). — Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus., xii, 1888, 593. 

[Calamospiza] fitcoZor Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 475. — Gray, Hand-list, ii, 
1870, 111, no. 7669.— CoHES, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 148.— Sclater and 
Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 34 (Mexico). , 

C-lalamospiza'] bicolor CouES, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 887. 

Corydalina bicolor Audubon, Synopsis, 1839, 130; Birds Am., oct. ed., iii, 1841, 
195, pi. 202.— Maximilian, Journ. fur Orn., 1858, 347 (Upper Missouri R.). 

Dolidwnyx bicolor Nuttall, Man. Orn. U. S. and Can., 2d ed., i, .1840, 203. 

Calamospiza melanocorys Stetneger, Auk, ii, Jan., 1885, 49. — American Orni- 
thologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 605. — Seion, Auk, iii, 1886, 324 (Souris 
plain, etc., w. Manitoba).— Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 222 (locali- 
ties, dates, etc. ; breeding in s. e. Dakota, w. Minnesota, Eed. E. Valley, etc. ) ; 
Birds Colorado, 1897, 109 (summer resid., chiefly e. of mts. ). — Beckham, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1888, 681 (Corpus Christi, Texas, Jan. 21 to Feb. 
12).— Evans, Auk, vi, 1889, 192, (Montauk Point, Long Island, 1 spec. Sept. 
4) .— TowNSEND, Proc.'U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1890, 136 (Ballaenas Bay, Lower 
California, 1 spec. May). — Goss, Birds Kansas, 1891, 495 (w. and mid. Kan- 
sas, summer resid.). — Merriam, North Am. Fauna, no. 5, 1891, 104 (w. of 
Blackfoot and bet. Big Butte and Big Lost rivers, Idaho, July). — Allen, 
Bull. Am. Mus., N. H., v, 1893, 40 (Oputo, n. e. Sonora, Oct. 27-30).— 
Thorne, Auk, xii, 1896, 217 (Fort Keogh, Montana, breeding). — Wayne, 
Auk, xii, 1895, 306 (Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, 1 spec. Apr. 19, 1895) .— 
Neheling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 232.— Grinnell, Pasadena Ac. 
Sci., Pub. no. ii, 1898, 41 (Newhall, Los Angeles Co., Calif oAiia, 3 specs. 
May 3, 1897). 

C. [alamospiza] melanocorys Eidgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 453. 

Genus SPIZA Bonaparte. 

Spiza Bonaparte, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., iv, pt. i, Aug., 1824, 45. (Type, 
by elimination, Emberiza amerieana Gmelin). (See Eidgway, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 3, 4.) 

Euspiza Bonaparte, Saggio Distr. Met. An. Vertebr., 1832, 141. (Type, Ember- 
iza amerieana Gmelin.) 

Eugpina'^ Cabanis, Mus. Hein., i, April, 1851, 133. (Type, Emberiza amerieana 
Gmelin. ) 

Medium-sized or rather small Fringillidse, with stout, conical, com- 
pressed bill, long pointed wing (ninth primary longest or equal to 
longest), rather long tarsus (longer than middle toe with claw); color 
above grayish brown, the back and scapulars streaked with black. 

'"Von £V und 6niva, nom. prop." 



BIEDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 



171 



Bill rather large (exposed culmen more than half as long as the long 
tarsus), conical, much deeper than broad at base; depth at base nearly 
equal to distance from nostril to tip of maxilla; mandible deeper than 
maxilla, its tomium nearly straight to the subbasal angle, where 
abruptly deflected; maxillary tomium faintly concave anteriorly, then 
gently convex, the decided basal deflection beginning directly beneath 
the nostril; culmen gently convex at base and tip, straight between; 
gonys very slightly convex, nearly as long as the distance from nostril 
to tip of maxilla. Nostril exposed, with very narrow overhanging 
membrane. Rictal bristles small, indistinct. Wing long (more than 
three times as long as the long tarsus), pointed (ninth primary longest 
or equal to longest); primaries exceeding secondaries by about the 
length of the tarsus. Tail about three-fourths as long as wing, more 
than half hidden by the upper coverts, emarginate, the middle rectrices 
narrow and pointed. Tarsus a little longer than middle toe with claw 
(about three-tenths as long as wing and two-fifths as long as tail), its 
scutella distinct; lateral claws falling decidedly short of base of middle 
claw; hallux about as long as lateral toes, but much stouter, its claw 
decidedly shorter than the digit. 

Coloration: Grayish or brownish above, with black streaks on back; 
head and neck plain grayish, with white or yellow superciliary and 
malar stripes and at least upper part of throat white. 

Range. — Temperate North America east of Rocky Mountains (south 
to Colombia in winter). (Two species; one extinct?) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF SPIZA. 

a. Under part whitish, with more or less of yellow on breast; adult male with lesser 
wing-coverts cinnamon-rufous, and with lower throat black. (Eastern United 

States, south to Colombia in winter. ) Spiza americana (p. 171) 

aa. Under parts slate-gray, becoming whitish on abdomen, etc. ; whole throat white; 
adult male with lesser wing-coverts grayish brown, and with lower throat 
white. (Eastern Pennsylvania; extinct?) Spiza townsendii (p. 174) 

SPIZA AMERICANA (Gmelin). 
mCECISSEL. 

Adult male. — Pileum, hindneck, sides of neck, and auricular region 
plain gray, the forehead and crown usually more or less olive-greenish; 
narrow superciliary stripe pale yellow, sometimes white posteriorly; 
back and scapulars light brownish gray or grayish brown, streaked 
with black, the rump similar but paler and grayer and without streaks; 
upper tail-coverts brownish gray with dusky shaft-streaks; lesser and 
middle wing-coverts cinnamon-rufous; greater coverts and tertials 
dusky centrally, broadly edged with pale wood-brownish, the former 
sometimes tinged with cinnamon-rufous; secondaries, primaries, and 



172 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

rectrices grayish dusky edged with pale buffy grayish (edging nearly 
white on outermost primaries and rectrices); malar region yellow 
anteriorily, white posteriorly; chin (and usually upper throat) white; 
breast (sometimes more or less of abdomen also) yellow, this fading 
into white on lower abdomen, under tail-coverts, etc. ; the sides and 
flanks pale brownish gray ; a black patch, of exceedingly variable shape 
and extent, on lower throat, sometimes continued posteriorly along 
the median line of breast to upper part of abdomen or anteriorly to 
(but not including) the chin; ' maxilla blackish with paler (bluish gray) 
tomia; mandible grayish blue in life, with blackish streak on terminal 
portion of gonji-s; iris brown; legs and feet horn -brownish; length 
(skins), liO.9T-160.27 (118.08); wing, 78.99-85.85 (82.65); tail, 55.12- 
61.47 (58.17); exposed culmen, 11.73-15.49 (14.99); depth of bill at 
base, 10.41-11.43 (10.67); tarsus, 22.86-24.13 (23.37); middle toe, 
16.76-18.03 (17.53).' 

Adult female. — Much like the adult male, but coloration much 
duller; upper parts more brown, with the pileum and rump usually 
more or less streaked with duskj^; lesser wing-coverts dusky centrally, 
broadly margined with light grayish brown, the middle coverts similar, 
but margined terminally with paler (more grayish buflfy) ; superciliary 
and malar stripes with less of yellow, sometimes with none; under parts 
with yellow of breast more restricted; whole throat white, margined 
laterally by a more or less distinct submalar streak of dusky; no black 
spot on lower throat, or else this much smaller than in male; flanks 
more or less streaked with dusky; length (skins), 139.70-145.80 
(143.26); wing, 74.68-77.47 (75.69); tail, 50.04r-55.12 (52.07); exposed 
culmen, 12.70-14.22 (13.46); depth of bill at. base, 9.91-10.67 (10.41); 
tarsus, 21.8^^22.86 (22.35); middle toe, 16.26-17.27 (16.76).' 

Yovng in first winter. — Similar to adult female, but everywhere 
tinged with dull buffy or pale clay color. 

United States east of Rocky Mountains, and southward in winter 
through New Mexico, Arizona, Mexico (both coasts), and Central Amer- 
ica to Colombia and Trinidad; occasional during migration in Jamaica 
and on Swan Island (Caribbean Sea); breeding from South Carolina (for- 
merly), Alabama, Mississippi, and Texas north to North Dakota, Minne- 
sota, Wisconsin, Michigan (south of lat. 43^), southern Ontario, etc., 
formerly to eastern Massachusetts (Medford, Hingham, Hyde Park, 
etc.). Now chiefly restricted during the breeding season to the region 
between the Allegheny Mountains and eastern base of the Rocky 
Mountains, having for unknown reasons, become practicallj- extinct 

' Sometimes there are two or more black spots succeeding one another; often a 
larger, shield-shaped spot on lower throat and a smaller one, of more irregular shape, 
on center of breast. 

^Ten specimens. 

^ Eight specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 173 

within the past thirty years throughout the whole extent of the 
Atlantic coast plain. 

[Emberiza'] americana Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, pt. ii, 1788, 872 (based on Black- 
throated Bunting Pennant, Arot. Zool., ii, 364).— Latham, Index Orn., i, 1790, 
411. 

Emberiza americana Wilson, Am. Orn., i, 1808, 411; iii, 1811, 86, pi. 3, fig. 2. — 
NuTTALL, Man. Orn. U. S. and Canada, i, 1832, 461.— Audubon, Orn. Biog., 
iv, 1838, 579, pi. 384; Synopsis, 1839, 101; Birds Am., oct. ed., iii, 1841, 58, 
pi. 156.— Maximilian, Journ. fiir Orn., vi, 1858,341 (Upper Missouri R. ) . 

Fringilla americana Bonapahtb, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., iv, 1824, 46 (Obs. 
Nom. Wilson's Orn., no. 85; crit. ) ; Ann. Lye. N. Y., ii, 1828 (Synopsis, 1828, 
107). 

Coelebs americana Lesson, Trait6 d'Orn., 1831, 441. 

Euspiza americana Bonapahte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 32. — Woodhouse, 
in Rep. Sitgreaves' Expl. Col. and Zufii R., 1853, 87 (Indian Territory, 
Texas, New Mexico).— Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 494; 
Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 378.— Sclatee and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, 18 
(Guatemala); Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1873, 836 (coast Honduras). — 
Cassin, Proo. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, 140 (Turbo, Colombia) .-Law- 
rence, Ann. Lye. N. Y., vii, 1861, 298 (Panama R. R.); viii, 1865, 181 
(Greytown, Nicaragua) ; viii, 1868, 286 (vicinity New York City); ix, 1868, 
104 (Tabacales, San Jos6, and Dota, Costa Rica); Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., 
ii, 1874, 277 (Mazatlan) ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 4, 1876, 21 (Juchitan, 
Guichicovi, and Tehauntepec, Oaxaca, Sept., Oct.). — Coues and Prentiss, 
Smithsonian Rep. for 1861 (1862) , 413 (District of Columbia, abundant May to 
Sept.). — Hayden, Trans. Am. Philos. Soc, xii, 1862, 168 (abundant along the 
Missouri and its tributaries). — Allen, Proc. Essex Inst., iv, 1864, 84 (Massa- 
chusetts, rare); Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., i, 1868, 505 (w. Iowa, n. Illinois); 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 177 (Kansas; Colorado); Proc. Bost. Soc. 
N. H., xvii, 1874, 17, 29, 59 (Ft. Rice, North Dakota, to Bad Lands of Little 
Missouri). — Deessek, Ibis, 1865, 490 (San Antonio,Texas, breeding). — Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 142 (David, Chiriqui) ; 1870, 190 (Chitra, Vera- 
gua). — Sumichrast, Mem. Bost Soc. N. H., i, 1869, 552 (Vera Cruz, winter). — 
Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 191; Birds N. W., 1874, 164.— Ridgway, Bull. 
Essex Inst., v, 1873, 183 (Colorado). — Baikd, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 65, pi. 28, figs. 11, 12; iii, 1874, 516 (Denver, Colo- 
rado).— Hensh aw. Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1873 (1874), 119 (San 
Pedro, Arizona, Sept.); Zool. Exp. ^VT 100th Merid.,1875, 295 (San Pedro, 
Cienega, Camp Crittenden, and Camp Lowell, Arizona, Aug. 22 to Sept. 11 ) . — 
Boucaed, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, 58 (San Jose and Volcan de Irazii, 
Costa Rica, Mar.) .— Puedie, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 45 (Medford, 
Massachusetts, breeding) .— Beewstee, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 122 
(descr. young); iv, 1879, 41 (do.).— Brewer, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 
190 (near Hingham, Massachusetts, breeding). — Sennett, Bull. U. S. Geol. 
and Geog. Surv. Terr., v, 1879, 392 (Lomita, Texas, breeding).— Gibbs, Bull. 
CJ. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., v, 1879, 487 (Michigan, breeding north 
to 43°).— Deane, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 123 (Medford, Hingham, 
and Hyde Park, Massachusetts, breeding).— Trotter, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 
iv, 1879, 235 (near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, breeding). — Roberts and 
Bennee, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 15 (Grant and Traverse counties, 
Minnesota, breeding). — Zeledon, Cat. Aves de Costa Rica, 1882,9. 

[Euspizal americana Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 148.— Sclatee and Salvin, 
Nom.Av. Neotr., 1873, 33. 



174 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

E. [uspiza] americana Nelson, Bull. Essex Inst., yiii, 1876, 109, 152 (n. e. Illinois, 
summer resid.). 

IFringillafia] americana Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 469. 

E.luspino] americana Cabanis, Mua. Hein., i, Apr., 1851, 133. 

Jiipiza americana Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, Mar. 27, 1880, 3 (crit. 
nomencl.); x, 1887, 576 (Swan I. ,' Caribbean Sea, Mar., Apr.); Nom. N.Am. 
Birds, 1881, no. 254.— Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1882, 391 (LaPalma, 
w. Costa Rica, Maj- 1).— Hay, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii,1882, 92 (opposite 
Vicksburg, Mississippi, breeding).— Beckham, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 
1882, 250 (Fernandina, Florida, Apr. 22). — Langdox, Journ. Cine. Soc. N. 
H., V, 1882, 95 (descr. abnormal spec.).— Townsend (C. W.), Auk, ii, 1885, 
106 (Job's I., Penobscot Bay, Maine, Sept. 29).— Loomis, Auk, ii, 1885, 192 
(Chester, South Carolina, breeding) ; viii, 1891, 168 (no longer found at 
Chester!). — American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 604.— 
Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 416. — Zeledon, An. 
Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 111 (Cartago; Alajuela; Jimenez). — Cohy, Auk, 
iv, 1887, 180 (island of Old Providence, Caribbean Sea). — Cooke, BirdMigr. 
Miss. Val., 1888, 220 (localities, dates, etc) ; Birds Colorado, 1897, 109 (summer 
resid. e. of Rocky Mts. ) ; Bull. Colo. Agric. Coll., 1898, 167 (Colorado Springs, 
Aug.). — Miller, Auk, vii, 1890, 229 (Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 1 spec. Sept. 
30) .— Cherrie, Auk, vii, 1890, 334 (San Jos6, Costa Rica, Sept. 29) ; ix, 1892, 
248 (San Jos6, Sept. 27 to Apr. 20) ; Expl. Zool. Costa Rica, 1893, 29 (Legarto, 
a. Costa Rica, Feb.). — Johnson, Auk, viii, 1891, 116 (Blithewood, Long 
Island, Aug. 25). — Chapman, Auk, viii, 1891, 395 (Hoboken, New Jersey, 
common summer resid. 40 years previously!); Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., vi, 
1894, 33 (Trinidad).— Attwater, Auk, ix, 1892, 339 (San Antonio, Texas, 
breeding). — MgIlwraith, Birds Ontario, 1892, 333 (Point Pelee, w. Ontario, 
1 spec. June). — Dutcher, Auk, x, 1893, 276 (formerly breeding on Long 
Island). — Norton, Auk, x, 1893, 302 (Westbrook, Cumberland Co., Maine, 
Oct. 10) .— Nehrling, Our Native Birds, etc.,ii, 1896, 229, pi. 27.— Dwight, 
Auk, XV, 1897, 95 (Kingston, Long Island, June 5). — Knight, Bull. Univ. 
Maine, no. 3, 1897, 103 (Westbrook, Maine, 1 spec. Oct. 10, 1888).— Bangs, 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xii, 1898, 140 (ganta Marta, Colombia, winter). 

S.[piza} americana CouES, Key N. Am. Birds, ed. 2, 1884, 387. — Ridgway, Man. 
N. Am. Birds, 1887, 452. 

[Fringilla'] flaricollis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, pt. ii, 1788, 926 (based on Yellow-throated 
Finch Pennant, Arctic Zool., ii, 374). — Latham, Index Orn., i, 1790, 465. 

"Passerina nigricollis Vieill.[ot], Enc. Meth., 931." (Coues.) 

Emberiza nigricollis Nordmann, in Erman Reis., 1835, 11, pi. 5. 



SPIZA TOWNSENDII (Audubon). 
TOWNSEND'S BUNTING. 

Adult male. — Head, neck, and under parts dark slate-gray, relieved 
by a superciliary stripe, malar stripe, and elongated patch covering 
chin and throat, of white, the latter separated from the malar stripe 
by a narrow subraalar series of black streaks, which continue around 
the posterior border of the white throat-patch, in the gray of the 
chest; upper parts grayish brown, the back and scapulars narrowly 
streaked with blackish; abdomen and under tail-coverts white, the 
former tinged with pale yellow; length (skin), about 146.05; wing, 



BIKDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA . 175 

73.15; tail, 53.59; exposed culmen, 12.70; depth of bill at base, 9.65; 
tarsus, 20.07; middle toe, 16.51. 

Chester Countj^, Pennsylvania (one specimen, taken near New Gar- 
den, May 11, 1833; now in United States National Museum). 

Emberiza towmendii Audubon, Orn. Biog., ii, 1834, 183 (Chester Co., Pennsyl- 
vania; type in coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.); v, 1839, 90, pi. 400; B. Am., iii, 1841, 
62, pi. 157.— NuTTALL, Man., 2d ed., i, 1840, 528. 

Emberiza townsendi Avbvbov, Synop., 1839, 101. 

Empiza townsendii Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 32. — Baird, B. X. 
Am., 1858, 495; Cat. N. Am. B., 1859, no. 379.— Coues, Check List, 1873, 
no. 192. 

Euspiza towmendi Baird, Brewer, and Bidgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 
68, pi. 28, fig. 13.— Maynard, Birds E. N. Am., 1881, b-Al. 

[Euspiza] toumsendii Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 148. 

Spiza townsendi Eidgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, Aug. 24, 1880, 182; Nom. 
N. Am. B., 1881, no. 255.— Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 288.— 
Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 774, 

Spiza tovmsendii American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, p. 354 
("hypothetical list," no. 18). 

8.[_pizd] townsendi Coves, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 388. 

S. \_piza] toumsendii Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 452. 



Genus CHONDESTES Swainson. 

Chondestes Swainson, Philos. Mag., n. ser., i,1827, 435. (Type, C. sirigata Swainson.) 

Medium-sized terrestrial or semiterrestrial Fringillidse with long 
and pointed wing (ninth primary equal to or longer than sixth), rather 
long and rounded tail, and small feet (tarsus shorter than distance from 
tips of secondaries to tip of longest primaries, and middle toe with 
claw not longer than tarsus) ; head conspicuously striped with chest- 
nut, black and whitish, and tail (except middle rectrices) broadly tipped 
with white. 

Bill rather stout, conical, deeper than broad at base, its basal depth 
less than length of gonys; exposed culmen about as long as lateral 
toes, without claws; gonj^s a little shorter than distance from nostril 
to tip of maxilla, straight or almost imperceptibly convex, the culmen 
also nearly straight, but perceptibly convex at base and tip; tomia 
nearljr straight to the basal deflection, the subbasal angle of the man- 
dibular tomium not toothed. Nostrils partly hidden below and at 
base. Kictal bristles inconspicuous. Wing long (about four and a 
half times as long as tarsus), pointed (eighth and seventh primaries 
longest, the ninth about equal to the sixth) ; primaries exceeding sec- 
ondaries by a little more than one and a half times length of tarsus. 
Tail long (more than three-fourths as long as wing), rounded. Tarsus 
rather short (about twice as long as exposed culmen), its scutella dis- 
tinct; middle toe and claw about as long as tarsus; lateral claws fall- 



176 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

ing short of base of middle claw; hind claw much shorter than its 
digit. 

Colors. — Adult with ear-covei'ts and broad stripe on each side of 
crown chestnut, separated by broad whitish superciliary and median 
vertical stripes; back brownish streaked with black; broad tips to 
rectrices (except middle pair), "speculum" at base of primaries, and 
most of under parts white. 

Range. — Sparsely wooded districts of more western United States 
and Mexico. (Monotypic.) 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OP CHONDESTES. 

o. Parker and more broadly streaked above; chestnut head -markings darker. (Semi- 
wooded districts of Mississippi Valley. ) 

Choudestes grammacas grammacus (p. 176) 

aa. Paler and more narrowly streaked above ; , chestnut head -markings lighter. ( East- 
ern edge of Great Plains to the Pacific, and south over plateau to southern 
Mexico.) Choudestes grammacus strigatus (p. 178) 

CHONDESTES GRAMMACUS GRAMMACUS (Say). 
LARK SPARROW. 

Above brownish gray or grayish brown, the back streaked with 
blackish; tail (except middle rectrices) broadly tipped with white; 
under parts mostly white. 

Arhdts {sexes altle). — Pileum and auricular region chestnut, the 
former with a median stripe of pale brownish gray or grayish buff 
(whitish anteriorly), the broader chestnut stripes blackish anteriorly; 
a black streak across lores; a black rictal streak confluent with the 
chestnut auricular patch; a black submalar streak; a broad superciliary 
stripe of white, becoming more or less buffy posteriorly ; a large cres- 
centic suborbital spot, a small post-auricular spot, and a malar stripe, 
white; under parts white, becoming buffy grayish brown on sides and 
flanks, the chest more or less tinged with the same and marked in cen- 
ter with a blackish spot; back, scapulars, lesser wing-coverts, and 
upper tail-coverts brownish gray or grayish brown (hair brown), the 
back and scapulars broadly streaked with black; wings (except lesser 
coverts) dusky with light grayish brown edgings, the middle coverts 
tipped with white, or dull buffy white (producing a rather distinct 
band), and the eighth to fifth or fourth primaries with white at the base 
(producing a more or less conspicuous patch) ; middle pair of rectrices 
dusky grayish brown, the remaining rectrices black, abruptly tipped 
with white, this white tip occupying nearly if not quite the exposed 
terminal half on outermost rectrix; maxilla deep brownish becoming 
blackish at tip; mandible paler (more or less bluish or lilaceous in life); 
iris brown; legs and feet pale brownish (the toes rather darker). 



BIEDS OF NOBTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 



177 



Adult tnale.—'Length. (skins), 139.70-162.56 (150.37); wing, 82.04- 
93.73 (87.12); tail, 64.52-78.23 (70.36); exposed culmen, 10.41-12.19' 
(11.43); depth of bill at base, 7.62-8.13 (7.87); tarsus 19.81-20.32 
(20.06); middle toe, 13.21-15.75 (14.73).^ 

J.(Z'MZ!!/ema^e.— Length (skins), 147.32-156.21 (151.64); wing, 81.28- 
85.85 (83.57); tail, 64.52-68.58 (66.55); exposed culmen, 11.18-11.94 
(11.43); depth of bill at base, 7.62; tarsus, 20.32; middletoe, 14.73-15.24 
(14.99)." 

Mississippi Valley, east of the Great Plains; north to eastern MIh- 
nesota, Wisconsin, and southern Michigan, east (regularly) to Ohio, 
Kentucky, Tennessee, etc. , casually or more rarely to Massachusetts, 
Long Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, District of Columbia, Vir- 
ginia, etc., and (during migration) Florida. 

FringUla grammaca Say, in Long's Exped. Rocky Mts., i, 1823, 139 (near St. Louis,. 
Missouri). — Bonapahte, Am. Orn., i, 1825, 47, pi. 5, fig. 3; Ann. Lye. Nat.. 
Hist. N. Y., ii, 1828, 108, part.— Nuttall, Man. Orn. U. S. and Canad., i, 
1832, 480.— AuDCBON, Orn. Biog., v, 1839, 17, pi. 390. 

Chondestes grammaca Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 32. — Baird, Rep. 
Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 456, part (localities in Illinois and Missouri) ; 
Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 344, part.— Wheaton, Ohio, Agric. Rep., 1860, 339 
(Columbus, Ohio). — Allen, Proc, Essex Inst., iv, 1864, 84 (Massachusetts); 
Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., i, 1868, 495, 517 (n. Illinois; Iowa) .— Maynaed, 
Naturalists' Guide, 1870, 142 (Massachusetts); Birds Florida, pt. iv, 1878, 
104 (near Sarasota Bay, Florida). — Coues, Proc. Essex Inst., v, 1868, 281 
(Massachusetts); Check List, 1873, no. 186, part; Birds N. W., 1874, 159, 
part. — Baied, Brewer and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874,562, part. — 
RiDGWAY, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 43 (Washington, District of Colum- 
bia, 2 spec. Aug. 27), 164 (Wabash Co., Illinois). — Langdon, Birds Cine, 
1877, 9 (Hamilton Co., Ohio).— Purdie, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 44 
(Newtonville, Massachusetts, 1 spte. Nov. 25). — Covert, Annot. List Birds 
and Mam. Washtenaw Co., Mich., 1881, 181 (rare). 

C-lhondestes'] grammaca Ridgway, Ann. Lye. N. Y., x, 1874, 372 (Illinois). — 
Nelson, Bull. Essex Inst., viii, 1876, 107 (n. e. Illinois). 

Chondestes grammica Beewstee, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, July, 1878, 121 (descr. 
young; Columbus, Ohio).— Gibes, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv., v, 
1879, 487 (Van Buren Co., Michigan, breeding). — Langdon, Revised List 
Birds Cine, 1879, 9 (sum. resid.). — Ridgway, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 
204; Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 20 (Knox Co., Indiana, breeding).— 
TowNSEND (C. W.), Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 53 (Magnolia, Massa- 
chusetts, 1 spec. Aug. 27).— Earle, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1881, 58 (Lay- 
ville. Long Island, 1 spec. Aug. 20).— Beckham, Journ. Cine. Soc. N. H., vi, 
1883, 141 (Nelson Co., Kentucky, com. summer resid.). — Shaepe, Cat. 
Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 591, part (localities in Illinois). 

C.lhondestes'] grammica Ridgway, Bull. 111. State Lab. N. H., no. 4, 1881, 179 
(Illinois) .—CouBS, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 384, part. 

[Chondestes'] j/rammaca Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 497.— Coues, Key N. Am. 
Birds, 1872, 146, part. 

' Eight specimens. 'Two specimens. 

17024^01 12 



178 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

C.[hondestesJi grammaca Wheaton, in Coues' Birds N. W., 1874, 234, in text 
(Columbus, Ohio, summer resid.) ■ 

Chondestes grammicus Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 281, part.— Beownb, 
Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, viii, 1883, 182 (Framingham, Massachusetts, 1 spec. 
Apr. 30).— Smith (R. W.), Journ. Cine. Soc. N. H., 1891, 120 (Warren Co., 
s. w. Ohio, rare, breeding). 

Chondestes grammacus Coues, Proc. Essex Inst., v, 1868, 281 (Gloucester, Massa- 
chusetts, 1 spec. 1845). — American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, 
no. 552. — Chapman, Auk, iii, 1886, 136 (Schraalinburgh, New Jersey, 1 spec. 
Nov. 26) .— Henshaw, Auk, iii, 1886, 487 (Washington, District of Columbia, 
Aug. 8 and 27). — Scott, Auk, iv, 1887, 133 (Tarpon Springs and Punta 
Eassa, Florida, Sept. 19 and 26) ; vi, 1889, 322 (Tarpon Springs, Nov. 10, and 
Key West, Florida, Oct. 6).— Sennett, Auk, iv, 1887, 241 (Cranberry, w. 
North Carolina, 1 spec. Aug. 9).— Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 192, 
part (localities in Iowa, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Ohio).— Poling, Auk, vii, 
1890, 241 (Quincy, Illinois).— McIlwkaith, Birds Ontario, 1892, 317 (Hamil- 
ton, 1 pair, May; near London, breeding; near Toronto). — (?) Attwatek, 
Auk, ix, 1892, 338 (San Antonio, Texas, migr.). — McCoemick, Auk, ix, 1892, 
397 (Oberlin, n. Ohio, breeding).— Palmer (W.), Auk, xiii, 1896, 84 (Cape 
Charles, Virginia, 1 spec. Aug. 24). — Nehrling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 
1896, 98, pi. 24, fig. 1.— Torrey, Auk, xiii, 1896, 179 (Pulaski, Virginia, 1 
spec. Apr. 28). — Allison, Auk, xvi, 1899, 268 (Beauvoir, Mississippi, Sept. 
4). — Rhoads, Auk, xvi, 1899, 312 (Hyndman, Bedford Co., Pennsylvania, 
June; Leetsdale, Allegheny Co., Pennsylvania, May). 

C. [hondestes} grammacus Eidgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 414. 

Emberiza grammaca Audubon, Synopsis, 1839, 101; Birds Am., oct. ed., iii, 1841, 
63, pi. 158. — Putnam, Proc. Essex Inst., i, 1856, 244 (Gloucester, Massachu- 
setts). 

Z. [onotricMa'] grammaca Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1849, 374. 

[Calamospiza] grammaca Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 111, no. 7670. 



CHONDESTES GRAMMACUS STRIGATUS (Swainson). 
WESTERN LAKK SPARROW. 

Similar to O. g. grammacus^ but upper parts paler and browner, with 
black streaks on back narrower, and chestnut head-markings lighter, 
with less black anteriorly. 

Adult maZ<?.— Length (skins), 142.24-167.64 (156.21); wing, 81.28- 
91.95 (86.61); tail, 64.01-76.20 (70.10); exposed culmen, 10.41-13.72 
(11.94); depth of bill at base, 7.62-8.89 (8.13); tarsus, 19.30-21.59 
(20.32); middle toe, 13.72-17.53 (15.24).' 

Adult female.— Li%n^\h (skins), 139.70-171.45 (151.89); wing, 79.25- 
89.15 (84.07); tail, 60.96-71.37 (67.56); exposed culmen, 10.67-12.95 

1 Forty-eight specimens. 



BIRDS OF NOKTH AND MIDDLE AMEEICA. 



179 



(12.19); depth of bill at base, 7. 62-8. 3s (7.87); tarsus, 18.80-20.83 
(20.32); middle toe, 12.95-16.00 (14.99).^ 

Western United States and plateau of Mexico; north to interior of 
British Columbia (Vernon), Manitoba (Winnipeg), etc.; south (in win- 
ter at least) to Oaxaca (Chihuitan, Santa Efigenia, etc.), Chiapas (San 
Benito), and Guatemala (Barranco Hondo); east to eastern border of 
Great Plains; west to Pacific coast, including peninsula of Lower 
California. 

Chondestes slrigata Swainson, Philos. Mag., n. s.,i, 1827, 435 (Mexico); Claasif. 
Birds, ii, 1837, 289. 

Chondestes sirigatus Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Avea, i, 1886, 375, part 
(localities in Mexico and United Stiites, except Illinois and Iowa; Barranco 
Hondo, Guatemala). 

Chondestes grammica strigata Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, Aug. 24, 1880, 179; 
Norn. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 204a.— Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1883, 
541 (La Paz, Lower California, winter) ; vi, 1883, 343 (Guaymas, Sonora) . — 
Beckham, Auk, ii, 1885, 141 (Pueblo, Colorado). 

Chondestes grammica strigatus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 217 (crit. ). 

Chondestes grammacus strigatus American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 
1886, no. 552a. — Brewster, Auk, iii, 1886, 139 (Cook Co., Texas). — Evermann, 
Auk, iii, 1886, 182 (Ventura Co., California).— Ferrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., iii, 1886, 149 (Chietla, Puebla).— Coale, Bull. Ridgw. Orn. Club, 
no. 2, 1887, 25 (crit.) .—Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 193 (localities 
, in Texas).— TowxsEND, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1890, 137 (Cape St. 
Lucas, Apr. 7) . — Merriam, North Am. Fauna, no. 5, 1891, 102 (mo. Little Lost 
R., Idaho). — Attwater, Auk, ix, 1892, 338 (San Antonio, Texas) . — Rhoads, 
Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci., 1893, 49, 63 (Vernon, int. British Columbia) . — Richmond 

' Thirty-two specimens. 

Specimens from different localities average as follows: 



Locality. 



Wing. 


Tail. 


Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 


Depth 
ol bill 
at base. 


Tarsus. 


85.09 


68.58 


11.94 


7.87 


20.07 


86.36 


69.09 


12.45 


8.13 


20.57 


90.93 


72.14 


12.70 


8.38 


20.57 


86.61 


69.85 


11.43 


8.18 


20.57 


90.17 


74.93 


12.19 


7.87 


20.32 


86.87 


70.87 


12.45 


8.13 


19.81 


87.38 


69.60 


11.94 


7.87 


20.57 


84.84 


67.82 


11.94 


7.87 


20.07 


82.55 


66.79 


11.94 


7.87 


20.32 


83.82 


68.07 


12.45 


7.87 


20.32 


81.53 


67.06 


12.45 


7.87 


20.32 


82.80 


69.60 


12.19 


7.62 


20.57 


86.36 


69.85 


12.19 


7.87 


20.32 



Middle 
toe. 



MALES. 

Five adult males from Mexico 

Eleven adult males from Texas 

Seven adult males from Arizona (including one 

from northern Chihuahua 

Thirteen adult males from California 

Two adult males from Cape St. Lucas 

Two adult males from Nevada 

Eight adult males from eastern Colorado, Kansas, 

Nebraska, etc 

FEMALES. 

Eight adult females from Mexico -*. 

Six adult females from Texas 

Nine adult females from Arizona, northern Sonora, 

and northern Chihuahua 

Four adult females from California 

Two adult females from Cape St. Lucas 

Three adult females from Nevada, Wyoming, and 

Colorado 



15.24 
15.24 

15.49 
15.24 
16.00 
14.48 



14.99 
14.73 

14.73 
15.24 
14.99 

15.49 



180 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

and Knowlton, Auk, xi, 1894, 306 (s.-centr. Montana).— Chapman, Bull. 
Am. Mus. N. H., X, 1898, 29 ( Jalapa,Vera Cruz).— Brooks, Auk, xvii, 1900, 107 
(British Columbia, rare). 

C. [liondestes] grammacus strigatus Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 414. 

Chondestes grammicm strigatus Drew, Auk, ii, 1885, 16 (Colorado, 6,000-8,000ft.). 

Chondestes grammaca (not Fringilla grammaca Say) Woodhouse, in Sitgreaves' ■ 
Expl. Zuiii and Col. R., 1853, 86.— Baied, Rep. Ives' Colorado Exp., 
1857-58, pt. iv, 6; Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 456, part (localities 
in Nebraska, Kansas, Texas, and westward); Rep. U. S. and Mex. Bound. 
Surv., ii, pt. ii, 1859, 15 (Nuevo Leon; Colorado R. ; California); Cat. N. 
Am. Birds, 1859, no. 344, part; Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 301, 304 
(Cape St. Lucas, Lower California) . — Heermann, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., 
X, pt. i, 1859, 48 (California; New Mexico; Texas).— Henry, Proc. Ac. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 107 (New Mexico). —Xantus, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1859, 191 (Fort Tejon, California).— ScLATBR, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 
379 (Oaxaca); 1864, 174 (Valley of Mexico); Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 121 ("N. 
W. America").— Cooper and Suckley, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., xii, pt. 2, 
1860, 200 (Dalles, Oregon).— Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 488 (Texas).— Coues, Proc. 
Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 84 (Fort Whipple, Arizona); Check List, 1873, no. 
186, part; Birds N. W., 1874, 159, part.— Duofis, La Naturaleza, i, 1868, 140 
(Guanajuato). — Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., i, 1869, 552 (Vera Cruz, 
winter). — Cooper, Orn. Cal., 1870, 193.— Stevenson, Prelim. Rep. U. S. Geo). 
Surv. Terr., 1870 (1871), 464 (Wyoming).— Mereiam, Sixth An. Rep.U. S. 
Geol. Surv. Terr., 1872 (1873), 680 (Ogden, etc., Utah; Lower Geyser 
Basin, Wyoming) .—Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 177 (South Park, 
Colorado; Cheyenne and Laramie plains, Wyoming; Ogden, Utah); Proc. 
Bost. Soc. N.H. , xvii, 1874, 58(Upper Missouri R. , etc. ). — Holdbn, Proc. Bost. 
Soc. N. H., 1872, 201 (Wyoming). — Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. 
Am. Birds, i, 1874, 562, part; ii, 1874, pi. 31, fig. 1. — Lawrence, Mem. Bost. 
Soc. N. H., ii, 1874, 278 (Mazatlan; plains of Colima); Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
no. 4, 1876, 22 (Chihuitan and Santa Eflgenia, Oaxaca, Nov. to Jan.). — Hen- 
SHAw, Rep. Orn. Spec. AVheeler's Surv., 1873 (1874), 61 (Platte R., Colorado); 
Zool. Exp. W. 100th IMerid., 1875, 259 (Utah; Colorado; Arizona; habits, 
song, etc.). — Ridgway, Orn. 40th Parallel, 1877, 467 (Sacramento; Califor- 
nia; localities in Nevada and Utah; habits, song, etc.); Bull. Nutt. Orn. 
Club, iil, 1878, 66 (Calaveras Co., Cahfornia, Feb.).— McCauley, Bull. U. S. 
Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iii, 1877, 664 (Kansas to Texas). — Bendire, Proc. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., 1877, 118 (Camp Harney, e. Oregon, rare, breeding 80 m. 
south).— Hoffmann, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1882, 399 (Fort Berthold, South 
Dakota) . 

[Chondestes'] grammaca Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 146, part. — ScLATEEand 
Salvin, Norn. Av.Neotr., 1873, 34. 

Chondestes grammacus Thompson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1891, 597 (Winnipeg, 
summer resid.). 

Chondestes grammica Sennett, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv., iv, 1878, 19 
(Brownsville, Texas); v, 1879, 391 (Lomita, Texas). — Merrill, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., i, 1878, 126 (Fort Brown, Texas.).— Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., i, 1879, 415 (centr. California, resid. ) .—Ogilby, Sci. Proc. Roy. Dubl. 
Soc, iii, 1882 (34), (Navarro Co., Texas, summer resid.). — Shaepe, Cat. 
Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 591, part (localities in Mexico, California, 
Colorado, etc.). 

Chondestes ^rammicus ConE.s, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 281, part. 

C. Ihondestes} grammicus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed. , 1884, 384, part. 

Emberiza grammaca Maximilian, Journ. fiir Orn., vi, 1858, 343 (Upper Missouri). 



BIRDS OF NOKTH AND MIDDLE AMEBICA. 181 



Genus POOECETES Baird. 

Poocxtes Baird. Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv. , ix, 1 858, 439, 447. (Type Fnngilla gram- 
inea Gmelin.) , 

Pooeceto (emendation) B,\ird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, pp. xx, xxix. 
(See Gill, Auk, xvi, Jan., 1899, 20. ) 

Pocecetes (emendation) Sclatbe, Proo. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 379. 

Small, conspicuously streaked terrestrial Fringillidae with lateral 
rectrices largely white, and with the tarsus decidedly longer than 
middle toe with claw. 

Bill small (exposed culmen about half as long as tarsus), conical, 
much deeper than broad at base, its basal depth less than distance from 
nostril to tip of maxilla: culmen straight or even faintly depressed in 
middle portion, gentlj^ convex terminally and basally; gonys straight, 
about equal to or sometimes longer than basal depth of bill; maxillary 
tomium faintly concave anteriorly', then faintly convex, its basal por- 
tion slightly deflected; mandibular tomium straight to the well-defined 
subbasal angle, its basal deflection more abrupt and decided than that 
of the maxilla. Nostril small, triangular (apex forward), with broad 
superior valve, nearly concealed by the frontal plumules. Rictal bristles 
fairly distinct. Wing long (about four times as long as the rather long 
tarsus), pointed (ninth to sixth primaries longest, the ninth equal 
to or longer than sixth, sometimes almost longest); primaries exceed- 
ing secondaries bj- about the length of the tarsus; tertials not pro- 
duced beyond secondaries, or but slightly so. Tail about three-fourths 
as long as wing, about one-half overlaid by upper coverts, emarginate, 
the rectrices i-ather narrow. Tarsus about twice as long as exposed cul- 
men, its scutella rather indistinct, especial^ on outer side; middle toe 
with claw slightly shorter than tarsus; lateral claws reaching nearly or 
quite to base of middle claw; hallux about as long as inner toe, its 
claw slightl}'^ shorter than the digit. 

Coloration. — Conspicuously streaked above and below (except cen- 
tral and posterior under parts), the lateral rectrices largely white; 
adults with lesser wing-coverts reddish brown. 

Bange. — Temperate North America. (Monotypic.) 

This genus comes verj'' near to PasseTculuH^ but may be distiguished 
by its relativelj' much longer wing and shorter tarsus. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OP POOECETES. 

a. Larger (wing averaging more than 80.01 in male, more than 76.20 in female); 

coloration grayer above, more decidedly white below. 

h. Wing, lail, and tarsus shorter, bill stouter, color browner above, with dusky 

streaks usually broader, those on chest, etc., darker; wing averaging 81.03, 

tail <3l.21, tarsus 21.08, depth of bill 8.38 in male, 77.47, 58.93, and 7.87 in 

female. (Eastern North America. ) . . .Pooecetes gramineus gramineus (p. 182) 



182 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

bb. Wing, tail, and tarsus longer, bill more slender, color grayer above, with dusky 
streaks usually narrower, those on chest, etc., not so dark; wing averaging 
83.57, tail 65.79, tarsus 21.59, depth of bill 7.62 in male, 80.01, 61.98, 21.34, 
and 7.62 in female. (Rock Mountain plateau district. ) 

Pooecetes gramineua confinis (p. 184) 

au. Smaller (wing averaging less than 80.01 in male, less than 76.20 in female) ; 

coloration browner above, distinctly buffy beneath. (Pacific coast district of 

United States. ) Pooecetes gramineus affinis (p. 186) 



POOECETES GRAMINEUS GRAMINEUS (Gmelin). 
VESPER SPARROW. 

Adults {sexes alike). — Above light grayish brown (hair brown) con- 
spicuously streaked with black, the streaks broadest on back, less dis- 
tinct on rump; lesser wing-coverts cinnamon or russet, with a dusky 
(mostly concealed) wedge-shaped central space; wings otherwise and 
tail dusky, the feathers edged with light grayish brown, especially the 
larger wing-coverts and secondaries, the former (middle and greater 
coverts) indistinctly tipped with pale dull buffy or bufly whitish, form- 
ing indistinct narrow bands; outermost tail-feather largely white, 
this involving most of the outer web and the terminal half, approxi- 
mately, of the inner web next the shaft, the dusky extending along 
the innermost (longitudinal) half within half an inch, or less, of the 
tip; superciliary region light grayish brown or brownish gray nar- 
rowly and indistinctly streaked with duskj'; auricular region browner, 
margined above and below bj^ a postocular and a rictal streak of dusky 
brownish; a white or buffy white malar stripe margined below by a 
series of dusky streaks along each side of throat; under parts dull 
white, more or less tinged- with pale buffy on chest, sides, and flanks, 
where streaked with dusky; under tail-coverts immaculate; maxilla 
dusky brownish, mandible much paler (pinkish or lilaceous in life); 
iris brown; legs and feet pale brownish. 

Young. — Essentially similar to adults, but markings less sharply 
defined; scapulars and interscapulars broadly edged with pale buffy 
grayish, and ground color of under parts rather grayish white than 
buffy. 

Achdt male.—L&ngth. (skins), 139.19-160.11 (144.27); wing, 76.71- 
83.82 (81.03); tail, 68.67-66.04 (61.21); exposed culmen, 10.67-12.19 
(11.18); depth of bill at base, 7.87-8.89 (8.38); tarsus, 20.32-22.10 
(21.08); middle toe, 13.72-15.24 (14.48).' 

Adtilt female.— L^n^ih (skins), 134.62-149.10 (140.46); wing, 72.90- 
81.28 (77.47); tail, 66.12-61.98 (68.93); exposed culmen, 10.41-11.68 
(10.92); depth of bill at base (three specimens), 7.62-8.13 (7.87); tarsus, 
20.07-21.34 (20.57); middle toe, 13.21-15.24 (13.97).' 

' Fourteen specimens. ^ Thirteen .specimens. 



BIRDS OP NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 183 

Eastern United States and more southern British provinces (humid 
division of Lower and Upper Austral, Transition, and parts of Boreal 
provinces); breeding from Virginia, Kentucky, Missouri, etc., north- 
ward to Nova Scotia (?), Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick (?), 
Province of Quebec (?), eastern Manitoba (i), etc.; south in winter to 
Gulf coast (Florida to eastern Texas) ; casual in Bermudas. 

IFHngilla] graminea Gmelin, Syst. Nat.,i, pt. ii, 1788, 922 (New York; based on 
Orass Pinch Latham, Gen. Synop., ii, pt. i, 273; Pennant, Arctic Zool., ii, 
375) .—Latham, Index Orn., i, 1790, 445. 

Pringilla graminea AxsTivaoTii, Orn. Biog.,i, 1831,473; v, 1839, 502, pi. 94. — Nuttall, 
Man. Orn. U. S. and Can., i, 1832, 482. 

Emheriza gramineaWii:so}i , Am. Orn., iv, 1811, 51, pi. 31, tig. 5. — Audubon, Synop- 
sis, 1839, 102; Birds Ani., oct. ed., iii, 1841, 65, pi. 159. — Hurdis, Jardine'a 
Contr. Orn., 1850, 36 (Bermudas, 1 spec. Oct. 25, 1849).— Willis, Ann. Rep. 
Smitlison. Inst, for 1858 (1859) , 287 (Bermudas). 

Zonotrichia graminea J Aixvi'NE, ed. Wilson's Am. Orn.,ii, 1832, 45, pi. 31,flg. 5.^ 
Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 31. 

Z. [onotrichia^ graminea Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1849, 373. 

\_Zonotricliia'\ graminea Bo's apaut'e, Consp. Av.,i, 1850, 478, part. — Gray, Hard- 
list, ii, 1870, 95, no. 7414. 

Poocsdes gramineus Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1850, 447, part. — Baikd, . 
Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 545, part, pi. 29, fig. 1. — 
American Ornithologists' Union, Ciieck List, 1886, no. 540. — Batcheldek, 
Auk, iii, 1886, 314 (Asheville, w. Nortli Carolina, winter). — Cooke, Bird 
Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 187 (localities and dates) .—Dwight, Auk, x, 1893, 11 
(Prince Edward I., breeding). — Allen (F. H.), Auk, xii, 1895, 90 (Cape 
Breton, Nova Scotia, Aug. ). — Nehbling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896,94, 
pi. 23, fig. 5. — Knight, Bull. Univ. Slaine, no. 3, 1897, 95 (Maine, summer 
resid.). — Butler, Birds Indiana, 1897, 933 (wintering in Knox Co.). 

PocBcetes gramineus Sclateb, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 112, part (Wisconsin; Can- 
ada). — Verrill, Proc. Essex Inst., iii, 1862, 150 (Oxford Co., Maine, breed- 
ing).— Ridgway, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 164 (Wabash Co., Illinois, 
breeding); vii, 1882, 20 (Knox Co., Indiana, breeding); Norn. N. Am. Birds, 

1881, no. 197.— Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 40 (descr. 
young). — Maynard, Birds E. N. Am., 1881, 103. — Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 

1882, no.232.— Chamberlain, Bull. Nat. Hist. Soc. N.B., 1882, 38 (Hamp- 
ton, New Brunswick, 1 spec. June 20, 1881). — Dutchek, Auk, i, 1884, 31 
(Jones's Beach, Long Island, Feb. 22). — Bicknell, Auk, 1,1884,330 (song). — 
Merkiam, Auk, ii, 1885, 315 (Godbout, Prov. Quebec, Apr. 24 to May 10. — 
Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 670, excl. syn. part. 

Pooecetes gramineus Baird, Kep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, p. xxxix, part; Cat. 

N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 337, part.— Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 161, part; 

Birds N. W., 1874, 129, part —Gill, Auk, xvi, 1899, 23. 
\_Pooecetes} gramineus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 137, part. 
Pooecetes gramineus Lawrence, Ann. Lye. N. Y., viii, 1866, 286 (New York City). — 

Meebiam, Am. Nat., viii, 1874, 9 (Aiken, South Carolina, winter). 
P-loocaetes'] gramineus Ridgway, Ann. Lye. N. Y., x, Jan., 1874, 372 (Illinois). 
P. [ocecetes'] gramineus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 364. 
P. [oocietes'] gramineus Ridgway, Man. N. Am, Birds, 1887, 406. 
IPoocsefes gramineus} var. gramineus, Baird, Brewer and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. 

Birds, i, 1874, 545. 
[^Pooecetes gramineus"] a. gramineus Coues, Birds N. W., 1874, 129 (synonymy). 



184 BULLETIN fiO, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

POOECETES GRAMINEUS CONFINIS Baird. 
WESTERN VESPER SPARROW. 

Similar to P. g. gramineus, but averaging larger, bill more slender, 
and colors slightly paler and grayer, with streaks on chest, etc., not 
so dark. 

Ad-uUmale.—ljQngth (skins), 139.70-158.75 (148.84); wing, 79.25- 
86.61 (83.57); tail, 63.25-68.58 (65.79); exposed culmen, 10.92-11.68 
(11.18); depth of bill at base, 7.37-8.38 (7.62); tarsus, 20.83-22.10 
(21.59); middle toe, 13.72-14.99 (14.48).^ 

Adult female.— lj&ngt\i (skins), 132.59-152.40(145.54); wing, 76.20- 
83.82 (80.01); tail, 57.66-68.07 (61.98); exposed culmen, 10.41-12.45 
(11.18); depth of bill at base, 7.11-8.13 (7.62); tarsus, 19.81-22.35 
(21.34); middle toe, 13.46-14.99 (14.22).' 

Western North America (except Pacific coast district), east across 
the Great Plains to middle North and South Dakota, western Kansas, 
etc., north through eastern British Columbia, Alberta, Assiniboia, 
Manitoba, etc. ; Saskatchewan Plains (north to Fort Anderson ?) ; breed- 
ing from highlands of Arizona and New Mexico northward; in winter 
south to southern Mexico (States of Vera Cruz, Puebla, Oaxaca, etc.), 
southeastward over nearly all of Texas, southwestward to coast of 
southern California (Los Angeles Co.)., 

(?) FringUla {Zonotrichia) graminea (not Fringilla j/rammca Wilson?) Swainson, 
Fauna Bor. -Am., ii, 1831, 254. 

[Zonotrichia] graminea Bonapaete, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 478, part. 

Zonotrichia graminea Woodhouse, in Rep. Sitgreaves' Expl. Zuni and Col. E. , 1853, 
84. — Heermann, Eep. Pacific E. E. Surv., x, pt. iv, 1859, 47, part (New Mex- 
ico; Texas). 

Pooecetes gramineus Baird, Eep. Pacific E. E. Surv., ix, 1858, p.xxxix, part, 
p. 927 (Fort Bridger, Wyoming); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 337, pait; 
Eep. IT. S. and Max. Bound. Surv., ii, pt. ii, 1859, 15 (Tamaulipas; Boca 
Grande, New Mexico; Espia, Sonora) . — Coues, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 

' 84 (Fort Whipple, Arizona; breeding); Birds N. W., 1874, 129, part. — Hoff- 
man, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1882, 398 (Fort Berthold, North Dakota).— 
(?) Ehoads, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1893, 48, 63 (British Columbia, bet 
Cascade and Eocky Mts. ; crit. ). 

Pooecetes gramineus Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 379 (Oaxaca); Cat. 
Am. Birds, 1862, 112, part (Oaxaca).— Blakiston, Ibis, 1862, 6 (Forks of 
Saskatchewan, breeding); 1863, 75 (Saskatchewan; EedE. ). — Dresser, Ibis, 
1865, 487 (San Antonio, Texas, breeding). — Duges, La Naturaleza, i, 1868, 
140 (Guanajuato). — Cooper, Orn. Cal., 1870, 186, part. — Allen, Proc. Bost. 
Soc. N. H., xvii, 1874, 57 (valleys of Yellowstone and Musselshell rivers). — 
Coues, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr.,iv, 1878, 589 (Petabina, etc.. 
North Dakota; descr. nest and eggs). — Ogilby, Sci. Proc. Eoy. Dubl. Soc, 
iii, 1882 (32) (Navarro Co., Texas, Oct. to March ).—Seton, Auk, ii, 1885, 23 
(Manitoba; song, etc.). — (?) Agersborg, Auk, ii, 1885, 280 (s. e. South 

1 Eleven specimens. '' Fourteen specimens. 



BIEBS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 185 

Dakota, breeding). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 
383 (Jalapa, Vera Cruz, etc.).— Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 670, 
part (in synonymy). 

[Pooecetes] gramineiis Coues, Key. N. Am. Birds, 1872, 137, part. — Sclatek and 
Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 31. 

Pooartes gramineus Baied, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 447, part. — 
(?) Cooper and . Suckley, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., xii, pt. ii, 1860, 200, part 
(Washington; Oregon). — Baird, Brewer, andEiDGWAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, 
i, 1874, 545, part, pi. 29, fig. 1.— (?) Hatch, Ninth Ann. Rep. Geol. and Nat. 
Hist. Surv., Minn., 1881, 395.— (?) Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., iii, 
1890, 143 (Ashcroft, int. British Columbia; crit. ). — (?) Maofarlane, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., xiv, 1891, 441 (e. of Fort Anderson, breeding).— (?) Fannin, 
Check List Birds Brit. Columbia, 1891, 35 (e. side Cascade Mts. ).—(?) Nut- 
ting, Bull. Labr. Nat. Hist. Univ. Iowa, ii, no. 3, 1893, 275 (Grand Rapids, 
lower Saskatchewan). 

[^Poocxtes gramineus] var. confinis Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 448, 
in text (western United States; U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

Poocietes gramineus, yar. confinis Merriam, Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol'. Surv. Terr., 1872 
(1873), 680 (Ogden, etc., Utah; Fort Hall, Idaho; Shoshone Lake, etc., 
"Wyoming). 

Poocaetes gramineus, var. confinis Bidgway, Bull. Essex Inst., v, Nov., 1873, 182 
(Colorado). 

Pooecetes gramineus, var. confinis Merriam, Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., 1872 
(1873), 706 (Ogden, Utah). 

[Poocaetes gramineus] var. confinis Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, i, 1874, 545. 

Pooecetes gramineus . . var. confinis Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 161a. 

[Pooecetes gramineus] b. confinis Coues, Birds N. W., 1874, 129 (synonymy). 

Pooecetes gramineus con^nis Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., vii, Jan., 1875, 11 (Car- 
son City, Nevada) . — Gill, Auk, xvi, 1899, 23. 

Pooecetes gramineus, p. confinis Ridgway, Field and Forest, iii. May, 1877, 198 
(Colorado). 

Pooecetes gramineus . . . /3. confinis Ridgway, Orn. 40th Parallel, 1877, 466 
(mountains of Nevada and Utah; song, etc.). 

PoScxtes gramineus . . . var. con^m's Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. "Wheeler's Surv., 
1874, 80 (South Park, Colorado, breeding; descr. nest and eggs). 

Poeecetes gramineus . ..var. confinis Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 
1874, 61 (Denver, Colorado) ; ^ool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 256 (Nevada; 
Utah; Colorado; Arizona). 

Pooecetes gramineus var. confinis Merrill, Proc. V. S. Nat. Mus., i, Aug. 15, 1878, 
126 (Fort Brown, Texas, migrat). 

Poocxtes gramineus . . . var. con;?ii is Hensh aw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 
1873 (1874), 111 (Camp Grant and Gila R., Arizona, Sept.). 

Po«cetes gramineus confinis Coues and Sennett, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. 
Terr., iv, 1878, 17 (Brownsville and Hidalgo, Texas, Apr. ).— MoChesney, 
Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., v, 1879, 76 (Fort Sisseton, South 
Dakota, April to Oct.).— Mearns, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 164 (Fort 
Klamath, e. Oregon). — Roberts and Bbnner, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 
14 (Grant and Traverse counties, Minnesota, breeding). — Ridgway, Nom. N. 
Am. Birds, 1881, no. 197a, part.— Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 
194 (Arizona, Apr.; crit); viii, 1883, 189 (Colorado; crit.).— Coues, Check 
List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 233, part. 

P.[oceceles] g.[ramineus] confinis Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 365. 



186 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Poocastes gramineus confinis Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., vii, Jan., 1875, 17 (Carson, 
Nevada).— American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. o40a, 
part.— Feehari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 142 (San Baltazar, 
Puebla, Dec.).— Seton, Auk, iii, 1886, 323 (w. Manitoba).— Cooke, Bird 
Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 188 (localities, dates, etc.).— Thompson, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., xiii, 1891, 592 (Manitoba; habits, song, etc.).— Mitchell, Auk, 
XV, 1898, 309 (San Miguel Co., New Mexico, up -to 8,000 ft.).— Grinnell, 
Pub. ii, Pasadena Acad. Sci., 1898, 36 (Los Angeles, California, Sept. 14 to 
Mar. 19). 

P. [oocytes] gramineus confinis Eidgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 407, part. 

Pooecetes cmfinis Yarrow and Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1871-73 
(1874), 34 (Nevada). 

[Pooecetes gramineus.']'' Subsp. a. Pocecetes confinis Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xii, 1888, 672. 



POOECETES GRAMINEUS AFFINIS Miller. 
OREGON VESPER SPARROW. 

Similar to P. g. gramineus but smaller, bill more slender, and the 
coloration browner above and distinctly buffy below. 

Adult m«?«.— Length (skins), 131.57-140.97- (136.65); wing, 73.66- 
80.01 (77.22); tail, 52.83-60.45 (57.91); exposed culmen, 10.16-11.43 
(10.92); depth of bill at base, 6.35-7.63 (7.37); tarsus, 19.81-21.59 
(20.57); middle toe, 13.21-14.48 (13.72). ^ 

Adult female.— LLQ^gih (skins), 128.02-143.51 (136.91); wing 72.39- 
76.20 (74.93); tail, 55.88-57.66 (57.40); exposed culmen, 10.16-11.68 
(10.92); depth of bill at base, 7.11-7.37 (7.24); tarsus, 20.32-21.34 
(21.08); middle toe, 13.46-14.22 (13.72).' 

Pacific coast district; breeding in northern California and western 
Oregon (also in western Washington and British Columbia, including 
Vancouver Island?); south in winter, through southern Calif ornia and 
Lower California, to Cape St. Lucas. 

[Zonotnchia] graminea (not Fringilla (/rammea Gmelin) Bonaparte, Consp. Av., 

i, 1850, 478, part. 
Zonotrichia graminea Newberry, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., vi, pt. iv, 1857, 88 

(Sacramento, California). — Hebrmann, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. iv, 

1859, 47, part (California). 
Poocastes gramineus Baird, Rep. Pacific E. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 447, part (Tejon 

Valley, California). — (?) Cooper and Suckley, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., xii, 

pt. ii, 1860, 200, part (Puget Sound) . — Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. 

N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 545, part. 
[Pooecetes] gramineus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 137, part. 
Pooecetes gramineus Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, p. xxxix, part; 

Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 337, part. 
Pocecetes gramineus confinis Ridgway, Nom. X. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 197a, part. — 

CouES, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 233, part.— Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., vi, 1883, 350 (La Paz, Lower California, wiuter). 



' Seven specimens. ^ Three specimens 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEEICA. 187 

Pooaetes gramineus confirm American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, 
no. 540«, part. 

(?) Poocaetes gramineus confinis Anthony, Auk, iii, 1886, 168 (Washington Co., 
Oregon). — Evermann, Auk, iii, 1886, 182 (Ventura Co., California, resi- 
dent).— Townsend, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1887, 217 (Shasta Co., n. Cali- 
fornia).— Fannin, Check List Birds Brit. Columbia, 1891, 35 (w. side of 
Cascades,, including Vancouver I.). — Rhoads, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1893, 48, 63 (Victoria, Vancouver I.). 

P. loocxtes'] gramineus confinis Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 407, part. 

Poocietes gramineus affinis Miller, Auk, v, Oct., 1888, 404 (Salem, Oregon; coll. 
G. S. Miller, jr.). — American Ornithologists' Union Committee, Suppl. to 
Check List, 1889, 12; Check List, abridged ed., 1889, and 2d ed., 1895, no. 
5406.— PiDGWAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 601.— Grinnell, Pub. 
ii, Pasadena Acad. Sci., 1898, 36 (Los Angeles Co., California, Sept. 16 to 
Apr. 25) . 

Pooecetes gramineus affinis Gill, Auk, xvi, Jan., 1899, 23. 

Genus PASSERCULUS Bonaparte. 

Passerculus Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List., 1838, 33. (Type, Fringilla savanna 
Wilson. ) 

Small, conspicuously streaked terrestrial Fringillid^, resembling 
Pooecetes but with wing-tip much shorter than tarsus, the latter nearly 
one-third as long as wing; middle toe, with claw, nearly as long as tarsus; 
tail not more than three-fourths as long as wing, the outermost rec- 
trices without white. Differing from Genironyx in relatively longer tail 
(shorter than wing by much less than length of tarsus), with broader 
and less acuminate rectrices; hallux not longer than inner toe, its claw 
not longer than distance from nostril to tip of maxilla; fifth primary 
much shorter than sixth; coloration very different. 

Coloration. — Above brownish or grayish, more or less streaked, the 
pileum with or without a paler median and darker lateral stripes; no 
white on lateral (or other) rectrices; no distinct wing-bands, buttertials 
conspicuously blackish centrally; under parts whitish, streaked, except 
on abdomen and under tail-coverts, with brown or blackish, the throat 
with or without streaks; more or less distinct superciliary and malar 
stripes of pale grayish, light dull buffy or whitish, the former some- 
times yellowish, especially anteriorly. 

Range. — Whole of North America, including Mexico. 

This genus contains apparently four distinct specific types, repre- 
sented, respectively, by P. princeps, P. sandiuiehmsis, P. ieldingi, 
and P. rostratxm, the second and last including several subspecific 
forms. It is possible, however, that the first may be really only an 
insular form of the second (as has already been claimed), and it is 
almost equally possible that the third may intergrade with both the 
second and last, one of the several forms of southern California {P. 
hxilophihiJi) being at least suggestive of such relationship. For the 
present, however, or until intergradation can be satisfactorily demon- 
strated, I prefer to consider the three types specifically distinct. 



188 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF PASSERCULUS. 

a. Upper parts conspicuously streaked, both on pileum and back; primaries exceed- 
ing tertials by less than length of exposed culmen. 
6. General color of upper parts gray or grayish brown; paler median crown-stripe 
distinct, and back with very distinct whitish or pale buffy streaks; paler 
supra-auricular stripe very distinct; under parts less heavily streaked; feet 
pale yellowish brown (pale pinkish or straw-colored in life), 
c. Larger (wing averaging more than 76.20); wing more than seven times as 
long as exposed culmen; general color above pale brownish gray. (Atlantic 
coast of United States, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, breeding o^ 

islands off the last. ) Passerculus princeps (p. 189) 

cc. Smaller (wing averaging less than 76.20) ; wing less than seven times as long 
as exposed culmen; general color of upper parts deeper brownish gray or 
grayish brown. ( Passerculus sandimchenms. ) 
d. Larger (wing averaging 75.95, tail 51.82, exposed culmen 11.94, tarsus 
22.35). (Unalaskaand Shumagin Islands in summer; southward along 
Pacific coast in winter. ) . .Passerculus sandwiohensis sandwiohensiB (p. 190) 
dd. Smaller (average measurements much less than the preceding). 
e. Paler and grayer; wing averaging more than 68.58, tail more than 49.53. 
( Western North America, from southern Mexico to Alaska. ) 

Passerculus saudwichensis alaudiuus (p. 194) 

ee. Darker and browner; wing averaging less than 68.58, tail less than 49.53. 

/. Larger and not so dark, but averaging darker than the two preceding 

forms; bill stouter; wing averaging 67. 82, tail 48.26, depth of bill at 

base 6.86, tarsus 20.83. (Eastern North America.) 

Passerculus Baudwicliensis savanna (p. 192) 
ff. Smaller and darker, with more slender bill; wing averaging 66.04, tail 
46.99, depth of bill at base 6.10, tarsus 20.07. (Coast of central Cali- 
fornia in summer; southward to central Mexico in winter.) 

Passerculus sandwicheusis bryanti (p. 197) 

56. General color of upper parts grayish olive or olivaceous hair brown; paler 

median crown-stripe indistinct, and back without whitish or pale buffy 

streaks; paler supra-auricular stripe indistinct; under parts more heavily 

streaked; feet grayish brown or horn color. (Coast of southern California.) 

Passerculus beldingi (p. 198) 

aa. Upper parts not conspicuously streaked, except, sometimes, on back; primaries 

exceeding tertials by less than length of exposed culmen. [Passerculus rostratus.) 

h. Wing averaging more than 68.58; coloration lighter and browner. 

t. Larger (except bill) and browner; wing averaging 69.60, tail 52.07, exposed 

culmen 12.45, depth of bill at base 7.37, tarsus 22.61. (Coast of southern 

California; Lower California in winter. ) 

Passerculus rostratus rostratus (p. 199) 

cc. Smaller (except bill) and grayer; wing averaging 68.83, tail 49.78, exposed 

culmen 12.45, depth of bill at base 7.37, tarsus 21.84. (San Benito Island, 

Lower California. ) Passerculus rostratus sanctorum (p. 200) 

hh. Wing averaging less than 68.58 ; coloration darker and grayer or more olivaceous, 
c. Larger and darker; upper parts more decidedly olivaceous, streaks on chest, 
etc., blacker; wing averaging 66.80, tail 48.77, exposed culmen 12.95, depth 
of bill at base 6.60, tarsus 21.34. (Abreojos Point, Lower California.) 

Passerculus rostratus halophilus (p. 202) 
cc. Smaller and paler; upper parts grayer; streaks on chest, etc. , not so decidedly 
l)lack; wing averaging 64.01, tail 47.50, exposed culmen 11.18, depth of bill 
at base 5.84, tarsus 20.83. (Southern extremity of Lower California. ) 

Passerculus rostratus guttatus p. 201) 



BIKDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEEIOA. 189 

PASSERCULUS PRINtEPS Maynard. 
IPSWICH SPARROW. 

Exposed culmen not longer than hallux (without claw); wing more 
than seven times as long as exposed culmen (averaging more than 
76.20 mm.). 

Adults {sexes alike). — Above pale grayish, the pileum and back 
streaked with pale brown and blackish (the latter inclosed as a narrow 
mesial streak within the former); pileum with a narrow median stripe 
of pale grayish buff or dull buffy whitish; broad superciliary stripe 
similar, but paler (rarely yellowish) anteriorly; outer surface of ter- 
tials and greater wing-coverts pale buffy brown; malar stripe pale buff 
or whitish; under parts white, tinged laterally (sometimes across chest 
also) with pale brownish buff, the chest and sides streaked with brown 
(the streaks usually darker, sometimes blackish, medially); maxilla 
dark brown or blackish, mandible paler; iris brown; legs and feet pale 
brownish or dull straw color. 

Adult mafe.— Length (skins), 134.62-153.67 (liS.OO); wing, 72.39- 
82.55 (76.45); tail, 52.83-64.77 (56.18); exposed culmen, 10.41-10.92 
(10.67); depth of bill at base, 6.60-7.62 (7.11); tarsus, 21.59-24.13 
(22.86); middle toe, 16.26-17.27 (16.76).' 

Adidt female.— \A&x^g^ (skins), 134.62-148.59 (141.99); wing, 72.89- 
82.55 (76.96); tail, 53.34^56.90 (54.86); exposed culmen, 10.67-11.18 
(10.92); depth of bill at base, 7.11-7.62 (7.37); tarsus, 21.84-24.13 
(22.86); middle toe, 16.00-17.02 (16.26).' 

Breeding on Sable Island (and other islands?), off Nova Scotia; 
migrating southward along Atlantic coast as far as Georgia (Glynn 
County). 

Centronyx bairdii (not Emheriza bairdii Audubon) Allen, Am. Nat., iii, 1869, 513, 
631 (Ipswich Beach, Massachusetts; crit. ). — Maynaed, Am. Nat., iii, 1869, 
554 (Ipswich Beach); Naturalists' Guide, 1870, 113, colored plate. — Brews- 
ter, Am. Nat, vi, 1872, 307 (Ipswich, Massachusetts, Oct. 14, 15). 

[Centronyx'] bairdii CouES, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 135, part. 

Passerculus princeps Maynaed, Am. Nat. , vi, 1872, 637 (Ipswich Beach, Massachu- 
setts; coll. C. J. Maynard) ; Naturahsts' Guide, 2d ed., 1877, 112, colored plate; 
Birds Eastern U.S.,pt.iv, 1878, 101, pi. 3.— Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 158; 
2d ed., 1882, no. 225; Am. Nat., vii, 1873, 696 (Massachusetts) ; Bull. Nutt. Orn. 
Club, iii, 1878, 3 (synonymy, etc. ). — Baied, Beewee, and Ridgway, Hist. N. 
Am. Birds,!, 1874, 540, pi. 25, fig. 2; iii, 1874, 513 (Long Island) .—Bre wee, 
Proc. Bost. See. N. H.,xvii, 1875, 441 (Massachusetts). — Brewster, Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Club, i, 1876, 52 (Point Lepreaux, New Brunswick, Apr. 11). — Mer- 
eiam. Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, i, 1876, 52 (near New Haven, Connecticut, Nov. 
4) ; Trans. Conn. Acad., iv, 1877, 36 (coast Connecticut, Nov. ) ; Auk, i, 1884, 390 
(Sable I., Nova Scotia, breeding; see Ridgway, Auk, i, 1884, 292). — Beown, 
Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, ii, 1877, 27 (Lake Umbagog, New Hampshire, Oct. 9, 1 
spec.).— Bailey, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, ii, 1877, 78 (Coney I., New York, 

' Seven specimens. 



190 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Dec. 20).— MiNOT, BirdaNew Engl., 1877, 195.— Lawkencb (N. T.), Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 102 (Bockaway, Long I., New York, Jan. 1).— Jeffries, 
Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 103 (crit.).— Woolsey,Bu11. Nutt. Orn. Club, 
Y, 1880, 121 (NewHaven,Connecticut, Nov. 22).— Scott (W. E. D.) , Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Club, 1881, 116 (Squam Beach, New Jersey, Nov. 16).— Ridgway, Nom. 
N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 192; Auk, i, 1884, 292 (supposed eggs from Sable I., 
Nova Scotia; see Merriam, Auk, i, 1884, 390).— Beown, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 
vii, 1882, 190 (coast Maine, Mar. 20-28 and Oct. 13 to Nov. 6).— Chamberlain, 
Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, viii, 1883, 8 (Point Lepreaux, New Brunswick).— 
DuTCHEK, Auk, i, 1884, 31 (Jones' Beach, Long I., New York, Jan. 1 and Feb. 
14-23); ii, 1885, 36 (Fire I. Inlet, Long I., New York, Dec. 17-29; Shinne- 
cock Bay, Long I., Feb. 4-27; measurements). — Dwight, Auk, ii, 1885, 105 
(Behoboth Beach, Delaware, Nov. 22). — Shakpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus.,xii, 
1888, 679 (Long I., New York; Duxbury, Massachusetts). 

P.[asserculus] princeps Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, Oct., 1872, 352, in text; 2d ed., 
1884, 361. 

Ammodramus princeps Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. , viii, Sept. 2, 1885,354. — 
American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 541. — Jones, Auk, iii, 
1886, 135 (near Halifax, Nova Scbtia, end of Mar.). — Dutcher, Auk, iii, 
1886, 441 (Long I., New York, records).— Bives, Cat. Birds Virginias, 1890, 
73 (Cobb's I., Virginia, common in winter). — Worthington, Auk, vii, 1890, 
211 (Glynn Co., Georgia, Jan. 8-27) .—Stone, Auk, ix, 1892, 204 (Cape May, 
New Jersey, Jan. 26-29).— BH0ADS,Abstr. Proc. Del. Val. Orn. Club, 1892, 8, 
(Cape Charles, Virginia, Mar. 29). — Brewster, Auk, x, 1893, 302 (Glynn Co., 
Georgia; Cobb's I., Virginia). — Dwight, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Club, no. 2,1895, 
1-56, colored plate (monogr.) . 

A. [mmodramus) princeps Eidgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 407. 

PASSERCULUS SANDWICHENSIS SANDWICHENSIS (Gmelin). 
SANDWICH SFARBOW. 

Wing not less than 68.58, averaging about 76.20; exposed culmen 
not less than 11.18, averaging 11.94. 

Adults {sexes alih^. — Above grayish brown, conspicuouslj^ streaked 
with black, the broad black streaks on back and scapulars edged with 
narrower dull whitish or light buffy grayish streaks; pileum with a 
median narrow stripe of pale grayish, or buffy grayish, streaks; a broad 
superciliary stripe of j^ellowish, more decidedly yellow anteriorly; 
wings light brownish with dusky centers to feathers; tail dusk j' gray- 
ish brown, the rectrices edged with pale grayish, but without any 
white on inner webs; auricular and subocular regions light brownish 
gray or dull grayish buffy, margined above by a blackish postocular 
streak and below by a more conspicuous rictal streak; a broad white 
or pale buffy malar stripe; under parts white (sometimes, especially in 
fall and winter plumage, tinged with buffy on chest, sides, etc.), with 
sides of throat, chest, sides, and flanks conspicuously streaked with 
blackish, the streaks on chest of more or less decided wedge-shape, 
thosei on sides of throat coalesced into a more or less conspicuous sub- 
malar stripe; longer under tail-coverts with concealed wedge-shaped 
mesial streaks of grayish. 



BIKDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 191 

Young. — Similar to adults, but paler streaks of upper parts more 
buffy, dusky streaks of under parts less sharply defined, ground color 
of under parts more buffy, the superciliary stripe usually without 
yellow anteriorly and finely streaked with dusky. 

Adult male.— h^ngth. (skins), 125.22-146.05 (137.16); wing, 71.17- 
79.76 (76.96); tail, 50.80-55.88 (52.58); exposed culmen, 11.18-12.70 
(12.19); depth of bill at base, 7.11-8.38 (7.62); tarsus, 22.10-23.11 
(22.61); middle toe, 15.24-17.02 (16.26).' 

J.c^?i;/maZe.— Length (skins), 123.95-145.80 (133.86); wing, 68.58- 
77.72 (74.17); tail, 46.99-53.34 (50.29); exposed culmen, 11.18-12.70 
(11.94); depth of bill at base, 6.86-7.62 (7.11); tarsus, 21.59-22.86 
(22.10); middle toe, 15.24-16.76 (16,00).' 

Unalaska Island (also Shumagin islands and lower portion of Alaska 
peninsula?) in summer; in winter, eastward and southward along the 
coast to British Columbia, more rarely to northern California. 

[Emberiza] sandwichensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, 1788, 875 (Sandwich Sound, 
Alaska; based on Sandwich Bunting Latham, Gen. Synopsis Birds, ii, 202) . 

Passerculus sandimchensis Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 444; ed. 1860 
("Birds N. Am."), atlas, pi. 28, fig. 2; Oat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 333.— 
Cooper and SucKLEY, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., xii, pt. ii, 1860, 199, pi. 28, fig. 2 
(Fort Steilacoom, Washington, Apr.). — Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 112, 
part (Shoal water Bay, Washington). — Brown, Ibis, 1868, 422 (Vancouver 
I.). — Dall and Bannister, Trans. Chicago Ac. Sci., i, 1869, 284 (Sitka, 
Alaska). — Cooper, Orn. CaL, 1870, 180 (Columbia R., winter). — Dall, 
Proc. Cal. Ac. Sci., v, 1873, 27 (Unalaska; Shumagins) ; vi, 1874, (5) (Una- 
laska). — Baird, Bkeweb, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, pi. 24, 
fig. 9. — EiDGWAY, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 193. — Coues, Check List, 
2d ed., 1882, 52.— Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1882, 151, 172 (Belkoffsky, 
Alaska peninsula, July 23; Chernoffsky, Unalaska, Oct. 1). — Nelson, Cruise 
"Corwin," 1881 (1883), 70 (Aleutian Islands) .—Turner, Auk, ii, 1885, 157 
(Nearer Islands, Aleutian chain; breeding). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 380, part (in synonymy). — Sharpe, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 674 part (Unalaska; Brit. Columbia?). 

Passerctdus sandvicensis Coues, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, April, 1880, 97; Check 
List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 226. 

P-lassercuhis'] sandvicensis Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 362. 

[Zonotrichia] sandimchensis Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 95, no. 7409. 

[Passerculus savanna-1 Var. sandvicensis Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 136. 

Passerculus savanna . . var. sandmcensis Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 159b. 

Passerculus savanna, var. sandwichensis Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, i, 1874, 538. 

[Passerculus savanna"] c. sandvicensis Coues, Birds N. W., 1874, 128. 

P.\asserculus'\ savanna sandvicensis Henshaw, Orn. Rep. Wheeler's Surv., 1879, 
293 (Crooked R., Oregon, 1 spec. Sept. ). 

Passerculus savanna sandwichensis Goode, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 20, 1883, 333. 

Aj)imodramus sandwichensis Ridgway, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., viii, Sept. 2, 1885, 
354; xvi, 1893, 664 (Unalaska; Kadiak; Middleton L). — American Orni- 
thologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 542. — Turner, Contr. Nat. Hist. 
Alaska, 1886, 173 (Unalaska, Attu, and Atkha islands, Aleutian chain; 

1 Fourteen specimens. '' Seven specimens. 



192 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

habits).— Nelson, Rep. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 186 (Aleutian islands; 

Kadiak; habits, etc. ) . — To wnsend. Cruise " Corwin, " 1885 ( 1887 ), 101 ( Una- 

laska, Oct. 16).— Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., iii, 1890, 144 (coast British 

Columbia during migration).— Rhoads, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1893, 48, 63 

(coast British Columbia, winter). 
A. [mmodramus] sandwichenm Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 408. 
Emberiza arctica Latham, Index Orn., i, 1790,414 (based on Unalascha Bunting 

Pennant, Arctic Zool., ii, 320, 363, no. 229, and Sandwich Bunting Latham, 

Gen. Synop., iii, 202). 
(7) i^njiffla arciica Vigors, Zool. Voy. "Blossom," 1839,20. 
\_Euspiza] arctica Bonaparte, Consp. Av. , i, 1850, 469. 
Euspiza arctica Baird, in Stansbury's Rep. Gt. Salt Lake, 1852, 331 (northwest 

coast). 
Zonotrichia arctica Finsch, Abh. Nat. Ver. Brem., iii, 1872, 46 ( Alexandre vsk, 



Emberiza chrysops Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., ii, 1826, 45, pi. 48, fig. 1 (Unalaska). 

PASSERCULUS SANDWICHENSIS SAVANNA (Wilson). 
SAVAMlfAH SPARROW. 

Similar to P. s. sandwichemiti, but decidedly smaller (wing averag- 
ing much less than 76.20 and never more than 73.66), the bill much 
smaller, both actually and relatively; coloration averaging browner, 
with superciliary stripe less continuously or conspicuously yellow. 

Adult male.— Length (skins), 115.57-137.16 (127.00); wing, 65.02- 
72.64: (69.34); tail, 45.97-53.09 (49.28); exposed culmen, 10.16-10.92 
(10.41); depth of bill at base, 6.60-7.11 (6.86); tarsus, 20.07-22.35 
(20.83); middle toe, 14.73-16.51 (16.49). ^ 

Adult female.— Length (skins), 114.30-129.54(122.94); wing, 63.50- 
71.12 (66.29); tail, 43.18-50.29 (47.24); exposed culmen, 10.16-10.67 
(10.41); depth of bill at base, 6.35-7.37 (6.60); tarsus, 20.32-22.^5 
(20.83); middle toe, 14.48-16.00 (15.24).' 

Eastern North America, breeding from Connecticut, Pennsylvania 
(Bradford, Crawford, Clinton, Elk, and Erie counties), Ontario, north- 
western Indiana (Calumet, English, and Wolf lakes), etc. , northwiard to 
Ungava (Fort Chimo), western side of Hudson Bay, etc. ; migrating 
south in winter to Gulf coast, Bahamas, and Cuba; casual in Bermudas. 

(?) Fringilla hyemalis (not of Linnseus, 1758) Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, 1788, 922 (New 
York; based on Winter Finch Pennant, Arct. Zool., ii, 376). 

FringiUa savanna (not F. sarannanHn Gmelin) "Wilson, Am. Orn., iii, 1811, 55, 
pi. 22, fig. 3; iv, 1811, 72, pi. 34, fig. 4.— Nuttall, Man. Orn. U. S. and Can., 
i, 1832, 489.— Audubon, Orn. Biog., ii, 1834, 63; v, 1839, 516, pi. 109. 

Passerina savanna Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., xxv, 1817, 26. 

"lAnaria savanna RicuARBBON, List, 1837." (Baird.) 

Passerculus savanna Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp". List, 1838, 33. — Gundlach, 
Journ. f iir Orn. , 1856, 6 ( Cuba) ; 1874, 121 ( Cuba) ; Repert. Fisico-Nat. Cuba, 1, 
1866, 283.— Baird, Rep.'Paciflc R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 442; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 

' Sixteen specimens. ' Fifteen specimens. 



BIEDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 193 

1859, no. 332.— Brewee, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., vii, 1860, 307 (Cuba).— 
CouES, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1861, 223 (coast of Labrador, breeding; 
habits); Check List, 1873, no. 159; Birds N. VV., 1874, 127, part.— Sclater, 
Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 112, part (e. United States) .— Turnbull, Birds E. 
Penn. andN. J., 1869, 22 (breeding near mountains, wintering on seashore). — 
Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ii, 1871, 272, excl. syn. part (e. Florida, 
winter). — Baird, Brewer, and Eidgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 534, 
pi. 24, fig. 8.— Merriam, Trans. Conn.- Acad., iv, 1877, 36 (Connecticut, 
breeding) . — Maynard, Birds Florida, pt. iv, 1878, 100. — Brewster, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 118 (descr. young).— Cory, Birds Bahama I., 1880, 
88; List Birds W. I., 1885, 13. 

[Passerculus] savanna Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 480. — Conss, Key N. Am. 
Birds, 1872, 136.— Cory, List Birds W. I., 1885, 13. 

P.[a8serculus] savanna Cabanis, Mus. Hein., 1851, i, 131, part (synonymy only). — 
Nelson, Bull. Essex Inst., viii, 1876, 106 (n. e.Illinois, summer resident) . 

Emheriza savanna Audubon, Synopsis, 1839, 103; Birds Am., oct. ed., iii, 1841, 68, 
160. — Lembeye, Aves de la Isla de Cuba, 1850, 55. 

Z. [onoirichial savanna Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1849, 347. 

[Zonotrichia] savanna Gray, Hand-list, ii,,1870, 95, no. 7408. 

Zonotrichia savanna 3 A'RDvxs, Contr. Orn., 1850, 67 (Bermudas). 

\_Passercul'us savanna'] var. savanna Baikd, Brewer, and Ridqway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, i, 1874, 533. 

[Passercuhxs savanna] a. «a«arma Coues, Birds N. W., 1874, 127, part (synonymy). 

Passerculus sandioichensis savanna Ridqway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, Aug. 24, 
1880, 178; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. -1930.— Turner, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., viii, 1885, 240 (Fort Chimo, Ungava, etc., breeding). 

Passerculus sandvicensis savana Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 227. — Bick- 
nell, Auk, i, 1884, 329 (song). 

P.[asserculus'] s-landvicenffis] savana Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2ded., 1884, 363. 

Ammodramussandwicheyisis savanna RiBQW AY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, Sept. 2, 
1885, 354; Auk, viii, 1891, 334, 338, 339 (Abaco, Rum Cay, and Green Cay, 
Bahamas). — American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 542a. — 
Cory, Auk, iii, 1886, 211 (West Indian references); Birds W. I., 1889, 98; 
Cat. W. I. Birds, 1892, 112, ,147 (Cuba, in winter).— (?) Hancock, Bull. 
Ridgw. Orn. Club, no. 2, 1887, 19 (Corpus Christi, Texas, spring). — Cooke, 
■Bird Migr. Miss. VaL, 1888, 189, chiefly (dates, etc.). —Scott, Auk, vi, 1889, 
321 (Tarpon Springs, Punta Bassa, and Key West, Florida, winter resi- 
dent) .—Palmer ( W. ) , Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. , xiii, 1890, 264 (Magdalen Islands, 
Newfoundland, etc., breeding; habits) . — Warren, Birds Pennsylvania, 1890, 
234 (breeding in Crawford, Erie, and Clinton counties). — Stone, Auk, ix, 
1892, 204 (Cape May, New Jersey, Jan. 26-29). — McIlWraith, Birds Ontario, 
1892, 315 (breeding).— Bailey, Auk, xiii, 1896, 294 (Elk Co., Pennsylvania, 
breeding). — Hoffman (R.), Auk, xii, 1895, 188 (Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 
Dec. 28, 30).— Neheling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 83, pi. 23, fig. 7.— 
Butler, Proc. Ind. Ac. Sci., 1896, 246 (English Lake, n. w. Indiana, June 14) ; 
Birds Indiana, 1897, 940 (breeding about Calumet Lake, English Lake, and 
Woli Lake; wintering in Knox Co.). — Knight, Bull. Univ. Maine, no. 3, 
1897, 96 (Maine, summer resid.).— Bhoads, Auk, xvi, 1899, 312 (Bedford 
Co., Pennsylvania, June). 

A. [mmodramus] sandvjiehensis savanna Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 408. 

Passerculus sandunchensis (not Emheriza sandwichensis Gmelin) Shaepe, Cat. 
Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 674, part (eastern localities and references). 

Ammodramus (Passerculus) sandwichenm wilsonianus Qoves,, Auk, xiv, Jan., 1897, 
93 (substitute subspecific name for savanna Wilson, preoccupied). 

17024—01 13 



lyj: BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



PASSERCULUS SANDWICHENSIS ALAUDINUS (Bonaparte). 
WESTERN SAVANNA SPAKKOW. 

Similar to P. s. savanna, but wing and tail averaging longer, tarsus 
shorter, bill more slender, and coloration decidedly paler and graj^er 
(more so even than in P. s. sandvjichensis), with the superciliary stripe 
usually less decided^ yellow, often white, even anteriorly. 

Adult m,ale.— Length (skins), 114.30-141.73 (129.03); wing, 65.02- 
77.72 (72.64); tail, 45.72-57.15 (51.82); exposed culmen, 9.65-10.92 
(10.67); depth of bill at base, 5.08-5.84 (5.33); tarsus, 19.05-22.61 
(20.83); middle toe, 13.72-16.76 (15.49).^ 

Adult female.— Length (skins), 114.30-132.33 (124.97); wing, 65.02- 
72.90 (70.10); tail, 44.70-53.84 (50.29); culmen, 9.65-11.43 (10.67); 
depth of bill at base, 5.08-5.84 (5.33); tarsus, 18.29-20.83 (20 57); mid- 
dle toe, 13.72-15.49 (15.24).' 

Western North America, from northwestern Alaska to southern 
Mexico; breeding from Alaska (Yukon and Kowak River valleys, 
coast of Bering Sea, Alaska Peninsula, Kadiak, etc.) southward to 



' Forty-nine specimens. 



' Tliirty-one specimens. 



Locality. 



Wing. 



Tail. 



Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 



Depth 
of bill 
at base. 



Tarsus. 



Middle 
toe. 



MALES. 

Five adult males from Alaska Peninsula (Kukak 
Bay) 

Ten adult males from other parts of Alaska, includ- 
ing Kadiak Island 

Twenty-four adult males from western United 
States and British Columbia 

Ten adult males (mostly summer birds) from south- 
ern Mexico 

FEMALES. 

Two adult females from Alaska Peninsula (Kukak 
Bay) 

Three adult females from other parts of Alaska 

'Twelve adult females from western United States .. 

Fourteen adult females from southern Mexico 

(mostly summer) 



68.83 
72.14 
71.12 
71.37 



69.60 
66.80 
67.82 



49.02 
51.82 
49.28 
53. 85 



48.51 
50.04 
47.75 



10.41 
10.41 
10.41 
10.41 



10.67 
10.16 
10.16 

10.41 



5.33 
6.59 
5.33 



5.33 
5.59 
5.08 



20.67 
20.32 
20.57 
19.81 



20.57 
19.81 
20.32 



16.49 
16.75 
14.99 
15.24 



15.24 
14.99 
14.22 



It will thus be seen that there is no essential variation in measurements throughout 
the very extensive breeding range of this form, which extends from northwestern 
Alaska to the table-lands of southern Mexico. Many of the Mexican specimens were 
obtained during the breeding season, and these I am unable to distinguish in any 
way from breeding examples obtained at more northern localities. 

The type of Ammodramus sandwichensis brunnescens Butler (obtained November 20 
in the Valley of Mexico) is a specimen of P. s. hryanti; but other specimens so 
labeled, taken by Mr. Butler in the same locality during December, are typical 
examples of P. «. alaudinus, and I am able to match them perfectly with fall and 
winter specimens from the western United States. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 195 

southern portion of Mexican plateau (states of Puebla, Mexico, Tlax- 
cala, Hidalgo, etc.), and from the Pacific coast (north of San Francisco 
Bay) to eastern edge of the Great Plains, plains of the Saskatchewan, 
etc. ; in winter throughout valleys of entire west (including southern 
California and Lower California) and whole of Mexico, excepting the 
tierra caliente, and to Guatemala (Hacienda Chancol, Jan.). 

Passeradus alaudinus Bonaparte, Compt. Eend., xxxvii, Dec, 1853, 918 (Cali- 
fornia) ; Notes Orn. Coll. Delattre, 1854, 18.— BAiRD,Eep. Pacific E. E. Surv., 
ix, 1858, 446; ed. 1860 ("Birds N. Am."), atlas, pi. 4, fig.l; Eep. U. S.and 
Mex. Bound. Surv., ii, pt. ii, 1859, 15 (Brownsville, Texas; Tamaulipas) ; Cat. 
N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 335.— Sclatee, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1858,803 (La 
Parada, Oaxaca) ; Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 112 (n. California; Nebraska; Oax- 
aca). — Cooper and Suckley, Eep. Pacific E. E. Surv., xii, pt. ii, 1860, 199 
(Coast of Washington) . — Sclater and Salvix, Ibis, 1860, 398 (Duefias, Gua- 
temala) . — Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 487 (near San Antonio, Texas) . — Coues, Proc. 
Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 84 (Port Whipple, Arizona). — D all and Bannister, 
Trans. Chicago Acad. Sci., i, 1869, 284 (Sitka and Yukon E., Alaska). — Elliot, 
Illustr. New and Unflg. N. Am. Birds, 1869, pi. 13.— Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. 
Soe. N. H., i, 1869, 552 (Vera Cruz, winter).— Cooper, Orn. Cal., 1870, 181.— 
Snow, Birds Kansas, 1873, 7. — Baird, Brewer, and Eidgway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, i, 1874, pi. 24, fig. 11. 

[ZonotricMa] alaudma Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 95, no. 7411. 

Zonotrichia alaudma Finsch, Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen, iii, 1872, 51 (crit. ). 

Passerculvs savanna, var. alaudinus Baird, Brewer, and Eidgway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, i, 1874, 537.— Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 4, 1876, 21 (Tehuan- 
tepec City, Oaxaca, Nov.). 

Passerculus savanna . . . var. ciZawrfmus Eidgway, Bull. Essex Inst., v, Nov., 1873, 
182 (Colorado) .—Henshaw, Eep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1873 (1874), 
61 (Denver, Colorado), 79 (Garland, Colorado), 111 (Mount Graham, Apache, 
and Camp Grant, Arizona); Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 254 (localities 
in Nevada, Utah, Colorado, and Arizona). 

Passerculus savanna alaudinus Eidgway, Bull. Essex Inst., vii, Jan., 1875, 11, 19 
(Carson and West Humboldt Mts., Nevada). — Coues and Streets, Bull. V. S. 
Nat. Mus., no. 7,1877,9 (EioSanlgnacio, Sonora). — Mbarns, Bull. Nutt. Orn. 
Club, iv, 1879, 164 (Fort Klamath, e. Oregon). — Eobeets and Benseh, 
Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 14 (Grant and Traverse counties, Minnesota, 
breeding).— Finsch, Journ. fiirOrn., 1883, 273 (Portage Bay, Alaska, May). 

Passerculus sandvichensis, y. alaudinus Eidgway, Field and Forest, iii. May, 1877, 
198 (Colorado). 

Passerculus sandvichensis ... a. alaudinus Eidgway, Orn. 40th parallel, 1877, 464 
(moist valleys and marshes, Nevada and Utah, breeding; habits, song, etc.). 

Passerculus sandvicenais, y. alaudinus Eidgway, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, April, 
1878, 66 (centr. California); Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 415 (do.). 

P.[asserculus'] savanna alaudinus Henshaw, Orn. Eep. Wheeler's Surv., 1879, 293 
(Washoe Lake, Nevada, and northward, breeding). 

Passerculus sandwichensis alaudinus Eidgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, Aug. 24, 
1880, 178; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 193i.— Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., V, 1882, 151 (Chugachik Bay, Cook Inlet, Chamisso I., and Kadiak, 
Alaska, breeding).— Nelson, Cruise "Corwin," 1881 (1883), 70 (coast of 
Bering Sea, Yukon district, etc.) .— Bblding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vi, 1883, 
350 (La Paz, Lower California, winter) .— Goss, Auk, iii, 1886, 114 (McPher- 
son Co., Kansas, Oct.) .—Fannin, Check List Birds Brit. Columbia, 1891, 36 
(summer resid. on coast) . 



196 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Passerculus sandvicensis alaudinus Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 229. 

P. \/isserculus\ s. [andvicensisl alaudinus Codes, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed. , 1884, 363. 

Ammodramus sandwichensis alaudinus Eidgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, sig. 23, 
Sept. 2, 1885, 354.— American Oknithologists' Uxion, Check List, 1886, 
no. 5426.— Eereari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 145 (Puebla, 
Mexico, Dec). —Turner, Contr. Nat. Hist. Alaska, 1886, 173 (St. Michaels).— 
Nelson, Rep. Nat. Plist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 187 (habits, etc.).— Townsexd, 
Cruise "Corwin," 1885 (1887), 93 (upper Kowak E., Alaska, July, Aug.); 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.,xiii, 1890, 141 (Santa Cruz I., California, Feb.).— Han- 
cock, Bull. Eidgw. Orn. Club no. 2, 1887, 19 (Corpus Christi, Texas, spring). — 
Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 189 (w. Manitoba; Gainesville, Texas, 
etc.). — Macfarlane, Proc. U.S.Nat. Mus., xiv, 1891,442 (near Fort Ander- 
son, breeding; descr. nest). — Thompson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1891, 
594 (Manitoba summer resid.; habits; song). — Ehoads, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1893, 48, 63 (British Columbia, breeding from seacoast to 5,000 ft.). — 
Grinnell, Pub. i, Pasadena Acad. Sci., 1897, 17 (San Clemente I., California, 
Mar. 30) ; Pub. ii, 1898, 36 (Los Angeles Co., California, Sept. 18 to May 3; a 
few breeding?). — Allison, Auk, xvi, 1899, 267 (Amite Co., Mississippi, 1 
spec. Nov. 12, 1897). 

A. [mmodramus'] sandwichensis alaudinus Eidgw ay, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 409. 

Passerculus anftimis Bonaparte, Compt. Rend., xxxvii, Dec, 1853, 919 (Kadiak, 
Alaska); Notes Orn. Coll. Delattre, 1854, 19. — DALLand Bannister, Trans. 
Chicago Ac. Sci., i, 1869, 284 (St. Michaels, Sitka, Nulato, Unalaklik, Kadiak, 
etc., Alaska). 

Passerculus savanna var. anthinus Allen, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xvii, 1874, 57 
(Great Porcupine Creek, Montana). 

P.^assemdus'] savanna (not Fringilla savanna Wilson) Cabanis, Mus. Hein., i, 
1851, 131 (Mexico). 

Pa»serculus savanna Woodhodse, in Eep. Sitgreaves' Expl. Zufii and Col. R., 1853, 
85 (Indian Territory; Texas; New Mexico; California). — Heeemann, Rep. 
Pacific R. E. Surv., x, pt. iv, 1859, 48 (California, etc.). — Sclater, Cat. Am. 
Birds, 1862, 112, part (Santecomapan, Vera Cruz). — Blakiston, Ibis, 1863, 74 
(Fort Carleton; Mackenzie E.). — Dall and Bannister, Trans. Chicago Ac. 
Sci.,i, 1869, 283 (Yukon R., St. Michaels, Unalaklik, and Sitka, Alaska).— 
Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 159, part; Birds N. W., 1874, 127, part; Bull. 
U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 588 (Pembina, etc.. North Dakota; 
habits; descr. nest). — Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 156, 162 
(South Park, etc., Colorado, breeding). — Eidgway, Bull. Essex Inst., v, 
1873, 182 (Colorado).— Nelson, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xvii, 1875, 346 (Salt 
Lake City, Utah), 358 (Nevada, California) . — Sennett, Bull. U. S. Geol. and 
Geog. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 17 (Brownsville, Texas); v, 1879, 390 (Corpus 
Christi and Lomita, Texas) . — McChesney, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. 
Terr., v, 1879, 76 (Fort Sisseton, South Dakota, June).— (?) Hatch, Ninth 
An. Rep. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Surv. Minn., 1881, 395. — Nehkling, Auk, 
vii, 1882, 12 (s. e. Texas, breeding). 

{^Passerculus'] savanna Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, lS5, part. — Sclater and 
Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 31. 

[Passerculus savanna] a. sai'anna Coues, Birds N.W., 1874, 127, part (in synonymy). 

(?) Ammodramus sandwichensis savanna Emerson, Zoe, i, 1890, 45 (Volcano Mts., 
San Diego Co., California, 1 spec. Mar. 9). 

Ammodramus sandwichensis savanna Macfarlane, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiv, 
1891, 442 (Anderson R., breeding). 

Passerculus sandwichensis (not Emberiza sandvriQhensis Gmelin) Blakiston, Ibis, 
1863, 75 (Mackenzie R.). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 197 

Passerculua sandmchensis Sclatee, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 112, part (northern 
Mexico). — SALViNand Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am,, Ayes, i, 1886, 380, part. — 
Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 674, part. — Fannin, Check List 
Birds Brit. Columbia, 1891, 36 (summer resid. w. of Cascade Mts., and on 
Vancouver I.). 

Ammodramus sandunchensis brunnescens (part) Butlee, Auk, v, July, 1888, 265 
(Valley of Mexico, Dec; not the type, which = P. s. bryanti.'). 

Ammodramus sandwichmsis xanthophrys Geinnell, Condor, iii, Jan., 1901, 21 
(St. Paul, Kadiak, Alaska; coll. Leland Stanford Jr. Univ. ) . 

PASSERCULUS SANDWICHENSIS BRYANTI Ridgway. 
BRYANT'S MARSH SPARROW. 

Similar to JP. s. savanna, but smaller and darker, with more slender 
bill; decidedly smaller and very much darker and browner than I^. s. 
alaudinits, with black dorsal streaks very much broader, the under 
parts much more heavily streaked with black, and in winter plumage, 
with the chest, sides, etc., strongly tinged with brownish buff. 

Adult male.—hength (skins), 116.06-127.00 (120.90); wing, 63.75- 
71.12 (67.06); tail, 44.20-50.80 (48.01); exposed culmen, 10.16-11.43 
(10.67); depth of bill atbase(two specimens), 6.10; tarsus, 19.05-20.32 
(20.07); middle toe, 14.4S-16.51 (15.49).' 

Adult feinale.— 'Length (skins), 111.76-118.11 (115.82); wing, 
62.74-68.38 (64.77); tail, 43.18-18.77 (46.23); exposed culmen, 10.16- 
10.92 (10.67); depth of bill at base (one specimen), 5.84; tarsus, 19.05- 
20.32 (20.07); middle toe, 13.97-15.49 (14.99).' 

Coast of California (salt marshes), breeding chieflj'' about San 
Francisco Bay; occasionally southward in winter to central Mexico 
(Valley of Mexico). 

[The type specimen of ATrnmodvam/us sandwichensis lyrutvnescens 
Butler agrees minutely with examples of this form from the coast 
of California. There is no yellow whatever in the superciliary stripe; 
but this character is more or less variable in all the forms of this 
species, and some Californian specimens of the present form are 
equally destitute of yellow on the superciliary or supraloral region. 

An adult female fromTlalpam, Mexico (No. 143780, U. S. Nat. Mus., 
Dec. 8, 1892, E. W. Nelson) is closely similar to Mr. Butler's type of 
A. s. hrunnescens, and practically indistinguishable from some Califor- 
nian examples.] 

Passerculus anthinus (not of Bonaparte, 1853) Baied, Rep. Pacific E. R. Surv., 
ix, 1858, 445 (San Francisco, Benicia, and Petaluma, California) ; Cat. N. Am. 
Birds, 1859, no. 334.— (7) Sclatee, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 112 (California).— 
Cooper, Om. Cal., 1870, 183, part.— (?) Elliot, Illustr. New and Unfig. Birds 
N. Am., 1869, pi. 13. — Baied, Beewee, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 
1874, pi. 24, fig. 10.— Ridgway, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 194, part. 

[Passerculus savanna.l Var. anthinus Coues, Key, 1872, 136, part. 

^ Ten specimens. '' Five specimens. 



198 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Passerculus savanna . . . var. anUdnm CouES, Check List, 1873, no. 159o, part. 

Passercuhi^ savanna, var. anthinus Baied, Beewee, and Bidgway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, i, 1874, 539, part, pi. 24, fig. 10. 

[Passerculus savanna} b. anthinus CouES, Birds N. W., 1874, 128, part. 

Passerculus sandvicensis anthinus CouES, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 228, part. 

P. [cmerculus'] s. [andvicensis] anthinus Codes, Key N. Aro. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 363, 
part. 

(?) Passerculus alaudinus (not of Bonaparte?) Heeemann, Rep. Pacific R. R. 
Surv., X, pt. iv, 1859, 49 (Benicia, California). 

Passerculus aandwichends bryanti Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vii, no. 33, 
Jan. 19, 1885, 517 (Oakland, California; U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

Ammodramus sandmichensis bryanti Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, sig. 23, 
Sept. 2, 1885, 354.— Wichs, The Avifauna, i, 1885, 27 (San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia; descr. nest and eggs). — Ameeican Genithologists' Union, Check 
List, 1886, no. 542c.— Fishee, North Am. Fauna, no. 7, 1893, 86 (coast, 
Santa Barbara to Carpentaria, Dec). — Swaeth, Condor, iii, 1901, 17 (San 
Pedro, California, Dec. 10). 

A.[mmodramus'] sandwichensis bryanti Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 409. 

Passerculus sandwichensis (not Emberiza sandwicherms Gmelin) Shaepe, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 674, part. 

Ammodramus sandwichensis brunnescens Butlee, Auk, v, July, 1888, 265 (Valley 
of Mexico, Nov. ; coll. A. W. Butler) . 



PASSERCULUS BELDINGI Ridgway. 
BELDING'S MAESH SPARROW. 

Similar to I^. sandwichensis irycmti, but still darker in coloration, 
the under parts more heavily and more extensively streaked with 
black, the upper parts more olivaceous and more uniform; wing and 
tail averaging shorter, but bill larger; legs and feet darker (grayish 
brown). 

Adults {sexes cdike). — Above olive, streaked with black, the streaks 
very broad on dorsal region; pileum with an indistinct median lighter 
narrow stripe; under parts white, or bufi'y white, the entire chest, 
breast, sides, and flanks broadly streaked with black, these streaks, in 
winter plumage, suffused terminally with olive-brownish; under tail- 
coverts with concealed dusky wedge-shaped mesial streaks. 

Adult mfflfe.— Length (skins), 115.32-139.70 (12i.71); wing, 64.01- 
71.63 (67.31); tail,, 46.99-50.80 (48.77); exposed culmen, 10.41-12.70 
(11.18); depth of bill at base, 6.60-7.37 (6.86); tarsus, 20.07-22.35 
(20.83); middle toe, 15.24-15.75 (15.49).' 

Adultfemcde.~L,ength (skins), 110.49-139.70(122.68); wing, 60.96- 
67.56 (62.99); tail, 42.42-46.48 (43.94); exposed culmen, 10.16-11.43 
(10.67); depth of bill at base, 5.59-6.60 (6.10); tarsus, 18.29-20.57 
(19.81); middle toe, 14.73-15.49 (14.99).'' 

Salt marshes of southern California and Lower California, from 
Santa Barbara to San Quentin Bay and Todos Santos Island. 



^ Seven specimens. ^ Eight specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 199 

Passeradua anthinus (not Bonaparte) (?) Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 112 

(California). — Coues, Ibis, 1866, 268, in text (San Pedro, s. California; 

habits). — Cooper, Orn. Cal., 1870, 183, part (San Diego, California). — Ridq- 

WAY, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 194, part.— Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., V, 1883, 528 (San Quentin Bay, Lower California, May 2-11; resident?). 
l^Passerculus savanna. ] Var. anthinus Coues, Kej', 1872, 136, part. 
Passerculus savanna . . . var. anthinus Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 1.59a, part.. — 

Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1876, 240 (Santa Barbara, s. 

California, breeding; habits; measurements). 
Passerculus savanna, var. anthinus Baird, Brewer, and Ridqway, Hist. N. Am. 

Birds, i, 1874, 539, part. 
^Passerculus savannal b. anthinus Coues, Birds N. W., 1874, 128, part. 
Passerculus savanna anthinus Coues, Bull. TJ. S. Nat. Mus., no. 7, 1877, 9 (Todos 

Santos I., Lower California). 
Passerculus sandvicensis anthinus Coues, Check List, 2d ed. , 1882, no. 228. 
P.^asserculusl s-landmcensisl anthinus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 363, 

part. 
Passerculus alaudinus (not Bonaparte) Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. 

Birds, ii), 1874, 512 (Santa Barbara, California, breeding). 
Passerculus beldingi Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vii, no. 33, Jan. 19, 1885, 

516 (San Diego, California, U. S.Nat. Mus.). 
Ammodramus beldingi 'RjBGv; AY, Proc. TJ. S. Nat. Mus.,viii, no. 23, Sept. 2, 1885, 

354. — American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 543. — Ever- 

mann, Auk, iii, 1886, 182 (Ventura Co., California, resident). — Gault, Bull. 

Ridgw. Orn. Club, no. 2, 1887, 58 (San Diego Co., California; habits; descr. 

nest and eggs, etc.). — Nehrling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 85. — Grin- 

NELL, Pub. ii, Pasadena Acad. Sci., 1898, 36 (Los Angeles Co., California, 

resident in salt marshes). 
A.[mmodramus} beldingi Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 409. 
Passerculus sandwichensis (not Emberiza sandwichensis Gmelin) Sharpe, Cat. 

Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 674, part. 

PASSERCULUS ROSTRATUS ROSTRATUS (Cassin). 
lARGE-BIILED SPARROW. 

Culmen regularly curved from base, without depression in middle 
portion, the bill more swollen than in J°. sa7idwiche7isis and allies; 
primaries exceeding secondaries by less than length of exposed culmen 
(the latter 10. 67 mm. or more) ; upper parts not conspicuously streaked, 
except sometimes on back. 

Adults {sexes cdike). — Above light broccoli brown, tinged with gray, 
the feathers of pileum and back with more or less distinct mesial streaks 
of darker; outer webs of secondaries and greater wing-coverts more 
wood brown or cinnamon, the tertials with conspicuous central areas of 
dusky; a broad but rather indistinct superciliary stripe of pale buffy 
grayish, becoming nearly white anteriorly; auricular region brown, 
mixed with pale buffy grayish centrally; an indistinct dull whitish 
suborbital space; broad malar stripe pale buff or buffy whitish; under 
parts buffy white, the flanks tinged with brownish buffy, and the 
chest, sides of throat, sides, and flanks streaked with wood brown or 
cinnamon, these brown streaks usually inclosing a narrower median 



200 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

streak of blackish; maxilla deep brown (darker on culmen), mandible 
paler brown (darker terminally); iris brown; legs and feet light 
brownish. 

Adult wwZc— Length (skins), 129.54^-144. 78 (138.94); wing, 69.09- 
74.17 (71.88); tail, 49.53-55.12 (53.34); exposed culmen, 12.19-13.72 
(12.95); depth of bill at base, 7.37-7.87 (7.62); tersus, 22.35-23.37 
(22.86); middle toe, 15.75-18.08 (17.02).' 

Adult female.— Ijength (skins), 132.08-144.78 (136.65); wing, 64.01- 
71.88 (66.80); tail, 46.48-54.36 (50.55); exposed culmen, 10.67-12.95 
(12.19); depth of bill at base, 6.35-7.62 (7.37); tarsus, 21.59-23.62 
(22.35); middle toe, 15.75-17.78 (16.26).' 

Salt marshes of southern California and Lower California, north to 
Santa Barbara, south about to San Quentin Bay (?); in winter south 
along both coasts of Lower California to Cape St. Lucas and Todos 
Santos Island and along coast of Sonora as far as Guaymas. 

Emberiza rostrata Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1852, 184 (San Diego, Cali- 
fornia; coll. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.). 

Ammodramus rostratus Cassin, lUustr. Birds Cal., Tex., etc., 1855, 226, pi. 38.-^ 
American Oknithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 544. — Geinnell, 
Pub. ii, Pasadena Acad. Sci., 1898, 36 (Los Angeles Co., California, Aug. 
, to Apr., in salt marshes and beaches). 

A.[mmodramus'] rosiraius Eidgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 410. 

Passerculus rostratus Baird, Eep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 446; Cat. N. Am. 
Birds, 1859, no. 336.— Heer.mann, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. iv, 1859, 
46 (San Diego, San Pedro, and Santa Barbara, California). — Cooper, Orn. 
Cal., 1870, 184 (San Pedro; San Diego).— Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 160; 
2d ed., 1882, no. 230. — Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, 
i, 1874, 542, pi. 24, fig. 12.— Coues and Streets, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 7, 
1877, 9 (Todos Santos I., Lower California). — Ridgway, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 
1881, no. 196; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1883, 537-539 (La Paz, Lower California; 
crit.).— Belding, Proc. IT. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1883, 537 (La Paz, Lower Cali- 
fornia, Dec. to Feb. ); vi, 1883, 343 (Guaymas, Sonora, Dec, Apr.). — Brew- 
ster, Auk, ii, 1885,198 (PortLobos, Sonora, Aug. 20). — Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 382 (Guaymas). — Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus., xii, 1888, 680, excl. syn. part (Cape St. Lucas). 

IPasserculus] rostratus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 136. 

P.lasserculm} rostratus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 363. 

\_Passerculus rostratusi var. rostratus Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. 
Am. Birds, i, 1874, 533. 

IZonotrichia'] rostrata Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 95, no. 7412. 

Ammodramus rostratus guttaiusf (not Passerculus guttatus Lawrence) Price, Bull. 
Coop. Orn. Club, i, 1899, 92 (mouth Colorado R.). 

PASSERCULUS ROSTRATUS SANCTORUM Coues. 
SAN BENITO SPARROW. 

Similar to P. r. rostratus., but slightly smaller (except the bill) and 
coloration grayer, with streaks on under parts darker. 
Adult male.— Length (skins), 121.92-137.16 (128.78); wing, 66.04- 

' Fourteen specimens. '' Eleven specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 201 

73.66 (70.61); tail, 46.99-53.34 (50.55); exposed culmen, 11.43-12.70 
(11.43); depth of bill at base, 7.11-8.13 (7.37); tarsus, 21.59-23.86 
(22.35); middle toe, 16.00-18.03 (17.02).^ 

Aduli fmtale.— Length (skins), 119.38-129.54 (125.48); wing, 65.53- 
68.33 (66.80); tail, 46.48-50.29 (48.51); exposed culmen, 11.68-12.45 
(12.19); depth of bill at base, 7.11-7.37 (7.24); tarsus, 19.81-22.35 
(20.83); middle toe, 15.75-16.51 (16.00).'' 

San Benito Island, Lower California. 

This is merely an insular form of P. TOHtvatuH. The bill averages 
exactly the same in both forms, both in length of culmen and basal 
depth. Some specimens are scarely to be distinguished bj^ color, but 
the average dijfference is ver}^ decided and quite sufficient to separate 
the two forms subspecificallj^. 

Passerculus guttatua (not of Lawrence) CouEsand Streets, BulL U. S. Nat. Mus., 

no. 7, 1877, 10, excL syn. (San Benito I., Lower California; crit.). 
Passermlus sanctorum Cones Eidgway, Proc. TJ. S. Kat. Mus., v, sig. 34, Mar. 

21, 1883, 538, in text (San Benito I.; nomen nudmn.'). 
P-lasserculus'] sanctorum Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1883, 538, 539, in 

text (crit.).— CouEs, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 364 (San Benito I., 

Lower California; U. S. Nat. Mus.). 
Ammodramus {PassercLdus) sanctorum CouES, Auk, xiv, Jan., 1897, 92. 
Ammodramus sanctorum Amehican Ornithologists' Union Committee, Auk, xiv, 

Jan., 1897, 121 (Check List, no. 544.1) .—McGebgoh, Auk, xv, 1898, 264 

(descr. young). 



PASSERCULUS ROSTRATUS GUTTATUS (Lawrence). 
ST, LTJOAS SPARROW. 

Similar to P. r. rostratics but smaller, with relatively smaller and more 
slender bill and with the coloration darker; upper parts grayish olive 
or hair brown, the pileum with narrow streaks of dusky, the back and 
scapulars with very broad streaks, or longitudinal mesial spots, of 
dark sepia brown; under parts white, shaded with light hair brown or 
grayish olive on sides and flanks; sides of throat, chest, sides, and 
flanks conspicuously streaked, the strealis blackish brown medially 
(broadly), light hair brown along edges. Length (skins), 123.19-124.46 
(123.70); wing, 63.50-64.77 (64.01); tail, 47.50-47.75 (47.62); exposed 
culmen, 11.18; depth of bill at base, 5.59-6.10 (6.84); tarsus, 20.57- 
21.34 (20.83); middle toe, 14.99-15.75 (15.24).^ 

Southern portion of Lower California (San Jose del Cabo) in winter; 
breeding range unknown. 

Passerculus guttatus Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., viii. May, 1867, 473 
(San Jos6 del Cabo, Lower California; IT. S. Kat. Mus. ). — Cooper, Orn.Cal., 
1870, 185. — Baibd, Bhewbb, and Eidgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, pi. 25, 

' Five specimens. 
'' Four specimens. 
^Two specimens, one of them an adult male, the other wi,th sex undetermined. 



202 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

fig. 1.— CouEs, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 231.— Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mus., iii, 1880, 2 (crit.); v, 1883, 538, 539, in text (crit.); Norn. N. Am. 

Birds, 1881, no. 195. 
[Passerculus'] guttatus Coues, Key X. Am. Birds, 1872, 136. 
P. \_asserculus] guttatus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 364. 
\_Zonotrichia\ guttata Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 95, no. 4713. 
Passerculus rostratus . . . var. guttatus Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 160a. 
Passerculus rostratus, var. guttatus Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. 

Birds, i, 1874, 544, pi. 25, fig. 1. 
Passerculus rostratus guttatus Goode, Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. , no. 20, 1883, 333. 
' Ammodramus rostratus guttalas Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, sig. 23, Sept. 2, 

1885, 355. — American Orxitholgists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 544a. 
A. [mmodramus} rostratus guttatus Eidgway', Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 410. 
Passerculus rostratus (not Emberiza rostrata Caasin) Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. 

Mus., xii, 1888, 680, part (in synonymy). 

PASSERCULUS ROSTRATUS HALOPHILUS (McGregor). 
ABREOJOS SPARROW. 

Similar to P. r. guttatus, but larger and much darker, the upper 
parts deep olivaceous streaked with blackish on pileum and back, the 
streaks on chest, etc., black, with little if any brown edging; diflfering 
from P. hddingi in much more uniform coloration of upper parts, 
with the ground color more decidedly olivaceous and the darker streaks 
far less distinct; in less numerous and decidedly narrower blackish 
streaks on chest, etc., and in longer wing, tail, and tarsus. 

Adult male.— Jjength (skins), 114.30-127.00 (123.19); wing, 66.80- 
70.61 (69.09); tail, 42.93-52.32 (50.29); exposed culmen, 12.70-12.95 
(12.62); depth of bill at base, 6.35-7.62 (6.60); tarsus, 20.32-22.61 
(21.59); middle toe, 15.49-17.02 (16.00).^ 

Adult female.— Length (skins), 114.30-123.19 (119.13); wing, 63.50- 
69.60 (64.77); tail, 45.21-51.05 (47.50); exposed culmen, 12.19-13.21 
(12.70); depth of bill at base, 6.10-6.86 (6.35); tarsus, 20.32-22.35 
(21.34); middle toe, 14.48-16.76 (15.75).' 

Abreojos Point, Lower California (breeding). 

Ammodramus halopJnlus McGregor, Auk, xv, July, 1898, 265 (salt marshes near 
Abreojos Point, Lower California; coll. R. C. JlcGregor). 

Genus CKNTRONYX Baird. 

C'entrony.v Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 440. (Type, Emberiza bairdii 
Audubon.) 

SmaU conspicuously streaked terrestrial Fringillidte with the sixth 
primary not abrupth' shorter than the seventh; the hallux longer 
than the outer toe, its claw longer than distance from nostril to tip of 
maxilla; edge of wing white; adults with a black rictal streak and with 
the chest streaked with black. 

'Nine specimens. ^Twelve specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 203 

Range. — Great Plains of North America. (Monotypic.) 
This genus is unquestionably far more nearly related to Cotumicu- 
lus than to Passerculiis, but differs from it in the characters mentioned 
above; both Oentronyx and Coturniculus differing from Passercuhis in 
additional characters which they share together (see "Key" to the 
genera, pages 34, 35). 



CENTRONYX BAIRDII (Audubon). 
BAIRS'S SFARBOW. 

Admits {sexes alike). — Head ochraceous or buffy, deepest on pileum, 
palest (often nearly or quite white) on chin and throat; pileum streaked 
with black, especially laterally; a blackish rictal streak, and a black 
submalar streak; prevailing color of upper parts light brown, varied 
by blackish central spots and buffy edgings to the feathers; under 
parts white or pale buffy, the chest, sides, and flanks streaked with 
black; bill brownish, the mandible paler (pale flesh color in life); iris 
brown; legs pale brownish yellow (pale flesh color in life), the toes 
and claws darker. 

Young. — Essentially like adults, but feathers of pileum and back 
dusky distinctly margined with pale buffj^, and streaks on chest, etc., 
less sharply defined. 

Adult mffife.— Length (skins), 121.92-137.16 (128.02); wing, 71.12- 
72.64 (71.63); tail, 62.07-63.34: (53.83); exposed culmen, 10.4:1-10.92 
(10.67); depth of bill at base, 6.60-6.86 (6.73); tarsus, 20.32-21.08 
(20.67); middle toe, 15.24r-16.76 (15.76).^ 

J.(^MZi;/emaZe.— Length (skins), 118.11-125.73(122.17); wing, 66.04- 
68.58 (67.56); tail, 48.26-53.34 (51.56); exposed culmen, 10.16-10.67 
(10.41); depth of bill at base, 6.60-7.37 (6.86); tarsus, 19.30-20.32 
(19.81) middle toe, 14.73-15.24 (14.99).' 

Great Plains of North America; breeding from western Minnesota 
(Red River Valley), North Dakota, eastern Montana, etc.,' noi-th to 
Assiniboia and Manitoba (Carberry, Fingerboard, Shell River, Butte 
River, Moose Mountain, Lower Saskatchewan, Shoal Lake, etc.) ; south, 
during migration to Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, northern Chihua- 
hua, (Parral, Balleza, etc.), and northern Sonora (Sasabe, Nuevenche 
plain, etc.); west casually to eastern Washington (Okanogan County, 
September). 

' Eight specimens. 

^ Five specimens. 

^Two alleged breeding localities are so far outside the really established breeding 
range of this species that I can only refer to them as doubtful. These are, Camp 
Harney, eastern Oregon (Bendire, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1877, 118), and Canoncito, 
northern Texas (McCauley, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iii, 1877, 663). 



204 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Emberiza bairdii Audubon, Birds Am., oct. ed., vii, 1843, 359, pi. 500 (Fort Union, 
North Dakota; type in U. S. Nat. Mus.).— Baikd, in Stansbury's Eep. Gt. 
Salt Lake, 1852, 330 (Fort Union). 

lEmberizal bairdi Gkay, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 116, no. 7733. 

[CotwDiiculus] iairdi BoNAPAKTE, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 481. 

Cenironyx bairdii B Ami), Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 441; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 
1859, no. 331.— CouEs, Check List, 1873, no. 157, part; Am. Nat., vii, 1873, 
695 (North Dakota; habits, etc.); Birds N. W., 1874, 125 (syn., descr., 
habits, etc.).— RiDGWAY, Bull. Essex Inst., v, 1873, 182, 190 (El Paso Co., 
Colorado; crit. ) .^Baird, Beewbe, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 
1874, pi. 25, fig. 3.— Hbnshaw, Am. Nat., viii, 1874, 241 (Arizona); Rep. 
Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1873 (1874), 110 (Camp Grant and Mount Gra- 
ham, Arizona, Sept. 21-23; GilaE., New Mexico, Oct. 16; habits; measure- 
ments). — Allex, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xvii, 1874, 57 (west to Little Mis- 
souri R., North Dakota; descr. nest and eggs). — (?) Bbndire, Proc. Bost. 
Soo. N. H., 1877, 118 (Camp Harney, e. Oregon, breeding; descr. nest and 
eggs).— Hatch, Geol. and Nat. Hist. Surv. Minn., 9th An. Eep., 1881, 395 
(Red R. valley, breeding). 

[Centronyx] bairdii CouES, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 135, part. 

Centronix bairdi Baikd, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 531; iii, 
1874, 510( North Dakota; descr. ; habits) . — Ridgway, Field and Forest, iii, 1877, 
198 (Colorado) ; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 191. — Henshaw, Rep.Orn. Spec. 
Wheeler's Surv., 1873 (1874), 158 (e. Arizona, Aug. 16); Zool. Exp. W. 100th 
Merid., 1875, 253 (localities in Arizona, Sept. ; Gila R., New Mexico, Oct.; 
Del Norte, Colorado, Aug.) ; Auk, ii, 1885, 333 (upper Pecos E., New Mexico, 
breeding?) . — Brewster, Auk, ii, 1885, 198 (s. Arizona and 10 m. s. of Sasabe, 
Sonora,Aug.29,30). 

\_Ammodromus] bairdi Giebel, Thes. Orn., i, 1872, 328. 

Ammodramus bairdii American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 545. — 
Seton, Auk, iii, 1886, 323 (Assiniboine Valley, w. Manitoba, abundant sum- 
mer resid.).— Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 189 (breeding in w. Mani- 
toba, w. Minnesota, and North Dakota; Gainesville, Texas, 1 spec. Apr. 24; 
Fort Davis, Texas, winter resid.; Grinnell, Iowa, spring and fall); Birds 
Colorado, 1897, 101 (migrant).— Thompson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1891, 
595 (Assiniboine Valley, summer resid. ; Carberry, Fingerboard, Shoal Lake, 
Butte R., Shell R., and Moose Mt., Manitoba; habits, song, etc.). — Dawson, 
Auk, xiv, 1897, 93 (Chelan, Okanogan Co., e. Washington, Sept. 5). — Nehb- 
LiNG, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 82. 

A.[mmodramus] bairdii Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 410. 

Ammodromus bairdii Nutting, Bull. Labr. Nat. Hist. Univ. Iowa, ii, no. 8, 1893, 
275 (Grand Rapids, Lower Saskatchewan). 

Ammodramm bairdi Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., v, 1893, 38 (Nuevencha plain, 
n. e. Sonora, Feb.). — Dawson, Auk, xiv, 1897, 178 (Okanogan Co.,e. Wash- 
ington, spring and fall). 

Passerculus bairdii Codes, Am. Nat., vii, Nov., 1873, 697 (North Dakota). 

P. lasserculus] bairdi CouES, Key I^. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 360. 

Passerculus bairdi McCauley, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iii, 1877, 
663 (Canoncito, n. Texas, breeding; descr. nest and eggs). — Coues, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 2, pi. 1 (synonymy; plate represents young!) ; Bull. 
U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 585 (Pembina to Souris R., North 
Dakota; habits, etc.) ; CheckList, 2d ed. , 1882, no. 224.— Seton, Auk, ii, 1885, 
268, in text (w. Manitoba; habits; song, etc.). — Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus., xii, 1888, 681. 



BIRDS OF NOETH AND MIDDLE AMEBIC A. 205 

Centronyx ochrocephalus Aiken Ridgway, Am. Nat., vii, Apr., 1873, 237 (El Paso 
Co., Colorado; coll. C. E. Aiken). — Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 157 bis. — 
Baied, Beewee, and Eidgivay, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, pi. 46, fig. 6. (See 
Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., v, Nov., 1873, 190; Scott, Am. Nat., vii, 1873, 
564; Coues, Am. Nat., vii, 1873, 696.) 

Genus COTURNICULUS Bonaparte. 

CoHurniculus Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List., 1838, 32. (Type, Fringilla 
passerina Wilson. ) 

Small terresti'ial Fringillidse with the sixth primary abruptly shorter 
than the seventh; hallux shorter than outer toe, but decidedly longer 
than inner toe, its claw shorter than distance from nostril to tip of 
maxilla; edge of wing yellow; adult without black streaks on under 
parts. Differing from Aiamodrcumis in having the outermost (ninth) 
primary longer than the seventh; the tail relatively shorter (shorter 
than wing by nearly length of tarsus), emarginate, or slightly double 
rounded, with lateral rectrices but little if any shorter than middle 
pair and much less acuminate. 

Mange. — Temperate North America, including whole of Mexico; 
Greater Antilles. (Monotypic.) 

If Ooturnicul/us is to be recognized even as a subgenus it must neces- 
sarily be restricted (among known species) to C. swvanna/rum and its 
continental subspecies, since the two species usually associated are 
found on comparison to differ quite decidedly in structural details, 
which agree with those of Ammodramiis. 

The South American species usually referred to Ooturniculus are 
still more different structurallj^, and have been removed by me into 
another genus. ^ 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SHESPECIBS OF COTUENICULUS. 

a. Tarsus longer (averaging 19.81 or more). 

h. Wing and tail shorter (wing averaging 56.64, tail 39.12); coloration slightly 
darker. (Jamaica; Porto Rico; Curagao; Bonaire.) 

CoturniculuB savannarum savannarum (p. 206) 
66. Wing and tail longer (wing averaging 60.96, tail 44.20); coloration slightly 
paler. (Eastern United States; Bahamas; Cuba.) 

Coturniculus savannarum passerinus (p. 207) 
Off. Tarsus shorter (averaging 19.30 or less). 

6. Much darker in color (as in C. c. savannarum) ; wing and tail much shorter, bill 

stouter (wing averaging 57.66, tail 42.93, depth of bill at base 7.62). (Coast 

district of Vera Cruz to Chiapas.) ..Ooturniculus savannarum obscurua (p. 209) 

66. Much paler (palest of all); wing and tail much longer, bill more slender (wing 

averaging 62.23, tail 46.99, depth of bill at base 6.10). (Western United 

States and south over plateau of Mexico.) 

Coturnioulus savannarum bimaoulatus (p. 209) 

^Myospiza Ridgway, Auk, xv, July (pub. May 14) , 1898, 224. (Type, Fringilla ma- 
nimbe Lichtenstein. ) 



2.06 bulletunt 50, united states national museum. 

COTURNICULUS SAVANNARUM SAVANNARUM (Gmelin). 
ANTILLEAN GRASSHOPPER SPARROW. 

AdulfH in suiamer (sexes althe). — Pileum blackish, narrowly streaked 
with light gray or grayish bufly and divided medially by a distinct line 
of pale grayish buff; rest of upper parts mixed grayish, pale buffy, 
rusty brown and black, the last prevailing on back and scapulars, 
where forming large, more or less coalesced central or median spots; 
hindneck grayish, streaked with chestnut, the chestnut streaks some- 
times black medially; feathers of rump streaked or spotted with rusty 
brown, the streaks sometimes black basally; wings duskj^, with distinct 
pale buffj' grayish edgings, the lesser coverts mostly yellowish olive, 
passing into yellow on edge of wing; sides of head, including broad 
superciliary stripe, dull buffy, paler and more grayish on lores, the 
supraloral region yellowish; a dusky postocular streak; under parts 
buffy, becoming white or nearly so, on lower breast, abdomen, and 
under tail-coverts; maxilla dark brown, paler on tomium; mandible 
pale brownish (more or less lilaceous or pinkish in life); iris brown; 
legs and feet pale brownish yellow or flaxen. 

Adults in lointer. — Similar to summer plumage, but brighter colored, 
with less black and more of chestnut on upper parts; the median 
crown-stripe deeper buffy, the hindneck broadly streaked with chest- 
nut, interscapulars distinctly edged with buff and gray, buff of under 
parts deeper, that of chest sometimes indistinctly streaked with 
chestnut. 

Young. — Pileum dusky with an indistinct median stripe of pale 
gra3ash, and indistinctly streaked with the same, or with pale brownish; 
hindneck streaked with dusky and pale buffy grayish; back andscap- 
ulai-s dusky or dull blackish, the feathers distinctly margined with 
dull buffy and pale grayish; middle and greater wing-coverts margined 
terminally with dull buffy whitish; under parts dull buffj' whitish, the 
chest distinctly streaked with dusky; sides of head more or less 
streaked with dusky; no yellow over lores nor on edge of wing. 

Admit w«^('.— Length (skins), 106.68-110.49 (108.46); wing, -56.13- 
57.15 (56.90); tail, 37.59-40.64 (39.62); exposed culmen, 10.67-11.68 
(11.18); depth of bill at base, 6.60-7.37 (6.86); tarsus, 19.81-20.57 
(20.07); middle toe, 14.73-15.75 (14.99).^ 

Adult female.— Length, (skin), 109.22; wing, 57.66; tail, 39.37; ex- 
posed culmen, 10.92; depth of bill at base, 7.11; tarsus, 20.07; middle 
toe, 15.24.^^ 

Jamaica and Porto Rico, resident; also, according to Hartert, islands 
of Curapao and Bonaire, southern Caribbean Sea.' 

'Three specimens from Jamaiia. 

^ One specimen from Jamaica. 

' "A series of skins of this species [from Bonaire] agree best with specimens from 
Jamaica, which are typical A. savannarum and can not be separated from them. 
The wings of the Aruljan specimens measure 2.05 to 2.20 inches [52.07 to 55.88 mm.]; 
tarsus, 1.7 [i. e. 0.70] inches [17.78 mm.]." (Hartert, Ibis, 1893, 327.) 



BIRDS OP NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 



207 



[FringiUa] savannannn (tMelix, Syst. Xat., i, pt. ii, 1788, 921 (based on The 

Savanna Bird Sloane, Xat. Hist. Jamaica, ii, 306, pi. 259, fig. 3).— Latham, 

Index Om., i, 1790, 443. 
C'.[otumiadus'] savanuarum A. and E. Newtox, Handb. Jamaica, 1881, 104. 
Ammodramus savannariim CoRv, Auk, iii, 1886, 212, part (Jamaica; Porto Rico); 

Birds W. I., 1889, 99, part (do.); Cat. W. I. Birds, 1892, 15, 112, part (do.).— 

Haetert, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, no. iii, 1892, p. xii (Bonaire; Curasao).— 

Scott, Auk, x, 1893, 179 (Jamaica). 
Ammodromus mvannarum Shahpe, Cat. Birds Brit. JIus., xii, 1888, 687, part 

(Jamaica).— (?) H.4.rteht, Ibis, 1893, 314 (Curasao), 327 (Bonaire; crit.). 
Cotiirinciihis tixicms GossE, Birds Jamaica, 1847, 242 (Jamaica); Illustr. Birds 

Jamaica, 1849, pi. 60.— Sclatbr, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1861, 74 (crit.) ; Cat. 

Am. Birds, 1862, 116 (Jamaica) . 
ICoturniadus'] tixicms Sclater and Salvin, Rom. Ay. Neotr, 1873, 32. 
Cloturniculus'] Uxicrus (err. typ.) Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 481. 
[Ammodramus} ti.ricras Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 96, no. 7423. 
Coturniculua passerinus (not FringiUa passerina Wilson) March, Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phila., 1863, 298 (Jamaica) .—Baied, Brewer, and Kidgway, Hist. N. 

Am. Birds, i, 1874, 553, part (Porto Rico; Jamaica). — Gundlach, Anal. Soc. 

Esp. Hist. Nat., vii, 1878, 203 (Porto Rico).— Cory, Birds W. I., 1885, 13, 

part (Porto Rico; Jamaica). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves,i, 

1886, 384, part (Porto Rico; Jamaica). 
FringiUa passerina (not of Wilson) Bryant, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., x, 1866, 254 

(Porto Rico) . 
FringiUa {Coturn iculus) passerina Sundevall, Ofv. K. Vet.-Ak. Forh. Stockholm, 

1869, 597 (Porto Rico). 



COTURNICULUS SAVANNARUM PASSERINUS (Wilson). 
GRASSHOPPER SPARROW. 



Similar to C s. savannarum, but decidedly larger (except bill and 
feet), and coloration rather lighter. 

Adult nude.— Length (skins), 111.Y6-121.92 (llt.OQ); wing, 58.67- 
62.23 (60.96); tail, 41.15-45.72 (44.45); exposed culmen, 10.67-12.19 
(11.43); depth of bill at base, 6.86-7.87 (7.37); tarsus, 19.81-20.83 
(20.07); middle toe, 14.73-15.49 (14.99).^ 

Adult female.— Length (skins), 107.95-119.38 (114.05); wing, 68.42- 
62.74 (60.20); tail, 40.39-45.72 (43.94); exposed culmen, 10.67-11.94 
(11.43); depth of bill at base, 6.60-7.62 (7.11); tarsus, 19.05-20.83 
(19.81); middle toe, 14.22-15.24 (14.99).' 

^ Nine specimens, all from eastern United States. 

^Nine specimens, including four from Cuba (Jlarch 18-30). The latter compare 
in average measurements with five from the United States, as follows: 



Locality. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 


Depth 
of bill 
at base. 


Tarsus. 


Middle 
toe. 


Five adult females from eastern United States 

Four adult females from Cuba 


59.69 
60.96 


43.18 
44.45 


11.68 
11.18 


7.11 
7.11 


19.81 
19.81 


14.99 
14.73 









208 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Eastern United States and more southern British Provinces; west 
to edge of the Great Plains; north, in summer, to Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, Ontario, etc.; south, in winter, to Bahamas, Cuba, island of 
Cozumel, Yucatan, and Gulf coast of Mexico. 

Fringilhi passerina "Wilson', Am. Orn., iii, 1811, 76, pi. 24, fig. 5. — Bonaparte, 
Ann. Lye. N. Y., ii, 1828, 109.— Audubon, Orn: Biog., ii, 1834, 180; v, 1839, 
497, pi. 1.30. 

Emberiza passerina Jaedine, ed. Wilson's Am. Orn., i, 1832, 365, pi. 24, fig. o. — 
Audubon, Synopsis, 1839, 103; Birds Am., oct. ed., iii, 1841, 79, pi. 162.— 
PUTNA5I, Proc. Essex Inst., 1856, 210 (Massachusetts; summer). 

Coturnlcidus passerinus BoN.iPAKTE, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 32. — Baied, Eep. 
Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, ]858, 450, part (synonymy and specs, from Carlisle, 
Pennsylvania) ; Cat. ^ST. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 338. — Sclatee, Cat. Am. Birds, 
1862, 116, part (Pennsylvania). — Veerill, Proc. Essex Inst., iii, 1862, 157 
( Maine, rare sumtaer visit.) . — Allen, Proc. Essex Inst., iv, 1864, 71 ( Massa- 
chusetts, May to Sept. ). — McIlwkaith, Proc. Essex Inst., v, 1866, 89 (Hamil- 
ton, Ontario, rare). — Boardman, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., ix, 1862, 126 (Calais, 
Maine, rare).— Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 162; 2d ed., 1882, no. 234; Birds 
N. W., 1874, 131, part. — Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, 
i, 1874, 553, part, pi. 25, fig. 4.— Beewstee, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 
119 (descr. young). — Rathbun, Revised List Birds Centr. New York, 1879, 
19 (2 specs.).— GiBBs, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., v, 1879, 486, 
(Michigan). — M.^ynaed, Birds E. N. Am., 1881, 127.— Ridgway, Nom. N. 
Am. Birds, 1881, no. 198. — Bicknell, Auk, i, 1884, 330 (song). — Salvin and 
Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 384, part. 

[Coturniculus'] passerina Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 481. 

C.\_oturniculus~i passerinus Cabanis, Mus. Hein., i, 1851, 132 (Cuba). — Coues, Key 
N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 365. 

[Cotumiculusi passerinus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 137, part. — Coey, List 
Birds W. I., 1885, 13, part (Cuba). 

[CotumicMlus passerinus'] var. passerinus Baied, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. 
Am. Birds, i, 1874, 549. 

A.[mmodramus1 passerinus Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1844, 373. 

[vlmmocZramus] passerinus Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 96, no. 7420. 

A.[mmodromus'] passerinus Ridgway, Ann. Lye. N. Y., x, Jan., 1874, 372 (Illi- 
nois). — Nelson, Bull. Essex Inst., viii, 1876, 107, 152 (n. e. Illinois, abundant 
summer resid. ) ; ix, 1877, 49 (Richland Co., Illinois). 

Coturniculus savannarum passerinus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, Oct., 
1885, 568 (Cozumel I., Yucatan). 

Ammodramus savannaruni passerinus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, Sept. 2, 
1885, 355. — A.meeican Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 546. — 
Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. "Val., 1888, 190, part (more eastern localities). — 
LocMis, Auk, viii, 1891, 167 (Chester Co., South Carolina, resid.). — Coey, 
Cat. AV. I. Birds, 1892, 112 (Biminis, New Providence, and Andros islands, 
Bahamas). — ilclLWEAiTH, Birds Ontario, 1892, 316 (London and Hamilton, 
summer, 2 specs.). — Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., iv, 1892, 308 (San 
Pablo and Guanajara, Cuba; crit.). — Nehkling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 
1896, 86, pi. 23, fig. 6.— Bagg, Auk, xiv, 1897, 227 (Oneida Co., New York, 
1 spec. July 2, 1895).— Knight, Bull. Univ. Maine, no. 3, 1897, 97 (Calais, 
1 spec). — Bagg, Auk, xvii, 1900, 178 (near Oneida, New York, common). 

A.\mmodramMs\ savannarum passerinus Ridgw.4.y, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887,411. 

Fringilla savanarum (not F. savannarum Gmelin) Nuttall, Man. Orn. U. S. and 
Can., i, 1832, 494; 2d ed., i, 1840, 570.— Peabody, Rep. Birds ^ilass., 1839, 324. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 209 

■ Anwiodromus sniannarum Cory, Auk, iii, 1886, 212, part (Cuba); Birds W. I., 
1889, 99, part (do.); Cat. W. 1. Birds, 1892, 1.5, 112, part (do.).— Sn.\EPB, 
Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 687, part. 
Ammodromus^ australis 1Iayn.\ed, Am. Exch. and Mart., and Household Journ., 
iii, Jan. 15, 1887, 33 (type from Nassau, New Providence, Bahamas;'' coll. 
C. J. IMaynard); ib.,Feb. 5, 1887, 69 (see Chapman, Auk, v, 1888, 274). 

COTURNICULUS SAVANNARUM OBSCURUS (Nelson). 
■ MINATITLAN SPARROW, 

Adult male similar to that of C. s. x(i,v((iijiarwui^ but still darker in 
coloration, with tail averaging longer and feet smaller; adult female 
not distinguishable from that of C. ■>. jja.sseriniis. 

Adult male.— Length (skins), 109.47-120.40 (114.81); wing, 53.34r- 
5SA-2 (55.12); tail, 87.34-43.69 (39.62); exposed culmen, 10.92-12.45 
(11.68); depth of bill at base, 7.62-8.13 (7.87); tarsus, 17.78-19.81 
(19.05); middle toe, 13.21-14.73 (13.72).^ 

Achdi fe?nale.— Length (skins), 120.65-129.54 (123.19); wing, 59.69- 
63.50 (61.47); tail, 42.93-47.75 (44.70); exposed culmen, 10.67-11.94 
(11.43); depth of bill at base, 7.11-7.62 (7.37); tarsus, 18.03-20.32 
(19.56); middle toe, 13.97-14.99 (14.48).' 

1 have some hesitation in referring the females whose measure- 
ments are given above to this form, for the reason that they are so 
much larger and so different in color from the males, in both respects 
being, for all that I can see, identical with C ■?. passerivus. It is 
scarcely likely, however, that in the series of specimens collected at two 
localities as widely separated as Minatitlan, Vera Cruz, and Palenque, 
Chiapas, all the males would represent one form and all the females 
another, especially since the two sexes were at each place collected on 
the same dates. 

Coast district of Vera Cruz (near Minatitlan, etc.) to Chiapas (Pa- 
lenque); resident. 

Ammodramus aavannarum obscunis Nelson, Auk, xiv, Jan., 1897, 61 (Minatitlan, 
s. e. Vera Cruz, Mexico; U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

COTURNICULUS SAVANNARUM BIMACULATUS (Swainson). 
WESTERN GRASSHOPPER SPARROW. 

■ Similar to O. .y. pass&rinus, but wing and tail longer, bill smaller and 
relatively more slender, and coloration paler, with more rusty brown 
and less black on upper parts. 

^ Owing to printer's error, spelled "Ammo Dromus Australis," this being corrected 
in number for Feb. 5, where redescribed. 

2 "Bare on the Bahamas, but constantly in Florida." 
' Twelve specimens. 

* Four specimens. 

17024—01 14 



210 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Adult m«/('.— Length (skins), 106.68-129.54 (117.35); wing, 57.15- 
66.29 (62.48); tail, 42.93-51.31 (46.48); exposed culmen, 10.16-11.68 
(10.92); depth of bill at base, 5.59-6.86 (6.35): tarsus, 18.29-20.32 
(19.56); middle toe, 13.46-16.49 (14.73).^ 

AclnU fernaJe.—\^&u^l\x{s\:m&\ 111.76-123.19 (118.36); wing, 60.71- 
63.75 (62.23); tail, 46.23-50.80 (47.75); exposed culmen, 10.16-11.18 
(10.67); depth of bill at base, 5.84-6.86 (6.60);, tarsus, 18.54-19.81 
(19.05); middle toe, 13.46-15.49 (14.99).= 

"Western United States and Mexican plateau; east to western Min- 
nesota and Iowa, eastern Kansas, Texas, etc.; south (in winter only?) 
to highlands of Guatemala and Costa Rica. 

Aiiii:iodr(tmii,s himanddtus Swaixmin, Philos. Mag., n. s., i, 1827, 435 (Temascal- 
tepec, Jlexico). 

A[mmodramus] himaculatiis Gkay, Gen. Birds, ii, 1844, 374. 

lAminodrainus} 6imfiC!(/ah(s Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 96, no. 7418. — Boxapaete, 
Consp.Av., 1,1850,482. 

Cotitrnicidus lienslovAi (not Emberaa henslowii Audubon) Sclatee, Proc. Zool. .Soc. 
Lond., 1856, 305 (Cordova, Vera Cruz; seeSclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 
1857, 82). 

Cotiinticifh.is passerinvs (not Fringilla passerina AVilaon) Baied, Rep. Pacific R. R. 
Surv., ix, 1858, 450, part (Shawnee Mission, Kansas; Loup Fork of Platte R. ; 
Bill Williams Mt., Arizona; Nogales, Sonora); Rep. U. S. and Mex. Bound. 
Surv., Ii, 1859, 15 (Los Nogales, Sonora); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 
338, part. — Sclatee, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1859, 379 (Oaxaca, s. Mexico, 
Mar.); Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 116, part (Guatemala). — Sclatee and Salvin,. 
Ibis, 1859, 18 (Guatemala). — Kenneely, Rep. Pac. R. R. Surv., x, pt. Iv, 1859, 
28 (Bill Williams R. and Colorado R., Arizona). — Heeemaxx, Rep. Pacific 
R. R. Surv., x, pt. vi, 1859, 49 (California, etc.). — Cabanis, Journ. fiir 
Orn., 1860, 411 (San laidro, Costa Rica).— Deessee, Ibis, 1865, 487 (San 
Antonio, Texas, breeding). — Lawbence, Ann. Lj-c. N. Y., Ix, 1868, 103 
(Costa Rica); Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., il, 1874, 277 (Mazatlan); Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus.,no. 4, 1876, 21 (Tehuantepec City, Oaxaca). — Sumichbast, Mem. 
Bost. Soc. N.H.,i, 1869, 552 (Vera Cruz, in winter). — Feantzius, Journ. fur 
Orn., 1869, 301 (San Isidro, Costa Rica).— Coopee, Orn. Cal., 1870, 189, excl. 
syn. part. — Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iil, 1872, 136 (Kansas), 177 
(Utah) .— Meebill, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1878, 126 (Fort Brown, Texas, 
Jan.).— Sennett, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv., v, 1879, 390 (Lomita, 
Texas, April).— Robeets and Bennee, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880,14 
(Grant and Traverse counties, Minnesota breeding). — Hatch, Ninth Ann. 
Rep. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Surv. Minn., 1881, 395.— Ogilby, Sci. Proc. Roy. 
Dubl. Soc, iil, 1882 (32) (Navarro Co., Texas, summer resid. ). — Zeledon, 
Cat. Aves de Costa Rica, 1882, 9. — Ageesboeg, Auk, ii, 1885, 280 (s. e. South 
Dakota, breeding). — Salvix and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 
384, part. 

[Coturnicidus] passerinus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1S72, 137, part. — Sclatee and 
Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 32, part. 

Aiimiodmmus passerinus Woodhouse, in Rep. i-iitiireaves' Expl. Zufli and Col. R. 
1853, 86 (Indian Territory; Texas; New Mexico). 

Ammodramus sarannnnun passerinus Goss, Birds Kans., 1891, 445 (summer resid., 
Apr. to Oct.). — Hatch, Birds Minn., 1892, 313 (Grant and Norman counties 
and in Red R. valley). 



^ Twelve speciinenjj. '' Eight specimens. 



BIRDS OF NOETH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 211 

[Coturnicuhis passerinus] xht. 2^erpaUi(his Ridgway, manuscript, CouES, Key N. 
Am. Birds, Oct., 1872, 137, in text ("dry western regions "^). 

Coturniculus paBserinus . . var. perpallidus CouES, Clieck List, 1873, no. 162a. — 
Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1874, 112 (Camp Grant, Monnt 
Graham, and Gila R., Arizona); 1876, 240 (Santa Barbara, California, June, 
July); Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 257, pi. 1, tig. 2. 

[Coturniculus passerinus] b. pierpallidus Codes, Birds N. W., 1874, 132 (synonymy). 

Coturniculus passerinus, var. i>eipnllidus Bated, Bhewee, and Ridgway, Hist. N. 
Am. Birds, i, 1874, 556.— Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., v, Xov., 1873, 182 
(Colorado). 

Cotmnicuhis passerinus pei-paHiVius Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., vi, Oct., 1874, 171 
(Sacramento, California, June); vii, 1875, 11 (Carson Valley, Nevada, breed- 
ing), 30 (Salt Lake Valley, Utah); Nom. N. Am. Birds, no. 198a.— Coues, 
Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 235.— Belding, Proo.U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1883, 
540 (La Paz, Lower California). 

C.[oturniculus p. [asserinusl perpallidus Codes, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 
366. 

Coturniculus passerinus . . . /3. pgrpaffirfus Ridgway, Orn. 40th parallel, 1877, 467 
(Sacramento, California, June; Ruby Valley, Nevada, breeding; Salt Lake 
Valley, Utah, breeding). 

Coturniculus passerinus, (i. perpmllidus Ridgway, Field and Forest, ii, May, 1877, 
198 (Colorado). 

Coturniculus perpallidus Yarkow and Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. AVheeler's 
Surv., 1871-3 (1874), 34 (Nevada). 

Ammodramus savannarum perpallidus Ridgway', Proc. U. S. Nat. JIus., viii, sig. 23, 
Sept. 2, 1885, 355. — American Ornithologist's Union, Check List, 1886, no. 
546o.— CooKB, BirdMigr. Miss. Val., 1888. 191 (Dakota, Texas, etc.).— Rich- 
mond and Knowlton, Auk, xi, 1894, 305 (Gallatin Valley, Jlontana). — Grin- 
NELL, Pub. ii, Pasadena Acad. Sci., 1898, 36 (Los Angeles Co., California, 
Aug. 10 to Apr. 30).— Brooks. Auk, xvii, 1900, 107 (Vernon, e. Brit. Colum- 
bia, summer res. ) . 

A. [mmodramus'] passerinus perpallidus Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 411. 

Ammodramus savannar,um (not Fringilla savannarum Gmelin) Shaepe, Cat. 
Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 687, part. 



Genus AMMODRAMUS S^Aralnson. 

Ammodramus Swainson, Zool. Journ., iii, 1827, .'US. (Type, Oriolns cmidanitus 
Gmelin. ) 

Small, conspicuously streaked marsh-sparrows with the tail nearly 
or quite as long as the wing, much graduated (lateral rectrices much 
shorter than middle pair), with the rectrices narrow and acuminate; 
outermost (ninth) primary shorter than seventh. 

Bill variable in relative length and thickness; exposed culmen more 
than half as long as tarsus, more or less convex basally and terminallj-, 
but sometimes nearly straight; gonys nearly or quite straight, a little 
shorter than maxilla from nostril; depth of bill at base barely less 
{A. henslowii) to \ evY rtmc\i less {A. maritimus) than length of gonys; 
maxillary tomium more or less distinctly convex in middle portion, more 
or less deeply incised sub-basally; mandibular tomium nearlj' straight 

'The type, in U, S. National Museum, is from Antelope Island, Great Salt Lake, Utah. 



212 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

to the ve'ry decided basal deflection, the angle usually rounded, but in 
one species {A. hendovj/') conspicuously toothed. Nostril in lower 
anterior portion of nasal fossse, at least partially exposed, more or less 
pointed anteriorly, and overhung by membrane; rictal bristles distinct. 
Wing short, about two and two-thirds to three times as long as tarsus; 
eighth to sixth, or (in A. viaritimus) seventh to fifth primaries 
longest, the ninth shorter than third {A. marltlmus), or equal to 
sixth or fifth (other species); primaries decidedly longer than sec- 
ondaries; tertials not elongated. Tail nearljr or (in A. leconteii) quite 
as long as wing, decidedl}^ graduated, the retrices narrow and more or 
less sharply acuminate. Tarsus equal to or slightly longer than middle 
toe with claw; lateral claws falling decidedly short of base of middle 
claw; inner toe slightly longer than outer; hallux not longer than 
lateral toes. 

C'oloratii))!.. — Above varying from nearlj' uniform olive-grayish or 
blackish to conspicuoush" spotted with black, brown, or chestnut, and 
streaked with bufly, the median rectrices light brownish or grayish 
with a median stripe or streak of dusky; beneath whitish or buff and 
white, the chest, sides, and flanks more or less streaked with black or 
grayish; edge of wing usually yellow (white in ^4. leconteii). 

Range. — Eastern and central temperate North America. 

The four species to which I have, after careful examination and com- 
parison, concluded to restrict the genus Ammodraimm agree fairly 
well in structural and other characters. Two of them, however, are 
much less closely related than are the other two, being not only quite 
different from one another in structural details but from the other two 
as well. These aberrant species are A. niaritinvu.s and A. Iienslowii. 
The former, while agreeing rather closely with the type-species {A. 
caudacutus) in longer and relative)}^ more slender bill, and to a consid- 
erable degree in coloration, differs in its veiy much rounded wing-tip, 
the ninth primary being not longer than the third, instead of being 
equal to the sixth and fifth, as in all the others. A. henslowii has a 
very much stouter bill than any of the rest, and the subbasal angle of 
the mandibular tomia is distinctly toothed — a character possessed by 
none of its congeners; in other respects, however, it comes vei'y close 
to A. leconteii, which is closely related to A. caudacutu.s, through its 
smaller and small-billed subspecies, A. cavdcccutiiJi nelsoni. -A. leconteii 
is the only species having the tail and wing of the same length, all the 
others having the wing slightly but decidedly the longer. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OP AMMODRAMUS. 

a. Pileum without a distinct light-colored median stripe ; no chestnut or rufous on 
scapulars nor interscapulars; leet dusky or horn-colored 
h. Outermost (ninth) primary not longer than fourth (usually shorter); larger 
(tarsus averaging more than 21.59). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 213 

c. Upper parts without distinct black streaks. (Atlantic coast of United States,- 
from southern Masst chusetts to South Carolina,) 

Ammodramas maritimus maritimus (p. 214) 
cc. Upper parts with distinct black streaks. 
<l. Under parts not heavily streaked with black; if distinctly streaked, the 
ground color distinctly grayish or gray and buffy. 
e. Faler; middle rectrices with median dusky streak very narrow, equal in 
width to much less than half the total width of inner web; under parts 
shaded with pale gray laterally and (sometimes) across chest, the latter 
usually pale buff streaked with pale grayish. (Coast of Texas. ) 

Ammodramus maritimus sennetti (p. 218) 

ee. Darker; middle rectrices with median dusky stripe very broad, its width 

equal to at least half the total width of inner web; under parts shaded 

with deep gray or gray and buff laterally and across chest, the latter 

streaked with dusky or black. 

/. Chest, sides, and flanks grayish, with little if any buff; upper parts with 

less black. 

g. Jlore uniform in color, especially the upper parts, where the blackish 

streaks are less sharply contrasted with the general olivaceous color; 

under parts more grayish, with the darker streaks more extensively 

diffused, even the throat sometimes streaked. (Gulf coast of 

Florida.) Ammodramus maritimus peninsulae (p. 216) 

gg. Less uniform in color, especially the upper parts, where the blackish 
streaks are sharply contrasted with the more varied ground color; 
under parts less grayish, with the darker streaks more restricted 
(whole throat immaculate) . ( Vicinity of Charleston, South Caro- 
lina and southward. ) 

Ammodramus maritimus macgillivraii ' (p. 216) 

ff. Chest, sides, and flanks deep buffy; upper parts with more' black. 

(Coast of Louisiana, etc. , in summer; coast of Texas, western Florida, 

and, occasionally, vicinity of Charleston, South Carolina, in winter.) 

Aminodramus maritimus fisheri (p. 217) 
dd. Under parts heavily streaked with black on a white ground. (East coast 
of Florida, south of Matanzas Inlet.) . . .Ammodramus nigrescens (p. 219) 
hb. Outermost (ninth) primary equal to fifth, or longer; smaller (tarsus averaging 
less than 21.59). 
c. Back and scapulars conspicuously streaked with grayish white or buffy 
whitish; superciliary stripe deep buff, very strongly contrasted with the 
deep brown lateral stripes of pileum; chest, aides, and flanks distinctly 
streaked with black or dusky, or else deep buff, with or without distinct 
black or dusky streaks. 
d. Larger, with longer bill (exposed culmen 11.94 or more); chest, sides, and 
flanks conspicuously and sharply streaked with black or dusky, on a 
paler (often whitish) buffy ground; average measurements, wing 57.15, 
tail 48.01, exposed culmen 12.45, tarsus 20.83, middle toe 16.26. (Atlan- 
tic coast of United States, north to Massachusetts. ) 

Ammodramus caudaoutus oaudacutus (p. 220) 
dd. Smaller, with shorter bill (exposed culmen not more than 10.67); chest, 
sides, and flanks deep buff, less distinctly (rarely sharply or conspicu- 
ously) streaked, the first sometimes immaculate; average measure- 

' A very unsatisfactory subspecies, the characters being intermediate between those 
of A. m. mcmtvmus and A. m. fisheri, or, in some cases, between the former and A. 
m. : 



214 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MCJSEUM. 

ments, wing 54.61, tail 46. 74, exposed culmen 10.41, tarsus 20.32, middle 
toe 15.49. ( ^Mississippi Valley, breeding northward; Atlantic coast, 
especially [southward, during migrations. J 

Ammodramus caudaoutus nelsoni (p. 221) 
cc. Back and scapulars without conspicuous lighter streaks; superciliary stripe 
pale buff, often tinged with grayish posteriorly and with pale yellow 
anteriorly, less .strongly contrasted with the paler brown or olivaceous 
lateral stripes of the pileum; chest, sides, and flanks pale buff, usually 
obsoletely, rarely distinctly, and never (?) sharply, streaked with grayish; 
average measurements, wing 56.90, tail 49.53, exposed culmen 10.67, 
tarsus 21.34, middle toe 16.26. (Atlantic coast of United Statea and New 
Brunswick, breeding from Massachusetts northward. ) 

Ammodramus caudacutus subvirgatns (p. 223) 
aa. Pileum with a distinct light-colored median stripe; feathers of back and scapu- 
lars with chestnut-colored markings; feet pale yellowish. 
6. Bill small (exposed culmen averaging 9.14, depth at base not more than 5.59); 
hindneck chestnut streaked with light grayish; edge of wing white. (Great 
Plains, etc., southeastward in winter.) 

Ammodramus leconteii (p. 224) 

bh. Bill large and stout (exposed culmen averaging 10.67 or more, depth at base 

not less than 6.35); hindneck buffy olive streaked with black; edge of wing 

pale yellowish. 

/;. Darker, with more chestnut on upper parts, and under parts more buffy. 

( Eastern United States, west to edge of Great Plains, north to Ontario. ) 

Ammodramus henslowii henslowii (p. 226) 

cc. Paler, with less chestnut on upper parts, and under parts whiter. (South 

Dakota in summer. ) Ammodramus henslowii occidentalis (p. 228) 

AMMODRAMUS MARITIMUS MARITIMUS (Wilson). 
SEASIDE SPARROW. 

Ninth primary not longer than fourth. 

Adults {sexes alike). — Above olive-grayish, tinged with olive, especially 
on back, where feathers are somewhat darker with light grayish edges, 
producing more or less distinct streaks; pileum olive laterally, gray- 
ish medially, producing three broad but very indistinct and faintly 
contrasted stripes; a supraloral streak of yellow, usually passing into 
whitish posteriorly, succeeded by a broad supra-auricular stripe of olive- 
grayish; a malar stripe, chin, throat, and abdomen white; submalar 
stripe and broad streaks on chest grayish; edge of wing yellow. 

Young. — Above browner than in adult, the back broadly and pileum 
narrowly streaked with blackish; beneath whitish, the chest, sides, and 
flanks more or less strongly buffy and streaked with dusky. 

Adult male.— Ijength (skins), 132.08-147.32 (140.72); wing, 60.71- 
65.28 (62.99); tail, 50.80-58.93 (55.37); exposed culmen, 12.70-14.73 
(13.72); depth of bill at base, 6.35-7.37 (7.11); tarsus, 22.61-24.13 
(23.37); middle toe, 17.27-18.54(17.78).' 

Adult female.— Length (skins), 129.54-142.24 (138.68); wing, 55.88- 

' Sixteen specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 215 

60.4:5 (58.42); tail, 49.63-54.86 (54.10); exposed culmen, 12.95-14.48 
(13.46); depth of bill at base, 6.35-6.86 (6.60); tarsus, 22.61-23.37 
(22.86); middle toe, 17.02-18.03 (17.53). ' 

Atlantic coast of United States, in salt-water marshes, breeding 
from southern Massachusetts (Westport, near Rhode Island line) to 
Georgia. 

Some specimens show more or less black streaking on the posterior 
portion of the pileum, but in the large series examined (40 adults) 
this is never conspicuous. Autumnal and winter specimens show more 
or less of a pale buff suffusion on the chest, the white malar stripe 
also more or less buffy. 

Fiingilla maritima Wilson, Am. Oru., iv, 1811, 68, pi. 34, fig. 2. — Audubon, 
Orn. Biog., i, 1831, 470, pi. 93. — Nuttall, Man. Orn. U. S. and Canada, i, 
1832, 505; 2(1 ed., i, 1840, 592. 

[Ammodramasl mariihim Swainson, Classif. Birds, ii, 1837, 289. 

lAmmodromus'] viaritima Bon.-vparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 482. 

Ammodramus maritimus Bon.aparte, Geog. and Consp. List, 1838, 32. — Audubon, 
Synopsis, 1839, 110; Birds Am., oct. ed., iii, 1841, 103, pi. 172.— Coues, 
Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 238.— Brewek, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 
48 (Nahant, Massachusetts, 1 spec. Aug.). — Coues, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 
1880, 97. — American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 550. — 
Cory, Auk, iii, 1886, 213 (Cuba) ; Birds W. I., 1889, 99 (Cuba) ; Cat. W. I. Birds, 
1892, 112. — Cahoon, Auk, vii, 1890, 289 (Monomoy marshes. Cape Cod, Massa- 
chusetts, Apr. 14, several). — Stone, Auk, x, 1893, 85 (coast New Jersey, win- 
ter) . — Nehrling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 93. — Howe, Auk, xiv, 1897, 
219 (Middletown, Rhode Island, July 18) ; xv, 1898, 189 (Cape Cod, Massa- 
chusetts, Feb. 9). — Knight, Bull. 3, Univ. Maine, 1897, 98 (Shark I., Maine, 
1 spec). — Faxon, Auk, xiv, 1897, 320 (e. breeding range is w. shore Narra- 
gansettBay, Rhode Island; Milton, Massachusetts) . — Sturtevant, Auk, xiv, 
1897, 322 (Middletown, Rhode Island, May 31) .—Farley, Auk, xiv, 1897, 
322 (Westport, Massachusetts, breeding). — Chap.man, Auk, xvi, 1899, 4 (crit.) . 

A.[mmodramus'\ maritimus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 367, part. — 
Eidgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 413, part. 

Ammodromus muritinms Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 454; Cat. N. 
Am. Birds, 1859, no. 342.— Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 116, (e. United 
States). — Samuels, Birds Massachusetts, 1864, 9. — Allen, Bull. JIus. Comp. 
Zool.,ii, 1871, 279 (e. Florida, winter).— Coues, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1871, 23 (Fort Macon, North Carolina, resid. ; habits; song); Check List, 
1873, no. 165. — Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 
560, part, pi. 25, fig. 8.— ^Iaynard, Birds E. N. Am., 1878, 121.— Brewer, 
Proc.Bost. Soc. N. A., xix, 1878,305 (Nahant, Massachusetts); Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 48 (Nahant).— Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 
1878, 119 (descr. young).— Ridgway, Norn. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 202.— 
Maynard, Birds E. U.S., 1881, 121, part.— Lawrence (N. T.), Auk, ii, 1885, 
272 (Far Rockaway, Long Island, Feb. 22 and Nov. 25) . — Sharpe, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 683, part (Point Judith, Rhode Island, May 29; iladison, 
Connecticut, June 17; Cape May, .New Jersey; Fort Macon, North Carolina). 

[Amtnodromus'] maritimus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 138, part. 

1 Twelve specimens. 



216 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

AMMODRAMUS MARITIMUS MACGILLIVRAII (Audubon). 
HAOGILLIVRAY'S SEASIDE SPAREOW. 

Similar to J., m.wm'itiinm^hnt darker, with the back distinctly, often 
broadly, streaked with black, the streaks on chest and sides broader 
and darker, and usually the blackish mesial streak of the middle rec- 
ti'ices much broader. 

Adult male.— L,(ii^^t\\ (skins), 134.63-14:7.32 (139.1.5); wing, 69.11- 
64.26 (61.47); tail, 61.05-58.42 (53.59); exposed culmen, 13.97-14.99 
(14.48); depth of bill at base, 6.86; tarsus, 22.61-28.88 (23.37); middle 
toe, 16.51-17.53 (16.76).' 

J.(i«?i!/eTOafc.— Length (skins), 129.54-145.64 (137.16); wing, 55.37- 
60-20 (58.42); tail, 46.99-65.88 (50:80); exposed culmen, 12.70-16.24 
(13.97); depth of bill at base, 6.35-7.11 (6.60); tarsus, 21.59-23.11 
(22.61); middle toe, 15.75-17.27 (16.51).' 

Coast of South Carolina (vicinity of Charleston) to eastern Florida 
(breeding on Anastasia Island and at ]Matanzas Inlet); in winter west- 
ward along Gulf coast to Louisiana. 

Fringilla macgillivraii Audubon, Orn. Biog., ii, 1834, 285 (Charleston, South 

Carolina; probable type in U. S. Nat. Mus.); iv, 1838, 394, part; v, 1839, 

499, part, pi. 355. 
Ammodramm macgillivrayi Bonapakte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 32, part. — 

Audubon, Synopsis, 1839, 110, part; Birds Am., oct. ed., iii, 1841, 106, pi. 173. 
Fringilla [Ammodramus) macgillirrai/i Nuttall, Man. Orn. U. S. and Canada, 2d 

ed., i, 1840, 593, part. 
[Ammodromusl macgillivrayi Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 482, part. 
Ammodramus maritimus macgillirraii Chapman, Auk, xvi, Jan., 1899, 5 (crit). — 

American Ornithologists' Union Committee, Auk, xvi, 1899, 118 (no. 550d). 
A-lmmodramusI m.lantimusi peninsulie (not of Allen, Auk, v, 1888, 284) Allen, 

Auk, V, 1888, 426, part (Sapelo I., Georgia, etc.). 
Ammodramus maritimus peninsuUe American Ornithologists' Union, Check 

List, 2d ed., 1895, no. 550, part (South Carolina). 
(?) Ammodramus maritimus (not Fringilla maritima Wilson?) Cabani.s, Journ. 

fur Orn., 1856, 7 (Cuba?). 
(?) Ammodramus maritimus CoKY , Auk, iii, 1886, 213 (Cuba); Birds West Ind., 

1889, 99 (do.); Cat. W. I. Birds, 1892, 112, 147 (do.). 
(?) [Ammodramus'] maritimus Cory, Revised List BirdsWest Ind., 1886, 35 (Cuba). 
[Ammodramus] maritimus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 138, part. 
A)iiiiiodro7nusmaritimusAi,LEiJ, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ii, no. 3, 1871, 279 (Fernan- 

dina, n. e. Florida) . — Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 

1874, 560, part.— Maynard, Birds E. N. Am., 1881, 121, part. 
A.[mmodromus] maritimus CouES, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 367, part. — 

Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 413, part. 

AMMODRAMUS MARITIMUS PENINSUL/E Allen. 
SCOTT'S SEASIDE SPARROW. 

Similar to ^. 7«. macgill/vraii, hut move uniform in color above, 
where the blackish markings are less sharply contrasted with the gen- 

' Five specimens. ^ Ten specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 217 

eral olivaceous color, the back usuallj' without anj" distinct ashj- edg- 
ings; under parts with the ground color more grayish, especiallj' on 
chest and sides, with the darker streaks more extensivel_y diffused, 
usually occupying the lower throat and sometimes nearly the whole 
throat; wing averaging decidedly shorter and bill and feet smaller. 

Adidt ?y;ft/f.— Length (skins), 135.S9-151.38 (141.48); wing, 54.36- 
62.23 (58.93); tail, 48.51-58.17 (53.85); exposed culraen, 12.95-14.73 
(13.97); depth of bill at base, 6.60-6.86 (6.73); tarsus, 21.84-23.37 
(22.61); middle toe, 15.24-17.27 (16.26).' 

Adult fimiile.—h&[\g\}a. (skins), 120.65-143.26 (133.86); wing, 53,69- 
61.47 (56.90); tail, 50.04-58.43 (52.83); exposed culmen, 12.45-14.22 
(13.46); depth of bill at base, 5.84-6.86 (6.10); tarsus, 20.83-23.11 
(21.84); middle toe, 14.73-17.02 (15;75).' 

West coast of Florida (Tarpon Springs, Cedar Keys, Anclote, etc.). 

Ammodfamus maritimus pmbimlw Allen, Auk, v, July, 1888, 284, part (type 
from Tarpon Springs, w. Florida; coll. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.), 426, part 
(Cedar Keys, w. Florida). — Ajiekican Ornithologists' Union, Suppl. to 
Check List, 1889, 13, part; Check List, abridged, 1889, and 2d ed., 1895, no. 
550a, part. — Chapman, Auk, xvi, 1899, 5 (crit. ). — Ridgway, Man. X. Am. 
Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 602. 

Ammodramus peninsula: Scott, Auk, vi, Oct., 1,889, 322 (mouth of Andote and 
Withlacoochee rivers, w. Florida, Dec. to Feb.). 



AMMODRAMUS MARITIMUS FISHERI Chapman. 
FISHER'S SEASIDE SPARROW, 

Similar to A. m. onacgillwraii, but much darker, the upper parts 
with much more black (often with black prevailing), and the ground 
color of the chest, sides, and flanks deep buffy.' 

Admit TOffiZe.— Length (skins), 124.46-139.70 (131.83); wing, 56.13- 
60.96 (58.93); tail, 50.80-59.18 (54.61); exposed culmen, 13.46-14.99 
(14.48); depth of bill at base, 6.10-6.60 (6.35); tarsus, 22.35-23.37 
(23.11); middle toe, 15.75-17.63 (16.51).* 

Adult femcde.— Length, (skins), 124.46-143.51 (134.11); wing, 55.88- 
68.42 (57.15); tail, 49.02-56.37 (52.58); exposed culmen, 13.21-14.73 
(13.97); depth of bill at base, 5.84-6.86 (6.35); tarsus, 21.59-22.61 
(22.10); middle toe, 15.75-17.27 (16.61).^ 

Coast of Louisiana, etc. (breeding) ; in winter south along coast of 
Texas to Corpus Christi, on west coast of Florida to Tarpon Springs, 
and occasionally eastward to vicinity of Charleston, South Carolina. 

^Six specimens. 

* Thirteen specimens. 

' This deep buff coloring of the under parts becomes quite worn away in midsum- 
mer specimens, the black of the upper parts likewise disappearing. 

* Seven specimens. 

* Nine specimens. 



218 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Frinc/illa macgillu-mii (not of Audubon, 1834) Audubon, Orn. Biog., iv, 1838, 394, 

part (coast of Louisiana and Texas) ; v, 1839, 499, part. 
Ammodraniun macgilliiiuli Bosapautb, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 32, part. — 

Audubon, Synopsis, 1839, 110, part: Birds Am., oct. ed.,iii, 1841, 106, part 

(mouths of the JMississippi; coast of Texas). 
[Ammodromus} macgillivrai/i Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 482, part. 
Ammodramim maritimns maegiUivrai/i Kidgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 

602.— Ambeican Oknithologists' Union, Auk, xiv, 1897, 121 (Check List no. 

550c). 
Ammodramus maritimus peninsida; (part) Allen, Auk, v, July, 1888, 284 (Grand 

Isle, Louisiana, June) . — American Ornithologists' Union, Supplement to 

Check List, 1889, 13, part; Check List, abridged ed., 1889, 550a, part (Grand 

Isle, Louisiana) ; 2d ed. , 1895, no. 550n. 
Ammodramus maritimus peninsulie? Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., iii, 1891, 

324 (near Corpus Christi, Texas, Mar. 25; crit.) . 
Ammodramus maritimus fisheri Chapman, Auk, xvi, Jan., 1899, 10, pi. 1, upper fig., 

(Grand Isle, Louisiana; U. S. Nat. Mus. ). — American Ornithologists' Union 

Committee, Auk, xvi, 1899, 118 (no. 550c). 



AMMODRAMUS MARITIMUS SENNETTI Allen. 
TEXAS SEASIDE SPARROW, 

Smaller, paler, and much more buffy than A. m. maritimvs, with the 
scapulars and interscapulars distinctly darker than the general color of 
the upper parts, relieved by broad edgings of pale grayish or buffy, 
the pileum more or less streaked laterally with blackish, the auric- 
ular region surrounded above, behind, and below by buff, a distinct 
blackish post-auricular streak, and the chest distinctly buffy, broadly 
but not sharply streaked with light gray or olive-gray. Young much 
grayer above than that of A. m. viacgillivraii, but quite as distinctly 
and broadly streaked with black, the under parts much more nearly 
white, without distinct streaks on median portion of chest. ^ 

Adult 7««^e.— Length (skins), 132.08-139.70 (138.18); wing, 58.42- 
61.47 (60.20); tail, 48.77-57.66 (54.61); exposed culmen, 12.70-13.46 
(12.95); depth of bill at base, 6.35-7.11 (6.60); tarsus, 20.83-22.86 
(22.35); middle toe, 15.75-17.27 (16.51).- 

AihiUfimale.—ljQngih (skins), 125.73-137.16 (134.87); wing, 54.61- 
58.42 (56.13); tail, 50.80-54.61 (52.07); exposed culmen, 12.45-13.21 
(12.95); depth of bill at base, 5.84-6.60 (6.10); tarsus, 21.08-22.86 
(22.10); middle toe, 15.49-17.27 (16.26).' 

Coast of Texas (Galveston, Rockport, Tally's Island, Corpus Christi, 
Nueces Bay, etc.). 

Ammodramus maritimus {not Pringilla maritimaWilaon) Sennett, Bull. U. S. Geol. 
andGeog. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 17 (Galveston, Texas). 

^ This last character may not be constant, only two young birds having been exam- 
ined. 
^ Eight specimens. 
' Nine specimens. 



BIRDS OF NOETH AND MIDDLE AMEBICA. 21& 

AmmodramiLi maritivwx sennetli Allen, Auk, v, July, 1888, 286 (Corpus Christi, 
Texas; coll. G. B. Sennett), 426 (Corpus Christi, May 26); v, Oct., 1888, 
498 (Corpus Christi). — Ameeican Ohnithologists' Union, Suppl. to Check 
List, 1889,13; Check List, abridged ed., 1889, no. 550b; 2d ed., 1895, no. .550/;.— 
CnAPM.^N, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1891, 323 (Nueces Bay, Texas; song; 
crit.).— Rhoads, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1892, 109 (Nueces Bay). 

Ammodramus sennetti Chapman, Auk, xvi, Jan., 1899, 3 (crit.), pi. 1, lower flg. 



AMMODRAMUS NIGRESCENS Ridgway. 
DUSKY SEASIDE SPAKEOW. 

Aclults {s&xes alike). — Above black, indistinctly streaked with olive 
and grayish; wing and tail feathers edged with olive-brown; supra- 
loral spot and edge of wing gamboge yellow; under parts white, thickly 
and broadly streaked with black. 

AOiili mr//tf.— Length (skins), 124.46-129.54 (127.00); wing, 58.93- 
60.45 (59.94); tail, 54.61-55.88 (55.12); exposed culmen, 13.21; depth 
of bill at base, 6.35; tarsus, 21.69-22.35 (21.84); middle toe, 15.49- 
15.75 (15.12).^ 

Aduli female.— Length (skins), 124.46-130.81 (127.51); wing, 57.15- 
60.96 (58.93); tail, 66.39; exposed culmen, 12.95-13.46 (13.21); depth 
of bill at base, 6.60; tarsus, 21.31-23.11 (22.10); middle toe, 15.75.' 

Middle portion of east coast of Florida (Merritts Island; east shore 
Indian Kiver opposite Titusville; Dummitts Creek; Salt Lake, upper 
St. Johns River; "marsh}' islands of Banana River,. north along this 
body of water to the Haulover Canal."). 

Ammodromus maritimu!<,\a,r.iiigre8cen8 Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., v, Dec, 1873, 
198 (Indian R., Florida; coll. R. Ridgway') . — Baird, Bbewer, and Ridgway, 
Hist. N. Am. B., iii, 1874, 514.— Coubs, Check List, 1874, 127 (no. 165a). 

A.^mmodromus] maritimus nigrescens Scott, Auk, vi, Jan., 1886, 16, in text. 

A. Immodramus] m. [aritimu.i'] nigrescens Coues, Key X. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 
1884, 368. 

Ammodromus nigrescens Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. 3Ius., iii. Mar. 27, 1880, 2; 
Nom. N. Am. B., 1881, no. 203.— Shaepe, Cat. B. Brit. Jilus., xii, 1888,685. 

Ammodramus nigrescens American Oenithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 
551. — Chapman, Auk, xv, 1898, 270 (mo. Dummitts Creek, e. Florida); xvi, 
1899, 2 (crit.).— Koch, Auk, xvi, 1899, 277 (Indianola, Merritt's I., e. 
Florida). 

Ammodramus maritimus nigrescens Coues, Check List, 2il ed., 1882, no. 239. 

A.{^nmodramii-s1 m.[^ciritimus'] nigrescens Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed. 1SS4, 
368. 

' Three specimens. 

^ Two specimens. 

The average length of eight specimens, measured by Jlr. C. J. Maynard, before 
skinning, was 171.45, the extent of wings being 199.90. ("Birds of Florida," pp. 
119-120.) 

Mr. Chapman (Auk, xvi, 1899, p. 2) gives the average measurements of seventeen 
specimens "in comparatively unworn plumage," as follows: Wing, 63.50; tail, 51.82; 
bill from nostril, 10.92. 

' Type now in collection of U. S. National JIuseum. 



220 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

A.[mmodramus\ niffrescenx Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 413. 
Ammodromus melanoleucns Maynakd, Am. Sportsman, v, Jan. 16, 1875, 248 (Salt 
Lake, Florida; coll. C. J. Maynard); Birds Florida, 1878, 119, pi. 10. 



AMMODRAMUS CAUDACUTUS CAUDACUTUS (Gmelin.) 
SHAKP-TAILED SPAKROW. 

Adultn {sexes alih^. — Broad, sharpl.y defined, and conspicuous super- 
ciliai^y stripe and broad malar stripe deep buff, the latter curving 
upward behind the auriculars, but separated from the superciliary 
stripe by a narrow- black or dark brown postocular stripe; auricular 
region grayish; pileum clear bistre brown, streaked with black, 
divided by a broad but not sharplj^ defined median stripe of grayish; 
prevailing color of upper parts olivaceous, grayer on sides of hind- 
neck and rump, the scapulars and interscapulars decidedly darker 
olive-brown, sharply edged with pale grayish or buff}' whitish, pro- 
ducing distinct streaks which are margined internall}' by a narrower 
blackish streak; edge of wing pale yellow; under parts mostly white, 
but the chest, sides, and flanks more or less tinged with buff (some- 
times, especially the chest, distinctly buff), sharply and usualh' con- 
spicuously streaked with dusky. 

Young. — Pileum blackish (sometimes streaked with light brownish), 
divided by a narrow median stripe, or series of streaks, of dull buffy; 
general color of upper parts light buffy brownish, the scapulars and 
interscapulars broadly edged with buffy, producing conspicuous streaks; 
under parts buffy, deepest on chest and sides, where more or less 
streaked, narrowly, with dusky, the abdomen sometimes nearly white. 

AchtU wafe.— Length (skins), 127.00; wing, 65.37-59.18 (57.66); 
tail, 44.45-50.55 (48.26); exposed culmen, 12.19-12.70 (12.44); depth 
of bill at base, 5.33-6.84 (6.69); tarsus, 20.07-21.08 (20.57); middle toe, 
15.49-16.51 (16.00).' 

Adult female.— l^Qug'Cii (skins), 116.84-129.54 (124.21); wing, 58.34- 
58.17 (56.88); tail, 42.67-51.31 (46.99); exposed culmen, 11.94-12.70 
(12.45); depth of bill at base, 5.33-6.84 (5.59); tarsus, 20.07-21.34 
(20.57); middle toe, 15.75-17.27 (16.26).' 

Atlantic coast of United States, breeding from Massachusetts south- 
ward. 

{Oriolui] caudacutus Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, pt. i, 1788,394 (New York; based on 

Sharp-tailed Oriole Latham, Gen. Synop. Birds, i, pt. 2, 448). — Latham, 

IndexOrn.,], 1790, 186. 
Fringilla caudacuta Wilson, Am. Orn., iv, 1811, 70, pi. 34, fig. 3. — Bonaparte, 

Ann. Lye. N. Y., ii, 1828, 110.— Audubon, Orn. Biog., ii, 1834,281; v,1839, 

499, pi. 149. 
Passerina caudacuta Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., xxv, 1817, 25. 
A.\mmodramus] caudocuta Swainson, Classif. Birds, ii, 1837, 289. 

^ Five specimens. '' Six specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 221 

Ammodromu.i caadacitiux Jakdine, ed. Wilson's Am. Orn., ii, 1832,70, pi. 35, 
fig. 3.— Baied, Rep. Pacific R. E. Snrv., ix, 1858, 453; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 
1859, no. 341. — ScLATER, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 116 (Pennsylvania). — Coues, 
Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1871, 22 (Fort Macon, N. C, habits, etc.); Check 
List, 1873, no. 166, part. — Bated, Beewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. 
Birds, i, 1874, 557, part, pi. 25, fig. 7.— Mbeeiaji, Review Birds Conn., 1877, 
38 (summer resid.).—BEEwsTEE, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 119 (descr. 
young) .—Mayxaed, Birds Floridaand E. N. Am. , 1881, 122, part.— Ridgway, 
Norn. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 201, part.— Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. >Ius., 
xii, 1888, 685, part (Oyster Bay, Long Island). 

A. [mmodro7n!(.s] omdacutus Geay, Gen. Birds, ii, 1849, 374. 

lAmmodromua} caudacutus Bonapaete, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 482. — Coues, Key 
N. Am. Birds, 1872, 1.38, part. 

Ammodraynus caudaciiius Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 32. — Audubon, 
Synop., 1839, 111.— Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 166.— Ameeican 
Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 549. — Chapman, Auk, vi, 1889, 
303 (Piermont, lower Hudson R., New York, breeding). — Scott, Auk, vi, 
1889, 322 (Tarpon Springs and Anclote R., Florida, winter). — Stone, Auk, 
X, 1893, 85 (coast New Jersey and shores of Delaware Bay, breeding; Atlantic 
City in winter). — Dwight, Auk, xiii, 1896, 273, 275 (crit. ). — Nbhrling, Our 
Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 91. 

lAmmodramiis^ caudacutus Geay, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 95, no. 7415. 

A.[ininodramiis^ caudacutus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 368. — Ridg- 
way, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 413. 

FringiUa Uttoralis Nuttall, Man. Orn. U. S. and Canada, i, 1832, 504 (New York 
to Georgia; coll. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., no. 6442) ; 2d ed., i, 1840, 590. 

Ammodramus caudacutus nelsoni (not Ammodroriius caudacutus, var. nelsoni 
Allen) Nelson ( — ), Cat. Vertebrates New Jersey, — , 541 (see Stone, Auk, 
xi, 1893, 85). 



AMMODRAMUS CAUDACUTUS NELSONI Allen. 
NELSON'S SPARROW. 

Similar to A. c. caudacutus, but decidedly smaller, the bill conspicu- 
ously so; coloration much brighter, the whitish, pale grayish or pale 
buffy streaks of back and scapulars more sharply contrasted with the 
rich brown or olive ground-color; the chest, sides, and flanks deeper 
buff, more abruptly contrasted with the white abdominal area, the 
chest much less distinctly (never sharply?) streaked with grayish or 
dusky, the streaks never ( ? ) approaching black. 

Adult wiffife. -Length (skins), 114.30-124.46 (118.36); wing, 53.34- 
57.15 (55.37); tail, 45.72-52.58 (47.50); exposed culmen, 10.16-10.67 
(10.41); depth of bill at base, 5.33-5.59 (5.46); tarsus, 18.29-20.83 
(20.07); middle toe, 14.73-16.26 (15.49).^ 

Adult female.— l^ength (skms), 111.76-121.92 (115.57); wing, 52.07- 
55.88 (54.10); tail, 43.18-48.26 (45.97); exposed culmen, 10.16-10.67 
(10.41); depth of bill at base, 6.33-5.59 (5.46); tarsus, 20.07-21.34 
(20.32); middle toe, 15.24-16.51 (15.49).' 

' Ten specimens. 



222 BULLETIN- 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Prairie marsiies of Mississippi Valley and central British Provinces, 
breeding from northern Illinois, Minnesota, South Dakota, etc., north 
to Manitoba (Winnipeg, Car berry, Raeburn, etc.); south in winter to 
Gulf coast, from Texas (inclusive) eastward and to coast of South 
Carolina; occasional along more northern Atlantic coast from Massa- 
chusetts southward during fall migration; accidental in California 
(Santa Clara Countj', Maj' 6, 1891, one specimen). 

Specimens connecting this form with A. c. suivirgatus appear to be 
more common than those connecting it with A. c. cmcdacutits. 

Ammodromus caudacutus var. nelsoni Allen, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xvii, Mar., 

1875, 293 (Calumet marshes, Cook Co., n. e. Illinois). — Nelson, Bull. Nutt. 

Orn. Club, i, 1876, 40 (Calumet marshes and lake, June 12 to Sept. 17; Grass 

Lake, Lake Co., Illinois, Nov. 10; Illinois R. ; Racine, Wisconsin). 
Ammodromus yar. nelsoni Nelson, Bull. Essex Inst., viii, 1876, 152. 
A.\_mmodromus'] caudacutus var. nelsoni Nelson, Bull. Essex Inst., viii, 1876, 107 

(Calumet marshes, etc., breeding; Racine, Wisconsin). 
Ammodromus caudacutus nelsoni Gibbs, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., 

V, 1879, 486 (Michigan, lat. 42° 20', Oct.).— Worthen, Bull. Nutt. Orn. 

Club, V, Jan. ,1880, 32 (Warsaw, Illinois, May 8).— Ridgway, Nom. N. Am. 

Birds, 1881, no. 201a. 
A-lmmodromu^'] caudacutus nelsoni Ridgway, Bull. 111. State Labr. N. H., no. 4, 

1881, 179 (Illinois). 

Ammodramus caudacutus nelso^ii Alli:^, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, Apr., 1880, 89; 
vii, 1882, 55 (Neosho Falls, Kansas, Oct. 17).— Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 

1882, no. 241.— Beewster, Auk, ii, 1885, 216 (Charleston, South Carolma, 
Oct. 8).— Fisher, Auk, ii, 1885, 306, part (marshes of Croton R., s. e. New 
York, Sept. 25 to Oct. 10) .—American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 
1886, no. 549«.— Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 192 (St. Louis, Missouri, 
etc.).— Merriam, in Cooke's Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 192, footnote 
(Fort Sisseton and Devils Lake, Dakota, breeding).— Cant well, Auk, vi, 
1889, 340 (Madison, Minnesota, May).— Mearns, Auk, vii, 1890, 56 (Hudson 
Highlands, s. e. New York) .—Poling, Auk, vii, 1890, 241 (Adams Co., w. 
Illinois, Apr. 26) .—Chapman, Auk, iii, 1891, 323 (Nueces Bay, Texas, Apr.) .— 
Sage, Auk, viii, 1891, 115 (Portland, Connecticut, Oct. 4-13).— Goss, Birds 
Kansas, 1891, 449 (summer resid.).— Thompson, Auk, x, 1893, 50 (Winnipeg, 
Manitoba, May 25; Carberry, Manitoba, June 30 and Sept. 1).— Stone, Auk, 
X, 1893, 85 (Atlantic City, New Jersey, May 9 and Oct. 2).— Palmer (W.), 
Auk, xi, 1894, 333 (Washington, District of Columbia, Sept.; Four Mile Run, 
near Alexandria, Virginia, Sept. 18; Cobbs I., Virginia, May 11).- Butler, 
Proc. Indiana Ac. Sci., 1895, 167 (Morgan Park, Cook Co., Illinois, breeding); 
Birds Indiana, 1897, 947 (Lake Co., summer, to Nov. 10).— Dwight, Auk, 
xiii, 1896,' 273, 275, pi. 4, left-hand fig. (crit.).— Knight, Bull. 3, Univ 
Maine, 1897, 97 (Scarboro, Maine, 2 specs. Oct. 16, 1894) . 

A. [mmodramus'] c. \_audacvius'\ nelsoni CouES, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 368. 

A.[mmodramus'] caudacutus nelsoni Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds 1887 413 
part.— Stone, Auk, x, 1893, 85 (Atlantic City, New Jersey, May 9, 1 spec). 

Ammodramu^ nelsoni 'SovL'io^, Proc. Portland Soc. N. H., ii, March 15, 1897 102 
(crit. ). — American Ornithologists' Union Comjiittee, Auk, xvi, 1899, 118. — 
Bartsch, Auk, xvi, 1899, 276 (Iowa City, Iowa, Oct. 12) .—Nash, Auk, xvi, 
1899, 277 (Toronto, Ontario, June toOct.).— Lantz, Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci. 
for 1896-97 (1899), 265 (e. Kansas, rare summer resid.; McPherson Co., 
Oct.). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 223 

Ammodromus caudacuius (not Oriolun candacuhts Gmelin) Xehkli.ng, Bull. Xutt. 
Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 12 (Gulf coast and Galveston Bay, s.e. Texas; "doubt- 
less breeds") .—Ridgway, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 253 (Wa.shing- 
ton. District of Columbia, Sept.). — Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 
685, part. — Hatch, Birds Minnesota, 1892, 318 (breeding in Red River 
Valley) . 

Ammodrinimx caudacalas Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 192 (coast s. e. 
Texas). — Deuky and Kellogg, Journ. Cine. Soc. N. H., xiv, 1891, 43 (Ross 
Lake, near Cincinnati, Ohio, Apr. and May, 1890, 1891) . 

(?) Ammodramus caudacutus becki Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiv, no. 872, 
Oct. 22, 1891,483 (Milpitas, Santa Clara Co. , California; V. S. Nat. Mus.). 



AMMODRAMUS CAUDACUTUS SUBVIRGATUS Dwight. 
ACADIAN SHARP-TAILED SPARROW, 

Much more plainly colored than either A. c. caudacutus or A. c. nel- 
soni, with small bill of the latter combined with other measurements 
equaling or exceeding those of the former; back and scapulars with- 
out conspicuous lighter streaks, or these not stronglj^ contrasted with 
the light olive or grayish olive general color, the superciliar}- and 
malar stripes paler buff, the first often tinged posteriori}^ with olive- 
grayish, the former sometimes tinged anteriorh" with light yellow; 
chest, sides, and flanks paler buff, streaked with olive-grayish. 

Adroit m«/(^.— Length (skins), 119.38-129.64 (125.48); wing, 55.88- 
68.93 (57.66); tail, 48.26-52.07 (60.04); exposed culmen, 10.41-10.92 
(10.67); depth of bill at base, 5.59-6.10 (5.84); tarsus, 20.83-22.86 
(21.59); middle toe, 15.75-17.53 (16.26).^ 

Adult fernale.—hQngth{akms), 119.38-129.54 (123.70); wing, 53.34- 
59.69 (56.88); tail, 46.97-60.80 (48.51); exposed culmen, 10.16-11.18 
(10.67); depth of bill at base, 5.33-6.59 (5.46); tarsus, 20.32-21.84 
(20.83); middle toe, 16.24-16.51 (16.00).^ 

Salt-water marshes of Atlantic coast of United States and adjacent 
British provinces, breeding from Massachusetts (?) north to southern 
New Brunswick, migi'ating south to South Carolina. 

Ammodromus caudacutus (not Oriolus caudacutus Gmelin) Samuels, Birds Mas- 
sachusetts, 1864, 9.— Brown, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, ii, 1877, 27 (Scarboro, 
Maine); v, 1880, 52 (do., breeding). — Baied, Bebwee, and Ridgway, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 557, part.— Beewstbe, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, ii, 1877, 
28 (Tignish, Prince Edwards I., Aug. 2, 3); iii, 1878, 119 (Rye Beach, New 
Hampshire; descr. young). — Beewbe, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, ii, 1878, 48 (St. 
Andrews Bay, Maine, abundant). — Smith (G. S.), Oologist, iv, 1879, 66 (near 
Boston, Massachusetts, breeding; nesting habits). — Puhdie, Bull. Nutt. Orn., 
vii, 1882, 122 (Kenebecasis R., near Hampton, New Brunswick, breeding). — 
Chambeelain, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 104 (near Hampton, New 
Brunswick); Bull. no. i, Nat. Hist. Soc. N. B., 1882, 39 (do.). 

\_Ammodromus'\ caudacutus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 138, part. 

' Eight specimens. ''■ Seven specimens. 



224 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Ammodmmiis nindacntnn Bbown, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 98 (Scarboro 
Marsh, etc., Maine, Oct., Nov.).— EiD(iWAY, Notn. X. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 
201, part.— PuKDiEy Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 122 (Kenebecasis R., 
near Hampton, New Brunswick, breeding). — Chamberlain, Auk, iv, 1887, 
261 (above falls of St. Croix R., New Brunswick, autumn) .—Knight, Bull. 
3, Univ. Maine, 1897, 97 (s. coast Maine, summer resid.) . 

Ammodramus caiidacutus nelsoni (not Ammodromus caudacutus Yar. nelsoni Allen) 
Fisher, Auk, ii, 1885, 307, part (CrotonE., s. e. New York, Sept. 25 to Oct. 
10). — Hensi-iaw, Auk, iii, 1886, 486 (Cambridge, Massachusetts, May 31 and 
Oct. 7; Sing Sing, N. Y.). 

A-lmmodranids'] caudacutus nelsoni. Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 413, 
part. 

Ammodramus caudacutus subvirgatus Dwight, Auk, iv, July, 1887, 233 (Hills- 
borough, Albert Co., New Brunswick; coll. J. Dwight, jr. ); Auk, x, 1893, 11 
(Prince Edward I. ) ; xiii, 1896, 273, 276, pi. 4, right-hand fig. (crit.) . — American 
Ornithologists' Union, Suppl. to Check List, 1889, 12; Check List, abridged 
ed. 1889, no. 5496; 2d ed., 1895, no. 5496.— Brewster, Auk, vii, 1890, 212 
(Frogmore, near Charleston, South Carolina, Mar. 19 to Apr. 20, Oct. 25 to 
.30). — Sage, Auk, viii, 1891, 115 (Connecticut R. , near Portland, Connecticut, 
Oct. 4-13).— Stone, Auk, x, 1893, 85 (Atlantic City, New Jersey, Oct. 2).— 
Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed. 1896, 602.— Bartsch, Auk, xiv, 1897, 
93 (Yates Co., New York, Oct. 7).— Knight, Bull. 3, Univ. Maine, 1897, 98 
(breeding s. w. to Sagadahoc Co., Maine). 

A.\_mmodram,us'] caudacutus subvirgatus Stone, Auk, x, 1893, 85 (Atlantic City, 
New Jersey, Oct.). 

Ammodramus nehoni subvirgatus Norton, Proc. Portland Soc. N. H., ii, Mar. 15, 
1897, 102 (crit.). — American Ornithologists' Union Committee, Auk, xvi, 
1899, 118. 



AMMODRAMUS LECONTEII (Audubon). 
IE OONTE'S SPARKOW. 

Bill very small (exposed culmen 8.38-10.16, averaging 9.14); broad 
superciliary and malar stripes buff, and pileum with a conspicuous 
median light-colored stripe; edge of wing white. 

Admits {sexes (dike). — Broad lateral stripes of pileum blackish, nar- 
rowly streaked or squamated with paler, the narrower median stripe 
buff anteriorl}', pale grayish or dull whitish posteriorly; hindneck 
chestnut, the feathers margined with pale grayish; scapulars and inter- 
scapulars blackish, mixed with chestnut, and broadly edged with pale 
buff, pale grayish, or whitish; under parts buff' anteriorly and laterally 
(deepest on chest, palest on throat), the abdominfil region white; sides 
and flanks, rarely also the chest, streaked with blackish; no dusky 
rictal streak, and usually no submalar streak. 

Yhung. — Much more buffy above than adults, the back with broad 
streaks of black and narrower (lateral) streaks of light buff; hindneck 
deeper buff (sometimes tinged with chestnut), streaked with blackish; 
superciliary stripe and malar region much paler buff than in adults, 
the former narrowly streaked with black; median crown-stripe entirely 
buff. 



BIBDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 225 

Adult wafe.— Length (skins), 105.41-120.65 (113.54); wing, 19.28- 
53.85 (51.56); tail, 15.97-52.07 (19.02); exposed culmen, 8.38-10.16 
(9.14); depth of bill at base, 5.08-5.59 (5.33); tarsus, 17.78-18.80 
(18.29); middle toe, 13.21-15.24 (14.22).' 

Adult female.— Li(iv,^\\x (skins), 110.49-127.00 (117.35); wing, 49.02- 
53.34 (51.31); tail, 46.48-55.88 (49.78); exposed culmen, 8.38-9.91 
(9.14); depth of bill at base, 5.08-5.33 (5.20); tarsus, 17.53-18.80 
(18.03); middle toe, 12.70-15.24 (14.22).' 

Prairie marshes of Mississippi Valley and central British Provinces, 
breeding from Minnesota (northern and western Illinois ?), South 
Dakota, etc., to Assiniboia and Manitoba (Carberry, Raeburn, etc.); 
in winter migrating south to Gulf States (Texas to Florida), and to 
coast of South Carolina, occasionally to North Carolina. 

\Ftmgilla\ caudacuta (not Oriolus caudacutus Gmelin) Latham, Index Orn., i, 
1790, 459 (interior of Georgia; good and exclusively pertinent description). 

FringiUa caudacuta Nuttall, Man. Orn. TJ. S. and Canada, i, 1832, 505; 2d ed., 
i, 1840, 591. 

Emberiza le conteii Audubon, Birds Am., oct. ed., vii, 1843, 338, pi. 488 (prairies 
of Upper Missouri River; type lost). 

Emberiza lecontei Baied, in Stansbury's Rep. Gt. Salt Lake, 1852, 330 (Fort 
Union) . 

E.lmberiza'] le contei Maximil*ian, Journ. fiir Orli. , vi, 1858, 340 (Upper Missouri). 

A. [mmodromus] le conteii Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, June, 1849, 374. 

A.[vim,odromus] lecontei Nelson, Bull. Essex Inst., viii, 1876, 106 (Riverdale, 
n. e. Illinois, May 13 and 21). 

Ammodromus leconteii American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 
548. — Allen, Auk, iii, 1886, 489 (specimen from Upper Missouri R., in 
Maximilian coll.. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.). — Beckham, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
X, 1888, 674 (San Antonio, Texas, Dec. 21).— Cooke, BirdMigr. Miss. Val., 
1888, 191 (breeding in Dakota, Minnesota, and .Assiniboine Valley, possibly 
in n. Illinois; localities, dates, etc.). — Poling, Auk, vii, 1890, 241 (Adams 
Co., w. Illinois, abundant migrant). — Goss, Birds Kansas, 1891, 447 
(migrant, a few wintering in s. Kansas). — Butler, Proc. Indiana Ac. Sci., 
1891 (1892), 166 (White Water Valley, n. w. Indiana, Apr., 1887 and 1889); 
1895, 167 (Morgan Park, Cook Co., Illinois, 6 specs. Apr., 1895); 1897, 945 
(Lake Co., Indiana, Apr. 15; Brookville, Mar. 12; Lebanon, Mar. 30). — 
Hatch, Birds Minnesota, 1892, 315 (habits, etc.).— Wayne, Auk, xi, 1894, 
256 (near Charleston, South Carolina, Dec. to Feb., abundant); xii, 1895, 
365 (WacissaR., n. w. Florida). — Singley, Rep. Geol. Surv. Texas, 1894, 
372 (Corpus Christi).— Ames, Auk, xiv, 1897,411 (Toronto, Ontario, May 5, 
1897) .—Merrill, Auk, xv, 1898, 16 (Fort Sherman, n. w. Idaho, Sept. 28).— 
Allison, Auk, xyi, 1899, 268 (Avery's I., Louisiana, Feb. ; Amite Co., Missis- 
sippi, Nov. 15). — HoLSTBiN, Auk, xvi, 1899, 356 (Lexington, Kentucky, Apr. 
15 and July 16). 

Avimodramus lecontei Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., iii, 1891, 323 (Corpus 
Christi, Texas, Apr.). 

A.^mmodramus] leconteii Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 412. 

Ammodramus lecontii Fuertes, Auk, xv, 1898, 188 (Ithaca, New York, Oct. 11, 
1897). 

' Ten specimens. 
17024—01 15 



226 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Ammodramus lecontei Brewstek, Auk, iii, July, 1886, 410 (near Charleston, South 
Carolina, Jan. 26).— Loomis, Auk, iii, 1886, 486 (Chester Co., South Carolina, 
common in winter). — Thompson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1891, 596 (Mani- 
toba, summer resid.; habits, song, etc.). — Brimley, Auk, xi, 1894, 332 
(Raleigh, North Carolina, Apr. 21). — Nehrling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 
1896, 89. 

Ammodromus lecontei Sharpe, Oat. Birds. Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 695. 

{Coturniculiis] lecontii Bonaparte, Consp. Av.,i, 1850, 481. 

Coturniculus lecontii Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 452; Cat. N. Am. 
Birds, 1859, no. 340.--Coues, Bull. U. S. Geol. andGeog. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 587 
(Turtle Mt. to Souris R., North Dakota; habits) ; Check List, 2d ed., 1882, 
no. 237. — Seton, Auk, ii, 1885, 23 (Manitoba; habits; song). — Loomis, Auk, ii, 
1885, 190 (Chester Co., South Carolina, winter resid. ; habits). 

\_Coturniculii,s] lecontei Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 137. 

Clottimiculus] lecontii CouBS, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 366. 

Coturniculus lecontei Gojj'es, Am. Nat., vii, 1873, 748 (biography, etc.) ; Check List, 
1873, no. 164; Birds N. W., 1874, 134.— Baikd, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 552, pi. 25, fig. 6; iii, 1874, 513 (n. North Dakota; 
crit. ; full descriptions). — Snow, Obs. Nature, iii, 1876 (Lawrence, Kansas, 
Oct. 4).— Nelson, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, i, 1876, 40 (Riverdale, n. e. Illinois, 
May 13); \-, 1880, 51 (do.).— Bailey, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, ii, 1877, 26 
(Storey Co., centr. Iowa, Oct. 10, abundant). — Brown, Bull. Nutt. Orn. 
Club, iv, 1879, 8 (Ooosada, Alabama, Feb., Mar.). — Roberts, Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 152 (Minneapolis, Minnesota, June 20 to Aug. 15).— 
WoRTHEN, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 32 (Warsaw,. Illinois, breeding?).— 
Looms, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 54 (Chester Co., South Carolina, 
Nov. 11 to Dec. 10, abundant.). — Ogilby, Sclent. Proc. Roy. Dubl. Soc, 
iii, 1882, [33] (Navarro Co., Texas, Nov. to Apr.). — Brewsteb, Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 121 (Rosewood, Gulf Hammock, Florida, Nov.; very 
abundant). — Ridgway, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 200; Bull. Nutt. Orn. 
Club, viii, 1883, 58 (Richland Co., s. e. Illinois, Oct. 27, 28, very abundant) .— 
Agersbokg, Auk, ii, 1885, 280 (s. e. South Dakota, breeding). — Widmann, 
Auk, ii, 1885,. 381 (St. Louis, Missouri, Apr. 1). 



AMMODRAMUS HENSLOWII HENSLOWII (Audubon). 
HENSIOWS SPAKROW. 

Tail not longer than wing, graduated, the graduation decidedly less 
than length of exposed culmen, the lateral rectrices much shorter than 
middle pair (difference betvs^een tips of longest and shortest rectrices 
much greater than length of bill from nostril); bill stout, its depth at 
base nearly or quite equal to length from nostril; a blackish rictal and 
(usually) a blackish submalar streak. 

Adults {sexes alike).- — Head and neck buffy olive, the pileum heavily 
streaked, except along median line, with black, the hindneck more nar- 
rowly streaked; back and scapulars chestnut, the feathers black cen- 
trally and narrowly edged or margined with whitish; wings mainly 
chestnut; blackish postocular, rictal, and submalar streaks (the last 
sometimes indistinct); chin and throat pale buff or buffy whitish; chest, 
sides, and flanks deeper buffy, streaked with blackish ; abdomen whitish. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 



227 



Young. — Above, dull brownish buffy, streaked and spotted with 
black; beneath, light buff, the sides (but not chest) streaked with dusky ; 
a distinct rietal streak of dusky, but (usuallj' at least) no dusky sub- 
malar streak. 

Adult male.— hmgth (skins), 107.95-129.54 (117.36); wing, 50.80- 
56.64: (53.85); tail, 44.45-52.83 (49.28); exposed culmen, 10.16-13.97 
(11.94); depth of bill at base, 6.60-8.64 (7.87); tarsus, 15.75-18.54 
(17.27); middle toe, 12.70-15.49 (14.48).^- 

Adult fewalc— Length (skins), 104.14-124.46 (113.03); wing, 49.02- 
65.37 (62.58); tail, 44.45-51.05 (48.01); exposed culmen, 10.41-12.70 
(11.68); depth of bill at base, 6.60-8.38 (7.62); tarsus, 15.24-18.03 
(17.02); middle toe, 12.70-15.75 (14.48).' 

Eastern United States, west to edge of Great Plains, north to New 
Hampshire, New York, Ontario, Minnesota, etc.; breeding south at 
least to 38°; wintering from about the same latitude to southern 
Florida (Tarpon Springs, Gulf Hummock, etc.), and Texas (Cook 
County). 

Emberiza henslowii Audubon, Orn. Biog., i, 1831, 360, pi. 70 (Kentucky, opposite 
Cincinnati, Ohio; type lost); v, 1839, 498, pi. 77. — Gikaud, Birds Long I., 
1844, 104. 

Emberiza henslowi Audubon, Synop., 1839, 104; Birds Am., oct. ed., iii, 1841, 75, 
pi. 163. 

Fringilla henslowii Nuttall, Man. Orn. U. S. and Canada, 2d ed., i, 1840, 571. 

Cotumicalus henslowi Bonapakte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 32. — Baird, Rep. 
Pacific E. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 451; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 339.— Wheeler, 
Proc. Bost. See. N. H., vii, 1859, 137 (Berlin, Massachusetts). — Hayden, 
Rep. U. S. Gaol. Surv., 1862, 166 (Loup Fork of Platte R.).— Coues and 
Prentiss, Smithsonian Rep. for 1861, 1862,412 (District Columbia). — Allen, 
Proc. Essex Inst., iv, 1864, 71 (Springfield, Massachusetts); Bull. Mus. Comp. 
ZooL, ii, 1871, 279 (e. Florida, winter).— Lawrence, Ann. Lye. N. Y.,viii, 1868, 
287 (near New York City).— Trippe, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xv, 1872, 237 
(Iowa).— CouES, Check List, 1878, no. 163; 2d ed., 1882, no. 236.— Snow, 

' Thirty-four specimens. 

^Seventeen specimens. 

There is a decided difference in average measurements between specimens from 
the Atlantic coast States and those from the Mississippi Valley, the former averaging 
larger, especially the bill and feet. I have not been able to discover any differences 
of coloration, however, and therefore do not separate them. Winter specimens from 
South Carolina agree in measurements with the Western series and are without much 
doubt migrants from the same region. Average measurements are as follows: 



Locality. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 


Depth 
of bill 
at base. 


Tarsus. 


Middle 
toe. 


MALES. 














Ten adult males from Mis'*issippi Valley 


52.58 


49.28 


10.67 


7.11 


16.26 


13.72 


Twenty-four adult males from Atlantic coast States. 


54.10 


49.28 


12.70 


8.13 


17.53 


14.73 


FEMALES. 














Seven adult females from Mississippi Valley 


52. .58 


49.02 


10.92 


7.11 


16.51 


13.97 


Ten adult females from Atlantic coast States 


52.32 


47.24 


12.45 


7.87 


17.53 


14.99 



228 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Birds Kansas, 1873, 17 (Topeka, e. Kansas, Apr. 26).— Baird, Brewkr, and 
RiDGWAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, .550, pi. 2.5, fig. 5.— Deane, Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 39 ( Webster, Boscawen, and Salisbury, New Hampshire, 
breeding).— Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 118 (descr. young); 
vii, 1882, 121 (Rosewood, Gulf Hummock, Florida, Nov., abundant).— Ogilby, 
Scient. Proc. Roy. Dubl. See, iii, 1882 [33] (Navarro Co., Texas, Oct.).— 
RiDGWAY, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 238 (Fairfax Co., Virginia, breed- 
ing) ; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 199.— Jouy, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1881, 
57 (Fairfax Co., Virginia; descr. nest and eggs, song, etc.).— Loomis, Auk, 
ii, Apr., 1885, 190 (Chester Co., South Carolina, migrant). 

ICoUmiiculus'] henxloici Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 481. 

Coturniculus heiisloivii ScLATER, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 116. 

ICotnrnicuhis'] hendowii CouES, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 137. 

C'.[oturyvciilu!i] hendovl CouES, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, .366. 

Coturniculus heiixlorii Coues, Birds N. W., 1874, 133. 

Cotumkulus henslovi Scorr, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 187H, 143 (Johnson Co., 
Missouri, breeding). 

A-lmmodromas} hemlowi Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, June, 1849, 374. — Ridgway, Ann. 
Lye. N. Y., X, 1874, 372 (Illinois).— Nelson, Bull. Essex Inst, viii, 1876, 106, 
152 (n. e. Illinois, commoli summer resident); ix, 1877, 49 (Richland Co., 
Illinois, breeding). 

Ammodromu-s henslowi Sharpk, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 590. — Nehrlixg, 
Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 88.— Pubdy, Auk, xiv, 1897, 220 ( Plymouth, 
Michigan, breeding). 

[Ammodramus'] henslowi Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 96, no. 7422. 

Ammodramus henslowii American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 
547.— Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 191 (Gainesville, Texas, Feb. 27, 
etc.). — Scott, Auk, vi, 1889, 322 (Tarpon Springs, Florida, winter resident).— 
Roberts, Auk, vii, 1890, 213 (near Minneapolis, and Grant Co., Minnesota, 
breeding; Pembina, North Dakota, July). — ^Goss, Birds Kansas, 1891, 446 
(summer resid.). — Bcrns, Auk, xii, 1895, 189 (Cape May Co., New Jersey, 
breeding; descr. nest and eggs). — S,\unders, Auk, xvi, 1899, 80 (Thames 
B., Ontario, breeding). — Allison, Auk, xvi, 1899, 267 (Arnite Co., Missis- 
sippi, winter resid. ) . 

A.[mmodrainu8'] /tenstoioii Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 412. 

Ammodramus henslowi Faxon, Auk, vii, 1889, 44 (SheflBeld, Massachusetts; notes). 

AMMODRAMUS HENSLOWII OCCIDENTALIS Brewster. 
WESTEKN HENSLOW'S SPARROW. 

Similar to ^1. A. hefislotoii, but decidedly paler above and more decid- 
edly white below; chestnut of back paler and much more restricted. 
Length (skins), 114.30-116.84 (115.57); wing, 53.85-54.10 (53.97); tail, 
47.75-48.26 (48.01); exposed culmen, 11.43-12.19(11.68); depth of bill 
at base, 7.62; tarsus, 17.02-18.29 (17.53); middle toe, 13.97-15.24 
(14.4S).^ 

South Dakota in .summer. (Range very imperfectly known.) 

Aminodnunn.-i henslowii occideiitdlls Brewster, Descr. Seven Sup. New N. Am. 
Birds, Feb. 17, 1891, 145 (Moody Co., South Dakota; coll. W. Brewster) ; Auk, 
viii, Apr., 1891, 145 (Moody Co., South Dakota). — American Ornitholo- 
gists' Union Committee, Auk, ix, 1892, 106; Check List, 2d ed., 1895, no. 
547(1.— Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 601. 



^ Only two spe(!iinens examined; neither of them sexed. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 229 



Genus PLAGIOSPIZA Ridg>Aray. 

Plagiospiza Ridgway, Auk, xv, July, 1898 (pub. May 14, 1898), 224. (Type, 
A'.mojMla superciHowt S\vaini?on. ) 

Stoutly built terrestrial Fringillidse, with short truncated wing (less 
than three times as long as tarsus), short graduated tail with narrow 
rectrices, and plumage conspicuously striped above. 

Bill stout (depth through base exceeding gonj-s or length of maxilla 
from nostril), the exposed culmen a little more than half as long as 
tarsus; culmen slightly convex at tip and base, straight, or slightly 
depressed in the middle portion; gonys straight, with rather promi- 
nent basal angle; maxillary tomium faintly concave terminally and 
subbasally, faintly convex between, the slight basal deflection begin- 
ning beneath posterior end of nostril. Nostrils small, horizontal, 
pointed anteriorly, with broad overhanging scale. Wing very short 
(onlj' about two and three-fourths times as long as tarsus); eighth to 
fifth quills equal and longest, the ninth and fourth but little shorter, 
the former being decidedly longer than the third and very much longer 
than the secondaries; primaries exceeding secondaries bj' more than 
length of maxilla from nostril, but less than length of culmen; tertials 
longer than secondaries, reaching nearly to tip of longest primaries. 
Tail much shorter than wing, graduated for about the length of the 
bill from nostril, the rectrices very narrow but rounded at tips. Tar- 
sus rather short (less than twice as long as exposed culmen), very 
slightly exceeding middle toe with claw, rathef stout, its scutella dis- 
tinct; lateral claws falling a little short of base of middle claw; hallux 
about equal to middle toe, its claw nearly as long as the digit. 

Coloration. — Verj'^ conspicuouslj' streaked everywhere above, plain 
light brownish gray beneath (nearly white on chin, upper throat, and 
belly), the under tail-coverts with dusky streaks; a broad and' conspic- 
uous dusky band on sides of head, with a conspicuous superciliary 
•stripe of brownish white or buffy above it. 

Range. — Highlands of Mexico. (Monotypic.) 

PLAGIOSPIZA SUPERCILIOSA (Swainson), 
STRIPED SPARROW, 

AchilU {sexes alike). — Pileum chestnut, streaked with black and with 
a more or less distinct median stripe of pale buffj' and black streaks; 
back and scapulars light brown, broadly and sharpty streaked with 
black; rectrices blackish, edged with light brown or brownish gray 
and more or less tipped with a paler tint of the same, especially on 
outermost rectrices, the middle pair with the light brown or grayish 
edgings very broad and the black median stripe with serrated edgings, 



230 BULLETIN 50, UNITEB STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

often throwing off indistinct darker bars across the lighter colored 
lateral portions. A broad and sharply defined superciliary stripe of 
buffy or dull whitish; immediately beneath this a broad and conspicu- 
ous band of black, involving the lores and suborbital and auricular 
regions, the lower posterior portion of the last streaked with whitish; 
malar region, chin, upper throat, and middle of belly dull whitish, 
shading into light brownish gray on other under parts; under tail- 
coverts (sometimes flanks, also) streaked with dusky. Bill black. 

loim^.— Essentially like adults, but under parts dull buffy whitish, 
with the lower throat, upper chest, and sides of" chest narrowly streaked 
with dusky. 

Adtdt ;»«/«.— Length (skins), 154.94-171.45 (162.05); wing, 75.69- 
81.79 (78.74); tail, 67.31-73.15 (70.36); exposed culmen, 14.73-15.49 
(15.24); depth of bill at base, 8.89-10.16 (9.65); tarsus, 23.37-27.94 
(25.65); middle toe, 16.51-20.32 (18.80).' 

Adult female.— l^Qu^ih. (skins), 144.78-160.02 (154.69); wing, 73.66- 
80.77 (75.95); tail,' 63.50-70.61 (67.31); exposed culmen, 13.21-15.49 
(14.73); depth of bill at base, 9.65-10.16 (9.91); tarsus, 24.89-27.43 
(26.91); middle toe, 17.53-19.81 (18.54).' 

Mexican plateau, from States of Vera Cruz (Perote), Puebla, Hidal- 
go, Tlaxcala, Morelos, Mexico, Michoacan, and northern Jalisco to 
northern Chihuahua (Colonia Garcia, Guachochi, Guadalupe y Calvo. 
etc.) and northeastern Sonora (Bavispe River andPacheco). 

Aimophila superciliosa Swainson, Classif. Birds, ii, 1837, 287; Anim. in ilenag., 
18?8, 314 (Mexico; coll. W. Swainson).— Sumicheast, Mem. Bost. Soc, N. H., 
i, 1869,551 (upper alpine reg. Vera Cruz, 3,000-4,000 meters). — Stone, Proc. 
Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, 215 (Chalchicomula, Vera Cruz).— Allex, Bull. 
Am. Mus. N.H.,v, 1898, 39 (Bavispe R. and Pacheco, n.e. Sonora). — Cox, 
Auk, xii, 1895, 357 (Mount Orizaba, up to 11,000 ft.).— Chapman, Bull. Am. 
Mus. N. H., X, 1898, 41 (Las Vigas, Vera Cruz, 8,000 ft. ; habits). 

A.limopMla] swpfraKosa Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850,486. 

[HiemophUa] superciliosa Sa^ATER and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 33. 

Hseviophila superciliosa S.vlvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, .395, 
pi. 30, fig. 1 (Ciudad, Durango); Ibis, 1889, 239 (environs of Mexic'o; near 
Pueblo; Popocatepetl, 10,000-12,000 ft.; Cofre de Perote, Vera Cruz; San 
Luis Potosi; Aguas Calientes; Durango).— Shahpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xii, 1888, 722. 

lEmbernagra} superciliosa Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 91, no. 7344. 

Hmmophila rufescens (not Pipilo rufescens Swainson) Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 
1862, 118, part. 

Genus AIMOPHILA Swainson. 

AimophilaSw AiiisoTfi, Classif. Birds, ii, 1837, 287. (Type, Pipi7oni/i?scere.sSwainson.) 
Haemophila (emendation) Cabanis, Mus. Hein, i, Apr., 1851, 132. 
Hxmophila (emendation) Sclatee, Proc. Zool. Sbc. Lond., 1858, 98. 
Peucsea^ Audubon, Synopsis Birds N.Am., 1839, 112. (Type, Fringilla bachmanii 
Audubon.) 

'Ten specimens. 

""Name from TtsvKi), a pine." 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 231 

Small or medium-sized semiterrestrial FringillidaB with tail equal to 
or longer than wing, and more or less graduated; wing rather short 
and rounded (sometimes very much so), the outermost (ninth) primary 
not longer than fourth, usually shorter than second, sometimes shorter 
than secondaries. 

Bill very variable as to relative size and thickness, sometimes large 
and stout, sometimes small and rather slender; culmen moderately or 
faintly convex throughout or, usually, straight (sometimes even slightly 
depressed) in middle portion; gonys about equal to basal depth of bill, 
or slightly less, straight or faintly convex; maxillary tomium without 
subterminal notch, faintly concave anteriorly, then faintly convex, again 
faintly concave just anterior to the nearly concealed basal deflection; 
mandibular tomium straight, oi- nearly so, to the abruptly deflected basal 
portion, the subbasal angle sometimes slightly toothed. Rictal bristles 
indistinct. Nostrils rather nari-ow, longitudinal, more or less pointed 
anteriorly, overhung by a more or less distinct (usually conspicuous) 
superior operculum. Wing short (two and three-fourths to nearly 
three and a-half times as long as tarsus), much rounded, or truncate, 
at tip (eighth to fifth primaries longest, ninth not longer than fourth, 
usually shorter than second, sometimes shorter than secondaries), the 
primaries exceeding secondaries by much less than length of tarsus 
(usually by less than length of culmen) ; tertials not elongated. Tail 
equal to or longer than wing,^ sometimes much longer, more or 
less graduated (graduation sometimes more than half the length of 
tarsus), the rectrices rather narrow but with rounded tips. Tarsus 
longer than middle toe with claw;^ lateral toes about equal, their claws 
falling short of base of middle claw; hind claw decidedly shorter than 
its digit, the two together not longer (usually shorter) than middle toe 
without claw. 

Coloration. — Back more or less streaked, or else plain purplish 
grayish brown; under parts without streaks in adults, except some- 
times on sides and flanks; otherwise extremely variable (see "Key," 
pages 233 to 235). 

Range. — Sonoran or Lower Austral districts of United States and 
southward through Mexico and Central America (chiefly on highlands) 
to western Costa Rica. 

I am far from satisfied with the limits which are here assigned the genus 
AiTTuo^phila^ but have not been able, after repeated and tedious efl'orts, 
to devise any improvement. If Peuccea is to be retained as a separate 
genus it must be restricted to include only P. cestivalis (with its sub- 
species), P. hotterii, and P. cassini, since there can be no question 
that Ammodramus nificeps Cassin and Peuccea carpalis Coues are 

^ Sometimes a little less in specimens with tips of rectrices much worn. 
'A little shorter only in some specimens of A. humeralw. 



232 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

strictly congeneric with Aiino2?MIa rufescens (type of the genus) and A. 
sianichrmti^ respectively. The species which belong to Peuccea in the 
restricted sense indicated above differ from the true Awiopliilm in their 
decidedly more produced and truncated wing-tip and longer outer- 
most primaries, the ninth primary never shorter than the third and 
usually equal to the fourth, while in the true Aimophilce it is never lopger 
than the second and sometimes shorter than the first, the longest pri- 
maries oxceedingthe secondai-ies by more than half the length of tarsus 
instead of less than length of culmen. They also have weaker feet, 
with relatively longer and straighter claws, and the hallux is relatively 
lonoer. Were there no species of intermediate character to bridge 
over the gap between these two groups a genus Peucwa might be rec- 
ognized, but unfortunately this is not the case, " Ammodrmnus" peteni- 
CU8 being an Airaophila Avith respect to its wing-formula but a Petoccm 
in other respects. Therefore I have no alternative but to combine 
the two groups into one. This results in a generic, or supjjosed gen- 
eric, group of something more than a dozen species (not counting sub- 
species), among which there are very great differences of coloration 
and considerable differences of form; but unless several subdivisions 
be recognized it seems necessary to consider them all as belonging to 
one genus. 

The genus Aiongphila, thus enlarged, includes five more or less well- 
defined groups, as follows: 

(a) Aimophila rufescens (with its three subspecies), A. mcleodii, A. 
notosticta, and^. rnficejps (with subspecies), of plain coloration, streaked 
brownish above and plain dull whitish or otherwise light colored beneath. 

(S) A. ruficauda (with two subspecies), A. humeralis, and A. 
mystacalis; a not very homogeneous group, the structual differences, 
while not of a positive character, being well defined. This group is 
characterized by a very bold and striking style of coloration, 
involving conspicuous black and white head-stripes, broad back jugu- 
lar band, black throat-patch, or other very prominent markings. 

(c) A. sumichrasti and A. carpalis, in coloration somewhat interme- 
diate between the above two groups, having the generally plain colo- 
ration of a but with a-ufous lesser wing-coverts, and more of the 
form of species belonging to h. 

(d) A. quinquestrtata alone. This has the bold coloration of species 
of group i, but is wholly unstreaked, the colors themselves quite 
different, the bill very slender, and the tail relatively much shorter. 
This species I once placed in Am2)hispi2a, but I now find it whoU}^ out 
of place there unless that genus also be merged into Aimojyhila, which 
I feel sure would be going quite too far. 

(e) Awnophila CBstivalis (with its subspecies), A. hotterii, A. sartorii^ 
and A. pefenica, these being the species constituting the genus Peiiccea, 
if such genus be recognized, except the last, which in that event 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 233 

would, on account of its wing-formula, have to be referred to Almo- 
ph-i'ki, in a section hj itself. 

However distinct these groups may appear at first sight, they seem, 
nevertheless, to be connected; thus, ^1. notostida, while a member of 
group a as to coloration agrees best in form with members of group 
h, particularly in its verj' long tail. The two species composing 
group c, while resembling one another so closel}^ in coloration as to 
leave no doubt as to their close relationship, differ verj' much in form, 
A. sumichmsti having the short, stout tarsus of group I, while A. 
carpaliH is unique in the shortness and relative depth of its bill. A. 
quinquefftriafa is very much like A. ruficeps of group a in general 
form, but has relatively longer primaries than any other member of 
the genus, except those of the PeuccBa group, though the wing- 
formula does not agree with that of the latter. 

Four South American (Peruvian) sparrows have been referred to 
Aimophila, but ai'e undoubtedlj^ distinct geneiiically. as I ha\e been 
able to determine bj' examination of three of them {Hcmnoj>hila nfolz- 
manni Taczanowski, U. personata Salvin, and II. lata Salvin. These, 
together with H. fuJclwa Sclater, belong to two genera peculiar to 
the highlands of Peru, related to Aimophila and Junco, but distinct 
from either.^ 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF AIMOPHILA. 

u. Anterior under parts pure white, with or without black or gray across chest, or 
else deep gray with black on sides of throat; pileum conspicuously five-striped, 
(two lateral black or brown crown-stripes and a white or gray median crown- 
stripe and superciliary stripe), or else plain blackish or grayish, with or 
without black streaks. 
h. Pileum plain dusky or grayish, with or without narrow black streaks. 
c. Tail shorter, or at least not longer, than wing; back purplish grayish brown 
or chocolate, entirely without streaks; lesser wing-coverts, sides, and flanks, 

plain gray. (Northwestern Mexico. ) Aimophila qninqueatriata (p. 236) 

cc. Tail much longer than wing; back buffy brown, or cinnamon-rufous, streaked 
with black; lesser wing-coverts not gray; flanks buffy or cinnamon. 
d. Upper throat black; lower throat and chest gray; rump cinnamon-rufous; 
lesser wing-coverts blackish. (Southern portion of Mexican plateau. ) 

Aimophila mystacalis (p. 236) 

dd. Whole throat white; a broad band of black or dark slaty across chest; rump 

grayish brown; lesser wing-coverts cinnamon-rufous. (Southern portion 

of Mexican plateau. ) Aimophila humeralia (p. 237) 

66. Pileum conspicuously five-striped (two black or dark brown lateral crown- 
stripes and a median crown-stripe and superciliary stripe of white or gray), 
c. Chest conspicuously spotted or clouded with gray. 
d. Smaller (wing of adult male 71.63, tail 79.25-83.31); back slightly browner 
and tail slightly more rufescent. (Guatemala to Costa Eica.) 

Aimophila rufioauda rnficauda (p. 238) 

' Incaspiza Ridgway (type, Hxmophila pulchra Sclater) and Rhynchospiza Eidgway 
(type, Hsemophila stolzmanni Taczanowski). See The Auk, xv, July, 1898, 224. To 
the former belong also H. personata Salvin, and H. Iseta Salvin. 



234 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

dd. Larger (wing of male ad. 73.15-79.40, tail 88.90-93.98); back slightly 
grayer and tail less rufescent. (State of Oaxaca, southern Mexico.) 

AimopMla rnficauda lawrencii (p. 239) 
cc. Chest pure white or but faintly tinged or clouded with gray. (Southwestern 

Jlexico.) Aimophila acuminata (p. 240) 

aa. Anterior under parts neither pure white, white with black or gray across chest, 
nor gray with black on throat; pileum chiefly brown or rusty, without any 
distinct or sharply defined median band of white or grayish. 
b. Lesser wing-coverts cinnamon-rufous; maxilla cinnamon-brown. 
r. Larger, with much larger bill (wing of adult male averaging 68.83, tail 68.33, 
culmen always more than 12.70, tarsus 20.32 or more); upper tail-coverts 
cinnamon or russet. (State of Oaxaca, southwestern Mexico.) 

Aimophila samiclirasti (p. 240) 
cc. Smaller, with much smaller bill (wing of adult male averaging 63.25, culmen 
always less than 12.70, tarsus less than 20.32); upper tail-coverts and tail 
brownish gray. (Southern Arizona and northern Sonora.) 

Aimophila carpalis (p. 241) 
66. Lesser wing-coverts brown or grayish (sometimes tinged with yellow near car- 
pal joint) ; maxilla blackish, 
c. Mandible, as well as maxilla, black; lateral crown-stripes Vandyke brown. 

(Highlands of Oaxaca, southern Mexico. ) Aimophila notoaticta(p. 242) 

cc. Mandible bluish gray or otherwise light-colored; -lateral crown-stripes (or 
whole pileum) chestnut or rufous, or streaked brown and grayish. 
d. Pileum chestnut or chestnut-rufous; edge of wing white. 
e. Larger (wing 71.12 or more, tarsus more than 22.86). 
/. Bill stouter (depth at base 10.16 or more); pileum more extensively 
chestnut; coloration in general darker, above more rusty with differ- 
ently colored areas more strongly contrasted. 
g. Darker; pileum deep chestnut, usually with a distinct median stripe 
of grayish or dull buffy and streaked with black, especially later- 
ally and posteriorly; back browner and more distinctly streaked. 
(Southern Mexico to Honduras.) 

Aimophila rnfesceus rafescens (p. 243) 

gg. Paler; pileum light chestnut without distinct median pale stripe 

or black streaks; back more rusty and less distinctly streaked. 

h. Wing and tail shorter, bill longer; coloration more rusty above, 

less buffy beneath; wing less than 76.20, tail not more than 77.47, 

exposed culmen not less than 15.24. (Southwestern portion of 

Mexican plateau.) Aimophila rafescens pallida (p. 245) 

hh. Wing and tail longer, bill shorter; coloration grayer above, more 
buffy beneath; wing 77.47, tail 83.82, exposed culmen 14.73. 
(Coast district of Sinaloa. ). Aimophila rnfesoena sinaloa (p. 245) 
ff. Bill more slender (depth at base less than 10.16); pileum less exten- 
sively chestnut (this mostly confined to anterior portions) ; coloration 
in general paler, above grayer, with differently colored areas less 
strongly contrasted. (Northwestern Mexico.) 

Aimophila mcleodii (p. 246) 
e. Smaller (wing less than 71.12, tarsus less than 22.86). 
/. General aspect above rufescent, or at least with very broad streaks of 
chestnut-browTi or rusty on back. 
g. Smaller (wing averaging less than 60.96, tail averaging less than 
63.50). 
h. Coloration duller, with white of orbital ring, etc., duller; bill more 
slender. (California.) Aimophila ruflceps raflceps (p. 246) 



BIEDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEEICA. 235 

i. Coloration clearer, with white of orbital ring, etc., purer; bill 
thicker. (Southern portion of Lower California.) 

Aimophila ruficeps sororia (p. 248) 

gg. Larger (wing averaging more than 60.96, tail averaging more than 

63.50). 

h. Larger (wing averaging 66.04, tail averaging 69.34); coloration 

paler, with more gray above. (Arizona to western Texas, 

Chihuahua and Sonora. ) Aimophila ruficeps scottii (p. 24S ) 

h. Smaller (wing averaging not more than 63.50, tail averaging less 
than 66.04); coloration darker, with less gray above, 
i. Paler, more rusty. (State of Oaxaca, southern Mexico.) 

Aimophila ruficeps australis (p. 250) 

a. Darker, more fuscous. (States of Guerrero, Michoacan, and 

Jalisco, southwestern Mexico. ) . Aimophila ruficeps fusoa (p. 250) 

ff. General aspect of upper parts grayish, the back with narrow brown 

streaks, often with blackish shaft-lines. 

g. Darker (hair brown above) , with streaks on back much darker. 

(Southeastern portion of Mexican plateau.) 

Aimophila ruficeps boucardi (p. 252) 
gg. Paler (ash gray above) , with streaks on back paler. (Texas, Nuevo 

Leon, Tamaulipas, etc.) Aimopliila ruficeps eremoeca (p. 251) 

dd. Pileum brown or chestnut, streaked with grayish or dull buffy; edge of 
wing pale yellow. 
e. Scapulars and interscapulars with subterminal transverse spots, blotches, 
or bars of blackish, but without mesial streaks of the same; outer webs 
of secondaries and proximal greater coverts pale grayish brown or 
drab. (Texasto Kansas, Arizona, and Sonora. ) . Aimopliila cassinii (p. 253) 
ee. Scapulars and interscapulars streaked, but not subterminally spotted or 
barred, with blackish; outer webs of secondaries and proximal greater 
coverts more or less ruf escent. 
/. Outermost (ninth) primary longer than third; coloration paler. 
g. Wing averaging less than 60.96, tail averaging less than 64.77, tarsus 
averaging less than 20.32; chestnut-brown or rusty postocular streak 
very distinct. 
h. Grayer above, with the chestnut streaks darker, the back always 
and pileum usually streaked with black; chest, etc. , more grayish. 
(Lower Georgia to Florida. ) 

Aimophila aestivalis eestivalis (p. 254) 

hh. More rusty above, with chestnut streaks lighter, more rufescent, 

only the back and scapulars with black streaks, these narrower, 

sometimes wanting; chest, etc., more buffy. (South Carolina 

to Virginia, Indiana, Illinois, Texas, etc. ) 

Aimophila aestivalis bachmauii (p. 256) 
gg. Wing averaging more than 63.50, tail averaging more than 66.04, 
tarsus averaging more than 20.32, or else plumage very dark 
above, with black or dusky prevailing; brown or dusky postocular 
streak indistinct. (Southern Mexico to southern Texas and Ari- 
zona.) Aimophila botterii botterii (p. 257) 

ff. Outermost (ninth) primary not longer than third; coloration darker 
(otherwise like A. b. botterii, but much smaller). 
g. Larger (adult female with wing 56.64-59.69, tail 54.10-57.91); wing- 
coverts less brown. (East slope of Vera Cruz to Chiapas; northern 

Nicaragua?) Aimophila botterii sartorii (p. 259) 

gg. Smaller (adult female with wing 55.88, tail .53.34); wing-coverts more 
brown. (Northeastern Guatemala. ) 

Aimophila botterii petenica (p. 260) 



236 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

AIMOPHILA QUINQUESTRIATA (Sclater) . 
FIVE-STRIPED SPARROW. 

Adults {sexes alihe). — Above plain purplish grayish brown, inclining 
to chocolate on back, the rump and upper tail-coverts more graj'ish; 
superciliary streak, malar streak, stripe down middle of chin and upper 
throat, and abdomen white; broad stripe on each side of chin and 
throat, and spot in middle of fchest, black; rest of under parts plain 
dull slate-gray, the under tail-coverts broadly margined with white; 
maxilla black, mandible light bluish; legs and feet light horn brownish, 
the toes rather darker. 

J.(?wfo-//?.rtZ('.— Length (skins), 133.34-140.96 (135.88);' wing, 64.77- 
73.66 (71.37);' tail, 66.55-72.39(68.38);' exposed culmen, 11.43-12.70 
(12.19);' depth of bill at base, 6.86-7.11 (6.93);^ tarsus, 19.56-20.83. 
(20.32);' middle toe, 13.97-15.24 (14.73).' 

Arhdt female. — Length (skin, one specimen), 144.78; wing, 64.01- 
71.12 (67.06); tail, 61.72-72.90 (66.55); exposed culmen, 11.43-12.45 
(11.94); depth of bill at base (one specimen), 6.86; tarsus, 19.05-21.08 
(20.32); middle toe, 13.46-15.24 (14.73)." ' 

Northwestern portion Mexican plateau, in States of Sonora (Alamos; 
Camoa; Oposura), Chihuahua (near Batopilas; Hacienda de San Rafael), 
Durango, and Jalisco (Bolanos; Mesquitic). 

Zonotrichia quinquestririta Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, 
323 (Mexico; coll. P. L. Sclater) .—Ridgway, Ibis., 1883, 400 (crit.).— Salvin 
and GoDMAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, pi. 27, fig. 2. 

[Zonotrichia'] quinquestriata Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 94, no. 7386. — Sclater and 
Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 31. 

Amplmpiza quinquestriata Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., i, 1886, 368. — 
Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 632. 

AIMOPHILA MYSTACALIS (Hartlaub). 
BRIDLES SPARROW, 

About the size of A. hinueralls, but wing, tail, and tarsus averaging 
longer and bill smaller; lesser wing-coverts blackish or dusky and 
rump plain rustj^ or cinnamon-rufous. 

Adults {sexes aliA'e). — Pileum and hindneck grayish, streaked with 
dusky; sides of head dull brownish gray or dusk}-, relieved \>y a white 
supraloral stripe and a white malar stripe; upper throat black,, some- 
times intermixed with white along the median line, the chin usuallj' 
white; lower throat and chest light olive-gray or dull ash graj^; sides, 
flanks, and under tail-coverts cinnamon-buff; breast and abdomen dull 
white; back and scapulars brown, streaked with black; rump plain 

1 Four specimens. ^Sixteen specimens. ' Eleven specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 237 

cinnamon-rufous or rusty; tail dusky, witli lighter edgings; wings 
dull black or dusky, with more or less distinct lighter edgings, the 
middle and greater coverts tipped with white, forming two bands; 
maxilla black, mandible light colored (pale grayish blue in life) ; iris 
brown; legs and feet light colored (pale flesh-colored in life). 

Young. — Throat blackish laterally, broadly dull whitisli, flecked 
with dusky, medially; chest dull whitish, streaked with dusky; pileum 
and hindneck light grayish brown streaked with dusky; white supra- 
loral spot, malai- stripe, and wing-bands more or less yellowish or 
bufify; otherwise essentially like adults. 

Adult ma^.^.— Length (skins), 149.86-160.02 (163.67); wing, 65.28- 
72.39 (70.10); tail, 74.17-82.55 (78.74); exposed culmen, 10.92-13.46 
(12.70); tarsus, 21.34-22.86 (21.84); middle toe, 14.73-16.51 (15.24).' 

Achdt female.— LiQx\gth (skins), 142.24-152.40 (146.56); wing, 64.01- 
68.07 (65.79); tail, 73.66-80.77 (76.20); exposed culmen, 11.43-12.96 
(12.19); tarsus, 21.59-22.35 (21.59); middle toe, 14.73-15.75 (15.49).' 

Southern extremity of Mexican plateau, in States of Vera Cruz (Ori- 
zaba), Puebla (Rio Frio, Tehuacan, Atlixco, Chietia, etc.), and Oaxaca 
(San Carlos;' Mitla; Oaxaca; Cuicatlan). 

Zonotrichia mystacalis Haetlaub, Rev. ZooL, 1853, 2 (Rio Frio, Puebla, and City 

of Mexico; Bremen and Hamburg museums). — Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

Lond., 1856, 305 (a. Mexico); 1859, 379 (Orizaba, Vera Cruz); Cat. Am. Birds, 

1862, 113 (Mexico).— Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 4, 1876, 21 

(Tehuacan, Puebla). 
[^Zonotrichia] mysiacalis Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 94, no. 7385. — Sclater and 

Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 81. 
P.loospiza} mystacalis Bidgway, in Baird, Brewer, and Bidgway's Hist. N. Am. 

Birds, i, 1874, 589. 
Amphispiza mystacalis Bidgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 143. — Fehraki- 

Pekez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 143 (Chietia, Puebla). 
A-lmphispiza} mystacalis Bidgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 426. ' 

Hxmophila mystacalis Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, sig. 50, 

Aug., 1886, 398 (Tehuacan, Puebla; Oaxaca). — Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. 

Mus., xii, 1888, 728 ("San Juan del Rio, Mexico;" Puebla; Oaxaca). 

AIMOPHILA HUMERALIS Cabanis. 
FERRARI-PEREZ'S SPARROW. 

Adults {sexes alike). ^ — Head and neck (except chin and throat) dusky 
(becoming or approaching black anteriorly), relieved b}- a supraloral 
spot and a malar stripe of white; a narrow stripe on each side of throat 
and a broad band across chest black; rest of under parts chieflj^ white, 

' Fourteen specimens. 

^ Six specimens. 
„ .IFemalea may possibly average slightly duller in color than males, but if the speci- 
mens examined are correctly sexed there is decidedly no constant difference in this 
respect. 



238 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATE8 NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

the flanks and under tail-coverts pale grayish brown or light buffy 
brown; backand scapulars mostly cinnamon-rufous or chestnut, more or 
less streaked with black; rump and upper tail-coverts light grayish 
brown, the latter more or less margined terminally with paler; tail 
dusky, with grayish brown edgings; lesser wing-coverts cinnamon- 
rufous; middle coverts black, edged with fulvous and tipped with 
white, forming a narrow band; greater coverts similar, but fulvous 
edgings broader and whitish tips narrower; remiges dusky, the ter- 
tials more or less edged with fulvous and primaries narrowly edged 
terminally with pale gray; maxilla black; mandible light colored; iris 
brown; legs and feet horn brownish. 

Adult male.— h&ngth (skins), 142.2i-160.02 (151.89); wing, 65.28- 
70.10 (66.80); tail, 69.85-81.79 (76.96); exposed culmen, 12.45-13.46 
(12.95); tarsus, 19.05-22.10 (20.57); middle toe 14.48-15.24 (14.99).' 

Adult female.— Length (skins), 140.97-160.02 (149.61); wing, 58.42- 
66.04 (62.23); tail, 66.55-76.20 (71,12); exposed culmen, 12.45-13.21 
(12.95); tarsus, 20.07-20.57 (20.32); middle toe, 13.97-16.51 (14.99)." 

Southern portion of Mexican plateau, in States of Puebla (Chietla), 
Morelos (Cuernavaca; Yautepec) and Guerrero (Tlapa; Tlakisala). 

H.\_cemophila\ humeralis Cabanis, Mus. Hein., i, Apr., 1851, 132 (Mexico; Heine 

Mus. ; ex Fringilla humeralis Lichtenstein, manuscript). 
IHiemophila] humeralis Sci.at'er and Salvin, Nom. Neotr., 1873, 33. 
Hiemophila humeraUs Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 359 (Mexico). — Salvin and 

GoDMAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 398, pi. .29, fig. 1.— Shaepe, Cat. 

B. Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 727. 
{^Aimophila'] tomfraKs Lichtenstein, Nom. Av. Mus. Berol., 1854, 43. 
[^^knbemagra] humeralis Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 91, no. 7347. 
A. [mphispiza'] humeralis Ridgway, Man. N. Am. B., 1887, 426. 
Amphispizaferrai-iperez) Ridgway, Auk, iii, July, 1886, 332 (Chietla, Puebla; coll. 

Nat. Mus. Mexico) ; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 143. 



AIMOPHILA RUFICAUDA RUFICAUDA (Bonaparte). 
RTJSSET-TAILED GROUND SPARROW. 

AdnltH {sexes alike). —Head marked with four broad stripes of black 
or dusky, alternating with three narrow stripes of white or brownish 
white; back light brownish and rusty, bi'oadly streaked with black; 
tail cinnamon-brown; lesser wing-coverts and adjacent scapulars cinna- 
mon-rufous; under parts mainly white, passing into tawny-buff or clay 
color on flanks, etc. , the chest and sides of breast with feathers gray, 
edged and margined with white. 

Adidt male.— Liength (skins), 165.10-175.26 (] 70.18); wing, 71.63; 
tail, 79.25-83.31 (81.28); exposed cuhnen, 15,75; depth of bill at base, 
10.16; tarsus, 22.86; middle toe, 17.78-18.03 (17.90).' 

' Seven specimens. ^ Five specimens. "Two specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 239 

Adult female.— Length (skin), 162.56; wing, 66.55; tail, 72.90; ex- 
posed culinen, 14.73; tarsus, 22.86; middle toe, 17.27.' 
Guatemala to Costa Rica (Pacific side). 

Chondesies ruficauda Boxaparte, Compt. Rend., xxxvii, 1853, 918 (Nicaragua); 
Notes Orn. Coll. Delattre, 1854, 18. 

Hxmophila ruficauda Salvin and Sclater, Ibis, Oct., 1860, 398 (RioMontagua, 
Guatemala).— ScLATEE, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 118 (Chuacus, Guatemala).— 
Salvin, Ibis, 1870, 114(crit. nom.).— Zeledon, Oat. Aves de Costa Rica, 1882, 
9.— Nutting and RiDQw AY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vi, 1884, 383 (Sucuya, Nic- 
aragua).— Salvin and Godman, Biol. Oentr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 396, pi. 30, 
fig. 2 (Ohol, Chuacus, Montagua Valley, and Guastatoya to Gualan, Guate- 
mala; Acajutla, Salvador; Sucuyd, Nicaragua; Costa Rica). — Shabpb, Oat. 
Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 724.— Lantz, Trans. Kansas Ac. Sci., 1896-97 
(1899), 222 (Grenada, Nicaragua). 

[Hxmophila] ruficauda. Sclatee and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 33 (Guate- 
mala; Costa Rica). 

Ainiophila rufix:auda Zeledon, An. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 112 (Mexico) . 

[Calamospiza'] ruficauda Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 111, no. 7671 (Nicaragua). 

[Embemagra'] rufix:auda Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 91, no. 7345 (Guatemala). 

{f) Haemophila tolteca Mdller, Syst. Verz. Wirb. Mex. , 50. 

(.?) Haemophila toltec Mullee, Reise Mex., iii, 1865, 584. 

[Embemagra^ tolteca Geay, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 91, no. 7346. 



AIMOPHILA RUFICAUDA LA WRENCH (Salvin and Godman). 
lEHUANTEPEC GROUND SPARROW. 

Similar to A. r. ruficauda, but larger; black stripes of pileum usu- 
ally (?) more distinctly edged with brown, back more tinged with gray, 
and tail usually slightly less rufescent. 

^i^^itmaZe.— Length (skins), 175.26-190.50 (181.61); wing, 73.15- 
79.50 (76.20); tail, 88.90-93.98 (90.17); exposed culmen, 14.48-16.26 
(15.49); tarsus, 22.86-24.13(23.62); middle toe, 17.27-18.54(18.03).'' 

Adult female.— Li&ngth (skins), 172.72-187.96 (179.07); wing, 70.10- 
72.39(71.37); tail, 81.79-88.90 (85.60); exposed culmen, 14.99-16.51 
(15.49); tarsus, 23.37-24.13 (23.88); middle toe, 17.27-18.29 (17.78).' 

State of Oaxaca (Pacific side), southwestern Mexico (Juchitan; Santa 
Efigenia; Tehuantepec; Chimalapa; Huilo tepee). 

Hsemophila ruficauda (not Chondesies ruficauda 'Bonstparte) Lawrence, Bull. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., no. 4, 1876, 22 (Tehuantepec City, Santa Efigenia, and Juchitan, 

Oaxaca) . 
Hxmophila lawrencii Salvin and Godman, Biol. Oentr.-Am., Aves, i, sig. 50, Aug., 

1886, 897 (Juchitan, Oaxaca; coll. Salvin and Godman). — Shaepe, Oat. 

Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 723. 

^ One specimen. '' Five specimens. ^ Six specimens. 



240 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

AIMOPHILA ACUMINATA' Salvin and Godman. 
COLIMA GROUND SPARROW. 

Similar to A. rujicaiida lawrencii, but decidedly smaller; gray of 
chest and sides of breast replaced by white or but faintly indicated; 
tail less rufescent; head-stripes, usually, more uniformly and intensely 
black, and buff of posterior underparts paler. 

Adidt ;h.(^/c;.— Length (skins), 147.32-167.64 (160.27); wing, 63.50- 
70.61 (66.80); tail, 74.93-83.82 (78.49); exposed culmen, 12.70-14.99 
(13.46); depth of bill at base (one specimen), 8.89; tarsus, 21.59-24.89 
(23.11); middle toe, 15.49-17.78 (16.51).'= 

Adult f emaU.—h&ngth (skins), 149.86-163.83 (160.02); wing, 63.75- 
67.31 (64.77); tail, 74.93-79.25 (77.22); exposed culmen, 13.21-14.48 
(13.97); tarsus, 22.86-24.13 (23.11); middle toe, 15.49-17.27 (16.26).^ 

Southwestern Mexico, in States of Guerrero (Acapulco; Tierra Col- 
orado; Tlapa), Colima, Jalisco (Ameca; Etzatlan; San Sebastian), from 
near the Pacific coast to well within the interior plateau region in States 
of Morelos (Cuernavaca; Yautepec), Puebla (Chietla), and Durango 
(Huasamota). 

Zonotrichia melanotw (not Geospizopsis melanotic Bonaparte) Lawrence, Ann. Lye. 
N. Y., viii, May, 1867, 473 (Plains of Colima, =. w. Mexico; U. S. Nat. Mus.); 
Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1868 (1869), 430 (crit. ). 

H.\^semophila\ mefanotis Lawrence, Proc. jk;. Nat. Sci. Phila., 186i8 (1869), 430, in 
text. 

IHsemophila] melanotis Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 33. 

Hsemoplula melanotis Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883, 422 (Acapulco, Guer- 
rero). 

Aimophila melanotis Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H.,ii, 1874, 277 (Plains of 
Colima).— RiDGW AY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 145 (Chietla, Puebla; 
crit.). 

HsemopKila acuminata Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, sig. 50, 
Aug., 1886, 397 (ex Aimophila acuminata Lichtenstein, Nom. Av. Mus. Berol., 
1854, 43, =nomen nudum!; Yautepec, Morelos, s. Mexico; coll. P. L. Sclater. — 
Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 723. 

AIMOPHILA SUMICHRASTI Lawrence. 
STJMICHRAST'S SPARROW. 

Adidts {sexes alil'e). — Lesser wing -coverts cinnamon-rufous; upper 
tail-coverts and tail cinnamon; pileum with two broad lateral stripes 
of chestnut-brown, streaked with black, and a narrow median stripe of 
grayish; back and scapulars' light brown or grayish brown, broadly 
streaked with black; broad superciliary stripe (becoming white ante- 
riorly), auricular region, sides of neck, and sides of chest light gray, 

' Possibly a subspecies of .1. rujicauda. 
'^ Fourteen specimens. 
''Five specimens. 



BIEDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEKIOA. 241 

fading into paler gva,y on median portion of chest; suborbital orescent, 
anterior half of malar region, chin, upper throat, and abdomen white; 
abroad postocular streak of dark brown; a loral, a rictal, and a sub- 
malar streak of black; flanks grayish buff; femoral region and under 
tail-coverts clear buff; maxilla cinnamon-brown; mandible paler; legs 
and feet pale brownish. 

Adult /)i,ile.—L&ngth (skins), Vy2A0-l&2.56 (155.70); wing, HG.Oi- 
71.1:^ (68.83); tail, 66.04-71.88 (68.33); exposed culmen, 14.^2-14.99 
(14.73); depth of bill at base, 8.S;)-;).65 (9.14); tarsus, 20.32-21.59 
(21.08); middle toe, 14.99-16.51 (15.49).' 

Adult fei)ia/c.— Length (skins), 139.70-l(i0.02 (152.40); wing, 62.99- 
66.80 (64.52); tail, 63.50-69.85 (67.06); exposed culmen, 13.46-15.24 
(14.22); depth of bill at base, 7.ST-8.89 (8.38); tarsus, 20.07-21.84 
(20.83); middle toe, 12.95-14.99 (14.22).' 

Tierra caliente of Oaxaca, southern Mexico (Santo Domingo, Tehuan- 
tcpec, San Bartolo, Juchitan, Salina Cruz, etc.). 

SdEtnopltlla sumichrasti Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hiyt. N. Y., x, Feb., 1871, 
6 (Juchitan, Oaxaca, s. Jlexico; U. S. Nat. JIuk.); Bull. U. S. Nat. .Mus., 
no. 4, 1876, 22 (do.). — S.\lvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 
395.— Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 126. 

[Hxmophtla'] sumichrasti Sclater and Salvin, Noui. A v. Neotr., 1873, 33. 

AIMOPHILA CARPALIS (Coues). 
BENDIKE'S SPAKROW. 

Similar to A. su/nu'/trasfl but much smaller, grayer above, with 
back more narrowly streaked, and tail grayish brown instead of cinna- 
mon. 

Adults {sexes aliJcc). — Pileum streaked broadly with chestnut-rufous 
or rusty (sometimes nearly uniform rusty) and narrowly with grayish, 
the latter forming a more or less distinct median line; a broad super- 
ciliary stripe and sides of head generally light grayish, the latter 
relieved by a postocular streak of rusty and a rictal and a submalar 
streak of blackish; upper parts, including upper tail-covej:"ts and 
tail, brownish gray, or light grayish brown, the back and scapulars 
streaked with blackish; lesser wing-coverts cinnamon-rufous; under 
parts grayish white. 

Young. — Upper parts, including pileum, light grayish brown, broadly 
streaked with blackish; lesser wing-co\'erts dusky centrally, broadly 
margined with pale brownish buff; under parts whitish, the chest and 
sides streaked with dusky. 

Adidt male.— Length (skins), 127.00-135.89 (131.06); wing, 60.96- 
66.04 (63.25); tail, 63.50-68.07(65.28); exposed culmen, 10.16-10.67 

^ Seven specimens. 
17024—01 16 



242 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

(10.4-1); depth of bill. 6.-Si]-7.11 (7.11); tarsu.s, 18.29-1S.54 (18.29); 
middle top, 12.TU-1S.72 (13.21). ' 

Adaltfemal,:^\jQx^a^t\i (skins), 123.19-133.35 (130.05); wing, 59.44- 
63.50 (61.21); tail, 61.72-67.31 (65.53); expcsed culmen, 9.65-10.67 
(10.16); depth of bill at base, 6,35-7.11 (6.st)); tarsus, 18.29-19.81 
(18.80); middle toe, 13.21-13.72 (13.46).^ 

Southern Arizona (north to Tucson and Camp Lowell) and south- 
ward through Sonora (Alamos, Ortiz, Granados, etc.) to northern 
Sinaloa (Culiacan). 

Peucien carpnlix CouES, Amer. Nat., vii, Jane, 1873, 322 (Tucson, Arizona; U. S. 
Nat. Mus. ); Check List, 1873, no. 171 hh; 2d ed., 1882, no. 257.— Baird, 
Brewer, ami Ridgway, Hi:^t. X. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, pi. 46, fig. 8; jii, 1874, 
515.— Hen-shaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's 8urv., 1873 (1874), 159 (s. e. 
Arizona); Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 187.i, 291 (Camp Lowell, Arizona; 
habits, etc.). — Ridgway, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 229. — Bendirb, 
Orn. and 061., vii, 1882, 121 (habits; descr. nest and eggs). — Brewster, 
Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 195 (Tucson and Camp Lowell, Arizona) .— 
Stephens, Auk, ii, 1885, 228 (a. Arizona) . — Americax Ornithologists' 
"Union, Check List, 1886, no. 579.— Scott, Auk, iv, 1887, 203 (Santa Cata- 
linaMts., a. Arizona, 3,000-4,500 ft.).— Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 
1888, 715.— Allen, Bull. Am. Mu><. X. H., v, 1893, 39 (Granados, n. e. 
Sonora). 

P. [euctTa] rtirpalis CouES, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 375. — Ridgway, Man. 
N. Am. Birds, 1887, 430. 

Aimophila ciirpalix'RmGVi w , Auk, xvi, Jan., 1899, 81. — American Ornithologists' 
Union Committee, Auk, xvi, 1899, 119. 



AIMOPHILA NOTOSTICTA (Sclater and Salvin). 
OAXACA SPARROW. 

Very similar in coloration to ^ 1. rafe-'^cenii rufescens, but much smaller, 
and bill entirely black; broad lateral crown-stripes darker (van dyke 
brown instead of chestnut); black streaks oil back broader; tail hair 
brown instead of chestnut-brown, and wings verj^ much less rufescent. 

Adults (.s'rt/v« ah'h'). — Bill whollj' black; pileum chiefi}' vandyke 
brown; back grayish brown, broadly .streaked with black; wings mainly 
gra3'isli brown, the tertials inclining to chestnut-brown on edges; tail 
hair brown; sides of head and neck, including broad superciliaiy stripe 
(becoming white anteriorly), brownish gray, this passing into a more 
brownish hue on sides of breast; a distinct white orbital ring, sur- 
rounded by dusky; a broad postocular streak of dark brown; malar 
stripe, chin, throat, and abdomen dull buffy whitish; a blackish sub- 
malar streak. 

Adult male. — Length (skin), 160.02; wing, 69.85; tail, 80.01; exposed 
culmen, 12.45; depth of bill at base, 7.37; tarsus, 23.37; middle toe, 
17.27; graduation of tail, 15.24.'' 



^ Six specimens. ^ One specimen. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 243 

AdidtfemaJe.-L,ength (skins), 149.86-165.10 (157.48); wing, 62.23- 
71.12(66.55); tail, 71.13-83.82 (77.47); exposed culmen, 12.70-13.46 
(12.95); depth of bill at base, 6.86-7.37 (7.11); tarsus, 23.37-24. S9 
(24.13); middle toe, 16.26-16.51 (16.38); graduation of tail, 12.70-20.32 
(16.61).^ 

Southeastern extremity of Mexican plateau, in State of Oaxaca 
(Cerro San Felipe, Ejutla, etc.). 

Peitcxa TWtosticta Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1868, 322 (Oaxaca, 
s. e. Mexico; coll. SalvinandGodman). — Baihd, Brewer, andRiDGWAY, Hist. 
N.Am. Birda, ii, 1874, 38, footnote.— Ridg way. Ibis, 1883, 400 (crit.).— Sal- 
viN and GoDMAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 393, pi. 28, fig. 1. 

IPeuciea} notosiicia Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 32. 

P. leucsea] notosticta Ridqway, iNIan. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 430. 

\^Peucxa ruficeps.] Subsp. y. Peuciea notosticta Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 
1888, 715. 

\_Ammodramus\ notosticta Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 96, no. 7431. 

AIMOPHILA RUFESCENS RUFESCENS Swainson. 
RUSTY SPARROW. 

Similar to A. notosticta, but much larger, with relatively deeper bill 
and shorter tail; the former with mandible plumbeous or otherwise 
light-colored, the latter chestnut-brown instead of grayish brown; 
wings largely chestnut-brown. 

Adults (sexes alike). — .Pileum chestnut, divided by a more or less dis- 
tinct median stripe (rarely obsolete) of olive-grayish or dull buffy and 
streaked with black, at least posteriorly or along exterior margin; 
back and scapulars brown, more or less distinctlj'' streaked with black; 
wings brown, inclining to chestnut on secondaries and proximal greater 
coverts; -tail chestnut-brown or russet; sides of head, including a broad 
superciliary stripe (this whitish anteriorlj^) olive-grayish; a whitish 
orbital ring surrounded by dusky; a dusky postocular streak and a 
verj' distinct black submalar streak; malar region, chin, throat, and 
abdomen dull white or pale buffy; rest of under parts dull graj-ish 
buffy, becoming deeper and more brownish on sides and flanks. 

Young. — Pileum dusky, indistinctlj^ streaked with brown, and divided 
medially by a broken stripe of pale olive or grayish buffy streaks; 
under parts light dull j^ellow, the chest and sides of breast marked 

^ Two specimens, of which I suspect the larger to be wrongly sexed. Two other 
specimens, with sex undetermined, are probably males; if they are, and my surmise 
regarding determination of the sex of the larger alleged female be correct, the sexual 
difference of size would be about as follows: 

Four males: Length (two specimens), 160.02-165.10 (162.56); wing, 68.58-71.12 
(69.85); tail, 76.20-83.82 (80.26); exposed culmen, 11.94-13.46 (12.70); depth of biU 
at base, 6.86-7.62 (7.37); tarsus, 22.86-24.89 (23.88); middle toe, 15.75-17.27 (16.51); 
graduation of tail, 10.16-20.32 (14.22). 

One female: Length, 149.86; wing, 62.23; tail, 71.12; exposed culmen, 12.70; depth 
of bill at base, 6.86; tarsus, 23.37; middle toe, 16.26; graduation of tail, 12.70. 



244 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

with streaks or cuneate spots of blackish. Otherwise much like 
adults. 

Adult //iffZf. ^Length (skius), about 170.18-190.50 (177.04); wing, 
69.85-76.71 (73.66); tail, 67. 31-82. SO (76.20); exposed culmen, 16.00- 
17.27 (16.51); depth of bill at base, 10.41-12.45 (11.18); tarsus, 25.65- 
27.94 (26.42); middle, toe, 19.05-20.32 (19.56).' 

Adult femaL-.—\^vci^A\.'i%-rim (72.90); tail, 76.20-77.72 (77.22); 
exposed culmen. 15.24-16.00 (15.75); tarsus, 25.40-26.67 (26.16); mid- 
dle toe, 18.29-20.07 (19..30).' 

Southern Mexico, in States of Vera Cruz, Puebla, Mexico, San 
Luis Potosi, Guanajuato, Morelos, Oaxaca, and Chiapas, and southwai'd 
through highlands (pine region) of Guatemala, Salvador, and Honduras 
to the Segovia River. 

P'qj'do rafescens Swainson, Philos. Mag., n. a., i, 1827, 434 (Temascaltepec, Mexico). 

P.{;ipilo] rufescens Bon.\parte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 487. 

AimopJiUa rii/t'.srexs Swainsox, Anim. in Menag., IS.jS, 313. — Sujiichrast, Mem. 
Bost. Soc. X. H., i, 1869, 551 (temperate region. Vera Cruz). — Fekrari-Perez, 
Proo. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 145 (Jalapa, Vera Cruz). — Eidqway, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., X, 1887, 5S7 (Segovia R., Honduras; crit.) . — Stone, Proc. Ac 
Nat. Soi.Phila., 1890, 212 (Orizaba, Vera Cruz). —Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. 
N. H. , X, 1898, 29 (Jalapa, Vera Cruz; habits; song). 

A.limophiki] rufescmw Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 486. 

H.liiemophila] rufescens Cabanis, Mus. Hein., i, 1851, 132 (Mexico). 

Hiemophila ri-ifescens Scl.\ter, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1858,98 (s. Mexico); 1859, 
365 (Jalapa), 380 (Juquila and Villa Alta, Oaxaca); Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 118 
(Dueiias and Volcan de Fuego, Guatemala; Orizaba, Vera Cruz; Oaxaca). — 
Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 18.59, 18 (Guatemala); 1860, 34 (Duenas, Guate- 
mala). — DuGES, La Naturaleza, 1,1868,140 (Guanajuato). — Lawrence, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 4, 1876, 22 (Guichicovi, Tehuantepec). — Salvix and God- 
man, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 394, pi. 29, fig. 2 ( Quezaltenango, Carrizal, 
San Geronimo, and pine-ridge of Peten, Guatemala, etc. ) — Sharpe, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 725. — Lantz, Trans. Kansas Ac.Sci., 1896-97 (1899), 
222 (Coatepec, Vera Cruz). 

' Eleven specimens. 
^ Four specimens. 

Specimens from Mexico compare in average measurements with those from Guate- 
mala and Honduras, as follows: 



Locality. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Cul- 
men. 


Depth 
of bill 
at base. 


Tarsus. 


Middle 
toe. 


MALES. 


73.66 
71.63 
70.61 

72.90 


76.i;o 

75. LS 
73.15 

77. 22 


16.51 
16.00 
16.51 

15.75 
16.75 


11. IS 
10.92 
11. IS 


26.42 
25. 40 
25.15 

26.16 
24.13 


19.56 
18.54 
18.29 

19.80 
18.54 


Two adult males from Guatemala 


Four adult males from Honduras (Segovia R.) 

FEMALES. 

Four adult females from southern Mexico 











The specimens from Honduras are in much-worn plumage, and therefore the 
measurements of wing and tail are not satisfactory for comparison. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 245 

[Hsemophila] rufescena Sclatee and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 33. 
E.[mhemagra] rufeKceiis Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1849, 361. 
[Embernagra] rufescens Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 91, no. 7343. 
Embemagra pyrgitoides Lafresnaye, Rev. ZooL, 1839, 97 (Mexico). 
[Buarremon] pijrgitoides Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 484 (Mexico). 
Oeospizopsis mekiHotis Bonaparte, Compt. Rend., xlii, May, 1856, 955 (Mexico). — 

ScLATEE, Proo. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1856, 306 (Cordova, Vera Cruz). 
Aimophila rufescens discolor Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, sig. 37, Aug. 6, 1888, 

587, in text (Segovia R., Honduras; U. S. Nat. Mus. ). 



AIMOPHILA RUFESCENS PALLIDA Nelson and Palmer. 
ETZATLAN SPARROW. 

Similar to A. r. rufescens, but bill more slender, tarsi and toes shorter, 
and coloi'ation paler and much more uniform above and much less 
buffy beneath; the pileum paler chestnut, without anjr distinct median 
grayish stripe (usually without trace of the latter) and without any 
black lateral border or suffusion (except sometimes on anterior por- 
tion); no black stx'eaks on hindneck nor back (except, rarely, a few 
indistinct ones on the latter). 

Adult }nale.— Length, (skins), 165.10-177.80 (172.97); wing, 73.15- 
75.-M (74.17); tail, 73.15-77.47 (75.18); exposed culmen, 15.75-16.51 
(16.26); depth of bill at base, 10.16-10.41; tarsus, 23.37-25.40 (24.38); 
middle toe, 17.78-18.03 (17.90).^ 

Adult fentale.—hQngth (skins), 177.80-182.88 (180.34); wing, 68.68- 
71.12 (69.85); tail, 71.63-72.39 (72.01); exposed culmen, 15.24^15.75 
(15.49); depth of bill at base, 10.16-10.41 (10.28); tarsus, 23.11-23.62 
(23.37); middle toe, 17.78-18.03 (17.90).' 

Southwestern portion of Mexican plateau, in States of Michoacan 
(Uruapam), Jalisco (Etzatlan; Ameca; San Sebastian; Juanacatlan), 
and Sinaloa (Plomosas). 

Aimophila rufeseem paMida Nelson and Palmer, Auk, xi, no. 1, Jan., 1894, 43 
(Etzatlan, Jalisco, s. w. Mexico; U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

AIMOPHILA RUFESCENS SINALOA Ridgway. 
SINALOA SPARROW. 

Similar to A. 7\ pallida, but wing and tail longer, bill shorter and 
relatively deeper, toes shorter, and coloration paler and grayer above 
and at the same time more butfy beneath; sides of head paler gray, 
and brown postocular streak narrower. 

Aduli male. — Length (skin), 177.80; wing, 77.47; tail, 83.82; exposed 
culmen, 14.73; depth of bill at base, 10.16; tarsus, 24.89; middle toe, 
16.51.= 

' Four specimens. " Two specimens. '' One specimen, the type. 



246 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Coast district of southern Sinaloa (Tatemalis).' 

Aimnpliila rufescens sinaloa Ridgway, Auk, xvi, July, 1899, 254 (Tatemalis, Sina- 
loa; coll. Oallfornia Acad. Sci. ). 

AIMOPHILA MCLEODII^ Brewster. 
McLEOD'S SPARROW, 

In general appearance and size resembling A. rufescens pallida, but 
bill decidedly smaller and relatively more slender, feet smaller, upper 
parts much grayer, pileum less extensively chestnut, and brown post- 
ocular streak much narrower. 

Adult male.— L,ength (skins), 161.29-185.42 (173.23);' wing, 71.12- 
78.74 (75.18); tail, 71.12-78.74 (74.93); exposed culmen, 15.24-17.02 
(15.49); depth of bill at base, 9.65;^ tarsus, 22.35-23.62 (23.11); mid- 
dle toe, 16.51-17.78 (17.27).' 

Adidt female.— Length (skins),161.29-172.72 (166.62);' wing, 66.04- 
73.66 (70.36); tail, 69.85-76.96 (72.90); exposed culmen, 13.97-15.24 
(14.99); depth of bill at base, 8.89-9.91 (9.14);' tarsus, 22.61-24.38 
(23.37); middle toe, 16.00-17.78 (17.27).» 

Northwestern Mexico, in States of Sonora (Oposura; Bavispe Eiver; 
Puerto de los Pinitos; Alamos, etc.). Chihuahua (El Carmen; Jesus 
Maria; Mina Abundancia; Hacienda de San Rafael, etc.), and Durango 
(Chacala). 

AimopMla mdeodii Bkewstek, Auk, v, Jan., 1888, 92 (El Carmen, Chihuahua; 

coll. W. Brewster).— Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., v, 1893, 39 (Puerto de 

los Pinitor, n. e. Sonora\ 
• AimopMla cahooni Brewster, Auk, v, Jan., 1888, 93 (mountains near Oposura, 

Sonora; coll. W. Brewster). 
Peuciea megarliyncha Salvin and Godmax, Ibis, 6th ser., i, Apr., 1889, 238 (Santa 

Ana, Sonora, n. w. Mexico; coll. Salvin and Godman). 
Peucica notosticta (not of Sclater and Salvin) Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., v, 

1893, 39 (Bavispe K. and Guanopa, n. e. Sonora). 

AIMOPHILA RUFICEPS RUFICEPS (Cassin). 
RTJFOUS-CROWNED SPARROW. 

Adults {sexes alike). — Pileum clear chestnut, darker on the forehead, 
where sometimes blackish anteriorly, with a median whitish line at 
base of culmen, and usually with buffy grayish streaks along the mid- 
dle of crown and occiput, forming a slight indication of a median 

^ Tatemalis is said to be in the foothills, southeast from Mazatlan. The bird found 
at Plomosas, farther up in the mountains of the same district, is A. r. pallida; con- 
sequently it is reasonable to suppose that the present form is a lowland bird, extend- 
ing from the foothills toward the coast. 

^ Possibly a subspecies of A. rufescens. 

' Two specimens. 

* Wing, tail, culmen, tarsus, and middle toe, sixteen specimens. 
^ Four specimens. 

• Wing, tail, culmen, tarsus, and middle toe, fourteen specimens. 



BIKDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEKICA. 247 

stripe; back and scapulars buffy grayish brown, broadl}' streaked with 
chestnut, but without distinct (if any) dusky shaft-sti'eaks; tail light 
cinnamon-brown or deep wood brown; sides of head and neck and most 
of under parts pale buffy hair brown or pale broccoli brown , the chin, 
throat, supraloral line, narrow orbital ring, malar stripe, and abdomen 
paler, but not approaching white; a chestnut postocular streak and a 
distinct black submalar streak. 

Young. — Much like adults, but pileum dull bi"own,obsoletely streaked 
with darker; back more narrowly streaked with darker brown; chest 
narrowly streaked with dusky brown, and submalar streak indistinct 
or obsolete. 

Adtdf male.— Ijength (skins), 127.00-140.97 (136.65); wing, 55.88- 
60.96 (59.18); tail, 57.15-67.31 (63.60); exposed' culmen, 10.41-12.70 
(11.43); depth of bill at base, 5.08-6.35 (5.59); tarsus, 19.05-20.57 
(20.07); middle toe, 13.97-15.24(14.99).' 

Adult female.— Ijength (skins), 127.00-132.08 (130.05); wing, 55.37- 
58.42 (57.40); tail, 58.93-66.04 (62.48); exposed culmen, 10.92-12.70 
(11.94); depth of bill at base, 5.08-5.84 (5.33); tarsus, 19.05-20.32 
(20.07); middle toe, 13.97-15.24 (14.48).' 

California and northern Lower California; north to Marin County, 
Calaveras County, Sacramento County (Cosumnes River), etc. ; south 
to San Pedro Martir Mountains (foothills); Santa Catalina Island, Santa 
Barbara group. 

Ammodromus ruficeps Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., vi, Oct., 1852, 184 (Cosum- 
nes R. or Calaveras R.,' centr. California; coll. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. ) ; Illustr. 
Birds CaL, Tex., etc., 18.54, 135, pi. 20. — Heermann, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 2d ser., ii, 18.52, 266 (Calaveras R. ) . 

Ammodramus ruficeps Heermann, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. iv, 1859, 49 
(Cosumnes R. and Calaveras R., Cal. ). 

[Ammodramus'] ruficeps Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 96, no. 7429. 

Peucaea ruficeps Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 486, 925 (Calaveras R., 
Fort Tejon, and San Francisco, California); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 372. 

Peuca'a ruficeps Xantus, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 192 (Fort Tejon). — 
Cooper, Cm. Cal., 1870, 218, part (Cosumnes R. ; San Francisco; Santa Cata- 
lina I.); Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 1870, 78 (Santa Catalina I.) . — Coues, Check 
List, 1873, no. 171; 2d ed., 1882, no. 255. — B.aird, Brewer, and Ridgway, 
Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 45, pi. 28, fig. 6.— Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1,1878,418 (Murphy's, Calaveras Co.,1 spec. Dec. 13). — Brewster, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, ii, 1877, 37 (Marin Co.; descr. nest and eggs); iv, 1879, 40 
(descr. young); 47 (Marin Co.; habits and distribution). — Belding, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 418 (Murphy's, Calaveras Co., Dec.).— Ridgway, 
Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 230.— Senneti-, Auk, v, 1888, 41 (crit. ).— Amer- 
ican Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 580, part. — Evermann, 
Auk, iii, 1886, 182 (Ventura Co.).— Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 

'Eleven specimens. 
' Six specimens. 

'Although the locality is given as simply "California," the species was based upon 
specimens collected by Dr. A. L. Heermann at one of the two places mentioned above. 



248 BULLETIN 50, TJNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

712 (Nicasio, Marin Co.) .—Anthony, Zoe, iv, 1893, 242 (base of San Pedro 
Martir Mts., n. Lower California). — Fisher, North Am. Fauna, no. 7, 1893, 
98 {s. fork Kern E.; near San Bernardino, etc.).— Grinnell, Pasadena 
Acad. Sci., Pub. ii, 1898, 39 (Los Angeles Co., foothills, resid.). 

Peucea ruficeps Cooper, Proc. Cal. Ac. Sci., 1870, 71 (Tulare Valley). 

[Pmciea'i ruficeps Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 140. 

[Peuciea ruficeps] var. ruficeps Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, 
ii, 1874, 38. 

P.[eucxa] ruficeps Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 374, part.— Ridgway, 
Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 429, part. 

AimopUla ruficeps Ridgway, Auk, xvi, Jan., 1899, 81.— American Ornitholo- 
gists' ITkion Committee, Auk, xvi, 1899, 120. 

AIMOPHILA RUFICEPS SORORIA Ridgway. 
LAGTINA SPARROW. 

Similar to A. r. rvficejyft in coloration of upper parts, but chestnut 
of pileum somewhat lighter or clearer, supraloral line whiter, and 
supra-auricular stripe lighter and grayer; smaller than ^4. /■. scottii, 
with back, etc. , less ashy, with chestnut streaks darker and much nar- 
rower, and the under parts much more strongly tinged with buff; 
differing from all the other northern forms of the species in much 
thicker and relatively shorter bill. Wing, 55.88-62.99 (60.20); tail, 
60.96-65.53 (63.25); exposed culmen, 11.43; depth of bill at base, 
6.35-6.86 (6.60); tarsus, 20.32-20.57 (20.32); middle toe, 13.9T-15.24 
(14.73).' 

Southern portion of Lower California, in mountains (Laguna; Vic- 
toria Mountains). 

Peucsea ruficeps boucardi (not Zonotrichica boucardi Sclater) Belding, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., vi, 1883, 348 (Victoria Mts., Lower California, above 2,500 ft.). 

P.\eucsea] ruficeps boucardi Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, part (Lower 
California). 

Peucaea ruficeps (not Ammodromus ruficeps Cassin) American Ornithologists' 
Union, Check List, 1886, no. 580, part ("Cape St. Lucas") . 

Aimophila ruficeps sororia Ridgway, Auk, xv, July, 1898 (pub. May 14, 1898), 226 
(Victoria Mts., Lower California; U. S. Nat. Mus.). — Ajieric^n Ornitholo- 
gists' Union Committee, Auk, xvi, 1899, 120. 

AIMOPHILA RUFICEPS SCOTTII (Sennett). 
SCOTT'S SPARROW. 

Similar to A. r. sororia but larger, with more slender bill, the back 
more broadly streaked with chestnut-brown, rump and edgings of 
scapulars and interscapulars much grayer, and under parts less strongly 
suffused with buff. 

AdMlt male.— liength (skins), 134.62-154.94 (143.51); wings, 63.50- 
70.36 (66.04); tail, 66.04-74.17 (70.87); exposed culmen, 11.43-13.97 

^ Three specimens, only one of them with sex determined. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 249 

(12.70); depth of bill at base, 5.84-7.11 (6.35); tarsus, 19.81-22.10 
(21.08); middle toe, 13.'.t7-15.75 (14.99).' 

Adult female.— L,ength (skins), 134.62-139.70 (137.41); wing, 60.20- 
64.01 (6i.98); tail, 63.50-67.82 (65.63); exposed culmen, 11.43-12.70 
(11.94); depth of bill at base, 5.59-6.35 (6.10); tarsus, 19.sl-20.57 
(20.32); middle toe, 13.97-15.49 (14. TS).^ 

Northwestern portion of Mexican plateau, in States of Chihuahua 
(Casas Grandes), Sonora, and Durango (Ciudad Durango, July), and 
adjacent portions of Arizona, New Mexico, and western Texas (El 
Paso Countj^).^ 

Peuaca ruficeps . . . var. boucardi (not Zonotrichin hmicardi Sclater) Hbnshaw, 
Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1874, 118 (Gila E., Camp Grant, etc., 
Arizona; Bayard, New Mexico) ; Zool. Exp. ^X. 100th Merid., 1875, 289 (do. ; 
habits, etc. ) . 

Peucsea riificejis hoiiciirdi Allen, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, Apr., 1880, 89 (s. Arizona 
and s. New Mexico) ; Auk, iv, 1887, 203 (crit. ) ; Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., >■, 1893, 

39 (BavispeR., n. e. Sonora). — Ridgway, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no.230a. — 
CouES, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 256.— Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 
vii, 1882, 196 (Santa Rita Mts., etc., s. Arizona; Fort Bayard, New ilexico; 

■ habits, measurements, etc.). — Scott, Auk, ii, 1885, .354 .(Pima Co., Arizona, 
in pine belt); iii, 1886, 83 (Santa Catahna Mts., Arizona, 4,000-10,000 ft.; 
breeding habits; descr. nest and eggs); iv, 1887, 203 (Santa Catalina ilts., 
Arizona, resident; song, etc.). — American Ornithologists' Union, Check 
List, 1886, no. 580a., part.— (?) Cooke, Bird Jligr. Jliss. ^'al., 1888, 207 (Colo- 
rado, Mitchell Co., Texas, May). — Merriam, North Am. Fauna, no. 3, 1890, 

40 (Grand Canon, alt. 4,000 ft. upward).— Anthony, Auk, ix, 1892, 366 
(Apache, etc., s. w. Ncav Mexico). 

P.[euciea} r.lvfieeps] boucardi Coves, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 375. 

P. [euciea] ruficepa boucardi Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 429, part (Arizona; 

New Mexico; w. Texas) . 
Peucsea boucardi Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 391, part 

(Arizona). 
\_Peucsea ruficeps.] Subsp. /S. Peucxa boucardi %ua^'pe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 

1886, 714, part (Catalina Mill, Arizona). 
Peucsea ruficeps scottii Sennett, Auk, v, Jan., 1888, 41,42 (Pinal Co., S.Arizona; 

coll. G. B. Sennett and coll. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.).— Chapman, Auk, v, 1888, 

398. 
Aimophila ruficeps scottii Ridgway, Auk, xvi, Jan., 1899, 81. — American Orni- 
thologists' LTnion Committee, Auk, xvi, 1899, 120. 
[Peucsea ruficeps.] Subsp. a. Peucsea hoviochlamys Sharps, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 

xii, 1888, 713 (no type nor type locality designated; Santa Rita and Catalina 

Mts., Arizona). 

' Sixteen specimens. 
^ Six specimens. 

' Specimens from Presidio and Mitchell counties, Texas, are intermediate between 
this form and A. r. eremceca. 



250 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

AIMOPHILA RUFICEPS AUSTRALIS (Nelson). 
OAXAOA SPAEROW. 

Very similar in coloration to A. r. Ncottii, but decidedly smaller and 
with shorter and thicker bill. 

Adult mah'.—hangih (skins), 139.70-144.78 (142.24); wing, 63.60- 
64.01 (63.76); tail, 66.55-68.58 (67.66); exposed culmen, 11.43-12.70 
(11.94); depth of bill at base, 6.86; tarsus, 20.32; middle toe. 15.24.' 

.ir/;/./^/^;««Zc'.— Length (skins), 134.62-138.43 (136.40); wing, 59.69; 
tail, 60.4.5-64.77 (62.48); exposed culmen, 11.43-13.97 (12.70); depth 
of bill at base, 6.35-7.11 (6.73); tarsus, 20.57-20.83 (20.70); middle toe, 
14.48-16.24 (14.66).' 

Southern extremity of Mexican plateau (up to 6,000 or 7,000 feet in 
mountains) in State of Oaxaca (city of Oaxaca, near Totolapa). 

Petccsea ruficeps {not Ammodromus riificeps Cassin) Sclatee, Proc. Zool. Soe. Lond., 

1859, 380 (Oaxaca). 
{Peuacal houcardi (not Zonotricliia houcardi Sclater) Sclater and Salvin, Nom. 

Av.Neotr., 1873, 82, part. 
Peucsea houcardi Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 391, part 

(Oaxaca). 
{Peuciea mficeps] var. houcardi Ridgway, in Baird, Brewer, and Eidgway's Hist. 

N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 38, part (Oaxaca; not description). 
Peuaca ruficeps houcardi American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 

580a, part. 
P. [eucxa] ruficeps houcardi Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 429, part (Oaxaca). 
Feucita ruficeps australis Nelson, Auk, xiv, Jan., 1897, 63 (City of Oaxaca; U.S. 

Nat, Mus.). 

AIMOPHILA RUFICEPS FUSCA (Nelson). 
ETZATLAN SPARROW. 

Similar to A. r. australis but decidedly darker, the general aspect of 
upper parts being, in summer plumage, nearly uniform dark rusty 
brown, with the pileum uniform deep chestnut; in winter plumage 
the back and scapulars more broadly streaked with chestnut-brown or 
Vandyke brown on a moi'e olivaceous ground color. 

Adult male.— 'Length, i&kms), 134.62-143.51 (138.18); wing, 61.47- 
66.04 (64.26); tail, 64.26-68.07 (66.29); exposed culmen, 11.18-13.21 
(11.68); depth of bill at base, 6.60-7.37 (6.86); tarsus, 19.81-22.36 
(20.83); middle toe, 13.97-15.49 (14.73).' 

Advlt f&nale.— Length, (skins), 132.08-142.24 (138.18); wing, 58.42- 
64.77 (61.72); tail, 60.96-66.04 (63.25); exposed culmen, 10.41-12.45 
(11.68); depth of bill at base, 6.35-7.11 (6.86); tarsus, 19.81-22.10 
(20.83); middle toe, 13.97-15.24 (14.99).' 



'Two specimens. ^ Seven specimens. " Six specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 251 

Southwestern border of ^lexican platoau, in States of Jalisco (Etzat- 
lan; San Sebastian; Jaeala; Mesquitic; Bolafios), Michoacan (Queren- 
daro), and Zaoatecas (El Conejo; Monte Escobedo). 

Pniaiii ruficcps ftisca Nel«on, Auk, xiv, Jan., 1897, 02 (EtzatUui, Jalisco, .':. w. 
Mexico; U. S. Nat. Mu^. ). 



AIMOPHILA RUFICEPS EREMCECA (Brown). 
KOOK SPAEROW, 

About the same size as A. r. scottil, but wing averaging longer, 
tarsus shorter, bill stouter, and coloration much grayer above and paler 
below; the back and scapulars smoke gray or olive-gray (sometimes 
almost ash gray) narrowlj' streaked with brown, these streaks often 
inclosing more or less distinct shaft-lines of black or dusky; chin, 
throat, and abdomen almost white (often quite so in summer plumage). 

Adulf male.— Ijength (skins), 137.16-152.40 (144.27); wing, 65.53- 
68.58 (67.06); tail, 66.04-71.12 (68.32); exposed culmen, 11.68-12.95 
(12.45); depth of bill at base, 6.35-7.11 {6.S6); tarsus, 19.30-20.83 
(20.07); middle toe, 15.21-15.75 (15.49).' 

Adult feJ7iah.~L,ength (skins), 138.43-149.86 (144.02); wing, 61.21- 
65.28 (63.25); tail, 62.23-72.39 (66.80); exposed culmen, 11.43-12.95 
(12.19); depth of bill at base (one specimen), 6.60; tarsus, 19.05-20.57 
(19.81); middle toe, 14.99-15.75 (15.49).' 

Limestone hill districts of middle Texas, from Kinney and Maverick 
counties, on the Rio Grande, northeastward to Cook Countj^ and west- 
ward at least to Tom Green County;' south in winter to Puebla 
(Chachapa)* and Vera Cruz (Maltrata, March), eastern Mexico. 

Peucsea ruficeps (not Armnodromus ruficeps Cassin) Allen, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 
iii, 1878, 188 (Gillespie Co., Texas). 

Pe.ucaea ruficeps eremeeca Beown, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, Jan., 1882, 26, 38 
(Kendall Co., Texas; coll. N. C. Brown). — Ragsdale, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 
vii, 1882, 122 (Gillespie Co., Texas); Auk, ix, 1892, 73 (chaparral belt. Cook 
Co., Texas, May, Dec.).— Ridgway, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 258.— 
Ameeican Oenithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 580b. — Cooke, Bird 
Migr. Miss. Yal., 1888, 207 (Gillespie Co., etc., Texas).— Attwatee, Auk, 
ix, 1892, 338 (San Antonio, Texas, summer resid.). 

P. [euciea] ruficeps eremceca Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 429. 

Pcacaeof ruficeps eremoeca Reichenow and Schaloiv, Journ. fiir. Orn., 1884,407. 

Aimophila ruficeps eremoeca Ridgway, Auk, xvi, Jan., 1899, 81. — Ameeicax Oeni- 
thologists' Union Committee, Auk, xvi, 1899, 120. 

' Seven specimens. 

' Six specimens. 

' Some specimens from Presidio and Mitchell counties may be referable to this 
form, but those examined by me, as nearly as can be determined from their worn 
breeding plumage, seem to be intermediate between the present bird and .1. r. scottii. 

'Specimen in Salvin-Godman collection, collected Jan. 17, 1889, by 'Prof. F. 
Ferrari-Perez. 



252 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Peucsea houcardi (not Zonotrichin houciirdi Sclater) Salvin and Godmax, Biol. 

Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1S8(>, 391, part (Texas). 
Peucra ruficeps boucai-di Sennett, Auk, v, Jan., 1888, 42, part (crit.; Kendall and 

Presidio counties, Texas). 
lPeucxar)ificq}S.} Subsp. /3. Peuani boacardi Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 

1888, 714, part (in synonymy). 



AIMOPHILA RUFICEPS BOUCARDI (Sclater). 
BOUOARD'S SPARROW. 

Similar to ^4. /■. e/vimvci/ but decidedljr darker, with the general 
color of back, etc., deep hair brown instead of smoke gray or ashy, 
dorsal streaks darker (dark bister or vandyke brown), chestnut of 
pileum darker, and underparts more strongly shaded with grayish on 
chest and sides. 

Adult male.— Length (skins), 137.16-1.54.94 (142.49); wing, 60.45- 
69.09 (64.01); tail, 62.23-74.93 (66.65); exposed culmen, 11.18-12.70 
(12.19); depth of bill at base (seven specimens), 6.35-6.86 (6.60); 
tarsus, 19.05-21.84 (20.32); middle toe, 14.73-16.00 (15.49).^ 

Adult fetm/le.— Length (skins). 146.05-152.40 (149.86); wing, 63.75- 
70.61 (67.56); tail, 70.61-74.93 (72.64); exposed culmen, 11.68-12.45 
(12.19); depth of bill at base, 6.86-7.37 (7.11); tarsus, 20.83-21.84 
(21.34); middle toe, 15.24.' 

Eastern portion of Mexican plateau, from southeastern Tamaulipas 
(Sierra Madre above Ciudad Victoria), San Luis Potosi (mountains 
near Jesus Maria; Villar), Coahuila (Carneros), Hidalgo (Tulancingo; 
Pachuca), and Vera Cruz (temperate region), to States of Tlaxcala, 
Puebla (Tochimulco), Mexico (Tlalpam), and Guererro (Tixtla). 

Ammodromus ? Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 214 (Orizaba, Vera 

Cruz). 
Zonoirichia houcardi Sclater, Proo. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 1, pi. 1 (La Puebla, 

Puebla, s. Mexico; coll. P. L. Sclater). 
[Ammodramus] houcardi Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 96, no. 7430. 
[PewcEd] houcardi Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 32. 
PmcjEa 6oucardi Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 391, part 

(Orizaba and temperate reg. Vera Cruz; La Puebla and Puente Colorado, 

Puebla). 
\_Peuceea ruficeps] var. houcardi Ridgway, in Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway's 

Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 38, part (excl. loc. Oaxaca). 
Peuaea ruficeps YSiT. houcardi Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat Mus., no. 4, 1876, 21, 

(Puente Colorado, Puebla). 
P.[euciea} ruficeps houcardi Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 429, part. 
Peuaea ruficeps houcardi Sennett, Auk, v, Jan., 1888, 42, part (Orizaba; Puebla; 

City of Mexico). 

' Twenty specimens. 

^ Three specimens. The apparently greater average size o£ the females is undoubt- 
edly owing to the great disparity of numbers of the two series measured, together 
with probable erroneous sexing of some specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 253 

[Peac-ea riificeps.] Subsp. /i. Peiu-va boucardi Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. }ilus., xii, 
1888, 714, part, excl. syn. Peiicxa rajkeps eri'inwca Brown (La Puebla; 
Orizaba) . 

Peiii-ivii ruficL'ps (not Aiiimodromus rujiceps Casain) Sumiciikast, Mem. Bost. Soc. 
N. H., i, 1869, 552 (temperate region Vera Cruz; Puente Colorado, Puebla). 



AIMOPHILA CASSINII (Woodhouse). 
CASSIN'S SPAKROW, 

Somewhat like A. (eatimlis and A. hottcri^ butniuch grayer above 
and paler and more uniform below, the back spotted or barred in.stead 
of streaked, the flanks usually distinctly streaked, and the median 
dark stripe of middle pair of rectrices with serrated edges. 

Adultii (se.vex alike). — Above light brown, broadly streaked with light 
gray, the pileum streaked also with black or dusky; scapulars and 
interscapulars marked with dusky subterminal spots or bars in a light 
brown held, the margins of the feathers light ash graj^; upper tail- 
coverts with roundish, cordate, or transverse subterminal spots of 
blackish, and margined terminally with pale grayish; middle rectrices 
light brownish gra}^ with a narrow, pointed median stripe of duskj^, 
this more or less irregular or serrated along edges, the points throwing 
off more or less distinct indications of darker bars across the gray on 
either side; edge of wing pale yellow; under parts with chest, sides, 
and flanks very pale brownish gray, the flanks sometimes distinctly 
(often broadly) streaked with brown or dusky; elsewhere beneath dull 
white (under tail-coverts sometimes pale buffy); sides of throat some- 
times marked with a dusky subnialar streak. 

Adult maZc^— Length (skins), 130.81-147.32 (139.45); wing, 59.69- 
67.31 (64.26); tail, 60.96-71.63 (67.06); exposed culmen, 10.16-11.68 
(10.92); depth of bill at base, 5.59-7.11 (6.10); tarsus, 18.64-20.57 
(19.56); middle toe, 13.97-16.00 (14.99).^ 

Adult female.— l^^wg'Co. (skins), 134.62-147.32 (141.99); wing, 60.96- 
64.26 (62.74); tail, 63.50-69.85 (66.29); exposed culmen, 10.16-11.94 
(10.92); depth of bill at base, 5.59-6.35 (5.84); tarsus, 18.29-20.57 
(19.30); middle toe, 14.48-15.24 (14.99)." 

Arid division of the Lower Austral Pi'ovince, chiefly within the 
United States; south into northern Tamaulipas (Guerrero) and \uevo 
Leon, and in northwestern Mexico as far as State of Sinaloa (Mazatlan, 
March, April); north to central and western Kansas (Fort Hays, etc.), 
and southern Nevada (Timpahute Valley); east to coast of Texas (Cor- 
pus Christi, etc.); west to Arizona. 

Zonotrichia cassinii Woodhouse, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., vi, Apr., 1852, 60 
(San Antonio, Texas; coll. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila.). — Baikd, in Stansbury's 
Rep. Gt. Salt Lake, 1852, 330 (Texas) . 

Passerculus cassinii Woodhouse, Bep. Sitgreaves' Expl. Zuni and Col. R., 1853, 
85, pi. 4 (near San Antonio, Texas). 



^ Twenty specimens. ' Five specimens. 



254 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Peucaea cassinil Baihd, Eep. Pacific R. E. Surv., ix, IS.iS, 458, part (San Antonio 
and Pecos R., Texas); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 371, part. — Heekmann, 
Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. iv, 1859, 12, pi. 4, fig. 2 (Comanche Spring, 
Texas) . 

Peucxa riissinii Sclateb, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 115 CMexico).— Cooper, Orn. 
Cal., 1870, 219 (Texas to Cnilf of California). 

Pi'uc:eii fiiKsini Debsser, Ibis, 1865, 489 (prairies near iledina R., Texas).— 
BiTCHER, Proc. Ac. Xat. Sci. Phila., 1868, 149 (Laredo, Texas, breeding).— 
RiDGWAY, Am. Nat., vii, 1873, 617, in text (crit.') ; Nom. X. Am. Birds, 1881, 
no. 228.— Sxoiv, Birds Kansas, 187.S, 7 (Fort Hays, w. Kansas) .—Coues, 
Check List, 1H73, App. no. 170 liis (p. 127) ; 2d ed., 1882, no. 254; Birds 
N. AV., 1874, 140. — Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 
1874, 42, pi. 2S, fig. 5.— Hexshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1873 
(1.S74), 159 ((iila R., Tucson, etc., Arizona, winter); Zool. Exp. W. 100th 
Merid., 1875, 287 (s. Arizona; habits; song); Auk, iii, 1886, 74 (upper Pecos 
R., New ilexico). — McCauley, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Ueog. Surv. Terr., iii, 
1877, 663 (Palo Duro R., n. Texas; habits; song).— Sexnett, Bull. U. S. 
Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 18 (Brownsville, Texas, Apr.). — Mer- 
EiLi,, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1878, 128 (Fort Brown, Texas; song, etc.; 
descr. nest and eggs). — Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 195 
(Sulphur Spring A'alley, Arizona, 1 spec. Apr. 4). — Neheling, Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 13 (Harris Co., Texas, resid.); Our Native Birds, etc., 
ii, 1896, 151.— Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 391 
(Mexico?). — Lloyd, Auk, iv, 1887, 292 (Tom Green and Concho counties, 
w. Texas, breeding; song, etc.). — Cooke, Bird JMigr. Miss. Val., 1888, 207 
(Texas localities; middle and w. Kansas). — Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xii, 1888, 712 ("Mexico," etc.).— Goss, Birds Kansas, 1891, 469 (w. and 
mid. Kansas, summer resid.). — Ragsdale, Auk, 1892, 73 (prairies of Cook 
Co., Texas) .—Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., v, 1893, 39 (Cochise Co., 
Arizona). — Fisher, North Am. Fauna, no. 7, 1893, 98 (Timpahute Valley, 
Nevada, May). 

[Pcuc.Ta] cassini Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 32. 

P.'[fMC,To] cassini Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 374. — Ridgway, Man. 
N. Am. Birds, 1887, 428. 

Peiicxa :vsticalis . . var. cassini Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 170a, part. 

Peucmi aestivalis, var. Cf/ssmii Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 137, 177 
(Fort Plays, middle Kansas, breeding) . 

[^Ainmodranms'] cassinil Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 96, no. 7428. 

PeuiXK [err. typ.] aestivalis (not FringWa aestivalis Lichtenstein) Allen, Am. 
Nat., vi, 1872, 271, in text (Fort Hays, w. Kansas). 

Peixcivn lestimVis Snow, Birds Kansas, 3d ed., 1875, 7 (Fort Hays). — (?) Singley, 
Rep. Geol. Surv. Tex., 1894, 372 (Corpus Christi). 



AIMOPHILA ^STIVALIS AESTIVALIS (Lichtenstein). 
PINE- WOODS SPARROW. 

Adults {sexes alilie). — Above gray, broadly streaked with chestnut- 
brown, the feathers of the back with blackish central spots; tail dusky 
with broad gray edgings, the middle pair of rectrice.s gray with a 
median stripe of dusky; edge of wing light yellow; sides of head 



BIRDS OF NOETH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 255 

(including superciliary stripe) and neck smoke gray or dull ash gray, 
the latter streaked with chestnut or dark chestnut-brown; a narrow 
chestnut or chestnut-brown postocular stripe; chin and throat very 
pale dull grayish, or buffy graj'ish white, deepening on chest, sides, 
and flanks into pale gra3dsh buffy, or buffy grayish, the flanks some- 
times streaked with brown; a dusk}" submalar streak sometimes pres- 
ent, but usually {() absent; maxilla dusk}', mandible paler; iris bi'own; 
legs and feet very pale brownish buffy or dnll straw color. 

(Young not seen.) 

AduJf inah'.— Length (skins), 1.33. 35-15S. 7.5 (141.48); wing, 57.15- 
62.23 (59.69); tail, 61.47-64.77 (62.99); exposed culmen, 10.92-12.70 
(11.94); depth of bill at base, 5.84-7.37 (6.86); tarsus, IS. 54-20.32 
(19.05); middle toe, 13.97-15.75 (14.99).' 

Adii/ffemaU— Length (skins), 120.65-137.16 (131.57); wing, 56.64- 
58.42 (57.40); tail, 58.42-61.47 (59.94): exposed culmen, 11.43-12.19 
(11.68); depth of 'bill at base, 6.35-6.86 (6.60); tarsus, 18.29-19.81 
(19.05); middle toe, 13.97-15.24 (14.73).' 

Southern Georgia (Savannah; Liberty County, etc.) and Florida; 
breeding as far south as Tarpon Springs and Pinellas Peninsula. 

F.[ringiUa] ae«<u'rtZis Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl., 1823, 25 (Georgia). 

A.[mmodromus1 lestivaHs Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1849, 347; Hand-list, ii, 1870, 96, 
^ no. 7427. 

P.[ev/;aea] aestivalis Cabanis, Mus. Hein., i, April, 1851, 132, footnote. 

Peucaea aestivalis Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 484, excl. synonymy, 
part (Indian Springs, Savannah, and Liberty Co., Georgia); Cat. N. Am. 
Birds, 1859, no. 370, part. 

Peucsea asstivdl is SchATER, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862,115, excl.syn., part (Georgia). — 
Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ii, 1871, 279, excl. syn., part (e. Florida). — 
CoUES, Check List, 1873, no. 170, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 251.— Baird, Brewer, 
and RiDGWAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 39, part, pi. 28, fig. 4. — JIayxard, 
Birds E. N. Am., 1878, 125, part (chiefly n. and middle Florida). — Ridgway, 
Norn. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 226.— Bailey, Bull. Nutt. Cm. Club, viii, 1883, 
39 (Georgia; deacr. nest and eggs) . — Brewster, Auk, ii, 1885, 106 (crit. ). — 
American' Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 575. — Sharpe, Cat. 
Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 709, part (Savannah, Georgia; Charleston, South 
Carolina?; Jacksonville, Florida). — Scott, Auk, vi, 1889, 323 (Tarpon 
Springs and Pinellas Peninsula, s. w. Florida, resident). — Wayne, Auk, xii, 
1895, 365 (Wacissa R., n. w. Florida, breeding). — Nehrling, Our Xativ6 
Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 145, pi. 24, fig. 5. 

[Peucxa'] sestiirtlis Coues, Key, 1872, 140, part-. 

P. [aic«(i] lesti rails Coves, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 373. — Bidgway, Man. 
N. Am. Birds, 1887, 427. 

[Peucxa sestivalis'] var. xstivalls Bidgw.-vy, in Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway's Hist 
N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 38. 

Fringilla sestiva Nuttall, Man. Orn. U. S. and Can., 2d ed., i, 1840, 568. 



^Eleven specimens. ^Four specimen.s. 



256 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

AIMOPHILA ^STIVALIS BACHMANII (Audubon). 
BACHMAN'S SPARROW. 

Similar to P. a', it/stlva //'■•<, but coloration much lighter and more 
rustjr; gray of upper parts more buff}', the streaks clear rusty chestnut 
without black mesial lines (except, sometimes, on back) ; anterior and 
lateral under parts much more bufly; size averaging larger (except 
bill and feet). 

YouiKj. — ]Much like adults, but chin, throat, chest, sides, and flanks 
distinctly buffj^, streaked, especially on chest, with dusky; general 
color of upper parts duller, more streaked with dusky, the feathers 
edged with dull brownish buffy instead of ash gray; wing-coverts 
and tertials margined terminally with buffy. 

Adult maZt.— Length (skins), 12 J:. 46-1 5;^. 40 (135.38); wing, 58.42- 
63.50 (61.21); tail, 60.96-66.55 (64.01); exposed culmen, 10.92-18.21 
(12.19); depth of bill at base, 6.35-7.62 (7.11); tarsus, 18.29-90.33 
(19.30); middle toe, 14.48-15.75 (14.99).^ 

^lr/(^/^/c'//;(^Z,,.— Length (skins), 124.46-142.24 (135.64); wing, 57.91- 
60.45 (59.18); tail, 60.96-66.04 (63.75); exposed culmen, 10.92-12.45 
(11.68); depth of bill at base, 6.35-7.11 (6.86); tarsus, 18.54-20.83 
(19.56); middle toe, 14.48-15.24(14.99).' 

Humid division of Lower Austral Province, from South Carolina and 
northern Georgia and the Gulf coast (west of Florida) north to south- 
ern Virginia (Campbell and Albeiparle counties), Maryland (Mont- 
gomery County, accidentally), southern Indiana (north to Parke, 
Putnam, Monroe, Brown, and Franklin counties), southern Illinois 
(north, locally, at least to parallel of 40^), and southeastern Iowa; 
west to middle Texas (Cook and Concho counties, etc.); in winter, 
south into Florida (as far as Lake Arbuckle, Tarpon Springs, etc.). 

FringiUa bachmanii Audubon, Orn. Biog., ii, 1834, 366, pi. 165 (near Charleston, 
South Carolina; type in U. S. Nat. Mus.) . 

Peuciea hacltmanii Audubon, Sjaiopsis, 1839, 112; Birds Am., oct. ed., iii, 1841, 
113, pi. 176. 

IPeitcaea} bachmuni Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 481. 

Peuava u'divalis bachmani Bkewstee, Auk, ii, Jan., 1885, 106 (crit.) ; iii, 1886, 
110 (Franklin, w. North Carolina; crit.).— Fox, Auk, iii, 1886, 318 (Koane 
Co., Tennessee; Apr.). — Bendike, Auk, v, 1888,351 (Greensboro, Alabama; 
descr. nest and eggs). — Neiieling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 148. 

Feucaa tMioalis bachmani i American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, 
no. 575«. — Lloyd, Auk, iv, 1887,292 (e. Concho Co., s.w. Texas, breeding). — 
Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. Val. , 1888, 207 (Pierce City, Missouri ; e. part Concho 
Co., Texas, breeding, etc.). — Keves and Williajis, Proc. Davenport Acad. 
Sci.,v, 1888, (32) (Des Moines, Iowa, breeding)".— Scott, Auk, v, 1888, 186 
Tarpon Springs, Florida; rare in summer, common fall and winter ') ; vi, 1889 



1 Twenty-eight specimens. * Doubtful. 

■^Five specimens. * Later said nut to occur in summer. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 257 

323 (do. , Sept. 27 to Feb.) .—Poling, Auk, vii, 1890, 242 (near Quincy, Illinois, 
and on Missouri side of Mississippi R., May) . — Ragsdale, Auk, ix, 1892, 73 
(openwoodlands of Cooke Co., Texas). — Butlbk, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., 1896, 
256 (Brookville, Franklin Co., Indiana, Sept. 22) ; Birds Indiana, 1897, 965 
(Knox, Monroe, Putnam, Brown, and Parke counties) . — Figgins, Auk, xiv, 
1897, 219 (Kensington, Montgomery Co., Md., 1 spec. Apr. 29, 1896).— Pal- 
mer (W.), Auk, xiv, 1897, 322 (West Lynchburg, Campbell Co., Virginia, 
breeding). — Allison, Auk, xvi, 1899, 269 (Madison and Amite countieSi 
Mississippi) . 

Ammodramus bachmaiii Bonapakte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 32. 

A.lmmodramus'] bachmani Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1849, 374. 

IPeucxa xstivalis.'] Subsp. a. Peiicxa bachmani Sharps, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xii, 1888, 710 (Charleston, S. C). 

P. [eucseal asstivalis bachmani Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 428. 

Peuntea aestivalis (not Fringilla aestivalis Lichtenstein) Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. 
Surv., ix, 1758, 484, part (in synonymy); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 370, 
part. 

Peuciea icstivalis CouES, Proc. Bost. Soc. X. H., xii, 1868, 116 (South Carolina).^ 
RiDGW'AY, Am. Nat., vi, 1872, 430 (Wabash Co., Illinois, breeding); Proc. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., xvi, 1874, 326 (do.); Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 164 
(do.). — Brown, Bull. Xutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879,8 (Coosada, Alabama; descr. 
song).— Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 98 (South Carolina; 
habits). 

l^Peucseal xslivalis Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 140, part. 

P.[eucxa'\ xstivcdia Ridgway, Am. Lye. N. Y., x, 1874, 373 ( Wabash Valley, Illi- 
nois) .—Nelson, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, i, 1876, 42 (Wabash Co., Illinois);, 
Bull. Essex Inst., ix, 1877, 36, 49 (Wabash and Richland counties, Illinois, 
breeding). 

Peucxa illinoensis Ridgway, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, Oct., 1879, 219 (Mount Car- 
mel, Wabash Co. ; Illinois; U. 8. Nat. Mus.) ; v, 1880, 52 (crit. ) ; viii, 1883, 58 
(Richland Co., Illinois). 

Peuciea sestivalis illinoensis Allen, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, Apr., 1880, 89. — 
Ridgway, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 226a; Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 
21 (Knox Co., Indiana).— CouBs, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 252; KeyN. 
Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 373.— Beckham, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 162 
(Bayou Sara, Louisiana); Journ. Cine. Soc. N. H., vi, 1883, 142 (Nelson Co., 
Kentucky, Apr.).— Fox, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 192 (Lookout Mt., 
Tennessee). — Ogilby, Sclent. Proc. Roy. Dubl. Soc, iii, 1882, 38 (Navarro Co., 
Texas, Sept., Oct.). 

P. [e«C£Ea] (xstivalis illinoensis Ridgway, Bull. 111. State Lab. N. H., no. 4, 1881, 
180 (Illinois). 

Peucsea sestivalis illinoisensis Langdon, Journ. Cine. Soc. N. H., iv, 1881, 339 (near 
Bardstown, Nelson Co., Kentucky). 

P. [eucseal le. [stivalisi illinoensis Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed. , 1884, 373. 

AIMOPHILIA BOTTERII BOTTERII (Sclater). 
BOTTERI'S SPARROW. 

Similar to A. wstlvalis cestivaUs, but coloration much duller and more 
uniform above, with pileum much less distinctlj^ streaked, hindneck 
obsoletely, if at all, streaked, the scapulars and interscapulars with 
grayish edgings much less distinct as well as less purely gray (more 

17024—01 17 



258 BULLETIN 50, TTNITEB STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

of a pale hair brown hue), and the rufescent markings much less dis- 
tinct as well as less bright in color; under parts paler, especially 
on chest; size averaging decidedlj' larger, except bill, which is more 
slender. 

• Young. — Above dull buff, heavily streaked with duskj^; beneath 
buffy whitish or pale yellowish buff, the lower throat and chest broadly, 
the sides more narrowly, streaked with dusky; wing-coverts margined 
with brownish buff. 

Adult mal,'.—hcngt}i (skins), 129.54-161.29 (141.22); wing, 59.69- 
69.85 (65.02); tail (six specimens), 67.31-Y0.61 (69.09); exposed cul- 
men, 11.43-12.70 (12.45); depth of bill at base, 6.35-7.62 (6.86); tarsus, 
19.81-23.37 (21.34); middle toe, 15.24r-l7.27 (16.26)\ 

Adult female.— Length (skins), 132.08-144.78 (137.92); wing, 58.42- 
68.07 (63.25); tail (three specimens), 56.39-64.26 (61.21); exposed cul- 
men, 10.92-12.70(12.45), depth of bill at base, 6.35-7.11(6.86); tarsus, 
20.32-22.86 (21.34); middle toe, 15.49-17.27 (16.26).' 

Entire plateau of Mexico, southeast to Chiapas (Ocuilapa, Ocozu- 
cuantla, and valley of Jiquipilas, August); north to the lower Rio 
Grande Valley in Texas, and southern Arizona (Camp Grant, Camp 
Crittenden, Santa Rita Mountains, etc.). 

Zonoirickia botterii Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 214 (Orizaba, Vera 

Cruz; coll. P. L. Sclater). 
Peticaea botterii Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, Aug. 17, 1861, 116 (Orizaba). — Sclater 

and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1868, 323. (Atlixco, Puebla). — Salvin 

and GoDMAN, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1866, 389, part (excl. spec, from 

Huatusco, Vera Cruz). 
[^Peucxa] botterii Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 32. 
[^PeucssaJ sestivcdis var. botterii Ridgway, Am. Nat., vii, Oct., 1873, 616, in text, part. 
[Peucasa sestivalisi var. botterii Ridgway, in Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway's Hist. 

N.Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 38, part (Orizaba; Colima). 
Peucca [err. typ.] xstivalis var. botterii Lawrence, Mem. Bost. Soc. N. H., ii, 1874, 

277 (plains of Colima). 
[Peucsea lestivalis.} Subsp. y. Penicma 6o«em Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. , xii, 

1888, 711. 
[Ammodramus] botterii Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 96, no. 7426. 
Peucaea cassinii (not Zonotrichia casdnii Woodiiouse) Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. 

Surv., ix, 1858, 485, part (Los Nogales, Sonora); Rep. U. S. and Mex. Bound. 

Survey, ii, pt. ii, 1859, 16 (Los Nogales, Sonora).— Sumichrast, Mem. Bost. 

Soc. N. H., i, 1869, 551 (resident near Orizaba, Vera Cruz). 
IPeucsea sestivalis.] Var. cassinii Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 140, part (Los 

Nogales, Sonora) . 
T. itcsea xstivalis . . . var. cassini Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 170a, part. 
Peucsea xstivalis, var. arizonx Ridgway, Am. Nat., vii, Oct., 1873, 615 (Los Nogales, 

Sonora; U. S. Nat. Mua.).— Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. 

Birds, ii, 1874, 41; iii, 1874,515. 
Pcucxa xstivalis . . . var. arizona- Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 170a (p. 127) . — 

Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. AVheeler's Surv., 1873 (1874), 159 (s. e. Arizona); 

Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 285 (Camp Grant, Camp Crittenden, and 

Cienega, Arizona; s. New Mexico; n. Mexico; habits; song). 



'Twenty-one specimens. ^ Eleven specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 259 

Peucaa arizonx Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. AIus., i, 1878, 127 (Fort Brown, Texas; 
crit.); JSfom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 227.— Merrill, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
i, 1878, 127 (Fort Brown, Texas; habits; de.scr. eggs) .—Scott, Auk, ii, 1885, 
226 (Santa Cruz Valley, Arizona). — American Ornithologists' Union, 
Check List, 1886, no. 576.— Rhoads, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1892, 121 
(Tucson and Oracle, Arizona; habits; song). 

P.leucxa] arizcmie Brewer, Ibis, Apr., 1878, 205, in text (Fort Brown, Texas). 

Peucsea ssstivalis arizonse Codes, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 253. 

P.[eucsea] x-lstivalisl arizonx CouES, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 374. 

[Peucxa xstivalis.'] Subsp. /3. Peucxa arizonx Shahpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 
1888, 710 (Crittenden, Arizona). 

Coiurniculus mexicanus Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., viii, May, 1867, 
474 (plains of Colima, s. w. Mexico; U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

Peucxa mexicana Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii. May 23, 1885, 98, 99 
(syn. ; crit.). — American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 577. — 
Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 207 (Fort Brown, Texas). 

P-leucxa} mexicana Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 428. 

Peucxa, sp. (?) Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1873 (1874), 118 
(Camp Grant, Arizona; descr. young). 

Peucxa xstivalis (not Fringilla aestivalis Lichtenstein) Shabpe, Cat. Birds Brit. 
■ Mus., xii, 1888, 709, part (Putla, Oaxaca, Mexico). 

AIMOPHILA BOTTERII SARTORII Ridgway. 
HUATTJSOO SPARROW. 

Similar to JL. h. hotterii, but very much dax"ker, the ground color of the 
upper parts soot}"" grayish or dark smoke gray, with the darker mark- 
ings very heavy; under parts less buffy, the chest and sides varying 
from pale smoky buflf to light drab-gray. 

Adults {sexes alike). — Above brownish gray^ heavily streaked with 
dull black, these black streaks broadest on the back, where more or 
less edged with rusty brown (unless edges of feathers are worn off), nar- 
rowest, and more suffused with brown on hindneck; edge of wing light 
yellow, the lesser coverts tinged or suffused with the same; sides of 
head (including broad superciliary stripe) dull brownish gray, relieved 
by a narrow postocular streak of dusky brown; under parts dull whit- 
ish, the chest pale brownish buffy, the sides and flanks more strongly 
buffy (the flanks more or less streaked with dusky), the anal region 
and under tail-coverts clear bufl'; sides of throat sometimes margined 
with a narrow dusky submalar streak; maxilla dusky, broadly mar- 
gined with pale grayish on tomium; mandible pale grayish (in dried 
skins) ; legs and feet pale brown or brownish buffy. 

Adult maZe.— Length (skins), 129.03-lry-.78 (138.18); wing, 6i.86- 
58.93 (57.15); tail, 53.09-57.66 (56.13); exposed culmen, 12.70-13.97 
(13.21); depth of bill at base, 7.62-8.13 (7.87); tarsus, 20.32-21.08 
(20.83); middle toe, 14.73-16.00 (15.24).' 

Adult female.— Length (skins), 129.54-136.65 (132.84); wing, 56.64- 
59.69 (58.42); tail, 54.10-57.91 (56.39); exposed culmen, 12.19-12.95 

' Seven specimens. 



260 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



(12. TO); depth of bill at base (one specimen), 6.86; tarsus, 20.32-21.34 
(20.83); middle toe, 14.73-15.75 (15.24).' 

Eastern slope of Vera Cruz (Huatusco, near Mirador), southward to 
State of Chiapas (Palenque, May) and northern Nicaragua (El Volcan) ?^ 

IPeuciect] xstivalU, var. hotterii (not Zonotrichia botterii Sclater) Eidgway, Am. 
Nat., vii, 1873, 616, in text, part. 

IPeuaea xstivalisjYa.r. botterii Bidgway, in Baird, Brewer and Ridgway'g Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 38, part (Huatusco, near Mirador, Vera Cruz). 

P.\eucma'\ botterii Bidgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 428, part. 

Peucsea botterii Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 389, part 
(Mirador). 

Aimophila sartorii Bidgway, Auk, xv, July, 1898 (pub. May 14, 1898), 227 (Hua- 
tusco, near Mirador, Vera Cruz, Mexico; U. S. Nat.Mus. ). 

AIMOPHILA BOTTERII PETENICA (Salvin)., 
PETEN SPARROW. 

Similar to ^1. h. .sartorii, but smaller (wing, 55.88; tail, 53.34; tarsus, 
20.07) and with more rounded wing (ninth primary shorter than 
third). 

Adult female (type, collection Salvin and Godman, pine ridge of 
Poctum, Guatemala, March, 1862). — Above dark brownish gray or 
hair brown, everywhere broadly streaked with black, the median por- 
tion of the feathers being of the latter color, the edges (and on scapu- 
lars, tertials, rump feathers, and upper tail -coverts, the tips also) 
brownish gray, becoming browner (on some feathers, especially wing- 
coverts, almost chestnut) next to the black; general color of wings 
brownish, the darker centers to feathers mostly concealed; edge of 
wing light yellow; tail brownish dusky, the feathers edged with 
lighter; lores, narrow orbital ring, malar stripe, chin, throat, and 
abdomen dull brownish white, the throat and chin margined laterally 

^ Three specimens. 

^ Two adult males in the collection of Messrs. Salvin and Godman from El Yolcan, 
Chirtandega, Nicaragua (April 28), 1 refer somewhat doubtfully to this form. They 
are larger and slightly different in color, but this may result from the fact that both 
are in very good plumage, while the type, from Huatusco, and all the Palenque 
specimens are decidedly worn. Measurements are as follows: 



Locality. 



Wing. 



Tail. 



cal- 
men. 



Depth 
of bill 
at base. 



Tarsus. 



Middle 
toe. 



MALES. 

Seven adult males from Palenque, Chiapaa 

Two adult males frtim El Volean, Nicaragua, 

FEMALES. 

Two adult females from Palenque 

One adult female from Huatusco, Vera Cruz (type) 
Type of Amrn^odrom.ui petenicus, from Peten, Guate- 
mala 

Smallest specimen from Palenque 



67.15 
63, '^ 



57.91 
59.69 



55.88 
66.64 



55.37 



66.13 
67.15 



68.34 
54.10 



13. 21 
12.70 



12.95 
12,19 



12.70 
12.95 



7.87 
7.37 



20.83 
21.08 



20.83 
21.08 



20.07 
20.32 



16.24 
16.61 



14.99 
15.75 



14.99 
14.73 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 261 

by a distinct dusky submalar streak; sides of liead, except as described, 
grayish brown, relieved by a postocular streak or narrow stripe of 
chestnut brown ; chest, sides, and flanks dull grayish bufl' or pale wood 
brown, the flanks with indistinct, mostlj- concealed, hastate streaks of 
dusky; under tail-coverts clearer bufl:; maxilla dusky brown, paler 
along totnium; mandible pale brownish (lilaceous or pinkish gray in 
life?); legs and feet pale brownish. Length (skin), 127.00; wing, 55. S8; 
tail, 53.34; the lateral feathers about 12.70 shorter; exposed culmen, 
12.70; depth of bill at base, 7.11; tarsus, 20.07; middle toe, 14.99. 
Northern Guatemala (Peten district). 

Ainuyphila iotterii petenica resembles very closely at first glance 
darker-colored examples of the South American Myospiza 'iiuDiimhe 
(Lichtenstein), but differs very much in structural characters, the wing 
being much more rounded (ninth primary shorter than third, instead 
of longer than fourth), the tail strongly rounded, almost graduated, 
instead of moderately double-rounded, the tarsus much shorter, and the 
toes relatiyelj^ longer. The coloration is verj' much the same, but A. 
1). petenica is considerably darker, both above and below, has the rump 
and upper tail-coverts heavily spotted with blackish, has the wing 
edge paler yellow, and lacks entirely an}^ yellow above the lores. 

The resemblance to A. I>. sartorii, from Vera Cruz and Chiapas, is 
still closer, the coloration being practicallj' identical, and I strongly 
suspect that when a series from the Peten district shall have been com- 
pared it may not be possible to maintain the distinctness of the two 
supposed forms. (See comparison of measurements on page 260.) 

Ammodromus petenicus Salvix, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1863, 189 (plains of Peten, 
n. e. Guatemala; coll. Salvin and Godman) ; Ibia, 1866, 193 (do. ). — Ridgway, 
Ibis, 1884, 44 (crit.).— Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. JIus., xii, 1888, 694. 

\_Aminodramus] pelenicus Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 96, no. 7419. 

[Ammodromus'] petenicus Sclatee and Salvin, Nom. Av. Xeotr., 1873, 32. 

Coturnicidus petenicus Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 385, 
pi. 28, fig. 2 (pine ridge of Poctum, near Peten). 

Aimophila petenica Kidgway, Auk, xv, July (pub. May 14), 1898, 227, in text. 

Genus AMPHISPIZA Coues. 
Amphispiza Coues, Birds Northwest, 1874, 234. (Type, Emberiza billneata Cassin. ) 

Small terrestrial Fringillidse, with the tail shorter than the wing but 
more than three times as long as tarsus; outermost (ninth) primary 
not shorter than third; primaries exceeding secondaries by much more 
than length of exposed culmen, and color plain gray or grayish brown 
above, with or without narrow black streaks on back, the under parts 
mostly white, with or without black throat-patch. 

Bill small (exposed culmen not more than half as long as tarsus, 
depth at base less than length of gonys and little, if any, greater than 
its width) ; culmen nearly straight, but faintly convex terminally and 
basally; gonys straight or very faintly convex, shorter than maxilla 
from nostril; maxillaiy tomium nearly straight, but very faintly con- 



262 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

vex subbasally and concave anteriorly, without subterminal notch, the 
slightly deflected rictal portion nearly or quite concealed by loral 
feathers; mandibular tomium nearly or quite straight to the subbasal 
angle, where moderately deflected. Nostril small, roundish, in ante- 
rior end of nasal fossae; rictal bristles rather distinct. "Wing rather 
long (about three and a quarter to three and a half times as long as 
tarsus), slightly rounded (ninth primary equal to fourth or third, 
eighth to fifth quills longest); primaries exceeding secondaries by 
decidedly more than length of exposed culmen; tertials not longer than 
secondaries. Tail rather long (nearly equal to wing, a little more than 
three times to more than three and a half times as long as tarsus), 
rounded or double-rounded (difl'ei'ence between longest and shortest 
rectrices not more than length of maxilla from nostril), the rectrices 
broad and rounded at ends. Tarsus decidedly longer than middle toe 
with claw, its scutella distinct; lateral claws falling decidedly short 
of base of middle claw; claws all normally curved, strong, the hind 
claw a little shorter than its digit. 

Coloration. — Plain gi-ayish or grayish brown above, the back some- 
times narrowlj' streaked with black; tail blackish, the outermost retrix 
usually with more or less conspicuous white or otherwise light-colored 
edging, sometimes with a white spot at end of inner web; underparts 
white medially, the chin, throat, and chest sometimes black. 

Although I at one time referred several Mexican species to this 
genus, I am now satisfied that only one species besides the type can 
properly be referred to it. A. helli (with its several geographic 
forms), while agreeing with the type species in the lengthened wing- 
tip and most other characters, has the wing relatively shorter and tail 
longer than in ^1. hilMieata, the wing being but little more than three 
times as long as the tarsus, instead of more than three and a half times 
as long. It is a more terrestrial bird, and carries the tail elevated at 
a considerable angle. 

Considerable doubt attaches to the position of " Zonotriclvia''' quin- 
queatriata, which some authors (myself among the number) have placed 
in Ainphispiza. Its style of coloration so strongly resembles that of 
A. hilineata that it seems almost unreasonable to place it in a different 
genus, but the wing-formula certainly agrees much better with that of 
Aimophila, the outermost (ninth) primary being shorter than the first, 
instead of equal to or longer than the third. Should it be finally 
decided to place this species in Ampliixjjmi., the generic characters of 
the latter would of course have to be modified in order to admit it. 

KEY T15 THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OP AMPHISPIZA. 

o. A conspicuous white superciliary stripe; sides and flanks not streaked; adults with 

chin, throat, and part of chest black. (Amphhpiza biUneata.) 

h. Smaller (averaging wing 62.48, tail 58.67), with larger white spot at tip of inner 

web of lateral tail-feather (averaging 14.73 in length) . (Northeastern Mexico 

to western Kansas. ) AmphiBpiza bilineata bilineata (p. 263) 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 263 

bb. Larger (averaging wing 65.53 or more, tail 62.23 or more), with smaller white 

spot at tip of inner web of outer tail-feather (averaging only 7.62 in length). 

c. Smaller, lighter colored, and browner; averaging wing 65.53, tail 62.23; dorsal 

region distinctly brownish. (Western Texas to Utah, Nevada, southern 

California, Lower California, and northwestern Mexico.) 

Amphispiza bilineata deserticola (p. 265) 

cc. Larger, darker colored, and more slaty; averaging wing 67.31, tail 64.77; 

dorsal region not distinctly brownish. (States of Hidalgo to Durango, 

central Mexico. ) Amphispiza bilineata grisea (p. 266) 

aa. No white superciliary stripe; sides and flanks streaked; adults with chin, throat, 
and chest mostly white. (Amphlspiza belli. ) 
b. Smaller (averaging wing not more than 66.55, tail 65.02); back usually obso- 
letely streaked or without obvious streaks, 
c. Darker; head and neck above dull slate-gray or deep mouse gray; a broad 
stripe on each side of throat and spot on center of chest, black. (Cali- 
fornia, including Santa Barbara Islands, and northern Lower California.) 

Amphlspiza belli belli (p. 267) 

cc. Paler; head and neck above pale smoke gray; a narrow and interrupted stripe 

on each side of throat and small spot on center of chest dull dusky grayish. 

(Ballsenas Bay, Lower California.) Amphlspiza belli cinerea (p. 269) 

bb. Larger (averaging wing 77.47, tail 72.90) ; back usually distinctly streaked with 
dusky. (Southeastern California, western Nevada, and southeastern Oregon 
to southern Wyoming, Colorado, and western Texas.) 

Amphlspiza belli uevadensis (p. 270) 

AMPHISPIZA BILINEATA BILINEATA (Cassin). 
BLACK-THROATED SPARROW, 

A continuous white superciliary stripe; above plain grajdsh (more 
brownish on back), the tail blackish with more or less of white on 
edge and tip of outermost rectrix. 

Adults {sexes alike). — Conspicuous superciliary and malar stripes pure 
white, the former margined above by a narrow black line, the latter 
not I'eaching to the base of the mandible; anterior portion of the malar 
region, together with the lores, chin, throat, and median portion of 
chest uniform black, the last with a convex (sometimes angular) poste- 
rior outline; rest of under parts white, shading into grayish on sides 
and flanks, the latter, together with anal region and under tail-coverts 
tinged more or less with buffy in winter plumage; upper parts deep, 
slightly brownish, gray, becoming more brownish (nearly hair brown) 
on dorsal region and wings; sides of head (between the two white 
stripes) plain gray, like pileum; lateral tail-feather with outer web 
chieily or wholly white, the inner web with a large terminal white spot, 
averaging 14.73' mm. in length; second (sometimes third, rarely also 
fourth) tail-feather with a smaller white terminal spot; maxilla, black- 
ish; mandible, pale grayish blue with dusky tip; iris deep brown; legs 
and feet brownish black. 

Young. — Similar to adults but without any distinct black markings 
on head, etc. , the chin and throat white, sometimes flecked with gray- 

■^ Sometimes as much as 17.78 mm. long. 



264 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

ish, the chest more or less distincth' streaked with the same; greater 
wing-coverts and edges of tertials light bufly brownish; back obso- 
letelj' streaked with dnsky. 

Ad^ilt m^^/.-.— Length (skins), 121.93-133.35 (IM.Yl); wing, 61.72- 
66.04 (63.25); tail, 57.66-62. Y4 (59.18); exposed culmen, 9.65-9.91 
(9.91); depth of bill at base, 6.10-6.35 (6.35); tarsus, 18.03-19.81(18.80); 
middle toe, 12.70-14.73 (13.21); white spot on lateral tail-feather, 9.91- 
17.78 (13.97).^ 

Adult female. ^l.Qx^^'ih (skins), 120.65-135.89 (127.51); wing, 60.45- 
66.04 (61.98); tail, 55.37-62.23 (58.42); exposed culmen, 9.65-10.16 
(9.91); depth of bill at base, 6.33-6.35 (5.59); tarsus, 17.53-18.54 
(18.03); middle toe, 12.45-13.21 (12.70); white spot on lateral tail- 
feather, 12.19-17.78 (15.24).' 

Middle and eastern Texas (except along Gulf coast?), north to Okla- 
homa, western Kansas, and eastern Colorado(?), South into States of 
Tamaulipas (Mier) and Nuevo Leon (Rodriguez, Jan.), northeastern 
Mexico. 

Emherkri bilinmt a Gassii^, Proo. Ac. Nat. Sci.Phila., v, Oct., 1850, 104, pi. 3 (Texas) ; 
Illustr. Birds Cal., Tex., etc., 1854, 150, part, pi. 23 (Texas).— B.urd, in Stans- 
bury's Rep. Gt. Salt Lake, 1852, 330 (Eio Grande). — Woodhouse, in Sit- 
greaves' Expl. Zufii and Col. E., 1853, 87 (San Pedro R., Texas). 

Poospisa bUineata Sclatbh, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.,1857, 7, in text. — Baikd, Rep. 
Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 470, part (Tamaulipas, Mexico, Ringgold Bar- 
racks, Frontera, etc., Texas); Rep. U. S. and Mex. Bound. Surv., ii, pt. 2, 1859, 
15, part (do) ; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 355, part. — Heermank, Rep. Pacific 
R. R. Surv., X, pt. iv, 1859, 14, part (San Antonio, Texas). — Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 
488 (Matamoras, Tamaulipas; Eagle Pass and San Antonio, Texas) . — Botcher, 
Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1868, 149 (Laredo, Texas, June to Oct.). — Cooper, 
Orn. Cal., 1870, 203, part.— CouES, Check List, 1873, no. 172, part.— Snow, 
Birds Kansas, 1873, 7 (w. Kansas). — Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. 
Am. Birds, i, 1874, 590, part (Texas) .— Sbnnett, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. 
Surv., V, 1879, 390 (Lomita, Texas; descr. nest, eggs, song, etc.). 

[Poospiza] bilineata Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 141, part. 

AmpMspiza bilineata Coues, Birds N. W. ,1874, 234, part; Check List, 2d ed. ,1882,no. 
258, part.— Sennett, BuU.U.S.Geol.andGeog.Surv.Terr., iv,1878,18 (Browns- 
ville and Hidalgo, Texas).— Merrill, Proc. U". S. Nat. Mus., i, 1878, 127 (Fort 
Brown, Texas). — Ridgway, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 224, part. — Ameri- 
can Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 573, part. — Hasbkouck, 
Auk, vi, 1886, 240 (Eastland Co., Texas) . — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Am.,Aves, i, 1886, 367, part (Texas; Tamaulipas) . — Beckham, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus.,x, 1888, 677 (San Antonio, Texas; habits).— Sh.\rpb, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus., xii, 1888, 628, part (Texas references and localities). — Cooke, Bird 
Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 206 (Texas, e. to Colorado R. ; San Angelo, Mason, etc., 
Texas). — Attwater, Auk, ix, 1892, 338 (San Antonio, resident). — Singley, 
Rep. Geol. Surv. Tex., 1894, 372 (Hidalgo). — Neiirling, Our Native Birds, 
etc., ii, 1896, 142, pi. 23, fig. 4.— (?) Cooke, Birds Colorado, 1897, 106, part 
(near Canon City, Colorado, 1 spev. July 26, 1872). 

A.[mphhpiza] hUinnita Coues, Key X. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 376, part. — Ridg- 
way, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 425, part. 



' Six specimens. 



BIRDS OF NOETH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 



265 



AMPHISPIZA BILINEATA DESERTICOLA Ridgway. 
DESERT SPARROW. 

Similar to A. i. Mlineata, but averaging larger; upper parts paler and 
browner, and white spot at end of inner web of outermost tail-feather 
much smaller. 

Adult male.^liength (skins), 124.46-138.43 (130.56); wing, 64.01- 
70.61 (67.31); tail, 60.96-68.33 (64.26); exposed culmen, 9.91-10.67 
(10.16); depth of bill at base, 5.59-6.35 (6.10); tarsus, 18.03-19.81 
(19.05); middle toe, 12.70-13.97 (12.95); white spot on lateral tail- 
feather, 2.54-11.43 (7.37).^ 

Adult female.— Length (skins), 121.92-132.08 (126.49); wing, 62.23- 
66.04 (61.47); tail, 58.93-63.25 (60.20); exposed culmen, 9.14-10.41 
(9.91); depth of bill at base, 5.59-6.35 (5.84); tarsus, 17.02-18.80 
(18.29); middle toe, 12.45-12.70 (12.70); white spot on lateral tail- 
feather, 4.32-9.65 (7.62).' 

Arid plains and deserts of southwestern United States and north- 
western Mexico; north to northern Nevada and Utah, east to south- 
western Colorado, New Mexico, and western Texas (El Paso, Fort Davis, 
etc.), west to western Nevada, southern California (San Bernardino, 
San Diego, and Los Angeles counties), and south throughout Lower 
California' and into Mexican States of Sonora and Chihuahua (Casas 
Grandes). 

'Seven specimens. ''Nine specimens. 

'Lower California specimens are aoubtfully referred to this form. The thirteen 
adult examples from the peninsula examined, including several from Cerros, Santa 
Margarita, and Carmen islands, are unfortunately in very bad condition of plumage, 
and therefore do not admit of satisfactory comparison with those from other districts. 
Average measurements compare as follows: 



ocality. 


Wing. 


Tail. 


Exposed 
culmen. 


Depth of 
bfllat 
base. 


Tarsus. 


Middle 
toe. 


White 
spot on 
outer 
tail- 
feather. 


MALES. 
















Seven adult males from Arizona, So- 


















67.31 


64.26 


10.16 


6.10 


19.05 


12.96 


7.37 


Two adult males from La Paz and 




Cape St. Lucas 


61.21 


60.20 


9.91 


5.59 


18.03 


12.70 


10.16 


One adult male from Carmen Island. 


63.50 


m. 93 


10.67 


6.35 


17.78 


12.70 


9.40 


One adult male from Santa Marga- 


















59.44 
65. 79 


53. 85 
61.98 


9.65 
10.67 


6.35 


18.29 
18.03 






Three adult males from Cerros Island . 


12. 19 


6.86 


FEMALES. 
















Nine adult females from Arizona, etc. 


61.47 


60.20 


9.91 


5.84 


18.29 


12. 70 


7.62 


Two adult females from Cape St. 


















61.47 


56.39 


10.41 


6.84 


IS. 03 


12.70 




Two adult females from Santa Mar- 


















57.66 


63.09 


9.91 


5.33 


17,27 


12.19 


4.06 


Four adult females from Cerros Island 


62.23 


57.91 


10.16 


5.59 


18.03 


12.70 


8.38 



While local distinction is strongly indicated by the above measurements, a much 
arger series will be required from the different localities to determine the question. 



266 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Emherhi hiVmeaia (not of Cassin, 1850) Cassin, lUustr. Birds Cal., Tex., etc., 
1854, 150, part (New Mexico). 

PoosphK hilhienta Baird, Eep. Pacific R. R. Surv. , ix, 1858, 470, part ( Boca Grande, 
etc., New Mexico) ; Rep. TJ. S. and Mex. Bound. Surv., ii, pt. 2, 1859, 15, part 
(Boca Grande; El Paso, w. Texas); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 355, part. — 
Heekmann, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. iv, 1859, 14, part (Tucson, Ari- 
zona).— Henry, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859,107 (New Mexico).— CouES, 
Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 86 (Fort Whipple, Arizona; crit.; descr. 
young); Check List, 1873, no. 172, part.— Cooper, Orn. Cal., 1870, 203, part 
(New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado Valley, etc. ). — Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., v, 
1873, 172 (Salt Lake Valley, Utah), 182 (Colorado) ; vii, 1875, 11 (Carson City, 
Nevada). — Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N.Am. Birds, i, 1874, 590, 
part, pi. 26, fig. 8.— Yarrow, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1871 (1874), 
35 (Nevada).— HfiNSHAW, Ann. Lye. N. Y., xi, 1874, 6 ( Utah) ; Rep. Orn. Spec. 
Wheeler's Surv., 1873 (1874), 115 (Fort Wingate, New Mexico; localities in 
Arizona); Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 274 (do.; habits; descr. nest 
and- eggs). 

[Poospiz'x] bilitwala Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 141, part. 

Ampkispiza bilineata CouBS, Birds N. W., 1874, 234, part; Check List, 2ded., 1882, 
no. 258, part. — Ridgway, Orn. 40th Parallel, 1877, 475 (localities in Nevada 
and Utah; habits, song, etc. ) ; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 224, part. — Brew- 
STBE, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 195 (Camp Lowell, etc., Arizona; , 
descr. young).— Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1883, 529 (Santa Rosalia 
Bay, Lower California), 531 (Cerros I.), 540 (La Paz); vi, 1883, 343 (Guay- 
mas, Sonora). — Stephens, Auk, ii, 1885, 226, 228 (Arizona). — American 
Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 573, part. — Salvin and God- 
man, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 367, part (Utah; Nevada; California; 
Guaymas). — Scott, Auk, iv, 1887, 202 (Pinal Co., Arizona; habits, etc.). — 
MoECOM, Bull. Ridgw. Orn. Club, no. 2, 1887, 49 ( Coahuila Valley , San Diego 
Co., California, Apr., and Mojave R., San " Bernardino Co., breeding). — 
Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 628, part (Nevada; Tucson, etc., Ari- 
zona; Coahuila Valley, California; La Paz, Lower California?). — Townsend, 
Proc, U. S. Nat. Mus. , xiii, 1890, 137, 138 ( Carmen I. and CerroSj. , Lower Cali- 
fornia).— Fisher, North American Fauna, no. 7, 1893, 95 (localities in Cali- 
fornia and Nevada). — Jouy, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1894, 775 (near 
Guaymas). — Anthony, Auk, xii, 1895, 141 (San Fernando, Lower Cali- 
fornia). — Cooke, Birds Colorado, 1897, 106 (s. w. Colorado). — Grinnell, 
Pub. ii, Pasadena Acad. Sci., 1898, 39 (near Pasadena, Los Angeles Co., 
California, April 10) . 

A.[mphispiza] bilineata Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 376, part. — 
Ridgway, Man; N. Am. Birds, 1887, 425, part. 

(?) Amphispiza belli (not Emberiza belli Cassin) Drew, Auk, ii, 1885, 16 (Colo- 
rado, up to 6,500 ft). 

Amphispiza bilineata deserticola Ridgway, Auk, xv, July (pub. May 14), 1898, 229 
(Tucson, Arizona; U. S. Nat. Mus.). — American Ornithologists' Union 
Committee, Auk, xvi, 1899, 119 (no. 573a) . 

Amphispiza bilineata pacifica Nelson, Auk, xvii, July, 1900, 267 (Alamos, Sonora; 
U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

AMPHISPIZA BILINEATA GRISEA Nelson. 
UEXICAN BLACK-THROATED SPARROW. 

Similar to A. b. deserticola, but veiy much darker and grayer above 
(less brown even than A. i. hilineata). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEBIC A. 267 

Adult mafe.— Length (skins), 125.73-133.35 (130.30); wing, 66.80- 
69.09 (67.82); tail, 63.50-68.33 (65.02); exposed culmen, 8.89-10.16 
(9.65); depth of bill at base, 5.59-6.35 (6.10); tarsus, 17.78-19.81 
(18.80); middle toe, 12.70-13.21 (12.95); white spot on outermost tail- 
feather, 7.62-12.19 (8.38).' 

Adult female.— Length, (skins), 127.00-132.08 (130.30); wing, 65.63- 
66.80 (66.04); tail, 64.01; exposed culmen, 9.91-10.16 (10.16); depth 
of bill at base, 5.59; tarsus, 18.80-19.66 (19.30); middle toe, 12.45- 
13.46 (12.70); white spot on outermost tail-feather, 5.08-8.13 (6.60).^ 

Central portion of Mexican plateau, in States of San Luis Potosi 
(Ahualulco, Hacienda La Parada), Hidalgo (Tula), Durango (Ciudad 
Durango), etc. 

(?) Poospiza bilineata (not of Sclater, 1850) Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 110 

(Mexico). 
[Poospiza] bilineata Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 30, part (Mexico). 
Amphispiza bilineata grisea Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xii. Mar. 24, 1898, 61 

(Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico; U.S. Nat.Mus.). 

AMPHISPIZA BELLI BELLI (Cassin). 
BELL'S SPARROW. 

Adults {sexes alike). — Above (including auricular region and sides of 
neck) deep brownish slate-gray, becoming browner on back, where, as 
well as on pileum, sometimes narrowly streaked with blackish or dusky; 
wings and tail dull blackish, with light brown edgings (pale grayish 
on primaries), the middle and greater coverts indistinctly tipped with 
pale brownish buffy or pale wood brown ; supraloral spot (sometimes 
also a small narrow streak in middle of forehead), orbital ring, malar 
stripe, and under parts in general white; lores, broad stripe on sides 
of throat and foreneck, and spot in middle of chest, black or dusky 
grayish; sides and flanks more or less tinged with buflEy and streaked 
with dusky; edge of wing pale yellow or yellowish white; maxilla 
blackish, mandible pale grayish blue (in life); iris brown; tarsi deep 
horn brown, toes usually darker. 

Young. — Pileum and hindneck dull gray, the former broadly streaked 
with black; back and scapulars grayish brown (between broccoli and 
hair brown), broadly streaked with black; under parts pale j'ellowish 
buff, the chest and sides of throat broadly streaked with blackish, 
the breast, sides, and flanks with smaller streaks of the same; a buffy 
whitish orbital ring; wings and tail much as in adults, but the epgings 
browner, and greater wing-coverts tipped with dull buffy. 

Adult male.— Length, (skins), 124.46-144.78 (137.16); wing, 58.93- 
70.87 (66.80); tail, 68.93-72.90 (66.29); exposed culmen, 8.13-10.41 

^Five specimens. ''Three specimens. 



268 



BULLETIN 50, UKITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



(9.14); depth of bill at base, 5.33-5.84 (5.59); tarsus, 19.66-21.59 
(20.57); middle toe, 12.45-1.3.97 (13.21).' 

Adult female.— Length {skins), 127.00-142.24(135.13); wing, 60.96- 
66.29 (63.50); tail. 58.42-68.58 (62.99); exposed culmen, 7.87-9.91 
(9.14); depth of bill at base, 5.08-5.59 (5.33); tarsus, 19.81-20.83 
(20.32); middle toe, 11.94-13.46 (12.70).' 

Central and southern California (valleys and foothills) west of the 
Sierra Nevada and Colorado Desert, and south into northern Lower 
California; Santa Barbara Islands (San Clemente,' San Nicolas, and 
Santa Barbara). 

Emberiza belli Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., v, Oct., 1850, 104, pi. 4 (San Diego, 
California; coll. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. ). — Baird, in Stansbury's Rep. Gt. Salt 
Lake, 1852, 331 (San Diego). 

Poospiza belli Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 7. — Baied, Rep. Pacific R. R. 
Surv., ix, 1858, 470, part (Posa Creek and Cosumnes R., California); Cat. 
N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 356, part.— Cooper, Orn. Cal., 1870, 204, part (San 
Nicolas and Santa Barbara islands, Santa Olara Valley, etc., California). — 
CouEs, Check List, 1873, no. 173, part. — Baikd, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 593; iii, 1874, 514 (Saticoy, Cal.; crit. ) . — Henshaw, 
Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1876, 243 (mountains near Fort Tejon) . 



' Seventeen specimens. 

^ Twelve specimens. 

' I at one time separated the San Clemente birds, as an island form, on account of 
their supposed large dimensions, but the difference proves too slight to warrant 
recognition of the alleged subspecies. Average measurements are as follows: 



Locality. 



MALES. 

Ten adult males from California (main- 
land ) 

One adult male from northern Lower 
California (Tecate) , 

Six adult males from San Clemente 
Island , 

FEMALES. 

Six adult f emal es from California (main- 
land j 

Three adult females from northern 
Lower California (Nachiguero Valley 
and Tecate River) 

Three adult females from San Clemente 
Island 

SEX NOT DETERMINED. 

Two adults from Santa Kosalia Bay, 
Lower California 



Wing. 



66.29 
67.82 



Tail. 



66.65 
66.55 



67.81 ! 65.79 



62.99 63:50 



64.77 
63.25 



62.1 
61.! 



Exposed 
culmen. 



9.14 
9.65 



Depth of 
bill at 
ba.se. 



5.59 



Tarsus. 



20.32 
20.57 
20.83 



Middle 
toe. 



20.32 
20.57 



20.32 



13.21 
13.72 
12.95 



12.45 
13.21 



12.45 



I am unable to satisfactorily determine the status of the specimens from Santa 
Rosalia Bay, owing to insufficiency of the series. They certainly are not A. b. cinerea, 
being much too dark for that form; at the same time they are slightly paler and 
grayer than true A. bellii, and have the wing and tail decidedly longer than the 
average of those of that form. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 269 

[Poospiza belli] var. belli Baird, Brewer, and Ridgwav, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i,1874, 
590. 

Poospiza bellii Sclater, Oat. Am. Birds, 1862, 110 (California). — Hebkmann, Rep. 
Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. iv, 1859, 46 (Cosumnes R. and bet. Kern R. and 
Tejon Pass). 

[Poospiza} bellii Coues, Key N". Am. Birds, 1872, 141, part. 

Zonotrichia belli Elliot, Illustr. New and Unfig. N. Am. Birds, i, 1869, pi. 14. 

Amphi^iza bellii Coues, Birds N. W., 1874, 234,part.^RiDGWAY, Proo. U. S. Nat. 
Mus.,iii, 1880,180. 

Amphispiza belli Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 416 (Murphy's, Calar 
veras Co., Feb.); v, 1883, 530 (Santa Rosalia Bay, Lower California). — 
RiDGWAY, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 225. — Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 
1881, no. 259.— EvERMANN, Auk, iii, 1886, 182 (Ventura Co., California).— 
MoRCOM, Bull. Ridgw. Orn. Club, no. 2, 1887, 49 (Mojave Desert, CajonPass, 
and Bear Valley, San Bernardino Co.). — Emerson, Bull. Acad. Sci., no. 7, 
1887, 429 (Poway, San Diego Co.).— TowiVsend, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 
1890, 140 (San Clemente I.). — Anthony, Auk, xii, 1895, 141 (San Fernando, . 
Lower California) . — Nehrling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 143. — Grin- 
NBLL, Pub. i, Pasadena Acad. Sci., 1897, 18 (San Clemente I.); Pub. ii, 1898, 
39 (Los Angeles Co., up to 5,000 ft., resid.). 

A.[mphi^piza} belli Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 376. — Ridgw ay, Man. 
N. Am. Birds, 1887, 426. 

Amphispiza belli clemenlese Ridgway, Auk, xv, July (pub. May 14), 1898, 230 
( San Clemente I. , Santa Barbara group, California ; U.S. Nat. Mus. ) . 

AMPHISPIZA BELLI CINEREA Townsend. 
GRAY SAGE SPARROW, 

Similar in size and proportions to A.h. ielli, but coloration conspicu-, 
ously paler; above pale smoke gray or pale buflfy ash gray, the back • 
more decidedly tinged with buffy and obsoletely streaked with darker; 
lateral throat-stripes narrower, more interrupted, and dull grayish 
instead of blackish; spot in center of chest smaller and dusky grayish 
instead of blackish. 

Young. — Essentially like adults, but back distinctly streaked with 
dusky, chest more or less streaked (narrowly) with brownish gray, and 
sides of throat without any dusky streak. 

Adailt ma^e.— Length (skins), 125.73-132.08 (128.78); wing, 65.79- 
.68.07 (66.80); tail, 63.75-65.53 (64.52); exposed culmen, 8.89-9.65 
(9.14); depth of bill at base, 5.08; tarsus, 20.32-21.84 (21.08); middle 
toe, 12.70.' 

Adult female. — Length (skins), about 133.35; wing, 62.23; tail, 
60.96-61.47 (61.21); exposed culmen, 9.65; depth of bill at base, 5.08; 
tarsus, 20.07-20.57 (20.32); middle toe, 12.95-13.21 (13.08).' 

West-central Lower California (Ballaenas Bay). 

Amphispiza belli dnerea Townsend, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, Sept. 9, 1890, 136 
(Ballaenas Bay, Lower California; U. S. Nat. Mus.).— American Ornitholo- 
gists' Union, Auk, viii, 1891, 86; Check List, 2ded., 1895, no. 5746. 

A.[mplmpiza'] belli cinerea Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 604. 



' Two specimens. 



270 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

AMPHISPIZA BELLI NEVADENSIS Ridgway. 
SAGE SPARROW. 

Similar to A. h. belli, but much larger and coloration paler and grayer; 
the back more frequently (usually distinctly) streaked with dusky; 
lateral throat-stripes reduced to a more or less broken series of dusky 
grayish streaks. 

Yoiong. — Pileum, hindneck, chest, and sides, as well as back, streaked 
with dusky; otherwise essentially like adults. 

Adult maZe.— Length (skins), 139.70-157.48 (149.61); wing, 77.47- 
81.28 (79.25); tail, 70.61-78.49 (74.68); exposed culmen, 9.40-10.41 
(10.16); depth of bill at base, 5.08-5.84 (5.59); tarsus, 20.83-22.61 
(21.59); middle toe, 12.70-14.73 (13.46).^ 

Adult female.— Length (skins), 137.16-157.48 (146.81); wing, 72.39- 
80.01 (75.69); tail, 67.31-75.69 (71.37); exposed culmen, 9.40-10.41 
(9.91); depth of bill at base, 5.33-5.84 (5.59); tarsus, 18.80-22.35 
(20.57); middle toe, 12.70-13.97 (13.46).' 

Sagebrush plains of Great Basin and Rocky Mountain districts of 
United States, north to eastern Oregon (Camp Harney, etc.), southern 
Idaho (Birch Creek, Lemhi R., Snake R., etc.), and southern Wyo- 
ming; east to eastern base of Rocky Mountains in Wyoming (near 
Cheyenne), Colorado (San Luis Park, etc.), and New Mexico; west to 
base of Sierra Nevada; south, in winter, to western Texas (Fort Davis, 
etc.), southern New Mexico, Arizona, and southeastern California 
(Colorado Desert, Los Angeles Co.,' etc.). 

Poospha belli (not Emberlza belli Cassin) Baikd, Eep. Pacific E. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 
470, part (Fort Thorn, New Mexico; Colorado B. ), 927 (Fort Bridger, Wyo- 
ming) ; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 356, part.— Coues, Ibis, 1865, 164 (Fort 
Whipple, Arizona); Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 86 (do.); Check List, 
1873, no. 173, part.— Cooper, Orn. Cal., 1870, 204, part (valleys of Gila and 
Colorado and Fort Thorn) . — Stevenson, Prelim. Eep. U. S. Geo!. Surv., 1871, 
465 (Henry's Fork, Green R., and Eock Creek, s. Wyoming) . — Allen, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 172, 177 (Ogden, Utah). — Baied, Brewer, and Ridg- 
way, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, pi. 26, fig. 9 (not text, p. 593). 

Poospiza bellii Kennerly, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. vi, 1859, 29 (Little Colo- 
rado R., Arizona, Dec). — Allen, Am. Nat., vi, 1872, 289 (Salt Lake Valley, 
Utah). 

PoQspiza bellii, var. nevadensis'RivawAY, Bull. Essex Inst., v, Nov., 1873, 182 (Colo- 
rado), 191 (first described); 198 (redescribed and type first designated, from 
West Humboldt Mts., Nevada; U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

Poospiza belli . . var. nevadensis Coues; Check List, 1874, p. 127 (no. 173a). — 
Yarrow and Henshaw, Eep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1872 (1874), 14 
(Rush Lake, etc., Utah). — Henshaw, Eep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1873 
(1874), 115 (San Pedro and Gila valleys, Arizona, Oct.); ib., 1877, 1309 (Oar- 

^ Twelve specimens. 
^ Eleven specimens. 

''Also in July, but probably migrants and not breeding; Grinnell, Auk, xv, 1898, 
58, 59. 



BIRDS OP NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 271 

son, Nevada) ; Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 274, pi. 11 (iron Springs, 
Toquerville, and St. George, Utah; San Luia, Colorado; Gila R., Arizona). 

Poospiza belli, var. nevadenm Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, 
i, 1874, 594.— Bendire, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1877, 119 (Camp Harney e. 
Oregon, breeding). 

Poospiza belli . . . var. nevadensis Henshaiv, Rep. Orn.Spec. Wheeler'.s Surv., 
1876, 243 (near Kernville, California, 1 spec. October 28) . 

Poospiza belli nevadensis Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., vii, Jan., 1875, 11, 13, 19, 21, 
(localities in Nevada and Utah). — Goss, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1881, 
116 (San Marcial, New Mexico, fall and winter; habits, etc.). 

A-lmphispiza'] bellii var. nevadensis Oohes, Birds N. W., 1874, 234, in text. 

A.[mphispiza^ belli nevadensis Henshaw, Orn. Rep. Wheeler's Surv., 1879, 296 
(Carson, Nevada, etc.; descr. nest and eggs). 

Amphispiza bellii nevadensis Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, Aug. 24, 1880, 180, 
217. 

Amphispiza belli nevadensis Ridgway, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 225a. — Coues, 
Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 260.— Drew, Auk, ii, 1885, 16 (Colorado, up to 
7,000 ft.). — American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 574a. — 
Scott, Auk, iv, 1887, 203 (Santa Catalina Mts., Arizona, 1 spec. Sept.). — 
CooKE, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 206 (Fort Davis, w^ Texas, winter) ; Bull, 
no. 37, State Agri. Col. Colorado, 1897, 106 (east as far as San Luis Park, and 
up to 8,000 ft.); Bull. no. 44, 1898, 166 (near Cheyenne, Wyoming).— 
Stephens, Auk, vii, 1890, 296, 297 (Colorado Desert, California, winter). — 
Merriam, North Am. Fauna, no. 5, 1891, 103 (Birch Creek, Lemhi R., Snake 
R., etc., Idaho). — Nehrling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 144. — Grinnell, 
Pub. ii, Pasadena Acad. Sci., 1898, 39 (head of Tujunga Canon, s. e. Cali- 
fornia; 3,000 to 6,000 ft. in summer, lower mesas in winter). — Fisher, Auk, 
XV, 1898, 190 (crit.). 

A.{m.phispiza'\ 6. [eZK] nevadenm Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 376. 

A. [mphispiza'] belli nevadensis Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 427. 

Amphispiza nevadensis Ridgway, Orn. 40th Parallel, 1877, 476 (localities in 
Nevada and Utah; habits, song, etc.). — Grinnell, Auk, xv, 1898,58,59 
(central Los Angeles Co., California, 4,000 to 6,000 ft., July; crit.). 

[Amphispiza bdli.'\ Subsp. a. Amphispiza nevadenm Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus., xii, 1888, 630 ("British Columbia"; San Bernardino, California, etc.). 

Amphispiza belli cinerea ? (not of Townsend) Price, Bull. Cooper Orn. Club, i, 1899, 
93 (Yuma, Arizona, winter). 

Genus JUNCO Wagler. 

Junco Wagler, Isis, 1831, 526. (Type, /. phseonotus Wagler.) 

Struthus (not of Boie, 1826) Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 31. (Type, 

Emberiza hyemalis Linnseus. ) 
Niphiea^ Audubon, Synopsis Birds N. Am., 1839, 106. (Type, Emberiza hyemalis 

Linnseus. ) 

Small oi? rather small semiterrestrial Fringillidse, with tail nearly 
(sometimes quite) as long as wing, double-rounded; coloration of adults 
plain, without streaks (except on back in a single aberrant species), 
with lateral tail-feathers more or less white (except in the aberrant 
species mentioned). 

1 "Name from Ni ipo?, snow." 



272 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Bill rather small (exposed culmen not more than half as long as tarsus, 
usually less), conical, its basal depth decidedly less than length of max- 
illa from nostril and much greater than its basal width; culmen dis- 
tinctly ridged, faintly convex throughout, or with middle portion 
straight or even faintly depressed; gonys very faintly convex or nearly 
straight, much greater than basal depth of bill; maxillary tomium with- 
out subterminal notch, nearly straight or just appreciably concave 
anteriorly, faintly convex posteriorly, the basal deflection very slight 
and mostly concealed by rictal feathers; mandibular tomium straight 
to the subbasal angle, where slightly deflected. Nostril small, longi- 
tudinally oval, nearly concealed by bristly plumelets (except in J. vul- 
cani). Wing rather long (a little less than three to more than four 
times as long as tarsus), moderately rounded (eighth to sixth primaries 
longest, ninth shorter than fifth to third); primaries exceeding second- 
aries by much less (usually about half) length of tarsus. Tail rather 
long, usually a little shorter than wing, sometimes {J. hairdi) equal to 
wing, double-rounded, with lateral rectrices about equal to the middle 
pair or a little longer, the rectrices rather narrow, with tips slightly nar- 
rower and rounded or obtusely pointed, about half (a little more or 
less) overlaid bj^ upper coverts. Tarsus moderate (a little more than 
one-fourth to about one-third as long as tail), its scutella fairly distinct; 
middle toe with claw decidedly shorter than tarsus; lateral claws not 
reaching to base of middle claw; hallux about equal to inner toe, its 
claw nearly or quite as long as the digit. 

Coloration.- — Adults plain grayish above (back streaked only in J. vul- 
cani), but back sometimes rufescent and head sometimes black; under 
parts plain grayish with whitish abdomen, the sides sometimes pinkish 
or cinnamomeous, the chest and throat sometimes black; lateral tail- 
feathers largely white (nearly or quite obsolete in J. vulcani), and wings 
sometimes with two narrow white bands. Sexes essentially alike. 
Young conspicuousl}' streaked both above and below. 

Hange. — Boreal Province of North America, including boreal 
"islands" south to northern Georgia, Mexico, Central America (Gua- 
temala and Costa Rica), and Lower California. 

The only species here referred to Junco that can be considered at all 
aberrant is J. vulcani., which differs from all the others in its conspicu- 
ously streaked back, almost complete absence of white on lateral rec- 
trices, and comparatively short wing and tail. But even including 
J. vulcani, which is far out of place in any other recognized genus, 
Junco is a much more homogeneous group than Spizella, or indeed than 
most recognized genera containing an equal number of species. 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OP JUNCO. 

a. Head, neck, and chest without streaks. {AdnlU. ) 
b. Back without streaks; lateral rectrices partly white; tarsus less than 25,40 mm. 
c. Back concolor with pileum and hindneck (gray or grayish brown) . 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 273 

d. Larger and paler, the wings nsually with two white bands and three outer- 
most rectrices wholly white, or with only a trace of dusky on the third; 
wing not less than 81.03, averaging 86.11. (Colorado, Wyoming, western 
North Dakota, etc., straggling in winter to Indian Territory, middle 

Kansas, etc.) _ Junco aikeni (p. 277) 

dd. Smaller and darker, the wing ui^ually without any white and the third 
rectrix largely dusky; wing not more than 82.30, averaging 77.22. 
('. Upper anterior portion of head appreciably darker than color of back and 
chest; bill light pink or lilaceous-white in life; wing of adult male 
averaging 79.25, tail 66.55, tarsus 21.08. (North America in general, 
more rare in western portions of United States, breeding from Inountains 
of Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, Ontario, northern Minnesota, etc., 

northward.) Junco hyemalis hyemalis (p. 278) 

ee. Upper anterior portion of head not darker than color of back and chest; 
bill bluish horn color in life; wing of adult male averaging 80.26, tail 
70.36, tarsus 21.84. (Southern AUeghenies, north to Virginia and West 

Virginia. ) Junco hyemalis carolinensis ( p. 282 ) 

cc. Back different in color from pileum and hindnec'k (more brown or rusty). 
d. Sides and flanks pinkish, vinaceous-cinnamon, or cinnamon-buff. 
e. Head, neck, and chest black (throat sometimes inclining to dark slate 
color). 
/. Back darker ( chestnut brown to brownish mouse gray) . 

g. Back more reddish brown (chestnut-brown to warm sepia). (Pacific 
coast district, breeding in southern Alaska. ) 

Junco oreganus oreganus, adult male (p. 283) 
gg. Back more grayish brown (sepia to brownish mouse gray). (Inte- 
rior of northern British Columbia, southern British Columbia, 
Washington, and northern Oregon in summer; nearly all of 
United States west of the Mississippi in winter. ) 

Junco oreganus shufeldti, adult male (p. 285) 
ff. Back paler ( dull cinnamon-rufous to broccoli brown or drab) . 

g. Throat and chest black or slate-black ; wing and tail longer (averaging 
77.98 and 65.28), but bill shorter (exposed culmen averaging 10.67) . 
(California, western Nevada, and southern Oregon, breeding on 
high mountains; casual in Arizona in winter.) 

Junco oreganus thurberi, adult male (p. 287) 
gg. Throat and chest dull blackish slate or slate color; wing and tail 
shorter (averaging 70.87 and 61.47), but bill longer (exposed cul- 
men averaging 10.92). (Point Pinos, near Monterey, southern 
coast district of California. ) 

Junco oreganus pinosus, adult male (p. 288) 
ee. Head, neck, and chest grayish, or mainly grayish. 
/. Pileum and hindneck gray (rarely, in ./. montanus, approaching black 
on forehead) . 
g. Throat and chest slate-gray to almost slate color; sides and flanks 
vinaceous-cinnamon; mandible pinkish in life; iris brown or pur- 
plish. 
h. Maxilla pale pinkish, like mandible; exposed culmen not more 
than 11.94, usually much leas. 
I. Wing not less than 71.12. 
j. Back decidedly brown (not grayer than broccoli brown or 
drab), conspicuously different from gray of head, neck, and 
chest. 

17024—01 18 



274 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

i-. Back dull cinnamon brown or russet. 
/. Back darker, more russet, or approaching prouts brown. 

Junoo oreganus oregaims, adult female (p. 283) 
II. Back paler, more cinnamon brown or approaching wood 

brown Junco oreganus thurberi, adult female (p. 287) 

hk. Back grayish brown (not grayer than bister) . 
I. Throat and chest slate-gray or slate color; outermost rectrix 
more or less dusky at base, the second extensively sO; 
smaller (wing not more than 80.26, averaging 76.71). 
in. Throat and chest darker (slate color or dark slate-gray) . 
11. Wing not more than 78.23 (averaging 74.93); back 
browner. 

Junco oreganus shufeldti, adult female (p. 285) 
11. Wing not less than 76.71 (averaging 79.50); back 
grayer. (Northern Montana and Idaho to Alberta 
in summer, southward and eastward in winter. ) 

Junco montanus, adult male (p. 289) 
mm. Throat and chest paler (slate-gray or sometimes 
approaching ash gray). (Wing not more than 76.20,, 
averaging about 73.66.) 

Junco montanus, adult female (p. 289) 

U. Throat and chest clear ash gray; outermost rectrix entirely 

white, the second nearly so. (Southern Montana and 

Idaho in summer, south in winter to northern Mexico. ) 

Junco mearnsi, adult male and female (p. 291) 

jj. Back brownish gray, not conspicuously different from color of 

head, neck, and chest. (San Pedro Martir Mountains, 

northern Lower California. ) 

Junco townsendi, adult male and female (p. 293) 
ii. Wing less (usually much less) than 71.12, averaging 68.83. 

Junco oreganus pinosus, adult female (p. 289) 

hh. Maxilla more or less dusky, decidedly darker than mandible; 

exposed culmen not less than 12.70. (Guadalupe Island, Lower 

California.) Junco insularis, male and female (p. 293) 

gg. Throat and chest very pale gray, sometimes almost grayish white; 
sides and flanks ochraceous-buff or cinnamon-buff; maxilla dusky, 
mandible yellow; iris orange-yellow. (Southern Lower California.) 
Junco bairdi, adult male and female (p. 294) 
ff. Pileum and hindneck more or less brown. (Winter females and imma- 
ture males of preceding forms, to be distinguished by additional 
characters given above. ) 
dd. Sides and flanks gray or olivaceous. 

e. Interscapulars (but not scapulars, wing-coverts, nor tertials), cinnamon- 
rufous or rusty; mandible pinkish; iris brown. 
/. Maxilla light-colored (pinkish or lilaceous-white in life), like mandible; 
anterior and lateral under parts deeper ash gray; bill smaller (exposed 
culmen averaging 10.92). (Mountains of southern Wyoming, Utah, 
Nevada, and northern New Mexico in summer; south to northern 

Mexico in winter.) Junco caniceps, adult male and female (p. 295) 

ff. Maxilla blackish ; anterior and lateral under parts paler gray ; bill larger 
(exposed culmen averaging 11.94). (Mountains of New Mexico and 
central Arizona in summer, south to northern Mexico in winter. ) 

Junco dorsalia, adult male and female (p. 297) 
ee. Interscapulars, greater wing-coverts, and tertials cinnamon-rufou.s, rusty 
brown, or olive-brown; mandible vellow; iris yellow. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 275 

/. Back, etc., bright rusty or cinnamon-rufous; pileum and hindneck 

clear gray (not darker than slate-gray); flanks not conspicuously 

olivaceous. 

g. Darker (pileum and hindneck slate-gray) ; rump grayish olive Or hair 

brown; outermost rectrix extensively dusky on basal portion of 

inner welj, the second with less than terminal half of inner web 

white. (High mountains of central and southern Mexico.) 

Juuco phaeonotus phseonotus, adult male and female (p. 299) 
gg. Paler (pileum and hindneck ash gray); rump nearly pure gray; 
outermost rectrix wholly white, the second mostly so. (High 
mountains of northwestern Mexico and southern Arizona. ) 

Junco phseonotus palliatus, adult male and female (p. 301) 
ff. Back, etc., russet brown or olive-brown; pileum and hindneck brown- 
ish gray; flanks conspic'uously olivaceous or wood brown. 
g. Smaller (wing averaging 69.60, exposed culmen 12.70); colors paler 
and brighter (back, etc., russet-brown, pileum and hindneck 
smoke gray). (Highlands of Chiapas, southern Mexico.) 

Junco fulvescens, adult male and female (p. 302) 
gg. Larger (wing averaging 74.6?, exposed culmen 13.21); colors darker 
and duller (back, etc., olive-brown, pileum and ihindneck dull 
slate color or dark mouse gray). (Highlands of Guatemala.) 

Junco alticola, adult male and female (p. 303) 
bh. Back bj'oadly streaked with black; lateral rectrices without any white; tarsus 
more than 25.40 mm. (Summit of Volcan de Irazu, Costa Rica. ) 

Junco vulcani, adult male and female (p. 304) 
aa. Head, neck, and chest streaked. ( Young. ) 

h. Maxilla not conspicuously darker than mandible. 
I . Back concolor with pileum. 
d. Paler and browner above; chest paler, with streaks or spots more distinct. 

Junco hyenialis hyemalis, yuung. 
dd. Darker and more slaty above; chest darker, more uniform. 

Junco hyemalis carolinensia, young. 
cc. Back more rufescent, or browner, than pileum. 

e. Ground color of pileum and hindneck brownish, of throat and chest more 
or less buffy. 
/. Bill pale browiiish or dull pinkish. 
g. Darker. 

h. Back more reddish brown Junco oreganus oreganns, young. 

hJi. Back more grayish brown Juuco oreganus shufeldti, young. 

gg. Paler. 

Ji. Bill shorter; colors darker, the chest more heavily streaked or 

spotted Junco oreganus thurberi, young. 

hh. Bill longer; colors paler, the chest more buffy and more narrowly 

streaked Junco oreganus pinosus, young. 

ff. Bill dusky brown .Junco insularis, young. 

ee. Ground color of pileum and hindneck more grayish, of throat and cheat 

paler grayish Junco canicepa, young. 

hh. Maxilla black or dusky, conspicuously darker than mandilile. 

c. Greater wing-coverts and tertials brownish gray Junco dorsalis, young. 

cc. Greater wing-coverts and tertials reddish brown or rusty. 
d. Sides and flanks pale buffy grayish. 

e. Darker Junco phseonotus phseonotus, young. 

ee. Paler Junco phseonotus palliatus, young. 

dd. Sides and flanks light brown or strongly buffy. 



276 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

e.. Sides and flanks light brown; outermost tail feathers not more than one- 
half white; general coloration much darker and forna much stouter. 

Junco fulvescens, young. 
,'('. Sides and flanks buff; outermost tail feathers mostly white; general col- 
oration much paler and form much more slender.. Junco bairdi, young. 

The following have not been included in the preceding "key" on 
account of their unsatisfactory status. They each represent a con- 
necting series between two well-characterized forms, and in my opinion 
are simply hybrids and not true "intergrades." 

JUNCO HYEMALIS X JUNCO OREGANUS SHUFELDTI. 

"H\-brid between lii/emalis and oregonu.i'' Baikd, Brewer, and Kidgway, Hist. 

N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 579, footnote. 
(?) ./. {unco} lii/emaliK var. oregonus (not Fringilla oregana Townsend) Trippe, in 

Coues' Birds N. W., 1874, 144, part (Colorado). 
(?) [Junco hyemalis] c. crregonus Trippe, in Coues' Birds N. W., 1874, 145, part 

( Colorado) . 
Jma-o hiemalis oregonus Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, viii^ 1883, 189 (Colorado 

Springs, Colorado, Apr. 26, 27; crit. ). 
Junco oregonus Brown (N. C. ), Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 38, part (Boerne, 

Kendall Co., Texas, winter). 
/. lii,nco] h. [iemalisl connecteim Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 378 (Colo- 
rado City, Colorado; type in coll. W. Brewster'); Auk, xiv, 1897, 94, part. 
J^mro hyemalis connectens American Ornithologists' Union Committee, Auk, xiv, 

Jan., 1897, 128, part (excl. sup. syn. Junco hyemalis shufeldti). 

JUNCO CANICEPS X JUNCO MEARNSI. 

Junco caniceps (not Strathuscaniceps Woodhouee) Baird, Rep. Pacific K. R. Surv., 
ix, 1858, 924, part (Fort Bridger, "Wyoming; supposed hybrid betweea 
./. caniceps and /. oregonus, afterwards the type of /. annectens Baird). 

Jii.nco cinereusxar. caniceps Coues, Birds N. W., 1874, 143, part. 

"Hybrid between oregonus aund caniceps" Baikd, Brewer, and Eidgw.4.y, Hist. 
N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 579, footnote (part). 

Junco annectens Baird, in Cooper's Orn. Cal., 1870, 564 (type from Fort Bridger, 
Wyoming, in U. S. Nat. Mua.^). — Rjdqway, Nom. X. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 

'This type specimen, which I have t^arefully examined and compared, is No. 7046 of 
Mr. Brewster' s collection, and was taken by Mr. Brewster at Colorado Springs April 26, 
1882. It is very nearly typical of J. hyemalis, with sides only slightly tinged with cinna- 
momeous and the back slightly brownish. It may be a young female, of the preced- 
ing year, of /. hyemalis; at any rate it has nothing to do with the form of /. oreganus 
(J. 0. shufeldti) , to which the name connectens was unadvisedly applied by action of the 
A. 0. U. Committiee in 1896. 

^ Although of the several specimens considered by Professor Baird to represent his 
/. annectens all but one represent /. mearnsi, it is nevertheless easy, in view of the 
characters most prominently mentioned in the diagnosis, to determine which should 
be considered as the type. For instance, the phrase ' ' whole interscapular region . . . 
light chestnut rufous," found in the description, applies only to no. 11164, an adult 
male from Fort Bridger, obtained April 12, 1858, all the other specimens then in the 
Smithsonian collection having the interscapular region hair brown, very different 
indeed from chestnut-rufous. The remarks which follow the description are, so far 
as they apply to the color of the back, equally convincing, for it is distinctly stated 
that the coloris "that of canirepK, not of oregonus," the back of J. mearnsi being even 
less rufescent than that of J. oreganiLs. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 277 

219, part. — American Ornithologists' Union Committee, Check List, 1886, 
no. 568, part; Auk, xiv, Jan., 1897, 129 (no. 568.1). — Ridgway, Auk, xiv, 
Jan., 1897, 94 (crit.).— Cooke, Birds Colorado, 1897, 105 (Boulder, Colorado, 
1 spec. Nov. 25, 1892). 

Junco hiemalU annectens Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 264, part. 

J. [uncol h. \_kmalis] annectens Coi'Es, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, .379, part. 

Junco ridgwayi Meaens, Auk, vii, July, 1890, 243 (Whipple Barracks, Arizona; 
coll. E. A. Mearns). — Anthony, Auk, ix, 1892, 365 (near Apache, s. w. New 
Mexico, JMar. 16; Granite Gap, 10 m. west of Apache) . — Mc(teegor, Auk, x, 
1893, 205 (Boulder, Colorado, Nov. 25). — American Ornitholoijists' LTnion, 
Check List, 2d ed., 1895, no. 568.1.— Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 
1896, 603. 

JUNCO AIKENI Ridgway. 

WHITE -WINGED JUNCO. 

Admit male. — Head, neck, che.st, sides, flanks, and upper parts plain 
slate-gray, darker (slate color) on the head; middle and greater wing- 
coverts usually tipped with white, forming two distinct bands; three 
outermost tail-feathers whollj' white, the third sometimes with a little 
dusky, the fourth with more or less of white; length (skins), 156.97- 
169.93 (163.83); wing, 81.53-92.96 (88.65); tail, 75.18-78.74 (76.4.5); 
exposed culmen, 11.68-12.95 (12.19); depth of bill at base, 7.62-8.38 
(8.13); tarsus, 20.83-21.84 (21.34); middle toe, 13.72-14.99 (14.48).' 

Adult femahi. — Similar to adult male, but rather paler gray, the 
upper parts (especially back) tinged more or less with light grayish 
brown, the wing-bands usually less distinct, frequently obsolete, and 
the third tail-feather more often with a little dusk}-; length (skins), 
149.61-168.15 (159.26); wing, 81.03-84.33 (82.55); tail, 71.12-76.20 
(73.66); exposed culmen, 11.43-12.45 (11.94); tarsus, 19.81-21.08 
(20.57); middle toe, 13.21-14.99 (13.97).' 

Winter birds, especially young, are more or less tinged with light 
grayish brown, especially on back. In some adult males the tertials 
are edged with white. 

Breeding in Wyoming (Bear Lodge Mountains) and western North 
Dakota (Black Hills); migrating in winter to Colorado and western 
and middle Kansas, casually to Indian Territory (Caddo) and Wiscon- 
sin (Jefferson). 

Junco hyem.al%ava,r. aikenii Aiken, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., xv, Dec, 1872, 201 
(nomen nudum; habits). 

[Junco hyemalW] var. aikeni Ridgway, Am. Nat., vii, Oct., 1873, 612, 614 (El Paso 
Co., Colorado; coll. C. E. Aiken).— Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's 
Surv.,1873 (1874), 113 (crit.). 

Junr-o hyemaiis y&r. aikeni Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., v, Nov., 1873, 182 (Colo- 
rado). — Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N.Am. Birds, i, 1874, 584. — 
Snow, Observer of Nature, iii, 1876 (Ellis, w. Kansas, 1 spec. Nov. 8) . 

' Eight specimens. * Five specimens. 



278 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Junco hyemcdis . . var. aikeui Coues, Check List, 1874,129 (no. 174a).— Hbn- 
SHAW, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1873 (1874), 114 (El Paso Co., Colo- 
rado, Oct. 5 to Feb.l; Zoo). Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 266 (El Paso Co., 
Colorado, Oct. to Feb. ) . 

[Jnnrohyemalis.} Var. aikeui Snow, Birds Kans. , 3d ed., 1875, 7 (Ellis, w. Kansas). 

[Jtmco hyemallt.] b. aikeni Coues, Birds N. W., 1874, 141 (synonymy). 

[junco liyemalis] a. aikeni Trippe, in Coues' Birds N. W., 1874, 145 (crit.). 

Junco hyemalis aikeni Drew, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, Apr., 1881, 90 (San Juan 
Co., Colorado, after Oct.). 

Junco hiemalis aikeni Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 262. 

J. [unco'] h. [iemalis] aikeni Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 378. 

J.lunco] aikeni Trippe, in Coues' Birds N. W., 1874, 145 (Idaho Springs, Colo- 
rado, in winter; crit. ).—Ridg way, Man. X. Am. Birds, 1887, 422. 

Junro aikeni Baikd, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, pi. 26, 
fig. 6.— RiD(iWAY, Field and Forest, iii, May, 1877, 198; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 
1881, no 216.— Allen and Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, viii, 1883, 190 
(Colorado Springs, Colorado, 1 spec. Apr. 11).— Drew, Auk, i, 1884, 16 (verti- 
cal range in Colorado).— Cooke, Auk, ii, 1885,32 (Caddo, Indian Territory, 
4 specs. Feb. 14 and 21; (?) Jefferson, Wisconsin, 1 spec. Jan. 14; Ellis, w. 
Kansas, winter); Bird Migr. Miss. VaL, 1888, 203.— American Ornitholo- 
gists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 566.— Beckham, Auk, iv, 1887, 122 
(Pueblo, Colorado, Oct., Nov.).— Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 
649. — Goss, Birds Kansas, 1891,465 (\v. and mid. Kansas, rare winter visit). 

Junco daiibyi Coues, Xidiologist, iii, Oct., 1895, 14 (Black Hills, South Dakota; 
type in U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

Junco hyemalis danhyi Coues, Auk, xiv, Jan., 1897, 94, in text (crit.). 

JUNCO HYEMALIS HYEMALIS (Linnseus). 
SLATE-COLORED JUNCO. 

All nit iiti(lc. — Head, neck, chest, upper breast, sides, flanks, and 
upper parts plain slate-color, darker on head, where approaching slate- 
black on pileum, rather paler (approaching slate-gray) on rump and 
sides; lower breast, abdomen, anal region, and under tail-coverts 
white; six middle tail-feathers slate-blackish, edged with slate-grayish; 
two outermost tail-feathers white (the second sometimes dusky at base 
and edged with dusky toward tip), the third white and dusky (the latter 
usually predominating); bill (in life) pinkish or lilaceous white, with 
dusky tip (at least in winter); iris dark reddish brown or claret purple; 
tarsi light brownish, toes usually darker; length (skins), 138.18-158.24 
(145.54); wing, T6.Tl-82.30 (Ty.25); tail, 63.25-Tl.12 (66.56); exposed 
culmen, 10.16-11.68 (10.92); depth of bill at base, 6.10-6.86 (6.35); 
tarsus, 20.32-21.84 (21.08); middle toe, 13.72-14.99 (1-4.48).' 

Adult feiudle. — Similar to adult male, but the slate-color rather 
lighter (sometimes decidedly so), and the second tail-feather always (?) 
partly dusky; length (skins), 132.59-154.94 (141.73); wing, 70.61-78.23 
(74.93); tail, 62.23-67.06 (64.26); exposed culmen, 9.91-11.68 (10.67); 

' Twenty-four specimens. 



BIRDS OF NOETH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 



279 



depth of bill at base, 6.10-6.60 (6.35); tarsus, 20.32-21.69 (21.t».S); 
middle toe, 13. 46-1 -i. 99 (14.22).' 

Summer and winter plumag-es are not essentially different, the for- 
mer being, however, appreciably darker in color and lacking the dusky 
tip to the bill. 

Lninatar,' irudc {first tvlnfrr). — Similar to the adult male, but more 
or less tinged with brown above; sides and flanks tinged, sometimes 
strongly, with light buffy brown or cinnamon, and feathers of chest, 
etc., often tipped with the same. 

Tiuiiuttiirc friitiilr {fi,rxt lolnter). — Still browner than the immature 
male, the back, etc., rufescent broccoli brown; broad edgings to ter- 
tials wood brown; sides and flanks more or loss washed with or inclin- 
ing to light vinaceous-cinnamon; gray of chest, etc., suffused with 
same, and white of under tail-( coverts, etc., tinged with buffy. 

ToiiiKj {first p/umi/(/r). ^Ahove, grayish brown or drab (sometimes 
slightly rufescent on back), rather broadly streaked with blackish; 
chin, throat, chest, sides, and flanks pale dull Vjuffy or buff'y grayish, 
spotted or broadly streaked (except on chin) with dusky; rest of under 
parts white, the breast usually more or less spotted or flecked with 
dusky; wings and tail as in adults, but greater wing-coverts and ter- 
tials broadly edged with cinnamon brownish, the former with lighter 
terminal spots. 

Breeding from mountains of Pennsylvania (Blair, Bradford, Cam- 
bria, Clearfield, Clinton, Indiana, Lycoming, and McKean counties), 
New York (Catskills and Adirondacks), and Massachusetts (Mount 
Wachusett, Graylock range, and Berkshire County), Ontario, central 
Michigan (northern portion of lower peninsula), northern Minnesota, 
etc.," northward to Labrador (Rigolet, etc.), western shores of Hudson 

' Seventeen specimens. 

Average measurements, according to locality, are as follows: 



Locality. 



Wing. 



Ex- 
posed 
culmen 



Depth 
of bin 
at base. 



Tarsus. 



Middle 
toe. 



MALES. 

Nonbreeding males from Maryland and District of 
Columbia (8 specimens) 

Breeding males from mountains of Penn.sylvania 
(8 specimens) 

Males from Alaska, Arizona, etc. ( 8 specimens) 

FEMALES. 

Nonbreeding females from Pennsylvania, Mary- 
land, etc. (6 specimens) 

Breeding females from mountains of Pennsylvania 
(6 specimens) 

Females from Alaska, California, etc. {6 specimens). 



79.60 



79.25 
79. 2.5 



76.18 
73.91 



66.65 
67.82 



6.3. ,50 



65. 28 
63.60 



11.43 
10.92 



11.48 
10.41 



6.60 
6.36 



6.60 
«. 10 



21.1 
20.1 



14.48 
14.73 



14.48 



14.48 
13.97 



^ Also Montana (Fort Keogh) ? ; see Thorne, Auk, xii, 1895, iV, 



280 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Bay, and through the interior to the Arctic coast and westward to val- 
leys of the Yukon and Kowak rivers, Alaska; migrating southward in 
winter to Florida (Green Cove Springs, etc.), Alabama (Coosada), Mis- 
sissippi (Amite County), Texas (Navarro County, San Antonio, Leon 
Springs, etc.), Arizona (Pinal County, Fort Whipple, Fort Mojave, 
etc.), and Califoi-nia (Los Angeles County, Santa Barbara, Riverside, 
Haywards, Pananiint range, etc.): straggling (?) to Point Barrow and 
coast of Bering Sea (Kotzebue Sound, St. Michaels, etc.), and to east- 
ern Siberia (Tschuctschi Peninsula). 

IFniigillii] hyeinalis Linn.f.us, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, i, 175.S, 183 (based on Passer 
nivalis Catesliy, Carolina, i, p. 36, pi. 36). 

Fringilla hi/ftiiiilis Boxapaete, Ann. Lye. N. Y., ii, 1828 ("Synopsis"), 109.— 
SwAiNsoN- and Richaedson, Fauna Bor.-Am., ii, 1831, 259. — Audubon, Orn. 
Biog., i, 1831, 72; v, 1839, 505, pi. 13.— Jaedine, ed. Wilson's Am. Orn., i, 
1832, 272, pi. 16, fig. 6.— Gould, Birds Europe, iii, 1837, pi. 190.— Maximilian, 
Journ. fur Orn., 185S, 277. 

F. [ringilla] hiie^naHs Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1845, 372. 

[Emheriza] hyemnlis Linnyf.us, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, i, 1766, 308. 

Emberiza hyemalis Temminck, JIan. d'Orn., iii, 1835, 234. — AVbrnee, Atlas, Gran- 
ivores, 1827, pi. 38. 

Struthus hjiemalis Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 31. — Woodhouse, in 
Sitgreaves' Expl. Zuni and Col. R., 1854, 83 (Indian Territory). 

IStruthus} hyemalis Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 475. 

NipJiaea hyemalis Audubon, Synopsis, 1839, 106; Birds Am., oct. ed., iii, 1841, 88, 
pi. 167. 

N.[iphaea'] hyemalis Caba^ih, Mus. Hein., i, 1851, 134. 

Mispiza {Niphcea) hyemalis Blyth, Cat. Birds Mus. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1849, 130. 

Junco hyemalis Sclatee, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 7; Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 
115.— Baied, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 468; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 
1859, no. 354. — Blakiston, Ibis, 1862, 6 (Forks of the Saskatchewan, Apr.); 
1863, 76 (do.) . — Dresser, Ibis, 1865, 488 (near San Antonio, Texas). — Coues, 
Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1861, 224 (coast of Labrador, breeding; habits); 
1866, 85 (Fort Whipple, Arizona, 3 specs.) ; Check List, 1873, no. 174; Bull. 
U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 593 (Souris R., North Dakota, 
Sept., Oct.). — Veeeill, Proc. Essex Inst., iii, 1862, 150 (breeding at Lake 
Umbagog, Maine, and in White Mountains). — Dall and Bannister, Trans. 
Chicago Ac. Sci., i, 1869, 284 (Nulato, Alaska,-breeding). — Allen, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., ii, 1871, 278 (e. Florida, winter); Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 
1878, 192 (Mount Wachusett, Massachusetts, breeding). — Aiken, Proc. Bost. . 
Soc.N.H., xiv, 1872,201 (Colorado, common, Mar., Apr.).— Maynaed, Proc. 
Bost. Soc. N. H., xiv, 1872, 373 (Franconia, New Hampshire, breeding); 
Birds E. N. Am., 1881, 93.— Baied, Beewer, and Ridgway, Hist. X. Am. 
Birds, i, 1874, 580, pi. 26, fig. 5. — Yarrow and Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. 
Wheeler's Surv., 1872 (1874), 15 (Iron Springs, Utah).— Henshaw, Ann. 
Lye. N. Y., xi, 1874, (i (Iron Springs); Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 266 
(do.).— Snow, Birds Kansas, 1S73, 7.— Tbnney, Am. Nat, vii, 1873, 634 
(breeding on (iraylock range, Massachusetts). — Edwards, vii, 1873, 745 
(breeding on Graylock range). — Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., v, 1873, 182 
(Colorado); Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 217.— Merriam, Am. Nat., viii, 
1874, 87 (Green Cove Springs, Florida, winter); Auk, ii, 1885, 63 (Point Bar- 
row, Alaska). — Koch, Forest and Stream, x, 1878, 422 (breeding on moun- 
tains of Pennsylvania). — Brown (N. C. ), Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 9 



BIEDS OP NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 281 

(Coosada, Alabama, winter), 107 (breeding at Scarljoro, Cape Elizabeth, etc., 
Maine) ; vii, 1882, 38 (Boerne, Kendall Co., w. Texas, winter). — Atkins, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 238 (Ingham Co., Michigan, July 8, and Cirand 
Rapids, July l.S.).— GiBBS, Bull. U. S. G. S., v, 1879, 487 (Michigan; winter 
resid. s. of 43°, breeding inn. part lovverpenins.). — Trottee, Bull. Nutt. Orn. 
Club, V, 1880, 121 (Lycoming Co., Pennsylvania, breeding). — (i.iTEs, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 239 (Berkshire C(j., Massachusetts, breeding).— 
FoEBEs, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Clu)), vi, 1881, 180 (Hardin Co., lUinois, 1 spec. 
June 9).— Oqilby, Sci. Proc. Roy. Dubl. Soc, iii, 1882 (.'^7) (Navarro 
Co., Texas, Nov. t(j Mar.). — Teclos, Quart. Journ. Bo.st. Zool. Soc, ii, 
1883, 8 (Bradford Co., Pennsylvania, breeding) . — Nelson, Cruise " Corwin" 
in 1881 (1883), 71 (Kotzebue Sound, Norton Bay, Yukon district, etc., 
Alaska); ib., 1885 (1887), 93 (upper Kowak R., Alaska, July); Rep. Nat. 
Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 191.— Murdoch, Rep. Point Barrow Exjj., 188.5, 
107 (1 spec. May 24) .—Turner, Proc. V. H. Nat. :\Ius., viii, 1885, 240 
(Davis Inlet; Rigolet, Labrador, breeding; not seen in Unga\-a) ; Contr. 
Nat. Hist. Alaska, 1886, 174 (St. Michael, May, Nov., not breeding; 
breeding at Nulato and Fort Yukon). — American Ornitholocikts' Unkjn, 
Check List, 1S86, no. .5B7.— Fox, Auk, iii, 1886, 318 (Roan 3It., e. Tennessee, 
Mar. to Apr. 16).— Seton, Auk, iii, 1886, 324 (w. Manitoba, migrant).— 
TowNSEND, Auk, iv, 1887, 13 (Kowak R., Alaska). — BECKnAM, Auk, iv, 

1887, 122 (Pueblo, Colorado, several, Oct., Nov.); Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 

1888, 638, 677, (San Antonio and Leon Springs, Texas, winter) . — Scott, Auk, 
iv, 1887, 200 (Pinal Co., Arizona, Jan. 8, 1885, Feb. 10, 11, 1886).— Palmen, 
Vega Exp., 1887, 284 (Tschuktschi peninsula, e. Siberia, June 4, 1879).^ 
CoOKE, Bird Migr. Miss. \'al., 1888, 203 (breeding from n. Minnesota north- 
ward; localities, dates, etc.); Birds Colorado, 1897, 104 (winter resid.). — 
Warren, Birds Pennsylvania, 1890, 240 (breeding in McKean and Lycom- 
ing counties). — Emerson, Zoe, i, 1890, 45 (Halywards, Alameda Co., Cali- 
fornia, Mar. 20, 1880; Santa Barbara, ilar. 14, 1883; Riverside, Feb. 10 and 
Dec. 1, 1888) .—Palmer ( W.) , Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1890, 264 (Magdalen 
Islands and Mingan, Labrador, breeding). — Macparlane, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., xiv, 1891, 443 (Anderson R., etc., breeding). — Fannin, Check List 
Birds Brit. Columbia, 1891, 36 (Chilliwack).— Holden, Auk, ix, 1892, 72 
(Melrose, Massachusetts, 1 spec. June 7). — Dwight, Auk, ix, 1892, 137 
(mountains Pennsylvania, breeding; crit.). — Hatch, Birds Minnesota, 1892, 
329 (breeding in n. Minnesota) . — McIlwraith, Birds Ontario, 1892, :-!22 
(breeding; resident) . — Todd, Auk, x, 1893, 44 (breeding in Indiana and 
Clearfield counties, w. Pennsylvania). — Fisher, North Am. Fauna, n(j. 7, 
1893, 92 (Panamint Mts., s. e. California, Apr. 3, Fort Mojave, Arizona, Mar. 
4).— (?) Thorne, Auk, xii, 1895, 217 (Fort Keogh, Montana, breeding).— 
Nehrling, Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 135, pi. 23, fig. 1.— Allex (G. M. ), 
Auk, xiv, 1897, 326 (Mount Wachusett, Massachusetts, breeding at 2,500 
feet). — Grinnell, Pub. ii, Pasadena Acad. Sci., 1898, 38 (Los Angeles Co., 
California, numerous records, Nov., Feb., Mar. ).^ — Allison, Auk, xvi, 1899, 
269 (Amite Co., Mississippi, winter). — Rhoads, Auk, xvi, 1899, 312 (breed- 
ing in Cambria, Blair, and Clinton counties, Pennsylvania). — S^^•ARTH, Bull. 
Cooper Orn. Club, i, 1899, 95 (Los Angeles, California, 2 specs. N6v. 3, 1898) ; 
Condor, iii, 1901, 17 (Mt. Wilson, Los Angeles Co., California, 2 specs. 
Dec. 5, 6).— Brooks, Auk, xvii, 1900, 107 (ChiUiwack, Brit. Columbia). 

[/u//,co] hyeinalis Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 141. 
J-luncol hyemalia Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 422. 

Junco hiemalis Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 261. — Nehrling, Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 13 (s. e. Texas, winter). — Salvin, Cat. Strickland 



282 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Coll., 1882, 232.— Brewster, Auk, i, 1884, 15 (Berkshire Co., Massachusetts, 
breeding),.— Drew, Auk, ii, 1885, 16 (Colorado, in winter) .— Bicknbll, Auk, 
ii, 18S5, 146 (song).— Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 647 (Repulse 
Bay; Fort Simpson, etc.). 

J.[uiic<i'] hiemalis Coves, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1888, 377. 

[Juuni hyemaHii] var. hijenuilix Eidgway, Am. Nat., vii, Oct., 1873, 612. — Baird, 
Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 579. 

Jmico hyemalis var. hyemalis Trippe, in Coues' Birds N. W., 1874, 144 (Colo- 
rado, not uncommon in winter). 

[Juacu hyemalis'] a. hyemalis Coues, Birds N. W., 1874, 141 (synonymy). 

\_Junco hyemalis] b. hyemalis Tbippe, in Coues' Birds N. W., 1874, 145 (crit.). 

PringilUi hudsonias Forster, Philos. Trans., Ixii, 1772, 406,428 (Severn R., Hud- 
son Bay). 

[Pringilla] hwlsonia Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, 1788, 926. 

Niphaea . . hudmiiia Lichtenstein, Nomencl. Av. Mus. Berol., 1854, 43. 

Fringilla niwilin Wilson, Am. Orn., ii, 1810, 129, pi. 16, fig. 6 (E. Pennsylvania; 
Peade's Mus.).— Nuttall, Man. Orn. U. S. and Can., i, 1832, 491. 



JUNCO HYEMALIS CAROLINENSIS Brewster. 
CAROLINA JUNCO. 

Similar to J. /<. liyninallx, but larger, especially the bill, and colora- 
tion lighter and more uniform, the head not darker than chest or back, 
and the color one or two shades lighter than in J. h. hyemalis (nearer 
slate-gray than slate-co.lor) ; bill (in life) light bluish horn color, instead 
of pinkish or lilaceous white; young similar to that of -/. h. hyemalis^ 
but less brown and more narrowly streaked above, and with ground- 
color of anterior and lateral under 'parts darker. 

Adult //W6^— Length (skins), 144.02-157.48 (154.1;s); wing, 77.72- 
82.30 (80.26); tail, 67.82-73.15 (70.36); exposed culmen, 10.67-12.19 
(11.43); depth of bill at base (two specimens), 6.10-6.35 (6.22); tarsus, 
20.32-22.61 (21.84); middle toe, 13.72-15.49 (14.73).' 

AdaU fevitdi,.—\j&n^i\x (skin.s), 139.95-151.89 (144.53); wing, 74.17- 
77.98 (75.69); tail, 61.47-70.10 (66.04); exposed culmen, 10.67-11.68 
(11.18); depth of bill at base (one specimen), 6.35; tarsus, 20.57-22.86 
(21.59); middle toe, 14.48-14.99 (14.73).' 

Breeding in the higher portions of southern Alleghanies, from Vir- 
ginia (White Toja Mountain, Salt Pond Mountain, etc.) and West Vir- 
ginia to northern Georgia, western North Carolina, and eastern 
Tennessee (Unaka Mountains); in winter descending to surrounding 
lowlands. 

Jiiiici) hyemuli« (not FriiKjIlla hyemalis Linnaeus) Baird, Brewer, and Kidq- 
way, Hist. N. Am, Birds, i, 1874, 580, iiart.— Coues, Am. Nat., x, 1876, 114 
(breeding on mountains of s. w. Virginia). — Moean, Forest and Stream, xi, 
1878, 222 (breeding in mountains of w. North Carolina and n. Georgia). — 
Eagsdale, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 238 (breeding on Unaka Mts., 
e. Tennessee). — Blanchard, Orn. and 061., ix, 1884, 23 (Macon Co., w. 



' Eight specimens. '' Six specimens. 



BIRDS OP NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 283 

North Carolina, alt. 4,000 ft.; resident).— Brewster, Auk, iii, 1HK6, 98, in 
text (mountains of w. North Carolina).— Rives, Auk, iii, 1886, 157, 160, in 
text (Salt Pond Mountain, s. w. Virginia, June).— Batchelder, .Vuk, iii, 
1886, 308 (Asheville, North Carolina, winter). 

Junco hyemalis carolinensin Brewster, Auk, iii, .Jan., 1886, 108 (Black Mountain, 
w. North Carolina; coll. W. Brewster).— Batchelder, Auk, iii, 1886, .312 
(crit.).— Bennett, Auk, iv, 1887, 242 (mountains of w. North Carolina, above 
3,000 ft.; crit.) .—Jeffries, Auk, vi, 1889, 121 (Highlands, w. North Caro- 
lina, May).— Chapman, Auk, v, 1888, 398.— Neheling, Our Native Birds, 
etc., ii, 1896, 139.— Rives, Auk, xv, 1898, 136 (spruce region, West Virginia); 
Cat. Birds Virginias, 1890, 74 (White Top Mt., breeding).— American Orni- 
thologists' Union Committee, Auk, ix, 1892, 107; Check List, 2d ed., 1895, 
no. 567c. 

J. [unco] hyemalvi carolinensis Ridgw.vy, Man. X. Am. Birds, 1887, 423. 

Junco carolinemis Brewster, Auk, iii, April, 1886, 277, in text. — American 
Ornithologists' Union, Suppl. to Check List, 1889, 13; Check List, abridged 
ed., 1889, no. 567.1.— D wight. Auk, viii, 1891, 290 (crit.). 

[Junco hiemalv^.'] Subsp. a. Junco carolinensis 8harpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xii, 1888, 649. 



JUNCO OREGANUS OREGANUS (Townsend). 
OREGON JUNCO. 

Adult iiuxl,'. — Head, neck, and chest black (sometimes inclining to 
slate-black on throat and chest), sharply or abruptly defined all round 
posteriorly; back and scapulars chestnut, chocolate, or walnut brown, 
varying to chocolate or vaudyke brown or warm sepia; rump, upper 
tail-coverts, and lesser and middle wing-coverts dull slate-gray or mouse 
gray; wings and tail blackish, the greater coverts (broadly), primaries, 
secondaries, and recti'ices (narrowly) edged with grayish; innermost 
greater coverts and secondaries with outer webs mostly brownish; out- 
ermost tail-feather white, sometimes with a little dusky on basal por- 
tion of inner web; second tail-feather mostly white, and third partly 
white near tip; sides and flanks light vinaceous- cinnamon, the latter 
more or less tinged or mixed with grayish brown; rest of under parts 
(posterior to chest) white; bill pinkish white (in life), with a little 
dusky at tip; iris reddish brown or claret red; tarsi light brownish, 
toes darker; length (skins), 139.70-154.18 (1-±1:.27); wing, 72.rt-l-78.23 
(75.18); tail, 61.72-68.33(64.77); exposed culmen, 10.41-11.43 (10.92); 
depth of bill at base (two specimens), 6.35-6.60 (6.42); tarsus, 20.-32- 
21.84 (21.08); middle toe, 13.21-15.24 (14.48).^ 

Adult female. — Quite different from the male. Head, neck, and 
chest dull slate color or mouse gray, the pileum and hindneck mostly 
brown (light bistre or sepia); back and scapulars light bistre or sepia 
brown, varying to prout's brown, lighter in color than brown of hind- 
neck; rump, upper tail-coverts, and smaller wing-coverts hair brown; 

' Ten specimens. 



284 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

second tail-feathei- always (?) with less than half its area white; other- 
wise like the male, but wings more tinged with brown, and vihaceous- 
cinnamon of sides and flanks rather duller or less pinkish; length 
(skins), 131.57-147.07 (138.68); wing, 70.61-7^.61 (71.37); tail, 59.44- 
62.48 (60.96); exposed culmen, 10.41-11.43 (10.92); depth of bill at 
base (three specimens), 6.35-6.60 (6.60); tar.sus, 19.56-21.59 (20.57); 
middle toe, 13.46-15.24 (14.48).'. 

YoniKj. — Pileuni and hindneck grayish brown streaked with black- 
ish; back and scapulars more rufescent brown (incliring to prout's 
brown) streaked with black; throat, chest, sides, and flanks dull pale 
butty streaked with blackish, the streaks broader and more or less 
wedge-shaped on chest; otherwise essentially like adults. 

[Winter adults are like summer birds, but the colors are deeper or 
richer, especially in the male, in which the back is rich vandj-ke brown, 
sharply contrasted with the deep blackof the hindneck, and the feathers 
•of chest are more or less tipped (narrowly) with whitish. 

Younger birds in winter are like adults, but the hiales, at least, have 
the difl'erently colored areas less sharply contrasted.] 

Breeding from extreme northern end of British Columbia (Port 
Simpson, etc.), north along Alaskan coast, including islands, to Yaku- 
tat Bay; accidental on Unalaska (one specimen, April 8, 1879), and on 
outer Iliasik Island, near Belkofski, Alaska Peninsula (one specimen, 
January, 1889);^ in winter, south along the coast to Santa Cruz and 
San Mateo counties, California, occasionally straggling to the interior 
(FortKlamath, e. Oregon, October; West Humboldt Mountains, Nevada, 
October). 

Fringilla oregana Townsend, Journ. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., vii, 1837, 188 ( "forests 
near the Columbia River ; ' ' type ' in U. S. Nat. llus. ) ; Narrative, 1 S39, 345. 

Fringilla oi'er/onii AnDVBON, Orn. Biog., v, 1839, 68, pi. 398. 

F.[ringilla] oregona Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1844, 372. 

■8t.ruihus oregonus Bonaparte, Geog. and Comp. List, 1838, 31. — Newberry, Rep. 
Pacific R. R. Surv., vi, pt. iv, 1857, 88, part (San Francisco, California, 
winter). 

Niphsca oregona Audubon, Synopsis, 1839, 107; Birds Am., oct. ed., iii, 1841, 91, 
pi. 168. 

Niphien oregona Baird, in Stansbury's Rep. Gt. Salt Lake, lS.'i2. 316, part (Ore- 
gon; California?). 

N.\_iphaen'\ oregoiiii Cabants, Miis. Hein., i, 1851, 134 (Sitka). 

Junco nregoirux Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1857, 7. — Bairb, Rep. Pacific R. 
R. Surv., ix, 18.58, 466, part; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 352, part.— Cooper 
and SucKLEY, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., xii, pt. ii, 1860, 202, part (Puget Sound, 
etc., winter). — Dall and Baxxister, Trans. Chicago Ac. Sci., i, 1869, 284 
(Sitka, Alaska).— Cooper, Orn. Oal., 1870, 199, part,— (?) Finsch, Abh. Nat. 
Ver. Bremen, iii, 1872, 53(Alexandrovsk, Alaska).— Coues, Check List, 1873, 
no. 175?, part; Birds N. W., 1874, 142, part. — Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, 



' Ten specimens. 

^ In collection of Chawc Littlejohn. 

"Towuf-eud's specimens, including the type, are winter birds. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 285 

Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 584, part (not pi. 2(), fig. 3, = ./. o. thurber!.\). — 
RiDGw.w, Norn. N.Am. Birds, 1881, no. 218, part; Orn. 40th Parallel, 1S77, 
473, part (AVest Humboldt Mts., Nevada, 1 spec. Oct. 3).— Bean, Proc. U. 
S. Nat. Mus.,v, 1882, 152 (Sitka, breeding).— Sh.\rpe, Cat. Birds Brit, Mus., 
xii, 1888, 650, part. 

lattco oregonus Finsch, .Tourn. fiir Orn., iss:!, 273 (Chilco<jt and Portage Bay> 
Alaska, Apr.). 

\_Jimco'] oregonus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 141, part. 

[Junco hyemalis] var. oregonus Ridgway, Am. Nat., vii, Oct., 1873, 613, part. 

Jnii.co hyemalis oregonus Ridgway, Bull. Kssex Inst., vii, Jan., 1875, 19 (West 
Humboldt ilts., Nevada). — America.v Ornithologists' Union, Check Li.st, 
1886, no. 567«, part.— Turner, Contr. Nat. Hist. Alaska, 1886, 174, part 
(Unalaska, 1 spe.c. Apr. 8). — Nelson, Rep. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1SS7, 
192, part (Sitka).— Fannin, Check List Birds Brit. Columbia, 1891, 37, part 
(resident \v. side of Cascades). — Rhoads, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1893, .50, 
part (British Columbia; crit. ). — Grinnell, Pub. ii, Pasadena Ac. Sci., 1898, 
38 (Pasadena, California, 1 spec. Nov. 24, 1896); Auk, xv, 1898, 128 (Sitka). 

.7". [wrico] hyemalis oregonus Ridgivay, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 424, part. 

Jimco hiemalis oregorMS Coues, Check List, 1882, no. 378, part. — Rhoads, Pr(jc. 
Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1893, 63, part (British Columbia). 

.7". [unco] h.[iemalis'] oregonus CouES, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 378, part. 

" Fringilla atrata Brandt, Icon. Rosso-Asiat. , pi. 2, fig. 8" (Alaska). 

Pringilla [Zonotrichia) atrata. Kittlitz, Denkw. Reise, i, 1858, 199 (Sitka). 

JUNCO OREGANUS .SHUFELDTI (Coale). 
SHUFELDT'S JITNCO. 

Similar to -/. o. oreganas but color of back much less rufescent, in 
adult males ranging from brow-ish mouse gray to sepia, in adult 
females from sepia to deep drab or broccoli brown, and black of head, 
neck, and chest averaging less intense, more slaty. 

Adult mffife.— Length (skins), 140.97-15Y.48 (149.10); wing, 76.46- 
81.79 (79.76); tail, 66.55-72.14 (69.34); exposed culmen, 10.67-11.68 
(10.92); depth of bill at base, 6.60-6.86 (6.86); tarsus, 20.07-21.59 
(20.83); middle toe, 13.46-14.48 (13.97).' 

Adult female.— Liingih (skins), 137.16-150.37 (146.30); wing. 71.63- 
78.23 (74.93); tail, 58.42-68.83 (64.77); exposed culmen, 10.41-10.92 
(10.67); depth of bill at base, 6.35-6.86 (6.60); tarsus, 20.07-21.34 
(20.57); middle toe, 12:70-14.48 (13.97).' 

Breeding from the interior of northern British Columbia (Stuart's 
Lake, etc.) east to Rockj' Mountains in Alberta, south to Vancouver 
Island, Washington, and northern Oregon,'* probably to northwestern 
Montana and western Idaho;* south in winter over entire Rocky 
Mountain plateau of the United States, to Arizona, New Mexico, and 

' Ten specimens. 

^Six specimens. 

'The only breeding specimens from Oregon are from the Maury Mountains and 
Elgin, in Union County, in the extreme northeastern corner of the State. 

■■There are two specimens in breeding plumage (decidedly worn) from Fort Bridger, 
Wyoming, taken April 12 and 14. 



286 BULLETIlSr 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

western Texas, and e\'en to northern Mexico (Sierra de los Patagones, 
Chihuahua); occasional in winter in northern (and eastern?) Califor- 
nia (Humboldt Bay, Shasta County, etc.), and straggling eastward.' 

[,S'/ru<7(Ms] oregona {not Fringilln oregana Townsend) Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 
1850, 475 (n. Mexico). 

Slruthus oregonus Woodhouse, in Rep. Sitgreaves' Expl. Zuni and Col. R., 1853, 
83 (San Francisco Mt., Arizona, Oct. ).—(?) Newberry, Rep. Pacific R. R. 
Surv., vi, pt. iv, 1857, 88, part (Oregon, in summer). 

Niphcea oregona Baied, in Stansbury's Rep. Gt. Salt Lake, 1852, 316, part (New 
Mexico; Utah). 

Junco oregonus Baikd, Rep. Pacific R. R.Snrv., ix, 1858, 466, part (chiefly), 927, 
part (Fort Bridger, Wy(^ming); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 352, part. — Ken- 
NERLY, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. vi, 1859, 28 (Zuni, New Mexico; Lit- 
tle Colorado R., Arizona). — Cooper and Suckley, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., 
xii, pt. ii, 1860, 202, part (Puget Sound, etc., breeding). — (?) Blakiston, 
Ibis, 1863, 76 (Mackenzie R.).— (?)Lord, Pr. Roy. Art. Inst. Woolw., iv, 1864, 
120 (Vancouver I.).— Coues, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 85 (Fort 
Whipple, Arizona, Oct. to May); Check List, 1873, no. 175?, part; Birds N. 
W., 1874, 142, part— (?)Bkown, Ibis, 1868, 422 (Vancouver I.).— Cooper, 
Orn. Cal., 1870, 199, part.— Stevenson, Prelim. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv., 1871 
(1872), 464 (Green R., etc., Wyoming). — Holde.n' and Aiken, Pr. Bost. Soc, 
XV, 1872, 200 (Colorado; Wyoming).— Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 
1872, 167 (Ogden, Utah, fall), 177 (Ogden, Sept.; Wahsatch Mts.).— Baird, 
Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 584, part (not pi. 26, 
fig. 3,=/. 0. thurberi). — Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1874, 
114 (Bayard, New Mexico, Oct.); List Birds Utah, 1874, 6; Zool. Exp. W. 
100th Merid., 1875, 267 (localities in Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona, Oct., 
Nov.); Auk, iii, 1886, 74 (upper Pecos R., New Mexico, fall). — Ridgwav 
Orn. 40th Parallel, 1877, 473, part (Nevada and Utah, winter); Norn. N. 
Am. Birds, 1881, no. 218, part. — Bendire, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xix, 1877, 
118 (Camp Harney, e. Oregon, winter; summit Canyon City Mts. summer). — 
Drew, Auk, vi, 1881, 90 (Colorado). — Brown, Auk, vii, 1882 (Boerne, Ken- 
dall Co., Texas, winter). 

IJunco] oregonus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 141, part. 

IJunco hyemalisi var. oregonus Ridgway, Am. Nat., vii, Oct., 1873, 613, part. 

J-lunco'] hyemalis var. oregonus Ridgway", Bull. Essex Inst., v, Nov., 1873, 170, in 
text (Wahsatch Mts., Utah, fall).— Tripf^, in Coues' Birds N. W., 1874, 144 
(Colorado). 

Junco hyemalis var. oregonux Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., v, Nov., 1873, 182 

(Colorado). 

Junco hyemalis oregonus Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., vii, Jan., 1875, 19, part (West 
Humboldt Mts., Nevada, Sept. ). — American Ornithologists' Union, Check 
List, 1886, no. 567a, part.— Anthony, Auk, iii, 1886, 169 (Washington Co., 
Oregon, breeding). — (?) Turner, Contr. Nat. Hist. Alaska, 1886, 174, part 
(Kadiak, Alaska, breeding).— (?) Nelson, Rep. Nat. Hist. Coll. Alaska, 1887, 
192, part (Kadiak).— Scott, Auk, iv, 1887, 200 (Pinal Co., s. Arizona, Oct. to 
Apr.).— Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 206,' part (w. Manitoba, etc.).— 
Merria.m, North Am. Fauna, No. 3, 1890, 96 (San Francisco Mts., Arizona, 
after Sept. 22). — Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., iii, 1890, 145 (coast British 
Columbia, breeding). 

'So many of the more eastern references to this form or to "/. oregonus" pertain 
to ./. montanvs that in the absence of specimens it is impossible to say which really 
belong here. 



BIRDS OB' NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 287 

\_.T\mco hyemalis'] c. oregonus Trippe, in Ooues' Birds N. W., 1874, 145 (Colorado, 
winter). 

J.lunco] hyemaliH ori-gomiK RrDGWAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 424, part. 

Junco hiemalu oregonus C^ouBs, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 263, part. — Allen 
and BHEW.STER, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, viii, 1883, 189 (Colorado Springs, Colo- 
rado, Apr. ) . 

J-lunco] h-lienmlis} oregonus Coues, Key X. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 378, part. 

Junco hyemalis shiifrMti Coale, Auk, iv, Oct., 1887, 330 (Fort Wingate, New 
Mexico, Oct. 13; U. S. Nat. Mus.).— Beckham, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 
1888, 677 (San Antonio, Texas, 1 spec. Dec. 30).— Chapman, Bull. Am. Muh. 
N. H., iii, 1890, 146 (plateau district British Columbia, breeding; crit.). — 
Fannin, Check List Birds Brit; Columbia, 1891, 37 (e. side Cascade 3Its.).— 
American Ornithologists' Union Committee, Auk, viii, 1891, S.5; Check 
List, 2d ed., 1895, no. 567?*, part.— Merriam, North Am. Fauna, no. 5, 1891, 
103 (mountains of Idaho, migrant). — Anthony, Auk, ix, 1892, 365 (s. w. New 
Mexico, winter resid. ); xii, 1895, 183 (near San Fernando, Lower California, 
1 spec. Mar. 29).— Fisher, North Am. Fauna, nn. 7, 1893, 93 (Charleston and 
Grapevine .Mts., Nevada, Mar.). — Rhoads, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1893, 
50 (British Columbia, crit. ).— Allen, Bull. Aui. JIus. N. H., v, 1S93, .38 
(Chuhuichupa, n. e. Sonora, Jan.). — Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Bird.s, 2d ed., 
1896, 603, part. 

Junco hiemalis shvfel'Iti Rhoads, Proc. Sc. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1893, 63 (British 
Columbia). 

Junco shufeldti Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, l.s.SS, 840, 

J.[unco1 h.[iiemiilis'] comiectens (not of Coues, 1882) Coues, Auk, xiv, 1897, 94, 
part, 

Junco hyemalis roimecteus American Ornithologists' Union Committee, Auk, 
xiv, Jan,, 1897, 128 (no, 5676) ,— Cooke, Birds Colorado, 1897, 105 (winter 
resident^, — Merrill, Auk, xv, 1898, 16 (Fort Sherman, Idaho, migr,). 



JUNCO OREGANUS THURBERI (Anthony). 
THURBER'S JTTNCO. 

Similar to ,/. o. oreganus, but wing and tail longer; adult male with 
color of back and scapulars much lighter, varying from dull light cin- 
namon-rufous or russet to almost broccoli brown or drab, that of sides 
and flanks also paler (salmon-buff or vinaceous-buff); adult female with 
color of back lighter than in J. o. oreganus (dull light mars brown or 
broccoli brown to dull cinnamon brown); young similar to that of 
J. 0. oregonas^ but upper parts (throughout) decidedly lighter. 

Adult ?n,a/e.— Length (skins), 135.13-151.38 (142.75); wing, 74.68- 
79.25 (77.98); tail, 62.99-68.07 (65.28); exposed culmen, 10.16-11.68 
(10.67); depth of bill at base, 5.84-6.35 (6.10); tarsus, 19.30-20.32 
(20.07); middle toe, 13.21-14.48 (13.97).^ 

J.(iMfe/em«fe.— Length (skins), 127.00-144.02 (137.41); wing, 71.63- 
74.68 (72.90); tail, 60.45-66.02 (62.23); exposed culmen, 10.41-10.92 
(10.67); depth of bill at base, 6.10; tarsus, 19.81-20.57 (20.32); middle 
toe, 13.21-13.72 (13.46).' 

' Eight specimens. ''■ Three specimens. 



288 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Breeding from southern Oregon (Warner Mountains, near Paulina 
Lake, Siskiyou, etc.), south through mountains of California and west- 
ern Nevada (Sierru Nevada and coast ranges), probably into northern 
Lower California; migration principally vertical; straggling to Ari- 
zona in winter (Fort Whipple, one specimen, October 29, 1864). 

(?) Prhu/illii MidKoniii- (not of Forster?) Lichtenstein, Abh. Ak. Wi.ss. Berlin for 
1838 (1.S39), 424 (California). 

Sinithus oregoims (not Fringilla oregana Townaend) Newberry, Rep. Pacific R. R. 
Surv., iv, 18.57, 88, part (Oregon and n. California in summer). 

Jannj oregonua Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 18.58, 466, part; Cat. X. Am. 
Birds, 1859, no. 352, part.— (?) Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 115 (Cali- 
fornia). — GouES, Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 85, part (Fori Whipple, Arizona, 
1 spec, winter) ; Check List, 1873, no. 175?, part; Birds N. W., 1874, 142, part.— 
Cooper, Orn. Cal., 1870, 199, part (chiefly) . — Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, 
Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 584, part, pi. 26, fig. 3; iii, 1874, 514 (breeding on 
Sierra Nevada, 5,000-9,000 ft.).— Nelson, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xvii, 1875, 
358 (Nevada, California). — Henshaw, Ann. Rep. Wheeler's Surv., 1877, 1309 
(Carson, Nevada), 1316 (e. slope Sierra Nevada). — Ridgway, Orn. 40th 
Parallel, 1877, 473, part (Carson, Nevada, breeding on Sierras); Nom. N. 
Am. Birds, 1881, no. 218, part.— Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 
416 (centr. California, breeding in Calaveras Co.). — Sharps, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 650, part. 

[Junco] oregonus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 141, part. 

.T.\_uiix:o] oregonus Henshaw, Orn. Rep. Wheeler's Surv., 1879, 296 (e. slope 
Sierra Nevada, breeding; descr. neat and eggs and young) . 

\_Junco Iniemalis] var. oregonus Ridgway, Am. Nat., vii, Oct., 1873, 613, part. 

Junco hyemalis oregomis Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., vi, Oct., 1874, 173 (Sierra 
Nevada). — American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 567a, 
part.— TowNSEND, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1887, 219 (pine belt of Mount 
Shasta and Mount Lassen, n. California, breeding). — (?) Evermann, Auk, iii, 
1886, 182 (Ventura Co., California, winter).— Morcom, Bull. Ridw. Orn. 
Club, no. 2, 1887, 49 (Bear "Valley, San Bernardino Co., California, breed- 
ing). —Bryant, Bull. no. 6, Calif. Ac. Sci., 1887, 299 (Guadalupe I., 1 spec. 
Feb. 16).— Emerson, Bull. no. 7, Cal. Acad. Sci., 1887, 423 (Volcano Mts., 
San Bernardino Co., California). 

Junco hiernalis oregonus Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 263, part. 

/. [uncol h. [iemalisj oregonus Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 378, part. 

Junco hyemalii ihurberi Anthony, Zoe, i, Oct. (j3ub. Nov. 13), 1890, 238 (Wilson's 
Peak, San Gabriel Mts., s. California; coll. A. W. Anthony); iv, 1893, 241 
(mts. n. of Ensenada, Lower California, winter till April 23). — Chapman, 
Auk, viii, 1891, 115 (crit.).— Fishek, N. Am. Fauna, no. 7, 1893, 93 (locali- 
ties). — American Ornithologists' Union Committee, Auk, ix, 1892, 106; 
Check List, 2d ed., 1895, no. 567c.— Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 
1896, 603.— Grinnell, Pub. ii, Pasadena Acad. Sci., 1898, 38 (Los Angeles 
Co., California, breeding above 5,000 ft., wintering in lowlands). — Kaeding, 
Bull. Coop. Orn. Club, i, 1899, 80 (range; descr. nest and eggs).— Merriam, 
North Am. Fauna, no. 16, 1899, 125 (Mount Shasta, n. California, breeding). 

JUNCO OREGANUS PINOSUS (Loomls). 
POINT PINOS JUNCO. 

Similar to ./ o. fhurheri, but adult male with the chin, throat, chest, 
and upper breast dull slate-color or blackish slate, instead of decided 



BIEDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 289 

black; bill longer, and general dimensions somewhat less; young much 
more stronglytinged with buflf beneath. 

Adult //«ffc.— Length (skin), l::i7.00-139.4:6 (132.08); wing, (;9.09- 
73.66 (70.87); tail, 58.42-6i.77 (61.21); exposed culmen, 10.16-11.43 
(10.92); depth of bill at base (one specimen), 6.86; tarsus, 19.sl-20.32 
(20.32); middle toe, 13.97-15.24 (14.48).' 

Adult female.— LQw^th. (skin), 124.46-143.61 (131.06); wing, 66.65- 
70.87 (68.83); tail, 58.67-60.71 (59.69); exposed culmen, 10.16-11.43 
(10.67); depth of bill at base (one specimen), 6.60; tarsus, 19.05-20.32 
(19.81); middle toe, 12.70-13.72 (13.21).' i 

Southern Coast Range of California (Point Pinos, near Monterey). 

Junco ;nnosus Looms, Auk, x, Jan., 1893, 47 (Point Pinos, Jlonterey Co., Cali- 
fornia; coll. Leland Stanford Jr. University). 

Junco hyemalis pinosus American Oknithologists' Union Committee, Auk, xi, 
Jan., 1894, 47; Check List, 2d ed., 1895, no. 567d.— Loomis, Auk, xi, 1894, 
265, pi. 7.— RiDGWAY, Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 603.— Kaeding, 
Bull. Coop. Orn. Club, i, 1899, 81 (habits). 

JUNCO MONTANUS Ridgway. 
MONTANA JTJNOO. 

Similar to J. oreganus s/mfeldti, but adult male with head, neck, and 
chest slate-gray or slate color, instead of black; similar also to J. 
mearnsi, but wing and tail decidedly shorter and color of head, neck, 
and chest much darker. 

Adult male in summer. — Head, neck, and chest slate-gray or slate 
color, sometimes approaching blackish slate on top and sides of head, the 
lores, blackish slate or slate-black; back and scapulars broccoli brown; 
smaller wing-coverts, rump, and upper tail-coverts gray (between gray 
no. 6 and smoke gray^); sides and flanks, vinaceous-cinnamon; median 
under parts, including under tail-coverts, white; greater wing-coverts, 
remiges, and six middle rectrices, dusky, edged with gray, these edg- 
ings more brown (hair-brown or broccoli brown) on innermost greater 
coverts and tertials; outermost rectrices, entirely white or with only 
a little dusky at base of inner web; second rectrix, chiefly white; 
third, dusky, with more or less of white on terminal or subterminal 
portion of inner web; bill, pale reddish or yellowish brown (pinkish 
white in life?), usually with more or less of the tip dusky; tarsi, light 
brownish; toes, darker. 

Adult female in summer. — Similar to the male, but usually rather 
duller in color, the occiput or hindneck often tinged with grayish 
brown, and the gray color of head, neck, and chest averaging rather 
lighter. 

^Five specimens. 

^ See Ridgway' s Nomenclature of Colors, pi. 2. 

17024—01 19 



290 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Ad/iiUs in viinter. — Similar in coloration to the summer plumage, but 
plumage softer. 

Young in first vmiter. — Similar to winter adults, but colors duller, 
the tertials and innermost greater coverts browner, the greater coverts 
with paler terminal spots; feathers of chest, etc., margined terminally 
with pale brownish, and bill darker. 

Adult male.— h&ngt\x (skins), 139.45-152.40 (144.53); wing, 76.71- 
83.31 (79.50); tail, 65.53-70.61 (67.56); exposed culmen, 9.91-11.18 
(10.67); depth of bill at base, 6.10-6.86 (6.35); tarsus, 20.07-20.83 
(20.57); middle toe, 14.22-14.73 (14.48).' 

Adult fi7nale.—hengi\Y (skins), 133.35-144.53 (139.19); wing, 73.15- 
76.96 (73.91); tail, 69.69-67.31 (63.50); exposed culmen, 9.91-11.18 
(10.67); depth of bill at base, 5.84-6.86 (6.35); tarsus, 19.81-20.83 
(20.32); middle toe, 13.46-14.48 (13.97).' 

Breeding from northwestern Montana (Belt Mountains, Tobacco 
Plains, Summit, St. Marys Lake, Columbia Falls, etc.), and northern 
Idaho (Thompson's Pass), north to Northwest Territory (Banff),'* and 
Alberta (Edmonton); in winter south to Arizona (Tucson), northern 
Chihuahua, western and middle Texas, etc. ; east, more or less irregu- 
larly or casually, to eastern Kansas (Topeka), Illinois (Chicago, etc.), 
Michigan (Ingham County), northern Indiana (West Lafayette), Mas- 
sachusetts (Watertown), Maryland (Laurel),' etc. 

Junco oregonus (not Fnngilla oregana Townsend) Baikd, Rep. Pacific E. R. Surv., 
ix, 1858, 927, part (Fort Bridger, Wyoming) ; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 
352, part(?)°.— (?) Snow, Birds Kansas, 1873, 7 (Topeka, 1 spec. March 29); 
3d ed., 1875, 7 (do.).— (?) Beewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, i, 1876, 19 
(Watertown, Massachusetts, 1 spec. Mar. 25, 1874) — (?) Coale, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, ii, 1877, 82 (Chicago, Illinois, 1 spec. Oct. 14).— (?) Covert, 
Science News, i, no. 4, 1878, 64 (Michigan).— (?) Allen, Bull. Nutt. Orn. 
Club, iv, 1879, 123 (Ingham Co., Michigan, 1 spec. Oct.). — Williams, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 62 (Belt Mts., Montana, breeding).— (?) Gibbs, 
Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., v, 1879, 487 (Michigan, accidenta,l) . 

/. \_unco'] hy emails var. oregonus Trippe, in Coues' s Birds N. W. , 1874, 144, part 
(Colorado, in winter). 

IJunco hyemalis] u. oregonus Trippe, in Goues's Birds N. W., 1874, 144, part 
(Colorado, in winter). 

(?) Junco hyemalis oregonus Seton, Auk, iii, 1886, 324 (w. Manitoba, migrant). — 
Cooke, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 206, part. 

' Eight specimens. 

'^ Five specimens. 

^ A nest and eggs, with the female parent, collected at Banff in June, 1898, were sent 
to me for identification by Mr. Charles E. Doe, of Providence, R. I. 

•All these supposed records from east of the Missouri River are more or less doubt- 
ful, except that pertaining to Laurel, Maryland, which alone has been seen by me 
since the present form was differentiated. Some of them — possibly all — may be 
referable to /. oreganus shufeldti. 

5 Many of the records queried above may belong to ./. oreganus xhufeldti, but not 
having seen the specimens on which they are based, I have thought best to place • 
them under /. montanus provisionally. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 291 

Junco hyemalis shufeldti (not of Coale) Ridgway, Auk, vii, 1890, 289 (Laurel, 
Maryland, 1 spec. Apr. 28, 1890.— (?) Pkaegeh, Auk, xii, 1895, 85 (w. Illi- 
nois, opp. Keokuk, Iowa, 1 spec. Dec. 16). — American Ornithologists' ' 
Union, Check List, 2d ed., 1895, no. 5676, part (Maryland, Massachusetts 
(?), etc.). — (?) Butler, Birds Indiana, 1897, 965 (Lafayette, 1 spec. Jan. 
20, 1891). 

(?) Junco hyemalis connectens (not of Coues?) Merrill, Auk, xv, 1898, 16, part 
(Fort Sherman, Idaho, migrant) . 

Junco montanus 'RiBGw AY, Auk, xv, Oct., 1898, 321 (Columbia Falls, Montana; 
U. S. Nat. Mus. ). — American Ornithologists' Union Committee, Auk, xvi, 
1899, 119 (no. 567.1). —Cooke, Auk, xvi, 1899, 188 (Pueblo, Colorado, Oct.). 



JUNCO MEARNSI Ridgway. 
PINK-SIDED JXrSCO. 

Adult male in summer. — Head, neck, and chest plain gray, darker 
(slate-gray) above, paler (no. 6 gray') beneath; lores blackish slate.; 
back and scapulars broccoli brown or drab; smaller wing-coverts, 
rump, and upper tail-coverts plain graj^ (a rather dull shade of No. 6 
or approaching smoke gray); sides and flanks (broadly) pinkish, 
vinaceous-cinnamon, or buff -pink; median under parts, including under 
tail-coverts, white; wings and tail dusky; the greater coverts (except 
outermost) and tertials broadly edged with broccoli brown or wood 
brown; rest of remiges and outermost greater coverts and six middle 
rectrices edged with gray; two outermost rectrices white, except at 
extreme base, the third largely white; bill pale yellowish brown in 
dried skins (pinkish white in life?), usually with more or less of the tip 
dusky; tarsi light brownish, toes darker. 

Adult female in sum,mer. — Similar to summer male, but colors aver- 
aging less pure, the gray of head, etc. , more brownish, (more mouse 
gray above, smoke gray below), the vinaceous of sides and flanks less 
pinkish, and, usually, with inner web of second tail-feather largely 
dusky. 

Adtdts in winter. — Not essentially different from summer adults, 
but plumage softer and the gray purer and rather lighter, that of the 
chest faintly varied by still paler tips to the feathers. 

Young in first winter. — Much like winter adults, but gray of pileum 
and hindneck more or less washed with, or overlaid by, broccoli brown 
or hair brown, that of the chest tinged with the vinaceous-pink color 
of the sides, usually (especially in females) f oraiing a more or less dis- 
tinct broad band connecting the two lateral pinkish areas, the gray of 
the throat, etc., also lighter than in adults, and often tinged or mixed 
with vinaceous-pink; under tail-coverts buffy white or pale buff; bill 
more dusky than in adults. 

Young {_first plumage). — Pileum and hindneck brownish gray or hair 
brown, broadly streaked- with blackish; back and scapulars broccoli 

^ See Ridgway's Nomenclature of Colors, plate 2. 



292 BULLETIN 50, TINITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

brown broadly streaked with blackish; middle and greater wing-coverts 
and tertials narrowly tipped with light brownish buflf; chin and throat 
pale buffy grayish, streaked with darker; chest, sides, and flanks dull 
bufl'y, streaked with dusky; breast marked with wedge-shaped streaks 
or spots of duskA'; otherwise like winter adults. 

Aihilt male.^'hGngth (skins), 144.03-155.19 (160.11); wing, 79.76- 
84.84 (82.30); tail, 67.06-73.41 (69.85); exposed culmen, 10.16-10.92 
(10.67); depth of bill at base (one specimen), 6.60; tarsus, 18.80-21.69 
(20.32); middle toe, 12.19-14.99 (13.97).' 

Adult feruale.^ljengt}! (skins), 137.92-150.88 (143.26); wing, 73.66- 
85.60 (78.49); tail, 65.79-73.66 (67.31); exposed culmen, 10.16-11.43 
(10.67)-; depth of bill at base, 6.10-6.86(6.35); tarsus, 18.54-21.08(20.07); 
middle toe, 13.21-14.48 (13.72).' 

Breeding in southern Idaho (Sawtooth and Salmon River Mountains, 
Teton Canon, etc.) and south-central Montana (Bighorn Mountains, 
etc.); migrating southward in winter through Wyoming, Colorado, 
etc., to southern Arizona (Santa Catalina Mountains), northeastern 
Sonora (Rancheria de los Apaches, etc.), southern New Mexico, etc. 

Junco annectens (part) Baied, in Cooper's Orn. Cal., 1870, 564 (Fort Bridger, 
Wyoming; Fort Burgwyn, New Mexico; Fort Whipple, Arizona). 

J.lunco} annectens Teippe, in Cones' Birds N. W., 1874, 145 (Idaho .Springs, 
Colorado ; crit. ) . 

Junco annectens Ridgway, Field and Forest, iii, 1877, 11 (Boulder, Colorado; 
descr. specimen with pinkish chest) ; Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 219, 
part.— Merrill, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1881, 205 (Big Horn Mts., Mon- 
tana, breeding; descr. nest and eggs). — Allen and Brewster, Auk, viii, 
1883,190 (Colorado Springs, Colorado, Mar. and early Apr.). — Drew, Auk, 
ii, 1885, 16 (Colorado; vertical range) . — Batohblder, Auk, ii, 1885, 306 (Las 
Vegas, New Mexico, Dec). — Henshaw, Auk, iii, 1886, 74 (upper Pecos R., 
New Mexico, in fall) . — American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, 
no. 568, part. — Beckham, Auk, iv, 1887, 123 (Pueblo, Colorado, Oct., Nov.).— 
Scott, Auk, iv, 1887, 200 (Santa Catalina Jits., Arizona, up to 10,000 ft., Nov., 
Feb.).— Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 651.— Merriam, N. Am. 
Fauna, no. 5, 1891, 103 (Salmon River and Sawtooth Mts., Idaho, breed- 
ing). — Anthony, Auk, ix, 1892, 365 (Grant Co., s. w. New Mexico, winter). — 
Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., v, 1893, 38 (Rancheria de los Apaches, n. e. 
Sonora, Jan.).— Lowb, Auk, xi, 1894, 269 (Wet Mts., Colorado, 8,500 ft.).— 
Richmond and Knowlton, Auk, xi, 1894, 306 (mountains of south-central 
Montana, breeding). 

/. [imco] annectens Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 424. 

[Junco oregoniia] var. annectens Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1873 
(1874), 113 (crit). 

Junco oregonus . . . var. annectens Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 
1874, 115 (Silver City, New Mexico, Oct. 24; El Paso Co., Colorado, Dec); 
Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 268, pi. 8 (Colorado, New Mexico, and 
Arizona, in winter). 

Junco oregonus annectens Drew, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, Apr., 1881, 90 (San 
Juan Co., Colorado, in flocks of J. aikeni). 

' Eight specimens. 



BIRDS OP NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 293 

Junco hyemalis . . . var. annectens Eidgway, Bull. Essex Inst., v, Nov., 1873, 182 

(Colorado). 
J.luncol hyemalis annectens Eidgway, Bull. Essex Inst., vi, Oct., 1874, 174 

(EockyMts). 
Junco hiemalia annectens Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 264. 
/. [unco] h. [iemaUs] annectens Coues, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 379. 
Junco oregonus (not Fringilla oregana Townsend) Mbkeiam, Bull. U. S. Geol. 

Surv. Terr, for 1872 (1873), 681 (Teton Canon, Idaho, July 24; Lower Geyser 

Basin and Snake Eiver, Idaho, Aug., Sept.). 
{Junco cinereus var. caniceps] b. caniceps (not Struthus caniceps Woodhouse) Coues, 

Birds N. W., 1874, 143, part. 
"Hybrid between oregonus and caniceps" Baird, Beewbe and Eidgway, Hist. 

N.Am. Birds, i, 1874, 579, footnote (part). 
Junco meamsi Eidgway, Auk, xiv, Jan., 1897, 94 (Fort Bridger, Wyoming; 

U.S. Nat. Mus.). — American Oknithologists' Union Committee, Auk, xiv, 

Jan., 1897, 128 (no. 568). —Cooke, Birds Colorado, 1897, 105 (winter resid., 

e. to Fort Lyon). 



JUNCO TOWNSENDI Anthony. 
TOWNSEND'S JTTNCO, 

Adults in summer {sexes alihe). — Similar to J. montanus, but back 
and scapulars light grayish, hair brown, or drab-gray, instead of broc- 
coli brown, and with more white on tail, the third rectrix being, 
usually, chiefly (sometimes almost entirely) white. (Similar also to J. 
meamsi, but wing and tail shorter, bill longer, gray of head, neck, and 
chest darker, and back much grayer.) 

Adult male.—hQngt\i (skins), 132.08-144.53 (140.46); wing, 75.44- 
81.79 (78.49); tail, 63.75-68.58 (66.80); exposed culmen, 10.67-11.43 
(11.18); depth of bill at base, 6.60-6.86 (6.73); tarsus, 20.07-21.34 
(20.57); middle toe, 13.46-14.73 (14.22).' 

Adult female.— l^ength (skins), 133.60-144.27(138.94); wing, 72.14- 
81.03 (75.18); tail, 63.50-65.79 (64.52); exposed culmen, 10.67-11.94 
(10.92); depth of bill at base, 6.35-6.86 (6.60); tarsus, 20.07-20.83; 
(20.57); middle toe, 12.70-13.97 (13.46).' 

Northern Lower California (San Pedro Martir Mountains). 

Junco tovmsmdi Anthony, Proc. Calif. Ac. Sci., 2d ser., ii, Oct. 11, 1889, 76 (San 
Pedro Martir Mts., n. Lower California; coll. A. W. Anthony); Zoe, iv, 1893, 
241 (San Pedro Martir Mts., in pine region; descr. nest and eggs). — Ameri- 
can Ornithologists' Union Committee, Auk, vii, 1890, 63; Check List, 2d 
ed., 1895, no. 571. 1.— Eidgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 603. 

JUNCO INSULARIS Ridgway. 
eTTADAitrpE Jirifoo. 

Adults (sexes alike). — Similar to J. townsendi^ but with much shorter 
wing and tail; decidedly larger and proportionately longer bill, and 

' Six specimenst ^ Five specimens. 



294 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

larger feet; back and scapulars browner (deep broccoli brown or 
light bistre); pileum and hindneck more brownish slate; throat and 
chest much lighter gray (smoke gray); vinaceous-cinnamon of sides 
and flanks deeper, and with less white on lateral rectrioes; bill darker 
(horn color or dull flesh color in dried skins), with basal portion of 
maxilla dusky; legs and feet horn color. 

Youiig. — Pileum and hindneck deep brownish gray streaked with 
dusky; back and scapulars broccoli brown streaked with dusky; sides 
of head dull gray or brownish gray obsoletely streaked with dusky; 
chin and throat pale buffy grayish, the lower part of the latter streaked 
with dusky grayish; chest more buily, with streaks broader, darker, 
more wedge-shaped; sides pinkish buff anteriorly passing into buffy 
grayish on flanks, streaked with dusky; maxilla dusky, mandible light 
brownish basally, dusky terminally; otherwise, much like adults. 

Adult male.—hengi\i (skins), 138.43-144.27 (140.97); wing, 67.82- 
69.85 (68.68); tail, 58.17-59.18 (68.67); exposed culmen, 12.70-13.21 
(12.95); depth of bill at base, 6.60-7.11 (6.86); tarsus, 20.83-21.08 
(20.83); middle toe, 14.48-14.73 (14.60).^ 

Adult female.— Ijength. (skins), 136.1-1-139.19 (137.67); wing, 63.50- 
64.62 (64.01); exposed culmen, 12.70; depth of bill at base, 6.60; 
tarsus, 20.67-20.83 (20.67); middle toe, 14.22-14.48 (14.36).' 

Guadalupe Island, off Lower California. 

Junco insularis Eidgway, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., ii, no. 1, Apr. 1, 
1876,188 (Guadalupe Island, Lower California; U. S. Nat. Mua. ) ; Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Club, ii, 1877, 60, 61; Norn. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 223.— American Or- 
nithologists' UNi0N,Check List, 1886, no. 573,— Bryant, Bull.Cal. Acad. Sci., 
no. 6, 1887, 300 (habits; descr. nest and eggs) . — Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xii, 1888, 652.— TowNSBND, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1890, 138. 

J. [unco] insularis Eidgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 425. 

JUNCO BAIRDI Belding. 
BAIRD'S JTJNCO. 

Adults in siommer {sexes alike). — Pileum and hindneck brownish 
slate-gray or smoke gray, this color extending over sides of head, but 
fading below to very pale gray (almost grayish white) on malar region, 
chin, throat, and chest; lores dusky or blackish slate; back and scapu- 
lars cinnamon, sometimes tinged with cinnamon-rufous and occasion- 
ally duller (near wood brown) in middle of back; rump Isabella color, 
becoming hair brown or grayish drab below and on upper tail-cov- 
erts; outer surface of greater wing-coverts and tertials, mostly wood 
brown or Isabella color; secondaries, primaries, and eight middle 
rectrices dusky grayish, edged with pale olive-grayish, these edgings 
much lighter and more sharply defined on primaries; outermost 

'Three specimens. ^Two specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 295 

rectrix mostly white, but basal portion of inner web extensively 
dusky; second rectrix with terminal third (approximately) of inner 
web white; sides and flanks pinkish buff; l)reast, abdomen, and under 
tail-coverts white; maxilla dusky brown, mandible yellowish (bright 
yellow in life); iris bright orange-j^ellow; tarsi light brown, toes 
darker. 

Adults in winter.— '&imi\a.x to summer adults, but plumage softer, 
colors rather deeper (the back, throat, and chest especially), the 
hindneck and occiput usually washed or tinged with light brown. 

Toung. — Much like adults, but pileum and hindneck buffy grayish, 
streaked with dusky; back and scapulars streaked with dusky; chin 
and throat dull white, flecked with dusky; chest pale buffy, with 
wedge-shaped dusky streaks, and sides and flanks light buffy. 

^cZ-mZ?; mafes.— Length (skins), 130.81-l-i8.08 (141.22); wing, TO.87- 
72.39 (71.37); tail, 60.96-65.79 (64.01); exposed culmen, 10.67-11.43 
(11.18); depth of .bill at base (one specimen), 7.11; tarsus, 20.67-21.34 
(20.83); middle toe, 13.46-14.99 (14.22).' 

Ad'idt females-.— lu^ng^h (skins) 133.35-141.73 (137.67); wing, 66.80- 
68.33 (67.56); exposed culmen, 10.67-10.92 (10.79); depth of bill at 
base, 7.11; tarsus, 20.07; middle toe, 13.97.' 

Southern part of Lower California (Victoria Mountains, Mount 
Miraflores, etc.). 

Junco hairdi " Belding, MS." Eidgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.,vi, no. 10, Oct. 5, 
1883, 155 (Laguna, Lower California; U. S. Nat. Mus.)', 348 (crit.).— Bel- 
ding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vi, 1883,348 (Victoria Mts., Lower California, 
alt. 3,000 ft.) .—American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no.571.— 
Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 653. 

J. \unco\ hairdi Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 425. 

JUNCO CANICEPS (Woodhouse). 
GRAY-HEADED JUNCO. 

Head, neck, chest, and sides gray; interscapulars rufous or brown, 
but none of this color on wings; bill light brown (pinkish in life). 

Adults in s%mi7rter {sexes alike). — Head, neck, chest, sides, flanks, 
scapulars, smaller wing-coverts, rump, and upper tail-coverts plain 
slate-gray, the inferior portions lighter (intermediate between gray 
no. 7 and olive-gray); abdomen, anal region, and under tail-coverts 
white; lores slate-blackish; interscapulars cinnamon-rufous, forming 
a conspicuous dorsal patch, this sometimes broken by admixture of 
grayish (rarely — in some females only ? — replaced by a patch of rusty 
olive-brownish) ; greater wing-coverts, remiges, and six middle rectrices 
duskj'', edged with slate-grayish (edgings on primaries narrower, more 
sharply defined, and paler); outermost rectrices white, the second 

^ Five specimens. ^ Two specimens. 



296 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

chiefly white, and third partly white; bill pale brownish or vinaceous 
in dried skins, pinkish in life; iris brown; tarsi pale yellowish brown, 
toes darker. 

Adults in winter. — Similar to summer adults, but plumage softer 
and colors perhaps rather deeper, especially the gray of chest, etc. ; 
tip of bill more or less dusky. 

You7ig in first winter. — Essentially like adults, but the gray of chest 
and other under parts decidedly paler, less pure, and less strongly con- 
trasted with the more buffy white of abdomen, etc. ; sides and flanks 
more or less tinged with bufly or light cinnamon; reddish brown of 
back duller; tertials broadly edged with cinnamon or cinnamon-brown; 
bill rather darker, more extensively dusky at tip. 

Young. — Pileum and hindneck dull grayish, streaked with blackish; 
sides of head and neck rather lighter grayish, more obsoletely streaked; 
throat and chest pale grayish, streaked with dusky, the latter more 
buffj', with the streaks broader or more wedge-shaped; sides and flanks 
buffy grayish, streaked with dusky; back rusty brownish (approach- 
ing mars brown), streaked with blackish; tertials broadly edged with 
brown; otherwise much like adults, but bill more dusky brownish. 

Adult «!.a/e.— Length (skins), 142.75-157.23 (152.40); wing, 81.53- 
86.61 (84.58); tail, 68.58-74.68 (72.14); exposed culmen, 10.67-11.94 
(11.18); depth of bill at base, 6.60-7.11 (6.86); tarsus, 19.81-21.59 
(20.57); middle toe, 13.72-15.24(14.22).' 

Adid.t female. —hQ^gih (skins), 140.72-150.88 (144.78); wing, 74.93- 
83.82 (78.74); tail, 62.99-71.37 (66.55); exposed culmen, 10.41-11.68 
(10.92); depth of bill at base, 6.60-6.86 (6.73); tarsus, 19.30-21.34 
(20.57); middle toe, 13.21-15.24 (14.22).' 

Breeding in mountains of southern Wyoming (Fort Bridger, etc.), 
Colorado (Summit, San Juan, and Costilla counties, etc.), Utah (Uintah 
and Wahsatch mountains), Nevada (Toyabe Mountains) and northern 
New Mexico (upper Pecos River); migrating in winter to surrounding 
lowlands and southward to northeastern Sonora (Bavispe E.., Napolera, 
etc.), northern Chihuahua, southern New Mexico, etc., casually to 
southern California (Pasadena, Los Angeles County); accidental east- 
ward to Michigan (Locke, Ingham County) ? 

StnUhxis caniceps Woodhouse, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., vi, Dec, 1852, 202 (San 
Francisco Mt., Arizona; U. S. Nat. Mus.?); in Rep. Sitgreaves' Expl. Zuni 
andCol.R.,1853, 83,pl. 3. 

.Tunco caniceps Baied, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 468, 927, part; ed. 1860 
("Birds N. Am."), atlas, pi. 72, fig. 1; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 353; in 
Cooper's Orn. Cal., i, 1870, 201, part (includes /. dorsalis). — Codes, Proc. 
Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1866, 85 (Fort Whipple, Arizona, winter; crit. ). — 
Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 177 (mountains of Colorado, 7,500 
ft. to timber line); Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 123 (Locke, Ingham Co., 
Michigan, 1 spec. Oct. 22, 1878). — Baied, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. 

' Eight specimens. 



BIEDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 297 

Am. Birds, i, 1874, 587, pi. 26, fig. 3.— Trippe, in Coues' Birds X. "W., 1874, 
144, 145 (habits; crit).— Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1874, 
80 (near Fort Garland, Colorado, breeding; habits) ; Auk, iii, 1886, 74 (upper 
Pecos R., New Mexico, breeding above 6,000 ft.). — Ridgway, Bull. Essex 
Inst., vii, 1875, 33 (Wahsatch Mts., Utah, breeding); Field and Forest, iii, 
1877, 11 (Boulder, Colorado; descr. of specimen with white wing-bands and 
rufous crown) ; Orn. 40th Parallel, 1877, 474 (Wahsatch and Uintah Mts., 
Utah, breeding); Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 220. — Aike.x, Am. Sportsman, 
V, 1875, 370 (descr. nestand eggs).— Brewer, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 
72 (Summit Co., Colorado, breeding; descr. eggs). — Allen and Brewster, 
Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club,viii,1883,190 (Colorado Springs, Colorado, till May 1).— 
Drew, Auk, ii, 1885, 16 (Colorado, breedingat 12,000 ft.). — Batchelder, Auk, 
ii, 1885, 123, in text (Las Vegas, New Mexico, winter). — Beckham, Auk, ii, 
1885, 141 (Pueblo, Colorado, Apr., 1 spec. June 1). — American Ornitholo- 
gists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 569.— Scott, Auk, i\-, 1887, 201 (Santa Cat- 
alina Mts., s. Arizona, Oct. 15 to Mar.). — Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 
1888, 654.— Merriam, North Am. Fauna, no. 3, 1890, 96 (crit. i).— Anthony, 
Auk, ix, 1892, 365 (s. w. New Mexico in winter). — Allex, Bull. Am. Mus. 
N. H., V, 1893, 39 (Napolera, BavispeE., etc., n. e. Sonora, Dec. to Jan.).— 
Lowe, Auk, xi, 1894, 269 (Wet Mts. , Colorado, breeding at 11, 000 ft. ) .—Cooke, 
Bull. Col. Agric. Coll., no. 44, 1898, 166 (breeding at Magnolia, BoulderCo., 
7,500 ft.). — Geinnell, Pub. ii, Pasadena Acad. Sci., 1898, 38 (near Pasadena, 
Los Angeles Co., California, 1 spec. Oct. 26, 1894; see also ICaeding, Bull. 
Coop. Orn. Club, i, 1899, 81). 

IJtmco'] caniceps Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 93, no. 7370. 

J. [u7ico'] caniceps Ridgway^, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 423. 

[Juncol dnereus var. caniceps Codes, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 141. 

Junco cxTiereus . . . var. caniceps Coues, Check List, 1873, no. 176. — Henshaw, Zool. 
Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 269 (Fort Garland, Colorado, etc., breeding). 

\_Junco dnereus var. caniceps} b. caniceps Coues, Birds N. W., 1874, 143, part 
(excl. syn. dorsalis Henry, and annectens Baird). 

Junco dnereus var. camceps Nelson, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xvii, 1875, 344 (30 
m. s. of Fort Bridger, Wyoming). 

Junco dnereus caniceps Drew, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, Apr., 1881, 90 (San Juan 
Co., Colorado, breeding; descr. nest and eggs; notes). — Brewster, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 194 (Chiricahua Mts., etc., s. Arizona, Mar.).— 
Scott, Auk, ii, 1885, 174 (Santa Catalina Mts., s. Arizona, Nov.). 

\_Junco hyemalis'] var. caniceps Ridgway, Am. Nat., vii, Oct., 1873, 613 (crit.). 

Junco hyemalis, var. caniceps Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., v, Nov., 1873, 170 (in 
text), 172 (Wahsatch Mts., Utah, breeding, 8,000-10,000 ft.). 

Junco hyemalis . . . var. caniceps Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., v, Nov., 1873, 182 
(Colorado). 

Junco hiemalis caniceps Coues, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 265. 

J.luncol h.[iemalis} caniceps Codes, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 379. 



JUNCO DORSALIS Henry. 
RED-BACKED JUNCO, 

Similar to J. caniceps, but with longer tail, much larger bill, with max- 
illa blackish, and with the anterior and lateral under parts much paler 
gray; similar to J. phcBonoticspalUatus, but with wing and tail decidedly 

' Woodhouse's bird from San Francisco Mt. believed to be /. phseonotus palliaius. 



298 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

longer, bill larger, with mandible flesh-colored or lilac whitish instead 
of yellow, iris brown instead of yellow, rufous of upper parts con- 
fined to the interscapular region (the scapulars and greater wing- 
coverts being pure gray), and with the two lateral rectrices more 
extensive!}' white. 

Adult ma^^.— Length (skins), 147.57-163.83 (154.43); wing, 81.79- 
86.61 (84.58); tail, 72.90-76.96 (75.18); exposed culmen, 11.18-12.70 
(11.94); depth of bill at base, 7.11-8.13 (7.62); tarsus, 19.81-22.10 
(21.34); middle toe, 14.22-15.24 (14.99).^ 

A(Mt female.— L&ngih (skins), 139.45-155.45 (146.30); wing, 76.20- 
81.53 (79.25); tail, 68.33-74.17 (70.36); exposed culmen, 11.43-12.19 
(11.68); depth of bill at base, 7.37-7.62 (7.62); tarsus, 20.57-21.08 
(20.83).' 

Breeding on high mountains of New Mexico (Nutria, San Miguel 
County, Lincoln County, etc.) and central Arizona (White Mountains, 
San Francisco Mountains, MogoUon Mountains, near Apache, etc.); 
southward in winter to northeastern Sonora, northwestern Chihuahua 
(San Diego), and western Texas (Fort Davis). 

Strathus caniceps Woodhouse," in Rep. Sitgreaves' Expl. Zuni and Col. E,., 1853, 
83, part (description?). 

Juneo dorsalis Henky, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., x. May, 1858, 117 (Fort Thorn, 
New Mexico; U. S. Nat. Mus. ) ; 1859, 107 (Fort Stanton, New Mexico, breed- 
ing).— Baihd, -Eep. Pacific E. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 467; ed. 1860 (" Birds N. 
Am."), atlas, pi. 28, fig. 1; Cat. N.Am. Birds, 1859, no. 351.— Brewer, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 73 (near Camp Apache, Arizona, breeding; 
descr. eggs). — Ridgway, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 221. — Shaepe, Cat. 
Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 655 ("Fort Bridger, Utah" »). 

[Junco] dorsalis Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 93, no. 7371. 

[Junco caniceps] var. dorsalis Hensh.aw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1873 
(1874), 113 (crit). 

Junco caniceps . . . var. dorsalis JiKSsaAw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1873 
(1874), 115 (Nutria, New Mexico, July; White Mts., New Mexico, Sept.; 
White Mts., Arizona, Sept.; habits). 

Junco cinereus . . . var. dorsalis Henshaw, Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 270, 
pi. 9 (White Mts., Arizona, July; mts. of s. w. New Mexico; Nutria, New 
Mexico, July 19; Camp Apache, Arizona, breeding; habits; descr. nest and 



Junco cinereus var. dorsalis Stephens, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, April, 1878, 94 
(breeding in higher mts. of New Mexico). 

■ Junco cinereus dorsalis Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, Oct., 1882, 195 (Chiri- 
cahuaMts., s. Arizona, Mar. 26). — Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii; 
1885, 355; Auk, ii, 1885, 364 (crit.); Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 423.— Ameki 
CAN Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 570a. — Scott, Auk, iv, 
1887, 201 (Santa Catalina Mts., s. Arizona, Jan., Apr.). — Alle.\, Auk, iv. 
1887, 201 (crit.) ; Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., v, 1893, 39 (San Diego, n. w. Chi' 
huahua, Nov.).— Cooke, Bird Jligr. Miss. Val., 1888, 206 (Fort Davis, w 

^ Eight specimens. 
^ Three specimens. 
■' Either the identification or the locality erroneous. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 299 

j.exas, winter). — Meakns, Aiik, vii, 1890, 259 (breeding on northern Mogol- 
lon Mts. and San Francisco Mts., Arizona). — Mebriam, X.Am. Fauna, no. 3, 
1890, 40 (Grand Canon of the Colorado), 96 (San Francisco ]Mts., Arizona, 
breeding in pine and spruce belts). 

Junco hiemalis dorsalis Coue,s, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 266. 

/. [unco'] h. [iemalis] dor-vilis CouEs, Key X. Am. Birds, 2d ed. , 1884, 379. 

Junco phieonotus dorsalix Ridgtvay, Auk, xii, Oct., 1895, 391. — American Orni- 
thologists' Union, Check List, 2d ed., 1895, no. 570a. — Cooke, Birds Colo- 
rado, 1897, 106 (Fort Lewis, s. w. Colorado, spring, 1887). — JIitchell, Auk, 
XV, 1898, 310 (San Miguel Co., New Mexico; breeding at 8,000 ft.). 

/.[unco] phxonotus dorsatis ■Eidgwav, Man. N. Xxn. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 423. 

" Hybrid between canireps and cinereus" Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. 
X. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 579, footnote. 

JUNCO PHiEONOTUS PHXONOTUS Wagler. 
MEXICAN JUNCO. 

Similar to J. ccmiceps, but bill smaller, wings and tail shorter, max- 
illa black, mandible yellow, iris yellow, greater wing-coverts, tertials, 
and scapulars cinnamon-rufous, like back, and under parts more exten- 
sively grayish. 

Adults in summer {sexes alike). — Head and neck, superiorly and lat- 
erally, plain deep gray (intermediate between slate-gray and mouse 
gray); malar region, chin, throat, chest, and sides decidedly paler 
gray (olive-gray to light drab-gray), the flanks tinged, more or less, 
with olive; abdomen, anal region, and under tail-covertg white, but the 
white shading gradually into the gray anteriorly and laterally; lores 
and anterior portion of chin blackish; back and scapulars cinnamon- 
rufous, sometimes tinged or mixed with olive; rump olive or hair 
brown, passing into a more grayish hue on upper tail-coverts; smaller 
wing-coverts mouse gray; outer webs of greater coverts and tertials 
cinnamon-rufous or russet; secondaries, primaries, and eight middle 
rectrices dusky edged with gray, these edgings narrower, more sharply 
defined, and much lighter gray on primaries; outermost rectrix mostly 
white, the inner web, however, with more than basal half dusky; 
second with less than terminal half of inner web white; third usually 
without any white; maxilla black, mandible yellowish; iiis bright 
yellow; tarsi pale yellowish brown, toes darker. 

Adults in winter. — Similar to summer adults, but plumage softer 
and colors rather deeper. 

Young in first winter. — Similar to adults, but paler below, the throat 
almost white, the pale gray of chest and sides faintly tinged with pale 
buff jr olive, the rump more olivaceous, and the rusty color of back less 
sharply defined against the gray of the hindneok. 

Young. — Much like adults, but pileum, hmdneck, back, throat, 
chest, sides, and flanks streaked with blackish, the gray of head and 
neck duller, more olivaceous, that of the under parts much paler or 



300 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

replaced hj grayish white, and flanks and other posterior lower parts 
more or less tinged with buffy. 

Adult mfflZe.— Length (skins), 143.51-159.77 (161.64); wing, 77.22- 
84.07 (79.50); tail, 68.83-73.66 (71.63); exposed culmen, 11.43-12.19 
(11.94); depth of bill at base, 7.11-7.87 (7.37); tarsus, 20.57-22.35 
(21.59); middle toe, 13.97-15.24 (14.73).' 

Adult fewale.— Length (skins), 138.94-150.88 (145.29); wing, 70.61- 
76.71 (75.69); tail, 65.02-70.87 (68.58); exposed culmen, 10.67-12.45 
(11.68); depth of bill at base, 6.60-7.62 (7.11); tarsus, 20.83-22.10 
(21.34); middle toe, 13.72-14.99 (14.22).' 

High mountains of central and southern Mexico, in States of San 
Luis Potosi, Hidalgo, Vera Cruz, Puebla, Oaxaca (Mount Zempoal- 
tepec), Mexico, Tlaxcala, Michoacan, Jalisco, Durango, Coahuila (Sierra 
Encarnacion), and southern Chihuahua (Colonia Garcia). 

FrincjUla cinerea (not of Gmelin, 1788) Swainson, Philos. Mag., new ser., i, 1827, 
435 (Temaacaltepec, Mexico). 

F. [ringillri] cinerea Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1849, 372. 

[Juncol cinerea Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 486. 

Junco cinereus Gabaxis, Mus. Hein, i, 1851, 134, footnote.— Sclater, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. Lend., 1856, 306 (El Jacale, Vera Cruz); 1858, 304 (La Parada, 
Oaxaca); 1859, 365 (Jalapa, Vera Cruz); 1864, 174 (Valley of Mexico); Cat. 
Am. Birds, 1862, 115 (Jalapa; Popocatapetl). — Baied, Rep. Pacific E. R. 
Surv., ix, 1858, 465 (Mexico); Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 350.— Duges, 
La Naturaleza, i, 1868, 140 (Guanajuato). — Sumichrast, Mem. Best. Soc. 
N. H., i, 1869, 551 (alpine reg. Orizaba, Vera Cruz). — Baikd, Brewer, and 
RiDGWAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 580, footnote. — Salvin, Cat. Strick^ 
land Coll., 1882, 232 (Mexico).— Ridgw.iy, Auk, ii, 1885, 363 (crit.); Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 145 (crit.).— Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Am., Aves, i, 1886, 373.— Fekrari-Perez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 
145 (Teziutlan, Puebla, Nov.) .— Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 653, 
part (excl. syn. part). — Stone, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1890, 215 (Chal- 
chicomula, Vera Cruz, 11,000 ft.; Popocatapetl, 11,000 ft.; Volcan de Toluca, 
8,000 ft.)— JouY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1894, 779 (Charcas, San Luis 
Potosi, 7,000-8,000 ft., Nov. 13).— Cox, Auk, xii, 1895, 357 (foot of Mount 
Orizaba to 11,000 ft. ) .—Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. , x, 1898, 41 (Las Vigas, Vera 
Cruz, 8,000 ft., breeding; song). 

[Juncol cinereus Gray', Hand-list, ii, 1870, 93, no. 7368. — Sclater and Salvin, 
Norn. Av. Neotr., 1873, 32. 

/. [jinco] cinereus Ridoway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 423. 

[Junco hyemalis'] var. cinereus Ridgway, Am. Nat., vii, Oct., 1873, 613 (crit.). — 
Baird, Brewer, and Eidgway", Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 580. 

[Junco caniceps'] var. cinereus Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1873 
(1874), 113, part (crit.). 

J.[unco1 phaeonotus'WAOijmi, Isis, 1831, 526 (Mexico). 

[Junco'] phaenotus Bo'NAFART'E, Compt. Rend., xxxvii, 1853, 918. 

Junco x>hseonotus Ridgway-, Auk, xii, 1895, 391, crit. 

J.[unco'\ phieonotus Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1896, 423. 

1 Eight specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 301 

JUNCO PH^ONOTUS PALLIATUS Ridgway. 
ARIZONA JtmCO, 

Similar to J. p. phcBonotus, but paler, the gray of pileum and hind- 
neck much lighter (between olive-gray and no. 6 gray), that of chest, 
etc., very pale (not darker than no. 9 gray), white of abdomen purer 
and more extended, and white of lateral rectrices much more exten- 
sive (inner web of outermost rectrix usually almost wholly white, that 
of the second usuallj^ with more than terminal half white). 

Adult maZe.— Length (skins), 150.11-165.86 (156.72); wing, 76.:30- 
82.80 (79.25); tail, 69.09-76.45 (72.90); exposed culmen, 11.18-12.19 
(11.68); depth of bill at base, 7.11-7.62 (7.37); tarsus, 20.57-22.10 
(21.08); middle toe, 13.72-15.24 (14.73)." 

Adult female.— Ijength (skins), 141.22-150.88 (145.03); wing, 73.91- 
76.20 (74.93); tail, 62.48-71.63 (66.29); exposed culmen, 11.18-12.19 
(11.68); depth of bill at base, 6.35-6.86 (6.60); tarsus, 20.57-21.34 
(20.83); middle toe, 13.97-14.73 (14.48).' 

Breeding in high mountains of southern Arizona (Santa Eita Moun- 
tains, Mount Graham, etc.) and southward into northwestern Mexico 
(States of Chihuahua and Sonora). 

Junco cinereiis (not FringUla cinerea Swainson) Henseaw, Am. Sportsman, Feb. 
20, 1875, 328 (near Camp Grant, s. Arizona); Rep. Orn. Spec. AVheeler's 
Surv., 1873 (1874), 158 (Mount Graham and Santa Eita Mts., Arizona); 
Zool. Exp. W. 100th Merid., 1875, 271, pi. 10 (Mount Graham and Santa 
Rita Mts., s. Arizona, breeding at 8,500 ft.; habits; descr. nest and eggs, 
etc.— Bkbwee, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 73 (descr. eggs).— Allex, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 89.— Ridgway, Nom. N. Am. Birds, 1881, no 222.— 
Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 195 (Chiricahua Mts. s. Arizona, 
Mar.); Auk, ii, 1885, 198 (Santa Rita Mts., a. Arizona, breeding; descr. 
young female). — Scott, Auk, ii, 1885, 174, in text (Santa Catalina Mts., s. 
Arizona, Nov. 26-29).— Shakpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 653, part 
(in synonymy). 

[Junco canicepsl var. cinereus Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1873 
(1874), 113, part. 

Junco hiemalis cinereus CouBS, Check List, 2d ed., 1882, no. 267. 

J.[unco} h.liemalis'] cinereus CouES, Key N. Am. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 379. 

Junco cinereus' palliatus Ridgway, Auk, ii, Oct., 1885, 364 (Mount Graham, s. 
Arizona; U. S. Nat. Mus.). — American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 
1886, no. 570.— Scott, Auk, iv, 1887, 201 (Santa Catalina Mts. and Pinal 
Mts., s. Arizona, winter) .—Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H., v, 1893, 39 (Chu- 
huichupa, n. e. Sonora, Jan. ) . 

/. [unco] cinereus palliatus Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 424. 

Junco cinereus [palliatus'] Scott, Auk, ii, 1885, 354 (Pima Co., s. Arizona, in high 
pine forests; crit. ). 

Junto palliatus Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 655. 

Junco phseonotus palliatus Ridgway, Auk, xii, Oct., 1895, 391; Man. N. Am. Birds, 
2d ed., 1896, 424. — American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 2d ed., 
1895, no. 570. 

1 Seven specimens. ^ Five specimens. 



302 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

JUNCO FULVESCENS Nelson. 
CHIAPAS JTTNOO. 

Similar to J. 2)hceo7iotus in pattern of coloration, but colors differ- 
ent; wing and tail much smaller, but bill and feet much larger and 
stouter. 

Adult in summer {sexes ali.l:e). — Pileum and hindneck, together with 
sides of head and neck, plain deep smoke gray (decidedly browner or 
more olivaceous than in J. phceonotus) ; lores and orbital region black- 
ish or dusky; malar region and under parts in general very pale buffy 
gray or dull grayish white, becoming more decidedly white on abdo- 
men; flanks light wood brown, the sides similar but grayer; under 
tail-coverts pale buff or buffy whitish with concealed central areas of 
olive-grayish; back, scapulars, and outer surface of greater wing-cov- 
erts and tertials cinnamon-brown or raw-umber brown, abruptly 
defined against the brownish gray of the hindneck, but posteriorly 
gradually passing into the light olive-brown of the rump, the latter 
into a paler and slightly grayer hue on upper tail-coverts; remiges and 
eight middle rectrices dusky hair brown, the latter edged with olive- 
grayish, the primaries narrowly edged with pale gray; outermost 
rectrix with about the terminal half (or less) white, the outer web 
with white extending farther toward base; second rectrix with much 
less than terminal half of inner web white; maxilla brownish black, 
mandible yellowish; legs and feet clear light yellowish brown or 
brownish straw-color. 

Adults in winter. — Similar to summer adults, but plumage softer and 
colors darker; the back, etc., approaching chestnut-brown, or mars 
brown, greater wing-coverts and tertials decidedly approaching chest- 
nut, the gray of pileum and hindneck purer (more mouse gray), and 
color of chest, etc., decidedly approaching very pale smoke gray. 

Young. — Pileum and hindneck light olive-brown narrowly streaked 
with blackish; back and scapulars cinnaipon-brown streaked with 
black, the rump similar but more narrowly and obsoletely streaked; 
chin, throat, and chest yellowish white, the lower throat (faintlj^) and 
chest (strongly) streaked with blackish; sides and flanks light buffy 
wood brown streaked with dusky; otherwise much like winter adults. 

Adult male.— Length (skins), 142.49-147.57 (146.05); wing, 68.58- 
74.93 (71.37); tail, 62.99-68.07 (64.77); exposed culmen, 12.45-13.21 
(12.95); depth of bill at base, 7.87-8.38 (8.13); tarsus, 21.59-22.86 
(22.10); middle toe, 14.48-15.49 (14.99).^ 

Adult female.— Lieugth (skins), 135.13-145.03 (140.97); wing, 64.26- 
68.58 (67.06); tail, 58.17-62.23 (59.94); exposed culmen, 11.94-13.21 
(12.45); depth of bill (one specimen), 8.13; tarsus, 21.34-22.35 (21.84); 
middle toe, 14.22-15.24 (14.99).' 

' Six specimens. ^ J^Q^p specimens. 



BIEDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMEEIOA. 303 

Highlands of central Chiapas, southeastern Mexico (San Cristobal, 
etc.). 

Junco fiUvescens Nelsox, Auk, xiv, January, 1897, 61 (San Cristobal, Chiapas, 
s. e. Mexico; U. S. Nat. Mus. ). 

JUNCO ALTICOLA Salvin. 
GUATEMALA JTJNOO. 

Similar to J. fulvescens, but decidedly larger (except the bill) and 
colors much darker. 

Adults (sexes alike). — Pileum and hindneck uniform dull slate-color 
or dark mouse gray; sides of head and neck similar, changing to lighter 
gray (smoke gray) on malar region, throat, chest, and anterior por- 
tion of sides; breast paler gray, fading into dull white on abdomen; 
flanks light olive, tinged with buff posteriorly; under tail-coverts 
light grayish olive or hair brown broadly margined with pale dull 
buffy; lores black; anterior portion of chin (very narrowly) dusky; 
back and scapulars olive-brown, more or less tinged with more rusty 
brown; smaller wing-coverts and rump olive, the upper tail coverts 
grayish olive; outer surface of greater wing-coverts and tertials rusty 
brown or russet; wings otherwise dusky, with dull grayish or grayish 
olive edgings, lighter and more distinct on outermost primaries, the 
edge of first primary almost white; eight middle rectrices dusky, 
edged with grayish olive; outermost rectrix with terminal half (more 
or less') of inner web white, the outer web mostly dusky grayish; 
second rectrix with terminal third (approximately) of inner web white; 
maxUla black, mandible yellowish, sometimes dusky at tip or base; 
iris yellow; legs and feet light yellowish brown, the tarsi usually paler. 

Adult male-^hength (skins), 152.40-171.70 (160.53); wing, 73.91- 
79.25 (76.71); tail, 65.79-75.41: (69.60); exposed culmen, 12.70-13.72 
(13,21); depth of bill at base (three specimens), 7.62-8.13 (7.87); tarsus, 
22.86-25.15 (24.38); middle toe, 14.99-17.02 (16.00).' 

Adult female.—Lengthiakma), 148.59-170.69 (156.72); wing, 71.12- 
73.41 (72.14); tail, 62.99-74.17 (67.82); exposed culmen, 12.19-13.46 
(12.95); depth of bill at base (one specimen), 7.87; tarsus, 23.11-24.13 
(23.62); middle toe, 15.2^16.76 (15.76).' 

Highlands of Guatemala (Volcan de Fuego, Volcan de Agua, Vol- 
can de Santa Maria, Hacienda Chancol, Todos Santos, Altos, Calel, 
Quezaltenango, Totonicapan, etc.). 

Junco alticola Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lend., 1863, 189 (pine forests of Volcan 
de Fuego, Guatemala, 8,000 ft.; coll. Salvin and Godman); Ibis, 1866, 193 
(Volcan de Agua, V. de Fuego, Quezaltenango and Totonicapan, Guate- 

■^In males usually more, in females usually less. 
^ Seven specimens. 



304 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

mala).— Baikd, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, i, 1874, 580, 

footnote. — Salvin and Goodman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 374, pi. 

26, fig. 1 (Volcan de Fuego, 10,000-12,000 ft.; Volcan de Agua, 10,000-12,000 

ft.; Altos, Quezaltenango, and Totonicapan).— Sharpe, Oat. Birds Brit. 

Mus., xii, 1888, 656. 
J. [unco] alticola Ridgway, Man. N. Am. Birds, 1887, 424. 
\_Junco] alticola Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 93, no. 7373.— Sclatbr and Salvin, 

Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 32. 
\Junco hyemalis] var. alticola Ridgway, Am. Nat, vii, Oct., 1873, 613. 
[Junco cinereus] var. alticola Baied, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. N. Am. Birds, 

i, 1874, 580. 
\_Junco canicejiti] var. alticola Henshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheeler's Surv., 1873 

(1874), 113 (crit.). 



JUNCO VULCANI (Boucard). 
IRAZ-S JUNCO. 

Adult {sexes alike). — Pileum and hindneck grayish olive, sometimes 
obsoletely streaked with darker; lores dull black oi slate-black; rest 
of head and neck plain mouse gray, tinged with olive on auricular 
region, paling into smoke gray on malar region, chin, and throat, the 
same color continued backward over chest, breast, and sides, the 
flanks more olivaceous and abdomen paler, somewhat tinged with pale 
buffy; under tail-coverts buffy olive, broadly margined with pale buffy 
or whitish; back, scapulars, rump, and upper tail-coverts olive, the 
back and scapulars broadly streaked with black; wings and tail dusky, 
with olive edgings, these rather browner on greater wing-coverts and 
tertials; lateral rectrices without any definite white area, but with an 
irregular paler blotch on terminal portion of inner web, and both webs 
often (always in fresh plumage?) terminated by a small whitish spot; 
maxilla brown, mandible paler (pinkish in life?); iris yellow; legs and 
feet pale brownish (pink or flesh colored in life ?) ; length (skins) 161 . 29- 
166.62 (164.08); wing, 74.68-80.26 (7Y.22); tail, 69.09-73.15 (71.12); 
exposed culmen, 13.21-13.72 (13.46); depth of bill at base, 7.62-8.38 
(8.13); tarsus, 25.91-27.69 (27.18); middle toe, 17.27-18.29 (17.78).' 

Volcano of Irazu, Costa Rica, above timber line (10,000 feet). 

Zonotrichia vulcani Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soo. Lend., 1878, 57, pi. 4 (Volcan de 
Irazu, Costa Rica, alt. 10,000 ft.; coll. A. Boucard). — Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Oentr.-Am., Aves, i, 1886, 371, pi. 26, fig. 2.— Sharps, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mua.,xii, 1888, 602. 

Junco vulcani Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, Dec. 10, 1878, 255 (summit of 
Irazii; crit.) . — Zbledon, Oat. Aves de Costa Rica, 1882, 9; An. Mus. Nac. 
Costa Rica, i, 1887, 111 (Volcan de Irazii). — Nutting, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
V, 1883, 495 (summit of Irazii; habits, etc.). 

' Three specimens — one male, one female, the other with sex undertermined. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLlI AMERICA. 305 



Genus SPIZELLA Bonaparte. 

Spizella Bonaparte, Saggio di una Distr. Met. An. Vert., 1832, 140. (Tj^pe, 

Fringilla pusilla Wilson. ) 
Spinites^ Cabanis, Mus. Hein., i, April, 1851, 133. (Type,- Fringilla socicdis 

Wilson.) 

Small arboreal or semi-arboreal sparrows with small bill, long emar- 
ginate or double-rounded tail, and back conspicuously streaked. 

Bill small (exposed culmen usually less than half as long as tarsus, 
never much more), conical, much deeper than broad at base; depth at 
base less than length of maxilla from nostril; culmen slightly convex 
terminally and basalh^ straight or faintly depressed between; gonys 
straight, about equal to basal depth of bill ; maxillary tomium without 
subterminal notch, faintly concave anteriorly and convex posteriorly, 
the basal deflection nearly or quite concealed by rictal feathers; man- 
dibular tomium straight or slightly concave to the subbasal angle. 
Nostril small, triangular (apex forward) or linear, only the anterior 
portion exposed. Wing rather long (about three and one-fifth to four 
and one-third times as long as tarsus), rather pointed (eighth to fifth 
primaries longest, ninth shorter than sixth); primaries exceeding 
secondaries usually by decidedly less than length of tarsus (by a little 
more in S. socialis). Tail variable in proportionate length (decidedly 
shorter than wing in nnonticola and socialis^ nearly as long in pusilla 
and Ireioerl, and decidedly longer in atrogularis), deeply emarginated, 
with the lateral rectrices nearly longest {socialis); double-rounded with 
lateral feathers much shorter than the middle pair {atrogularis), or 
intermediate (other species), the rectrices narrow, obtusely pointed at 
tips, less than half overlaid by upper coverts. Tarsus moderate (usu- 
ally more, rarely less, than twice as long as exposed culmen), its 
scutella distinct; middle toe with claw slightly shorter than tarsus; 
lateral claws not reaching to base of middle claw; hallux nearly equal 
to inner toe, its claw shorter than the digit. 

Coloration. — Back and scapulars brownish, streaked with black; 
lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts plain grayish or grayish 
brown, or else very indistinctly streaked; greater wing-coverts (and 
usually middle coverts also) tipped, more or less distinctly, with white 
or light brownish; lower parts plain whitish, grayish, or pale brownish 
(belly always white) in adults, streaked with dusky in young (except 
S. atrogularis). 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF SPIZELLA. 

a. Chest without streaks. 

6. Pileum rufous or rusty, or else'gray tinged with rusty laterally, 
c. A dusky spot in center of breast. 

' "Von dTiiva, r/ nom. prop." 

''In reality a substitute for Spizella, rejected as of bad or unclaasical construction. 

17024—01- — 20 



306 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

d. Darker and smaller; adult male averaging, wing 75.95, tail 66.29; female, 
wing 72.64, tail 65.79. (Eastern North America.) 

Spizella monticola montioola, adults (p. 307) 
(hi. Paler and larger; adult male averaging, wing 77.47, tail 69.60; female, wing 
75.18, tail 67.56. (AVestern North America.) 

Spizella monticola ochracea, adults (p. 309) 
cc. No spot on breast. 

d. A black or dusky streak through eye. 
e. Darker; ground color of back strongly brown or rusty. 
/. Moderatel}' dark, the pileum not darker than rufous-chestnut. 

g. Smaller, with relatively smaller bill; color of back less rusty, and 
forehead less extensively black; male, wing averaging 69.09, tail 
56.90; female, wing 66.55, tail 54.61. (Eastern North America.) 
Spizella sooialis socialis, adults (p. 311) 
gg. Larger, with relatively stouter bill; color of back more rusty, and 
forehead more extensively black; male, wing averaging 72.39, tail 
60.20; female, wing 66.29, tail 60.45. (Southern Mexico; north- 
western Guatemala?.) Spizella socialis mexicana, adults (p. 313) 

ff. Very dark, the pileum deep or dark chestnut. (Eastern Guatemala 

and Honduras.) Spizella socialis pinetorum, adults (p. 314) 

ee. Paler; ground color of back pale wood brown or grayish buffy. ("West- 
ern North America and south into Mexico. ) 

Spizella socialis arizonae, adults (p. 315) 
dd. No black or dusky streak through eye. 

e. A rusty postocnlar streak, or else pileum mostly gray; no white orbital 
ring; under tail-coverts wholly white. 
/. Smaller and more rusty; male, wing averaging 60.96, tail 58.93; female, 
wing 60.96, tail 58.93. (Eastern United States.) 

Spizella pusilla pusilla, adults (p. 318) 
ff. Larger and grayer (pileum sometimes almost wholly gray); male, wing 
averaging 69.60, tail 68.83; female, wing 61.98, tail 62.74. (Great 
Plains, North Dakota to Texas. ) 

Spizella pusilla arenacea, adults (p. 320) 
ee. No rusty postocnlar streak; a more or less distinct white or whitish 
orbital ring; under tail-coverts pale brownish gray centrally. (East- 
ern part of Mexican plateau north to southern New Mexico.) 

Spizella wortheni, adults (p. 321) 
bb. Pileum not rufous or rusty. 

c. Pileum wholly gray Spizella atrogularis, adults and young (p. 322) 

cc. Pileum light brownish, streaked Avith black. 
d. Pileum with traces of rufous (at least concealed). 

e. Darker and smaller Spizella socialis socialis, immature 

ee. Paler, more buffy, and larger Spizella socialis arizonae, immature 

dd. Pileum without trace of rufous. 

e. Pileum with a median stripe (more or less distinct) of pale grayish or 
buffy, the lateral stripes more heavily streaked with black; sides of 
head with markings strongly contrasted. (Great Plains, from British 
America to Mexico, and in winter to Arizona and Lower California. ) 

Spizella pallida, adults (p. 324) 

ee. Pileum uniformly streaked, without median lighter stripe; sides of head 

with markings less strongly contrasted. (United States west of Rocky 

Mountains and south into Mexico.) . . .Spizella breweri, adulta (p. 327) 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 307 

aa. Chest streaked with dusky. {Young.y 

b. Pileum rusty brownish, usually without distinct, if any, dusky streaks; throat, 

etc., yellowish white or pale yellowish bufiy...Spizella pusilla pusilla, young 

bb. Pileum pale brown or grayish brown (rarely rusty brown), always distinctly 

streaked with dusky; throat, etc., white or grayish white. 

c. Larger; spot on sides of chest, outer webs of scapulars and broad edgings to 

tertials bright rusty or cinnamon-rufous. 

d. Darker Spizella montioola monticola, young 

da. Paler Spizella monticola ochracea, young 

cc. Smaller; no bright rusty on sides of chest, outer webs of scapulars, nor on edges 
of tertials. 
d. Auricular region brownish buffy, conspicuously different in color from 
adjacent parts; ground color of back and scapulars clear buff, with very 

broad black streaks Spizella pallida, young 

dd. Auricular region more or less light grayish, not conspicuously different in 
color from adjacent parts; ground color of back and scapulars light- 
buffy grayish or brownish, with narrower black streaks, 
c. Smaller; primaries and rectrices dark brownish gray or hair brown, edged 

with pale grayish buffy , . Spizella breweri, young 

ee. Larger; primaries and rectrices dusky, edged with grayish or buffy 
grayish. 
/. Darker, with ground color of back, etc., not grayish buffy. 

g. Lighter buffy brown above, with narrower black streaks; bill smaller. 

Spizella socialis Booialis, young 
gg. Darker buffy brown above, with broader black streaks; bill stouter. 

Spizella socialis mexicaua, young 
ff. Paler, with ground color of back, etc. , grayish buffy. 

Spizella socialis arizonse, young 

SPIZELLA MONTICOLA MONTICOLA (Gmelin). 
TREE SPARROW. 

Wing with two conspicuous white bands; adult with mandible yellow, 
pileum and patch on sides of chest chestnut-rufous and middle of chest 
with a dusky spot. 

Adult {sexes alike). — Pileum, postocular streak (sometimes also a 
rictal streak) and patch on sides of chest chestnut-rufous or rufous- 
chestnut; hindneck, broad superciliary stripe, and sides of head and 
neck (except as described) light gray (smoke gray or olive-graj^), the 
first more or less tinged with rusty; chin and throat similar but 
paler; breast, abdomen, and under tail-coverts dull white, the first 
with a dusky median spot or blotch at upper edge, next to the pale 
grayish of the chest; sides and flanks pale wood brownish or brownish 
buffy; back and scapulars pale grayish buffy, broadly streaked with 
black and, more narrowlj^, with rusty, the latter chiefly on outer 
webs, those of the scapulars almost wholly rusty; rump and upper 
tail-coverts plain hair brown or light broccoli brown, the former 
sometimes narrowly and indistinctly streaked with darker; tail grayish 

' The young of S. atrogularis, only, is without distinct streaks below. Those of S. 
wortheni and S. vusilla arenacea have not, however, yet been seen by me. 



808 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

dusky, the rectrices conspicuously edged with pale gray or buffy gray; 
middle wing-coverts dusky, abruptly and rather broadly tipped with 
white; greater coverts dusky centrally (mostly concealed), broadly 
edged with cinnamon-rufous, and also tipped with white (forming a sec- 
ond distinct band); tertials blackish centrally, margined terminally 
(except in worn summer plumage) with whitish or pale rusty, their 
outer webs mostly cinnamon-rufous or rusty; maxilla blackish, man- 
dible yellow tipped with dusky; iris brown; tarsi brown, toes darker. 
(In winter the rufous-chestnut pileum, especially along the median line, 
is more or less broken by dull buffy terminal margins to the feathers, 
and the general coloration rather more buily, especially above). 

Young. — Pileum dull brown streaked with blackish; rump pale buffy 
grayish indistinctly streaked or mottled with dusk)^; under parts whit- 
ish, tinged with bufl'y on chest, the sides of throat, chest, breast, and 
anterior portion of sides streaked with dusky; otherwise essentially 
like adults. 

Adult male.^hength (skins), 138.94-149.10 (143.76);' wing, 74.17- 
77.47.(75.95); tail, 64.01-69.60 (66.29); exposed culmen, 9.91-10.41 
(10.16); depth of bill at base, 6.60-7.11 (6.86); tarsus, 20.32-21.59 
(21.08); middle toe, 13.97-14.99 (14.22).' 

AdAiU female.— Li&i\gt}i (skins), 134.37-147.32 (140.97); wing, 69.86- 
78.74 (72.64); tail, 64.26-68.83 (65.79); exposed culmen, 9.65-10.16 
(9.91); depth of bill at base, 6.35-7.11 (6.86); tarsus, 19.81-21.08 
(20.57); middle toe, 13.21-14.22 (13.46).' 

Eastern North America, breeding in Newfoundland, Labrador, and 
region about Hudson Bay (limits of breeding range very imperfectly' 
known);" south in winter to South Carolina, Tennessee. Indian Terri- 
tory, etc. 

Fringilla montana (not of Linnseus) Foester, Philos. Trans., Ixii, 1772, 405 (Hud- 
son Bay; cites "Br. Zool. Edw., 269; Brisson, iii, p. 79; Faun. Am. Sept."). 

Spizella montana Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, Mar. 27, 1880, 3; Nom. 
N. Am. Birds, 1881, no. 210, part. 

[FringUlal monticola Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, pt. ii, 1788, 912 (based on Passer 
canadensis Brisson, Av. , iii, 102) . 

Passerina monticola "ViEihLOT, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., xxv, 1817, 27. 

Z. [onotrichia'] monticola Gray, Gen. Birds, ii, 1849, 374. 

[Zonotrichia'] monticola Gray, Hand-list, ii, 1870, 94, no. 7398. 

iS-lpinitesI monticolus Gabanis, Mus. Hein., i, Apr., 1851, 134. 

Spizella monticola Baird, Kep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 472, part (eastern 
localties and references) ; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, no. 357, part. — Coues, Proc. 
Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1861, 224 (coast Labrador, breeding) ; Check List, 1873, 

' Length before skinning about 158.75-165.10. 

* Eight specimens. 

' Among southern breeding records are two which are doubtful or erroneous — cer- 
tainly the latter in the case of one (Fort Sisseton,, South Dakota, /de McChesney, 
Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iv, 1879, 77; the other record being northern 
Minnesota, yidc Hatch, Birds of Minnesota, 1892, 323). 



BIRDS OP NOETH AND MIDDLE AMERICA. 309 

no. 177, part; 2d ed., 1882, no. 268, part; Birds N. W., 1874, 146, part; Bull. 
U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 590 (Souria R., North Dakota, 
Oct. 5).— ScLATEK, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 114 (e. U. S.) .— Baied, Beewer, and 
BiDGWAY, Hist. N. Am. Birds, ii, 1874, 3, part, pi. 27, fig. 5.— McChesney, 
Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geog. Surv. Terr., iv, 1879, 77 (Fort Sisseton, South 
Dakota; "breeds" *).—Bicknell, Auk, ii, 1885, 144 (song) .— Tuenee, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 240 (Fort Chimo, Ungava, breeding).— (?)Agees- 
BORG, Auk, ii, 1885, 280 (a. e. Dakota, Oct. to May) .—American Oenitholo- 
QiSTs' Union, Check List, 1886, no. 559.— Seton, Auk, iii, 1886, 323 (Mani- 
toba, transient) .—CooKE, Bird Migr. Miss. Val., 1888, 198 (Caddo, Indian 
Territory, Oct. 31 to Mar. 10; e. Kansas, etc. ; localities and dates) .— Shaepe, 
Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xii, 1888, 657, excl. syn. part (Repulse Bay; Fort 
Simpson, etc.) .— Palmee (W.), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1890, 264 (Cloud 
Hills, Canada Bay, Newfoundland, alt. 1,000 ft., summer).— Hatch, Birds 
Minnesota, 1892, 323 (said to breed in n. and n. e. parts of State) .— Nehrling, 
Our Native Birds, etc., ii, 1896, 120. 

ISpizella] monticola Codes, Key N. Am. Birds, 1872, 142, part. 

S.[pizeUa] monticola Nelson, Bull. Essex Inst., viii, 1876, 108 (n. e. Illinois, 
Oct. 15 to Apr. 1; descr. song) . — Coues, Key N. Am. Bir