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Full text of "The syntax and synonyms of the Greek Testament"

4- 



cu 



CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

L I BRARY 



The Robert M. and Laura Lee Lintz 
Book Endowment for the Humanities 



Class of 1924 



CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 




3 1924 090 851 753 , 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924090851753 



TIIK 



SYNTAX AND SYNONYMS 



GREEK TESTAMENT. 



WILLIAM WEBSTER, M.A. 

LATE VELLOW OF QVEENS' COIiLEOE, CAUBUIVUl!, 
BECENTLT OB XINO'S COLLEOE, LONDON. 



"OmiBgis auctoritatibug, ip8& ro ct rationo exquirero potuumua voritatoin." 

(ClOEBO, pro Lege Manit.) 



LONDON: 

IIIVINGTONS, WATERLOO PLACE : 

AND HIGH STREET. OXFORD. 

1864. 



PREFACE. 



LUNIION : 



In commencing the present Work, I proposed to myself to 
compile a Syntax, which should ombraco all that was valuable 
in Winer, and all that was applicable in Donaldson. From 
the large and copious, use which I have made of Dr. Donald- 
son's " Complete Greek Grammar," I may be considered to 
have fulfilled one part of my original design. The references 
GiLUKiiT AND RiviNOTON, piii.NTEii&, I havo mado to the Syntax of this eminent philologist by no 

ST. joii.-x's sauAUK. means adequately represent the full amount of my obligations 

to him. In analyzing the varied uses of the Prepositions and 
of the Oblique Cases, I have followed Donaldson paragraph by 
paragraph, adopting his language, with such modifications as 
seemed advisable, quoting some of his instances, and append- 
ing appropriate examples from the New Testament. In the 
arrangement of the Syntax, I have frequently followed Host, 
borrowing occasionally the language of the "Bromsgrove 
Greek Grammar," compiled by Dr. Jacob, of Christ's Hospital, 
wherever the philosophical principles and logical method of 
Donaldson appeared to rise above the level of a work designed 
for popular comprehension. 

Of Winer I have mado very little use ; chiefly because I 
have found more reliable matter in the grammatical comments 
,of Bishop Ellicott, Dean Alford, Dr. Wordsworth, Dr. Vaughan, 
and some others, among whom, I am indebted to the writer of 
an article in the Quarterly Review for January, 1863. I would 
hope that the annotations which I have selected from recent edi- 
tions of the New Testament will be of service to those students, 
who, from the deficiency of means or leisure, are unable, accord- 
ing to the advice of the " Quarterly Review," to use Dean 

A 2 



IV 



PREFACE. 



Alford's work in combination with Dr. Wordsworth and Bishop 
EUicott. If, too, these gleanings from their pages prove 
acceptable to the laity generally, and to the large class of 
readers wlio feel the force of the saying, /*67a jStjSXt'oi/ fiir/a 
KUKov, I sliall not liave written in vain. 

Another reason for having so sparingly availed myself of 
the criticisms of Winer is, I must honestly confess, my want 
of sympathy in the commendations so generally, and, I cannot 
but think, extravagantly bestowed upon him. The use I have 
made of his work has been out of deference to public opinion, 
rather than from a personal sense of its merits. The Grammar 
by Dr. S. Ch. Schirlitz (Qiessen), although it is but little 
known, is a decidedly better work. There may be valuable 
matter in Winer which I have not collected from other sources, 
but his pages present to my mind an accumulation of unne- 
cessary authorities and unnecessary polemics. By unnecessary 
authorities, I mean repeated references to authors whose works 
by no means deserve that degree of credit which can entitle 
tliem to bo made standards of appeal. By unnecessary polemics, 
I mean tlie refutation of absurd and extravagant errors in all 
branches of Biblical Literature, of which one would think no 
earnest and sensible student would take any notice, except to 
dismiss them with contempt. 

I do not expect that those who find or affect to find it 
necessary to resort to Germany for their scholarship, will allow 
that there are sufficient grounds for the opinion I have formed 
of German critics, annotators, grammarians. But as far as 
my own reading has extended, I see good reason to withhold 
from German scliolars that measure of confidence which I 
cheerfully extend to many who have written on Biblical litera- 
ture in our own country during the last thirty years, and 
this for the following considerations : (1) Germany is the land 
of spcculatioi) ; but it is not the land of action or of common 
sense ; few of their writers remember the salutary maxim, ij 
re')(V7} fiaKpd, fipaj^yi o ^lo^. (2) We may cheerfully assign 
to German students the palm of laborious industry ; but can 
we say that tliis industry is sanctified by the highest motives, 
and is directed to the noblest end? Of what advantage is 
■yv&ais, provided ao^ia is excluded? (3) Whatever be the 
defects of our Authorized Version, there can be no doubt of 
its great superiority to the Vulgate, or to Luther's translation. 



PREFACK. 



I have read many a tedious note of German writers, particularly 
of Fritzsche, in which much ponderous erudition is directed 
to the correction of a blunder in the Vulgate, or some Con- 
tinental Version, which does not exist in our own. (4) We 
ought not to be unmindful of the advantage which most of 
us possess by being trained in a form of sound words, by 
acknowledging a definite, but yet. Catholic system of faith 
and practice. Of the Germans, it is difficult to say who of 
them receive, and who reject the facts of Christianity embodied 
in the three Creeds ; while none of them enjoy the benefit of 
that practical Commentary on Holy Writ which is provided 
in our Liturgy and Articles. To the absence of this salutary 
check on the vagaries of 'free handling' we may attribute 
that monstrous combination of errors which is happily confined 
to German and Germanized theology. 

Dr. Wordsworth (in the Preface to his edition of the Greek 
Testament, p. xvi) has brought forward Lord Bacon's remark, 
that one of the best commentaries on Scripture might be 
extracted from the writings of English divines. This remark 
may be amplified so as to inchide the grammatical and critical 
exegesis of the New Testament. Our Anglo-Germans, like 
Continental Tourists in search of scenery, need to be reminded 
of the beautiful spots which they have never visited at home. 
We may apply to tliem the admonition of the Koman Satirist 
Ilor. Up. i. 12. 30. 

"Quod petis, Incest; 
.... Animus si te non deficit tcquus." 

No one English annotator has availed himself of half the mate- 
rials extant in our own tongue. Among recent editors Bishop 
Jilhcott IS the only one who seems to have consulted tlie sound 
and valuable suggestions of the late Professor Scholefield in his 
llmts for an Improved Translation. It is much to bo regretted 
that many of our learned men, who have edited the Tragedians 
have not commented on the Greek Testament; yet there will 
be found m their notes much valuable matter directly and 
indirectly bearing on the grammatical interpretation of the 
Sacred Oracles Bishop Blomfield's ^.schylus contains many 
cnicisms of this nature; in the preparation of the First 
Volume of the Greek Testament, in conjunction with my friend 
Mr. Wilkinson. I dcnved more real assistance from this source 



VI 



PREFACE. 



which promised little, than from the laborious pretentiousness 
of any German annotator. 

In Chapter X. I have made but slight use of the Second 
Beries of Synonyms by Hia Grace the Archbishop of Dublin. 
I have adopted freely the matter contained in the First Series, 
which has become rapidly incorporated in the general stock of 
Theological literature. As I have attempted to desynonymize 
some words which have not been treated by previous writers, I 
will only hope that all my readers will extend to me that 
favourable indulgence, with which His Grace welcomed my 
earlier efforts in this interesting and instructive pursuit. 

In conclusion, I would express a hope that this Work will be 
of some service in promoting the intelligent study of that Book 
which is the basis of sound learning and religious education. 
Great benefit has resulted and is likely to result from the insti- 
tution of Competitive Examinations. Why should not a portion- 
of the Greek Testament be required from all candidates for 
apppintments in the Military and Civil Service P The eulogium 
which Dr. Wordsworth has pronounced (Pref. p. xvii) on the 
study of Holy Scripture in the Original, as the best Instrument 
of Education, is a happy combination of rhetorical power with 
sober truth ■.•^ 

"The Bible alone, of all books in the world, addkesses 

ITSELF TO THE WHOLE MAN. It EXERCISES HIS MEMORY, 
STRENGTHENS HIS REASON, CONTROLS HIS PASSIONS, INFORMS 
HIS JUDGMENT, REGULATES HIS CONSCIRNOE, SANCTIFIES HIS 
WILL, ENLIVENS HIS FANCY, WARMS HIS IMAGINATION, CHERISHES 
HIS AFFECTIONS, STIMULATES HIS PRACI'ICE, QUICKENS HIS HOPE, 
AND ANIMATES HIS FAITH." 



*,* Tlic passngca qnotcd are taken from tlie text of R. Stephens, 1550. Tlie 
readings wliieh the Rev. F. U. Scrivener has inserted in his recent edition are con- 
sidered of sufficient nutliority for the purposes of illustration and comment. 



w 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAP. 

I. On the Peculiuritieg of Hellenistic Greek 
II. On the Formation of Words 

III. On Nouns and Nominal Forms 

IV. On the Subject with the Predicate and Copula 
V. On the Oblique Cases 

VI. Verbs, Voices, Tenses 
VII. The Moods of Verbs . 
VIII. Particles . 
IX. Prepositions 
X. Sjrnonyms 
XI. Hints on the Authorized Version 
XII. On Grammatical and Ehetorical Terms 

Imdux I 

Imdex II 

Index III. 



PAaE 
1 

. 17 

. 26 

. 60 

. 62 

. 80 

. 100 

. 118 

. 149 

. 186 

. 238 

. 262 

. 263 
. 266 
. 271 



THE 



i 



SYNTAX AND SYNONYMS 



OF THB 



NEW TESTAMENT. 



CHAPTER I. 
INTRODUCTORY. 

ON THE PECULIARITIES OF HELLENISTIC GREEK. 

The term " Hellenistic " is the especial designation which is 
usually employed to denote the Greek which is found in the 
writings of the New Testament. 

The word 'EXXijwotjJs was generally applied by the inha- 
bitants of Attica to all foreigners who learnt to speak their 
language by the ear for political purposes, commercial designs, 
or social intercourse, without giving accurate attention to the 
usages and expressions of the Attic dialects. These foreigners 
were said to Ilellenize, eWrivi^eiv, to imitate Greeks from their 
combining vernacular expressions and provincial peculiarities 
with Greek phrases and idioms. 

When wo consider the language of any single biography, 
treatise, or letter, and still more when our attention is directed 
to a collection of such writings, we must carefully bear in mind 
all the historical circumstances of the several writers, such as 
the time and the place of their respective compositions, the 
previous education and the present position of the writers, the 
objects they proposed to themselves in the work under con- 
sideration. 

Our own language as it is now spoken in different parts of the 
globe furnishes a striking instance of the influence produced by 



2 



TIIB PECnLIARITIES OP IIEIXENISTIC GREEK 



time and place in moulding the distinguishing characteristics of 
every tongue. The origin of Modern English is generally 
ascribed to the days of Elizabeth ; grammarians enumerate 
various phases of Middle English, Old English, Semi-Saxon, all 
exhibiting peculiar features of divergence from the language, 
either written or oral, which prevailed in the days of Alfred. 
The familiar term Anglo-Saxon brings up before our minds two 
distinct peoples, Angles and Saxons, who contributed their 
different dialects to form a single tonguo. Hellenistic Greek 
was a composite language derived from different sources like 
our own ; it was also an imported language, not the vernacular 
speech of those who used it ; it was acquired by the Apostles 
and Evangelists, and was adopted, under the guidance of the 
Holy Spirit, as the most fitting medium for the communications 
they were inspired to make, and it was adapted by them for the 
imparting of truths and sentiments which tried to the utmost 
the capacity of language and the power of thought. 

In Palestine, Greek was an exotic. The sources from which 
it was transplanted were of the widest description. When we 
speak of Classical Greek, we refer to the language which was 
spoken in Graecia Antiqua or Greece Proper, but when we 
speak of Hellenistic Greek we must include in our conception 
the speech of Magna Grajcia, the south-east of Italy with Sicily, 
of the colonies included in the discontinuous or sporadic Greece, 
of the settlements in Asia Minor, and those which were founded 
by the success which attended the Macedonian arms. In this 
respect Hellenistic Greek resembles the English which is spoken 
in America, Australia, and Hindostan far more closely than ita 
ordinary uae in our native land. Sut even at home every 
distinct region of the United Kingdom, and every quarter of 
the globe, contributes its peculiar phrases and idioms to increase 
the treasures of the Anglo-Saxon tongue. Some of these 
additions and excrescences obtain only a partial reception, as 
they are confined to the district which gave them birth, or are 
limited to the local exigencies which called them into life ; but 
many obtain from time to time universal acceptance, are 
gradually incorporated into an ordinary speech, and maintain 
a' position in the temple of literature. In every branch of 
writing, especially in our periodical organs of public informa- 
tion, words will be found which have been imported from the 
Hebrew, Arabic, Persian, from Turkey and China, from the East 






(■ 



CONTRASTED WITH THE ENGLISH TONGUE. 3 

and "West Indies, from North and South America, from Holland, 
Italy, Portugal, Spain. But in our foreign marts, in cities of 
commercial enterprise, beyond the limits of British civilization, 
in the extreme East, West, and South, this confusion of tongues 
(y>MTTO(rvyxvaKi) will be especially found to prevail. We 
ought not then to be surprised at the occurrence of similar 
characteristics in the records of the religious dispensation which 
has spread through' the world from Galilee,— that populous 
agglomeration of inhabitants of all classes and countries, which 
Hebrew-speaking inhabitants of Jerusalem regarded with con- 
tempt and disdain, as beyond Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles. 

But influences more powerful than the commixture of these 
varieties of speech combined to cast the language of the Greek 
Testament into its present mould. The inspired writings of the 
New Covenant, are not conveyed in the language which our 
Lord and His Apostles, as well as the earliest disciples, very 
generally used in conversational intercourse. The vernacular 
tongue in Judaea, after the return from the Babylonish captivity, 
was the Syro-Chaldaic or Aramaic. In reading the Gospels, it 
IS highly important to bear in mind the caution given by 
Michaelis, "Syriace locutum Jesum, non Grsoce." Thus Greek 
was a language which the writers acquired after attaining a 
mature age, for it is probable that St. Luke was the only one 
who knew it from his birth. 

The writers of the Epistles had to contend with difficulties 
from which the Evangelists were, in a measure, exempt. The 
subjects which they had to discuss taxed to the utmost the 
vaned and copious resources of the richest language on earth. 
IJey were required to expound and elucidate truths which 
atiect the temporal and eternal welfare of the universal famUy 
of man truths which in length and breadth and depth and 
height far exceeded the loftiest conceptions of philosopheiB 
orators, and poets; these they had to present in a style and 
manner which was capable of being comprehended by the whole 
human race, inteUigible to the wise and unwise, level to the 
apprehension of barbarian, Scythian, bond and free. 

If then we attach the weight which is unquestionably due 
to these peculiarities, if we consider the influence which each 
of them would have singly, and the predominating sway 
which all united would exercise by acting in combination one 
with onother. wo shall not hesitate to draw the inference that 

B 2 



4 THE PECULIARITIES OF HELLENISTIC GREEK. 

without a miracle, the Greek of the New Testament could 
not have been different from that which we find it to bo. A 
regard to the circumstances of the writers, to the age in which 
they lived, to the locality in which they wrote, to the associa- 
tions of birth, of education, and position, a consideration of 
their end and aim in writing what was to be a /m)/ta e? det, 
unconscious though they were of the fact, all these justify 
the conclusion that the sweeping charges of solcecisms, of 
grammatical improprieties, of forced constructions, may be dis- 
regarded by us as vague declamation. To expect that Pales- 
tinian Jews should write Greek according to the refinements 
and elegancies of the language which was current at Athens 
in the days of Pericles, is as unreasonable as it would be to 
require that modern English should retain the idiomatic usages, 
expressions, and orthography, which prevailed under the Plan- 
tagencts, or to conceive that a collection of writings from 
different authors, designed not only for the instruction of the 
intelligent and thoughtful, but for the use of the Boors at the 
Cape, the Pariahs of Ilindostan, the Aborigines of Australia, 
the Red Indians of North America, ought to bear upon its 
front the characteristics of language, expression, and style, 
which wo reasonably require in a critical essay, a philosophical 
treatise, or an academical address. In such a collection of 
writings, whether we regard the component parts singly, or 
as a whole, we might with good reason require that no un- 
warrantable liberties should be taken with the language, that 
there should be no offences against good taste, no violations 
of decorum, nothing to debase the mind, vitiate the feeling, 
or corrupt the judgment. But all refinements of language, 
all elegant turns of expression might well be sacrificed in 
order to secure more thoroughly and effectually the writers' 
end and aim, the instruction and edification of universal 
humanity. 

As it is quite unreasonable to judge of New Testament Greek 
by the conventional standard adopted 300 n.c. in a particidar 
city and district, so by a reference to what is now going on 
in many parts of the world, we need not be surprised at the 
mixture of various elements contained therein. For if we 
consider the extent to which our own tongue is adulterated 
in both hemispheres, by the use of extraneous words and in- 
congruous expreasioiiB, wo shall deem it truly marvellous, and 



FOUR DISTINCTIVE ELEMENTS. 



a result which surpasses human wisdom, that writers of Galilee, 
dypd/ifiaToi Kal ISuarai, have employed with such slight diver- 
gences the language of Thucydides, Plato, and Xenophon, in 
a connected series of works, which in subject-matter, com- 
plexion, and object, throw into the shade the choicest specimens 
of classical literature. 

One striking charaoteristio of the Greek of the New Testa- 
ment is the Christian element arising from the subject-matter, 
which the writers had to unfold, 

A second arises from the position of the writers, as Hebrew- 
speaking Jews, who had to complete a revelation which had 
already been partially revealed in Hebrew. This we may call 
the Hebrew element. 

There is a third element, which we may call the Alexandrine, 
consisting of Latinisms, Cilicisms, Syriacisms, and extraneous 
terms. 

There is a fourth element, which had an important influence 
on the employment of the preceding, viz., the oral. The style 
is colloquial rather than literary. The diction is the Greek 
of conversation rather than of composition. We have very 
imperfect memorials of the ordinary language used by the 
Greeks in the mart, the forum, and domestic life. The ex- 
pressiouB employed by philosophers and poets, by orators and 
tragedians, afford no clue to the conversational Greek which 
regulated their social intercourse. The principal source from 
which we can form an opinion of their vernacular speech is 
the comedies of Aristophanes: "Ilia Comoodia vetus, specu- 
lum quotidiansD vitao, plebeias quasdam offert loquutiones." — 
Valckner '. The speeches in the Acts of the Apostles are faith- 
ful recitals of words actually uttered ; and many of the epistles 
were written from dictation. "To the oral element," says 
Bishop Ellicott, "we may ascribe the combined simplicity and 
force of the narrative pArtions ; the suspended structures and 
relapses to the nominative case observable in the writings of 
St. Paul." Its style is free from all tinge of vulgarity, and 
from every trace of artistic diction. In fact it exhibits, as 
Professor Masson has well remarked, the only genuine /acstV/iife 
of the colloquial diction employed by unsophisticated Grecian 
gentlemen of the first century, who spoke without pedantry, as 
ISi&rai,, and not as ao^unal, 

' Sc« notei on Ij. 11. s. is. (Webster and Wilkinson.) 



b THE rECVIJARITIKS OF HELLENISTIC GREEK. 

THE CHRISTIAN ELEMENT. 

Ill every branch of science or department of study we find 
peculiar words and technical terms which are formed by 
enlarging the vocabulary of the language, or are old words 
with a new and appropriate meaning. The doctrine of the 
kingdom of heaven could not possibly be made known to man, 
without the introduction of new words, or an accession of mean- 
ing to words which were already in use. The writers of heathen 
antiquity had no occasion to speak of r) iKK\tjcria tov 6eov — r&v 
ovpav&v, evarfyikiov, ffwrifpta, Trlarif, BMaioat, eKKkqcria, in the 
sense in which they so frequently recur in the Books of the 
New Covenant. 

The historical facts upon which Christianity rests could be 
recorded in the language of Thucydides and Xcnophon ; but 
the revelation of God manifest in the flesh, the dignity of the 
Redeemer's person, the sufficiency of His atoning work, the 
operation of the Holy Ghost, the condition of man as fallen in 
the first Adam, the characteristics of his state as restored in the 
second Adam, the constitution of the Christian Church,— these 
and similar topics of discourse rendered it necessary to find 
thought-breathing words, which no writer of an earlier age had 
any occasion to use. With this agrees the fact which we might 
naturally anticipate, that the Christian element is more strongly 
marked in the writings of John, Paul, and Peter, than in the 
synoptical Gospels, or the Acts of the Apostles. 

The writers of the New Testament, if for a moment we leave 
out of sight the divine superintendence, suggestion, and control 
which attended them in all their labours, must have felt the 
same difficulties which beset modem translators of the Bible in 
finding suitable words and expressions to be the vehicle of 
superhuman thoughts. The Chinese, for instance, with all their 
literary, scientific, and philosophical attainments, ha^e no appro- 
priate word for expressing " Deity," ond perhaps no language 
which has not been amplified and enriched by the leaven of 
Christianity, contains tolerable equivalents for the words grace, 
humility, faith, hqj)e, charily. 

A test of the character and habits of the people is furnished 
by the copiouBness or scantiness of their vocabulary on moral 
subjects. The languages of the South Sea Islanders are par- 
ticularly copious in words which convey the crime of murder ; 



THE CHRISTIAN ELEMENT. 



there are several distinct terms to express different ways in 
which infanticide may be committed. The universal prevalence 
of this abominable atrocity has given birth to a deplorable rich- 
ness of vocabulary in expressing the practice. We must ascribe 
it to the happy influence of the oracles of God committed to our 
trust, that our language has so many words which. denote sym- 
pathy, condolence, fellow-feeling, compassion, pity, affection, 
tenderness, but has no term nearer than the words " malicious- 
ness," " spitefulness," to express eirij(aipeKaKla. Exultation at 
the ills which befall other men is happily so rare a feeling, that 
no distinguishing word has been adopted or compounded to 
convey the idea. ■ The spirit of genuine benevolenco, of dis- 
interested kindness in seeking the welfare of other men, was so 
little recognized among the Greeks, that the Apostles had no 
suitable word made ready to their hands, but were compelled to 
borrow one from the x^PW^^' ^^° defrayed the expenses inci- 
dent on providing a chorus, suitably trained and equipped, to 
carry out the scenic representation of the Grecian drama. 
Although the Septuagint translation had done much to render 
Greek an appropriate vehicle for imparting Christian truth, and 
became " a viaduct between the two covenants," yet the Apostles 
found the language too narrow and shallow for the truths they 
had to declare. Of some words they enlarged and deepened the 
■signification; other words they boldly coined, but always in 
true analogy with the genius of the language which they served 
to enrich. 

We may trace both in the Old and New Testaments the 
gradual growth of human language till it became fitted to com- 
municate the things which were revealed, 7ro\vfjifpa>i kuI iroXv- 
rpoTrav, in manifold portions and manifold methods. The Greek, 
notwithstanding its abundant copiousness in comparison with 
the Hebrew, required many subsidiary rills to form the broad 
channel of language, tlmough which the final revelation of the 
Divine mind could be imparted to man and diffused through the 
world. 

As an illustration of the Christian element, we may remark 
that the classical terms for virtue, aperri, — for morality, n^dif 
(mores), seldom occur ; the latter but once in a quotation, while 
in their place we have a rich cluster of qualities and graces 
enumerated under the term /capnoi irvevfuno^, — an idea which 
never entered into the conception of Grecian sages. 

Lest the Christian ministry should bo confounded with the 



8 



THE PECITLIASIT1E8 OF HELLENISTIC GREEK. 



Jewish priesthood, the writers of the New Testament altogether 
avoid the word Upew as a designation of thosewho labour in 
the Word and doctrine. To mark the contrast between Chris- 
tianity and heathenism they use Bvaiaarripiov, Trpoi^revuv, in 
preference to fita/io^, fiavreveaffai. It is also remarkable that 
oKavSoKov, which occurs fifteen times in the New Testament, 
and twenty times in LXX and Apocrypha, is scarcely ever 
found in profane writers ; though Aristophanes, Acharn. 687, 
uses aKavioKTidpov in a metaphorical sense. The idea of putting 
a stumbling-block, or an occasion to fall in a brother's way, 
never entered into the mind of the heathen. 

To the Ohristian element we attribute the use of the following 
expressions: 6 7roini)p o hoKoi, J. 10. ll. ^ d/vireKoi ■^ aXi^diio}," 
vav K>Jjfia iv Xpurr^, /tivsiv iv Xpiar^, J. 15. l, 4r^7. avtodev 
fewaadai, J. 3. 3. iraXifyepeaia, T. 3. s. ivaxalvaaK voot, 
E. 12. 3, fterdvoia, A. 11. is. kmv^ lerlait, 20. 5. 17. 6 iaa 
dvffpanro^, B. 7. 33. 6 f^at, 2 0. 4. 16. dftapria wpoi ddvarrov, 
1 J. 5. 16, 17. 0dvaTO<{ eU rov al&va, J. 8. SI. irvevfiariKOt 
in opposition to ■<^xrxiKo<;, <rapKiK6<i, — the combination of xard 
adpKa with elvai, ireparareiv, (^i> — Kaivirrq^ trvevfioTOt, ira\at' 
0T1JS ypdfifjMTOi, R. 7. 6. ipyd^eadai in opposition to iriarevew, 
o KoapM^ oStos, J. 8. 23, rwn D7^y, oiKovop-ia tov Oeov, t^s 
j(dpiTOi TOV Geov, To these we may add the technical senses 
acquired by aat^eiv, avniip, and their derivatives, So^a, X*^ 
aUoviof, Xvrpov, ^apt9, ireipaarixo^, 0809, /ivar^ptov, ^airrl^eaffat, 
eTriarpitfteiv, iirtirrpo^, et aimilia, m&nj of which are explained 
in our list of sy^ionyms. * 

In this class we may enumerate the words which mark the 
contrast in which Christianity stands to heathenism and Judaism, 
atcijvoTniyia, Trpo<rq\vTOf, elS<o\60vTOt>, e^ot^oKaTpela, ^vXaAcri)' 
ptov. 

» 
THE HEBREW ELEMENT. 

It is unnecessary to give in detail an account of the unprofit- 
able controversy which raged for a long period between the 
Purists and the Hebraists. If the illustration which we have 
adduced from the local incidents which affect our own tongue 
in all parts of the world in our own day be deemed apposite and 
analogous, no reasonable man will expect to find Attic purity in 
the pages of the New Testament, though he will resist as alto- 
gether unnecessary and unfounded the inference that Hellen- 



r 



u 



!t 



THE HEBREW ELEMENT. « 

istic Greek is a heterogeneous confusion of several languages 
and dialects. He will not be surprised to meet with a few 
strange and anomalous forms of declension and conjugation ; he 
will not stumble at the omission of the augment in some verbs, 
or at its irregular use in other verbs ; he will not expect to find 
consistency or uniformity in orthography or orthoepy. 

The position laid down by Blackwall (Sacred Classics, i. 153) 
will not be easily assailed. " The main substance and ground- 
work of the language of the Gospels and Epistles is incon- 
testably the same with that of the older Grecians, excepting 
when the rites of the Jewish and new revelations of the Chris- 
tian religion required new terms, or where the usage of Hebrew 
modes of speech, and allusions to oriental customs expressed the 
thing with more vigour, and were more intelligible to the 
people. Even ra the Hebraisms and peculiarities of the New 
Testament, as good a regard has been paid to the general 
analogy and true propriety of graiqmar as in the writings 
which make up the standard of the Greek language." 

With Michaelis we may assign the causes of these disputes 
to a want of sufficient knowledge of the Greek, the prejudices 
of pedantry and school orthodoxy, the injudicious custom of 
choosing the Greek Testament as the first book to be read by 
learners. This last cause has not perhaps exerted much in- 
fluence during the 'last thirty years ; but to these a further 
reason may be assigned which has had very unhappy influence 
in England, viz. that our most eminent scholars have deemed 
the study of the Greek Testament beneath their notice ; so that 
the seven plays of JBschylus alone have received more attention 
from learned divines than the whole of the New Testament. 
Others again have simply noticed the oracles of truth in order 
to contrast the Christian element with the philosophy of Aris- 
totle and Plato. Until a very recent period the peculiarities 
of Hellenistic Greek had been treated of by English scholars, 
who were certainly not well qualified for the task. These have 
Buflbred themselves to be led away by implicit deference to the 
authority of German grammarians and lexicographers, one of 
whom gives the following view of their labours : " Studio 
quserendorum Hebraismorum nimis indulsisse, in interpretandis 
singulis verbis, imprimis pnepositionibus, conjunctionibus, par- 
ticulis leges Groicso linguae migrasse, significationes temere 
efiinxisse, et subtilitatem grammaticam mire ueglexisse," In 



-■; 



10 



THB PECULIARITIES OF HBLLEKISTIC OHEEK. 



fact, whether we look to English or foreign theologians, we^may 
say with Hiermann, " Tristissima profeoto sors obtigit scrip- 
toribua saoris . . . Diligenter oaveant tirones, ne putent, viros 
Spiritu Sanoto adflatos, sprevisse sermonem mortalium, sed 
mominerint potiua, illam interpretandi rationem qua nonnulli 
theologorum utuntur, nihil esse nisi blasphemiam." Or we may 
apply to the interpretation of the New Testament the language 
which Dr. Pusey has employed of the Old : ^' The comparison 
of the cognate dialects opened for a time an unlimited licence of 
innovation. Every principle of interpretation, every rule of 
language was violated. The Bible was misinterpreted with a 
wild recklessness to which no other book was ever subjected. 
A subordinate meaning of mere half-understood Arabic words 
was always at hand to remove whatever any one misliked. Now 
the manifoldness of this reign of misrule has subsided. Sut 
interpretations as arbitrary as any which had perished still 
hold their sway." (Intrq^uotion to the Minor Prophets, p. vii.) 

One of the terms which is frequently considered Hebraistic 
is the occurrence of the phrase, ' to be called,' ' to be found,' 
instead of the verb substantive ' to be.' The first continually 
occurs in Greek, as may be seen by looking at KaKeto, in any 
Lexicon, or at our notes on L. 1. 32. The second phrase might 
be called a Gallicism or an Anglicism with as much propriety 
as a Hebraism. Meyer renders A. 8. so, evpi07} ek 'Afytrovy 
'il se trouva.' We might well render M. 1. 18, evpidti iv 
yaarpi ej(pvaa, 'found herself with child.' We may even 
say, without great impropriety, ' How do you find yourself P' 
for ' How are youP' 

The use of the word ' son ' to signify relation in general, 
such us cause and effect, dependence of one thing upon 
another, likeness, is frequently considered a Hebraism. But 
many similar exprBssions are found in Classical Greek, as well 
as in all other languages. The Red Indians employ per- 
petually the word 'son.' This genitive may well be referred 
to the genitive of quality denoting a permanent and abiding 
possession. (See numerous examples in Chapter IV.) 

So too, the use of the word 'name,' denoting pubstance, 
personality, J. 1. 13 ; M. 28. 19. The word Svofia expresses 
the means of identification, and implies the knowledge of one 
in his real person and character. 

It seisms very doubtful whether the uses of the word ' know,' 



ii 'i - 



•■' 'i 



<r! 






-.'1 ;t' 

■V ': 
- '1 ) 



■ I'' 
r,- 



■' 



8FUBIOU8 HKBKAISMS. 



11 



in the sense of ' approve,' or ' hear,' in the sense of ' heed,' can 
be called Hebraistic. 

The prefixes 2 and 7 undoubtedly exercised a considerable 
influence on the diction of Hellenists; but these have been 
made responsible for every kind of construction which the 
annotator could not explain. The insertion or omission of the 
Article was doubtless very much afiected by the use of the 
Hebrew n. There is, however, great justice in the remarks 

of Meyer, who 'confirms the view already quoted from Black- 
wall: "Ut autem Hebraismos permiscerent, non modo htec 
causa Mt quia Hebraei drant, sed quia cum de iis rebus dis- 
sererent quae Hebraicis Uteris erant traditse, necesse fuit multa 
retinere, ne doctrinam quampiam novam adferre vidorentur. 
Et certe tarn multos Hebraismos ab illis servatos fuisse minime 
miror, cimi plerique sint ejusmodi ut nullo alio idiomate tarn 
feliciter exprimi possint; imo interdum ne exprimi quidem; 
ut nisi illas formulas retinuissent, nova iUis interdum vocabula 
et nova dicendi genera comminiscenda fuerint, qum nemo plane 
intellexisset." 

SPURIOUS HEBRAISMS. 

Expressions like ^p elSop, A. 7. 34 ; axoy oKowtre, M. 13. 
14 ; anreCK^ airei\i)aa>fie0a, A. 4. 17 ; nrapar/yeXia nrapfiff^etKa- 
fiep, A. 5. 28, have so many counterparts in classical authors, 
that they ought not to be considered Hebraistic because they 
frequently occur in the Old Testament. Hdt. vii. 10. 1, tjjv 
afieivto r^vutfiijp aipeo/xepop e\ia6ai. Horn. //. i. 233, xal iwl 
fUyap SpKop ofiovfiai. Xen. Cyrop. viii. 4. 9, inraKovup axoKrj 
viriJKOvaa. Soph. CEd. T. 65, c5<rr' ov^ vttp^ y evBoprd fi 
i^eipere. 0. C. 1626, 0o/9^ ZeLaaprat. ^lian, i///mji/ iplicrjae. 
Plato, t/ Sif \iyoPT€<i SufiaWop oi Siafid\KoPTe<i ; <f>evyei iftvyp. 
Siapofifia StapoeiaBai. ^sch., ieqaofuu vfi&p fterpiap heqaip. 
Xen. Anab. avfi^ovKevofiepot ot/pefiovKeva-ep avrotf rdSe. 

M. 2. 10, x'^P^^ /ieyd\T)p aipoSpa i^dprivap has been censured 
as a double Hebraism. But in correspondence with fteydXrip 
a^Spa we find in Herodotus, lOpoi /ler^a la^ypSxi, Xirjp taj(ypal 
Tifuopiai. » 

With &pBpe<i dSe\tf>ol koI irarlpef, brethren and fathers, 
A. 7. 2, compare av8pe<i 'Adripoioi, apSpe^ SiKaarai (Demosth.) ; 
fiaaiK^i dpSpl (Homer); &vSpa arparrr/op (Thucydides) ; apiip 
nip<n]<} (Herodotus) ; homo gladiator (Cicero). 



f' 



12 



THK FBCIUi:.IAaiTIEa OF HELLENISnO GREEK. 



The use of the word {vXov, for 'tree,' L. 23. 31, Rev. 2. 7 ; 
22. 3. 14, has been oommented upon. But we have in Xen. 
Anab. vi. 4. 3, Siurii vciXXait^ koI wavroSairoii km ftffydKon 

M. ff. 6, ireiv&tnres /lAtl St^airres rijv &iKaioavvr)v. The pecu- 
liarity of this passage consists in the union of the two metaphors, 
hunger and thirst, directed at the same time to one object. 
Each metaphor singly occurs in many, perhaps in all languages. 
Shakspere, Ilenry |V., Fart II., ' Dost thou so hunger for my 
empty chair P' Oicero, * sitire honores ; sitire sanguinem.' Xen. 
Cyrop. V. 6. 1, oirrax ir/a vfuv iir^ •xapl^adat. 

H. 10. 37, irvp^ i^^9 ivdUiv fUKKovTOi Toi>i inrevavrlovi. 
. It is the same as Zeph. 1. la ; 3. s, ^MF} ^JHMp V^KIl. Isa. 

26. il, LXX, i^Ji* irv/r tov? xmepavrlovt iSerat. — But the 
devouring flame, 'ignis eda±,' is an expression which occurs 
in many languages. Horn. H. xxiii. 182, roiiv a/ia aol irdvra'i 
vvp iaOUi, Yirg. JEn. iv. 66, 'est mollis flamma medullas.' 

M. 13. II, vfuv BiSorai jv&vm, may be compared with Xen. 
Anab. vi. 6. 20, vfW' SiSorai iKKOfiiaai tov$ &v8pat. Mist. Or. 
yi. 1, arri ruv de&v SeSorat v/tiv evrv^etv. 

M. 20. 33, iror^putv rrlveiv. Compare .^sch. Ag. 1397, 
vnepSiKav fiiv olv roirStvSe KpaTfjp' iv S6fioi9 xaK&p SBe 7r\i}<ra« 
dpalwv avTm iieirivet fuiKfov. ForceUini explains Plautus, *ut 
senex hoc eodem populo, quo ego bibi, biberet,' by ' ut eamdem 
sentiret calamitatem.' 

koiijlwtBm in reference to the sleep of death, M. 27. 62 ; J. 
11. 11. 13; A. 7. 60, may be compared with Horn. II. xi. 241, 
it^ i p^v aiOi ireawu Koipj^aaro j^aKKeop virvov. 

avar/ieti in the sense of distress, calamity, L. 21. 23 ; 1 G. 7. 
86, corresponds to pSiQ, Ps. 119. 143; n'12(, Job 27. 9. But 

compare .^)soh. Prom. V. 107, avdr^KOK raiaS' {nre^fSypM, toKik. 
Xen. Mem. iii. 12- 3, eit t^v avdr/ieai aKr/eivofrdrw ip-ireaovrei. 
Tao. Annul, xi. 37, 'Supremi^ ejus necessitatibus ad misera- 
tionem evicta erat.' 

The expressions, ivSvaaaffat Xpurrov, B. 13. 14 ; ivtvaaadai 
rov KUivov avdpanrov, E. 4. 24, which in sentiment belong to the 
Christian element, are similar to Job 29. 14, pllt Miy>. Hom. 

//, ix. 231, <( p.ii avye Soo-eai oKki^v. Od. ix. 214, fieyoKijv 
hrui/iivov d\xi]v, Plato, Legg. 642 B, evvoia ivBveral rivd. 









% 



■i i 



i L 



V ~ 






A s 



I 



THE HEBBBW ELEMENT. 



GENUINE HBBKA1SM8. 



13 



After we have deducted the instances in which the Hebraistic 
tone and colouring is at least doubtful, there wiU remain many 
phrases and idioms in which the Hebrew element must un- 
questionably be acknowledged. It is difficult to conceive how 
it could be otherwise. A work which is written by a foreigner 
who has learnt English will have a pecuKar tinge derived from 
his native tongue, and from the literature with which he was 
conversant fromliis youth. This tinge will be more marked if 
his work is designed for the use of his own countrymen. 

The frequent occurrence of the phrase xal eyevero is doubtless 

owing to Vn. The use of aCrq in M. 21. 42, where we might 

have expected Tovto — Traph xvplov eyivero airnj — is owing to 

the feminine n^\ in Ps. 118. 23. 

Some peculiar forms of superlative, H. 9. 3, arfia affiav, 

QVtlnprf ttfip. L. 1. 42, evKoYnpsvT) aviv fwai^l. Rev. 19. 

16, BaaiKeixi paaOUtov zeal Kvpuxi levpUtv. 

M. 25. 1. 6, e« diravrtjalv two?, or rivi, JIK^p? 1 S. 9. 14 ; 

Jer. 41. 6. M. 12. 42, vSpuTa t^s w, T}^ 'OfH Ps. 2. 8. 

L. 21. 8, vopeveadM mr'ura twos, nnN ^^n Judg. 2. 12 ; 

1 S. 6. 13; M. 11. 25. i^p«\oyeur0M, Tri\n 2 S. 22. 50 ; 

Ps. 30. 13. 

Expressions for eternity and continuity, L. I. so, et? yeveh^i 
f^eve&v. R. 16. 27, «« tows ai&va^ almmv, o^y\ aTlUf. 2 C. 4. 
16, avaKuivovTM fmipt} Koi ripMpa, U\*l OV. R. 2. 14, ihi^eurxev 
Tji BaKdie, the dative corresponds to *j. A. 6. 6, rjpeaey 6 
\070v ivanriov iravrot rov ttXij^ows, ^^^^ LXX, Gen. 34. 18 ; 
41. 37. Mk. 8. 12, dp.^v yJrym vpZv el Bodi^aeTai. This is ex- 
plained under el among the Particles, Chapter VIII. 

Among Hebraisms there is reckoned the accumulation of 
synonyms which give force and variety to the sentiment, Mk. 
12. 30 ; R. 2. 4 ; E. 1. 21. 

It will be observed from this summary that the pure 
Hebraisms are more of a lexical than of a grammatical character, 
the efiect of early association rather than ignorance of more 
ordinary modes of construction. The manner in which different 
writers have followed one another in ascribing to this element 
every term and expression which they did not understand. 






14 



THE PEOULIARmBS OV HpiXENISTIO GREEK. 



justifies the remark of I^iioke that Hebraism has been tbeir 
hidden helper in all need. 

TOKi AliEXANDBIMB ELEMEI^T. 

The diction of the New Testament has been called the Alex- 
andrine dialect from its affinity to the Septuagint version, which 
was executed at Alexandria. This appellation is far from 
correct, as the inspired writers were not citizens of Alexandria, 
and it ia wrong to assume that they adopted the Alexandrine 
dialect because they made sopve use of the Alexandrine version. 

Attio Greek bean the same relation to the language spoken 
at Alexandria which the English spoken by the educated classes 
in Great Britain has to the speech of many foreign commercial 
cities where all the provincial varieties in ' tone, -oooent, and 
expression which England, Scotland, and Ireland can furnish, 
astonish and oonAise the ear. While many of these provincial- 
isms are confined to ootnmeroial intercourse, not a few will find 
their way into local literature as more intelligible and expressive 
to the parties imqjiediately addressed. 

After the subjugation of the Greeks by the Macedonians, and 
the extension of their conquests into Asia and Africa, tho 
various dialects of ancient Greece were fused into rj Koivij 
BidXeicrov, with an admixture of foreign words from Syrians, 
Persians, and Jews. Of this Macedonian tongue the dialect of 
Alexandria was a corrupt progeny engendered by the confluence 
of Greeks, Mape^oi^ns, Africans, Carthaginians, Sicilians, and 
of strangers from thQ renpioter regions of the East. We need 
not then be surprised that writers of Galilee should employ 
terms which were commonly received by their countrymen, 
without any nice discrimination of the source from which the 
words arose. 

qiLicisMS. 

Under the Alexandrine element we may arjange the Cilioisms 
of St. Paul. 

It is f^ecorded of iElschylus, himself a native of Attica, that 
the effects of his visit to the court of Hiero at Syracuse were 
seen in the Sicilian tinge which is discernible in his later plays. 
Though this visit occurred after he had reached maturity, and 
was in duration less than a year, his writings contain some 
^va\ SmtXiKai as the result. One of these, fiowoi, is adopted 



# 






THE ALEXANDRINE ELEMENT. 



\l 






by St. Paul's associate and companion in travel, L. 3. 6 ; 23. 
30 As this was the case with ^schylus, we need not be sur- 
prised that some CiUcisms are found in the Epistles of a native 
of Tarsus, and of a student in its flourishing school of philo- 
sophy. 

1 0. 4. 3, AvaKpiveadM inrb dv^pow/iwjs ^txipai. We have in 
Euripides and Sophocles ^fiipa Xvirpd, ^fUpai hrlrrovat, " days 
of toU and sorrow ;" but not iveponrlvn ni^P<^* " t^e day in 
which man bears sway." 

R. 6. 19, avepomivov \eyo», " I Bpeak in a manner adapted to 
human weakness." Plato uses, the word in a nearly similar 
manner. Ap0pc»riv7) S6%a, "fallible human understanding." 
Thucydides, iii. 40, has dftapretp avdpayirlvm, "human in- 
firmity." 

2 C. 11. 9, KaravapK^v tip<k, to be slothfut towards, press 
heavUy upon, hang as a dead weight. vapKom, be torpid, 

torpere. 

C. 2. 18, tcvraPpaPevew rtva, give the prize against ; deprive 
of the palm ; pass an unjust decision. Cone. Laod.,^ to fiif top 
vucqaavra d^wvv rov fipafiehv, d\\' hip^ SiZovai airb, dSiKov- 
fiivov rov viK^aavrov. This however is hardly a Cilicism. Dem. 
Mid. 644, STpdrtiva xnri Mei£iov KaraPpafieudivra, " had an 
unfair decision against him." 

LATINISMS. 

The departure of the sceptre from Judah by the reduction of 
Palestine into a Roman province, was followed by the adoption 
of Roman laws and customs, and by the use of Latin words and 
phrases, such especially as had reference to the imposition of 
tribute, commercial tranBactions, and military rule. 

Such are dvadpiov, lerjvam, Kevrovplmv, KoTuovla, KovaraSia, 
KoSpavrnt, ^vdpiov, 'lowrroi, Aifieprivixt, TJtniov, naKeTCKav, 
fU/ifipava, fibitov, nrpavTUtpiov, ^ktmfi, miUKlvOtov, aiKapun, 
aovBdpiav, atreKovKirmp, rdfiepva, TiT\o<t,.4>ponfe\\iov. 

The following words are indifierentiy styled Aramaeisms, 
Syraisms, and Chaldaisms: 'A^^a, 'AxeKSafid, "Apfioyei^v, 
Bri0<yatSd. Kij^?, Kopfiav, 'E\a>i 'E\ai Xdfia aa^dxSavi, 
'E<f)^a0d, Maiipj&va, Mapavadd, TaKa, Td\i0a Kovfii, Tafii0d, 

Xepovfilfi.. 

Some terms may be styled Rabbinical; for although the 
Talmud was of much later date, the Rabbis in the time of 



16 



ON THE PECULIARITIES OF HELLENISTIC GllEEK. 



our Lord, used language which was subsequently known by 
the designation Tabnudical. 

There are also a few Persian words : a^apevetv, 7a(fa, /itcvyo?, 
Hapyaplrr)^, /teyurravei. 

If then the object of the writers of the New Testament be 
kept in mind, we shall see that the fusion of the Qreek styles 
effected ui the Kotvif StaXeKTOc, the language of the masses, 
was admirably adapted to be the vehicle of communicating 
divine truth to the world. Dr. Blackwall well argues (Sacred 
Glassies, i. 38), "The old Greek writers have many foreign 
words, as well as the sacred classics. In the times when the 
most eminent Greek writers flourished, the Persian empire was 
of vast extent, and had a mighty influence upon all Greece ; 
by their wars, commerce, and travels, many of their words 
became familial* in the Grecian language. So in the time of 
the Apostles and Evangelists, the Roman empire had extended 
its conquests over the greatest part of the world where. Greek 
was spoken, which led them to introduce some of the Boman 
words and phrases. These terms, put into Greek characters, 
were very well understood by the persons to whom they were 
addressed, and, upon several considerations, might be more 
pleasing and emphatical than the original words of the lan- 
guage. Shall it be allowed to Xenophon, Herodotus, and 
Thucydides, freely to use Persian, JBgyptian, and other oriental 
words P and can it be an unpardonable fault for St. Matthew, 
St. Mark, St. Luke, St. Paul, upon occasion, to use Boman P" 

If it be said that by acknowledging this fusion we surrender 
the whole question as to the classical propriety of Hellenistic 
Greek, we would point to the accuracy with which the inspired 
writers have used nouns, verbs, and tenses, according to their 
distinctive power (Chapters II., YI.), to the correctness with 
which they have employed the several particles (Chapter 
VIII.), and to the precision. with which they have preserved 
the characteristic differences between words ^apparently synony- 
mous (Chapter X.), as proofs of their acquaintance with the 
more delicate usages of the language, at a time when Greek 
was subject to many influences of deterioration and decay. 



\ 






,1 



J e 



u. 



!■- 



CHAPTER II. 
ON THE FORMATION OF WORDS. 

CLASSES OF SUBSTANTIVES. 

Substantives are to a considerable extent derived from, or 
connected with verbs, and may be classed according to their 
several affixes. To each affix a particular meaning is 
attached. 

The male agent or doer is represented by the affixes -rijv, 
-TJjp, -Ttap, -ew, — as Kpirtfi, judge ; aar^p, saviour ; frnrap, 
orator ; ^aaiKev^, king ; fiepianqis, fitatrnjii. The corresponding 
terminations for the female agent are -reipa, -rpla, -rtv, -eta, 
-taaa, — as awireipa, fiaaiXela, fiaatkitraa, ftaKaplrK. 

Other terminations for the agent are -09, -ov : rpo^^, nur- 
turer {rpi<fxo) ; royos, marshaller (too-o-o)) ; irofiiroi, conductor 
{vifivw) ; aotSoi, singer (aeiSa) ; -iitjp, -fUvot ; iroi/i'^v, shepherd ; 
-tov, -ovo^, ■fyyefidp, leader. 

Nouns ending in -orta, -era, -<r«s, generally denote the action 
as incomplete, or in progress : Biiala, sacrifice ; SoKi/ia<ria, 
scrutiny ; irpa^ti, doing ; raft?, arranging ; av^an, increasing ; 
Bo^a, Soic^aK, seeming. 

Nouns in -/to? express the action of the verb proceeding from 
the subject; the action and its result: Buayftov, pursuing, or 
being pursued ; ohvpfuxs, act of lamenting, or lament ; aeiafuxi, 
shaking, earthquake ; oraBfiof, standing, station, halting-place ; 
BeafMi, binding, bond; oveiSurfio^, reproaching and reproach; 
aaHf>povtafi6<:, self-control, soundness of mind. 

Nouns in -fui, -fiuroi, denote the thing done, or the passive 
object ; the result or product of an act : irpayfia, thing done ; 
airipfia, thing sown; iroirffia, product of composition; fivfj/ia, 
memorial; voji/ui, that which is perceived; ai^aa/ia, object 
of worship. 

Some nouns in -aii denote an action and the result : 86<rts, 

c 



18 



BUBSTANTIVBR DERIVED VROH ADJECTIVES. 



giving, gift, as in English ' dose ;* vepvmlriaK, acquisition. The 
aot of Redemption was an act of vepviroiqvvi, by which the 
Bodeemer acquired the redeemed as a possession to Himself. 
We may observe, Kptat^y the act or time of pronouncing sen- 
tence ; Kpifta, the sentence pronounced ; xi^pv^n, preaching ; 
Ki^pvy/JM, the matter preached ; fip&trii, the act of eating, to 
be distinguished from ^p&fui, the substance eaten, B. 14. is. 
17. 30 *, Kavj(fi<n<i, aot of glorying; wavp^/ia, subject-matter, 
theme of glorying, 2 0. 1. la. 14. airoKpip-a is the substance 
of the imoKpuTK, 2 0. 1. 9. iriJiptop.a has two meanings: 
Active, rh TrXq/i^ wot«ti«, implendi actio. Passive, id quod 
impletum est, or, id quo res impletur, 1 0. 10. 26 ; Mk. 8. so. 
Thus O. 4. 4, T^ irXi}/M*/*a rofi -xp^vov may be taken actively, 
i. e. a temporal space fiUed up as it were by the flowing in of 
time; or passively, id quo temporis spatium expletur. Hdt. 
iii. aa, iySa>Kovra fi" Srea ^6t)^ irk^pw/ta avBpi fuucporrarov. 
So ACTtW may mean the act of creation, R. 1. 20, or the thing 
- created, 2 0. 6. 17; R. 8. ig. Either meaning may be adopted 
in G. 6. is: R. 4. 19, riiv viKptoaiv, the deadness: 2 0. 4. 10, 
irdvrore rifv vlKpwrw rov Kvpiou 'lijaov iv r^ ffm/tart vepupi- 
povre^, exhibiting in my person the putting to death of the 
Lord Jesus : Ja. 1. as, iv ry irot^aei airrov, in his doing, in his 
practical observance of the law. 

Nouns in -ov, -eov, denote the result or -product of an action : 
#cQSov, sorrow, irivdoi, grief, yh>o<i, birth, (f>do9 (^Q>f), light, 
^rei)&>9, falsehood. 

Nouns of the first declension in -/*>;, ni;, denote the action 
of the root, actively or passively : fivtjfiii, memory, that which 
romembers, ypa/t/i^, line which has been drawn, Se<r/ii^, bundle, 
Ti/ii), honour, price, okoJj, hearing, report, %apa, delight, £«&t^, 
process of teaching, or' the- thing taught. ^ ireiafutvi^ may 
mean 'conviction, the state of ' bding persuaded, or the art of 
persuading, persuodendi sollertia; G. 5. a ; irX.i}o-/u>vi}, fulness, 
satietas, the state, and expletio, the aot of filling, 0. 2. 23. 

Nouns in -o«, ov, express the action of the verb, and some- 
times the result : \6iyo<i, speaking, discourse, avopo^, sowing, 
seed, ij>6p»i, bringing in, revenue. 

SUnSTANTIVES DERIVED FROM* ADJECTIVES. 

These are abstract words, such as those which correspond 
to our terminations in -ness, -dom, -hood, and end in -la, -oniv 



CLASSES OF ADJECTIVES. 



19 



: ?" 



?^- 



:■ 



t 



r 






(-OTijTov), -avvij, -09 (-eo«) : aotftia, wisdom, iXijOeui, truthful- 
ness, eCpoia, kindness, StKatoavvf), righteousness, tna^tpoavvri, 
sound-mindedness, rdyp^, temporary swiftness, Ta^trn}9, habitual 
speed, aryimaivti differs but little from d^tonyi (2 0. 1. 12 ; 
H. 12. 10), except perhaps that it represents more the condition 
than the abstract quality ; while arfuuriiM points primarily to 
the process (1 Th. 4. 3, 4 ; IP. 1. a), and thence, with the 
gradual approach of the termination in -/u>f, to that in -o-vi^, 
which is so charaoteristie of the New Testament, the state, 
frame of mind, or holy disposition, in which the action of the 
verb is evinced and exemplified. (Ellicott.) 

From nouns of agency we have other substantives in -r^piov, 
-Tpov, -ctov, -pa, which signify the place of action, the means 
or instrument with which the agent acts: tron^ptop, cup, 
reXcAveioi', toll-house, elSetXeiov, seat of an idol, Sea/tam^putv, 
prisoq, aporpov, plough, Xoyiov, oracle, yv/ivdaiov, school for 
exercise, !Bpa, seat, KaXvirrpa, veil, fiKi<f>apov, eyelid, Xvrpov,, 
ransom, iXaim^piov, the place or means of propitiation, SiSaaKd- 
Xtov, SiKocrr^ptov, ^vkaierijpiov, rafueiov, dKpoa-rjpiov. 

Personal designations signifying looaliiy end in -ei;^, -irtj^ 
{-eiTK, fern.), -un, •voi, or parentage, in -(8i}9, -aSi;9, -uov, and 
the feminine -(«, -M19, -lavrf, as Tapaeyi, Me^apev^t 'Ake^avBpevf, 
^ Afihfqpirtfi, Xavavinfi, Safutpeiri)^, Sa/iapeiTK, AepfiaSo^, 
Na^api)v6v, 'Aauum^, Xpurrtavg^, raSapnjvoi, 'UptaSiavot. 

Diminutives end in -iW, -lSu>u, -to'xo9, and belong to the 
class of gentile nouns, or piatronymics.. From 7rat9 we have 
TratStbi', iraiBdpiov, TTCuSiffKOi, rrcuSla-iei) ; from /lelpa^, ixeipdKutv^ 
fietpaicvKkiov ; from Ix^ii, ix'^vBiov. But many of these forms 
are used without any diminutive meaning: Bripiov, a wild 
beast, fiiffkiov, a book, iftopriov, a burden, ireBiov, a plain. So 
in Latin ' puella ' is the only word for girl. 

Appropriated places end in -coi;, -tovia. Thus 'E\atmv, olive- 
yard, arftciv, place of assembly, &/iireKu>v, vineyard, p-vKuv, mill. 

CLASSES OF ADJECTIVES. 

Adjectives derived from substantives end in -(09, -uco^, 
denoting possession of, belonging to, as Stifioaioi, irordfuo^, 
^tKtoi and <I>i\ik6^, elpj)vato^ and etp^viKOfi ireptovatof, special, 
' peculiar, from irepiovaia, supplies ; iiriowTun, of the passing day. 
So Sixauxi, fidrauK, yepatot, iroKatoi, apaioil StSaxTixof, apt 
to teach, skilled in teaching. 

c 2 



20 



ADJECTIVES D]$BIV£D FROM VBllBS. 



Adjeotives denoting the 'biaterial are formed in -eo9 and -ivo^ : 
ypvaeot, golden, yAlucto^, made of bronze or copper, apyupeoi, 
of silver, ^uXivot, of wood, \l0w(n, of stone, aKr)div6<i, of genuine 
or true materials, adpiuvo<i, of flesh, partaking of human nature, 
but aapKucoi, swayed by fleshly lusts. adpiavo<i indicates the 
nature of the person, aapKucitt the bent of his mind. aKpo- 
yuvuuov, the stone of the principal comer, as in Him the 
two walls from the Gentile and Jewish world meet and are 
united. 'Lapis angularis; omnia sustinens et in unam fidem 
Abrahsa oolligens eos qui ex utroque Testamento apti sunt 
aedifioio Dei.' hruvaiot is equivalent to ^l rijp lovaav ^/tipav, 
sufficient for the current day. Like i<l>6Sio<i, lasting for the 
journey, i^ftipio^, lasting for a day, xapiroi ^enjaiot, lasting 
the whole year. Hom. Od. vii. 118. (See Wratislaw's Notes 
and Dissertations.) 

Formations in -vot, -im, denote time, place : Kadf)p.epivo^, 
daily, ipdpivof, at the dawn, irpauvo^ early, opeivoi, in the' 
mountain, raj^ivo^, with speed, depivo^, in the summer. 

Adjectives which denote the full expression of the quality 
expressed in English by the affixes -fill, -able, are formed in 
•pof , -a\ui9, -et« : oltcrpm, full of olxrov, pitiful, pitiable, 
Xvmjpo^, sorrowful, dapaoKeof, full of confidence,. ^doi/ep6$, full 
of envy, ^^aptetv , graceful. 

AMECrriVES DERIVED FROM VERBS. 

Adjectives in -aiftot or -ifiot express suitableness or capa- 
bility for the action of the verb: yp^t/Mi, useAd, ^&oS(/iof, 
eatable, iroT(/M>9, drinkable, ffavdai/tof, deadly, Tpo^t/un, 
nutritious. 

Adjeotives in -vov, -X09, -poi, and -a9, express the meaning 
of the verb (transitively or intransitively) : <f>av6i, (fuieipo^, 
shining, \afi,trp6^, bright, Xonrov, remaining, arvyv6<i, odious, 
iroOeivoi, longed for, fieti/ii?, fearful, SetXov, cowardly, diraTTiXoi, 
deceitful, deceiving. The terminations in -tjXof, -caXov, denote 
habit, custom : ipytKot, soon angry, irascible. Aristotle (Ethics 
vi. 11) o( fiiv oSv opyiXoi rajfion ftiv opyl^ovrat koI oU ov SeZ 
Kal i<ft oI« ov Set xal ftdWov ^ Set, iravovrai Si raj^iav. 

Adjectives in 'fiav make the action, of the verb the pro- 
minent attribute of the person : atSi}/ta>i/, bashful, iKei^iuov, 
oompassiojiate, fiin^fuav, mindful, hrikt^aiiav, forgetful. 

Gerundial adjectives are formed from the 2 aor. in' -rm. 



':' 



VERBS DERIVED FROM NOUNS. 



21 






■ij 



n 

Is' 



^ 



" ^ 



-Tfo?. These, like the Latin gerundials in -ndns, and the 
supines in -tum, -tu, have the same meaning as the active 
infinitive, conveying the idea of capability or adaptation. 
Sometimes verbals in -tos express the result of the capability 
or adaptation, both actively and passively : at/aero?, an eligible 
man, a man adapted for choice, and one actually chosen; 
/*e/*irr6?, capable of blaming and deserving blame ; direipaaroi, 
incapable of tempting and of being tempted, Ja. 1. 13; 
irape^o-a/CT-os. insidiously present, G. 2. 4, either introducing 
themselves, or introduced by others; yvaxrroi, one wto is 
capable of being known ; oSiaKpiTov, without making distinc- 
tion; dwiTOKpnoi, without false assumption, unhypocritical ; 
oKaKirTm, inexpressible. With these we may compare Latin 
adjectives in -bills, and for the use of the same word in an 
active and passive sense, we may compare • unfeignedly ' for 
• unfeigningly.' 

The termination -reo? expresses the infinitive with the 
idea of necessity or duty : aamrria aoi i<mv -q dperq, virtue 
is for you to cultivate, or aaieirriov itni aoi t^v apenjv, it is 
for you to cultivate virtue ; Mk. 2. 22, L. 5, 38, otvov veov elt 
daicov^ KMVOW pKifriov. 

VERBS DERIVED FROM NOUNS. 

Verbs which imply to be or to hate that which the noun 
signifies, are formed in -da, -ia, -ewo, -d^, -^a: roKiwrn, 
I have daring {ToXfiri), ^t\la>, I am a friend («^/Xo?), tcoipavim, 
I am a ruler {Koipavo<i), ^veva, I am a murderer {(frnvevq), 
dXtideva, I am truthful (aXijd^?), pxavreum, ai-xfuitMrrevm, 
m-aytBevm, irrpareioiuu, eKKi)vify», I speak Greek or play the 
Greek ("EXX»jv), 'lovSal^. In Ph. 2. 30, vapafioXsvadnepov 
(Laohmann), from irapdfioXo^, making venturesome ; 1 C. 13. 4, 
irepirepevertu, becomes not ostentatious; irepnepm, i, q. irpoirerrfi, 
rash, heedless. In later Greek hrivKonreveiv meant hriaKovov 
elvcu. 

Words in -eww are joined to the dative when they express 
the being in some state, or in the possession of some quality, 
as ifiad^evae t# 'Iijaov, M. 27. 67; but to the accusative 
when they express some action implied in, or consequent 
upon, that state or quality," as /toftp-euffare irdvra tA Idin), 

M. 28. 19. 
Causative verbs, expressing that we carry out the act which 



■■■■ 



22 



PABATIIBTIO COMPOUNDS. 



is proper to the noun, are formed in -oa, -l^a, -afw, -wot. 
alvm: Sov\6m, make a slave (SovKot). rarrewmo, (uaeom] 
irurroa, make w«rro9, firm, siire, to be relied on, LXX, 1 Ki. 
1. 36, iruTTUMrai 6 8eos: ttoXc/wJo), make hostile, TroXe/il^co, 
make war, but woXeniat, I am at war (7r6X,6/io?), irXovri^, 
i make rich, but irXovrim, I am rich (ttXoOtov), alj(/idKa>Ti^a>, 
Sei^/MTl^a, dvaeefiarl^tt; X^Kalvto, make white (\6uAr09), 
^paivm, make dry (fi;p6s), trqualva, signify (arj^ia), Troi/miva, 
tend as shepherd (voi/jlijv). 

Frequentatives, Inchoatives, and Desideratives, are formed 
from other V6rbs: arevofai, groan frequently (aThxo), <f,opelv, 
wear, gestart (<l>epeiv, gerere), <rTpa><f>q,v, whirl over, voluto 
(arpi<l>eiv, volvo), fi^daiuo, grow young (ij/Soa)), p^BiaiM, grow 
tipsy (ludwo), jeKaaetat, desire to laugh (ytXdco), iroXefiriaeUo, 
desire to be at war {mXe/iia), Spaaelat, desire to do {Spdw). 

PARATHETIO COMPOUNDS. 

Compound words are divided into two classes, parathetic ani 
synthetic. In the parathetic class the several parts of the word 
which are found side by side in the compound word may exist 
distinct from each other : irapddeaKi, juxta-position. In the 
synthetic class the inflexions of the earlier part of the combina- 
tion are modified so as to appear in a dependent, inseparable, 
and constant state. 

In parathetic compounds we have separable juxta-positions 
in which one or both members are adverbs, as ovKeri, ovSelv, 
ivSefiia, ovSep, owrt?, as a proper name for Mr. Nobody; evay- 
7e\os, Si/ffTw^ij's, Svarvxla, VTrtiperim, wn^/oenj?. 

The most common of the uninflected words which stand at 
the beginning of uninflected and separable compounds are the 
eighteen ordinary prepositions. This facility of combination 
distinguishes the ordinary prepositions from other words, 
which are set before the cases of nouns, such as adverbs and 
quasi-prepositions. In many of these combinations a new and 
smgle meaning has superseded those of the preposition and 
verb taken by themselves. Thus from yifyixoaKetv we have 
warf,rfi>a>aKco, I read; iimyvyvtoaKa, I discover, decide; (lera- 
ytyvu<TKo>, I change my mind, I repent; avyywtoaKa, I 
pardon. From okoi/w is formed rrapaKovto, hear aside, hear 
amiss, refuse to hear. 

In some cases the construction follows the adopted meaning : 



SYNTHETIC COMPOUNDS, 



23 



e^iarafuu, I stand out of, takes an accusative in the sense of 
I avoid; ivrpiireaOai, turn in upon oneself, give heed to, 
reverence. 

Two or more prepositions may be found in the same com- 
pound : vire^e<l>epev iroKepMW, bore away secretly from the war ; 
Bunraparpifiii, obstinate contest, 1 T. 6. 5, Sid has its usual 
primary force of thoroughness, completeness, intensifying ; 
irapaTptfiai, collisions, hence hostilities, enmities. In avrawo- 
SMvai, render bock a due (1 Th. 3. 9 ; 2 Th. 1. 6 ; R. 12. 19), 
the dvrl marks the idea of return, the diro hints at the debt 
incurred. 2 Tim. 4. 16, avfiirapeyivero, stood forward with me 
as a ' patronus ' to plead in my defence, or as an ' advocatus,' 
to support by his counsel. Demosth. av/ivapar/evo/iepo^ airm 

SoKlpM^Ofliv^. 

SYNTHETIC COMPOUNDS. 

In the New Testament there are many compounds which 
are properly synthetic, or, as they are frequently termed, 
organic, though the parts which form the combination are so 
obvious that they may be reckoned as juxta-positions. Such 
are vowex&f, raweivo^ptop, raireiPo^poirvPVi ffKXrjpoKapBia, axkij- 
poTpag^Xof, dxpoytopialoi, KapStoypaxTTqiif Sea/io^vKa^, f(peo)- 
^et\£Ti)v. Here we may mention aXXoT/9to67rt'o-«o7ro9, 1 P. 
4. 15, analogous to dWorpioyptofio^, dXKorpunrarfla '. dpOptair- 
dpeaKW, F. 6. 6 ; C. 3. 22, dpOpairoScUfuop, dpdp(iyiroeiBij<: : aifiar- 
eie)(yaia, H. 9. 22, aifiaro')(apijv, aifiaroiTdtTrfi : BtxaioKpiaia, R. 
2. 6, BiKauiKoyia, BtKauyirparfCa, BtKaiopofiia : aiTO/xeTpiop, L. 
12. 43, aiTopofiot, avranoUta : licTpc»/ia, 1 0. 15. 8, perhaps for 
i^d/i0Xa>/ia : irparoroKov, G. 1. IS, born before all the crea- 
tion ; for the Word was the instrument of creation ; in C. 1. is, 
raised before all from the dead. This use is analogous to 
TrptoToirXow, spoken of the Argo (Eur. Andr. 865) going to 
sea before all other ships; irp<or(m6po<i, going before the rest 
of the army ; irpwroppvrov, flowing first. (Donaldson.) 

In synthetic compounds the former part is an ordinary noun 
(substantive or adjective), a verb or verbal noim, an uninflected 
word or particle. Instances of ordinary nouns in addition to 
many already given are o^ddKiioSovXeia, ladrf^eKoi ; verbs or 
verbal nouns, eOeXodprjarKela. 

Separable adverbs which form compounds are 0701', afia, apri, 
eS, Trdkai, iroKip, irap, irX'^p, rfjXe. a/ia usually means con- 



24 



SYNTHETIC COMPOUNDS. 



<: 



nexion in point of time: 1 Th. 4. 17, ifia ain> airoh Afma^ai^ 
fieOa, at the pame time, together with them. Sometimes &fia 
has the further idea of aggregation : R. 3. 12, irdvTe<i i^ixXivav, 
dfia ffxpeuieijaav. (See Chapter VIII.) 

^ In the New Testament compounds with ei frequently occur : 
evioKia, evepyerrji, evKMpia. evXafirji, eiikoyia, eioSoO/iot. 

With &yav we have arfapaKTim, iyaWidofiai : Apri, Afnvyip- 
vTrrot ; with ttXjjv, 7rXi)/i/ieX^t. 

The numeral adjectives appear in StirXoC?, double ; hiirK&repov, 
twofold, more than; hlarono^. double-mouthed, two-edged; rpl- 
^oXos, three-pointed; rplyLifvot, of three months; rerpdrfwvoi. 
four-cornered; rtrpd^utv. company of four men; Terpdp.'^voi. 
four months ; rerpdwow, reTpdpxn<l. 

Inseparable prefixes are ij^t-, half: )}/«»^oi^9. half dead ; ij/it- 
wptop, half an hour; ^/tttaws, half. Sva-, implying difficulty 
adversity, like the English prefixes, iis-, mis-, un-. ill- : Svafida- 
ToxTov, unbearable; BvaKoXot, hard to please; Sva/iop4,o<i, mis- 
shapen; SvoTvx^i, unlucky; Svtropyot, ill-natured. 

d is used in three senses, collective, intensive, negative. As 
a coUective or copulative prefix, d is part of 5/ta: dKoXovOo^, 
sharer of the same way ; «iS«X^6s, sprung from the same womb. 
As an intensive d is part of di»d in the sense of remoteness, dis- 
tance, extent : drewj?, intense, exceedingly stretched ; drevl^, 
gaze earnestly; aairepxiv, very eagerly. As a negative it has' 
the forms of dvd, dv-, in the sense of privation : a^/owv, without 
mmd; ai/o/to?, without law, kwless; dvtXeut, merciless; dvey- 
«X9/Tos, unimpeachable ; dv€(ij(vuurro<i, inscrutable; dv^pspo<i, 
fierce ; dirdTap, afirfrup, a^va-ao^. 

The latter part of the compound is frequently of verbal origin, 
as irpoamro\r)iTTn<i, S«ftoXd/3os. Tlie use of the word in a 
transitive or intransitive sense is sometimes determined by the 
accent: X«^o^oXo«, throwing stones (actively); Xt^o/9oXo9, pelted 
with stones (passively); x«t/>07/w«^''9.. writing with the hand; 
Xetpoypa^tot, written with the hand. 

Compounds with ipyd^o/uu are accented on the ultimate when 
they signify a bodily or material action : Xtffovpyoi, worker in 
stone; 'yeapyoi, husbandman; d/t-ireXovpyot, vinedresser; but 
receive the accent on the antepenultimate or have the penulti- 
mate oircumflexed when they denote a moral action, or an 
operation and habit of the mind: Travovpya, unscrupulous 
rogue; KUKovpyot, criminal; irepUpyoi, busybody; drfadoepyoi. 



t 



' 



" 



THE FORCE OF THE AFFIX. 



25 



worker of good in a moral sense, but dr/aOoepyoi might be used 
of an active worker. 

Attention to the affix will frequently decide the meaning of 
the passage. It has been remarked (p. 17) that nouns in -/109, 
•fiov, express the action and its result. Apply this to Ph. 2. 6, 
ov^ dpnrar/i/Mv ff/rfaaTo to elvai taa Sew, deemed it nothing 
to be grasped at, no appropriation of what was not his own, to 
be on an equality with God. Here dpnrarip.6^ is virtually equi- 
valent to apnrarfpM, as dairaopM to Suarraapa,, haatft to hitpM. 
The transition is very easy from the actus rapiendi to the res 
rapienda, from ' the act of seizing ' to ' the object worth seizing.' 
1 C. 1. 31, Bih T^f pMplat rov KfjpuypMTo^, through the (assumed) 
fooUshness of the subject-matter of the Oospel message. H. 10. 
1, vKthv yeip 2%o>i> o v6p,09 t&v /jteXKovruv dfyad&v, ovk avTTjv 
T^v eUova T&v irpar/pAriov^ having a shadowing forth of evan- 
gelical blessing, but no designed representation of the facts, 
the historical transactions on which Christianity rests. Ja. 1. 
17, iraaa Soo't; arfadtf koL irav BwpijpM riXeiop : the distinction 
between Soan; and S<!>pi)pu may well be preserved, "Every 
faculty of giving which is in its jiature good, and every gift 
imparted which is in its nature complete." 

There is no marked difference between the use of these affixes 
and compounds in the New Testament from their general usage 
in classical Greek. This alone ought to have exempted the 
inspired writers from the slurs which have been cast upon 
them. There is the tendency of the Hellenists to give graphic 
expression by strengthening the verb with prepositions, so as 
to describe the mode of action with greater clearness. Com- 
pound adverbs and prepositions frequently occur, but not so 
freely as in Byzantine authors. 



PECOLIAK OMISSIONS OF THE AKTICLE. 



27 



CHAPTER m. 
SYNTAX, OR CONSTRUOTION. 

K0UK8 BT THBHSELVEa, ASD IN COMBINATION WITH OTHER 
NOMINAL FOKMS. 

GoNSTBTTtrnoN, or Syntax, gives the rules for expressing and 
connecting sentences. Every perfect sentence contains one or 
more propositions. A proposition consists of three parts, 
subject, predicate, copula : thus if we say, SoXmp ivrl xpntji, 
Solon is judge, SoXuv is the subject, the person or thing spoken 
of, KpiTtji is the predicate, or that which is said of the subject, 
iari is the copula or substantive verb which connects the subject 
with the predicate. 

THE ARTICLE. 

The article is not an essential part of sp^ch. There is no 
trace of it in Latin; in-Syriao and Chaldee it can hardly be 
said to exist ; with this exception, the parts of speech are essen- 
tially the same in all languages. 

The use of a part of speech not absolutely essential cannot be 
expected to be fixed by the certain laws which govern the use 
of other parts of speech. With this agrees the fact that no two 
languages agree in their mode of employing the article. Though 
it is a kind of indispensable constituent in Hebrew, Greek, 
English, French, German, Italian, no two languages are bound 
by the same rules. 

"We may look upon the article as a kind of universal pronoun, 
a pronoun of reference. Though it occurs occasionally in the 
New Testament as a demonstrative, yet its power became 
softened down, so as simply to express specification or emphasis. 
Hence 6, i), to was used as a prepositive article corresponding 



M r 






■.:• 



more nearly to the German der, die, das, than to the English the, 
or the French le, la. 

The insertion or omission of the article would be directed by 
the taste and judgment of the writer or speaker, as well as by 
the genius of the language he used. That which the writer 
supposes, imagines, or -intends to be definite and distinct, he 
speaks of as if it were really so. His subjective views are to 
him objective. The views of the writer, however, are not 
equally clear to the reader, or can, at the best, be imperfectly 
apprehended. The reason, then, for the insertion or omission 
of the article will not be evident, unless we can look at the 
matter from the same point of view as that in which the writer 
regarded it. Moreover the writers of the New Testament were 
affected to some extent by the vernacular use of the Hebrew 
article H, which could hardly fail to impart a shade of colouring 

to their employment of the article in Greek: e. g., H. 11. 31, 
'Pa<i/3 fi iropptj : M. 26. 6, Sl/uovo'i tov XeTrpov. 

The leading use of the article to express definiteness or dis- 
tinctness will be evident from the fact that it is omitted with 
words like fJIKuK, tQ. ovpavo^, daXaaaa, in the expressions awo 
xara/SoX.'^f KOtTfutv, iv ap^, iv ^vpkp, am' apyrp mUrevt^, irpo 
Kuipov. 1 P. 4. II, elf TuXaXei an Xoyia Oeov: the words \6yia 
Geov are used without any definite article to designate the Holy 
Scriptures of God, as being su£Sciently definite in themselves, 
and having the distinctness of a proper name. Wordsworth. 

FECULIAR OMISSIONS OF THE ARTICLE. 

The article is omitted where no specification is designed, 
though we naturally insert the definite article in English : M.. 
5. 45, rov riXiov ainov avareKKft hrl irovripov^ Kal afadov<t, ical 
^peX^i hrX hiKaioxK Kal aZticov^, i. e. upon the class evil, and class 
gooid, without specifying individuals of the same class, or 
opposing one to the other: M. 9. I3, ov jap ^\0ov KoKkaai 
BiKatovf aW* afiapruiKovi : M. 10. 21, irapaSmaei aSe\<j)Oi oSeK- 
i^v €(« Odvarov Kal var^p riicvov, i. e., one holding the relation- 
ship of brother, father, without specifying the individual : 1 T. 
2. 6, el? 7^/1) &e6<i, el? kuX fieatrrji} Qeov Kal avOpanrcav : 1 T. 1. 9, 
SiKal^ vo/to? ov Keirai, av6p.oi^ hi /ral CLVvtroraierovi, aaefiiai Kal 
a/iapTm\oi<}, avoaiovi Kal fiefiijfKoK : 2 P. 2. 9, oZSe Kvpto? evae- 
^6t? e« ireipaapvv pveadtu, oZIkoxk h^ et? iipipav Kpiaea^ KoXa^o- 
/Mvov? rripeiv : M. 17. 9, eK vexp&v avaarijpai : A. 17. 32, axov- 



i ■'. 



28 



pOUERIC VSB'OF THB ARTICLE. 



I ■ 



o-airret avixnaaiv veKp&v : B. 2. 36, ireptron^ jieu yhp iu^eXel 
iiiv voftov vpdatrfff, iilp Si wapafidnit p6fu>v ^f k.t.\., if thou be 
a law doer, but if thou be a law transgressor, &o. The absence 
of th^ article in v6fu>v and v6/iov here makes that general and 
indicative of the character of the person which would else have 
been restricted to the observance of the Jewish law in particular. 
It is as if pofiop irpdtraitp and vo/iov irapafiaTq^ were severally, 
like PonoBereip, vo/wi^vXaicew, pofiodhn}^, pofioSiBdaKaXoii, one 
compound word. So iii the use of irepirofiij, aKpo^vtrrla, the 
absence of the article indicates that the meaning is not the 
whole class of Jews and Gentiles severally, but persons having 
the characteristic of the one and of the other. (Yaughan.) 

Hence the article is often omitted with reference to our Lord : 
M. 4. 6, ei vUti el rov OeoD, if thou hast the relation of Son to 
God ; H, 1. 2, i\a\tia«p ^/liv ip vl^, spoke to us by one in the 
relation of son. It is often inserted in Greek where we omit 
it in English : M. 9. ll, /jsrh t&p TeKupuP koX dfiapTuk&p, By 
T&p the speakers s{>ecified those who were present on the 
particular occasion. Moreover, by the single insertion we shall 
see that the reXopai and a/taprrnXoi were virtually regarded by 
the speaker as one body. 1 T. 3. 8, Set oiv top iiriaKvirop, every 
bishop, a bishop ; this is called the generic use. 

HOMERIC USE OF THE ARTICLE. 

Before we' bring forward at length the Hellenistic use of 
the article, we will briefly illustrate the Homeric: //. i. 11, 12, 
ovpeKa TOP Xpvmjp ^IpAjo' aptiTrjpa 'ArpelS^s' i fdp fjKBe Boi,<: 
hrl 1^9 'Axiu&p, because Atreides treated disrespectfully the 
well-known Ghryses, acting as priest, for he came to the swift 
ships of the Achssans. Here top Xpvaijp is often rendered, 
th^t fanfous, that venerable man, Ohryses ; but the true reason 
is that the writer spoke of him according to his subjective 
view ; he knew no other Ohryses, and assumed that the mind 
of his readers would go with him. In the next instance (6 
fiip ^\0e) the article is clearly used as a personal pronoun 
to obviate the necessity of again mentioning Chryses, as in 
43, 2)9 liJMT evxpfiepo^' Tov S' SxXve ^ot/Soi 'AiroXKap, thus 
he spake in prayer ; but him Phoebus Apollo heard. 

The article expressed also the relative and the demonstrative : 
125, aX.XA rh p,ep iroXUop i^errpddofiep, Tti BiSaoTai^ but the spoil 
which we took from the sacked cities, that has been divided. 



I 



USE WITH 0eo9, npevfta, Kvpiot, Xpurroi. 



29 



With this use of to, compare the A. V., 'Take that thine is,' 
• commanded him to be sold and all that he had.' 

Again we have its use as a relative in ri, 72: km pt^ea-a 
ifPiaaT "Ayamp "iKtop etaa "Hp 8m fiapTOffVP^P, "tVP oi irope 
^olfiov 'AiroWap, and acted as guide to the ships of the 
Achseans bound to Ilium, owing to his skill in divination, 
which Phoebus Apollo gave him. 

In other passages the demonstrative force of the article is 
almost lost: uTap tjp irore Saafibt tmjTM <rol to yipaii iroXv 
fiel^op, but if any time distribution comes, you have the gift 
far more distinguished, i65. 

USE WITH 0609, IlpevfUl, KvplOi, XptOTOi. 

There is an apparent vagueness and uncertainty in the use 

of the article with words like Se6<i, irpevfia, Kvpio<i, Xpurroti, 

but the following hints are worthy of attention (Q. R. No. 225, 

p. 115). 0609 occurs without the article (1), where the Deity 

is contrasted with what is human, or with the universe as 

distinct from its Creator, or with the nature and acts of evil 

spirits ; (2), when the essential attributes of Deity are spoken 

of ; (3), when operations proceeding from God are appropriated 

to one of the three Divine Persons; (4), when the Deity is 

spoken of as heathens would speak, or a Jew who denied 

the existence of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. But the 

article seems to be used (1), when the Deity is spoken of in 

the Christian point of view, as the one true God, opposed to 

the gods of Heathenism ; (2), when the First Person of the 

blessed Trinity is specially designated, unless its insertion is 

unnecessary by the addition of iruTi^p, or some distinctive 

epithet. Ilpevfui, without the article, denotes the Holy Spirit 

as inspiring human nature, and blended with it; ^th thp 

article, it denotes the Holy Spirit as distinct from the nature of 

man. The article is found with Kvpun, when our Lord is 

spoken of under attributes and relations peculiar to the Second 

Person of the Trinity; but the article is omitted when these 

attributes or relations are those of the one Godhead. Xpurr6<{, 

'anointed,' gradually took the meaning of the Anointed One, 

and then became a personal appellative. When our blessed 

Ijord is spoken of in His more divine and imperial relations, 

the article is employed ; when in His human personal relations 

to man, it is omitted. (Quarterly Review, Jan., 1863.) 



30 



TUB ABTICLB AS A POSSESSIVE. 



THB A^TICLB AB A DBM0N8TRATIVB PRONOUN. 



The article in the singular is used in the words cited from 
Aratus, A. 17. 38, rod 7^/1 xal 7^vov ia/iiv. G. 4. as, rh yiip 
'Ayap, for the word Hagar. 

In distinctions and distributions, M. 13. 23, 6 fiev eKurov, 
6 Si i^Kovra : in M. 28. 17> ol hi iSlaraaav, some doubted, in 
antithesis to all implied in irpoaexvpriaav. A. 14. 4, oi fiiv 
^aav <fi)V T0($ 'lovSa/bif, oi hi aiiv tok airoaroXoK. Ph. 1. 
16, I7t 01 ftiv i^ ipideia^ rhv Xpurrhv Kara/ffiKXovaiy oi Si 
i^ arydiniv. E. 4. 11, iSwKev TOV9 p^p dTTOoroXot/f, tov$ Si 
irpo^u^tK, Tov( S^ evar/yeXiardi. 

In the . narrative style, 4 Si marks transition to a person 
already mentioned, though i p,h> does not precede :-L. 7. 40, 
o Si (fn)ai : L. 8. 46 ; Mk. 8. 28, oi Si aireKpldifaav. 

THB ARTICLE A3 A POSSESSIVE. 

The article often becomes equivalent to ^ possessive pronoun. 
This use forms an intermediate step between its strict use as 
a demonstrative and its general prepositive use. Thus nouns 
which are in themselves indefinite become definite, as standing 
in som^ certain relation to the definite person or thing there 
spoken of: Thuc. i. 69, ov ry Swdp^i ciKXA r^ p-eKKqaei 
dp,w6p£voi, defending yourselves, not by your power, but by 
your threatening aspect: t^ iraiSUtp fiof,, the baby is crying. 
2 0. 10. 10, ai P'iv ivurroXal fiapeiM Kal urxypal' ^ ii irapovala 
Tov atopuTOi turOevT^i, xal X0709 i^ov0em)p4vo<i : 1 C. 5. 9 ; 
2 0. 7. 8, iv T§ hrurroX^, in my letter: M. 11. 29, rairetvb^ 
Tff KapSlq, in my heart: Mk. 6. 55, Vip^avro iirl toi« xpa/S- 
fidroii Toiii KuKm ix""^"^ ireptfjiepeiv, upon their beds : A. 14. 
10, elire p^dXy t^ <l>wpy, said at the pitch of his voice : A. 28. 
8, iiriffelt tAv ;^«?jpa9 avr^ : so Mk. 9. 43. 45 ; 1 C. 7. 16, rl yitp 
olSav, 7iWt, e» T9i/ dvSpa atoam; k.t.X.: 1 G. 11. S, a/cara- 
xaXvTTTf) T^ Kf<l>dK^, with her head uncovered : B. 14. la, r6 pif 
ridivM irpoaKoptpa r^ dZeK^, in th^ way of your brother. 
Hev. 4. 7, TO Tphov ^&ov Sj(pv to irpoaonrov a>f AvOptoirvt, 
the third Uving creature had its face as a human being : 
L. 18. 1 6, irpoaitpepov Se avr^ Kal rh fipi^, even their infants : 
Phil. 3. 19, &v 6 0€Oi ri KoCKla, the god they acknowledge is 
their belly. H. 7. 34, airapd^arov l^ei t^v iepatavvriv, has his 
priesthood not transferable, his priesthood which he holds 



THE ARTICI,E AS A PREPOSITIVE. 



31 



li 



■ ;: 



passes on to no other, airapd^arov is the tertiary predicate, as, 
Eurip. Iph. A. 305, xdXop ye poi. ToUveiSov i^apeiBiaa<i, right 
honourable to me is the reproach you cast. J. 6. 36, iym Si 
iyw Tr)v paprvplap pelfya rov ^Itodppov, the testimony which 
I have had borne to me is greater than the testimony given 
by John. Isocr. to o&pa QprfTOP irdpre^ S^op-ep. 

With this we may compare the use of the definite article 
in English : " who have not bowed the knee to Baal," R. 11. 4 : 
"the heart was affected in his case," De Quincy. 

THE ARTICLE AS A PREPOSITIVE. 

The prepositive article is used to distinguish the subject 
from the predicate. This use may be traced back to an apposi- 
tion of the name of the person or thing, with the article as 
the pronoun of reference : J. 1. l, Oeo<i ^p 6 "Koyov : J. 4. 24, 
Ilpevpa 6 060? : J. 17. 10, xal ra ip^ irdpra ad €<rr«, Kal rh 
ah, ipd : J. 6. 63, ra fnqpara h iy^ \a\& vptp irpevpd iari Koi 
Sow; iarip: M. 7. 13, 14, irKareia ^ irvki), eipvxapot V oS6<}: 
M. 9. 37, o pip depiaphi iroXv'i, oi Si ipydrai oXiyoi : 1 0. 3. 19, 
17 ydp aod>ia rov Koapov toutov pmpla irapei t£ 6eM iarl : 

1 T. 6. 6, vopi^oprup iropurpop elvat rijp evai^euat; 1 J. 4. 8, 
6 6eof arfdirt) iarlp. 

In convertible or reciprocating propositions the predicate 
has the article as well as the subject : M. 6. 22, 6 Xi^i;o« tov 
ampATot eartp 6 6^aXp6<; : M. 13. 38, o Si arfpoi iariv o Koapo^ : 

2 0. 3. 17, o Si Kvpio(t to irpevpa earip : Ph. 2. 13, o 0eo? eartp 
o ipepy&p; 1 0. 15. 56. to S^KOirpop rov dapdrov ^ dpMprla- 
7^ Si SupapK T^f apaprla^ 6 popa : 1 J. 3. 4, 17 dpuipria iarlp 
^ dpoplai Rev. 19. 13, KoKelrat to opopa avrov 6 Xoyo^ rov 
OeoO. 

The predicate has the article, but the subject is anarthrous 
when the subject is a proper name, a personal or demonstrative 
pronoun; J. 6. si, eydt eipi 6 apro^ 6 t^&p: I J. 4. is, 'Iijo-oS; 
earip 6 v(09 tov Oeov : A. 4. 11, o&rof iartp 6 Xidoi 6 e^ov0epii0ek: 
2 G. 3. 2, ^ ^(OToX^ ■ffpMP ipeii iare : J. 8. 18, eya> eip,t pap- 
rvp&p: Mk. 7. 15, ixelvd iari rd Koipovpra rop apOponrop, the 
man, i. e. mankind, the genus man as opposed to an individual. 
When there was no reason to mark specification or emphasis the 
article was omitted : M. 20. 16, iroXXot ydp eurt KXtyroi, oXlryoi Se 
iKXeieroi: 1 T. 2. 8, eiralpoprat oalovi %«^a! : 2 P. 2. 14, 6<f>6aX- 
/MVf ixovrev /tcorovv povxaXlSof : J&l. H. An. iii. 23, airia 



32 



RETKOSPKCTIVE USE. 



TOVTUV ^vcrtv arfadri : Isocr. KcCKht dt]<ravpit irap' avSpl airouSa^jt 

ANTIOIPATIVE OB HYPOTHETIC USE. 

The article is inserted where the existence of the person or 
object expressed by the noun is fairly assumed : M. 5. 2S, tvffi 
einio&v r^ avriSlict^ aov rajQJ, fi^irore ae irapaZA 6 avrtSiKO^ r^ 
KpiT^, Koi o KpiTqii ae irapai^ r^ vmfpkTjjj, Kol elt ^vKaKriv 
^fjBriari, The individual addressed in tadi is assumed to have 
an dvr/Stxof who brings the cause before a particular Kpirq^, 
while the Kpir^t employs his hwqpknft. The article is omitted 
before ^vKaicqv, as no single or definite mode of punishment 
entered into the mind of the speaker. E. 6. 12, ovk iarlv fifuv 
17 7r<£\i}: the contest assumed by the exhortation, {w) ivhvaaaOe 
T71V iravoirXlav tov OeoO: Ph. 4. I7| ovx ^ft iiri^itTw to Softa, 
oKXi iiri^ifra riv Kapirhv tov irkeovd^irra 6(« \6yop vfi&v. Here 
the S6fia has the retrospective article, Kapirov the anticipative. 
G. 4. fi, lua T^v vloffeaiav diroXd^a/ieii : in this adoption there 
is a threefold gradation (1) as existing but not appropriated ; 
(2) as appropriated through faith in Christ; (3) as perfected 
by full communion in His blessedness and glory. 

KETROSPECTIVE USE. 

The article is inserted in the renewed mention of a person or 
thing, or when it recalls to the mind some familiar object : M. 
1. 24, Bieyepdeh airo tov virvov. tov refers to the 6vap (20), i><i 
irpoaira^ev air^ 6 0776X05 Kvpiov, the article refers to aff/e\o<! 
(20). M. 2. 1 1, iKdovre^ «('« ttiv oUiav, the house referred to in (g), 
ov fjp TO nraiSiov. Mk. 4. I, mare axnov ifi^dtna ets to vXoiov, 
the boat of which our Lord had ordered (Mk. 3. 9), tva irXoid- 
piop irpoa-Kaprepy ain^ : L. 4. 20, irri^ai to ^ifikiov, diroSou? t^ 
vTrifp&rg, the parchment or roll mentioned in (17), the attendant 
who was in readiness to receive it: L. 9. 16, tow nrevre o/stow 
KM TOW? hvo 'ix,^va<;, those spoken of in (13) : G. 6. 6, 6 kut- 
70(pvnepo<i TOP \oyop. This is the same as in A. 15. 7, top Xoyop 
TOV evafyeXiov : Tit. 1. 9, tov KUTtt TrjP 8iBaj(^v iriaTov Xoyov : 
L. 1. 2, inrrjperai yevofiepoi tov "Koyov: G. 4. 6, 'Afifid 6 TraTr/p 
was a customary formula of Christian prayer. At a very early 
period the Aramaic title, Mk. 14. 36; R. 8. 15, was united to 
the Greek synonym in reverent and affectionate remembrance 
of Him who had taught us and enabled us truly to call God our 



i 



! 



■,i :^ 



J.- 



RHETORICAL USE. 



33 



Father. Among the Jews a freedman by addressing any one 
by the title Abba, might prepare the way for being adopted 
by him. 

RHETORICAL USE. 

The article is inserted when the object is so well known that 
the mere mention may be regarded as a repeated reference : M. 
1. 23, ^ irap0epo<}, the virgin foretold by Isaiah 7. 14 : M. 11. 3, o 
iprypptepot, the common expression for the Messiah, Heb. 10. 37 : 
M. 8. 12, ixel loTai 6 K\av0fibi Kal 6 fipvyfi6<{ t&v oSoptup, the 
weeping naturally associated with the outward darkness: M. 
21. 12, T6>v iraXovpTap t^? irepurrepdv, 'the doves offered by the 
poor :' J. 1. 21, o irpo^ijTiji el av, the prophet spoken of in Deut. 
18. 16 : J. 6. 70, 71, OVK iya vfta^ rov? SeoSeKa i^e\e^d/Mi)v : . . el$ 
&p iK tmv SwSeKa : G. 5. 10, t^ Kpifia, ' the judgment he deserves:' 
Ja. 2. 25, inroSe^afiipi) tov^ d^iKow, 'the spies who came to 
Jericho.' Sometimes the rhetorical use serves to mark contempt 
and scorn: M. 18. 17, &<nrep 6 idpiKot koX 6 TeKa»vri<!. "Not a 
heathen man, who may be a good man in his way, but as the 
heathen in his heathenism." Wordsworth. With this compare 
2 Chr. 28. 22, ' this is that king Ahaz.' 

Under the rhetorical use may be placed monadic nouns, 
indicating objects of which only one exists, or can be spoken of: 
M. 4. 5, TO irrepvyiop, 'the apex of Solomon's porch:' M. 6. 15, 
TOP futhiop, Trip \v)(piap: J. 13. 6, toi» ptirriipa: M. 26. 27, to 
ironjpiop, ' the cup used at the Paschal feast.' So of the period 
known as the period of the day,»week, year : M. 20. 2, ix htipo- 
piov T^f rjfiipap: L. 18. 12, 8lf tou (ra/S/Sdroi/ : H. 9. 7, aira^ 
tov iputvTov. Here the article is used in a distributive sense, 
where we employ an indefinite article, as ' so much a month.' 

In many of these cases where the article is not required in 
English, we can account for its insertion in Greek by putting 
ourselves in the position of the writer or speaker. His sub- 
jective views are to him objective. The article limits what 
might have been a general predicate to some particular object 
or period present or presumed to be present to the thoughts of 
the speaker and hearer. ' Multa quae nos indefinite cogitata 
pronuntiamus, definite proferre soliti sunt Grseci, ejus de quo 
sermo esset notitiam animo informatam prsesumentes.' (Sintenis, 
quoted by Winer, § 18.) Ph. 3. 2, fiKh-ere tov? kvpo^, ^hrere 
TOW? KaKoixi ipydrai, 'the dogs, the evil workers,* whom the 



r: 



34 



OBNXHIO USB. 



Apostle had in liu mind; 3 T. 4, 4, hrl roit'uvdaw hrrpmrtf 
aovTU : we may aocount for the insertion of the article by con- 
sidering that in the mind of the Apostle the errors of the future 
would bo only exaggerations and expansions of those which 
then existed. Bey. 5. 13, i) eiXoi^la koX ij rifi^ xal ^ So^a kuI 
r6 Kparoti the article limits the blessing, the honour, the glory, 
the might, to those to whom it is here ascribed, as belonging to 
them exclusively. In doxologies, wittft the exception of Ij. 2. 
14; 19. 38, io^a regularly takes the aiticle when used alone; 
K. a. SO ; 16. 37. E, 8. ai. Ph. 4. 20. 2 T. 4. is. H. 13. 31. 
2 P. 8. 18. When it ia joined with one or more substantiTes it 
appears sometimes with the artide, 1 P. 4. it. Bev. 1. 6 ; 7. la ; 
sometimes without it, B. 2- 10. IT, 1,; |7. Jude 25. In some 
oases Sofa may take 'the artide as an abstract noun, but it is 
preferable to consider it aa used rhetorically. X^Uico^t on G. 
1. 6.) 

OBNBBIO. vex. 

The article from its hypothetio use is applied to distinguish 
all the individuals, members, or objects, belonging to a particular 
class, species, *or genus. This is the case in English : ""The 
poet* s eye in a fine frenzy rolling." 6 070^09 TroXtrijs, any one 
answering to this description ; t^ o^iKifia aiperd, 1 T, 3, 2, 
Set oiv rhv hriaKowoy dventkiprrov elvcu : J. 2, 26, iri'axocnce tI 
j}v h> T^ &v0pwKf. ' in human nature ;' mankind generally : M. 
12. 35, 6 tu^aOii dvdptnrot, < every man of whom we assume that 
he is good :' Ja. 2. s, rotv «t»;^v«, 'those assumed to be x>oor :' 
M. 12. 29, ToO tajfupov, 'any strong man:' h. 18. 27, ra aZwara, 
'the things assumed (o be impossible with men:' J. 4. 23, oi 
aKr)6ivol irpttvKwnfrcd, 

It is important to bear in mind that the noun substantive is 
aimexed to the article by means of the participle of existence 
understood, i itnjp signifies the male being assumed to be a 
man; o vXowrtoi, the person assumed to be rich. Sometimes 
the participle of existence is inserted, Arist. Hth. Nic. iv. 2, oi 
ItaKuna S^un Svrei iJKurra irXovrovai. Hence the predicate, 
when it is expressed by a participle, contains an assumption 
within itself: M. 4. 3, i ireipd^v: 13. 3, <nrelpav, the agent 
assumed to be the tempter, the sower : 1 Th. 5. 7, oi yiip tcaOev- 
Sovre^, for sleepers : 1 0. 9. 13, oi ri, ieptt ipya^ofievoi. 

From the generic use the article may be omitted in English 



"■I ^ 

4 ': 






J 






'■-^ % 



\ 



% 



THE ARTICLB WrfH AXTBIBDTIVES. 



35 



where it is ins»ted in Greek : J. 3. 10, av el 6 £(&unMX«f, ' a 
teacher;' one who is teacher: 2 0. 12. 12, ret injfteia tow a'jro- 
OToXov, ♦ the credentials of (one who is) an Apostle :' G. 3. 20, 6 
Iteoirrfi, 'any one who acta as mediator;' G, 4. I, o K\Tipov6/io<i, 
•any one who is heir:' Ja. 2. 6, v/m(V Si i)nitdaa,Te rhv irrarxp^t 
• ye however count without honour any one who is poor,' ' the 
poor man/ or 'a poor man:' B. 2, 13, oi &Kpoarra\ vofutv, oi 
nroiifrai po/iov, the article denotes a class; iucpoaral'VttiMv, 
woi-qraX-vo/iov, tqrm virtually one word, and the translation 
f hearers of the law,' ' doers of the law,' is correct. 

As the predicate when it is expressed by a participle always 
contains an assumption, oi crw^o/ievoi, oi airoKKvftevoi mean 
respectively the class assumed to be saved, lost, and may be 
rendered 'the saved, the perishing:' L. 13. 23, Kvpu, ei oKln/oi 
oi aw^fuvot ; A. 2. 47, o Si Kvpuyt irpoatriBei, rovi aa^opAvow 
Koff iipJkpav t% ixicXria-ia : Bev. 21. 24, ra edvr) r&v ira^ofi,ivap : 
1 0. 1. 18, o X070V 7ap 6 ToC (rravpov rot? fuv mroXKv/iivoK 
fuapia iffri, tow Si ato^o/iipoK fipZp Sivap-i^ Oeov iariv ', 2 C. 2. 
IS, Xpurrov exmSia i<r/ih> r^ 0e^ iv to(9 a-w^o/iivQK koI iv rot? 
airoXKv/iivoK. 

Bishop Ellicott remarks on these present participles, "How 
simply yet how instructively they place before us the two 
classes, each under its aspects of progress and development, 
each capable of reversed attitudes and directions, but each at 
the time of consideration wending its way, the one silentiy 
moving onward to light and life, the other turning its sad steps 
to darkness and to death I The mere tense is in itself a sermon 
and a protest, a sermon of blended warning, consolation, and 
hope to those who will pause to meditate on its significance ; a 
protest against those who tell us that the existence of two 
classes of men animated by two opposing principles is contrary 
to the teaching of experience." (Aids to Faith.) 

THE ARTICLB WTTH ATTKiptmVES. 

When two or more attributives are assumed of the same 
person or thing, or whore several subjects are viewed as 
belonging to the same class, the article is inserted before 
the first attributive, and omitted before the attributives which 
foUow. 

In English, the Secretary and Treasurer means one person, 
the Secretary and the Treasurer mean two persons. In speak- 

1)2 



36 



THE ARTICLE 'WITH ATl'RIBUTlVES. 



ing of horses, the hlack and white means the piehald, hut the 
hlack and the white mean two different horses. 

M. 21. 9, o( Bi Sx^^ ®' npoofyovrev ical oi aKoKovQownet 
iKpa^op. The insertion of the article hefore aKoXovdovvre^ 
indicates that the party which followed was distinct from that 
which preceded. A. 13. 16, 'AvBpe<; 'laparpdrai Koi oi <j>o^ov- 
fixvoi rov Oeop. The insertion of the article before ipo^ovftevoi 
indicates that the proselytes formed a distinct party from the 
Israelites. M. 21. 12, i^ifiaXe nrdvrai tov9 iraXovvrai koI 
&Yopn^ovTa<i iv Tf> Up^. The buyers and sellers are regarded as 
one class of traders, hence the article is prefixed only to the 
first attributive. 

In the following iq^tancea one person or object only is meant : 
M. 13. 23, 6 oKovav Kol avvimv : A. 3. ] 4, tov &r/iov koL Slxaiov : 
Mk. 16. 16, 6 irurrevaaf xal pairriadek : Mk. 9. 25, to ttvcC/ui to 
oKakav koX k<o<I>6v: A. 17. l, StoSevaavref riiv 'Aft<f>liro\iv xal 
'ArrdXXaplav, Amphipolis and ApoUonia were regarded by the 
writer as one district : Mk. 15. l, oi apxiepei^ /lerh r&v irpeafiv- ■ 
ripcov xal •ypaftftariup, the elders and scribes are regarded as 
forming a class by themselyes, distinct from the chief priests : 
A. 3. II, KparoifPTO^ tov uiShno^ ytoKov top Herpop Ka\ 'ladpprjp, 
as much one as the other, regarding them as the joint per- 
formers of the miracle: A. 17. is, XajSoi/re? iproXijP irpbv top 
Si\ap KoX Ti/iodeop, Paul at Athens regarded Silas and Timothy 
as one, and sent a message to one as much as the other, but 
Silas and Timothy acted independently in staying at Thessa- 
lonica. This is marked in 14 by the double insertion of the 
article, vrrifievop 5 to Si^i icai o Ti,/M0eoi iKei. 2 Th. 2. 4, o 
apTueelfUPO<i Koi {nrepatp6fievo<i : here the article really performs 
a kind of double duty; it serves to turn avrtxet/tevot into a 
substantive, and also indicates that the two participles refer to 
the same individual. (Ellioott.) 1 Tim. 4. 3, Tolf irtorotv koI 
hreypuKoat ttip oKijffeMP, these constitute a single class, the 
latter term being explanatory of the former. Tit. 2. is, ir^oo-- 
Sej(pfiepoi Ti/v ftaxaplap iXiriSa koI hru^avetap t^« £o^¥ toD 
fieyoKov Oeov xal aoyr^pof ^fuop 'Iijaou Xpurrov, waiting to 
receive the blessed hope and manifestation of the glory: T% 
So^f depends on ikirlSa as well as on eiri^dpeiav. The two 
substantives are closely united, and under the vinculum of a 
common article. There is a twofold iirKftdpeia^ .the first t% 
j(apnoi (ll) introductory to the second, which is t^« Sofijf. 



. 



'm 



THE AKTICLE WITH THE DEFINHfO CLAUSE. 



37 



The latter clause must be translated, 'of our great God and 
Saviour,' but more from exegetical considerations than from the 
position of the single article, as iirttfuipeia is a term specially 
and peculiarly applied to the Son, but never to the Father. 

NOUNS IN BEOIMEN. 

When the noim has a genitive case depending upon it, the 
general practice is, that the article is inserted with the noun 
that is governed, ajs well as with the noun that governs : M. 
3. 2, i} ficuriKela t&p ovpap&p : 1 P. 3. 20, ^ tov Oeov fuiKpodviila. 
Sometimes the article is repeated after the governing noun 
for the sake of significancy and emphasis : M. 26. 28, to alfui 
fiov TO t§s Kaivij<i Sia0tiicTi<i : 1 C. 1. 18, o Xoyot 6 tov aTavpov. 

There are, however, so many deviations, that we cannot lay 
down a positive rule, or point out any decided principle on 
which the usage rests, except by referring it to the subjective 
views of the writer. In H. 9. 13 we have to aliui Tavpap 
Ka\ Tpar/utv, where al/aa has the distinctive article referring to 
a well-known fact, but Tavpwp and Tparftav denote these animals 
generally. In the mind of the ymter the phrase may have 
formed but one idea ; or it may have been his object to lay a 
stress on the alfui, not on the ^nimftlt^, 

THE ARTICLE V^riTH THE DEFININO CLAUSE, 

' The article is generally omitted in the defining clause, as 
the words form but one idea, and is only inserted when the 
object of the writer is to give th^t clause prominence and 
emphasis. 

In Attic Greek the article is rarely omitted in the defining 
clause, except after verbal substantives, or where the structural 
connexion of the clause is palpably close with what precedes. 

Where contrast is intended the article is inserted ; 1 T. 3. i3, 
TToKKifp irappiiaiav ip TrloTei Ty ip J[purr^ 'Iijaov. By the 
insertion of the article, two shades of thought are expressed; 
the latter of vhich explains and expands the former. " In fide 
eaque in Christo Jesu coUocata." nrioTi<i, the foundation, the 
substratum of the irappi^o-la ; so 1 T. 1. u ; 2 T. 1. 13 ; 3. 15. 
A. 20. 21, Bia/iapTvpofiepoi . . . Trjp etf tov Qsop /lerdpoiap kuI 
•jri<TTip T^v eh tov Kvpiop tfimv 'Iijaow Xpurrop : A. 3. 16, 
1) v(<m<i 17 St' avTou: G. 3. 21, el yap iBodTj v6(u><i Swdftepot 
^woiraifiaai: R. 2. 14, idpi) tA fit) vofiop exovTa: Tit. 2. 10, 



88 



run ABTICLB WITHOUT THB NOUN. 



T^v htiaaicaKtav ripf roO irmr^poi ^ft&it : A. 26. 18,' (toO Xafieiv) 
K^Sjpov iv ToU ^ytaafUvoK, vUret if e»f i/jU. 

Where no contract i* intended the article is omitted : 2 Th. 
3. 14, «l Si T(« ovj^ {nroKovei t^ X^o» ^/i&v St^ 7% ^«rro\'^: 
2 0. 7. r, di'a77^XXa>v ^/uv . . . tov vfmv ^\ov inrip i/ioO: 
1 T. 6. 17, TO(t TrXovo-ZoK iv T^ i<vi> at&vt rrap^rfyeXKe. 

There is no contrast between aapxa and irpevfta (or dva- 
<rrpo^v), in B. 9. 3, rwv <rvftev&v fiov Karh aapKai E. 6. 6, 
To!« KvploK Kurii vapKa : 1 0. 10. 18, ^fKbrem rov 'I*rpar)\ xarii 
adpKai E. 2. II, v/Mt« iroTC rii idvrt iv aapKl, 

The use or the omission of the artide befor^e a participle will 
, firequently depend on the subjeotiTe impressiou of the writer. 
Some indeed , have attributed to it a derisive import, which 
is virtually contained in itfsi rhetorical use : " Artieulus irrisioni 
servit." Yalokner. B. 2. I, tA yhp avrii vpdaatit 6 jcplvav : 
M. .27. 40, o tearaXdov rov veiov , . i tcard^dl avb rov aravpov. 

The article is omitted when the primitive verb has already 
been construed with a particular preposition, or when the 
adjunct clause is implied in the particular noun: E. 3. 4, 
iwaade vofjaai t^v trvvefflv ftov iv t^ ftvanipl^ : Ph. 1. 26, 
hul rifi ip,^ irapowlw! irpoi vfi&i i E. 3. 13, iv raU ffkiy^etrl 
fjLov imep ipAv. So Hdt. 6. IDS, ^ ofyyeXla irepl t&v ^aphluv : 
Thuc. 6. ao, ij itr^oKii es t^i/ ^ATrucrfv: 2. 62, f) avyKOfitBi) iK 
T&v arfp&v era rh &mt : Plutarch, Pomp. 58, ai irapaKKqaeK 
inrip Kalaapos. In all these the attributive, together with 
the substantive, denotes but one leading idea. 

THE ABTICLB "WITHOUT THE NOUN. 

The artide is the pronoun of reference. Where the article 
by itself is sufficient to denote the reference the noun is omitted. 
" These omissions fall into two classes : (1) when a substantive 
just named would be repeated in the same sentence ; (2) when 
the substantive is some general term which is implied in the 
words eficompanyiog tho article." Donaldson, § 399. 

The following words are very generally taken for granted: 

(1) Names of relationship, woy, ffvyanjp, 7W17, aSeK^i, /tifnjp : 
M. 1. fl, Ja^lS 6 fiaaiKei>i iyivvijaa rov SoXo/i&vra iic t^ tou 
Ovplov {ywalKoi): M. 4. 31, 'Jaxafiov rov rov ZefieSalov (viov): 
Mk. 16. 1, Mapla, 1} rov *IaKufiov (juirrip) : J. 10. 25, Mapta ^ 
TOU KXunra (>)/tnni). 

(2) Qenerol tonus referring to location, possessions, employ- 



i. 






:■ 






THE AUTIOLB WITHOUT THB NOUN. 



39 



ments : L. 2. 1, onroypa^eaBai traaav r^v olicovfievriv (yfjv), every 
part of the inhabited world, or of the world subject to the Boman 
sway: Ph. 4. 18, Se^d/ievoi irapA 'Eira<f>poSiTov tA irap' v/i&v 
(Xpij/iara) : A. 28. 10, avoffoph^oit hredevro rh, vpoi rr/v -ypetav : 
h. 19. 42, el iyv<u<i koI ait tA wpo? elp^VTjv <rov {irpdrffiara). 

Dr. Donaldson remarks, the omission of irparfiui or irpd/yftara 
is regular whenever we wish to express as generally as possible 
all that belongs to or proceeds from the person or thing 
signified by the accompanying word: tA rav deS>v, all that 
proceeds from, or belongs to the gods: ri. 7^9 voKe(o<i', the 
state and all belonging thereto : rii rov iroXi/tov, war and its 
consequences: rii tear i/tk irdvra, all that belongs to me: rd 
Kaff" iiftipav, every-Aaif affairs : to rtft eKevdeplas, what relate 
to liberty : rit toO vrpriav, childish things : ri, t^9 eipijvtfi, the 
things which make for peace : rh r^ otKoSo/i^v, things wherein 
we may edify one another : to vepi ri, to xard Tt, the particular 
circumstance : to Trpot ri, relation : tA irapd rivov, whatever 
proceeds from a person, information, commands, presents, and 
the like. 

(3) The word avBpanroi is c6nstantly omitted in expressing 
association, connexion with others jp time and place: Mk. 
3. 21, o{ vap' avTw, his kindred, the members of his household : 
M. 21. ll, 6 vpo^n^rni 6 diro Na^pir: A. 13. 13; 2L 8, ol 
rrepi rov IlavKov, Paul and his companions: ot irep* rov 
ATi/MHrdivt), Demosthenes with his party : ot irepi rov ^CXnnrov, 
Philip and his supporters. 

(4) Obvious nouns, i. e., such as express the words or works, 
the sentiments or condition of a person, are inferred from the 
structure of the sentence or the gender of the article : M. 6. 34, 
fjt^ oiv fiepi/ivijarjre e/v r^v avptov (fi/tipav): A. 16. II, t§ 
iTTiovap eit NediroKiv : A. 19. 38, d/fopaioi w/ovtm : Mk. 9. S3, 
o Si 'It/aow elirev auTf» to (ft^/Ui) el Svvaatu rrurreOa-ai K.r.\. : 
L. 14. 18, iip^avTO a-iro /iMi (ywoftlii, ^v\^) itapavreurOtu 
n-dirrcfc J. 6. 2, iirl rf irpofiarucf (ttiJXjj): J. 20. 12, Xevieoii 
Kodi^oftevot (ifuirloK) : A. 2. 25, iic Se^i&v fuw icrriv (jtep&v) t 
33, Tff Se^i^ otn> rov Qeov vy^Otk (%£(/>(): L. 3. 5, larat rit 
ffKoXth e^ evdeiav (oSov) : Ja. 3. 1 1, /M)rt ^ irt/y^ ^'* ^% avrfpt 
oiriji Ppvei to 7XVICV KctL to triKpov {iSap) ; L. 12. 47, Sap^erera* 
rroKKd^ {'ir\rjyd<i) : 2 G. 11. 24, ^0 'lovSahtv irievraKK reaaapd- 
Kovra 'irapa /ilav e\aj8oi>. 



40 Tint aUtiolb m formation of the subject. 

THE ARTICLE IN FORMATION OF THE SUBJECT. 

Prodicable words or sentences may be turned into subjects by 
prefixing thft article. 

Adjectives, participles, M. 25. 46, oi iimioi ek ^a»r)p alwpiov : 

1 0. 1. 19, Ti]v <ro<ftlav r&v ao(f>&v km, rijv aweaip r&v awer&p : 
J. 3. 21, 6 trouiv T^i» oK^Oeiav : 2 C. 11. 4, el fiiv 6 ip)(6fi€Po<i 
aWov 'Ii}aovv Kijpvaaei : G. 1. 23, 6 SiaKuu ij/*as irore evtvffeXl- 
{iETat: R. 3. li, ov« Sorw i iK^ryr&v tov Qeov: E. 6. 17, tow 
auTTjplov for t^ vtyrijpUvi : the converse to which is ^ hnri/ila, 

2 0. 2. 6, for TO hrifrtiuov. 

It is desirable in a literal translation to preserve the dis- 
tinction between a participle with, and a participle virithout 
the article. Hence we should render 2 T. 1. 10, Karapy^aavroi 
/iiv rhv Odvarov, having made of none effect : M. 5. 22, iTa<{ o 
6pyi^6fievo<t, every one who is angry : L. 6. 47, irai 6 ipxofievot: 
1 C. 11. 4, was av^p •irpoaev)(6ft€vo9, every man while praying, 
at the time of prayer: Xen. Anab. i. 2. 2$, ol /ihi e^aaav 
a(md^ovTd<i rt KartucoirijvM . , . oi Si, v7ro\et>]>0ii>Ta<{ koI oi 
Svpafiivovi evpetp to dKKo arpdrevfia . . . diroXiaOai: G. 6. 13, 
oi vepiTetipoftevoi, those jwho are getting themselves circum- 
cised: G. 5. 3, iravrl dvOpwira vepirefivofiiv^, to every man 
submitting to be circumcised; not t^ irepiTp,r}0evTi,, or t^ 
irepiTerfifjfiev^. It was not the circumcised as such who 
became in a strict sense. otfi^iKhat SKop top Koafiop ir\r)p&aai, 
but they who submitted to the rite with this object, 

Infinitives, R. 7. 18, to BeKeip irapaKenal fjMi: G, 4. 18, 
KaXoi> TO ^rjXoDaBM iv Ka\^ Trdprore : B. 11. 8, 6<]>6a\/ioi<i tov 
ftif fiKiireip xaX &Ta to8 /li/ aKoveai, eyes of blindness and ears 
of deafness. 

' Adverbs, L. 16. 26, oi ixeiBep irpot ■^fiat Bianrepuaip : J. 8. 23, 
v/teii iK T&p Karto iorii M. 24. 21, L. 22. 69, to wi/ : G, 4. 25, 
26, ^ vvp 'lepowaki^iJL, the ceutre of Judaism, and the ancient 
theocratic' kingdom ; ij apw 'Iepovaa\'q/i, the typical representa- 
tion of Christianity and the Messianic kingdom. Of. ' the out- 
patient,' 'the then mayor,' 'my sometime daughter ' (K. Lear). 
■ Cases of nouns, L. 20. 25, ra Kaiaapoi, rd tov deov : M. 21. 
21, TO T^? avKfji : 2 P. 2. 22, to t^? dXij^ofiv irapoi/iloM. 

A conditional clause, Mk. 9. 23, t^ el Bvpaaai irurrevaai : 
L. 1. 62, ipipsvop Ty iruTpl avrov to, tI &p BeKoi KaXeiaffai 



THE ARTICLE AFTER VERBS OF EXISTENCE. 



)41 



r 



avTOP : L. 9. 46, eUrfjKJde hk SiaXoyur/ioi ip aiiToh to, tH &p e'ri 
fiel^wp avT&p ; 

THE ARTICLE AFTER VERBS OF EXISTENCE. 

When the article is inserted after a simple verb of existence, 
the real predicate of the sentence is the identity of the subject 
with another object ; but if the word or combination of words 
after the verb of existence is without the article, the attribute or 
circumstances signified by that word are predicated of the 
subject. 

Identity is expressed in convertible or reciprocating pro- 
positions : 1 C. 10. 4, )} Bi irirpa ^p 6 Xpurros:, see p. 31 : B. 
7. 7, o pofuxi d/tapria; ia the law sinful? has it a tendency to 
generate sin ? If the article had been inserted, the question 
would have been, are law and sin abstractedly the same P B. 
7. 13, TO oSv dr/aOop ifiol yeyope OdpuTOi', did then that which 
is good prove to me death? B. 11. 6, ^ xdpK oi/xm ylperai 
X°'Pi^i grace loses its property of grace; grace ceases to be 
grace : M. 13. 39, o ik depurp^i trvpriXeia tov al&poi eorw* 
oi Si Oepurral drf/e\oi eUrai, The article is omitted before 
<nwTe\eM, as more than one event is signified, of each of which 
the harvest may be symbolical; 'the reapers are angels,' not 
the entire angelic order. J. 3. 6, to yeyeppfip,h»>p ex T^f aapK09 
adp^ iari' Ka\ to yeyepptifiivop ex tov irvev/taTOS itvevftd e<TTi, 
is of a fleshly, is of a spiritual character. The insertion of 
the article has a tendency to divert the attention from the 
inherent meaning of the word. If in J. 1. l, Ge6<i ^p 6 X0709, 
the article had been prefixed to Qeof, the sense would have 
been that the Word was identical with the entire essence of 
the sole Deity; but by the omission of the article, all that 
is involved in the notion of Oeov is predicated of the Word, 
viz., the proper nature and attributes of Deity. .M. 16. 16, 
at) el 6 XpKJTot 6 v/09 toO OfoO tov dlui/ro?. The words 6 
vio<t TOV 6600 occur in Mk. 3. 11 ; L. 4. 41 ; 22. 70; J. 1. 34, 
60 ; 1 J. 4. 15 ; 5. 5, and the point involved is the identity of 
the person spoken of with the Christ, i. e., the Messiah. In 
other passages, where vlot is without the article, the point 
involved is the intrinsic meaning of the expression vioi tov 
Oeov. In M. 4. 3. 6, the challenge is not, 'if thou art the 
Messiah,' but ' if thou claimest relationship of Son to God,* ' if 
thou hast extraordinary power in virtue of that divine gene- 



42 



•vrrra. vbbbs or oalliko, xBvommso, 



ration.' The Miemies of oar Iiord ohafged Him with blasphemy, 
and taunted Him on the cross with the use of the e^cpression 
vm Tov Beov elftl. The charge brought against Him was not 
that He asapmed to be the Messiah, but that He professed 
to be of the same nature with God« J. 10. 33, 5ti o-v avOpamot 
&¥, troteiv trtcmnp Oeov. A. 19. 36, ovk elai 6eol ot £(d xctp&i/ 
fwofuvoi, the divinities made by hands have not the character 
of gods. The predicate is generally without the article, LXX, 
Job 28. 28, ISoit 4 Bewrifind i«m iro^Ut. 

WITH VBBBS O? CKLLXSQ, APFOINTINO. 

- Th« article ia omitted after vteba of calling, appointing, in 
order to fix attention on the peculiar inherent meaning of the 
word: EL l.a, hv WiiKt tcK*ipoviiJUty,iravr<oP: Rev. 12. 0, i 
KoKoifietfov ididfioXoi j Lt £3. 3>, t^ tottov rhv KaTuoijupov 
Kpavlot, -.J 

It is found, howevelr, afteir subh V^rbs in the sense of a£Bxing 
the name : Xen. Cyr<^, iii. 3. 4, iaxucaKoUvTei tov evepyeniv, 
Toi> ivSipa TOV Jvya&ov i Anab. vL 4. 7> iitiy(eipov<n fioKKeiv t^ 
Ai^itnrov ivaKaKovirtei ^v irfHi&oniv, 

The idiom of the Greek language requires the article with 
many words where it is not required or admitted in English. 
Thus the article is used with indicative pronouns, 5Se, olnoi, 
JMuwf, and even with correlatives, rotovrov, too-ovtov : L. 2« 36, 
i <Sv0p«nro9 oStdv: 14. 13, olrro^ &vdpa»9roi ; M. 7. S3, 4v iKelvg 
T^ ^/tiptf : 13. 14, *rhv ar/pmi iKeivov: Mk 21. 63, iKelvtxt S irKdvot: 
24. 48, 6 Kami SoOXos ^xewof : Mk. 0. 37, it t&v rotovrtap 
irtuBuMtt one of children who are such f 2 0. 12. 23 ( J. 4. a, 
T^vSa r^» ir6\iP, this city here^ pointing to one in view. 

60 with possessive adjectives, especially when they are used 
for the objective genitive: L. 22. 19, era t^p ifi^p uvdfuni&iPf 
for tiie purpose of calling me to mind: B. lit 31^ t^ vfterip^ 
e\ie*, by the meroy shown to you : 1 0. 15. 31, r^ iifteripav 
icavx*}fTiP, my rejoicing on account of you t 2 T« 4. 6, t% ifi^ 
&p(£K\icreta^ * 

The article with voK^, iron, SKKJoi, SKof, introduces some 
modifications of meaning : B. 6. 16, oi voXKoi, the many, the 
mass of mankind : 1 G^ 10. 17, ot woXKoi is opposed to etf, and 
means though many : 2 G. 2. it,dKi oi iroKKoi, ' as the majority' 
of the teachers at that time. R. 12. 6, ol iroXKol ip aiu/ui i<r/iep 
iv Xpurr^, rh Bi utaff cU aX\i}Xci>i> ^MKf\, collectively we form 



THE ABTICLB WITH ITa?, "O'Kot. 



43 



> 



:: 



; 



one body, individually we are related to each other as the 
members of one body. Vaughan. M. 6. 39; 10. 23; l2. 13, 
ti\v oKKrip, the other: 1 0. 14. 29, ot 5X\ot, the rest, cceteri, 
J. 20. 25; 21. 8: Rev. 17. 10, 6 &\\o<i, the remaining one 
of seven : M. 4. 2I, oKKow Svo SSeXffmK. 

The radical signification of iras is all : when it is used of one 
object its meaning is the whole, entire, all the, in an intensive 
sense; of several objects its meaning is every, in an extensive 
sense, like Ikooto^. 

Intensive sense, the whole, M. 21. lo, rraoa ^ w6\i<ii Mk. 4. l, 
vm o ^\o9: L. 2. 1, iraaap t^i» oUovfUpi^: 1 T. 1. 16, t^v 
viurap fuuepodvftlap, the fulness of his long-suffering. Some- 
times the intensive and extensive senses are found in different 
ckuses of the same sentence: Phil, 1. 3, evxapurra t# ©e^ 
futv ^l woffu T§ i*vela vfi&p vdprore hf nrdxrg Be^crei fiov, I give 
thanks to my God on the ground of my whole remembrance of 
you, at all times, in every request. 

The extensive sense, every kind, species, variety: M. 3. 10, 
vav UpSpop: L. 3. 5, Trav Spot: J. 2. lo, was av6petvo<i: Ja. 3. 
7, vaaa ^vaK, all varieties of natural disposition : M. 4. 33, 
vaaap poaop, disease of every kind: R. 7. 8, TrtUrav hnffv/ilav, 
all manner of concupiscence, A. V. every kind of irregular 
desiio: 1 T. 2. U, & veurjj {nraroff^, yielding subjection in all 
cases : 1 T. 6, l, tow? iStow SeoTroros rrdtnii ripajii d^touv ^elv 
dwTOP, of honour in every form and case in which it is due to 
them: 2 T. 4. 8, iv irdaji fuuepoBviila, koI StSayy, in every 
exhibition of long-suffering, and every mode of teaching : Tit. 
2. 16, fierh ircun)^ ^troT^?, with every exhibition of authority : 
K 4. 31, vaaa iriKpia : 1 P. 1. 10, vaaxi apaarpo^y : 1 T. 1. 16, 
ireunfi aira&o)^, every kind of acceptation. 

When the article is inserted iroi stands before the article and 
noun, but when ira? is emphatic it stands between the article 
bnd substantive : A. 20. 18, rov iravra ypopop : G. 5. 14 ; 1 T. 1. 
16. In the plural, A. 19. 7 ; 27. 37. The adjective without the 
article expresses not an intrinsic quality belonging to the noun, 
but a circumstance or condition predicated of it. The adjective 
is thus a kind of indirect predicate: E. 2. 21, iraaa oucoSo/i'^, 
the building in every part. So in Latin, "non omnia moriar." 
This may bo remarked more closely in the use of 0X09 : M. 4. 
33, SKijp t^v FaXtKalap : 16. 86, tov Koa/MP SKop i L. 10. 37, i^ 
oXiyi rifi KupSlat aov: Ph. 1. 13, ip SK(p Tf> vpantapUf. Fre- 



44 



THB ARTIOLB WITH avTOf. 



qaendy SKoi without the aitiole may be rendered adverbially : 
J. 7. 23, SXav ivdptairov, 6. man in every part, or entirely: J. 9. 
34, iv a/MprluK di iyennjOris SKtn. 

In G. 3. 88, tnmiKKxurtv ^ fpa^ rh irdvra virh dftaprlav, 
some interpret tA irdpra of creation generally. But in R. 11. 
33, we have trwix'Keurev o ©eos roixi irdvrai ek atrelOeiav. The 
difference between Toin trdina^i and tA irdura ia about the same 
as between • all men ' and • all mankind.' The use of the neuter 
ia natural and suitable when the object is to express a sentiment 
in general terms : 0. 1. 16, tA vdvra, the universe. 

iiravres is stronger than vdvrei. ♦' Avayrei universes nemine 
ezoepto designat; irtwrev ssape tantum plerosque.'^ Valckner. 
wdtrrev ivrl tow TrXiurrM, Hesyohius. 

^ The use of avrSi may be compared with the Latin ' ia,' and 
its derivatives ' ipse,' « idem.' 6 vlot airrov is equivalent to ' fiUus 
ejiis :' o dvi)p avrSi. < vir ipse,' the man himself: o airrbi dvijp, 
*vir idem,' the same man. 

' 6 avTOf, the same, is followed by a dative of the person : 1 0. 
11. 6, S»/ ydp icrri. Ka\ rh aiirb -rf i^vfnifUvy : 1 P. 6. 9, elSore<i 
rhainh. r&v iraOrifidrav Ty iv Koa/iip ifi&v oBeX/ftirvn hrm- 
\eur0M. See the Dative of Coincidence. 

awTos is never used as a pronoun in the nominative case, but 
merely in concord with the subject of the verb, meaning ' alone,' 
'of one's own accord,' 'he, and no other:' M. 1 21, avrbt yip 
araxfu rov Xoiv ainoi k.tX.: M. 8. 17, avrbv tAs da0eveia<{ 
VMfv eXafie : H. 13. 6, aMi yhp etpijKev, for he himself has 
aaid.^ Of. the Pythagorean term avrot i^xi. L. 6. 42, oiros 
h T^ 6<f>6aK/i^ aov Soicbp ov fikiirap: L. 11. 4, xal yhp airol 
d^Upxv vavrX h^tKomi fip.w: E. 6. 23, ainwi aaniip tow 
awfiaroi: E. 4. Il, xal avroi IBaKe, 'ipse, nemo alius:' M. 27. 
«7, Js Koi awTO? ifiaffifrewrt t# 'Jri<rov : J. 4. 2, KuiToiye 'I-qaoxK 
ainixi oiiK ifidim^ev: L. 24. 39, airrov iyeo elfu. 

avTOi is used to give emphasis to the action or state signified 
by the verb, especially where a series of actions or^ciroumstances 
is recorded respecting a certain subject : L. 16, 23, 24, 6p^ rhv 
'Affpaap, . . . Koi owrov tfrnv^aat elwe. So xal airrov : L. 16. u ; 
17. 16; 24. 31, Kal avrol: L. 2. 60; 17. 13; 18. 34; 24. 35! 
With this we may compare the use of xai oiroi in L. 20. 28, idu 
TWO? aSeX^s diToedvri e^t^v ywaiKa xal oSro? aTeKvo<i diroddvy. 
Here no greater stress can be laid on the person in the second 
cbuse than in the first ; the introduction of oirtxi calls attention 



4 



'; : 



ON THE USB OF awTOf. 



45 



to the circumstance as expressing the condition on the occur- 
rence of which the injunction rested. Where a succession of 
facts is stated, rising one above the other in importance, koI awrov 
is followed by xai oimxi : L. 19. 2, (Sow dvrip ovofiuTi xaXovfievo^ 
ZaKj(aioi Kol avrm ^v apj^ireKuvT)^ xal olrroi ^ irXovato^. 

In classical Greek awro? ia used in the oblique cases when 
there is no occasion for the express mention of the subject 
represented by it. But in the New Testament the oblique cases 
are used so frequently as to amount to actual redundancy. 
This probably arose from the familiarity of the writers with the 
system of pronominal a£5xes in Hebrew. To this we may also 
attribute the repetition of o-ow in M. 6. 6, of futv in L. 12. is : 
M. 8. 1, Kara^dtm Si ainm diro rov ipovi ^Ko\ov0t}<ra» a\n& 
5^Xo( iroKKoL 60 in 8. 6. 23. 28 ; Mk. 5. 2 ; J. 15. 2, irav KXij/ta 
ip ifuii p,i) <f>ipov Kapvhv aJpei avro. 

In other cases avro? occurs more frequently than perspi- 
cuity requires: M. 5. l, leaOitravrw airrov irpoai}\0ov avr^ ol 
fiadfp-aX airrov: L. 23. S3, xal KadeKmv aino everiiki^ev awTo 
aivSovi Kal edijKev ainh h> fiv^/um Xa^evrm. See Mk. 10. 16. 34. 

In some instances where awro? has preceded, a further de- 
scription of the person meant is given to add vivacity to the 
narrative : J. 9. is, arfovaip aiirop Trpof tov« ^apuraiovs, top irore 
rv<l>\6p : J. 9. is, i^ymnjaap tow yopei^ airrov tow dvapKk^aiVTO^. 

airrol in the plural is used as a collective to express the in- 
habitants of a place or district, the persons present on a par-; 
ticular occasion, or more remotely those embraced in the 
antecedent notion: M. 4. 23, wepiijyep 0X171/ rifp FaXiXaiap 6 
.'Jijo-owf Si£daK(OP €P Tali avpar/ayaK ain&p (i. e. the GalilsDans) : 
2 C. 5. 19, 6eo<s JjP iv Xpurrm KoapMP KaraXXdaatop kavr^ fiif 
Xorfi^ofuvoi airroK rh irapairrwfuira airrav, i. e. the inhabitants 
of the world : L. 5. 17, Bwa/ui Kvpiov fp> ek ro laaOai airroiK, 
i. e. the people He was teaching : 1 P. 3. 14, TOf Se <f>6^ov avr&v 
p.i) ^o^Orjre, the fear which might be impressed on them by 
the class indicated in 13, t^ 6 leaKuxrtov v/iav ; E. 5. 13, ra yap 
Kpv^ ytvopsva inr' avr&p alaxpop i<m Kal Xiri/eip, i. e. t&v t^ 
Spy a rov axoTOv^ iroiovvrav, 11. 



PERSONAL FRONOUNS. 



The older writers used the personal pronouns, iyut, aw, with- 
out any particular emphasis. But these expressions for the 
subject do not occur in the New Testament, except as in Attic 



46 



FSRSOMAL PBONOUKS. 



Greek, for the purpose of «iupliaflis, antithesis, or contrast. 
Thus M. 6. as. 34. 34, iyit Xiyo> : M. IQ. 31, /lif oiv <f>ofiridffre- 
■aoKKStv oTpovOUw Suu^pere v/m!? : L. 10. 94, ttoXXoI Trpo^nfrai 
ical fianXtK rjBilijqvav iZelv & v^(9 /SXiirere: L. II. 19, e^ hk 
irfit^ip BeeX^efiovK iK^dWa> rii Saifiovia, oi i/loi v/i&p iv t/v» 
. iK^dXKot/ai; J. 12. 34, ^/Mt9 ^icoi<rafiev K.r.\. koX vw <ru 
XiyeK . . . ; 1 J. 3. u, ^/tew oiBafuv 2t( ficra^e/S^xa/iei; ix rov 
Oavarrov evi t^i> ^riv: J. 10. 36, v/Mt9 Xeyere &Tt pKcuT^imnt. 
Here v/m!« is opposed to & t^ viiu^ vn&v (34) : J. 10. as, t^ 
ifr/a h iyo> vout i» ivoftari toO Ilarpw fJ-ou rtaha ftaprvpei vepi 
ifutu t 2 0. 11. 99, T^ eurOaitl KaX oiie aadav&; vh onaviaki^erM 
icaX ovK «7<^ <nvpovfuu ; In the second clause the excitement of 
feeling ia marked by thp insertion of eyu. — 

Sometimes the- personal pronoun is repeated: B. 7. 31, 
evplaKa Spa rov v6/u>v t^ Oikovri ifiol imieiv to icaKov, art ifiol 
rb KtuMV irapdiceiTM. 

The pronoun of the Second Person is expressed when there is 
a pointed manner in the address : J. 9. 36, ad imrrevt^ eit rov 
vlovroD Qeov: 1 0. 15. 36, d^pov trv, S <nreipei,<i ov ^aovoielTM 
iitv firi anroddvjg : J. 9. 34, iv aftapriaw <ru ir/ewrfdr)^ SKot' KaX 
av SiSdaneK 17/M9; J. B. 48, Sanapelrry; el crv; J. 13. 6, Kvpie, 
<ri fu>v vitrren row iroSav ; J. 5. 44, troit^ Bwaade vfieii irurrevtrai 
So^av trapk <l\\^\a>v Xa/u/Sai^i/re? ; K. 3. 3, (n> iK<f>€v^ to Kpijxa 
Tov Qeov; 2 Tim. 4. 6, 6, Zv hi vfj<f>e iv irSurt . . . 'Eyat yhp i]Sri 
arrhihoiuu. 

The reflexive pronoun hvrov is used in a reeiprocal sense 
with nouns of the First and Second Person : B. 8. 33, fiftevi 
ainoX iv iavroZi artvd^oftev: B. 13. 9, tvyainjoeK rov irk^viov 
<Tou <09 iavTOV : 1 O. 6. 19, ovk iari iavr&v : 2 0. 1. 9> cujtoi 
iv iavrot^ to diroxptfia toS Oavdrov i<r)(^KafLev'. Mk. 10. 36, 
Aiyovref irpin iavroui (i. e. aWijXovv). So in provincial German, 
*wir wollen sioh wasohen, statt, wir wollen una waschen.' 

The indicative or demonstrative pronouns, SSe, oStov, iKelvof, 
are equivalent to the Latin ' hie,' 'iste,' 'ille,' as distingfuishing the 
three positions, where lam, where you are, where he ia. Thus oSe 
is used for the first, and ovro; for the second personal pronoun : 
Eurip. Ah. 690, /t^ dvijax inrep towS' avSpoi, do not die for me; 
o&rof av, you there ; ri tovto Xir/tK ; what is that which you say? 
The most emphatic pronoun for the third person is iKelvoi: 
Thucyd. iv. as, ovk iifnf airoi dXX*. iKelvov arpamiyeiv, Cleon 
said that not he himself, but the other (Nicias) was general. 



DEMONSTHAirVB FRONOUNS. 



47 



tKetvof denotes special distinction either of credit or discredit: 
UepucXSyi eKcivoi, that famous Pericles : A. 3. 13, Kurh vpoaayirov 
nCKdrov Kpivairrot iKelvov diroXuetv, when that unrighteous 
judge; where iKelvov is emphatic as opposed to vpsK (14). 
In 2 Tim. 2. a6, owros and iKeluwi are by some referred to the 
same person, i. e., Zid^oKov iitayprifiivoi \m ainov e« tA 
ixelvov deXifiM, being taken captive by him to do his will ; 
where owroO is inserted, as iKelvoi} is unfit for mere reflective 
use, and conveys the idea of the subject with emphasis; but 
ixelvov brings out emphatically the danger and degradation 
of those persons who had just been taken captive at the pleasure 
of iKelvoi, their mortal foe. Some explain the passage, 'being 
rescued by the servant of the Lord to do the will of God.' 
Others render the passage, 'having been taken captive by the 
devil, they may recover themselves out of his snare to do the 
will of God.' 

In the distinction of difFerent persons, o&ros generally means 
the latter, i. e., the nearer, and eiceti/o?, the former, i. e., the more 
remote: L. 18. 14, o^o<i SeSiKau0/i€vo<i ets rov oUov nare^v ^ 
iKeivof, the latter, namely, the publican, rather than the former, 
the Pharisee, 

02to9 does not always refer to the substantive last mentioned, 
as A. 4. II, ovTOi iariv XWot o e^ovdevqdeU w^' vfUtv rStv 
oUoSofMvvTwv. Here oiro<i 19 appropriate because of vpMv 
which follows, 'This we do you to wit.' A. 8. 26, irrX rijv oSov 
r^v Karapalvovaav otto 'lepovaaXtfft. ets Td^av avvq iarXv 
Sptjfuyi'. Here ovtt) must refer to o8w, as Gaza was at that time 
a flourishing city. 

In a continued narrative oSe generally refers to the particulars 
about to be mentioned, but oCto? to what has been already told. 
So we have repeatedly in Herodotus rdSe, the following, Tavra, 
the preceding : Bev. 2. I, rdBe Xeyet 6 xparm, «.t.X., says the 
following : A. 15. 23, ypdy^avra Stit x^t/>09 airr&v rdSe : so A. 
21. 11. M. 22. 40, iv Tairrot? Tate SvaXv ivrdKali oKo^ o vo/u)^ 
KoX ol rrpotfnjrat KpipMvrai, on these two commandments just 
enumerated. The same distinction applies to towOto? and 
TototSe. The opposition between ovto« and oSc is sometimes 
foimd in the same sentence, Plato, Phcedr. p. 76, e, ei /*^ TaOra 
iariv oiihi rdBe. In consequence of this reference of ofiro; to 
what has preceded we find KaX ravra used adverbially, ' and this 
too,' to introduce a further and stronger consideration. Thus 



48 



INTBRROOATIVK. 



we may explain B. 18. 1 1, xaX tovto, and this do ye, i. e. practise 
this obedience founded on love e^ore; rbv xaipov, recognizing 
the proper season for action : 2 P. 1. 5, avro tovto 8e, but for 
this very reason. Si has an adversative force ; the false teachers 
may abuse God's grace as a plea and occasion for. sin, but (Se) 
do you regard it as a reaq^n and encouragement for holiness. 
Such is the use of koX tovto, ical Tavra, in 1 C. 6. 6, aXX^ 
oSeX^of fierh aheXiftov Kpiverai, Kal tovto irrl airloTuv : 1 C. 6. 8, 
&KKa vfitK aS(iC€(T« zeal airotmpetTe Kal tovto dSeX^vf : E. 2. 8, 
Tg ')fiip yapvrl i<m aevaorfUvoi Siii tQ$ irurrea)9, xal tovto ovk 
. i^ vfJMv, 6«oO T^ i&pop : H. 11. 12, iih kuI wf)' ivi^ iyevvij67f<rav, 
Kal Tavra vtveKpanhov. 

This distinction between oSto$ and 2Se is not marked in the 
New Testament. In the following instances ovrof refers to the 
subsequent noun : 2 J. 6, 7,- aiSn; ioTlv fi arfdinj, oSto? ioTiv 6 
trXdvot: M. 10. 3, t&v &u£e/ea diro<rrSKa>v t^, ovSfuiTd i<m 
Tavra: J. 1. 19, kuI avrq iariv 1} fiaprvpla tov ^latdwov: 1 Th. 
4. 3, TOVTO yap eoTtv OeXijfta tov Qeov 6 ar/uuriMt vfi&v, where 
TOVTO is prospective. SSe has a stronger demonstrative power 
than ovTOi, as if pointing to the object in sight : Ja. 4. I3, iropev- 
<Ttop,e0a ett TrjvSe t^v irSXiv, to this city here, which we see 
before us: L. 16. 25, vvv Bh She irapaicaXetrat, this one as you 
see. Sometimes o8e refers to one previously mentioned : L. 10. 
39, Koi T^Se j}v aSe\tf>ri KoKovftivr) Mapla. 

INTEKROOATrVE. 

The interrogative r/f is used in direct and indirect questions : 
Mk. 5. 9, Tl aot SpofM ; 30, Tit (mv r/^^aTO t&v t/iaT{av; A. 13. 
36, Tiva fu tnrovottTe elpcu ; Sometimes it is used as equivalent 
to «? T»« : 1 0. 7. 18, Tr€piT€T/iirifUpo<i Ti<i iK\^0ri ; /iti iinairdffffot. 
Ja. 6. 13, KaKorradei tw iv vpXv ; irpoaevx'^ada. In these 
instances some render tk by ' aliquis,' without any interrogation. 
In L. 19. IS, we have a double question, Xva 71/^ r/f t( Sieirpoff- 
fjMTevaaTO, ' who had gained and what he had gained.' So Mk. 
16. 34, fidXKopTK K\f}pov in avrit t(9 tI dpij: Eurip. Troad. 
248, TtV* &pa Tk SXaxev, who has gained the first choice by lot, 
and whom he has chosen. Demosth. de Corona, 73, airo Tovnov 
i^era^ofiivav tIs t/i/os atTi6<i i<m, yevt^aeTai <f>avep6v. 

With &v followed by the optative, t/ increases the idea of 
uncertainty, whatever : L. 6. u, SuXaXow irpot ahX^^Kovt tI &v 
iroi.'qaeMv T^ 'Itfaov. 



\ 



INDEFINITE. 



49 



In some cases t{$ is used for oorts : M. 15. 32, ovk ej(ovai tI 
^yaa-i : L. 17. 6, h-olfiaaov tI hei/irv<qato. 

Occasionally Tift and of are interchanged : M. 26. 60, eralpe, 
i<ft* ^ irdpei ; But this may be a short and hasty inquiry, ' Com- 
rade, the business for which you are come : ' Mk. 4. 24, fiXeirere 
T( aKovere : 14. 36, ov tI eym OkXca JiXKii tI o-v : 1 T. 1. 7, fi^ 
poovvTCi /itjTe & Xiyovai /tijre irepl TtWi/ hiafie^aiovPTcu. 

tI$ is sometimes used for iroTepo^, which of the two, as quit 
iat uter : L. 7. 42, Tk oSv avrup irXetbi' ainop ar^airi^ati ; L. 22. 
27, tI<{ yh,p fiei^ap 6 apaKelfiepot ^ 6 Siukop&p; Ph. 1. 22, xal 
t/ alptjaopai ov yvapi^a : M. 21. 31, Tk ix r&i' Zvo hrobjae to 
diKij/jM TOV iraTpoi ; 

Sometimes tU is used in conjunction with Xva, ut quid : M. 
9. 4, "pa tI v/ieii ipOvfteiade iropiipd ; This is explained by the 
insertion of yanyrax. Soph. Aj. 77, tI fti/ yipip'tu ; what is it you 
fear lest it occur ? 

The indefinite tk is used to denote importance, as aliquis, 
quidam : A. 5. 36 ; 8. 9, \eymv elvai Twh iavrov, aliquem esse : 
G. 2. 6, dirb t&v Bokovptcop elpai r/ : 6. 3, el yhp SoKet tk etpat 
Tt. So 1 G. 3. 7; 10. 19; H. 2. 6, Ste/tapTvparo Si irov Tk 
X^ap, some one — of great dignity and authority : J. 11. 49, eh 
Si TK i( avT&p Kald<f>ai, a distinguished member of their body. 

Tk may also be attached to any words which we wish to use 
in a vague or general sense : Ja. 1. 18, airap^v tk, a kind of 
first-fruits: H. 10. 27, <f>ofiepd tk ixSo^, terribilis qusedam 
expectatio. So we have <l>o0ep6p ti 0ia/ia: irriiropoi tk fiio^. 
Thus TK is used after abstract nouns to soften their import: 
Xen. Oyr. iiL 1, towtow? ■^sIto aKpaTeia tipI ^ aSiKiq, rj dfieXela 
direipat, he considered that these were absent by some want of 
self-restraint, by injustice, or negligence. 

o Seipa is used when we refer to some person whose name we 
do not know, or do not wish to mention : M. 26. 18, vTrd/yere ek 
T^p iroXtP irphs Thp Setpa. 



CHAPTER IV. 

CONNEXION OP THE SUBJECT WITH THE PRE- 
DICATE AND COPULA. — 

THE THREE CONCORDS. 

We have seen that a proposition consists of three parts : (1) an 
object of which something is declared — subject ; (2) a property 
attributed to the object — -predicate ; (3) a word which connects 
the subject and predicate — copula. . 

The subject is designated by a noun or nominal equivalent, 
and stands in the nominative, as it is named directly and inde- 
pendently. The predicate is designated by an adjective or 
adjectival equivalent as the indication of a property. The 
simple copula is designated by some verb of existence {thai, 
xnrdp'xeiv, f^lrpieaOai, ^vvai). 

As the subject is the most important part of a proposition, 
the two other parts must agree with it in external form ; hence 
the copula stands in the same number with the subject ; the pre- 
dicate in the saifie number and case, and where an adjective is 
employed, in the same gender. 

There are three kinds of grammatical concord : (1) between 
the subject and its verb ; (2) between the substantive and its 
adjective ; (3) between the antecedent and its relative. 

FIK8T OONCOBD. 

A verb agrees with its subject in number and person : iya> 
^ev^to, I flee : av Suokck, thou pursuest : oi avSpet epxovTai, the 
men come. 

When the subject is a neuter plural the verb is generally 
singular : as t^ ^&a rpi-yei, the animals are running : t^ irpof/- 
fund iari "xoKeird, the things are difficult. 

The neuter plural is, strictly speaking, an objective case : t^ 



FIRST CONCORD. 



61 



fwa T/>i^ei, as to the animals there is running. Another reason 
for this usage seems to have been a notion that life or mind 
gives to objects an individual existence, whereas a number of 
inanimate things may be regarded as a single mass. Hence a 
plural verb is used when living persons are meant, tA rekij 
vtr&rypvTo, the magistrates promisee^; and when the plurality 
of inanimate things is particularly marked, ^veph ^aav ixvij 
voXXd, many footmarks were visible : M. 12. 2i, e^wj ikiriovat : 
L. 24. II, i<f>dvri<rav t^ p^ftara. 

Sometimes both usages are combined : J. 10. 27, ri, irpofiara 
rh, ifid, Ttfi tfxupiii /lov oKOvet, koI oKoXovOoval /loi, where the 
collective unity of ret irpo^ara is denoted by the singular verb 
dtcovei, but the individuality of the several members is expressed 
by the plural axoXovdovai: L. 4. 41, i^pj^ero Soi/mvui, gives a 
general account of the whole transaction : iirnifiMv ovk da aiirii, 
XdKeiv on fjheurav rov Xpurrov avrov etvai, here the evil spirits 
are viewed in detail, one by one. 1 T. 5. 25, tA KoXi, ^pya trpo- 
6r)7M itrrf kuI ri aWaxi ij(pvTa Kpvfifjuai oi Swavrai, good deeds 
are manifest before all, and those which are not openly manifest 
cannot be kept concealed, i. e. they come to light one by one. 
Xen. Ci/r. v. 1. 14, tA lurxBifpii dvBpanria r&v etnOvfii&v dfcparf) 
ioTiv K&ireira Iptora alTi&mai, unhappy man (mankind) has no 
mastery over his desires ; and then they (individuals among 
them) lay the blame on love. 

Two or more subjects require the verb to be in the plural : A. 
16. 36, JTaCXof Kal Bapvd^tK Siirpifiov iv 'Avrioxela : L. 8. 19, 
-irapeyipovTO ek avrbv ^ ftijrtip Koi oi dSeX^l airrov: L. 2. 48, o 
TraTt)p aov KOfyeo oSwm/ievot i^ryrovfUv ae. 

Frequently the verb agrees with the nearest subject : L. 2. 43, 
OVK Srfva 'Ia<rii<f> koL 1} iirfrqp avrov: 1 C. 13. 13, w/kI Bk fUvei 
irlarK, eXirW, wfdmi. 

When the subject is a noun of multitude the verb may be in 
the plural : M. 21. 8, o 7rXet<rro$ ^ykof eorpaxrav tA tfMTia : 
Mk. 3. 7, iroXv irX^doii diro 7% raXiXalai ■qKoKovd'qaav avr&. 

The noun in its collective sense has a singular verb, but when 
its component parts are separately regarded the verb will be in 
the plural : Mk. 5. 24, ^KoXovOei ain^ SxXoi noXixt, ml avpeffXir 
fiov ain6v : 1 Tim. 2. 16, aadijo-erot (ij r^vprj) hik i% reKvoyovian 
ikv fielvaaip iv irUrra. The same usage occurs in English and 
in Hebrew, • my people are destroyed for lack of knowledge,' 
are not w. The word ' people ' speaks of them as a whole ; are 

E 2 



52 



FIRST CONCORD. 



relates to the individuals of whom that whole is composed. 
Together the words express the destruction of the whole, one 
and all. (Dr. Pusey on Hosea 4. 6.) 

The substantive is used in the singular in a collective or 
general sense : Q. 3. 28, ovk <fi>t 'lovSaioi oiiBk "EWijp k.tX. : 
C. 3. 11, OVK ivt ^dpfiapoi, SitvB7i<i, SovXo?, ikevdepoii. In col- 
lective ideas the copula and predicate frequently stand in the 
plural: t^ orpaTOTreSoi' ave}(a>povv: to irXSjdov ael IdeKovai 
<rra<7(a^eti> : II, 2. 278, "tit ^daav ^ irXijdvt. Both numbers 
are used in L. 2. 13, ^fa^i/q; iyivero trvp t^ arf^eK^ irX^do? 
crrpariai ovpavlov, atvowrav tov Qeov Koi Xeyovrav. 

The plural is frequently used though one only is meant : 
J. 3. 11, S olBaftev XoKoDfiep xal b itopaKafiev futprvpovftev : 
M. 2. 20, TtOv^Kcun yhp ot ^iitovvt£<i, i. e., Herod: Mk. 9. i, 
elal Tivh T&v &Se iartiKorav, i. e., John : 1 Th. 2. 18, ijdeKrfaa- 
ftev ikffeiv irpo; vfia<i, iyw /ikv IlavKtx:: 1 Th. 3. 1, fii^Kh-i 
ariyoPTet eiSoKij<rafiep KardKeuftdfivai iv ^Adi^vati fuivoi.. 

The subject of a verb is often omitted when some customary 
or familiar action is expressed, also when it is some unknown 
or imaginary agent, and the action alone is regarded : 1 C. 15. 
52, atOuiriaet (sc. 6 trtCKinrfierrisi). Thus o Qeoi may be supplied 
in 2 C. 6. 2 ; H. 8. 5 : i} 'Ypa^ in G. 3. 16 : to irvevfia in 
H. 7. 17 : avBpoyTroi may be supplied as the subject in M. 1. 23, 
KoKiaovai rh dvofta aiirov 'Efifiavoir^X : M. 5. 1 1, fUiKdpiol iare 
Srav oveiStauMTiv v/m9 koX Su!>^a)<ri,v : L. 6. 38, fjUrpov xakiv 
Sdxrovaiu ek top Kokirov vfuav. L. 12. 20, 'Ai^pmv, ravvp r^ 
wicrX T^v '^up^v aov airturovcriv airb aov {arfyeXoi): L. 12. 48, 
^ nrapidano irokii irepiaaorepov ahr/iaovaiv axnov: J. 15. 6, 
awtir/ovtnv airrh /vol eh irvp fioKKovai. See L. 16. 4. 9 ; J. 20. 
2; Bev. 11. 9. 

The simple copula is omitted when the coimexion between 
the subject and predicate is obvious : L. 1. 46, naxapla i} 
•irt<rrev<raaa: H. 5. 13, Tra? 6 /lerexav yaKaieroi aireipo^ X070V 
ZtKOioavvrit : B. 10. 4, t^$ vo/jlov Xpiarbt etV SiKauurvinjv. 
Especially with verbals in -t^o; : L. 5. 38, oJpov psop eh daxovi 
Kaipoiif pKryreop, 

Sometimes the imperative is omitted : B. 12. 9, ff arfairq 
apvTTOKpiTot : H. 13. 4, rifito^ 6 ydfiot ip ircuriv Koi 17 Kolni 
anlaPTot , . . atfaXaprfvpot 6 rpairm' apicovfiepoi tok vapovaiv. 



SECOND CONCORD. 



53 



SECOND CONCORD. 

Adjectives, pronouns, and participles, agree with their sub- 
stantives in gender, number, and case : ')(p7)arb<i dv^p iari 
Koipop dr/adop, a good man is a public benefit. 

Xo this general rule there are many exceptions, which fall 
under the head of rational concord. Kara avpeeriv, the concord 
being regulated by the sense rather than by the grammatical 
gender : E. 4. 17, tA Xotirh eOin) irepivarei ep /jMTatoTrjTi tov 
poot airr&p, iaKornr/iipoi t$ Siapola : Bev. 19. 14, t^ orpaTevfuna 
^KoKovBei ipSeSv/iipoi, fivaatUop "KevKOp; M. 28. 19, iiaBryrevaare 
irdpra t^ IOvt) ^airrl^oprei avrovt : A. 15. 17, irdvra rk eOprj 
i<ft 0&9 hrtKiKkryTai to Spoftd [lov. 

Hence a collective noun in the singular is joined to an 
adjectival attributive in the plural, and sometimes in a different 
gender: L. 19. 37, ^pfavTO dtrap to ifKridoii twi' fia0r)T&p 
Xo-lpovre^ alpelp tw Qeopi A. 3. 11, avpeBpafie Trat 6 Xabt 
CKda/i^on Mk. 8. 1, ira/tiroXXov oj^u opto<{ koX fir) ij(pprap t( 
^td/ycaai : A. 15. 36, iinaKey^fieda tov9 dSe\ff>ovt rfjjmp Kara 
iravap irSXiP, ep ah Kariff^etKafiep top "Koyop tov Kvpiov. 

Sometimes the word to which the adjectival attributive refers 
is suggested by the nature of the context : A. .8. 5, ^iKtmrot 
KaTeyJdiiP eh 7r6\ip t$¥ SafuipeUK iKtjpvaaop avroit top XpurrSp, 
i. e., TO(f Sa/iapelraK : M. 10. 18, ^i ■qyefiopat Si Kal fiaaiXei^ 
d'xdijaeade epeKep ifwv eh ftaprvpiop avroh Kal Toh edpetrtp. 
Here ainoh refers to ep Tot? avpar/tiayah axn&Py v. 17, and is 
opposed to Toh eOpeaip, meaning to(9 'Iovhaloi,<! or t^ \a&>. 
M. 19. 13, T^e irpoa-rjpijdSr) airrw iraiZia "pa t^9 X^tpav iiriOy 
avToh KoX trpoaev^TjTai. 01 Se fiadifra* eTrerlfiTjaav airroh. Here 
the second avTot; refers to to(9 irpov^epovaiv, as in Mk. 10. 13. 
1 P. 3. 14, TOV he ^o^op air&p /lif <l>ofiTj0fJTe, i. e., the fear 
which ot KaKOMTOPTet would inspire, v. 13: L. 23. 6I, ovroi ovk 
Tip avyKarareOei/iipoi Ty j9oi>X§ kuI tJ irpd^et air&p, i. e., twv 
fiov\evT&p: B. 2. 26, ikv oip rj aKpofivarCa to, SiKauofiara 
TOV pofutv tftvXda-trri, ovp^l ^ aKpofivarla avrov eh nepiTOfirip 
Xoyiadi^aeTai ; where ovroO refers to any one who is uncircum- 
cised, implied in dxpo^vaTia : J. 8. 44, orav XaX^ to y^evSo^ 
ex Twi' ISuop XaXeZ- ori ^^evartfi iarl xal 6 irarrip ainov, when- 
ever he speaks falsehood, he speaks out of his own nature, 
inasmuch as he is a liar, and the father of lying, i. e., tov 
XaXetv to ^^evSo^. 



64 



THIBD CONCORD. 



When (he substantives are of different genders, and inani- 
mate objects are signified, the neuter plural is generally used, 
but mth animated beings the masculine gender is preferred: 
A. 2. 4S, T^ KnjfuiTa ical t^9 xnrap^eK hriirpaaKov Ka\ Ste/iipt^ov 
airh irwrt : M. 12. 60, airii futv dSeX^of Koi a£eX^ /cat fii^p 

We may remark here, that in 2 Tim. 2. I9i the adjective is 
an attributive, not a predicate : o pivroi, arepem BefiiKtoi tov 
Oeov i<m)Kep, nevertheless the firm foundation of God is 
placed. 

THIRD CONCORD. 

The relative agrees with its antecedent in gender, number, 
and person: J, 4. 29, ISere &v0ptnrov 89 fliri not irdvra 5aa 

The case of the relative, which is naturally determined by 
the words in its own clause, generally takes the case of the 
antecedent. This is called the genitive or dative of attrac- 
tion : M. 18. 19, vepl Traprbv Trpdryftaroi oi ihv alrfjawyrai : 
L. 2. 20, hr\ iratriv ol<i ijKovaav xal elSov: J. 2. 22, hrlarrev- 
aav T^ Xo7f> . ^ ehrev : Ja. 2. 6, K\7ipov6p,ovf Trj<; ^a<riKela<i ^ 
iirqyyetkaTo : L. 6. 9, iiri rg Sfypa t&v Ix&vuv jj awiXafiov: 
1 Th. 3. 9, i'trl irdaji ry xapa ^ j^alpop.ev. 

The antecedent is generally omitted when it is a demonstra- 
tive pronoun, and the relative takes its case: Mk. 15. 12, rl 
ovv diXere voitftra hv X^ere fiaaiXia r&v 'loviabov; L. 9. 36, 
ovhevX air^Y^elKav oiSiv &v iupaKacriv : J. 6. 29, tva irurrevaifre 
tk hp airiareCKev iKelvoi: L. 23. 14, ovSev eipov aXriov &v 
Kanryopeire kot ainov: L. 23. 41, a^ia fctp &v ivpd^afiev 
airoXafifidvofiep : A. 26. 23, ovSiv J/crof Xiyap &v re ol wpo^fnjrai 
ikdXriaav. 

hf is often used with an explanatory or slightly causal force : 
1 Tim. 2. 4, S« irdvrai dvOpdmov^ OiXei <rto0rjvM, seeing His will 
is that all men should be saved. awOrjvai is the ultimate, the 
^19 67rlr/v<o<Tiv dXtjOeiaf eXdtip, an immediate end leading natu- 
rally and directly to the former, i. e. audrjpai,. 

CONCORD BETWEEN THE RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. 

The substantive is often put in the same clause and case as 
the relative : M. 21. 42, XlJdop hp aveSoxlfuurap oi oUoSofiovvTet 
oSroi iytvijOri e»9 Ke^Xifp yiopiat: 1 C. 10. 16, rbp dprop hv 



CONCORD BETWEEN THE RELATIVE AND ANTECEDENT. 



65 



KXofiev ov)(i Koaiapla rm <Tu>p,arm tov Xpurrov ecrrtv ; A. 21.^ 16, 
Syoprei trap ^ ^epiad&fiev Mpdaapl tipl Kxnrpl^: R. 6. 'l7, 
{nrnKovaare 8e ix KapSla<i ek hp TrapeSofftire rinrov StdaxTji. 

When another noun is added by way of explanation the 
relative may agree either with the antecedent or the subsequent 
noun, especially with verbs of existence, calling, and the like : 
1 0. 4. 17, eirefiy^a vpxp Ttpadeop 5? eort tUpop fiov dyainiTOP : 
E. 1. 22, if eKKXfiala ffrw i<rrl to ff&fia ainov : C. 1. 24, tov 
ffatfJMTOt ainov 6' ianp v cKKXtiaia: Mk. 16. 16, t^s avXifi 5 
ioTi -irpaiTtoptopi E. 3. 13, ep rots exl^eal (lov xnrip vpMP ^Tts 
i<rri So^a vp,ap: Ph. 1. 28, /*^ irrvpofiepoi ep fMjBepl wtto t&p 
dpTiKeiftipap, iJTK ainoii p4p e<rrtp evSetft? aTraXeiav, vfup Sk 

aaniplai. , . 

ooTts is often used to express the reason, quippe qui, and 
is thus more expressive than o?: IP. 2. 11, dirkxeaBe twi* 
aapKM&p iiridvfu&p, aXTivet orpaTevoPTai kut^ Try: irv)(^, be- 
cause they are warring: R. 1. 25, ofrwes fiervXXa^ap Tpp 
dXrideiap tov Oeov ep toJ -^cwSet, seeing that they parted with 
the true idea of God, resting in falsehood: R. 6. 2, orrtyes 
dveddpofiep Ty afiaprla, irm eri ^rjaoiiep ep ainy ; 2 T. 2. 2, 
ToCra nrapdOov irurTok dp0punroi<i oXTivet licapoi icrovrai Kal 
erkpovi StSafa*. to faithful men of such a stamp as shall be 
able, &c. See R. 1. 32 ; 2. 16 ; 1 T. 1. 4 ; 6. 9. Sorts in fact is 
often applied to an object as coming under some class to denote 
its genus or essence. Jelf, § 816. 4. Hence Sans is used 
indefinitely, where the antecedent is indefinite from the way 
the subject is presented, C. 2. 23 ; Ph. 1. 28 ; G. 4. 24 (arti/a), 
or in its own nature as involving some general notion ; ckmifi- 
cally, where the subject is represented as one of a class or 
category, 1 0. 3. 17 ; G. 2. 4 ; ea^licatively, E. 1. 23 ; G. 4. 26 ; 
differentially, where it denotes an attribute which essentially 
belongs to the nature of the antecedent, G. 4. 24 (^ts). 

As the particle of relation 'VO'A is indeclinable, the Hebrews 
introduced a pronominal affix in the relative clause, which the 
LXX represent by the oblique cases of axnot to mark the 
gender, case, and number. Of this redundancy we have the 
following instances: Mk. 7. 25, ^s elxe to BvyaTpiop ainiji 
TTpevfia aKodaprop : Rev. 7. 2, dfyyiXoK ok eSodi] ainoii : 9, 
SvXo^ TToXii^ hp dpuBp-fiaai ainop oiiBek ^SvpaTo. 

Occasionally the relative combines this usage with rational 



56 



APPOSITION. 



concord: R. 9. 23, 34, o-xevi^ e\4ovi oft? xal eKoKeaev ^/tas. 
Analogous to this usage is Mk. 13. 19, <7Xt^i9, ola ov y&yove 
roMVTti : Rev. 12. 6, iirow ixei toitop, Xva eKei Tp4<f>a<nv ain^v : 
12. u, Svov Tp&f>erai ixei Kaip6v. 

APPOSITION. 

Nouns which belong to the same regimen, and are used to 
explain or describe another, are placed side by side in the same 
case : 1 0. 9. 6, aSe\^^i> ywiuKa wepi^eiv: Ja. 5. 10, {nrSSeir/fia 
Xdfiere roii^ Trpo^ijTa? : M. 3. I, 7«a<£wijs 6 fiamrun^i : 14, 1, 
'HpaSiji 6 rerpdpxtyi: 1 P. 6. l, vpevfivripoxxLrov^ ev i/uv 
vapaKoKa 6 <rvfvirpeafi{iTepo<i kuI pAprvi j&v rov Xpurrov 
vadnitdrav, i Ka\ t^? pieXKovarfi earoKaXvirTtaOai 86^ Koivavot : 
E. 1. 17, iv ^ exo/iev rtjv drroKvrpaaiv SUi rod alfiarof rriv 
i^eaiv r&v irapairrwfjMrotv : 1 P. 2. 6, m \i0oi ^&vre<i oUoSo- 
/leiaOe oIko^ irvev/iaTiKOi. 

Apposition is sometimes expressed by means of &<nrep, 
TOvricTi : R. 7. 18, iv i/iol, roxrriariv iv if aapKl fiov: A. 19. 4, 
e*9 TW ipxofievov fier ainov ha irurreva-aai, tovtSotiv ets rov 
Xpurrov 'Iijaovv. 

Sometimes the noun which in ordinary apposition would 
stand first is put in the genitive, i. e., the genitive is identical 
with the governing noun ; this is called the genitive of appo- 
sition : A. 4. 22, TO aiifielov Try: Idcrem : 2 C. 6. 5, rov dppa0&va 
rov irvevfutrot : Ja. 3. 18, Kapvot Swotoffuwj? : Ph. 1. 11; H, 
12. 11; M. 13. 31 ; J. 12. 24; 10. 15. 37, k6kko<i aivd7re(o<}, 
alrov: E. 6. M, ivSvadfievot riv ffdopaxa rfji SiKouxrvvrjii, i.e., 
righteousness as a breastplate: R. 4. i), tnjfiehv eXafie irepi- 
roftfj^ : some read <rnp,elov irepiro^vqv : 0. 1. 6, iv r^ \6y^ t^? 
d\riBela<! rov evtvyyeXlov, the second genitive is appositive, or of 
•identical idea:' E. 4. 3, ri/v hor-qra rov tlveviiaroi iv rp 
awSiarfi^ t% eip^viy;^ the unity wrought by the Spirit (causa 
efficiens) in the" bond which is peace, genitive of identical idea: 
E. 6. 16, 17, TrArrew?, a<on}piov, are appositional genitives with 
OvpeSv, irepiKeifiaXalav. Compare o^fieiov trvpov (Thuoydides), 
Xiicrpov evvfi<{ (Soph. Antig.). 

The subject of a verb is in the nominative case : TratSes 
liZdaKovrai, boys are taught. 

A noun in the predicate is in the same case as the subject 
when the verb requires a noun to complete. its meaning: 



i, 



COMPARATIVE, SUPEBtATIVB ADJECTIVES. 



57 



'Ayafii/ivav 7p> 'Apr^elmv fiaai\eu^, Agamemnon was king of 
the Argives. 

Verbs which require a noun to complete their meaning are 
verbs of ' existence,' elfil, inrdp^a, fiyvo/uu : ' to be named ' or 
' called,' KoKov/iai, ukowo : ' to be chosen ' or ' elected,' atpov- 
/uu : ' to seem ' or ' be thought,' <l>aivofuu, ioiKa. 

ADJECmVES USED AS SUBSTANTIVES. 

In addition to the cases in which the article is inserted 
without a noun, there are several adjectives which are used 
regularly as substantives, such as ^/Xof, ix^pot, it&po<i, d^adoi, 

KUKO^. 

In many languages the article with an adjective is used for a 
substantive, ' the sublime and beautiful.' The Chreeks have to 
Kotvov, the common weal : to iUautv, justice, right : to aSueov, 
injustice : to r&v de&v ei/tevif. In Thucyd. i. 68, to rrurrbv rifi 
iroXirela^ : ii. 71, to daOevh t% "ywi/iij?: Demosth. de Cor. 
110, Kav p,rfihi etiro) irepX r&v Xonr&v TToKirev/idreov, oitola^ trap 
v/i&v e/caoTf) to aweiSov {nrdp)(£tv /tot. 

This usage is largely employed in the New Testament : R. 1. 
15, to rrpodvfutv for t; irpoOvfila : 20, t^ dopara rov 0eov, q. d. ^ tc 
dittos Swa/uf Kal Oeutrtfi : 19, to yvaarov : 2. 4, to p^pi^o'Tov : 1 
G. 1. 27, T^ fuopd, rh daOevfj, rii layypd, ril d/yanj rov Kotrfiov, 
in opposition to tov« ao^xn : 2 Th. 2. 6, to xaT^ov : H. 7. 18, 
hid TO avrifi dadevki, koI dvta^teKki; : H. 6. 17, to dfterdderov r^s 
fiovXfji: Ph. 3. 8, TO inrep^ov t^v yvcoaetot: E. 6. 12, t^ rrvev^ 
Itarucd rfp irovriplav, the spirituality of wickedness, spiritual 
powers, bands, hosts, confraternities whose essence is to work 
wickedness (compare rd XriarpiKa, robber hordes) : rd ainov, 
one's own afiairs : t^ r&v de&v, the dispensations of providence. 
r6 with a neuter adjective is sometimes adverbial, as to XotTrw, 
roiivavriov. With a neuter in -tK6v it is a personal collective, 
TO 'EKKiqvucov, TO fiapfiapiKov, to vavriKov. 

COMPARATIVE, 8T7PERLATIVB ADJECTIVES. 

The standard of comparison is represented by the genitive in 
the sense ' in relation to,' ' in regard to,' or by the conjunction 
^, signifying ' as,' ' in the manner or degree in which.' 

Sometimes the comparison is tacit rather than express; a 
single subject is mentioned, but reference is tacitly made to 
objects ftnd circumstances 'passing through the mind. Thus 



58 



COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES. 



we have the ooibparative in form though not in sense in //. i. 
382, oi Bi vv "iMoX 0vij<rieov hraaavrepoi, the soldiers then kept 
djring one after another. 

We may thus explain M. 18. i, where the comparative is said 
to be used for the superlative, rk apa luO^av icrriv; 'who then 
is greater than others P' Also i lUKporepoi, M. 11, u, he who is 
less than many ; he who holds a subordinate office. 

Under this tacit comparison we may quote J. 13. 27, ft not€i<i 
TToiqoov Ta^tov. what thou art doing, get done more quickly 
than is your present purpose: A. 17. ai, Xiyen; rt xal mcovew 
KMv6repw, news more fresh than the latest: 18. -te, oKpi^ea- 
repov avT^ i^iOano t^i» toO Beov 6S6v, more accurately than he 
knew before : 26. 10, dxi kcH <ri> koMuov iirirttvmTKeit, as thou 
fully knowest better than thou ohoosest to admit, or better than 
that I need instruct thee : 2 0. 2. 4, aXKh t^ a/ydmjv ha ti/wtc 
fiv ^w wepura-oripaxt ek v/twi, but that ye may know that the 
love which I have towards you is far greater than you imagine 
it to be : 2 0.7. 7, Sore /le /i&XKov xa/J^^at, so that I rejoiced 
more than at the simple coming of Titus: 1 0. 13. 13, fiei^tov 
Tovrav ^ arfonrq, greater among these is love, i. e. of higher 
spiritual rank, as it presupposes and comprehends faith and 
love. 

COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES. 

Frequently the comparison refers to the suppressed feelings 
of the speaker, or the subject: A. 24. 82, aKptfiiarepov eiSciK ri 
irepX -nfi oBov, 'although he had more accurate knowledge of 
Christianity than to require the information.' This use of the 
comparative is very convenient as suggestive of something 
understood which it might be uncourteous to express, as in A. 
26. 10. Other instances are 2 Tim. 1. 17, airovSaiorepov i^^njaiv 
fie, Onesimus sought out Paul with the greater diligence when 
he knew he was in captivity: 2 T. 1. is, fiiXriov ai, yivcl^aKeKi 
better than I can tell thee: 1 T. 3. u, ikiri^cov i\eeip.wp6i ae 
raxiov. sooner than I anticipate, sooner than these instructions 
imply: H. 13. 23, /leff oi, ehv rdxwv tpxnTai Sfofuu i/iai, if he 
return more quickly than I expect. 

The comparative is frequently expressed by fiaXXov : 2 T. 3. 4, 
it>tMBowi fMKKov ij ,l>i\6d€oi: Mk. 9. 42, kuUp eariv air& 

fM)OiMV. 

When the comparative contrasts two subjecta, the one which 



SUPERLATIVES. 



69 



marks the contrast or serves as the standard of comparison is 
subjoined in the genitive, or is put in the same case as the 
other subject after ^. (See the Genitive of Relation.) J. 4. 12, 
pH) ail /lel^ap el rov irarpbi fipMV 'Icuco)^ ; M. 6. 26, ovj(i "q "^^v^^ 
irKeiov iari rtji Tptxfnj^ Kal to a&pM rov ivBvpMTOi ; J. 4. I, 
'ir\eiova<i pM0tfrh<i iroieltl 'Icadvvf)^: R. 13. 11, eyyvrepov fipMv fj 
aconjpla, rj Sre iirurrevaa/iev. 



, COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES. 

When the substantive is the same on both sides of the com- 
parison, its repetition in the genitive is frequently omitted: 
H. 3. 3, irKelova Tip,r}v ij((u toS oXkov, has honour exceeding the 
honour of the house : 1 C. 1. 25, to /uopbv rov SeoO aotfyanepov 
T&v dvOpmirtov iarX, koX rh dadevk^ rov Seov Uryypofrepov r&v 
dvOponrav iarl, wiser than the wisdom of men, stronger than 
the strength of men ; so obviously in M. 6. 20 ; J. 5. 36. 

For other modes of expressing comparison, see on irapd, vrrep. 

Sometimes the comparative adjective is exaggerated by the 
addition of pSXXov, en : Mk. 7. 36, iaov avTo<; avrois SieariKXero 
PmKKov rrepiaairepov im^pvaaov: 2 0. 7. 13, irepiaaoripa^ 
PmXKov ixap^ip-ev : Ph. 1. 23, iroyX^ puWov xpeiaaov : H. 7. 16, 
Kol irepuraorepov iri Kard&ijXov iari. 

The adverb in the comparative is similarly used : 1 T. 5. 9, 
j^pa KaraXeyeaOat p.ri iKa-rrov ir&v e^Kovra yeyowia : Mk. 
16. 11, Zva /mWov tov Bappafiav diroKvari avrotv (^ tov 
'Jijo-ow). 

SUPERLATIVES. 

We have some unusual forms of the superlative: L. 1. 42, 
evXor/Tip^VT} ail iv yvvai^iv. With this we may compare hi T0Z5 
irp&TOi. This is considered a Hebraism, LXX, Cant. 1. 8, koK^ 
iv yvvat^L But compare Pind. Netn. 3. 138, atero? &)/kv9 iv irora- 
poit. Liv. 23. 44, " Memorabilis inter paucas." H. 9. 3, aiajp^ 
ri Xeyopipf) ar/ia ayitop: Rev. 19. 16; IT. 6. 15, ^aaiXeift 
fiaaiKemp, Kvpuxi KvpUnp. With these we may compare Soph. 
Ekclr. 849, ZeiKaia SeiXaitop: 0. It. 466, apprfr' d^f^rwp, & 
^iV dvSp&p. 

The force of the superlative is sometimes increased by the 
addition of irdvTiop: Mk. 12. as, Ilola iarX irpaynj iraa&v 
ePToXi] ; Some read •irdvrap, which means more than iraaSiv, 



60 



NUMERALS. 



viz. What is the first commandment and principal of all 
things P Luoian, fila vdvrav ij ye aXiid^f ^CKoao^Ca. 

NUMERALS. 

It is remarkable that the first four numerals in Greek and 
Sanscrit, and the first three in Latin, are declined, while the 
others remain without inflexion. This is accounted for by the 
fact that in the division of the oldest Greek year into three 
seasons of four months each, the first four numerals would be 
more frequently used as adjectives than the others. A similar 
remark applies to the numerals among the Romans, whose 
fundamental number was three. The inflexions were omitted 
in the other numerals without inconvenience as their use was 
more adverbial. 

eh is very often used instead of the indefinite pronoun tk : 
M. 8. 19, eU ypafifiarevt elirev avr^: J. 6. 9, ^(rTl iraiSdpiov 
li> c!*5e. The substantive in the singular is often used without 
eh, as in English the indefinite article ' a ' is preferred to the 
adjective 'one :' A. 18. 11, ixddiaep iptavrbv Kal ftr}va<i 1^: Rev. 
12. u, T/a^^erat iitei Kaipov. But in Ja. 4. 13 some copies read 
iroii^a-wfup ixei ivMtrrov tva. 

Some think that eh is used to mark a person of distinction : 
M. 19. 16, Koi tSov elf irpoaeXOwv elrrev aiir^. In the parallel 
passage L. 18. is, apxttv nv. See. J. 11. 49. 

In enumerations eh may be rendered as an ordinal or a 
cardinal : Rev. 6. l, ^i/ot^e t^ apvlov p,lav iK r&v oi^parf^v, 

eh is used for the ordinal irpSroc M. 28. 1, eh p-lav 
aafffidrav: Mk. 16. 2, irptot 1% /uai aaPPdratv. Tit. 3. 10, 
alperncop avOpanrov /lerh /ilav Kol hevrepav vovdealav nrapairov. 

Instead of the compoimds oiSeh, /J^Seh, the adjective wat is 
frequently vsed with a negative particle closely connected with 
the verb : M. 12. 25, iraaa iroKii p^piaOeiaa xaff eavT7}9 ov 
oradiqaeTak : Mk. 13. 20, ovk &v iadtOi) iraaa adp^ : L. 1. 37, 
ovK dZvvanjtrei irapit &em irav pfjfia : J. 3. 15, 'iva irat o 
irurreiKov eh ainov /it/ dvoXryrai : Rev. 22. 3, irav KaravdSe/ta 
OVK eorat Irt : M. 10. 29, iv «f avr&v ov ireaeirai evl r^v yrjv. 

Reciprocity is sometimes expressed by the repetition of eh 
in a diflerent case : 1 0. 4. 6, tva p,ij eh inrkp tov evm ^vaiovcrde : 
1 Th. 5. It, OMoSo/tetre eh top epa. Similar forms are A. 2. 12, 
a\Xo« irpov aXXov : R. 15. 2, ^KaaTOi r^ irXijaiop. The follow- 



A' 



NUMERALS. 



61 



ing expressions are peculiar: Rev. 21. 9i, &vh eh (Marov: J. 
8. 9, el? Kadeh: R. 12. 6, 6 8i KaOeh dWv^v fiiXv. In 1 0. 
14. 31, Bwaade y&p Kaff Ipa irdprei irpo^eveip : E. 5. 33, irXrjp 
Kal vp,eh ot Kaff epa, eKcurroi k.t.X. 

Distributives are expressed by doubling cardinal numbers: 
Mk. 6. 7, Bvo Bvo fip^aro diro<nSsXeip. The Greeks also^ use 
Zio with dpd or Kard. Compare Mk. 6. 39, *0, hrera^ep avToi9 
dpoKXipai, vdpTWi avp.nr6<TM <rvfiir6aia . . . dphreaoP vpoffud 
irpaautl: Mw\i.Pen(B, p.vpla fivpia, i. e. kotA /i,w/)ta&»«. 

An ordinal may be employed to denote the companions of 
the person so designated: Tp/rov awrw, myself and two others: 
2 Pet. 2. 6, 57S00V Nwe i<}>vXa^e, preserved Noah and seven 

with him. 

ivdpta is used adverbially with cardinals : Mk. 14. 5, irpadrfpai. 
hrdpa TpMKoattop ^popttop, to be sold for three hundred pence 
and more: 1 0. 15. 6, a^Bri ivdpa irepraKoaCoK; oSeX«^ots, 
appeared to five hundred brethren and more. Similar usages 
are, Plato, nv iKarrop Se/eo erq yeyopora^ : Caesar, S. G., " occisis 
ad hominum nullibus quatuor." 



CHAPTER V. 

ON THE OBLIQUE OASES. 

EvBRY object may be considered, (1) as an object by itself or 
individual whole without combination or contact with other 
things ; (2) as a member of a greater whole, in combination 
with and relation to other objects. 

An object considered by itself is in the nominative case, but 
when it is considered in combination with and relation to other 
objects, one only can be adduced as independent, while the 
others must be represented as dependent and standing in rela- 
tion to the one which is independent. This dependence is 
designated by a change of the definite appellation, which we 
call a dependent or oblique case. {Most, pp. 371, 372.) 
. The oblique cases denote the relations of things to each other, 
and are especially used to express the object of an action or 
feeling. 

The object is either immediate or remote. The immediate 
object is the thing produced or acted upon, iroui rovro, I do 
this : TVTTTo airrov, I strike him. 

The remote object is the thing or person for which an action 
is done, or towards which it is directed. 

The accu^tive, in its primary meaning, appears to denote 
the immediate otfject of an action, whether it be a thing pro- 
duced by the action, or a previously existing object immediately 
affected by it. 

The dative in its primary meaning appears to denote the 
remote object of an action as the thing or person to whom some- 
thing is given. Hence it signifies the receiver; the object 
toward which any thing is directed ; the object to which any 
thing is near or united; and (from the notion of union) the 
instrument with which an action is performed. Hence the 
dative in Greek answers to the Latin dative and ablative. 



IMMEDIATE OBJECT. 



63 



\M 



,Mi 



The genitive in its primary meaning appears to denote an 
object >a»» which something proceeds, and then the possessor, to 
whom something belongs. Hence it signifies the author or 
cause of an action or thing ; the quality which marks the class 
to which any thing belongs; the whole from which a part is 
taken; the object of an action or feeling; and the obj^t to 
which some relation is expressed. Thus the genitive in Greek 
answers to the Latin genitive and ablative. (Jacob, § 123.) 

A. 9. 4, I^KOvae <f>a>vi)v Xeyovtrav, he heard and understood its 
articukte utterance (so 26. 14) : 9. 7, a«ouow9 fi^v tIjs ifxovfri, 
hearing the sound but not the words of the speaker. 

IMMEDIATE OBJECT. 

The accusative is the case of transition, and expresses the 
immediate object of verbs, in which the action passes on from 
the subject to an object. . -x 

All verbs take an accusative of the immediate object when its 
expression is necessary to complete the sense which the verb m 
that particular instance is intended to convey. Of. Lat. • adire 
aliquem,' ' convenire aUquem.' L. 24. 62, irpoaKvvii<ravTei avrov : 
Mk. 1. 40, r^owirer&v airrov : M. 9. 27, iKiyi<rov ^fiw, vie Aa^iS: 
M. 21. 37, iinpairwovrai rov vlov fiov: L. 8. 52, SkKuiov iravrei 
Koi iK&irrovro airrov: A. 17. 23, hv oiv 071/001)^x6? euae^em: 
Rev. 9. 20, Xva fiii wpotrxwiqaatai rh Saifiovta: L. 21. 36, iK4>v- 
ryeiv ravra trdvTa rh, itiKKovra flveadai: H. 5. 2, airos irepi- 
KeiraL aadeveuiv. 

The accusative signifies that the object referred to is con- 
sidered as the point toward which something is proceeding; 
that it is the end of the action or motion described, or the space 
traversed in such motion or direction. Hence it denotes (a) 
motion to an object; (6) distance in space; (c) duration in 
time ; (d) the immediate object of a transitive verb ; (e) the 
more remote object of any verb, whether it has another ac- 
cusative or not; (/) the accusative of cognate signification, 
i. e., the secondary predication by way of emphasis of that 
which is already predicated by the verb itself; (g) an appo- 
sition to the object of the whole sentence; (A) the subject of 
the objective sentence when this is expressed in the infinitive 
mood. (Donaldson, § 460.) 

The object regarded is supposed to rest and dwell upon the 



'■-■■^1 



64 



THB ACXJUSAHriVE OF OUONATS 8IONIFICATI0N. 



mind for a certain time; U exhibited in length, extension, or, 
at least, continuous repetition and duration. (Q. R No. 223.) 
Extension, L.'22. 4I, direcnrdaOii air avr&v wael XiOov fioKriv: 
3. 6. 19, iKtfKcucoTei «»? arailov<i elKoat irivre. Duration, J. 2. 
I a, iicei iiKivav ov iroWiii ^ftipav iJj. 15. 29, Toaavra evq Bov 
Xeva> aoi : 21. 9, dweSij/iijo-e xpovotn lKavov<i. 

MOTION TO AN OBJECT. 

The use of the simple accusative to denote motion to a place 
is confined to the poets. Some, however, refer to this head, 
A. 27. a, /itKKovri irXeiv roiKi xarh rijv 'Aolap roirow. The 
older writers used the afiBx -Se: OvXvftvovBe, to Olympus: 
otxaSey i. e., olKovSef homewards : 'Ad'^va^e, i. e., 'AffijvaaBe, to 
Athens. Sometimes -ae was used as oipavoae, to heaven. 

ACCUSATIVB OF THE BEMOTB OBJECT. 

Of this there are two distinct usages : (1) when the transitive 
verb takes two accusatives, one of which denotes the imme- 
diate, and the other the remote object of the action ; (2) where 
one accusative denotes the whole body, the other a particular 
part of that body : 6 Kvpn ^pana tovs avTOfioXovs rh rStv 
voXeniuv : irpSnov yap fuv lovra fidXe ottjOoi : iraina ae SiSd- 
^ofiai : fi^Be ait toi/S* airoalpeo Kovprjv. 

J. 19. 2, Ifidriop irop^vpovv irepii^aXov ainov : M. 27. 31, 
i^ktvaav avrov "rifv j^Ka/ivSa xal iviivaav ainov rh ifiMTta airoO : 
Mk. 9. 41, 8s &v ir<n-l<rg vfulM iror^putv vSaroc 1 0. 3. 2, ydXa 
v/tas hroTura. LXX, Num. 11. 18, t/s ij/*a9 y^wfiui Kpia; so 
Is. 58. 14 : Rev. 3. is, KoiXXovpwv Syj^purov roitf o^dKiutv} <rov: 
Li. 11. 46, ^pri^ere tov? avOpahrov^ tfrnprla Bvafidaraicra : . A. 
19. 13, opKi^ofiev w/tas rbv 'Iriirovv, M3c. 5. 7; 1 Th. 5. 27: 
J. 14. 26, ixetvoi v/Mi SiBd^ei nrdvra : J. 16. 23, iaa &v air^aifre 
t6» iraripa ev rp ovofunL ftov : M. 21. 24, ipar^ata vfta^ /nvycb 
\6yov Iva. To this probably belongs H. 2. 17, l\daKea0M (sc. 
TOP Oebv) rdi dftapriaf. 

The second accusative often appears as a tertiary predicate 
or an apposition : J. 6. 5, Zva iroi'qaatnv ainov fiaaikea : L. 
19. 46, v/xet« avTov eirotijaaTe trv^Xatov Xjjtrr&v : Ja, 5. 10, 
inroSev^fita Xdfiere i% icaKoiraffeiat . . . tov9 ir/oo^Tas: Ph. 
3. 7, TAvra ffft)pMi Hqfilav. 






■1 
-I 



., 



'i4 



^:i 



THB ACCUSATIVE OF COGNATE SIGNIFICATION. 



THE ACCUSATIVE OF COGNATE SIGNIFICATION. 



65 



This is found with verbs active, passive, and neuter, by the 
figura etymohgiea : 1 P. 3. 14, tw ^ftov ain&v ftti <f)o/3r}ff^e : 
M. 2. 10, iydpfqaav ^a/o^v fieydXi}v : J. 7. 24, t^v SiKalav KpUriv 
Kplvare: 1 T. 6. 12, (u/M>Xoyi}<ra« lijv Ka\iiv 6/ioXoylav. With 

1 P. 4. 1, T^v avT^v iwoMv oirKlaaofBe, compare Xen. Anab. 
vi. 3. 1, "ypii irapa^KevaaafUvoiK "njv iivmp,i)v iropeveadai. 

The adverbial use of the accusative expressing a secondary 
predicate is very frequent : A. 20. 35, irdvra inriSei^a vfiiv, 
in all things (so 1 G. 9. 25 ; Ph. 3. s) : M. 23. 37, iv rpoirov : 
Q. 4. 1, oiiBev Sia^pet SovKov: J. 6. 10, rov dpidphv cuo-el 
irevTowio^/Xtot : J. 8. 25, t^v apf)^v 8, ri Koi \aK& i/uv : M. 
10. 8, Sapehv iKdfiere Bapehv Sore: E. 3. 1. 14, tovtov x<lpii>: 
G. 3. 19, r&v irapafidaemv x^P^"' ^- 1^* ^^> O'l^l^V^ 'co^ v/tetf 
aawerol iare : M. 10. 23, ov itif rekkaifre t^« iroXetv, q. d., t^v 
et9 rAf voKeiM oSov: 2 G. 3. 18, t^v ainifv elicova fiSTafjtop<j>ov- 
/leda, after the same model we are in process of transformation : 

2 G. 6. 13, Ti/v Sk ainifv dvrifuadiav irXaTwdifre km, vfieiv, 
"upon the same principle of returning like for like be ye 
also widened." "Wratislaw. 

To this we may refer the accusative of time and space : 
1 P. 4. 2, Tov iirtKonrov iv vapici, fiiwarai j(p6vovi J. 4. 52, 
j(j9ei &pav efiSoftTjv a^^Acei/ ainov 6 irvperoi. 

The neuters of oiTo<:^ ainoi, rk, are often thus employed 
adverbially to denote 'why,' 'for this reason:' Latin, 'quid 
cunctarisP' Oerman, 'was mogest duP' Gicero,,^d^ Dtv. vii. 
1, * utrumque hetor,' I feel both delights, I am delighted on 
both accounts : Xen. Anab. i. 9. 21, xal r/dp aino toOto : .Plato, 
Protag. 310 e, aind rama vvv ^Kta irapd ae : Demosth. Fala. 
Leg.,t «al davftd^a, wherefore I wonder : Aristoph. ItancB 703, 
el Se TOVT* vfKaaofieaOa Kdiroaeftviwov/ieda t^v voKiv (so 1368). 

This adverbial accusative is used in G. 2. lo ; 2 P. 1. 6, avro 
TovTo, for this very reason : Ph. 2. 18, to S' ainh kuX vfielf 
yalpere, and for the same reason do ye also rejoice : Ph. 1. 9, 
KcH TOVTO Trpoaev)(pnai 'Iva k.t.X., and therefore I pray that . . . : 
Ph. 1. 25, KciX TOVTO ireiroiOan olSa, and therefore I know with 
Confidence: 2 0. 2. 3, xal iypai^a vfuv tovto aino, and I 
write for this very reason : 1 C. 10. 6, Tuvra Sk tvvoi fifiStv 
iyevj^0i]aav, in these things, however, they became models to 
warn us ; where Mr, Wratislaw quotes Aristoph. Pax 414, 



66 



TUB GBNITIVK. 



TOUT* ipa vdKm r&v ^fupitv TrapeKKeirrirvv, thoBo then were 
the reasons why they had long heen stealing off a portion of 
the 'days t .^Isoh. Prom. v. 275, ravrd rot irXaviofihni irpoi 
SKKot SXKov ir^futvii irpocri^vei, in this way calamity wanders . 
about, and approaches sometimes one person, sometimes another. 
(Notes and Dissertations, pp. 94. 100. 117). 

THB ACCUSATIVE I}S( APPOSITION TO TUB WHOUB 8£)iTENCB. 

Sometimes an acouBative is put in apposition to the object 
of a sentence : R. 8. 3, to aSwarov rod vSfiov . . . 6 Qeii 
Ti» iavToO vliv irifi^evt ... KoriKftn t^i» aftafyrtav: 12. l, 
vafMKeiKM vfta^ v<ipaarf}<rat rh ad/iara vft&v dvalav ^&<rav, 
ayiav evdpearov r^ ©e^ t^v "Koytic^v Xarpelav. So A. 26. 3. 

TH^ ACCySATIVB AS flUWaCT OF THB INFIKITIVB. 

The subject of the verb in the infinitive mood is put in the 
accusative case; but after verbs of commanding, entreating, 
tt>a with the conditional mood is used: M. 16. 13, riva fu 
TJyowroi ol SvOptmoi elvau; A. 16. 15, d KeKpixari fie irurriiv 
t^ Kvpi^ ehtu: K 15. 8, \^a Sk 'Ii)aovv Xpitrrbv StdKovov 
yeyevTJireai t^ vepiTO/ifjt : 1 0. 7. 26, vofii^a olv tovto koKou 
inrdpxew : L. 24. 23, ot TJyovaiv avriv ^jjp : A. 26. 26, \av0dveiv 
f^ap axnov Tt Totnmv ov irel0o/iat ovSiv : M. 4. 3, elvi Xva ol \l0ot 
o&rot aproi yevavrai. Both are used with 6eK(o Mk. 16. 35, 
36, OeK/iftev Xva 8 ^^i; alrqaanev voi^iryi fifuv. -O Sk ehrev 
avToif * Tt diKere Trot^aat fu iifuv ; 

THB OBNITIVB. 

The genitive denotes every kind of relationship. The pri- 
mary idea is the ' whonce-case,* and invariably expresses the 
antecedent notion. Its regular uses may be divided into the 
three heads of ablative, partitive, relative. Under ablative 
and partitive may be arranged all those usages which are 
expressed by the prepositions 'of,' 'from.' Thus Donaldson 
remarks, § 448, " Whenever we wish to express that an object 
is the starting-point from which we set out, the cause o/ some 
action, the substance Jrom which we derive a sensation, or the 
source /rom which something else proceeds, the material of 
which it is made, or of which it is full ; that it is something 
from which we desist, ^o»i whioh we are separated or set free, 
or <j/ which we are deprived, in all these instances we have the. 



'r/^-^' 









■l*^ 



■■-, 



'•■■s 



K^' 



i 



THE OBNITIVB OF OBIQIN. 



67 



Oreek genitive as an ablative case. And when we wish to 
express that an object is a whole, Jrom or out ^ which we take 
or give a part, we employ the Qreek genitive as a partitive 



case. 



With this we may compare the account of the genitive in 
English, given in Angus's Handbook of the English Tongue : 
*' The genitive has a double force, attributive and objective. The 
attributive genitive indicates some quality of the noun on which 
it is dependent, as origin, or agency, possession, mutual relation 
of persons, quality, material or substance of which something 
is made, or the class to which it belongs as part of a whole | 
the genitive of definition, or partitive genitive, as this last is 
sometimes called. The objective genitive expresses the object 
of some feeling or action." 

THE GENrrrVB OF ABLATION. 

With verbs of removal: L. 16. 4, Stcw ner<urrad& t^ 
clicovofi,la<i : Mk. 2. 21, alpet t6 irXi^po/ua avToS to koipop roO 
iraXaiov: A. 15.- 29, awijfetrdeu e^uXoOvrapi 1 T. 6. 6, 
airetrreptmhtap Tiji aKriBeia^ : Xen. Anab. v. 1. 2, Travadfiepo^ 
Tovroiv r&p iroptopi 1 P. 4. l, ^ itadmp hi aapxi rrhravrat 
aftapriat: E. 4. 16, drniXKorpuiaitipoi t^$ ^arjv tov Oeov: 2 F. 
2. 14, dKaTanrauarow ajiapfrltK. Sometimes & preposition is 
inserted : Rev. 14. 13, Xva apuiravcriapTai ix r&p kowwp avr&p. 

With verbs denoting production or its result: Hdt. v. 82, 
j^oKkov iroUoPTOc rh, arfoKfuiTa: ii. 138, earpaphnf iarX oSo^ 
\iSov. This use of the genitive is sometimes accompanied 
by diro, or ix: J. 2. 15, ttomjctcw ^par/iKXutp ix v)(oipmpi M. 
27. 29, irX^{avT£( oriiJMVop i^ UKapd&v. 

THE GENITIVE OF ORIGIN. 

To this head of ablation we may refer the genitive of deriva- 
tion, source, origin: L. 3. 23, v(o$ 'Iomt^^, tou 'H\/: B. 1. 0, 
icKifroX 'Irfffov Xpurrov: A. 1. 4, rifp iirofyyeXlap ffv ^Kowrari 
fuov. J. 6. 45, eaopTOA irdme^ hihaicTol rov 6eov: E. 6. 11, t^v 
' iravoirXlap rov Oeov, source, origin, whence the* armour comes : 
E. 6. 17 1 Ti/v fid'}(aipav rov Ilpev/juirov, the word which the 
Spirit supplies, the word of God, the Svpaim Oeov, R. 1. 16 ; 
1 0. 1. 18; H. 4. 12; E. 2. U, t^ fteaoroixop rov ^parfiutVi 
the wall which resulted from the fence between Jew and 
Gentile: 1 T. 4. i, iiZaaKc^Jm^ Stuitoplmv, doctrines sug> 

F 2 



68 



THB OBMITIVB OP FXJLNUSS AND DBFICIBNCY. 



gested by devils (gen. aubjectt): E. 6. 4, ip iraiSel^ xal vovOeala 
Kvplov, Him from whom they proceed, and by whose Spirit 
they must be regulated. 

Thus the genitive is used with substantives to denote the 
cause or origin of a thing: 2 T. 1. 8, Sia/juov avrov, gen. 
auotoris, whom He has made a prisoner: 2 0. 11. ae, KivSvvot<i 
wora/mv koI Xnar&v: E. 4. 18, t^s {ia^s rov Qeov: R. 4. 13, 
StA SiMuoavm}^ wltrrem: E. 1. 13, top Xoyov Ttyi oK-qdelai, 
gen. tubatanticB, truth was its very essence and substance. 

Also definite agency : 2 Th. 2. is, ip a^uurfi^ Tlveviumyi : 
E. 1, 18, 4 tKirh rrfi KXi}<re(i>$ avroS, the hope which the calling 
works in the heart (gen. of the cauaa efficiem): 1 Th. 1. «, 
Xa/>a« IIpevfMTOi, joy inspired by and emanafing from the 
Spirit : E. 4. 4, iv fi,i^ iXirlSi rrj^ KXijtreai vft&p. 

THB GBNITIVB OP PULNESS AND DEFICIENCY. 

To this we may refer verbs and nouns of fulness, as these 
denote the matter or substance ; also of want, as these imply 
separation or removal from the object : M. 23. 28, ftearol 
inroKpiaem km dpo/tlav: R. 15. 13, 6 Oeoi irkripdxrM v/tai 
vdarjii x'ipO'l itciX elpijptpi : L. 1. 63, ireiv&PTa<{ ipbrkqaep ar^ad&p: 
A. 5. 28, 7r£7rXi;piu/caT« t^i» 'lepovaakiip, t^s ii,ha)(fp v/i&p: 
J. 2. jr, feftlaare tA? vSpia^ vBaTO<i: M. 22. lo, hrX'^aOii 6 
ydp.o<i avaKetfih/wv: L. 11. 39, to Saadep vfi&p fifiei dpnarftj^ 
Ka\ TTOvTipia^ : L. 15. 17, voaot filaOioi rov irarpin fiov irepur- 
vevovatp dprup : L. 4. 28, hrk-qadtiaap Travre; dvfuni : A. 2. 88, 
irXfipmaevt fte eiMppoamni'i : 27. 38, Kopetrdhnet rpotfnjs : Mk. 14. 
13, Kepd/tiop vSarov: 3, dXafiaarpop p,vpov vdpSov: J. 21. 8, 
TO BtKTvop T&v ixjSvoip : Ja. 1. 6, et rn v/t&p Xeiirerai aotjtLtvi : 
R. 3. 23, rrdvref varepoOvTai lifi S6^ too Oeov: L. 22. 3S, 
ore dvlaretXa vpa^ arep fiaXaprtov koI iTQpaf Kal inro&fipMTwp 
fiil TWO? varep^aare; 01 hi etvop- OiSevo^: A. 17. 25, ovSi 
ffepaireverai rrpoaSeofievoi Twof. 

To this class belong the collective words which are followed 
by a genitive: A. 6. 7, hrXtiBwero 6 dpiffftm t«i» fui8ryr&p 
— TToXw? S'X^ T«i» lepiap inriJKOvop ry irkrrei: 1. 15, S^koi 
ovo/idrap : L. 1. lo, irap to ir\ij0o<i tow \aov : J. 5. 3, irX^^o? 
TToXw Twi; dadepowrap : A. 28. 3, ^pvydpup TrX^^o9 : M. 8. 30, 
dr/eKi} ■yplpop : L. 16. 6, iicarop Pdrovt iKaiov. 

Quantitative noims estimated by measurement: A. 1. 13 
aafifidrov i^ov oS6p : L. 2. 44, t^X^oi' ^p,ipwi ohop. 



rrHB QBNinvB of partition. 



69 



This is frequently used with dvo, marking its use as the 
genitive of ablation : J. 11. 18, Ijp ^ Bijdapia ^yyvs tmi/ 'lepoao- 
XvpMP dn dir6 aroBUop SeKuiripTe : Rev. 14. 20, otto araSuup 
X^XUtp k^cucoalap. 

THE genitive OP PERCEPTION. 

The perceptions of the senses, hearing, smelling, taste, and 
mental emotions, are expressed by the genitive of ablation. 
The object itself is regarded as the source or material from 
which tiie perception emanates, and the percipient is supposed 
to draw his perception from that object, which is therefore 
placed in the genitive. In a secondary sense the object may be 
said to be the generic origin of the sensation : L. 14. 24, ov5el« 
rS»p dpSp&p iKelvwp tuv KOcXijpApcap yevaeral pav tov Sehrpov: 
A. 23. 14, pfjSeph yevaaaBat. In the New Testament the 
verbs i<r$Utp, ^nvyelp are repeatedly followed. by diro, ix, see 
M. 15. 37 ; 10. 11. 28 ; H. 13. id. Of this there is no exact 
instance in classic Greek, though diroXaveiv dfirS two; is akin to 
it : A. 9. 1, ip,irpeap dveikfji xal ^i/ov, inwardly breathing (redo- 
lent of) threatening and murder : Arist. Equit. 457, ovro« fj^ 
kokUk Koi trvKo^prlof vpel: L. 15. 25, j^xovae ovp^fmpltK koI 
Xop&p I Mk. 14. 64, ^xovo'aTe t^v pKaai^p>UK '. L. 17. 32, ptpiipo- 
v6V£Te T^ yvpaucoi Awr : L. 1. 72, ppijadijpai SiaO^ictfi. When 
verbs of remembrance are followed by a genitive the meaning is 
simply 'to remember,' the object being regarded as that from 
which the memory emanat^; by an accusative, 'to keep in 
remembrance,' ' to bear in mind :' A. 20. 33, dpyvpkv ij "xpvaiov 
^ IpaTur/tov ovSepoi €ir€0vp,tfa-a: 1 T. 3. l, et tk hruricoirrfi 
opSyerai, xaXoO Spyov hnOvp^i Philemon 20, pal h/m crov opal- 
p.i)p : R. 15. 24, Olp vpMP wp&TOP dirb pApovi ip.irXijaffa. 

THE OENITIVB OP PARTITION. 

In some of the preceding instances which denote the measure- 
ment of time, space, or which express mental perceptions, the 
genitive of ablation passes insensibly into the genitive of 
partition. 

The genitive of time expresses within the space of a certain 
amount of time, or within the limits of the year or day : ot 
voXip,toi dire)(mpqaap pvieroi. In the latter usage we may 
supply ftipei or &p<f, which renders it partitive or possessive : 
Mk. 13. 35, oiiK otSare irore icvpio^ t% oUta^ Spj(erat o^i 



ro 



THB OKNITITB OF VBI4ATIOS. 



^ Heaowierlou, ^ iXgwropwpmvlav, where a portion of the night is 
evidently intend^ So M. 25. 6, ftia'^ WKrht Kpavfy y^opev : 
A. 26. 13, ^/iifios i»Avni Kwrh, t^v ^v elSov. 

The partitive ose of the genitive is clear in 1 0. 10. ai, ov 
iwaaOe rpairi^^^ KvpCov /tere^ew Koi rpaTre^Tyi Saifiovuov : 2 T, 
2. 6, Tov Kovi&vra feapybv Set irp&rov twi> Kapn&v tieraXa/i- 
fidvetv: H, 7, 13, ^uX^f iripaf fteriaxOKf i 1 0. 10. 16. 18, 
Koivavla rov aJfuvToi roO Xpurjov, kowwvqX tow Bvauurrqpiou : 
H. 3. 1, wXi)arcci>9 iirovpavlov /UriyxQt, 

80 also with adjeotives of (uv indefinite number, with pronouns 
or Buperlativest where the substantive is ; considered' as a whole, 
and the adjective as a part : M. 3. 7, voKKoixi r&p tapuraUov 
Kal SaSSovKatwVi. M..15. 37, ri Vipiavfwv r&v icKacrfidrwK: L. 
19. 8, tA ^fiitni r&v {mapxivrav nav : M. 27. 47, r/ves t&v ixei 
iarmrav : L. 14. 19, t2c r&v tnweaiaKeiftivctv : 1 0. 15. 9, o ^Pui- 

elvat and yiyvearffat are repeatedly used in this sense : M. 6. 

13, aov icrriv ^ fieuriKela ; L. 20. 33, t/vo? avr&v yiveTa$ ywij; R, 

14. 8, idv T< 001/ ^&fiev, idv t« dirodvTJaiuofiev, tov Kvplov iofUy : 
2 T. 2. 19, Jyvw Kvpioi Toiq BvTa<i avrov : H. 10. 39, jJ/*«s ovie 
iafiiv vjrooToKffi : 12. II, iraaa vatSeta ov ioKei xap&i elveui 
1 0. 1. 13, iya> fiiv eifu IlavXov: Mk. 10.' 14, t&v 7^/9 toiovtwv 
itrrlv ■/) ^curiKela toS 6eov, for to such belongs the kingdom of 
God : Xen. Anab, ii. 1.4, tok yitp fidjfiiv vuaovrav kuI to apj(ei,v 
iari, for to those, who win the battle belongs the sovereignty as 
well : 9, ou t&v vnewvTav etrj Tit iirKa iraptiSiMvat. 

Verbs which do not in themselves denote participation, but 
which imply acquisition of port of the object, are followed 
regularly by a genitive of partition : L. 16. 24, ha fid-^ to 
&Kpov TOV SaicrvKov avrov vSarof : 1. 9, SXa^e tou Bvfudaai : 
20. 35, o( /cara^uadivrei rov al&voi iKeivov Tv^eci/: A. 27. 36, 
irpoaeKd^ovro rpo^. With this compare L. 24. 42, iiriSttKav 
avT^ V)(j3vov onrrov fiepoi /cat diro fieKuralov icijplov : 2 T. 2. 16, 
M, irXetov TrpoKo^ovmv dae^e'uv}, they will advance to greater 
measures of ungodliness, 

THK GENITIVE OF RELATION. 

Under this head come all the uses where wo may introduce 
the words * in regard or respect to,' ' pertaining to : ' Mk. 14. 64, 
Svoy(pv Oavdrov: H. 6. 9, rii Kpeirrova Koi ixo/teva ffwrripiav, 
quao ad salutem faciunt; quao ad salutem proxime adducuut: 









I 



IDIOMXTIO VSAOfiS OF THE GENITIVE. 



71 



Xen. Anab. yi. 8. 1, koivS t^ varrnplaf ixeadcu. rov wddovt 
olierelpm ae. airi&vrai dXXi^Xot/s rov yeyevri/iivov. rrjt fiiv 
ToKfuift ov Oavftd^a. evj(w\f}9 hnfi>kii^>erai. 

The gen. marks the standard of comparison with compara- 
tives, superlatives, and all words which denote comparison, 
value, buying, selling, exchanging: Mk. 4. 32, iravrav r&v 
'Kaxdvmv /lei^wv: M. 10. 29, ov^l Svo arpovBIa daraaptov 
TTtdKeirat ; M. 16. 26, t» hutvei avOpunro^ dvrdXKarffM rijt -^n/j^? 
avroO I M. 26. g,"ijSvvaTo rovro rb fivpov irpa$rjvai ttoXXoO: 1 0. 
6. 20, ^opdaff'qre Tiiifji : M. 10, 31, rroKK&v orpovOiav Zia^tpere 
vfieh: J. 8. 65, iaofieu onoiot v/t&v ^frevanji, denoting oom-i 
parison, or resemblance in internal character. E. 4. 16, Siii 
nrdmyi d^t rff; hrtxapriyla^, gen. deflnitivus, by which the pre- 
dominant use, purpose, or destination of the d<f>^ is specified 
and characterized 'through every joint for the supply,' t^ 
denotes the specific eirixop-, which Christ supplies: E. 2. 12, 
^ivoi r&v Sia07)K&v, strangers in regard to the covenants ; gen. 
of * the point of view.' So 1 Tim. 1. 16, rrpos inrorvirtaaiv r&v 
fteWovTtov: Ot. 2. 17, dfiaprlat SidKovo<i, a ftirtherer, a promoter 
of sin: 2 Th. 2. u, ivipyeiav TrXavq?, a working which tends to 
enhance and develope delusion: H. 9. 21, aKewj 1^9 Xeirovpyia^, 
vessels for th6 service : E. 1. 14, ew atroKurptoaiv rrfi irepmofq- 
aean, to effect redemption in respect to purchasing: Kev. 18. 
14, 17 onrutpa t^s hriBvftlai t^s '^wjc^s <''<«' (i- 6- ^ vtrmpa ^s hriSv- 
fiei ^ fjrvxfi aov, the fruits which thy soul, desires) : E. 4. 29, 
irpoi oiKoSofiiiv T^ j(pelai, for edification in respect of the need, 
the genitive of remote reference or of the point of view; 
edifying which satisfies the need: dvof^Koiov iv t§ irpoxei/ievy 
7(pela, Theophylact. 

Kence varied relations of time and place : M. 1. 11, 1^9 fieroir- 
Kefrlai Bafiv\&vof, the transmigration in regard to Babylon: 
C. 1. 20, Sid TOV aXfJMTO^ rov oravpov ainov : Jude 6, et? Kpiaw 
lurfeLKi)<{ ^fiipa^. 

From the genitive of price there is an immediate transition 
to that of cause or motive : A. 21. 20, vdvret ^rpumal rod v6/iov 
inrdpj(pv<ri : 26. 3, yvmanjv Svra ae irdvrmv r&v Kard 'lovSaiom 
ed&v re icdX ^ifrqfidTav ', Ja. 1. 13, « ffdp Oeoi direlpaaro^ iari 
KUK&v, is unassailed as far as regards evil thoughts. 

IDIOMATIC USAGES OF TIIE GENITIVE. 

Besides these there are certain idiomatic usages which are 



72 



THE QEMITIVB Oy POSSBSSIOK. 



Btamped With a special impreae, such as the possessive genitive, 
the genitive of contact, the tentative use, and the genitive 
absolute. (Donaldson, § 454.) 

The possessive genitive is nearly allied to the genitive of 
partition, and may be rendered by the English ' of or belonging 
to:' E. 1, J, dTTooToXov Xp. 'Iriaov. the Master whose minister 
and servant he was : A, 27. 23 ; R, 1. i ; I Th. 2. 6. This 
must be distinguished from the gen. of ablation, which would 
mark the source of his commission. The principle adopted by 
the poets of using this genitive as a substitute for an epithet 
is greatly extended by the writers of the New Testament from 
the influence of corresponding expressions in Hebrew. Thus 
we have Soph. Jntiff. 114, Xev*^ j^lotxxt trripv^. a snow-white 
wing: Hkctra 19, &<rrpa>v ev<f>p6vri, a starry night: Eurip. 
I^Acm. 1616, rpavfuiTa aJfiaroi, bloody wounds. These geni- 
tives express much greater intensity than any mere qualifying 
adjective, as the quality is considered to be an essential and 
component part of the subject to which it is attributed. 

L.-16, 8, TOP oUopo/iop T^ aSiKlai: R. 1. 26, nddri arinUm: 
2 Th. 2. u, ipipyeuip ir\dpti<t, an efficacy of delusion: I T. 6. 
17, ^l ir\avTov aSrjXoniTt: R. 7. 2i, autfMroi rov dapdrov 
rovTov: H. 1. 3, tw prmari 1^5 Swa/wws awroO: Rev. 13. 3, 
fl irharfy Tofl BapwTov avrov : Ja. 1. 25, aKpoa-riys hn\i)atiopi)<i : 
E. 2. 2, Tot« viah Trj<; airuBeUvi, a disobedience to which they 
belong as children to a parent. "This marks more vividly 
than the adjectival construction the essential and innate dis- 
obedience of the subjects." Ellicott. E. 1: 13, rh eiayyiktop riji 
tramjplat vfmp, the good news which turns upon and reveals 
your^ salvation: 1. 10, et? oUopo/iiap rov irX^prnjuiTixi r&v 
Kaip&p, the dispensation characterized by, and so to be set 
forth in, the fulness of time. " Propria plenitudini temporum." 
R. II. 6, KUT ixXoyriv x«/>tTos, according to a selection of 
favour, i. e. on the principle of a selection made by gratuitous 
favour. 

The genitive of possession may denote either the subject or 
the object : E. 6. 19, to ftvaTijpiop rov evwyyeXlov subjecti, the 
mystery which the Gospel involves: E. 1. 9, to /iv<rrtjpiop rod 
6e\i^fiaro<t obj'ecti, in the matter of, concerning the will. In 
Rev. 19. 10 both senses may be involved : jJ /lap-rvpia rov 
'I-qaov iorl to vpevfta t^s irpo^eUvi, the testimony borne to 
Jesus, or, the testimony proceeding from Jesus. 



THE GENITIVE OF PKETWMINATING QTJALITT. 



73 



The following are objective genitives; rov dpSpo^ evfiiveia, 
goodwill to the man: eirucovprifia t^s xtovos, defence against 
the snow : M. 10. I, e^ovaUtp iFpevfidrap aKaddprmv, power over 
unclean spirits : 10. 5, ek oSop iOp&p, way leading to the Gen- 
tiles : H. 11. 26, rov opetSiafiop rov Xpiarov, reproach sustained 
for Christ : 0. 1. 24, rh, vtrrepijfiara twv BKlyfrettp rov Xpiarov : 
J. 2. 17, o 5^X0? toO oUov aov: Tit. 2. u, ^ijKarfiv koK&p Ipyap, 
specifying the object about which the ^\o<i waa displayed : 2 T. 
I. 8, rh fiaprvpu)p; rov KvpLov ^/i&p, about our Lord. " Omnia 
prsedicatio vel confessio quaa de Ghristo fit apud homines." R. 
9. 23, aicevi) opyfji}, i)Uov<t, vessels which are objects of wrath, of 
mercy: A. 9. is, axevo^ ^w\o7^$, an instrument, which is an 
object of selection : E. 4. 23, Tp Jlpeu/iari rov pobi vfi&p, the 
Divine spirit with which the vooi is endued, of which it is the 
receptaculum. 

So with the possessive pronoun : L. 22. 19, ell rifv ifi^p apd- 
/ivTjatp, for remembrance of me. The genitive (subjecti) is also 
used in apposition with the personal pronoun implied in the 
possessive adjective: 0. 4. 18, 6 aairaapm ry ifi^ X^V^ 
HavKov. 



THE GENITIVE OF PREDOMINATING QUALITV. 

The genitive is used to define the characteristic quality and 
design of the preceding substantive: M. 22. Ii, epSvfta f^dfuw: 
24. 16, TO fiSikvyfia rr}<i ipi)pMaea»^ : 2 Th. 2. 9, ripara y^evSov^ : 
H. I. 8, ^a/8£of evOvTrfTot: E. 5. 2, eh 6a-fii}p ewoSlan 2 P. 2. 1, 
aipiaeK atrtitKelai, perdition was their mark and character : 2. 
14, Kardpcn reieva, they had not the character of children at all 
except in relation to the curse : I P. 5. u, darrdiraade cLhXrjKovi 
iv <f>iX^fiari ar/dinf}'. G. 5. I, (Vyw hovKela^'. E. 6. 12, t^ trpev- 
/uirucii rrjii iropriplai, the spiritual communities of wickedness, 
characterized by essential wopifpla : I P. I. 14, riwa inreucofji, 
children of obedience, to whom obedience is as a mother com- 
municating her nature to yours (Wordsworth) : Mk. I. 4, 
fidirrur/ia furavolai, baptism which binds to repentance, to 
change of heart and life : H. 4. 2, 6 X6709 riji dKoi^<{; the word 
of hearing, the word uttered in order to be heard : Ja. 2. 4, 
xpiral SiaXoyia-fi&v iropijp&v, judges (under the bias) of evil 
musings: R. 9. 31, p6fio<; SiKatoawti^, a liaw or system for 
gaining righteousness : G. 6. 6, ix vtarettt ikrriBa SiKauurwrjit 
direKheypiuBa. The Jew regarded Zucaioawii as something 



74 



THB OKKITIVB OF PBEDOlllNATINO QUALITY. 



outward, present, realizable; the Chriatian as flomething in- 
ward, future, and, save through faith in Christ, unattainable. 
Aucawawn is one of the divine results which stretch into 
eternity, and involves the idea of future blessedness and glorifi- 
cation. H. 13. 20; 1 Th. 6. 33, i Oeos t^s e/pjjw;9, God the 
author of peace, the God of whom peace is a characterizing 
attribute; the gen. marks the deep inward peace and tran- 
quillity which as God's especial gift stands in close alliance 
with holiness. In cognate expressions, as A. 7. 2, i eeh<; -r^e 
Sofij?: E. 1. 17, i variip t^9 Wfij«: Ja. 2. 1, rov Kvptov ^ii&v 
'Iijtrov XpuTTOv T^s Wfijs, the gen. is said to be a Hebraism, 
having merely the qualifying power of an adjective. But no 
one would render Ja. 1. 17, rov Trarpht rmv ^Ta»/, 'the 
enlightened father,' rather than the source of all enlighteping 
qualities. Hence we may consider -riji Sofij? to mean the 
Author of Glory to whom all glory belongs, in whom all glory 
consists. E. 1. 13, rp wvev/uirt t^s iwcvyyeXiav, is more than 
the promised spirit, as it means the spirit, the main subject and 
theme of promise : E. 3. 1 1, xarit -irpiOeaiv r&v altmmv, the 
purpose determined on in the ages : R. 16. 6, ©eos t^s vno/wi^t. 
"Deus qui largitur tnro/iovrjv." Tittmann. God who impartii 
brave patience. 1 P. 5. lo, Oeos x^P'^o?, God who is the 
author of grace. 

Many substantives are joined with irvevfta to denote the 
specific xap*<'/«»i or characteristic quality. Thus J. 14. 17, 
t6 wpev/ia t^ oKifieUut, the Spirit, who is the author and 
teacher of truth : H. 10. 29, rh mievfta "rij^'x^erm, the giver of 
grace: R. 1. 4, mevfta iyuxrvvTH, essentially holy, and the 
efficient agent of holiness, " Non quidem id ipsum quod irveSfia 
wytov, sed gravius et ifuftariKm sermone venerandum." (Bret- 
schneider.) Then we have a number of other passages where 
weOfM ultimately refers to the Holy Spirit as the inworking 
power, but immediately to the state of the inward spirit, as 
wrought upon by the Holy Spirit : G. 6. 1, irvevnan irpa6nrrp<i : 
R. 8. 15, imevfut viodetrlai: 2 0. 4. 13, tA owto irvev/ia t^s 
TTMrreo)? : E. 1. 17, irvevfia ao^loi ical iiroKaXv^eai. 

In R. 11. 8, we have wevfta Koravv^mi, spirit of slumber. 
The word is used for deep sleep by LXX, in Is. 29. 10. 
Koravv^i^ is clearly derived from Karapvatra, prick sharply, 
A. 2. 37. The connexion between Kardvv^t^ and torpidity, 
apathy, numbness, insensibility, is not apparent. Mr. Wratis- 



i 



TBB TEMTATIVB USB OF THB OEmTIVB. 



75 



J 



< ■ 



law traces it by reminding us of the effect produced by the 
habitual use of a needle, which causes insensibility by constant 
pricking. "A person who habitually neglects the prickings 
of conscience becomes dead and insensible to them, just like 
the needle-woman's fingers. And the metaphor would natu- 
rally come to a tent-maker, which was the ordinary trade of 
St. PauL" (Notes and Dissertations, p. 87.) 

THE OEmTIVB OF CONTACT. 

The genitive is used after verbs of contact and adhesion, 
on the principle that the thing touched becomes part of the 
object with which it is in contact: Eurip. See. 398, oiroia 
Kiaao<i Spvot Sttok TrjaS' l^ofMi, as ivy to oak, thus will I cling 
to h^ : J. 20, 17, p-v f^v airrov, do not fasten on me : 2 C. 6. 
17, axaffapTov p.^ airreade : L. 8. 44, i^aro rov KpaairiSov 
rov IpMriov avrov : H. 12. 20, k&u Orjplov 0iyj) rov 6pov^ : H. 
11. 28, tva p.ij 6 oXoOpevav fftYB O'Vr&v : H. 6. 9, ri. ixop-eva 
fforriplafi, things conjoined with salvation : Mk. 5. 41, xpanjaa^ 
rrji ^etpov rov rraiSiov : A. 3. 7, indaav avrov rijv Se^Mi j(€ip6i. 
"In all such adhesions and attachments the object attached 
is regarded as really separable ; the idea of conjunction is 
conveyed by the verb, and the genitive according to its proper 
ablative meaning, implies that there is at least a partial dis- 
junction." Donaldson. 

THE TENTATIVE USE OF THB GENITIVE. 

The genitive is joined to a number of verbs implying an 
attempt to attain an object. This is in strict accordance with 
the primary idea of the genitive as expressing the antecedent . 
notion ; the source from which the act of body or mind takes 
its rise: 1 T. 3. 1, el rvi eTrur Koiriji opeyerai, koXov Ifyyov 
iiridvpeZ : H. 11. 16, xpelrrovo^ ope^ovrai rovriariv hrovpaviov : 
M. 5. 28, 6 pKeiTwv rpn/aiKa irpoi rh hriBvp-fiaai avrrjf. 

Here we may place A. 3. 12, ireiroiTiKotri rov irepnrareiv 
avrov. LXX, Josh. 22. 26, rroi^at rov olKoSop.^aai : A. 7. 19, 
itcdKatae rov iroieiv : A. 15. 20, hnarelXat avroii^ rov aire)(€adai : 
A. 20. 30, i^ vp.&v avr&p avaar^aovrai, avSpe^ \a\ovvrei St- 
etrrpappspa, rov diroarrav touv p^dt^rh^ onrurm avr&v. 
: This usage is explained in two ways. The verbs mean to 
set one's mind towards the attainment of an object, and may 
tbus be connected with verbs which imply fulness or want; 



76 



TUB DA.TIYB OF COINCIDENCE, 



or they indicate motion in a presumed direction, so that until 
the object ia reached, the genitive is used as the case of separa- 
tion. If, however, the motion is supposed to be completed, 
and the object is reached, then the accusative is used as the 
case of terminated action. 

THE OENinVB ABSOLUTE. 

The genitive absolute expresses the time when, or the cause 
why— the source, the fact, the event, from which something 
else proceeds : Mk. 10. 17, iieiropevofievov avrov ek oBop irpoaSpa- 
fiMV eh hnipuiTa avrov: Mk. 11. 27, ev t# iepm irepmarownvi 
airrov Spxovrat irpht avrbv oi apxiepeJi: L. 17.*ia, elaepxofUvou 
aiiTov eti riva lemiMjv air^aav avr^ Sixa Xeirpol avSpet: 
L. 18. 40, iyyliravTOi avrov hniparrqaev avrov: A. 24^ -lO 
aireKptdi) i ilaOXo? vevaavrot ain^ jov ^tfiovoi X^ew. In 
all these instances the participle asserts a secondary predicate, 
which was the occasion of the action stated by the primary 
predicate. 

TBB DATIVE. 

The dative is the where-case, the case of rest, generally with 
the aid of a preposition. 

The object referred to is considered as the point of juxta- 
position, or immediate proximity ; as receptive of accession or 
gain, or as having additions made to it. 

The usages of the genitive and dative may be thus con- 
trasted: the genitive denotes separation, subtraction, com- 
parison of different things; the dative denotes proximity, 
addition, equality, or sameness. 

^ The usages of the dative are four: coincidence or con- 
tingency; instruments, or proximate causes of the action; 
recipients, or persons immediately interested in the action; 
special limitations. 

The dative expresses the second term of two nouns standing 
in relation to each other, but with the additional notion of an 
interval lying between the two objects. (Q, R. No. 225.) 

THE DATIVE OF COINaDENCE. 

The point of time is regularly expressed by the dative: 
L. 2. 41, hropevovTO ot 7oi>ew airrov xar Sro^ c« 'lepovaaX^/i 
TV ioprr^ tow irwrxa: M. 16. 21, t§ rpirn iipApa iyepd^vai-^ 



THE DATIVE OF QUAtlFYING CIRCUMSTANCE. 



77 



Mk. 6. 21, 'HpaStii TOK f^eveaiois avrov SeiTivov hrotei : It. 
12. 20, ravrg r§ wml: A. 21. 26, t^ ixo/iivji ^/tipa. 

Sometimes also the duration: B. 16. 25, xarii mroKoKv^w 
fUHmiplov j(p6voi^ aimvloKi treaupifihiov, in accordance with the 
unveiling of a secret hidden in silence through eternal times, 
L e., throughout the whole period from the commencement 
of time : 1 Tim. 2. 6, to fiaprvpiov KotpoU tSloK, the import of 
the testimony to be set forth in its proper seasons ; the dative 
of the time wherein the action takes place. This form of 
the temporal dative approximates to the ordinary use of the 
temporal genitive, which rarely occurs in the New Testament : 
A. 8. 11, Sih TO Ixav^ XP^^V '''"'^ fuv^eluK e^<rraKh>at airrov^. 

Thus it indicates a coincident or contingent circumstance of 
manner, accompaniment, so that it is really equivalent to an 
adverb: 1 J. 3. 18, /i^ orfair&iiev Xtr/^ p.ifik "fkuurang, a\X' 
epr^tp Kol oKifdelef: A. 16. 37, Seipavrei ■^fia^ Srifioalcf' \d0pa 
filiSvi iKBatCKoviTiv: Rev. 14. is, i^vrjae Kpavr/y fieydKy: J. 
21. 8, 01 Bi oAAoi fiadijTal r^ wKoiapl^ ^\j0ov : G. 3. 3, evap^d- 
fiepoii TTpevftaTi vvv aapxi hrvreKeurde'. J. 21. 19, cnmalvav 
voUp davdr^ So^daei tov 0£6p: G. 2. 6, oh ovSi rrpoi &pav 
ei^aftev t$ vnorariy, by yielding the subjection they claimed 
(Rhetorical Use of the Article). 

THE DATIVE OF QUALIFYINQ CIRCUMSTANCE. 

Hence the dative is used to indicate the definitive or quali- 
fying circumstance, 'by,' 'in respect to:' G. 2. is, tifieh ^iaei 
'Ipvicuot : G. 1. 22, ^p/qv arp>oovp.evo^ T^irpoodnra. 

The general limiting nature of the dative may here be fully 
recognized. St. Paul was not unknown to the churches in 
every sense, but only in regard to his outward appearance. 
This particular dative, commonly called the dative ' of reference 
to,' must be clearly distinguished both from the instrumental 
and the modal dative (1 C. 11. s), though allied to them: 
It must rather be considered a local dative ethically used. 
(Ellicott.) 1 T. 4. 3, & o Seiy; itcrurep eh fierdXriy^iv /terib 
evj(api<TTla^ roh irurroh ical iireyvtoKoatp Trfp aKi^deiav irurroh '. 
the dative marks the objects for whom the food was created 
(fiprnfuiTa). This was indeed created for all, but it was only 
in the case of the irurrol, after a receiving fierei, evyapurrlai, 
which is the condition attached, that the true end of creation 
was fully satisfied. 



78 



THE DATIVB op PROXIMATE 0AD8E, 



. The dative of norm or role: A. 16. i, ^^i; ft^ irepiri/iv^aee 
T^ldei Matvaioxi ov Swaade a<o07Jvai: Q. 6. 16, Stroi t«S kuvSpi 
rovnp (rroixovnv i Ph. 3. 16. * 

The Bpecifio part in which one ia affected. The local dative 
ethically used: A. 18. 6, awelxtro tw irvevfiaTi, : R. 4. 19, 
M da0a^<rai if irlarei: M. 11, 29, T07r«i/os ry icapSla: L.' 
1. 61, inrepfiifMvovt Stavola KaphUn air&v : A. 7. 61, amplrfvrrro^ 
Ty mpBla xai rot? uxrlv: L. 2. 6a, irpoeKvme ao^ia koI ^Xixla: 
1 Th. 3.^ 12, -irepurtreiaM rg iffdiTTj : Tit. 2. a, iyiaivovroi tq 
irbrru, j% w^/dtrg, if inropavy. 

External accompanimenta are regularly expressed by the 
dative, even without a preposition: Rev. 8. 4, dve^ 6 Kairvin 
r&v dvuMpArav rots vpoaevxaii t&u irfUov, together with the 
prayers of the saints: 0. 2. u, i^aXetfai r6 Kaff jn&u 
Xtipvfpa^v Tot« UypMTw, having cancelled the hostile bond, 
together with its ordinances. 

From this use we may explain its connexion with verbs 
denoting companionship, contact, close intercourse: M. 8 \ 
iiKoK4>v0r,aav avr^ 6x^i iroKUi: M. 12. 46, ^vrovinet airr& 
A^»\^o-ai: A. 18. 19, heX^xOv roll 'lovSaloKi: 2 0. 12. 19, irdXiv 
SoKthe 6ti ipTiv &iro\oyov/ie0a ; A. 24. 26, «i/*/Xet air^ : M. 6. 
40, T9) 0i\^vTl aoi Kpi0rivai : A. 25. 24, irepi oi irav to ttX^^os 
r&v ^lovialmv eV^i^ii; ,«,t: R. H. 2, hnvyxdvei, t<3 ©eiS 
Karh TOW 'lapariK: M. 9. 10, awapsKeivTo t^ 'Iijerow: L. *24. 16* 
awmopeCtero airTol<i: R. 8. 16, aM to m>e0^ta av^L/iaprvpei t^ 
irvevfMTi ^fi&v : 2 0. 5, 20, KaTaWdrytire t# ©ep. 

Verbs and nouns denoting juxta-pqsition, similarity, peculiar 
appropriation, and the reverse, take the dative of proximity or 
accompaniment: M. 7. 24, oftouiau ainov &vhp\ 4>povlp^: M. 
20. 12, laovi fipZv airroi,, hrobiaa<t'. Ph. 2. 27, ^a0hni<Te 
irapa-rrMawv davinp: H. 6. 7, (7^) W-n-owa fi^iinp, diOerov 
tKelvoK Si oft? Kol yetupyeiTM. 

THE DATIVE OP PROXIMATE CAUSE. 

The dative is used to express the instrument, the proximate 
cause, occasion, or ground of an act : Mk. 16. 19, ermrrov airou 
riip Ketl>a\i,v xaU^: R. 11. 20, ry dnurria i^eK\da0r,aap, 
«ri/ Se T^ vurfei foTij«a9, they were broken off by reason of their 
unbelief, but thou standest by reason of thy faith; so 2 C. 1. 
24: R. 11. 30, ^\€^V« Tg TOVTdP dTrei0el^: 2 0. 1. 16, towtj; 
rji Treirot0ri<ra ipov)^p.i,p. by reason of this confidence I was 



THE DATIVE OP ETHICAL RELATION. 



79 



■j^ 



intending : G. 6. 12, povov Ipu p,^ r^ trravptp rov Xpurrov 
Buoietoprai, only to avoid persecution by reason of the cross of 
Christ: M. 6. 22, opr/i^opevoi t^ dBeK<f)^: R. 12. 12, t^ iKirlBi 
Xalpoprei : Ph. 2. 3, t§ raireivo^poavpy dXKrjKovi ftyovpxpoi 
inrepkxovra^ iavr&p : E. 2. 8, t§ %aptT/ iare aeauapipoi Bid t^$ 
X^ptroi : Q. 6. 26, €1 ^mp^p Itpevpari, Ilpevpari koI orot^^tu/tef. 
The first Ilvevpari is a species of instrumental dative, if we live 
by (the gift and efficacy of) the Spirit ; the second HvevpaTi 
is the dative of norm, or rule, to which we are to be conformed : 
2 P. 1. 21, ov fhp 0eKqpMTi dv0panrov i^pix^V "ftni irpwfnp-ela. 

Hence the dative is used to express the agent even with 
passive verbs, where we regularly find the genitive with tnro : 
M. 5. 21, ipfiiOt) ToU dpxaioni L. 23. 15, -oiB^p a^iop Oavdrob 
iari ireirpar/pivop ainm. Compare Xen. Hell, ii. 2. \7,dpapMi^a<a 
vpip rh TOVTtp irevpoffpiva : Aristoph. JEccl. 73, rdy aW' vpHv 
6p& ireirparfp^va : L. 24. 3S, eyp{oa0ii avroii : A. 7. 12, dveyva- 
purOfl 'Icmr^^ rdif dBeX^ii airrov, was recognized by his 
brethren: A. 16. 9, Spapa But Ttji pvkto^ &<f>07} r^ ITavXfi : 
1 T. 3. 16, &^0r) dyyiXoK : 2 P. 3. 14, tnrovBdaaTt aairiXai Kal 
dprnpryroi axn& evpe0rjpai i Ja. 3. 7, SeSdpMffrai Ty <j>vaei ry 
dp0panrivy : 3. fS, airelperai rdtt iroiowrip etpijvfiv, 

THE DATIVE OP ETHICAL RELATION. 

Hence the dative is used to denote the final cause, the ethical 
relation, the party or object 'on account of whom the thing is 
done ; dativus commodi, the party interested : L. 7. 32, 17^X17- 
aapep vpiv Kal ovk itpxnaaa0e iOpijvriffapev iipZp KaX ovk exXav> 
aare: M. 3. 16, dpeairx0'ii<Tav airr^ ot ovpapoC: Mk. 9. 6, iroiijaa- 
pep amjicd^ rpeif, aol plap, Kal Maxrei p.iap,Kal 'Hkla p,lap: 2 C. 
5. 13, eire fdp i^ianipev, Oeof elre aa><ftpopovp.ep, vpiv: G. 6. 14, 
Bi o5 ipx^, KoapiK iaravparai, Kor/m t^ KOtrpup, "Alter pro 
mortuo habet alterum." Compare Thuc. ii. 7, AaKeSai/tovloK 
phi . . . vavt iireTdx0qtrav, on which Dr. Arnold remarks : - 
"It would not be easy to parallel the obscurity and gram- 
matical solecisms of this sentence. — AaKeBaipovloiv may be 
either the dative of the agent (proximate cause), and depend on 
hr^axOif^ay, or it may be that dative which is called ' dativus 
commodi,' extending the term ' commodi ' in a very wide sense, 
so as to make it hardly more than mere relation. Compare v. 
iii. iroKKovi fdp to alaxpov hreairdtraTo" 



CHAPTER VI. 

VERBS, VOICES, TENSES. 

As every verb has reference to action, and all action must 
take place in time, whatever is predicated by a verb is a pre- 
dication of time. 

The time and state of an action are represented by tenses. 

The time of an action is present, past, future. The 8tate of an 

Taction is imperfect, perfect, or indefinite. In the imperfect 

state the action is described as going on; in the perfect aa. 

^^lliBlLed; in the indefinite or aorist as simply acted, without 

any distinct statement of progress or completion. 

As there are three times, and three states of an action, nine 
tenses would be required to express all the different modifica- 
tions ; viz.* three imperfects, three indefinites, three perfects ; 
but. neither the Qreek nor the English verb has all these nine 
tenses. The English too has no imperfect without a circum- 
locution, and except in the indicative mood has no aorist or past 
indefinite, so that the Greek aorist in all the other moods must 
be rendered by the present or perfect. A writer in the Quar- 
terly Review (No. 255) remarks, the Greek tenses do not 
primarily imply time. They are not primarily distinguished 
as past, present, future. If aorists and prseterperfects necessa- 
rily implied past time, these tenses could not occur in the 
imperative mood. The infinitives and participles could not be 
applied alike to present and past times. Their real meaning 
relates to four stages of progress in the action : (1) preparatory 
to the commencement, fpa^ew, to be about to write; (2) the 
being engaged in writing while the act is going on, ypd<f>ei,v ; 
(3) the completion of the act, ypdy^ai ; (4) the completion, with 
the additional notion of subsequent continuance, '^efpa^evai, to 
have written a letter and still retain it in possession. These 



THE TENSES IN THE INDICATIVE MOOD. 



81 



four stages of an act represent the four primary Greek tenses ; 
the several forms of the future and aorist do not differ in 
meaning. The future is wanting in the imperative, as the 
impatience of the Greek mind never contemplated commanding 
a person to be about to do a thing. 

THE TENSES OF VERBS. 

The tenses in the indicative mood describe both the time and 
the state of an action ; in other moods the tenses denote only 
the state as continuing, completed, simply acted, or intended. 

The declaration of time Inay be definite as regards the time of 
speaking, or indefinite as regards some other point of time which 
must be defined. 

The definite tenses are the present, expressing simultaneity, 
r^pdifuo, I write or am writing now at the moment of speaking. 
The future, expTeaaiag posteriority, ypdyp-a, I shall write at some 
time after the moment of speaking. The perfect, expressing 
anteriority, yeypa<f>a, I have written ot some time before th© 
moment of speaking. 

The indefinite tenses are the imperfect, expressing simulta- 
neity, Sypa^ov, I was writing at some specified time. The aorist, 
expressing posteriority, Sypay^a, I wrote after some specified 
time. The pluperfect, expressing anteriority, iyeypd^iv, I had 
written, before some specified time. 

THE TENSES IN THE INDICATIVE MOOD. 

We proceed to illustrate these tenses as they are used in the 
indicative mood. 

The present expresses a general sentiment, or assigns proper- 
ties permanently connected with an object, though they are not 
particularly evinced at the present time : vdvra rii oyaBa, SlSa- 
aw o 6e6<:, God gives all things that are good: iroKK&viauc&v 
.avOpmnoK oirtos iariv 6 iroXe/ioi, war is the cause of many ills 
to men. 

The present denotes the beginning, attempting, or desiring 
to do an act, though it may not be done ; also something usually 
or habitually done : rifv Ev0olav SiBoaa-i, they are for giving 
Euboea : elirep fidXKei Toixi hriopKow, if he is wont to strike the 
perjured : Ja. 1. 15, ^ hriOvfila avKXa^ovaa t/ktci rtjv afiaprlav : 
J. 14. 6, ovSeiv Ipx'^at irpov rov iraripa el iirj hi- ipav : R. 2. 4, 
arpio&v Sri Tb -xpfloTW tov Qeov eh lurdvoidp ae ar/ei, is leading ;- 

a 



Missing Page 



Missing Page 



84 



THE INDIOATIVB rUTDBK. 



cation of the' time after which it will happen ; the periphrosticp 
future requires or implies a definition of time : PlatOi Oorg. ixt 
oKtiOtj Svra Xi^ta eroi & fi{\Xo Xeyew, know that I will tell you 
actual truth in what I am now going to aay : M. 2. 13, fiiWei 
Y^/v 'HptoSiji ^rp-eiv to vaiSlov. 

The future often conveys the meaning of obligation : Eur. 
Med. 1320, Xe7' el n /SovXer xcipt S' ov ^avaei<; irori, speak 
whatever you like, but you shall never touch me with your 
hand. Hence it becomes equivalent to an imperative : .^Bsoh. 
Sept. 262, fufiiv r&v^ ipein, ' you will not say,' i. e., do not 
say. 

The usage of the future for the imperative occurs repeatedly 
in the New Testament, and has been unnecessarily accounted a 
Hebraism : M. 5. ai, ov ^Kwevati/t : 48, iaeaOe oSt> v/leiv rdXeun : 
A. 23. 6, &pj(pvTa ToD Xttov <rov oix ipeii kukw. The use of 
the imperatival future appears in three cases in the New 
Testament : (1) as a mild imperative, e. g., in prohibition : M. 
6. 6, oiiK ia^g W9 oi tnroKpiral: (2) as a strong imperative, 
prohibition and reproof ^ A. 13. lo, ov irava^g iuiarpe^iov t^9 
iZovi KvpUtv; (3) as a legislative imperative, negatively, M. 
5. 31 ; R. 7. 7, and positively, G. 5. u ; B. 13. 9- The latter 
usage is Hebraistic. The uses of the future in the LXX are 
more varied, and almost purely Hebraistic. They express " quod 
non convenit, Gen. 20. g : qvod turn potest, 32. 12 : quod licet. 
Numb. 32. 34 : quod aoUt, Deut. 2. li." (Ellicott.) 

The future expresses a resolution, general sentiment, or 
confirmed habit : &vi)p aotfto^ t^9 av/t^ph^ ftaov oXaei r&v 
SiKKuv, a wise man will bear misfortunes more easily than 
others : 1 T. 6. 8, ijfpvrei Biarpwftiii mil atceirdafuiTa tovtok 
dpKe(r0t)a6fie0a : G. 6. 5, ixaaroi to tBiov (futprlov fiaaTeurei. 

" Futurum in sententi& generali recte ponitur, quandoquidem 
rei quso in nullum tempus non convenire videatur, etiam futuro 
tempore locum futurum esse jure sumitur." (Fritsohe, Bom. 
ii.p.9.) 

The future denotes a supposed or possible case: L. 18. 23, 
St(iSo9 irraj(pii xal l^eii Briaavpov iv oipavw : It. 3. 6, ir&i Kpivei 
6609 TOP Koa/iov ; R. 10. 14, irm oSv eiriKoKiiTovTai eh hp ovk 
hrlaievaav ; 

The future indicates not mere futurity, but the ethical possi- 
bility of an action, and with ol, something that neither can nor 
will happen : G. 2. lO, i^ ipyuv vi/tov ov SueauoOi^aerM iraaa 






THB INDICATIVB FEBFECT. 



85 



•<rdp^. "With irm it involves the notion of 'ability,' 'possi- 
.bility:' 1 T. 3. 6, vm iKKXtjtriat Oeov hri/ie\ij<reTM ; 

THE INDICATTVE FEBFECT. 

The perfect marks the abiding effect of a terminated action : 
Xen. Anab. i. 4. a, airoXeXoliraaip ijft&i Bepla^ Koi Haaiup, have 
-deserted from us, are deserters: //. i. 37, S9 Xpvaijp a/i<^i- 
V9e/9i}«a9, who continuest to protect Ghrysa: 113, Koi yap pa 
KKtrraiitvijaTpTfi vpofii^ovXa, just because I continue to prefer 
her ecen to Clytemnestra (I have preferred, and do prefer). 

In the second perfect, erroneously called the perfect middle, 
the iiitransitive signification predominates. Very few verbs 
have both forms: ix tovtov tov ypopov ael koKSk irkirpof^/a, 
from this time I have always fared well: hp eri, /liap iMyjiP 
'Pafuilovi viKi^aafiep airoKuiKaiup, if we gain one more victory 
over the Romans we are ruined. 

Several perfects denote only finished action, of which the effect 
is permanent, and must therefore be rendered by a present 
in English: Kiicnffuii, I possess, I have acquired for myself 
{leraopMi)'. (U/ipiifiai, I remember, I have called to mind 
{fipdo/iai) : KiKkfifuu, I am called, I have been named (KoKiw) : 
olSa, I know, I have perceived (etSm) : irei^^iuu, I fear, I 
have been frightened (<ftofie<o). 

The perfect often denotes the completion of an act, especially 
the fixed result of a thought or determination : Dem. Phil. i. 
19, ravra flip itrrtp & ircun BeSojdBat ^pX Beip, these are the 
sentiments which I maintain ought to be the fixed convictions 
of all : H. 11. 17, wtarei vpo<Tep^poj(ep 'Afipa^fi top 'laa&K 
ireipa^fiepoi, koI top ftopoyepi) irpoae^pev o rivi iir(Vf^e\(a^ 
apaSe^d/iepoi. Here 'irpo<repijpo)(ep expresses Abraham's settled 
resignation of his son to the demand of God, his mental, though 
not actual offering of him ; but irpoiTitl>epep expresses ' was in 
t;he act of sacrificing him,' when stopped by Divine inter- 
position (Green, p. 21): B. 8. 38, irhreKr/un yap, I am per- 
suaded : C. 4. 3, Bi 8 KoX BiBeftai, for which I am actually in 
bonds : L. 4. 6, ipol irapaSeBorai koI ^ ieip dekat BiBam aimjp : 
1 C. 1. 23, ^p,eK Bi K7ipvaiTop.ep Xpurrop iaravpa/iepop : G. 3. ), 
oh Kort 6<l>daXftoii^ 'Iijaov^ Xpurrop irpoeypwfni ev vpZp iaravpto- 
fUpoi. The perfect here calls attention to the permanent 
character acquired by the crucifixion, that of a Saviour; in 
the Greeds, where the mere fact is recorded, the participle 



86 



TUX IMDIOATIVS IPBKFXor. 



is aravpttetk'. similarly 1 J. 4. a, nrav weB/ia 8 6fio\oyet 
•Jijaow Xfturrhv hf aapKi iKiiKuffira ix rod eeov iim r ' 2 Tim. 
2. 8, /ivij/Mveve 'Iijirow Xpurrbv efrtepiUvov iK vexpav : H. 2. 9, 
Tiv fipaxy t» irap' ayyiKotxt riKurrwpivov : H. 4. 15, ireireiptur- 
Htvov Si Korh irdvra; Qt. 2. ll, Kareyvotr/iSvoi ^, he stood self- 
condemned : R. 9. 19, T^ fyhp fiovki^fum airrov rk ipdiartiKev ; 
for who resisteth His will? who has placed himself in oppo- 
sition P 1 0. 11. 15, 4) KOfMi avrl mpifioXalov SeSorai avrg: 
R. 7, a, ^ y^p {hrapSpvi ffuvif t# {Sit* 6vZp\ SeSerot voiup, for 
the married woman remains bound by the law to her husband 
for his lifetime- 
It is to be regretted that our language does not furnish an( 
adequate equiTalent for this passive perfect. Luther uniformly) 
renders y^pamrM, «• ttehet geaohrielen: L. 16. 26, xo<r/«i 
M^a i<rTJpucTai,, stands fixt : 2 T. 1. 13, ^ irmrhrevKa, to whom 

1 have given my irltm<i, in whom I have put my trust and still 
do put it : 2 T. 4. b, roh fjr/tvtniKotTiv t^v i7rt<pdpeiav avrov, who 
have loved and still love his appearing {.-^in a. present sense 
only as it points to the persistence of the feeling : A. 22. 29, Srt 
^v airrov BeSeiaii. The tense implies the situation of legal guilt 
in which the oflBcer had placed himself. A. 25. ii, el piv yeip 
aSt/co) Kol a^Mv davdrov irhrpaxd ri : the tense rrhrpaxa 
marks the permanent result of the supposed &hlici)p.a. A. 27. 
25, TTto-Teuo) 7ip Ty QeS) hi oi5t«s S<rrM xaff 8j/ rpairov 
XeKdXirral pat: 10. 10. 13, ireipcurpi^ ipMt om etKijiftev el p.ii 
avdpanrtvo<i, has not formerly, and does not now : L. 5. 32, ovk 
ikqKvda KoKkatu hiKaCov^, 

The perfect often denotes an immediate consequence: Xen. 
Cyr. iv. 2. 26, o 7ip KparStv i/ta wdvra atmjpvaKev, he who 
conquers, at once oairies off every thing : A. 21. as, "EXKiivai 
eurtyytvyev e« ri iepbv xal KSKolvuKe rhv Sfyiov roirov tovtov : 

2 P. 2. 6, TToKeK XohopMv KaX Topx)ppa<i re^pdcrat KaTcurrpo^ 
Karhcpwep {nroSeu/fia psKKovrwv daefiew redeixm. Here xexot 
v(OKe is the consequence of ela^aryep, and redeucuK; the result of 
KoriKpiPep. 

Mr. Oreen points out a delicate propriety of expression in the 
parable of the talents, M. 25. i«— so. At the time of receiving 
the money, the aorist is used to describe the unprofitable 
servant, 6 to 8i» "Ka^mv. at the time of reckoning he is de- 
scribed as o ri Sv e(Xi}^iu9, where the perfect describes his 
jinaltered condition, as far as the money was concerned. With 



THB IMPBBFECr. 



87 



the otheir servants, the aorist is used both at the timb of 
receiving and the time of reckoning. The money which they 
had received was modified by their own subsequent oxertionS» 
tind the aorist could then alone be used. 

1 !P. 2. 10, o( oIk ^Xeijphfoi pw Si iKetidhnrei. The perfect 
describes a state in which they oontinued, a state of remoteness 
from God's mercy. The aorist describes an act, Ye were made 
objects of taaercy. 1 J. 3. 9, irfi$ 6 rteyeppnuivm ix tov Qeoit 
ipaprlap ov voiet, every one who hath been bom of Ood, 
and continues in that statd, doth not work sin habitually : oA 
Svporai apapToveiP Sri ix tov Seov yeyipvtfxai, he is not able 
to be a sinner, because he hath been bom of God, and the life 
given him at his spiritual birth abides in him. " The Apostle 
does not say, ov Svparai apMpreiv, he cannot fall into sin, by 
ignorance, error, and infirmity. Such an assertion would be 
inconsistent with the whole tenor of Scripture." Wordsworth. 

INDEFINITE TENSES. 
THE IMFEBFBCT. 

Hermann thus explains the imperfect : " In eo, quod quia 
voluit facere, neo tamen perfecit, quod aptius adhiberi tempus 
potest, quam quod ab ea ipsa ratione nomen habet imperfeo- 
tumP" 

Thus too, Donaldson, § 426 : " The imperfect denotes an in- 
complete action, one that is in its course, and is not yet brought 
to its intended accomplishment. It implies that a certain thing 
was going on at a specified time, but excludes the assertion 
that the end of the action was attained." It may often be ex- 
pressed by the paraphrase, 'began to,' 'proceeded to,' 'at- 
tempted to,' especially by the side of the aorist, which indicates 
the single or completed action: Thuo. ii. 92. a, m ^ pav9 
Sie<l>0eipeTO, ia^^ep eamop xal i^eireacp eh top Xtp^pa, as the 
ship was (in process of) sinking, he slew himseK, and fell over- 
board into the habour. The suicide and its result being single 
and momentary acts, are expressed by the aorist. Xen. hre\ 
inniPTla^ev ij ^Xay^ kuI &pM ^ aoKirvy^ i^dey^aro, when the 
phalanx proceeded to meet them, and at the same time the 
trumpet sounded {i^dey^. aor., ' single and completed act) : 
oviciri iSi^avTo oi iroXifuoi aXX* i^tevyov, the enemies no longer 
awaited their attack, but proceeded to flee (^S^f . aor., completed 



88 



THE IMPBRFBCr. 



result): Anab.:Y. 4. u, roit /th^ oSv ireKreurrhv iSi^avro ol 
fidpfiapoi Kol iiMypvro. 6 xvav i^iSpafie, itai KadvKcueret avTov?, 
016 dog ran out and kept barking at them. 

The imperfect has the idea of incompleteness: M. 3. I4, 6 Si 
*Iadvinfi SuKcilKva' avrov, John attempted to hinder him : L. 1. 
S9, ixaKow avTo, were on the point of naming it : 5. 6, Ste^pTywro 
vi BIktvov, the net was beginning to break : A. 26. ii, 7)ParfKa^ov 
fiKacr^fislv, was doing my utmost to make them blaspheme : 
A. 13. 11, irepiwT/av i^'qrei j(ei,paf^arj/ovi : A. 7. 68, ikiOo^oKow, 
kept stoning him : G. 1. 13, iBUaxov t^v iKKKijalav tov Qeov xal 
riropBow avri]V koI irpoharrxov k.t.X. In Qt. 4. 39, o xari adpKa 
yevinideU iSUtien' rip Karit IIveDfui oCroii Koi vw, we have the 
strict use of the imperfect to designate an action which still 
spiritually continues. 

; This idea of incompleteness . frequently passes into that of 
xepetition, especially in contrast with the aorist : 1 0. 10. 4, 
irdinei to airi iro/ta irveviuiTucbp hrutp' Ibnvop fiip iic trvev- 
/jMTuaji oKoXovffovtrqv irh-pa^. Here the aorist, eirtop, expresses 
the action, without conveying any idea of duration ; the im- 
perfect, eirwop, implies the repetition of the act, 'they kept 
continually drinking : ' A. 28. 9, oi Xonrol oi l^^orref aaOepeiat 
ip T^ pija^ irpovj^pxpPTo kuI idepatrevopro, kept coming to us, 
and were getting healed: L. 24. at, ^fietf Bi ^Xirl^oftep, 'we 
for our part were hoping,' implying that this had been their 
habitual expectation for some period of time: M. 13. 34, xaph 
•irapaPoX}}^ ovie iKdXei avrotf : Mk. 14. 13, Sre to irotr^a Idvop 
(an annual offering): 16. 6, Karii Bi ioprr}p aviSvep avrait^ ipa 
Sia/uop, i. q., M. 27. IS, eui&et drroXueip: B. 16. 33, ipeKOTrro/ttiP 
rh TToXKil toS i\j0eip wpif v/taf: L. 4. IS, iBiZaaKCP ip Ta($ 
avpoyuycut avrap : 2 Th. 2. 6, ov ftprj/iopeveTe ori Sri ftp irpbt 
i/tat Tavra S'Keyop vfup ; 

The imperfect is used (in verbs and phrases like ^Sei, ixP"!^* 
eiKot Ijp, a^Xop) to signify a dissatisfaction with the present 
state of things, and a wish that the result was different : A. 13. 
46, i/up i^p oPorfKcuop irpSnop "KdKridrlpai top Xoyop tov Qeov : 
1 0. 4. 8, ical S^eKov ye ifiatriKevaaTe : 2 0. 11. I, Sif>e\op 
dp€l)(ea0e ftav : Rev. 3. 15, S^eXop •^vxpoi etrii ^ ^earot: H. 9. 
36, ^7r«l eSei avrop ttoKKukk iradeip dirb KaTa^oX^ Koafiov: 
Qt. 4. 30, ^eXop Bi irapelpai trpoi vfta^ &pri koX dTiXd^ai t^i> 
^vijv pov : B>. 9. 3, i)V)(6p,i]P yhp avdBepa eJpai avro? iyco airh 
TOV XptffToO: 2 C. 12. II, eYO) &^CKop v^' vpMV arwlareurOat i 



4 



":-■■ 



i 



THK AOEIST. °^ 

M. 26. 9, v^vpaTO TovTO ri fivpov irpe^PM iroXKov : 34, Kohap 
j}i» ain^ el ovk iyeppn^V « Svdpmrot iKeipo<: : 2 P. 2. 31, Kpevrrop 
j}i» avTOt« p.ii hreypciKiptu t^i» oSop rljt Buccuoarvptfi i A. 22. 33, ov 
yhp xad^KCP ainop ^k 

. &p is often omitted colloquially, especially when the con- 
ditional protasis is omitted. The want of absoluteness in such 
statements is sufficiently expressed by the general indefinite 
character of the imperfect: A. 25. 33, ifiovXapajP «ai ovtos to3 
dpepanrov oKovaai, : R. 9. 3, ijuxowv 7^P «»^»« ^" apdOepa 
elpai. 

The following passages illustrate the difference between the 
imperfect and aorist : L. 8. 33, -n-Xeoprtop Bi avr&p at^vTrpaMTF 
Kul KUTifi'n \at\a^ e« t^v \lfuniv Koi avpenK^povpro leal 
iKtpBupevop : Ja. 2. 33, i} wforts mnnjpyei rots IpyoK avrov mil ex 
Twv ^p7a»i' 4 irloTK iTeXewtdii : G. 1. 14, Tjnowrare yhp t^p ip.fiP 
dvaarpo^ffp irvri h> t# "IovBuktu^ Sri Koff vnrep^o\ip> eSuoicop^ 
TTip itucKTia-lap tov 6eoS koX hropOovp avTrjp: A. 16. 33, ol 
orpanr/ol irejotp/Jijfainre? tA i/tarm exiXevop pa^Bi^eip: G. 2. 13, 
Trpo TOV yhp i\deip Ttvi? otto 'Idicmfiov p^h Twy idpS>P «nnn]a0iep, 
ore Bi JfkJdop inriareXKe xal ijxopi^ep eavTOP ^^oipxpo^ tows iie 
•jrepi,Top.fi<i. ^ , . ^ , 

In 1 0. 3. 6, *yw i<f>VTevaa, 'AiroXKott inoTtacp, dXX o ©eos 
tjv^apep, the transitory acts of human teachers are expressed 
by aorists ; the continual bestowal of Divine grace by the im- 
perfect : 1 P. 2. 33, 24, 8s \oiZopovp.epo<i ovk opTeXoiZopei, vdaxav 
OVK TfireCKei, irapeBiBov Bi t& xplvoPTi Bikuuk' 8s tAs dpupTUK 
^p&p owTos dpt)veyKev ip t^ aapMTt airov cttI to fuXov. Here 
we have three imperfects to denote continual and repeated 
acts ; but an aorist to denote an act done once for all. R. 6. 13, 
p/tjBi vapurrdpere Th peKv vpMP oifKa, aBi,Klai Ty afuipTi^, 
d\\h irapturniaaTe eavroxKi Tp Be^. The present expresses 
repetition, habit, continuance; the aorist, a single irrevocable 
act of surrender. The verb vapurrdpai occurs five times in 
this passage in the sense of 'presenting for use or service.' 
Yaughan. 

THE AORIST. 

The aorist is connected with the future by the adjunct a, 
and with the past by the augment i. Hence it confines the 
action predicated within certain limits of previous and sub- 
sequent time. From this arises its epistola^ use, anticipatory 



90 



PBBVSCrr AND AOBIST COMBIMEl). 



retroepecthre: 1 P. 5. ts, Si oKlffcav Sypdy^ I write briefly i 
G. 6. II, tSert TnfKlicoK v/uv fpdititavi lypay^a t§ iftg x^ipU 
behold in what large characters I write to you with my own 
hand : Ph. 2. as, tnrovtaunipm^ oiv hrep^^a avrSv, I send him 
therefore the sooner; ao 0. 4. 8; A. 23. 30 ; 3 0. 8. 18, 
4nnieiriff\^a/iep fier' avrov t6p i£e\^v : 2 0. 9. 3, irref/e^ roiit 
aSeX^v?. This is often called the epistolary aorist ; a graceful 
mode of expression, by which the writer puts himself in the 
place of the reader, and looks at the thing written from the 
reader's point of view. Thus we may explain G. 2. lo, S koI 
ivirovSaaa avri rovro voi^at, which also, when among yOu, I 
was fpr this veiy reason eager to do. If St. Paul had l>ee4 
speaking of his habitual action, we should have expected 
iavo^a^ov, or if he described one which continued to that time^ 
we should have looked for i<nroiiBaKa. 

PXBFSCrr AND A0RI8T OOMBIKSD. 

In some cases the action is really momentary, or of short 
duration: Mk. 3. 6, irepifiXe^dfttvot avroin /ler opy^i, ovXXv* 
irovfuvoi M, r^ irapcoaei rrj^ xapSla^ avT&v, Xiyet r^ avBponrtp' 
'EKTeivov Tijv xe(/>a aov. Kai i^ereive koI aireKarevrdBri ij ^elp 
ainov: J. 15. 6, ihv p,^ rn fielvji iv ip-ol, i^rjdij l^a xal i(- 
•qpdvdij : 7. 26, /t^ irore aSajdSt^ eywaaav ol &pj(pvTes 5t( oStov 
e<mv &K7)dm i Xpurroi ; is it possible the rulers really de- 
cided that this is really the Ohrist P M. 17. 7, er/ipBrp-e koX ft)) 



Hence we have the perfect to mark a permanent state, the 
aorist a single act : G. 2. 7, ireirlarev/iM rb evar/yiXtov r^i aKpi>- 
fivarlai. The perfect indicates permanent duration, 'concre- 
ditum mihi habeo:' B. 8. 2, hrurrevBriaav t^ "KbifM rov Beov: 
H. 2. 14, ^el oiv T^ iraiBia KeKolvqKtv aXfuiro<i kuX oapicit^, KtiX 
avTOi irapairXtitriut p,eriaj(e r&v ain&v. Bo the four aorists in 
H. 6. 4 — 6 mark a temporary condition or a single act, and the 
two presents denote a continued state or an action still going 
on: aSwarov yip roim aira^ ^xaTUrdeina^, yevaap^povt re riji 
Supeoi Trji iirovpavlov, koI fiero^ovf yeinjffipTai ITvev/utTOf aryiov, 
Kol koSmv yevaa/ievovi Oeov jtfjiia, Swditen re pAWotnof al&po^, 
KoX irapaTreaovrtK, irdXiv dvaxatpl^eiv et<i fierdpoiav, dpoorav- 
povvrtK iavroK rhp viop toO Oeov xal rrapaSeifYfuiTl^opra^, while 
they crucify afresh to their own perdition the Son of God, and 
while they expose him to shame : 2 0. 6. 17, rk dpxaia irapijX- 



PEBFECT AND AORIST COMBINED. 



91 



dep, (Soi> fiyove "aivh rh irdina. So the periSect is introduced 
between two aorists to show that the absence is continual in Ja. 
1, 24, Karepvqaep yhp iavrop koX dire\i/i\vde, koX ev0em iTreXdOerQ 
ffirdim liP. In Col. 1. 16, A/ ain^ iieriaOv to vdpra, the mere 
action of creation is regarded, but in t^ irdpra Si avrov koI eis 
flirrop Sierurrat, the permanent result of creation is introduced, 
and the aorist is changed into the perfect. In other cases, tiiough 
the action is one of prolonged duration, there is no occasion for 
bringing this circumstance into notice: Xen. Cyr<^., irepi otmav 
ip oh hpd^e—iKiXevae SuupvXd^ai ain^ t^v re yvuMKOr— 
Tavnfv oip ixeKewep 6 Kvpo^ Sta^vXaTTew top 'Apdtnrtjp «*? S» 
ovTW Xa/3jj, desired him to undertake and retain the custody, 
G. 5. 24, 01 Se TOW Xpurrov t^p adpxa iaravpwaap: 3. 13. 31, 
vvp iBo^dadri 6 vloi rov dpdpmrov : M. 3. 17, o wo? /*ou o 070^ 
mrrbi ip ^ evBoKfjaa: Ja. 2. 13, ^ yap Kplavt dvikem r^ M 
rroi^aapri tKeov: 1 P. 2. 3, eXirep irievaaade ort XP^«rros & 
Kvpioi. In 1 P. 5. 2, rroipApare ro eV vp-lp rrblftpiop. tend ye 
the flock that is among you, the aorist gathers together the 
whole work of teaching, feeding, watching, leading into one act, 
occupying the entire life ; 1 P. 1. 13, re\ela<i iKwlaare, direct 
fully your hope. Their whole life is to be one act of hope, 
(Wordsworth.) Rev. 10. 7, ereXlff^ij to p,varripu>p. IreKiae-q 
is the prophetic past tense signifying that although the event is 
still future it is certain, and in the divine foreknowledge and 
decree it is already done: Rev. 15. i. Of. i^v^Vi J- 15. 6. 
(Wordsworth.) Rev. 14. 8, hreaep hreae BafivX^p v t^^« ^ 
HeydXi), the prophetic aorist expresses the certainty and sudden- 
ness of the fall as if by a single blow. 

When a specific time of duration is expressed by other words 
in the sentence the aorist is used, as this tense does not repeat 
the idea already introduced: J. 2, 20, -feaaapdKopra «col If • 
h-eaip ^KoSop,f)67) 6 wo? owtos: H. 11. 23, Maafjt yevprjdeli 
eKpvpi} rpip.r)P0P: IJ. 1. 1, 8 drniKOa/iep, h etopaKa/tep to*? o^OaX- 
/tot? ^pMP, h iOeaadfuBa, xaX ai x«i/)e? h^Xd^frap rrepl toO 
Aoyov rf)<t Jia^?. Here the aorists point to the action of the 
Apostles in gazing at our Lord as He ascended into heaven, and 
to their hattdling His person after the resurrection, L. 24. 39. 
1 J. 4. 9. 14, rop Tlop avrov top fiopoyepi} drriaroKKep o ©eo? eh 
rhp KoapMP. The perfect is used, as the effect of that mission 
is permanent and operative. 1 J. 4. 10, ot» outo? ^dirqvev 
^fta<i, Koi dtriirreiKe t6i> TIop avrov tkaapiov rrepl t«i» afiapruiv 



62 



FBKFBOX AND A0RI8T COMBINBD. 



^fjL&v. Here iiri^rretXe refers to the remarkable proof of divine 
love, and denotes that the propitiation was effected by one aot. 
Rev. 5. 7, Kol iJiKOe kuI er\i}^e rb fitfi\lov. The perfect marks 
not only an act but a state, he has taken a book and holds it. 
A. 2. 43, iyivero Si rrday ^i^ ^i3o«, noKKd re ripara xal 
errjfieia Sui, twi; airoirroXuv iyivero, there arose fear once for all, 
a single occurrence, signs were frequently, habitually per- 
formed. A. 7. 59, i)u0o^<lKotfv rov STi^avov eiriKaXovfievov xai 
Xi^ovra, Kvpie 'Itjaov, M^ai rh nveufid [mv, they kept on stoning, 
Receive once for all. B.. 3. 33, irdvre^ yhp fj/taprov koI varepovv- 
TM rqi So^f Tov 0eoii. The aorist gathers up as it were the 
sins of the world into one aot regarded as prior to the manifes- 
tation of the SiKatoavpri, and of which the result is expressed in 
varepowrax. R. 10. 1 6, Ttf iirlarevaev rfi UKoy fujuav ; who 
believed the message he heard from us P The aoriat expresses 
the reflection of the prophet on his ministry as one act, he 
returns into his Master's presence and says. Lord, when I went 
forth in Thy name who believed P (Yaughan.) 

Sometimes the aorist draws attention to the completion of a 
prolonged action : Demosth. Phil, i., hreiZav airavra aKowrnire : 
J. 17. 15, ipan& — tva Tifpria-ryi airrovi eK rov irovijpov: Gt. 3. 22, 
aX\A awkicKeuTev fi ypaifti) Tit irdma inrb aftaprlav. 

The force of the aorist as referring to single acts is borne out 
by the use of the aorist in the other moods and participles : M. 
26. 23, 6 e/i/3a^a? fisr f/iov iv r& rpv^XCa rr}v ;^£t/>a, oiroi /le 
irapaZaxrei: 26. 26, iaBiovrav Si avr&u, \afia>v 6 'Itjaow top 
aprop, Koi evKoyi^vai, iicKaae, koX iSiSou tok fiaO^aU, koI elire, 
Aafiere, ^tar/ere. In E. 6. u, 16, i6, there are four aorist par- 
ticiples specifying different acts which were completed before 
the soldier took up his position. The imperative presents, ypdipe, 
KXeirre, aKairre, mean ' go on writing, stealing, digging.' The 
imperative aorists, ypdyjrop, kKp^op. axdy^v, mean, write, steal, 
dig, some particular object and have done with it. 

Dr. Donaldson translates M. 3. 8, iroiiqaare otv Kapirow d^iov^ 
T^ fieravoUK, bring forth at once and completely fniits worthy 
of repentance. So Bishop Andrews remarks, the word is not 
bring forth at this time now, then it should be Troieire, but it is 
TroMJo-are, have done bringing forth. So M. 19. 17, el Si OeKei^ 
tureKdeip ek r^v ^taijp, T^pijirop raf ivrdkd^, keep at once and 
completely; Trjpa would imply, continue to keep: J. 13. 27, 
h irouli, TTolriffov Td-)(u>p, what thou art doing, get done with 



PEBFECT AND AORIST COMBINED. 



93 



more speed: 1 0. 15. 34, iKP^re SikuIw kuI p.v a/«i/)Tavm, 
the 1 aor., ^/o^are, impUes a momentary act; the present, 
auaprdpere, one which requires continuous efforts. 

In exhortations we frequently have the aorist imperative 
foUowing the present imperative: 1 T. 6. 12, &)ia,pl^ov top ko^p 
dfy&va Ttri TT^Tew?, ArtXajSoO t^ auovlov ?a)^?, where emXaPov 
marks a distinct act in the d7«''- ^- «• "• '*''^^ ^apiarapere 
. . . . axxa -irapaar^aare . . .: Mk. 2. 9, ^yetpe, &p6p aov top 
Kpdpparov. "Quid mirum qui modo lenius jusserat ixKoireiTe 
eumdem statim cum majore quadam vi et quasi intentius flagi- 
tantemaddereXo7/aa(r<>eP" -ScAa«/er, Demosthenes. 

In prohibitions Attic usage compels us to use the subjunctive 
when we forbid a single act, M Khhrre, do not steal in general ; 
/t^ k\^?, do not steal this particular thing. ^ 

Dr. Donaldson gives as instances, iravaai pw ijSij /t»j8 epa- 
rn<rn<i Tepa, be silent at once, and do not question further, where 
both verbs refer to the completion of the single act; but M 
dnroK&tiTfi, dXKk <TKi»r€i, do not be wearied, but go on consider- 
ing, where the former verb indicates the completeness of the 
consideration by the weariness and consequent cessation of the 
inquirer. So again we have 0. 2. 21, /*t 5^, P-n^i yevar), p,riSi 
einn. of single acts prohibited; but in an important passage 
which has often been misunderstood, J. 20. 17, PV H^v airrov, 
oina yhp k.t.X. iropevov Si irpm tow dSeX<^o6s p^v, koI elire 
airol<i, K.T.\., do not continue to cling to me. for I have not yet 
ascended, but proceed to my brethren, and teU them that I am 

about to ascend. 

The Greek aorist has been compared to the force of the 
common Hibemicism, 'to be after,' joined with a verb.^ Thus 
we may render II. i. 26. 28, pv <re, yipop, KotKr,atp iyi> iraph 
p,,vaX KixeUo, let me not he after finding thee : /tJj pv to* oi, 
Xpalffpv aurrirTpop koL arippa 0eoio, not in that case, I assure 
thee, wiU the sceptre and fiUet of the god be after availing 
thee. This will explain G. 5. 24, ol Si rov Xpurrov riip adpKa 
iaravptaaap aim roi<: iraOiQpaffiv Kai rat? inidvpiaii, * are after 
crucifying," i. e., crucify. The following is the substance of 
Bishop Ellicott's note on G. 5. 24: "The ethical crucifixion is 
here designated as an axitpast (R. 6. 6), though it really is, and 
must be, a continuing act as well (R. 8. 13). St. Paul here 
presents Ms with the idea of the true Christian, the character 
in all its highest perfection and completeness. The aorist, 



94 



THE SLUPERFBCT. 



itrravpcaaavi is neither for the perfect, nor for the present, but 
enunciates a general truth, correcting, marking an action 
which was in operation at indefinite moments of the past." 
Compare Soph. Antig. 1318, where Wex remarks on iBlSa^av, 
"unum exemplum quod aliquando evenerit tanquam norma 
proponitur." Hence the aorist has been aaid to express what 
is wont to happen. 

The aorist infinitive {ava/YvutrOfjvai, 1 Th. 5. 27), especially 
after verbs of 'hoping,' 'commanding,' is often used in refer- 
ence, not merely to single acts, but to what is either timeless 
(' ab omni temporis definiti conditione libera et immunis '), or 
simply eventual and dependent on the action expressed by the 
finite verb. (Ellicott.) 

irurrevaM, to make a profution of faith, or an ad of faith 
at a particular time : wurreveiv, to believe, to be a believer : 
SovKevirai, to do an act of service : BovXeveip, to be a slave : 
a/Mfyretp, to commit a sin : a/tafyrdveip, to be a sinner. (Words- 
worth on 1 J. 3. 9-) H. 11. 0, X'^P^ ^^ iriarean dSwarov 
eiapeoT^aai, to perform a single act well pleasing to God : 
R. 8. 8, oi Se iv aapxl Svrei 6e^ apeaai oil Svvavrai. 

The aorist in a negative sentence gives the exclusive mean- 
ing, ' at any tune,' ' at all,' as it expresses simply the verbal 
idea, without reference to time. Compare Xenophon's lan- 
guage about Socrates : r6v ciae^iv flip oiSip irore irepl tov9 6eov<t 
ovt' etiropra ovre irpd^avra (on no single occasion), TOMvra Bi 
ical X^ovra kuI TrpdrrovTa irepl de&p (habitually), old rit &p xdl 
TiJryop Kal irpdrrap eiryre xal pofil^oiro evae^iaraTO^ (Memor. i. 
1. 20). 2 Tim. 2. 11, 6* yhp vwatreQdpofiev. The aoiist marks 
a single past act that took place when we gave ourselves up to 
a life that involved similar exposure to sufferings and death : 
the Apostle died when he embraced the lot of a daily death 
(jcaff ^fiipap dirodprfOKtA, 1 C. 15. 3l), and of a constant 
bearing about the viKptaaip tov 'Irjaov, 2 C. 4. 10. 

THE PLUPEKFECl". 

The pluperfect expresses the completion of some act before a 
specified time : Xen. Anab. ii. 2. 14, irir/yia/e ycLp i^ apA^t 
iropevofiepo^ Siori irerpiiyro, for he happened to be travelling in 
a carriage, because he was suffering the effects of a wound : L. 
16. 20, 8« ifie^irro irpo^ top TrvKupa avrov ^TucapApoi. 

In some passages we find the pluperfect when we should 



VOICES. 



95 



expect the aoristi //. i. 221, f, 8' Oiikvp-iriphe fiefii/JKet, the 
goddess was already gone to Olympus: v. 65, top ph> 
MtipiopTf; ire ^ KorripapTrre SiMicap /3e^^«ee*, as soon as he 
overtook him, he smote him at once. In the New Testament 
this usage is found in verbs where the perfect has the force of 
the present, and the pluperfect of the imperfect : M. 12. 46, v 
piqrnp Koi oi dBekiJHtl avrov e'urrijkeurav efo) : J. 2. 9, m 8k 
iyevaaro 6 df^vrpi'xKiPO'i to ihap oIpop yeyepr)fUvop, kuI ovk jfSet 
vodev etrrXp K.T.X. : 20. 9, oiSiira ^hp ^ieiaap 7^1/ 'ipa^nv, Srt Se* 
airrop ix veKp&p apa<Trrjpai. 

The paulo-post future expresses the permanent effect of a 
future action. 

From the perfects of intransitive verbs are formed present 
tenses, which may have their own futures: BprivKw, I am 
dying, TedptjKa, I am dead; from this is formed a present, 
Tedp^Kca, future Tefli/»}fo», TsBp^^opai, I shall be dead: Xarnp.i, 
I am placing, tarqKa, I have placed myself, or I stand, Itrrjjfw, 
itrrri^opMi, I shall stand. 

This rule is particularly applicable to perfects of a passive 
form: pipp^axw, I call to mind, p^ppripm, I remember, 
/M/tvifo-o/Mt, I shall remember: ypd^, I write, feypappxu, I 
remain written, feypd^opM. I shall remain written : Aristoph. 
QvSeii Kmh (nrovSh<i p£Terfpa<jfn<reTai, oX\' aavep ^p to irpSyrop 
ir^eipdferM, no one shall be transferred by private interest to 
another catalogue, but shall remain enrolled as he was at first : 
/epafo), iciicparia, Keiepd^opMi : L. 19. 40, ihp oSrot aiayir^ao»<nv 
oi \l0oi KeKpd^oprai: II. i. 139, oBeKCP Kexo^aerai, but he, I 
ween, will long continue angry. 

VOICES.' 

Donaldson remarks, § 430, " The intransitive usage of verbs is 
anterior to the transitive. The transitive is merely a causative 
or secondary signification, and requires an objective case, as a 
secondary predication, to complete the meaning. Even after 
the transitive use had become the common and established 
signification, there was a tendency to fall back on the neuter or 
independent construction." 

Verbs which are habitually spoken of as transitive are used 
also as intransitive : eirl SdpSeK ^ei» o KSpos, Cyrus was pro- 
ceeding to Sardes : Hepfij? e'urifiaKx i<i t^v 'EXXdia, Xerxes 
made an irruption into Hellas : Thuc. i. 79, t«i» p.kp wXetowav 



96 



PAfiSIVB VOICE. 



i7r\ rh airh al ffv&ftot !<pepop, the seiftiments of the majority - 
weire tending to the same point : KOK&t IP^^c*, I am ill : i irarrjp, 
tI vpdrrei; mKik Trpdrret, how fares your father? he fares 
well: ^ iroKtt im ri ^etpoi; iKkivev, the city fell off for the 
worse. If this view is correct, it is altogether grotuitous to 
assert that the transitive and intransitive significations of verhs 
are continually interchanged, or to speak of multiplied devia- 
tions of the voices from their proper meanings. The usage of 
Greek writers, Homeric, Attic, Hellenistic, is in many respects 
analogous to our own. There are many expressions we oc- 
casionally use for the sake of convenience, though we are not 
prepared to maintain their grammatical proprietyre. g., the 
land grows wheat; he walks his horse; they horsed the 
coach. 

These considerations will be sufficient to show the shallow- 
ness of the grounds on which many expressions in the New 
Testament have been pronounced anomalous ; such as M. 6. 45, 
T^v fJlKiov avariiCKei : L. 12. 37, dvaxXtpei avrovt : 2 0. 2. u, t^ 
$pMi*l3evoim ^fM^ : Ph. 4. 10, aveOaKere rb tnrip ifiov ^povtlv : 
Tit. 1. 5, Xva rk Xei-irovra hriBihp0m<rg : J. 14. 31, arfufiev 
ivrevOev: 1 T. 5. s, t^v irianv rjpvtirat: 2 T. 1. 15, airearpd- 
^adv p£ irdvrei oi iv r§ 'Aala: A. 12. 10, rijv irvkTjv t^v 
ffiirqpav, Ttjv ^povaav eU fifv iroKiv : Xen. Anab. v. 2. 16, rfj^ 
eh Tt)v uKpav ^epotiatji oSou . . . Karh t^9 ttvIuks t^i ck fifv 
aKpav ^epoiaa^: 2 Tim. 2. 16, rh,^ fie^ijXovi Kevo^vla^ 
ireptlmiuro, withdraw from, ' make a circuit so as to avoid.' 

No difficulty ought to be felt with the following expressions, 
where the reflective pronoun is sometimes supplied : Mk. 4. 29, 
Srav irapaZ^ o Kapirof : 37, t^ Kv/uiTa eirifiaXXev elf to ttXoiov : 
A. 27. 14, ^jSaXe Kar^ avr^; dve/ttKi 7. 43, itrrpe^^e Zi 6 6e6f : 
li. d. 13, 4 ^/tipa TJp^aro xXiveiv. 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

The active verb expresses an action of the subject which is 
directed to a certain object. The passive represents the object 
as receiving the action thus directed. 

In Greek, the object, whether it is immediate or remote, 
becomes the subject of the passive verb : rvirrei fte, he strikes 
me, — iym rvrrTo/uu \nf airoO: vurrevet fioi, he trusts me, 
— iy« TTtaTcvo/Mt wjr* avTov : xparei pov, he masters me, — Ir/ut 
KparoSpai vir ainov. 



MIDDLE VOICE. 



97 



Other prepositions besides vir6 are used to express the agent, 
as iK, dnro, irpov, vapd. The dative is also used for the agent, 
especially with verbs of the passive perfect. 

Those verbs which are followed by two accusatives in the 
active retain in the passive the accusative of the thing, and 
many others which in the active have generally the remote 
object: Mk. 16. 5, eiSov veavuTKOv . . . nrepiPe^ripevov irroXiiv 
XevK^v: A. 18. 25, o5to* J^v #caTiJX^/*iiw T^f oSbv tov Kvplov: 
2 Th. 2. 15, Kpareire tA« irapaSoareK hi iSiZdx&vre: L. 12. 47, 
SaptjverM iroXXav : G. 2. 7, ireirurrevpM to eiiarfikyuov t^v oKpo- 
pvaricm : A. 28. 20, rtiv Skuaiv Tavn)v vepucecpM, : 21. 3, avtufta^ 
vivre^ rifP Kvirpov: 0. 1. 9, tva irkiipaeijre r^v hrvivmnv tov 
OeiJipMTOi ainov. 

USAGES OF THE MIDDLE VERB. 



MIDDLE VOICE. 

The middle is only an idiomatic application of the intransi- 
tive passive ; sometimes it is almost impossible to say whether 
the verb is middle or passive. 

There are four ordinary usages of the Greek middle verb : 
(1) the reflexive, where it denotes action on the agent with or 
without an accusative of the part : M. 27. 5, dinfi^aro : Mk. 7. 
4, fiairrUrrnvrai: L. 22. SO.KaOiatiade: A. 18. is, Keipdp^voi i^v 
Ke^dKqv: 2 Th. 3. 6, oriWeodM v/tas: L. 10. 11, tov xoviopTov 
diropuaaop^da: 12. 15, ^vKdanretrde airb rrji irXeove^iai : R. 14. 

10, iravrei yap TrapaaTi)a6p^0a j^ firfpMri roO Xpttrrov, for we 
shall all present ourselves before : G. 6. 7, ph irKavaade : Mk. 
7. 3, iav p,ti irvy/t^ vi^avrai rtii xet/ia?. (2) The appropriative 
sense, where the reflexive pronoim is sometimes added by way 
of emphasis and perspicuity : A. 20. 28, iroipMivew t^i» iKK\r)aiav 
Tov 6eoO fiv rrepieiroirjaaTO Sih tov ISlov atpaTOi: 1 T. 3. 13, 
fiadpov lawTots «a\oi» nrepviroutvurai : E. 5. 16, i^ofyopa^opevoi 
TOV Kaipov : L. 21. 19, cV t^ inropov^ vp&v lerjaaade tA? yfrvxai 
vp&v : Tit. 2. 7,.o-eauT0i> wapexop^o^ tvttov. (3) The causative 
sense, to get a thing done by intermediate agency : L. 2. 5, 
dTTvtpdfaaOai, to get himself enrolled: II. i. 13, \va6pevo9 
Ovyarpa, to get his daughter set free: 1 0. 6. 7, BmtI ovxl 
PmKKop oBiKeiade; why do ye not rather submit to injury? 

11. 6, KeipdoOto, let her get herself shaven: A. 16. 1, ihp p.ri 
irepa-ipvnaOe, except ye get yourselves circumcised. (4) The 

H 



98 



DYNAMIC MIDDLE. 



PA8SIVK AND MIDDLE DEPONENTS. 



99 



TOoiprocal aense, where the parties mutually act with each 
other : L. 22. 6, ij^dprjtrav xal axwidevro airra apyvpiov SoOvai, : 
2 G. 13. II, lOLTapri^eade, irapaKaXeiade, amend each other's 
defects, afford mutual help: 1 C. 9. 26, ird<; 6 offuvi^ofiepo^ : 
A. 7, 26, &<l>0r) aiiroif fiajfpfievoK : 23. 9, oi '^pa/ifiarek rov 
fiSpovi T&v fapuraUov BiepA'Xpino. Thus we may explain 

1 T. 1. 18, ravTTiv ttjv irapivf^eKlav iraparidefiai trot, where the 
ohject is represented as emanating from, or belonging to, the 
subject of the verb ; sometimes called the appropriative middle. 
In some verbs the reflexive is joined with the reciprocal : 
J. 12. 10, i^ovKswravTO Bi ol apj(iepei<i, consulted among them- 
selves : 9. 22, i^Sfij yiip awtriOeivro oi 'IqvScuoi, for the Jews had 
already settled among themselves. 

In many verbs the causative middle is the correlative of the 
active : ^o/3£h>, to frighten, «f>ofieux0ai, to fear ; Xvaai, to 
release, Xvawrdai, to ransom : A. 21. 24, 25, xal avrbt ^v\da- 
aav TOP v6fu>v . . . <l>v\d(ra§a8at airoii^ to re elBcciKodvrov /c.t.X. 

2 T. 4. 15, ov Kol ail (j>v\daaov : M. 5. 42, SapetaacrdM, to borrow, 
to cause money to be lent to oneself r 20. 1. 7, fuirdovadM, to 
hire, to cause to let to oneself. This relation is frequently 
expressed in Latin by curare, and in German by the auxiliary 
verb (sich) lasaen. 

The term dynamic, or intensive middle, has lately been in- 
troduced to denote the appropriate and causative usages when 
the subject of the verb has a peculiar personal interest and 
anxiety in the action which he does or causes to be done. 
Thus Mk. 14. 47, <nra<rdiievo9 Ti)P fid')(ai,pap, expresses more 
vividly than Mt. 26. 61, airioiraae ttjp fuij(eupap avrov. Many 
of the uses of voieta0M may be referred to this head: A. 1. i, 
TOP Trp&TOP \070v iTTOirjad/iijp : 8. 3, iiroiija-apTo xoverop : 27. 18, 
eK^dKrjp hroiovpTO : B. 15. 26, Koiptopiap ripk irotijcraaffai : E. 4. 
16, trap TO a&fui . , , r^p av^aip rov adtfiarofi iroielrai, all 
parts of the body reciprocally and mutually acting on one 
another : H. 1. 3, &' eavrov Kadapiaftop iroiijodftepoi rStp 
dfiapri&p. Contrast Xen. Anab. i. 2. 9, e^eraaip kuI dpiOfiop 
iiToiriaep, with i. 2. I, hroieiro r^v wp6(f)aaip. This use of the 
middle is the application of the simple meaning of the active to 
mental and moral forces : 1 Tim. 4. 6, ravra inroriffifiepov roit 
dSeX^oZf . . . iprpe^ofjLepoi roll Xoyoit rij^ irlareay} : C. 2. )5, 
aireKSvadfiepov T^f dpj(ai koX t^v i^ovcrioi : Mk. 10. 20, raOra 
rrdpra iij>vKa^dnriv iK veoTijTo? /aou: Tit. 1. 6, ha tA Xeiirovra 



i 



•i 



hriZiopdMrn . . . ixi h^ <ro\ Biera^dfivv : 2 Tun. 4. U, 
'AXi^apBpoi o x«>^e^ ''■«>-'^« M« *««^ ipeBei^aro. where the 
middle voice points to the animus displayed in the outward 
acts of injury and wrong. 

The middle form of a neuter verb is often used to denote the 
appropriation to an individual of a state or condition. This is 
particularly common with verbs in -evio. Some, like dpurreveiv, 
irptareveip. ^aaCKeveip, are used only in the active form, because 
they denote a condition, belonging actually or naturally to the 
subject. Others employ both active and' middle forms, because 
they admit of the idea of an appropriation of the condition : 
crpareveip, to march on an expedition : arpareveadai, to be a 
soldier : 2 T. 2. 4, owSels <rrparev6t^epo<i, no one while serving 
as a soldier: L. 3. u, arparevo/upoi, men on actual service: 
rroXireveip, to be a citizen, live in a free state : iroXireveaeai. to 
appropriate the condition of a citizen to oneself individually, 
to take a part in poUtics: Phil. 1. 27, f^opop af/»s toS 
eiarrfeXlov toO Xpurrov iroXireveaOe : A. 23, 1, eyw rraaji 
avpeiB^aei dya0y rreiroXlrevfuu Tp ©ew. Similarly, irpecr^eveip, 
to be an ambassador : irpeafie6ea0ai, to act by means of an 
embassy: ^ovKeiew, to give advice: pov\eve<r0ai, to act aa a 
counseUor: Thucyd. ii. 15, airrol Smaroi, iirdkirevopro xal 
epovKevopro. (Donaldson, § 432. 2.) 

Some verbs, though active in form, are used in a middle 
sense : 1 P. 2. 6, 7rept£x« h fV yP<*4^> i* ^ extant in Scripture 
(Joseph. Ant. xi. 4. 7, ica0oK ip avr^ ry einaro\% rrepiix^i)-. 
1 P. 2. 13, €tTe ^offCKei w? inrepkxopri: L. 15. 12, So? /«)» to 
hrtpdXKoP fiipoi t% oitriai : A. 27. 14, e/3a\6 Kar avrr}<: S.pefio<i : 
Mk. 4. 29. 37 : so lyeipe, arise, Mk. 2. 9. u ; 3. 3 ; 5. 41 ; 10. 49 : 
A. 27. 43, airopply^aproM, hfeving cast themselves out of the 
ship : 5. 22, dpoarph^aprti. 

PASSIVE AND MIDDLE DEPONENTS. 

Some middle deponents, in addition to an aorist middle, have 
an aorist in the passive form, which is completely passive in 
sense : 0£dopMi, e0eaadp.r}P, i8ed0r]P—tdofiai, la<rdnr)P, wfli/w— • 
Xapl^ofiai, ixapiTdfifiP. exapi<T0W—p»otuu, ippvadfirjp, ippva0VP. 
■ Other deponents have an aorist, which is passive in form 
but active in signification: as i}/3ou\^V, »jSuv^V, hre/ieXn- 
Orip, ■qiiKap^Ofiv, i<nr\arfxyuT6rip. These are called passive de- 
ponents. 

H 2 



CHAPTER VII. 
THE MOODS OP VERBS. 

HTFOTHBTICAL FBOPOSITIONS. INFIMITIVB AND PARTICIPLES. 

Thb Bubjunotive and optative in Greek fonn one mood, cor- 
responding to the subjunctive mood in Latin. The Greek 
subjunctive supplies the tenses which answer to the subjunctive 
present and perfect in Latin, while the Greek optative fills up 
the place of the subjunctive imperfect and pluperfect. 

The indicative mood expresses certainty ; the conditional 
mood of present and past tenses formed by the subjunctive 
and optative expresses uncertainty. "When the result is re- 
garded as certain, the verb is in the indicative ; when uncertain, 
in the subjunctive ; when doubly uncertain, depending on some 
contingency not likely to occur, the optative is used. In 
English there are three degrees of expectation or likelihood, 
e. g.. Will you come P Can you come P Could you come P You 
will recover ; You may recover ; You might recover. These 
degrees have their exact parallels in Greek, and are expressed 
respectively by the indicative, the subjunctive, the optative" 
(a B. No. 226). 

This conditional mood frequently appears to be independent ; 
but generally its dependence upon other words is plainly 
marked by the employment of hypothetical particles and final 
conjunctions. Some verb may be supplied to show the de- 
pendence of the subjunctive and optative, even when they 
appear to be independent. The subjunctive had originally the 
idea of futurity, next of duty, corresponding to the English 
' ought.' Hence it is frequently hortative, resembling the im- 
perative, or expresses a doubt, especially in questions. The 
optative seems, as the word implies, to have originally ex- 



SXJBJUNCriVB MOOD. 



101 






pressed the idea of wishing, 'could you come ?' then of possi- 
bility, resembling the English 'may,' 'might.' In process of 
time the latter meaning was distinguished by the insertion 
of ai>. 

As the subjunctive involved the idea of duty, it was naturally 
used to denote a purpose : ' I give you this, — ^you are to use it,' 
is much the same as, ' I give you this that you may use it.' 

As the optative involved the idea of wishing, this mood was 
also used to denote a purpose : ' I gave you this — may you use 
it,' is much the same as, ' I gave you this, that you might use 
it' 

Thus both moods merged into a common idea of condition- 
ality, and were used to denote a purpose, and other relations 
which involve doubt, uncertainty, or indefiniteness in their 
statement. From what has been already mentioned, it must be 
remembered that the subjunctive mood refers to present or 
future time, like the subjunctive present in Latin; and that 
the optative refers to past time, like the subjunctive imperfect. 
But when the past is represented as present, the subjunctive is 
used after other tenses besides the present and future : G. 3. 19, 
T&v irapafidaeap xapiv irpoaeridi), aypK o5 IX-^j; to <nrepfia. 
The omission of av in this sentence evinces the idea in the 
mind of St. Paul that all obstacles and difficulties were 
removed. 

SUBJUUCnVB MOOD. 

A qualified future is expressed by the subjunctive, especially 
when the aorist is used: "Ubique in conjunctive inest fiituri 
notatio." Hermann : H. i. 262, ov yap irot rolow tSov avepcK oiiSi 
tSwfuu, ' for never yet have I seen such heroes, nor is it pro- 
bable I shall behold their like.' Here ovSi 8-»^o/uu would mean 
'I shall certainly not see them.' 

The exact translation of J. 4. 35, or 2 Th. 1. 10, Srav S\0j}, 
would be, • whensoever the Lord shall have come.* This, how- 
ever, is not in accordance with our usual mode of expression, 
and had better be avoided: 1 T. 5. 11, Srav KaTa<rTpt)vida<otri 
Tov Xpurrov, ya/ieip deKovaiVy "whensoever they regain their 
spirits with reference to Christ, as will probably be the case, 
they wish to marry." When the reference to the actual 
futurity of the subsequent event ia less specially contemplated, 
we may translate it by the present: M. 21. 40, Srav oiv i\J0p 6 



102 



TUK OPTATIVB. 



CONDITIONAL PROPOSITIONS. 



103 



Kvpio^ Tov d/iireXa>vo9, whenever therefore the owner of the 
vineyard ooa\eth: Mk. 4. 39> Srav hi trapaS^ 6 xapiroi, hut 
whenever the fruit presents itself. If this reference to actual 
futurity is more distinct and prominent, we must translate it by 
the future : Mk. 8. 38, 69 y&p hv hrtua'xw^d Mi ^^^ whoever 
shall be ashamed of me : A. 23. 35, huucovaonal trov Srav Koi 
o( Kartiyopol orov irapar/iptavTM, So R. 11. 37 ; 10. 16. 12, 
iKevaerai Srav ev/catp^<r]}, whenever he shall have leisure. 

IDEAS EXPBESSBD BY THE SOBJUNCTIVE. 

From the idea of futurity, the subjunctive is used in horta- 
tory and deliberative sentences : tI yivufjuu ; What will be- 
come of me P vw vol rpdirmfuu ; To what quarter shall I now 
turn myself? Thus in the hortative sense : M. 17. t, ironja-aftev 
&Se rpeii «rmjvdi: J. 14. 31, iyelpeaffe" Srfa/ieii ivrevdev: 1 0. 
15. 33, <pdrif<ofiev Koi vUoiieir aHputv yiip airo&vtjarKOfiev : 1 Th. 
fi. 0, /i}/ KaffevSafiep, wf mil oi Xoiirot oKKh, ypiiyop&/i€V ical 
yijipatfiep : H. 4. l, <f>o^0&ftev oiv x.t.X. 

In some passages the hortative and deliberative ideas are 
blended together: M. 6. 31,^ \&/ovTe<r Tl ^fxvyiofiev ; Mk. 4. so, 
Tivi ofutuoaenftev t^v ^aaiKelav tov 6eov ; 6. 37, aire\06vre<; 
arfopdaafiep BuiKoaiav Sijvaplcov aprow, Koi S&fiev aiiToli ifiayeiv ; 

The idea of deliberation prevails in M. 6. 26, p.i) fiepifivare r^ 

'^'OCV vfi&v, tI ^ofpfTS KciX ri irbyre : 23. 33, irci>t ^vyifre airh 7^9 

Kplaeav t^9 jeivvTii ; ^6. 54, ttm; oiv v\fipa6&aiv al ypatftai ; 

~ L. 22. 2, i^i]TQW oi dpx^^P^K if<*l oi ypafi/juiTeii to, irSn aveKatnv 

a{n6v : 23. 3l, iv t& ^p^ TliivtjTat ; 

In the following there is a double act of deliberation as to 
the person and the part : Mk. 16. 34, fiaKKovTe<t Kkfipov hr^ 
avri rk rl apr). So in Demosth. de Cor. 73, dirb 7^/1 Tovrav 
i^era^fUvav r/f Tlvoi atrio^ icrriv yei^aerai (JMvepov. 

The idea of duty is prominent in L. 12. 5, imoSei^a Sk vfiiv 
Tiva ^ofiijdfiTe. 

After verbs implying command, exhortation, the subjunctive 
with wa marks the purpose contemplated by the command as 
well as the immediate subject : L. 10. 40, eiirk oiv avr^, Xva pot 
ffVPavTiKdfiijTat. 

THE OPTATIVE. 

The optative expresses a matter subjectively, as conceived of 
in the mind : Mk. 11. 14, nr/Kht i/c <roO. ew rbv aiava pLifieh 



% 



: 



Kapnhp ipdrfoi: A. 8. 20, rh apyvpiop aov aw aol ettj et? 
dTrmKeiav: L. 20. 16 ; R. 6. 2. 15 ; 7. 7, M yevono, far be the 
thought : R. 15. 6, Bi Seof 85*9 vfiiv to aM ^poveiv : Philem. 
20, *y<» <Tov ovalp.i)v iv Kvplm : 2 Tim. 4. 16, M «wtow "Kayurdeiii : 
1 P. 1. 2, x^P'-l ^Z*'" ""^ elff/ivr) trkfiOwddri, 

The optative is employed in the Oratio ObUqua, when thel 
sentiments of a speaker are recorded, but not given in his own 
person : L. 1. 29, BieKoyl^ero irormroi etrj 6 dtfiraa-p^ oi5to? : 
8. 9, rk etri ij ir/ipa^oX^ aSni ; 22. 23, to, Tii apa eh) i^ avr&v 
6 TovTO fUXXtov nrpdffaeiv : A. 17. 11, dpaKpivovrei tA? ypa^<i el 
S}(pi Tavra ovta)?. 

When an inquirer anticipates uncertainty or indecision in a 
reply, the presumed contingency or conjectural circumstance 
passing through his mind is marked by the insertion of av: 
L. 1. 62, ivevevov t& iraTpl Th tI &v OiXoi KoKeurBai, ainov : 6. 1 1, 
hieKaKow irpbi dXK^Xovi tI &u voi^aeiav tjJ 'Iijo-oO : A. 2. 12, 
Ziirir6pow, SKKm wpbt aXKov Xiyovrei, tI &v OeKoi tovto elvai : 
A. 17. 18, Tl &v BiXoi 6 aireppaXoyoii oiTO<i \iyeip : J. 13. 24, 
irv0i<T0ai t/s &p eti) irepl oi Xiyei. 

THE INDICATIVE CONJOINED WITH THE OPTATIVE. 

In some sentences the indicative is used in conjunction with 
the optative. Here two questions are asked, one of which can 
be answered without great difficulty, while respecting the other 
the inquirer assumes some uncertainty: A. 21. 33, iirvpOdpeTO 
Tk &p ettf, KaX tI im-i TreirotijKiw, Here the inquirer anticipates 
little difficulty in ascertaining what Paul had recently done, but 
implies some doubt as to learning who he was. A converse 
change of mood occurs in Xenophon, iTe0avpAica t/w? tc fjaap 
Koi tI fiovKoiPTo. In like manner a greater degree of uncer- 
tainty or contingency is marked by the optative than by the 
subjunctive: Xen, Anab. v. 3. 7, hreareiKep i^p fiiv awro? <rft)(?5 
iavT^ dvoSovpar el Si « trdOoi, dpoBeiPM, ' he charged him, in 
case he himself is preserved, to give him back the votive 
offering ; but if he were to suffer any mischance . to devote the 
offering.' The greater amount of indefiniteness implied in the 
mischance over the fact of preservation is marked by the 
optative. 

CONDITIONAL PROPOSITIONS. 

In the conditional hypothetical the conditional or relative 



104 



OONDITIONAI. PB0F0SITI0M8. 



aentenoe ia called the protatia {vp&ravvt), while the eentenoe 
which follows IB called the apodosis (aTroSoo'w). Donaldson, § 
^00^-602. , . 

; The protasis is regularly expressed by the particle et, and 
when it is thought necessary to express an antecedent to this 
relative, the particle &v appears in the apodosis. 

There are four classes of conditional propositions, which 
;mply respectively : 

' I. Possibility, without the expression of tmcertainty : eX rt 
ijffn StSoxrt, ' si quid habet dat,'. if he has any thing he gives it. 

II. Uncertainty, with some small amount of probability : idv 
Tt iyrt S<^«< ' Bi quid habeat dabit,' if he shall have any thing 
(which is not improbable), he will give it. Uncertainty with 
the prospect of decision. Objective uncertainty. 

III.; Mere assumption, without any subordinate idea: eX r* 
vxpi StBoli] &v, ' si quid habeat det,' if he were to have any thing 
he would give it; or, as often as he had any thing he would 
give it. Subjective uncertainly. 

lY. Impossibility, i.e. when we wish to indicate that the 
thing is not so. 

(a) et Tt elx^v iSiSov &p, ' si quid haberet daret,' if he had any 
thing, which is not the case, he would give it. 

(() et Ti i<r}(ev eScdxev av, * si quid habuisset dedisset,' if he had 
had any thing, which was not the case, he would have given it. 
The logical form is, he gives it, therefore he has it. Hence 
what is logically consequent is grammatically antecedent. 

Bepeated instances of these forms occur in the New Testa- 
ment, with the exception of the third, which is merely assump- 
tive or conjectural. 

The first class includes all conditional propositions in which 
the apodosis is expressed by the indicative without av or by the 
imperative. In these cases there is simple supposition, a mere 
expression of possibility. Any tense of the indicative mood 
may be used in the protasis with the relative particle et. Thus 
the present, future, and aorist occur in the same passage : 2 Tim. 
2. II, 12, et 7^/7 <nn>air€0dpofiev koI aw^ijaofiev, el virofiivofiev 
Kal av/ifiaaiKevao/iev' el apvtiaSfieOa Kcucelvot apvqcrerai ^fM9: 
M. 12. 27, et iyit iv Bee\^efioi>X iKfiaKKa rii Baifiovui, oi viol 
vft&v iv Ttvt iK^aKKowrt ; Mk. 3. 26, et o Caracas avian} i<f> 
iavTov KoX ne/iipurrai, ov Svvarai trraO^vai: G. 1. 9, eX t(9 vfia^ 
eiwf>/e\l^€Tai trap h vapeXdffere, avade/ta loroi : 1 0. 7. 15, et Bi 



THK FOTJB FORMS. 



105 



-^t 



I 



•I 




i.-KkOavov. H. 7. n, et" /»!.' oS« reXeWt? Sti -nfi AeviTiKffi lepa- 
avvTji fpr Tts hi xpela /c.t.X. 

SECOND FORM. 

This expresses uncertainty, with some small amount of pro- 
bability or contingency, with the idea of realization: iav with 
the subjunctive in the protasis, the indicative future in the 
apodosis: M. 5. 19, 8« ii^v oiv Xi)a|, , . . Kal StSafi, ovra, toi/s 
dvBp^ovi, iK&x'cro^ KMdwerai , . . : 17. 20, ihv Sy^e^ ncUrriv 
i« \!>KKOV aiv&nem, ipelre t# «pet ToiJrp: 28. U, eav OKOvadp 
To&ro ^l Tou ^eiJi6vo^, ^/*et? irelaofuv alniv, kuI i/tfis afieplfivow 
•^oc^aoiuv: L. 4. 6, 7, ^ i^P Bi^ 8/80,^* air^v avow ehv 
wpoaKuv^ar,, hximihv fiov, iarai aov ndvra. Here StSa>/tt is a 
vivid present, assigning a permanent property. So in K.Z. 25 : 
J 9 31. L. 19. 40, ictv ovTOi aunrncrinaw, ol \l0oi KeKpa^ovrai: 
J. 7! 37, Uv Tt? St^a, kfrxk<r0<o irp6i lie Kal invirto, imperative 
for future. Compare G. 1. 8: R. 12. 20; 13. 4. J- 12. 32, 
iiiv {rh>0S» iK Tfl? 7^5. 'r«»^«' IX^iiff© wpSs ifUivTOv: G. 5. 2, 
ihv trepvriiivnaee. Xpurrh if^ oiSiv &4>e\^aer. B«v. 3. 20, iav 
Tt? &Ko6ari Tfjv ^1^9 /tou, *ol Avolfy rtiv Oipav, eiaeT^vaoiuu 

irph avrov. . . - ii jt •«; 

The first and second forms occur in A. 5. 36, 39, i&v jj ef 
ivdp<!»r<ov fi fiovkt, oSnj, KaraT^n'^erai- el Sk iK Oeov iariv, oi, 
Svvaaffe KaraSSiani. 

\ THIRD FORM. 

Mere assumption or conjecture: optative with et* ui ttie 
protasis, foUowed by optative with &v in the apodosis. Of tt»s 
form no decided instance occurs in the New Testament. But 
we may refer to 1 P. 3. 14, et' «al vdaxoire StA SiKaioavvijv 
puKdpioi {&v eXrrre), if ye were to suffer for righteousness sake 

happy would ye be. . . , -v ^ i 

The protasis is often expressed by a participle: Xen. Anab. 
iii. 1. 3, viK&vrei nh> oiS' &v &o ^teir/ovra KaraKaivouv, i5ttij- 
Bhnwv Se avr&v ovBeU &v Xet^deti;. 

FOURTH FORM. 

The hypothetical condition is expressecf as impossible or as 
contrary to fact : et' with a past tense of the indicative mood in 



106 



VSm OF THB IHPBBATIVB MOOD. 



the protasia, followed by &p in tlie apodosis : M. 24. 43, el ^Sei 6 
olicoie<nr6Tiji . . . iypiiyopTjtTev &v. So L. 12. 39 : 17. 6, el etj^ere 
vioTiv <»$ KOKKOV awdirewv, iK^ere &p r^ avKUfiiv^ ravrp : 19. 
43, el lyvea Kal <ri — where the apodosis is omitted : J. 4. lo, e^ 
^££19 T^v Stopeetv Tov 0eov . . . aii &p ^njaa^ airrov : 6. 46, £( 7^/> 
hrurreiere M<oa%, hrurrevere &v iiutl: 8. 39, el riicva rov 
'Afipahfi fjre, r^ Spya tov 'Afipaci.fi iiroieiTe &v: 9. 41, ei rv^'Kol 
^e, ovK &v elxere a/iapTiav : 18. 36, el in toC Koaftov rovrov ^v fj 
fiaaiKfla f) i/t^, ot vtrriphai hv ol ifiol ^avl^ovro: G. 1. 10, el 
yhp in Avdpttnroi^ ijpe&Kov, Xpurrov SoOXov ovk &v i^/ii^v: 3. 21, 
el f/hp iSodt) v6iMK o Suvd/Mvoi ^woiroi^aai, Svra^ &p ix po/utv Tip 
i} ZiKOMHTupff : H. 4. 8, el 7^p avrouv 'Incrovt Karhrawrev, ovk 
&p irepl SKXiji tKoKei /tercb ravra ^fiiptK, for 4f Joshua gave 
them rest he would not continue speaking of another day after 
these events : 8. 4, «/ fUv yeip i^p M 7^9 ovB' &p ^p iepev^ : 1 J. 
2. 19, el yiip Jjaap i^ ^fi&p fte/iepijiceurap &p /leff ^(imp. 

There was a tendency in the later Oreek to omit &p in the 
apodosis; but some think that &p was omitted designedly, to 
express the utmost certainty of an event having taken place, if 
the restriction implied or expressed in the protasis had not 
existed : J. 15. 22, el ftij ^XOop xal iKaXifva avToi<i, afiaprCap ovk 
ei)(pp'. 19. 11, oiiK elye^ i^ovalap ovhfftiop kwt i/iov, el fi^ j}i> 
«roi SeSofiipop &p<oOev : 21. 25, oiiZl airrhp olfuu top Koa/MP X'''*PV' 
aai rd 'Ypa(f>6nepa fiifiXia : G. 4. 15, el SvpaT&p, toiks 6<f>daK/iovi 
ifi&p i^opv^aPTCi iStoKUTi fioi. In this passage some editors 
admit &p. 

THE IMPEBATIVB. 

. The imperative differs very little in any of its usages from 
the subjunctive. The subjunctive was originally a determinate 
tense, like the future, and signified the probable occurrence of 
something after the time of speaking. By bearing this in mind 
we may account for the interchange between the indicative 
future, the subjunctive aorist, and the imperative. 

The following are virtually imperative: A. 13. 10, ov iravafi 
ZuMTpi^v T^f oZoii^ Kvplov I M. 6. 6, oiiK e<rg 09 inroKpiral : 
5. 48, iaeaOe o^ ifieti TeKeioi. 

USES OF THB IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

The imperative is often used as a mere exclamation, as in 
tliri, Sri/e, ^pe. This may. account for its use in M. 8. 32, ehrev 



'? 
^ 



1 



USES OP THB IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



107 



airrolr inrdrfere: 23. 33, Kal ifieK irKfipdHrare n fOrpov tSv 
waTiptop ip£>p, go on till you have equalled the iniquities of 
your fathers : 26. 45, Kadex^e rh "kamop. ^ 

The imperative present and the subjunctive aonst with p-rj are 
used to express prohibitions: Mk. 9. 39, M KtoKwre airrop: J. 
5. 28, /tij Oavfid^ere Toxko: Mk. 10. 19, M fU>iX^»<nir M 4>opev- 
arn : A. 18. 9, M ^/3oi), dXXa TuiXet Kal fiil atmr^arfi. 

'The distinction of tenses is generally preserved, the present 
denoting continued or frequently repeated action, and the 
aorist that which is single: M. 6. 19, A*4 dnaavpl^ere vfup Of,- 
ffoi;powArlTg?7^s: H. 12. 14, etp^i^vfiiw/ceTe. .... 

In the two following instances the aorist impbes, do it at 
once, do it quickly, do it for this once, not constantly: J. 2. 
7, ^iepXaaTe tAs iSp^9 fiSaros: A. 23. 23, iroipAaaTe cTpaTu^av 
SuiKoalovi. " Prsesens et aoristus in cseteris prseter indicativum 
modis eo maximo differunt, quod pwesens rem durantemvel 
scepim repetitam. aoristus rem absolutam aut smelfactam indicat. 
Inepte dicas ypdyfrop filpKov si non aeriptum me, sed acnbi vw, 
quia hoc longi temporis opus est ; recte vero S09 t^i' xeipa, quia 
hoc brevi temporis momento fit." Hermann. 

Two imperatives are sometimes united, either with or without 
Kal, where the second denotes a consequence of the first: J. 1. 
40, ifyxeaBe Koi rSere: 10. 15. 34, ^m/^are htKalaxs koX p.ri 
iftapTdpere: 1 T. 6. 12, ayapl^ov top Kohxtp arf&pa t^ wurreaxi. 
iiriKafiov 7^9 ala>plov ija^. 

The second imperative is here equivalent to a future, as in 
, the phrase, 'divide et impera.' This usage may be arranged 
under the second form of hypothetical propositions, where the 
protasis with idp is omitted: L. 10. 28, tovto iroiel- xal ^v<rv- 
J. 2. 19, \vaaTe top vaop tovtop' kuI h Tplaiv fip^pavt iyepa 
uMp: E. 5. 14, iyeipai 6 KaeevBtop xal apdara ix twi/ peKp&p- 
Kal i-rrKfMwrei aot o Xpurr6<i: Ja. 4. 7, di/rAmjTe t# Sta^oX^)' 
Kal ^ev^erai d<f> vft&p. 

The infinitive is used in a preceptive sense as a substitute for 
the imperative, to express what must or ought to take place. 
This is especially the case in aphorisms and the language of 
legislation, where a tone of importance, authority, or solemnity 
is adopted: L. 9. 3, /i^re dph Zvo xtr&ptK ^ew: R. 12. 16, 
Xalpeip /*6tA xavo*^®" ««^ KXaleip /texA kTuuoptup : Ph. 3. 16, 
T^i ovT# oToixelp Kavopi, to aM ^popeip : Hesiod, Op. Di. 391, 
rfvp>pbp cvelptip, 7WfH'0i» hi fiowreip. 



108 



VSES OF TIIR INFINITIVE MOOD. 



THE INFINinVB HOOD AND PARTICIPLE. 



THE INFINITIVE AS A VEKBAI, NOUN. 



109 



" The use of the infinitive in dependent clauae^Sjuay be t^us 
distinguished from the use of the participle. The infinitive is 
used when the real object .of the governing verb is an act or 
state, rjfvauravai rpe^iv t^v, r/K&aaav ^a\r)(oinipav. The par- 
ticiple is used when the real object of the governing verb is a 
person or thing whose act or state is described by the participle, 
6p& avOpanrop airodv^iTKovTa. The infinitive is a substantive 
expressing an act or state; th^ participle is an adjective ex- 
pressing an act or state ; if, then, the object of the verb is an 
act or state, the verb is followed by an infinitive used like a 
common noun. But when the object of a verb is a person or 
thing the participle agrees with the object, and expresses its act 
or state." (Jacob, § 136.) 

(The infinitive is most frequently used as a supplement of 
other ideas, and especially of verbal ideas. If the idea expressed 
by a verb is complete, the verb denotes an independent event, 
or an action finished in itself. If the idea is incomplete, the 
verb requires a more accurate definition by way of supplement 
to convey the idea with perfect clearness.^ Verbs which express 
an incomplete idea are such as denote some internal faculty and 
power, the operation of the will, of thought, or of sensation. 

(^ Verbs which denote the operation of sensation require only 
the supplement of the object to which the feeling is directed, 
and by which it is excited. This is expressed by the participle^ 
Other verbs which express an incomplete idea are supplemented 
by the epexegetical infinitive, expressive of object, design, pur- 
pose. In this way the infinitive becomes one form of the final 
sentence, though after verbs of ' command,' ' entreaty,' tva with 
a conditional mood is often used instead. 

USES OF THE INFINITIVE MOOD. 

The infinitive is used for one form of the final sentence, mark- 
ing object, purpose : J. 13. 24, vevei, oiv tovt^ SipMP ilerpof 
mOiadat,: 1 Th. 1. 9, hrearpe^are wpbi top Oew airo t&p 
etSdXap SovXeCeip 0e^ ^i>vri xal akTjdip^: S.ev. 16. 9, ov 
ftereporiaap Sovpai avr^ £6fav: 22. 8, hreaa irpoam/p^aai : 
A. 15. 24, XeyopTe<: irepirip.peadat kuI vqpeip top p6(iop. 
. Frequently the infinitive is lised as the Latin supine, which 
is merely a verbal substantive presentiag a supplementary idea : 






\ 



M..2. 2, fi\j9op^ irpoaKVPn^rai atn^: H- 8, Ti i^T^ere ISelp ; 
1 C. 1. 17, ov yhp a-iri<rret\e /te Xpurroi fiairrl^eip. 

Sometimes the infinitive is merely explanatory, as in 1 Th. 4. 
3, 4. 6, inrix^aOai lp&<; iirh t^? nroppelm defines i Afytaap-mon 
its negative side; the positive side is set forth by eiSipai 
iKoffTOP vfMP K.T.\., of which there follows a specific exemplifi- 
cation, TO p.if inrep^aipeip Kol irXeopeiereip. (Ellicott.) 

•tHE INFINITIVE AS A VERBAL NOUN. 

The infinitive is also used to denote the subject of a pro- 
position, as in English : 

" To meet, to Imow, to love, and then to part, 
la the sad tale of many a hnman heart." 

Ph. 1. 21, iiMi -thp TO ^p Xpurrov Ka\ rh mrodapelp xipSo^ : 
M. 12. 12, lfe<rrt toZs adPPaai KaX&i iroieip: 19. to, ov 
c^p4>ipet 'iap.rjaai : A. 20. l6,07ra)s /ifi yeprrrai axn^ 'xpoporpifif}- 
<rai ip TV 'Aaux : Ja. 1. 27, epn<rKela nadaph hrtai^eadai 
op^apow : 2 P. 2. 21, Kpeirrop fhp ^p uvtok m eireypoiKepai, ti\p 
oSop rrji hiKaioavptjt. ^ „ 

The infinitive is also employed to express the object : II. ii. 
290, oSvpoprai oIkopSb pieadai, they lament the voyage home- 
ward: Xen. Cyr. vii. 1, tw Bk Kvptp Ka\ toIs d/*f awToi; 
vpoo^veyicap ol depairoin-es ip^aryeip tuI i/iirtelp: J. 4. 7, So? /tot 
iriop: 33, M Tts ^i'e7««»' avr^ <^«7"'': ^- 2. 2>, « Kvpvatrtop 
fiTI K-Keirreip KKhrrei<: ; 15. 24, ikiri^ot humopev6psPO<s eedaaaffat 
{,(M<i : 2 T. 1. 18, ia»i ouVy o KvpuK evpelp eKeo<i : 1 Th. 3. 10, 
Seofiepoi, ek to IMp vft&p to nrpoamrop, the purport and object 
of the prayer : 1 Th. 3. 13, e« to artipl^at v/i&p rhi KupSlav, the 
end and aim of the irXeopdaai xal m-epunrevaai: 2 Th. 3. 6, 
iraparfieKKop.ep vfUP . . • (rriWeaOai vpM<t. 

The infinitive is used as a verbal substantive in the genitive 
to explain the purpose, design, or object, from which the action 
of the principal verb arose: M. 2. 13, /teWet 7ap 'H/)i»S»;s 
^7)Teip TO TraiZlop tow airoTJaai avro : 21. 32, vpxK lB6pTe<i ov 
fierefiekrjO'nTe varepop rov irurrevcrai avrw : L. 5. 7, icaripevaap 
... TOW iKJd6pra<i avWafiiadai awTot? : A. 7. 19, itcaKaae tows. 
iruTipoi fifi&v TOW Troteti' iKOera rh fipi^ air&p : 1 0. 2. 2, oiJ 
7ap ixpiva rov elBipai Tt ^i* v/tti;: H. 11. 6, Jltoret 'Epa>x 
fiererWri rov fit) iieip Baparop. 

Thus the infinitive is used according to the usual rules 



110 



PARTIOIFLES. 



PARTICIPLES. 



Ill 



affecting the genitiTe, 'in relation to,' 'in respect to:' L. 24. 
25, avinrrot km fipaZeh t§ xapSlq, tov iritrreveiv: A. 14, 9, 
t&i)i» oTt vlariv ix'* toO amOfivM: 20. 3, ijevero yixofitj tow 
inrooTpe^iv iui MaxeSopia^. 

The infinitive is also used in tlie dative: M. 13. 25, iv t^ 
KaOevSeiv tow? av0punrov<t (this iisage with iv and an. accusative 
as the subject of the infinitive is very common : L. 1. 8 ; 9. 36 ; 
A. 3. 26; 8. 6; G. 4. is): 2 0. 2. 13, tS /*^ eipeiv fie Tlrov: 
1 Th. 3. 3, T^ fiffhiva aalveaOai. 

■ PARTICIPLES. 

The participle describes an act or state, and agrees vrith the 
subject or object of another verb : iXade tovto itoimv, he was 
unobserved in doing this: ip& avrbv ipxpftevov, I see him 
coming. 

The use of the participle in Greek is much more frequent and 
diversified than in other languages. We may arrange its em- 
ployment under two general heads. 

I. In a dependent proposition as a supplement to verbs which 
express an incomplete idea. 

II. In intermediate propositions to assign closer definitions 
' of the principal verb, or of a noun in the principal proposition. 

I. THE PARTICIPLE IN DEPENDENT PROPOSITIONS. 

Verbs wbich denote a result of sensation and express a 
perception by the organs of sense or by internal comprehension, 
as well as those which describe a state of feeling, take their 
supplement in the participle : olBa diayrbt &v : fiifivijiro avOpct- 
wos &v: M. 1. 18, evpidi) iv f^currpX Ij^p^'^'*' ^- 4. 23, oaa ^kov- 
aafuv yevo/ieva: 8. 46, iya> yiip eyvav Svvafuv i^ekBovaav: A. 
16. 34, vya\\(a<raTO iravoiKl irenurrevicm r^ 0ej>: 1 0. 14. 18,- 
ev)(apurr& tA 0e^ ftov yXuurcraK \a\&v : L. 19. 17, ta0i exav, be 
assured that you have. 

THE PARTICIPLE TO EXPRESS THE SUPPLEMENTARY IDEA. 

The participle imparts the supplementary idea to verbs of 
ceasing, beginning, continuing, because the action of the prin- 
cipal verb can only be realized by the occurrence of the act 
expressed by the dependent verb. As the ideas of commence- 
ment, cessation, &c., can only be predicated of a real action, 
this reality is inconsistent with the abstract nature of the 



I 



V 



I 



. 



infinitive: M. 11. l, irekeaev 6 'Itjatm Siardaarav: L. 5. 4, w? 
i-iravaaro "KdK&v : •7. 45, ov SteXnre Kara^iKovad ftov rovv TroSat : 
A. 12. 16, iirifieve Kpovav: Col. 1. 9, ov iravopJeOa inrep vft&v 
irpoaevxofievoi. These may be considered temporal sentences 
where the participle appears as a secondary predicate. 

If the subject which belongs to the participle stands with the 
principal verb as the remote object in the genitive or dative, 
the participle agrees with it in case : yad6fi/t)v avr&v otopAvav 
ehai <To<}>andraY, I perceived that they fancied themselves very 
wise: oiShroTe /jieTefieKrjai pxn airfqaavri, ^derf^afikvtfi hk iroK- 
"KoKK, I at no time repented of being silent, but many times of 
speaking. With these verbs a participle is used, because in the 
dependent proposition a state is assigned in which the subject 
or object of the chief proposition exists. If however the state 
is one which either has yet to take place, or merely might take 
place, the reason for the use of the participle disappears and the 
verbs are followed by the infinitive. Hence many verbs differ 
in meaning as they are followed by the infinitive or participle. 
Alffxwofuu is followed by the infinitive when the action is not 
performed through shame, but by the participle when an action 
has been performed of which the doer is ashamed : aW* iao><i 
aUrxyvji Xifew ravra, but perhaps you are ashamed to say these 
things, and therefore do not say them : ata^^wo/iat rrotelv, I am 
ashamed to do it ; I refrain from doing it through shame : ryu 
Zi v/Mv irapaivatv alajfvvoinriv av, I shoidd be ashamed were I to 
admonish you : aUrxyvofuu iroi^aa';, I am ashamed that I did 
it. 'Apxpfitu is followed by the participle when the assigned 
state has already taken place, but by the infinitive when it is 
just about to take place : o ^et/M>i' ^p^aro yevo/ievot, the winter 
was come on: 6 x^i/imv rjpjfero ytyvevdai, the winter was 
beginning to come on. But in the New Testament &pxo/iai, ia 
used with the infinitive: Mk. 4. i, fip^aro SiSdaxeiv: 6. 7, 
^p^aro avTOVi diroareWeiv : A. 1. I, c!>i> rjp^aro 'Irjaow iroieiv 
re KM BiSda-K€iv, 

'Akowo, navddva take the participle when a fact is adduced 
which we know or perceive with our own senses; the infini- 
tive when we rely on the authority of others : ^KovaOijv roC 
AijiutaOhiovi \iyovToi, I heard Demosthenes speak ; I heard his 
voice : okovco rov Arj/ioadivri Xeyeiv, I am told that Demosthenes 
says. 

^alvo/uu is followed by the participle when the object really 



112 



PARTICIPtES. 



PAHTICIPLES. 



113 



is as it appears to be ; by the infinitive when the likeness is not 
real, but only apparent: ^a/verat &v ar/ad6<i, he is eyidently 
and really good : ^talverat elpat ar/a06<i, he appears to be good : 
&IUI Xiyav ravra aatftui KXaieiv iipaivero, on speaking these 
things, he was just as though he wept ; but icKaUop e^lvero, 
he evidently wept: M. 6. 16, ottuv <l>av&<ri roiv avdpanroiv 
vqoTcvovref, that in the sight of men they may really fast: 
vtitrreveiv would imply thot they were satisfied with the appear- 
ance, even though it was considered to be on outward show. 

THE FAKTICIPLB IN DEPBNDEMT FBOFQSITIONS. 

Yerbs of declaring, announcing, take the participle when 
an event is stated as a fact; the infinitive when an event is 
stated as a matter of intelligence : oTrrrfteKBri Htniiaia iroKutp- 
KovfUvri, when it is certain that Potidsea is besieged : airrrfyiKOij 
HorlZata iroXtopKeurffai, when the intelligence comes in the 
form of a report. 

Verbs which express subordinate definitions of aU action 
take frequently the participle of the verb which expresses the 
principal action. Such verbs are rvyxovta, \av0di>ta, ^dva, 
SuiTeKia, x'^^P'^t otx**!*'^'* and sometimes troUm: oi OTrXtrat ot 
irv)(pv irapovrei ifioi^dow, who happened to be present, or who 
were present : erv^e Oavatv, he was dead : rirfx,d,vovaa> lj(pvTev, 
they have : xaipoww hraivovvre^, they praise gladly : Stf>07)u 
a^iKop,ev<K, I arrived first : of^erat ^vyuv, he is fled and gone. 
In these cases the participle expresses the principal idea, to 
which the idea of the verb is merely accessary (see 1 Tim. 1. 12, 
13, quoted in Chapter YIII., under Sri) : M. 17. 26, wpoitf>0aaev 
airrov 6 'IrjaoOi \^av, Jesus said to him in anticipation : H. 13. 
' 2, SKoBov Tive<i (evlaavrei roiii dr/yiKovf : Xen. Anab. i. 1. 9, 
TOVTO S* av ovrm Tpe<l>6fievov iKavdavev aiir^ rb arpdrevfia, was 
secretly maintained for him. Thus we may explain A. 10. 33, 
av re xaXui hroiiqaa^ vapar/evo/iei/oi, and you have come most 
seasonably: Ph. 1. 25, xal tovto weiroiOon olSa, and on this 
account I know confidently : LXX, Jer. 23. 6, 'Japa^X xara- 
amivtaaei trerroiOuxi. 

II. THE PARTICIPLE IN INTERMEDIATE PROPOSITIONS. 
TERTIARY PBBDXCATE. 

The participle in intermediate propositions may be arranged 
under seven heads: (1) explanatory, giving collateral defini- 



tions of single words, expressed by the relative icho, which ; (2) 
temporal, marking relations of time, expressed by particles, 
while, after, when; (3) causal, adducing reasons, expressed by 
the particles because, since, as; (4) conditional, marking rela- 
tions of condition, concession, expressed by the particles if, 
although; (5) the final sentence; (6) periphrastic tenses; (7) 
absolute use. The correct translation of participles will always 
be modified by the context ; as from this alone we can deter- 
mine to which of these uses it ought to be assigned. 

(1) As an instance of collateral definitions we may refer to 
M. 10. 4, 'IoiBa<i 'laKaputyTfit 6 koL rrapaSoixi avrov : A. 4. 36, 
^laatfi 6 iviKXtjOeh Bapvd^a^. 

THE TEMPORAL AND CAUSAL RELATIONS OF PARTICIPLES. 

(2) Temporal relations of participles may denote coincident 
or antecedent acts : A. 10. 38, os Sif>\Oev evepyer&v koI Id/ievoi 
K,T,\. : A. 6. 4, ov^i fiivop <rol e/ieve, Koi irpaOev iv -ry <rp e^ov<ria 
{nnjpxe ; 1 Th. 3. 1, /iijicert aTeyovre^ evSoK^aafiev KaTa\enj>dTJvai 
iv ^Adrivai<; fiovoi. 

When a participle and verb are combined together, both in 
the past tense, we can only determine by the sense whether the 
action described by the participle is antecedent to that of the 
verb or is coincident with it. In the following it seems to be 
coincident : R. 7. 8, d<j>opfi7jv Xa^ovaa i] apaprLa Sia T^f ivrdKiyi 
Kareipydaaro iv i/iol traaav eiridvuiav : Mk. 15. 37, o Se 'Ji^aoOf 
a^£(f <l>wvr)v fieydXriv i^eirvevae : A. 7. 36, o&ro$ i^^cvy€v avrov^ 
iroi'qa-at ripara koI aritieia. 

In the following, the action denoted by the participle is 
antecedent to the action described by the verb : as in II. i. 6, 
i^ oS Si) rh irp&Ta Siarr^Tijv iplaavre, just from the time when 
at first they quarrelled and separated : Mk. 15. 43, T6K/iijtTa<i 
elaijXffe, had the courage to go in: L. 11. 8, et koI ov Saurei 
dva<rra<i Bta to etvai avrov ^IXov, Bid ye rrfv dvaiBeiav avrov 
iyep0€l<i Sdtaei avra otrav xp'g^ei : A. 5. 30, Bv v/hk Buxeipi<raa0e 
Kpe/idaavrei ivl (vKov (so A. 10. 39 ; 5. 6 ; 16. 34. 37) : A. 15. 
22, iKke^afiivov! avBpai i^ avr&v irifi-^^ai : G. 4. 15, el Swarov, 
TOW 6<f>dakfiovv vft&v i^opv^avTev hv eStoKare fioi. 

(3) Causal relations, 'because,' 'since:' A. 4. 21, ot Si 
Trpoa-atreiXtjo-dfievoi, aireXvcrav avroin p,7)Biv evpiaKovrei to ir&f 
KoXdaavrat avTov<i, since they found no matter on which to 
punish them : B. 6. 6, tovto yivmaKovre^, since we know this 

1 ' 



114 



THE FINAL SENTENCE. 



(2 P, 1. 10; I T. 1. 9) : 0. 1. 3, evxapicrrov/iev r^ Qe^ 
aKovtravrev rriv wltrrw vfi&v, because we heard : E. 1. 12, et? 
TO elfai rifia^ et? thraivov Sofi;? qvTov tow? nporiKirneoTa^ iv t«5 
Xpiar^, seeing that we previously hoped in Christ: IT. 1. 12, 
•maTov (le ff^i^iTaTo de/ievoii el<: iiaKoviav, judged me faithful in 
that he put me into the ministry : E. 2. 4, 6 hk &eo<i TrXownoi 
&v ip i\£€i : 2 Tim. 4. lO, Aijfiai} yap fie iyKaTiXiirep ar^airr^aa^ 
yav vvp al&pa', R. 10. 3, arfPoovvTe<i yap rifp tov Qeov hiKautawqv, 
Koi TTiP ISiap SiKaioavpriv' ^Tyrovpres (rTijaai, rp Simfioavpr) tov 
6eov oirx_ {nreTar/rjaap : 1 Tim. 4. 8, iTrarfyeXlap lj(pvaa fm^? rf}<i 
VVP Kai rrj<! fieXKovati^, 'since it has ;' the participle confirms the 
previous assertion : R. 3. 23, TravTCV ijfiaprop, kuI verrepovprai 
riji £o^f ToC Qeov, SitKaiovfievoi Supetip ry airov j(apiTi. 

CONDITIONAL RELATIONS. 

(4) Conditional relations, 'although,' 'if:' J. 12. 37, roo-aCra 
Si avTov aijfieta ireiroi/ificoTOii l/nrpoaOep ain&p ouk eirlarevop eh 
avTOP: J. 21. ll, roaovrtov 6vtu)p ovk ia-j^iaBi) to Siktvop: 1 C. 
9. 19, ikevOepov &v ix ndirrtop iraaip ifiavrop iSovXaxra : 1 Tim. 
3. 10, Staieopehtiia-ap apeyK\.t]Toi oj/re?: 4. 4, ovBep airofiXrirop, 
p-erh evy(api<TTla<t TM/i^apo/xepop : 1. 7, Oe\ovTe<; elpai vofioSiBda- 

Kokoi flij VOOVPTt^ K.T.X. 

The participle in a concessive sense is often used with Kal, 
Kuhrep : L. 18. 7, xal fiaKpodvfiSip eir ainol<s : -Ph. 3. 4, xaiirep 
iyat i)(utp 7reiroi07i<rip xal ip aapici: H. 5. 8, Kahrep 6>p v(o« 
efiadep a<j> &p tirade rijp inraKoriP. 

The Hellenistic use of /ii; with the participle embraces the 
ideas ' if not,' ' because not,' ' though not : ' L. 9. 33, pi} ei'Soif 
8 Xeyec here p,iq introduces an apology. 1 T. 6. 4, p/qhiv 
hriardfiepot, yet knowing nothing; ovSip eTriarrd/ievoi would 
have been a somewhat more emphatic declaration of absolute 
ignorance. Frequently /ii; introduces a reason : M. 1. ig, Kal 
p,r) OeKmp irapaSetyfutTiaai : 22. 29, irKapoiaBe p-rf elhoref ra? 
ypa^wi; R. 4. 19, nal fit) aadepjjaai t^ iruTTei: 9. II, fuqirm 
yap yeppTfdipTwp. See other instances under ov, /ti}, Chapter 
VIII. 

THE FINAL SENTENCE. 

(5) The future participle is employed in one form of the 
final sentence, ^XOep aSiKijffup : A. 8. 27, 89 ekriXvdei irpoaKvpij- 
awv evi 'lepowaXi^p,, When the actions of the participle and 
the verb are coincident the present ia used: R. 16. 2&, vwl 



PERIPUUASTIC TENSES. 



115 



iropevofuii et? 'lepovadXiip, SiaKOv&v rot? ar/loK, ' now I am ou 
my way to Jerusalem, ministering to the saints.' His whole 
journey waa an act of ministration. 



PEIUPHRASTIC TENSES. 



(6) Periphrastic tenses are often formed with the participle 
and ej(<a. Thus arifidaat top apSpa fj^et, having dishonoured 
the man he keeps him so ; i. e. he keeps dishonouring, he con- 
tinues to dishonour : L. 14. 19, ipa>T& <re l^e fie iraprffrtfpApap. 
But the expression is probably a Latinism : " Excusatum me 
habeas, rogo." This periphrastic usage is very common in the 
New Testament, with elfii, yipofiai, denoting habit, or the un- 
interrupted continuance of an action : M. 7. 29, ^p yap SiSdaxap 
avToiKi (L. 13. 10) : Mk. 15. 43, ffp trpoalexop^vo'i : M. 19. 22, 
ffp yd.p exfop KTrjfiaTa voXXd: Mk. 13. 25, oi darepei tov 
ovpapov iooprai, itarlvTovrei : L. 21. J 7, eaeade fiurovfiepoi : 24, 
lepovaaXrffi ioTai iraTovfiipif : H. 5. 1 2, yeyopare j^etai* ^j^oi^res 
ydXaicTOv, ye have become such as have need : Mk. 1. 4, iyepero 
'ladppjfi fiairri^atp ('extitit;' there arose, there appeared) : L. 
15. 1, ^<rap eyyi^opTei avra iravre? oi TeX&pai: 24. 32, ovx), rf 
icapSia fffi&p KatofiipT) 7fp ip rffiiv ; A. 12. 6, trpoaevj^ hi f/p 
iKTepifii yepofiipTj, now prayer was continually offered in full 
strain. 

Mr. Wratislaw remarks: "Almost any verb may be peri- 
phrased by the corresponding substantive with e^o>, either in an 
active or passive sense : " Ildt. viii. 143, oirip ex^w 0e&p, to 
reverence the gods: Soph. Si. 400, irarifp Toincap avyypdtfiijp 
exei, i. e., forgives, excuses : (Ed. Col. 557, tIpu iroXean i-ireamyi 
•irpo<TTpoTrijp epov y extop ; what do you desire ? Plato, Menex. 
243 A, &p Ivaipop exovai, whom they commend: Mk. 11. 22, 
exere trUmp &eov, believe in God : A. 24. 23, exeip tc apeaip, 
allow him liberty: 2 T. 1. 13, virorwruaip exe vyiaipopTutp 
Xoyap, draw up an outline of the wholesome words, exeip 
Kaprrop is used in the sense of awdyetp, reap, or ^epeiv, produce. 
It may be doubtful which sense is to be preferred in R. 1. 13, 
tva Tti»A KapiTop axS>'- R. 6. 21, rlpa oJip KOfyirop er^ere TOTe; 
what fruit did ye then reap? 22, ^ere top Kapirop vfi&p ek 
dyuKTfiop, ye bear your fruit re.sulting in holiness. So Xafifid- 
peip with a substantive is frequently used as a periphrasis for a 
verb : H. 11. 29, ^? ireipap Xa^oprev oi Air/vimoi KaTeirodijaav. 
(Notes and Dissertations, pp. 47. 126.) 

i2 



116 



THE PARTICIPLE USED AIISOLUTELY. 



ABSOLUTE CASES. 



THE ACCUSATIVE ABSOLUTE. 



117 



(7) The participle is not only attached to one of the nouns in 
the principal proposition, but may receive a new subject of its 
own. Thus the participle forms with its subject a distinct 
member in the proposition, and as it is put in u case which is 
independeat of the principal verb, the participle is said to be 
used absolutely. As the general use of the participle absolute 
is to designate a relation of time or to assign a cause, we find 
that the genitive is used absolutely more frequently than any 
other case, though all the cases are thus used > occasionally. 
Instances of the genitive absolute have been already given in 
Chapter V. 

The nominative is used absolutely in expressions of time : 
L. 9. 28, eyevero Bi fieret tovv Xoyov^ tovtov; aael ^/lipM oktw 
Kal irapaXa^mp x.r.X. Here we may supply hidantfia, jfpovot : 
M. 15. 32, oTt ijSri fifiepai, T/)€t9 Trpoafiivoval fioi,. Some other 
instances may be classed under the head of anacoluthon or 
change of construction : M. 12. 36, trav pijfia dpyw b ihv 
XdK^aaxriv oi avdpwiroi aTroBdaovai irepl airrov : M. 7. 24, vof 
oiv oarK aKoia /mov tov; \6yov^ tovtov^ , . . ofiouixrta ainov 
avhpX <}>povlfi^. Participles in the nominative are put absolutely 
in proverbial expressions and quotations : 2 P. 2. 22, Kvaiv iiri- 
aTpii^av irri to ISutv i^ipafui' koI *T<i \oviTa/jiiin] eli KiiKia/xa fiop- 
^opov: 1 0. 3. 19, o Bpaaa6fievo<i roii^ ao^ov<} iv Ttj iravovpyia 
avT&v. By supplying the verb of existence, participles and 
adjectives become equivalent to imperatives. Repeated in- 
stances occur in R. 12. 9 — 13. 16 — 19: 1 P. 3. l, ofiouov, ai 
fyvvaiKtv, inroTaaaofievai tok tS^t? avhpdaiv. Another instance 
occurs in the same passage by adopting the correct punctuation, 
(fi) ft>? Zappa vtrrfKovaev rm 'Afipadfi, Kvpiop ainov KaTuovaa, fft 
iyepijffijTe reicva. 'Ayaffovoiovcrai Kal fit) <j>ofiovfievai firjSefiiav 
ino-qaiv. The aorist points to a definite, special act. Hence we 
must understand it to mean, " Whose daughters ye became on 
the profession of your faith in Christ. Go on doing good, and 
have no fear of any sudden alarm." 

The dative may be put absolutely in M. 8, l, Kara^dvri ainA 
OTTO ToO opow ■^KoXovdijffav avrm oy(\ot iroWoi. (But here the 
second oury may be regarded as redundant. Chapter III.) In 
classical Greek this dative defines the time and assigns the 
cause : irepitovri xy eviavr^, as the year came to a close : 



elpyofiivovs aiiroK t^S BaXdaffifii Kal Kara fyriv iropffovftivoi^ 
evej(eipfijadv Tive<s irpbi 'Adifvalov^ 07076(1/ t^v TroXti', because 
they were cut off from the sea, and ravaged by land, some 
attempted to bring the state to the Athenians. 

The accusative is used absolutely when a narrator assigns 
by conjecture the motives which influenced the agent. Fre- 
quently we can only account for the accusative by considering 
that the construction is defective, or that the mode of ex- 
pression is too compressed : A. 26. 2, ^ynifiai ifuivrop fuiKapiov 
fieWuv diroXoyeiaffai, iirl am a^q/iepov ftaKurra yvdarriv ovra 
ae trdvTtov Kara 'lovBalav^ idStv re kclL ^ifnjfiArtov (here we 
might repeat ijrytj/iai before fPUMrrtjv) : L. 24. 46, otrrw? iBei 
iradeiv tov Xpiarop, koI KJjpvjfdfjpai tirl ra* opofiari ainov fierdr 
voiav Kal a<l>e<np d/tapri&p eh irdma to edpij, dp^dfiepov diro 
'lepoviraX^fi (here dp^d/iepop agrees with K^pir/fia, implied' 
in K7)pi;j(j9fjpai) : E. 1. 18, ireifMoricrfiipow tow? o0daX/tov9 7^? 
Siapola<: vfi&p. This we may regard as a quasi-apposition with 
the preceding verse, or may consider that St. Paul intended to 
begin the verse with eh rb elSh/ai vfmt, as denoting the effect 
of hnrfpauTei. Dean Alford quotes Soph. Electr. 479, vrrearl 
HOI 0pdao^ aZvnpowp K\vovaav dpria^ weipdjoiv : ^sch. Choeph, 
396, iretraXTai S' aine fioi. <f>l\op Keap ropBe K\vovaap oIktop. 



^•V 



CHAPTER VIII. 
PARTICLES. 

Under the term particles are included all the parts of speech 
which are not declined or conjugated, as adverbs, conjunctions, 
prepositions. 

In the present chapter the conjunctions and some of the 
adverbs are presented as nearly as possible in alphabetical 
order. Copulatives like xa/, tS, negatives as ov, /i>7, and final 
particles as tva, oira>9, will be considered together. 

(Jacob, § 102. Donaldson, § 547.) 

"Conjunctions connect words or sentences, and mark the 
nature of their coimexion. Connected sentences are either co- 
ordinate, or one of them is subordinate to the other. 

" Co-ordinate sentences are connected (a) by copulatives con- 
necting objects to be considered conjointly, as kuI, re, re—Kul, 
both — and; (J) by disjunctives connecting objects to be con- 
sidered separately, as t}, ^toi, either ; (c) by adversatives ex- 
pressing opposition or distinction, dWd, fiev — 8e. 

"Subordinate sentences are appended to the principaf by 
temporal conjunctions when they are supplementary." 

'AXXd, pi. of aWov, 'other,' 'otherwise.' Generally ren- 
dered ' but,' ' but on the contrary,' ' but still ; ' an adversative 
conjunction used after negative sentences, seclusive and anti- 
thetical, to express something diiferent from what was before 
said; limiting or opposing whole sentences or single clauses. 
The sentence introduced by aXXd corrects and explains the 
preceding clause. In many cases the denial is comparative 
rather than absolute ; but the negative clause precedes to give 
emphasis to the positive assertion : A. 5. 4, ovk it^evira avdpdt- 
irovt, a>iXa Qeu : M. 27. 24, I8a>v a UiXdroi on oiSkv axf>e\fi, 
dWil /laXKov 0opv/3o$ fyivertu : Mk. 9. 37, ovk ifik Bej(€Tat, 



PARTICLES — oKXa. 



119 



AXXh Thu &^o<rreiKavrd ^e, 'nicht so wol-als,' 'sondem 

fip&a^p J,u fJvovaav ek t^v aUiv^v: M. 6. 17, ovk tiK0ov 
KaraXvaM, aXKci nfktjpSurai. 

Sometimes d\\i is omitted: Tit. 2. 3, M oa>v rroWy 
Se8ou\a,/t^ra9, KoKohSaaKdXov,: Tit. 3. 4, p-V^eva ^a^f^eiP, 

auayoi/« elvai, hruiKek. 

dXKd introduces an emphatic antithesis after a full negative: 
L 1. 60, oM "5^^ K\v0^a€jaL 'Ii^dvvvi: R. 3. 31, vof^ou^ ow 
Kuraiyfov^Leu S^d t^9 TrArreo,?; M '/^''ono' dWi p6,u,v urru,,^. 
' After a negative clause followed by a parenthesis, where the 
translation may be, 'Nay rather-on the contrary: H. 10.^, 
a\X' iv avraii dvdfuniai<i duapn&v kot ivtavrov. 

d\\d is used in exhortations and entreaties where a negative 
clause is suppressed: Horn. Jl. i. 32, dW I0i, M /*' ep^^'^e., 
• begone. I pray you ;' 126, d\\d ai, ,.iv vvv rvvSe Oe^ 7rpo« 
'but do you, I pray, at once give up:' Arnan, v. 26, oKKA 
nrapaixeivare &vSpe<i: A, 10. 20, dXKddvaaTa<i Kara^d,: M. 9. 

M, dXSM iKJdoiV iiride'i Tr,v X^'^pa- '^f*^ ^"^^ '^^'^^' . ., 

In a series of questions involving distinct or opposite ideas: 
M xi. 8, dWd ri Oiny^ere tB^lv; In introducing an objec- 
tion, or series of objections : R. x. 16, dlOC ov irdpre^ {nrr,Kovaav 
T« ^va^^\lv: so 18, 19: 1 C. 15. 35, dXK ^p« tk, Ilm 
iyeipovra, ol ueKpol; In an exclusive sense, ' except : «•/• 12. 
oiSk 'vdp h^ irapd dpOpdmov irapeKafiov avro, oxne eSi^ax(ft)v, 
dXU &' diroKoKOfem 'Ii,«roi) XpL<rrov: M. 20. 23. to^ Se 
KoBiaai. iK Se^mv fwv Kal i^ eiwvip^v ixov oi,K iartv epxtp Sovvai, 
dW" oh riToCimarai viro rov irarpot pov. ^ 

dXKd introduces a new and cumulative argument, 'sanb, 
'imo:' J. 16. 2, diroawariwriov} irovnaovaiv vpMt, dW epxerai 
&pa K.T.X.: Ja. 2. 18, aW ipel t»s- Sv iriarw ex«« «-t^" 
« Nay, a man will rightly say.' t 10 ., 

dWd augments and strengthens a previous idea: h. 1^. 7, 
dWd KoX al Tpixet T% «6</)a\^s i>p£>v n&aai. rjpi0p.r,vTai : 
A. 19. 2, d\\' ovSk el ■trvevfia 07161; iarw ^Kovaafiev : Dem. 
1455. is.'Toii' p,h> ip^ip(ov -^^t^AioTwi/. dXX ovSk to p,iKpoTaTOV 
dtpovritovaiv : 2 T. 2. 9, iv ^ KaKOTraOio iiixpt Beap&v «? 
Zkovi^^o,, dX\d 6 \67o? ToO 0eov oi SeSerat,^ 'nevertheless, 
the Word of God has not been and is not bound.' 

dXKu confirms a preceding statement, 'yea:' 1 0. 3. 2, oi«ra. 
^ap ihvuaa0€, d\K' oiS' l« vvv Upaa0e: G. 4. 17, ^v^vaiv 



120 



PARTICLES— aVX«i»?. 



PARTICLES— a/)0. 



121 



v/iat ov koXm^ aWA iKicKeiaai vfUK OeXovaiv, ' hoc semper 
tenendum est oppositione Grascis id cfficere, quod nos affirmatione 
consequi studemus.' £lotz. This is especially the case after ov 
fiovov: J. 5. 18, ov fiovov IXve to adfi^aTOv, aX\A xal iruTipa 
ISiov i\eye top Seov. So J. 13. 9 : 1 J. 5. 6: M. 21. 21: 1 
Th. 1. 8, oi) fiovov iv t§ MuKeSovl^ leal 'Ax^io, d\V ev iravrl 
Tonw, K.r.X., 'posterior notio, ut gravior, in locum prions sub- 
stituitur, priore non plane sublato.' 

oKKd strengthens the inference after a hypothetical clause, 
and may be rendered 'assuredly:' Mk. 14. -29, xal el irdvre<i 
ffKavSaKtadTJaovrai, aW' ovk iyui : R. 6. 6, el yhp avfi^vroi 
yeyova/tev r^ Ofioiti/tart rov davdrov ainov, dWh koI rrj^ ava- 
ardaetoi ia6fie6a: 1 0. 4. 16, i^v yhp (ivplov<i vatBayaiyoini 
l;^T« iv XpuTT^, dX)C oil ttoWow? iraripa^ : 1 0. 9. 2, £( aWotf 
OVK elfii aTTcSoToXof, d\\d yt vfuv elfil: 2 0. 13. 4, Koi yap 
iaravpwdri i^ aadevelat, dWei (^ ix Swdfteat 6eov. • Sometimes 
a verb or clause may be supplied: Mk. 14. 49, dWA (rovro 
yeyovev) iva •jrXijpaO&aiv ai ypcvpaL So J. 15. 25 ; 1. 8, oiiK 
^v €Kelvo<i TO ^wv, dW' («t? toOto ffKdev) Xva /laprvpijar) irepl rov 
^Moroi : 1 J. 2. 19, d\\d (ef ^p,&v i^Xdov) Xva ^avep(o6Staiv, on 
OVK elffl TToinres e'f ^fi&v. Some would quote Mk. 9. 8 ; 10. 40, 
but in these passages d\\d has the exclusive sense ' except.' 

dKXd after a negation, followed by ^, may be rendered ' other 
than,' though here it is the neuter aXXo, aWa, and not dWd : 
L. 12. 51, SoKsire oti elprpn^v irapeyevo/iTjv hovvai iv ttj yfj ; 
ov^, \eyto vp.lv, dW' ff Biafiepiafiov, no other than division : 
2 G. 1. 13, ov yap a\\a ypd<^p.ev vfiiv, d\\' ^ h dvar/ivtoaKere. 
So in 1 G. 3. 5, though some editors omit dX,X* ^. Xen. Anab. 
iv. 6. 8, av^69 Si ovSafirj ^vXdTTOvrev r}lM<! tpavepoi elaiv, 
dW' ^ Kard ravTifv rijv oSov: vii. 7. 31, dpyvpiov filv ovk evoi, 
dXfC fj fUKpov T«, Kal Tovro aoi SiSa»/ii rakavrov : Hdt. ix. 209, 
oiSeU dW f) ixelvi}, no other except she. 

dWd is often joined with other particles, and in this combina- 
tion has a special idiomatic value: dW o/xiu?, but still: dX\* 
oiv, but at any rate : dWd fi^v, d\\d ftivroi, but surely : dWd 
Tot, but yet : d\Xd S7, but now : dWd yap, but in point of fact : 
dX\' ov p.riv, d\\' oi) fiivToi, followed by 7*, but at any rate not. 

aX\<u«, otherwise than rightly, fruitlessly: 1 T. 6. 25, rd 
dWaxi exovra Kpvfiijvai ov Bvvarai, tho works which are not 
openly manifest, cannot remain concealed : Thucyd. i. 109, rd 
Xpij^oTa oXXws dvoXowTo, otherwise than for any good, i, e. in 



1 



vain : aXXo)9 tc xal, both otherwise and so, i. e. especially above 
all. 

&fia, ' at the same time,' strengthens the participle in temporal 
sentences, and often indicates emphatically an additional cir- 
cumstance : A. 24. 26, apM Sk Kal iXiri^tov : 27. 40, a/ia dvivret 
Ta?' ^evKTijptafi r&v 7rijSaX/a>i/: R. 3. 12, irdvrev i^eK\ivav, d/ia 
ffXpeiMdfjaav: Philem. 22: 1 Th. 4. 17, fi/wt vvv auTOt? dpirayi)- 
aofieda iv ve^XaK. Also without avv : M. 13. 29, firiirore <rvX- 
Xiyovrei rd ^i^dvia iKpi^dtaiyre dfia avroi^ top avrov. Here apM 
serves to unite very different actions : //. viii. 64, dp! olp^yiq re 
Kal evxaX'^: Xen. Anab. iii. 1. 47, rrjv dyyeXia^ dpa {n)0eitrn<i 
i^orfBow, as soon as the tidings came they rushed to g^ve help. 
All instances of the adverb have the notion of time, though it 
sometimes involves that ot place or quality. 

dpa, ' still farther,' ' beyond that,' an iUative particle marking 
a transition, or drawing a conclusion, 'therefore ;' sometimes as 
in Homer it merely fixes attention on a word : //. i. 96, rovveic 
dp dXrfe' eSuKev, 'just on this account:' 56, OTt pa 0vi]aKovra<{ 
opdro, ' namely, because :' 93, oir' dp" o y evxo>Xi)<! i-irifie/tijierai,, 
'neither to say the truth :' M. 18. 1, rk dpa fiei^av iariv iv rfj 
^aaiXefcf r&v ovpav&v ; Here rii conveys the interrogation, dpa 
refers to a previous discourse on the subject : Mk. 9. 34 : H. 4. 
9, dpa diroTi^lirerai aafifiariaiin r& Xaoi tov Qeov. Marking 
oblique inference : A. 11. 18, dpa ye kcu toi? eOveaiv o 6 em rijv 
fterdvoiav eSatKev ek ^toijv — . Denoting slight surprise, sudden 
and unexpected inference : A. 21. 38, ovk dpa av el 6 Avfvimo^, 
thou art not then as 1 supposed. In Epic usage dpa marks 
immediate transition and actual connexion; in Attic usage it 
has a regular illative force in direct conclusions and by way of 
oblique inference. 

Logical conclusion in the apodosis of hypothetical proposi- 
tions : M. 12. 28, el hk eydt iv irvevpuTi Oeov iK^dXXm rd Sair 
fiovM, dpa e<^aaev i^' vfuLt ^ fiaaiiXeCa rov Qeov : 1 G, 15. 14, 
el Se XpiffTot OVK iy^eprai, xevov dpa ro K^pvyfia rip&v : H. 12. 
8, £( Se ^o>p(f itrfk iraiSeuK, dpa v60oi i<rri : G. 6. II, dpa Kan^p- 
ytfrai, to aKdvBaXov rov aravpov, if it be so then. " dpa habet 
significationem levioris cujusdam ratiocinationis quae indicat 
rebus ita comparatis aliquid ita aut esse aut fieri." Klotz. 

The weaker ratiocinative force of dpa is sometimes supported 
by the collective power of oSv : G. 6. 10, dpa olv . . . ipya^dtfieda 
to dyadov wpoi irdvra^, accordingly then. 



122 



PABTICLKS— 76. 



..FABTICLBS — yap. 



123 



el with apa marks a result about which some uncertainty is 
felt s= * si forte : ' A. 7. 1, elire Si 6 aprjftepevf El apa ravra otn-CDf 
e^ft ; Mk. 11. 13, JihJdev el apa evp^aei tI iv airy : A. 17. ?7, 
^tfretv TOP BeoVy el &pa ye i^Xaipiijaetap airrov : A. 8. 22, ieridi)Ti, 
Tov Oeov, el apa cupeOi^aeTal ffoi t) enrlvoia ii\<i KapZiat <rov. 

apa is also used as an interrogative, and is written dt,pa. 
When ipa stands first in the sentence the stress is laid on the 
verb, when it stands second the stress is laid on the interroga- 
tive : (Ipa T(f ftvaerai ; will any one save ? t/v apa pvaerai ; who 
is there to save ? L. 18. 8, ifKriv 6 vutt rov avdpunrov ekdatv S.pa 
evpi^ffti T^i» irlarai M, Trft 71)? ; can we infer — P A. 8. 30, ''Apa 
ye ylPuxTKeiv & iparfivataKei<! ; may we infer that thou under- 
standestP expecting the answer in the negative: G^. 2. 17, el Bi 
^i}TovvTei- hiKauodrjpai ip Xpurr^, evped^ptep Koi axnoi dp,apT(o- 
Xol, ipa Xpurroi dfiapriai Smkopo^ ; M^ yepovro. 

In some of these instances apa occurs in combination with ye, 
which is one of the particles employed to invigorate discourse, 
to give strength and prominence to single ideas. Other par- 
ticles of the same class are irep, Bq. ye repeatedly occurs pre- 
ceding apa, and thus forms the compound yap. 

The force of ye is to strengthen the idea of the word to which 
it is attached. It is found in combination with other particles, 
and is frequently joined to personal pronouns. Qenerally it is 
used in rejoinders and answers, either to confirm or restrict, and 
in exhortations to render them more impressive. In English 
ye can only be rendered by laying an emphasis on the word to 
which it is attached, but frequently it may be translated by 
certainly, at least, now, yes, quite, very, surely. L. 11. 8, Xeyea 
vpXv, el xal oil Baxrei avr^ apaareii SiA to elpai avrov ^iXop, Bui 
ye apalSetap airrov iyepffel^ Sdaei avrm oaap XPV^^^- Here ye 
heightens the contrast between the two grounds, friendship and 
emergency; between the two acts, rising up and raised from 
sleep: H. 8. 32, 5i ye rov iBlov vlov ovk e^telaaro, he surely 
seeing that he spared not — ' quippe qui : ' 10. 4. 8, «ai o<f>eX6p ye 
e^aaiXeiiaaTe, Xva km, "qfieK v(iiv arvp,fiaai\eva<opep, ye marks 
strong satire, and I quite wish ye wore kings, that we too may 
be kings jointly with you. 

So also it is used with adverbs and conjunctions : p,evdvv ye, 
/iijTi ye. Thus in L. 24. 21 it increases the tone of despondency : 
ahXd ye avv iraai tovtqk, Tpinjp ravTifP TjfUpav ar/et at^fiepop^ 
aj> oh ravra eyepero. * 



^ 



rdp is regularly used in causal sentences, expressing the 
force of 76, verily, combined with apa, there/ore, further, nearly 
the same in signification as yovp (ye ovp) : yap signifies * the 
fact is,' ' in fact,' ' as the case stands,' having a more extensive 
meaning than the English for, since it expresses the cause, 
reason, motive, principle, occasion, inducement, of what has 
been previously afi&rmed or implied. 

Explanatory of a preceding statement, 'namely,' 'to wit:' 
M. 1. 18, iiprjaTeifdeurr)^ yap rqi fiiyrpov avrov, the yap refers to 
the preceding ovran, which implies that there was something 
extraordinary in the manner of Christ's birth : R. 2. 12, oaot 
yap dvofutvi ^pMprov K.r.X,, in point of fact : Rev. 21. 25, Koi ol 
irv\<i>i/e9 ain^ ov fiij KXeiadSxrai ^fiepai" pii^ yap oxik earat eKel. 
The yap explains the reason why night is not mentioned in the 
preceding clause. 

Introductory of a reason for a statement or an inquiry : Mk. 
5. 42, fjp yap erStp BdtBeKa: M. 15. 4, o yiip Qeoi ivereiKaro 
yjyap : 24. 7:10. 15. 3, irapeBuKa yhp vp,ip ep rrpdnoi'} h k(A 
trapeXafiop : J. 4. 41 : G. 6. 15 : Ja. 4. H, rroia yap if ^a>^ vpMP ; 
drpX<i yap earip, k.t.X.., a vapour in fact it is. 

To introduce the discussion of a proposition : 2 0. 12. l, nav- 
j(jS,adai Sii ov avp^^epet pai' e^vaopMi, yetp elv orrraalav Kal diro- 
xaXv^tf Kvplov : L. 12. 57, 58, rl Be Koi aif>' eavr&p ov Kplvere 
TO BUaiop ; <of yap inrarfeK perd. rov optiBIkov aov err ap'xpvra, 
K.r.\. 

To recall attention to a thought already expressed : 1 Th. 2. 
20, V/U6W yap iare ij So^a rjpMP «cal ^ X'^P^' J^^ — Y^ '^^^ *^® 
glory we desire, ye the joy : R. 5. 7, fioXis yap xnrep Bixaiov Tt? 
dvodapeirai' Inrep yct,p rov dyadou rdj(a Tt? Kal roX/i^ diroOapeip. 
The yap after /uoXtf refers to iirip dve^&p diredape (6). The 
second yap corrects the preceding thought in reference to 
/x6Xt9 : R. 15. 27, evBoKrjaap yap, Kal oifteiXerai ain&v elatp, yes 
they thought good, at the same time their debtors they are : 1 
0. 9. 10, ff'Bi fiiMf TravToi? Xeyet ; St' fjpM<s yap eypaffyti, or for 
our sakes in every sense does the law say it ? for our sakes, in 
fact, it was written. Such is its force in answers; the apa 
serves to sum up the premisses in which the assertion is made ; 
the ye strengthens the assertion : J. 9. 30, ep ydp rovrtp Oavpua- 
rop e<rri, k.t.\. : A. 16. 37, xal pvv \ddpa ■qpa^ eK^aXKovaip ; ov 
yap, no indeed, as tUo case stands. 



124 



Particles —^irou. 



PAKT1CLE8— €t. 



125 



Introducing a parenthetical clause : 1 0. 9. 19, ikevdepo^ yhp 
£>v ix irdvrmv iraaiv ifuwrbv iSovKatra, Xva tov$ ifKxlova^ 

With an interrogative yap introduces a remonstrance : A. 19. 
SSt'AvSpei 'E^eiTun, rit yap iartv avdpumo^ ; Ephesians (why 
this disturbance) for what man — P M. 27. 23, t/ yap KaKov 
hroir]<T€v ; (why this demand) for what evil did he P 9. s, tI yap 
6otIi» evtconrdnepov; (why think ye evil) for in what respect is it 
easier ? R. 3. 3, rl yap ; ei ffirl<rT7)aav rivet ; what conclusion 
then do we draw, in case some disbelieved P J. 7. 41, /i^ yhp ix 
T% Fa\(Xa/af 6 Xpitrrbt Spj(erai ; what I can we suppose the 
Christ comes out of the Galilee-country P 

£1^ is probably shortened from ^St;, and as the weaker form is 
piut after one or more words in a sentence, it usually serves to 
strengthen or limit the word to which it is attached. Sj 
denotes the definiteness and certainty of an expression. We 
find it with adverbs o{ place and time, to restrict their indefinite 
sense to some certain point, like the English just, even, now, 
only; with interrogative particles and hortatives for stronger 
emphasis, but, then, well, nay ; for a sign of authenticity, 0/ a 
truth, really, assuredly. Compare 76, irep : ireipdao/uii Bri xal 
eym coi ovrutt eliretv, well — I also will attempt to speak to thee 
thus: hel hri irpaorepov irtot airoKplveaOai, one must indeed 
answer somewhat more mildly : rovro apa r& iKevOip^ irphrei 
Kal Tfi SiKal^ S^, this then befits the free man, and certainly 
the just : LXX Job 15. 17, & Bi) kdapaKa avar/yeku aoi : M. 13. 
33, ht Bj) Kapvofpopei : L. 2. 1 6, BiiXOiop^v Bt) Itoi BrjOXee/i ; 2 C. 
12. 1, Kavj(jaa0ai Sri ov a-ufupipei fioi, to boast assuredly is not 
for my advantage. 

Br/ indicates an act to be executed without delay : 1 C. 6. so, 
Bo^daare B^ rbv Seov : A. 15. 36, eirurrpi'^avTet B^ erriaKei^^a- 
fieda Tovv dSeX^ovt fffiMV : 13. 2, d^opiaare Bij fiot tov Bappdfiav 
Kal TOV XavKop eh to epyov h irpoaKeKXrifun airovt. 

Btjnrov is equivalent to 'opinor,' I wot and you allow, ^j; 
with an assertion gives decision and confidence, vov univer- 
saliises this decision and confidence, implies the success of an 
universal appeal for the truth of what is said. (Alford.) B^qttov 
does not occur in LXX. H. 2. 16, ov yap B^wov dyyiXuv evi- 
Xap^dverai. B^Oev, 'as they said,' is used when the writer 
states the declarations of other persons, and wishes to remind 



'^ 



•r 

) 

■ 5 



the reader that he does not vouch for their sincerity, but merely 
repeats what they themselves professed to be true. (Arnold, 
Thucyd. i. 92.) 

edv, el, in case—. (See on apa, and on Hypothetical Propo- 
sitions, Chapter VII.) If and ei have in reality no connexion^ 
el is used after verbs expressing mental emotion ; Mk. 15. 44, 
idavfuurep el ^&) redmiKe : IJ. 3, 13, /in- 0eutpM^eTe dBeX^oi fiov 
el fuaet vfiat o KOfffjuxi, in case the world hates you. 

Thus we may explain the alleged use of el for etde : L. 12. 49, 
a;oI Tt 0e\a) ; el ^Si; avrii^^er}, and what will I P in case it were 
already kindled I should have my desire, el ia used with the 
optative mood to express a wish, but with past tenses of the in- 
dicative to express an impossible wish, ei introduces a statement 
which is hardly credible: A. 26. 8, Tt atrurrov Kplverai irap 
ipip el 6 Qeot peKpoiit eyelpei ; what ! is it past belief in your 
judgment, in case we assert God raises the dead P 

As an interrogative particle in a question implying some 
doubt or uncertainty, an, ne : L. 22. 49, Kvpie, el irard^onep eV 
p^xaipa ; in case we shall strike with the sword will it please 
you ? 13. 23, Kvpie, ei oKlyoi oi iT(ii>^6p.epoi, tell us whether the 
saved are few : A. 26. 23, Xeywi; . . . ei tto^ijtos 6 Xpiaroi, . ei 
irp&Tot, K.T.\., discussing whether the Christ is to suffer, 
whether first after rising from the dead he is to announce light 
to the people and to the Gentiles. 

Also where a negative reply is anticipated, num : Mk. 15. 44, 
emipayrrjaap airrop el irdXai diridave. 

In some cases, as in A. 26. 8. 23, ei may be considered as 
equivalent to oti, especially in H. 7. 15, where on is in the 
preceding verse : Kal vepicraoTepop ert xaTdBriXop eari, el kut^ 
TTjP ofioiorriTa Me\j(^iaeBeK dpiaToaai iepevt erepot, and with 
more abundant evidence still it is manifest, that according to 
the similitude of Melchizedek there arises a priest of a different 
line. Mr. Wratislaw refers to Plato as using el for on after 
drfapaKTW, vvoTideadai, diroBeBei-xOat, BffSxtp : also after arianrdp, 
auryypeadai., and in Hdt. i. 24, after elaeXBeip rjSovTJp. 

In oaths and solemn assertions there is an ellipsis of a clause, 
' non vivam,' giving to ei the force of a negative : I stake my 
ejrtstence upon the truth of what I say. The fuU form is found 
in LXX, Ezek. 14. 16, fw eyco, ei viol ^ dvyarepet o-wfljjffovrot : 
Mk. 8. 12, dp.i)v \ey<o v/up {ov TrtoTO? elfu) el BodiqaeTai, rp 7ei;e^ 
ravrfi aijp^top (in case) : 11. 3. ll, ws wnoaa ep ry opy^ (utv {ovk 



126 



PARTICLES — hrei, iiretSi^. 



PARTICLES - 



-ij, iiSti. 



127 



iariv oKrideia iv i/tol), el eureXevaovrai eh rifv KOTairavaiv 
(tov. 

el with rk loses its hypothetical force, like ' si quis,' in case 
any, whosoever, whatever : L. 14. 26, et tk 0i\et : Mk. 4. 23, 
et Tis ^e* &Ta axoveiv : Ph. 4. 8, et rii aperri : 1 0. 3. 14, eX 
rivoi TO efiyov fiepel : H. 13. 9, et Tt? iripa iinoKij, whatever dif- 
ferent precept there is. 

el with /it) introduces an incredihle or untenable hypothesis : 
2 0. 3. 1, «( nil xp^tjojuev is tw^s avaraTiK&p iiruTToKStv : 13. 6, 
et {ixfTt aZoKifiol iare. 

Hence we may explain the alleged use of el fii^ for aWd : L. 
4. 26, irpo9 oiSefilap airr&v hrift^Ofi 'Hkiat, el /lii eli "Sapeirra Try: 
XiZ&im irpo^ yvvaiKa "X^pav : where by el p.^ our Lord rejects 
the hypothesis, that they would bring forward this case as an 
exception to his remark : G. 1. 7, o ovk lariv SKKo- el p.ri rivh 
elaivol rapdaffovre^ «.T.X.,you caimot apply the name of Gospel 
to the teaching of such men: G. 2. 16, oi SiKatoDrai apOpavov 
i^ Ipyup 'v6p,ov, iei,p p,)/ Su>, irlarea^ 'Irjffov Xpurrov. Here we 
may translate eAp p,ij literally and simply, ' in case he is not 
justified.' 2 Th. 2. 3, 8ti ehp p,^ e\0y ^ airoaraala irp&Top, 
seeing that (the day will not arrive at all) in case there come 
not the falling away first. 

eZra is connected with et, as relative to antecedent, marking 
succession of time, then, next, Lat. deinde ; succession of thought, 
accordingly, Lat. ita, itaque. Closely connected is eiretra, the 
relative of iirel, marking the sequence of one thing from 
another, tftereupon, immediately nfterwardt: L. 16. 7, Sirena 
erip^ elire. 

elra strengthens a concessive sentence, and introduces a 
further consideration : H. 12. 9, eha roin p.kp t^9 aapKht ^p&p 
etj(ppep iratSeirrdv. 

•iirel, iireiSij are causal particles, since, since if so, otherwise, 
since if otherwise : M. 21. 46, iireiSi) (u$ irpo<f>ijTf}P avrop el^op : 
18. 32, iraaap ttip 6<l>et\^p iKelprjP- a<j»fiKd act, iirel irapeKaKetrdf 
pe : H. 4. 6, iirel oSp diroXehrerai ... at the beginning of the 
protasis ; the apodosis to which commences (9) with apa : H. 
9. 17, ZuxBr/icri yeip iirl pexpoii fie^ala, iirel p,ij iroTe l<ry(yei ore 
Q 6 htaOipeptK, an arrangement by will is valid when men are 
dead, otherwise we can never conceive of its having force when 
he who disposed of the property continues alive : H. 10. 2, iirel 
OVK &p iiravaavro irpoa^epop-ePM ; since if otherwise (if these 



i 



sacrifices could have rendered complete the drawers-mgh), 
would they not have ceased in being offered P 

R. 3. 6, M fivoiTo- iirel irm Kpipel 6 eeoi top Koapop; far • 
be the thought ; for if so, if there be any force in such an 
objection, how shall God judge the world? Dr. Vaughan weU 
remarks : " Thus intellectual difficulties in reUgion are best met 
by moral axioms. It may sound pkusible to say, 'If man's 
sin contributes ultimately to God's justification, God cannot 
justly punish it.' But conscience, ever a safer guide than the 
inteUect, echoes the language of revelation, which declares 
the coming judgment; and that judgment presupposes that 
sin can be, and wiU be, justly punished. Let this suffice 
us. So also in R. 9. 18. The method of Scripture is to state 
each of two apparently conflicting principles (e. g., God's 
grace, and man's responsibility) singly and separately, and 
leave conscience, rather than intellect, to reconcile and adjust 

them." 

ri, a disjunctive particle, ' either— or,' like ' vel,' aiid a com- 

parative, like ' quam.* ^ _ 

• In the disjunctive sense, rj is sometimes united with roi : R. 
6. 16, SoOXot iare & vtraKovere, ffroi apMfyruKi eU Oaparop, ^ 
inraicoff} eh ZiKaioawrfv ; 

The positive adjective with ^ (quam) is equivalent to the 
comparative : M. 18. 8, koKop aoi eorli; elaeKdeiP ek Tr)p fo»^i» 
X<o\op <) KoWop, ^ Bvo X6V«? exopra pKr)6^vai ek to irvp to 
aldptop. 

^ is used after aXKoi, Ire/Jo?, ' alius— ao :' A. 17. 21, 'AdTjpalot 
ek ovSep erepop evKaipow, i) \&yeip tI kuI dicoveiv Kaiporepop. 

^, truly, verily, is used to strengthen or confirm an assertion 
in close combination with other vocables. 

fj p.r)p, the usual intensive form of oaths: H. 6. 14, ^ p.r]P 
evXoy&p evXoy^av «re: -^sch. Theb. 6p,pvaip rj pUfP Xaird^etp 
darv. 

■ rj&ti, now, already, a temporal particle, marks an action as 
completed in time past aaA. present : M. 3. lo, ^&j Bi koI ^ d^lpri 
wpos T^i» pl^p r&p BepBpuv Kelrat : Mk. 8. 2, ^&j -fipApa^ rpei^ 
irpotrpipoval pot : J. 3. 18, 6 p.ii irunevmp ffiv) KiKpirai. 

Also of the immediate future, presently, soon : R. 1. lo, efjrft)? 

* fjSi) TTOT^ euoS«a^^o-o/Mit. »}8»/ in its primary sense has a local 
relation, what is near to this place : Hdt. iii. 5, airb Taxnyt ^Sij 
A1rtvirTO<i, directly after this is Egypt. Hence what is near 



128 



PARTICLES — Hva, Sirat. 



to tbe present time, calling attention to what is taking place on 
the spot, and at the moment : Aristoph. Rana 527, ov rax', 
aXV ^Srj voui. Both place and time are combined in Mk. 8. 2, 
fjSri ^/Jiipa<; Tpei<i trpoafievoval /tot : 2 T. 4. 6, iym yilp ijBr) 
inrivSo/iM. 

tva and Sttoo; are final particles, indicating purpose, ' to the 
end that,' ' in order that.' They also mark the event or result 
of an action, that in vrhich the action- terminates, so that. In 
these cases the final sentence approximates to the illative. 
The eventual conclusion is so prominently contemplated, aa to 
obscure the notion of finality. These senses are termed re- 
spectively the telus and ecbatio. There is also a third sense, 
partially final, marking the purport of prayer, in which the 
telio and ecbatio are combined. The telio is the original sense, 
the other meanings arise from the context. 

The object or end designed : J. 5. 34, ravra X,l76> Jva v/iei<i 
aaOrjre: Mk. 3. 14, iiroirfa-e SdSeKa tva &ai /xer airrov: M. 6. 16, 
a^avl^ov(Ti, rk irpoawira avr&v ^Troif ^av&tri to(( avdpdnroi^ 
ifri<TTevovTe<i : A. 20. 16, expive fap 6 IlavXov TrapairXevaai rijv 
'E^eaov oirax; /li) yevt/TM avT& ■xpovorpi^riaM ev rp 'Atria : R. ' 
6. 20, vofio^ he TTapeKrfjXOev tva irXeovdari to irapdirrapM, now 
law comes in by the way for a special purpose — that the trans- 
gression may be more clearly displayed. 2 0. 4. 7, Ix^f*^" ^^ 
Tov Offaavpov tovtov iv oarpaKivoK (TKeveaiv, Xva jf {nrepfioXfi 7^9 
iwdfieuti jj ToO Beov, ' in order that,' marking God's provi- 
dential design. Cf. 1 0. 1. 15; Philem. (13) : 1 J. 1. 9, ttjotos 
cart Koi ZUauyt Xva a<f>y ■^filv t^$ afiaprlai. He is faithful and 
just, in order to forgive us our sins. The divine attributes of 
faithfulness and righteousness are exercised in order to our 
pardon. God is able to treat sinners as righteous without any 
impeachment of His own righteousness. In fulfilling the pro- 
mises of forgiveness through Christ, He establishes His own 
faithfulness. G. 5. 1 7, ravra Se aXk^Xon avriKeiTai, tva fifi & &v 
OeXtfre ravra irot^re: here the telio force of tva is to be re- 
tained, ' tending to prevent you doing.' There are two op- 
posing principles. The ultimate end of either principle is to 
prevent man executing what the other principle woidd lead 
him to. " To nvev/ia impedit vos quo minus perficiatis rci'rij<i 
aapKo<;, contra 17 aap^ adversatur vobis ubi ri, rov Ilvevfjiaroi 
peragere studetis." Winer. 

There are three instances in which tva occurs in a tclic sense 



PASTICLBS — ft/o, Siroi. 



129 



' 



m 



with verbs of the indicative mood : 0. 4. 17, tva aMiv rrXMipoii : 
G. 4. 17, tva avToix; ^f}XovTe : 1 0. 4. 6, tva p,^ eti inrkp evm 
(pviTiovade Karh rov erepov. But these forms may be considered 
subjunctive, as all these verbs end in -oto. " The subjunctive 
and optative were both formed by lengthening the vowel of the 
indicative. Where that lengthening had already taken place, 
the Greeks remained content with it, and employed the one 
inflexion for the double purpose. So ri/ioffde stands both for 
the indicative and the subjunctive." (Q. R. Jan. 1863.) This 
will explain 1 Th. 4. 13, where many read tva fitj \vireur0e. In 
Tit. 2. 4, Scholz reads tva ffto^popi^atri. , < « 

In G. 2. 4, the indicative future is probably the correct 
reading, Karaa-Kornjaai rifv iKevOeplav ^fi&v . . .'tva ^/ia<i 
tcaraSovXdxrovaw : the future conveys the idea of duration more 
distinctly than would have been done by the aorist. An ecbatio 
or eventual sense may here be given to tva, 'in which case, 
' under these circumstances,' analogous to the use of tva by 
classical writers as an adverb marking place, circumstance: 
tva 7%, ubi terrarum : Soph. Aj'ax 386, ov^ opf^ tv eZ imkov ; 
seest thou not in what a depth of woe thou art? So oirov, 
which is properly an adverb of place, is also used as an illative 
particle. 

It is not easy to state the exact difference between Sttox and 
tva in this usage. It may be that the relatival compound ^Trcof 
involves reference to manner, while tva retains some tinge of its 
primary reference to locality. "The real practical differences 
are that ottox has often more of an eventual aspect, and is used 
with the future, and occasionally associated with av — both 
which constructions are inadmissible with the final tva." 
(Ellicott, 2 Th. 1. 12.) Sirt»<i is not only a final conjunction, 
denoting end or purpose, but is also a simple conjunction, cor- 
relative to iron, denoting the way or manner. In Latin, ut is 
used reXiKon and iK^ariKw, both to express a design and 
result. Tbe later Greek writers frequently violated the dis- 
tinction between tva and &<Tre from confusion of thought. Dr. 
Arnold well remarks (Thuc. i. 72) : " opare OTroif is ' videte qua 
ratione,' and in this sense the indicative future is more usual 
and more reasonable than the subjunctive aorist. The alleged 
differences between the future and aorist are so fine that com- 
mon language cannot be expected always to distinguish be- 
tween them ; nor can wo say with confidence which of the twq 

K 



130 



PARTICLES — iva, OirOK. 



the context most reqaires, even if we could be 8ure that the 
author was aware of the distinction and meant to observe it." 

The following are generally referred to the ecbatio or even- 
tual sense, as marking the event, result, consequence : M. 1. 22, 
TOVTo Bi S\ov r^irfovev Xva ir\i)p<o0y to fnjdev k.t.X. : Mk. 11. 28, 
t/s <rot T^i' i^ovaiav towtijv SStoKep %va ravra wotp? ; J. 5. 20, 
Hei^ova Tovrap iei^n a\n^ ^p7a, ha vfieU 0ai»/*a?ijTe : L. 16. 26, 
Xo<ri*a It-^a iirrilipucTai ottws oi 0i\ovTe<: hia^fjvai ivrevOev vpb<{ 
vfM<i fii) Bvvtovrai, : A. 3. 19, fUTavoriaa-re oiv Koi hrurrph^are 
eh TO i^dkei^ijvM vpAv t^s afiapTtai, otto)? &p eXdaai xaipol 
dra^v^eoK. In L. .16. 26, &irm may have the telio sense, ' in 
order that.' In A. 8. 19, iiraxi in the eventual sense may be 
rendered, 'with the effect that,* 'so that this being the case.' 
But it will he better to connect /terai/oijo-aTe" with «« to 
i^aKeK^dfjvai «.t.X., and hrurrphyure with ottw? hv eXBoxri, * in 
order that.' Thus the force of av will be to mark that the 
further spiritual blessings implied in KaipoX dva^vfeo)? are con- 
tingent on the reality of the change denoted by /jLeravoetv and 
iirtarpi^eiv. M, 2. 15, tpa ifKripady to pifBh . , . i^ Alyxnrrov 
eKoKeaa rov viop futv. The passage in Hosea (11. l) refers 
historically to the deliverance of Israel from the land of bond- 
age. But from the typical connexion between Christ and 
Israel, the record of the past was regarded as prophetically 
indicative of something under the Gospel. "The Scripture 
fulfilled was prophetical simply because the circumstance it — 
recorded was typical." (Fairbaim's Typology, i. 140.) — 

Xpa and Sttju? combine the telio and ecbatio sense when they 
describe the subject and object of prayer : 2 Th. 1. ii, irpoaev- 
•)^yxQa •navTvte trepX vfMP ha w/*a? a^uaat) rijv «Xij«r6«w o Bebi 
ripMP: E. 1. 16, 17, upelav vfi&p irotov/iepoi iirl tAv vpoaevx&P 
fiov, ha 6 Oeo<t . . . St^ vfiip wevfia ao^iaf Ka\ diroKaXvy^em : 
M. 9. 38, Se^0rp-e otip rov Kvplov rov Beptafiov ovax; eK^aXri 
ifyyarai e« toi» Oepiafiov ainov. ha marks the subject of the 
prayer blended with the purpose of making it in Mk, 5. I8 ; 
7. 26 ; 8. 22 ; 14. 35 ; L. 8. 31 ; 1 C. 1. lo ; 16. 12 ; 2 0. 9. 5 ; 
Ph. 1. 9. So 5^0)9, A. 25. 3, irapeKoKow avrop . . . oirm 
lieTairiufvrai. ainop. But in 2 Th. 1. 12, oirwv ivio^dadri rh 
opofia K.T.X., in order that the name may be glorified. 

After verbs of telling, commanding, ha is used in the New , 
Testament where one might expect oTt, ware : M. 4. 3, eM ha 
01 Xitfot ovToi, &pToi rflvavrai : 8. 8, ovk el/ii waws &/« /tow inr6 



THE EXTERNAL CONNEXION OF PROPOSITIONS. 



131 



T^v oTefqp eureXdjii : L. 1. 43, irSBep /tot tovto, ha eXdji fi ii^rqp 
rov Kvpiov irp6<i fie : J. 2. 26, oi j^peiav el)(ev, ha riv ftaprvpija^ 
irepl rov avOpumov. 

Sometimes the principal verb is omitted : E. 5. 33, f) hi yvpi) 
iva <l>o^r}rai rop avBpa, I command that, or, let the wife see 
that — . Sometimes ha is simply exegetical: J. 17. 3, aCni 
Se iarip ff aUopio^ ftoi), ha yipoMrKaai ae. 

The notion of finality seems lost in the eventual sense in 
1 Th. 6. 4, 6vK iark ip <rK6ret, Xpa^ 1} ^fiipa vfiav an xXen-n;? 
KarcCKd^ri: J, 12. 23, ikijjKvdep 17 &pa ha So^aad^ 6 vio<t rod 
apOpamov: 16. 2, dXX' epy(erai &pa ha rra^ o airoKreipat vfia^ 
S6^ \arpelap irpoa^peip tcS Oe^. 

Some, however, would retain the telic force of ha in the 
foregoing passages. Thus 1 Th. 5. 4, may be explained, 'Te 
are not in the element or region of darkness— darkness, not 
only of the mind and understanding (E. 4. is), but of the heart 
and will (1 J. 2. 9), in order that the day should surprise you 
as a thief.' Thus the passage is not merely a statement of 
result, but of the purpose contemplated by God in His merciful 
dispensation, implied in ovk iark ip o-xoTct. 

THE EXTERNAL CONNEXION OF PROPOSITIONS. 

Among the particles which are employed for the external 
connexion of propositions Kai and re imite, while fiev, Se oppose 
the parts one to another. ' 

In the union of the members of a proposition, either several 
subjects are assigned as belonging to certain predicates, or 
several predicates are enumerated as belonging to one subject. 

The distinction between the copulatives Kai and the enclitic 
Te is not clearly marked. But it may be said that Kai unites 
ideas which follow directly and necessarily from what precedes, 
while Te annexes something which does not thus directly and 
necessarily follow. " Kai conjungit, re adnectit. t£ non copulat 
sed lenius affirmat quam to», unde natum est." (Herm.) 

Practically there is no great difference between them, Kai and 
re singly indicate mere addition ; Te kuI join the two statements 
or objects so closely together that they may almost be con- 
sidered as one. The first clause with tc is often less emphatic 
than that which has Kai. Thus we have rd Te aXKa kuI — , 
dXXo>f Te Kai — , as well in matters not worth mentioning, as Sfo. 

The usages of Kai combine the usages of et, etiam in Latin. 

K 2 



132 



COPULATIVES — KuL 



Adjunctive : Mk. 1, 4, fia7rrl^<o»v iv -ry ipi^fi^ «al KT^pwraav : E. 
1. 21, imepdva rrcunyi apj^, k. i^ovolai, k. Svvdfiem k. Kvpto- 
•njTo?, Koi TraiTO? 6v6(iaTo<i, ' and indeed,' ' and in a word,' where 
a general term is appended to foregoing details. 

Consecutive : M. 15. 6, «ol ^Kvpioaare Tr]v ivroXijv rov Oeov 
Bui ri)v irapdSoaiv vpMV, ' and so,' ' and then :' M. 23. 32 : L. 6. 
37 ; 18. 26 : 2 Th. 2. 3, kuI diroKa\vif>0p o avBpomot -rij? a/jLaprlai. 
Epexegetic, explanatory of a previous word or clause : L. 3. 
20, irpoviOriKe koX toOto ^l 7ro<r», #coi KareKKeicre top ^ItoAmniv h> 
t5 <f>v\aK^ : 1 T, 2. 4, 8? iravras avdpuyirow BkXei, <ra0rjvM xal 
e« hriyvtixTip oKriOetai tKdeiv : G. 2. 20, rov aiyairi^aatn6^ /*e ical 
vapaZ6vTo<i iavrhv tnrip i/iov, and as a proof of love: 1 0. 8. 12, 
oSto) Si anaprdvovret ek tov9 d£eX^v9, Kal rvTrtowref ain&v 
TTiu <rwe£^<Tiv aadevovffav. In 1 T. 3. 7, tva fii) ew ii»«Stir/*oi» 
iffireaji, xai trarylSa rod SiafioKov, Kal is adjunctive rather than 
epexegetic, marking the temptations that will be sure to follow 
the loss of character, ".quid spei restat ubi nullus est peccandi 
pudorP" Calvin. 

Adversative, marking comparison or contrast, used in ex- 
pressions of similarity and identity, ac, atque : Thuc. ii. 60, 6 
71/ows Koi p.r) <ra<l>&<: SiSd^a<: iv tatp Kal el /it) ipeffufii^Oij, he who 
knows, supposing he gives no clear information, is in the same 
position as if he never had the thought: M. 11. 19, ISov 
reXuv&v <^/Xo« Kal'aftaprtiK&v Kal iSncauaffri ^ aoiftla airo r&v 
riKvav ainfi<! : R. 1. 13, TToWaw? irpoi0ip.i}v ekdeip irpoi vfta<i, 
Kai. iKa>\v07)p axpi rov Sevpo. In 1 C. 12. 4—6 Kal, Se are used 
alternatively : 1 Th. 2. 18, SA ■fiBt\qaap.ev iKBup irpoi vpSst . . . 
Kal eptKoy^ep ^fia<; 6 SaTapa<i : 2 Th. 3. 14, 15, M <rvpapafip)fpva0e 
airr^ tva ivrparr^ Kal /i^ m ix^pov fnwx06. 

Denoting emphasis: Eurip. Hippol. 1171, irm Kal SuiXer 
elwi ; say, how did he die P Thucyd. ii. 87, ■^v Si t« apa Kal 
PovKnOV' hwt if aiiy one should choose to behave so ; where Dr. 
Arnold' remarks : " The force of the Kal here, and in other 
similar passages, is given in English by an emphasis on the 
auxiliary verb." 2 C. 3. 6, 8? Kal Udvaaev fipMt SiaKOPovi 
Kaipfii Sia0^Kri<i, who did qualify us to be ministers of the 
new covenant: G. 6. l, iap Kal 'irpo\t)<f>0^ ap0puvo<: ip Ttvl 
vapairrdtfiaTi, if ever a man be surprised in any transgression. 

Adverbial of time : Mk. 15. 25, ^p Be &pa T/OiVij Kal iaravpa- 
cap aiirop : L. 7. 12, «? Si i^iae tJ irvKy t^ ttoX^ow, Kal ISov 
i^eKOfil^ero reOprjKdk : A. 22, 22, t^kovov Si ainov axpi toxnov toO 



COPULATIVES — Kai — fKV. 



133 



X070U KcH eTrfipav t^v ^vf/v air&p : 1 T. 4. 10, Kal KOTrutfiep 
Kal op€i£i^fie0a, we both labour and are the objects of reproach, 
' as well the one as the other ; ' both parts are simultaneously 
presented in one predication; re—Kal would mean, 'where 
shame, there toil.' 

Kal is inserted in Greek after iroXvf , which is considered as a 
substantival word : ttoXX^ xal Seivd, many fearful events : Tit. 
1. 10, iroXXol Kal dwiroraKToi /lOTaioXoyoi, many unruly vain- 
talkers : A. 25. 7, TToW^ Kal fiapia alrid/uiTa tftipovrei, bringing 
many heavy charges. 

dXKd, Si, re, are often mere notices that the speaker had 
something else to say, some additional fact or thought to com- 
municate. On this principle Se, re are sometimes used in the 
apodosis of a sentence, and are equivalent to elra. But with 
reference to these subtle uses Dr. Arnold has well remarked 
(Thuc. i. 133) : " The errors of etymology committed by very 
eminent men in past times from a want of sufficient knowledge 
should make us suspect that we too may fall into the same 
snare, if while we are really making progress we overrate that 
progress as compared with what remains to be accomplished, 
and think that the very sanctuary of the mysteries of language 
is already on the point of being opened to us. I cannot think 
that we are yet in a condition to understand the process by 
which language was formed, if indeed it ever was formed and 
not rather given, and to explain the nature of its very simplest 
elements. And I am quite certain that what has hitherto been 
attempted in this way, although as all such attempts do, it 
contains in it much that is valuable, and will aid our further 
researches, has yet failed of attaining its object." Though this 
was written twenty-four years ago with reference to some long 
dissertations on the particle re in the New Cratylus, the above 
remarks supply a caution applicable to the labours of all 
'' modem philologists. 

Opposition between the different members of a proposition is 
marked by nip, the first thing (the old neuter of fitK, /ila, /*ip), 
and Si a short form of Svo, the second thing, 

flip is generally followed by Se when a mutual relation 
between two propositions is indicated: M. 3, 11, iyo> p,iv /8air- 
rl^to K.r.\. Si imlam fiov ep)(0fi£P09. Frequently there is no 
corresponding Se, as in A, 1. 1, or the adversative sentence may 
be mentally supplied : A. 19. 4 ; 26. 4 : B. l.'s. Instead of Si 



134 



AtJVERSATIVBS— /t^j Si. 



an equivalent particle is (sometime^ used aft^r fUv. Thus xal, 
L. 8. 6 : re, A. 13. 4 : eiretra, Ja. 3. 17* 

When ftiv stands by itself without any corresponding Si, the 
latter or some equivalent is virtually implied, and /Up looks 
forward to the completion of the sentence, just as oip looks back 
to what has been already said. 

Si is adversative: 1 G. 11. 17: B. 6. 17, is. In some cases it 
is simply transitional, marking the introduction of a fresh 
subject, 1 0. 8. 1 : in other cases it is resumptive, 2 0. 6. i : 
and in negative sentences has the conjunctive force which 
attaches to xal in affirmative sentences. 

If the firat clause is intended to prepare the reader for the 
opposition in the second, fiiv is inserted, but /liv is omitted 
where the first clause is not necessarily connected with a sub- 
sequent : E. 6. 8, ^6 yap irore o-zkoto;, vvp SI <f>&i iv Kvpiqt ; B. 
6. 17, xdpi^ Si T^ Oe^, art ffre Sovkoi rffs d/iapriw imificovaare 
Si ex KupSuKi K.r.\., whereas ye were once servants of ain, yet 
now ye obey from the heart: where {nrrfKOvaare (aorist) 
denotes a single act which transpired once for all at the time 
of conversion. 

The formula Koi — Si is like the Latin 'et — vero,' 'et— autem :' 
1 T. 3. 10, KM otrroi Si SoKifui^iadaaav . . .: 2 T. 3. 12, 
Kol irairre? Si oi OiKovrev, x.t.X. : A. 3. 24, Kai iravrev Si oi 
irpo^rJTM: B. 11. 23, KaKehoi Si. While each particle retains 
its proper force, both together often have 'notionis quandam 
consociationem.' Thus while xal connects or enhances, and Se 
contrasts, the union of the two frequently causes Si to revert 
from its more marked to its primary and less marked oppoeitive 
force, ' in the second place,' so that the whole formula has more 
of an ac[/'unctive character, and only retains enough of a re- 
trospective opposition to define more sharply, expand, or 
strengthen, the tenor of the preceding words. ' /cat conjungit, 
Se intendit.' The true rationale of the construction is best seen 
when flip is found in the preceding clause, as in A. 3. 22, fol- 
lowed by Kal irdvTt^ Si (24). The formula may be translated 
and — also, and — too. The form repeatedly occurs, especially in 
St. Luke and St. John. In L. 10. 8 the true reading is xal ek 
fjv 8' &p iroKip: J. 6. si, xal apToi Si. (EUicott on 1 T. 3. 10.) 
1 T. 6. 8, exoprev Si Starpo^av teal <rKerrdafiara rovroi<i dpKeadf)- 
aofitSa. In the preceding verse the Apostle said, ' we brought 
nothing into the world, &o./ the Si points to a suppressed 



PARTICLES— mt. 



135 



thought which is suggested by ovSi i^eveyKetp rt Svpdfieda, viz., 
it is true that we must have something while we are in this 
world, but {f we have, Ix""^^ ^^ k.t.\. Thus the adversative 
force of the particle is preserved, ' aliquid in mente habet ad 
quod respiciens oppositionem infert.' (Klotz.) Tit. 1. 1, SovXoi 
Oeov dTTocrroKoi Si 'Ir/ffov JCpurrov, and further an apostle, more 
exact definition. Si distinguishes and specifies the subject by 
the action of another relation in which it stood to another 
genitive : 2 Tim. 2. e, cAv Si koI affKg 719, Si introduces a new 
image in the second place, xal consecutive pointing to the 
previous image of the soldier. 

elwep, ' in case that,' ' if indeed,' ' if at all,' assimiing the pro- 
position as true, whether justly or not. veplike ye is an enclitic 
intimately allied to ye in signification, denoting comprehension 
or inclusion, trep frequently is combined with relative pronouns, 
with temporal, causal, and conditional particles, to confirm their 
signification. Like ye it imparts emphasis, and may be rendered 
by very, even; with a participle it may be rendered although: 
\iyei airep Xiyei SiKata irdpra, he says all whatever he does say 
justly : /tijTC ail topS' iyado^ irep ii»p diroaipeo leovprjp, neither 
do thou, however brave thou art, take away the damsel from 
this one: evBiiv vopeverat irpo^ top Kvpop ^irep eij(ep, imme- 
diately he proceeds to Cyrus just as he was : B. 8. 9, etvep 
irpev/ut Oeov olKel ip vfup : 1 0. 8. 6, xal yetp etirep elai \ey6- 
(upoi deoi: 15. 15, etirep apa pexpoi-ovK iyelpoprai: 1 P. 2. 3, 
elirep iyev<ra<rOe on ;^/Mj<fTos o Kvpto^. etye, ' si quidem,' must 
not be confounded with etirep, *si omnino.' " etirep usurpatur de re 
qu8B esse sumitur " (Hermann) : 2 Th. 1. 6, etirep SUaiop, regards 
as an assumption what is really felt to bo a certain and recog- 
nized verity. Kaiirep, concessive, is often followed by a participle, 
although : H, 7. 6, roix; dSeXiftovi airr&p Kaiirep i^eXtiXvdoTo^ ix 
T^s oa^vot 'Afipadu: 5. 8: 12. 17, ixerapoUvt yap rvirop oix 
eipe Kaiirep fieri, SoKpviop iK^tfrvaav avrny: 2 P. 1. 12, Kaiirep 
elSoraf. See Ph. 3. 4. Kaddirep, 'even as,' 'just as,' where KoOd 
marks the comparison, irep the extent of the application : 1 Th. 
2. II, Kaddirep oiSare: H. 4. 2; 5. 4. 

pai, ' yes,' is used in affirmations or affirmative answers : M. 9. 
28, irurreiere oti Suvaftat toOto iroirjaai ; Xiyovtrip ain^ Nat, 
Kupie : L. 7. 26, pal, "Keya vfiip kuI irepuraorepop irpo^r^rov : Bev. 
22. 20, val, epxofiai rayy (yai, epxpv, Kvpie). 

With the article to, pal, the word 'yea :' 2 C. 1. 17, ipa y irap 
ifUil TO pal, pal- xal to ov, oi. 



136 



TEMPORAL FARTICLES— oral*. 



vvv, vw &7, vwi, ' now/ a particle of time ; the enclitic form vw 
is a particle of inference. 

Spoken of the actual present : J. 13. 27, vw ^ "^vyri ftov rerd- 
paKTM. Of time just past : A. 7. 62, (tov SiKalov) oi vw ift€i<i 
irpoiorai KaX <f>opel<i yeyhn!)ade. Of time future, 'just at hand,* 
'even now,' 'presently:* J. 12. 31, vtw o apxf^v toS kov/xov 
tovTou iicpKriBri<TeTai l^o). 

As a particle of transition marking a conclusion or inference, 
like vw enclitic in earlier Qreek, 'now then:' A. 12. ii, vvv 
oiZa aKridSxi : 22. 16, Koi vw rl i*i)iKen ; 

Enforcing an exhortation : Ja. 6. I, Sye vvv oi irXowrtoi : A. 7. 
34, Koi vvv Sevpo aTroaTeXa at ait Atr/mrrov. 

Bfuoi, 'at the same time,' 'nevertheless,' strengthens a con- 
cessive sentence : G. 3> 16, 5fUi9 avdpanrov KeKvpapAinpf hiaSriieiiv 
ovieXt dfferei. 

ofuin, ' equally,' ' in like manner,' is a synonym of ifiouot : 1 
0. 14. 7, opM^ rh ayfrv}(a tfxovriv SiSovra : J. 12. 42, OfiSn fUv rot 
Kol ix T&v ap-}(pvTav iroKkoX inrlaTewav e(9 ainov. 

oTTov is properly an adverb of place, answering to iKei as its 
antecedent, but is used as an illative particle referring to an 
existing fact: 1 0. 3. 3, Snrov y&p iv vp.lv {i^Xo; Koi ipti Koi 
Siyfoaraalai, oij(i capicucol iare ; 2 P. 2. 11, oirov arfyeXot . . . 
ov ijtipovai, Har ain&v Traph Kvpiov pKaa^pav Kplaiv. Gf. 
Thucyd. viii. 96, ottov Tooavri) ^ ^vp^ph iireyeyevfiro, Trwf avie 
eutoTOV rjBvpow ; 

Sirioi is an adverb of manner answering to vw ; used as a 
particle of comparison with ovrttf, &Se, as its antecedent, how, 
in what way : with superlatives Ihrw Tap^iora, ' quam celerrime,* 
' as quickly as possible ;' as the correlative of irw in oblique in- 
terrogations : L. 24. 20, iwui re irapiScaKav airrhv oi apf)(iepeit, 
where Snrw<i continues the answer to trola (t9) : ^sch. Prom., 
oiiK olS' &irat vp.lv airiffTrjaai pe XPV' 

For the use of ottos as a final particle see iva, p. 128. 

The mpst common particles of time are ore, orav, onrore, 
onrorav, onijviKa. 

ore is regularly used with the indicative as relating to an 
actual event, usually of time past, but sometimes of , the future, 
used once with subjunctive aorist: L. 13. 35, &>f &v i}^, ore 
tlinyTe. 

orav has the accessary idea of uncertainty, probability, when- 
toever, so often as ; used regularly with the subjunctive ; once 
with the imperfect in narrating events which occurred re- 



OAUSAL PARTICtES— ^«. 



137 



peatedly: Mk; 3. ll, koI mevpara rh axaffapra orav airrov 
iOeiopei,. 

0T«, ' that,' is used in objective sentences as an equivalent for 
the accusative with the infinitive, and as a particle of explana- 
tion, ' because,' ' inasmuch as,' ' seeing that.' 

' Formula loquentis ' after Xeyeiv : Mk. 8. 16, SieKoyi^ovro Trpo? 
aXXi}Xoi;9 \iyovTe9''OTi aprovs ovk ijfppev. Compare in English, 
' I affirm him to be,' and, ' I affirm that he is.' 

Alleging a reason or proof: M. 16. 17, puKapun el, Slpav 
Bap 'lava, art akp^ kw, aXpa ovk aireicakv^i <toi : L. 7. 47, 
oi p^a^w, Xiyo) ooi, 'Atftitovrai ai apaprlai airrffi ai ttoXXo/, on 
^dirriat irokv. Sri here introduces the proof: 'her sins, her 
many sins, have been, and are remitted ; of this you have proof, 
seeing that she loves much :' E. 6. 16, i^ofyopa^opevoi rov Kaipbv 
Sri ai fip.epai irovripai eiai, seeing that : R. 8. 29, ori. obt irpoiyva 
Kol rrpodpiae avfip6p«l>ow r^f eiKovos tov Tiov avrov, inasmuch 
as ; this may be called the sub-causal, or secondary causal uso 
of OTi. IT. 1. 12, 13, Kal xdptv t)(t» Tf> ivBwap<iuravri p,6 Xp. 
'I. T. Kvpl<p ripMV, OTi'iriarov pe ^y^aaro Oipevoi ci9 BtaKovlav 
.... aW* ^\ei]0t)v Sti ayvo&v hrolriaa iv dvurria. This, per- 
haps, should be rendered, " And I thank Christ Jesus our Lord, 
who gives me strength to fulfil the ministry, seeing that He 
put me into it, esteeming me faithful . . . but I had mercy 
shown me, because I knew not what I did in my state of 
unbelief." The participles, 04p.evo<t, ar/vo&v, present the princi- 
pal ideas to which the verbs in the indicative mood are merely 
accessary. 

In H. 8. 9, 10, the considerations which explain SiaOijieiiv 
Kaivqv are introduced by ori : ori ovk evepeivav iv t$ ZuidiqKrf 
p.ov, seeing that they failed to abide in my covenant : on avrt) 
ij itadr^Kii k.tX., now, I say, for this is the covenant, &c. : 2 Th. 
2. 13, OTi cTXcTo vpas o Qeos, expositive sentence stating the 
matter or grounds. 

Referring to known facts as confirmatory of a preceding 
assertion: 1 Th. 1. 6, ort to evaf/>/e\tov ijp&v ovk iyev^ffi) eii 
vpas iv Xoym povov k.t.\. : 2. 13, ^pels evy(api<TTOvpev r^ Oecu 
aSiaXeiirrto^ on irapaXafiovres \6yov aKoiji k.t.X. : objective 
sentence, defining the matter and grounds of the eiij^apurrla. 

on is used with forms of solemn asseveration : R. 14. 1 1, ^& 
iyw, Xeya Kvpun, Sri ipol xa/i^et vav yovv : 2 G. 1. is, ttiotos 
Bi i 0eo<i 5t( 6 Xo70( ^pav 6 wpii vpas ovk iyevero va\ xal o6 : 



138 



NEOiLTIVS PABTICLBS. 



11. 10 : Q. 1. 20, 5ti ov ^vSofuti, I testify that I lie not : 
compare A. 10. 42, StafiapTvpaadai on. 

oij^ OTt conveys a limitation of a previous statement : J. 6. 46, 
ovx oTi rbv iraripa m eotpaitev; 7. 22: 2 C. 1. 23, 24, to// 
Oebv hriKoKjoviuu, 6ti <f>eiS6fiepoi vfi&i! omiri ^\0ov eif Kopivdov 
ov^ OTi Kvpievofiev vfi&v tQ? iriareaxi, . not thereby implying 
that : 3. 5, ov^ on tKavol iapsv Xoyi<ra<r6al ti a<j> iavr&v, not 
as if deeming ourselves competent to form- any conclusion of 
ourselves : 2 Th. 3. 9, ovx ^ti ovk S^oiiev e^ovalap. 

Between the merely objective and the strictly causal force 
of OTi, it is not only very difficult to decide, but in several 
passages (e. g., B. 8. 2i) exegetical considerations of some 
moment will be found to depend on the decision. (Ellicott on 
2 Th. 1. 3.) See 1 Tim. 4. 4, 6, where drt, the objective, is 
followed by yap, the subjective causal particle. Dean Alford 
remarks : " on introduces that which rests on a patent fact, as 
here on a Scripture quotation ; yap introduces that which is in 
the writer's mind, and forms part of his own reasoning." 

NEGATIVE PARTICLES. 

\\ 

The two simple negative particles are, ov, /tij, ov conveys a 
direct and absolute denial ; /u>} conveys a subjective and con- 
ditional denial. In a conditional proposition, fii] belongs to 
the protasis, ov to the apodosis. /ii} negatives a supposition ; it 
prohibits or forbids, ov negatives an affirmation, affirming 
that it is not so. ov is used when an object is regarded in- 
dependently in itself ; fiij, when it is regarded as depending on 
some thought, wish, purpose. " ov negat rem ipsam ; p,ij, cogi- 
tationom rei." ov implies non-existence simply ; but ^17 implies 
non-existence, when existence was probable or possible, ov is 
negative; fiij is privative.' We may render /tij by 'except,' 
•without,' 'omitting,' 'abstaining from,' 'avoiding;' in every 
instance including the idea, that what is said not to exist, might 
have existed, rovf /*^ irtaTevvavrai airdtKeaev means, those 
who, having the opportunity, refused to believe. A. 9. 9, ^1/ 
fip,epa<; rpeli; fit) ffKeiratp, xal oiiK €<f>ayeif oiiSe eiriev. ov PXAirav 
would simply mean that he was blind, firj fiXiircov, without 
sight, one in whom the faculty of sight was suspended for a 
season. " ovk eav simplicitor est prohibere ; fit) ffv autem dicitur 
quum quern crcdas situruin non sinit." 1 J. 5. 16, afutpTapoirra 



NEC ATI VB PARTICLES— ov, fUJ. 



139 



afiaprlap (lij ^po<i ddparop, which he conceives to be not unto 
death : 17, absolutely, eanv d/iaprla ov w/)os ffdparov. 

When the negation is confined to a single word, the direct 
opposite is affirmed, as ov (jitjfti, I deny: ^ ov SuiXvan, the 
non-dissolution: ovj^ rJKtara, especially: ovx i7r*<''X'"'''A*««. I 
refuse. If the single word refers to something dependent on 
the thought or mental idea, then /*ij is used : Thuc. L 22, to /t^ 
fiyffaSei avr&p, ' their want of fables,' in the reader's estima- 
tion. 

The spirit of many passages depends on our preserving this 
privative or reversive power of the negative: 1 0. 2. 14, 
yjtvxtiebii Be dpffpayiroi ov Sixerai, rejects, disowns : M, 15. 26, 
OVK ion, KaliMy Xafieip k.t.X., it is unfair, unhandsome to take : 
22. 3, OVK 7J0eXA>p eKdelp, they refused to come : 18. 14, ovk eon 
deXqua, it is contrary to the purpose : Rev. 12. 11, ovk vydirriaap 
7^1; ^InpciiP avT&p dxpt Bapdrov, they disregarded their life to 
the point of death : R. 13. 10, 17 dyaTni rat irMaiop kukop ovk 
ipyd^erai, love refuses to work ill to his neighbour : 1 01 7. 9, 
et Bi oiiK iyKparevoprai, but in case they have no self-control : 
11. 22, KarataxweTe tow? p,^ ?;;^;ojn-a9, do ye put to the blush 
those who are without houses : 1 P. 2. 10 ; R. 9, 20 ; 10. 19, 
OVK e0poi, ov Xaof, a non-people. 

From this privative power of ov we may account for its 
occurrence after et, as in 1 C. 7. 8. Here ov coalesces with the 
verb so as to form a single and opposite idea, or imparts a 
direct and absolute negation to the entire period : M. 26. 24, et 
OVK eyeppridfi, if he were unborn : 42, el ov Svparai, if it is im- 
possible : J. 5. 47, el ov iriarevere, if ye disbelieve : 1 C. 9. 2, e* 
aWoii OVK elpX aTrocTToXo?, if as regards others I am no apostle : 
15. 13, et Se dpdaraaKi peKp&p ovk earip, but if the resurrection 
of the dead is a nullity. 

'The privative or reversive power of the negative prevails in 
Latin and English, • nego (ne aio),' means, ' I say no.' The Lord 
will not hold him guiltless = the Lord will hold him guilty. 
So 'a thing of nought,' lit. a non-thing (no- whit, nought), not 
merely a thing valueless, but a non-thing, that has no existence 
at all, as nothing has any substantial existence out of God. (Dr. 
Pusey on Amos 6. 13.) 

fiV is often used with the participle to introduce delicate 
modifications of meaning: 1 C. 9. 21, )iii &p dpojuxt Be^, being 
not in my opinion without law as regards God : 2 0. 5. 21, rov 



140 



NEGATIVB VAKtlCtTSa—llfj. 



NEGATIVE PARTICLES— /tl^. 



141 



fiil fvivra i/iapTlav, in God's judgment : G. 4. 8, toU h^ ^vaei 
otxrw deoK, 'si qui haudquaquam natur&, sed ex hominum 
opinione tantum dii aunt.' But if we read tok ^wrei ovk oieriv 
deois, then we have an unconditionBl denial of their being gods 
at all : 1 Th, 4. 6, ri e^vv rii ft-h .elBora toi» ©ew, being so 
regarded by the writer. Thus B. 2. 14, otnoi vo/iov fii/ e;^oinref : 
2 Th. 1. 8 : A. 9. a6, irdvrei i^^rnvro avrov fiii nrKrr€vovr€<} 
oTt itrrlv /iadi)Ti}9, since they did not believe, though they 
might have learnt the reality of the matter : 1 T. 1. 7, deKome<i 
. elvat vofioZiidtrKoXoi, /itf voovtne^ k.t.X. ' though they understand 
not ;' the participle has a slight antithetical, or perhaps even 
concessive force. See other examples in Chapter YII. 

In a question, ov implies that an answer ia expected in the 
affirmative : o^ SS' f^p 6 Sp&v rdSe, was it not he who did this P 
fttj forbids or negatives an assumption, anticipating a reply in 
the negative: ipa fiij iariv daOeviji ; he is not ill, I suppose — 
or, he is not ill, is he P M. 7. 9, l*il \i0ov hriBdaet avr^ ; 22, ov 
Tf> <r& ivoftan irpoe^revirafieu ; L. 6. 39, p-rfn huvarat tu^\o$ 
TV^Xov oSiffeiv ; ov^l ap^repoi ek fioBwov ireaovvTM ; 

The Greeks were fond of coupling the ov and /t»j, and of pre- 
fixing them to a single verb used interrogatively, oii /tij, with 
the second person of the future, conveyed a prohibition ; with 
the other persons of the future, and with the subjunctive, it 
expressed a categorical negation. 

The difference between the indicative future and subjunctive 
aorist is, that the formte implies duration and futurity, the 
latter denotes speedy occurrence. Of this rule there are sonie 
violations in the New Testament, as 1 Th. 4. is ; but in many 
passages where ov ft^ occurs, the readings vary ; and in later 
Greek there was a tendency to use the subjunctive mood rather 
than the indicative future : M. 16. 22, oit fit} l<rrai aoi rovro : 
L. 18. 7, 6 Si 6<o« ov /if) irotrioei rijv iK,Siicij<nv rSitv iicKeicTStv 
ainov ; J. 18. II, to iror^piov i SiSuKi fioi, 6 Harqp, ov fiij irlat 
airro ; 

After verbs of denying, hindering, fuj is inserted where, 
according to the English idiom, it seems unnecessary : G. 6. 7, 
T('f v/xa? iviico^ev t$ aXijde/a fit) ireiOeadai ; The insertion of 
/i?| is to be explained by the lax way in which the infinitive is 
used to denote result or effect. The negative particle must 
thus be considered closely bound up with the infinitive, and the 
result is stated as the non-recurrence of the action represented 



by the infinitive : Aristoph. Pax 315, ifiwoSav ripHv yevrirai 
li/p Beov /*^ 'feX«i5<ro«. 

/ti; is followed by the indicative mood, after verbs of anxiety, 
fear, circumspection, when the contingency is regarded as 
already realized : " p,ri etiam indicativum adjunctum habet, ubi 
rem a nobis pro ver& haberi indicare voluimus." Hermann. 
L. 11. 35, ffKowei oiv /iii TO <l>Sn to iv aoX <rK&To<i iarlv : G. 4. 11, 
^Povfuu v/ia$ firf iraif etx^ KexoirlaKa eh vfim, I am appre- 
hensive of you, lest somehow I have extended my labour to you 
in vain. 

/ii;, with the future after verbs of fearing, gives prominence 
to the idea of futurity : H. 3. 12, fiXAwere, aSe\ff>ol, ftijiroTe Itrrai 
ev rivt v/i&v xapSla iromjpii airurrla^. 

fiij being generally used after verbs of apprehension, as 
ippovT^a, aKOTTu, inroirrevoa, at<ry(wo/uu, its proper adversative 
power became forgotten; and it was used in later Greek in 
combination with other words, without any adversative force. 
So liTfirorre became really equivalent to et irore, or implied only a 
latent apprehension concerning the contemplated result : 2 T. 
2. 29, iv vpavrqTt iraiSevovra Tovf avTiZunideiUvov^ fujirore 
S^ avToti 6eo9 fierdvotav eh hrtyvaviv rfji oKT/ffelai. 

Sometimes firfirore is used to express expectation or doubt : 
L. 3. IS, irpoahoKuvTO^ tov \aov . . . Kal Sia\oyi,^ofi,evov iv 
Tah KapSian fitjirore eiii o Xpurro^ : 1 Tim. 2. 9, /jlt) iv irKey- 
/laaiv. The use of fiij arises from fiovXofiai (s), which is the 
regular and natural particle after verbs of 'will,' expressing 
what is thought of in the mind. 

& ov Bet points to things which are definitely improper or 
forbidden * h p,ri iel, to things which are so either in the mind 
of the writer, or which derive a seeming contingency only from 
the mode in which they are presented: Tit. 1. it, hiiaaKovre^ 
h fit} Set, the class is spoken of as only conceived to be in 
existence, though in reality that existence was not doubtful. 

In questions where /») ov is used, firi alone is interrogative, 
and ov coalesces with the verb: R. 10. 18, firj ovk ^xovaav ; 
fievovvye k.t.\., had they no means of hearing P nay, rather, so 
far from this, their sound, &c. : R. 10. 19, ftrj ovk eyvct ^I<rpa^\ ; 
was Israel not instructed P 1 C. 9. 4, /t^ ovk ej(pfiev i^ovaiav 
<f>ayelv Kai trietv ; is it to be supposed we have no right to cat 
and drink P So 1 0. 11. 22. 



142 



TUB INDICATIVE MOOD WITH fiij. 



THE INDICATIVE HOOD WITH /*i;. 



The following passage illustrates the force of /*»; with the 
indicative when the occurrence of the result is anticipated ; the 
change of mood expresses a second consequence, resulting 
from the fulfilment of the first : Eurip. Phcen. 92, hrUrxet «s 
hv irpov^epevir^aw •arlfiov, firing iroKir&v iv Tplfitp tpavrd^erM, 
Kaiioi fiiv S\j9ri ^vKoi, «k SovXjjfi, '<^iyoi, «rol S' <a? avdaaig, ' wait, 
that I may previomsly examine the road, whether any of the 
citizens is in the path, lest an evil reproach come alike to me, 
as servant, and to thee, as mistress,' where the indicative 
^vToCerai indicates the probability, that there would be some 
one in the street. 

In the following, the indicative marks a consequence which 
the Apostle feared had already occurred, and the subjunctive, a 
second event resulting from the first : 1 Th. 3. 6, eirefiy^a tii to 
ffv&vai, TTJv irlffTiv v/t&v, fi^qvav hrtlpaaev v/xa^ 6 ireipd^v, Koi 
ell Kevov ihnfTiu i koito^ fifiMV, where the aorist subjunctive 
is used of a transient state occurring in particular cases, the 
future would have represented something to occur at some 
indefinite future time. This change of mood is also found after 
on-bif: Thucyd. vii. 17, vaw re oi Kopivdtoi hrKripow ottoi? 
vavftayuK rt avoireipdoatai, Kal tA? oXxaSa? ainStv ^aaop ot 
'ABrfvaloi KaiKuoiev airalpew. See Eurip. Seo. 1120 — 3. 

In the New Testament the indicative is used to mark the- 
second or remote oonsequeaee, where in earlier Greek the sub- 
junctive or optative would have been employed : L. 14. 8, /*») 
KaTaK\t0§<i «ts rt)v irpuTOKXto-lav fujirore ivTi/iorepSi aov ^ 
KeK\rjfiepo<i inr avrov, koX ikBmv 6 ae koI aiirov Ka\i<Aii ipel aov 
Ao<{ Tovrqt TOirov. Here ji KeKXijfiivoi marks the immediate 
consequence, but ipet the remote. J. 15. 8, ip rovrip iho^dadr) i 
war^p fiov tpa teapnop iroXvp if)ep7)re, Kal <fepri<reade ifiol fiaOfiTal. 
■ Here f^ep^aeaOe is the result of iftipriTe. E. 6. 3, tpa ei aoi 
r^ivirrai, Koi iafi /uiKpoj^povio^ eiri rfl? 7^9: LXX, Gen. 27. J a, 
/MjTTOTe ■^'Ka^<r[i p,e o variip «ol eaofuxi, ain^ dm KaTa<f>pov&v. 

In Greek, two or more negatives have the effect of strengthen- 
ing the negation : Mk. 9. 8, oiiKhi oiSepa elBop : 11. u, iitiKeri 
ix aov €ts TOP al&pa /tij8el9 Kapirop ^drfoi.. 

' Nor never,' in a negative sense, occurs in Shakspere : " I 
never was, nor never will be false." So Milton, on Ezek. 40 — 



PARTICLES— /aijW. 



143 






\ 



48 : " the description is typical and shadowy, but in such manner 
as never yet came to pass, nor never must -literally, unless we 
mean to annihilate the Gospel." 

ovKeri is often used in its simple logical sense, without any 
temporal reference : B. 11. 6, el Si ;^ap(Tt oviceTt ef Ipytov. So 
B. 7. so; 14. 15, el Sk Sth fipa/ia 6 dSeX^v aov Xweirat, ovKert 
Karii ar/dmiP irepiiraTeti : G. 3. 18, el yap ex vopav ^ KK-qpopofilfi 
ovKin i^ iirarf^eXiai, the latter supposition is excluded by the 
former : G. 2. 20. 

ovKovp introduces a consequence, which is expressed in the 
form of a question, anticipating an affirmative reply : J. 18. 37, 
OVKOVP fiaaiXeii el av ; 

In OVKOVP the meaning of ovk is dropped, "is it then P" In 
OVKOVP the meaning of ovp is dropped, " is it not P" Soph. Aj., 
OVKOVP fyeXa^ ^St<rro$ el<} e^Opow yeXap. ovkovv wrap Hf p.ii 
adkpta weiravaofun ; 

ovre, MTe, may be considered as connecting negative particles 
employed in couplets, but ovSe, /ti}8e, strengthen the negation, so 
that clause rises above clause or word above word at each suc- 
cessive repetition of the particle : M. 6. so, ottov ovre aifi ovre 
PpStavi a^vifet : M. 11. 18, JjKJde yap 'Ia>ai<n}f /ujre iaffuop /ujre 
wipwp : 1 Tim. 1. 7, p-fi voovpret firjre & XeyovatP /ii^re •trep\ tIpwp 
tiaPepautvprai, the objects to which the negation applies, and 
with respect to which the ignorance of the false teachers extends, 
are stated in two clauses. Their ignorance was thus complete ; 
it extended alike to the assertions they made and the subjects 
on which they made them (EUicott). M. 5. 34, the negation 
p.i} oftoaai Skon is divided into four heads by the adjunctive 
negatives ^tijre : compare Ja. 5. 12. 

The ascending scale with oiiSe, p>ifie, is very observable in M. 
6. 26, ov airelpovatp, oiSi 0epl^ovaip, ovBe awdr/ovaiv elf diro- 
6riKa<i : 10. 9, /t^ KT'qatjade ^(pvaop, fiijSe apyvpop, /iijBk j(a\K6p. 

When oiiSi, firiSe are used singly they must be rendered, 'not 
even,' 'ne — quidem:' 2 Th. 3. 10, et tk ov deXei ipyd^eaffai 
fi7}Se iaOiirm, in case any one refuses to work, let him not even 
eat : Mk. 2. 2, ware /itiKeri xtopelv p/t}Bi tA vpoi ttiu dvpav : M. 
6. 29, oiiik SoKo/juop. 

In G. 3. 28 the alterable social distinctions are contrasted by 
ovSi, the unalterable natural one is expressed by Kal, 

Sometimes ni]Si connects a new clause with the preoeding 
' nor yet :' E. 4. 27, nv^i SiSore rorrop r^ Sia/36X^. In negative 



144 



ILLATIVE PABTICLK3 — OWi;. 



Bentences Bi has j>raotically much of the conjunctive force which 
belongs to kuI in affirmative sentences. " Si sequentia adjungit 
prioribus, non apte connexa, sed potius fortuito concursa acce- 
dcntia " (Klotz) : 2 Th. 2. 2, eh to fti) Ta^6<u« aaXevdrjvai vfM<i 
airb roO poof, /irjSi Bpoetadai, that ye should not be soon shaken 
from your ordinary state of mind, nor yet be terrified. 

ILLA,TIVB PARTICLES. 

oSv. Its uses may be divided into two general heads, col- 
leclice and reflexive, ' accordingly/ ' in accordance with what has 
been said;' a particle of retrospective reference, collecting into 
one sentence the preceding argument. oSv does not imply a 
logical inference like apa, but merely recalls attention to what 
has been said in the way of confirmation and correction, oiv 
looks back to the line of reasoning, as fiev looks forward to the 
completion of the sentence, while Si appends an explanatory 
statement. In composition with relatives and relative particles 
oiv ia equivalent to the Latin ' — cunque;' aWof oarK oiv, 
another, whoever he may be ; Svwi oSv, in whatever way. 

Mere external connexion, transition, or continuation, there- 
upon, now, then : L. 6. 9, ehrev otiv o 'Itfaow irpb<! airrov^ : J. 19. 
29, ffKevot ovp eKeiTo S^ovv ftearbv — . Also with participles and 
temporal particles : J. 6. 14, oi ovp apOpayiroi ISoprei. 

The internal connexion of two sentences, the relation of 
cause and effect: J. 9. 7, iir^XOep oiiv koX iviy^aro xal ^X0e 
/8Xc7r&>i/: 9. 19 : A. 17. 29, 7^1/05 oip wTrapj^ovre? tow Qeov ovk 
o^fiKofiep pofii^eip, k.t.X. : 11. 5. 1, SiKauodiprei oip e< irLarewii 
elp^pTfP exofiep tt/jo? top Oeop : 1 T. 3. 2, Sei o5j» top iirUrKoirop 
avewlXtfirTOP etpat. 

Illative, expressing an inference : L. 20. 44, /iafilS oJw Kvpiop 
avTOP KoKei, xal ira>9 1//09 aiiTov i<mp ; 

Resumptive, where a sentence has been interrupted by a 
parenthesis or by intervening clauses : M. 7. 24, 7ra« oIp octtk 
aKovei pov Toiii Xoyov^ tovtow kuI irotet avrovv, Ofiouaact avrop 
apSpl tftpopipip: n. 4. II, airovSda-<up,ep ovp elaeXdelp el<s iKeiptjp 
TTjp KaTcmavaip. 

In interrogative sentences referring to a previous assertion : 
M. 13. 28, deXetf ovp aire\06vTe<: avWe^topep avrd ; 17. jo, tI 
OVP oi fpappMTeii Xeyovo-iv OTi ^HXiap Set iKdeip irp&TOP ; 

ovp frequently introduces the summing up of the whole, par- 






\ 



■4 

4 



ILLATIVE PARTICLES — TrktJP — irpiP. 



145 



tioularly after a digression: 1 0. 10. 31 ; 15. 11 : fih oip sums 
up what is to be said on the topic in hand, and prepares the way 
for a transition to another subject : A. 5. 41 ; 8. 4 ; 9. 31 ; 11. 
19; 16. 3; 16. 5: Ph. 3. 8, a\\^ p,epovpye xal rfyovput irdpra 
^Tfp,lap elpai. Here the main point is concedeid, but some 
emphatic addition or correction is appended to the concession. 

irX^p (derived from ttXc— fill up) introduces an additional 
idea, something that is necessary to express more fuUy the 
sentiment of the speaker, and is thus diflFerent from aWd, the 
disjunctive conjunction, which apart from the idea of filling up 
may introduce another circumstance. 

wXiJi; may be rendered 'nevertheless,' 'moreover,' 'besides,' 
'except;' and is used as an adverb, quasi-preposition, conjunc- 
tion, also as a substitute for Si in distributive sentences. wX^p 
is often united with el or some other particle to introduce an 
exception: Xen. Anab. iv. 1. 11, oi Sk eireWopTo, irX^p el tIi t* 
SxKey^ep. 

As a preposition: Mk. 12. 32, ovk iaTip oKKaxs ttX^i/ ainov: 
A. 8. 1, 9rai<T£9 TC Sieatrdpffaap ttX^v twi* dirocrroKiop. 

As an adverb wXiJi/ is an adversative particle: 1 0. 11. 11, 
irKifp ovre dp^p x«p«? yvpaiKOi owre 710/^ X«/(>ts dpSpbi & Kvpi^ : 
L. 19. 27, 7r\^i» TOWS i-xdpoixi iKeiPov} of^dr/eTe &Se. 

After a digression marking the return to a previous topic : 
E. 6. 33, trkijp KaX i/ieii oi Koff ha iKatrtot t^i» lawToC •yvpaiKa 
ovToxt dyairdTto m eavrop, but in addition to what has been 
said, waiving all further considerations. 

irplp is a temporal particle, 'before,' 'until,' a locative form 
of nrpo. The full form is TrpXp ^ or irpXp ^ ore, before that when. 
But the adverbial relative is generally omitted, so that vpip, 
which is properly an antecedent, is used as a relative. In the 
adverbial sentence after wpip we may use the indicative, sub- 
junctive, optative, or infinitive. " Post irpiP perfecto status indi- 
ca(ur, qui factum sequitur (irpip SeSenrpffKepcu, before I have 
risen from supper) ; aoristo, perfectio rei {rrpXp Sei-mnjaai, before 
I take my supper) ; praesente, initium {-irpXp Seiirpeip, before I go 
to supper)." 

irplp is used with the indicative to express past actions both 
in positive and negative sentences : ^ofiijp S' dpi/p dar&p p^ia- 
Tos Twi/ eK€% irplp pai Tvxri TotoS' irrioTf) (Soph. 0. T. 775), and 
I was considered the most distinguished man of the citizens 
here untQ such a misfortune came on me : owx fjv aU^ft ovBiv 

L 



14G 



ILLATIVE PAHTICLES — Tol—am. 



ILLATIVE PARTICLES — ft)?. 



147 



— irplv iyat ar^laiv ISei^a itpdaeK rfirUixv aKSffiidrmv, there was 
no means of defence, none at all— until I showed to them the 
way of compounding soothing remedies (^sch. Prom.). There 
is no instance of irpbi with the indicative in the New Testament. 

Tlpiv is used with the subjunctive of an act, both probable 
and future, after a negative sentence : L. 2. 26, ffv avr^ tceyprj- 
fMTKTfiivop fit) ISelu davarov trpw ^ tSp tov Xpiarov Kvplov : 22. 
34, oi fii) ^(ovijoret <Trip,epov iCKltcrap, irplv ^ Tpt? airapv^ay fii) 
etSeyat fie. Here irplv »} may be rendered 'until;' thus Dr. 
Donaldson explains the ellipse in 2 Th 2. 3, Srt cAi» fif/ e\0y ^ 
avoaraa-la irp&Tov (oil Bvvarai ikffeiv o Kvpioi). 

IIplv is used with an optative in oratione obliqud after an 
optative ; also after a negative sentence if the oratio directa 
has passed into the ohliqua : Xen. Anab. vii. 7. 67, itkovro fj.r) 
aireKdeiv irplv &v dirofyaryoi : A. 25. 16, trpoi ofts dweKpidi)v, St* 
ovK eariv eOoi 'Pmfiaioiv x^p'fEo-^at ripa avdpairov el<i aTTioXeiav, 
irplv ^ 6 Karrfyopovfievoi Kara irpoaayirov ly^oi tow? Karffyopovt, 
Toirov re aTroXoyia^ Xa/3o( irepl rov iyxKi^fuiroif. Here the 
optative indicates what was passing in the mind of the speaker. 

Ilpiv is used with the infinitive whenever the subsequent act 
is regarded as an object : J. 8. 58, irplv 'A^padfi yeviaffat iyu) 
eifii : M. 26. 34, irplv oKkicTopa <f>a>VT)a-ai, rpU dirapvTjert} fie : 
A. 2. 20, 6 ffXioi fieraarpciffii^aeTat et? <r/c6To? . . . irplv ^ eXdeti/ 
Tr)v Tffiepav Kvplov TifV fieydXriv Kal eiri.(l>avr}. 

Tol, ' assuredly,' is often an enclitic affixed to other particles ; 
as i^Toi, • either,' or, Kalroiye, ' and yet.' In certain cases it is 
prefixed, as toIwv, 'therefore:' roiryap, roiyapovv, Toi/ydproi, 
and the like, signifying an inference : tjroi, E.. 6. 16, see under 
V : J. 4. 2, KaiTotye 'Iijo-ofl? airroi ovk e/Sdirri^ev, dX\' ol fiadi)Tal 
avTov: A. 14. 17, KaiToiye ovk dfidprvpov iavrbv d<f>T]Kev: 17. 27, 
Kairoifye ov /laxpdv diro ivoi eKotrrov rffiStv virdpj(0VTa, 

Tovyapow, ' by certain consequence : ' 1 Th. 4. 8, roi/yapovv o 
dOer&v OVK dvOponrov dderel : H. 12. I, rotyapovv ■fffie'vi joaovrov 
€)(pvT€<i irepiKelfievov fffilv ve<f>ov fiaprvpwv, 

Toivvv, drawing an inference : L. 20. 25, dirohore roivvv rd 
Kaiaapoi Kalaapi : 1 0. 9. 26, eyit roivvv ovra Tpkya &>? ovx 
d8)j\ci>? : H. 13. 13, roivvv e^ep^dfieda irpbi avrov. 

(u? in comparative sentences means ' as ; ' in objective, ' that ; ' 
in final, ' in order to ; ' in causal, ' for on the ground that.' In 
the comparative sense it is strengthened by irep : aairep, 'just 
as.' In the old combination, ware is the regular attendant of 






the illative clause, signifying * so as to ; ' in which sense, how- 
ever, it is sometimes superseded by the simple m: 2 C. 10. 9. 

In comparative sentences : 1 0. 3. 15, airrb^ Sk ffo)0i]<reTai' 
olrria<! Bk m Bid irvp6<t : Mk. 1. 22, Tfv yap BiBdaKtov avroixi (o? 
e^ovalav extov koI ov^ <»>? oi ypdfifiareii : 1 Th. 2. 4, dKKa 
Kado)^ BeBoKifida-fieda inro rov 6eov marevdrfvai ro evcvfyiKiov, 
ovruii XaXovfiev. 

KuOm stands in correlation to oSrm, marking the measure or 
proportion existing between their approval by God to preach 
the Gospel, and their actual performance of the commission. 

With (»?, &<rre, elvai is sometimes omitted: 2 C. 11. 15, ol 
SuiKOVOi ainov fxeraayiffMiTl^ovrcu, &>? Bimkovoi BiKaioavvryi. 

In objective sentences, equivalent to on, ' to wit that,' ' how 
that :' A. 10. 28, vfiet<i eirlaraade &<: dOifiirov eariv. 

m is used with ort in 2 0. 5. 18, 19, Bovro^ rffilv rijv Buucovlav 
riji KaraXKarftji, cb? on 0eo? rjv iv Xpurrm Koafiov KaraXXdaatov 
eavrw. 

In final sentences, 'in order to:' H. 7. 9, <»9 eirov elireiv, 
' ut ita dicam :' A. 20. 24, ovBi ^oi rifv y^vjffjv fiov n/ilav ifiavr^ 
an TsXei&aai tov Bpofiov fiov fierd x'*P'^^' Some take this in the 
comparative sense : ' I do not even regard my life precious in 
my own estimation, as I hold precious the reXei&aai.' 

In causal sentences, <o$ assigns the reason : L. 16. 1, oSto? 
Ste^n^dij avr^ d>i BuurKopirl^av rd inrdp^ovra avrov : A. 23. 20, 
d>i fieKXMvrii n dxpt^iarepov irvvOdveadat irepl airrov, ' on the 
ground that they intend:' 28. 19, ^var/Kda0r)v iirtKuXeaaaffai 
KaUrapa, ovx ft)? toS idvov} fiov e^^ftif n Karriyoprj<Tai, not on the 
ground that I had to make any accusation against my nation. 

a>f is also used with participles, ' considering that,' ' being 
convinced that,' and imparts to the verbal notion the impress of 
a persuasion or purpose : 2 P. 1. 3, at? irdvra rjfiiv rrj^ Bvvdfiewi 
avrov tA irpb<i fyjtjv Kai evae^eiav BeBii)prjfievr]<i : Xen. Cffr. iii. 
3. 4, m elpi^vt)^ ovarii : 1. 9, ft>? rdkifOi) ipovvroi: R. 15. is, <»« 
hravafii,fivqaK<ov vfidi, as bringing to your recollection, and not 
teaching what you know not. 

ft>? characterizes the action and defines the aspect in which 
the whole was to be regarded : 1 Th. 2. 4, ov^ m dvdpunron 
dpioKovrei, oKKd &e^, not as striving to please men, but as 
striving to please God: A. 3. 12, ^ ^puv rl drevi^ere, w^ IBla 
Bvvdfiei 7) eiaefiele^ ireiroiijKoai rov irepnrarelv airrov ; 

In A. 17. 14 Ol? seems to be used for etti, 'usque ad:' rov 

L 2 



\ 



148 



ILLATIVE FAUTICLSS— Jiore. 



IlaSKov i^atriareiKav ol dSeX^l iropeveaOai mi hrl 0dKaa<rap, 
ihey sent him forth on his journey, even to the sea: Pausan. 
ii. 26, KarafidpTctv co« hrl OdXavaav : Xen. Anab. vii. 6. i, 
AaxeSaiftovlon Soksi (rrpaTeu&rdtu am ^l Turaatjtipvfjv, 

maei, ' as if," as though: ' M. 9. 36, ijifiififievoi wo-el irpo^ara fi^ 
i)(oina irotfUva : 28. 3, 4, rh SvSvfta airav XevKov Jaaei 'Xffdtv. . . . 
eyivovTo mael vexpol : 3. 16, elSe t6 IlveOiia tov Qeov Karafiaivov 
iaaei irepurrepdv, 

&<nrep, 'just as,' 'as indeed:' M. 18. 17> ^crro) <rol atrirep S 
idpiKOi I 1 0. 8. S, KM yhp el irep tlal "Kerfip-evoi BeoX . . . &<nrep 
tlal ffeol iroXKol. " Trip vim earn oomparativam quam habet co« 
usitato more auget atque effort." Slotz. 

dnnrepel softens the boldness of the figure (larat t^ ToKittipd, 
Longinus, § 32) : 1 0. 15. 8, mairapeX t^ imrpwiiaTi &^>0i) icdftol, 
as to the untimely-bom one, he appeared even to mo. — 

&<rre is used with the infinitive when the result is represented 
as a necessary and logical consequence of what has been already 
stated ; with the indicative, when the result is represented as a 
simple and unconditional fact. 

The indicative describing a fact which actually takes place : ' 
M. 23. 31, aare fjutprvpeire iavToit, ot( viol itrre r&v ^vevadvrmv 
T0V9 irpo^ijTCK : G. 2. 13, xal trwtnreKpl0r)aav ain^ koL oi "KotiroX 
'JovSatot &<Tr6 /cal Bapvd^ai awarrff)(dri ain&v Ty inroKpiaen 
3. 24, &are o vo/mk iratSar/tt^oi ^ft&v yeyovev ew Xpiarov : 4. 
7, uore ovK Sri el SovKo^, d\\' vloi. \ 

The infinitive describing acts contemplated but not realized ;^ 
acts capable of occurring or likely to occur : M. 27. i, avfu^ov- 
Xiov iXa^ov . . . Sxrre davar&aai avT6v: L. 12. } , hrKTVva)(ffeit 
auv T&v fivpidSap mare Karaitajov aWi^Xot/f. 

(Sore marks the result : 1 P. 1. 31, &<rre Ttfv irloTtv vft&v xal 
iXvlBa etvM ek 6e6v: the degree, extent, amount, especially 
after oSra, J. 3. 16, ovra ^hp ^dinjaep 6 0eoi top Koafiop Sarre 
TOP vlop avTOv TOP fJMPor/eprj IBaxep. 

Often illative : B. 7. 12, mare 6 p.ip pS/un Sf^un. 

Introducing a concluding exhortation : 1 0. 15. 58, (S<rre 
aSeXfpol fiov drfainfToi eSpaioi ylpeaOe : 1 Th. 4. 18, more irapa- 
KaXeire aWijXou? iv rot? Xo7ot« tovtok : 1 P. 4. 19, &<rre koI oi 
ird(Tj(ppTe<i Karit to OiXrifta tov Qeov <is irurr^ lericrTg irapariffia- 
dwaap Ta« '^vp^Af eavr&p ip ar/aBoriroita. 



Ei 



CHAPTER IX. 



PREPOSITIONS. 



"Prbpositions represent primarily the local relation of one 
object to another ; and this in the most precise manner by 
suggesting the geometrical parts of an object considered in a 
geometrical point of view ; as a line, a superficies, a soM. By 
analyzing these three ideas we obtain an exact mathematical 
analysis and enumeration of the Qreek prepositions. A solid, 
or cube, has six geometrical parts; the upper plane, virip, 
the under, inro, the front, ianl, the side, irapd, both ' sides, 
dfi^l: the rear, out of sight, may be expressed by Siriaffep. 
The plane of the superficies is hrl, the boundary line round it 
is Trepl, the inside of the line ip, the outside ix : the surface, 
divided into two by an intersecting line, is Sid. Lines are 
either vertical or horizontal. ' Of vertical lines the top is dpd, 
the bottom Kurd : of horizontal lines the front is irpo, the 
hinder extremity may be indicated by hrl, or inro. A line has 
three parts ; the extremities, and the middle. But the middle 
may be of three kinds ; if it is of the same substance as the 
extremities, as the middle of a beam, furd is used ; if a different 
substance, as when a rope connects two trees, avp is used ; if it 
is empty space, as in drawing a line from one star to another, 
the relation between them is indicated by otto. If the particle 
of motion, ae, is added to irpo, it becomes vpoi, towards, to the 
point of an object ; if it is added to ip, it becomes eli, into. 
Prepositions do not govern cases in the sense of determining 
them. That which determines the case is the idea which the 
case expresses. The preposition only adds a more precise 
geometrical view of the relation in which the two objects stand 
to each other." (Q. R., Jan., 1803.) 



160 



PREPOSITIONS — VpO. 



In ascertaining the respective powers of prepositions, we must 
keep in view (1) the extent to which later Greek, and the collo- 
quial Hellenic of the Apostles, extended the use of prepositions, 
overlooked nice distinctions, or sanctioned irregidar usages; 

(2) the influence of the Aramaean on the writers of the New 
Testament, which delights in the use of prepositions, and views 
numerous relations under aspects difierent from the Greek ; 

(3) the efPect of the Christian element on the use of particular 
prepositions. In different languages the same relation, heing 
viewed under different aspects, is expressed by prepositions of 
opposite significations. There is apparently no connexion be- 
tween the English prepositions in and under ; but we may^ often 
use indifferently, in these circumstances, and under these cir- 
cumstances. So also we say, under arms, where with, in, would 
be equally applicable. 

Prepositions followed by a genitive only — ami, trpo, arri, ix. 

avri and Trpo are nearly synonymous : ' in front of,' ' on behalf 
of,' ' instead of 'for the sake of irpi is the more general word, 
as it denotes whatever is before one, or in view ; ami denotes 
what is in a definite place, or stands in a specific relation. 

The primary meaning of irpo is ' in tight,' in some place 
opposite, priority in place : A. 5. 23, evpo/iev tf>vKaKa<i ia^wraf 
irpo r&v dvp&v: 12. 6. u, irph tow irvX&i/oc 14. 13, trpo t^s 
nroKefot ainrnv. Repeatedly nrpit irpooatnrov. 

From this meaning irpo passes on to denote priority in tim&c 
J. 17. 24, irpo KarafioKryi KSa/iov: A. 5. 36, Trpo Tovrctv r&v^ 
■/ifiep&v : M. 5. 12, tows irpo^^ra^ tows irpit vfi&v. 

So with a trajection in its use : J. 12. l, irpo If ^fiep&v rov 
irdiTj(a: 2 0. 12. 2, irpo ir&v ieKareaadpmv : Amos 1. 1, LXX, 
iTfM Svo ir&v TOW tretcrftov. 

Hence irpo has the idea of , preference, superiority, import- 
ance: Ja. 6. 12; 1 P. 4. 8, irpo irdmcav. 3 Mace. 2. 21, 6eov 
irpo iravTav Sr/iov, 

From this we have the phrase irpi> ttoXXow iroieiaOai, to 
estimate a thing more than much, to set a very high value 
upon it. 

Sometimes irpo means in behalf of, as Trpo t^s 'EXXaSos 
mro0vqaK€ip, ' pro patria mori.' irpo may bo used in all these 
senses in C. 1. 17, awT^s iari irpo irammv. • 

irpo in composition has generally a temporal reference : Tit. 
3. 1 4, KoKuv Spymv irpolaraaOai, to be prompt in attending to 



PEBPOSITION8 — aiTt. 



151 



good works for supplying necessary wants, that they be toot 
unfruitful, i. e., without showing practical proofs of their faith 
by acts of love. 

Sometimes irpo has an intensive power: irpoSrfKot, H. 7. 14 ; 

1 Tim. 6. 24, openly manifest. 

The primary signification of ami is * over-against.' The 
original form may be &ma, Cf. avnJXtos, opposite to the sun. 
Akin to German ' ant-,' ' antworten,' ' Antlitz.' 

'Instead of,' 'in the place of:' M. 2. 22, 'Apxe'Kao<i fiaffiKevei 
ami 'HptoBov: 5. 38, o^BaXiutP avrl o^Odkfiov: L. Ilk II, fifi 
avrl ij(6voi S<fuv iiriSa>aei, ain^ ; 

Hence it denotes an equivalent, ' set against ; ' Latin, pro, 
inatar; that which may take the place of an object in value : 
amX iroKK&v Xa&v iart, II. ix. 116 : Xen. Anab. vii. 4. 6, em^pero 
o 'Sevdifi Tov iralia el iralaeiev avrov dm\ iKeiPOv, On which' 
Hutchinson remarks : " Phrasi ilia Noster vicariam plane mortem 
denotat." In the previous sentence wTrep is used in the same 
sense as ami: 7i koI iffiXoK &u tnrep towtow airoOavetv ; where 
Hutchinson quotes R. 5. 8, Xpiarb^ tnrep tfn&v aireffave, i. e., 
"vice nostrd, ut nos scilicet mortis poena liberaremur." dm^i 
is the more definite 'instead of,' denoting equivalence and 
exchange. Inrip implies merely 'for the deliverance of men,' 
leaving undetermined the precise sense in which Christ died for 
them. M. 20. 28, Sovpai t^v •^vx'f <*vtow \inpop~ amX iro)sXS»v : 
H. 12. 16, aprX ^pataeon fuS^ aireSoro t& irpioToroKia avrov : 2, 
aprl riji irpoKei/iipr)^ airr^ XapcK vire/teipe <navp6p. 

'In behalf of;' 'to be set to the account of:' M. 17. 27, 
ixeipop Xafiatp Sos awrots avrl ifutv ical aov. 

Adducing a principle, cause, reason, motive: E. 5. 31, avrl 
towtow KaraXei^ei apOpanro^ top iraripa avroO. 

This use occurs frequently with the relative : apff" &v, because, 
wherefore : apri rovrav on, L. 1. 20 ; 12. 3 ; 19. 44 ; A. 12. 23 ; 

2 Th. 2. 10, ' in requital for this that.' 

In J. 1. 16, jfaptp ami jfapiro^, the preposition is used in all 
these senses, ' one grace or blessing in place of,' * accumulating 
upon,' and ' multiplied after,' another. Compare Theognis 344, 
avT dpi&p apiai, grief upon grief. 

In composition, dprl means opposition, as omiKeyca : in turn, 
as dpriKoKea : correspondence, as dpTlrviro<i : in the place of, as 
di/dwTraTos, aml\vrpov. In avr^^eo-^at the preposition involves 
a faint idea of holding out against something hostile, or opposing 



162 



PBEPOSITIOKS — airo. 



♦ 



PBBFOSITIONS — ix. 



163 



wbich, however, passes into that of stedfast application, Tit 
1.9. 

airo, ix, corresponding in origin and signification .to the 
Latin 'ab,' .'ex,' are followed by a genitive of ablation. air6 
denotes motion from the surface of an object (extrinsecus), as a 
line drawn from the circumference of a circle; ex denotes 
motion from within an object (intrinsecus), as a line drawn 
from the centre of a circle. 

Separation in space with the idea of motion : M. 3. 16, avi^'q 
airo rov vSarov : 8. l, KaTafidvri diro tov Spow : A. 16. 38, 
airoordtna air avrutv airo Ha/i^vXlai, separated from them, 
and departed from Pamphylia. 

Marking the distance : J. 11. 18, fjv Si ^ Bijdavia iyyi><i r&v 
'JepoaoXvfuop, w? airi oraSuov BeKairivre. 

Subsequence in time : Mk. 7. 4, airo drfopa<i : M. 19. 4, air' 
apyffi : '&. 15. 23, airo iroXK&v hStv. So cuft oi (xpovov), a<f>' ^ 
{rffiipasi) : //. viii. 64, airit ielirvov dap^affovro. 

Origin of all kinds ; place of birth, descent, residence : M. 
15. ], oi airo 'lepovaaKij/t: 21. li, 6 air6 Na^apiO: A. 10. 23, 
oi airo 'linnnfi : 17. 1 3, oi airo t^s Oea-aaXavlierii 'lovSdioi, : M. 
2. 1, fidrjfoi air" avaroX&v : Soph., el? airo Sirdpriji, a Spartan : 
Xen. Andb. vii. 2. ll, 6 'A0i)vaiov 6 airo orpaTevftaToi. 

The occasion or the effect produced by a cause: A. 11. 19, 
huunrapePT€9 iiro T^f OXly^ea^ : H. 5. 7, eiaaKovadeli airo t^v 
evXajSet'af, graciously heard by reason of his piety; as in the 
margin of the Authorized Version, ' for his piety,' i. e., because 
he feared God : A. 12. 14, airo t^s x<*P"' *"^* rjvoi^e top irv- 
"Koiva, by reason of her joy she opened not the door : M. 14. 
26, airo rov ^fiov licpa^av: L. 24. 41, diri<rrovvTO>p avr&p diro 
TTJ^ j(apai: 22. 46, el/pep avroiii Koi/itofiipovi diro rfji Xviriji: 
A. 22. 11, (uf Si ovK ivipKeirop diro r^f So^rfi toS ^to9 ixelpov: 
L. 21. 26, diror^v)(pvrav dpffpanrwp dir6 <f>6^ov Kai irpoaSoKta^ 
•r&p hrepjfpniptov r§ olKOVftipfj. So airo SiKaiotrvv]^, on account 
of, by reason of: ^sch. Ag. 1302, rX'^fuov air cvtoX/miu <f>pev6<i, 
stedfast in consequence of his brave soul. 

Derivation from a source : A. 17. 2, Stekeyero avrotf diro twi» 
rfpa<fMP : 2 T, 1. 3, "ydpip ex<o tm 6ea* m XaTpeva diro irpoyopup. 

The source of information : M. 7. 16, diro rup Kapir&p ain&p 
hrirpxitaeaOe airrovv : in A, 10. 17, direaraXfiipoi airo tov Kopprj- 
X/bv. diro may denote subordinate agency, 'on the part of,' 
as in the following; Ja. 1. 13, p-rfSeh viipa^/iepoi Xe^era on 



ir 



diro "rau Seov ireipd^o/uu : M. 11. 19, Kal iSiKauuffi) ^ ao<j)la dirb 
T&p tSkpup avriji : Mkl 8. 31, diroSoxifuiaOrjpai diro r&v irpea- 
fivrepwp KoX dp^iepkav Koi ypafifiariwp : 2 G. 7. 13, dpaireiravrai 
TO irpevfui atrov diro irdprwp v/i&p, i. e., by what we saw and 
heard ; direct efforts for that purpose would be marked by viro : 
R. 9. 3, dpdOefta elvai diro rov Xpiarov : Rev. 12. 6, roirop ■fyrot- 
fiaafiepov diro rov GeoO. Compare Hdt. vii. 130, rh diro rivo^ 
yevoftepa, the things done on any one's part: Thuc. i. 17, 
hrpdydi) air fivrov ovSep. 

From this signification, ' on the part of,' it has beraa thought 
that diro is used for viro, but viro implies a cause immediate and 
active ; diro intimates that the cause is less immediate, and 
virtually passive. 

Of the state from which deliverance is effected : M. 1. 21, 
eraurei rov Xooi/ avrov diro tcSi' dfiapruop axrr&p : Mk. 6. 34, taOt 
vyiii^ diro riji fiAffrirfOi aov : H. 11. 34, ipeSvpafiutOiivav dirh 
dadevelai. 

Adverbial use, diro fUpovf, 'partially :' R. 11. 25, 'with many 
exceptions already : ' Thucyd. i. 76, diro rov dvBptanre'iov rpoirov, 
remote from the common practice of mankind. 

In composition diro means ' away from,' as dirwya>, diripy(pfiai : 
'cessation,' as dirdXryita: 'completion,' as diroSeUpv/it, diroOvijarKio : 
' back again,' as diroSIZtafu : sometimes it merely strengthens 
the force of the simple verb, as dirixfo, diro$\lfiio, diroSeKaroto : 
diroxpijtrdai, ' use out, use thoroughly,' diro^i; ' live upon,' ' live 
off,' dirooTvyia, diroro\/ido : or has a privative force, as diro- 
KoKvirrto, diro/cdXtr^tf . 

In dirodrjaavpl^ovrcn;, 1 T. 6. 19, the diro points to the source 
from which, and the process by which they are to make their 
67)travpov<t, ' reponendo thesaurum colligere.' The rich are ex- 
horted to take from {diro) their own plenty, and by devoting it 
to the service of God and the relief of the poor, to treasure it up 
as a good foundation for the future. So diro&uo-et, 2 T. 4. 8, 
alludes to the reward as having been laid up, and taken as out 
of some reserved treasures ; cf. R. 2. 6. 

ix denotes removal or procession from the interior of an 
object, and is used of place, time, origin. 

Motion from, deliverance out of: Mk. 9. 7, fjkJBev ^vi) ix t^« 
ve^eKrif : M. 8. 28, ix r&v fivqfieuov i^epj(pnevoi : A. 28. 3, ej(,tSva 
ix rfyi depfiifi i^eKOovaa : 4, SuuraOevra ix 7% 6a\d<r<rri^ : 2 0. 
6. 17, i^iXOere ix /liaov airr&v. 



154 



PREPOSITIONS — ix. 



iic, ' out of/ as distinguished from av6, ' away from,' is marked 
by the expressions : Mk. 16. 3, Tk airoKvXicret vfuv top \ldov ix 
Tijf 6vpa<: Tov fivtjfielov ; L. 24. 2, (nipov rov \Wov airoK€Kv\ur- 
fiivop airo tov fivqfiximi : 1 Th. 2. 6, otrre ^ryrovvrei i^ dpOpmiruv 
Si^av, ovre d<f> ifi&v, ovre air &XKoiu Suvdfievoi iv fidpei etvcu, 
'neither seeking high estimation out of men (e^)/ this was the 
residt of internal feeling ; no money or temporal benefit from 
you {d<f>' vfi&v), this was external assistance. 

Ik marks position with verbs of rest: M. 20. 2i, ix Be^uov 
KaOfladai, i^ evavvfuop : Soph. Ani. 411, Kod^aBai ex irdrfrnp^ to 
sit on the heights and look from them. 

Of time : i^ ov (xpovov), Lat. ' ex quo.' 

Of particular points of time : M. 19. 20, ix veonyroi fu»v : A. 
9. 33, i^ ir&p OKTco: J. 6. 64. 66, i^ dpyfrji: ix tovtov: J. 13. 4, 
eyelpeTM ix rov Seltrvov, he riseth from or after supperT' Cf. Hdt. 
i. 60, iie 0va(ai yepiaffai, to have just finished sacrifice : Thuo., 
^f elpijp7)<i iroKe/jietv, to go to war after or out of peace. 

Origin from, material, means: M. 3. 9, iie t&v \lBap rovrtov 
iyeipai riKva: J. 2. IS, ironjaofi <f>par/e\\top iic tr-xpipuap : 2 C. 8. 
II, TO ivireKkaai ix tov e)(€ip: Xen. Anab. ii. 1. 6, to orpdTevfia 
hropi^ero alTOP, Sirot^ ihwaro, ix t&v inro^vyUov xorrropre^ tov$ 
fiow xal Spov<!. 

Of physical origin, birth, descent : J. 3. 6, to yeyepprjuhfov ix 
Ttfi oapxm adp^ itrri : M. 1. 20, to yhp ip aurp yepptjOip ix irpev- 
fiaro<: dr/iov iaTi; M. 1. 16. In G. 4. 4, f^evo/ievop ix yvpaixo^ 
is added to toi^ viop avrov to attest the real manhood of Ohrist : 
//. y. 896, i^ ifiov yipo^ iaal, thou comest of me by descent. 

Appurtenance: 1 J.. 3. 12, ov xadixi Kdip ix tov Trovrjpov ^p: 
J. 18. 37, o i>p ix T^ dXiideiai, he that is on the side of the 
Author of Truth. 

Derivation from some source, occasion, cause, inducement : 2 

0. 2. 4, ix rro\Xi]t 0\i^emii ir/pa^a : 1 T. 1. 6, drfd-mi ix xadapoM 
xapSian Bey. 15. 2, vix&ptu^ ix tov drjplov: J. 8. 44, ix t&v 
iZuov "KoKel, he speaks from the essential properties of his 
nature. 

ix denotes result, consequence of: G. 3. is, el ydp ix vofiov ^ 
xkijpopoula, if the inheritance be the result of obedience to the 
law : G. 3. 21, SvT(oi ix vofiov &p ^v ^ Zixaioavvt) : so 22, 24 : R. 

1. 17, 6 StVatof ix TTtoreo); ([i/o'fTat. 

In its primary ethical sense ix denotes more immediate 
origin; mro more remote origin; it then passes through the 



i 



\ 



/ 



PREP081TION8- 



155 



intermediate ideas of result from, consequence of, to that of nearly 
direct causality. Immediate origin may be rendered from, 
direct causaljiy by. We may employ of to express the inter- 
mediate meanings. Xen. Anah. ii. 5. 2, tow p^v ix iiafioKffi, 
TO\)<i il i^ {nroy^ia<i, some from calumny, others from suspicion : 
E. 6. 6, 7, TTOtowjn-e? to Bikij/ta tov Geov ix •^i%^?, /ter evpoia<i 
Sov'\evovre<{ x.t.\. " ix ■^i^? marks the relation of a servant 
to his work; /tcT* evvoia<i points to his relation to his master 
with a weU-afifected mind." (Ellicott.) 

From its sense of derivation ix is used with some verbs for 
the agent : J. 6. 65, ih> fti} ^ SeSopApop airrw ix tov ttot/jos /tow : 
Xen. Anab. i. 1. 6, 'lavixai iroXew . . . ix ffaaiXeon SeSop^pat : 
Cyrop. viii. ix fiaaiXia<i elal xade<rrqxore<}. 

To distinguish a part from the whole : M. 10. 29, Jv e| avr&p : 
25. 2, Trerre i^ avr&p: A. 10. 45, ol ix irepirop.^<i inaToi: -15. 23, ' 
dSeX^K TOW ef iffp&v : M. 25. 8, Sore fifiiv ix tov ikalav : 1 C. 
12. 15, ovx e<m,v ix tov atop^roi. 

ix is used in a periphrasis for adjectives and adverbs : R. 2. 
8, oi i^ iptBeiafs, those who act from a principle of factious oppo- 
sition : II. 10. 6, Ti)P hixaioffwnjp Tijv ix rov vopov, the righteous- 
ness which proceeds from the law: 1 J. 2. 19, «f ■qp&v i^\0ov, 
dW ovx ^aap ef ■qp^av : Tit. 2. 8, o ef ipapTiai (ypcop,!^) : 
Xen. Anab. iii. 4. 28, ovx ef taov i<rp,€P, we are not on equal 
terms: i^ ditpoaZoxrfrov, unexpectedly: ix iro'KKxiv, from a 
distance. 

ix is sometimes used in a combination of senses : R. 1. 4, c^ 
dvaaTdae(o<i vexp&p, from, after, by his resurrection from the 
dead: 1. 17, ix Tr/oreo)? eh iritmv, out of faith as a root, to 
faith as a tree : 4. 14, oi ix vopjov, those who are of the law, 
they who spring forth from it, and rest upon it, as a tree rises 
from and stands upon its root ; opposed to 01 ix Tr/area;, G. 3. 
9 : cf. R. 2. 8, oi i^ ipiBelat '. 4. 12, oi ix •trepvrop.rfi. 

A contrast between ix and Zm is marked in R. 3. 30, Sf 
StxaM&o-et ireptTop.riP ix irtoreoif xal dxpo^vtrrlap iih t^« Tr/o-TCO)?, 
who shall account righteous the circumcision, out of or by faith, 
which they have as members of the covenant, and the uncir- 
cumcision passing through the door of faith. " The Gentiles oi 
1^0) must enter the door of the faith of Abraham, and pass 
through it in order to be justified" (Wordsworth): R. 11. 36, 
if auTov xaX BC avrov xal £t9 avrov r^ irairra, " God is the origin, 
the agent, and the end of all things." (Yaughan.) 



166 



PABFOSITIONS — iv, aiv. 



PBEP08ITION8 — ^V. 



157 



CK indicates the closest connexion ; iirS, one less strict ; irapd, 
OTTO, connexions more remote ; dmo denotes simply the point 
from which action proceeds, if that point is a person irapd or 
tnro is employed. If the person is indicated merely in general 
terms as a spring of action Trapd is used ; but if it is represented 
as the special, efficient, and producing cause inro is required. 
airS denotes distance and separatum. The notions of disjoining 
and removal are implied in airo, ix, which are not conveyed by 
irapd, V1T&. (Winer.) 

In composition the signification of removal prevails, out, 
away, off; as iK^oKXa, iKKva, origin; Ixyovn, carrying out, 
accomplishing ; ix^iyria, utterly ; i^vmxK, SK<f>o^of, ixret^ : 1 
T. 2. 14, i^airaniOeura, being completely, thoroughly deceived: 
PhiL 3. II, T^v i^avdajaariv, the thorough, complete resurrec- 
tion. ■ 

FREFOSITIONS GOVBRNINO THB DATIVB ONLT. 

'Ev and avv agree in origin and signification with the Latin 
in and cum. But the Greeks employ the larger form evi (eVf) 
for the Latin in with the accusative. 

iv denotes inclusion, <rw conjunction : 

Of place, of all situated within a given space: L. 11. i, iv 
Toirtf rivl : M. 8. 6, iv t§ oIkui. 

In the life of, the history of: K. 11. 2, ovk olZare iv 'Hklq. tI 
Xir^ei 1} 7pa^i} ; H. 4. 7, ^i' ^a/3(S Xer/av. 

Continuance in space: M. 10. I6, avoareKKa vpui iv piatp 
\vK<ov : L. 5. 16, i^v inroj(ci>p&v iv rati iprifiOK. 

The sphere of action : B. 1. 6, & iraa-i tok lOveaiv : 1. 8, ^i« 
SK^ t^ Koafup'. M. 17. 12, ivoiijaav iv airr^ S<ra ^diKijaav: 14. 
2, ai SwdfieK ivegiyoikriv iv avr^: 1 Th. 6. 12, roixi kovi&vtos iv 
v/uv: R. 1. 31, i/taTauofftjaav iv rot; BiaXoyur/iOK avr&v, the 
sphere in which their emptiness revelled : B. 6. 4, iv /cati/on^rt 
^onjv irepf7raTi]<rii>ft,€v, walk in a new state, of which the charac- 
teristic is life : E. 2. 10, tva iv avroi^ irepiiraTi^aafiev, in good 
wor]fs as the field or area in which the motion or conduct is 
exercised : B. 3. 7, et yiip ^ dX'qdeia toO Qeov iv r& ifim y^eva- 
fuiTi, hrtpUraevffev eh Tqv ho^av airrov, in my lie, my unfaithful- 
ness BS the field of its operation : 2 0. 8. l, r^v 'xdpiv rov Geov 
T^if SeSofUvTiv iv iKKX-qalaK, the gift of God's grace which 
operated among men : A. 4. 12, ovre yap Svofid iariv Irepov inro 
Tov ovpavov TO ZiZofiivov iv avOpayiroi^, which is set forth among 



\ 



men: B. 5. 21, &cnrep ifiaatKevtrev fi d^prla iv Tip Oavdrv, as 
sin reigned in death, the arena of its triumph. (Vaughan.) ^ 
Element of fxistence: B. 8. l, oiikv &pa vDv Kard^pifia to« 
iv Xptar^ 'Ivrov, those who are included in Christ, having 
been inserted into Him, J. 15. 2 ; clothed with Him, G. 3. 27 ; 
abiding in Him, Ph. 3. 9: B. 9. 1, dX^flewi/ Xi7» «* Xpiimp: 
B. 14. 14, oUa Kal iriireurfjMi iv Kvpitp 'Iri<rov, (where ev ex- 
presses the opposite of xwpls Xpurrov E. 2. 12, J. 15. 6, e^ra- 
neous to, or independent of Christ,) under the influence of Him 
who is the truth, included in Him, and exercising that union m 
the particular judgment formed and expressed: 1 T. 4. 15, ev 
TovTOit Udii 1 0. 15. 18, oi KotfivSivTei iv Xpiara: G. 3. 28, 
iravres i/iet? els iare iv Xpurr^: 3. 8, ivev7u)ri0^<rovrai, iv aol 
irdvra rk S0vv: Ph. 3. 9, Kal evpe0& iv avr^, and may be 
abiding in Him: E. 1. 20, fiv ivnpn<rev iv^ r£ Xpurr^, as the 
sphere of action: 1. 17, A* iirvyvaurei airov, in mature acquaint- 
ance with Him. The knowledge of God was to be the sphere, 
the circumambient element in which they were to receive 
wisdom and revelation : 2. 2, & ah irori irepixnarnaare, the 
sphere in which they usually moved : 4. 1, o Uafuot iv Kvpup^ 
the captivity is referred to union with Christ and devotion to 
His service; so 6. 21, hui,icovo<: iv KvpCtp: 3. 18, iv a/fdiry ippu- 
^(OfiivoL Kal Tedep^Xuopivoi, this was to be their basis and foun- 
dation if they would realize all the majestic proportions of 
Christ's love to man. Both these meanings are sometimes 
combined: L. 4. 32, X070? iv i^ovala: 1 T. 2. 7, Si£dtrKdXm iv 
irlaTei Kal aXvOelq : 3. 4, riKva iv {nrorar^ : Tit. 3. 5, ouk ef 
epymv r&v iv iiKauxrwr) &v hrovfiffaiiev VH^h : 2 P. 2. 7, tnro 
tQs t&v dOeapMV ev dtreXrfeia dvatrrpo^i. 

The efficient cause: M. 9. 34, iv tw apxovri t&v Saifutvluv 
iK^dXXei Th, Sai/tovia: H. 10. lo, eV ^ 0eXr}(MiTt rnuurpxvoi 
ifffiev, in the fulfilment of which will (9). 

Instrumental adjunct, or adjunct of manner, the iv of investi- 
ture: L. 22. 49, el iraTa^ofiev iv iMxalpq, sword in hand: Ja. 
3. 9, iv avT^ iiXaairp) evXoyovp.ev tov Beov : 1 C. 2. 4,^ to 
Kripvip-d nov OVK iv ireidoh dvOparrrlviii ao^ia<i "XMyoK, oXX' iv 
dirohei^et irvevpuTO^ : 4. 21, iv pd^l<p eXdw irpo? u/tSs ; H. 9. 22, 
iv alfJMTt irdvra Kadapl^erai : E. 6. 2, ivroXi) irpmn) iv eVoTye- 
Xia. in point of promise; the first command we meet with 
which involves a promise. 

E. 3. 12, T^i» vpoaarftayr^v iv veiroiOtjaet, an admission in 



158 



PREFOSITIONa-T-^l'. 



i 



PREPOSITIONS— ev. 



159 



oonfidenoe ; h>, the predication of manner, defining the tone 
of mind in which the admission is enjoyed and realized i E. 
4. 17, /laprvpo/uu ip Kvpl^, the element in which, the sphere 
in which the declaration is made ; so R. 9. i : 2 0. 2. 17 : 1 Th. 
4. 1. 

ip Xpurr^, a term of deep significance, implying union and 
fellowship with Christ. 

E. 4. 19, lavTov9 irapiBaKav t0 daeKfyel^ ew ipyaaiav okoi- 
dapa'uvi TTocnfi iv •n\eove^i<f, the condition, the prevailing state 
or frame of mind in which they wrought the aKadapvla. 

E. 4. 33, 6 Qeh<i iv Xptorf), God in Ohrist ; in giving Him to 
be a propitiation for our sins : 0. 3. 17, trdvra iv ivofiari Kvplov 
'Itjaov : E. 6. 20, the name of Ohrist is that general holy element 
in which every thing is to be received, to be enjoined, to be 
done, to be suffered : E. 6. 21, viroTaaa6fievoi dXXij^ois iv <f>6^<p 
Xpurrov, the prevailing feeling or sentiment in which inrortvfij 
is to be exhibited. " Ex timore Ghristi, quia scilicet Ohristum 
veneremur, eumque timemus offendere." (Corn.-a-Lap.) 

E. 6. 1, inraKovere to($ yovevaiv vfi&v iv Kvpup, this defines 
and characterizes the nature of the obedience: iv oh &v ftij 
irpoaKpovaji^ Kvpltp. (Ghrysostom.) 

E. 1. 15, irioTW iv t^ Kvpl^ 'Iiiaov, Christ-centered faith. 
When the defining prepositional clause is incorporated with, 
appended to, or structurally assimilated with the substantive 
as to form only a single conception, the article is correctly 
omitted. See p. 37. 

G. 1. 16, diroKaXvy^at tov vlov airov iv ifioi, within me. 
XpuTTov el'}(ev iv iavr^ XaXofivra. (Ghrysost.) The Apostle 
was prepared for the work of the ministry subjectively by deep 
inward revelations, as well as objectively by outward manifesta- 
tions. (Ellicott.) 

1 Th. 2. 3, iv SoXf>, in any deliberate intention to deceive. 
"The use of iv, especially with abstract or non-personal sub- 
stantives, is always somewhat debateable in the New Testament, 
and can only be fixed by the context: it sometimes librates 
towards Sui, both with genitives (1 P. 1. 5), and accusatives 
(M. 6. 7), sometimes towards fterd (C. 4. 2), sometimes towards 
Kara (H. 4. u), but is commonly best referred to the imaginary 
sphere in which the action takes place." (Ellicott.) 

1 Th. 3. 13, rat KapSitu dfiefvirroiK iv dyiaavvjj, their hearts 
were to bo unblameablo (proleptio use of the adjective, like 



dvefKK^ov,, 1 0. 1. 8 ; a6fi^p4>ov. Ph. 3. 21). and not simply 
bkmeless, but in a sphere and element of holiness. 

1 Th 4 18, the iv is here used in that species of instrumental 
sense in which the action of the verb is conceived as existmg 
in the means. The -^apdKMai^ may be conceived as contained 
in the divinely-inspired words themselves: "Solent Graeci pro 
Latinorum ablative instrumenti saepe iv prsepositionem ponere, 
significaturi in e& re cujus nomini praepositio adjuncte est, vim 
aut facultatem aUcujus rei agenda sitam esse." Wunder. ^ ^ 

1 Th. 5. 18, toOto 7Ap eSKrilM Oeov iv Xpump- Ii»^w e« 
Ip&t. Christ is represented as the sphere, in which the dikfiiM 
is evinced, and has its manifestation. ^ ^ 

1 Th. 5. 26, d<nrdaaaee roi>v aSeX^ow vdvra^s ev ^CKruuiTi 
S^U. iv, simply instrumental, the .^t'Xij/*a^ being that in which 
the o^nrflo^/w? was involved, where 'the object may be con- 
sidered as received into, contained, held, existing in the means. 

Jelf, Or. § 622. 3. - „ / . 

2 Th. 2. 13, erXaro ifiav . . . iv aryiaap^ nvevfuiro<i. ev 
denotes the spiritual state in which the £?XaTo ek atarnpUv 
was realized. 

2 Th. 2. 16. ikirlha c^aO^v iv x«/>t". m the accompanying 
element of grace and love. y , a • *.< 

1 T. 2. 7, Bi£daKaXo<t idv&v iv irurrei koI aXijOeu}, the 
spheres in which the Apostle performed his mission. ^ We may 
refer wt'«rr« to the subjective faith of the Apostle, oXij^eia to 
the objective truth of the doctrine he delivered. 

1 T. 3. 4, T^w« ex""^* «'" virortviy. If a participle or ad- 
jective had been used, though the meaning would have been 
nearly the same, the idea presented to the mind would have 
been different; in the one case, subjection would have been 
noticed as a kind of attribute ; in the present case it is repre- 
sented as the moral element with which they were surrounded, 
"The transition from actual, L. 7. 25, to figurative environment, 
M. 6. 29, and thence to moral deportment, 1 T. 2. 9, or as here, 
to moral conditions, seems easy and natural." (Ellicott, 1 T. 

3 4.^ 

Tit. 1. 13, e\efx,e avroixs diroT6/uo<:, Xva {riMotuxriv iv ty 
irurrei. the object of the sharp reproof was to restore them to 
health ; the sphere and element in which that doctrinal element 
was to be enjoyed was ir/ort?. 

Ground, or occasion, of mental emotion : B. 2. 23, 6s iv voiup 



160 



IPRBPOSITIONS — avp. 



aura,.: L 10 20. iu to.^.^ ^ X««'^e: E. 3. 13. ^ «*^««rf. 

Continuance in time: M. 2. i, & ^;*4pa.9 'HpciSow: J. 11. lo. 
iu TV vvKT,: M. 27. 40, «V rpuAv ^^Spai, oIkoSo^p. 
A point of time : 1 0. 16. 6l, iXKa^a6^ie0a iv droM^. 
lo result in, take effect in, time yet future : E. 2. 5, d^aavpl- 

Vfiav a><s ep -qfiip^ a^uv^ii. '^ 

Adverbial uses are ip ry ^„ep^. openly : A. 26. 38 : E. 3. 3. 

iv oX^p. in a short compass : A. 7. 13, ip r^ Bevripq,. 

ip m composition retains its usual signification, near. at. in. as 

ipepyia,. evdv^^. i^al^a, : with adjectives it modifies the 

meaning, as ift^tap^, gpSo^i. 
tnSp denotes close connexion, union, identification in time and 

circumstances, avp impKes coherence, a closer conjunction 

than Mera. coexistence; as, in English, mtA differs from amid, 

among. ' 

In company with: L. 2. 13, iyipero ain> t^J «iyy^ ,rX^^09 
YpO'Tia^: ovpaplov: A. 14. 28. hi^ptpop i^ei <ri,p toU fmenralii- 
4. 13 «ru./ T^ 7,«roS iiaap: 1 Th. 4. 17. iraiaore ai,; Kvpm 
iaop^Oa: L. 1. 56, S^^pe MapiAfi. oiV oir^: Mk. 8. 34, irpoa- 
KoK^aafiepoi top 6x^v aiv rots /w^^rats airoS : 15. 27. ai>p 
avT^ aravpovai Bvo Xrjardv. 

Identification : A. 14. 4, oi ^Lh, ^aap ain> rot? 'lovBaU, ol Se 
<Tvp roK a'n-o<rT6\oK : G. 3. 9, ol iK Triareaxt eiXoyovvra^ ain, rS 
VKrro, A^padft. Compare ol aip rtw. the friends of any one : 
aw Ttvt ehai, or ylyveaffai,. to be of his party. 

Assistance, co-operation : 1 C. 5. 4. airp ry ivpdp^i rov Kvplov : 
IS. 10. r, xapK rov Oeov <ri>p i^l: A. 14. 6, i^hero 6p^i, r&p 
iff PUP reKal lovSaiap trim to?? apxpvaip airr&p. 

Addition, accession, over and above, besides: M. 25 27 
iKo^i<rdp,yp &p ri i^p aip roKtp: L. 24. 21, ai,p -iraai robots.- 
Ja. 1. II, apereiXe yetp 6 ^Xtos avp r^ Kauatopi. 

Thus avp is used of necessary connexion, consequence : Xen. 
Cyr. aw ry cr^ d^a0^. to your advantage, ' tuo cum commodo : ' 
21. ly. 161, aw fieydXa, diroriaai. to pay with a great loss. 

aw 18 often used in combination with &^, which generally 
means connexion in respect of time: as 1 Th. 4. 17, 5/xa aip 
avToi<i apnrarnaop^ea. at the same time, together with them: 
but m some passages has the further idea of aggregation : R 



i 



PREPOSITIONS— ei<S. 



161 



'li 



3. 12, &fui ^eutBrjaap. Hence the force of 1 Th. 6. 10, i/*o 
owv avT^ ^•qaa/iep, all together (£/ua) united with him (avp). 

avp in composition denotes fellowship, union, agreement, as 
avveadUo. av/JL<pa>pea : the completion of an action, as avfi- 
irXripoa : intensity, as avyKvirra. 

e*9 is a lengthened form of & (= ivi), and signifies 'to' or 
' into.* with a decided expression of motion or tendency ; ad or 
in c. accus. 

Motion to an object: M. 2. 11. ik06vre<: eli t^v oUiapi 3, 10, 
6« irvp ^dWerai: L. 8. 8. eireaep eti t^i» y^v: A. 16. 40, 
elaffKJdop e« i^w Avhlav, i. e.. her house ; as Ter. Eun. ' Eamus 
ad me.' So perhaps A. 23. 11, ew 'lepovaaKrip,, ek 'Pio/iitv, as 
thou bearest witness by coming to Jerusalem, so thou shalt 
bear witness by going to Rome. 

The object to which an action is directed: M. 18. 15, iap 
apMpriqari eU ak o aSeX^o? aov '. 26. 10, eprfov Kokap etpydaaro 
eh ifii. 

Thus we may explain G. 3. 27, eh Xpiarop i^airriadiyre, ye 
were admitted into Christ by baptism; "ut Christo addicti 
essetis" (Schott.): 1 C. 12. 13, iv evi irvevfiaTi,, ■^fteh iravre'; eh 
iv a&fta i^airrladrjfiep : R. 6. 3, oaoi i^airrlaBTjiiev eh Xptarop 
^Irjaovv eh top ddvarov avrov i^airrladtjfiep. " Our union is 
with Christ crucified ; with Christ, not as a man living upon 
earth before death, but as one who has died, and vrith dis- 
tinct reference to His death. See J. 12. 24. Before dea,th He 
was a Teacher: death alone could make Him a Saviour." 
(Vaughan.) Compare R. 8. 3*4 : 1 P. 3. 22. 

The meaning of eh with fiairrl^at appears twofold : unto, 
object, purpose, M. 3. 1 1 ; A. 2. 38 ; into, union and communion 
with ; the context showing whether it be of the most complete 
and mystical nature, as G. 3. 27; R. 6. 3 ; 1 C. 12. 13, or as in 
1 C. 10. 2, necessarily less comprehensive and significant. The 
expression, fiairr. eh to opofia, M. 28. 19 ; A. 8. 16 ; 19. S, is 
not identical in meaning with Pairr. ip t^ opo/uiti,, but ever 
implies a spiritual and mystical union with Him in whose 
name the sacrament was administered. M. 10. 41, o Sep^o/ievos 
irpo<f>i^rn^p eh Svo/ia irpotfujrov. i. e. to do him honour as a 
prophet. 

In the cases where eh is said to be used for iv, motion is 
implied. This is obviously the case in M. 2. 23, ixdmp KaTttucri- 
aev eh iriikiv \erfop4pifP Na^pir. 



M 



162 



PREPOSITIONS— et?. 



We may obserre, too, that ^hJBev precedes in Mk. 1. 0, 
ifiairriadt) {nri 'ladwov eli top 'lopSdvTjv: L. 11. 7, t^ iraiSla 
ftov fier iftoD et? ttiv Koirqv elalp, my children, with myself, 
have gone to bed, and are there still: Bey. 6. is, Hxpuyfrav 
eavToixi elt rh, <nrr{Kaui, ran into the caves for shelter, and kept 
themselves hid: Caesar, B. (?., "abdidenmt se in silvas:" 
Thucyd. i. 133, ii 9)v (xoKvfi'qv) t&v re i<f>6p<ov imoi riva^ 
CKpir^e. L. 7. 60, iropevov eh etpi^vijv: here eh marks a tran- 
sition of feeling ; in Ja. 2. 16, {nrar/ere iv elp^vjn, no such change 
is implied. 

In other cases where iv is said to be used for eh, continuance 
in the state is implied : L. 24. 38, BmtI StdKoyurfiol ava^aivovaiv 
h) rah KupSlaii v/t&v} 1 T. 3. I6, ipe\ij^0r} iv Sofy. With 
this we may compare Thucyd., airotrriXXeiv OTrXtra; iv t§ 
StKfXla : Ovid, Fast. iii. 664, ' in sacri vertice mentis abit.' 

The use of eh in the New Testament closely corresponds 
with the three idiomatic meanings, with respect to, with a view 
to, to the amount of. (Donaldson, 478.) 

' With respect to : ' A. 2. 25, AafilB \Sr/ei, eh avrov : A. 
25. 20, diropoviievoii eh rrpi irepi tovtov ^rJTTjaiv: M. 12. 41, 
fterevoriaav eh to Kijpvyfia 'lava: B. 15. 31, ^ huiKovla /lov 
^ eh 'lepovtraX^fi. 

Mental direction towards : B. 16. 6, iicoviaaev eh v/ioi. 

' With a view to,' ' the end designed,' ' destination :' Mk. 1. 4, 
Ktipvaaav Pdirriafut fieravola^ eh a^eaiv anapriStv. M. 27. 7, 
rf^opaaav rbv ayphv eh raipifv Toi? ^evoh : 1 Th. 3. 5, ^Tre/i^a eh 
TO fv&vai T^i* irlcrnv Vfi&v : 2 T. 1. 12, £t9 ixeivrjv ri)v fifiipav : 
E. 4. 30, iv ^ ia<f>pa/yla07p-e eh ^fiipav dTroKirrpda-em. 

To this ethical sense of destination we may ascribe some 
passages in which the primary force seems to be lost: Ph. 2. I6, 
2r( ovK eh Kevov iBpa/iov ovSe eh xevop ixoirlaaa, fbr a fruitless 
object : G. 2. 3 : 1 Th. 3. 5, eh kcvov yivnirai, prove in vain. 

'To the amount of,' 'the end attained:' A. 19. 27, KivBvpevei 
Tjfuv TO (lepo^ eh aire\eyfiip iXdetp ... to t^s fieydXryi Oeat 
'ApTefuSo<i lephp eh oiSip Xoyiaffijvai, : B. 2. 26, owj^i 1} dxpo^vorla 
avTov eh irepno/iriv XoyiaBijaeTai ; 4. 22, ikor/iadif ainm eh 
SiKauxTvvtjv : 10. 1, ^ Ser}aii ^ vpo^ top Oeov inrip tow 'I<rpa'^\ 
iariv eh <Ta>Tqpiav : 1 P. 1. 5, >}>povpovfiepovi Stit triaTea^ eh 
cunriplap: B. 8. 18, irpo^ rijp fieWovaap So^ap d'iroKa\v(l>6rjpai, 
eh ^/ia?, reaching to us : G. 2. 8, eh airoaroXijp, for the success- 
ful performance of the Apostleship : iriareveiv eh Xpiarop, eh 



VBEPOSITIONS — e«. 



163 






TO Spop^ airrov, is to be brought by beUef into the body of 
Christfto be made a member of His body. The spint which 
He gave, eh f,p^^, not merely f,f^tv. is the spirit infused into us 

Though the above comprehend the principal uses ofew, yet 
from the frequency of its occurrence in the New Testament we 
may make further subdivisions. « «• 

'Intention,' 'aim,' without the accessory idea of attam- 
ment: 1 Th. 2. 12, d?ifi.« tow BeoO roO Ka\4,vvro^ w/*as e« t^i; 
iavrov ^oaiK^lav Kal Sofav: 1 Th. 5. 16, rh i^adop huoKere Koi 
eh dWnXov^ Ka\ ehfrdprai: 1 T. 6. 17, t^ ,rap^om vf^^ 
•hdvra -KKovaiax; eh MXavaiv : 2 Th. 1. 5, iple^p^ rr,^ St*a«x? 
Kpl<rem rov Oeov eh ri Kara^uoOnv^ ifi&<: t^« ^aaiUCa^rov 
Seov, not purely the purpose, but rather ^he object to which 
the SvBevyua tended; "the general direction and tendency ot 
the KpUr^i was that patient and holy sufferers should be ac- 
counted worthy of God's kingdom. Their sufferings estabbBhed 
no claim to the kingdom, but formed the avenue which led to it, 
A. 14. 22; B. 8. 17." (Ellicott.) . , , . , 

Attainment is impUed in 2 0. 4. 4, eh to /*», avyacra, mn-ot? 
Til/ dx^iaabv K.T.X.: 7. 9, iKviHfiTrre eh fierdpoMPi L. Id. 19, 
iyipero eh BipBpop p^a: G. 3. 24, Sore i p6^ wa^Swy^o^ 
f,pJ!>p •y^opev eh Xpwriv, so that the law became our slave- 
tutor, handing us over to Christ. 

Besult, without any expression of intention or aim : K. 1. so, 
eh rh elva^ airoi^s ai/aTroXoT^row : 1 Th. 2. 16, eh to AvoTrXijpo)- 
aa» Thi dp.apTia<: nrdvTore : H. 11. 3. m to p.i, iic ^vop^v rh 
ffKejr6p.€va fyeyovhai: B. 11. 32, <rvviK)uuTe yhp 6 Oeo? tow 
nrdvroi eh irreldeiap: B. 6. 16, Bov^i i<rre ^ inraKovere, Jjro* 
dp^fnlai eh Bdvarop fj {maKafp eh SiKauxrvprjv, either of sin 
resulting in death, or of obedience resulting in righteousness: 
2 0. 8. 6, eh ro irapaKuXiaai ij/ta? Tirov: G. 3. 17, eh to 
Karafy^aai T^v i-iroffyeKuiP : 1 Th; 2. 12, fiaprvpop^oi eh to 
irepiirareip i/ta? a^lon. 

The preposition indicates the purpose of the foregomg ex- 
hortation and appeal : perhaps in no case does it simply indicate 
result; yet there are several passages in which the purpose is 
so far blended with the subject of the prayer, entreaty, &c.. or 
the issues of the action, that we may recognize a secondary and 
weakened force in reference to purpose, analogous to the ecbatic 

use of ha. v v • 

In some passages we have irpo? marking one object, which is 

M 2 



■t.\>t 



PSEFOSIXIOMS —dvd. 



Ae means of acoomph«hing an ulterior object denoted by «V : 

mln« o7»i-^'^ '""'"^*' ""^^'^ *^« ^'"'"^'^e t° Christ is the 
means of being incorporated into Him: R. 4. 26. -^ph, &S«ft„ 

rrj' """'*''?':>f^'' ^^^ '^'- «» ^P70. &a.o.^, eh oUoSof^l 
rov <r(ofiaTov tov Xptarov. 

The foUowing adverbial usages occur in Xenophon • eh 
-Vo.. seasonabbr: eh d^^oylav, abundantly: ef, T^^auv 
to the u most of our power: eh Z.Ka.oaivr,l i>CKl2 J^Zvl 

resDecr^.i/ V ?""'' *"" ""^ "^ "««= "» '^«'^«. ^^ every 
res^^t. e« ;.i. „..«, as to this; Latin, -quod attinet:' Z 

«JL"""?^''*'°" "' '"^^' ^*^ "^^^^ Bignification. .Wo: «V. 

2^ ^««r.W«. «^o„ ^, i^ovpdvu>v, shaU save and bring me to 

3 t""!!^" '"?nf ° ^™™ P°"*^°°- 'r^« P'-^^'^t sovereignty 
and kmgdom of Christ in heaven is impUed in E. 1. 20 • ?7 
and expressed in 1 C. 15. 26. . ^" "*" ' ^' **• •♦ 

«W occurs in the New Testament only in the accusative 
Wfif ™^'^ "fifi-tion «^. «^.„; fi^ed from «W i 
^ax« from ^aro.. The poets use it with other cases, equiva ent 
to wrep with the genitive,^,' with the dative. ^ 

-.rind W ""r*'"' *^T " "^ ^""'*""* '^'^*^*^««^ ^'^^^ 
L^nJ- 1 ; ? """ ""/'"' verticaUy, upward. Kard means 

toX If ^^ ^; ""^r^**- " -"- «"P^««««« ^°"-°^t«l "motion 
to ttie east, Kard would express motion to the west 

Up and down: M. 13. 25, Sa^e^p, fi{ii^,„ «va u^«ro,; toO 

-.ro.: Mk. 7 3.. «.a ;».W ra. 6pi^. J.^-^^Xeo., : 1 sT 

^rottrrrbrir * '^' '*^'"'' -' ''^^^ -^- ^*— 

• 7^!^"°"""^^ n"" ^"^^ * distributive force : M. 20. 9. S^uBov 

Adverbial usages : 1 14. 27. d.a ;.^po,, by turns: E«v. 
xil. 21. aud eU eKatrrot. each one severaUy 

In composition d.ci has the force of uptcards, as clv«;9a/.a. • 
as avapi^m : improvement, as dvuKoivl^. pewaon. 



Sid WITH THE GENITIVE. 



165 



Prepositions which govern a genitive and accusative are Sia, 
Kard, irepl, vtrip. 

Sid denotes separation and disjunction. With the accusative 
it indicates the final cause, the primary, remote invisible end ; 
with the genitive it indicates the medium, the secondary, proxi- 
mate visible means. Sid with the genitive corresponds to per; 
with the accusative to propter, lliis distinction is well pre- 
served in the foUowing passages: Arist. £lth. iv. 13, § 16. aJ 
yiip Swaareiai xal 6 TrXourof Sid t^v rifu^v (propter honorem) 
ioTiv aiperd' oi yow ly(pvre^ avrd ri/ta<T0ai Si ain&v (per ea) 
fiovKovrai : H. 2. 10, Si hv rd irdvra xai Si oi ra trdvra : 1 0. 
11. 9. 12. ovK iicTUT07i dviip Sidrtiv ywaiKa, dWd 71/1/^ Std tov 
avSpa ... 6 dv^p Sid rfjv ywaiKov : H. 6. J, Si o{^ yetopr/eirai, 
for the sake of whom : Si' &v, by the instrumentality of whom. 

This distinction is not invariably maintained, as in answer to 
the question ' whither P' (quo.) Sui has the accusative, and is 
rendered by per, e. g., Sid wovtiop mifui, along the ocean 
wave. Yet here we may render Sid, ' by favour of,' ' by the aid 
of,' ' owing to.' 

Sid WITH THE GENITIVE. 

Sid, 0. gen., has the local sense of passing throtigh, which 
includes that of proceeding from, and passing out : Mk. 1 1. 16. 
oyic i]ifu€» "va rh Sieveyien ffxevoi Sid rov lepov: 1 T. 2. IS. 
tnoO^aerai Sid tQ? reievoyoviai: Rev. 21. 24, irepiirarijaovai rd 
eOvq Sid rov ^rof ainif;, as their element and atmosphere: 
1 G. 3. IS, ainot SI atoBijaerai, ovra^ Sk ci>f Sid irvpo^ : 1 P. 3. 20, 
SieamdTjaav St* vSaroi, 'through and out of:' Cicero de Divin.. 
" Non nasci longe optimum, nee in hos scopulos incidere vitse ; 
proximum autem, si natus sis. tanquam ex incendio efibgere 
fortunse." 

In a temporal sense ; after an interval : M. 26. 61, Sid rpi&v 
fifiep&v'. Mk. 2. 1, Si ffitepuv. G. 2. 1. Sid SeKareaadpav ir&v. 

Duration: 11. 2. is, St^ iravro^ roO ^v: L. 5. s. Si SKr/i rifi 
wicrov Kormd(iavre<{. 

From the ideas of space and time Sid acquires the general 
idea of intervention, and denotes any cause, primary or secon- 
dary, material or instrumental, through the medium of which 
an action passes to its accomplishment : J. 1. 3. irdvra St' avrov 
iyevero : M. 1. 22. to pr)dh> xnrb rov Kvpiov Sid rov irpo^»irov : 
A. 3. 16, 4 TTi'oTtf 1} Si airrov : 1 C. 16. 3, oD« idv 8om/ta<njTe 



166 



Sid WITH THE OKMITIVK. 



ii hrioTok&p: 2 0. 9. 13, Bui i^s SoKifiiyi rffi SiuKovloi ravTi]<i 
Sofafoi/res TOi/ Geov: 2 P. 1. 3, tou KdKeaavTO<! v/'^i Sia So^v 
Kol dpeTTJv, by a display of glory and goodness : G. 2. 16, St/eat- 
ovTM avOpomrtxs . . . Sid nrlarem 'Iijffov Xp., ' faith is not the 
mean by which grace is wrought or conferred, but the mean 
whereby it is accepted or received' (Waterland) : G. 3. is, t^ 
'Afipadfi Si hra/f)fe\ia<i Ke)(dpiaTai o 8e6<s, God freely gave the 
inheritance to Abraham by means of promise. " The enjoyment 
of the inheritance depended on no conditions, came through no 
other medium save that of promise." (Ellicott.) 

So Sid denotes any attending circumstance or quality, par- 
ticularly in a state of transition, literally passing through a 
state, being in the state, way, or manner : 2 0. 3. 1 1, et yap to 
KUTapyov/iepop Sid So^i iroKK^ fiaKKov to fUvov iv So^j), for if 
that which was in a vanishing condition was invested with 
glory, much more that which remaineth abideth in glory. The 
law passes, the prophets pass Sid S6^, but the Gospel remains, 
ever remains ip So^y. 2 0. 5. 7, Sid irlareai wepiiraTovfiep, ov 
Sid elSov<i, by faith, by sight, as the means by which we are 
guided, the way we pass through : comp. Xen. Anab. ii. 5. 2, 
Sid aKOTow Tra? Trora/io? Svatropov, where one has no knowledge 
every river is di£Scult to pass: iii. 2. 4, Sid ■jrioTeat airroii 
eavToiKi epej(eiptaap, committed themselves to them with confi- 
dence : R. 8. 25, et Se h ov fikerrofiep iKiri^ofiep Si vtrop,opr)<i 
wKiKSejfpixeda : H. 12. l , St' inro/iopfjv Tpejftap.ep top TrpoKeifiepop 
SpofMP : R. 16. 32, J*a S\0<o -irpo<! vfiai Sid deKruiaTOt Qeov. 

This usage may be traced to its local sense, and is generally 
found with verbs of motion marking the road or line of action : 
H. 9. 12, Sid 70V ISiov aifiuToi; eiariKBep: R. 2. 27, top Sid f^pap,- 
pMTOi Kal vepiTO/irjii irapafidTt)p, that hast broken through tho 
barrier of the written law, and hast violated the rite of circum- 
cision. 

R. 14. so, xamp tw dpdpanr^ t& Sid TrpoaK6p,pMTO<i iaOiovri, 
it is evil to the man who eats breaking through the con- 
sideration of the scandal. Comp. Caesar, B. O. i. 46, "eos a 
se per fidem in colloquio circumventos," under cover of plighted 
faith, with a breach of faith : 2 C. 6. lO, 'iva Kop,UnyTai iKatrrot 
Td S(d TOW aa>pMTo<i, that each one may receive for himself his 
store, by the instrumentality of the body : 2 C. 10. i, irapaKoKu 
i/ta? Sid Ttjii wpavTtiTO'i Kai eirieiKeiai tou Xpurrov, as the in- 
strument and means by Avhich I would move you. So R. 12. 



Sid WITH THE ACCXJSATIVE. 



167 



• 



, ; 15. 30,, a., .p^ess. the i^tn^^t ^ -^^or^^o. ^f^^ 

tL -P'^^^^';^T!Lri'^^^^^^ were 

as the 'causa medians through wuom "^ ''" ^ ^^ 

declared, by whose blessed "^A^-'^^/^^^irth" impor- 

deUver them. The ^^^^^^XTIToC^^^^^^ ^-^"^ 
tance of the commands. ^ JJ' *• '*^;VJ^ J^ recounted as 
^Inaov. those who through his Tf^? S^ tlvxa),, uapT.5p«v, 
.1 •„„.' 9T 2 2 & r^/cou<ra? Trap ipav bM voKKov p^prtu^i , 

be gone t^-°"g^^^![°;«. J^f '^\ ,a ^ad^p^ra t&. i^xtS. 
circumstances attending it. ^- * ; "'. ' iTL^^o \y^ oppasion 

h „, JverbUl «m»: B. M. », <^ "^ ^ ""'"■ "" 
thing u imdean in Mid of ite own nature. 

5l(i WITH THE ACCTJSATIVB. 

± M hLdToek\vnA.aovfi<rapKa\licTUTOriaav. 

4. 11, ftM* TO i/eA.7,^ ' s.f^eopovSidThp'Iri'fovppaPov. 

t^iZ z t ^;l : 16. ... 8.^ -r fr ^ '-'""' '"' ■■ 



168 



Kurd WITH THE GENITIVE. 



KUra WITH THE ACCUSATIVE. 



169 



Satan takes advantage of the want of self-control to tempt : B. 

4. 36, h<i irapeSoOt) Siei rit irapairrdfjuna '^fi&v Koi ff^epdr) iih, rijv 
hiKaUoaw ^fi&p, for the sake of our offences which rendered his 
death necessary, for the sake of securing our acceptance : B. 13. 

5. ov fMvov BiA TTiv OfTf^v, dXXd Acat Zih rifv awelSTjaiv, not only 
for the sake of wrath to avoid it, hut also for the sake of con- 
science to preserve it, Kadapav 1 T. 3. 9, and avpoaicoirov A. 
24. 16 : J. 6. 67, fu Sih rov iraripa, for the sake of, to carry out 
his intentions and purposes : R. 6. ig, avdpdmtvov Xeya) Sik ttiv 
aaOeveuw t^« aapKov vfuitv, I use a human illustration, as the 
infirmity of your flesh demands such a mode of instruction : H. 

6. 3, Kal St' aMfv o^elXei k.t.X., by reason of this very human 
infirmity he is morally bound : B. 14. 15, el f^hp Sia ^p&fia 6 
aSeX^Mf aov Xweirai, for if owing to meat thy brother is 
distressed in mind: B. 8. ll, ^tooiroiija-ei koI rh Binyrk aafuvra 
vn&v iih TO ivoiKovv avrov itvevfut hi vfilv. 

We may regard as adverbial usages : H. 6. 12, hUi top xpovov, 
by reason of the length of time : Siii rl ; or huvrl ; for what P 
wherefore : comp. Od., Si araadaXiaf hradov, they suffered for 
their follies : hik troKKd, for many reasons. 

In composition £«£ has the meaning of all through, across, as 
Siafiaivot: thoroughly, as SiuKadapl^m: mutually, SiaXKdaam, 
BiaXeyofiai : asunder, SiayvyvdxrKto, Stavifuo. 

KOTO. WITH THE GENITIVE. 

Kara, with the genitive denotes vertical motion or direction, 
doion upon; with the accusative it signifies horizontal motion or 
direction, along. 

Descent from a higher place: M. 8. 32, ap/tijcrev iraaa ^ 
ofyeXtj icarh, rov Kprfuvov: Mk. 14. 3, Korexeev avrov xarit t^s 
Ke^aXrj^. 

Motion or direction upon, through: A. 27. I4, e^aXe Kar 
avriy! avefjux} TVif>a»viK6i : L. 4. 14, 0j;/mj e^X0e Kaff SXijs t^v 
•Kipi-^uipov, hence from the action of raising the hand in attesta- 
tion of the oath : M. 26. 63, i^opKl^a ae Karh, rov Qeov. 

The object to which the action is directed : Jude 1 5, iroirfaai, 
KpuTiv Korii iravrav : J. 18. 29, rlva KaTtjyoplav <f>ipeTe Korci. rov 
avBpunrov toutov ; So we say, "down upon him,' in a hostile 
sense. Mk. 9. 40, &« ovk iart xaff v/i&p, inrep vfi&p iartp : M. 
10. 35, Statural apdpanrop Karh rov irarpoi avrov : A. 25. 27, fiif 
Kol Tav Kar airrov atrial vrjuaPM. 



i 



1 • on A 9 i Karh BaJBov: nrrax^la airrap. 
So we may f P^^^^^^^.; V;J^^^^^ reached downward 
their deep-sunk poverty, their penury wm 

to the depth. 

Kara WITH THE accusative. 
With an accusative Kard denotes the point ^-'^f^^^f'^;^ 
tenl^h. course along whi^ ^^ ^^^ZH^^^^^^' ^^^^ 

From this arises the distributive sense : L. 8. i. Siu>beve 

voXap KaX Karh KmiiTfV. x ..^^.LQolap- Vh. 

Direction towards: A. 8. 26, rropeiov Karh ,ieavfPplap. rn 

3. 14, Karh aKonhp Su!>k<o. . Q T 1 l. a7ro<rroXo5 

Sometimes purpose, object, intention. 2 1. X. i, « 
Z' hraZexZ Km^, to make known the proxmse of Me 
^t' T 1 lT^w1Lxe«Tfi. 0eov, to promote the faith of 
G^d's eU 1 T. 6. 3, rv >car' eiai^e.ap StW«X.'a, the doctnne 
God 8 elect. ^ ^- »' '(^ « quae pietaticonsentanea est. 

•^Zl^Z^ of A. -crd i. derived from to locd 

H. 3. 8, <»tA t^ Vf"' "S ^"P^l^- M- 37- ■>. «"™ 
^"'SVt!;l?:r:t:^t^ressestherela^ 

aMp M Tot«Te : L. 2. 22, Karh rhp pi^op : M. 16. 27, «J0 W« 
ZZr-car^ rvv -P«f- airrov: 25. 16, l«^« -r^ ri^p iBu.p 

''Zle operation of: R. 1. 4. -i ye^,a ^^<r^.: 1 

12 8. &XX^Bi X670. 7v«««^ --t "" "^^ '^"'^ • ' 

icarA Tov &pyopra T»)« ifowffta? tow oepo?. 

Helifl used'of any general -f--« » f J^ = "J". 
11 21 Kar inuiav X^«, I speak on the subject of disgrace. 
Ph. 2.' Tfjll^car' TpieLv, nothing by way of fa^housness : 



170 



FtlBPOSITIONS — Tre/Jt. 



B. 11. 28, Karh, fiiv rh eiarffiXuv ^dpol St vftS.'i, viewed with 
reference to the Gospel. 

We may notice too some adverbial and adjectival uses. 

Adverbial: L. 10. 31, Kara avyKvpiav: M. I. 19, '/car' ovap: 
J. 10. 3, Kar Svofia : A. 18. 14, Kara Xoyov : G. 2. 2, Kara airo- 
KuXv^iv, in accordance with revelation, not for my own 
purposes : xar iZiav, privately. 

Adjectival : 2 C. 7. lo, " -q Kark Qeov X&irt), dolor animi Deum 
Bpectantis et aequentia : dolor ob cidpam : ^ Karct Koaftop Xtrmj, 
dolor animi mundum spectantia et sequentis; dolor amissi; 
dolor ob pcenam:" R. 11. 31, t&v Kara <f>vaiv KKaSav: 0. 3. 22, 
Tot$ Karh adpKa KupioK : A. 17. 28, Ti,ve<: r&v xaff vfi&s iroirjT&v : 
18. 16, vofjtov Tov leas' vfta<{: E. 1. 15, t^v leaS' vfia<i irUrrw. 

In composition Kurd denotes reference, frequently of an un- 
favourable kind : KaTeiirelv ri rivoi, to say any thing of another, 
to make him the subject of some assertion or statement : Kara- 
fiwiuTKew tI Tivoi, to think or impute in our judgment any 
thing to another. So KaTa<f>poveiv, KaraBiKci^ew, KaTay^tf>i^ew, 
KaraKpiveui. Opposed to these are verbs compounded with airo, 
which deny and in a manner remove the thing spoken of from 
the subject, and make a separation between them. So anropr 
vwai, aTTciKoyeiv, airoSiKd^ew, diroKpiveadai. From usage, how- 
ever, Ka-niyopeiv, and other similar verbs, are generally taken in 
a bad sense : Kanjyopelp, to accuse ; xaraSt/ca^eu/, to condemn ; 
Kara^povelv, ' to think down upon,' to despise. (Arnold, Thucyd. 
i. 95.) 

irepL has nearly the same meaning as d/x^t, which does not 
occur in the New Testament, trepi means around, * circum,' a 
completed circle, d/t^t means about, ' utrinque,' an imperfect 
circle. 

The object about which the action is executed : M. 2. 8, aKpi- 
0&V i^erda-aTe irepX rov waiSlou : 20. 24, rjyavaKTtiaav irepl t&v 
8vo aSe\<f>&v: L. 19. 37, aiveiv rov Gebv vepl iracr&v &v elSov 
Swdfteav : E. 6. 22, rd vepi fipMV (irpdr/fjtara), the circumstances 
which surround one : 1 J. 2. 2, i\aap>6<: e<m irepl r&v a/uipri&v 
^fi&v, propitiation on account of our sins : Xen. Anab. i. 2. 8, 
viKriaa<i epi^ovra oi irepl <ro<f)ia<i. 

irepi marks the object round about which the action of the 
verb takes place. In the use of irepi with a genitive the 
derivative meanings, 'as concerns,' "as regards,' greatly pre- 
dominate ; the primary idea however still remains : irepi with a 



^{nrep wrrH the genitive. 



171 



genitive serves to mark an object which is the -ntral ^^nt^rf 
^- •*„. 1 f! 19 1 ireolr&v irveviiariKav ov tfi\a» w/**? «7^"^ 
tteJv^'plt^ Sa formed The centre of the d^p. the 
fm;ther iTea^ any aetion or motion round it is supplied by 
;;r^;h the acLative: 1 T. 6. 4. voa&v irep. ?,t,««. 

^^!i;frepresents the notion of visible inferiority, one rising 
above the rest from a visible circle of objects, 'pne ceteris . //. 
i 287 dXX' 58' dvi,p mxei. irepl iravrwv efip^vai oWubv. 

Ji With the accusative signifies motion or extension around 
L.T3 8 I.., Stou a.df<o irepl airr^v:^^. 9. 42, X.|o, ,*vW 
l^epl rh, rpdyriKov airrov: 3. 8, o.' irepl Tipov Kal ^S<.va: A. 
28. 7, A/ 8^ TOW irepl TOTTow ewetwi/. _x j t in ^n 

The object about which an action is exerted: L. 10. 40, 
irepteairaro itepl iroKKnv S.aKoviav: A. 19. 25, rov, -/>-«-"- 
iJidra,: 1 T. 1. 19, irepl rifv irl^^" evavarmcav : 2 T. 2. 18 
oW irepl rhv d^e^^av i,ar(^<rav, such as concemmg the 
truth missed their aim: comp. Su^rpl^etv irept rrp, ^^erop^puxv, 

arrovSdtew irepl ri. -.«■ on « _««l 

With vague indications of time and number: M. 20. 3, jep., 
ri,v rpirriv &pav: A. 22. 6, irepl ,^<n,^fipiav. irepl rpuxxO^ov^ 
three thousand, moreor less. 

xnrep with the genitive. 
inrh with the genitive signifies ' super,' above, over an object, 
in a relative rather than absolute sense; with the accusative 
the meaning is ' ultra.' with motion implied beyond an object. ^ 
' In the pkce of:' Plato, Qorg. 515 c, h,,o virep aov airoKpivov- 
uat: Philem. 13, Iva inrlp aov pot i^vf,: J. 11. so, <7UAt«^6p« 
buZv 'iva eh &vdpwiro<: diroddvr, inrkp tow Xuov Kat p.r, o\ov to 
e-^m diriXvrat: 18. 14, avp^ipet tva &vdp<^ova^o\ea0ai, virep 
rov -Kaov: R. 5. 6, Xp«rri? irrrkp dae^&vairedave: 1 T. 2. 6, 
8oi5 iavrhv dvriXxnpov inrep irdvn^v. Comp Eur. ^ ^fc., p.^ 
dv^ay inrkp roiiS dvlpit. " Tenendum est airodaveiv virep rtvoi 
non tontum in N. T., sed et apud scriptores profanes sigmficare 
mori loco alterius." (Valckner.) This comes from the notion 
of standing over to protect, as a bird wUl receive a blow in- 
tended for her young ones, or as a shield receives a blow in 
place of the person who raises it in defence. ^ 

In these passages inrip may mean 'in commodum alicujus, or 



I 



172 



inrip WITH THE ACCUSATIVE, 



' in loco alicujuB.' In doctrinal passages inrep admits the second 
meaning united with the first, where the context and nature of 
the argument seem to require it. Where the second is exclu- 
sively meant the preposition would be ami (vice alicujus). 

In behalf of: M. 5. 44, Trpoaevy^eaffe inrip r&v hntpea^ovriou 
vftai: A. 26. l, eirirpeireral aoi inrip aeavrov Xeyeiv. Compare 
//. i. 444, eKaTOfifijjv pi^ai inrep Aavamv: Xen., inrip t^$ 
iroXeo>9 Bveiv. 

For the purpose of; to carry out, to accomplish : Ph. 2. 13, 
inrlp rrfi evhoKioi : 2 0. 12. 19, t^ Si irdvra, aryaiTTiToi, inrip t^c 
vfiav o(Ko8o/t^« : J. 11. 4, imip Sofij? : R. 15. 8, inrip oKijOelai 
Oeov. 

Concerning, as to taU^ over a matter: Hdt., rh Xeyofieva 
inrep Tti/09: Virg., "Multa super Priamo rogitans:" R. 9. 27, 
'Hffata<i Kpd^ei, inrip rov ^laparjKl 2 Th. 2. I, iparufiev i/pM^ 
inrip t^$ irapovata^ rov Kvpiov ^fi&v: 2 0. 1. 8, ov 6eKop.ev 
w/*as arfvoelv inrip t^s ffKl-ip-eai ^pMv: 12. 8, inrip tovtov rph 
rov Kvpiov irapeKoXeaa. 

In these instances inrip has the sense of irepl, with which it 
is connected, inrep designates the apex of the compass, whereas 
irepi denotes the circle described, inrip expresses more feeling 
than irepi, as it applies to an advocate ple*ading in the place of 
a client ; maintaining a cause which has been misrepresented 
by others. Xpiaroi airidave inrip daefi&v, in their stead, but 
irepl apapri&v, which rendered it necessary that He should die. 
Thus inrip is used with the person, ' sinners,' but irepi with the 
thing, 'sins:' 1 P. 3. 18, Xpurro<t &ira^ irepl &p<ipri&v eiraOe, 
SiKaun inrip oZIkwv. Perhaps the only exception is H. 6. 3, for 
we must not overlook the presence of ■fifiav in 1 0. 16. 3. In 
2 Th. 2. 1 virip may mark the duty and interest of believers in 
furthering the irapovaCa. So virip 1 T. 2. 1, 2. 

inrip WITH THE ACCOSATIVE. 

With the accusative, inrep denotes ' beyond,' excess in honour, 
measure, number, time : M. 10. 24, ovic eari pM0i]r^<i inrip rov 
SiSdaKoXov : Ph. 2. 9, ej(aplaaro ain^ Svofia to inrip irav 8po/xa : 
Philem. 16, ovxiri a>? SoCKov, oXX' inrip SovXov : 2 C. 12. 13, rl 
ffdp iariv h ryrrridrire inrip rii^ Xo(7r^9 iiCKKria-lwi ; Xen. Anab. 
L 1. 9, iiro'Kip.ei, rot? Qpq^l rots inrip 'EXKijairovrov olxovai. 



iiri WITH THE GENITIVE. 



173 



From the idea of excess comes the notion of 'contrary to:' 
inrtpTrXeoi/oSo). 

PKEPOSmONS OO-EKKIKO GENITIVE. DA,^. ACCUSATIVE. 
hri WITH THE GENITIVE. 

Mk. Id. 9. "".".^ . 24 19. oln JS«. hr\ <tm ir,timmi. 



I 

■ 



174 



iirl WITH tHB DATIVE. 



under which, an event takes place : R. 1. o, iravrore iirl t&v 
irpoaevx&v /xov Seoftevot : E. 1. 16, five{av vfi&v iroiovftevot iirl 
tS>v irpoaevx&v fu>v: A. 10. 34, ^-n-* oK-qdela^ KaraXaftfidvo- 

(UU. 

M WITH THE' DATIVE. 

With a dative hrl implies actual superposition, rest upon, 
close to : Mk. 6. 39. dvuKiupat irdvrm iirl r<a ■)(Kiop^ X°P''^V '• 
M. 14. 8, So9 fioi &Be hrX irlvaiu riiv Kc^aX^v 'ladwov : 24. 33, 
irffu^ iariv hrX dvpcw : J. 8. 7, 6 dvaftdfyrtjTO^ Vfi&v wpSno<i rbv 
\!Bov hr ain^ ^aXhw : Xen. Anab. vii. 3. 17, (of Sk iju ijXioi 

Accession or addition : M. 25. 30, &KKa rdXavra sKip&ijaa iir 
avroK : L. 3. 20 ; 16. 26, iirl iraai tovtok. 

Subsequence or successions A. 11. 19, ffKiyp^ui t^9 lyevofiiptyi 
Ari ST€«J>dva> : Ph. 2. 27, 7va fi)/ Xvtttiv iirl Xvirji «rx&. 

Co-existeince in time : H. 9. 26, hrl avineKeia t&v alatvam : 
2 G. 3. 14, hrl T^ dvaryimaet -riji 7rfi\aia<{ huid-qicifi : H. 9. 15, 
hrX T$ "jrpdnji SuiB'qtcp : Xen. Anab. vi. 1. 7, iirl rovr^ op&p 6 
Mvabi imrKTjTTOftepovi avT0V9> 

Basis, foundation: M. 4. «, ovk hr aprtp /i6v^ ^ijaerat 
ayOpanroii : R, 16. 12, iir' avr^ edvrj SKiriovaw : Mk. 10. 24, 
ireTToi^ora? eirl tow j(pr)iuunv: A. 4. 18, StSda-xeiv ivi r^ 
oi/6/uiTi 'Iija-ov : L. 5. 6, iirl r^ pij/iarl trov j(a\d<rco to Slietvov : 
1 T. 1. 16, ■jriarevew iir avr^ : L. 24. 26 : R. 9. 33 ; 10. 1 1 : 
1 P. 2. 6. Christ is represented as the basis, foundation, on 
which faith rests. With the primary meaning of ivi with the 
dative, ' absolute superposition,' is connected the accessory 
notion of 'dependence on:' Xen. Anab. i. 4, fiovKevetai owav 
/jLrfiroTe Irt larai iirl t^ dSe\<Pp, Gyrus devises measures by 
which he shall no longer be dependent on his brother. 

The ethical basis; occasion or cause. of an action or emotion : 
M. 18. 13, p^a//}£( iir ain^ (cf. 1 Th. 3. 9) : L. 1. 47, iqyaWlaae 
TO mievfid ftov iirl .t^ Se^ t& aanijpi fiov : Mk. 3. 5, avKKvirou- 
fievov ini Ty irtapuurei Try; KopBiaf. 2 G. '12. 21, fi^ fieravorj- 
advrav iirl Ttj aKodapvla: R. 6. 21, i(l> oh vvp ivai<r}(6pea0e : 
Xen. Anab. ii. 6. I3, drfdWerat iirl Geoaefieia Kal dXijdeia kuI 
BiKaiOT»]Ti, : vi. 6. 19, i&vero iirl rg iropeia. 

Both these iises are found in 1 Th. 3. 7, irapexKijOrjfiev 
dSeX^ol e^' vfiip iirl irdtrg tji dvar/icri koX 0\ly^t •fjp&p, where 
the first iirl marks the objects which were the substratum of 



iTrl WITH th6 dativb. 



175 



\ 






the Apostle's oo'^"^', P^^^J". ***J^;elunuperstructa est:' 
^«p««C« rested: ' l^^^'^^'^^ ZlT^Or^^' il^- The 
as in 2 0. 7. 7, h. rv irapaKKv<re^i I'^^lVal force noticing 
second iirl marks the ««^rr ' ^ Inril ixnmediate contact 

that with which ^^^^'^%X\t^^Tpurae6op.. ^ X-P? 
and connexion: as m 2 U. '• «. " i' '' 

^,rl ird<ni rv ^^f" ^'*"''' _«„„ motive ; accompanying con- 

r «?^r«r. ^d=r» .^rve », t^>^ «■-'. 

to do him good: vu. 0. 3. «J'«' . i^auai for the purpose 
hospitaHty: u. 4. 3 ^ IrM^^^aH^rtX "-^-^^^ 
of war: Thucyd. 1. 103, f'^'^P^f^'' / . e„,i„rating: 113, 

airovS^i iroL-nTapsvoi €<}, ^ "'^ ""^^^ „ff their men : Demosth. 
on the condition that they shaU «*2w«t« 7^^/-"* ^^ -S 

ever, they made their P-^^l^i M X-'-^'^!^'-- " ''^'»' 

-Zt^tZ incudes - W. to^th^ ;^^^^^^^ 
and object of an action: ^ T- ?.J;^^^^ ^^^^^^^end about 
Xp^«;«,., ^l '^'^^'^Z'^S^i^rZA^g in the subversion of 

„U,. ' what wa« the next best thing to be done. 



A/e 



hrl WITH TUB ACCUSATIVE. 



hrl WITH THB ACCUSATIVE. 



With acousatives ivl signifies motion, with a view to super- 
position: M. 9. 18, eK0a>v eiridei t^i; ^e(/)a aov eir airijv: 4. 6, 
taTr](Tiv avTOP hrl irrepvyiov tou Upov : J. 8. 59, ^pav oip \i0ov9 
Xva ^dXcoaiv hr' avrov : A. 10. 9, ave^i) em to B&fia. 

Any extended motion : M. 27. 45, o-acoto? e^ivero iiri ircurav 
TTjv ofyv : 18. J 2, •iropev0eL<! itrX rh Bpt) : 13. 2, 6 5j^\os ^i top 
airftoKop eto-r^/cet, had gone to the shore and stationed them- 
selves there : 19. 28, Kadlaeade v/tetv eirl ScoSexa dpopovi, along 
upon the circle of thrones : 23. 36, Svui} S\9jj e<f> vftav ir&p atfia 
SiKawp : L. 21. 35, (U9 ira7l« eireXewrerai hrl irdina': : M. 14. 19, 
apaic\i0fjpM eirl tov9 ^^ojotow. 

Motion from heaven to earth : Mk. 1. lo, t^ Ilpevfjui dtt irepur- 
Tephp KUTafiaipop hr' avrop: A. 11. I5, hrhreae to Ilpevfui to 
wytop hr' avTovt: 2 0. 12. 9, tpa iirurmjptoari eir e/ii ■^ Svpafin 
Tov Xpurrov : Q. 6. 16, eiprprq hr ainoixi koX eKeo^. 

The centre of attraction : Mk. 5. 21, avpt'/xOv Sx\oi iroXi/^ 
eir ainov : 2 Th. 2. I, '^/i&p hriavpcvyoy^i} hr airrop. iiri marks 
the point to which the avpo^atyij was directed, and loses its idea 
of superposition in that of approximation or juxtaposition. The 
difference between hrl and tt/oo? in this combination is, that 
while irpoi points more to the direction to be taken, iiri marks 
more the point to be reached. (Ellicott, 2 Th. 2. i.) 

Temporal sense : L. 4. 25, iicKeiadif o ovpapoi iiri err) Tpia : 
10. 35, €7ri TTjP avpiop, 'bis Morgen:' A. 3. l, iiri t^i» &pap t^s 
irpo<Tev)(ii<{ Trjp ippaTqp, ' bis neun Uhr,* 

The direction, bent of the mind or feeling : H. 6. l, iriaTCwi 
iiri Qeop: M. 27. 43, irhroidep iiri Oeop; 1 P. 1. 13, reXe^)? 
ikirlaarre inrl Tt)p <ftepoftept]p vfup x^P*" '• M!. 25. 21, iirl oKfya ^( 
iriaTOi, iiri iroXK&p ae KaTaar^trea : L. 9. 6, top KOPiopTOP airo- 
Tipd^aTe et's /naprvpiop hr airrovt: 2 Th. 1. 10, iiriaTevOr) to 
fiapTvptop i<f> vfiat, a testimony directed to you, involving some 
idea of ' nearness or approximation : ' M. 10. 2i, iirapaanjaoprai 
T^Kpa inrl fopsK : 2 Th. 2. 4, virepaipo/jiepoi iiri irdvTa Xeyofiepop 
Qeop: LXX, Dan. 11. 36, ir^iod^aerai koI fieyakvpffi^a-eTai iiri 
irdvra Seop. hrl with its general local meaning involves the 
more specific and ethical one of opposition. 

The difference between eU and iiri may be marked in H. 3. 
22, hKau»avpr) Sk Oeov Stit, iriaTeuxi 'Ir)<ToO XpiaToi eli irdpTWi 
Koi hrl irdpTat Toixi iriarevopTat, God's plan of justifying 



PREPOSITIONS — ftera. 



177 



^t 



through faith in Christ Jesus extending to and resting upon; 
reaching to and efficacious for aU who beheve. 

hrl in composition expresses rest; as irriiMep<^, £^/-c«/*at. 
direction, hr^x^a,: motion towards, i^x^cpio,: »^«r««' ««"!- 
pleteness, iirvycp^aKu,, hriypa>a„: addition, imKoKet.: repeti- 

""""uZlZxin^o^, M marks the imaginary point of applica- 
tion, that on which the feeling is based; used with persons Mk 
8 3 ; L. 9. 26. and with things R. 1. .6 ; 1 T. 1 ^6- --«f ;' 
iKirivp are followed by ip, ek, iiri, but generally with a differ- 
once of meaning, a. the exercise of faith -.--<--? ^^^.^^/^'j 
different aspects. ir^^ie.P eV, E. 10 9. ^vo Wes "a^«f 
being in Christ as the substratum of spiritual life, ir^aTeve^u 
efe M 18. 6 ; J. 3. .5 ; A. 22. I9 ; Ph. 1. 29. implies union of a 
fxSler and more mystical nature, with probably some accessory 
ideas of mental direction towards the object of faith ; irc<rTeve.P 
evTwith the dative. R. 10. u ; 1 T. 1. 16. involves repose, 
reliance on; ^.a«.5«. iiri, with the accusative, J. 14. ,. denotes 
mental direction with a view to that reliance. So ^'"f"" f" 
marks the basis or foundation of hope. 1 C. 15 19 ; e\m^^p e« 
the direction of the hope with the further idea of union and 
communion with the object of hope. J. 5 45; 2 O. 1. lo; 1 r. 
3 5. e\irl^e,p iiri, with the dative, marks the foundation on 
which the hope rests, 1 T. 6. 17 ; R. 15. 12. ^^TtCe.,; eirl, with 
the accusative, the mental direction. 1 T. 5. »• 

Merd. in common Greek, is joined only with the gen. and 
accus. In poetry it is found with the dative. 

oeTd denotes companionship, or pursuit with a view to com- 
panionship, and thus differs from avp, which expresses conjunc- 
tion, union, coherence. Thus E. 6. 23, dyairv l^a ir^ea>^, 
love in company with faith, implying their coexistence, artam, 
aiw TTtWt would denote their coherence, or confusion; the one 
quality being identified with the other, which would have no 
meaning; yet we have, E. 4. 3i, mKpia ...aw Kanla, as bitter- 
ness is identical with some badness of disposition, and m 1 C. 
10 13, aip T& iretpaa,.^ Kal Ti,P 'eK^aa^P, as the one is insepa- 
rably united 'with the other: 1 Thess. 3. 13, ,.eTairapTcoPTu>p 
^dp airrov, the saints are represented as attending our Lord 
ot^IIis coming and sweUing the majesty of His train : aup to., 
dyloK would describe them as united with Him. Hence auv is 
used C. 3. 3, V r«^ vii&v KUpimrai aiv t« XpuxTa ep T<p Wey. 



178 



FRGFOSITIOMS — fiera. 



Amid, among : M. 26. S8, iKadifro fierh t&v {nrqperiov : Eev. 
21. 3, ^ <rK7)vi) rov Seov fierh tS>v avBpanrav Koi aK7}va>aei fier' 
avT&v : Mk. 1. 13, ^i> fteret t&v 6i)platv. The original significa- 
tion of ixerd is connected with iiiaoi, ' medius,' with the German 
• mit,' • Mittel,' and the English * mid,' ' middle.' 

In company with: J. 11. 31, oi SvTe<; fier avr^t iv Ty oixit}'. 
M. 9. 15, i<^ baov fier ain&v iariv o vvfi^itxi'. Bev. 14. 13, rk 
Zl ipya avTuv aKoTMvdeZ fier aiir&Pi 2 Th. 1. 7, aveaiv fieff 
■^fi&v . . . air ovpavou fter ay^iXttv Bvvd/ieav airov. 

fierd refers especially to the mental feeling and disposition 
with which an action is performed : L. 1. 39i /^er^ airov^i : 2 
0. 7. 16, &if fierii <f>6ffov xai rpo/iou iBi^aaOe ainov : Mk. 3. 5, 
trepiffX^dfUiHK aurovf /itr 6pyfj<{. Hence it is expressive of 
sympathy, of one's side or party : M. 12. 30, 6 fiij &v /ler iftov 
KUT ifu>v iarl: L. 9. 49, ovk aKoKovBei fieff ^fi&v. 

Occasionally with the idea of aid or blessing: J. 8. 29, o 
wifiyfraii fie fier i/iov earl: H. 13. 25, fj X'^P'^ f'^^ irdvrav 
v/i&v : A. 2. 28, irXijpwaeii fie eiMl>potTviir]v fierd rov irpoauyirov 



aov. 



Mutual action, interest, feeling : M. 12. 30, fit) awarftav fier 
ifiov: 18. 23, ifdiXifae awapai \6yov fierh rStv iovXav ainov'. 
22. 16, unoareXKoww avr^ tow fiadrirhi avr&v fierd r&v 'Hfief 
Biav&v: L. 10. 37, o irotjjo-os eXeoi fier airov, marking the 
mutual action of giver and receiver : 2 J. 2, Bih, rtjv dX^deiav 
rrjv fiivovaav iv ruiiv Koi fieff iifi&v lorat eli al&va, the subjec- 
tive doctrinal truth is expressed by iv. The personal truth 
Christ Himself who aids us, as sharing our nature, is expressed 
by fierd. 

After words implying accord, discord : L. 23. 1 2, eyivovro 
tf>i\oi fier dWijXuv: R. 12. 18, fierh wdvratv dvdpdnrav etptj- 
vevovre^: 1 J. 4. 17, rereXeltorai ^ dfydwrj fieff rjfi&v: Rev. 2. 
16; voXefiTfata fier avr&v. 

Participation: 2 C. 6. 16, 16, rlt fiepU iria-rw fierct, diriarov ; 
J. 13. 8, ovK «x«« fiipov fier ifiov: L. 22. 37, fieri, dvofiatv 
eXo^ladtj : 1. 72, iroiijaai eXeo<i fierd r&v iraripav : Mk. 6. 60, 
eiOiatfi eXaXfjaev fier avr&v. 

The concomitant of an action, marking the circumstance or 
condition with which another event is attended : M. 14. 7, fied' 
opKov a>fioX6yr)aev airr^: 2 Th. 3. 12, fierd ^(ri/^/a; epya^ofievoi : 
1 T. 1. 14, virepeirXeovaaev ij ^apts rov Kvpiov ^/i&v fierd rria- 
Tca>9 Ka\ arfdirr)'} i^f iv Xptar^ 'Itjaov : Mk. 9. 24, /cat eiiOeas 



PKEFOsmoNS — irapa. 



179 



Kpd^a<t irarrip rov iraiSiov fierd BaKpvov eXeye: E. 6. 23, 
elp^vTf Tot? aSeX^ot? xal dydTnj fierd rrUrrem, as if enhanced by 
faith. 

fierd with the accusative implies succession in time : M. 17. i, 
fieff ftfiepat l^: J. 13. 7, fierd ravra: M. 26. 32, fierd ro eyep- 
dffval fie : in place, H. 9. 3, fierd ro Sevrepov Karaireraufia, i. e. 
behind. 

In composition fierd expresses community, participation, 
fieraBlStofii, fierexo> '• sequence or succession in time, furavoiio, 
fierafiiXofuu : backwards, reversion, fierddeaK : change of place 
or condition, fieraffaivto, fiera^dXXa. Thucyd. fierd x"/"*? 
^eiv, to have in hand. 

The uniform meaning oirrapd is, 'by the side of:* rrapd aov, 
from, by thy side ; rrapd o-ol, at, by thy side : irapd ae, to, by 
thy side. 

rrapd with THE genitive. 

Genitive of person after verbs of motion, coming, sending : 
J. 1. 6, avOptoiroi direaraXfievoi irapd Oeov : Mk. 14. 43, nrapa- 
ylverat 'lovSa^ , . . irapd r&v apxt^P^^v : J. 7. 29, irap' avrov 
elfii, KaKelvot fie d'weareiXev. 

The source whence any thing proceeds: L. 6. 19, Svvafxi<i 
trap' avrov e^XBev : M. 21, 42, irapd Kvpiov eyevero avnj : 
L. 2. 1, e^XOe Soy/ia irapd Kaioapoi: Phil. 4. 18, Se^dfievos 
irap' 'Eira<f>poSirov rd rrap vfi&v: M. 2. 4, eirwddvero rrap 
avr&v: A. 26. I2, fier e^ovaia^ xal eirirpoirifi t^? irapd r&v 
dpxiepeav. 

Sometimes it appears to be used for the agent; but irapd 
marks the instigators : A. 22. 30, to ri Karijyopetrai irapd r&v 
'lovSaltov. Here viro could not have been used, as the Jews had 
laid no formal charge. " If the action proceeds from a person, 
irapd or viro is employed, irapd indicates merely in general 
terms the source of motion ; viro indicates the special efficient 
and producing cause." Winer, § 47. 

Hence it is used as a periphrasis for the genitive of possession 
or relation: Mk. 3. 2l, ol irap' avrov, his kindred: 5. 26, rd 
irap' eavrrj^ irdvra, all her property : i. q., L. 8. 43, SKov rov 

^iov. 

irapd denotes emonation from a personal source ; diro, emana> 
tion simply: dir ou/javoO, predication of place: Mk. 8. ii, 
^■qrovvret irap' ainov <rq(ieu>v airb toO ovpavov. 

N 2 



180 irapd with the dative and accusative. 



vapa WITH the dative. 

Dative of person or place, expreseing rest, position: J. 
19. 25, etar^Keiaav iraph to. crravp^: A. 9. 43, fteivai irapd 
T(K( Xlfitovi, * 

Proximity: M. 22. 25, ^av irap ^fjiiv hrrii dBe\<j>ol: 1 C. 
16. 2, riOera nap' iavr^, at home. 

In tlie power of: L. 1. 37, oiic dSwar^aei nraph ra ©ew irav 
lifj/JM ' M. 19. 26, irapil dvdptovoi<t tovto dZvvarov eari, iraph, hi 
Qe^ irdvra hvpord Icni. 

In the judgment of : IP. 2. 4, irapii Be^ iKke/crov ivrifiov : 
1 0. 3. 19, ij ao^la Tov Koa/Mv rovrov fuopla iraph rm Bern e<rrt : 
A. 26. 8, airtarrov Kplvertu Trap' vpZv el Beix; vexpoiKi eyelpei. 

In the court of heaven : TL. 2. 13, SUaioi vapa r^ Be^ : 
R. 2. 11, ou yap iari vpoaioiroXtp^ia irapk r^ 0ep: 2 P. 2. 11, 
oi <f>epov<rt Kar avr&v irapit Kvpl^ l3\d<r<fyii/Aov Kplaiv. 

In fellowship with God : 1 0. 7. 24, SKaaTo<; iv «S eKk^Ori ev 
rovTti fievera irapa t£ Beai. 

The following may be classed under the head of rest, posi- 
tion; ^iV/ up ioith; in store with: M. 6. 1, ftiadov ovk exere 
irapii to) irarpX vfiStv : _L. 1. 30, €vpe<{ "ydpiv iraph, to) Bew. 

Accusative. Motion to a place; alongside: M. 15. 29, «al 
/i6Ta/3^f . . . fjKOe irapa Ttfv 0d\aaaai> : 30, xal ippf<^av avrovt 
irapa tow? iroia^ to3 'Irjaov : Mk. 4. 1 5, ol irapa t^i/ oBov. 

With verbs of rest where previous motion is implied: M. 
13. 1, kicdBifTO irapa rriv Bd'Kairaav'. L. 7. 38, araaa iraph, Toifi 
iroSai aiiTOv oiriaoi. 



irapa with the accusative. 

Of the ground or reason, along with which a conclusion 
follows : 1 0. 12. IS, ov irapil tovto ovk itrrw Ik tov ad/iaTO^, 
not for this reason is it no part of the body. 

Hence it has the force of ' beside ' in English, which means, 
'by the side.' Compare 'beside the question,' 'inconsistent 
with,' 'different from,' 'beyond,' 'except :' G. 1. 8, iau 0776X0? 
ef ovpavov €vafyye\.i^r}Tai vfui> irap' b evriyye7uadfi,e0a : 1 C. 
3. II, OefieKiov aXKop ouSel? Bvparat ffeivai iraph TOf Kei/ievov: 
A. 18. 13, irapd TOV vofiov ovTOi dvaireldei, tow? dvOpdnrov; 
ai^eadat tov Beov : R. 1. 25, eKdTpevaav Tfi icriaei irapd tov 
lerrbravra, to the neglect of the Creator. Compare R. 1. 26, 



PBEPOSITIONS— wo. 



181 



I 



nraph ^vaiv: 4. 18, irap' iKiriBa, 'praeter naturam,' 'prseter 
spem.' 

Beside, less than: 2 C. 11. 24, Teaaapd/covra irapd /liav: 
more than, beyond a line real or imaginary : L. 13. 2, dfiap- 
TtoXol irapd irdvra^. This has been referred to the use of the 
Hebrew particle ^0, but compare irapd irdvra^ 'A-x,aiovi /leyaii : 
Xen. Anah. vi. 6. 8, evioi fiev avr&v irap' oXlyov iiroiovvTo tov 
KXiavSpov: L. 3. 13, fir]Siv irXkov irapd to BtareTor/fiivov vpZv 
irpdaaere : R. 12. 3, irap h Set ^poveiv. 

So 'prseter,' 'passing beyond,' is nearly synonymous with 
' propter,* ' praster opinionem.' 

In composition irapd has the meaning of ' alongside,' ' by the 
side of,' irapafioX^, irapaOaKdaouv;, irapuTTtjfu : ' to the side of,' 
'to one's hand,' 7ra/)aS(Sci>/it, irape^io, irapaKaXiio: 'to one side of,' 
'past,' irapepxp/iat, irapairXeo) : 'beyond,' 'amiss,' 'wrongly,' 
irapaKovu), irapa^aiva : ' with bad intent,' irapaTTipito, iraporpvva. 
Compare the German 'ver-,* in ' verschworen,' 'forswear.' 
irapaiTovfiah decline, have nothing to do with : Thucyd. i. 132, 
irapairotTjardfievoi a^parfiha, having counterfeited the seal. 

inro, from which virep is formed, is used in the New Testa- 
ment with genitive and accusative. The significations are, with 
the' genitive, motion from beneath; with the dative, position 
below; with the accusative, motion or extension underneath. 

inro is used with verbs neuter and passive to mark th§ 
efficient or instrumental cause, and denotes the subject or 
agent from under whose hand, power, agency, causation, the 
action of the verb generally proceeds. 

The local signification may be traced in 2 P. 1. 17, ^i;^? 
ive-xOelaTfis inro t^? fJieya\orrpe7rov<i Sofi;?. 

The agent: M. 1. 22, to fnjdev inro toO Kvplov: 2. 16, 
iveiralj^Bi) Inrb t&v pdr/tav: L. 14. 8, OTav KKr)6^^ inro Ttvo? et? 
ydfiovi : 21. 20, KVK\ovp,evriv inro aTpaTOireSwv t^v ' lepovaaXijfi. 

The cause: L. 8. U, inrb fiepifai&v . . . iropevofievoi avfiirvC- 
yovrai : 7. 24, KoKafiov i/jrb dvifiov traXevofievov : 2 P. 2. 17, 
ve^eXai inro XatKairoii iKavvofievai. 

Though inro is generally used with verbs of the passive 
voice, it is joined also to neuter verbs having a passive force, 
and to transitive verbs where a passive sense is implied: L. 
9. 7, rd yivofuva inr avrov: A. 23. 30, /M)i>vde(<n}? iirifiovXrjv 
/leXKeiv ea-eadai inrb t&v 'lovSaitov ; M. 17. 12, /liWei irdayeiv 



182 



FBEP0SITI0N8 — TT/JO?. 



Trpos WITH THE AOdUSATIVE. 



183 



vir' aiiT&v: 2 0. 11. 24, vvo ^lovBalcov ireinaKii TeaaapaKoina 
iraph fiiav iXafiov. 

inro with the accusative of place, whither, or extension tinder- 
neath: M. 8. 8, inro Tr)v aTtrpjv elaipj(ea0M : Mk. 4. 32, inrb 
Tr)p aKuiv avTov rd irereiPcL Karaaiajvovv : Ja. 2. 3, xadov (SSe 
vn-o TO inroiroSiov fiov. 

Of moral subjection: 1 T. 6. i, inrb ^vyhv SovKoi: B. 16. 20,' 
avvrpiy^ei tok Saravav inrb rov^ iriSa^ vfi&v iv rd^ei : 7. 14, 
ireTrpap,ev(K xnrh rriv afiapriav: 6. 14, ov yap iore virb v6p,op, 
aX\* {nro %apH> : 3. 9, irdtnat v^ afiaprlav elvai : M. 8. 9, koX 
yhp i<ya> avOpiarroi elfu inrb i^ovaiav, i^av inr e/iavrbv arpo: 
Tuuraf. 

Of time, Latin, 'sub:' A. 5. 21, inrb tov SpOpov. 

In composition iiro has the force of 'under,' inrripirn^, 
inr^Kooii : ' underhanded,' ' secretly,' inrofidWa, inroZeUvvm : 
* under one's roof,' inroSi)(pfi,at, inrovoia, ' surmise,' 1 T. 6. 4 : 
Demosth. xnrovouu irXjaxrraX Koi •irpo<f>d<Teiii S£i,koi. 

IIp6<i has a signification of motion onwards. The full form 
is irpoTi, a lengthened form of trapd, denoting adversua rather 
than apud. The general meaning with the several cases is 
irpof TovraVy in consideration of these things, as a motive: 
irpbi Tourotf, in addition to these things, as an act : irpbii ravra, 
with a view to these things, as an end. irapd denotes an actual 
motion or change of place in some object ; 7rp6<: merely indi- 
cates a direction or tendency. Hence irapd and irpoi nearly 
concur in their use with the dative, as the case of rest ; but 
most plainly differ in their use Mrith the genitive and accusative. 

irpOl WITH THE GENITIVE AND DATIVE. 

Genitive, in consideration of, in behalf of, for the benefit 
of : A. 27. 34, TovTO irpbt r^t vfieriptK aa>Tripla<i xnrdp^ei. iSuch 
is the repeated use of irpot in classical authors. Thucyd. iv. 92, 
6 deo<i irpbi rifiMV eiTTai, the god will be on our side : ii. 86, 17 eV 
aTevio vaviufxiu. irpb<i AaKeSaifiovicov iari, the fighting in the 
narrow sea is in favour of the Lacedaemonians : Xen. Mem. ii. 
3. IS, aroira Xeyeif kuI ovBa/i&v irpof aov, you ulter absurdities, 
and by no means to your credit : Xen. Anab. ii. 5. 20, nrpo^ fiev 
0e&v da6^e<i, -rrpbi Si apOpanrtov ala-j^pop, in the estimation of 
gods, of men. Hence the use of tt/do; with the genitive in 
adjurations: irpo; 0e&p, as regarded by the gods. In this 



* 



usage TT/Jos answers to the Latin 'per,' which is otherwise 
equivalent to Bid, c. gen. 

IT/JOT, on the part of, refers to external agency, while he 
denotes internal action : Soph. Track. 676, 7, Sidfiopop irpbt 
ovSepbt T&p epSop, oKX' iBearbp i^ ainov <f>dipei. 

irptn often means, in accordance with: Xen. Anab. 1. 2. il, 
oi) yap ^p nrpbi rov Kvpov rpoirov Sx^ptu /*^ diroBiSopai : 
Ariatoph. Plut. 353—5, to re yhp i^al^pprii a/yap ovrm inrep- 
•n-Xovreip to t ai BeBpiKipai Trpbi dpBpb<: ovBkp vyiet ivr elpya<r- 
fiepov : Schol., 17 ' irpo? ' to Kadijieop <ni/iaip6i. 

Dative; at, near: J. 18. 16, ei<JT»;«et irpb<; t^ ffvpei: 20. 12, 
Beapei Bvo dyyi\ov<!, tva wpo? t^ KeipaXfj, Kal epa wpos to« 
iroalp; L. 19. 37, efyl^oproi Bi avrov rjBi) Trpos ry Karafidaei. 
TOM Spow, as he drew near Jerusalem, being already at the 
declivity of the mount. 

irpoi WITH THE ACCUSATIVE. 

irpoi with, the accusative signifies the direction of motion, or 
the relation between two objects. 

Actual motion : M, 2. 12, /ii/ apaKdp,-<^ai, vpbv 'HpdiSrjp : 3. 6, 
i^aropevero irpbi uvtop: 1 iTi. 3. 6, iX.0oPTO<i irpos ^/ifis d<f> 
v/iAp; M. 21. 34, dirioreiXe Toi? BovKow airrov irpbi tows 
yeupyow : 26. 67, dir^ar/op irpbi Kauuf>ap. 

Also where antecedent motion is implied : Mk. 5. 22, irlirrei 
9rpb<t tows TToSas awToO : M. 3. 10, ^ af twj w/30s rijp pl^ap Kelrat : 
L. 16. 20, OS i^epKifTO irpbf rop irvXStpa ainov : A. 5. 10, efevev- 
KaPTSi eda'^ap irpb<t top avBpa avrif; : M. 26. 18, irp6<i ae iroiSt 
TO irda')(a : 65, irpb<i vfioM iKa0el^6p,i)P BiBdaKup : Mk. 11. 4, evpop 
TOP irS>\op BeBe/iepop Trpos t^v Ovpap. 

. Mere direction : L. 7. 44, arpa^eU w/>os rrip yvpaiKa : E. 
3. 14, Kdpmrta t^ yopard fiov irpbf rbp irarepa : Mk. 14. 54, 
0eppMtp6fiepo<i irpbi to ^s: O-. 6. 10, €pya^<ofie0a to aya0op 
TT/sos iroiTos. From this arises its use with verbs of speaking. 

The object of a disposition or feeling : 2 O. 3. 4, 'iTeiroL0i)<np 
ixoM^ '"'P^ Toi; Qeop : 1 Th. 1. 8, ^ irwrts v Tpos toi» 6e6v : 
A. 6. 1, yayyvofun irpb^ tows 'Efipahv^: L. 23. 12, 7rpov7r!jpj(OP 
ip ex0pf Spre^ vpot eavrovf : A. 28. 25, davp,^poi Spre^ irpos 
aXX)}Xows. 

The relation which one object has towards another. 
. The remote obj^t : Mk. 12. 13, eyptocrap &ti irpos awTows rr)p 
irapa^oX^p ehre : A. 24. 16, dirpbaKowop avpeC&^atv e)(€ip irpbs. 



184 



irpos WITH THE ACCDSATIVB. 



Tov &e6v: M. 27. 4, t/ irpov Vf^t S what in reference to us? 
So H. 1. 7i 7r/)09 ftev tow? oty^Xou? X^ec H. 9. 13, aryid^ei rrpot 
riju Ttji aapKOi KaOapoTqra: L. 18." 1, eXeye vapa^o\r)v awrot? 
TT/oo? TO Seiv irdvTOTe irpoaev)(eadai : M. 27. 14, oi/c a7reKp(0r) 
ain^ vpbi ovSk dv prjfta. • 

Conformity to a rule or standard : L. 12. 47, fii]^^ irotijaai 
Trpif TO OeXijfia avrov : 2 C. 6. 10, '{pa Koixiaryrai iieaffTOi t^ Bm 
TOV a-<afiaTO<i Trpo<i b. eirpa^ev : G. 2. 14, ow/e opBoiroSovai vpoi 
Tijv oKqdeiav tov evar/yeklov : Xen. Anab. vi. 1. 3, tt/bos avXov 
itpX^cravTO, 

Henoe it denotes comparison : E. 8. 18, ovic d^ia Th iradijiuira 
TOV vvv Kuipov vpb<t T^i> fiiWovcTav Bo^av : Plato, Tti Be &\\a 
fffUKph &p etf) iTpiti Tavrd ftoi fiKd^t}, 

Looking to, the occasion of an act: Mk. 10. s, Trpof t^v 
aKk-qpOKupBiav vfi&v ey/)a'^ei» vixtv Trjv ivToXijv Tavr^p. 

The subjective purpose of the agent: A. 3. lo, oSrof ijv 6 
irpm TTjp iKei}iui<nnn)p leadi^fievo^ : 1 C 6. G, ttjoo? ivrpoTrtiv vfup 
"Ker/a', H. 6. 11, t^i> ainifp ivBeiKPvaBai <nrovBi}P rrpo^ t^i> 
Tr\f)poif>oplav T^9 iKiriBov &XP^ t£Xou9 : 1 Th. 2. 9, vvktov km, 
■/HJ^pai epya^ofiepoi irpo^ to fiii iirifiaptjtral Tipa vfi&p: E. 4. II, 
12, eSioKe .TOiKt p,kv dTrooroXou? . . . trpin top xaTapriaiMV Ta>i« 
drfuopi Philom. 6, aKovwp aov Tf)P dr/dmjp koX ttjp irUmp tjp 
l)(€i<! vpoi TOP Kvpiop ^Itfaovp hoI eh Truprav tov9 eeyiow, the 
Lord was the object towards which thair feelings were directed 
(TTpof ) ; the operation of their feelings, as testified by their acts 
of benevolence among the saints, is set forth by el<:. 

Of a result or tendency : 2 P. 3. 16, & aTpe^\ov(riv irphi t^p 
IBlap airr&p dirdXetapi J. 11. 4, aadipeia irpo<i Ouputop : 1 J. 
5. 16, dfuiprui vpbi Odparop. 

In some expressions the primary idea of direction is lost, 
especially with persons : M. 26. ss, irpov ifta^ iKaOe^ofttjp : 
G. 1. 18, etrifietpa irpht airrop : 2. 6; 4. 18: 1 Th. 3. 4, ot« 
irpoi vfiai ^fiep : 2 Th. 2. 5. wpov is followed by the accusative 
with verbs of rest, and is equivalent to wapd with the dative, 
' apud aliquem.' lii several of these instances previous motion 
is implied ; so that with this iise of tt/jov wo may compare the 
alleged interchange of eh and ep. 

In the expressions; J. 1. l, 6 ^6709 ^p 7rpb<i top Qeop, and 
1 J. 1. 2, r[rt<i »}»» irpof top Harlpa^ there is no exact equivalent 
in English. The meaning is ' united to God ; ' ever abiding in 
and with Him. 



ADVERBS USED AS PREPOSITIONS. 



185 



Adverbial uses are, irpof Kaipop, wpos &pap, irpk to irapov. ^ 
Adjectival: L. 14. 32, tA nrpK elp^pr,p: A. 28. 10 Ta irpot 
Tnv ypelap: A. 23. 30 : R. 15. 17, tA irpw top Oeopi 2 P. 1. 3, 
Ttt Trpo? ^torjp. „ . - J 

vpoi in composHion has the meaning of motion towards, 
irpoadyio, irpoaepx,of^h irpo<nrarTa : addition, besides, -irpoffat- 
Tso),. irpoaBairapda. ■trpocraireCKkut : direction, trpoaeyxoiuu, 
TrpoaKXipa: intensity, strengthening the force of the simple 
word : Trp6<nnipo<s, irpoa^iKrj^. 

ADVERBS USED AS PREPOSITIONS. 

The following adverbial prepositions are used with a genitive : 
&pev, without, 1 P. 3. 1 : &xph /*«XP'. ^^ V^'^^ ^^^ *™®' ^ 
far as, until, M. 13. 30: A. 11. 5: R. 5. 13; 15. 19: axpii 
oi, until, whilst, as long as: iyyv<!, near, J. 3. 23; 6. 19: ' 
H. 6. 8 ; 8. 13 : einrpoaOep, before, of place, M. 5. 24 : in the 
presence of, 6. i: precedence, J. 1. 15: Spapri, epaprlov, 
ivdmiop, in the presence of: eveKa, xap*", o" account of, for 
the sake of: iirdpto, above, of place, price, dignity, M. 21. 7: 
Mk. 14. 5 : L. 19. 17, 18 : &w, as far as, of place, until, of 
time: &>? ov, sc. -xpopov, M. 1. 25: oTriadep, oirurm, behind, 
after : vXifiriop, near, 

XdpiP does not always mean in gratiam, but is used especially 
by later writers to express aU shades of meaning, from those 
of favour, furtherance, to those of mere causal relation. The 
meanings of x^P'" range from in gratiam to eaus6, and propter, 
just as those of ei/e/ca range from causa to quod attinet ad. In 
G. 3. 19, tS>p ■/rapa^daetiP x^P*". ao™^ give a negative meaning 
to xa/Jti*: 'pecoatorum coercendorum gratia,' but the correct 
meaning probably is, " Transgressionum causa ut transgressiones 
palam faceret, eoque modo homines oogeret ad agnitionem sui 
reatus." Calvin. " The object of the law was to make trans- 
gressions palpable, to awaken a conviction of sin in the heart, 
and muke man feel his need of a Saviour. It was thus also 
necessarily temporary {dxpK o5 IXBji to airepfia), for when 
the seed did come, higher influences began to work within." 
(Ellioott, G. 3. 19.) 



? 



CHAPTER X. 

SYNONYMS. 

'Ayae69, good in ite kind. moraUy good, virtuoua, the opposite 
ot KUKOi, bad in its kind. Contrasted with StWto?, i;ya06i 
descnbos a man of eminent kindness and philanthropy, a dis- 
tinguiahed benefactor, 'qui commodum aliis pnebet;' whereas 
SUaioi describes one who does what is just and right according 
to law, • qui recti et honesti legem sequitur.' The &'/ca»09 may 
exemplify the maxim, 'Summum jus, summa injuria,' and thus 
forfeit his title to be regarded as 6^a06<i. In contrast with 
SiKam, and approximating to ^a069, is iwieiK^v, one who 
tempers the rigour of strict justice, corrects its inaccuracies and 
supplies its defects with the gentleness and firmness of equity. 
hrieUeid iariv ij BmoUov iKdrr«>at<t. Some derive hrie'uceia from 
rf«a., cedo, others correctly from 6t'«<5? (e'ot«a), 'quod deeet.' 
X/MJOT09, 'well disposed,' actively beneficent in spite of in- 
gratitude: L. 6. 35, ainhi xPV<^oi iariv iirX roi^ ix'^pUrrov^ 
Kal TToi^poi/?, 'moraUy good :' Demosth. jfo Cor. 269, i^i, w/ttf« 
rhv fiiv «5 vaffovra Betv /ie^tn]a0(u top irdvra ■xpovov, tw U 
irofqaavTa eiffixi eiriXeXijadai, el Set rov flip xPV<^rov, top Si fii, 
fuKpofvxpv, iroietp Ipyop avdpuyirov: xPI'ttottiv, the goodness of 
the Divine attributes, showing itself by <t>i\ap0ponr^. benevo- 
lence to man. In human agents xpV<rr6Tr}<i is ' attractiveness,' 
I'benignitas qua9 in dandis beneficiis cemitur; sive suavitas 
mvitans ad famUiaritatem sui, dulcis alloquio, moribus tem- 
perata:" afyadaawti, sterling goodness apart from winning 
attractiveness. "Potest bonitas esse tristior, et fronte severis 
moribus irrugata bcaie quidem facere, et praestare quod poscitur." 
" XpriaroTtpt, arioBaavm), are nearly synonymous, -jfp. may 
perhaps denote that benevolence and sweetness of disposition 
which finds its sphere and exercise in our intercourse with one 



SYNONYMS— wyawow, ar/atrri. 



187 



another, joined with <f>i\ap0panr{a, Tit. 3. 4. aryaOaaipv, which 
occurs R. 15. 14 ; E. 5. 9 ; G. 5. 22 ; 2 Th. 1. ii, seems to mark 
that propension of mind which leads a man both to tvill and to do 
what is good, including necessarily the idea of bountifulness, 
Neh. 9. 25. ar/a06Tf)<i is a later word, and may bo distinguished 
from a/Ya0a>avini as denoting rather ' goodness in its essence,' 
and is thus commonly used in reference to God." (Ellicott, G. 
5. 22.) 

Philo remarks oa-ioTtj^ p,ip w/aos top Oeop, SiKaioawfj Si tt/jos 
ap0pw7row 0eu>pelTai, But oarUtTtii involves the idea of holy 
purity, TO Ka0ap6v : 1 T. 2. 8 ; H. 7. 26, TrepX /lev av0pamov<t tA 
irpoarfKonna irpdmop SUaC &p irpuTTOi, irepl Se 0eoi»? oaia, 
Plato, "oaloi and Sixalav form on the positive side a com- 
pound idea of holy purity and righteousness, whether towards 
God or towards men, while afii/iirrci^ states on the negative , 
side the general blamelessness in both aspects and relations." 
(Ellicott, 1 Th. 2. 10.) 

In the New Testament KaXo^ is equally co-extensive in 
meaning with arfa0ov, and frequently denotes what is simply 
and morally good : 1 Th. 5. 2i ; G. 6. 9 ; 1 T. 1. 8, otSafiep oTt 
KaXov 6 pofici, morally good, not merely useful but positively 
excellent. Archbishop Trench remarks that the usual distinction 
between oo-tof and S/icatov, which would refer otrioi to the keeper 
of the first table of the law, and SiKaioi to the keeper of the 
second, is not observed, and could hardly be maintained in the 
New Testament. The Scripture which recognizes all righteous- 
ness as one, as growing out of a single root, and obedient to a 
single law, gives no room for such an antithesis. He who loves 
his brother, and fidfils his duties towards him, loves him in 
God and for God. The second great commandment is not co- 
ordinated with the first greatest, but subordinated to, and in 
part included in it. (Mk. 12. 30, 31.) 

afyandto denotes the result of the deliberative exercise of the 
judgment; the giving a decided preference to one object or 
person out of many; love for the character; 'deligere;' ite- 
quently it implies regard and satisfaction rather than afiection 
with especial reference to external acts. <l>CKia denotes greater 
strength of feeling, springing from passion or instinct, love for 
the person, * amare' ' delight in doing,' hence ' am wont to do.' 
Sexual love is expressed by epqv. 

dfavri is more expressive and diffiisive than ^CKm>0ptair(a^ 



188 



STKONYMB — aytx;, ar/opa^. 



STNONTMS — eiSoKlfUK, alS<0<}. 



189 



It extends not only to tlie brotherhood, but to all men, even 
enemies. Hence AyaTn; is the crown of Christian virtues. 
apxi) /lev trurrtf!, riX-of hi Ar/din). (Ignatius.) 

^of, any matter inspiring religious awe or reverence {agonal, 
stand in awe of), affvln, pure, clean in a ceremonial sense, clear 
of reproach, honest, free from suspicion and above suspicion. 
arfvw implies properly an outward, and thence an inward 
purity, " in quo nihil est impuri." (Tittmann.) A simplicity of 
holy motive carried out in consistency of holy action, a/yv^at, 
ayvurfLo^, applied to the purifications which the Jews adopted 
previous to the celebration of the Jewish festivals; hence 
applied to the purification of the heart, 1 P. 1. 22 ; 1 J. 3. 3 ; 
Ja. 4. 8. £7tof, consecrated to God, ' tanctm,' separated from a 
common to a holy use, I P. 1. is; implying essential purity, 
subjective sanctity. Hence aryid^a, ar^iaar/iov are connected 
with Kadaplfyt. Syun, the opposite of kowo^, fiifirjXov, open to 
any one, combined with, K\i}T6i : H. 3. i, dSek^ol Sfi/un, xXijo-eoif 
hrovpavlov iieToj(ot. offvof denotes freedom from inward im- 
purity ; afiUivTo^, from stain outwardly contracted, or pollution ; 
Kadapoi, from alien admixture. " In &yio<i cogitatur potissimum 
verecundia quae affv^ rei vel personea debetur." — ayo<i corre- 
sponds to the Latin word 'sacer,' and implies 'set apart' or 
•devoted,' whether for good or for evil. In Thucyd. i. 126, to 
£709 T^« Oeov, is the accursed thing devoted to the vengeance of 
the goddess, or that would draw down her vengeance. (Arnold.) 

arfopd^a, buy, as in a market-place, for a certain price (rt/ui}) ; 
Xurpoa, effect deliverance, by the payment of ransom and 
exertion of power. Xurpop is the price paid for releasing any 
one from captivity, punishment, or death (kvea, loose), the 
buying back by paying the price of what had been sold 
(airotva), or the redeeming what had been devoted by substi- 
tuting something in its place. So avrlXurpov, with the further 
idea 'in room of,' denoting exchange, the price paid for pro- 
curing the liberation of another by ransom or forfeit. XirpuaK, 
airoKxnpuxTK, the process of deliverance; tKaa/i6<i, e^iKaapMi, 
are the same as Xvrpov, with the leading idea of propitiation, 
expiation, the means of averting displeasure, and of providing 
for the exercise of mercy in harmony with justice ; applied to 
our Lord as the propitiator, in 1 J. 2. 2; 4. 10. Thus the 
death of Christ has an effect on our salvation over and above 
its subjective power in subduing the heart and moulding the 



will, for it is a ransoming and redemption from the penalties of 
Stvo^iU, as well as its bondage, Tit. 2. u. irepiiroUopM, make 
one's own, acquircfor oneself, without reference to the manner. 
E. 1. 14, 6« imoXinpaaiv -rryi irepmoi^aetK, with a view to that 
deliverance by purchase; the end and purpose of which was to 
acquire the inheritance in heaven, a deliverance from shame 
and woe, and an acquisition of an inheritance in glory and bhss. 
Hence the redeemed are called 'Kao<; ets ireptirolrjaiv, 1 P. 2. 9 ; 
Xais irepMvauxi. Tit. 2. u. Christ has made them His own ; 
their title to the kingdom of heaven consists in their being His. 
airokvrpuxTKi includes three ideas: (1) a state of captivity ;^ (2) 
the interposition of a Xinpov (M. 20. 28 ; Mk. 10. 45), or avrl- 
Xvrpov (1 T. 2. 6), a price or valuable consideration ; (3) a con- 
sequent deliverance. Sometimes the dTroXwrpowrt? is spoken of 
as completed, R. 3, 24 ; E. 1. 7 ; C. 1. u : sometimes as future, 
R. 8. 23; E. 1. 14; 4. 30. It is the difference between the 
spiritual resurrection of J. 5. 25, and the bodily resurrection of 
J. 5. 28, 29. (Vaughan.) The avrl in iarriKurpov is not redun- 
dant, but expresses the idea of exchange ; " permutationem qua 
veluti capite caput et vita vitam redemit." (Waterland on 
Fundamentals, v. 72.) Bishop Ellicott has well remarked, " All 
the. modem theories of atonement seem to overlook that God 
hates sin as ««, not as a, personal offence against Himself." 

aZoKip^, in, a passive sense, • rejected on trial,' not standing 
the test, spurious ; in an active sense, undisceming, unable to 
distinguish truth from error, alien to ; KaTe^Oappivoi tov vovv, 
vitiated in principle ; p>ep.uuTpAvo<{, polluted in heart ; oTrtoro?, 
unfaithful to profession; aira&oKi,p.afy>, reject as unsuitable or 
disqualified ; iSotrai/ifw, apply a touchstone, examine by words 
or torture, afflict ; SoKipm, approved on examination. SoKi.p,d^a» 
is used in the two senses, prove by test, approve on trial : R. 2. 
18, SoKip,dXen Tct, SKt^povTOy art a discemer of things that 
differ. So Ph. 1. 10, to test right and wrong, true and false. 

ai&i?, the inner grace of reverence, 'verecundia;' the turn- 
ing in upon oneself (iin-j»oir^), which recoils "from any thing 
unseemly or impure, an innate moral repugnance to the doing 
of the dishonourable act ; ' shamefastness.' aiaxwnj, the sense 
of disgrace ; the feeling of shame, ' pudor,' which attends the 
performance of a dishonourable deed, and the feeling which 
deters a man from bad conduct, through fear of being put to 



190 



SYNONYMS ^a(T^6>. ahCa, alaxpoXoyla. 



shame. alh<o<i wiU always restrain a good man from an un- 
worthy act ; ataxvvri will sometimes restrain a bad man. 
<Tw<f,poavvri is to the inteUectual faculty what at8w? is to the 
heart and spirit: am^poown "f^erai diro tow awav tA? ^piva<{ 
iX^iv, Ohrysostom. aiSim a<o<f>poavvr)ii irketarov fierixei, Thucyd. 
i. 84. The soundness of mind or discretion which regulates 
and controls all inordinate desires, and exercises a dignified 
restraint on the actions and deportment. A well-balanced state 
of mind, resulting from habitual self-restraint: A. 26. 2S, 
au^poayvri iarlv iirKpdreia r&v infidvm&v, 4 Maco. 1. 31. 

The importance of aw^poavvr) is significantly shown by the 
connexion in which it stands in 1 T. 2, i«, idv fielvmaip iv 
irlarei koX arfd-irji KaX dfyiaa-ft^ /lerA (ra<ffpoirutn)i. 

.ahia, entreat, beg, supplicate, implies a distinction in position 
and circumstances between the parties, and expresses a petition 
from an inferior to a superior. ipaT§.v is a word of wider 
meaning ; to ask for information, question, as well as suppUcate. 
Both words are used in A. 3. 2, alrelv, beg alms ; ipcnav, make 
inquiry with that object. This distinction may be traced in 
1 J. 6. 16. Many of the diflSculties in J. 16. 23, 24 ; 17. 8, 9. is, 
will be removed by bearing in mind this distinction. In J. ll! 
22, Martha applies alretv to our Lord in addressing His Father ; 
perhaps from overlooking His divine nature. Our Lord uses 
ipt^dat, not alria, when He speaks of the Father, epundoi, in 
the sense of beseech, is a derivative and non-classical use sug- 
gested by the double use of bm, Ps. 122. 6, ipaTrjaare Bti tA 

ell eiprjvijv rf) 'lepovaaKiqp,. Compare 1 Th. 4. 1 : 5. 12 : 2 Th 
2. I : Ph, 4. 3 

atria, affair, matter; not necessarily fault or accusation; 
charge, whether true or false. ^KXr/fia, formal indictment; 
IXeyxoi, charge, of which the offender is self-convinced; 
paStovpyla, wanton mischief, whatever is done carelessly or 
at random; pe^uvpyij/ia, deed of wanton villainy, a^inst 
person, property, or religion; iravovpyo^, one who is ready 
for any thing, ' facinorosus ; ' generally, but not necessarily, in 
a bad sense, like 'facinus;' -irapovpyia, the character of such 
an one. L. 20. 23, n. 

^ "alpeam schisma inveteratum; o-^^/tr/uz recens congrega- 
tionis ex aliqua sententiarum diversitate dissensio." Aug. 

alaxpoXoyla, foul-mouthed abusiveness of every kind; the 



SYNONYHS— atOIV, KOfffUK. 



191 



t 



licence of the ungovemed tongue ; but incorrectly limited to 
obscene discourse, 'turpiloquium ;' such communication as 
ministers to wantonness ; SxVfia iropvela^, Chrysostom. aiO' 
Xponyi, filthiness, ' immunditia ; ' whatever is offensive to 
modesty and Christian purity ; joined by Plato to da-vfifierpia, 
impropriety of conduct. luopoXoyla, ' stultiloquium,' that talk 
of fools which is alike folly and sin ; the vav jnifia dptjov of 
our Lord, M. 12. 36 ; the ttwi X^of aavpoi of St. Paul, E. 4. 29. 
evrpaireXla, the power of giving a witty turn to the discourse 
which often showed itself in indelicacy of language ; (ei 
irpeireaOai), wit and elegance enlisted in the service of sin. 
" In fia>po\oyia the foolishness, in aUrxpoKor/la the foulness, in 
eirrpaireXla the false refinement of discourse which is not 
seasoned with the salt of grace, are especially noted and de- 
nounced." Trench. 

attop] 'a limited space of time,' hence 'that which is tran- 
sitory, as opposed to that which is permanent ; ' the present 
world, as the seat of moral and physical evil, the universal 
course and tenor of human proceedings, the dispensation of 
fallen humanity. The term al&Pfv, H. 1. 2; 11. 3, denotes 
'the ages,' the temporal periods whose sum and aggregation 
adumbrate the conception of eternity. ^aaiKein t&p ala>ptop, 
the sovereign dispenser and disposer of the ages of the world, 
1 T. 1. 17. Koapxit, the present actual state, system, and con- 
stitution of things, frequently put for the inhabitants of the 
earth, ' toute le mondo.' /rocr/iof, the world, or universe, from 
its perfect arrangement ; mundua, opposed to the indigeata molea 
of Chaos. " Koapoi est quiddam exterius, auop subtilius ; secu- 
lum, prseseus mundus in sua indole cursu et censu." Bengel. 
In Homer auui/ is 'short period of time,' lifetime; in Plato, 
' long space,' ' eternity.' 

Koapxxi has practically three meanings : physical, M. 25. 34 ; 
collective, J. 3. 16 : 1 T. 1. 15 ; ethical, 1 C. 2. 12. aroixeiop is 
used both in a physical, 2 P. 3. 10. 12, and in an ethical sense, 
H. 6. 12. Hence a great variety of interpretations has been 
given to Gt. 4. 3, rd, aroixeia tou Koap^v, which are separable 
into two general classes : (1) the physical, ekmenta mundi, such 
as the festivals of Judaism, Zabianism, and abstractedly religion 
in sensible forms ; (2) the ethical, rudimenta mundi, the first 
principles of religious knowledge among men, whether Jews or 
heathens. Grammatical considerations are in favour of the 



192 



SYNONYMS — oKepauKt a\r)0iv6i, a\\o<;. 



physical sense, but exegetical may lead us to prefer the ethical. 
(Ellicott, G. 4. 3.) 

Koafio^t, G. 6. 14, tA fiuoTiK^ irpar/fiara, Chrys. "Mundus 
procul dubio opponitur novse creaturas; quicquid ergo con- 
trarium est spiritual! Christi regno mundus est, quia ad 
Teterem hominem pertinet. Mundus est quasi objectum et 
Scopus voteris hominis." Calvin. 

aKipaioi, unmixed, pure, guHeless, 'integer;' afiefiTrroi, 
unblamed, 'is in quo nihil desiderari potest;' afiafia, with no 
stain on the conscience ; a/Mu/^jrof, not open to censure ; di'e7- 
KkffTO^, not accused, with nothing laid to one's charge ; aftonot, 
without blemish of sin in himself; SxnrCKo^, without contract- 
ing any spot or. stain of sin in the world ; akai^v, boastful in 
words, vaunting; v/3purTi]<i, outrageous in personal insults; 
inrepjj^avo<i, proud in thoughts, overbearing, highminded : 1 J. 
2. 16, ^ dXa^oveia roS fiiov, the braggadocio of life, wanton 
ostentation. — 

akrjdivo^, very, real, genuine ; opposed to ' apparent ' or * fic- 
titious;' that which has truth for its substance, and is all 
which it pretends to be. a\:^deia, that which is true ; '^eSSof, 
that which is false : K. 1. 25, fier'ijWa^av ttjv ciXrfBeuiv tov 6eov. 
iv Tb> ■^evSet, parted with the reality of God, resting in that 
which is a lie : K. 1. 18, t&v Tr)v oKi^deiav iv aSiKla KaTejfpvriuv, 
those who might know God's true character, and yet live in 
unrighteousness. dXijfliJ?, credible, truth-loving, upright, re- 
lates to the essential diiference between right and wrong ; 
aifivoi expresses the moral sense men have of this difference, 
honourable in action, grave in demeanour. 

d\Xof , another in number ; one besides that which has been 
mentioned, alius. Srepoi, the other; one of two, alter, 1 C. 
4. 6, implying therefore a stronger expression of difference 
than aWoi, and equivalent to dXKoun, of other sort, diverse 
in kind. G. 1. 6, 7, eh Irepov evarf^iXiov o ovk eariv a\\o, 
to a gospel of different character, which is not another, i. e., 
no gospel at all; has no claim to be called a gospel. 2 C. 
11. 4, aWov 'iTjaovv . . . irvevfia h-epov, where Irepoi refers to 
distinction of kind ; dWof, of individuality: M. 11. 3, Sv el 6 
ipj(Pfiei'o<:, fj erepov vpoaSoK&fiev ; another of different kind ; 
Plato, irepop re xal dvofioiov: Ja. 4. 12, rov erepov, the other 
who is brought into opposition with thee: E. 2. i, the other 
to whom thou art imited in the fellowship of the faith : A. 



SYNONYMS — uWtryei/ij?, dfUtpTia. 



193 



7. 18, aviari] fiaaiKevt &riepo<i, a king of a different line ; where 
a\\o<i would not exclude the meaning of a king of the same 
line: 17. 7, Srepov ^aaiKea, a different kind of king: 27. l, 
Kal Tiva<i krepovi Seafuorai, certain prisoners also of a different 
class: H. 7. ll, xarii t^i» rd^tv MeXxweS^ Irepov dviaraaOai, 
tepea, that one .of a different line, according to the order of 
Melchizedek, should arise up as priest : R. 7. '23, erepov vo/iov, 
another and an opposite rule. The charge against Socrates 
was, Irepa Kaivk Saifiovia el<T<f>epuv, Xen. Mem. i. 1. To aXXa 
Koivit Saifiovia, other deities of the same kind, there would 
perhaps have been no objection. This distinction between 
a\Xo<; and irepoi is very generally observed; as Theodoret 
explains 8/X070?, Irepa fiev rointp, erepa Si eKeiv(p Xe^ovre^. 
Sometimes Ixf/jof means ' the second,' where more than two 
are meant: Demosth. de Corond 219, (rpia eymiofua) tv fiev 
dvSplav, Srepov Se SiKaioauvri^, rplrov hi ata^poavvri'i. 

dX.\o7et/i77, alien, of a different race: pdpfiapot, foreigner, 
speaking a different language : B. 1. 14, "EWtftrlv re Kal 
^ap^dpoi% ffo<f>oiii re koI dvarfrovi, civilized and uncivilized, 
intellectual and unintellectual men, (1) of all races, and (2) 
of all capacities ; where dvoi^rot; is used as a parallel expression 
for fiapfidpoK!. The same is the case with tdvei davverta, 
R. 10. 19, all other nations being as inferior to the Jews in 
religious knowledge, as all other nations were to the Greeks 
in human culture. (Yaughan.) 

dfiapria, aberration from prescribed . law, or the voice of 
conscience, evil propensity. The general term for sin, J. 1. 29 ; 
9. 34, all forms, phases, and movements of sin, whether enter- 
tained in thought or consummated in act : . irapdrrrw/ia, the 
particular special act of sin, falling aside from ignorance, in- 
advertence, negligence, Ja. 5. 16 : G. 6. 1 . dfiapria has more 
of sinfulness and presumption in it. Hence the continual 
expression, a<f>eai<i dpMpri&v. The difference is marked in 
Ps. 19. 12, 13, rrapairruftara rii ax/v^aei; , . . KaOapiadjjaofiai 
diro dfiaprlat fieyd\ri<i. The law came in incidentally, in order 
that the transgression might abound, vofio^ irapeiaijXOev Xva 
irXeovdarr) to rrapdirrtap.a, not rj dfiapria, R. 5. 20. The same 
act of sin became more clearly an act of transgression, as the 
standard of right was more clearly exhibited : dfiaprtoXo^, the 
evident transgressor : do-f/^ijv, one who has no reverence for 
God: dai^eia, sin against God, ungodliness, practical im- 

o 



194 



SYNONYMS — avofioi, avwiravav;. 



piety, the exact antithesis to evai^eia: aSiicla, violation of 
right, sin against our neighbour, ' unrighteousness,' the oppo- 
site of Sucaioarvin), joined by Plato with av/iiraaa '^i^s wovr)- 
pia. In its Christian usage and application it is similar in 
meaning to, but of wider reference than, avo/iCa, of 1 J. 5. I7. 
" dSiKia de qu&cumque improbitate dicitur, qu& tonus t^ SikoI^ 
repugnat." (Tittmann.) As BiKaioavpt) is awayayii koI epwaK 
irammv t&v' KoKStv K€lL ar/aO&v, so aBixia is the union and 
accumulation of all that is the reyerse. avo/ila, lawlessness, 
the state of moral licence, which either knows not or regards 
not law, 1 J. 3. 4. irovrfpla implies delight in evil, frequently 
joined with kukui, 'malice.' The wicked act of the mind is 
implied by trovripla: the evil habit by Kaxla, which meant 
vice generally, and was not restricted to malevolence, kuko- 
ijdeia, spitefulness. 

In 1 T. 1. 9, dvofioi, dvtnrSra/cToi, imply overt opposition 
to law ; avofuxs, a passive disregard of its enactments ; avvTro- 
ratcTOv, a more active violation arising from a refractory will. 
In Tit. 1. 10, avwroraKTOt stands in near connexion with 
avriKeyovre^ {inrordaaeadai, ' sponte submittere '). dae^eii and 
dftapTtoKoi denote want of reverence toward God ; avotnoi and 
fie0rj\ot, want of inner purity and holiness. In classical 
authors dv6<no<i is frequently combined with aSiKOi, and marks 
the violation ot/aa, in contradistinction io jus. 

apMytfi, the man who is not aggressive or pugnacious, who 
does not contend; the i.muic^<i goes further, and is not only 
passively non-contentious, but actively considerate and forbear- 
ing, waiving even just, legal redress : iXamaTt/cos Kahrep ^q>v 
TOP vofjtdv fiorjdov. (Ellicott, 1 T. 3. 3.) 

dvdffrjfui, votive offerings, as tripods, statues in honour of 
a deity (Sr/aX/ia) ; dpdde/ui, curse, execration : dvddt)fi,a ex- 
presses the ' sacrum ' in a better sense ; dvddefta, in a worse ; 
separation /rom Qod is the central idea of dvdde/ui; separation 
to God is the central idea of dvddiifui. Clemens Alex, dvddrjfui 
yeyovafiev Tm Qe& inrep Xpurrov. 

dvdiravarii, pause, cessation from labour, the rest of the 
Sabbath, LXX dveaii, loosing, relaxation of imprisonment, 
mitigation of trouble, anxiety, freedom from obligation : trdp- 
e<r(f , temporary pretermission, suspension of punishment, pass- 
ing over, tolerating without special intervention : &f>e<ri<i, total 
remission, forgiveness, excluding the idea of punishment. God 






1 



SYNONYMS — dvTtXafi^dpeadai,, dir\ov<s. 



195 



irapfJKep d/utpriai before Christ's passion, but He d<f>iriaip 
diiapriai in, by, and after it. The former was a work of 
dpoj(^, or forbearance ; the latter, a work of X"/'*?' or grace. 

dpTiXafi^dpeaffai, lay hold of with a view to help, L. 1. 54 : 
A. 20. 35 : claim, take part in, 1 T. 6. 2. So eirtXa/i^dpeaffai, 
1 T. 6. 13. ig: H. 2. 16: avvapriTM/ifidpeaOat, lay hold of a 
thing, together with a person, and so to assist that person : 
fiorjffeip, run to help, ' opitulari.' 

In classical Greek dpriXa/ifi is ' take a part in,' ' engage in : ' 
Thuc. ii. 8, dpTiXafi^dveaffai rov TroKifiov, cling to, secure, get 
possession of: iii. 22, dpriXafifi. tov da<f>aXov<i, with a sub- 
dued, intensive force, ' percipere,' ' frui : ' Euseb. IT. E. v. 15, 
eiuthuv: ToaavTtjv dpr€\afifiap6p,e0a. 

dpacrrpo^'^, mode of life, behaviour, deportment, i. q., fiitoaii. 
iroKirevfia, citizenship, commonwealth^ life of common interest, 
duty, privilege. 

dtnaria, unbelief, the general term applicable to persons of 
all conditions, without regard to their circumstances or oppor- 
tunities of knowing the truth : direlffeia, disobedience, restricted 
to those who know the path of duty. direiO^ is uniformly, dis- 
obedient : airurrtKi, faithless, disbelieving, incredible, direidetv, 
direiBeia, may be rendered ' disobey,' * disobedience,' as denoting 
tlv overt and palpable manifestations of dirtaria. d-neldeia is 
well translated by Dr. Wordsworth, E. 2. 2, as unbelief in 
action ; eV diriarta, 1 T. 1. 13, in a state of unbelief, before I 
had been received into the Church by a profession of faith in 
Christ. 

an-Xoi)v, single, clear, as the eye, which presents a well- 
defined and single image to the brain; opposed to tropripoi, 
perverse, as the eye which dims and distorts the visual images. 
(Alford on M. 6. 23.) dirKorti^, singleness of purpose, in- 
tegrity, disinterestedness, generosity, impartiality. airXori;? 
marks " that openness and sincerity of heart which repudiates 
duplicity in thought (2 C. 11. 3) or action (R. 12. 8). It is 
joined with dr/aOonji (Wisd. 1. 1), dxaKia (Philo), and is 
opposed to iroiKiXla, iroKvrpoirla (Plato), KaKOVprjia, KUKoriOeia'' 
Ellicott. elXiKpipeia, transparent sincerity, the opposite of 
Ka/cla: iropr^pCa, craftiness, dishonesty: etkitcpipri'i, tested by 
the sun : t^ eXXy Kpipofiepoi, tried by a full light, and shown 
to be perfect, clear, free from stain or mixture; dpuiroKpiTOi, 
not acting a part, genuine, in real character. 

o 2 



196 



SYNONYMS — a7ro&}/tea>, avOdSri^. 



cnroSi)/iiu, go from home : diroSij/uof, quitting home : evit)fiiu, 
keep at home : ixSTifiia, am away from home. 

a^pa^dtv, eameBt-money to ratify a contract: irpoiofia, as 
present and part payment, and as a pledge for future and full 
payment : a^parfk, seal, authentication, proof of ownership. 

aa&\rfeM, excess in any thing, insolence, lewdness, unre- 
strained lust, amounting to fuivla: aauria, self-abandonment, 
wretchlessness, the conduct of one ' qui nihil sibi servat,' ' qui 
servari non potest,' * wastefulness.' avdyyvK has the idea of 
letting the reins loose, giving oneself up: IP. 4. 4, el<i rijp 
avrifv lij^ aawrla^ ava-)(yaw, to the same slough of profligacy. 
aauTia is joined with Kutfun, 2 Maco. 6. 4. Some derive 
aaiKr/eia from Selge, a city of Pisidia, where the inhabitants 
were infamous for their vices; others derive it from OeXr/eip, 
probably the same word as the German ' schwellen.' The 
fundamental notion of datoria is 'wastefulness' and 'riotous 
excess ; ' that of daiXiyeia, * lawless insolence ' and ' wanton 
caprice.' 

dtrvvderoi, without regard to covenants or agreements in 
private life : a<nrot>So<;, without regard to public treaties : 
aaropyoi, without the ties of natural affection : dveXeiJuav, 
merciless in the treatment of enemies. 

a^OapTiK, not liable to corruption, immaterial, as opposedi^ 
matter which decays. In 1 P. 1. 4 dif>6apro<i denotes the inner 
being of the inheritance : dp-Unrrot, its unalloyed condition : 
dfidpavTO^, the continuance of its beauty : d<f>6ap<rla, the main- 
tei^ance of personal identity, from the imperishable and in- 
corruptible nature of the life to come, and its complete exemp- 
tion from death : Bta<t>$opd, corruption, turning to decay. 

&f>p<ov, without mind, senseless, destitute of any soimd or 
intelligible principle. In E. 6. I7 a^pov€<{ is opposed to 
awikine<; ri to OiKijpM tov Kvplov. dawero?, irrational in con- 
duct, stupid, silly: dvoijTov, unreflecting, never applying their 
mind to moral and religious truth, opposed to ao<}>6<i, R. 1. I4 ; 
but it may mark the especial folly of those who own the right 
but do the wrong ; hence direi6eK, TrXavatpsvoi, Tit. 3. 3. 
d^poawfi, senselessness, ' dementia,' stupidity, folly : avoia, 
passion, rashness, ' amentia,' milder than p.apia, madness : 
KaKori6ri<i, maliciously cunning : ew}&i)s, foolishly simple. 

avBdBri<i, a self-loving spirit, which in the gratification of self 
is regardless of others, and is hence commonly tnrepi^^voi. 



\ ^ 



SYHOMYMS— ^aTTTta, /3ov\ofiai. 



197 



OvpM&ff^t irapdvofuxi, rightly defined aa " qui se non accommodat 
aliis, ideoque omnibus incommodus est, morosus." Tittmann. 
T^v aiddSeiav avrapivKeiav'-'Keyo), Greg. Naz. Tit. 1. 7: 2 P. 
2. 10. 

fidtrrat, /3airr/(fo), differ chiefly in intensity, like ' to black,' 
and ' to blacken.' /SdrrTO), dip or dye : fiairrl^co, make a thing 
dipped or dyed : pavri^tt, make a thing ippaapAvov. Yerbs in 
-t'fo* are always factitive, as 'civilize,' or frequentative, as 
' Hellenize,' ' philosophize,' until by the decay of language they 
lost their factitive or frequentative meaning, pavrl^m and 
pairrL^m are largely used as. religious words, the former refer- 
ring to the sprinkling of the atonement, and the latter to the 
dipping, and consequent washing of personal purification. 
Neither dyeing nor washing is strictly in /SaTrrt'^u, though 
dipping may be used for either purpose; and then dye or 
cleanse comes to be the secondary or even the common mean- 
ing. Compare our word 'joiner,' one who joins any thing, as 
equivalent to 'house-carpenter.' Hence the question started 
on the part of John's disciples, J. 3. 25, was, we may suppose, 
irepi fiairrurfiov, though the language is iyevero ^ijrritTn iic t&v 
futffijT&p 'ladwov 'fierd 'lovBaiav irepX Kadapia/jiov, and in 
A. 22. 16 Paul is commanded dvaardv fidirrtaai koI diroXovaat 
T09 d/iaprltK <Tov, iinKa\eadp,ev<K to SvopM rov Kvplov. The 
difference between jtavri^m and fiairri^a is best arrived at 
by treating both as theological terms, bringing up to the 
mind of the Jews temple-rites rather than common trades. 
(Angus.) 

fidpoi, heavy weight, of trial or temptation, internal or ex- 
ternal, some portion of which is transferable, and can be borne 
by others, ' onus : ' ^oprlov, a burden which we bring upon 
ourselves, and must bear ourselves, as the burden . of sin ; 
'sarcina,' G. 6. 2. 5. Bishop Ellicott considers Pdpif to be 
used in a general way, with reference to the community at 
large; (ftoprlov, with reference to the burden of sins and in- 
firmities, which each one, like a wayfarer, has to carry. Wisd. 
21. 6. Xen. Mem. iii. 13. 6. 

fiovXofuu expresses a wish, intention, purpose, formed after 
deliberation and upon considering aU the circumstances of the 
case. di\m denotes a natural impulse or desire, the ground 
of which is generally obvious, or for which it is unnecessary to 
assign a reason : M. 1. ig, /t^ BiKuv, being reluctant, as was 



198 



SYNONYMS — fi\aa<lni/ieio. 



naturally the case : ifiovKijdi), ' was minded,' deliberately pur- 
posed, intended after careful consideration. Dr. Wordsworth 
says (1 Th. 2. is) that 6e\oi> expresses a stronger desire than 
^ovXoftai. But natural impulses are generally more violent 
than reasonable resolves. 6e\eiv has been explained of active 
volition and purpose ; fiovXeaOat, of mere inclination, passive 
desire, or propensity ; but the idea of deliberate intent is im- 
plied in Ja. 4. 4, 89 &v fiovK-qfffj <^/\o; elpai rod Koa/tov i^Opoi 
ToC 660& KaOlaTarat : 1 T. 6. 9, ot jSovXo/tei/ot TrXoirreti' ifiiriw- 
rovaw eh ireipaaixhv koL irar/iha. In both these cases OeXeiv 
would be altogether inappropriate. Compare M. 1. 19; 11. 27. 
So also fiovKofiai would be very unsuitable in 1 T. 5. 11, diXovai. 
yafieip, where the Apostle remarks on the natural impulse of 
the desire, and not on the /3ovXij formed in the fear of God. 
Both words occur Philem. 13, hp iyit ifiovX6/ii]P irpb<i ifiavrov 
Kare^ew k.t.X., my intention was, considering the service he 
could render me, to keep him with myself, but apart from 
your expressed opinion, I repress, put aside my natural desire 
(ij^eXijo-a), and will do nothing of this kind, i. e., I have no 
wish in the matter. While fiovXofuu implies the exercise of 
some deliberation, which is almost excluded from BiXto, it seems 
to indicate a less formal resolve than ^ovXevofiai. Hence while 
PoiXiffia indicates deliberate intention, fiovXev/ia implies detA- 
mined resolve ; irpoOeai^, purpose, deliberate resolution, or 
plan. 

pKaa^fikw, to injure a person's character, to hurt his good 
name, speak to his prejudice : 1 G. 4. 13, ^Xaa<fyi}fiov/i€voi -irapa- 
KoXovfiep, i. e. being slandered we implore the slanderers ; 
mildly and humbly deprecating their slander. Xo(£opea>, abuse 
a man to his face, revile him personally ; " maledicto tanquam 
aculeo vulnerare hominem," by the use of language which is 
likely to sting a man, and pierce him ta the quick. The oppo- 
site to it is evXoyeiv : 1 0. 4. 12, XoiSopovfiepoi eiiXftyovftep. So 1 
P. 3. 9, fiXaa<f)r)/iia, defamation, the speaking to a man's preju- 
dice, the invasion of his prerogative; in connexion with the 
name of God it naturally has the more special and terrible 
meaning of ' blasphemy,' ^ et? 6e6v v^pii. (See ala^oXoyla.) 
eirrjpeia, spitefulness, the satisfaction which is felt in injuring 
another, like the dog in the manger : ovj^ ha rt avrm, dXX' Xpa 
fii) Uelv^, Demostb. de Corond. iriKpia, bitterness of feeling 
and disposition, A. 8. 23; H. 12. 25; the prevailing tempera- 



,.: 



SYNONYMS— 7€i'eo, yipeaffai. 



199 



ment and frame of mind, opposed to p^oron;?. kukIu, evil 
habit, baseness, uncharitableness in oil its forms; the genus 
of which fiXaa^/iia, irrijpeia, -irixpia, k.t.X. are species. 
QMrxpoKoyia has nearly the same relation to xpavyij that opyij 
has to dufioi. irovnpia, the active manifestation of kukIu. So 
iroptjpoi, one who is actively wicked, irapit rov ttovos ytvofievof, 
Suidas. 

7«i'ea, progeny, offspring, generation; 7ei'os, race, people 
having a common descent ; yivvjifia, produce of the ground, of 
trees, of animals ; edpo<i, a people living under common institu- 
tions; Srifioi, free citizens, enjoying a popular constitution; 
Xa6<s, the people at large, as a ruling power. 

ylpeadai, become, be made, come to pass, turn out : inrdpxew, 
to be originally, by birth, by primary ond essential condition. 
It may be doubted whether flveadai, virdpy(etp are ever used for 
the simple elvai, : for ylpeadai implies change of state, character, 
or condition ; whereas inrdpj(ei,v calls attention to the original 
condition of the subject, that he is as he always was. H. 1. 4, n. ; 
Ph. 2. 6, n. The distinction between the words will be apparent 
in the following : 2 C. 3. y, 8, eyei/^^ij ip Bofy, was made to be in 
glory for a time ; earai ip Bofy, shall be in glory permanently : 
H. 11. 6, OTi iarl Koi tok iK^jjTovaiP axnov fuaOairoSoniii yiperai, 
that he exists, and to those who earnestly seek him, becomes a 
giver of reward : A. 7. 56, virdpj(mv Bk TrX'^prys TIpevfiaTov ar/Cov, 
not yepo/ievof, and more than &v, as it shows his antecedent 
spiritual condition: A. 17. 24, o&ros ovpavov koX 7^ Kvpto^ 
inrdpjftop : here yepofiepoi would have been quite out of place 
(contrast Ph. 2. 6. 8, ei» /lop^ Oeov tnrdpxav .... fyepoftepov 
UTTJj/coos fitXP'' Bo-vd-Tov) : A. 22. 3, fijXoyr^s vrrapxav tov 0eov : 
Ja. 1. 22,rfCpe<T6e, 'become ye:' H. 6. 12, Xva /it) ptoOpol fyeptjaffe, 
that ye become not dull: 1 Th. 2. 5, ovre ydp irove iv Xoy^ 
KoXaKe^ai eyeprjOij/iev, ' did we take part in,' ' came we to share 
in :' rytypo/uu iv implies the entrance into, and existence in the 
given thing or condition: 1 Th. 2. 14, ip irapa^daet yeyovep, 
became involved in transgression : L. 22. 44. ^i* dr^fopCq : A. 22. 
17, iv iKardaei : 2 T. 1. 17, fyevofiepo^ iv 'Piofir), when he arrived 
in Home and was there : Xen. Anab. iv. 3. 29, S? &v TrpSnoi iv 
T^ irepav r^ivrirai : Cyrop. viii. 6. 13, airwsv iyivero iv MijSoi? : 
Demosth. de CoronA 96, tovto y&p \mdpf)(ew v/ua$ etSoras 
fffoviMi, for I consider that you know this from the begiiming. 



200 



SYNONYMS —yvatnTj, yv&aK, irpo^ryreia. 



ryeatfrfo^, tiller of the boU, husbandman : dfiveXovpyot, vine- 
dresser. 

'yvuifiTi, the decision formed, mind made up, resolution, senten- 
tia; vov<!, perception, apprehension, way of thinking, sensus. 
Twu/ii; is also personal opinion, uttered upon reflection and 
deliberation, in opposition to hrnarfq, express injunction. " j/ou? 
intuB in credendis, fyvtofitj sententia prolata in agendis." voetv, 
perceive, 'merken;' avvUpai., understand, ' veratefien.' "Plus 
est avvievai quam yivwa-Keiv. ytvtaaKeiv est nosse, a-vviivai, 
attcnte expendere." E. 5. 17 : L. 18. 34 : M. 13. 13. 

Vcwffw, faculty of knowing, intelligence, comprehension, 
insight into divine truth : hrOpxoaK, the act of coming to full 
knowledge, perfect knowledge. hriyvutaKt is the additional 
advanced instruction given subsequent to the rudimental cate- 
chetical teaching: R. 1. 28, koL Kadm ovk eioKifiaaav top Qeop 
exeip ep eirvypcoaei, and in proportion as after trial and testing 
of the truth they had received, they rejected the retention of 
God in their mind by expanding and developing that funda- 
mental knowledge. When \070s and yp&an are distinguished 
from each other, \oyov means speech, utterance, power of ex- 
pression: fp&ai<i, spiritual intelligence and insight, doctrinal 
knowledge: Xoyoi lypcaaewi, the faculty of unfolding and ex- 
pounding Gospel truth. In Trpo^reta there is prominent the 
notion of inspired utterance, public declaration to all classes of 
hearers, oracular declaration of the Divine will, but not necessa- 
rily with regard to things to come. Dr. Vaughan remarks 
(R. 12. 6), " irpo^Te/a was the most desirable of all the spi- 
ritual gifts of the early Church, (1) because unlike the gift of 
tongues it conveyed oIkoSo/itip koI irapdKkT)atp ^koI vapa/iv6iap, 
1 0. 14. I — 5 ; (2) it was etV tnjfieiop ov roii airlaroK (like ai 
fyX&aaai), dWd rots irtarevovaiv : (3) it was the means of dis- 
closing to a hearer rh Kpvma t^? KapSiat avrov, and thus of 
bringing him to worship God; (4) it was exercised under 
direct and special revelation (i^p Sk dXXa dvoKa\v<f>0iJ k.t.X., v. 
30) ; but (5) it was capable of control by the possessor, for the 
avoidance of confusion and disorder, w. 31, 32. It was a gift 
therefore (according to the proper meaning of the term irpo^^ 
TTj?), not of prediction, but of inspired preaching ; of forth-telling, 
not of foretelling; prtedicandi, not pradicendi." In Ph. 1. 9, 
iirlrivioaK is accurate knowledge of moral and practical truth ; 



■ 



SYNONYMS— 7M'w<r/c(«), eiTUTTaiiai,. 



201 



'■^ 



atadfioK, the power of apprehension, moral tact, perceptivity, 
the contrary of that dulness and inactivity of the mental sense 
which induces moral want of judgment and indifference. tro(}>la 
implies a divine affection of the heart, which produces a right 
application of the vi/wat?. (Compare Cowper, Task, on the con- 
trast between Wisdom and Knowledge. See also the first 
poem in Tennyson's In Memoriam.) ao<pia may be regarded as 
wisdom residing in the mind, while ^povijaii is wisdom in 
action, the faculty which applies the principles of wisdom. 
Thus tf>p6vriai<i is said to be a fruit of ao<ftla : LXX, Prov. 8. 1, 
aif Tijp ao^iap xripv^eii, '{pa ^popr/ak coi inraKovar) : Prov. 8. 1 2, 
iyat ]} ao(f>la KareaKijputTa rifp ^ov\i)P /col yp&aip, koI eppotap iy(o 
iTreKokea-dfiTip : Jer. 10. 12, xvpioi 6 dpop0d>aa<i ttjp olKovfieprjp 
ep T§ ao^ia ainov, Kal t§ ^pop^aei avrov i^ereipe top ovpapov. 
See Prov. 3. 19. Comp. the use of <j)p6pifiot, M. 10. 16; 25. 2: 
^popifioxi iirolriaep, L. 16. 8. The seven wise men of Greece 
were practical men, trvperoi, rather than the ao^ol of a later 
age. Dicsearchus remarks (Laert. i. 40), oike o-o^oif ovre ^tXo- 
a6<f>oyv avTOVi yeyopivai, trvperov^ Si rti/a? xal po/iodeTiicovv. In 
1 T. 6. 20, dpTi0e<reK rrj^ ■f^evStopv/iov yptiirea)^, oppositions of the 
knowledge which falsely arrogates to itself that name : " non 
enim vera scientia esse potest, quae veritati contraria est." 

ryipdtaKio implies knowledge which produces some emotion 
and affection of the mind; it occurs repeatedly in St. John's 
first Epistle. Christian irpa^K is the test of Christian jpSiok. 
We may infer our knowledge of Christ from our obedience to 
Ilim, J. 7. 17. To know the Lord in the language of Scripture 
is to believe in Him, to fear, to love, to obey. iiriaTafiai^ rest 
upon, implies knowledge of a lower degree, apprehend as a fact, 
without reflection, and sometimes only as an instinct, Jude 10. 
olSa, know as a doctrine of the Christian faith ; yivdtaKa, know 
from personal experience : 1 J. 2. 29, ^ai» elSfJTe Sri BiKaioi iari, 
jivioaKeTe ori irai 6 ttomp ttjp Siicaioavprjp ef avroD yeyipprirai : 
1 J. 4. 16, Kal ■^fieii iypMKafiep xai ireviaTevKafiep r^p dr/din)P 
^1; exet o Oebi ep ^(iIp, and we by our own personal experience 
know, reflect upon with acquiescence and satisfaction, ap- 
prove : o <yhp KaTepyd^ofiai ov yiPU><TKU> : Ps. 1. 6, yipwTKei, 
KvpMi 6S0P SiKaiiav. rjSeiP, elSorei may often be rendered 
•consider,' A. 7. is; 23. 5: R. 7. 7 : E. 6. a: C. 3. 24. In 1 
Th. 5. 12 eiZepai means ' reoognize fully,' " ut rationem et respec- 
tum habentis," analogous to VT, and approximating in meaning 



202 



SYNONYMS — 7077i;<r/to?, Seo-TroTij?. 



to hrvyivaxTKeiv, 1 C. 16. 18. This use of elSevai does not occur 
in classical Greek. Cf. G. 4. 9 : 1 C. 8. 3 : J. 10, u. 

yoyyvtrfiov, the outward expression of sullen discontent, ill- 
concealed dissatisfaction : BiaXoyiaiiov, the inward disposition 
to murmur and object, evil thoughts, unreasonable reasoning. 

SeiKia, moral cowardice, 'timer' (the contrary extreme to 
physical cowardice is dpaavrq^, foolhardrness). (ftofitxi is a 
middle term, ' metus,' used both in a good and bad sense. In 
a bad sense it is the effect of the nvevfui Bov\e[a<i, B. 8. 15, the 
being afraid of God ; in 1 P. 3. 14, intimidation. In a good 
sense, ' the fear of God,' passim : evKdfieia, roYcrence, object of 
fear, cautious obserYance resulting from salutary fear : evXafi^f, 
cautious and careful in conduct, one who takes heed to the 
thing which is right, especially applied to pious Jews, ' devout ' 
in A. y., which is also used as the English equivalent for 
eixre^eiii and ae/So/ievoi, proselytes to the Jewish faith : €iae^i]<i, 
evaefieia, denote practical piety of every kind in the sense of 
the Latin 'pius,' 'pietas,' reverence (o-e/Sa?) well and rightly 
directed ; Angl. ' worship,' i. e. worthship : ffeoaefi^i, deoaifieia, 
necessarily refer to piety toward God, which is not always the 
case with evaePryi, evae^eia, but in the Kew Testament evtreffeui 
is practically the same as deoae^eia, " vis pietatis in ipsa vita 
vel extern^ vel intern^ " (Tittmann) : 17 vpbt rbv Sva koI fiovop 
a>f d\i}da><; onoXoyovfievop re xal ovra Qeov avdvevaiM, Koi, f) Kark 
rovTov ^mij (Eusebius) : ffprjaKeia, the ceremonial service of 
religion, the external form, of which Beoae^eia is the animating 
spirit : 0pr}(Tico<i, ' religiosus,' the zealous and diligent performer 
of the outward service of God : SeuriSalfuov, SeiaiSai/xopia were 
originally neutral terms, expressing respect for dead men, awe 
of invisible beings : irroijaK, alarm, trepidation, from the appre- 
hension of real or imaginary dangers. 

SeffiroTTf} is applied to one who has absolute and unlimited 
power, as a master over slaves : Kvpu><! implies a power subject 
to limitation, as a husband over his wife, as a father over his 
children : Kvpioi yvvaiKW koI vimv avr)p koX iraT^p, SeawoTrji 
Be dpyvpotpijTav (Ammonius) : Kvpuy; is a title of honour. The 
application of Biairora implies g^reater submission : xvpie, 
greater respect. Hence the Greeks refused to apply the title 
of SeairoTrji to any but the gods. As however the BeoriroTfii 
affected the character of eiepyerrjii (L. 22. 25), the slave-owner 
would often be gratified, if they acknowledged him as Kvpioi. 



SYNONYMS — Stai3o\o?, BlBlUTKaXot. 



203 



St Paul appUes the terms Kvpioi. Se<nr6rai, to masters without 
distinction. Both terms are applied to the Father and to 
the Son (2 P. 2. 1 : Jude s). But BeairSrvi expresses more 
decidedly thai Kipm the absolute dominion of God over His 

creatures. o t q «. ^f 

BidpoXm, slanderer, traducer, spoken of men, J l. a- 3, 01 
women, 1 T. 3. 11 ; Tit. 2. 3 : KardkaXo^, Theoph. ^arava? is 
appUed to any tempter or adversary of the truth, M. 16. 23. 
The noun in Hebrew denotes an adversary or opposer. Ihe 
verb means ' to lie in wait,' ' oppose,' • resist.' Both words are 
applied to the prince of the faUen angels: Rev. 12. 9, o5^« o 
dpyaloi, & KoKoiliepo^ 8*a/9o\o? koI 6 aarapa,. The Hebrew 
Jarapa, is more generic than the Greek Bidfiol^. The former 
expresses his character as an opposer of aU good; the latter 
denotes his relation to the saints as their accuser, calumniator, 
traducer, Job 1. 7-12 ; Zech. 3. 1, 2. The sacred writers adopt 
all the forms of personal agency in setting forth the conduct 
and character of Satan. (M. 12. 26, n.) 

SidKOPixi, attendant, one in subordinate station, a word oi very 
extensive signification, formed perhaps from St»}«a,. run to serve. 
AppUed to our Lord, L. 22. 27; to St. Paul, 2 C. 6. 4; to 
magistrates, R. 13. 4. {rrrripirvt, subordinate agent, implying 
a superior, attendant in the synagogue, or in the council, bo 
{nrvperiu, 'act for,' serve under any one. 0epd7rtop, one who 
holds a confidential position, as mini&ters of state are servants 
of the crown. olKOPojiot, home-manager, steward, chamberlain, 
owenj?, domestic servant. 5oOXos. a skve, in the lowest grade. 
BulkopU, especially used of ministering to the poor, A. 6 l ; 
12. 25 ; 2 C. 8. 4 ; but means any kind of service ; a word of 
wider meaning than XaTpela. , • 1, .1 

hrlTpoiro<:, overlooker, guardian, one entrusted with the 
charge of any thing: Aristoph. EccL 212, iinTp67roK koI 
rafilaiai: Xen. CEcum. xii. 2, o ep roll dfypolt iiriTpovot 
ivillicus). In G. 4. 2, iiriTpoiroi, and oUopofwi are the guardians 
and stewards (slaves perhaps) who superintended the education 
and provided for the support of the *;\ijpoi/6/*os (herus). MMan, 
Var. Hist. iii. 26, iirlTpo-n-oi koI tow ttoiSo? «ol t&v XRVf^-rmp- 

SiStiffKaXo?, master, as teacher of scholars, disciples: em- 
ardrni. master, as the head of a company, or as the employer 
of workmen : Kvpio-;, master, with reference to wife, children, 
servants, or as Lord of subjects. The term BiSdaKoXxxi does not 



204 



SYNOHYMa—StSdaKW, <ro<f>l^u>. 



describe any separate order in the Church, but denotes a special 
gift and quaUty distinguishing some persons in the Church. 
St. Paul calls himself SiSdaKoKiyi idv&v, 1 T. 2. 7 : 2 T. 1. 17 
where we find the words iiriaroKo^ and vijpvf "a^sociat^i with 
SiBa<TKa)^<t. He was sent to be a herald {K^pv^) in the degree 
of an Apostle (a7r6ffTo\o9), with the endowment of supernatural 
gifts to be a Z,UaKa>^<i. In A. 13. 1, hiUaKoKoi. are joined 
with irpo<f>f)Tai. In E. 4. 11, roi^ Bi 7roi/iii,a<t «ol SiSaaKaXov^, 
different names of the same class, stationary rather than mis- 
sionary. TToinivei, iirlaKoiroi, irpea^irepoi. ot fiyoifievot were 
SiSaaKaXoi possessing the x«P*<r/*a tcvfieputjaeon. The SiSda- 
KaXoi had the gift of SiSaxv. but were not invested as a body 
with any administrative powers and authority. 

StSdamo, SiaXiyofiai, are especiaUy applied to the instruction 
of believers, A. 6. 43 ; 20. 7. The latter is used of con- 
versational teaching; Kr/pvaaa,. proclaim as a herald, reiterate 
a solemn message or startling fact, to excite the attention of 
unbelievers, M. 3. l. eiarreXl^ofiai is a more general term 
applied to private members of the Church, as well as public 
teachers, denoting ordinary conversation as well as public 
addresses, i. q., XaXowrev rbv \6yop, A. 11, 19: Kanixiw 
instruct oraUy, 1 C. 14. 19 : G. 6. 6 : Sia^uiprvpeadai. to deUver 
their testimony thoroughly and completely. 

StSaxn, SiSaaKoKla, the instruction of the young and ignorant, 
sometimes mission, ministry: irapdKKriat'i, the exhortation of 
more advanced Christians, used very much as X070S, but with 
especial reference to invitations, encouragements, entreaties, 
cheering on to Christian action : -irapanvdia, persuasive power] 
expressive of more tenderness than irapaKXr/aii. StSaxv (teach- 
ing) may point more to the aci, SiSaffKuXia (doctrine), more to 
the substance or result of teaching. This sense of BiSavv is 
supported by Thucyd. iv. 126, oi>c &v otioim^ SiSaxvP &fia ry 
irapaKeXevtrei iiroioufi'nv. irpo(fn,Telat. varied declarations of the 
diyme counsels, expositions of God's oracles immediately in- 
spired, by and emanating from the Holy Spirit. 

ao<j>l^io marks the true wisdom which the Holy Scriptures 
impart: 2 T. 3. 15: Ps. 19. 7, ao,l>i^ovaa w,V«a: 105. 22, roi? 
irpeafivripow ao^iaat: 119. gs, ia6i>iad<i p.e ri,p ivroX^v aov 
Theoph. ij ^fw jv&ais: cn^l^ei top &p0p,oirop ek dirdrriP koX 
ao<l>ianara Koi Xorfo/xaxlai . . . dXX^ ^ Beta ypwavt aod>l^et c« 
<roT7}plap, 






SYNONYMS — SlKMOa, So^d^d). 



205 



SiKaiow, make Sixaiop, 'make out to be just,' applied to 
things, deem just, claim as one's right or due, desire to be 
done, like d^wa. When spoken of persons, put in the position 
of SlKcuoi, * account righteous,' do a man justice, give him his 
due by acquitting him of the charge, or by inflicting the 
penalty, and thus cancelling the crime. It is in the latter 
sense that the Scotch used the word 'justify,' as equivalent to, 
execute. BiKaioffvpij, the state, habit, and quality of him who 
is Blxaioi}, the virtue which is opposed to dZiKia, dpoftia, 
B. 6. 13 : 2 C. 6. 14, and to the corrupt bias of human nature, 
2 C. 11. IS: right conduct conformable to the laws of God, 
2 T. 2. 22; 3. 16: Tit. 2. 12. In 1 T. 6. 11, BiKatoawrj is 
joined with evaifieui, of which the latter denotes practical piety, 
as the result of general conformity to God's law. wicrriv and 
drfdmi are mentioned as the fundamental principles of Chris- 
tianity : vrro/iop^, irpdwdffeia, as the principles on which a 
Christian ought to act towards gainsayers and opponents. 
BiKaioavvf) &eov, B. 1. 17, refers to the plan devised by God 
for man to be just before Him, where the addition of Geov 
points to God Himself as the Author, the origin, the source. 
B. 3. 26, BUoMP Koi BiKuiovPTa, righteous, and imparting 
righteousness. "There is a broad distinction between the 
absolute and the relative use of BMoiovaOai. It is used ab- 
solutely in regard to God, L. 7. 29 ; Christ, 1 T. 3. 16 ; men, 
B. 4. 2: Ja. 2. 21. In the relative use we must distinguish 
between the purely judicial meaning, M. 12. 37, and the com- 
prehensive dogmatical meaning, which includes the idea not 
only of forgiveness of past sins (B. 6. 7), but also of a spiritual 
change of heart through the inworking power of faith." 
Ellicott. BiKai(o/ia, what is ordained as just, statute, decree 
(Latin, ' jubeo,' ' jussum,' 'jus,' ' justum ') : ordinance, L. 1. 6 : H. 
9. 1. 10 : requirement, B. 2. 26 ; 8. 4 : sentence of condemnation, 
1. 32: of acquittal, 5. 16: righteous act, is; Bev. 19. s: 
SiKalonn<!, the action of the legislator or judge in promulgating 
a decree, in declaring a person righteous, in recognizing him as 
such, B. 4. 25; 5. is. 

So^a, manifestation of excellence, J. 2. 11, the future state of 
acknowledged perfection which God designs for man, B. 8. 
18. 21 ; 9. 23, the sum of the true attributes or characteristics of 
God, J. 1. 14. 

Bo^d^, recognize in true character, B. 1. 21 : J. 7. 39 : 



206 



SYNONYMS — Swa/iii, 'E^paio<!. 



2 Th. 3. I : R. 11. I3. Thus L. 17. is, SiBovai, So^av ry 
0€y, to ascribe to God His true character (J. 9. 24 : A. 12. 23) : 
J. 11. 40, S'^ffji ri}v ho^av tov Qeov, His power manifested: 
R. 9. 23 : E. 3. 16, roi> ttKovtop t^? S6f»j?, the fulness of his 
perfections : Svofia, revelation of character and will, that which 
brings before the mind all that a person is : M. 1. 23, ets opo/ia 
•>rpo<fnJTov, to acknowledge one in the character of prophet, 
M. 10. 41 ; ndrep, Bo^aaov aov ro ovofia, manifest Thyself 
according to that which Thou art, J. 12. 28 ; a summary of 
the divine character or qualities, Ex. 33. 19; 34. 6—7. So 
' hallowed be Thy name.' 

Bvpafiii, inherent power, natural capacity, moral as well as 
physical ability, miraculous energy, divine power of speech and 
persuasion : i^ovtria, delegated authority, social claim, right, 
privilege : t<»^w?, physical strength, vires, power naturally 
resident in the subject : ivifyyeia, power in action, energetic 
exercise, efiectual operation : Kpa-rot;, power in effect, force, 
superiority : evipyr)fia, a work wrought by us, and in us, com- 
bining ivipyeia and avvipyeia, natural works from an internal 
principle. 

Svva/Jiai denotes moral power, to-^i^iu, physical ability, Bvvaftai, 
from Swo9, equivalent to * divinus,' ' bonus,' I make myself 
good, am strong enough, equal, able. The association of willing- 
ness with power, of power tempered by mercy, may be traced 
in R. 11. 23; 14. 4; 16. 25: 2 C. 9. 8: E. 3. 20: 1 T. 1. 12 : 
Judo 24: H. 7. 25; 11. 19: laxva, strong in physical health 
and mental power, have efficacy, prevail; used of physical 
strength or mental validity. In the ascription, Rev. 5. 12, 
BwafiK, ability to effect all the purposes of rectitude and wis- 
dom : urxyt, ability brought into action : "rrXovToii, the fulness 
of all good : rifi^, intrinsic excellence, supreme perfection : 
eiXoyia, the utterance of gratitude from the universe of holy 
and happy beings. (See ao<f>la, So^a.) 

i^ovtriat, authorities, used for human magistrates : oi iv rekei, 
L. 12. 11 : Tit. 3. 1 : for angelic powers, both good and evil, 
E. 3. 10; 6. 12: 0. 1. 16 ; 2. is: 1 P. 3. 22. The association 
of willingness with power in Bvva/iai may be traced in the 
German ' miigen,' the meanings of which, according to Fliigel, 
are, ' to be able,' ' to be allowed,' ' like,' * wish,' • desire,' ' have 
a mind to.' 

'E^pauKi, a Hebrew in language, denoting superiority in 



SYNONYMS— ey7i'0?, eyKpareia. 



207 



lineage and education over the Hellenists, Ph. 3. 5 : 'lovSaioi. a 
Jew in his nationaUty, as distinguished from the Gentiles : 
'lapaiiKkni. the most honourable title, as a member of the 
theocracy and heir of the promises, R. 9. 4; 11. 1 : A. 2. 22 : 
2 0. 11. 22. In A. 14. 1 ; 18. 4, we have 'lovZaloi immedia,tely 
coupled with "EXX*?^?, where the former denotes Jews by birth, 
as well as by faith; the latter is appUed to Gentile proselytes, 
who had joined themselves to the Lord to serve Him, Isa. 56. 6. 
In A. 19. 10. 17, at a more advanced stage of the spread of the 
Gospel, "EWvvev seems to have been applied to all Gentile 
converts, whether they had been proselytes previously or not. 
So in R. 2. 9, 10. 'EWtiviarai occurs properly only in A. 6. J : 
9. 29, Jews residing at a distance from Palestine who usually 
did not speak Hebrew. In A. 11. 20, it is doubtful whether • 
we should read "EXKrivtK or 'EXXijwora?. 

eyyvoi, i.q. 677w?t»j9, one who gives security for the due 
performance of the conditions of the covenant {iv, ifvtop, hollow 
of the hand), sponsor, surety, spokesman: Ecclus. 29.^ 15, 
Xdpi,ra<: efivov fii) iirCKoSr,- eSaKev yttp ri,v yjruxriv avrov xnrep 
aov: tie<rlTn<s, mediator (fiearov. elfu; go), one who intervenes 
between two parties, ' the daysman who lays hand upon both,' 
Job 9. 33 : intercessor, peace-maker, H. 7. 22 ; 8. 6 : 1 T. 2. 6, 
TOV dtroaroXov koI apxiepea t^? ofioXoylai r)H&v: H. 3. 1, rov 
dirooToXov. " eum qui Dei causam apud nos agit ; rov dpxi^pea, 
qui causam nostram apud Deum agit. Hie Apostolatus et 
Pontificatus imo mediatoria vocabulo continentur." Bengel. 

iyxaTJa), bring a formal charge, arraign, indict, the forensic 
term: akiaop.ai, aUege as ground of inquiry: eX%«., convict, 
show to be wrong, prove guilty. 

iyKpdreia, self-command, self-control, opposed to self-in- 
dulgence, the grace by which the Spirit controls the flesh, the 
restraining the passions which cause injury to one's neighbour ; 
A. 24. 25 : 10. 7. 9, el ovk eyKparevovrai, if they have no 
self-control: 1 C. 9. 25, 6 affa>vi^6fievo<s irdvra lytcpareverai, 
exercises self-restraint in all indulgences : trpaoriji, a natural 
mildness of disposition, an attribute of Christ, M. 11. 29: 
2'0. 10. 1. The philosophers applied it to that quality by 
which a man retained his own equanimity, irpaorni is opposed 
to a contentious spirit, Tit. 3. 2 ; to severity in dealing with 
culprits or opponents, G. 6. l : 1 C. 4. 21 : 2 T. 2. 2«, 85 : 
irpaihrdeeia, 1 T. 6. 11, meekness of heart and feelings: cTrt- 



208 



SYNONYMS— 6t/<(UI', iKK\t)<ria. 



elKeia, a habit of mildness, from considering what is due to 
others, reasonableness, fairness. From irfxpareia will proceed 
inroftomj, endurance, submissiveness, the patience of himiility, 
2 P. 1. 6. Opposed to vp^Tffi we have 0^71X07^9, irascibility : 
dypi6T7if, rusticity: ;^aXeiroTi;9, severity, ^(ctxijf, making 
allowance, forbearing, not insisting on just rights, in distinc- 
tion from SUaioi. A little less than einretdijq /iear)) eXeoi/v, 
Ja. 3. 17, but more than dftajfoi, not aggressive, nrpaorf)^ is 
the outward expression of humility, having for its founda- 
tion the inward feeling, Ta'ireivo<f>po<rvvr), modesty of mind. 
Theophylact (quoted by Trench, Synonyms, p. 207) compares 
vrpaoTfji with fiaKpodv/ila. The irp^of remits the pimishment 
due to the offender: the iMKp6dvpM<i, after long deliberation, 
inflicts it. Compare L. 18. 7 : Ecclus. 36. 22, 23. The Scrip- 
tural irpaoTqt is an inwrought grace of the soul, under the 
influence of which we submit to the divine dispensations with- 
out resistance or dispute, acquiescing in the thought that the 
insults and injuries inflicted by men are permitted by God 
for the chastening and purifying of His people, 2 Sam. 16. 11. 
ftuKpoOvfiUt is joined, R. 2. 4, with p^oronjv, and avay^j, 
forhearance : M. 17. 17, &»? irore avi^o/mi vfi&v ; " Deo tribuitur 
(uiKpoOvfiia, quia poonas peccatis debitas differt propter gloriam 
suam, et ut dctur peccatoribus resipiscendi locus." Suicer. to 
aXoKy eirvriOevai rr)v rrpoaijKovffav Bixriu, Theophylact. 

elKotv, actual likeness, designed representation, vivid resem- 
blance, effigies, picture, statue. aKid, shadowy resemblance, 
umbra, sketch, outline. The axtd is the shadow which may be 
cast by the statue, eiKmv. j^apaxri^p, exact correspondence, as 
of an impression with the seal, or of a coin with the die. a&/ia. 
as opposed to aKid, substantial reality. inroTvnaiaK, primary 
draught, or sketch, to be afterwards filled in, a cartoon or 
subtracery to be afterwards painted over. et&aXov, a mere etSo? : 
i^a, an ideal phantom, simulacrum, a nonentity: 1 0. 8. 4, 
olSa/iep oTt oiiSep elSaXov iv Koafiat, as far as it is an object of 
worship, it is a stone or block of wood and nothing more. 

iKKkfjaia, a body of men, called out of the rest of mankind to 
form a society, and knit together by the closest spiritual bonds, 
originally an assembly of the people lawfully convened at 
Athens, avpar/urfri, any gathering or drawing together of 
persons, presenting solely the ideas of collection, association. 
The Christians dropped the use of avvar/to^i^, which was per- 



i- 



i 



SYNONYMS — iK\veadai, ^Katov. 



209 



manently associated with Jewish worship, and appropriated 
iKKKtjala as a title of honourable significance, with implied 
reference to those who remained in the state, out of which the 
members of the €KK\i)aia had been called. The avvofytoy^ was 
congregative, bringing together the members of an existing 
society, but excluding all others. The ixKKriaia is aggrega- 
tive, as it calls, invites, and summons men from the whole 
world to become its members. In Rev. 3. 9, awarfoifj/ij ex- 
presses those who were united only in opposition to the truth. 
In 2 Tim. 2. 19 the Church is called o <rrep«os OefiiXuK; roO 
OeoS, the firm foundation of God, where Oefiikioi marks the 
Church of Christ and His Apostles as a foundation placed in 
the world, on which the whole ftiture oUoSofiij rests (E. 2. 20), 
and conveys the idea of its firmness, strength^ and solidity; 
E. 3. 17 : 0. 1. 23 : H. 11. 10: Rev. 21. u. 19. 0e/jii\to<iis pro- 
perly an adjective, but is used in later writers as a substantive. 
Aristoph. Aves 1137, defiekiovi XiBovt. 

iK\vea0M, giving way altogether, from failure of power; 
iKKUKelv, failure, from moral weakness, out and out faint- 
hearted. iyKaxetv, cowardly in action, not so strong as ex/eo- 



iceip. 



iKtrraavt, surprise, astonishment, when' the mind is carried 
out of or beyond itself, a trance, distraction of the mind from 
terror, Mk. 16. 8. In 2 C. 5. 13, i^earijp^v, '■ we are beside our- 
selves,' is opposed to aeoiPpovovfiep, ' in sound mind.' The long- 
continued and permanent state of eKoraaK is fiapia. In J. 10. 
20, the possession of a devil is associated with madness, most 
probably what we call fanaticism. Bd/xfioi, awe, surprise, at a 
strange or unusual deed or expression, frequently the com- 
mencement of eKtxTaai<!, the effect produced by a preternatural 
or singfular occurrence, dafi^eo/tai, Mk. 10. 32, amazement at 
our Lord's majestic bearing, solemn manner, and awful aspect. 

ikey^K, conviction, mode of proof. eXeyxoi, reproof, proving 
the contrary, proof for the refutation of error, the mental state 
of being convinced. 

eXaiop, oil in its simple natural state, as generally used by 
wrestlers ; fivpou, ointment, ' unguentum,' the base of which is 
oil, with the addition of aromatic ingredients, generally used 
by women. Hence the point of our Lord's rebuke, L. 7. 4fl, 
eXai^ 7^p xe^aXi}i> fiov ovk ^Xet^af, avrri Se /ivp^ ^Xec^j 
fiou roim iroSaf. "Ilia pretioso unguento non caput tantum, 

p 



210 



SYNONYMS— eXeo?, cWoXj;. 



Bed et pedes perfimdit ; ille ne caput quidem mero oleo ; quod 
perfunctorisa amioitiao fuerat." Grotius. aket4>eiv is used of all 
anointings, whether with fivpop or SXaiov: but j(pUiv is the 
sacred heavenly word restricted to the anointing of the Son by 
the Father with the Holy Ghost, used in a mystical or spiritual 



sense. 



e\£Of, love of pity to man, as a sufferer ; p^a/otf, the freeness 
of divine love to man, as a sinner. In the divine mind iXeoi 
precedes x"/"'* ^^^ i^ tlio reception of the divine blessing X'^P'^i 
(pardon) must precede e\eo<: (mercy). The sense of unpardoned 
sin must be removed before the misery of sin can be mitigated. 
Hence the order in 1 T. 1. 3, %a/!Mf, SXeo^, elpijvr), as IXeov is the 
effect of x^pi^y ^^^ ttp^vt) the joint result from %a/)(« and S\eo9. 
When etprivri is joined with aa^oKeia, etp^vr) denotes an inward 
repose and security, da-<f)dXeia, a sureness and -safety that is 
not interfered with, or compromised by outward obstacles. The 
idea of compassion for misfortune and suffering is prominent in 
i\€ij/iwv, and in the cry for mercy, iKer)aov. But where the 
sufferer is deeply impressed with a sense of his guilt, iXdaKOfiai, 
'C\£U)9 are used in order to express the necessity of expiation, or 
divine interposition. Hence the prayer of the publican (L, 18. 
13) was not iKirjirov, but iXdadijTi fioi. t^ ufiaprtoX^. The idea 
of guilt is not necessarily connected with eXeoi. TKeai is 
applied to the Creator only (see Alford, H. 8. 12), ^Xeof is 
ascribed to the creature as well. The root of eKea and i\ao<! is 
the same, but two words are used to express the essential 
difference between the feeling of pity in God and in. man. 
olicripfioi (connected with 61, oIktov) expresses subjective sym- 
pathy and distress on witnessing misfortune and calamity. 0. 
3. 12, airXarfxya oucrtpfi&v. 

epSei^Ki, showing forth, process of discovering, method of 
demonstrating, indication ; Ph. 1. 38 : B.. 3. 25. evBeirffia, the 
substance of the matter demonstrated, palpable evidence, recog- 
nized token, 2 Tb. 1. s. 

ivOvfirjaii, imagination, secret desire or motive, passing 
thought. epvoM, serious intent, though never executed. 

eWoXij, a single precept, i/o/i09, a code of precepts ; R. 13. 9, 
10 ; evroXai, moral injunctions, prohibitions ; htKauanara, posi- 
tive ordinances, rites and ceremonies, L. 1. 6 ; Sucaltofia, judicial 
sentence of acquittal or condemnation ; B. 5. 6 ; Rev. 15. 4. 
Soyfia, placilum, * id quod placet,' 8 ieiomai : a decre^. which 



SYNONYMS —iirianj/ir), f^Xo?. 



211 



derives its force not from any conform^^y to the foundation of 
words, but from the authority by which it is promulgated. 
Soyfiara, positive edicts, accidental, circumstantial, local and 
temporary. 

iTTKrrqfiri, knowledge of facts, natural or acquired; aoipia, 
the higher faculty of making a right use of knowledge. (See 
on r/v&aiii.) ao(f>la, the general gift of illumination ; airoKa- 
\ir>JrK, the more special gift of insight into the divine mysteries, 
E. 1. 17. 4>^<rK, that which is inherent, innate, fixed and 
implanted from the first, in opposition to that which is acces- 
sional, superinduced, accidental. 

ipyd^ofiai, work, labour, especially for livelihood. Applied 
to agriculture and general business, foUow^any pursuit. The 
exhortation of the Apostle, 1 Th. 4. 11, derives additional force 
from the consideration that the inhabitants of Thessalonica were 
engaged in mercantile and industrial callings, as handicrafts- 
men and artificers. These too he exhorts '^avxd^eiv, which 
marks a sedate and tranquil spirit (1 Tim. 2. 2), in contrast to 
the excited and unquiet bustle: trepiep^aX.eadai, 2 Th. 3. 11, 
that attends ill-defined or mistaken religious expectations, 2 Th. 
3. 11, 13. ip^aala, effort, occupation, gain. dr/mvl^o/jLai, exert 
oneself as a combatant in the public games, strive, contend. 
dywvia, contest, conflict of mind. 

£v7£i/^9, well-bom, noble-minded, ingenuus, implying good 
qualities of disposition, as well as nobility of birth. evayriP^v^ 
one of good condition, of reputable position, eutr^ij/xoi/ci)?, with 
propriety of outward conduct, with decent gravity and seemly 
deportment (eiiKa^&i, aefiv&^), associated with Kara tu^iv, 1 0. 
14. 40 ; contrasted with dTaKTCi>9, 2 Th. 3. 6. 

evKoytfTOf!, blessed, applied to God only; iMKapufi, happy, 
applied to men ; /taKapl^eo, call happy ; fiaieapia-fioi, the pro- 
nouncing of blessing; eiikoyrjftivoii is applied to man, and in 
LXX occasionally to God, but £v\oyriT6<i never to man. In 
1 T. 1. 11 ; 6. 15, fiuKapioi is applied to God, to exalt the glory 
of the Gospel, expressing not only His own immutable and 
essential perfections, but the riches of His mercy in this dispen- 
sation to man. , 

^fj\o<i, in a good sense, ardour, zeal for the cause of another, 
emulation to imitate superior worth; in a bad sense, heart- 
burning, envy, jealousy. trp&Tov /liv (^Xof, drro {lifXov Bi ^6- 
voi!, Plato. <f>B6vo<i is always used in a bad senfie, jealousy of 

p 2 



212 



SYNONYMS — fowj, ^e/UOV. 



another's success, depreciation of his worth, envy of his ex- 
cellence ; called 6^0a\fi6<; iropvpoi, Mk. 7. 22. In G. 5. 21, 
^dopoi, <j>6poi are associated hy sound and sense, as envy led to 
tho first murder. Aristotle uses fijXo? as equivalent to rrap- 
o^vaftflt dydiTT)^, the emulation by which a man laments and 
endeavours to repair his own deficiencies. "Malitia (KaKla) 
malo dclectatur alieno ; invidia (<f)06vo<i) bono cruciatur alieno ; 
dolus (86X05) duplicat cor; adulatio {inroKpiaKi) duplicat lin- 
guami; dotraotio (/caraXaXia) vulnerat famiam." (Augustine 
ad 1 P. 2. 1.) 

^(orj, vital principle, physical life, opposed to ffaparoi, welfare, 
happiness, eternal life. /S/07, the period of life, the means of 
living, the manner in which life is spent, (feo?) expresses the 
existence of plants and animals as well as men. /3(of denotes 
properly the existence of men only, and the life they lead. But 
/3(bf is restricted to the life of men on earth, and is conse- 
quently inferior to ^att;, as descriptive of their highest blessed- 
ness as heirs of salvation. ^uuriKa is used in contrast to 0776- 
\ov<t, 1 C. 6. 3 ; TOP ^lov 70V Koafiov, the world's good things : 
1 J. 3. 17, ^o>r) auopiov. 1 J. 3. 15. He who is not ready to 
bestow some portion of the ^t'o? tow Koafiov in love to his 
brethren, has no reasonable hope of the ija^ auopioi. "^vx^, 
animal life in this world, is opposed to f<a»j, life in the world to 
come : L. 17. 33, 8? iap fijTJjo-j; ttji/ '^i^iji' airov a&aai airoKeaei 
ainriP' koX S? ehp arrroKlari avrrp), ^acr/opija-ei ain-^v: J. 12. 25, 
6 fiia&v T^i/ "^^v^ifP avTOV ip rw Koafup Towry ets ^anjv altopiop 
^vXd^ei avT'qp : Hev. 8. 9, direOape . . , rh exopra -^uxdi, those 
who held fast animal life died in body and soul, ddparoi is 
used in three general senses. Objectively, as a personal adver- 
sary and enemy of Ohrist and his kingdom, 1 C. 15. 26; a 
spiritual state or condition, including the notions of evil and 
corruption, I^J. 3. 14; a power and principle pervading and 
overshadowing the world, H. 2. u ; 1 T. 1. 10. 0dpaTo<i, as a 
known and ruling power, has generally the article; (i&>>; and 
d^dapala, as recently revealed, are anarthrous : d^Oapaia ex- 
plains and characterizes fytr) with reference to its imperishable 
and incorruptible nature, 1 P. 1. 4, and its complete exemption 
from death. Rev. 21. 4. Compare R. 2. 7. 

ffiepMP, the title given to the proconsular governors of tho 
Roman provinces, under whom the iirirpoirois, or procurator, 
was appointed for separate districts. The CTrtV/joiro? had charge 



SYNONYMS— IJO-WX*"?, 6vfl6^. 



213 



^ 



of the revenue, and a judicial power in matters relating to 
finance ; but in a portion of a large province, where the ^e/uov 
could not reside, he had the power of inflicting capital punish- 
ment, ff/enopia is properly any delegated authority, but is 
used to express the Roman imperial authority. ^efKop is tho 
general word for all governors, whether proconsul, legate, or 
procurator. 

^ffvxuxi, meek and gentle, in a passive sense, who bears 
calmly the annoyances and vexations caused by others : irpa^t, 
meek and gentle, in an active sense, who does nothing to try 
the patience of others. Bengel, ad 1 P. 3. 4. See on iyKpuTeia. 
ri<Tir)(i.o4, contrasted with fipefun, is tranquillity arising from 
within: Plato, ^a-vxtov o adt^patv pio<i. ^pefuxi denotes tran- 
quillity arising from without, "qui ab aliis non pertinebatur :" 
Plato, ■^pep.ia ■^ir)^<: trepX rd Seipd : 1 T. 2. 2. ^avxa^eiv (1 Th. 
4. 11) marks the sedate and tranquil spirit which stands in 
contrast to the excited bustle (irepiepyd^eaffai, 2 Th. 3. ii) that 
often marks ill-defined or mistaken religious expectation. 

0£i6rr)<s, divinity, the property of 0eorr}<i, 0e6rr]<}, deity, the 
being in whom 0ei6rTfi of the highest order resides. Different 
ways of spelling the same word settle themselves into words 
of difibrent meanings. Compare dpdOefia, dpaOijua. Opdaot^ 
boldness : 0dpatn, foolhardiness : 0pdao<i hk 0dpa(K irpo<s rd /tij 
ToXfiTirea, Oregory Naz. Hospes and hostia were originally the 
same word, a stranger, one who might prove a friend or a 
foe. 

0e<opea>, behold an object present, contemplate a thing as 
actually done, L. 10. is : I regard you, A. 17. 22 : oirrofuu, see 
an object appearing, J. 16. 16 : &(f)0r]p, 6<f>0j^(rofun, show myself, 
A. 26. 16. Dr. Wordsworth remarks that Sirrofuii, is the more 
modest word. St. Paul uses SyJre<T0e, A. 20. 25; but the dis- 
ciples use 0eo>peip, A. 20. 38. St. Paul would not say that his 
own nrpoawwop was af toi» 0eapia<i. Compare opaw. 
I 0i'yydpo>, touch slightly, finger: airrofiai, cling to, fasten 
oneself on, handle closely : •^Xo^ttw, feel after, even without 
touching, touch the surface of any material object, capable of 
being felt. 

0priT6<!, mortal, subject to death, the universal condition of 
living creatures : psKpoi, dead, either physically or spiritually. 

0vfi6<f, the mind as regards tho passions : vow?, the mind as 
regards the intelligence: 0v/x6f, tho turbulent commotion of 



214 



SYNONYMS - dupeop, dvai'a. 



the mind (0v<o, rage) : excandeacentia ; " Ira nascens et modo 
desistons," Cicero. Passion at its commencement : ' iracundia,' 
irritation, fretfulness, the mental excitement produced by 
TTiKpia. opyr), an abiding, settled habit of mind, with the pur- 
pose of revenge in man : ira inveterata, i. q. fiiivK, God's holy- 
hatred of sin, which reveals itself in His punitive justice, 
R. 1. 18 : 0/371}, the heat of the fire: 6vfu>%, the bursting forth 
of the flame : Rev. 16. 19 ; 19. is, OvfM^ opyrft, tree excandesceniia. 
AmmoniuB, dvfi6% fiiv itrri irpoaKuipof opr^ Sk •ir6Kv)(p6vio<! 
fivrjaiKaKla. dvpLOi differs from opyi^ both in its rise, as more 
sudden (L. 4. aS : A. 19. as), and its nature, as less lasting : 
Wisd. 48. 10, xoTraaat opyiiv irpb dvfiov, to appease anger before 
it blazed forth. So vapopyl^to, chafe, work into a passion : 
$X2-^i,9, the act by which a man is cast down and dashed to 
the ground, pressure from affliction, tribulation, as of a heavy 
weight rolling over one : <rT6voj(wpla, the effect on the object, 
the straitncss to which a man is reduced by continual pressure 
and restraint: R. 2. 8, 9: Ja. 1. 19: E. 4. 3i, a stronger word 
than 0\Ay^K : 2 C. 4. 8, 0Xi^6/jtevoi aW' oi arevoyapoviievoi,. 
The opposite of evpv)(apla : Ps. 31. 8, ov (nn>iK\ei<rd<} fie eh 
^etpas i'^dpov' «7Tij<ras ev evpoj(mptp roi? troZw; fiov. With 
dXiy^K is connected 8M17/X09, 2 Th. 1. 4. ffXiy^it is the more 
general and comprehensive term; Bui)yfi6<i, the more special. 
" ©Xii^ts injurias complectitur quas Judsei et ethnici Christia- 
nis propter doctrinal Christiana) professionem imposuerunt, ut 
verbera delationes vincula relegationem. Notione sua 6 Suoy/ioi 
a tf ffKC't^ei differt, ita ut hoc vocabulum latius quam illud 
pateat A. 8. I : M. 13. ai." Fritz. 

6vpe6v, the large oblong or oval shield, 'scutum,' properly 
like a dvpa, door : aairk, a lighter shield, ' clypeus.' 

0vaia, a sacrifice which requires the intervention of a priest : 
irpo<r<f>opd, an offering which can be presented without a priest. 
Hence R. 15. 16, 1} irpoar<f>opii r&v eOvStv, the offering presented 
by the nations. With reference to our Lord, dvcria marks His 
atoning death : irpoa^opa marks the life of obedience, which 
was an antecedent qualification for the ffvala, E. 5. a. Be- 
lievers are exhorted to present their bodies, dwiav ^Staav, 
R. 12. I : aveveyKM •nvevfiaTiKa<i 0uaia^, 1 P. 2. 5, where the 
adjective marks the figurative ' character of the sacrifice in 
contrast to the dead victims offered under the law, which 
required the intervention of human priests. In H. 6. I ; 9. 9, 



':;V 



■ 



SYNONYMS -tSMOTIJS, KUtpOV. 



215 



h&pa is joined with 0vaUu. where the latter denotes trespass 
offerings. aU those in which an animal was Blainin sacnfice: 
S&pa. aU other offerings. The notion conveyed by So>pa is that 
of appeasing: by 0valai, that of making expiation. iX^rrjpiov, 
the mercy-seat in the tabernacle (compare .\«cr/*o?, 1 J. ^. 2 ; 
4 10), a propifiation, that which propitiates by expiation ol 
sin, that which makes it consistent for God to pardon. (Com- 
pare iriop&K'o, IXeov.) Dr- Vaughan remarks on Ovauiv, K. 
12. I, a sacrifice not of expiation (in which sense it is applied 
only to Christ, as E. 6. a : H. 9. 26 ; 10. la &e.). but of thank- 
fulness, used with reference to almsgiving, Ph. 4. 18 : H. Id. 16 • 
to thanksgiving, H. 13. 16 : and to a Christian hfe generally, 
here and 1 P 2. 6. The service of the living body implies 
that' of the soul also; and the choice of the word «ravt«Ta 
indicates the importance attached in the Gospel to the body 
and precludes the notion of a merely imaginative or sentimental 
reUgion, as distinguished from one of self-denying and rigorous 

obedience. • . i 

iSuHyrvi. a private person, as opposed to a pubhc magistrate, 
or a professor of art or science : iypafifuiroi, one who has 
received no regukr education in a recognized school of learn- 

in fir* 

Upov, the whole edifice, with all the land attached {Tep-evm), 
and the dweUings of the priests, ' templum :' vaoi, the sanctuary, 
'sedes,' i.e., the holy pkce and the Holy of hoUes: Bvaiaa- 
ri^piov, altar of the true God : fia/wi, heathen altar. In the 
Epistles and Apocalypse va6<i designates the Church of God, 
not the literal Temple at Jerusalem. lepaTela denotes the 
service of the priest: lepioaxnn,, the office and power : Aristoph. 
Pol. vii. 8, T^v irepX rovt Beovi ivifiiKeiav ijv KaXovaiv ieparelav : 
Hdt iii. 142, iepwainniv . . . aipevfiai, air^ re ifiol km roiai 
M iiiev ale\ f^ivofiivoiffi. (Alford, H. 7. 5.) Iep6<: is never 
appUed to persons, but only to things, and does not express 
moral qualities. . 

ifidr lov, the outer garment, 'pallium:' x''^'"''' ^'^^ ^^^^ ^®^*' 

' tunica.' 

KMpoi. appointed season, occasion, time of occurrence, tune 
characterized by events : xpom, duration, time in general, the 
time for which any thing lasts : j(p6voi, years : xoipo? is lucfiri 
Xpoi/ou, 'punctum temporis,' point of time : 1 P. 4. 17, Kaiph 
Tov ap^atrOai to KptpM dinro toO oUov rov Oeou : season, #cotp6s. 



216 



SYNONYMS — KOTar^uiwoKew, Karafni^ud. 



.feil 



SYNONYMS— KOpSta, KIJpvyfM. 



217 



not xP^vov* suggesting the comfortable reflection that the 
tjrranny of the enemy will soon be overpast, Ps. 57. l. ictupot 
differs from time in the two points of (1), limited duration ; and 
(2), a definite object, B. 13. ii. ITsed by LXX to express 
seasons of the festivals : Lev. 23. 4 : 2 Chron. 8. 13, roS 
dva<l>epeiv kut^ t^« ^vtoXA; Mtovafj . . . rpei<s Katpov^ rov 
iviavTov. So Or. 4. )0. In a few passages xaipoi is nearly 
synonymous with jfpovov. In 1 T. 4. I, voripoK KaipoU points 
only to a period future to the speaker : oi axoKovOoi j(p6voi, 
in the apostasy of the present the Apostle sees the commence- 
ment of the fuller apostasy of the future, ia^drmv ^fiipaiv, 
2 T. 3. 1 : 2 P. 3. 3 : Ja. 5. 3, points more specifically to the 
period immediately preceding the completion of the kingdom 
of Christ. " The exact meaning of the term 'xpovoi aUivioi, in 
2 T. 1. 9 is, 'from all eternity,' stronger perhaps than irpo 
Kara^oK^ KooyMv, E. 1. 4, before times marked by the lapse 
of unnumbered ages, times which reached from eternity {air 
al&vot) to the coming of Christ, in and during which the 
fivtrrripiov lay aeatyt/fiivov, R. 16. 25." (Ellicott.) 

KaTayivdxTK€a> is a middle term, lying between KaTTjyopeiv, 
to accuse, and KaraKpiveiv, to pronounce a formal, judicial con- 
demnation. Karar/ivauTKeiv is to be explained from yivaHTKeiv, 
to know and take cognizance of, and from its opposite, airfyiima- 
Keiv, to pardon. In G. 2. 11 : Deut. 25. 1, it is opposed to 
hiKaiovv, to pronounce just, acquit :' Ecclus. 14. 2, fiaKapioi oi 
ov KaTtrfva 'q '^I'X^ avTOv. 

KUTaprl^at involves the* notion of positive defect, which re- 
quires to be repaired, as the mending a net, refitting a ship, 
setting a limb. L. 6. 40, KartipTia/iivov. one who is thoroughly 
taught, ' eruditus,' removed from his state of ignorance : E. 
4. 12, irpov Tov KurapTur/iov, looking to the thorough instruction 
of the saints : 1 C. 1. 10, Kan^priafiivoiy fitted in one to another, 
well adjusted, so that there be no a-)(UTfjiaTa : G. 6. l, help 
to amend : 1 Th. 3. 10, to repair the defects of your faith : 
1 P. 6. 10, will rectify your defects. reXetow, reXo?, reXeiov, 2^ ^ 
involve the negative imperfection of those who have still an 
object in view, a purpose not fully realized. B. 10. 4, reXof 
vofjuiv, the designed termination to which po/iov points, and in 
which it is fulfilled. Thus the Gospel is ri\eio<i, Ja. 1. 25, as 
it is the consummation of Judaism, the end proposed by the 
rites and ceremonies of the Levitical dispensation, R, 10. 4. 









The kw wrought no completion, i. e. could not ^^"^f^^^^ 
own TiX^v. H. 7. 19: gifte and sacrifices could not effect the 
worshippers' object as regards the conscience, H. 9 9. out ol 
Irks Mth attained maturity. Ja. 2 22: on the tbird ^7 I 
finish my course, I accomplish my end, L. 13. 32 So H. 2 10. 
to make the Author of their salvation accomplish Hib end, 
consummate His design by means of suffering : H 5. 9, having 
accomplished the proposed end. (See AX6«Xw«?-) The technical 
meaning of «aTapTt'?a. is, 'reponere in artu luxata membra 
•e.g. to reduce a dislocated shoulder. In the 8«npl« «t^«»l 
sefse. we have, Hdt. v. 28, *aTapW?«? M^i,-. : StobiBus, 
KarafniK^i-v <^/Xow Z^poph>ov, : Greg. Naz., irodev ovu ap^o- 
fiM Karaprl^eiv v/iav, dSe\<t>ol : t> 1 „, . 

o . «» KapSla, the seat of the desires^cdjngS^ afectaons, B. 1. 21 , 
^"■^the mental, perceptive faculty, 2 C. 3. 16; the conscience or 
mind, exercised as matters of moral obhgation, M. W. i.-*. 
J 12 40 "In Hebrew there is no appropriate word tor con- 
science. nS, mi, are both used, Prov. 4. 23; 18. 15: Eccl. 
7. 22, conscience ftcts between God and man; as a servant, to 
obey God; as His minister, to issue His commands to man: 
Sidtoia, the thinking, sentient faculty, the inward disposition, 
the spiritual man,_a8ji8tin^yxed.froinJhejnerfi_a^i:ium, 
wMch recei;^! impressions Jrom^mthout." (Alford, H. 8. 10.) 
aipeaK. putting to^ith^r in the mind, comprehension, discern- 
ment; the faculty by which we mentally apprehend, and are 
enabled to pass judgment upon whatis presented to us : awet- 
Sij«7«, consciousness, conscience, A. 23. i ; 24. 16 : 1 P. 2. 19 ; 

3. IG. 21. 

"Keipeiv BimpUciter notat partes capdlorum nummorum 
demere ; ^vpeiv vel ^vpav ad cutom usque novacula detondere. 
Kelpeadai, to poll the hair, to cut it short by scissors or shears : 
^vp^aaaOai. to shave the hair off with a ^vp6v, or razor, so that 

the skull appears. ... , 

Kevoi refers to contents, 'das Gehaltlose,' 'inanis. /uiTOto? 

refers to results, ' das Erfolglose,' • vanus.' . , , , 

Kripvyfia, the matter preached, the thing proclaimed :^ aicot}. 

the spiritual faculty and function of hearing: aKoii iriarem. 

the hearing ear of faith. The Gospel preached (ri K^pvyfia) is 

caUed the word of hearing, \670s t^? i/eo^?, in order to bring 

out more clearly the duty of aU men to hearken to it ; tho word 

which was uttered in order to bo heard. 



218 



SYNONYMS — kKmiW, KpifM. 



kXoIm, wail, not only with the expression of tears (SaKpva, 
J. 11. 35), but also with every external expression of grief. 
Hence Kkaieiv is joined with oKdXA^eLv, Mk. 5. 38 : oXoXv^ew, 
Ja. 5. 1 : dopvpeiv, Mk. 5. 39 : irevdeiv, 16. 10. Oprfveiv, Bpiofuu, 
shriek generally, of women : Bpfjvoii, dirge, like the Qaelio 
' coronach,' or the Irish ' wake,' used of hired mourners wail- 
ing for the dead : kottto/uu, strike the breast in loud ex- 
pressions of grief: Koireros, wailing, attended with beating the 
breast. 

K\lin], couch, sofa, for the rich : Kpd^^aroi, litter, mattress, 
for the poor ; Latin, ' grabatus.' 

K\eimi<!, the thief who steals by fraud and in secret ; Latin, 
'fur:' XjjffTij?, the robber who plunders by violence and open 
force: \i;fr, \ela, booty, 'latro.' This meaning of Xj/otiJ? 
should be preserved in M. 21. 13 ; 26. 55 : L. 10. 30 ; 23. 
39 — 43. 

KoXaaii, ' castigatio,' has naturally a milder use than n/uopla, 
' ultio : ' Sia^pet ik rifuopia xal KoXaai^' f) fih> 7^p KoXaaK rov 
wao^oin-o? Ivexd e<mv ij Zi Tifuopla, rov iroiovmo^ Xva arroifki}- 
pto0T}, Aristotle, Met. i. 10. Thus rificopta is aid in satisfying 
vengeance, the guardianship and protectorate of honour (rt^tj;, 
aipa>) : KoXaaK has reference to the correction and improvement 
of the offender ; but i^s KoXaaii: almviof is no temporary disci- 
pline, it is clear that KoXaaK in Hellenistic Greek had acquired 
the severer sense of punishment, without implying the idea of 
effecting a reformation. But Aristotle's definition stiU. holds 
good, as in KoKaai,<{ there is predominant the relation of the 
punishment to the offender : in rt/uopCa, its relation to the party 
ofiended. 

" Kpifia of itself is never any thing else than judicium, yet it 
still will admit of some modification in meaning from the con- 
text." Fritz., Rom. i. 94. " Kplfia StafioXov may be either 
gen. aubjecti, ' the accusing judgment of the devil,' or gen. ohjecti, 
' the judgment passed upon the devil.' In the former case 
Kpi/ia has more the meaning of ' criminatio : ' in the latter, of 
' condemnatio.' But there is no satisfactory instance in which 
Kplfuk has the former moaning in the New Testament, and as 
Kpifia is elsewhere found only with a gen. objecti, E. 3. 8 : 
Ilev. 17. 1, we decide in favour of the latter interpretation. 
The force of the allusion must be looked for, not in the extent 
of the fall, but in the similarity of the circumstances ; the devil 






i 



SYNONYMS -AOTTO?, ICpVirrfO, flV<TT1^pU)V. 



219 



was once a ministering spirit of God, but by insensate pride fell 
from his hierarchy." (ElUcott, 1 T. 3. 6.) ^ , . , n 

ainoKorruKp^TK. 'self-condemned,' the reason why he is lett 
to himself; he has been warned twice, and now sms against 
light: oh <yhp ?x« "'T"'' »" ""^'^'^ ^"^"^^^ *'*^^"' epovdeTvaev. 
Chrysost. The aggravating circumstance is not that the man 
condemns himself directly and expHcitly, as this might be a 
step to recovery, but that he condemns himself indirectly and 
impUcitly, as acting against the law of his mind, and doing in 
his own particular case what in the general he condemns. Tit. 

K6Tro<: is joined together with noxOov. 2 C. 11. 27 : 1 Th. 2. 9 : 
2 Th. 3. 8. " Kovoi represents the act of hewing wood : /iox^<»« 
is the act of carrying logs after they have been hewn (^xM- , 
KOTTOi expresses energy of action: /wx^o? indicates patience in 
bearing" (Wordsworth, 1 Th. 2. 9). K6vm marks the toil on 
the part of the suffering it involves : /wx^o?, on the side of the 
magnitude of the obstacles it has to overcome. 

Ko^ivov, wicker basket, the Jewish travelling basket, ' pan- 
nier:' airvpk, orie of a larger kind, for storing grain, pro- 
visions, capacious enough to contain a man, A. 9. -25. 

KpvTrrco is applied to that which is abeady out of sight, hide 
passively, keep concealed : KoXimra, cover over, as with a veil, 
hide, actively and intentionally, appUed to the hiding of sin, 
the putting it out of sight by Him who has power {a^ikvaC) to 
dismiss or remit it : Ps. 85. 2, d^^/co? ra? avop.icK t^ Xom aov, 
eicdXvfa<! irdaa<{ Ta9 afiaprlav avr&vi M. 11. 25, aiTiKpvyjra<i, 
thou keepest hidden ; aireKaXv^m, thou removest the veil. 

fivar^piop, a truth formerly hidden, but now revealed, or a 
secret capable of being told, the very reverse of what we now 
understand by mystery {KeKpv/tftevov, M. 13. 35) : iiv<rrt}<!, one 
initiated, one who is acquainted with things which are unknown 
to others ; truths which cannot be known tiU they are revealed, 
not truths which must always be. unintelligible. Dr. Vaughan, 
on R. 11. 25, thus classifies its references : (1) to the Gospel 
itself, Mk. 4. 11 : R. 16. 25 : 1 C. 2. i. 7 : E. 1. 9 ; 6. 19 : 0. 1. 
26, 27 ; 2. 2 ; 4. 3 : 1 T. 3. 9. 16 : Rev. 10. 7 ; (2) to the various 
parts and truths of the Gospel, M. 13. 11 : L. 8. 10 : 1 0. 4. 1 ; 
13. 2 ; (3) to the admission of the Gentiles, E. 3. 3 : the con- 
nexion between Christ and His Church, E. 5. 32 : the change 
(without death) of the living at the time of the resurrection, 



220 



SYNONYMS— XaXto, Xarpeveiv. 



1 C. 15. SI : the future conversion of Israel, R. 11. 25 : the 
predicted embodiment and revelation of evil, 2 Th. 2. 7 ; certain 
symbols in the Apocalypse, Rev. 1. 20 ; 17. 5. 7. Bishop EUicott 
remarks on 1 T. 3. {r6 ^Lvrr^piov t% TrtWew?), that irlajea,^ 
IS apparently a pure possessive genitive, that to which the 
/ivoT^piov appertained; the truth hitherto not comprehensible, 
but novY revealed to man, was the property, object, of faith, that 
on which faith exercised itself. So very similarly, to fiv<rT^piov 
•rijs evae^elai, the mystery which belonged to, was the object 
contemplated by, godliness, the hidden truth which was the 
basis of all practical piety. irlcrrKi is faith considered sub- 
jectively, not objective faith, a very doubtful meaning in the 
New Testament. 

\a\id, utterance, talk, present discourse: X070?, subject- 
matter of discourse, the thing taught. J. 8. 43, XaXeiv (Jlesy- 
chiufl, ^0iyyea0ai) points merely to sound and utterance ; Xeyew, 
to purport. XaXeiv is sometimes used where Xeyecv would appear 
more natural, but Xeyeiv is never used for XaXeiv. XaXeiv ex- 
presses the general idea of talking, whether reasonably or 
otherwise, loose, indefinite, unconnected utterance, and may bo 
said either of a sane or insane person, the prattling of a child, 
or the speech of an adult. Xeyeiv implies speaking in a rational 
intelligent manner. In R. 3. 19, Xiyei denotes the language or 
statement of the Scriptures : XaXei, the utterance of that lan- 
guage to any particular age, body of men, or individual: 
■n-a^pijaia, openness or boldness of speech, Mk. 8. 32 : A, 4. 13, 
that confidence and boldness of spirit with which the believer 
is permitted to approach his heavenly Father, II. 4. 16 : 1 J. 2. 
28 ; 3, 21 (aSeia) : assured expectation of final reward, 1 J. 4. 17. 

Xarpevetv, serve for hire : XoT/>ts, hired servant, transferred, 
in classical Greek, from the service of men to the service of 
their gods. In LXX Xarpevetv expresses the service of the 
true God, as of heathen divinities. " Xarpela ea dicitur servitus 
qua) pertinet ad colendum Deum," August. Xenovpyeiv, to 
serve the state in a public oifice or function : XeiTo<i (Xoov) 
f/yyoi/, transferred also to the ministry of the gods. The 
Christian Church preferred Xeirovpyeiv and its derivatives to 
Xarpeveiv, Xarpeia, as the words connected with Xeirovpyeiv 
were less haunted with the clinging associations of heathenism. 
Xarpevetv, Xarpeia, express the duty of all men, and are de- 
manded of the whole people. Xeirovpyeiv. Xeirovpyoi, Xeirovpyia, 



f 



SYNONYMS — Xovat, fi£raneXop,ai. 



221 



denote the special offices and ministries of those who are solemnly 
set apart as the priests and Levites, as the Apostles, prophets, 
and pastors in the Christian Church, as well as the great High 
Priest : r&v ar/Ctov Xeirovpyin, H. 8. 2. Xarpeveiv and Xarpeia 
are also applied to ofiicial ministries (H. 9. l. 6), for every 
Xeirovpyia is a Xarpeia, though every Xarpeia is not a Xetrou/j- 
7ta. Xeirovpyof, a public functionary, one who acts in behalf 
of a community as a public character. R. 1. 9, ^ Xarpeva iv 
rw irvev/jiari p^v ev r& evarfyeXi^ rov vlov avrov, to whom 
the sacrificial worship which I offer is inward and spiritual, 
namely, the devotion of myself to the preaching of the Gospel 
of His Son. Vaughan. 

Xovat, bathe, wash the whole body : viirreiv, wash a part of 
the body, as the extremities, hands, or feet: -irXvveiv, wash 
inanimate things, as garments. Lev. 14. 9 : Num. 19. r. 10 : nets, 
L. 5. 2. These distinctions may be observed in Lev. 16. 11, 
oaiov eav ayfnjrai 6 yovoppw/jt kcu, ra<s xetpa? oii viviirrai USari, 
irXvveZ ra Ifidria Koi Xovcrerai ro a&pM {jSari : J. 13. 10, o 
XeXovpivoi} OX) j(pelav &)(ei ^ roiit TroSa; vv^aaOai. So Xavrpov, 
laver, bath: wtttjJ/j, basin. 

Xvxyo^, lamp:" ^w?,. the light proceeding therefrom. So 
prophecy is compared to Xvyyo^, 2 P. 1. 19 : ^ws Xvj(yov, Rev. 
18. 23. ^(oon^p, a means of giving light, as a window or door 
{6vpi<{), the heavenly luminaries, applied to Christians, Ph. 
2. 15. <j)(o<r<}>6poii, light-bringing, lucifer, the star that precedes 
the rising of the sun, emblematic of the dawn of spiritual light 
and happiness : (pareivov, full of light : <f>a>ri^(o, give light to, 
enlighten, bring to light, impart moral and spiritual light. 
John the Baptist was the lamp that was lit, and giving light, 
eKeivoi ^v 6 Xv^yoi o Kaiofievoi koI ^aivav : our Lord the </>b>9 
aXtjB ivov, J. 1. 9. Xap.ird<i ought uniformly to be translated 
' torch.' 

futXaKia, incipient complaint, lit. softness, opposed to Kaprepia, 
endurance: aadeveia, want of strength or energy, infirmity, 
feebleness : v6ao<;, confirmed disease. 

pepiarri<i, arbitrator, umpire, like the Buurryrai at Athens, a 
kind of jury selected by the disputants to try petty causes : 
SiKatrr^i, juryman, like Lat. 'judex:' icpt-nj?, presiding judge, 
Lat. 'praetor.' 

p^rap,eXoftai, alter one's purpose, denoting change of feeling, 
the anxiety consequent on a past transaction, remorse, some- 



222 



SYNONYMS— /*0XW6), I»e09. 



tunes implying a return to a right state of mind, 'poonitet,' 
piget: fieravoiw, change one's views for the better, implying 
the sorrow by which sin is forsaken; Lat: -resipisco,' -recover 
ones senses,' come to a right understanding: fierdvoia, con- 
version Ctransmentation/ Coleridge), the sanctified effect of 
/*«T«/i6'X«a or X{hn, Karh ee6p, 2 C. 7. 8, 9; • resipiscentia,' the 
growing wise. Dr. Wordsworth thus expresses the difference : 
M^avoia, change of mind, belongs only to the good; ^erd^ie. 
Xem, pam of mind, belongs to evil men, as well as good. Peter 
/*eTaVoe» as weU as ^era/x^Xerat. Meravoito begins with uera- 
MeXeta, but at length deUvers from ^LerafUXeia, whereas ^^ra^^i- 
X«o without nerdvoia continues to eternity:" R. 11, 29, dfieror- 
IxeKnra rh. xapUxfiara, incapable of being revoked or changed- 
in 1^' f^rZ^""" "» <^^rvpiau d,iera^i\r,rov. fieravoetu is 
followed by i>c. Rev. 2. 21. 22 ; 9. 20, 21 ; 16. 11, showing a com- 
plete change of mind, displaying itself in turning from previous 
acts, and out of a former mode of life to a new and different 
practice and habit of existence. 

^oXvvto, besmear as with mud and filth. Aristotle speaks of 
swme, T^ WT?X^ ficiKwoviei eavrovv. Lat. 'inquinare,' 'spur- 
care.' fiialveip, stain with colour, as the staining of glass or 
ivory J II. iv. 141, ^ 8' Sre rk r e\i<f>avTa r^vvi, <f>oiviKt /.uilpy, 
Lat. 'maculare.' /luiiveiv is not necessarily taken in a dis- 
honourable signification, though it is frequently used to express 
the profane or unhallowed use of any thing. There is the 
same difference between fuaivew and fiok^peiv as between 'ma- 
cula.' 'labes,' -spot,' 'blot.' But in the figurative sense the 
expression ^t^^ara tov Kiafiov, 2 P. 2. 20, becomes equivalent 
to /ioXvafi,o<i a-apKOi, 2 0. 7. 1. 

/iop<M, form, abstractedly, without reference to any other 
object, applied to OeoC, as well as SovXov, Ph. 2. 6, 7 : 6,ioUoua 
shajie, implying resemblance to other objects of the same kind • 
«^3CT/«», outward figure, shape, mien: fi6p4>wan, embodiment^ 
lorm without substance : /loptfuaaip eiae^eiai, 2 T. 3. 5. 

pioi is a person or thing in a new or youthful condition, as 
contrasted with the same person or thing in a state of old age 
or decay. KmvS^ is a person or thing in a new state, as distin- 
guished from another person or thing in an old condition 
xaipov refers to the operation of an external agent; w'o? do- 
smbes rather the inner growth or change of a natural object, 
llms the olpoi is kIo?, but the daKoi are kmpoI, Mk. 2. 22. The 



St' 

I: 



i. 



^> 



J. 



SYNONYMS — vijirun;, POO<S. 



223 



work of dpattalpuKTi^ is perfom/Sd by the external operation of 
the Holy Ghost on the inner life. The Kaa>o<i ap0payir(n is said 
to bo KTtadek, and the peo<i apffpairov is said to be dpuKaipov- 
fiepof, 0. 3. 10. The Kaip6<; apdpoyiro<i is KMpif KriaK, Or. 6. IS. 
But dpapeovffOai is a duty which we owe to our own moral and 
spiritual being, E. 4. 23. The heavens which vrill be made new 
are kmpoI, and Christ by His mediatorial power and grace 
makes all things Katpd. (From Wordsworth, on E. 4. 23.) In 
cases, however, where the old is better than the new, xaipot 
may express the novel and strange, as contrasted with the 
known and familiar. In Mk. 1. 27, kcupti ^i8ax^ meant any 
thing but praise. Socrates was charged with introducing into 
Athens xaip^ Saifiopta, elsewhere called erepa B. : in A. 17. I8, 
^epa Baifiopia. " The covenant of which Christ is the Mediator 
is a SiaffqKt) pea, as compared with the Mosaic covenant given 
nearly two thousand years before ; it is a Siaffijieq icaipr) as com- 
pared with the same effete with age, from which all vigour, 
energy, and strength had departed. There is the same distinc- 
tion between i/io; and Katpot as between ' recens ' and ' novus.' 
peo<;, like ' recens,' refers to time ; kUi,p6<!, like ' novus,' to state 
or condition. The same distinction is claimed for 'nouveau' 
(vios) and ' neuf ' («raii/df). ' Ce qui est nouveau vient de paraitre 
pour la premiere fois ; ce qui est neuf vient d'etre fait et n'a 
pas encore servi. Une invention est nouvelle, uno expression 
neuve.' " (Archbishop Trench, Synonyms, Second Series.) 

prpno<;, a babe, without the power of speech, an infant, a 
minor. yS/se^o?, a child, while yet in the womb {sft^pvop), the 
new-bom babe, dvo fipe<l>ov<}, 2 T. 3. 15, from the cradle, 
where v^iot would have been inappropriate, as vifirioi means 
'one not yet of* full age,' G. 4. 1. Both words express the 
young convert, the disciple in an undeveloped immature state. 
In 1 P. 2. 2, o>« dprv^kppriTa fipi<}ni : L. 18. 15, •rrpoae<j>epov airr^ 
Kai rh fipitfnj, their very babes. In H. 5. 13, vi]irioi is especially 
opposed to o( riXeioi, i. e. mature Christians. 

1/009 (1/01)9) embraces the TT ndCTstandin g, the "Rjjnanni^ the 
Will, and the Affections . The pow takes cognizance of external 
objects, and danntgiH tbft fnniioning fni\nM.y^ exercised.JQQ.-the 
works or word_j a£_Qod. The conscience, ij avpeiptiaii, is a 
spiritual instinct, which operates without a ny active^Boergy o; 
t he intellectual faculty^L ayaOi) avP€CSij<ri<i is one which governs 
itself by sound reason, and adopts for its own regulation the 



'2 



224 



SYNONYMS — POV 



opam. 



rule of Qod'a will, especially as revealed in Ilis word. This is 
the conscience which produces koXtjv avaarpo^tjv. Wordsworth 
on 1 P. 3. 16. St. Paul even while persecuting the Church 
acted €P icaffapa avpeiStja-ei, with a view to no personal advan- 
tage, but in mistaken zeal for the law of God. See KapBia. Dr. 
Yaughan remarks that the understanding {vov<:)fno less than 
the heart, requires God's teaching. II. 12. 2 : E. 4. 23 : L. 24. 
45 : 10. 2. 14. 

povBereat, put in mind, admonish, povdeala, verbal admoni- 
tion, but admitting the idea of correction, Christian discipline 
and teaching, •tttuiewo, bring up as son, instruct, chastise. 
iraiZeia, discipline, implying the idea of correction, iraiteia 
primarily applies to the body: povOearia, to the mind, o fiii 
Sapel^ apffpairov ov TratSevErat, Menander. "iraiBeia significare 
videtur institutionem per panaa ; povdeaia autem est ea insti- 
tutio quffi fit verbis." Grotius, E. 6. 4. In Tit. 2. I2, iraiheiovaa 
riimi, the proper force of the word, 'per molestias erudiro,' 
disciplining us, is to be retained. " Grace exercises its discipline 
on us (1 0. 11. 32: H. 12. 6), before its benefits can be fully 
felt or thankfully acknowledged; the heart must bo rectified, 
and the affections chastened before sanctifying grace can have 
its full issues." 

opdta applies to bodily sight; fiKiirm, to mental vision or 
consideration, 1 C. 1. 26 : 2 0. 4. 18 : R. 7. 23. Mk. 8. 24, fiXhra 
Touf apOpanrovi, on <io$ SipBpa 6p& TrepiirarovPTaii, I perceive they 
are men, inasmuch as I see them as trees, but I see them walk- 
ing. /3\€7ra>, consider, take heart, employed to express a more 
intent, earnest, spiritual contemplation than 6pd(o. II. 2. 8, g, 
PUP Sk ovjrat bpStfiep avrS rii irdpra inroTSTtpyftipa, we do not yet 
see this with our bodily eyes : top Se ^pa^v ti irap ayyeXov<i 
■^Xarraftipop ^XAirofiep 'Iijvovp, but with the eye of faith wo 
contemplate Jesus : H. 10. 25, roaovrtp fiaXXop oata /SXeircre 
eyyi^ovaap rijp rfpipav, as ye contemplate the day drawing nigh : 
1 C. 10. 18, pKhrere top 'IvparfK. Kord. adpKa, consider the 
example of the carnal Israel : 2 C. 7. 8, pKeirat yip on iiriaroXri 
eKelpTi . . . iKvwqaev v/ia^, I perceive, I am aware. ^Xevto is 
thus akin to dectpiw, though dempeu, when it is used of bodily 
vision, assumes that the object is actually present : L. 24. 39, 
(Sere T^f X^^P^^ ^"^ * * ' '"'"^^f^ cdpKa icaX 6<rrea ovk ex^i Ka6u)<i 
epA deotpelre txppra. Phavorinus remarks, " opSt p,ep iirl ao)p,a- 
T09, 0eapS> Si hrl '^vx'h • ^^- J- ^' '9, Kvpie, dewpu on vpo<f>r)Trii 



! 



>.' 



■:4 ■ 



SYNONYMS — 6\oK\rjpo9, TTapd^aaK. 



225 



el <rv: 12. 19, Oeapevre 8n ovk uxpeXeiTe. ovSip ; A. 17. 22, Karh 
irdpTU «»? ieiaiZaiiMpearkpoiK u/ifi? deapm : L. 10. 18, iOeaipow 
TOP SaTupap «.T.X., q. d., this I was contemplating. In L. 8. 
20 we have t'Seti/ ae OeKovrei : but in M. 12. 46, fi/roOvre? avr^ 
\a\^<rai. Thuc. (iv. 125) has tw BpaalSav iSetp, which the 
Scholiast explains as an Atticism, for cum Brasidd colhqui. 
Lucian has tSetv top Ala for iprvxeiv rp Ait. But all these 
passages may be explained by considering that the antecedent 
idea iZelp is put for the consequent Xa\^«rot or hnvx^^v. 

oKoKk'qpws, that which retains aU originally allotted to it, 
whole and entire in all its parts, wanting .in nothing which 
is necessary for its completeness, iv /tijSevl XetTTO/tevot, Ja. 1. 4. 
TeXeto?, one who has reached the full limit of stature, strength, 
and mental power allotted to him, used like the English word 
•perfect,' sometimes in a relative sense, at other times in an 
absolute, M. 5. 48; 19. 21. Compare the expression used by 
ignorant people in speaking of one who has^wisAcrfhis educa- 
tion, when they mean that he has completed a certain course 
of instruction. The okoKktipot is one who has preserved or 
who has regained his completeness, the reXEto? has attained 
his moral end, that for which he was intended. In the oXa- 
K\r]po<! no grace which ought to be in a Christian is wanting ; 
in the TiXeto^ no grace is in its weak, imperfect commencement, 
but aU have reached a certain ripeness and maturity. oKmeKiji, 
1 Th. 5. 23, is a connecting link between the two, " in your 
collective powers and parts." oXoreXcif marks more emphati- 
cally than oXot/f the thoroughness and pervasive nature of true 
holiness. dpno<t, in 2 T. 3. 17, is explained by i^prurfiipoi 
(see on KaTapri^at), complete in all parts and proportion^ ; " in 
quo nihil mutilum" (Calvin), perfect as a square. Cf. Arist. 
JElh. If. i. 10, 11, xepffl xal iroal xal v6^ Terpdfytopoi TeTvyfUPoi, 
Simon, ap. Plato, Protag. 344, h, reXetos and apno<i very much 
interchange their meanings, but aprux! points to the adaptation 
of parts and special aptitude for any given uses. 

irapdfftuTK, the outward act of transgressing the law, the 
overstepping the line which divides right from vrrong, sin of 
commission: irapaKori, hearing amiss, when we fulfil not and 
have no mind to fulfil the precepts of the law, carelessness in 
nscortaining or in regarding the rule of duty, the sin of omis- 
sion. But every irapdfiaon implies a irapaico^, and every 
irapaKorf includes or induces irapd^aai^. Hence the use of 



220 



SKNONYMS — vaiS(vya>^6<s, Traorj^w. 



irapaKoij for irapdfiaffi^ in B. 5. 19, though irapaKor} may bo 
moro appropriate as referring to an oral precept, inraicori, sub- 
ordination to the word, joyful acceptance of the Gospel message, 
hearing and doing, irapdirrafia, falling aside from right, truth, 
and duty. 

iraiSar/crfot, the slave or attendant who conducted the pupil 
to his teacher, ayap ew BiSaaKoKov (oIkov), used to denote 
persons ministering in all kinds of spiritual offices ; opposed to 
iraT'np, i.e. to St. Paul as their spiritual father, 1 0. 4. 15. In 
Q. 3. 24 the law became our slave- tutor to lead us to the true 
teacher, Christ. 

•n-apafioKij, placing side by side for the purpose of comparison, 
representation, similitude : Trapoi/iia, used by St. John, means 
' way-side illustrations ;' lessons drawn from actions of ordinary 
life, from objects and processes in nature : aWriyopia, speak 
in an allegory ; in symbolical language : " aliud verbis, aliud 
sensu ostondo." Quintilian : iv irapoi/iiaK, in figurative or 
obscure language, opposed to ■irapprjffia, J. 16. 25. 29. 

irapaXafifidvco has the idea of receiving from another : Sij(p- 
fiai, of taking to oneself: 1 Th. 2. 13, nrapaKafiovre's T^yop 
uKotfi Trap rifi&p tov Oeov iBe^aaOe, having received God's word 
of hearing, from our hands ye accepted it: A. 3. 21, hp Set 
oipapop Se^aadat, take to itself, contain, A. 7. 38. 59 : Ja. 1. 21, 
Si^aaOe top €fi(f>VT0P Xoyop. Hence TrapaXa/i^dpo) points to an 
objective reception, G. 1. 12 : Sij(pfiai, to a subjective, 2 0.8. 17. 
The old grammarians applied iej(ea0ai to to BeSop,epop e/e xetpo?, 
while 'Kafi^dpeiv denotes to Kclfievop dpeXiadai. With these we 
may contrast dprrd^etp. " Non tantum significat alienum vi 
auferre, sed etiam quod nobis ofTertur gratumque accidit, id 
expetendum atque optabilo existimaro, cupidcque et ambabus 
quod aiunt manibus amplecti, eoquo cum gaudio uti." Raphel 
ad Phil. 3. 6. So 'rapio' is used for 'avido ct festinanter 
simio.' 

irapfyrfaia, plainness of speech, freedom of utterance, the 
especial privilege of freemen, coujJcd with irpoaanitayri, freedom 
of access ; frequently used for openness of action, publicity. 

7raff%<u, receive, experience good, as well as evil : Mk. 5. 26, 
iroXKa iraOovaa, subject to much medical treatment, not neces- 
sarily an acute sufferer. Applied in an euphemistic sense to 
the death of our Lord, comprehending his agony, his bloody 
sweat, and the contradiction of sinners. So irdOrj/ia generally 






•1 



; 



■ '■■^ -. 



■):'. 



SYNONYMS— TraTpt'a, irevrffi, TreiOo/iai. 227 

denotes suffering, R. 8. 18 ; but is sometimes used for sensual 
desire, like irdOoi (ip 7rd0ei iTnOvfitai, 1 Th. 4. 5), representing 
states of mind in which it is the thing acted on, rather than the 
agent, R. 7. 6 : G. 6. 24, oBvp&fiai. oSvvi], pain, distress of body 
or mind : aSri/wviw, have more than enough, experience loathing 
more than we can bear : diropov/iai, am without resource, know 
not what to do, am perplexed : rapdaau, agitate, put in trepida- 
tion, disquiet. 

irarpla, paternal descent, tribe, whict contained several otA:ot, 
households: ol/co? refers to the members, inmates, servants: 
oUla, to the building, and the property therein contained. 

iripiK, derived from irepo/iai, connected with ttoi/o?, -rropio/jiai, 
and the Latin • penuria,' is one who earns his bread by daily 
toil. The word, like 'pauper,' 'paupertas,' does not indicate 
extreme want, but simply ' res angusta domi.' See Virg. ^«. ii. 
87. Xen. Mem. iv. 2. 37, tow? fikp olfiai fifj Uapa expprafs eU a 
Set reXetp ireptrrar tou? Si irXeiio t&p Ikupuv ifkovirlovs. The 
irepiarai inThessaly retained partial rights as cultivators of the 
soil. irTa>x6<i is 'mendicus,' the beggar, who lived on the alms 
of other men ; i. q. irpoaairni, or eiralnji. A far lower depth 
of destitution is implied in trrta-xeia than in -rrepia. The ttcVj/s 
has nothing superfluous, but the -irrrnxoi has nothing at all. The 
distinction is preserved in Plato, who describes tyrannies as 
running their course, etV wei/Za? re koI <f>vya<i koX el<i irrioxeias, 
and in Aristophanes, Plutus 549—654, whore Chremylus says, ' 

oiiKovp SjjVou t^9 irratxelai vepiap ^anh> ehat aBe\(j>^p, 

to which irepla replies, 

tttw^ow fih yhp Ploi 81/ ai, TjyeK ^p iarip fitjBep exopra, 
TOV Se irepriTOti ^p (f>eiS6fiepop koI toi<s epyoii irpoae-xppra, 
irepi/ylyveaeai B' axn^ fi/rjBep, fir) fiiproi firjB" eirCKeOireiP. 

This distinction between irToyx/x: and 7r4wjs gives greater vivid- 
ness to the contrast : 2 C. 6. 10, w? -irTtoxot iroXKoixi Bk irKovri- 
foirres : 2 C. 8. 9, BC vfia<s hrTw^evae nrXjoixnot &p- ipa v/ieii if 
SKeipov TTTrnxeia TrXouT^o-jjTe. 

■irel0o/j,ai, obedire, obey from a conviction that the thing 
required is lawful and right, or from a sense of the just autho- 
rity of the person to whom obedience is rendered. {meUw, 
ohteinperare, yield to, comply with, accommodate yourself to the 
feelings and wishes of another; ireWeadai, direct personal 

Q 2 



228 



8YNONYM9 — iriffTii, irXeove^ia. 



obedience ; {nreUeiv, such compliance as forbida opposition to 
the plans of another ; ireiOapryelv, ' coactus obsequi ; ' inrorda-- 
aeaOai, 'lubens et sponte subraittere,' Tit. 3. l ; L. 2. 51. Com- 
pare Ilom. II. i. 293 — 6 : ''H rydp xev SeiXoi re koX ovriSavbi 
KoKeoifirjv, El Sij aoi irav epyov ivel^ofiai o m xev etTrotf. 
AWoiaip Of) ravT eTTtreWeo' fii) r^hp efioir^e Xrifuiiv' ov yetp 
erf toy en <rol ireLveadai, 6ta>. 

iriarii has reference to things past, present, or future, 
receives the declaration of blessing, or the denunciation of 
wrath, and may be applied to angels as well as men; eKirli 
applies to blessings only, to be enjoyed in future, by the person 
who entertains the hope. Faith and hope alike are the evidence 
of things not seen. In some cases inrofwvi] occupies the place 
of e'XTTtV, 2 Th. 1. 4 : 1 T. 6. II : Tit. 2. 2 : it marks the manly 
valour (dpSpela) with which the Christian contends, against the 
various hindrances, persecutions, and temptations that befall 
him in -his conflict with the inward and outward world: Rov. 
2. 3, Kal inrofiovijp l;^ets koI efidaTaaai Sia to ovofid fiov Kal ovk 
ixoTriaaaii. So inro/jiepo) means a brave bearing up against 
sufferings ; " animum in perferendo sustinet," in contrast with 
dpexe<T0ai, a more tame and passive sufferance of them, 2 T. 
2. 12 : R. 12. 12 : Ja. 1. 12 : 1 C. 4. 12. 

-irepiTo/i'^, circumcision. The Jews derived a distinctive title 
from the observance of the outward rite, but the thing signified, 
or substance, is attributed to believers in Christ, as the seed of 
Abraham : KaTaro/ii^, mangling, mutilation, a term of contempt 
for those who relied on their outward circumcision, or adopted 
a spurious Christianity ; Ph. 3, 2, 3. 

irXapdto, make to wander, cause to err, lead astray, used for 
doctrinal error, or for religious deceit : irXdvoi, teacher of error, 
religious impostor: dirardat, deceive, delude with false state- 
ments, self-deception : irXdpr], seduction from the truth : S6\(k, 
the adulteration of the truth with false admixtures : So\oi5i»t€s 
TOP Xoyop Tov Qeov, 2 C. 4. 2. BoXoi is connected with 8e\«a, 
SiXeap, ' osca,' a lure to hunt souls, dirara eavrop may imply 
a deception which had something objective to rest upon : ^pei/- 
airara iavrop, G. 6. 3 : dtrar&p xapSiap avrov, Ja. 1. 26, impUes 
a purely self-originated and subjective deception. 

nrXeope^ia, covotousness, the grasping after more, hankering 
after what one has not, 'amor sceleratus habendi,' the active 
sin: tj>iKap^vpia, the passive sin, avarice, tlio accumulating 



SYNONYMS — 'ir\'t]po<f>ope(o, iropevoftai. 



229 



■i 



what one already has. The TrXeoj/^/m;? may bo free in squan- 
dering, as he is unscrupulous in getting. ' Rapti largitor,' like 
Catiline : wXeove/cri;? is joined with dpnra^, 1 C. 6. 10 : irXeope- 
^iai is joined with xXoiral, Mk. 7. 22, and with sins of impurity, 
the insatiable longing of the creature which has turned from 
God to fill itself with objects of sense. The monsters of lust 
among the Roman emperors were monstci's of covotousness. 
The same is the case with eastern rajahs. In contrast with 
this the <l>iXdp'yvpo<i is cautious and timid, retaining the garb 
of righteousness. Hence the Pharisees are called ^iXdpyvpoi. 
They could foster avaricious desires, and yet justify themselves 
before men. Jer. 8. 10, iravre^ (f>iXapyvpiap dtroSuiiKovat. The 
irX€opiicTf)<i is the bold unscrupulous trader, while he is making 
a fortune ; the (piXdpyvpo^ is the retired trader who lives quietly 
that he may increase his property. "The ^iXapyvpCa of the 
Pharisees did not disqualify them for exercising a commanding 
influence, and for being in the popular mind patterns o£ stactity 
and objects of general admiration. Ruilding on the temporal 
promises of the ancient law they made it an article of faitli 
that riches are a proof of divine approbation. Wealth was 
another name of piety. Love of wealth was a love of God's 
favour. Thus they sanctified avarice." (Wordsworth, 1 T. 
6. 10.) 

nrXrjpo^opia, bring in fuU measure, complete an act, applied 
to Siaxopia, 2 T. 4. 5 ; to K'^pvyfia, 2 T. 4. 17 ; hence passive of 
persons who have fully attained the proposed end: C. 4. 12, 
T6X.£(ot Koi ireirXrfpo^ofyqiiepoi,, fully satisfied or convinced in 
mind, R. 4. 21 ; 14. 5 : of things received on the fullest evi- 
dence, L. 1. I. Uesychius explains irXrjpo^opia by jSejSaton;?, 
steadiness. The word gives the idea of a ship laden with 
freight, if)opd, pursuing a steady course : irXrjpofftopia avpeaeayi, 
perfect certainty, residing in the intellect, clearness and sta- 
bility of comprehension : irXijpoi^opia TrtWew?, faith fully 
grounded ; a realizing view of the great Object of Faith. irXr)- 
po<f)opia iXTriSo<i, hope fully established, the sense of a personal 
interest in the blessings of redemption, so as to impart uniform 
steadiness and consistency : irXrfpoipopia is not an cfiTect of the 
logical faculty, but is produced by the inner working {epepyeia) 
of the Uoly Ghost. 

TTopevofiai has prominent the idea of removing to another 
place, and is often prefixed in the participle to verbs which 



230 



SYNONYMS — rrpaffaeiv, irpoaevxv- 



convey the idea of going, in order to render the expression 
more complete. In inrdytt the prominent idea is departure, 
withdrawing from others so as to be out of sight : airkp^oiiai 
has tho simple idea of absence. 

irpdaaeiv denotes what we do naturally, easily ; practice, cus- 
tomary action : iroielv, ' make,' ' produce,' describes what we do 
with difficulty and effort, action with an object in view : J. 5, 
29, o( T^ arfad^ 7ro(i)<rainr£f, o( ra <j)av\a irpd^avrei. iroUa indi- 
cates habitual design and actual habit of life, frequently applied 
to good, while irpdaareiv is applied to evil. Good made and 
done has permanence for ever. Evil is practical, but produces 
no good fruit for eternity, irpdacra is connected with irepdca, 
irepaivta, involving the idea of continuance and habitual prose- 
cution, used in the sense of intrigue, contrivance, scheming, as 
to practise upon a man : Thuc. i. 99, dKpi^Sxs errpaaaov, wore 
exacting the payment rigidly. Such is the sense of vpdicTwp, 
L. 12. 58. 

irpoKoirretv, originally, to cut forward, to forward by cutting 
(as by foiling trees, &c., before an advancing army), to forward ; 
but in the New Testament always, and in classical Greek 
generally, it is used intransitively, to advance or make progress : 
L. 2. 52 : G. 1. 14 : 2 T. 2. 16 ; 3. g. 13 : iyKmrretv, to cut in, 
enclose or intercept by cutting (from an enemy impeding tho 
progress of an army, by cutting trenches in its way), impede, 
obstruct; G. 5. 7; 1 Th. 2. 18. Vaughan. 

irpoaevxrjt supplication addressed to God only, significant of 
tho power of Him whom we invoke : wgoo-rgom}, turning one- 
self to any quarter for help, the turning of a su{)pliaut ((xein;?) 
to God or man, to implore protection or purifipation. Henco 
irpooTpoTrf} iv^eaffai, the guilt or pollution of the manslayer. 
\PJ3!^ expresses our need (epSeiav), entreaties for deliverance 
from evil, for aid in special necessity, eprev^m, intercession, 
requests concerning others, and in their behalf, urgent personal 
address, interpellatio, said of appeals to man as well as to God. 
So ipTvyxdva. iicernpia, application to another person for the 
supply of tvieia {iKerela, iKpeofiai), Beijan seems a special 
form (rogatio) of tho more general irjisasvxo (prccatio). ejjiat 
ft?, prayer in its most individual alid urgent form, prayer in 
winch God is, as it were, sought in audience, and personally 
drawn nigh to. 'Evrev^ens to? wrb tov irapprfaiav rivd, irkelova 
Ij^orros, Origen. hii\<Ti<i marks tho idea of our inauiEciency : 



;; I 



'•> !-. 



K 



SYNONYMS— 7rf)0^lJTlJ?. 



231 



■^poaevx^. that of devotion: hnev^^, that of childlike confi- 

dence. . ,. . , „„„„q 

nvpod^TT,^, "Sacrorum interpres; qui alius cujusdam sensus 
profert ;" prophet or seer, the interpreter of the inspired ^vr,^. 
Tho nrpod^ is rapt out of^himself, Ufted above, but not set 
beside his everyday self, the p^dvr,^ is one whose reason is 
suspended, his declarations are received only after they have had 
the approbation of the ,rpo<^^T,9. The word /*a,n-« {jmlvo,ut^, 
rave) does not occur in tho New Testament : ^mue^r^at occurs 
A. 16. 16, only when the lying art of heathen dmnation is 
referred to. Such too is its «se in Deut. 18. lo : 1 bara^ 28. 8. 
In other instances Trpo^xewa) is repeatedly used. Trpo^ijri?? is 
generally a pubUo t'jacher {irpi embracing time, place, persons), 
one endowed with the faculty of interpreting {epp-tiveui). bo 
irpodrnreia is the exposition or interpretation of Scripture. In 
the middle, Hebrew, NU3, ^/.o^i^t^?. two ideas were oombincd, 
which we ought carefully to distinguish; tho one, a divinely 
inspired seer (^^*^, 1 Sam.*9. 9) ; the other, an interpreter ot 
the Divine will. The Greeks, and after them, the Romans, 
had two different words to express these ideas; the first was 
expressed by /tarn?, vates, the second by €fv7»;T^?, int<^pres. 
The distinction between the two may be clearly seen m tho 
description given of the Church at Corinth. Tho Connthians, 
iKioaauK \a\oOvTe<!, were in the state of a fidvTK, but they 
were not all e^yvrai: they had not the epfivveia iKa>aa(ov, for 
frequently they did not comprehend the sense, and, conse- 
quently, could not unfold the meaning of their own inspiration, 
1 C 12. 10. 30 ; 14. 5. (Gr. Test., Vol. i.. Introd., p. 32.) Tho 
distinction between T}p and N03 is preserved by Greg. Naz., 
when he calls Ezekiel 6 r&v ^eydXxav eiroirri)<t koX e|inr»rr^s 
^LvoTvpitov. Tho SutKovla was instituted that others might have 
leisure to give themselves to prayer, and the ministry of tho 
word The sacred writers were led by Divine supermtendenco 
to avoid words, tho employment of which tended to efface tho 
distinction between heathenism and Christianity. Archbishop 
Trench remarks, that "the Christian Church assumed tho irpo- 
dnrrevuv to itself, but ascribed the fuivTeCeadai to tho heathen- 
ism which it was about to displace and overthrow." Wo may 
trace this caution in tho neglect of ^w/xo?, which occurs only in 
A. 17. 33 ; in-tho sparing use of tho word dperij, Phil. 4. 8, 



232 



SYNONYMS — prjfia, aapiuvo<s. 



and 2 P. 1. 3. 6, though this was in heathen ethics the standing 
word for 'virtue;' in the single use of fidi), 1 C. 16. 33. To 
preserve the spirit of Christianity distinct from Judaism, the 
sacred writers never employ iepeli to express any of the different 
orders in the ministry of the Christian Church. In irpoifn^Tti^ 
the wpo is especially local. The Latin ' vates ' (from ' fari ') 
has a similar breadth of meaning, irpo^yiyrela was a gift of 
• praedicandi ' rather than of ' prsodicendi.' The contrast be- 
tween the soothsayer, pAvri^, and the forth-teUer, 7rpo</>7}Tij?, is 
thus drawn out by Chrysostom : Toflro 7a/) /tai^ew? thuiv, to 
e^earriKivat,, to ava/^KTjv virofikveiv, to wdeiadai, to eXxeaOai^ to 
avpeadai &<mep /laivofjtevov. 'O Sk irpo^i^rTii ov^ ovTa><i, aXXd 
Hera huivola<s vij<f>ov<rri^ Ka\ aa^povoicrqf; KaTaardaeav, Kal et'Scof 
& tpOeyyerai, <f>ij(nv dvavra' &<Tre koI irpo t^$ eKfidcrea^ Kavrev- 
6ev yvtopi^e rov ftavrw Kal rov irpoffufnjv. 

prj/JM is more than \o707, the matter, the whole transaction, 
" non vorbum, sed rem quao i^ccidit." Valckner. 

pofi^aia, barbarian scimitar, broad falchion: fidxaipa, the 
symbol of civil power, the right of punishment. 

pvTK, wrinkle, contraction of the sldn from old age: pvco, 
ipvco, draw together : atriXo';, stain, mark, freckle, mole : 
d<nriXoi joined with a/«o/*ijTot, 1 P. 1. 19: 2 P. 3. 14 (see 
aKepaioi;) : o-irTKoi, spots, in a moral sense : fi&fioi, used of 
bodily defects. 

adpicivo<{, made of the material substance, adp^, as oa-Tpaxivois, 
SeppATivo<s, TTJjXti'OS : aapiciKot, ' flcshen,' subject to fleshly lusts 
and appetites. Our Lord was adpKi,vo<:, of human flesh sub- 
sisting ; but though adpKt,vo<;, He was not like all other men, 
aapKiKOf : 2 C. 3. 3, ev ttKu^I icapSia^ capKivaK : 10. 4, ra yap 
oirXa T^? {rTpaT€ia<s ^fi&v ov aapKiicd. <rdp^, the opposite of 
irvevfia, includes the "^vxfl Bt& well as the aS>fia. The desires 
of the mind, as well as the lusts of the flesh, are enumerated 
amongst tA tprfa t^5 erapKois, in G. 5. 19 — 21, the life and move- 
ment of man in the things of the phenomenal world. <rap^ kuI 
alfui, a Hebrew circumlocution for man, generally with the 
accessory idea of weakness and frailty. It has the following 
modifications of meaning: man in his mere corporeal nature, 
1 C. 15. 50: H. 2. 14 : man in his weak, intellectual nature, 
contrasted with God, M. 16. 17: G. 1. 16: man in his feeble 
human powers, contrasted with spiritual natures and agencies, 
15. a. 12. (EUicott, G. 1. 16.) adp^ moans the regular course 



SYNONYMS — ore'^ovo?, reKfiripM. 



233 



of nature, the worldly tendency of human Ufe, when there is an 
expressed or latent opposition to irwO/ta, as the governing a^ 
directing principle in the spiritual man, G. 3. 3 ; 4. 23. In G. 
4. 29, adpKa, the natural laws, atfcording to which Ishmael was 
born : iri/eO/xo, the supernatural laws, according to which Isaac 
was conceived and bom. In Tit. 2. 12, we have Koaii.i,ich<s 
iiridviiia^, all the inordinate desires of the things of the world. 
KO(rfUKd<i is- used in preference to aapKiKd<i, as more general 
and inclusive, and as enhancing the extent of the abnegation. 

frre^avo<!, the wreath of victory in the games, ' corona,' the 
mark of distinction and joy, the reward of those who fight the 
good fight of faith, but not th'e emblem or characteristic of 
royalty. The Bidhipa was the ' insigne regium,' originally a 
linen band or fillet, encircling the brow, 'taenia,' 'fascia,' 
applied to the Captain of our salvation, SiaSrjpMra iroKkd, Eev. 
19. 12. The ffT€^ai»os was a garland formed of leaves and 
flowers, or an imitation of a garland, worked in gold : aTe^avoi 
aKdv0ivo9. the crown of thorns, where the word is appropriate 
to the materials of which the wreath was composed. To such 
a substance SidSr]p,a could not be applied. 

ffiraraXdv might properly be laid to the charge of the pro- 
digal, scattering his substance in riotous living {^&v dadnw, 
L. 15. 13) : Tpv^dv, to the rich man faring sumptuously every 
day {ei^paivofievoi Kaff i)pMpav Xafiirpm, L. 16. 19) : trrprividv, 
to Jeshurun, when waxing fat, he kicked, Deut. 32. 15. From 
Archbishop Trench, who quotes Hottinger : " Tpv<j>dv deliciarum 
est, et exquisitaj voluptatis, tnraTaXav, luxurise atque prodigali- 
tatis." Tittmann, "rpv(pdv potius mollitiam Vita) luxuriosa), 
airajoKav petulantiam et prodigaUtatem denotat." 
, oTTeuSw, make haste, festino, ' de tempore :' ffirovSd^a, do the 
utmost, ' festinanter et sedulo aliquid facie.' 

TeKfiTipia, as distinguished from <rr]p,eia, are evidences derived 
from logical induction. "Differt repai a <rr)p.el^. Hoc enim 
sumitur etiam pro quolibet signo extra miraculum; at repui 
semper sumitur pro portento vel prodigio." Mintert. "A 
miracle is a Swa/it9, as wrought by divine power : a Tcpas, as 
a supernatural prodigy : a aijfieiov, as a sign or credential of a 
mission from God." (Wordsworth.) " The fathers apply repara 
to the signs at the Crucifixion, the supernatural darkness, the 
rending the rocks ; the earthquake at the Eesurrection ; to the 
phenomena before the siege and fall of Jerusalem, ffij/telo and 



234 



SYNONYMS — TWTO?, xdpK;. 



repara are both applied to Ohristian miracles: ripara, with 
especial reference to their supernatural character : and <rr}fieia, 
to their object, as signals of Christ." (Vaughan.) ar]/ieiov, a 
sign, with reference to its demonstration: ripavj a wonder, 
with reference to the excitement of surprise : Suvafiii, a work, 
with reference to the power required for its performance. 

TWO?, (1) mark or impress made by a hard substance on one 
of softer material ; (2) model, pattern, exemplar, in the widest 
sense; a material object of worship, or idol, A. 7. 43: an 
external framework for divine service, A. 7. 44 : H. 8. s : the 
form of an epistle, A. 23. as : system of doctrinal instruction, 
R. 6. ij : representative charadter, normal example, R. 5. 14 : 
1 0. 10. II : Ph. 3. 17 : 1 Th. 1. 7 : 1 P. 5. 3. " two? est res 
priBfigurans. avrlruirov est res prrofigurata." inroTinraaii, de- 
lineation, outline, 2 T. 1. i3. 

(f)avko<i, in its primary meaning, 'light,' 'blown about with 
every wind;' with a moral reference, opposed to aryadof, i. q. 
KUKoi or TTovripoi." Fritzsche, Rom. ii. p. 297. 

^oi/evf, a general term for murderer (M. 22. 7 : 1 P. 4. is : 
Rev. 21. s), used, however, vaguely, as a traitor is called by 
Plutarch, ^vev^ ttji irarplStK. ^ovevi is the genus, of which 
a-iKcipioi, A. 21. 38, is the species, an assassin, formed from the 
' sica,' poniard. Thus ' sicarii ' mingled with the multitude at 
the chief feastsj and secretly stabbed their adversaries. (Jose- 
phus, B. J. ii. 3, 3 : Ant. xx. 8. 6.) 'AvOptoiroKTovoi, man- 
slayer, J. 8. 44 : 1 J. 3. 15, appropriately applied to Satan, as 
he would have fain murdered the whole race of mankind. 

<f>6po<} is especially the tribute paid to a foreign power, L. 
20. 22 ; 23. 3, levied by direct taxation on property and persons, 
for which purpose the diroypa^ij, or Ktjvaoi;, was taken, which 
contained an enumeration of the people and valuation of 
property, leijvaoi, poll-tax, i. q. eiriKe^oKaiov: reKot, tolls, 
customs, duties, levied on travellers and merchandise, received 
by T€Xwi»at, Latin ' portitores,' or eicXeyoin-es, collectors. From 
reKKeiv, put, settle: TeXew, complete, perfect, connected with 
our verb 'to tell,' and with the German 'steUen,' 'zahlen,' 
* Ziel.' riXot, ' the settlement,' or perfecting of a thing. Hence 
the expressions, yd/ioio t^Xo?, and davdroio reXo?, the settle- 
ment and crown of life. Arnold, Thuc. i. 78. 

^aptf signifies free gift, favour, mercy, indulgence, bounty, 
more especially a spiritual gift, and in a sense yet more re- 



■vl- 



'i: i 



■I 



■' > 



SYNONYMS — y^a\/J,6<}. 



235 



strained, the gift of sanctification, or, of such spiritual aids as 
may enable a man both to will and to do according to what 
God has commanded ; grace generally, the result of the divine 
favour, imparted for personal edification : x«/»«<'/*<»> special gift 
for the edification of others. x«/»' "" S"^^ given, that xa/)/<r- 
fiara may be rightly exercised, X"P*« ^^ ^^° applied to human 
benevolence, i. e. the collection made for the Christians at Jeru- 
salem, 2 0. 8. 19 ; joined with Koiveavia, to denote Christian 
beneficence, 2 0. 8. 4 ; where Koivavla implies the communica- 
tion of what is given for the service of many, and not for the 
exclusive benefit of the possessor. X'^P*'' ^^"^* ^ freely be- 
stowed by God in order to be freely and thankfully dispensed. 
In 1 0. 10. 16 {Koivavia rov oJ/taros) the word Koivavia, com- 
munion, is used rather than (leToxn, participation, to mark 
more strongly the fact of our being united to Christ (t^ 
evovadat). x^'Pts is favour, as opposed to opyij: gratuitous 
favour, as opposed to o^elXri/ia. icoivwyla has the two senses ; 

(1) of participation or communion. Ph. 2. i : 1 J. 1. 3 ; and 

(2) of imparting or communication, R. 15. 26: H. 13. 16. So 
Koivuveiv, partake in, 1 T. 6. 22 : 1 P. 4. 13 : impart to, G. 6. 6 : 
Ph. 4. 15. In the salutation, G. 1. 3, x«/"« vfiip koI elpfivt), we 
have the fuU spiritual significance of the Hebrew 1^ Di^tt>, and 
the Greek xa^P"!/. ^a/jw, the divine love manifesting itself to 
man, and elp^vrj, the state that results from a reception of it. 
"The oriental and occidental forms of salutation are thus 
blended and spiritualized in the Christian greeting." EUicott. 
" xO'Pti, qu8B est principium omnis boni ; elpijinj, quae est finale 
bonorum omnium." Thom. Aquinas. 

■>^a\fi6<:, properly, a touching, then a touching of the harp or 
other stringed instrument with the finger, or * plectrum ' {ylrda, 
sweep the strings); next the instrument; then the song sung 
with this musical accompaniment. The y^oKfiol of E. 5. 19 : 
C. 3. 16, are probably the inspired Psalms of the Hebrew Canon. 
The vfivo<; was a song in praise of a god, or hero after death ; 
in the Christian use of the word, this original application of the 
word was still retained, as the v/tj/os was a direct address of 
praise and glory to God, while the -(/roX/tos might be a com- 
memoration of mercies received. The word was not freely 
adopted till the fourth century. Archbishop Trench says, "It 
is a plausible explanation of this, that the word was so steeped 
in heathenism, so linked with profane associations, there were 



236 



SYNONYMS — ■^I^ . 



BO many hymns to Zeus, Hermes, Aphrodite, that the elEirly 
Christians would not willingly employ it." The word p8»; 
(i. q. 00(817) occurs in the Apocalypse, 5. 9 ; 14. 3 ; 15. 3. St. 
Paul uses it twice with the adjective irpev/iariKij, implying that 
they were songs composed by spiritual men, and had to do with 
spiritual things, ^rj, by itself, might mean any kind of song, 
of battle, of harvest, festal, or hymeneal. 

■>p-vx,^, animal life, the lower faculty, which man has in 
common with all living creatures : irpevfia, the higher principle 
or attribute, the spirit which evinces man's original state, as 
made in the image of God. " Anim& i'^^'XV) "vivimus, spiritu 
(irvevfiaTt) intelligimus, vita nobis camalis cum bestiis com- 
munis est ; ratio spiritalis cum Angelis." Primasius. ^vxVt 
the living principle which animates the a&fui, or corporeal 
frame : irvev/ui, the highest faculty, the proper recipient of the 
Holy Spirit : ^vp^cxos, animal, distinguished from irveviuiTiKoi, 
spiritual: Jude (19), ■^^ux^'^o'^ irpevfia fif/ ly(ppTe<i: Rev. 8. 9, rk 
expvra '■^v)(ai, those which held fast animal existence: 12. 11 ; 
16. 3 ; 18. 13. " It is not to be supposed that •^u^'} and irvev/Mi 
are different parts of the human constitution, for the sentient 
faculty is indiscerptible, and cannot be anatomized like . the 
body ; but they are different faculties of the invisible part of 
^man, so that '^vxv refers to that lower faculty of life which 
man has in common with other animals ; and irvevfia represents 
the higher attribute, which they do not possess, and which 
makes him nearest to God." (Wordsworth on 1 Th. 6. 23.) 
In E. 8. 4, adp^ includes both a&fia and -^vxVi the natural 
mind, and irvevfia is the renewed soul of the Christian, made so 
by the presence and agency of a Divine IJpev/ia. In other 
/^passages, 1 0. 2. H : Eev. 8. 9, "^^vxv includes aufia. The 
threefold division, rrvev/jM, ■^w^'J. cr&;ia, occurs 1 Th. 5. 23, 
where irvevfui is the soul as quickened and inhabited by the 
Holy Spirit. " We have here," says Bishop Ellicott, " a dis- 
tinct enunciation of the three component parts of the nature 
of man ; the irvevfta, the higher of the two united, immaterial 
parts, being the * vis superior agens, imperans in homine ; ' the 
■i^vxVy ' <iuse agitur, movetur, in imperio tenetur ;' the sphere 
of the will and affections, and the true centre of the person- 
ality. We frequently find instances of an apparent dichotomy, 
' body and soul,' M. 6. 25 ; 10. 28, or ' body and spirit ' (1 0. 
5. 3 ; 7. 34) ; but such passages will only be found accommoda- 




■.:. 



'# 



SYNONYMS. 



237 



tions to the popular division into a material and immaterial 
part ; the •^w^') in some cases including thej&fia ; the irvev/M 
in other cases comprehending the tw- To refer these dis- 
tinctions to Platonism is calculated to throw doubt on the truth 
of the teaching. If St. Paul's words imply this trichotomy, 
then such a trichotomy is infaUibly real and true. If I'lato oj 
Philo have maintained substantially the same views, then God 
has permitted a heathen and a Jewish philosopher to advance 
conjectural opinions, which have been since confirmed by the 
independent teaching of an inspired Apostle." ^ 



CHAPTER XL 

HINTS ON THE AUTHORIZED VERSION. 

The idea of this chapter is taken from the Hints for an Im- 
proved Translation of the New Testament, by the late Professor 
Scholefield. The design, however, is different, as my object is 
not so much to suggest hints for a revision, as to point out the 
most effectual way of using the Authorized Version. 

Occasionally I have presented a paraphrastic rendering, where 
a close and literal translation would be an inadequate expression 
of the force of the original. In the selection of passages I have 
called attention to those not already adduced in the Syntax, in 
which some amendment would probably be attempted, whenever 
the revision of the Authorized Version is deemed advisable. 
These may generally be arranged under four classes, in which 
our Version is incorrect, inexact, insufficient, or obscure. 

Matthew 7. 15, Beware, accordingly {Bi), of false prophets. 

12. 43, But whenever the imclean spirit goes out of the man 
(orav Si). [The conjunction marks the connexion with the pre- 
ceding, and explains the process by which the Jews had become 
so hardened in sin as to reject our Lord.] 

15. 3, Why do ye also transgress the precept of God owing 
to (Sid) yotir tradition ? 27, Yea, Lord, help me ; for even the 
dogs {Nal, Kvpie, ical ykp rd, Kvvdpia). 

20. 23, is not mine to give, otherwise than to those for whom 
it has been prepared by my Father (dXKd). 31, charged them 
that they shoidd be silent {"pa auoirrfawaiv). 

23. 6, They love the highest couch at feasts {ri]v irpunoKki- 
aiav). 

24. 32, When already its branch has become tender, and its, 
leaves sprout forth {'^hnjrat diraXo^ kuI rh, <f>vXKa iK^inj), 

26. 5G, But this altogether has taken place that the Scrip- 



HINTS ON THB AUTHORIZED VERSION. 



239 



' ;*? y 



.. (■ 



tures of the prophets may be fulfilled (rovro Zk iXov '.hovev 

'"Mark 2. .8, And the disciples of John and-the disciples of 
the Pharisees were keeping a fast {^aav ... . '^7*''"7*'^; - 
10. 14, for to such belongeth the kingdom of heaven {r<ov 

^"itZtuA" tal^- place that the Scriptures may be fulfilled 

^"^ 14 to them, the eleven, at table {dvaKevfiivoK). 

Luke 2 2, Thi^ was the first census that took pkco, whde 
Oyr^L wa^ governor of Syria. [PubUus Sulpicms Qumnus 
was S goveLr of Syria. A second census was made after 
fliA hnnishment of Archelaus.] 

9. 55, YrLw not to what spirit ye belong; or, know ye 
not? (ohv -irvevpMTOi i<TTe v/ieii.) •^^^p,-^ 

12. 58, For instance, when thou art gomg (a,, V^P -^«7««). 
[lit is brought forward by our Lord as an exemphfication of 
his anneal 1 (ri Sk xal af kaxrr&v oi> Kplvere to S^kmov;) _ 

18 u 12, The PharLe standing by himself was offering 

this p^;erVa0«* -PO' ---) ^ ^ ^^ ^ *^« ^^^-^ '^ ^'"^ 
the tenth of whatever I am from time te tune acqmnng 

22. 29. And accordingly as my Father «7"^^*«^,!?"^^ 

kingdom, I covenant with you, that ye eat, &c. (Start^e^* vp..v 

^ X eV^t'JTc). 36, And let him who hath no sword. seU 

'ijf TNoiVdLTlg of ^eath has been committed by 
'iSlTTh: t^l^e true light wHchenlighteneth every 
Jn by co-iBg inte the world. 62. Henceforward {a.ajrC) ye 
25 see the heaven set open. [The Gospel dispensation was 
now commenced; from this time they stould^/^««« '"^ ^}^ 
Salur the fulfilment of the blessings which had been repre- 
aented in Jacob's vision.] „ 

3 Is^There arose accordingly a discussion on the part of 
John's disciples, with the Jews, concermng purifying {^ev^ro 
oL?/t,.« I tL p^en-r&v 'I^dwov). [The o5. resumes the nar- 
JativHf .. 23, which is interrupted by the parenthesis in .. 24.] 

4 29, What! isthistheChrist? (;.^n o5r6, W o Xp,^o. 
[The ;^ with an indicative impUes a mixture of behef, douH 
Lnd wolder.] /.^*. What! is it possible? 33, What has 
any one brought him food P {M^ m fp>ey.eu a^n^ 4>a'yuv ;) 



240 



HINTS ON THE AUTHORIZED VERSION. 



John 7. 41, Others however kept saying, The Christ does not 
come out of Galilee, does Ho ? (aXXoi Se iXeyov Mi) yap ex t^? 
TaXiXaiaf 6 Xpiarb^ epj(€Tai, ;) 

8. 56, Abraham, your father, exulted in the thought that he 
should see My day ; and he saw, and was glad {riyaWicuTaTo 
Xva). 

9. 40, And those from among the Pharisees who were with 
Him heard this, and said to Him, Is it possible that we also 
are blind ? (e« twi/ ^aptaaitov , . . ol ovrei pxr avrov. Mi) koI 
VH-ek ;) 

11. 6, When then.he heard, [o^, continuative only.] 

13. 7, But thou shalt know after these things (/xer^ ravra), 
[when I have finished what I am now doing.] 

15. 6, Separate from me, ye are not able to produce any 
fruit (x(ii>/>(( ifiov ov SvvaaSe iroieip oiiSiv). 

18. 17, What ! art^hou also belonging to the disciples of this 
man ? (M^ koI aii e/c r&v fia0Tp-&p el . . . ;) So 18. 25. 

Acts 2. 40, Save yourselves, separating from this crooked 
generation {avo). 

7. 36, This one brought them out by working (oCto? i^tvyev 
avTovs TTOtJjCTas). 

8. 11, owing to the fact (Sul), that for a long time by his 
sorceries they had been bewitched {e^eaTaKevat intrans.). 33, 
His origin, however, who shall unfold? (t^i; hk yeveap ainov 
rk SwjTJjcreTat ;) 

9. 31, The churches however (oSv) had rest, building them- 
selves up, and walking in the fear of the Lord, and by the 
instruction of the Holy Spirit were continually replenished. 

10. 39, whom they slow by hanging on the tree (Si/ aveiXop 
Kpe(ida-apre<i iirl ^vXov). 

11. 17, Seeing then God gave the equal gift to them, as to 
us also, upon the mere fact of their believing on the Lord Jesus, 
— why, who was I, to be able to restrain God ? (eyco Si rt? ij/iTju 
SvpaToi KtaXvaai, top Qeov ; ' ego vero.') 

13. 27, Not understanding this word of salvation, even the 
statements of the prophets, which are read every sabbath-day, 
these they fulfilled by condemning Him (koI, ra? <^pd<{). 

14. 6, when they had considered the matter they fled (avp- 
i86vre<{ Kori^vrfop). 

15. 22, to choose men out of their own body and send 
(eKKe^afUpovi apSpav i^ air&p irifiip'ai). 



HINTS ON THE AUTHORIZED VERSION. 



241 



s ;■ 






Acts 17. 7, saying that there is a king of a different cha- 
racter, {hepoi, p. 192.) 

19. 13, Some from the Jewish exorcists who went about (dirb 
r&p Trepi€pj(pfieva>p ^lovhaitop i^opiuar&p). 24, models of Diana's 
temple in silver (paoii<i apyvpovi 'AprifjiiSoi). 

22. 23, tossing up their garments (piirrowTap ra IfidTia). 85, 
when they stretched him forward with the thongs (irpoireipap 
ainop Tot? t/iaaip). 

23. 5, I did not consider that he is High Priest (ow« jjSew; ori 
icrrlp apxtepew). 27, This man apprehended by the Jews, and 
on the point of being killed by them, being present with my 
force I rescued, on learning that he is a [Roman. 

26. 28, 29, In short compass, i e. in a brief narrative of facts, 
thou art trying to persuade me to become a Christian. I would 
pray to God, whether in short compass or long, i. e. in brief 
narrative or elaborate argument, that not only thou, but that 
all who hear me to-day, became such as even I am (ip 6\lyq>, 
ep TToXXft), yepeaOai), [eV oXiyai is foimd in E. 3. 3, where it is 
well rendered, ' in few words.*] 

Eom. 1. 3, concerning His Son Jesus Christ, who was made 
to arise from the seed of David according to the flesh (tow 
yepo/iipov iic). 32, such as (olVti'e?) being well aware of the 
ordinance of God, that they who practise {irpdaarovai) such 
things are worthy of death, not only commit them (Trotouat), 
but actually delight in those who practise them {km avpev- 
SoKovai TOi<s Trpdaaovari). 

2. I, for in the fact that thou judgest thy neighbour (top 
erepop), thou condemnest thyself; for thou the judge practisest 
the same things {irpdffffei<i). 

3. 3, 4, Shall unfaithfulness on their part nullify the faith- 
fulness of God ? Far be the thought. Let God be accounted 
true (let our conviction be that God is true), though, on the 
other nand, it should follow (Se) that every man must be 
accounted a liar; as it is written. In order that thou mayest 
be proved righteous in thy words, and prevail judicially in thy 
cause (and mayest gain thy cause when thou standest in judg- 
ment). 8, 9, And why do we not rather say. As we are 
slanderously reported, and as some afiirm that we say. Let us 
do the things which are evil, in order that the" things which 
are good may come ? («al p,ii Kadm^ fi\a<T<jn)iiovfi€da.) What 

R 



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HINTS ON THE AUTHORIZED VERSION. 



then? Do we (Jews) occupy a higher position than they 
(the Gentiles)? (Tl oZv ; irpoexpii.eda ;) 19, That all the world 
may become convicted of guilt in relation to God (wroSwo? 
yevr)Tai . . . r^ &e^). 21, But now, apart from law, God's 
mode of justifying has been manifested (x^pi? vofiov) [in- 
dependently of the requirements and conditions of any law]. 

Horn. 5. 6, 7, For while we wore stUl powerless (to obey or 
please God), at the appointed season Christ died for ungodly 
characters. For scarcely in behalf of a righteous man wiU one 
die ; scarcely, I say, for it is a fact, that in behalf of the pre- 
eminently good man, some one really has the heart to die. 
12, For this cause, as through one man sin came into the 
world, and death through sin, and thus death came abroad 
unto all men, on the ground that all sinned. 16, But not 
as was the transgression, so the gift of grace; for if in the 
transgression of the one man, mankind died, much more the 
grace of God, and the free gift, centering in the grace of the 
one man, Christ Jesus, abounded to mankind. 20, Now law 
came in by the way, that there might be more strongly dis- 
played the transgression ; yet where sin was thus aggravated, 
gratuitous mercy had a more signal victory (Vaughan). 

6. e, the body, the seat and instrument of sin {to <r&iia t^? 
afiapTiai). 7, He who has died stands acquitted from his 
sin. [In the Levitical sin and trespass offerings, the offerer 
suffered a symbolical death in respect of his fault. We have 
suffered a symbolical death in Christ, and are therefore formally 
released from our slavery to sin, and have properly nothing 
more to do with it (Wratislaw).] 11, Thus do ye also regard 
yourselves as dead men (insensible, immoveable) in relation 
to sin, as living men (full of energy and vigour) in relation 
to God. 10, I use a human illustration, owing to the infirmity 
of your flesh. 20, When ye were slaves of sin, ye were free- 
men in relation to righteousness. 

7. 8, The fact being, that apart from law, sin is dormant 
(vwpj.? yap vofiov dfiapria veKpd). 15, For that which I perform, 
I do not sanction; for I do not practise this which I wish; 
but what I hate, this I do ; but if I do this which I loathe, 
I assent to the law, that it is good. [Compare Eurip. Med. 
1076, 7, Kal futpOdva fiev aita Spav /jiiWa koku, Qvfwf Sk Kpeia- 
atov T&u e/Ji&v ^ovKevfidruv.] 23, But I see a different (erepov), 



HINTS ON THE AUTHORIZEU VERSION. 



243 



i. e. an opposing principle in my members warring against 
the principle of my mind, and leading me captive by the 
principle of sin, which is in my members. 

Bom. 8. 3, For the point which law could not effect, the point 
in which it was weak by means of the flesh, God effected 
by sending His own Son, in the likeness of the flesh, liable 
to sin, and as a sia-offcring. He passed sentence of death upon 
the dominion of sin in the flesh, in order that the law's require- 
ment might be satisfied in us, who live, jiot by the rule of the 
flesh, but by the rule of the spirit. 6, For the bent of the flesh 
is death, but the bent of the spirit is life and peace, because the 
bent of the flesh is enmity towards God, for it does not submit 
itself to the law of God ; the fact is, this submission is not 
even possible ; accordingly, they which are after the flesh have 
not the ability to please God. 10, u. But if Christ is in you 
while the body is dead (inevitably subject to death), owing 
to sin, the spirit is life (a living principle of action), owing to 
righteousness; if, however, the Spirit of Him who raised up 
Jesus from the dead, dwell in you, He who raised up Christ 
from the dead, shall make alive, shall reanimate your mortal 
bodies, owing to His Spirit which dwelleth in you. 23, waiting 
to receive as realization of sonship the redemption of our body 
(ylodeaiav dveKBe')(Ofi£voi,). 

9. 2, that my sorrow is great, yea, unceasing distress in 
my heart, u, For when they were not yet bom, much less 
practised any good or evil, in order that God's purpose, accord- 
ing to election, may abide not from and after works, but from 
and by Him tliat calleth. 21, Or hath not the potter power 
over the clay, out of the same lump to make one portion a 
vessel for honour, and another portion a vessel for dishonour? 
[" The position of <r/ceOo? shows that it must bo a predicate of 
o fiiv" (Wratislaw).] 22, If, however, God, willing to manifest 
His anger. 27, 28, The remnant shall be saved, for God will 
be consummating and cutting- short His account in righteous- 
ness. 

10. 19, But, I say, is it possible Israel did not know? 
Moses is the first to say (Mi) ovk eyvat 'Ivparjk; trpSnot 
Mftiff^s Xeyet). [So early as the days of Moses, they were 
distinctly warned of this purpose. Vaughan.] 

11. 2, How he expostulates with God against Israel. 

12. 1, the rational service of yourselves [not opyavixij, 

• R 2 



244 



HINTS ON THE AUTHORIZED VERSION. 



mechanical]. 3, not to be minded above what he ought to be 
minded, but to be minded so as to be sober-minded. 

Rom. 13. 1, Let every one submit himself to authorities over 
him, for no authority exists except from God ; but the existing 
authorities have been commissioned by God (and are subor- 
dinate to Him). 9, For the commandment, Thou shalt not 
commit adultery, thou shalt not steal . . ., and whatever pre- 
cept there is besides is brought under one head in this saying, 
in the expression, ii, And this do ye, as knowing the season. 

14. 4, In relation to his own master he stands or falls, i. e. 
is right or wrong. 13, No longer then let us pass judgment 
on each other, but adopt this judgment rather. 17, For the 
kingdom of God is not eating and drinking (fipAaii koI troffist). 

15. 20, 21, yet 80 aspiring to preach the Gospel, not where 
Christ is received, that I may not build on a foundation laid 
by others, but in conformity with what is wiitten. Men shall 
see to whom no tidings have been told concerning Him, and 
those who have not heard shall understand. 31, in order that 
I may be delivered from those who continue disobedient in 
Judsca {t&v aireidoinnav). See p. 195. 

1 Cor. 4. 9, Seeing that we are rendered a spectacle to the 
world, both to angels and men (fin diarpov eyevi]dr)ftev). 

5. 6, The matter of your boasting is dishonourable (ov koKjov 

TO KaV^jJM vfi&v). 

6. 3, Know ye not that we shall judge angels, to say nothing 
of matters of common life (/i»?Tt 76 ^hotiko) ? If, however, ye 
hold courts of common life, those who are least esteemed in 

, the Church, these set ye up to judge (fiuoriKci Kpw^pia, secular 
courts). 

7. 10, 11, that the wife separate not herself from her husband, 
but if ever she be actually (/cat) separated, let her remain un- 
married, or 'let her get reconciled to her husband, and that 
the husband dismiss not the wife. 15, The brother or the 
sister is released from bondage in such circumstances (ov SeSov- 
\o>Ta(). 23, Become not servants of men (fii) ylveade). 34, 
The wife has her condition assigned her, and the virgin has 
her condition (jiefiepurTai ^ lyvvij xal 17 trapBevoi). 

8. 7, But some with the consciousness of the idol remain- 
ing till now, cat it as an idol-sacrifice. 10, For if ever any 
one see thee, the man who hast knowledge, at table in the 
idol's temple, will not his conscience, as he is weak, be im- 



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k 



HINTS ON THE AUTHORIZED VERSION. 



245 



paired, so as actually to eat' the things offered in sacrifice to 
idols P 12, But when by this practice ye sin against the bre- 
thren, ofliBring violence to their conscience in a weakly state, 
ye sin against Christ. 

1 Cor. 9. 4, Is it so that we have not right to eat and to drink ? 
Is it so that we have not right to consort with a Christian 
woman? 6, Have I only and Barnabas not the right of de- 
clining to labour for our support? 9, Thou shalt not muzzle 
the ox while treading out the com. Are oxen the special 
objects of God's care? 15, than that any one make void my 
object of glorifying {icavxniia). 

10. 5, In these things, however, they became figures of us 
{ravra Zk Tinroi tfiiiav ey€v^0r}aav), 

11. 14, Doth not even nature of her own accord teach you? 
{oiiBk avri) ij <f>v<TK). 26, ye declare the death of the Lord until 
such time as He shall have come {Kara/r^iWere, a^K o5 av 
eXet)). 

12. 15, It is not for this reason no part of the body {ov iraph 
roino ovk eariv iic tov ffw/taros). [The course of the Apostle's 
argument requires that this should be rendered aifirmatively. 
J 5, 16 are an illustration of 14. When the Apostle appeals to 
the reader, as in 17. 19, he introduces irov. But besides this, 
only one passage has been adduced in which ov interrogatively 
has been foUowed by a negative. Soph. Track. 1013, oinc 
eyxoi Ti<s ov^aifiov ovk airorph^ei. But here ovk is used in 
a privative sense, and asserts the direct contrary idea of the 
verb, "Will not some one hand a spear to help?"] 

15. 12, resurrection of dead bodies is a nonentity (ovk ecrnv). 
14, vain, then, is all that we preach ; vain, too, is all that you 
believe. 1 9, if in this life onlj' we have reposed our hope in 
Christ ; have hoped and still hope {r{KtriK6re<t ia/iep). 31, by my 
glorifying in you (vfi t^i» vfierepav Kav^aiv). 

2 Cor. 1. 19, did not become yea and nay, but has become 
yea, and remains yea in Him (yejovev). 

3. 5, Not that we are qualified of ourselves to form any such 
estimate as from ourselves, but our qualification is from God 
(IkuvqI, a<f>' eavT&v, ef eavr&v). 16, But whenever Israel shall 
have turned to the Lord (Christ- ward), the veil is gradually 
removed, is taken quite off (wepiaipeiTai). 

4. 11, For continually we who live are being handed over 
to death on account of Jesus {irapaSi^fuBa), 16, even though 



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our outward man is in process of decay [hic^eeiperai), yet the 
inward man is in process of renewal {waKawovrai). 

2 Cor. 5. 10, looking to what He practised {-irph^ h iirpa^ep). 
LI ho whole of life is summed up into one act. Life on earth is 
but a moment compared vith eternity.] u, The love which 
Christ showed constraineth us, having formed this judgment ; 
seeing that One died in the stead of all mankind, our inference 
IS {apa) aU mankind died in Him. 17, The original state is 
passed away ; tlie whole state is rendered new (iraprixee, yeyope). 

8. 2, their deep-sunk poverty abounded to the wealth of 
their opcn-heartedness. 4, requesting of us to allow them the 
favour of participating in the ministry to the saints (Seo^evot 
■nti&v, rrjv xdpiv km. rrji SiaKoviai Tfjg et? tous 07/01/?). ISe^aadai 
V/iai is considered to bo a gloss.] 10, being such as spon- 
taneously took the lead long ago, not only in the act, but 
also in the desire (oZrivei oi ^6vov r6 -n-oirjaat, dWA Kal to 
OeKeiv irpoevijp^aaffe diro -irSpvcn). He that soweth with bless- 
ings (from himself), shall reap with blessings (from God)— eV 
evXoyiaii;. 

10. 12, For wo do not venture to reckon ourselves among, or 
to compare ourselves with, any of those who commend them- 
selves (eyxpivai, avyicpipai, avviaTavoprav). n, For wo arc 
not (ov) stretching beyond our line, as if wo did not (fiij) 
reach to you ; for as far as to you also we anticipated others 
(i^edaafiev) in preaching the Gospel of Christ. 

11. 3, Thus your understandings should bo corrupted from 
the singleness of devotion duo to Christ. 9, And when I was 
present with you and reduced to want, I did not prey upon 
any one {vaTep7,eei<i ov KarevdpKi)<Ta). 12, that I may cut off 

*ho means of attack from those who wish to make an attack 
{Ti}p d(f>opp.7jp). J6, But if it be otherwise, receive me even 

though ye receive me as a fool. 20, If a man takes wages (ei 

Tt9 Xufi^dpei). 

11. 30, if I must boast, I will boast the circumstances of 
my infirmity. 

G. 1. 4, That he might deliver us from the midst of (e«) 
the present evil world. 20, behold, in tho presence of God 
I declare that I lie not. ' 

2. 5, To whom not even for an hour we yielded in tho 
subjection demanded. 10, Only they wished us to be mindful 
of the poor; wliich I was anxious also w/wn among you for 



HINTS ON THE AUTHORIZED VERSION. 



247 



this very reason to do [i. o. because of the request of James, 
Peter, and John], airo tovto, 2 P. 1. 5. [The aor. iairovSaaa 
shows that the Apostle speaks of his conduct at that time. If 
he referred to his habitual action, the word would have been 
icTwovSa^op (Wratislaw).] 11, because he was convicted of 
error (otl KaTeyp<oafiepo<s ^p). 

G. 3. 1, in front of whose eyes Jesus Christ was inscribed in 
the midst of you as crucified. 17, This then is what I mean, 
— the covenant previously confirmed by God to Christ-ward, 
the law which was made three hundred and thirty years after- 
wards does not disannul, so as to invalidate the promise. 

4. 4, bom of woman, born under law (yepop.epop). 12, Be- 
come (free from Judaism) as I am, for even I (though a 
native Jew) have become a Gentile, as yo are. [^Now, rot? dpo- 
fioi<i <o? avofws, 1 C. 9. 21. Then, irepia-aoripon JijXwT^s (nr- 
dpr)(0)p TMv iraTpiK&p /MOV irapaZovewp, G. 1. 14.] 16, 17, And so 
I have become your enemy by being true to you. They pay 
court to you with no honourable intentions, but they wish to 
shut you out (from the Christian covenant), in order that you 
may pay court to them (as Jews). 25, For Hagar represents 
Mount Sinai in Arabia, and corresponds to the Jerusalem that 
now is, for she is in bondage with her children p^d hovXevei 
7ap]. 27, for many are the children of the desolate, rather than 
of her who hath the husband. 

5. 5, Ye have been made void, i. e. ye have disfranchised 
yourselves from Christ, as many of you as are getting justified, 
continuing in tho element of law (/carij/yyjJ^jjTe diro rov Xpiarou 
oiTipet eV pop,^ SiKaiovaOe). 14, I would that they who subvert 
you would really cut themselves off from your body. 

6. 4, he shall have his ground of rejoicing only in regard to 
himself, and not in regard to the other. 

E. 1. 13, In whom ye also obtained a heritage upon hearing 
the word of truth, the good news of our salvation ; in whom 
when ye really believed, yo were sealed with the Holy Spirit, 
the substance of promise. 

2. 12, that ye were at that period separate from Christ. 14, 
who made the interests of both to bo one, and broke down the 
intervening wall of separation, having in his flesh abolished the 
antipathy, resulting from the law of positive commandments 
consisting in ritual ordinances. 

3. 9, tlie nature of the secret dispensation, kept hidden ages 



248 



HINTS ON THE AUTHORIZED VERSION. 



long ago in the God who created the universe (iv t^ Qem t^ tA 
•irdvTa KriaavTi). [It was God's dispensation, though it was 
liidden in the Godhead, and was not revealed to the world in 
former ages. The conception of this secret plan, the partial 
and gradual mode of its revelation, were all ordered by Him.] 

E. 4. \i, in imposture devised for the systematic plan of deceit 
{iv iravovpyia Trpo? t^v fieOoBeiav rfj^ irXavrji:). 21, as is truth in 
Jesus ; embodied in a personal Saviour. 26, Let not the sim go 
down on your irritation {irapopyur/jLa). 28, Let the stealer 
no longer steal (o KKitrrcav firjKeri KXeTrTerm). 

5. 6, This point however yo know, since ye are aware (toCto 
7^p to-re, 'yivaxTKOprei). 16, Consider then with what degree of 
accuracy yo walk. 26, that ho may consecrate the Church by 
purging it with the washing of the water in (the ministry of) 
the Word. 

Ph. 1. 24, But to abido in the flesh is more necessary on your 
account. 

2. 6, 7, He did not consider the being on an equality with 
God a matter to be deprived of, but He emptied Himself. 
[This rendering brings out the antithesis between the two 
clauses more strongly, {ovx apirar/fwv jjyjjo-oto to eivai laa 
6eu>, dX.X.* eavTov exevwae.) The insertion of the article shows 
that elvai is naturally the subject of the proposition. Our Lord 
regarded His divine nature to be entirely and absolutely in His 
own power. No one could deprive Him either of His Godhead 
or His Manhood.] 12, that in the name of Jesus — [as the 
groundwork and element of the action described, ' To bow the 
knee' is a synonym of prayer. L. 22. 41 : A. 7. 60; 9. 40; 21. 
5 : R. 14. u : E. 3. 14.]— Ph. 2. 16, Holding fast the word of life, 
to serve for my ground of glorying against the day of Christ, 
that I did not ran for nothing, or labour for nothing. 
, 3. 4, Yet I myself have ground of confidence, as much as 
you please, even in the flesh ; if any one else deems to confide 
in the flesh, I have more ground than they — at circumcision 
eiglit days old, sprung from {ex) the stock of Israel. 15, in 
whatever matter ye are diversely minded (/cat et ri erepw? 
</)poi/€tTe). 21, the body, the seat and sphere, of our humiliation. 

Col. 1. 12, giving thanks to the Father, who qualified us for 
the portion of the inheritance of the saints in light. 15, born 
before all the creation (w/owtotoko? ttoo-i;? «ct(o-6<u;). 18, raised 
before all from the dead {irpanoTOKOi ex r&v veKp&p). 



HINTS ON THE AUTHORIZED VERSION. 



249 



Col 2 8, Take heed that there shall be no one to capture you 
as spoil by means of his phUosophy; or, rather (««0. empty 
deceit. 9, because in Him permanently abideth aU the fulness 
of the Deity in bodily substance. 

3. 25, For the Avrong doer shaU receive to himself the wrong 

he has done. ,.!_/.* j.» 

1 Th. 2. 7, as we may conceive a nurse cherishes (w? &p ^P"?"? 
edXim). 16, Forbidding us to speak to the Gentiles, so as to fill 
up their sins continuaUy ; but the wrath of God came suddenly 
upon them to the uttermost. 

5 23 and may your spirit and soul and body bo preserved 
entire, in every part without blame {6\6k\vpov) [a secondary 

predicate]. 1 •/• j • u- 

2 Th 1. 10, When he shall have come to be glorified in his 
saints, and to be admired in that very day in all beUevers, 
because the testimony we delivered to you was believed. 

2 4 He who opposeth and exalteth himself exceedingly, 
against every one that is caUed God, or is an object of reverence. 

3 2, for faith is not the property of all men. 10, If any one 
refuses to earn his living, in that case, let him not eat (e? t« ov 
6i\ei, ipyd^eadai, ^»jSe iadiera). 

1 Tim 1. 9, Law is not enacted for a righfli^ man. 15, 
16, chief of whom am I, but on this account I had mercy shown 
me, that in my case as chief, Christ Jesus might show forth 
the extent of His long-su£fermg. 

6. 4, But if any widow have children or grandchildren. [Ihe 
term ''nephews ' was adopted from the Vulgate, ' nepotes,' which 
really means distant relatives.] 1 1, For whenever they are cold 
in their feehngs towards Christ, they desire to marry {orav r^/ap 
KaTaaTpvvMatoffL rov Xpiarov yaixelv dikovaiv) (or whenever 
they recover their natural spirits), being liable to judgment aa 
they make void their original pledge [i. e. the pledge or promise 
not to marry, which they gave when they were placed on tho 

list of widows]. . ., . J 

6. 2, because the masters who mutually receive their good 

oflices'are believing and beloved. 5, supposing that godliness 

is traflic for gain. 

2 ^. 2. 5, unless he have striven lawfully. 21 , Whosoever shaU 
have cleansed himself from these, will be a vessel to honour. 

3. 5, having a make-up (jiop^ptoaiv) of godliness. 

Heb. 1. 1—4, In mimy portions and in many modes, of old to 



250 



HINTS ON THE AUTHORIZED VERSION. 



tho fathers spako God in tho prophets, in these last days to us 
He speaks in a Son, whom lie constituted possessor of all 
things, through whom He made indeed the worlds, who, seeing 
that He is the radiation of His glory, and tho impress of His 
csscnco, directing too the universe by His word, the expression 
of His power, having by Himself effected the purging of our 
sins, took His scat on the right hand of tho Majesty in the 
highest ; having been proved to be so much nobler than tho 
angels, as tho real character Ho inherits is so much more dis- 
tinguished than theirs. 

Heb. 2. 3, which having received the beginning of its utter- 
ance through the Lord, was convoyed stedfastly to us by those 
who hoard liim. 7, For if the word spoken by angels proved 
stcdfast. 10, For it was fitting in his sight . ; . that in bringing 
many sons to glory, he should make the author of salvation 
accomplish his end by means of sufferings. 10, For not, I 
ween, is it -angels ho succours. 

3. 13, So long as the 'to-day' is named. 16, For who upon 
hearing provoked ? Yta, verily, was it not even all who came 
out of Egypt with Moses ? 

9. 22, Apart from shedding of blood remission is not effected. 
-11. J, Now faith is confidence in blessings hoped for; con- 
vincing testimony of transactions unseen. 5, By faith Enoch 
was translated in order that he might not see death (tov fii] iSeiv 
expressing purpose). 6, that Ho exists, and becomes a rewardor 
to those who diligently seek Him (6'ti co-tI, koI . , . /xiaOairoSoT'i)'! 
yiverai). 

Ja. 2. 4, have ye not then divisions among yourselves, and 
are become judges, deciding from evil surmises ? 0, Ye, for your 
part, dishonour tho jjoor {■fjTifi'qaaTe), degrade him to a state of 
arifita, disfranchise him of his legitimate privileges of Christian 
citizcnsliip. 20, Art thou willing, however, to know, O vain 
man, that faith apart from its works is dead ? 

3. G, Thus tho tongue has a settled character in our members, 
as that which pollutes the whole body. 

4. 4, AVhosoever, therefore, is minded to be the friend of tho 
world, takes the character of enemy to God. [In M. 1. 19 
i^opXTjOr) is translated ' was minded,' a rendering which might 
with great advantage be introduced into many passages.] 12, 
Who art thou that art judging thy neighbour ? (erepov.) See 
p. 192. 



HINTS ON THE AUTHORIZED VERSION. 



251 



Ja 5 4 The hire, which is kept back by violence on your part. 
16, V;ry powerful il the supplication of a righteous man m its 
i,.vard working^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^,^ ^^^^^ ^-"^rto't 
through f^th unto salvation. 8. whom though ye saw Him not 
t^:t!:t y^ love, in whom beHeving. though now ye see 

"Tpl^T^F^^tCtings. being your essential qualities 

2 , But there arose false prophets also among the people 

12 These however, as irrational animals following their na ural 
luLt Wg^^^^^^^^ being for the purpose of capture and slaughter^ 

13 considering as pleasure noon-day riot, [^edv^ep^val rpv^at a 
W of great voluptuousness. « Partem solido demei. de die ] 

^ 6 For as they wish this, it escapes their notice fjiat the 
he™s were of old, and the earth was composed out of water 
aiTly means of w'ater : 11, Since then all tl-e things tend 
todissolution, in what state ought we to be subsisting ? What 
ought to be our essential principle ? (inrapx"''-) . j 

1 J. 2. 28, in order that we may not by shame shrii|^ from 

°T'4 Every one who worketh sin, worketh also lawlessness, 

^^'li^t'doT^ot exist in love ; love that is perfect cast^h 
out 'fear, seeing that fear hath punishment; but he who 
habituaUy fears, hath not been perfected in love. 

5 i8,isnotasinner;sinsnothabituaUy(ovxaM«PTa.«). 19, 
The whole world Ueth in the dominion of- the wicked one. 



CHAPTER Xn. 
GIlA]\IMATIOAL AND RHETORICAL TERMS. 

toriclT te^?''*'*"" f ^r?"'" "^''"y grammatical and rhe- 
carofu l!^r "° '^"^PYV^" "^^'^"^"^3 of which should be 
carefully borne in mind. A knowledge of the names is not 

are founded is peculiar y important. Many errors in theology 
have sprung from mismterpreting the figurative language of 
Scripture by substituting the symbolical for the literd, or bv 

the II ^ T-'"^^ "^''"^^ underlying the sui-face where 
the pla m and obvious meaning is all that is meant. The un- 
eertamties which abornid in the whole range of prophetical 
interpretation may be traced entirely to this source; and in 
every branch of scriptural exegesis differences of opinion pre- 
vail, and controversies are hopelessly carried on. in which the 
disputants use the san.o words in very different senses. The 
perplexity is the greater, as writers on grammar and rhetoric 
are not uniformly consistent with one another, or even with 
themselves m the terms they adopt. Until there is a distinct 
understandmg of the meaning of the words, and of the nature 
of the writing whether it be history or prophecy, aUegory or 
parable sjonbol or type, and of the senses in which the terms 
are to be understood we can never arrive at the satisfactory 
and sound interpretation of any disputed passage, and we shaU 

Iwln 9 ;T ^*^° T*^ -^^ Bcasonable caution of the 
Apostle: 2 T. 2. 23, rA, f.o>p^, ««i d^acSeiirov, ^ryrwe., ^apa.. 

The use of figurative language in Scripture is the same as in 



TKOPE, METAPHOR, SYNECDOCHE. 



253 



all other writings. Its object is to stimulate attention, to excite 
the imagination, to arouse the feelings, to impress strongly on 
the mind the arguments adduced. One striking characteristic of 
its style is the substitution of specific terms for general, a 
characteristic which is perfectly retained in translation, though 
every other excellence of expression is liable to be lost. Arch- 
bishop Whately remarks (Rhetoric, chap. iii. § 2) : " The pre- 
valence of this kind of language in the sacred writers may bo 
regarded as something providential. It may be said with truth, 
that the book which it is the most necessary to translate into 
every language, is chiefly characterized by that kind of excel- 
lence in diction which is least impaired by translation." 



TROPE, METAPHOR, SYNECDOCHE. 

In considering the figures of speech the most general term Is 
trope (rpeiro), turn), when a word, which usage has appropriated 
to one thing, is turned from its primary signification, and is 
transferred to another. The expression is then termed tropical 
or figurative. If, however, the word never or rarely occurs in 
its primary signification, the tropical sense becomes the proper 
one. The original meaning of ^13 is * to bend the knee,' but 

as it occurs very rarely in this sense, the derivative meaning, 
' to bless,' is said to be the proper, and not a figurative nean- 
ing. The original meaning of vpoa/cvviot may be ' to lawn,* 
like a dog, but as it nowhere is used in the New Testament in 
this sense, and as the nearest approach is irpoaKwef;, spaniel- 
like flatterers, fawners, the derivative meaning, to do homage, 
show outward respect, worship, is the proper meaning. This 
use of irpoaKvpia may be ascribed to the Christian element, as 
ivixop^ia, p. 7. 

When there is some resemblance between the two things, to 
which the word is applied, the figure is called a metaphor ; the 
context shows that something is attributed to the term in its 
transferred sense, which does not belong to it in the literal 
sense; or that thpre is subtracted from it, in its transferred 
sense, something which does belong to it in its literal" sense. 
The character of our Blessed Lord, and the relations in which 
He stands to us, are thus made known by a combination of 
various metaphors. Thus He is called 6 iroifiijv o KoXot, ij 
ainreKoi ^ aXijdivii, 6 aproi toO &eov, 6 ^uv aprof, 6 aiivoi rov 



254 



METONYMY, IllONY, IIYPEIIIIOLE. 



&€ov, 1) pi^a rov 'leatraC, fj pi^a Aa^lZ, \ido<} irpoa-KO/ifiaTo^, 
aKpoywviaioi;. Wo may horo adduce L. 13. 32, iropevdevTet 
ecTrare t^ oKunreKi ravTr} : M. 3. 7, lyevmjfiara ij^^iBv&v : 23. 33, 
o(f>ei<!: 10. 16, XuKoi: Ph. 3. 2, /ewe?. 

When there ia no resemblance between the two objects, but 
only a connexion between them, the figure is called sjTiecdoche ; 
trui'eKSo'xrj, literally, means the embracing or comprehension of 
one thing with another ; an indirect mode of expression, where 
the whole is put for a part, the part for a whole, genus for 
species, species for genus, abstract for concrete. Thus ' my 
flesh ' is put for • my body,' Ps. 16. 9 : A. 2. 26. to irorqpiov, 
for the contents of tho cup : •^f^'? ^^ P^** ^^"^ person, as we 
speak of a thousand, souls : r) oiKov/ievrj refers to the Homan 
empire in A. 17. 6, and Judaea, in A. 11. 28. In Mk. 16. 16 
the general term, KTian, means all mankind; in 2 C. 5. 17, 
xaiv^ KTicTK ia rendered, a new creature, abstract for concrete, 
though wo may render the passage, * he is a new creation.' In 
JI. 6. 11 tho specific term apTo<! includes all the necessariea of 
life. 

By the same figure a round number is put for a larger or 
smaller number, aa 1 C. 1-4. 19, ireme Xo'^ovt : a certain and 
definite number, for an uncertain and indefinite, as eirrd, M. 
12. 14 : e^hofir]icovTdKi<s eind, M. 18. 22. 

METONYMY, IRONY, IIYPEKBOLE. 

Metonymy (fierayvvfila, traduclio, inwmtaUo) is the substitu- 
tion of one name or appellation for another, as the cause for tho 
cft'oct, or the cflect for the cavise, the author for his work : 
L. 16. 29, s'xpvat Moxret* Kal rovt irpo^ra';. So in A. 15. 21 ; 
21. 21. Other instances are yK&a-aa, Mk. 16. 17 : 10. 14. 39: 
fiu-xaipa, M. 10. 34 : II. 8. 35 : 'lepoaoKviia, M. 3. 5 : Sidiv, 
referring to tho Ohurch of God, R. 9. 33 ; 11. 26 : ryovv, E. 3. 14 : 
Se^ul, G. 2. 9. To this also we may refer A. 10. 15, firj aii 
Koivov, call not thou defiled: M. 16. 19, o iav Bijcryi; /cat \ucrj7?, 
whatever you declai'c bound, or loosed. 

To some instances of synecdoche and metonjTny there is 
applied the term KaTci'XprjaK, which strictly means, full use 
(abuti), but more generally, misuse, misapplication (male uti) ; 
when an idea ia attached to an object with which it is not 
compatible, e. g. ' take arms against a sea of troubles :' L. 8. 23, 
«aTe/Sij \ai\a^ uvefiov ets rijv \ifivrii>, koI avveirKrfpovvTO koX 



METONYMY, IRONY, IIYPERBOLE. 



255 



i^Mvevov, they were in process of being ^^^ -^^71^1 
persons are put for the vessels : M. 3. 12, Z,.aKa0ap,e. -ajv aX^va 
S i e. L corn on the floor. Under this -may reckon 
^e^,X6«. desecrate, M. 12. 5 : irepo, vop.,, smful bias. K 7^ 23 . 
i^ovaia. veil, 1 0. 11. 10 : ct&^ r<op aH,aprmp, C. 2. 11 . fi^V, 
I 5: 6<}>eaXp^^ -.ovvpo,. Mk. 7. 22: ^^etv r,. <I>-^2^1 
1. 12, where the term, appropriate to the sense of sight, is 
transferred to the sense of hearing : xim'^ToXoyca plausibili^. 
eiX^ia. complimentary language. R. 16. is ; eurpa^eXut. wat 
and elegance enUsted in the service of sin, E 5 4. Sometime 
this figure has a touch of pleasantry: 2 0. 12. 13, x«/»<^«'^^« 

Several expressions have a touch of irony («pa,mfl, dissimula- 
tion, an ignorance purposely afi^ected, any assumed appearance, 
pretext, Lguise), as the answer of the man, blmd from hia 
birth, to the Phariaees: J. 9. 27. M f ^>i"'/tr26 45 
aadrrral ryeviaOa^ : In the language of our Lord. M.^ 26. 45. 
.aeevSe-re to Xot7r6v Kal dvanaveade (Chrysostom, o. '^poa- 
TdrrovrS, ^ariv, oiU ^yvti^ovUioino^. aXX oi^etStfovTO?) : Mk. 
7. 9, KaXA, <i^eT«T6 tV iproXi,v rod Oeov, iva t^v japaSo^cv 
i^&v rvpv-vre. The use of 8.«a.W, L. 15 7, if it refers to the 
PKariseTs So in J. 13. 38 ; 16. 31. 10. 4. 8 '^Sr-.ope^- 
iarkKTX ■ 4. 10, with an additional force of antithesis ^^/teK 

U, Be laxvpoi- i^"' -So^o^, W^. Be &r.^^.: 2 0. 10. 6, .. 
^To^uo, ^yovre, iKBiK^<rai iraaav -rrapaKoi^v, orav nrX-np^dv vp^y 
i, {maKo^. The Apostle's most obvious meamng is, that he w 
ouite ready to chastise every disobedience existing in the Ohurch 
of Christ, but that he will wait until the Church has become 
perfectly obedient (Willdnson) : 11. 19, fi^<: 7«P "J'^X^^^^^ 
r&v d<bp6va,v, <t>p6ptpoL Spre,. Compare Eccl. 11. 9, "Rejoice O 
young man, in thy youth, and let thy heart cheer thee m tho 

days of thy youth." ^- e • 

Hyperbole {virep^oX^, ai^ai,), the exaggeration of a cir- 
cumstonce beyond its real magnitude, in order to fix the atten- 
tion more closely on Hs real import : J. 21. 25: Aj2 5 a.Spe, 
e{>XaBel<: dirb -rravrb^ idvovs r&v ivro toi/ ovpavov. With this wo 
may compare Gen. 41. 57, AH countries came into Egypt to 
Joseph for to buy corn; because that the famine was so sore 
in all lands: G. 4. 14, 15: II. 11. 12. KaOio, rh aarpajov 
oipavov TcS irXi'idei, Kal wcrel i/^/^o? ij -rraph to xetXos t,,? 0aXaa- 



256 



LITOTES, IIENniADYS, ELLIPSIS. 



ar]<{ fi dvapi0fi7iro<! : L. 19. 40, iav ovtoi ai(oir^cr<oaiv ol "Kldoi 
KeKpd^ovTM. This last instance illustrates Whately's remark 
(Rhetoric) : " The highest degree of energy is, produced by 
such metaphors as attribute life and action to things inani- 
mate." 

LITOTES, HENDIADYS, ELLIPSIS. 

In contrast with hyperbole is litotes, ixeiaiai<s, oxtenuatio, 
where less is expressed than is really meant, e. g. The Lord will 
not hold him guiltless : G. 5. 21, ol to, Totavra "irpdaaomet ^aai- 
\eiav Qeov ov KXripopofjL'qaovaiv : M. 18. 14: II. 13. 17, aXvari- 
re\e<s yhp vfiiv tovto, i. q. d(7v/M})opov, avio(f>6Xi<i, disastrous, 
ruinous. To these we may add the examples of the privative 
power of oil, p. 139 ; and the use of tk, to denote importance, 
p. 49. 

Ilendiadys {^v Sih Svoiv) is a mode of expression, where two 
substantives are connected by a copula, of which one denotes 
some quality or accessory of the other, as Virg. JEn. ii. 192, 
" Pateris libamus et auro." There are several expressions 
analogous to this figure, but it may be doubted whether any 
clear and decided instance occurs in the New Testament. In 
A. 14. 13, Tavpov<; xal arififiaTa may mean ravpovi iaTe/jL/iepovi, 
but this is forced and unnatural compared with the idea of 
garlands as well as bulls. L. 21. 15, arofia koi ao^lav may 
mean 'wise utterance,* but is more forcibly translated 'utter- 
ance, yea, wisdom.' This rendering is confirmed by considering 
the relative (^) which follows. A. 1. 25, \afielv tov KXrjpov t^? 
SiaKovia<s raimji leal avroffToX^?, this service of the apostlcship : 
or taking Kai as exegetical, this service, to wit, the apostlcship. 
1 Th. 4. 1, TTw? Sei •jrepiiraTetv Kal apea-Keiv QeS, how to please 
God in your walk : E. 6. 7, eh aiiro tovto wypv7rvovine<i eV Tracrjj 
irpoaKapTepriaei Kal her/aei,, watching for this very purpose, in 
ever}' kind of persevering supplication. 

Some of the falsely assumed instances of hendiadys must be 
rejected as contrary to the principles of sound interpretation : 
Tit. 2. 13, iTpoirZeypfievoi Ttp) puKapiav iKrriSa km, iin<f>dveiav t^s 
So^T)? ToO ixe^dXov Qeov, k.t.\., waiting to receive the blessed 
hope and manifestation of the glory. (See p. 36.) So 1 Th. 
2. 12, ToO KciKovvTOt vfia<s el<s t^w eavTov fiaariKeiav /cat Bo^av. 
Here ^aaCKela marks the kingdom of His Son, of wliich the 
true Christian is a subject while on earth, though the full 



- 



ELLIPSIS. 



257 



privileges and blessings are to be enjoyed hereafter ; 8ofo, His 
own eternal glory, of which all the true members of the 
Messianic kingdom shall be partakers. 2 Tim. 4. l, Bia/j,ap- 
TVpo/iM . . . Kal Ti)v iiTi^dveiav axnov koI ttjv paffiKeiav avTov, 
I solemnly charge thee, by His manifestation and by His king- 
dom; the kingdom which is to commence at His iiri^dveia, 
to continue without end, or modification ; the kingdom of glory, 
which succeeds the modified eternity of His mediatorial 
kingdom of grace. 

ELLIPSIS. 

Several instances have already been given of the omission of 
words and sentences, especially of the use of the Article without 
the Noun, pp. 38, 39, and of Adjectives without Substantives, 
p. 57. In addition to these, of which no further examples need 
be given, there are various concise modes of expression closely 
allied to the Ellipsis, to which the terms Brachylogy {^payy- 
\oyia), Zeugma, Aposiopesis, ha, ye been applied. 

Instances of Brachylogy, brevity of expression, may be seen 
in E. 2. 28 ; 5. 16. 18 ; 13. 7 : IT. 2. 12, <^vvaiKl he SiSdaKeiv 
ovK eTnTpkirto . . . oW' elvai ev rja-v^ia, where elvat ^ponds on 
^ovXofiai, or on irapayyeWco, implied in ovk iiriTpeji^. ^ C. 14. 
34, ai •yvvaiKe'; vfji&v ev rat? eKK\i]aiaii; airfdToyaav, ov yap eiri- 
TCTpaTTTai aiiTaii XaXetv, dWa (/lavdaveTioaav) vTroToaaeadai. 
This form of brachylogy occurs most commonly in the case of 
an antithesis introduced by an adversative conjunction (Jelf, 
§ 895, h). Compare //. 5. 819 : Soph. (Ed. JR. 236 : HI. 71,— 

Kal /it} fi aTifiov TtjaB' dtrotiTelX'qTe 7^?, 
dXK' dpj(etrXovTov Kal KaToaTdTijv Soficov, 

where after dXXd we may understand iroieiTe. Plato, Apol., 
p. 36, 11, dfieX'^cra'} &p ol iroXXol (ivi/JLeXovvrai). Latin, Cic. 
N. J), i. 7. 17, " tu autem.nolo existimes me adjutorem huic 
yenisse, sod auditorem ;" where after ' sed' we must understand 
' volo existimes me venissc.' 1 Tim. 4. 3, k(oXv6vt(ov yufieiv, 
dire-xeadai ^prnfidTcav. This is generally considered a Zeugma, 
but it may bo classed under the head of Brachylogy ; as kcoXvov- 
Tcov may be resolved into -rrapar/yeXKovTfov p,r), and after f^a/ielv 
wo may understand dXXa vaparfyeXXovrcov. 

The Zeugma (^e&y/ta) is one of the most important kinds of 



258 



PLEONASM, ANTANACLASIS. 



Brachylogy, when a particular verb which is properly applicable 
only to one part of the sentence, is made generally applicable to 
the whole context. Pind. 01. i. 88, eKev 8' Olvofidov ^iav irapOe- 
vov re (Tvvevvov, he conquered the mighty ORnomaus, and obtained 
the virgin as his bride ; where eo-j^ei; must be supplied for the 
second clause. L. 1. 64, aveay^dr) Se ro aTo/ju aiirov •7rapaj(pfifia 
Kai f} yK&aaa ainov {e\v0r)) : A. 4. 28, iroirjaai oaa ri %et/> cov 
KOL 17 ^ouXij aov irpoapiffe yeveaOai, where irpompiae is appro- 
priate only to fiovKri : 1 C 3. 2, cya\o vpM,<; iiroriaa ov fip&fia, 
where eiroTiaa is strictly applicable only to f^oKa. Thus Horn., 
eSoval re rrlova firjXa olvdv re : Ph. 3. 10, rov •^v&vai avrbv 
Koi rijv Bwafiiv rrj<i avaardaew^ avrov, /cat rrjv Koivaviav rS)v 
■traOfffinrwv avrov. Here yvmvai is strictly applicable only to 
avTou I before Svva/uv, Koivavlav, we must render yvStvai by 
* experience.' 

Aposiopesis is a kind of ellipse. Thus we omit the imperative 
in Soph. Antig. 577, fir) T/st^Sa? eri, and in the corresponding 
English, 'no more loitering' (Donaldson). Instances of this 
have already been adduced, L. 19. 42 ; 22. 42 ; 13. 9 : Mk. 
7. 11 : J. 6. 62: A. 23. 9, where a sentence or part of a sen- 
tence is suppressed through emotion ; and the suppressed lan- 
guage is -intimated by the action or tone of the speaker. There 
is a species of diroa-idovTja-K in R. 7. 25, t/s /j,e pvaerat e/c rov 
awfiarof rov Oavdrov rovrov ; which is supplied by the outbreak 
of thankfulness, eirxapiarat rm 0e£ Sia 'Irjaov Xptcrrov rov 
Kvpiov rifi,Stv. We may compare Spa fir), Ilcv. 19. 10 ; 22. 9, with 
the forms of dehortation or deprecation frequent in the trage- 
dians, fii] ravra, firj av ye. 

TLEONASM, ANTANACLASIS. 

Pleonasm (Tr\eovaa-fi6<i), or redundance of phraseology, which 
is the converse of brachylogy, can hardly be considered as a 
grammatical irregularitj^ Omissions may produce an ungram- 
matical structure, but superfluities leave the syntax as it was. 
Repetitions of synonyms, such as rrdXtv avdii, rd'xa tcrto?,, 
secondary predications of the main predicate, such as €<f>r) Xe7<Bj/, 
and repetitions in a negative form, such as ovx rjtciara dWa 
fidXurra, yvtora KoiiK ayv<ora, firj ri fiaKcarrjpa fiiidov dXKa 
(rvvro/iov Xer/tav, all belong to this class. (Donaldson.) 

J. 1. 20, Kcii wfidkoyrfae kcli ovk fipvriaaro: E. 5. IS, fii] to; 
a(To<poi dW* fc>9 ao^ol: R. 8. 22, iraa-a 17 ^vcri? avcrrevdfyi koI 



PARONOMASIA, PKOLEPSIS. 



259 



crvfaSlvei : Mk. 1. 25, irpai evpvxop \lav dvaarat f^fjXOe. But 
there are very few expressions in which the words said to be 
pleonastic do not add circumstantiality, vividness, and force to 
the narrative. From the bad scholarship, and worse theology 
of an earlier day, some of the most instructive and powerful 
combinations, like ^a/ot?, eXeo?, eiprjvq, have been pronounced 
very insipid. 

.Among ordinary pleonasms we may reckon M. 26. 42, rrdXiv 
eKSevrepov: Mk. 1. 7, eicrjpvaae Xeyav: J. 4. 54, rovro rrdXiv 
Sevrepov trrffielov. Compare our English expression, * This was 
repeated a second time.' Sometimes Xa^eiv is redundant : A. 3. 
3, rjpana iXeTjfioa-vvrjv Xa^eiv. Compare Aristoph. Plut. 240, 
alr&v Xapeiv ti : Soph. Ag. 825, alr^vofiai Si a ov fiaxpov yepai 
Xaj(eiv : A. 27. 10, 'AvSpei;, 6e<opSt on fierd v^peav koI ttoWjjs 
^'qiiCat, oil fiovov rov (jjoprov Kal rov vXoiov, dXXa /cat twv yjrvj(&p 
f)(iS)v fieXXei ecxeadai, rov rrXovv. Here on is pleonastic. There 
is a mixture of the two constructions, deapSt on /leXXei 6 ttXoO? 
and 0ea>pS) fieXXeiv rov trXovv. This is here occasioned by the 
words which intervene between on and fieXXew. The redundant 
use of avroi is noticed in p. 65 ; to which may be added Rev. 
17. 9, OTTOU ^ yvvij KaBiyrai eir avr&v, 

G. 4. 9, vvv Sk yv6vre<; Qeov, /uiXXov Be yvaxrOivrev viro 6eov, 
WW? iinarpe^ere irdXiv iirl ra dadevfj Kal rrratyh, aroiye ia, o lg 
irdXiv dviodev BovXjeveiv BeXere; Here nrdXiv apcoBev isHKot a 
pleonasm. Cf. 'rursum denuo.' Two ideas are conveyed, — 
relapse to bondage and recommencement of its principles. The 
Galatians had been slaves to the aroixela, in the form of 
heathenism ; now they were on the point of enslaving them- 
selves again to the ffroiyela, and of commencing them anew in 
the form of Judaism. (EUicott.) 

The term Antanaclasis {avravuKXaaiM, originally the reflexion 
of light or sound) is applied to the use of a word in two difibrent 
senses or modifications of its sense in the same sentence : M. 8. 
22, a^69 Toil? veKpoixi dd'yp-ai, tous eavr&v veKpovq : 1 C. 3. 17, 
et rit rov vaov rov Qeov <j>6eipei,, ^depel rovrov 6 ©eo? : Ja. 1. 
9, 10, Kav^daOco Sk 6 dBeX^bi 6 raireivbi iv rut ir^ei avrov, 6 Bk 
TrXoi/ffto? iv Tj) raireivcMTei avrov. 

PARONOMASIA, PROLEPSIS. 

irapovo/iaala, a slight change in a name or word, so as to give 
it a new shade of meaning. " Farva verbi immutatio in Uteris 

82 



260 



PARONOirASIA, PKOLErSIR. 



posita," also a play upon words which have a similar sound, hut 
dillbrcnt significations (annominatio). The comhination of 
words of similar sound was a favourite usage of Oriental 
writers, and is peculiarly frequent in the Epistles of St. Paul, 
partly from accident and partly with the view of imparting 
genial kindness to the expression, or greater emphasis to the 
thought: M. 24. 7 : L. 21. ll, Xifiol kuI Xoifiol: II. 5. 8, ifxaOev 
d(f)' &v eiradev: A. 17. 25, ^iotjv koI ttvo^v: 2 C. 10. 13. 15, rjixeK 
Bk ovj^t, ets TO, a/ierpa Kavyriao^ieda, aXKa KaTa rb fierpov tov 
Kav6vo<;, /C.T.X., where there seems to bo a play on afj,erpa and 
fierpov, similar to the use of ' unlimited,' in the two 'senses of 
'immoderate' and 'without duo limitations:' 2 0. 1. 13, ou yhp 
aWa 'ypd(f>o/j,ev vfttv, aXX' rj a avayivmcrKere, ^ kol iiriyivwaKeTe' 
eXTTtfo) Be on Kal eVl reXoy? eirtr/vmareaOe : R. 1. 29. 31, fiearoin 
<f)0ovov, ^ovov . . . da-vveTovi affwOerovs : 12. 3, fj.r} vvep^povelv 
Trap Set <f>poveiv, dXXd ^povelv ets to atO(f>poveiv : Ph. 3. 2, 3, 
/SXeTrere rrjv KaTarojjLriv. 'H/iei<s ydp icrfiev r) ireptrop.'q : where the 
Apostle employs the word KaraTOfii] to express more clearly the 
antithesis to irepirofi'^. The LXX use KaTarefiveiv to express 
the idolatrous mangling of the flesh, practised by the heathen. 
Lev. 21. 5: 1 Kings 18. 28. G. 5. 7, 8, rk vfid<i dveKo^e rjj 
oKrjdeia fir) ireiBeadai ; rj ireiafiovi) ovk ex tov Ka\ovvTo<; vfid<;, 
Ilero the fiif ireiOeaOai indicates a negative persuasion, disobe- 
dience to the truth, which is now represented aa a positive 
persuasion ; rj veia-fjiovq, such a persuasion, or rather such a 
conviction (see p. 18). There is a 'similar transference of 
thought from obedience to disobedience in 2 C. 10. 6. Compare 
2 Th. 3. 2, 3. 

From the term irpoXriyfrK (' occupatio '), an anticipating, and 
in rcsjicct of time, anachronism, there arises the prolcptic sense, 
a previous assumption, where what will be the result is attri- 
buted to the object as already the existing state or condition. 
Donaldson adduces Pind. 01. v. 4, rdv adv iroKiv av^uv \aoTp6- 
<\)ov, i. e. wffTe XaoTpo^ov elvai, " increasing thy city so as to 
make it a nurser of population:" Thucyd. iv. 17, tov<s \6yov<i 
fiaKporepovv irapa ro €i<o66<s ov firjKuvovfiev, i. e., ware fiaKpore- 
povt elvai, " we will not spin out our speech so as to make it 
more prolix, contrary to our usual practice." This idiom is 
found in Latin, Jui'. i. 83, " paullatimcpie anima calucrunt mollia 
sttxa," i. e., 'ita ut mollia fierent.' 

Of this prolcptic use we have instances in 1 C. 1. 8, os kuI 



SOLECISMS. 



2G1 



/8e/3at&)o-et vfid^ ea)<i reXow? dveyKXijTov<;, iv Tr} rffiepa tov Kvpiov 
rjfiSiv "Irjaov Xpicrrov : 1 Th. 3. 13, ek to arrfpi^ai vfiiov to.? 
KapBiat dfiefiTTTOVi iv dyioiavvy: 2 C. 4. 4, 6 0eo? tov aimvot 
TovTov ervcfikaxre ra vorffiaTU t&v dirivTmv, so that they continue 
unbelieving. Compare Soph. Antig. 856, tov B' ifiov trorfiov 
dBuKpvTov ovBeh (piXwv ffTevd^et, no friend bewails my fate, 
so that it continues unwept: R. 1. 21, icrKOTiadi} 17 davveTOi 
avTutv KapBia : 8. 29, irpodpiae avfifiop^ovi Trji eiKOva tov viov 
avTov. 

The placing of words or sentences out of their usual order is 
termed trajeclion. Frequently this occurs from a regard to 
simplicity of expression, from the arrangement of the words 
being suggested by the nature of the ideas, or from a conven- 
tional grouping and order. This is termed virep^arov, inver- 
sion. Some see a transposition of words in 2 T. 2. 6, tov 
KoiriavTa yecopyov Bel irpSnov t&v Kaptrojv fieraTuifi^dvew, the 
husbandman must first labour before he bo partaker of the 
fruits. Others, however, consider that Korrt&vra is emphatic 
from position. The labouring husbandman has the first right 
to partake of the fruits: Mk. 11. 13, IBmv avKrjv fiaicpodev exov- 
aav ipvKXa, ^Xdev el apa evprfaei tX iv ainy' koX eKOibv iir avvrfv, 
ovBev evpev el fir) (f>uWa' ov yap ^v Katp6<! avKoav. Here the 
natural position of the last clause would be after eV ain^, — seeing 
leaves lie expected to find fruit, for the time of gathering figs 
was not over : Mk. 16. 3, 4, Ti<s diroKvKiaei r)filv tov \i0ov iic tms 
Ovpai TOV fivrjfieiov ; Kol dvapXki^acrai deatpovaw oti ditoicmv- 
Xia-rat 6 Xt'^o?' ^v yap fieyai a^oBpa. Here the last clause 
accounts for their inquiring, ti's diroKvXiaei ; J. 20. 9, ovBeirat 
yap fjSeiaav Trjv ypa^ijv. This explains the reason of elarjXde 

(8). ' 

SOLECISMS. 

The origin of the term So\oiKi<Tfi6<; is not clearly known, but 
it is said to have been applied to the corruption of the Attic 
dialect among the Athenian colonists of SoXoc in Cilicia. The 
word is generally applied to provincialisms, or incorrectness in 
the use of language. The occurrence of solecisms has been very 
freely and unreasonably imputed to the whole of the writers of 
the New Testament, but the charge cannot be sustained : in the 
Apocalypse there are indeed many expressions for which we 



262 



SOLECISMS. 



cannot account by ordinary rules. But the remark of Dr 
Wordsworth is very just: "Wherever the reader meets in the 
Apocalypse ^th a phrase which seems a solecism, let him tako 
LdfZ"^^ that It contains some great and solemn truths. 
utnSLn to':h:m5^^"*^ "' *'^ ^'^^^^ ^ '^'^^^ *« -" ^^ 



INDEX I. 

AUTHORS QUOTED, AND PRINCIPAL SUBJECTS. 



Absolute cases, 116 ; genitive, 97. 

Accent, influence of, 24, 25. 122. 136. 

Accusative, remote object, 64 ; cognnte 
'Signification, 65 ; in apposition, 66 ; 
subject of infinitive, 66. 

Adjectives derived from verbs, 20; com- 
parative, 58; Bupcrlutive, 59; nume- 
rals, 61 ; in rational concord, 53 ; 
witliout substuutive, 53. 

Adverbs, supanible, forming compounds, 
24; inseparable, 24; used us preposi- 
tions, 185. See Particles. 

Alexandrine clement, 14. 

Alford, Dean, 117. 124. 138. 195. 210. 
215. 217. 

Anucolutliun, 116. 

Angus, Dr., 67. 197. 

Antnnncliisis, 258. 

Antecedent (relative), 55. 

Aorist, 89; epistolary, 90; combined 
witb i)crfcct, 90 — 92 ; imperfect, 93 ; 
infinitive, 94; difference between im- 
perfect and aorist, 89 ; denoting single 
acts, 90. 92. 

AiMsiopcsis, 258. 

Ap|)osition, 56 ; genitive of, 56 ; accusa- 
tive, 66. 

Arnold, Dr., 79. 125. 129. 132, 133. 167. 
170. 188. 234. 

Arrangement (trajection), 261. 

Article, 26; peculiar omissions, 27; 
Homeric use, 28 ; demonstrative, 30 ; 
Itossessive, prepositive, 31 ; antici]>a- 
tive, retrospective, 32 ; rhetorical, 33 ; 
generic, 34; witli attributives, 35; in 
rcgimvii, 37 ; with the defining clause, 
37; witliout the noun, 38; in form- 
ing the subject, 40; with verbs of 
existence and calling, 40 ; with various 
adjectives and pronouns, 42 — 15. 

Attraction, 51. 



Basis of New Testament Greek, 1, 2 ; 

four distinctive elements, 5. 
Blackwall, 9. 16. 
Btachylogy, 257. 

Cases, nominative, 50; oblique, 62, 63. 

Cause, dative of, 78; coincidence, 76; 
circumstance, 77. 

Christian clement in New Testament 
Greek, 6. 

Cilicisms, 14. 

Classes of substantives, 18 ; of adjectives, 
19 ; of verbs, 21, 22. 

Comparative, tacit, 58. 

Compounds, paratlietic, 22; synthetic, 
23; influence of accent, 24, 25. 

Conjunctions, copulative, 131, 132 ; ad- 
versative, 118. 133, 134 ; disjunctive, 
143. 

Copula, 26. 

Dative, 76 ; coincidence, 76 ; qualify i^f 
circumstance, 77 ; proximate ca/R, 
78; ethical relation. 79; absolute, 
116; with prepositions, 156 — 160. 
173—185. 

Demonstratives, 30. 47. 

Deponents, 99. 

Derivatites, 17 — 22. 

Distributives, 61. 

Donaldson, Dr., 23. 38, 39. 63. 66. 72. 
75. 87. 93. 95. 99. 118. 257. 

Dynamic middle, 98. 

Elements of New Testament Greek, 5 ; 

of tt sentence, 26. 
Ellicott, Uisliop, 5. 19. 34—36. 72. 77. 

83. 93. 109. 129. 134. 138. 143. 155. 

158. 163. 166. 176. 185. 189. 192. 

194. 197. 205. 216. 219. 236. 258. 
Mipsis, 237. 



264 



AUTHORS QUOTED, AND PKINCIPAL SUBJECTS. 



Kpcxegetical use of copulatives, 123. 
Expressions for eternity, 13. 

Fiiirhnirn, Dr., 130. 

Foreign words, 15, 16. 

ForniH of conditional propositions, 104 

—106. 
Fritzsche, 8t. 214. 234. 
Future, 83 ; for the imperative, 84 ; 

denoting possibility, 84. 

Genitive, primary meaning, 63 ; abla- 
tive origin, 67 ; fulness, deficiency, 
68 ; perception, partition, 69 ; rela- 
tion, 70; idiomatic usages, 72, 73; 
predominating quality, 73 ; contact, 
75 ; tentative use, 75 ; absolute, 76. 

Qreek in Palestine compared with Colo- 
nial English, 2. 4. 

Green, Kev. T. S., 80. 

Hebraisms, spurious, 11 ; genuine, 13. 

Hebrew element, 8. 

Hellenistic, 1. 

Hcndiadys, 256. 

Hcnnann, 10. 87. 101. 107. 131. 

Hutchinson, 151. 

Hyperbole, 254. 

Uy]H>thetical propositions, 104 — 106. 

Imperative mood, use of, 106; in pro- 
hibitions, 107; omitted, 52. 

luijiorfect, 87 — 89 ; incompleteness, 
reiHitition, 88 ; witli aorist, 89. 

Indolinito, interrogative pronoun, 48, 
49. 

Indicative moo<1, 81 ; present, 82; future, 
83 ; perfect, 85 ; imperfect, Q7 ; oorist, 
89 ; pluperfect, 94 ; conjoined with 
the optative, 103. 

Infinitive moral, 108 ; as a verbal noun, 
109 ; participle, 108. 111. 

Intransitive verbs, 95, 96. 

Jacob, Dr., 63. 108. 118. 

Klotz, 144. 148. 

Latinisms, 15. , 

Litotes, 256. 

Mnsson, Professor, 5. 

Metaphor, 252 ; hunger and thirst, 12. 

Met<«iymy, 293. 

Jl iddle voice, four usages, 97 ; causative, 
dynamic, 98 ; supplied by the active, 
99 ; dciMments, 99. 

Moods, 100 ; subjunctive, 101 ; optative, 
102; indicative conjoined with opta- 
tive, 103; imperative, 106, 107 j in- 
finitive, 108—110. 

Multitude, nouns of, 51. 



Negative particles, 138 — 144. 

Neuter plur.il, 50. 

Nouns, classes of, 18, 19; derived from 

verbs, 19. ' 

Numerals, 61. 

Object, immediate, 63 ; remote, 64. 
Objective genitive, 72, 73. 
ObUque ca.ses, 62. 

Optative mood, 100. 105 j with the in- 
dicative, 103. 
Oral element, 5. 
Ordinals, peculiar use of, 61. 

I'arathetic compounds, 22. 

Paronomasia, 259. 

Participles, 110—117 ; supplementary 
idea. 111; indejiendent proiMsitions, 
112; temporal, causal, 113; condi- 
tional, final sentence, 114 ; in peri- 
phrastic senses, 115; absolute, 76. 
116 ; equivalent to imperatives, 116. 

Particles, 118—148; adversative, 118. 
133, 134; illative, 121. 144. 148; 
causal, 133. 137; final, 128—131; 
co])ulative, 131, 132; temjwral, 136. 
145; negative, 138 — 143; conditional, 
125. 

Passive voice, 96, 97 ; deponents, 99. 

Paulo-post future, 95. 

Perfect, 85—87 ; rendered by English 
present, 85 ; an immediate conse- 
quence, 86 ; distinguished from aorist, 
87 ; combined with aorist, 90. 

Pleonasm, 258. 

Pluperfect, 94. 

Predicate, 26. 50. 

Prepositions, general view of, 149 ; geni-, 
tive, 150—156; dative, 156—160; 
accusative, 161 — 165 ; genitive and 
accusative, 165. 173 ; genitive, dative, 
accusative, 173 — 185. 

Present tense, 82, 83 ; peculiar uses of, 
81. 

Prohibitions, modes of expressing, 93. 

IVolepsis, 260. 

Pronouns, personal, 45 — 48 ; interroga- 
tive, 48 ; indefinite, 49. 

Pusey, Dr., 10. 52. 

Quality, genitive of, 73. 
Quarterly Iloviewer, 29. 76. 80. 100. 
129. 149. 

Iteciprocity, modes of expressing, 60. 
Itedundancy, 45. 110. 
lielativc and antecedent, 55. 
Ucmotc consequences, 142. 
Kcversive power of negatives, 139. 

Solecisms, 261. 

Subject, the, formed by the article, 27. 
40; plural neuter verb shigulur, 50; 



AUTHORS QUOTED, AND PRINCIPAL SUKJECTS. 



2C5 



*; 



in what cases omitted, 52 ; omission 
of simple copula with prciUcatc, 52; 
before the infinitive, 66. 

Subjective genitive, 72. , . i 

Substantives, classes of, 17 ; derived 
from adjectives, 18. 

Superlatives, unusual forms, 59; He- 
braistic, 13. 

Synecdoche, 253. 

Tenses, 80, 81; present, 82; imperfect, 
87; future, 83; aorist, 89; perfect 
and aorist, 90; perfect, 85; pluper- 
fect, 94 J paulo-post future, 96 ; priJi- 
ciiMil used for subordinate, 83; pre- 
sent for peri'cct, 83. 

Traiection, transposition, 261. 

Trench, Archbishop, 187. 191. 223. 231. 
235. 

Valcknor, 5. 38. 44. 171. 232. 



Vauchan, Dr. (on the Romans), 28. 42. 
83. 89. 92. 127. 155. 161. 189. 193. 
200. 215. 219. 221. 224. 230. 234. 
242, 243. 

Verb, tenses of, 81 ; voices of, 95 ; com- 
pounded, 151. 153. 156. 161. 16t. 
168. 170. 173. 177. 179. 181, 182. 
185. 

Verbal nouns, 17. 20. 

Voices, 95 ; passive, 96 ; middle, 97. 

Winer, 33. 47. 128. 156. 179. 

Wordsworth, Dr., 27. 33. 73. 87. 91. 
155. 213. 219. 221, 222, 223. 229. 
236. 

Wratislaw, Rev. A. H. (Notes and Dis- 
sertations), 20. 65. 75. 115. 125. 242, 
243. 246. 

Zeugma, 257- 



INDEX II. 

GREEK WORDS EXPLAINIH) AND ILLUSTRATED. 



iyaeis, 186. 

iyaeSTTis, iyoBuiriin], 187. 

iyawda, iydmi, 187. 

£7101, ayi/is, 188. 

ayviCui, 188. 

ieyopiiu, 188. 

fi^oj, 188. 

iypifi/iaros, 215. 

iyptdrris, 208. 

i^caivCa, iyaiW^o/tai, 211. 

iSixItt, 194. 

dSii/ci/iot, 189. 

alSiis, iyaiSiltt, 189. 

a^pttriSi 190. 

aiVxpa\o7(a, alffxpinis, 190, 191. 

tti<rxiinif 189. 

aiV^w, 190. 

oiTi'a, 190 

aiTf({ojuai, 207* 

aii^K, 191. 

hxipatot, 192. 

&\aCii>i>, 192. 

i.\el(pa, 210. 

iKvOiyis, oKneiis, 192. 

A\A.<i, 118—120. 

li\\riyop4u, 22G. 

iAAo7€i/<i, 193. 

&AAaf, 192. 

«AAws, 120. 

akwv, 255. 

fi/ia, 21.. 121. 

a/iaprla, 193. 

&fiaxos, 194. 

i^(>>irT0t, 192. 

&.p.TrtKovpy6si 200. 

ifiufiOSf StfittiixryroSf 192. 

&•><{, 1G4. 

A*'ci7ifij, 12. 

avdOffia, i^ydOjifla, IM. 

dj/fdrautris, 194. 

Ai^atrrpo^^, 195. 

avcyicXiiTos, 192. 



ifcXc^^iui', 196. 
&vfais, 194. 
i.v6puvoKT6vas, 234. 
^irifilTos, 196. 
tivoia, 196. 
ii'iiiriat, 194. 
^"oxht 195. 
i^T/, 150, 151. 
ixTiAa/i/3<ii'cir0ai, 195. 
livimiKpiros, 195. 
iLyw6TaKTOs, &y0/jios, 194. 
AiraTiiai, 228. 
iirciS^;, &irci6cia, 195. 
airAoSi, a7rA((Ti)t, 195. 
an6, 152, 153. 
iLiroSTifi4uf 196. 
diroAAu^cfOf, 35. 
AiroAi^Tpaxrif, 188. 
inrapovp,at, 227. 
iirairiuiriKris, 258. 
AirutTToAos, 204. 
HirTOiiai, 213. 
&pa, 121, 122. 
apvdCtiv, 226. 
i/lfiafiiiy, 196. 
iprios, 225. 
&pXofiat, 111. 
i<rf0iis, iaeBeia, 193. 
iur(\yeia, 196. 
ia-Ofveia, 221. 
KirinAoi, 192. 
Jia-irafSut, iaropyof, 196. 

Ao'VI'eTOf, &(7l/»'ffcT0S, 196. 

dfrwrfa, 196. 

auSi{Si)s, 196. 

ai/TOKaToiKptTos, 219. 

ouTifi, 4'!', 45. 05. 

i^tirij, 194. 

&(peapTos, i^Oapala, 196. 212. 

i^poavvr), &(j>puii, 196. 

fiiirru, PawTur/xis, 197. 
Pipffapoi, 193. 



GKEEK WORDS EXPLAINED AND ILLUSTRATED. 



267 



/3i£f>os, 197. 

^ao-avfCw. 189. 

fiaaiKfla, 256. • 

PefiaiixTis, 229. 

Pi0TI\os, 188. 194. 

/3ej3i)A(ia>, 255. 

J9fat, 212. 

PKav^niniu, fi\<ur^nia, 198. 

flA^irw, 22i. ; 

fioneuf, 195. 

jSot/Ao/iai, 197. 

Ppaxu^oyla, 257. 

/3pc4>o;, 223. 

jSu^ili, 8. 215. 231. • 

Yd/), 123. 
7., 122. 

^cfcd, ytvot, 199. 
ytapy6s, 200. 
yiyviiMtKU, 32. 201. 
,yiviaeat, 199. 
yvJttiTi, 200. ' 
ynuttts, 200. 
yoyyvapiis, 202, 

S^qtrit, 230. 

S«A(a, 202. 

ScTva, 49. 

Sci(riSai/ioi>(a, 202. * 

SeffirdTiit, 202. 

:^X<>M<><i 226. 

54, S^irau, 124. 

Ji(£, 165—168. 

SidPo\os, 203. 

SiaSi)/ia, 233. 

Sia/cocfo, SufKorot, 203. 231. 

5iaAc70/iai, 204. 

Sia/iapTvpea6at, 204. 

Sitd'oia, 217. 

tiSttcrKoAoi, 203. • 

Sififia'Kcii, SfSaaKaXfa, 201. 

SiSax^, 201'. 

8f«a.oj, 1S6, 187. 

SiKCu6u, StKouoffiviif 205. 

8fKafci>/ia, 8iicafw<rts, 205. 

SifcaiTT^s, 221. 

tiuyiUs, 214. 

5oKl/ic(^Ctf, 189. 

S(iAoi, 228. 
5ii{a, ioid^u, 205. 
S^ca^ai, 206. 
Swa^it, 206. 231. 
Supf, 215. 

^ai/, ({, 125. 
'E/^a7ot, 206. ♦ 
?77i;oj, 207. 
tyKOKtiv, 209. 
iyKakiai, WfJ. 
tynXijlM, 190. 



lyKiirrftv, 230. 

iyKpdraa, 207. 

Mcoj, 199. 

«}, with 06, 139. 

cfSuAai', ciKii>i<, 208. 

fi\iKptyiis, 195. 

crircp, 125. 

cifi^i^, 210. 235. 

elpaffta, 254. 

«<i, 161—164. 

eU for ^;>, 161. 

els, M, 176. 

CIS, irpiic, Kurd, 169. 

tli, 60. 

^K, 153—156. 

iKfTyos, 47. 

iKKaxelv, iKKitadai, 209. 

iKK\7i<rla, 20& v 

iKITTafflS, 209. 

^Aaiof, 209. 

rAe7{ii, ?A€7X»Ii 190. 209. 

Me'7X<«, 207. 

rAf at, 210. 

'E\\vyl(tiy, 'EAAijvKTT^i, 1. 207. 

i\.iri(eiy ty, (U, M, 177. 

iK-rls, 220. 228. 

iK, 156—160. 

iy for c<t, 162. 

iv Si^ Suaii', 255. 

rvSci{is, 210. 

iyeKa. 185. 

iyipytM, 206. 

iyBi/iriais, Syyota, 210. 

^i^rtu^ii, 230. 

iyroKii, 210. 

^JjjTijT^t, 231. 

4ov<r(a, 206. 

iirdyu, 61. 

^irc(, cV<iS4 126. 

^irf, 173—177. 

Myyuats, 200. 

imeiKits, 186. 194. 208. • 

iirlirraiim, 201. « 

iirurTiiiiri, 211. 

iiriTayii, 200. 

iirhpoitos, 203. 212. 

^n-i^circia, 36. 

iirtxopriyla, 7. 71. 

j/i/u, 187. 

ipyd(oiiai, ipyaata, 211. 

ipfjLijyflaf 224. 

^WT<£u, 190. 

CTCpOS, 192. 

cvd77eA(^a/(ai, 204. 

cu7ci'^$, 211. 

ci^0i|Si 196. 

eihdkfia, fvKafiiis, 202. « 

CvA077)Tlit, 211. 

cuA07(a, 206. 
cvrx^M'"'! 211. • 
cvTpaircA(a, 191. 
fx", 115. 



268 GREEK WORDS EXPLAINED AND ILLUSTRATED. 

(fvyiia, 257. Kfipvyfia, 217. 

C^Xos, 211. Ktipiairu, K-fipv^, 204. 

M, 212. KAalciK, 218. 

jtXt'irrijs, 218. 

K\iy^, 218. 

KotfiOffiai, 12. 

Koiv6ofuii, 254. 

Koifeovfa, 235. 

Ki\aais, 218. 

KdTTOS, 219. 

K^ITTO/tai, KOirCTlff^ 218. 

K6<rnos. 191. 192. 
KiJ^ivos, 219. 
KpiTos, 206. 
upavyl), 199. 
KpiT^t, 221. 
Kpinrra, 219. 
KTlffis, 253. 
Kiipiof, 203. 



«. ^ ^iiy, 127. 

^yc/iiiii', 212. 

«Sri, 127. 

riaixios, 4<rvx<iC«<'i 211. 213. 

Banpfoiiai, ed/ifios, 209. 

eii/aros, 212. 
^ eene\,os, 209. 

e<i<<Ti)t, 213. 

««'a.m, 197. 

ec/i^Xia$, 209. 

Ococrc/S^s, Scoir^jScia, 202. 

$€pdvuVf 203. 

dfoipia, 213. 224. 

0iyyav(>i, 213. 

fl\T^ii, 214. 

0n)TiJ;, 213. 

Bpiaos, Sipaos, 213. 

BpairvTjit, 202. 

flp^yo;, 218. 
» BpilCTKos, Bpi)<rKfla, 202. 

0u^<(s, 213. 

0vpc<ii', 214. ^ 

0uir(a, 214. 
^ dufTiatrriipiov, 215. 

• ;S(7i', 225. 

^ lSl(iiT1)S, 215. 

hparda, Upaairri, 215. 
{(pilK, 215. 
'lfpovtra\-iin, 40. 
IXao-KO/iai, 210. 
tXair/iifs, 188. 
iKaariipiov, 19. 215. 
luiTiov, 215. 
^ *lov5a7or, *l<rpai)X(Ti)S, 207. 
Xva, 128—131. 
iVx^i, 200. 

Ka9iii, 147. 
Kol, 131—133. 
KMv6t, 223. 
KttipSs, 215. 
KOHia, 194. 
KaKirhBr,!, 194. 196. 
KoXftr. 187. 
xaXuiTTW, 219. 
Kapilof 217. 
KaT<£, 168—171. 
Kara^iffiJfrKco, 216. 
KaTcffu^ifi 74. 

KOTOpTlfw, 216. 
KaraTO/i^, 228. 259. 
« KaTT|x«'«. 20 1. 
KarixPI"''*! 253. 
K«lp(i>'> 217. 
KcVos, 217. 
Kqro'os, 234. 



GREEK WORDS EXPLAINED AND ILLUSTRATED. 



269 



XoAid, \iyos, 220. 
Aa/tir((t, \ixyos, 221. 
Xaiti, 199. 
Karpeieiy, 220. 
AciTavp7c7v, 220. * 
XpffT^i, 218. 
\otBop4ut 198. 
Aouoi, 221. 
Kirpov, KvTp6iD, 188. 

fiaxiptos, iiaKapurit6s, 210. 

/ioXoxfa, 221. 

^aWa, 209. 

UttvriitaBai, 231. 

fidxcupUf 232. 

ixctuftrif. 255. 

M^», 133. 

ffLfptar4is, 221. 

pLtahns, 207. 

/itra, 177—179. 

fieTa^4\onatj fierdvotUf 221. 

/jLtravvfila, 253. 

M<, 114. 138—141. 

/ii)S^, /t^Tc. 148. 

firiSets, 60. 

/i^iroTc, 141. 

fiitttviD, lioXiva, 222. 

Hopipii, liiptpaats, 222. 

Iivpov, 209. 

fivar^ipiov, fAitTTTiSt 219. 

Iiopo\oyla, 191. 

yaf, 135. 

radi, 215. • 

i/CKf>((;, 213. 

v^ot, 222. 

v^irios, 223. • 

v1tt<ii', 221. 

vocii', vaus, 200. 223. 

fint, 221. 

yovBtrio), vovBeirla, 224. 



{^Xof, 12. 
{ufxiy, 217. 

8St, oStoi, 47, 48. 
oSun), ^SvCbi/iai, 227. 
ol5o, 201. _ 

OIKCTI)!, OlKOI'd/iOJ, 203. 

OIK (a, oTkoj, 227.. 

olKTipfliSt 210. 

i\iK\Vpos, 4\oTe\'4si 225. 

6ftolu/ia, 222. 

Zfiwst ifi&St 136. 

IJva^a, 206. 

UirKre*!-, 149. 185. 

Sirov, 13. 

SiTTO/iai, 213. 

Sirat, 128—131. 136. 

ipdu, 224. 

ip7«, 214. 

ipyiXirris, 208. 

is, KcTTit, 44, 45. 

iliriai, 187. 

ire, irav, 136. 

«T., 137. 

ob, 138, 139. 141, 142. 

oiS4, odrt, 143. 

ou5((s, 60. 

OVK^TI, OUKoDi', 143. 

olv, 144. 

oStoi, 47, 48. 65. 

ovx ^Ti, 138. 

iraiSa7<DY<li, 226. • 

irniScfa, iroiStiw, 224. 

■xavoupyla, 190. 

»op(£, 179—181. 

TcapdPatris, 225. 

■KctpafioKt), ■wapoiiidt, 226. 

irapiiKXi)irii, 204. 

TapaKO^, irop(£irT«/io, 193. 225. 

itapa\aiiPdva, 226. 

irapa/uu6ia, 204. 

vdptan, 194. 

Tapofo/iair(a, 259. 

irapop7lC"r 214. 

ira^^i)<rla, 226. 

irat, 42, 43. 

ndax". 226. 

■iraTptd, 227. 

Tcteoftai, 227. 

vcio-fioi'^, 18. 259. 

ir/vi)t, ■TTiBX'i»> 227. 

ir(p(, 170. 172. 

ir«pKp7iif«i>'*«i, 211. 

ircpiirou'a/io'i ir«P"">'1<''"i 1°"- 

ir<piTO/x^, 228. 

5rjicpIo,-214. 

iriffTiueii', ^f, *'«. ^''i 1' '• 
ifffTit, 228. 
■K\avda, 228. 
irAcuraiTftilt, 257. 
nKtovfiia, 228. 



irX^y, 145. 
it\ripo<pop4u, 229. 
irXiipai/ia, 18. 
vA>)ir/iai/4, 18. 
tAoDtos, 206. 
irXvvcii', 221. 
irycv^a, 236. 
rl/tvpiaTllcd, 57. 
iroieTf, irpci<r<r«ii', 230. 
Trohtrfv/ia, 195. % 
iroKT)pta, 194. 
voptitofxcUf 229. 
irp^ot, vpifiTiis, 207, 208. 
Tpauiraetia, 205. 207. 
uply, 145, 146. 

jrpd, 160, 151. 

irpiJSa/ia, 196. 

Tp<j«c<ris, 198. 

irpoKdiTTCii', 230. 

xpiiXinl'ii, 260. 

Tpdi, 182-185. 

vpoaayuyfi, 226. 

upoaKwia, 252. 

vpoff^opd, 214. 

irpo<(>DTeIo, 200. 224. 

irpo^ilTeiitK', irpo0^T))j, 8. 231. 

irpcvrdroKos, 23. 

irr<(7)<rii, 202. 

^tfiiodprpiptai, ^iftiovpyia, 190. * 
pavTUTftds, 197. 
^^/la, 232. 
^o^ifiafa, 232. 
^utIi, 232. 

trdpKivos, aapKinSs, 232. 
(raTavSi, 203. 
ffiiiif'iov, 234. r 
(rKoi'5<iAii9p<»i', 8. 
aKid, 208. 
(ro\oiKiait6s, 261. 
ao^fa, 201. 
(ro<}>(Cw, 204. 
0'7raTaAG£&), 233. 
(TTreiSu, <nrovSd(a, 233. 
(TiriXos, 232. 
irirupfs, 219. 

ff'TCVOXA'pft^, 214. 

(TT^^ayos, 233. 

ffToiX"*", 191 • 
iru77ii'fi&(rK6i, 216. 
aiv, 160. 
(ruvaYUY^, 208. • 
<rwtlSi,ais, 217. 223. • 
ffuy^KSox^f 253. 
aiyfffis, 217. 
auviivai, 200. 
(T^payli, 196. 
irxi)>">, 222. 

O'x'o'f"*' ^^• 
au(6ii,fvoi, 35. 



270 



GREEK WORDS EXPLAINED AND ILLUSTRATED. 



irana, 208. 236. 
au^poaini, 190. 

"riiirtit'oippoirivri, 208. 

rapda-aa, 227. 

Tf, 131—133. 

TfK/i^pioy, 233. 

t4\(ios, TtKfiiu, r4\os. 216. 234. 

Tcpas, 233. 

rtfiii, 206. 

Tifiapla, 218. 

Th, 48, 49. 65. 

to/, rofpuK, 146. 

Tpufif v, 233. 

Tusrot, 234. 

iBpinTis, 102. 
B/tvor, 235. 
iTrdyu, 230. 

• ""■""PX". 199. 

vitc/koi, 227. 

iirfp, 171, 172. 

inrtpParSv, 260. 

inttpBoK-li, 254. 

inrfpti^ai/ot, 192. 
. vTrnpirns, 203. 
*»<(, 181. 
i»ir(J, irap({, 179. 
iiiro/ioi'^, 208. 220. 228. 
viroriiracris, 208. 234. 



I ^oBAoi, 234. 
^SiJfor, 212. 
(piKarBpuiria, 187. • 
^iKipyvpos, 229. 
^lAf'w, 187. 
0rf;3oi, 202. 
^ords, 234. 
fufpoi, 234. 
ipoprtov, 197. 
i>piiriiins, 201. 
^liirir, 211. 
^OMTT'lip, (puir^ipot, (puri(a, 221. 

XVnwriip, 208. 

X<ip"', 185. 

Xfi/Mi. X''p'ff/»o, 195. 231. 

X'TcSi/, 215. 

XPV<rT6s, xt»l<rriTris, 186. 

X/"'<a, 210. 

X/"*"""*, 215. 

^a^liis, 235. 
V'cvSof, 192. 
^ri\a(j>du, 213. « 
^"X<. ^MX""**. 236. 

<fH. 236. 
uf, 146. 
&<rxfp, US. 
Start, 148. 



INDEX III. 

PASSAGES CITED FROM THE NEW TESTAMENT. 



MATTHEW. 



HAP. VER. 


PAGE 


I. 6 . 


. . . 


33 


16 . 


• 


154 


li . 


- .7« 


173 


18 . 




110 


19 . 


! Il4 


197 


20 . 


. 154 


170 


22 . 


. 165 


181 


23 . 


33.52 


2(16 


24 . 


• ■ ■ 


32 


25 . 


. . . 


105 


n. I . 


. 152. 


ICO 


2 . 


* 


109 


4 . 


> ■ • 


179 


8 . 


. . . 


170 


10 . 


. 11.G4, 65 


11'. 


. .32. 


161 


12 . 


r • • 


183 


13 . 


. 84. 


109 


20 . 


. 


52 


22 . 


151. 


173 


23 . 


• • 


161 


III. 1 .- . 


.56. 


204 


2 . 




37 


5 . 


[ ". 


"I 
254 


7 . 


. 70. 254 


» . 


, , 


92 


9 . 


, 


154 


10 . 4 


3. 127. 


1)13 


11 . . 


, 


161 


12 . . 


, , 


255 


14 . . 


, , 


»8 


16 . 7 


9. 148. 


152 


17. . 


• • 


91 


IV. 3 . . 


. 34 


.41 


4 . . 


, , 


174 


6 . . 


,33. 


176 



CHAP. VER. 


PAGE 


CHAP 


• TER. 


PAGP. 


6 . . 


. . 28 


VIII 


I . 


45.78. 116 


21 . . 


. 38.42 




5 . 


. . . 45. 


23 . . 


. 43.46 




6 . 

8,9 


. . . 156 

. . . 182 


V. 6 . . 


. . 12 




12 . 


. . . 33 


11 . . 


. . 52 




19 . 


. . . 60 


12 . . 


. . ISO 




22 ; 


. . .259 


15 . . 


. . 33 




28 . 


. . . 153 


17 . . 


. . 119 




30 . 


. . . 68 


19 . . 


. . 105 




32 . 


. 106. 168 


20 . . 


. . 59 








21 . . 

22 . . 


. 79.84 
. 43.78 


IX 


2 . 


. . . 173 


24 . . 


. .185 




4 . 


. . . 49 


25 . . 


. . 32 




5 . 


. . . 124 


28 . 46 
38 . . 


75. 225 
. 151 




10 . 

11 . 


. . 78 
. . 28 


39 . . 


. 42 




13 . 


. . 27 


40 . 


• 78 




15 . 


. . 178 


42 . . 


. 98 




18 . 


119. 176 


44 . . 


. 172 




27 . 


. . 63 


45 . . 


27.96 




34 . 


. . 157 


48 . 84. 


106. 225 




36 . 

37 . 


. . 148 
. . 31 


VI. 1 . . 180. 185 








5 . . 


84. 106 


X. 


1 . 


. . 72 


6 . . . 


. 45 




2 . . 


. . 48 


7 . . 


. 158 




4 . 


. . 113 


11 . . . 


. 254 




5 . . 


. . 72 


13 . . . 


. 70 




8 . . 


. . 65 


16 . . 1 


12. 128 




16 .166.201.254 


19 . . . 


. 107 




18 . . 


. . 53 


22 . . . 


. 31 




21 . . 


.27.176 


25 . 59. 102. 2:<6 | 




23 . . 


. . 65 


31 . . . 


. 102 




24 . . 


. . 172 


34 . . . 


. 39 




27 . . 

28 . . 


. . 173 
. . 236 


VII. 13.14. . 


. 31 




29 . 


SO. 71. 155 


15 . . . 


. 2:t8 




31 . . 


. 46.71 


22 . . . 


. 42 




34 . . 


. . 254 


24 . . . 


78.116 




35 . . 


. . 168 


29 . . . 


. 116 




41 . . 


161. 206 



272 



PASSAGES CITED FKOM THE NEW TESTAMENT. 



XIII. 



CHAP. VER. 

XI. 1 . 

3 . 

)l . 

11 . 

25 . 

27 . 
29 . 

XII. 1 . 
6 . 

12 . 
14 . 
21 . 

25 . 

26 . 

27 . 

28 . 

29 . 

30 . 
35 . 
3G . 
37 . 
41 . 

43 . 
46 . 
50 . 

1 . 

2 . 

3 . 
11 . 

14 . 

15 . 

16 . 
21 . 
23 . 
26 . 

29 . 

30 . 

31 . 

34 . 

35 . 
3U . 
39 . 

44 . 

XIV. 1 . 

2 . 
8 . 

19 . 

26 . 

XV. 1 . 

3 . 

4 . 
16 . 

27 . 
29 . 

32 . 
37 . 

XVI. 13 . 



30. 



78 



PAGE 
. 11 

33. 192 

109. 119 

. 58 

. 219 

. 198 

77. 2U7 

. 169 
. 255 
. 109 
. 254 
. 51 
. 60 
. 203 
. 104 
. 121 
. 34 
. 178 
. 34 

.16. 191 
. 205 
. 162 
. 238 

95. 225 
. 54 

. 180 
. 176 
. 34 
12. 219 
. 11 
. 217 
. 65 
. 214 
30. 124 
.10. 164 
. 121 
. 185 
. 56 
. 88 
. 219 
. 31 
. 41 
. 42 

. 56 
. 156 
. 174 
. 176 
. 153 

. 152 
. 2Mi 
. 123 
. 65 
- 23K 
. 180 
49. 1 16 
. 70 

. 66 



CHAP. VER. 

16 . 

17 . 

19 . 

21 . 
23 . 

26 . 

27 . 

XVII. I . 

4 . 

7 . 
12 . 
17 . 

20 . 

22 . 
25 . 
27 . 

XVIII. 1 . 
6 . 

8 . 

12 . 

13 . 

14 . 

15 . 
17 . 
19 . 

22 . 

23 . 
32 . 



XIX. 



XX. 



4 

9 
10 
13 
16 
17 
20 
21 
22 
26 
28 

1 

2 . 

3 , 

7 . 

9 . 
12 . 
16 . 

21 . 

22 , 

23 , 

24 . 
28 . 
31 . 



XXI. 7 

8 

9 

10 



PAGE 
. 41 

. 232 
. 254 
. 76 
. 203 
43.71 
. 169 

. 179 

. 102 

. 90 

. 181 

. 208 

. 105 

. 1S6 

. 112 

. 151 

68. 121 
. 177 
. 127 
. 176 
. 174 
. 256 
. 161 

33. 148 
. 54 
. 254 
. 17« 
. 126 

. 152 
. 175 
. 109 
. 53 
. 60 
. 29 
. 154 
- 225 

. lis 

. IHO 
. 176 

. 98 
. 33 

. 171 
. 98 
. 144 
. 7« 
. 32 
. 154 
. 12 

19. 2.m 

. 170 

151. 189 
238 

185 
51 
36 
42 



CHAP. VER. 


PAGE 


11 . . 


. 39. 162 


12 . . 


. 33. 36 


13 . . 


. . 218 


21 . . 


. . 40 


24 . . 


. . 64 


31 . . 


. . 49 


32 . . 


. . 10!l 


34 . . 


. . 1«3 


37 . . 


. . 63 


40 . . 


. . 101 


42 . 13 


54. 179 


46 . . 


. . 126 


XXII. 7 . . 


. . 234 


10 . . 


. . 6/i 


11 . . 


. . 73 


16 . . 


. 178 


25 . . 


. 180 


29 . . 


. 114 


40 . . 


. 47 


XXIII. 3 . . 


. 169 


6 . . 


. 238 


28 . . 


. 68 


31 . . 


. 1411 


32 . . 


. 106 


33 . . 


102. 254 


35 . . 


. 176 


37 . . 


. 65 


XXIV. 7 . . 


123. 260 


15 . . 


. 73 


21 . . 


. 40 


32 - . 


. 238 


33 . . 


. 174 


43 . . 


. 106 


48 . . 


. 42 


XXV. 2 . . 


. 201 


6 . . 


. 69 


8 . . 


. 155 


16 . . 


. 169 


20 . . 


. 174 


21 . . 


. 176 


27 . . 


. 160 


34 . . 


. 191 


46 . . 


. 40 


XXVI. 2 . . . 


. 82 


6 . . . 


. 27 


9 . . 


71.89 


10 . . 


. 161 


18 . . . 


49. 183 


23. 26 . 


. 92 


27 . . 


. 33 


28 . . 


. 37 


32 . . 


. 179 


34 . . 


. 126 


42 . . 


. 259 


46 . . 


107. 265 


50 . . 


. 49 



PASSAGES CITED FROM MARK. 



27;] 



CHAP. VER. 


PAGE 


CHAP. VER. 


PAGE 


CHAP. VEP. 


PAGE 


61 . . 


. . 98 


21 . . 


. 39. 179 


25 . . 


. . 30 


54 . . 


. . 102 


26 . . 


. . 104 


34 . . 


. . 121 


56 . 1 83, 


184. 218 






37 . . 


.42. 118 


66 . . 


. . 238 


IV. 1 . . 


2.42.111 


39 . . 


. . 107 


57 . . 


. . 183 


16 . . 


. . 180 


40 . . 


. . 16.S 


61 . . 


. . 165 


23 . . 


. . 126 


41 . . 


. . 64 


63 . . 


. . 168 


24 . • 
29 . . 


. . 49 
. 37.96 


42 - . 


.68.171 


XXVII. 1 . . 


. . 148 


30 . . 


. . 102 


X. 5 . . 


. . 184 


4 . ■ 


. . 184 


32 . . 


.71. 182 


13 . . 


. . 53 


5 . . 


. . 97 


37 . . 


. . 96 


14 . . 


. 70. 239 


7 ■ • 


. . 162 






16 . . 


. . 45 


14 . ■ 


. . 184 


V. 1,2 . 


. . 46 


17 . • 


. . 76 


18 . . 


. . 167 


7 . . 


. . 64 


19 . . 


. . 107 


23 . . 


. ■ . 124 


9 . . 


. . 48 


20 . . 


. . 98 


24 . . 


. . 118 


14 . . 


. . 83 


23 . . 


. . 42 


29 . . 


. . 67 


15 . . 


. . 83 


24 . . 


. . 174 


31 . . 


. . 64 


18 . . 


. . 130 


26 . . 


. . 46 


40 . . 


. . 38 


21 . . 


. . 176 


34 . . 


. . 45 


43. 45 . 


. . 176 


, 22 . . 


. . 1H3 


40 . . 


. . 120 


47 • • 


. . 70 


24 . . 


. . 51 


45 . . 


. . 189 


52 . . 


. . 12 


26 . . 


. . 179 


49 . . 


. . 99 


57 . . 


. 21.44 


30 . . 


. . 48 






63 . . 


. 42. 82 


41 . . 


. 75.99 


XI. 4 . . 


. . 183 






42 . . 


. . 123 


13 . 


122. 261 


XXVIII. 1 . . 


. . 60 






14 . 


102. 142 


14 . . 


105. 173 


VI. 7 . 


. . 60 


16 . 


. . 166 


19 . 22. 63. 161 


21 . 


. . 7C 


22 . . 


. .115 


31 . . 


. . 64 


37 . 


. . 102 


27 . 


. . 7C 


.34 . . 


. . 148 


39,40 


.61. 174 


28 . 


. . 130 


58 . . 


. . 178 


50 . 
56 . 


. . 198 
. . 30 


33 . . 
XII. 12 . . 


. . 122 
. . 184 


MARK 




VII. 3,4 


97. 152 


13 . 


. . 42 






9 . 


. . 255 


20 . 


. . 173 


I. 4 . 73 


.115. 162 


15 . 


. . 31 


28 . 


. . 59 


7 • ■ 


. . 259 


22 . 


. . 255 


32 . 


. . 145 


9 . . 


. . 162 


25 . 


. . 55 






10 . . 


. . 170 


26 . 


. . 130 


XIII. 9 . 


. . 173 


13 . . 


. . 178 


31 . 


. . 164 


19 . 


. . 66 


22 . . 


. . 147 


36 _ 


. . . 59 


20 . 


. . 60 


• 35 . . 


, . 259 






, 25 . 


. . 115 


40 . . 


. . 63 


VIII. 1 . 
2 . 


. . 53 
. 127. 128 


35 . 


. . 69 


II. 1 . . 


. . 165 


4 . 


. . 173 


XIV. 3 . 


68. 168 


2 . . 


. . 143 


11 . 


. . . 179 


5 . 


. . 61 


4 . . 


. . 82 


12 . 


. . .126 


6 . 


. . 186 


9 . . 


. 93.99 


16 . 


. . . 137 


7 . 


. . 178 


18 . . 


. . 239 


20 . 


. . . 18 


12 . 


. . 88 


21 . . 


. . 67 


23 . 


. . . S3 


13 . 


. . 68 


22 . . 


. . 21 


28 . 


. . . 31 


29 . 


. . .120 


26 . . 


. . 173 


31 . 


. . .152 


35 . 


. . 69. 130 


27 . . 


. . 167 


34 . 


. . . 160 


36 . 


. . . 49 






38 . 


. 102. 177 


43 . 


. . . 179 


III. 3 . . 


. . 99 






47 . 


. . . 98 


5 . 90 


. 174. 178 


IX. I . 


. . . 52 


49 . 


. 120. 239 


7 . . 


. . 51 


5 . 


. . . 79 


54 . 


. . .183 


9 . . 


. . 32 


7 . 


. . . 153 


64 . 


. . 09, 70 


10 . . 


. . 82 


8 . 


. 120. 142 






11 . . 


.41. 137 


23 . 


. . 39,40 


XV. 1 . 


. . . 36 


14 . . 


. . 128 


24 . 


. . . 179 


. 


. . . 88 



274 



CHAP. VER. 
9 . 

11 . 

12 . 

16 . 

24 . 

25 . 
27 . 
37 . 

43 . 

44 . 



PASSAGES CITED FROM LUKE. 



PASSAGES CITED FROM LUKE, JOHN. 



XVI. 



1 . 

2 . 

3 . 

4 . 

5 . 

14 . 

15 . 

16 . 



LUKE. 



PAGE 
. 160 

. 59 
. 54 
. 55 

48. 102 
. 132 
. 160 
. 1)3 

13.115 
. 125 

. 38 
. 60 
. 164 
. 261 
. 97 
. 239 
. 254 
. 36 



I. 2 . . . 


. 32 


6 . . . 


. 205 


8 . . . 


. 119 


. . . 


• 70 


10 . . . 


. 68 


20 . . . 


. 151 


29 . . . 


. 103 


30 . . . 


. 180 


34 . . . 


• 83 


37 . . . 


60. 180 


3!) . . . 


. 178 


42 . . . 


. 59 


43 . . . 


. 131 


45 . . . 


■ 92 


47 . . . 


. 174 


61 . . . 


• 77 


53 . . . 


. 68 


54 . . . 


. 195 


56 . . . 


. 160 


59 . . . 


. 88 


60 . . . 


. 119 


62 . . . 


40. 103 


64 . . 


. 258 


72 . . 


69.178 


II. 1 . 39. 


42. 179 


2 . . 


. 239 


5 . . 


• 97 


13 . . 


. 52. IBO 


14 . . 


. . 34 


15 . . 


. . 124 


20 . . 


. . 54 


22 . . 


. . 169 


25 . . 


. . 42 


26 . . 


. . 140 


41 . . 


. . 76 


43 . . 


. . 51 


44 . . 


. . 68 



CHAP. VER. 
48 . 

50 . 
52 . 

III. 5 . 

13 . 

14 . 
16 . 
20 . 
23 . 



IV. 



VI. 



6,7 

14 . 

15 . 
20 . 
23 . 

25 . 

26 . 
28 . 
41 . 

4 . 

5 . 

6 . 

7 . 
9 . 

16 . 

17 . 
32 . 

34 . 
38 . 

9 . 
11 . 
19 . 

35 . 

37 . 

38 . 

39 . 
42. 47 



VII. 12 . 

24 . 

25 . 
29 . 
32 . 
3ft . 
40 . 
42 . 

44 . 

45 . 

VIII. 1 . 

8 . 

9 . 
14 . 
19 . 
23 . 
31 . 
39 . 
43 . 



PAOE 
. 61 

. 44 

. 77 

39.43 
. 181 
. 99 
. 141 
132. 174 
. 67 

85. 105 
. 168 
. 88 
. 32 
. 110 
. 176 
. 126 
. 68 
41.51 

. 11 
65. 174 
. 88 
. 109 
. 54 
. 156 
. 45 
. 86 
. 153 
21. 52 

. 144 

48. 103 

. 179 

. 186 

. 132 

. 52 

. 140 

. 14 

. 132 
. 181 
. 159 
. 206 
. 79 
. 180 
. 30 
. 49 
. 183 
. Ill 

. 169 
. 161 
. 103 
. 181 
. 51 
89. 254 
. l.SO 
. 169 
. 179 



CHAP. VEa. 

44 . 
46 . 

48 . 
52 . 

IX. 3 . 

6 . 

7 . 
12 . 
16 . 
26 . 
28 . 
33 . 

36 . 
46 . 

49 . 
55 . 

X. 11 . 
20 . 
24 . 
28 . 
31 . 
33 . 
.SS . 

37 • 

39 . 

40 . 

XI. 1 . 

4 . 

7 • 

8 . 
11 . 

19 . 
39 . 

46 . 

XII. 1 . 
3 . 

5 . 
7 • 

11 . 
15 . 
18 . 

20 . 
37 . 
39 . 
42 . 

47 . 
48 
49 
61 . 
57 . 
68 , 

XIII. 2 
8 

10 
19 
23 



CHAP. VER. 


PAGE 


35 . . 


44. 79 


38 ■ . 


. 162 


39 . . 


44.91 


41 . . 


. 152 


42 . • 


. 70 


46 . . 


. 110 


62 . . 


. 63 



31. 41. 184 
65 
179. 199 
. . 120 
221. 2,39 
. . 205 




39, 97 



. . 181 
. . 171 
. .115 
. . 163 
. 35. 125 



276 



PASSAGES CITED FROM JOHN, ACTS. 



PASSAGES CITED FROM THE ACTS. 



277 



CHAP. VER. 


PAGE 


CHAP 


. VEB. 


24 . . 


. . 31 




56 . . 


26 . . 


. . 101 




58 . . 


29 . . 


. 64. 239 




69 . . 


33 . . 


109. 239 






44 . . 


. . 123 


IX 


:i ■ ■ 


62 . . 


. . 66 




13. 18. 


54 . . 


. . 289 




19 . . 
24 . . 


V. 2 . . 


. . 39 




27 . . 


3 . . 


. . 68 




30 . . 


5 . . 


. . 160 




31 . . 


12 . . 


. . 143 




34 . . 


18 . . 


. . 120 




38 . . 


20 . . 


. . 130 




40 . 


25 . . 


■ o 189 




41 . . 


28 . . 


107. 189 






29 . . 


189. 230 


X 


3 . . 


34 . . 


. . 128 




11 . . 


36 . . 


. 31. 59 




14 . . 


44 . . 


. . 46 




20 . . 


46 . . 


• . 177 




25 . . 


46 . . 


. . 106 




27 . . 


47 . . 


. . 139 




36 . . 


VI. 2 . . 


173, 174 


XI 


4 . . 

6 . . 
10 . . 
11, 12. 


5 . . 
9 . . 

10 - . 


. 64.83 
■ . 60 
• . 65 




14 . . 


■ . 144 




18 . . 


18 . . 


■ ■ 64 




21 . . 


19 . . 


• . 185 




22 . . 


21 . . 


. . 173 




31 . . 


27 . . 
29 . . 


. . 119 
. . 54 




35 . 
40 . . 


35 . . 


. . 164 




49 . . 


45 . . 


. . 67 




50 . . 


61 . . 


.31. 134 


XII. 


1 . . 


57 . . 


. . 168 




9 . . 


62 . . 


. . 257 




10 . . 


63 . . 


. . 31 




19 . 


64—66 


154, 156 




23 . 


70, 71 . 


. . 33 




24 . 


VII. 23 . . 


. . 43 




26 . . 
28 . . 


24 . . 


. . 66 




31 . . 


26 . . 


. . 90 




32 . . 


29 . . 


. - 179 




34 . . 


37 . . 


. . 106 




37 . . 
40 . . 


39 . . 


. . 179 




41 . . 


124. 240 




42 . . 


VIII. 7 • . 


. . 174 


XIII. 


4 . . 


18 . . 


. . 31 




5 . . 


23 . . 


. 8. 40 




6 . . 


28 . . 


. . 65 




7 . . 


29 


. . 178 




8 . . 


39 . . 


. . 106 




9 . . 


43 . . 


. . 220 




10 . . 


44 . 53 


154. 234 




24 . . 


48 . . 


. . 46 




27 . . 


86 . . 


. . 71 




38 . . 





PAGE 




240 


.'82 


146 




176 




144 




45 




144 




206 




268 




123 


.46 


106 


43 


193 




46 




240 




106 




170 




8 




202 




209 




46 




51 




46 



172. 184 
. 240 
. 160 
. 12 
69. 162 
. 33 
. 190 
. 178 
. 218 
. 206 
. 49 
. 171 

. 150 
. 167 
. 98 
. 216 
. 131 
56. 161 
. 212 
. 206 
. 136 
. 108 
. 46 
. 114 
. 217 
. 136 

. 184 
. 33 
. 46 
179. 240 
178 
120 
221 
103. 108 
68.92 
. 266 



CHAP. VER. 
XIV. 1 . 

4 . 
6 . 

17 . 

26 . 
31 . 

XV. I . 
2 . 

5 . 

6 . 
8 . 

22 . 

25 . 

XVI. 2 . 

23 . 

26 . 
31 . 

XVII. 3 . 

10 . 

18 . 

24 . 

XVIII. 14 . 

16 . 

17 . 

25 . 
29 . 

36 . 

37 . 

XIX. 2 . 

11 . 

26 . 

29 . 

30 . 

XX. 2 . 

9 . 

12 . 
17 . 
28 . 

XXI. 8 . 

19 . 
23 . 
28 . 



.96 



PAGE 

177 
67 
81 
74 
44 

102 



. . 8 
8. 46. 157 
157. 240 
62. 90. 91 
. . 142 
. . 106 
. . 120 



119.131 
. 64 
. 229 
. 265 

. 131 
. 31 
. 92 
. 150 

• 171 

. 183 

. 240 

. 240 

. 168 

. 106 

. 143 

. 64 
. 106 

38. 180 
. 144 
. 190 

. 62 
95. 261 

39. 183 
78.93 

. 42 

. 77 

. 77 

. 82 

106. 256 






ACTS. 

1 . . 

4 . . 

12 . . 

16 . . 

26 . . 



.98. 



Ill ji 

^^ i 
68 ) 

68 ' 

266 : 



CHAP. VER, 

20 . 

25 . 

26 . 
28 . 
33 . 

37 . 

38 . 
40 . 
43 . 

46 . 

47 . 

III. 1 . 

2 . 

3 . 

7 . 

10 . 

11 . 

12 . 

13 . 

14 . 
16 . 
19 . 

21 . 
22.24 
26 . 



IV. 11 . 

12 . 

13 . 

17 . 

18 . 

21 . 

22 . 
28 . 
36 . 

V. 4 . 
6 . 
10 . 
15 . 

21 . 

22 . 

23 . 

24 . 
28 . 
30 . 
38 . 
36 . 

38 . 

39 . 

41 . 

42 . 

VI. 1 

3 

7 

11 



PAGE 

. 146 
39. 162 
. 283 
68. 178 
. 39 
. 74 
. 161 
. 240 
. 92 
. 64 
. 35 

. 176 
. 190 
. 269 
. 76 
. 184 
36.63 

75. 147 
. 47 
. 36 

37. 165 
. 130 
. 226 
. 131 
. 110 

31.47 
. 186 
160. 220 
, 11 
. 174 
. 113 
. 56 
, 258 
, 113 

113.118 
. 113 
. 183 
. 169 
. 182 
. 99 
47. 150 
. 103 
11.68 
. 113 
. 51 
. 49 
. 108 
. 106 
. 146 
. 204 



183.203.207 
. . .173 
... 68 

. . .207 



11. 6 
12 



. . 266 
. 60. 103 



VII. 1 
2 



. 122 
11.74 



CHAP. VER. 
12 . 

18 . 

19 . 
26 . 
34 . 
36 . 
38 . 

41 . 

42 . 
43,44 
61 . 
82 . 
86 . 
68 . 

59 . 

60 . 

VIII. 1 . 

2 . 

4 . 

6 . 

6 . 

9 . 
11 . 
16 . 

20 . 

22 . 

23 . 

26 . 

27 . 

30 . 
33 . 

IX. 1 . 
4.7 
9 . 

16 . 

28 . 
26 . 

29 . 

31 . 
33 . 
40 . 

43 . 

X. 9 . 
15 . 

17 . 
20 . 
23 . 
28 . 
33 . 

38 . 

39 . 
42 . 
45 . 

XI. 8 . 

17 . 

18 . 



PAGE 
. . 79 

201. 193 

76. 109 

. 98 

11. 136 

113.240 

. 226 

. 160 

. 96 

. 234 

. 77 

. 136 

. 199 

. 88 

92. 226 

12.247 

145.214 
. 98 
. 145 
. 63 
. 110 
. 49 
77. 240 
. 161 
. 103 
. 122 
. 198 
47. 169 

114. 173 
. 122 
. 240 

. 69 
. 63 
. 138 
. 73 
. 219 
. 140 
. 207 
148. 240 
. 184 
, 247 
. 180 

, 176 
, 284 
, 182 
. 119 
. 152 
147 
. 112 
, 113 
113.240 
. 138 
. 115 

. 186 
. 240 
8. 121 



CHAP. VER. 


PAGE 


19 . 146. 162. 174. 




204 


20 . 


. . 207 


28 . 


. . 283 


XII. 5 . 


. . 115 


6 . 


. . 180 


10 . 


. . 96 


11 . 


. . 136 


14 . 


160. 182 


16 . 


. . Ill 


20 . 


. . 173 


23 . 


151. 206 


26 . 


. . 203 


XIII. I . . 


. . 204 


2 . 


. . 124 


4 . 


. . 134 


10 . 


.84.106 


11 . 


. . 88 


13 . 


. . 39 


16 . 


. . 36 


25 . 


. . 48 


27 . 


. . 240 


46 . 


. . 88 


XIV. 1 . 


. . 207 


4 . 


. 30. 160 


5 . 


. . IfiO 


6 . 


. . 240 


7 . 


. . 146 


9 . 


.- . 110 


10 . 


. . 30 


13 . 


160. 255 


22 . 


. . 163 


26'. 


. . 64 


28 . 


. . 160 


XV. 1 . 


. 77.97 


3 . 


. . 145 


7 . 


. . 32 


17 . 


. . 53 


20 . 


. . 76 


21 . 


. . 253 


22 . 89. 1 13. 240 


23 . 


. . 116 


24 . 


. . 108 


29 . 


. . 67 


36 . 


. 53. 124 


38 . 


. . 152 


XVI. 5 . 


. . 146 


9 . 


. . 79 


11 . 


. . 39 


15 . 


. . 66 


16 . 


. . 231 


22 . 


.• . . 89 


23 . 


. . 64 


34 . 


. 110. 113 


37 . 77. 1 13. 123 


40 . 


. . .161 



I, 



278 



CHAP. TKK. 
XVII. 1 . 

2 

6 ! 

7 . 
11 . 

13 . 

14 . 

15 . 
18 . 

21 . 

22 . 

23 . 

24 . 

25 . 

27 . 

28 . 

29 . 

XVIII. 4 . 
5 . 
9 . 

13 . 

14 . 

18 . 

19 . 
2'> . 

26 . 

XIX. 2 . 

4 . 

5 . 

6 . 

7 . 

10 . 
13 . 

17 . 

24 . 

25 . 

26 . 

27 . 

28 . 
35 . 
38 . 

XX. 7 . 

16 . 

18 . 
21 . 

24 . 

25 . 
28 . 

30 . 
33 . 
35 . 
38 . 

XXI. 6 . 

8 . 

11 . 

16 . 

20 . 



PASSAGES CITED FROM THE ACTS, ROMANS. 



PASSAGES CITED FROM THE ROMANS. 



279 



PAGE 
. 36 

. 152 

. 253 
193.241 

. 103 

. 153 
36. 147 

. 36 

103. 223 

58. 127 

213. 225 

232. 63 

. 199 

68. 260 

122. 146 

30. 170 

. 144 

. 207 
. 77 
. 107 
. 180 
. 170 
. 97 
. 78 
. 97 
. 68 

64. 119 
56. 133 
. 161 
. 176 
. 43 
. 207 
64.241 
. 207 
. 240 
. 171 
. 41 
. 162 
. 214 
. 124 
. 39 

. 204 
109. 128 
. 43 
. 37 
. 147 
. 213 
. 97 
. 75 
. 69 
65. 195 
. 213 

. 247 
. 39 
. 47 
. 55 
. 71 



CHAP. VER. 
21 . 

23 . 

24 . 

25 . 

26 . 
28 . 
33 . 
38 . 

XXII. 



PAGE 

. 253 
. 173 
. 98 
. 98 
. 76 
. 86 
. 103 
121.234.160 



3 . 


. . 199 


6 . 


136. 171 


16 . 


. . 197 


17 . 


. . 199 


19 . 


. . 177 


22 . 


.89. 132 


23.26 


. . 241 


29 . 


. . . 86 


30 . 


. . 179 



XXIII. 1 . 
5 . 

7 • 
9 . 

11 . 
14 . 
20 . 
25 . 

30 . 
35 . 

XXIV. 10 . 
16 

22 . 

23 . 

25 . 

26 . 

XXV. 3 . 
4 . 

10 . 

11 . 

10 . 
20 . 
22 - 

27 . 

XXVI. 1 . 

2 . 

3 . 

8 . 

11 . 
12 
16 . 

22 . 

23 . 
23 . 
26 . 

28 . 

31 . 



90 



168. 



99.217 
201.241 
. 240 
98. 257 
. 161 
. 69 
. 147 
. 234 
184 
102 



181 



83. 



76 

217. 184 

. 58 

. 115 

. 207 

78. 121 

. 130 
. 78 
. 68 
83.86 
. 146 
. 162 
. 89 
. 168 

. 172 

. 116 

. 71 

25. 180 

. 88 

. 179 

. 213 

. 54 

. 125 

. 190 

. 66 

160.241 

. . 83 



CHAP. VER 






PAGE 


XXVII. 1 


. . . 193 


2 






. 64 


10 






. 2S9 


14 




J«. 


99. 168 


18 






. 98 


23 






. . 72 


25 






. 86 


34 






. . 182 


36 






. . 70 


37 






. . 43 


38 






. . 68 


40 






. . 121 


43 






. . 99 


XXV1II.3 






. 68. 153 


7 






. . 171 


8 






. . 30 


9 






. . 88 


- 10 






. 39. 185 


19 






. 147 


20 






. . 97 


25 






. . 183 


ROMANS. 


I. 1 


... 72 


3 


. . .241 


4 


74. 155. 169 


5 


. . .166 


6 


... 67 


8 


. 133. 156 


9 


. . .221 


10 


. 127. 174 


13 


. 115. 132 


14 


. 193. 196 


13 


... 57 


16 


. .67.177 


17 


164, 156. 205 


18 


. 192. 214 


19 


... 67 


20 


18. 67. 163 


21 


. 166. 205. 




217. 261 


26 


65. 180. 192 


26 


. . 72. 180 


28 


. . .200 


29. 


31 . . . 260 


32 


55. 206. 241 


II. 1 


38. 192. 241. 




260 


3 


... 46 


4 


57. 81. 208 


5 


. . 23. 160 


6 




. . 153 


8 




165.214 


9 




207.214 


10 




. 34. 207 


11 




. . 180 


12 






. 123 



CHAP. VER. 

13 . . 

14 . . 

15 . . 

16 . . 
, 17 . • 
* 18 . . 

21 . . 
23 . . 


PAGE 

. 35. 180 
.37. 140 
. . 65 
. . 03 
. . 207 
. . 180 
. . 109 
.68. 169 


CHAP. VEB. PAGE 

6 . . . .120 
6 . . . 93. 242 
7.11. 203.242 

13 . 89. 93. 205 

14 . . . .182 

15 . . . .103 

16 . 127. 146. 163 

17 . 55. 134. 234 


CHAP. VER. PAGE 

21 ... ■ 243 

22 . . . 73. 243 
23, 24 . . 06. 205 

26 ... . 139 

27 . 73. 172. 243 

28 ... . 243 
31 .... 73 
33 . . 174. 253 


25 . . 


. 28. 105 


19, 20. 168. 242 


X 1 .... 162 


26 . 162 


. 205. 63 


21 . . 1 16. 174 


3 . . . .114 


27 . . 


. . 160 


, 


4 . . . 63. 216 


29 . . 


. . 165 


VII. 2 .... 86 


5 . . . . l.''>5 






6 . . 167. 227 


9.11. 174.177 


III. 2 . . 


. . 89 


6 . . . . 8 


14 .... 84 


3.4 . 


124. 241 


7 . 40. 84. 103. 


16.18. 92.119. 


6 . . 


. . 83 


201 


141 


6 . . 


.84. 127 


8 . . .43. 242 


19 . 139. 193. 243 


7 . ■ 


. 83. 156 


12 . . . .148 




8 . . 


218. 241 


13 .... 41 


XI. 2 . 78. 166. 243 


9 . . 


182. 241 


14 . . . .182 


4 .... 31 


11 . . 


. . 41) 


10 . . . .242 


5 .... 72 


12 . 24 


121. 161 


18 .... 56 


6. . .41.143 


19.21. 


22U. 24 1 


20 ... . 143 


8 . . . 40. 74 


22 . . 


. . 170 


21 .... 46 


13 ... . 206 


23 . . 


. . 92 


22 ... . 8 


20 .... 78 


24 . . 


. . 189 


23 . 224. 242. 255 


21 . . . .170 


25 . . 


164. 205 


24,25. .72.258 


23 . . 134. 200 


26 . . 


. . 210 




25 . . 163. 219 


28 . . 


. . 2.'>6 


VIII. 1 . . . .157 


20 . . . 253 


31 . . 


. . 119 


3 . . .66. 242 


• 27 . . . .102 






4 . . 205. 236 


28 ... ■ 179 


IV. 2 . . 


. . 205 


6 . . 163. 242 


30 .... 7« 


II . . 


. . 06 


8 . . . .113 


31 ... 42 


12 - . 


. . 155 


9 . . . .133 


32 . . .43. 163 


13 . . 


. . 6» 


10,11. 168.242 
13 .... 93 


36 . . . .156 


14 . . 


. . 155 


18 . . 


. . 1111 


15 . . .74.202 


XII. 1 . 66. 107. 214. 


19 . . 


.114.77 


16 .... 78 


215. 213 


-21 . . 


. . 229 


17 . . . .163 


2 . . . 8. 224 


22. . 


. . 162 


18 .162.205.227 


3 . 181. 243. 26U 


23 . . 


. . 167 


19 .... 18 


5 .... 42 


25 . . 


168. 205 


21 . . . .206 


6 . . 152. 200 






22 . . . .268 


8 . . . .195 


V. 1 . . 


. . 144 


23 . . .46. 109 


9 .... 62 


6 . . 


113.171. 


25 . . . .166 


12. . .78.228 




210. 241 


29 . . 137. 261 


15 . . . .107 


7 . . 


123. 241 


30 .... 73 


18 . . . .178 


8. . 
12 . . 


. . 151 


32 . . . .122 


19 .... 23 


. . 241 


36 . . . .253 


20 . . . .105 


13 


. . 185 


36 .... 82 
38 .... 85 

IX. 1 . . 158. 157 




14 . . 

15 . . 
16. 18 


. . 234 

. . 42 

. 205. 242. 


XIII. 1 . . . .244 
4 . . 106.203 
6 . . . .168 




256 


2 . . . .243 


7 . . . . 256 


19 . 


. . 226 


3 . .38. 88, 89. 


8 . . . .250 


20 . 


234. 242 


152 


9 . 46. 84. 126. 


21 . 


. . 167 


4 . . . .207 


210 


1 




9 . . . .173 


10 . . 139. 210 


' VI. 2 . 


. 55. 103 


11 . . 114.243 


11 . 48. 59. 216. 


fl a . 


. . . 161 


18 ... . 127 


243 


i 4. 


. . . 168 


19 .... 8 


14 .... 12 



280 



PASSAGES CITED FROM 1 COKTNTIIIANS. 



CHAP. VKB. 


PAOE 


CHAP. VER. 


PAOB 


CHAP. VER. 


PAGE 


XIV. 4 . . 


208. 244 


III. 2 64. 


1)9.258 


19 . 


. 114. 124 


6 . . 


. . 229 
. . 70 


3 . . 


. . 136 


21 . 

25 . 


. . .139 


. . 


5 . . 


. . 120 


65. 98. 207 


10 . . 


. . 97 


6 . . 


.89.132 


26 . 


. . .146 


11 . . 


137. 248 


7 . - 


. . 49 






13 . . 


.30.244 


11 . . 


. . 180 


X. 2 . 


. . 161 " 


14 . . 


167.167 


14 . . 


. . 120 


4 . 


. . 40. 88 


15 . 18 


143. 188 


15 . . 


147. 165 


6 . 


. . . 245 


17 . . 


. . 243 


17 . . 


. 52. 259 


6 . 


. . 65. 244 


20 . . 


. . lOG 


19 . 31. 


116. 180 


11 . 
13 . 


. . . 234 
. .86. 177 


XV. 2 . . 


. . CO 


IV. 1 . . 


. . 219 


16 . 


54. 70. 234 


5 . . 


.74. 103 


6 . 60 


173. 192 


17 . 


... 42 


7 . . 


. . 185 


8 . 88 


122. 255 


18 . 


38. 70. 224 


« . . 


.60. 172 


9 . . 


. . 244 


19 . 


... 49 


12 . . 


174. 177 


10 . . 


. . 255 


21 . 


... 70 


13 . . 


. . 68 


12,13. 
15 . . 


IQ8 2Sfl 




14 . . 


. . 187 


1 uCI* A^U 

120. 226 


26 . 
31 . 


. . . 18 
. . .145 


15 . . 


. . 147 


17 . . 


. . 65 






KJ . . 


. . 214 


21 . . 


157. 207 






19 . . 


. . 185 






XI. 4 . 


... 44 


20, 21 . 


. . 244 


V. 3 . . 


236. 244 


6 . 


. 30. 44. 77 


22 . . 


. . 88 


4 . . 


. . 160 


6 . 


... 97 


23 . . 


. . 152 


6 . . 


. . 244 


9 . 


. . .165 


24 . . 


.69. 109 


9 . . 


. . 30 


10 . 


. . .255 


25 . . 


. . 114 


10 . '. 


. . 229 


11 . 


. . . 145 


2C . . 


. 98. 235 






12 . 


. . .165 


27 . . 

30 . . 

31 . . 
3-2 . . 


. . 123 
. . 167 
162. .243 
. . 160 


VI. 1 . . 
3 . . 

5 . . 

6 . . 


250. 170 
212. 244 
184. 164 
. . 48 


14.! 

16 . 

17 . 
22 . 

32 . 


26 . . . 245 
... 86 
. . .135 
. 139. 141 






. . .224 






7 • . 


. . 97 






XVI. C . . 


. . 142 


8 . . 


. . 48 






18 . . 


. . 255 
. . 182 


19 . . 


. . 4C 


XII. 1 
8 


... 171 


20 . . 


20 . . 


.71. 124 


. . .169 


25 . 77 


. 206. 216. 






10 


. . .231 




219 






13 


. . .161 


27 . . 


. . 34 


VII. 5 . . 


. . 167 


15 


155. 180. 245 






8,9 . 


139. 207 


30 


. . . 231 






10, 11. 


. . 244 










15 . . 


104. 244 


XIII. 2 


. . .219 


1 CORINTHIANS. 


16 . . 


. . 30 


4 


... 21 






18 . . 


. . 48 


13 


. . 61.58 


I. 8 . . 


1S8. 260 


23 . . 


. . 24 






)0 . . 


130. 216 


24 . . 


. . 180 


XIV. 1- 


-5 . . . 200 


12 . . 


. . 70 
. . 128 


26 . . 


. 12. 66 


9 


. 204. 253 


15 . . 


34 . . 


236. 244 


18 


... 110 


17 . . 


. 109 






19 


. ... 204 


18 . . 


. 35. 67 


VITI. 3 . . 


. . 202 


27 


. . . . 164 


10 . 


. . 40 


4 . . 


. . 208 


29 


. ... 42 


23 . 


. . 85 


5 . . 
7. 10. 


139. 148 

. . 244 


30- 
34 


-32 . . 20O 


25 . 


. . 69 


. ... 257 


2(; . 


. . 224 


12 . . 


132. 144 


38 


. ... 105 


27 • 


. . 57 


18 . . 


. . 184 


39 
40 


. . . . 253 
. ... 211 


11. 1 . 


. . 219 


IX. 2 . . 


120. 1.3» 






2 . 


. . log 


4.0 . 


141. 245 


XV. 3 


. . 123. 172 


4 . 


. . .157 


5 . . 


. . 56 


6 


. ... 61 


7 • 


. . .219 


9. 15. 


. . 245 


8 


. . .23. 148 


li . 


. . . 190 


10 . . 


123. 176 


y 


. ... 70 


U .1! 


19. 224. 236 


13 . . 


. . 34 


10 


. ... 160 



PASSAGES CITED FROM 2 CORINTHIANS, GALATIANS. 



281 



CHAP. VER. 



PAOK 
. . 88 

246. 195 
. 40. 192 




. . 235 
. . 240 
. 82. 192 
. 126. 192 
. 105. 180 
. . 104 
. . .106 
. 119. 226 
. . . 8« 
89. 230. 240 
. 158. 233 
. . 184 
. . 138 
... 77 
... 40 

. . .165 

. 162. 170 

21. 65. 129 

77. 184. 240 

... 49 

. . 90.97 

. . .253 

65. go. 246 

, 86. 216. 246 

. . . . «9 

. ... 148 

. ... 184 
. ... 77 
. 84. 126. 166 
. . .71.122 
. . 132. 143 

. . .85. 247 



282 



VASSAGES CITED FllOM KVHESIANS, PHILII'PIANS. 



CHAP. VEB 


PAGE 


CHAP. VKR 


PA03B 


CHAP. VER. PAGE 


3 


. . .77.233 


(i 


.'42. 204. 235 


10 . . . 71.08 


9 


. . 155. IfiO 


7 


... 97 


17 . . . 53. 158 


15 


. . . . 130 


9 


... 187 


18 . 07. 08. 131 


Hi 


. . .62.173 


10 


. 121. 1U3 


19 . . . .168 


17 


. 1-29. I'i3. 247 


11 


... 90 


20 . . . .200 


1« 


. 143.154. ICti 


12 


... 78 


21. 20. 28. . 218 


19 


. «5. 101. 185 


13 


... 44 


23 . 73. 223. 224 


20 


... 35 


14 


. .79.192 


24 .... 12 


21 


37. IOC. 154 


15 


18. 123. 222 


27 . . . .143 


22 


43. 92. 154 


10 


. .77.170 


29. . .71.191 


23. 


29. . . 233 






30 . . 102. 189 


24 


. 148. 103. 






31 . 43. 177. 214 




22li. 154 


EPHESIANS. 


32 - . . .158 


27 


. . 1«1. 157 








2U 


. 52. 143. 157 


I. 1 


. ... 72 


V. 2 . 73. 214. 215 






4 


. ... 210 


4 . . . .265 


IV. 1 


. 35. C5. 223 


7 


. . .60.189 


8 . , . . 248 


2 


. . . . 203 


9, 


10. .72.219 


0, 7 . . . 155 


3 


. ... 191 


12 


. ... 114 


9 . . . .187 


4 


. 10. 154. 247 


13 


. 08. 72. 74. 


12 .... 45 


6 


. . . 32. 73 




247 


14 . . . .107 


7 


. . . . 148 


14 


. .71.189 


15 . . 218.258 


a 


. ... 140 


15 


. 158. 170 


16. . .97.137 


9 


. 202.259 


10 


. . .174 


17 . . 100.200 


10 


. ... 210 


J7 


74. 167.211 


19 ... . 235 


11 


. ... 141 


18 


. .08.117 


20,21 . . I.i0 


12. 


IC. . . 247 


20 


. . 157. 104 


23 .... 44 


14 


. ... 255 


21 


. . .132 


20 . . . .248 


15 


. . 113. 255 


22, 


23. . . 55 


31 . . . .151 


17 


.119.129.247 






32 ... . 219 


18 


. 40. 1 10. 184 


11. 2 


72. 157. 1C9. 


33 . . 131. 145 


20. 


29. . . 88 




195 




23 


. ... 233 


4 


. . .114 


VI. 1 ... . 158 


24. 


2C. . . 55 


8 


. . 48. 78 


2 . . . .157 


25 


30. 40. 247 


10 


. I5fi. 175 


3 . . . .142 


27 


. ... 247 


11 


... 38 


4 . . .68.221 


29 


. ... 233 


12 


71. 157. 247 


6 .... 38 






14 


. .07.247 


0, 7 • 23. 165. 


V. 1 


. ... 73 


21 


. ... 43 


260 


2 


. ... 105 






8 . . . .201 


3 


. ... 44 


III. 1 


. ... 66 


11. . . 32. C7 


5 


. ... 247 


3 


. . ICO. 219 


12 . 32. 57. 7.3. 


7 


. . 230. 2C0 


4 


. ... 38 


20c. 233 


8 


. . .18. 200 


9 


. . .247 


14,15. . . 92 


10 


. ... 33 


11 


. . 74. 204 


10, 17. 50.67.92 


11 


. ... 121 


12 


. . . 157 


18 . . . .255 


13 


. ... 175 


13 


38. 55. 100 


19 . . .72.219 


14 


43. 84. 247 


14 


06. 183. 247. 


21 . . . .157 


17 


. ... 128 




253 


22 . . . .170 


19 


. ... 232 


IG 


. . .200 


23 . . 177. 179 


21 


. 212. 232. 25(> 


18 


... 167 




22 


. ... 187 


21 


... 34 




24 


. 91. 93. 227 






PHILIPPIANS. 


25 


. ... 78 


IV. 1 


. . .157 








3 


. ... 50 


I 3 .... 43 


VI. 1 


. 74. 132. 193. 


4 


. ... 08 


9 . 65. 130.200 




207. 210 


10 


. ... 200 


10 ... . 189 


2 


. ... 197 


11 


. 30. 44. 184 


11 .... 56 


3 


. . . 49. 22U 


12 


.104.109.184. 


13 ... . 43 


4 


. . 247. 250 




210 


16,17. . . 30 


5 


. ... 84 


14 


. ... 248 


21 ... . 109 



PASSAGES CITED FROM COLOSS., 1 THESS., 2 THESS. 



283 



CHAP. VEB. 


PAGE 


22 . 


... 49 


23 . 


... 89 


24 . 


. . .248 


25 . 


. .05.112 


26 . 


... 38 


27 . 


... 99 


28 . 


. . 68. 210 


29 . 


... 177 


11. 1 . 


. . .235 


3 . 


. . 78. 109 


6 . 


199. 222. 248 


7 . 


. 222. 248 


8 . 


. . .199 


9 


. . . 172 


12 


. . .248 


13 


. .31.178 


15 


. . . 221 


10 


. 162.248 


18 


... 66 


27 


. . .78. 174 


30 


. ... 21 



CHAP. VEB. 

18 . . 
20 . . 

24 . . 

20,27. 



III. 2 . 33. 228. 253 

3 . . 228. 200 

4 .114. 135.248 
5x. . . . 207 
7 . •. . . 64 
. 57. 65. 146 

9 . . . .157 

10 . . . .258 

11 . . . .150 
14 . . . .109 
16 . . . .248 

16 . . 77. 107 

17 ... . 234 

19 .... 30 

20 . . . .159 

21 . . . .248 
23 . . . .259 

IV. 3 ... . 190 
4 . . . .248 
8 . . 126. 232 

10 .... 90 
15 ... . 236 

17 .... 32 

18 . 39. 179. 215 
20 .... 34 



COLOSSIANS. 



3 . . . .114 

5 .... 50 

9 . .97.111 

12 . . . .248 

14 . . . .189 

15 . . .23.248 
10 . 43. 91. 200 
17 . . . .150 



PAGE 
. 23. 240 
. . 71 
. 55. 72 
. . 219 



II. 



III. 



2 . 

8,9 

11 . 

14 . 

15 . 
21 . 
23 .' 

1 I. 

2 . 

3 . 
5 . 

10 . 

11 . 

12 . 

16 . 

17 . 
22 . 

24 . 

25 . 



, . 219 

. . 249 

. . 255 

. . 70 
. 98. 200 

. . 93 

. 18.55 

. . 164 

. . 170 

. . 177 

. . 255 

. . 223 

. . 62 

. . 209 

. . 235 

. . 158 

. . 23 

. . 201 

. . 249 



CHAP. VEB. PAGE 

6 .... 97 

7 . . . .174 
9 . 23. 64. 174 

12 .... 78 

13 109. 16U. 177. 

261 



IV. 2 

3 

8 

12 

18 



. . 158 
. 85. 219 
. . 90 
. . 229 
. . 73 



IV. 1 . 


158. 


190. 256 


2 . 


, 


. . 167 


3,4.6 


. 19. 48. 






109 


6 . 




140. 227 


8 . 




. . 146 


11 




211.213 


12 




. . 256 


13 




. . 129 


14 




. . 167 


15 




. . 140 


17 


24 


121. 160 


18 




148. 159 


20 




. . 159 


V. 4 




. . 131 


6 




. . 102 


7 




. . 34 


10 




. . 161 


11 




. . 00 


12 




. . 156 


15 


90= 


. . 103 



1 THESSALONIANS. 



5 . 


. . . 137 


6 . 


. . . 08 


7 . 


. . .231 


8 . 


. 120. 183 


9 . 


. . .108 


10 . 


. . . 83 



II. 3 . . . . 158 

4 . . .82. 147 

5 . . . 88. 199 



2 THESSALONIANS. 

I. 3 ... . 138 

4 . 214. 228. 249 

5 . . 103.210 

6 . . .23. 135 

7 . . . .178 

8 . . . .140 
10 . 101. 135. 249 
11,12. 129,130 
13 . . . .226 



. 


. . 72. 183 


II. 


1 . 172. 170. 190 


7 . 


. . .243 




2 . . . .144 


9 . 


. . .184 




3 . 36. 120. 132. 


10 . 


... 187 




140 


II 


. . 83. 135 




4 . . 176.249 


12 . 


. 163. 256 




6 . . . 88. 1U4 


13 . 


... 137 




9 . 73. 82. 219 


14 . 


. . .199 




10 . . . .151 


15 . 


... 97 




11 . . . 71.83 


10'. 


. 103. 249 




13. 17 . C8. 137. 


18 . 


62. 132. 230 




189 
20 . . . .123 


. 1 . 


... 52 






3 


. . .110 


Ill 


1 . . . .206 


4 


. . . 181 




2, 3 . 240. 200 


5 


. 142. 162 




6 . . 109.211 



PASSAGES CITED FROM 1 TIM., 2 TIM., TITUS, PHIL. 



PASSAGES CITED FROM HEBREWS, JAMES. 



285 



CHAP. VER. PAUB 

9 . . . .138 

10 . . 143. 249 

11,12. 211.213 

14, 15. .38. 1»2 



1 TIMOTHY. 



4 
5 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
10 

17 
18 
19 



II. 



III. 



IV. 



. . .210 
. . 55. 209 
. . .164 

49. 114. 143 
... 98 

27- 114. 194. 

249 

... 212 

... 211 

114. 137.200 

... 195 

. . .37. 179 

43. 191. 248 

42, 43. 71. 

174. 177. 248 
. .34.191 
... 98 
... 171 



1 . 

2 . 

4 . 

5 . 
C . 
7 . 
u . 

9 . 

11 . 

12 . 

14 . 

15 . 

1 . 

2 . 

4 . 

5 . 

7 . 
9 . 

10 . 

11 . 

13 . 

14 . 
IG 



... 172 
172.211.213 
54. 132. 187 

... 27 

77. 171. 109 

. 159. 204 
. . 32. 187 
. 141. 169 
... 43 
. . . 257 
... 166 
51. 1C6. 190 

. . 09. 76 
27. 34. 144 
. 157. 169 
... 85 
. . .132 

108. 219. 220 
. . .114 
. . . 203 
. . 37.97 
... 68 

79. 162. 205. 
219 



I . 

3 . 

4. 8 

. 
10 . 
15 . 



30, 



67.216 



77. 



V. 4 



:57 

114 
98 
133 
157 



249 



CHAP. VEB. 

5 . . 

8 . . 

9 . . 
II .101. 
22 . . 
24 . . 
26 . . 



PAGE 

. . 177 
. . 90 
. . 69 
198. 249 
. . 235 
. . 161 
. 61. 120 



VI. 



1 . 

2 . 

3 . 

4 . 
5 
8 
9 

II 
12 

15 

17 
19 



. . 182. 43 
. 195. 249 
... 109 
114. 171. 182 
31. 67. 249 
. .84.134 
. .65. 198 
205. 207. 228 
65. 93. 107. 

195 
. .69.211 
38. 72. 163. 

177 
. 163. 195 



2 TIMOTHY. 



I. 1 , 
3 . 

8 . 

9 . 

10 . 
12 

13 . 

15 . 

17 . 

18 . 

II. 2 

4 
6 
6 

8 , 

9 . 

11 . 

12 . 

14 . 

16 . 

18 . 

19 , 

21 , 

22 , 

23 , 
24 
25 
20 

III. 1 
3 

4 
6 



37. 



68. 



70, 



54 



. 169 

. 152 

68.73 

. 216 

. 40 

86. 162 

15. 234 

. 96 

199. 204 

68. 109 

65. 167 

99 

135. 249 

70. 261 
. 80 
. 119 

94. 104 

104. 228 

. 175 

96. 230 
. 171 

70. 209 
. 249 
. 205 
. 252 
. 207 

41.207 
. 47 

. 216 

. 203 

. 68 

222. 249 



AP. VER. 


PAGE 


9. 13 . . . 230 


12 . . . .134 


15 . 37. 83. 204. 


223 


16 . . 169. 205 


17 . . . .225 


IV. 1 ... . 267 


2 . . 


. 43 


4 . . 


. 34 


5 . . 


. 46 


6 . 42. 


46. 128 


8 . . 


86. 153 


10 . . 


. . 114 


14 . . 


. . 99 


15 . . 


. . 98 


16 . . 


. 23. 103 


17 . . 


. . 229 


18 . . 


. 34. 164 



TITUS. 



1. 1 


. 136. 109 


5 


. . 96. 98 


7 


. . . 197 


9 


... 32 


10 


. 133. 194 


11 


... 141 


13 


... 159 


II. 2 


. . . 7« 


3 


. 119.203 


4 


. . . 129 


7 


... 97 


8 


... 155 


10 


... 38 


12 


205. 224. 233 


13 


. . 36. 255 


14 


. . .72. 189 


16 


... 43 


II. 1 


. 206. 228 


2 


119.207.228 


3 


... 196 


4 


... 187 


5 


. . 8. 157 


10 


... 60 


14 


. . .100 


PHILEMON. 


3 


... 184 


6 


. . . 169 


13 


.128. 171. 198 


16 


. . .172 


20 


. . .69. 103 


22 


. ... 121 



CHAP. VER. PAGE 

HEBREWS. 


CHAP. VER. 

VII. 7 . 

9 . 
11 . 


PAGE 

. . 187 
. . 147 
106. 193 


CHAP. VER. 

8 . . • 

10 . . . 

u . . . 


PAGE 
. 121 
. 19 
86.70 
. 107 
. 161 
. 135 
. 75 
. 198 


I. 1,2,3 .173.249 

2 . . .42. 191 

3 . . . 72. 98 

4 . . . .199 
7 . . . .184 


13 . 

14 . 
16 . 
18 . 
22 . 


. . 70 
. . .151 
. .59.125 
. . . 67 
. . 207 


14 . . . 
10 . . . 
17 . . . 
20 . . - 
25 . . . 


8 .... 73 


24 . 

25 . 


. . . 31 
. . .106 


XIII. 2 . . . 

4 . . - 


. 112 
. 62 


II. 2. 7 . . . 280 




. 


5 .... 44 
13 . . . .140 

15 . . . .215 

16 . . 215. 235 

17 ... . 2.56 
21 .... 34 
23 .... 58 
25 . . . .178 


6 49 

8 . . . .224 

9 . 86. 167. 224 
10 . 1C6. 217- 2.'^.0 


VIII. 2 . 
4 . 
6 . 
fi . 


. . .221 
. . .^106 
. . 62. 234 
. . .207 


14 . 90. 212. 223. 

232 

15 . . . .165 

16 . 124. 195. 250 


9,10 
13 . 

IX. 1 . 


. . .137 
. . .185 

. 205. 221 


17 .... 64 


3 . 


13. 69. 179 






C . 


. . .221 






III. 1 . 70. 188. 207 
3 .... 59 


7 . 
9 . 


... 33 

. 214.217 


JAMES. 




8 . . . .169 


10 . 


. . .206 






11 . . . .125 


12 . 


. . .166 


I. 4 . . 


. . 225 
. . 68 


12 . . . .141 


13 . 


. .37.184 


' 5 . . 


13. 16. . . 250 


16 . 


. . .174 


9, 10. 


. . 259 




17 . 


. 126. 176 


11 . . 


. . 160 


IV. 1 ... . 102 
2 . . .73. 135 


21 . 

22 . 


... 71 
23. 167. 260 


12 . . 

13 . 21 


. . 228 

71. 152 

. . 81 

. . 151 

. . 74 


3 . . . .108 

6 . . . .126 

7 . . . .156 

8 . . . .106 

9 . . . .121 


26 . 
X. 2 . 


88. 174. 216 
... 120 


15 . . 
10 . . 
17 . . 


3 . 


... 119 


18 . . 

19 . . 


. . 49 


10 . 


. . .157 


. . 214 


11 . . 144. 158 


12 . 


. . .215 


21 . . 


. . 226 


12 .... 67 


25 . 


. . ■ . 224 


22 . . 


. . 199 


15 .... 86 


27 . 


... 12 


24 . . 


. . 91 


16 . . . .220 


29 . 


... 74 


25 . . 


.72. 216 




37 . 


... 33 


20 . . 


. . 228 


V. 1 . . . .214 


39 . 


... 70 


27 . . 


. . 109 


2 .... 63 










3 . . . .172 


XI. 1 . 


. . .250 


II. 1 . . 


. . 74 


4 . . . . l."»5 


3 . 


. 103. 191 


3 . . 


. . 182 


7 . 152, 163. 165 


5 . 


. 109. 2.'i0 


4 . . 


. 73. 250 


8 . 114.135.260 


6 . 


94. 199. 260 


5 . . 


. 34. 54 


9 . . . .217 


12 . 


. . 48. 265 


6 . . 


. 35. 250 


12 . 116. 168. 191 


13 . 


... 83 


7 . . 


. . 68 


13 .... 62 


16 . 


... 75 


13 . . 


. . 119 




17 . 


... 85 


16 . . 


. . 162 


VI. 1 ... . 170 
4 .... 90 


19 


. . .206 


18 . . 


. . 119 


23 


... 91 


20 . . 


. . 250 


6 .... 90 


26 


... 72 


2-2 . . 


.r9. 217 


7 .... 78 


28 


... 75 


25 . . 


. . 33 


« . . . . 185 


29 


. . .115 






9 . . . 70. 75 


31 


... 27 


III. 6 . . 


. . 250 


11 . . . .184 


34 


. ... 153 


7 . . 


. 43. 79 


12 . . . .199 






9 . . 


. . 157 


14 . . . .127 


XII. 1 


. . I4C. 166 


11 . . 


. . 39 


17 . '. . 62. 57 


2 


. ... 151 


17 . . 


. . 208 


19 . . . .217 





. ... 224 


18 . . 


. 5G. 79 



280 



PASSAGES CITED FROM 1 PETEH TO llEVELATION. 



CHAP. VER. 

IV. 4 . 
7 . 
)l . 

12 . 
14 . 

V. 1 . 

3 . 

4 . 
10 . 

13 . 
Ifi . 



FAOK 

198. 250 
. . 1(17 

. . in« 

192. 250 
. . 123 

13G. 218 
. . 210 
. . 251 
. 5G. (i4 
. . 4« 

193. 251 



1 PETER. 



II. 



III. 



IV. 



2 - 


. .19.103 


4 . 


. \m. 212 


5 .158. 1C2. 251 


n . 


. . .251 


13 . 


.91. 17fi 


14 . 


. . 73 


15 . 


. 43. 188 


19 . 


. . 232 


21 . 


. . U8 


22 


. . 188 


2 


. . 223 


3 . 


.91.135 


4 . 


. . 180 


5 . 


. 0. 214 


a . 


.99. 174 


i) . 


. . 189 


10 . 


. 87. 139 


11 . 


55 


13 . 


. . !)9 


15 . 


. . 215 


19 . 


. . 217 


23, 24 


89 


1 . 


. . lie 


4 . 


. . 213 


5 


. 177 


9 . . 


. . 198 


10 


. . 185 


14 . . 


45. 53. 84, 


(i5. 105. 202 


Ki. 21 . 


217. 224 


Ul . . 


. . 172 


20 . 


.37. Ifi5 


22 . 


. . 20C 


1,2 . 


. C5. 87 


4 


. . 190 


n . . 


. . 150 


11 . 


. 27. 84 


13 . 


. . 235 


V, . 


. 23. 2:u 


17 


. . . 21-5 



CHAP. VER. 
V. I . 



II. 



III. 



II. 



3 . 

9 . 

10 . 

11 . 

12 . 
14 . 



PAGE 
. 5fi 
. 91 

. 234 
. 44 
74.218 
27. 34 
. 90 
. 73 



2 PETER. 



3 

5 
8 
8 
10 
12 
17 
21 



U7. 185. 185 
48. 232 
. 208 
. 251 
. 114 
. 135 
. 181 
. 79 



1 . 
3 . 
5 . 
9 . 

10 . 

11 . 
13, 13 
14 . 
21 . 
22 



3 . 

5 . 

10. 12 
11 . 
14 . 

u; . 

18 . 



JUDE. 



73. 251 
. 82 

81. 247 
• 27 
. 197 
138. 180 
. 251 
32. 73 

89. 109 

. lie 



G 
19 



24 . 

25 . 



. 21G 

. 2.-' I 

. 191 

. 251 

7». 232 

. 184 

. 34 



203 
71 



200 
31 



1 JOHN. 

1 . . . 

2 . . . 

3 . . . 
9 . . . 



. 91 

. 185 
. 235 
. 128 



2 .170. 188.215 

9 . . . .131 

l!l .108. 120. 1.=^ 

22 . iSfX. 2iJ 



CHAP 


VER. 


PAGE 


III. 


3 . . 


. . 188 




4 . 31. 


194. 251 




9 . . 


. . 87 




10 . . 


. . |l>8 




12 . . 


. . 154 




14 . . 


.4G. 212 




15 . . 


212. 234 




17 . . 


. . 212 




18 . . 


■ . 77 




21 . . 


. . 220 


IV. 


2 . . 


. . 86 




8 . . 


. . SI 




9. 10. 14 . 91. 






188. 215 




15 . . 


. 31. 41 




IG . . 


. . 201 




17 .148. 


178.220 




18 . . 


. . 251 


V. 


5 . . 


. . 41 




G . . 


. . 120 




18.17. 


. 8. 138. 




184. 


190. 194 




18,19. 


. . 251 




2 JOHN 






2 . . 


. . 178 




6,7 . 


. . 48 



REVELATION. 



I. G . 

7 . 

12 . 



II. 



1 . 
3 . 

7 . 
21,22 
2C . 



III. 


9 . 
15 . 

18 . 

20 . 


IV. 


7 . 
11 . 


V. 


7 . 

9 . 
12 . 
13 


VI. 


1 . 
15 . 



34 
220 

255 

47 
2?8 

12 
222 
173 

209 
88 
C4 

105 

30 
187 

92 
23G 
200 

34 

GO 
. I6i 



PASSAGES CITED VKOM KEVEIATION. 



CHAP. VER. 

VII. 2 . 

13 . 



PAGE 
. 55 

. 34 



VIII. 9 . ■ 212. 23C 

IX. 20, 21 . 03. 222" 

X. 7 . . .91.219 



CHAP. VER. 
13 . 
18 . 
20 . 



XV. 



XI. 7 ■ 
9 . 

Xll. G . 

9 , 

11 . 

14 

XIII. 3 

XIV. 3 
8 



. 12 
62. 83 

. 68 

42. 203 

139. 230 

5G 

. 72 

. 230 
. 91 



1 . 

2 . 

3 . 

4 . 



XVI. 



3 . 

9 . 
II . 
15 . 
19 . 



XVII. 1 



5.7 
9 . 

10 . 

12 . 



PAGE 

07. 178 
. 77 
. 09 

91 
. 154 
. 238 
. 210 



238 
108 
222 
102 
, 214 

. 210 
. 220 
. 259 

. 42 
. 34 



XVIII. 13 . 



230 



THE END. 



■% 



287 



;hap. vkr. 


PAGE 


14 . . 


. . 71 


23 . . 


. . 221 


XIX. 5 . . 


. . 214 


10 . . 


. . 25ft 


12 . . 


. . 233 


13 . . 


. . 31 


14 . . 


. . 53 


IC . . 


. . 09 


XXI. 3 . . 


. . i7n 


4 . . 


. 212 


8 . . 


. . 234 


21 . . 


. . 104 


24 . . 


.35. 105 


25 . . 


. . 123 


XXII. 2 . . 


. . 12 


3 . . 


. . GO 


8 . . 


. . lOK 


9 . . 


. . 2.i8 


14 . . 


. . 12 


20 . . 


. . 135 



GIMIKKT AND RIVINGTON, PRINTERS, ST. JOIIN'a BaUAKE, l.ONOON. 





■>y^ H • ."'*'^ "" '•'■4' '• 
if.'; "