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Full text of "The birds of North and Middle America : a descriptive catalogue of the higher groups, genera, species, and subspecies of birds known to occur in North America, from the Arctic lands to the Isthmus of Panama, the West Indies and other islands of the Caribbean sea, and the Galapagos Archipelago"

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 
Bulletin 50 



THE BIRDS OF 
NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 



By 
ROBERT RIDGWAY 

continued by 

HERBERT FRIEDMANN 



Part IX 




SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON 

D. C. 





DATE 


DUE 




















































































































































eAYUJRD 






PRINTED IN U.SA 



v\o'^ 



of IV///^. 




CORNELL LAB 0/ ORNITHOLOGY 

LIBRARY 

At Sapsucker Woods 

llluscracion of Snowy Owl by Louis Agassiz Fuertes 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 
Bulletin SO | 



CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 




3 1924 090 256 912 



THE BIRDS OF 
NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 



A DESCRIPTIVE CATALOG 

OF THE 

HIGHER GROUPS, GENERA, SPECIES, AND SUBSPECIES OF BIRDS 

KNOWN TO OCCUR IN NORTH AMERICA, FROM THE 

ARCTIC LANDS TO THE ISTHMUS OF PANAMA 

THE WEST INDIES AND OTHER ISLANDS 

OF THE CARIBBEAN SEA, AND THE 

GALAPAGOS ARCHIPELAGO 

By 
ROBERT RIDGWAY 

Continued by 

HERBERT FRIEDMANN 



Part IX 

Family Gruidae — The Cranes 
Family Rallidae — The Rails, Coots, and Gallinules 
Family Heliornithidae — ^The Sun-grebes 
Family Eurypygidae — The Sun-bitterns 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1941 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. 



Price 40 cents (Paper) 



PREFACE 

The families of birds included in the present and preceding volumes 
of this work are as follows : 

Part I, issued October 24, 1901, included the Fringillidae (finches) 
alone. 

Part II, issued October 16, 1902, included the Tanagridae (tan- 
agers), Icteridae (troupials), Coerebidae (honeycreepers), and 
Mniotiltidae (wood warblers). 

Part III, issued December 31, 1904, included the Motacillidae (wag- 
tails and pipits), Hirundinidae (swallows), Ampelidae (waxwings), 
Ptilogonatidae (silky flycatchers), Dulidae (palm chats), Vireonidae 
(vireos), Laniidaa (shrikes), Corvidae (crows and jays), Paridae 
(titmice), Sittidae (nuthatches) , Certhiidae (creepers), Troglodytidae 
(wrens), Cinclidae (dippers), Chamaeidae (wrentits), and Sylviidae 
(warblers). 

Part IV, issued July 1, 1907, contained the remaining groups of 
Oscines, namely, the Turdidae (thrushes), Zeledoniidae (wren- 
thrushes), Mimidae (mockingbirds), Sturnidae (starlings), Ploceidae 
(weaverbirds), and Alaudidae (larks) , together with the haploophone 
or oligomyodian Mesomyodi, comprising Oxyruncidae (sharp-bills), 
Tryannidae (tyrant flycatchers), Pipridae (manakins), and Coting- 
idae (chatterers). 

Part V, issued November 29, 1911, included the tracheophone Me- 
somyodi, represented by the Pteroptochidae(tapaculos), Formicariidae 
(antbirds), Furnariidae (ovenbirds), and Dendrocolaptidae (wood- 
hewers) ; the Macrochires, containing the Trochilidae (hummingbirds) 
and Micropodidae (swifts), and the Heterodactylae, represented only 
by the Trogonidae (trogons). 

Part VI, issued April 8, 1914, contains the Picariae, comprising 
the families Picidae (woodpeckers), Capitonidae (barbets), Rampha- 
stidae (toucans), Bucconidae (puffbirds), and Galbulidae (jacamars) ; 
the Anisodactylae, with families Alcedinidae (kingfishers), Todidae 
(todies), and Momotidae (motmots) ; the Nycticoraciae, with families 
Caprimulgidae (goatsuckers) and Nyctibiidae (potoos), and the 
Striges, consisting of families Tytonidae (barn owls) and Bubonidae 
(eared owls). 

Part VII, issued May 5, 1916, contains the Coccygiformes (cuckoo- 
like birds), Psittaciformes (parrots), and Columbiformes (pigeons). 



IV BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Part VIII, issued June 26, 1919, contains the Charadriiformes (plov- 
er-like birds) with families Jacanidae (jacanas), Oedicnemidae (thick- 
Jmees), Haematopodidae (oystercatchers), Arenariidae (turnstones), 
Aphrizidae (surfbirds), Charadriidae (plovers), Scclopacidae 
(snipes, sandpipers, etc.), Phalaropodidae (phalaropes) , Recurvi- 
rostridae (avocets and stilts), Eynchopidae (skimmers), Sternidae 
(terns), Laridae (gulls), Stercorariidae (skuas and jaegers), and 
Alcidae (auks). 

Part IX (the present part) contains the Gruiformes with the fami- 
lies Gruidae (cranes), EaUidae (rails, gallinules, and coots), Helior- 
nithidae (sun-grebes), and Eurypygidae (sun-bitterns). The size of 
the present volume has been reduced from its original bulk to permit 
more immediate publication. 

Part X, now in course of preparation, will contain the Galliformes, 
with the families Cracidae (guans and chachalacas) , Tetraonidae 
(grouse and ptarmigan), Phasianidae (pheasants, partridges, and 
quail), Numididae (guinea fowl), and Meleagrididae (turkeys). 

In the nine volumes thus far published there have been treated in 
detail (that is, with full descriptions and synonymies), besides the 
families above mentioned and higher groups to which they belong, 
667 genera and 2,578 species and subspecies, besides 220 extralimital 
genera and 626 extralimital species and subspecies whose principal 
characters are given in the keys and whose principal synonymy is given 
in footnotes. 

Acknowledgments are due for the privilege of examining, or for 
the loan, of specimens needed in the preparation of the present volume 
to the authorities of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel- 
phia; American Museum of Natural History, New York; Carnegie 
Museum, Pittsburgh; Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago; 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge; National Museum of 
Canada, Ottawa; Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology, Toronto; Mu- 
seum of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley; University Museum, Univer- 
sity of Michigan, Ann Arbor; California Academy of Sciences, 
San Francisco ; California Institute of Technology, Pasadena ; Prince- 
ton University Museum, Princeton ; Biological Survey, Washington, 
D. C; British Museum (Natural History), London; Museum d'His- 
toire Naturelle, Paris; Naturhistorische Museum, Vienna; Natural 
History Museum, Leyden; and J. H. Fleming, Toronto, and R. T. 
Moore, Pasadena. The total number of specimens thereby made 
available for study in the present connection is hard to estimate but 
runs into the thousands. 

The author takes this opportunity to explain the status of his own 
position in this work. On the death of Robert Ridgway, the late Dr. 
Charles W. Richmond gathered together all the former's manuscripts 



PREFACE V 

he could find and carefully filed them for future use. Ridgway's 
notes covered the diagnoses of genera and higher groups and partial 
synonymies for many of the species and subspecies. Whenever pos- 
sible, his manuscript has been included with the minimum of change 
(other than addition to synonymies) permitted by more recent data. 
In fact, it has been the present author's feeling that this -work should 
be as largely Ridgway's as possible; thus, for instance he has kept 
and included Ridgway's diagnoses of certain genera now relegated to 
the position of subgenera, and where Ridgway's manuscript gave 
extensive synonymies for extralimital forms, he has retained them 
without attempting to supply equally detailed accounts for other 
extralimital forms. However, all such manuscript material has been 
thoroughly studied with the specimens and the literature; nothing 
has been accepted merely because it was written. From the start, 
the author has felt himself responsible for the entire contents of this 
volume and has not considered himself as an editor of an unpublished 
work. 

It has been a great regret to the author that he was not able to 
begin this work while Dr. Richmond was still alive, as he was so 
intimately connected with the first eight volumes and had a back- 
ground of highly valuable experience with the work. It is hardly 
necessary to state that much of the bibliographic and nomenclatorial 
excellence of the first eight volumes was due to Richmond's profound 
laiowledge of the literature and to his alert eye in reading proof. 

Measurements of specimens for use in preparing this volume were 
made by the author and Dr. E. M. Hasbrouck under the author's su- 
pervision. Maj. Allan Brooks contributed (before the present author 
began this work) a series of notes on the colors of the unfeathered 
parts of many of the species discussed herein. The outline drawings 
of generic details, except those previously published, were made under 
the author's supervision, by Mrs. Aime Awl, of the United States 
National Museum staff. The drawings for the genus Cyanolimnas 
are reproduced by kind permission of Dr. Thomas Barbour, from his 
paper in the Auk for 1928. 

Since the publication of Part VIII of this work, Peters' "Check List 
of Birds of the World" was begun, and four volumes have been pub- 
lished so far. Inasmuch as these four cover all the groups treated in 
the present part and those left to be treated in the remaining parts of 
the present work, and especially inasmuch as Peters' work will be the 
standard list for a long time to come, it has been deemed best to alter 
somewhat the arrangement of the material herein presented. Ridg- 
way's system begins with the highest and ends with the lowest groups, 
while Peters is following the reverse order. Therefore, to make the 



VI BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

material in the present and in subsequent parts of this work as easily 
accessible as possible, the sequence of orders continues to follow 
Kidgway's plan, but the arrangement of families, genera, species, 
and subspecies within each order is patterned to agree with that given 
by Peters. Inasmuch as the present work, like Peters' Check List, 
is a reference tool, not a book to be read from end to end, no outrage 
upon truth is committed by this alteration. 

Herbert Friedmann. 



CONTENTS 



Fae« 

Order Ghuitokmes: Cranelike birds 1 

Key to the suborders of Gruiformes 3 

Suborder GEtJES 4 

Key to the families of Grues 5 

Family Gruidae 6 

Genus Grus Pallas 6 

Key to the American species and subspecies of Grus 8 

Grus americanus (Linnaeus) 9 

Grus canadensis canadensis (Linnaeus) 14 

Grus canadensis tabida (Peters) 20 

Grus canadensis pratensis Meyer 25 

(xrus canadensis nesiotes Bangs and Zappey 26 

Family Aramidae 27 

Genus Aramus VieiUot 28 

Key to the subspecies of Aramus scolopaceus (Gmelin) 30 

Aramus scolopaceus dolosus Peters 31 

Aramus scolopaceus pidus (Meyer) 32 

Aramus scolopaceus elucus Peters 36 

Suborder RaUi 38 

Family RaUidae 39 

Key to the North and Middle American genera and sub- 
genera of Rallidae 41 

Genus Rallus Linnaeus 45 

Key to adults of North and Middle American species 

and subspecies of Rallus 47 

Rallus longirostris crepitans Gmelin 51 

Rallus longirostris waynei Brewster 55 

Rallus longirostris scottii Sennett 57 

Rallus longirostris insularum Brooks 59 

Rallus longirostris saturatus Ridgway 60 

Rallus longirostris coryi Maynard 62 

Rallus longirostris caribaeus Ridgway 64 

Rallus longirostris cubanus Chapman 65 

Rallus longirostris leucophaeus Todd 66 

Rallus longirostris vafer Wetmore 67 

Rallus longirostris Umnetis Oberholser 68 

Rallus longirostris manglecola Danf orth 70 

Rallus longirostris pallidus Nelson 71 

Rallus longirostris belizensis Oberholser 72 

Rallus longirostris obsoletus Ridgway 73 

Rallus longirostris levipes Bangs 75 

Rallus longirostris yumanensis Dickey 77 

Rallus longirostris beldingi Ridgway 78 

Rallus longirostris rhizophorae Dickey 79 



Vm BULLETIN 50, TJNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Order Getjepoembs : Cranellte birds — Continued. 
Suborder Ralli — Continued. 

Family Rallidae — ^^Continued. 

Genus Rallus Linnaeus — Continued. Page 

Ballus longiroslris nayaritensis McLellan 80 

Rallus longirostris tenuirostris Ridgway 81 

Rallus elegans elegans Audubon 83 

Rallus elegans ramsdeni Riley 89 

Rallus limicola limicola Vieillot 90 

Genus Cyanolimnas Barbour and Peters 98 

Cyanolimnas cerverai Barbour and Peters 100 

Genus Pardirallus Bonaparte 100 

Key to the subspecies of Pardirallus maculatus (Boddaert). 102 

Pardirallus maculatus inoptatus (Bangs) 103 

Pardirallus maculatus insoliius (Bangs and Peck) 105 

Genus Amaurolimnas Sharpe 106 

Key to the subspecies of Amaurolimnas concolor (Gosse). 107 

Amaurolimnas concolor concolor (Gosse) 108 

Amaurolimnas concolor guatemalensis (Lawrence) 109 

Genus Aramides Pucheran 110 

Key to the species and subspecies of Aramides 113 

Aramides cajanea mexicana Bangs 115 

Aramides cajanea vanrossemi Dickey 116 

Aramides cajanea albiventris Lawrence 117 

Aramides cajanes pacifica MiUer and Griscom 118 

Aramides cajanea plumbeicollis Zeledon 119 

Aramides cajanea cajanea (MilUer) 120 

Aramides cajanea latens Bangs and Penard 123 

Aramides axillaris Lawrence 124 

Genus Crex Bechstein 126 

Crex crex (Linnaeus) 128 

Genus Porzana Vieillot 132 

Key to North and Middle American forms of Porzana 136 

Porzana Carolina (Linnaeus) 137 

Porzana flaviventer gossii (Bonaparte) 145 

Porzana flaviventer hendersoni (Bartsch) 147 

Porzana flaviventer woodi van Rossem 148 

Genus Laterallus Gray 148 

Key to the North and Middle American forms of Later- 
allus 153 

Laterallus jamaicensis stoddardi (Coale) 153 

Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus (Ridgway) 157 

Laterallus jamaicensis jamaicensis (Gmelin) 159 

Laterallus spilonotus (Gould) 160 

Laterallus exilis (Temminck) 162 

Laterallus albigularis cinereiceps (Lawrence) 164 

Laterallus albigularis albigularis (Lawrence) 166 

Laterallus ruber tamauUpensis (Nelson) 168 

Laterallus ruber ruber (Sclater and Salvin) 168 

Laterallus ruber ruberrimus (Miller and Griscom) 170 

Genus Coturnicops Gray 170 

Key to the races of Coturnicops noveboracensis (Gmelin). 172 

Coturnicops noveboracensis noveboracensis (Gmelin) 172 

Coturnicops noveboracensis goldmani (Nelson) 179 



CONTENTS IX 

Order Gkuifobmes : Cranelike birds — Continued. 
Suborder Ralll — Continued. 

Family Rallidae — ^Continued. Pag« 

Genus GalUnula Brisson 180 

Key to the American forms of GuUinula chloropus (Lin- 
naeus) 182 

GalUnula chloropus cachinnans Bangs 184 

GalUnula chloropus cerceris (Bangs) 190 

Genus Porphyrula Blyth 192 

Key to the species of Porphyrula 195 

Porphyrula martinica (Linnaeus) 196 

Genus Fulica Linnaeus 204 

Key to North and Middle American forms of Fulica-- 207 

Fulica atra atra Linnaeus 207 

Fulica americana americana GmeUn 213 

Fulica americana grenadensis Riley 221 

Fulica caribaea Ridgway 222 

Suborder Hbliornithes 224 

Family HeUomithidae 225 

Key to the genera of Heliornithidae 226 

Genus Heliornis Bonnaterre 226 

Heliornis fulica (Boddaert) 228 

Suborder Eurtptgae 232 

Family Eurypygidae 233 

Genus Eurypyga Illiger 233 

Key to the subspecies of Eurypyga helias (Pallas) 235 

Eurypyga helias major 'Ra.Ttla.nh 236 

FIGURES ILLUSTRATING GENERIC DETAILS 

1. Getjs canadensis canadensis 7 

2. Akamits scolopaceus pictus 29 

3. Ralltjs limicola limicola , 46 

4. Ctanolimnas cerverai 99 

5. Pabdiralltjs maculatus maculatus 101 

6. Amatjbolimnas ooncolor concolor 106 

7. Abamides cajanea cajanea 112 

8. Crbx crex 127 

9. PoRZANA Carolina 134 

10. Lateralltts jamaicensis 149 

11. CoTURNicops noveboracensis 171 

12. Gallinula chloropus cachinnans 181 

13. PoBPHTRTTLA martinica 193 

14. Ftjuca americana 206 

15. Heliornis fulica 227 

16. Etjrtptga helias 234 



THE BIRDS OF NORTH AND 
MIDDLE AMERICA 



By EoBEKT EiDGWAY, Continued by Herbert Feiedmann 



Part IX 



Order GRUIFORMES: Cranelike Birds 

<Fuliearlae Nitzsoh, Meckel's Deutsch. Arch. Phys., 1820, 263 (Ralli+ 
Gruldae). — Sclateb and Saivin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, viii, 139 
(Ealli+Heliornithes+Aramidae). — SHtjrELixr, Anat. Rec, ix, 1915, 606 
(Heliornlthes+Ralli+Ai'amidae) . 

<Alectorides Nitzsch, Obs. Av. Art. Carot. Com., 1829, 17 (Cariamae+ 
Otides). — ScLATER and Saivin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, viii, 141 (Eury- 
pyges+Cariamae+Psophiidae). — Baikd, Beewek, and Kidgway, Water 
Birds North Amer., i, 1884, 350 (EaUl + Grues).— Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, iii, 1903, 332 (Aramidae+Gruidae-I-Eury- 
pygidae). — Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, xii, 236 (Eurypyges+ 
Grues+Otides). 
XAlectorides Nitzsch, Syst. Pterylogr., 1840 (Grues+Cariamae+Otides+ 
Palamedeae) . 

<Grnes Bonapabte, Consp. Gen. Av., ii, 1857 [1854], 97 (Grues+Cariarase). — 
Beddabd, Struct, and Classif. Birds, 1898, 366 ( Grues +Cariamae+ 
Eurypygeae). 

<Geranomorph8e Huxley, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1867, 457 (Ralli+Grues+ 
Rhinochetidae+Otides?+Cariamae). — Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. 
Neotr., 1873, viii, 139 (Ralli+Heliornithes+Aramidse). — Salvin and God- 
man, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves., iii, 1903, 314 (Ralli-f Heliornithes+Grues). 

<Gruoidese Stejnegeb, Stand. Nat. Hist., iv, 1885, 121 (Grues+Ealli). 

<Grues aberrantes Muxer (W. DeW.), Bull, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., xxxlv, 
1915, 133 (Cariamae+Psophiidse+Eurypyges+Heliornithes). 

<Paludicol8e Amemcan Oknithologists' Union, Check-list, 1886, 138; ed. 3, 
1910, 100 (Grues+Ealli).— EiDGW AY, Man. North Amer. Birds, 1887, 2, 134 
(Grues+Ealli). 

<Gruiformes Fuebrinqeb, Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., 1888, 1566 (Eurypygeae+ 
Grues+Cariamae). — Shakpb, Rev. Rec. Att. Classif. Birds, 1891, 74; Hand- 
list, i, 1899, xvii, 176 (Grues+Eurypygeae+Cariamae) . 

=Gruiformes Gadow, Classif. Vertebr., 1898, 34 (Ralli+Grues+Cariamae+ 
Otides+Burypygeae+Heliornithes). — ^Wetmoke, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
Ixxvi, art. 24, 1930, 4 ; Smiths. Misc. Coll., Ixxxix, No. 13, 1984, 6 ; xcix, No. 7, 
1940, a— Petebs, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 141. 



2 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

<Ralliformes FtiEBEiNOBR, Unters. Morph. Syst. V6g., 1888, 1566 (Helloriiithes+ 
Ralll+Mesitidae+Hemlpodildae).— Shaepe, Bev. Bee. Att. Olassif. Birds, 
1891, TO (Balli+Heliornithes, part) .— Shxjfkldt, Anat. Bee, ix, 1915, 606 
(Ralii+Hellornlthes+Aramidae) . 

>Ralliformes P. R. Lowe, Ibis, 1931, 496 (Includes only Ballidae and 
Hellornithldae ) . 

<Ralloidea Shufblot, Anat. Bee, ix, 1915, 606 (RalU+Heliomitlies+Ara- 
midae). 

<PsophUformes Mathews, Birds Australia, iii, pt. 4, 1913, 373 (Psophiidse+ 
Gruidse) . 

=Megalornitliiformes WEyrMOEE and Miller, Auk, xliii, 1926, 342. 

> <Telmatomorphae Lowe, Ibis, 1931, 502 [includes Cariamldae, Gruidae, 

Psophiidae, Aramidae, Bhinochetldae, Eurypygidae, Otidae (but not 

Ballidae, Heliornithidae, Mesoenatidae, or Turnicidae), and the families 

of larolimicoline birds] . 

XGruimorphae Lowe, Ibis, 1931, 491 (includes Larolimicolae, but excludes 

rails, sun-bitterns ; contents as in Telmatomorphae) . 
XKolobathrornithes Boettiohes, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., xvii, 1927, 190 (in- 
cludes rails, cranes, bustards, gallinaceous birds, plovers, pratincoles, 
gulls!). 

Paludicoline, aquatic, or terrestrial birds with anterior toes veiy 
incompletely or (usually) not at all webbed; dorsal vertebrae hetero- 
coelous ; distal ends of ilium and ischium united ; os quadratus with a 
double head ; accessory f emorocaudal muscle without slip above sciatic 
foramen; coracoids with basal ends separated; spina interna sterni 
absent (except in Mesites) ; basipterygoid processes absent; crop ab- 
sent; hallux, if present, usually elevated (incumbent in Eurypyges). 

Palate schizognathous (imperfectly aegithognathous in Turnices, 
imperfectly desmognathous in Cariamae) ; nares schizorhinal (Eury- 
pyges, Grues, Cariamae) or holorhinal (Ralli) ; pervious (Eury- 
pygidae, Mesoenatidae) or impervious (Rhynochetidae) ; occipital 
fontanelles present; supraorbital impressions indistinct; interorbital 
septum fenestrated ; lachrymals not blending with ectethmoid ; interor- 
bital septum fenestrated; ramphotheca simple; angulare mandibulae 
truncated; cervical vertebrae 14-20; complete ribs 5-7; ectepicondylar 
process of humerus absent; spina interna sterni absent; hypotarsus 
with high ridges (Rhinochetidae, Ealli), complex (Grues, Otides) or 
simple (Eurypygidae) ; carotids, 2; caeca present, large or small; gall 
bladder present ; stomach a gizzard, the proventriculus zonary ; thigh 
muscle formula ABXY +, BXY-I- {Aramus, Balearica), or XY + 
(Grus leucogeranus) ; deep plantar tendons of type I, II, IV, or X, 
united by a strong vinculum ; ambiens, semitendinosus, accessory semi- 
tendinosus, and expansor secundariorum muscles present; peroneals 
both present ; intestinal convolutions of type I (peri-orthocoelous) ; oU. 
gland present, tufted (Ralli) or nude (Eurypyges, Grues, Cariamae) ; 
aftershaft present (except in Mesoenatides and Heliornithes) ; rec- 
trices 10-18 ; primaries 10-11 ; secondaries quinto- or acquinto-cubital ; 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 6 

young ptilopaedic (except in Heliornithes?) and nidifugous (except in 
Heliornithes ? and Eurypyges) . 

The 9,bove characters are common to a large group of mostly more 
or less aquatic birds that are related on the one hand to the Charadrii- 
formes and on the other to the Galliformes, occupying, in fact, a 
position somewhat intermediate between these two. It is not, how- 
ever, a homogeneous group, and it is doubtful whether the Cariamae 
and Heliornithes, at least, should not be excluded. 

The Gruiformes, as here defined, agree with both the Charadrii- 
formes and Galliformes in possession of the following characters: 

(1) Schizog-nathous palate (desmognathous, however, in Car- 
iamae and aegithognathous in Turnices) . 

(2) Double head to quadrate bone. 

(3) Union of distal ends of ilium and ischium. 

(4) Absence of slip to accessory femorocaudal muscles. 
They agree with the Charadriiformes, but differ from the Galli- 
formes, in the following : 

(1) Basal ends of coracoids separated or merely touch each 
other. 

(2) Absence of spina interna sterni muscle. 

(3) Intestinal convolutions of Type I (instead of Type V). 
From the Charadriiformes the Gruiformes differ in 

(1) Heterocoelous (instead of opisthocoelous) dorsal vertebrae. 

(2) Absence of basipterygoid processes. 

KEY TO THE SUBORDERS OF GRUIFORMES 

a. Palate schizognathous. 

6. Accessory tendinosus muscle absent; deep plantar tendons of Types 11 or 
X; thigh muscle formula A B X; toes laterally lobed; rectrices 18 or 

more Heliornithes (p. 224) 

66. Accessory tendinosus muscle present; deep plantar tendons of Type I; 
thigh muscle formula ABXY, or XT; toes not lobed (except in Ralli, 
part) ; rectrices 10-16. 
0. Hallux present ; metasternum 2 notched or entire ; oil gland present ; adult 
downs on both pterylae and apteria. 
d. Metasternum 2 notched, 
e. Powder downs absent; cervical vertebrae 14-17; nares holorhinal; 
hallux elevated. 
f. Oil gland tufted ; tail of 10-14 rectrices ; cervical vertebrae 14-15. 

Balli (p. 38) 
ft. Oil gland nude ; tail of 16 rectrices ; cervical vertebrae 17. 

Mesoenatides (extralimltal)' 

ee. Powder downs present; cervical vertebrae 18; nares schizorhinal ; 

hallux decumbent; oil gland nude; tail large, fan-shaped, with 

12 rectrices; wing eutaxic Eurypygae (p. 2-32) 

' =Mesitides Sharpe, Kev. Rec. Att. Classif . Birds, 1891, 74 ; Handlist, i, 1899, 
180. =Mesoenatides Wetmore and Miller, Auk, xliii, 1926, 342. — Wetmore, Proc. 
XJ. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxvi, art. 24, 1930, 4 ; Smiths. Misc. Coll., Ixxxix, No. 13, 1934, 
6 ; xcix, No. 7, 1940, 6.— Peters, Check List Birds of World, ii, 1934, 141. 



4 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Ad. Metasternum entire, 
e. Occipital foramina, above foramen magnum, well developed. 

Grues ( p. 4 ) 

ee. No occipital foramina above the foramen magnum. 

Bhynocheti (extralimltal) ' 
cc. Hallux absent ; metasternum 4-notched ; oil gland absent ; adult downs 

on apteria only; wing diastataxic Otldes (extralimltal)' 

aa. Palate desmognathous or aegithognathous. 
6. Palate desmognathous ; deep plantar tendons of type IV; complete ribs 5; 

wing eutaxic Cariamae (extralimital)* 

66. Palate aegithognathous or nearly so Tumices (extralimital)' 

Suborder Grues: Cranes and Limpkins 

> Grues Cuviee, Efegne Anim., ed. 2, i, 1829, 506. 

>Grues Fubbeingeb, Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., ii, 1888, 1566 (includes Ca- 
riamae). — Wetmobe, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxvi, art. 24, 1930, 4; Smiths. 
Misc. Coll., Ixxxix, No. 13, 1934, 6 (includes Ealli). 

< Grues Ameeican Oknithologists' Union, Check List, 3d. ed., 1910, 100 (Gruldae 
-fAramidae). 

<Gruidae FtJebrinqee, Unters. Syst. Morph. Vog., ii, 1888, 1203 (Gruidae+Ara- 
midae). 

=Gruidae Gadow, Classif. Vertebr., 1898, 34. 

=Gruidae Knowlton, Birds of World, 1909, 49, 327. 

<Gruidae Beddabd, Struct, and Classif. Birds, 1895, 366 (Gruidae+Aramidae). 

=Gruoidea Shuteubt, Anat. Rec, ix, Oct. 1915, 750. 

<Grues veri Miiieb (W. deW.), Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist, xxxiv, 1915, 132 
(Gruidae+Aramidae) . 

>Megalornithes Wetmoee and Mlller (W. deW.), Auk, xliii, 1926, 342. 



'=Rhinochetes Sharpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 180. =Rhinochetedes Sharpe, Rev. 
Rec. Att. Classif. Birds, 1891, 74. =Rhynocheti Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
Ixxvi, art. 24, 1930, 4; Smiths. Misc. Coll., Ixxxix, No. 13, 1934, 6; xcix. No. 7, 
1940, 6; Peters, Check List Birds of World, 1, 1931, 215. =Rhinocheti Strese- 
mann, Handb. Zool., vii, 1934, 769. 

°=Pedionomi Vieillot, Analyse, 1816, 54. >Otides Fiirbringer, Unters. Morph. 
Syst. Vog., ii, 1888, 1566 (suborder of Charadriiformes ! ; includes Oedicneml- 
dae). = Otides Shaepe, Rev. Rec. Att. Classif. Birds, 1891, 73; Hand-list, i, 1899, 
xvi, 173 (suborder of Charadriiformes; Otididae only). — ^Wetmore, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., Ixxvi, art. 24, 1930, 4 ; Smiths. Misc. Coll. Ixxxix, No. 13, 1934, 7 ; xcix. 
No. 7, 1940, 7.— Peters, Check List Birds of World, ii, 1934, 217. 

'=Cariamoide8e Stejneger, Stand. Nat. Hist., iv, 1885, 119 in text. = Dicholophi 
Sharpe, Rev. Rec. Att. Classif. Birds, 1891, 74; Hand-list, 1, 1899, 182. = Caria- 
moldea Shufeldt, Anat. Rec, ix, 1915, 750. = Cariamae Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., Ixxvi, art. 24, 1930, 4 ; Smiths. Misc. CoU., Ixxxix, No. 13, 1934, 7 ; xcix, No. 7, 
1940, 7.— Peters, Check List Birds of World, ii, 1934, 216. 

■=Turnicomorphae Huxley, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 303. = Hemipodii 
Sharpe, Rev. Rec. Att. Classif. Birds, 1891, 69 ; Hand-list, i, 1899, 48. = Turnices 
Wetmore and Miller, Auk, xliii, 1926, 342. — ^Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxvl, 
art. 24, 1930, 4 ; Smiths. Misc. Coll., Ixxxix, No. 13, 1934, 6 ; xcix, No. 7, 1940, c! 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA O 

Gruiformes with the metastemum entire; supraorbital furrows 
present, well developed; occipital foramina present (except in Pso- 
phiidae) and furcizla Y-shaped. 

Palate schizognathous ; nares schizorhinal (holorhjnal in Pso- 
phiidae), pervious; basipterygoid processes absent; occipital 
fontanelles and supraorbital glands present; interorbital septum 
incomplete; cervical vertebrae 17-20; fused dorsal vertebrae 2-3 (4) ; 
complete ribs 6-7; metasternum entire; spina externa sterni present 
(except in Psophiidae), "enormous," spina interna absent; hypo- 
tarsus complex; thigh-muscle formula ABXY+ (usually), BXY+, 
XY+ ; the ambiens, semitendinosus and accessory semitendinosus 
muscles present; biceps slip present; expansor secundariorum pres- 
ent; anconaeus with a broad humeral slip; deep plantar tendons of 
type I, united by a strong vinculum ; stomach a strong gizzard, the 
proventriculus zonary; gall bladder present; caeca (1 or 2) large; 
intestinal convolutions of type I (as in Kalli and Otides) ; syrinx 
tracheobronchial ; hallux present ; oil gland nude or tufted ; aftershaft 
present; powder downs absent; adult downs on both pterylae and 
apteria; cervical pterylosis with lateral apteria; fifth remex absent 
(aquincubital) or present (quincubital) ; rectrices 10-12. 

KEY TO THE FAMILIES OF GETJES 

a. Nares holorhlnal ; occipital foramina absent ; hypapophyses on 3 dorsal verte- 
brae; spina externa sterni absent; wing eutaxic (quintocubltal) ; rectrices 

10; bill short, almost galline Psophiidae (extralimital)' 

aa. Nares schizorhlnal ; occipital foramina present; hypapophyses on cervical 

vertebrae only; spina externa sterni present; wing diastataxic (aquinto- 

cubital) ; rectrices 12 ; bill elongated, nongalline. 

6. Femorocaudal muscle absent; caeca situated laterally and close together 

(peculiar) ; hallux large, nearly as long as basal phalanx of middle 

toe, incumbent ; middle toe at least two-thirds as long as tarsus ; head 

completely feathered; bill not shorter than tarsus Aramidae (p. 27) 

66. Femorocaudal muscle present (except In genus Balearica) ; caeca situated 
opposite one another; hallux smaU, much shorter than basal phalanx 
of middle toe, elevated; middle toe less than half as long as tarsus; 
head partly naked (except in young) or else with ornamental plumes; 
bill much shorter than tarsus , Gruidae (p. 6) 



° =Hilebatse Vieillot, Analyse, 1816, 60.=Psophidse Lilljeborg, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, 1866, 15.=Psophiidse Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., ii, 1857, 102. — Carus, 
Handb. Zool., i, 1868-75, 341.— Furbringer, TJnters. Morph. Syst. V6g., ii, 1888, 
1208, 1566.— Peters, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 155.=Psophiidse Sclater 
and Salvin, Norn. Av. Neotr., 1873, viii, 141. — Stejneger, Stand. Nat. Hist., iv, 1885, 
122, in text— Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. xxiii, 1894, xil, 278 ; Hand-list, i, 1899, 
xvii, 181.— Beddard, Struct, and Classif. Birds, 1898, 374.=Psophiinse Bonaparte, 
Consp. Gen. Av., ii, 1857, 102.— Psophlinse Knowlton, Birds of World, 1909, 337.= 
Psophinee Lilljeborg, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1866, 17.=Psophi8e (suborder) 
Sharpe, Rev. Rec. Att. Classif. Birds, 1891, 74 ; Hand-list, 1, 1899, xvii, 181. (Com- 
posed of a single genus, Psophia Linnaeus, containing about half a dozen species, 
peculiar to the Amazon region and the Guianas in South America.) 



i 

6 BULLETESr 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEXXM: 

Family GRUIDAE : Cranes 

=iErophoni Viecllot, Analyse, 1816, 59. 

=Gruidae Bonapabte, Consp. Gen. Ay., li, 1857 [1854], 97.— Baibd, Kep. Pacific 

R R. Surv., ix, 1858, 651, 653.— Cabus, Handb. Zool., i, 1868-75, 342. 
=Gruidie Lilljeboeg, Proc. Zool, Soc. Lcmd., 1866, 445.— Baibd, Bbewee, and 

KiDGWAT, Water Birds North Amer., i, 1884, 350, 403.— Coues, Key North 

Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 1884, 666.— Stejnegeb, Stand. Nat. Hist., iv, 1885, 123. 

— ^Ameeicaw Oenithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, 138; 3d ed., 1910, 

IOC— Shabpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxili, 1894, xii, 248 ; Hand-list, i, 1899, 

xvi, 176. — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Oentr.-Amer., Aves, iii, 1903, 335.— 

WimiORB, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxvi, 1930, art. 24, 4 ; Smiths. Misc. Coll., 

Ixxxix, No. 13, 1984, 6 ; xcix. No. 7, 1940, 6. 
=Gruinae Bonapabte, Consp. Gen. Av., ii, 1857 [1854], 97. — FtjBBBiNGEE, Unters. 

Morph. Syst. V6g., ii, 1888, 1566.— Gadow, Bronn's Thier Keichs, Vog., il, 

1891, 184. 
=Grues American Oenithologistb' Union, Check List, 1886, 138. — Shabpe, 

Rev. Rec. Att. Classif. Birds, 1891, 74 ; Hand-list, i, 1899, xvi, 176. 
<Grueae Bonapabte, Consp. Gen. Av., ii, 1857 [1854], 97 (genera Qrus, Antigone, 

and Leucomedontia) . 
<Anthropoideae Bonapabte, Consp. Gen. Av., ii, 1857 [1854], 97 (genera 

Tetrapteryiv, Anthropoides, and Balearica) . 
=Psophiid8e Mathevits, Birds Australia, iii, pt. 4, 1913, 373. 
=Megalornithidae Wetmobe and MnxEB (W. deW.), Auk, xlill, 1926, 341. 

Large, long-legged and long-necked Grues with the hallux small 
(much shorter than basal phalanx of middle toe) and elevated ; mid- 
dle toe less than half as long as tarsus ; biU elongated (but much shorter 
than tarsus), straight, nongalline; femorocaudal muscle present (ex- 
cept in Balearica) , and with head partly naked (except in young) or 
else adorned with ornamental plumes. 

As additional anatomical characters, it may be stated that the oil 
gland is tufted ; rectrices 12 in number ; fused dorsal vertebrae 2-3 ; 
hj^apophyses on cervical vertebrae only, these 19-20; spina externa 
sterni present ; and that the wing is diastataxic. 

Although bearing some superficial resemblance to the larger herons 
and storks, the cranes are very different structurally and far more 
nearly related to the rails. They are omnivorous but are mainly vege- 
table feeders, eating grain and tender herbage as well as mice and 
other forms of animal life. 

The family has no representatives in South America, in the Malayan 
Archipelago, or in Polynesia. Two peculiar genera occur in Africa. 
The remaining genera are Palearctic, Nearctic, and Australian, one 
only occurring in North America, represented by two species. 

Genus GRUS Pallas 

Ch-us PATI.A8, Misc. Zool., 1766, 66. (Typie, by tautonymy, Ardea grus Linnaeus.) 
Pseudogeranus Shabpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, i, 1893, xxxvii. (Type, Orus 
leucauchen Temminck.) 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 7 

Sarcogeranus Shabpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, i. 1893, xxxvil. (Type, Grus Jeu- 

cogeranus Pallas.) 
Limnogeranus Shabpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, i, 1893, xxxvil. (Type, Ardea 

americana Linnaeus.) 
Jlegalomis Gray, List Gen. Birds, 1841, 85. (Type, Ardea grus Linnaeus.) 




Figure 1. — Grus canadensis canadensis. 

Leuoogeranus Bonapabte, Compt. Rend., xl, 1855, 720. (Type, Grus leuoogeranus 

Pallas.) 
Antigone Reiohenbaoh, Handb. Spec. Orn., 1852, xxiii. (Type, Grus torquata 

yieillot— Grus collaris Boddaert.) 

272607 — Jl 2 



8 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Matheiiysia Ibedale, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, xxvll, 1910, 47. (Nom. nov. pro 

Antigone Reichenbach, 1853, not Antigone Gray, 1847.) 
Mathewsena Ieedam, Austr. Av. Rev., il, 1814, 82 (Nom. nov. pro Mathewsia 
Iredale, 1911, not Mathewsia Saulcy, 1868.) 

Generic characters.— BiM lengthened, straight, the upper mandible 
only slightly decurved at the extreme tip ; the commissure and other 
outlines straight. Nasal groove very large and open, extending over 
the basal two-thirds of the bill. Nostrils broadly open, pervious; 
the anterior extremity halfway from the tip of bill to eye. The 
upper half of the head naked, warty, but with short hairs. 

Legs much lengthened; toes short, hardly more than one-third 
the tarsus. Inner toe rather longer than the outer, its claw much 
larger. Hind toe elevated, short. Toes connected at the base by 
membrane. Tarsi broadly scutellate anteriorly. Tertials longer 
than the primaries, decurved, their webs in some species decomposed; 
first quill not much shorter than the second. 

This genus is nearly cosmopolitan, each of the great continents, 
except Africa and South America, possessing its peculiar species; 
South America is without a single representative of the family. 
Asia comes first in number of species (seven). North America coming 
next, with two, while Europe and Australia possess only one each — 
the former in common with western Asia (and wintering in Africa). 

KEY TO THE AMERICAN SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF GRUS 

a. Tarsus usually 275 nun. or more ; bill stout, its depth through the base about 
one-fourth the length of the culmen ; distance from posterior end of nostril 
to base of upper mandible much more than one-half the distance from 
anterior border of nostril to tip of upper mandible. 
6. Cheeks bare ; plumage pure white except for black primaries. 

Grus americanus, ad. (p. 9) 
66. Cheeks feathered ; plumage white heavily washed with buffy ochraceous. 

Grus americanus, young (p. 9) 

aa. Tarsus under 260 mm. ; bill more slender ; its depth through base less than 

one-fourth the length of the cuhnen ; distance from posterior end of nostril 

to base of upper mandible less than one-half the distance from anterior 

end of nostril to tip of upper mandible. 

6. Entire plumage deep slate-gray, sometimes tinged with rusty; forehead 

and anterior part of crown with unfeathered, red, warty skin. 

c. Size smaller, exposed culmen usually under 100 mm. In length, almost 

never more than 110 mm Grus canadensis canadensis, ad. (p. 14) 

cc. Size larger, exposed culmen always well over 110 mm. in length. 
d. Hind neck and occiput paler — pallid mouse gray to pale mouse gray. 

Grus canadensis tabida, ad. (p. 20) 
dd. Hind neck and occiput darker — light mouse gray to mouse gray, 
e. Tarsus shorter, under 215 mm_Grus canadensis nesiotes, ad. (p. 26) 
ee. Tarsus longer, 220 mm. or over. 

Grus canadensis pratensis, ad. (p. 25) 
66. Entire plumage brovraish washed with rusty; head completely feathered. 

Grus canadensis, all races, juv. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA \f 

GRUS AMERICANUS (Linnaeus) 

Whooping Ceane 

Adidt (sexes alike). — ^Whole crown and anterior part of occiput 
covered by a warty or granulated carmine reddish skin sparsely 
covered by black hairlike feathers, these commoner on the crown 
than on the occiput; lores and malar region, including a narrow 
angular strip extending from the latter down each side of throat, 
also naked, carmine, and similarly bristled, the bristles denser anteri- 
orly; an elongate (about 50 mm. long) postoccipital wedge-shaped 
patch of dark plumbeous feathers ; all other plumage of neck, body, 
wings, and tail pure white except only the primaries and their greater 
upper coverts and the alula, which are uniform slate black; bill 
wax yellow tipped with dull greenish or yellowish ; iris yellow, tarsi 
and toes black; the eye surrounded above and below and in front, 
but not behind, by bare skin, the lower eyelid feathered, the upper 
nearly bare. 

Jvmenal (sexes alike)'. — Whole head feathered, including fore- 
head and lores, the feathers on the parts that become bare in the 
adults short and somewhat dusky; rest of plumage except primaries 
and their greater upper coverts, and the alula whitish, heavily 
washed, mottled, and blotched with pinkish cinnamon to cinnamon- 
buff and even to sayal brown, this color practically solid on the top 
of the head ; the upperparts of the body and the wings much mixed 
with white feathers and cinnamon-buff ones, the latter more numerous 
on the scapulars, interscapulars, and back, and less so in the wings ; 
the darkest of the colored feathers are in the scapulars as a rule; 
primaries dull blackish; alula and greater upper primary coverts 
dull blackish washed with buffy or ochraceous; bill as in adult, but 
darker, more blackish at tip. 

Natal down. — General color of upperparts dull cinnamon to sayal 
brown, deepening into mikado brown or russet on rump, where still 
darker (liver brown or bay) along median line, continued along 
median line of back, paler and grayer on neck, still paler behind 
wings; underparts pale dull grayish buffy or dull brownish whitish, 
tipped or suffused with pale cinnamon; bill pale buffy brown, flesh 
color basally, with a small whitish spot on the upper mandible; tarsi 
and toes light brownish. 

' The length of time required to attain adult plumage is not known. It is 
similarly not definitely known whether there are any progressive changes in 
.voung birds or whether the adult plumage is acquired by a postjuvenal molt 
at the end of the first year. 



10 BULLETIN 50, XJNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Adult male.—Wmg 550-630 (601.7) ; tail 205-245 (223.8) ; exposed 
culmen 129-147 (138.5) ; tarsus 265-301 (276.5) ; middle toe without 
claw 98-118 (105.2 mm).* 

Adult female.— Wing 583-610 (one 535), (597.9); tail 194r-238 
(217.3); exposed culmen 132-148 (one 117), (136.7); tarsus 260-295 
(281.4) ; middle toe without claw 101-114 (107.3) mm.» 

Range. — Interior of North America, west to the Eocky Mountains, 
north across the plains of Saskatchewan to southern Mackenzie, south 
to the southern portion of the Mexican plateau (Jalisco) and south- 
eastward along the Gulf coast to Florida. Formerly occasional along 
the Atlantic coast of the United States ; breeds from central Illinois, 
Iowa, etc., northward. 

The range of the whooping crane is now only a small fraction 
of the original distribution as the species is on the verge of extinction 
and probably breeds only locally in south-central Canada. The 
accounts given below are for the original distribution of the species. 

Breeds from Mackenzie (Fort Simpson; Fort Resolution; Fort 
Anderson); Alberta (Fort Chippewyan; Whitford Lake, Stony 
Plain) ; Saskatchewan (Dundern) ; Manitoba (Moose Mountain 
Shoal Lake ; Winnipeg ; Fort Churchill) ; North Dakota (Larimore 
Pembina County; Bismarck; Lake Benton) ; Miimesota (Elbow Lake 
Grant County) ; and Iowa (Hancock County; Eagle Lake; Dubuque 
Midway; Spirit Lake) south to eastern Alberta (Whitford Lake) 
eastern Montana ? (no definite breeding records) ; Nebraska (Word 
Lake?) and Iowa (Black Hawk County; near Hayfield, Hancock 
County; Franklin County; Dubuque; Spirit Lake; Baxter; Winne- 
bago County; Crystal Lake). 

Winters on the Gulf coast of the United States and central Mexico 
from Georgia; Florida (Hastings; Lee County; Kissimmee River; 
Lake Okeechobee ; Fort Myers) ; Alabama (Dauphin Island ; Pratt- 
ville; Cypress Slough; Millwood); Louisiana (Avery Island; Ver- 
milion Bay; Pecan Island; Chenier au Tigre) ; and Texas (San 
Antonio; Corpus Christi; Padre Island; Brownsville; Brazos River; 
Galveston Island; Houston; Concho County) to Mexico (Tamauli- 
pas — Matamoras; Jalisco — Hacienda El Morino, and Guadalajaro 
and La Barca; Guanajuato — ^Silao). 

In migration occurs east to Ontario (Yarker; Emsdale) ; New 
York (Cayuga Lake), New Jersey (Beesleys Point; Cape May); 
Pennsylvania (Philadelphia; Chester County); South Carolina 
(Waccamaw River) ; and Georgia (St. Simon Island) ; and west 
occasionally to Oregon (Washington County) ; California (Butte and 

8 Fifteen specimens from Canada, Minnesota, Kansas, Illinois, South Dakota, 
and Texas. Wings measured (chord) to tip of longest primary (not tertial). 
• Seven specimens from Minnesota, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Texas. 



BIRDS OB' NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 11 

Sutter Counties; Imperial Valley?) ; Wyoming (Yellowstone Park) ; 
Colorado (Fort Collins; Loveland) ; and New Mexico (Fort Thorn). 
In recent years recorded only from the Great Plains area on migra- 
tion ; southern Texas in winter. 
Type locality. — Hudson Bay. 

[Ardea^ amerlcwm Linnaexts, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, i, 1758, 142 ; ed. 12, i, 1766, 234 
( South Carolina ; based on Qrus americana alba Catesby, Carolina, i, 75, 
pi. 75; Edwards, Av., 132, pi. 132).— Gmeun, Syst. Nat., i. pt. 2, 1789, 621.— 
Latham, Index Orn., li, 1790, 675. 

A7-fl.ea americana Foester, Phllos. Trans., Ixii, 1772, 409 (York Fort, Hudson 
Bay).— BoDDAEKT, Tabl. PI. Bnl., 1783, 53.— Ttxbton, Syst. Nat., i, 1806, 
372.— Wilson, Amer. Orn., viii, 1814, 20, pi. 64, fig. 3. 

Alrdea] americana Bonapabtb, Journ. Acad. Nat Sci. Philadelphia, v, pt. i, 
1825, 66 (crit.) ; Obs. Wilson's Amer. Orn., 1826, 178. 

Orus americana VrEnxoT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., xiil, 1817, 557. — Stephens, 
Shaw's Gen. Zool., xi, pt. 2, 1819, 528 (Hudson Bay). — Bonapaete, Journ. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, v, pt. i, 1825, 66; Obs. WUson's Amer. Orn., 
1826 [148]; Contr. Maclurian Lye, i, 1827, 24; Geogr. and Comp. List, 

1838, 46.— Obd, ed. Wilson's Amer. Orn., viii, 1825, 20.— Swainson and 
KiCHAKDSoN, Fauna Bor.-Amer., ii, 1831, 372. — Lesson, Trait6 d'Qrn., 1831, 
587 (Philadelphia). — Ntjttaix, Man. Orn. United States and Canada, Water 
Birds, 1834, 34.— Audubon, Orn. Biogr., iii, 1835, 202, pi. 216; Synopsis, 

1839, 219; Birds Amer., Svo ed., v, 1842, 188, pis. 313, 314.— Townsend (J. 
K.) Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadephia, viii, 1839, 156 (NW. United 
States).— McCall., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1851, 223 (San 
Antonio and Corpus Christi, Tex., Nov.). — Thompson, Nat. Hist. Vermont, 
1853, 103.— Bbyant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, iv, 1853, 303 (crlt.).— 
Wailes, Geol. Rep. Mississippi, 1854, 321. — Kennicott, Trans. Illinois Agr. 
Assoc, i, 1855, 587 (Illinois). — Putnam, Proc. Essex Inst., i, 1856, 229 (very 
doubtful, according to Cones, Proc. Essex Inst., v, 1868, 289). — ?Kneeland, 
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat Hist., vi, 1857, 237 (Keweenaw Point, Lake Su- 
perior). — BiAKisTON, Ibis, 1863, 128 (Saskatchewan; Fort Simpson). — 
SCHLBGEL, Mus. Pays-Bas, v, No. 30, livr. 7, 1865, 4.— Dbesser, Ibis, 1866, 
30 (San Antonio, Point Isabel, Galveston Island, and Brazos River, Tex.; 
Matamoras, Mexico). — ^Tubnbull, Birds East Pennsylvania and New Jer- 
sey, 1869, 43 (formerly breeding at Cape May, now very rare; 3 at 
Beasleys Point in 1851).— Tmppe, Proc. Essex Inst., 1871, 118 (Minnesota, 
occasionally breeding) ; Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xv, 1872, 240 (Decatur 
County, Iowa).— Aiken, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xv, 1872, 209 (Colo- 
rado, occasional during migration). — Snow, Birds Kansas, 1873, 9 (rare In 
migration).— CouES, Birds Northwest, 1874, 530; Bull. U. S. Geol. and 
Geogr. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 646 (Souris River, N. Dak., Aug.-Oct.) ; Check- 
list, ed. 2, 1882, No. 668.— Langdon, Birds Cincinnati, 1877, 16 (rare 
migrant).— Sennett, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Sui-v. Terr., iv, 1878, 61 
(Brownsville, Tex., winter and up to Apr. 1) ; v, 1879, 435 (Padre Island, 
Tex., Mar.).— RoBEETs and Bennee, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 19 
(Grant County, Minn., breeding). — ^Robekts, Amer. Nat., xiv, 1880, 108-114, 
fig. 11 (descr. trachea).— Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 202 
(Cat North Amer. Birds, No. 582) ; Norn. North Amer. Birds, 1881, No. 
582.— Neheunq, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vu, 1882, 223 (Houston, Tex., 
Nov.-Mar.). — Baibd, Beewee, and RmowAT, Water Birds North Amer., i, 
1884, 404.— American Oenithologists' Union, Cheek List, 1886, and ed. 



12 BULLETIN 5 0, XJNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

2, 1895, No. 204; ed. 3, 1910. p. 100; ed. 4, 1931, 93.-MACFAErANE, Proc. 
V. S. Nat. Mus., xiv, 1891, 425 (Fort Anderson, Mackenzie, in migration)^— 
Seton, Auk, lii, 1886, 150 (Moose Mountain and Shoal Lake, Manitoba, 
breeding).— ANTHONY, Auk, ill, 1886, 164 (Washington County, Oreg., rare 
in fall). -Thompson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1891, 491 (Manitoba; 
rare summer resident, fairly common migrant).— Nutting, BuU. Labr. State 
Univ. Iowa, ii, 1893, 262 (Grand Rapids, lower Saskatchewan, in migra- 
tion).— Jour, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., svi, 1894, Y90 (Hacienda El Molino, 
JaUsco).— Stone, Birds Eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 1894, 65 
(New Jersey, rare).^CooKE, Birds Colorado, 1897, 62 (Fort Collins; Love- 
land; rare migrant) ; U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 4, fig. 1 (range and 
migration routes). — Butlee, Rep. State Geol. Indiana for 1897 (1898), 669 
(formerly in Lake County and near Bloomington, Ind.). — Cobeaux, Ottawa 
Nat., 1900, 26 (s. Saskatchewan, migrant).— Beyee, Proc. Louisiana Soc. 
Nat. for 1897-99 (1900), 93 (coast of Louisiana, common in winter).— 
Deott, Journ. Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist., xix, 1900, 174 (near Cincinnati, 
Ohio, Aug. 1895).— Peebde, North Amer. Fauna, No. 22, 1902, 92 (Hudson 
Bay, fide Edwards and Hearne) ; No. 27, 1908, 311 (formerly breeding 
north to Barren Grounds, Mackenzie). — Kumlien and Hoixisteb, Bull. Wis- 
consin Nat. Hist. Soc, iii, 1903, 36 (last record of capture in Wisconsin, 
Oct. 1878).— Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves., iii, 1903, 837 
(Matamoras, Tamaulipas; Guadalajara and Hacienda El Molino, Jalisco).— 
WooDEUFF, Chicago Acad. Sci. Bull. 6, 1907, 56 (Chicago area, rare tran- 
sient). — WmMANN, Birds Missouri, 1907, 56 (few records). — ^Andeeson, Proc. 
Davenport Acad. Sci., xi, 1907, 101 (Iowa records; habits). — Beyee, Alli- 
son and KoPMAN, Auk, xxv, 1908, 178 (coast of Louisiana in winter). — 
CoEY, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. 131, 1909, 376 (Illinois and Wisconsin).— 
Wayne, Birds South Carolina, 1910, 33 (Waccamaw River, about 1850; no 
recent records). — Eaton, Birds New York, i, 1910, 260 (no recent record). — 
Babeows, Michigan Bird Life, 1912, 148 (no recent record). — Fobbush, 
Game-birds, Wild-fowl, and Shore-birds, 1912, 477 (history). — Swenk, Auk, 
XXX, 1913, 430 (Wood Lake, Cherry County, Nebr., Oct 16, 1912, five 
specimens).— Golsan and Holt, Auk. xxxi, 1914, 218 (near PrattviUe, 
Ala., Nov. or Dec. 1899).— Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., lix, 1915, 131 
(original of Wilson's fig. in coll. Mus. Comp. Zool.). — ^Taveenee, Ottawa Nat, 
xxxii, 1919, 145 (Shoal Lake, Manitoba, formerly breeding). — Habeis, 
Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, xxiii, 1919, 244 (near Kansas City, Mo., 
spring, 1893, Apr. 14, 1904, and Mar. 27, 1913). — Conovee, Auk, xxxix, 

1922, 412 (Red Deer Lake, Cherry County, Nebr., 2 specimens, Oct. 14, 
1921). — Wood (N. A.), Univ. Michigan Mus. Zool. Misc. Publ. No. 10, 

1923, 24 (Pembina County, N. Dak., fall 1909; Bismarck, 2 small flocks, 
Sept. 16, 1920, and Apr. 8, 1922).— Nice (M. M. and L. B.), Birds Okla- 
homa, 1924, 28 (genl. ; Oklahoma).— Pindae, Wils. Bull., xxxvi, 1924, 204 
(very rare in Arkansas). — Laesox, Wils. Bull., xxxvii, 1925, 24 (Sioux 
Falls region, S. Dak.). — Pindae, Wils. Bull., xxxvii, 1925, 82 (Fulton 
Coimty, Ky.). — Poebush, Birds Massachusetts and Other New England 
States, i, 1925, 345 (fig. ; descr. ; habits ; New England) . — Buncoe, Auk, 
xlii, 1925, 419 (Bardstown, Ky.).^ — Griscom and Ceosby, Auk, xlii, 1925, 
526 (Brownsville, Tex.; winter). — Taveknee, Birds Western Canada, 1926, 
121 (fig.; descr.; habits: distr. ; w. Canada). — Williams, Wils. Bull., 
xxxviii, 1926, 24 (Red River Valley, N. Dak.). — Bailey, Auk, xlv, 1928, 
277 (winter; Chenier au Tigr6, La.). — Bailey (F. M.), Birds New Mexico, 
1928, 237 (New Mexico, formerly; Fort Thorn in migration). — Nelson, 



BIRDS OF NOETH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 13 

Condor, xxxl, 1929, 146 (Pecan Island, La.).— Lewis, Wils. BuU., xlll, 
1930, 41 (nw. Oklahoma; fairly large flocks seen in 1909, 1910, 1911; 
one bird seen in 1912; none since).— Kemsies, Wils. Bull., xlii, 1930, 
203 (Yellowstone Park, Wyo.). — Howaed, Condor, xxxii, 1930, 84 (Pleisto- 
cene remains, Kancho la Brea). — Baeeg, Univ. Arkansas Agr. Exp. Stat 
Bull. 258, 1931, 56 (descr. ; Arkansas, formerly a common migrant; only 
two records — Crocketts BlufC and Sunken Lands). — Nice (M. M.), Birds 
Oklahoma, rev. ed., 1931, 83 (Oklahoma, formerly a common migrant, 
not recorded for 20 years; Cleveland County; Woods County; Fort Ar- 
buckle). — Sutton, Condor, xxxiii, 1931, 157 (near Eskimo Point, Hudson 
Bay). — ^RoBEBTS, Birds Minnesota, i, 1932, 429 (formerly a summer resident 
of prairie regions of Minnesota ; now a rare migrant ; former Minnesota 
nesting dates — ^Elbow Lake, Grant County, May 21, 1876 ; Hancock County, 
Iowa, just over the State line, May 4, 1883, and May 26, 1894; migra- 
tion — Heron Lake, Mar. 20-Apr. 10, Nov. 13 ; Kittson County, April ; 
Roseau County).' — Howeu,, Florida Bird Life, 1932, 196 (indefinite re- 
cords from east of Kissimmee River and Lake Okeechobee; bones from 
Pleistocene deposits at Melbourne, Seminole, and on the Itchtuckee 
River.) — Burns, Wils. Bull., xliv, 1932, 28 (specimen In Peale coU.). — 
GuTHKiB, Wils. Bull., xllv, 1932, 102 in text (eats snakes). — Soper, Nat. 
Mus. Canada, Bull. 53, 1928, 95 (southern Baffin Island).— DuMont,, 
Univ. Iowa Stud. Nat. Hist., xv, 1934, 59 (extinct in Iowa; numerous 
records in earlier times). — Bailey, Auk, li, 1934, 399 (3 known to winter 
at Chenier au Tigr^, La.; 7 seen Dec. 16). — Petees, Check-list Birds of 
World, li, 1934, 152.— Taveenek, Birds Canada, 1934, 168 (descr.; habits; 
Canada west of Great Lakes to foothills of Rocky Mountains; now very 
rare). — Tavekneb and Sutton, Ann. Carnegie Mus., xxiii, 1984, 31 (seen. 
Eskimo Point, 160 mUes north of Churchill, Manitoba). — Youngwoeth, 
Wils. Bull., xlvii, 1935, 217 (Fort Sisseton, S. Dak.; no records in recent 
year). — ^McIlhenny, Auk, Iv, 1938, 670 (4 seen June 5, 1937, Avery 
Island, La.). 

Orus americanaf Wyman, Condor, xxiv, 1922, 182 in text (doubtful sight record, 
Imperial Valley, Calif.). 

lOrusJ americana Bonapaetb, Consp. Gen. Av., ii, 1857 [1854], 99. — Geat, Hand- 
list, iii, 1871, 24, No. 10085. 

G[r«s] americana Maximtt.tan, Journ. fiir Orn., vii, 1859, 82 (descr. of adult 
female; Wabash, Ind. ; Albion, 111.; Missouri River; Yellowstone.). — 
CouES, Key North Amer. Birds, 2d ed., 1884, 667.— Ridgwat, Man. North 
Amer. Birds, 1887, 135. 

Megalornls americana Bailey and Weight, Wils. Bull., xliii, 1931, 193 (Chenier 
au Tigr4, La.). 

Orus amerioanus Heney, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1855, 315 (New 
Mexico) ; 1859, 108 (New Mexico).— Cassdj, in Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. 
Surv., ix, 1858, 654.— Baied, Cat. North Amer. Birds, 1859, No. 478.— 
Babnaed, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst, for 1860 (1861), 438 (Chester County, 
Pa.).— CouES, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xii, 1868, 123 (winter; South 
Carolina).— Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 130 (Leavenworth, 
Kans.), 182 (e. Kansas).— Ridgway, BuU. Essex Inst., v, 1873, 177 (Colo- 
rado).— Coues, Check-list, 1874, No. 462.— Lloyd, Auk, iv, 1887, 185 (Concho 
County, w. Texas, rare migrant ) .—Wood (N. A.), Auk, xl, 1923, 692 (near 
Edinburgh, Walsh County, N. Dak., flock of 8, another of 12, spring of 
1923); Auk, xlii, 1925, 452 (Lake Benton, N. Dak.). — Meeshon, Auk, xlv, 
1928, 202 in text (near Dundern, Saskatchewan).— Cheisty, Auk, xlv, 1928, 



14 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

287 (Lake Okeechobee; s. of Imnokalee; near Fort Myers; Indian Klver; 
near Stuart, Fla.)-— [Akthub] Birds Louisiana, 1931, 231 (formerly abund- 
ant on Louisiana coastal marshes in winter; 4 birds seen on Rockefeller 
Wildlife Kefuge; winter of 1928-29). 

ICrTus] americanus Coues, Key North Amer. Birds, 1872, 271. 

G[r««] a/mericanus Ridgwat, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, x, 1871, 387 (Illi- 
nois) .—Nelson, Bull. Essex Inst, viii, 1876, 133 (ne. lUinois, once abun- 
dant, now rare; still common and a few breeding in central Illinois). 

Lvmnogeranus americanug Shakpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Union, i, 1893, p. xirviil; 
Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 259. — OBEasHOLSER, Auk, xxxv, 1918, 204. — 
McAtee, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 794, 1920, 28 (Post Lake, Brown County, 
Nebr., flock of 3, Oct. 10, 1915) ; U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Circ. 13, 1923, 39 
(local names; range). — HOwixl (A. H.), Birds Alabama, 1924, 84; ed. 2, 
1928, 84 (Cypress Slough, MiUwood, Prattville, and Dauphin Island, 
Ala.).— BABtET (H. H.), Birds Florida, 1925, 39, pi. 20 (fig.; Florida— no 
definite record). — Obeeholseb, Bird Life Louisiana, 1938, 194 (formerly 
common and now rare winter resident in Louisiana — Grand Chenier, 
Chenier au Tigr6, Pecan Island, White Lake, Cameron Parish, near Gueydan, 
Rockefeller and Louisiana State Wildlife Refuges). 

Zimnogeranus americanus Simmons, Birds Austin Region, 1925, 43 (Austin, 
Tex. ; habits ; descr. ) . 

[LvmnogeroMus] americamus Shabpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 178. 

Uegalomis americanus Haetert, Vog. pal. Fauna, iil, 1921, 1818 (crit.). — Beht, 
U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 135, 1927, 219 (life hist ; monogr.). 

Glrus'i struthio Wagleb, Syst Av., 1827, 222, Grus, No. 6. 

Orus clamator Baetbam, Travels, 1791, 292. 

Orus hoyianus Dudley, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vii, 1854, 64 (= 
young). — Habtlatjb, Joum. fur Om., 1855, 336, 437 (crit. and refers it to 
O. americana). — Stimpbon, Mem. Chicago Acad. Sci., i, 1868, 129, pi. 19. 

Orus hoy tana Sca^ATEB, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, 8 (crit). 

[Gfr«8] hoyana Geat, Hand-list, iii, 1871, 24, No. 10,086. 

(?) Ardea (Grus) buccinator Mtjllee, Syst. Nat., Suppl., 1776, 110 (America; 
based on Buffon and Boddaert). 

GRUS CANADENSIS CANADENSIS (LiiuiaeDa) 

Little Brown Crane 

Adult (sexes alike). — Forehead, lores, and anterior part of crown 
(extending posteriorly in a broad supraorbital wedge on either side 
to about 10-15 mm. behind and above the eye) unfeathered, covered 
with dull reddish to begonia rose, papillose skin sparsely sprinkled 
with dusky, short hairlike bristles; entire rest of plumage, except 
chin, upper throat, primaries, and greater upper primary coverts, 
ashy pale mouse gray to ashy slate gray, sometimes without any 
ochraceous or rusty wash but often tinged or even extensively washed 
with rusty to deep ochraceous, this color due to iron-oxide staining 
from the water ; cheeks paler than the occiput, blending into the pale 
gull gray to white of chin and upper throat; lower eyelid usually 
whiter than the upper; primaries and their greater upper coverts 
dark neutral gray to blackish slate, the coverts with an ashy bloom* 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 15 

the feathers of the hind neck, back, scapulars, interscapulars, upper 
wing coverts, breast, and abdomen, narrowly edged with light gull 
gray to gull gray in fresh plumage ; these edges often with a rusty 
stain ^o; bare orbits, lores, and coronal-frontal area varying shades 
of red, "orange-rufous, bitter-sweet pink, and begonia rose, fading 
anteriorly uito the drab gray or grayish olive base of the upper 
mandible, through light pinldsh gray and light grayish blue-violet 
toward the tip, with suffusions near the nostrils of light russet 
vinaceous ; under mandible drab gray at the base, fading into grayish 
olive and pale glass-green toward the tip; eye cadmium-orange in 
a narrow ring about the pupil, merging quickly into bright grenadine 
red" " ; tarsi and toes dull greenish blackish to very dark olive. 

SiAadult (sexes alike).— Similar to the adult but with some of the 
upper wing coverts brown (that is immature ones left by incomplete 
prenuptial molt). This is hardly a distinct plumage phase. 

Immaiure (sexes alike). — Similar to the adult but with the entire 
body splashed with earth-brown to dresden-brown feathers, especially 
on the upperparts. 

Jimenal (sexes alike) . — Entire head fully feathered, the forehead 
and anterior part of crown pinkish buff darkening on the midcrown 
to light ochraceous-salmon, which color extends over the occiput and 
back and sides of the neck ; scapulars, interscapulars, back, and upper 
wing coverts light neutral gray very heavily and broadly edged and 
tipped with bright ochraceous-tawny to tawny, the latter color being 
so extensive as to practically conceal the basal median gray on the 
interscapulars, scapulars, and back ; less extensive on the upper wing 
coverts; secondaries light neutral gray darkening on the outer ones 
to neutral gray, tipped wtih ochraceous-tawny; primaries as in 
adults ; tail as in adults ; chin, throat, and upper breast light neutral 
gray tipped with paler, the upper breast washed with ochraceous- 
tawny; rest of underpaiis as in adults, but with a faint ochraceous 
wash on some of the feathers. 

Natal down. — Above light mikado brown to tawny, deeper (russet) 
on rump and median line of back, becoming paler and grayer on lower 
hind neck ; forehead and most of crown pale tawny posteriorly, fading 
into pale cinnamon buffy anteriorly ; sides of head pale rusty buff to 
dull light pinkish cinnamon, becoming paler on chin and throat ; rest 
of underparts pale dull buffy suffused or clouded with pale tawny. 

Adult male.—Wiryg 442-498 (474.2) ; tail 15&-187 (167.4) ; exposed 
culmen 90-110 (96.4) ; tarsus 186-228 (200) ; middle toe without claw 
65-77 (70.1mm.)." 

" Some birds are so heavily stained as to appear almost cinnamomeous. 
" Ex Sutton, Mem. Carnegie Mus., xii, pt. 2, sect. 2, 1932, 104. 
" Eight specimens from Alaska and Northwest Territories. 



16 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Adult female.— Wmg 425-475 (446.7) ; tail 150-165 (159.2) ; ex- 
posed culmen 82-93 (90.4) ; tarsus 21-26 (23.2) ; middle toe without 
claw 65-72 (68.6 mm.)." 

Range. — Breeds from northeastern Siberia (Semiavine Strait; 
Providence Bay; East Cape; Anadyr Bay; Cape Tschukoso and 
probably Koljuchin Bay, Cape Bolschoi Baranowski, Balaga; and 
Sebddij Strait) ; northern Alaska (Point Barrow; Humphrey Point; 
Kotzebue Sound; Colville River; Circle; St. Michael; St. Lawrence 
Island ; Cape Prince of "Wales ; Wainwright ; Mint Eiver, etc.) ; north- 
ern Mackenzie (Franklin and Liverpool Bays; delta of the Mackenzie 
River; and probably Cape Kellett, Banks Island) ; to Melville Sound; 
the Boothia Peninsula; Igloolik; Baffin Island (Cape Graham Moore 
and Ponds Inlet), south in Alaska to Hooper Bay; Wrangell; 
Mushagak, Stikine Flats; Cook Inlet; and Aleutian Chain — ^Attu 
Island; central Mackenzie (Fort Resolution, Great Slave Lake, and 
Nyarling River) ; and eastern Keewatin (Southampton Island; near 
Cape Eskimo). 

Winters from the southern half of California (San Joaquin Val- 
ley; San Rafael; Los Angeles County; Colorado River) ; and southern 
Texas (San Patricio; Corpus Christi; Chiltipin Creek; Brownsville, 
etc.) to northern Lower California (Colorado delta region; Laguna 
Salada ; near Cerro Prieto) ; and to the mainland of Mexico (San Luis 
Potosi — Rio Verde; Guanajuato — Silao; Jalisco — Ocotlan). 

Casual in Prince Edward Island (Alexander and Eamscliffe) ; 
Rhode Island (Natick) and South Carolina (Mount Pleasant) ; the 
Commander Islands and Japan. 

Accidental in Ireland (Clonakilly, Cork County; possibly an 
escaped cagebird). 

Type locality. — North America = Hudson Bay. 

[Ardeal canadensis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, i, 1758, 141 (North America; 
based on Orus fusca canadensis Edwards, Nat. Hist., 1750, pi. 133; Gfru« 
Preti Hudsmis Brisson, Orn., v, 1760, 386) ; ed. 12, i, 1766, 234.— Gmeun, 
Syst. Nat., i, pt. 2, 1789, 620.— Latham, Index Orn., ii, 1790, 675. 

Ardea . . . canadensis Fobstes!, Philos. Traos., Ixii, 1772, 409 (Severn Kiver, 
Keewatin). 

Ardea canadensis Phttees, Auk, xlii, 1925, 120 (crlt. ; syn. ; tax.) . 

Orus canadensis Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool., xi, pt. 2, 1819, 526. — Temminck, 
Man. d'Orn., i, 1820, introd., c. — Bonapaete, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, 
ii, 1828, 302 ; Synopsis, 1828, No. 225. — Sabine, Franklin's Journ., 1823, 685.— 
Kichardson, Parry's Second Voy., 1825, 350, No. 14 (Hudson Straits).— 
SwAiNSON and Richardson, Fauna Bor.-Amer., Ii, 1831, 373, part. — Sclateb, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1860, 418 (Fort Churchill, Keewatin). — Blakiston, 
Ibis, 1862, 8 (Saskatchewan). — Daix and Bannistee, Trans. Chicago Acad. 
Sci., i, 1869, 289 (St. Michael, Alaska). — Taczanowski, Journ. fiir Orn. 



?Ten specimens from Alaska, Northwest Territories, Alberta, North Dakota, 
Nebraska, and Texas. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 17 

1873, 182 (ne. Siberia).— Cotjes, Check-list, 1874, No. 669, part; Birds North- 
west, 1874, 532 part.— Adams, Ibis, 1878, 437 (St. Michael, Alasl^a; habits; 
descr. eggs). — Ridgwat, Cat. Aquat. and Fish-eating Birds, 1883, 18 (geogr. 
range). — Tueneb, Auk, ii, 1885, 157 (Attu Island, Aleutians, fall straggler) ; 
Contr. Nat. Hist. Alaska, 1886, 145 (St. Michael, breeding; habits).— 
American Obnithologists' Union, Check-list, 1886, and ed. 2, 1895, No. 
205; ed. 3, 1910, p. 100.— Nelson, Rep. Nat. Hist. CoU. Alaska, 1887, 94 (St. 
Michael, Point Barrow, Yukon, etc., and east to Anderson River; habits; 
descriptions; measurements). — Townsend (C. H.), Auk. iv, 1887, 12 (Kowak 
River, Alaska);' Cruise Corvrin in 1885 (1887), 91 (Kowak River), 99 
(St. Paul Island, Pribilof group, 1 specimen; St. Matthew Island, Bering 
Sea).— Mesreill (J. C), Auk, v. 1888, 144 (Fort Klamath, Oregon, June 10; 
measurements; crit). — Goss, Auk, vi, 1889, 124 (Kansas in migration) ; Hist. 
Birds Kansas, 1891, 133 (March and October during migration). — Bbew- 
STBiE, Auk, vii, 1890, 89 (Natick Hill, K. I., Oct. 8 or 9, 1889). — Macfablane, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiv, 1891, 425 (breeding in Franklin and Liverpool 
Bays and on lower Anderson River, Mackenzie). — Fishee (A. K.), North 
Amer. Fauna, No. 7, 1893, 20 (Ash Meadows, Nev., Mar. 10; Lone Pine, 
Owens Valley, Calif., 4 specimens, Dec. 1890). — Cooke, Auk, xi, 1894, 183 
(Fort Lyons and Fort Collins, Colo.) ; Birds Colorado, 1897, 62 (Fort Lyons 
and Fort Collins) ; Colorado Agr. Exp. Stat. Bull. 56, 1900, 198 (near Denver, 
1 specimen, no date). — Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 256 (Hud- 
son Bay; St Michael, Alaska; San Antonio and Corpus Christi, Tex.). — 
Palmee (W.), Avif. Pribilof Islands, 1899, 398 (St. Paul Islands, several).- 
Woodcock, Oregon Agr. Exp. Stat. Bull. 68, 1902, 18 (Oregon records).— 
Kumlien and Hollistee, Wisconsin Nat. Hist. Soc. Bull. 3, 1903, 37 (Wis- 
consin, rare straggler).— Osgood, North Amer. Fauna, No. 24, 1904, 61 
(Malchatna River, Alaska, Sept.; habits).— Eifeig, Auk, xxii, 1905, 238 
(Southampton Island). — Widmann, Birds Missouri, 1907, 57 (Clark 
County, Apr. 10, 1896). — Anderson, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci., xl, 1907, 
204 (Iowa records).— CoKT, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. 131, 1909, 377 (Rock 
County, Wis., April 4, 1894; Dane County, late fall 1879) .-Wayne, Birds 
South Carolina, 1910, 34 (near Mount Pleasant, Oct. 21, 1890).— Claek 
(A. H.), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xxxviii, 1910, 49 (Agattu Island, Aleutians, 
1 pair).— SwAETH, Univ. California Publ. Zool., vii, 1911, 47 (Mitkof Island 
and Thomas Bay, southern Alaska, Aug.) ; Condor, xxi, 1919, 213, in text 
(Kings County, Calif.; descr.).— Bowles, Auk, xxviii, 1911, 171 (near 
Tacoma, Wash., Oct. 10, 1909).- Whxett, Pacific Coast Avif. No. 7, 1912. 
32 (near Newport, Orange County, Calif., flock of 25-30; Centinela Ranch, 
Los Angeles County, Mar. ; Long Beach, Los Angeles County, Mar. 24 ; near 
Riverdale, Feb. 19) ; Condor, xxi, 1919, 200 (between Malheur Lake and 
Burns, se. Oregon, April, common) ; xxiii, 1921, 157 (Stiklne Flats, Alaska, 
abundant in fall ; breeding at Totem Bay, Kupreanof Island, and Big Joh 
Bay, between Kupreanof and Kulu Islands).— Bunkee, Kansas Univ. Sci, 
Bull., vii, 1913, 143 (common migrant in Kansas). — Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agri, 
Bull. 128, 1914, 7, fig. 2 (range and migration routes).— Gbinnell (J.), 
Pacific Coast Avif., No. 11, 1915, 45 (wintering in San Joaquin Valley; 
Newport, Orange County; Long Beach and Riverside, Riverside County; 
and vicinity Los Barios, Merced County, Calif .) —Beooks (W. S.), Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., lix, 1915, 388 (Providence Bay, Siberia, breeding; St. Lawrence 
Island, breeding ; Humphrey Point, Arctic coast, Alaska, May 17) .— British 
Obnithologists' Union, List Brit. Bu^ds, ed. 2, 1915, 347 (Cork, Ireland; per- 
haps an escape).— Hann A, Auk, xxxiv, 1917, 409 (St. Matthew Island, Bering 



18 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Sea, 1 specimen).— Habeis, Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Ix)uis, xxiii, 1919, 244 
(Kansas City, Mo., rare migrant).— Over and Thomas, Birds South Dakota, 
1921, 61 (Walworth and Edmunds Counties, 1 specimen each, Oct. 22, 1883; 
Miner County, 1 specimen, 1896).— Wood (N. A.), Univ. Michigan Mus. 
Zool. Misc. Publ. 10, 1923, 25 (near Grafton, N. Dak., Sept 30, 1920; Custer 
Plats, 1912, Sheridan County, 1909) .— Mailuakd, Condor, xxiii, 1921, 30 (10 
specimens, Merced County, Calif .) .—Wiixett, Condor, xxiii, 1921, 157 (many 
localities, se. Alaska).— Nice (M. M. and L. B.) Birds Oklahoma, 1924, 28 
(genl. ; Oklahoma).— Wtman and Btjbneix, Field Book Birds Southwestern 
United States, 1925, 62 (de.scr. ; range).— Labson, Wils. Bull., xxxvii, 1925, 
24 (Sioux Falls, S. Dak.).— Bailey, Condor, xxvii, 1925, 232 (habits; Wain- 
wright, Cape Prince of Wales, and Mint River, Alaska). — Wood, Auk, xlii, 

1925, 452 (Foster County, N. Dak.). — Griscom and Cbosbt, Auk, xlii, 1925, 
526 (Brownsville, Tex. ) .— Foebdsh, Birds Massachusetts and Other New 
England States, i, 1925, 347 (deser. ; habits; New England — 1 record, Natick 
Hill, R. I., Oct. 8 or 9, 1889). — Mallliabd, Proc. California Acad. Sci., ser. 
4, xvi, 1927, 288 (Modoc County, Calif.; crit. ) .— WnxiAMS, Wils. Bull., 
xxxviii, 1926, 24 (Red River Valley, ne. North Dakota). — Tavebneb, Birds 
Western Canada, 1926, 122 (descr. ; habits ; western Canada) ; Auk, xlvi, 
1929, 228 (plumage var. ) .-Jacques, Auk, xlvi, 1929, 230 (flying over Bering 
Strait); xlvii, 1930, 364 (near Teller, Alaska; East Cape, Siberia).— 
Bailet, Auk, xliv, 1927, 192 (Wrangell, se. Alaska). — Conoveb, Auk, xliii, 

1926, 303 (habits; growth; Hooper Bay, Alaska). — Sopeb, Nat. Mus. Canada 
Bull. 53, 1928, 96 (S. Baffin Island).— MnxEE, Condor, xxx, 1928, 120 (migr. 
in Pleistocene times). — Kemsies, Wils. Bull., xlii, 1930, 203 (Yellowstone 
Park, Wyo.). — McLew^n, Condor, xxxii, 1930, li (habits; Fresno County, 
Calif.). — Howard, Condor, xxxii, 1930, 84 (Pleistocene remains, Rancho 
La Brea). — Belopolski, Journ. fiir Orn., Ixxxi, 1933, 422 (Anadyr Gulf, 
Siberia). — Tavebneb and Sutton, Ann. Carnegie Mus., xxiii, 1934, 32 
(Churchill, Manitoba, rare transient, may nest occasionally). — Swabth, 

Pacific Coast Avif. No. 22, 1934, 26 (Nunivak Island, Alaska; nesting; reg- 
ularly cross Bering Straits to extreme e. Siberia). — Sutton and Bukleioh, 
Occ. Papers Mus. Zool. Louisiana State Univ., No. 3, 1939, 28 (seen near 
Mayran, Coahuila, and south of Nuevo Laredo, northern Nuevo Leon). 
Orus sp. (canadensisfy Faim&n, Sibir. Ishafsk. Fogelf. 1887, 348 (probable 

record; eastern Siberia). 
[Orus'\oanadensis Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., ii, 1857 [1854], 98, part. — Gbat, 
Hand-list, iii, 1871, 24, No. 10083, part.— Coras, Key North Amer. Birds, 
1872, 271, part.— Shaspe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 177. 
G [rus] canadensis Coues, Key North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 1884, 667. — Ridqwat, 

Man. North Amer. Birds, 1887, 135. 
[Orus canadensis'] a canadensis Baird, Bbbweb, and Ridgway, Water Birds 

North Amer., i, 1884, 404, 407, 408. 
Orus canadensis canadensis McAtee, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 294, 1920, 28 (Red 
Deer Lake, Cherry County, Nebr., 2 specimens, Oct. 5, 1915).— Dawson, Birds 
California (students' ed.), iii, 1923, 1525 (genl.; Calif ornla ) .—Bailey 
(F. M.), Birds New Mexico, 1928, 238 (genl.; New Mexico).— Ameeioan 
Ornithologists' Union, Check List North Amer. Birds, ed. 4, 1931, 93.— 

Nice (M. M.), Birds Oklahoma, rev. ed., 1931, 84 (genl. ; Oklahoma). Sutton, 

Condor, xxxiii, 1931, 157 (Nunalla, Hudson Bay). — Fbiedmann, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., Ixxx, art. 12, 1932, 16 (St. Lawrence Island). — Sutton, Mem. 
Carnegie Mus., iii, 1932, 101 (Southampton Island).— Robeets, Birds Minne- 
sota, i, 1932, 432 (distr. ; habits ; Minnesota). — Bailey, Bbowee, and Bishop, 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 19 

Pi-ogr. Act. Chicago Acad. Sci., iv, 1933, 24 (Point Barrow, Alaska).— Du- 
MoiNT, Wlls. Bull., xlv, 1933, 13, 14, 15 (meas. of specimens from Iowa and 
Nebraska).— Petehs, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 151.— WnxETT, 
Pacific Coast Avif. No. 21, 1933, 51 (sw. California; migrant; also occa- 
sionally in winter).— Taveknee, Birds Canada, 1934, 170 in text (breeds In 
Arctic south to Great Slave Lake ; migrates through the prairies and British 
Columbia to Mexico).— Du Mont, Univ. Iowa Stud. Nat. Hist., xv, 1934, 60 
(migrant Iowa ; 22 specimens ; status at present not certain) . — Sutton, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., xxiv, 1934, iS (seen in Oklahoma Panhandle, Sept. and Oct.) — 
McCeeaby and Mickey, Wils. Bull., xlvii, 1935, 136 (se. Wyoming— Soder- 
green Lake, Apr. 3; Glendo, Oct. 7). — Linsdale, Pacific Coast Avif., No. 23, 
1936, 50 (Nevada; transient; specimen Ash Meadows, Mar. 10, 1891). — 
Bakee, Auk, liv, 1937, 388 (bones from Jacob, Jackson County, 111.). 

G[rMS] c[anadensis'i canadensis Tavebnee and Sutton, Ann. Carnegie Mus., xxiil, 
1934, 32 in text (nests from the Arctic Islands southward). 

Megalornis canadensis ca^iadensis Obebholser, Auk, xxxviii, Jan. 1921, 82. — 
Habteet, Vog. pal. Fauna, iii, 1921, 1817. — Gbinnell, Univ. California Publ. 
Zool., xxxii, 1928, 86 (distr. ; Lower California). 

Mlegalornis'i c[anadensis] canadensis Peoties, Auk, xlii, 1925, 122, in text. 

Megalornis canadensis McAtee, U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Circ. 13, 1923, 39 (local 
names; range). — Peebu:, North Amer. Fauna No. 46, 1923, 62 (St. Paul 
Island, Pribilof group, early summer visitant). — Bent, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 
135, 1927, 231 (life hist.; monogr.) 

? Orus (—Megalornis) canadensis Plbske, Mem. Boston Soc. Nat Hist., vi, 1928, 
286 (probable records— Koljuchin Bay, Cape Bolschoi Baronowski, Balagan, 
and Sebddij Strait, eastern Siberia). 

Glrus'i poliophaea Wagleb, Syst. Av., 1827, Orus, sp. 7 (based on Grus fusca 
canadensis Edwards, Nat. Hist., 1750, pi. 133) . 

Orus fusca ViEiiiOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., xiii, 1817, 258, part (based chiefly on 
Ardea canadensis Linnaeus). 

( ?) Orus cinerea lovgirostris Tbmminok and Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, iii, 1850, 
117, pi. 72 (Japan; type in Leyden Mus.; see Hartert, Vog. pal. Fauna, iii, 
1921, 1818; Peters, Auk, xiii, 1925, 120) .— Shabpe, BuU. Brit. Orn. Club, i, 
1893, p. xliii, in text (crit. ; refers type to "Orus mexicana"^M. canadensis 
tahidal). 

( ?) Or[us'i longirostris Bonapaete, Consp. Gen. Av., ii, 1857 [1854], 98. 

Orus frateroulus Cassin, in Balrd, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 656 (Albu- 
querque, N. Mex., Oct. 1853 ; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus. ; = young) ; ed. 1860 (Birds 
North Amer.), 656, pi. 37.— Baikd, Cat. North Amer. Birds, 1859, No. 480. — 
Kbnneely, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. 3, 1859, 33, pi. 37 (Albuquerque).— 
Sca:.ATEE, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880, 418 (Fort Churchill, Keewatin).— 
Dbesseb, Ibis, 1866, 30 (San Antonio, Tex.). — Taczanowski, Bull. Soc. ZooL 
France, i, 1876, 246 (Cape Tschukoso, e. Siberia).— Allen, Bull. Nutt. Orn. 
Club, V, 1880, 123 (Rio Verde, N. Mex.; crit.). — Ridgway, Bull. Nutt. Orn. 
Club, V, 1880, 187, 188 (crit. ; synonymy) ; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 
202 (Cat. North Amer. Birds, No. 584) ; Norn. North Amer. Birds, 1881, 
No. 584.— McLenbgan, Cruise of Gorwin in 1884 (1889), 121 (Kowak River, 
nw. Alaska; habits) ; Cruise of Corwin in 1885 (1887), 79 (Noatak River, 
Alaska). 

[Orus'\ fraterculus Gray, Hand-list, iii, 1871, 24, No. 10084. 
Orus mexicana (not Ardea mexicana Miiller) Beyant, Proc. California Acad. 
Sei., ser. 2, ii, 1889, 270 (Tia Juana Valley, Lower California).— Wayne, Auk, 
viii, 1891, 308 (Mount Pleasant, S. C, Oct. 21, 1890).— Preble, North Amer. 
Fauna, No. 27, 1908, 313 (Great Slave Lake, Mackenzie, May 15). 



20 BULLETIN 5 0, XJNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Orus niediecki Eeichbnow, Om. Monatsb., xiv, 1906, 190 (Anadyr Bay, ne. Si- 
beria; see Buturlin, Ibis, 1907, 364, 365). 

(?) Orus schlegelii Blyth, Field, xlii, 1873, 419 (new name for Orus cinerea 
longirostris Temminck and Schlegel) .— TEGBTMEnat, ed. Blyth's Monogr. 
Cranes, 1881, 78. 

(?) Orus cinerea (not of Meyer and Wolf) Seebohm, Birds Japanese Empire, 
1890, 348. 

GRUS CANADENSIS TABIDA (Peters) 

Sandhiix Cbane 

All plumages similar to the corresponding stages of the nominate 
race, but larger. 

Adult male. — Wing 502-590 (548.3) ; tail 141 ; exposed culmen 
132-170 (144.9) ; tarsus 231-266 (244.1) ; middle toe without claw 
87 mm." 

Adidt female. — Wing 479-524; tail 187; exposed culmen 132-153; 
tarsus 233-240 ; middle toe without claw 76 mm." 

Range. — Breeds from British Columbia (158-mile House; Lac la 
Hache ; Okanagan Valley ; lake region ; New Westminster) ; Alberta 
(Spotted Lake and near Innisfail) ; Saskatchewan (Big Quill Lake; 
Balgonie, and Kutanajan Lake) ; Manitoba (Shell Eiver; Oak Point; 
Crescent Lake; Ossawo) ; Minnesota (Herman; Elk River; and Lake 
Minnetonka) ; Wisconsin (Plover; Marquette; Peshtigo) ; Michigan 
(Taquamenou River; Vans Harbor; Sheldrake Lake; Morrice; Pet- 
ersburg; Calhoun and Washtenaw Counties) ; Ontario (Rond Eau) ; 
and northern Ohio (near Toledo) ; south to Washington (Fort Sim- 
coe ; Fort Steilacoom ; Coulee City ; Strait of Juan de Fuca) ; Oregon 
(Malheur Lake ; Camp Harney ; Fort Klamath) ; California (Fort 
Crook; Tule Lake; San Joaquin Valley; Surprise Valley; Modoc 
County); Nevada (Independence Valley; Carson); Arizona (Mor- 
mon Lake); Idaho (Fort Sherman); Colorado (Loveland; Middle 
Park; Gunnison; San Juan County); South Dakota (Sanborn 
County) ; and Nebraska (Alda and Omega). Present range much 
restricted — breeds in southern Canada, Minnesota, and the western 
and Rocky Mountain States south to northern Colorado. 

Winters from California (Modesto: Fresno; Pilo Knob; Pasa- 
dena; Salton Sea; San Jacinto Lake); Arizona (near Avondale) ; 
and Texas (Eagle Pass; Fredericksburg; Corpus Christi; and 
Brownsville) south to Lower California (Tia Juana Valley) ; San 
Luis Potosi (Angostura); Guanajuato; Jalisco (La Barca) ; and 
Sinaloa (Mazatlan) (and Yucatan [Tizimin]?). 



" Twelve specimens from California ; the tail and toe measurements based on 
a single bird (the measurements of the other 11 birds sent to me, not per- 
sonally made). 

" Two specimens from California and Illinois. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 21 

Casual in District of Columbia; Pennsylvania (Waynesburg) ; 
New York (near Cohoes) ; ? Ehode Island (Natick) ; Massachu- 
setts (Buzzards Bay) ; Vermont (Lunenburg) ; New Hampshire 
(Wakefield) ; and Ontario (Guelph and Beaumaris). 

Type locality.— Yalley of the south fork of the Humboldt Kiver, 
Nevada. 

(??) Ardea (Orus) mexicana Muixer, Syst. Nat., Suppl., 1776, 110 (Mexico; 
based on Boddaert). 

[Ardea canadensis] p Latham, Index Orn., ii, 1790, 676. 

Orus mexicana Vieuxot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat, xii, 1817, 531.— Ridqwat, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 356, part.— Ameeican Oenithologists' Union, 
Check List, 1886, and ed. 2, 1895, No. 206, part; ed. 3, 1910, 100, part.— 
Ralph and Bagg, Trans. Oneida Hist. Soc, iii, 1886, 110 (New York Mills, 
Oneida County, N. Y., 1 specimen, 1873). — Rhoads, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scl. 
Philadelphia, 1893, 35 (lake region, British Columbia, breeding). — Shabpe, 
Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 254, part (Orcas Island, Vancouver 
Island).— Jour, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1894, 790 (Hacienda An- 
gostura, San Luis Potosi).— MEERnx (J. C), Auk, xiv, 1897, 351 (Fort 
Sherman, Idaho, probably breeding). — Btjtleb, Rep. State Geol. Indi- 
ana for 1897 (1898), 670 (breeding "in recent years" in Carroll, Fulton, 
Lake, and Starke Counties, northern Indiana). — Bbewstee, Auk, xviii, 
1901, 274 (Wakefield, N. H., 1 specimen, 1896 or 1897) .—Woodcock, 
Oregon Agr. Exp. Stat. BuU. 68, 1902, 18 (Oregon Range).— Aij.en 
(G. M.), Proc. Manchester Inst. Arts and Sci., iv, 1902, 82 (Wakefield, 
N. H., in 1896 or 1897). — ^Kumuen and Hollisteb, Wisconsin Nat. Hist. 
Soc. Bull. 3, 1903, 37 (Wisconsin; habits).— Fleming, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 
447 (Toronto, Ontario; 1 pair, no date). — ^Widmann, Birds Missouri, 
1907, 57 (once common migrant, now rare). — ^Woodetjfp, Chicago Acad. 
Sci. Bull. 6, 1907, 57 (Chicago area; rare migrant). — ^Anderson, Proc. 
Davenport Acad. Sci., xi, 1907, 205 (Iowa; habits). — Cobt, Field Mus. 
Nat. Hist. Publ. 131, 1909, 377 (Illinois and Wisconsin records).— 
VisHEB, Wils. Bull., xxii, 1910, 115 (Sanborn County, S. Dak., breeding; 
habits; voice).— Baton, Birds New York, i, 1910, 269, pi. 24 (Albion and 
Clarendon, N. Y.). — Todd, Auk, xxviii, 1911, 368 (near Plymouth, Huron 
County, Ohio, Apr. 11, 1911).— Whxett, Pacific Coast Avif., No. 7, 1912, 32 
(common migrant in s. California) ; Condor, xxi, 1919, 200 (Malheur Lake, 
etc., se. Oregon, breeding). — Babbows, Michigan Bird Life, 1912, 149. — 
Wood (N. A.), 14th Rep. Michigan Acad. Sci., 1912, 160 (UnadiUa, Liv- 
ingston County, Mich., flock of about 20, Apr. 19, 1911) ; Auk, xxxviii, 
1921, 590 (Washtenaw County, Mich., flock of 15, May 30, 1880, breeding in 
1896; Whiteflsh Point, 1912, 1914, said to breed) ; Univ. Michigan Mus. Zool. 
Misc. Publ. 10, 1923, 25 (North Dakota records) .—Foebush, Game Birds, 
Wildfowl, and Shore Birds, 1912, 483 (history, etc.)— Cooke, U. S. Dept Agr. 
Bull. 128, 1914, 10, fig. 3, part (range and migration routes). — Geinnell 
(J.), Pacific Coast Avif., No. 11, 1915, 45 (summer visitant mainly in Cali- 
fornia ; breeding in ne. California, probably on northern high Sierra Nevada 
and from San Joaquin Valley south to Tulare Lake; wintering in San 
Joaquin VaUey). — Bbooks (A.), Auk, xxxiv, 1917, 36 (Sumas, British Co- 
lumbia, breeding up to 1902; still breeding near New Westminster). — 
MuNBO, Auk, xxxvi, 1919, 65 (Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, common 
migrant, occasionally breeding). — Swabth, Condor, xxi, 1919, 212, 213 in 
text (near Corcoran, Kings County, Calif., Nov. 17, 1918, descr.). — Tav- 



22 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

KBNEB, Auk, xsxvi, 1919, 264 (Spotted Lake and near Innisfail, Alberta, 
breeding). — Matt.t.tabd, Condor, xxiii, 1921, 30 (specimen, Merced CJounty, 
Calif.; rarer than 0. canadensis canadensis). — Johnston, Birds West 
Virginia, 1923, 87 (West Virginia).— Pindar, Wils. Bull., xxxvl, 1924, 204 
(e. Arkansas).— Nice (M. M. and L. B.), Birds Oklahoma, 1924, 29 (genl. ; 
Oklahoma). — Henshaw, Condor, xxvii, 1925, 70 in text (aggressive hab- 
its). — Maiujaed, Condor, xxvi, 1924, 216 in text (Surprise Valley, ne. Cali- 
fornia; nesting). — Buncob, Auk, xlii, 1925, 419 (Bardstown, Ky.). — Wood, 
Auk, xlli, 1925, 452 (Foster County, N. Dak.). — Griscom and Cbosbt, Auk, 
xlii, 1925, 526 (Brownsville, Tex.). — Fobbush, Birds Massachusetts and 
Other New England States, i, 1925, 348 (descr. ; habits; formerly common, 
now extirpated in New England ; 2 specimens — Lovell's Pond, Wakefield, 
N. H., and Connecticut River at Lunenburg, Vt.). — Laeson, Wils. Bull., 
xxxvii, 1925, 24 (Sioux Falls, S. Dak. ) .— Pindab, WUs. BuU., xxxvii, 1925, 
82 (Fulton County, Ky.). — Tavebneb, Birds Western Canada, 1926, 122, pi. 
15, fig. A (col. fig.; descr.; habits; distr. ; w. Canada). — ^Williams, Wils. 
Bull., xxxviii, 1926, 25 (Red River Valley, ne. North Dakota).— Kelso, 
Ibis, 1926, 698 (Arrow Lakes, British Columbia; 2 records). — Betens, 
Auk, xliii, 1926, 367 in text (Luce County, Mich.). — Mahxiaed, Proc. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 5, xvi, 1927, 289 (Modoc County, Calif. ; migr. ; habits).— 
Bailet (F. M.), Birds New Mexico, 1928, 289 (genl.; New Mexico).— 
HoiTMAN, Condor, xxlx, 1927, 118 in text (nesting, Modoc County, Calif.). — 
Johnson, Wils. Bull., xxxix, 1927, 157 (Douglas County, Kans.).— Jung, 
Wils. BuU., xxxix, 1927, 173 (Star Lake, Wis.).— Bumg, Auk, xliv, 1927, 
432 (Gary, Fox River, and Hinsdale, Chicago region). — Laeson, Wils. 
Bull., xl, 1928, 44 (e. McKenzie County, N. Dak. ) .— Alfoed, Ibis, 1928, 196 
(Vancouver Island, British Columbia). — Cookb, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washing- 
ton, xlii, 1929, 26 (Washington, D. C.).— Butleb, Auk, xlvi, 1929, 198 
(specimen, Indiana). — Fitzpateick, Wils. Bull., xlii, 1930, 124 (ne. Colo- 
rado). — Kemsies, Wils. Bull., xlii, 1930, 203 (Yellowstone Park, Wyo.).— 
PiEBCE, Wils. Bull., xlii, 1930, 261 (Buchanan County, Iowa).— Walkin- 
shaw. Auk, xlviii, 1931, 594 in text (nesting, Calhoun County, Mich.). — ■ 
GuTHBiE, Wils. Bull., xliv, 1932, 102 in text (food habits; eats snakes). 
Olrus} measieana. Rtoqwat, Man. North Amer. Birds, 1887, 135, part. 
[Orus] mexicana Shaepe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 176, part 
[Orus canadensis'\p mexicamus Bated, Bkewee, and Ridgway, Water Birds 

North Amer., i, 1884, 404, 407, 408. 
Orus canadensis mexicana ObebholsUb, Auk, xxxv, Apr., 1918, 204, part. — 
MoAteb, V. S. Dept. Agr. BuU. 294, 1920, 28 (formerly breeding in sand- 
hill region of Nebraska). — Prtt.t,, Wils. Bull., xxxiv, 1922, 135 (Lake County, 
Oreg., breeding).- KoELZ, WUs. BuU., xxxv, 1923, 37 (Jackson County, 
Mich., breeding). — Thomas, Wils. BuU., xxxviii, 1926, 118 (Huron County, 
central Ohio). 
Megalomis canadensis meaii<;ana Simmons, Birds Austin Region, 1925, 44 

(Austin, Tex.; habits; descr.). 
Orus mexicanus Tavebneb, Auk. xlvi, 1929, 228 (plumage var.). — Lewis, WUs. 

Bull., xlii, 1930, 42 (nw. Oklahoma). 
Cfrus canadensis mexicanus Dawson, Birds California (students' ed.), iii, 1923, 

1526 (genl. ; California). 
Megalomis canadensis mexicanus Obebholsee, Auk, xxxviii, Jan. 1921, 82, part. 
Megalornis mexicanus McAtee, U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Cire. 13, 1923, 40, part 
(local names ; range). — ScHiJz, Joum. fiir Orn., Ixxv, 1927, 105 in text (pow- 
der downs) .—Bent, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 135, 1927, 241, part (Northwestern 
States; monogr.). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 23 

Orus fusca VieaixoT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., xiii, 1817, 558, part. 
CIrus canadensis (not Ardea canadensis Licnaeus) Bonapaete, Contr. Maclurian 
Lye, i, 1927, 24; Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, 11, 1827, 302; Synopsis, 1828, 
No. 225. — SwAiNSON and Kichabdson, Fauna Bor.-Amer., 11, 1831, 378, part. — 
NuTTAii, Man. Orn. United States and Canada, Water Birds, 1834, 38. — 
MoCall, Proe. Aead. Nat. Scl. Philadelphia, v, 1851, 223 (Texas).— Baibd, 
in Stansbury's Expl. and Surv. Great Salt Lake, 1852, 319 (Salt Lake valley, 
Utah) ; Rep. U. S. and Mex. Bound. Surv., 11, pt. 2, 1859, 24 (Colorado River, 
Calif., Feb.) ; Rep. Pacific E. R. Surv., x, No. 2, 1859, 14 (Bio Grande VaUey ) ; 
Cat. North Amer. Birds, 1859, No. 479 ; Ives' Rep. Colorado River, pt. 5, 1861, 
14. — WooDHODSE, in Sitgreaves' Bxpl. Zunl and Colorado Rivers, 1853, 96 
(New Mexico; Arizona). — Kennicott, Trans. Illinois Agr. Soc., i, 1855, 587 
(lUinoi.s). — Hatjiond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scl. Philadelphia, vlii, 1856, 294 
(Whitewater Valley, se. Indiana; 3 specimens). — Cassin, in Baird, Rep. 
Pacific B. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 655; Proc. Acad. Nat. Scl. Philadelphia, 1862, 
321 (California). — Newbeeet, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., x, pt. vl, 1859, 62 
(California, etc. ) .— Henet, Proe. Acad. Nat. Scl. Philadelphia, 1859, 108 (New 
Mexico.) — CooPEE and Suckley, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., xli, pt. 2, 1860, 227 
(Washington).— Wheaton, Ohio Agr. Rep., 1860, No. 182.— Hot, Ann. Rep. 
Smiths. Inst, for 1864 (1865) 438 (Missouri).— Schlegei, Mus. Pays-Bas, 
V, No. 30, livr. 7, 1865, 2 (descr. ; North America to Mexico). — Deesseb, Ibis, 
1866, 30 (s. Texas).— MclLWBAiTH, Proc. Essex Inst., v, 1866, 91 (Hamilton, 
Ontario). — Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1866, 95 (Fort Whipple, 
Ariz.) ; Ibis, 1866, 263 (Colorado and Gila Rivers, Ariz.) ; Check List, 1874, 
No. 463, part ; Birds Northwest, 1874, 532 part ; Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. 
Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 646, part (North Dakota). — ^Butohee, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Philadelphia, 1868, 150 (Laredo, Tex.).— Beown, Ibis, 1868, 424 (Van- 
couver Island). — AiUEN, Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 1, 1868, 501 (Iowa, 
breeding) ; Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xvll, 1874, 37 (Little Missouri 
River). — ScLATER, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 567 (in London Zool. 
Park). — ^Tbippe, Proc. Essex Inst., vi, 1871, 118 (Minnesota, breeding) ; Proc. 
Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, xv, 1872, 240 (Iowa, "vast numbers in migration"). — 
Aiken, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xv, 1872, 209 (Colorado). — Mebbiam, 
Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., 1873, 102 (Idaho, etc.) ; Birds Connecticut, 1877, 
113, note (formerly common in New England). — Hbnshaw, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. New York, xi, 1874, 12 (Utah). — La ween ce, Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. 
Hist., 11, 1874, 311 (Mazatian, Slnaloa, Sept.-Mar.). — Jotnr, Field and Forest, 
1877, 180 (District of Columbia).— Langdon, Birds Cincinnati, 1877, 16 (rare 
migrant). — Bendiee, Proe. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 1877, 143 (Camp Harney, 
Greg., breeding; descr. eggs). — Belding, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1, 1879, 443 
(centr. California).— Robebts, Amer. Nat., 1880, 108-114, fig. 10 (descr. 
trachea).— RmowAT, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 202 (Cat. North Amer. 
Birds, No. 583), part; Nom. North Amer. Birds, 1881, No. 583, part— Sbton, 
Auk, ill, 1886, 150 (Manitoba, summer resident). — Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, ill, 1903, 336 (Mazatian, Slnaloa; San Luis Potosi; 
Guanajuato; Valley of Mexico; Cozumel Islands). — ? MnxEE, Condor, xxxvii, 
1935, 78 (near McKittrick, Calif., winter). — ? Haegkave, Condor, xli, 1939, 
208 (bones from Indian sites in Arizona). 
lOrus] canadensis Bonapaete, Consp. Gen. Av. 11, 1857 [1854], 98, part. — Geat, 
Hand-list, ill, 1871, 24, No. 10083, part.— Coiirajs, Key North Amer. Birds, 
1872, 271, part 

272607—41 — —3 



24 BULLETLNT 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Olrus] canadensis Maxemiuan, Journ. fiir Orn., vii, 1859, 84 (Wabash River; 
descr.). — Nei,80N, Bull. Essex Inst., viU, 1876, 133 (centr. Illinois, breeding 
numerously). — Ridgway, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, x, 1874, 387 
(Illinois). 

Orus americana (not Ardea atnericana Linnaeus) Auditbon, Om. Biogr., ill, 1835, 
441, pi. 261 (supposed young!) ; Synopsis, 1839, 219; Birds Amer., 8vo ed., 
V, 1842, 148, pi. 314. 

Orus pratensis Coueb, Check List, ed. 2, 1882, No. 670, part (ex Grus pratensU. 
corpore cinereo, vertioe papUloso Bartram, Travels, 293). — ^Ridgway, Cat. 
Aquat. and Fish-eating Birds, 1883, 18, part. 

O [rus} pratensis CorrEs, Key North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 1884, 667, part. 

Megalomis canadensis taiida PEOTass, Auk, xlii, 1925, 122 (valley of south fork of 
Humboldt River, Nev. ; coll. Mus. Comp. Zool. ) . — Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., Ixx, 1930, 178 (type spec, in Mus. Comp. Zool.; crit.). 

Orus canadensis tabida Geinneu,, Dixon, and Linsdale, Univ. California Publ. 
Zool., XXXV, 1930, 213 (distr. ; Lassen Peak region, n. California). — 
American Oenithologists' Union, Check List North Amer. Birds, ed. 4, 
1931, 94. — [Aethtje] Birds Louisiana, 1931, 232 (descr.; status in Louisi- 
ana). — Baeeq, Univ. Arkansas, Agr. Exp. Stat. Bull. 258, 1931, 56 (descr.; 
formerly common spring migrant, now rare In Arkansas). — Nice (M. M.), 
Birds Oklahoma, rev. ed., 1931, 84 (genl. ; Oklahoma; many records; 
transient, once very common). — Robbkts, Birds Minnesota, i, 1932, 433 
(distr.; habits; etc., Minnesota). — Du Mont, Wils. Bull, xlv, 1933, 13, 14, 
15 (measurements of specimens from Iowa and Nebraska). — Haeboid. 
Wils. Bull., xlv, 1933, 19 (Saskatchewan.— Walkinshaw, Wils. Bull., xlv, 
1933, 99 in text (nesting, Calhoun County, Mich.; photos of nest and 2 
eggs; young) .—WiLLETT, Pacific Coast Avif., No. 21, 1933, 51 (status 
imperfectly known ; probably migrates and occasionally winter ; sw. Cal- 
ifornia).— Monson, Wils. Bull., xlvi, 1934, 43 (Cass County, N. Dak., 
rare, seen Apr. 10 and 15). — ^Petess, Check list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 
151. — Taveeneb, Birds Canada, 1934, 170 in text (nests throughout Prairie 
Provinces and s. British Columbia, indefinitely northward; goes south in 
winter to Mexico.). — Tyeeeh, Auk, 11, 1934, 22 (Whltefish Point, Mich., 
6 seen). — Du Mont, Univ. Iowa Stud. Nat. Hist., xv, 1934, 61 (rare mi- 
grant; several Iowa records). — ^McCeeaey and Mickey, Wils. Bull., xlvli, 
1935, 136 (se. Wyoming— Sevenmule Lake and Shell Creek) .—Eixis, Con- 
dor, xxxvii, 1935, 86 (specimen. Ruby Lake, ne. Nevada). — ^Tounqwoeth, 
Wils. Bull., xlvii, 1935, 217 (formerly bred; now rare migrant, Fort 
Sisseton, S. Dak.).— Muneo, Wils. Bull., xlviii, 1936, 312 in text (Massett, 
Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, 18 seen May 17). — ^Linsdale, 
Pacific Coast Avif,. No. 23, 1936, 50 (Nevada, transient and summer resi- 
dent at few favorable localities, nests in ne. part of State) . — ^Waxkinbhaw, 
Auk, liv, 1937, 310 in text (Michigan). — Obeeholsee, Bird Life Louisiana, 
1938, 195 (habits; formerly common, now rare winter resident in Gulf 
coast region, s. Louisiana, Jan. 3 to late February — Cameron Farm, 14 
miles south of "Vinton, Chenler au Tigr6, Gum Cove). — Sugden, Condor, 
xl, 1938, 18 (Fish Springs, Utah, and s. Idaho; nesting). — ^Wuxliams, Auk, 
Iv, 1938, 64 (seen Houston, Tex., Sept. 15, 1933 and Dec. 19, 1935).— 
MoNEOE, Auk, Iv, 1938, 670 (1 seen Jefferson County, Ky., Apr. 3-6, 1938). — 
Hameesteom, Wils. Bull., 1, 1938, 175 in text (habits, nesting; central 
Wisconsin). — Walkinshaw, Auk, Ivi, 1939, 227 in text (Calhoun Comity, 
Mich.). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 25 

G[(MS] olatiadensis] tahida Taverneb and Sotton, Ann. Carnegie Mus., xxiii, 

1934, 32 in text (sowthern race). 
arus fratermlus Boucaed, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1883, 461 (Tizimin, Yucatan). 
Megalornis c.-woodi Bailey (H. H.), Bailey Mus. and Libr. Nat. Hist. BuU. 4, 

1930, [2] (Peninsula of Michigan). 

GRUS CANADENSIS PRATENSIS Merer 

Floeida Sandhill Cbane 

All plumages as in Grus canadeiii,is canadensis and Grus canadensis 
tdbida, but larger than the former, and the adults with the occiput 
and hind neck darker than the latter— light mouse gray to mouse 
gray, instead of pallid to pale mouse gray. 

Adult male.— Wing 487-525 (507.2) ; tail 183-206 (191.7) ; exposed 
eulmen 115-143 (130.6) ; tarsus 220-264 (251.1) ; middle toe without 
claw 77-86.5 (80.1 mm.).^« 

Adult female.— Wing 450-485 (473.4); tail 154-182 (170.5); ex- 
posed eulmen 119-135.5 (125.1) ; tarsus 228-241 (235) ; middle toe 
without claw 74^80 (76.6 mm.)." 

Range. — ^Resident in southern Georgia (Okefenokee Swamp) : 
Florida (Micanopy; Waukeenah; Lake Monroe; Lake Kissimmee; 
Micco; Fort Pierce; Daytona; Fort Myers; Charlotte Harbor; 
Miakka ; Longwood ; Tarpon Springs ; Cedar Key ; Lake Wimlico ; De 
Soto County); southern Alabama (Baldwin County; Perdido Bay; 
Foley); and coastal Louisiana (Houma; Calcasieu Pass; Cameron 
Parish ; Black Bayou ; Mer Rouge — in winter) . 

Casual in South Carolina (Waccamaw River; Sandy Knowe; be- 
tween Punta Gorda and Fisheating Creek) ; Mississippi (Waverly, 
winter) ; and Texas (Sabine Pass — in winter). 

Type locality. — ^Alachua Savanna, Clay County, Fla. 

Grus pratenMs Mbyee, Zool. Annal., i, 1794, 286, 296 (Florida; based ou Grvs 
pratensis, corpore cinereo, vertice papilloso Bartram, Travels, 1791, 293). — 
CouES, Check-list, ed. 2, 1882, No. 670, part (ex Bartram). — Ridoway, Cat. 
Aquat. and Fish-eating Birds, 1883, 18, part. 

0[rus] pratensis Coubs, Key North Amer. Birds, ed. 2., 1884, 687, part. 

Grus canadensis pratensis Americait Oenitholoqists' Union, Check-list North 
Amer. Birds, ed. 4, 1931, 94.— Howell, Florida Bird Life, 1932, 197 (genl. ; 
Florida). — Peteks, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 152. — Obeeholsek, 
Bird Life Louisiana, 1938, 196 (rare, permanent resident in s.w. Louisi- 
ana; breeding Cameron Parish, July 1919; formerly more numerous). — 
McIlhennt, Auk, Iv, 1938, 598 (resident — Mississippi; nesting 7 miles 
east of Ocean Springs). 

Megalornis canadensis pratensis Habtbrt, Vog. pal. Fauna, iii, 1921, 1818 
(crit.). — Peters, Auk, xlii, Jan. 1925, 121, 122 (crit. ; type locality fixed as 
Clay County, Fla.).— Bailey and Weight, Wils. Bull,, xllii, 1931, 193 (s. 
Louisiana; nesting, Cameron Parish, 1917). 



" Specimens from Florida (8) and Georgia (1). 
1^ Eight specimens from Florida. 



26 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Grus canadensis (not Ardea canadensis Liuuaeus) Baikd, Rep. Pacific R. R. 
Surv., ix, 1858, 655, part (Florida) ; Cat. North Amer. Birds, 1S50, No. 479, 
part.— Tatloe, Ibis, 1862, 129 (Florida).— Aixen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
i, 1871, 157 (e. Florida) ; ii, 1871, 357 (Florida).— Coues, Check-list, 1874, 
No. 463, part; Birds Northwest, 1874, 532, part (Florida).— Ridgw ay, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 202 (Cat. North Amer. Birds, No. 583), part; 
Norn. North Amer. Birds, 1881, No. 583, part. 

[_Oins] canadensis Coubs, Key North Amer. Birds, 1872, 271, part. 

Cfrus mexicana (not Ardea (Grus) mex:oana Milller) Amebican Oknttholo- 
GisTs' union. Check-list, 1886, and ed. 2, 1895, No. 206, part (Florida) ; ed. 
3, 1910, 100.— Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 254, part (Tarpon 
Springs and De Soto County, Fla.). — (?) Beyeb, Proc. Louisiana Soc. Nat. 
for 1897-99 (1900), 93 (coast of Louisiana, abundant resident). — (?) Beteb, 
AiiisoN, and Kopman, Auk, xxv, 1908, 170 (coast of Louisiana, resident). — 
(?) Wayne, Birds South Carolina, 1910, 34 (formerly on Waccamaw River, 
now apparently extirpated in the State; breeding in Okefenokee Swamp, 
Ga.).— Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 10, flg. 3, part (range).— (?) 
FiGGiNS, Auk, xl, 1923, 673 (Black Bayou, La., breeding). — Beut and 
CopELAND, Auk, xliv, 1927, 377 (between Punta Gorda and Fisheating Creek, 
Charlotte County; near Bassinger, Fla.). — Mbtcaut, Auk, xlvi, 1929, 24S 
(Sandy Knowe, S. C). — Nicholson, Auk, xlvii, 1930, 267 (breeding, Kissim- 
mee Prairie, Fla.). — ^Holt, "Wils. Bull., xlil, 1930, 163 in text (habits; nest- 
ing; Florida). 

Olrus'i mexicana Ridgw ay, Man. North Amer. Birds, 1887, 135 part (Florida). 

Orus canadensis mexicana Obebholsee, Auk, xxxv, Apr. 1918, 204, part. 

Orus americana (not Ardea americana Linnaeus) Fishee (G. C), Wils. Bull., 
xxii, 1910, 45 (Lake Wimlico, Fla.) 

Megalomis canadensis mexicana Howell, Birds Alabama, 1924, 84 ; ed. 2, 1928, 
84 (few breeding in Baldwin County, Ala.; Perdido Bay and Foley; win- 
ter).— Bailey (H. H.), Birds Florida, 1925, 39, pi. 20 (col. pi., distr., etc., 
Florida). 

Megalwnis canadensis mexicanus Obeeholsee, Auk. xxxvlii, 1921, 82, part. — 
Bailey and Weight, Wils. BuU., xliii, 1931, 193 (winter in Louisiana, 
formerly common in western part, now rare ; Cameron Farm, Cameron 
Parish; Chenier au Tigre). 

Megalomis mexicanus McAtee, U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Circ. 13, 1923, 40, part 
(local names; range). — Bent, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 135, 1927, 241, part 
(Florida and Gulf States; life hist; monogr.). 

GRUS CANADENSIS NESIOTES Bangs and Zappey 

Cuban Sandhill Cbane 

Adults. — Similar to Grus canadensis praiensis but smaller, witli 
shorter tarsus; bill shorter and relatively heavier. 

Yowng. — Apparently unknown but probably like the correspond- 
ing stage of the Florida bird. 

Adult male.—Wmg 460-474; tail 171-187; exposed column 123- 
125; tarsus 204^-209 mm." 

"Two specimens from Isle of Pines; measurements ex Todd, Ann Carnegie 
Mus., X. 1916, 206. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 27 

AcLvlt female.-Wmg 425-475 (440.8) ; tail 162-171 (167.2) ; ex- 
posed culmen 100-124 (110.2) ; tarsus 187-214 (196.8 mm.) " 

Bange.— Resident in Cuba (western Pinar del Kio— chiefly in and 
savanna country— Vinales, Mendoza; Guane; Matanzos Province— 
Alacranes; Union de Reyes; Aguada de Pasajeros; Puerto Principe) ; 
and the Isle of Pines (Pasadeta; La Vega; Los Indios). 

Type locality.— L& Vega, Isle of Pines. 
Orus canadensis (not Ardea canadensis Linnaeus) Hartlaue, Naumannia, il, 

1852, 54 (Cuba).— Cabanis, Journ. fur Orn., 1856, 339 (Cuba; habits).— 

Theinemann, Journ. fur Orn., 1857, 154 (Cuba; descr. eggs).— Breweb, 

Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vii, 1860, 308 (Cuba).— Gundlach, Journ. 

fiir Orn., 1862, 81 (Cuba; crit.) ; 1875, 293 (Cuba; habits); Contr. Cm. 

Cubana, 1876, 143. 
[Orus] canadensis Gundlach, Journ. fur Orn., 1861, 338 (Cuba) ; Rep. Fisico- 

Nat. Cuba, i, 1865-66, 347. 
Oru^ poliophaea (not of Wagler) Lembeye, Aves Isla de Cuba, 1850, 80.— 

Beewee, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vii, 1860, 808 (Cuba). 
lOrus] mexicana (not Ardea (Cirus) mexicmm Miiller) Cory, List Birds West 

Indies, 1885, and rev. ed. 1886, 29 (Cuba). 
Grus mexicana Coey, Auk, v, 1888, 50 (Cuba ; references) ; Birds West Indies, 

1889, 251 (Cuba) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, 90 (Cuba; Isle of Pines). 
G-rus nesiotes Bakqs and Zappey, Amer. Nat., xxxix, Apr. 1905, 190 (La Vega, 

Isle of Pines, Cuba; coll. B. and O. Bangs) .—Bangs. Bull. Mus. Comp. 

Zool., Ixx, 1930, 178 (type spec, in Mus. Comp. Zool.). 
Grus mexicana nesiotes Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., x, 1916, 20.5 (Los Indios, 

Isle of Pines; measurements; habits; food). 
Grus mexicanus nesiotes Babbotte, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1923, 58 (Province 

Pinar del Rio, Cuba; Isle of Pines; crit.). — Danfoeth, Journ. Agr. Univ. 

Puerto Rico, six, 1935, 425 (seen near Clego de Avila, Cuba). 
Orus canadensis nesiotes Petees, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 152. 
©[»•««] clanadensis'i nesiotes Bomd, Birds West Indies, 1936, 83 in text (descr. ; 

Cuba, especially western part, iand Isle of Pines) . 
Megalomis canadensis nesiotes Obeeholsee, Auk, xxxviii, Jan. 1921, 82. — Habteet, 

Vog. pal. Fauna, iii, 1921, 1818 (crit.). 
Megalomis nesiotes Petees, Auk, xlii, 1925, 120, in text. 
Megalomis mexicanus Bent, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 135, 1927, 241, part (Cuba; 

life hist.). 

Family ARAMIDAE : Courlans, or Limpkins 

=Aramidae Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., ii, 1857 [1854], 108. — Baird, Rep. Pacific 
R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 651, 657. — FtiKBRiNOEE, Unters. Murph. Syst. Vog., 
ii, 1888, 1207.— Wetmoee and Miuas, Auk, xliii, 1926, 342.— Wetmobe, 
Proc. U. S. N^at. Mus., Ixxvi, art. 24, 1930, 4: Smiths. Misc. Coll., Ixxxix, 
No. 13, 1934, 6; xcix, No. 7, 1940, 6.— Petees, Check-list Birds of World, 
ii, 1934, 155. 

=Aramidse Sclatee and Salvin, Nora. Av. Neotr., 1873, viii, 141. — Baied, 
Beewee, and Ridgway, Water Birds North Amer., i, 1884, 350, 398. — Coues, 



" Four specimens, from Cuba and Isle of Pines ; measurements ex Todd. Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., x, 191G. 206. 



28 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Key North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 1884, 867.— Stejneger, Stand. Nat. Hist., iv, 

1885, 127, In text. — ^Ameeican OENrrHOLOoiSTS' Union, Check-list, 1886, 

139; ed. 3, 1910, 101.— Shabpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxlii, 1894, xii, 236; 

Hand-list, i, 1899, xvii, 180. — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer.. Aves. 

iii, 1903, 332. 
=Araminae Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., ii, 1857 [1854], 103. — Ftjebbinger, 

Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., ii, 1888, 1566.— Gadow, Bronn's Thier Reich, 

Vog, ii, 1891, 184. 
=Aramin!e Knowlton, Birds of World, 1909, 336. 
=Arami Shabpe, Rev. Bee. Att. Classif. Birds, 1891, 74; Hand-list, i, 1899, 

•svii, 180. 

Medium-sized, long-necked and long-legged Grues with the hallux 
well developed (nearly as long as basal phalanx of middle toe) and 
incumbent; middle toe at least two-thirds as long as tarsus; bill 
greatly elongated, not shorter than tarsus; head completely feath- 
ered; rectrices (12) well developed, firm, and femorocaudal muscle 
absent; wing diastataxic (aquintocubital). 

The Aramidae are intermediate in structural characters between 
the Gruidae and Rallidae, agreeing best (indeed almost entirely) 
with the former in osteological characters and pterylosis, but more 
like the latter in their digestive organs, external characters (includ- 
ing the well-developed, incumbent hallux, completely feathered head, 
and form of wings) , general habits, and nidification. 

Thfe family is peculiar to Tropical America, where represented 
by a single genus containing only one species. 

The limpkins inhabit swamps, both wooded and open, where their 
gait while walking, accompanied by a jerking or flirting of the 
elevated tail, is precisely that of the larger rails {Rallua). The 
nest is built among reeds, rushes, or other aquatic vegetation, and 
the numerous (10-12) eggs are in shape and coloration very similar 
to those of the larger rails. Owing to their loud, wailing cries 
(uttered mostly at night), they are known to the people of the coun- 
tries they inhabit by such names as "crazy widow" and "crying 
bird," etc., while in Florida the northern race is known as the "limp- 
kin," in allusion, it is said, to its peculiar gait. 

Genus ARAMUS Vieillot 

Aramus Vieillot, Analyse, 1816, 58. (Type, by monotypy, "Courlini BufE."= 

Ardea scolopacea Gmelin.) 
Notherodius Wagler, Syst. Av., 1827 [147]. (New name for Aramus Vieillot.) 

Bill elongated (about twice as long as head, nearly as long as 
tarsus) , compressed, its depth at base nearly twice its width at same 
point ; culmen straight for basal two-thirds or more, then gently but 
decidedly decurved to tip, the ^° the mesorhinium broad and flattened ; 



"The tip of the bill is frequently turned slightly to one side (usually to the 
right). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 



29 



gonys approximately half as long as exposed culmen, nearly straight 
(of faintly convex proximally and faintly concave distally), slightly 




% 




Figure 2. — Aramus scolopaceus picius. 

prominent basally from slight contraction of anterior portion of 
rami, both upper and lower outlines of the latter strongly deflexed 



30 BULLETESr 50, XHSTITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

basally; nasal fossa broad, extending for more than one-third the 
length of maxilla, but becoming gradually narrower and indistinct 
anteriorly; nostril longitudinally elliptical (sometimes slightly more 
elevated anteriorly and slightly narrower as well as more pointed 
posteriorly), pervious, separated by more than its length from loral 
feathering. Wing large, broad, and rounded, the broad proximal 
secondaries extending as far as tips of longest primaries, the latter 
exceeding distal secondaries by a little less than length of exposed 
culmen ; third and fourth primaries (from outside) longest, the first 
(outermost) shorter than eighth, sometimes shorter than ninth; 
inner web of outermost primary excised for most of its length, most 
deeply subbasally, where not more (sometimes much less) than half 
as wide as on distal portion. Tail between one-third and one-half 
as long as wing, slightly but distinctly rounded, composed of 12 
broad, moderately stiff rectrices. Tarsus slightly longer than culmen, 
decidedly longer than middle toe with claw, the acrotarsium with 
a continuous row of broad transverse scutella, the planta tarsi with 
two or three rows of large hexagonal scales ; outer toe (without claw) 
reaching to or beyond middle of penultimate phalanx of middle 
toe, the inner decidedly shorter, reaching beyond penultimate articu- 
lation of middle toe; hallux incumbent (or nearly so), nearly as 
long (without claw) as basal phalanx of outer toe, all the toes with 
very distinct broad transverse scutella; claws moderate in size, 
curvature and acuteness; no trace of web between anterior toes. 

Plwmage and coloration. — Head completely feathered, the feather- 
ing rather short (except on pileum) and soft; feathering of neck 
longer, the feathers rather narrow and lax, that of body much more 
full, more compact on back, etc., more lax on underparts, the under 
tail coverts broad and soft, extending nearly to tip of tail. General 
color olive-brownish (remiges and rectrices faintly glossed with 
purplish), the head and neck, sometimes back, wing coverts, and 
under parts also, striped with white. Sexes alike. 

Nidifioation. — Nest placed among reeds, rushes, or other aquatic 
vegetation. Eggs four to seven or more, pale dull buffy, spotted, and 
stained with brown and purplish gray. Young ptilopaedic and 
nidifugous. 

KEY TO THE SUBSPECIES OF ARAMUS SCOLOPACEUS 

a. Interscapulars and upper wing coverts with lanceolate white streaks. 
6. A white area at base of secondaries extending along the outer web next 

to the shaft for about 150 mm Aramus scolopaceus dolosus (p. 31) 

66. No such white extension along the shaft of the secondaries, 
c. The white streaks reduced to narrow shaft stripes on the lesser upper 

wing coverts Aramus scolopaceus elucus (p. 36) 

cc. The white streaks on the lesser upper wing coverts fairly broad. 

Aramus scolopaceus pictus (p. 32) 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 31 

aa. Interscapulars and upper wing coverts with no white streaks. ^ 

6. Bill longer, over 110 mm Aramus scolopaceus carau (extralimital) 

66. Bill shorter, under 110 mm. ^ 

Aramus scolopaceus scolopaceus (extralimital) 

ARAMUS SCOLOPACEUS DOLOSUS Peters 

Cbntrai. Amebioan Limpkin 

AdwU (sexes alike).— Similar to that of Ararrms scolopaceus pic- 
tus, but with a white basal area on the secondaries which extends 
on the outer web next to the shaft for a third to more than half the 
length of the feather. 

Other plumages not known. 

Adult male.— Wmg 310-330 (319.5) ; tail 138-158 (144.3) ; exposed 
cuhnen 106-125 (117.7) ; tarsus 117-142 (128) ; middle toe without 
claw 83-95 (88 mm.).^' 

Adult female.— 'Wmg 300-305 (303) ; tail 134-138 (136) ; exposed 
culmen 108-118 (113) ; tarsus 11&-121 (119) ; middle toe without claw 
84^86 mm. (85 mm.)." 

Range. — Resident from south-central Mexico (Tehuantepec ; Vera- 
cruz — Alvarado, Tlacotalpam, Uvero, and Santa Ana; Oaxaca — 
Huilotepec, Santa Efigenia, and Cacoprieto; Yucatan; Cozumel 
Island; and Quintana Roo) ; British Honduras (Belize) ; and Hon- 
duras (Omoa; Martinez Creek, west of Tela) ; south to Nicaragua 
(Ometepe Island; Sucuya; Lake Nicaragua), and Costa Rica (La 
Palma de Nicoya; Rio Frio; Bolson; Bebedero; Guanacaste). Not 
recorded from Guatemala. 

Casual in the lower Rio Grande of Texas (Brownsville). 

Type locality. — Bolson, Costa Rica. 

Aranius pictus (not of Meyer, 1794) Nuttins, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1882, 409 
(La Palma de Nicoya, Costa Rica) ; vi, 1884, 389 (Sucuya, Nicaragua) ; 396 
(Ometepe, Nicaragua).— Baibd, Bkewes, and Ridgway, Water Birds North 
Amer., i, 1884, 400, part.— Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 238, 
part (w. Mexico to Panama ; specimens listed from Tlacotalpam and Cozu- 
mel Island, Mexico, and Costa Rica).— Saivin and Godman, Biol. Centr.- 
Amer., Aves, iii, 1903, 333, part (Alvarado, Uvero, Tlalcotalpam, and Santa 

"Aromtts carau Vielllot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat, xiii, 1817, 300 (Paraguay, 
ex Azara).— iJaiiMs giffas Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl., 1823, 78.— -Rami's ardeoides 
Spix, Av. Brasil, ii, 1825, 72, pi. 91. — Aramus scolopaceus carau Peters, Occ. 
Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., v, 1925, 142 ; Checlj-list Birds of World, il, 1934, 155. 
'^[Ardea] scolopacea Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, pt. 2, 1789, 647 (Cayenne). — 
Notherodnis guarana Wagler, Syst. Av., i, 1827, [147].— AramH.5 guarana Des 
Murs, Castlenau's Exp. Amerique Sud, Ois., 1855, 81.— Aramus scolopaceus scolo- 
paceus Peters, Occ. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., v, 1925, 141 ; Check-list Birds of 
World, ii, 1934, 155. 

^ Six specimens from Mexico, British Honduras, and Costa Rica. 
" Three specimens from Texas, Mexico, and Nicaragua. 



32 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Ana, Veracruz; Santa Eflgenla and Cacoprieto, Oaxaca ; Cozumel Island; 
Belize Elver, British Honduras; Omoa, Honduras; Sucuya and Omotepe, 
Nicaragua; La Palnaa de Nicoya and Rio Frio, Costa Kica). 

Aramus scolopaceus (not Ardea scolopacea Gmelin) Moobb, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, 1859, 64 (Belize River, British Honduras; near Omoa, Honduras).— 
SonATBR and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, 227 (Belize; Omoa).— Salvin, Ibis, 1870, 116 
(Costa Rica). 

INotherodius] scolopaceus Heine and Reiohenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 
321, part (Mexico). 

Aramus vociferus AMBatioAN Ornithologists' Union, Auk. xxv, 1908, 364, part; 
Checklist North Amer. Birds, ed. 3, 1910, 101, part (Texas).— Cabeikee, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 425 (Bolson, Bebedero, La Palma de Nicoya, and 
Guanacaste, Costa Rica.)— Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 13, flg. 4, 
part (range).— Geiscom and Crosby, Auk. xlii, 1925, 527 (Brownsville, s. 
Texas). 

Aramus vociferus subsp. Gbiscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., No. 235, 1926, 8 (e. Quintana 
Roo, Yucatan). 

Aramus giganteus American Ornithologists' Union, Checklist North Amer. 
Birds, 1886, and ed. 2, 1895, No. 207, part (Central America). — Feeeaei-Peeez, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 177 (Santa Ana, Veracruz). — Zbledon, Anal. 
Mus. Nac. Oosta Rica, i, 1888, 131 (Costa Rica).— Salvin, Ibis, 1889, 378 
(Cozumel Island, Yucatan). — Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 
528 (Rio Frio, Costa Rica). — Lantz, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sd., 1896-97 
(1899), 219 (Belize, British Honduras). — Steeckee, Baylor Univ. Bull. 15, 
1912, 18 (occasional, coast of Texas). 

A[ramus] giganteus Sclates and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 141, part. — 
RiDGWAT, Man. North Amer. Birds, 1887, 136, part (Gulf of Mexico to Oosta 
Rica). 

Aramus scolopaceus, var. giganteus Lawbenob, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 4, 1876, 49 
(Santa Eflgenla, Oaxaca). 

Aramus liolostictus Sclatee and Sal\'in, Ibis, 1859, 227 (Belize; Omoa). — Salvik, 
Ibis, 1870, 116 (Costa Rica). 

Aramus vociferus holostictus Millee (W. DeWV) and Geiscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 
No. 25, 1921, 12, 13, part (Brownsville, Tex. ; e. Mexico south to Panama). — 
Obeeholseb, Auk. xl, 1923, 678 (Texas). 

Aramus pictus dolosus Petbes, Occ. Papers Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., v. 1925, 144 
(Bolson, Costa Rica; orig. descr. ; tax.; range) ; Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixix, 
1929, 409 (Martinez Creek, west of Tela, Honduras, habits; crit.) — Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixx, 1930, 179 (type specimen in Mus. Comp. Zool.).— 
Sassi, Temminckia, iu, 1938, 306 (Costa Rica, Bebedero, 6 specimens; 
meas. ; crit). 

Aramus scolopaceus dolosus Peters, Checklist, Birds of World, ii, 1934, 155.— 
Deignan, Auk. liii, 1936, 188 (specimen. La Ceiba, Honduras; colors of soft 
parts).— VAN RossEM, Birds El Salvador, 1938, 158 (El Salvador, Barra de 
Santiago ; San Sebastian ; rare in spring and summer in the mangroves and 
costal swampy forests; colors of soft parts). 

ABAMUS SCOLOPACEUS PICTUS (Meyer) 

Florida Limpkin 

Adult (sexes alike). — Entire plumage except the chin and upper 
throat olive-brown to raw umber, darkest on the hind neck inter- 
scapulars, and back; much marked with white as follows: Forehead 



BIRDS OF XORTH AXD MIDDLE AMERICA 33 

and anterior part of crown slightly washed with pale ashy grayish 
and with whitish shaft streaks, these streaks narrowing considerably 
on the hind crown, where they are often tinged with pale tawny, 
making that area look generally darker than the forehead: occiput, 
i\ape, and liind neck with broad, terminally widening, white mesial 
streaks sharply contrasting with the dark brown, these streaks in- 
creasing in width and length posteriorly and becoming, on the inter- 
scapulars and upper wing coverts, very extensive, pointed white 
wedges or lanceolate areas, narrowing again and becoming restricted 
to the outer webs of the greater upper secondary coverts; remiges 
olive-brown with no white; back, rump, upper tail coverts, and tail 
uniform dark raw umber to mummy brown, the tail with a bronzy 
sheen; lores, cheeks, and auriculars largely grayish white, the brown 
restricted to narrow edgings and relatively pale and ashy like the 
forehead; chin and immediately adjacent part of upper throat whit- 
ish, unmarked, rest- of throat and sides of neck like hind neck, but 
the brown averaging paler — ^pale olive-brown ; breast, center of abdo- 
men, and thighs oUve-brown, with broad, terminally pointed, mesial 
white streaks: sides and flanks with little or no white; under tail 
coverts uniform mummy brown; under wing coverts oUve-brown to 
i-aw mnber, with very broad median white areas; iris Vandyke 
brown ; eyelid dull yellow ; bill grayish oUve, black at tip, deep ochre 
at base of upper mandible, reddish at base of lower mandible ; tarsi 
and toes blackish olive; claws blackish olive. 

Juvenal (sexes alike). — Similar to adult, but the white markings 
on the upperparts somewhat smaller; plumage looser in texture: 
not readily distinguishable ijj most cases from the adult. 

Xatal doicn. — ^Long, thick, soft down varying from cinnamon- 
brown to snuff brown above, paler on the sides of the head and 
almost white on the chin ; lowerparts of body pale like the sides of 
the head. 

Adult male.— Vsmg 311-339 (323.7) ; tail 125-160 (140.3) ; exposed 
cuhnen 118-131 (123.8) : tai-sus 123-141 (131.7) ; middle toe without 
claw 88-100 (91.8 mm.).^ 

Adult femaJe.—Wmg 298-313 (305.5) : tail 127-139 (133.7) ; ex- 
posed culmen 108-124 (116.0) ; tai-sus 113-130 (122.2) : middle toe 
without claw 81-90 (86.7 mm.).=« 

Ban^e.— Resident m southeastern Georgia (Okefenokee Swamp: 
St. Simon Island) : and peninsular Florida, but not west of 'Wakulla 
County (upper Wacissa Kiver: Suwannee River; TuskawiUa Creek; 
Gainesville; TTakuUa Eiver; Lake "Wekiva ; TVekiva Eiver; Malabar; 
St. Johns Eiver: Kissimmee Eiver; Alachua County: Palm Beach 

^Ten specimens from Florida. 

" Ten specimens, 2 from Cnba, 8 from Florida. 



34 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

County; Oklawaha Kiver; Weekiwachee River; Lee, Orange, and 
Putnam Counties; Emeralda Marsh between Lake Yale and Lake 
Griffin; Withlacoocliee Eiver; Chassahowitzka River); and also in 
Cuba (Camaguay; San Pablo; Aguada de Pasajeros; Zapata Swamp; 
rare in western Cuba); the Isle of Pines (Nueva Gerona; Santa 
Barbara; Nuevas Eiver; West McKinley; Pasadita) ; and Jamaica 
{Bluefields; St. Davids Parish; the mountainous districts of St. Ann, 
St. Dorothy, and the Coona-coonas ; Cayamanas district; Paradise 
River; Grand Vale; Hampstead). 

Casual in the Florida Keys (Indian Key; Dry Tortugas) ; and in 
South Carolina (Charleston; Twigs Dead River; Aiken County). 

Doubtful, accidental record from Illinois (Phiio, Champaign 
County), and New Jersey (Long Branch). 

Type locality. — St. Johns River, Fla. 

Tantalus pictus "Bartram," Meter (F. A. A.), Zool. Annal., i, 1794, 287 (St 
Johns River, Fla.). — Aij.en (J. A.), Amer. Nat, x, 1876, 28. 

Aramus pictus Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1875, 354 (Florida; 
based on Tantalus pictus, etc., Bartram, Travels, 293) ; BuU. Nutt. Orn. Club, 
V, 1880, 101 ; Check List, ed. 2, 1882, No. 671.— Ridgwat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas., 
iii, IS'SO, 202 (Cat. North Amer. Birds, No. 581) ; Nom. North Amer. Birds, 
1881, No. 581.— Bbewsteb, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1881, 43, in text (Wekiva 
River, nw. Florida; habits, notes, etc.). — Bailet (H. B.), Bull. Nutt Orn. 
Club, viii, 1883, 42 (St. Simon Island, Ga., breeding). — Baibd, Beeweb, and 
Ridgwat, Water Birds North Amer., i, 1S84, 400, part. — Shaepe, Cat Birds 
Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 238, part (Florida; Jamaica). — Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, iii, 1903, 333, part (West Indies).—? WmMOEE, 
Smiths. Misc. Coll., Ixxxv, No. 2, 1931, 37 (Pleistocene remains; Florida- 
Seminole area and Itahtucknee River). 

A [ramus] pictus CotTES, Key North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 1884, 668. 

Aramus pictus pictus Petees, Occ. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., v, 1925, 142 (crit. ; 
syn. ; descr. ; range). — Ameoican Oenithologists' Union, Check-list North 
Amer. Birds, ed. 4, 1931, 94. — DuMont, Auk, xlix, 1932, 237 (Kissimmee River, 
Fla.) — Howell, Florida Bird Life, 1932, 199 (genl. ; Florida). — Havbmetee, 
Auk, 1, 1933, 370 (large colony between Lake Rosalie and Tiger Lake, Fla.) — 
CoTTAM, Wils. Bull, xlviii, 1936, 11 in text (food habits).— Obeeholsee, Bird 
Life Louisiana, 1938, 197 (Moss Lake, La., May 1935, only record for the 
State). 

Aramus scolopaceiis pictus Petebs, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934. 155. 

A[ramus] slcolopaceusj pictus Bond, Birds West Indies, 1936, 85 in text (Cuba, 
Isle of Pines, and Jamaica ; accidental on Cay Lobos, Bahamas ; also Flor- 
ida and se. Georgia). 

N[umenius] vociferus Latham, Index Orn., Suppl., 1801, Ixv (Georgia; based 
on Ephoukyca, Crying Bird Bartram, Travels, 1791, 145, 291 ; etc.). 

Numenius vociferus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., xiii, 1817, 305 (Florida; 
Georgia). 

IMs vociferus Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool., xii, pt. i, 1824, 8 (St. Johns River, 
Fla. ; lakes of Florida and Georgia). 

Aramus vociferus American Oenithologists' Union Committee, Auk, xxv 1908 
364, part ; Check List ed. 3, 1910, 101, part.— Cory, Field Mus.' Nat' Hist 
Publ. 131, 1909, 380 (Philo, Champaign County, III., 1 specimen, 1896).— 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 35 

Wayne, Birds South Carolina, 1910, 35 (Aiken County, October 18, 1890; 
Charleston, July 1904).-Batnabd, Auk, xxx, 1913, 243 (Alachua County, 
Fla, breeding) .-Weight and Hakpeb, Auk, xxx, 1913, 493 (Okefenokee 
Swamp, Ga.). -Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 13, fig. 4, part (range 
and migration routes) .-Shtjfeldt, Anat. Rec, ix, 1915, 591-606 (osteology). 
—Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., x, 1916, 204 (Nueva Gerona and Pasadita, Isle 
of Pines; crit., measurements; habits) .—Bangs and Kennabd, List Birds 
Jamaica, 1920, 6 (formerly common resident, now nearly extirpated by mon- 
goose).— Peakson, Auk, xxxviil, 1921, 599 (now rare along Oklawaha River, 
Fla.).— BAEBOTO, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1923, 57 (Cuba; resident; habits). 
—Peakson, Auk, xli, 1924, 599 in text (Camaguay, Cuba).— Bailbt, Birds 
Florida, 1925, 40, pi. 20 (fig., descr. ; distr. ; Florida).— Gakdneb, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., Ixvii, art. 19, 1925, 16 in text, pi. 7 (structure of tongue).— Bent 
and Copeland, Auk, xliv, 1927, 377 (Wekiva Lake; Weekiwachee River,, 
Fla.). 

Aramus vociferus vociferus Mit.t.eb (W. DeW.) and Gbiscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 
No. 25, 1921, 12, 13 (Florida; Okefenokee Swamp, Ga. ; South Carolina).— 
Bent, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 135, 1927, 255 (life history; monogr.). 

Aramus vlooiferus] vooiferus Cheisty, Auk, xlv, 1928, 287 (Everglades, s. 
Florida) . 

R[aUus'i giganteus Bonapabte, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, v, pt. 1, 
1825, 31 (type locality, by context, Florida; Long Branch, N. J.). 

Aramus giganteus Baied, Rep. Pacific K. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 657 (Indian Key, 
Fla.) ; Cat. North Amer. Birds, 1859, No. 481.— Sclateb, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, 1861, 81 (Jamaica) ; Rev. List Birds Jamaica, 1910, 20.— Taylor, 
Ibis, 1862, 129 (Florida).— Albkecht, Journ. fiir Orn., x, 1862, 206 (Ja- 
maica).— Aixen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. ii, 1871, 302 (e. Florida). — 
Mebeiam, Amer. Nat., viii, 1874, 89 (Florida). — Gundlach, Journ. fiir 
Orn., xxii, 1874, 353 (Cuba; habits); Contr. Orn. Cubana, 1876, 186; Orn. 
Cubana, 1895, 237. — ^Ameeican Oknithologists' Union Check-list, 1886, and 
ed. 2, 1895, No. 207, part.— Wayne, Auk. s, 1893, 337 ( Suwannee River, nw. 
Florida, breeding) ; xxiii, 1906, 231 in text (Twiggs Dead River, Aiken 
County, S. C, 2 specimens, Oct. 18, 1890).— Coby, Auk, v, 1888, 50, part 
(Cuba) ; Birds West Indies, 1889, 251, part; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, 
90, part (Cuba, Isle of Pines; Jamaica). — Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
Nat. Hist, iv, 1892, 288 (San Pablo, s. Cuba).— Field, Auk, xi, 1894, 122 
(Jamaica). — Bonhote, Auk. xx, 1903, 175 (Cay Lobos, Bahamas, 3 speci- 
mens, Jan. 28, 1901).— Nicholson, Auk, xlvii, 1930, 267 (nesting in Florida). 

[Aramus] giganteus Gundlach, Journ. fiir Om., ix, 1861, 342 (Cuba) ; Rep. 
Fisico-Nat. Cuba, i, 1865-1866, 360.— Gray, Hand-list, ill, 1871, .59, No. 
10407 (Jamaica). — Coey, List Birds West Indies, 1885, and rev. ed., 1886, 
29, part.— Shaepe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 180, part. 

Alramus] giganteus Newton (A. and E.), Handb. Jamaica, 1881, 115. — 
RiDGWAY, Man. North Amer. Birds, 1887, 136, part (Greater Antilles and 
Florida). 

[Aramus scolopaceus'i var. giganteus Cotjes, Key North Amer. Birds, 1872, 271. 

Aramus scolopaceus . . . var giganteus Cotjes, Check List, 1874, No. 464. 

Rallus scolopaceus (not Ardea scolopacea Gmelin) Bonapabte, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. New York, ill, 1826-28, 156, in text part. 

Aramus scolopaceus Vigors, Zool. Journ., iii, 1827, 447 (Cuba). — Bonapabte, Ann. 
Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, ii, 1827, 309 ; Contr. Maclurian Lye, i, 1827, 25 ; 
Amer. Orn., iii, 1828, 111, pi. 26 ; Geogr. and Comp. List, 1838, 53. — Lebbon. 
Trail <5 d'Orn.. 1831. 569, part (s. United States; Florida; Cuba).— Nuttai-t., 



36 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Man. Oru. United States and Canada, Water Birds, 1834, 68.— Audubon, Orn. 

Biogr., iv, 1838, 543 (not pi. 3T7, which=true A. scolopaeeiis!) ; Synopsis, 

1839, 217; Birds Amer., 8vo ed., v, 1842, 181 (not pi. 312, which =A. scolopa- 

■ceua). — GossE, Birds Jamaica, 1847, 355 (Jamaica). — Bryant, Proc. Boston 

Soc. Nat. Hist., 1854, 20 (descr. trachea). 
\Aramus] scolopacea Bonapaete, Consp. Gen. Av., il, 1857 [1854], 103, part 

(supposed young). 
Notherodius scolopaceua CAB\Nig, Journ. fiir Orn., iv, 1856, 426 (Cuba). — Gund- 

LACH, Journ. fiir Orn., x, 1862, 89 (Cuba ; crit). 
Notherodius holostictus Cabanis, Journ. fiir Orn., iv, 1856, 426 (Cuba). 
INotherodius] scolopaeeus Heine and Reichenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 

321, part (Cuba). 
Aramua vociferus holostictus Millee (W. DeW.) aud Griscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., 

No. 25, 1921, 12, 13, part (Greater Antilles) .—Obeeholsbe, Auk, xl, 1923, 

678. 
Aramns guarauna (not Scolopax guaraiina Gmelin) D'Oebiqnt, in La Sagra's 

Hist. Nat. Cuba, Ois., 1839, 256 (Spanish od., p. 177). — Bbewet., Proc. Boston 

Soc. Nat. Hist., vii, 1860, 308 (Cuba). 
A[ramus] Quarauna Lembeye, Aves Isle de Cuba, 1850, 134. 
Notherodiiis guarnna Waglke, Isis, 1829, 657 (Cuba). 

AHAMUS SCOLOPACEUS ELUCUS Peters 

HlSPANIOI^N LiMPKIN 

Adult (sexes alike). — Similar to A^'amiis scolopaeeus pictus but 
averaging slightly darker brown — dark raw umber to dark mummy 
brown and dark sepia ; the white streaks smaller generally, and espe- 
cially on the lesser upper wing coverts, where they are reduced to 
narrow shaft stripes. 

Other plumages not known. 

Adult mcde.^Wmg 313-323 (319) ; tail 130-140 (135) ; exposed cul- 
men 100-110 (106.2) ; tarsus 107-113 (109.5) ; middle toe without claw 
77-81 (79.2 mm.)" 

Adult female: Wing 290-302 (295.7) ; tail 121-129 (125.3) ; exposed 
culmen 85-101 (94.3) ; tarsus 102-108 (105) ; middle toe without claw 
73-80 (77.3 mm. ).^^ 

Range. — Eesident in Puerto Rico (the vicinity of Haciendo Jobo; 
Lares ; Quebradillas ; Utuado ; slopes of El Yunque ; between Adjuntas 
and Maricao; formerly also Rio Grande and the mountains of El 
Guilarte) ; and the island of Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican 
Republic — Abnercen; Rio Yuna; Bonao; Gonave; Tortue; ViUa 
Alta Gracia ; Montet ; Sosiia) . 

Type locality. — Sosiia, Dominican Republic. 

Ardea scolopacea Rittee, Naturh. Reise westind., Insel Hayti, 1836, 157 (Haiti). 
Aramus scolopaeeus Saij.6, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, 236 (Dominican 
Republic; habits). 



" Four specimens from Haiti and the Dominican Republic. 
" Three specimens from Haiti and the Dominican Republic. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 37 

Aratnus scolopaceus giganteus Cory, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vl, 1881, 155 (Haiti; 
spec. ) . 

Hiam scolopaceus Ledeu, Voy. lies Tto^rifCe, Trinity, Saint-Thomas, Sainte- 
Oroix, et Porto-Eicco, li, 1810, 208 (Puerto Rico) . 

Aramus giganteus Beyant, Journ. fur Orn., xiv, 1866, 191 (Puerto Rico) ; Proc. 
Boston Soc Nat. Hist., x, 1866, 217 (Puerto Rico) ; xi, 1867, 97 (Santo 
Domingo).— Sttodevaix, Ofv. Vet.-Akad. Forh., 1869, 601 (Puerto Rico).— 
GuNDiACH, Journ. ffir Orn., xxii, 1874, 314 (Lares; QuebradiUas; rtuado, 
Puerto Rico) ; xxvl, 1878, 162, 189 (Puerto Rico) ; Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., 
Tli, 1878, 387 (nesting; (Puerto Rico).- Stahl, Faun. Puerto Eico, 1883, 
63, 152 (spec; Puerto Rico).— Cobt, Auk, v, 1888, 50, part; Birds West 
Indies, 1889, 251, part; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, 90, part (Haiti; 
Puerto Rico).— Teisteam, Cat. Coll. Birds H. B. Tristram, 1889, 267 (Al- 
mercen, Hispaniola; spec). — Veeeiix, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
1909, 356 (Dominican Republic).- Wetmobe, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 326, 1916, 
37-38 (north slopes of El Tunque; between Adjuntas and Maricao, and 
near Utuado, Puerto Eico). 

[Aramus'\ giganteus Shabpb, Hand-list, I, 1899, 180, part (Greater Antilles 
part). 

Airamus] giganteus Ridowat, Man. North Amer. Birds, 1887, 136, part 
(Greater Antilles, part). 

Aramus pictus Cobt, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, 1885, 157. — Tippenhauee, 
Die Insel Haiti, 1892, 823 (Haiti).— Shabpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiil, 
1894, 238, part (Haiti).— Sajlvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, Hi, 
1903, 333, part [West Indies, part (= Haiti, based on Sharpe)]. 

Aramus pictus pictus Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., Ixviii, 1929, 311 (Elo 
Tuna; Bonao, Haiti; specimen). 

Aramus vociferus American Ornithologists' Union, Check List North Amer. 
Birds, ed. 3, 1910, 101, part (Greater Antilles, part). — Cooke, U. S. Dept. 
Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 13, fig. 4, part (Puerto Eico; Haiti). — Pbtees, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixl, 1917, 403 (Sostia, Dominican Eepublic; specimen). 

Aramua pictus elucus Petees, Occ. Pap. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, v, 1925, 143 
(Sostia, Dominican Eepublic). — ^Wetmoee, New York Acad. Sci., Sci. Surv. 
Porto Rico, etc., ix, pt. 3, 1927, 333 (genl. ; Puerto Rico ; now rare ; recently 
found only on the Hacienda Jobo, between Utuado and Arecibo ; formerly 
also on the slopes of El Tunque, above Rio Grande, and the peaks of El 
Guilarte, west of Adjuntas; near Lares; and QuebradiUas.) — Bond, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Issx, 1928 (1929), 494 (Haiti, Gonave, and 
Tortue; habits). — ^Wetmobe, Auk, xlvii, 1930, 485 (Rabi6 painting, His- 
paniola). — ^Dantoeth, Auk, xlvi, 1929, 362 (Bonao, Villa Alta Gracia, His- 
paniola).— Lonnbebg, Fauna och Flora, 1929, 100-101 (Haiti). — Bangs, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixx, 1930, 179 (type specimen in Mus. Comp. Zool.; 
crit.).— Wbtmorb and Swales, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 155, 1931, 128 (habits; 
distr. ; Hispaniola). — ^Wetmobe, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxi, art. 2, 1932, 15 
(Montet, Haiti; measurements). — ^Wetmobe and Lincoln, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., Ixxxil, art. 25, 1933, 22 (Dornien and Barahona, Haiti). 

Aramus scolopaceus elucus Peters, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 155. 

Alramus] slcolopaceus] elucus Bond, Birds West Indies, 1936, 85 in text (His- 
paniola, including Gonave and Tortuga Islands; and Puerto Rico). 



38 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Suborder Ralli: Raillike Birds, Coots, and Gallinules 

=Paludicolae Baied, Hep. Pacific R. R. Suiv., ix, 1858, 688, 745. 

>Fulicarije Sclatee aud Salvin, Norn. Av. Neotr., 1873, viii, 139 (Ralli+Heli- 

ornithes+Aramidae).— Shaepb, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, ix, 1 

(RaUi+Heliornithes).— Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Ares, iii, 

1903, 314 (RaUi+Heliornlthes). 
>Fulicariae FtJKBBiNGEE, Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., 1888, 1235, 1566 

(RaUi+Heliornlthes) . 
>RaUi American Genithologists' Union, Check-list, 1886, 139 (Ralli+Ara- 

midae).— Beddabd, Struct, and Classif. Birds, 1898, 321 ( Ralli +Heliornithes). 
=Ralli Shaepe, Rev. Rec. Att. Classif. Birds, 1891, 70. 
>Ralliforines Ftjebeingee, Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., 1888, 1566 (Ralli+Heli- 

ornithes+Hemipodii).— Shaepe, Hand-list, i, 1899, xii, 93 (Ralli+Heli- 

ornithes). 
=Ralliformes Shaepe, Rev. Rec. Att. Classif. Birds, 1891, 70. 
=Rallidae Gmiow, in Bronn's Thier Reich, Vog., ii, 1891, 182 ; Classif. Vertebr., 

1898, 34 (includes fossil Aptomis, Diaphorapteryx, and Oypsornis). 
>RaUidae Caetts, Handb. Zool., i, 1868-75, 339 (includes Heliornithidae and 

Aramidae) . 
=Ralloidea Shttfeldt, Anat. Rec. ix, 1915, 750. 

>Megaloriiithiformes Wbtmore and Muxer (W. DeW.), Auk, xliii, 1926, 342. 
>Grues Wetmoee, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxvi, 1930, art. 24, 4 ; Smiths. 

Misc. Coll., Ixxxix, No. 13, 1934, 6 (includes Gruidae) . 

Very small to large holorhinal Gruiformes with basipterygoid 
processes, supraorbital foramina, and powder downs absent; cervical 
vertebrae 14 or 15; thigh muscle formula ABXY+ ; caeca long; 
oil gland tufted (usually)^"; hallux well-developed, nearly incum- 
bent, and rectrices 10-14, the tail small, soft, not fan-shaped. 

Palate schizognathous ; nares holorhinal; basipterygoid processes, 
occipital foramina, and supraorbital grooves absent; interorbital 
septum incomplete (fenestrate) ; lachrymal not joined to ectethmoid, 
the latter with an upturned process joining frontal bone, leaving a 
foramen for passage of nerves ; cervical vertebrae 14 or 15 ; no fused 
dorsal vertebrae; atlas without lateral canals, notched for the 
odontoid process; sternum with a very long lateral process, the 
spina externa stemi present, the metasternum 2-notched, clavicles in 
near relation with both precoracoids and scapula, separated from 
carina sterni; preacetabulum longer than postacetabulum ; ilia ver- 
tical in their plane anteriorly; pubes strong, not ankylosed with 
ischia ; carotids 2 ; caeca long ; ^° crop absent ; stomach a gizzard, the 
proventriculars zonary; gall bladder present; liver with right lobe 
longer than left; syrinx tracheobronchial, but intrinsic muscles 
attached rather far down; thigh muscle formula ABXY+ ; deep 
flexor tendons usually of type I; tensor patagii brevis without 



" Said to be nude in Porzana Carolina. 
"" These characters shared by Heliornithes. 



BIKDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLK AMBKICA 39 

recurrent slip to tensor patagii longus'"; no distal pji labial fan; 
expansor seoiladarionim muscle present s^; biceps slip usually present 
but small -; an.vr.Aeus with a humeral slip; dorsal apterion long, 
uarrow: aitershaft present; powder downs absent; oil gland usually 
tufted; wing dias:ataxic (aquincubital) ; rectrices 10-14. 
The suborder Ealli contains a single family, the Rallidae. 

Family RALLIDAE : Rails, Gallinules, and Coots 

=MacrodaeiTH Vexllot, Analyse, 1816, 61. 

=Ram^ ljii.TEst«e. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1866, 445.— Baibd, Bkew(.h, and 
BiDGWAT. Water Birds North Amer., i, 1884, 3.50. — Coues, Key North 
»mpr BiT'ls. ed. 2. 1S&4. 669. — Stej>-bgeb, Stand. Nat. Hist, iv, 1885, 127, 
ia rexi. — ^AMSSicix 02>-rrHQU)6isTs' Ukion, Check List, 1886, 140; ed. 3, 
It^ia ICil — Sh^sjs. Cat. Birds Brit Mus., xxiil, 1894, is, 1; Hand-llKt, i, 
1399. lil S?- — SjJ-txs and Godxas, BioL Centr.-Amer., Aves, 111, 1903, 
SI-.— K>:^^^:: . Birii of World, 1909, 49, 320. 

<l;il!5fis < ^ii? T Bar. Er-:. An. Classtf. Birds, 1891, 70 (excludes "Galli- 
nuJiiie- izjc. -i?rrvgviceiridae") . 

>Si:iiiae CtiTS- Hi^io. ZooL, 1, lS6S-7o, 339 (includes Heliornithidae 
ai3d Axssidae!). 

=EiI!;aii JriHixvSi^ UnTtrs- Morph. Sy-t. Vog., U, 1888, 1237.— Oadow, 
Breeds Ttja- Rrii, v:;?.. ii, 1891, ISl: Classlf. Vertebr., 1898, 34.— 
HiiErscr. ~:.£ jeL Fajina, iii, 1921, 1^3. — ^Wetmoee and Mhxee, Auk, 
vwv lai-. ;^l— WsntoEiE. Proc. C. S. Nat Mu.?., Ixxvi, art. 24, 1930, 4; 
Rirrtrhi; lE^ 0!t_ XTTJT. No. 13, 1934, 6 ; xcis. No. 7, 1940, 6,— Petees. 
Obeii-lis: Zir-fs :-t World, ii, 1934, 157. 

=^■ -"-111!^ ~ -Tm 2.a. PiiJiiic- B. B. .SuTT., is, 1S.58, 7i6. 
XEFTTtni?- i_jrr£ ~.i~ '~". ZooL, i. ISoS-TS, 339 (includes Aramidae!; excludes 
G-L~iBuUi. 7tu^i^. ariz. I . 

<lRaIBn» C^Em. 3tnib, Z-j-f... i, l'>6^75. 339 (excludes GallmulfJ. FuUca, 
■eTc — T^ATBT 'nvvjiiL and Bidgway, Water Birds North Amer., i, 1884, 
S2 »fixeinnis ^jMm/ala. PorphyriUa, Fulica, etc.). — Coves, Key North 
-.TTter. I'.jria. ^l 2. liSrt, >5T0 (excludes GuUinula, Porphyrula, etc). — 
^'fmnz^ l-iD-^iiHxoeiiTs' Cnios. Check list 1886, 14fj: ed. 3, 1910, 
IttL t[SEJTjfc4?t GtHiuulin. Porphyrula, Fuli<-a. etc.). — .^Hii;pE. Hand-list 
i l^St r^ "X leretTides only FuJica, PalaeoUnm<i4!. and I/<"5'u<ztio>. — 
ii^^TT i^iS 'ScE/Mix. BioL Oentr.-Amer., atps. iil. 1903, al5 (excludes 

><G- r~'Trr ,'77; « fe >;^Lir=. Handb. ZooL. L lS6i-7j. 340 (tDcludeg Heliomimida*;. 

<'G- f " -^ ■ ^T^ . K Ejjsi. Bbewis, and Bnxrw^T. Water Birds North Ani-r., 1, 
l^bt 351 G-2JUmmJ<i—Porphyrula). — Cottes. Key North Amer. Birds, 
^t. — 1^94. "i^' (GnHimiJ^j—Pcrphgrvla). — AicEEiGis Oesithm^ogists" 
rsMS. C.:.rji: Li?: X.Trth Ajner. Birds, 1S86. 143; ed- 3, 1910, 105 
> GitOauiie-^Por^ pnOm ) . 

<GEffinifl;aE SsAEPi. £fr. Bee. An Claasif. Elri^ l^irO. TO (GaOuivia, Por- 
prijrruia, F-h'iv.-a. &e.) 

<Or-yE-TLii^as Shaepe. E-t" Bee. An. Ciasslf. EL-d£ l¥-a. TC' 



■"ISfise tteua e UigE ^Kred by HeLorciiies. 

I'i'. - — 81 1 



40 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

<Fulicin8e Baibd, Bkewee, and Ridgway, Water Birds North Amer., i, 1884, 
351 (FuUca only).— Coues, Key North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 1884, 676.— 
Amebican Ornithologists' Union, Check List, 1886, 144; ed. 3, 1910, 
101.— Shaepb, Hand-list, i, 1899, xiii, 109 (Fulica-\-Palaeolvmms-\-L0- 
guatia). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, ill, 1903, 329. 

<Fuliceae Baied, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 746 {PuUca+OaWr 
nula+Porphyrula). 

<Ralleae Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 746 (Balhis+Por- 
zana+Gredscus+Coturnicops) . 

The osteological and other anatomical characters of the Rallidae 
are the same as those given for the Ralli, on page 38. In external 
characters there is so great a range of variation that it is somewhat 
difficult to define the family with precision, as based on these alone. 
The bill varies from short to long, and the basal portion of the 
rhinotheca is sometimes (in the genera Gallirmla, Fulica, Porfjiyrio, 
etc.) developed into a conspicuous, expanded (sometimes ridged or 
"crested") frontal shield. The toes are relatively long, with rather 
long and slightly curved claws, the hallux being much longer than 
in other groups of so-called water birds, but more nearly incumbent, 
and in the genus Fulica, they are conspicuously lobed laterally (much 
as in the Heliornithidae and Phalaropodidae) . The head is com- 
pletely feathered (except when a frontal shield is present). The 
body is distinctly compressed, to facilitate the passage through 
close-growing aquatic plants. The wings are relatively small, 
rounded, and very concave beneath, the ability to fly being poorly 
developed, some forms being quite unable to fly. In short, the 
Rallidae are water birds, usually of small size, with compressed body, 
long toes, incumbent or nearly incumbent hallux, muscular thighs, 
and with relatively short, rounded and concave wings which are 
sometimes so feeble as to be useless for flight. They are very retiring 
and crepuscular or nocturnal in their habits, and live in marshes and 
swamps, where their food, consisting largely of aquatic insects or 
plants and small moUusks, is picked from the surface of the water 
or mud, or from aquatic plants, and probed for in the soft mud or 
ooze as in the case of the Limicolae. Many of the species have 
remarkably loud, often discordant voices. 

Their nests consist of more or less crude though rather bulky plat- 
forms of dead grasses, sedges, or other aquatic plants supported by 
upright growing plants. The eggs are numerous and are always 
more or less spotted or speckled, the ground color varying from 
nearly white to buff or clay color. The young are densely clothed 
with milky down (often black in color) and the head is sometimes 
(notably in the genus Fulica) ornamented by brightly colored (yel- 
lowish, orange, or even red) filaments. They are highly "precocious," 
leaving the nest and swimming about almost as soon as hatched. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 41 

Notwithstanding the great dissimilarity in appearance between the 
typical rails, with their completely feathered head, long legs, and 
slender toes, and the coots, with a conspicuous frontal shield and 
conspicuously lobed toes, there is so complete a gradation from one 
extreme to the other in forms of intermediate characters that it is 
doubtful whether any subfamilies can be satisfactorily defined. Thus, 
the gallinules (genera GalUnuJa, Por'phyrula, etc.), while closely re- 
sembling the coots in the form of the bill, development of the frontal 
shield, and even in coloration, agree with the true rails in the unlobed 
toes, and are insensibly connected with the latter by intermediate 
forms. In short, while both the gallinules and coots have the rhino- 
theca or covering of the maxilla continued upon the forehead, where 
it widens into a more or less gibbous or expanded plate or frontal 
shield, the coots alone possess conspicuous scalloped flaps or lobes 
along the edges of the toes, in which respect the latter differ from 
all other members of the family, and thus, for convenience only, may 
be considered as constituting a subfamily. 

The family is cosmopolitan and is apparently a very ancient one 
as a number of highly peculiar genera occur in remote oceanic islands. 

Students of Mallophaga have suggested a closer relationship than 
that usually assumed between the rails and the very primitive kiwis 
(Apterygidae) of New Zealand, but the birds themselves do not 
bear this out with any trenchant characters. 

KEY TO THE NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICAN GENERA AND SUBGENERA OF 

RALLIDAE » 

(i. Toes without distinct lateral membranes (if with obvious narrow membrane 
this on inner side only) . 
6. Without a distinct frontal shield, 
c. Bill longer than head, culmen more than three-fourths as long as tarsus. 
d. Loral antia at upper margin of nasal fossa, anterior outline of loral 
feathering receding downward to rictus (sometimes very slightly 
oblique or nearly vertical). 

e. BiU shorter, culmen much shorter than tarsus Aramides (p. 110) 

ee. BiU longer, culmen as long as or longer than tarsus. 

f. Bill swollen basally, its depth at base one-third length of exposed 
culmen ; flanks uniform Cyanolimnas (p. 98) 



" The following American genera of Rallidae have not been examined in con- 
nection with the present work : 

Anurolimnas Sharpe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, i, No. 5, 1893, p. xxviii. (Type, 
by monotypy and original designation, Poreana castameiceps Sclater and Salvin.) 
South America (Upper Amazons). One species. 

StictoUmnas Biittikofer, Notes Leyden Mus., xv, 1893, 274. (Type, by mono- 
typy and original designation, 8. sJiarpei Biittikofer.) South America. Mono- 
typic. Said to be a young Eypotaenidia with erroneous locality (Old World). 

Mioropygia Bonaparte, Oompt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris, xliii, 1856, 599. (Type, 
by monotypy, Crex schomburgU Cabanis.) South America (Venezuela to Brazil). 



42 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

f/. Bill not swoUen basally, its depth at base much less than one-third 
length of exposed culmen; flanks conspicuously barred with 

whitish Rallus (p. 45) 

dd. Loral antia at lower margin of nasal fossa, anterior outline of loral 
feathering receding upward toward forehead. 
e. Mandible with a distinct lateral groove, extending for greater part 
of its length ; bill slender and greatly compressed, its depth at 
posterior end of nostril equal to less than one-sixth length of culmen, 
its width at some point equal to only about one-half the depth ; base 
of culmen very broad, with rounded (convex) outline ; anterior por- 
tion of nasal fossa deep and sharply defined; tarsus slenderer, 
the acrotarsium vsdth 11 large scutella ; wing more rounded, the 
outermost primary shorter than eighth (from outside), sometimes 
shortest; coloration uniform or nearly so (olive above, slaty below) 

Ortygonax (extralimltal)" 
ee. Mandible without a distinct lateral groove ; bill much shorter, its 
depth at posterior end of nostril equal to more than one-fifth 
the length of culmen, its width at same point equal to much more 
than one-half the depth ; base of culmen both broad and elevated, 
irregularly corrugated, with obtusely angled posterior outline; 
nasal fossa short and indistinct anterior to nostril ; tarsus stouter, 
the acrotarsium with 9 large scutella ; wing more pointed, the 
outermost primary longer than seventh (from outside) ; colora- 
tion conspicuously variegated (spotted and barred with white 

beneath, streaked with white above) Pardirallus (p. 100) 

cc. Bill shorter than head, the culmen not more (usually much less) than 
three-fourths as long as tarsus. 
d. Toes relatively shorter, the inner toe (without claw) not longer than 
culmen. 
e. Gonys not more than one-fourth as long as culmen, strongly ascend- 
ing terminally, the mandibular rami rather distinctly arched ; alula 
extending for only about half the length of primary coverts ; hallux 
(without claw) not more than two-thirds as long as basal phalanx 

of inner toe; claws shorter, less curved, blunter Crex (p. 126) 

ee. Gonys more than one-fourth (usually more than one-third) as long 
as culmen, not strongly ascending terminally; mandibular rami 
not noticeably, if at all, arched ; alula extending for decidedly 
more than half the length of primary coverts ; hallux (without 
claw) more than two-thirds as long as basal phalanx of inner toe; 
claws longer, more curved, more acute. 
/. Nostril impervious for basal half or more. 
g. Middle toe, without claw, nearly as long as tarsus; nostril rela- 
tively much smaller, the pervious anterior portion very small 
and circular ; mandibular rami without lateral groove ; feathers 
of alula more compact and rigid, the two outermost acuminate 



" Ortygonax Heine, in Heine and Eeichenow's Nom. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, S21 
(type, as designated by Sclater, 1891, Rallus rytirhynchus Vieillot). South 
America. Two or more species. 

"I cannot imagine why the species of this genus should ever have been re- 
ferred to Limnopardalis, which is conspicuously different, both in appearance 
and structural details. The general resemblance to Rallus is far greater." 
(R. B.) 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 43 

or subacuminate ; upper parts striped with black, under parts 

gray, the flanks barred Porzana, part (extralimital)" 

gg. Middle toe, without claw, much shorter than tarsus; nostril 
relatively much larger, the pervious anterior portion longer 
and longitudinally elliptical; mandibular rami with a dis- 
tinct lateral groove; feathers of alula rounded terminally; 
upperparts not striped (plumage wholly plain rufescent). 

Amaurolimnas (p. 106) 
■ft. Nostril wholly pervious. (Color plain olive above, the head, neck, 
and underparts plain gray, the flanks barred). 

Neocrex (extralimital)" 
dd. Toes relatively much longer, the inner toe (without claw) longer than 
culmen. 
e. Longest primaries exceeding distal secondaries by one-third, or more, 
length of wing, outermost as long as or longer than sixth (from 
outside) ; alula falling far short of tips of longest primary coverts ; 
tail half as long as wing, or more, the rectrices distinct, much 

longer than upper coverts Porzana part (p. 132) 

ee. Longest primaries exceeding distal secondaries by much less than 

one-third length of wing, outermost shorter than seventh (from 

outside) or else (Cotumicops) secondaries partly white and axll- 

lars white; alula falling little short of tips of longest primary 

coverts, sometimes extending beyond them ; tail much less than 

half as long as wing, the rectrices indistinct, scarcely, If at all, 

longer than upper coverts. 

f. Longest feather of alula falling short of tips of longest primary 

coverts. 

g. Bill much shorter, not more than half as long as head ; toes 

shorter, first two phalanges of middle toe (together) decidedly 

shorter than tarsus, hallux (without claw) less than half as 

long as tarsus ; no black loral streak nor white supraloral 

streak. 

h. Nasal fossa indistinct anterior to nostril, the latter more oblique 

(higher anteriorly, lower posteriorly), more distinctly oper- 

culate ; secondaries partly white ; under wing coverts and 

axillars immaculate white; plumage of upperparts glossy, 

broadly striped with black and narrowly barred with white, 

the chest, etc., huffy, ochraceous, or brownish, more or less 

distinctly barred Cotumicops (p. 170) 

Tih. Nasal fossa very distinct anterior to nostril, the latter more 
in line with axis of maxilla, less distinctly operculate; 
secondaries without white ; under wing coverts and axillars 
dusky, narrowly barred with white ; plumage of upperparts 



'^ Porzana albicollis (Vieillot). — RaUu» albicoUis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet Hist. 
Nat., xxvlii, 1819, 561 (Paraguay). — MusteliraUus Bonaparte, Compt. Rend., xliii, 
Sept 1856, 599 (type, by monotrypy, Rallus anicoUis Vieillot). — MustelHraUus 
(emendation) Heine and Reichenow, Nom. JIus. Hein. Om., 1890, 320. — GaJeolim- 
nas Heine, in Heine and Reichenow, Nom. Mus. Heln. Orn., 1890, 320 (new name 
for MustellwalVua on grounds of purism). South America. 

''Neocrex (subgenus of Por;o«a) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 
1868 (published Apr. 1869), 450, 457 (tj-pe, by monotypy, Porzana en/tTiro-ps 
Sclater). South America. One species. 



44 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

not glossy, dusky or dusky olive, with or without white 
dots, the chest, etc., plain gray or slate color. 

Laterallus (subgenus Creciscus) (p. 148) 

gg. Bill longer, more than half (nearly as long) as head; toes 

longer, first two phalanges (together) of middle toe as long 

as tarsus, the hallux (without claw) half as long as tarsus ; a 

black loral and a white supraloral streak. 

Porzana, part (subgenus Hapalocrex) (p. 134) 
ff. Longest feather of alula extending considerably beyond tips of 
longest primary coverts. 
g. Nostril narrowly elliptical; tarsus shorter than middle toe with 
claw ; outermost primary equal to or longer than distal second- 
aries ; proximal secondaries shorter than longest primaries. 
h. Bill more cuneate (tapering) in lateral outline, its depth at 
base of gonys much less than at posterior end of nostril, the 
mesorhinium elevated and more or less arched, the distal por- 
tion of culmen strongly decurved or convex; tarsus shorter 
than middle toe without claw ; under tail coverts barred 
with white and blackish. 

Laterallus (subgenus Limnocrex) (p. 150) 
hh. Bill more uniform in lateral width, its depth at base of 
gonys nearly equal to that of posterior end of nostril, the 
mesorhinium much less elevated, not arched, terminal por- 
tion of culmen not strongly convex ; tarsus as long as or 
longer than middle toe without claw; under tail coverts 
plain cinnamon-rufous, 
i. Malar antia slightly posterior to the obtusely angled loral 
antia ; bill much more compressed, its width at posterior 
end of nostril equal to but little more than half the depth 
at same point; tarsus not longer than middle toe without 
claw; underparts white medially and posteriorly (except 
under tail coverts), the flanks and axillars barred with 
white and dusky, the under wing coverts white. 

Laterallus (subgenus Laterallus) (extrallmital)" 
it. Malar antia slightly but distinctly anterior to the broadly 
rounded loral antia; bill much less compressed, its width 
at posterior end of nostril equal to decidedly more than 
half its depth at same point ; tarsus longer than middle 
toe without claw, underparts wholly cinnamon-rufous, 
the under wing coverts and axillars also cinnamon- 
rufous Laterallus (subgenu.s Thryocrex) (p. 151) 

gg. Nostril rather broadly ovate or triangular ; tarsus longer than 
middle toe with claw ; outermost primary much shorter than 
distal secondaries; proximal secondaries longer than longest 



'''Laterallus Gray, Cat. Gen. and Subgen. Birds, 1855, 120 (type, by monotypy, 
Rallus melanophaim Vieillot; ex Bonaparte, 1854, nomen, nudum). — Lateri- 
rallus (emendation) Bonaparte, Compt. Rend., xliii, 1856, 599. — Crytiastes 
Cabanis, Journ. filr Orn., 1856 (published 1857), 428 (new name for Laterallus, 
on grounds of purism). — Doriacopliilus Reichenow, in Heine and Reichenow, 
Nom. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 320 (new name for Lnterallm on grounds of 
purism). South America. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 45 

primaries. (Above olive, the plleum and entire underparts 
rufous.) 

Laterallus (subgenus Bufirallus) (extralimital)" 
66. With a distinct frontal shield (the rhinotheca extended onto the forehead, 

where more or less elevated and expanded) (Gallinuleae) 

c. Anterior end of nostril much nearer to tip of maxiEa than to nearest 
loral feathering; frontal shield small, its posterior extremity forming 
an acute angle; gonys much shorter (its length equal to less than 
depth of bill at posterior end of nostril), strongly ascending terminally; 

flanks spotted with white Porphyriops (extralimital)"' 

cc. Anterior end of nostril much nearer to loral antia than to tip of 

maxilla ; frontal shield large, its posterior extremity broadly rounded 

or nearly truncated; gonys much longer (its length greater than 

depth of bill at posterior end of nostril), less strongly ascending 

terminally ; flanks not spotted. 

d. Bill much stouter, its depth at posterior end of nostril exceeding half 

the distance from posterior end of nostril to tip of maxilla ; frontal 

shield extending to beyond posterior angle of eyes, its posterior 

extremity forming a broad, obtuse angle; nostril relatively shorter 

and much broader, the nasal fossa not distinctly defined ; anterior 

outline of feathering on sides of head forming a practically straight 

nearly vertical line; tarsus longer than outer toe without claw, 

the inner side of planta tarsi with a single continuous series of 

large transverse or quadrate scutella; coloration (of adults) 

green, blue, and purplish ; flanks without white. Porphynila (p. 192) 

dd. Bill more slender, its depth at posterior end of nostril less than half 

the distance from posterior end of nostril to tip of maxilla; frontal 

shield extending only as far as middle of eye, its posterior extremity 

broadly rounded to nearly truncated; nostril relatively longer and 

narrower, the nasal fossa very distinctly defined ; anterior outline of 

feathering on sides of head forming a very oblique line, broken at 

rictus; tarsus not longer (sometimes shorter) than outer toe without 

claw, inner side of planta tarsi with broken series of smaller, more 

irregular scutella ; coloration without green, blue, or purplish ; flanks 

striped with white Gallinula (p. 180) 

00. Toes with distinct lateral lobes or marginal membrane Fulica (p. 204) 

Genus RALLUS Linnaeus 

Rallus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, i, 1758, 153. (Type, as designated by Flem- 
ing, 1821, R. aguaticus Linnaeus). 

Ralus (emendation) ViEiiiOT, Analyse, 1816, 61. 

Eyporallus Ikedau: and Mathews, BuU. Brit. Orn. Club, xlvi, 1926, 76. (Type, by 
original designation, Rallus muelleri Rothschild.) 



^ Ruflrallus Bonaparte, Compt. Rend., xliii, 1856, 599 (type, as designated by 
Sclater and Salvin, 1869, Rallus cayennensis Gmelin=7J. cayanensis Bod- 
daert=i2. viridis MiiUer). — Erythrolimnas Heine, in Heine and Reichenow, 
Nom. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, .S20 (substitute for RufiraUus, on grounds of 
purism). South America. 

" PorpJiyriops Pucheran, Rev. Zool., viil, 1845, 278 (type, by monotypy, 
Fulioa crassirostris J. E. GTaj=Rallus melancps Vieillot). — Porpliyreops (emen- 
dation) Zuchold, Journ. fur Orn., 1854, 353. — Hydrocicca Cabanls, Wiegmann's 
Aj-chiv fiir Naturg., 1847, i, 351 (type, by monotypy, Rallus melanops Vieillot). 
South America. Monotypic. 



46 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



TaUtomis Mathews, Syst. Av. Austral., il, 1930, app. 904, note. (Type, by 
original designation, Rallus paciflcus Gmelin=Rallus ecaudata J. F. Miller.) 

Hypotaenidia Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1852, xxiii. (Type, by orig- 
inal designation, Rallus peotoralis "Cuvier," not Rallus pectoralis Temminck 
=Sypotaenidia australis Pelzeln.) 

SttctoUmnas Btjttikofek, Notes Leyden Mus., xv. No. 4, 1893, 274. (Type, by 
original designation, Stictolimnas sharpei Biittikofer=young Hypotwnidia 
sp.) 

Lewinia Gbay, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Birds, 1855, 120. (Type, by raonotypy, Rallus 
lewmii SwaInson=72aJZttS pectoralis Temminck and Laugier.) 

Donacias Heine and Reichenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 321. (Nom. nov. 
pro Lewinia Gray.) 

Rather small to rather large Ralli with culmen as long as or longer 
than tarsus, second primary (from outside) longest or equal to 
longest, flanks conspicuously barred with white, and dorsal region 
striped with black or dusky. 




Figure 3. — Rallus limicola limicola. Natural size. 

BiE slender to moderately stout, longer than head, the culmen as 
narrowly elliptical or slitlike, on line with axis of maxilla^ much 
posterior to middle of maxilla, its posterior end separated from 
laterof rontal antia by a space about equal to basal height of maxilla ; 
laterofrontal angle at base of upper edge of nasal fossa, thence 
long as or longer than tarsus, slightly elevated and widened basally, 
slightly depressed and more constricted medially, slightly (but usually 
decidedly) decurved distally, rounded (in transverse section) 
throughout; gonys about half as long as mandibular rami (sometimes 
more, sometimes less), nearly straight (except at tip, where more or 
less convex), not prominent basally, the mandibular rami without 
distinct lateral groove; nasal fossa extending for much more than 
half (sometimes for two-thirds) the length of maxilla (measured 
from laterofrontal antia), well-defined throughout; nostril very 
receding in a straight or gently curved line to the rictus ; malar antia 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 47 

decidedly posterior to laterofrontal antia, the mental antia about on 
line or slightly anterior to proximal end of nostril. Wing short and 
much rounded, the longest primaries exceeding distal secondaries by 
a little less (R. limicola) to decidedly more than one-fourth {R. 
elegans, R. aquaticvs) the length of wing; outermost primary much 
longer than distal secondaries and about equal to seventh or eighth, 
from outside, the second, second and third, or second, third, and 
fourth (from outside) longest; proximal secondaries shorter than 
longest primaries (nearly equal in R. aquaticus) . Tail less than half 
as long as wing, the rectrices rather soft mostly hidden by the 
coverts. Tarsus about one-third as long as wing, slightly shorter 
(R. aquaticus) to slightly longer {R. elegans) or equal in length 
(R. limicola) to middle toe without claw, the acrotarsium with a 
continuous series of broad, transverse scutella, the rather broadly 
rounded planta tarsi with a continuous posterior series of similar, but 
smaller scutella; outer toe, with claw, falling slightly short of base 
of claw of middle toe, that of inner toe reaching to about, or slightly 
beyond, midde of subterminal phalanx of middle toe; hallux small, 
its length (without claw) decidedly less than that of basal phalanx 
of inner toe; claws rather small, slightly but distinctly curved 
moderately acute to rather blunt. 

Plitmage and coloration. — Plumage of head and neck soft and 
blended, rather short that of underparts fuller, rather loosely 
webbed, that of back, scapulars, etc., harsher, the feathers more dis- 
tinctly outlined. Upper parts olive or grayish, striped with darker; 
breast, etc., plain slate-gray, rufescent, or buffy; flanks barred with 
white. 

Range. — Palearctic, Indian, African, Nearctic, and Neotropical 
regions, but absent from Arctic and sub- Arctic districts. (About 
15 species.) 

KEY TO ADULTS OF THE NORTH AND MTODLE AMERICAN SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES 

OF RALLUS « 

o. Size larger ; wing over 120 mm. in length. 
6. With the following combination of characters: Lesser upiwr wing coverts 
russet to chestnut; edges of feathers of upperparts of body bufCy (not 
ashy gray), washed with olive or brownish. 

c. Smaller, wing less than 155 mm Ballus elegans ramsdeni (p. 89) 

cc. Larger, wing over 155 mm Rallus elegans elegans (p. 83) 

&6. Lesser upper wing coverts olive-brown to olive-russet ; edges of feath- 
ers of upperparts of body ashy gray washed with olive or brownish, 
often very heavily so, but never with lively bufC tone." 



"Based on adults only. 

" This character is not very obvious but is one that grows on the observer 
only after some study. There is no trenchant difference between the specie.s 
elegans and longirostris. If the two did not occur together in a few places I 
would certainly consider them one species. 



48 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

c. Cheeks and postocular area with a brownish wash, or, if grayish, not 
bluish or ashy gray. 
d. Flanks pinkish umber, narrowly and indistinctly barred with rusty 

white to pale cinnamon Ballus longirostris tenuirostris (p. 81) 

dd. Flanks not pinkish umber. 
e. Breast less pinkish — light ochraceous-bufl. 
f. Wing very short, less than 130 mm. 

Kallus longirostris cypereti (extrallmital) " 
ff. Wing longer 150-170 mm_ Ballus longirostris obsoletus (p. 73) 
ee. Breast more pinkish — ^pinkish cinnamon to pinkish orange-cinnamon. 
/. Dark centers of dorsal feathers dark sepia to fuscous. 

Ballus longirostris levipes (p. 75) 
ff. Dark centers of dorsal feathers dark fuscous to fuscous-black. 

Ballus longirostris beldingl (p. 78) 
CO. Cheeks and postocular area generally bluish or ashy gray. 
d. BiU very long ; the exposed culmen over 73 mm. in length. 

Ballus longirostris manglecola (p. 70) 
dd. Bill shorter ; exposed culmen less than 73 mm. in length, 
e. With breast and lower throat only very slightly washed with pale 
pinkish buff, and with an ashy tinge. 
f. Dark areas of dorsal feathers paler — buffy brown 

Ballus longirostris coryi (p. 62) 
ff. Dark areas of dorsal feathers darker — ^fuscous. 

Ballus longirostris leucophaeus, pale phase (p. 66) 
ee. With breast and lower throat cinnamon-bufC to light pinkish cinnamon, 
and even slightly darker. 
f. Chin and upper throat slightly washed with pale pinkish buff. 
g. Dark areas of dorsal feathers sepia to dark clove brown. 
h. Dark areas of dorsal feathers darker — dark clove brown 

Ballus longirostris pelodramus (extrallmital)" 
hh. Dark areas of dorsal feathers paler — sepia. 

Ballus longirostris longirostris (extrallmital)" 
ffg. Dark areas of dorsal feathers Saccardo's umber. 

Ballus longirostris caribaeus (p. 64) 



" Ballus longirostris cypereti. — Rallus cypereti Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, 1877, 747 (Santa Lucia, Tumbez, nw. Peru; coll. Warsaw Mus.) ; Om. 
P6rou, iii, 1886, 315. — [Ballus'] cypereti Brabourne and Chubb, Birds South 
America, i, 1912, 21 (w. Ecuador; nw. Peru). — R[alliis] longirostris cypereti 
Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., sill, 1906, 52 (Vacqueria, w. Ecuador; Tumbez, nw. 
Peru). — Rallus longirostris (not of Boddaert) Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xxiii, 1894, 10, part (Santa Lucia, w. Peru). — [Rallus'\ longirostris Sharpe, 
Hand-list, i, 1899, 93, part (Peru). — Rallus longirostris cypereti Chapman, BuU. 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Iv, 1926, 174 (Ecuador) ; Peters, Checklist Birds of 
World, ii, 1934, 159. 

" Ballus longirostris pelodramus Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxiv, 
1937, 323 (Caronl Swamp, Trinidad). 

" Ballus longirostris longirostris. — Rallus longirostris Boddaert, Tabl. PI. 
En]., 1783, -52 (Cayenne; based on r&le d lm\g hec, de Cayenne Daubenton, PI. 
Enl., pi. 849) ; Turton, Syst. Nat., i, 1806, 433; VielUot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 
xxviii, 1819, 557; Lesson, Traits d'Orn., 1831, 536; Eeichenbach, Handb., Puli- 
carlae, 1851, pi. 106, figs. 1150, 1151 ; Schlegel, Mus. Pays. Bas, v. No. 30, Uvr. 7, 
186,5, 11; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 444, part (monogr.) ; 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 49 

■ff. Chin and upper throat pure white. 
ff. Bill stouter, height at base almost one-third length of exposed 

culmen Rallus longirostris crassirostris (extralimital)" 

gg. Bill less stout ; height at base much less than one-third length 
of exposed culmen. 
h. Sides of neck, lower throat, and breast with no grayish 
wash — ^pale ochraceous-bufE to light pinkish cinnamon, 
i. Upperparts with a decided olive-brownish wash. 

E.allus longirostris yumanensis (p. 77) 

/!. Upperparts with no decided olive-brown wash ; edges of 

feathers gray to olive-gray. 

/. Abdomen largely whitish ; flank color restricted to extreme 

sides Rallus longirostris nayaritensis (p. 80) 



Coues, Birds Northwest, 1874, 536, footnote, part (in synonymy) ; Salvin, Ibis, 
1886, 176 (Brit. Guiana) ; Sennett, Auk, vi, 1889, 165, part (diagnosis; range) ; 
Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. IHiis., xxili, 1894, 10, part (Berbice, Guiana) ; Berlepsch, 
Nov. Zoo]., XV, 1908, 299 (Cayenne). — IRaUus] longirostris Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 
i, pt. ii, 1789, 718; Latham, Index Orn., ii, 1790, 759; Sclater and Salvin, Nom. 
Av. Neotr., 1873, 139, part; Coues, Key North Amer. Birds, 1872, 273, part; 
Sharpe, Hand-list, 1, 1899, 93, part ; Brabourne and Chubb, Birds South America, 
i, 1912, 21 part (Brit. Guiana ; Cayenne). — [Rallus longirostris'i a. var. longirostris 
Ridgway, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, July 1880, 139, 140, part (diagnosis; syno- 
nymy). — [Rallus longirostris] a. longirostris Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Water 
Birds North Amer., i, 1884, 358, 360, part ; American Ornithologists' Union, Check- 
list, ed. 3, 1910, 103. — [Aramus] longirostris Gray, Hand-list, iii, 1871, 59, No. 
10418. — [Limnopardalis] longirostris Heine and Reichenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. 
Orn., 1890, 320. — R[allus] crepitans (not of Gmelin) Cabanis, in Schomburgk's 
Reis. Britisch Guiana, iii, 1848, 760. — Rallus longirostris longirostris Peters, 
Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 159. 

"Rallus longirostris crassirostris. — Rallus longirostris (not of Boddaert) 
Burmeister, Syst. Ueb. Thiere Bras., Aves, ii, 1856, 381 ; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
ZooL Soc. London, 1868, 444, part (monogr.) ; Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. 
New York, x, 1871, 19 (Bahia, BrazU; crit.) ; Coues, Birds Northwest, 1874, 
536, part (in synonymy); (?) Forbes, Ibis, 1881, 3-58 (Pernambuco, Brazil); 
Sennett, Auk, vi, 1889, 165, part; Koenigswald, Journ. fiir Orn., 1896, 392 (Sao 
Paulo, s. Brazil). — [Rallus] longirostris Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., iv, Abth., 1870, 458; 
Coues, Key North Amer. Birds, 1872, 273, part; Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. 
Neotr., 1873, 139, part. — [Rallus longirostris] a. longirostris Baird, Brewer, and 
Ridgway, Water Birds North Amer., i, 1884, 858, 360, part. — [Rallus longirostris] 
a. var. longirostris Ridgway, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 139, part. — Rallus 
crassirostris Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New Tork, x, 1871, 19, 20 (Bahia, 
Brazil; coll. G. N. Lawrence). — [Rallus] crassirostris Sharpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 
93; Brabourne and Chubb, Birds South America, i, 1912, 21 (Pernambuco to Sao 
Paulo, e. Brazil). — R[allus] longirostris crassirostris Helhnayr, Nov. Zool., xiii, 
1906, 521 (Bahia, Pernambuco, Sao Paulo, and Iguape, e. Brazil.) — [Rallus] 
longirostris crassirostris Ihering (H. and R.), Aves Brazil, 1907, 26 (Sao Paulo; 
Bahia; Pernambuco). — [Rallus longirostris.] subsp. a. Rallus crassirostris 
Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 11, (Bahia). — Rallus longirostris 
crassirostris Hellmayr, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. Ser., xii, No. 18, 1929, 480 
(Maranhao).— Peters, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 159. 



51) BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

jj. Abdomen narrowly whitish in midventral part; ilaak 
color extensive. 

Ballus longirostris rhizophorae (p. 79) 
Ml. Sides of neck, lower throat, and breast with a grayish wash. 
i. Dark medial portions of feathers of upi)erparts very 
dark — dark fuscous to fuscous-black. 
j. Margins of dorsal feathers pale olive-gray. 

Ballus longirostris belizensis (p. 72) 
/;. Margins of dorsal feathers olive or brownish. 
k. Planks dark hair brown. 

Ballus longirostris saturatus (p. 60) 
7rfc. Flanks darker and less grayish — dark sepia. 

I. Lower throat and breast paler — light pinkish cinna- 

mon heavily washed with grayish. 

Ballus longirostris vafer, dark phase (p. 67) 

II. Lower throat and breast darker— light ochraceous- 

salmon heavily washed with grayish. 

Ballus longirostris scottii (p. 57) 
ii. Dark medial portions of feathers of upperparts paler — 
buffy brown to sepia. 
;. Medial portions of feathers of upperparts of body very 
pale — buffy brown to r.ither light olive-brown, 
fc. Breast pale ocl>raeeous-bufC or light pinkish cinnamon 
Ballus longirostris vafer, pale phase (p. 67) 
7rfc. Breast grayish or only lightly washed with ochraceous- 
buff. 
/. Flanks dark, dark hair brown. 
m. Bill shorter, 53 mm. 

Ballus longirostris pallidus (p. 71) 
mm. Bill longer, over 53 mm. 

Ballus longirostris waynei, light phase (p. 55) 
11. Flanks paler, dusky drab. 

Ballus longirostris crepitans (p. 51) 
jj. Medial portions of feathers of upperparts of body 
darker — dark olive-brown to sepia, 
fe. Sides of neck decidedly more brownish than grayish. 

I. Larger ; wings, $ , averaging 155 mm., female 138 mm. 

Ballus longirostris vafer, intermediate phase (p. 67) 

II. Smaller ; wing, $ , averaging 145 mm., female 137 mm. 

Ballus longirostris limnetis (p. 68) 
kk. Sides of neck decidedly more grayi-h than brownish. 
I. Sides of head below and behind eye paler — light 
neutral gray. 
m. Gray margins of feathers of upperparts very dis- 
tinct from dark medial areas. 

Ballus longirostris insularum (p. 59) 

mm. Grayish margins of feathers of upperpart washed 

with brownish and not very distinct from dark 

medial areas. 

n. Color of lower throat and breast more grayish 

than buff. 
Ballus longirostris leucophaeus, dark phase (p. 66) 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 51 

nn. Color of lower throat and breast more buff 
than grayish. 

Ballus longirostrls cubanus (p. 65) 
n. Sides of head below and behind eye darker— neutral 
gray. 

Ballus longirostrls waynei, dark phase (p. 55) 
aa. Size smaller, wing less than 120 mm. in length. 

6. Scapulars and inner secondaries with pale sandy-brown margins. 

Kallus limicola antarcticus (extralimital)" 
66. Scapulars and inner secondaries with castaneous-brown margins, 
c. Lateral under tail coverts pure white with no black centers or black on 

inner web Ballus limicola aequatorialis (extralimital)" 

cc. Lateral under tail coverts with black centers or black on inner web. 

Ballus limicola limicola (p. 90) 

RALLUS LONGIROSTRIS CREPITANS Gmelin 

NOBTHEEN CtAPPEE RAH, 

Adults (sexes alike). — Forehead, ciown, occiput, nape, hind neck, 
scapulars, interscapulars, back, rump, upper wing coverts, and upper 
tail coverts buffy olive-brown to light sepia, the feathers of the back and 
rump, the scapulars, interscapulars, upper tail coverts, and some of the 
inner, lesser, and median upper wing coverts conspicuously margined 
with neutral gray to olive-gray, the margins most pronounced on the 
interscapulars, scapulars, and upper back, the brownish centers of the 
feathers usually darkest (sepia to clove brown in some) on the long 
scapulars ; rest of upper wing coverts dark buffy brown to olive-brown. 



* Kallus antarcticus King, Zool. Journ., iv, 1828, 95 (Straits of Magellan). — 
Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1867, 333 (Chile).— Sclater and Salvin, Nom. 
.\.v. Neotr., 1873, 138.— Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 19.—Ralhis 
rufopentiis Gray, List Grallae in Brit. Mus., 1844, 116. — Ortygometra antarctica 
Gray, Gen. Birds, iii, 1846, 59i.—Rallus uliginosus Filippi, Arch. Nat., 1858, 
S3 (Santiago). — Aramns antarcticus Gray, Hand-list Birds, iii, 1871, 59, No. 
10420.— (?) Rallus peruvianus Taczanowski, Orn. P^rou, iii, 1886, 313. — (?) 
Rallus limicola peruvianus Peters, Check-list Birds of World, 11, 1934, 161. — 
Tialus limicola antarcticus Peters, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 161. 

"Rallus aequatorialis. — Rallus virginianus (not of Linnaeus) Sclater, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. London, 1877, 523, footnote (Lima, Peru) ; Berlepsch and Taczanowski, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1884, 313 (Toyacsi (w. Ecuador), 9,000 ft.) ; Taczanow- 
ski and Berlepsch, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1885, 112 (Reobamba, w. Ecuador) ; 
Taczanowski, Orn. P^rou, iii, 1886, 314; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. London, 1892, 399 (Lima, Peru). — Rallus wquatorialis Sharpe, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 18, pi. 2, fig. 1 (Bogota, Colombia ; San Lucas and Intaj, 
Ecuador; Lima, Peru; type locality not designated). — [Rallus'\ wquatorialis 
Sharpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 94 ; Brabourne and Chubb, Birds South America, i, 1912, 
22 (Colombia; Ecuador; Peru). — Rallus virginianus wquatorialis OhaiymaB, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist, Iv, 1926, 174 (Ecuador).— iJoZJw« limicola wquatorialis 
Peters, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 160. 



52 BULLETESr 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

or Saccardo's umber narrowly edged with slightly paler shade of the 
same ; remiges olive-brown on outer web, slightly darker on the inner 
web ; rectrices dark olive-brown ; a stripe from the base of the maxilla 
to above, but not behind, eye white, often washed with huffy ; lores 
deep mouse gray with a faint brownish tinge ; eyelids whitish or pale 
huffy; cheeks, auriculars, and sides of occiput neutral gray to deep 
neutral gray, washed lightly with brownish in some specimens, not 
so washed in others ; chin and upper throat white ; side of neck and the 
lower throat grayish hair brown to dusky grayish buffy brown in some 
specimens, while in others these areas are pale cinnamon-buff slightly 
clouded with grayish ; breast like lower throat in each case, but paler, 
less grayish (in specimens with grayish hair brown or dusky buffy 
brown throats the breast is lighter and washed with very pale cinna- 
mon-buff; in birds with pale cinnamon-buff throats the breast is 
slightly paler and free of the grayish cloudiness) ; abdomen whitish, to 
pale buffy white ; sides and flanks dusky drab barred with white, the 
white bars about one-third to one-half the width of the dark interspaces ; 
vent like flanks ; thighs like abdomen but washed or barred with dusky 
drab ; longer under tail coverts ahnost wholly white, the others dusky 
drab barred with white ; under wing coverts Dresden brown to Prout's 
brown crossed by narrow white bars ; iris reddish brown to pale yellow ; 
bill yellow, dusky on culmen and at tip; tarsi and toes grayish with 
yellow or orange tinge at the tibiotarsal joint.** 

Jvmenal (sexes alike). — Similar to adult above and varying in like 
fashion in the color of the feather edges, but with the lower back, 
rump, and upper tail coverts much more uniformly olive-brown to 
sepia, the margins there being much reduced and obscured; the 
greater and median upper wing coverts more generally tipped nar- 
rowly with whitish and subterminally crossed by a narrow bar of the 
same ; below as in adults, varying in the color of the lower throat and 
breast, but always with a grayish wash; abdomen more extensively 
white ; sides and flanks mouse gray to deep mouse gray barred irregu- 
larly with grayish white, the sides washed witth pale cinnamon-buff ; 
thighs white anteriorly, deep mouse gray posteriorly. 

Natal down. — Black with a faint greenish gloss on the top of the 
head and the upperparts generally; washed with dark brown and 
without any gloss on the underparts. 

■"Some investigators prefer to segregate specimens of this rail into several 
color phases instead of considering them individual variations, as follows : 1, A 
bird with grayish margins to the feathers of the upperparts of the body and with 
grayish hair brown lower throat ; 2, similar above but with cinnamon-buff on the 
lower throat ; 3, olive-gray margins above and a grayish hair-brown lower throat ; 
4, olive-gray margins above and cinnamon-buff lower throat. However, these 
phases are less distinct in this race than in some others, and are so similar that I 
prefer to call them individual variations. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 53 

Adult male—Wing 142.5-159.5 (lol.l) ; tail 55-69 (64.6); ex- 
posed culmen 55-69.5 (63.3) ; tarsus 48-56 (51.7) ; middle toe with- 
out claw 45.5-53.5 (48.8 mm.)." 

Adult female.— Wing 135.5-160 (146.8) ; tail 55-69.5 (61.9) ; ex- 
posed culmen 53.5-67 (59.6) ; tarsus 41-56 (48.1) ; middle toe without 
claw 40-52 (45.9 mm.).='' 

Range. — Breeds in salt marshes of the Atlantic coast from Con- 
necticut (Saybrook) ; New York (Long Island; Staten Island) ; and 
New Jersey (Avalon, Atlantic City, Cape May, South Amboy, Brig- 
antine) south to Virginia (Smith Island, Wachapreague, Cobb 
Island) ; North Carolina (Pea and Brodie Islands; Hatteras) ; and 
South Carolina (Beaufort). 

"Winters from southern part of its breeding range, chiefly south of 
New Jersey, occasionally as far north as southern Connecticut and 
southern Massachusetts; New York (Far Eockaway, Long Island), 
and south to Georgia (Savannah, St. Marys, and Sapelo Island) and 
to Florida (Amelia Island). 

Casual in Massachusetts (Ipswich, East Orleans, Springfield, 
Kingston, Boston, Plymouth) ; New Hampshire (Portsmouth) ; Ver- 
mont (Burlington); and Maine (Popham Beach, Sabattus Pond), 
and in the interior of New York State (Ossining) and Virginia 
(Lexington) . 

Accidental in Bahama Islands ; one record from Watling Island. 

Type locality. — "In Noveboraco"; restricted type locality, Long 
Island, N. Y. 

[Rallus^ orepit(ms GMELiisr, Syst. Nat., i, pt. 2, 1789, 713 (summer in New 
Tork; based on Clapper Rail Peunant, Arctic Zool., ii, 1781, 490; Latham, 
Synopsis Birds, lii, 1785, 229) .—Latham, Index Orn., ii, 1790, 756.— 
Lawsence, Ann. Lye. Nat Hist. New York, vlii, 1866, 295 (vicinity New 
York City).— Shabpe, Hand-list, 1, 1899, 94, part. 

Rallus crepitans Tdbton, Syst. Nat., i, 1806, 430 (New York). — WttsoN, Amer. 
Orn., vii, 1818, 112, part (not pi. 62, fig. 2, which=B. elegans). — Vt ftt.t/ yt 
Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat, xxviii, 1819, 550. — Bonapaete, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. 
New York, ii, 1827, 338 ; Geogr. and Comp. List, 1838, 53.— Lesson, Trait6 
d'Orn., 1831, 536. — Nuttaix, Man. Orn. United States and Canada, Water 
Birds, 1834, 201.— Atjdubon, Orn. Biogr., iii, 1835, 33, pi. 214; v, 1839, 570; 
Synopsis, 1839, 215; Birds Amer., Svo ed., v, 1842, 165, pi. 310.— GibatjT), 
Birds Long Island, 1844, 206. — Putnam, Proc. Essex Inst., i, 1856, 229 
(Essex County, Mass.). — Cassin, in Baird, Eep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 
747, part (Cape May, N. J.).— Baied, Cat. North Amer. Birds, 1859, No. 553, 
part. — Allen, Proc. Essex Inst., iv, 1864, 87 (rare in Massachusetts). — 
McIlwbaith, Proc. Essex Inst., v, 1866, 93 (Massachusetts). — La whence, 
Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist New York, viii, 1866, 295 (vicinity New York City).— 
CouES, Proc. Essex Inst., v, 1868, 296 (New England) ; Amer. Nat., iii, 1870, 



"Twenty-one specimens from Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Vir- 
ginia, and North Carolina. 
"Seventeen specimens from New Jersey, Virginia, and North Carolina. 



54 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

601 (biography) ; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sei. Philadelphia, xxiii, 1871, 34 (Port 
Macon, N. C). — Ttjenbuix, Birds Eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 
1869, 42 (Phila. ed., p. 33).— Jones, Amer. Nat, ili, 1869, 48 (Cape Charles, 
Va.).— Beeweb, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, xix, 1878, 307 (Boston Harbor, 
May 1876).— Sennbtt, Auk, vi, 1889, 163, 165, part (crit; diagnosis).— (?) 
Duet and Kellogg, Joum. Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist., 1891, 44 (Suspension 
Bridge, Cincinnati, May 1891). — Ameeican Ornithologists' Committee, 
Auk, vii, 1890, 64; Check-list, ed. 2, 1895, No. 211.— Beewstee, Auk. xviii, 
1901, 136 (East Orleans, Mass., Nov. 30, 1895).— Allen (G. M.), Proc. Man- 
chester Inst. Sci. and Arts, iv, 1902, 189 (Portsmouth, N. H.). — Knight, 
Birds Maine, 1908, 139 (Maine records). — Wayne, Birds South Carolina, 
1910, 36 (winter resident) .—Eaton, Birds New York, i, 1910, 272, pi. 25.— 
Geiscom, Birds New York City Region, 1923, 134 (status in New York City 
region). — ?Johnston, Birds West Virginia, 1923, 87 (West Virginia).— 
Uenee, Auk. xli, 1924, 168 (North Beach, Barnegat Bay, N. J.; breeding) ; 
Abstr. Linn. Soc. New York, Nos. 39 and 40, 1930, 65 (Union County, N. J.) — 
Obebholsee, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxiv, 1937, 314 in text. 

BlalUisI crepitans Bonapaete, Obs. Nom. Wilson's Amer. Orn., 1826, 191.— 
Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, xlvlil, 1928, 122 (eggs). 

Rallus crepitans crepitans American Ornithologists' Union, Check List, ed. 3, 
1910, 102.— Phillips, Auk, xxviii, 1911, 119 (Ipswich, Mass., Oct. 20, 1910).— 
FoRBusH, Game-birds, Wild-fowl, and Shore Birds, 1912, 205 (Massachu- 
setts records). — Sage, Bishop, and Bliss, Birds Connecticut, 1913, 48.— 
Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 19, fig. 9, map (range and migration 
routes). — ^Nichols, Mtjepht, and Geiscom, Auk. xxxiv, 1917, 440 (Long 
Beach, Long Island, 2 specimens, Jan. 28, 1912). — Fobbush, Birds Massa- 
chusetts and Other New England States, i, 1925, 354, pi. 23 (col. fig.; 
habits; etc.; New England). — Cooke, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xlii, 
1929, 26 (Washington, D. C). 

Rallus c [repitans] crepitans Shbllet, Auk, 11, 1934, 391 (Bel Pond, N. H., 1 seen 
Sept. 9, 1933). 

Rallus longirostris crepitoMS Ridgwat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 201 (Cat. 
North Amer. Birds, No. 571) ; Nom. North Amer. Birds, 1881, No. 571.— 
Meaens, Bull. Essex Inst., xiil, 1881, 81 (Hudson Highlands, N. Y., occasional 
in fall).— CoTJES, Check-list, ed. 2, 1882, No. 673, part. — Laweence (N. T.), 
Auk, ii, 1885, 274 (Long Island, winter resident). — ^American Ornithologists' 
Union, Check-list, 1886, No. 211, part. — Browne, Auk, Iv, 1887, 344 (Kingston, 
Mass., Dec. 29, 1885).— Bent, U. S. Nat. Mus. BuU. 135, 1927, 277 (life hist.; 
monogr.) — Mueeat, Auk, xlvi, 1929, 107 in text (Lexington, Va.). — Ameri- 
can Ornithologists' Union, Check-list North Amer. Birds, ed. 4, 1931, 96. — 
Howell, Florida Bird Life, 1932, 205 (genl. ; Florida, winter). — Peters, 
Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 157. — Murray, Wils. Bull., xlvii, 1935, 65 
(near Lexington, Va.) — ^Burleigh, Auk, liv, 1937, 453 (Beaufort, N. C. ; com- 
mon.)— Pettingill, Auk, Iv, 1938, 411 (behavior, nests, etc.; Cobb Island 
Va.). — Oberholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxiv, 1937, 351 (crit, monogr.). 

Rlallus] longirostris crepitans Baird, Bebwer, and Ridgway, Water Birds North 
Amer., i, 1884, 359, under figure. — Ooues, Key North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 
1884, 672, part. — ^Ridgway, Man. North Amer. Birds, 1887, 137, part. 

[Rallus longirostris] b. var. crepitans Ridgway, BuU. Nutt. Orn Club vl 
1880,140. 

[Rallus longirostris] b. crepitans Baibd, Brewer, and Ridgway Water Birds 
North Amer., i, 1884, 358, 360. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 55 

[BaUua longirostris.] subsp. B. Ralhis crepitans Shabpb, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. 
xxiu, 1894, 12, part (Virginia). 

IRallus] longirostris (not of Boddaert) Ootjes, Key Nortli Amer. Birds, 1872, 
273, part. 

Rallus longirostris Coues, Clieck-list, 1874, No. 465, part ; Birds Nortliwest, 1874, 
536, part (in synonymy) .—Pukdie, BuU. Nutt. Orn. Club, i, 1876, 22 (Boston 
Harbor, May 4, 1875) .— Bailey (H. B.), Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 1, 1876, 27 
(Cobb Island, Va., breeding ; liabits) .— Bbown (N. C.),BuU. Nutt. Orn. Club, 
iv, 1879, 108 (Falmouth, Maine, 8 specimens, Oct. 10, 1866).— Scott, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 226 (Long Beach, N. J., breeding).— Beewsteb, BulL 
Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1881, 62 (Plymouth, Mass., Oct. 1879).— Baibd, Bbeweb, 
and EiDGWAT, Water Birds North Amer., I, 1884, 358, part (excl. references 
under a. longirostris, c. saturatus, and d. caribaeus). 

BALLUS LONGIROSTRIS WAYNEI Brewster 

Wa'ine's Clappee Rail 

Adult, light phase (sexes alike). — Similar to Rallus longirostris 
crepitans but with the sides and flanks darker — dark hair brown, 
instead of dusky drab. Varies like crepitans in the color of the 
margins of the dorsal feathers and in the grayness or cinnamon- 
pink of the lower throat and breast. 

Adult, dark phase (sexes alike). — Similar to the light phase but 
with the centers of the dorsal feathers darker — dark sepia to fuscous, 
and the lower throat and breast, when gray, duskier and not paling 
on the breast ; when ciimamon-buflF, slightly deeper and brighter. 

Jv/oenal (sexes alike). — Similar to the adult (either phase accord- 
ing to the individual specimen), but the feathers of the lower back 
and rump with no or only inconspicuous margins, making these 
areas look imiformly dark; the outer median and greater upper 
wing coverts tipped and subterminaUy crossed by a narrow white 
line (this character is somewhat irregular and variable) ; the sides 
and flanks grayer and paler than in adults and inconspicuously and 
irregularly crossed with whitish bars, not producing the regularly 
barred appearance of the adult flanks; abdomen more extensively 
white. 

Naiod down. — ^Like that of Rallus longirostris crepitans, but the 
whole upperpart more strongly glossed with dark greenish, and 
underparts dull black, not brownish. 

Admit moZe.— Wing 135-152 (145.1) ; tail 57.5-72 (61.9) ; exposed 
culmen 54^67.5 (62.2) ; tarsus 46.5-53.5 (48.2) ; middle toe without 
claw 40-48 (45.4 mm.)."^ 



° Fifteen specimens, including the type, from South Carolina, Georgia, and 
Florida. 

272607—41 5 



56 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Adult female.— Wing 129.5-146.5 (138.4); taU 56-63.5 (69.9) ; ex- 
posed culmen 53-62.5 (58.7) ; tarsus 43.5-50 (46.7) ; middle toe with- 
out claw 41.5^7.5 (44.4 mm.).« 

Range.— Resident in coastal marshes from South Carolina (Mount 
Pleasant; Charleston; Frogmore) south to Georgia (Savannah; St. 
Catherines Island; Blackbeard Island; Darien; St. Simon Island; 
Cumberland; St. Marys; and St. Germain) and Florida (along the 
northeast coast from Amelia Island to Merritt Island— Amelia 
Island, Matanzas Inlet, New Smyrna; Dummitt Creek, Pallesier 
Creek, and northern Brevard County). 

Type locality. — St. Marys, Camden County, Ga. 

IRallus crepitans (not of Gmelin?) Tatloe, Ibis, 1862, 129 (Florida).— Auubn, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. ZooL, ii, 1871, 357 (e. Florida). 

Rallus crepitans (not of GmeUn) Coues, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat Hist., xii, 1868, 
124 (South Carolina.)— Sennett, Auk. vi, 1889, 163, 165, part— Phiupp, 
Auk, xxvii, 1910, 315 (Charleston Harbor, str., S. O., breeding). — ^American 
Oenithologists' Union, Check-list, ed. 2, 1895, 211, part. 

[Rallus longirostris] b. var. crepitans Ridgwat, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, t, 1880, 
140, part. 

Rallus longirostris crepitans Ridgwat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 201 
(Cat. North Ajner. Birds, No. 571), part; Nom. North Amer. Birds, 1881, 
No. 571, part. — Cotjbs, Check List, ed. 2, 1882, No. 673, part.— Amebican 
Oenithologists' Union, Check-list, 1886, No. 221, part. 

R[allus~\ longirostris crepitans Coues, Key North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 1884, 672, 
part. — Ridgwat, Man. North Amer. Birds, 1887, 137, part. 

{Rallus longirostris'^ b. crepitans Baibd, Beewee, and Ridgwat, Water Birds 
North Amer., i, 1884, 358, 360, part. 

IRallus longirostrisi subsp. B. Rallus crepitans Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xxiii, 1894, 12, part (Georgia). 

[Rallus'i longirostris (not of Boddaert) Coues, Key North Amer. Birds, 1872, 273, 
part. 

Rallus longirostris Coues, Check-list 1874, No. 465, part ; Birds Northwest, 1874, 
536, part (in synonomy). — Baibd, BbbwEb, and Ridgwat, Water Birds North 
Amer., i, 1884, 358, part. 

Rallus crepitans waynei Beewsteh, Proc. New England Zool. Club, i, 1899, 50 (St 
Marys, Camden County, Ga. ; coU. Wm. Brewster). — ? Bishop, Auk, xviii, 
1901, 265 (Pea Island, N. C. ; fresh colors of nude parts [=crepita»i«f]).— 
Watne, Birds South Carolina, 1910, 36 (resident along coast; habits). — 
American Oenithologists' Union, Check-list, ed. 3, 1910, 102. — Cookb, U. S. 
Dept Agr. BuU. 128, 1914, 21, fig. 9, map (range and migr. routes).— 
Ekiohsen, Auk, xxxvi, 1919, 384 (Liberty County, Ga., breeding) ; Wils. Bull., 
xxxiii, 1921, 74 (Chatham County, Ga., breeding; habits). — Holt and SunoN, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., xvi, 1926, 424 (habits, s. Florida). — Bangs, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., Ixx, 1930, 167 (type specimen in Mus. Comp. Zool., crit.). 

Rallus longirostris waynei Bailbt, Birds Florida, 1925, 41, pi. 23 (col. fig. ; distr. ; 
Florida).- Bent, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 135, 1927, 290 (life hist.; monogr.).— 
Ameeioan Oenithologists' Union, Check-list North Amer. Birds, ed. 4, 19S1, 
96.— Howell, Florida Bird Life, 1932, 204 (genl. ; distr.; Florida).- Pbtbes, 



' Sixteen specimens, from South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. 



BIRDS or NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 57 

Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 157.— Obebholskb, Proc. V. S. Nat. Mus. 
Ixxxiv, 1937, 349 (monogr. ; crit. ; meas. ; breeding north to San tee River, 
S. C. ; s. to Merritt Island, Fla.) ; 351, 352 in text. 

RALLUS LONGIROSTRIS SCOTTU SeiuiiH 

Florida Clapper Rail 

Adult (sexes alike) . — Similar to RcHlus longirostris saturatus, dark 
phase, but darker, the centers of the feathers of the upperparts of the 
body fuscous to dark fuscous-black, the edges either light brownish 
olive to brownish olive or gull gray with a very faint olive tinge, 
thus producing two distinct color phases; sides of neck, the lower 
throat, breast, and upper abdomen darker — flight pinkish cinnamoM 
to light tawny-olive, more or less clouded with grayish, the clouding' 
generally but not always restricted to the throat and upper breast and 
sides of the neck; sides and flanks olive-brown to sepia, the white bars 
generally somewhat narrower than in saturatus; the darkest above of 
all the races of the species.^' 

Adult male (type, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. No. 35222, Tarpon 
Springs, Fla., Dec. 27, 1886; W. E. D. Scott) .—Above brownish black, 
quite uniform on pileum and hind neck, but on back and scapulars 
streaked with dull olive-grayish, there streaks (edgings of feathers) 
broader on scapulars ; rump and upper tail coverts dull sepia-brown, 
broadly streaked or striped with dull black; upper wing coverts 
warm bister-brown, darker centrally, these darker centers more dis- 
tinct on innermost coverts; anterior edge of wing (narrowly) white; 
primaries uniform dusky brown; lores dusky, bordered above by a 
line of pale brownish buff along each side of forehead; a broad post- 
ocular stripe, extending to nape, and an indistinct stripe from rictus 
to ears, duU plumbeous or mouse gray, the two areas separated by a 
narrower ill-defined dusky stripe from lens beneath eyes and along 
upper edge of auriculars; chin and throat dull white, the latter bor- 
dered laterally and posteriorly with pale fawn color, this changing 
on foreneck to dull grayish olive or hair brown, becoming still grayer 
on sides of head, the middle of chest and breast full fawn color; 
sides and flanks sepia brown, barred with white, these bars averaging 
about 0.05 mm. wide, the interspace about 0.30-0.35 mm.; axillars 

■"It has been suggested that four color phases may be recognized: 1, With 
brownish edges to the dorsal feathers and with the neck and breast heavily 
washed with gray ; 2, the same but with little or no gray on the neck and breast ; 
3, with grayish edges to the dorsal feathers and with the neck and breast washed 
with gray ; 4, the same as No. 3 but with little or no grayish wash on neck and 
breast. It seems simpler and truer to recognize two phases based on the color 
of the edges of the dorsal feathers, as most birds are definitely one or the other,, 
while the ventral grayness varies imperceptibly from one extreme to the other! 



58 BULLETIN 50, tJNlTED STATES NATIONAL JfUSEUM 

and under wing coverts similar, but white bars much narrower; 
middle of abdomen and anal region dull pale buffy, the feathers 
brownish gray beneath . . . ; under tail coverts dusky, broadly barred 
or banded with white, the anterior feathers much mixed with cin- 
namon-buff; upper mandible dusky brown, lower pale brown (in 
(dried skin); iris "red-brown"; "legs and feet horn-brown" (K. E.)- 

Juvenal (sexes alike). — ^Like the adult of corresponding phase but 
-with the lower back and rump more imiformly dark fuscous-black, 
the margins being greatly reduced or absent ; the lower throat, sides 
of neck, breast, and most of abdomen, sides, flanks, and thighs gray- 
ish buffy brown, washed with ochraceous-buff on the breast and 
neck; the flanks only slightly and irregularly barred with white; 
thighs iadistinctly barred with grayish buff; chin and upper throat 
clouded with grayish ochraceous-buff. 

Natal down. — Jet black with a greenish gloss, above and below ; no 
brownish on abdomen, but the gloss very faint there. 

Adult mdle.—Wxag 135-155 (146.0) ; tail 56.5-72.0 (63.3) ; exposed 
culmen 56-66 (61.6) ; tarsus 42-55.5 (49.8) ; middle toe without claw 
39.5-49 (45.5 mm.)." 

Adult female.— Wing 128.5-14'5 (137) ; tail 54.5-63.5 (59.2) ; ex- 
posed culmen 51.5-60 (55.9) ; tarsus 42-51 (45.6) ; middle toe without 
claw 37-45 (41.9 mm.)." 

Range.-^^esident along the Gulf coast of Florida from Pensacola 
south to Cape Sable (St. Marks, mouth of Suwannee Eiver, Cedar 
Keys, Anclote Keys, Tarpon Springs, Clearwater, Tampa Bay, Char- 
lotte Harbor, Westbay, Horseshoe Point, Goose Neck Creek, Caloosa- 
hatchie Eiver, Port Eichey, Punta Gorda, Chassahowitzka Bay, to 
Flamingo, West Palm Beach, and Fort Myers) ; and on the east 
coast north to Jupiter. 

Occasional as a wanderer (not breeding) in extreme southwestern 
Alabama (Perdido Bay). 

Ti/pe looodity. — Tarpon Springs, Fla. 

Rallus longirostris scottii Sennett, Auk, v, 1888, 305 (Tarpon Springs, w. Florida ; 
Coll. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist). — Chapman, Auk, v, 1888, 394. — Scott, Auk, vi, 
1889, 153 (Cedar Keys to Charlotte Harbor, w. Florida; habits; color varia- 
ations). — Amebican Oenithologists' Union Committee, Suppl. and Check- 
Ust, 1889, 6 (No. 211J). — Eidgwat, Man. North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 1895, 
587.— Howell, Birds Alabama, 1924, 88; ed. 2, 1928, 88 (distr. ; habits; 
Alabama). — Peters, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 157. — Obeeholseb, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxiv, 1937, 346 (monogr. ; crit. ; meas. ; Florida from 
Cape Sable n. to Jupiter and Pensacola ; casual to sw. Alabama). 

Rallus longirostris scotti Bmlet, Birds Florida, 1925, 41, pi. 13 (col. flg. ; distr.; 
Florida). — Cheistt, Auk, xlv, 1928, 287 in text (shore of Biscayne Bay, 



' Twenty-three specimens from Florida. 

' Eighteen specimens from Florida and Alabama. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 59 

Fla.)— Bent, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull., 135, 1927, 287 (monogr.).— Amemcan 

Oenitholoqists' Union, C!heck-list North Amer. Birds, ed. 4, 1931, 96. — 

HowEix, Florida Bird Life, 1932, 203 (genl. ; Florida). 
Rallus sGottii Sbnnett, Auk, vi, 1889, 165 (crit.), 166 (diagnosis).— Ambbican 

Obnithologists' Union Committee, Auk, vii, 1890, 65 (2d. Suppl. Check-Ust. 

1890, No. 211.1) ; Check-list, ed. 2, 1895, No. 211.1.— Beewsteb and Chapman, 

Auk, viil, 1891, 133, 135, 137 (Suwannee River, nw. Florida; crit.).— Scott, 

Auk, ix, 1892, 212 (Caloosahatcbie River regions). 
Ballus scotti Shaepb, Hand-list, i, 1899, 94. 
Ballus crepitans scotti Amebioan Ornithologists' Union, Check-list, ed. 3, 1910, 

102 ; ed. 4, 1931, 96.— Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. BuU. 128, 1914, 20, fig. 9, map 

(range) .—WnJiAMS (R. W.), Auk, xxxvi, 1919, 51 (Goose Creek, nw. 

Florida, Nov., abundant) .— FABao, WUs. BuU., xxxviii, 1926, 147 (Pinellas and 

Pasco Counties, Fla.).— Bent and Copeland, Auk, xliv, 1927, 377 (coast of 

Florida). — Gandbe, Auk, xlvi, 1929, 106 In text (habits). 
( ?) Rallus crepitans (not of Gmelin?) Scott, Auk, ix, 1892, 212 (Caloosahatcbie 

River, rare in winter) . 
Rallus langirostris, subsp. Rallus saturatus (not Rallus longirostris saturatus 

Ridgway) Shabpb, Cat Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 13, part (Tarpon 

Springs, w. Florida). 
Rallus longirostris saturatus Amebican Obnithologists' Union, Check-list, 1886, 

No. 211a, part. 

KALLUS LONGIHOSTRIS INSULAEUM W. S. Brooks 

Bbooks's Clappeb Rail 

Adult (sexes alike) . — Similar to that of Rallus longirostris waynei, 
pale phase, but smaller, and with the sides of the neck more grayish, 
the grayish tone more noticeable than the brownish; the breast less 
washed with grayish, and the flanks averaging paler (but variable in 
this respect), usually as in crepitans but sometimes as in waynei; 
the edges of the feathers of the upperparts in all specimens examined 
are gray ; whether an olive or brownish-gray phase occurs is not clear ; 
the dark centers of these feathers vary as in waynei/ iris brownish ; 
bill blackish on culmen, light brown below becoming more reddish 
at base and at gape ; tarsi and toes grayish. 

Jv/venal. — Similar to that of Rallus longirostris waynei. 

Natal down. — Not recorded. 

Adult male.— Wing 140-148 (144.8) ; tail 51-64 (57.5) ; exposed 
culmen 59-615 (60.6) tarsus 47-54 (50.4) ; middle toe without claw 
45-45.5 (45.2 mm.). =« 

Adult female.— Wing 129.5-136.5 (133.8) ; tail 57-60 (58) ; exposed 
culmen 53-59 (55) ; tarsus 44-47 (45.1) ; middle toe without claw 
39-42 (40.5 mm.)." 

Range. — Eesident and confined to the Florida Keys wherever man- 
grove swamps occur (Torch Key; Big Pine Key; Key Largo; Rac- 



"Fonr specimens from Florida Keys. 
"Four specimens from Florida Keys. 



60 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

coon Key; New Found Harbor; Key "West; Kiding Key; West 
Cudjoes Key; Boca Grande). 
Type locality. — Big Pine Key, Fla. 

(?) Rallus crepitans scottii Fowler, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 398 (West Cudjoes and 
Riding Keys, s. Florida). 

(?) Rallus longirostris crepitans Scott, Auk, vi, 1889, 153 (Anclote Keys and 
Key West, Fla.). 

Rallus longirostris insularum Beooks (W. S.), Proc. New England Zool. Clvb, 
vii, 1920, 53 (Big Pine Key, s. Florida ) .—Obekholsee, Auk, xxxviii, 1921, 
265.— Bailey, Birds Florida, 1925, 42, pi. 23 (col. fig.; distr.; Florida).— 
Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixx, 1930, 167 (type specimen in Mus. 
Comp. Zool., crit.). — Ameeican Onithologists' Union, Check-list North 
Amer. Birds, ed. 4, 1931, 96.— Howell, Florida Bird Life, 1932, 205 (genl.; 
Florida). — Petees, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 157. — Obeeholseb, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxiv, 1937, 348 (monogr. ; crit.). 

Rallus longirostris helius Baetsch, Tear Book 18, Carnegie Inst. Wash., for 
1919 (1920), 210 (Florida Keys).— Beooks, Proc. New England Zool. Club, 
vii, 1920, 54 in text. — Obebholsee, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xxxiil, 
1920, 33 (Sixth Key in Newfound Harbor group, sw. of Big Pine Key, 
s. Florida; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.) ; Auk, xxxviii, 1921, 265. 

RALLUS LONGIROSTRIS SATURATUS Ridsway 

Louisiana Clappee Rail 

Adult (sexes alike). — Similar to Rallus longirostris crepitans but 
smaller and much darker and browner, more cinnamomeous on breast. 
There are two main phases differing in the color of the dark centers 
of the feathers of the upper parts of the body. 

Adult, pale phase (sexes alike). — Centers of dorsal feathers dark 
buffy brown to pale olive-brown, the edges varying from nearly pure 
deep gull gray to olive-gray and brownish olive-gray; flanks darker 
than in crepitans — ^hair brown to dark hair brown, with the whit© 
bars averaging a little wider; lower throat and breast usually defi- 
nitely pale light pinkish cinnamon, not chiefly grayish, the sides of 
the neck and the upper breast washed with grayish (rarely birds 
occur that are as gray as crepitans in these areas), supraloral stripe 
averaging whiter than in crepitans; iris orange ; cuhnen dusky, gonys 
flesh color, the sides of bill reddish yellow ; tarsi and toes pale bluish 
horn color. 

Adult, dark phase (sexes alike). — Like the above but darker, the 
centers of the feathers of the upper parts of the body as in the dark 
phase of RaTbas longirostris waynei, the edges varying as in the 
above ; flanks dark hair brown with a slight sepia tinge ; lower throat, 
breast, and upper abdomen pale ochraceous-buff with a cinnamomeous 
tinge. 

Jwvenal (sexes alike). — ^Like the adults of corresponding phase 
but darker, the edges lacking on the feathers of the lower back and 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 61 

rump ; the outer upper wing coverts subterminally barred and tipped 
very narrowly with white; in general like the juvenal of crepitans 
but darker and more richly colored. 

Natal down.— Above deep black with a greenish gloss; below 
brownish black with a very faint greenish gloss, which is lacking 
on the middle of the abdomen, which is the brownest part. 

Adidt male.— Wing 140.5-163 (150.4) ; tail 58-68 (63.6) ; exposed 
culmen 54-69 (61.7) ; tarsus 47-55 (50.9) ; middle toe without claw 
43-52.5 (47.6 mm.). =^ 

Adidt female.— Wing 131-154 (141.3) ; tail 56-66 (60.9) ; exposed 
culmen 55.5-64 (59.9); tarsus 42-52.5 (47.7); middle toe without 
claw 37-47 (43.9 mm.). "^ 

Range. — ^Resident in the salt marshes of the Gulf coast from south- 
western Alabama (Perdido Bay, Grande Batture Island, Bayou La 
Batre) west through Mississippi (Biloxi, Bay St. Louis, Gulfport) ; 
Louisiana (New Orleans, Grand Island, Vermillion Bay, Octave Pass 
and Main Pass in the Mississippi Delta, Timbalier Island, Petite 
Anse Island, Raccoon Pass, Lake Borgne) ; and Texas (Galveston, 
Port Lavaca, Corpus Christi, Tarpon, Rockport, Peat Island in 
Laguna Madre, Sabine, southeast of Houston, BrownsviUe). 

Type locality. — The Rigolets lighthouse between Lake Pontchar- 
train and Lake Borgne, La. 

IBxillui longirostHs] d. var. aaturatus Bidgwat, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 
140 (Lake Borgne, La. ; type now in coU. Brit. Mus. ; ex "Rallus longiros- 
tris saturatus Henshaw, Ms."). 

Rallus longirostris saturatus Ridqwat, Free. TJ. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 201 (Cat. 
North Amer. Birds, No. 571a.) ; Nom. North Amer. Birds, 1881, No. 571a. — 
Coiws, Check-list, ed. 2, 1882, No. 675. — ^Amebican Oenithologists' Union, 
Cheek-list, 1886, No. 211o, part (Louisiana) ; ed. 4, 1931, 96.— Geegoet, Auk, 
xxxvlii, 1921, 455 (Gulfport, Harrison County, Miss., Jan. 18, 1919).— 
HowEii, Birds Alabama, 1924, 86; ed. 2, 1928, 86 (distr.; habits; Ala- 
bama).— Baimy, Birds Florida, 1925, 41 pi. 23 (col. flg. ; distr.; Florida).— 
[Abthub], Birds Louisiana, 1931, 236 (descr. ; status in Louisiana). — 
Baimt and Wbioht, Wils. Bull, xllii, 1931, 194 (Snake Island; Alexander 
Island; Chenier au Tigr6, La.). — Petees, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 
1934, 158.— Obeeholsee, Proc! U. S. Nat Mus., Ixxxiv, 1937, 344 (monogr. ; 
crit. ; permanent resident from sw. Alabama west to s. Mississippi, 
s. Louisiana and s. c. Texas; casual to w. Florida) ; Bird Life Louisiana, 
1938, 200 (common in Gulf coast marshes; many locality records). 

Rlallus] llongirostris'i saturatus Cotjes, Key North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 1884, 
672. 

Blallus] longirostris saturatus Ridgwat, Man. North Amer. Birds, 1887, 137, 
part (Louisiana). 

[Rallus longirostris'] c. saturatus Baibd, Beewee, and Ridgwat, Water Birds, 
North Amer., 1, 1884, 359. 



"Twenty-three specimens from liouisiana and Texas. 

" Sixteen specimens from Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. 



62 BtTLLETIN 50, TINITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Rallus longirostris (not of Boddaert) SENNEar, BuU. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. 
Surv., iv, No. 1, 1878, 61 (Galveston, Tex., Feb. 28).—? Wdxiams, Auk, Iv, 
1938, 64 (upper Texas coast). 

Rallus longirostris subsp. ? Brooks, Auk. 1, 1933, 62 (Port Isabel, Tex. ; meas.). 

[Rallus longirostris] d. satvratus Baied, Brewee, and Redgwat, Water Birds 
Nortb Amer., 1, 1884, 360 (diagnosis). 

Rallus longirostris var. saturatus Reichenow and Schalow, Journ. fUr Orn., 
xxix, 1881, 72 (reprint of orig. descr.). 

IRallus longirostris.] Subsp. S Rallus saturatus Shabpe, Cat Birds Brit. Mua, 
xxiii, 1894, 13, part, pi. 1 (Lake Borgne, La.). 

RaUus crepitans saturatus Sennett, Auk, vi, 1889, 164 (crit.), 166 (diag- 
nosis). — ^Amebican Obnithologists' Union CoMMiTrEB, Auk, vii, 1890, 65; 
Check-list, ed. 2, 1895, No. 211a; ed. 3 1910, p. 102. — Bbtee, Proc. Louisiana 
Soc. Nat. for 1897-99 (1900), 93 (salt marshes of Louisiana, rare resident).— 
Betee, Allison, and Kopman, Auk, xxv, 1908, 176 (coast of Louisiana and up 
Mississippi River to upper quarantine station. — Cookb, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 
128, 1914, 20 fig. 9, map (range) .— Simmows, Auk, xxxi, 1914, 363 [-384] (coast 
prairies of Texas se. of Houston; historical; crit. ; habits, etc.). — ^Bent, Wils. 
Bull., xxxvl, 1924, 10 (coastal marshes from Galveston Bay to Aransas Pass, 
se. Texas) ; U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 135, 1927, 283 (life hist monogr. ) .— Baxlet, 
Auk, xlv, 1928, 277 (winter in Chenler au Tigr4, La.). 

Rallus saturatus Shabpb, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, pi. 1. 

[Rallus] saturatus Shabpb, Hand-list, i, 1899, 94. 

Rallus longirostris crepitans (not R. crepitans Gmelin) Fishee (A. K.), Auk, 
V, 1888, 108 (Grand Isle, La., breeding). 

[RalUis longirostris,] Subsp. p Rallus crepitans Shabpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xxiii, 1894, 12, part (Corpus Christi, Tex.). 

(?) Rallus crepitans Betee, Proc. Louisiana Soc. Nat for 1897-99 (1900), 98 
(salt marshes of Louisiana, resident). 

Rallus longirostris cariiwus (not of Ridgway) Sennett, Auk, v, 1888, 319 (Gal- 
veston and Corpus Christi, Tex.); vi, 1889, 163 (crit), 164 (diagnosis).— 
Ameeican Obnithologists' Union, Abridged Check-Ust, 1889, No. 211c: 
Check-list, ed. 2, 1895, No. 211.2, part (Texas localities) ; ed. 3, 1910, p. 103, 
part (Texas localities). — ^Ridgvcat, Man. North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 1896, 
587, part (Galveston and Corpus Christi, Tex.). 

Rallus longirostris caribwus Cookh, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 22 part 
(range). 

RALLUS LONGIROSTRIS CORTI JVIaynard 

Bahama Clapfeb Rail 

Adult (sexes alike). — Similar to Rallus longirostris crepitans but 
slightly paler above, the crown, hind neck, and the centers of the 
feathers of the back, interscapulars, scapulars, etc., very slightly 
paler, more olive, less brownish — flight brownish olive, and the mar- 
gins, in comparable plumages, slightly broader and paler — ^pallid 
neutral gray; the sides of neck, lower throat, breast, and upper 
abdomen paler — ^pale pinkish buff with a faint wash of light pinkish 
cinnamon; middle of abdomen cartridge buflf; flanks averaging 
slightly paler, more grayish, less brownish than in crepitans, but 
occasionally as dark as in that form ; "iris reddish brown ; bill orange 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 63 

brown, culminal ridge and tip blackish; feet pale brownish orange 
or olive-gray." 

Jwvenal male (no young female seen, but probably similar). — 
Similar to that of BoIIms longirostris crepitans, but generally paler, 
the upperparts differing as do the respective adults ; abdomen white^ 
the dusky mottling and clouding restricted to the sides and flanks; 
only the lower throat and upper breast with a faint pale pinkish 
buff wash, laterally suffused with light grayish. 

Natal down. — Unrecorded. 

AdvZt male.—'Wmg 137-150 (146) ; tail 53.5-67 (61.3) ; exposed 
culmen 53-65 (59.5) ; tarsus 45-53.5 (49.4) ; middle toe without claw 
44.5-49.8 (47.8 mm.) .«" 

AdvZt female.— Wmg 128.5-141 (134.7) ; tail 54^2 (57.5) ; exposed 
culmen 52-60.5 (55.3) ; tarsus 42-50 (46.9) ; middle toe without claw 
89.5-45 (43.2 mm.). «i 

Range. — Eesident in the mangrove swamps of the Bahama Islands 
(Andros Island; Watling Island; Berry Island; New Providence; 
Abaco Island ; Ragged Island ; Eleuthera Island) . 

Type locality. — ^Island off the south shore of Andros Island, 
Bahamas. 

Rallus crepitans (not of Gmelin) Betant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, vii, 
1859, 122 (Nassau?, Bahamas). — ^Aibbecht, Joum. ffir Orn., ix, 1861, 56 
(Bahamas). 
[Rallus'i longirostris crepitans Coet, List Birds West Indies, 1885, and rev. 
ed., 1886, 29 (Bahamas). 

Rallus longirostris crepitans Coet, Auk, v, 1888, 53 (Bahama references) ; 
Birds West Indies, 1889, 254 (Bahamas). 

Rallus longirostris (not of Boddaert) C!obt, Birds Bahama Islands, 1880, 176 
(New Providence). 

Rallus corrius [typog. error] Maynabd, Amer. Exch. and Mart, Jan. 15, 1887, 69. 

Rallus coryi Matnaed, Amer. Exch. and Mart, Feb. 5, 1887, 69 (Andros Island, 
Bahamas; coU. C. J. Maynard) ; Oontr. Sci., i, 1890, 39. — Coet, Auk, v, 1888, 
53 (Andros Island) ; viii, 1891, 294 (New Providence Island), 295 (Berry 
Islands) ; Birds West Indies, 1889, 254 (Andros Is.) ; Introd. to Rev. Ed. 
Birds Bahamas, 1890, no paging; Cat West Indian Birds, 1892, 137. — 
Sennett, Auk, vl, 1889, 165 (diagnosis). — Noethkop, Auk, viii, 1891, 77 
(Andros Island) ; descr. eggs).— Chapman, Amer. Nat, xxv, 1891, 530 (An- 
dros Island). — BoNHOTE, Ibis, 1903, 308 (Andros Island; crit).— Allen 
(G. M.), Auk, xxii, 1905, 122 (Great Abaco Island) .—Allen, Auk, viii, 1891, 
77, in text (Andros Island ; crit) . 

[Rallus^ coryi Shaspe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 93. 

Rallus longirostris coryi Coet, Cat West Indian Birds, 1892, 9, 91, 126, 137 
(Abaco; Berry Islands; New Providence; Abaco. ) .—Peters, Check-list 
Birds of World, ii, 1934, 158. 

i2[o?Z««] l[ongirostris^ coi-yi Bond, Birds West Indies, 1936, 87, 88 in text 
(Bahama Islands). 



^ Seven specimens, including the type. 



"Ten specimens 



64 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Rallus orepita/ns coryi Kilet, Auk. xxii, Oct. 1905, 352; in Shattuck, Bahama 
Islands, 1905, 360 (New Providence, Andros, and Eleuthera Islands ; habits ; 
crit). — Todd and Wobthington, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vii, 1911, 412 (meas., 
crit. ; coJors of soft parts).— Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914', 22 
(range). 

[Rallus longirostrisi subsp. 7 Rallus cariiaeus (not Rallus longirostris car*- 
iaeus Ridgway) Shabpe, Cat Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 13, part (In 
synonymy; Bahamas). 

Rallus longirostris corrius Obebholseb, Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., Ixxxiv, 1937, 329 
(monogr., crit.; meas.; permanent resident in central and northern Ba- 
hama Islands, north to Abaco Island and Berry Islands; west to Andros 
Island and the Keys nearby; south to Bagged Island; east to Watling 
Island, New Providence Island, and Eleuthera Island). 

RALLUS LONGIROSTRIS CARIBAEUS RidewBj 

Caeibbean Clappeb Rail 

Adult (sexes alike). — Similar to that of Rallus longirostris crepi- 
tans but generally more ruf escent above and below ; the top of head 
and back of neck and the centers of the feathers of the upperparts 
of the body darker — snuff brown to sepia, the edges of the latter 
grayish tawny olive ; chin and throat suffused with pale buffy ; lower 
throat, breast, and upper middle abdomen somewhat more ochraceous- 
cinnamon; flanks as in the palest specimens of crepituns. 

Jiuvenal. — Not recorded. 

Natal down. — ^Not recorded. 

Adult male. — ^Wing 148.5-150; tail 60-66.5; fexposed csulmen 
68.5-62 ; tarsus 53-55 ; middle toe without claw 48-50 mm.*^ 

Adult female. — ^Wing 142.5; tail 61.5; exposed culmen 55; tarsus 
49 ; middle toe without claw 44 mm.*' 

Range. — ^Resident in and confined to the mangrove swampg of 
Jamaica (Great Salt Pond ; near Spanish Town ; Passage Fort ; Crab- 
pond). 

Type locality. — Near Spanish Town, Jamaica. 

Rallus longirostris (not of Boddaert) Gosse, Birds Jamaica, 1847, 364. — 

SciATEB and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 444, part 
R[anus'] longirostris Newton (A. and B.), Handb. Jamaica, 1881, 114. 
Rallus crepitans (not of Gmelin) Sclateb, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1861, 81 

(Jamaica). — ^Aibeecht, Joum. ftir Orn., x, 1862, 206 (Jamaica). 
1 Rallus elegans (not of Audubon) Mabch, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 

1864, 69 (Jamaica). 
[Rallus Umgirostris'i c. var. cariteeus Ridgwat, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, v, 1880, 

140, part (meas.). 
[Rallus longirostris'] d. cariboBus Baibd, Beeweb, and Ridgwat, Water Birds 

North Amer., i, 1884, 359, part (synonymy). 



'Two specimens. 
' One specimen. 



BIRDS OP NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 65 

RaUus longirostris c. caribcsus Baibd, Bbewkb and Ridgway, Water Birds North 

Amer., i, 1884', 360, part (Jamaica). 
Rallus longirostris var. caribaeus Reichenow and Sohaix)w, Joum. fflr Om., 

xxix, 1881, 72 (reprint of orlg. descr.). 
IRallus] longirostris caribaus Coet, List Birds West Indies, 1885, and revised 

ed., 1886, 29, part ("AntJOles"). 
Kallus longirostris oarilXBus Cokt, Au]£, v, 1888, 53 (Jamaican references) ; 

Birds West Indies, 1889, 254, part (Jamaica) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, 

9, 91, part (Jamaica).— Sennett, Auk, v, 1888, 319, part.— Scott, Auk, ix, 

1892, 11 (Jamaica; nesting).— Field, Auk, xi, 1894, 122 (Jamaica; habits; 

descr. nest). — American Obnithologists' Union, Check-list, ed. 2, 1895, 

No. 211.2, part ("West Indies") ; ed. 3, 1910, p. 103, part ("West Indies").— 

Bangs and Kennaed, Handb. Jamaica, 1920, 689 (Jamaica).— Wetmobe, 

Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xU, 1928, 122.— Danfoeth, Auk, xlv, 1928, 482 (near 

Kingston, Jamaica). 
Rallus longirostris caribaeus Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 22, part 

(range).— Pbtebs, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 158.— Opeeholseb, 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxiv, 1937, 334 (monogr. ; crit.) 
Rlallus} llongirostrts'i caribaeus Bond, Birds West Indies, 1936, 87, part 

(Jamaica). 
[Rallus longirostris} subsp. 7 Rallus caribaeus Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. 

Mus., xxiii, 1894, 13, part (Jamaica). 
Rallus caribwus Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, 577 (Kingston, Jamaica). — Sclatee, Rev. 

Cat Birds Jamaica, 1910, 614 (19 in reprint). 
[RalVus} caribwus Shaepe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 94, part ("Greater and Lesser 

Antilles"). 

RALLUS LONGIROSTRIS CUBANUS Chapman 

Cuban Clafpeb Rail 

Adult (sexes alike). — Similar to Rallus longirostris insidarwm, but 
with the margins of the feathers of the upperparts not pure gray but 
olive-gray to brownish olive to olive-brown, not pronouncedly or very 
strikingly distinct from the darker olive-brown to sepia to deep fuscous 
centers. Two color phases — a light one with dark olive-brown 
centers to dorsal feathers and a dark phase with these centers. Darker 
generally above and below than Rallus longirostris caribaeus. 

Juv&nal (sexes alike). — Darker than adult of corresponding phase; 
forehead, crown, occiput, hind neck, and entire upperparts of body 
dull sepia in light phase and dull chaetura black in dark phase ; in the 
light phase the interscapulars, scapulars, and feathers of upper back 
with somewhat indistinct olive-gray edges ; in the dark phase the edges 
narrower and duskier; sides of neck, lower throat, side of breast, and 
flanks grayer than adult in light phase, blacker in dark phase (between 
dark hair brown and chaetura drab) : the flanks only slightly and 
irregularly barred with whitish, feathers of the sides, flanks, and 
thighs frequently tipped with darker producing a veiled spotting or 
incomplete, broken barring. 

Natal down. — ^Unrecorded. 



66 BULLETrN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL, MUSEUM 

Adiilt male.— Wmg 142.5-159 (149.0); tail 57-67 (61.8); exposed 
culmen 58-66 (62.7) ; tarsus 52.5-55.5 (54.9) ; middle toe without claw 
45-51.5 (48.2inm.).«* 

Adult female.— Wmg 128-139.5 (132.6) ; tail 49-65 (58.5) ; exposed 
culmen 57-61 (59) ; tarsus 48-54 (52) ; middle toe without claw 

43.5-45.5 (44.8 mm.).^" . 

^a«^e.— Kesident and common in the coastal mangrove swamps ot 
Cuba (Trinidad; Mariel; Preston; Manati; Guantanamo ; Wharf Los 
Canos Estate ; Casilda ; near Nipe Bay) . 

Type locality. — Casilda, coast of southern Cuba. 

Rallus longirostris (not of Boddaert) d'Okbignt, in La Sagra's Hist. Nat. Cuba, 
Ois., 1839, 260, pi. 31, fig. 5 (Spanish ed., 1839, 179).— Solateb and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 444 (Cuba).— Gundlach, Om. (Jubana, 
1895, 241. 

Rallus crepitans (not of Gmelin) Cabanis, Journ. fur Orn., 1856, 427 (Cuba).— 
Bebwee, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, vii, 1860, 308 (Cuba). — GimDLAcH, 
Journ. fur Orn., 1875, 356 (Cuba; habits) ; Contr. Orn. Cubana, 1876, 189. 

R[allus'[ crepitans Gundlach, Anal. Hist. Nat., ii, 1874, 165 (Cuba). 

[Rallus'\ crepitans Gttndlach, Journ. fiir Orn., 1861, 342 (Cuba) ; Eepert. Fisico- 
Nat. Cuba, 1, 1865-66, 361 (Cuba). 

Rallus longirostris corihwus (not of Ridgway) Coet, Auk, v, 1888, 53, part 
(Cuban references) ; Birds West Indies, 1889, 254, part (Cuban references). 

Rallus longirostris caritaeus Peters, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 158 part. 

Rlallws} I longirostris'] cariMeus Bond, Birds West Indies, 1936, 87, part (Cjuba). 

Rallus longirostris cuhanus Chapman, BuU. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist, iv, 1892, 288 
(Casilda, s. coast of Cuba; coll. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.). — Cooke, U. S. Dept. 
Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 22 (Cuba).— Babboub, Mem. Nutt. Orn. aub, vi, 1923, 
53 (distr.).— Danfoeth, Wils. Bull., xl, 1928, 179 (near Santiago de Cuba, 
Cuba). — Obeeholsee, Proc. U. S. Nat Mus. Ixxxiv, 1937, 331 (monogr. ; crit). 

Rallus cuianus Shaepe, Cat Birds Brit. Mus., xsiii, 1894, 329. 

[Rallus] cuhanus Shabpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 93. 

RALLUS LONGIROSTRIS LEUCOFHAEUS Todd 

Isle of Pines Clappee Rah, 

Adult (sexes alike) , pale phase. — Similar to Ralhis longirostris cu- 
hanus and Rallus longirostris waynei on the upper parts but much 
paler below ; the throat, breast, and abdomen being dull white washed 
with pale cinnamon-buff on the upper breast and with a mixture of 
the same and pale gray on the sides of the throat; paler and whiter 
than Rallus longirostris coryi; flanks grayer and slightly paler than 
in cuhanvs. 

Adult female, darh phase (no males seen) .— rDiffers from the pale 
phase only on the underparts; entire lower throat, sides of neck, the 
breast and the upper abdomen heavily washed with light grayish olive 
suffused with very pale avellaneous to pale pinkish buff. In this 



'Eight specimens. 
' Four specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 



67 



plumage this race differs from the Cuban birds only in that the gray- 
ish predominates over the buff on the breast and throat in former and 
the opposite is true in the latter.'* 

/wewaZ.— Similar to the pale juvenals of Rallm longirostris cuhanus 
but whiter on the abdomen and slightly more grayish, less pinMsh buff 
on the sides of neck and the lower throat. 

Natal down. — ^Unrecorded. 

Advlt mdle.—Wmg 135-155 (146) ; tail 57.5-67.5 (61.8) ; exposed 
cuhnen 60.5-66 (63.3) ; tarsus 50-59 (55.3) ; middle toe without claw 
44-49.5 (46.4 mm.). «' 

Adult female.— Wmg 127.5-149 (134.3) ; tail 53-62.5 (58.6) ; exposed 
culmen 51.5-59.5 (56.3) ; tarsus 45-51.5 (49.3) ; middle toe without 
claw 39-43.5 (41.2 mm.) 

^an^e.— Eesident in and restricted to the mangrove swamps of the 
Isle of Pines (Majagua River ; Los Indies ; Nueva Gerona) . 

Type locality. — Majagua River, Isle of Pines. 

Rallus longirostris teucopfiaeus Todd, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xxvl, 1913, 
174 (Rio Majagua, Isle of Pines, Cuba; CoU. Carnegie Mus.) ; Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., X, 1916, 201 (Los Indios and Rio Majagua, Isle of Pines; descr. ; meas- 
urements; crit.; habits) ; xviii, 1928, 336 (type spec; crit.).— Babboub, Birds 
Cuba, 1923, 53.— Obeeholser, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. Ixxxiv, 1937, 332 (monogr. ; 
crit.) . 

Rallus longirostris cariiaeus Pbtees, Cheek-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 158, 
part. 

Rlallus'i llangirostris] caribaetis Bond, Birds West Indies, 1936, 87, -part (Isle of 
Pines). 

RALLUS LONGreOSTEIS VAFEE Wetmore 

HiSPANIOLAN ClAPPEB BAIL 

Adult (sexes alike). — Three "phases" according to the intensity of 
the color of the centers of the dorsal body feathers — dark fuscous 
to fuscous-black; sepia; or olive-brown to buffy brown; generally 
similar to limnetis but larger and darker above, the edges of the dorsal 
body feathers more brownish and with a cinnamomeous malar stripe 
better developed ; the light phase similar below to the paler specimens 
of limnetis; the intermediate one like the darker Puerto Rican birds ; 
the dark phase very dark below — the entire sides of neck, throat, 



" I have seen six specimens of the pale phase and only two of the dark phase. 
That this proportion may not be typical is suggested by Peters (Check-list Birds 
of World, ii, 1934, 15S', footnote) who writes that "none of a series of fourteen 
adults . . . from the Isle of Pines even approach the characters claimed for 
leucophaeus in the original description, but are indistinguishable from a series 
of seven adults from Cuba." His birds sound like dark phase examples, which 
are very close to Cuban birds. If the dark phase should prove to be the com- 
moner of the two, it might be well to lump leucophaeus and cuianus, with merely 
a geographical phase variation within the subspecies. 

" Twelve specimens of each sex, including the type. 



68 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

except a small whitish patch next to the chin, all the breast, and the 
upper abdomen dusky drab slightly tinged with cinnamon-buff, espe- 
cially on the upper abdomen; flanks of dark phase dark blackish olive- 
brown, barred with white; iris "clear brown"; bill dull brown, tip 
paler, basal two-thirds of mandible and sides of maxilla below and 
behind nostril dull yellowish; tarsi and toes dull brown (in dried 
skin). 

Jvwenal. — None seen. 

Natal down. — Coal black. 

Adult nude.— Wmg 151-159.5 (155) ; tail 61.5-66.4 (63.3) ; exposed 
culmen 63.8-68.5 (65.5) ; tarsus 57-61 (59) ; middle toe without claw 
50-54 (51.9 mm.).«» 

Advlt female.— Wmg 134.5-144.5 (138.4) ; tail 54.4^60 (56.9) : ex- 
posed cuhnen 53.6-63 (68.7) : tarsus 46.4^59.5 (52.8) ; middle toe with- 
out claw 40.5-45 (43.2 mm.) .«» 

Range. — Resident in the coastal mangrove swamps of Haiti (Fort 
Liberte; Caracol; Petit Trou de Nippes; Grande Cayemite; Etroites; 
Gonave Island ; Picmy ; Bizoton ; Aquin ; Cap-Haitien) ; and the 
Dominican Republic (Monte Cristi) ; everywhere local in occurrence. 

Type locality. — Etroites, Gonave Island, Haiti. 

Rallus longvrostris Babtsch, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xxx, 1917, 132 
(Haiti).— Beeke, New York Zool. Soc. Bull., xxx, 1927, 139 (Bizoton) ; Be- 
neath Tropic Seas, 1928, 129. 

Rallus longirostris caribaeus Petebs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixi, 1917, 402 (Monto 
Cristi, Dominican Republic,) ; Check-list Birds of World, 11, 1934, 158, part. 

RlaUus'i l[ongirostris'\ caribaeus Bond, Birds West Indies, 1936, 87, part 
(Hispaniola, Gonave Island, lie a Vache). 

Rallus longirostris vafer Wetmobe, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xli, 1928, 121 
(Etroites, Gonave Island, Haiti). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1928,495 
(Port-au-Prince, Caracol, Jaquesy, Fort Libert^). — Danfoeth, Auk, xlvi, 1929, 
362 (Monte Cristi, Les Salines, Gonave). — Wjtmobe and Swaies, U. S. Nat 
Mus., Bull. 155, 1931, 130 (habits; distr; Hispaniola). — Wbttmore, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxi, art. 2, 1932, 5, 6, 15 (Petite Gonave Island: Grande 
Cayemite Island; Petit Trou de Nippes, Haiti; meas.). — Whjtmqee and 
Lincoln, Proc. TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxii, art. 25, 1933, 10 ((lie a Vache).— 
OBEsaoLSEB. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.. Ixxxiv, 1937, 328 (monosr. : crit.). 

RALLUS LONGIROSTRIS LIMNETIS Oberholser 
Ptjeeto Rican Clapper Rah, 

Adult (sexes alike). — Similar to Rallus longirostris crepitans but 
slightly browner above and more pinkish cinnamon on the lower throat 
and breast; flanks darker; differs from caribaeus in being less rufes- 
cent, more grayish brown ; two phases — ^the pale one with the crown, 
occiput, hind neck, and the centers of the feathers of the upperparta 

"Four specimens; aU measurements except middle toe, ex Wetmore. 
°° Seven specimens ; all measurements except middle toe, ex Wetmore. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 69 

of the body buffy brown darkening to olive-brown on the long scapu- 
lars, their edges pale olive-gray; flanks Saccardo's umber barred 
with white; lower throat, sides of neck, and breast pale ochraceous- 
bufE with a faint light cinnamon wash, only the sides of neck and 
middle of throat lightly tinged with grayish; and the dark phase with 
the crown, occiput, hind neck, and the centers of the feathers of the 
upperparts sepia, the latter feathers edged with smoke gray washed 
with pale olive brownish ; sides of neck, entire lower throat, and upper 
breast darker than in light phase — washed with drab ; otherwise simi- 
lar ; iris reddish hazel ; culmen and tip of lower mandible brown, the 
base reddish; tarsi and toes liver brown, redder on the forepart of the 
tibiae. 

Jv/venal. — None seen. 

Natal down. — Coal black; bUl with the mandible and distal half of 
maxilla and an elongated patch over each nostril scarlet, the rest livid 
pink. 

Adidt male.— Whig 138.5-150 (145.5) ; tail 56.5-63.5 (61.2) ; exposed 
culmen 62-68 (63.9) ; tarsus 50-56.5 (54.2) ; middle toe without claw 
47-49.5 (47.4mm.).''' 

Adult female.— Wing 136.5-139.5 (137.6) ; tail 56-60 (57.7) ; exposed 
culmen 55-60 (58.2) ; tarsus 43.5-50 (47.4) ; middle toe without claw 
41.5-43.5 (42.5 mm.)." 

Range. — Kesident in mangrove swamps of Puerto Eico (San Juan; 
Boqueron; Parguera; Tallaboa; Mayaguez; Mameyes; La Playita 
near Salinas ; Puerto Keal ; Aguadilla) ; Culebra Island ; Vieques 
Island; Tortola; St. Croix; and St. Thomas. 

Type locality. — ^Mameyes, Puerto Eico. 

Rallus longirastris (not of Boddaert) Newtow (A. and E.), Ibis, 1859, 260 (St 

Croix; habits, fresh colors of soft parts). — Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Philadelphia, 1860, 3T8 (St. Thomas; crit.)— Wetmobe, Joum. Agr. Univ. 

Puerto Klco, xxi, 1937, 8 (St. Croix; kitchen middens). 
Rallus crepitans (not of Gmelln) Gundlach, Journ. fur Om., xxvi, 1878, 162, 

189 (Puerto Eico) ; Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., vii, 1878, 388 (Puerto 

Rico).— Stahi,., Fauna de Puerto Eico, 1883, 63, 152 (Puerto Rico; 

specimen). 
(?) [Balhis longiroatris] c. var. caribwus Eidgway, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, v, 1880, 

140, part. 
[Rallus longirostris] d. caribwus, Baibd, Beewee, and Eidgwat, Water Birds 

North Amer., i, 1884, 359 part (synonymy). 
[Rallus longirostris] c. caribwus Bajsd, Bbeweb, and Eidgwat, Water Birds 

North Amer., 1, 1884, 360, part (St. Croix). 
[Rallus] longirostris caribwus Coet, List Birds West Indies, 1885, and rev. 

ed., 1886, 29, part ("Antilles"). 



"Eight specimens from Puerto Eico, Culebra Island, and St. Thomas. 
" Five specimens from Puerto Rico and St. Thomas. 



70 BULLETIN 50, TJKITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Ballw longirostris cariboetu Cobt, Auk, v, 1888, 53 part; Birds West 
Indies, 1889, 254, part; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, 90, 
part (Puerto Rico).— Amebioan Oenithologists' Union, Check-list 
North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 1895, No. 211.2, part ("West Indies") ; 
ed. 3, 1910, 103, part ("West Indies").— Wetmoee, U. S. Dept. Agr. BuU. 
326, 1916, 36 (Puerto Rico, resident; habits; food); Auk, xxxui, 1916, 
411 (Vieques Island); xxxiv, 1917, 58 (Oulebra Island; notes) .—Cookb, 
U. S. Dept. Agr. BuU. 128, 1914, 22, part.— Sibuthebs, Auk, xl, 1923, 472 
(Boaueron, Puerto Rico; nesting). 

Rallus longirostris caribaeus Wetmobe, New York Acad. Sci., Set Surv. Porto 
Rico, ix, pt. 3, 1927, 335 (genl.; Puerto Rico; Vieques; Culebra; St. 
Thomas; St Croix). — ^Danfoeth, Joum. Dept. Agr. Puerto Rico, xiv, 1930, 
115 (Tortola, Virgin Islands) ; xv, 1931, 49 ( Joyuda, Puerto Real, Boqueron, 
Faro de Cabo Roja, etc., Puerto Rico). — Beattt, Journ. Dept. Agr. Puerto 
Rico, xiy, 1930, 139 (St. Croix, Krause Lagoon; breeding.) — Petebs, Check- 
list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 158, part. 

R[allus'[ l[ongirostris'\ caribaeus Bond, Birds West Indies, 1936, 87, part 
(Puerto Rico; Vieques; Culebra; St. Croix; St. Thomas; Tortola). 

Rallus longirostris subsp. Rallus carihwus Shabpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiil, 
1894, 13, part (St. Croix; St. Thomas). 

Rallus longirostris subsp. Danfoeth, Joum. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico, xtx, 1935, 
447, 466 (Culebra, St. Croix, Vieques; St. Thomas; Tortola). 

Rallus caribaeus Shabpb, Hand-list, i, 1899, 94, part. 

Rallus longirostris limnetis Obeeholseb, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxiv, 1937, 
326 (orig. descr. ; monogr. ; Puerto Rico; Culebra; Vieques; Tortola; St. 
Croix; St. Thomas). — Danfoeth, Joum. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico, xxl, 1937, 
543 (Punta Arena, Playa Grande, and Cayo Verdiales all in Vieques 
Island, Puerto Rico). 

RALLUS LONGIROSTRIS MANGLECOLA Danforth 

Antigua Clappeb Rail 

Adult (sexes alike)." — Similar to pale phase of Rallus longirostris 
limnetis below but the breast purer and slightly brighter light 
pinkish cinnamon, and like the dark phase of limnetis on the upper- 
parts, but with longer bill. 

Juvenal (unsexed) . — Similar to that of Ralhts longirostris satura- 
tus, but the upper parts more olive brownish, the edges of the feathers 
of the back, scapulars, etc., less grayish, more olive brownish. 

Natal down. — Unrecorded. 

Adult male (type). — Wing 146.1; tail 60.5; exposed culmen 73.9; 
tarsus 54 ; middle toe without claw 50 mm.) . 

Adult female. — ^Wing 135.5; tail 60.7; exposed culmen 64.8; tarsus 
45.8 mm.'' 



" Only male seen, but female said not to differ except in size. 

"One specimen of each, the female not seen, all measurements except the 
middle toe without claw ex Danforth, who also sends the following measurements 
of 7 unsexed birds in the Musfe L'Herminier at Point-ft-Pitre, Guadeloupe; 
culmen from base 60.5 (immature, 65.6, 63.3, 73.0, 64.8, 66.1, 70.1 mm.) ; tarsus 
(approximate only) 43, 51.6, 48, 48.5, 53.0, 47.3, 47.8 mm. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 71 

Bange.— Resident in mangrove swamps on Antigua (Five Islands) ; 
Gaudeloupe and probably Barbuda; one doubtful record for St. 
Kitts." 

Type locality.— Five Islands, Antigua. 
Ballus crepitans (not of GmeUn) Lawreitce, Proc. V. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 461 

(Guadeloupe), 487 (Barbuda ; Antigua : Guadeloupe) .—Mimi, La Guadeloupe 

du Tricentenalre, 1935, 137 (Guadeloupe). 
? [Ballus longirostris'i c. var. carilwus RmowAY, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 

140, part. 
IBallus longirostris] d. caribaeus Baied, Bkewee, and Ridgwat, Water Birds 

North Amer., i, 1884, 859, part (synonymy). 
[Rallus longwostrW] c. cariimus Baied, Beewee, and Ridgwat, Water Birds 

North Amer., i, 1884, 860, part. 
IRallus] longirostris oanbmns Coet, List Birds West Indies, 1885, and rev. ed., 

1886, 29 part ("AntiUes"). 
Ballus longirostris caribosus Coey, Auk, v, 1888, 58, part: Birds West Indies, 

1889, 254, part ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, 9, 91, part (Barbuda ; Antigua ; 

Guadeloupe). — Ameeioan Obnithologists' Union, Check-list North Amer. 

Birds, ed. 2, 1895, no. 211.2, part ("West Indies") ; ed. 3, 1910, 103, part 

("West Indies").— CooKE, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 22, part. 
Rallus longirostris caribaeus Petees, Check-list Birds of World, 11, 1934, 158, part. 
IRallus longirostris] subsp. y Rallus caribmus Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 

xslii, 1894, 13, part (Guadeloupe; Barbuda; Antigua). 
IRallus] caribwus Shaepe, Hand-list, 1, 1899, 94 part. 
Rallus longirostris subsp. nov. Dantoeth, Supplement, Leeward Islands Gazette, 

Nov. 16, 1983, 2 (Antigua). 
Rallus longirostris manglecola Dantoeth, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., xlvii, 1934, 19 

(orig. descr. ; Five Islands, Antigua; meas.) ; Auk, 11, 1934, 357 (common in 

mangroves at Five Islands, Antigua) ; Journ. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico, xix, 

1935, 477 (Barbuda, spec, needed to make ident. certain). — Obeeholsbe, Proc. 

U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxiv, 1937, 324 (monogr. ; Antigua and Guadeloupe). — 

Danfobth, Journ. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico, xxiii, 1939, 22 (not common in 

Guadeloupe; 7 specimens in Mus6e L'Herminler). 
i2[a2Zus] llongirostris] manglecola Bond, Birds West Indies, 1936, 87 and 88 in 

text (Guadeloupe and possibly Martinique). 

RALLUS LONGIBOSTEIS PALLmUS Nelson 

Yucatan Clappee Rail 

Adult female (only specimen known of race) . — Similar to Rallus 
longirostris crepitwns, but upperparts, including wings and tail, more 
rufescent, less grayish; dark centers of feathers of back, scapulars, 
etc., olive-brown. "Top of head and neck bister brown ; feathers of 
back, scapulars, tertials, rump, and upper tail coverts olivaceous bis- 
ter brown, broadly edged with ashy gray producing strongly marked 
streaks of gray and brown ; upper surface of primaries and second- 

"Burdon, Handbook St. Kitts-Nevis, 1920, 108 (Rail St. Kitts "nests on ground 
in the Eastern swamps"). This probably applies to manglecola, but it is not 
certain. 

272607 — 41 6 



72 BULLETIN 50, TJNTTED STATEb NATIONAL MUSEUM 

aides nearly Isabella color with a wash of ciiraamon; wing coverts 
decidedly more cinnamon than primaries and sparingly marked with 
transverse bars of white ; upper surface of tail feathers bister brown 
edged with hair brown; lower eyelid and supraloral stripe from 
base of bill to top of orbit white ; lores, sides of head below and back 
of eyes, down to a little below line of gape, plumbeous with a brown- 
ish wash on lores; chin and throat pure white (this area extending 
up nearly to line of gape but indistinctly suffused with buffy along 
upper and posterior borders) ; sides of neck olivaceous bister brown 
streaked with grayish and shading through grayish brown into dingy 
cinnamon washed with dull gray along median line ; breast light cin- 
namon rufous; sides of body and flanks varying from olive brown 
to dark hair brown strongly marked with transverse white bars; 
under tail coverts white with narrow shaft streaks of dusky brown" 
(Nelson; orig. descr.). 

Wing, 143; tail 59.5, exposed cuhnen 53; tarsus 48; middle toe 
without claw 48 mm. 

Range. — ^Known only from the type locality; probably limited to 
the arid coast region of northwest Yucatan, possibly to Campeche as 
well. 

Type locality. — ^Kio Lagartos, Yucatan, Mexico. 

Rallus pallidus Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xviii, 1905, 141 (Bio 
Lagartos, Yucatan; coU, Field Mus. Nat. Hist). — C!ooke, U. S. Dept Agr. 
BuU. 128, 1914, 22 (range).— (?) Geiscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., No. 235, 1926, 
7 (Culebra Keys, eastern Quintana Boo, Yucatan; bird heard only, not seen 
or collected). 

Rallus longirostris pallidus Petebs, Check-list Birds of World, U, 1934, 158 part 
(Yucatan). — Obbeholsee, Proc. U. S. Nat., Mus., Ixxxiv, 1937, 335 (crit. ; 
northern Yucatan and eastern Quintana Boo, Mexico). 

RALLUS LONGIBOSTBIS BELIZENSIS Oberholger 

HONDUEANIAN CLAPPEB BAH. 

Adult female (unique, type) . — Similar to Rallus longirostris satu- 
ratus, but the edges of the feathers of the upper parts of the body 
pale olive-gray, not brownish olive; and the breast clearer, light 
pinkish cinnamon. Top of head and hind neck sepia, the latter with 
narrow, dull, buff feather margins producing a somewhat streaked 
effect; scapulars and interscapulars with dark clove-brown centers 
edged with pale olive-gray : lower back, rump, and upper tail coverts 
sepia to clove-brown, edged with dull olive-gray; rectrices grayish 
bister with clove-brown centers; remiges sepia, the outer margins 
lighter above ; upper wing coverts light bister, becoming grayish on 
the margins on the inner greater and median ones; sides of head 
olive-gray with a white supraloral stripe and subocular spot ; sides of 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 



73 



upper throat dull ochraceous-buff ; sides of lower throat wood brown 
inconspicuously streaked with dull brown; chin and throat white; 
breast and middle abdomen light cinnamon to light pinkish cinnamon 
fading into dull white on the midabdomen; sides and flanks pale 
chaetura drab crossed by fairly broad (1.5-2 mm.) white bars. 

Wing 141.5; tail 57; exposed cuhnen 57; tarsus 48; middle toe 
without claw 43 mm. 

jyo^ip'e.— Known only from the type locality. 

Tyfe locality. — Ycacos Lagoon, British Honduras. 

RaUus painaus (not of Nelson) Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xxl, 1908, 
43 (Tcacos Lagoon and mouth of Manatee River, Brit. Honduras; crit). 

RaUus longirostris pallidus Peters, Check-list Birds of World, 11, 1934, 158, 
part (Brit. Honduras). 

Rallm longirostris helizensis Obeeholseb, Proc. V. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxiv, 1937, 
335 (Tcacos Lagoon, Brit. Honduras; monogr.) 

RALLUS LONGIROSTEIS OBSOLETUS Rldsway 

Califoenia Gcappee Bail 

Adult (sexes alike). — Clapper raUs with the cheeks and auriculars 
brownish, not grayish; breast light ochraceous-buff. Two phases, 
according to the color of the edges of the feathers of the upperparts, 
as follows: 

Brown phase : Forehead, crown, occiput, and hind neck Saccardo's 
umber, the frontal and coronal feathers with shiny black shafts, 
those of the hind neck with paler, tawny-olive edges; scapulars, 
interscapulars, feathers of back, rump^ and the upper tail coverts 
sepia very broadly margined with ashy buflfy brown washed with 
olive, the dark centers reduced to the vanishing point on the rump 
and upper tail coverts; rectrices like the back, but the dark centers 
verging indistinctly into the paler margins, not sharply distinct; 
outer, upper, lesser, and median wing coverts sayal brown to tawny- 
olive ; inner ones olive buffy brown to sepia, paling to snuff brown on 
the outer webs, the innermost secondaries like the long scapulars; 
supraloral stripe pinkish buff washed with rusty; lores, cheeks, and 
auriculars brownish drab; malar stripe light ochraceous-buff; chin 
and upper throat white, sometimes faintly washed with buffy; sides 
of neck, lower throaty breast, and upper abdomen light ochraceous- 
buff, becoming slightly darker and more ochraceous in the middle of 
the breast, sides, and flanks; and vent grayish buffy brown barred 
with white; lower abdomen whitish lightly washed with pale 
ochraceous-buff; lateral under tail coverts largely white; the median 
ones like the flanks ; under wing coverts slightly browner, more sepia, 
than the flanks ; soft parts apparently unrecorded ( ! ) , but probably 
as in the other races of the species. 



74 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Olive phase: Like the above but the top of head and the dark 
centers of the dorsal body feathers blacker— dark fuscous to fuscous- 
black, and the margins of the latter feathers less brownish, more 
olive — ^grayish olive with a faint drab tinge. 

Jvwenal (sexes alike). — Much darker than adults above; top of 
head, hind neck, centers of scapulars, interscapulars, and feathers of 
upper back, entire feathers of lower back, rump, and upper tail 
coverts fuscous-black, the margins of the scapulars, interscapulars, 
and feathers of the upper back dull, ashy, brownish olive ; supraloral 
stripe less rufescent than in adult; lores, cheeks, and auriculars like 
crown but washed with cinnamon; chin and upper throat white; 
lower throat, sides of neck, breast, and upper abdomen pale cinnamon 
clouded and mottled with grayish drab; middle of upper and all of 
lower abdomen white washed with pale buff ; sides and flanks grayish 
drab indistinctly banded with paler mixed with ochraceous-cinna- 
mon; thighs like lower abdomen anteriorly, like flanks posteriorly. 

Natal down. — Jet black with a greenish gloss above. 

AdMlt male.—Wmg 153.5-170 (161.7) ; tail 68-80 (73.1) ; exposed 
culmen 55-66 (60.3) ; tarsus 52-61 (56.1) ; middle toe without claw 
47-56 (51.3 mm.)." 

Adult female.— Wmg 147-161 (151.6) ; tail 60-76 (65.3) ; exposed 
culmen 49-61 (55.0) ; tarsus 45-63 (51.1) ; middle toe without claw 
44^51.5 (47.4 mm.). '« 

Range. — Resident in the salt-water marshes of California from 
Humboldt Bay south to Monterey Bay (Redwood and Point San 
Mateo, San Mateo County ; San Francisco Bay ; Berkeley ; Bay Farm 
Island, Alameda County; Alviso and vicinity and Palo Alto, Santa 
Clara County; Oakland; Marin County; Petaluma; Tomales Bay; 
etc.) . Accidental on South Farallon Islands. 

Type locality. — San Francisco, Calif, 

Rallus elegans (not of Audubon) Kenneblt, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., iv, pt. 
vi, 1856, 17 (San Francisco, Calif.) ; x, No. 3, 1859 (Whipple Route), 30 
(San Francisco). — Nbwbeert, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., vi, 1857, 96 (San 
Francisco and San Pablo Bays, Calif.), — Cassin, in Baird, Rep. Pacific 
R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 756, part (San Francisco) ; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia, xiv, 1862, 22 (California). — Heeemann, Rep. Pacific R. R. 
Surv., X, pt. 6, 1859, 2 (California). — Cooper and SucKLBnr, Rep. Pacific 
R. R. Surv. xil, pt. 2, 1860, 246 (San Francisco and Humboldt Bays, Calif.). 

Ballus elegans otsoletus Petees. Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 159. 

Rallus elegans, var. ohsoletus Rhwwat, Amer. Nat, viii, No. 2, 1874, 111 (San 
Francisco, Calif., coU. U. S. Nat. Mus.). — GEiNNBii, Univ. California PubL 
Zool., xxxviii, 1932, 270 (type loc. ; crit.). 

Ballus elegans . . . var. oisoletus Cottes, Check-list, 1874, App., 137, No. 466a. 



" Twenty-nine specimens. 
" Twenty-four specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 75 

IRallus elegana] b. olsoletus Cotjhs, Birds Northwest, 1874, 535 (synonymy). 

Rallua olsoletus Ridgwat, Proc. V. S. Nat. Mus., ill, 1880, 11 (Cat. North 
Amer. Birds, No. 570) ; BuU. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 139 (diagnosis) ; 
Nom. North Amer. Birds, 1881, No. 570.— Bbyant (W. E.), Bull. Nutt. Orn. 
Club, V, 1880, 124 (Oakland and San Mateo, Calif.; descr. nest and eggs).— 
Baied, Bkeweb, and Ridgwat, Water Birds North Amer., 1, 1884, 357. — 
American Obnithologists' Union, Check-list, 1886, and ed. 2, 1895, No. 210, 
part; ed. 3, 1910, p. 102.— Sbnnett, Auk, vi, 1889, 165 (crit), 166 (diag- 
nosis).— Cooke, TJ. S. Dept. Agr. Bull 128, 1914, 18, fig. 7, map (range and 
migration routes).— Geinnell (J.), Pacific Coast Avif., No. 11, 1915, 46 (San 
Francisco Bay; Petaluma; Farallon Islands; Tomales Bay; Humboldt 
Bay) .—Dawson, Birds California (students' ed.), iii, 1923, 1530 (genl.; 
California).— De Gbost, Condoe, xxix, 1927, 259 (nesting habits; enemies; 
ecol.).— Bent, TJ. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 135, 1927, 267 (monogr.).— Williams, 
Condor, xxxi, 1929, 52 (behavior; feeding).— Obeeholseb, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., Ixxxiv, 1937, 314 in text- Oeb, Condor, xli, 1939, 151 (fall wanderings 
away from marshes). 

[RallusJ obsoletus Shakpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 94. 

R[allus'\ oisoletus Ridgwat, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 139 (diagnosis) ; 
Man. North Amer. Birds, 1887, 187. 

Rallus longirostris olsoletus Cotjes, Check-list, ed. 2, 1882, No. 674.— Obeeholseb, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxiv, 1937, 340 (monogr. ; crit.). 

Rlallus] l[_ongvrostris'\ obsoletus Coues, Key North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 1884, 672. 

[Rallus longirostrisj subsp. e Rallus oisoletus Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xxiii, 1894, 15 (San Francisco and Redwood City, Calif.). 

Rallus obsoletus obsoletus van Eossem, Condor, xxxi, 1929, 214 (crit.; range). — 
American Obnithologists' Union, Check-list North Amer. Birds, ed. 4, 1931, 
95. — ^Linsdale, Condor, xxxviii, 1936, 216 (Berkeley and Oakland, Calif.). — 
Wtthe, Condor, xxxlx, 1937, 44 (Berkeley, Calif.). 

RALLUS LONGIBOSTRIS LEVIPES Bangs 

Light-footed Clappeb Rail 

Adult (sexes alike). — Similar to BciUus longirostris obsoletus 
(both phases present, but the olive-gray one decidedly less common 
than the brownish one), but bill slenderer; the dark centers of the 
dorsal body feathers dark sepia to fuscous, the margins darker, less 
grayish, more heavily washed with brownish olive; the malar stripe, 
sides of neck, the lower throat, breast, and upper abdomen richer 
and darker — light vinaceous-cinnamon to vinaceous-cinnamon ; flanks 
and vent less grayish, more brownish — almost olive-brown. 

Jwoendl (sexes alike). — Similar to that of Rallus longirostris 
o'bsoletus but slightly darker. 

Natal down. — Jet black with a greenish gloss above. 

Adult male.—Wmg 154.5-167 (161.9) ; tail 62.5-69 (66.7) ; exposed 
culmen 56-61 (58.9) ; tarsus 53-60.5 (56.9) ; middle toe without claw 
50-54 (51.2 mm.)." 



' 10 specimens. 



76 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Adult female.— Wing 138-155.5 (147.3) ; tail 57-67 (62.6) ; exposed 
culmen 51.5-58 (54.2) ; tarsus 47-51 (49.5) ; middle toe without claw 
41^8 (44.9nim.).^« 

Range. — Resident in the salt marshes of southern California from 
Santa Barbara south to San Diego Bay; occasional in fresh and 
brackish sloughs a short distance inland (Santa Barbara; mouth of 
Tia Juana River; Wilmington; False Bay; National City; Pacific 
Beach; Newport Landing; Bolsa Chica Shooting Preserves, and 
Sunset Beach, Orange County) ; south to northwestern Lower Cali- 
fornia (San Quentin Bay). 

Type locality. — Newport Landing, Los Angeles County (now in 
Orange County), Calif. 

EaUus elegama (not of Audubon) Hbnshaw, Rep. Orn. Spec. Wheelers' Surv., 
1876, 273 (Santa Barbara, Calif.). 

Rallus elegang levipes Petees, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 159. 

Ballus oisoletus (not of Ridgway) Belding, Proe. V. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1883, 529 
(San Quentin Bay, Lower California, breeding). — American Obnitholo- 
GiSTS' Union, Check-list, 1886, and ed. 2, 1895, No. 210, part. — Bryant 
(W. E.), Proc. California Acad. Sci., ser. 2, ii, 1889, 270 (San Quentin 
Bay). 

Rallus levipes Bangs, Proc. New England Zool. Club, i, 1899, 45 (Newport 
Landing, Los Angeles County, Calif.; coll. E. A. and O. Bangs).— Geinnbll 
(J.), Pacific Coast Avif., No. 3, 1902, 24 (Santa Barbara to Newport Bay) ; 
No. 11, 1915, 46 (coast marshes, San Diego distr. to Los Angeles Co.). — 
WnXEaT!, Condor, viii, 1906, 15 (Los Angeles County, breeding), 151 (Los 
Angeles County ; descr. nest and eggs) ; Pacific Coast Avif., No. 7, 1912, 
32 (Bay City, Orange County, and Nigger Slough, Los Angeles County, breed- 
ing). — ^Ameeioan Oenithologists' Union C!ommitteb, Auk, xxv, 1908, 340; 
Check-list, ed. 3, 1910, 102.— Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr., Bull. 128, 1914, 
18, fig. 7 map (range and migration routes). — ^Dawson, Birds California, 
(students' ed.), iii, 1923, 1533 (genl. ; California). — Hanna, Condor, xxvi, 
1924, 147 in text (egg weights). — Gaedneb, Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., Ixvli, 
art. 19, 1925, 16 in text, pL 7 (structure of tongue). — Wyman and Btjeneli:,, 
Field Book Birds Southwestern United States, 1925, 62 (descr.; distr.).- 
Banceoft, Condor, xxix, 1927, 47 and 194 in text (breeds in San Quentin 
region. Lower California).— Bent, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 135, 1927, 272 (life 
hist.; monogr.). — Geinneli^ Univ. California Publ. Zool., xxxii, 1928, 86 
(distr.; Lower California). — Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Ixx, 1930, 167 
(type specimen in Mus. Comp. Zool., crit.). — Gkinneix, Univ. California 
Publ. Zool., xxxviii, 1932, 271 (type loc. ; crit.). — Obeeholseb, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., Ixxxiv, 1937, 314 in text. 

Railus oisoletus levipes van Rossem, Condor, xxxi, 1929, 214 (crit; range). — 
Ameeican Ornithologists' Union, Check-list North Amer. Birds, ed. 4, 
1931, 95.— WniETT, Pacific Coast, Avif., No. 21, 1933, 52 (sw. Calif. ; resident 
in salt marshes Santa Barbara to San Diego; nests Mar. 19 to June 14). — 
HuET, Condor, xl, 1938, 106 (type si>ecimen mentioned). 

Rallus longirostris levipes Obeeholsex, I^oc. U. S. Nat Mus., Ixxxiv, 1937, 338 
(monogr.; crit.). 



" 12 specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 77 

RALLUS LONGIROSTRIS YUMANENS13 Dickey 

TuMA CLAPPBJt Rail 

Adult (sexes alike). — Similar to Rallus longirostris saturatus, but 
bill shorter, the cinnamon of the throat, breast, and anterior part of 
abdomen brighter, more pinkish, not washed with grayish. Forehead, 
crown, occiput grayish olive-brown, the feathers with shiny blackish 
shafts, hind neck slightly paler and more grayish and the feathers 
clouded with dusky hair brown, especially medially; interscapulars, 
scapulars, back, rump, and upper tail coverts dark sepia, the feathers 
very broadly edged and tipped with dull light grayish olive washed 
faintly with brownish, the margins widest, the dark central area 
narrowest, on the rump and upper tail coverts; exposed surface of 
greater upper secondary coverts (in folded wing) between buffy brown 
and Saccardo's umber, rather darker outwardly; the inner median 
and lesser coverts between buffy brown and citrine drab ; outer median 
and lesser coverts snuff brown to Saccardo's mnber ; primaries, greater 
primary coverts, and secondaries fuscous, the innermost secondary 
like the long scapulars, but less brownish marginally than the latter; 
rectrices fuscous edged like their upper coverts with brownish pale 
grayish olive, the margin widest on the median pair; sides of head 
dull mouse gray, the lores darker and more brownish ; the lower eyelid 
dull creamy white; supraloral stripe buffy white flecked with rusty; 
malar stripe not well defined, dull light pinkish cinnamon fading to 
almost white anteriorly; sides of neck like the hind neck but paler 
and more or less suffused with light pinkish cinnamon ; chin and throat 
white ; throat and breast avellaneous with a cinnamon tinge, paling to 
light avellaneous on the middle of the breast; abdomen dull creamy 
white; sides, flanks, vent, and under tail coverts deep grayish hair 
brown, the flanks lighter, all barred with white, the lateral under tail 
coverts nearly all white on their outer webs, a few nearly all white on 
both webs, thighs between drab and hair brown posteriorly, dull 
creamy white anteriorly ; under wing coverts grayish hair brown vdth 
very narrow, widely spaced bars of duU white; bill (in dried skin) 
ochraceous-orange, darkening to olive-brown terminally and to bister 
along the culmen ; tarsi and toes bister. 

Other plumages not known. 

Adult male (type). — ^Wing 156; tail 71; exposed culmen 58; tarsus 
61.5 ; middle toe without claw 46 mm. 

Adult female.— Wing 142-148; tail 62-63; exposed cuhnen 53.5; 
tarsus 50; middle toe without claw 44-45 mm." 



' Two specimens. 



78 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Range. — ^Kiiown only from the fresh-water swamps along the Col- 
orado Eiver above Yuma and the adjacent irrigation canals in the 
vicinity of Laguna Dam, and to the lower Salton Sea. 

Type locality. — Bard, Imperial County, Calif. 

Rallus yunumensis jDicket, Auk, xl, 1923, 90 (orig. descr. ; Bard, Imperial 
County, Calif.)— Dawson, Birds California (students' ed.), ili, 1923, 1536 
(genl.).— Obeeholseb, Auk, xli, 1924, 592 (add to North Amer. Check- 
list). — Gbhineix, Condor, xxvil, 1925, 76 (add to California list). — Bent, 
U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 135, 1927, 275 (monogr.).— Geinnell, Univ. California 
Publ. Zool., xxxviii, 1932, 271 (type loc, crit). 

Rallus oisoletus yumwnensis van Eossem, Condor, xxxi, 1929, 215 (crit. ; 
distr.). — ^Ameeican Oenithologists' Union, Check-list North Amer. Birds, 
ed. 4, 1931, 96. — ^Moffitt, Condor, xxxiv, 1932, 137 (marshes of Salton Sea, 
Calif.).— Abbott, Condor, xlii, 1940, 264 (breeding; Salton Sea). 

Rallus elegans yunumensis Petebs, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 159. 

Rallus longirostris yumanensis Obeeholseb, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxiv, 1937, 
341 (crit; monogr.). 

RALLUS LONGIROSTRIS BELDINGI Ridgway 

Beldinq's Clappee Ratl 

Adult (sexes alike). — Similar to Rallus longirostris levipes but 
darker, the top of the head and the centers of the feathers of the 
upper-parts of the body deep fuscous to fuscous-black, the margins 
of the latter feathers browner — ^buffy brown to ashy snuff brown; 
lower throat, sides of neck, breast, and upper abdomen darker and 
more richly colored — fawn color with a cinnamomeous wash; flanks 
darker, the interspaces between the white bars clove brown, frequently 
darkening to black next to the white bars. 

Jvmenal. — ^Apparently unrecorded. 

Natal down. — Not recorded. 

Adult male.— Wing 147-160 (155.1) ; tail 55-73 (64.8) ; exposed 
culmen 53-63 (56.2) ; tarsus 48-67 (53.1) ; middle toe without claw 
43-50 (47.8 mm.). «" 

Adult female.— Wing 140-150 (144.8) ; tail 54^68 (63.2) ; exposed 
culmen 49-55.5 (52.7) ; tarsus 45-53 (49.2) ; middle toe without claw 
40-47 (43.9 mm.).«i 

Range. — Resident in the mangrove swamps of Lower California 
from the Cape district north on the Pacific side to latitude 28°N., in- 
cluding many near shore islands, and on the Gulf of California side 
to San Jose Island (Espiritu Santo Island; La Paz; San Jose Island; 
Santa Margarita and Magdalena Islands; Magdalena Bay; San Ig- 
nacio Lagoon; Pond Lagoon; Scammons Lagoon, San Jorge). 

Type locality. — Espiritu Santo Island, Lower California. 



"Fourteen specimens. 
"Twelve specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 79 

Ballus ieUingi Eidgwat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1882, 345 (Esplritu Santo 
Island, Lower California; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.); Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 
vii, 1882, 258.— Reichenow, Journ. fur Orn., xxxi, 1883, 402 (reprint of 
orig. descr.).— Beujing, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v. 1883, 545 (rare; southern 
Lower California). — Baied, Beewee, and Eidgway, Water Birds Nortli 
Amer., i, 1884, 356. — Ameeioan Obnithologists' Union, Check-list, 1886, 
and ed. 2, 1895, No. 209; ed. 3, 1910, p. 102.— Bbewsteb, BuU. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., xli, 1902, 55 (near La Paz, Lower California). — Cooke, U. S. Dept 
Agr. BuU. 128, 1914, 17, fig. 6, map (range and migration routes). — Anthont, 
Proc. California Acad. Sci., ser. 4, xiv, 1925, 291 (mangroves at Magdalena 
Bay, Mexico). — Banceoft, Condor, xxix, 1927, 47, 48 in text (breeding at 
Scammons Lagoon, Lower California). — Bent, U. S. Nat. Mus. BuU. 135, 
1927, 266 (life hist. ; monogr.).— Hxiey, Condor, xxix, 1927, 241 in text (San 
Ignacio Lagoon, Lower California). — Gbinnem-, Univ. CaUfornia Publ. 
Zool., xxxii. No. 1, 1928, 86 (distr. ; Lower Calif.). — ^Eowlet, Condor, xxxvli, 
1935, 163 (nest and 7 eggs, near La Paz, Lower California, May 3). — 
Obeeholsbr, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxiv, 1937, 314 in text. 

RlalluslleUmgi Eidgwat, Man. North Amer. Birds, 1887, 138. 

IRaMus'^ heldingi Shaepb, Hand-list, i, 1899, 93. 

\Rallus eleffans} subsp. a. Rallus ieldingi Shaepb, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xxiii, 1894, 10. 

Rallus elegans beldingi Petees, Check-list Birds of World, u, 1934, 159. 

Rallus olsoletus ieldingi van Eossem, Condor, xxxi, 1929, 214 (crit. ; range). — 
American Obnithologists' Union, Check-list North Amer. Birds, ed. 4, 
1931, 95. 

Rallus longirostris ieldingi Obbbholsee, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxiv, 1937, 
338 (mcmogr. ; crit.). 

RALLUS LONGIROSTRIS RHIZOPHORAE Dickey 

SoNOEA Clapper Eail 

Adult (sexes alike). — ^Very similar to Ballus longirostris ywnumen- 
sis but less brownish above — ^the top of head duskier — mummy brown 
to fuscous, the dark centers of the feathers of the upper parts of the 
body blacker — fuscous-black, and the edges of these feathers more 
grayish— smoke gray to light grayish drab ; sides of neck much more 
washed with grayish. 

Other plumages unknown. 

Adult rnale.—'Wmg 147-155.5 (151.8) ; tail 60.5-65 (63.3) ; exposed 
culmen 56-60.5 (59) ; tarsus 54.5-58.5 (56.4) ; middle toe without claw 
45.5-51.5 (48.3mm.).«-" 

Adult female.— Wmg 139.5-148 (142.6) ; tail 58-65 (61.6) ; exposed 
culmen 53-57.5 (55.2) ; tarsus 49-66 (50.9) ; middle toe without claw 
42-47 (43.8 mm.).^' 

Bange.—Coa&t&\ marshes of Sonora from Guaymas south to the 
Sonora— Sinaloa boundary ((3|^mas; Tobari Bay; Viejo Yaqui 
Lagoon) . 



((|^] 



"Five specimens from Sonora, Mexico, including the type. 
"Nine specimens from Sonora, Mexico. 



80 BULLETEST 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Type locality. — Tobari Bay, Sonora, Mexico. 

Rallus ohsoletus rhizophorae Dickey, Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., vi, 1930, 

235 (orlg. descr. ; Tobari Bay, Sonora, Mexico). 
Rallus elegans rhizophorae Petebs, Check-list Birds of World, il. 1934, 159. 
Rallus longirostris rhizophorae Obeeholsee, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxiv, 1937, 

342 (monogr. ; crit.). 

BALLUS LONGIROSTRIS NATAEITENSIS McLellan 

San Bi..\s Ciappee Kail 

AduLt (unsexed; only the type known). — Similar to Rallus longi- 
rostris ywmaTiensis, but the top of the head, hind neck, and the cen- 
ters of the feathers of the upperparts of the body darker— deep 
fuscous, becoming hair brown on the head, the upper breast 
brighter — light ochraceous-salmon, the lower breast and abdomen 
much paler and whiter — very pale pinkish buff; sides and flanks 
slightly paler and grayer. Forehead dark hair brown, darkening to 
fuscous on the crown, the feathers with stiff, shiny blackish shafts; 
occiput and nape dark hair brown with narrow lighter edgings be- 
tween drab and grayish olive, these edges imparting a streaked 
appearance; scapulars, interscapulars, back, rump, and upper tail 
coverts fuscous-black, the feathers of the anterior parts all margined 
with light grayish olive and those of the rump and the upper tail 
coverts with brownish deep grayish olive; rectrices with an even 
darker shade on their edges; wings fuscous, the lesser upper wing 
coverts, with the outer portion of the outer median and lesser coverts 
more or less extensively rufescent brown (between snuff brown and 
Saccardo's umber), the inner coverts, the innermost secondaries, 
and the scapulars broadly margined with dull grayish olive, sides 
of head mouse gray rather than darker on the lores; the auriculars 
with a buffy wash; supraloral streak creamy white; sides of neck 
mouse gray washed with buffy; chin and upper throat pure white; 
malar stripe and lower throat between avellaneous and pinkish 
cinnamon ; breast light ochraceous-salmon, paling posteriorly to light 
pinkish cinnamon and then to very pale pinkish buff; sides and 
flanks between hair brown and chaetura drab, narrowly barred with 
dull white, the posterior portion of flanks paler and washed with 
buffy; abdomen very pale pinkish buff paling to creamy white on 
the midventral area; lower tail coverts between hair brown and 
chaetura drab, narrowly barred with white, and slightly tinged with 
buff anteriorly, the lateral feathers almost wholly white; thighs 
anteriorly buffy white; posteriorly dull hair brown; under wing 
coverts dark chaetura drab, narrowly barred with white. 

Wing 129+ (molting) ; tail 66.5; exposed culmen 59; tarsus 50.5; 
middle toe without claw 49 mm. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 



81 



Range.— Kxiown only from the type locality. Uncertainly re- 
corded from Mazatlan, Sinaloa. 

Type locality. — San Bias, Nayarit, Mexico. 

( ?) Rallus elegans Laweence, Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 11, 1874, 311 

(Mazatian, Sinaloa). 
(?) [Rallus elegans] h. var. tenuirostris Ridgwat, BuU. Nutt. Orn. Club., v, 

1880, 139, part (Mazatmn). 
(?) Rallus tenuirostris Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, ill, 1903, 

316 part (Mazatlfln).— Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 17, part 

(Mazatian). 
Rallus nayaritensis McLeixan, Proc. California Acad. Sci., ser. 4, xvi, 1927, 9 

(orig. descr. ; San Bias; Nayarlt, Mexico). — ^van Eossem, Trans. San Diego 

Soc. Nat. Hist., vi, 1930, 236 (crit.). 
Ballus obsoletus nayaritensis van Eossem, Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., 

vi, 1930, 235. 
Rallus elegans nayaritensis Piheks, Check-list Birds of World, 11, 1934, 160. 
RaUus longirostris nayaritensis Obbseiholseb, Proc. TJ. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxiv, 1937 

343 (monogr. ; crit.). 

KALLUS LONGIROSTKIS TENUIEOSTEIS Eidgway 

Mexican Clappeb Rail 

Adult (sexes alike). — The most rufescent on the flanks of all the 
races of the species, these parts being pinkish umber broadly barred 
with white. Two phases occur, as follows : 

Dakk-beeasted phase: Forehead, crown, and occiput Dresden 
brown to Prout's brown, the feathers with shiny black shafts ; nape 
and hind neck paler and slightly more grayish, the feathers dark 
sepia along the shafts ; scapulars, interscapulars, feathers of the back, 
rump, and upper tail coverts bister to mummy brown very broadly 
edged with tawny-olive to grayish olive, the medial dark areas very 
greatly reduced on the rump and upper tail coverts; upper wing 
coverts deep snuff brown with a slight grayish wash to bright Sayal 
brown; bend of wing whitish; remiges dull bister, the innermost 
secondaries like the long scapulars; rectrices like their upper coverts; 
supraloral line whitish washed with buff and rusty ; lores, cheeks, and 
auriculars Saccardo's imiber washed with grayish drab ; malar stripe 
broad and bright light pinkish cinnamon to pinkish cinnamon ; chin 
and upper throat white; lower throat, breast, and upper abdomen 
cinnamon, Avith or without a very faint vinaceous-russet tinge ; sides, 
flanks, and vent Saccardo's umber with a pinkish or pinkish cin- 
namon wash, the wash sometimes so pronounced as to make the light 
cross bars pale pinkish cinnamon instead of white ; middle of lower 
abdomen pale pinkish buff ; thighs anteriorly pale pinkish buff indis- 
tinctly barred with pale pinkish drab, dusky drab posteriorly ; under 
wing coverts like the flanks; under tail coverts largely white, the 



82 BTJLLETIN 50, tJNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

longer ones with a few longitudinal bister marks, and some of the 
others with irregular bars of the same. 

LiGHT-BBEASTED PHASE: Similar to the dark-breasted phase on the 
upperparts, but with the broad center of the breast and the whole 
upper abdomen except its extreme lateral portion whitish washed 
with pale pinkish ciimamon. 

Jwo&rwH (sexes alike) . — Similar to the adults above but the top of 
head and the centers of the feathers of the upperparts of the body 
darker — duU fuscous-black, the lower back, rump, and upper tail 
coverts practically uniformly of this color as the pale edges are lack- 
ing ; lores and subocular area posterior to the auriculars blacker, less 
ruf escent ; sides of neck mottled indistinctly with dusky ; lower throat 
and upper breast washed with light pinkish cinnamon ; lower breast 
and abdomen whitish laterally suffused, clouded, and mottled with 
dusky grayish hair brown washed with pale pinkish cinnamon; 
thighs huffy, whitish indistinctly barred with pale hair brown. 

Natal down. — Jet black with a faint greenish sheen on the upper- 
parts of head and body. 

Adult male.— Wing, 151-159.5 (156.5) ; tail 62-70.5 (66.5) ; ex- 
posed culmen 62-65.5 (63.5) ; tarsus 56-59 (5Y.8) ; middle toe without 
claw 49-53 (51.1 mm.). «* 

Adult female.— Wmg, 139-144.5 (142.4); tail 59-65 (62.9); ex- 
posed cuhnen 56-60 (68) ; tarsus 47.5-53 (51.3) ; middle tone without 
claw 44.5-48 (46.6 mm.).*" 

Range. — Eesident in the fresh-water marshes of the Valley of 
Mexico (Lerma, Laguna del Eosario, Tlaxcala ; near City of Mexico) . 

Type locality. — ^Valley of Mexico. 

Ralliis longirostris (not of Boddaert) Sclateb, Proc. Zool. Sec. London, 1864, 
179 (near City of Mexico). 

[Rallusi elegans (not of Audubon) Sclateb and Salvin, Norn. Av. Neotr., 1873, 
139. 

Rallus elegans, var. tenuirostris "Lawrence" Eidgwat, Amer. Nat, vili, 1874, 
111 (City of Mexico; coll. G. N. Lawrence). 

[Ballus elegans} C. var. tenuirostris Kidgwat, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 
139, part (diagnosis; City of Mexico). 

Rallus elegans tenuirostris Ridowat, BuU. Nutt. Orn. Club, v. 1880, 139, foot- 
note. — Bauu), Beejwee, and Ridgwat, Water Birds North Amer., i, 1884, 
354, under fig. — Feeeabi-Peeez, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 177 (Laguna 
del Bosario, Tlaxcala). — Petebs, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 160. 

IRalhcs elegans'i b. tenuirostris Baibd, Beeweb, and Kidgwat, Water Birds 
North Amer., i, 1884, 3S3. 

[Rallus elegans'i B. tenuirostris Baibd, BbEwee, and Rebgwat, Water Birds 
North Amer., i, 1884, 354. 

[Rallus elegans'i subsp. /S. Rallus tenuirostris Shabpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mns., 
xxiU, 1894, 10 (near City of Mexico) . 



"Four specimens. 
"Six specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 83 

Rlallus'i tenuirostris Ridowat, Man. North Amer. Birds, 1887, 138. 

Rallus tenuirostris Salvin (md Godmaic, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, iii, 1903, 316, 

part (City of Mexico; Laguna del Rosario).— Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 

128, 1914, 17, part (geogr. range). 
Rallus tenuirostris Shakpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 93. 
Rallus longirostris tenuirostris Obekholseb, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. Ixxxiv, 1937, 

336 (monogr., crit). 

RALLUS ELEGANS ELEGANS Aadnbon 

King Rah, 

Adult (sexes alike), dwrk phase. — Forehead, crown, occiput, and 
nape deep, rich miunmy brown, the feathers of the forehead and 
crown with shiny black shafts; scapulars, interscapulars, upper and 
lower back, rump, upper tail coverts, and rectrices deep fuscous to 
fuscous-black, the feathers broadly edged with tawny-olive to buck- 
thorn brown, the edges becoming broader on the more posterior parts, 
often occupying (between the two margins) more than half the 
width of the feather on the long scapulars and the feathers of the 
rump and the upper tail coverts, narrow on the anterior interscapu- 
lars; upper wing coverts deep hazel to bright russet, some of the 
outer median and greater coverts with narrow whitish tips and a 
concealed narrow subterminal whitish band; remiges sepia, the outer 
web of the outermost primary often slightly paler — Saccardo's umber ; 
a light stripe from the base of the maxilla over and behind the eye 
light pinkish cimiamon ; rest of lores, circumocular area, cheeks, and 
auriculars grayish mummy brown; lower cheeks and sides of throat 
cinnamon; chin and middle of upper throat white; lower throat, 
breast, and upper abdomen cinnamon becoming paler in the mid- 
ventral part of the upper abdomen, the feathers faintly tipped with 
white on the upper abdomen, without pale tips on the breast feathers ; 
middle of abdomen light buff; thighs similar but transversely barred 
with deep drab to hair brown; flanks sepia barred with white, the 
feathers tipped with white and crossed by two or three white bars 
each; vent similar to flanks; under tail coverts white, not buffy, and 
with the sepia areas reduced making the white bars wider ; the outer 
webs of the lateral ones wholly white; axillars and under wing 
coverts deep rich sepia tipped and crossed by narrow bars of white ; 
iris light burnt sienna; most of lower mandible and the maxillary 
tomium dull reddish brown, the extreme base of maxilla (near the 
gape and below) ochre-yellow ; tarsi and toes and claws pale brownish 
gray. 

Adult (sexes alike), light phase. — Similar to the dark phase but 
with forehead, crown, occiput, and nape Front's brown; feathers of 
upper parts of the body with paler margins — pinkish buff with a 



84 BTJLLETESr 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

faint ashy wash on the more anterior areas, and with a pale olive 
wash on the feathers of the more posterior parts ; upper wing coverts 
dark rich tawny; remiges as in dark phase but washed with olive; 
superciliaries pale cream-buff; lores, cheeks, and auriculars dusky 
drab; the lower cheeks, malar area, and sides of upper throat pale, 
light ochraceous-buff washed more or less with grayish; chin and 
upper throat whitish, often pure, sometimes lightly tinged with light 
buff; lower throat, breast, and upper abdomen light ochraceous-buff 
darkening laterally on the breast to ochraceous-buff; flanks slightly 
paler sepia than in the dark phase; under wing coverts with the 
sepia areas washed with hair brown ; soft parts as in dark phase but 
paler (in dried skins) .*° 

Jv/oeTwl (sexes alike). — Above similar to the adult, dark phase, but 
the dark centers of the feathers of the back, etc., less fuscous, more 
dull black, the edges grayer and less well developed on the inter- 
scapulars and not at all developed on the lower back and rump, 
which are uniformly blackish, the long scapulars being the only 
feathers with well-developed tawny-olive margins; lesser and some 
of the outer greater upper wing coverts tipped with white and 
crossed by another narrow white band about 7 mm. anterior to the 
tip; sides of head as in pale phase adult, but the light ochraceous- 
buff areas cross-barred with narrow dusky lines (actually the tips 
of the feathers) ; lower throat pale, light ochraceous-buff narrowly 
barred with grayish hair brown to deep drab ; anterior part of breast 
more heavily washed with pale ochraceous-buff; rest of breast and 
entire abdomen white, crossed by broad, closely spaced, but somewhat 
broken bands of grayish hair brown, the middle of the abdomen 
and lower breast unbarred; sides and flanks dusky grayish olive- 
brown barred with white or buffy white ; thighs and vent like sides of 
breast but somewhat darker; under tail coverts and under wing 
coverts as in adult. 

Natal down. — Short, thick, black down completely covering the head 
and body. 

AdAilt maZe.— Wing 159-177 (163.4) ; tail 56-72.5 (65.9) ; exposed 
culmen 58-65.5 (62.5) ; tarsus 52-64 (58.4) ; middle toe without claw 
50.5-60 (55.1mm.)." 



""It is suggested by Bent (U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 135, 1927, 262) that this 
phase is an early adult plumage and that the dark phase is acquired later. 
I know of no evidence supporting this statement and have yet to see a pale 
adult molting into a dark one. The Ught phase is rarer than the dark one. 

"Eighteen specimens from Illinois, Missouri, District of Columbia, Virginia, 
Alabama, Louisiana, South Carolina, and Elorida. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 85 

A(Mt female.— Wing 147-162 (154.3) ; taU 60-70 (64.4) ; exposed 
column 50-63 (61.9) ; tarsus 49.5-58 (54) ; middle toe without claw 
46-56 (50.8 mm.). «« 

Range. — ^Breeds in marshes, almost always fresh, occasionally brack- 
ish, but not salt, from southern Minnesota (Jackson; Faribault; Was- 
eca; Minneapolis) ; southern Wisconsin (Madison; Janesville; Jeffer- 
son County; Kacine) ; southern Ontario (St. Clair Flats; Listowel) ; 
northern Ohio (Port Clinton; Middle Bass Island; Cleveland) ; New 
York (Buffalo; Branchport; Ithaca; near New York City; Long 
Island) ; and Connecticut (Saybrook) ; south through New Jersey 
(Avalon; Summit; Newark; etc.); Pennsylvania (near Philadel- 
phia) ; Maryland (Marlborough ; Tolchester) ; District of Columbia ; 
Virginia (Wallops Island; Alexandria; Woodbridge; etc.) ; North 
Carolina (Ealeigh; Lake Ellis) ; South Carolina (Waverly Mills; 
Mount Pleasant ; Frogmore) ; and Georgia (Savannah ; Blackbeard 
Island) ; to Florida (Titusville; Fort Myers; Tarpon Springs; Talla- 
hassee) ; Mississippi (Vicksburg) ; Louisiana (Calcasieu) ; and 
rarely Texas (Corpus Christi) ; west to Oklahoma (Wister) ; 
northwestern Arkansas (Eureka Springs) ; eastern Kansas 
(Wichita; Stafford Coimty; Manhattan); eastern Nebraska (Falls 
City ; Lincoln ; Omaha) ; western Iowa (Wall Lake ; probably 
Sioux City) ; and southwestern Minnesota (Heron Lake) . 

Winters in the southern part of the breeding range and coast regions 
of Louisiana and Texas, rarely to east-central Mexico. North to 
Texas (Brownsville; Corpus Christi); southern Louisiana (New Or- 
leans; Octave Pass; Vermilion Bay; Mandeville) ; Mississippi 
(Hancock County) ; Alabama (Greensboro) J and South Carolina 
(Mount Pleasant; Port Eoyal; Frogmore); Georgia (Savarmah; 
Blackbeard Island) ; and south to Florida (Titusville; Fort Myers) ; 
and rarely Mexico (Veracruz — Tlacotalpan) . Occasional in winter 
in Michigan. 

Ti/pe locality. — ^Kentucky, South Carolina, Louisiana, and north to 
Camden, N. J., and Philadelphia=Charleston, S. C. 

Rallus crepitans (not of Gmelin) Wilson, Amer. Orn., vii, 1813, 112, part, pi. 

62, fig. 2 (original of figures now in coll. Mus. Comp. Zool., see Faxon, 

BuU. Mus. Comp. Zool., lix, 1915, 132). 
(?) Ralhis crepitans AiiEasr. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 1872, 172, 182 (Ogden, 

Utah). 
Rallus elegans AuDtrBON, Orn. Biogr., iii, 1835, 27, pi. 203 (s. e. United States 

or interior of South Carolina) ; Synopsis, 1839, 215; Birds Amer., Svo ed., v, 

1842, 160, pi. 309.— BoNAPABTE, Geogr. and Comp. List, 1838, 52— Kenni- 



"^ Fourteen specimens from Illinois, District of Columbia, Maryland, Virginia, 
Louisiana, and Florida. 



86 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

coTT, Trans. lUinois Agr. Assoc, i, 1855, 386 (niinois).— Cassin, in 
Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., Ix, 1858, 746.— Baibd, Cat Birds North Amer., 
1859, no. 552.— Hot, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst, for 1864 (1865), 438 (Mis- 
souri ).—Dbessee, Ibis, 1866, 401 (s. Texas) .—La weence, Ann. Lye. Nat 
Hist. New York, viii, 1866, 295 (vicinity New York City) .— Solateb and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 444, part (monogr.). — Tubnbuix., 
Birds Eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 1869, 42 (Phila. ed., p. 33). — 
Snow, Birds Kansas, 1878, 10.— Coues, Check-list, 1874, No. 466, ed. 2, 1882, 
No. 676; Birds Northwest, 1874, 535, part (excl. synonyms under "b. obso- 
letus").—PmsDiE, Bull. Nutt. Om. Club, ii, 1877, 22 (Nahant, Mass., Nov. 21, 
1875); iu, 1878, 140 (Sudbury Meadows, Mass.).— Bbbweb, Proc. Boston 
Soc. Nat. Hist., xix, 1878, 307 (Nahant, Mass., spring 1876).— Bbown (N. C), 
Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vli, 1882, 60 (Scarboro Marsh, near Portland, Maine, 
Oct. 8, 1881), 124 (Portland, Conn., Sept. 17, 1879) .— Bailet (H. B.), Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, vUi, 1883, 42 (St. Simon Island, Ga., breeding).— Baibd, 
Bbewee, and Ridgwat, Water Birds North Amer., i, 1884, 353, part (excl. 
syn. "b. tenuirostris"). — American Obnithologists' Union, Check-list, 1886, 
and ed. 2, 1895, No. 208; ed. 3, 1910, p. 101.— Dutches, Auk. v, 1888, 176 
(Long Island records). — Scott, Auk, vi. 1889, 153 (Tarpon Springs and 
Caloosahatchee River, Fla.) ; ix, 1892, 212 (Caloosahatchee River, breed- 
ing). — Thompson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1890, 494 (Winnipeg and Car- 
berry, Manitoba). — Muxeb (G. S.), Auk, ix, 1892, 396 (North Truro, Mass., 
Feb. 1892). — Shabpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 8, part (Kankakee 
and Chicago, IU. ; De Soto County and Tarpon Springs, Fla. ; Browns- 
ville, Tex.). — Stone, Birds Eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 1894, 
66 (records). — Bbock, Auk, xiii, 1896, 79 (Falmouth, Mass., Sept. 19, 
1895).— MoEBis, Auk. xiii, 1896, 86 (near Spriogflelcl, Mass., Oct. 9, 1895) ; 
xxix, 1912, 237 (near Springfield, Mass., Aug. 30, 1911) ; xxx, 1913, 580 
(near Springfield, Aug. 22, 1913).— Posson, Auk, xvi, 1899, 194, (Carleton, 
Orleans County, N. Y., Aug. 1880). — Betee, Proc. Louisiana Soc. Nat. for 
1897-99 (1900), 93 (Louisiana, abundant winter resident). — Kumuen and 
Hollistee, Wisconsin Nat. Hist Soc. Bull. 3, 1903, 38 (Wisconsin; hab- 
its).— Wiujams (R. W.), Auk, xxi, 1904, 452 (Leon County, Fla., resi- 
dent). — Rhoads and Pennock, Auk, xxii, 1905, 198 (Delaware, resident). — 
Faeley, Auk. xxii, 1905, 409 (Cambridge, Mass. Dec. 30, 1896).— Wilson (B. 
H.), Wils. BuU., No. 54, 1906, 2 (Scott County, Iowa, breeding) .—Fmming, 
Auk, xxiii, 1906, 447 (Toronto, Ontario, rare migrant) ; xxx, 1913, 226 (Toronto, 
Apr. 24, 1907).— Holmes, WUs. BuU., No. 58, 1907, 22 (Summit, N. J., breed- 
ing).— Burns, WUs. Bull., No. 58, 1907, 32 (Chester County, Pa., May 
4). — ^Widmann, Birds Missouri, 1907, 58 (common summer resident). — 
Tavebnee and Swales, Wils. BuU., No. 60, 1907, 83 (Point Pelee, Ontario, 
June, Sept., Nov., and Dec. 31). — ^Andbeson, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci., xi, 
1907, 206, (Iowa; habits). — Knight, Birds Maine, 1908, 138 (Maine rec- 
ords) .—Kennaed, Auk, XXV, 1908, 218 (Needham, Mass., Oct. 10, 1907).— 
MiLLEE (R. F.), Auk, XXV, 1908, 218 (Philadelphia County, Pa., breed- 
ing).— Allen (G. M.), Auk, XXV, 1908, 234 (Peabody, Mass., Mar. 13, 
1908) .— Philipp, Auk, xxvu, 1910, 315 (EUis Lake, N. C, breeding). — CJoey, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Publ. 131, 1909, 881 (Illinois; Wisconsin) .—Wayne, 
Birds South Carolina, 1910, 35 (resident in fresh-water ponds and marshes; 
habits). — BEATON, Birds New York, i, 1910, 271, pi. 25 (summer resident). — 
Howe, Auk, xxvU, 1910, 339 (New Barnstable, Mass., Dec. 30 or 31, 1909.) — 
Bareows, Michigan Bird Life, 1912, 152. — Fobbush, Game-birds, WUd-fowl, 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 87 

and Shore-birds, 1912, 203 (biography).— Sage, Bishop, and Bliss, Birds 
Connecticut, 1913, 48.— Batnabd, Auk, xxx, 1913, 243 (Alachua County, 
Fla., breeding) .-Boss, Auk, xxx, 1913, 436 (Bennington, Vt, 1 specimen, 
May).— Hathaway, Auk, xxc, 1913, 549 (Rhode Island records).— Cooke, 
U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 14, fig. 5, map (range and migr. routes).— 
GoLSAN and Holt, Auk, xxxi, 1914, 218 (Autauga and Montgomery Counties, 
Ala., breeding; descr. nest). — Faxon, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., lix, 1915, 132 
(original of fig. of "Ballus crepitans" of Wilson's Amer. Orn. in coll. Mus. 
Comp. Zool.).— Haelow, Auk, xxxv, 1918, 21 (breeding in Delaware Valley, 
Pennsylvania and New Jersey). — Pangbubn, Auk, xxxvi, 1919, 398 (Pinel- 
las County, Fla.).— Williams (J.), Wils. Bull, xxxi, 1919, 116 (Wakulla 
County, Fla., breeding) .—Phillips, Auk, xxxvi, 1919, 277 (Bucksport, 
Maine, Nov. 22, 1909) .— Ebichsen, Auk, xxxvi, 1919, 884 (Liberty County, 
Ga., breeding) ; Wils. BuU., xxxiii, 1921, 74 (Chatham County, Ga., 
breeding).— MoAteb, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 294, 1920, 29 (Trout Lake, 
Nebr., formerly breeding). — Fleming and Lloyd, Auk, xxxvii, 1920, 432 
(Pictou Bay, Quebec, Mar. 28, 1917).— Cahn, Wils. BuU., xxxiii, 1921, 171 
(near Lake Caddo, ne. Texas; breeding?).— Howell (A. H), Auk, xxxviii, 
1921, 255 (Royal Palm Hammock, s. Florida, rare resident, probably breed- 
ing). — CouBT, Auk, xxxviii, 1921, 281 (breeding near Washington, D. C). — 
Bishop, Auk, xxxviii, 1921, 584 (Quinipiac marshes. Conn., Oct. 29, 1914). — ■ 
Johnston, Birds West Virginia, 1923, 87 (West Virginia). — Gbiscom, Birds 
New York City Region, 1923, 133 (status. New York City Region).— Nice 
(M. M. and L. B.), Birds Oklahoma, 1924, 29 (genl., Oklahoma).— Foebttsh, 
Birds Massachusetts and Other New England States, i, 1925, 352, pi. 23 
(col. fig.; descr.; habits; New England). — TiArson, Wils. Bull., xxxvii, 1925, 
25 (Sioux Falls, S. Dak. ) .— Pindae, WUs. Bull., xxxvii, 1925, 82 (Fulton 
County, Ky.). — Hamilton, Auk, xlii, 1925, 128 in text (nesting; Long 
Island, N. Y.) ; 266 in text (Bayside, Long Island). — Geiscom and Ceosby, 
Auk, xlii, 1925, 527 (Brownsville, Tex., status) .—Kueezi, Auk, xliii, 1926, 
234 in text (New York City). — Taveenee, Birds Western Canada, 1926, 125 
(descr.; habits; distr. ; w. Canada). — ^Bent, TJ. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 135, 1927, 
260 (life hist.; monogr.). — Linsdalb and Hall, Wils. Bull., xxxix, 1927, 
94 (s. of Lawrence, Douglas County, Kans.). — ^Linsdale, Auk, xliv, 

1927, 52 (Pratt, Kans.).— Ball, Auk, xliv, 1927, 258 (near Washington, 
D. C.).— Bent and Copeland, Auk, xliv, 1927, 377 (near Plant City, Fla.). — 
Pickens, Auk, xliv, 1927, 428 (near Greenwood, Fla.). — Pottee, Auk, xlv, 

1928, 94 in text (feeding on crabs).— Bailey, Auk, xlv, 1928, 277 (winter; 
Chenier au Tigre, La.). — Cheisty, Auk, xlv, 1928, 287 in text (Everglades, 
s. Florida). — Pickens, Wils. Bull., xl, 1928, 188 (lower Piedmont, near 
Greenwood, S. C.).— Wilson, Wils. BuU., xU, 1929, 183 (lake near Bowl- 
ing Green, Ky.).— Cooke, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xlii, 1929, 26 (Washing- 
ton, D. C). — Uenee, Abstr. Linn. Soc. New York, Nos. 39 and 40, 1930, 65 
(Union County, N. J.). — Fleming, Auk, xlvii, 1930, 67 (specimen, French- 
mans Bay, Lake Ontario).— Cahn, Wils. BuU., xlii, 1930, 215 (Little Egypt, 
111.).— Pieece, Wils. BuU., xUi, 1930, 262 (status, Buchanan County, 
Iowa).— Beown, Auk, xlviii, 1931, 130 (Berkshire County, Mass.). — 
DuMoNT, Auk, xlviii, 1931, 249 (Floating Island, s. of Tarpon Springs; 
s. of WaU Springs, Fla.). — Cheisty, Auk, xlviii, 1931, 367 (change in status; 
Sandusky Bay, Lake Brie). — Bailey and Weight, WUs. BuIL, xliii, 1931, 
193 (Avery Island; Chenier au Tigre, La.). — Taveenee, Birds Canada, 

272607 — tl 7 



88 

1934, 72 ( Canada ; regular in southern Ontario ; one record for Manitoba ) . — 
Obeeholsee, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxiv, 1937, 314 in text, 316 in text, 
337 in text, 345 In text (crit.). — Gowee, Wils. Bull., li, 1939, 44 in text (near 
Prudenville, Mich., Dec. 9, 1938). 

(?) Rallus elegans Henshaw, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, xi, 1874, 11 
(Ogden, Utah).— Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., iii, 1891, 320 
(Neuces Bay, Tex.; notes). 

[iJaZiMS] elegoMs Coues, Key North Amer. Birds, 1872, 273. — Shakpe. Hand- 
list, i, 1899, 93, part. 

Riallusl elegans Ridqwat, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, x, 1874, 387 (Illi- 
nois) ; Man. North Amer. Birds, 1887, 138. — Cotjes, Key North Amer. 
Birds, ed. 2, 1884, 672.— Kothschild, BuU. Brit. Orn. Club, xlviii, 1928, 
122 (eggs). 

[Rallus elegans'^ a. elegans Coues, Birds Northwest, 1874, 535 part (excl. 
syn. part). — Baird, BEEWEBi and Ridgway, Water Birds North Amer., i, 
1884, 353, 854. 

[Rallus elegans'i a. var. elegans Bidgwat, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 139 
(diagnosis). 

[Aramus] elegans Gray, Hand-list, iii, 1871, 59, No. 10417. 

[lAmnopardalis} elegans Heine and Reichenow, Norn. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 
320 (Texas; New York; "Central Amerika"). 

Rallus elegans elegans Howeix, Birds Alabama, 1924, 85 ; ed. 2, 1928, 85 
(distr. ; habits; Alabama). — Bailey, Birds Florida, 1925, 40, pi. 20 (col. 
fig. ; distr. ; Florida) . — Woethinoton and Todd, Wils. Bull., xxxviii, 1926, 
209 (Choctawhatchee Bay, Fla.).— Nice, Birds Oklahoma, rev. ed., 1931, 
84 (genl. ; Oklahoma). — Baebg, Univ. Arkansas Agr. Exp. Stat. Bull. 258, 
1931, 57 (descr. ; distr.; Arkansas). — [Aethue], Birds Louisiana, 1931, 
234 (descr.; status; Louisiana).— American Oenithologists' Union, Check- 
list North Amer. Birds, ed. 4, 1931, 95.— Howell, Florida Bird Life, 1932, 
202 (genl.; Florida).— Robeets, Birds Minnesota, i, 1932, 440 (distr.; 
habits; Minnesota). — Bakek, Auk, xlix, 1932, 100 (Crane Lake, Ontario). — 
Poole, Auk, xlix, 1932, 234 (Lake Ontelaunee, Pa.). — Gbiscom, Trans. Linn. 
Soc. New York, iii, 1933, 97 (Dutchess County, N. Y. ; rare summer resident). — 
Petebs, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 160. — Campbell and Campbell, 
WUs. Bull., xlvi, 1934, 122 (2 specimens; Erie Marsh, Monroe County, 
Mich., Feb. 8, 1934; Jerusalem Township, Lucas County, Ohio, Feb. 11). — 
Bbooks, Auk, 11, 1934, 249 (near Winfleld, W. Va., Dec. 31, 1930).— Bailey, 
Auk, 11, 1934, 399 (spec, Chenier au Tigre, La., January 1-5). — Du Mont, 
Univ. Iowa Studies Nat. Hist., xv, 1934, 61 (Iowa; uncommon migrant 
and rare summer resident). — Deadeeiok, Auk, liii, 1936, 455 (12 miles 
north of Hot Springs, Ark., Dec. 22, 1935; spec). — Duvall, Auk, liv, 1937, 
462 (Knotts Island, N. C. ) .-Obeeholsee, Bird Life Louisiana, 1938, 197 
(fairly common permanent resident in Louisiana — from Cameron Parish, 
Chenier au Tigre, New Iberia, and Octave Pass, north to the northwestern 
corner of the State). — Williams, Auk, Iv, 1938, 64 (not common, Galveston 
Island, Tex.).— Poland, Auk, Iv, 1938, 128 (Leetown, W. Va. ; breeding). — 
FOED, Auk, Iv, 1938, 138 (seen near Port Isabel, Tex., Mar. 19, 1987). — 
SurroN, Auk, Iv, 1938, 503 (breeding near Gate, Beaver County, Okla.). — 
Deadeeick, Wils. Bull., 1, 1938, 263 (Hot Springs National Park, Ark., 
Dec. 22, 1935). — Bennett and Hendeickson, Auk, Ivi, 1939, 36 (adapta- 
bility to environment). 



BIKDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 89 

Rallus ellegans] elegang Relet, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., nvi. Mar. 22, 1913, 
84, 85, in text.— Hicks, Wlls. Bull., xlv, 1933, !») (Ashtabula County, 
Ohio; very rare and local; nest and 7 eggs June 80).— Euor and Bago, 
Auk, U, 1934, 246 (seen at Northampton, Mass., Sept 13, 1933).— Hicks, 
Auk, liii, 1936, 228 (nesting near South Zanesville, and at Cambridge, 
Ohio) .—Poole, Auk, Iv, 1938, 516 (weight and wing surface). 

BALLUS ELEGANS BAMSDENI RUey 

Cuban King Rail 

Adults (sexes alike) . — Similar to the light phase of Rallug elegans 
elegans but smaller, more extensively white on the abdomen and lower 
breast, and with the upper part of the cheeks and auriculars slightly 
more grayish — ^gull gray to pale neutral gray. 

JvwencH. — Similar to that of the nominate race. 

Natal down. — ^Unknown. 

Admit wwzfe.— Wing 149-152.8 (151.2) ; tail 53-65 (56.4) ; exposed 
cuhnen 5S-58 (56.7) ; tarsus 52-56 (54.6) ; middle toe without claw 
45-50 (47.8 mm.).s» 

Adxdt fejrwle.—SVmg 134r-144.2 (141.4) ; taU 52-58.5 (57) ; exposed 
cuhnen 46-54 (51.4) ; tarsus 49-55 (51.9) ; middle toe without claw 
41.5-44 (42.8 mm.). =» 

Range. — ^Resident, but scarce, in Cuba (Guantanamo, Habana, 
Aguada de Pasajeros, Lake Ariguanaba, Bucuranao, Laguna del 
Siteo, Zapata Swamp, not in the larger lakes of the island) ; and the 
Isle of Pines (Siguanea, Los Indios, Pasadita, and Xueva Gerona). 

Type locality. — Guantanamo, Cuba. 

Rallus elegans (not of Audubon) Cabanis, Jonm. fur. Om., iv, 1836, 427 
(Cuba). — GiTN-DLACH, Joum. fiir Om., x, 1S62, 90 (Cuba; crit.) ; Contr. 
Om. Cubana, 1876, 188; Om. Cubana, 1895, 239. — ^Thienemann, Joum. fiir 
Om., V, 1857, 156 (Cuba; descr. ^gs). — Bbeweb, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat 
Hist., Tli, 1860, 308. — Cobt, Auk, v, 1888, 82 (Cuba; references) ; Ix, 1892, 
272 (Cuba) ; Birds West Indies, 1889, 253 (Cuba; excL syn. part) ; Cat 
West Indian Birds, 1892, 91 (Cuba). — Shabpe, Cat Birds Brit Mus., xxiii, 
1894, 8, part (Cnba).— Bond, Birds West Indies, 1936, 87 (Cuba and Isle 
of Pines). 

{1) Rallus elegans Bangs and Zappet, Amer. Nat., xxxix, 1905, 192 (Isle of 
Pines, Cuba). 

[RaUus'i elegant Gtjndlach, Joum. fiir Om., ix, 1861, 342 (Cuba) ; Rep. Fislco- 
Nat Cnba, i, 1865-66, 360.— Sclateb and Saivin, Norn. Av. Neotr., 1873, 139, 
part (Cuba). — Coet, List Birds West Indies, 1885, and rev. ed., 18S6, 2C 
(Cuba).— Shaepe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 93, part (Cuba). 

R[allus'\ elegans Coues, Key North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 18S4, 672, part (Cuba). 

[Rallus elegans] a. elegans CorES, Birds Northwest, 1874, 538 (in synonymy). 



" Seven specimens from Cuba and the Isle of Pines. 
"" Nine si)ecimens from Cuba and the Isle of Pines. 



90 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Rallus elegans ramsdeni Eilet, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xxvi, 1913, 83 
(Guantanamo, Cuba; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus. ) .—Cooke, V. S. Dept. Agr. BuU. 
128, 1914, 17 (range).— Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., x, 1916, 200 (Siguanea, 
Isle o( Pines; crit.).— Bahboub, Mem. Nutt. Orn. CI., vi, 1923, 52.— Dait- 
roETH, Wils. Bull., xl, 1928, 179 (Laguna del Siteo, Cuba). — Bent, U. S. 
Nat. Mus. Bull. 135, 1927, 264, in text (Cuba). — Peters, Check-list Birds 
of World, ii, 1934, 160.— Danfoeth, Journ. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico, xix, 
1935, 425 (Guane, Cuba; spec; food habits). — Obeeholsee, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., Ixxxiv, 1937, 314, 315 in text. 

B[allus'\ ellegans'i ramsdeni Bond, Birds West Indies, 1936, 87 in text (Cuba 
and Isle of Pines: descr.). 

RALLUS LIMICOLA LEHICOLA Vieillot 
ViEGiNiA Rail 

Adult (sexes alike). — Similar to the dark phase of Rallus elegans 
elegans but generally darker, the sides of the head more distinctly 
and more uniformly grayish plumbeous, the sides and abdomen cinna- 
momeous like the breast but paler, instead of being barred like the 
flanks, and the under wing coverts and axillars not barred but irreg- 
ularly marked with white on the tips and margins of the feathers. 
The birds are subject to considerable variation, but the variations are 
difficult to group into definite color phases : Forehead, crown, occiput, 
and upper nape dark fuscous, the feathers edged narrowly with 
mummy brown to sepia; the hind neck, scapulars, interscapulars, 
upper and lower back dark fuscous to fuscous-black medially, broadly 
edged with Saccardo's umber to buffy Dresden brown; the dark 
centers increasing in width posteriorly, the rump, upper tail coverts, 
and rectrices with the dark centers extending over all but the narrow 
lateral margins of the feathers; upper wing coverts cinnamon-rufous 
to russet, dusky at their extreme bases, which are completely hidden, 
and on the inner portion of the inner web of the greater coverts; 
remiges sepia to slightly grayish sepia, the outer web of the outer- 
most primary very slightly paler ; a light stripe from the base of the 
maxUla to the anteromedian portion of the eye pinkish bufF to light 
pinkish cinnamon ; rest of lores, cheeks, circumocular area, and auric- 
ulars deep neutral gray, paling posteriorly (on auriculars) to neutral 
gray, occasionally washed slightly with hair brown ; malar area, lower 
cheeks, and lower sides of neck, entire throat, breast, and sides of 
upper abdomen pinkish cinnamon to orange-cinnamon, darkest and 
richest on the lower throat, the breast, and the sides of the upper 
abdomen; the upper part of the sides of the neck pale Saccardo's 
umber to Dresden brown, the feathers with obcure dusky median 
stripes; chin varying from pure white to light pinkish cinnamon; 
median and lower portions of abdomen light ochraceous-salmon to 
light ochraceous-buff ; the feathers of the upper median part of the 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 91 

abdomen faintly and narrowly tipped with white; flanks fuscous- 
black to black barred with white, the black interspaces two to three 
times as wide as the narrow white bars ; thighs like the lower abdomen 
but washed with hair brown; under tail coverts white tipped with 
cinnamon and subterminally marked with blackish on their inner 
webs ; under wing coverts like the remiges but edged and tipped with 
very pale buflfy or whitish in varying amounts ; iris bright red ; biU 
brownish on maxilla, dull orange red on mandible, the tip dusky; 
tarsi and toes dusky brownish red. 

JwvendL (sexes alike) . — Forehead, crown, occiput, nape, upper and 
lower back, rump, and upper tail coverts dull black, the feathers of 
the head very narrowly and faintly edged with brownish ; hind neck, 
scapulars, and interscapulars dull black edged with Dresden brown; 
wings as in adult but the upper coverts mixed with dull sepia; 
rectrices dull fuscous-black very narrowly edged with Dresden brown ; 
superciliary stripe from base of maxilla to upper midpoint of eye 
whitish ; lores, cheeks, auriculars deep mouse gray mottled with whitish 
(caused by the narrow tips of the feathers) ; chin and upper throat 
white to grayish white, the throat mottled with dusky gray; lower 
throat, breast, sides, flanks, and abdomen dull fuscous-black mottled 
with white, the center of the breast and abdomen largely whitish; 
thighs dark hair brown mottled with darker; under tail coverts 
broadly tipped with pale cinnamon, otherwise black barred with 
white ; in some specimens the abdomen is slightly suffused with pink- 
ish buff; "iris pale gray brown; bill-maxilla blackish, mandible red- 
brown; feet light reddish brown" (Brooks). 

Natal down. — "Long, thick, rather coarse, black down, glossed 
bluish on the head and greenish on the back" (Bent) ; none seen in 
connection with the present writing, but two young birds in post- 
natal molt have the head down greenish, not bluish (U. S. N. M. Nos. 
141073 and 261990). 

Adult male.—'Wmg, 94^113 (105.9) ; tail 38.5-54 (44.3) ; cuhnen 
36.5^4.5 (41.7); tarsus 31.5-39 (35.4); middle toe without claw 
34.5-35.5 (36.7 mm.)." 

"Twenty-six specimens from Massachusetts, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Dis- 
trict of Colimibia, Virginia, Illinois, Missouri, Minnesota, Utah, Montana, 
British Columbia, Washington, California, and Arizona. 

Dickey (Condor, xxx, 1928, 322) separated the birds of western North America, 
on the basis of larger size, under the name of pacificus. The material studied 
In the present connection does not bear out the degree of difference Dickey 
reported. While it is true that the maximal measurements of western birds 
are greater than those of eastern ones, the bulk of the material of both lies 
within the limits of overlapping measurements, so that only a comparatively 
smaU percent of the specimens could actually be separated by their size char- 



92 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Adult female—Wing 95-105.5 (101.2) ; tail, 38^7.5 (45.0) ; culmen 
36^2.5 (40.2) ; tarsus 31-37.5 (34.1) ; middle toe without claw 32-37.5 
(34.3 mm.).^^ 

Bcmge. — Breeds in fresh-water marshes or, at least, near fresh water 
from Nova Scotia (Kentville) ; New Brunswick (Scotch Lake; 
St. John) ; southern Quebec (Quebec; Montreal) ; Ontario (Ottawa; 
Toronto; Kingston; King Township; Hamilton; York Factory (?) ; 
Wellington and Waterloo Counties) ; Michigan (Detroit ; Cheboygan 
County; Bay City; Huron Mountain; Pontiac; Douglas Lake) ; Wis- 
consin (West De Pere; Kelley Brook; Madison) ; Minnesota (Leach 
Lake; Fort Snelling; Millelacs Lake); southern Manitoba (Shoal 



acters. The table below gives the actual data on which this conclusion la 
based. As may be seen from it, the supposed size discrepancy does not exist at 
all in the females examined : 



Locality 



Number 
of speci- 
mens 



Wing 



Tail 



Culmen 



Taisus 



Middle toe 

without 

claw 



Mdle> 

Massachusetts 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania- 

District of Columbia 

Virginia— 

Illinois. 

Missouri 

Minnesota 

Montana 

Utah 

British Columbia 

Washington 

California 

Arizona. 

Females 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania. 

District of Columbia 

Virginia 

Alabama... 

Illinois 

Utah 

New Mexico . 

California 

Mexico, Lower CaltTornla. 



106.5 

101 

105.6 

103-107 

(105) 

106-109 

94 

103 

104 

99 

109 

113 

110.8 

103-111 

(107.4) 

106 



101 

105 

105.5 

95-100 

102 

101.6 

98 

96 

103-103 

103 

97-104 

(101.4) 



44.5 

43 

41 

43.44 

(43.8) 

44-46 

42 

43 

44 

38.5 

43 

48 

54 

41-48. 5 

(44.8) 

46 



44 
42 
41 

40-44 

45 

47.5 

42 

41 

41-44 
44 

38-48 

(42.8) 
43 



40.6 

44.6 

42 

38-42. 5 

(40.5) 

40-42 

36.5 

39 

43 

42.6 

45 

43.6 

44 

36. 5-44. 6 

(40.8) 

41 



37 

42.5 

40 

36. 5-37 

38 

40 

36 

37.5 

39-39. 5 

37 

35-39 

(37.4) 

38.5 



34 

33 

35.6 

34-36 

(34.8) 

34-36 

31.6 

33.5 

35.6 

35 

37 

39 

35 

31. 6-39 

(36.8) 



33 

36 

3G 

32-33 

32.5 

36 

31 

32,5 

32-33 

36 

32-37 

(313) 

37.6 



37 

37.6 

38.6 

34.6-37 

(34.6) 

35-36 

35 

37 

39.6 

36.6 



38.6 

35-39 

(36.4) 

39 



32 

37 

37.6 

35-36 

33.6 

34 

33.6 

33 

33.5-34 

36 

30-36.6 

(33.3) 

36 



" Nineteen specimens from Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania, District of Columbia, Virginia, Alabama, Illinois, Utah, New Mexico, 
California, and Mexico (Lower California). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 93 

Lake; Chemawawin; Winnipeg; Winnipegosis ; Eeabwin) ; southern 
Saskatchewan (Indian Head); Montana (Columbia Falls; Great 
Falls; Fort Keogh) ; and southern British Columbia (Beaver Creek; 
Goldstream; Chilliwack; and probably 158-mile House and Okana- 
gan) ; south to North Carolina (Gull Shoal) ; Ohio (Lewiston Kes- 
ervoir) ; Indiana (Bluffton) ; Kentucky (Henderson) ; Illinois (Chi- 
cago; Mount Carmel; Vandalia) ; Missouri (rarely — Clark County) ; 
Iowa (Newton; Boone); Nebraska (London; Lincoln; Valentine); 
Colorado (Clear Creek; Fountain; San Luis Lakes); New Mexico 
(probably, Lake Burford) ; Mexico (Valley of Mexico; Lerma; pos- 
sibly Santa Cruz; Sonora; Tizimin, Yucatan); Nevada (Carson 
City) ; California (throughout south to Escondido) ; and Lower 
California (Pacific slope of the northwestern section of the peninsula, 
San Eamon, and probably El Rosario). 

Winters from North Carolina (Pea Island) ; southern Illinois 
(Mount Carmel) ; Arkansas (Stuttgart) ; Colorado (Clear Creek; 
Barr) ; Utah (Provo; St. George ?) ; and southern British Columbia 
(Chilliwack; Okanagan) ; south to Florida (uncommon in northern 
half of State; Coronado Beach; Orlando; Cedar Keys; Lukens; 
St. Marks; Pensacola; Daytona Beach; Leon County; Goose Creek; 
Wakulla County; Tarpon Springs; Sanibel Island; Titusville; Fort 
Myers) ; Bermuda (rarely) ; the Gulf States; Mexico (Jalapa; Vera- 
cruz ; Lerma, Valley of Mexico ; Sinaloa, Mazatlan) ; Lower California 
(San Quentin; Cape district; Colorado delta) ; and to Guatemala 
(Antigua; Dueiias; Ciudad Vieja — ^taken only in September and 
October) . 

Casual in summer in Newfoundland (Reeks) and Labrador (Hamil- 
ton Inlet ?) ; in winter north to Massachusetts (Barnstable ; Cape Cod ; 
Worcester) ; New York (Long Island) ; New Jersey (near Trenton) ; 
Maryland (Easton) ; Virginia (Virginia Beach) ; and Montana 
(Helena). 

Accidental in Cuba, the Isle of Pines, and Bermuda. 

Tyfe locality. — fitats Unis= Pennsylvania. 

[Rallus] virginiamis (not of Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, i, 1766, 263: Virginia; 
based on Catesby, i, 70; Brisson, v, 175) Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, pt. 11, 1789, 
716 (Pennsylvania).— Denny, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1847, 40 (Jamaica; 
Mexico; United States). — Cabanis, Journ. fiir Orn., 1861, 342 (Cuba). — 
GuNDLACH, Eep. Fisico-Nat. Cuba, 1, 1865-66, 861 (Cuba). — Laweence, Ann. 
Lye. Nat. Hist, New York, vlii, 1866, 295 (vicinity New York City). — Coties, 
Key North Amer. Birds, 1872, 273. — Sclateb and Salvin, Norn. Av. Neotr., 
1873, 139.— CoRT, List Birds West Indies, 1885, and rev. ed., 1886, 29 
(Cuba).— Shakpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 94. 

Rallus virginianus Tueton, Syst. Nat., i, 1806, 432.— Wilson, Amer. Orn., vii, 1813, 
109, pL 62, fig. 1 (not of vol. vi, 1812, pi. 48, fig. 1, which = sora rail).— 
BoNAPABTE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, ii, 1827, 334 ; Geogr. and Comp. 
List, 1838, 53.— NtFTTAii, Man. Orn. United States and Canada, Water Birds, 
1834, 205.— Audubon, Orn. Blogr., ill, 1935, 41, pi. 205; v, 1839, 573; Synopsis, 



94 Exn^LETEsr so, rnsriTED states national museum 

1839, 216; Birds Amer., 8vo ed., v, 1842, 174, pi. 311.— Peabodt, Rep. Om. 
Massachusetts, 1839, 374. — Woodhotjse, Rep. Sitgreaves' Expl. Zufii and Colo- 
rado Rivers, 1853, 101 (Rio Laguna; specimen).— Thompson, Nat. Hist. Ver- 
mont, 1853, 106.— Hbnbt, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vii, 1855, 314 
(New Mexico); xi, 1859, 108 (New Mexico).— Kennicott, Trans. Illinois 
Agr. Assoc, i, 1855, 587 (Illinois). — Cabanis, Journ. fur Orn., 1856, 427 
(Cuba) . — Cassin, in Baird, Rep. PaciQc R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 748 ; Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, xiv, 1862, 322 (CaUfornia).— Xantus, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Philadelphia, xi, 1859, 192 (Fort Tejon, Calif.). — ^Maetens, Journ. fiir 
Orn., 1859, 220 (Bermuda).— Baibd, Cat. North Amer. Birds, 1859, No. 554; 
Rep. U. S. and Mes. Bound. Surv., ii, pt. 2, 1859, 26 (Santa Cruz, Sonora; 
June). — Salvin and Sclateb, Ibis, 1860, 277 (Antigua, Guatemala; Sept.). — 
Breweb, Proc. Boston, Soc. Nat. Hist, vii, 1860, 308 (Cuba).— Gtjndlach, 
Journ. fur Orn., is, 1861, 342 (Cuba); 1875, 357 (Cuba; habits); Contr. 
Orn. Cubana, 1876, 189 ; Orn. Cubana, 1895, 241.— Vebbill, Proc. Essex Inst., 
ill, 1862, 158 (Maine; breeds; uncommon). — Schuegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, v, 
No. 30, livr. 7, 1865, 10.— Dbesser, Ibis, 1866, 40 (s. Texas).— McIlweaith, 
Proc. Essex Inst., v, 1866, 93 (Hamilton, Ontario). — Cottes, Proc. Acad. Nat 
Sci. Philadelphia, xviii, 1866, 98 (Fort Whipple, Ariz.) ; Ibis, 1866, 265 
(Mojave River); Check List, 1874, No. 467; ed. 2, 1882, No. 677; Birds 
Northwest, 1874, 536. — Solater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 
445 (monogr.). — ^Turnbitll, Birds Eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 
1869, 42 (Phila. ed., p. 33). — Aiken, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xv, 1872, 
210 (Colorado, breeding). — Henshaw, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist New York, xi, 
1874, 11 (Utah).— Lawrence, Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, ii, 1874, 311 (Ma- 
zatian, Sinaloa, in winter). — Ridgwat, Orn. 40th Parallel, 1877, 612 (near 
Pyramid Lake, Nev., May) ; Om. Illinois, ii, pt. i, 1895, 91. — Bkewsteb, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, iv, 1879, 45 (descr. downy young). — Meabns, Bull. Nutt. Orn. 
Club, iv, 1879, 197 (Fort Klamath, Oreg., July).— Rbid, U. S. Nat. Mus. BulL 
25, 1884, 246 (Bermuda, Nov. 6, 1851). — Baibd, Breweb, and Ridgway, Water 
Birds North Amer., i, 1884, 363.— Tubneb, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 
248 (Hamilton Inlet, Ungava). — ^Amebican Ornithologists' Union, Check- 
list, 1886, and ed. 2, 1895, No. 212 ; ed. 3, 1910, p. 103.— Goss, Auk. iii, 1886, 
115 (Kansas, breeding). — Sbion, Auk. iii, 1886, 150 (Winnipeg and Winnl- 
pegosis region, Manitoba, summer resident). — ^Dwight, Auk, iv, 1887, 16 (Cape 
Breton Island, Nova Scotia). — Coopeb, Auk, iv, 1887, 90 (Saticoy, "Ventura 
County, Calif., resident).— Beckham, Auk, iv, 1887, 124 (Pueblo, Colo., 
Nov.).— Cory, Auk, v, 1888, 53 (Cuban references) ; Birds West Indies, 1889, 
254 ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, 91 ; Field Mus. Nat Hist., Pub. 131, 1909, 
382 (Illinois; Wisconsin). — Bbyant (W. E.), Proc. California Acad. Sci., ser. 
2, ii, 1889, 270 (San Quentin, Lower California, winter).— Thompson, Proc. 
U. S. Nat Mus., xiii, 1890, 494 (Winnipeg and Carberry, Manitoba).— Law- 
BENCB (R. H.), Auk, ix, 1892, 309 (Grays Harbor, Wash. ) .— Fishee (A. K.), 
North Amer. Fauna, No. 7, 1893, 21 (Death Valley, Calif., Feb. 3; Ash 
Meadows, Nov., Mar. ; Lone Pine, Owens Valley, June 7-10) . — Shabpe, Cat 
Birds Brit. Mus. xxiii, 1894, 16, pi. 2, fig. 2 (Tizimin, Yucatan, June 23; 
Duenas, Guatemala, Oct; Ciudad Viejo, Guatemala, Sept).— Rotzeix, Birds 
Nazareth, Pa., 1895, 3 (summer resident).— Hoffmann, Auk, xii, 1895, 188 
(Barnstable, Cape Cod, Mass., Dec. 31, 1894).— Dawson, Auk, xiv, 1897, 172 
(Okawgan, Wash., breeding) .—Gbinneix (J.), Pasadena Acad. Sci. Publ. 2, 
1898, 15 (Los Angeles County, Calif., breeding ?) ; Pacific Coast Avif., No. U, 
1915, 46 (breeding s. to Escondido, San Diego County, Calif.; common in 
winter). — Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., x, 1898, 36 (Jalafa, Vera- 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 95 

cruz).— Cooke, Bull. Colorado Agr. Exp. Stat, 1898, 158 (near Fountain, 
El Paso County, Colo., breeding) ; U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 22, fig. 
10 (range and migr. routes). — BurtEB, Rep. State GeoL Indiana, for 1897 
(1898), 674 (breeding in De Kalb, Lake, La Porte, Elkhart, and Starke 
Counties, n. Indiana). — Mailliabd, Condor, iil, 1901, 121 (San Benito County, 
Calif., resident).— Woodcock, Oregon Agr. Exp. Stat. Bull. 68, 1902, 19 
(Oregon range). — Beewsteb, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xli, 1902, 56 (San Jose 
del Cabo, Lower California, Oct. 24, Nov. 4; San Quintin, winter). — Aixen 
(G. M.), Proc. Manchester Inst Arts and Scl., iv, 1902, 83 (New Hampshire, 
local summer resident). — Pbeble, North Amer. Fauna, No. 22, 1902, 92 (York 
Factory, n. Ontario, Chemawawin, Saskatchewan). — Salyin and Godmaw, 
Biol. Centr.Amer.,Aves, iii, 1903, 316 (Mazatldn, Sinaloa ; Matamoras, Tamau- 
lipas ; Jalapa, Veracruz ; Tizimin, Yucatan ; Duefias, Ciudad Viejo, and Anti- 
gua, Guatemala). — ^Kumixen and Hoixisteb, Wisconsin Nat Hist. Soc. Bull. 3, 
1903, 38 (Wisconsin; habits). — ^Rhoads and Pknnock, Auk, xxii, 1905, 198 
(Delaware, summer resident). — ^Bowles, Auk, xxill, 1906, 141 (Tacoma, 
Washington, breeding). — Fleming, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 447 (Toronto, Ontario, 
summer resident).— Woodbufp, Chicago Acad. Sci. BuU. 6, 1907, 58 (Chicago 
area, common summer resident). — Widmann, Birds Missouri, 1907, 59 (one 
breeding record). — Shabp, Condor, ix, 1907, 86 (San Diego County, CaUf., 
breeding). — ^Andesson, Proc Davenport, Acad. Sci., xi, 1907, 207 (Iowa; 
habits). — Httnt, Auk, xxv, 1908, 81 (Camden, N. J., breeding). — Knight, 
Birds Maine, 1908, 140 (summer resident). — Goldman, Condor, s, 1908, 181 
(Lerma, Valley of Toluca, Mexico, breeding), 202 (Tulare County, Calif.; 
breeding ?).— Pennock, Auk, xxv, 1908, 219 (Philadelphia County, Pa., 
breeding).- MiLLEB (H. F.), Auk, xxv, 1908, 219 (Philadelphia County, Pa., 
breeding).— Jones (L.), Wlls. Bull., xxl, 1909, 122 (Lorain County, n. Ohio, 
breeding). — Hendeeson, Univ. Colorado Stud. ZooL, vi, 1909, 227 (Boulder 
County, Colo., breeding). — Wayne, Birds South Carolina, 1910, 37 (winter 
resident; crit.). — ^Eaton, Birds New York, i, 1910, 274, pi. 25 (col. fig.; 
descr; distr. New York; habits). — Vishee, Auk, xxviu, 1911, 9 (Harding 
County, S. Dak., breeding). — Swaeth, Rep. Birds and Mam. Vancouver 
Island, 1912, 18 (breeding).— Wnxcrr, Pacific Coast Avif., No. 7, 1912, 32 
(breeding in San Diego, OraDge, Ventura, and Los Angeles Counties, s. 
Cahfomia). — Baeeows, Michigan Bird Life, 1912, 154 (Michigan; genl.). — 
FoBBUSH, Game-birds, Wild-fowl, and Shore-birds, 1912, 207 (habits). — 
Hablow, Auk, xxLx, 1912, 468 (Chester County, Pa., breeding) ; xxxv, 1918, 
21 (breeding nearly throughout Pennsylvania and in Ocean and Burlington 
Counties, N. J.). — Sage, Bishop, and Buss, Birds Connecticut, 1913, 49 
(genl. ; Connecticut).— Btjnkeb, Kansas Univ. Sci. Bull. 7, 1913, 143 (Kansas, 
rare summer resident). — ^Betts, Univ. Colorado Stud. Zool., s, 1913, 188 
Boulder County, Colo., breeding). — Hathaway, Auk, xxx, 1913, 550 (Point 
Judith, etc., R. I., breeding.) — Mousley, Auk, xxxiii, 1916, 63 (Hatley, Que- 
bec, rare transient). — ^Beooks (A.), Auk, xxxiv, 1917, 36 (Chilliwack, British 
Columbia, resident).— McAtee, V. S. Dept Agr. BuU. 794, 1920, 29 (Cherry 
County, Nebr., June; breeding ?). — Cahn, Wils. Bull., xxxii, 1920, 40 (Itasca 
County, Minn., breeding).- Lincoln, Auk, xxxvii, 1920, 64 (Clear Creek dis- 
trict Colo., resident). — ^Evebmann, Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. for 1920 (1921), 
331 (Vigo County, Ind., rare summer resident, breeding). — ^Wetmoee, Ank, 
xxxvii, 1920, 394 (Lake Burford, N. Mex., May, June; breeding ?).— Couet, 
Auk, xxxviii, 1921, 281 (near Washington, D. C, breeding). — Jbweit, Condor, 
xxUi, 1921, 92 (Netarts Bay, Oreg.).— Robeetson, Condor, xxiv, 1922, 34 In 
text (San Bernardino Mountains).— Dawson, Birds California (students' 



96 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

ed.), iii, 1923, 1537 (genl.; California).— Gktscom, Birds New York City 
Region, 1923, 134 (New York City region).— Johnston, Birds West Virginia, 

1923, 87 (status in West Virginia).— Nice (M. M. and L. B.), Birds Oklahoma, 

1924, 29 (genl. ; Oklahoma).— Gbinnell and Stoeee, Animal Life in Yosemite, 
1924, 260 (descr. ; distr.; habits; Yosemite).— Howell, Birds Alabama, 1924, 
88 ; ed. 2, 1928, 88 (distr. in Alabama).— Muxeb, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist, 
1, 1924, 308 (ptilosls). — Btjkleigh, Wlls. Bull, xxxvi, 1924, 70 (breeding; 
Centre County, Pa.). — Pindae, Wlls. Bull., xxxvi, 1924, 204 (eastern Arkan- 
sas). — Simmons, Birds Austin Region, 1925, 45 (Austin, Texas; habits; 
descr.; etc.).— Bailbt, Birds Florida, 1925, 42, pi. 23 (col. fig.; distr.; 
Florida). — Wtman and Buenell, Field Book Birds Southwestern United 
States, 1925, 62 (distr.; descr.). — Foebush, Birds Massachusetts and Other 
New England States, 1, 1925, 355, pi. 23 (col.flg. ; descr. ; habits; N.England).— 
Laeson, Wlls. Bull., xxxvii, 1925, 25 (Sioux Falls region, S. Dak.). — Pindab, 
Wlls. Bull., xxxvii, 1925, 82 (status Fulton County, Ky.). — Chbistt, Wils. 
Bull., xxxvii, 1925, 209 (summer ; Huron Mountain, Mich.). — Neilson, Condor, 
XX vu, 1925, 72 (Wheatland, Wyo.).— Wood, Auk, xlii, 1925, 146 (Grafton, 
N. Dak.). — BUNCOB, Auk, xlil, 1925, 419 (Bardstown, Ky.). — Goldman, Con- 
dor, xxviii, 1926, 163 (nesting in Marsh Lake, White Mountains, Ariz.). — 
Htrarr, Auk, xliii, 1926, 351 (Laguna Hanson, Sierra Juarez ; San Ramon ; El 
Rosario; all nw. Lower California).— Longstreet, Auk, xliil, 1926, 379 (salt 
marshes opposite Coronado, Fla.). — Williams, Wils. Bull., xxxviii, 1926, 25 
(status in Red River Valley, N. Dak.). — Tavebnee, Birds Western Canada, 

1926, 125 (fig.; descr.; distr. in w. Canada). — Lamb, Condor, xxix, 1927, 156 
(Todos Santos and San Jos6 del Cabo, Lower California). — Huet, Condor, 
xxix, 1927, 243 in text (Pond Lagoon, Lower California). — Smyth, Auk, xliv, 

1927, 44 (Montgomery County, Va.).— Cahn, WUs. Bull., xxxix, 1927, 26 
(summer; Vilas County, Wis.). — Linsdale and Hall, Wils. Bull., xxxix, 
1927, 95 (s. of Lawrence, Kans.).— Bailey, Wils. Bull., xxxix, 1927, 175 
(distr.). — HuBT, Condor, xxx, 1928, 159 in text (Laguna Hanson, n. Lower 
Calif omia).^BAiLET, Birds New Mexico, 1928, 241 (genl.; distr.; New 
Mexico). — Geinnell, Univ. California Publ. Zool., xxxii, 1928, 87 (distr.. 
Lower California).— Pickens, Wils. Bull., xl, 1928, 188 (upper South Caro- 
lina). — Geinnell and Hunt, Condor, xxxi, 1929, 67 (Morro Bay, Calif.). — 
SwAETH, Proc. California Acad. Sci., ser. 4, xviii, 1929, 286 (Ashburn Ranch, 
Sonoita Valley, s. Arizona). — BtmxEaGH, Auk, xlvi, 1929, 507 (Lake Wash- 
ington and swamp s. of Tacoma, Wash.). — Cahn and Hyde, Wils. Bull., xli, 
1929, 36 (ecol. distr. ; Little Egypt, 111. ) .—Cooke, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 
xlii, 1929, 26 (Washington, D. C). — Longsteeet, Auk, xlvii, 1930, 95 (New 
Smyrna, Fla.). — Kelso, Auk, xlvii, 1930, 247 (Aurora, Colo.). — Lewis, Wlls. 
Bull., xlii, 1930, 42 (nw. Oklahoma).— Piebce, Wils. Bull., xlii, 1930, 262 
(Buchanan County, Iowa). — Ubnee, Abstr. Linn. Soc. New York, Nos. 39 
and 40, 1930, 65 (Union County, N. J.).— Snydeb, Trans. Roy. Can. Inst., 
xvil, 1930, 185 (summer; King Township, Ontario). — Bueleigh, Wils. Bull., 
xliii, 1931, 37 (breeding; State College, Pa.).— Bailey and Weight, Wils. 
BuU. xliii, 1931, 194 (southern Louisana).— Cheisty, Auk, xlvlii, 1931, 375 
(change of status at Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie). — Esten, Auk, xlvUl, 1931, 
573 (weight).— GuTHBiB, Wils. Bull., xliv, 1932, 102 in text (eats snakes). 

Blallus} virginianus Bonapaete, Obs. Nom. Wilson's Amer. Orn., 1820, 191. — 
RiDGWAY, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist New York, x, 1874, 387 (Illinois) ; Man. 
North Amer. Birds, 1887, 138.— Coues, Key North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 1884, 
673.— RoTHScmU), Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, xlvlii, 1928, 122 (eggs). 

Ballus virginiamus Anon., Alauda, ii, 1930, 518 (in rev. of lit). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 97 

[Aramusl mrginianus Gray, Hand-list, Hi, 1871, 59, No. 10419. 

Ballus virgmianus virginianus Dickey, Condor, xxx, 1928, 322 in text (crit.). — 
[Arthur], Birds Louisiana, 1931, 238 (descr.; status in Ixjuisiana).— 
Geiscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Ixiv, 1932, 120 (distr., Guatemala- 
only in Sept. and Oct.) 

[Rallus aquatimsl /3 Latham, Index Orn., ii, 1790, 755 (cites Rallus Hrginicmui 
Linnaeus). 

Ballus Umicola Vieillott, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat, xxviii, 1819, 558 (new name 
for Rallus virginianus Linnaeus). — Stone, Auk, xlvii, 1930, 560 in text 
(nomen.).— Cramek, Auk, xlix, 1932, 80 in text (young eaten by frog). — 
Taveenee, Birds Canada, 1934, 172 (descr., breeds across Canada through- 
out the Prairies, perhaps north of them, and in British Columbia into 
Cariboo District).— Hanna, Condor, xxxvii, 1935, 81 in text (San Bernar- 
dino County, Calif.). — Dixon, Condor, xxxvii, 1935, 87 In text (Yosemite 
Valley).— Claby and Claby, Condor, xxxviii, 1936, 125 (winter; Coachella 
Valley, Calif.). — Bond, Birds West Indies, 1936, 96 (Cuba, very rare winter 
resident; one doubtful record from Isle of Pines). — Mouseey, Wils. Bull., 
xlix, 1937, 80 in text (habits; nesting; near Montreal, Canada; photos). — 
Rowley, Condor, xli, 1939, 248 (breeding; McGee Creek, Mono County, 
Calif.). 

Ballus Umicola Umicola American Ornithologists' Union, Check-list North 
Amer. Birds, ed. 4, 1931, 97. — Baerq, Univ. Arkansas Agr. Exp. Stat. BuU. 
258, 1931, 57 (descr.; distr. in Arkansas). — Nice, Birds Oklahoma, rev. ed., 

1931, 85 (genl. ; Oklahoma).— Stoneb, Roosevelt Wild Life Ann., ii, 1932, 
442 (Oneida Lake region, N. T.).— Austin, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Club, vil, 

1932, 80 (hypoth. ; Newfoundland Labrador). — Robeets, Birds Minnesota, i, 

1932, 443 (descr.; habits; Minn.).— Howell, Florida Bird Life, 1932, 208 
(genl.; Florida). — Petees, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 3934, 160.— 
Gbiscom, Trans. Linn. Soc. New York, iii, 1933, 98 (Dutchess County, N. Y., 
common summer resident). — Wtt.t.ett, Pacific Coast Avif., No. 21, 1933, 52 
(sw. Calif.; fairly common resident to San Diego County; nests April to 
June). — Brooks, Auk, 1, 1933, 62 (Brownsville, Tex.).— Edwards, Auk, 1, 

1933, 369 (near Loxley, Baldwin County, Ala., Dec. 3, 1932; spec.).— Monson, 
Wils. Bull., xlvi, 1934, 43 (Cass County, N. Dak., rare summer resident, 
occ. spring migr.). — Brooks, Auk, Ii, 1934, 249 (nest and eggs, near Win- 
field, W. Va.).— Du Mont, Univ. Iowa Stud. Nat. Hist., xv., 1934, 61 (Iowa, 
uncommon migrant, rare summer resident). — Spiker, New York State Coll. 
Forestry Bull. 8, 1935, 456 (Finger Lakes, N. Y., breeds).— McCeeaby 
and Mickey, Wils. Bull., xlvii, 1935, 136 (se. Wyoming; May 1-Oct. 8).— 
YouNQWOETH, Wils. BuU., xlvii, 1935, 217 (not uncommon summer resident. 
Fort Sisseton, S. Dak. ) .— Huey, Wils. Bull., xlviii, 1936, 122 (White Moun- 
tains, Ariz.; birds heard).— Linsdale, Pacific Coast Avif., No. 23, 1936, 50 
(Nevada, summer resident, not known to nest). — ^Walkinshaw, Auk, liv, 

1937, 310, 311 in text (Michigan) ; 464 (habits, nests and eggs, etc., Michi- 
gan).— Wood, Auk, liv, 1937, 535 (incubation period).— Poland, Auk, Iv, 

1938, 128 (breeding, Leetown, W. Va.).— Smith, Auk, Iv, 1938, 549 (Wolf- 
ville, Nova Scotia, Oct. 27, 1937; spec.).— Obebhol see. Bird Life Louisiana, 
1938, 202 (uncommon winter resident, Sept. to June in southern Loui- 
siana).— Bennett and Hendeickson, Auk, Ivi, 1939, 36 (adap. to environ- 
ment ).—Walkinshaw, Auk, Ivi, 1939, 230 in text (eggs). 

Ballus llimicola] Umicola Dales, Wils. Bull., xliii, 1931, 310 in text (Sioux 
City, Iowa).— Hicks, Wils. Bull., xlv, 1933, 180 (Ashtabula County, Ohio; 
uncommon).— MtiERAY, Wils. Bull., xlvii, 1935, 65 (1 seen. Big Spring Pond, 



98 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Va., Sept. 26 and Oct. ) .—Hicks, Auk, liil, 1936, 228 (nesting. South Zanes- 

ville and Cambridge, Ohio). 
R[allu8] l[imicola] limicola Bond, Birds West Indies, 1936, 96 in text (rare 

in winter in Cuba; doubtful record for Isle of Pines). 
Rallua virginianus paciflcus (not of Gmelin, 1789) Dickbt, Condor, xxx, 1928, 

322 in text (orig, descr. ; 5 miles west of Corona, Riverside County, Calif.). — 

Gbinneh, Dixon, and Linsdale, Uniy. California Publ. Zool., xxxv, 1930, 

214 (distr., Lassen Peak region, northern California). — Gmnnell, Univ. 

California Publ. Zool., xxxviii, 1932, 271 (type loc. ; crit.). 
Rallus limicola paciflcus Andbsson, Condor, xxxvi, 1934, 82^ 
Rallus limicola zetarius Peters, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 160 (new 

name for paciflcus Dickey). — Stone, Auk, 11, 1934, 540 in text. 

Genus CYANOLIMNAS Barbour and Peters 

Cyanolimnas Baebotie and Peteies, Proc. New England Zool. Club, ix, 1927, 95. 
(Type, by monotypy, Cyanolimnas cerverai Barbour and Peters.) 

Apparently flightless, medium-sized Ealli with very short rounded 
wing (99-110 mm.), very short tail, and relatively short tarsi and 
toes, and the bill somewhat distended basally and brightly colored 
(red) there, resembling somewhat, in a superficial way, the gallinules. 

Bill moderate, slightly longer than head, swollen basally so that 
its depth at base is about one-third the length of the exposed culmen 
and the width at the gape equal to the basal height of the maxilla, 
but there is no expansion into a frontal shield as in Gallmula, more 
like a cere superficially; the base of the culmen definitely elevated 
and broadened and flattened and situated anterior to the eye; the 
culmen narrower and very slightly depressed as well as compressed 
above the nostrils; thence gently decurved to the tip; gonys more 
than two-thirds as long as mandibular rami, and entirely straight 
to the tip; mandibular rami with a rather indistinct lateral groove 
formed by the slight swelling of the basal part of the mandibular 
tomium; nasal fossa well marked and extending for slightly more 
than half the length of the maxilla; nostril narrowly ovate, almost 
slitlike, and much nearer to the maxillary tomium than to the cul- 
men; separated from the loral antia by a space a little less than its 
length; anterior outline of loral feathering with a rounded apex 
(antia) above center of nasal fossa, receding downward and back- 
ward to the angle of the mouth and backward and upward to the 
pointed base of the culmen ; malar antia posterior to the loral antia, 
the mental antia on a line with the posterior end of the nostril. 
Wing very short (the bird apparently flightless), concave beneath, 
and very rounded, the longest primaries exceeding the distal second- 
aries by less than one-tenth the length of the wing, and slightly 
exceeded by the elongated proximal secondaries; third and fourth 
primaries (from outside) the longest; the first the shortest, shorter 
even than the shortest secondary. Tail a little less than half as 



BIRDS or NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 



99 



long as wing; strongly graduated; the rectrices with extremely 
sparsely barbed webs. Tarsus slightly less than half as long as 
wing, about equal to exposed cuhnen and to middle toe without claw; 
stout for its length; the acrotarsium with a continuous single row of 
broad scutella, the planta tarsi with a single row of similar, but 
smaller, scutella on the outer side, basally and distally, but not 
medially, separated from those of the acrotarsium by a single row 





Figure 4. — Cyanolimnas cerverai. Natural size. 

of smaller, hexagonal scutella on the outer side, the inner side witk 
smaller, irregular, much smaller scales; the outer toe with claw 
reaching to the base of the claw of the middle toe ; the inner toe about- 
the same as the outer one ; hallux without claw about as long as basai 
phalanx of outer toe, or, with claw, as long as basal phalanx of 
middle toe; anterior toes without a marginal membrane along eack 
side (present in gallinules, to which this bird bears a slight superficial 
resemblance) . 

Plumage and coloration. — Plumage rather loose, denser below 
than above; remiges and rectrices weak. Above, olive-brown; sides 



100 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

of head and entire underparts plumbeous except chin and upper 
throat, whiah are white. 
Range. — Confined to the Zapata Swamp, Cuba. (Monotypic.) 

CTANOLIMNAS CERVEBAI Barbour and Peters 
Zapata Rail 

Adult (sexes alike). — Forehead, anterior part of crown, circum- 
ocular area, lores, cheeks, auriculars, lower sides of neck, lower throat, 
breast, upper abdomen, sides, and thighs, slate-gray; the crown 
becoming olive-brown posteriorly, which color extends over the occi- 
put, hindneck, scapulars, interscapulars, and upper wing coverts; 
the hindneck and interscapulars a trifle more olive and less brownish 
than the hind crown and occiput; remiges and rectrices fuscous 
black ; back, rump, and upper tail coverts sepia to bister with a faint 
olive tinge; lower abdomen and thighs dusky slate with a faint 
fuscous tinge and the feathers very narrowly tipped with white; 
flanks olive sepia narrowly tipped with white; shorter under tail 
coverts avellaneous, the longer ones white; under wing coverts dull 
fuscous-black narrowly tipped with white ; iris red ; bill red basally ; 
greenish medially and yellowish green terminally ; tarsi and toes red. 

JvAienal female. — Like adult, but the colors generally slightly 
duller. 

Natal down. — Brownish black. 

Adult rnale (type). — Wing 109.6; tail 43.3; exposed culmen 47.4; 
tarsus 46.1 mm. ; middle toe without claw 41.5 mm.°^ 

Adult female.— Whig 95.8-103.1 (99.5) ; tail 36.6-42.9 (37.1) ; ex- 
posed culmen 36-42 (38.2) ; tarsus 38.8-44 (41.1) ; middle toe without 
claw 37.2-39.6 (38.1 mm.).»* 

Range. — Known only from the type locality. 

Type locatlity.— Santo Tomas, Peninsula de Zapata, Cuba. 

Cyanolimnas cerverai Babboue and Petees, Proc. New England Zool. Club, ix, 
1927, 95 (orig. descr. ) .— Baebodb, Auk, xlv, 1928, 31 in text, pi. 4 (col. fig.; 
gen. chars.).— Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixx, 1930, 168 (type specimen 
in Mus. Comp. Zool.).— Peters, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 174.— 
Bond, Birds West Indies, 1936, 90. 

Genus PARDIRALLUS Bonaparte 

Pardiralliis Bonapaetb, Compt. Rend., xliii, Sept, 1856, 599. (Type, by mono- 
typy, liallus variegatus Gmelin=iJ. maculatus Boddaert.) 

Linmopardalus Cabanis, Joum. fiir Orn., 1856 (publ. 1857), 428. (Type, by 
monotypy, Rallus variegatus Gmelln=i2. maculatus Boddaert.) 

Limnopardalis (emendation) Gbat, Hand-list, iii, 1871, 59.— Shaepe Hand-list 
i, 1899, 95. 



" One specimen ; measurements by Peters. 
"Three specimens; measurements by Peters. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 



101 



Medium-sized Rallinae (wing about 140 mm.) with stout bill and 
tarsi, planta tarsi with two lateral rows of transverse scutella, the 
two rows in contact along the sharp posterior ridge, and with the 
underparts conspicuously spotted and barred with white and black. 

Bin much longer than head, stout, its depth at posterior end of 






F1GURE55. — Pardirallus maculatus maculatus. Natural size. 

nostril equal to more than one-fifth the length of culmen, its width 
at same point equal to more than half the depth ; culmen decidedly 
longer than tarsus, elevated and expanded basally (where irregularly 
corrugated and with obtusely angled posterior outline), slightly de- 
pressed above anterior portion of nostril, thence gradually but rather 
strongly decurved to the tip ; gonys more than half as long as mandib- 



102 BTJLLETrN' 50, tnSTLTED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

ular rami, the latter without a distinct (if any) lateral groove, but 
with a raised, differently colored (reddish) laterobasal plate (decid- 
uous ?) ; nostril narrowly elliptical (rather narrower posteriorly), 
parallel with maxillary tomium, its anterior end only about one-third 
the distance from loral feathering to tip of maxilla; anterior outline 
of loral feathering forming a nearly straight (faintly convex) ver- 
tical line, and on the same vertical line with the convex malar antia; 
mental antia posterior to posterior end of nostril. Wing moderate, 
moderately concave beneath, much rounded, the longest primaries ex- 
ceeding distal secondaries by about one-fourth the length of wing, and 
projecting but little if any beyond tips of longest proximal seconda- 
ries; second, or second and third, primary (from outside) longest, the 
outermost about equal to sixth ; alula falling far short of tips of long- 
est primary coverts. Tail about two-fifths as long as wing, the 
rectrices moderately broad, moderately firm, projecting beyond both 
upper and lower coverts. Tarsus stout, shorter than culmen or mid- 
dle toe without claw, the acrotarsium with a continuous single row 
of broad transverse scutella, the planta tarsi with a lateral series of 
smaller transverse scutella, those of opposite sides in contact along 
the sharp posterior ridge; outer toe with claw falling very slightly 
short of base of middle claw, the inner toe (without claw) reaching 
to penultimate articulation of middle toe; hallux shorter than basal 
phalanx of outer toe but longer than that of middle toe ; claws rather 
short, slightly curved, moderately acute. 

Plumage and coloration. — Plumage full, dense, and rather harsh, 
that of neck and underparts with barbs separated, producing a some- 
what hairlike effect, that of the pileum soft and more blended. Up- 
per parts deep brown and black, streaked with white, that of under- 
parts spotted and barred with black and white. 

Range. — Tropical South America east of Andes, British Honduras^ 
and Cuba. (Monotypic.)°° 

KEY TO THE SUBSPECIES OF PAKDmALLUS MACULATU3 

a. Brown portion of plumage mummy brown. 
6. Inner remiges and their upper coverts usually with long streaks of white. 
Fardirallus maculatus macula tus (extralimital)** 



■* Several other South American species have been referred to Pardirallus, but 
they are so conspicuously difEerent that they constitute the genus Ortygonaxr 
Heine, as characterized on p. 42. 

"Pardirallus maculatus maculatus. — Rallus maculatus Boddaert, Tabl. PI. 
Enl., 1783, 48 (Cayenne; based on Le Rdle tachet4, de Cayenne, Daubenton, PI. 
Enl., pi. 775) ; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Eas, Ralli, 1865, 13 (Cayenne) ; Sclater and 
Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 444, part (monogr.) ; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 
1871, 315, footnote, 458 (Cayenne) ; Durnford, Ibis, 1878, 65 (Rivadavia, Buenos 
Aires, Argentina) ; Barrows, Auk, i, 1884, 276 (Concepci6n, Uruguay) ; Berlepsch, 
Joum. fiir Orn., 1887, 133 (Paraguay) ; Withington, Ibis, 1888, 471 (Lomas de 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 103 

66. Inner remiges and their upper coverts with white spots, not streakes. 

Pardirallus maculatus inoptatus (p. 103) 
aa. Brown portions of plumage seal brown. 

Pardirallus maculatus insolitus (p. 105) 

PABDIRALLUS MACULATUS INOPTATUS (Bangs) 

Cuban Spotted Rail 

Adult (sexes alike) .'^ — ^Forehead, crown, occiput, and nape chae- 
tura drab, darkest on forehead and washed more or less with dark 
sepia on the crown and hind portion of the head, the feathers with 
very fine, short, terminal white shaft streaks ; hind neck and anterior 
interscapulars chaetura black to black, each feather with two white 
elongated spots, one on the posterolateral corner of each web; pos- 
terior interscapulars, scapulars, and inner upper wing coverts dark 
chaetura black broadly margined with mummy brown and spotted 
lengthwise with white on the edges of the feathers, the brown color 
much more extensive on the upper wing coverts than on the scapulars 
or interscapulars and coming to occupy practically the entire feather 
in the outer upper wing coverts which also have much smaller and 
many fewer white spots on them; remiges deep chaetura black to 

Zamora, Argentina ; descr. nest and eggs) ; Sclater and Hudson, Argentine Orn., 
U, 1889, 148, pi. 19 ; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vi, 1894, 79 (Trinidad) ; 
Koenigswald, Journ. fiir Orn., 1896, 392 (SSo Paulo, s. Brazil) ; Goodfellow, Ibis, 
1902, 230 (Popayan, Colombia, fresh colors of nude parts). — [Rallus] maculatus 
Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 139, part. — Alramides] maculatus Gray, 
Gen. Birds, iii, 1846, 594. — Aramides maculatus Hartlaub, Syst. Index Azara's 
Apunt., 1847, 23. — [Aratrms] maculatus Gray, Hand-list, Iii, 1871, 59, No. 10416, 
part — lAmnopardalis maculatus Sharpe, Cat Birds Brit Mus., xxiii, 1894, 28, 
part (Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires; Pernambuco and Rio Amazonas, Brazil; 
Surinam ; TrinidSd ; Bogota, Colombia) ; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paulista, iv, 1900, 
285 (Sao Paulo, s. Brazil ; descr. eggs) ; Hellmayr, Nov. Zool., xiii, 1906, 52 (Caronl 
Swamp, Triniddd) ; Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., xv, 1908, 299 (Cayenne) ; Hartert and 
Venturi, Nov. Zool., xvi, 1909, 257 (Barracas al Sud, Argentina; descr. eggs); 
Bertoni, Fauna Paraguaya, 1913, 37 ; Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 25, 
part (geogr. range). — ILimnopardalis] maculatus Sharpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 95, 
part (Paraguay; Brazil; Guiana; Colombia; Trinidad); Ihering (H. and R.), 
Aves Brazil, 1907, 27 (Rio Grande do sul; ParS,; Pernambuco). — [Pardirallusi 
maculatus Brabourne and Chubb, Birds South America, i, 1912, 22 (Colombia; 
Trinidad; Guiana; Paraguay; Argentina). — Pardirallus maculatus Chubb, Ibis, 
1919, 48 (Trajello, nw. Peru; Bt6n, Peru; crit). — [Rallus} variegatus Gmelin, 
Syst Nat., i, pt ii, 1789, 718 (Cayenne; based on Variegated Rail Latham, Synop- 
sis Birds, iii, pt 1, 1785, 327) ; Latham, Index Orn., ii, 1790, 760 (Cayenne).— 
Rallus variegatus VIeillot, Nouv. Diet Hist Nat., xxviii, 1819, 565. — [Pardirallus^ 
variegatus Bonaparte, Compt Rend., xliii, 1856, 599. — Rallus nivosus Swainson, 
Anim. in Menag., 1837, 361. 

"No males (at least none marked definitely as such on the label) seen by me, 
but a long series of both sexes of the nominate race reveals no sexual 
difEerences. 

272607 — 41 8 



104 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

fuscous (possibly dependent on fading in the latter color), the 
elongated inner secondaries margined with mummy brown; lower 
back and rump feathers dark chaetura drab broadly margiaed with 
mummy brown and very sparsely, or not at all, marked with fine 
small white spots; upper tail coverts like the rump but with many 
and larger white spots on their edges; rectrices dark chaetura black, 
slightly margined with mummy brown; lores, circumocular area, 
cheeks, auriculars, chin, and throat white finely speckled with gray- 
ish chaetura drab, very thickly and abundantly speckled on the sides 
of the head, very sparingly on the chin and throat which are very 
distinctly whiter; breast feathers chaetura black with broad postero- 
lateral white spots (but not with a continuous white terminal band, 
the spots not confluent) , giving an appearance of longitudinal black- 
ish and white marks almost suggesting striping ; feathers of abdomen 
chaetura black barred very broadly, especially terminally with 
white, the subterminal black area not reaching the edges of the feather 
and so forming a broad spot in the white terminal portion of the 
feather, this black spot approximating a complete transverse bar 
more in the posterior part of the abdomen ; flanks, sides, and thighs 
dark chaetura black banded regularly with white, the white bars 
usually narrower than the black ones, widest on the flanks, narrowest 
on the thighs; under tail coverts white, the longer ones occasionally 
with slight dusky tips; under wing coverts chaetura drab spotted 
with white; colors of soft parts unrecorded for this race, but in the 
nominate race they are as follows: iris dark red; bill yellowish 
olive, orange near the base; tarsi and toes light greenish yellow 
(Goodfellow, Ibis, 1902, 230). 

Jvmenal. — ^Unknown, but probably similar to that of the nominate 
race, which is similar to the adult but has all the chaetura black on 
the underparts replaced by dark hair brown and the white on the 
underparts very slightly washed with ashy buff, and has the feathers 
of the top of the head, hind neck, and anterior interscapulars nar- 
rowly edged with mummy brown. 

Natal down. — Not known. 

Adult male (type). — ^Wing 122, tail 48, exposed culmen 50, tarsus 
41 mm.** 

Adult female. — Wing 116.5-120.5; tail 50.5-51.5; exposed culmen 
43.5^5; tarsus 39-39.5; middle toe without claw 36-40 mm.»* 

"^ No males and only two females seen. Four unsexed birds have the follow- 
ing dimensions — wing 109 (very worn), 122.5, 124, 125; tail 45.5, 47.5, 49, 51; 
exposed culmen 42.5, 47, 48.5, 50; tarsus 39, 40.5, 40.5; middle toe without 
claw 36, 40.5, 41 mm., respectively. Judging from a long series of the nominate 
race, it appears that the sexes are fairly alike in size (at least tlieir variations 
may be matched in both sexes). The dimensions given for the type (male) 
are taken from the original description by Bangs. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 105 

Range.— Resident in fresh-water swamps in western Cuba (Prov- 
inces of Habana, Matanzas, and Santa Clara), said to be abundant 
in the Zapata Swamp, elsewhere scarce. This form, or possibly a dis- 
tinct race, formerly inhabited Jamaica, where the species is now 
extinct, and whence no specimens exist in any museum. 

Type locality. — Near Jaruco, Province of Habana, Cuba. 

Rallus variegatus (not of Vieillot) D'Obbiqnt, La Sagra's Hist. Nat. Cuba, 

Ois., 1839, 261 (Spanish ed., p. 180).— Brewee, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 

vii, 1860, 308 (Cuba). 
lAmnopardalis variegatus Cabanis, Journ. fUr Orn., Iv, 1856, 428 (Cuba). — 

GuNDLACH, Journ fur Orn., xxiii, 1875, 357 (Cuba; habits); Contr. Orn. 

Cubana, 1876, 190. 
[lAmnopardalis] variegatus Gundlach, Journ. fiir Orn., ix, 1861, 342 (Cuba) ; 

Rep. Fisico-Nat Cuba, i, 1865-66, 361. 
Rallus maculatus (not of Boddaert) Sclateb and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lon- 
don, 1868, 444, part (monogr.).— Coet, Auk, v, 1888, 52 (Cuba; descr., etc.) ; 

Birds West Indies, 1889, 253 (Cuba) ; Cat West Indian Birds, 1892, 9, 91, 

128 (Cuba). 
IRallusI maculatus Sclatee and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 139, part 

(Cuba).— COKT, List Birds West Indies, 1885, and rev. ed., 1886, 29 (Cuba). 
[Aramus] maculatus Gbat, Hand-list, ill, 1871, 59, No. 10416, part (Cuba). 
lAmnopardalis maculatus Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit Mus., xxiii, 1894, 28, part 

(Cuba).— Gundlach, Orn. Cubana, 1895, 242. — Cooke, U. S. Dept Agr. 

Bull. 128, 1914, 25, part (Cuba). 
lAmnopardalis maculatus inoptatus Bangs, Proc. New England Zool. Club, iv, 

1913, 90 (near Jaruco, Prov. Habana, Cuba; coll. Mus. Comp. Zool.) ; BuU. 

Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixx, 1930, 168 (type spec, in Mus. Comp. Zool.) 
Pardirallus maculatus inoptatus Petebs, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 170. 
P[ardirallus] m[aculatus1 inoptatus Bond, Birds West Indies, 1936, 89 in text 

(Cuba). 

PARDIRALLUS MACULATUS INSOLITUS (Bangs and Peck) 
HONDTJEANIAN SPOTTED RaH, 

Adult (unsexed)^ — Similar to Pardirallus maculatus inoptatus, 
but with the brown parts of the plumage darker, seal brown instead 
of mummy brown; wing 121, tail 42, exposed cuhnen 48, tarsus 40, 
middle toe without claw 35.5 mm. 

Range. — Known only from the type locality. 

Type locality. — Ycacas Lagoon, British Honduras. 

Iminopardalns maculatus insoUtus Bangs and Peck, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 
xxi, 1908, 43 (Ycacos Lagoon, British Honduras; coll. E. A. and O. Bangs) ; 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixx, 1930, 169 (type specimen In Mus. Comp. Zool.). 

Pardirallus maculatus insoUtus Petees, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 169. 



' Unique type. 



106 BULLETESr 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Genus AMAUKOLIMNAS Sharpe 

Amaurolimnas Shakpb, BuU. Brit Om. Club, i, No. 5, 1893, p. xxviii. (Type, by- 
original designation and monotypy, Rallus concolor Gosse.) 

Medium-sized Kallinae (wing about 130 mm.) with posterior portion 
of nostril impervious, middle toe (without claw) much shorter than 
tarsus, mandibular rami with a distinct lateral groove, feathers of 
alula rounded terminally, and plumage wholly plain rufescent. 

Bill about as long as head (or slightly shorter) , very compressed, its 
vsddth at posterior end of nostril equal to about half its depth at same 
point, the latter equal to more than one-third the length of culmen ; 
culmen distinctly arched (convex) basally, slightly depressed (concave) 




Figure 6. — Amaurolimnas concolor concolor. 

above anterior end of nostril, gradually but strongly decurved ter- 
minally; gonys about two-thirds as long as mandibular rami, nearly 
straight, slightly ascending terminally, its basal angle distinct but 
scarcely prominent ; mandibular rami with a broad and shallow lateral 
groove ; nasal fossa large and well defined, obtusely cuneate, its anterior 
end decidedly nearer tip of maxilla than to loral feathering; nostrU 
rather large, longitudinally elliptical, its posterior portion (between 
one-third and one-half) impervious ; laterof rontal antia at upper edge 
of nasal fossa, receding thence, with a faintly convex outline, to the 
rictus; malar antia decidedly posterior to laterof rontal antia, the 
mental antia about on line with posterior end of nostrU. Wing rather 
short, very concave beneath, rounded, the longest primaries exceeding 
distal secondaries by about one-fourth the length of wing ; and much ex- 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 107 

ceeding the moderately elongated proximal secondaries; third primary 
(from outside) longest, the second and fourth a little shorter, the outer- 
most about equal to seventh. Tail about two-fifths as long as wing, the 
rectrices with very loose, semidecomposed webs and decumbent dis- 
tally. Tarsus much longer than middle toe without claw (longer than 
middle toe with claw), the acrotarsium with a single continuous row 
of broad transverse scutella, the acrotarsium planta tarsi with a single 
row of similar but narrower scutella ; outer toe with claw falling decid- 
edly short of base of middle claw, the inner toe, without claw, falling 
short of penultimate articulation of middle toe ; hallux, without claw, 
shorter than basal phalanx of outer (very much shorter than that of 
inner) toe; claws short, acute, moderately curved. 

Plumage and coloration. — Plumage in general full and rather lax, 
that of forepart of head rather coarse, semierect on laterofrontal 
region; primaries very broad; feathers of alula broad, with rounded 
tips, the longest reaching nearly to tips of longest primary coverts; 
rectrices rather narrow, soft, loosely webbed, decurved or decumbent 
distally. Color wholly plain ruf escent, darker and duller above. 

Range. — Continental Tropical America; Jamaica. (Monotypic.) 

KEY TO THE SUBSPECIES OF AMAUEOLIMNAS CONCOLOR 

a. Upperparts somewhat ruf escent olive sepia ; underparts pale, the breast rich 

tawny to light hazel Amaurolimnas concolor concolor (p. 108) 

aa. Upperparts usually olivaceous raw umber ; underparts dark, the breast 
deep hazel to bright russet. 
6. Size larger ; wings 127-136 mm. 

Amaurolimnas concolor castaneus (extralimital) " 
66. Size smaller, wings 110-125 mm. 

Amaurolimnas concolor guatemalensis (p. 109) 

' Amaurolimnas concolor castaneus. — Rallus castaneus Pucheran, Rev. Mag. 
Zool., 1851, 279 (ex Cuvier mss. ; Brazil). — [Bufirallus] castaneus Bonaparte, 
Compt. Kend., xliii, 1856, 599. — RalUna castanea Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, v. 
No. 30., livr. 7, 1865, 17, part (BrazU). — Porzana concolor Sclkter and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 452, part (Bahia) ; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1870, 
316, part. — [Porzana] concolor Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1870, 459, part; Sclater and 
Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 140, part (Brazil). — Amaurolimnas concolor 
Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., rxiii, 1894, 87, part (Bahia, Brazil) ; Ihering, 
Rev. Mus. Paulista, iv, 1900, 286 (descr. eggs) ; Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
€entr.-Amer., Aves, iii, 1903, 321, part (Brazil) ; Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 
128, 1914, 26, part (Brazil) ; ? Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist, Ix, 
1S80, 72, part (distr. in Brazil; SSo Paulo— Iguap6, Ubattiba, Bahia).— 
[Amaurolimnas] concolor Sharpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 201, part (Brazil) ; Ihering 
(H. and R.), Aves Brazil, 1907, 89 (Sao Paulo; Bahia) ; Brabourne and Chubb, 
Birds South America, 1, 1912, 23 part (Brazil). — Amaurolimnas concolor guate- 
malensis Peters, Check-list Birds of VP'orld, ii, 1934, 171, part (Sao Paulo). 



108 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

AMAUROLIMNAS CONCOLOB CONCOLOR (Gosse) 

Jamaican Unifoem Cbake 

Adult (sexes alike). — Forehead and anterior part of crown, lores, 
superciliary stripe, cheeks, auriculars, sides of neck, and the upper 
wing coverts Brussels brown to ruf escent Sudan brown ; hind crown, 
occiput, nape, scapulars, interscapulars, back, rump, upper tail 
coverts, and rectrices rufescent olive sepia, more rufescent on the 
rump, tail coverts, and rectrices than in the more anterior parts, 
remiges dull sepia externally edged with Sayal brown; chin and 
upper throat like the cheeks but paler, more whitish; lower throat, 
and entire underparts of body rich tawny to hazel ; iris "vermillion ; 
beak yellowish-green, blackish above; feet dull purplish-crimson, or 
pink." (Gosse.) 

Other plumages unknown. 

Adult male. — Wing 125, tail 49, exposed culmen 27.5, tarsus 39, 
middle toe without claw 28 mm.' 

Adult female. — ^Wing 119, tail 47, exposed culmen 29.5, tarsus 41, 
middle toe without claw 33 mm.' 

Range. — Formerly occurred on Jamaica, now extinct. Specimens 
taken at Basin Spring; near the Black Eiver (Elim Estate) ; Span- 
ish Town. 

Tyfe locality. — Jamaica. 

Rallus concolor Gosse, Birds Jamaica, 1847, 369 (Basin Spring, Jamaica) ; 
Illustr. Birds Jamaica, 1849, pi. 102. — Ai^recht, Journ. fiir Orn., x, 1862, 
206 (Jamaica).— March, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1864, 69 
(Jamaica). 

Eallina concolor Reichenbach, Handb. Fulicariae, 1851, pi. 322, fig. 2577. 

Porzana concolor Sclatee and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 452, part 
(crit. ; Jamaica). — Coey, Auk, v, 1888, 54 (Jamaica; synonymy; descr.) ; 
Birds West Indies, 1889, 255; Cat. Birds West Indies, 1892, 2, 91, 129 
(Jamaica). — Sclatee, Eev. List Birds Jamaica, 1910, 19. 

[Porzana] concolor Sclatee and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 140, part 
(Jamaica).— Cost, List Birds West Indies, 1885, and rev. ed., 1886, 30 
(Jamaica). 

P[orzana] concolor Newton (E. and A.), Handb. Jamaica, 1881, 114. 

A[maurolimnas1 concolor Shaepe, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, i, No. 5, 1893, xxviii. 

AmauroUmnas concolor Shabpb, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 87, part 
(Jamaica).— Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, iii, 1903, 321, 
part (Jamaica).— Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 26, part (Ja- 
maica). — Naumbubg, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Ix, 1930, 72, part 
(Jamaica). 

[Amuurolimnas] concolor Shaepe, Hand-list, 1, 1899, 101, part (Jamaica). 

Amaurolknnas concolor concolor Petebs, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 
171 (formerly Jamaica; now extinct). 



" One specimen of each sex examined. Four unsexed birds have the following 
dimensions: Wing 116, 118, 122, 125.5; tail 47.5, 48, 49, 51; exposed culmen 
25, 25.5, 29 ; tarsus 40, 42, 44, 44 ; middle toe without claw 26, 29, 80.5, 31 mm., 
respectively. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 109 

A[mauroUmnas] cloncolor] concolor Bond, Birds West Indies, 1936, 90 in text 
(Jamaica; possibly extinct). 

AMAUROUMNAS CONCOLOR GUATBMALENSI3 (Lawrence) 

GtTATEMALAN TJnIFOBM CKAKE 

Adult (sexes alike). — Similar to that of the nominate race but 
more olive above, generally olivaceous raw umber, darker on the 
average below, the lower throat, breast, and abdomen deep rich hazel 
to bright russet, and averaging smaller in size. 

Jwvenal (sexes alike). — Darker, less rufescent than adult; top of 
head and the interscapulars, back, rump, upper tail coverts dark 
mummy brown, becoming almost fuscous on the lower back; wings 
and tail as in adults, the upper wing coverts slightly darker than 
in adults — cinnamon-brown ; loral superciliary stripe ashy -pale 
ochraceous-buff ; sides of head dusky, grayish wood brown ; chin and 
upper throat like the superciliaries ; pectoral area, sides, flanks, 
thighs, imder tail and under wing coverts grayish sepia, paling in 
the midabdomen to dark hair brown washed with sepia ; iris yellow. 

Natal down. — ^Unknown. 

Admit male.—Wmg 116-125 (119.4) ; tail 44-52 (47.8) ; exposed 
culmen 23.5-26.5 (25.6) ; tarsus 38.5-44.5 (41) ; middle toe without 
claw 27-30.5 (28.7 mm.).* 

Adult female.— Wing 110-122 (115.5) ; tail 44.5-47 (45.7) ; exposed 
culmen 23-26 (24.7) ; tarsus 37-43.5 (40.9) ; middle toe without claw 
28-29.5 (28.5 mm.).= 

Range. — Inhabits fresh- water swamps from British Honduras (Sittee 
Eiver) ; Honduras (Omoa) ; Guatemala; Nicaragua (Chontales; Pena 
Blanca) ; Costa Kica (Peralta, El Sance, Alajuela, San Carlos) ; and 
Panama (Chiriqui, Chitra, Almirante, Fruitdale), south through 
Colombia (Barbacoas; "Bogota"), and British Guiana (Merume Moun- 
tains; Supenaam River; Arawari River) to Ecuador (San Javier; Rio 
Bobona; Raya-Yaco; Sara-Yaco) and western Peru (near Lima) and 
to northern and southcentral (?) Brazil (Santarem; Sao Paulo de 
Olivencia, Rio Solimoes ; Rio Tapajos, Boim ; Matto Grosso — Engenho 
do Cap Gama, and Rio Guapore and to (?) Bolivia." 

Type locality. — Guatemala. 

Porzana concolor Sclateb and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 452, part 
(Honduras; Guatemala). — Pelzb2,n, Orn. Bras., 1870, 316, part. — Laweencb, 
Ibis, 1871, 370 (crit. as to Oorethrura guatemalensis Lawrence.) — Sclatesb, 



* Ten specimens from British Honduras, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Britisli Guiana, 
and the Amazon Valley of Brazil. 

' Six specimens from Nicaragua, Panama, Ecuador, and Brazil. 

•J have seen no Matto Grosso or Bolivian specimens and therefore cannot be 
certain as to their subspecific allocation; Amazonian birds are guatemalensis; 
those from eastern and southeastern Brazil (Bahia to Sao Paulo) are the larger 
race casianeus. 



110 BULLETESr 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Ibis, 1873, 373 (Chontales, Nicaragua).— Salvin, Ibis, 1886, 176 (Mierum6 
Mountains, British Guiana). 

IPorzana] concolor Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1870, 459, part. — Sclateb and Salvin, 
Norn. Av. Neotr., 1873, 140, part (Guatemala). 

lAramidesI concolor Gkat, Hand-list, ill, 1871, 61, No. 10435. 

AmauroUmnas concolor Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 87, part (Guate- 
mala; Chontales, Nicaragua; Merum6 Mountains, Brit. Guiana). — Sclateb, 
Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, xv, 1894, xxiii (near Lima, Peru; fresh colors of nude 
parts) ; Ibis, 1894, 299 (near Lima ; specimen). — Habtebt, Nov. Zool., ix, 1902, 
604 (San Javier, nw. Ecuador; fresh colors of unfeathered parts.) — Salvin 
and GoDMAN, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, iil, 1907, 321, part (Guatemala; Omoa, 
Honduras; Chontales, Nicaragua; Guiana). — Cooke, V. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 
128, 1914, 26, part (Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Guiana). — Chubb, 
Birds British Guiana, i, 1916, 69 (Merum6 Mountains ; Supenaam River, 
Arawarl Eiver; colors of soft pafts). — NAtTMBUEo, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., Ix, 1930, 72, part (distr. ; Brazil, Matto Grosso; Engenho ao Cap Gama, 
Eio Gudpor§; Ecuador, Colombia, Panama, Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala). 

iAmaurolimnas'i concolor Shabpe, Hand-list, 1, 1899, 101, part (Guatemala to 
Guiana; w. Peru). — Iheeing (H. and R.), Aves BrazU, 1907, 39, part (Matto 
Grosso). — Bkabotjbne and Chubb, Birds South America, 1, 1912, 23, part 
Guiana, Peru). 

Ruflrallus concolor Boucaed, Liste Ois.-r^col. Guatemala, 1878, 12 (Guatemala). 

? Ballina castanea Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, v. No. 30, livr. 7, 1865, 17, part 
(Bolivia; (?) Brazil). 

? IRuflrallusl ioecki Bonaparte, Oompt. Rend., xliii, 1856, 599. 

7 [Aramides] ioeckU Gbat, Hand-list, iii, 1871, 61, No. 10438 (Bolivia). 

? [ErythroUmnas'i Boecki Heine and Beichenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 
320 (Bolivia, 1 specimen). 

Corethrura eayennensis (not Rallus cayennensis Gmelin) Mooee, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. London, 1859, 64 (Omoa, Honduras; habits). — Sclateb and Salvin, 
Ibis, 1859, 230 (Omoa). 

Corethrura Gautemalensis La'weence, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, xv, 
1863, 106, 107 (Guatemala; coll. G. N. Lawrence). 

Porzana Ouatemalensis Lawbence, Ibis, 1871, 370 (crlt.). 

AmauroUmnas concolor guatemalensis Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist, 
xxxvi, 1917, 217 (Barbacoas, sw. Colombia; Guatemala; Nicaragua; Chiri- 
qui, w. Panama,; meas. ; crit) ; Iv, 1926, 177 (northwestern Ecuador). — 
Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixxi, 1931, 301 (Almirante, Panama). — 
Gbiscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Ixiv, 1932, 121 (Guatemala). — 
Peters, Check-list Birds of World, li, 1934, 171, part (Guatemala to Ecua- 
dor). — Gbiscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixxviii, 1935, 304 (Guatemala to 
w. Ecuador; very rare in Panamd — Chiriqui and Almirante). — Pinto, Rev. 
Mus. Paullsta, xxiii, 1938, 544 (Manacapuru, Amazonia). 

Genus ARAMIDES Pucheran 

Arami&es Puchisan, Rev. Zool., viii, 1845, 277. (Type, as designated by Gray, 

1855, Fulica cayennensis Gmelin=F. cajanea Muller.) 
Arimidis (misspelling) Lantz, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. for 1896-97 (1899), 

219. 
Ortygarchus Cabanis, in Schomburgk's Reis. Britisch Guiana, iii, 1848 (publ. 

1849), 759. (Substitute for Aramides, on grounds of purism.) 

Very large Ealleae (some species the largest of American Kallinae, 
wing about 170-225 mm.) with bill longer than head but culmen 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 



111 



much shorter than tarsus, second primary (from outside) shorter 
than fifth (nearly if not quite equal to fifth in A. mangle), some- 
times (in A. cajanea) shorter than ninth, and with flanks, thighs, 
and under tail coverts unicolored (usually gray or blackish) ' and 
upperparts plain olive, becoming more or less ruf escent on primaries. 
Bill longer than head but cuhnen much shorter than tarsus, nearly 
straight, variable as to relative depth (but depth of base usually 
equal to less than one-third the length of culmen)^; culmen more or 
less elevated basally or subbasally, usually faintly depressed medially, 
gently but decidedly decurved terminally; gonys less than, to con- 
siderably more than, one-third as long as mandibular rami; nearly 
straight, ascending terminally, its basal angle distinct, sometimes 
prominent; mandibular rami with a more or less distinct shallow 
lateral groove; nasal fossa large, well defined anteriorly, extending 
from a little more than half to considerably more than two-thirds the 
distance from loral feathering to tip of maxilla ; nostril usually nar- 
rowly elliptical (rather broadly subovate in A. mangle and A. 
aceillaris), parallel with maxillary tomium, its anterior end de- 
cidedly nearer to loral antia than to tip of maxilla; loral antia at 
or slightly below upper margin of nasal fossa, the anterior line of 
feathering receding thence downward to rictus and upward to median 
line of forehead, the usually more or less expanded base of culmen * 
forming an angular indentation into frontal feathering. Wing rel- 
atively large, much rounded, the longest primaries exceeding distal 
secondaries by less than one-eighth the length of wing to between 
one-fourth and one-fifth in A. axillaris or more than one-fourth in 
A. mangle, usually not extending at all beyond tips of elongated 
proximal secondaries, but in the two species named projecting con- 
siderably beyond them; third to sixth primaries (from outside) 
longest and subequal, except in A. axillaris and A. mangle, in which 
the third and fourth are longest, the fifth and sixth much shorter, 
the first (outermost) distinctly, to much, shorter than distal secon- 
daries, except in A. axillaris and A. mangle, in which it is longer 
than ninth (about equal to eighth in the latter) ; alula variable in 
relative development, not reaching to tips of longest primary coverts 
in A. cajanea, and A. axillaris, extending about as far in A. ypecaha, 
extending decidedly beyond in A. saracura, and falling far short in 
A. mangle. Tail a little more than one- third to slightly more than 
two-fifths as long as wing, strongly rounded to graduated, the rec- 
trices (12 ?) rather soft to moderately firm, rather broad, with 
rounded tips, projecting but little beyond lower coverts. Tarsus 

'In A. mangle the flanks cinnamomeous, the thighs pale buffy grayish. 
" Equal to one-third In A. mangle, equal to one one-fourth in A. saracura. 
'The base of the culmen is very little if at all expanded in A. mangle and 
A. axillaris. 



112 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



about one-third as long as wing (A. axillans, A. mangle) to about 
two-fifths as long (other species) , both acrotarsium and planta tarsi 
each with a continuous single series of large transverse scutella ; the 
posterior side of naked portion of tibia also with transverse scuteUa ; 
outer toe with claw sometimes reaching to base of middle claw, some- 
times falling decidedly short ; inner toe, without claw, reaching about 
to penultimate articulation of middle toe ; hallux, without claw, about 
as long as basal phalanx of outer toe or a little shorter ; claws rather 
short and stout, moderately curved and compressed, moderately acute 
to rather blunt. 



-yy^'X 




Figure 7. — Aramides cajanea cajanea. 

Plumage and coloration. — Plumage rather dense, shorter and more 
blended on head and neck, longer and more hairlike on back, scapu- 
lars, and under parts; the wing coverts and remiges more distinctly 
outlined. Plumage plain, without markings except on axillars and 
under wing coverts, which are barred with black and white or rusty ; 
upper parts mostly olive, passing into blackish on tail and becoming 
more rufescent (often cinnamon-rufous) on primaries ; color of under 
parts plain cinnamon-rufous, plain slate-grayish, or gray anteriorly 
and cinnamon or cinnamon-rufous posteriorly, the under tail coverts 
always blackish. 

Range. — Continental Tropical America. (Eight species.) ^° 



"Of the known species the following were not examined in the preparation 
of the above description of the generic characters: A. wolfl Berlepsch and 
Taczanowskl, A. gutturalis Sharpe, and A. calopterus Sclater and Salvin. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 113 

KEY TO THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF AEAMIDES 

o. Under wing coverts black and white, witli no brownish. 

&. Under wing coverts black, broadly tipped, but not otherwise barred with 

vrhite Aramides caloptenis (extralimital)" 

6B. Under wing coverts barred black and white__ Aramides axillaris (p. 124) 
aa. Under wing coverts brown, with or without white or blackish bars. 
6. Underparts entirely slate gray, throat white. 

Aramides saracura (extralimital)" 

66. Breast rufescent. 
c. No gray on the throat. 

d. Abdomen black Aramides wolfi (extralimital)" 

dd. Abdomen ashy Aramides mangle (extrallmital)" 



"Aramides calopterus. — Aramides calopterus Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. London, 1878, 439, pi. 28 (Sarayacu, e. Ecuador; coll. Brit. Mus.) ; Sharpe, 
Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 62 ( Sarayacu) ; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Iv, 1926, 136 (Eio Suno and below San Jos6, Ecuador) ; Peters, 
Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1984, 176.— [Aramides] calloptera Sharpe, Hand- 
list, i, 1899, 98. 

" Aramides saracura. — Qallinula saracura Spix, Av. Bras., ii, 1823, 75, pi. 98 
(Brazil). — Aramides saracura Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 
1868, 449; Reinhardt, Vid. Medd. Kj0benhavn, 1870, 44; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 
1871, 316, 458; Taczanowski, Orn. P6rou, iii, 1886, 319; Sharpe, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 61 (Santa Fe in Mlnas Geraes, Pelotas in Kio Grande 
do Sul, and Tpanema, Brazil) ; Peters, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 
IIQ.— [Aramides] saramira Gray, Hand-list, iii, 1871, 60, No. 10428; Sclater 
and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 139; Sharpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 98.—Rallus 
nigricans (not of Vieillot) Bonaparte, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, iv, 
1825, 386; Burmeister, Journ. fur Orn., 1853, 176 (descr. eggs) .—Rallus 
melanurus Bonaparte, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, v, pt. 1, 1825, 139 
(no locality mentioned). — Qallinula plumhea Tschudi, Fauna Peruana, Aves, 
1845-6, 52, 302. — 0[allinula] plumbea Tschudi, Wiegmann's Archiv. fiir Nat, 
x, pt. i, 1844, 313 (Peru). — Aramides plumieus Gray, Gen. Birds, iii, 1846, 
594.— Aramides plumieas Hartlaub, Syst. Azara's Apunt, 1847, 23 ; Burmeister, 
Syst. Ueb. Thiere Bras., iii, 1856, 383 ; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Kalli, 1865, 15.— 
Rallus Jiydrogallina "Less" [on] Pucheran, Kev. Mag. Zool., 1851, 569 (crit. ; 
new name for Qallinula saracura Spix?). — OrtygarcTius saracura Heine and 
Reichenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Om., 1890, 320. 

" Aramides wolfi. — Aramides wolfi Berlepsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. London, 1883, 576 (Chimbo, w. Ecuador) ; Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xxiii, 1894, 55 (Balzar Mountains, w. Ecuador) ; Salvadori and Festa, Boll. Mus. 
Zool. Torino, xv, 1900, 40 (Foress del Rio Peripa, w. Ecuador; crit.). — Chapman, 
BuU. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Iv, 1926, 175 (Mindo, Manglar Alto, Rio de Oro, 
Naranjo, and La Chonta, Ecuador) ; Peters, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 
175. — [Aramides] wolfi, Sharpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 97; Brabourne and Chubb, 
Birds South America, i, 1912, 23 (w. Ecuador; w. Colombia). 

"Aramides mangle. — Qallinula mangle Spix, Av. Bras., ii, 1825, 74, pi. 97 
(coast of Brazil). — Rallus mangle Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., iii, Gallinae, 1844, 
115, part. — Aramides mangle Burmeister, Syst. -Ueb. Thiere Bras., ii, 1856, 385, 
footnote; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 449 (Bahia, Brazil); Pelzeln, 
Cm. Bras., 1871, 316 (Sapitiba) ; Allen, BuU. Mus. Comp. Zool., viii, 1876, 82 
(Santarem) ; Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 54 (Bahia) ; Hellmayr, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. Ser. xii. No. 18, 1929, 481 (restricted type loc, coast 



114 BXTLLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

cc. With gray on the throat 
d. Top of head dark chestnut-brown. 

Ar amides gutturalis (extralimital)" 
dd. Top of head largely, if not wholly, grayish. 
e. Vent pearly gray Aramides ypecaha (extralimital)" 



of Bahia ; spec, from Piauhy, Arara, and Amaracao) ; Peters, Check-list Birds of 
World, ii, 1934, 174.— [Aromides] manglj Gray, Hand-list, iii, 1871, 60, No. 10426 ; 
Sclater and Salvin, Norn. Av. Neotr., 1873, 139; Sharpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 97; 
Brabourne and Chubb, Birds South America, i, 1912, 22 (se. Brazil). — Aramides 
chiricote (not Rallus chiricote Vieillot) Gray, Gen. Birds, iii, 1846, 594, part.^ — 
[Aramides'i rufioollis (not Fulica ruficoUis Gmelin) Bonaparte, Compt. Rend., 
xliii, 1856, 598, part — Aramides rufioollis Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, v. No. SO, livr. 
7, 1865, 15. 

"Aramides gutturalis. — (1) [Fulica] rufioollis Gmelin, Syst Nat., i, pt 2, 
1789, 700 ("Cayenne"; based on Black-bellied Oallinule Latham, Gen. Synops. 
Birds, iii, pt. 1, 1785, 253). — [Oallinula] rufioollis Latham, Index Orn. ii, 1790, 
767. — Oallinula rufioollis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., xiii, 1817, 405. — Ara- 
mides ruficolHs Gray, Gen. Birds, iii, 1846, 504; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. London, 1868, 448 ; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1893, 
899 (Lima, Peru) ; Peters, Check-list Birds of World, il, 1934, 11^.— [Aramides] 
rufioollis Gray, Hand-list, iii, 1871, 60, no. 10429; Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. 
Neotr., 1873, 139. — Rallus rufioeps (not Oallinula ruficeps Spix) Gray, List 
Birds Brit. Mus., pt. 3, Grallae, 1844, 115, part (spec. d). — Aramides gutturalis 
Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 57, pi. 5 (Lima, Peru; coll. Brit 
Mus.) — [Aramides] gutturalis Sharpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 97 (Peru) ; Bradbourne 
and Chubb, Birds South America, 1, 1912, 23 (Peru?). 

" Aramides ypecaha. — Rallus ypecaha Vieillot, Nouv. Diet Hist. Nat., xxviii, 
1819, 568 (Paraguay; based on ypacaha Azara, Apunt Parag., Iii, 1805, 210) ; 
Gould, in Darwin's Zool. Voy. Beagle, Birds, 1841, 133 (Buenos Aires, Argen- 
tina) ; Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., pt. 3, Grallae, 1844, 115. — Aramides ypecaha 
Gray, Gen. Birds, iii, 1846, 594 ; Hartlaub, Syst. Index Azara's Apunt., 1847, 23 ; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 144 (Conchitas, Buenos Aires, 
Argentina); 448 (monogr.) ; Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1871, 316, footnote, 458; 
Durnford, Ibis, 1877, 194 (Baradero) ; White, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1883, 
433 (La Plata) ; Barrows, Auk, i, 1884, 276 (ConcepciOn, Uruguay) ; Berlepsch, 
Journ. fur Orn., 1887, 34 (Bio Pilcomayo, Paraguay) ; Sclater and Hudson, 
Argentine Orn., ii, 1889, 150; Kerr, Ibis, 1892, 148 (lower Rio Pilcomayo); 
Wetmore, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 133, 1926, 126 (Lazcano, Uruguay; Las Palmas, 
Chaco ; Riacho Pilaga, Formosa ; Lavalle, Buenos Aires, Argentina ; and Puerto 
Pinasco, Paraguay) ; Peters, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 176. — [Ara- 
m,ides] ypecaha Gray, Hand-list iii, 1871, 60, No. 10424; Sclater and Salvin, 
Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 139. — Aramides ipecaha Hudson, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 
1876, 103 (Argentina; habits). — Aramides ypacaha Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. 
Mus., xxiii, 1894, 60 (Conchitas, Argentina; s. Brazil). — [Aramides] ypacaha 
Sharpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, Q%.—C[rex] melanopyga Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl., 
1823, 79 (Brazil). — Ortygarchus melampygus Lichtenstein, Nomencl. Av. Mus. 
Berol., 1854, 96. — Oallinula gigas Spix, Av. Bras., ii, 1825, 75, pi. 99 (interior 
of Minas Geraes, near district of Contendas, Brazil). — Aramides gigas 
Pucheran, Rev. Zool., viii, 1845, 14 ; Burmelster, Syst Ueb. Thiere Bras., iii, 1856, 
383 (Minas Geraes; Rio de Janeiro) ; Reise La Plata-St., ii, 1861, 504; Schlegel, 
Mus. Pays-Bas, Ralli, 1865, 14. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 115 

ee. Vent blackish. 
/. With a broad patch of white feathers on abdomen. 
ff. Larger, culmen of males averaging 72 mm. 

Aramides cajanea vanrossemi (p. 116) 
gg. Smaller, culmen of males averaging 61 mm. 

Aramides cajanea albiventris (p. 117) 
//. With little or no white on abdomen. 

g. With a little white on posterior border of brownish upper abdomen. 
7i. Mantle faintly Indicated- Aramides cajanea mexlcana (p. 115) 
Ml. Mantle conspicuous. 

i. Mantle rufescent, with no olive wash. 

Aramides cajanea plumbeicolHs (p. 119) 
it. Mantle rufescent mixed with olive. 

Aramides cajanea pacifica (p. 118) 
gg. With no white on abdomen. 
h. Smaller, wing under 170 mm. 

Aramides cajanea latens (p. 123) 
hh. Larger, wing over 170 mm. 

Aramides cajanea cajanea (p. 120) 

ARAMIDES CAJANEA MEXICANA Bangs 

Mexican Wood-eail 

Adult (sexes alike). — Similar to that of Aramides cajanea cajanea 
but with a faint indication of tawny-buffy on the mantle, the olive of 
the upper back, scapulars, and upper wing coverts averaging slightly 
more grayish, less yellowish olive; occiput more extensively and 
brighter auburn ; breast, sides, and upper abdomen paler — ^tawny-cin- 
namon to pale buckthorn brown, and with the posterior abdominal 
feathers of this color paler — ^pale cinnamon-buff, the median ones prac- 
tically white at their tips, producing the effect of a narrow whitish 
hind margin separating the brown area from the black lower abdomen ; 
remiges slightly duskier and with the dusky tips more extensive, "irig 
reddish; basal half of bill reddish, terminal half greenish; feet car- 
mine" (Lawrence). 

Juvenal female}'' — Similar to adult but with no white on the ab- 
domen, the black of the thighs and lower abdomen replaced by dark 
mouse gray and the feathers of the lower middle abdomen broadly 
tipped Avith tawny-cinnamon ; throat streaked or longitudinally spotted 
with deep auburn as is also the top of the head (the auburn feathers 
being the remnants of the natal down) . 

Noted down. — On head and throat deep auburn; body downs not 
known. 

Advlt OToZe.— Wing 184-192 (187.5) ; tail 56.5-58.5 (57.3) ; exposed 
culmen 59-74 (63.7) ; tarsus 75-79.5 (77.1) ; middle toe without claw 
57.5-60.5 (55.8 mm.). ^8 



' No young males seen. 

' Three specimens from Oaxaca. 



116 

Adult female.— Wuig 17^-175 (173.7) ; tail 54.5-59 (56.5) ; exposed 
culmeii 60-63 (62) ; tarsus 74r-79 (76.6) ; middle toe without claw 57- 
60.5 (58.8imn.).^» 

Range. — Kesident in central and southern Mexico from southern 
Tamaulipas (Alta Mira and Tampico) ; south through Veracruz (San 
Andrea Tuxtla, Playa Vicente, Actopam, Vega de Alatorre, Vega del 
Casadero, Lagxma Verde, Buena Vista, Tlacotalpam) ; Hidalgo (Ori- 
zava) ; Valley of Mexico; Oaxaca (San Francisco, Huilotepeo, Tehu- 
antepec, Guichicovi) ; Tabasco, and possibly Chiapas. In southern 
Oaxaca intergradation toward albiventris begins to appear. 

Type locality. — Buena Vista, Veracruz, Mexico. 

Rallus chiricote (not of Vieillot) Bonapabtb, Proc. Zool. See. London, 1837, 114 
(Mexico). 

Aramides cayennensis (not Fulica cayennensis Gmelin) Sclatee, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, 1857, 206 (San Adrea Tuxtla, Veracruz) ; 1859, 393 (Oaxaca). 

Aramides aniventris Lawrence, V. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 4, 1876, 49 (San Francisco, 
Tehuan tepee, Oaxaca; fresh colors of nude parts). — Sclater and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 447, part (monogr.). — Feerari-Perez, Proc. 
TJ. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1886, 177 (Actopam and Vega de Alatorre, Veracruz). — 
Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 59, part (Tampico; Playa Vi- 
cente, Vega del Casadero and Laguna Verde, Veracruz; and Tehuantepec, 
Oaxaca). — Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xviii, 1896, 627 (Alta Mira, s. 
Tamaulipas). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, iii, 1903, 319, 
part (Alta Mira and Tampico, Tamaulipas ; Valley of Mexico ; Tehuantepec 
and San Francisco, Oaxaca ; San Andrea Tuxtla, Actopam, Vega de Alatorre, 
Vega del Casadero, Playa Vicente, and Laguna Verde, Veracruz). — Cooke, 
U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 25, part (distr.). 

[Aramideg] albiventris Gray, Hand-list, iii, 1871, 60, no. 10430, part (s. Mexico). — 
ScLATER and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 139, part. — Shabpb, Hand-list, i, 
1899, 98, part. 

Aramides albiventris mexicanus Bangs, Amer. Nat, xli, 1907, 185 (Buena Vista, 
Veracruz ; coll. E. A. and O. Bangs) ; Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixx, 1930, 168 
(type specimen in Mus. Comp. Zool. ; crit.). 

[Aramides cayanea] Subsp. p Aramides albiventris Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xxiii, 1894, 59, part ( Tampico, Tamaulipas ; Playa Vicente, Vega del Casadero, 
and Laguna Verde, Veracruz; and Tehuantepec, Oaxaca). 

A[ramides] mexicanus Dickey, Condor, xxxi, 1929, 33 in text (crit.). 

Aramides cajanea mexicana Peters, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 174. 

ARAMIDES CAJANEA VANROSSEMI Dickey 

Van Rossem's Wood-rail 

Adults (sexes alike). — Very similar to Aramides cajanea albiventris, 
but larger. 

Other plumages unknown. 

Adult 7nale.—Wm.g 189-195; tail 60.5-70; exposed culmen 68-68; 
tarsus 83-86 ; middle toe without claw 60-65 mm.'"' 



" Three specimens from Oaxaca and Veracruz. 
°° Two specimens, including the type. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 117 

Adidt female.— Wing 190; tail 60; exposed culmen 63; tarsus 84; 
middle toe without claw 62 mm.^^ 

Range.— Knoyvn only from the type locality and the adjacent Pacific 
coast of Guatemala (Chiapam). 

Type locality.— Bane de Santiago, Ahuachapan, El Salvador. 

Aramides aniventris (not of Lawrence, 1867) Shaepb, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 

xxiii, 1894, 59, part (Retalhulen, Guatemala). — Lantz, Trans. Kansas Acad. 

Sci., xvi, 1896-97 (1899) , 219 ( San Jos^, Guatemala) . 
Aramides alMventris alUventris Bangs, Amer. Nat., xli, 1907, 183, part (Chiapam, 

Guatemala). 
Aramides vanrossemi Dickey, Condor, xxxi, 1929, 33 (orig. descr. ; Barra de 

Santiago, Ahuachapan, El Salvador). 
A[ramides'\ vanrossemi Dickey, Condor, xxxl, 1929, 33 in text (crit.). 
Aramides alMventris vanrossemi Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Ixiv, 

1932, 120 (Ocos, Guatemala). 
Aramides cajanea vanrossemi Peters, Check-list Birds of World, 11, 1934, 174.-van 

RossEM, Birds El Salvador, 1938, 159 (El Salvador, fairly common in April 

and probably resident in mangroves and swamp forests at Barra de Santiago ; 

habits; food; colors of soft parts). 

ARAMIDES CAJANEA ALBIVENTRIS Lawrence 
WhITE-BEIUED WOOD-EAll. 

Adult (sexes alike). — Differing from the nominate race in the same 
characters as Aramides cajanea mexicana but with the posterior edge 
of the brown upper abdomen broadly white, the white forming a very 
conspicuous band between the brown anterior to it and the black 
posterior to it. 

Other plumages not seen or recorded. 

Adult male.—Wmg 182-189 (185.8) ; tail 60-66 (62.8) ; exposed cul- 
men 64^65 (64.3) ; tarsus 79.5-82 (80.5) ; middle toe without clav/ 
58-64.5 (61.5mm.).^= 

Adult female.— Wing 172-195.5 (183.9) ; tail 60-66 (62.7) ; exposed 
culmen 58.5-64.5 (61.1) ; tarsus 73-81 (77.4) ; middle toe without 
claw 54^59 (55.7 mm.). == 

Range. — Eesident from extreme southern Mexico (Campeche — 
Champoton; and Yucatan — Las Bocas de Silam and Cozumel Island) ; 
south through British Honduras (Belize Eiver and Mountain Cow) ; 
Guatemala (Peten, Chiapam, Vera Paz, Coban, mouth of Eio Samala, 
Choctum, etc.). 

Type locality. — British Honduras. 



2^ One specimen. 

^ Three specimens from Mexico. 

^ Four specimens from Yucatan and Campeche, Mexico, and Guatemala. Eight 
unsexed birds from Yucatan and Guatemala show the following size variations : 
Wing 175-182 (178.3) ; tail 55-62.5 (57.3) ; exposed culmen 58.5-67 (52.2) ; 
tarsus 73.5-80.5 (76.9) ; middle toe without claw 52-62 (56.1 mm.)- 



118 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Aramides caj/ennensis (not Fulica cayennensis Gmelin) Sciateb and Saivin, 
Ibis, 1859, 230 (Omoa, Honduras). 

Aramides cayanensis Moobe, Proc. Zool. Sec. London, 1859, 64 (Omoa, Honduras ; 
habits). 

Aramides aniventris Laweence, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scl. Philadelphia, xix, 1867, 
234 (British Honduras; coll. G. N. Lawrence). — Sclatee and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. See. London, 1868, 447, part (monogr.) ; 1870 (Honduras).— Salvin, 
Ibis, 1874, 327 (Las Bocas de SUam, n. coast Yucatan) ; 1889, 378 (Cozumel 
Island, Yucatan); 1890, 89 (Cozumel Island).— Boucaed, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, 1883, 462 (Yucatan). — Shaepe, Cat Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 59, 
part (mouth of Rio Samaia, and Choctum, Guatemala; Cozumel Island; 
British Honduras). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, iii, 1903, 
319, part (Las Bocas de Silam and Cozumel Island, Yucatan ; Belize, British 
Honduras; Choctum, Vera Paz, mouth of Rio Samaia, Guatemala; Omoa 
and San Pedro, Honduras). — Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 25, part 
(geog. range). — Millee, BuU. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1, 1924, 408 (ptllosis). 

Alramides] albiventris DiOKErr, Condor, xxxi, 1929, 33 in text (crit.). 

lAramides] albiventris Gbat, Hand-list, iii, 1871, 60, no. 10430, part (Honduras, 
Guatemala). — Sclatee and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 139, part. — Shaepe, 
Hand-list, i, 1899, 98, part. 

Aramides albiventris albiventris Bangs, Amer. Nat., xli, March, 1907, 183, part 
(monogr.). — Gbiscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Ixiv, 1932, 120 (eastern 
Guatemala). — Austin, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixix, 1929, 371 (Belize River, 
and Mountain Cow, British Honduras). — Cabeikee and DeSchattenseb, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ixxxviii, 1935, 415 (spec. ; Quirlgua, Guatemala). 

[Aramides cayanea] subsp. /3 Aramides albiventris Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xxiii, 1894, 59, part (Retalhuleu, mouth of Rio Salama, and Choctum, 
Guatemala; Cozumel Island; Belize, British Honduras). 

ARAMIDES CAJANEA PACIFICA Miller and Griscom 

NiCAEAGtJAN WOOD-EAIL 

Adult (sexes alike). — Similar to that of Aramides cajwnea plvmu- 
heicollis but with the mantle less richly colored and less distinct from 
the adjacent back and upper wing coverts — ^the mantle tawny -buflfy 
citrine, the upper back and the scapulars and the upper wing coverts 
grayish olive ; primaries very slightly darker.^ 

Other plumages unknown. 

Adult male.— Wing 171-186 (178.2) ; tail 47-58 (54.4) ; exposed cul- 
men 59-62 (60.6) ; tarsus 77-85.5 (82.1) ; middle toe without claw 54^57 
(55.7 mm.). == 

Adult female.— Wuig 166-183 (174.6) ; tail 45-57 (52.8) ; exposed 
culmen 54^60 (57), tarsus 74r-81 (78.3), middle toe without claw 51-57 
(54.2 mm.)." 



•* The supposed character of the narrower black bars on the axillars does not 
hold ; even in the type specimen there is considerable difference between the two 
sides in this respect. 

" Eight specimens, including the type, from Nicaragua and Honduras. 

" Nine specimens from Nicaragua and Honduras. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 119 

Ba/nge.—Rosidmt in Honduras (Catacamas, El Boqueron, Lake 
Ticamaya, Cortes, and Bambu) and Nicaragua (Matagalpa, Lake 
Managua, Kio Coco, Jalapa, Los Sabalos), from sea level up to 2,000 
feet, in swampy, wooded areas. 

Tijpe hcality. —Tipitapa., Lake Managua, Nicaragua. 

Aramides Cayennensis (not Fulioa cayennensis Gmelin) Sclateb and Salvin, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1867, 280 (Bluefields River, Nicaragua ) .—Redgw at, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1888, 594 (Rio Segovia, Honduras). 

Aramides plumieicollis Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 528 (Rio 
Bscondido, Nicaragua ; Kio Segovia, Honduras ; notes).— Salvin and Godman, 
Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, iii, 1903, 320, part (Rio Segovia, Honduras ; Blue- 
fields, Graytown, and Rio Escondido, Nicaragua).— Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. 
Bull. 128, 1914, 26, part (geogr. range). 

Aramides alMventris Subsp. y Aramides plumheooUi-s Shaepe, Cat. Birds. Brit 
Mus., xxUi, 1894, 332 (Rio Bscondido and Santo Domingo, Chontales, 
Nicaragua; crit.). 

Aramides alUvenfris plumbekoUis Bangs, Amer. Nat., xli, 1907, 186, part (mono- 
graph). 

Aramides plumbeicollis paoifious Muxee and Gmscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., No. 25, 
1921, 11 (orig. descr. ; Tipitapa, Nicaragua; distr; crit.). 

Aramides oajanea pacifiea Petebs, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 175. 

AEAMIDES CAJANEA PLUMBEICOLLIS Zeledon 

Plumbeous-necked Wood-e-^il 

Adult (sexes alike). — Similar to that of the nominate form, but 
with the occiput brighter and more rufescent-auburn, the mantle dis- 
tinctly different in coloration from the scapulars, upper wing coverts, 
and upper back, the mantle Sudan brown, the wing coverts, scapulars, 
and upper back Saccardo's olive ; underparts as in cajanea. 

Juvenal male." — Similar to adult but with mantle slightly less ex- 
tensive, and with the anterior black, mid-abdominal feathers broadly 
tipped with cinnamon-buff, and the feathers of the lower back and 
rump and upper tail coverts extensively margined and washed with 
umber. 

Natal down. — Apparently unknown. 

Adult male.—Wmg 172-186 (178.2) ; tail 51-59 (56'.3) ; exposed 
cuhnen 53.5-63 (59.6) ; tarsus 74-87 (83.6) ; middle toe without claw 
52-59 (57.8mm.).2s 

Adult female.— Wing 168-179 (172) ; tail 50.5-56 (52.3) ; exposed 
culmen 54^60 (55.2) ; tarsus 69.5-82 (76.4) ; middle toe without claw 
63-64.5 (57mm.).2» 

Range. — ^Resident in swampy, wooded places in central and east 
central Costa Rica (Bonilla, Cariblanco de Sarapiqui, Carillo, El 

^ No young females seen. 

^Flve specimens from Costa Rica including the type. 

" Bight specimens from Costa Rica. 

272607 — 41 9 



120 BULLETIN 50, UNITEB STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Hogar, Guapile, Guayabal, Jimenez, Volcan de Miravalle, and Volcan 
de Turrialba). 

Type locality. — Jimenez, Costa Rica. 

AramiAes cayennensis (not Fulioa. cayennensis Gmelin). — Fbantztos, Journ. fur 
Orn., 1869, 375 (Costa Kica). 

AramiAes alMventris (not of Lawrence, 1867) Lawkence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. 
New York, ix, 1868, 143 (Costa Rica).— Salvin and Godman, Biol. Oentr.- 
Amer., Aves, Hi, 1903, 319, part (Costa Rica). 

[AramiAes cayanea.l Subsp. /3 AramiAes alMventris Shabfe, Cat. Birds Brit 
Mus., xxiii, 1894, 59, part (Costa Rica). 

AramiAes plumieicolUs Zeled6n, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 131, 138 
(nomen nuAum) ; il, 1888, 3 (Jim&iez, Costa Rica; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.).— 
Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 33, footnote. — ^Underwood, Ibis, 
1896, 450 (Volcan de Miravalles, Costa Rica).— Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, iii, 1903, 320, part (MiravaUes, Carrlllo, and Jimenez, 
Costa Rica).— CooKE, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 26, part (geogr. 
range). 

AlramiAes'i plumteicolUs Dickey, Condor, xxxi, 1929, 33, in text (characters; 
crit.). 

[AramiAes] plumdeicolKs Shaepe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 98. 

AramiAes albiventris plumieicollis Bangs, Amer. Nat., xli, 1907, 186 part 
(monogr.). — Feebt, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. 146 (orn. ser., i. No. 6), 
1910, 260 (Guayabo, Costa Rica; crit.). — Caeeikeb, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 
1910, 409 (El Hogar, Guapiles, and Volcan de Turrialba at 2,000 feet, 
Costa Rica). 

AramiAes cajanea plumheicollis Pestees, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 175. 

ARAMIDES CAJANEA CAJANEA (P. L. S. Muller) 

Guiana Wood-eail 

Adult (sexes alike). — ^Forehead, crown, and hind neck slate-gray; 
the occiput similar but much washed with Saccardo's umber; inter- 
scapulars, scapulars, upper back, and inner upper wing coverts 
citrine-drab to Saccardo's olive; the outer lesser and median upper 
wing coverts similar but extensively tinged with light buckthorn 
brown; the greater upper primary coverts, alula, and remiges hazel, 
becoming slightly duskier toward the tips of the primaries and ex- 
tensively so on the secondaries; lower back Saccardo's umber to sepia; 
rump, upper tail coverts, rectrices, flanks, middle of lower abdomen, 
vent, and under tail coverts dull black, the feathers of the rump and 
the upper tail coverts often with indistinct margins of Saccardo's 
umber; lores, cheeks, and auriculars pale neutral gray to light neu- 
tral gray; chin and upper throat white; sides of neck, the lower 
throat, and upper breast gull gray to deep gull gray ; rest of breast 
the upper abdomen, and sides pinkish cinnamon to cinnamon ; thighs 
mouse gray; under wing coverts like the sides, but broadly banded 
with blackish; iris red; orbital ring red; bill yellow at base green 
terminally; tarsi and toes geranium pink. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 121 

Jvwendl ma^e.— Similar to the adult, but with the occiput almost 
free of any brownish wash, and with the anterior black midabdominal 
feathers tipped and margined with grayish cinnamon-buff, the umber 
edgings on the feathers of the flanks and rump slightly more pro- 
nounced; the secondaries washed with olive-brown, and the dusky 
tips of the primaries more extensive. 

Natal down.— Down on top of head, the chin, and throat rusty 
cinnamon; rest unknown (from a specimen in advanced postnatal 
molt). 

Adult nude.— Wing 171.5-201 (187.6) ; tail 53-80.5 (66.8) ; exposed 
cuhnen 46.5-58 (54.1) ; tarsus 68-74 (71.4) ; middle toe without claw 
48-55 (51.5mm.).='' 

Adult female.— Wing 166.5-189 (177.2) ; tail 55-68 (61.9) ; exposed 
culmen 46.5-56.5 (52.3) ; tarsus 66.5-75.5 (70.1) ; middle toe without 
claw 47.5-58 (50.8 mm.)." 

Range. — Resident in wooded swamps and small streams in forested 
areas from northwestern and southeastern Costa Rica (El General; 
Terraba; Buenos Aires; Talamanca; Santa Ana); and Panama 
(Cana, Darien, Almirante Bay; Perme; David; Lion Hill; Laguna 
de Pita) ; south through Venezuela (Altagracia, Quiribana de Cai- 
cara; San Esteban; Angostura; Puerto Cabello; Encontrados) ; and 
Trinidad (Caroni Swamp; Sabana Grande); French, Dutch, and 
British Guianas (Bartica; Camacusa) ; Colombia (Rio Frio; Santa 
Marta; Remedies); Ecuador (Rio Suno) ; and Brazil (Para; San- 
tarem; Rio Madeira; Maranhao; Ceara; Novo Triburgo; Rio de 
Janeiro; Pernambuco; Rio Parahyba; Borba; Sao Paulo; Rio 
Grande do Sul; Matto Grosso, etc.) ; to Peru (lower Rio Ucayali; 
Amable Maria; La Merced; Moyobamba) ; Paraguay (Picomayo; 
Puerto Pinasco; Sapucay) ; Argentina (San Lorenzo; Oran, Salta; 
Chaco) ; and Uruguay (Rio Negro; La Paloma; Paso Alamo; Rio 
Cebollati). 

Type locality. — Cayenne. 

Fulica cajanea Muiije, Syst. Nat, Suppl., 1776, 119 (Cayenne ; based on PI. Enl., 
pi. 352; see Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1864, 216). 

Aramides cajanea BEEMa>scH and Hartekt, Nov. Zool., Ix, 1902, 128 (Quiribana 
de Caicara and Altagracia, Venezuela; crit.). — Hellmate, Abb. Bayer. Akad. 
Wiss., math.-phys. Kl., xxii, Abt. 3, 1905, 712 (crit.) ; Nov. Zool., xiii, 1906, 
52 (Caroni Swamp and Sabana Grande, Trinidad; crit.) ; xiv, 1907, 412 
(Humaytha, Kio Madeira, Brazil; crit.). — Bangs, Amer. Nat., xli, 1907, 180 
(monogr.) ; Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xxii, 1909, 29 (El General, Costa 
Eica; crit. ) .— Beblepsch, Nov. Zool., xv, 1908, 299 (Cayenne).— Cabbikeb, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 408 (Costa Rica; habits). 



""Twelve specimens from Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, Peru, Brazil, and 
Paraguay. 
"^ Six specimens from Panama and Brazil. 



122 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Aramidet cajanea cajanea Stokgis, Field Book Birds Panama Canal Zone, 1028, 
41 (deser. ; habits; Panama).— Geiscom, BuU. Mus. Comp, Zool., Ixix, 1929, 
154 (Cana, Darien, Panama ) .—Heixmayb, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. Ser., 
xii, No. 18, 1929, 481 (Maranhao and Ceara, Brazil; crit.).— Peters, BuU. 
Mns. Comp. Zool., Ixxi, 1931, 301 (Almirante Bay region, Panama) ; Check- 
list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 175.— Daelinqton, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixxi, 
1931, 371 (near Rio Frio, Magdalena, Colombia; habits).— Geiscom, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixxii, 1932, 321 (Perm^, Panama) ; Ixxviil, 1935, 304 (com- 
mon throughout Panama). — Belchee and Smookbib, Ibis, 1935, 282 (Trini- 
dad; uncommon; breeds). — Aideich, Sci. Publ. Cleveland Mus. Nat. Hist., 
vii, 1937, 56 (Paracote, Azuera Peninsula, Panama; colors of soft parts).— 
Sassi, Temmiuckla, ill, 1938, 307 (Costa Rica, forest of Rio Nuevo, Port 
Jimenez; spec.; crit.). — Wetmoee, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxvii, 1939, 190 
(n. Venezuela). 

Aramides cajanus Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., xiii, 1900, 125 (Minca, 
Santa Marta, (Colombia). 

Fulica major Boddaeet, Tabl. PI. EnL, 1783, 31 (based on Poule d'eau de cay- 
enne Daubenton, PI. Enl., ix, pi. 352). 

Aramides major Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxili, 1894, 57, footnote in 
text. 

[FuUca'l cayennensis Gmeun, Syst. Nat., i, pt. 2, 1789, 700 (Cayenne; based on 
Cayenne Oallinule Latham, Gen. Synopsis Birds, iii, pt. 1, 1785, 252). 

Clrex'] cayennensis Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl., 1823, 79 (Brazil). 

Alramides] cayennensis Geat, Gen. Birds, iii, 1846, 594. 

Aramides cayennensis BuEMEasTEE, Syst. Ueb. Thiere Bras., iii, 1856, 384 (Lagoa 
Santo, Novo Friborgo, and Rio de Janeiro). — Sclatee, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, 1856, 143 (Panama). — Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1867, 
161 (David, Panama) ; 1886, 176 (Bartlca Grove, and Camacusa, Brit. 
Guiana). — Sclateb and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 447 
(monogr.), 620 (San Esteban, Venezuela); 1873, 308 (lower Rio Ucayali, 
e. Peru) ; 1879, 545 (Remedios, Antioquia, Colombia). — Feanzius, Journ. 
fur Orn., 1869, 375 (Costa Rica).— Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1870, 315, 458.— 
Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. London., 1874, 558 (Amable-Maria, Peru) ; 
Orn. P^rou, iii, 1886, 318. — Foebes, Ibis, 1881, 358 (Pernambuco, Brazil).— 
Beelepsch, Ibis, 1884, 440 (Angostura, Venezuela; crit.) ; Journ. fiir Orn., 
18S7, 35 (Pilcomayo, Paraguay), 125 (Paraguay). — Meyek, Abbild. Vogel- 
Skeletten, 1885, pi. 74. — Beelepsch and Iheeins, Zeitschr. Orn., 1885, 180 
(Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, s. Brazil; crit). — Rikee and Chapjian, Auk, 
vlii, 1891, 163 (Santarem, lower Amazon). — Cheeeie, Expl. Zool. Merid, 
Costa Rica, 1893, 55 (Terraba and Buenos Aires, sw. Costa Rica). — Allen, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist, v, 1893, 150 (Chapada, Matto Grosso, sw. 
Brazil) — Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist, vi, 1894, 79 (Trinidad; 
habits; notes). — Koenioswald, Journ. fur Orn., 1896, 392 (SSo Paulo, s. 
Brazil ) . 

[Aramides] cayennensis Sclatee and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 139. 

Ortygaraclnis cayennensis Cabanis, in Schomburgk's Reis. Britisch-Guiaua, iii, 
1848, 759; Journ. fiir Orn., 1869, 212 (Costa Rica; crit.). 

[Ortygarclius] cayennensis Heine and Reiohenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Orn., 
1890, 320 (Brazil; Santa Marta, Colombia; Puerto Cabello, Venezuela; 
Paraguay). 

yOalUnvlal cayanensis Latham, Index Orn., ii, 1790, 767. 

Gullinula cayanensis Temminck, Cat. Syst., 1807, 178. 

[Aramides'] cayanea Geat, Hand-list, iii, 1871, 60, No. 10425. 



BIRDS OP NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 123 

Aramides caycmea Shaei>e, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 57 (Colombia ; Dutch 
Guiana; British Guiana; Brazil). — Ihebing, Rev. Mus. Paulista, iv, 1900, 286 
descr. eggs). — Reiseb, Denkschr. Alcad. Wiss. Wien, math.-nat. Kl., 1910, 95 
(Rio Parnahyba, etc., ne. Brazil).— Snethlage, Journ. fiir Orn., Ixxvi, 1928, 
554 (breeding seasons in various South American countries). 

Rallus chiricote Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., xxviii, 1819, 551 (Paraguay; 
based on Chiricote Azara, Apunt. Hist. Nat. PS-raxos Paragiiay, iii. 1805, 214). 

Aramides chiricote Habixaub, Syst. Index Azara's Apunt., 1847, 23. — Salvadobi, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, xii, 1897, 34 (San Lorenzo, n. Argentina). — Salvin 
and GoDMAN, Biol. Centr.-Auier., Aves, iii, 1903, 318 (Talamanca, Santa Ana, 
and Pacific Slope, Costa Rica ; David, Lion Hill, and Laguna de Pita, 
Panama; Colombia; Amazon Valley; Peru; Brazil). — Beuch, Rev. Mus. La 
Plata, xi, 1904, 249 (Ora,u, Salta, Argentina). — Hartebt and Ventubi, Nov. 
Zool, xvl, 1909, 257 (Cliaco, Argentina; descr. eggs). — Chubb, Ibis, 1910, 65 
(Sapucay, Paraguay; fresh colors of unfeathered parts). 

[Aramides cayanea.] Subsp. a. Aramides chiricote Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xxiii, 1894, 58, 332. 

Aramides cayanea chiricote Bangh, Proc. New England Zool. Club, ii, 1900, 14 
(Loma del Leon, Panama,) ; Auk, xviii, 1901, 358 (Divala, Chiriqui, 
Panama,). — Beki.epsch and Stolzman, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1902, 49 (La 
Merced, central Peru; fresh colors of unfeathered parts). 

Aramides cajanea chiricote Iheeing, Rev. Mus. Paulista, vi, 1904, 342 (Para- 
guay).— Chapman, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 117, 1921, 48 (Rio Comberciato, 
Peru). 

Aramides chlricota L:fioTAnD, Ois. Trinidad, 1866, 496. 

RalliiH iiiajjimus Vieuxot, Nout. Diet. Hist. Nat., xxviii, 1819, 555 (new name 
for FvMca cayennensis Gmelin). 

Araiiiidc« maximus Schlegei, Mus. Pays-Bas, v, no. 30, livr. 7 (Ralli), 14. 

QalUinila riificcps Spix, Av. Bras., ii, 1825, 74, pi. 96 (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). 

Aramides riiflceps Geat, List Grallae Brit. Mus., 1844, 115. 

Aramides ruficollis (not Oallinula ruficoUis Latham) Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1870, 
316 (Borba, Brazil). 

Aramides cajanea venezuelensis Cost, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. 182, orn. 
ser., i, 1915, 296 (Bncontrados, Venezuela). 

Aramides cajanea peruviana Cort, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. 182, orn. ser., 1, 
1915, 296 (Moyobamba, Peru). 

Aramides cajanea saJmoni Chueb, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, xxxviii, 1918, 48 
(Remedies, Autioquia. Colombia). 

Aramides cajanea grahami Chubb, Ibis, 1919, 58 (Para, Brazil). 

ARAMIDES CAJANEA LATENS Bangs and Penatd 

San MiQtJEL Wood-bail 

Adult (sexes alike) . — Similar to that of Aramides cajanea cajanea 
but slightly smaller and paler generally, the chin and throat not pure 
white, but lightly washed with grayish, the hind crown and occiput 
more extensively tinged with pale, dull earth brown; the lower 
throat and sides of neck light neutral gray; breast and sides and 
anterior abdomen between cinnamon and light sayal brown, less rufous 
than in the nominate form. 

Other plumages not known. 



124 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Adult mdle.—Wmg 16&-169; tail 59; exposed culmen 52-53; tarsus 
67, 67; middle toe without claw 47-48 mm.*^ 

Adult female.— Wmg 163-170; tail 58.5-64; exposed culmen 52, 
52 ; tarsus 66-67.5 ; middle toe without claw 45 mm.°° 

Range. — Resident in, and restricted to, the type locality. 

Type locality. — San Miguel Island, Bay of Panama. 

Armnides eajanea chirioote (not Rallus chirioote Vieillot) Thatee and Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. ZooL, xlvi, 1905, 145 (San Migtiel Island, Bay of Panama; 
crit. ) . 

Aramides eajanea latens Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixii, 1918, 
41 (San Migfiel Island, Bay of Panama; coll. Mus. Comp. Zool.)— Bangs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixx, 1930, 168 (type specimen in Mus. Comp. Zool,, 
crit.).— Peters, Check-list Birds of World, il, 1934, 1T5.— Gkiscom, BuU. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixxviii, 1935, 304 (Pearl Islands). 

ARAMIDES AXILLARIS Lawrence 

Rttfous-necked Wood-eah, 

Adult male. — ^Forehead, crown, occiput, nape, anterior half or more 
of hind neck, sides of neck, the lower throat, breast, and sides of 
upper abdomen reddish auburn to chestnut; lores, cheeks, auriculars, 
and sides of upper throat similar but slightly paler; posterior part 
of hind neck and interscapulars slate gray, forming a triangle with 
the apex forward on the hind neck; upper back and scapulars olive 
to dark greenish olive; upper wing and innermost secondaries light 
brownish olive to buffy olive, the outermost coverts tinged with 
russet; other secondaries dark olive-brown; primaries cinnamon- 
rufous, darkening to dark olive-brown on the inner webs, especially 
toward the shaft, the external margin of the inner webs more or less 
washed with cinnamon-rufous; lower back, rump, and upper tail 
coverts blackish faintly tinged with fuscous; the tail black; chin 
and middle of upper throat white; middle of abdomen deep mouse 
gray darkening to blackish mouse gray posteriorly; flanks, thighs, 
vent, and under tail coverts blackish with a faint fuscous tinge ; under 
wing coverts fuscous-black banded with white, those along the bend 
of the wing with the white replaced by cinnamon-rufous; iris hazel; 
bill grass green, its basal portion yellow ; tarsi and toes vermilion to 
dull salmon-red. 

Adult female. — Like the adult male but with the chin and middle 
upper throat averaging very slightly washed with pale cinnamon. 

Juvenal (only one sexed (?) and several unsexed examples seen 
but the sexes probably alike). — Forehead, crown, and occiput dusky 
olive-brown, becoming more grayish, less brownish, but not paler on 
the hind neck ; posterior hind neck and interscapulars as in adult but 



""Two specimens. 

*^Two specimens, including the type. 



BIRDS or NORTH AND JMIDDLE AMERICA 125 

less conspicuously different from the immediately adjacent more ante- 
rior parts; back, rump, upper tail and wing coverts, remiges, and 
rectrices as in adult, but the olive slightly less yellowish ; lores, cheeks, 
auriculars, and sides of upper throat pale slate gray mixed with drab ; 
chin and middle upper throat white tinged with pale cinnamon- 
buff ; lower throat, breast, abdomen to vent, sides, flanks, and thighs 
mouse gray, the individual feathers often terminally indistinctly 
washed with tawny-olive, especially on the sides ; vent, under tail and 
wing coverts as in adult. 

Natal doxon. — Not recorded. 

Adult Ttmle.—Wvag 163-174 (169) ; tail 63-63.0 (58.3) ; exposed 
culmen 39.5-46 (48.7) ; tarsus 52.5-63 (59.5) ; middle toe without claw 
43.5-47.5 (44.7 mm.).^* 

Adult /emaZe.— Wing 145.5-170 (163.6) ; tail 47-62.5 (57.3) ; ex- 
posed culmen 37.5-46 (42.2) ; tarsus 50-60.5 (57.6) ; middle toe without 
claw 40^7.5 (43.6 mm.).== 

Range. — ^Resident in coastal Mexico from Sinaloa on the west and 
Yucatan on the east (Mazatlan, Estero Mescales, Castillo, and Rosario 
River, Sinaloa; San Bias, Tepic; Acapulco, Guerrero; Mujeres Is- 
land ; Los Bocas de Silam, Yucatan) ; south through British Hon- 
duras (Belize) ; Nicaragua (Greytown) ; Costa Rica (Carrillo and 
Lepanto) ; and Panama (David, Chiriqui; Lion Hill; Quebrada 
Nigua) ; to Colombia (Barranquilla ; La Concepcion de Santa Marta; 
Cartagena; Chirua) ; and Ecuador (Puna Vieja; Jambeli; La 
Chonta) on the west; and to Venezuela (Puerto Cabello; mouth of 
Rio Guarapiche) ; Trinidad (Caroni; Chaguaramas) ; and the 
Guianas (Bartica, British Guiana) . 

Type locality. — ^Barranquilla, Colombia. 

0[rtygarchus1 mangle (not GalUnula mangle Spix) Cabanis, in Schomburgk's 

Reis. Britisch-Guiana, iii, 1848, T60. 
(?) Ortygarchus rufiooUis (not Fulioa ruficolUs Gmelln) (Liohtenstbust, Nom. 

Mus. Berol., 1854, 96 (Guiana; Venezuela). 
Aramides ruficolUs L£otaud, Ois. Trinidad, 1866, 498 (plumages; common in 

Trinidad). 
( 1) Aramides rufloollis ? Laweence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, viii, 1865, 

178 (David, Chiriqui, w. Panamd). 
(?) Aramides ruficolUs Lawbence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, vii, 1862, 

479 (Lion Hill Panama; descr.) ; viii, 1865, 184 (Greytown, Nicaragua). 
Aramides axillaris Lawbence, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pbiladelphia, 1863, 107 

(Barranquilla, Colombia; coll. G. N. Lawrence); Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. 

Hist., ii, 1874, 311 (Mazatldn, Sinaloa; habits).— Sclatee and S.vlvin, Proc. 

Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 449 (Belize, British Honduras; monogr.).— 

SALviif, Ibis, 1874, 327 (n. coast Yucatan) ; 1886, 176 (Brit. Guiana).— 

BotrcABD, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1883, 462 (Yucatan).— Shaepb, Cat. 

Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 56 (Venezuela).— Chapman, BuU. Amer. 

"Eighteen specimens from Mexico and Colombia. 
"Thirteen specimens from Mexico and Panama. 



126 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MXTSEOTM 

Mus. Nat. Hist, vl, 1894, 79 (Trinidad).— Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash- 
ington, xii, 1898, 92 (La Concepcifin, Santa Marta, Colombia) ; Amer. 
Nat., xli, 1907, 178 (monogr).— Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
iU, 1903, 318, pi. 77 (Mazatlfin; San Bias, Tepic; Las Bocas de Silam, 
Yucatan; Belize; Venezuela; Trinidad; British Guiana). — Heixmatr, Nov. 
Zool., xili, 1906, 52 (Caroni and Chaguaramas, Trinidad; crit.) — Beebe, 
Zoologica, i, 1909, 73 (mouth of Rio Guarapiche, etc., Venezuela; habits; 
notes). — Cabbikee, Aim. Carnegie Mps., vi, 1910, 408 (Carrillo ? and 
Lepanto, Costa Rica).— Cookb, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 25 (geog. 
range). — Chubb, Birds British Guiana, i, 1916, 67 (Bartica, Brit. 
Guiana). — Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Iv, 1926, 176 (Puna 
Vieja, Jambell, and La Chonta, Ecuador). — McLelx.an, Proc. California 
Acad. Sci., ser. 4, xrl, 1927, 11 (near San Bias, Mexico; habits).— 
Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., ixxi, 1931, 300 (Quebrada Nigra, Panama) ; 
Check-list Birds World, ii, 1934, 176. — Geiscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
Ixxviii, 1935, 304 (Almirante, Panama). — Betxihee and Smookeb, Ibis, 1935, 
283 (Trinidad; breeds; descr. of eggs). 

[Aramidcs'i axillaris Sclatee and Saivin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 139. — Shaepe, 
Hand-list, i, 1899, 97. — Beabotjene and Chubb, Birds South Amer., i, 1912, 
23 (Colombia; Venezuela; Trinidad). 

[Ortygarchws'\ axillaris Heine and Eeichenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 
320 (Guiana; Puerto Cabello, Venezuela). 

Genus CREX Bechstein 

Crex Bechstein, Orn. Taschenb., ii, 1803, 336. (Type, by monotypy, C. pratensis 
Bechstein=i2a/i;ttS crex Linnaeus.) 

Medium-sized Eallinae with bill much shorter than head, gonys 
not more than one- fourth as long as culmen and strongly ascending 
terminally; alula extending for only about half the length of long- 
est primary coverts, and hallux (without claw) not more than two- 
thirds as long as basal phalanx of inner toe. 

Bill much shorter than head, compressed, its depth of base equal 
to nearly half the length of culmen, its width at same point equal to 
about two-thirds the depth; culmen elevated basally slightly de- 
pressed above nostrils, thence gently but decidedly decurved to tip; 
gonys only about one-fourth as long as culmen, strongly ascending 
termiially, its basal angle rather prominent, through slight but 
distinct concavity of anterior portion of lower edge of mandibular 
rami, the latter without lateral groove; nasal fossa large and broad, 
extending for more than half the distance from loral feathering to 
tip of maxilla ; nostril small and narrow, acute anteriorly, obliquely 
longitudinal but parallel with maxillary tomium, its anterior end 
much nearer to laterofrontal antia than to tip of maxilla- latero- 
frontal antia at upper edge of nasal fossa, where forming an obtuse 
forward projection, thence sloping backward to the rictus* malar 
antia formmg a projecting obtuse angle, its apex about on vertical 
line with that of laterofrontal antia; mental antia nearly on vertical 
line with anterior end of nostril. Wing rather large, moderately 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 



127 



concave beneath, rather pointed, the second, or second and third 
primaries (from outside) longest, the outermost equal to or longer 
than sixth, the longest primaries exceeding distal secondaries by a 
little more than one-third the length of wing, and projecting slightly 
beyond tips of elongated proximal secondaries; alula extending not 
more than half way to tips of longest primary coverts. Tail a little 
more than one-third as long as wing, strongly rounded or slightly 
graduated, the rectrices narrow and tapering distally, the longer 
ones extending decidedly beyond coverts. Tarsus nearly one-third 
as long as wing, much less than twice as long as culmen, slightly 
longer than middle toe with claw, the acrotarsium with a single con- 
tinuous row of broad transverse scutella, the planta tarsi with a single 
continuous row of similar but narrower scutella; outer toe, with 




Figure 8. — Crex crex. Natural size. 



claw, falling short of base of middle claw, the inner toe still shorter, 
the terminal articulation on line with penultimate articulation of 
middle toe; hallux small, its length, without claw, equal to about 
two-thirds the length of basal phalanx of inner toe; claws short, 
slightly curved, rather blunt. 

Plwmage and coloration. — Plumage rather compact and firm, the 
contour feathers rather distinctly outlined, except on abdomen ; those 
of head short and more blended (except on pileum), those of the 
laterofrontal region semierect and bristly, those of lores very short 
and rather sparse; remiges firm. Upper parts brown and grayish, 
broadly striped with dark brown, the wings for the most part plain 
and rufescent; inner parts light grayish anteriorly, faintly barred 
on chest, etc., whitish posteriorly, distinctly barred with brovm; 
axillars and under wing-coverts plain rufescent. 

Range. — Palearctic region, southward to Africa in winter; acci- 
dental in northeastern portion of Nearctic region. (Monotypic.) 



128 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

CREX CBEX (Liimaeiu) 

COENCRAKB 

Adult male, winter plwmage. — ^Feathers of forehead, crown, occi- 
put, nape, hind neck, scapulars, interscapulars, innermost secondaries, 
back, rump, upper tail coverts, and rectrices fuscous-black, edged with 
from dusky cinnamon-buff to buffy-avellaneous ; upper and under 
wing coverts dusky orange-cinnamon to tawny sayal brown, the 
median and greater ones with varying amount of whitish small bars, 
slightly darker on the upper greater primary coverts; remiges (except 
the elongated innermost secondaries) snuff brown, darker on the inner 
webs which are almost bister, the outer web of the outermost primary 
cartridge buff except at tip which is pale snuff brown; superciliary 
stripe from base of maxilla over eye to posterolateral corner of nape 
ashy pale neutral gray ; lores, subocular area, lower cheeks and auricu- 
lars tawny-olive; sides of neck similar but the feathers with dark 
sepia to fuscous median stripes ; chin and upper throat whitish more 
or less washed with pale tawny-olive ; lower throat and breast buffy 
tawny-olive washed to a varying degree with ash grayish ; middle of 
abdomen, thighs, and vent buffy whitish ; sides and flanks barred sayal 
brown and buffy white, the brown bars wider than the whitish ones ; 
under tail coverts buffy white somewhat mixed with sayal brown; 
iris pale brown; bill pale brown darker at the tip, the maxilla more 
flesh color than the mandible; tarsi and toes pale flesh color. 

Adult male, summer plumage. — Similar to the winter plumage but 
with the superciliary stripe broader, more blue-gray, the lower throat 
and breast more extensively washed with ashy, and the edges of the 
feathers of the upperparts averaging more grayish. 

Adult female, winter phmiage. — Similar to the male winter plum- 
age but with less ashy blue-gray over the eye and none below it. 

Adult female, summer pltmiage. — Similar to the male summer 
plumage but with less ashy gray on the sides of head and the throat 
and breast. 

Jumnal (sexes alike).— "Like adult winter female but over eye 
buff-brown without gray, all upper-parts with edges of feathers more 
buff-brown without gray tinge; throat and breast more yellowish 
buff-brown and without gray tinge; flanks more rufous and less 
barred brown ; wing coverts sometimes without bars and usually less 
barred than adult." '* 

Natal doiun. — Sooty brownish black, the tips of the dorsal body 
down buffy brown, the tips of the capital and the ventral body down 
blacker.^* 



' Ex Witherby et al., Practical Handbook British Birds, ii, 1924, p. 828. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 129 

Adult Tnde.—Wmg 12&-138 (132.7) ; tail 45.5-47 (46.5) ; exposed 
culmen 21-23 (22.2) ; tarsus 36-38 (37) ; middle toe without claw 
33-38 (36 mm.)." 

Adult female.— Wiryg 132-137 (134.3) ; tail 48-51 (50) ; exposed 
culmen 22; tarsus 35.5-38 (36.7); middle toe without claw 32-37 
(34.2 mm.)."* 

Range. — Breeds in the greater part of Europe from Norway, 
Sweden, Faeroes, to Pyrenees, north Italy, and Macedonia, east to 
Russia, central Asia (Turkestan), and western Siberia (Lena and 
Yenisei Eivers). 

Winters in Africa, Arabia, and (uncommonly) northern India. 

Casual in Madeira, the Canary Islands, Bermuda, Greenland (God- 
thaab), Baffin Island (near Cape Dorset), Newfoundland (St. 
Shotts), Nova Scotia (Pictou), Ontario, Maine (Falmouth), Ehode 
Island (Cranston), Connecticut (Saybrook), New York (Long 
Island), New Jersey (Salem, Bridgetown, Cape May), Pennsylvania 
(near Philadelphia), Maryland (Hursley), and Virginia (doubtful). 

Accidental in Australia and New Zealand. 

Type locality. — Europe ; restricted type locality, Sweden. 

[Rallus'^ crex Linnaetjs, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, i, 1758, 153 (Sweden ; based on Fauna 
Suecica, 162) ; ed. 12, i, 1766, 261. 

Rallus crex Bbunnich, Orn. Bor., 1764, 58. — Scopoli, Bemerk. ed. Giinther, 1770, 
124.— ScHAEFFEE, Mus. Orn., 1789, 51.— Temminck, Cat. Syst., 1807, 176.— 
ViEiLLOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., sxviii, 1819, 553.— Weight, Ibis, 1864, 145 
(Malta). 

Rallus rex Kluk, Hist. Nat., ii, 1779, 299. 

[Qallinula'\ crex Latham, Index Orn., ii, 1790, 766. 

Gallinula crex Temminck, Man. d'Orn., ed. 2, 1820, 687; v, 1840, 439.— Webnee, 
Atlas, Grallatores, 1827, pi. 34. — Gould, Birds Europe, iv, 1837, pi. 341 and 
text. — Taeeell, Brit. Birds, iil, 1843, 6.— Holm, Naturh. Tiddsk., ser. 2, ii, 
1848, 484 (Faroe Islands).— Godman, Ibis, 1861, 90 (Norway). 

Ortygometra crex Leach, Syst. Cat. Mamm., etc., Brit. Mus., 1816, 34. — Stephens, 
Shaw's Gen. Zool., sii, pt. i, 1824, 218, pi. 26.— Haeooubt, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, 1851, 146 (Madeira) .— Keinhaedt ( J.) , Jonrn. fiir Orn., 1854, 425, 441 
(Greenland); Ibis, 1861, 11 (Godthaab, Greenland, 1 specimen, 1851).— 
Stjndevall, Svenska Fogl., 1856, pi. 45, fig. 2.— Swikhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, 1863, 321 (China?).— Salvadoei, Journ. fiir Cm., 1865, 281 (Sar- 
dinia). — Dboste, Journ. fiir Orn., 1869, 345 (Faroes). — Pbitsch, Naturg. Vog. 
Eur., 1870, pi. 32, figs. 2, 6.— Babeatt, Ibis, 1876, 213 (Lydenburg, Transvaal). 

[Ortygometra] crex Geat, Hand-list, iii, 1871, 62, No. 10450. 



" Three specimens from Scotland, England, and Holland. 

"^ Three specimens from England, Norway, and Hungary. Witherby et al., 
(Practical Handbook British Birds, ii, 1924, p. 828) give the following measure- 
ments of a more extensive series: Male (15 specimens), wing 135-150, tail 
40-50; exposed culmen 20-23; tarsus 84-43; female (number not stated), wing 
130-145; exposed culmen 19-23 mm. 



130 BULLETIN 50, XINITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Crex crew Shaepe, Layard's Birds South Africa, new ed., 1884, 611 ; Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mils., xxiii, 1894, 82, 334.— Ameeican Oknithologists' Union, Check-list, 
1886, and ed. 2, 1895, No. 217 ; ed. 3, 1910, p. 105 ; ed. 4, 1931, 99.— Dutcheb, 
Auk, ill, 1886, 435 (near Amagansett, Suffolk County, Long Island, 1 speci- 
men, Aug. 1885); v, 1888, 177 (Long Island, Nov. 2, 1880).- North, Rec. 
Austral. Mus., ii, 1893, 82 (New South Wales).— Stone, Birds Eastern Penn- 
sylvania and New Jersey, 1894, 68 (Salem and Bridgeton, N. J.).— Brock, 
Auk, xiii, 1896, 173 (near Portland, Maine, Oct. 14, 1889).— McKinlet, Auk, 
xvi, 1899, 76, in text (Pictou, Nova Scotia, about 1874).— Grant, Nov. Zool., 
vii, 1900, 271 (s. Arabia ) .—Haetekt, Nov. Zool., viii, 1901, 306 (Canary 
Islands).— Haetert and Grant, Nov. Zool., xii, 1905, 95 (near Poiita Delgado, 
San Miguel, Azores).— Kmoht, Birds Maine, ISOS, 143 (Dyke Marsh, Fal- 
mouth, Oct. 4, 1889).- Eaton, Birds New York, i, 1910, 282 (4 New York 
records).— Mathews, Birds Australia, i, 1911, 207, pi. (50) facing p. 207.— 
Sage, Bishop, and Bliss, Birds Connecticut, 1913, 51 (Saybrook. Oct. 20, 
1887).— Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 36, fig. 16, map (range).— 
Banneeman, Ibis, 1920, 119 (Canary Islands, occasional visitant; range).— 
Harteet, Vog. pal. Fauna, iii, 1921, 1838 (monogr.). — Raijt;, Brit. Birds, 
xvii, 1923, 20 (Isle of Man, Great Britain). — Robinson, Brit. Birds, xvii, 
1923, 191 (Scilly Islands).— Ramsay, Guide to Birds of Europe and North 
Africa, 1923, 319 (descr. ; range; Europe and North Africa). — Gbiscom, 
Birds New York City Region, 1923, 139 (status in New York City area).— 
Glegg, Ibis, 1924, 86 (Macedonia; breeding) ; 1931, 442 (Camargue, France) ; 
L'Oiseaux, n. s. ii, 1932, 334 (Camargue and Little Camargue Islands, 
France). — Munn, Ibis, 1924, 466 (Minorca; uncommon migrant). — Withebbt 
et al., Pract. Handb. Brit. Birds, ii, 1924, 827 (monogr.). — Ltnes, Nov. Zool., 
xxxi, 1924, 92 (Yebala, Morocco). — Fokbush, Birds Massachusetts and Other 
New England States, i, 1925, 363 ( descr. ; range ; New England — accidental 
visitor; Falmouth, Maine, Oct. 14, 1889; Cranston, R. L, 1857; Saybrook, 
Conn., Oct. 20, 1887).— von Jordans, Journ. fur Orn., Ixxiii, 1925, 199 (Ba- 
learic Islands; not breeding). — Nathusius, Journ. fiir Orn., Ixxiii, 1925, 544 
(north of Magdeburg, Germany). — Peitzmeier, Journ. fiir Orn., Ixxiii, 1925, 
554 (Upper Ems district, Germany). — Weigold, Journ. fiir Orn., Ixxiii, 1925, 
581 (banding records, Helgoland). — Ground, Brit. Birds, xviii, 1925, 236 
(North Pembrokeshire, England). — Katser, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay, xvi, 1925, 
243 (Sagan distr., Germany ).^Lankes, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., xvi, 1925, 251 
(Bavarian woods).- — Genqlee, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., xvi, 1925, Sonderheft, 93 
(Bavaria) ; xvii, 1927, 168 (Steiger Forest, Bavaria), 485 (s. Rhone, Ger- 
many). — Uhl, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., xvi, 1925, 313 (Neustadt, Germany); 
Anz. Orn. Ges. Bay., i. No. 12, 1928, 153 (upper Bavaria). — Alexander, Ibis, 
1927, 690 (Tiumicino, Italy). — Riviere, Brit. Birds, xviii, 1925, 292 (Norfolk) ; 
XX, 1927, 266 (Lynn Well Lightship, Norfolk, Dec. 15) ; xxv, 1932, 354 (Nor- 
folk). — Brown, Brit. Birds, xix, 1925, 66 (Cumberland; nest and eggs) ; xxi, 
1927, 116 (Lakeland, Scotland, nest and eggs) ; xxii, 1928, 157 (Lakeland, 
Scotland, young) ; 208 (incubation period). — Royal Australasian ORNiTHOlr 
OGiSTs' Union, Check-list Birds Australia, 1926. 9 (distr. ; Australia — New 
South Wales, 1 record; New Zealand, 1 record). — Hellmayb, Verh. Orn. Ges. 
Bay., xvii, 1926, 104 (near Oberaudorf, Bavaria). — Bianchi, Journ. fiir Orn., 
Ixxiv, 1926, 456 (n. Russia). — De Vhies, Ardea, xv, 1926, 85 in text (Hol- 
l.'md). — Speangeb, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., xvii, 1926, 33 (Deggendorf, Ger- 
many). — Ingram, Ibis, 1926, 269 (Ouessant, France). — Helms, Meddel. Gr0n- 
land, Iviii, 1926, 241 (Angmagsalik, Greenland; habits). — Heineoth, Vog. 
Mitteleurop., iii, 1927-1928, 77 (development of young in captivity). Drost 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 131 

Journ. fur Orn., Ixxv, 1927, 266 (Helgoland banding records).— Pou,, Verb. 
Oi-n. Ges. Bay., xvii, 1927, 408 (lower Bavaria).— Boettichee, Verh. Orn. Ges, 
Bay., xvii, 1927, 191 (Bulgaria, status).— Pfeipeb, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., xvii, 
1927, 255 (valley of the Main, Germany ) .—Moeeau, Ihis, 1928, 248 (Ma'adi, 
Egypt).— Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, xlviii, 1928, 122 (eggs).— 
Brouvteb and Haverschmidt, Ardea, xvii, 1928, 11 (breeding, Holland).— 
Murphy and Chapin, Amer. Mus. Nov., No. 384, 1929, 7 (Fayal, Azores).— 
CoNGEEVB, Ibis, 1929, 490 (Roumania).— Esuot, Alauda, i, 1929, 358 (near 
Paris, France).— Akbigoni degli Oddi, Orn. Ital., 1929, 785 (descr. ; distr. ; 
Italy).— von Burg and Knopfli, in Fatio and Studer, Oiseaux Suisse, xvi, 
1930, 3372 (monogr. ; Switzerland).— Baker, Fauna Brit. India, Birds, vi, 
1930, 10 (monogr.; India).— Wilson, Brit. Birds, xxiv, 1930, 123 (Bardsey 
Island; breeding).— Tract, Brit. Birds, xxiv, 1930, 167 (Westmorland; 
habits).— ScHiEHMANN, Journ. fur Orn., Ixxviii, 1930, 154 (population density 
in breeding season).— Mulleb, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bay., xix, 1930, 85, 572 (Lake 
Naising Bavaria; habits). — Bannebman, Birds Trop. West Africa, ii, 1931^ 
10 (monogr.; West Africa ) .—Witherbt, Brit. Birds, xxiv, 1931, 217; xxv„ 
1981, 78; xxvi, 1932, 220 (recovery of marlsed birds).— Kozlova, Ibis, 1932, 
568 (status in sw. Transbaikalia).— Sutton, Mem. Carnegie Mus., xii, 1932, 
104 (Cape Dorset, BafiBn Island, Sept. 24, 1928).— Harrison, Brit. Birds, xxv, 
1932, 219 (Lundy Island, England).— Witherby and Leach, Brit. Birds, 
xxv, 1982, 268; xxvl, 1933, 361 (recovery of marked birds).— Chavignt and 
Mayaud, Alauda, iv, 1932, 432 (Azores Islands). — Ahaboni, Journ. fur Ora., 
Ixxx, 1932, 424 (Egypt and Asia Minor).— Stidolph, Emu, xxxi, 1932, 233 
(New Zealand).— Maopheeson, Brit. Birds, xxvi, 1983, 294 (London, Eng- 
land). — KuMMERLOWE and Niethammee, Journ. fiir Orn., Ixxxii, 1934, 523 
(Asia Minor) ; Ixxxiii, 1985, 71 (Asia Minor). — Ludlow and Kinneab, Ibis, 
1934, 109 (Chinese Turkestan). — Cheesman and Sclateb, Ibis, 1935, 160, 298 
(Dangila and Shaiba, Abyssinia). — Meiklejohn, Ibis, 1935, 204 (Capellifere, 
Camargue). — Hamiing, Ibis, 1937, 176 (Lomagundi area, s. Rhodesia). — 
Bates, Ibis, 1937, 818 (Arabia). — Paludan, Journ. fiir Orn., Ixxxvi, 1938, 588, 
686 (Zagrosa area, w. Iran; spec. Kermanshah). 

C[rex] crex Ridgway, Man. North Amer. Birds, 1887, 140. 

lOrex] crex Sharpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 100. 

Crex crex crex Des Peugnes, Rev. Frang. d'Orn., xi, 1927, 56 (Holland; migra- 
tion). — DE Pailleebtts, Rev. Frang. d'Orn., xi, 1927, 192 ( Charente-Inf 6rieure, 
France). — Reboussin, L'Oiseaux, x, 1929, 850 (Loir-et-Cher, France). 

Crex olrex] crex Rooabd, L'Oiseaux, xi, 1930, 357 (Noirmoutier Island, 
France). — Gbeen, Brit. Birds, xxiv, 1931, 300 (Northumberland; call 
notes). — Olivier, L'Oiseaux, n. ser., i, 1931, 661 (central Pyrenees, France) > 

Crex pratetisis Bechstein, Gem. Naturg. Deutschl., ii, 1805, 461. — Brehm, Handb. 
Lieb. Stub. Hausvog., 1832, 357; Journ. fur Orn., 1854, 83 (n e. Africa).— 
Kaup, Thierr., ii, pt. 1, 1836, 345, fig. — Strickland, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 
1836, 101 (Smyrna).— Bonaparte, Geogr. and Comp. List, 1838, -53 
(Europe). — ^Naumann, Vog. Deutschl., ix, 1838, pi. 236. — Macgilliveay, Man. 
Brit. Orn., ii, 1842, 113; Hist. Brit. Birds, iv, 1852, 527.— Schleoel, Rev. 
Grit., 1844, civ; Vog. Nederl., 1854, 256; Dieren Nederl., Vog., 1861, pi. 26,, 
figs. 6-8; Mus. Pays-Bas, v. No. 30, livr. 7, 1865, 25.— Jardine, Contr. Oru.„ 
1848, 86 (Bermuda, Oct. 25, 1847).— Weddebbubn, Zoologist, vii, 1849, 2591 
(Bermuda).— HuBDis, Jardine's Contr. Orn., 1850, 13 (Bermuda). — Strick- 
land, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1850, 221 (Kordofan). — Reichenijach, 
Handb., Fulicariae, 1852, pi. 116, figs. 1152-1157.— Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat.. 
Sci. Philadelphia, vu, 1855, 265 (Salem, N. J.) ; in Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. 



132 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Surv., ix, 1858, 751 (eastern coast of United States; Greenland); ed. 
1860 (Birds North Amer.), pl. 39, fig. 2.— Baied, Cat. North Amer. Birds, 
1859, No. 558; Ibis, 1867, 282 (Greenland).— Maktens, Journ. fur Orn., 1859, 
219 (Bermuda).— Bland, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst, for 1858 (1859), 287 
(Bermuda).— PowYS, Ibis, 1860, 349 (Corfu).— Hintz, Journ. fiir Orn., 1861, 
225 (migrations, etc.). — Gouu), Birds Great Britain, iv, 1863, pl. 87 and 
text.— NoEDMANN, Joum. fur Orn., 1864, 372 (Lapland).— Teisteam, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. London, 1864, 452 (Palestine).— Godman, Ibis, 1866, 102 
(Azores).— Degland and Gebbe, Orn. Eur., ii, 1867, 253. — Smith, Ibis, 1868, 
455 (Portugal). — Sciatke and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 457 
(monogr.).— Beown, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xii, 1869, 208 (Madei- 
ra).— TuENBUii, Birds Eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 1869, 
56 (Phila. ed., p. 45).— Euei'ee and Buckley, Ibis, 1870, 333 (Turkey).— 
Saundebs, Ibis, 1871, 224 (s. Spain) ; ed. Yarrell's Brit. Birds, iii, 1883, 
157— Haeting, Man. Brit. Birds, 1872, 57.— Beooke, Ibis, 1873, 386 (Sar- 
dinia). — Hancock, Birds Northumberland and Durham, 1874, 125. — ^Dubn- 
roBD, Ibis, 1874, 397 (North Frisian Island).— Coues, Check-list, 1874, No. 
471; ed. 2, 1882, No. 683.— Aybes, Ibis, 1877, 351 (Transvaal).— Dbessee, 
Birds Europe, vii, 1871-81, 291, pl. 499.— Seebohm, Ibis, 1880, 193 (Krasno- 
yarek and n. to lat. 59°30', Yenisei Valley, Siberia) ; 1882, 226 (Astrakhan, 
breeding near Sarepta), 382 (Archangel, n. Russia). — Ridgvcat, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 202 (Cat. North Amer. Birds, No. 577) ; Nom. North 
Amer. Birds, 1881, No. 577.— Scully, Ibis, 1881, 591 (Gilgit, India; crit.).— 
Shelley, Ibis, 1882, 366 (Palatswie Pan, se. Africa). — Paek, Forest and 
Stream, xxii, 1884, 44 (New York).— Jones, Forest and Stream, xxii, 1884, 
203 (Newfoundland; Bermuda).- Reid, U. S. Nat. Mus. BuU. 25, 1884, 
248 (Bermuda, 1 specimen, Oct. 25, 1847). — Baibd, Bbewee, and Ridgway, 
Water Birds North Amer., i, 1884, 381.— Dixon, Ibis, 1885, 84, 361 (St. 
Kilda).— Haetwig, Journ. fur Orn., 1893, 11 (Madeira).— Blagg, Ibis, 1893, 
355 (Shetland Islands). — Popham, Ibis, 1897, 101 (Yeniseisk, Siberia) ; 
1898, 512 (Yatsova, Yenisei River, Siberia). — Sclatee, Bull. Brit. Orn. 
Club, xvl, 1905, 7 (Transvaal, Dec..)^ — Zeegenyt, Aquila, xxx-xxxl, 1924, 
317 in text (Alibunar Swamp, Hungary). — Schenk, Aquila, xxxvi-xxxvii, 
1931, 182 (banding, Hungary, 1928-30). — Kleinee, Aquila, xxxvi-xxxvii, 
1931, 117 in text (food).— Ticehubst, Birds in Suffolk, 1932, 460 (Suffolk, 
England). 

Cr[ex'] pratensis Keysbbling and Blashjs, Wirb. Eur., 1840, Ixvli, 204. 

[CrexJ pratensis Coues, Key North Amer. Birds, 1872, 274. 

C[rex'\ pratensis Coues, Key North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 1884, 675. 

Crex herharum Bbbhm, Vog. Deutschl., 1831, 694 (migrant, central Germany). 

Crex alticeps Beehm, Vog. Deutschl., 1831, 694 (spring in central Germany). 

Rallus featherstonii Bullee, Essay Orn. New Zealand, 1865, 18 (New Zealand). 

Crex pratensis similis Zabudny, Bull. Mus. Transcasplen, i, 1918, 15, sep. pag. 
(Turkestan). 

Genus PORZANA Vieillot 

Pornana Viehiot, Analyse, 1816, 61. (Type, bymonotypy, "Marouette Buff [on] "= 
Rallus poreana Linnaeus.) 

Por^anoidea Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec, i, 1912, 117. (Type, by original designa- 
tion, OalUnula immaculata Swainson.) 

Schoenocrex Robehts, Ann. Transvaal Mus., viii, 1922, 197. (Type, by original 
designation, Pormna pwsilla (Pallas) =i2a!iMS pusillus Pallas.) 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 133 

Schamosorex Bakeb, Fauna Brit. India, ed. 2, Birds, vli, 1930, 476 (lapsus). 

Phalaridion Kaup, Nattirl. Syst., 1829, 173, 195. (Type, by monotypy, OalUnula 
pusilla^Rallus pusillus Pallas.) 

Phalaridium Heine and Reichenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 819 
(emendation). 

Mustelirallus Bonaparte, Compt. Rend., Paris, xllii, 1856, 599. (Type, by mono- 
typy. Rallus anicolUs Vieillot.) 

OaleoUmnas Heine, in Heine and Reichenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 320 
(new name for MustelUrallus on grounds of purism). 

lAmnobaenus Sundevall, Metb. Nat. Av. Disp. Tent., 1872, 130. (Type, by subse- 
quent designation, L. fuscus=Rallus fuscus Linnaeus.) 

Zapomia Leach, Syst. Cat. Spec. Mammals and Birds, etc, 1816, 34. (Type, by 
original designation, Z. minuta^=Rallua parvus Scopoli.) 

Zapomia Stephens, in cont. of Shaw's Gen. Zool., xii, pt. 1, 1824, 230. (Type, by 
original designation, Rallus pusillus Gmelin.) 

Zaporina Foesteb, Synop. Cat. Brit. Birds, 1817, 27, 59 (emendation or lapsus). 

Rallites Pucheban, Rev. Zool., 1845, 277. (Type, by subsequent designation, 
Porzana parva=Rallus parvus Scopoli.) 

Hapaloorex Ridgwat, Smiths. Misc. CoU., \s3iu.. No. 4, 1920, 3. (Type, by origi- 
nal designation, Rallus flaviventer Boddaert.) 

[This description is based on the typical subgenus Porzana only.] 

Rather small Rallinae (wing about 110-112 mm.), with bill shorter 
than head, inner toe (without claw) longer than culmen, longest 
primaries exceeding distal secondaries by at least one-third the length 
of wing, outermost primary longer than sixth (from outside) , alula 
falling far short of tips of longest primary coverts, and tail half as 
long as wing, with rectrices distinct, much longer than upper coverts. 
Bill shorter than head, compressed, its width at base equal to more 
than half its depth at same point, the latter equal to more than half 
the length of culmen; culmen elevated basally, faintly depressed 
above anterior end of nostril, thence gently decurved to tip; gonys 
two-thirds or more as long as mandibular rami, ascending terminally, 
its basal angle distinct but not prominent; mandibular rami with a 
broad but shallow lateral groove; nasal fossa rather large, extending 
for basal half or more of maxilla, well defined ; nostril narrowly ellip- 
tical, parallel with maxillary tomium, its anterior end much nearer 
to nearest loral feathering than to tip of maxiUa; anterior outline of 
feathering forming a straight or very slightly convex vertical line 
from sides of forehead to rictus, the anterior outline of frontal feath- 
ering broken medially by a very short obtusely angled notch formed 
by base of culmen ; malar antia decidedly anterior to laterofrontal 
antia, the mental antia slightly to decidedly anterior to posterior end 
of nostril. Wing moderate in size, moderately concave beneath, 
rather pointed, the second or second and third primaries (from out- 
side) longest, the outermost about equal to sixth; longest primaries 



134 



BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



exceeding distal secondaries by about one-third the length of wing, 
but extending little beyond tips of elongated proximal secondaries. 
Tail about half as long as wing, much rounded or slightly graduated, 
the middle rectrices tapering distally and subacuminate at tips, pro- 
jecting considerably beyond upper and slightly beyond lower coverts. 
Tarsus a little shorter than middle toe without claw, the acrotarsium 
with a single row of broad, transverse scutella, the planta tarsi with 
a single row of similar scutella on each side, the two of opposite sides 
in alternating or interdigitating contact along or inside of the rounded 
posterior ridge ; outer toe with claw reaching about to base of middle 
claw, or falling very slightly short, the inner toe, without claw, reach- 
ing to or very slightly beyond penultimate articulation of middle toe ; 




Figure 9. — Porzana Carolina. Natural size. 

hallux, without claw, about as long as basal phalanx of outer toe; 
claws moderate in size, distinctly curved, acute, compressed. 

Plumage and coloration. — Plumage rather full and firm, that on 
head, neck, and anterior underparts blended; primaries firm and 
rather rigid, the rectrices much softer. Upper parts blackish, olive, 
or olive-brown, the back and scapulars spotted or striped with black 
and streaked with white ; flanks broadly barred with white and dusky 
brownish gray or grayish olive, the axillars and under wing coverts 
also barred with white; under tail coverts (at least the longer ones) 
plain buff or buffy white. 

[The following description is for the subgenus Sapalocrex only (ex Ridgway, 

mss.)-] 

Very small Rallinae (wing about 68-115 mm.) with longest feather 
of alula falling short of tips of longest primary coverts ; bill nearly 
as long as head; very long toes (the combined lengths of first two 



BIRDS OF NOKTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 135 

phalanges of middle toe as long as tarsus) , the hallux (without claw) 
half as long as tarsus ; and with a white supraloral stripe and black 
loral stripe. 

Bill nearly as long as head (culmen about three-fourths as long 
as tarsus, more than one-fourth as long as wing), of nearly uniform 
depth as far as angle of gonys; culmen not elevated basally, nearly 
straight as far as anterior end of nostril, thence gradually and 
slightly decurved to tip ; gonys as long as mandibular rami, nearly 
straight, slightly ascending terminally, its basal angle distinct but 
not prominent; mandibular rami with a narrow and rather indis- 
tinct lateral groove; nasal fossa long but rather narrow, extending 
nearly halfway from loral antia to tip of maxilla, well-defined ; nos- 
tril narrowly elliptical, entirely pervious, its anterior end much 
nearer to loral antia than to tip of maxilla; loral antia forming a 
distinct obtuse angle at middle of base of nasal fossa, the somewhat 
widened base of culmen separating those of opposite sides and form- 
ing a U-shaped or obtusely V-shaped opening in the frontal feather- 
ing; malar antia slightly posterior to loral antia, the mental antia 
slightly posterior to posterior end of nostril. Wing relatively small, 
very concave beneath, much rounded; longest primaries exceeding 
distal secondaries by a little more than one-fourth the length of wing, 
projecting decidedly beyond tips of elongated proximal secondaries; 
second, third, and fourth primaries (from outside) longest, the firs! 
(outermost) intermediate between eighth and ninth. Tail nearl;5 
half a^ long as wing, much rounded, the rectrices soft, narrow, and 
tapering, mostly concealed by coverts. Tarsus more than one-thirc' 
as long as wing, about as long as two first phalanges of middle toe, 
the acrotarsium with a single series of broad transverse scutella on 
upper part, the lower half or more with several ill-defined series ; outer 
toe with claw reaching to or slightly beyond base of middle claw, the 
inner toe, without claw, reaching to slightly beyond subterminal artic- 
ulation of middle toe ; hallux, without claw, about as long as basal pha- 
lanx of outer toe, very nearly half as long as tarsus ; claws moderate 
in size, much compressed, moderately curved, acute. 

Plumage aiid coloration. — Plumage of head, neck, and underparts 
dense and blended; primaries moderately broad, the outermost 
strongly bowed; elongated proximal secondaries moderately broad, 
their tips rounded. Upper parts brown (dusky or blackish on 
pileum) the back, etc., mixed with black and streaked with white; 
a black loral stripe and above it a white supraloral stripe; under- 
parts mostly white or pale buflfy, the sides, flanks, and under tail 
coverts barred with black. 

Range (entire genus). — Cosmopolitan (12 species). 

272607 — 41 : 



136 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

KEY TO THE NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICAN FORMS OF PORZANA 

o. Wing over 90 mm. in length Porzana Carolina (p. 137) 

aa. Wing under 75 mm. in length. 

6. Interscapulars brownish with some black or brownish black, but the black 
not the predominating color, 
c. Smaller, wings 62-63.5 mm. 

d. Loral streak 2 mm. in width- Porzana flaviventer hendersoni (p. 147) 
dd. Black loral streak 1 mm. in width. 

Porzana flavlventer wood! (p. 148) 

CO. Larger, wings 65-71.5 mm Porzana flavlventer gossii (p. 145) 

66. Interscapulars black with little brownish wash or edgings, 
c. Breast and sides of throat paler — -pale warm buff. 

Porzana flavlventer bangsl (extralimital)" 

CO. Breast and sides of throat darker — warm bufC to pale antimony yellow. 

Porzana flavlventer flavlventer (extralimital)" 



"Porzana flavlventer bangsl. — Porzana flavlventer hangsi Darlington, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixxi, 1931, 372 (Cienaga, Magdalena, Colombia) ; Peters, Check- 
list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 185. 

"Porzana flaviventer flavlventer (Boddaert). — Rallus flavlventer Boddaert, 
Tabl. PI. Enl., 1783, 52 (Cayenne; based on Petit Rdle de Cayenne Daubenton, 
PI. Enl., ix, pi. 847). — Porzana flaviventer Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, v, No. 30, livr. 
7, 1865, 31 (Cayenne) ; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paulista, vi, 1904, 342 (Paraguay) ; 
Berlepsch, Nov. Zool., xv, 1908, 299 (Oyapoc, Cayenne) ; Dabbene, Orn. Argent., 
1910, 196 (Tigre, Buenos Aires) ; Bol. Soc. Phys. Buenos Aires, i, 1913, 255 
(Tigre) ; Bertoni, Fauna Parag., 1914, 37; Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., Ixii, 1918, 41 (Paramaribo and Altonaweg, Surinam). — [Porzanal flavi- 
venter Ihering (H. and R.), Aves Brazil, 1907, 30 (Minas Geraes). — Piormna] 
flaviventer flaviventer Bangs and Kennard, List Birds Jamaica, 1920, 6, in text 
( South America ; crit. ) . — Porzana flaviventer flaviventer Peters, Check -list Birds 
of World, ii, 1934, 185. — Porzana fiaviventris Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, 1868, 455, part (South America references and localities) ; Pelzeln, Orn. 
Bras., 1870, 459 (se. Brazil) ; Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 110, part 
(Oyapoc River, Cayenne; Brazil); Chubb, Birds British Guiana, i, 1916, 73; 
Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr., Bull. 128, 1914, 31, part (geogr. range) ; Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., xxxvi, 1917, 218 (Call, nw. Colombia; crit.). — [Porzana] 
fiaviventris Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 140, part ; Berlepsch, Journ. 
fiir Orn., 1887, 125 (Paraguay) ; Sharpe, Handlist, i, 1899, 102, part (Guiana; 
Brazil) ; Brabourne and Chubb, Birds S'outh America, i, 1912, 24 (Guiana). — 
0[rtygometra'\ fiaviventris Gray, Gen. Birds, ill, 1846, 593. — Ortygometra fiavi- 
ventris Hartlaub, Syst. Index Azara's Apunt., 1847, 24 (Paraguay). — [Aramides] 
flaviventer Gray, Hand-list, ill, 1871, 61, No. 10443. — Bapalocrex fiaviventris Ridg- 
way. Smiths. Misc. Coll., Ixxii, No. 4, 1920, 3, part. — [Rallusl minutus Gmelin, 
Syst. Nat., i, pt. 2, 1789, 719 (Cayenne ; based on Petit Rdle de Cayenne Buflon, 
Ois., viii, 167; PI. Enl., pi. 847; lAttle Rail Latham, Synop. Birds, iii, pt. 1, 239). — 
Rallus minutus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., xxviii, 1819, 561. — Ortygometra 
minuta Burmeister, Syst. Ueb. Thiere Bras., ii, 1856, 388. — Crex minuta Reichen- 
bach, Handb., Pulicariae, 1851, pi. 322, fig. 2574. — Corethura minuta Lichtenstein, 
Nom. Mus. Berol., 1854, 96. — [ErythraJ minuta Bonaparte, Compt. Rend., xliii, 
1856, 600. — Rallus supercillaris Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., xxviii, 1819, 565 
(Paraguay; based on Tpacaha ceja blanca Azara, Apunt. Hist. Nat PSraxos 
Paraguay). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 137 

PORZANA CAROLINA (Linnaeus) 

SoEA Rail 

Adult Ttiale. — Forehead, lores, anterior malar region to the mid- 
dorsal and midventral margin of the eye, chin, middle of throat 
down to breast dull black; narrow superciliaries meeting in a for- 
ward projecting V on the anteromedian margin of the crown and 
broadening above and behind the eye ashy gull gray to light neutral 
gray; middle of crown black, narrowing posteriorly; sides of crown, 
occiput, and hind neck olive-brown, the feathers of the hind neck 
with obscure dusky shaft streaks ; interscapulars and scapulars black 
narrowly margined with white laterally and broadly tipped with 
buffy olive-brown, the brownish areas also extending laterally be- 
tween the black centers and the narrow white margins, broadest in 
the scapulars, less so in the interscapulars ; upper wing coverts bright 
Saccardo's umber, the inner greater ones with small transverse spots 
of white, edged proximally and distally with blackish, on the outer 
web; remiges dull, dusky, olive-brown; feathers of the back and 
rump black broadly edged and tipped with buffy olive-brown, the 
black centers very broad and conspicuous on the upper back, nar- 
rower on the rump ; upper tail coverts and rectrices similar but with 
the blackish centers reduced to a shaft stripe and duller, less deep 
blackish than in the more anterior feathers; hind cheeks, auriculars, 
sides of neck, and throat light neutral gray; breast and upper ab- 
domen similar but slightly darker; sides and flanks barred with 
white and brownish olive to dull sepia, the two colors being separated 
by fine blackish edges of the brown bars (occasionally these black 
lines broaden out and take up much of the space usually brownish 
in color) ; middle of lower abdomen white washed with light gull 
gray ; thighs and vent like the flanks but the white replaced by, or 
at least heavily tinged with, buffy brown; under tail coverts white 
more or less tinged with pale buffy brown; under wing coverts like 
the flanks and sides but with the brown duller, more dusky, and 
without the black margins to the bars; bill pale yellow to greenish, 
dark-tipped; iris red or reddish brown; tarsi and toes yellowish 
green. 

Adult female. — Almost identical with the male, but the inter- 
scapulars are generally more spotted vsdth white and the black 
on the head and throat is usually somewhat more restricted.*^ 

"According to Bent (U. S. Nat. Mus. BuU. 135, 1927, 307) males in spring 
have the black median throat area broader and more continuous than in 
autumn. This, however, is due to the fact that these feathers, when fresh, 
have grayish tips, which, in autumn (freshly plumaged) birds would tend to 
minimize and to break up the black throat area. 



138 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Jwoenal (sexes alike).— Similar to adult, but with no black on the 
forehead and lores, which are olive-brown, and no black on chin and 
middle of throat, the chin being whitish, the middle of the throat 
dusky like the breast, the breast, auriculars, sides of neck, and the 
lower throat extensively washed with buffy olive-brown; the flanks 
and sides tinged with buffy brown. 

Natal down. — Completely covered with thick, glossy, black down, 
with some stiff, curly, orange feathers on the chin ; bill swollen, yel- 
low, basally reddish. 

Adult male.—Wmg 100-116.5 (107) ; tail 42-54 (48) ; exposed cul- 
m-n 17-24.5 (20) ; tarsus 28.5-36.5 (32.5) ; middle toe without claw 
31-40.5 (35.5 mm.) « 

Adult female.— Wmg 98.5-109 (101.5) ; tail 38-49 (44) ; exposed 
cuhnen 17.5-22 (19.5); tarsus 27-32.5 (30.5); middle toe without 
claw 28-36 (33.5 mm.).'' 

Range. — Breeds from British Columbia (southern Cariboo district; 
Chilliwack; Ashcroft; and Vanderhoof) ; Mackenzie (Fort Simpson; 
Fort Rae; Fort Eesolution) ; Manitoba (Chemawawin; Fort Church- 
ill; York Factory) ; Saskatchewan (Pelican Narrows) ; Ontario (Sev- 
ern House; Moose Factory; Bracebridge) ; Quebec (Montreal; 
Quebec; Godbout) ; Prince Edward Island; New Brunswick (Grand 
Manan), and Nova Scotia, south to northwestern Lower California 
(San Antonio del Mar); Nevada (Quinn Eiver; Pyramid Lake; 
Humboldt County) ; Idaho (Rupert) ; Utah (Provo) ; Arizona (Mor- 
mon Lake) ; southern New Mexico (Lake Burf ord ; Apache Canyon ; 
East Gila River); Colorado (Barr; Denver; Blue River; Lay); 
Kansas (Osawatomie) ; Missouri (Independence) ; Illinois (Spring- 
field) ; Indiana (Bluffton) ; Ohio (Salem; Lewiston Reservoir); 
Pennsylvania (Philadelphia; Carlisle; Du Bois) ; and Maryland. 

Winters from California (Gilroy and Marysville) ; Arizona (Pecks 
Lake in the upper Verde Valley) ; southern New Mexico (probably) ; 
Texas (Corpus Christi) ; Louisiana (Hester and Diamond) ; Mis- 
sissippi (Biloxi and Bay St. Louis) ; Alabama; Florida (Royal Palm 
Hammock; Whitfield; Titusville; Amelia Island); and Bermuda; 
south through the West Indies : Bahama Islands (Little Abaco ; New 
Providence; Andros; Cay Lobos; Cay Sal; Bird Rock; Watling 
Island; Great Inagua Island); Cuba; Puerto Rico (Anegada; Car- 
tagena ; Guanica Lagoons ; Mayaguez) ; Hispaniola (Trou Caiman ; 



*^ Sixty specimens from Massachusetts, New York, District of Columbia, Vir- 
ginia, Maryland, Florida, Minnesota, North Dakota, Illinois, Indiana, Mississippi, 
Louisiana, Texas, Arizona, Montana, Utah, California, Washington, Mexico, 
Mackenzie, Alberta, Panama, and Hispaniola. 

" Twenty-two specimens from Pennsylvania, Virginia, South Carolina, Illinois, 
Wisconsin, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Montana, Utah, Arizona, Mexico, 
Hispaniola, and Grenada. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 139 

Etang Miragoane; Laguna Rincon) ; St. Croix; Dominica; Grenada; 
St. Bartholomew ; Jamaica ; Swan Island ; St. Martin ; St. Barts ; St. 
Kitts; Montserrat; Guadeloupe; Martinique; St. Lucia; St. Vincent; 
the Grenadines; and Barbados; and south through Mexico (Guana- 
juato; Chapulco, Pueblo; Orizaba, Veracruz; Cacoprieto, Oaxaca; 
City of Mexico; Mazatlan, Sinaloa; Progresso and Cozumel Island, 
Yucatan; La Barca, Jalisco; and throughout Lower California); 
British Honduras (Belize); Guatemala (Duenas; Vera Paz; 
Coban; Atitlan) ; Costa Rica (San Jose; Laguna de Cartago; San 
Pedro ; Alajuela ; Turrucares) ; Panama (Lion Hill ; Almirante ; Vol- 
can de Chiriqui; Changuiniola), to Venezuela (Lake of Valencia and 
Caracas); Trinidad; Tobago; Colombia (Medellin; Antioquia; Bo- 
gota; near Cienaga, Magdalena) ; Ecuador (Quito; Cayandeled; La 
Carolina; Santa Lucia; Chone; Yaguarcocha) ; Peru (Sarayacu and 
Tumbez) ; Brazil (Bonito, Pernambuco) ; and British Guiana (Bar- 
tica). 

Occasional in winter in Montana (Corvallis) ; Minnesota (Lanes- 
boro) ; Illinois (Rantoul) ; Pennsylvania (Kresgeville) ; New York 
(Rochester and Flushing) ; Connecticut (Hartford) ; and Massa- 
chusetts (Salem). 

Casual in the Queen Charlotte Islands (Massett) ; Anticosti Island 
and St. Joachim, Quebec; Newfoundland Labrador (Sandwich Bay) ; 
and Greenland (Sukkertoppen; Avigait; and Umanak). 

Accidental in the British Isles: England (Newbury, Berkshire); 
Wales (Cardiff) ; Scotland (Tiree Island and Lewis Island, Outer 
Hebrides). 

Type locality. — "In America septentrionali"= Hudson Bay. 

[Rallus-] carolinus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. 10, i, 1758, 153 ; ed. 12, i, 1766, 263 
(Hudson Bay; based on Little American Water Sen Edwards, Nat. Hist. 
Birds, iii, pi. 144; Soree Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, i, pi. 76). — Gmeun, 
Syst. Nat., i, pt. 2, 1789, 715. 

Rallus carolinus Tueton, Syst. Nat., i, 1806, 431. — Bonapaete, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. New York, ii, 1827, 334. — Swainson and Richaedson, Fauna Bor.- 
Amer., ii, 1831, 403.— Lesson, Traits d'Orn., 1831, 537.— Ntjitall, Man. Orn. 
United States and Canada, Water Birds, 1834, 209. — Audtibon, Orn. Biogr., 
iil, 1835, 251, pi. 233 ; v, 1839, 572.— Townsend, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia, viii, 1839, 157 (nw. United States). — D'Oebigny, in La Sagra's Hist 
Nat. Cuba, Ois., 1839, 262 (Spanish ed., p. 181 ) .— Peabodt, Rep. Orn. Massa- 
chusetts, 1839, 374. — Hatmond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, viii, 
1856, 296 (se. Indiana).— Wnxis, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst, for 1858 (1859), 
284 (Nova Scotia). — Bryant, Journ. fur Orn., xiv, 1866, 191 (Puerto Rico) ; 
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., x, 1866, 257 (Puerto Rico).— Sundevaix, 
Ofv. Vet.-Akad. Forh., 1869, 587 (St. Bartholomew), 601 (Puerto Rico). 

R[a,llus'\ carolinus Bonapaete, Obs. Nom. Wilson's Amer. Orn., 1826, [192]. 

[Oallinula'] Carolina Gmeun, Syst. Nat., i, pt. 2, 1789, 771. 

Ortygometra Carolina Bonapabte, Comp. and Geogr. List, 1838, 53. — Gossb, 
Birds Jamaica, 1847, 371. — Woodhoxjsb, in Rep. Sitgreaves' Expl. Zuni and 



140 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Colorado Rivers, 1853, 101 (Creek boundary; summer).— Kennicxjtt, Trans. 
Illinois Agr. Assoc, i, 1855, 557 (Illinois).— Beeweb, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. 
Hist, vii, 1860, 307 (Cuba).— Keinhaedt, Ibis, 1861, 12 ( Sukkertoppen, 
Greenland, Oct. 3, 1823).— L£otaud, Ois. Trinidad, 1866, 493. 

Ortygometra caroHnus AuDxreoN, Synopsis, 1839, 213; Birds Amer., Svo ed., v, 
1842, 145, pi. 306.— JAEDINE, Contr. Orn., 1848, 84 (Bermuda, Sept.-Dec. ) .— 
Hotdis, Jardine's Contr. Orn., 1853, 11 (Bermuda, Sept.-Apr. ) .— Henbt, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vii, 1855, 314 (New Mexico). — Ptjtnam, 
Proc. Essex Inst., i, 1856, 216 (Massachusetts).— Bland, Ann. Kep. Smiths. 
Inst, for 1858 (1859), 287 (Bermuda). 

[Ortygometra] Carolina Reinhabdt, Journ. fiir Orn., ii, 1854, 219 (Greenland). 

Ortygometra carolinensis Martens, Journ. fur Orn., vii, 1859, 219 (Bermuda). 

Porzana Carolina Baied, Lit. Eec. and Journ. Linn. Assoc. Pennsylvania Coll., 
Oct. 1845, 255; Rep. U. S. and Mex. Bound. Surv., ii, pt. 2, 1859, 26 (Colorado 
River, Calif.) ; Cat. N. Am. Birds, 1859, No. 555.— Cabanis, Journ. fur Orn., iv., 
1856, 428 (Cuba).— Cassin, in Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 749.— 
Henet, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, xi, 1859, 108 (New Mexico). — 
ScLATEE and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, 230 (Lake of Duenas and Vera Paz, 
Guatemala) ; Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1864, 179 (City of Mexico), 372 
(Panama) ; 1868, 450 (monogr.) ; 1869, 252 (Lake of Valencia, Venezuela) ; 

1879, 545 (MedelUn, Antioquia, Colombia ).^ — Newton (A. and E.), Ibis, 1859, 
260 (St. Croix).— ScLATEE, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1861, 81 (Jamaica).— 
GuNDL^CH, Journ. fur Orn., ix, 1861, 342 (Cuba) ; x, 1862, 90 (Cuba; crit.) ; 
xix, 1871, 294 (Cuba) ; xxii, 1874, 314 (Puerto Rico) ; xxiii, 1875, 358 (Cuba) ; 
xxvi, 1878, 162, 189 (Puerto Rico) ; Contr. Orn. Cubana, 1876, 190; Cm. 
Cubana, 1895, 243.— Veeeiix, Proc. Essex Inst., iii, 1862, 153 (Oxford County, 
Maine). — ^Axbekcht, Journ. fur Orn., x, 1862, 206 (Jamaica). — Boaedman, 
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., ix, 1862, 129 (Calais, Maine). — Laweence, Ann. 
Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, vii, 1862, 479 (Lion Hill, Panama) ; viii, 1866, 
295 (vicinity New York City) ; Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., ii, 1874, 317 
(Mazatian, Sinaloa).^BLAKiSTON, Ibis, 1863, 134 (Red River Settlement). — 
March, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, xvi, 1864, 69 (Jamaica). — 
Newton, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1865, 196 (Newbury, England, Oct. 1864).— 
SCHLEGEL, Mus. Pays-Bas, v. No. 30, livr. 7, 1865, 28.— Deessbr, Ibis, 1866, 40 
(s. Texas). — Eyee, Zoologist, xviii, 1865, 9540 (England). — McIlweaith, 
Proc. Essex Inst., v, 1866, 93 (Hamilton, Ontario). — Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Philadelphia, xviii, 1866, 98 (Fort Whipple, Ariz.) ; xxiii, 1871, 35 (Fort 
Macon, N. C.) ; Check-list, 1874, No. 463 ; ed. 2. 1882, No. 679 ; Brds Northwest, 
1874, 537; Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, viii, 1883, 124 (Rochester, N. Y., Dec. 12, 
1882). — TuENBTTLL, Birds Eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 1869, 42 
(Phila. ed., p. 33). — Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1870, 219 (Volcan 
de ChiriquI, w. Panama) ; Ibis, 1889, 378 (Cozumel Island, Yucatan).— 
Meeeiam, Sixth Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., 1873, 702 (Ogden, Utah, 
breeding). — Beace, Proc. Bost. SOc. Nat. Hist., xix, 1877, 241 (Bahamas).— 
Ridgwat, Orn. 40th Parallel, 1877, 612 (Nevada) ; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 

1880, 202 (Cat. North Amer. Birds, No. 574) ; Nora. North Amer. Birds, 1881, 
No. 574; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1888, 578 (Swan Island, Caribbean Sea, Mar. 
25) ; Orn. Illinois, ii, pt. i, 1895, 93. — Meeeiti, (J. C), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 
1878, 165 (Fort Brown ; Tex. ; breeding?). — Rathbun (F. R.), Rev. List Birds 
Central New York, 1879, 35 (breeding). — Beewstee, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 
iv, 1879, 46 (descr. downy young) ; Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xli. No. 1, 1902, 
56 (La Paz, Lower California, Dec. 15 and Mar. 23; San Jos6 del Oabo, 
Apr. 1-May 17) .— Dalgusish, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 211 (1 British 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 141 

record).— Nehrijng, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vu, 1882, 223 (se. Texas, breed- 
ing).— Eeid, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 25, 1884, 247 (Bermuda, Aug. 24^-May 
1). — Beelkpsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1884, 313 
(Cayandeled, w. Ecuador, Feb.).— Baibd, Bbewee, and Ridgwat, Water Birds 
North Amer., i, 1884, 370.— Ttjenee, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 248 
(Moose Factory, n. Ontario). — Wiaxs, List Birds Grenada, 1886, 9. — Ralph 
and Bagq, Trans. Oneida Hist. Soc, iii, 1886, 111 (Oneida County, N. T., 
breeding).— Seton, Auk, iii, 1886, 150 (Manitoba, summer resident) ; xxv, 
1908, 70 (Fort Resolution, Mackenzie). — Taczanowski, Orn. P6rou, iii, 
1886, 320 (Tumbez, nw. Peru). — Amekican Obnithologists' Union, Check- 
List, 1886, and ed. 2, 1895, No. 214 ; ed. 3, 1910, 103 ; ed. 4, 1931, 97.— Stahi-, 
Ornis, iii, 1887, 452 (Puerto Rico).- Wells, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1887, 
629 (Grenada, Lesser Antilles).— Coby, Auk, v, 1888, 55 (West Indian locali- 
ties and references; descr.) ; Birds West Indies, 1889, 256; Cat. West Indian 
Birds, 1892, 91; Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Publ. 131, 1909, 383 (Illinois; Wis- 
consin). — Zeled6n, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 131 (Costa Rica). — 
FnxDKN, Ibis, 1889, 499 (Barbados; habits). — Thompson, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., xiii, 1890, 494 (Manitoba; common; breeding). — Claeke, (W. E.), 
Auk, vii, 1890, 321 (Fort Churchill, Keewatin ) .— Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xxiii, 1894, 97.— Rhoads, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1895, 473 
(ReelfootLake, w. Tennessee ; breeding?). — Btjtlee, Rep. State Geol. Indiana 
for 1897 (1898), 675 (Starke County, Ind. ; breeding?).— Gbinxell (J.), 
Pasadena Acad. Sci. Publ. 2, 1898, 15 (Los Angeles County, Calif., breeding) ; 
Pacific Coast Avif., No. 11, 1915, 47 (breeding in Callfornia s. to Escondido, 
San Diego County).— Cooke, Colorado Agr. Exp. Stat. Bull. 56, 1900, 
199 (breeding from Middle Park up Blue River to about 9,000 feet) ; U. S. 
Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 26, fig. (geogT. range and migration routes). — 
Osgood, North Amer. Fauna, No. 21, 1901, 40 (Massett, Queen Charlotte 
Islands).— Woodcock, Oregon Agr. Exp. Stat. Bull. 68, 1902, 19 (Oregon 
range). — At.t.en (G. M.), Proc. Manchester Inst. Arts and Sci., Iv, 1902, 83 
(New Hampshire, local summer resident). — Pkeble, North Amer. Fauna, No. 
22, 1902, 92 (Severn House; Fort Churchill; Tork Factory; Moose Factory) ; 
No. 27, 1908, 313 (Great Slave Lake, breeding; localities in Mackenzie, etc.). — 
KuMxiEN and Holustek, BuU. Wisconsin Nat. Hist. Soc, iii, 1903, 38 (Wis- 
consin; habits).— BoNHOTB, Ibis, 1903, 309 (New Providence and Little Abaco, 
Bahamas). — Saliin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, iii, 1903, 321 
(Mazatian, Sinaloa; Valley of Mexico; Guanajuato; Chapulco, Puebla; 
Orizaba, Veracruz ; Cacoprieto, Oaxaca ; Progreso and Cozumel Island, 
Yucatan ; Belize, Brit. Honduras ; Vera Paz, Duenas, and Coban, Guatemala ; 
San Jos6 and Lagur.a de Cartago, Costa Rica; Chiriqui and Lion HUl, 
Panama ; Colombia; Ecuador; Swan Island; West Indies). — Rhoads and 
Pennock, Auk, xxii, 1905, 199 (Delaware; a few breeding?). — Henningeb, 
Wils. BuU., xviii, 1906, 50 (Seneca County, Ohio, June; breeding?).— Jones 
(L.), Wils. Bull., xvill, 1906, 114 (Cleveland, Ohio, summer) ; xxi, 1909, 123 
(Lorain County, n. Ohio, breeding). — Bowles, Auk. xxiii, 1906, 141 (Tacoma, 
Wash., breeding).— WooDKDFF, Chicago Acad. Sci. Bull. 6, 1907, 58 (Chicago 
area, summer resident).— Widmann, Birds Missouri, 1907, 59 (common 
transient, rare breeder) ; Auk, xxviii, 1911, 311 (Estes Park, Colo., July 
9)-- Tavernee and Swales, Wils. Bull., xix, 1907. 84 (Point Pelee, Ontario, 
breeding).— Shaep, Condor, ix, 1907, 86, (San Diego County, Calif., breed- 
ing).— Anderson, Proc Davenport Acad. Sci., xi, 1907, 207 (Iowa; habits).— 
Waeben, Condor, x, 1908, 20 (Grand County, nw. Colorado; breedingly?).— 
Knight, Birds Maine, 1908, 141 (rare summer resident). — Hendeeson, Univ. 



142 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Colorado Stud. Zool., vi, 1909, 227 (Boulder County, Colo., breeding).— 
Braislin, Auk, xxvi, 1909, 314 (Seaford, Long Island, Dec. 24, 1908).— 
SciATEE, Rev. List Birds Jamaica, 1910, 19.— Watne, Birds South Carolina, 
1910, 37 (spring and fall migrant ) .—Eaton, Birds New York, i, 1910, 276, 
pi. 26.— Caebikeb, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 409 (San Jos^, San Pedro, 
Alajuela, and Turrflcares, Costa Rica). — Saundees, Auk, xxviii, I'Jll, 34 
(Gallatin County, Montana, June).— Willett, Pacific Coast Avif., No. 7, 
1912, 33 (breeding in Los Angeles and San Diego Counties, Calif .) .—Bareows, 
Michigan Bird Life, 1912, 155.— Fohbush, Game-birds, "Wild-fowl, and Shore- 
birds, 1912, 210 (habits).— Tayloe, Univ. California Publ. Zool., vii, 1912, 358 
(Humboldt County, Nev., breeding).— Haelow, Auk, xxix, 1912, 489 (Centre 
County, Pa., breeding) ; xxxv, 1918, 21 (breeding in Centre, Mifflin, Clear- 
field, Huntington, and Snyder Counties, Pa., and sparingly in Delaware 
Valley). — Sage, Bishop, and Bliss, Birds Connecticut, 1913, 49. — Ogilvie- 
Geakt, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, xxxiii, 1913, 82, in text (Isle of Lewis, Outer 
Hebrides, Nov. 12, 1913; near Newbury, Berks, England, Oct. 1864; Isle of 
Tiree, Oct. 25, 1901 ; near Cardiff, Wales, spring 1888) . — Bunkeb, Kansas Univ. 
Sci. Bull. 7, 1913, 143 (Kansas, summer resident). — Betts, Univ. Colorado 
Stud. Zool., X, 191S, 188 (Boulder County, Colo., breeding).— Hathaway, 
Auk, XXX, 1913, 550 (Point Judith, Rhode Island, breeding). — Wetmobe, 
U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 326, 1916, 36 (Puerto Rico, winter visitant).— Modsiet, 
Auk, xxxiii, 1916, 63 (Hatley, Quebec, breeding). — Beooks (A.), Auk, xxxiv, 
1917, 36 (Ohilliwack, British Columbia, summer resident). — Howell (A. B.), 
Pacific Coast Avif., No. 12, 1917, 45 (San Clemente Island, Calif., 1 specimen, 
winter 1908).— Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., xxxvi, 1917, 218 
(Bogota, Colombia). — Haeeis, Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, xxiii, 1919, 245 
(Kansas City, Mo., breeding}.- McAtee, U. S. Dept. Agr. BuU. 294, 1920, 29 
(Cherry County, Nebr., breeding). — Cahn, Wils. BuU., xxxli, 1920, 110 
(Itasca County, Minn., breeding). — Bvebmann, Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. for 
1920 (1921), 331 (Vigo County, Ind., breeding).— Haeteet, Vog. pal. Fauna, 
iii, 1921, 1829 (tax.). — Lonnbekg and Eendahl, Arkiv Zool., xiv, 1922, 19 
(La Carolina, Ecuador). — Johnston, Birds West Virginia, 1923, 87 (West 
Virginia). — Geinneix, Proc. California Acad. Sci., ser. 4, xiii, 1923, 58 
(Marsh, Death Valley, Calif.). — Dawson, Birds California (students' ed.), 
iii, 1923, 1540 (genl. ; California). — Ramsay, Guide to Birds Europe and 
North Africa, 1923, 318 (descr. ; range; European records). — Banoeoft, Con- 
dor, xxxii, 1923, 24 (San Ignacio, Lower California). — Griscom, Birds New 
York City Region, 1923, 135 (status N. Y. City region).— Millee (W. DeW.), 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1, 1924. 308 (ptilosis). — ^Witherp.t et al., Pract. 
Handb. Brit. Birds, ii, 1924, 832 (Brit, records).— Nice (M. M. and L. B.) 
Birds Oklahoma, 1924, 29 (genl.; Oklahoma). — Howeix, Birds Alabama, 
1924, 89, ed. 2, 1928, 89 (Alabama; habits; distr. ) .— Bent, Wils. BuU., xxxvi, 

1924, 10 (near Galveston, Tex. ) .— Bdeleigh, WUs. BuU., xxxvi, 1924, 70 
(breeds. Centre County, Pa.). — Foebush, Birds Massachusetts and Other New 
England States, i, 1925. ,3.57, pi. 23 (col. fig.: descr.; habits; etc; New 
England). — Simmons, Birds Austin Region, 1925, 46 (Austin, Tex.; habits, 
etc.).— Wyman and Bdbnell, Field Book Birds Southwest United States, 

1925, 64 (descr.; field characters). — Bailey, Birds Florida, 1925, 42, pi. 28 
(col. fig.; distr.; Florida ) .—Gaednee, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ixvii, art. 19, 
1925, 16 in text (structure of tongue). — ^Laeson, Wils. Bull., xxxvii, 1925, 
25 (status, Sioux FaUs, S. Dak.).— Pindab, WUs. Bull., xxxvii, 1925, 82 
(status, Fulton County, Ky.).— Lincoln, Auk, xlii, 1925, 58 (Dawson Slough, 
N. Dak.).— BuNOOE, Auk, xlii, 1925, 408 (Bardstown, Ky.).— Gbiscom and 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 143 

Cbosbt, Auk, xlii, 1925, 527 (Brownsville, Tex.).— Fmedmann, Auk, xlii, 

1925, 542 (Lower Rio Grande Valley, Tex. ) .— Neilson, Condor, xxvii, 1925, 
72 In text (Wheatland, Wyo. ) .—Michael, Condor, xxvii, 1925, 110 (Yosemite, 
Calif.). — Natjmbubg, Auk, xliii, 1926, 487 (winter in Venezuela; Perfl). — 
WoETHiNQTON and Todd, Wils. Bull., xxxviii, 1926, 210 (Choctawhatchee 
Bay, Fla.).— Faego, Wils. Bull., xxxviii, 1926, 147 (Pinellas and Pasco County, 
Fla.).— GoiBMAN, Condor, xxviii, 1926, 163 (nesting; Marsh Lake, White 
Mountains, Ariz.). — Holt and Sutton, Ann. Carnegie Mus., xvi, 1926, 424 
(s. Florida).— Tavbbnke, Birds Western Canada, 1926, 126, pi. 15 B. (col. fig. ; 
descr. ; distr. ; western Canada). — Kelso, Ibis, 1926, 698 (Arrow Lakes, 
British Columbia; rare breeder). — Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Iv, 

1926, 177 (Ecuador in winter; specimen, Chone, Yaguarcocha; records Santa 
Luzia, Cayandeled, La Carolina). — Bent and Copeland, Auk, xliv, 1927, 377 
(PineUas County, Florida). — Maiixlabd, Proc. California Acad. Sci., ser. 4, 
xvi, 1927, 290 (Modoc County, Calif.).— Banckoit, Condor, xxix, 1927, 194 
in text (breeds at San Antonio del Mar, Lower California). — Wetmobe, 
New York Acad. Sd., Sci. Surv. Porto Rico, etc., Ix, pt. 3, 1927, 337 
(genl. ; Puerto Rico). — Danjokth, Journ. Dept. Agr. Porto Rico, x, 1926, 55 
(Cartagena Lagoon, Puerto Rico ; winter). — Cahn, Wils. Bull., xxxix, 1927, 26 
(summer; Vilas County, Wis.). — Lihsdale and Hall, Wils. Bull., xxxix, 

1927, 95 (south of Lawrence, Kan.s. } .— Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel- 
phia, Ixxx, 1928 (1929), 495 (distr.; habits; Haiti).— Ballet, Auk, xlv, 1928, 
277 (winter; Chenier au Tlgre, La.). — Wetdemeyeb, Condor, xxx, 1928, 246 
(winter ; Fortine, Mont.). — Bailey, Birds New Mexico, 1928, 242 (genl. ; New 
Mexico). — Stdegis, Field Book Birds Panama Canal Zone, 1928, 42 (descr.; 
habits). — Gkihnell, Univ. California Publ. Zool., xxxii, 1928, 87 (distr.; 
Lower California — transient or winter visitant throughout ; breeds in north- 
western coastal district ; specimens from San Jos6 del Cabo, La Paz, Santiago, 
Todos Santos, San Antonio del Mar, Hardy River, Hecheira, San Telmo, San 
Bam6n, near Cerro Prieto, Colorado River, and San Ignacio). — Laeson, Wils. 
Bull., xl, 1828, 44 (e. McKenzie County, N. Dak. ) .-Pickets, Wils. BuU., xl, 

1928, 188 (upper South Carolina). — Swabth, Proc. California Acad. Sci., ser. 
4, xviii, 1929, 286 (near Patagonia, Ai'iz.). — CooKa;, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washing- 
ton, xlii, 1929, 27 (Washington, D. C.).— Lincoln, Auk, xlvl, 1929, 228 in 
text (breeding; Mississippi). — Cahn and Hyde, Wils. Bull., xli, 1929, 36 
(ecol. distr.; Little Egypt, 111. ) .— Wllson, Wils. Bull., xli, 1929, 183 (near 
Bowling Green, Ky.). — Foetneb and Metcalf, Wils. Bull., xli, 1929, 249 
(Burt Lake, Mich.). — Snydee, Trans. Roy. Can. Inst., xvii, 1930, 185 (summer ; 
King Township, Ontario). — Beatty, Journ. Dept. Agr. Puerto Rico, xiv, 1930, 
139 (St. Croix; Krause Lagoon; Two Williams Pond; South Gate Pond; 
Virgin Islands ) .—Ubnke, Abstr. Linn. Soc. New York, Nos. 39 and 40, 1930, 
65 (Union County, N. J.).— Jung, Auk, xlvii, 1930, 536 (Peace and Athabasca 
Rivers, Alberta).— Kemsies, Wils. Bull., xlii, 1930, 203 (Yellowstone Park, 
Wyo.).— PiEECE, Wils. Bull., xlii, 1830, 262 (Buchanan County, Iowa).— 
Gbinnell, DrsoN, and Linsdale, Univ. California, Publ. Zool., xxxv, 1930, 
215 (distr.; Lassen Peak region, n. California). — Danfoeth, Auk, xlvii, 1930, 
45 (St. Martin, Lesser Antilles) ; Journ. Dept. Agr. Puerto Rico, xv, 1931, 50 
(Cartagena Lagoon, Anegada Lagoon; Qulnica Lagoon; near Mayaguez, 
Puerto Rico).— Nice, M. M., Birds Oklahoma, rev. ed., 1931, 85 (genl.; Okla- 
homa).— [Abthue] Birds Louisiana, 1931, 239 (descr.; distr.; Louisiana).— 
Baeeg, Univ. Arkansas Agr. Exp. Stat. Bull. 258, 1931, 57 (descr. ; distr. ; 
Arkansas).— Petees, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixxi, 1931, 301 (Almirante and 
Changuinola, Panama ).—Dablington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixxi, 1931, 372 



144 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

(swamps near Oienaga, Magdalena, Colombia). — Wetmoee and Swaij:s, 
U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 155, 1931, 132 (habits; dlstr. ; Hlspaniola; winter 
visitant; spec, from Laguna Rinc6n, Trou Caiman, Etang Miragoane; seen 
at £tang Saumatre).— Bubleigh, Wlls. Bull., xliii, 1931, 38 (breeding; State 
College, Centre County, Pa.). — Bailey and Wmoht, Wils. Bull., xliii, 1931, 
194 (Cameron Parish, La.).— Du Mont, Auk, xlviii, 1931, 249 (s. of Wall 
Springs; Floating Island; Florida). — Cheistt, Auk, xlviii, 1931, 374 (San- 
dusky Bay, Lake Erie). — Esten, Auk, xlviii, 1931, 573 (weight). — Stonee, 
Koosevelt Wild Life Ann., ii, 1932, 446 (Oneida Lake region, N. Y. ; habits).— 
Howell, Florida Bird Life, 1932, 206 (genl., Florida ) .—Griscom, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Ixiv, 1932, 122 (distr. Guatemala ; winter visitant — Vera Paz, 
Cohan, Dueuas, Amatitlan, Atitlan). — Austin, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 

1932, 80 (Newfoundland Labrador; one record. Sandwich Bay). — Rubebts, 
Birds Minnesota, i, 1932, 445, pi. 27 (distr.; col. fig.; habits; etc; Minne- 
sota. — HowAED and Mit.t.kr (A. H.), Condor, xxxv, 1933, 16 (bones, Organ 
Mountains, N. Mex. ) .—Hicks, Wils. Bull, xlv, 1933, ISO (Ashtabula County, 
Ohio; scarce; nests with eggs June and July). — Haekold, Wils. Bull., xlv, 

1933, 19 (Saskatchewan).— Gbiscom, Trans. Linn. Soc. New York, iii, 1933, 99 
(Dutchess County, N. Y. ; common transient spring and fall; few breed). — 
WiLLETT, Pacific Coast Avif., No. 21, 1933, 52 (sw. California, common in 
marshes in summer, breeds April and May; winters in fair numbers). — 
MoNsoN, Wils. Bull., xlvi, 1934, 43 (Cass County, N. Dak., common sum- 
mer resident). — Bbooks, Wils. Bull., xlvi, 1934, 66 (Cranberry Glades, 
W. Va., Sept. 27, 1931).— Taveenee, Birds Canada, 1934, 173 (breeds across 
Canada, north to southern Mackenzie; descr.). — Taveknee and Sutton, Ann. 
Carnegie Mus., xxiii, 1934, 32 (Churchill, Manitoba — uncommon summer 
resident; nests). — DuMont, Univ. Iowa Stud. Nat. Hist., xv, 1934, 62 (Iowa, 
common migrant and summer resident). — Mueeat, Wils. Bull, xlvii, 1935, 65 
(Rockbridge County, Va., common transient) . — Walkinshaw, Wils. Bull, xlvii, 

1935, 79 in text (incubation period). — McCeeaet and Mickey, Wils. Bull., 
xlvii, 1935, 136 (se. Wyoming; May 1-Sept. 19). — Youngwobth, Wils. Bull., 
xlvii, 1935, 217 (breeds. Fort Sisseton, S Dak.). — Griscom, Bull. Mus. Oomp. 
Zool., Ixxviii, 1935, 304 (Panama — several records, east to the Canal Zone). — 
Danfoeth, Journ. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico, xix, 1935, 447 (spec. 
Brandy wine Bay, Tortola; stomach contents); 466 (Tortola, St. Croix); 
xxi, 1937, 543 (Playa Grande, Vieques Island, Puerto Rico) ; xxiii, 1939, 54 
Montserrat). — Hanna, Condor, xxxvii, 1935, 81 in text (San Bernardino 
County, Calif.).— Gilman, Condor, xxxvii, 1935, 240 (Death Valley, 1 
record).- Haegeave, Condor, xxxvii, 1935, 285 (several nests near Williams, 
Ariz.). — Spikee, Bull. New York State Coll. Forestry, viii. No. 1, 1935, 
457 (Finger Lakes, N. Y. ; breeds).— Belchee and Smookee, Ibis, 1935, 283 
(Trinidad; breeds; descr. eggs). — Linsdale, Pacific Coast Avif. No. 23, 1936, 
50 (Nevada, summer resident; winters in southern part of State; nesting 
records in northern and eastern parts of State).— Bond, Birds West Indies, 

1936, 96 (winters Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Swan Island, Puerto Rico, 
St. Croix, St. Martin, St. Barts, St. Kitts, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Martinique, 
St. Lucia, St. Vincent, the Grenadines, Grenada, Barbados, and in the 
Bahamas— Little Abaco, Andros, New Providence, Cay Lobos, Cay Sal, 
Bird Rock, and Great Inagua).— Weydemetee and Marsh, Condor, xxxviii, 

1936, 194 (Lake Bowdoin, Mont.).— Hudson and Sherman, Auk, liii, 1936, 
312 (spec, Anderson, S. C, Sept. 27, 1928 ) .— Mouslet, Wils. Bull, xlix, 1937, 
80 in text (habits, nesting, near Montreal, Canada ) .—Walkinshaw, Auk, liv, 

1937, 311 In text (Michigan).— Wetmoee, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxiv, 
1937, 408 (West Virginia).— Griscom, Auk, Uv, 1937, 193 (specimen. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 145 

Omilteme, Guerrero, May 29).— Snydee, Trans. Koy. Can. Inst., xxli, 1938, 
186 (western Kainy River district, Ontario; breeds).— Obebholseb, Bird 
Life Louisiana, 1938, 203 (fairly common winter resident, Aug. 1-May 24, 
in southern Louisiana; migrant in central and northern Louisiana).— 
BoBEix, Condor, xl, 1938, 181 (Brewster County, Tex., Oct.).— Webb, Condor, 
xli, 1939, 36 (Deep Springs Valley, Inyo County, Calif .) .—Por^ND, Auk, Iv, 
1938, 128 (Leetown, W. Va., several August records).— Bennett and 
Hendwckson, Auk, Ivi, 1939, 36 (adapt, to environment).— Walkinshaw, 
Auk, Ivi, 1939, 230 in text (eggs).— Lincoln, Auk, Ivi, 1939, 331 (breeding, 
Langley Field, Va.). 

[Porzana] Carolina Gtjndlach, Rep. Fisico-Nat. Cuba, i, 1865-66, 361.— Coties, 
Key North Amer. Birds, 1872, 274.— Sclatee and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 
1873, 139.— Cost, List Birds West Indies, 1885, and rev. ed., 1886, 30.— 
Shaepb, Hand-list, 1, 1899, 101.— Bkabouene and Chubb, Birds South Amer- 
ica, i, 1912, 24 (Colombia ; Ecuador ; Trinidad). 

Plorzana] Carolina Ridgway, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist, New Tork, x, 1874, 387 
( Illinois) ; Man. North Amer. Birds, 1887, 139.— Newton (A. and E.), Handb. 
Jamaica, 1881, 114.— Coues, Key North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 1884, 673.— 
Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, xlviii, 1928, 122 (eggs). 

Porzana Carolina 1 Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1877, 748 (Santa 
Lucia, Peru). 

[Aramides] Carolina Geat, Hand-list, ill, 1871, 60, No. 10431. 

GresB Carolina Frantzius, Journ. fur Orn., 1869, 375 (Costa Rica).— Haeting, 
Man. Brit. Birds, 1872, 152. 

[Oaleolimnas'i carolinus Heine and Reichenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 
320. 

[Ralliis] porzana (not of Linnaeus) Gmelin, Syst. Nat, i, pt 2, 1789, 712, part. 

Rallus porzana Turton, Syst. Nat., i, 1806, 430, part 

[Oallinula^ porzana Latham, Index Orn., ii, 1790, 772, part. 

Rallus virginianus (not of Linnaeus) Wilson, Amer. Orn., vi, 1812, 27, pi. 48, 
fig. 1.— Stone, Auk. xlvii, 1930, 560 in text 

Rallus stolidus Vieiixot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., xxviii, 1819, 567 (new name for 
Rallus carolinus Linnaeus). 

Rallus oUvaceus Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., xxviii, 1819, 561 ("Sainte 
Domingue" ; young sora rail) . 

PORZANA FLAVIVENTER GOSSn (Bonaparte) 

Jamaican Yellow-bellied Rail 

Adult (sexes alike). — Forehead, crown, occiput, and nape chaetura 
drab to chaetura black; scapulars, interscapulars, back, and rump 
Saccardo's umber to snuff brown, the scapulars and interscapulars 
with white shaft stripes bordered broadly with fuscous-black to black, 
the feathers of the back and nxmp with relatively indistinct dusky 
centers and, occasionally with short white terminal shaft streaks or 
terminal median spots, the brown more rufescent on the rump, the 
brown palest on the scapulars — clay color to deep cinnamon -buff ; 
upper wing coverts like the scapulars but with the blackish and the 
white areas much reduced, the white sometimes in the form of small 
bars; remiges deep olive-brown; upper tail coverts largely blackish 



146 BULLETIN 50, TINITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

with a few small, and often incomplete, transverse white bars; rec- 
trices fuscous to fuscous-black edged with snuff brown ; a white super- 
ciliary line from the nasal antia to the dorsoposterior end of the 
cheeks, a black line through the eye just beneath it, and a whitish 
malar stripe just below that running from the mandibular antia to 
the lower margain of the eye and spreading out ventrally into the 
white chin and upper throat; cheeks, auriculars, and sides of neck 
buffy hair brown; lower throat and breast washed with pale warm 
buff; abdomen, sides, flanks, and thighs white, the sides and flanks, 
and to a lesser extent, the thighs, barred with chaetura black ; under 
tail coverts white much washed with clay color and barred with 
blackish like the flanks; under wing coverts white obscurely and 
sparingly marked with dusky hair brown; "bill olive, legs and feet 
yellowish" (Scott). 

Other plumages unknown. 

Adult maU.—Wmg 63.5-71 (67.6) ; tail 26.5-33.5 (30.6) ; exposed 
culmen 16-18 (17.2) ; tarsus 20-24 (22.7) ; middle toe without claw 
25.5-31.5 (28.8 mm.) .^* 

Adult female.— W\ng 65-74 (68.5) ; tail 27.5-34 (31) ; exposed 
culmen 15.5-17.5 (16.3); tarsus 20-24.5 (22.5); middle toe without 
claw 26.5-30 (28.1 mm.). « 

Range. — Eesident in fresh-water swamps and edges of ponds in 
Cuba (Lake Ariguanabo; Cienaga; Habana; Minas; Cristobal; Ca- 
baiiaz; San Francisco de Morales); and Jamaica (Westmoreland; 
Negril; Spanish Town.) 

Tyfe locality. — Jamaica. 

Ortygometra minuta (not Rallws minutus Gmelin) Gosse, Birds Jamaica, 1847, 
372 ; Illustr. Birds Jamaica, 1849, pi. 104. 

Rallus minutus Lembeye, Aves Isla Cuba, 1850, 109. 

Crex minuta Sclatee and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1861, 81 (Ja- 
maica). — Albrecht, Journ. fur Orn., x, 1862, 206 (Jamaica). 

Porzana minuta Maech, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1804, 69 (Jamaica). 

Olrtygometral flaviventris (not Rallus flaviventer Boddaert) Gbay, Gen. Birds, 
iii, 1S46, 593, part. 

[Aramides'j flaviventer Geat, Hand-list, iii, 1S71, 61, No. 10443, part (Jamaica). 

Porzana flaviventris Sclatee and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 455, 
part (Jamaica; monogr.) — Coet, Auk, v, 1888, 54 (Cuba; Jamaica; synon- 
ymy; descr.); Birds West Indies, 1889, 255; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, 
9, 91. — Scott, Auk, ix, 1892, 11 (Passage Fort, Jamaica ; fresh colors of 
nude parts). — Shabpb, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xsiii, 1894, 110, part (Ja- 
maica). — GuNDLACH, Orn. Cubana, 1895, 244. — Sclatee, Rev. List Birds 
Jamaica, 1910, 19.— Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. BuU. 128, 1914, 31, part 
(range; Jamaica; Cuba). — ^Wbtmoee, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 826, 1916, 36 
(Puerto Rico, resident). 



'Sixteen specimens from Cuba (9) and Jamaica (7). 
° Eleven specimens from Cuba (2) and Jamaica (9). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 147 

[Porssana] flaviventris Sclateb and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 140, part 

(Jamaica).— Cory, List Birds West Indies, 1885, and rev. ed., 1886, 30 

(Cuba; Jamaica).— Shabpe, Ha,nd-list, i, 1899, 102, part (Cuba, Jamaica). 
Plorzanal /laviventer Newton (A. and E.), Handb. Jamaica, 1881, 114. 
Hapalocrox flavivcntris Ridgway, Smiths. Misc. Coll., Ixxii, No. 4, 1920, 3, 

part. 
Laterirallus gossii Bonapaete, Compt. Rend., xliii, 1856, 599. 
Crybastes gossii Cabanis, Journ. fiir Orn., iv, 1856, 428 (Cuba). 
[Cryiastes] yossci Gundlach, Journ. ftir Orn., ix, 1861, 342 (Cuba) ; Rep. 

Fisico-Nat. Cuba, i, 1865-66, 361. 
CnjlGKtes gossei Gundlach, Journ. fiir Orn., xxiii, 1875, 358 (Cuba; habits); 

xxvi, 1878, 162, 189 (Puerto Rico) ; Contr. Orn. Cubana, 1876, 191. 
Laterirallus gossei Stahl, Ornis, ill, 1887, 452 (Puerto Rico). 
Pwzana flaviventer gossi Bangs and Kennabd, List Birds Jamaica, 1920, 6 

(common resident; crit). 
Porzana flaviventer gossii Bakboue, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Club, vl, 1923, 55 (Lake 

Ariguanabo and the Cienega, Cuba; habits; crit.). — Pei'ees, Check-list 

Birds of World, ii, 1934, 184 (Cuba and Jamaica). 
P[orzana'\ fUaviventer'i gossei Bond, Birds West Indies, 1936, 91, 92 in text 

(Cuba and Jamaica). 

PORZANA FLAVIVENTER HENDERSONI (Bartsch) 

Henderson's YEixow-BEiiiED Rail 

Adult (sexes alike). — Similar to Porzana flaviventer gossii but 
slightly smaller. 

Other plumages unknown. 

Adult male. — Wing 62.5: tail 30; exposed culmen 16; tarsus 21; 
middle toe without claw 29 mm.*^ 

Adult female. — ^Wing 61-63.5; tail 29; exposed culmen 15-16 mm; 
tarsus 22.5 ; middle toe without claw 27 mm.^" 

Range. — Eesident in marshes with heavy aquatic growth in Puerto 
Kico (Laguna de Guanica; Bayamon Eiver) and Hispaniola (Trou 
Caiman ; Fort Liberte) . 

Tyj^e locality. — Trou Caiman, Haiti. 

Crylasf ns gossei Gundlach, Journ. fiir Orn., xxvi, 1878, 162, 189 (Arecibo 

River, Puerto Rico; specimen) ; Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., vii, 1878, 391 

(Arecibo River; not rare). 
Laterirallus gossei Stahl, Faun. Puerto Rico, 1883, 63 (Puerto Rico, rare) ; 

Ornis, 1887, 452 (rare). 
Porzana flavivcntris Wetmobe, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 326, 1916, 36 (Laguna de 

GuSnica ; Bayam6n River) ; Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., xlvi, 1922, 307 

bones from caves near Morovis, Puerto Rico). — Danfokth, Journ. Dept. 

Agr. Puerto Rico, x, 1926, 55-56 (Cartagena Lagoon, Puerto Rico). 
Porzana flaviventris hendersoni Babtsch, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xsx, 

1917, 131 (Trou Caiman, Haiti; spec, TJ. S. Nat. Mus.) ; Smiths. Misc. Coll., 

Ixviil, No. 12, 1918, fig. 42 (habitat). 



*■ One male and two females from Haiti, including the type, examined. An 
unsexed bird from Puerto Rico has the following measurements : Wing 62 ; 
tail 30.5 ; exposed culmen 16 ; tarsus 21 ; middle toe without claw 29 mm. 



148 BULLETIN 50, TINITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Porzana flaviventer hendersoni Wetmoee, New Tork Acad. Scl., Sci. Surv. 
Porto Rico, etc., ix, pt. 3, 1927, 338 (Puerto Rico, resident; Laguna de 
GuSnica, Bayam6n River, near Aguirre, Cartagena Lagoon). — Bond, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliiladelphia, Ixxx, 1928 (1929), 495 (Trou Caiman, Haiti).— 
Wetmoee and Swales, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 155, 1931, 133 (habits, etc., 
Hispaniola; rare; Fort Libert^; Trou Caiman).— Danfokth, Journ. Dept. 
Agri. Puerto Rico, xv, 1931, 50 (Cartagena Lagoon; Anegado Lagoon, 
Puerto Rico).— Peters, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 184. — Beatty, 
Journ. Agr. Puerto Rico, xv, 1931, 21 (GuAnica Lagoon, Puerto Rico). 

Plorzana] fUaviventer] hendersoni Bond, Birds West Indies, 1936, 92 in text 
(Hispaniola; Puerto Rico). 

Hapalocrex flamventris Ridgwat, Smiths. Misc. Coll., Ixxii, No. 4, 1920, 3. 

? Rallus Sajxe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, 236 (Dominican Republic). — 
Bbtant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, xi, 1867, 97 (Dominican Republic). 

PORZANA FLAVIVENTER WOODI van Rossem 

Salvadokian Xbllow-bellied Rail 

Adult male. — Similar to that of Porzana flaviventer hendersoni but 
the crown paler; the pectoral region whiter; the median upperpart 
browner, less blackish, the dorsal white markings narrower and less 
extensive, and the black loral streak narrower (1 mm. wide) ; iris 
dark red; bill blackish olive; tarsi and toes pale dull yellow. 

Other plumages unknown. 

Adult 7nale.—W\ng 62-65.5; tail 26.7-29; exposed culmen 16-16.5; 
tarsus 23-24; middle toe without claw 28.5-29 mm.*^ 

Range. — Known only from the type locality, Lake Olomega, De- 
partment of San Miguel, El Salvador. 

Porzana flaviventer woodi van Rossem, Condor, xxxvi, 1934, 243 (orig. descr. ; 
Lake Olomega, El Salvador; crit.) ; Birds El Salvador, Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist. Publ. Zool., xxiii, 1938, 160 (habits. Lake Olomega). 

Genus LATERALLUS G. R. Gray 

Laterallus "Pr. B." G. R. Geat, Cat. Gen. Subgen. Birds, 1855, 120. (Type, by 

monotypy, Rallus melanophaius Vieillot, ex Bonaparte, 1854, nomen 

nudum. ) 
Laterirallus (emendation) Bonaparte, Compt. Rend., xliii, 1856, 599. 
Cryiastes Cabanis, Journ. fur Orn., 1856 (publ. 1857), 428. (New name for 

Laterallus, on grounds of purism.) 
Donacophilus Reichenow, in Heine and Reichenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Orn., 

1890, 320. (New name for Laterallus, on grounds of purism.) 
Ruflrallus Bonapaete, Compt. Rend., xliii, 1856, 599. (Type, as designated by 

Scl&ter and Salvin, 1869, Rallus cayennensis Gmelin=iJ. cayanensis Bod- 

daert=iJ. viridis Miiller.) 
ErythroUmnas Heine, in Heine and Reichenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 

320. ( Substitute for Rufirallus, on grounds of purism. ) 



"Two specimens, including the type. Van Rossem's measurements for the 
type are slightly smaller than mine— wing 60.5; exposed culmen 15.8; tarsus 
20.4 ; middle toe without claw 27 mm. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 



149 



Credscus Cabanis, Journ. fur Orn., 1856 (publ. 1857), 428. (Type, by monotypy, 

Ballus jamaicensis Gmelin.) 
Crescicus (emendation) Cotjes, Check-list North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 1882, 110. 
Oreoiscvs (typog. error) Bbbwee, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xvii, 1875, 447. 
Limnocrex Ridgway, Smiths. Misc. Coll., Ixxii, No. 4, 1920, 3. (Type, by 

original designation, Porzana dnereiceps Lawrence.) 
Thryoorex Ridgway, Smiths. Misc. Coll., Ixxii, No. 4, 1920, 4. (Type, by 

original designation, Corethrura rubra Sclater and Salvin.) 

Small Kalleae (wings 70-85 mm.) with bill shorter than head, with 
nasal fossa distinctly defined, the nostrils narrowly elliptical, wholly 
pervious and parallel with the maxillary tomium. 




Figure 10. — LaUrallus jamaicensis. Natural size. 

Three subgenera in North and Middle America, which may be 
described individually in detail as follows (ex Kidgway manuscript 
in which they were considered of generic rank) : 

1. Subgenus Creciscus Cabanis. 

Bill much shorter than head (little if any more than half as long), 
subcuneate in lateral profile, its depth at base equal to a little more 
than one-third the length of cuhnen, its width at same point equal to 
about two-thirds the height; cuhnen elevated basally, slightly de- 
pressed above anterior end of nostril, thence gently decurved and 
slightly convex to the obtuse tip of maxilla ; gonys a little more than 
half to about two-thirds as long as mandibular rami, nearly straight, 
slightly ascending terminally; mandibular rami without distinct, if 
any, lateral groove ; nasal f osa rather large sharply defined, extending 
half way to tip of maxilla or a little more; nostril relatively large, 
narrowly elliptical, wholly pervious, parallel with maxillary tomium, 
its anterior end much nearer to edge of loral feathering than to tip of 
maxilla ; anterior outline of loral feathering forming a vertical nearly 
straight or slightly convex line; that of frontal feathering divided 
medially by a very short and small obtusely angular indentation, 
formed by base of cuhnen; malar antia about on line with anterior 
outline of loral feathering, the mental antia on line with or slightly 



150 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

anterior to posterior end of nostril. Wing relatively rather small, 
moderately concave beneath, much rounded, the longest primaries 
exceeding distal secondaries by a little less than one-fourth the length 
of wing and but slightly, if at all, exceeding longest elongated but 
broad and rounded proximal secondaries; third or second and third 
primaries (from outside) longest, the first (outermost) about equal to 
seventh or eighth; two outermost primaries with tips subacuminate ; 
longest feather of alula falling slightly, but decidedly, short of tips 
of longest primary coverts. Tail between two-fifths and half as long 
as wing, rounded, the rectrices soft and mostly concealed by coverts. 
Tarsus as long as middle toe without claw, or a little shorter, the 
acrotarsium with a single row of bfoad transverse scutella, the planta 
tarsi with a similar single row, its posterior side broadly rounded; 
outer toe with claw falling short of base of middle claw, the inner toe, 
without claw, reaching to penultimate articulation of middle toe; 
hallux, without claw, about equal to basal phalanx of outer toe; claw 
relatively small, moderately curved, compressed, and acute. 

Phumage and coloration. — Plumage of head, neck, and underparts 
dense, soft, and blended; that of posterior underparts longer and 
more lax. Upperparts dark brown or dusky, more castaneous on hind 
neck, the back, scapulars, wings, etc., usually more or less speckled or 
transversely spotted with white; axillars and under wing coverts 
dusky more or less barred (narrowlj^) with white; adults with under- 
parts plain slaty, the posterior portions usually more or less barred 
with white. 

Range. — Nearctic and Neotropical regions. 

2. Subgenus Limnoceex Eidgway. 

Bill much more than half as long as head, subcuneate (tapering) 
in lateral profile, its depth at base of gonys much less than at posterior 
end of nostril, that at base equal to more than one-third the length of 
culmen, its width at same point equal to at least two-thirds the depth ; 
culmen distinctly elevated and more or less arched basally, shghtly 
depressed above nostril, thence gradually decurved to tip, gonys nearly 
as long as mandibular rami, nearly straight, slightly ascending termi- 
nally; mandibular rami without distinct, if any, lateral groove, but 
basal portion of tomium more or less prominent; nasal fossa very 
distinctly defined, its upper and lower edges converging slightly 
toward the rounded anterior end, which is about midway between 
nearest loral feathering and tip of maxilla ; nostril narrowly elliptical, 
wholly pervious, parallel with maxillary tomium, its anterior end 
decidedly nearer to nearest loral feathering than to tip of maxilla; 
anterior outline of loral feathering forming a nearly straight or 
slightly convex line from near upper edge of nasal fossa (at base) to 
rictus, the rather narrow base of culmen making a very small indenta- 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 151 

tion in frontal feathering; malar antia decidedly posterior to latero- 
frontal antia, the mental antia about on line with or slightly posterior 
to posterior end of nostril. Wing moderate in size, very concave 
beneath, strongly rounded; third and fourth, or third, fourth, and 
fifth primaries (from outside) longest, the first (outermost) not 
longer than ninth, sometimes shortest; longest primaries exceeding 
distal secondaries by about one-fifth the length of wing, and extend- 
ing slightly to considerably beyond tips of elongated proximal 
secondaries; alula greatly developed, its longest feather reaching to 
beyond tips of longest primary coverts. Tail one-third to more than 
two-fifths as long as wing, rounded, the rectrices soft, with lax webs, 
and mostly concealed by the coverts. Tarsus not longer (usually 
decidedly shorter) than middle toe without claw, one-third to more 
than two-fifths as long as wing, the acrotarsium with a single series 
of broad transverse scutella, the planta tarsi with similar transverse 
scutella on upper portion and numerous smaller roundish or hex- 
agonal scales on lower part; outer toe with claw reaching nearly if 
not quite to base of middle claw (falling short in Z. vagans and 
Z. albigularis), the inner toe, without claw, reaching to decidedly 
beyond penultimate articulation of middle toe ; hallux, without claw, 
longer than basal phalanx of outer toe but shorter than that of inner 
toe ; claws small, compressed, moderately curved, acute. 

Plumage and coloration. — Plumage of head, neck, back, scapulars, 
rump, and anterior underparts compact and blended, that of poste- 
rior tinderparts more full, with feathers more distinctly outlined 
(broadly rounded) ; primaries broad, the outer ones (especially the 
first) bowed or incurved; elongated proximal secondaries broadly 
rounded at tips. Upperparts plain olive-brown, usually becoming 
more or less ruf escent on hind neck ; anterior under parts plain ruf es- 
cent laterally and white medially, or plain gray, the posterior under- 
parts, including sides (but sometimes excluding abdomen) conspicu- 
ously barred with white and blackish. 

Range. — Honduras to Amazon Valley. 

3. Subgenus Thrtocrex Ridgway. 

Small Ealleae (wing about 81-85 mm.) with bill not conspicuously 
deeper at base than at gonydeal angle, its width at posterior end of 
nostril equal to decidedly more than half its depth at same point; 
malar antia slightly anterior to the broadly rounded ioral antia; 
longest feather of alula extending beyond tips of longest primary 
coverts; outermost primary not projecting beyond tips of distal sec- 
ondaries; tarsus longer than middle toe, without claw, and under 
parts entirely plain cinnamon-rufous. 

Bill a little shorter than head, distinctly tapering (in lateral profile) 
for distal portion only, its depth at gonydeal angle nearly equal to 

272607 — 11 11 



152 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL IiIUSEUM 

that at posterior end of nostril, where its width is equal to about two- 
thirds its depth at same point; culmen about three-fifths as long as 
tarsus, slightly elevated basally and faintly depressed above anterior 
end of nostril, thence gradually and increasingly decurved to tip; 
gonys decidedly shorter than mandibular rami, nearly straight, 
strongly ascending terminally, its basal angle distinct; mandibular 
rami with a very indistinct narrow lateral groove; nasal fossa very 
distinctly defined, extending about half way from edge of loral 
feathering to tip of maxilla : nostril narrowly elliptical, parallel with 
maxillary tomium ; anterior edge of loral feathering forming a nearly 
vertical slightly, but distinctly, convex line from side of base of cul- 
men at upper edge of nasal fossa to rictus, the slightly expanded base 
of culmen forming a broadly angular short indentation in edge of 
median portion of forehead; malar antia about on line with latero- 
frontal antia, the mental antia slightly posterior to proximal end of 
nostril. Wing moderate in size, very concave beneath, much rounded, 
the longest primaries exceeding distal secondaries by only about one- 
fifth the length of wing but extending decidedly beyond tips of the 
slightly elongated proximal secondaries; third and fourth, or third, 
fourth, and fifth primaries longest, the first (outermost) shortest 
(about as long as distal secondaries) ; alula with longest feather ex- 
tending decidedly beyond tips of longest primary coverts. Tail 
slightly more than two-fifths as long as wing, strongly rounded, the 
rectrices soft, with lax webs, not extending beyond tips of lower 
coverts. Tarsus more than two-fifths as long as wing, the acrotarsium 
with a single series of about ten broad transverse scutella, the planta 
tarsi with several transverse scutella near heel joint, otlierwise with 
an irregular arrangement of smaller, more hexagonal scales; middle 
toe, without claw, a little shorter than tarsus; outer toe with claw 
reaching to base of middle claw or falling very slightly short, the 
inner toe, without claw, reaching to penultimate articulation of 
middle toe; hallux, without claw, about as long as basal phalanx of 
outer toe; claws relatively small, much compressed, moderately 
curved, acute. 

Plumage and coloration. — Plumage full, dense, and blended, shorter 
anteriorly, longer and more lax posteriorly ; primaries broad, the outer 
ones, especially the first, bowed or incurved ; slightly elongated proxi- 
mal secondaries soft, very broad, with rounded tips. Pileum and sides 
of head plain slate color; rest of upperparts deep rufescent on hind 
neck gradually changing to sepia or bone brown on remiges, the tail 
darker; underparts plain cinnamon-rufous, paler on abdomen. 

Range. — Central America. (Monotypic.) 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 153 

KEY TO THE NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICAN FOEMS OF LATERALLUS 

«. Longest feather of alula falling short of tip of longest upper primary coverts. 
6. Underparts entirely dark slate-gray, 
c. Head paler, the crown deep neutral gray. 

Laterallus spilonotus, adult (p. 160) 
CO. Head darker, the crown dark neutral gray to slate-black. 
d. Middle toe without claw 23 mm. in length. 

Laterallus jamaicensis jamaicensls (p. 159) 
M. Middle toe without claw shorter, usually not over 21 mm. in length. 
e. Smaller, wing averaging less than 70 mm. 

Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus (p. 157) 
ee. Larger, wing averaging over 70 mm. 

Laterallus jamaicensis stoddardl (p. 153) 

66. Underparts largely whitish Laterallus exilis (p. 162) 

aa. Longest feather of alula extending beyond tip oi longest upper primary 
coverts. 
6. Tarsus shorter than middle toe without claw ; under tail coverts barred 
with black and white, 
c. Top and sides of head grayish. 

Laterallus albigularis cinereiceps (p. 164) 
cc. Top and sides of head dark brown. 

Laterallus albigularis albigularis (p. 166) 
66. Tarsus as long or longer than middle toe without claw ; under tail coverts 
plain, unbarred, 
c. Upper back not bright rufescent but dark brown washed with rufescent. 

Laterallus ruber tamaulipensis (p. 168) 
cc. Upper back bright rufescent. 
d. Lower back, rump, upper tail and wing coverts rich, deep chestnut. 

Laterallus ruber ruberrimus (p. 170) 
dd. Lower back, rump, upper tail and wing coverts chocolate-brown. 

Laterallus ruber ruber (p. 168) 

LATERALLUS JAMAICENSIS STODDARDI (Coale) 

Eastern Black Rail 

Adult (sexes alike). — Top of head blackish mouse gray to black- 
ish slate, the occiput the same but washed with sepia; nape, hind 
neck, and anterior interscapulars warm sepia to bister, the inter- 
scapulars with small subterminal white specks; rest of interscap- 
ulars, back, rump, upper wing, tail coverts, and scapulars dark 
fuscous or blackish mummy brown to fuscous-black, usually be- 
coming black on the rump and the upper tail coverts, each feather 
with four small white specks, two on the outer margin of each web, 
one terminal, the other about 5 mm. anterior to it; remiges fuscous 
to dark fuscous, the secondaries with several narrow, small, trans- 
verse white spots on each web, the primaries averaging fewer such 
spots, and chiefly on their terminal portion and largely on the outer 
web (but not entirely so) ; rectrices fuscous-black crossed by nar- 
row white transverse spots and more or less tinged with brownish 



154 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

laterally; the lores, circumocular area, and auriculars like the crown, 
but slightly paler on the auriculars; chin, throat, side of neck, 
breast, sides, and upper abdomen uniform deep mouse gray with a 
slate cast; flanks, lower abdomen, thighs, and under tail coverts 
darker — ^blackish mouse gray to slate-black barred with white, the 
white bars very narrow and spaced about 4 mm. apart; the sides, 
flanks, and thighs sometimes with a faint fuscous wash, underwing 
coverts duU dusky fuscous with narrow whitish bar; iris red; bill 
black ; tarsi and toes bright yellowish green.*' 

Jiovenal. — Similar to the adult but averaging more blackish, less 
brownish, above with less brownish on the wings and back and very 
little on the hind neck, the white spots smaller and averaging fewer ; 
entire bend of wing whitish ; a rather indistinct whitish superciliary 
stripe from the base of the maxilla to the posterodorsal corner of the 
eye ; cheeks malar area, chin, and throat pale ashy white with a buffy- 
wash (especially on chin and throat) ; middle of breast and abdomen 
much mixed with pale buffy ashy white; posterior lower parts less 
barred with white than in adults. 

Natal down. — Dark black with an oily greenish sheen above, the 
down sparser on the chin than elsewhere. 

Adult male.—Wmg 70-75.5 (72.5) ; tail 29-34.5 (32.1) ; exposed 
culmen 12-15 (14.1) tarsus 21-23 (22.2) ; middle toe without claw 
21-22 (21.3 mm.).*^ 

Adult female.— Wmg 73.5-77 (75) ; tail 30 (30) ; exposed culmen 
13.&-14 (13.7) ; tarsus 20-24 (22.5) ; middle toe without claw 21-22 
(21.5 nrni.).™ 

Range. — Breeds from Kansas (Garden City; Manhattan; Beloit) ; 
Iowa (rarely — ^Linn County) ; Minnesota (doubtful — Hennepin 
County) ; Wisconsin (one record) ; Illinois (Quincy; Calumet River; 
Chicago); possibly southern Manitoba; probably southern Ontario 
(Dundas) and southern Quebec ; Connecticut (Saybrook) ; Massa- 
chusetts (Plymouth; Chatham) ; south to southern Kansas (Prince- 
ton) ; southern Illinois (Philo) ; western North Carolina (Statesville; 
Weaverville) ; and Florida (Alachua County; St. Johns River; Clear- 
water ; Merritt Island) . 

Winters from Georgia (Savannah) ; Florida (Daytona; St. Marks; 
Key West; the Tortugas Islands); Louisiana (New Orleans); to 
Guatemala (Duenas [subspecific identification uncertain, however]). 



■■' Females are said by some writers to be duller generally and somewhat paler 
on the underparts than males. There is a slight average difference in the under- 
parts, but I have been able to pick out males as pale below as females. Dorsally, 
I can see no sexual difference. 

" Eight specimens from New Jersey, Illinois, and Florida. 

" Three specimens from New Jersey and Florida. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 155 

Casual in Bermuda (as a migrant) and Colorado (near Denver). 
Doubtfully recorded from Maine (Scarboro) and Nova Scotia (Hali- 
fax). 

Type locality.— Hyde. Park, South Chicago, 111. 

Rallus jamaicensis (not of Gmelin, 1789) Sonnini, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 
xxviii, 1819, 550, part— Audtjbon, Orn. Biogr., iv, 1838, 359, pi. 349. 

Blallus] jamaAcensis NteLSON, Bull. Essex Inst., viii, 1876, 153 (ne. Illinois, 
breeding) . 

Ortygometra jamaicensis Attoubon, Synopsis, 1839, 214; Birds Amer., 8vo. ed., 
V, 1842, 157, pi. 808.— JARMNE, Contr. Orn., 1848, 85 (Bermuda, Nov.) — 
Htokms, Jardine's Contr. Orn., 1850, 11 (Bermuda, Sept. 5, 1848).— Bi^nd, 
Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst, for 1858 (1859), 287 (Bermuda).-? Salvin, Ibis, 
1866, 198 (Duenas, Guatemala). 

lOrtygometra] jamaicensis Maetbns, Journ. fiir Orn., 1859, 220 (Bermuda). 

Creciscus jam,aicensis Shaepb, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 185, part 
(Dueiias, Guatemala).— Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, iii, 
1903, 323, part (Massachusetts; Illinois; Florida; Duenas, Guatemala).— 
Amebican Ornithologists' Union Committee, Auk, xxv, 1908, 365; Check- 
list, ed. 3, 1910, 104, part.— Palmer (T.S.), Auk, xxvi, 1909, 190 (District 
of Columbia, Sept. 1; Piscatawny, Prince Georges County, Md., Sept. 25). — 
Cory, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Publ. 131, 1909, 385 (Illinois, Wisconsin).— 
Wayne, Birds South Carolina, 1910, 39 (summer resident; breeding 
habits; descr. nest and eggs; notes).— Eaton, Birds New York, i, 1910, 281, 
pi. 26.— OoALE, Auk, xxviii, 1911, 276 (Oconta River, Green Bay, Wis., 
June 9). — FoRBUSH, Game-birds, Wild-fowl, and Shore-birds, 1912, 215 
(habits).— Sage, Bishop, and Bliss, Birds Connecticut, 1913, 50.— Bunker, 
Kansas Univ. Sci. Bull. 7, 1913, 143 (Kansas, summer resident).— Baynard, 
Auk, XXX, 1913, 248 (Alachua County, Fla., summer resident, breeding). — 
Harlow, Auk, xxx, 1913, 269 (near Brigantine, N. J., breeding; descr. nest 
and eggs) ; xxxv, 1918, 21 (breeding in east marshes of Ocean, Burlington, 
and Atlantic Counties, N. J.).— Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 
33, fig. 14 (geogr. range and migr. routes). — Gbiscom, Birds New York 
City Region, 1923, 137, fig. 11 (status. New York City region). — ^Nicb 
(M. M. and L. B.), Birds Oklahoma, 1924, 29 (genl.; Oklahoma).— 
FoRBUSH, Birds Massachusetts and Other New England States, i, 1925, 361, 
pi. 23 (fig.; descr.; habits; New England). — Taveenee, Birds Western 
Canada, 1926, 126 (descr.; distr. ; w. Canada). — LoNGSTEEarr, Auk, xliii, 
1926, 379 (Mosquito Inlet, Fla.).— Bailey, Wils. Bull., xxxix, 1927, 176 
(distr.).— Pickens, Wils. Bull., xl, 1928, 188 (Chester, S. C.).— Cooke 
(M. T.), Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xlii, 1929, 27 (Washington, D. C.).— 
HiOKS, Wils. Bull., xli, 1929, 43 (Bumgardner's Pond, Franklin County, 
and Alum Creek Swamp, Westerville, Ohio). — Longstreet, Auk, xlvii, 1930, 
95 (Daytona Beach, Fla. ) .—Lewis, Wils. Bull., xlii, 1930, 42 (nw. Okla- 
homa).— Butler, Auk, xlvlii, 1981, 439 (Mosquito Inlet, Fla. ) .— Geiscom, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Ixiv, 1932, 122 (Guatemala; possibly winter 
visitant). — Taveenee, Birds Canada, 1934, 174 (unsubstantiated records 
from Prairie Provinces, s. Ontario and Quebec; possibly Manitoba). 

[Creciscus] jamaicensis Shaepe, Hand-List, i, 1899, 104, part. 

Oreciscus (typog. error) jwmaicensis Beewee, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xvil, 
1875, 447 (Connecticut). 

Pormna jamaicensis Baikd, Amer. Journ. Sci. and Arts, xlvi, 1844, n. p. (Carlisle, 
Pa.) ; Lit. Rec. and Journ. Linn. Assoc. Pennsylvania Coll., 1845, 257; Cat. 



156 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

North Amer. Birds, 1859, No. 556.— Denny, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1847, 
40, part (United States; Mexico).— Cassin, in Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. 
Surv., ix, 1858, 749.— Schleqel, Mus. Pays-Bas, v. No. 30, livr. 7, 1865, 36, 
part. — SCLATEE and Saltin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 455, part 
(monogr.). — Tttrnbuxl, Birds Eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 1869, 
42 (PhUa. ed., 33).— Snow, Birds Kansas, 1873, 11.— Coues, Check List, 
1874, No. 470, part ; ed. 2, 1882, No. 681 ; Birds Northwest, 1874, 539, part.— 
Nexson, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, i, 1876, 43 (Calumet Marshes, ne. Illinois, 
breeding; descr. nest and eggs). — Pubdie, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, ii, 1877, 22 
(Plymouth, Mass., Aug. 1869; Saybrook, Conn., breeding). — Bheweh, Proc. 
Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, xix, 1878, 307 (Plymouth, Mass. ) .— Rathbtjn (F. R.), 
Rev. List Birds Central New York, 1879, 35 (Penn Tan, spring 1875 ; between 
Havana and Watkins, spring 1872). — Goss, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 
60 (near Beloit, Mitchell County, Kans., June) ; Auk, iii, 1886, 408 (Neosho 
Falls, Kans,, Mar. 18).— Lawkenob, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 117 
(Jamaica, Long Island, spring). — Ridgwat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 
202 (Cat. Birds North Amer., No. 576) ; Norn. North Amer. Birds, 1881, No. 
576; Orn. Illinois, ii, pt. i, 1895, 96 — Neheunq, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 
1882, 224 (se. Texas, April) .—Reid, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 25, 1884, 248 (Ber- 
muda, 1847, 1848, and 1851; 3 specimens). — Baird, Bbewee, and Ridgwat, 
Water Birds North Amer., 1, 1884, 377.— Claek (J. N.), Auk. i, 1884, 393 
(Saybrook, Conn., breeding; descr. nest and eggs). — Bbewsteb, Auk, ill, 
1886, 139, in text (Cooke County, Tex.). — American Oenithomgists' Union, 
Check-list, 1886, and ed. 2, 1895, No. 216, part— Scott, Ank, vii, 1890, 400 
(Key West, Fla., Mar. 11). — Stone, Birds Eastern Pennsylvania and New 
Jersey, 1894, 67 (records).— Cooke, Colorado Agr. Exp. Stat. Bull. 44, 1898, 
158 (near Denver, Colo.). — Buti.eb, Rep. State Geol. Indiana for 1897 
(1898), 679 (breeding at English Lake, Starke County, and near Green- 
castle, Ind.). — ^AiiEN, Auk, xvii, 1900, 1 [-8], pi. 1 (biography). — ^Ktjmuen 
and HoiiiSTEE, Wisconsin Nat. Hist. Soc, Bull. 3, 1903, 39 (Wisconsin). — 
Wayne, Warbler, ser. 2, i, 1905, 33 [-35], pi. [1] (breeding habits in South 
Carolina) ; Auk, xxii, 1905, 397 (near Charleston, S. C, breeding). — Plemihg, 
Auk, xxiii, 1906, 453 (Toronto, Ontario, 1 doubtful record). — Woodetoff, 
Chicago Acad. Sci. Bull. 6, 1907, 59 (Chicago area, rare summer resident). — 
WiDMANN, Birds Missouri, 1907, 60 (2 records). — Anderson, Proc. Davenport 
Acad. Sci., xi, 1907, 209 (Iowa, rare summer resident). 

[Porzana] jamaicensis Coues, Key North Amer. Birds, 1872, 274. — Sclatee and 
Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 140, part (Guatemala). 

Plorzana] jamaicensis Bidgway, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, x, 1874, 387 
(lUlnois) ; Man. North Amer. Birds, 1887, 140, part.— Nelson, BuU. Essex 
Inst., viii, 1876, 134 (ne. Illinois, breeding; descr. nest and eggs ) .— Cotjes 
Key North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 1884, 674, part. 

[Porgana jamaicensis'i •/.. jamaicensis Cotjes, Birds Northwest, 1874, 539, part 
(synonymy). 

[Porzana jamaicensis'i a jamaicensis Baied, Beeweb, and Ridgway, Water 
Birds North Amer, i, 1884, 367, 377 ; part. 

Crex pygmea (not of Bechstein) Blackweli,, Edinburgh Journ. Sci., n. s., 
vi, 1832, 77, 78 (North America). 

Creciscus jamaicensis jamaicensis Oberholsbb, Auk, xli, 1924, 592 (synon- 
ymy).— Howell, Birds Alabama, 1924, 90, ed. 2, 1928, 90 (Alabama).— 
Bailey, Birds Florida, 1925, 43, pi. 23 (fig.; distr.; Florida). 

Orescisous jamaicensis stoddardi Coale, Auk, xl, 1923, 89 (Hyde Lake, South 
Chicago, 111). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 157 

Creciscus jamaieensis stoddardi Sutton, Auk, xliil, 1926, 233 in text (near 
Eureka, 111.).— Bbodkokb, Auk, xlili, 1926, 233 in text (Illinois records).— 
CoALB, Auk, xliii, 1926, 368 in text (corr.).— [Abthub] Birds Louisiana, 
1931, 240 in text (descr. ; status; Louisiana).— Nice, Birds Oklahoma, rev. 
ed., 1931, 85 (genl., Oklahoma).— Amemcan Ornitholoqists' Union, Cheek- 
list North Amer. Birds, ed. 4, 1931, 98.— Robeets, Birds Minnesota, i, 1932, 
450 (habits; distr. in Minnesota.)— Howell, Florida Bird Life, 1932, 208 
(genl.; Florida).— Du Mont, Univ. Iowa Stud. Nat. Hist., xv, 1934, 63 
(Iowa; very rare; 2 recent records both at Sigourney). — Jannee, Wils. 
Bull, xlvi, 1934, 258 (Howard County, Mo., May 1, 1933).— Allen, Auk, 
lii, 1935, 446 (Cape May Point, N. J.; Oct. 5, 1934).— Cox, Auk, liv, 1937, 
100 (breeding near Windfall, Ind). — Musselman, Auk, liv, 1937, 204 
(banded 3 birds in Adams County, 111). — Caelbton, Kbameb, Sedwitz, and 
Stephenson, Auk, Iv, 1938, 124 (nesting Jones Beach, Long Island, N. X., 
June 20, 1937). 

P[orzana\ jamaieensis stoddardi Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, xlviii, 
1928, 124 (eggs; spec). 

Laterallus jamaieensis stoddurdl Peteks, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 
189. — Obeeholseb, Bird Life Louisiana, 1938, 205 (casual winter resident 
in s. Louisiana, vicinity of New Orleans, Morgan City, and Grande Isle). 

LATERALLUS JAMAICENSIS COTURNICULUS (Eidgway) 
Faballon Rah, 

Adult (sexes alike) . — Like that of Laterallus jamaieensis stoddardi 
but smaller, with a much slenderer bill, the color of the underparts 
deeper — dark mouse gray to blackish mouse gray with a slate cast ; the 
nape, behind neck, and anterior interscapulars more rufescent-russet 
mars brown, this color forming a somewhat broader patch on the 
upperparts than in stoddardi,- iris Sanford's brown; bill chaetura 
black ; tarsi and toes dark grayish brown. 

Juvenal. — ^Like that of Lateralhis jamaioensis stoddardi but smaller. 

Natal down. — ^Indistinguishable from that of Laterallus jamaieen- 
sis stoddardi. 

Adult male.— Wing 64^72 (67.7) ; tail 28-35 (31.1) ; exposed cuhnen 
13-16 (14.3) ; tarsus 17.5-23 (20) ; middle toe without claw 18.5-22 
(20.5 mm.).=^^ 

Adult female.— Wing 63-72 (67.9) ; tail 25-35.5 (30) ; exposed cul- 
men 12.5-14.5 (13.5) ; tarsus 17.5-22 (19.3) ; middle toe without claw 
18-21.5 (20mm.).== 

Range. — Breeds in marshes from coastal California (Suisun, Faral- 
lon Islands, Martinez, National City, Chula Vista, Santa Cruz, Santa 
Barbara, San Bernardino, Ballona, Hueneme, Eiverside, Orange, San 
Diego, and Eio Tia Juana) to northwestern Lower California (San 
Eamon, Sangre de Cristo, San Quentin). Definite egg records only 
from the San Diego area. 



^ Forty-six specimens from California and Lower California. 
^ Fifty-nine specimens from California and Lower California. 



158 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Casual in Arizona (Tucson), Oregon (Malheur Lake), and Utah 
(Parley's Park). 

Winters chiefly in the northern part of its main breeding area (San 
Francisco Bay area, Farallon Islands, south to San Diego). Casual 
in Washington (Tacoma). 

Type locality. — Farallon Islands, coast of California. 

Forzana jamaicensis, var. coturniculus "Baird" Ridqway, Amer. Nat., viii, 1874, 
111 (Farallon Islands, Calif.; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus. ) .— Geinnell, Univ. 
California Publ. Zool., xxxviii, 1932, 271 (type loc. ; crit). — ? Henshaw, 
Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, si, 1874, 11 (Parley's Park, Utah). 

Forzana, jamaicensis . . . var. coturniculus CotTES, Check-list, 1874, App., p. 137 
(no. 470(1). 

[Forzana jamaicensisi b. coturniculus Coues, Birds Northwest, 1874, 540. — 
Baesd, Beewee, and Ridgwat, Water Birds North Amer., i, 1884, 378. 

[Forzana jamaicensis'] 6. coturniculus Bated, Beewee, and Ridqwat, Water 
Birds North Amer., i, 1884, 867. 

Forzana jamaicensis coturniculus Ridgwat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 
202, 222 (Cat. Birds North Amer., No. 576o) ; xiii, 1890, 309 [-311] (crit.) ; 
Norn. North Amer. Birds, 1881, No. 576a.— Cottes, Check-list, ed. 2, 1882, 
No. 682. — Ameeioan Obnitholoqists' Union, Check-list, 1886, No. 216o. — 
Bbtant (W. E.), Proc. California Acad. Sci., ser. 2, i, 1888, 42 (crit). 

F[orzana] jamaicensis coturniculus Baibd, Beewee, and Ridgway, Water Birds 
North Amer., i, 1884, 378, under fig. — Ridgwat, Man. North Amer. Birds, 
1887, 140.— Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, xlviii, 1928, 124 (specimen). 

F[orzana'] j[amaioensis'\ coturniculus Codes, Key North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 
1884, 674. 

Forzana coturniculus Ridgwat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1890, 311, in text 
(crit.).^ — Ameeican Okniisologists' Union, Oheck-list, ed. 2, 1895, no. 216. 

F[orzana'i coturniculus Ridgwat, Man. North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 1896, 140. 

Creciscus coturniculus Shaepe, Oat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 137, footnote. — 
American Oenithologists' Union Committee, Auk, xxv, 1908, 365; Check- 
list, ed. 3, 1910, 104.— Wellbht, Pacific Coast Avif., No. 7, 1912, 33 (Hueneme, 
Ventura County, Calif., Mar. ; BaUona, Los Angeles County, May 16 ; River- 
side, Aug. 13; breeding in marshes of San Diego Bay). — Cookb, U. S. 
Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 35, fig. 15 (geog. range).— Gbinneu:, (J.), 
Pacific Coast Avif., No. 11, 1915, 47 (numerous fall and winter records). — 
Wall, Condor, xxi, 1919, 238 (San Bernardino, Calif., Aug. 3). — Wtman 
and BuBNELL, Field Book Birds Southwestern United States, 1925, 64 
(descr.). — Huet, Auk, xliii, 1926, 351 (San Ramon, nw. Lower California.) 

[Oreciscus] coturniculus Shaepe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 105. 

Creciscus jamaicensis coturniculus Obeeholsee, Auk, xxxv, 1918, 63, in text 
(crit.) ; xxxvi, 1919, 268.— Huet, Condor, xxx, 1928, 158 in text (Sangre 
de Cristo, northern Lower California). — Bwan, Condor, xxx, 1928, 247 
(Playa del Rey, Los Angeles County, Calif.). — Kibee, Condor, xxxi, 1929. 
252 (Marin County, Calif). — Gandee, Condor, xxxii, 1930, 211 (near San 
Diego, Calif.).— DAWSON, Birds California (students' ed.) iii, 1923, 1549 
(genl. ; California).— Geinnell, Univ. California Publ. Zool., xxxii, 1928, 
87 (distr. in Lower California). — Ameeican Oenithologists' Union, Check- 
list North Amer. Birds, ed. 4, 1931, 98. — Willett, Pacific Coast Avif. No. 
21, 1933, 53 (sw. Calif.; rare resident in salt marshes).- — Hanna, Condor, 
xxxvii, 1935, 81 (nesting; interior of San Bernardino and Riverside Coun- 
ties, Calif.). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 159 

0[recMC«s] jlanmicensisl ooturniculus Tavkbneb, Birds Canada, 1934, 174 
in text (may possibly occur on coast of s. British Columbia). 

Porzana jamaicensis (not Rallus jamaicensis Gmelin) Mekriam, 6th Ann. Kep. 
U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., 1873, 715 (Parley's Park, Utah).— Benmee, Proc. 
Boston. Soc. Nat. Hist., 1877, 143 (Malheur Lake, e. Oregon, breeding).— 
Geinneu, (J.), Pasadena Acad. Sci. Publ. 2, 1898, 15 (Los Angeles County, 
Calif.; breeding ?).— Brooks (A.), Auk, xxiii, 1906, 141 (Tacoma, Wash., 
rare migrant). 

(?) Porzana jamaicetisis 1 (not Rallus jamaicensis Gmelin ?) Beewsteb, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, viii, 1883, 36 (near Tucson, Ariz., Apr.). 

Laterallus jamaicensis eoturniculus Peters, Check-list Birds of World, li, 
1934, 189. 

L[aterallus'\ jlamaicensis] eoturniculus Conover, Auk, li, 1934, 365 in text. 

LATERALLUS JAMAICENSIS JAMAICENSIS (Gmelin) 

Jamaican Black Rail 

Aduli (sexes alike). — Similar to that of Laterallus jamaicensis 
stoddardi but with a longer middle toe (without claw 23 mm. in 
length), slightly longer and heavier bill; and somewhat duller in 
coloration, the white markings on the upper parts smaller and fewer. 

Other plumages not seen. 

Adult male. — ^Wing 71; tail 29; exposed culmen 16; tarsus 25.5; 
middle toe without claw 23.5 mm.°^ 

Adult female. — ^Wing 67.5; tail — ; exposed culmen 16.5; tarsus 23.5; 
middle toe without claw 23.5 mm.^' 

Range. — Eesident (and rare) in marshes in Jamaica, Puerto Eico, 
and Cuba (1 Cuban record the subspecific identification of which 
is open to question). 

Type locality. — Jamaica. 

\Rallus\ jamaicensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i. pt. 2, 1789, 718 (Jamaica ; based on 
Rallus jamaicensis Brisson, Om., vi., 1760, App., p. 140; Rale BidirBidi Buffon, 
Hist. Nat. Ois., viii, 166; Least Water-hen Edwards, Gleanings, pi. 278; 
Brown, Jamaica, 479; Latham, Synopsis Birds, iii, pt. i, 1785, 239) — 
Latham, Index Orn., ii, 1790, 761. 

Rallus jamaicensis Tdeton, Syst. Nat., i, 1806, 434. — Sonnini, Nouv. Diet. Hist. 
Nat., xxvlii, 1819, 550, part. 

Ortygometra jamaicensis Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool, xii, pt. i, 1824, 221. — 
Bonaparte, Geogr. and Comp. List, 1838, 53. — Gossb, Birds Jamaica, 1847, 
375.— Brewer, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vii, 1860, 309 (Cuba). 

Corethrura jamaicensis Lichtenstein, Nom. Av. Mus. Berol., 1854, 96. 

Creoiscus jamaicensis Cabanis, Journ. fiir Orn., 1856, 428 (Caba). — Gundlach, 
Journ. fur Orn., 1875, 360 (Cuba) ; Contr. Orn. Cubana, 1876, 192; Om. 
Cubana, 1895, 245.— Stahl, Fauna Puerto Rico, 1883, 63, 153 (Puerto Rico; 
specimen); Ornis, iii, 1887, 448, 452 (Puerto Rico). — Shakpe, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 135, part (Jamaica). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, iii, 1903, 323, part. — ^American Ornithologists' Union 



' One specimen of each sex. 



160 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Committee, Auk, xxv, 1908, 365; Check-list, ed. 3, 1910, 104, part (Ja- 
maica).— Wetmoee, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 326, 1916, 36 (Puerto Rico).— 
ScLATEB, Rev. List Birds Jamaica, 1910, 20. 

[Oreciscus'i jamaicensis Gundlach, Journ. fur Orn., 1861, 342 (Cuba) ; Rep. 
Fisico-Nat. Cuba, i, 186&-66, 362.— Shabpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 104, part. 

Greciscug [typog. error] Gundlach, Journ. fiir Orn., 1881, 401 (Puerto Rico). 

Porzana jamaicensis Denny, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1847, 40, part (Jamaica). — 
ScLATEE, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1861, 81 (Jamaica). — Albeecht, Journ. 
fiir Orn., 1862, 206 (Jamaica). — ^Maech, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
xvi, 1863, 69 (Jamaica). — Sohlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, v, No. 30, livr. 7, 1865, 
36, part. — Sclateb and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 455, part 
(monogr).— AitEEiCAN Oenithologists' Union, Check-list, 1886, and ed. 2, 
1895, No. 216, part. — Coet, Auk, v, 1888, 55 (Cuba; Jamaica; West Indian 
references; descr.) ; Birds West Indies, 1889, 256; Cat. West Indian Birds, 
1892, 91. 

[Porzana'i jamaicensis Sclatee and Saivin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 140, part 
(Jamaica). — Coet, List Birds West Indies, 1885, and rev. ed., 1880, 30 
(Cuba; Jamaica). 

[Porzana jamaicensisi a. jamaicensis Coues, Birds Northwest, 1874, 539, part 
(synonymy). 

[Porzana jamaicensis'] a jamadcensis Baied, Beewee, and Ridgwat, Water 
Birds North Amer., i, 1884, 367, 377, part. 

Oreciscus jamaicensis jamaicensis Wbtmoee, New York Acad. Sci., Sci. Surv. 
Porto Rico, etc., ix, pt. 3, 1927, 339 ( Puerto Rico, rare migrant) .— Rothsohiu), 
Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, xlviii, 1928, 124 (spec). 

Laterallus jamaicensis Bond, Birds West Indies, 1936, 96 (winters in Jamaica, 
Cuba, and Puerto Rico). 

Laterallus jamaicensis jamaicensis Petees, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 
189. 

L[aterallus'i jamaicensis jamaicensis Conovee. Auk, 11, 1934, 365 in text. 

Llaterallus] j[amaicensis] jamaicensis Bond, Birds West Indies, 1936, 96 in text 
(winters in Cuba, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico). 

LATERALLUS SPILONOTUS (Gonld) 

Darwin's Rail 

Adult (sexes alike). — Entire head (back to the hind neck) and 
entire lower parts neutral gray to deep neutral gray, usually slightly 
darker on to the top of the head — deep neutral gray to dark neutral 
gray — and becoming fuscous-black on the flanks, thighs, and under 
tail coverts, which areas are also faintly and sparsely crossed by very 
narrow whitish bars; interscapulars, scapulars, and upper back be- 
tween argus brown and chestnut-brown; lower back, rump, upper 
tail coverts, and rectrices dark clove brown ; upper wing coverts dark 
clove brown broadly edged with argus brown and varyingly but 
sparingly spotted with very fine white specks or, in some cases, com- 
pleted unmarked; lower back also usually with some white specks, 
but not always; (never present on the back alone — if spots occur on 
the back they also occur on the wing coverts) ; remiges clove brown ; 
iris reddish ; bill, tarsi, and toes dark brownish. 



BIRDS or NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 161 

Jurvenal. — "Top of head and lower parts generally sooty brown, 
darkest on pileum and sides, slightly grayish on face and throat; 
back of neck and upper back slightly paler brown ; lower back, rump, 
tail (with upper and lower coverts) sooty blackish; outer surface 
of wings dark brownish, almost black ; no white spots on wing, flanks, 
or belly."" 

Ad/idt male.— Wing 64-72.5 (66.4) ; tail 22-27 (24.6) ; exposed cul- 
men 14.5-17 (15.6) ; tarsus 21.5-24 (22.7) ; middle toe without claw 
23-25.2 (24.3 mm.).=» 

Adult female.— Wing 61-70.5 (66.3) ; tail 20-27 (24.5) ; exposed 
culmen 13.5-16.2 (14.9) ; tarsus 20-23.5 (21.9) ; middle toe without 
claw 22-25.5 (23.5 mm.)."« 

Range. — Eesident in the following islands of the Galapagos Archi- 
pelago: Abington, James, Seymour, Indefatigable, Albemarle, and 
Narborough. 

Tyfe locality. — Indefatigable Island, Galapagos Islands. 

Zapomia spilonota Gouu), Zool. Voy. Beagle, pt. 3, 1841, 132, pi. 49 (James 
Island, Galapagos Archipelago ; coll. Brit. Mus.") . 

Ortygometra spilonota Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., Grallae, 1844, 119. 

Porsana spilonota Sc^atee and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 456 (James 
Island; monogr.) ; 1870, 323 (Indefatigable Island). — Salvin, Trans. Zool. 
Soc. London, ix, pt. 4, 1876, 500 (James and Indefatigable Islands; crit. ; 
habits).— KiDGWAT, Proc. V. S. Nat. Mus., xix, 1897, 618 (Indefatigable 
and James Islands; synonymy, descr., etc.). — Snodqeass and Hexlee, Proc. 
Washington Acad. Sci., v, 1904, 256 (James Island). 

[Porsana'i spilonota Sclateb and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 140, part. 

Credscus spilonotus Shabpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiil, 1894, 137 (Indefatig- 
able and James Islands). — Rothschild and Haetket, Nov. Zool., vi, 1899, 
184 (James Island; crit.) ; ix, 1902, 418 (James Island). — Giffoed, Proc. 
California Acad. Sci., ser. 4, ii, pt. i, 1913, 12 (Indefatigable, Narborough, 
Abingdon, Albemarle, Seymour (?), and James Islands; crit., habits, etc.), 
112 (measurements). — Swaeth, Occ. Pap. California Acad. Sci., xviii, 1931, 
52 (crit.; 74 specimens; monogr.). 

[Creeiscusi spilonotus Shabpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 105. 

Oireciscus'i spilonotus Rothschiu) and Haetert, Nov. Zool., vi, 1899, 20S 
(James Island). 

Laterallus spilonotus Petees Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 190. 

Porzana galapagoensis Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 113 (Galapa- 
gos Islands; coll. Brit. Mus.). — Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xix, 1897, 
619 (synonymy; crit). 

[Porzana] galapagoensis Sharpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 101. 



"Ex Swarth, Occ. Pap. California Acad. Sci., xviii, 1931, 53; none seen by me. 

" Sixteen specimens from Abingdon, James, Indefatigable, and Albemarle 
Islands. All measurements except toe ex Swarth. 

"^ Twenty-one specimens from Abingdon, James, Indefatigable, aud Albe- 
marle Islands ; all measurements except toe ex Swarth. 

■"The type specimen has apparently been lost. 



162 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Creciscus sharpei Rothschild and Hakteet, Nov. Zool., vi, 1S99, 185 (Inde- 
fatigable Island, Galapagos Archipelago; coll. Tring Mus.) ; ix, 1902, 412 
(Indefatigable and Narborough Islands; habits; crit.). — Habtkkt, Nov. 
Zool., xxxiv, 1927, 24 (type spec. ; crit.). 

C [reoiscus'i sharpei Rothschild and Haetert, Nov. Zool., vi, 1899, 203 (Inde- 
fatigable Island). 

[GreoisousJ sharpei Rothschild and Haetert, Nov. Zool., ix, 1902, 418 (Inde- 
fatigable Island). 

Porzana sharpei Snodgeass and HiaxEB, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., v, 1904, 
256 (Indefatigable and Narborough Islands; measurements). 

Porzana spilonoia sharpei Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, xlviii, 1928, 124 
(Galapagos Islands, except James Island). 

LATERALLUS EXILIS (Temminck) 

Temminck's Rail 

Adult (sexes alike). — Forehead, crown, and cheeks dark neutral 
gray, paling to neutral gray on the lores and auriculars ; occiput, hind 
neck, and anterior interscapulars bright chestnut; posterior inter- 
scapulars, scapulars, upper wing coverts, and upper back raw lunber, 
a varying number of the coverts and even of the outer scapulars 
crossed by very fine white bars ; remiges dull, dark sepia ; lower back, 
rump, and upper tail coverts clove brovra ; the back and rump feath- 
ers narrowly barred with whitish ; rectrices dark clove brown ; chin 
and median upper throat dull white, becoming grayish posteriorly 
and laterally ; sides -of neck and whole of breast neutral gray, paling 
on middle of breast to pale neutral gray ; middle of abdomen plain 
white; sides, axillars, flanks, thighs, vent, and under tail coverts 
barred black and white, the dark and light bars about equally wida 
(1-1.5 mm.) ; under wing coverts dirty white indistinctly barred with 
grayish drab; iris crimson; eyelid clay color; bill chromium green 
at base, plumbeous on lower mandible, and duskier on upper man- 
dible ; tarsi and toes raw umber. 

Juvenal female (male not seen, but probably similar). — Like the 
adult but without the chestnut color on the occiput, hind neck, and 
anterior interscapulars, which are dark grayish raw umber, with a 
few deep castaneous feathers here and there, especially among the 
anterior interscapulars.^ 

Natal down. — Said to be blackish (none seen in connection with 
the present writing). 



■* According to Salvin and Godman (Biol.-Centr.-Amer, Aves, iii, 1903, 324) 
the young is similar to the adult but has most of the upper wing coverts 
banded with white. The character of the fine white bands on the upper 
wing coverts is a very variable feature of specimens that cannot be called 
anything but adults, while in the definitely immature female described above 
no such bands occur. It would seem, therefore, that Salvin and Godman did 
not have a young bird when they wrote. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 163 

Adult male.— Wmg 68-77 (72.4) ; tail 29.5-37 (33.7) ; exposed 
culmen 15-17 (16.1) ; tarsus 21.5-25 (23.5) ; middle toe without claw 
26-29.t. ,27.2inm.).»^ 

Adult fenude.—Wmg 71-73 (72.3) ; tail 31-34 (32.5) ; exposed 
culmen 14-15.5 (14.8) ; tarsus 22.5-23 (22.8) ; middle toe without 
claw 25-25.5 (25.3 mm.)."" 

Range.— Resident in Honduras (SegoYia Kiver) and Nicaragua 
(Escondido Eiver) and in northern South America— Colombia 
(Guajaro Lagoon, La Pena), Trinidad; and Venezuela (Merida) ; to 
British Guiana (Bonsika River, Abary River) ; Dutch Guiana 
(Maroni River) ; French Guiana (Cayeime) ; to Ecuador (Esmer- 
aldas) and eastern Peru (Nauta and Ucayali River) ; and northern 
Brazil (Amazonia; Teffe, Rio Solimoes; Rio Negro; Marabitanas: 
Para). Not yet recorded between Nicaragua and Colombia. 

Type locality. — Cayenne. 

OalUnula ruficolUs Swainson, Anim. in Menag., 1837, 349 (America). 

Oirtygometra\ ciiierea Geay, Gen. Birds, iii, 1846, 593. 

Ortygometra cinerea Iskofixuv, Ois. Trinidad, 1866, 495 (Trinidad). 

Porzana cinerea (not of Schlegel, 1865), Sclater and Saivin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 

London, 1868, 456; 1873, 308 (TJcayali, Peru ) .— Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1871, 

317 (Marabitanas, Brazil). — TACzANOwsia, Orn. P6rou, iii, 1886, 322 

(Ucayali). — Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist, vl, 1894, 79 (Trinidad). 

IPorzana] cinerea Sclateb and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 140. 

[Aramidesl cinerea Geat, Hand-list, iii, 1871, 61, No. 10447. 

Rallus exilis Temminck, PI. Col., v, 1831, pi. 523 and text. — Lesson, Trait<5 d'Orn., 
1831, 538. 

[Later irallus] exilis BoNAPAErE, Compt. Bend., xliii, 1856, 599. 

Porzana exilis Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas. v, No. 30, livr. 7, 1865, 35. — Sclater and 
Saivin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1866, 567 (Rio Ucayali, e. Peru). 

Creciscus exilis Shabpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. xxiii, 1894, 138 (Trinidad ; Cay- 
enne; Maroni River, Surinam; Nauta, e. Peru). — Saxvin and Godman, Biol. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, iii, 1903, 323 (crit. ; distr.). — Be3jlepsch, Nov. Zool., sv, 
1908, 299 (Cayenne).— Chubb, Birds British Guiana, i, 1916, 76.— Snethlage, 
Bol. Mus. Goeldi, vjii, 1914, 72 (Para, Brazil). 

C[reoiscus'\ exilis Penard (F. P. and A. P.), Vogels van Guyana, i, 1908, 209 
(Amazonia, the Guianas, and Trinidad). 

[Creciscus'] exilis Iheeing (H. and R.), Aves Brazil, 1907, 30 (Amazonia; Rio 
Negro; Para ) .— Bracoubne and Chubb, Birds South America, i, 1912, 24 
(Peru; Amazonia; Guiana; Trinidad). 

Creciscus exilis exilis Hellmatb, Nov. Zool., xiv, 1907, 90 (Teff^, Brazil; crit.). 

Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Iv, 1926, 177 (Esmeraldas, Ecuador, 
specimen; also refers to another specimen from Manaos, Brazil). — Naum- 
BURG, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Ix, 1930, 73 (Brazil— Rio Negro, Marabi- 
tanas, Teff^, Rio Solimoes, Pard; also Guiana, Trinidad; Peru). 
Laterallus exilis exilis Petees, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 190. — Belches 
and Smookee, Ibis, 1935, 284 (Trinidad; breeds; nest and eggs described). 



"^ Seven specimens from Brazil, Nicaragua, and Honduras, including the type 
of L. e. vagans (Ridgway). 
*■ Three specimens from Brazil. 



164 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Porzana exiUs vagans Eibgwat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1888, 595 (Rio Segovia, 
se. Honduras; U. S. Nat. Mus.).— Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 
530 (Rio Bscondido, e. Nicaragua; crit). 

[GreciscuB exilia] Subsp. a. Creciscus vagans Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 
1894, 139. 

Creciscus exilis vagans (Dooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 36 (range). 

[Creciscus} vagans Shaspb, Hand-list, i, 1899, 105. 

Laterallus exilis vagans Peters, Check-list Birds of World, 11, 1934, 190. 

LATERALLVS ALBIGULARIS CINEREICEPS (Lawrence) 
Geay-headed Rail 

Adult (sexes alike), dwrk phase. — Forehead, crown, occiput, lores, 
malar region, and cheeks deep neutral gray, the median part of occiput 
washed with bister ; nape, hind neck, and sides of neck and of breast 
deep hazel to deep chestnut; interscapulars, scapulars, upper wing 
coverts, and back bister, darkening to clove brown on the lower back, 
rump, and upper tail coverts; primaries and all but the innermost 
secondaries dark sepia, the innermost secondaries and the rectrices 
fuscous-black ; chin and anterior middle part of throat whitish, some- 
what washed with pale buffy; sides of throat and entire breast and 
upper abdomen orange-cinnamon darkening laterally to hazel ; lower 
abdomen, flanks, thighs, and under tail coverts narrowly barred black 
and white, the dark bars broader than the white ones ; the under tail 
coverts sometimes slightly tinged with ciimamon; under wing coverts 
white, indistinctly spotted or mottled with blackish, most nearly pure 
white along the bend of the wing and on the under primary coverts; 
iris carmine, bill dull olive blackish with a triangular spot of apple 
green at the base ; tarsi and toes olive."'^ 

Adult (sexes alike), 'pcde phase. — Similar to the dark phase except 
that the middle of the throat and breast and abdomen, extending 
uninterruptedly from the chin to the lower tail coverts, including 
the thighs, is unmarked white; the sides of the breast paler — flight 
pinkish cirmamon to pinkish cinnamon; and the light bars on the 
flanks and sides of abdomen almost as wide as the black ones. The 
type of leucogastra is a specimen of this kind. 

Juvenal (sexes alike).— Forehead, crown, occiput, and nape bister, 
each feather indistinctly tipped with clove brown, slightly grayer 
on the more anterior parts; scapulars, interscapulars, upper wing 
coverts, and upper back clove brown; lower back, rump, and upper 
tail coverts fuscous-black; remiges and rectrices as in adult; lores, 
cheeks, auriculars, and sides of neck smoke gray much mottled with 



" Some specimens have a few small, narrow, black- bordered white bars on the 
outer, lesser, and middle upper wing coverts ; this seems to be uncorrelated with 
age, season, or locality. This occurs apparently more frequently in females than 
in males. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 165 

deep mouse gray; chin and middle of tliroat white, with the lateral 
and posterior feathers edged with deep mouse gray giving a checkered 
appearance to these areas ; breast dull grayish white laterally darken- 
ing to deep mouse gray sometimes sprinkled with dull hazel or cinna- 
mon feathers, (and sometimes practically completely crossed by a 
band of the same) ; middle of abdomen white indistinctly barred with 
blackish posteriorly; sides of abdomen very dark hair brown to 
grayish fuscous crossed by very narrow bars of dull whitish; thighs 
smoke gray with very indistinct bars of slightly paler; imder tail 
coverts black with narrow white bars; under wing coverts as in adult; 
iris dark brown ; bill blackish above, pea green below, dusky mesially ; 
tarsi and toes olive-green. 

Natal down. — ^A young bird in an early stage of postnatal molt is 
black above, with a greenish gloss on the head, and, to a much lesser 
extent, on the lower back ; duller black below, with a grayish wash on 
the median under surface, particularly on the abdomen. Juvenal 
feathers just coming out on the abdomen and breast are dull gray 
broadly tipped with duU black. 

Adult male.— Wing 69-76 (73.5) ; tail 2^-33 (26.5) ; exposed 
culmen 16.5-19 (18) ; tarsus, 27.5-32 (29.4) ; middle toe without claw, 
29-35.5 (31.5 mm.). ^'^ 

Adult feTmle.—Wmg 68.5-77 (73.7) ; tail 22.5-28 (22.4) ; exposed 
culmen 15.5-18 (16.6) ; tarsus 26-31.5 (28.3) ; middle toe without 
claw 28-32 (30.1 mm.).''^ 

Range. — Eesident from Nicaragua (Eio Escondido; Greytown, 
Bluefields; Los Sabalos) south through northern and eastern Costa 
Eico (Bonilla; Cache; Cariblanco de Sarapiqui; Carrillo; Desam- 
parados; Guapiles; Jimenez; Juan Viiias; Pacuare; Pacuarito; 
Eeventazon ; Eio Frio ; Talamanca) ; to the Chiriqui Lagoon in 
western Panama (Almirante, Changuinola, Fruitdale, Guabo). 

T-i/pe locality. — Talamanca, Costa Eica. 

GoretTvrura alUgularig (not of Lawrence, 1862) Sclatee and Salvin, Proc. Zool. 

Soc. London, 1864, 372, part. 
Porzana alUgularis ^CLArm. and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London. 1867. 280 

(Bluefields River, e. Nicaragua) ; 1888, 454, part (Nicaragua; Costa Rica) ; 

Exotic Orn., 1868, 109, part.— Salvin, Ibis, 1872, 313 (Nicaragua).— Ridg- 

wat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Iv, 1881, 201, part (Costa Rica ; Mosquito Coast, 

Nicaragua). 
[Porzana] alUgularis Sclatee and Salvin, Norn. Av. Neotr., 1873, 140, part 

(Nicaragua). 
lAramides] alUgularis Geat, Hand-list, ill, 1871, 61, No. 10442, part. 
Creoisous alUgularis Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxill, 1894, 140, part 

(Nicaragua). 



"^ Eighteen specimens from Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, Including 
the type of leucogastra Rldgway. 

"Nine specimens from Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, Including the 
type of cinereiceps. 



166 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Porsana oinereiceps Lawkencb, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, xi, 1875, 90 (Tala- 
manca, e. Costa Rica; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.)— Kidgwat, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
i, 1S78, 252, in text (Costa Rica) ; vi, 1884, 409, footnote (diagnosis). — 
Zeledon, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 114 (Costa Rica). 

Creciscus cinereiceps Shabpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 141, footnote, 
337 (Rio Escondido, Nicaragua). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Oentr.-Amer., 
Aves, iii, 1903, 325, part (Greytown, Bluefields, Rio Escondido, and Los 
Sabalos, e. Nicaragua; Talamanca, Pacuarito, Desamparados, Jimenez, 
Reventazon, Pacuare, Sipurio, Juan Vifias, Azahar de Cartago, Carillo, and 
Rio Frio, Costa Rica). — Cabbikkb, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 410 (Juan 
Vinas, ReTentaz6n, Carillo, Cariblanco de SerapiquI, Cach6, Guapiles, and 
Bonilla, Costa Rica; habits).— Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 36 
(range). — Peiees, BuU. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixxi, 1931, 301 (Almirante and 
vicinity; Changuinola, Guabo, Panama). 

lAmnocrex cinereiceps Ridqwat, Smiths. Misc. Coll., Ixxii, No. 4, 1920, 4. 

Porxana leucogastra Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vi, 1884, 408 (Los Sabol6s, e. 
Nicaragua; U. S. Nat. Mus.). 

P[orzana] leucogastra Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1888, 111 (diagnosis; 
range). 

Crecisctts leucogaster Shabpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 140 footnote. 

[Creciscus'] leucogaster Shabpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 105. 

Laterallus alMgularis cinereiceps Petees, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 190. — 
Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixxviii, 1935, 304, (Panama, Caribbean 
Slope east of Rio Calovevora ; Nicaragua to -w. Panamd). 

LATERALLUS ALBIGULARIS ALBIGULARIS (Lawrence) 

Panamanian Whitb-thboated Rail 

Adult (sexes alike), darh phase. — Similar to the corresponding 
phase of Laterallus albigularis cinereiceps, but with the forehead, 
crown, and occiput bright sepia to bright Prout's brown ; the upper- 
parts of the body more brownish, warm sepia to Prout's brown in- 
stead of bister; lores, cheeks, and auriculars Mikado brown to deep 
russet and hazel; chin purer white; size averaging slightly larger. 

Adult (sexes alike), pale phase. — Similar to the pale phase of Lat- 
erdUus albigularis cinereiceps, but with the same differences on the 
head and upper parts as in the dark phase. 

Jv/venal (sexes alike). — Similar to the corresponding stage in ci/ne- 
reiceps but more rufescent above; the upperparts of the body Brus- 
sel's brown to raw umber instead of clove brown, the top of the head 
sepia instead of bister ; the sides of head and neck, and the breast and 
abdomen lightly tinged with pinkish cinnamon. 

Natal down. — Not recorded. 

Adult male.—Wmg, 73-80.5 (76.8) ; tail 25.5-34 (29.1) ; exposed 
culmen 16-19 (18.1) ; tarsus 27-32 (29.7) ; middle toe without claw 
29-36 (32.3 mm.).«* 



' Sixteen specimens from Panama and Colombia. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 167 

Adult female.— Wmg 71-79 (74.5) ; tail 24-33.5 (29.6) ; exposed 
culmen 15.5-18.5 (17.1) ; tarsus 27-30 (28.5) ; middle toe without claw 
28-34 (30.5 mm.).'^= 

Range.— Resident from soutliwestern Costa Rica (Gulf of Nicoya; 
Nicoya; Las Trojas) on the Pacific side, and Veraguas, Panama, on 
the Caribbean, south through eastern Panama (Laguna del Pita; 
Canal Zone; Lion Hill; Cana, Darien; Perme), and western Colombia 
(Yumbo, Valle; Eemedios; Antioquia; San Antonio; Barbacoas) ; 
to western Ecuador (San Javier; Santo Domingo; Esmeraldas; Rio 
de Oro) ; and east to Santa Marta, Colombia (Pueblo Viejo; Mama- 
toco; Fundacion; La Concepcion; Cienaga ; Palomina). 

Type ^oca^^^!y.— "Atlantic side of the Isthmus of Panama along the 
line of the Panama Railroad." 

Coretnrura alUgularis Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New ToTk, vii, 1862, 302 
(Lion Hill, Panama; coll. G. N. Lawrence).— Sclateb and Saivin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. London, 1864, 372, part (Panama). 

Porzana albiffularis Sclatee and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 454, 
part (monogr.).— 1879, 516 (Eemedios, Antioquia, Colombia; descr., nest 
and eggs) ; Exotic Orn., 1S68, 109, part, pi. 55— Laweence, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. New York, ix, 1868 (publ. 1869), 142, (Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica) — 
RiDGWAT, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iv, 1881, 201, part; vi, 1883, 409, footnote (di- 
agnosis) ; X, 1887, 111 (diagnosis). — Zeod6n, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 
1883, 114 (Costa Rica) ; Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 1, 1888, 131 (Costa 
Rica).— Richmond, Auk. xii, 1895, 31 (synonymy; crit. ) .—Bangs, Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Washington, xii, 1898, 157 (Pueblo Viejo, Santa Marta, Colombia), 172 
(Palomina, Santa Marta) ; Proc. New England Zool. Club, ii, 1900, 14 
(Loma del Le6n, Panama). 

[Poreana] alUgularis Sc!later and Saivin, Norn. Av. Neotr., 1873, 140, part. — 
RiDGWAT, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1888, 111 (diagnosis; range). 

[Aramides] alUgularis Gkat, Hand-list, ill, 1871, 61, No. 10442. 

Creciscus alUgularis Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 140 (Bar- 
ranca de Nicoya, Costa Rica ; Veragua, w. Panama, ; Lion Hill, Panama ; 
Remedies, Colombia; excl. loc. "Nicaragua"). — Haetekt, Nov. Zool., ix, 
1902, 604 (San Javier, nw. Ecuador; crit.). — Saxvin and Godman, Bio!. 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, iii, 1903, 824 (Las Trojas, Costa Rica; Verigua, Lion 
Hill, and Laguna del Pita, Panama, Colombia). — Caeeiker, Ann. Carnegie 
Mus., vi, 1910, 410 (Pacific coast Costa Rica ; crit.). — Menegaux, Rapporte's, 
Dr. Rivet, Mission Serv. Geogr., "Arc Merid. Equat. en Amer. du Sud, 
Sous le Contr. Sci. de I'Acad. Sci. de France," Zool., ix, 1911, 8 (Santo Do- 
mingo, Ecuador).— Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 36 (range). — 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., xxxvi, 1917, 218 (San Antonio and 
Barbacoas, Colombia; crit.). — Todd and Cakeikee, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
xiv, 1922, 179 (La Concepci5n, Mamatoco, and Fundaciciu, Santa Marta, 
Colombia). — Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Iv, 1926, 178 (Esmer- 
aldas and Rio de Oro, Ecuador). — SitritGis, Field Book Birds Panama Canal 
Zone, 1928, 43 (descr.; Panama Canal Zone). — Geiscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., Ixix, 1929, 155 (Cana, Darien, Panama) ; Ixxii, 1932, 321 (Perme, 



°° Fifteen specimens from Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia ; including the 
type of alfari Rldgway. 

272607—41 12 



168 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Panama). — Dablington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixxi, 1931, 373 (Cienago, 

Magdalena, Colombia; habits). 
[Credscus'i alMgularis Shaepe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 105. — Beabotjbne and Chubb, 

Birds South America, i, 1912, 25 (w. Colombia; nw. Ecuad6r). 
Limnocrex alMgularis Eidgway, Smiths. Misc. Coll., Ixxii, No. 4, 1920, 4. 
Porzana alfari Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1887, 111 (Las Trojas, sw. 

Costa Rica; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). — ZEua56N, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, 

i, 1888, 131 (Las Trojas). 
Crecisous alfara Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 141, footnote. 
ICrecisous] alfari Shaepe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 105. 

Vreoisous cinereiceps (not Porzana oinereiceps Lawrence ?) Salvin and God- 
man, Biol. Centr-Amer., Aves, iii, 1903, 325, part (Nicoya and Barranca 

de Nicoya, w. Costa Rica). 
LateralUis alMgularis Mese, Journ. fiir Om., Ixxxii, 1934, 267 in text. 
Laterallus alMgularis alMgularis Petees, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 

190. — Geiscom, Bull. Mus. Oomp. Zool., Ixxviii, 1935, 304 (Panama, from 

Canal Zone eastward, to w. Ecuador) . 
Llaterallus'i mlelanophaeus} alMgularis Conoveb, Auk, li, 1934, 365, in text. 

LATERALLUS RUBER TAMAULIPENSIS (Nelson) 
TAMAtTLiPAS Ruddy Rail 

Adult male.'^^ — Similar to that of Laterallus ruber ruber, but with 
bill distinctly longer and heavier ; color appreciably paler and duller, 
less rufous, the chestnut on the upperparts restricted to the anterior 
interscapulars, the rest of the back and all the upper wing coverts 
dark chocolate brown; below less washed with chestnut, the thighs 
and vent washed with hair brown and chestnut mixed ; under wing 
coverts with almost no cinnamon edgings. 

Wing 76-78.5; tail 31-31.5; exposed culmen 30; tarsus 32.5-34; 
middle toe without claw 32-33.5 mm.*' 

Other plumages unlmown. 

Range. — Known only from the marshes near the Tamesi River, 
southern Tamaulipas. 

Type locality. — Alta Mira, Tamaulipas, Mexico. 

Creoiscus ruber tamaulipensis Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xxxix, 1926, 

105 (Alta Mira, Tamaulipas, Mexico ; orig. descr.). 
Laterallus ruler tamaulipensis Petees, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 191. 

LATERALLUS RUBER RUBER (Sclater and SalTin) 

Guatemalan Ruddy Rail 

Adult (sexes alike). — Forehead, crown, occiput, nape, lores, malar 
area, cheeks, and auriculars dusky neutral gray to blackish slate; 
interscapulars, upper back, lesser and outer middle upper wing 



° Female unknown, but probably similar. 
' Two specimens, including the type. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 169 

coverts, and sides of neck bright chestnut; lower back, rump, and 
upper tail coverts chocolate-brown to clove brown; inner middle 
and all the greater upper wing coverts bone brown, externally 
washed or edges with chestnut; scapulars and inner secondaries 
clove brown with a sepia tinge; outer secondaries and the primaries 
clove brown with a dull olive-brown gloss; rectrices chaetura drab 
to fuscous black ; entire underparts cinnamon very heavily suffused 
with deep chestnut on the sides, flanks, thighs, vent, and under tail 
coverts which are almost as richly colored as the upper back, the 
breast also but much less heavily washed with chestnut, chin palest, 
in some specimens light pinkish cinnamon to almost white; under 
wing coverts dusky clove brown broadly edged with cinnamon; 
iris reddish brown; bill dull black; tarsi and toes olive-green. 

Other plumages unknown. 

Adult male.— Wing 73.5-84.5 (78.1) ; tail 28-36 (31.2) ; exposed 
culmen 18-21.5 (20.2) ; tarsus 30.5-35 (32.6) ; middle toe without 
claw 30-35 (31.7 nmi.).«» 

Adult females: Wing 70.5-80 (76.3) ; tail 27-32.5 (30.3) ; exposed 
cuhnen 17.5-21.5 (19.6) ; tarsus 29-32 (30.8) ; middle toe without claw 
28-32.5 (30.5 mm.)." 

Range. — Resident in marshy areas in the tropical zone from Yuca- 
tan (Xbac ?, Cozumel Island); and Guatemala (Dueiias; Coban; 
Choctum ; Vera Paz ; Chama ; Laguna del Soto and Laguna Perdida, 
Peten; Secanquin; Chimoxan; Quirigua; Finca Concepcion; Lake 
Amatitlan) ; to British Honduras (Belize; Manatee district; Toledo 
district) ; and Honduras (Lancetilla and Laguna Tolva). 

Type locality. — Vera Paz, Guatemala. 

Coretlirura rubra SciATEa; and Sai-yin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1860, 300 (Vera 
Paz, Guatemala; coll. O. Salvin).— Salvin and Sclatee, Ibis, 1860, 277 
(Dueflas, Guatemala). 

Porzana rubra Sclatee and Salvin, Exotic Orn., 1867, 31, pi. 16 ; Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, 1808, 452 (monogr.). — Salvin, Ibis, 1889, 378 (Cozumel Island, Yuca- 
tan) ; 1890, 89 (Yucatan).— Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 31 
(range). 

[Poraorao] rubra Soiatee and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 139. 

[Aramides] rubra Gray, Hand-list, iii, 1871, 60, No. 10434. 

Rufirallus rubrus Boucabd, Liste Ois.-r6col. Guatemala, 1878, 12 (Vera Paz). 

Creciscus ruber Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. xxiii, 1894, 143 (Cozumel Island; 
British Honduras; Coban, Choctum, Lake of Duenas, and Vera Paz, Guate- 
mala). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, iii, 1003, 326 (same 
localities).— Cole, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1, 1906, 146 (Xbac ?, Yucatan).— 
MiLLEE (W. deW.), Am. Mus. Nov., No. 25, 1921, 2 (Mexico; Guatemala). 

[Creciscus] ruber Shaepe, Hand-list, 1, 1899, 105. 



"Twelve specimens from Guatemala, Honduras, and British Honduras. 
*" yix specimens from Guatemala and Honduras. 



170 BULLETIN 50, tJNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

lErythroUmnas'] ruler Heine and Reichenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Oin., 1890, 320 

(Belize, British Honduras). 
Thryocrex rubra Ridgwat, Smiths. Misc. Coll., Ixxii, No. 4, 1920, 4. 
Grecisoua ruber ruber Nexson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xxxix, 1926, 106.^ 

Peters, Bull. Mus. Oomp. Zool., Ixix, 1929, 407 (Lancetilla, Honduras; 

habits). — Geiscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist, Ixiv, 1932, 122 (Guatemala; 

not uncommon on Caribbean side ; Ohama ; Secanquim ; Chimoxan ; Quiriqua ; 

nest and eggs at Finca Concepcion). 
Laterallus ruber ruber Peters, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 191. 

LATERALLUS RUBER RUBERRIMUS (MUlcr and Griscom) 

NiCARAQTJAN RUDDT RAIL 

Adult (sexes alike). — Similar to that of Laterallus ruber ruber but 
the bright chestnut on the underparts more extensive, covering the 
entire dorsal side of the body, including the lower back, rump, upper 
tail and wing coverts ; the primaries and rectrices averaging slightly 
duller and darker ; bill shorter and relatively stouter. 

Other plumages unknown. 

Adult male. — Wing 75 ; tail 28 ; exposed culmen 20 ; tarsus 32 ; mid- 
dle toe without claw 32 mm.'" 

Adult female.— Wing 74-77; tail 29.5-35; exposed culmen 17-18; 
tarsus 29.5-31 ; middle toe without claw 29.5-32 mm.'^ 

Range. — ^Known as yet by specimens from only two localities: 
Jinotega, Nicaragua, and San Sebastian, El Salvador (seen also at 
Lake Olomega, and Hacienda Zapotitan, El Salvador) . 

Type locality. — Jinotega, Nicaragua. 

Greciscus ruberrimus Miixee (W. DeW.) and Gbiscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., No. 

25, 1921, 2 (Jinotega, Nicaragua, 3,000 feet., coll. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.). 
Creciscus ruber ruberrimus Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xxxix, 1926, 

106. 
Laterallus ruber ruberrimus Peters, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 191. — 

VAN RossEM, Birds El Salvador, 1938, 161 (El Salvador; resident in fresh 

water marshes from sea level to 1,500 feet ; San Sebastian ; Lake Olomega ; 

Hacienda Zapotitdn; nest and eggs). 

Genus COTURNICOPS Gray 

Cotui-nicops Bonaparte, Ann. Sci. Nat., s6r. 4, Zool., i, 1854, 150 (nomen nudum). 
Coturnicops Gray, Cat. Gen. and Subgen. Birds, 1855, 120. (Type, by monotypy, 

FuUca noveboraoensis Gmelin.) 
Ortygops Heine, in Heine and Reichenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 320. 

(Substitute for Coturnicops, on grounds of purism.) 

Small Ralleae (wing about 75-90 mm.), with longest primaries ex- 
ceeding distal secondaries by much less than one-third the length of 



'° One specimen from El Salvador. 

" Two specimens, including the type, from Nicaragua and El Salvador. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 



171 



wing; alula falling little short of longest primary coverts; bill small, 
only about half as long as head, and with axillars and under wing 
coverts immaculate white and middle secondaries mostly white. 

Bill relatively small, only about half as long as head (the cuhnen 
very little if any more than half as long as tarsus), compressed, its 
width at laterofrontal antia equal to about two-thirds to three-fourths 
its depth at same point, the latter equal to a little more than two-fifths 
{G. noveboracensis) to decidedly less than one-third (<7. exquisita) the 
length of cuhnen ; cuhnen elevated basally, more or less depressed above 
nostril, thence more or less strongly decurved to tip ; gonys nearly as 
long as mandibular rami, nearly straight, strongly ascending termi- 
nally, its basal angle very distinct; mandibular rami without a distinct 
lateral groove ; nasal fossa extending about half way from edge of loral 
feathering to tip of maxilla, or a little less, well defined ; nostril rela- 




FiGURE 11. — Coturnicops noveboracensis. Natural size. 

tively large, narrowly elliptical, somewhat oblique (especially in G. 
exquisita) , though nearly if not quite parallel to maxillary tomium, 
its anterior end nearer to laterofrontal antia than to tip of maxilla ; 
anterior edge of loral feathering forming a straight or faintly convex 
oblique line, extending downward and backward from laterofrontal 
antia to rictus, the anterior edge of frontal feathering notched to re- 
ceive the angular base of cuhnen ; malar antia on line with laterofrontal 
antia, or very slightly posterior to it, the mental antia on line with 
posterior end (C. noveboracensis) or middle (C. exquisita) of nostril. 
Wing relatively rather small, very concave beneath, much rounded, the 
longest primaries exceeding distal secondaries by much less than one- 
third the length of wing, but projecting considerably beyond tips of 
elongated proximal secondaries ; second, or second and third, primaries 
(from outside) longest, the first (outermost) about equal to fifth {G. 
noveboracensis) or seventh (G. exuisita) ; alula falling decidedly short 



172 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

of tips of longest primary coverts. Tail about two-fifths as long as 
wing, the rectrices soft, narrow, and obtusely pointed, mostly hidden 
by coverts. Tarsus about equal to middle toe without claw, or very 
slightly shorter, the acrotarsium with a single row of broad, transverse 
scutella, the planta tarsi with a similar single row, the latter separated 
from the former (especially on inner side) by a depressed space occu- 
pied by smaller irregular scales ; outer toe with claw falling decidedly 
short of base of middle claw, the inner toe, without claw, reaching to or 
slightly beyond penultimate articulation of middle toe; hallux about 
as long as basal phalanx of outer toe ; claws relatively small, moderately 
curved, acute, compressed. 

Pulmage and coloration. — Plumage full, compact, and firm, except 
remiges and rectrices, which are rather soft, the former very broad and 
strongly bowed ; contour feathers broad. Upper parts glossy brown or 
brown and huffy broken by broad stripes or spots of black crossed by 
narrow lines of white ; under parts brown or buffy anteriorly and later- 
ally, the abdomen, axillars, and under wing-coverts immaculate white ; 
middle secondaries mostly white. 

Range. — Nearctic region and northeastern portion of Palearctic 
region; southern South America; northeastern and southeastern Af- 
rica. Four species ; only one in North America.'"' 

KEY TO THE RACES OF COTUENICOPS NOVEBORACENSIS 

o. White transverse marks on upperparts extremely fine (0.3-0.5 mm. wide) 
Coturnicops noveboracensis noveboracensis (p. 172) 
aa. White transverse marks on upperparts wider (about 1-1.5 mm. wide) 

Coturnicops noveboracensis goldmani (p. 179) 

COTURNICOPS NOVEBORACENSIS NOVEBORACENSIS (Gmelin) 

Xhllow Kail 

Adult (sexes alike) , rufescent phase. — Forehead, upper lores, and a 
broad superciliary band extending to the sides of the occiput, and join- 
ing with the malar area and sides of the neck of the same color, pos- 
terior to the ariculars bright, deep tawny-olive, each feather with a 
very narrow tip of Saccardo's umber; crown (extending in a for- 
ward-projecting V to the midline of the forehead and widening pos- 
teriorly) , occiput and nape black, each feather either narrowly trans- 
versely tipped with white or with this white bar broken into two lateral 



"I have not seen Zapornia notata Gould, of Uruguay, Patagonia, etc., or 
Coturnicops ayresii Gurney, of southeastern Africa, both of vrhich are referred 
to Coturnicops by Sharpe (in Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 128, 129) and 
Peters (Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 193). C. noveboracensis and C. 
exquisita are the fonns on which the above description is based. , 



BIRDS OP NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 173 

specks of the same ; interscapulars, scapulars, back, rump, and upper 
tail coverts black, each feather narrowly tipped with white and crossed 
by a narrow white band about 5 mm. anterior to the tip, and broadly 
laterally edged with bright snuff brown, paling on the scapulars to 
bright clay color; upper wing coverts dark Saccardo's umber to sepia, 
transversely incompletely barred with white and tipped with the same ; 
alula olive-brown, the outer webs pale huffy white ; primaries grayish 
sepia to olive-brown ; five or six outer secondaries largely pure white, 
the outermost two usually with their outer webs grayish sepia and only 
the inner webs white ; innermost secondaries and long scapulars like 
the back but the lateral edgings paler— bright cinnamon -buff ; rectrices 
black crossed by two or three very narrow white bands and narrowly 
laterally edged with sayal brown ; lower part of the lores, circumocular 
area, cheeks, and auriculars deep tawny-olive mixed with blackish 
and transversely speckled with white ; chin and upper throat light buff ; 
sides of upper tliToat, entire lower throat and breast pale tawny-olive, 
each feather, or at least most of them, subterminally marked with white 
and narrowly tipped with Saccardo's umber to sepia (after these nar- 
row tips wear off, the feathers are white-tipped) , giving these areas a 
somewhat scalloped appearance; middle of abdomen posterior to as 
far as the vent unmarked white with or without a slight buffy tinge ; 
sides, flanks, and vent dark clove brown to fuscous-black, the feathers 
crossed by a narrow white subterminal bar and tipped with the same ; 
thighs paler — very dark hair brown barred with white ; under tail cov- 
erts pinkish sayal brown; axillars and under wing coverts white, the 
latter, in some cases, with a varying amount of grayish brown; iris 
yellowish brown to reddish; bill light greenish yellow or orange- 
yellow, dusky at tip and along the culmen in some cases; tarsi and 
toes pale greenish or brownish flesh color. 

Adult (sexes alike) , pale phase. — Exactly like the ruf escent phase but 
with all the tawny or brownish parts lighter — the forehead, super- 
ciliaries pale grayish cinnamon-buff ; lower throat and breast slightly 
paler still; lateral edges of the feathers of the upper parts grayish 
cinnamon-buff ; sides, flanks, and vent dull bister to light clove brown. 

Jv/veTwH (sexes alike), ruf escent phase. — Similar to the adult of 
the same phase but with no white marks on the top of the head, hind 
neck, or upper back (occasionally a very few on the upper back), 
the dark centers of the feathers of these parts broader, producing a 
streaked appearance ; upper wing coverts and alula slightly paler and 
slightly more ashy ; the margins of the inner secondaries and the long 
scapulars paler — cinnamon-buff ; on the whole the dark centers of the 
dorsal feathers slightly more brownish, less blackish than in adults; 
feathers of breast and sides of throat with generally darker transverse 
marks ; the middle of the abdomen more washed with buff, less whitish ; 



174 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



sides, flanks, and vent slightly duller and grayer ; under wing coverts 
more extensively splashed with brownish. 

Jvwenal (sexes alike), fale phase. — Similar to the corresponding 
stage of the ruf escent phase but much paler — ^the superciliaries, malar 
area, lower throat, breast, and the broad margins of the feathers of 
the upperparts from the crown to and including the upper back and 
the upper wing coverts pinkish buff, the dark centers of the feathers 
warm sepia to very dark raw umber.^^ 

Natal down. — Black with no or only a very faint greenish gloss on 
the top of the head and the throat, with a dull brownish cast on the 
back and especially on the abdomen (in dried skins) ; bill flesh color; 
tarsi and toes jet black. 

Adult m-ale.—Wmg 73-93 (86.7) ; tail 27.5-38 (33.3) ; exposed cul- 
men 11.5-15.5 (13.9) ; tarsus 21-27.5 (23.7) ; middle toe without claw 
21-26 (23.9 mm. ).^* 



™ Roberts, Birds Minnesota, ii, 1932, p. 550, considers wliat is here called the 
Juvenal plumage to be the adult and vice versa. The evidence available does 
not support this, but the matter should not be considered as settled. 

" Fifty-nine specimens from Saskatchewan, Hudson Bay, Massachusetts, New 
York, Pennsylvania, District of Columbia, Virginia, South Carolina, Louisiana, 
Florida, Arkansas, Alabama, Texas, Illinois, Ohio, Missouri, Indiana, and Cali- 
fornia. The following more detailed mensural data may be of interest, inasmuch 
as attempts have been made to divide this form into additional races : 



Locality 


Num- 
ber ot 
speci- 
mens 


Sex 


Wing 


Tail 


Exposed 
culmen 


Tarsus 


Middle toe 

without 

elaw 


niinois 

Massachusetts 

Pennsylvania 

California 


13 
7 
8 

12 
2 
4 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 
1 


& 

c? 
cf 


73-91 

(85) 

80-92 

(84.6) 

86. 5-93 

(89.1) 

79-88. 5 

(85.7) 

84-87 

80-87.5 

(84) 

86 

89.5 

88.5 

85 

89 

88.6 

89.6 

80-89. 6 

83. 5-87. 5 

88.5 

87 


30-35. 5 
(32. 6) 
30. 5-37 
(33. 6) 
31-38 
(34.6) 
29-36 
(32. 7) 
29-34 

28-37 

(32.7) 

32 

32 

32 

38 

37 

35.6 

34 

27.6-33.5 

35. 6-38. 6 

34 

34 


13-15 

(14.3) 

12-13. 5 

(13) 

13-14 

(13.4) 

12-15 

(13.9) 

14-14. 6 

11.5-14.6 

(13) 

14 

14.5 

15.5 

12.5 

13.6 

13 

14 

12.6 

12. ,5-14 

14.5 

14.6 


22-25 

(24.1) 

21-24.5 

(22. 7) 

22.5-26 

(24 7) 

22. 6-26. 5 

(24. 2) 

21-23. 5 

22-23. 5 

(22.9) 

22.5 

24 

22 

21.5 


23-26 

(24) 

21-24. 6 

(23) 

23.6-26 

(24.9) 

22-26 




(24) 
24-26 


District of Columbia 
and Virginia 

Indiana 


21-26 

(23.5) 

2S 




24 




24 


Arkansas 


24.5 






Florida . . _ 


24 

22-23 

22-23 

25 

24 


23.5 




24 




23-24. 6 


South Carolina 

Saskatchewan. __ 

New York - 


20.5-23 

25 

23.6 







BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AiCERICA 



175 



Adult female.— Wing 75.5-89 (84.2) ; taU 28.5-39 (32.4) ; exposed 
culmen (13.3) ; tarsus 20-26 (22.7) ; middle toe without claw 19.5-27 
(22.9 mm.). "' 

Range. — Breeds in fresh-water marshes from Mackenzie (Fort Reso- 
lution; Great Slave Lake, Athabasca; Little Buffalo River; and 
Salt River); Manitoba (York Factory. Hudson Bay); Ontario 
(Fort Severn) ; Quebec (Fort George) ; Maine (Calais) ; and Nora 
Scotia (not definitely recorded as breeding) ; south to Oregon (Aspen 
Lake, Klamath County) ; California (Mono County) : Alberta (Red 
Deer and Camrose) ; Saskatchewan (Fort Qu'AppeUe) ; North Dakota 
(Devils Lake ; Esmond) ; Wisconsin (Jefferson County and Racine) ; 
Illinois (Chicago; Wiimebago) ; Ohio (Circleville and Hamilton); 
and Massachusetts (Salem ; Boston ; Plymouth) ; possibly to New 
Hampshire (Hampton) ; Rhode Island (Westerly) ; Connecticut (New 
Haven; Milford) ; District of Columbia; Peimsylvania (Erie) : Lidi- 
ana (Brookville; Bloomington; Vincennes) ; Missouri (St. Louis; 
Independence) ; Kansas (Lawrence) ; and Colorado (Barr). 

Winters from California (Suisun Marshes; Humboldt Bay) ; Ore- 
gon (Scio) ; -Arizona (Sacaton) ; Louisiana (Belle I=]e : Xew Orleans) ; 
Mississippi (Biloxi; Bay St. Louis); .Alabama (Barachias; Greens- 
boro) ; Georgia (Darien) ; South Carolina (Mount Pleasant ; Chester) ; 



"Forty-four specimens from Hudson Bay, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, District of Columbia, Virginia, 
South Carolina, .Alabama, Louisiana, ■Slissouri, Texas, and California: 



Locality 


Num- 
ber of 
speci- 
mens 


Sex 


Wing 


Tail 


Exposed 
culm en 


Tarsus 


Middle 
toe with- 
out claw 




1 

8 

4 
2 

3 

6 

1 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
1 
11 


9 
9 

9 

9 

9 
9 

9 

9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 


80.5 
80-86 
(84.1) 
79-82 
(80.6) 
75.5-81 

80-84 

(82-3) 

77-5-89 

(82. 7) 

78 

80 

88 

83 

80-87. 5 

83-86.6 

87 

78-86 

(81.6) 


30.5 

30-34.5 

(32.2) 

28.5-31 

(29.7) 

29. 5-31. 5 

29-32 

(30.3) 

29. 6-34. 5 

(32.6) 

33 

31.5 

34.6 

33.5 

31-34 

32.5 

39 

30.5-33 

(31.8) 


14 

12.5-14.5 

(13.3) 

11-14 

(12.9) 

11-14 5 

12-14.5 

(12.8) 

12.5-15 

(13.4) 

13 

14.6 

13 

12.5 

12.5-14 

13-13.5 

14 

11. 5-13. 5 

(12.6) 


21 

20.5-23 

(21.1) 

20-22-5 

(2L2) 

21-22 

21- .'j-22 

(21-8) 

20-26 

(22-5) 

22 

22 

24 

22.5 

22-23 

2o 

23.5 

20.5-23 

(22) 


23 




21-24 


PeDDsylvania 

New York 

Maryland, Virgrnla, 
and District of 
Columbia 

Illinois 


(22.5) 
20.5-22 

(21.7) 
21-2L5 

22-24 

(22.8) 

19.5-23 




(22.1) 
23 




22 




24 


Connecticut 

Massachusetts 

Texas 

.Alabama 

South Carolina 


22 
22 

24-24.5 
27 

21-22.5 
(22) 



176 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

North Carolina ( Weaverville ; New Bern; Fort Macon); south to 
Florida (south to Cape Sable) ; Louisiana (Diamond; Belle Isle) ; and 
California (Kiverside County). Also reported casually from Mary- 
land (Prince Georges County) and New York (Seaford; Ithaca) ; also 
from Bermuda, Cuba (one doubtful record) ; and from New Bruns- 
wick. 

Type locality. — New York. 

[FuUca] noveioracensis Gmklin, Syst. Nat., i, pt. 2, 1789, 701 (New York ; based 
on Tellow-'breasted GalUntile Pennant, Arctic Zool., ii, 1785, 491; Latham, 
Synopsis Birds, iii, pt. i, 1785, 262). 

Fulica novcBboracensis Tueton, Syst. Nat., i, 1802, 42,'?. 

Q-alUnula tiovehoracensis Latham, Index Orn., ii, 1790, 771. 

Ortygometra novehoracensis Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool., xii, pt. 1, 1824, 222. — 
BoNAPAETE, Geogr. and Comp. List, 1838, 53. — Audubon, Synopsis, 1839, 213; 
Birds Amer., 8vo ed., v, 1842, 152, pi. 307. — Linsuets-, Amer. Journ. Sci. and 
Arts, xliv, 1848, 268 (Connecticut). — Jaemne, Contr. Orn., 1848, 84 (Bermuda, 
Oct., 2 specimens). — Hubdis, Jardine's Contr. Orn., 1850, 11 (Bermuda, Oct. 
1847, 2 specimens). — Pratten, Trans. Illinois Agr. Assoc, i, 1855, 607 (Illi- 
nois). — Putnam, Proc. Essex Inst, i, 1856, 229 (Essex County, Mass.).— 
Bland, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst, for 1858 (1859), 287 (Bermuda). 

Ort[ygometra'\ novehoracensis Maetens, Journ. fiir Om., vii, 1859, 220 
(Bermuda). 

Rallus novehoracensis Bonapaete, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, ii, 1827, 335 ; 
Specchio Comp., 1827, 212 ; Amer. Orn., iv, 1832, 136, pi. 27, fig. 2.— Swainson 
and Richardson, Fauna Bor.-Amer., ii, 1831, 402 (descr. ; Severn River). — 
Lesson, Traits d'Orn., 1831, 538. — Nttttall, Man. Orn. United States and 
Canada, Water Birds, 1834, 215.— Audubon, Orn. Biogr., iv, 1838, 251, pi. 
329; V, 1839, 574.— Pbabodt, Rep. Orn. Massachusetts, 1839, 375.— Wnxis, 
Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst, for 1858 (1859), 284 (Nova Scotia). 

Coturnicops novehoracensis Bonaparte, Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 4, i. No. 2, 1854, 46. — 
Bebwee, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xvii, 1875, 447 (New England). — 
Pebble, North Amer. Fauna, No. 27, 1908, 314 (delta of Great Slave Lake, 
July 17 ; Athabasca Lake ; Little Buffalo River, 50 miles s. of Fort Resolu- 
tion). — ^American Oenithologists' Union Committee, Auk, xxv, 1908, 364; 
Check-list, ed. 3, 1910, 104; ed. 4, 1931, 98.— Beaislin, Auk, xxvi, 1909, 214 
(Seaford, Long Island, Sept., Dec. 4, and Jan. 10). — Cost. Field Mus. Nat. 
Hist. Publ. 131, 1909, 384 (Illinois; Wisconsin).— Wayne, Birds South Caro- 
lina, 1910, 38 (winter resident, Oct. 26-Mar. 30). — Eaton, Birds New York, i, 
1910, 250 pi. 26 (numerous records). — ^Willett, Pacific Coast Avif., No. 7, 
1912, 33 (Newport Bay, Orange County, Calif., Dec. 12, 1896) .-Swales, Auk, 
xxix, 1912, 100 (Wayne County, Mich., Apr. 22, 1911; also Mar. 25, 1908; 
mouth of Thames River, Lake St. Clair, Ontario, June). — Bareows, Mich- 
igan Bird Life, 1912, 159. — Foebush, Game-Birds, Wild-fowl, and Shore- 
birds, 1912, 213 (habits) .—Fat, Auk, xxix, 1912, 237 (West Roxbury, Mass., 
Oct. a, 1911; Chatham, Oct. 2, 1911, and Nov. 25, 1911).— Sage, Bishop, and 
Buss, Birds Connecticut, 1913, 10. — Bunicee, Kansas Univ. Sci. Bull. 7, 1913, 
143 (Kansas, summer resident). — Hatha wat, Auk, xxx, 1913, 550 (Rhode 
Island records). — Moreis, Auk, xxx, 1913, 580 (near Springfield, Mass., 
Aug. 26, 1913).— Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 31, fig. 13 (geogr. 
range and migration routes). — Lincoln, Auk, xxxi, 1914, 256 (Barr, Colo., 
July 1906).— GKtNNEtL (J.), Pacific Coast Avif., No. 11, 1915, 47 (numerous 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 177 

winter records for California).— HOTiiSTEB, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 
sxxi, 1918, 93 (Washington, D. C, May 20, 1917) .— Taveknee, Auk, xxxvi, 
1919, 265 (Red Deer and Camrose, Alberta, breeding) .—MoAteb, U. S. Dept. 
Agr. Bull. 294, 1920, 29 (Pelican Lake, Cherry County, Nebr., June 10; 
breeding ?).— Bbtant (H. C), Condor, xxii, 1920, 33 (Quincy, Calif., Apr. 
16 and 24, 1889).— Dawson, Birds California (students' ed.), iii, 1923, 151-1 
(genl. ; California).— Geiscom, Birds New York City Region, 1923, 137 
(status, New York City).— MniEE, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1, 1924, 308 
(ptilosis).— HowBXL, Birds Alabama, 1924, 90; ed. 2, 1928, 90 (Alabama).— 
Simmons, Birds Austin Region, 1925, 48 (Austin, Tex.; habits; descr.).— 
Bailet, Birds Florida, 1925, 43, pi. 23 (fig.; distr.; Florida).— Foeeitsh, 
Birds Massachusetts and Other New England States, i, 1925, 360, pi. 23 
(fig.; descr.; habits.; New England) .—Buncxjb, Auk, xlii, 1925, 419 (Bards- 
town, Ky.).— PiNDAE, Wils. Bull., xxxtH, 1925, 82 (Fulton County, Ky.).— 
Williams, Wils. Bull., xxxvlii, 1926, 25 (Red River Valley, ne. North Da- 
kota).— Taveenee, Birds Western Canada, 1926, 126 (descr.; distr.; western 
Canada).— Smtth, Auk, xliv, 1927, 45 (Montgomery County, Va.).— Pkill, 
Wils. Bull., xl, 1928, 112 (Scio, Oreg. ; spec; new to Oregon list).— Hicks, 
Wils. Bull., xU, 1929, 43 (Westerville and near Willard, Ohio).— Cooke, 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xlii, 1929, 27 (Washington, D. C.).— Uenee, 
Abstr. Linn. Soc. New York, Nos. 39 and 40, 1930, 65 (Union County, N. 
J.).— Fleming, Auk, xlvii, 1980, 68 (specimen; Ashbridge Marsh, Toronto).— 
Hklmuth, Auk, xlvii, 1930, 531 (Long Island, N. Y.).— Pieecb, Wils. Bull., 
xlii, 1930, 262 (Buchanan County, Iowa).— [Aethub], Birds Louisiana, 
1931, 240 in text (descr.; distr. in Louisiana). — Baeeg, Univ. Arkansas 
Agr. Exp. Stat. Bull. 258, 1931, 57 (descr.; distr.; Arkansas).— Bailey and 
Weight, Wils. Bull., xliii, 1931, 194 (Grand Isle, La.).— Wood, Auk, xlviii, 
1931, 617 in text (specimen; Copper Harbor, Mich. ) .— DtjMont, Wils. BulL, 
xliv, 1932, 237 (Iowa records). — ^Roberts. Birds Minnesota, i, 1932, 448 
(distr.; habits; Minnesota).— Howell, Florida Bird Life, 1932, 207 (genl.; 
Florida).— Hicks, Wils. Bull., xlv, 1933, 181 (Ashtabula County, Ohio, 
Pymatuning Bog, adult seen July 2; young found dead Aug. 9). — ^Wielett, 
Pacific Coast Avif., No. 21, 1933, 53 (sw. Calif.; rare winter visitor; spec. 
Newport Bay, near Corona, and Santa Barbara). — Vogt, Auk, 1, 1933, 446 
(Jones Beach, Long Island, N. Y., 1 found dead Sept. 10, 1932).— Taveenee, 
Birds Canada, 1934, 173 (noted in aU eastern and Prairie Provinces but 
not in British Columbia). — Taveenee and Sutton, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
xxiii, 1934, 33 (ChurchiU, Manitoba, unsatisfactory record). — Walkinshaw, 
Auk, li, 1934, 80 (Battle Creek, Mich. ) .— Beodkoeb, Auk, li, 1934, 101 (one 
seen at Beach, ne. Illinois, Sept. 13, 1926). — ^Long, Auk, li, 1934, 255 (speci- 
men, eastern Kansas— Sedgwick, Douglas, and Greenwood Counties). — 
Bailey, Auk, li, 1934, 399 (Chenier au Tigre, La., Dec. 28).— Fbanzen, Auk, 
li, 1934, 403 (specimen; Waukegan, 111.). — DtjMont, Univ. Iowa Stud. Nat. 
Hist, XV, 1934, 62 (Iowa; fairly common migrant; occasional in summer; 
numerous Iowa records given). — Linsdalb, Pacific Coast Avif. No. 23, 1936, 
51 (Nevada; 5 miles se. of Millett P. O., Nye County, May 19, 1932).— 
Beooks, xluk, liii, 1936, 97 (Barbour County, central West Virginia). — 
Pkill, Wils. Bull., xlix, 1937, 119 (Scio, Oreg., Feb. 1; spec. ) .— O'Reiixy, 
Wils. Bull., xlix, 1937, 294 in text (near Cleveland, Ohio, Apr. 18, 1937).— 
Walkinshaw, Auk, liv, 1937, 310, 311 in text (nesting; Michigan).— Mtjbeay, 
Auk, Iv, 1938, 124 (Lexington, Va., Sept. 29, 1937 ; Harrisonburg, Va., Oct. 15, 
1936.)— DEvnr, Auk, Iv, 1938, 284 (s. Ontario).— Smith, Auk, Iv, 1938, 549 



178 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

(specimen; Meadowville, Nova Scotia, May 12, 1929). — Obeeholsee, Bird 
Life Louisiana, 1938, 205 (rare winter resident, Nov. 5 to May 1, in s. Louisi- 
ana ; transient in rest of State ; specimens from Grand Isle, Isle Derniere, 
Plaquemines Parish, New Orleans, Bayou St. John, Vinton, Sabine Station, 
Belle Isle, and Chernier au Tigre). — Fdu^eb, Auk, Iv, 1938, 670 (specimen, 
Churchill River, Manitoba, July 28, 1937) .— Wa^kinshaw, Auk, Ivi, 1939, 
227 (Michigan; status, habits, etc.). — De^^tt, Auk, Ivi, 1939, 238 (breeding, 
Holland River Marsh, Ontario). 

Oortunicops novetoracensls Pickens, Wils. BuU., xl, 1928, 188 (lower Piedmont, 
Upper South Carolina). 

Coturnicops novedoracensis noveboracensis Petebs, Check-list Birds ot World, 
ii, 1934, 193. 

Porzana noveioracensis Bated, Amer. Journ. Sci. and Arts, xlvi, 1844 (Carlisle, 
Pa.) ; Lit. Rec. and Journ. Linn. Assoc. Pennsylvania Coll., Oct. 1845, 255; 
Cat. North Amer. Birds, 1859, No. 557. — Cassin, in Baird, Rep. Pacific R. R. 
Surv., ix, 1858, 750.— Cotjpeb, Can. Nat. and Geol., vii, 1862, 320 (Quebec).— 
Blakiston, Ibis, 1863, 135 (Brit. N. America).— Debsseb, Ibis, 1866, 40 
(San Antonio, Tex. ) .— Sclateb and Salvut, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 
457 (monogr.). — TrBNEtrrx, Birds Eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 
1869, 42 (Phila. ed., p. 33).— Cotjes, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, xxiii, 
1871, 35 (Fort Macon, N. C.) ; Check-list, 1874, No. 469; ed. 2, 1882, No. 
680; Birds Northwest, 1874, 539.— Nelson, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, i, 1876, 
43 (ne. Illinois, breeding). — Langdon, Birds Cincinnati, 1877, 16 (rare mi- 
grant). — Rathbun, (F. R.), Rev. List Birds Central New York, 1879, 35. — 
Linden, Forest and Stream, xiii, 1879, 785 (Clinton, Iowa). — Beewsteb, Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1881, 186 (Plymouth, Mass., abundant; Wakefield, 
Mass.). — Nehbung, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 224 (se. Texas, mi- 
grant).— Reid, U. S. Nat. Mus. BuU. 25, 1884, 247 (Bermuda, Oct. 1847, 2 
specimens). — Baibd, Beewer, and Eidgwat, Water Birds North Amer., i, 1884, 
375 (syn.; genl.). — Scott (W. L.), Auk, ii, 1885, 110 (Toronto marshes, On- 
tario, June 1874) .— Lawbence (NT.), Auk, ii, 1885, 274 ( Far Rockaway, Long 
Island, Oct.). — Goss, Auk, ii, 1885, 385 (near Lawrence, Kans., Apr. 18) ; iii, 
1886, 113 (near Lawrence, Apr., Oct.). — Sbton, Auk, Iii, 1886, 150 w. Mani- 
toba, July 13) ; XXV, 1908, 70 (Little Buffalo Run, 50 miles s. of Fort Resolu- 
tion, Mackenzie). — ^Townsend (C. H.), Auk, iii, 1886, 491 (Humboldt Bay, 
Calif.) ; Proc. V. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1887, 163, 197, 234 (Humboldt Bay).— Amee- 
ICAN Obnithologist's Union, Check-list, 1886, and ed. 2, 1895, No. 215. — Beck- 
ham, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., x, 1888, 637, 651 (Bexar County, Tex.).— Satjn- 
DEBS, Auk. iv, 1887, 247 (Ontario).— Coey, Auk. v, 1888, 56 (Cuban refer- 
ences; descr.) ; Birds West Indies, 1889, 257 (accidental in Cuba) ; Cat. West 
Indian Birds, 1892, 91, 137.— Smith and Palmbe, Auk, v, 1888, 147 (near 
Washington, D. C, Mar. 28 and Oct. 4). — Dutcher, Auk, v, 1888, 177 (Long 
Island records) ; x, 1893, 272 (near Southhampton, Long Island, 1868). — 
AVEEiLL, Auk, V, 1888, 319 (Gaylordsville, Conn., Mar. 4). — Thompson, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiii, 1891, 495 (Winnipeg and Fort George, Mani- 
toba). — Stone, Birds Eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 1894, 67 ( rec- 
ords) .—Sage, Auk, xii, 1895, 311 (Portland, Conn., Sept., Oct. 1894).— 
White, Auk, xiii, 1896, 173 (near Ottawa, Ontario, Oct. 23). — Btjtuee, Rep. 
State Geol. Indiana for 189T (1898), 677 (breeding in n. Indiana ?).— 
PosBON, Auk, xvi, 1899, 194 (Orleans County, N. T., Apr.). — Ames, Auk, 
xviii, 1901, 107 (Toronto, Ontario, Sept. 1). — Pbebu:, North Amer. Fauna, 
No. 22, 1902, 93 (York Factory; Fort George; mouth of Severn River; 
notes, etc.). — ^Aixen (G. M.), Proc. Manchester Inst. Sci. and Arts, iv, 1902, 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 179 

189 (Hampton, N. H.).— KtrnLiBN and Hollistkb, Wisconsin Nat. Hist. Soc, 
Bull. 3, 1903, 39 (Wisconsin; habits).— Peabodt, Warbler, ser. 2, 1, 1905, 
49[-51], pi. [2] (North Dakota; breeding habits, etc.).— Mokeis, Auk, xxii, 
1005, 208 (Springfield, Mass., Sept., Oct.; habits).— Wayne, Auk, xxii, 1905, 
396 (near Charleston, S. C, Feb., Nov. ).— Wilson (B. H.), Wils. Bull., xviii, 
1906, 2 (Scott County, Iowa, Sept. 20).— Jones (L.), WUs. Bull., xviii, 
1906, 114 (Cleveland, Ohio, rare migrant) ; xxi, 1909, 123 (Lorain County, 
Ohio). — Fleming, Auk, xsiii, 1906, 448 (Toronto, Ontario, regular mi- 
grant). — McKetchim, Auk, xxiii, 1906, 457 (Dedham, Mass., May 26). — 
WooDBUFF, Chicago Acad. Sci. Bull. 6, 1907, 59 (Chicago area, common 
summer resident). — Widmaxn, Bird.s Missouri, 1907, 60 (rare or irregular 
transient). — Kobebts, in Wilcox's Hi.st. Becker County, Minn., 1907, 166 
(breeding). — Andebson, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci., xi, 1907, 208 (Iowa, rare 
summer resident). — Knight, Birds Maine, 1908, 142 (rare summer resi- 
dent). — Betee, Aixison, and Kopman, Auk, xxv, 1908, 176 (Louisiana, 
winter resident). — Taverneb, Auk, xxv, 1908, 327 (Detroit, Mich., Mar. 
25). — Johnston, Birds West Virginia, 1923, 87 (West Virginia). 

[Pomana] noveboracensis Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, viii, 1866, 
295 (vicinity New York City). — CorES, Key North Amer. Birds, 1S72, 274. — 
CoET, List Birds West Indies, 1885, and rev. ed., 1886, 30 (Cuba). 

Plorsana] noveboracensis RruowAT, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, x, 1874, 387 
(Illinois) ; Man. North Amer. Birds, 1S87, 140. — Nelson, Bull. Essex Inst, 
viii, 1876, 134 (ne. Illinois, common summer resident). 

lOrti/gops] noveioracensis Heine and Reichenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Om., 1890, 
320.— Shaepe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 104. 

Oriygopg noveboracensis Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 126 (lUinois; 
Milford, Conn., Oct. 14; Seabrook, N. H., Oct. 15). 

Crex novaeiorace-nsis Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, v. No. 30, livr. 7, 1865, 26. 

[Araniides'\ noveboracensis Gsat, Hand-list, iii, 1871, 61, No. 10448. 

Porzana jamaiccnsis ? (not Rallus jamaicemis Gmelin) Ridgwat, BuU. Essex 
Inst., V, 1873, 173 (Parley's Park, Utah, 7,000 feet). 

Plorsana] jamaicemis ? RiDGW.iT, Bull. Essex Inst, vi, 1874, 34 (Parley's Park, 
Utah). 

? Porzana jamaicensis Ridgwat, Orn. 40th Parallel, 1877, 613 (Ruby VaUey, Nev., 
Sept 5; Parley's Park, Utah, June, July, Aug.). 

Cotnmicops noveloracensis richii Bailet, Bailey Mus. and Libr. Nat. Hist. BuU. 10, 
1935, unpaged=l, (Canton, Ohio; crit). 

Coturnicops nevetoracensis emeisoni Bahet, Bailey Mus. and Libr. Nat. Hist. 
Bull. 10, 1935, unpaged=2 (Shandon, San Luis Obispo County, Calif.; crit). 

COTURNICOPS NOVEBORACENSIS GOLDMAN! (Nelson) 

Goldman's Ybxlow Rail 

Adult {?) moZe.'^— Similar to the juvenal, nifescent phase of Cotur- 
niculus naveboracensis novehoracensis, but with the white transverse 
markings much broader (1-1.5 mm. as against 0.3-0.5 nmi. in the nom- 
inate race) and the brownish edgings of the dorsal feathers slightly 
righer in color— sudan brown; wing 81; tail 25; exposed culmen 14.5; 
tarsus 23 ; middle toe without claw 25 mm. (One specimen— the unique 
type.) 

"Female unknown. 



180 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Range. — ^Kiiown only from the type locality. 
Tyfe locality. — ^Lerma, Mexico. 

Pornana goldmani Nexson, Proc. Blol. Soc. Washington, xvii, Oct. 6, 1904, 151 
(Lerma, Mexico; coll. V. S. Nat. Mus. ) .—Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 
1914, 21 (geogr. range). 

Coturnicops noveioracensis goldmani Peters, Check-list Birds of 'World, ii, 1934, 
193. 

Census GALLINULA Brisson 

Qallmula, Beisson, Orn., i, 1760, 50; vl, 1760, 2 (Type, by tautonymy, [Gallinula] 
gallinula 'Bvisson=Fwlica ehloropus Linnaeus). — Schaeffeb, Mus. Orn., 
1789, 58 (Type, Fulica ehloropus Linnaeus). — ^Latham, Index Orn., ii, 1790, 
766 (23 species enumerated). 

Hydrogallina Lacc^pbde, Tabl. Ois., 1799, 19. (Type, by original designation, 
"Hydvo-galline" =Oallinula Brisson. ) 

Stagnicola Beehm, Isis, 1830, 992. (Type, by monotypy, Fulica ehloropus 
Linnaeus.) 

Oalinula Heli.eb and Snodqbass, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., v, 1904, 257 
(unintentional emendation). 

Large Gallinulae (wing about 153-231 mm.) with the broad frontal 
shield extending only as far backward as middle of eye, its posterior 
extremity broadly rounded to nearly truncated ; nostril narrowly 
ovate (almost slitlike) and much nearer to maxillary tomium than to 
culmen ; depth of bill at posterior end of nostril equal to less than half 
the distance from posterior end of nostril to tip of maxilla ; tarsus not 
longer (sometimes shorter) than outer toe without claw, the inner side 
of planta tarsi with broken series of small, irregular scutella ; toes with 
a distinct though narrow marginal membrane along each side, and 
coloration slaty (more or less brownish above), with lateral under tail 
coverts white and white stripes along outer edge of sides and flanks. 

Bill about as long as head or slightly shorter, rather narrow in 
vertical profile, its depth at posterior end of nostril equal to less than 
half the distance from posterior end of nostril to tip of maxilla; its 
width at same point equal to half the depth or a little more ; culmen 
broad and elevated basally, much narrower and more or less depressed 
above nostrils, thence more or less arched and decurved to tip ; gonys 
at least two-thirds as long as mandibular rami, nearly straight ascend- 
ing terminally, its base not prominent ; mandibular rami with a more 
or less distinct lateral groove (formed by prominence of proximal 
two-thirds of mandibular tomium) ; nasal fossa well defined anteri- 
orly, extending for at least half the distance from loral antia to tip of 
maxilla; nostril very narrowly ovate (almost slitlike), in lower edge 
of nasal fossa and much nearer to tomium than to culmen, separated 
from the loral antia by a space about equal to its length ; frontal shield 
tumid, subquadrate, becoming broader posteriorly, its greatest width 
less than its length, its posterior outline convex to subtruncate, its 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 



181 



extremity about on line with middle of eyes ; anterior outline of loral 
feathering with its apex (antia) near base of maxillary tomium, 
thence receding, in a straight or slightly convex line, to near base of 
frontal shield; malar antia decidedly anterior to loral antia, the 
mental antia on line with or anterior to anterior end of nostril. Wing 
relatively rather small, moderately concave beneath, rounded, the 
longest primaries exceeding distal secondaries by a little more than 




Figure 12. — Gallinula ckloropus cachinnans. 

one-third the length of wing, and exceeding the elongated proximal 
secondaries by about length of cuhnen; second and third, or second, 
third, and fourth, primaries (from outside) longest, the first (outer- 
most) equal to seventh, sometimes longer than sixth. Tail about two- 
fifths as long as wing, strongly rounded, the rectrices (12) firm, broad, 
broadly rounded at tip, and with compact webs. Tarsus nearly one- 
third as long as wing, much shorter than middle toe Mdthout claw 



182 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

(not longer, sometimes shorter, than outer toe without claw), the 
acrotarsium with a continuous single row of broad scutella, the 
planta tarsi with a single row of similar but smaller scutella on outer 
side (sometimes broken on lower portion), sometimes separated from 
those of the acrotarsium by one or two rows of smaller, more hexa- 
gonal, mostly longitudinal scales, the hinder portion curved with much 
smaller hexagonal scales, curved on inner side with scales and scutella 
of various sizes, the larger sometimes arranged, in part, in longitudinal 
series ; outer toe with claw reaching about to base of middle claw, the 
inner toe, without claw, extending to beyond penultimate articulation 
of middle toe; hallux, without claw, about as long as basal phalanx 
of outer toe ; anterior toes with a distinct though narrow lateral mem- 
brane on each side; claws relatively long, compressed, moderately 
curved (that of middle toe less so and sometimes considerably 
elongated), acute. 

Plwnage and coloration. — Plumage full and dense, that of head 
and neck shorter and blended ; remiges and rectrices moderately rigid. 
Adults plain slate color, the upper parts more olivaceous, sometimes 
decidedly olive-brown; lateral under tail coverts and (in European, 
African, and American forms) outer webs of outermost feathers of 
sides and flanks white; bill and frontal shield bright red, the former 
tipped with green or yellow. 

Range. — Palearctic, Indian, African, Nearctic, Neotropical, and 
Australian regions; Hawaiian Islands. (Two species, one with many 
races.) 

KEY TO THE AMERICAN FORMS OF GALLINULA CHLOEOPUS 

o. Size, very large, wings over 200 mm. 

Gallinula chloropus garmani (estralimital)" 
aa. Size smaller, wings well under 200 mm. 



"Gallinula chloropus garmani. — (?) FuUca galeata (not Crex galeata Lich- 
tenstein ?) Gould, Zool. Voy. Beagle, iii (Birds). 1841, 133 (Concepci6n, 
Chile); (?) Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1843, 118 (Lakes Quintero and 
Santa Domingo, Chile). — (?) G[allimda'\ galeata Tschudi, Wiegmann's Archiv 
flir Naturg., x, pt. i, 1844, 313 (Peru). — (?) Qallinula galeata Gay, Fauna 
Chilean, i, 1847, 437; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1867, 337 (Chile); 
1886, 402 (Sitana, Tarapaca, Chile); Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 
1894, 177, part (Laguna de Tambo, Peru; Sayaca, Chile); Lane, Ibis, 1897, 
300 (Sacaya, Chile, up to 11,000 feet) ; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Ornis, 
xiii, 1906, 131 (Puno, Peru). — Gallinula garmani Allen, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., iii, 
1876, 357 (Lake Titicaca, Peru; coll. Mus. Comp. Zool.) ; Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., ii, 1889, 107 ; Baird, Brewer, and Kidgway, Water Birds North Amer., 
i, 1884, 388. — [Gallinula'^ garmani Brabourne and Chubb, Birds South Ameri- 
ca, i, 1912, 25 (Peru). — Gallinula chloropus garmani Bangs, Proc. New England 
Zool. Club, V, 1915, 98 (diagnosis; measurements; crit.) ; Hartert, Nov. Zool., 
xxii, 1917, 270 (crit.) ; Peters, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 205.— Ga?- 
Hnula galeata garmani Chapman, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 117, 1921, 48 (Calca, 
se. Peru). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 183 

6. Size very small, wings 161 mm. or less in length. 

Gallinula cMoropus pauxilla (extralimital)" 
66. Size larger, wings over 165 mm. 

c. Whole back, rump, and most of upper wing coverts extensively suffused 

with brown (argus brown to raw umber) • 

Gallinula cMoropus cachinnans (p. 184) 
cc. Bacli and wings only slightly suffused with brownish. 

d. Tarsus longer, over 55 mm Gallinula chloropus cerceris (p. 190) 

M. Tarsus shorter, under 55 mm 

Gallinula chloropus galeata (t-xtralimital) ™ 



"Gallinula chloropus pauxilla. — (?) Gallinula galeata (not Crex {faleata 
liichtenstein ?) ; Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1874, 559 (Chorillos 
and Junin, Peru) ; Cm. PSrou, iii, 1886, 327, part. ? ; Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. London, 1878, 176 (Laguna de Tambo, w. Peru), 462, part (mongr.), 
570 (w. Peru) ; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1874, 559 (Chorillos and 
Junin, Peru) ; Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1892, 399 
(Lima and Callao, w, Peru) ; 1902, 50 (Ingaplra, Peru) ; Salvador! and Festa, 
Boll. Mus. Zool. Torino, xv, 1900, 40 (Vinces, w. Ecuad6r) ; (?) Chubb, Ibis, 
1919, 54 (Bten and Trujillo, nw. Peru; Eeque, Lambayeque, Peru; crit.) ; 
(?) Lonnberg and Eendahl, Arkiv for Zool., xiv, No. 25, 1922, 19 (La Carolina, 
near Quito, and Lake San Pablo, prov. Imbabura, 8,000 feet, Ecuador). — Oal- 
Unula chloropus pauxilla Bangs, Proc. New England Zool. Club, v, 1915, 96 
(Guabinas, Kio Cauca, Colombia; coll. Mus. Comp. Zool.); Chapman, BuU. 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., sxxvi, 1917, 219 (Call, Cauca Valley, Colombia; crit.) ; 
Hartert, Nov. Zool., xxii, 1917, 269 (crit.) ; Peters, Check-Ust Birds of World, 
ii, 1934, 205.— Wetmoee, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxvii, 1939, 190 (n. Venezuela). 

" Gallinula chloropus galeata. — [Fulica'\ chloropus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 
12, i, 1766, 258, part (not of ed. 10, 1758) ; Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, pt. 2, 1789, 698, 
part; IGallinula'] chloropus Latham, Synop. Birds, Suppl., i, 1787, 293, part; 
Index Orn., ii, 1790, 770, part. — C{rev'\ galeata Lichtenstein, Saug. and Vog. Mus. 
Berlin, 1818, 36 (Sao Paulo, s. Brazil; cites "Pulica cMor[opus'i Amer. Merid. 
Gmel[in] ; Gall[inula] chlorlopus] Amer. Merid. Lath [am] ; Yahania propre- 
mentadit Azara") ; Verz. Doubl., 1823, 80 (Sao Paulo). — Gallinula fusca Vieillot, 
Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., xiii, 1817, 404, part ("America"). — Giallinula'i galeata 
Cabanis, in Schomburgk's Keis. Britisch-Guiana, iii, 1848, 760. — Gallinula galeata 
Burmeister, Syst. Ueb. Thiere Bras., iii, 1856, 389; Journ. fijr Orn., 1860, 262 
(Parana, Argentina) ; L^otaud, Ois. Trinidad, 1866, 503; Buler, Journ. fiir Orn., 
1867, 197 (Brazil; descr. nest and eggs); Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1870, 318, 459; 
Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 462, part (monogr.) ; White, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1882, 627 (Buenos Aires, Argentina) ; Barrows, Auk, 
1, 1884, 277 (Concepclon, Uruguay, resident) ; Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 
1886, 177 (Brit. Guiana) ; Bci-lepsch, Journ, fur Orn., 1887, 125 (Paraguay) ; 
Nov. Zool., XV, 1908, 300 (Brit. Guiana) ; Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
vi, 1894, 78 (Trinidad) ; Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 177, part 
(Caicarfi, Brazil; Trinidad; Lunia Bridge, Argentina); Aplin, Ibis, 1894, 204 
(Rio Mongon, Uruguay) ; Koenigswald, Journ. ffir Orn., 1896, 393 (Sao Paulo, 
Brazil) ; Salvador!, Boll. Mus. Zool., Torino, xii, 1897, 34 (San Lorenzo, Argen- 
tina) ; Hohnberg, Sectindo Cent. Argentina, 1898, 571; Ihering, Rev. Mus. 
Paulista, iii, 1899, 417 (Sao Paulo) ; iv, 1900, 164 (Cantogallo, Sao Paulo) ; vi, 
1904, 343 (Paraguay; (?) Lonnberg, Ibis, 1903, 459 (Tatarenda, Bolivia); 
Reiser, Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, math.-nat. Kl., 1910, 96 (Joazeiro, ne. 
Brazil); Dabbene, Orn. Argentina, 1910, 196 (Tacumdn; Ocampo, Chaco; 

272607—41 1.3 



184 BULLETIN 50, TJNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

GALLINULA CHLOROPUS CACHINNANS Banes 

Florida Gallinxhm 

Adult (sexes alike). — ^Entire head (except large bare frontal shield), 
hind neck, sides of neck, and the throat plumbeous-black, paling some- 
what posteriorly to blackish plumbeous and to dark neutral gray on 
the upper back (interscapulars) and on the breast, sides, flanks, and 
anterior and lateral parts of the abdomen ; the posterior interscapulars 
slightly tinged with oily bronzy greenish as are also the upper wing 
coverts; inner upper wing coverts, scapulars, back, rump, and upper 
tail coverts bister to warm sepia and argus brown, this color usually 
darker and more uniform on the posterior upper parts and more 
mixed with bronzy dark neutral gray on the wings and back; outer 
upper wing coverts dark neutral gray ; alula and remiges clove brown, 
the alula with the outer webs externally edged with white; carpal 
edge of the wing also white; the primaries with a cinereous wash 
terminally and externally; rectrices plumbeous-black with a faint 
gloss and very indistinctly and narrowly barred with slightly paler 
and more brownish bars of blackish plumbeous ; middle of abdomen 
whitish more or less mottled with neutral gray to deep neutral gray 
(owing to the fact that the white is restricted to the terminal part of 
the feathers) ; vent and median under tail coverts black, the lateral 
under tail coverts white; under wing coverts blackish plumbeous to 
deep neutral gray, the feathers margined with white ; iris dark maroon 
red with an inner ring of brown ; bill and frontal shield deep scarlet 
vermilion, the tip of bill light green ; tarsi and toes pale greenish, the 
joints and soles bluish, "garter" on tibiae scarlet. 

JuveTiai (sexes alike). — Top of head, hind neck, and interscapulars 
dusky olive-brown to grayish mummy brown, the interscapulars 
slightly washed with bronzy greenish; back, scapulars, rump, upper 
tail coverts, rectrices, and wings as in adult, except that even the outer 
upper wing coverts are heavily washed with brownish in the juvenal 
plumage and the primaries are less tinged with cinereous than in the 
adult stage ; sides of head hair brown, mottled with drab and with a 

Parana; Buenos Aires; Entre Rios) ; Bertoni, Fauna Paraguaya, 1914, 37 j 
Chubb, Birds British Guiana, i, 1916, 77. — [GalUnulai galeata Sclater and 
Salvin, Norn. Av. Neotr., 1873, 140, part; Sharpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 107, part; 
Brabourne and Chubb, Birds South America, 1, 1912, 25; Ihering (H. and E.), 
Aves Brazil, 1907, 31 (Rio Grande do Sul; Sao Paulo; Matto Grosso; Rio de 
Janeiro ; Bahia ; Minas Geraes) . — OalUnula galeata galeata Hellmayr, Nov. 
Zool., xiil, 1906, 53 (Caroni and Caroni Swamp, Trinidad; crit). — OalUnula 
cMoropus galeata Hartert and Venturi, Nov. Zool., xvi, 1909, 258 (Barracas al 
Sud, Argentina; descr. eggs) ; Bangs, Proc. New England Zool. Club, v, 1915, 
95 (crit.) ; Hartert, Nov. Zool., xxii, 1917, 269 (ciit.) ; Osgood and Conover, 
Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. 210, 1922, 40 (Lagunilla and Rio Aurare, Vene- 
zuela ; crit.) ; Peters, Check-list Birds of World, li, 1934, 205. 



BIRDS OP NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 185 

supraloral band of very light buffy drab ; chin and upper throat white 
mottled sparingly with dusky; sides of neck and all of breast and 
upper abdomen dusky smoke gray paling to white on the mid abdomen 
and darkening to hair brown on the sides and flanks; some of the 
flank feathers with white markings on their outer (lateral) webs; 
vent, under tail coverts, and under wing coverts as in adult. 

NMal down.—ToTp of head nearly bare, very scantily clothed with 
black, hairlike down; skin at base of bill bright red; entire body and 
wings covered with black down, the chin and throat with whitish, 
curly tips; the down of the back with a faint greenish gloss. 

Adult male.— Wing 167-181 (174.5) ; tail 64-86 (72.2) ; culmen from 
frontal shield 38.5-47.5 (43.2) ; tarsus 49-57 (52.7) ; middle toe without 
claw 59-71.5 (67.2 mm.).'*'' 

Adult female.— Wing, 151.5-174 (164.2) ; tail 62-71 (66) ; culmen 
from frontal shield 3&-42.5 (39.9) ; tarsus 45-51 (48.5) ; middle toe 
without claw 58-67 (62.6 mm.).«^ 

Range. — Breeds in suitable marshy places from California (San 
Francisco, the San Joaquin-Sacramento Valley as far north as Sutter 
County, the San Diego district north to Santa Barbara) ; Nebraska 
(Omaha, Hackberry Lake) ; South Dakota (Sioux Falls region) ; 
Minnesota (Heron Lake, Minneapolis) ; Wisconsin (Madison; Milton; 
Kelley Brook); Michigan (Kalamazoo; Detroit); southern Ontario 
(Hamilton; Toronto; Pictou; Kingston; Ottawa; Point Pelee) ; Que- 
bec (Montreal) ; Vermont (St. Albans; Lake Bomasseau) ; and Mas- 
sachusetts (Belmont; Provincetown ; Truro; Cambridge); south to 
southern Lower California (San Jose del Cabo) ; Mexico (Tamauli- 
pas — ^Matamoras; Tehuantepec, Oaxaca; Mazatlan, Sinaloa; Tepic; 
Valley of Mexico ; Peto and Cozumel Islands, Shkolok, Yucatan) ; 
locally through Guatemala (Duefias; Amatitlan) ; Honduras (Lake 
Yohoa) ; Nicaragua (Metapa; Tipitapa; Greytown; Los Sabalos) ; 
and Costa Rica; to Panama (Changuinola; Almirante) ; the Gulf 
States and Florida (throughout) ; and Bermuda ; also resident in the 
Galapagos Islands (Chatham Island) ; Albemarle Island). 

Winters in the southern part of its range, north to California (Los 
Angeles); Arizona (Tucson); Texas (Aransas Bay; Port Arthur; 
Lake Surprise); Louisiana (New Orleans; Vermillion Bay); all of 
Florida; Georgia, and to South Carolina (Ashepoo River; Cooper 
River) . 

Casual in summer and autumn, in Colorado (Colorado Springs) ; 
South Dakota (Vermillion, Sioux Falls area) ; Ontario (Beau- 
mauris) ; Quebec (Quebec) ; Maine (Calais; Portland) ; New Bruns- 

* Sixteen specimens from New York, District of Columbia, Florida, Minnesota, 
Texas, and Mexico. 
" Ten specimens from Michigan, Elinois, Minnesota, Florida, and Mexico. 



186 Bn.LETIX 5 0. rXITED STATES XATION.\L arCSEUM 

wick (Dicks Lake; St. Jolms) ; Nova Scotia (near Kentville; Corn- 
wallis River; Sable Island) ; and Xewfoundland (near St. Johns, and 
Colinet) ; in -n-inter in Pennsylvania (Riclunond) ; Massachusetts 
(Ware; Palmer) ; and Slinnesota (Minneapolis). 
Type locality. — ^Arbuckle Creek, De Soto County, Fla. 

Gallimi'ia galcata (not Crex gai^ata LicMenstein) Bonaparte, Amer. Om., iv, 
1SS2, 12S; Comp. and Geogr. List, 1S3S, 53.— Xittall, Man. Orn. United 
States and Canada, Water Birds, 1834, 223.— Peabodt, Rep. Orn. Massa- 
chusetts, 1S39, 375.— Yabeeh., Proc. ZooL Soc. London, 1S47, 5i (descr. 
egg). — JakdesE, Contr. Orn., ISiS, 79 (Bermuda, resident); 1S50, 6 (Ber- 
muda, breeding). — Kexxicott, Trans. Illustrations Agr. Assoc, i, 1855, 
586 (Illinois).— Cassik, in Baird, Rep. Pacific R. B. Surv., vs., 1858, 752 
(Pennsylyania, Michigan, California). — ^Baibd, Cat. North Amer. Birds, 
18.59, Xo. 560; Rep. V. S. and Mex. Bound. Surv., ii, pt. 2, 1859, 26 (San 
Pedro, Calif.).— Mabteits, Joum. fiir Orn., vil, 1859, 220 (Bermuda).— 
Taylob, Ibis, 1860, 314 (Lake Yohoa, Honduras). — Aibbecht, Joum. fur 
Orn., is, 1561. 56 (Bermuda). — ^Babnakd, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst for 1860 
(1S61), 438 (Chester County, Pa.).— Tatlob, Ibis, 1862, 129 (Florida).— 
McIl^kaith, Proc. Esses Inst, t, 1866, 93 (Hamilton, Ontario).— Saivin, 
Ibis, 1866, 198 (Guatemala). — LA■svEE^-CE, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist Xew York, 
viii, 1865, 184 (Greytown, Nicaragua) ; viii, 1866, 295 (vicinity of New York 
City^ ; U. S. Nat. Mus. BuU. 4, 1S76, 50 (Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Nov.).— 
Scxatee and Salven, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868, 462, jjart (monogr.). — 
Ttjbnbuix, Birds Eastern Pennsylvania and Xew Jersey, 1869, 43 (Phila. 
ed., p. 34). — Coves, Birds Northwest 1874, 540; Check List, ed. 2, 1SS2. No. 
684.— Jour, Field and Forest ii> 1S7Y, 180 (District of Columbia).— 
Mebriix, Proc. U. S. Xat Mus., i, ISTS, 165 (Fort Brown, Tex., breeding). — 
Meaejjs. BuU. Kssex Inst., siii, ISSl. 81 (Hudson Highlands, breeding).— 
Rathbvx (F. R,), Rev. List Birds Central Xew York, 1879, 35 (breed- 
ing). — RoBEKTS, BuU. Xutt. Orn. CTlub, iv, 1879, 15S (.near Minneapolis. Minn., 
breeding; descr. nest and eggs). — Bbewster, Bull. Xiirt. Orn. Club, vi, 1881, 
1S6 (Dicks Lake, Xew Brunswick, Sept). — Xehbli>-g. Bull. Xutt Orn. Oub, 
vli, 1SS2, 224 (se. Texas, breeding) .—Reid, V. S. Xat. Mus. Bull. 25, 1S?4, 
24S (Bermuda, resident). — Bajbd, Brewer, and Ridgwat, Water Birds 
North Amer. i, 1884. 388. — Raiph and Bago, Trans. Oneida Hist. Soc., iii, 

1556, 111 (Oneida County, X. Y., breeding) .—Goss, Auk. iii, 1SS6. 113 
(GoTe County and near Lawrence, Kans., breeding; descr. nest and 
eggs) : Birds Kansas, 1S91, 143. — ^American ORNrrHotoGiSTS' Union, Check- 
list. 1SS6. and ed. 2. 1S95, Xo. 219; ed. 3, 1910, 105.— Morris, Auk, iv. 

1557. 72 (Springfield, Mass., 4 specimens. Sept, Oct.). — Chambeelaust, Auk, 
iv, 1SS7, 253 (Cornwallis River, X'ova Scotia, Sept 20, 1886). — ^Richard- 
son, Auk, vi, 1889, 273. — At.t.en, Auk, vi, 1889, 274 (Lake Bomasseau, Vt, 
breeding). — Shaepe. Cat Birds Brit. Mus.. xxiii, 1894, 177, part (Ains- 
worth. HI. ; Lake Coimty, Ind. ; Quantico, Va. ; Hernando and De Soto 
Counties and Tarpon Springs, Fla.; Brownsville and Aransas Bay, Tex.; 
Bermuda; Mexico; Guatemala). — ^Bbock, Auk, siii, 1896, 255 (Portland, 
Maine, Sept. 20 and 30, 1894). — ^Ridgwat, Proc. U. S. Xat. Mus., xix, 1897, 
621 (Albermarle Island, Galapagos; crit.). — Rothschild and Hartert, Nov. 
Zool., vi, 1S99, 286 (Albermarle Island; crit.); ix, 1002, 412 (Albermarle 
Island; crit.), 418 (several, Galapagos Islands). — ^BtrrtEE, Rep. State 
(Jeol. Indiana for 1807 (1898), 682 (breeding in Lake, Starke, De Kalb, 
and Vigo Counties, Ind., and Ottawa County, Ohio). — ^WoRTHII^GTo^-, Auk 



BIRDS OF XOKTH AXD MIDDLE AMERICA 187 

XTi, 1899, So (Shelter Island. X. Y.. Oct. ISl.— BBEWsxai. BuU. Mas. Comp. 
Zool., xli, 1902, 57 (San Jose del Cabo, Lower California, Sept. 13 to end 
of Oct.; np to NoTember 15 at Santiago).— Sxodgsass and Helleb, Ptoc. 
Wasliington Acad. Sci.. v, 1904, 257 (Albemarle Island: measnrementi i .— 
SAr^rnf and Godsian. Biol. Cenrr.-Amer., Aves, ill. 1903, o2i3. part (Mazatlin, 
Siualoa; Tepic; Vallej- of ilesico; Tehuantepec ; Slikolak, iVro and Cozu- 
mel Islajid, Tucat;in: Lake Duenas, Guatemala, Late Yohoa, Hon- 
duras: Greytown and Los Sabalos, Nicaragua; Costa Rica). — Joxi:s (L-K 
WUs. BuU., XTiii, 1906, 114 (Oeveland. Ohio, Oct. 4. 1SS5 1 .— Bkaislik, 
Auk. xsiu. 1906. 189-194 (Long Island Ciry. N. T., breeding: hal.!rs^— 
FixjUN-G. Auk. siili. 1906, 44S i Toronto, Ontario, common summer 
residear).— Shabp, Condor, ix. 19<?T. S6 (San Diegc. Callt. : brf€ding). — 
Abs.vt (C. G.), Ant. xxiv, 1907, 1. in text, pi. 1. fig. 2 (Haekensack 
ileauows. X. J., breeiiirg abundantlj- 1 . — Widiia>-s, Birds ili-ssjiuri, It OT. 6J 
I once common suuicier resident, tow rare). — AVoodkuff. Chicago Acad. Set 
BuU. 6. It 07. 61 (common summer res:deat near Cliicago,). — Tavek>-eb and 
S-n-.u:£5. WUs. BulL, xix. lt;07. S4 < Poiui Pelee, Ontavli., luvedingK— 
A>TiHssox. Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci.. xi, 1907. 210 ilov.-a breeding). — 
^'oT;TO^^ Auk. xxv, l&.-S. SI i Scarborougb, Maine, Oct. 15. 1907K — ^Knight, 
Eirds Maine. If-OS, 145 i Maine records'". — ^Wat^-e, Biros South Carolina, 
leiO. 41 I fijamer reside:.: ' — K_tTOX. Birds New York, i. IPIO. 2S4, pL 27 
(summer resident^. — Phuxpp. Auk. xxrii. 1910. S16 (Ellis Lake, N. C, 
breedingl. — BmTCH. Auk. xxviil. lOll, ICS (Erauctwrr. N. T.. brc^^ding: 
habits K — ^Babbows. Michigan Bird Life. 1912. 161. — Foreush. Game-birds. 
WUd-fo-n-1. and Shore-birds. 1912. 219 . babies).— Aitry (6. M.). Aiik. xxx, 
191-3. 23 (Essex County. Mass.. Sepr. 14. 1SS7. and Oct. 3, lfiC>3).— Sagz, 
Bishop, and Buss. Birds Connecticut, ItaS. 51. — Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. 
CiH. 12S. 1914. 40 fig. IS. map (range >. — Giftoed. Ft.jc. Calif. Acai Sci., 
Sv-r. 4. ii, 1913, 10 (Albemarle and Cljathitm Islands. Galapagos Islands). — 
Gbetseix. Pacinc Coast Avif., Xo. 11. 1915. 4S (Calif rnia; common stun- 
iiiCr resident, wintering southward). — ^Hakeis. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Lonis, 
xxiii. 1919. 246 (Kansas Ciry. etc.. ilissouri, breet-lngi. — Epjchsox. Wils. 
BtiU., xxxiii. 1:21. 76 (Chatham Connry, Ga.. breeding: habits >. — Ette- 
^IA^-^-. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. for 1920 il921>. ?.31 (Tigo Counry. Ind., 
breeding). — Wood (X. A>. Occ Pap. ilus. ZooL Univ. Michigan, Xo. 119, 
1922, 10 (Berriea County, Mich., sum: ^^r resident). — Pz:^KESS. A".k. xxxix. 
1:?'22, 564 (near Picron, Ontario, bre^diitg : talits.). — Cahn. Ccnclor. xxiv, 
1922, 17,". (Bird Isiaitd. Tex.). — ^Daws x. Ei-ds Califomi;! (students' ed), 
iii, 1S2:?.. 1554 igenl. ; (California). — Joh^'sto>". Birds West 'Virginia, 1923, 
S7 ("tVest Virginia). — Gbiscom. Birrs Xew York (?ity K-:g:. n, 1923. 139 
(status, New York City region), — ^Bt^BixiOH, WUs. Bn!'.., xxxvi. 1924. 76 
(migr. : Centre Cotmty, Pa.). — Lat.son-, 'VTUs. BuU., xxxvii. 1925. 25 (status, 
Sioux Falls region, S. Dak.). — G:;iscom ard Cbosbt. Auk, xlii, 1925, 527 
is':atrs. BrownsvUle, Tex.). — Fbiedma:sx. Auk, xlU. 1925, 542 (Brownsville, 
Tex.). — GiEBxzB. Proc. U. S. Xat. Mtis.. Ixvii. art. 19, lf25. 16 in text, pL 
4 (structure of tongue). — XATtiorEG. Auk. xliii. 1926. 491 part (bree^.U Jrcm 
Central Stares to s vjth America). — MorsixT, Auk, xUv, 1927. 523 ((Cherry 
Eivjr. near Magog: near Little Magog Laie. Quebec). — Bai_i. Auk. xliv, 
1927, 25S (near 'R'ashlngTon. D. C). — Baitet, Aak. xlv, 192S. 277 (winter; 
Chenier an Tigre. La.). — rE::res. Abstr. Proc. Linn. Soc. Xcw York. Xos, 39 
and 40, 1930. 66 (Cnion County. X. J.). 
GalUnula galatea Peshab, "WUs. BiUl.. xxxvi, 1924. 204 (e. Arkansas). 



188 BULLETIN 50, UNTTED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

[GalUnula-i galeata Geay, Hand-list, iii, 1871, 66, No. 10500, part.— Shabpe, 
Hand-list, i, 1899, 107 part.— Btjetch, Auk, xxsJx, 1917, 319-321 (Branch- 
port, N. Y. ; nesting habits). 

aiallinula] galeata Nelson, Bull. Essex Inst., vlii, 1876, 135 (ne. Illinois, abun- 
dant summer resident). — Coues, Key North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 1884, 675. — 
RiDGWAT, Man. North Amer. Birds, 1887, 141.— Rothschild and Habtebt, 
Nov. Zool., vl, 1899, 203 (Galapagos). 

Qallinula chloropus galeata Ridgway, Bull. Essex Inst., vi, 1874, 171 (Sacra- 
mento, Calif.). 

[OalUnula] (chloropus var. ?) galeata Coues, Key North Amer. Birds, 1872, 245, 
part. 

Qallinula galeata galeata Foktnee and Metcalp, Wils. Bull., xli, 1929, 249 (Burt 
Lake, Mich.). 

Qallmula. (chloropus var. ?) galeata Cotjes, Check List, 1874, No. 472, part. 

Qallinula chloropus . . . var. galeata Coues, Check List, 1874, App., 137, No. 472. 

Qiallinula] chloropus . . . var. galeata Ridgway, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, 
X, 1874, 387 (Illinois). 

Qallinula fusoa Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat, xiii, 1817, 404, part ("America"). 

Qallinula chloropus cachinnans Bangs, Proc. New England Zool. Club, v. May 17, 
1915, 96 (Arbuckle Creek, De Soto County, Fla. ; coll. Mus. Comp. Zool.).— 
Haeteet, Nov. Zool., xxii, 1917, 269 (crit.). — McAtee, U. S. Dept Agr. Bull. 
294, 1920, 29 (Hackberry Lake, Cherry County, Nebr., June 5) ; V. S. Dept. 
Agr. Misc. Circ. 13, 1923, 44, fig. 35 (local names; range). — ^American Okni- 

THOLOGISTS' UNION COMMITTEE, Auk, Xl, 1923, 516. — DiCKEY and VAN 

RossEM, Condor, xxvi, 1924, 91 (status of Pacific coast specimens; crit.). — 
Haetebt, Vog. pal. Fauna, iii, 1921. 1844 (tax.). — Nice (M. M. and L. B.), 
Birds Oklahoma, 1924, 29 (genl. ; Oklahoma). — Hovpell, Birds Alabama, 
1924, 92 ; ed. 2, 1928, 92 (distr. ; habits ; Alabama) .—Bent, Wils. Bull., xxxvi, 

1924, 10 (near Brownsville, Tex.). — de Laxjbenfbxs, Wils. Bull., xxxvi, 1924, 
165 (Brownsville, Tex.). — Pindae, Wils. BuU., xxxvii, 1925, 82 (status; 
Fulton County, Ky. ) .—Bailey, Birds Florida, 1925, 44, pi. 24 (col. flg.; 
descr. ; Florida). — Wyman and Bubnell, Field Book Birds Southwestern 
United States, 1925, 64 (descr.; chars.). — Simmons, Birds Austin Region, 

1925, 49 (Austin, Tex.; habits; descr.; nest and eggs). — Foebush, Birds 
Massachusetts and Other New England States, i, 1925, 366, pi. 24 (col. fig. ; 
descr. ; distr. in New England). — Fabgo, Wils. Bull., xxxviii, 1926, 147 (Pinel- 
las and Pasco Counties, Fla.). — Lamb, Condor, xxix, 1927, 156 (San Jos6 
del Cabo, Lower California). — Bent and Copeland, Auk, xliv, 1927, 377 
(common, summer, in Florida). — Gkinnell, Univ. California, Publ. Zool., 
xxxii, 1928, 88 (distr. in Lower California). — Cheisty, Auk, xlv, 1928, 287 
In text (s. Florida).- Cooke, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xlil, 1929, 27 
(Washington, D. C.).— Mubeay, Auk, xlvi, 1929, 380 in text (migr.; Lexing- 
ton, Va.).— Ball, Wils. Bull., xU, 1929, 190 in text (Goose Creek, near 
Otranto, S. C). — Bangs, Bull, Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixx, 1930, 170 (type spec, 
in Mus. Comp. Zool., crit.).- Helmuth, Auk, xlvii, 1930, 531 (e. Long Island, 
N. Y.).— PiEBOE, Wils. Bull,, xlii. 1930, 262 (Buchanan County, Iowa).— 

[Abthue], Birds Louisiana, 1931, 244 (descr.; distr. in Louisiana). Baekg, 

Univ. Arkansas Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 258, 1931, 58 (descr. ; distr. in Arkan- 
sas. ) .—Bailey and Weight, Wils. BuU., xliii, 1931, 195 (Avery Island, 
La.).— American Oenithologists' Union, Check-list North Amer. Birds, ed. 
4, 1931, 98.— Cheisty, Auk, xlviil, 1931, 367 (change of status ; Sandusky Bay^ 
Lake Brie).— Nice, Birds Oklahoma, rev. ed., 1931, 86 (genl.; Oklahoma).— 
Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixxi, 1931, 301 (Changuinola, Panama.; 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 189 

crit.).— SwABTH, Occ. Pap. California Acad. Sci., xvlil, 1931, 57 (crit. ; speci- 
men, Galapagos).— RoBEETs, Birds Minnesota, 1, 1932, 451, pi. 28 (distr.; 
habits; col. fig.; Minnesota).— Howell, Florida Bird Life, 1932, 211 (genl. ; 
Florida).- Gbiscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 1x1 v, 1932, 123 (distr.; 
Guatemala).— Stonee, Boosevelt Wild Life Ann., 11, 1932, 448 (habits, Oneida 
Lake region, N. Y.).— Eliot, Auli, xlix, 1932, 101 (North.impton, Mass.).— 
Kaltee, Wils. Bull., xllv, 1932, 38 in text (eating a goldfinch).— Willbtt, 
Pac. Coast Avif., No. 21, 1933, 54 (sw. California, formerly common summer 
resident, breeding May and June, less plentiful in winter; now only occa- 
sional owing to draining of fresh- water marshes).— Wilson, Wils. Bull., xlv, 
1933, 142 (Bowling Green, Ky., May 11 and 21). — Gkiscom, Trans. Linn, Soc. 
New York, ill, 1933, 100 (Dutchess County, N. Y., local summer resident).— 
Hicks, Wils. Bull., xlv, 1933, 181 (Ashtabula County, Ohio, irregular summer 
resident; nest with eggs, June 12).— Du Mont, Univ. Iowa Stud. Nat. Hist., 
XT, 1934, 64 (Iowa, uncommon migrant, rare summer resident.) — Neff, 
Condor, xxxtI, 1934, 217 (Sacramento Valley, Calif.; winter resident). — 
Beooks, Wils. Bull., xlvi, 1934, 256 (Lewis County, W. Va., July 24, 1934).— 
Spikee, Bull. New York State Coll. Forestry, viii, No. 1, 1935, 457 (Finger 
Lakes, N. Y. ; breeds). — Caeleton, Auk, 111, 1935, 197 (near Ticonderoga, 
N. Y.).— Gkkene, Auk, lii, 1935, 319 (seen Jan. 7, 1935, Lake Mattamuskeet, 
N. C). — Geiscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixxviii, 1935, 305 (Panamd — 
Almirante and Canal Zone). — Mxjeeat, Wils. Bull., xlvii, 1935, 65 (Rock- 
bridge County, Va., 3 records). — Yotjnuwoeth, Wils. Bull., xlvii, 1935, 217 
(Fort Sisseton, S. Dak.).— Hudson and Sheeman, Auk, Uii, 1936, 312 (South 
Carolina, Apr. 27, 1935). — Bellbose, Auk, liii, 1936, 348 (nest with eggs and 
young, near Ottawa, 111., Aug. 16, 1935). — Linsdale, Pacific Coast Avif., 
No. 23, 1936, 51 (Nevada — seen in Colorado River Valley, near southern 
tip of Clark County, Jan. 27, 1934) .— Shoop, Wils. Bull., xlviii, 1936, 132 in 
text (Crystal Lake, Okla.). — Unglish, Condor, xxxix, 1937, 39 (Soap Lake, 
near Gilroy, Calif., nest and eggs). — van Rossbm, Birds El Salvador, 1938, 
164 (Colima, El Salvador). — Obebholsee, Bird Life Louisiana, 1938, 208 
(habits, photo; fairly common permanent resident s. Louisiana, uncommon 
summer resident in rest of State). — ^Williams, Auk, Iv, 1938, 65 (common in 
summer, upper Texas coast).— Poole, Auk, Iv, 1938, 516 (weight and wing 
area). — Stonee, Condor, xl, 1938, 185 (Suisun Marshes, Calif., Dec.). — Wet- 
MOBE, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxvi, 1939, 184 (Reelfoot Lake, Tenn., 2 
specimens). — Bennett and Hendeickson, Auk, Ivi, 1939, 36 (adapt to en- 
vironment). — Reimann, Auk, Ivi, 1939, 331 (winter, Philadelphia). 
OalUnula chloropus cachinnas Holt and Sutton, Ann. Carnegie Mus., xvi, 1926, 
424 (habits, s. Florida). — Debes, Auk, li, 1934, 230 in text (Delaware Marshes 
below Philadelphia; abundant in summer). 
QalUnula chloropus caohincms Pickens, Wils. Bull., xl, 1928, 188 (South 

Carolina). 
[Oallmula] chloropus (not FuUca chloropus Linnaeus) Latham, Synopsis Birds, 
Suppl., i, 1787, 293, part ; Index Orn., 11, 1790, 770, part.— Tueton, Syst. Nat., 
1, 1806, 421, part. 
Qiaiirviaa chloropus Bonap.vkte, Contr. Maclurian Lye, i, 1827, 27; Ann. Lye. 
Nat. Hist. New York, ii, 1827, 336.— Audubon, Orn. Biogr., lii, 1835, 330, pi. 
244 ; Synopsis, 1839, 210 ; Birds Amer., 8vo. ed., v, 1842, 132, pi. 344.— Bland, 
Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst, for 1858 (1859), 287 (Bermuda).— Schlegel, Mus. 
Pays-Bas, v. No. 30, livr. 7, 1865, 45, part— Tavbeneb, Birds Canada, 1934, 
174 (regularly common in Canada only along lower Great Lakes; one record 
for s. Manitoba ; habits ; descr. ; etc.) . 



190 BtJLLETD'f 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Crex ohloropus Lichtenstein, Preis-Verz. Mex. V5g., 1830, 3; Journ. fiir Om., xi, 

1863, 59. 
OalUnula fusca Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist Nat, xli, 1817, 404, part 
Gallinula cKloropus centralis MnxEE (W. deW.) and Griscom, Amer. Mus. 

Nov., No. 25, 1921, 3 (12 miles south of Metapa, central Nicaragua; coa 

Amer. Mus. Nat Hist). 

GALLIXULA CHLOROPUS CERCERIS Bangs 

Anthiean Gat.t.tntjle 

Adult (sexes alike). — Similar to that of Gallinula chlorojma 
cachinnans but with the brown on the upperparts not extending 
markedly on to the upper wing coverts ; and with the tarsus slightly 
longer. 

Young birds appear to be indistinguishable from North American 
mainland ones. 

Adult male.—W'mg 166-186 (174); tail 62.3-75.6 (70.8); culmen 
from frontal shield 46.5-49 (48.2) ; tarsus 62-61 (58.0) ; middle toe 
without claw 66-75 (73.1 mm.).^= 

Adult female.— Wmg 154^183 (166.1) ; tail 63.6-73.5 (67.2) ; cul- 
men from the frontal shield 13.5-16 (15.2) ; tarsus 49-59 (52.9) ; 
middle toe without claw 59-73.5 (66.9 mm.).^^ 

Range. — Resident in the West Indies from the Bahamas (New 
Providence, Watling Island, Great Inagua) ; and the Greater An- 
tilles — Cuba (Laguna del Sitio) ; Jamaica ; Hispaniola (£tang Sau- 
matre; £tang Miragoane; lie a Vache; Et Batey, Yasica River; 
Bonao; near Port-au-Prince; Petit Trou de Nippes; Port-de-Paix, 
Trou Caiman); Puerto Rico (Aguadilla; Mayaguez; Cabo Eojo 
Lighthouse; Anegada, Guanica, and Cartagena Lagoons), Vieques; 
Culebra ; and Virgin Gorda ; and Grand Cayman ; through the Lesser 
Antilles — St. Vincent ; St. Thomas ; St. Croix ; St. Lucia ; Guadeloupe, 
Anguilla, Montserrat, Barbuda, Barbados, Marie Galante, Carriacou, 
Dominica, Grenada, Mustique, Jost van Dyke, Tortola, and Antigua ; 
to Tobago and to Swan Island. 

Type locality. — Island of St. Lucia. 

Fulica cMoropus West, Beytr. Beschr. St. Croix, 1794, 243.— D'Obbigny, in 
La Sagra, Hist. Nat. Cuba, Aves, fol. ed., 1839, 184; 8vo ed., 268. 

Gallinula ohloropus Rittek, Naturh. Reise westind. Insel Haytl, 1836, 1.57 
(Haiti).— Wetmoee, Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., liv, 1918, 520 (bones, St 
Croix).— Danpobth, Wils. Bull., xi, 1928, 179 (Laguna del Sitio, Cuba; 
breeding). — Fishee and Wetmoee, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxix, art, 
10, 1931, 5 (Grand Cayman Island; Caribbean Sea). 



*■ Fifteen specimens (data for culmen and middle toe based on 8 specimens) 
from Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, Barbuda, Antigua, and Montserrat. 

*■ Eighteen specimens (data for culmen based on 8 specimens only; that 
of middle toe on 9 specimens) from Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, Jamaica, 
Grenada, Barbuda, Antigua, Tobago, and Montserrat 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 191 

SydrogcaUna cJiloropus Ledbu, Voy. lies T6n4riffe, La Trinity, Saint-Thomas, 

Sainte-Croix, et Porto-Kicco, ii, 1810, 209 (Puerto Rico). 
Qallmula galeata Gosse, Birds Jamaica, 1847, 381.— Cabanis, Journ. fur Orn., 
iv, 1856, 428 (Cuba).— Thienemann, Journ. fiir Orn., v, 1857, 156 (Cuba; 
deser. eggs).— Sau.e, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, 237 (Santo Domingo; 
habits).— Newton (A. and E.), Ibis, 1859, 260 (St. Croix; habits, crit.).— 
Bbtant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., yii, 1859, 122 (Bahamas) ; x, 1866, 
257 (Puerto Rico) ; xi, 1867, 97 (Santo Domingo) ; Journ. fCr Orn., xiv, 
1866, 191 (Puerto Rico). — Brewer, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vii, 1860, 
307 (Cuba).— Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, xil, 1860, 378 (St. 
Thomas).— Albeecht, Journ. fiir Orn., ix, 1861, 56 (Bahamas) ; x, 1862, 206 
(Jamaica). — Sclatek, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1861, 81 (Jamaica) ; 1879, 
765 (Montserrat) ; 1892, 500 (Anguilla) ; Rev. List Birds Jamaica, 1910, 
20.— GUNDLACH, Journ. fur Orn., x, 1862, 90 (Cuba, crit.) ; xxii, 1874, 314 
(Puerto Rico) ; xxiii, 1875, 360 (Cuba; habits) ; xxvi, 1878, 162, 190 (Puerto 
Rico) ; Contr. Orn. Cubana, 1876, 192 ; Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., vii, 1878, 
391 (Puerto Rico) ; Orn. Cubana, 1895, 247.— March, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia, xvi, 1864, 69 (Jamaica).— Sundevall, Of v. Vet.-Akad. Forh., 
1869, 601 (Puerto Rico).— Bello, Zool. Gart. 1871, 350 (Puerto Rico).— 
Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 461, 487 (Guadeloupe). — Aixen 
(J. A.),Bul]. Nutt. Orn. Club,v, 1880, 169 (St. Lucia).— Cory, Birds Bahama 
Islands, 1880, 177; Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1881, 155 (near Gantier, 
Haiti); Birds Haiti and San Domingo, 1885, 161; Ibis, 1866, 474 (Marie 
Galante) ; Auls;, v, 1888, 56 (West Indian localities and references; descr.) ; 
Birds West Indies, 1889, 257; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, 91, part.— 
Wells, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1887, 629 (Grenada; resident; breeding). — 
Scott, Auk, ix, 1892, 12 (Jamaica, resident, breeding). — Tlppenhattek, Die 
Insel Haiti, 1892, 323 (Haiti).— Field, Auk, si, 1894, 122 (Jamaica, breed- 
ing). — Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 177, part (Jamaica; 
Haiti; Anguilla; St. Croix; Montserrat; Guadeloupe). — Bowdish, Auk, 
xix, 1902, 359 (Aguadilla and Mayaguez, Puerto Rico). — Nicoll. Ibis, 
1904, 586 (Grand Cayman).— Lowe, Ibis, 1909, 339 (Swan Island, Caribbean 
Sea; Grand Cayman); 1911, 146 (Grand Cayman, resident). — Vebetex 
(A. E. and A. H.), Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ixi, 1909, 356 (Santo 
Domingo) . 
[G-aWnula] galeata Gundi.aoh, Journ. fiir Orn., ix, 1861, 344 (Cuba) ; Rep. 
Fiscio-Nat. Cuba, i, 1865-66, 362.— Scalteb and Salvin, Norn. Av. Neotr., 
1873, 140, part.— CoRT, List Birds West Indies, 1885, and rev. ed., 1886, 
30.— Sharpe, Hand-list, 1, 1899, 107, part.- Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 
128, 1914, 40, part. 
Oallinula gaJatea Denny, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1847, 40. 

Qallmula galeata galeata Wmmore, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 326, 1916, 35 (Puerto 

Rico; habits; food); Auk, xxxiii, 1916, 411 (Vieques, reported); xxxiv, 

1917, 58 (Culebra Island; specimen).— Steuthers, Auk, xl, 1923, 472 (Ane- 

gado and Cartagena Lagoons, Puerto Rico). 

Oallinula chloropus subsp. Danforth, Auk, zlv, 1928, 482 (summer; near 

Hodges; near Black River, Jamaica). 
Oallinula chloropus caoTiinnans (not of Bangs 1915) Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., Ix, 1916, 805 (Grand Cayman; breeding).— Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
X, 1916, 203 (Laguna de Santa Rosalia; Isle of Pines, in 1902, but not 
found later).— Noble, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ix, 1916, 366 (Guadeloupe).— 
Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 1x1, 1917, 402 (El Batey, Tasica River, 
Hispaniola).— Bangs and Kennard, List Birds Jamaica, 1920, 6 (common 



192 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

resident).— Baeboxje, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1923, 56 (Cuba; breeding; 

habits).— Beebe, New York Zool. Soc. Bull., xxx, 1927, 139; Beneath 

Tropic Seas, 1928, 219 (Utang Saumatre; fitang Miragoane, Hispaniola).— 

PETEats, Auk, xliv, 1927, 534 (Anguilla, West Indies). 
OaUinula chloropus ceroeris Bangs, Proe. New England Zool. Club, v, 1915, 

98 (Santa Lucia, Lesser Antilles; coll. Mus. Comp. Zool. ) .— HAETEasT, Nov. 

Zool., xxii, 1917, 270 (crit.).- Bond, Auk, xlix, 1932, 494 (crlt. ; spec.; 

St. Lucia).— Petebs, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 205. 
aialUnula] olhloropus] cerceris Bond, Birds West Indies, 1936, 98 in text (West 

Indies). 
Gallinula cliloropus (cerceris?) Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Scienz. Nat., Ixvlii, 

1929, 312 (Bonao, Hispaniola). 
OaUinula galeata ceroeris Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixx, 1930, 170 (type 

spec, in Mus. Comp. Zool.; crit.). 
OaUinula chloropus portoricensis Danforth, Auk, xlii, 1925, 560 (orig. descr. ; 

Cartagena, Anegado, and Guanica Lagoons, Cabo Rojo Lighthouse, Argua- 

dilla, and Mayaguez, Puerto Rico) ; Journ. Dept. Agr. Puerto Rico, x, 

1926, 59-62, fig. 29 (Cartagena Lagoon, Puerto Rico; habits) ; Auk, xlvl, 
1929, 362 (Hispaniola, common) ; Journ. Dept. Agr. Puerto Rico, 1980, 115 
(Virgin Gorda, Virgin Islands) ; xv, 1931, 51 (various localities, Puerto 
Rico).— Wbtmoee, New York Acad. Sci., Sci. Surv. Porto Rico, etc., ix, pt. 3, 

1927, 348 (genl. ; Puerto Rico) ; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxi, art. 2, 1982, 8, 16 
(lie a Vache; Montet near Port-au-Prince; Petit Trou de Nippes, Haiti). — 
Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ixxx, 1928 (1929), 495 (Port-an- 
Paix, Trou Caiman, Haiti ; nesting) . — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat, Ixviii, 

1929, 311 (Guerra, Hispaniola). — Beattt, Journ. Dept. Agr. Puerto Rico, xiv, 

1930, 189 (St. Croix; Virgin Islands; breeding); xv, 1981, 22 (Guanica 
Lagoon, Puerto Rleo). — Wetmobe and Swales. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 155, 

1931, 136 (habits; distr. ; etc.; Hispaniola). — Danfobth, Auk, li, 1934; 
858 (Antigua; common; meas.) ; Journ. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico, xix, 1935, 
447 (Cayo Norte; St. Thomas; Jost van Dyke; Tortola ; Beef Island; 
St. Croix; specimen; meas.), 467 (Vieques Culebra; Cayo Norte; St. 
Thomas; Jost van Dyke; Tortola; Beef Island; Virgin Gorda; St. Croix), 
477 (Barbuda) ; xxi, 1987, 543 (common Punta Arena, Playa Grande, and 
Puerto Negro, Vieques Island) ; xxiii, 1939, 23 (Guadeloupe and Marie 
Galante; spec); xxiii, 1939, 54 (Fox's Bay Pond, Montserrat). 

Genus PORPHYRULA BIyth 

PorpJiyrula Bltth, Cat. Birds Mus. Asiat. Soc, 1849 (1852), 283, 286. (Type, 

by monotypy. Porphyria chloronotus Blyth=P. alleni Thompson.) 
Porphyriola (emendation) Sundevall, Av. Meth. Tent., 1872, 181, 
lonornis Reicheneach, Av. Syst., 1852, xxi. (Type, by monotypy, Fulica mar- 

tinicensis Jacquin=i^. martinica Linnaeus.) 
•^OJior-m*' (emendation) Heine and Rkichenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 

318. 
Olaucestes Rescchenbach, Av. Syst., 1852, xxi. (Type, by monotypy, FuHca 

flavirostris Gmelin=i''. parva Boddaert.) 
Hydrionia "Hartl[aub]" Bonapabte, Compt. Rend., xliii, Sept. 1856, 599. 

(Type, by monotypy, Gallinula porphyria "Temm[inck]" nee Latham=Por- 

phyrio aUeni Thompson.) 
Eydrarnia (emendation) Habilaub, Sy.st. Orn. Westafrica's, 1857, 243. 



BIRDS OP NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 



193 



Jonocicca Saivadobi, Ann. Mus. Olv. Stor. Nat. Genoa, ser. 2, iii, 1886, 236. 
(Type, by original designation and monotypy, Porphyrio alleni Thompson.) 
lonooicca (emendation) Sclateb and Saundebs, Ibis, 1887, 358. 

Gallinulae with nasal fossa indistinct, the nostril relatively broad 
and short ; tarsus much longer than outer toe without claw ; toe with- 
out a distinct lateral membrane, except along inner side; inner toe 
without claw, not reaching beyond subterminal articulation of mid- 
dle toe ; hallux without claw, as long as basal phalanx of middle toe, 
and coloration (of adults) mainly green, blue, and purplish. 




Figure 13. — Porphyrula mariinica. 

Bill about as long as head, its depth at base equal to a little less than 
half the length of culmen (from base of frontal shield) , and equal to 
about one and a half times its width at same point; culmen (from base 
of frontal shield) nearly straight for basal half though faintly de- 
pressed above nostril, gently but distinctly decurved for distal half; 
gonys a little shorter than mandibular rami, decidedly less than half 
as long as cuhnen, nearly if not quite straight, ascending terminally, 



194 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

its basal angle fairly distinct; frontal shield large and broad (a little 
longer than wide) , extending backward to beyond posterior angle of 
eye, its posterior outline strongly rounded with more or less tendency 
to a median obtuse angle, its surface flat or very slightly elevated. 
Nostril ovate {P. martinica) or elliptical {P. cdleni and P. fofrva) , its 
anterior end much nearer to edge of loral feathering than to tip of 
maxilla; nasal fossa small and (especially in P. parva) rather indis- 
tinct ; anterior outline of feathering at lateral base of bill forming a 
nearly straight but slightly oblique, almost vertical line from lateral 
base of frontal shield to lower edge of mandibular rami. Wing rather 
large, moderately concave beneath; second {P- martinica and P. 
parva) or third (P. alleni) primary (from outside) longest, the first 
(outermost) equal to fifth {P. martinica) , sixth {P. parva) , or seventh 
{P. alleni) , the longest primaries exceeding distal secondaries by about 
one-third {P. martinica) to two-fifths {P. alleni and P. parva) the 
length of wing, the proximal secondaries falling far short of tips of 
longest primaries. Tail between two-fifths and one-half as long as 
wing, graduated, the rectrices becoming narrower terminally but with 
rounded tips (narrower and subacuminate in P. alleni), apparently 
ten in number, the middle pair extending considerably beyond both 
upper and lower coverts. Tarsus as long as middle toe without claw 
{P. martinica) or decidedly shorter {P. alleni and P. parva), the. 
acrotarsium with about 12 or 13 large transverse scutella (in single 
series), the planta tarsi with a single series of smaller transverse 
scutella along each side, the two lateral series separated along pos- 
terior edge by a narrow space occupied by small, more or less longi- 
tudinal scales ; lower portion of tibia naked for a considerable distance, 
covered both anteriorly and posteriorly by large transverse scutella; 
outer toe, without claw, reaching to about middle of penultimate 
plialanx of middle toe, the inner toe decidedly shorter, reaching (with- 
out claw) to subterminal articulation of middle toe ; hallux, without 
claw, about as long as basal phalanx of outer toe {P. nMrtin,ica) or 
longer (P alleni and P. parva) ; claws slender, rather long, distinctly 
curved, that of the hallux nearly as long as its digit; outer edge of 
middle toe with a very narrow marginal membrane. 

Plumage and coloration. — Plumage of head, neck, and underparts 
dense, blended, that of head shorter, the head completely feathered 
(except for frontal shield) ; plumage of upperparts similar but in- 
dividual feathers rather more distinctly defined, especially the scapu- 
lars and wing coverts. Coloration plain dull purplish blue on under- 
parts, head more blackish, upperparts greenish olive becoming more 
greenish on wings {P. martinica and P. alleni), or upperparts 
reddish brown passing into a light bluish green above and whitish 
beneath {P. parva). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 195 

iJan^e.— Tropical and subtropical Africa and America (three 
species) . 

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF POEPHYRULA 

a. Wing more than 130 mm.; underparts in adults dull purplish grayish blue; 

upper parts oUve and greenish; biU red, difEerent in color from frontal 

shield. 

6. Smaller (wing about 140 mm.) ; tarsus shorter than middle toe without 

claw; dull purplish blue of underparts not passing into greenish blue 

on sides of neck, etc. ; bill wholly red ; legs and feet red (Africa) . 

Porphyrula alleni (estralimital) 
iS. Larger (wing 177-190.5 mm.) ; tarsus not shorter than middle toe without 
claw ; duU purplish blue of underparts passing into bright greenish blue 
on sides of neck, etc. ; bill red broadly tipped with yellow or light green ; 
legs and feet yellowish (warmer parts of America). 

Porphyrula martinica (p. 196 y> 

aa. Wing less than 130 mm. ; underparts in adult white ; upperparts reddish brown,. 

passing into greenish blue on wing coverts and bluish gray on sides of head, 

neck, and chest; bill and frontal shield yellow or greenish (eastern South 

America) Porphyrula parva (extralimital) *" 

'^Porphyria alleni Thompson, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., x, 1842, 204 (Idda, Niger 
River) ; Cassin, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1859, 175 (Gamma River, 
Africa); Shelley, Birds Egypt, 1872, 276; Heuglin, Orn. Nordost.-Afrika's, ii, 
pt. 1, 1873, 1228; Saunders, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, ii, 1877, 189 (s. Spain) ; 
Hartlaub, Vog. Madagascars, 1877, 346 ; Dresser, Birds Europe, vii, 1871-81, 307, 
pi. 502; Bocage, Orn. Angola, 1881, 485; Milne-Edwards and Grandidier, Hist. 
Nat. Madagascar, Ois., i, 1882, 593, pi. 245 ; Sharpe, new ed. Layard's Birds South 
Africa, 1884, 621. — Gaesarornis alleni Bonaparte, Compt. Reed., xliii, 1856, 599. — 
Porphyrio {Cacsaroniis) alleni Hartlaub, Orn. Westafrika's, 1857, 243. — Gal- 
linula alleni Schelegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, Ralli, 1865, 38 — Hydrornia alleni Salva- 
dor!, Orn. Ital. Ucc, 1871, 233 ; Giglioll, Icon. Avif. Ital., 1879, fasc. ii (Luca) ; 
Avif. Ital., 1886, 353, 1st Eesoc, 1869, 550. — lonocicca alleni Salvadori, Elenco, 
Uccelli Ital., 1887, 236. — Porphyiiola alleni Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 
1894, 187.^ — Porphyrio cltloronotus Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, xviii, pt. 2, 
1849, 820 (locality unknown). — Porphyrula chloronotus Blyth, Cat. Birds Mus. 
Asiat. Soc., 1849, 2SS.—Porphyriola chloronotus Sundevall, Av. Meth. Tent., 1872, 
131. — Porphyrula chloronotus Hume, Stray Peath., vii, 1878, 456. — GalUnula 
mutaUlis Sundevall, Ofv. Vet.-Akad. Forh., 1850, 132 (Blue J^Ws) .—Porphyrio 
madagascariensis (not GalUnula madagascariensis Latham) Reichenbach, 
Handb., Fulicariae, 1852, pi. cviii, figs. 1004, 1005. — GalUnula porphyrio (not of 
Latham) Hartlaub, Journ. fiir Orn., 1855, 357, 361. — Hydrornia porphyrio Bona- 
parte, Compt. Rend., xliii, 1856, 599; Hartlaub, Orn. Westafrika's, 1857, 243.— 
Porphyrio variegatns Guirao, Mem. Acad. Sci. Madrid, iv. 1859, 554, pi. 2. 

^Fulica parva Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl., 1783, 54 (based on La Favorite de 
Cayenne Daubenton, PI. Enl., ix, pi. 897). — Porphi/rio parva Gray, Gen. Birds, 
iii, 1846, 589 ; Scalter and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1857, 592 (Rio Amazon) ; 
Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1871, 318, 459.— [Porpft,|/rio] parvus Gray, Hand-list iii, 1871, 
65, No. 10490; Scalter and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 140; Allen, Bull. Essex 
Inst., viii, 1876, 82 (Santarem, lower Amazon). — Porphyrio parvus Kerr, Ibis, 
1892, 149 (Rio Pilcomayo). — GalUnula parva Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas. Ralli, 1865, 
39 (Surinam; Cayenne). — lonornia parvus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., iv,. 
1881, 201. — lonomis parva Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Water Birds North Amer., 



196 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

PORPHYRULA MABTINICA (Liimaeiu) 
PtTBELE GAUaNULE 

Adult (sexes alike). — Entire head, except the large frontal and 
anterocoronal area occupied by the frontal shield, and all of underparts 
except the under tail and wing coverts and the lower abdomen and the 
thighs, dark slate-violet to dusky dull violet-blue, nape and sides of 
neck and of breast greenish Delft blue ; hind neck, shorter scapulars, 
and interscapulars bright dusky olive-green, paling almost to leaf 
green anteriorly; long scapulars, back, rump, upper tail coverts, and 
rectrices glossy very dark greenish olive ; lesser and median outer upper 
wing coverts greenish Delft blue like the sides of the breast ; the inner 
upper coverts bright dusky olive green, slightly less dusky, more 
greenish than the interscapulars; greater upper primary coverts 
greenish Delft blue on their outer webs, dull olive-fuscous on all but 
the tips of the inner webs, the tips like the outer webs; remiges dull 
fuscous on the inner webs, greenish Delft blue on the outer webs of 
the outermost three or four primaries, the others with the outer web 
bright dusky olive-green like their inner median upper coverts ; middle 
and lower abdomen, and thighs dull blackish violet-gray to almost 
black; under tail coverts white; larger, under wing coverts greenish 
Delft blue with pale dull fuscous inner webs ; iris clear brown ; frontal 
shield dull blue or bluish white; bill carmine tipped with greenish 
yellow; tarsi and toes greenish yellow.'^ 



I, 1884, 384; Dabbene, Orn. Argentina, 1910, 198. — [lonornis] parva Ihering 
(H. & R.), Aves Brazil, 1907, 32 (Matto Grosso; Rio Amazonas; MInas Geraes; 
Amazonia). — Jonornis parvi Bertoni, Fauna Paraguaya, 1914, 37 (Pllcomayo; 
Matto Grosso; Minas Geraes). — Glaucesteg parvus Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., V, 1893, 150 (Chapada, Matto Grosso, w. Brazil). — Porphyriola parva 
Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 191 (Rio Amazon ; Aunai, Brit. Guiana). 
[Porphyriola'] parva Sharpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 108. — [Fulica'] flavirostris Gmelin, 
Syst. Nat., i, pt. 2, 1789, 699 (Cayenne ; based on Favorite de Cayenne Button, Ois., 
viii, 207; Favorite Gallinule Latham, Synop. Birds, iil, pt. i, 256). — [OalUnula] 
flavirostris Latham, Index Orn., ii, 1790, 169. — Porphyrio flavirostris Vieillot, 
Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., xxviii, 1819, 29; Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool. xii, pt. i, 
1824, 250 ; Gray, List Birds Brit. Mus., Grallae, 1844, 122. — Olaucestes flavirostris 
Keichenbach, Av. Syst., 1852, xxi. — [lonornisj fl,avvrostris Brabourne and Chubb, 
Birds South America, i, 1912, 261 (Guiana; Amazonia; int. Brazil). — lonomis 
flavirostris Chubb, Birds Brit. Guiana, i, 1916, 79 ; Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., Ixii, 1918, 42 (Paramaribo, Surinam). — Jonornis flavirostris Dabbene, 
Bol. Soc. Phys. Buenos Aires, i, 1913, 256 (Fortin Page, lower Rio Pilcomayo, 
Argentina; Matto Grosso, Brazil). — Porphyria cay ana Lesson, Traits d'Orn., 
1831, 533 (new name for Fulica flavirostris Gmelin). — Porphyria simplex Gould, 
Zool. Voy. Beagle, Birds, 1841, 133 (Ascension Islsmd) .—Porphyrula martinica 
(not Fiilica martinica Linnaeus) Bonaparte, Compt. Rend., xliii, 1856, 599. 

" Winter birds are said to have the bill, tarsi, and toes a little darker and duller 
than breeding specimens. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND JVnDDLB AMERICA 197 

■Juvenul (sexes alike). — Frontal shield smaller tlian in adult leav- 
ing more of the top of the head to be feathered ; crown and occiput 
sepia to bister ; hind neck similar but washed with oily olive-green ; 
interscapulars, scapulars, and upper back oily brownish olive; wings 
as in adult but the upper coverts narrowly tipped with pale cream- 
bu£E; lower back dusky olive-brown; rump, upper tail coverts, and 
rectrices Prout's brown to mmmny brown, the coverts tipped with 
olivaceous mummy brown, the rectrices externally washed with the 
same, sides of head tawny-olive to Saccardo's umber, a rather in- 
distinct loral band tawny -olive; sides of neck tawny-olive; throat, 
breast, sides, flanks, and thighs ashy, pale avellaneous becoming less 
ashy, more pale buffy brown on the sides and flanks and thighs; 
middle and lower abdomen white slightly washed with buffy; under 
tail coverts white; bill with no red, otherwise unfeathered parts 
colored as in adult. 

Natal down. — ^Uniform glossy black; the forehead, crown, orbital 
area, fore part of cheeks, and chin, ornamented by fine hairlike fila- 
ments of silvery white, densest on forehead, and also sparsely cover- 
ing the occiput; a few similar filaments on hinder part of secondary 
coverts; basal half of bill light yellowish brown (in dried skin), 
crossed anteriorly by an irregular, narrow, black bar; terminal por- 
tion jet black with a porcelain-white spot near the tip (not extending 
to the edge, however) , and slight indication of a vague spot immedi- 
ately beneath it, on subterminal portion of lower mandible; tarsi 
and toes dull light brownish; depth of bill at base greater than 
length of upper mandible from the nostril.^^ 

Adult male.— Wing 168-184 (176.2) ; tail 60-78 (69.7) ; culmen 
from nostril 16-19 (17.5) ; culmen including frontal shield 45-52 
(48.7); tarsus 56-64 (60.8); middle toe without claw 54.5-64 
(61.2 mm.).«« 

Adndt feTnale.—Wmg 161-184 (170.8) ; tail 60-78 (68.2) ; culmen 
from nostril 15-19 (16.8) ; culmen including frontal shield 41-^9.5 
(45.2) ; tarsus , 62-65 (59.3) ; middle toe without claw 51-61 
(57.8 mm.).«^ 

Range. — Breeds in fresh-water marshes from Texas (Harris and 
Orange Counties) ; Louisiana (Cameron Parish, Avery Island, 

"Readily distinguished from the corresponding stage of Gallmuia cliloropus 
cadhinnans by the much deeper and differently marked bill, much smaller and 
less elongated nostril, densely feathered head (almost nude in downy young 
of OaUinula except on sides of crown to above eyes and on occiput), and 
absence of whitish filaments on lower throat. 

''Nineteen specimens from Louisiana, Florida, Mexico, Panama, Cuba, and 
Brazil. 

"Twenty-seven specimens from Florida, Alabama, Mexico, Costa Rica, Hon- 
duras, Panama, Cuba, Hispaniola, and Brazil. 



198 BULLETESr 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Houma) ; Mississippi (Natchez) ; southern Alabama (Chuckvee 
Bay, Baldwin County); Florida (throughout peninsular Florida, 
west to Leon County) ; Georgia (Okefenokee Swamp and probably 
Savannah) ; and South Carolina (Yemasee, Frogmore, and probably 
Charleston) ; south through the West Indies— Bahamas (breeding?) ; 
Cuba and Isle of Pines (La Casalina) ; Puerto Eico (formerly com- 
mon, now rare; Arecibo, Lugillo, Guaimini Eiver, Anegado and 
Cartagena Lagoons); Jamaica; Hispaniola (both Haiti and the 
Dominican Republic); Grenada; the Grenadines; Barbados; St. 
Vincent; St. Lucia; Dominica; Guadeloupe; to Carriacou; Tobago; 
and Trinidad; and through Mexico and Central America (definitely 
recorded from Mexico; Guatemala; Honduras; El Salvador; Costa 
Rica; Panama) to South America as far south as Ecuador (La 
Carolina; Chone; chiefly tropical zone, but also recorded from the 
tableland) ; Peru; Brazil (whole of Brazil south to Matto Grosso — 
Caicara, Cachoeira, Carandasinho, Urucum; and Rio Grande do 
Sul) ; Paraguay (Sapucay) ; and northern half of Argentina (San 
Vicente, Chaco; Ban-acas al Sud, Santiago del Estero; and Province 
of Buenos Aires). 

Winters throughout all but the northernmost portion of the breed- 
ing range (occurs north to Brownsville, Tex., and Tallahassee and 
Royal Palm Hammock, Fla.). 

Casual in Bermuda; North Carolina; Virginia; Maryland; Penn- 
sylvania; New Jersey; New York; Connecticut; Rhode Island; 
Massachusetts; New Hampshire; Maine; New Brunswick; Nova 
Scotia; Quebec; Missouri; Illinois; Indiana; Michigan; Wisconsin; 
Kansas; Arizona; Colorado; and Utah. Accidental in Tristan da 
Cunha. 

Type locality. — Martinique, West Indies. 

[FuUca] martinica Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, i, 1766, 259 (Martinique; "edit 
Oryzam, Pisa, Ponem. D. Jacquin"). 

lOaUinula] martinica Latham, Index Orn., ii, 1790, 769. — Laweence, Ann. Lye. 
Nat. Hist. New York, viii, 1866, 295 (vicinity New Tork City). 

Gallinula martinica Temminck, Cat., Syst. 1807, 172. — Bonapabte, Contr. Ma- 
clurian Lye, 1, 1827, 27; Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, ii, 1827, 336; Geogr. 
and Comp. List, 1838, 53. — Nuitall, Man. Orn. United States and Canada, 
Water Birds, 1834, 221.— Audubon, Orn. Biogr., iv, 1838, 37, pi. 305 ; Synopsis, 
1839, 210; Birds Amer., 8vo ed., v, 1842, 128, pi. 303.— Peabodt, Rep. Orn. 
Massachusetts, 1839, 375 (accidental). — Denny, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 
1847, 40 (West Indies).— Hubdis, Jardine's Contr. Orn., 1850, 36 (Bermuda, 
Apr., 1849, several). — Cassin, in Baird, Kep. Pacific R. R. Surv., ix, 1858, 
753. — Baibd, Oat. North Amer. Birds, 1859, No. 561. — Betant, Proc. Boston 
Soc. Nat. Hist, vii, 1859, 122 (Bahamas) ; x, 1866, 257 (Puerto Rico) ; 
Journ. fflr Orn., xiv, 1866, 191 (Puerto Rico)". — Maktens, Journ. fiir Orn., vii, 
1859, 220 (Bermuda). — Bland, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst, for 1858 (1859), 287 
(Bermuda). — Lawbench, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, vii, 1861, 302 
(Panama) ; viii, 1866, 295 (vicinity of New York City), — March, Proc. Acad. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 199 

Nat. Scl. Philadelphia, xvl, 1864, 69 (Jamaica).— Sclateb, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, 1864, 179 (near City of Mexico).— Sohmhel, Mus. Pays-Bas, v, 
No. 30, livr. 7 (Ralli), 1865, 38.— Dressee, Ibis, 1866, 40 (s. Texas).— Coues, 
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xii, 1868, 124 (South Carolina).- Ttonbuix, 
Birds Eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 1869, 56 (Phila. ed., p. 45). — 
BoAEDMAN, Amer. Nat., ill, 1869, 498. 

OialUnulal martinica Bonapaete, Obs. Wilson's Amer. Orn., 1826, [193]. — 
RiDGWAT, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, x, 1874, 387 (lUlnois). 

OallUnula] martinica Albeecht, Journ. fur Orn., Ix, 1861, 56 (Bahamas). 

Oallinula (Fulica) martinica Thienemajsin, Journ. fiir Orn., v, 1857, 156 (Cuba; 
descr. eggs). 

GlreiB] martinica LiCHTENSTEaN, Verz. Doubl., 1823, 79 (Brazil). 

Porphyria martinica D'Orbignt, in La Sagra's Hist. Nat. Cuba, Aves, 1839, 182 
(French ed., 8vo, p. 265).— Gossb, Birds Jamaica, 1847, 377.— Buemeistee, 
Syst. Ueb. Thiere Bras., iii, 1856, 392.— Cabanis, Journ. fur Orn., 1856, 
429 (Cuba) ; 1874, 231 (Brazil).— Mooee, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1859, 64 
(Lake Pet^n, Guatemala).— Solateb and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, 230 (Guate- 
mala) ; Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1864, 372 (Panama). — Brewer, Proc. Boston 
Soc. Nat. Hist., vii, 1860, 307 (Cuba); xvii, 1875, 447 (New England).— 
GuNDLAOH, Journ. fiir Orn., 1862, 90 (crit.).— Taylor, Ibis, 1864, 96 (Trini- 
dad) ; 171 (Puerto Rico).- Frantzius, Journ. fur Orn., 1869, 375 (Costa 
Rica).— FiNSOH, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1870, 589 (Trinidad; crit.)— Wtatt, 
Ibis, 1871, 383 (Lake Paturia, Colombia).— Codes, Check-Ust, 1874, No. 
473. — Lawrence, Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., ii, 1874, 312 (Rio de Coa- 
huyana, Colima). — Whitman, Amer. Nat., ix, 1875, 573 (Massachusetts). — 
Langdon, Birds Cincinnati, 1877, 16 (mouth of Big Miami, Mar. 3, 1877; 
Jones Station, May 1, 1877; Madisonville, April, May, 3 specimens). — 
Whbaton, BuU. Nutt. Orn. Club, ii, 1877, 83 (CircleviUe, Ohio, May 10, 
1877).— AiXEN, BuU. Nutt. Orn. Club, iii, 1878, 149 (St. Louis, Mo., Apr. 18, 
1877).— PuRDiE, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 242 (Boothbay, Maine, Sept. 
1877).— Brewster, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1881, 186 (St. Johns, New 
Brunswick, Apr. 6, 1881).— Cory, BuU. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1881, 155 (Haitt; 
specimens). 

[Porphyria] martinica Gundlach, Journ. fiir Orn., ix, 1861, 344 (Cuba). — Coties, 
Key North Amer. Birds, 1872, 275. 

P[orpTit/ria'i martinica Cabanis, in Schomburgk's Reis. Britisch-Gulana, iii, 
1848, 761.— Nelson, BuU. Essex Inst., viu, 1876, 135 (near Chicago, lU., May 
1866; Racine, Wis.) 

Porphyria martinicus Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool., xii, pt. i, 1824, 252 (Cayenne; 
United States). — Scalter, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1861, 81 (Jamaica). — 
Albbecht, Journ. fiir Orn., 1862, 206 (Jamaica). — Sclater and Salvin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc. London, 1864, 372 (Panama) ; 1867, 592 (Mexiana Island) ; 1868, 
459 (monogr. ; crit.) ; 1879, 546 (MedeUIn, Colombia). — ^L^otaud, Ois. Trini- 
dad, 1866, 501.— Salvin, Ibis, 1870, 115 (Costa Rica) ; 1886, 177 (Brit. 
Guiana). — Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1870, 317, 450. — Sampen, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, 1872, 653 (Santa Lucia; habits). — Lawrence, Ptoc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
i, 1878, 197 (St. Vincent); i, 1879, 487 (Dominica; St. Vincent).— Allen, 
BuU. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 169 (Santa Lucia).— Beslepsch, Journ. fiir 
Orn., 1884, 320 (Lake Paturia, Colombia).— Tristram, Cat. CoU. Birds H. B. 
Tristram, 1889, 267 (Dominican RepubUc; specimen). — Koenigswald, Journ. 
fiir Orn., 1896, 398 (Sao Paulo, BrazU). — British Ornithologists' Union, 
List Brit. Birds, ed. 2, 1915, 352 (British records doubtful). 

272607 — 41 14 



200 BULLETIN 50, XJNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Plorphyrio'] martinicus Maximilian, Journ. fur Oni., vii, 1859, 94 (s. United 
States to Brazil). 

IPorphyrio] martinicus Scxatee and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 140. 

lonornis martinica Mkeeill (J. C), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1878, 165 (Fort 
Brown, Tex., breeding) .—KiDawAT, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ill, 1880, 11, 202 
(Cat. North Amer. Birds, No. 578) ; Nom. North Amer. Birds, 1881, 
No. 578. — Chambeelain, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Qub, vii, 1882, 105 (Georgetown, 
Npw Brunswick, Sept. 1880).— Jencks, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1882, 124 
(Westerly, R. I.; no date) .— Coues, Check List, ed. 2, 1882, No. 685.— 
Baied, Bbewee, and Ridgbway, Water Birds, North Amer., i, 1884, 384. — 
CoET, Birds Haiti and San Domingo, 1885, 162; Auk, iv, 1888, 57 (West In- 
dian localities and references) ; x, 1893, 220 (Tobago) ; Birds West Indies, 
1889, 258 ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, 91 ; Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. 131, 
1809, 386 (near Chicago, 111., May 1866; near Coal City, Grundy County, 111., 
April 24, 1900; Janesville, Milwaukee, and Racine, Wis.). — Butleb, Brook- 
ville Soc. Nat. Hist. Bull. 2, 1886, 15 (near Brookville, Franklin County, 
Ind., spring 1880) ; Auk. xiv, 1897, 200 (Sandusky, Ohio, Apr. 28, 1896) ; 
Rep. State. Geol. Indiana for 1897 (1898), 681 (near Brookville, spring 1880; 
Decatur County, May 1883; Wayne County, 2 specimens). — ^American Obni- 
THOLOGiSTS' UNION, Check-list, 1886, and ed. 2, 1895, No. 218; ed. 4, 1931, 
99. — Wells, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1887, 629 (Grenada, resident).— Cooke, 
U. S. Dept. Agr. Div. Ecoa. Orn. Bull. 2, 1888, 88.— Beown (H), Auk, v, 
1888, 109 (near Tucson, Ariz. Oct. 1887).— Wayne, Auk, v, 1888, 109 
(Yemassee, S. C. ; habits; descr. nest and eggs) ; Birds South Carolina, 1910, 
40 (summer resident; habits, descr. nest and eggs). — Feecden, Ibis, 1889, 
499 (Barbardos). — Rives, Cat. Birds Virginia, 1890, 53 (several occur- 
rences). — Scott, Auk, ix, 1892, 12 (Jamaica, resident). — Boucaed and Bee- 
LEPSCH, The Humming Bird, ii, 1892, 41 (Porto Real, Brazil). — ^Attwatee, 
Auk. ix, 1892, 232 (San Antonio, Tex., rare migrant). — ^Allen, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., v, 1893, 150 (Cachoeira, Brazil). — DuTcnra, Auk. x, 1893, 
272 (near Flatlands, Long Island, no date; "formerly very plentiful"). — 
Lantz, Auk. X, 1893, 300 (Manhattan, Kans., Apr. 14, 1893). — Stone, Birds, 
Eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 1894, 68 (several records). — Chap- 
man, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vi, 1894, 79 (Trinidad).- Tuttle, Auk, 
xii, 1895, 191 (Erie County, Ohio, Sept. 2, 1894).— Piees, Auk, xv, 1898, 195 
(Devils Island, Halifax Harbor, Nova Scotia, Jan. 16, 1896; Chezzetcook, 
Halifax County, Jan. 1896; near Halifax, Jan. 30, 1870, and Apr. 1889). — 
Henninqeb, Auk, xvi, 1899, 75 (Scioto River near Waverly, Ohio, Nov. 16, 
1898).— Fabley, Auk, xviii, 1901, 190 (Boxford, Mass., June 1897) ; xxii, 1905, 
409 (Sandwich, Mass., Apr. 1902).— Deane, Auk, xix, 1902, 77 (Grundy 
County, lU., Apr. 24, 1900; xxvi, 1909,305 (Willington, Will County, 111., Apr. 
26, 1909).— Allen (G. M.), Proc. Manchester Inst. Arts and Sci., iv, 1902, 
190 (Rye and Willard's Pond, near Daver, N. H.; Auk, xxv, 1908, 2.34 (Sea- 
connet, R. I., June 8, 1900). — Kumlein and Hollistee, Wisconsin Nat. Hist. 
Soc. Bull. 3, 1903, 39 (Wisconsin).— Tavebnee, Auk, xxii, 1905, 89 (Guelph, 
Wellington County, Ontario, no date) . — Thaybb and Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., xlvi, 1905, 94 (Gorgona Island, Colombia). ^ — ^Bangs and Zappey, Amer. 
Nat., xxxix, 1905, 192 (Isle of Pines, Cuba; crit. ; measurements). — Howe, 
Auk, xxii, 1905, 319 (Randolph, Mass., May 24, 1904) .—Fleming, Auk, xxiii, 

1906, 448 (Rouge River, Ontario, Apr. 18, 1892).— Woodbutf, Chicago Acad. 
Sci. Bull. 6, 1907, 60 (Lake View, Chicago, May 1886).— Widmann, Birds 
Missouri, 1907, 61 (2 records).— Andebson, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci., xl, 

1907, 209 (Iowa, 2 records) .—Hellm aye, Nov. Zool., xv, 1908, 100 (Fazenda 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 201 

Esperanca, BrazU).— Knight, Birds Maine, 1908, 114 (4 records).— Jones 
(L.), Wils. BuU., xxi, 1909, 123 (Sandusky Bay, Ohio, Apr. 28, 1896; shore 
Lake Brie, Ohio, Sept. 2, 1894).— Haeteet and Ventubi, Nov. Zool., xvi, 1909, 
529 (San Vicente, Chaco, Argentina, breeding; descr. eggs). — Vebeill (A. B. 
and A. H.), Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ixi, 1909, 356 (San Lorenzo 
and Sanchez, Santo Domingo). — Dabbene, Orn. Argentina, 1910, 198 (Chaco; 
Santiago del Bstero; Buenos Aires).— Eaton, Birds New Tork, i, 1910, 283, 
pi. 27 (rare).— Chubb, Birds British Guiana, i, 1916, 78 (habits). — Todd, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., x, 1916, 203 (Pasadita, Isle of Pines; crit.).— Petebs, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixi, 1917, 402 (Monte Cristi ; El Batey ; Hispaniola). — 
Bangs and Kennaed, List Birds Jamaica, 1920, 6 (rare; no definite recent 
records).— LoNNBEEG and Rendahl, Arkiv Zool., xiv. No. 25, 1922, 20 (La 
Carolina, near Quito, Ecuador, Feb., Mar.). — iloAxEE, U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. 
Circ. 13, 1923, 44 (local names; range).— Delacotjb, Ibis, 1923, 139 (Guarico 
and Apure, Venezuela). — Sopee, Aiik, xxxviii, 1923, 495 (near Guelph, On- 
tario, 1894).— Johnston, Birds West Virginia, 1923, 87 (Distr. ; West Vir- 
ginia).— Mhxeb (W. DeW.), Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat Hist., 1, 1924, 309 
(ptilosis). — Hat.t.tnan, Auk, xli, 1924, 308 (Las Guacas, Panama; food). — 
Akribalzaga, El Hornero, iii, 1924, 262 (common names; Argentina). — 
Sugden, Condor, xxvii, 1925, 210 (Haynes Lake, Utah). — Gaedneb, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixvii, art. 19, 1925, 16 in text, pi. 8 (structure of tongue).— 
Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Iv, 1926, 179 (dlstr., Ecuador— 
chiefly tropical zone, but recorded from the tableland ; 7 specimens from 
Chone). — Gkiscom, Amer. Mus. Nov., No. 235, 1926, 7 (Eastern Quintana 
il(!<), Yucatan).— Bailet, Wils, Bull., xxxix, 1927, 176 ( distr. ) .—Eifeig, Auk, 
xliv, 1927, 432 (specimen, Bellwood, near Chicago). — ^Peretea, El Hornero, 
iv, 1927, 23 (Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina). — Bailey (A. M.), Auk, 
xliv, 1927, 560 (habits; Avery Island).— Young, Ibis, 1928, 764 (coasts of 
British Guiana; habits; colors of unfeathered parts). — Stuegis, Field Book 
Birds Panama Canal Zone, 1928, 43 (descr.; habits; Canal Zone). — Heix- 
MATR, Field Mus. Nat Hist. Zool. Ser., xii, No. 18, 1929, 484 (Lake Parnagua, 
Piauhy, Brazil). — Baker, Auk. xlvii, 1930, 271 (common west of Montego 
Bay, Jamaica). — Naumbubg, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.,lx, 1980, 74 (distr. 
Matto Gro.~so. Brazil — Caicara, Cachoeira, Carandasinho, TJructlm; and Rio 
(jrande do Sul; colors of unfeathered parts). — ^Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., Ixxi, 1931, 301 ( Changuinola, Banana River, Siaxola, Elena, and Cri- 
camola, Panama). — Stone, Auk, xlix, 1932, 348 In text (Cape May County, 
N. J.).— Ceamee, Auk, xlix, 1932, 348 in text (Harrisburg, Pa.).— Howeij. 
{A. H), Florida Bird Life, 1932, 209 (genL ; Florida).— Melleb (A. H.), 
Condor, xxxiv, 1932, 11 (habits; nesting; Lake Olomega, El Salvador). — 
Geiscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixxii, 1932, 321 (Perm6, Panama) ; Bull. 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Ixiv, 1932, 123 (distr., Guatemala).— Satjndees, Auk, 
1, 1933, 99 (Fairfield, Conn., May 5, 1932; Stratford, Conn., May 28, 1926).— 
Long, Auk, 1, 1933, 450 (Clearwater, Sedgwick County, e. Kansas, June 17, 
1933). — VoGT, Auk, li, 1934, 518 (Jones Beach, Long Island, N. Y., June 21, 
1934).— Stone, Auk, li, 1934, 518 (Cold Spring, Cape May County, N. J., 
May 28, 1934).— Woeth, Auk, li, 1934, 519 (Tinicum Township, Pa., 1 found 
dead, June 15, 1934).— Taveenee, Birds Canada, 1934, 174 (casual records for 
eastern provinces and s. Ontario).- Gbiswold, Auk, Iii, 1935, 80 (South 
Windsor, Conn., Oct 9-June 5).— Wetmoee, Auk, Iii, 1935, 329 in text 
(bones— pre-Columbian site, Venezuela).— McIlhekny, Auk, liii, 1936, 327 
(predatory habits, Louisiana). — Wetmoee, Journ. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico, 
xxi, 1937, 8 (bones from prehistoric sites, St Croix).- Smith, Auk, Iv, 1938, 



202 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

549 (Canard, Nova Scotia, found dead May 1927).— Wetmore, Auk, Iv, 1938, 
54 (bones; Puerto Rico).— Williams, Auk, Iv, 1938, 65 (common, Galveston 
Bay, Tex., in summer). — Bellkose and Hutchens, Auk, Iv, 1938, 274 (Urbana, 
111.).— Danfoeth, Journ. Agr. Univ. Puerto Kico, xxiii, 1939, 23 (extremely 
rare on Guadeloupe — ^Le Moule, Grande Teree — 1 record). — Hampe, Seibeet, 
and KOLB, Auk, Ivi, 1939, 475 (specimen, Patuxent Marsh, Md., Oct. 12, 
1938). 

IlOHomis'] martinica Coues, Key North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 1884, 676. 

llonorisl martinica Cory, List Birds West Indies, 1885, and rev. ed., 1886, 30. — 
IHEEINQ (H. and R.), Aves BrazU, 1907, 32 (Rio de Janeiro; Sao Paulo; 
Matto Grosso; Rio Negro; Bahia; Pernambuco ; Rio Amazonas). — Bha- 
BOUENE and Chubb, Birds South America, i, 1912, 26 (Colombia; Amazonia; 
Guiana; Brazil; Paraguay). 

lonornis martinica Beelepsch, Journ. fiir Orn., 1887, 125 (Paraguay) ; xxxvii, 
1889, 320 (Tarapoto, ne. Peru).— Gundlaoh, Orn. Cubana, 1895, 246.— Tip- 
PENHATJEE, Die Insel Haiti, 1892, 323 (Haiti). — Dabbene, Bol. Soc. Phys. 
Buenos Aires, i, 1913, 256 (San Vicente, Chaco, and Barracas al Sur, Buenos 
Aires, Argentina). — Beetoni, Fauna Paraguaya, 1914, 37 (upper Bio 
Parana ). 

lonornis martinicus American Ornithologists' Union, Check-list, ed. 3, 1910, 
105.— Lacet, Auk, xxviii, 1911, 205 (Kerrville, Tex., May 20, 1909).— 
Babeows, Michigan Bird Life, 1912, 161 (3 or 4 records). — Fobbtjsh, Game- 
birds, Wild-fowl, and Shore-birds, 1912, 217 (Massachusetts records). — 
Sage, Bishop, and Busa, Birds Connecticut, 1913, 51 (4 records). — Bunker, 
Kansas Univ. Sci. Bull.7, 1913, 143 (Douglas County, Kans., Apr. 20. 1896, and 
Apr. 18, 1909).— Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 37, flg. 17 (range).— 
Wetmore, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 326. 1916, 36 (Puerto Rico, now rare).— 
Noble, Bull. Mus. Comp. ZooL, Ix, 1916, 366 (Guadeloupe).— Chapman, Bull. 
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., xxxvi, 1919, 220 (Rio Atrato, etc., Colombia). — 
Bangs and Penaed, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixii. 1918, 42 (P::r-amai'ibo, 
Surinam).— Stone (H. F.), Auk, xxxvii, 1920, 130 (Currituck Sound, N. G, 
Nov. 12, 1919) . — Osgood and Conovee, Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Publ. 210, 1922, 
41 (Lagunilla, Venezuela, breeding; habits). — ^Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 
xiv, 1922, 179 (Mamatoco, Fundaci6n, and Trojas de Cataca, Santa Marta, 
Colombia, breeding; descr. nest). — Wilson (G.), Auk, xxxix, 1922, 235 
(Bowling Green, Ky., Apr. 1916) ; Wils. Bull., xxxv, 1923, 131 (Calloway 
County, Ky., rare summer resident). — Baeboue, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 
1923, 56 (Cuba, breeding; habits). — Figgins, Auk, xl, 1923, 673 (Black 
Bayou, La., breeding). — Geiscom, Birds New York City Region, 1923, 139 
(status, New York City region). — Howell (A. H.), Birds Alabama, 1924, 91; 
ed. 2, 1928', 91 (distr. ; habits; Alabama).— Bent, Wils. Bull., xxxvi, 1924, 10 
(Puerta Tank, near Aransas Pass, se. Texas). — De Laxibbnfels, Wils. Bull., 
xxxvi, 1924, 165 (Brownsville, Tex.).- — Foebush, Birds Massachussetts and 
other New England States, i, 1925, 364, pi. 24 (flg. ; descr. ; habits ; New Eng- 
land).— Bailet (H. H.), Birds Florida, 1925, 43, pi. 24 (col. fig.; distr.; Flor- 
ida). — Simmons. Birds Austin Region, 1925, 48 (Austin, Tex., region; habits; 
descr. ; etc.). — Buncob, Auk, xlii, 1925, 419 (Bardstown, Ky.). — Geiscom and 
Ceosbt, Auk, xlii, 1925, 527 (status, Brownsville, Tex.). — Feiedmann, Auk, 
xlii, 1925, 542 (Lower Rio Grand Valley, Tex.). — Pindak, Wils. Bull., xxxvii, 
1925,82 (status, Fulton County, Ky.). — ^Naumbueo, Auk, xliii, 1926, 491 
(breeds; Texas and South Carolina to Ecuador and Paraguay). — Holt and 
Sutton, Ann. Carnegie Mus., xvi, 1926, 424 (habits, s. Florida). — Mounts, 
Wils. Bull., xxxix, 1927, 37 in text (adult carrying young). — Bent and 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 203 

COPELAND, Auk, xliv, 1927, 3T7 (near Zephyr HiUs, arm of Lake Apopka, 
pia.).— Wetmobe, New York Acad. Sci., Scl. Surv. Porto Rico, etc., ix, pt. 3, 
1027, 342 (geiil., Puerto Eico; formerly common resident, now getting rare; 
Arecibo, LuquiUo, Guaimini Elver, Anegado and Cartagena Lagoons ; nests 
in April, May, Sept., and Oct. ) .— Cheisty, Auk, xlv, 1928, 287, in text (Lake 
Okeechobee, Pla.).— Boiro, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ixxx, 1928 
(1929) , 495 (distr. ; habits ; Haiti) .— Danfobth, Auk, xlvi, 1929, 362 (Vasquez, 
Laguna del Salodillo, Hlspanlola).— Hicks, WUs. Bull., xll, 1929, 43 (Alum 
Creek Swamp, Ohio).— Geoss and van Tyne, Auk, xlvi, 1929, 431 (life 
hist.; Barro Colorado Island, Panama).— Wetmobe, Auk, xlvil, 1930, 
486 (Babi^ paintings; Hispaniola).— Danfoeth, Journ. Dept. Agr. Puerto 
Bico, X, 1926, 56, 59 (Cartagena Lagoon) ; xv, 1931, 50 (Cartagena Lagoon; 
MayaguGz, and Guanlca Lagoon, Puerto Rico).— Bailey and Wright, WUs. 
Bull., xliii, 1031, 194 (Cameron Parish, Chenler au Tlgre, and Avery Island, 
La.; habits).— Bakbg, Univ. Arkansas Agr. Exp. Stat. Bull. 258, 1931, 58 
(descr. ; status in Arkansas). — Daelington, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixxl, 1931, 
374 (swamps at Clenaga, Magdalena, Colombia).— Wetmobe and SwAtss, 
TJ. S. Nat. Mus. BuU. 155, 1931, 134 (habits; dlstr. ; Hispaniola).— Nice, 
Birds Oklahoma, rev. ed., 1931, 85 (Oklahoma).— Du Mont, Auk, xlvlii, 
1931, 249 (Floating Island, Holmes Pond, Fla.).— Wetmobe, Proc. V. S. Nat. 
Mus., Ixxxi, art. 2, 1932, 16 (near Baradferes, Haiti).— Danfobth, Journ. 
Agrlc. Univ. Puerto Rico, xix, 1935, 425 (Bayano, Pinar del Rio, and Paso 
Real, Cuba). 

lJonornis'\ martinioua Hbine and Rbichekow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 
318 (Guiana; Brazil; North America). 

lonorinis martinicus [Aethue], Birds Louisiana, 1931, 241 (descr.; status; 
Louisiana ) . 

lorwrnis martinicus Haeris, Trans. Acad. Scl. St. Louis, xxiii, 1919, 246 (Kansas 
City, Mo., Dec. 30, 1915). 

lornis martinicus Moltoni, Att. Soc. Ital. Sclenz. Nat., Isvlil, 1929, 311 (Halna, 
Hlspanlola; specimens). 

[Porphyrula] martinica Gdndlach, Rep. Fisico-Nat. Cuba, 1, 1865-66, 362. 

Porphyrula martinica Bonapaete, Compt. Rend., xliii, 1856, 599. — Gundlach, 
Journ. fiir Orn., xxil, 1874, 314 (Puerto Rico); xxiil, 1875, 361 (Cuba; 
habits) ; xxvi, 1878, 162 (Puerto Rico) ; Contr. Orn. Cubana, 1876, 193.— 
Whitman, Forest and Stream, iv, 1875, 167 (Henrys Pond, Mass., Apr. 12, 
1875). — Petees, Check-list Birds of World, 11, 1984, 206.— Belches and 
Smookeb, Ibis, 1935, 285 (breeds in Trinidad, June to Dec). — Pinto, Rev. 
Mus. Paulista, xix, 1935, 75 (Bahla, Brazil). — Geiscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., IxxvllI, 1935, 305 (Panamd — ^locally throughout). — WEhitteul], Emu, 
XXXV, 1935, 189 in text (Tristen da Cunha).— Deign an, Auk, 1111, 1936, 188 
(specimen, La Celba, Honduras; colors of soft parts). — Bond, Birds West 
Indies, 1936, 92 (descr.. Greater Antilles — Cuba, Isle of Pines, Jamaica, 
Puerto Rico; Lesser Antilles — Grenada, the Grenadines, Barbadoes, St. 
Vincent, St. Luda, Dominica, and Guadeloupe; also S. United States, 
Central America, and South America). — ^van Eossem, Birds El Salvador, 
1838, 162 (Lake Olomega, El Salvador, nesting; colors of soft parts and 
of downy chick). — Obeeholsee, Bird Life Louisiana, 1938, 206 (summer 
resident throughout Louisiana, common in south, uncommon In north, 
breeds Apr. to July). 

Porphyriola martinica Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxili, 1894, 189. — Iheeing, 
Rev. Mus. Paulista, ill, 1899, 419 (Sao Paulo, Brazil) ; iv, 1900, 164 (Canto- 
gallo, Sao Paulo), 287 (descr. eggs) ; vi, 1904, 343 (Paraguay). — Bonhote, 



204 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Ibis, 1903, 309 (Andros Island, Bahamas). — Salvin and Godman, BioL 
Centr.-Amer., Aves, iii, 1903, 327 (Matamoras and Tampico, TamauUpas; 
Valley of Mexico ; Eio de Coahuyne, Colima, Oazaca, Cozumel Island, Yuca- 
tan ; lagoon near Peten and Vera Paz, Guatemala ; Kuatan Island, Honduras ; 
Pacaca, San Mateo, Santa Clara, n. slope Volcan de Barba, and Laguna de 
Cartago, Costa Rica ; Lion Hill and Laguna de Pita, Panama ; Colombia ; 
Guiana; Amazon Valley; Ecuador; Brazil; West Indies). — Heumaye, Nov. 
Zool., ziil, 1906, 53 (Caroni, Trinidad). — Beelepsch, Nov. Zool., xv, 1908, 
300 (Cayenne).— MtNfiGAUX, Rev. Frang. d'Orn., No. 2, 1909, 31 (Figuabas, 
e. Cuba; fresb colors unfeathered parts). — Chubb, Ibis, 1910, 66 (Sapucay, 
Paraguay). — Sclateb, Rev. List Birds Jamaica, 1910, 20. — REisEat, Denkschr. 
Akad. Wiss. Wien, math.-nat. Kl., 1910, 96 (near Joazeiro, etc., ne. 
Brazil). — Cabkikeb, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 411 (Costa Rica; 
habits). — Snethxage, Journ. fur Orn., Ixxvi, 1928, 554, 573, 682 (breeding 
habits and seasons; several South American countries). — Rothschild, Bull. 
Brit. Orn. Club, xlviii, 1928, 123 (eggs). — Cifeeei, Segundo Informe Anual 
Est. Nac. Agron. Moca, 1927, 6 (Hispaniola; listed). 

lPorphyriola'\ martinioa Shaepe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 108. 

HydrogalUna Martinica Ledeu, Voy. lies T^nSrifEe, La Trinite, Saint-Thomas, 
Sainte-Croix et Porto Ricco, 1810, ii, 209 (Puerto Rico). 

Crex martinica Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl., 1823, 79. 

FuUoa martinicensis Jacqxjin, Beytr. Gesch. Vog., 1784, 12, pi. 3. — Tubton, 
Syst. Nat., i, 1806, 423. 

[Fulica] martinicensis Gmeun, Syst. Nat., i, pt. ii, 1789, 700. 

Oallinula martinicensis Maximh-ian, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., iv, 1833, 812 (Rio 
Itatype, Brazil). — Euleb, Journ. fur Orn., xxv, 1867, 197 (Brazil). — Ritiek, 
Naturh. Reise westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, 157 (Haiti; specimens). 

lonornis martinicensis Reichenbach, Syst. Av., 1853, p. xxi. 

Fulica flavirostris Gmeun, Syst. Nat., i, 1788, 699. 

[Fulica'i porphyria Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, i, 1758, 152, part (Jamaica) ; 
ed. 12, i, 1766, 258, part. 

Qallinula porphyria Wilson, Amer. Orn., ix, 1814, 67, pi. 73, fig. 2. 

0[aUinula'] porphyria Bonapaetb, Obs. Wilson's Amer. Orn., 1826, [193]. 

Porphyria cyaneioollis Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., xxvlii, 1819, 28 (Para- 
guay ; based on Yahand, garganta celeste Azara, Apunt. Hist. Nat. Paraxos 
Paraguaya, 1802, 253). 

Porphyria tavoiia Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., xxviii, 1819, 30 (new name 
for Fulica martinica Linnaeus) ; Gal. Ois., ii, 1825, 170, 267. 

[Porphyria'] americanus Swainson, Classif. Birds, ii, 1837, 337 (ex Wilson). 

(?) Porphyria amethystinus Holmbekg, Secundo Cen. Argent, 1898, 571. 

? Ralltts jamaicensis Descouetilz, Voy. Nat., ii, 1809, 66 (Hispaniola; identity 
not certain). — Rittee, Naturh. Reise westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, 157 (iden- 
tity not certain; Hispaniola). 

Genus FULICA Linnaeus 

Fulica Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, i, 1758, 152. (Type, as designated by 
Gray, 1840, F. atra Linnaeus. ) 

Fulcia (typogr. error) Eydoux and Soltleybt, Voy. Bonite, i, 1841, 102. 

Tulica (typogr. error) Phileppi and Landbeck, Anal. Univ. Chile, xix, 1861, 
507. 

Fhalaria Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1852, xxi. (Type, by original designa- 
tion. Fulica gigas Eydoux and Souleyet.) 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 205 

Lysca Reichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1852, xxi. (Type, by original designation, 
Fullca ardcsiaca Tschudl.) 

Lupha Eeichenbach, Av. Syst. Nat., 1852, xxi. (Type, by original designation, 
Fulica cristata Linnaeus.) 

Lophophalaris Heine, in Heine and Reichenow, Norn. Mus. Hein. Om., 1890, 
317. (New name for LupUa on grounds of purism.) 

Licoi-nis Bonapabte, Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 4, Zool. i, 1854, 150. (Nometi nudum!) 

Lyoornis Bonapabte, Compt. Rend. xliU, 1856, 600. (Type, by original desig- 
nation, Fulica comuta Bonaparte.) 

Fulicinae with lateral membrane of toes conspicuously developed, 
the segments strongly convex ; frontal shield with surface plane (but 
more or less rounded or convex in both longitudinal and transverse 
sections), and claws obviously though slightly curved. 

Bill about as long as or slightly shorter than head, moderately 
compressed, its width at posterior end of nostril equal to about two- 
thirds its depth at same point, the latter equal to decidedly less than 
half the length of commissure; gonys very decidedly shorter than 
mandibular rami, straight or very slightly convex, rather strongly 
ascending terminally, its basal angle distinct; culmen nearly 
straight (sometimes faintly concave or depressed) for basal half 
(approximately), gently but very distinctly decurved distally, 
rounded, or at least not distinctly ridged; frontal shield (in adults) 
extending backward as far as middle of eye (sometimes as far as 
posterior angle of eye) , more or less tumid (sometimes much swollen 
and strongly convex both longitudinally and transversely), longer 
than broad (sometimes only slightly so, however), its posterior ex- 
tremity either convex or contracted into an obtuse angle, its surface 
either smooth or slightly corrugated; nasal fossa extending for at 
least half the length of maxilla (from loral feathering), iisually de- 
cidedly more; nostril nearly midway between loral feathering and 
tip of maxilla, in lower-anterior portion of nasal fossa, longitudinal 
(nearly on line with axis of maxilla, but slightly lower posteriorly), 
very narrowly, almost linear (pointed posteriorly). Wing rela- 
tively short, very concave beneath; longest primaries exceeding dis- 
tal secondaries by one-third the length of wing, or more ; the second, 
or second and third primaries longest, the first (outermost) shorter 
than fifth. Tail a little more than one-fourth as long as wing, 
rounded, the rectrices broad and moderately firm, 12-14 in number. 
Tarsus less than one-third as long as wing, about as long as inner 
toe, without claw (or shorter), moderately compressed, the acrotar- 
sium with a continuous row of very regular, broad scutella, the planta 
tarsi sharply ridged, with a single series of regular transverse scutella 
(smaller than those on acrotarsium) on outer side, separated from those 
in front by a row of longitudinal small scales, the inner side with 
several series of small hexagonal or nearly quadrate (partly longi- 



206 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



tudinal) scales; upper surface of toes with a continuous series of 
regular transverse scutella ; lateral membranes of toes very broad, the 
segments conspicuously convex, their lateral lobes with transverse 
scutella similar to those on top of toes; claw of outer toe sometimes 
reaching to base of middle claw, but usually falling short of the 




Figure 14. — Fulica americana. 

latter; inner toe decidedly shorter than outer; hallux (without claw) 
about as long as basal phalanx of outer toe; claws moderate in size, 
very slightly curved, especially that of middle toe. 

Plwmage and coloration. — Plumage of head and neck short, dense, 
and very soft, the head completely feathered, except where occupied 
by frontal shield ; plumage of body, etc., full, dense, and rather coarse; 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 207 

primaries rigid. Color of adults plain slate-color, becoming darker 
(blackish) on head and neck, the under tail coverts, secondaries, or 
edge of wing (sometimes all) partly white. 

Range. — Nearly cosmopolitan. (Many species.) 

Remarks. — Several South American coots have usually been re- 
ferred to Fulica but appear to be subgenerically distinct and have not 
been used in the above description. Thus, Fulica ardesiaca Tschudi, 
F. armUlata Vieillot, and F. rufifrons Philippi and Landbeck agree 
with one another and differ from all the species of Fidica proper in 
having the lateral membranes of the toes very narrow, with the seg- 
ments very slightly if at all convex, indeed almost bridging the gap 
between the coots and gallinules ; while F. gigantea Eydoux and Sou- 
leyet, though agreeing with typical Fulica in the broad and conspicu- 
ously scalloped lateral membranes to the toes differs strikingly in the 
more elongated and perfectly straight claws and in form of the frontal 
shield, which on each side is elevated into a thick vertical ridge. F. 
cornuta Bonaparte has also not been used, but this may also be sub- 
generically distinct, having a large hornlike projection or caruncle 
on the shield. 

KEY TO THE NOETH AND MIDDLE AMERICAN FORMS OF FULICA 

a. Frontal shield whitish (pale brownish in dried skins), like the bill, much 

wrinkled Fulica caribaea (p. 222) 

aa. Frontal shield dark chestnut to reddish brown ; not wrinkled. 
6. Under tail coverts white. 

c. Frontal shield smaller, not over 13 mm. in length. 

Fulica americana ainericana (p. 213) 
cc. Frontal shield larger, over 14 mm. in length. 
d. BiU relatively heavier, 16-18 mm. deep at base. 

Fulica americana grenadensis (p 221) 
dd. Bai relatively slenderer, less than 15 mm. deep at base. 

Fulica americana columbiana (extralimltal)'* 
66. Under tail coverts dark slate like rest of underparts. 

Fulica atra atra (p. 207) 

FULICA ATRA ATRA Liiuiaeas 

EtJBOPKAJf Coorr 

Adult (sexes alike). — ^Head and neck wholly black, the crown and 
occiput with a slight sheen, the upper throat and chin with a deep 
fuscous-brownish wash ; a short grayish- white line under the eye ; rest 
of upperparts very dark slate to slate-black, with a faint brownish or 
olive-brownish wash on the scapulars, interscapulars, back, and upper 

" Fulica americana columbiana. — Fulica americana columbiana Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., xxxiii, 1914, 170 (Lake Herrara, north of Bogota, 
Colombia; coll. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.) ; xxxvi, 1917, 220 (Lake Herrara and La 
Olanda, centr. Colombia) ; Peters, Check List Birds of World, ii, 1984, 212. 



208 BULLETIN 5 0, TUSTITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

tail coverts; upper wing coverts like the scapulars and interscapulars, 
the inner greater and median ones washed with a brownish sheen; 
primaries dull clove brownish, secondaries somewhat pale and more 
grayish in tone, the outer ones with considerable whitish terminally, 
the bend of the wing and entire edge of wing with a narrow white 
line formed by the white outer webs of the external coverts ; rectrices 
very dark slate black; rest of underparts slate, paler than chin and 
upper throat, and with a faint grayish brown wash (in fresh plumage 
the feathers with narrow whitish margins) ; under tail coverts black- 
ish ; bill white with a rosy tinge ; frontal shield white ; tarsi and toes 
greenish, tibia orange, toes bluish gray, the joints slate; iris red to 
red-brown. 

Im/mature (sexes alike). — ^Like the adults but averaging more 
brownish above and below, and often with scattered white feathers 
on chin, throat, and neck. 

Juvenal (sexes alike). — Forehead, crown, and occiput dull grayish 
fuscous, the feathers with grayish-white tips, which give the area a 
somewhat speckled appearance ; lores, chin, throat, sides of neck, and 
the entire breast white, the feathers with dusky bases, which sometimes 
show through; cheeks and auriculars whitish speckled with grayish 
and grayish fuscous; upperparts from nape to wing and tail dull 
fuscous with a varying amount of grayish wash; lower breast and 
abdomen grayish fuscous, the feathers with whitish or whitish gray 
tips und edges, becoming browner and darker on the flanks, vent, and 
under tail coverts, remiges and rectrices as in the adult. 

Natal down. — ^Black, the tips of the down on the head and neck 
orange, on the upper back and wings shining yellowish white; the 
underparts, especially the breast, with a silvery sheen; forehead with 
scarlet granulose papillae ; the coronal down so thin that the pale flesh- 
colored skin of the crown and the purplish-blue supraorbital skin show 
through clearly; iris brown; tarsi and toes slate-black. 

Adult male.— y^mg 185-208 (197.9) ; tail 49-62.5 (52.0) ; culmen 
from nostril 15-18.5 (16.9) ; culmen from frontal shield 32-36.5 (33.6) ; 
tarsus 52-64 (58.3) ; middle toe without claw 70-82 (77.2 mm.)." 

Adult female.— Wing 189-217 (197.1) ; tail 45-59 (51.7) ; culmen 
from nostril 15-16 (15.4) ; cuhnen from frontal shield 30-33 (31.6) ; 
tarsus 46-61 (53.4) ; middle toe without claw 66.5-81 (73.4 mm.).*^ 

Range. — Breeds in Europe and Asia from latitude 70° N. in Nor- 
way and 57° N. in the Ural Mountains south to the Mediterranean, 



" Seven specimens from Sweden, Norway, England, Hungary, Italy, China, 
and Japan. 

"" Seven specimens from Austria, Italy, Syria, China, India, and the 
Philippines. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 209 

Asia Minor, northern Persia, India, China, Japan, and Sakhalin; also 
breeds in Iceland and the Azores. 

Winters throughout aU but the northern part of its breeding range, 
and south to northwest Africa, to the Blue Nile, and to Java and 
Celebes; occasional in Greenland, the Faroe Islands, Madeira, and the 
Canary Islands; accidental in North America (Labrador coast-Tang- 
naivik Island, Anaktalak Bay ; Separation Point, Sandwich Bay ; and 
Newfoundland — Exploits Harbor). 

Type locality. — Sweden. 

. [Fulioa^ atra Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, i, 1758, 152 (Europe) ; ed, 12, 1, 1766, 
257.— BEiJNNicH, Orn. Bor., 1764, 58 (Norway; Cimbria).— Latham, Synop- 
sis Birds, Suppl., i, 1787, 294; Index Orn., ii, 1780, 777, part.— Gmeun, 
Syst. Nat., i, pt. 2, 1789, 702.— Gbat, Hand-list, iii, 1871, 67, No. 10513.— 
Shahpe, Handlist, i, 1899, 109. 

Fulioa atra Temminck, Cat. Syst., 1807, 180; Man. d'Orn., ed. 2, 1820, 706. — 
ViEiLLOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., xiii, 1817, 48, part. — Stephens, Shaw's Gen. 
Zool., xii, pt. i, 1824, 234, pi. 29, part.— Gould, Birds Europe, It, 1837, pi. 
338 and text; Birds Great Britain, iv, 1862, pi. 84 and text.— Natjmann, 
Nat. Vog. Deutsclilands, ix, 1838, 635, pi. 241.— Magillivbat, Man. Brit. Orn., 
ii, 1842, 118; Hist. Brit. Birds, 1852, 560.— Schlbgel, Rev. Crlt., 1844, 
p. eii; Yog. Nederl., 1854, pi. 257; Dieren Nederl., Vog., 1861, pi. 26, fig. 
1 ; Mus. Pays-Bas, v. No. 30, livr. 7, 1865, 60, part.— Holm, Naturli. Tidsskr., 
ser. 2, ii, 1848, 514 (Faroe Islands). — Degland and Gebbe, Orn. Europ., ii, 
1867, 268.— Dkoste, Journ. fur Orn., xvii, 1869, 345 (Faroe Islands). — Swin- 
HOE, Proc. Zool. Soe. London, 1871, 415 (China; Formosa). — Haeting, Handb. 
Brit. Birds, 1872, 58. — Taczanowski, .lourn. fiir Orn., xxi, 1873 (e. Siberia). — 
Beookh, Ibis, 1873, 336 (Sardinia).— Ramsay, Ibis, 1877, 472 (Tonghoo, 
Burma). — Reinhaedt, Vid. Bledd. Nat. For., 1877-78, p. ii (Greenland). — 
Blakiston and Prbyee, Ibis, 1878, 225 (north of Tokio, Japan). — Deesseb, 
Birds Europe, vii, pt. 73, 1871-81, 327, pi. 504, fig. 2.— Scully, Ibis, 1881, 
590 (Gilgit, India).— SwiNHOE, Ibis, 1882, 122 (Kandehar and Quetta, s. 
Afghanistan).— Seebohm, Ibis, 1882, 226 (Astrackhan), 382 (Archangel, 
n. Russia). — CorES, Check List, ed. 2, 1882, 136 (no. 885). — Saundebs, 
ed. Tarrell's Hist. Brit. Birds, iii, 1883, 171. — ^Baibd, Beewee, and Ridgwat, 
Water Birds North Amer., i, 1884, 398.— Mabshaix, Ibis, 1884, 424 (Chamba, 
nw. Himalayas). — Ameeican Ornitholooists' Union, Check List, 1886, 
and ed. 2, 1895, No. 220 ; ed. 3, 1910, 106.— Giglioh and Salvadoei, Froc. Zool. 
Soc. London, 1887, 588 (Possietti Bay, e. Siberia; crit.). — Koenig, Journ. fiir 
Orn., xxxviii, 1890, 424 (Canary Islands) ; xli, 1893, 88 (Tunis). — Haetwig, 
Journ. fiir Orn., xli, 1893, ii (Madeira). — Blagg, Ibis, 1893, 355 (Shetland 
Islands). — Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxlii, 1894, 210. — Popham, Ibis, 
1898, 572 (Krasnoyarsk, Yenisei River, Siberia). — Slatee, Man. Birds Ice- 
land, 1901, 81 (occasional visitor). — Haeteet, Nov. Zool., vlil, 1901, 306 
(Canary Islands). — Pogge, Journ. fiir Orn., 1, 1902. 384 (ne. China). — Walton, 
Ibis, 1903, 33 (Pekin, China).— Bangs, Proc. New England Zool. Club, iii, 
1903, 95 (Liu Kiu Islands).— Jesse, Ibis, 1903, 158 (Lucknow, India; 
habits).— Haeteet and Grant, Nov. Zool., xii, 1905, 95 (San Miguel, 
Azores).- Cooke, U. S. Dept Agr. BuU. 128, 1914, 43 (range).— Beitish 
Oenithologists' Union, List Brit. Birds, ed. 2, 1915, 306.— McAtee, U. S. 
Dept. Agr. Misc. Clrc. J3, 1923, 45 (local names; range).- Geeschik, Aquila, 



210 



xxviil, 1921, 55, 56, in text (Hungary). — Szomjas, Aquila, xxviii, 1922, 
183 in text (Hungary). — Baethos, Aquila, xxviii, 1922, 215 In text (Little 
Baaton, Hungary). — Bbla v. Sze6ts, Aquila, xxix, 1923, 140 (Tavarna 
region, Hungary). — Schenk, Aquila, xxix, 1923, 60, in table (banding, 
Hungary) ; xxx-xxxl, 1924, 149 in table (banding In Hungary) ; xxxii- 
xxxiii, 1926, 34 table (records, Hungary) ; xxxiv-xxxv, 1929, 31 in table 
(banding in Hungary 1926-27) ; xxxvi-xxxvii, 1931, 182, 191 (banding in 
Hungary). — Smeed, Brit. Birds, xvii, 1923, 112 (egg in nest of little 
grebe). — Munn, Ibis, 1924, 466 (Minorca, resident). — ^Nexjeatje, Journ. fur 
Orn., Ixxii, 1924, 205 in text (Khein Province, Germany). — ^von Jordan, 
Journ. fUr Orn., Ixxii, 1924, 529 (Mallorca). — Zeegenyi, Aquila, xxx-xxxl, 
1924, 295, 317 in text (Alibunar Swamp, Hungary). — Bodnab, Aquila, xxx- 
xxxi, 1924, 139 in table (migration in Hungary). — Glegg, Brit. Birds, xvii, 

1924, 209 (Staines, Middlesex, England). — Lovassy, Aquila, xxx-xxxi, 1924, 
329 (Balaton Lake, Austria). — Robinson, Brit. Birds, xviii, 1924, 23 (More- 
cambe Bay, Lancashire, England). — Ticehuest and Cheesman, Ibis, 

1925, 29 (Hufuf, Arabia, Dee. 15). — Peitzmeieb, Journ. fiir Orn., Ixxiii, 
1925, 554 (Upper Ems district, Germany). — von Jobdans, Journ. fiir 
Orn., Ixxiil, 1925, 196 (breeds in Balearic Islands). — Zedutz, Journ. fiir 
Orn., Ixxiil, 192.5, 405 (distr. ; Sweden). — Thienemann, Journ. fiir Orn., 
Ixxiv, 1926, 96 (banding records, Rossitten, Germany). — Casemib, Journ. 
fur Orn., Ixxiv, 1926, 124 (East Prussia).— Bbottwer, Ardea, xv, 1926, 39 
(breeds in Holland). — Kiealt, Aquila, xxxii-xxxiii, 1926, 259 in text 
(Hungary). — Withebbt, Brit. Birds, xx, 1926, 73 (age). — Heineoth, Vog. 
Mitteleuropas, iii, 1927-1928, 84 (growth of young in captivity). — Roths- 
child, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, xlviii, 1928, 123 (eggs). — Chabot, Rev. Frang. 
d'Orn., xii, 1928, 19 in text (migr. ; Somme, France). — NEUSAtrE, Verb. Orn. 
Ges. Bay., xvili, 1928, 303 (Rhone Valley, Germany). — Beouwee and Havee- 
SCHMIDT, Ardea, xvii, 1928, 11 (breeding in Holland). — Taveenee, Auk, 
xlvi, 1929, 227 in text (JExploits Harbor, Newfoundland). — Bstiot, Alauda, 
i, 1929, 359 (near Paris, France). — Ticehuest and Whistlee, Ibis, 1929, 
688 (Scutari Lake, Yugoslavia). — Steinbacheb, Journ. fiir Orn., Ixxvii, 

1929, 481, 483 in text (winter Miiggel Lake, Germany). — Bbouwer and 
Haveeschmidt, Ardea, xviii, 1929, 67 in text (winter; Holland). — Haveb- 
scHMiDT, Ardea, xviii, 1929, 28 (migr., Holland in 1928). — Lovabst, Aquila, 
xxxiv-xxxv, 1929, 413 (Hungary) ; 456 (speared bird). — Whisti.ee, Ibis, 

1930, 274 (Rawal Pindi distr., nw. India). — Steinbacheb, Journ. fiir Orn., 
Ixxviii, 1930, 53 (devel. of frontal papillae). — von Bukg and Knopfli, in 
Fatio and Studer's Oiseaux Suisse, xvi, 1930, 3407 ( monogr. ; Switzer- 
land). — Beouwer, Ardea, xix, 1930, 25 (migr.; Holland). — Poncy, Alauda, 
ii, 1930, 402 (Haute-Savoie, France). — Kleiner, Aquila, xxxvi-xxxvii, 1931, 
117 in text (moUusks eaten by coots). — Nicholson-Smith, Brit. Birds, 
XXV, 1931, 59 (Cheshire; approjjriating nest of greiie). — Steinmetz, Journ. 
fiir Orn., Ixxix, 1931, 553 in text (habits; Obedska Bara, Jugoslavia). — 
Eehaedt, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., xix, 1931, 379 (near Naples and Sicily). — 
Steinmetz, Journ. fiir Orn., Ixxx, 1932, 124 in text (embryology, late 
stages). — ^Ahaboni, Journ. fur Orn., Ixxx, 1932, 424 (Egypt and Asia 
Minor ).^Ottow, Beltr. Fortpfl. Vog., viii, 1932, 119 (nesting habits). — 
TicEHtJBST and Whisttlee, Ibis, 1932, 92 (Albania). — Chavignt and Mataud, 
Alauda, iv, 1932, 141, 142 (Azores Islands).— Habeison, Ibis, 1933, 609 
(Lake Mandra, Bulgaria) ; 1937, 624 (Aladja Glol., Bulgaria). — Collinge, 
Ibis, 1936, 35 (food habits).— Tavebneb, Birds Canada, 1934, 175 (records 
for Labrador coast and Newfoundland; none that is strictly Canadian). — 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 211 

BoxBEBGBE, Joum. filr Orn., Ixxxii, 1934, 208 In text (Malaga, Spain).— 
Meise, Journ. fur Orn., Ixxxii, 1934, 259 in text (eggs), 265 (plum- 
age).— Paludan, Joum. fur Orn., Ixxxvi, 1938, 588 in text (w. Iran).— Rup- 
PEix and ScHMTEELi, Journ. fur Cm., Ixxxvii, 1939, 224 (winter habits 
and distr.). 

Flulica} atra Fabeb, Prodr. Island. Orn. Gesch. Vogel Islands, 1822, 63 (Ice- 
land) .—Ketseeling and Blabius, Wirb. Europa's, 1840, ixvili, 205.— Coues, 
Key North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 1884, 677.— Ridgway, Man. North Amer. 
Birds, 1887, 141.— Mukkat, Brit. Birds, xxv, 1931, 7 (North Sea). 

Fulica atra atra Habteet et al.. Handlist Brit. Birds, 1912, 214.— Banneeman, 
Ibis, 1920, 122, 522 (Canary Islands, winter visitant; range). — Haetebt, 
Vog. pal. Fauna, iii, 1921, 1851 (monogr.). — Eamsay, Guide Birds Europe 
and N. Africa, 1923, 321 (descr. ; range; Europe and North Africa). — TicB- 
HUEST, Ibis, 1924, 507 (Sind, winter; habits and capture). — Withebbt et 
al., Pract. Handb. Brit. Birds, ii, 1924, 847 (monogr.) — ^van Ooew, Ardea, 
xiii, 1924, 68 (on Loch Leven; on Threipmuir Reservoir and near River 
Spey, Scotland). — Delacoxte and Jabouiixe, Ibis, 1925, 226 (Hailang, 
Annam and Tonkin). — Weigold, Journ. fiir Orn., Ixxiii, 1925, 581 (banding 
records; Helgoland). — Gekglee, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., xvi, 1925, Sonderheft, 
94 (Bavaria). — Helms, Meddel, Gr0nland, Iviii, 1926, 241 (AngmagsaUk, 
Greenland; habits, etc.). — Bianchi, Journ. fiir Orn., Ixxiv, 1926, 456 
(distr.; n. Russia). — Spkangee, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., xvii, 1926, 34 (Deg- 
gendorf, Germany). — Staking, Ardea, xiv, 1925, 93 (s. Wales). — Mokeau, 
Ibis, 1927, 223 (Baharia Oasis, Egypt).- Lotlow, Ibis, 1927, 656 (Gyantse, 
Tibet). — Banneeman, Ibis, suppl. number, 1927, 201 (Tunisia). — Laubmann, 
Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., xvii, 1927, 373 (Ionian Islands). — Lankis, Verb. 
Orn. Ges. Bay., xvii, 1927, 209 (near Blenheim, Germany). — Gesgleb, 
Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., xvii, 1927, 169 (Steiger Forest, Bavaria) ; 485 
(s. Rhone, Germany). — ^de Pailleeets, Rev. Frang. d'Orn., xl, 1927, 194 
(Charente — InfSrieure, Prance). — Des Petjgnes, Rev. Frang. d'Orn, xi, 1927, 
57 (status; migr. ; Holland). — Boettichee, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., xvii, 1927, 
191 (Bulgaria).— Ludlow, Ibis, 1923, 220 (Kalo Tso and Hram Tso, 
Tibet).— HoiTMANN, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., xviii, 1928, 107 (Switzerland).— 
VAN OoEBT, Ardea, xvii, 1928, 49 (Mediterranean). — Atjstin, Auk, xlvi, 
1929, 208 in text (Separation Point, Sandwich Bay, Labrador). — Abeigoni 
DBQio: Odot, Orn. Ital., 1929, 793 (descr.; distr. in Italy).— Macphebson, 
Brit. Birds, xxii, 1929, 244 (London; few pairs nesting).— Haepee, Auk, 
xlvi, 1929, 341 (Camargue, France).— Congkevb, Ibis, 1929, 491 (Re'tyezat 
Mountain, Rumania). — Boettichee. Anz. Orn. Ges. Bay., ii 1929 44 
(Coburg, Bavaria).— Reboussin, L'Oiseaux, x, 1929, 351 (Loir-et-Cher, 
France).— RiLET, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxvii, art. 15, 1930, 9 (Ninghsia 
Lanchow, central China).— iltJiiEE, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., xix, 1930, 95 
(Lake Maising, Bavaria; habits).— Mxtepht, Ibis, 1931, 573 (Azores; nest 
and eggs).— Glegg, Ibis, 1931, 443 (Camargue, France; breeds).— American 
Oenitholouists' Union CoMMrriEE. Check-list North Amer. Birds, ed. 4. 

1931, 100 (distr.; accid. in Greenland).— Delacoue and Jabootlle, Oiseaux 
I'Indochine Frang., 1, 1931, 227 (status in Indochina).— Ausitn, Mem. Nutt 
Orn. Club, vii, 1932, 80 (Newfoundland Labrador— Tang-naivik, Island in 
Amaktalak Bay, and Separation Point in Sandwich Bav).— Ticehuest 
Birds SufColk, 1932, 465 (status, etc.; SufColk, England ).-Kozlova, Ibis' 

1932, 567 (sw. Transbaikalia and n. Mongolia; breeds).— Caldwll and 
CAiDWEix, South China Birds, 1932,286 (s. China ; habits, etc.).— La Touohe 
Handb. Birds Eastern China, ii, 1932, 288 (distr., habits, etc.; China)- 



212 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

Glegg, L'Olseaux, ii, 1932, 334 (Camargue and Little Camargue Islands, 
France). — Jotjedain, Auk, 1, 1933, 203 (breeds in Iceland). — Ludlow and 
KiNNEAR, Ibis, 1934, 110 (Chinese Turkestan). — Meinebtzhagen, Ibis, 1935, 
150 (Lake of Antioch, Syria). — Kummeklowe and Niethamer, .Tourn. ftir 
Orn., Ixxxil, 1934, 523 (Asia Minor). — Schaeer, Journ. fur Orn., Ixxxvi, 1938, 
Sonderheft, 104 (e. Tibet, Szechwan). — Paltjdan, Journ. fiir Orr., Ixxxvl, 
1938, 587, 636 (Bahm-i-Sbur, w. Iran). — Steesemann, Meise, ana Schon- 
wettee, .Journ. fiir Orn., Ixxxvi, 1938, 208 (Kan-tschou, China). 

Fulica a[tra'] atra Glegg, Ibis, 1924, 86 (Macedonia; breeds locally). — Mein- 
eetzhagen. Ibis, 1924, 91 (Azraq, Syrian Desert). — Gaschott, Verb. Orn. 
Ges. Bay., xvi, 1924, 35 in text (Speyer on Rhine, Germany). — Kaysee, 
Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., xvi, 1925, 243 (Sagan distr., Germany). — Uhl, Verb. 
Om. Ges. Bay., xvi, 1925, 313 (Neustadt, Germany). — Hildebeandt, Orn. 
Monatsb., xxxiv, 1926, 35 in test (ecology). — Schnabel, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., 
xvii, 1926, 70 (Bavaria, breeds). — Alttxandeb, Ibis, 1927, 690 (Latium, 
Italy). — Deost, Journ. fur Orn., Ixxv, 1927, 266 (Helgoland banding rec- 
ords). — Poll, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., xvii, 1927, 409 (lower Bavaria). — 
PFE2TTEE, Verb. Orn. Ges. Bay., xvii, 1927, 255 (valley of the Main, Ger- 
many). — Uhl, Anz. Orn. Ges. Bay., i, 1928, 153 (upper Bavaria). — Holdee 
AND Wagstaetb, Brit. Birds, xxiii, 1929, 56 (Ribble Estuary, s. Lancashire, 
England). — Witherby, Brit. Birds, xxiii, 1929, 23 (Separation Point, Anat- 
alak Bay, Labrador, and Exploits Harbor, Newfoundland). — Schieemann, 
Journ. fiir Orn., Ixxviii, 1930, 154 (population density in breeding season). — 
Stegmann, Journ. fiir Orn., Ixxviii, 1930, 446 (Amurland). — Wust, Anz. 
Orn. Ges. Bay., ii, 1930, 107 (Ampermoos, Bavaria). — Eocaed, L'Oiseaux, 
xi, 1930, 356 (Noirmoutier Island, Prance). — Boyd, Brit Birds, xxiv, 1931, 
260 (attacking great-crested grebe's nest). — Stegmann, Journ. fiir Orn., 
Ixxix, 1931, 214 (distr., Siberian-Manchurian borderlands). — Van Dobben 
and Makkink, Ardea, xx, 1931, 38 (migr., autumn 1930; Holland).— With- 
EEBY, Brit. Birds, xxv, 1932, 331 (recovery of marked bird). — ^Witheeby and 
Leach, Brit. Birds, xxv, 1932, 268, 360 (recovery of marked birds).— 
Hawkins, Brit. Birds, xxv, 1932, 272 (Somerset; pugnacious nature). — 
Haeeison, Brit. Birds, xxv, 1932, 219 (Lundy Island, England). — Peters, 
Orn. Monatsb., xl, 1932, 138 (habits; Hamburg, Germany); xli, 1983, 14 
(intestinal parasites). — Geoebbels, Moebeet, and Zimmeemann, Verb. Orn. 
Ges. Bay., xix, 1932, 545 (breeding habits; Hamburg, Germany). — Withebby, 
Brit. Birds, xxvl, 1933, 351 (recovery of marked birds). — Rithke, Om. 
Monatsb., xlii, 1934, 152 (nesting habits). — KtrMMERcowE aj?d Nibthammeb, 
Journ. fUr Orn., Ixxxii, 1934, 525 (Asia Minor). 

IFulioa] aterrima Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, i, 1766, 258 ("Habitat in Europe 
maritima"). — Latham, Synop. Birds, Suppl., i, 1787, 294. 

Fulica aterrima Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., xiil, 1817, 50. 

Fulica fuliginosa Scopoli, Annus I Hist.-Nat., 1769, 104 ("In Museum 
Turrianum"). 

Fulica alHventris Scopoli, Annus I Hist.-Nat., 1769, 105. 

Fulica leucoryx Spaeeman, Mus. Carls., 1786, pi. 12 (Sweden; albinistic wing). 

Fulica Aetiops Spabeman, Mus. Carls., 1786, pi. 13 (no locality; prob. young 
bird). 

Fulica fusca Kluk, Hist. Nat., ii, 1779, 52. 

Fulica atrata Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., ii, 1827, 158 ("In Rossiae et Sibiriae 
aquis f requentisslma" ) . 

Fulica puUata Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat., ii, 1827, 159. 

Fulica lugubris S. Muixee, Verb. Nat. Ges. Land-en Volkenk., 1847, 454 (Java). 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 213 

FuUea platyuros Beehm, Vogel Deutschl., 1831, 711 (female with 16 rectrices). 
Fulioa atra japonica Temminck and Schlegel, Slebold's Fauna Japonica, Aves, 

1849, 120, pi. 77 (Japan). 
PuUca stenoleuca Packelhoff, Om. Monatsb., 1914, 288 (Germany). 
FuUca atra commvnis, maeulati-pennis, megapus A. E. Beehm, Verz. Samml., 

1866, 12 (nomina nuda !). 

FUUCA AMERICANA AMERICANA Gmelin 

AMEaticAN Coot 

Adult (sexes alike), in summer. — Entire head and neck dark slate- 
black to black with a slight gloss that shows very faint dark bluish 
or greenish reflections at times; entire upperparts of body and the 
upper wing coverts slate, sometimes with a faint olive-brownish wash 
on the lower back; bend of the wing with some white; inner sec- 
ondaries like the back, outer secondaries and primaries dull clove 
brownish with a slate cast, the outeri secondaries broadly tipped 
with white; the outer web of the outermost primary partly white; 
rectrices dark slate-black; entire underparts (other than neck) ashy 
neutral gray washed with slate, especially on the breast, sides, and 
flanks; the tips of the feathers of the lower breast and of the mid- 
abdomen whitish ; under tail coverts white ; under wing coverts ashy 
slate; frontal shield larger than in winter birds, dark reddish brown 
or chestnut, bill white or pale horn, banded subterminally with 
maroon or dark reddish brown ; iris red to reddish brown ; tarsi and 
toes greenish, claws black. 

Adult (sexes alike) , in winter. — Similar to the above, but with the 
frontal shield smaller, the back more extensively washed with dull 
olive brown; the under parts paler, the whitish tips to the feathers 
being broader. 

Jvwenal (sexes alike). — Entire top and sides of head, hind neck, 
and entire upper parts of body varying from pale ashy olive-brown 
to chaetura drab, the feathers of the lower back and rump tipped 
with wood brown; wings as in adult; rectrices slightly paler than 
in adult and washed with brownish ; entire under parts much lighter 
than in adult — pale olive-buff with ashy light neutral gray bases 
to the feathers showing through as an undertone; sides of head, 
neck, and body, the flanks and vent washed with ashy pale olive- 
brown; under tail coverts white as in adult; frontal shield very 
small; color of unfeathered areas as in adult, except that bill lacks 
the subterminal band. 

Natal down (sexes alike). — Forehead, lores, and chin with short, 
stiff, curly, hairlike down varying from flame scarlet to orange- 
chrome; crown largely bare but with two median lines of short 
blackish down and laterally supraorbitally bordered with a broader 
line of longer but similarly black down, these meeting across the 



214 BtTLLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

occiput; entire upperparts of body with black, glossy, long, coarse 
down mixed with long hairlike filaments, which vary from orange- 
chrome on the hind neck and wings to light orange-yellow on the 
back; underparts with softer, dense, fur like down, very dark gray 
in color, some of it posterolaterally tipped with whitish, the throat 
down longer and coarser and its long terminal parts light orange- 
yellow in color; bill red, tipped with black; tarsi and toes greenish. 

Adult male— Wing 174r-202 (190.3) ; tail 44.5-61 (51.4) ; cuhnen 
from nosril 13-16 (14.2) ; cuhnen from frontal shield 30-34 (31.8) ; 
including frontal shield 41-54 (46.1) ; tarsus 51-61.5 (56.0) ; middle 
toe without claw 66.5-81 (73.2 mm.).'^ 

Adult female.— Wing 171-192 (179.3) ; taU 41-55 (49.0) ; culmen 
from nostril 13-16 (14.2) ; culmen from frontal shield 30-34 (31.8) ; 
including frontal shield 33.5-51 (42.3) ; tarsus 4^58.5 (53.0) ; middle 
toe without claw 63-75 (64.1 mm.).'* 

Range. — Breeds from British Columbia (Quesnal; Kamloops; and 
Okanagan) ; Mackenzie (Fort Simpson; Hay Eiver; Fort Kesolution; 
and Fort Smith); Saskatchewan (Prince Albert; Cumberland 
House); Manitoba (Moose lake; Chemawawin) ; Minnesota (White 
Earth; Leech Lake; Millelacs Lake) ; Wisconsin (La Crosse; Kelley 
Brook; Green Bay) ; Michigan (Lansing; Saginaw; Eochester) ; On- 
tario (Sudbury; Beaumaris); Quebec (Montreal; Quebec) and New 
Brunswick; south to Lower California (Comondu; San Pedro Martir 
Mountains) ; Mexico proper (Michoacan — ^Lake Patzcuaro; Jalisco — 
Guadalajara; Tepic) ; Guatemala (Lake Atitlan) ; western Panama 
(Chiriqui Lagoon); central Texas (Decatur; Giddings; San An- 
tonio) ; eastern Arkansas (Big Lake) ; western Tennessee (Keelfoot 
Lake) ; western Kentucky (Hickman) ; and North Carolina (Pamlico 
Sound); and less commonly, Florida (Monticello) ; Merritt Island; 
Orange Lake; Alachua County; Lake Hicpochee) ; formerly in South 
Carolina (near Charleston). 

Winters from British Columbia (Okanagan; Sumas) ; Idaho (Deer 
Flat Bird Eeservation) ; Nevada (Carson) ; Arizona (Salt Eiver Bird 
Eeservation; near Whipple; Tuscon) ; Colorado (Barr) ; Texas 
(Mason; San Angelo; San Antonio) ; southern Illinois (Mount Car- 
mel) ; western Kentucky (Hickman) ; and Maryland (Millers Island) ; 
south to Lower California (San Jose del Cabo; La Paz); Mexico 
proper (Sinaloa — Escuinapa; Jalisco — Oootlan; Valley of Mexico — 

93 Thirty-one specimens from Rhode Island, Indiana, Illinois, Maryland, 
Florida, Alabama, Bahamas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Wisconsin, North Dakota, 
Montana, Nevada, Arizona, California, Oregon, and Mexico. 

''26 specimens from Alberta, Michigan, Virginia, Maryland. North Dakota, 
Colorado, Florida, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Mexico, and Nicaragvia. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 215 

Ixtacaleo) ; Guatemala (Lake Atitlan; Lake of Duenas; Lake Peten; 
San Lucas) ; Honduras (Lake Yojoa) ; Nicaragua (Escondido 
River),; Costa Rica (Juan Vinas; Las Corcovas) ; and western Pan- 
ama (Veraguas; and Chiriqui Lagoon) ; the Gulf States; Florida; 
and the Bahama Islands (Abaco; New Providence; Rum Cay; Great 
Inagua) . Occasional in winter north to Labrador (Table Bay ) , New 
York, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Indiana, and Puerto 
Rico. 

Tyfe locality. — ^North America. 

[Ji'Mlico] amerioana Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, pt. 2, 1789, 704 (North America ; based 
on Cinereous Coot Latham, Synopsis Birds, iii, pt. 1, 1785, 279). — Latham, 
Index Orn., li, 1790, 779.— Geat, Hand-list, iii, 1871, 67, no. 10515.— Coues, 
Key North Amer. Birds, 1872, 275. — Sclater and Slavin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 
1873, 140, part.- COBY, List Birds West Indies, 1885, and rev. ed., 1886, 30, 
part (Bahamas). — Sharpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 110, part. 

FuUoa amerioana Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., xiii, 1817, 50. — Stephens, 
Shaw's Gen. Zool., sii, pt. 1, 1824, 238. — Bonapaete, Obs. Wilson's Amer. 
Orn., 1826, [200] ; Contr. Maclurian Lye., i, 1827, 28 ; Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. New York, ii, 1827, 338; Comp. and Geogr. List, 1838, 53.— Swain- 
son and Richardson, Fauna Bor.-Amer.. ;i, 1831, 404. — Nuttall, Man. 
Orn. United States and Canada, Water Birds, 1834, 229.— Townsend, 
Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1889, 157 (nw. United Str.tes).— 
Vigors, Zool. Voy. Blossom, 1839, 29 (listed ; no locality. — Audubon, 
Cm. Biogr., iii, 1835, 291, pi. 239; v, 1839, 568; Synopsis, 1839, 212; 
Birds Amer., Svo ed., y, 1842, 138, pi. 305. — Peabodt, Rep. Orn. Massa- 
chusetts, 1839, 375.— LiEB, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, i, 1841, 124 
(descr. nest and eggs). — Jabdinb, Contr. Orn., 1848, 84 (Bermuda in win- 
ter). — HuEDis, Jardine's Contr. Orn., 1850, 11 (Bermuda, Nov., Dec, May). — 
HARTLAtTB, Journ. fiir Orn., 1853, extra Heft, 87 (monogr.) ; 1855, 99 (descr. ; 
crit.). — Thompson, Nat. Hist. Vermont, 1853, 107.- — Wailes, Geol. Rep. Mis- 
sissippi, 1854, 322 (Mississippi). — Kennicwtt, Trans. Illinois Agri. Assoc, 
i, 1855, 586 (Illinois). — Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc London, 1857, 206 (Jalapa, 
Veracruz); 1859, 369 (Jalapa); 1864, 179 (City of Mexico).— Cabanis, 
Journ. fur Orn., 1856, 429 (Cuba). — Brewer, Proc Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, 
vii, 1860, 307 (Cuba).— Cassin, in Baird, Rep. Pacific R. B. Surv., ix, 1858, 
751; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, xvi, 1862, 322 (California).- Baird, 
Rep. U. S. and Mex. Bound. Surv., ii, pt 2, 1859, 26 (Bspia, Sonera; San 
Pascflal, Lower California) ; Cat. North Amer. Birds, 1859, no. 559; Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1859, 306 (Cape San Lucas, I'lOwer Cali- 
fornia).^ — Mooee, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1859, 64 (Chilomo, Honduras). — 
Henry, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vii, 1855, 314 (New Mexico) ; 
xi, 1859, 108 (New Mexico). — Bryant, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat Hist., vii, 
1859, 122 (Bahamas). — Xantus, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, xi, 1859, 
192 (Port Tejon, Calif.).— Martens, Journ. fiir Orn., 1859, 220 (Bermuda).- 
Sclater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, 230 (Guatemala) ; Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 
1868, 468 (monogr.). — Willis, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst for 1858 (1859>_ 
284 (Nova Scotia). — Bland, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst for 1858 (1859), 287 
(Bermuda).— Salvin and Sclater, Ibis, 1860,45 (Duenas, Guatemala, breed- 
ing). — Reinhabdt, Ibis, 1861, 12 (Christianshaab and Godthaab, Greenland, 
1854, 3 specimens). — ^Albrecht, Journ. fiir Orn., 1861, 56 (Bahamas). — 
Blakiston, Ibis, 1862, 9 (Saskatchewan) ; 1863, 135 (breeding, Saskatch- 
272607 — 11 15 



216 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

ewan).— GuNDLACH, Journ. fur Orn., 1862, 90 (Cuba ; crlt.) ; 1875, 363 (Cuba, 
habits) ; Rep. FisicoNat. Cuba, i, 1866, 363; Contr. Orn. Cubana, 1876, 194; 
Orn. Cubana, 1875, 249.— Tatloe, Ibis, 1862, 129 (Florida).— Vebkiix, Proc. 
Essex Inst., iii, 1862, 158 (Oxford County, Maine).— Fetlnee, Ann. Rep. 
Smitlis. Inst, for 1864 (1865), 428 (Fort Crook, ne. California).— Deesseb, 
Ibis, 1866, 40 (s. Texas). — McIlwraith, Proc. Essex Inst, v, 1866, 93 
(Hamilton, Ontario). — Coues, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, xviii, 1866, 
98 (Fort Whipple, Ariz.) ; xx, 1868, 84 (Arizona) ; Ibis, 1866, 26 (Colorado 
River, Ariz.) ; Check-list, 1874, No. 474, ed. 2, 1882, No. 685; Birds North- 
west, 1874, 541; Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 647 
(Pembina, N. Dak., breeding; Frenchmans Creek, etc., Mont., breeding; 
descr. nest and eggs). — Lawrence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New Xork, viii, 
1866, 295 (vicinity New York City) ; ix, 1868, 143 (San Antonio, Costa 
Rica); U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 4, 1876, 50 (San Mateo, Oaxaca).— Bbown, 
Ibis, 1868, 425 (Vancouver Island). — Turnbuix, Birds Eastern Pennsyl- 
vania and New Jersey, 1869, 42 (Phila. ed., p. 33). — Dall and Bannistbe, 
Trans. Chicago Acad. Sci., i, 1869, 293 (Fort Yukon, Alaska). — Fbantzius, 
Journ. fiir Orn., 1869, 375 (Costa Rica). — Salven, Proc. Zool. See. London, 
1870, 219 (Laguno del Castillo, "VerSgua, w. Panama). — Habitng, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. London, 1871, 111, 117 ( Jacobshavn and off Disco Island, Greenland). — 
Hbnshaw, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, xi, 1874, 11 (Utah). — Meebill 
(J. C), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1878, 165 (Fort Brown, Tex., breeding).— 
CoKT, Birds Bahama Islands, 1880, 178; Field Mus. Nat Hist., Publ. 131, 
1909, 387 (Illinois; Wisconsin). — RmowAT, Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., iil, 1880, 
202 (Cat. North Amer. Birds, no. 580) ; Nom. North Amer. Birds, 1881, 
No. 580.— Reid, U. S. Nat Mus. Bull. 25, 1884, 250 (Bermuda, regular and 
autumnal visitor; also. May 28, 1847, and Apr. 27, 1875). — Baied, Bbewee, 
and Ridgwat, Water Birds North Amer., i, 1884, 393. — Tubneb, Proc. TJ. S. 
Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 248 (Naiu, Ungava, 1 specimen). — American Oenith- 
OLOGiSTS' UNION, Check-list, 1886, and ed. 2, 1895, No. 221; ed., 3, 1910, 
106. — Seton, Auk, iii, 1886, 151 (Manitoba, summer resident). — Shabpe, 
Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 221, part (North American localities; 
Mazatlan and Presidio de Mazatlan, Sinaloa ; Tamest, near Tampico, 
Tamaulipas ; Puebla ; Jomata, Veracruz ; Oozumel Island ; Coban, Lake of 
Duenas and Lake Pet^n, Guatemala ; Calobre Laguna de Castillo, Vera- 
gua). — Beyer, Proc. Louisiana Soc. Nat. for 1897-99 (1900), 94 (Louisiana; 
abundant winter resident up to May; breeding ?). — Mailuaed, Condor, iii, 
1901, 121 (San Benito County, Calif., breeding). — Woodcock, Oregon Agr. 
Exp. Stat. Bull. 68, 1902, 19 (Oregon range). — Beewster, Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., xli, 1902, 57 (San Jos6 del Cabo, Sept. 10-Nov. 13; Sanitago, Nov.; 
San Pedro Martir Mountains, 8,200 feet, breeding). — Aixen (G. M.), Proc. 
Manchester Inst. Arts and Sci., iv, 1902, 84 (New Hampshire; rare autumn 
migrant) .—Peebioe, North Amer. Fauna, No. 22, 1902, 93 (mouth of Red 
River, Manitoba, abundant June 15 ; lakes north of Winnipeg) ; No. 27, 
1908, 315 (Chipewayan, Alberta, May 23; Sturgeon River, Alberta, May 13; 
Slave River, near Fort Smith, June 15; Hays River, Great Slave Lake).— 
Kttmlien and Holmster, Wisconsin Nat. H'st. Soc. Bull. 3. 1903, 40 (Wis- 
consin; habits). — BoNHOTE, Ibis, 1903, 309 (New Providence Island, Ba- 
hamas, resident; habits). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, 
iii, 1903, 329 (Pachica and Cachuta, Sonora; Matamoros, Tamese, and 
Tampico, Tamaulipas; Mazatlan, Sinaloa; Colima ; Guanajuato; Guadala- 
jara, Jalisco; Valley of Mexico; Laguna de Cbapules, Puebla; Laguna del 
Rosario, Tlaxcala ; Jonetal and Jalapa, Veracruz ; Lake Patzcuaro, Micho- 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 217 

acdn; Tehuantepec, Oaxaca; Cozumel Island; Lake Peteu, Lake Duefias, 
and CobSn, Guatemala; Chilomo, Honduras; Rio Escondido, Nicaragua; 
San Antonio, and between Cartago and San Jos6, Costa Rica; Laguna de 
Castillo and Calobre, Verigua). — Woodeuff, Chicago Acad. Sci. Bull. 6, 
1907, 61 (Chicago area, common summer resident). — Widmann, Birds Mis- 
souri, 1907, 62 (summer resident and abundant transient). — Taveener and 
Swales, Wils. Bull., No. 60, 1907, 84 (Point Pelee, Ontario, breeding ?).— 
Shaep, Condor, ix, 1907, 86 (San Diego County, Calif., breeding).— Beck, 
Condor, ix, 1907, 110, in text (Clipperton Island, Galapagos, Nov.). — Andeb- 
SON, Proc. Davenport Acad. Sci., xi, 1907, 210 (Iowa; habits).— Knight, 
Birds Maine, 1908, 146 (migrant).- Milleb (R. F.), Auk, xxv, 1908, 219 
(Philadelphia County, Pa., breeding ).^Wayne, Birds South Carolina, 1910, 
42 (winter resident). — Eaton, Birds New York, i, 1910, 286, pi. 27 (common 
migrant, rare breeder). — Cabeikeb, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 412 (Juan 
VInas, San Juan, Las Concovas, Laguna de Ochomogo, and mouth of Rio 
Matina, Costa Rica).— Howell (A. H.), Biol. Surv. BuU. 38, 1911, 28 
(Arkansas; breeding locally). — Babbows, Michigan Bird Life, 1912, 163. — 
FoBBDSH, Game-birds, Wild-fowl, and Shore-birds, 1912, 221 (habits). — Saoe, 
Bishop, and Bliss, Bli-ds Connecticut, 1913, 52. — Gitfoed, Proc. California 
Acad. Sci., ser. 4, ii, pt. 1, 1913, 80, in text (Clipperton Island, Galdpagos, 
2 specimens, Aug. 10, 1905).— Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 43, 
fig. 19 (range).— Grinnell (J.), Pacific Coast Avif., No. 11, 1915, 48 (resi- 
dent throughout California). — Todd, Ann. Carnegie Mus., x, 1916, 203 (Isle 
of Pines, fide Gundlach.).— Hollisteb, Auk, xxxvi, 1919, 102 (breeding 
habits).— Cahn, Wils. Bull., xxxiii, 1921, 171 (Lake Caddo, ne. Texas, 
breeding). — Bveemann, Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. for 1920 (1921), 331 (Vigo 
County, Ind., breeding). — MoAtee, U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Circ. 13, 1923, 46, 
fig. 36 (local names; range). — ^van Rossem, Condor, xxv, 1923, 110, fig. 34 
(descr. abnormally colored eggs from Buena Vista Lake, Calif.). — Baeboub, 
Mem. Nutt. Orn. Club, vi, 1923, 57 (Cuba, in spring and autumn). — Willett, 
Condor, xxiii, 1921, 158 (Stikine Plats, Alaska). — Cahn, Condor, xsiv, 1922, 
175 (Big Bird Island, Tex.). — Jackson, Condor, xxiv, 1922, 25 (Roosevelt 
Lake, Ariz.). — Dawson, Birds California (students' ed.), iii, 1923, 1557 
(California). — ^Dickey and van Rossem, Condor, xxv, 1923, 126 (Santa 
Cruz Island). — Geinnell, Proc. California Acad. Sci., ser. 4, xiil, 1923, 58 
(Furnace Creek Ranch, Death Valley, Calif.). — Gbiscom, Birds New York 
City Region, 1923, 141 (New York City). — Johnston, Birds West Virginia, 
1923,87 (West Virginia). — Willett, Condor, xxv, 1923, 105 (Craig, Alaska). — 
BBOK, Auk, xli, 1924, 291 in text (Pennsylvania German common names). — 
Bent, Wils. Bull., xxxvi, 1924, 10 (se. Texas). — Bdkleiqh, Wils. Bull., 
xxxvi, 1924, 76 (migr. ; Centre County, Pa.). — ^De Laubenfels, Wils. Bull., 
xxxvi, 1924, 165 (Brownsville, Tex.). — Gabeiexson and Jewett, Auk, xli, 
1924, 297 (Mandan, N. Dak.). — Geinnell and Stoeee, Animal Life Yosemite, 
1924, 261 (descr.; distr. ; habits; Yosemite, Calif.). — Howell, Birds Ala- 
bama, 1924, 93; ed. 2, 1928, 93 (distr.; habits; Alabama).— Leopold, Condor, 
xxvi 1924, 226 in text (caught by turtle). — Miller, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., 1, 1924, 309 (ptilosis).— Nice (M. M. and L. B.), Birds Oklahoma, 
1924, 30 (genl. ; Oklahoma). — Pindab, WUs. Bull., xxxvi, 1924, 204 (e. 
Arkansas). — Swaeth, Condor, xxvi, 1924, 185 (autumn migr.; San Fran- 
cisco Mountain, Ariz.). — Ballet, Birds Florida, 1925, 44, pi. 24 (fig.; distr.; 
Florida).— Blincoe, Auk, xlli, 1925, 408 (Bardstown, Ky.).— Poebush, Birds 
Massachusetts and Other New England States, 1, 1925, 369. pi. 24 (fig. ; 
descr.; distr.; habits; New England).— Fbiedmann, Auk, xlii, 1925, 542 



218 



(Lower Rio Grande Valley, Tex. ) .— Gaedneb, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixvil, 
art. 19, 1925, IG in text, pi. 7 (structure of tongue). — Geiscom and Ceoset, 
Auk, xlli, 1925, 527 (status, Brownsville, Tex.).— Labson, Wils. Bull., xxsvii, 

1925, 25 (Sioux Falls region, S. Dak.).— Lincoln, Auk, xlil, 1925, 58 (North 
Dakota).— Michael, Condor, xxvii, 1925, 110 (Merced River, Xosemite, 
Calif.).— PiNDAE, Wils. BuU., xsxvii, 1925, 82 (status, Fulton County, Ky.).— 
Wtman and Buenell, Field Book Birds Southwestern United States, 1925, 
64 (descr.).- Faego, Wils. Bull., xxxviii, 1926, 147 (Pinellas and Pasco 
Counties, Fla).— Goldman, Condor, xxviii, 1926, 1G4 (nesting. Marsh Lake, 
White Mountains, Ariz.). — Holt and Sutton, Ann. Carnegie Mus., xvi, 1926, 
424 (s. Florida) .—HuET, Auk, xliii, 1926, 351 (Laguna Hanson; La GruUa; 
San Ramon; El Rosario; nw. Lower California). — Kelson, Ibis, 1926, 698 
(Arrow Lake, British Columbia; resident). — ^Nattmbdeg, Auk, xliii, 1926, 487 
(winter; Colombia). — ^Taveenee, Birds Western Canada, 1926, 127, pi. 16A 
(fig.; descr.; habits; western Canada). — Williams, Wils. BuU., xxxviii, 

1926, 25 (Red River Valley, ne. North Dakota). — Woethington and Todd, 
Wils. Bull., xxxviii, 1926, 210 (Choctawha tehee Bay, Fla. ) .-Bailey, Wils. 
Bull., sxxix, 1927, 176 (distr.). — Bent and Copeland, Auk, xliv, 1927, 378 
(Zephyr Hills, Lake Apopka, Kissimmee River, Fla.). — Cahn, Wils. Bull., 

xxxix, 1927, 26 (summer, Vilas County, Wis.). — Eddy, Wils. Bull., xxxix, 

1927, 227 (Lake Decatur, 111.).— Lamb, Condor, xxix, 1927, 156 
(breeding Todos Santos and San Jose del Cabo, Lower California). — 
LiNSDALB, Auk, xliv, 1927, 52 (Pratt, sw. Kansas). — Linsdale and Hall, 
Wils. Bull., xxxix, 1927, 95 (Lake View, Douglas County, Kans.). — Mail- 
LiARu, Proc. California Acad. Sci., ser. 4, xvi, 1927, 290 (Modoc County, 
Calif.). — MoTTSLEY, Auk, xliv, 1927, 523 (Ciierry River, near Magog, Quebec, 
Canada). — Tannee, Condor, xxix, 1927, 197 (Virgin River Valley, Utah). — 
Wetmose, N. Y. Acad. Sci., Sci. Surv. Porto Rico, etc., ix, pt. 3, 1927, 348 
(Puerto Rico — hypothetical only). — -Willett, Condor, xxix, 1927, 59 (Craig, 
Alaska). — ^Alfoed, Jbis, 1928, 196 (Vancouver Island, British Columbia). — 
Bailet (A. M.), Auk, xlv, 1928, 277 (winter; Chenier au Tigre, La.).— 
Bailey (F. M.), Birds New Mexico, 1928, 243 (genl. ; New Mex- 
ico). — Cheisty, Auk, xlv, 1928, 287 in text (s. Florida). — Gabdnee, Condor, 
XXX, 1928, 128 in text (eaten by horned owls.) — Huey, Condor, xxx, 1928, 
158 in text (Laguna Hanson, n. Lower California). — Larson, Wils. Bull., xl, 

1928, 44 (e. McKenzie County, N. Dak.).— Pickens, Wils. Bull., xl, 1928, 188 
(Upper and Lower Piedmont, S. C). — Schonweiteb, Beitr. Fortpfl. Vog., 
iv, 1928, 90 (eggs).— Skinneb, Wils. BuU., xl, 1928, 142 in text (YeUow- 
stone Park, Wyo.). — ^Austin, Auk, xlvi, 1929, 209 (two records from Lab- 
rador). — BuELEiGH, Auk, xlvi, 1929, 507 (Lake Washington; swamp s. of 
Tacoma, Wash.; nests). — Cooke, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xlii, 1929, 27 
(Washington, D. C). — Hendee, Condor, xxxi, 1929, 25 (Moffat County, 
Colo.).— Meadows, Condor, xxxi, 1929, 129 (Santa Catalina Island).— 
SwAETH, Proc. California Acad. Sci., ser. 4, xviii, 1929, 287 (Ashburn 
Ranch, Sonoita Valley, Calif.). — Wir.soN, Wils. Bull., xli, 1929, 183 (lake 
near Bowling Green, Ky.). — Fitzpateiok, Wils. Bull., xlii, 1930, 124 (ne. 
Colorado).- Jung, Auk, xlvii, 1930, 536 (Peace and Athabasca Rivers, Al- 
berta). — Kemsies, Wils. Bull., xlli, 1930, 203 (Yellowstone Park, Wyo.).— 
Lewis, Wils. Bull., xlii, 1930, 42 (nw. Oklahoma). — Pierce, Wils. Bull., 
xlii, 1930, 262 (status, Buchanan County, Iowa). — Uenee, Abstr. Linn, Soc. 
New York, Nos. 39 and 40, 1930, 66 (Union County, N. J.). — Van Hyning, 
Auk, xlvii, 1930, 561, in text (breeding. Lake Griffin, Fla.). — [Aethdb], 
Birds Louisiana, 1931, 248 (descr.; status; Louisiana). — Bailey and 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 219 

Weight, Wils. Bull., xliii, 1931, 195 (winters in s. Louisiana).— CHEiSTr, 
Ank, xlviii, 1931, 367 (Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie).— Bstbn, Auk, xlviii, 1931, 
573 (weight).— Gabkielson, Condor, xxxiii, 1931, 111 (Little Butte Creek, 
Oreg.).- Hunt, Auk, xlviii, 1931, 236 (Arkansas River, Ark.).— Peill, Wils. 
Bull., xliii, 1931, 149 in text (migr. ; Oregon).— Gbiscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. 
Nat. Hist. Ixiv, 1932, 123 (distr.; Guatemala ) .—Hand, Condor, xsxlv, 1932, 
24 (Fish Lake, Idaho).— MnxEB, Condor, xxxiv, 1932, 139 (remains ex 
Indian dwellings in Arizona). — Howaed and Millee, Condor, xxxv, 

1933, 16 (bones from New Mexico cave). — Stevenson and Fitch, Condor, 
xxxv, 1933, 167 (Butte Creek, sw. Oregon, Dec. 18) . — Compton, Condor, xxxvi, 

1934, 41 (Pleistocene of Hemphill County, Texas).— Oilman, Condor, xxxvil, 

1935, 240 (Death Valley, many records).— T a veener. Birds Canada, 1934, 
175 (nesting in Canada across continent north to Mackenzie and through 
Cariboo District in British Columbia).— Debes, Auk, li, 1934, 230 (breeding 
Delaware Marshes below Philadelphia). — Belches and Smookee, Ibis, 1985, 
285 in text (Grenada). — Bond, Birds West Indies, 1936, 24 (descr. ; appar- 
ently breeds in Cuba, Isle of Pines, Jamaica, Grand Cayman, Hispaniola, and 
Bahamas (Rum Cay, Abaco, Providence) ; also recorded from St. Croix 
and the Grenadines (Isle Rhonde) ; ranges widely through North America 
south to Nicaragua). — Howabd, Condor, xxxviii, 1936, 35 (bones, Rancho La 
Brea). — Wallace, Auk, liii, 1936, S7 (w. North Carolina; not uncommon 
late in October and early In November). — Aenold, Condor, xxxix, 1937, 32 
(Coalinga Area, Calif). — Walkinshaw, Auk, liv, 1937, 311 in text (Mich- 
igan). — Wbsb, Condor, xli, 1939, 36 (Deep Springs Valley, Inyo County, 
Calif.) — Hakgeave, Condor, xli, 1939, 208 (bones from Indian site, Wupatk's 
Pueblo, Ariz.). — Cottam and Williams, Wils. Bull., li, 1939, 154 in text 
(young coots eaten by great blue herons). 

F[ulica'i americana Maximilian, Journ. fiir Orn., 1859, 94 (descr., etc.). — Ridg- 
wat, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist., New York, x, 1874, 387 (Illinois) ; Man. North 
Amer. Birds, 1887, 142.— Coues, Key North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, 1884, 676.— 
Rothschild, Bull. Brit. Orn. Club, xlviii, 1928, 123 (eggs). 

[FuUca] (wvericana Gundlach, Journ. fiir Orn., 1861, 344 (Cuba) ; Rep. Fisico- 
Nat. Cuba, i, 1865, 363. 

FluUea} almerioana] americana Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., xxxiii, 
1914, 170, in text. 

Fulica americana americana Riley, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xxix, 1916, 103 
in text.— McAtee, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 294, 1920, 29 (Cherry, Brown, and 
Garden Counties, Nebr., breeding). — Simmons, Birds Austin Region, 1925, 52 
(Austin, Tex. ; habits ; descr.) . — McLeelan, Proc. California Acad. Sci., ser. 4, 
xvi, 1927, ii (Maria Madre, Mexico; plumages). — Grinnell, Univ. California 
Publ. Zool. xxxii, 1928, 83 (distr.; Lower California). — Bond, Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ixxx, 1928 (1929), 495 (distr.; habits; Haiti).— 
Geinnell and Hunt, Condor, xxxi, 1929, 67 (Morro Bay, Calif.). — Petees, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixix, 1929, 131 (Great Corn Island, Nicaragua ; crit. ) . — 
Bancroft, Condor, xxxii, 1930, 24 (breeding San Ignacio, Lower Calif or- 
nia),— Cahn, Wils. Bull., xlii, 1930, 215 (Little Egypt, 111. ) .-Geinnell, 
Dixon, and Linsdale, Univ. California Publ. Zool., xxxv, 1930, 215 (distr. ; 
Lassen Peak region, n. California). — American Ornithologists' Union, 
Check-list North Amer. Birds, ed. 4, 1931, 100. — Baeeg, Univ. Arkansas Agr. 
Exp. Stat. Bull. 258, 1931, 58 (descr.; distr.; food; Arkansas).— Nice, Birds 
Oklahoma, rev. ed., 1931, 86 (genl. ; Oklahoma). — Peters, BuU. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., Ixxi, 1931, 302 (Almirante; Changuinola; Panama). — Wbtmoee and 
Swales, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 155, 1931, 138 (habits ; distr. ; etc. ; Hispani- 



220 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL lIUSEUil 

Ola).— Austin, Mem. Nutt. Orn. Club, vii, 1932, 81 (Newfoundland Labra- 
dor. ) —Howell, Florida Bird Life, 1932, 212 ( genl. ; Florida ) .— Kobekts, Birds 
Minnesota, i, 1932, 454 (fig., distr., habits, Minnesota).— Stoner, Koosevelt 
Wild Life Ann., ii, 1932, 453 (habits on Oneida Lake, N. Y.)— Hakkold, WUs. 
Bull, xlv, 1533, 19 (Saskatchewan).— Geiscom, Trans. Linn. Soc. New York, iii, 
1933, 100 (Dutchess County, N. Y., rare spring and common fall transient).— 
WniETT, Pacific Coast Avif., No. 21, 1933, 54 (sw. California, abundant win- 
ter, less common summer ; breeds Apr. 15- June 15) . — Haegkavb, Condor, xxxv, 
1933, 76 (abundant, Stoneman Lake, Ashurst Lake, Long Lake, n. Arizona, 
in October). — Philups, Condor, xxxv, 1933, 228 (one seen near Baboqulvari 
Mountains, Ariz. ) .—Anderson, Condor, xxxvi, 1934, 84 (breeding Tucson 
region, Ariz.).— Edwards, Auk, 1, 1933, 369 (Gulf Shores, Ala., Oct. 8, 1932.).— 
MoNSON, Wils. Bull., xlvi, 1934, 43 (Cass County, N. Dak., occ. migrant, 1 
nesting record).— Du Mont, Iowa Stud. Nat. Hist., xv, 1934, 64 (Iowa; very 
common migrant, fairly common breeder in nw. part of State) . — ^McCkeabt 
and Mickey, Wils. Bull., xlvii, 1935, 136 (se. Wyoming, Mar. 25-Nov. 30).— 
YouNGWORTH, Wils. Bull., xlvii, 1935, 218 (common summer resident. Fort 
Sisseton, S. Dak.). — Griscom, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixxviii, 1935, 305 
(Panama — Veraguas and Chiriqui Lagoon). — Danforth, Journ. Agr. Univ. 
Puerto Rico, xix, 1935, 448 (St. Croix, specimen; meas.), 467 (St. Croix).— 
Stevenson, Auk, 52, 1935, 463 (East Lake, Ala., July 5).— Huet, Wils. Bull., 
xlviii, 1936, 123 (White Mountains, Ariz., nesting). — Hendrickson, Wils. Bull., 
xlviii, 1936, 216 in text (nests and young in Iowa ; habits) .— Linsdale, Pacific 
Coast Avif., No. 23, 1936, 51 (Nevada ; summer resident and transient; pres- 
ent in nearly every pool of water, small or large). — Weydbmeter and Maksh, 
Condor, xxxviii, 1936, 194 (Lake Bowdoin, Mont.). — van Bossem, Pacific 
Coast Avif., No. 24, 1936 (Indian Springs, Charleston Mountains, Nev. ; July to 
Feb.).- Gross, Auk. liv, 1937, 23 (Mecatina Island, Quebec, Dec. 20, 1935).— 
Williams, Auk, Iv, 1938, 65 (upper Texas coast; common winter, occasional 
in summer). — Poland, Auk, Iv, 1938, 128 (Leetown, W. Va.). — Handlan, 
Auk, Iv, 1938, 130 (Lake Lynn, W. Va. ) .— Danfoeth, Auk, Iv, 1938, 528 
( specimen, Cartagena Lagoon, Puerto Kico ; known also from Hispaniola and 
St. Croix). — Eowlet, Condor, xl, 1938, 88 in text (Buena "Vista Lake, Kern 
County, Calif.).— VAN RossEir, Birds El Salvador, 1938, 164 (El Salvador- 
Lake Olomega, Lake Uopango, Lake Chanmico ; winter visitant) . — Feilet, 
Bennett, and Hendeiokson, Wils. Bull., 1, 1938, 82 in text (Iowa, habits, 
nests, eggs, status). — Deaderick, Wils. Bull., 1, 1938, 263 (Hot Springs 
National Park, Ark. ; abundant transient, common winter resident) . — 
Obeeholser, Bird Life Louisiana, 1938, 211 (permanent resident throughout, 
abundant in winter; local in summer; habits; many locality records). — 
Bennett and Hendrickson, Auk, Ivi, 1939, 36 (adapt, to environment). — 
Wetmoee, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxxvi, 1939, 184 (Reelfoot Lake, Term., 
Apr. 26 and May 7 ; Oct. 6-21) ; 1 xx xviii, 1940, 535 (Ohio River, near Bur- 
lington, Ky.).— Jones, U. S. Dept. Int., Bur. Biol. Surv., Wildlife Res. Bull. 
2, 1940, 1-52 (col. fig. ; food habits ; distr.). 

Fulica aimericanal americana Hicks, Wils. Bull., xlv, 1933, 181 (Ashtabula 
County, Ohio, irreg. summer resident, nest and 11 eggs, July 3). — Mdebay, 
Wils. Bull., xlvii, 1935, 66 (Rockbridge County, Va., fairly common mi- 
grant). — Baetsch, BAii, RosENzwEiG, and Salman, Auk, liv, 1937, 517 
(red blood corpuscles). — Poole, Auk, Iv, 1938, 516 (weight and wing area). 

FuUoa atra (not of Linnaeus) Wilson, Amer. Orn., ix, 1814, 61, pi. 73, fig. 1. — 
ViEiixOT, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat, xii, 1817, 48, part (Greenland; North Amer- 
ica).— Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool., xli, pt. 1, 1824, 234, part (North 
America).— Liohtenstein, Preis-Verz. Mex. Vog., 1830, 3; Journ. fur Orn., xi, 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 221 

1863, 59 (Mexico).— (?) D'Orbigny, in La Sagra's Hist. Nat. Cuba, Ois., 1839, 
271 (Spanish ed., p. 186). 

Fulioa tcilsoni Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool., sii, pt. 1, 1824, 236 (Delaware River, 
Pa.; cites Fuliea americana Sabine, Franklin's Journ., 1823, App., 670; 
Common Coot Wilson, Amer. Orn., ix, 1814, i, pi. Ixxiii, fig. 1) . 

(?) FuUca leucopyga Wagler, Isis, 1831, 518 (locality not mentioned, but sup- 
posed new species described In a paper on Mexican mammals and birds). 

Fuliea cariicea (not of Eidgway) Baebotje, Mem. Nutt, Orn. Club, vi, 1923, 87 in 
text (Cuba; resident). 

Fuliea cariMea Danfokth, Wils. Bull., xl, 1928, 179 (Laguna del Sitlo, Cuba; 
nesting) . 

Colymbus parvus Shufeldt, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., xxxii, 1913, 136, pi. 39, 
figs. 474^^76 incl., part (Pleistocene: Fossil Lake, Oregon; humeri, meta- 
tarsus; lide Wetmore, Proc. California Acad. Sci., ser. 4, xxiii, 1937, 199). 

FULICA AMERICANA GRENADENSIS Riley 

Grenada Coot 

Adult (sexes alike) . — Similar to summer adults of the nominate race, 
but with the bill heavier and more wrinkled longitudinally, the frontal 
shield more swollen. (Doubtfully distinct from F. a. americana.) 

Other plumages not recorded. 

Adult male. — ^Wing 185; tail 46; cuhnen with frontal shield, 48; 
depth of bill at base 18 mm.°° 

Adult female. — ^Wing 184, 184.5 ; tail 47, 47.5 ; culmen with frontal 
shield 46, 50.5 ; depth of bill at base 16, 17.5 ; tarsus 56 ; middle toe with- 
out claw 72 mm.'" 

Range. — ^Resident in Grenada; the Grenadines, Jamaica (Long 
Pond, near Hodges, Pedro Ponds) ; and St. Croix (South Gate Pond). 

Type locality. — ^Isle de Ehonde, Grenada, British West Indies. 

FuUca am,ericarM (not of Gmelin) Gossb, Birds Jamaica, 1847, 384. — Solatee, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1861, 81 (Jamaica). — ^Aibkecht, Journ. fiir. Orn., 
1862, 206 (Jamaica).— Mabch, Proc. Acad. Nat. Scl., Philadelphia, 1864, 64 
(Jamaica). — Weixs, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1887, 629 (Grenada, resident, 
breeding). — Shakpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 221 (Jamaica and 
Grenada). — Scott, Auk, ix, 1892, 12 (Jamaica; resident, breeding).- — Field, 
Auk, xi, 1894, 122 (Jamaica; breeding). — Solatee, Rev. List Birds Jamaica, 
1910, 20. 
FuUca americana grenadensis Rilet, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xxix, 1916, 
103 (Isle de Rhonde, Grenada; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.). — Danfoeth, Auk, xlv, 
1928, 482 (summer; Long Pond, near Hodges, Pedro Ponds, Jamaica). — 
Beattt, Journ. Dept. Agr. Puerto Rico, xiv, 1930, 140 ( St. Croix ; South Gate 
Pond, Virgin Islands; breeds). — Petebs, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 
212. 

Flulica] almericana] grenadensis Danfoeth, Journ. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico, 
xix, 1935, 448 in text (Jamaica). 

FuUca carilaea (not of Ridgway) Bangs and Kennaed, List Birds Jamaica, 1920, 
6 (resident; less abundant than formerly). 



"Ex Danforth, Auk, xlv, 1928, 482 (1 specimen from Jamaica). 
" Two specimens, including the type, ex Danforth, Auk, xlv, 1928, 482, and Riley, 
Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xxix, 1916, 103. 



222 BULLETIN 50, TJNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

FULICA CABIBAEA Ridgway 

Cabibbban Coot 

Adult (sexes alike) .—Similar to the adult of FuUca americana 
americana, but -n-ith the frontal shield whitish (pale brownish in dried 
skins) like the bill, oval or elliptical, much wrinkled (17-22 mm. long, 
8.5-13 mm. wide in the breeding season) , the bill slightly slenderer, 
and the outer web of the outermost primary almost wholly white, 
more so than in F. a. americana. The same seasonal variation in the 
imderparts (white tips to the feathers in autumn and winter birds) 
occurs in both species. 

Other plumages similar to corresponding stages of Fulioa ameri- 
cana americana. 

Adult Tnale.—Wmg 173-191 (184.9) ; tail 42-56 (49.1) ; culmen from 
nostril 14.5-17 (15.6) ; culmen with frontal shield 47-57.5 (53.9) ; tar- 
sus 54-62.4 (58.9) ; middle toe without claw 76-84 (78.7 mm.)."' 

Adult female.— Wing 165-185 (174.7) ; tail 42.5-51.5 (47.2) ; cuhnen 
from nostril 13-15 (14.4) ; culmen with frontal shield 43-51 (47.3); 
tarsus 48-58 (53.1) ; middle toe without claw 68-78 (73.5 mm.).^^ 

Range. — Resident in the West Indies from Hispaniola (Gantier; 
ifitang Miragoane ; Pont de I'Estere ; El Batey ; Laguna del Salodillo ; 
Haina ; Artibonite ; Gonaives ; Guerra ; Rio Yasica ; near Monte Cristi ; 
Laguna Cabral ; Port-de-Paix ; Trou Caiman ; Trou des Roseaux) ; 
Puerto Rico (Guanica, Cartagena, and Anegado Lagoons; Guayabal; 
Camuy; Rio Arecibo; Cosmo Springs Reservoir); Culebra Island; 
and St. Croix; to St. John; St. Barts; St. Kitts; Montserrat; Mar- 
tinique; St. Lucia; Antigua; Sombrero; Barbuda; Anguilla; Guada- 
loupe; St. Vincent; Barbados; and the Grenadines (Mustique; May- 
reau; Union Island; Canouan; Carriacou, Grenada), and, somewhat 
uncertainly, to Trinidad and Venezuela (Lagunilla).°° 

T]/pe locality. — St. John, Virgin Islands. 

Fulioa americana (not of Gmelln) Newton (A. and E.), Ibis, 1859, 260 (St. 
Croix). — Gtjndiach, Journ. fur Orn., 1874, 314 (Puerto Rico) ; 1878, 162, 
190 (Puerto Rico). — La-wkence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, vili, 1864, 
100 (Sombrero).— LfiOTATJD, Ois. Trinidad, 1866, 594.— Listeb, Ibis, 1880, 44 
(St. Vincent.)— COBT, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, 1881, 155 (Haiti) ; Birds Haiti 
and San Domingo, 1885, 163-164 (Gantier) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, 
91 (Hispaniola).— Stahl, Ornis, iii, 1887, 452 (Puerto Rico). — Feilden, Ibis, 
1889, 499 (Barbados; habits). — ? Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vi, 
1894, 78 (Trinidad). — Chekkie, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Orn. Ser., i, 1896, 25 



'" Eleven specimens including the types of cariiaea and major, from St. Johns, 
Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Barbuda, and Guadeloupe. 

°° Eight specimens from St. Johns, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Barbuda, and 
Antigua. 

"The records from the Grenadines other than Carriacou are doubtful, as no 
specimens have been collected to substantiate sight records of "white seal coots." 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 223 

(Dominican Republic).— TipPENHAUEas, Die lusel Haiti, 1892, 323.— Vebbux 
(A. E. and A. H.), Proc. Acad. Nat Scl. Philadelphia, 1x1, 1909, 356 (Santo 
Domingo). 

(?) [Pulica] americcna Cosy, List Birds West Indies, 1885, 30, part (Antilles).— 
Shakpb, Hand-list, 1, 1899, 110, part (Antilles).— Bkaboubnb and Chubb, 
Birds South An*rica, i, 1912, 26 (Trinidad). 

(7) Fulica americana americaria Wetmoke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 326, 1916, 34 
(Puerto Eico, resident; food, etc.). 

Fulica almericana] americana Beebe, New York Zool. Soc. Bull., xxx, 1927, 
139; Beneath Tropic Seas, 1928, 219 (Etang Miragoane, Hispaniola). 

(?) Pulica atra (not of Linnaeus) D'Oebiqny, in La Sagra, Hist. Nat. Cuba, Ois., 
1839, 271 (Spanish ed., p. 186). 

Fulica mexicana Dbscouetilz, Voy. Nat., ii, 1809, 66 (Pont de I'EstSre, Haiti). — 
Bitter, Naturh. Eeise westind. Insel Hayti, 1836, 157 (Haiti). 

Fulica caribwa Eidgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vll, 1884, 358 (Guadeloupe and 
St John, Lesser Antilles; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.).— Goby, Auk, v, 1888, 58 
(Guadeloupe; St. John; descr.) ; viii, 1891, 46 (AuguiUa Antigua); Birds 
West Indies, 1889, 259 (Guadeloupe; St. John) ; Cat. West Indian Birds, 1892, 
9, 91 (Puerto Eico; St. John; Antigua; Guadeloupe). — Shaepe, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., sxiii, 1894, 224.— Rnjir, Smiths. Misc. CoU., xlvii, 1904, 279 (Bar- 
buda; Antigua; measurements). — ? Clabk (A, H.), Proc. Boston Soc. Nat 
Hist., xxxii, 1905, 247 (Mustique, Mayreau, Union Island, Canouan, Car- 
riacou. Isle Eonde, and Grenada). — Wbitmore, Auk, xxxiv, 1917, 57 (Cule- 
bra; breeding?). — Belcheb and Smooker. Ibis, 1935, 285 (Trinidad; breeds). 

F[ulica'\ cariima Eidgway, Man. North Amer. Birds, 1887, 142. 

[FuUca'i cariiwa Cory, List Birds West Indies, rev. ed., 1886, 30 ("Antilles"). — 
Sharpe, Hand-list, 1, 1899, 110. 

Fulica caribaea Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 128, 1914, 47 (range). — Pettees, 
Bull. SIus. Comp. Zool., Ixi, 1917, 403 (EI Batey, Hispaniola).— Bangs 
and Kbnnabd, List Birds Jamaica, 1920, 6 (resident; much less abundant 
than formerly). — Osgood and Conover, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. 210, 
1922, 41 (Lagimllla, Venezuela; crit.). — Peters, Auk, xliv, 1927, 534 (An- 
guilla. West Indies). — Wetmoee, New York Acad. Sci., Sci. Surv. Porto 
Eico, etc., ix, pt. 3, 1927, 346 (genl. ; Puerto Rico — Guanica, Cartagena, 
Anegado, Guayabal, Camuy, Eio Areclbo ; St. Croix ; Culebra Island ; St. 
John; syn. ; meas. ; crlt) ; Auk, xlv, 1928, 370 (Carriacou, West Indies). — 
Danforth, Auk, xlvl, 1929, 363 (Laguna del SalodiUo, Halna, Etang 
Miragoane, Artibonite, Gonai'ves, Hispaniola). — Moltoni, Att. Soc. Scienz. 
Nat., Ixvlii, 1929, 312 (Guerra, Hispaniola). — Bond, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadelphia, Ixxx, 1929, 495 (distr. in Haiti; habits); Auk, xlvii, 1930, 
270 (St. Croix, Virgin Islands). — Wbtmore and Swales, U. S. Nat. Mus. 
Bull. 155, 1931, 139 (habits and distr. in Hispaniola— El Batey, Rio Yasica, 
near Monte Cristi, Laguna Cabral near Eincon, Laguna del Salodillo, 
Halna, Port-de-Paix, Trou Caiman, Trou des Eoseaux, near Gantier, Pont 
de I'Est^re, fitang Bliragoane, lower Artibonite Elver, near Gonaives).^ 
Danforth, Journ. Dept Agr. Puerto Eico, xt, 1931, 22, 51 (Cartagena, 
Anegado, and Guanica Lagoons, Guayabal Eeservoir and Cosmo Springs 
Eeservoir, Puerto Rico) ; Auk, li, 1934, 358 (many seen Deed Sands Bay 
and Gunthorpe's, Antigua) ; Journ. Dept. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico, xix, 1935, 
441, 448 (St Croix; specimen; meas.; Jost van Dyke, 1 seen) ; 467 (Culebra, 
St. John, Jost van Dyke, Beef Island, St. Croix) ; 477 (migrants, Barbuda) ; 
xxi, 1937, 543 (Playe Grande, Vieques Island) ; xxili, 1938, 23 (Guadeloupe) ; 
xxiii, 1939, 54 (9 spec, from Montserrat.). — Petekb, Check-List Birds of 



224 BULLETIN 5 0, IFNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

World, u, 1934, 212.— Bond, Birds West Indies, 1936, 95 (Hispaniola, 
Puerto Rico, Culebra, St. Croix, St. John, AnguUla, St. Barts?, St. Kitts, 
Montserrat, Barbuda, Antigua, Guadeloupe, Martinique, St. Lucia", St. 
Vincent?, Barbados?, the Grenadines and Grenada, apparently no definite 
records for Cuba, Jamaica, and Bahamas) ; Auk, Ivi, 1939, 194 (Montserrat, 
Dec. 31, 1929; specimen). • 

Fuliea oariiaea major Danfobth, Auk, xlii, 1925, 561 (Cartagena Lagoon, 
Puerto Rico) ; Joum. Dept. Agr. Puerto Rico, x, 1926, 62-65, figs. 30-31 
(Cartagena Lagoon; habits). 

Suborder Heliornithes : Finfoots or Sun-grebes 

=Heliomithoide8e Stejneger, Stand. Nat. Hist., Iv, 1885, 68, in text. 
>Fulicari8e Fokbbingeb, Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., 1888, 1235 (Includes 

Ralli). 
>Geranomorphse Sclatee and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, viil, 139 (includes 

Ralli and Aramidse). — Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, iii, 

1903, 314 (includes Ralli and Grues). 
XRalliformes Shabpe, Rev. Rec. Att. Classif. Birds, 1891, 70 ( Ralli +"Podicse," 

that is, Podicid8e=Heliomithida^e, part). — Shufeldt, Anat. Rec, ix, 1915, 

606 (Ralli+HeUornithes+Aramidee). 
>Ralliformes Shttfeldt, Anat. Rec, ix, 1915, 606 (Ralli+Heliornithes+Ara- 

midse). 
>Ralloide8e SHTnTEi-DT, Anat. Rec, ix, 1915, 606 (Ralli+Heliornithes+ 

Aramidae). 
<Heliornitluformes Shaepe, Rev. Rec Att. Classif. Birds, 1891, 70 (excludes 

Heliornithidse, part, that is, genus Podica) . 
<Heliornithes Shabpe, Rev. Rec Att. Classif. Birds, 1891, 70 (excludes Heli- 

ornithidse, part). 
=Heliornithoidea Shtjfeldt, Anat. Rec, ix, 1915, 606, 750 (superfamily of sub- 
order Fulicarise, supersuborder Ralliformes). 
= Heliornithes Wetmobe and Mtllee, Auk, xliii, 1926, 343. — Wetmoee, Proc. 

U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixsvi, art. 24, 1930, 4; Smiths. Misc Coll., Ixxxix, No. 

13, 1934, 6; xcix. No. 7, 1940, 6.— Pbtees, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 

1934, 213. 

Small or medium-sized aquatic Gruiformes with raillike bill; con- 
spicuously lobed or scalloped and partially webbed toes ; deep plantar 
tendons of types II or X; accessory semitendinosus muscle absent; 
mostly to completely feathered tibia; neck rather long, and slender 
through shortness of the soft feathering, and tail much more than 
half as long as wing, much rounded, with 18 or more rigid rectrices. 

Palate schizognathous; nares schizorhinal, pervious; basipterygoid 
processes, occipital foramina, and temporal fossae absent; cervical 
vertebrae, 15-17; dorsal vertebrae heterocoelous ; complete ribs (reach- 
ing sternum) 6; sternum elongated, its keel low, the metasternum 
2-notched; spina externa well-developed (at least in Podica); epi- 
sternal process not perforated to receive feet of coracoids; clavicles 
with anterior and posterior interclavicular processes, the latter firmly 
attached to keel of sternum ; ischia broader and directed more down- 
ward than in the Ealli, the pubes ankylosed, at least at one point, with 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 225 

ischia; biceps slip specialized (as in Alcidae), ending freely on pata- 
gial membrane ; relations of biceps cruris peculiar ^ ; thigh-muscle for- 
mula ABX+ (the ambiens, femorocaudal, accesory femorocaudal, and 
semitendinosus muscles present, the accessory semitendinosus muscle 
absent) ; deep plantar tendons of types II or X, remarkable in that 
both tendons split into three branches for the three digits before they 
unite, the slip to the hallux being previously given off from the flexor 
hallucis ; tensor patagialis brevis a single individual tendon possessing 
not more than an indication of a patagial fan (in Heliomis only) ; 
extensor secundariorum present, the aneonaeus anchored to the 
humerus; caeca present, long; liver with right lobe larger than the 
left; gall bladder present (in Heliomis — absent in Podica?) ; syrinx 
typically tracheobronchial. 

Pterylosis essentially ralline; neck almost continuously feathered, 
with only a short ventral apterion; dorsal pteryla strong between 
scapulae, forked, the posterior portion of the tracts scarcely joining 
the anterior ones, and fused or coalesced for some distance in front 
of oil gland, the latter tufted; aftershaft absent; whig eutaxic 
(quintocubital) ; rectrices 18 or more; plumage in general close-set 
and ducklike. 

Nidification of Heliomis unknown, but young said to be gym- 
nopaedic.^ 

"The sun-grebes are a small group of tropical water birds whose 
relationships are uncertain. Most authorities place them near the 
Eallidae ; but Dr. Stejneger and the late Professor Forbes, for want 
of a better place, align them close to the Colymbidae, which they 
resemble in some of their habits and in their lobed or scalloped toes. 
They hare little resemblance, however, to either of these groups, their 
general make-up, especially the slender, closely feathered neck and 
fan-shaped, rigid tail being more suggestive of the Anhingidae, 
which the Heliornithidae further resemble in some of their habits, 
especially that of perching upon dead trees or snags overhanging 
streams or partially submerged therein. Tliis resemblance, however, 
does not indicate near relationship." (E. R.) 

Family HELIORNITHIDAE : Finfoots or Sun-grebes 
=HeUornthidae Bonapabte, Consp. Gen. Av., ii, 1857 [1855], 181.— Fdebbinqeb, 
Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., ISSS, 1236.— Gauow, in Bronn's Thier Keiclis, Vog. 
ii, 1S91, 191, 300 ; Classlf. Vertebr., 1898, 35.— Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

'Biceps very large, with three separate insertions on the leg: (1) The ordinary 
insertion through a perfectly normal sling; (2) just anterior to this tendon a 
branch Is given oft which is inserted independently on to the leg farther down ; 
and (3) an extensive insertion on to the fascia covering the calf of the leg. 
(Only 1 and 3 of these insertions present in Seliomis, however.) 

' MaximUian, Prinz zu Wied, Beitr. Nat. Bras, iv, 1833, 287. Some of the Old 
World forms, however, have downy young, so this statement may prove false. 



226 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL ilUSEUM 

Ixxvi, art. 24, 1930, 4 ; Smiths, Misc. Coll. Ixxxix, No. 13, 1934, 6 ; xcix, No. 

7, 1940, 6.— Petees, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 213. 
=Heliornithid£e Sclatee and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, viii, 140. — Shaiipe, 

Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxxiii, 1894, xii, 229; Hand-list, i, 1899, lU.— 

Beddakd, Struct, and Classif. Birds, 1898, 327, in text.— Salvin and Godman, 

Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, iii, 1903, 330.— Knowlton, Birds of World, 1909, 

348. 
<HeliornithidEe Shaepe, Rev. Rec. Att. Classif. Birds, 1891, 70 {HeUomis 

only). 
<Podic£e Shakpe, Bev. Rec. Att. Classif. Birds, 1891, 70 (genus Podica). 

This being the only family in the suborder Heliornithes, the char- 
acters are the same as those of the latter, as given on the pages 
immediately preceding. 

KEY TO THE GENERA OF HELIOENITHIDAE 

«. Much smaller (total length about 300 mm.) ; feet relatively small and veeak, 
tarsus less than one-fifth as long as wing, decidedly shorter than the rela- 
tively small and slender bill, the latter not longer than head ; anterior toes 
extensively vrebbed, web between middle and outer toe extending for entire 
length of first two phalanges of former ; rectrices with shafts slender and 
rigid only toward base; feet banded with black and yellowish (American 

Tropics) Heliomis (p. 226) 

aa. Much larger (total length 400 to nearly 600 mm.) ; feet large and stout, tarsus 
more than one-fifth as long as wing, about as long as the large and stout 
bill, the latter longer than head ; anterior toes slightly webbed, web between 
outer and middle toes falling short of distal end of first phalanx of latter ; 
rectrices with shafts strong and rigid throughout ; feet unicolored (tropical 
Africa and Asia). 
6. Tail less than three-fourths as long as wing, rectrices broad, with slenderer 
shafts, their edges not upturned; mesorhlnium a narrowly compressed 
ridge (as in Heliornis) ; second and third primaries (from outside) long- 
est, the outermost equal to or slightly longer than sixth (as in Heliornis) . 

Heliopais (extralimital)' 
bb. Tail more than three-fourths as long as wing, rectrices very narrow, with 
heavy, very rigid shafts and upturned edges ; mesorhinium broad and flat- 
tened ; fourth and fifth primaries (from outside) longest. 

Podica (extralimital)' 

Genus HELIORNIS Bonnaterre 

Heliornis Bonnateebe, Tabl. Encycl. M6th., i, 1791, Ixxxiv, 64. (Type, by mono- 
typy, H. fulioarius Bonnaterre=OoZ)/m6tt.s fuUca Boddaert.) 

Podi)a ILLIGEE, Prodr. Orn., 1811, 267. (Type, Ploius surin-amensis Gmelin= 
Colymhus fulica Boddaert.) 



'Heliopais Sharpe, Bull, Brit. Orn. Club, i, 1893, p. xxxvii; Ibis, 1893, 439 
(type, by original designation. Podica personata Gray). (Cambodia, etc., to 
Malacca and Sumatra ; monotypic. ) 

'Podica Lesson, Traits d'Orn., 1831, 596 (type, by monotypy, Heliornis setie- 
galensis Vicillot). — Rhigelura Wagler, Isls, 1832, 1229 (type, by monotypy, Helior- 
nis senegalensis Yieillot). — Podoa ("ex[Ill]iger" but not of Illiger, 1811) Bona- 
parte, Consp. Gen. Av., ii, 1857 [1855], 182. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 



227 



Podia (emendation) Swainson, Classif. Birds, li, 1837, 192. 

Plotoides Beookes, Mus. Brookesianum, 1830, 109. (Type, Plotus surinamevsU 
Gmelm=Colyml)tis fulica Boddaert.) 
Small Heliornithidae (length about 300 mm.) with feet relatively 
small and weak (the tarsus less than one-fifth as long as wing, de- 
cidedly shorter than the relatively small slender bill, the latter not 
longer than head) ; anterior toes extensively webbed, the web between 
middle and outer toes extending for entire length of first Iavo phal- 
anges of the former ; rectrices broad, soft terminally, and toes banded 
with black and yellow. 

Bill about as long as head, decidely longer than tarsus, its depth 
at posterior end of nostril equal to a little less than one-fourth the 




Figure 15. — Heliornis fulica. 

length of exposed cuhnen and nearly twice its width at samei point ; 
culmen nearly straight for basal half or more, thence gently de- 
curved to tip ; maxillary tomium gently convex for basal half, faintly 
concave for distal half, very faintly notched subterminally ; gonys 
straight, slightly ascending, about half as long as mandibular rami, 
the mandible acute at tip; nostril longitudinally elliptical, pervious, 
its anterior end about midway between rictus and tip of maxiUa, 
its poterior end separated from loral feathering by a space nearly 
equal in length to depth of bill at posterior end of nostril; latevo- 
frontal feathering formmg a distinct angle on each side of culmen, 
thence extending in a straight or faintly convex line downward and 
backward to rictus; malar antia very slightly posterior to latero- 



228 BULLETIN 6 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

frontal antia, the mental antia far anterior to both (about on line 
with or slightly anterior to posterior end of nostril). Wing rather 
small, distinctly concave beneath, rounded at tip, the second, third, 
and fourth primaries (from outside) longest, the first (outermost) 
not longer (sometimes shorter) than sixth, the distal primaries, 
especially the outermost, relatively broad and rather strongly bowed, 
the longest exceeding distal secondaries: by less than half the length 
of wing. Tail nearly two-thirds as long as wing, very strongly 
rounded (the lateral rectrices not more than half as long as middle 
pair) , consisting of 14 broad, moderately firm, rectrices with broadly 
rounded tips ; tail coverts greatly developed, the lower ones extend- 
ing nearly to tip of tail. Tarsus shorter than exposed culmen, much 
shorter than middle toe (without claw), compressed; outer toe 
slightly shorter than middle toe, the inner toe decidedly shorter; 
but reaching to beyond last articulation of middle toe; hallux about 
as long as basal phalanx of outer toe, decidedly shorter than that of 
inner toe; anterior toes with a broad, distinctly scutellate lateral 
membrane and united for more than half their length by a web, the 
hallux with a broad lobe or membrane on inner side; claws small 
but strongly curved and very sharp. 

Plumage and coloration. — Plumage ducklike (dense and firm), 
that of the head and neck short, dense, and soft; head completely 
feathered. Upperparts plain olive, the tail darker, narrowly tipped 
with white; underparts white, shading into light olive-brownish 
laterally and posteriorly; pileum, hindneck, broad auricular stripe 
and broad stripe on sides of neck black, relieved by a white supra- 
auricular stripe and another on sides of neck, the throat and fore- 
neck also white. 

Nidification. — Unknown (young said to be gymnopaedic ! ) . 

Range. — Continental tropical America. (Monotypic.) 

HELIORNIS FULICA (Boddaert) 

SUN-GBEBB 

Adult (sexes alike). — Narrow frontal area pale, warm fuscous 
with a violaceous tinge; crown, occiput, hind neck, and a broad post- 
ocular stripe, which is separated from the top of the head by a con- 
spicuous white superciliary stripe and which merges posteriorly with 
the hind neck, black with a rather bright greenish-blue sheen ; also a 
broad stripe of the same on the sides of the neck posterior to the 
caudal end of white superciliaries but separated from the black of 
the hind neck by a white stripe beginning just behind the auriculars ; 
scapulars, interscapulars, lesser and median upper wing coverts, 
back, rump, and upper tail coverts dark brownish olive, the rump 
and upper tail coverts much tinged with buffy-olive; greater upper 



BIRDS OF NORTH ANB MIDDLE AMERICA 229 

wing coverts olive-brown indistinctly crossed by extremely faint, 
narrow bars of slightly darker ; remiges fairly pale but dull mummy 
brown with only a slight olivaceous wash to practically fuscous; 
rectrices fuscous to dark fuscous tipped with white ; lores white, the 
part immediately adjacent to the anterior margin of the eye like the 
narrow frontal area; subocular space, chin, upper throat, and lower 
neck white ; a narrow black stripe from the angle of the mouth con- 
necting with a narrow anteroventral extension of the black postocular 
band occurs in some specimens and is totally absent in others, regard- 
less of sex, season, or locality; cheeks and auriculars varying from 
white lightly and sparsely washed or flecked with ochraceous-buif 
to pinkish cinnamon to practically solid pinkish ciimamon ; extreme 
lower end of throat with an indistinct ring of dusky where the two 
lateral black stripes tend to merge, the feathers there being blackish 
basally and white terminally ; upper breast white suffused with very 
pale Saccardo's umber; lower breast and abdomen white; sides and 
flanks pale brownish olive, the under tail coverts dull, and somewhat 
grayish, fuscous, the feathers edged with hair brown to pale brownish 
olive, the tips slightly whitish ; under wing coverts dull ashy fuscous 
tipped with lighter; iris dark brown; upper mandible (maxilla) red 
to reddish sepia, "with a slight black mark on the culmen and behind 
the nostrils," ^ the lower mandible yellowish white, more yellowish 
basally; tarsi yellow to yellowish white; toes yellow, the middle one 
with three black cross bars, the inner one with two, the outer one 
with four, and the hind toe with one. 

Juvenal ^.— Like the adult, but with the rump and upper tail coverts 
slightly more tawny and with the forehead more extensively brown- 
ish, this color extending posteriorly over the anterior ends of the 
white superciliaries. 

Natal down. — Not known. 

Adult mafe.— Wing 134-14:5 (138.8) ; tail 82-93 (87) ; exposed cul- 
men 29.5-31 (30.4) ; tarsus 21-24 (22.8) ; middle toe without claw 
29-32.5 (31.2 mm.).^ 

Adult female.— Wing 132.5-146 (137.9) ; tail 79-88 (82.8) ; exposed 
cuhnen 25-32.5 (29.3) ; tarsus 21-27 (24) ; middle toe without claw 
27-32 (29.8mm.).« 

Range. — Eesident, and apparently nowhere very abundant, along 
stagnant streams and rivers bordered by forest, from southern Vera- 

•Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 234. 

"It is not known whether this Is a true plumage phase, but It seems to be 
one. There Is, however, the possibility that it is purely a matter of individual 
variation. 

' Four specimens from Costa Rica and Nicaragua. 

'Eleven specimens from British Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, 
and Brazil. 



230 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

cruz (Rio Coatzocoalcos) ; British Honduras (Belize and vicinity; 
Rio Makal) ; Guatemala (Santa Ana Mixtan; Los Amates; Chiapam; 
Puerto Barrios) ; Nicaragua (Los Sabalos; Rio San Juan; Rio Es- 
condido); Honduras (Ceiba; San Pedro); Costa Rica (Rio Frio; 
Bonilla; mouth of Rio Matina) ; and Panama (Lion Hill; Canal 
Zone; Rio Trinidad; Changuinola Lake; Rio Changuinola; Almi- 
rante; Chagres River; Lake Gatun) ; south through Venezuela (and 
Trinidad) ; Colombia (Ocaiia; Medellin; Barbacoas) ; Ecuador (Sar- 
ayacii; Rio Peripa) ; Dutch, French, and British Guiana (Yuruani 
River ; Merume Mountains ; Ituribisi River ; Supenaam River ; Abary 
River; Curubung; Grote Creek; Cartoonie River); throughout all 
Brazil (too many localities to list, south to Sao Paulo (Iguape) in 
the southeast, and to Matto Grosso in the southwestern part of the 
country); northeastern Argentina (Iguazu; Missiones) ; Paraguay 
(Upper Parana River) ; Bolivia (lov^er Rio Beni) and to eastern 
Peru (Upper Rio Ucayali ; Pebas ; and Chyavetas) . 
Type locality. — Cayenne. 

Colymbus fulica Boddaekt, Tabl. PI. Enl., 1783, 54 (Cayenne; based on Le 
Grehifoulque, de Cayenne Daubenton, PI. Enl., ix, pi. 893). 

Hleliornis'i fulica Gbat, Gen. Birds, ili, 1844, 634. 

Heliornis fulica Sclatee and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, 234 (Santa Ana Mixtan, 
Guatemala) ; Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1864, 373 (Panama) ; 1866, 200 
(upper Bio Ucayali, e. Peru) : 1867, 754 (Chyavetas, Peru), 979 (Pebas, e. 
Peru) ; 1888, 469 (monogr.) ; 1873, 309 (upper Rio Ucayali, Chyavetas, and 
Pebas, e. Peru) ; 1879, 546 (Antioquia, Colombia). — Lawrence, Ann. Lye. 
Nat. Hist. New York, vii, 1862, 302 (Lion Hill, Panama).— Lijota-od, Ois. 
Trinidad, 1866, 531. — Schiegel, 5Ius. Pays-Bas, vi, No. 33 (Urinatores), 
1867, 48.— Pelzeln, Orn. Bras., 1870, 318, 459 (Rio Araguaya, Rio Grande, 
Rio Curieuriare, Matto Grosso, and Forte do Rio Branco, Brazil). — 
Wyatt, Ibis, 1871, 384 (Ocana, Colombia).— Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., iii, 1880, 237 ("accidental in middle United States!"). — Beelepsch, 
Journ. fiir Orn., 1884, 320 (Ocana, Colombia) ; 1887, 125 (Paraguay) ; Nov. 
Zool., sv, 1908, 300 (Cayenne).— Zet.edux, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.. viii, 1885, 
114 (Costa Rica) ; Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 131 (Costa Rica).— 
Saxvin, Ibis, 1886, 177 (Merum^ Mountains and Yuruani River, 2,700 
feet, British Guiana). — Taczanowski, Orn. Pfirou, iii, 1886, 490. — At.t.f. w, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., ii, 1889, 107 (lower Rio Beni, Bolivia; hab- 
its). — ^RiKER and Chapmaisi, Auk, viii, 1891, 163 (Santarem, lower Ama- 
zon). — Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xs'i, 1893, 530 (Rio Frio, Costa 
Rica; Rio San Juan and Rio Escondido, Nicaragua; habits). ^Chapman, 
Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vi, 1894, 78 (Trinidad).— Shaepe, Cat. Birds 
Brit. Mus., xxlii, 1894, 233 (Rio Makal and Belize, British Honduras; 
Santa Ana Mixtan and Chiapam, Guatemala ; Costa Rica ; Lion Hill, 
Panama.; Medellin, Colombia; Cayenne; Sarayacu, e. Ecuador; Pebas, e. 
Peru; Matto Grosso, Brazil). — Lantz, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. for 1896-97 
(1899), 219 (Puerto Barrios, Guatemala Los Sabalos, Nicaragua). — Sax- 
VADOBi and Festa, Boll. Mus. Zool., Torino, xv, 1900, 41 (Rio Peripa, w. Ecua- 
dor). — Bangs, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., xxxix, 1903, 142 (Ceiba, Hondu- 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 231 

ras).— Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, iii, 1903, 331 (Rio 
Coatzocoalcos, Veracruz; Belize and Rio Makal, British Honduras; Santa 
Ana Mixtan and Chiapam, Guatemala ; San Pedro, Honduras ; Rio San Juan 
and Rio Esconditio, Nicaragua; Rio Frio, Costa Rica; Lion Hill, Panama; 
etc.).— GoELDi, Ibis. ICO;;. 500 (Rio Cajjim, ne. Brazil). — Ihekinq, Rev. Mus. 
PauUsta, vl, 1904, 343 (Paraguay), 361 (Iguape, Sao Paulo; Rio Juruii, 
Amazonas), 451 (Rio Jurud). — Deakborn, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publ. 125 
1907, 76 (Los Amates, Guatemala).— Hellmatb, Nov. Zool., xv, 1908, 100 
(Rio Araguaya, Brazil) ; xvii, 1910, 422 (Santa Isabel, Rio Preto, Bra- 
zil). — Cakkikek, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 412 (Bonilla and mouth of 
Rio Matina, Costa Rica; habits). — Dabeene, Bol. Soc. Phys. Buenos 
Aires, i, 1913, 243, 256 (Misiones and Iguazii, Argentina). — Bektoni, Fauna 
Paraguaya, 1914, 37 (upper Rio Parana ). — Cooke, tJ. S. Dept. Agr. Bull. 
128, 1914, 47 (geogr. range).— Chubb, Birds British Guiana, i, 1916, 80 
(habits).— Chapm.vn, Bull. A^mer. Mus. Nat. Hist,, xxxvi, 1917, 220 (Barba- 
coas, Colombia) ; Iv, 1926, 180 (Honduras to Brazil and Ecuador). — Stone, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ixxx, 1928, 152 (Panl, BrazU).— 
Young, Ibis, 1928, 765 (coast of British Guiana). — Stukgis, Field Book 
Birds Panama Canal Zone, 1928, 45 (Canal Zone, Panama; descr.). — 
Naumburg, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Ix, 1930, 74 (Matto Grosso, Brazil; 
distr. ; crit.). — Peters, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixxi, 1931, 302 (Changuinola, 
River and Changuinola Canal, Panama) ; Check-list Birds of World, U, 1934, 
214. — Griscom, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Ixiv, 1932, 124 (very local in Cen- 
tral America; Guatemala) ; Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Isxviii, 1935, 305 (Pan- 
ama — ^AJmirante, Chagres River, Lake Gatun). — Stone and Roberts, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ixxxvi, 1934, 375 (seen, Descalvados on Rio 
Paraguay, and at CorumbS., Brazil). — Stkesemann, Orn. Monatsb., xliii, 1935, 
58 in text (habits). — Belchee and Smookee, Ibis, 1935, 286 (Trinidad, ex- 
tremely rare). — Technau, Journ. fiir Orn., Ixxxiv, 1936, 534 (nasal 
glands). — Pinto, Rev. Mus. Paulista, xix, 1935, 77 (Bahia, Brazil) ; xxiii, 
1938, 545 (Rio Manacapurti, Amazonia). 

[Heliomis] fnJica Gray, Hand-list, iii, 1871, 69, No. 10525. — Sclater and Saivin, 
Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 140.— Shabpe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 111.— Iherins (H. 
and R.), Aves Brazil, 1907, 83 (Matto Grosso; Rio Branco; Bahia). — 
Brabouene and Chubb, Birds South America, i, 1912, 27 (s. Brazil; 
Peril; Ecuador; Colombia; Venezuela; Guiana). 

[Plotus'i surinamensis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, pt. ii, 1789, 581 (Surinam; based 
on Grdbe-folqve Buffon, Ois., viii, 248; PI. Enl., pi. 893; Oiseau de Soleil 
Fermin, Surin., ii, 192; Surinam Tern Brown, Illustr., 90, pi. 39; Surinam 
Darter Latham, Synopsis, iii, pt. 2, 626) . 

Podioeps surinamensis Temminck, Cat. Syst., 1807, 180. 

Podoa surinamensis Illiger, Prodr. Orn., 1811, 267. — Stephens, Show's Gen. 
Zool., xili, pt. i, 1826, 22.— Burmeistee, Syst. TJeb. Thiere Bras., iii, 1856, 391. 

P[odoa'i surinamensis Maximilian, Beitr. Naturg. Bras., Iv, 1832, 823. — Cabanis, 
In Schomburgk's Reis. Britisch-Guiana, iii, 1848, 765. 

Podoa surinamensis Lichtenstein, Nom. Mus. Berol., 1854, 104. 

Heliornis surinamensis Viehiot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., xlii, 1817, 278. — Lesson, 
Traits d'Orn., 1831, 596 (Cayenne; Trinidad). — Bonaparte, Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. New York, ii, 1827, 413 ; Geogr. and Comp. List, 1838, 60.— Nuttail, 
Man. Orn. United States and Canada, Water Birds, 1834, 510. — Gray, List 
Birds Brit. Mus., Grallse, 1844, 124. — Reichenbach, Handb, Spec. Orn., 1852, 
p. xxii. 

272607 — 41 — —16 



232 BULLETIN 5 0, TJNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

H[eliornis] surinamensis Jaedine, ed. Wilson's Amer. Orn., iii, 1832, 204 ("acci- 
dental summer visitant in the middle States"!). — Bonapaete, Consp. Gen. 
Av., ii, 1857 [1855], 181. 

Eieliornis] fulicarius Bonnaterke, Enc. M^th., 1, 1790, 65 (Surinam; Guiana).— 
Reichenbaoh, Handb., Fulicariae, 1850, pi. 114, figs. 1139, 1140.— Bonapaete, 
Consp. Gen. Av., ii, 1857 [1855], 181. 

Heliornis fulioaria Reichenbaoh, Handb. Spec. Orn., 1852, p. xxii. 

Suborder Eurypygae: Sun-bitterns 

<Burypygoide8e Stejnegee, Stand. Nat. Hist., iv, 1885, 115, in text (Burypygidse-f 
Rliinochetidse+Mesitidsa) . — Shufeldt, Anat. Rec, ix, 1915, 70 (same families 
included). 

<Eui'ypyg8e Fuebringee, Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., 1888, 1566 (Eurypygidae+ 
Rhlnoclietidse+Apatornithidse) . 

=Eurypyg8e Shakpe, Rev. Rec. Att. Classif. Birds, 1891, 74 (Eurypygidse only) ; 
Hand-list, i, 1899, xvii, 181. 

= Eurypygae Wetmoke and Mn.UEE, Auk, xliii, 1926, 343. — ^Wetmoee, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., Ixxvi, art. 24, 1930, 4; Smiths. Misc. Coll., Ixxxix, No. 13, 1934, 
6 ; xcix. No. 7, 1940, 6.— Petees, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 214. 

Very thin-necked, fan-tailed, semiarboreal Gruiformes with 12 
rectrices, 18 cervical vertebrae, cervical pterylosis without lateral 
apteria, and with one pair (uropygial) of powder-down patches. 

Palate schizognathous, nares schizorhinal, pervious; no occipital 
foramina, supraorbital depressions, nor basipterygoid processes: 
metasternum 2-notched; furcula well developed, U-shaped; clavicles 
well developed; spina externa sterni well developed; spina interna 
absent; caeca well developed, moderately long; femorocaudal, acces- 
sory femorocaudal, semitendinosus, and accessory semitendinosus 
muscles all present; biceps slip present; oil gland present, nude; 
deep plantar tendons of Type I; thigh muscle formula ABXY+ ; 
primaries 10; secondaries aquincubital; aftershaft present (but 
small); nidification arboreal; egg spotted; young ptilopaedic, 
nidicolous. 

The sun-bitterns constitute a single family peculiar to continental 
tropical America, where they are represented by a single genus 
{Eurypyga) containing one species with three subspecies, one in- 
habiting Central America and trans-Andean northern South 
America, as far as Ecuador, one ranging over cis-Andean tropical 
South America, as far as Bolivia and central Brazil, and the last 
restricted to south-central Peru. 

They inhabit the banks of the larger streams, and their habits 
appear to be very little known.^ 



° For an account of the nesting of E. Jielias in the London Zoological Gardens, 
see Bartlett, Proc. Zool. See. London, 1866, 76-78, pi. 9. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 233 

Family EURYPYGIDAE: Sun-bitterns 

=Buripygidae Bonapaete, Consp. Gen. Av., ii, 1857 [1855], 144. 

=Euripyginae Bonapabte, Consp, Gen. Av., il, 1857 [1855], 144. 

=Eurypygidi3e Sclater and Saivin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, viii, 141.— Ridgwat, 
Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr., iv, 1878, 221, 222 (characters).— Stejnegeb, 
Stand. Nat Hist., 1885, 116 in text.— Shabpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 
1894, xii, 240; Hand-list, i, 1899, xvii, 181.— Beddaed, Struct, and Classif. 
Birds, 1898, 377. — Saivin and Godman, Biol. Centi.-Amer., Aves, iii, 1903, 
334.— Knovitlton, Birds of World, 1909, 49, 347. 

=Eurypygidae Ftjebbingee, Unters. Morph. Syst. Vog., 1888, 1196. — Gadow, in 
Bronn's Thier Reichs Vog., ii, 1891, 190, 300; Classif. Vertebr., 1898, 35.— 
Wetmore, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ixxvl, art. 24, 1930, 4 ; Smiths. Misc. CoU., 
Ixxxix, No. 13, 1934, 6 ; xcix. No. 7, 1940, 6.— Peters, Check-list Birds of World, 
ii, 1934, 214. 

This being the only family in the suborder Eurypygae, the characters 
are the same as those of the latter, as given in the pages immediately 
preceding. 

Genus EURYPYGA lUiger 

Eurypyga Iixiger, Prodr. Orn., 1811, 257. (Type, by monotypy, Ardea Jielias 

Pallas.) 
Euripyga (emendation) Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., ii, 1857 [1855], 144. 
Euripygia (emendation) Des Mues, la Chenu, Bncycl. Hist. Nat. Ois., vi, 1854, 

243. 
Eurypiga (emendation) DuMont, Diet. Sci. Nat., xix, 1821, 474. 
Eurypigia (emendation) Des Mues, in Chenu, Encycl. Hist. Nat. Ois., vi, 1854, 

223. 
Eurypygia (emendation) Svtainson, Classif. Birds, ii, 1837, 359. 
(?) Eelias Bahnesqxie, Analyse, 1815, 71. (Nomen nudum.) 
Helias Vieillot, Analyse, 1816, 56. (Type, by monotypy, "Caurale, Buf£[on]" 

=Ar(lea helias Pallas.) 
.' Ornelias Rafinesqub, Analyse, 1815, 219. (New name for Helias Rafinesque.) 

The genus Eurypyga being the only representative of the family, its 
characters are, of course, the same as those given under family Eury- 
pygidae. In addition, however, the following may be mentioned : 

Rather small, semi-arboreal wading birds with rather long and 
very thin neck, large wings and tail (the latter fan-shaped) and plum- 
age handsomely variegated with gray, brown, chestnut, buff, black, 
and white, in the form of mottlings, bars, and bands, the variegation 
especially conspicuous on primaries and rectrices. 

Bill as long as or longer than head, compressed, straight, slightly 
contracted, vertically, for basal half but with upper and lower out- 
lines parallel and straight, the terminal half of culmen moderately 
but decidedly convex, the gonys faintly convex except, sometimes, 
terminally, and more or less prominent basally; tip of maxilla 
slightly uncinate, with a distinct subterminal notch; nasal fossae 
long and relatively broad, extending for two-thirds, or more, the 



234 



BtTLLETESr 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



length of maxilla, sometimes nearly to its tip ; nostril narrowly linear, 
longitudinal, posteriorly in contact with loral feathering, overhung by 
a thin but rather broad membraneous operculum ; loral antia decidedly 




Figure 16. — Eurypyga helias. 



anterior to malar antia but more or less posterior to mental antia ; a 
narrow naked space on lower eyelid and, in E. helias, the postocular 
region more or less naked. Wing relatively large and broad, the 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 235 

primaries decidedly longer than longest secondaries by about one- 
fourth the length of wing, or slightly more; fourth (from outside) 
primary longest, the first (outermost) intermediate between seventh 
and eighth or eighth and ninth. Tail a little less than three-fourths 
as long as wing, truncated or very slightly rounded, the rectrices (12- 
14) very broad, with broadly rounded tips. Tarsus about as long as 
exposed culmen, or slightly shorter, less than one-fourth as long as 
wing, slender, the acrotarsium transversely scutellate, the planta tarsi 
reticulated or covered with small hexagonal scales ; tibia bare for more 
than half the length of tarsus, non-scutellate (booted) ; middle toe, 
without claw, about three-fourths as long as tarsus (sometimes very 
slightly less, sometimes decidedly more) ; outer toe (without claw) 
extending to beyond subterminal articulation of middle toe, the imier 
toe decidedly shorter falling short of that point ; hallux slightly ele- 
vated, narrow, compressed, shorter than basal phalanx of inner toe; 
claws short, rather stout, moderately curved, that of middle toe not 
pectinated; a distinct web between basal phalanges of middle and 
outer toes, but none between middle and inner toes. 

Phmiage and coloration. — Plumage full and soft (bitternlike) ex- 
cept on neck, where very short ; head fully feathered except a narrow 
space on lower eyelids and, in the postocular region, where partly 
naked or but sparsely feathered ; remiges and rectrices very broad ; 
no crest. Head blackish with two lateral stripes (one superciliary) 
of white and whole chin and throat white; back and scapulars 
broadly barred with black; smaller wing coverts olive-brown and 
grayish spotted with white (on proximal lesser coverts) and indis- 
tinctly or brokenly barred with the same (on larger coverts) ; pri- 
maries with broad areas of chestnut and black, otherwise light olive 
barred or vermiculated with buff, their terminal portion vermicu- 
lated or mottled with light and dark gray and tipped with dusky; 
tail irregularly barred or coarsely vermiculated with dark gray 
and grayish white and crossed by two black bands each preceded by 
a narrow, more broken one of chestnut. Monotypic. 

KEY TO THE SUBSPECIES OF EUEYPYGA HELIAS 

a. Black bands on upperparts, especially interscapulars and upper back, much 
wider than Interspaces ; interspaces buffy. 

Eurypyga helias helias (extralimital)" 



"Ardea yieUas Pallas, Neue Nord. Beitr., ii, 1781, 48, pi. 3 (Surinam) ; 
Goudot, Mag. Zool., 1843, text to pis. 37, 38. — [^rtea] AeZia.s Gmelin, Syst. Nat. 
1, pt. 2, 1789, 640. — \_Scolo'pax'\ helias Latham, Index Orn., ii, 1790, 725. — 
Rallus nelias Temminck, Cat. Syst, 1807, 176. — Eurypyga helias lUiger, Prodr. 
Orn., 1811, 257; Reichenbach, Handb., Fulicariae, 1851, pi. 124, figs. 1219, 1220; 
Des Murs, in Castelnau's Exped. Am^rique du Sud, Ois., 1855, 90; Taylor, Ibis, 
1864, 95 (Rio Orinico) ; Schlegel, Mus. Pays-Bas, v. No. 80, livr. 7, Ralli, 1865, 73 



236 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 

aa. Black bands on upperparts, especially interscapulars and upper back, nar- 
rower than interspaces ; interspaces gray, not bufly. 
6. Upper tail coverts black crossed by exceedingly narrow white transverse 

lines Eurypyga helias major (p. 236) 

66. White cross bars on upper tail coverts wider, half or more as wide as 
black interspaces Eurypyga helias meridionalis (extralimital)" 

EURYPYGA HELIAS MAJOR Hartlaub 

Gbbateb Sun-bitteen 

Adult (sexes alike). — Forehead, crown, occiput, lores, cheeks, and 
auriculars sooty black with, in some lights, a very faint fuscous- 
bronze sheen; a narrow line from just behind the nostril extending 
back over the eye and to the posterolateral angle of the occiput cin- 
namon to tawny-olive in its anterior part and pure white speckled 
with black from the anterior end of the eye backward; hind neck 
anteriorly whitish closely vermiculated with sooty black, posteriorly 

(Cayenne) ; Pelzeln Orn. Bras., 1871, 300 (Goyabeira; Engenho do Pari; ViUa 
Maria ; Caigera ; Engenho do Gama ; Matto Grosso ; Villa de Manaos ; Cajutuba ; 
Brazil) ; Berlepsch, Ibis, 1884, 440 (Angostura, Venezuela) ; Journ. ; fur Orn., 
1889, 320 (Yurimaguas, Bolivia) ; Salvin, Ibis, 1886, 177 (Bartica Grove and Ca- 
macusa, British Guiana) ; Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 240 (Deme- 
rara, Bartica Grove, and Camacusa, British Guiana ; Cayenne Engenho do Gama, 
Brazil) ; Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paulista, iv, 1900, 289 (descr. eggs) ; Hellmayr, 
Nov. Zool., XV, 1908, 100 (Eio Araguaya, Brazil) ; Chubb. Birds British Guiana, i, 
1916, 142 (habits) ; Cherrie, Brooklyn Inst. Sci. Bull. 2, 1916, 868 (Rio Orinoco, 
Venezuela). — Euirypyga} helias Stephens, Shaw's Gen. Zool., xiv, pt. i, 1826, 
323 (Guiana) ; Bangs and Penard, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixii, 1918, 42 (Para- 
maribo, Surinam) ; Chubb, Ibis, 1919, 269 (San Ernesto, 1,000 m., and Charup- 
laya, 1,300 m., Bolivia) ; Delacour, Ibis, 1923, 140 (Guarico and Apure, Venez- 
uela; habits). — [Eurypyga] helias Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 
141. — E\urypyga'\ helias Cabanis, in Schomburgk's Reis. Brltlsch Guiana, iii, 
1848, 752. — iEuripyga'] helias Bonaparte, Consp. Gen. Av., ii, 1857, 144. — Eurypiga 
helias Ihering, Rev. Mus. Paulista, iv, 1904, 451 (Rio .lurua, Sao Paulo, Brazil). — 
Seolopaw Solaris Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Enl., 1783, 48 (based on La Goural Daubeu- 
ton, PI. Enl., ix, pi. 782). — [Eurypygal Solaris Gray, Hand-list, iii, 1871, 26, 
No. 10096. — Helias phalenoides Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., v, 1816, 423 (new 
name for Ardea helias PaUas) ; Lesson, Traits d'Orn., 1831, 570. — Eurypyga 
phalenoides Goudot, Mag. Zool., 1843, pi. 38 (egg). — Eurypyga helias helias 
Peters, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 216. 

"^ Eurypyga helias (not Ardea heUas Pallas) Sclater and Salvin, Proc. ZooL 
Soc. London, 1866, 199 (upper Rio Ucayali, e. Peru) ; 1867, 979 (Pebas, e. Peru) ; 
1873, 308 (Rio Javari, Cashiboya, and Pebas, e. Peru) ; Taczanowski, Orn. P6rou, 
iii, 1886, 388; Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xxiii, 1894, 240, part (Pebas, e. 
Peru). — Eurypyga major meridionalis Berlepsch and Stolzmann, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, 1902 (publ. Oct.), 50 (La Merced, Chanchamayo, e. Peru; coll. Branicki 
Mus.) ; Ornis, xlii, 1906, 125 (Huaynapato, e. Peru) ; Chapman, U. S. Nat. Mus. 
BuU. 117, 1921, 51 (Rio Cosireni and Inca Mine, se. Peru). — Eurypyga meri- 
dionalis Chubb, Ibis, 1919, 270 (Orayci, Rio Linimbare, centr. Peru, 1,000 m.). — 
Eurypyga helms meridionalis Petebs, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 215. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 237 

dull snuflf-brown vermiculated with sooty black; the anterior inter- 
scapulars and lower sides of neck, and of the breast similar but more 
rufesfcent-tawny snuff -brown to cinnamomeous and with the black 
vermiculations a little more widely spaced; rest of interscapulars 
and scapulars neutral gray heavily washed with brownish olive, the 
interscapulars with more brownish than the scapulars, and broadly 
barred with sooty black, each feather crossed by three or four such 
black bands, which are not so broad as the interspaces; each black 
band with a narrow pale margin on its proximal side, the gray inter- 
spaces indistinctly marbled or irregularly vermiculated with deep 
neutral gray; lesser and median upper wing coverts deep neutral 
gray with an ashy cast, and incompletely barred with irregular bands 
of minute wliite spots, the lesser coverts near the bend of the wing 
considerably washed with olive-brown; a number of both the lesser 
and the median coverts with large, somewhat oval white spots at 
their tips; the median coverts crossed by a concealed blackish band 
on their basal part; alula ashy deep neutral gray, largely black 
toward the base; terminally edged with white; greater upper pri- 
mary coverts dark olive-buff abundantly speckled, edged, and tipped 
with chamois, the pale specks often assuming the form of incomplete, 
transverse bars, the outermost of these coverts washed with deep 
neutral gray terminally; the greater secondary coverts deep neutral 
gray, the outer ones much tinged with olive-buff and abundantly 
flecked and irregularly vermiculated with whitish; two outermost 
primaries blackish basally, then crossed by a white band, which is 
much mottled with neutral gray on the inner web and distally bor- 
dered with the same on both webs ; following this is a broad blackish 
band (30-40 mm.) containing within it a very large spot of Sanford's 
brown (on the second primary this spot occupies most of the band) ; 
distal to this is another wliite band (15-20 mm.) mottled with neu- 
tral gray, then another blackish band, then a large Sanford's brown 
spot, even larger than the more basal ; this, in turn, is distally edged 
with a broad black band, followed by an equally broad white one with 
the usual mottling, and finally a broad tip of deep neutral gray 
mixed with blackish and narrowly tipped with pale grayish; the 
third primary like the second, but with a slight olive tinge on the 
gray just proximal to the second rufescent area; fourth and fifth 
primaries dark olive-buff mottled with chamois to primrose yellow 
for the basal half, then bright Sanford's brown for about 50 mm., 
then broadly banded with black, then pale neutral gray mottled with 
white, and tipped with dull sooty black ; sixth primary like the fifth, 
but the inner web with a broad Sanford's brown area distally broadly 
edged with black in the middle of the olive-buff and primrose yellow 
basal area; remaining primaries Sanford's brown for their basal 



238 BULLETIN 5 0, UNITED STATES NATIONAL ilUSEUil 

third or more on both webs, this followed by a broad black band, 
then chamois to primrose yellow mottled with olive-buff, then 
broadly neutral gray mottled with white and tipped with ashy 
black; outer secondaries with no chestnut or black, but the outer 
ones chamois and primrose yellow mottled with olive-buff for their 
basal three-quarters, and terminally neutral gray mottled with white 
and with slate-gray, the extent oi the olive-yellow area decreasing 
rapidly from the outermost to the inner secondaries, which are 
almost all grayish and which have two or three blackish bands on 
their terminal third and are tipped with blackish, vary narrowly 
edged with white ; back, rump, and upper tail coverts black narrowly 
barred with white, the white marks very much narrower than the 
black interspaces, the black becoming slightly ashy on the upper 
tail coverts ; rectrices like the upper tail coverts but crossed by two 
broad black bands, each of which contains a narrower band of bright 
Sanford's brown in the more proximal third of the whole band; 
chin and upper throat white; a white line from the bill along the 
lower edge of the black lores, cheeks, and auriculars; a dusky snuff- 
brown malar stripe vermiculated with blackish extends about as far 
back as do the white superciliaries ; lower middle of throat pale 
tawny snuff brown; sides of lower throat and breast tawny snuff 
brown finely barred or vermiculated with dull fuscous-black, the 
brown becoming paler on the lower breast and the sides ; sides, flanks, 
under wing coverts, and axillars chamois to pale tawny-buff coarsely 
vermiculated with olivaceous fuscous-black, thighs similar but with 
few vermiculations and slightly paler; abdomen white becoming 
cartridge buff on the lower portion; under tail coverts cartridge 
buff to pale warm buff, terminally vermiculated with black; "iris 
red ; eyelids yellow, edged brownish ; inside of mouth bright orange ; 
extreme tip of maxilla orange-yellow, edges of commissure bright 
orange, rest black, becoming brown at base; mandible bright orange; 
feet and toes bright orange, front of tarsi and upper surface of 
toes brown-orange, claws yellow." ^^ 

Juvenal. — Not known, but, judged by analogy with the nominate 
race, the juvenal plumage is probably identical with the adult 
stage. 

Natal down. — Not known. 

Adult maZe.— Wing 20&-240 (223.8) ; tail 145-168 (159.0) ; exposed 
cuhnen 61-66.5 (63.9) ; tarsus 53-58 (55.3) ; middle toe without 
claw 40-46 (43.4 mm.). ^^ 



"Deignan, Auk, liii, 1936, 188. 

" Five specimens from Honduras, Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia. 



BIRDS OF NORTH AND MIDDLE AMERICA 239 

Adult female— Wmg 206-232 (219) ; tail 143-168 (154.7) ; exposed 
culmen 60 (60) ; tarsus 55-60 (57.7) ; middle toe without claw 43-45 
(43.7 mm.)." 

Range. — Resident in the rain forest in the vicinity of streams from 
Guatemala (Yera Paz; Santo Tomas; mountains southeast of Coban; 
chiefly in the Caribbean slope) ; Honduras (La Ceiba) ; Costa Rica 
(Angostura; Valza; Machuca; Aguacate Mountains; Pozo Azul de 
Pirris; Monte Redondo; Carrillo; Tenorio; Cariblanco de Sara- 
piqui; El Hogar; Gualpes) ; and Panama (Gatun; Bayano River; 
Santa Fe de Veragua; Cordillera de Tole; Cordillera del Chucu; 
Volcan de Chiriqui ; Lion Hill ; Cricamola ; Guabo ; Perme) ; western 
Colombia (Nichi; Antioquia; "Bogota"; La Salaqui; Choco; not 
recorded from Santa Marta) and western Ecuador (Yauayacu; Rio 
Blanco; Rio Suno; below San Jose; Santo Domingo; Rio Chimbo 
near Puente de Chimbo; Pallatanga). 

Recorded from northwestern Venezuela (Puerto Cabello, but sub- 
specific identification requires checking). 

Type locality. — Colombia. 

Eurypyga major Haetlatjb, Journ. fiir Orn., i, 1853, 37 (Colombia). — Scslatee 
and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1864, 371 (Panama) ; 1879, 546 (Nichi, 
Antioquia, Colombia). — Schi.egel, Mus. Pays-Bas, v. No. 30, 11 vr. 7 (Ralli), 
1865, 74.— ScLATEE, Ibis, 1866, 205 (Guatemala).— Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 
London, 1867, 161 (Santa Fe and Cordillera de Tol6, Veragua, w. Panama) ; 
1870, 218 (CordUlera del Chucu and Volcan de Chiriqui, w. Panama). — 
Laweenoe. Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, ix, 1869, 142 (Angostura, Costa 
Eica). — Feantzius, Journ. fiir Orn., 1869, 377 (Costa Rica). — Zexed6n, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., viii, 1885, 113 (Costa Eica).— Shaepe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., 
xxiii, 1894, 242 (Vera Paz and mountains se. of Coban, Guatemala; Valza, 
Costa Eica ; Cordillera de Tol<5, Cordillera del Chucu, Santa Fe de Verdgua, 
and Volcan de Chiriqui, w. Panama ; Nichi and Bogota, Colombia ; Tauayacu 
and Rio Blanco, Ecuador). — Lantz, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. for 1896-97 
(1899), 219 (Santo Tomas, Guatemala).— Goodfeixow, Ibis, 1902, 230 (Santo 
Domingo, w. Ecuador). — Saivin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Amer., Aves, iii, 
1903, 334 (Vera Paz and mountains se. of Coban, Guatemala; Angostura, 
Machuca, Aguacate Mountains, Valza, Pozo Azul de Pirris, and Monte Re- 
dondo, Costa Rica ; Santa Fe, Cordillera del Chucu, CordUlera de Tol6, and 
s. slope Volcan de Chiriqui, w. Panama; Colombia; Ecuador). — Cakkikee, 
Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 425 (CarrUlo, Tenorio, Cariblanco de Sarapiqul. 
El Hogar, and Guaplles, Costa Rica ; habits) .—Cooke, U. S. Dept. Agr. 
Bull. 128, 1914, 47 (range). — Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist, xxxvi, 
1917, 226 (La Salaqui, Choco, Colombia). — Stuegis, Field Book Birds Panama 
Canal Zone, 1928, 76 (descr. ; habits, Panama). 

E[urypyga] major Haetlaub, Syst. Verz. Mus. Bremen, 1844, 108 (Colombia). — 
Gbat, Gen. Birds, iil, 1849, 554. 

[Eurypyga] major Geat, Hand-list, iii, 1871, 26, No. 10097. — Sclaxee and Salvin, 
Norn. Av. Neotr., 1873, 141.— Shaepe, Hand-list, i, 1899, 181. 



'Three specimens from Honduras and Panama. 



240 BULLETESr 50, IINITED STATES NATIONAL, MUSEXJAI 

Eluripyga] major Bonaparte, Consp., Gen. Av., ii, 1887 [1855], 144 (Colombia). 

Euripyga major Laweence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, vU, 1862, 478 (Lion 
Hill, Panama ; crit. ) . 

Eurypyga mayor Zeled6n, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1888, 131 (Pozo Azul de 
Pirris, Monte del Aguacate, and Monte Kedondo, Costa Rica). 

[Eurypyga] maior Hbiwe and Eeiohenow, Nom. Mus. Hein. Orn., 1890, 315 
(Puerto Cabello, Venezuela) (?). 

Eurypyga major major Chapman, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Iv, 1926, 203 
(Rio Suno ; below San Jos6 ; Rio Chimbo near Puente de Chimbo, Ecuador) . — 
Peibks, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixxi, 1931, 303 (Crlcamola; Guabo; Pan- 
ama). — Griscom, BuU. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Ixiv, 1932, 137 (Guatemala — 
in rain forest of Caribbean slope) ; Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixxii, 1932, 321 
(Perm6, Panama). 

Eurypyga helias major Peters, Check-list Birds of World, ii, 1934, 215. — Gbis- 
coM, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Ixxviii, 1935, 305 (Panama — scattered records 
from tropical rain forest areas). — ^Deignan, Auk, llii, 1936, 186, 188 (Hon- 
duras, 5 miles from La Ceiba; 2 specimens; colors of soft parts). 

Eurypyga helias (not Ardea helias Pallas) Sceater and Salvin, Ibis, 1859, 227 
(Guatemala; crit.). — Soaitee, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1860, 73 (Pallatanga, 
w. Ecuador). — Lawkence, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, vii, 1862, 301 
(Lion Hill, Panama). — Bebt.epsch and Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lon- 
don, 1885, 119 (Pallatanga). 



INDEX 



eequatorialis, Rallus, 51. 

Kallus limicola, 51. 

Eallus virginianus, 5L 
Aerophoni, 6. 
Aetiops, Fulica, 212. 
alba, Grus americana, 11. 
albicollis, Porzana, 43. 

RaUus, 43, 133. 
albigularis, Aramldes, i05, 167. 

Corethrura, 165, 167. 

Creciscus, 165, 167, 168. 

Laterallus, 151, 168. 

Laterallus albignlaris, 353, 166, 16s. 

Laterallus melanophaeus, 168. 

Limnocrex, 168. 

Porzana, 165, 167. 
albiventris, Aramides, 116, 117, 118, 
119, 120. 

Aramides albiventris, 117, 118. 

Aramides cajanea, 115, 116, 117. 

Fulica, 212. 
AJcidae, 225. 
Alectorides, 1. 
altara, Creciscus, 168. 
alfari, Creciscus, 168. 

Laterallus albigularis, 167. 

Porzana, 168. 
alleni, Caesarornis, 195 

GaUlnula, 195. 

Hydrornia, 195. 

lonocicea, 195. 

Porphyrio, 192, 193, 195. 

Porphyriola, 195. 

Porphyrula, 194, 195. 
alticeps, Crex, 132. 
Amaurolimnas, 43, 106. 

concolor, 107, 108, 110. 

concolor castaneus, 107, 109. 

concolor concolor, 106, 107, 108, 109. 

concolor guatemalensis, 107, 109, 
110. 
American coot, 213. 
americana, Ardea, 7, 11, 24, 26. 

Fulica, 206, 215, 219, 221, 222, 223. 

Fulica americana, 207, 213, 219, 
220, 221, 222, 223. 

Grus, 11, 13, 14, 24, 26. 

Megalornis, 13. 
americanus, Grus, 8, 9, 13, 14. 

Lunnogeranus, 14. 

Megalornis, 14. 

Porphyrio, 204. 

Zimnogeranus, 14. 
amethystinus, Porphyrio, 204. 
tiutarctica, Ortygometra, 51. 



antarcticus, Aramus, 51. 

Rallus, 51. 

Rallus limicola, 51. 
Anthropoideae, 6. 
Anthropoides, 6. 
-intigone, 6, 7, 8. 
Antigua clapper rail, 70. 
Antillean gallinule, 190. 
Anurolimnas, 41. 
Apatornithidae, 232. 
Apterygidae, 41. 
Aptornis, 38. 

rquaticus, Rallus, 45, 47, 97. 
A rami, 28. 

Aramidae, 1, 2, 4, 5, 27, 28, 38, 39, 224. 
Aramides, 41, 110, 113. 

albigularis, 165, 167. 

albiventris, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120. 

albiventris albiventris, 117, 118. 

albiventris mexicanus, 116. 

albiventris plumbeicoUis, 119, 120. 

albiventris vanrossemi, 117. 

axillaris. 111, 112, 113, 124, 125, 
126. 

boeckii, 110. 

cajanea, 111, 121. 

cajanea albiventris, 115, 116, 117. 

cajanea cajanea, 112, 115, 119, 120, 
122, 123. 

cajanea chiricote, 123, 124. 

cajanea grahami, 123. 

cajanea latens, 115, 123, 124. 

cajanea mexicana, 115, 116, 117. 

cajanea paciflca, 115, 118, 119. 

cajanea peruviana, 123. 

cajanea plumbeicoUis, 115, 118, 119, 
120. 

cajanea sahnoni, 123. 

cajanea vanrossemi, 115, 116, 117. 

cajanea venezuelensis, 123. 

cajanus, 122. 

calloptera, 113. 

calopterus, 112, 113. 

Carolina, 145. 

cayanea, 116, 118, 120, 122, 123. 

cayanea chiricote, 123. 

cayanensis, 118. 

cayennensis, 116, 118, 120, 122. 

Cayennensis, 119. 

chiricota, 123. 

chiricote, 114, 123. 

cinerea, 163. 

concolor, 110. 

flaviventer, 136, 146. 

gigas, 114. 

gutturalis, 112, 114. 

241 



242 



BXTLLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Aramides maculatus, 103. 

Ipecaha, 114. 

major, 122. 

mangle, HI, 112, 113, 114. 

maximus, 123. 

mexicanus, 116. 

noveboracensis, 179. 

plumbeas, 113. 

plumbecoUis, 119. 

plumbeicoUis, 119, 120. 

plumbeicollis pacificus, 119. 

plumbeus, 113. 

rubra, 169. 

ruficeps, 123. 

ruficoUis, 114, 123, 125. 

saracura. 111, 113. 

vanrossemi, 117. 

wolfl, 112, 113. 

ypacaba, 114. 

ypecaha, 111, 114. 
Araminae, 28. 
Aramus, 2, 28. 

anarcticus, 51. 

carau, 31. 

elegans, 88. 

giganteus, 32, 35, 37. 

guarana, 31. 

Guarauna, 36. 

guarauna, 36. 

holostictus, 32. 

longirostris, 49. 

maculatus, 103, 105. 

pictus, 31, 34, 37. 

pictus dolosus, 32. 

pictus elucus, 37. 

pictus pictus, 34, 37. 

seolopacea, 36. 

scolopaceus, 30, 32, 35, 36. 

scolopaceus carau, 31. 

scolopaceus dolosus, 30, 31, 32. 

scolopaceus elucus, 30, 36, 37. 

scolopaceus giganteus, 32, 35, 37. 

scolopaceus pictus, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 
36. 

scolopaceus scolopaceus, 31. 

virginianus, 97. 

vociferus, 32, 34, 37. 

voeiferus holostictus, 32, 36. 

vociferus vociferus, 35. 
Ardea americana, 7, 11, 24, 26. 

buccinator, 14. 

canadensis, 16, 19, 21, 23, 26, 27. 

grus, 6, 7. 

helias, 233, 235, 236- 

mexicana, 19, 21, 26, 27. 

seolopacea 28, 31, 32, 35, 36. 
ardesiaca, Fulica, 205, 207. 
ardeoides, Rallus, 31. 
Arimidis, 110. 
armillata, Fulica, 207. 
aterrima, Fulica, 212. 
atra, Fulica, 204, 209, 211, 220, 223. 

Fulica atra, 207, 211, 212. 
atrata, Fulica, 212. 
austi-alis, Hypotaenidia, 46. 



axillaris, Aramide.?, Ill, 112, 113, 124, 
125, 126. 
Ortygarchus, 126. 
ayresii, Coturnicops, 172. 

Bahama clapper rail, 62. 
Balearica, 2, 5, 6. 
bangsi, Porzana flaviventer, 136. 
beldingi, Rallus, 79. 

Rallus elegans, 79. 

RaUus longirostris, 48, 78, 79. 

Rallus obsoletus, 79. 
Belding's clapper rail, 78. 
belizensis, Rallus longirostris, 50, 72, 

73. 
Black rail, eastern, 153. 

Jamaican, 159. 
blanca, Ypacaha ceja, 136. 
boecki, Rufirallus, 110. 
Boecki, Erythrolimnas, 110. 
boeckii, Aramides, 110. 
Brook's clapper rail, 59. 
Brown crane, little, 14. 
buccinator, Ardea, 14. 

cachinans, Gallinula chloropus, 189. 
cachinnans, Gallinula chloropus, 181, 

183, 184, 188, 190, 191, 197. 
eachinnas, Gallinula chloropus, 189. 
Caesarornis alleni, 195 
cajanea, Aramides, 111, 121. 

Aramides cajanea, 112, 115, 119, 
120, 122, 123. 

Fulica, 121. 
cajanus, Aramides, 122. 
California clapper rail, 73. 
calloptera, Aramides, 113. 
calopterus, Aramides, 112, 113. 
canadensis, Ardea, 16, 19, 21, 23, 26, 27. 

Grus, 8, 16, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27. 

Grus canadensis 7, 8, 14, 18, 19, 
22, 25. 

Grus fusca, 16, 19. 

Megalornis, 19. 

Megalornis canadensis, 19. 
carau, Aramus, 31. 

Aramus scolopaceus, 31. 
Cariamae, 1, 2, 3, 4. 
Cariamidae, 2. 
Cariamoidea, 4. 
Oariamoideae, 4. 

caribaea, Fulica, 207, 221, 222, 223. 
caribaeus, Rallus, 55, 64, 65, 70, 71. 

Rallus longirostris, 48, 62, 64, 65, 
66, 67, 68, 69, 70 71. 
Caribbean clapper rail, 64. 
Caribbean coot, 222. 
Carolina, Aramides, 145. 

Crex, 145. 

Gallinula, 139, 145. 

Ortygometra, 139, 140. 

Porzana, 38, 134, 136, 137, 140, 145. 
carolinensis, Ortygometra, 140. 



INDEX 



243 



carolinus, Galeolimnas, 145. 
Ortvgometra, 140. 
Rallus, 139, 145. 
castanea, Ralllna, 107, 110. 
castaneiceps, Porzana, 41. 
castaneus, Amaurolimnas concolor, 107, 
109. 
Rallus, 107. 
Ruflrallus, 107. 
cayana, Porphyrio, 196. 
cayanea, Aramides, 116, 118, 120, 122, 

123. 
cayanensis, Aramides, 118. 

Gallinula, 122. 

GuUinula, 122. 

Rallus, 45, 148. 
Cayennensls, Aramides, 119. 
cayennensis, Aramides, 116, 118, 120, 
122. 

Coretlirura, 110. 

Crex, 122. 

Fulica, 110, 116, 118, 119, 120, 122. 

Ortygarchus, 122. 

Rallus, 45, 110, 148. 
Central American limpkin, 31. 
centralis, Gallinula chloropus, 190. 
cerceris, Gallinula chloropus, 183, 190, 
192. 

Gallinula galeata, 192. 
cerverai, Cyanolimnas, 98, 99, 100. 
Charadriiformes, 3, 4. 
chiricota, Aramides, 123. 
Chiricote, 123. 
chirleote, Aramides, 114, 123. 

Aramides cajanea, 123, 124. 

Aramides cayanea, 123. 

Rallus, 114, 116, 123, 124. 
chloronotus, Porypbyrio, 192, 195. 

Porphyriola, 195. 

Porphyrula, 195. 
chloropus, Crex, ISO. 

Fulica, 180, 183, 189, 190. 

Gallinula, 182, 183, 189, 190, 191. 

Hydrogallina, 191. 
cinerea, Aramides, 163. 

Gi-us, 20. 

Ortygometra, 163. 

Porzana, 163. 
cinereiceps, Creciscus, 168, 168. 

Porzana, 149, 166, 168. 

Laterallus albigularis, 153, 164, 165, 
166. 

Limnocrex, 166. 
clamator, Grus, 14. 
Clapper rail, Antigua, 70. 

Bahama, 62. 

Belding's, 78. 

Brooks'y, 50. 

California, 73. 

Caribbean, 64. 

Cuban, 65. 

Florida, 57. 

Hispaniolan, 67. 

Honduranian, 72. 

Isle of Pines, 66. 



Clapper rail, light-footed, 75. 

Louisiana, 60. 

Mexican, 81. 

northern, 51. 

Puerto Rican, 68. 

San Bias, 80. 

Sonora, 79. 

Wayne's, 55. 

Yuma, 77. 

Yucatan, 71. 
coUaris, Grus, 7. 

Columbiana, Fulica amerlcana, 207. 
Colymbus fulica, 226, 227, 230. 

parvus, 221. 
communis, Fulica atra, 213. 
concolor, Amaurolimnas, 107, 108, 110. 

Amaurolimnas concolor, 106, 107, 
108, 109. 

Aramides, 110. 

Porzana, 107, 108, 109, 110. 

Rallina, 108. 

Rallus, 106, 108. 

Ruflrallus, 110. 
Coot, American, 213. 

Caribbean, 222. 

European, 207. 

Grenada, 221. 
Corethrura albigularis, 165, 167. 

cayennensis, 110. 

gautemalensis, 110. 

guatemalensis, 109. 

jamaicensis, 159. 

rubra, 149, 169. 
Corethura minuta, 136. 
Corncralte, 128. 
cornuta, Fulica, 205, 207. 
corrius, Rallus, 63. 

Rallus longirostris, 64. 
coryi, Rallus, 63. 

Rallus crepitans, 64. 

Rallus longirostris, 48, 62, 63, 66. 
Coturnicops, 40, 43, 170. 

ayresii, 172. 

exquisita, 171, 172. 

neveboracensis emersoni, 179. 

noveboracensis, 171, 172, 176, 178. 

noveboracensis goldmani, 172, 179, 
180. 

noveboracensis noveboracensis, 172, 
178, 179. 

noveboracensis richii, 179. 
coturniculus, Creciscus, 158. 

Creciscus jamaicensis, 158, 159. 

Laterallus jamaicensis, 153, 157, 
159. 

Porzana, 158. 

Porzana jamaicensis, 158. 
Crake, Guatemalan uniform, 109. 

Jamaican uniform, 108. 
Crane, Cuban sandhill, 26. 

Florida sandhill, 25. 

little brovpn, 14. 

sandhill, 20. 

vphooping, 9. 



244 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



crassirostris, Fulica, 45. 

Rallus, 49. 

Rallus longirostris, 49. 
Creciscus, 40, 44, 149. 

albigularis, 164, 167, 168. 

alfara, 168. 

alfari, 168. 

cinereiceps, 166, 168. 

coturniculus, 158. 

exills, 163, 164. 

exilis exllis, 163. 

exills vagans, 164. 

jamaicensis, 155, 159, 160. 

jamalcensis coturniculus, 158, 159. 

jamaicensis jamalcensis, 156. 

jamaicensis gtoddardl, 156, 157. 

leucogaster, 166. 

ruber, 169. 

ruber ruber, 170. 

ruber ruberrimus, 170. 

ruber tamaulipensis, 168. 
ruberrimus, 170. 

sbarpel, 162. 

spilonotus, 161. 

vagans, 164. 
crepitans, Rallus, 49, 53, 54, 55, 56, 59, 
62, 63, 64, 66, 69, 71, 85, 87. 

crepitans, 54. 

longirostris, 50, 51, 54, 55, 56, 59, 
60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 68, 71. 
Crex, 42, 126. 

alticeps, 132. 

Carolina, 145. 

cayennensis, 122. 

cWoropus, 190. 

crex, 127, 128, 130, 131. 

crex crex, 131. 

galeata, 182, 183, 186. 

herbarum, 132. 

martinlca, 199, 204. 

melanopyga, 114. 

minuta, 136, 146. 

novaeboracensls, 179. 

pratensis, 126, 131, 132. 

pratensis similis, 132. 

pygmea, 156. 

schomburgki, 41. 
crex, Gallinula, 129. 

Ortygometra, 129. 

Rallus, 126, 129. 
cristata, Fulica, 205. 
Crybastes, 44, 148. 

gossel, 147. 

gossli, 147. 
Crybastus gossei, 147. 
Cuban clapper rail, 65. 
Cuban king rail, 89 
Cuban sandhill crane, 26. 
Cuban spotted rail, 103. 
cubanus, Rallus, 66. 

longirostris, 51, 65, 66, 67. 
c.-woodi, Megalornls, 25. 
cyaneicollis, Porphyrio, 204. 
Cyanolimnas, 41, 98. 
cerverai, 98, 99, 100. 



cypereti, Rallus, 48. 

RaUus longirostris, 48. 

Darwin's rail, 160. 
Diaphorapteryx, 38. 
Dicholophi, 4. 
dolosus, Aramus pictus, 32. 

Aramus scolopaceus, 30, 31, 32. , 
Donacias, 46. 
Donacophilus, 44, 148. 

earlei, Ocydromus, 39. 
Eastern black rail, 153. 
ecaudata, Rallus, 46. 
elegans, Aramus, 88. 

Limnopardalis, 88. 

Rallus, 47, 53, 54, 64, 74, 76, 79, 81, 
82, 85, 88 89. 

Rallus elegans, 47, 83, 88, 89, 90. 
elucus, Aramus pictus, 37. 

Aramus scolopaceus, 30, 36, 37. 
emersoni, Coturnicops neveboracensis, 

179. 
Erythra minuta, 136. 
Erytbrolimnas, 45, 148. 

Boecki, 110. 

ruber, 170. 
erythrops, Porzana, 43. 
Euripyga, 233. 

helias, 236. 

major, 240. 
Euripygia, 233. 
Euripygidae, 233. 
Euripyginae, 233. 
European coot, 207. 
Eurypiga, 233. 

helias, 236. 
Eurypigia, 233. 
Eurj-pyga, 232, 233. 

helias, 232, 234, 235, 236, 240. 

helias heUas, 235, 236. 

helias major, 236, 240. 

helias meridionalis, 236. 

maior, 240. 

major, 239. 

major meridionalis, 236. 

mayor, 240. 

meridionalis, 236. 

phalenoides, 236. 

Solaris, 236. 
Eurypygae, 3, 232, 233. 
Eurypygeae, 1. 
Eurypyges, 1, 2, 3. 
Eurypygia, 233. 
Eurypygidae, 1, 2, 232, 233. 
Eurypygoideae, 232. 
exquisita, Coturnicops, 171, 172. 
exilis, Creciscus, 163, 164. 

Creciscus exilis, 163. 

LateraUus, 153, 162. 

Laterallus exilis, 163. 

Laterirallus, 163. 

Porzana, 163. 

Rallus, 163. 



INDEX 



245 



Farallon rail, 157. 
featherstonii, Rallus, 132. 
flavirostris, Pulica, 192, 196, 204. 

GalUnula, 196. 

Glaucestes, 196. 

lonornis, 196. 

Jonornis, 196. 

Porphyrlo, 196. 
flaviventer, Aramides, 136, 146. 

Porzana, 136, 147. 

Porzana flaviventer, 136. 

Rallus, 133, 136, 146. 
flaviventris, Hapalocrex, 136, 147, 148. 

Ortygometra, 136, 146. 

Porzana, 136, 146, 147. 
Florida clapper rail, 57. 
Elorida galllnule, 184. 
Florida llmpkin, 32. 
Florida sandhill crane, 25. 
fraterculus, Grus, 19, 25. 
Fulcia, 204. 
Fulica, 39, 40, 45, 204, 207. 

Aetlops, 212. 

albiventris, 212. 

americana, 206, 215, 219, 221, 222, 
223. 

americana americana, 207, 213, 219, 
220, 221, 222, 223. 

americana Columbiana, 207. 
americana grenadensls, 207, 221. 

ardesiaca, 205, 207. 

armillata, 207. 

aterrima, 212. 

atra, 204, 209, 211, 220, 223. 

atra atra, 207, 211, 212. 

atra communis, 213. 

atra japonica, 213. 

atrata, 212. 

cajanea, 121. 

caribaea, 207, 221, 222, 223. 

caribaea major, 224. 

cayennensis, 110, 116, 118, 119, 120, 
122. 

chloropus, 180, 183, 189, 190. 

cornuta, 205, 207. 

crassirostris, 45. 

cristata, 205. 

flavirostris, 192, 196, 204. 

fuliginosa, 212. 
' fusca, 212. 

galeata, 182. 

gigantea, 207. 

gigas, 20i4. 

leucopyga, 221. 

leucoryx, 212. 

lugubris, 212. 

maculati-pennis, 213. 

major, 122, 222. 

martinica, 192, 196, 198, 199, 204. 

martinicensis, 192, 2(M. 

mexicana, 223. 

megapus, 213. 

noveboracensis, 170, 176. 

novoeboracensis, 176. 

parva, 192, 195. 

platyuros, 213. 



Fulica porphyrio, 204. 

puUata, 212. 

ruficollis, 114, 125. 

rufifrons, 207. 

stenoleuca, 213. 

Wilson i, 221. 
fulica, Colymbus, 226, 227, 230. 

Heliornis, 227, 228, 230, 231. 
fulicaris, Heliornis, 232. 
Fulieariae, 1, 38, 224. 
Fuliceae, 40. 
Fulicinae, 40, 205. 
fuliginosa, Fulica, 212. 
fusca, Fulica, 212. 

Gallinula, 183, 188, 190. 

Grus, 19, 23. 
fuscus, Limnobaenus, 133. 

Rallus, 133. 

galapagoensis, Porzana, 161. 
galeata, Crex, 182, 183, 186. 

Fulica, 182. 

Gallinula, 182, 183, 184, 186, 187, 
188, 191. 

Gallinula chloropus, 183, 184, 188. 

Gallinula galeata, 184, 188, 191. 
Galeolimnas, 43, 133. 

carolinus, 145. 
Galinula, 180. 
Galliformes, 3. 

Gallinula, 39, 40, 41, 45, 98, 133, 180, 
197. 

aUeni, 195. 

Carolina, 139, 145. 

cayanensis, 122. 

Chloropus, 182, 183, 189, 190, 191. 

chloropus cachlnans, 189. 

chloropus cachinnans, 181, 183, 184, 
188, 190, 191, 197. 

chloropus cachinnas, 189. 

chloropus centralis, 190. 

chloropus cerceris, 183, 190, 192. 

chloropus galeata, 183, 184, 188. 

chloropus garmani, 182. 

chloropus pauxilla, 183. 

chloropus portoricensis, 192. 

crex, 129. 

flavirostris, 196. 

fusca, 183, 188, 190. 

galeata, 182, 183, 184, 186, 187, 188, 
191. 

galeata cerceris, 192. 

galeata galeata, 184, 1S8, 191. 

galeata garmani, 182. 

gallinula, 180. 

garmani, 182. 

gigas, 114. 

immaculata, 132. 

madagascariensis, 195. 

mangle, 133, 125. 

martinica, 198, 199. 

martinicensis, 204. 

mutabilis, 195. 

noveboracensis, 176. 

parva, 195. 



246 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUAI 



Gallinula plumbea, 113. 

porphyrio, 192, 195, 204. 

pusilla, 133. 

ruficeps, 114, 123. 

ruficolUs, 114, 123, 163. 

saracura, 113. 
Gallinulae, 180, 193. 
Gallinule, Antillean, 190. 

Florida, 184. 

purple, 196. 
Gallinuleae, 45. 
Galllnulidae, 39. 
Gallinulinae, 39. 
garmani, Gallinula, 182. 

Gallinula chloropus, 182. 

Gallinula galeata, 182. 
gautemalensis, Corethrura, 110. 
Geranomorplise, 1, 224. 
gigantea, Fulica, 207 
giganteus, Aramus, 32, 35, 37. 

Aramus scolopaceus, 32, 35, 37. 

Kallus, 35. 
gigas, Aramides, 114. 

Fulica, 204. 

Gallinula, 114. 

Kallus, 31. 
Glaucestes, 192. 

flavirostris, 196. 

parvus, 196. 
goldmani, Coturnicops noveboracensis, 
172, 179, 180. 

Porzana, 180. 
Goldman's yellow rail, 179. 
gossei, Crybastes, 147. 

Or.vbastus, 147. 

Laterirallus, 147. 

Porzana flavlventer, 147. 
gossi, Porzana flaviventer, 147. 
gossii, Crybastes, 147. 

Laterirallus, 147. 

Porzana flaviventer, 136, 145, 147. 
grahami, Aramides cajanea, 123. 
Gray-headed rail, 164. 
Greater sun-bittern, 236. 
Greciscus, 160. 
Grenada coot, 221. 

grenadensls, Fulica americana, 207, 221. 
Grueae, 6. 

Grues, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 28, 38, 224. 
Grues aberrantes, 1. 
Grues veri, 4. 
Gruidae, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 28, 38. 
Gruiformes, 1, 3, 5, 38, 224, 232. 
Gruimorphae, 2. 
Gruinae, 6. 
Gruoidea, 4. 
Gruoideae, 1. 
Grus, 6, 14, 21, 26, 27. 

americana, 11, 13, 14, 24, 26. 

americana alba, 11. 

americanus, 8, 9, 13, 14. 

canadensis, 8, 16, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27. 

canadensis canadensis, 7, 8, 14, 18, 
19, 22, 25. 

canadensis mexicana, 22, 26. 

canadensis mexicanus, 22. 



Grus canadensis nesiotes, 8, 26, 27. 

canadensis pratensis, 8, 25, 26. 

canadensis tabida, 8, 20, 25. 

cinerea, 20. 

cinerea longirostris, 19, 20. 

clamator, 14. 

coUaris, 7. 

fraterculus, 19, 25. 

Freti Hudsonis, 16. 

fusca, 19, 23. 

fusca canadensis, 16, 19. 

hoyana, 14. 

hoyiana, 14. 

hoyianus, 14. 

leueauchen, 6. 

leucogeranus, 2, 7. 

longirostris, 19. 

mexicana, 19, 21, 22, 26, 27. 

mexicana nesiotes, 27. 

mexicanus, 22. 

mexicanus nesiotes, 27. 

nesiotes, 27. 

niediecki, 20. 

poliophaea, 19, 27. 

pratensis, 24, 25. 

schlegelii, 20. 

strutbio, 14. 

torquata, 7. 
grus, Ardea, 6, 7. 
guarana, Aramus, 31. 

Notherodius, 31, 36. 
Guarauna, Aramus, 36. 
guarauna, Aramus, 36. 

Scolopax, 36. 
Guatemalan ruddy rail, 168. 
Guatemalan uniform crake, 109. 
guatemalensis, Amaurolimnas concolor, 
107, 109, 110. 

Corethrura, 109. 

Porzana, 110. 
Guiana wood-rail, 120. 
Gullinula cayanensis, 122. 
gutturalis, Aramides, 112, 114. 
Gypsornis, 38. 

Hapalocrex, 44, 133, 134. 

fiavivpnti-is, 136, 147, 148. 
Helias, 233. 

pbalenoides, 236. 
helias, Ardea, 233, 235, 236. 

Euripyga, 236. 

Burypiga, 236. 

Eurypyga, 232, 234, 235, 236, 240. 

Eurypyga helias, 235, 236. 

Rallus, 235. 

Scolopax, 235. 
Heliopais, 226. 
Heliornis, 225, 226. 

fulica, 227, 228, 230, 231. 

fulicarla, 232 

fulicarius, 226, 232. 

senegalensis, 226. 

surlnamensis, 231, 232. 
Hf^liornithes, 1, 2, 3, 38, 39, 224, 226. 
Heliornithidae, 2, 38, 39, 40, 224, 225, 
226, 227. 



INDEX 



247 



Heliornithiformes, 224. 
Heliornlthoidea, 224. 
Heliornithoideae, 224. 
helius, Kallus longirostris, 60. 
Hemlpodii, 4, 38. 
Hemipodiidae, 2. 

Uendersoni, Porzana flaviventer, 136, 
147, 148. 
Porzana, flavlventris, 147. 
Henderson's yellow-bellied rail, 147. 
herbarum, Crex, 132. 
Hians seolopaceus, 37. 
Hilebatae, 5. 

Hispaniolan clapper rail, 67. 
Hispaniolan limpkin, 36. 
holostictus, Aramus, 32. 

Aramus vociferus, 32, 36. 

Hotherodius, 36. 
Hondurian calpper rail, 72. 
Hondurian spotted rail, 105. 
hoyana, Grus, 14. 
hoyiana, Grus, 14. 
hoyianus, Grus, 14. 
Hudsonis, Grus Freti, 16. 
Hydrionia, l62. 
Hydrocicca, 45. 
Hydrogallina, 180. 

chloropus, 191. 

Martinica, 204. 
hydrogallina, Eallus, 113. 
Hydrornia, 192. 

alleni, 195. 

porphyrio, 195. 
Hyporallus, 45. 
Hypotaenidia, 41, 46. 

australis, 46. 

Ibis vociferus, 34. 
Icnornis martinicus, 203. 
immaculata, Gallinula, 132. 
inoptatus, Pardirallus maculatus, 103, 
105. 

Limnopardalis maculatus, 105. 
Insolitus, Limnoparadalus imaculatus, 
105. 

Pardirallus maculatus, 103, 105. 
insularum, Rallus longirostris, 50, 59, 

60, 65. 
lonocicca, 193. 

alleni, 195. 
lonorinis martinicus, 203. 
lonoris martinica, 202. 
lonornis, 192. 

flavirostris, 196. 

martinica, 200, 202. 

martinicensis, 204. 

martinicus, 202. 

parva, 195, 196. 

parvus, 195. 
lornis martinicus, 203. 
ipecaha, Aramides, 114. 
Isle of Pines clapper rail, 66. 

Jamaican black rail, 1.59. 
Jamaican uniform crake, 108. 
27260T — 41 17 



Jamaican yellow-bellied rail, 145. 
jamaicensis, Creciscus, 155, 159, 160. 

Creclscus jamaicensis, 156. 

Laterallus, 149, 160. 

Corethrura, 159. 

Laterallus jamaicensis, 153, 159, 
160. 

Oreclscus, 155. 

Ortygometra, 155, 159. 

Porzana, 155, 1-56, 159, 160, 179. 

Porzana jamaicensis, 156, 160. 

Rallus, 149, 155, 159, 179, 204. 
japonica, Fulica atra, 213. 
Jonocicca, 193. 
Jonornis, 192. 

flavirostris, 196. 

martinicus, 203. 

parvi, 196. 

King raU, 83. 

Cuban, 89. 
Kolobathrornitlies, 2. 

Larolimicolae, 2. 

latens, Aramides cajanea, 115, 123, 124. 

Laterallus, 44, 45, 148, 153. 

albigularis, 151, 168. 

albigularis albigularis, 153, 166, 
168. 

albigularis alfari, 167. 

albigularis cinereiceps, 153, 164, 
165, 166. 

albigularis leucogastra, 164, 165. 

exilis, 153, 162. 

exilis exilis, 163. 

exilis vagans, 163, 164. 

jamaicensis, 149, 160. 

jamaicensis coturniculus, 153, 157, 
159. 

jamaicensis jamaicensis, 153, 159, 
160. 

jamaicensis stoddardi, 153, 157, 
159. 

melanophaeus albigularis, 168. 

ruber ruber, 153, 168. 

ruber ruberrimus, 153, 170. 

ruber tamaulipensis, 153, 168. 

spilonotus, 153, 160, 161. 

vagans, 151. 
Laterirallus, 148. 

exilis, 163. 

gossei, 147. 

gossii, 147. 
Leguatia, 39, 40. 
leucaucben, Grus, 6. 
leucogaster, Creciscus, 166. 
leucogastra, Laterallus albigularis, 164^ 
165. 

Porzana, 166. 
Leucogeranus, 7. 
leucogeranus, Grus, 2, 7. 
Leucomedontia, 6. 
leucophaeus, Rallus longirostris, 48, 50, 

66, 67. 
leucopyga, Fulica, 221. 
leucoryx, Fulica, 212. 



248 



BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



levipes, Rallus, 76. 

Rallus elegans, 76. 

Rallus longirostris, 48, 75, 76, 78, 

Rallus obsoletus, 76. 
Lewinia, 46. 
lewlnii, Rallus, 46. 
Licornis, 205. 

Light-footed clapper rail, 75. 
limicola, Rallus, 47, 97. 

Rallus Umicola, 46, 51, 90, 97, 98. 
Limicolae, 40. 
limnetis, Rallus longirostris, 50, 67, 68, 

70. 
Limnobaenus, 133. 

fuscus, 133. 
Limnocrex, 44, 149, 150. 

albigularis, 168. 

einereiceps, 166. 
Limnogeranus, 7. 

americanus. 14. 
Limnopardalis, 42, 100. 

elegans, 88. 

longirostris, 49. 

maculatus, 39, 103, 105. 

maculatus inoptatus, 105. 

variegatus, 105. 
liimnopardalus, 100. 

maculatus insolitus, 105. 
Limpkln, Central American, 31. 

Florida, 32. 

Hispaniolan, 36. 
Little brown crane, 14. 
longirostris, Aramus, 49. 

Grus, 19. 

Grus cinerea, 19, 20. 

Limnopardalis, 49. 
longirostris, RaUus, 47, 48, 49, 55, 56, 
59, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69, 70, 71, 
75, 82. 

Rallus longirostris, 48, 49. 
Lophophalaris, 205. 
Louisiana clapper rail, 60. 
lugubris, Fulica, 212. 
Lupha, 205. 
Lyeornis, 205. 
Lysca, 205. 

Macrodactyli, 39. 
maculati-pennis, Fulica, 213. 
maculatus, Aramides, 103. 

Aramus, 103, 105. 

Limnopardalis, 39, 103, 105. 

Pardlrallus, 101, 102, 103. 

Pardirallus maculatus, 101, 102. 

Rallus, 100, 102, 103, 105. 
madagascariensis, GaUinula, 195. 

Porphyrio, 195. 
maior, iEurypyga, 240. 
major, Aramides, 122. 

Euripyga, 240. 

Eurypyga, 239. 

Eurypyga helias, 236, 240. 
major, Fulica, 122, 222. 

Fulica caribaea, 224. 
Mallophaga, 41. 



mangle, Aramides, 111, 112, 113, 114. 
GaUinula, 113, 125. 
Ortygarchus, 125. 
RaUus, 113. 
mauglecola, RaUus longirostris, 48, 70, 

71. 
Marouette, 132. 
Martinica, HydrogaUina, 204. 
martinlca, Grex, 199, 204. 

Fulica, 192, 196, 198, 199, 204. 
GaUinula, 198, 199. 
lonorls, 202. 
lonornis, 200, 202. 
Porphyrio, 199. 
Porphyriola, 203, 204. 
Porphyrula, 193, 194, 195, 196, 203. 
martinicus, Icnornis, 203. 
lonorinis, 203. 
lonornis, 202. 
lornis, 203. 
Jonornis, 203. 
Porphyrio, 199, 200. 
martinicensis, Fulica, 192, 204. 
GaUinula, 204. 
lonornis, 204. 
Mathewsena, 8. 
Mathewsia, 8. 
maximus, Aramides, 123. 

Rallus, 123. 
mayor, Eurypyga, 240. 
Megalornis, 7, 19. 
americana, 13. 
americanus, 14. 
canadensis, 19. 
canadensis canadensis, 19. 
canadensis mexicana, 22, 26. 
canadensis mexicanus, 22, 26. 
canadensis nesiotes, 27. 
canadensis pratensis, 25. 
canadensis tabida, 19, 24. 
mexicanus, 22, 26. 
nesiotes, 27. 
c-woodi, 25. 
Megalornithes, 4. 
Megalornithidae, 6. 
Megalornithiformes, 2, 38. 
megapus, Fulica, 213. 
melampygus, Ortygarchus, 114. 
melanophaius, RaUus, 44, 148. 
melanops, Rallus, 45. 
melanopyga, Crex, 114. 
melanurus, Rallus, 113. 
meridionalis, Eurypyga, 236. 
Eurypyga helias, 236. 
Eurypyga major, 236. 
Mesites, 2. 
Mesitidae, 2, 232. 
Mesitides, 3. 
Mesoenatidae, 2. 
Mesoenatides, 2, 3. 
Mexican clapper rail, 81. 
Mexican wood-rail, 115. 
mexicana, Ardea, 19, 21, 26, 27. 

Aramides cajanea, 115, 116, 117. 
Fulica, 223. 



INDEX 



249 



mexicana, Grus, 19, 21, 22, 26, 27. 

Grus canadensis, 2i2, 26. 

Megalornis canadensis, 22, 26. 
mexicanus, Aramides, 116. 

Aramides albiventris, 116. 

Grus, 22. 

Grus canadensis, 22. 

Megalornis, 22, 26. 

Megalornis canadensis, 22, 26. 
Micropygia, 41. 
minuta, Corethura, 136. 

Crex, 136, 146. 

Erythra, 136. 

Ortygometra, 136, 146. 

Porzaua, 146. 

Zapornia, 133. 
minutus, Rallus, 136, 146. 
muelleri, Rallus, 45. 
Mustelirallus, 43, 133. 
Mustellirallus, 43, 133. 
mntabilis, Gallinula, 195. 

nayaritensis, Rallus, 81. 

Rallus elegans, 81. 

Rallus longirostris, 49, 80, 81. 

Rallus obsoletus, 81. 
Neocrex, 43. 
nesiotes, Grus, 27. 

Grus canadensis, 8, 26, 27. 

Grus laexieana, 27. 

Grus mexicanus, 27. 

Megalornis, 27. 

Megalornis canadensis, 27. 
Nicaraguau ruddy rail, 170. 
Nicaraguan wood-rail, 118. 
niediecki, Grus, 20. 
nigricans, Rallus, 113. 
nivosus, Rallus, 103. 
Northern clapper railj 51. 
notata, Zapornia, 172. 
Notherodlus, 28. 

guarana, 31, 36. 

holostictus, 36. , 

scolopaceus, 32, 36. 
novaeboraceusis, Crex, 179. 
noveboracensis, Aramides, 179, 

Coturnicops, 171, 172, 176, 178 

Coturnlcops noveboracensis, 172, 
178, 179. 

Pulica, 170, 176. 

Gallinula, 176. 

Ortygometra, 176. 

Ortygops, 179. 

Porzana, 178, 179. 

Rallus, 176. 
novoeboracensis, Fulica, 176. 
Numenius vociferus, 34. 

obsoletus, Rallus, 75, 76. 

Rallus elegans, 74, 75. 

Rallus longirostris, 48, 73, 75. 

Rallus obsoletus, 75. 
Ocydromus earlei, 39. 
Oedicnemidae, 4. 



lollvaceus, Kallus, 145. 
Oreciscus, 149. 

jamalcensis, 155. 
Ornelias, 233. 

Ortygarachus cayennensis, 122. 
Ortygarchus, 110. 

axillaris, 120. 

mangle, 125. 

melampygus, 114. 

ruficollis, 125. 

saracura, 113. 
Ortygometra antarctica, 51. 

Carolina, 139, 140. 

carolinensis, 140. 

carolinus, 140. 

cinerea, 163. 

crex 129. 

flaviventris, 136, 146. 

jamaicensis, 155, 159. 

minuta, 136, 146. 

noveboracensis, 176. 

spilonota, 161. 
Ortygometridae, 39. 
Ortygonax, 42, 102. 
Ortygops, 170. 

noveboracensis, 179. 
Otidae, 2. 
Otides, 1, 2, 4, 5. 
Otididae, 4. 

paciiica, Aramides cajanea, 115, 118, 

119. 
pacificus, Aramides plumbeicollis, 119. 

Rallus, 46. 

Rallus limicola, 91, 98. 

Rallus virginianus, 98. 
Palaeolimnas, 39, 40. 
Palamedeae, 1. 
paUidus, Rallus, 72, 73. 

Rallus longirostris, 50, 71, 72, 73. 
Faludicolae, 1, 38. 

Panamanian white-throated rail, 166. 
Pardirallus, 42, 100, 102. 

maculatus, 101, 102, 103. 

maculatus inoptatus, 103, 105. 

maculatus insolitus, 103, 105. 

maculatus maculatus, 101, 102. 

variegatus, 103. 
parva, Fulica, 192, 195. 

Gallinula, 195. 

lonornis, 195, 196. 

Jonornis, 196. 

Porphyrio, 195. 

Porphyriola, 196. 

Porphyrula, 194, 195. 

Porzana, 133. 
parvus, Colymbus, 221. 

Glaucestes, 196. 

lonornis, 195. 

Porphyrio, 195. 

Rallus, 133. 
pauxilla, Gallinula chloropus, 183 
pectoralis, Rallus, 46. 
Pedionoml, 4. 
pelodramns, Rallus longirostris, 48. 



250 BULLETIN 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



personata, Podlca, 226. 
peruviana, Aramides cajanea, 123. 
peruvlanus, Kallus, 51. 
Kallus limicola, 51. 
Phalaria, 204. 
Phalaridion, 133. 
Phalaridium, 133. 
Phalaropodldae, 40. 
phalenoides, Eurypyga, 236. 
phalenoides, Helias, 236. 
pictus, Aramus, 31, 34, 37. 

Aramus pictus, 29, 34, 37. 

Aramus scolopaceus, 30, 31, 32, 34, 
36. 

Tantalus, 34. 
platyuros, Fulica, 213. 
Plotoides, 227. 

Plotus surinamensls, 226, 227, 231. 
plumbea, Galllnula, 113. 
plumbeas, Aramides, 113. 
plumbecollis, Aramides, 119. 
plumbeicollis, Aramides, 119, 120. 

Aramides albiventris, 119, 120. 

Aramides cajanea, 115, 118, 119, 
120. 
Plumbecus-necked wood-rail, 119. 
plumbeus, Aramides, 113. 
Podia, 227. 
Podica, 224, 225, 226. 

personata, 226. 
Podicae, 224, 226. 
Podicidae, 224. 
Podiceps surinamensls, 231. 
Podoa, 226. 

surinamensls, 231. 
pollophaea, Grus, 19, 27. 
Porpbyreops, 45. 
Porphyrio, 40. 

alleni, 192, 193, 195. 

americanus, 204. 

amethystinus, 204. 

cayana, 196. 

chloronotus, 192, 195. 

cyaneicoUis, 204. 

flavirostrls, 196. 

madagascariensis, 195. 

martlnica, 199. 

martinicus, 199, 200. 

parva, 195. 

parvus, 195. 

simplex, 196. 

tavoua, 204. 

varlegatus, 195. 
porphyrio, Fulica, 204. 

Galllnula, 192, 195, 204. 

Hydrornia, 195. 
Porphyriola, 192. 

alleni, 195. 

chloronotus, 195. 

martlnica, 203, 204. 

r;>.rva, 196. 
Porp!;yriops, 45. 
Porphyrula, 39, 40, 41, 45, 192. 

alleni, 194, 195. 

chloronotus, 195. 



Porphyrula martlnica, 193, 194, 195, 
196, 203. 

parva, 194, 195. 
portoricensis, Galllnula chloropus, 192. 
Porzana, 40, 43, 44, 132, 133, 136. 

albicollis, 43. 

albigularis, 165, 167. 

alfari, 168. 

Carolina, 38, 134, 136, 137, 140, 145. 

castanelceps, 41. 

clnerea, 163. 

cinereiceps, 149, 166, 168. 

concolor, 107, 108, 109, 110. 

coturniculus, 158. 

erythrops, 43. 

exllis, 163. 

exilis vagans, 164. 

flavlventer, 136, 147. 

flaviventer bangsl, 136. 

flavlventer flavlventer, 136. 

flavlventer gossei, 147. 

flavlventer gossil, 136, 145, 147. 

flavlventer hendersoni, 136, 147, 148. 

flavlventer vsfoodi, 136, 148. 

flaviventrls, 136, 146, 147. 

flaviventrls hendersoni, 147. 

galapagoensls, 161. 

goldmanl, 180. 

guatemalensis, 110. 

jamaicensis, 155, 156, 159, 160, 179. 

jamalcensis coturniculus, 158. 

jamaicensis jamalcensis, 150, 160. 

jamaicensis stoddardi, 157. 

leucogastra, 166. 

mlnuta, 146. 

noveboracensls, 178, 179. 

parva, 133. 

puslUa, 132. 

rubra, 169. 

sharpel, 162. 

spilonota, 161. 

spilonota sharpel, 162. 
porzana, Rallus, 132, 145. 
Pprzanoidea, 132. 
pratensls, Crex, 126, 131, 132. 

Grus, 24, 25. 

Grus canadensis, 8, 25, 26. 

Megalornis canadensis, 25. 
Pspudogeranus, 6. 
Psophia, 5. 
Psophiae, 5. 
Psophiidae, 1, 2, 5, 6. 
Psophliformes, 2. 
Psophilnae, 5. 
Psophinae, 5. 

Puerto Klcan clapper rail, 68. 
pullata, Fulica, 212. 
Purple gallinule, 196. 
pusllla, Galllnula, 133. 

Porzana, 132. 
pusiUus, Rallus, 132, 133. 
pygmea, Crex, 156. 

Rail, Antigua clapper, 70. 
Bahama clapper, 62. 
Belding's clapper, 78. 



INDEX 



251 



Rail, Brooks's clapper, 59. 

California clapper, 73. 

Caribbean clapper, 64. 

Cuban clapper, 65. 

Cuban king, 89. 

Cuban spotted, 103. 

Darwin's 160. 

eastern black, 153. 

Parallon, 157. 

Florida clapper, 57. 

Goldman's yellow, 179. 

gray-headed, 164. 

Guatemalan ruddy, 168. 

Henderson's yellow-bellied, 147. 

Honduranian clapper, 72. 

Honduranian spotted, 105. 

Hispaniolan clapper, 67. 

Isle of Pines clapper, 66. 

Jamaican black, 159. 

Jamaican yellow-bellied, 145. 

king, 83. 

light-footed clapper, 75. 

Louisiana clapper, 60. 

Mexican clapper, 81. 

Nicaraguan ruddy, 170. 

northern clapper, 51. 

Panamanian white-throated, 166. 

Puerto Eican clapper, 68. 

Salvadorian yellow-bellied, 148. 

San Bias clapper, 80. 

Sonora clapper, 79. 

sora, 137. 

Tamaulipas ruddy, 168. 

Virginia, 90. 

Temminck's, 162. 

Wayne's clapper, 55. 

yellow, 172. 

Yucatan clapper. 71. 

Yuma clapper, 77. 

Zapata, 100. 
EaUeae, 40, 110, 149, 151, 170. 
Ealli, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 38, 39, 40, 46, 98, 224. 
Eallidae, 2, 28, 38, 39, 40, 41. 
Ealliformes 2, 38, 224. 
Eallina castanea, 107, 110. 

concolor, 108. 
Rallinae, 39, 101, 106, 107, 110, 126, 133, 

134. 
Eallites, 133. 
Ralloidea, 2, 38. 
Ralloideae, 224. 
Rallus, 28, 40, 42, 45, 47, 148. 

aequatorialis, 51. 

albicoUis, 43, 133. 

antarcticus, 51. 

aquaticus, 45, 47, 97. 

ardeoldes, 31. 

beldingi, 79. 

caribaeus, 55, 64, 65, 70, 71. 

carollnus, 139, 145. 

eastaneus, 107. 

cayanensis, 45, 148. 

cayennensis, 45, 110, 148. 

chiricote, 114, 116, 123, 124. 

concolor, 106, 108. 



Eallus corrius, 63. 
coryi, 63. 
erassirostris, 49. 
crepitans, 49, 53, 54, 55, 56, 59, 62, 

63, 64, 66, 69, 71, 85, 97. 
crepitans crepitans, 54. 
crepitans coryi, 64. 
crepitans saturatus, 62. 
crepitans scotti, 59. 
crepitans scottii, 60. 
crepitans waynei, 56. 
crex, 126, 129. 
cubanus, 66. 
cypereti, 48. 
ecaudata, 46. 
elegans, 47, 53, 54, 64, 74, 76, 79, 

81, 82, 85, 88, 89. 
elegans beldingi, 79. 
elegans elegans, 47, 83, 88, 89, 90. 
elegans levlpes, 76. 
elegans nayaritensis, 81. 
elegans obsoletus, 74, 75. 
elegans ramsdeni, 47, 89, 90. 
elegans rhizophorae, 80. 
elegans tenuirostris, 81, 82. 
elegans yumanensis, 78. 
exilis, 163. 
featherstonii, 132. 
flaviventer, 133, 136, 146. 
fuscus, 133. 
giganteus, 35. 
gigas, 31. 
helias, 235. 
hydrogalllna, 113. 
jamaicensis, 149, 155, 159, 179, 204. 
levlpes, 76. 
lewinii, 46. 
limicola, 47, 97. 
limicola aequatorialis, 51. 
limicola antarcticus, 51. 
limicola limicola, 46, 51, 90, 97, 98. 
limicola pacifieus, 91, 98. 
limicola peruviaiyis, 51. 
limicola zetarius, 98. 
longirostris, 47, 48, 49, 55, 56, 59, 

62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69, 70, 71, 

75, 82. 
longirostris beldingi 48, 78, 79. 
longirostris belizensis, 50, 72, 73. 
longirostris caribaeus, 48, 62, 64, 

65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71. 
longirostris corrius, 64. 
longirostris coryi, 48, 62, 63, 66. 
longirostris erassirostris, 49. 
longirostris crepitans, 50, 51, 54, 

55, 56, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 68, 

71. 
longirostris cubanus, 51, 65, 66, 67. 
longirostris cypereti, 48. 
longirostris h'elius, 60. 
longirostris insularum, 50, 59, 60, 

65. 
longirostris leucophaeus, 48, 50, 66, 

67. 



252 



BXTLLETESr 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



Rallus longirosfxis levipes, 48, 75, 76, 78. 
longirostris limnetis, 50, 67, 68, 70. 
longirostris longirostris, 48, 49. 
longirostris manglecola, 48, 70, 71. 
longirostris nayaritensis, 49, 80j 

81. 
longirostris obsoletus, 48, 73, 75. 
longirostris pallidus, 50, 71, 72, 73. 
longirostris pelodramus, 48. 
longirostris rhizophorae, 50, 79, 

80. 
longirostris saturatus, 50, 57, 59, 

60, 61, 62, 70, 72, 77. 
longirostris scotti, 58. 
longirostris scottii, 50, 57, 58. 
longirostris tenuirostris, 48, 81, 83, 

86. 
longirostris vafer, 50, 67, 68. 
longirostris waynei, 50, 51, 55, 56, 

59, 60, 66. 
longirostris yumanensis, 49, 77, 78, 

79 80 
maculatiis, 100, 102, 103, 105. 
mangle, 113. 
maximus, 123. 
melanophaius, 44, 148. 
melanops, 45. 
melanurus, 113. 
minutus, 136, 146. 
muelleri, 45. 
nayaritensis, 81. 
nigricans, 113. 
nivosus, 103. 
noveboracensis, 176. 
obsoletus, 75, 76. 
obsoletus beldingi, 79. 
obsoletus levipes, 76. 
obsoletus nayaritensis, 81. 
obsoletus obsoletus, 75. 
obsoletus rhizophorae, 80. 
obsoletus yumanensis, 78. 
olivaceus, 145. 
pacificus, 46. 
pallidus, 72, 73. 
parvus, 133. 
pectoralis, 46. 
peruvianus, 51. 
porzana, 132, 145. 
pusillus, 132, 133. 
rex, 129. 
ruficeps, 114. 
rufopennis, 51. 
rytirhynchus, 42. 
saturatus, 55, 59, 62. 
scolopaceus, 35. 
scotti, 59. 
scottii, 59. 
stolidus, 145. 
supercillaris, 136. 
tenuirostris, 81, 82, 83. 
uliginosus, 51. 
variegatus, 100, 103, 105. 
virginiamus, 96. 
virginianus, 51, 93, 96, 97, 145. 



Rallus virginianus aequatorlalis, 51. 

virginianus pacificus, 98. 

virginianus virginianus, 97. 

viridis, 45, 148. 

ypacaha, 114. 

ypecaha, 114. 

yumanensis, 78. 
Ralus, 45. 

ramsdeni, Rallus elegaus, 47, 89, 90. 
rex, Rallus, 129. 
Rhigelura, 226. 
Rhinochetedes, 4. 
Rhinochetes, 4. 
Rhinocheti, 4. 
Rhinochetidae, 1, 2, 232. 
rhizophorae, Rallus elegans, 80. 

Rallus longirostris, 50, 79, 80. 

Rallus obsoletus, 80. 
Rhynocheti, 4. 
Rhynochetidae, 2. 

richii, Coturnicops noveboracensis, 179. 
ruber, Creciscus, 169. 

Creciscus ruber, 170. 

Erythrollmnas, 170. 

Laterallus ruber, 153, 168. 
ruberrimus, Creciscus, 170. 

Creciscus ruber, 170. 

Laterallus ruber, 153, 170. 
rubra, Aramides, 169. 

Corethrura, 149, 169. 

Porzana, 169. 

Thryocrex, 170. 
rubrus, Rufirallus, 169. 
Ruddy rail, Guatemalan, 168. 

Nicaraguan, 170. 

Tamaiilipas, 168. 
ruficeps, Aramides, 123. 

Gallinula, 114, 123. 

RaUus, 114. 
ruficollis, Aramides, 114, 123, 125. 

Gallinnla, 114, 123, 163. 

Fulica, 114, 125. 

Ortygarchus, 125. 
ruflfrons, Fulica, 207. 
Rufirallus, 45, 148. 

boecki, 110. 

castaneus, 107. 

concolor, 110. 

rubrus, 169. 
Rufous-necked wood-rail, 124. 
rufopennis, Rallus, 51. 
rytirhynchus, Rallus, 42. 

salmoni, Aramides cajanea, 123. 
Salvadorian yellow-bellied rail, 148. 
San Bias clapper rail, 80. 
Sandhill crane, 20. 

Cuban, 26. 

Florida, 25. 
San Mlgiiel wood-rail, 123. 
saracura, Aramides, 111, 113. 

Gallinula, 113. 

Ortygarchus, 113. 
Sareogeranus, 7. 



INDEX 



253 



saturatus, Eallus, 55, 59, 62. 
Rallus crepitans, 62. 
Rallus longirostris, 50, 57, 59, 60, 
61, 62, 70, 72, 77. 
schlegelli, Grus, 20. 
Schoenocrex, 132. 
Schoenoscrex, 133. 
schomburgki, Crex, 41. 
scolopacea, Ardea, 28, 31, 82, 35, 36. 

Aramus, 36. 
scolopaceus, Aramus, 30, 32, 35, 36. 
Aramus scolopaceus, 31. 
Hians, 37. 

Notherodius, 32, 36. 
Rallus, 35. 
Scolopax guarauna, 36. 
helias, 2.S5. 
Solaris, 236. 
scotti, Rallus, 59. 

Eallus crepitans, 59. 
Rallus longirostris, 58. 
Rallus crepitans, 60. 
Rallus longirostris, 50, 57, 58. 
senegalensis, Heliornis, 226. 
sharpei, Creciscus, 162. 
Porzana, 162. 
Porzana spilonota, 162. 
Stictolimnas, 41, 46. 
slmilis, Crex pratensis, 132. 
simplex, Porphyrio, 196. 
Solaris, Eurypyga, 236. 

Scolopax, 236. 
Sonora clapper rail, 79. 
Sora rail, 1.37. 

spilonota, Ortygometra, 161. 
Porzana, 161. 
Zapornia, 161. 
spilonotus, Creciscus, 161. 

Laterallus, 153, 160, 161. 
Spotted rail, Cuban, 103. 

Honduranian, 105. 
Stagnicola, 180. 
stenoleuca, Fulica, 213. 
Stictolimnas, 41, 46. 
sharpei, 41, 46. 
stoddardi, Creciscus jamaicensis, 146, 
157. 
Laterallus jamaicensis, 153, 157, 

159. 
Porzana jamaicensis, 1.57. 
stolidus, Rallus, 145. 
struthio, Grus, 14. 
Sun-bittern, greater, 236. 
Sun-grebe, 228. 
superciliarls, Rallus, 136. 
surinamensis, Heliornis, 231, 232. 
Plotus, 226, 227, 231. 
Podiceps, 231. 

tabida, Grus canadensis, 8, 20, 25. 

Megalornis canadensis, 19, 24. 
Tahitornis, 46. 
Tamaulipas ruddy rail, 168. 
tamaulipensis, Creciscus ruber, 168. 

Laterallus ruber, 153, 168. 



Tantalus plctus, 34. 
tavoua, Porphyrio, 204. 
Telmatomorphae', 2. 
Temminck's rail, 162. 
tenuirostris, Rallus, 81, 82, 83. 

Rallus elegans, 81, 82. 

Rallus longirostris, 48, 81, 83, 1 
Tetrapteryx, 6. 
Thryocrex, 44, 149, 151. 

rubra, 170. 
torquata, Grus, 7. 
Tulica, 204. 
Turnices, 2, 3, 4. 
Turnicidae, 2. 
Turnieomorphae, 4. 

uliginosus, Rallus, 51. 
Uniform crake, Guatemalan, 109. 
Jamaican, 108. 



vafer, Rallus longirotris, 50, 67, 68. 
vagans, Creciscus, 164. 

Creciscus exilis, 164. 

Laterallus, 151. 

Laterallus exilis, 163, 164. 

Porzana exilis, 164. 
vanrossemi, Aramides, 117. 

Aramides albiventris, 117. 

Aramides cajanea, 115, 116, 117. 
Van Rossera's wood-rail, 116. 
variegatus, Limnopardalis, 105. 

Pardirallus, 103. 

Porphyrio, 195. 

Rallus, 100, 103, 105. 
venezuelensis, Aramides cajanea, 123. 
Virginia rail, 90. 
virginiamus, Rallus, 96. 
virginianus, Aramus, 97. 

Rallus, 51, 93, 96, 97, 145. 

Rallus virginianus, 97. 
viridis, Rallus, 45, 148. 
vociferus, Aramus, 32, 34, 37. 

Aramus vociferus, 35. 

Ibis, 34. 

Numenius, 34. 

waynel, Rallus crepitans, 56. 

Rallus longirostris, 50, 51, 55, 56, 
59, 60, 66. 
Wayne's clapper rail, 55. 
White-bellied wood-rail, 117. 
White-throated rail, Panamanian, 166. 
Whooping crane, 9. 
wilsoni, Fulica, 221. 
wolfl, Aramides, 112, 113. 
woodi, Porzana flaviventer, 136, 148. 
Wood-rail, Guiana, 120. 

Mexican, 115. 

Nicaraguan, 118. 

plumbeous-necked, 119. 

rufous-necked, 124. 

San Migiiel, 123. 

Van Eossem's. 116. 

white-bellied, 117. 



254 



BXJLLETESr 50, UNITED STATES NATIONAL JTOSEtTM: 



Yellow-bellied rail, Henderson's, 147. 

Jamaican, 145. 

Salvadorian, 148. 
Yellow rail, 172. 

Goldman's, 179. 
ypacaha, Aramldes, 114. 

Rallus, 114. 
ypecaha, Aramides, 111, 114. 

KaUus, 114. 
Yucatan clapper rail, 71. 
Yuma clapper rail, 77. 
yumanensis, Rallus, 78. 

Rallus elegans, 78. 



yumanensis, Rallus obsoletus, 78. 

RaUus longirostris, 49, 77, 78, 79, 80. 

Zapata rail, 100. 
Zaporina, 133. 
/apornia, 133. 

minuta, 133. 

notata, 172. 

spilonota, 161. 
zetarius, Rallus limicola, 98. 
Zimuogeranus americanus, 14. 



o