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3 1924 092 229 222 


Cornell University 

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Monographs devoted to the Comparative 
Study of the Literary, Linguistic and other 
Cultural Relations of Germany and America. 

Merion Dexter Learned, Editor 

D. APPLCTON & COMPANY, AgenU, New Toffc 



















Copyright, 191 1 
By Amandus Johnson 


THE NEW Era printing compah< 





underdInigst af 



The Last Period of the Colony under Swedish Rule, 



Renewed Efforts in behalf of the Colony and the Tenth and 
Eleventh Expeditions^ 1653-1654. 


XXXIX. The Tenth Expedition, 1653-1654 469 

XL. The Eleventh Expedition, 1654 490 

The Colony under Papegoja and Rising, 1653-1655. 

XLI. The Government and Courts of New Sweden, 1653- 

1655 497 

XLII. Social and Economic Life, 1654-1655 514 

XLIII. Customs, Habits, Dress, Dwellings, Superstitions, Re- 
ligion, etc 534 

XLIV. Literature of New Sweden, 1640-1655 549 

XLV. Relations with the Indians, 1654-1655 563 

XL VI. Relations with the English, 1654-165 5 572 

XL VII. Relations with the Dutch and the Overthrow of New 

Sweden, 1654-1655 581 


viii Table of Contents. 


The American Company and the Tweltth Expedition, 

AND THE Swedish Settlements under Dutch 

Rule, i 654-1 664. 


The American Company, the Last Expedition to New Sweden 

AND the Efforts of Sweden to Regain the Colony, 



XLVIII. The American Company or the Third Reorganization 

of the New Sweden Company, 1654-1655 619 

XLIX. The Twelfth or Last Expedition, 1655-1656 631 

L. The Tobacco Trade of the American Company, 1654- 

1658 637 

LL The American Tobacco Company, 1658-1662 640 

LIL The New Tobacco Company, 1662-1685 and the 

American Company, 1 662-1 736 645 

Lin. Efforts of Sweden to Regain the Colony, 1656-1673. . 648 

PART n. 

Life in the Colony^ 1655-1664. 

LIV. The First Period of the Swedish Settlements under 
Dutch Rule and the Coming of the Mercurius, 1655- 

1656 657 

LV. The Last Period of the Swedish Settlements under the 

Dutch, 1656-1664 663 


Appendix A. Brief Biographies 673 

Appendix B. Lists of Officers, Soldiers, Servants and Set- 
tlers IN New Sweden, 1638-1656: 

L Garrison and Servants, 1638-1640 699 

IL Garrison, Servants and Freemen, 1640-1643 699 

in. Roll-List of the Male Inhabitants, 1 643-1 644 700 

IV. Roll-List of the People, March, 1648 710 

Table of Contents. ix 

V. List of Officers, Soldiers, Servants and Freemen, 1654- 

1655 716 

VI. A List of Some of the Returning Officers and Soldiers . . 724 

Vn. Roll-List of Colonists, 1655 724 

Addenda to Appendix B 726 

Appendix C. Documents and Translations of Documents : 

L Instruction till Johan Rising 727 

Translation of the Instruction for John Rising 741 

II. Bestallningsbref for Sven Skute 733 

Translation of the Commission for Sven Skute 747 

III. Instruction till Hans Amundsson 734 

Translation of the Instruction for Hans Amundsson . . . 747 

IV. Till Leut. Sven Hook 735 

Translation of the Instructions for Sven Hook 748 

V. Instruction till Hendrick Elswick 736 

Translation of the Instruction 749 

VI. Instruction . . . demnach sich der Capitan Johan J. 

Bockhorn . . . zu richten hat 738 

Translation of the Instruction for Jan Jansson Bockhorn 751 
VII. Translation of the Treaty between England and Sweden 
Concerning the Swedish Settlements in Africa and 

America 753 

VIII. Translation of the Indian Confirmation of the Sandhook 755 

IX. Translation of an Indian Deed of Land 756 

X. Translation of the Testimony of the Heirs of Mitat- 

simint 757 

Appendix D. 

I. The Expeditions Prepared for New Sweden, 1638-1656 758 
II. Ships Belonging to the South-Ship Company that did not 

make Journeys to New Sweden 762 

Bibliography 767 

Index 815 


Facing page 

104. Upsala during the seventeenth century 476 

105. First page and superscription of Rising's appointment as di- 

rector by the Commercial College 490 

106. Second page and Postscriptum of Rising's appointment 491 

107. First page of the original official appointment of Director 

Rising 500 

108. Last page of the appointment, signed by Queen Christina. ... 501 

109. Seal of Queen Christina 501 

no. Map and plan of Christinehamn and Fort Christina 518 

111. Plowing and preparing the ground in the north 524 

112. Manure forks of wood 524 

1 13. A typical harvest scene in Finland and Sweden 528 

1 14. A field prepared by burning (Svedjebruk) 528 

115. "Branch harrow" 529 

1 16. " Hand-harrow " 529 

117. Plow made of wood 529 

118. Stones for a hand-mill 529 

119. "Burning" a field 530 

120. Plan of a house 538 

121. Table 538 

122. Bench 538 

123. Exterior of a house in Sweden 539 

124. Interior of the dwelling 539 

125. Logcabin built by Swedes on the Delaware 54-0 

126. Section of a dwelling in Sweden, showing chairs, etc 540 

127. Probable appearance of Rising Hall 54' 

128. Title page of Lindestrom's Geographic 554 

129. Title page of Campanius's translation of the Catechism 560 

130. Indian certificate, July 8, 1654 564 

131. Indian deed, July 8, 1654 565 

132. Governor Peter Stuyvesant 580 


xii List of Illustrations 

Facing page 

133. Plan of Fort Trefaldighet 582 

134. Siege of Christina 602 

135. Cannon balls from Fort Christina 608 

136. Rising's passport for Lindestrom 616 

137. First page of the Swedish-English Treaty, May 8, 1654 620 

138. Second page of the Swedish English treaty, 1654 621 

139. Third page of the Swedish English treaty, 1654 620 

140. Viborg in the seventeenth century 624 

141. Seal and signature of Carl X 626 

142. Anckarhjelm's letter of September 26, 1655 63a 

143. Balance of the books of the American Company (Debits) 642 

144. Balance of the books of the American Company (Credits) . . . 643 

145. Magnus G. de la Gardie 650 

146. Facsimiles of the signatures of Willem Usselinx, Andries 

Hudde, Gustaf Printz, Sven Hook, Christer Bonde, Sven 

Skute, and Hendrick Elswick 674 


Detailed map of New Sweden, 1 638-1 655 496 

Lindestrom's map of New Sweden 514 





The Tenth Expedition, i 653-1 654. 


We have seen that no ship was dispatched to New Sweden 
after 1649, although Printz had written several times, implor- 
ing for aid. The letters to Brahe and Oxenstierna of April 26, 
1653, stating that new supplies were absolutely necessary in the 
colony, arrived at Stockholm in the late summer. These seem 
to have Impressed the authorities with the fact that the settle- 
ment could no longer be neglected and there were at last signs 
of awakened interest In the same and renewed activities In Its 
behalf at the capital. The company was discussed In the Coun- 
cil of State and the Queen once more instructed the Commercial 
College to take over its management. Eric Oxenstierna, who 
in August, 1652, had been made General Director of the col- 
lege, returned to Sweden In the summer of 1653 and new life 
was put into that body.* He was also greatly interested in the 
colonial work and to him was largely due the efforts that were 
soon made to send out a new expedition. 

Further consultations were had in the council about the mat- 
ter in August, at which reports and suggestions were presented, 
and it was at last decided that the various requests of Printz 
for ammunition, supplies for his new ship and other things 
should be granted. The Admiralty, as has been seen, was in 
arrears to the company for several thousand R.D. As a conse- 
quence It had been proposed on several occasions that the gov- 

' Cf. Fries, E. Oxenstierna, p. 124 ff. 


470 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

ernment should prepare the ships for the next expedition. The 
question was brought up again at this time and the Queen 
agreed to the plan, instructing the Admiralty on August 13, to 
fit out the Wismar for a voyage to New Sweden. The Queen 
had determined, says the instruction, to send 300 colonists and 
a large cargo to the South River, in order that the undertaking 
there should not go to ruin. On the same day the war depart- 
ment was ordered to supply ammunition for the colony accord- 
ing to an enclosed list and the preparations for the expedition 
were soon in full progress.^ For some reason " the Crown's 
ship Orn,^ lying at anchor in the harbor of Stockholm, was 
selected to make the voyage instead of the Wismar and Cap- 
tain Bockhorn* was appointed to sail the vessel. As the expedi- 
tion was to consist of two ships, the company arranged to pre- 
pare the Gyllene Haj,^ and on the day before the above instruc- 
tions were issued the Commercial College had ordered Hans 
Kramer to deliver 600 D. to Peter Friedell to be used for the 
supplies of the ship. 

About two weeks later (August 25) Kramer, through orders 
from the college, supplied 2,550 D.s.m. to Admiral Anckar- 
hjelm, who was also to buy provisions and pay the wages of the 
colonists and sailors at Gothenburg before they set sail. On Sep- 
tember 28 an instruction was sent to the admiral concerning the 
journey of the ship to Virginia and, as some changes had been 

''R.R., August 13, 1653, fol. 1572-3. 

^ The Eagle. Probably the head of an eagle was carved as the figure head. 

*Capt. Jan Jansson Bockhorn. Probably a Hollander (his enmity to the 
English would indicate that, besides other circumstances). Entered Swedish 
service before 1643. Was mate on the Katt in 1649 and served in various 
capacities for many years. Made several journeys to Portugal in 1651. Served 
on the " Gotheborgiske confardie " ship for some time until in April, 1652. March 
30 he was ordered to report to Stockholm for service. In the fall of 1653 he was 
ordered to sail to New Sweden on the Orn. In 1656 he left Swedish service to 
try his luck in other places, receiving good recommendations from the government. 
But he again returned to Sweden and during the winters of 1660 and 1662 he 
made journeys to Germany and Holland for private purposes and passes were 
given him by the Admiralty. Am. Reg. 1651 Junio 11 ; 1652, March 30 (index 
gives year wrongly as 1653), fol. 128-9; l(>53, September 28, fol. 512-13; October 
4, fol. 531-3; 7(55(5, September 30, fol. 946-7; 1660, October 31 f. 524; 1662, 
August 16. In R.R. and in Com. Col. Reg. are to be found materials on him 

" The Golden Shark. 

The Tenth Expedition. 471 

suggested in the original lists of food stuffs ordered to be pur- 
chased for the voyage, he was requested to buy various kinds 
of fish and salt meat instead of pork, besides French and Span- 
ish wine, vinegar, oil and mustard seed. On the same day the 
cashier of the Admiralty was ordered to deliver 68 D. s.m. for 
one "Am "* French brandy to be put on the Orn. Kramer also 
purchased quantities of supplies in Stockholm about this time 
and several hundred barrels of bread and flour and a large sup- 
ply of nails and other goods were soon brought on board the 

A great number of colonists were to be collected for the ex- 
pedition. Many had, from time to time, applied for permission 
to go to New Sweden, but the number of settlers, who had 
expressed their willingness to immigrate, was not sufficient. Ac- 
cordingly Sven Skute was appointed to hire soldiers and laborers 
and to prevail upon others to go as settlers. On August 23 
Kramer gave him 300 D.s.m. for which he should engage the 
people, a letter being sent to Governor Per Ribbing on the 
following day, requesting him to assist in the matter, and on the 
twenty-fifth an instruction in six paragraphs was issued for him. 
He should hire 50 soldiers, including those already engaged, 
especially such as had a trade, and he was to collect 250 colonists 
" of which the greatest part [must be] good men, fewer women 
and fewest children." He was to offer the soldiers at the most 
4 R.D. a month (less if possible) and he should especially 
endeavor to find farmhands* and colonists, who were willing 
to go without pay, but such as needed financial aid he was to 
promise a certain sum, always as small as possible and in no 
case more than 30 D.k.m. a year until they could be settled on 
land in New Sweden. First of all he was to gather as many as 
he was able at Vasteras, sending them at once to the capital, 
that they might go to Gothenburg by the Orn. From there he 

°Cf. above, Chap. VI.; Falkraan, Om matt, etc., II. 3, 26, 55-6, 119, 165. 

''Journal, nos. iioi (1653, August 12), 1102, 1104 (August 23), 1106, 1115, 
H19, iiio, in6, 1118-25, H31-34, 1147-8, 1153. Am. Reg., September 2$, 
1653, fol. 512-13 (Fl. Ar.). 

' " Bondedrangiar." 

472 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

was to proceed to Vamiland and Dalsland, as it had been re- 
ported that "a good many of those, who dwelt in the large 
forests " of these provinces, were willing to go to New Sweden 
and the governors there were requested to assist him in enlist- 
ing the people. When the recruits at these places were all 
hired, they should be kept in readiness to proceed to Gothen- 
burg as soon as Skute heard from President Broman^ that the 
Orn had passed through the Sound." 

It is probable that Skute proceeded at once to carry out these 
instructions for it seems he had completed his work at Vasteras 
in the beginning of September, as Johan Rising wrote to him on 
September lo that he should continue his work in Varmland 
and Dalsland, keep the people in readiness until he heard from 
his " Excellency [E. Oxenstierna] and report all matters of im- 
portance to Rising or the Commercial CoUege."^^ 

The people hired in Vasteras gradually made their appear- 
ance at Stockholm, where a number of men had been hired by 
Kramer,^^ among whom was a millwright,^^ engaged at a sal- 
ary of 40 D. a month. Twelve children (boys) from the Bild- 
ing College of the city of Stockholm were also sent to New 
Sweden on these ships." The Orn was now almost ready to 
sail, and in the beginning of October a memorial was given to 
Captain Bockhorn by the Admiralty, instructing him to set out 
at once for Gothenburg and requesting him to follow the orders 
he was to receive from the Commercial College In all matters 
pertaining to the journey.*^ 

The ship left Stockholm on October 8, touching at Helsingor, 
Copenhagen and other ports, and arrived at Gothenburg on 
November 8." The soldiers and colonists were now rushed to 

"President in Gothenburg. 

"Instruction for S. Skute, August 25, 1653; letter to Per Ribbing, August 
24, 1653, Com. Col. Reg.; Journal, no. 1104 ff. 

"Letter to S. Skute, September 10, 1653, Com. Col. Reg. (R.A.). 

"Kramer paid a month's wages to sixteen of these. 

" " Sagmiihlenraeister." 

" Expenses of 60 D. in connection with them are noted. 

^^ Journal, nos. 1130, 1153 ff. ; "Memorial," etc.. Am. Reg., October 4 ific'j 
fol. 531-3 (Fl. Ar.). ' 

"Lindestrom to Pres. in the Com. Col., July 9, 1654, N.S., I. (R.A.). 

The Tenth Expedition. 473 

the city, to be in readiness for embarking, and preparations 
were made to bring the cargo on board. Twelve barrels of 
butter, twenty barrels of bread, one hundred and thirty-six 
barrels of beer and several hogsheads of wine and other food 
stuffs, obtained for the journey, as well as shoes, clothes, imple- 
ments, sails and supplies for the new ship and a great variety 
of other goods,^^ which had been bought by Anckarhjelm 
through orders from the Commercial College, were gradually 
loaded upon the vessel. Anckarhjelm showed great diligence 
in these preparations. He bought most of the goods with his 
own money and supplied large sums to the sailors. Upon the 
arrival of the ship he caused new barrels to be made for the 
packing of the provisions and cabins to be built for the people. 
Disputes arose between the officers, threatening to retard the 
work, but the admiral was instructed to preserve discipline and 
his interference seems to have restored order. ^* 

In the meantime the Gyllene Haj was detained at Stockholm 
as she was not in a sea-faring condition. In September she was 
repaired at the cost of 66:i9>^ D. and in October, when the 
Orn was on her way to Gothenburg, she was still lying in the 
harbor undergoing repairs. The ship was partly rebuilt under 

" The following were some of the articles loaded upon the ship : 

I large iron chain 6 fathoms (famnar) long D. i8 

3 large saw-blades D. 24 

1 large iron hammer or sledge D. 3 :i6 

100 Phluggyxor (plow shares?) D. 75 

5,000 small nails D. 4S 

2 broad-axes D- 6 

1 cross-cut saw (stocksSg) D- 7 

2 drawing knives D. a 

I small saw J^. i:8 

I line of 20 fathom's length (weighing 3V2 lispounds) D. 15:24 

I saw-crank(?) (sigvef), weighing 12^ lispounds 0.24:18 

I adze(?) (skarfyxa) D- 3 

I glugg-yxa(?), axe D- 2 

I hammer ^- 2 

I still (bannvinspanna) D. 46 

I salmon-net I^-45 

Journal, nos. 1131, 1172, etc. 

"The Com. Col. to Anckarhjelm, December 13, 1653, Com. Col. Reg. (R.A.) ; 

" Forslag," etc., February i, 1654, N.S., I. (R.A.) ; Journal, no. 1115 if. 

474 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

the supervision of Lieut. Anders Jansson from Torp and new 
tackle and rigging were supplied. She was put into fairly good 
condition by the middle of November and on the nineteenth six- 
teen barrels of beer, two barrels of salt meat, the same amount 
of "strommlng,"^^ twenty barrels of hard bread, "six barrels 
of fine hard bread for the officers " and other provisions, which 
had been purchased by Hans Kramer, were taken on board.^" 

The long delay was due to the repairs that had been made 
and to various causes, but It is likely that Amundsson was 
greatly to blame. He had been appointed captain of the ship 
in August,^^ but he was now old and unfit for such service. On 
October 6 the Admiralty issued a memorial to him. He should 
sail to New Sweden by way of Porto Rico, where he was to de- 
mand damages for the Katt according to the revised bill of the 
losses and the orders which were to be given him by the Com- 
mercial College. On December 13 an instruction In eleven 
paragraphs was drawn up for him, relating to his duties on the 
journey, his commission In Porto Rico and his office In New 
Sweden, and a letter of appointment with special reference to 
his labors In the colony was signed the same day. Both docu- 
ments were issued by the Commercial College and they were 
probably sent with Rising to Gothenburg on December 19.^^ 

About the beginning of December, as the Instructions and let- 
ters were ready, Gustaf Printz arrived in the capital after a 
long voyage. The ship Marie, on which he had left Amer- 
ica, touched at Portsmouth in September and reported that it 
came from New Sweden under the command of Printz. It was 
put under arrest by order of the Commissioners of Customs in 
London and, although demands were made for Its release, It 
was not freed for some time. 2=* But Printz succeeded In reach- 
ing Stockholm, where he appeared before the Commercial Col- 

" " Small herring." 

''Journal, nos. mo, 1115, 1137-39, "4i-3, "46-52, 1156-63. 

""Pass for Capt. H. Amundsson, November, 1653, copy in N.S., I. (R.A.). 

^ Com. Col. Reg. (R.A.) ; Rising's Journal. 

^ " Au mois de Sept. le vaisseau La Marie venant de la Nouvelle Suede, com- 
mande par le Sr. Gustaf Prins fut arrete a Portsmouth," etc., State Pap., For., 
Trade and Adm. Pap., 1650-5 (Pub. Rec. Office). 

The Tenth Expedition. 475 

lege and reported the condition of the colony. This gave fur- 
ther impetus to the preparations and a letter was written to 
Governor Printz requesting him to remain in the country, as 
assistance would immediately be sent and he would be rewarded 
for his service.^* 

While the preparations for provisioning the ships and gather- 
ing colonists were going on, steps were also taken for the reor- 
ganization of the company and for the further development of 
New Sweden. Printz had at various times earnestly requested 
to be released from his services as he found his duties too 
arduous and the means at his disposal too small. He had on 
each occasion been commanded to remain. Now his request 
was partly to be granted, but not in the form of a recall — a 
commissary was to be sent out, who should aid him in his work. 
Johan Rising, the secretary in the Commercial College, was ap- 
pointed to this position. Rising, being greatly interested in 
economic and judicial questions, had studied abroad for some 
time and paid much attention to the colonial policy and com- 
mercial activity of Holland. He had visited England and be- 
come acquainted with English economic theories and colonial 
views and, as he had given much time to the study of com- 
merce, trade and agriculture, he was engaged to write a treatise 
on these subjects. He was of a practical bent of mind and a 
patriot, whose thoughts were ever occupied with problems that 
concerned the welfare of Swedish shipping, Swedish trade and 
Swedish colonies and he was therefore particularly well 
equipped and apparently most suitable for the position of coun- 
cillor and assistant to Governor Printz. He was recommended 
to the position by Eric Oxenstlerna and the chancellor and ad- 
vised by them to accept the office.*^ The offer seems to have 
been agreeable to him and he willingly accepted It. He has 
given us his own reasons for doing so. In the first place he 
considered the colony a splendid sphere for the exercise of his 

"^Com. Col. Reg., December 15, 1653 (R.A.). 

*See "Relation," etc., N.S., I. (R.A.). The source for Dr. Fries's statement 
that Rising requested to be allowed to go ("begarde att sjalf ik medfolja 
fartyget 6rn") is not very trustworthy. Hist. Tid., 1896, p. 38. 

476 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

powers and secondly he hoped to be able to serve his country to 
the best advantage. Rising left his services in the Commercial 
College towards the end of October,''* and December 9 the 
government issued a commission formally appointing him to his 
position as well as defining his duties.^^ 

On December 12a number of documents concerning Rising's 
commission were issued by the government (a Certificate of 
Appointment, a Memorial,^* etc.) and an order was sent to 
the " Kammar KoUegium," assigning 1,500 D. for his travel- 
ling expenses.^® A few days later the treasurer was ordered to 
pay this money to Rising, including 536 D. which remained 
on his salary in the Commercial College for 1653. He was also 
knighted and a large donation of land was given to him. 
About the middle of December^** a long instruction was pre- 
pared by the Commercial College and on the same date a 
" memorial " concerning his journey to Gothenburg and the voy- 
age across the ocean was signed by the officers of the college. 
He was to proceed to Gothenburg without delay. On his 
arrival there he was to inform the magistrates of the new regu- 
lations that had been issued concerning New Sweden and he 
was to prevail upon private parties to send goods on the ship 
at their own risk for tradie in the colony. He was to have 
free passage to New Sweden and he could bring over from ten 
to twelve colonists without expense except that he must pay for 
their provisions. He was to have supervision over the ships 
during the voyage and he was to see that Divine services were 

"The last signature by Rising as secretary of the college is found on page 
m, of the Reg., for October 29, 1653. Com. Col. Reg., 1651-1655. 

"Queen's letter, December 9, 1653, N.S., I. (R.A.), Biogr. He was sent 
to help the Governor strengthen the company, increase the trade and to work for 
the general welfare of the colony. 

"The Memorial is also addressed to Johan Printz. "Memorial oppa de 
Arender, som Kongl. Maijt. hafwer funnit nodigt deels Gouverneuren i Nya 
Swerige, Johan Printz, deels Cora, widh General Com. Col. och Asist. RSdhet 
uthj farbe: de Landskap, J. Rising, till rattelse att opsattia och forteckna latha." 
Copy in N.S., L (R.A.). 

"Kong. Majt:s till Kam. Kol., December 12, 1653 (K.A., orig.), R.R., Dec. 
12 ff., 1653; Kam. Kol. Reg., December 17, 1653 (K.A.). 

"""Two dates are given, December 15 and 18, see " Instr.," Com. Col. Reg. 
and Biogr., R. (R.A.). 

z ^ 

The Tenth Expedition. 477 

held, that the captains followed their instructions and that the 
cargoes were well preserved. He should take the shortest 
route to New Sweden and not go by way of the Canaries, unless 
it were absolutely necessary.*" 

Several other officers were engaged to go to New Sweden at 
this time. Among these were Peter Martensson Lindestrom*' 
and Elias Gyllengren, who returned to the colony in the 
capacity of a lieutenant. Lindestrom was appointed engineer. 
On October 31 the Commercial College issued a recommenda- 
tion for him, which states that " since the bearer, noble and well 
born. Per Martensson Lindestroip, has humbly applied for a 
recommendation, having with the consent of his parents, de- 
termined to go to New Sweden for further experience . . ." 
the college recommends him to the favor of the governor. In 
his youth Lindestrom attended the University of Upsala for a 
time and was then employed as secretary in the College of 
Mines for two years. Returning to the university he special- 
ized in mathematics and the art of fortification until he "was 
ordered to go to New Sweden."*^ 

Sven Skute returned to the colony on the Orn. He was ap- 
pointed "Captain of the landspeople" and on December 13 
a letter was issued for him to that effect. On the same day an 
instruction was drawn up, according to which he was to super- 
vise the embarking of the people and the loading of the goods. 
He was to look after the cargo and have charge of the pro- 
visions for the colonists and soldiers ; he was to keep a diary of 
the journey and leave a signed copy of it with the governor in 
the colony and send another to Sweden ; he was also to make an 
inventory of the goods, provisions and the mail matter, leaving 
one of the two copies with Admiral Anckarhjelm, signed by 
himself and Captain Bockhorn. Since there was only one kit- 
chen on the ship, making it difficult to keep the food for the 
passengers and the sailors separate,^* Skute and Bockhorn 

""Memorial," etc., Com. Col. Reg., December i8, 1653. 

"Lindestrom left Stockholm on the Orn. 

"Letter of Lindestrom, Biogr. (R.A.) ; Lindestrom, Geogr. 

" The company fed the soldiers and colonists and the admiralty fed the sailors. 

478 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

were to keep accurate accounts of all the food-stuffs used on the 
journey, so that the supplies could be controlled and the 
steward was to have charge of the supplies for each group.^* 
Skute's duty should also be to see that prayers were said morn- 
ing and evening, he should keep peace among the people, punish 
disturbers and be on good terms with the other captains. ^^ 

Rising, having made all necessary arrangements for his long 
voyage, left Upsala December 19 on his way to Gothenburg, 
where he arrived on the twenty-seventh.*® He immediately set 
about to carry out his instructions, visited the presidents of 
the city*^ and tried to persuade some of the citizens to send 
goods to the South River. They desired to see the permit from 
the government, however, before they would risk it and besides 
there was no room in the ship on account of the great number 
of passengers.^* A certain merchant, Jon Amundsson, ex- 
pressed a desire to go to New Sweden, but he left Gothenburg 
before the ship sailed and did not return. Laurence de Geer, 
who was also interested in the new liberties granted to private 
merchants, visited Rising in company with Admiral Anckar- 
hjelm, acquainted himself with the conditions of the privileges 
" and showed an inclination to carry on trade " on the Dela- 
ware, requesting Rising to correspond with him.*^ 

On account of the long delay of the expedition and on account 
of other circumstances, gathered from the governor's letters 
and the oral reports of Gustaf Printz, it appears that Eric 
Oxenstierna and the other managers of the preparations were 
not so sure that everything would be as expected, when Rising 

"Revs. Peter Hjort and Matthias Nertunius were also among the passengers on 
the Orn. Nertunius was given 15 D. by Anckarhjelra before the ship sailed. 

"Inst, for Skute, December 12, 1653; Instr. for S. Skute at Goteborg, August 
25, Com. Col. Reg. (R.A.) . 

"Rising to E. Oxenstierna, December 30, 1653; Journal (Up. B.). 

" Gothenburg was ruled by two presidents, see Goteborgs Hist. President 
Broman was ill at the time. 

^ Rising wrote to Eric Oxenstierna, requesting him to send a copy of the new 
privileges to Gothenburg so that he could exhibit it to interested parties. Rising 
to E. Oxenstierna, December 30, 1653. Ox. Saml. (R.A.). 

*° Rising to E. Oxenstierna, December 30, 1653, January 21, 1654. Ox. 
Saml. (R.A.). 

The Tenth Expedition. 479 

arrived on the South River. Hence provisions were made for 
every extremity. " In case," says the memorial given to Ris- 
ing, "contrary to expectations, Printz should have left the 
country, or [it should be found] that our forts on the river are 
captured by some one, then he [Rising] shall demand their re- 
turn in the name of Her Royal Majesty and seek to get them 
into his possession in all possible manners, otherwise settle and 
fortify some other place in the river. If this could not be 
effected he should consult with the captains about what was 
best to do . . . and then, either settle the colonists in some 
other place in America or return again [to Sweden]." Before 
sailing Rising was informed of Printz's arrival In Europe*" 
and, fearing that the settlement was captured, he looked about 
for other places suitable for the founding of a colony. "With 
Anckarhjelm," he says, " I have discussed the possibilities of 
securing a foot-hold In Florida. He stated that he well knows 
that there are large districts there, which are not occupied, but 
because the Spaniards are appropriating everything to them- 
selves [In this region] and on account of the ferocity of the 
savages, he [thought] that no one could plant [successful] 
colonies there, unless frequent reinforcements should be sent. 
[He] therefore considered it wisest ... to settle somewhere 
on the South River [In case it should be necessary to select new 
territory]." If Anckarhjelm had advised Rising to settle his 
people In Florida, It Is possible that history would have told of 
a second New Sweden on this continent.*^ 

Shortly after Rising's arrival at Gothenburg the Orn was 
ready to depart. On January 2 the colonists and soldiers were 
reviewed at Stegeberg(?) outside of Gothenburg and money 
was given them by Admiral Anckarhjelm. Their passes were 
examined and " persons of evil repute were mustered out and 

"Rising was informed of the fact on January 3 and he reported it to E. 
Oxenstierna two days later. Rising to Oxenstierna, January 5, 1654. Ox. Saml. 

"Memorial, etc., for Rising, Com. Col. Reg., December 18, 1653, §9; Rising 
to E. Oxenstierna, January 5, 1654, also Rising to E. Oxenstierna, no place, no 
date, but written from Gothenburg after January 20 and before January 27, 1654, 
Ox. Saml. 

48o The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

regulated." It is also stated that about a hundred families had 
to be left behind on account of lack of room in the vessel.'*^ 

Everything was in readiness on the fifth of January, but the 
Gyllene Haj had not made her appearance and, as so much of 
the provisions had now been used up that the remainder was not 
sufficient for the journey, it was found necessary to wait for the 
arrival of the new supplies on the ship.** The Haj, having 
finally been made ready, left Stockholm on November 23 with 
forty-one persons (including the sailors) and a good supply of 
provisions.** Contrary winds seem to have delayed the sailing, 

"Rising to E. Oxenstierna, December 30, 1653, January 5, 1654; Anckarhjelm 
to Kramer, February i, 1654, N.S., I. (R.A.). 

"As the Haj was delayed Rising informed Oxenstierna about it and inquired 
if they should wait. Orders were then received not to wait for the ship, and to 
set sail as soon as the wind was favorable, but Rising consulted with Anckar- 
hjelm and it was decided to wait for the vessel. 
"In N.S. I. (R.A.) is the following list: 

" A.D. 1653. A list of the people [who sailed] on the Gyllene Haj the twenty- 
third of November from Stockholm to Gothenburg, as follows: — 

Captain Hanss Amundsson with persons H 

Lieutenant Swen Hoiick 

Hanss Steghson in Dallaron, the son-in-law of the book keeper Hans 

Kramer, December 17 

The mate, Jonss Oloffsson 

Common Sailors. 

Bengt Ericksson 

Johan Oloffsson 

Dawid Michellsson 

Erich Joransson 

Hindrick Matzson 

The cook, Jonss Olofsson 

The cook's boy, Jacob Johansson 

Total iJ 

The Land People. 

The constaples (gunners) with their wives, maidservants and children 
are both families together, persons 7 

The Soldiers 

Johan Pedhersson Wulff i 

Nilss Nilsson Phogegus( ?) i 

Gustaf Johansson KrSckfoot i 

Secretary Carl Juliuss i 

The 30th of December, 1653, these have deserted in the Sound: 

Tommes Mein j 

Jonass Ericksson j 

The Tenth Expedition. 481 

for on December 17 the ship had only come as far as Dalaron.*" 
On the thirtieth she was in the sound, where six sailors with a 
servant and a prisoner deserted.*® Four new sailors having 
been hired, the vessel again set sail about January 3, but she 
failed to arrive at Gothenburg in a reasonable time, the wind 
being so contrary, and on January 1 1 Rising sent a messenger 
along the shore to look for her. She arrived at last on January 
17, but " leaky and in bad condition." Through the negligence 
of the sailors she had run on banks in the sound and her mast 
and anchor were broken.*^ 

According to the original plans the two ships were to leave 
Gothenburg simultaneously, keeping the same course for about 
half the journey, whereupon the Haj should go by a direct 
route to Porto Rico, but on account of the long delay of the 
expedition new orders were given, whereby Rising was in- 
structed to proceed at once to New Sweden, while the Haj was 

Larss Erichsson i 

Jonass Erichsson i 

Michell Olofsson von Saar i 

Torsten Torwigh with his servant 2 

Hans Miodh, a prisoner i 

The above mentioned seven people disappeared as stated above in 

Ohresundh, the 30th December. 

Total number of people from Stockholm to Gothenburg 40 

[The prisoner Hans Miodh was not counted.] 
The following have arrived in the Sound: 

The mate Andreas Matthaeus i 

Second mate Effwert Johansson i 

Sailor Jonss Nilsson i 

The cook Persson ' " 

With Elswick's letter to E. Oxenstierna of March 22, 1654, is another 
"Forteckning pa skepsfolket pa sk. G. Haij, som skola wara foljactige till West 
Indien." According to this list Bengt Olsson from Soderkoping was second mate 
across the ocean, Andreas Swensson from Sundbeck, Jacob Johansson from 
Helsingfors and Olof Torkilsson were common sailors besides those given above, 
Berndt Jastsson from Bergen accompanied the ship as sailmaker, Sigfrid Olsson 
was cook and Sven Larsson was " cajut pojke." " Forteck.," March 22, 1654, 
N.S., I. (R.A.). 

" A place near Stockholm. 
"They had been paid part of their wages. 

""Forteckning," etc., 1653, N.S., I. (R.A.), Rising to E. Oxenstierna, January 
II, January 20, January 26, Ox. Saml; Anckarhjelm to Kramer, January 20, 
1654, N.S., I. (R.A.). Rising's Journal (Up. B.). "I onssdagz middagh kom 
Galioten Gillenhay hijt. ..." Rising to E. Oxenstierna, January 20, 1654. 


482 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

to follow as soon as the additional provisions and arrangements 
necessary for the Porto Rico voyage had been supplied and 

Immediately upon the arrival of the Haj, the provisions and 
supplies, which it carried, were transferred to the Orn and in a 
few days the colonists went on board, everything being in readi- 
ness for sailing. Anckarhjelm supplied more money with which 
to pay part of the salaries and wages of some officers and 
sailors so that they could go on the expedition, and nothing was 
now wanting but a good wind.*^ 

The wind, however, was contrary for some days, causing 
further delay and expense. The colonists had now been at 
Gothenburg ii weeks, waiting for the departure of the ship, 
during which time they had consumed provisions to the value 
of 1,461 :4 D. They seem to have been fed at some central 
place from the supply procured by Anckarhjelm, but lodged 
with various people in the city. Nils "Tjarubrannare"*® was 
paid 1:16 D. for lodging eight persons, thirty-eight men 
were kept by H. Anerberg for 12:24 D. and twenty persons 
stayed at Stegeberg with Hans Jung, who was paid 27 : 24 D. 
including the charges connected with the review of the people.^" 

A great many colonists went over with the expedition, but 
we are unable to state the exact number nor their names for the 
roll-list has been lost.^^ On the thirtieth of December Rising 
wrote that "the people were about 260 without the sailors"; 
additional arrivals swelled the number to 350 or more^^ 

"Rising to E. Oxenstierna, December 30, 1653, January 5, 1654, January 11, 
1654, January 20, 1654; Anckarhjelm to H. Kramer, January 20, 1654; Linde- 
strom, Geogr.; Holm (transl.), p. 74. 

*°"The tar-burner." 

" " Forslagh," etc., Feb. i, 1654, N.S., L (R.A.) ; Journal, no. 1153 (November 
17. 1653)- 

^ It was sent to Hans Kramer by Admiral Anckarhjelm. 

'"'While waiting for a favorable wind Rising found "a young man, Hans, 
Walter [probably a German or a Hollander], ... for bookkeeper . . . and 
promised him 20 R.D. a month." He also hired a person "who could keep a 
ca^h book, and who well understood brewing, baking and fishing," offering him 
100 R.D. a year besides board. Rising to the Com. Col., January 26; to E.. 
Oxenstierna, January 27, Feb. i, 1654. 


7 ' 

Letter from Hans Kramer to Eric Oxenstierna, February 10, 1654. 

The Tenth Expedition. 483 


As the wind was turning on January 26, Rising made up his 
mind to sail the following day and in the morning of the 
twenty-seventh the colonists and soldiers swore their oath of 
loyalty to the Swedish Crown and the New Sweden Company 
" under a banner made for this purpose," but the wind soon 
changed again, delaying the vessel another week.®^ On Feb- 
ruary 2 the ship at last set sail, but the harbor was partly 
frozen, making it difficult to gain the open sea.^* When the 
vessel reached Skagen^^ after two days' sailing a strong wind 
drove her back again towards Jutland, where she became leaky, 
having a large hole in the bow, which greatly alarmed the 
passengers. " The leak was mended as well as possible " (caus- 
ing much trouble on the way, however) , and on the sixth they 
again had a favorable wind. Their intention was to sail north 
of Scotland, perhaps to avoid English and Dutch warships, but 
when they arrived " at the end of Scotland, where the Backe- 
nds^^ mountains are," the wind turned against them, compelling 
them to sail back towards the English Channel, along the coast 
of Scotland and England, amidst a terrible storm. On the 
morning of February 16 they were in the Straits of Dover. 
The captain was now confused, since they had not been able to 
make observations for some days, but he soon found that they 
were near Calais in whose harbor they cast anchor, while 
Lindestrom with some other passengers went ashore.^'' They left 
the harbor the same day, taking a westerly course through the 

"Rising's Journal; Lindestrom's Geogr. " Haltz altsi monstringh uppa 
Skeppet ornen den 27 January, hwarest och hwar af dhem ladhe af deras 
troheetz Edh, till then anda the nu reesa skulle, under een fana som ther till 
giordh war." Journal. 

"Rising's Journal, Geogr. Rising says in his letter of February 17, 1654, that 
they set sail February 3 from Gothenburg. Perhaps it took all day February 2 to 
clear the harbor. 

"A small peninsula, the most northerly point of Denmark, directly west of 

■* Brechin heights or acclivity? Cf. Lewes, A Topogr. Die, I. 151 ff. 

" Lindestrom's Geogr. Rising makes no mention in his Journal of entering the 
harbor of Calais, but there seems to be no reason for doubting Lindestrom's state- 
ment. Cf. his story of the barber and piebaker. Cf. below, Chap. XLIV. 
The pies " were sold," Lindestrom says, " in Calais when the ship was there." 

484 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

channel. Near Dover they met an English frigate, called the 
Pearl, commanded by Captain Cheverell,®® who demanded that 
the captain of the Orn should come on board his ship to show 
his passport and explain his mission. As it was against the 
instructions of a captain on a Swedish government ship to leave 
his post, Cheverell was requested to send his captain on board 
the Orn. On receiving this reply the English fired a ball near 
the rudder of the Swedish vessel, raised the red flag and pre- 
sented the broadside of the Pearl,^^ supposing that a Dutch 
vessel was carrying the Swedish flag.''" Rising then sent his 
ship-lieutenant, Anders Jonsson, with passes to the English 
boat, whereupon Captain Cheverell sent his mate on board the 
Orn and the vessels went into the harbor, casting anchor over 
night. The Swedes were well received, when their identity had 
been established, a pass was given to them and an offer was 
made to bring them water as well as other refreshments,*'^ but 
Captain Bockhorn being 111 disposed towards the English, de- 
clined the friendly offer, and set sail with a Swedish salute. 
From Dover Rising wrote to E. Oxenstierna, relating their 
experiences since their departure from Gothenburg.^^ 

As Captain Bockhorn had declined the friendly offer of fresh 
water from the English, In spite of the fact that his supply was 
exhausted, he was compelled to seek for It elsewhere before 
leaving Europe. While they were exploring for water the 
wind turned, driving the Orn back past Dover to Deal. Here 

" He was a brother of the governor of Dover Castle, Rising's Journal. 

™Lindestr6m (Gear.) says that the "English fired and knocked off the tackling 
and ships-head," but this is not probable, for Rising makes no mention of damages 
done to the ship and it is highly improbable that he would have omitted such 
an occurrence. See Journal, February 16 (1654), letter to E. Oxenstierna, on 
board the Orn, February 17. 

"Lindestrom says that an English frigate was stationed at about every mile 
along the coast, there being 90 war-ships in the channel. Geogr. Twenty 
English ships were, at the time, ready to sail to the West Indies (America). 
Rising to E. Oxenstierna, February 17, 1654. 

"Before the vessel sailed two men brought large baskets of oranges and 
lemons on board for refreshments. Geogr. 

"'Rising to E. Oxenstierna, February 17, 1654, Ox. Saml. (R.A.). Rising 
presented a rifle to the English on February 18, " Rack, med Sod. Com." Rising's 
Process (R.A.). ^ 

The Tenth Expedition. 485 

water was obtained, but at the cost of money and " the people 
were compelled to run through the water before they came 
ashore." On February 23 they again set sail, but at Folkestone 
the wind was contrary. On the twenty-fifth, however, they had 
a good wind and on the twenty-seventh they entered Weymouth 
Harbor to replenish their supplies of water and other refresh- 
ments.''* The wind was again contrary for several days, giving 
the Swedes an opportunity to see the town and recuperate after 
the rough voyage. They were well treated by " the local gover- 
nor, Mr. Depery," who, visiting Lindestrom and Rising in their 
lodgings with a large staff, invited the Swedish officers to his 
palace, where they were entertained until midnight. During 
the banquet the governor inquired about Ambassador White- 
locke's arrival in Sweden and showed great interest in his 
mission.** One "evening the city musicians" also came to 
salute them and "honored us," says Lindestrom, "with a 
serenade of most delightful and pleasing music, so that we had 
to open our purses."''^ 

On March 3'''' they left Weymouth with a favorable wind, 
spread all the sails of the Orn and pointed her prow towards 
America. On the ninth they were opposite the coast of Por- 
tugal, where they came within speaking distance of three Swe- 
dish ships from Stockholm on their way to Setubal to fetch salt. 
Ten days later they sighted one of the Canaries, in whose 
harbor they cast anchor at nine the following morning to re- 
plenish their supplies and attend to the people, as they had had 
a stormy voyage and the passengers as well as the crew were 
sick, many having died on the voyage and been thrown over- 

"^ In his Journal Rising says that they entered Weymouth to get supplies but 
in his letter of March 3 he says on account of contrary wind. 

"There is some discrepancy in the statements of Rising and Lindestrom at 
this point. Lindestrom, who wrote for publication, is more full, but perhaps 
also less careful about facts. 

" Geogr. 

^ Rising says, "on the 3d of March we sailed out of Weymouth, while there 
was quite a good wind, out towards the great Atlantic Ocean." Lindestrom 
says that they left Weymouth on March 2 but Rising wrote from Weymouth, 
March 3, and in his Journal he states that they set sail on March 3. 

486 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

board.*'' Captain Bockhorn,*'* who went ashore with the pass, 
was brought into the city by an officer and detained towards 
noon the next day, causing much anxiety among the Swedes, 
especially since the best sailors were with him. He was delayed 
by the governor, who desired to visit the ship himself. At 
noon Governor Don Philipo Disalago came with three large 
yachts " and a large suite," says Lindestrom, and offered the 
Swedes every kindness. Before his return he invited Rising 
with his staff to dinner at his palace. A negro slave was 
ordered to attend the Swedish officers with a shade on their way 
to the palace and at the banquet they were treated in the most 
splendid manner. "I am not able to do justice in describing 
the magnificent treatment we received at the palace from the 
Governor," says Lindestrom. "Although there was no meat, 
fish, bread or such like on the table, yet the dinner was so sump- 
tuous that we had never seen the like before ... It consisted 
entirely of confections . . . and different kinds of wine."®^ 
Toasts were also given and the festivities lasted till towards 

The people were likewise permitted to land.'^^ The refresh- 

" On April lo, one hundred and thirty persons were sick. Rising's Journal 

" Lindestrom writes that they had had a terrible storm and fog for two and a 
half weeks and Captain Bockhorn was confused and would at first not believe 
that they had gone so far out of their course. When they were convinced that 
they actually were at the Canary Islands, they found it, after deliberation, 
advisable to translate the passport into Latin and cut the seal from the Swedish 
original and put it on the Latin copy. Lindestrom, Geogr. 

"'During the repast the governor informed Rising that Queen Christina had 
become a Catholic and renounced her crown. 

" Geogr., Rising's Journal. Lindestrom gives a number of experiences in his 
Geogr., omitted by Rising. " It was a custom," says Lindestrom, " for the nuns 
and monks of the island to visit strangers and question them about their religion. 
They therefore paid a visit to the Swedes." Lindestrom with ten others were 
also invited by the monks to visit the monastery. 

'"■ Lindestrom relates that when they left the ship to go on shore " the people 
of the town collected, made a great noise and picked up stones which they threw 
at them, so that some of the Swedes received serious injuries. Rising then sent 
Lieut. Gyllengren and Lindestrom to the governor to make complaint, whereupon 
he commissioned one of his principal servants to send an officer with several 
drummers, beating the drum all round the city and at the entrance of all streets, 
to proclaim peace and that if any person dared to attack us [the Swedes] in any 
manner whatever, he should forfeit his life." 

The Tenth Expedition. 487 

merits, supplied to them here, revived their spirits and the 
majority recuperated from their sickness,''^ "but many died in 
the harbor." 

Giving a farewell salute to the Canaries on March 25'^^ they 
" sailed from that place with a north-east wind and south-west 
by west towards the Eastern Passage."'^* Fresh supplies added 
somewhat to the comfort of the passengers, while quantities of 
fish and sea crabs were caught during the journey, but, as the 
heat increased, when they came further south and west, violent 
disease broke out among the people, causing great misery and 
suffering, some being so affected with dysentery and Intermittent 
fever that they jumped Into the sea.^' It was therefore found 
necessary to land, when they approached the Caribbean Islands, 
" for their misery was Increasing dally,"''^ and on April 16 they 
cast anchor in the harbor at St. Christopher. After the re- 
ligious services Captain Skute with some soldiers went ashore 
to present their passport to Governor Everet, who offered them 
every kindness and sent them several boats of refreshments. 
Fresh water was likewise obtained and fish was caught by net, 
supplying food for the people.'^^ On April 17 the officers were 
Invited to dinner by the widow of the former governor, now the 

"The bills for supplies and lodging amounted to 400 R.D. Rising's Process 
(R.A.). One lot was valued at I37^.54 R.D. "Rach. p5 hwadh. som ahr inkiopt 
. . . uthy Canaria," etc., March 24, 1654, N.S., I. (R.A.). 

" Lindestrom has the twenty-sixth and Rising the twenty-fifth. 

"Four canary birds were bought and taken to New Sweden. "Rackningh," 
etc., March 24, 1654, N.S., I. (R.A.). 

"Lindestrom adorns his description by ascribing it to the song and music of 
the sirens. " Some of our people were so much elated [because the sirens sang so 
beautifully] that they jumped into the sea on account of the delightful playing. 
. . . Those who did so in the daytime were got out again, but those who jumped 
through the portholes in the night were not rescued." Geogr. According to 
Lindestrom 230 persons were sick. 

" " Nulla calamitas sola," exclaims Lindestrom, and he goes on to relate that 
the Turks approached with three ships for the purpose of attacking them and 
pursued them for some distance. Every man able to hold a gun was ordered on 
deck and brandy was given them to strengthen them. Shots were fired at the 
Turks and they withdrew, leaving the Swedes to go on their course. After the 
Turks had disappeared there was thanksgiving on board. Geogr. The story 
is improbable, although it has been accepted by some. The event is not men- 
tioned by Rising. 

"Cf. "Reck. med. Sod. Com.," Rising's Process (R.A.). 

488 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

wife of George March, and on the eighteenth Rising hired two 
horses from March by which he rode, in company with Linde- 
strom, to the residence of the French governor-general, a dis- 
tance of twenty-five miles, to inquire about the ship-wrecked 
Swedes at St. Cruz.''^ The governor received them "very 
civilly," said that the Swedes had left long before, but if any 
still remained they would be free to depart at any time. He 
also "promised that the Swedes would be welcome in all French 
territory, would be allowed to trade freely and would be treated 
as brothers in all their places." 

When Rising returned he found the people very ill, longing 
for fresh food. To mitigate their sufferings he bought a large 
ox (valued at 1,440 lbs. of tobacco or 60 R.D.),'^^ which was 
butchered and distributed among the people. 

April 19 they again set sail in company with an English 
frigate. In the night of May i they were close to the American 
coast and in the morning they sailed into the Bay of Virginia, 
where a severe thunderstorm overtook them, compelling them 
to remove all the sails.*" Then for some days calm prevailed, 
but on May 5 a good wind favored them. After some sailing 
the mariners, being unable to take their bearings on account of 
cloudy weather, were of the opinion that they had passed the 
Bay of New Sweden, and on the ninth they sailed south again, 
arriving at Cape Henry and Virginia Bay on the twelfth, which 
they supposed to be the mouth of the South River. In the bay 
they experienced another sudden gust of wind, which snapped 
the foresail and mizzen sail from the rigging, as though they 
had been cut with a knife, and carried them far out to sea, while 
the ship was thrown violently on her leeward side. 

After an unsuccessful attempt to establish connections with 

"For the Island of St. Cruz at this time, see Ogilby, America, 364-5. 

" It was bought from George March and paid for by " three pieces of Holland 

'" According to Lindestrom's story, " several of the men on the upper deck . . . 
were thrown into the sea and lost." The ship turned on her side with her masts 
in the water, so that they were compelled to cut the main mast before the ship 
righted herself. They were delayed several days in the bay to put the ship in 

The Tenth Expedition. 489 

two English vessels, which fled from them in the belief that 
they were sea-robbers, information as to their whereabouts was 
gained from an Englishman, who came on board the Orn.^^ 
The people were very ill, some dying daily, but the fresh water, 
which was brought aboard, somewhat revived them, and on May 
16 they continued their journey, accompanied by two English 
vessels, reaching New Sweden Bay two days later. "Here the 
wind again betrayed them," but on May 20 the sails were 
swelled and in the evening they arrived before Fort Elfsborg, 
where they cast anchor. The next morning, which was Trinity 
Sunday, the ship moved on towards Fort Caslmir, while services 
were conducted on board. The fort was taken and on May 
22 the ship was anchored in the harbor of Christina.*^ 

The vessel being ready on July 1 5 set sail for Sweden with 
a fair wind, carrying a cargo of tobacco. The return voyage 
was a long and dangerous one. The ship went to St. Martin 
for repairs,*^ thence to Firth, where Captain Bockhorn bought 
supplies for 1,200 D. k.m. from his own means. After some 
delay they set out for Gothenburg with a favorable wind, at 
which place they arrived about September 24.^* 

*" A catch also visited the Orn. 

'"Rising's Journal (Up. Bib. and R.A.) ; Geogr.; Rising's Process (R.A.). 

'" The ship was in a very poor condition and it was repaired shortly after its 
return to Sweden. 

" Com. Col. till K. Maj., October i6, 1663, Skr. till K. Maj., 1650-66 (R.A.) ; 
Papegoja to Rising, March 10, 1655, N.S., I. (R.A.) ; Com. Col. Prot., October 4, 
1654; Am. Reg., October 4, October 7, 1654 (FLA.). 


The Eleventh Expedition, 1654. 

As soon as the Orn had gone to sea preparations for the 
journey of the Gyllene Haj were continued. A report of the 
condition of the ship was sent to the Commercial College and 
Amundsson requested Eric Oxenstierna to give orders to Ad- 
miral Anckarhjelm to have her put in a sea-faring condition. 
The ship was slowly repaired; Anckarhjelm advanced more 
money with which additional goods were purchased for the 
cargo as well as provisions for the people.^ But matters pro- 
gressed slowly and as late as February 10 Anckarhjelm reported 
that " the Gyllene Haj was still leaking." He was getting tired 
of the affair. The discipline among the sailors was poor. " I 
know not how the journey with the Gyllene Haj will turn out," 
he wrote, " the captain pays hardly any attention to the ship and 
each [officer] is, I understand, his own master, so that one will 
not give in to the other. A short time ago a soldier gave the 
mate two black eyes, on account of which I have placed the 
former under arrest on the Crown's ship Hercules."^ As he 
had paid large sums out of his own means, he requested a draft 
for 1,000 R.D., when the Orn was about to sail, this being only 
part of the money he had disbursed. On February i the Com- 
mercial College requested Kramer to send them the bills and 
inform them whether or not money could be supplied in Stock- 
holm by the company or through draft on Joachim Korts in 
Riga,^ but there was no money in the treasury before the 
"tobacco participants" paid part or all of the 12,800 D. k.m. 

* Amundsson to E. Oxenstierna, January 29, 1654, Ox. Saml. (R.A.) ; Anckar- 
hjelm to Hans Kramer, January 20, 1654, N.S., I. (R.A.). 

"Kramer to Asses, in the Com. Col., February 14, 1654; Anckarhjelm to 
Kramer, February 10 and February 15, 1654, N.S., I. (R.A.). 

°The College made arrangements to pay a little later however. 




f' ,_^ ! cat 







/— ■ — ^ - ^ 



= ^ 5 


T >j ■-%'=^-' ^ '^ ■ I k J ':>5" 





The Eleventh Expedition. 4qi 

they owed and so the 1,000 R.D. could not be paid.* Anckar- 
hjelm continued his preparations, however. He hired a mate, 
supplied more money to the sailors and did everything in his 
power to rush the sailing of the ship. In the beginning of 
March the preparations were completed, except for some flour 
and a large quantity of rye for seed. Since no seed corn was on 
the Orn Rising proposed that " 20 or 30 barrels " of good rye 
and barley be sent in the Haj. Later, however, it was decided 
not to load the rye into the ship, as it would take too much room 
and could be bought cheaply in New England. Printz had 
asked that the expedition be delayed until he arrived in Sweden, 
as he had some suggestions to make, but the Commercial Col- 
lege ordered the vessel to sail as soon as there was a favorable 

We have seen that the discipline among the sailors on the 
Haj was not of the best. Amundsson, who had been appointed 
captain on the journey and supervisor of the ship-building in 
New Sweden, had proved himself incompetent. Repeated com- 
plaints were made against him, so that the college found it 
advisable to have him removed. Two new men, Sven Hook 
and Hendrick von Elswick, were already in sight for the position. 
Lieut. Hook, who sought a post in New Sweden, was appointed 
to perform Amundsson's duties in the colony as well as to com- 
mand the vessel on the voyage and a commission was signed for 
him on March 4.® 

Hendrick von Elswick was a merchant in Stockholm, who 
had applied to Rising for permission to go to New Sweden as 
"Commiss or head-merchant" and, as Rising knew him per- 
sonally, he recommended him to Eric Oxenstlerna.'^ His ap- 
pointment was talked about In the Commercial College and 

* Cora. Col. to H. Kramer, February ii, 1654, Com. Col. Reg.; Anckarhjelm's 
bills had been presented to E. Oxenstierna, February 17 when he was in Stock- 
holm. Kramer to Asses, in Com. Col., February 14, 1654, N.S., I. (R.A.). 

° Com. Col. to Anckarhjelm, March 4, 1654, Com. Col.. Reg. (R.A.) ; Rising 
to E. Oxenstierna, January 20, 1654, Ox. Saml. 

"Com. Col. Reg.. March 4, 1654; " S. Hooks Supplik," etc. (about January), 
i6s4,N.S., I. (R.A.). 

'Rising thought that if he should be approached, "he would go with the 
Galliot ... if he could bring his wife with him." 

492 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Hans Kramer was requested to interview him and report his 
proposals in the case. On February lo Kramer wrote to the 
college, highly recommending Elswick as a man of good quali- 
ties and suggesting that " his salary could hardly be less than 
300 R.D. a year." Two days later Kramer was informed that 
Elswick would be employed in the company's service and he was 
requested to come to Upsala to arrange matters with the mem- 
bers of the college. Within the next ten days he appeared 
before the college, received his commission as factor in New 
Sweden, being also appointed to have charge of the expedition 
to Porto Rico in the place of Amundsson. After having re- 
ceived 150 R.D. for his travelling expenses from Kramer, he 
left for Gothenburg in the beginning of March and arrived in 
the city on the twelfth of the same month.^ 

As information had been received by the college that Printz 
was in Holland, a commission appointing Johan Rising Director 
of New Sweden and Skute commander of the military forces 
was drafted in the beginning of March and sent with the other 
papers to Admiral Anckarhjelm. 

At the same time the Admiral, being informed of the change 
in the appointments by the Commercial College, was ordered 
by the Admiralty to take the instruction as well as all other 
documents from Amundsson and give them to Elswick and' 
Hook. As soon as Elswick arrived in Gothenburg he was 
taken on board the Haj, given command of the ship and author- 
ized to have charge of the journey to Porto Rico» and to New 
Sweden.^" The ship was poorly armed, having only two little 

'Com. Col. to H. Kramer, February 12, 1654 {Reg. R.A.). "Elswick skall 
strax och oforsummeligen begifwa sigh nijd till Gotheborgh," " Instruction," etc., 
Com. Col. Reg., March 4, 1654, fol. 35, copy in N.S., II. (R.A.) ; H. von Elswick 
to Oxenstierna, March 15 (n.s.), 1654, N.S., L (R.A.) ; Kramer to the Com. Col., 
February 10 and 14, 1654, N.S., I. (R.A.). 

" For the voyage to Porto Rico, see above. Chap. XXIX., and the Com. Col. to 
H. Elswick, March 4, 1654, fol. 57; Till Lieut. Sven Hook., etc., fol. 53. 

'°^m. Reg., March, 1654, fol. 868. This entry in Am. Reg. is not dated, but 
the index has March 15. The Com. Col. to Anckarhjelm, March 4, 1654; "In- 
struction," etc., March 4, fol. 34 ff.; " Fullmact," etc., March 4, fol. 58 flF.; H. 
von Elswick to E. Oxenstierna, March 15, 1654, N.S., I. (R.A.). The documents 
were badly injured on the way to Gothenburg through water. 

The Eleventh Expedition. 493 

cannon and neither balls nor powder, but ammunition was 
finally supplied, some new merchandise was also purchased 
in the last moment and soon the Haj was ready to lift anchor 
and set sail.^^ 

As all preparations were completed the expedition was de- 
layed for want of a couple of sailors and a ship carpenter. 
Some of the sailors had proven themselves incapable of doing 
their work, these were discharged and others hired by Anckar- 
hjelm in their places. A sail-maker from Bergen was also 
engaged at the rate of thirteen florins a month and two months' 
wages were given him in advance.^^ 

But a carpenter could not be hired, although Elswick did his 
best to find one. He went to Kongelf'^* and Marstrand" and 
"inquired with diligence for a ship-carpenter," but all to no 
avail. There were two carpenters on the Hercules, one of 
whom desired to go to America, but Anckarhjelm had no 
authority to give him leave, consequently Elswick requested the 
college to apply to the Admiralty for his permission to sail on 
the vessel, suggesting that " he could be used to great advantage 
at ship-building in New Sweden." Admiral Anckarhjelm also 
wrote to Stockholm about It, but since only Fleming was present 
in the Admiralty, no definite order could be given, and Anckar- 
hjelm was advised to find a carpenter elsewhere. The Admiral 
proposed that they should sail as far as England without a 
carpenter, where one could easily be hired, and Elswick had in 
mind to try his luck at Helslngor, but on March 31, just as he 
was writing to the Commercial College about it, "a good and 

^ There was a great scare of the Turks at the time and Elswick implored the 
Com. Col. that " wan in unsser ungluck so gross das wir vom Tiirken genommen, 
es wurde alssdan das General Collegio, mir da nicht sitzen, sondern die gnade 
thuen, und wieder lossmachen lassen." Letter to the Com. Col., March 23, 1654, 
N.S., I. (R.A.) ; Cf. Lindestrom, Geogr. , ,, . 

•= Elswick to the Com. Col., March 15, 22, 31, i«54; Elswick to J. Majer, 
March 29, 1654, N.S., L (R.A.) ; The Com. Col. to Anckarhjelm, March 22, 1654, 
Com. Col. Reg., fol. 69-70. . „ ^.. . j 

"The manuscript has Kungel. Kongelf is a town in " Goteborgs and 
Bohuslan," at the Nordreelf opposite Hisingen, not far from Gothenburg. The 
town was moved to its present position in 1680. 

"Once a great Norwegian commercial city (founded by Haakan Haakansson). 
Later it came under Swedish rule and is to-day a fashionable watering place. 

494 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

well trained carpenter, by the name of Jan Janssen from 
Alckmar,"" was engaged at 12 R.D. a month.^® 

Elswick's luggage was now brought on board, the people 
took the oath of allegiance and a good wind was the only thing 
lacking, but "some of the people were bad," the mate was in- 
competent and a "rascal," and the omens for a happy journey 
were not good.^^ The expenses connected with the expedition 
were quite large. Rising had paid ten florins for a messenger 
sent to look for the Haj and Anckarhjelm paid 4,5 13 D. (k.m.) 
for provisioning the ship besides large sums for the salaries of 
the crew.^* As Captain Hans Amundsson had private claims in 
Porto Rico to look after he applied for permission to go on the 
Haj with his family and two servants,^* promising to assist 
Elswick in whatever way he could. Some of the families who 
could not find room on the Orn went on this ship and a few 
soldiers and servants also came to America on this expedition, 
but the exact number is not known.^° 

Unfavorable weather delayed the Haj for two weeks, but on 
April 15 she at last set sail "with a good wind from Korgards- 
holm ( ?) , a mile [six and a half English miles] from Gothen- 

"A city in Holland, see Nordisk familjeboh, I. under name. 

"Elswick to the Com. Col., Mar. 15, 22, 29, 31, 1654, N.S., I. (R.A.) 
Anckarhjelm to the Cora. Col., April 5, 1654, N.S., L (R.A.). 

"Elswick to the Com. Col., March 31, 1654, N.S., L (R.A.) ; Anckarhjelm to 
E. Oxenstierna, April 5, 1654, Ox. Saml. (R.A.). Elswick writes later: "Es 
ist ein theill boss Volck. . . . Der Steiirman (ob er zwar seine sachen wohl 
verstehet) is der Gothlosseste und leichtfertigste Mensch den ich mein lebetage 
gesehen, habe ihme alhier itzo ins gefengnuss in die Eijsen sitzen." Elswick to 
E. Oxenstierna, August 7, 1654, N.S., I. (R.A.) ; cf. above, Chap. XXIX. 

^Journal, no. 1176 ff.; "Reck, medh Thet Lof. Sod. eller Ame. Comp.," 
Rising's Process (R.A.) ; Kramer to the Com. Col., May 25, 1654, N.S., I. (R.A.) ; 
Anckarhjelm to E. Oxenstierna, April 19, 1654, Ox. Saml. Anckarhjelm was 
ordered by the Admiralty, April 4, to go by night and day to Stockholm with the 
ships Mercurius and Hercules, Am. Reg., April 4, 1654, fol. 1874-5. When he 
arrived at Stockholm he applied to Kramer for payment. There was no 
money in the company's treasury. 9,000 D. were still to be collected from the 
"tob. part.," but this was not available and Kramer was compelled to request 
the Cora. Col. to order J. Potter to pay 4,000 D. left in his care. Kramer to the 
Pres. in the Com. Col., May 35, 1654, N.S., I. (R.A.). 

" He had four children. 

^Elswick to the Com. Col., March 15, 1654. 

The Eleventh Expedition. 495 

burg."*^ On account of contrary winds they were compelled 
to run into the Norwegian port of Hastenas on the eighteenth. 
The next day, however, they continued their journey and, tak- 
ing a northerly course, they arrived at the island of St. Michael 
on the thirteenth of May, casting anchor in the harbor of Villa 
Franca. ^2 Here Elswick had considerable trouble and expense. 
When the governor found that they were going to Porto Rico, 
he broke open the seal of the letter from the King of Spain and 
read it, giving a certificate, however, that he had done so 
against Elswick's will. In the night of May 20 they again set 
sail after they had taken in a supply of water and other neces- 
sary refreshments for the people, holding their course on the 
Caribbean Islands. On the way many of the people became 
sick, the water supply became low and it was found necessary 
to touch at the island of St. Christopher, which they did on the 
17th of June, being informed that the Orn had been there two 
months before. New supplies were again brought on board 
and on June 26 they continued their journey, arriving at Porto 
Rico on June 30.^^ Governor Jacobus de Aquilera was aware 
of their coming, for " he waited on the shore with his Carethe 
and many prominent persons, immediately sending a large boat, 
which brought . . . [Elswick] ashore," who delivered the 
Swedish passports and returned to the Haj."* 

The people went ashore the following day and new supplies 
were provided for them. Hans Amundsson died on the Island 
July 2 and was buried the same day outside the city, but the 
other passengers soon recovered from their sickness. The mate 
tried to " run away," wherefore Elswick was compelled " to 
put him into irons in the prison" until they sailed.^^ On 

^Anckarhjelra to Oxenstierna, April 19, 1654, Ox. Saml. (R.A.) ; Elswick to 
E. Oxenstierna, August 7, 1654, N.S., I. (R.A.)- 

^A town on the south coast of the island of St. Michael, Azores, 14 miles 
east of Ponta Delgata. 

=* For Porto Rico at this time, see Ogilby-s America; p. 327 ft- 

« Elswick's activity in presenting the claims of the company and of the Crown 
have been elsewhere related. Cf. Chap. XXIX. above. 

»For this account see Elswick to E. Oxenstierna, August 7. i654, JN-S>-. ^■ 

496 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

August 15 the Haj left Porto Rico for New Sweden. The 
people were well, the supplies plentiful and all were in a happy 
mood, but the expedition was destined to fail in its purpose. 
By mistake they passed Delaware Bay and " through careless- 
ness or rather wickedness of . . . [the] mate" the ship was 
led into "an unknown passage behind Staten Island towards 
the Raritans Kill" at New Amsterdam, on September 12 where 
it was put under arrest by Director Stuyvesant three days 
later.^* The efforts of Elswick to obtain the release of the 
ship and the protests and counter-protests which passed between 
the respective parties belong to another chapter.^'^ Most of 
the people on the ship, including the carpenter, remained in 
New Amsterdam, persuaded thereto by Stuyvesant. When 
Elswick had done all in his power to effect a settlement, he left 
for New Sweden.^^ 

™ Elswick to E. Oxenstierna, June i6, 1655, N.S., L (R.A.). 
"Doc, XII. 76-83; Copy of Protests in Elswick's handwriting, N.S., I. 
(R.A.) and (K.A.). 

^' Elswick to E. Oxenstierna ; Cf. above, Chap. XLV. 




Government and Courts of New Sweden, 1653-1655. 


Conditions in the colony did not improve after the departure 
of Printz. Several settlers having been politely denied per- 
mission by Stuyvesant, at least for a time, to settle in New 
Netherland, " inasmuch as he did not know whether it would 
be well or ill received" by the Dutch West India Company,^ 
made secret application to the authorities in Virginia and Mary- 
land to be allowed to go there. Here they received a hearty 
welcome and fifteen settlers deserted and fled to the English 
colony on the south. When Papegoja was aware of their 
flight, he hired some Indians "to bring them back," but they 
resisted " and put themselves on the defense against the sav- 
ages, who had been sent after them [so that two] . . . were 
struck down whose heads were brought into Fort Christina."^ 
The assistant commissary, Gotfried Harmer, being one of the 
deserters, seems to have been the chief instigator and he wrote 
letters to some of the Swedes after his arrival in Virginia, ad- 
vising them to leave the colony and go over to the English. It 
was also said that Hendrick Huygen played false to the Swedes.^ 
We know nothing further about the events in New Sweden 
from October, 1653, until May, 1654, except that the Indians 

^Doc, I. 590, 600-t; XII. 73. The directors, however, had no objection to 
the influx of settlers from neighboring colonies and so informed Stuyvesant on 
November 4, 1653, probably in ansv^er to his letter of October 6 of the same year. 

'Rising's Journal, May 22, 24, 1654 (Up. B.). 

'Rising's Journal (Up. B.). 
33 497 

498 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

set fire to Fort Korsholm and likely showed other signs of 

On Sunday morning of May 21, as the colonists were going 
to church, they were startled by the report of cannon some 
distance down the river. It was the Swedish salute ; ships had 
arrived at last! A few hours later, "Vice-Commissary Jacob 
Svensson with some Swedish freemen " was sent down the river 
to ascertain the facts. They went on board the Orn and " all 
proved that they were happy on account of the arrival" of the 
ship. A little later Vice-Governor Papegoja also went down 
to the Swedish vessel, welcomed Rising and reported the condi- 
tion of the country. The immigrants "were now very ill on 
the ship and the smell was so strong that it was impossible to 
endure it any longer. It was therefore agreed that Papegoja 
should bring the people ashore in the morning with the sloop, 
the yacht and other crafts, which was accordingly done on the 
twenty-second. The people were partly distributed among the 
freemen up in the river, partly taken to Fort Christina, where 
they were nursed with all care." The same day Rising and his 
officers also entered the fort " and were well received by the 
vice-governor and the other Swedes."^ 

The instructions and memorials given to Rising before his 
departure from Upsala in December, 1653, authorized him, 
in case the governor had left the country or would not remain, 
to take charge of the government. He as well as Lindestrom 
and other officers were indisposed the first few days after their 
landing, due to the hardships and inconveniences of the journey 
and the change of climate, but already on May 23 arrange- 
ments were made for the new form of government, which the 
departure of Printz made necessary. "The Orders of Her 
Royal Majesty as well as the Instructions and Memorials of 
the Commercial College were read in the presence of [Director 
Johan Rising], Capt. [Sven] Skute, Lieut. [Johan] Pape- 
goja" and undoubtedly the larger part of the soldiers and 

* Rising's JoMrBfl/ (Up. B.). 

^ Rising's Journal; Lindestrom's Geogr. 

Government and Courts of New Sweden. 499 

freemen. These instructions and memorials (minute and de- 
tailed, in several of their provisions resembling those given to 
Printz eleven years before) intrusted to Rising the "direction 
of the political, judicial and commercial affairs of the colony," 
leaving the military management to other officers. " His duty 
should especially be to bring the country on a prosperous foot- 
ing;" he should occupy and clear new land and assign planta- 
tions to the freemen ; he should plant tobacco, sow grain, hemp 
and linseed, cultivate grapes and fruit trees and experiment 
with silk-worms and the growing of ginger and sugar-cane; he 
should found cities, select harbors and begin commerce, seeking 
to draw all the trade in the river into the hands of the Swedes ; 
he should prospect for minerals; he should select land for the 
company and work it for the benefit of the same; he should 
establish ropewalks, saw-mills, tanneries, tarburneries and man- 
ufactories of wooden utensils of all kinds, as well as fisheries 
in the rivers, streams and lakes ; he should keep peace with the 
Indians, Dutch and English as far as possible, but he should 
also fortify the country with all vigor and ward off attack with 
the best means at hand ; he should seek to increase the popula- 
tion of the colony and extend its settlement by inviting all 
valuable and industrious colonists to settle under the Swedish 
jurisdiction, but he should send away and remove (with cau- 
tion) all who might be a disturbance or a hindrance to the 
prosperity of the settlement; he should draw up good ordi- 
nances, make rules for hunting and the preservation of the 
forest, preventing all indiscriminate cutting of trees, as well as 
ordinances concerning the trade, the agriculture and other pur- 
suits ; he should institute commercial relations with Africa ; he 
should send game, beer, bread and brandy to Spain and lumber 
and wood-materials to the Canary Islands; he was to handle 
the money sent from the Mother Country, supervise the hand- 
ling of the merchandise and see that proper and correct books 
were kept; he was to raise money for the purpose of the 
colonial government, and finally he was to appoint "persons 
who could judge according to the law of Sweden and Its right- 

500 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

ful custom In order that justice and righteousness may have 
their course in the land."" 

Rising now took over the leadership of the colony with the 
title of Director of New Sweden, appointing Sven Skute and 
Johan Papegoja as his assistants, who together with the direc- 
tor "would rule the country . . . under the authority of Her 
Royal Majesty and the Crown of Sweden until other orders 
were received," in special cases in connection with a council of 
" other good men," appointed for the purpose. 

With the first opportunity the director summoned the free- 
men and proclaimed to them the new Royal privileges concern- 
ing the settlement. The private colonists were granted the 
right to trade freely with the neighbors and the Indians; they 
could buy their lands direct from the savages or from the com- 
pany and, by paying an export duty of 2 per cent, they could 
ship every form of produce from the colony, including gold and 
silver (other minerals being excluded), to Sweden and its 
dependencies duty free.'^ The land in New Sweden had been 
purchased from the savages for the company (by goods be- 
longing to it) under the protection and jurisdiction of the 
Swedish government and the Crown regarded its colony on the 
Delaware in the same light as its European possessions, with 
right to grant lands and allodial freedoms to its servants. 
Several such grants were made in 1653. They were to be in 
force only after the governor or the director had given an 
admission and certificate to the effect in order to prevent con- 
fusion.^ The land, that might be bought by individual free- 
men either from the company or from the savages, would be- 

'" Instruction," December 15, 1654; "Memorial for Rising," December 18, 
1653 ; Authorization for Rising, December 18, 1653, Com. Col. Reg. (R.A.) ; 
" Memorial oppa de arende . . . [for] Johan Printz deels . . . Johan Rising," 
December I2, 1653, N.S., I. (R.A.), also in R.R. Copies in Am. Phil. Society 
from R.R. (a poor translation in Hazard) ; The Com. Col. to Johan Printz, 
December 15, 1653, " Creditbref," etc. for Printz, December 13, 1653, Com. Col. 
Reg. (R.A.) ; cf. above. Chap. XXXIX. 

' Rising's Journal; " Memorial," etc. ; Doc, XII. 73-4. 

'Several freemen protested against the donations given to Skute and Hans 
Amundsson. The grants v?ere never certified by the director and hence not 
legal. Rising's Journal, August 27, etc., 1654; Report, July 13, 1654. 

iJ^'SnltinA "*n^i3?ijij.v*^ 'V^M-o^-.^.yi^J^^ 

Q^K^ JC^.'i ^.^ Si^jyOuL yi^l ^'.^ S^K^^(^'_ 

KO^irU^^j •JA^^iifai' f^^-^ s\XJi^ rt++ ^Jw^ ^r, B,^. 
Ute S^i ti(hi' 1^^ /VM^yw Atiiv^v*, QniVtmeniuA''jKK<f^. ^Q^ 
Cf^a^iuir jhf^^iy^^ yifiOQ- !-'>»'• -.^Jw clnrcfertimi, ^yi^fi^_ 

St<^^^'*f v-d >f5r yWW irp)fUv tH^ij^A- e-mm<^itl f^ 

The appointment of Johan Rising as director of Xew Sweden. First page (original). 
Preserved in N. S. I. (R. A.), Stockholm. 

^(t/ci Avv, z-&Jc-i>ructnj)> i^4t^ 

Rising's appointment as director, second page, signed by Christina. 

The large seal of Queen Christina. 

Government and Courts of New Sweden, 501 

come the unqualified perpetual property of the purchaser and 
his heirs and he "would enjoy allodial privileges for himself 
and his descendants forever."® 

"After the sermon," on June 4, "the freemen were [again] 
collected and it was presented to them how Her Royal Majesty 
intended hereafter to continue the colony through the South 
Company by sending of good and early succor." A general 
day of fasting and prayer was thereupon proclaimed for the 
ninth "over the whole land." On that day they all "went to 
church at Tinnakonk " and " after the services the freemen 
were called together, old and young." They were once more 
told that succor from Sweden was expected and that the pros- 
pect for a successful period was good. But, since there had been 
mutinies and much trouble during Printz's time, it was found 
necessary to examine into the charges and counter-charges that 
were made and it was hoped that all the inhabitants of New 
Sweden from now on would act as " true subjects of Her Royal 
Majesty and honest colonists." An oath of allegiance and 
promise of good conduct was then read to them and signed by 
forty-eight persons, eight of whom were widows of freemen.^" 
In the summer and autumn of 1654 provisions were made 
for carrying out certain paragraphs of the instructions and 
memorials regarding the Internal affairs of the colony. 
Towards the end of July several new appointments were made, 
the gunner, Johan Stalkofta, being commissioned to "pre- 
pare material and planks for the buildings that were to be 
erected from time to time," the corporal, Anders Olofsson, to 
superintend the agriculture and the ensign, Peter Hansson 
Wendel, to manage the plantations and the clearing of the 
land. No special wages appear to have accompanied these 
offices, however. "There was some dislike [against the ar- 
rangement] among the people," says Rising, "but for what 

•Memorial for Rising and Printz, par. 7; Rising's Journal, 1654; Report, 
1654; Donations for Araundsson and Skute. Cf. above, Chap. XXXIX.; below, 
Chap. XLII. 

•° Oath (copy), June 9, 1654, N.S., I. (R.A.) ; Rising's Journal, June 9, 1654 

(Up. B.). 

502 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

reason could not be ascertained." Certain plantations at the 
Sandhook had been forfeited to the company^ ^ and Sven Skute 
was ordered to superintend and manage these.^^ 

On the last day of September a messenger sent by Elswick 
brought the commissions formally appointing Rising " Director 
of the colony " and Sven Skute commander of the forts and the 
military affairs. Three days later these letters (from the gov- 
ernment and the Commercial College) were read to the people, 
who were assembled at a court in Fort Christina. There were 
promises of aid and it seems that Rising and his council took 
a bright view of the situation, for plans were now made for 
partly reorganizing the internal government of the settlement 
and for providing a sort of constitution or rule of conduct.^^ 

" On October 27 the best men [in the colony] were called 
together at Fort Christina and an ordinance was drafted." 
Rising says that It " was made by us jointly," but it is more than 
probable that he presented a draft of the ordinance to the 
commission and that the different points were taken up and dis- 
cussed. Several changes and suggestions may have been 
offered by the members, but the draft as presented by Rising 
undoubtedly underwent few changes.^* The ordinance was 
proclaimed both among the Swedes and Dutch colonists, "but 
it could not be put into execution before succor should arrive 
from the fatherland." 

In 1653, when preparations were on foot for the sending of 
a new expedition to New Sweden, a tentative budget was made. 
The salaries and wages of the officers (including the preacher, 
Nertunius, and the barber-surgeon, Stidden) and fifty soldiers 
were estimated at 3,722 R.D. "A budget was also drawn up 
for one hundred and fifty landspeople, skilled workmen and 
peasants, with wages amounting to 1,200 R.D. This list was 

" Cf. Chap. XL. 

'^Rising's Journal, July 27; October 16, 1654 (Up. B.). 

"Rising's appointment from the Queen, February 28, 1654, R.R., and from 
the Commercial College, Mar. 4, 1654, Com. Col. Reg. (R.A.). Original in 
N.S., I. (R.A.)- See facsimile. Rising's Journal September 30, October %, 
1654 (Up. B.). 

^'Report, June 14, 1655, N.S., I. (K.A.). 

Government and Courts of New Sweden. 503 

completed before the sailing of the Haj and when Hook and 
Elswick arrived in the colony, the staff of military officers with 
their salaries was as follows : 

Director, Johan Rising : 1,200 D. 

Commandant, Sven Skute 900 D. 

Lieutenant, Elias Gyllengren 4.33 D. 

Lieutenant, Sven Hook 288 D. 

Ensign, Per Hansson Wendel 216 D. 

Watchmaster, Gregorius van Dyck 180 D. 

The Head Gunner, Johan Danielsson (?) 

Constaple, Johan Andersson Stalkofta 144 D. 

Sergeant, Anders Larsson (?) 

Armorer, Anders Kampe 144 D. 

Engineer, Peter Lindestrom 144 D. 

Provost-Marshal, Mins Stake 108 D. 

Drummer, Johan Schalbrick 90 D. 

Trumpeter, Peter Andersson 90 D. (?) 

Muster-Clerk, Lars Andersson (?) 

On December i (the day after his arrival) the memorials, 
commissions and instructions of Hendrick von Elswick were 
read before the council and others present. He was to act as 
commissioner in Huygen's place; he should keep all books, 
make lists and bills of goods sent to Europe or received in the 
colony from there; he should handle the money and keep cor- 
rect accounts of cargoes and other property, and he should keep 
account of the crops bought and sold here. 

When Huygen left Christina, Jacob Swensson was placed in 
charge of the storehouse (since Gotfried Harmer deserted), 
but in the summer of 1654 he was needed for other purposes 
and Peter Mort was appointed by the council to keep the 
accounts and handle the goods." 

On February 9, 1655, an inventory of the goods in Fort 
Christina was made by Jacob Junge, under the direction of 
Sven Hook and Per Hansson Wendel (the goods at Tinicum 

" None of his books have been preserved as far as is known. Rising says 
that "han kom sedan fast till korta med sin rakning." In fact it seems that 
none of his books was brought to Sweden, for the officers of the American Com- 
pany complained that Rising presented no accounts of expenditures before the 
arrival of Elswick. 

504 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

having been inventoried about two months before) and on this 
date the accounts commence in Elswick's " Schuldt und Carga- 
son Buch."^® Besides his salary Elswick was promised free 
board, but he found that only 5 2 bushels of maize, which could 
be bought from the savages for 10 yards of frieze, were allowed 
for this purpose.^'^ 

Sven Hook, as we have already seen, was appointed to dis- 
charge some of the duties that had been assigned to Hans 
Amundsson.^* Hook, who was now to be employed in the 
capacity of a lieutenant, was "to superintend the shipbuild- 
ing "^' and command the sailors as well as to take care of the 
ships and equipments belonging to the company.^" The quali- 
ties and offices of Skute and Gyllengren, who were stationed 
at Ft. Trefaldighet, have been indicated above and the duties 
of the minor officers remained the same as during the previous 

In the beginning of 1655 a commission of representative 
men was called to meet at Fort Christina on January 1 1 for 
the purpose of drawing up a " proper ordinance for the colony." 
The conference lasted for two days and an " ordinance was 
established by the consent of most of the men." The document 
was likely based on the earlier one of the previous autumn and 
was again largely the work of Rising. It has been preserved 
to us by Lindestrom in his Geographia Americae. Never be- 
fore published and being of some interest it will be given in full. 

"This is preserved in N.S., I. (R.A.). 

"Instruction for Elswick, Mar. 4, 1654, Com. Col. Reg.; " FuUmakt," etc., 
March 4, 1654; letter fr. Com. Col. to Elswick, March 4, 1654, Com. Col. Reg.; 
letters to Anckarhjelm, Com. Col. Reg., March, 1654; Elswick's letter to E. 
Oxenstierna, June 16, 1654, N.S., I. (R.A.) ; Rising's Journal, November 30, 
December, 1654; "Schuldt und Carg. Buch," N.S., I. (K.A.). 

" Cf. above, Chaps. XXIX., XL. 

" Hans Amundsson was especially instructed to prosecute the building of ships 
in the colony with all vigor, and his instructions were partly transferred to 
Hook. See " Instruct." for Amundsson, December 13, 1653. 

^Instruction for S. Hook, March 4, 1654, Com. Col. Reg.; letter to Rising, 
March 4, 1654, Postscript. 

=* Cf. above. Chap. XXXVIII. 

Government and Courts of New Sweden. 505 
An Ordinance concerning people, land and agriculture, 

1654 [1655], ETC. 


Concerning the people, their passage hither and their stay in the 
country, etc. 

1. Soldiers are to serve at least three years or more and, if they then 
have anything coming to them, they may be rewarded not only in 
merchandise and money but also with pieces of land for an everlasting 
possession. When a soldier has served for three years he shall not be 
required to pay for [his] passage or transportation, but, if he leaves the 
service sooner, then [he shall] pay his passage according to the time, 
which is left on his term of three years of service, namely — one half, 
one third, one fourth, etc. 

2. If anyone should desire to hire one or more soldiers for his own 
work, he shall apply to the one who is in command of the soldiers at 
that place, and if the service of the company will allow it, he may hire 
one or more of the soldiers by the week and deduct from it the pay of 
the soldiers, etc. 

3. All the officers of the company shall be free from [the payment of 
their] passage and transportation as well as any servant of the Crown, 
above [the rank of] a corporal, etc. 

4. The passage, board and transportation of the freemen, their wives 
and children, widows, male servants and maid servants shall be esti- 
mated at the rate of sixteen riks daler per head over three years of age, 
besides their monthly rations here in the country, which they are after- 
wards to pay here in time, etc. 

5. Every freeman brought over shall pay this passage and transporta- 
tion of sixteen riks daler in the third year after he has settled here, 
whether he is a workman or a farmer, etc. 

6. Whoever desires to take into his service a laborer or a freeman, his 
children, his male servant or maid servant, he must pay the above 
mentioned transportation money after the lapse of a year and these 
engaged servants shall serve him in three years for board and necessary 
clothes, but if they, before the expiration of three years, take service 
with another or enter marriage, then the one, who takes them out of the 
service of the first, shall give so much of the transportation money as 
remains of their time of service, namely one half, one third, one fourth, 
etc., unless the master will remit it out of good will or in whatever 

So6 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

manner they may best agree according to the quality of the persons, etc. 

7. Whoever takes children to himself who have been brought over 
[from Sweden] to bring up shall pay for them the said transportation 
money of sixteen riks daler when they have become fourteen years of age 
whereupon they shall serve for wages. If such children are brought up 
with several, the one shall pay the said money who has them in his service 
(when they are full fourteen years old). If such a child dies before the 
age of fourteen the transportation shall also die, etc. 

8. Whoever hires from the company an indented servant over four- 
teen years of age shall give, besides the said transportation money, addi- 
tional twenty-four riks daler and then the servant shall serve him in 
six consecutive years. The servant shall annually be given board, shoes 
and shirts. After six years of service an indentured servant shall be 
entirely free, etc. 

9. If an indentured servant has served the company here in the coun- 
try a year more or less, then so much of the servant's time and service 
shall be deducted from his second engagement in order that an inden- 
tured servant may become free after six years, etc. 

10. Whatever a servant may gain through work, handicraft or manual 
labor, hunting or fishing, commerce or trade or with anything else, that 
shall all belong to his employer unless the latter grants it to him. 

1 1 . Every master shall give his indentured servants or employees suffi- 
ciently good board and proper clothes so that there can be no just cause 
for complaint. If anyone is found to do otherwise, he shall be brought 
to court and fined according to the case, etc. 

12. No one shall entice or prevail upon another's [servant] people 
[to leave him] on penalty of 8 riks daler's fine for the first offence, 
twice as much for the second and three times as much for the third. 
. . .^2 And in all these cases he shall be obliged to bring back the 
servant to his master, etc. 

13. If anyone's servant or hired man runs away from his master out 
of spite, then no one shall knowingly conceal the same in his house over 
24 hours on penalty of 24 riks daler's fine, but shall make it known 
at once to the master if he is near enough or otherwise to the neighbors 
and try to return the servant to his master, which everyone shall do to 
the other. The one who intentionally conceals another's servant shall 
pay a fine as already said, etc. 

14. The hire of servants reckoned either according to days, weeks, 
^ The text or my copy is corrupt here. 

Government and Courts of New Sweden. 507 

months or years shall be reasonable and approach the monthly wage of 
the soldiers and no one shall raise the salary or outbid another, on 
penalty according to the case. 

15. The said hire of the servants shall have preference above all 
other debts except that of the Crown and of the company, etc. 


Concerning land and agriculture. 

1. Whoever buys land of the company or of anyone else shall pay in 
whole or according to the area in whatever manner they agree for 
cleared land as clear and for uncleared land as uncleared and shall pay 
for it more or less according to the situation for forest, streams, places 
for mills, fishing and the like, etc. 

2. If anyone buys or receives as a gift a certain piece of land from 
the savages and the same has in general or particular been bought or 
given to the company by the same or other savages, it will remain the 
property of the company, but if the land has not been given or bought 
in general or in particular then he shall be free to possess it, etc. 

3. A tunnland^^ holds according to Swedish land measure eighteen 
rods in length and nine rods in breadth, at nine ells to a rod {stangY^ 
making 13,122 sq. ells.^° But since the land here in New Sweden is 
much richer and needs less seed, we have found it expedient to let it be 
tried and estimated through Engineer Mr. Per Lindestrom, how large 
a piece of land is needed here in New Sweden for a barrel of seed and 
he has found that it ought to hold nineteen rods in length and ten in 
breadth, each rod being nine ells, making 15,390 sq. ells, etc. 

4. A tunnland is worth, when one buys it for everlasting property of 
the company or other possessor, namely: 

1. Cleared land as stated before . . . 

2. Cleared land but unprepared and uncultivated. 

3. Cleared prepared and cultivated land. 

5. But if one buys cultivated land of a freeman, living upon it, he 
is to pay according to the situation or the agreement for each tunnland 

"^ Cf. above. Chap. VI. 

^ Stdng, about nine English feet. 

"'The legal tunnland at this time was to be 7^,000 sq. alnar (ells) and not 
13,122 sq. alnar. Cf. above, Chap. VI. A modern tunnland is 53,1384 sq- ft- 
or about i acre and i sq. rod. 

So8 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

1. If it is cleared . . . sixteen to twenty fl. 

2. Prepared so that one can sow there, thirty to fifty florins, but 

if the freeman, living upon it, has used it for three years [the 
buyer is to pay] one fourth less, if for five to six years one half 
less, if for eight years two thirds less and if it has been used 
for ten years he shall pay nothing for the clearing, but give 
tax according to the estimate besides the transportation, the 
ration and other bills if they have not been paid before,^' etc. 

6. Whoever takes possession and uses the land of another shall have 
right to it above others, children after children, and [he] cannot be 
driven off unless he is in arrears for tax for three years. 

7. If a renter wishes to use and cultivate the land of the company 
or of anyone else with the oxen and beasts of burden of the latter, then 
^.}jgy26a shall give half of the seed each and the owner of the land shall 
furnish oxen and beasts of burden. But the renter must use the land 
and keep the oxen and beasts of burden over the winter at his own cost 
as well as harvest the hay and the grain and thrash it and then each 
part shall take half of the grain and of the straw, estimating according 
to the proof and rooketahlet{l)." But if anyone furnishes all the 
seed, then the other party shall pay the other his half part of it, when- 
ever it is demanded. 

8. If several renters live together on the same land, build, clear, plant 
or sow, and if one or several wish to withdraw from the others, then 
their entire plantations shall be valued, clearing or seeding altogether, 
according to the estimate of good men, and those who remain shall then 
pay him or them, who withdraw according to their share, or otherwise to 
help him or them to clear, build, plant or sow on a new place, as much 
as his or their share demands, etc. 


Concerning forestry. 

I. No one shall cut down, destroy or ruin on his own clearing, planta- 
tion or anywhere else any useful large tree or pine or oak tree from 
which wainscot,^* planks or anything else useful can be made, unless he 
makes it known either to the governor or other person appointed for 

™ The Swedish is not clear, cf. text. 

"'° I. e. the renter and the owner. 

" Rafcnetalet ( ?) , estimate ?. 

^Rising uses the Dutch word nuagenskott (wagenschot). 

Government and Courts of New Sweden. 509 

that purpose; in order that such trees, which are at this time the tax of 
the country, may not be wasted but used for the best purpose. If he 
makes his intentions known in time and he is not supplied [with in- 
formation] and ordered [what to do] by those whose business it is to 
see to it, he shall be without blame, etc. 

2. Whoever manufactures, cuts or saws, planks, clapboards, timber, 
wainscot or any other wood material, that can be brought out, manu- 
factured, cut or sawed, he shall offer it first to the company or to the 
one owning the land for a reasonable price and then he is free to try his 
best [to sell it elsewhere], etc. 


Concerning cattle. 

1. If anyone buys cattle of another he shall .pay their value according 
to the market and execute it as in the case of other purchase, etc. 

2. If anyone rents cattle to another for half of the offspring and the 
produce, then he shall receive every other calf a year old, well fed and 
the renter shall receive every other calf, to which the cow gives birth 
and he shall bring the calves up well at his own expense and give to 
the owner annually a lispund^" of butter in rent, but if the cow 
dies before the owner receives his calf the renter shall pay for her ac- 
cording to her price, this to be continued as long as they agree to it, etc. 

3. For the offspring of goats, sheep and swine there shall be the same 
law yet in these cases for milk, butter, cheese and wool of the goats and 
sheep according to the manner in which the owner and renter may best 
agree, etc. 

This to whom it concerns for a submissive regulation. 
Actum ut supra. 
On behalf of the Honorable Royal South Company,^" 

[Signed] Johan Rising. 


The colony now manifestly had a director, who was well 
suited for his post, and had he not by his rash act at Ft. Casimir 
and his too eager attempts at mastering the situation drawn 
upon himself the storm that was finally to sweep away the 
Swedish authority from the Delaware forever, the colony would 

"For lispund see above, Chap. VI. 
°° New Sweden Company. 

Sio The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

in all likelihood have prospered for many a year. Nor was he 
slow in exercising his' judicial functions "that justice and right- 
eousness might have their course in the land " as well as pros- 
perity and the pursuit of wealth. At the meeting of the free- 
men on Sunday, June 4, Rising intimated that courts would 
soon be called to settle disputes and bring certain persons to 
justice, and five days later the date for the first court was set. 

This court was convened at Tinicum^^ on June 26 to examine 
into the charges against the Rev. Lars Lock and Olof Stille.*^ 
No definite evidence could be established against Lock, how- 
ever, and Stille secured bondsmen, who were accepted by the 
court.*^ "The great majority complained about the severity 
of Governor Printz " and the director, who handled the case as 
delicately as possible, being unwilling to offend them, requested 
the dissatisfied ones " to draw up their points of complaints 
themselves, which they later did." The cases could not be 
settled in the colony for obvious reasons, hence the documents 
were sent to Sweden, " as Governor Printz was there himself, 
who could answer the [accusations] and explain himself at the 
proper place. "^* 

On July 17 a court was held at Christina to examine nine 
adventurers from New England. They had heard that the 
Swedes were all dead,^^ wherefore they came to take possession 
of the river in the name of the Protector of England.*® " They 
had no other passport than a writing which they had signed 
themselves and one called Baxter In Gravesend in New Eng- 
land, but nothing was done to them . . . and they were sent 
back again the same way they had come," to preserve the peace 
with the English colony.®^ 

^ The courts of this period sat partly at Tinicum, partly at Christina and in 
Fort Trefaldighet. Rising's Journal. 

^''Rising was judge. 

"^ For the charges against Rev. Lock and Stille see above, Chap. XXXVIII. 

^Report, 1654; Complaint, etc., 1654. 

^ " Or so sick that they could not lift the anchor of the ship." 

^ They arrived at Tinicum Island in the night or evening of July 14 and 
were taken to Chistina at once by Corporal Anders Olofsson. 

" Rising's Journal. 

Government and Courts of New Sweden. 511 

Another court was held at Christina on October 3 at which 
the majority of the freemen were present and several cases were 
examined. " Peter Lindestrom and Peter Mort were brought 
before the court, because on a night in the fort they had 
pounded an Englishman, Simon Lane, blue. The other Eng- 
lishmen still being there took it hard, yet, because Simon Lane 
remitted the case, they were made free." 

The Dutch colonists caused Rising a great deal of trouble, 
several courts being held in reference to them and on Friday, 
June 23, a court was convened in Fort Trefaldighet at which 
several cases, "which had before been postponed among them," 
were settled.^* 

Efforts were likewise made by the director to bring back the 
colonists, who had deserted since the departure of Printz, so 
that some old law-cases could be settled. As the two Swedish 
commissaries were sent to (Maryland)*^ in May, 1654, they 
were instructed to demand from the officials the return of the 
deserters, who were given assurance of a free passage. But the 
efforts had no results. The deserters were brought before the 
council In Severn, which " found that they were not under ob- 
ligation nor contract to go back to New Sweden, since they had 
committed no crime and were refused a passport by Printz;" 
consequently no one returned. The result of the commlssioh 
was reported on June 6, when Olofsson and Gronberg re- 
turned in company with Th. RIngold, who brought letters con- 
cerning the matter from the governor and magistrates In 
Severn. When RIngold returned, new letters were written to 
the governor and two men*° were sent with him, who should 

"Rising's Journal (Up. B.). 

"The Swedes spoke of the English settlements to the South of New Sweden 
as " Virginia," without always distinguishing between Maryland and Virginia 
proper. Rising's Journal (Up. B.) ; Reports, July 13, 1654, June 13, 1655; 
Lindestrom, Geogr. The English colonies to the north of New Sweden were 
called New England or North England, by the Swedes on the Delaware. Cf. 
Rising's Journal. Lindestrom, Geogr., Report, June 13, 1655. Cf. note 3, Chap. 
XLII. below. 

"One of these was Hans Mansson, Rising's Journal, June 15 (Up. B.). 

512 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

try to bring the people back. An open letter, dated June 8,*^ 
was also sent to the deserters, giving them promise of an un- 
molested journey to New Sweden. "If they came and ex- 
plained their affairs, however they were, they could then go 
wheresoever they pleased." This commission and passport had 
as little effect as the first. No colonists returned and, although 
.several English officials from Maryland appeared at Christina 
in June to treat with Rising, no further efforts seem to have 
been made along these lines.*^ 

Several new attempts to desert were made from time to time 
which naturally gave rise to lawsuits. On October 24 Andrles 
Hudde*^ was examined, because he had been accused of having 
intentions of desertion. He confessed his fault** and Bicker 
interceded for him, hence he was released; but "in his trunk 
were found letters from Virginia," very prejudicial to the 
Swedes, including one from Gotfried Harmer, in which, ex- 
pressing the wish that the Swedes should be driven from the 
river, he attempted to entice them to go to the English. Two 
weeks later (November 8) another court was held in Fort 
Christina to examine into charges made against Sander Kars- 
son, to the effect that he had solicited the people to desert. One 
of the witnesses, Peter Samskemakare,*^ confessed and testified 
that Sander Karsson had requested him to accompany him to 
New Amsterdam. Since Karsson could not deny these charges, 
he was called upon to make known his accomplices. At last he 
confessed that one Pal Qvist and a certain Lars Olofsson were 
in the plot, who were thereupon placed under arrest. Several 
soldiers were also called upon to testify, some being examined, 
and it was brought out that Pal Larsson, who had gone to 

*' The letter was issued in the name of " the Director of New Sweden, the 
humble servant of Her Royal Majesty of Sweden, etc.," June 8, 1654 (copy), N.S., 
L (R.A.). 

"Rising's Journal, May 27, June 6 ff., 1654 (Up. B.). 

" He was later accused and brought before the court on November 16, 1654. 

" He also promised the court that he would point out the place, where a pole 
with the arms of the Dutch West India Company upon it stood across the river 
at the Sandhook. Rising's Journal, October 24, 1654 (Up. B.). 

"The skin-dresser. 

Government and Courts of New Sweden. 513 

Virginia (or Maryland?), had said that a certain old man 
promised to lead all the Swedes there. "This old man" could 
not be discovered, but suspicion fell on Mats Bengtsson, who 
had deserted in the time of Printz. He was examined by the 
court on the following day, but nothing could be proven against 
him. On November 11 the examination of Sander Karsson, 
Pal Qvist and Lars Olofsson was continued. They were all 
discharged on bail and promises of good behavior.*® Rising 
was judge in all of these cases, it seems. But like Governor 
Printz he was at a disadvantage, perhaps even more than the 
governor, for his authority was less. In his report of July, 
1654, he requested his superiors to confer upon him "complete 
authority in higher and lower law cases " and to send over a 
hang-man in order to prevent secret plots as well as other dis- 
turbances. " It is gready to be desired," he said, " that a law- 
reader should be sent here" and he suggested "that the fines, 
which were collected, be divided into three parts, one-third for 
the accuser (with which a fiscal under the name of substitute 
could be paid) , the second one-third for the court and the third 
one-third for the government, to the reward of the law-reader, 
the support of the poor or the like."*'' 

"Rising's Journal, May 23, June 9, 23, 26, July 5, 14, 17, September 9, 
October 3, 18, 24, 26, 31, November 8, n, 13, 16, 1654. (Up. B.). 
"Report, 1654. 



Social and Economic Life, 1654-1655. 


The first concern of Rising and Papegoja, after the arrival 
of the Orn, was to care for the sick people. Their illness in- 
creased and the sailors were so weak, when the ship came before 
Christina, that "they could not lift up the anchor nor row the 
boat without aid from the old colonists." To relieve the situa- 
tion and aid the people "the council found it expedient to 
butcher one of the company's young bulls, of which the lands- 
people and ships-people received one half part each and were 
refreshed by it." The old colonists undoubtedly did all in their 
power to make it comfortable for the newcomers and the bar- 
ber-surgeons were busy, caring for those in greatest need, while 
superintending the treatment of others.^ 

By the arrival of the Orn the population of New Sweden 
was Increased more than five-fold. About twenty-five colonists 
and soldiers had left the colony with Printz and others had 
deserted so that the total number of inhabitants was only 70, 
when Rising came here. About 350 were on the Orn, as the 
ship set sail from Gothenburg, but nearly a hundred died on the 
journey and a few succumbed in the colony in the early summer, 
making the total population about the middle of July only 
"368 souls with the Hollanders and all."^ But so large an 
increase In the number of colonists without addltonal provisions 
and merchandise for the trade made the situation critical. The 
illness continued for some weeks, Skute and other officers also 
being afflicted. To aggravate matters, disease spread to the 
Indians, so that " they avoided all communication with the 

^Rising to E. Oxenstierna, July ii, 13, 1654; Journal; Geogr. 
° Rising's Journal; Geogr.; Report, 1654. Rising states in his Report how- 
ever, that there were 370 people in the colony. 


Social and Economic Life. 515 

Swedes for a time and consequently brought them few supplies 
of meat and fish." One of the first duties of the council was 
therefore to obtain " provisions for all the people, since they 
were entirely destitute and would either die of starvation or 
desert. Hence It was resolved that VIce-CommlssIoner Jacob 
Swensson should be sent for this purpose with the sloop to 
North England,^ since he had good and well-known friends 
there." About two weeks later trade was begun with the 
Indians in the Horn Kill and some supplies were obtained from 
them. "On July 21 Jacob Swensson returned with the sloop 
from Hartford, New England, bringing grain and provisions 
[purchased] from Mr. Richard Lord."* Conditions had now 
greatly changed for the better and Rising could pay more 
attention to other matters." 

In accordance with the Instructions of the Commercial Col- 
lege arrangements were made as soon as possible for the secur- 
ing of a new cargo and on May 24 (two days after the ship's 
arrival at Christina and several days before its unloading) the 
matter was under consideration by the council. No skins could 
be got from the savages, consequently it was decided to send 
messengers to Maryland, Virginia and New Amsterdam to see 
If any freight could be found for the ship at these places. 
News was received on June 25 that "numerous merchants at 
New Amsterdam were desirous of sending goods" to New 
Sweden for further transportation to Europe, but nothing 
except news about the matter ever appeared.® 

When Isaac Allerton became aware of the arrival of a 
Swedish vessel at Christina, he went there in his sloop and 
presented a number of old bills. These could not be paid, 
however, as there were no means on hand and many of the 
debtors had returned to the mother country, but Allerton was 
promised his money as soon as new supplies should arrive. It 

' New England, cf. Chap. XLI. above. 
* " The bills were delivered to Peter Mort." 

"Rising to E. Oxenstierna, July ii, 1654; Lindestrorn to the Com. Col., July 
9, 1654; Rising's Journal; Geogr. 
' Rising's Journal. 

5i6 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

seems that he left the colony at once, returning in a week with 
60 hogsheads of tobacco, for he observed that there was a 
chance to do some good business before the Orn set sail for 
Europe. His prices were somewhat high, 10 stivers a Ib.,'^ 
which he finally reduced to 9 stivers (declaring that he could 
not sell for less), but he was willing to risk the danger of loss 
on the sea and the fluctuation of the market, so that if the 
tobacco could not be sold at a gross profit of 7 stivers a lb. he 
would reduce his price to such an extent that this profit would be 
realized,* the only condition being, that half of the value of the 
tobacco at 9 stivers per lb., should be paid him at once, the other 
half when the next ship arrived with a cargo. Rising, however, 
"took it into consideration a few days," probably expecting 
that other merchants would make their appearance. But none 
appeared and on July 3 the transaction was effected, AUerton 
selling "13,519* lbs. of Virginian tobacco for 6,083 :iij^ 
florins, Holland." "A written accord was made, signed by 
Rising and Allerton, and the tobacco was brought on board the 
Orn the same day." On Tuesday, the next day, goods to the 
value of 2,364:1 1 J^ florins were delivered to Allerton from 
the storehouse at Christina, and a "promise to pay the other 
3,719^ florins," when the next boat should arrive, was signed 
by the director.^** 

In his instruction Rising was directed to observe "that the 
land should be properly portioned out to the colonists, so that 
each one would receive as much ground as could be given to 
him."^^ The country was inspected by the director shortly 
after his arrival, whereupon it was decided that old farms be 
improved and new tracts reclaimed from the forest. Rising 
also caused a map to be made of the river " from the Bay up to 

' Six and seven stivers being the usual price. 

' " Sa at hwad man skulle fa mindre for Llbdet i Sweerige an i6 styfer thet 
wille han arfijlla och af sin rast afdraga latha," Rising's Journal. 

"The total vras " 15,926 lib. netto 13,519 lib.," Rising's Journal. 

"Rising's Journal, June 28, July 3, 1654; Report, 1654; Lindestrom to the 
Com. Col. July 9, 1654. 

""Memorials," etc. (par. 10), December 18, 1653, Com. Col. Reg. (R.A.) ; 
Rising's Journal (Up. U.). 

Social and Economic Life. 517 

the Falls," "as good as was possible in a hurry," by "Andries 
Hudde, a Hollander."^* As soon as the newly arrived freemen 
had recovered sufficiently they were assigned land and on June 
10 Rising writes in his Journal that "this and the following 
[days] we settled the people, who were well to cultivate the 
land." These colonists were supported by the company until 
they " could make a start " and cattle were given to them for a 
certain part of the produce. 

Several donations of land in New Sweden had been made by 
the Crown to officers who came here. In most cases this was 
done without proper knowledge of the location or condition of 
the tracts, hence difficulties were sure to arise. Some of these 
lands not only were occupied by other freemen, but they had 
not even been properly purchased from the Indians. On June 
5, as Rising with some officers were on an inspection-tour, 
" Captain Skute presented a letter patent from [Her] Royal 
Majesty, Queen Christina, through which she had given 
him Passayunk . . . [and part?] of Kingsessing . . . But 
the freemen were not pleased at this, saying that it was too 
early for them to become tenants,^ ^ for they had enjoyed no 
freedoms as yet. They were pacified, however, by the infor- 
mation that Her Royal Majesty intended to give to Captain 
Skute only the title to the land, not their work and improve- 
ment, which they had done upon it." As a consequence, sev- 
eral of the old colonists desired to sell their homesteads in order 
to occupy "new lands, encouraged thereto by the privileges 
(freedoms) given by Her Royal Majesty ... [to private 
settlers], but no one of the new-comers had means to redeem 
them." Some cultivated farms were therefore purchased for 
the company, the improvement only being paid for, and in the 
summer and autumn Nils Mattson,^* Mans Mansson and other 

"Rising paid "till en hollendare medh nampn Andreas Hydden, som haffver 
giort nagra karter offver Rewiret och andra affritninggar, 20 [florins]." Rack, 
raed Sod. Comp.," October 25, 1660, Rising's Process (R.A.)- Cf. above, Chap. 

" " Frelsebonder," tenants or serfs. 

" " At this time [July 10] I bought in behalf and for the benefit of the com- 
pany, Mans Anderson's land, called Siller, Johan Schaffebs and Iver the Finns 

Si8 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

freemen were given tenure of lands at Upland, Printz-Torp 
and tracts on the Schuylkill. ^^ Servants were also assigned to 
the estate of Printz at Tinicum Island " to guard the Hall 
against the savages . . . and to do all that was necessary for 
the fields and meadows, besides whatever else might be re- 

It seems that the majority of the new colonists were assigned 
places between Christina and Ft. Trefaldighet, as near the 
Delaware as possible. A few were also located upwards along 
the bank of Christina River, " in order to protect the colony 
against Virginia " and In time to make a commercial road from 
the English Rlver^" to the Swedish settlement. Some of the 
company's cows were portioned out to settlers on rental In June 
for one lispund (i8 lbs.) of butter yearly and half of the 
offspring. About the beginning of July " the rye [of the com- 
pany] was cut and brought into Fort Christina"^'' and the 
crops of the other plantations were harvested at the same time, 
but comparatively little grain had been sown and hence, 
although the yield was good, the crop was not large.^^ 

Rising also endeavored to carry out the other paragraphs 
of his instruction and he selected "suitable places, where vil- 
lages ... as well as towns and trading-places could be 
founded and established." Lindestrom was commissioned " to 
divide the fields [north of and next unto Christina] into lots." 
The town proper was laid out Into a rectangular plot (broken 
by the encroachment of the low-lands) with square blocks and 
streets running at right angles to each other — antedating Wil- 
liam Penn's Philadelphia plan about thirty years. A map of 

cultivated land. A new freeman called Nils Matzon rented these three lands." 
Rising's Journal, July lo, 1654 (Up. U.). 

"The beasts of burden and half of the seed being supplied by the company, 
the other half of the seed by the renters, who gave half of the produce to the 

" Elk River and the Chesapeake. 

" " 30 staffer vijdh pass." 

"Rising's Journal, June 5, 10, 19, July 6, 10, 24, 1654 (Up. U.) ; Instruction 
for Rising, December 15, 1653 (par. 6, 7, 12, 13, 14) ; Report, July 13, 1654; 
Sprinchorn, p. 93 ff. 

■_f* ». lA 1& 

♦< •♦• 

♦ ♦< 

♦ * • h,*i*ti 


p, m 

■o £ 























Social and Economic Life. 519 

the fort and the town plan were completed by the engineer on 
July 8 and sent to Sweden with the Orn.^^ 

Towards the middle of July all necessary arrangements for 
the return voyage of the Orn, which had been in progress for 
some time, were completed. Lindestrom had been appointed 
to direct the preparations, but although he as well as Rising did 
their utmost to procure a sufficient cargo " both from Virginia 
and Manatan " as well as from the savages, " it could not be 
done." " Besides the goods that were furnished for the cargo 
Capt. Bockhorn should load timber upon the ship for ballast, 
which was to be sold at Lisbon in exchange for salt " ; but on 
account of the sickness of the people and the time of the year 
the instructions could not be followed. "On July 15 the 
despatches were finished and, as Papegoja had in mind to go 
home with the ship," a recommendation to the government 
was prepared for him by the director. He was to make an 
oral report and all the documents sent to Sweden were placed 
in his care, such as Rising's JournaP and Report, Maps of 
Christina and of New Sweden, the Oath of the Hollanders, the 
two Land-Deeds and other papers. The settlers assembled on 
the shore at Fort Christina during the day (July 15, 1654), to 
bid farewell and to wish a happy voyage to the ship and its 
passengers and In the afternoon the Eagle spread its wings and 
glided down Christina River amid the cheers and farewells of 
the people on the bank. Rising went over land to Fort Tre- 
faldighet, where he boarded the ship and remained over night. 
On the sixteenth he went ashore together with Madame Pape- 
goja, who had also accompanied the vessel as far as Trefaldlg- 
het to see her husband off, and the Orn made Its final start for 
the return voyage.^^ 

In his report sent with the ship Rising gave a review of the 

"Instruction for Rising, December 15, 1653 (par 8), Com. Col. Reg. (R.A.) ; 
Report, July 13, 1654; Sprinchorn, p. 96; Geogr.. Lindestrom's Map of Fort 
Christina, July 8, 1654, N.S., II. (R.A.) ; cf. facsimile. 

"The one of which a fragment is now preserved in N.S., I. (R.A.). 

^Rising's Journal, June 30, July 15, 16 ff., 1654; Rising's Report, Lindestrom 
to the Com. Col., July 9, 1654, N.S., I. (R.A.) ; Geogr. 

520 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

conditions he found in the colony and proposed several reforms, 
complaining that he was in want of potters, brick-makers, lime- 
bumers, cabinet-makers, tanners, shoemakers and turners, but 
above all of provisions and supplies as well as additional 
colonists.2^ He thought it was a pity that a country with so 
many advantages, where expenses would be rewarded a thou- 
sand-fold, should be neglected, when "one often spent both 
property and hlood on land, which could not by far be com- 
pared with this. Why should one not risk the expense of 
money and property, without the shedding of blood . . . " on 
a settlement which "in the future, in case of need, would be 
able to do good service to the Fatherland and become a jewel 
in the Royal Crown, if now succor should be sent at an early 
date." He also requested more cannon and ammunition for 
the defence of the river. As yet he had made no progress in 
the establishment of manufactories and the founding of towns, 
on account of the bad health of the people and the small re- 
sources, but he promised to do his best as soon as opportunity 
occurred, since there were splendid locations for towns and 
serviceable waterfalls, where mills of various kinds could be 
built, his intention being to construct a dam at the " great fall " 
of Christina River,-^ " as soon as everything had been harvested 
and sown " in the autumn.-* 

Soon after the departure of the vessel Madame Papegoja 
made arrangements to remove from Christina, as the family 
property there had been bought for the company and Rising 
was to occupy the principal dwelling in the fort. " On August 
30 . . . she went up to Tinicum with her children and house- 
hold in a little sloop," her personal property having been sent 
up a few days before, where she settled on her father's estate.^* 

The efforts for the improvement of the colony, begun by 

^ He proposed that some Dutch colonists be sent over also. 

^ It seems clear that the fall in the Chistina River is meant, for Rising says 
" in this said river [Christinekijl] and near here in the neighborhood are some 
falls, but the principal one is called the great falls." There are also falls in the 
Brandyvrine creek, however. 

'^Report, July 13, 1654. 

^Rising's Journal, August 8, 26, 30, 1654 (Up. B.). 

Social and Economic Life. 521 

Rising on his arrival here, were continued throughout the sum- 
mer. In company with other officers the director visited the 
different settlements and the plantations belonging to the com- 
pany, endeavoring to learn the needs and conditions, so as to be 
able from personal knowledge to arrange for necessary im- 
provements. In the beginning of September the ale house at 
Tinicum, " being daily robbed of doors and clapboards by the 
savages, was brought to Christina on the keel-boat, where it 
was erected outside of the fort . . . for an inn." A cellar 
was dug in Christina, masoned with stone, and the store-house, 
which had been bought from Papegoja for 100 R.D. (?) was 
placed above it. " Five freemen from Kingsessing and some 
others . . . repaired the [principal] dwelling in Fort Chris- 
tina, the sill and five logs being decayed in the corner . . ., 
and covered the whole building below with planks, in order 
that the house should not rot from the water. Later they built 
the provision-house five rounds [of logs] higher, covered it 
with boards and protected it below with planks and dug [a 
ditch] around the storehouse which was likewise cased with 
planks on account of the water. Lastly they removed the roof 
of the bathhouse . . . raised [the walls] four rounds [of 
logs] higher, [so as to make it useful] for a smokehouse of 
meat and fish, etc., and made a porch before it out of planks." 
The other dwellings in the fort were likewise repaired, " four 
clapboard rooms " being made, which provided more space for 
the people. 

It was the intention to establish a staple town near the fort 
and to cause the skilled workmen, such as shoemakers, black- 
smiths, carpenters and the like to reside there. Here also 
manufactories of various kinds were to be founded and the 
harbor was to be improved so that it would become the centre 
for the trade of the country. In the autumn the lots were more 
accurately measured off and plans were projected for the build- 
ing of a town " since there was very little room in the fortress." 
Several men were appointed to " cut pine timber on the eastern 
bank " of the Delaware almost opposite Tinicum Island, under 

522 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

the direction of Johan Stalkofta "and later they brought a 
little timber raft to Fort Christlna."^^ 

In October "some [of the settlers] commenced to build 
. . . manors and houses on their lots " and the walls of several 
new dwellings were soon to be seen above the ground. A plot 
was also prepared for an orchard, a sort of a park, "planted 
with fruit trees and surrounded with palisades." The city thus 
begun was called Christlnehamn^'^ and If the conditions had 
been more favorable It might have grown Into considerable im- 

One of the first concerns of Rising was naturally the repair- 
ing of the forts and the defense of the country. The Dutch 
fort received his immediate attention, as it was " the key to the 
river." Captain Sven Skute was appointed to superintend the 
strengthening of the old and the erection of new ramparts. 
Four 14-pound metal cannon,^* which had been taken from the 
0;-«3o were placed behind an entrenchment, constructed In front 
of the fortress to further command the river. Balls, lead, 
powder and other articles to the value of 92 D., also taken from 
the ship, were brought Into the fort. Captain Skute, assisted 
by the former Commander Bicker, worked all summer on the 
fortifications with twenty men. Towards the middle of Octo- 
ber the works were nearly ready, although somewhat delayed 
by the illness of Skute and others ; but on the night of October 
22 a fearful northeast storm, accompanied by an exceptionally 
high flood did great damage at Fort Trefaldighet, washing 
away the wall up to the palisades. " Fort Christina, ^^ being In 

"Rising's Journal; Geogr. 

"^ Presumably in honor of Queen Christina. The name means the harbor of 
Christina. A city with the same name was founded in Sweden in 1643 (the 
place having several dwellings long before, however). 

^Rising's Journal (Up. B.). 

^ These were to be paid to the Admiralty by the company. They were valued 
at 576 D., "Wast. Cora. med. H. Kramer," etc., Soderk., 1637-59 (R.A.). 

'" " On the twenty-seventh of June it was decided that Captain Skute should 
go to Fort Trefaldighet and fortify it with all power . . . and that Captain 
Bockhorn should supply four fourteen pound iron guns for the defence of the 
fort and the river, which was done." Rising's Journal, June 27, 1654 (Up. B.). 

°^In the night of August 29, a fire broke out in Christina. The fort was in 
great danger, but the fire was extinguished before it had done any damage. 

Social and Economic Life. 523 

a state of entire dilapidation," was also repaired during the 
autumn** by the freemen and soldiers.** 

Agriculture and cattle raising were now becoming of first 
Importance to the colony. The settlers were well supplied with 
cattle when Printz returned to Sweden, but with the arrival of 
the new expedition the cattle and horses became too few for the 
great number of freemen. When " the English from Virginia " 
visited Christina in the summer, a contract was made with them 
for the delivery of a number of cows. Th. Ringold from 
Maryland desired to buy five or six mares. So large a number 
could not be spared, but it was agreed to sell two mares to him, 
each to be paid for by two cows that were with calf. In like 
manner March, " who was the richest man In his colony," 
promised to send over ten cows, when Ringold delivered his.** 
Through these purchases the value of a cow in New Sweden 
fell about fifty per cent. 

In August an order was issued by the council, "that every 
freeman [at the Sandhook] should inclose his plantation and 
watch his cattle that they did no damage to others, on penalty 
of punishment."*^ In the autumn orders were also given to the 
freemen to clear certain lands. " The field at Fort Christina 
was plowed and manure was brought upon It . . . The land**' 
across Christina River [opposite the fort called the sidolandY'^ 
was [also] cleared and sown with wheat" by some freemen, 
who were to have one-third of the crop for their labor. Horses 
and oxen were taken to the Sandhook for the plowing and cul- 
tivation of certain farms, which had been forfeited to the com- 

°°The work lasted for almost a month and new palisades were placed all 
around the fort, Rising's Journal, November i, 1654 (Up. B.). 

''Rising's Journal, June 3, 27, August 30, October 22, November t, 1654; 
Rising to E. Oxenstierna, July ii, 1654; "Reck. med. Sod. Comp.," Rising's 
Process; Geogr.; Report, July 13, 1654; Sprinchorn, p. 99. "Wast. Comp. med. 
Bookh. H. Kramer," 1654, SSderk., 1637-59 (R.A.). 

" Whether or not these cows were all delivered is not known. 

"Rising's Journal, June 5, 19, August 8, October 8, 18, 1654 (Up. B.) ; Report, 
July 13, 1654. 

*" About 50 acres of this land was sown with winter wheat in November. 
Rising's Journal, November 6, 1654 (Up. B.). 

""The side land." 

524 The Swedish Settlements on th e Delaware. __ _ 

pany by some Dutch freemen. In October, November and 
December " the new freemen were ordered to clear their land 
at various places, for the purpose of planting maize in the 
coming spring, and several fields at the Sandhook and tort 
Christina, and up at the [Christina ( ?) ] river were cleared and 
sown for the benefit of the company with the grain which Mr. 
Lord had brought in." "A pair of young oxen belonging to 
the company were assigned to a freeman, called Mans Mans- 
son the Finn, who had rented a farm at Upland . . . Some old 
freemen were also ordered to help with their oxen so that suffi- 
cient land was cleared for [the sowing of] about 60 to 70 
skeppor,^'"' part of it being sown with wheat, the other part to 
be sown with maize in the spring."^® 

Rising had been granted a piece of land in the colony, large 
enough for the settlement of 20 to 30 peasants. This land 
was "located down at Fort Trefaldighet, extending from the 
[river] back along a little stream, a quarter of a Swedish mile 
[i^ English miles] up into the country and then along the 
river a quarter of a mile to Traneudden [Crane Hook] Inclu- 
sive," but, " since the above was somewhat remote from Chris- 
tina so that Rising could not superintend it dally," he requested 
a grant of Timber Island with half of the land down to the 
Skoldpaddekill (Mudturtle Kill), the other half to be bought 
by him. The donation was recommended by Johan Papegoja, 
Sven Skute, Johan Bockhorn, Gerit Bicker, Andries Hudde, 
Gregorlus van Dyck and four others.*® The director did not 
wait for an answer from Sweden, but proceeded In December 
to clear off Timber Island at his own expense with the assistance 
of the officers and freemen for the purpose of making a plan- 
tation there. Various kinds of fruit trees were also planted In 
the autumn both by Rising and the freemen.*" 

The grain was thrashed in the fall and most of It was prob- 
ably ground at the mill as the mill-dam was repaired In August, 

"'About 70 to 80 acres, cf. above, Chap. VI. 

" Rising's Journal, August 25 ff. 

™ Rising to Oxenstierna, July 11, P.S., July 17, 1654. 

"Rising's Journal (Up. B.). 

Plowing^ and prepiLiinp the ground in the north according" to Olaus Magnus (1555). 


Types of manure forks (of wood) from Finland. ((",.) 

Social and Economic Life. 525 

making it probable that the mill was in good condition. 
Towards the end of October, when some of the most necessary 
duties had been attended to, Rising went up to Naaman's Kill, 
" in company with several good men," where he found " a 
serviceable little waterfall for a sawmill." It was thought very 
necessary to build a saw-mill for the needs of the country and 
for supplying the neighbors with lumber and, as saw-blades had 
been taken over for this purpose, it would not be difficult to 
erect such a mill.*^ 

We have already seen that English merchants went to New 
Sweden to sell goods shortly after Rising's arrival. The condi- 
tion of the country and the failure of the arrival of new sup- 
plies made it imperative for the director to continue to buy 
provisions from the neighbors and the Indians. On September 
24 Richard Lord from Hartford arrived at Christina "with 
a cargo of provisions and other goods," besides letters from 
Elswick relating the sorrowful news of the capture of the Haj. 
" It was a special injury to us," says Rising in his journal, " and 
a blow not easily repaired." The cargo was bought from Lord 
on October 2 and, since there was neither goods nor money on 
hand, he was given an obligation signed by director Rising and 
Jacob Svensson with a promise to pay in April. 

As Lord undertook to transmit letters to Sweden via Eng- 
land, the director made his second report " to the Commercial 
College in which he related their weak condition . . . and 
the pressing need of relief, especially as the ship, the Gyllene 
Haj, had been seized by Stuyvesant at Manhathans . . . hop- 
ing that succor would be sent at the earliest [opportunity]."*^ 

About the end of November a boat "with provisions and 
people " was sent "up to the falls " to meet Hendrick von 
Elswick, who was expected to come overland from Manhattan. 
On the last of November he arrived at Christina in company 
with Sven Hook, a servant, a secretary and a soldier, bringing 
the letters and documents which had not been sent from New 

"Rising's Journal, August 15, October 28, 1654; Report, 1654. 
*^ Letters were also written to the chancellor, Rising's Journal. 

526 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Amsterdam and those concerning the Katt affair in Porto Rico. 
The account-books, bills and the like were now turned over 
to Elswick, who was given charge of the storehouse and the 
goods at Christina. At the inventory which was made it was 
found that the supply was very small and some of the articles 
were ruined.*^ 

During the autumn provisions were stored in the forts and, 
as there were indications that the winter would be cold, the 
dwellings were repaired, while the old barns were improved 
and new ones were built. In the beginning of December " the 
soldiers [and servants] commenced to clear land for the plan- 
tations of the company, as well at Christina as on the upper 
side [of the fort] and continued with it all winter so that beau- 
tiful pieces of land were cleared, which were to be planted with 
maize and tobacco for the company in the spring. The free- 
men also as well as other servants of the company [cleared] 
parts of their new lands at several places, namely about ( ?)** 
9 tracts on Strandviken*^ down at Ft. Christina, at Tref aldighet 
7 tracts, at the Sandhook 2 tracts, on Amman's land up at the 
Kvarn Kill*^ 3 tracts, two islands at Kingsessing and Timber 
Island at Ft. Christina."^ 

In the autumn of 1653 Governor Printz and Hendrick Huy- 
gen made a list of the land (wild and improved) and other 
property, belonging to the New Sweden Company on the Dela- 
ware and an estimate of the value of the same*® as follows : 


1. From Sankikan to the Schuylkill about 45 miles, on the west bank of 

the Delaware, as far landwards as the Swedes desired to use it, 
uncultivated, Indians dwelling upon it 20,000 

2. Fort Korsholra, with eight morgens," cultivated land and some 

meadow, the rest uncultivated 2,ooo 

'"There were only 166% yards of frieze; 90 kettles; i bear skin; 63 otter 
skins; 255 lbs. of tobacco, etc. in the storehouse, "Anno 1655, Schuldt und 
Cargason Buch," N.S., I. (R.A.) ; cf. above, Chap. XLL 

""Wijdras 9 stycken " = " Vid pass 9 stycken"? 

'^ " Strandwiken " = The Strand-Bay. 

"Mill Creek. 

"Rising's Journal (Up. B.). 

"This formed the basis for later estimates in the efforts of Sweden to secure 
damages for the colony. 

** For the size of a morgen see Chap. LIV., note 2. 

Social and Economic Life. 527 

3. Ft. Vasa, also called Kingsessing about three (Eng.) miles up the 

river, where 20 freemen live, 20 morgens field with cattle and 

horses 6,000 

4. Aronameck, about one and a half miles from Vasa, 4 morgens culti- 

vated land 500 

5. Molndal with a water mill" and 4 morgens cultivated land 1,500 

6. Tenakung or New Gothenborg, 12 morgens of field, 50 beasts and the 

buildings, which belong to Governor Printz 4,000 

7. Tequirassy, about one and a half miles below, with three plantations 

of 12 morgens cultivated land, buildings and beasts 1,500 

8. Upland otherwise called Meckopenacka, 12 morgens, cultivated land 

with dwellings 1,500 

9. Printztorp, 10 morgens cultivated land with dwellings and beasts, 

belongs to Gov. Printz 2,000 

10. Four plantations adjoining Printztorp with 16 morgens cultivated 

land, houses and beasts 2,000 

11. Ft. Christina with the dwellings and other property io,ooo 

12. Cultivated land, 12 morgens in the neighborhood of the fort 2,000 

13. From the fort up along Christina River, one plantation of 8 morgens. 1,000 

14. The Sandhook with Ft. Trefaldighet 8,000" 

15. 20 morgens cultivated land and 20 houses near the fort 1,500 

16. From the Sandhook to Cape Henlopen, of which the land of the Horn 

Kill is mostly cleared 32,000 

17. On the east bank of the Delaware from Cape Henlopen to Ft. 

Elfsborg uninhabited land 28,000 

i8. Ft. Elfsborg with the surrounding 30 morgens of cleared land, "culti- 
vated by the English a short time ago " 5,000 

19. From Ft. Elfsborg to the Verkerte Kill at Ermewamex, 8 German 

miles, uninhabited land 16,000 

20. The rest of the land up the Delaware is not yet bought by the 

Swedes except two islands in the river, for a long time inhabited 

by the Indians 4,000 

Total value 148,500 

or 222,750 D." 

Such was the extent of the cultivated lands in New Sweden 
when Director Rising began to clear new lands in the autumn 
of 1654. Before spring and summer came, this had more than 

The Swedes and especially the Finns were accustomed to a 
primitive way of clearing the forest and making use of the 
land, the so-called Svedjebruket^* (agriculture by burning) .^'^ 

" Molndal with the mill was estimated at i,ooo R.D. 

"'The fort was added later after its capture in 1654. 

'^Journal, no. 1586; Beschr. van de S. R. gele. in Nova Svecia, N.S., II. (R.A.). 

"Report, 1655, Rising's Journal. 

" The German, Uberlandbrennen, Sengen, Schoden. 

"^The method is referred to in Kalevala, I. 16, 22, 23, 26; II. 691. 

528 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

This method of clearing away the forest and preparing the 
ground for sowing has been employed by the American Indians 
and other primitive peoples of all times. It was used by the 
old Romans and has been employed in Sweden, Finland, Ger- 
many, Switzerland, Greece and other European countries down 
to our present day. 

The svedging or burning served two objects, it cleared away 
the forest and prepared a splendid manure.'® When a tract 
of wooded land was to be made into fields in this way, the trees 
were felled (in a certain order), generally in summer or the 
fall, when there were leaves on the branches, or in the case of 
pines, in winter. The trees were then allowed to dry for about 
a year, when the branches were removed from the trunks and 
all useful trees cut into logs. The following summer the 
branches and trees were burnt, after certain incantations 
(among the Finns) had been read. 

Men and women, dressed in their poorest clothes, would 
then superintend the burning and see that as far as possible, 
every part of the ground was singed. In the autumn, or a few 
weeks after the burning, rye was sown in the ashes among the 
stumps and the large tree-trunks that had not been removed or 
that would not burn. When the crop had been harvested all 
the trunks and logs were rolled or carried into piles, where they 
were burnt. The ground was then prepared more carefully 
and grain (oats, rye or wheat) was again sown. Soil that had 
been enriched by burning could bear good crops for five or six 
years without manuring or new burning. Hence cultivated 
land was sometimes " burnt," logs, branches and the like being 
brought from other places and spread out over the field. When 
they had been burnt, grain was sown as before.''^ 

In Sweden and Finland this method became so common dur- 
ing the seventeenth century that ordinances were passed against 
it by the government, many Finns being sent to New Sweden 
for violating these edicts. The Finns, and in some cases the 

"The ashes which remains after the burning is one of the best manures. 
" Grotenfelt, Det primitwa jordb., etc., p. 27 ff., 36 fi., 147 ff. ; Stolt, Minnen, 
p. 40. 

A typical harvest scene in Finland and Sweden. K. 

A field prepared by burning i^Svedjebnck) . R. 

Branch-harrow," used by the Finns and Swedes for preparing the ground fur 
sowing after the " burning." It was dragged over the " singed tract." 

' Hand-harruw" (made uf wood) for preparing the ground, used by the Finns and 

Swedes. S. 



Plow made of wood. R. 

A sickle. vStones for a hand-mill. K. See p. 536. 

Social and Economic Life. 529 

Swedes, continued the practise on the South River and several 
tracts were undoubtedly cleared In this manner in the winter 
of 1654-55, but there are very few references to It.®^ 

The winter became so severe that the rivers froze over and 
when the Ice broke in January Christina Kill rose far above its 
usual level. The heavy flood carried the Ice down towards the 
fort, " a large part of which would have been swept away, had 
not the new palisades prevented it," and the sloop lying on the 
bank was carried far up on the land by the water. In February 
warm and pleasant weather returned, causing the ice to dis- 

There seems to have been very little trade with the neighbors 
or the Indians during the winter. In the early part of the year 
"an English bark"^^ was anchored at Fort Trefaldighet, but 
whether or not any goods were sold does not appear. When it 
departed for New Amsterdam In the early spring, a quantity 
of skins was sent there under the care of Elswick,®" who ex- 
changed the skins for merchandise*^ to be used in the trans- 
actions with the Indians. Elswick, having gone to New Am- 
sterdam " as though he intended to return to Sweden," em- 
barked for Christina some time in May on a Boston sloop, 
which brought a quantity of provisions and merchandise to the 
colony of which the skipper sold 616 florins worth to the 

When spring came the improved land was large enough to 
support the people, if the crops should be good; but It was found 
that the frost had ruined the grain which had been sown in the 

'^Doc, XII. ; Hazard. 

'"' Elswick says that the bark belonged to Cornells Jansen who was probably 
a Hollander. 

"Elswick dates the entry of the transaction on March 14, 1655, Schuldt. a. 
Carg. B. and in his letter of June 16, 1655, he says he went there on March 
15. N.S., I. (R.A.). 

"Fifty otter-skins were sold for 200 fl. ; 10 deer-skins for 150:15 fl., 25 
beaver-skins for 175 fl., 26 mink-skins for 15:12 fl., the total amount being 541:7 fl., 
Schuldt. u. Carg. B. 

"Rising's Journal, January, February, 1655; Fragment of Elswick's Journal, 
N.S., I. (K.A.) ; Elswick to E. Oxenstierna, June 16, 1655, N.S., I. (R.A.) ; 
"Schuldt u. Carg. B.," N.S., II. (R.A.) ; Report, 1655; cf. below, Chap. XLVL, 


530 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

autumn. There was no grain on hand for a new seeding, but 
Richard Lord was requested to bring seed and provisions to the 
colony. As he arrived rather late, the old fields were planted 
with tobacco in March and April and many new plots were 

About the beginning of May Isaac AUerton with his skipper, 
Michell Tentor, was in New Sweden and Rising bought from 
him a hogshead of French wine, a hundred pounds of butter, 
several gallons of vinegar, a quantity of hops and other goods.®* 
On May 7 a skipper, William King, sold 320 yards of frieze for 
1,144 florins. The two bills were paid for by drafts, one due 
in three months from date, the other on August 31. A few 
days later Richard Lord finally came to Christina with his 
ketch and a cargo " consisting of grain, fish, cloth, clothes, salt 
[hops, bread, meat] and other goods." His prices were exor- 
bitant, but the Swedes were in sore need and on June 14 they 
contracted a purchase.*^ He presented his old bills and would 
not leave the goods on the same terms as formerly. Finally he 
accepted a draft for the amount (2,196^^ R.D.),®* drawn on 
the Commercial College (to be paid one month after sight), 
and signed by director Rising and Elswick,®^ but on the condi- 

°° Rising's Journal, 1655 (Up. B.)- 


°* Fransz wein, i Oxhovet 104 

Kopffen, 26 St. mit fasz 30:2 

Butter, 100 lib 60 

Eszig, 3 anker 60 

Schue, 40 par ^ 160 

Frijss, 40 ell 160 

Hembden, 23 st 103 :io 

"^He sold 1,424 lbs. of bacon (?), 1,107 lbs. of bread, three barrels of butter, 
" three barrels of salted ox-meat," " two barrels of pork," two barrels of mackerel, 
one barrel of cider, some brandy, 97 bushels of wheat, several pairs of stockings, 
hats, gloves, etc., 1,675 'bs. of lead and 85 lbs. of powder. 

'"A copy of the draft (in German) in N.S., L (K.A.). The draft was to be 
paid to Isaack Allen of London or to his factor " Ein monadt auf sicht," etc., from 
August 31. 

"The bill was £488. 3s. lo^d., but of this sum £200. 12s. id. was an old 
debt since February. Each £, was to be reckoned at 4^^ R.D. The bill included 
interest and a fine of £23, because Rising could not deliver 3155^ beavers on 
the appointed day, as there were no beavers to be had from the savages. 
" Schuldt u. Carg. B." 

Burning a field " in Finland. G. 

Social and Economic Life. 531 

tion that he should receive 8 per cent, on the new as well as the 
old debt until paid and that all damages, which he would suffer 
unless the bills were settled before August, were guaranteed 
to be paid him. Lord also sold pease and other articles to be 
paid for by beavers in 1656 and made smaller sales to individual 
colonists. About the same time, probably in company with 
Lord, Thomas Sandford from Boston arrived here, bringing 
with him a quantity of bread, dried meat, brandy and other 
goods, which were mostly sold in the colony.®* 

During his stay Lord also " promised to import English sheep 
and other cattle as well as [bees and] all sorts of fruit trees." 
Again as he had done in the previous autumn he promised 
to transport mail through his correspondents to Sweden and 
to the Swedish agents in Holland. Accordingly Rising wrote 
letters to his principals in Stockholm as well as to Peter 
Trotzig in Amsterdam and made his third relation.^" He 
reported that the colony was in fairly good condition, much 
land had been cleared, corn had been planted and the ter- 
ritory of New Sweden had been greatly increased, but suc- 
cor in the way of provisions, cloth and the like was sorely 
needed and, if the hope of assistance and of the arrival of 
new supplies did not cheer the people, many would desert, 
as some had already done, so that " affairs would have a speedy 
end." More colonists ought to be sent over and the requests 
for skilled workmen were repeated — " house-carpenters, who 
understood how to cut all kinds of timber," he expected to find 
in New England. He proposed that a large capital should be 
employed for the good of the colony, according to plans sub- 

"'The bill entered by Elswick is as follows: 

Erbszen, 57 buszel @ 3 fl 171 

Droge Fish, 500 lbs. . . . 100 lbs. pr. 14 fl 70 

Brandewein, 2 ancker und 13 galen 138 

Brott, 200 lbs., 100 lbs. @ 16 fl 32 

Saltz, 10 Buszel @ 6 fl 60 

Schue, 40 par @ 3^^ fl 140 

Wullen Schniire, ist. von 80 ell 5 

" Schuldt u. Carg. B." 

"Rising's Journal; Report, June 14, 1655, N.S., I. (K.A.). 

532 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

mitted by Elswick,''" and a new route for the expeditions was 
suggested. The journey by way of the Canaries was long and 
troublesome on account of the severe heat; the route farther 
north (used by the English) was many hundred miles shorter, 
could be accomplished at the most in from 5 to lo weeks and no 
people would die on the journey from heat. Nothing had been 
done in the way of establishing factories, but as soon as sup- 
plies were received, beginnings would be made. The threats 
of the Hollanders and the dangers from the English and the 
savages disturbed the colonists somewhat, but not to any alarm- 
ing degree.''^ 

The colonists were busy with their various labors during the 
summer. The hay was cut on the lands of the company at 
Christina and at Trefaldighet as well as on the farms of the 
freemen during the latter part of June and the grain was 
harvested about the same time. 

Shortly after the harvest, Rising in company with "Linde- 
strom as engineer," and three other men " sailed down to the 
entrance of the Bay, In order to observe the situation of the 
river" for the purpose of making a correct map of It and a 
few days later he went up to the falls at Trenton, "with some 
men who were acquainted there ... so as to make a sketch 
of the whole river." He suspected that there were minerals in 
this region and a sachem told him " that a large mountain was 
situated a day's journey from the falls, where the savages find 
lead-ore, with which they color themselves on the body and In 
the face." In the neighborhood of the falls the mountain of 
Mekekanckon, "being [about] 30 or 40 yards high," offered 
a good location for a fort, which could protect the falls and the 
surrounding country, " so that the river and country could be 

"Elswick proposed that the New Sweden Company should invest 50,000 R.D. 
in merchandise and keep two vessels here continually, one of 25 to 30 lasts, the 
other of 40 to 50 lasts. Elswick to E. Oxenstierna, June 16, 1655, N.S., I. (R.A.). 

'"^ Report, June 14, 1655. (This document, discovered by the author in 1906, 
has been translated by him for publication in Dr. Albert Cook Myers's Orig. Nar. 
of Penn., ed. by Jameson. It is well preserved and is now found in N.S., I. 
(K.A.)) ; Elswick to E. Oxenstierna, June 16, 1655, N.S., I. (R.A.). 

Social and Economic Life. 533 

well defended against attack up there through such a fort by 
a small force."'^^ 

Passable roads between the settlements were gradually made 
by the soldiers and freemen and it is probable that wagons were 
now beginning to be used for the transportation of goods.''*' 

During the summer rumors were circulated that Stuyvesant 
intended to attack New Sweden. As a consequence the labors 
on the forts were pushed with vigor, Christina being repaired 
and the works on Trefaldighet being greatly strengthened, but, 
as we shall see, to little avail. The colony was expecting a 
cargo from Sweden, but none arrived. The goods bought 
from the English and Dutch did not suffice. Provisions were 
apparently not very scarce, but clothes gave out. " Linen," 
writes Elswick in August, "is so scarce here that already some 
of the soldiers go without shirts. As long as baldan or sailcloth 
was at hand, shirts were made for them from it, but now this is 
also gone."''^ The freemen as usual fared better; the majority 
had enough for their daily needs and some were prosperous.''* 

"The deed for Mekekanckon Island (Menahannonck, a little below the falls), 
■which had been bought by Printz, was confirmed at this time. Rising's Journal. 
'"Cf. "Risinghs promem." etc., Rising's Process. 
"Elswick to E. Oxenstierna, August 7, 1655. 
" Lindestrora, Geogr. 


Customs, Habits, Dress, Dwellings, Superstitions, 
Religion, Etc. 


The customs, habits and dress of the settlers did not change 
materially from the first period until the overthrow of the 
Swedish power. The time was too short for radical changes, 
but certain customs of dress as well as some implements and 
forms of "domestic and industrial arts" were borrowed from 
the savages and the neighbors. 

Canoes and the Indian paddle/ as a means of propelling 
them, were adopted. These canoes were made from the trunk 
of a large tree,^ hollowed out by axes and adzes.* Coats 
made out of buck-skin, called "savage-coats" and others made 
from otter skins, called " otter-coats," were used by the settlers,* 
while elk-skin trousers were common.^ Cloth, as far as this 
could be obtained, was also used for making garments, shirts, 
trousers, etc. Peter Kalm says, on the authority of an old 
settler, that the Swedes made their own shoes. "Those who 
were not shoemakers marked out [on the leather] around the 
foot, how large a shoe they needed, and sewed together the 
leather accordingly, namely a bottom, a little back-leather and 
the upper-leather. These shoes were called Kippaka."^ Much 

^The Finns and Swedes had a sort of a paddle for steering. Cf. Retzius, 

'' Since suitable birch-bark was hard to find. 

° Lindestrom, Geogr. 

*In the inventory made in February, 1655, there were " I3 large savage 
coats " and " 40 small savage-coats " in the storehouse, " Schuldt u. Carg. B." 

"Elk-skin trousers of a yellowish color are common in Dalarne, Sweden. The 
author saw them worn by the men attending services in the church at Rattvik, 
in August, 1906. 

° Kalm, Resa, III. p. 71. Kippaka was apparently an abbreviation of the 
Lenape word Machtschipak, shoe, from which moccasin has been derived. Cf. 
Brinton, Dictionary, p. 71 ; The Century Dictionary. 


Customs, Habits, Dress, Dwellings, Etc. 535 

of the leather used In the colony In 1654-55 was prepared and 
tanned by the tanner, Peter Schall,'' who used the methods 
employed In Europe, but deer-skins were sometimes tanned 
according to " the Indian manner." Some sole leather was pur- 
chased from foreign merchants, but it was also made In the 
colony by Hendrick the Finn and Clement MIchelsson the 
Finn, who are credited with several deliveries of this article 
to the company.^ The shoe-maker was Anders Botsman, who 
made 27 pairs of shoes here from February until the middle 
of April, 1655,* and It Is probable that other colonists made 
"regular shoes with heels."^" Two or more tailors were 
employed In the colony and the records state that 26 yards of 
cloth were made Into eight jackets and 12 yards of cloth Into 
four jackets or coats.^^ 

" While my grandfather lived among the savages," remarks 
Holm, the Swedish women made small caps out of all kinds of 
old clothes, at the top of which they fixed a tassel of various 
colors. The tassels were made from differently colored rags, 
which they unravelled and mixed together. These caps pleased 
the Indians extremely and they gave good prices for them in 
their money.^^ 

The food and drink of the colonists remained the same as in 
the previous periods, beer being the staple beverage, and meat, 
pork, venison, fish (fresh and dried), bread (made from rye, 
wheat or maize) being the principal articles of food (prices 
for these provisions being somewhat higher than during the 
governorship of Printz) . The use of the maize-bread and the 
manner of preparing it was learned from the savages and the 

'The 154 deer-skins and other hides given in the account book kept by Elswick 
from February to the autumn of 1655 were tanned by Schall. 

' One hundred pounds were delivered by Hendrick and some ten pounds by 
Clement in 1655. 

° He used 65 pounds of leather for the purpose. Eighty pair of shoes were 
sold by Allerton and Sandford in May. 

"Cf. Kalm, Resa, III. 71. 

"For the above account see "1655, Schuldt u. Carg. B.," N.S., II. (K.A.). 

'^Cf. Holm (transl.), 131. 

536 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

neighbors. Lindestrom describes the making of maize-bread 
as follows: 

" But when the Christians bake bread of this maize or 
Indian wheat, they [heat the] oven and when there are suffi- 
ciently hot coals and ashes they make and work the whole dough 
into a loaf as wide as an oven-bottom/^ raised like a loaf 
(limpet), then [they] sweep the oven clean and place some 
layers of large green leaves upon the stones/* upon which the 
bread is placed, around and above which a few layers [of 
leaves] are placed, thereupon turning the embers (askemorjan) 
over the whole, which is allowed to stand thus for a few hours' 
space to bake through. When one believes it to be well baked 
through, the ashes are carefully swept away, the bread is re- 
moved and the leaves torn off, when the bread looks brown on 
the outside like a pancake, but inside white like milk, and is 
such a natural bread that no more beautiful and natural can be 
put between the teeth."" 

The grist-mill was kept In repair for the grinding of the 
grain, but the immediate needs were likely supplied by the 
hand-mills, which seem to have been quite numerous. 

The colonists had chickens, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle and 
horses" and the products of the farming community of New 
Sweden were, besides grain, vegetables, hides and the like, milk 
(cows' and goats' milk), butter, cheese and eggs, butter and 
cheese being made in the Dutch and Swedish manner. The 
swine and cattle (selected for that purpose) were butchered in 
the autumn and meat and pork were salted or smoked.^'' We 
may assume that the wool from the sheep and the hemp grown 

""Kakubottn" {loaf-bottom), probably meaning the size of one of the large 
loaves, covering almost the whole bottom of the oven. 

" " Narmast stenarne [i spijsen]," that is the bottom of the oven. 

" Geogr., 221-2. 

"It is likely that they had no bees, for no mention is made of them in the 
records and they were to be imported into the colony in 1654 and 1655, Rising's 

" The bath house at Christina was so arranged by Rising, that it could also- 
be used for a smoke-house. Cp. above. 

Customs, Habits, Dress, Dwellings, Etc. 537 

here were spun into thread, which in its turn was woven into 
cloth or knitted into stockings or mittens.^* 

Hunting and fishing were as important as before, and there 
are no signs that the game or fish diminished to any extent.^®^ 
" Long French guns " and other fowling pieces were used. 
The old guns were made over by the blacksmiths^* and fitted 
with flint-locks. The blacksmiths also repaired the farming 
implements and made new articles when necessary. Hooks and 
nets were employed in the catching of the fish, as we have seen. 
It is more than likely that nets were made here by the colonists 
to supply the need, only a few being brought from Sweden.*" 
It is also probable that other devices were used for catching the 
fish, as spears, junkets, eel-traps, and the like, for the Swedes 
and Finns came from regions where these methods of fishing 
were common. 


The dwellings of the settlers, built in 1654-1655, were ap- 
parently larger and more comfortable than those erected during 
the earlier years, while of the same style as those built during 
the latter part of Printz's governorship. We shall not be far 
wrong, if we suppose that these dwellings were very similar to 
the peasant's houses found in northern Sweden at this period 
or a little later. Two general types present themselves. 

The one, a log cabin with a single room, which was used for 
a kitchen, dining-room and bedroom, containing the beds, the 
fireplace and the oven, cupboards, tables and other necessary 
conveniences. The entrance was on the gable end through a 
low door that opened outwards. 

" The records are silent on these points, but what could the colonists do with 
their wool? They did not sell it to the neighbors, at least the records make 
mention of no such sales. The Swedish women have always been skilled in 
weaving and knitting. Cf. Introduction. 

"■ Fish was very plentiful when Penn arrived. Cf. Penn. Mag., IX. 75. 
One of the blacksmiths was Clas Petersson. He pretended to have worked 
for twelve days at Ft. Trefaldighet, but he did nothing, nevertheless he is 
credited with 36 fl. for these twelve days, " Schuldt u. Carg. B." 

" " Net-needles " are often mentioned in the account-books. 

538 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

The other type, also a log-cabin (in some cases built out of 
flat-hewn timbers, "cross-cut at the corners") divided (by a 
wall also constructed from logs) into a large room, an entrance 
hall and a storeroom which had a small loft that could be 
entered from the hall used for preserving various articles. 

On Skansen, at Stockholm, is an old dwelling of this kind, 
which according to Dr. Nilsson contains the general charac- 
teristics found in all later dwellings of the Swedish peasants, 
and hence must have been a common form in earlier times. It 
is erected of flat-hewn pine timbers. The roof is gabled, the 
upper, joining edges resting on a large ridge, from which the 
rafters extend in pairs down to the wall-plates or to the last 
timbers of the side-walls. The rafters are covered with boards 
on which is placed a layer of birch-bark, held in position by 
small logs split in two, which are prevented from gliding down 
by transversal planks, fastened to the wall plates. The entrance 
is on the side (near the corner), above which a small porch- 
like roof (often carved) gives shelter from rain and snow. On 
entering such a house, we come into a dark hall (A) whence 
a ladder, often made out of a single log with steps cut into it,^^ 
leads to a small loft above the storehouse {B) . Turning to 
the left we enter the main room, almost square, open to the 
ridge pole, with uncovered rafters and no other ceiling than the 
roof. One or two (in Sweden generally elaborately carved) 
"cloth-rails" of large dimensions, suspended from the roof in 
iron bars or simply resting with their ends on logs in the walls, 
is probably the first object to arrest our attention, especially 
since we must bend down to pass under it. It is used as a 
clothes-hanger, but also serves the purpose of dividing the room 
into two or three sections, designating the "territory where the 
children can play," where the beggars may remain, when 
coming into the house, etc., the space between the door and the 
first " hanger " being the less private, the space between the 
two "hangers" (if there were two) being more private and 

^ Cf. the ladder of the storehouses, above, Chap. XXXHI. 

Plan of a typical house in Dalarne. A, l-jilrance Hall. C, Main (living) Room. 
B, Store-honse. a, b, l, doors. (/, ladder to loft of the storehouse H ; t , /', windows 
or openings closed by shoveboards ; 1, fireplace; 2, cupboard; 3,4, beds; 5, table; 
6, table or carpenter's bench ; 7, clock. 

Table from Finland. R. 

Bench from Finland. K. 







^'"' -^'ivti 



,. «^ 







y^ y^^^^^B^^Kk 













wBHm,- *^W^^ 

, .wj^£|ij 






"KSi *r "- — .Ji^-^^l^^m . 






■H^^BBKV ;^.->t/ — 

- ;'^ 






■ — m 


■ --u^ 


J/orn' house from Dalarne, Sweden, now at Skansen, Stockholm. 

Interior of the Mora house, showing the fireplace, the clock, the bedsteads, the clothes- 
hangers, the carpenter's bench, and the chairs. 

Customs, Habits, Dress, Dwellings, Etc. 539 

the inner space next to the gable wall being the most private. 
Crimes committed within these limits were punished in accord- 
ance with the above principle, leniently if committed near the 
door and more rigorously if near the inner gable wall.^^ The 
fireplace in the corner to the right is the most conspicuous object 
and this will in the next place demand our notice. It is made 
(on a rock foundation) from bricks (in the more prosperous 
houses) or rough granite blocks or boulders. Divided into, 
two parts (having a chimney in common) , it serves the purpose 
of oven (for baking, etc.) and fireplace (for heating, etc.) in 
which an iron bar is placed, carrying a reversible hook for 
suspending the pot, where cooking and the like is done. On the 
same side, extending from the fireplace to the end wall, are the 
two "bunks" or enclosed bedsteads built into the wall. When 
necessary a second and third "sleeping-place" are constructed 
above the lower ones. Curtains, often with elaborate designs, 
cover the openings. "The bottom [of the bedsteads] consisted 
only of some loose pieces of boards or split poles, which rested 
on a couple of cut-in cross-pieces. Thatching-straw^^ was filled 
in and a cover, similar to that now used for carpets, was laid 
upon it ... In finer houses, sheets were used [even] on week 
days, especially by the mother and father. The bed-clothes 
were generally woolfells,^* rugs [made out of fleeced wool- 
thread] and thick hair quilts . . . Below [the bedsteads] was 
a useful space for all kinds of rubbish . . . [and] the cat 
usually had his abode there." At the Inner gable wall is a 
window or opening In the wall and below this may be seen a 
carpenter's or wood-worker's bench in some houses, where the 
house-father or sons can make the pails, wooden plates and 
the like or mend the utensils and instruments needed In the 
house and on the farm. The part of the room next to the door 
forms the kitchen of the house. Here is not only the fireplace, 

^ Cf. Nilsson, p. 15. 

^ " Langhalm," that is long and good straw. 

'"Various kinds of skins (as sheep-skins, deer-skins) prepared with the fur 

S40 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

but to the left in the corner is the cupboard, with shelves for 
the "plates and saucers (which are mostly of wood, some- 
times of tin or clay) , turned wooden bowls and well-made 
troughs." On a nail or wooden peg by the side of the cup- 
board hangs the "spoon-basket," containing the knives and 
spoons of the household. Near the cupboard to the right is the 
table, where the occupants take their meals. At mealtime 
can be seen one or two pots and perhaps a pan or a large 
bowl in the centre, wooden or tin plates around the edges for 
the partakers, some wooden spoons and a number of knives, 
but no forks. Soup is always dished up in bowls by each one 
and if the meal happens to consist of porridge {grot) , as is 
often the case in the evening, each member of the family will 
have a small dish of milk by his side, but they will all eat out 
of the central pot, dipping each spoonful in the milk. The meat 
is likewise placed in the centre and each one helps himself 
from the piece. On the wall near the door is a perpendicularly 
placed board with several holes, where the axes are kept, when 
not in use, and on a nail on the wall we might observe the saw. 
In the neighborhood of the cupboard we shall find (In some 
houses) a bench, where "the pot and other cooking utensils 
together with the scouring broom "^" are kept. Above the 
windows and probably also above the door we shall see little 
shelves on which are placed a few tin-plates, the candle 
stick and " other fineries." A few chairs, one or two made 
from the trunk of a hollow tree, with about one third of the 
outer shell extending a couple of feet above the seat, forming 
a back; the others constructed out of split planks, with legs 
(sometimes carved) and a flat back, one or two benches and the 
same number of chests^" completed the furniture of the room. 
If we should enter the store-house we would find that the sup- 
ply of meat and some other provisions were preserved there, the 

^ Called grantvagan in some districts, as it was made out of spruce-branches. 

^ It is very probable that some of these chests were brought to New Sweden 
by the colonists. In the possession of the Sinexon family is an old iron chest 
which was probably brought from Europe by one of the early settlers. 

" Swedish Ins; cabin," situated " on tliL- west bank of Darby creek about H mile above 
Clifton." Photographed by C S. Bradford and used by his kind permission. The above 
(built in the l."<tli century) shows many characteristics to be found in the log cabins built 
1)3' the Swedes and Finns in their native country, the e.xttnsion of the second stor^^, " the 
porch-roof " etc. 

Customs, Habits, Dress, Dwellings, Etc. 541 

churn, milk pails (of wood) and various other utensils, prob- 
ably also clothes and other things, large quantities of meat, 
grain, etc., being preserved in the " outer storehouse," de- 
scribed in a former chapter.^'^ Visiting guests that could not 
be accommodated in the main room would be lodged here, 
unless they were given a bed in the storehouse a short distance 
from the dwelling.^® On the loft of the storehouse, we should 
likely find the spinning wheel, the reel and other appliances, 
used by the female members of the household for making yarn, 

We may feel tolerably certain that houses presenting the 
above described features were common on the shores of the 
Delaware from 1643 ""*^'l <^he beginning of the eighteenth cen- 
tury or later. The furniture was in some cases brought from 
Sweden, especially chests in which the clothes and other valu- 
ables were kept, and probably a few tables and chairs as well as 
some bed-clothes. It is probable, however, that skins and wool- 
fells were used more extensively here than in Sweden or Fin- 
land and that they, in the latter years, took the place of the 
woolen ones almost entirely. 

Another type of dwelling having two stories was also found 
here. Acrelius says that there were "houses of two stories" 
at Kingsessing "built out of hickory."^" Buildings of two 
stories were known in Sweden from the earliest times^^ and 
some of these ancient houses are still to be seen there. In 
Dalarne and other northern provinces the second story of these 
houses often extended some distance outside of the first (re- 
sembling the store-houses of this type),^^ making the house 
a sort of a fortress, where the inhabitants could defend them- 
selves in case of attack.^^ The two-story houses, built at 

" Cf. above, Chap. XXXIII. 
"^ Cf. above, Chap. XXXIII. 

"Cf. Nilsson, Skansen, p. 13 fif.; Jonas Stolt, Minnen, p. 13 ff. 
"' Acrelius, Beskrif., p. 39. 

'^ In southern Sweden the two-story part of the house was not used for a 
living room, see Nilsson, Skansen, p. 20 ff. 
" See above, Chap. XXXIII. 
" Cf. Sundbarg, Sweden; Nilsson, Skansen. 

542 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Kingsessing and other places away from the forts, were un- 
doubtedly of this type. They were constructed of round hick- 
ory timbers and their furniture and inside appearance resem- 
bled those of the other houses. They were probably divided 
by a middle wall and occupied by two families, but where the 
fireplace was located or how much of the house was used by 
the families in common does not appear from the records. 
Many of the freemen, being in prosperous circumstances, 
possessed considerable property in 1655,** but we are not in- 
formed by the " Relations " who these freemen were, where 
their individual fields were located nor the extent of their lands. 
We have seen that Rising selected a tract of land on Timber 
Island, northwest of Christina for his dwelling place. Having 
been cleared and prepared for tilling in the beginning of the 
winter ( 1654-55) , he " caused a house to be built thereon with 
two stories and a dwelling as well as a cellar below it." It was 
probably ready In the spring and It Is likely that it was occupied 
by the director soon afterwards, remaining his residence until 
the arrival of the Dutch forces. We do not know how It was 
furnished nor do we know anything about its size and appear- 
ance beyond that it had two stories, but it seems likely that Ris- 
ing would build a house on the general plan of those found in 
his home district in Sweden. Like Governor Printz, Rising 
was obliged to receive commissioners and others from the 
neighboring colonies and to feed them as well as many of the 
Swedish ofEcers^' at his table. " He has so many visits from 
strangers and Inhabitants," writes Elswick, in the summer of 
1655, "that he can not keep up the maintenance of his house 
for less than 1,500 R.D. a year."^^ 


Most of the customs of mealtime, etc., of the mother country 
were transplanted to the colony, but climatic and other condi- 

•"Geogr.; Rising's Beskrif. 1656, N.S., II. (R.A.). 

'° Elswick writes: " Ich biin zwar bisshero und auch noch beim Herrn Directeur 
zur Tafell," June 16, 1655, N.S., I. (R.A.). 

^ About $1,875 (or about $9,375 according to the present value of money). 
He must have kept a good table. 

Section of a dwelling in Sweden (now at Skanken, Stockholm), showMng the chair 
made from a hollow tree-trunk and the carpenter's bench and lathe. (See pp. 347, 539, 

Customs, Habits, Dress, Dwellings, Etc. 543 

tions modified them somewhat. Brahe says in his Oecono- 
mia that the proper time for rising was at four in the morning, 
breakfast should be served at seven, dinner at twelve and sup- 
per at eight.*'' Times for meals were different in different 
provinces in Sweden and no uniform custom seems to have been 
followed, but it is probable that three meals a day, taken about 
the time recommended by Brahe^^ was the rule in New 

The festivities of the church year have already been referred 
to above.*" Many peculiar customs were and are observed in 
Finland and Sweden on these festive days, especially at Christ- 
mas, and some of these must have been practised in the colony. 
If a New England settler had visited the homesteads of the 
Swedes and Finns at Christmas, 1654, he would have seen much 
that was new to him. The floor of the dwellings were covered 
with straw,*^ in some cases with finely cut spruce-branches; 
outside of some doors was a large cross made out of straw; a 
cross might also be seen on barrels and other vessels, painted 
there before the Christmas holidays, all for the purpose of driv- 
ing away the evil spirits. The teeth of the cattle were often 
rubbed with salt and they were given extra feed on Christmas 
Eve; nor were the birds neglected, sheaves of rye or wheat 
being placed on poles for them to eat; steel was also placed in 
the barn and on the barn-door, that evil spirits should not 
enter. There was happiness everywhere. Long prepara- 
tions had been made, special bread had been baked, special beer 
had been brewed and the best that the house could afford was 
brought forth. Candles were lit, especially two large ones 
made for Christmas Eve and the clothes and silver of the house 
(if there was any), were brought in for the candles to shine 
on — it produced good luck. Everybody was greeted with 

" Brahe, Oeconomia, p. 77. 

"Dela Card. Arch. 

"The food was the same throughout the period, see above, Chap. XXXIII. 

"Chap. XXXIV. 

" This straw was later thrown into the fields to produce good crops, or tied 
around fruit trees, or given to the cattle, all for the purpose of bringing good 

544 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

"Happy Christmas," and the old northern custom of giving 
presents was not forgotten. " Jul-grot," " a kind of Christmas 
pudding" or "Christmas-porridge," with butter and milk, was 
the principal course of the evening meal; the Jule-skoal*^ or 
Christ-skoal was drunk and a festive, somewhat solemn atmo- 
sphere pervaded the whole.*^ Early on Christmas morning, 
about five o'clock, the settlers assembled in the church on Tini- 
cum Island, listened to two services, which lasted four hours or 
longer and then returned to their homes. The day was spent 
in quietness. The next day called the Second-Day-Christmas 
was passed in going to church and visiting neighbors. These 
visits were probably enlivened by the telling of old stories and 
personal experiences. The stories of ghosts, of giants, of 
dwarfs and of evil spirits, circulated in the home districts of 
the colonists, were of course transplanted to the Delaware 
region and related here to the rising generation, while the 
Dutch folk-tales added to the general store. 

The belief in witchcraft was prevalent and superstitions 
played a large role in the life of the settlers. It was believed, 
for example, that at midnight, the hour of the birth of Christ, 
the flame of a candle would split in two. The cattle in the 
barns would all rise up and for a short time they had the power 
of speech, but no man durst be present at that moment — a 
Danish farmer who attempted to see and hear the phenomenon 
was very roughly handled. It was a common belief from the 
earliest times** that the Finns possessed particular powers of 
performing supernatural things.*® In Sweden they were looked 
upon as masters in the art of witchcraft and sorcery** and the 

" Cf. Longfellow's Skel. in Armor, for the use of this word. 

" There was no Christmas tree in Sweden at this time and hence none in the 
colony. It was brought into Sweden from Germany in the beginning of the 
nineteenth century. 

" Cf. the story of Queen Gunhild (first half of tenth century) who was sent 
by her parents to Finraark to learn sorcery and witchcraft, and the Finn present 
at the court of King Halfdan at Yule-tide. 

"Cf. Nordmann, p. no ff. 

"The author was told by an old man in a southern province in Sweden in 
the summer of 1906 that a Finn called " Finn-Jan " lived a wandering life in the 


Customs, Habits, Dress, Dwellings, Etc. 545 

reputation followed them to America, "Lasse the Finn" and 
" Karin the Finnish woman " being accused of witchcraft and 
separated from the main settlement during the governorship of 
Printz.*'^ That others were also supposed to possess this gift 
is probable and the belief in these things lived on, as we shall 
see, into a later period. 

The following samples of formulas and superstitions will 
suffice to give an idea of their general nature. Bleeding is 
stopped by grasping around the sore with the hand and repeat- 
ing the formula " Thou shalt stand as firm as Jordan stood, 
when John baptized in the name of the Father, of the Son and 
of the Holy Ghost." A psalm-book should be placed below 
the head of the newly-born child to prevent its being exchanged 
for a changeling {or elf -child) by the evil spirits. When a cow 
is sold a bunch of hair should be taken from her and preserved 
to prevent the good luck from leaving the house with the cow. 
If milk is accidentally spilled into the fire, salt should always 
be thrown in to avoid misfortunes. To prevent rain from 
falling during harvest time, read the "Lord's Prayer" back-, 
wards. A cross should be cut into the broom to prevent 
witches from riding on it. If the spinning wheel is kept going 
after 6 o'clock on Saturday evening, the sheep will not pros- 
per. A little of each course from the Christmas table should be 
taken on Christmas morning and given to the cattle to preserve 
them against witchcraft.^^ 

One of the main difficulties In the colony was the lack of 
women. The company and the government endeavored to pre- 
vail upon men to migrate with their families, but the majority 
of the soldiers were unmarried or left their wives behind in 
Sweden and there was always a request " for some unmarried 
women." Even Rising wrote to Eric Oxenstierna that he 
should send him a good wife. " Women's labors are ... to 

district some twenty-five or thirty years ago, " who was able to do many wonder- 
ful things. He could find water with a stick, make cattle sick, cure disease by 
incantations," etc. 

" Cf. above. Chap. XXXVIII. 

"Cf. Nordmann, p. 113 ff.; Kalm, Wdsterg. resa, p. 198. 

546 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

look after the garden and the cattle, to spin and to weave both 
the linen and the wool with which to clothe the people, to 
keep the nets and the seines in order, to make malt, to brew the 
ale, to bake, to cook the food, to milk the cows, to make the 
cheese and the butter."*^ On account of the scarcity of the 
women the men were often compelled to do this work and Pape- 
goja wrote in one of his letters: " Here we must cook and bake 
ourselves and do other things which belong to the women." 
Several young girls grew up and married^" and in 1654 a large 
number of families arrived, to some extent changing the former 
state of affairs.^^ 

Regular services were continued in the Church at Tinicum. 
Holidays and daily prayers were observed as before and special 
days of fasting and prayer were proclaimed.^^ Rising also 
suggested plans for meeting the expenses of the church and 
for the building of schools and houses of worship, recom- 
mending that tithes of grain and cattle be paid "willingly by 
the people," " the half part of it to be used for the salaries of 
the preachers and the other half part for the erection and sup- 
port of a school-building and a church."*^ Rev. Lars Lock was 
alone in the colony from 1648 until 1654, but two new preachers 
arrived here on the Orn, Matthias Nertunius and Peter Hjort.^* 
Nertunius who was assigned to Upland, where he lived on a 
tract of cleared land belonging to the company, conducted the 
services at Tinicum. He " was indeed the best " preacher in the 
colony at this period and Rising proposed to the government 
that the land "at Upland (on which he lived) [large enough- 
for the sowing] of 20 to 30 bushels of seed, should be given for 

" Brahe, Oeconomia, pp. 84-5. 

"Redel had children, who were maried here before 1653, N.S., L (R-A.). 

"Papegoja to Brahe, July 15, 1644, Skokl. Saml., Redel's Supplik, N.S., I.- 
(R.A.). Rising to E. Oxenstierna, July 11, 1654, Ox. Saml. 

"^Days of prayer and fasting were held on June 9, August 4, September i, 
1654, when the majority of the settlers assembled at Tinicum. Rising's Journal: 
cf. above. Chap. XXXIV. 

"Report, July 13, 1654. 

" See above. Chap. XXXIX. 

Customs, Habits, Dress, Dwellings, Etc. 547 

a parsonage to [him] with the few houses there ... In which 
case he would need no other salary from the company." It 
seems, however, that he acted somewhat too independently at 
times. A day of prayer and fasting with services had been pro- 
claimed in the colony for the first of September but Nertunius 
called off the services without consulting either the director or 
the council about it. He was later called before the council and 
held to account for his actions.^** 

Peter L. Hjort was stationed at Fort Trefaldighet, where 
he preached until the capture of the stronghold by the Dutch, 
but, as he was " a worldly and spiritually poor preacher," his 
labors were probably of small result. It seems that Lars Lock 
was transferred to Christina in the summer of 1654. He was, 
as has been seen, accused of mutiny, and Rising Intended to 
send him to Sweden on the Orn " to defend and free himself," 
but he became severely ill as the ship was about to sail and the 
charges against him seem to have been dropped.^^ 

" The poor are always with us " and they were found in New 
Sweden. During the governorship of Printz, " Karin the 
Finnish woman " was compelled to beg for the support of her- 
self and her children and perhaps others were reduced to simi- 
lar circumstances. Rising established a charity fund and ap- 
pointed "the preacher" (probably Nertunius) to distribute 
food and goods, through orders from the director according to 
the needs of the poor. The colonists were invited to contribute 
to the fund and the blacksmith gave 19 :i5 florins to the "poor 
account" In the summer of 1655. "The children of Paul 
Malich, the little Pole, the blind KIrstIn with her two children," 
Anders . . ., Per Paulsson's mother and the daughter of Clas 
Johansson are especially enumerated among those receiving aid 
In the summer and autumn of 1655, and clothes, food, shoes 
and other articles were given to them. The accounts were kept 
by Elswick in a separate book,^'^ but they were also entered in 
the General Schuldt und Cargason Buch.^^ 

" Rising's Journal. 

"Rising's Journal; Report, July 13, 1654. 

" Not known to exist. 

""Armen Rechnung," etc. "Schuldt u. Carg. B.," N.S., III. (K.A.). 

548 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Slavery was not employed to any extent by the settlers. The 
slave brought to Christina in 1639^^ was employed for many 
years, but beyond this single case there is no record of slaves in 
New Sweden.^" 

The money values of the colony were generally reduced to 
Dutch guilders or florins; thus the salaries of the men, the 
expenses of voyages, the bills of goods were reckoned in Dutch 
money. The common currency was beaver skins and sewant 
and these were employed in the payments of debts and salaries 
as well as on journeys and expeditions. Letters were generally 
sent to Europe through the aid of the Dutch, in a few cases 
through English merchants, and letters were sent to New Am- 
sterdam and the English colonies or received from there either 
by Indian guides or other messengers who went across the 
country or by boat.®^ In going to Manhattan the settlers went 
by boat up the river to Crosswick's Creek, whence Indian 
paths lead across the country. 

The instructions of the officers were written in Swedish, 
German and Dutch. The Dutch and German officers, soldiers 
and settlers were able to converse In Swedish, and they gradu- 
ally became fairly well versed in the language, but all the ac- 
count books and most of the bills preserved to us are written in 
Dutch or German. A peculiar characteristic of this age was 
the preponderance of certain Christian names. Among the 
officers of the company and the colony we find principally four 
such names : Hendrick, Johan, Peter and Sven, as Hendrick Els- 
wick, Hendrick Huygen; Johan Beler, Johan Papegoja, Johan 
Printz, Johan Rudbenis, Johan Rising; Peter Lindestrom, 
Peter Minult, Peter Spiring, Peter Trotzig, Peter Liljehok; 
Sven Hook, Sven Skute, etc. 

™ Cf. above, Chap. XXL, 

™Lars Swartz (Svart, Black) might have been a negro slave, but it is more 
likely that Svart simply referred to his complexion as SnSh<vit in the case of Joran 
Kyn. Cf. above. 

"'An Indian was paid sewant valued at 3 fl., for bringing letters from New 
Amsterdam to New Sweden in June, 1643. Ace. B., 1643-48. 


Literature of New Sweden, 1640-165 5. 

The early voyages to America and the settlements here did 
not enter into the general imagination of the Swedish people 
nor did the records of the achievements of Champlain, Hudson, 
Smith or the Cabots become a permanent part of Swedish litera. 
ture as they did in English, Dutch and even German^ letters, 
giving rise to plays,^ references and scenes in Shakespeare, 
Jonson and other famous authors of that period.^ There was 
no Hakluyt to publish Wonderful Voyages, no Smith nor even 
a Munck* to describe them and no Purchas to edit A History 
of the World in Sea-Voyages. Some of these early voyages 
were known in the North and the colonial activities of Sweden 
gave rise to one or two poems (of inferior value) and refer- 
ences in contemporary Swedish literature, but they never made 
a strong impression on the people. 

The same is true of the literature about New Sweden, writ- 
ten by men who came here. Literary men went to New Eng- 
land and poets to New Amsterdam. Governor William Berk- 

^ In German several works on voyages and discoveries appeared in the first 
half of the 17th century, as IVest- und Ost-Indbche Lustgart, etc. (i6i8) ; Neixie 
und luarhajfte Relation, etc. (1619) ; Zwolfte Schifart, etc. (1627), (being the 
twelfth voyage of the Sammlung <von 26 Schijfahrten, etc.), and others. 

^ It has been argued that the theme of the Tempest was suggested to Shake- 
speare by the description of Capt. Argall's Voyage to America, cf. Furness, The 

' Cf. Shakespeare's Twelfth Night; " You are now sailed," and his references 
to the great number of lines in the sea-maps, etc., Twelfth Night, III. Sc. 2. 

*Munck was sent out by Christian IV. of Denmark in 1619 (May) on an ex- 
pedition of discovery. He explored parts of the Hudson Bay, remained on the 
coast over winter and returned to Denmark in i6zo. He made maps of the region 
he visited and called it Neiv Denmark. Cf. Munck, Na-vig. Septentrionalis, etc. 
(1623) ; also map of America by Holm. 


550 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

eley had written plays before he sailed for Jamestown,® George 
Sandays, the English poet, translated Ovid on the banks of the 
James River; Nathaniel Ward took his fling at women in The 
Simple Cobler; "The Tenth Muse" composed her Contem- 
plations and Grasshopper Sons, where the " the black-clad cricket 
bear a second part," and it is even said that John Milton had 
in mind to go to Amei-ica.® The author has found only one 
instance, where a man of some poetic power was about to go to 
the Swedish settlement, a young man by the name of Aron 
Danielsson, who wrote a ballad still preserved, '^ but he never 
reached the Delaware and no Steendam came here to sing 
" The Praise of New Sweden "* and no De Sille to write poetry 
for Printz.* We need not seek far for a reason. Swedish lit- 
erature was just emerging into light and assuming conscious 
form and the Swedish language was attaining stability and per- 
manent shape.i" Hence, there were few men in Sweden like Sir 
Alexander Morton^^ and Sandays and Milton and others and 
even had there been such it is doubtful whether they woul'd 
have come here, for the colony never reached any degree of 
prosperity nor importance in population and power. There 
was no printing press in New Sweden, where a " Booke of 
Psalmes" could be published and not a sufficient number of 
readers to make an edition of Ballads on the Delaware a " pay- 
ing proposition." It might therefore seem that a chapter upon 

"Schelling, The El. Drama, II. 367-8; Fleay, A Biog. Chro. of the Eng. Dr. 
(1891) L 28; Dodsley-Hazlitt, XIH. 500 ff. 

"Richardson, Am. Lit., 1607-1885 (Student's Ed.), p. 63 ff.; Wendell, A 
Literary Hist, of America, p. 35 fi.; Taylor, Am. Lit., I.; Mitchell, D., Am. Lands 
and Letters, I. 3 ff.; Morley, English Writers, VIII. 282 ff., IX. 99 ff., 193 ff., 
XL 177 ff. and the bibliogr., p. 335 ff.; Richard Hakluyt, The Principal Naviga- 
tions, Voyages, etc. (Glasgow, 1903); Purchas, Purchas His Pilgrimes (Glas- 
gow, 1903). 

' It is preserved in Alfs Visbok, see Schuck, S<v. lit. hist., p. 393, note. 

'Jacob Steendam wrote: '"T Lof van N. Nederland" to inspire colonists to 
go to the South River in 1662. For a memoir of Steendam see Murphy's 
Antology, p. 23 ff. (Poetry, p. 46 ff.). 

"Sille wrote poetry for Stuyvesant, see Murphy's Antology, p. 187 (for his 
poems see p. 190 ff.). 

" Cf. above. Chap. IV. 

"^ Who wrote An Encouragement to Colonies (pr. 1624), as well as poems and 

Literature in New Sweden. 551 

the Literature of New Sweden "would be in the same ludicrous 
predicament," to borrow a phrase from De Quincey, " as Van 
Troil's chapter on the snakes of Iceland." But this is not quite 
the case. Nothing has been preserved from the literary activ- 
ities of the colonists of New Sweden, which can be called belles 
lettres, but works of an historical character were written here 
and at least one translation was made. 


Of these writers Director Johan Rising occupies a conspic- 
uous place in Swedish literature of the period. Fryxell, the 
well-known popular historian of Sweden, says of him that he 
" saw far ahead of his time, and much of that which he already 
then demanded [in the way of reforms in the trade principles 
of his age] has been accomplished only in our days. He is the 
founder of the doctrines of Swedish free-trade "^^ and he wrote 
the first work on trade and economics in Sweden. He had been 
engaged to write a work about trade before he was appointed 
assistant to Governor Printz and a large mass of material had 
been collected and partly arranged in the autumn of 1653, but 
his strenuous life as ruler of New Sweden gave him little op- 
portunity for literary pursuits, and it is hardly probable that 
the collections and drafts of his work, brought to Christina in 
1654 had been much improved, when he returned to Europe in 
the spring of 1656. In Holland his trunks were opened and 
many of his manuscripts stolen or confiscated and ruined, delay- 
ing the completion of the book. As soon as he was able, how- 
ever, he began anew his labors on his life-work, but his official 
duties, quarrels with the New Sweden Company (which de- 
manded much of his energies for the composing of memorials, 
supplications, reports, explanations and accounts), preparing 
of " Descriptions of New Sweden " as well as his endeavors to 
free himself from the blame of the collapse of the Swedish 
power in America, consumed a large share of his restless life. 

"Fryxell, Berdl. ur sv. hist., XVIII. p. 124. 

5S2 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Means also failed and A Treatise on Commerce was never 
completed. The book, planned largely along the lines sug- 
gested by the English economist, Malynes, in his Lex Merca- 
toria was to be divided into three parts and if completed would 
have been a monumental work. The first part (containing 
three books) and certain chapters of the second and third parts 
(the second part to contain two books, the third part to con- 
tain one or two(?) books) were completed, but only the first 
and second books of the first part have been preserved^* to- 
gether with a table of contents of the completed work. Ac- 
cording to this table the contents of the book would have had 
the following appearance: 

PART ONE. First Book of thirty-four chapters concern- 
ing: merchandise, maxims for the increase of trade, business 
^ansactions, contracts, debts and bonds, markets and fairs, 
trade marks, lotteries, merchants, brokers, monopolies and com- 
panies, colonies. 

Second Book in four parts concerning : the principal trading 
places in Europe, Asia, Africa and America. 

Third Book of twenty-three chapters concerning: naviga- 
tion, navigation lams, sailors and officers, shipbuilding, equip- 
ment, freight, duties and excises, etc., insurance, journeys to 
foreign lands, piracy ports, staple-cities, the ownership of rivers 
and coasts, fisheries and the right to fish. 

PART TWO. First Book of eighteen chapters concern- 
ing: money, the right of the government to coin money, gold 
and silver and their relative value, the shape and size of money, 
master-coiners, counterfeit money, how to increase money in the 
country, loaning and borrowing of money, usury. 

Second Book " Concerning the reduction of all kinds of 
measures, standard and weights to \^the standard of weights 
and measures'] of Stockholm." 

" In the R.A. is a beautiful copy of the first book with a dedication to Charles 
XI. Copies of the first book are found in the Up. Bibl. (three copies), also a copy 
of the third book and another of the first three chapters of the first book ; a copy of 
the first book is preserved in Kungl. Bibl. Cf. also Hist. Tid., 1896, p. 72. 

Literature of New Sweden. 553 

PART THREE. First Book of eleven chapters concern- 
ing: drafts, their use and history, kinds of drafts and their 
proper form, the acceptance, payment, refusal and protesting 
of draftsM 

When Rising found that it would be difficult to finish his 
large work (probably also to interest the government and his 
patron) he made an abstract from the Treatise, which he was 
able to prepare for the press through the liberality of De la 
Gardie. It was published at Stockholm in 1669 with the title 
Itt Uthtogh om Kiop-Handelen eller Commercierne^^ {An 
Extract Concerning Trade or Commerce) . Two years later 
he published Een Landbook^'^ (A Book Concerning Agricul- 
ture). A number of other treatises on Swedish and Dutch 
commerce and trade and how to increase the former and place 
it on a prosperous basis were also written by Rising, partly 
before, partly after his sojourn in America, but they do not 
concern us here. 

His Descriptions of Nova Svecia and his Relations and 
Journals pertain directly to our subject, however. Rising used 
his pen diligently and his journals and reports are full of 
accurate information. He states the events plainly and clearly 
without unnecessary details and his diary extending over the 
greater part of the years 1654-165 5 and his three reports are 
the most valuable documents concerning the history of New 
Sweden for the period they cover, giving more detailed infor- 
mation about the colony than any other sources preserved to us. 
In his acquired historical knowledge Rising is less accurate and, 
although he had read much of the colonial and historical litera- 
ture published in England^ ^ and Holland, and knew the gen- 
eral facts of the early journeys to America, his historical essays 

" Up. B. 

"""Tryckt hoos Nicolaum Wankijff." 

"Printed at VasterSs, 1671. Per Brahe wrote his Oeconomia in 1581; but it 
was not published until 1677 and hence Rising's book is the first of its kind 
printed in Sweden. 

"Rising quotes An Eng. Descrip. of America, printed in London in 1655 in 
eight volumes, see Beshrif., N.S., II. (R.A.). 

554 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

contain many errors concerning events which took place before 
his arrival.^® His four descriptions preserved to us differ 
somewhat in detail, various dates being given for the same 
events (in some cases, however, probably due to the copyist) 
and we can trace many statements and errors in dates to Rising, 
which are found in the early writers on New Sweden. He says 
that Minuit came here in 1631 (repeated by Campanius Holm, 
Geijer and a host of other historians)^* he states that King 
Charles I. surrendered his rights to the Delaware to the Swedes 
about 1 63 1 (other dates are also given by Rising) through 
Count Johan Oxenstierna.^" His descriptions are of much less 
importance for the history and conditions of Nova Svecia than 
his other writings concerning the colony and much space is 
given to prove the right of the Swedes to the colony, how to 
regain it and how to manage the colonial affair, " as well at 
home as out here for the benefit and prosperity of the Crown." 
The chapters on the location, climate, forests, "wild animals 
and birds" show considerable ability of observation, but are of 
less value than Lindestrom's writings on the same subjects. 

The culture of Holland had made a deep impression on 
Rising and he used many Dutch words in his writings, as loyare 
{looier, tanner), wagenskott {ivagenschot, wainscot), etc. 
His style is as a rule clear and logical and his spelling and 
punctuation are more uniform and consistent that is usually the 
case In this period. 

Peter Mdrtensson Lindestrom deserves a place next to Rising 
among the authors who came to New Sweden. Lindestrom 
published no books nor did he spend so large a part of his life 
as Rising in writing treatises on subjects in his special field, but 
he wrote the first Geography of the Delaware Region. When 
Lindestrom returned to Stockholm he made written and oral 
reports to the government, presenting maps and making verbal 
explanations in consequence of which he was "persuaded, ad- 

" He states in one Description that Lord Delaware discovered the Delaware 
River in 1600, N.S., IL (R.A.). 

" See Holm, Beskrif., Geijer, III., etc. 

" Repeated by Lindestrom, Holm and Acrelius, cf. above. Chap. XX. 


tUtf ■ 



ritle page of Lindestrom's i;,-ni;,-at>liui Am, rira, . Original preserved in the 
Riksarkiv, Sluckhohii. 

Literature of New Sweden. 555 

vised and solicited" by the government and persons of rank, 
both secular and clerical, to write a Geography of America and 
particularly of New Sweden. It appears that he elaborated 
" his sketches and notes " and made a large map of Nova 
Svecia, which was hung on the wall of the Royal Council 
Chamber in the Palace. In May, 1696, a request was granted 
to allow this (or another?) map to be copied "with the condi- 
tion that It should be returned."^^ It was " engraved on cop- 
per" and published (for the first time) in the Catechism in the 
American Language In 1696.^^ But LIndestrom's plans of 
writing a Geography could not be executed for many years on 
account of his checkered career. ^^ After many adventures he 
married and settled down to a more quiet life and it appears 
that he now endeavored to carry out his early ambition of writ- 
ing an American Geography. The book was to be a description 
of that part of the North American coast occupied by the 
English, Dutch and Swedes, but debts, Illness and other 
troubles Interfered with these plans and the Geography as we 
have It Is limited (as far as Its strictly geographical parts are 
concerned) to New Sweden. The title of the work covers a 
great deal more, however: A Geography of America or of West 
India, Description of the Outermost Part^* of America, with 
Geographical Charts and Delineations of Virginia, New Swe- 
den, New Batavia^^ and New England.^^ 

The book was ready shortly before his death In 1692.^'^ It 

''See a small sheet found with Enkefru Roos's letters, N.S., II. (R.A.). 

""In Hist. Tid., 1887 (Vol. 7), p. 86, H[arald] W[ieselgren] says that "an 
original map by Lindestrom is found in Rdlamb. Saml., I., fol. 201, to be pre- 
ferred in many ways to the one in the R.A." This statement, however, is a mis- 
take. The map in this collection (Rdlamb. Saml., I. fol. 201) is not an original, 
but u copy (in colors) from one of Lindestrom's maps (1654-5) a°d '' '* ""' 
to be preferred to the one in the R.A. 

" Cf. below, bibliography. 

" Yttersta delen probably means the coast district of America (the outer part), 
yttersda delen may also mean the farthest, the most distant part. 

"■ New Holland. 

"Geographia Americae eller Indiae Occid[,en']talis, Beskrijffningh Om den 
'yttersta delen In America, med Geograp'hiske Carter och Delineationer ofvier 
Virginien, Novam Sveciam, Novam Battaviam och Novam Angliam. 

""The book is beautifully copied in Lindestrom's handwriting. It was prob- 
ably bound in leather for the King. 

556 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

was examined and (probably) read by Governor Gyllenstolpe, 
who likely made promises of recommending it to the govern- 
ment. Lindestrom's intention of presenting it to the King was 
frustrated by his death, but his desire was carried out by his 
widow, Margreta Roos, who sent it to his Majesty with re- 
quests for aid.^* The Geographia contains twenty-nine chap- 
ters, two maps (one of New Sweden and one of the east coast 
of North America from "Caput Henry" on the south to 
"Caput Cod" on the north) ^* and several other charts and 
plans, ^^ with a table of contents and an index.^^ It is more 
than a geography, however, being a personal journal or diary 
as well. The first chapter gives an account of the journey to 
America, as well as the events in New Sweden^^ and the last 
chapter describes the attack of the Dutch. The other chapters 
are devoted to the life, manners and customs of the Indians, 
the navigation of the river and the description of the country, 
its climate, the extent of its cultivation, its agriculture, its 
animals, birds, fishes, trees, rivers and islands. 

The dedication is addressed to Crown Prince Carl. Giving 
his reasons for inscribing the book to the Prince, Lindestrom 
extols the value of Geography, a science, on which history 
itself is based, which illustrates and reveals the mysteries of the 
Scriptures, a study which embraces not only continents, moun- 
tains, valleys and waters, nations, cities and governments, 
commerce and trade, customs and manners of various races and 
their habits and dwellings, animals, woods and plants, "but 
everything else on the Earth and in the Sea," enabling con- 
querors to carry on wars — Alexander the Great knew Geog- 
raphy, hence his successful campaigns to foreign lands — aiding 
men to find metals, for it describes the earth and is the source 

'^ Geogr. (Intro.) ; letters from Margreta Roos (copies) in Biogr. "L" (R.A.). 
See below, biography. 

^' See facsimile. 

"' See illustrations. 

°^The book, in a beautiful state of preservation, leather bound, gilt-edged, is 
now preserved in a special case among other books in the R.A. The volume 
deserves to be printed as a tribute to its author. 

'^ There is also an account of Lindestrom's return to Sweden. 

Literature of New Sweden. 557 

of many blessings. "The Preface to the Benevolent Reader" 
is of much interest. Remarking that the men who had travelled 
much were formerly considered wise and learned, our author 
goes on to give his ideas on evolution and the development of 
society. Original man wore no clothes, he was naked and wild, 
gradually he covered himself with leaves of trees and later 
with skins. He wandered from place to place, slept under trees 
and " had no other dwelling," " he lived from the flesh of wild 
animals, fish and fruit and drank water"; he knew nothing of 
luxury, had no government, no commerce, no trade, no agri- 
culture, no domestic animals. ^^ The struggle for existence be- 
comes fiercer, as food grows scarce, war develops, men begin 
to congregate, build cities, walls and ditches for their protec- 
tion and choose rulers and establish governments. "They 
begin to support themselves with their cattle and their handi- 
craft, tie trees together with which to float over rivers, train 
horses," cultivate the earth, plant vineyards and press grapes. 
Exchange of goods takes place, money is invented and finally 
trade and commerce attain importance, culture develops and 
the old conditions are transformed, men becoming more chaste, 
more noble, more enlightened. 

In the chapters covering the journey to America and the 
events in the colony, including the attack of the Dutch, as well 
as the return to Europe, Lindestrom repeats the main facts of 
Rising's journal, but he also gives some information not to be 
found elsewhere. He has been largely drawn upon by his- 
torians from the time of Campanius Holm (who wrote his 
Description only eight or nine years after the completion of the 
Geographia) and Acrelius down to our present day. 

With a view of interesting his readers (and also as an aid 
to those who travel) he adorned the accounts of the journey 
with stories and observations. At Calais pies were sold to the 
Swedes, made from the flesh of human beings. A barber, find- 
ing it a profitable business, murdered his customers by placing 

^ Incidentally he remarks that the life of the old Swedes was like that of the 
Indians on the Delaware of his day. 

558 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

them above a trap door, which gave way, when a spring was 
pressed, landing the poor victim in the cellar, where he was 
killed and sold to the pie-baker, — let those who travel beware 1 
At Dover, LIndestrom saw a castle, which Satan had caused to 
fly out of the city up on a high hill, where the Devil ruled over 
it, making it impossible for anyone to stay there and, oh 
horribile dictu, there were many castles in England to which 
Satan took a fancy (whether on account of the saintly lives of 
the inhabitants or the contrary the author does not say) and 
over which he held lordly sway. Lindestrom observed many of 
the customs of the people and of the conditions of the places 
visited on the course to America. In England, " a land with 
no forests," men and women saluted each other with a kiss 
when they met (whether Lindestrom had an opportunity to 
take advantage of the custom he does not say) and at Pirrin- 
quet(?) the city musicians serenaded the Swedish officers 
"honoring them with the most delightful and pleasing music, 
so that they had to open their purses." At the Canary Islands 
where the principal men spoke Latin, though with a Spanish 
accent, Lindestrom saw many strange things. At the gover- 
nor's palace he attended a banquet, which consisted entirely of 
sweetmeats and wines. He was visited by " charming nuns " 
and monks, who " were good drinking brothers, knowing how 
to do justice to the cup " and he was once on the point of being 
murdered by the interpreter for the Swedes,^* on account of a 
" trifling affair not worth mentioning." He found the dress of 
the people quite different from the habits of other nations, 
"particularly that of the women, who wore such large petti- 
coats with stays or bodices under them that . . . there was no 
door in any house in Sweden large enough to enable them to 
pass through without difficulty." On the sea he saw fish that 
could fly a Swedish mile (six English miles) .^^ At certain 
places the sirens sang so beautifully that many of the passen- 

"The interpreter was a Frenchman. 

"' Concerning flying fishes and how they were looked upon by other writers, 
see W. Y. Bontekoe, A'ventuerlycke Reyse, p. 14 ff. (A picture of a flying fish is 
given on page 15.) 

Literature of New Sweden. 559 

gers " were so elated that they jumped into the sea on account 
of this delightful playing " and were lost^' and later, for 
" nulla calamitas sola," three Turkish ships pursued the Swed- 
ish vessel, until these were finally driven off by a few shots and 
the sight of soldiers on board. 

The descriptive parts are also broken by anecdotes and 
stories, such as the story of an Indian, who brought gold to 
Governor Printz and the Swedish soldier, who at the first sight 
of fireflies one evening, gave alarm that the enemy were upon 
them and caused the men to fly for their arms. 

By such decorations the author of the Geographia sought to 
give interest, color and life to his pages — the book was written 
for publication to sell — and we must admit that he has suc- 
ceeded. Had the book been printed, it is probable that it 
would have had a relatively large sale for that period. 

From the above we see that Lindestrom is not always serious 
and his statements are not always to be taken at their face 
value ; but as a whole he is reliable and we are indebted to him 
for many interesting facts concerning the colony as well as the 

The chapters on the Indians^^ and on the country are based 
on first hand information and the work as a whole shows large 
powers of observation. The descriptions are often vivid,^* 
the style is at times animated (sometimes burdened by Latin 
quotations, however) , generally direct and natural and often 
leaves an impression of earnestness that carries conviction.^® 

Lindestrom's maps and charts were also largely the result of 
his own labors, assisted to some extent by Rising and Hudde. 

" Cf. above, Chap. XXXIX. 

" In speaking on the religion of the Indians he tells among other things a 
sort of a " Christ Story " about an Indian maiden, who drank from a creek, 
became heavy with child, etc. Repeated by Holm. The author hopes to publish 
the Geographia in the near future. 

°* For a sample of his style, see Sprinchorn, p. 51 ff. ; Campanius Holm, p. 70; 
Acrelius, p. 58. 

" It is conceivable that his contemporaries would have read and believed all 
of his stories, if the book had been published and circulated. Rising's books were 
dry and generally uninteresting; Lindestrom's Geographia is anything but that. 

s6o The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

LIndestrom had many predecessors ; Henry Briggs,*" Van Laet, 
Van der Donck and others presented material that could be used 
by a geographer of the Delaware district and Lindestrom was 
probably acquainted with these as well as with the sketches of 
Minuit and Huygen.*^ He used material from Rising's jour- 
nal and from other sources, but as already stated the bulk of his 
work is original.*^ 

Johan Campanius, the most noted of the early Swedish min- 
isters of the Gospel on the Delaware, also belongs here. He 
had large interests ; he preached the gospel ; he worked for the 
conversion of the Indians and busied himself with agriculture 
as well; he made " astronomical observations," noted the length 
of the day, collected facts about the climate and other phe- 
nomena, and it seems probable that he had in mind to write a 
Description of America and the Indians.*^ He strove earnestly 
to learn the Indian language and by the aid of Van Dyck and 
Huygen he seems to have acquired a fairly accurate and com- 
plete knowledge of the same. He wrote treatises on their 
language** (partly preserved to us by his grandson), trying to 
prove its affinity with Hebrew and hence the Jewish origin of 
the American Indians,*" and between the years of 1 643-1 648 
he prepared the first known vocabulary (of any Importance) 
of the Indian tribes on the Delaware with phrases, numerals 
and dialogues and a convenient compendium for learning their 
dialect.*^ During the same time he made the first translation 
of the Lutheran Catechism into the Indian tongue. The 

"His map (1625) gives the Delaware River, see Nordenskiold's facsimile. 

" Cf . above, Chap XXI. 

*" Besides the Geogr. there is a shorter Description of Neiu Siueden by 
Lindestrom, now preserved in N.S., II. (R.A.), and an old copy of the latter in 
Rdlamb. Saml. (Kungl. Bib.). 

''A copy of his journal (essentially the same as that pub. by Holm in his 
Description) is preserved in Rdlamb. Saml. (Kung. Bib.). See bibliography, 

"The treatise referred to by his grandson was probably the introduction to 
the translation of the Catechism which was published in abstract in 1696. 

*" Cf. Holm (transl.), p. 114 ff., who quotes Penn and Hennepin to confirm the 
opinion. The idea that the Indians are the descendants of the lost tribes of 
Israel has been perpetuated in many dilettante books down to our present day. 

"See Johan Campanius Holm, Beskrif.; Campanius, Luth. Cat., 133 ff. 

The Frontispiece in Campanius's translation of the Catechism. From original in 
the University of Pennsylvania Museum. 

Literature of New Sweden. 561 

heathens, he says (whose good inclination he often observed, 
when he conducted services in the congregations) would hear 
and read the Word of God and be converted, if they could be- 
come acquainted with it, " but now this is hidden from their 
eyes, since they know no other language than their own mother- 
tongue." To make it possible for them to " be partakers of the 
holy truths," he translated the catechism, "that storehouse of 
true principles of faith." Jacob Swensson, Van Dyck and Huy- 
gen undoubtedly aided him in his work*'' and the translation 
was probably ready in 1648.'** It was revised in Sweden and in 
1656 Campanius sent it to the King for publication together 
with a memorial. It was not printed, however, till 1696.*® 
It has been said that the translation is not accurate and that 
Campanius misunderstood and misconstrued the Indian lan- 
guage in several particulars,^'* but we must remember that he 
was a pioneer and did not have the expert assistance at the dis- 
posal of Eliot a few years later.^^ 

Governor Johan Printz must also be mentioned here. His 
education was partly theological and he was allowed to preach 
in his father's church.^^ j^ ;§ said that he kept a diary or 
journal, which was seen by a collector about the middle of the 
eighteenth century. Two of his reports sent from New Sweden 
have been preserved,^^ which are of great value for the history 
of the colony. They are written in clear, strong Swedish, less 
mixed with foreign words than Rising's writings and their 

"Van Dyck and Huygen were fairly well acquainted with the Indian lan- 
guage, having been in the country for a long time. 

" In the first draft. 

" Campanius, Luth. Cat., foreword. 

"It has been said that Campanius did not know the difference between the 
singular and pluraf. But we must remember that the work was published after 
his death and by people who in all likelihood knew nothing whatever about the 
language, hence many mistakes might have crept in which Campanius would have 
corrected, had he published the book. 

•^ Eliot was preparing to print a Catechism in the Indian language in the 
autumn of 1653 with the assistance of T. Stanton, a native Indian student, Plym. 
Col.. Rec, Acts, II. 105. 

^ See biography, below. 

" See bibliogr., below. 


562 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

sentences are less involved and shorter than is usually the case 
in the documents of the time. 

Among these immigrants and colonists who wrote journals, 
Johan Jonsson Rudberus, being only a gunner, takes a peculiar 
place. His journal, giving an account of the Katt expedition, 
is an interesting relation of the ill-fated journey, full of vivid 
pictures of the hardships and the cruelties that were endured 
by the unfortunate people. The language is simple and clear, 
free from foreign words, and comes much closer to the daily 
speech of the colonists than the writings of Printz and Rising.®* 

The journals kept by Van Dyck, Huygen, Minuit and others, 
are apparently lost, only a few references to them^® being found 
and only fragments have been preserved of Elswick's journals 
as far as is known.®* 

"The Journal was discovered by the author in Kammararkivet (Archives of 
the Exchequer) in 1906. It was published by the author with a short introduction 
in Valkyrian (New York), May, 1909, but very inaccurately, since the proof sheets 
were not submitted for corrections. 

" See above, Chap. XXI. ff. 

" See bibliogr., below. 


Relations with the Indians, 1654-1655. 

The confidence and good will of the Indians, which had been 
disturbed through disease^ and other circumstances, were gradu- 
ally regained by the efforts of the director. Goods were sent 
down to the Horn Kill for trading purposes and presents were 
distributed for the confirmation of the land-purchase and the 
regaining of the friendship of the savages in this part of the 
river. Arrangements were also made about this time for a con- 
ference with the Indians living above Christina. " On [Satur- 
day] June 17," says Rising, " twelve^ sachems or princes of the 
Renapi [tribes], that is the natives who dwelled on the western 
bank of our river, came together [in Printz Hall] on Tenna- 
konk^ and when they had all seated themselves " an oration 
was delivered to them on behalf of the Great Queen of Sweden, 
through Gregorious van Dyck, the interpreter. They were re- 
minded of the former friendship, which existed between them- 
selves and the Swedes and they were assured that it would be 
for their mutual benefit to renew the old compact. " If any bad 
man," the speech went on, " had given them suspicions, that we 
had evil in mind against them (as was whispered among them) 
they should not believe such [things] ; but if they would make 
and keep a treaty with us, we would keep it irrevocably. Then 
we reminded them of the land, which we had bought from 
them," says the journal, "that they would keep the purchase 
[intact] whereupon they all unanimously answered with one 
sound. Yes. Then our presents were brought in and placed on 
the floor before them, but they indicated that the presents 

^The disease which the Swedes had spread to the Indians, cf. above. 
^Lindestrora says there were ten. Cf. the extract from him printed in 
Sprinchorn's N.S., p. 51 ff. 
'Tinicum Island. 


S64 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

should be portioned out to each one, which we also did. And 
each sachem was given one yard of frieze, one kettle( ?), one 
axe, one hoe, one knife, one pound of powder, one stick of lead 
and six awl-points.* To the other followers, who were i6 or 
20 in number, some of each kind was given. When they had 
thus received it, some of them went out to take counsel what 
they should answer. [When these returned] their field mar- 
shal, called Hachaman, spoke in their behalf, saying to them: 
'See how good friends these are, who have brought us such gifts,' 
reproaching them that they had spoken ill about us and at times 
done us harm. Now, however, [they] promised that hereafter 
they would all be our good friends, and stroked himself a few 
times down the arm, as a great sign of friendship."' Then he 
expressed his thanks for the gifts on behalf of them all " and 
said that, if they had hitherto in the time of Governor Printz 
been as one body and one heart, striking his breast [as he said 
it], they would hereafter be as one head with us, grasping his 
head [and] twisting around with his hands, as if he wished to 
tie a secure knot. Thereupon he made a ridiculous comparison, 
saying that as a callibas^ is a round growth without crack or 
break, thus we should hereafter be as one head without a 
crack."'^ Then the Indians were asked " If they all meant it 
thus, whereupon they all made a cry [of assent]. Thereafter 
the Swedish salute was fired from a couple of cannon, which 
pleased them much. Then they fired with their guns and 
promised that they would do us no harm, nor kill our people 
nor cattle. [They also] offered us permission to build a fort 
and house on Passayunk, which is their principal place [of 
abode] , where the greatest number of them live and they prom- 
ised that they would keep all our land-purchases [intact]." 

* " Och gafz ath hwar Sackiman, fryss en fanra, Kdtill 1, yxe i, hacka i, knif 
I, Kruut Lib., bly: 1 Staff och 3 Lib., Sylespet 6," Rising's Journal, June 17, 
1654 (Up. B.). 

'Rising's Journal (Up. B.)- 

" Calabash. 

' Geogr.; Sprinchorn, 51 ff.; Holm, 70; Acrelius, p. 58. Rising says concerning 
this speech: "And this he expressed with such words, parables, gestures and 
signs, that we were astonished." 

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Relations with the Indians. 565 

" The land-deeds were thereupon brought forth (although there 
was only a part of them at hand, the rest [being] in Stock- 
holm), but only the names signed to them were read. When 
the savages heard their names, they were much pleased, but 
when anyone was mentioned, who was dead, they bent down 
their heads." A defensive league was also made, the Indians 
promising that they would regard the enemies of the Swedes as 
their own enemies and that they would report any approaching 
danger, which they might by chance hear of. But although they 
were well satisfied with the Swedes, " yet they remarked that 
they had received sickness from the ship through which they 
feared that all their people would perish." Fire had been seen 
around the vessel at night and the savages believed that an evil 
spirit had come in the ship. "A chief, sitting on a table, asked 
for a boat for two medicine-men, who should go down to take 
the spirit away," but it seems that no boat was available. " We 
gave them, however, the best comfort we could," says Rising, 
" that the Lord God . . . [would be able to help them] and 
if they put their trust in him, the plague would not harm them." 
To further satisfy the Indians "two large kettles and other 
vessels " full of sappan or porridge of Indian maize were placed 
before them upon the floor and some strong drinks, " which they 
love exceedingly," were given them. During the conference they 
were much offended because Van Dyck contradicted them, but 
he appeased them by praising their qualities and they left Printz 
Hall well satisfied and in the best of humor.* 

On the morrow, which was Sunday, a sachem by the name 
of Agaliquanes of the Minquas, "a brother of their former 
general," came to Christina. He was given presents for which 
he promised to keep good peace with the Swedes and to cause 
his people to trade with them, for they treated the Indians well, 
unlike the English in Virginia, "who used to shoot them to 
death wherever they found them."* 

In the beginning of July Rising again entered into commu- 

" Rising's Journal, June 17, 1654 (Up. B.) ; Geogr., June 17, 1654. 
"Rising's Journal, June 18, 1654 (Up. B.)- 

566 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

nication with the Indians and on the eighth two sachems ap- 
peared at Christina. The lands sold to the Swedes by Mitatsi- 
mint, who was dead, were claimed by Peminacka.^" But " Pemi- 
nacka, the sachem, now presented to the Swedes all the right 
and pretention, which he had as the rightful owner, to these 
lands na[mely] Tanakonck or the Sandhook with the lands 
lying around there, as also the land, which had not yet been 
bought all the way from Ft. Christina up along the river, 
especially Naaman's Point to Mariken's Point inclusive, with 
all its dependencies," " and as a sign [that the transaction was 
legal] he gave two yards of sewant [to the Swedes] and fired 
two muskets." The Swedes reminded him that he had also sold 
these lands to the D'utch, but he answered that he had only 
promised them to build their houses and the fort there for the 
gifts they gave him, no deeds having been made, and "now he 
retracted it." "A confirmation of this sale to the Swedes" 
was drawn up, which was signed by " Peminacka as rightful 
owner," Johan Rising, Johan Bockhorn and Gregorius van 
Dyck, on the one side and Ahopameck, Sinques and Pinnan on 
the other as witnesses.^ ^ Thereupon Ahopameck also pre- 
sented a tract of land to the Swedes, stretching " from Marikis 
Hook all the way up to half of the Schuylkill, Tennakonck and 
other [lands] not mentioned which had been sold by other 
rightful owners with Kingsassingh, Arunameck, Mockorhut- 
tingh, Kokarakungh, with all the land and waters which were 
subject to it, Passayungh excepted [which he] retained for 
himself."i2 "Ywo yards of sewant were presented to Rising 
for confirming the purchase and two shots were fired. A deed 
embodying both donations was written in Swedish, describing 
the limits of the two tracts. It was signed by Peminacka and 
Ahopameck as rightful owners, and by Director Johan Rising 
and Gregorius van Dyck, the interpreter, the whole ceremony 

^° Cf. above, Chap. XXXII., and below, Chap. XLVII. 
"Rising's Journal; "Confirmation," July 8, 1654, N.S., I. (R.A.). 
" " The other half [of the Schuylkill] he said he still wished to keep," Rising's 

Relations with the Indians. 567 

being concluded by the discharge of two cannon at the request 
of the chiefs.^^ 

On the first day of August other Indians assembled at Chris- 
tina, made speeches, received gifts and gave promises of friend- 
ship and good behavior towards the Swedes, and on the third 
Jacob Swensson was sent to the White Minquas^* with presents. 
Some distance up the river he was met by the Sachem Ondoki- 
asnaky, who, in company with other Indians, was on his way to 
Christina. Some of the savages returned to their camps with 
Swensson, carrying his goods, but Ondokiasnaky proceeded to 
the Swedish fort "where he was well received," renewing his 
former alliance with the colony. Jacob Swensson was very 
successful on his mission. He found the savages friendly and 
well disposed. "They purposed to go to the Swedish fortress 
in the autumn with gifts and to present to the Swedes a piece 
of land and to keep a secure peace with them and to protect 
them against all attack." 

A few days afterwards a large number of sachems and com- 
mon Indians, who lived on the east bank of the Delaware," 
arrived at Christina and offered to keep intact the old sales of 
land. The Swedes promised to make settlements upon them at 
the first opportunity and to present gifts to the Indians. "At 
this time they received nothing except one [sachem] by the name 
of Mister, who promised to bring in all the hops which grew on 
his river." He was given some gifts and a bag, but he never 
returned the sack nor did he bring any hops to the fort. It 
seems that other sachems also promised that they would pick 
hops for the Swedes. Somewhat later Ahopameck again pre- 
sented himself at the fort, "made great promises of faithfulness' 
towards the Swedes and of trade and demanded gifts, which 
were given to him. 

As the fall was advancing, the usual commercial relations 

"See facsimiles; Rising's Journal, July 9; Rising's Report, 1654. The deeds 
are dated July 8, but Rising has " Sunday, July 9 " in his Journal. The docu- 
ments were sent to Sweden on the Orn. 

"The Susquehannas. Cf. above, Chap. XXI. 

'°"The Manteser." 

568 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

with the Indians were renewed. The sloops were mended and 
put into repair for trading voyages and towards the end of 
August a boat was sent up the river to fetch the hops that had 
been promised, but it returned "with only a little," the gifts 
presented to the Indians being of much higher value than the 
hops. Two boats were also sent up the river about this time to 
purchase maize, but one soon returned from Passyunk, bring- 
ing only a small quantity, as the Indians had been very un- 
friendly. Jacob Svensson who was in command of the large 
sloop was more successful, and on September 27 he returned with 
a cargo of 400 bushels of corn. About the beginning of October 
Ahopameck for the third time came to Christina to establish trade- 
relations with the Swedes. He remained for two days, insisting 
that a large quantity of maize could be bought from his people. 
Accordingly two sloops were sent up to Passyunk and in about 
four days they returned with 960 bushels of maize, 20 bushels of 
beans, besides 20 bushels of maize presented to Rising as a gift 
from the sachem and a few deer-skins. Jacob Swensson was as 
usual the most successful, his sloop bringing in nine-tenths of 
the whole cargo, but he became ill on the journey so that he had 
to go ashore at Tinicum. Swensson was ill at various times 
during 1654, but, although in poor health, he was often sent on 
missions of trade. He recovered speedily from his last indispo- 
sition and in December we find him buying deer-meat from the 
savages at Appoquenema, " for frieze, powder and lead."^® 

But although Rising allowed the savages " to pass freely in 
and out"^''' and treated them with kindness and forbearance, 
a certain tribe became restless in the winter of 1655 and "killed 
a woman not far from Fort Christina . . . and stole what 
they could get hold of. Later they promised that they would 
make it good, but gave no more than ten yards of sevant as 

^"Rising's Journal, June 6, i6, 17, 18, July 9, August i, 3, 4, 11, 17, 23, 
September 2, 4, 9, 16, 24, 27, October 2, 8, 12, 14, December 3, 1654. 

"When Ringold was in New Sweden in June, 1654, he warned the Swedes 
not to allow the Indians so much liberty in coming and going, " because they 
were murderous men." Rising's Journal, June 6, 1654 (Up. B.). 

^^ Report, June 14, 1655; Rising's Journal. 

Relations with the Indians. 569 

The Minquas remained friendly, however, and called them- 
selves " the protectors of the Swedes." For a long time Rising 
was desirous of buying a large tract of land from them, border- 
ing on the Chesapeake Bay. Thomas Ringold advised him to 
do it in the summer of 1654 and suggested that the Swedes 
" should build a fortress at Chakakltque for the purpose of trad- 
ing with those from Severn, Kent and the whole of Virginia."^' 
The English also desired to buy this land, but Jacob Svensson 
finally succeeded in bringing about an understanding with the 
Indians, and June 6 "four sachems from the Minquesser "^'' 
came with him to Christina, who let it be understood that they 
had Important things to present from their entire council. 
They remained In the fort over night and on the following day 
a conference was held of which Rising gives the following 
account : 

" On the 7th of this month^^ they^^ with a long oration, on 
behalf of the joint council of the Minquesser and of their united 
nations, presented to us Swedes all the land which is located on 
the east side of the Virginia River (called Elk River in Eng- 
lish), all [the way] from the beginning of Chakakltque Falls 
unto the end of Amisackan Falls ; a land^^* ... of choice soil 
and endowed with beautiful fresh rivers, so that many thousand 
families, who might be settled there, can find their nourishment. 
And they gave us this with special ceremonies for an everlast- 
ing possession, the land with everything that might be upon it, 
woods, the ground, birds and animals, soil and everything that 
might be In it and could be found useful, the water and every- 
thing therein of fish, birds and animals (of which they enumer- 
ated a large number and designated with particular signs). 
[They] also promised that, whenever we would send our people 
there to settle said land, they would supply all the Swedish 
people with venison and maize for a year without any remu- 

" Rising's Journal, June 6, 1654; Report, July 13, 1654. Cf. Chap. XLVI., 
note I. 

^Minquas; that is the White Minquas or the Susquehannas (Susquehannock). 


^ The four chiefs. 

^" " About 22 Dutch miles in length and 12 [Dutch] miles in breadth." 

570 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

neration, on the condition that they could buy there from us 
cloth, guns and other merchandise, which they now purchase 
from the Hollanders and English and that we would settle 
blacksmiths and tanners there, who could make their guns and 
other things for good pay. As a sign that this donation would 
be legal they presented some beavers and then they caused their 
guns to be discharged, upon which they were answered by a 
Swedish salute from two cannon. Thereupon a deed was made, 
which they signed with their marks, namely Chakcorietchiaque , 
who was sent by the Tehaque and Skonedidehaga nation; 
Svanahdndaz,^^ sent by the true Minqueser; Waskanaqttdz 
[sent] by the lower quarter of the Minques ; Sahagoliwatquaz, 
sent by the Serosquacke [tribe] . . . And Mr. Richard Lord, 
who was there with us, was greatly astonished on account of 
the liberality and the speeches of these Minqueser, for they 
presented to us the lands, which the English desired to have 
long ago . . . [But] we, [who are] mentioned below also 
signed this letter of donation, Johannes Rising, Hend[rick] 
Elswick, Jacob Svensson, Sven Hook, the ship-lieutenant, Sven 
Hansson, the ensign.^* When all this was completed, these 
Minquese Sachems took us all by the hand and Svanahdnddz, 
who had been spokesman, took me^^ by the hand and led me 
forward on the floor and said, ' as I now lead you by the hand 
thus we will bring your people into the country and [we] will 
sustain you there and defend you against Indians and against 
Christian enemies. Thereupon we confirmed this donation with 
our gifts.' "^^ By this purchase the territory of New Sweden 
was increased westward. It now included the present state of 

'^ " Svanahandaz " (Swedish word " Svanhander "?), swanhands? 

^This purchase is not mentioned by former writers. 

" That is Rising. 

'"Rising's Journal, 1655 (Up. B.) ; Report, June 14, 1655, N.S., I. (K.A.). 
The dates in Rising's Journal at this point are confused. Tlie account follows 
three entries of July i, 7 and 17, and the coming of the Indians is recorded as 
follows: "Den 6 hujus," etc., making it appear that the events took place on 
August 6 and 7 ; but from the Report, dated June 14, and from the fact that 
Lord was present at Christina it is clear that the sale took place in June. In 
the margin of the mss. is also " d. 6 Junij " opposite the entry for " Den 6 hujus," 
but this might easily have been a mistake for August 6, 1655. 

Relations with the Indians. 571 

Delaware, parts of Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland, 
bordering on two great bays, with splendid possibilities for de- 
veloping trade and shipping and, if sufficient resources had been 
at hand. Rising would have laid the foundation for a strong 
settlement and a prosperous colony with means to oppose the 
attacks of the neighbors. As it was the donation proved useless. 
Some former landgrants were also confirmed in 1655, among 
others, the title to the Island Mekekanckon and the Oytsesing 
land at Elfsborg. The relations with the savages continued to 
be friendly during the summer and autumn and it was said that 
they attacked the Dutch at Manhattan to avenge the expedition 
against New Sweden.^^ 

"Rising's Journal; Geogr. Cf. Doc. I. 


Relations with the English, i 654-1 655. 

When Johan Olofsson and Constantin Gronberg went to 
Virginia shortly after Rising's arrival to secure a cargo for the 
Orn, letters were sent with them " to Governor Bennet and the 
magistrates in upper Virginia or Severn^ informing them of the 
arrival of the Swedish ship and offering friendship and neigh- 
borhood." The governor and magistrates in Severn received 
the friendly offers with much pleasure and sent a commissioner, 
Thomas Ringold, to Christina, who on behalf of his superiors 
likewise offered neighborly friendship. The efforts of Rising 
to bring back some deserters^ gave rise to further correspon- 
dence and towards the middle of June Commander Lloyd,* 
Commissioner March* and " Utie, the stepson of Governor 
Bennet," were sent to New Sweden to confer with Rising about 
the boundary. On June 1 8 Lloyd, on behalf of the commission, 
presented the English rights to the river. The stock-arguments, 
original discovery and King James's grant to Lord Baltimore,''^ 

^ Severn, a small river in Maryland, running into the Chesapeake Bay, passing 
Annapolis on the north (Thompson, The Geogr. Die, IV. 419) ; also a settlement 
by that name on the river. Cf. Doc, II. 90-91. By " Upper Virginia or Severn," 
Rising means Maryland. 

' Cf. above, Chap. XLI. 

' Edward Lloyd of Providence, Maryland. 

* Probably John Marshall. 

^° The right of a nation to new lands has been much written about. The 
principles laid down by Queen Elizabeth in her famous answer to Mendoza 
that the Spaniards had no right " to any places other than those they were in 
actual possession of" (in other words that discovery alone did not give a valid 
title to any territory, except it be ' actually settled and continually inhabited ') 
were not always adhered to by the English. Judged by the Law of Nations as 
interpreted by the ablest jurists of modern times the Swedes had a perfect right 
to occupy and settle the west bank of the Delaware (opinions to the contrary have 
been expressed by judges who had an insufficient knowledge of the historical 
facts involved in the case; see references to such opinions given in Penn. Mag., 
XXXIII. 2-3). Bluntschli says that "a State does not . . . violate International 
Law in seizing a country of which another State only took formal possession at 


Relations with the English. 573 

were as usual brought forth.'' Rising replied that " King 
James's donation . . . was like the donation" given by the 
Pope in Rome to the Kings of Castilien'^ and of Portugal, the 
Pope giving what he did not own nor was able to give," and, as 
to the discovery of the country, the English had no claim, for 
" the Spaniards first discovered it." The principles recognized as 
deciding the right and title of territorial acquisition, said Rising, 
were, ( i ) " Possession by conquest or the occupation of de- 
serted and desolate land; (2) by donation from the rightful 
owners or from those who could properly give it; (3) by pur- 
chase from the rightful owner; (4) by continuous possession 
and occupation." All these requirements were complied with 
by the Swedes; they had bought the land from the owners or 
received it as a donation from them and they had occupied it 
continually, hence they had the legal title.^ "To this," says 
Rising, " Mr. Lloyd answered not a word." Before the Eng- 
lish commission took its departure, " all neighborly friendship 
was promised " to the Swedes and the relations with the English 
colonies on the south remained cordial. 

Rising also endeavored to establish friendly correspondence 
with the New England settlements and, when Jacob Svensson 
sailed for Hartford in June, he carried " letters to the governor 
and magistrates in that district, as well as to the former gover- 
nor-general, Endicott."® The letters were answered soon after 

an earlier period," and Vattel says that " the law of nations will, therefore, not 
acknowledge the property and sovereignty of a nation over any uninhabited 
countries, except those of which it has really taken actual possession, in which it 
has formed settlements, or of vihich it makes actual use," while another noted 
jurist states that "the limits of the occupation are determined by the material 
possibility to cause to be respected the authority of the government throughout 
the extent of the occupied territory." Cf. a good article by T. W. Balch in The 
Am. Journal of Intern. Law, April, 1910, on the Arctic and Antarctic Regions and 
the Law of Nations, where extracts from noted jurists are given. 

" Lloyd also related that Sir Edmund Plowden endeavored to secure a grant 
of the country and take possession of it, but he was hindered by the English. 
Journal, June 18, 1654. 

° Cf. Papal Bull, pub. by Hart, Am. Hist. Told by Cont., I. 40-43. 

' Castile. 

■Rising's Journal, May 24, 27, June 6, 7, 18, 19, 1654 (Up. B.). 

'John Endicott, chosen governor in 1644. Cf. Winthrop, II. 169 ff. (Jameson, 
Orig. Nar.). 

574 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

their delivery and at the meeting of the general court in July 
it was ordered (July 5) that a letter should be "sent to the 
Swedes at Delaware Bay, informing them of the property, 
which some in this colony have to large tracts of land on both 
sides of Delaware Bay and River and desiring a neighborly 
correspondency with them both in trading and planting there 
and an answer hereof."^" The letter, written on July 6, em- 
bodied the above sentiments and as news of Whitelocke's em- 
bassy had reached New England, Governor Eaton looked for a 
closer union between the two nations both here and in Europe. 
He complained against Printz "that he did . . . too much 
comply with the former Dutch governor," and he closed the 
letter with the hope that " we . . . may open and settle a free 
trade betwixt yourself and us."^^ "Henry Rutherford, master 
of the pinnace called the Swallow," brought the letter to New 
Sweden, where he arrived on July 22. Rising made immediate 
arrangements for refuting the English claims. The council and 
" the oldest [settlers] in the country were called together " the 
same day for the purpose of replying to Governor Eaton's 
letter. Copies of the Indian donations of land were made and 
" an attestation, signed by the oldest [colonists was drafted,, 
stating] that the English held no tract of land in the river by 
proper purchase. "^^ 

These documents were sent to the English governor, who 
presented them at the meeting of the commissioners of the 
United Colonies at Hartford in September. After some con- 
sultation the commissioners drafted an answer to Director Ris- 
ing's statements, " which appeared a little strange to them." 
They again affirmed that the New Haven people had a just 
claim to certain lands on the Delaware and they hoped that 
'the friendship and good accord in Europe betwixt England 
and Sweden would have a powerful influence upon Rising's 
spirits and carriages in these parts of America.' Several per- 

^'N.H. Col.Rec.n. nz. 

"Copy of Governor Eaton's letter, July 6, 1654, N.S., L (R.A.). 

'^Rising's Journal, July 22, 1654; "Attestation," etc., 1654, N.S., L (R.A.). 

Relations with the English. 575 

sons also spoke privately with Governor Eaton " about the 
settling of the South River," but nothing came out of It.^^ 

At the general court for the town of New Haven, November 
2, 1654, Governor Eaton read "the letters made in the case" 
and informed the court of the interest in the Delaware Bay, 
shown by some people at the Hartford Convention. The town 
was desirous to see how a settlement could be made, but It was 
said that " scarse any [settlers] . . . manifested their willing- 
ness to go at present to the Delaware." " After much debate 
about It . . .a committee was chosen, viz., Robert Seely, Wil- 
liam Davis, Thomas Munson and Thomas Jeffery," who were 
to report at a subsequent meeting. These gentlemen were to 
"treat with those of New Haven, who have purchased those 
lands" and to find out "what consideration they expected for 
them." All persons willing to go to the Bay should also consult 
them. The committee at once set about to find out who were 
interested In the matter and "spoke with sundry persons in 
town," but the result did " not answer the expectations." Ac- 
cordingly they called " a meeting of the brethern and neigh- 
bors " to discuss the project and it was now said that the people 
" for the most part . . . were willing to help forward the 
work, some in person, others In estate so that the work might be 
carried on and foundation laid according to God." The meet- 
ing also expressed a desire that the " governor and one of the 
magistrates with one or both of the elders might by their per- 
sons" encourage the project. Later a church meeting was 
called before which the above propositions were laid. The 
elders were willing to further the work and they were pleased 
to see that it was begun, but Jr. Davenport, who had been 
asked to go to the Delaware, could not engage in it in person 
on account of his 111 health, nor W. Hooke "because his wife 
was gone for England." "The governor gave no positive 
answer, but said it was worthy of consideration." People from 
other plantations also expressed their willingness to engage in 
the enterprise, " the rather If it be begun by New Haven and 

"Plym. Col. Rec, Ads, II. 127 ff. 

576 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

foundations laid as there and government so carried on, think- 
ing it will be for the good of them and their posterity." A new 
company was organized and it seems that about fifty persons 
joined the same. The committee which had been appointed for 
the management of the company treated with the proprietors 
" about the purchase of the land," who declared that they were 
" out about six hundred pounds, but were willing to take half 
of this sum, to be paid in four years." A report of the above 
transactions and the progress that had been made was presented 
by the committee at the meeting of the Court in New Haven 
on November 27. The matter was further discussed and the 
two magistrates, Samuel Eaton and Francis Newman, were 
requested to take charge of the expedition that was to be sent 
and to " go with the company." Taking the business into con- 
sideration they signified their conditional assent at the court of 
December 11. 

A second letter seems also to have been written to Governor 
Rising in the autumn, which was handed to Allerton for deliv- 
ery at the South River. AUerton's intention was to give it to 
Elswick at New Amsterdam with a request that it be delivered 
to the Swedish director, but Elswick had left Manhattan when 
Allerton arrived and the letter did not reach New Sweden be- 
fore the spring of 1655." 

It seems that John Cooper and Thomas Munson were ap- 
pointed to bring the Delaware settlement before the general 
court for the jurisdiction of New Haven which was to be 
held in the beginning of 1655. Presenting a petition to the 
court on January 30, 1655 (English style January 30, 1654), 
in which were repeated the former reasons for the settlement on 
the river, they laid six propositions before the councillors ; jirst, 
that Eaton and Newman be allowed to go in person to inspect 
the country and that their expenses be paid if they feel disin- 
clined "to lay out so much of their estate"; secondly, that the 
proposed settlement be made under the protection of the New 

"Rising's Journal; Elswick's Journal, N.S., IL (R.A.) ; A^. H. Col. Rec, I. 
128 ff. 

Relations with the English. 577 

Haven Jurisdiction " till . . . they may be able of themselves 
to set up a Com[m]onwealth according to the fundamentals 
for [the] gover[n]m[en]t laid at New Haven"; thirdly, that 
the court be asked to state how many it thought would be a 
" competent number " to carry the work to success ; fourthly, 
" that two great guns and powder and what belongs to them 
might be granted"; fifthly, that those who go to make plan- 
tations "may be freed from rates and public charges" on the 
property left behind; sixthly, "that a sum of money may be 
raised, which may be employed, either to buy a small vessel that 
may attend the service or otherwise, as shall be thought meet."^"* 
The subject was taken up by the court the same day. Liberty 
was granted to the two magistrates to accompany the colonists 
and it was decided that the question of raising money for the 
settlement should be presented to the different plantations, 
whose answer would be reported " with all convenient speed." 
The government of the district was to be controlled either by 
the New Haven colony or by the planters themselves, "pro- 
vided," adds the court records, " that it be and remain a part 
or member of this jurisdiction." If the plantation should in- 
crease and become as large or larger than that at New Haven, 
the governor should reside " one year in one part and the next 
year in the other, the deputy-governor to be in that part, where 
the governor is not," and the " courts for making laws" should 
sit but once a year, in that district where the governor lived. 
" If," say the records, " God much increase [the] plantations in 
Delaware and diminish them in these parts, then possibly they 
may see cause that the governor may be constantly there and the 
deputy-governor here." 

It seems that John Cooper was sent by the company to ascer- 
tain the views of the other plantations on the subject. He re- 
turned towards the middle of March and reported his success 
" at a General Court for New Haven, sixteenth day of March, 
1655," called for the purpose of letting " them understand how 

^See A^. H. Cot. Rec, I. 139-130. 

578 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

things are . . . concerning the Delaware."" He found little 
encouragement, " few being willing to engage in [the ven- 
ture]," besides a report that "three ships being come to the 
Swedes " made the business more difficult, yet " after much 
debate about it, it was voted by the town . . . that they will 
be at twenty or thirty pounds charge, that Mr. Goodyear, Ser- 
geant Jeff ery and such others as they think fit to take with them, 
may go to [the] Delaware and carry the commonwealth's letter 
and treat with the Swedes about a peaceable settlement of the 
English upon their own right and then, after harvest if things 
be cleared, [the] company may resort thither for the planting 
of it."i^ 

About the beginning of April, another " General Court for 
New Haven "was called for further considering the contemplated 
settlements at Delaware Bay. The secretary of the Delaware 
Company presented a note to the court, stating several objec- 
tions to the proposed jurisdiction of the new plantation, but 
" the business proceeded and diverse declared themselves will- 
ing to further it." As many were willing to go, the town 
"agreed to lend the company . . . two small guns" besides 
shot and powder and the property of those emigrating was to 
be partly exempt from taxes for a period of two years and a 

Shortly afterwards Vice-Governor Goodyear was sent to 
treat with the Swedes. He landed at New Amsterdam on 
his way where he met Elswick, who was in the town to buy 
goods for the Swedish colony. Rumors were afloat that the 
New Haven people were about to send 3,400 men into the 

"Hazard's view that Cooper came from the Delaware Bay is probably incor- 
rect. Rising makes no mention of Cooper and no English vessel arrived in 
the South River between February lo and March 15 or 20, at least Rising makes 
no mention of one. " Now John Cooper is returned " proves nothing, as he 
might have returned from the other plantations, but the phrase " notwithstanding 
the discouragements from the bay" seems to point to the fact that Cooper had 
been there. It may, however, refer to the report about the three ships said to 
have arrived from Sweden. Cooper might possibly have been as far as New 

" N. H. Col. Rec, I. 130 ff. 

"A^. H. Col. Rec, I. 131-2; Hazard, p. 171 ff. 

Relations with the English. 5Z9^ 

South River, and Elswick naturally felt some concem^out the 
situation. On the day of Goodyear's arrival (Aprll 28) Els- 
wick had a private conversation with AUertc^n, who, having 
large bills to collect from the Swedes, wa? rather friendly 
towards them, and did not wish to see them disturbed in their 

At ten o'clock In the morning of April 29 VIce-Governor 
Goodyear visited Elswick with Allerton as Interpreter. The 
usual claims of the English were made to which Elswick replied 
that these ought to be presented to Director Rising or to the 
government at Stockholm and In a friendly manner, especially 
since a treaty had been made between England and Sweden. 
Goodyear, being somewhat angered by the way Elswick ad- 
dressed him, was even less satisfied at a second conference on 
the following day, which took place in Allerton's house (seven 
A.M.), when the same questions were discussed, "Elswick ex- 
plaining certain things more at length." Goodyear was of the 
opinion that the Swedish settlement was the work of private 
parties and that It did not concern the Swedish Crown, but 
Allerton testified that he had seen the commission of Governor 
Printz with the seal and signature of Her Royal Majesty of 
Sweden and he assured him that the present governor likewise 
had royal commission.^" We may assume that Vice-Governor 
Goodyear reported these circumstances to the New Haven 
people Interested in the Delaware, for they made no further 
attempts at settlements there, while the Swedes were In power. 

When Elswick made his report of the occurrences and deliv- 
ered the letter from Governor Eaton, Rising found that the 
demands and protests had been so completely answered at New 
Amsterdam that he did not think it worth while to make further 
reply. Director Rising was somewhat at a disadvantage In 
these disputes. Printz had carried most of the original deeds, 
court records and other documents to Sweden, In some cases, 

"Elswick's Journal, N.S., I. (K.A.) ; cf. above, Chaps. XXXIL, XLII. 
"" Fragment of a journal, kept by Elswick on his journey to New Amsterdam 
in April-May, 1655, N.S., I. (K.A.) ; Rising's Report, June, 1655, N.S., I. (R.A.). 

S8o The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

however, leaving copies behind. Rising, properly thinking that 
these records ought to be in the colony, requested the govern- 
ment to return them. It is probable that this was done on the 
Mercurius and to this may be due the fact that so many original 
papers from the time of Governor Printz were lost.^^ Director 
Rising also requested his government to try to effect some settle- 
ment between the two nations in Europe of the territorial dis- 
putes here, but other events frustrated these plans. 

^See Rising's letters and reports from the colony, N.S., I. (R.A., K.A.), Ox. 
Saml., Skokl. Saml. 


^^H. -^ j^l 




Gov. Peter vStnv\esant. 


Relations with the Dutch and the Overthrow of New 
Sweden, i 654-1 655. 


As we have already seen the outlook for friendly and neigh- 
borly relations with the adjoining colonies was very good in 
1654. New Haven merchants indeed made new plans for 
settlements on the Delaware and the English on the south 
presented claims to the river, but there was no danger from 
that source, nor was there any immediate danger from the 
Dutch at this time.* The policy of the Swedish government 
was always a peaceful one in regard to its colony on the Dela- 
ware. In the memorial issued for Printz and Rising it is ex- 
pressly stated that both sides of the river ought to be secured 
for Her Royal Majesty, yet without hostility. Concerning 
Fort Casimir the following instructions were given: "If the 
Dutch could not be removed by argument and grave remon- 
strances and everything else which can be done without danger 
and hostility, then ... [it would be] better in terminis pro- 
testandi to tolerate the Dutch there, than that the same fort 
should fall into the hands of the English as the strongest and 
consequently the most dangerous " and to erect a Swedish 
stronghold below the Dutch fort which would control the river 
and make the latter useless, "since a hostile attack is not com- 
patible with the weak power of the Swedes in that place."^ 
These instructions seem clear enough. They would have been 
followed by a trained military man and friction avoided. Printz 
would have handled the situation and it is more than likely that 
the colony would have remained under Swedish jurisdiction 

'■ Cf. above, Chaps. XXXVII., XLI. 

''"Memorial," December 12, 1653, §4, " effter een fiendtligh antastning icke 
ar medh de Swanskes ringe macht pa den orthen compatibel." 


582 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

some years longer, had he been in command, when the Orn 
sailed up the South River. Rising knew little of the art of war, 
he had no knowledge of the strength of the Dutch nor of the 
restless energy of the old veteran, Peter Stuyvesant, and he was 
not acquainted with the condition of the colony he was sent to 
aid. As he anchored before Fort Elfsborg on May 20 the out- 
look was gloomy; the fort was deserted and in ruins. If the 
other Swedish forts were in similar condition he knew not and 
it would have been better for the colony, had he remained in 
ignorance until he came to Christina. But such was not to be 
the case. When the commander of Fort Casimir observed the 
Orn, riding at anchor before Elfsborg, he hoisted the Prince's 
flag and sent Andrian van Tienhoven with four freemen on 
board the ship " to ascertain whence she came." They re- 
mained on the ship over night, "being well treated," and from 
these Rising learned the condition of the Swedish colony and 
the weakness of the Dutch fort. He told them that he would 
demand the surrender of Fort Casimir, which had been placed 
on land belonging to the Crown of Sweden, while they in turn 
assured him " that they cared not who possessed the fort, as 
long as they were allowed to dwell there safely and freely."^ 

As the wind was favorable the following morning, Rising 
made preparations to proceed. At a council, which was held on 
board it was decided that they " should try at this opportunity 
[to gain possession of Fort Casimir] yet without force and hos- 
tility, but with proper remonstrances ... of [their] rights." 
About eleven o'clock the ship arrived before the fort, giving the 
Swedish salute, which was not answered by the Dutch cannon, 
for they had no powder, whereupon Rising sent Captain Sven 

° " In the evening of the same day [May 20] four Hollandish freemen from 
Sandhoock, where the Hollander's Fort Casimir was placed, came on board to us. 
We received them well and told them . . . that we wished indeed to demand the 
surrender of Fort Casimir. . . . With this [information] the said Hollanders 
remained on the ship over night and were well pleased with it." Rising's Journal, 
May 20, 1654. 

i^ci ci. 


'^kcjfrcjnl it/iJU) ZS^ "if 6^S , "-r' ■ 

annidH ' —_K„niMi li'Niiniiiii m.miuii.ij '....hij i i. \uu..i.,n 

(i- <^o 72. St c)6 10 8 nc 

" Tree Falldigheets Fort in Nova Svecia, soni det af ingenieuren HerrPelir Liiidhestrom Anno 1654 och lo35 ar 
munierat och Fortificirat." (Fort Trefaldigheet (Trinity) in Ntw Sweden, as it was mounted and fortified in 
the years 1654 and 1655 by the engineer Pehr Ivindestroni.) From the original skeU-li in Lindestrom's (,'f<ii,>-r. 
" A block-house was built [at Fort Trefaldighet] facingthe river."— Rising. Perhaps the old fort was back of 
this the tower and roof of which can be seen behind the second wall. 

Relations with the Dutch. 583 

Skute and Lieutenant Gyllengren ashore "with three files of 
musketeers,"* to demand the surrender of the fortress." 

Tienhoven, who returned to his fort about 8 A. M. on Sun- 
day, reported Rising's intention, requesting the commander to 
put the stronghold in a state of defence. But Bicker, seeing 
the uselessness of resistance, " neither gave nor issued any 
order." Meanwhile the Swedish soldiers were landed and 
Bicker went down to the shore, " welcomed [them] as friends 
and brought Sven Skute into the fort," where they held a con- 
sultation, during which Skute presented the Swedish rights to 
the land and fort, " promising Bicker, his soldiers and colonists 
all liberty and good ofFers." As the conference lasted for about 
two hours Rising became impatient and fired another salute for 
an answer. Bicker, desiring "a little time for consultation," 
sent Andrian van Tienhoven with two others on board the Orn 
to request three days' delay, but Rising informed the Dutch 
envoys that he would rather have an immediate reply, promis- 
ing, however, that he would await Skute's return before definite 
action was taken. In the meantime Gyllengren brought his 
soldiers into the fort as the gates were open and poorly guarded. 
"When the Hollanders wanted to use their guns," they were 
told to put them down " and thus the Swedes took possession 
of Ft. Casimir without hostility." A Swedish flag, which was 
brought from the vessel, was then raised on the fort instead of 
the Dutch" and some powder was supplied for the cannon, 
whereupon another salute was fired by the Orn, which was 
answered from the fort. Later Skute returned to the ship with 
the Dutch commander, who again requested delay in the sur- 
render; but Rising answered that it was now too late, assuring 
him fair treatment and freedom to remain or depart. 

Ft. Casimir was now in the hands of the Swedes ; no formal 

•Bicker says about 20 soldiers and Van Tienhoven about 30. Doc, I. 601, 

602. Cf. also p. 603 fl. . > , X L . r .1. 

"Lindestrom says (probably without foundation) that a few shots from the 
laree cannon were fired over the fort. Geogr. , , ■ 

°A Dutch document declares that "Bicker caused his own boy to haul down 
the [Dutch] flag." Doc, I. 605. 

584 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

surrender had been made and it is difficult to see how Rising 
could maintain afterwards that such actions were "without 
force and hostility." Gyllengren with some soldiers was 
ordered to remain in the fort, whose name was changed to 
Fort Trefaldighet, "because it was taken on Trinity Sunday," 
says Lindestrom. The Dutch settlement at Sandhook had been 
left more or less to itself since 1652.'' There were 21 houses 
around the fortress, some of which were occupied by freemen, 
while Bicker with the soldiers lived inside the walls. The fort 
at the time of its surrender was manned by nine soldiers and 
armed with twelve iron cannon and one( ?) three pounder brass 
gun, but there were only 63 cannon balls and no powder. Some 
of the muskets of the soldiers were with the gunsmith and there 
were only 1,000 bullets on hand. Hence it is clear that the best 
policy on the part of Rising would have been to have left the 
fort alone ; it could do no harm, while a new fort below or the 
rebuilding of Elfsborg would have solved the problem without 

Before Rising continued his course up the river, the condi- 
tions upon which the Dutch could be taken under the protection 
of the Swedish Crown were read to them; "they were well 
satisfied with the remonstrance," promising to appear at the 
earliest opportunity before the Swedish council to swear the 
oath of allegiance. In the afternoon of May 23 Bicker with 
all the Dutch colonists and soldiers from Sandhook arrived at 
Fort Christina. The new and liberal privileges granted settlers 
in New Sweden were laid before them, which were con- 
trasted with the privileges enjoyed in New Netherland; the 
injuries they had caused the Swedes were recounted, but these 

'In May (1654) there was fear of an attack by the English and Stuyvesant 
made certain " proposals to the Council of New Amsterdam in view of . . [this] 
threatened attack of the English." The general opinion was that the garrison at 
Fort Casimir should be withdrawn and the defence of the place left to the free- 
men. But on the other hand Stuyvesant did not consider it altogether wise to 
abandon the fort, for it would mean the surrender of the river to others. The 
council coincided with this opinion and decided on May 20 (30), the day before 
Rising took possession of the fort, " not to abandon Fort Casimir nor to call any 
of the troops from there." Doc, XII. 75-76. 

Relations with the Dutch. 585 

would all be forgotten and they would be treated as friends and 
good neighbors, if they would swear allegiance to the Swedish 
Crown and the New Sweden Company and become good, faith- 
ful subjects of Her Royal Majesty. " Thereupon they all 
begged pardon [for what they had done in the past against the 
Swedish colony], blamed everything on General Stuyvesant" 
and all "with one mouth" expressed a desire to remain in New 
Sweden as Swedish subjects. "They then took the oath in the 
open air with a waving banner overhead," signing their names 
to the documents, after which they were welcomed as subjects 
of the Crown and invited to join in a festive meal, prepared in 
honor of the occasion. The Dutch were much pleased, Bicker 
especially making great promises of faithfulness, aid and assis- 
tance to the Swedes, while Hudde, " who had been Stuyvesant's 
instrument in his undertakings against New Sweden, promised 
that he would now serve Rising as faithfully as he had served 
his former master."* As all the Dutch were not acceptable a 
consultation took place to determine who should be allowed to 
remain. Papegoja and Van Dyck brought forth grave charges 
against Andrian van Tienhoven and Cornelius de Boer, who 
were informed that they were undesirable in the colony. Boer 
was accused of having spoken disrespectfully about Her Majesty 
and of having said "that this land had been put up for sale on 
the Amsterdam exchange " ; as a punishment his land was con- 
fiscated and his property, including six or seven goats, was 
placed at the disposal of the company until further action should 
be taken. Another Hollander, " Sander Boyer, was declared 
to be an evil and illreputed man, but [he] had a Swedish wife. 
Simon Lane and Thomas Brown, two Englishmen, were also 
placed In the same register. There was some hesitation about 
these three, whether they should be accepted [as colonists] or 
not, [but] on their large promises that they would be faithful 
and honest " they were allowed to remain." Three of the Dutch 

'Rising's Journal, May 23, 1654; Lindestrom's Geogr., May 23, 1654. 
'Boyer and Lane went to New Amsterdam without making use of the 
privileges offered them. 

586 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

soldiers applied for permission to become freemen on land that 
they had cleared near Fort Casimir or Trefaldlghet, while the 
other six soldiers wished to go to Manathans first, then return 
to become settlers if they found that the colony would prosper, 
but later they departed for New Amsterdam without Informing 
Rising about It. After their departure their muskets and 
swords, which had been left behind, were brought to Fort Chris- 
tina where they were preserved in the armory. 

Rising being anxious to find out how Stuyvesant would take 
the surrender of the fort wrote to the Dutch governor two days 
after his landing in New Sweden,^" Informing him that Fort 
Casimir had been summoned to surrender, according to the 
commands of Her Royal Majesty, and that the Dutch colonists 
had " repaired under the obedience of the government of 
Sweden." "As this Is a matter of greater consequence," the 
letter goes on, " than can be decided among servants, who must 
only obey orders, the sovereigns on both sides have to settle this 
matter among themselves and agree among themselves about 

Stuyvesant, having been Informed, probably by Indians, 
about the arrival of the Orn, sent a messenger at once across 
the country with letters to Bicker and one addressed to the 
Swedish commander, in which he congratulated the Swedes on 
their arrival and offered to maintain friendly relations with 
them as well as "good correspondence against the Indians." 
On May 31 Rising sent a reply with Stuyvesant's messenger, 
" offering in return neighborly correspondence and referring to 
the letter which had already been sent."^^ 

On June 3 Rising in company with Lieut. Skute and Pape- 
goja visited the Dutch at the Sandhook. The oath of allegiance 
was again confirmed by 22 Dutch colonists, who were finally 
received under the Swedish Crown. 

'°Z)of., I. 606. The date in the Doc. is May 27, but in Rising's Journal the 
letter is said to be written May 26, while it was sent May 28. It is therefore 
probable that the first draft was written May 26, that the letter was copied by 
the clerk and signed by Rising May 27. Journal, 1654. 

"The letter was carried to New Amsterdam by Peter Jochim. 

"Doc, I. 601, 606; Rising's Journal. 

Relations with the Dutch. 587 

About a week after the surrender the Dutch commander 
informed Stuyvesant about his misfortune and three days later 
Andrian van Tienhoven, being " legally summoned " to appear 
before the fiscal of New Amsterdam, Cornells van Tienhoven, 
to make a relation, presented a written report concerning the 
capture of the fort. Several witnesses were summoned to tes- 
tify,^^ who related the events of May 21, all blaming Bicker 
for not preparing means of resistance by which the Swedes 
could be properly opposed.^* 

On July 17 (27) Stuyvesant reported the matter to the 
directors of the Dutch West India Company, enclosing the 
signed statements of Tienhoven and the other witnesses. As 
these papers made strong accusations of disloyalty and even of 
treachery against Bicker, the directors required Stuyvesant to 
" use all possible means to get hold of " him " that he could be 
punished as an example to others. "^° Governor Stuyvesant 
was furious about the capture of the fort, making up his mind 
to retaliate when an opportunity presented itself. Finding that 
the Swedes were about to send a sloop to New England on a 
trading expedition, he threatened that he would capture it. 
Rising, however, was hopeful of the outcome, writing to E. 
Oxenstiema that he was not afraid of Stuyvesant's threats ; the 
English were preparing to attack New Amsterdam and Stuyve- 
sant would find a warm reception, if he should dare come into 
the South River. But Stuyvesant's report was now on its way 
to Holland; its arrival there was a signal for giving the death 
blow to the Swedish colony and it remained only a question 
of time, when the entire river would come under Dutch 

Peter Jochim, who had been sent to New Amsterdam, be- 
came very ill there, making it impossible for him to return. In 
September he died and was buried, leaving a bill of 127 florins 

" But none of the reports were taken under oath and would " have no value 
in a court of justice." 

"Doc, I. 601-6; Albany Rec, IV. i68; Hazard, p. 170. 

"Doc, XII. 86. 

"Rising to E. Oxenstiema, July 13, 1654; Report, 1654. 

5 88 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

for the New Sweden Company to pay. The Indian guide who 
accompanied him returned to New Sweden with letters on July 
25, but Stuyvesant said he had nothing to answer to Rising's 
communication. He intimated, however, that he would come 
to the South River himself and during the summer rumors were 
circulated that Stuyvesant intended to attack New Sweden. ^'^ 

In September, 1654, when the Swedish ship the Gyllene Haj 
by mistake sailed up the North River, an opportunity of retali- 
ating the capture of Fort Casimir presented itself to Governor 
Stuyvesant. Immediately upon his arrival in the river Elswick 
sent two of his men to New Amsterdam to engage a pilot, who 
for a money consideration would bring " the ship to the South 
River." When they arrived in the city they were arrested and 
placed in the guardhouse. Elswick was also taken from the 
ship and placed in the tavern of Sergeant Litschoe under the 
guard of eight musqueteers, but with " liberty and license to go 
and to come, to converse and to trade, where and with whom he 
pleased," except during the first week when he "was forbidden 
to leave the house." The ship was sailed up from Raritan's 
Kill to the harbor (September 15). The Swedish flag was 
hauled down, while the rudder was removed and two servants 
of the Dutch West India Company were placed on board to 
guard the cargo. Elswick protested orally against these pro- 
ceedings and reported the matter to Rising. The letters were 
brought to New Sweden by Richard Lord, who delivered them 
to Rising on September 24. According to Stuyvesant's protest 
Elswick applied for a passport for Rising, permitting him 
" without any hindrance to go to New Amsterdam to settle the 
differences in person." Elswick then sent one of his soldiers 
(promising him 30 gulden and 3 yds. of cloth if he would 
perform his mission to satisfaction) together with two Swedish 
sailors to the South River with a package of letters, including 
Elswick's report, Rising's appointment as director of the colony 
and Skute's commission as commander over the military forces, 
besides other papers.^ ^ Stuyvesant also sent an open letter 

" Rising's Journal. 

"■The letters and documents were received by Rising on September 30. 

Relations with the Dutch. 589 

inviting Rising " to take refuge with him, since the Eng- 
lish of Gravesend intend to gain a foothold in the river." But 
Rising did not go to New Amsterdam; instead he wrote to 
Elswick, giving the details of the capture of Fort Casimir, in- 
structing him to present written protests concerning the rights 
of the Swedes. 

About the beginning of October " Elswick by word of mouth 
requested permission to sell some hides, seized and detained in 
. . . the Haj."^^ The request was granted and he was permitted 
to sell the entire cargo, " provided that the proper proceeds be 
paid into the hands of the Hon. Attorney and Council of the 
Privileged West India Company, Mr. Fiscal Tienhoven, until 
such time, that proper restitution and lawful satisfaction be 
done and given to . . . the aforesaid Hon. Company for the 
surprise and capture of . . . Fort Casimir," but it does not 
appear whether or not Elswick sold the skins ; he certainly did 
not sell the whole cargo. A little later, having been called 
before the council to give his answer to the proposals of Stuyve- 
sant, he informed the Dutch that Rising was neither inclined to 
come to New Amsterdam nor to send deputies. Accordingly 
the council decided to have the cargo and vessel " appraised by 
impartial men," " to store the durable and perishable goods in 
the Hon. Company's warehouse [and] to let the perishable 
ones be sold either by the factor himself according to his desire 
or in case of refusal publicly by the auctioneer to the highest 
bidder." The vessel including all rigging was valued at 
2,958 :i3 D. The inventory was presented to Lieutenant Sven 
Hook^" for his signature, but he refused to sign it " for par- 
ticular reasons." On October 16 or 17^^ Elswick presented a 
written protest to Stuyvesant setting forth the details of the 

" On October lo (20) the council passed a resolution to detain the Haj. Doc, 
XII. 78- 

"Hazard has wrongly Sven Huygens. Annals, p. 160. 

'"The copies in Doc, XII. 80-3, and Hazard, pp. 161-2, are dated October 
17. It is probable, however, that the i6th is the correct date, since Stuyvesant's 
reply is dated October 27 (n.s.) and it is not likely that he would have answered 
.on the same day that he received the protest. 

S90 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

siezure of the Haj and complaining about the damages and 
inconveniences done to the Crown of Sweden and the New 
Sweden Company.^^ Stuyvesant replied to the protest on the 
seventeenth (twenty-seventh), pretended to believe that the 
Swedes did not come as " friends and neighbours, but as spies and 
enemies," since the ship did " not enter through the regular chan- 
nel, .... but [through] an unknown passage behind Staten 
Island." For this reason and in order to retaliate the capture of 
Fort Casimir, the vessel was placed under arrest. Stuyvesant tried 
to further vindicate his actions by showing the " justice of his de- 
mands," reminding Elswick of the kind of treatment he dnd his 
people had received ; he did not protest " against Her Royal Maj- 
esty's order and authority, but against her officers and servants in 
this country." Copies of several other documents, verifying the 
protest from the Dutch point of view, were also enclosed with 
the letter.^^ On October 26 Elswick sent a counter protest. 
He endeavored to refute Stuyvesant's claims of the Dutch 
rights to the land on which Fort Casimir was placed, spurned 
the Idea that they had come as spies, denied entirely that he had 
asked for a passport for Rising and maintained that it was done 
on Stuyvesant's Initiative. The people, he said, who came over 
on the Haj, were Indeed apparently allowed to go where they 
pleased, but they were persuaded by every means to settle in 
New Amsterdam so that most of them remained there.^* The 
protest accomplished nothing, however, and Elswick was com- 
pelled to proceed to New Sweden without his ship. The Haj 
remained in possession of the Dutch West India Company ; her 
name was changed to Diemen and she was used " for the West 
Indian trade." But the revenge was not complete; nothing but 
a recapture of Fort Casimir would satisfy the Dutch author- 

^Copia von mein. Protest, etc., October i6, 1654, N.S., I. (R.A., K.A.) ; 
Doc, Xn., 80-3. 

^ Doc, XIL 80-3. The protest was signed by the council including Stuyvesant. 

" " Copia," etc., contraprotesties, etc., November 5 (n.s.), 1654, N.S., I. (R.A., 

"^ Rising's Journal; Doc, XH. 83, note; Hazard, p. 170. 

Relations with the Dutch. 591 


In April, 1654, it was said that the directors of the Dutch 
West India Company had in mind to send some two hundred 
soldiers to the South River to garrison Fort Casimlr. There 
was peace between England and Holland, hence these soldiers 
would not be needed against the English. Dutch ships were not 
allowed to trade with the English, but as Swedish ships could 
buy goods in Holland and sell them in the colonies, it was now 
thought that the soldiers would be sent to the South River to 
prevent such trading.^" 

The friendly relations, that existed between Sweden and Hol- 
land in the early days of the colony, had to a large extent dis- 
appeared^^ and, when the directors heard of the capture of Ft. 
Casimir, they at once resolved to revenge the act. Conse- 
quently they set about making preparations to send reinforce- 
ments to Stuyvesant, who had proposed to go to the South River 
to retake the fortress, as soon as he received orders from his 
superiors. The directors approved of the seizure of the Haj 
as it weakened the Swedish colony and removed one of the 
means of resistance. Not only Ft. Casimir, but the entire 
South River, was now to be captured and in November prepara- 
tions for an expedition were under way in Amsterdam. "The 
drum was daily beaten " to call men to enlist for service in New 
Netherland, the directors being " in hopes of sending over a 
detachment of soldiers in the ship De Groote Christofel to- 
gether with ai^arqn^bBsi^ and two carpenters " and the ship, 
the KonincK Salomon, whichshad been requested by Governor 
Stuyvesarit, was fitted out with a^l speed so that she could leave 
for the /North River before cold wither set in. Letters were 
written to the director on November &^X^6 ) , in which he was 
comn/anded to "do his utmost to revengelhis-jnisfortunejiot 
only/by restoring matters to their former condition, but also by 
driving the Swedes at the same time from the river." In case 
the winter should prevent the sending of ships and new supplies 

^"Ext. ur ett bref," etc., April 29, 1654, N.S., I. (R.A.). 
" Cf. above, Chaps. II., XVII. 

592 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

and reinforcements, Stuyvesant was advised to proceed to the 
South River with such power as he could command as it was 
thought that his forces were " about strong enough for the occu- 
pation of New Sweden, especially if the said expedition should 
be undertaken speedily and before the Swedes were reinforced." 
No other enemies were now threatening New Netherland and 
the hope of success was therefore good. He was advised to 
hire two or three private ships in addition to the Swarte Arenfi^ 
which was on her way there and to engage " all such freemen as 
offer themselves or might be induced by some other means." 
Haste was imperative for it was " feared, not without reason, 
that ... the Swedes . . . might get assistance and reinforce- 
ments " in the near future.^* On the thirteenth (twenty-third) 
of the same month it seems that De Groote ChristoffeP" was 
also ready to sail, by which a letter was sent to New Amsterdam 
with the request that "not only authenticated copies of the con- 
veyance and titles for the purchased lands on the . . . South 
River, executed in the year 1651^^ [be sent to Amsterdam] but 
also all such other authentical documents and papers as may be 
found necessary for the confirmation [of the company's rights 
and the establishment] of the indecency of these proceedings 
[of the Swedes] and the violation of the so lawful possession of 
the company."^^ Some soldiers and a number of colonists were 
likewise sent over on the vessel.*^ 

The directors, expecting that the expedition against the 
Swedes would be undertaken in the early part of 1655 or early 

'"Siiiarte Arent (Zwarte Arend), the Black Eagle. The "Swarte Arent" 
carried the letter to New Amsterdam it seems. If that be so the ship left 
Amsterdam on or after November 6 (i6), 1654. In a letter of April 16 (26), 
1655, the directors say: "In our last letter[s] directed to Director Stuyvesant in 
private and sent by the ships De Swarte Arent and [De'] Oroote Christoffel ..." 
Doc, XII. 88. This would confirm the above view, but in the letter of November 
6 (16) it is stated that the Swarte Arent is "now on the way," which would 
seem to indicate that the ship had left the harbor. Doc, XII. 86. 

"Doc, XIL 85-86; Hazard, p. 168-9. 

"The Great Christopher. 

"The copy in Doc, XII. 87, has the year 1650. 

'^Doc, XII. 86-7; Hazard, 170. 

^ Only one freeman, " Jan Paulo Jacquet with his family " is distinctly men- 
tioned in the records, Doc, XII. 87; cf. Hazard, p. 170. 

Relations with the Dutch. 593 

in the spring of that year, were much surprised, when they were 
informed in a letter of January 12 (22) that Stuyvesant was in 
Barbadoes and their disappointment was great.^* In April they 
began anew to make preparations for the long planned attack 
on New Sweden, at this time " concluding not only to take up 
again the expedition in question, but also to undertake and carry 
it out with more assurance of success." For this purpose a ship 
called De JVaag,^^ belonging to the burgomasters and council 
of the city of Amsterdam, was chartered. About 200 men were 
put on board under command of Captain Frederick de Coninck. 
The ship was still in the harbor May 21 (31), but it likely set 
sail soon after this date.** 

On several occasions the directors received information from 
Stockholm that preparations were being made to send a ship to 
the South River. Having again had news from Stockholm 
towards the end of May about a new voyage, they earnestly 
requested the council of New Amsterdam to " hasten so much 
the more with the expedition" to the Delaware, and not to 
await the return of Stuyvesant if he was still away from New 
Netherland, when the Waag arrived. In case of the director- 
general's death or absence from the city the council should open 
the letters addressed to Stuyvesant and carry out " the orders 
given therein."*'^ 

Immediately upon the arrival of the Waag at New Amster- 
dam on August 3 (13) preparations for the expedition were 
begun and on the sixth (sixteenth) Stuyvesant, who was ill, 
issued an order empowering the council and Capt. de Coninck 
to maike all necessary arrangements, while a " Proclamation, 

" Stuyvesant made the expedition to Barbadoes without the knowledge and 
consent of his superiors. Doc, XII. 89 ; cf. Brodhead ; O'Callaghan. 

"De Waegh (ff^aeg, Waagh, Waag), The Scales. 

""May 26 (n.s.), 1655, it is expressly stated, "after the arrival of this man- 
o'-war \Pe Waag"]," Doc, XII. 90. On May 31 (n.s.) the directors again wrote 
to the council of New Netherland; it is not known whether or not the letter was 
sent on the Waag, but this is probable. Doc, XII. 90-1. 

'"Doc, XII. 88-91. To make sure that the contents of these private letters 
would become known to the council, copies of them were sent over on the Waag, 
for " the originals might be locked up." 


594 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

appointing the fifteenth (twenty-fifth) of August a day of 
prayer and fasting to invoke God's blessing on the expedition," 
was issued at the same time. A few days later a call for volun- 
teers was published,^^ offering " a reasonable salary and board 
money" to the applicants and promising them a "proper 
reward " in case of injury. The Jews were exempted from 
military service but on the condition, " that each male person 
over 1 6 and under 60 years [should] contribute, for the afore- 
said freedom towards the relief of the general municipal taxes, 
sixty-five stivers every month." A special commissary was 
appointed August 9 ( 19) , who should " take care and supervise 
that all ammunition and victuals needed for the intended expe- 
dition ... be ordered, shipped and properly taken care of."^® 
On the same date a resolution was passed by the council 
" friendly to ask some of the merchant-ships . . . [then at 
New Amsterdam] into the service of the country with the 
promise of proper compensation for it," but " in case the skip- 
pers refused, [they should be pressed] into the service . . . 
with their ships, ammunition, the people with them, provisions 
and implements."*" In accordance with this resolution Captain 
Douwes was ordered on the fourteenth (twenty- fourth) to 
"keep himself ready" to embark upon receiving orders, and 
certain captains of vessels in the harbor were commanded to 
furnish each "two men and their surplus of provisions and 
ammunition of war,"*^ Cornelius van Tienhoven and Frederick 
de Coninck being commissioned to proceed on board the ships, 
the Bontekoe,^^ the Beaver and the New Amsterdam, to enforce 
the orders. Three sloops and a French privateer were hired for 
the expedition and a loan of " fifteen hundred guilders in black 
and white wampum " was made by the council to be used on the 

"Dated August 19, 1655. 

'" Foppe Jansen was appointed to the position. Doc, XII. 93. 

"jDoc, XII. 93 (August 19, 1655). 

"■Doc, XII. 95. Besides the two men each ship was ordered to furnish 
" 200 lbs. of codfish, two or three small barrels of groats, one barrel of meat with 
one barrel of bacon and 300 lbs. of bread, also as much powder as they con- 
veniently could spare." 

" The spotted cow. 

Relations with the Dutch. 595 

journey in paying the soldiers or for presents to the natives. 
Towards the end of August all preparations were made and on 
Sunday, the twenty-sixth (September 5) the fleet*^ set sail 
" after the sermon."** The fleet consisted of " two battleships, 
two small [merchant] vessels, two boyarts*^ and a sloop," and 
it carried a force of "three hundred and seventeen soldiers 
besides a company of sailors."*^ 

Every means was taken to prevent the Swedes from obtaining 
knowledge about the preparations. Shortly before the expedi- 
tion left New Amsterdam Edmund Scarborough desired to 
return to Virginia with his vessel, but permission was given only 
on condition that he would give bail to the amount of £5,000 
sterling not to enter the South Bay or South River either 
directly or indirectly and that his people would promise under 
oath not to give information to anyone on sea or on land.*^ 
These and other precautions were so successful that Rising was 
not aware of the impending danger before it was almost on him. 

Reports of Stuyvesant's preparations reached the Indians, 
however, who straightway carried the intelligence to New 
Sweden that " the Dutch were about to come." Rising imme- 
diately called the council together, who decided to send two 

" Two pilots, Wessel Gerritsen and Pieter Lourissen, were appointed to lead 
the fleet to the Delaware, Doc, XII. 95. 

"Doc, XII. 91-97; Hazard, p. 180 ff. 

"A bojert was a small vessel much used in Holland in the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries. See Nordisk Fameljebok, III. 934-5- The Waag and the 
Spiegel (Dolphijnf) were the two large ships. Lindestrom, Geogr., p. 224. 

"The fleet was composed of two yachts called the Hollanse Tuijn (Holland 
Garden), the Prinses Royael, a galiot called the Hoop (Hope), mounting four 
guns, the flyboat Liefde (Love), mounting four guns, the vice-admiral's yacht 
the Dolphijn with four guns, the yacht Abrams Offerhande (Abraham's offering), 
as rear admiral, mounting four guns," and the JVaag (Balance). Hist. Mag., 
II. 258. Jameson, Nar. of N. Neth., 383. 

According to Rising the force consisted of about 600 to 700 men. Report, 1655 
(in another place he says from 400 to 500, Journal), and this number (600 to 
700) has been accepted as the correct one by the writers. Lindestrom goes 
further. He says: "Anno 1655 den 30 Aug. kom General Stuyvesant med en 
armee a 1,500 man stark." Geogr., p. 223. Stuyvesant said in 1664 that there 
were forty soldiers and 150 to 160 militia, or in all about 200 men. Doc, 11. 
233, 442. 

" Doc, XII. 94. 

596 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

men to Manhattan to gather news about Stuyvesant's move- 
ments. About the same time Sven Hook with four men was 
sent down the river to reconnoitre, but he returned on the tenth 
of August, having observed nothing." Hans Mansson and 
Jacob Sprint, however, who had been selected to go to New 
Amsterdam returned five days later from " Staten Island . . . 
bringing a complete and sure intelligence that the director 
general of New Netherland intended to come .... [to New 
Sweden] with four large and several small ships and seven 
or eight hundred men," being ready to sail August 18. There- 
upon Sven Hook was again sent down the Bay with some 
soldiers, but he soon returned without news. Having been 
ordered down the river a third time to watch the enemy he 
appeared on August 30, reporting he had seen two or three 
ships in the Bay the previous evening. 

In the meantime the forts were repaired and the best prepara- 
tions possible were made for the defence of the country. On 
August 1 6 Sven Skute went to Fort Christina to confer with the 
director and to receive instructions.** A council of war was 
called at which it was decided to defend Fort Trefaldighet in 
case the Dutch should attack it, a written resolution being given 
to Skute, setting forth his duties. When the Hollanders ap- 
proached he " should send [a messenger] to their ships . . . 
to find out if they came as friends and in any case warn them 
not to pass the above mentioned fort, for if they did he would 
fire at them, which they should not look upon as [an act of] 
hostility." " 150 lbs. of powder, a number of muskets, swords, 
pikes, bullets and other necessary things " were taken into the 
fort on the same day. Provisions were also supplied, 47 bushels 
of rye, fourteen gallons of brandy, quantities of beer and other 
necessaries being carried into the storehouse of Trefaldighet 
within a few days.*® The soldiers and freemen were also sup- 
plied with powder and other ammunition.** 

"Elswick's Relation, 1655, N.S., I. (R.A.). 

"Rising's Journal, August, 1655; "Relation ofwer thet ahnfall," etc., Arfwed- 
son, p. 34; Elswick's Relation, N.S., I. (R.A.) ; Rising's "Reck, med Sod. Comp.," 
Rising's Process (R.A.). 

"'SchuUt u. Carg. B., 1655. 

Relations with the Dutch. 597 

Stuyvesant arrived in the bay about three o'clock in the after- 
noon of August 27 (September 6), but on account of the tide 
and a calm he was unable to proceed up the river before the 
following day. In the evening of August 29 he cast anchor be- 
fore Fort Elfsborg, landed his men and made his camp for the 
night," ^ while his little force was reviewed and divided into five 
companies, "each under its own colors."'^ During the night, 
which was very dark, hiding the maneuvers of the Dutch, a 
sloop was sent up to Sandhook, where a number of Swedish 
freemen were captured who gave information about the situa- 
tion in the colony. On August 3 1 the fleet moved up the river, 
" passed Fort Casimir about 8 or 9 P. M. without any act of 
hostility on either side, [and] cast . . . anchor above the 
fortress." Skute with his officers and men were at the guns as 
the vessels sailed by, and when Sander Lenertson's sloop, which 
was in the lead, passed the fort, Peter Lindestrom asked the 
commander if he should fire, but, though all the ships passed 
within range of the Swedish cannon no orders were given, for 
Skute, seeing the hopelessness of the situation, wisely withheld 
orders to fire. The Dutch troops were landed and as soon as 
possible "the passage to Christina [was] occupied by fifty 
men " to prevent news from reaching that place. Shortly after 
the fleet had come to anchor. Lieutenant Smith with a drummer 
and a white flag was sent ashore to demand the surrender of the 

" Lindestrom relates that " the Dutch made their camp at Fort Elfsborg for 
the night, where they blockaded [the river] shot and thundered all night." 
Geogr., p. 224, " Hwarest dee blockade," etc. The meaning of blockade is not 
quite clear. In Swedish it means to blockade, to inclose, but it might be used 
here in the Dutch sense to " work," " to be busy," etc. 

^ " The general's [Stuyvesant's] company, of which Lieut. Nuijtingh was cap- 
tain, and Jan Hagel ensign-bearer, was ninety strong. The general's second 
company, of which Dirck Smit was captain, and Don Pouwel ensign-bearer, was 
sixty strong. Nicolaes de Silla, the marshal's company, of which Lieut. Pieter Ebel 
was captain and William van Reijnevelt ensign-bearer, was fifty-five strong. 
Frederick de Koningh, the major's company, of which Pieter de Coningckx was 
ensign-bearer, was sixty-two strong. The major's second company, which was 
composed of seamen and pilots, with Dirck Jansz Verstraten of Ossanen as their 
captain, boatswain's-mate Dirck Claesz[en], of Mannikendam as ensign-bearer, 
and the sail-maker, Jan Illisz of Honsum as lieutenant, consisted of fifty men, 
making altogether 317 men." 

598 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

fort. Smith was met at the river by Lieut. Gyllengren with two 
musketeers to whom he delivered the orders of his commander, 
stating that the Dutch had been informed by the Swedish 
authorities that Fort Casimir had been taken "neither by the 
orders nor the consent of the Swedish government or of the 
Swedish Crown," it was therefore the duty of the Swedes to 
deliver up the fort to its rightful owners. But Gyllengren in- 
formed him that they had received no instructions to that effect 
and that they would fight to the last man. Smith, desiring to 
speak with the Swedish commander, was thereupon blindfolded 
and led through the fortress into Skute's dwelling. Skute, wish- 
ing to write to Director Rising, requested some delay, but it was 
denied, and Smith returned to the ships with the message that 
the Swedes would not surrender without resistance.^^ 

In the meantime Stuyvesant landed his artillery and prepared 
to lay siege to the fortress. Smith was sent a second time with 
a message, requesting Skute " under cover of the Dutch artillery 
not to wait the attack of their troops," but to give up the fort. 
He was again met by Gyllengren, who made the same reply as 
before to his demands, warning him not to come a third time, 
"for the land belonged to the Crown of Sweden." Smith once 
more requested to speak with the Swedish commander, which 
was granted him. He was informed that an armorer would be 
sent to speak with Stuyvesant and he was told to go to Director 
Rising with his demands. The armorer, Kampe, was then sent 
to confer with the Dutch governor, who requested Skute to 
meet him for a personal interview, to which the latter agreed.^* 
Thereupon Skute with four musketeers met his opponent in the 
valley about half way between the fortress and the Dutch 
battery. The Swedish commander repeated his request of being 
allowed to send an open letter to Director Rising. This was 

=' " Forhoor.," etc.; Doc, XIL loi ff.; Hazard, 183 fF. 

" Skute says that he was requested to meet Stuyvesant half way between the 
camp of the Dutch and the fort. But Stuyvesant says that the request came 
from Skute and the same statement is found in Bogaert's report. Doc, XII. loi • 
Hist. Mag., II. 258; Skute's Report of the capture to Eric Oxenstierna, August 
31, 1655, "Forhoor," etc., N.S., I. (R.A.). 

Relations with the Dutch. 599 

denied him, but an hour's delay for a final answer to Stuyve- 
sant's summons was granted. After an hour Kampe was once 
more sent to the Dutch camp to ask for a delay until the next 
morning. This concession was likewise obtained on the condi- 
tion that Skute would again meet the Dutch governor at eight 
o'clock, "because we could not finish our battery [before that 
time]," says Stuyvesant.^* 

Skute now encouraged his people and tried to spur them on to 
make all possible resistance, but the soldiers were mutinous and 
would not obey orders.^® Several escaped over the walls, bring- 
ing news to Stuyvesant about the conditions in the fort, and of 
these fugitives, Gabriel Forsman, who was shot through the leg 
by Lieut. Gyllengren, as he climbed over the walls, died from the 
wounds (the only casualty through " the war ") . About fifteen 
soldiers were then placed under arrest, whereupon the remain- 
der were brought back to order and obedience. During the 
night Anders Dalbo and Karl Julius were sent In a canoe to 
Fort Christina with reports and a request for aid. Rising 
encouraged Skute to hold out as long as possible, since help 
would soon be sent there, but If he was compelled to capitulate 
to do so on as good terms as possible.^'^ 

The Swedish commander " did not go to the camp of the Hol- 
landers " on Saturday morning (Sept. i), as Gov. Stuyvesant 
had requested, but he sent Anders Kampe at the appointed 
hour*^ In his stead. The Dutch governor, however, insisted on 
Skute's coming and accordingly a second conference was ar- 
ranged between the two commanders half way between the fort 
and the Dutch batteries. Governor Stuyvesant once more de- 

"' Rising's Journal; " Forhoor," etc. ; Doc, XII. loi ; Hazard, pp. 83-4. 

°° " Soldaterne . . . , som dock pa sistone alle giorde sigh Rebellyske och 
goflwe sigh alle dhe 1,000 dieflar, som i Helwete bor, at dhee icke skulle staa, 
fast dhee wille partera dhem i 1,000 styken." Signed statement of Gyllengren, 
Rev. Hiort, Peter Lindestrom and others. August 31, 1655, inclosed with a 
letter to E. Oxenstierna. The document was discovered by Dr. Malmsten in 
Kammararkivet during the author's visit to Stockholm in 1909. It is now pre- 
served in Ox. Saml. (R.A.). 

"Skute's report, August 31, 1655; Rising's Journal; Lindestrom's Geogr. 

■* That is 8 A. M. 

6oo The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

manded the surrender of the stronghold, but Skute still talked 
of resistance, promising to make it uncomfortable for the Dutch 
soldiers if they should dare to approach within reach of the 
Swedish bullets. To this threat Stuyvesant replied that if he 
lost a man he would not spare a soul in the fort. At last Skute 
came to terms, " but he desired to see Stuyvesant's orders before 
he would agree to anything." Having been brought on board 
the ship De Waag, where the orders of the Dutch West India 
Company were laid before him, he resolved to surrender, 
whereupon the conditions and terms of capitulation^^ were dis- 

In the meantime Rising sent some nine or ten freemen,®^ who 
had been ordered down from the plantations to help defend the 
country, to Fort Tref aldighet ; but as they were crossing Chris- 
tina River about forty Dutch soldiers surrounded them, and 
ordered them to surrender. The Swedes, however, made oppo- 
sition and a fight ensued, but they were soon made prisoners 
except two, who escaped across the river in a boat amid a shower 
of bullets. They reached Fort Christina in safety, while the 
soldiers who pursued them were caused to withdraw into the 
woods by a ball from one of the guns on the battlements.*^ 

Finally the capitulation and conditions of surrender between 
Skute and Stuyvesant were agreed upon and signed on board of 
the Waag. "When the clock struck two in the afternoon," 
says Lindestrom, " a Dutch salute was given in their camp and 
answered . . . from the ships and it was easy to understand 
that an accord had been made with our commander."®* The 
capitulation consisted of four articles which contain two general 
conditions. In the first place all goods as well as cannon and 
ammunition, belonging to the New Sweden Company, the 
Swedish Crown or private persons were to be preserved intact 

^ Signed the same day, September i, 1655. Doc, XII. 102. Jameson, Nar. of 
N. Neth., 384. 

" Geogr., Rising's Journal. 

" Lindestrom gives the number as 60 or 80 men. Geogr. 
"Rising's Relation, etc. Arfwedson's De Colonia, etc. 
"Geogr., p. 230; J. Bogaert's Relation, Hist. Mag., II. 258. 

Relations with the Dutch. 6oi 

and could be removed by the owners at any time ; but " all 
pieces of ammunition, material and other effects belonging to 
the General Incorporated West India Company" must be de- 
livered into the hands of the Dutch commander; and secondly 
the garrison was accorded the honors of war. But two im- 
portant points were omitted; Skute had neglected to insert an 
article, stating the time of the capitulation and the place to 
which the soldiers could go after the surrender.®* 

As Skute returned to the fort about 75 Dutch soldiers fol- 
lowed him. Some time between two and four the gates were 
opened*^ and the commander marched out of the fort with the 
Swedish flag and twelve men in full accoutrements as his body- 
guard, the others having only their side arms. Thereupon the 
Dutch troops filed into the fortress, the Swedish flag was re- 
placed by the Dutch, the Dutch salute was given and Fort 
Trefaldighet was again called Fort Casimir.^* The Swedish 
soldiers were then brought on board the ships and a few days 
later (September 7) they were sent to New Amsterdam on the 
flyboat Liefde, but the officers were placed under guard in the 
fort in charge of two musketeers each. They were well treated by 
Stuyvesant, who dined them at his own table.*^ After the sur- 
render the Dutch forces were given a rest. On September 2 

""Forhoor oflfwer Com. Swen Schu[te]," etc., September 24, 1655, N.S., I. 
(R.A.) ; Doc, XII. 101 ; Bogaert's Report, Hist. Mag., 11. 258 ; Lindestrom's 
Geogr.; Hazard, 185. 

" Lindestrom's account is colored and unreliable. He says : " Den i Septem- 
ber upfordrades andre g&ngen Fort Treefalldigheet igenom en Capitein Lieut, 
hwilcken Jagh Peer Lindestrom blef beordrat till att mota. . . ." Lindestrom 
accuses Skute of capitulating without consulting the other officers and relates 
how he and Gyllengren gave the soldiers a barrel of beer and put them to work 
on the fortifications, while Skute was conferring with Stuyvesant. At four in the 
afternoon the work on the fort was ready to withstand an attack of the enemy, 
but then Skute had already surrendered and all was lost. Geogr., pp. 225-30. 

"Lindestrom says: " Gafs Hollenskt losen pS Fort Treefaldigheet, sedan 
swarades uthi lagret, och pa Skieppen, therefter strax lassades heela umgangen 
p5 Fort Treefaldigheet samt uthanwarket, suarades sa Iter medh alle styckene i 
lagret och omgSng[erne] pa Skieppen." Geogr., p. 231. 

"Lindestrom says: "We who were officers were placed under arrest. Then 
we went into the fort and a house was placed at our disposal, where we should 
be by ourselves until further order. In the evening we were very splendidly and 
well entertained at General Stuyvesant's own table . . and while we were in 
their arrest we had nothing to complain of." Geogr., p. 232. 

6o2 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

(12) Divine services were conducted in Fort Casimir, after 
which Stuyvesant reported his success to the council of New 
Amsterdam, ordering them to appoint "a special day" for 
offering thanks for the victory.*^ 

Meanwhile Rising was making preparations to receive the 
enemy, if they should pass Fort Trefaldighet. In the early 
morning of August 31 Elswick visited the settlements north- 
ward along the river*^ and at Kingsessing he called together 
the colonists, telling them "that the time had now come in 
which they could show their fidelity to Her Royal Majesty of 
Sweden by helping to defend Her Majesty's fortresses." He 
found the people ready and willing to aid in the defence and five 
men. Mats Hansson, Peter Rambo, Sven Gunnarsson, Hans 
Mansson and Mats Bengtsson, followed him at once. On their 
way down the river they landed on "Tenakong Island," at 
which place some soldiers and settlers were collected and from 
there they proceeded in a boat and two canoes to Christina, 
where they arrived an hour before daybreak the next morning.™ 

When Rising found that the Dutch were getting the upper 
hand at Fort Trefaldighet, he sent Hendrick Elswick to enquire 
what they further intended to do. " Factor Elswick came from 
Fort Christina," says Stuyvesant, " and asked in a friendly way 
and in the name of his director the cause of our coming and 
. . . [desired to see] the orders of our superiors . . J^ He 
requested us to be satisfied with what we had accomplished, 
without advancing further upon the other Swedish fort, using 
at first persuasive and friendly words, afterwards mingled with 
menaces."''^ Stuyvesant was on the point of detaining Elswick 
as a spy, but finally sent him back with the reply that he had 
come to occupy the whole of New Sweden and that he would 

"Doc, Xn. 102. 

"Upland, Finland and Tenakong (Tinicum). 

"Elswick's Relation, N.S., I. (R.A.). 

"Elswick was compelled to wait for two hours before the interview was 
granted as Skute was on board discussing the terms of capitulation. Elswick, 

''Doc, XIL loi. 

' Stadhen Christina Hambn medli Skantzen Christina Fort in Nova Svecia Sampc Hollendarens belagringh An" 1655." (The 
[of] Christinahanibn with Fort Christina in New Sweden and the seige of thelHollender, in the year 1655) . A. Skieppet Amstero 
s wagen" (The ship Aiiislerdam's /raa^ (scales)). B. Spegell Skieppet (The ship SpvRfl (Mirror, Dolphyiif), C. Tennakoucks 
let (the Tennakonck's land), D. Slagen Borgh. Tre Compagnier (three companies), E. Christina KjU (River), F. Ryt Flacht, G 
gen Borgh, Fyra Campagnier (Mosquito-burg. Four companies), H. Hollandarens beliigring (the seige of the Hollender), Rottn 
■gh. Sex Compagnier (Rat-burg, Six companies), I. Christina Hambns Stadh (the city of Christinahanibn), K. Kioket (the kit- 
), 1,. Fliegen Bourgh, Twa Compagnier (Fly-burg. Two companies), M. Timmer liylandet (Timber Island), N. Ryt Flacht, O. 
ie Kylen (Fish Kill), P. Ryt I'lacht, Q. Ryt I'laclit, R. Hambn (Harbor), S. Christina I'urt, T. Mina (mine). From lindestrom's 

Relations with the Dutch. 603 

not return before he had accomplished his object. On receiving 
this message Rising collected all his people in the fort, putting 
them to work on the walls and battlements day and night. On 
Sunday, September 2, divine services were held as usual, after 
which they " worked busily on the fort." During the day an 
Indian, who brought a pig which he sold in the fort, related that 
he had seen the Swedish soldiers at Fort Trefaldighet carried 
prisoners to the Dutch vessels and this disheartened the garrison, 
but Rising tried to keep up their courage. 

On the same day part of the Dutch force was marched up 
within sight of Christina, but Stuyvesant remained at Fort 
Casimir. On Monday morning the Dutch raised their flag on 
the Swedish sloop in the river above the Swedish fort, and as 
they prepared to take a stand by a house In the neighborhood, 
Lieutenant Hook with a drummer was sent there to Inquire 
what their intentions were and why they took a stand there.''* 
Before his boat landed he obtained the assurance of the Dutch 
that he would be received according to the rules governing the 
treatment of messengers between contending parties,^* but he 
was made a prisoner and sent to Fort Casimir In chains.'^' 
During the night the Dutch rushed the work on the trenches 
to such an extent that their battery was ready on the following 
day. The Swedes now supposed that Stuyvesant Intended to 
build a fort there so as to be able to control the whole district 
below Christina River, for it was not yet believed that he had 
come to capture all the forts. 

On September 5 Fort Christina was surrounded on all sides. 

"Lindestrora gives this occurrence on September 6. "On September 6 the 
enemy demanded the surrender of Fort Christina. Then Lieutenant Sven Hook 
was ordered by Director Rising to answer [them]." Geogr., p. 233. 

" According to the Swedish records. 

"It is probable that he offended the Dutch in some way. Lindestrom says: 
"And what words he spoke against the Dutch (for nahr talet och faldt hafwer), 
one cannot really know, [but] he was seized and brought on board the ship 
Amsterdams IVaag and there locked into heavy chains." Geogr., 233; Bogaert 
says: "The 13th was taken prisoner the Lieutenant of Fort Crist[ina], with a 
drummer, it being supposed that he had come as a spy upon the army, in conse- 
quence of the drummer's having no drum." Jameson, Nar. of N. Neth., 384-5 ; 
Hist. Mag., II. 258. 

6o4 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

To the southwest across the river were three companies en- 
trenched around the little batteries with four cannon which 
were erected there ;^^ at some hundred feet apart to the north- 
west were four companies and two batteries, each with three 
cannon ;'''' directly north of the fortress, on the ground laid out 
for the city of Christinehamn there were six companies with 
two batteries and six cannon ;^® on Timber Island, a little to the 
east of the town, two companies were stationed with two bat- 
teries (one "in a new house") and four cannon.''® A short 
distance below the fort the river was closed by the ships De 
Waag and the Spiegel {Dolphijnf) , below which the other ves- 
sels were anchored.*" As Rising with his people had labored 
diligently to put Christina in a state of defence, the strength of 
the fortress had been somewhat increased when the Dutch began 
to invest it, entrenchments being dug and the walls improved^ 
but provisions were scarce and the director as well as Elswick 
were obliged to supply various things from their own means. 
Beer especially was used in large quantities and Rising supplied 
five barrels of the drink, to the soldiers and freemen during the 

When Stuyvesant had enclosed Christina on every side and 
cut off all means of escape, he sent an Indian to the Swedish 
director with a letter, demanding the surrender of the fort and 
the entire river, after which all the Swedes must leave or come 
under the jurisdiction of the Dutch government. Rising sent a 
short reply with the Indian, stating that a deputation would be 

"The batteries, according to Lindestrom, were made from sod and protected 
by gabions and breastworks. It was called " Slangenborg." 

" These batteries were built out of logs, protected by breast works and gabions. 
This battery which was nearest the fort (see the map) was called " Myggen- 
borgh " because there was " such a fearful amount of mosquitoes there." Geogr.y. 

"The batteries were built of logs, filled in with earth and covered with sod- 
On account of the large number of rats there, it was called " Rottnbourgh." 
Geogr., 234. 

"The kitchen (see map) was enclosed in a fortified square. Geogr., 234. 

''Geogr., 233-4. The Spiegel given by Lindestrom was known under a 
different name by the Dutch and it was probably the same as the Dolphijn. 

"Elswick's Relation, Rising's Journal; "Reck, med Sod. Comp.," Rising's 
Process (R.A.). 

Relations with the Dutch. 605 

sent to Governor Stuyvesant, which would answer his demands 
in full. A council of war was then called to decide on the course 
of action to be taken. The walls of the fort were in poor condi- 
tion and only one round of ammunition was on hand. Besides 
the soldiers were out of spirits, some were mutinous, a few had 
escaped over the embankments and the general condition of the 
besieged was miserable. Yet there was no thought of surrender 
at present, but on the contrary it was decided to hold out against 
the enemy as long as possible. No hostilities should be begun 
and no occasion for action should be given by the Swedes on 
account of their lack of means of defence, but all attacks should 
be repulsed until further resistance was useless when they should 
surrender on the best terms obtainable. 

The Dutch soldiers were now overrunning the territory above 
Christina River, killing the cattle, swine and goats of the set- 
tlers, breaking open the houses and plundering everything they 
could get at. Several of the colonists had brought their posses- 
sions to Printz Hall for better protection, but some Dutch went 
there also who carried off the property of Madame Papegoja 
and of the others and broke into the church, taking away "the 
cordage and sails for a new ship." The Indians also did their 
share of the plundering, and on September 2 they stole all 
Clement Mickelsson's goods from his house.^^ 

Every hour the Dutch lines were drawn closer around the 
doomed fort. On September 7 a Dutch flag was raised on the 
new ship in Fish River and "Dutch banners were waving 
everywhere." In the morning Rising sent a commission to 
Stuyvesant, who was still at Fort Casimlr. The deputation 
consisted of Hendrick von Elswick, Gregorious van Dyck, and 
Peter Rambo. A memorial in seven paragraphs was given to 
them, defining their powers and giving minute Instructions as 
to their procedure. Elswick, who was to give an oral answer to 
Stuyvesant's demand of surrender, should see that the honor of 

"Rising's Journal; Elswick's Relation; Doc, XII. 105, 109; Records of Gloria 
Dei; cf. Acrelius, pp. 78-9. " Hausset nu die Hollender sehr ubell mit 
Tod'tschlagung des Vihes, und plundrung der Heiisser aussen fuiir dieser Fort- 
resse." Elswick's Relation. 

6o6 The Swedi sh Settlements on the Delaware. 

the Crown of Sweden and of the Commercial College was 
respected, that Rising and the other officers were given their 
proper titles for the honor of their superiors.®^ The commis- 
sioners were to refute Stuyvesant's demands by presenting the 
Swedish claims to the country, saying that they would defend 
it to the last, they were to endeavor to persuade him to abstain 
from hostihties on the ground that a continuation of the siege 
would bring about a break between the two nations in Europe, 
and as they were closely related In religion they ought to be 
friends, the country being large enough for both.** Elswick 
was further to insist that the dispute about the boundaries could 
better be settled in Europe and lastly he should protest against 
the Imprisonment of Hook.®^ The deputation presented these 
remonstrances as well as several other protests, among other 
things demanding that Stuyvesant should withdraw his troops 
from the fort at once. To these protests and remonstrances 
Stuyvesant simply replied that he was following the orders of 
his superiors who must answer for the consequences.** On 
September 9 Elswick in the name of his superior was ordered to 
write a letter to the Dutch governor in which he was to protest 
against the robberies and atrocities of the Dutch soldiers. 
Stuyvesant answered the letter the same day. He allowed the 
Swedes no rights in the river, refuted Rising's arguments and 
again demanded the surrender of the fort. Another council of 
war was thereupon called at which It was decided that Rising 
should request an interview with the Dutch governor on the 
following day, " especially since he had on two successive days 
. . . demanded a conference" and a messenger was sent to 
Stuyvesant, informing him of the decision of the Swedish offi- 

"In his letter of September 15 (n.s.) Stuyvesant had not used the proper 
titles in addressing Rising. See "Memorial," etc., September 6/16, 1655. 
(Copia) N.S., L (R.A.). 

"Elswick was also to say that Rising would not have attacked Fort Casimir 
if the gates had been closed, or if the garrison had made the least resistance. 

" Elswick went to the Dutch governor in a boat and the conference took place 
on the JVaag. It lasted for three hours. Elswick's Relation 

^ Doc, XII. 

Relations with the Dutch. 607 

cers.*" The proposal was agreeable to Stuyvesant and accord- 
ingly the two governors met between the fort and the Dutch 
camp.** " A complete reply was made to . . . [Stuyvesant's] 
lengthy letter of the previous day" and more vigorous protests 
were made against his procedure. But they could come to no 
agreement and Rising returned to Christina to await further 
developments. On the following day the batteries of the Dutch 
were brought to completion. Stuyvesant " daily demanded Ris- 
ing's surrender with great threats " and sent a drummer on the 
twelfth (twenty-second) and thirteenth (twenty-third) requir- 
ing another colloquy with Rising, and demanded that the fort 
should be surrendered before sunset on the last mentioned day. 
Meanwhile the condition of the besieged was daily growing 
worse, some being mutinous and many being sick. The fort 
had been reduced to its last extremity, the guns of the Dutch 
were pointed at the walls and everything was ready for an 
attack. The officers saw the futility of further resistance and it 
was decided to capitulate on the best terms that could be had. 
At sunset Elswick was sent to Stuyvesant with the reply that 
Rising was willing to meet him on the fourteenth. Time and 
place of meeting having been agreed upon, the " director of New 
Sweden " and the general director of New Netherland met one 
another, "on the place of parole between Fort Christina and 
the headquarters of General Peter Stuyvesant in a large and 
beautiful tent erected for that purpose."^® Rising was ac- 
companied by Von Elswick and Jacob Swensson and Stuyvesant 
was followed by Vice-Governor de Sille and Major Friedrichde 
Coninck. The conference lasted for about an hour. Rising 
warned his opponent not to press things too far as the conse- 

" A letter was sent with the messenger and Elswick presented a copy to the 
Commercial College in 1656. The message was sent on September 10, Elswick's 

" Rising was accompanied by Von Elswick and Stuyvesant by the Vice-Gover- 
nor of New Netherland, De Sille. Elswick's Relation. There is no mention of 
this meeting in Rising's Journal. 

»" Lindestrom's Geogr., 235-6; Elswick's Relation; Doc, XI. 106. Rising, 
omitting the former interview, describes this similarly to Elswick's description 
of the previous one. 

6o8 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

quences might have far-reaching results In Europe, but Stuyvc- 
sant would listen to no other terms than " complete and uncon- 
ditional " surrender. Finally Rising agreed to give up the fort. 
The articles of capitulation, which had been drawn up by Els- 
wlck at Rising's request, undoubtedly according to the proposi- 
tions and suggestions of the different members of the council of 
war, were presented to Stuyvesant for his approval. Very few 
changes were made, It seems, so that the treaty became a most 
favorable one to the Swedes. The capitulation which was to be 
signed by the two governors the following day (September 15)*" 
consisted of eleven articles, containing the following main 
points: The garrison should march out of the fort to Timber 
Island with all the honors of war; all property "belonging to 
the High Crown of Sweden and the South Company ... in 
and about Fort Christina " should remain the property of the 
said parties and should be turned over to the owners whenever 
demanded; likewise "all writings, letters, documents and deeds 
of the High Crown of Sweden and the South Company or of 
private persons found in Fort Christina " were to " remain un- 
touched without hindrance and visitation in the hands of the 
governor and his people, to take them away, whenever they 
please " ; " the officials, officers, soldiers and freemen . . . [were 
to be allowed to] keep their own movable goods unhindered 
and undamaged " and they were allowed to dispose of them in 
any manner they saw fit; the Swedes were to have liberty to 

"Elswick's Relation; Doc, XH. 102. Hence it is clear that the agreement to 
surrender vpas made on September 14 (24) and not on the fifteenth as 
Rising says and Acrelius and others state. From Stuyvesant's letter of Friday 
evening (about 8 P.M.) September 24 (n.s.) it can also be seen that Rising had 
already agreed to surrender and that only the signatures to the document were 
necessary. "These few lines are ... to serve [as an explanation?] to the 
enclosed capitulation entered into with the governor of Fort Christina, which, if 
it pleases God, will be signed and take effect to-morrow." Doc, XII. 102. But 
Rising says: "AltsS mSste wij den 15 Hujus" (n.s., September 25), etc. 
^' Skickades altsa dagen therefter [September 15] een harofwer uth till the 
Hollenske, att wij oss innan forsatte terminer skulle betanckia." "Relation," 
«tc., Arfwedson, p. 30. Lindestrom says: "The 17th (n.s., 27th) of September 
we agreed on the terms and signed them." Geogr., 235-6. A manifest error. 
Cf. Bogaerdt's Report, Hist, Mag., II. 589 ; Acrelius, p. 73 ff. ; Col. of N. Y. Hut. 
So., N.S., I. 443-8 ; W^insor, IV. 482, and others. 

" Cannon balls dug: up from the foundation ruins of Fort Christina." Benjamin 
Ferris says of these balls: " When I consider the indubitable genuineness of the 
treasures — that the_v are incoutrovertiblv the deposit of the Swedes before the sub- 
version of their authority on the Delaware in 1655, I think theni the greatest curiosity 
pertaining to the original settlements on the River. " F'rum the Year-Book of the 
Hist. So. of Delaware, 1901. 

Relations with the Dutch. 609 

leave the country without hindrance and all who returned home 
should be transported to Gothenburg free of expenses; Rising 
should have the right to admonish his own people to return to 
their native land in case some were inclined to remain, the length 
oi i}i years to be granted to such as could not go at once, in 
which "to dispose of their movable and immovable property"; 
all who wished to remain in the country under the Dutch Juris- 
diction should be allowed to do so and they were to " enjoy the 
privilege of the Augsburg Confession and [have] a person to 
instruct them therein," none of the officers, who might have con- 
tracted debts in behalf of the Crown or of the company, should 
" be arrested on account of them, within the jurisdiction of the 
general [director] "; and finally Rising was to have full liberty 
to " inquire into the behavior of Skute and the other officers dur- 
ing the surrender of the Fort on the Sandhook," and the capitu- 
lation should take effect on September 15."^ " A secret article " 
was also included, which, however. Rising maintained was not 
secret, but made with the knowledge of his people and signed by 
Stuyvesant "in their presence on the place of parole. ""^ Accord- 
ing to this " secret separate article," Rising and Elswick were to 
be landed either in England or in France, while Stuyvesant 
promised " to advance to Director Rising either in cash or in 
bills of exchange the sum of £300 Flanders."** Goods of 
equivalent value belonging to the Swedish Crown and the New 
Sweden Company were to be mortgaged and left in the hands 
of the general director against receipt, and Rising promised to 
repay the sum at Amsterdam within six months. 

In the forenoon of September 15 (25) the two governors 
again met on the place of parole. The articles "were re-ex- 
amined and found to be correct," whereupon two copies were 

"Doc, XII. 104-s; Acrelius, p. 73-5. 

'" Rising calls the article a "separate treaty." The fact was undoubtedly 
that the article was not to be made public at the time. It was known to Rising's 
people to the extent that Elswick and the other Swedish officers present at the 
capitulation became acquainted with its contents and witnessed the signing of 
the document. Doc, XII. 110. 

"' It is possible that the " secret article " was not agrted upon before September 
IS (25). Doc, XH. 106, Acrelius, p. 76. 

6io The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

signed and New Sweden was a Swedish colony no more. At 
three o'clock in the afternoon the little garrison ("about thirty 
men")^* marched out of the fort®^ "with beating of drums, 
playing of fifes, flying banners, burning matches, musketballs in 
their mouths and hand and sidearms."^® The soldiers were 
quartered in the houses on Timber Island, but the officers were 
lodged in their own quarters in the fort. The Dutch soldiers 
took possession of Christina as soon as the Swedes departed and 
the Dutch flag was raised above it.*^ 

Stuyvesant was lenient in his demands of the Swedes, but he 
had special reasons for being so. A few days after he had left 
New Amsterdam with his forces the Indians attacked several 
settlements in the Dutch colony, killing scores of settlers.®* On 
September 2 (12), the day after the surrender of Fort Tre- 
faldighet and the date on which Stuyvesant reported his success, 
the council Informed the governor by letter that the Indians had 
begun hostilities and committed many murders.®' They ques- 
tioned the sagacity of subduing distant places, when they ran 
the risk of losing "the old property." They promised to do 
their utmost in defending the colony against the savages, leav- 
ing It with Stuyvesant to act according to his judgment in the 
matter, but they requested him to send a speedy reply and from 
the tenure of the missive it is clear that they would rather have 
him return to defend New Netherland than to gain some slight 

'* Relation, etc., Arfwedson, p. 28. 

" Elswick says: " Dreij Uhr nachmittag zogen die Hollender ein und unsere 
Volker rait fligender Fahne, slagende Trummell, rurende Pfeiffe, brandende 
Leiite sampt Ober- und Untergewehr, etc., auss dieser Fortresse Christina." 

"Doc, XII. 104. 

" Elswick's Relation; Rising's Journal; Lindestrom's Geogr., 235 ff. ; Doc, 
XII. 104 ff. ; Rising's Relation, etc., Arfwedson, p. 29 ff. ; Col. of N. Y. Hist So , 
N.S., I. 443 «. 

'* loo men were murdered in nine hours, Doc, XII. 99. 

"The council reported to Stuyvesant that one Mr. Willet believed that the 
Swedes had bribed these savages and that through Swedish influence these 
troubles had fallen upon them, Doc, XII. 99. The report was, of course, with- 
out foundation. Lindestrom states that the Indians had a conference, when they 
found the Dutch were attacking New Sweden, and decided to attack New 
Netherland as revenge. Geogr. 

Relations with the Dutch. 6ii 

advantage on the Delaware.^"* The letter was handed to him 
in the afternoon of September 13 (23), the day before Rising 
agreed to surrender. It is clear that these misfortunes in- 
fluenced Stuyvesant's dealings with the Swedes and, had the let- 
ter arrived shortly after Fort Trefaldighet was captured and 
before Christina was besieged, it is more than likely that he 
would have returned to New Amsterdam as soon as possible, 
without further molesting the Swedish colony. 

The council sent a second letter to the governor some time 
after September 3(13) advising him to destroy Fort Christina 
in case it was given into his hands, causing the Swedes to remove 
from there, otherwise " for the preservation of the most impor- 
tant object and the consolation of the inhabitants . . . [to] 
make speedily a provisional treaty with the governor of the 
Swedes in regard to the fort and the land of Christina, . . . 
and then . . . [return home] on the first opportunity with the 
ships and troops, to preserve what is left.""^ It is not known 
whether or not this letter reached him before the treaty was 
signed, but it may have come into his hands on the fifteenth 
(twenty-fifth) ."^ At any rate half an hour after the Swedish 
soldiers had marched out of the fort, he appeared " with his 
officers and entire council " before Rising in Christina, offering 
to hand over the fort to the Swedes and to make with them an 
offensive and defensive league on the conditions that the Dutch 
be allowed to dwell undisturbed in possession of the land below 
Christina River and that the present troubles " be forgotten and 
forgiven." The Swedes were to remain in possession of all the 
land north of the fortress along the Delaware and " the country 
was large enough for them both-''^^^ Rising was naturally 

""Bof , XII. 98-99. The copy in the Doc. is dated September 12 (n.s.), 1655, 
but in the' text it is stated " that in the morning hours of the 15th inst many 

armed savages came " There is a mistake somewhere. Perhaps the 15th 

inst. is a mistake for the loth inst. 

"" Doc, XII. 100. 

'"'It had not arrived on the evening of September 14 (24). 

™"In the year 1655, the 15th (2Sth) of September, Peter Stuyvesant with his 
officers and entire council came to me, Johan Rising, in Fort Christina ... and 
presented an unexpected proposition, namely, if I would let our people go agam 

6i2 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

surprised at this unexpected turn of affairs. He answered the 
Dutch governor that the proposition seemed somewhat strange 
to him. He thought it was too late to come to any such agree- 
ments, but he requested Stuyvesant to present the offers in writ- 
ing and promised that a written reply would be delivered as 
soon as the Swedish council had considered the matter.^"* 

As it was late and since all the members of the Swedish coun- 
cil were not in the fort, it was decided to postpone the decision 
until the next day. The council, which assembled in the fore- 
noon of September i6 (26), consisted of Director Rising, 
Lieut. Sven Hook, who had been released, Hendrick von Els- 
wltk, Gregorlus van Dyck, the gunner, Johan Danielsson, the 
€nslgn, Peter Wendell and Peter Rambo, besides some freemen. 
The unanimous opinion of the council was, however, that Stuy- 
vesant's offer could not be accepted. The arguments of the 
different members against repealing the capitulation may be 
summed up as follows. ^°' They had no authority to enter into 
an alliance with Stuyvesant, guaranteeing that no consequences 
would follow as a result of the Dutch attack nor to waive the 
rights and pretences of the Swedish Crown to damages for the 
losses caused by the Dutch ; they could not subsist In the country, 
since their provisions were gone, a great part of their cattle and 
swine were killed and many of the plantations laid waste and 
finally it would be disgraceful to their superiors to reoccupy the 

with the flag and occupy the fort and places all the way from Christina Kill [up 
the Delaware] and let the Hollanders occupy what there was below [Christina 
Kill] and assure him that the Swedes would never complain about it, but live 
together [with the Dutch] in good friendship — the country being large enough 
for both — and we should make an offensive and defensive league." Minutes of 
the Council for considering Stuyvesant's proposition, September i6, 1655, N.S., 
I. (R.A.) ; see also Rising's Journal; Elswick's Relation, 1655, N.S., L (R.A.). 

'°* Lindestrom says: "Den 18 September om mSrgonen kom General Styfves- 
andh inn till oss pa Fort Christina medh sitt Traabeen styltandes, rachte oss 
handen, till bodh oss wart landh igen och all giord skada wedhergialla willia." 
Geogr., p. 236. 

*"Gregioius Van Dyck: "In consideration of the above mentioned reasons, 
[and] of the condition of the country [I] agree with the rest. We surrendered 
on favourable terms [Stuyvesant now tries] to entice us to go into [the fort] 
again, our superiors will have injury and disgrace through it, it is therefore 
best to stand by the capitulation." Report of the Proceedings of the Council, 
September 16, N.S., I. (R.A.). 

Relations with the Dutch. 613 

fort. After a vote had been taken an answer to Stuyvesant's 
proposition was drafted by Elswick which was sent to the Dutch 
governor through two soldiers, informing him that the Swedish 
council had decided to abide by the capitulation."^ 

Arrangements were therefore made by the Dutch to carry 
out the articles of surrender. When an Inventory of the prop- 
erty belonging to the Swedish company and the Swedish govern- 
ment had been made (from September eighteenth to the twenty- 
second) which was signed and sealed, the keys to the storehouse 
were delivered to Stuyvesant's servants by the gunner Johan 

The Dutch soldiers had plundered many of the plantations 
at Finland and Upland, during the siege, but it Is probable that 
order was restored soon after the signing of the treaty, most of 
the settlers going back to their homes.'"® 

An article had been included in the treaty giving Rising the 
right to Inquire Into the conduct of the Swedish officers at the 
surrender of Fort Trefaldlghet, and on September 24 a court- 
martial was held on Timber Island, at which an examination 
was made Into the behavior of Lieutenant Sven Skute."® He 
was blamed for not giving orders to fire on the Dutch ships as 
they passed, although LIndestrom and Stalkofta stood by the 
guns ready to apply the match. He was also accused of not tak- 
ing council with his officers about what was to be done, and 
Rising told him openly that he had disobeyed his orders, while 

^°°The reasons for not accepting Stuyvesant's offer are summarized by Rising 
as follows: (i) They had no authority to make an offensive and defensive league 
with him, without the knowledge of their superiors, furthermore it would not be 
advisable as the Indians had attacked New Netherland while the savages were 
friendly to the Swedes. (2) They could not guarantee that no trouble would 
arise from the hostility, attacks and affronts he had made against the colony. 
(3) It was not to their honor to reoccupy the fort. (4) All pretensions to 
damages would be waived. (5) They could not subsist in the country since the 
provisions were gone, most of the cattle butchered, the plantations ruined and 
their credit with the English destroyed. Rising's Journal (Up. B.) ; cf. Linde- 
strom's Geogr., pp. 236-7; Elswick's Relation. 

""Elswick's Relation, 1656, N.S., I. (R.A.) ; Lindestrom's Geogr., pp. 237-8. 

'"'Elswick's Relation, 1656, N.S., I. (R.A.) ; Lindestrom's Geogr., p. 237 ff. 

™Lindestrom is inaccurate. He gives the date as September 26. Geogr., 
P- 239- 

6i4 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

several other accusations were made against him by Utter and 
Raf . But he denied them all and it was brought out during the 
examination that the soldiers were mutinous and that he had 
tried to encourage them and to make them " fight like men. 
It seems that Skute had expected to be held to account for giv- 
ing up the fort, for he prepared a statement, which being signed 
by Lieutenant Elias Gyllengren, Rev. Peter Hjort, Constaple 
Johan Andersson and others, exonerated him from all blame. 
It was sent with a report of the surrender to Eric Oxenstiema 
on September 29, 1655.'" 

" Preparations were now made with all diligence for the de- 
parture of the Swedes " for New Amsterdam and the restoring 
of order. Part of the goods belonging to the New Sweden 
Company was sold to the servants and freemen on credit while 
the remainder was placed under the care of the Vice-commis- 
sioner Jacob Svensson to be sold in the best way possible." ^ 
Only a small number of the colonists desired to return to Swe- 
den Those who remained, however, were obliged to swear 
allegiance to the Dutch. A " call upon the Swedes to take the 
oath" was drawn up and nineteen freemen signed the docu- 
ments preserved to us. It is likely that many of the other 
inhabitants of New Sweden took the oath later."^ 

From September 25 to 29 the baggage of the officers, soldiers 
and colonists, who desired to return to the fatherland, was 
loaded upon the Dutch ships and when Rising had gone on 
board the fVaag'^' with his men on October i ( 1 1 ) the vessels 
set sail for New Amsterdam, where they arrived nine days 
later. Rising remained on the Waag until Sunday afternoon, 
October 14 (24), when he was advised by Elswick to visit 
Governor Stuyvesant in his fort to make complaints about 
various damages done the property of the New Sweden Com- 

™ Report sent by Skute to Eric Oxenstierna, August 31, and letter September 
29, 165s, Ox. Saml. (R.A.). 

'"Elswick's Relation, 1656, N.S., I. (R.A.)- 

^" Doc, Xn. 106-7. . J 

'"A salute of five large guns was given, as Governor Rising arrived at the 
ship. See Elswick's Relation; cf. Lindestrom's Geogr., p. 239. 

Relations with the Dutch. 615 

pany. He also accused Stuyvesant "of breach of the stipulated 
capitulation," because he did not provide proper lodgings, " and 
disputes with [unfriendly] words were said to have occurred 
between them." Two days later Stuyvesant drew up " an 
answer and counter protest," which was presented to Rising on 
October 18 (28).*" On the following day Rising replied to 
the counter protest, denied the accusations made by Stuyvesant, 
repeated some of his former complaints, " requested in all 
justice that, according to the capitulation the troops . . . should 
not be influenced to remain here, while those conformable to 
. . . [the] agreement [who desired to go], ought to come 
with [him] in the same ship " and finally he again protested 
against all that had been done " to His Majesty's subjects by 
the Invasion, beleaguering and taking of the whole South 
River."^^° The protest was delivered to Stuyvesant by Els- 
wick, accompanied by Lieutenant Sven Hook and Peter Hans- 
son Wendell and It seems to have remained unanswered. 

Arrangements were now speedily made for the transportation 
of Rising and his men to Europe, orders concerning their 
passage and landing being given to the skippers In whose vessels 
they were to go ;"* but the Dutch, who did their best in per- 
suading the Swedes to remain at New Amsterdam, prevailed 
on most of the Swedish people to locate In the colony .1" The 
officers and people (37 in all)^^* who were determined to leave 
were finally placed on board three vessels with their baggage, 
and on October 23 (November 2) they went to sea. 

"♦Elswick's Relation; Doc, XII. 107-8. The protest was brought to Rising's 
dwelling by the secretary of New Amsterdam, Van Ruyven and " two good men. 

"°Z)of. XII. 109-110; Elswick's iJWarion. 

""Dof XII. no. The money promised to Rising was given m two dratts, 
one on De'cruso of London for 1,000 guilders and the other on Steenwyck for 800 

guilders. Doc, XII. m. . ,:.i • t 

"' Elswick's Relation. The people were admonished by Rismg and Elswict 

to return, but to no avail. , , ,■ ,c 

""Elswick says: "35 Personen von uns Volk." He evidently excludes himselt 
and Director Rising, Relation, N.S., I. (R.A.). Pufendorf says: " Eodem anno id 
quoque insensi i Belgis Sveciae illatum, quod hujus Colonos Nova Svecia plane 
ejecerint, cujus Gubernator Risinguis cum triginta sex hominibus mense Decembri 
Pleimuthensi in portu Angliae adpellebat." De Rebus a Carolo Gustavo, etc.. 
Liber II., §85 (p. 120). Cf. Appendix below. 

6i6 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

The ships arrived at Plymouth on December 7 ( 17) , whence 
Elswick wrote to Commissioner Joachim Potter, giving a brief 
relation of the circumstances of the capture of New Sweden. 
Rising went " overland to London," drew his money and made 
a report to Christer Bonde, the Swedish Ambassador to Eng- 
land. From there he went to Amsterdam."* The other pas- 
sengers continued on their way to Holland, arriving there in 
January. They were well cared for by Croon, the commis- 
sioner of the Dutch West India Company, being lodged and fed 
by him. Shortly after their arrival Lieutenant Hook made a 
report before Peter Trotzig at Amsterdam and several officers, 
soldiers and servants, who had money due to them from the com- 
pany, according to a list signed by Rising, applied for aid.^^" 
Elswick almost immediately set out for Stockholm, where he 
arrived February 6. On the following day he appeared before 
the Commercial College, presented a letter from Rising and 
made a report.^^^ 

"'Elswick's Relation. In Holland Rising's luggage was plundered and his 
large economic work was destroyed. Itt Uthogh om Kiop-Hand., etc., p. 7. 

'^ See Lindestrom, Geogr., Journal, no. 1448 ff. 

™ Elswick's Relation. It is probable also that he was requested to prepare a 
written report and his Journal or Relation was presented a little later. 



Passport for Peter I.indestrom given by Johan Risini; "on 

board the Dutch ship Bcni , 

the Channel, December 1, 1655.' 


OIll? Autpriran (!l0tn]}attQ an!t % EtxtiUOi lEx^ihUuxn, atth 

% ^tu^dtHt; ^ttthtatniSi u«J»?r iutrlj Sul*. 





The American Company or the Third Reorganization 
OF THE New Sweden Company, 1654-165 5. 

Shortly after the sailing of the Haj Printz and Huygen^ 
arrived at Stockholm and made oral and written reports to the 
Commercial College. The servants and soldiers, who had ac- 
companied the governor, gradually made their appearance in 
the capital also, relating their experiences and clamoring for 
pay. The condition of the colony and the urgent need for aid 
was therefore well known to the authorities and officers of the 
company and we might expect a period of great activity. Eric 
Oxenstierna, who continued to be the leading spirit in the efforts 
to. promote the interest of New Sweden, brought the matter up 
for consideration in the Commercial College, which led to the 
proposal of certain plans. Already in the previous March, 
before the sailing of the Haj, the company had in mind to send 
out a new expedition, but there was not a sufficiently large 
capital in the treasury to make an immediate journey possible 
and, when the officers, soldiers and other servants presented 
themselves for aid, the treasury was further reduced.^ 

'Printz landed in Gothenburg on April 24, 1654, and Huygen undoubtedly 
preceded him by a few days. 

"Printz to E. Oxenstierna, April 25, 1654, Ox. Saml.; Hans Kramer to E. 
Oxenstierna, May 25, 1654, N.S., I. (R.A.). Several men were paid by Kramer, 
John Matsson, PSwel Jansson, Peter Meyer, Peter Andersson, Thomas Jurgensson 
and Hans Janeke, being mentioned in the Journal among those returning. 
Journal, no. ii8o ff. 


620 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

The company still* had claims against the government for 
several thousand riks daler, but the political situation was not 
favorable for pressing these bills. The pleasure-loving Queen 
no longer paid attention to the duties of a sovereign; the state 
treasury was empty through her extravagances and everything 
was in confusion.* Under such conditions we can expect no 
great efforts in behalf of the little settlement on the Delaware. 
But things were soon to change. Christina surrendered her 
scepter to the great Charles X. 

New life was now put into the machinery of the state and 
order was restored in the various departments of the govern- 
ment.'' The colony was not neglected by the King nor by the 
Commercial College, which was still the "legal director" of 
the New Sweden Company. In the autumn the Orn returned 
from the South River bringing Rising's report and requests for 
more supplies.® On October 4 letters from Bockhorn and Pape- 
goja, written at Gothenburg, were read at a meeting of the 
Commercial College and the colony was discussed at several 
other sessions of that body. The oral and written reports, 
which were presented by Papegoja and Bockhorn in the autumn, 
helped to increase the interest in the colony and serious efforts 
were now made to prosecute the undertaking with more vigor. 

Previously the college had made attempts at establishing 
trade between New Sweden and other places in America. Pal- 
bitsky was to request trade concessions from Spain for the 
Swedish colony on the Delaware'' and Israel Lagerfelt,* while 
on his mission of mediation to England,* proposed that "the 
navigation and commerce be free, lawful and uninterrupted for 

" See above, Chap. L. 

' See Introduction, above. 

■ Cf. above, Chaps. I., HI. 

' Cf. above. Chap. XXXIX. 

' Cf. above, Chap. II., p. lo. Documents concerning Palbitsky's mission to 
Spain not referred to on p. lo are Com. Col. Reg., 1651-1655; Beier to Oxen- 
stierna, March 5, 1652, Ox. Saml. (R.A.). 

'Israel Lagerfelt (1610-1684) became vice-president in the Commercial Col- 
lege in 1654. 

• Sent to England to mediate between England and the Netherlands. 

1>CCU,V c* JI>0/:-rin'x..Gatruina3ihi!T,u^ lUae^ujJcm ^Ifnll'u-icKniniljaniU 
— rocivrtvtor tUfutaiuJ , rt ■(cmAiu (jxtra.ardmn'nuJ (cao mfin. Jc-nhiuj ^ 
3aL<{roJa^ "^It^tdo^M §<»UJnr.uj ^^nl^ii>„j,„^^ 

Unuj QjijtoJuM C^lfaani<i)iai{li ^Acipub'iciz Anijlta ,nalum ,{rjiai„rr,a 

Jie^tiam, cJlla^nan, ^nrc-ipem '^nic-ndia^'iDucem QjtLmai^ 
J:nncipe^ -K^fk. nee Mf^omwam ofnjr,-^.,ef'^^,j„ar,<j!.(ifd~. 

moJwn repe^tc, amoVMiJti ncnnii//.fi JwUtivnim ,zfaj3u/anm ao^vi'um, 
tnvicMn ara itami ni'Di/j , c/f^ pnxTiperej mtvicn'am eA ocfafr'ime^ wn^^ i-t? 

JflfnifotMi-hiMS l^mwKfla-r'J! QliiiUfnpi'mu ii^it&XCeiieTi-h'lit'mij 
^ominii) zI)om,no ^AJXCllO UxX/nJllC/rna.9^n,'^rtc,'ffaru 
rfe/w^'o-- zLrovt'na'a'i UncidmtaUum ^'hrtandmtam ,J..aM>i!nia:a 

^a rant, in Jiimitfie .-DiTtninc m '.hha(m,e^ Jijdoon .Q>miifhfAuTati 

e^xhaimno Qrio) 0xcm6HimncbQ^xdy .^mr.mL Qffcjj 

First page of treaty between Kngland and Sweden concerning the Swedish colonies 
in America and Africa, X'psala, ]M:i\- s, 1654. Original preserved in the Riksarki\'. Trans- 
lated below, p. 753. 

•^uemauTrxHuTn .(ecjue^tiOu^ e/jcpriw^tu/r- I'ht'ypffcwiti'r', -— — — 

'^ ^U(\\ifUT 7)&7i i-an4v77imtrvir no777i'na^ -J) ire 'fori J tze Juam ctcJtiArri ntUia-7yv 

£ytrcJic4a: CJocieiifhj c^riffff'^a^'^L Cy//im.Mrc^ rfpff-juertt; luf awf^em^- 
Cffn^rtV&rjt'it. (y/icrca-hriim parhcutarcj ha- O^irc^- (TT' c<'ria.i r,i4^(nie^ teiiiiu-i 

C&th'j uAT\^%a NyT>J7ji,jSarry3 a/mt'ci'pt'fnc ^i jinL-'O-mhTphti^ r^mfitma^lt^/r-' 
{n^f/t)m ovAtTn eonvr/nii^ nuMi brtt^usic4^ a/f-ertdr,' da/rh h.-^ni' ot.-*^?--? S^cj 
aMt* uf Pfff Qhi'tri.ittiTn ptaoi c4nri/m OaHi'npej ac (yWt^iijtn , nr'fj i(Mt S4^ujq 
QJtahu' Stiodifi ac (xj'vcj Mj tni>i'um U-Ua ,cm^m Ltm naia ,•/> ^^'-^rr mdj tJhaCfn 
(p^mme'rio jau4- t'n ih'n&ro f'tifttrti'^ 0>e/ rnofcJha afjtciant Of&rvm oe-iaAet 


Second pag-e of the English -Swedish treaty. 

Q'uK'.-rif'fif'nP.' fnj'^uj men' '-'''■/■■ ^!t"f rtrrphny ■ , a Cfttm livjaii^ 


l.ii^l pa^e iif Uic Knglisli-Swedisli treaty, signed by Bulstrode Wliitelocke. 

The American Company. 621 

Her Sacred Majesty of Sweden and all her subjects, generally 
and particularly, . . . throughout England, Scotland and Ire- 
land as also the islands and ports subject and belonging to the 
Commonwealth of England in Virginia, New England, Guiney 
and elsewhere," to which the Council of State replied that the 
trade and navigation of both nations should be free "except in 
the Barbadoes and such plantations, ports and places in America, 
belonging to the Commonweadth of England, whereunto trade 
and traffic is prohibited without special license, both sides ob- 
serving the laws, customs and ordinances of each place respec- 

In the treaty of friendship made between England and Swe- 
den on April 11, 1654, through Ambassador Whitelocke and 
Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna, an article was included concerning 
the trade of Sweden in America," and in the special treaty of 
May 8 the same year'^^ it was stated that " the same rule [of 
friendship and good will] shall also be observed in America 
between the colonies of New Sweden and of the English so that 
they may cultivate true friendship and refrain on both sides 
from injuries and annoyances."** Again In December, when 
Peter Coyet,** one of the officers of the Commercial College, ^^ 
was sent to England, he was instructed to obtain permission 
from the English government for Swedish merchants to trade 
in the Barbadoes " and other islands and lands in America." 
*' Lastly he was at the proper opportunity to present the case of 
the boundaries between New Sweden and Virginia In order that 

"Council of State to Lagerfelt, July 7. 28. i^SS. Foreign Entry Books, 151, 
Pub. Rec. Office. Cf. above, Chap. II., p. 12, notes 16-19 ; Thurloe, State Papers, 
II. 142-3, 299-301, 314, etc. 

" Treaty Papers, Sweden, 1618-1672, no. 69, Pub. Rec. Office; Whitelocke, 
Embassy. Cf. Mss. 32,093, fol. 320, Brit. Museum; Whitelocke to Thurloe, 
Upsala, March 10, 1653, Add. 4156, fol- 92 (or 51 or 49 all three given). White- 
locke writes: "The Queene is pleased to spend some time to learne English 

"For discussions which led to the signing of the treaty see Whitelocke, 

" See facsimile and appendix, below. , ■ . 

"Peter Julius Coyet (1618-1667) was ambassador to England in 1654-5, 
■Swedish commissioner at Brede in 1667, where he died. 

" Peter Coyet was now Assessor in the college. 

622 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

certain commissioners might be appointed for this purpose, who 
should inspect the boundaries and place certain limits and land- 
marks [between the two colonies], that the good friendship 
and confidence, which have been renewed and consolidated be- 
tween the two nations here in Europe, might be transplanted 
and enlarged [over] there in America, also that a free trade 
there no less than here might be commenced and established."^* 

Nor was the business of the company in Sweden neglected. 
The officers first of all endeavored to increase the capital stock 
and since most of the old members had not furnished the full 
amount of their shares they presented the case to the King. 
His Majesty, who was very interested in the colony and the 
company, consequently ordered the Commercial College to re- 
mind the stockholders that the remainder should be paid and 
they were to take more interest in the company.^^ 

It is probable that Printz in his oral and written reports to 
the government suggested new plans for the increase of the 
colonial trade and that he explained the advantages that could be 
reaped by the company if a monopoly of the tobacco trade should 
be granted to it so that the tobacco could be brought directly from 
America. About this time a certain Wahlbeck made proposals 
for the beginning of such a trade with America and in Novem- 
ber he was called into the college, questioned as to his plans and 
asked " if his intention was to establish a trade in New Swe- 
den."^* Nothing, however, seems to have come out of it, but 
the question was not allowed to drop. 

Towards the end of 1 654 the members of the company made 
application for a monopoly on tobacco, and on December 23 
the King issued a Privilegium for " the American Company,"^' 
granting to the same the sole right to the importation of tobacco, 

""Memorial," etc., December i6, 1654, Com. Col. Reg. (1651-55), i, fol. 43 

"R.R., December 23, 1654; Stiernman, IL 783; Hand, och Naringar, Nord. 
Saml. (Up. B.) ; Journal, N.S., IH. (K.A.) ; Com. Col. Prot., April ff., 1654 

" Com. Col. Prot., November 8, 1654. 

" It seems, therefore, that steps had already been taken for the reorganizati >n 
of the New Sweden Company and that the name was being changed. 

The American Company. 623 

" as an expedient and means, whereby it was hoped that Nova 
Svecia at that time not only would be preserved, increased and 
improved, but also that the nation by this would find a better 
opportunity and occasion to become acquainted with the Amer- 
ican navigation and trade and to use it for its great profit and 
prosperity." Any one found importing tobacco or selling the 
same would be fined 40 marks silver money for the first offense, 
if the amount was not over 20 lbs. (besides forfeiture of the 
lot imported) ; for the second offense the fine was doubled, and 
for the third it was increased fourfold and so on in geometrical 
progression. If more than 20 lbs. were confiscated, the owner 
was fined 20 ore silver money for each lb. besides the loss of the 

Daniel Junge was appointed factor to fill the place vacated 
by Bonnell and other steps were taken for the furtherance of 
the company at this time. Already in 1653 there was some 
thought of reorganization, but the idea was dropped for ob- 
vious reasons. In the beginning of 1655, however, the subject 
was taken up in earnest. The bookkeeper, Hans Kramer, was 
appointed treasurer to receive the funds. Letters were written 
to the heirs of the Oxenstiemas and of Klas Fleming, with the 
request that they not only pay the remainder of their shares, 
but that they also " resolve to increase the capital stock as much 
as each house was able and the colony of New Sweden should 
need." New subscribers were also invited to join. As a conse- 
quence it seems that inquiries were made about the colony and 
the advisability of investing in the company. An answer to 
these questions was drafted by Kramer, or some other officer,^^ 
familiar with the subject. The document states that there is no 
country under the sun which could bring greater profits than 
New Sweden; everything which Sweden must procure from 
other parts could be raised and obtained there, if the colony 
could be put on a prosperous footing; for no people in the 

" Stiernman, II. 783-5 ; " Prev. for dat Am. Comp.," December 23, 1654, R.R., 
fol. 2142 (R.A.) ; Com. Col. Prot., November 8, 1654. 
"Kramer, Junge or Stromskold. 

624 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

world are more adapted for the cultivation of the soil than the 
Swedes and the Finns.^^ The document was probably dis- 
tributed in copies to several prospective stockholders.^* 

But the result of the efforts for the New Sweden Company 
were minimized by the activities of the Swedish African Com- 
pany, which also received the attention of the Commercial Col- 
lege, splitting the energies of that body. In August, 1654, 
^' the African Organization " likewise endeavored to increase 
its capital from 125,000 R.D. to 300,000 R.D. There was a 
dividend of 28 per cent, on the old capital and three cargoes 
had just been sent to Africa, from which it was expected that a 
gain of 22 per cent, would be realized. New stockholders were 
therefore assured a large profit and the appeals from the direc- 
tors of the African Company were probably more effective than 
the requests for a larger capital for its older sister, the New 
Sweden Company.^* 

The activity of the Commercial College in behalf of the 
New Sweden Company was not in vain, however. Some of the 
old stockholders increased their capital. Eric Oxenstierna and 
" his co-heirs " as well as the heirs of Gabriel Gustafsson Oxen- 
stierna increased their subscription by one half and a contract 
to this effect was drawn up for their signature. Eric Oxen- 
stierna paid in 2,000 R.D., leaving his contribution only 46.38 
R.D. short of the amount subscribed and the Countesses Maria 
de la Gardie and Brita Kurk paid 1,450 R.D. each to the 
treasurer (or promised definitely to pay), completing their 
combined share of 4,500 R.D.^^ A subscription list was also 
drafted for new members and Hendrick Huygen^® and the city 
of Viborg in Finland joined by subscribing 2,000 R.D.^'^ each, 

'^ Usselinx expressed similar views. Cf. above. 

^ " Swar pa een fragan," etc. (no date, but probably from the beginning of 
1655), N.S., L (R.A.). 

''Com. Col. Prot., October 4, ff. 1654 (R-A.) ; "Swar pa een frigan," etc., 
N.S., I. (R.A.) ; Com. Col. Reg., August 11 (12), 1654, January 13, 1655 (R.A.). 

™ According to later documents, however, it is clear that the total was either 
not paid up or some of the capital was later withdrawn. Cf. below. 

^The company owed Huygen a large sum on his salary and it seems that he 
agreed to accept shares in payment, 

" viborg paid only a small part of this. 

The American Company. 625 

while Stromskold subscribed 1,209 D. in the beginning of 

During several sessions of the Commercial College in the 
beginning of 1655 attention was given to the company and it 
was decided to send a cargo to the colony as soon as possible. 
As early as January 13, a letter was written toTrotzig, by order 
of the King, requesting him to buy a cargo In Holland for about 
6,000 florins. Olof Andersson Stromskold and Hans Kramer 
were appointed to draw up proposals and make estimates and 
Inventories of the available means of the company, which could 
be presented to the members of the college for consideration. 
On February 1 1 these papers were laid before the college, ac- 
cording to which the Crown owed the company 19,349^* R.D. 
at the end of 1653, besides the value of three ships, amounting 
to 12,500 R.D. and some accounts due the company from the 
Admiralty. But the company had used 28,255 R.D. of the 
South-Ship Company's capital and It was now proposed that the 
government should buy up these shares (from the old stock- 
holders?)*" and thus reduce Its debt to the New Sweden Com- 
pany.*^ The proposals were accepted by the members present 
and the chancellor himself undertook to present them to the 
King for his approval.*^ At this meeting (February 11) the 

* Subscription contracts for the old and new members (no date but from 
the beginning of 1655), Soderk., 1637-59 (R.A.) ; "Fort, uppi part, uti Am. C," 
etc. (no date but from 1655); "Gabriel Gustafsons och E. Oxenstiernas . . . 
Andel i Comp.," etc. (no date but from the beginning of 1655), Soderk., 1637-59 
(R.A.) ; Stromskold till C. Bonde, October 30, 1658, Rising's Process (R.A.) ; 
Journal, N.S., III. (K.A.). 

"The fractions are omitted. 

"■ It is not clear how the government was to buy the shares or to whom the 
money was to be paid. Perhaps it simply meant that the government should 
assume the shares and thus become the principal stockholder. Cf. above, Chap. 

"Even then the Crown would owe the company almost 3,000 R.D. 

" The account of the government with the company was as follows : 


On December 31, 1653, The Crown was indebted to the com- 
pany for the sum of 19.3+9= i'-^o 

The Crown was further indebted to the company for three 


626 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

company was fully re-organized, and it is from now on com- 
monly called the American Company, although the Official 
Journal still retains the old name,^* in some cases, however, 
using both (thus "the New Sweden or the American Com- 
pany ") . New efforts were also made to raise the capital stock, 
which in February (1655) was as follows: 


The South-Ship Company 27,000 

The government 9,000 

The Countesses Maria de la Gardie and Brita Kurk 6,750 

Eric Oxenstierna 6,75° 

The heirs of Klas Fleming 2,250 

The heirs of Peter Spiring 4,5°° 

The city of Viborg 3,000 

The Commissary Hendrick Huygen 3,000 

Olof Andersson Strijmskold i|209 

Total 63,459" 

A little later Johan Papegoja writes: "A new company has 
also been formed, yet along the same lines as the former one, 
much stronger, however, than it has been before. "^^ Olof 

ships, according to the certificate of the admiralty of August 
5, 1646, namely: 

The Kalmar Nyckel, estimated at 5>ooo R.D. 

The Fama, estimated at 5,ooo R.D. 

The Charitai, estimated at 2,500 R.D. 12,500 

The Royal Admiralty was indebted to the New Sweden Com- 
pany on March 17, 1658, for the sum of 5,132 4o[4] 16/25 

Total 36,981 :43 :i4 16/25 



Capital stock of the government in the company 6,000 

As it was proposed that the government should buy up the 
stock of the South-Ship Company, 18,000 R.D., and the other 
money used by the New Sweden Company, 10,255:27 R.D., 
these sums were credited to the government 28,255 -27 

To balance this account the government is still indebted to the 

New Sweden Company for the sura of 2,726:16:14 16/25 

Total 36,981 :43 :i4 16/25 

"H. Kongl. Maijt.," etc., Mar. 17, 1655; certificate signed by Erich Ryningh, 

August 5, 1646, Soderk; 1637-59 (R.A.). 

"There is no break in the Journal. 

""Fort, uppa part . . .," etc., Soderk., 1637-59 (R-A.) Journal, N.S., (K.A.) ; 
"Staten," etc. (copies), N.S., I. (R.A.), Soderk., 1637-59 (R.A.) ; and Rising's 
Process (R.A.). 

"Papegoja to Rising, March 10, 1655, N.S., I. (R.A.). 

Seal of Car! . 

Signature of Car] X G„s; 


The American Company. 627 

Andersson Stromskold was appointed director with a salary of 
600 D. per year (partly because Eric Oxenstierna, who had 
been the soul and spirit in the activities, was about to go to 
Prussia). Hans Kramer retained his position as bookkeeper, 
but he was also to act as a co-director with Stromskold and he 
signed the letters, instructions and other papers together with 
him. The new budget of the company at Stockholm was 
estimated as follows : 

Per Month. ^, Per Year. 

One director 50 D. 600 D. 

One bookkeeper jy'/i D. 450 D. 

One office boy 8!^ D. 100 D. 

Office rent per year 60 D. 

Eight cords" of wood 12 D. 

Two lispund (i8 lbs.) of light (candles) 6 D. 

Three reams of paper ig D. 

For ink and sealing wax 6 D. loz D. 

1,252 D." 

A new budget was also made for the colony (including the 
following officers and servants) : 

Military Officers akd Servants. 

Per Month. Per Year. 

I Commandant 75 D. 900 D. 

I Captain 36 I>- 43* D. 

I Lieutenant 24 D- 288 D. 

I Ensign 18 D. 216 D. 

1 Guard 'S D. 180 D. 

2 Contaples, @ 8 R.D., who are also to be armorers, 

each in his fort 24 D. 288 D. 

I Corporal 9 D. 108 D. 

I Drummer 7'/2 D. 90 D. 

36 Common [soldiers] @ 4 R.D 2i6 D. 2,5920. 

I Provost-marshal 9 ^- 108 D. 

1 Executioner 6 D. 72 D. 

Civil Officers. 

2 Clergymen @ 10 R.D 3° D. 360 D. 

I Head commissary who is to manage the trade and 

the bookkeeping 30 D. 360 D. 

1 Fiscal who is also to be the adjutant of the com- 
mandant " D. 144 D. 

""i fambnar," Famn, cord, 128 cubic feet (Eng.). 

"Com. Col. Reg., January 13, 1655; Journal, N.S., HI. (K.A.) ; "Memorials, 
1655, den ult. feb.," etc., Rising's Process (R.A.) ; " Staten," etc. (copies), N.S., 
I. (R.A.), Soderk., 1637-59 (R.A.), and Rising's Process (R.A.). 

628 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

I Barber-surgeon 15 D. 180 D. 

I Engineer, who is also the secretary iz D. 144 D. 

I Assistant commissary, appointed to be at the Horn 

Kill 12 D. 144 D. 

Grand total 550'/^ D. 6,606 D." 

The salaries and wages of the officers and servants of the 
new company in Stockholm and in New Sweden were therefore 
estimated at 7,756 D. (including office rent and the like 7,858 
D.), but this does not include all the officers that were em- 
ployed in the colony. The reports and letters of Johan Rising 
seem to have pleased the authorities at Stockholm and he was 
appointed Commandant of New Sweden.** 

About this time or a little later a new charter was drafted 
in several respects resembling that given to the " Old South 
Company." Only the company or those authorized by it had 
right, according to this octroy, to sail to the North American 
coast north of Nova Spania, or to trade there on pain of for- 
feiting goods and ships, and, as the territory of New Sweden 
was the property of the company, no one could settle there with- 
out the consent of the same. All the officers and servants were 
to be appointed and paid by the company, but the appointment 
of the governor was always to be ratified by the Crown and 
1,000 R.D. were to be paid into the state treasury as often as 
the selection of a governor was affirmed. The company was 
granted the right to build cities and forts, to provide for the 
administration of political and judicial affairs and to grant 
privileges to cities and communities ; it was at liberty to import 
duty-free raw material from America for the supply of manu- 
facturing establishments that might be founded in Sweden and 
all goods manufactured there could be exported for %. % duty, 
but usual duty was to be collected on all goods bought and 
shipped out of the kingdom ; the ships built in the colony would 
have the same privileges as those built in Sweden ; the company 
had the power to give privileges to others to sail to its waters 

""Staten," etc. (copy), N.S., I. (R.A.) and Soderk., 1637-559 (R.A.). 

°°"FulImacht for Walb. J'Jhan Rysingh at wara commendant uthi Nya 
Swerige," July 30, 1655. Com. Col. Reg. (R.A.) ; cf. above. Chap. XLL, 
appendix, below. 

The American Company. 629 

for the purpose of trade by paying a certain duty; it could 
import tobacco by paying only 2 ore per lb. ; it could call upon 
the government for the aid of soldiers and officers, whose sala- 
ries and wages were to be paid by the company, and finally it 
could make treaties and compacts with the people with whom 
its people and officers came in contact, whether they were sav- 
ages or Christians. The company was to labor for the con- 
version of the heathens and the Augsburg Confession was to 
be maintained and lived up to in the colony, but other creeds 
were also to be tolerated. Swedish law and order was to be 
maintained, observed and administered, and from the judg- 
ments that were pronounced (which the governor was to exe- 
cute) there should be no appeal. The sovereignty of the Swed- 
ish government was to be acknowledged and all the inhabitants 
of the colony should swear allegiance to the Crown as well as 
to the company. The King also guaranteed that no ships, 
ammunition or cannon would be taken for the use of the gov- 
ernment, unless it was absolutely necesary for the welfare of 
the kingdom and then only on certain conditions.*" 

The charter (or copy of the same), as we have it, is dated 
May, 1655, but it is evidently drawn up somewhat earlier. 
The copy is not signed by the King, nor is the charter entered 
in the Royal Copy Book,*^ as far as the author has been able 
to find; but this is no certain proof that it was not issued by His 
Majesty, for all royal documents and letters were not copied 
into the Copy Book.*^ 

During February and March there was much activity In 
behalf of the company and the colony. Kramer made a report 
on the condition of New Sweden and he and Stromskold were 
busily engaged, trying to place the company on a firm basis, 
while the Commercial College continued to discuss Its business. 

" Privilegium for Amerikanska Compagniet, May, 1655, N.S., I. (R.A.) Sprinc- 
horn (p. 61) says, that it was " utf ardat af Konungen i Maj, 1655," but the copy 
we have is not signed by the King and we have no means of knowing when 
it was utfdrdat or if it was issued at all. Cf. Dr. Keen in Winsor, IV. 477. 

" Nor was the charter printed. 

*' Riksregistraturet (R.A.). 

630 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

It was also decided to appoint a special factor in Gothenburg 
to look after the interest of the company there and the position 
was offered to Ulrick Steinkamp, who accepted the same. No 
salary was connected with the office, but he was to have " a 
reasonable commission."** 

"Steinkamp to Kramer, July 6, 11, 1655. Soderk., 1637-39 (R-A.) ; Cam. 
Col. Prol, March 15, 1655 (R.A.). 


The Twelfth or Last Expedition, 1655-1656. 

Preparations for a new expedition were now begun in earnest. 
On February 1 2 it was decided that a ship should be bought in 
Holland. At a meeting four days later letters from Rising and 
Elswick* were read, relating to the capture of the Haj and 
repeating the former requests for aid and reinforcements. 
These letters gave renewed vigor to the activities. Kramer and 
Stromskold were commanded to write to Trotzig, requesting 
him to buy a ship, provisions and goods and a letter was sent 
to the latter informing him of the above decision and of the fact 
that new directors had been appointed for the company. A 
letter from the directors dated February 1 7 was sent in the same 
package with the request that the commissary should buy a new 
ship (or one not more than three years old) "of 90 or 100 
lasts, with good room, six or eight gun-holes and with double- 
sail," besides provisions and goods. He was also to hire a mate 
and sailors.^ About the same time negotiations were begun 
with Hans Macklier for the purchase of a ship belonging to 
him and some other proprietors.^ But Admiral Anckarhjelm, 
who was requested to inspect the ship, reported that it was " not 
suitable for such a dangerous passage" and the sale was not 

Trotzig, however, lost no time in executing his instructions. 
It seems that he was unsuccessful in finding a new ship for sale, 

'Rising's letter dated September 23, 1654, and Elswick's letter from New 
Amsterdam. Cf. above. 

^ " Memorial," etc., Rising's Process (R.A.) ; letter to Trotzig, Jan. 13, Feb. 17, 
1655, Com. Col. Reg. (R.A.) ; Stromskold and Kramer to Trotzig, February 17, 
1655, Com. Col. Reg. (R.A.) ; Com. Col. Prot., January 3 ff., 1655. 

" Cf. below. 

*The Com. Col. to Anckarhjelm, April 14 and June 30, 1655, Com. Col. Reg. 


632 The Swedish Se ttlements on the Delaware. 

answering the requirements of the directors, but instead he 
bought an old one (Mercurius), at Saardam,^ which "he 
caused to be built anew entirely." A cargo was also obtained 
and loaded upon the vessel, which was dispatched to Gothen- 
burg as soon as it was ready, where it arrived some time In 
July. Anckarhjelm had been requested to take charge of the 
vessel and he and Kramer managed the preparations of the 
expedition.* The ship was leaking as it came Into port, making 
It necessary to unload the cargo and careen her. Further incon- 
venience was caused by the skipper, David Fredrlcksson, who 
deserted, taking charge of a Dutch vessel. Several sailors were 
also needed and Anckarhjelm found it very difficult to secure a 
sufficient crew, but some Danes and Swedes were finally hired. 
About the middle of August the ship was again in a condition 
to receive its cargo of goods, brought from Holland and pur- 
chased In Gothenburg and elsewhere. Stones were brought on 
board as ballast instead of the sand In the ship, " as sand was not 
serviceable on so long voyages." Thus while Stuyvesant was 
slowly advancing on the forts of New Sweden the company was 
making strenuous efforts to send out a large expedition. 

Neither cannon nor ammunition could be obtained at Gothen- 
burg, "even If we would pay their weight In money," writes 
Anckarhjelm. Ten Iron cannon (valued at 380.38 R.D.), 500 
lbs. of powder (valued at 125 R.D.) and 500 balls (valued at 
22.39 R-D.) were therefore purchased by Kramer in Stock- 
holm. Kramer also bought provisions and other material for 
the journey at Vastervik and hired a new skipper at the capital. 
The cannon and other goods were sent by sea on a sloop, which 
left the city about the end of August with Hendrick Huygen, 
Jon Hindricksson, the skipper, a barber-surgeon and several 
colonists on board. But the sloop encountered unfavorable 
weather and did not arrive at Gothenburg before October 4, 

'Saardam, Zardam, Zaardam or Zaandam. a town s'A miles northwest of 
Amsterdam, on the Zaan. 

, "^I'^TJT '° ^°;,''"^5elm at short intervals, giving orders, etc, and the 
latter kept the officers of the company informed of the progress of the preparations. 
See Anckarhjelm s letters to Kramer, 1655, N.S. L (RA) p»i«i.ivii=. 


'" Hjj^^'iliii^g ' ^ r 

■ V 

r- 1 

I I 


T. Anckarhjelm's letter to the directors of the New Sweden Company, Septem- 
ber 26, 1655. Preserved in N. S. I. (R. A.), Stockholm. 

The Twelfth or Last Expedition. 633 

delaying the expedition. The Mercurius was almost ready to 
sail about the middle of September, but nothing could be done 
before the sloop appeared. As soon as the sloop had arrived 
Anckarhjelm made great efforts to get the ship to sea. Sixty- 
six barrels of salt, shoes, cloth, four grindstones, nets, and 
various other articles were brought on board.'' 

Some efforts seem to have been made to gather colonists. 
On October 5 Anckarhjelm writes that " six families have come 
from Lytestegen( ?)* in Varmland, as the enclosed list shows, 
who relate that 80 persons small and big will come from other 
places in Varmland."* Gradually these colonists arrived in 
Gothenburg and on October 10, some 64 had made their ap- 
pearance, which number had swelled to about 200 a few days 
later. Kramer warned the admiral, however, not to allow too 
many people to go on board, that no sickness might arise as it 
happened in the case of the Orn, and advised him in one letter 
after another that the ship be made ready and sent off. 
Towards the end of October the cargo was all on board, but 
a larger stock of provisions was necessary than at first estimated 
on account of the increased number of emigrants, and the most 
desirable colonists to the number of 85 were selected from the 
whole (one hundred and ten being originally admitted, but in 
accordance with the warning of Kramer the number was re- 
duced). "A hundred persons or more were left behind" and 
"it is a pity and shame that they cannot all go along," writes 
Papegoja. " Here was seen such a lamentation and weeping, 
for the unfortunate ones have sold all they possessed, yea [they 
have] done away with home and ground for half of the value, 

' The Com. Col. to Trotzig, May 5, 1655, and the Com. Col. to Anckarhjelm, 
June 30, July 28, 1655, Com. Col. Reg. (R.A.) ; Anckarhjelm to Kramer, July zo, 
2S, August 3, 10, 17, 24, September 8, 15, 26, 28, October 3, 5, 1655, N.S., I. 
(R.A.); "Reck, for kom. for Men," 1655; R.A. " Forslag," etc., 1655, SSderk, 
1637-59 (R.A.) ; " Forslag hwadh Skeppet Mercurius," etc., N.S., I. (R.A.) ; 
" Rack. upp5 dett, som . . . Mercurius," etc., N.S., I. (R.A.) ; Journal, no. 1246 
ff.; Com. Col. Frot., January 3, March 15 ff., 1655 (R.A.). 

'There seems to be no place by that name. in Varmland now. Letstigen is the 
old road between Nerike and Varmland from Orebro via Quistbro, Svarta, Nysund 
(where it crosses the Let River) and Visnum to Christinehamn. 

'Anckarhjelm to Kramer, October 5, 1655, N.S., I. (R.A.). 

634 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

journeyed such a long way at their own expense and are now 
compelled to take up the beggar's staff, the one going here, the 
other there."!" 

Contrary winds delayed the vessel about a month after it 
was ready to sail, causing great expense, for the people had to 
be housed and fed in the city by the company. About the 
middle of November the wind began to be favorable, and the 
colonists were reviewed and brought on board. Some changes 
were made and the list was increased to no people (twelve of 
these being old settlers), ^^ making 130 souls on the ship in- 
cluding the sailors.!^ The majority were " Swedish Finns " 
and, since Papegoja did not understand the Finnish language, 
he engaged one Hendrick Olsson, who had been in New Sweden 
before, to assist him. Hendrick Huygen went to the colony as 
head commissary and he had charge of the ship. A clergyman, 
Rev. " Mathias,"" and the barber-surgeon, Hans Janeke were 
also among the passengers. Johan Papegoja was appointed as 
commander of the people and to his care were intrusted the 
appointment of Rising as commandant and other documents." 
Johan Classon Rising, the younger, a brother of Director Ris- 
ing, was also on the ship and he had charge of some merchan- 
dise, which was consigned to his brother in New Sweden. 

On Saturday, November 10, the ship drifted down to Elfs- 
borg,!^ but on Sunday the wind became contrary again. Here 

'"Papegoja to Kramer, November 2, 14, 1655; Anckarhjelm to Kramer, 
October 10 ff., 1655, N.S., L (R.A.). 

"Who had been in New Sweden before. 

"A classified list of the colonists was made by Huygen as follows: 

Officers and old servants 9 

Swedish women 2 

Swedish maidens 2 

Finnish men, old and young 33 

Finnish women i6 

Finnish maidens 11 

Finnish children from 12 years and thereunder 32 

Total io7 

Huygen to Kramer, no date but end of November, SSderk., 1637-59 (R.A.). 

" On the authority of Acrelius. It is not certain that he was on the ship, 

" Cf. above. 

"Sprinchorn (p. 62) says the ship set sail on October 16. 

The Twelfth or Last Expedition. 635 

she remained for over a week. On the twenty-third she 
" again set sail before noon, with a lot of other ships," but 
winds and fog again delayed the ship for two days. On No- 
vember 25, however, the wind was at last favorable and the 
Mercurius left port for its long journey across the Atlantic. 
In a bill preserved to us the cost of the expedition is itemized 
as follows: 


The cost of the ship Mercurius in Holland R.D. 5,383 :i4 

The cargo bought in Holland 2,5*9 ^36 

Provisions bought in Holland 33 W :[3]o 8,284:33 

Guns and ammunition from Stockholm 528 :29 

Wages paid in Stockholm 345 

Cargo bought in Gothenburg D. 4,244: 9 

Monthly wages for the people D. 3,114:2154 

Provisions consumed in Gothenburg and on the journey D. 1,716:30 

For the preparation of the ship P. 1,911: i/4 

D. 10,986:30 2,746:35 

Sixty-six barrels of salt bought in Stockholm 165 

For the wages of the sailors, who were discharged in Gothenburg 

and other expenses ii344H5 

Total 13,41445" 

The ship was at sea nearly four months, but the journey 
seems to have been rather free from casualties and sufferings 
so common to former voyages, for there is no mention of sick 
people, when the vessel sailed up the Delaware on March 14 
(24), 1656.1'^ After obtaining a large cargo of tobacco, the 
ship set sail for Europe in the summer and arrived at Gothen- 
burg on September 6, 1656. Some time later she proceeded to 

""Rech.," etc.; " Forslagh," etc., Soderk., 1637-59 (R.A.). 

"In my copy of Papegoja's letter concerning the events, the date is April 14 
{24), which is manifestly an error for March 14 (24). 

"Letters from Anckarhjelm to Kramer (and Stromskold) October 10, 17 
(inclosing a list), 26, November 2, 7, 14, 16, 20, 23, 28, December 3 (ca.), 1655, 
N.S., I. (R.A.) ; letters from H. Huygen to Hans Kramer, November 20, November 
(end of month), 1655, July 11, 1656, Soderk. (R.A.), to Amiralitetet, November 
25, 1655, N.S., I. (R.A.) ; Papegoja to Kramer, Nov. 2, 1655; Papegoja to E. 
Oxenstierna, July 30, August 9, 1656, N.S., I. (R.A.) ; P. Meyer to Kramer, 
July 20, November 6, 1655, Soderk. (R.A.) ; J. Hendrickson Lange to Kramer, 
November 20, 1655, Soderk. (R.A.) ; Com. Col. Reg., July 30, 1655, fol. 16 ff.; 
■"Rackning," etc., November, 1655, N.S., L (R.A.) ; "Rechnung von dera . . . 
Mercurius," etc., July 12, 1655, N.S., L (K.A.) ; " Rechnung inleef. a£E He. 

636 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Rising's relations and letters of June 14, 1655, as well as 
Elswick's letter of June 16 reached the Commercial College 
about the time or shortly after, the sailing of the Mercurius. 
These documents led to conferences of the interested parties 
and on November 30 the officers of the college, ignorant of the 
calamity that had befallen the colony and that Rising was ap- 
proaching the shores of Europe, wrote a letter to the director in 
answer to his own. Rising was advised to cultivate tobacco 
with all zeal, to strive to make the country feed the people, and 
to treat the Indians in a manner that he should be able to 
monopolize the fur trade. He was admonished eventually to 
give up trading with the English, for their friendship in the 
end would prove of more value to the colony than their trade, 
and he was especially to refrain from issuing drafts. He was 
assured of additional cargoes at an early date. Merchandise 
for a new expedition would be bought in the spring and efforts 
would be made to settle the disputes about the limits of the 
country through diplomatic channels. The directors also wrote 
to him. Their letter as far as the author is aware has not been 
preserved, but it was probably somewhat similar in contents 
to that of the college. On the following day (December i) 
the college sent copies of Rising's letters to Christer Bonde,^® 
the Swedish ambassador at Londonj^" with the reply of the 
college and a letter to the ambassador at the request of the 
directors, instructing him to try to effect some settlement "in 
the disputes about the limits and titles of land in America, so 
that no confusion may arise from it in the future."^^ 

Rentmast.,'' etc., November 19, 1655, Soderk.; "Rack, uppa dett, sora . . . 
Mercurius," etc., N.S., I. (R.A.) ; " Forslagh, hwad skeppet Mercurius," etc., 
1655, N.S., L (R.A.); "RuIIa," etc. (October 5, 1655), N.S., I. (R.A.) ; Journal, 
nos. 1320 ff., 1401 flf. ; P. Andersson and P. Jansson to Stromskold, July 20, 1655, 
Soderk.; Steinkamp n Kramer, July 6, July 11, 1655, Soderk.; Doc, XH. 120 
ff.; "Kort Relation"; "Memorial," etc.; " Kort Memorial om Com. . . . 
Rising," etc.; " Efterskfrefne saker ahre," etc.. Rising's Process (R.A.). 

'"Christer Bonde (1621-1659) became president of the Commercial College 
after Oxenstierna's withdrawal. 

" Cf. above, p. 12. 

■" Letter from the Com. Col. to Rising, November 30, and to Christer Bonde, 
December i, 1655, Com. Col. Reg., fol. 35 ff. 


The Tobacco Trade of the American Company, 

The tobacco trade had again begun to attain some impor- 
tance and the government, as we have seen, aided the company 
by granting special privileges. " The Tobacco Ordinance " 
was printed and sent to the governors and magistrates and 
other local and government officials throughout the kingdom. 
Special letters were also sent to the collectors of customs and 
others.^ The tobacco brought over on the Orn was bought by 
the company, relieving Rising of the lot, and sold by the factor, 
Daniel Junge. The 11,056 lbs., which Printz brought to Hol- 
land for the company, had been sold there, but at a loss of 573 
daler.^ Several thousand pounds were also purchased by 
Trotzig in Holland and sent to Sweden, where it was sold by 

In February, 1655, Daniel Junge, the factor (now also the 
treasurer), offered to pay the company 16,000 R.D. for the 
exclusive right of selling the tobacco in the kingdom, but no 
arrangements were made.* Junge also imported tobacco from 
Hamburg and Amsterdam for the Swedish trade, and from the 
time the company received its new privileges (December, 
1654) until the end of February, 1656, 15,390^ lbs. of raw 
tobacco were sold, but "the spinning," which played such an 
important role in 1648-52, was continued and 15,950 lbs. were 

^Com. Col. Reg., November 9, 1655, etc. (R.A.). 

''It was sold byTrotzig. Journal, nos. 1178-80, 1213 ff. "Memorial," etc., 
Rising's Process (R.A.). 

'Journal. N.S., III. (K.A.). 

'"Memorial," etc., d. n Feb., 1655, Rising's Process (R.A.). 

" The 15,390 lbs. were sold for 17,363 D. 24 ore. " Forteck," etc., Tobaksk., 
1643-59 (R.A.). 


638 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

spun, of which 7,527 lbs. had been sold in February, 1656, for 
11,290 D.® 

Much smuggling was done, however, and in January, 1656, 
Daniel Junge was sent to the cities to establish and " organize 
the tobacco trade according to the Royal Mandate"; but the 
effects of his efforts were not gratifying, for illegal importation 
continued^ and " at Narva and Nyen they refused point blank 
to live up to the orders of the King."* Soon reports of the 
capture of the colony reached Stockholm and relations of 
Rising, Lindestrom, Elswick and others were presented. The 
finances of the company were now in a deplorable state. Large 
sums were demanded by the returning people and there was. 
little in the treasury to pay them. Several loans had been made 
which drew an interest of ten per cent, and the company still 
owed Trotzig some 2,000 R.D. for the provisions and the 
cargo bought by him. 

In the early summer of 1656 Stromskold went to Prussia, 
where he met Rising and Eric Oxenstierna. He also carried 
with him new proposals for aiding the American Company, put 
forth in a letter from Kramer and Junge. The company could 
be kept going by securing new stockholders, but an effective 
means would be to grant new privileges, giving the company ex- 
clusive right to sell the tobacco as well as to import it. In the 
autumn of 1656 the Commercial College complained to the 
King about the matter and requested him to grant sole right 
to the company to sell the tobacco also, so as to increase the 
income of the Crown.^ 

But the privileges were not granted. To aggravate matters 
Isaac Allen, the factor of Richard Lord, appeared at Stock- 
holm and presented the draft of 2,196^^ R.D. The Com- 

' Journal, no. 1380 ff. ; " Forteckning," etc., 1656, Tobaksk., 1643-59 (R-A.), 
also in N.S., I. (R.A.) ; "Extract," etc., ult. Nov., 1656, Tobaksk., 1643-59 (R.A.). 

'Until August 7, 1656, over 8,000 lbs. vfere confiscated by Von Klaen, "Ex- 
tract," etc., Tobaksk., 1643-59 (R.A.). 

'The Com. Col. " Fullmacht for . . . Jungh," etc., January 4, 1655; the 
Com. Col. letter to the Gov. General of Lifland, February 8, 1656, Com. Col. Reg. 

"The Com. Col. Reg. (R.A.). 

Tobacco Trade of American Company. 639 

mercial College ordered the company to pay the draft as well 
as the salary of Elswick and the duty on all Imported tobacco. 
By strenuous efforts the bills were paid, but the treasury was 
now empty. Daniel Junge and others advanced money for 
buying tobacco and even made use of their personal credit. 
The Mercurius returned safely with several thousand lbs. and 
thus the trade went on as before.^" 

But the demand for some reason was not as large as the 
directors had hoped for. In December, 1656, Daniel Junge 
and Ulrick Steinkamp, the factor of the company in Gothen- 
burg, had sold 37,299 lbs. of tobacco, but 39,888 lbs. were yet 
unsold in the storehouse at Stockholm. The importation con- 
tinued, but the duty became a burden and complaints were made 
to the Commercial College. In the autumn of 1657 the col- 
lege resolved that only 2 ore per lb. should be paid in duty and 
the excise paid by the company before that date was reduced 
by one half — making a difference of more than 2,700 R.D. 
for the years 1655 and 1656.^* From 1655 until the end of 
1658 the company imported 107,914 Ibs.^'' and paid over 
4,495:68 R.D. in duty." Illegal importation, however, in- 
creased, making it more difficult than ever to sell the tobacco 
and one of two things became necessary — the dissolution or the 
reorganization of the company. 

"Letter from D. Junge and H. Kramer to E. Oxenstierna, May 3, 1656; 
" Kort Relat.," etc., 1653-59, Rising's Process; " Erkauf. Tob.," 1655-56, Tobaksk., 
1643-59 (R.A.); the Com. Col. "till Kongl. Maj., December 6, 1656, Com. Col. 
Reg.; the Com. Col. "till Direk," December 12 and other dates, 1656; Elswick's 
letter of September 12, 1656, Rising's Process (R.A.). 

"R.R., July 16, 1656; the Com. Col. Reg., July 24, 1657; the Com. Col. "till 
Am. Com.," July 31, 1656, Tobaksk., 1642-59 (R.A.) ; Journal, 1300 ff. (K.A.). 

"6,012 lbs. were imported directly to Viborg in Finland in 1655. "Am. 
Comp.," etc., N.S., I. (K.A.) ; "Specification," etc., 1655-1660, N.S., I. (K.A.). 

"The tobacco imported for the diflFerent years from 1655 until 1659 was as 
follows : 

1655 28,758 lbs. 

1656 36,398 lbs. 

1657 19,201 lbs. 

1658 23.S57 lbs. 

Total 107,914 lbs. 


The American Tobacco Company, 165 8-1662. 

The colony was lost, but the tobacco trade, which had 
proven Itself the most profitable, could still become a source of 
large gain to the stockholders, if placed on a practical basis. 
The remedy proposed for the existing evils and drawbacks was 
the re-organization of the company, the extension of its activi- 
ties and a monopoly of the tobacco trade in the kingdom as 
well as the exclusive right of importation. The suggestions 
now met with the approval of the King and in the spring of 
1658 the company was re-organized along the above lines. 

On May 22, 1658, the King published a "placard concern- 
ing the importation and trade of tobacco."^ One of the princi- 
pal reasons for the granting of the privilege to the company 
was " that the productive^ colony in Nova Svecia, [which will 
be] of great benefit to Us, our kingdom and subjects, as well on 
account of the navigation as on account of the trade and com- 
merce and the accompanying profit and advantage, might be 
preserved and maintained." The ordinance contained eight 
articles, defining the rights of the company and prescribing 
fines and punishments for those found guilty of trespassing 
upon its privileges. The company was to appoint agents from 
among the residents in various parts of the kingdom to sell the 
tobacco, when application for such privileges were received; 
but, if no application was made by the cities within three weeks 
of the publication of the ordinance, the company had a right 
to appoint and send Its own representatives there.* 

■ It was dated at Gothenburg. 

" " Then importente Colonien i Nova Svecia." Importente seems to have had 
its Latin meaning of producing at this time. 
'Stiernman, II. 875-80. 


The American Tobacco Company. 641 

The entire tobacco trade of Sweden was now placed in the 
company's hands and extended to almost every city, village and 
hamlet in the kingdom and to the principal centers in Finland 
and the other provinces. It also supplied the tobacco for the 
army in the field. Stromskold, Kramer and Junge were to re- 
main as managers and they are mentioned as the " Directors of 
the American Company." Chrispinus Flygge was appointed 
inspector general over the trade in Vastergotland, Varmland, 
Nerige, Dal, Halland, Skane, Blekinge, Bohus lan,^ the city of 
Gothenburg, Elfsborgs and Skaraborgs Ian, and Daniel Junge 
was appointed to the same office at Stockholm, with jurisdic- 
tion over a large territory. Searchers to control the trade and 
guard the rights of the company were also engaged^ and " in- 
spectors " and agents were appointed to sell the company's 
tobacco as well as to " inspect the tobacco trade " in their dis- 
tricts. Contracts were signed by them in which they agreed 
to follow the orders and regulations of the company, and powers 
of attorney or warrants were given them by the directors." 
The searchers were given one third of the confiscated tobacco 
and in some cases a wage of 12 R.D. a month.'' 

Several applications were also filed by private citizens, 
in accordance with the ordinance, for the privilege of retailing 
tobacco. These merchants or "contractors" like the agents 

*The last four provinces were ceded to Sweden in the treaty at Roskilde, 1658. 
Hildebrand, Sv. hist., V. 

° Jon Hansson Fries and Mans Rosell were appointed to visit all vessels coming 
to Waxholm. " Concept auf dem fullm.," etc., October 2, 1658, Tobaksk., 1643- 
59 (R.A.). Two other Besucher were hired to work at Stockholm, Lars Berg and 
Nils Matsson, but Berg later went to Enkoping, Journal, no. 1539. 

' Anders Andersson was appointed inspector over the trade in " Nerike and 
Vastmanland " ; Pal Kroger was appointed inspector in Jacobstad, Finland ; 
Krister Hansson in Vastervik; B. Hanneman in Ekenas and surrounding district; 
Per Erissmansson in Kalmar Ian and city as well as Oland and surrounding dis- 
tricts. See Krister Hansson's "Revers," November 18, 1658; B. Hannemann's 
letter, December 3, 1658; Per Erissman's Revers, December 4, 1658; C. Flygge's 
letter, November 9, 1658; Stromskold's letter, June 9, 1658; Anders Andersson's 
"Revers," July 13, 1658; Kroger's "Revers," October 26, 1658; Tobaksk., 1643-59 
(R.A.); C. Schrait's oligation, March 19, 1659, N.S., I. (K.A.). 

''Journal, nos. 1538, 1539 ft. 

642 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

and inspectors of the company signed rigid contracts, and re- 
tained a certain percentage of the amount they sold.* 

The accounts were still kept in the old journal of the New 
Sweden Company, but on December 31, 1658, the book, was 
full and a balance was made as follows : 

Assets. D. gre. 

The Swedish government 29,023 :i9 5/12 

The late Klas Fleming 227:21^ 

The heirs of Gabriel Gustafsson Oxenstierna iiS7S 

The heirs of A. Oxenstierna 70 : 6 

The Admiral Richard Clerk 83 124 

The old shipbuilding at Vastervik 465 :i i ^ 

Hans Neuman and Robert Smith 711 : 6% 

Robert Smith 1,111:14^ 

Capt. Baerendt H. Hopp 457 :i6 

The large sea-excise in Stockholra 1,042:17 ii/ij 

The Royal Admiralty 9,563 :io^ 

The Shipbuilding Company at Vastervik i,57S 

The late Peter Friedell ST-H}^ 

Cargo charged to Johan Rising 4,206 : 3 4/5 

The Commissary Johan Rising 3,603 : 6 

The King and Crown of Spain 34,693 :i6 

The West India Company in Holland 241,133 1241/5 

The ship Mercurius 8,844: 82/5 

Ulrick von Steinkamp in Gothenburg 232:302/5 

The Director Daniel Junge 300:15 3/5 

Journey of the ship Mercurius to Liibeck 530:16 2/5 

The searchers employed by the company 106 

Tobacco (purchased) under Peter Olofsson (5865/^ lbs.) 128 

Confiscated tobacco under Peter Olofsson (245 J^ lbs.) 122:24 

The district court judge in Blekinge, Peter Durell 1,806: 8 

The general-inspector, Mr. Chrispinus Flygge 1,685:16 

'^°'^' 343,357 =21 11/20 

' On August 31, 1658, privilege was granted to Jon Persson, Per Ersson( ?) and 
Steffan Andersson " to be the contractors of the company in the city of Upsala and 
the surrounding districts." S. Volckraar was retailer in Gothenburg, J. Larsson 
in Mariestad, Anders Andersson in Vannersborg, Jacob Junge in Alingsas, 
Fredrick E[n]gelbrecht( ?) in Lidkoping, T. Schneyder in Boras, Per Wilsson in 
Odemaldt (Odemlla( ?)), Anders Olsson in Skyffe(?), Jon Jonsson in Akerstrom 
and Anders Persson in Skara. Erick Ericksson was commissioned to sell tobacco 
in Hedemora and surrounding district. " Priv.," signed by H. Kramer and 
Olof Stromskold, Stockholm, August 21, 1658, and the contract of these tobacco 
merchants (unsigned) of same date, Tobaksk., 1643-59 (R.A.). "Erick Ericks- 
sons . . . Revers, d. 18 August, 1658," Chrispinus Flygge, Tobaksk. (R.A.). 

^ _ . jCV^ . 

: ^U^tfO., ■N?P54r5557-. ■JJ^i'---/ 

4 .5^ic^*S<!£lS^i'?4.4/(«»o*u!t5l^(^!uiu5^^ - XV^^.iy^-■ 
H ^■^cu Al^<«dK;c$i^i aa^- •-;.•--• -' ^' ^'^■- -M' 

i ^ 's^c. iJk^'^;*.'-? AwjV iJJ^tfMj^cT- ; *5^ 4-^>5^'. n ir- 

if ^fVi&x^'M.c4Hi^<«^9C>4«iA<ScjW*«iK(j!jytaAiiI«- --^^ .?)■>. ft- 

5 r ^>f« i^vcjit^uJc&TK 5^>c^*?fc(.:: s >■* .i o^t. s-if^ 


Tcic do'Ati J (t»i%« iwicSikxaiwiv ff^ 34(fflt-.'i>. 

(■JS Cl;M^^(^HU■W"i'l^^^<^■4^'»^CWt^lfiM'M.<L^.rf■'l'u,i!l;.-t '■••^■- ^fj^. n,i 

Balance of the books of the New Sweden Company, December 31, 1658. Next to last page of the J. .1111,^1 

...... Y-,«tjp[^-rr^-r^^ -« ^ | - ^ i' ^ ■ ^ ;^-^ 





ititio •• .1 b 3 s i% ultittvo ^^ K(cm b •. 

t iK'jv:.4<:'Mit'^^H<n««v>i-.<?<:if i^WHS fvCclv. ...... s?' MS' H 

4^ ^^6^^<k<'iSjlMClH5WVfSl^«'i«>iw|^|f>U 

^^j.ri.^vo«5(?SFi.«»UivS^;^-i{»fi's:A^il;rt^^:-r- -*?■ 417-. i_<)/- 

i t 'fs 



Balance of the books of the New Sweden Company, December 31, 1658. Last page of tlie Journal. 

The American Tobacco Company. 643 

Liabilities. d. ore. 

The late Peter Spiring 118:14 

The capital of tlie Crown in the company 9,000 

The capital of the South-Ship Company 27,000 

The capital of the late Riksdrots (Gabriel Gustafsson Oxen- 

stierna) 4,500 

The capital of the late Chancellor 6i750 

The capital of the late Klas Fleming 2,250 

The capital of the late Peter Spiring 4,500 

The ammunition account of the Crown 1,583:3 

The governor of New Sweden, Johan Printz 15,660: 7 2/5 

The South-Ship Company, particular account 19,212:31!^ 

Peter Trotzig in Amsterdam (7,263:6 fl.) 3,913: 9 i/s 

The budget of the colony 8,481 :i7 i/is 

His Excellency Christer Bonde 4i2io 

The Swedish African Company 1,210 

The capital of Hendrik Huygen 3,000 

The capital of the city of Viborg 857:204/5 

Cargo sent by Norfelt to Rising 3,700:13 i/j 

Hans Kramer, the bookkeeper 196:143/20 

One third of the confiscated tobacco, due the Crown 427:19 i/S 

The capital of the American Company 226,785:31 47/60 

Total 343,357:21119/20 

Hans Kramer, the bookkeeper and director of the company 
(who also continued to be bookkeeper for the African Com- 
pany), found his duties too arduous and in October, 1658, the 
company engaged one Per Olofsson as secretary at a salary of 
200 R.D. per year with the understanding that he should take 
Kramer's place in January, 1659, with an increase of 100 R.D. 
Stromskold, who for various reasons*" desired to withdraw 
from the company, sold his shares to the Commercial College 
and resigned his position as director in February, 1659.** 

As may be imagined, the business*^ of the company attained 

'Journal, nos. 1614, 1615. 

" He was sued by Rising for a large sum and to escape paying this was prob- 
ably the main reason for his withdrawal. Rising's Process (R.A.). 

'^Journal, no. 1665; Olof Stromskold to the Com. Col., November 19, 1658, 
Tobaksk. (R.A.) ; " Kort Memorial, 1653-82," etc., "Kramer, Oloff Stromskold, 
etc.," July 10, 1657, Rising's Process (R.A.). 

"13,484 lbs. of tobacco were distributed by Flygge in Gothenburg and the 
district assigned to him. (In 1655, 4,763 lbs. were sent to Gothenburg. Here 
it was ruined and it was later shipped to Stockholm, which circumstance seems 
to show that the greater part of the tobacco supply in Gothenburg before 1658 
was obtained from smuggling.) In 1658 J. Larsson sold 960'/^ lbs. in Mariestad, 

644 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

enormous proportions.^* Its complete organization seems to 
have worked almost to perfection. The searchers and inspec- 
tors prevented smuggling or secret sales in any considerable 
quantities, although the practice was not stamped out as can be 
seen from the fines imposed. But the smuggling business was 
more dangerous than before and less profitable. But com- 
plaints were soon made against the company and its methods. 
The opposition to the company reached a crisis already in 
1660. The matter was brought before the diet, which was con- 
vened in the spring of this year, and in the Royal Resolutions 
of March 8 it is stated that the King decided to abolish the 
company the following year, since " it was considered harmful 
to his faithful subjects."" 

Already in November the same year the Commercial College 
was instructed to dissolve the American Tobacco Company and 
to place the tobacco on the excise lists, made before the priv- 
ileges of the company were issued.^® But some of the agents 
of the company sold tobacco for some months after the ordi- 
nance was published. Casper Schmid in Vasteras received a 
lot of 5,808 lbs. in July, 1661, and the company was not 
entirely dissolved till 1662}^ 

739 lbs. were sold in Alingsas by June; Anders Persson sold 22i lbs. in Skara 
and F. E[n]gelbrecht sold 2,01754 lbs. in Christinehamn. About 6,000 lbs. were 
sent to the " Northern Army." These lots passed through the hands of Flygge. 
Tobaksk., 1643-1659 (R.A.). 

"^The importation of tobacco by the company was as follows in 1659-60: 

1659 39,036 lbs. 

1660 52,707 lbs. 

"Specification," etc., 1655-60, N.S., I. (K.A.). 

" Stiernman, Riksdagars beslut, II. 1331. 

"" Stiernman, III. 6; Kong. Maj. to the Com. Col., March 6, 1661. 

" " Casper Schmid in Westeras," etc., 1659-60, N.S., I. (K.A.) ; Privilegier, 
Patenter, etc.. Hand, och Naringar, Nord. Saml. But see also Stiernman, 105 ff., 
123 flf. 


The New Tobacco Company and the American Com- 
pany AFTER 1662, 1662-1736. 


It was thought that the excise on the imported tobacco 
would not only not decrease after the company was abolished, 
but that it would bring a larger revenue into the treasury than 
the company paid.^ After the restrictions were removed, 
however, the tobacco was smuggled into the country in such 
quantities that the excise was very materially reduced, making 
it necessary to publish new regulations in less than two years, 
and in October, 1662, the importation and wholesale tobacco 
trade was assigned to Anders Andersson and Peter Bohm of 
Stockholm for a period of ten years (from January, 1663, 
until 1673) . They were to pay the sum of 120,000 D.k.m. for 
the first five years and 170,000 D.k.m. for the last five years, 
being freed from the " little excise." Former ordinances were 
repeated and the privileges given to Bohm and Andersson were 
in several particulars similar to those given to the American 
Company in 1658.^ Gerhard Burman was appointed fiscal 
over the tobacco trade and new placards and ordinances con- 
cerning the trade were published by the government in 1665, 
and in 1670 letters were sent to the governors and magistrates. 
But complaints were made as usual, leading to resolutions and 

' Stiernman, III. 6 ff. 

' See Stiernman, III. 105-24. Some of the excise received from the duty on 
the tobacco was to be used as follows: 

(a) 100,000 D. copper money should be used for the payment of creditors. 

(b) 200,000 D. copper money for the founding of workshops (" Handt 
warker") and the Orphans' Home in Stockholm. 

(f ) 50,000 D. copper money annually for the building of a frigate. 
(d) 8,000 D. copper money for the search for Swedish antiquities and their 
publication, etc. 


646 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

royal letters (at the diet in the autumn of 1664 it was com- 
plained that poor tobacco was sold) and in 1670 new ordi- 
nances and contracts were made. 

It seems that a new company was formed with Andersson 
and Bohm as principal stockholders in 1672, and in May the 
same year the old privileges (of 1662) were extended for two 
years, on the condition that the company paid into the state 
treasury 100,000 D.k.m. The participants of the company 
now made a new contract and drew up a charter concerning 
"the direction and management." In the summer of 1673 
another " prolongation of the contract for the stockholders in 
the Tobacco Company" was issued. The contract was to be 
in force for ten years beginning on January i, 1675.^ The 
company was even now at times called the American Company, 
for in a document of 1689 it is stated that "The American 
Company" was in dispute with the inspector Sven de Blom 
about certain accounts.* 


The American Company having lost its special privileges in 
1660 was dissolved in 1662, but the company as well as its 
directors who figured in claims and lawsuits for a long time 
after this date (often confused with the African Company) are 
found in documents and bills as late as 1736. 

When Rising returned to Europe he applied to the Com- 
mercial College for his salary and payment for the supplies, 

"Stiernman, III. 6 ff., 105 ff., 114 ff., 123 ff., 318 ff., 320, 819 ff., 821, 828 ff., 
934 ff. ; "Fullm. for G. Burman," etc., July 21, 1663; "Patent om godt Tob.," 
etc., March 18, 1665; "Resol. for staderne," etc. (par. 7), August 27, 1668; 
"Tobaksint. unders. Revers, 1662," etc.; "Explication pa Tobackzc," etc., 
December 10, 1663; "Resol. for Direct.," March 2, 1670; "Resol. for Tob. 
Comp.," etc., November 24, 1670; " Svar pa Landsh. H. Oxes bref," etc., June 
II, 1670; "Kongl. Maj:s forord.," November 27, 1670; " Intres. af Tobakzc. sins 
emel. up. cont.," etc., March 28, 1670; "Jonas Osterling och Anders Anderssons 
ingangne cont. om tobaksh.," April 7, 1670; " Sampt. Instr. af tob. Comp. . . . 
up. Cont," September 20, 1672; "Cam Tien. Zacharias Renhorn att wara Tob. 
Comp. i Stockh. afnamare," etc., 1673 ; '' 10 ars prolong, pa cont.," etc., June 26, 
1673; "Berge Cronbergs Ankias och J. Ost[er] lings ... up. Contr.," July 26, 
1674. " Priv. och Patenter," etc., Hand, och Naringar, Nord. Saml. (Up. B.) . 

* See De Blom's letter of September 25, 1689, and documents accompanying 
it, concerning the period of 1684 to 1689, N.S., I. (K.A.). 

The American Tobacco Company. 647 

which he had provided the people in the colony, and for a 
quantity of merchandise sent to New Sweden on the Mercurius, 
but years passed and his claims remained unsettled. The King 
ordered the college to pay the sum in 1669, but the order could 
not be carried out, "because the directors had not been named." 
Being unable to obtain redress from the college. Rising tried 
to secure his claims from the company and from Stromskold 
but without result. The company claimed that he had not kept 
proper books, making him responsible for the cargo of the 
Orn. It was also maintained that he had used goods belonging 
to the company in buying tobacco for his own trade. Finally 
Rising was blamed for the loss of the colony and consequently 
it was maintained that he was not entitled to anything.^ 

Rising died and no settlement was made. His heirs kept up 
the litigation, however, and there are documents in the case 
from 1675, 1680, 1681, 1682, 1683 ^rid 1684 and probably 

Governor Printz also had large claims for salary and his 
contributions to the soldiers and servants in the colony, amount- 
ing to 30,060 D.''' His claims, however, were presented to 
the government. They were not paid during his lifetime, but 
his heirs finally succeeded in collecting their different shares. 
The last documents the author has found in the case are from 
1736, when the last payment seems to have been made.^ 

"See the large number of documents in Rising's Process (R.A.) ; cf. also 
Hist. Tid. (1896), p. 46 flF. 
' Rising's jProfwj (R.A.). 
' The bills presented were as follows : 

( 1 ) Salary for 12 years 14,400 D. 

(2) Money advanced to the soldiers in New Sweden, etc 13,163 :i8j4 D. 

(3) Money advanced to the servants of the company 2,496 79 M D. 

Total 30,060795^ D. 

His salary was also reckoned for 13 years, making 15,600 D. See "Likvi. 
forst., etc., 1620-1680," Printz (K.A.). In the official Journal of the company 
Gov. Printz's account is 15,66072/5. See above, p. 643. 

'Letters in Saml. Biog. P. (R.A.) ; Johan Printz, 396 (K.A.) ; letters from his 
daughters, from De. Rees, and others, J. Printz, 173 (K.A.) ; "Likvidat. forst. 
och lef., 1620-1680," Ser., B., No. 221, Johan Printz (K.A.). There are a 
great many documents concerning Printz in this collection. Cf. author's article 
in Ungdomsvannen, March. 1909. 


Efforts to Regain the Colony, i 656-1 673. 


It is now in order to turn to the efforts made by Sweden to 
regain the colony. Soon after the capture became known in 
Stockholm the Swedish resident at The Hague was instructed 
to protest against the Dutch occupation and on March 22 
(n.s.), 1656, Harald Appelbom presented a memorial to the 
States General, demanding indemnity and the restoration of 
the colony. Almost immediately resolutions were passed by 
that body, as well as by the States of Holland, to the effect that 
the matter should be further investigated and referred to the 
Dutch West India Company.^ 

The efforts led to no settlement, however. Appelbom re- 
ported the state of affairs to his government, but the question 
was dropped for a time. The Swedish government was engaged 
in larger matters and paper weapons alone could effect nothing 
with the authorities at The Hague and at Amsterdam. 

Charles X. was at this time extending the boundaries of his 
kingdom and shaping its final geographical form; but as soon 
as the first smoke from his victorious cannon had blown away, 
his far-reaching plans even included the recapture of the colony 
on the Delaware. That the King had serious intentions of re- 
gaining New Sweden either by diplomatic means or by the 
sword is clear from his remarks in the council April 15, 1658, 
and especially by the privileges given to the American Com- 
pany about a month later, where the retaking of the colony is 
taken as a foregone fact. Johan Rising made reports and 
presented plans for Its recapture and further settlement and 

'Thurloe, State Papers, IV. 599-600; Doc, I. 617 ff.; De Witt, VII. 201-2; 
Penn. Ar., V. 263 ff. ; Hazard, p. 210 ff. 


Efforts to Regain the Colony. 649 

reasons for doing so, but wars with the neighbors required all 
the energies of the kingdom, so that nothing was done.'' 

An opportunity having presented itself for renewing the 
claims in 1663, however, the government instructed its repre- 
sentatives " in their conference with Heinsius,* the resident of 
the States General," to demand the restitution of New Sweden 
as well as the payment of an indemnity to the company. But 
the Dutch had of course no intention of returning the colony to 
the New Sweden Company. They made every effort to keep 
intact what they had won and showed great concern about 
certain preparations that were now being made in Sweden.* 

Vice-Admiral Sjohjelm fitted out two ships (in 1663), the 
Folk, carrying 32 guns, and " a yacht with 8 or 10 cannon " for 
an expedition, the object of which was kept secret. Sjohjelm 
(or Zeehelm as it is written in the Dutch records) "was well 
acquainted with the coast of New Netherland, inasmuch as he 
was employed there in 1641 with the ship Neptunis from 
Curasao." Hence there was some likelihood that his expedi- 
tion was destined for the Delaware. Rumors reached the 
directors at Amsterdam that the ships would take on board 200 
soldiers in the sound and go directly to the South River. 
Stuyvesant was therefore ordered to be on his guard and prop- 
erly prepared. But they were soon relieved of their anxiety, 
for on the way from Stockholm to Gothenburg the yacht was 
wrecked. The directors obtained news of the mishap, which 
was conveyed to Stuyvesant, removing his fear also. Sjohjelm, 
however, set out with the Falk alone, manned with about 
70-80 sailors, not for the South River but towards Africa. He 
visited "Madagascar, Sambigor,^ Anzoov,^ the Red Sea and 

'Rddspr., April 15, 1658; cf. Sprinchorn, p. 81; Carlson, Hist., I. (old ed.), 
p. 160. A letter from Appelbom referring to the colony was read in the council 
on April 15, 1658. Cf. above. 

' Nicolaas Heinsius. He was in Swedish service for some time, later Dutch 
resident at Stockholm. 

'"Instruction," etc., July 4, 1663 (par. 12), R.R. (R.A.) ; Copia in Hollandica, 
Forhandlingar, 1661-1679 (R.A.). 


' Anzooan(?). 

6so The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Goa," remaining several weeks at some of those places. The 
vessel was finally sold by the admiral, whereupon some of the 
sailors made their way to Sweden, reporting the events.'' 

It is probable that Appelbom reported his endeavors in be- 
half of the American Company during his visit to the capital 
in 1 663-1 664, but no instructions to continue his negotiations 
along these lines seem to have been given to him as he left 
Sweden, but events of peculiar interest to the government soon 
made the question acute. 

In the beginning of 1664 a number of Finnish families from 
northern Sweden and probably from Finland landed in Holland 
on their way to New Sweden. January 17, Trotzig informed 
the government about the fact and suggested that such immigra- 
tion should be stopped unless Sweden could regain its colony.* 
This as well as two later missives, relating to the English and 
Dutch complications,* again brought the attention of the gov- 
ernment to the matter and on March 5 a letter was sent to 
Appelbom, instructing him to protest against the Dutch occu- 
pation and to demand again that they should restore the colony, 
"which they were bound to do," watching closely that they 
should not gain any advantage in their negotiations with the 
English. Leijonberg, the Swedish ambassador at London at 
this time, was instructed to present the matter to the English 
government and to complain about the Dutch encroachments.^" 

The chancellor also requested Trotzig to inquire further 

' If the expedition had been sent to the Delaware and the two vessels had 
arrived here safely, it is likely that the colony would have been recaptured as 
was feared by Stuyvesant. See " Falken Exped.," 1664, Skepsexp., 1664-66 
(R.A.) ; cf. also Anrep., Attart., under SjShjelm; Doc, II. 233, 236; XII. 445 ff., 
455; The Com. Col. to Ch. Schneider, concerning the ship Falk in the Sound, 
September 7, 1663. 

'Trotzig to the chancellor, May 24, 1664, De la Gard. Saml. (R.A.). A 
resume of this letter is found in Palmsk. Saml., 322 f., 335-6 (Up. B.). 

"Trotzig till Kongl. Maj., January 26, and to the Riksk., February 16, 1664. 
Sprinchorn (N.S.) has a misprint or mistake in note i, p. 83. The letter is not 
addressed to E. Oxenstierna (who had long been dead), but to De la Gardie. 

"To Appelbom, March 5, 1664, R.R., fol. 182; "Memorial for Leyonberg," 
April 28, 1664, R.R., fol. 487 (" Concerning New Sweden and the Guinean case"). 
Letters were also sent to Silfvercrona and Appelbom about the African Company, 
R.R., July 20, November 19, 1664 (fol. 202, 257), April 15, 1665 (fol. 468). 

JMagiius Gabriel de laGardie. 

Efforts to Regain the Colony. 651 

about the Finnish families. Accordingly] Trotz-ig went to 
Waterlandt,^^ where the colonists were housed, to investigate in 
person. He found that they were about " 140 souls, old and 
young, many children, boys as well as girls, small and quite 
large, who ran about mostly naked in shirts. The children and 
most of the [grown] people talk Finnish and part of the men 
talk Swedish." Friends in New Sweden had written to them 
about the " glories of the country " and one of the immigrants 
showed a letter from his brother dated in New Sweden, 1657. 
They had made their way across Norway to Christiania, in 
some instances having passports (one passport being dated at 
" M'edelpad, March 5, 1664, with the Seal of the Socken upon 
It in green wax ") , and from thence they were taken to Holland 
on a Dutch vessel, hired by themselves as they said, but, as Trotzig 
supposed and as seems most probable, at the expense of those 
interested in the colony on the South River. They were fed 
and housed by the city-officials of Amsterdam and rumors 
reached the Swedish representatives that the immigrants had 
been enticed by special agents.^ ^ 

It is probable that Appelbom reported these rumors to the 
government, for towards the end of May, letters were sent to 
certain governors " about the families that are decoyed out of 
Finland," stating that " several hundred families had been 
enticed to leave their country and go across the mountains to 
Norway, in companies of five or six persons at the time." This 
could not be tolerated and the governors were ordered to keep 
close watch that it did not occur again. If the instigators of 
the migration could be captured they were to be kept in arrest.^* 
A letter of much the same import was sent to Governor Baner 
in June, requesting him to investigate the facts.^* Trotzig was 

"A district in north Holland, between Amsterdam and Alkmaar. Probably 
a village by that name also. 

"Trotzig to De la Gardie, May 24, May 31, June 26, 1664. De la Gard. 
Saml. (R.A.). Resume of the first letter in Palmsk. Saml. (Up. B.), 32a f., 


"R.R., May 27, 1664, fol. 641. 

"R.R., June 9, 1664. It is hardly probable that Dutch agents worked in 
Finland to secure colonists for the Delaware colony. 

6s 2 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

instructed to present the matter to the States and demand that 
the " fugitives " should be returned to Sweden at the expense of 
those who had prevailed upon them to immigrate ;^^ but as it is 
not likely that Dutch officials or others easily detected had a 
hand in the affair (at least no substantial evidence was at hand) 
nothing could be done, and on June 26 (n.s. ?) Trotzig wrote^® 
that the Finns were about to be transported "within fourteen 
days to New Netherland on the South River, where New 
Sweden is located."^ '^ These events caused the Swedish govern- 
ment to consider the question of regaining the colony with more 
earnestness and the matter was taken up with much energy by 
Appelbom. Shortly after delivering his credentials, he re- 
quested a conference with the Dutch authorities and on June 
19 (n.s.), he presented a memorial to the States General. 
Troubles with England were brewing — "Parliament decided in 
April ... to ask the King for redress " for injuries suffered 
at the hands of the Dutch^® — and the States General listened 
with more attention to Appelbom's protest than otherwise 
would have been the case, treating it with such respect that a 
resolution was passed upon it the same day. De Heyde was 
appointed to look up the case and report. Apparently the 
Swedish ambassador was not satisfied with the progress made, 
for on June 27 (n.s.) he again laid a memorial before the 
States General. This body (on the same day) again resolved 
to place the controversy in the hands of the Dutch West India 
Company, who should try to settle " the same in a friendly 
manner." A third, longer memorial, was thereupon presented 
to their " High Mightinesses," going into some detail about the 

""R-R., May 27, 1664. 

" In the same postscript Trotzig writes that " Just now in closing, it is 
affirmed, reported and said to me that a large number of families of Finns, at 
least 140 souls strong . . . have secretly left Finland this last winter, through 
the direction and large promises of evil persons." Letter to De la Gardie, 
Postcript, June 26, 1664, De la Gard. Saml. (R.A.). 

" It has also been said that the " Finns were sent to their homes in Sweden 
and Finland in June." See Nordmann, "Fin. i mel. Sv.," p. 151. 

"Ranke, Hist, of Eng., III. 417 ff. 

Efforts to Regain the Colony. 653 

Swedish claim to the colony on the Delaware.^® Appelbom's 
memorials were answered, partly in writing, partly orally by 
Van Braeckel and other Dutch deputies at their conferences 
with the Swedish ambassador.*" 


In the autumn of 1664 further conferences were held. 
Appelbom was told that the claims of the African Company 
would be settled, but that the New Sweden troubles would once 
more be referred to the Dutch West India Company.^^ In 
October, however, the latter body sent an answer to the letters 
of the States General, denying all rights of the Swedish com- 
pany to the land and the settlements on the South River and 
this ended the matter for a while, it " being placed In the hands 
of Messrs. Van Ommeren and the other their High Mighti- 
nesses' deputies for the affairs of the . . . [Dutch] West 
India Company, to inspect, examine and then to report on 

In the meantime New Holland passed into the hands of 
England and in February, 1665, Trotzig wrote to De la Gardle 
that " news had come in that the English had captured every- 
thing on the South River."^^ The relation with England was 
cordial. In July, 1656, a " friendship and commercial treaty" 
was made between the two nations,^* and again in the autumn 
of 1 66 1 another treaty of friendship was concluded. In 
March, 1665, a new treaty was signed, including among other 

"This memorial bears no date, but it was written on or after June 27 (n.s.), 

^Appelbom's memorials, June 27, 1664; Doc, II. 239-4Z, 246-7, 258-60 
(where the memorials, etc., are translated) ; Penn. Ar., V. 513 ff. The answer 
of the States General, August 29, 1664, and letters from Appelbom to the Swedish 
government are preserved in R.A. 

"^The letter of the States General to the company was dated August 15, 

'^Doc, II. 258-90. 

^Letter, February 20 (n.s.), 1665, De la Gard. Saml. (R.A.). 

""Eng. trak.," No. 3, A, B (R.A.), especially §9, "Quod ad Commercium 
in America habendum," etc. See also " Treaty Papers," Sweden, 1618-72, No. 
.-69, Pub. Rec. Office. 

654 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

things " that a perpetual peace shall subsist between the two 
Crowns, both at home and in Africa and America. "^^ 

It could not be expected, however, that England should turn 
over to Sweden a territory she had captured from the Dutch, 
and hence the Swedish government still pressed its claim at The 
Hague, and Konigsmark, who was sent on an embassy to 
France in 1665, was given a historical resume of the relation 
between Sweden and Holland in his lengthy instruction,^® also 
stating that demands had been made from the Dutch " to re- 
store His Royal Majesty's land in Guinea and America," and 
of this as well as of the other points he was to advise the French 
government and gain its sympathy for the Swedish claims.^'' 

Soon a new opportunity for pressing its claims presented 
itself to the Swedish government. The States General sought 
the friendship of Sweden in the war with England and sent a 
special envoy to Stockholm. The Swedish claims in America 
were now presented to him, but he gave evasive answers, de- 
claring that Rising was to blame for the capture through his 
act of hostility. The colony was not under Dutch control and 
in order to be able to present the Swedish demands, proofs of 
their validity must be presented. The Commercial College, 
therefore, aided by Kramer, made an inventory of the property 
lost by the American Company as a consequence of the Dutch 
occupation. The Katt expedition and the claims against the 
Spanish government were also added, " since the company was 
unable to press its claims [in Spain] through the actions of the 
Dutch," and the bill footed up to 262,246 R.D.^* 

^Treaty of alliance between Sweden and England, October 21, 1661; Treaty, 
March 1, 1664/1665 ; " King of Swe. full power, February 27, 1665," and other 
documents. Other treaties between Sweden and England were made in July 
(25), 1668, and on April 4/14, 1672. Treaty Papers, Sweden 1618-72, No. 69, 
Pub. Rec. Office. 

™ Dated May 31, 1665, in 36 paragraphs, R.R., fol. 642 ff. (R.A.). 

" Paragraph 30. 

^"Akter ang. Isbrandt," etc., (R.A.) ; Radspr., November, 1665; R.R., 
December 18, fol. 804, December 24, 1665; " Forteck. uppa K. Maj. och Ameri. 
Comp.," etc., N.S., \. (R.A.) ; " Deductio Juris, quod in Novara Sveciam," etc., 
February 27, 1667, N.S., L (R.A.). Cf. Monumenta polit., etc., quoted by Sprinc- 
horn, N.S., p. (249) 85, where the sum is 262,240 R.D. 

Efforts to Regain the Colony. 655 

At the conference between the Swedish and Dutch envoys In 
the spring of 1 667 the question was again considered and claims 
and counterclaims were presented. The treaty of April 13, 
1667, contained a paragraph relating to the American Com- 
pany,^" and, in the " treaty of friendship," three months later, 
a new paragraph was inserted about the American claims to the 
effect that these should be settled according to justice and as 
soon as possible.^" In the following year the Swedish govern- 
ment again instructed its foreign representatives to find out who 
of the contesting parties was in possession of New Sweden " in 
order that it might be restored."*^ 

In the beginning of 1669 a report reached the Swedish 
government that there were 500 families in New Sweden for- 
saken and left to themselves. In February a letter was written 
to the Commercial College about it and Appelbom^^ and Leijon- 
berg^* were instructed to correspond with one another and do 
their best at their respective courts to obtain redress. About 
two months later Leyonberg was enjoined upon " to try to 
ascertain what England intended to do with the colony" and 
inform his government about it. In the summer a memorial,^* 
setting forth the rights of the American Company to the col- 
ony, was transmitted to the English government through its 
ambassador at Stockholm, and a copy with a letter and further 
instructions were sent to Leijonberg. He presented the case to 
the English officials and the British representative to Sweden 
promised to do all in his power to secure redress. But of course 
nothing came out of these efforts. Leyonberg was answered 
that England got the colony through conquest and treaty; it 
was now too late to change the result.*^ 

"* Treaty at the Hague, April 13, 1667, §6 (R.A.). 

'^ " Vanskapsf.," July 18/28, 1667, §6, Holland, No. 10 C (R.A.) ; Acrelius, 
p. 88. 

"A new treaty was made between Sweden and England, July 25, 1668. 
Treaty Papers, Sweden, 1618-72, No. 69, Pub. Rec. Office. 

^' At the Hague. 

"At London. 

°* " Memoriale juris, quod habet Societas Sveco-Americana in Novam Sveciam 
ab Anglis jam occupatam " (in eight paragraphs), July, 1669, N.S., I. (R.A.). 

'"Letter to Appelbom, April i8, 1668; to the Commercial College, February 

656 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Two years later^" or in the summer of 1671 a letter was 
written by the Swedish representative at The Hague to De la 
Gardie, stating that he " had pointed out on several occasions of 
what great importance and consideration it was to recover New 
Sweden ... It is a country which is flourishing greatly. The 
peasants being well suited are ardently awaiting the deliverance 
for which they have been made to hope." The letter goes on 
to say that the restitution ought now to be much easier, since 
the land had been given to an English Count. 

Sweden was about to send an embassy to London, and hence 
it was a proper time to speak about it.^'^ As a consequence the 
question was again renewed and in June, 1672, a letter was sent 
to Leyonberg requesting him to " try in a polite way to prevail 
upon England to return New Sweden. If they would not 
want to give back the land then they [ought to be requested] 
to allow Sweden to bring her colonists away from there."^* 

The next year the question was taken up with Holland and 
the third paragraph of the commercial treaty between Sweden 
and Holland (April 22, 1673) is devoted to the encroachment 
which Sweden suffered in America.*® But it was all wasted 
energy. No indemnity was secured by the Swedish American 
Company and the colony was forever lost to Sweden. 

12, 1669; to Leyonberg, April 28 (and earlier), June 30, R.R. (fol. 41 ff.) ; 
"Leyonberg till Kongl. Maj." (R.A.) ; State Papers, For., Sweden, 1666-7, No. 6; 
orig. letters from Leyonberg, 1668-70 and from others, State Papers, For., Sweden, 
1668-71, No. 7, Pub. Rec. Office. 

" 1669 is the last mention of the colony in the diplomatic correspondence used 
by Sprinchorn. See his N.S., p. 86. 

"Letter to De la Gardie (in French), May 12, 1671, N.S., I. (R.A.). 

" Pamsk. Saml, 322, f. 337 referring to Linsk. Protoc, 1672, del L 320 (R.A.I 

^ " Con. inter legatos Reg. Sve. et Com. ord. Gene. Foed. Belg.," etc.. Actum. 
Hagae, 22 April/2 May, 1673, §3, Holland, No. 15, A.B. (R.A.). 


LIFE IN THE COLONY, 1655-1664. 


The First Period of the Swedish Settlements under 

Dutch Rule and the Coming of the Mercurius, 


We have now come to the period of the Swedes under Dutch 
jurisdiction, the last period of the present treatise. When the 
articles of surrender had been accepted and Rising with his men 
was about to leave the country, Stuyvesant made provisions 
for a temporary form of government. The seat of power was 
transferred from Christina to Fort Casimir, and Captain Dirck 
Smith was appointed commander, until other arrangements 
could be made, an instruction doubtless being given him. In 
November Jean Paul Jacquet was selected as vice-director, who 
was to have "supreme command and authority," governing the 
colony with a council^ under the direction of Peter Stuyvesant. 
In his instruction (issued at New Amsterdam) he was required 
to enforce the observance of the Sabbath, the regulations con- 
cerning the sale of liquor to the Indians and to keep peace and 
order in the colony. He should require the soldiers and officers 
to remain in the fort over night, debarring all freemen from the 
same, especially the Swedes ; he was to allow no vessels to pass 
above the stronghold which he was to keep " in a becoming 
state of defense," he should take care in distributing lands that 
" at least 16 or 20 persons or families " were placed together so 
as to form villages, and in order to prevent the immoderate 
desire for land he " should impose a tax of 1 2 stivers annually 

' The council consisted of Andries Hudde, E. Cleyn and two sergeants. 
43 657 

658 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

for each morgen,"^ he was to lay out a town on the south side 
of Fort Casimir, where lots were to be assigned and he was to 
provide for the expenses of the government by imposing excises 
on goods, sold by the tavern-keepers as follows : 

For a hogshead of French or Rhenish wine fl. 20 

For an anker of the same wine fl. 4 

For an anker of brandy, Spanish wine or distilled water fl. 7 

For a barrel of imported beer fl. 6 

For a barrel of New Netherland beer fl. 4 

Finally he should " look well after the Swedes " and he was to 
try to remove such as were " not friendly disposed to the Hon- 
orable Company " and send them to New Amsterdam if possi- 
ble. On December 8 (n.s.) Vice-Director Jacquet took the 
oath of office before Peter Stuyvesant and it is probable that he 
set out for the South River shortly after.^ 

In the meantime the Swedes who remained in the country 
made the best of their situations, repaired the damage done by 
the invasion as far as possible, and settled down to their former 
peaceful occupations. Of Smith's rule we know very little. 
He ordered lands to be sown and cultivated and made other 
provisions for the welfare of the settlement, but he was sum- 
moned to appear before the council at New Amsterdam for 
"grave reasons," which indicates that complaints were made 
against him, and he seems to have done nothing for the im- 
provement of the forts.* 

On (or shortly before) December i8 (n.s.), 1655, Jean 
Paul Jacquet assumed his office as vice-director at Fort Casimir, 
and several new ordinances were soon put into effect. Some of 
the articles in Jacquet's instruction would effect the old settlers 
in their rights if put into execution, but caution was used and 
"the letter of the law" was hardly ever followed.^ 

AUerton and probably other traders visited the river in the 
autumn, winter and spring and several Jews, "who had put 

' Morgen, acre, " a superficial measure = 600 sq. perches of 144 sq. feet each."' 
Calisch, Woordenb., II. 441. 

'Doc, XII. 113 ff.; Hazard, p. 204 ff. 
*Ci.Doc., XIL 118; 134 ff. 
'Doc. XII. 133 ff. 

First Period under Dutch Rule. 659 

goods on board a ship for the South River," requested permis- 
sion to trade there, which was conditionally granted to them. 
The Swedish barks and yachts surrendered by Rising were used 
on trading expeditions, but Eindrachfi stranded at Sandy Hook 
in January, 1656. The council at New Amsterdam authorized 
Jan Teunissen, the carpenter, to save the vessel and he was 
promised 200 florins if he succeeded.^ 

A law court was established by Jacquet shortly after his 
arrival, at which several settlers presented their grievances, 
while others were summoned to appear in suits. In January, 
1656, some Swedish freemen living near Fort Casimir appeared 
before Jacquet and his council and requested permission to 
remain on their lands until the expiration of one year and a 
half, agreeably to the capitulation, as they had not then any 
inclination to change their place of abode nor to build in the 
new town. The petition was granted and they remained undis- 
turbed in their possessions.* 

About March 13 the ship Mercurius arrived, as we have 
seen. Hendrick Huygen and Johan Papegoja went ashore, pre- 
sented themselves to the Dutch commander at Fort Casimir and 
reported their instructions and intentions, requesting permis- 
sion to land the people somewhere in the river, until further 
orders were received from Sweden. This was denied them and 
Huygen was arrested as an enemy of the state. Johan Pape- 
goja appealed to Stuyvesant in a letter, dated March 14 (24), 
informing the latter of the arrival of the ship and requesting 
permission to revictual and return unmolested to Europe, also 
remonstrating against the treatment accorded Huygen.* Vice- 
Director Jacquet likewise made a report to his superior at New 

The letters, which were "brought to Manhattan by Aller- 
ton's ketch, arrived there in the night of March 18-19 (28-29), 
it seems, and a meeting of the council was immediately called. 

' Cf. above, Chap. XXXII. 

''Doc, XIV. 117 flE. 

'Doc, XII. 133 flE.; Hazard, p. 208 flf. 

° Huygen also wrote to Stuyvesant. 

66o The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

It was decided not to allow the Swedes to land, but they should 
be free to return unmolested and they were allowed to provide 
themselves with necessary provisions for their homeward jour- 
ney. A pass was issued for the ship, giving it free passage to 
New Amsterdam, where necessary supplies could be obtained. 
To prevent an uprising of the Swedes it was decided to send 
several soldiers to the South River. It was likewise decided 
that all Swedes, who had not hitherto taken the oath of alle- 
giance, should now be required to do so. Those " who refused 
or contravened against it " should be sent away " by every op- 
portunity," and Jacob Swensson and Sven Skute were especially 
named as " undesirable citizens," since they held secret con- 
ferences with the Indians, being looked upon with suspicion 
"because," says Acrelius, "they^" often came to the homes of 
the Swedes and were, as usual, well received."^* 

When these instructions were received at Fort Casimir, Huy- 
gen determined to go to New Amsterdam and present his case 
in person. He went over land, arriving at the Dutch fort about 
April I ( 1 1 ) , and delivered a written remonstrance to the 
Dutch council. The council decided that his requests could not 
be granted, repeated the former promises of an unmolested 
return voyage and stated that, if the Swedes persisted in their 
designs and would not leave the river, force would be used to 
expel them. To show that they were in earnest, it was decided 
to send the warship the Waag there. Finding that he could 
accomplish nothing, Huygen appeared before the council the 
following day and accepted the proposals, making it unneces- 
sary for the Waag to proceed to the Delaware. Huygen re- 
ported the outcome to Papegoja and the Mercurius was soon 
expected to arrive at New Amsterdam. But over two weeks 
passed and no ship was heard of. Rumors were circulated that 
difficulties had arisen on the Delaware and on April 18 (28) 
it was decided at a hurried meeting of the council to send 

"The savages. The council answered Papegoja's letter on March 29 (n.s.). 
Doc, XIL 123. 

^^ Doc, Xn. 120 ff. ; Acrelius, p. 91. 

First Period under Dutch Rule. 66i 

Ensign Smith overland to the South River with twelve to six- 
teen soldiers to ascertain the state of affairs. When Smith 
arrived there, however, the ship had already landed the goods 
and people.*^ 

Papegoja gives the following description of the events in his 
letter of July 30 (August 9), 1656. In accordance with 
Stuyvesant's orders " we decided to set sail for Manhattan. 
But as soon as the savages or Indians observed this they col- 
lected speedily in great numbers, came down to us and reminded 
us of the former friendship and love, which they had had for 
us Swedes, above all other nations, and said that they would 
destroy and exterminate both Swedes and Hollanders, unless 
we remained with them and traded as in the past. Then all our 
Swedes, who feared the savages, came to us also and protested 
strongly against us in writing, . . . saying that we would be 
the cause of their destruction if we departed ..." Papegoja 
was therefore unable to decide what to do, but, seeing the 
danger of refusing the request of the angry savages, he com- 
manded the skipper to proceed up the Delaware. (It has also 
been said that a large number of Indians and some old Swedish 
colonists went on board the vessel. )^^ The ship then gave the 
Swedish salute (which was answered by one discharge from the 
fort) and sailed up to New Gothenborg,** where the people 
were put ashore.^® 

Letters were thereupon written to Huygen, informing him 
of the events, and Jacquet wrote to the Dutch governor also, 
at the same time sending Hudde to make an oral report. Hudde 
arrived at Manhattan on April 21 (May i). The same day 
the council read and re-read the letters and declarations and re- 
solved to dispatch the JVaag with troops for the place of dis- 
turbance to bring the Mercurius from there and settle the diffi- 
culty with the natives. Huygen as well as Papegoja were 

"Z)of., XXI. 122 ff. 

" Acrelius, p. 92 ; Sprinchorn, pp. 74-75. 
"Acrelius says the vessel was brought to Christina. 

"Papegoja met his wife here and probably remained in Printzhof during his 
stay in the country. 

662 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

exonerated from blame and the former was allowed to return 
to his ship on the Waag, after he had given bond that he would 
behave well and attempt to settle the differences between the 
savages and the Christians.^® 

The councillors De Sille and Van Tienhoven were com- 
missioned to go to the river for the purpose of investigating 
the matter. The Waag set sail as soon as the wind was favor- 
able, but when the vessel arrived in the South River she ran on 
a sandbank and could not proceed. But when the commander 
saw, says Papegoja, that we showed no hostile intentions, he 
requested the Swedes to help them get the Waag off the bank, 
as well as to pacify the savages. When the Mercurius arrived 
at the bay, however, the Dutch vessel was afloat. Some mer- 
chandise was then brought on board of the latter ship which 
was presented to the savages in the name of the Hollanders and 
thus peace was restored. 

The Mercurius was later brought to New Amsterdam, where 
the cargo was sold in July, after a certain import duty had been 
paid. Papegoja desired to return with the ship, but differences 
arose between him and Huygen and the former departed from 
Manhattan Island, on a Dutch vessel on June 13 (23) arriving 
in Amsterdam about the beginning of August. The Mercurius 
was loaded with a return cargo and finally set sail for Europe 
some time during the summer. But Huygen remained in the 
colony and we find him employed in various capacities in the 
service of the Dutch." It seems that the great majority of the 
newcomers remained In the colony. They were gradually given 
land, and as soon as they were able they built new homes and 
cleared their plantations. 

'"Doc, xn. 125 ff. 

"Letter from Papegoja to E. Oxenstierna, July 30/ August 9, 1656, N.S., 
I. (R.A.) ; letter from Huygen, June ii, 1656, SSderk., 1637-59 (R.A.) ; 
Stuyvesant to Papegoja, March 30, 1656 (copy), N.S., I. (R.A.) ; Trotzig to the 
directors, August 16, 1656, SSderk., 1637-59 (R^A.) ; Doc, XH. 120 ff. ; Acrelius, 
p. 91. 


The Last Period of the Swedish Settlements under 
THE Dutch, i 656-1 664. 

The Swedes and Finns behaved well and gave no trouble. 
Consequently Fort Christina was allowed to go to ruin and 
Papegoja says that it "was robbed of gates, windows and 
chimneys." Lieutenant Gyllengren, Sven Skute and Gregorius 
van Dyck remained here and they naturally became the leaders 
of the Swedes and Finns. These men carried on agriculture 
like the rest and probably fared well. Disturbances of a milder 
kind arose from time to time and sometimes murders and graver 
misdemeanors were reported (" the sister of Ellas Gyllengren's 
wife" being shot in the autumn of 1656). Madame Pape- 
goja remained at New Gothenborg and she was allowed to 
retain Printztorp, experiencing some difficulty, however, In find- 
ing people willing to cultivate the land on the terms she offered. 
The grants of many of the other Swedes were confirmed by the 
Dutch, " some having deeds from Queen Christina."^ Various 
improvements were made by the Dutch which bettered the 
condition of the Swedes, bricks being made, roads improved, 
bridges built, fences constructed, overseers and tobacco-inspec- 
tors appointed, etc.^ 

In the summer of 1656 the Dutch West India Company, for 
financial reasons, was compelled to surrender part of the South 
River to the City of Amsterdam.^^ The seat of government of 
the city's colony was to be Fort Casimir, whose name was 

'As for instance Gyllengren (through Amundsson) and Sven Skute. 

'Doc, XII. 

^° The States General ratified the transfer in August and arrangements for the 
organization of the city's colony were soon thereafter made. The company 
retained the land above Ft. Christina along the Delaware. It has been stated by 
some that the " city's colony " was above Ft. Christina. Ferris, p. io6, etc. 


664 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

changed to New Amstel,^" while Christina (changed to Altena) 
was to be the center of power for the company's colony, and 
Stuyvesant was commanded to garrison the latter as well as 
Fort New Gothenborg with eight or ten soldiers. 

Jacob Alrichs was appointed director at New Amstel in 
December, but, being delayed by a shipwreck and other mis- 
fortunes, he did not arrive at his destination before the spring 
of the following year. Quite a large number of colonists also 
arrived with him.^ 

In the meantime complaints were made against Jacquet. He 
was finally removed from office and put in arrest, but he was 
later released. Fort Christina was placed in a better state of 
defense with the arrival of Alrichs as the Dutch still distrusted 
the Swedes, the new director being commanded to watch them 

In the spring of 1658 Governor Stuyvesant went in person to 
arrange matters at the Delaware. The Swedes were required 
to swear a new oath of allegiance, but they requested to be ex- 
empt from taking sides if trouble should arise between Sweden 
and Holland, which was granted them. 

The country was now divided into court jurisdictions and the 
Swedes were given a sort of self-government at Tinicum 
Island.* About the same time Sven Skute was elected captain ; 
Anders Dalbo, lieutenant; Jacob Swenson, ensign; Gregorius 
van Dyck, sheriff; and Olof Stille, Matts Hansson, Peter 
Rambo and Peter Cock were elected magistrates.'* On May 8, 
(1658) they appeared before Stuyvesant with a petition for 
certain privileges. They requested instructions for their guid- 
ance, they desired a court messenger and free access to Fort 
Altena, so that they could get assistance in case of necessity and 
they petitioned that nobody should be allowed to leave the 
colony without the knowledge of the magistrates. The Swedes 
and Finns gradually gained the confidence of the Dutch author- 

"'' Nieuixier- Amstel after one of the suburbs of Amsterdam. 
'Doc, XIL, II. Alexander d' Hinoyossa was made lieutenant. 
* Their council met there. 
" Some of these had been elected before this. 

Last Period under Dutch Rule. 665 

ities, and performed many valuable services for them as inter- 
preters and guides. They cut masts and other timber and by 
their thrift were able to supply much of the food used by the 

The crops were poor in 1658, there being too much rain. 
Butter, cheese and salt were scarce and sickness was general. 
The total number of inhabitants was now about 600 souls, but it 
is not possible to say how many of these were Swedes and Finns. 
The cattle and horses belonging to the Dutch West India Com- 
pany were given out for half of the increase to the Swedes and 
Dutch, a custom employed by Rising as we have seen, but com- 
plaints were made that the horses were ill-treated.^ 

On July 20 (30), 1658, Willem Beeckman was appointed 
commissary and vice-director for the West India Company at 
Fort Altena with highest authority over the company's officers, 
"except in the district ... of New Amstel," and his instruc- 
tions in eight articles were given to him on October 18 (28). 
He was to have the oversight and supervision of the Swedes and 
was to be the custom-officer and auditor in the country, being 
required to be present at New Amstel, when ships arrived there 
or whenever his duties so required. 

Beeckman proposed to tax the Swedes and Finns to the 
amount of 400 guilders a year, thus providing for the current 
expenses, and the directors of the Dutch West India Company 
did not approve of giving them officers of their own, but Stuy- 
vesant replied to their orders for discharging these officers and 
appoint Hollanders in their stead, that he thought that the best 
way to win the hearts of the Swedes was by lenient methods of 
governing them. The Swedes were also called upon to do 
military duty, but they objected strongly, and the Dutch had 
no power to force them, Beeckman reporting that if an emerg- 
ency should arise "they would be more cumbersome than use- 
ful." Troubles arose with the English as well as the savages, 
keeping the Dutch in constant alarm, and they were therefore 

'Doc, XII. 212 ff. 

'Doc, II. 8 flf., 50 ff., etc.; XII. 187 ff.; Hazard, 242 ff. 

666 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

compelled to treat the Swedes and Finns with more respect and 
consideration than would otherwise have been the case.* 

Attempts were made from time to time to settle them in 
villages, to simplify the jurisdiction over them, and in the 
spring of 1660 the fiscal, De Sille, was instructed to engage 
some of them as soldiers or to persuade them to settle near New 
Amsterdam as freemen, asking " with all imaginable and kindly 
persuasive reasons" the Swedish sheriff's and commissaries 
"help and intercession." But they were opposed to removal 
and De Sille was unsuccessful in his mission. 

Jacob Alrichs died December 20 (30), 1659, ^^^ Alexander 
d'Hinoyossa was made provisory director in his stead. The 
Swedes and Finns now numbered about 130 men who could 
bear arms according to the report of Van Dyck.^^ Disputes 
arose among them about this time on account of the distribution 
of land, perhaps largely occasioned by the fact that many of the 
Finns did not understand Swedish, making business transactions 
difficult. In the spring of 1660 some twenty Swedish and 
Finnish families desired to remove to the neighborhood of New 
Amstel, but it appears that they were forbidden to do so. 
Later, however, D'Hinoyossa invited others to settle there. 
The Swedes and Finns contrived throughout this period to trade 
with the savages, but they were somewhat restricted in their 
freedom by D'Hinoyossa, giving rise to complaints and dis- 

The Swedes and Finns were very successful in cultivating the 
land, and many of them undoubtedly had attained prosperity, 
and they were very desirable In the colony, requests being made 
that more agriculturists be sent here, "not Hollanders, how- 
ever, but other nations and especially Finns and Swedes, who 
are good farmers." A grist mill was built by Johan Stalkofta 
(Stalcop) , L. Petersson and Hans Block in the summer of 1662 
at the Falls of the Turtle Kill and the old mill erected by Printz 
was kept in repair. 

'Doc, 11., XIL 

" In August, 1657, Rev. Megapolensis wrote that " at least two hundred " 
Swedes and Finns lived above Ft. Christina. Jameson, Nar. of N. Neth., p. 395. 

Last Period under Dutch Rule. 667 

In the autumn of 1663 the Swedes, Finns and other nations* 
had erected about no good boweries, stocked with about 200 
cows and oxen, 20 horses, 80 sheep and several thousand swine. 
The settlers, as we have seen,^" wrote to relatives and friends in 
Sweden, praising the land and inviting them to come over. 
They were also encouraged by the Dutch authorities to do so, 
and as a result several settlers arrived from Sweden from time 
to time. In the summer of 1663 the skipper Peter Luckassen 
brought a number of colonists to the South River, among whom 
were some 30 Swedes, and in December Alexander d'Hinoyossa 
arrived there with 150 colonists, including 32 or more Finns and 
probably some Swedes. ^^ 

The colony was peaceful as a rule also during this period. 
A few minor disturbances arose, however, and Evert Hindrick- 
son, the Finn, was accused of maltreating Joran Kyn and other 
grave complaints were made against him. He was brought 
into court, tried and banished from the colony as a dangerous 
character. Peter Meyer was also accused of disturbance and 
assaults and several other cases of like nature were brought into 
court. The Swedes and Finns continued to have their own 
officers and some were even employed in the service at the forts. 
Timon Stidden, who remained here, continued to act as barber- 
surgeon and he treated the ill and wounded as far as he was 
able. Witchcraft also played a role in the settlement in this 
period and Margareta Matsson was said to be a witch, as 
Henry Dtystreet was told about this time. The fish In the river 
continued to be plentiful and the settlers obtained some provi- 
sions from this source as well as from hunting. Many deserted 
the colony on account of debts or for other reasons and a num- 
ber went to settle among the English in Maryland; but a few 
returned from time to time.'^ 

•Probably Germans are meant. There were also a few Danes in the colony. 

" Cf. above, Chap. LII. 

"Doc, XII. 421 ff- 

"Peter Meyer ("a subject of Sweden") came into Maryland from New 
Amstel in 1661 with wife and children and was granted permission by the council 
to settle there. 

Axel Stille (from New Amstel), Peter Jacobs[s]on, Marcus Sipherson 

668 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Little is known of the religious history of the Swedes and 
Finns during this period. According to the articles of surrender 
they were allowed to retain a minister of the Gospel of their 
own confession and were to be undisturbed in their services, a 
concession that was later regretted by some of the Dutch. 
Lars Lock remained here and he seems to have conducted: 
regular services in the church at Tinicum. He was given a 
salary by the Swedish commissaries, probably raised by volun- 
tary collections from the settlers. Rev. Lock continued to have 
trouble and in 1661 his wife was unfaithful to him and eloped 
with another man, causing inconvenience and law-suits. Having 
obtained a divorce, he married again, however, but the mar- 
riage was declared null and void by the Dutch authorities, be- 
cause he performed the ceremony himself. Later he was fined' 
50 florins for marrying a young couple without proclamation In 
the church and against the will of their parents. He as well as 
Olof StlUe objected to the Interference of the Dutch court, 
saying that the consistory in Sweden alone had jurisdiction over 
the case. Rev. Lock also had other troubles, and one time he 
was "fearfully beaten and marked In his face" by Peter 
Meyer, who was summoned to appear In court, but the affair 
was settled between the parties themselves. Acrelius asserts 
that a priest by the name of Mathias came out here on the ship 
Mercurius, but he returned to Sweden with the vessel accord- 
ing to the same authority.^ ^ As many Lutherans resided at 
New Amstel who desired a minister, they applied for permis- 
sion to call a young man by the name of Abelius Zetskorn or 
Setskorn to serve them. The Swedish commissaries at Tinicum 
desired to have him preach in their church, but Rev. Lock ob- 
jected " to It with all his influence." Setskorn preached there 

(Sifversson), Clement Mickels[s]on, Andrew (Andreas) Clement[s]son, Hendrick 
Hendricks[s]on, Peter Montson (MSnsson), Ma[t]thias CorneIisen( ?), Hendrick 
Mathias [s] on, Joh[a]n Wheeler, Bartholimeus Hendricks [s] on, Cornelius Urin- 
s[s]on, Joh[a]n Urin[s]son, Andrew Toreson (Andreas Thors[s]on), Paul 
Joh[a]n[s]son, Gothofried Harmer are also given in the Md. Archives as coming 
from the Delaware. They were given permission to live there as " free denni- 
2ens." Md. Archives, III. 428-30. 
" Cf. above. 

Last Period under Dutch Rule. 669 

on the second day of Pentecost, however, and he received a call 
as school-master with the same salary as the preacher enjoyed, 
but the people " of New Amstel would not let him go,"** and 
Lock remained alone among the Swedes and Finns, north of 
New Amstel. The population was now too large for the work 
of one preacher and besides the language question complicated 
matters. Many of the Finns could not understand Swedish 
during the first years and these were without religious instruc- 
tion. As time went on, however, the Swedish language became 
predominant, the Finns and Dutch gradually acquiring the 

In the autumn of 1663 the entire Delaware district was trans- 
ferred to the city of Amsterdam and D'Hinoyossa was made 
commander. The Swedes and Finns were now absolved from 
their former oaths and required to swear new allegiance. This 
they refused to do, unless they were granted " the same privi- 
leges in trading and other matters as they had had under the 
government of the Hon. Company," being Inclined rather to 
remove than to submit to the conditions offered them. 

Many new plantations had now been begun by the Swedish 
and Finnish settlers and land grants were made and confirmed 
by the Dutch. The customs and manners remained the same as 
in the former period, the bath-house, the Finnish and Swedish 
log-cabins, the splinter-sticks, and all the other utensils and 
Implements, which we have learned to know In previous chap- 
ters, continued to be used. The domestic animals had greatly 
increased, the fields were comparatively numerous and In many 
cases large, and the settlement had acquired a certain stability 
and form. The colony had not been a success from the Dutch 
point of view, however. Thousands of florins were borrowed 
and expended and other thousands were needed to put the col- 
ony on a prosperous footing. 

In 1664 rumors of a Swedish attempt at recapturing the 

"There is no direct evidence that the Swedes tried to get rid of Lock as is 
stated by Norberg, p. 6, Smith, Hist, of Del. Co., p. 90. 
'^Doc, XIL, IL 

670 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

river were afloat in Holland, as we have seen, causing some 
uneasiness until it was reported that the expedition had been 
wrecked. A large number of Finns were about to depart for 
the colony in the spring and other measures were taken to build 
up the settlement. But Dutch rule, except for a short interval, 
was drawing to a close on the Delaware and in America. The 
English forces, sailing up the Hudson in the autumn, compelled 
Stuyvesant to surrender on September 3. On the same day Sir 
Robert Carre was commissioned to proceed to the Delaware 
for the purpose of bringing that colony under the power and 
authority of the English Crown. Carre arrived at the Dela- 
ware on September 30 and on October i (11), the articles of 
capitulation were signed. The inhabitants were to be protected 
in their estates under the authority of the English King ; the old 
magistrates were to continue in their jurisdiction as formerly, 
and "the sheriff and other inferior" officers should remain 
in power for six months until other steps could be taken; all 
the people were to enjoy religious liberty and be free " as any 
Englishman" upon the taking "of the oath," and anyone was 
allowed to depart from the river within six months after the 
date of the articles. We are now at the beginning of a new 
era and the following years belong to another period.^® 

^'Doc, II., in. 68 ff., Xin. 113 ff.; Cal. of State Papers, Col., 1661-68, p. 236 
flf.; Hazard, Register, I. 16; Min. of Pro. Council, I. 93 ff.; Penn. Mag., V. 169, X. 
269; Acrelius, Beskrif., 89 ff.; Hazard, 208 ff.; Norberg, p. 6. 



Brief Biographies. 

Anckarhjelm, Martin Thijsen (his Dutch name was Maarten 
Thijsen), was born in Vlissingen. He served the Dutch West India 
Company for some time and in 1644 he was placed in command of the 
fleet which De Geer sent to Sweden in aid against Denmark. The 
same year he entered Swedish service and was raised to the rank of the 
nobility, whereupon he was given the name of Anckarhjelm. He was 
used in various capacities by the government and his services were of 
great value to Sweden. He often prepared ships for commercial expe- 
ditions to foreign countries. At times he supplied large sums of money 
to the Crown and he took a lively interest in the New Sweden Com- 
pany as well as mercantile and manufacturing establishments in his 
adopted country. Anckarhjelm received several honors from the Swedish 
government and in 1653 he was made an admiral in the navy. He died 
in Stockholm, 1657. 

Printed Sources. Munthe, Sv. sjohj., V. 195 &.; Nordisk familjebok 
(2d Ed.), 1.920; HoMherg, Biogr. lex. (2d Ed.), I. 29; Hand. ror.Skan. 
Hist., V. 87 if., XX. 303 ff. ; Kernkamp, De Sleuteh van de Sont. 
Histories of Holland, Denmark and Sweden give facts about him. 

Manuscripts. I. Riksarkivet. A great number of letters in R.R. to 
Anckarhjelm and letters from him in N.S., I. (R.A.) ; letters from 
Anckarhjelm to Axel Oxenstierna {Ox. Saml.) ; letters from the Com. 
Col. to Anckarhjelm (Reg., 1653). 

n. Flottans arkiv. A. A great many " Skrifvelser till Anckarhjelm," 
J64S (about 23 in all) ; 1646 (about 23), March 18, fol. 245, February 
28, fol. 203, from fol. 765 to 1053, etc.; 1647, letters to Anckarhjelm in 
Portugal, February 6, fol. 74 etc.; i6S3j January 12, 20, April 30, May 
2, 6, II, 14, etc. (concerning the fitting out of ships and procuring of 
provisions), June 24, fol. 386, etc.; idsS^ March 22, April 2, 5, 7, 12, 
fol. 30, etc. (concerning the shipbuilding establishment at Gothenburg. 
He was to collect material, etc.), May 17, August 30, etc.; i6S7, 
February 3, fol. 47 (concerning money advanced by Anckarhjelm). A 
44 673 

674 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

great many other entries found in the different volumes of the Am. Reg. 

B. Ankomna skrifvelser (till amiralitetet). A great many letters from 
Anckarhjelm to the Admiralty (Sixty during 1646^ etc.). 

III. Kammararkivet also contains various letters and documents con- 
cerning Anckarhjelm. 

Appelbom, Harald, w^as born in 1612 at Soderby in Swreden. Became 
correspondent in Holland in 1642 to take the place of Samuel Blom- 
maert. In 1647 he was made commissary at Amsterdam. In 1652 he 
was sent to England to take the place of Spiring, who died in London 
the same year. Appelbom was made a resident at the Hague after his 
return to Holland and he presented protests against the Dutch encroach- 
ments and occupation of New Sweden. He died at the Hague on March 
8, 1674. Besides his diplomatic duties, he was engaged in literary pur- 
suits and translated into Swedish, Barclay's Argenis, " the Indian saga," 
En Book om konungars Liuus eller ConduitCj etc. 

Printed Sources. Nordisk familjebok (2d Ed.), I. 1242; Schiick och 
Warburg, Sv. lit. his., I. 375, 378, etc.; Hand.ror.Skan. Hist.,Yll. 77; 
IX. 94 ff. Thurloe, State Papers, I. fi.; Hazard, Reg. Penn., I.; 
Hazard, Annals; Doc, I., II.; Aitzema, V., etc.; the histories of 
Sweden, Holland and England contain references to him. 

Manuscripts. Diplomatic correspondence in Riksarkivet, Stockholm. 
Memorials and letters at the Hague and letters in the Record Office, 

Beier, Johan (von), was born in Berlin, on May 10, 1606 (?), and 
died in Stockholm September 13, 1669. He entered Swedish service in 
1632 (?). In 1637 he was appointed secretary of the Commercial 
College and in 1642 he became "postmaster here in the kingdom 
[Sweden]." The same year it was proposed in the council that he 
should be put on the budget of the chancery and become secretary in the 
old chancery, handling the German correspondence. He edited the first 
paper in Sweden in 1645. He was treasurer of the New Sweden Com- 
pany and took much interest in the welfare of the colony. Reports and 
letters from New Sweden were often sent to him and he at times paid 
the colonists and sailors, who had served the company. 

Printed Sources. De la Gard. Arch., VI. 12 ff.; Radspr., II. ff.; 
Nordisk familjebok (2d Ed.), II. 1228-29; Hofberg, Biogr. lex., I. 66; 
Anrep, I. 135; Sv. Biogr. lex., Ny foljd, II. 49-54. (This account 
is inaccurate, but it gives a great many interesting facts about him.) 
Holm, Sv. all. postv., I.-III. (a good work) ; Sv. postv. alder. 

Clirister Boude. (See pp. 616, 636). 

( ihJZt^^^^V^fOU^ 


Willeni I'sseliiix (.seep, 69S) 

[.\ndries] Hudde. See pp. 40S ff., 5S1 ff. 

Swell Sclniti,-. (See p. 451 ff. ) 


.Sveii H('i(")k. (See p. oSl. ) 

Gustaff Printz. (See p. 6S7.) 

Heiirich von Elbswich. (See p. 6S(I.) 

Facsimiles of the signatures of Usselinx, Hudde, Gustaf, Printz, Hook, Bonde, Skute and Elswick. For the hand- 
writing- of Anckarhjehn, see p. 632, of Beier, p. 132, of S. Blonmiaert, p. 92, of Van den Bogaert, p. 142, of Bonde, p. 
479, of Brahe, p. 2.W, of Burell, p. 238, of Carl X Gustaf p. 626, of Christina, p. 501, of Peter Coyet, p. 479, of Durell, p. 
479, of Van Dyck, pp. 12X-129, of Klas Fleming, p. 238, of Gustavus Adolphus, p. 52, of Huygeii, p. 318, of Kramer, pp. 
233, 452, 642-643, of Lagerfelt, p, 479, of Van Langdonk, p. 2110, of Lindestrom, pp. 518, .554, of Macklier, p. 194, of Min- 
uit, pp. 96-97, of Axel Oxenstierna, p. 2.W, of Eric Oxenstierna, p. 479, of Gabriel Oxenstierna, p. 238, of Papegoja, pp. 
4,=;4_45,5^ of Johan Printz, pp. 318, 444-447, of Ridder, pp. 198-199, of Rising, pp. 564-565, 616, of Ruttens, pp. 184-185, of 
Schotting, p. 233, of Spiring, p. 154, of Stuyvesant, p. 432, of Trotzig, pp. 282-283, of Wliitelocke, p, 620, Wcis, p. 124. 

Brief Biographies. 675 

For his writings see Biogr. lex., Ny foljd, II. 53-54; Hammarskold, 
Sv. Witterh., p. 173 (but several of the works given there belong to his 
son, Johan Gustaf von Beier (1646-1705), who was a poet and author). 

Manuscripts. R.R. ; Letters from Beier to the government (R.A.) ; 
letters to A. Oxenstierna {Ox. Saml.) ; letters to De la Gardie {Sandb. 
5aOT/., K. A. ); letters in Dahlb. Saml. (R.A.) ; letters in N. S., I. (R.A.). 

Blommaert,^ Samuel, was born in Antwerp on August 21, 1583. 
From Antwerp Blommaert's father removed to England, where he died 
in September, 1591. Young Samuel was sent to school, in London by 
his stepmother. (His mother died when he was about a year old and 
his father married again.) Later he was sent to the Hague, Haarlem, 
Amsterdam, Hamburg and other cities to learn the trade of a merchant. 
In 1603 he entered the service of the Dutch East India Company and 
went to the East Indies the same year, where he spent almost seven 
eventful years. In September, 1610, he took passage on the ship Hoorn 
and arrived at Texel the following June. 

On his return to Holland he settled at Amsterdam in the business of 
a merchant. Here he prepared expeditions to the Indies and soon 
became " an Important man." He also became a stockholder in the 
Dutch West India Company and was elected one of its directors several 
times. He was appointed fector of Eric Larsson von der Linde (a 
Swedish citizen and nobleman) and he had large transactions in grain 
and copper with the Swedish government in 1630 and 1631 and perhaps 
earlier. He was also interested in Swedish manufacturing establishments 
and obtained privileges from the government. Through Falkenberg and 
Le Blon he was brought into communication with Axel Oxenstierna and 
in 1636 he was made Swedish commissary at Amsterdam with a salary 
of 1,000 R.D. a year (paid out of the Dutch subsidies) and allowances 
for travelling expenses. Finding that his position as a representative of 
the Swedish Crown and as the principal promoter and shareholder in the 
rival Swedish company became obnoxious to his fellow-members of the 
Dutch West India Company and a source of much disagreeable criticism, 
he withdrew from the Swedish service in the summer or autumn of 1642 
(the last letter I have found to him Is dated April, 1642, N. S., I., R.A.), 
for in July arrangements were made at Stockholm to appoint some one 
in his place (see above, p. 156). 

" There were many others by the name of Blommaert at this time. Thomas 
Blommaert, who removed to Sweden and advanced the Swedish iron and brass 
industries. He had also dealings with the commercial companies. Andriaen 
Blommaert was a trader in New Netherland, skipper on the Hope, etc. 

676 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Blommaert was interested in the Dutch settlements in America. In 
company with Godyn, De Laet, Van Rensselaer, Paauw and Hamel he 
founded a colony on Brand-pylens Island, having a tenth share in the 
same, and he registered a colony on the Fresh River in November, 1629, 
which was never settled, however. He was one of the patrons, who 
bought land on the South River before the coming of the Swedes and 
established the unsuccessful Swanendael colony of which he owned one 
fifth. He had also plans in 1630 to establish a colony on the " Island of 
St. Martin or Barbadoes among the Caribbean Islands." His name was 
attached to several places in America. The Fresh River was called 
Blommaert's River after him, but the name did not last. " The fourth 
creek above Fort Orange on the west side " of the Hudson was also 
named Blommaert's Kill; " Bargenal Inlet " was called Blommaert's 
Point; five small islands lying north of Fort Orange were called Blom- 
maert's Islands and a farm near by was known under the name of 
Blommaert's Burg. 

He continued to serve the Dutch West India Company and was a 
member of its board of accounts in 1647.^ He was alive in October, 
1650, and is mentioned as lately dead on June 20, 1652. It is therefore 
probable that he died in the spring or early summer of 1652 (hence not 
in 1654 as is stated by Elias, De Vroedsch. van Amst.. I. 373 ; Kernkamp, 
Zweed. Arch., 23). 

Sources. The best and only account is given by Professor Kernkamp 
in his Zweed. Arch., p. 3 fE. 

Documentary materials besides those used by Prof. Kernkamp are 
found in Doc, I. 43, 70, 88 ff., 217, 248 fl., 320, 330, 406 ff., 480, 
518 ff. Kam. Kol. Reg., October 6, 1632; September 10, 1636; Novem- 
ber 22, 1641 (K.A.) ; Rddspr., IX.; N. S., I. (R.A. and K.A.) ; De 
Vries, Korte Historiael; Van Ren. Bowier Mss., ed. by Van Laer and 
Hand. ror. Skan. Hist., IX. At Sjoholm (Sweden) is a letter or bill 
from him. ( See Catalogue in R.A. ) 

Bonnell,' Benjamin, was an Englishman* of some means, who seems 

' In Doc. I. 248, the signature is given as J. Blommaert, but this must be a 

'There were a number of Bonnells (Bonnel) in America. Abraham, Jacob, 
Joseph, John, Nathaniel Bonnel, etc. See New Jersey Archives, II. 336, IV. 203 
ff., V. 142, etc., IX. 185 ff., etc. The name was also found in England during 
Bonnell's time. Thurloe, State Papers. 

*0n July 17, 1655, B. Bonnell addressed a letter to Thurloe asking for aid 
in which he says: "It is my unhappinesse and not my sin, that makes me suffer; 
and most of ray suffering is for being an Englishman and for having been ever 

Brief Biographies. 677 

to have been a merchant at Amsterdam for a time. He resided in 
Spain and Portugal for about twenty years ("weil ehr . . . woll 20 
Jahre in Spanien und Portugal sich uflenth."). About 1625 he went 
to Sweden to establish a glass factory. He was later engaged by the 
South Company to begin the manufacture of glass, but the venture 
failed. He remained in Stockholm, however, and testified to the 
honesty and good character of Looff in the latter's quarrels with the 
directors of the old South Company. In the autumn of 1640 he was 
appointed factor of the New Sweden Company at Stockholm (see above, 
Chaps. XVn., XIX.). In the autumn of 1651, he was commissioned 
to go to England to look after the interests of Sweden (above. Chap. 
XXXI., p. 299) and in the following year he was again sent there to 
endeavor to secure the release of the arrested ships of the Swedish 
African Company.^ He arrived at London on February 17, 1653, 
where he was received with greater ceremony and respect than his rank 
entitled him to. In 1656 he once more went to London in his former 
capacity. He seems to have returned to Sweden in 1660 (there is a 
" supplik from him to the Crown," no date, but undoubtedly written in 

Printed Sources. (No biography.) Thurloe, State Papers, II. 
142-3, 216 fi., 299-301, 314, 360, III. References to him and his 
mission in Ellen Fries, Eric Oxenstierna; but Dr. Fries is mistaken in 
calling him a merchant from Gothenburg. When he was sent to Eng- 
land the first time he had been factor in Stockholm for the New Sweden 
Company for several years. (See above.) Other references are found 
in Heimer, Dipl. for., p. 69 fE.; Granlund, En sv. kol., p. 17 fif. 

Manuscripts. Documents in N. S., I. (R.A.) and N. S., I.-III. 
(K.A.) ; letters from Usselinx to A. Oxenstierna (Ox. Saml.) ; letters 
from Bonnell to A. Oxenstierna {Ox. Saml.) and to Christina, also 
letters from him to Carl X. (January 9, 1657 — March 14, 1660, one 
in Swedish, the rest in French) ; " Fragepunct.," etc., signed by Bonnell 
and others, July, 1634, Skepsk., 1629-50 (R.A.). See index below. 

Brahe, Per Abrahamsson, d. y. ( Jr.) , was bom in 1602. He belonged 
to one of the richest and most influential families in the kingdom and was 

true and faithful to my native country, which hath bred me many enemys in 
Swedland." Thurloe, State Papers, III. 655. 

"He arrived in Gothenburg on his way to London on November 30, 1652, and 
intended to set sail on December 18, but was delayed here by contrary winds until 
February 5, 1653, and landed at Gravesend on February 14, 1654. Bonnell to 
A. Oxenstierna, December i, 17, 1652; February 14, 18, 1654, Ox. Saml. (R.A.). 

678 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

an intimate friend of Gustavus Adolphus. He spent some years in the 
army, but peaceful occupations were more to his taste and he soon with- 
drew from the field. He was appointed governor-general of Prussia in 
1635, and governor of Finland in 1637 and again in 1648. He took 
great interest in the Finnish people, was instrumental in founding the 


University of Abo, established schools and founded numerous cities. 
Finland owes more to him than to any other man of olden times. His 
wise government gave tise to a proverb that has become a part of the 
Swedish language. He was a member of the Council of State for a 
number of years and he took great interest in New Sweden, giving Printz 
valuable advice. He became a member of the government in 1660, 
during the minority of Carl XI. and died in 1680. 

Sources. Hofberg, Biogr. lex., I. 128; Finsk. biogr. handbok, I. 254-5, 
and the bibliography given there. See also Settervall, Sv. hist, bibl., for 
further bibliography. Cf. index, below. 

Campanius Holm.," Rev. Johan (Johannes) , the son of Jonas Peter, 
was born at Stockholm in the congregation of St. Klara on August 15, 
1 601. He went through the schools of his native city and after finish- 
ing his studies at the gymnasium he entered the University of Upsala, 
where he studied theology with distinction until he was ordained on 
July 19, 1633. In March (23), the following year, he was appointed 
chaplain to a Swedish legation to Russia and when he returned he was 
employed as schoolmaster in Norrtalje, a small Swedish town on the 
coast, a short distance north of Stockholm. Later he became preceptor 
and resident clergyman at the Orphans' Home of Stockholm. On 
February 3, 1642, he was formally called by the government to go to 
New Sweden, where he remained over five years. (For his activities as 
an author and his labors in America see above, Chap. XLIV.) 

Campanius left the colony with his family in May, 1648, with a good 
recommendation from Governor Printz. His services in New Sweden 
were appreciated by the authorities and he was made first preacher to the 
Admiralty on the Skeppsholm, an island in Stockholm (the station of the 
Swedish navy) already on August 5. The following year (1649) he 

"There was a military preacher by the name of Anders Campanius, on the 
ship Fortuna in 1653, Am. Reg., October 8, 1653. There were several others by 
the name of Holm at this time. One Johan Holm was engaged at the court in 
1652 ff. He was raised to the rank of the nobility in 1653. See Biogr. (R.A.). 
One Eric Holm held high offices in Stockholm at this time and he was also made a 
nobleman in 1653. There were also other Holms. Holm, or Holmiensis indicates 
that Campanius was from Stockholm. 

Brief Biographies. 679 

became rector of the pastorate of Frosthult and Hernevi, where he 
remained until his death. After a short illness he died on September 17, 
1683, and was burled in the Church of Frosthult, where a handsome 
monument was erected to his memory. The church books giving the 
details of his labors in his congregation are now deposited in Landsarki- 
vet at Upsala. Campanius was somewhat of a scholar, knowing Latin 
perfectly, and he was interested in literature and in the natural sciences. 
He seems to have been an able preacher and he performed his duties 
with faithfulness and legends about him lived on among the Swedes on 
the Delaware for more than a century. Acrelius says (1759) that, 
" since he associated much with the savages, a legend still circulates to 
the effect that he journeyed up into the country among them and made 
his way to Sweden by land." 

Printed Sources. (No complete biography.) J. E. Fant, Up. drkest. 
herdam.j I. 401-2; Holm (transl.), pp. 107-8; Acrelius, Beskrif., p. 85. 

Manuscripts. Church books of Frosthult, 1649, ff. ; N. S., I. (Up. 
Domkap.) ; N. S., HI. (K.A.) ; Beier's letters to A. Oxenstierna, 
1647-8. See index, below. 

Christina, the famous Queen of Sweden and daughter of Gustavus 
Adolphus, was born at Stockholm on December 8, 1626. Her education 
was thorough and extensive and at the age of sixteen she could write and 
speak German and Latin fluently and had a good knowledge of Greek. 
On December 8, 1644, at the age of eighteen, she ascended the Swedish 
throne, but already tired of her duties she resigned her crown in 1654. 
At Innsbruck she formally accepted the Catholic faith the following year 
and was received with great splendor at Rome, where she lived (except 
at short intervals) the rest of her days. She revisited her native land in 
1660 and again in 1667 and made pretentions to the throne. She died 
at Rome in April, 1689. 

She was one of the most remarkable queens that ever ruled. She 
called artists, philosophers and scholars to her court and astonished them 
by her brilliancy and versatility. But she was not suited for a ruler and 
her government was almost disastrous to Sweden. Had a more states- 
man-like sovereign occupied the Swedish throne from 1638 until 1654, 
New Sweden would have had a different story. 

Printed Sources. See any Cyclopedia. Bibliography very large. Cf. 
bibliography and index. There is a good article by E. Meyer on " The 
Literary work of Christina in Italy," in Samlaren, 1884, p. 65 ff. A 
list of her works is given on p. 98 ff. 

68o The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Elswick, Hendrick von, a merchant from Liibeck. Moved to Stock- 
holm, where he continued in his trade, as it seems, until the autumn of 
1653. Being appointed factor in New Sweden in the early part of 1654, 
he went to Porto Rico in the same year and presented the claims of the 
Swedish government for the ship Katt. He arrived in New Sweden in 
the autumn of 1654. He was an able and faithful commissary and his 
books are complete and full of information. He returned to Sweden in 
1656 and was paid his salary by Kramer. 

Manuscript Sources. See bibl. below. Rising's Relations; Rising's 
Journal; Elswick's Journal (fragment) and Relation; Elswick's letters 
to Eric Oxenstierna (referred to above) ; documents in N. S., I. and 
Soderk. (R.A.) ; Com. Col. Reg., 1653-6; Geogr. (R.A.). See index, 
below. Cf. also Doc, I., XH. 

Fleming, Klas Larsson. One of the greatest names in Swedish 
history at this period. He occupied various responsible positions in 
the kingdom and everywhere his great energy and large ability effected 
marvelous results. He reorganized the Swedish navy and it was largely 
through his efforts that Sweden was able to cope with Denmark on the 
seas in the war of 1 644-1 646. From the first he took charge of the 
affairs of the New Sweden Company, and had he lived it is likely that 
New Sweden would not have been so greatly neglected. 

Fleming was born in 1592 and he was killed by a stray bullet from a 
Danish battery, July 26, 1644. 

Printed Sources. Munthe, Sv. sjohj.j V. 3 ff. ; Nordisk familjebok, 
Vin. 565-6; Hofberg, Biogr. lex., I. 339; Biogr. lex., IV. 562 ff. 
(For the Fleming family see Biogr. lex., IV. 531.) A great many of 
the Flemings were called Klas, see ibid., 538 ff. ; Stiernman, Hof. Minnen, 
I. 55 ff. For older bibliography see Biogr. lex., IV. 564. Lykpredikan 
ofwer Then iidle och Welhorne Herre, Herr Claes Flemming . . . aff 
D. Olavo Laurelio, Stock. 1645, Palmsk. Saml. (Up. B.), 417, pre- 
dikan no. 2, p. 149. 

Documents are found in Hand. ror. Skan. Hist., II. 80, 92, 112, V. 86 
ff.; VIII. 27 ff.; IX. 80 ff., 164; XXIV. 288, etc. (Fleming's letter to 
C. von Falkenberg concerning grain, etc., November 25, 1631, IX. 80 ff. 
etc.) ; Stiernman, Kungl. br., etc., II. 190 ff. ; Rddspr., 1629-1644. 

Manuscripts. Thirty-four letters (1627-44) from Fleming to A. 
Oxenstierna (see Munthe, Sv. sjohj., V. p. ix, and Sonden, A. Oxen- 
stierna {Ox. Saml.) ; Nigra Clas Fleming popper 1630 ock 1640 talen 
(R.A.) (not made use of by Munthe) ; also Ox. Concepter; Documents 

Brief Biographies. 68 i 

in Soderk. and Tobaksk. (R.A.) ; Klas Fleming to Brahe, 1637-40, 
Skokl. Saml. (R.A.); there are also letters in (K.A.) Reg. signed by 
him, also letters written to him in N. S., I. (K.A.). In " Baner bref," 
etc., are letters signed by Fleming alone and by him and J. Casimir (R. 
Library Stkh.). 

Fluviander, Rev. Israel Holg, "was the son of Governor Printz's 
sister." He came to America in 1643 and remained here until March, 
1647, preaching at Elfsborg and Christina. Holm says that he became 
rector in Ods congregation in the diocese of Skara, but Sprinchorn informs 
us that he is not mentioned in the church-books of this congregation. 
Sprinchorn, N. S., p. 29, hote. 

Manuscript Sources. Journal, N. S., HI. (K.A.) ; Beier's letters to 
Oxenstierna, 1647, Ox. Saml. (R.A.). See index, below. 

Gustavus Adolphus, the greatest ruler and statesman of the Scandi- 
navian North, the reorganizer of the military, political and economic 
systems of Sweden and the founder of modern warfare, was born in 
Stockholm, on December 9, 1594, and died on the battle-field of Liitzen 
on November 6, 1632. 

Sources. The bibliography is very large. See any Encyclopedia or 
bibliography of historical writings. 

Hook, Sven, applied for permission to go to America in the service of 
the government or the company in 1653 and came here on the Haj on 
the eleventh expedition. He served in the settlement in the capacity of 
a lieutenant and returned to Sweden after the capture of the colony. It 
seems that he entered the navy upon his return to his native country and 
it appears that he was in charge of the ship Postryttaren in 1658. The 
same or another Sven Hook was commander of the Haj in 1647. See 
N. S., I. (R.A.) ; Com. Col. Reg. (R.A.). Memorial for Sven Hook, 
Am. Reg., July i, 1658. See index, below. 

Kieft, Willem, was the sixth governor of New Netherland (1638- 
1647). He assumed the government of the colony about the time 
Minuit arrived in the Minquas Kill. The settlements were not in the 
best condition and things did not improve much with his coming. 
Indian massacres and other troubles arose, due to Kieft's policies. He 
was on friendly terms with Governor Printz, however, and there was 
not much trouble between the Swedes and Dutch during his time. He 
left the colony in 1647 and was drowned in a storm on the coast of 
Wales. No accurate biography. 

Printed Sources. Histories of New York ; Jameson, Nar. of N. Neth., 

682 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

66, 211, etc.; Doc, I., XII.; Nat. Cyclo. of Am. Biogr., VI. 91-2 (not 
accurate). Cf. index, below. 

Kramer, Hans, a German. He was appointed book-keeper for the 
New Sweden Company in 1640 and continued in this capacity until the 
dissolution of the American Company in 1662. He was also director in 
the company after 1655 and held the positions of book-keeper and director 
in the African Company. He was alive in 1668. 

Sources. Letters and bills, N. S., I.-II. (R.A.); Soderk., 1637-59 
(R.A.); N. S., I.-III. (K.A.); Rising's Process (R.A.) ; Mss. in 
Afrik. Komp., I.-III. (R.A.) and in Nord. Saml. (Up. B.). Cf. index, 

Lindestrom, Peter Martensson, was the son of Marten Mansson, 
who was knighted and assumed the name of Lindestrom. Peter Linde- 
strom studied at the University of Upsala, whereupon he secured employ- 
ment as secretary in the College of Mines for two years. Again entering 
the university he specialized in mathematics and the art of fortification 
for some time. In 1653 he was appointed to go to New Sweden as 
engineer (cf. above, p. 554 fE.). He did great service for the company, 
but he was not satisfied with his position here, and Rising could with diffi- 
culty persuade him to remain in the autumn of 1654. He returned to 
Europe with the director and visited the fortifications at Plymouth and 
eleven other forts in England during his stay there in December, 1655.' 
He went through Holland, Germany and Denmark on foot. He was 
robbed at Grensmohlen( ?) and arrested at Wismar, but he was released 
and given full satisfaction, whereupon he continued his journey and 
arrived in Sweden after many adventures. In March, 1657, he was in 
Stockholm and, finding that there was a vacancy in the army, he applied 
for the position of fortification-engineer and secured the appointment 
(his commission being dated April 8, 1657). He was then stationed in 
Jamtland " to continue the fortification " there. Later he took part in 
the campaigns against the Danes " in Skane and Norway." In 1661 
he went abroad to seek his fortune in foreign nations, but he returned 
in a "couple of years," unable to obtain what he wanted.* Again in 

'Near the English coast his chest filled with instruments, maps and descrip- 
tions was to be transferred in a boat from the ship Bontekoe to the Bern, on 
November i, 1655; but as it was hauled upon the latter vessel, it was struck 
against the side so violently that the cover came open and all the instruments, 
valued at 150 R.D., were lost. The charts and descriptions were recovered, how- 
ever. Geogr., 73. 

° He could have secured a position in " General Rylios' army," if he could 
have proven that he had had a longer experience as an engineer. It seems that 
his stay in New Sweden did not count. 

Brief Biographies. 683 

January, 1666, he applied for a recommendation from the College of 
War, having in mind to serve under Gustaf Wrangel " on German 
soil." Finally he married and settled at Brosater. About 1679 he 
" became afflicted with a painful suflFering in all his limbs " and from 
1683 until his death in 1691 he was confined to his bed, making work 
almost impossible. During the latter part of his life, however, he wrote 
his Geographia which was completed in its present form shortly before 
his death. "His last will was that the book should be presented to the 
King." He was given donations of land (Knapla and Wedhyx) in 
165 1 and several other grants later, but he died in very poor circum- 
stances, due to his illness and the expenses connected with it. His 
widow, Margreta Roos ("about sixty years old" in 1691) was given 
aoo R.D. by the government in May, 1693. 

Printed Sources. No accurate biography. Anrep, Attart., H. 772. 

Manuscripts. Geogr. (R.A.) ; letters from Lindestrom in Biogr. L. 
(R.A.) ; letters from Margreta Roos in N. S., H. (R.A) ; letter dated 
January 15, 1666, in "oordnade buntar " (K.A.) ; letter to Com. Col. 
in N. S., I. (R.A.); Rising's Journal; Red. Kol. Akt., 266 (K.A.) ; 
Saml., A. I, fol. 906, Bergskol. 

Hacklier, Hans, settled at Gothenburg" some time before 1629 (Berg 
says between 1620 and 1630). He was of a Scotch noble family and 
had been an officer in the English navy. At Gothenburg he became a 
merchant, importing salt and the like. He supplied the government 
with goods, became wealthy by his trade and did great service to his 
adopted city. He acted as commissary for the New Sweden Company 
after 1646 and was of great aid in the preparations of some of the expe- 
ditions. He received many honors from the city, being its representative 
at Stockholm on several occasions and in 1649 he was made a Swedish 
nobleman ("introduced in 1652"). He befriended the Marquis of 
Montrose during the latter's stay in Gothenburg and advanced him 
60,000 R.D. in 1649, also making over to him a large quantity of arms. 
He was made an English baron in 1650. He married twice and had 
many children. He died in 1666 and was buried in the German Church 
at Gothenburg. All the letters the writer has seen from him, are writ- 
ten in German, 

Source. Letters to A. Oxenstierna (R.A.) ; manuscripts in Gothen- 
burg; N. S., I. (R.A.) ; N. S., I.-HI. (K.A.) ; Anrep, Attart.. H. 
848 ff.; Berg, Saml. till Goteb. hist., I. 89-90, 120 (and bilagor) ; 
' He also had a brother in Sweden. 

684 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Rddspr., I. 185; II. 141, 184; V. 127, VII. 279, 327. 343; XL loi, 183, 
303, 333; Gardiner, Hist, of the Com. and the Protec.j I. 212. 

Minuit, Peter/" the third governor of New Netherland and the first 
of New Sweden was born at Wesel on the Rhine about 1580-5.^^ He 
was probably educated at the GsTnnasium of Wesel. He married the 
sister (?) of Hendrick Huygen and knew and associated with the 
wealthiest and most influential men in his home town. During the 
Spanish occupation of the city (1614-1629) trade was ruined and 
prosperity disappeared and it appears that he removed about 1623 or 1624 
for in the spring of 1625 it is stated that he "had left for foreign 
countries," his wife having gone to Cleves. It is probable that he went 
direct to Holland (likely to Amsterdam) and that he secured profitable 
employment there through the influence of the Huygen family. 

In 1625 he was appointed general director of New Netherland, begin- 
ning his duties here in 1626. His rule was wise and successful, but he 
made himself obnoxious to a strong party among the directors and he 
was recalled in 1 63 1. He left New Amsterdam in the beginning of 
1632 and returned to Holland. 

His activities from 1632 until 1635 are practically unknown. About 
this time he offered his services to Samuel Blommaert and he soon 
became interested in the colonial and mercantile plans of Sweden. He 
was introduced to Oxenstierna and Spiring and he suggested the first 
practical plan to the chancellor for the colonizing of the Delaware and 
proposed the name ISlew Sweden. He did not specify the territory to be 
settled, but that the west side of the Delaware is meant, can be seen 
from other circumstances. Being unnecessary for us to recount his 
labors while in the Swedish employ, since it has been done elsewhere 
(above Chaps. XI.-XIV., XXL), we pass them over. His two vessels 
arrived in the Delaware about March 15, 1638. He bought lands from 
the Indians, built a fort at Minquas Kill and left the colony in June. 

On his way home at the island of St. Christopher, he was invited as a 
guest on a ship called the Flying Deer. Suddenly a terrible storm arose. 
The ship was blown out to sea and was never heard of again, Minuit 
and the other passengers disappearing forever. 

"Kapp is mistaken in thinking that his name was Frenchified by American 
historians. According to Kapp the name ought to be written Minnewitt, but he 
used the French form himself and spelled it Minuit, hence I don't see that we 
have a right to change it. Cf. facsimile; Doc, I. 43, etc. It is, however, also 
written Minnewit in the documents, see Doc, I. 291, etc. See Kapp. Sybels Hist. 
Zeit., XV. 232. 

" His father was Jan Minuit and his mother was Sara. 

Brief Biographies. 685 

It has been said that Minuit was a German. He was indeed born in 
Germany, but his parents were of Walloon or of French descent and his 
education must have been Dutch (and probably partly French) for he 
writes Dutch (and in Dutch characters although his spelling is sometimes 
German) even to Oxenstierna and it is extremely improbable that he 
would have used that language in writing to the Swedish chancellor, if 
he had known German. There was a large Dutch colony in Wesel and 
that Minuit belonged to this and associated with Dutch or " Batavized " 
Walloons is probable. His relative Hendrick Huygen (from Wesel, said 
to have been a born Frenchman, however) likewise used the Dutch 
language in his correspondence with the Swedish authorities. 

Printed Sources. No good biography. The most complete is that by 
F. Kapp, Peter Minnewit aus Wesel in Syhels Hist. Zeit., XV. 225 S. ; 
The Hist. Mag., 2d S., III. 205 fi.; Zeit. des Berg. Gesch. Ver., 1867; 
Acrelius, Beskrif.; Odhner, N. S., 8 ff. ; Doc. I. ; Van Ren. Bowier Mss.; 
Kernkamp, Zweed. Arch.; Rddspr., 1636-8. 

Manuscripts. Blommaert's letters to Oxenstierna {Ox. Saml.) ; 
Spiring to Oxenstierna; Fleming to Oxenstierna {Ox. Saml.). See 
bibliogr. and index, below. 

Nertunius, Rev. Matthias Nicolaus, was well educated. He was 
engaged to go to America in 1649 on the Katt but he was wrecked with 
the other passengers near Porto Rico. Robbed of his property and per- 
secuted " for religion's sake " he finally made his way to Sweden after 
many hardships. His troubles did not end here, however. He suffered 
want and privation. He complains most bitterly to the chancellor that 
" he had suffered for some space of time in this famous capital," exclaim- 
ing that of him it could truly be said what the poet sings: "Through 
various accidents through so many dangers we strive."^^^ Together with 
Joachimus Lycke he prayed the chancellor "to stretch out a helping 
hand " as he was " not only lightly tinged but deeply dyed with afflic- 
tion." In 1653 he again decided to try his luck in New Sweden and 
this time he reached his destination safely. He returned with Rising and 
was recommended to the grace of the archbishop by the directors of the 
Commercial College in October, 1656. 

Sources. N. S., I.-II. (R.A.) ; N. S., I.-III. (K.A.) ; Com. Col. 

Reg. J October 3, 1656. 

""' Vero verius did potest quod Poeta canit: 'Per varies casus, per tot dis- 
crimina rerum Tendimus, etc' " Letter from Nertunius and Lycke, no date, but 
about the autumn of 1652. N. S., I. (R.A.). 

686 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Oxenstierna, Axel, was born in Upland on June i6, 1583. Like 
Per Brahe he belonged to one of the most influential families in Sweden. 
He received a thorough education and studied at Jena, Rostock and 
Wittenberg. He soon became one of the leading spirits in his country 
and while still a young man he was employed on important diplomatic 
and other missions. He was made chancellor in 16 12 and became the 
right hand of Gustavus Adolphus in the formation and execution of the 
great plans that were to place Sweden among the leading powers of 
Europe. After the death of his king he became the virtual ruler of 
Sweden for many years and through his genius the cause of the Protes- 
tant allies finally triumphed. He was greatly interested in the settle- 
ments on the Delaware and through his initiative the New Sweden 
Company came into being. " He was the greatest statesman of Sweden 
below the throne " — the first place must be given to Gustavus Adolphus 
— and with the exception of Richelieu " he was the greatest uncrowned 
statesman of the age," " the great man of the continent," as Cromwell 
called him. He died in 1654. 

Sources. No complete biography. Hofberg, Biogr. lex., H. 252; 
Nordisk familjeboij and English, German and French Encyclopedias. 
Cf. bibliogr. below, also Odhner, Sv. in. hist., p. 36 ff., 73 fi. The 
manuscript material for a biography is vast, and is found almost all over 
Europe. His writings are being published at Stockholm. 

Oxenstierna, Eric, the son of Axel Oxenstierna, was born on Febru- 
ary 13, 1624. He was educated at the University of Upsala, whereupon 
he spent about two years in foreign travels and studied at Amsterdam 
and Leyden. He possessed many of the great qualities of his great father 
and became one of the leading diplomats and statesmen of his country, 
although he died at an early age. 

In 1652 he was appointed president of the Commercial College and 
was the leading force in the renewed activities in behalf of New Sweden 
in 1653. The following year he was made chancellor to succeed his 
father. He was made governor-general of Prussia in 1655 and died 
there in 1656, at the age of thirty-two. 

Printed Sources. The best biography is by Ellen Fries, but it is not 
complete and not always accurate. Cf. Wrangel, Sv. lit. fdrb. med. Hoi. 
(also in Dutch transl.) ; Hofberg, Biogr. lex., II. 254, and other Swedish 
biographical works. 

Papegoja, Johan, made several journeys to New Sweden, arriving 
here for the first time in 1643. He married Armegot Printz about 

Brief Biographies. 687 

1645, but the marriage does not seem to have been a happy one. It 
appears that they had five children, two girls and three boys (Bernt, 
Gustaf and Goran). The girls and at least two of the boys were born 
in New Sweden, probably Goran and Bernt, who were sent to Sweden 
with Rising after the capture of the colony and they arrived safely at 
their grandfather's (Governor Printz's) home in the spring of 1656. 
Johan Papegoja, who desired to enter the naval service already in 1645, 
became captain in the Swedish navy about 1661 (Anrep says in 
1663).^^ He lived at Ramstorp, where he owned an estate, and it seems 
that he died in 1667. 

The family name of this branch of the Papegojas became extinct before 
. 1 720. It has been said that the last male representative of the family 
died in ITT 4, but in a document written in September, 1720, a few days 
after the death of the last daughter of Governor Printz, it is stated that 
" Bernt Papegoja died without children and with him that family became 

Bernt like his father entered the navy and advanced to the rank of 
captain. It seems that he was later commander of the castle of Lecko. 
His brother Goran entered the army and took part in the war of 1676 
against the Danes. He advanced to the rank of major. Gustaf Pape- 
goja became captain in 1673 and commander in 1675. He died in 1675. 
(In some manner about half of the writer's notes on Johan Papegoja 
and on Trotzig were lost and it was not possible to replace the material 
as the sources are in Sweden.) 

Printed Sources. There is no biography. Anrep, Attart., III. 157; 
Manuscripts. Palmsk. Saml. (Up. B.), 230, fol. 230, 377-89- " Rela. 
om sin adm. No. 53, i66i " (by Printz), Skr. fr. landsh. till K. Maj. 
(R.A.); N. S., I. (R.A.); N. S., I.-III. (K.A.) ; Red. Kol. Act. 
Printz (K.A.) ; Am. Reg. (Fl. Ark.). 

Printz, Gustaf, son of Governor Johan Printz, came to New Sweden 
in 1643. He was employed here as an officer, finally given the rank of 
lieutenant. He returned to Europe in command of a vessel in 1653. It 
seems that he had in mind to return to the colony on the tenth expedition, 
for travelling expenses were supplied to him on December 2a, 1653, but 

" In the " Rela. om sin admin.", etc., Printz states under date of December I, 
1661, that Capt. Johan Papegoja was paid 493:16 D. (Skr. fr. landsh. till K. 
Maj. (R.A.). Anrep has probably taken his statements from Palmsk. Saml., 230 
f. 377-89 (Up. B.), where it is stated that Johan Papegoja became skeppskapten in 
1663. It is also stated there and in Anrep that he became major in 1676 (this is 
nine years after his death ! ) . 

688 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

for some reason he did not go, probably because his father had left the 
colony. In 1656 he was in Elbing on some duty. The next year he was 
again in Sweden, seeking employment in the Swedish army. Through 
the influence of Per Brahe he was finally given an appointment in " Of. 
Herr H. Horns Regemente af Wastg. Reuttery" about July, 1657, 
with a salary of 820 D., but he died in Skane the same year. 

Sources. No biography. Letters to Per Brahe, Skokl. SamL, to A. 
Oxenstierna, Ox. SamL; Com. Col. Prot.; Journal, N. S., III. (K.A.) ; 
Wdstg. Ryt.j Krigsarkivet. 

Printz, Johan, was born in Bottnaryd, Smaland, Sweden,^' on July 
20, 1592. He went to school in his home district and later attended 
the universities of Rostock and Greifswald, but he was soon compelled 
to return home on account of financial straits. In 1620, however, Gus- 
tavus Adolphus made it possible for him to go abroad again. He studied 
at Leipzig, Wittenberg, Jena and other places, but circumstances once 
more forced him to break off his studies. He was made a prisoner by 
some soldiers, who compelled him to accompany them to Italy, and he 
was now thrown into a long list of adventures. After spending some 
time in the field, in French and Austrian armies, he returned to Sweden 
in 1625. Thereupon he entered Swedish service and it has been said 
that the King gave him two fully barbed steeds from his own barn. 

In 1630 he became cavalry captain and four years later he was 
advanced to the rank of major. In 1635 and 1636 he fought in Ger- 
many under the command of Ture Bjelke and was captured by the 
imperial forces in February of the latter year. " He bought himself 
free, however, for 800 R.D.," which were returned to him by the gov- 
ernment. In 1638 he was again promoted, receiving the rank of lieuten- 
ant-colonel. Two years later, when he was in the city of Chemnitz 
with only a few soldiers, he was compelled to surrender after a heroic 
defense. Returning to Sweden soon after he made a grave mistake in 
not securing a passport and leave from Johan Baner, the commanding 
general. As a consequence he was arrested in Stockholm and accused of 
having surrendered the city with disgrace. He was tried by the College 
of War, but this body exonerated him in the surrender of Chemnitz 
(it was even brought out that he made a most heroic stand against the 
enemy), and it was thought that he had been punished sufficiently 
through his imprisonment for his neglect to secure a passport. The 

"It is difficult to see how the statement widely circulated, that Printz was 
born in Germany, could have arisen. 

Brief Biographies. 689 

Council of State, however, reversed the sentence and removed him 
from his command " as a warning to other insubordinate officers." 

In 1642 he was requested to become governor of New Sweden and in 
July the same year he was knighted. He was governor of the colony 
from 1643 until the autumn of 1653. When he returned to Sweden he 
was received with favor and was again given the rank of colonel. In 1657 
he was appointed commandant of the castle at Jonkoping and the follow- 
ing year he was made governor of Jonkopings Ian. He died on May 
3. 1663. 

Printz was twice married. His first wife, Elizabeth Bock, died in 
1640. Before his departure for New Sweden in 1642 he married Maria 
von Linnestau and his family accompanied him to the colony. He had 
six children, who attained to maturity (five girls — ^Armegot, Catharina, 
Christina, Elsa and Gunilla — and one boy — Gustaf). 

He was of a religious nature, as religion was taken in those days. It 
is said that he often read the Bible and he was permitted to preach in his 
father's congregation while a student. The English said that he was 
" furious and passionate, cursing and swearing upon every occasion " and 
the Swedes themselves accused him of tyranny and ill treatment, but we 
must not take any of these statements at their face value." Printz was 
a soldier, educated in the rough school of the Thirty Years' War, and 
his language was not characterized by restraint, but he was not the 
tyrant and ruffian he is often made out to be. He was of heavy build 
and it is probable that he increased in weight as years grew upon him. 
The Indians called him the big tub and de Vries speaks of him as weigh- 
ing over 400 lbs." 

Printz has received much unjust criticism from historians. He per- 
formed his duties faithfully as governor of New Sweden and his services 
as governor of Jonkopings Ian were marked by ability and executive 
power. He was strict in his demands and required absolute obedience 
from his subjects. He was of hot temper and at times he went beyond 
his limit, but his rule as a whole was just. He was in many ways a 
remarkable character (his adventures before entering Swedish service 
in 1630 border on romance) and he deserves a prominent place among 
the early governors of the American settlements. 

" See above. Chaps. XXXII., XXXVIII. and index below. 

" " Was ghenaemt Capiteyn Prins, een kloeck Man van postuer die over de vier- 
hundert pondt woeg." De Vries, Korte Historiael, p. 184. The statement that 
he was a heavy drinker is not borne out by the documents. 


690 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Printed Sources. There is no complete biography of Printz. Biog- 
raphies and references to him are found in all Swedish and large 
American biographical works and histories. Cf. Pufendorf, Der Sch. 
und Deut., etc., I. 332, 540; II. 45-6; Pufendorf, Drot. Christinas 
hist., etc. A biography was published by the present writer in Vngdoms- 
v'dnnenj March, 1909, pp. 84-5. 

Manuscripts. Letters from him to the King, March 14, 1658 — 
December 30, 1658 (15 in all) ; January 9, 1659 — December 28, 1659 
(39 in all) ; Landsh. skr., Jonk. Ian., 1640-1671 (R.A.) ; A journal of 
his official acts (R.A.) ; R.R., January 30, 1659; February 6, 10, 
December 10, 1659, ^tc. ; letters from him to P. Brahe, Skokl. Saml.; to 
A. Oxenstierna, Ox. Saml.; also letters in Biogr. (R.A.). In Kam- 
mararkivet are a large number of documents concerning him. Likvida- 
tioner, 1620-80, Ser. B., No. 221, etc. (Also letters from the daughters 
of Printz in these collections in K.A.) Cf. below, index and bibliogr. 

Armegot Printz married Johan Papegoja in New Sweden. She 
lived in Fort Christina until August, 1654, when she removed to Tini- 
cum Island. 

In May, 1662, she sold the island to De la Grange for six thousand 
florins, whereupon she seems to have taken her personal property to 
Printz Torp and returned to Sweden,^^ where she met her husband for 
the last time. She came here again before March 8, 1671, and settled 
at Printz Torp. As the second half of the price for Tinicum was not 
paid, Armegot " obtain [ed] a judgment upon the verdict of a jury . . . 
against Andrew Carr and Priscilla, his wife, for the sum of 3000" 
florins and in the spring of 1673 the governor confirmed the decision, 
empowering the sheriff to put Armegot " into possession of the said 
island and the stock thereon." She now returned to Tinicum, where 
she continued to live until her final departure for Sweden^^ in 1676 ( ?).^^ 
She probably lived upon her husband's estate Ramstorp, at least at inter- 
vals after her return. She died on November 26, 1695. 

Madame Papegoja was given many privileges by the Dutch.^° She 

^° On her way home she was paid 3,000 florins in Holland on July 31, 1662. 

" Having sold the island to Peter Kock. 

" On pp. 646-649 Fernow prints a " Census of the responsible housekeepers " 
between two documents from April 21, 1680, and May i, i68o, making us believe 
that Armegot was still in the country. But it is an error and the census must 
have been made a few years earlier. Doc, XII. 646-649. 

Armegot had two sons in the Swedish war of 1675-1679 and not two sons-in- 
law as is stated in Mem. of'Long Isl. Hist. So., I. and elsewhere. 

" Acrelius is mistaken, however, in stating that the Dutch gave her " ist. godd 

Brief Biographies. 691 

carried on agriculture and distilled small quantities of liquors from corn. 
She had difficulty in finding servants, however, to perform her w^ork. In 
1672 she had "only one man-servant" and w^as compelled to hire other 
people in harvest time. She was a woman of some ability, and seems to 
have been of an overbearing nature, irritable and self-willed, and the 
Swedes complained greatly about her tyranny. 

Printed Sources. No biography. The article in Prarieblomman, 
1903, p. 148 a. is not reliable. Sources for her life are found in Doc.j 
XII. ; Sluyter's Journal, Mem. of Long hi. Hist. So., I. 177 fi. ; Hazard, 
Annals; Acrelius, Beskrif.; Penn. Mag., II. 467. 

Manuscripts. In Kammararkivet among the Printz-papers ; N. Y. 
Col. Mss., XX. fol. 26, 82, XXI. fol. 51. 

Catharina Printz married Major Pylfelt and died in 1703. 

Christina Printz married Governor Orneklo. She died on January 
13. 1696. 

Elsa Printz married twice, the first time Von Rohr, the second time 
Lagmannen Jacob du Rees who died on May 9, 1 720. Elsa died on the 
twenty-fourth of September, 1720. 

Gunilla Printz married Major Gyllenpatron and she died on Febru- 
ary I, 1697. Red. Kol. Act. (K.A.). 

Ridder, Peter HoUender. Ridder was of Dutch or low German 
origin (his German letters prove this and his attempts at Swedish were 
not successful at least not before 1655). The date of his arrival in 
Sweden^" cannot be determined. He entered Swedish service about 
1635^^ and was used in various capacities by the Admiralty in Finland 
and Sweden. In 1639 he was engaged to go to New Sweden. He 
arrived here on the second expedition and remained as governor of the 
colony until February, 1643. 

Some time after his return to Sweden he was again given a position 
in the Swedish navy with the rank of lieutenant (a rank which he had 
before going to America). He was made captain in i648( ?) and sent 
to Riga on commercial voyages about this time; chief for Gothland's 

Oxe; nigra godda Swin och tilrackelig brodsad," Beskrif., 100. She requested 
permission from the Dutch in 1660 to be allowed to pay these things in taxes, 
Doc, XII. 310. 

"He had a brother in Sweden in 1640. 

"There is some conflict in his statements about entering Swedish service. In 
1644 he says that he had served the Crown over five years (that would give us 
about 1638 or 1639), but in 1659 he says that he had served the government for 
twenty-four years, this will give us the year 1635 as the time when he entered 
Swedish service. 

692 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. ' 

Company 1648-165 1 and went to the island of Gothland to collect 
money and contributions for the navy; he was sent to Finland at 
various times to superintend the conscriptions and took part in the 
war of 1658-9 with honor. He advanced to major in 1660 and he was 
employed on various missions and important expeditions by the Admiralty 
until 1666, when he became hopman, later (1669) commander, at the 
castle of Viborg in Finland. (Several donations of land had also been 
given him in Viborgs Idn and socken already in 1650.) 

After his strenuous life and many hardships, he was now given a 
position where he could spend the remainder of his numerous days in 
peace and quietness. Viborg Castle had once been of great importance 
as a guard against Russian hordes; but this importance was lost long 
before 1666 and little attention was now paid to its maintenance as a 
fort and stronghold. It is therefore probable that Ridder had little to 
do. He was married before going to New Sweden. He had at least 
two sons, Peter Peterson Ridder and Constantin Ridder,^^ and at least 
four daughters. There is some uncertainty about the year of his birth 
as well as the year of his death. But his son Constantin writes the day 
after his death ("i gar som war den 23 huius," the letter, however, 
being without date), that he was 84 years old when he died and that he 
had served the government for 56 years. Now if he entered Swedish 
service in 1635 (and the statement of his son is correct) he must have 
died in 169 1 and in that case he was born in 1607.^' 

Printed Sources. There is no biography. Short mention of him in 
Ruuth, Viborgs Stads hist., I. 392-3, G. Lagus Ur Wiborgs hist., H. 
pp. 62-3, and Zettersten, Sv. ftot. hist., H. 228, 622. 

Manuscripts. A large number of letters to him in Am. Reg. {Fl. 
Ar.), 1638, April 14, June 19, November 3, December 22; 1639, March 
II, May 16, July 8 ; 1646, February 5 ; 1648, February 21, 26, June 23, 
October 27; 1649, April 20, Sept. 13; i6so; 1651, August 22, Septem- 
ber 23 ; 1653. February 8, 18, March 4, August 20, October 21 ; 1655. 
February 2, December 13, 15; 1656, April 4, May 22, June 18, 20, 
December 23; 1657, January 15, April 3, May i, 14, June 11, July 9, 
16, August 20; 1658, December 21; 1659, January 2; 1660, July 18, 
December 7 (also a large number of letters from him in Inkomna 
skrifvelser) . Letters and other documents in Red. Kol. Act., No. 313 

'^ Lagus mentions only one son. 

""That this is approximately correct (perhaps correct) is borne out by other 
facts, for we know that he was alive in 1685 and that he was dead in 1693. 

Brief Biographies. 693 

(K.A.). Peter H. Ridder till Kung. Maj. and letters from Constantin 
Ridder, Ursula Ridder, John Elvers, Otto von Mengden, Biographica 
(R.A.). Peter Ridder to Carl X., July 5, 1659 (R.A.). Letter to Klas 
Fleming, May 13, 1640, N. S., I. (K.A.); letters from Ridder to A. 
Oxenstierna, Ox. Saml. (R.A.). See index below. For a history of 
Viborg Castle see Ruuth, Viborgs stads hist., I. 254 fE. 

Rising,^* Johan Classoii,^^ was born in 161 7 (if his own statement is 
correct) and, after graduating from the Gymnasium at Linkoping, he 
entered the University of Upsala in the autumn of 1635. After his 
university studies he spent several years in foreign countries (he was for 
a time a student at Leyden), partly as a companion to Count Tott and 
Sten Bjelke, partly on stipends given by De la Gardie and Queen Chris- 
tina and " he travelled through many kingdoms, countries and provinces, 
observed their manners, laws and statutes and learnt various tongues and 
languages." The stipends given to him by the government entailed the 
condition that he should study commerce and trade and write a treatise 
on these subjects. For this purpose he revisited Holland in 1647 and 
1650 and spent some time in Amsterdam, which possessed the greatest 
and most perfectly organized commercial system of that time. As he 
returned to Sweden the Commercial College was being organized and in 
the summer of 1 65 1 he was appointed secretary in this department of the 
government. He resigned in the autumn of 1653, however, being com- 
missioned to go to New Sweden as an assistant to Governor Printz. 
Shortly before his departure he was raised to the rank of a nobleman. 
He arrived here in 1654. After the fall of New Sweden he returned 
to Europe and landed in England. After a visit to London he went to 
Holland, where his books, manuscripts and clothes were confiscated and 
sold at auction and from there he proceeded to Elbing in Prussia, where 
he met Eric Oxenstierna and made a report to him. In December, 1657, 

^Rising was the name of the district {socken) where Johan Rising was born 
and he adopted that name. There are over eight places by the name of Risinge 
in Sweden. Rising's father was Rev. Clas Botvidi. 

"" Rising had two brothers by the name of Johan Rising, one of whom went to 
New Sweden on the Mercurius in 1655; tl"* other lived at Gothenburg and held 
several offices there. One Johan Rising (not mentioned by Dr. Fries) was 
lieutenant on the ship Falken in 1659, and it is stated in Med. fr. Sv. Riksark., 
V. p. 151, that he had been governor of New Sweden. But this is of course a 
mistake. There are several memorials and letters to this Rising in Am. Reg. 
November 9, December 8, 15, 1660, etc. (Fl. Ar.). A Johan Rising was living in 
Norrkoping, who does not seem to have been any relation to the director of New 

694 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

he settled at Elbing, having been appointed general inspector over the 
collection of tolls in Prussia and Pomerania, with a salary of i ,200 R.D. 
annually. But his duties were not to his liking. Already in October, 
1658, he asked to be released. It seems that nothing better was offered 
him, however, and he remained at his post. During his stay there he 
wrote several reports and memorials and collected further materials for 
his great work. But in 1660 he was compelled to leave his oflGce and 
return to Sweden, since Elbing was captured by the enemy. He was 
now without permanent employment and he was for years unsuccessful 
in his attempts to collect his salary and other bills dating from the time 
of his directorship of New Sweden. (Only a very small part of his 
salary was ever paid him, and his bills against the American Company 
were never collected, in fact the officers of the company maintained that 
he owed the same several thousand dollars.) In 1665 he was made an 
assessor in the newly organized Maritime Court with a salary of 400 D. 
a year, but the court was not put into operation and the officers were of 
course paid no salary. With the exception of some aid from his patron, 
the Swedish Mecenas De la Gardie, Rising was dependent on what 
little he could make in this way or that and it is not clear how he 
managed to live. (His relatives, however, supplied funds for him in 
later years.) His life was one of intense hardships and privation. He 
continued his literary labors, however (see above. Chap. XLIV., Rising 
as an author), and his ambition and burning desire to complete his one 
great work, A Treatise on Trade, never deserted him. But he labored 
under tremendous difficulties. He was forced to occupy the most miser- 
able quarters, and he was barely able to provide sufficient clothing for 
his body. Cold prevented him from doing thorough work in winter and 
when summer came necessary books and other materials, yes even ink, 
were wanting. He was ever in debt and kind-hearted people and royal 
intercession alone saved him from the prison bars. Under such condi" 
tions it is a wonder that he could accomplish what he did. The end 
came in April, 1672. It is a sad picture to see the former director of 
New Sweden, the first writer of importance on economy and commerce 
in this country, " ages ahead of his time in his views," die in a small, 
miserable hovel in a tailor's hut. A later age has been more considerate 
and more charitable, and his books, which could not be sold during his 
lifetime, are eagerly sought for by the collector and they often bring a 
comparatively large price. 

Printed Sources. There is no complete biography. The best is that 

Brief Biographies. 695 

of Ellen Fries in Hist. Tid. (1896), p. 31 ff. but it is not accurate. 
Older and less accurate articles are to be found in Biogr. lex., Ny foljd, 
VIII. 495 ff. ; Stiernman, Matrikel; Anrep, Attart.; Nordisk famil- 
jebok. References to him are found in Wrangel, Sv. lit. forb. med Hol- 
land (a splendid work) ; Fryxell, Berdt., XVIII. 123 fE. ; Carlson, Hist., 
II. 66; Arwedson, De Col. Nova Svecia; Doc, II., XII. 

Manuscripts. Letters from him to E. Oxenstierna, Ox. Saml.; letters 
to the King, to De la Gardie and others (R.A.) ; letters and reports in 
N. S., I. (R.A.) and N. S., I. (K.A.) ; and a large number of manu- 
scripts in Rising's Process (R.A.). 

Schotting,^* Timon van, was born in Flanders, 1603, and went to 
Sweden with his father about the age of 24. He settled at Gothenburg 
and seems to have engaged in mercantile business there. In 1639 he was 
appointed factor for the New Sweden Company, but his bills were often 
faulty and he allowed some of the goods to go to ruin under his care, 
making his resignation necessary. Later he became burggraf-'' in Gothen- 
burg and received other honors. He died in i674- 

Sources. Manuscripts in N. S., I.-III. (R.A.) ; N. S., I.-IIL 
(K.A.). Amtp, III. 661; Btrg. Saml. till G6t. hist., I. ^g-^o. Cf. 
index, below. 

Spiring^' Silfverkrona, Peter, Spiring was the son of a wealthy 
Dutch merchant. He came in touch with A. Oxenstierna about 1623 
(a memorial dated " d. 24 Junio, A. 1623," being the first paper in the 
Ox. Saml. from him), and he was soon employed by Sweden in various 
capacities. He was sent to Holland, 1635, to represent Sweden and to 
try to obtain subsidies from the States (Oxenstierna considering him 
more suitable for this mission than Camerarius, says Aitzema, II. 340) 
and later he was made resident at the Hague. In 1636 he received the 
title of nobility with the name of Silfverkrona, and from now on he 
always signed his name " Peter Spiring Silbercron van Noresholm." He 
did great service to Sweden and was often called upon to give advice in 
commercial and other matters. He was one of the stockholders of the 
New Sweden Company and always took a keen interest in its business. 
He presented several memorials to the States General concerning ships 
belonging to the company and he was always of aid to the expeditions on 

°° It was often written by himself and others with an en, Schottingen. 

" Burg-grefve, " the highest office in the cities of Gothenburg, Malmo and 
Norrfcoping." The title was retained at intervals in Gothenburg until 1719. 

'^His brothers, Isaac and Arent Spiring also had dealings with the Swedish 
government and served the same. 

696 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

their route to or from America, when they went by way of Holland. 
Although a Hollander he was a true friend of his adopted country. He 
was highly valued by the chancellor, who often listened to his counsel. 

In the autumn of 165 1 he was ordered to go to London on a diplo- 
matic mission to look after Swedish interests and to endeavor to gain 
the good will of Cromwell and the English Parliament. But on the day 
set for an audience with Cromwell, he became severely ill and died, 
shortly afterwards, on February 9, 1652. 

Printed Sources. Thurloe, State Papers; Odhner, Sv. delt. i. Vastf. 
fredsk., p. 46, N. S., p. 7-8 ; Heimer, De dipl. forb. mel. Sv. och Eng., 
1633-54, p. 65 ff. ; Anrep, Attart., III. 725 ; Fryxell, Handl, I, 56 ff. ; 
Rddspr., I. ff. volumes. The larger histories of Sweden, Denmark, 
Holland and England contain many references to him. 

Manuscripts. His letters to A. Oxenstierna from 1623 until Decem- 
ber 8, 1 65 1, are collected in six large bundles in Ox. Saml. (R.A.). 
Most of the letters are written in German (copied by a secretary, 
Niepeisen and others, and signed by Spiring), some are in Dutch (often 
in his own hand), others are in French. Several letters to Spiring, Am. 
Reg. (Fl. Ar.), 1633 ff. There are many documents concerning him 
in Kammararkivet, Red. Kol. Akter, No. 319 (where Spiring's will is 
found, dated June 20, 1643); King to the Kam. Kol., February 22, 
1653, etc. There are also a great number of letters to Spiring in Kam. 
Kol. Reg. (K.A.) and in R.R. (R.A.) ; letters and bills from him in 
N. S., I. (R.A.), N. S., I.-HI. (K.A.). See bibliography and index 

Stuyvesant, Peter. He was probably born in 1602 in Friesland. 
Being the son of a clergyman, he received a good education. Soon after 
leaving school he entered military service, losing a leg at St. Martin, 
1644, and had served a long apprenticeship before he was appointed to 
the directorship of New Netherland in 1646. He took charge of the 
colony in May, the following year. He was an active governor and the 
colony prospered during his reign. Accusations of various kinds were 
made against him, but most of these were unjust and we must assign 
him the first place among the governors, who ruled over New Nether- 
land. He showed more firmness against the neighbors than his prede- 
cessor. He erected a new fort on the Delaware and finally captured New 
Sweden ; but he was himself to suffer the same penalty as he had inflicted 
upon Rising, and New Netherland passed into the hands of the English 
in 1664. Stuyvesant remained in the colony under the English govern- 

Brief Biographies. 697 

ment, thus escaping the fate of Rising, and he died at New York in 1682 
about the age of eighty. 

Printed Sources. There is no accurate biography. In the Nat. 
Cyclop, of Am. Biog., V., p. 138 ff., it is said that he died " in seclusion 
upon his farm in August, 1672," the statement on his tombstone also 
being accepted that he was 80 years of age at that time and born in 1602 ! 
The article in Appleton's Cycl. of Am. Biog., V., p. 735, is a better one. 
Facts about him can be found in all the histories of New York. See also 
Fiske, The Dutch and Quaker Col.; Doc. I.-II. See bibliography 
below and index. 

Torkillus, Rev. Reorus, was born at Molndal, near Gothenburg 
(now a manufacturing town) in 1608. He attended school at Lidkoping 
and Skara and was later called as a lecturer to the High School of 
Gothenburg. Here he was employed as a chaplain to the superintendent, 
Andrew Printz, until he was sent to New Sweden on the second expedi- 
tion in 1639. He had much trouble with the Hollanders of the Re- 
formed Faith, both on the journey to America and in the colony, and 
his labors here were not very pleasant. He was the first preacher in New 
Sweden and the first Lutheran clergyman to serve in America and as 
such he is worthy of remembrance. He was married and had one child. 
He seems to have been ill during the greater part of 1643. He died on 
September 7, 1643 and was buried by Campanius. 

Sources. Rddspr., IV., Journal. N. S., III. (K.A.) ; Holm, Beskrif., 
p. 107 ; Norberg, Sv. kyr. mis., p. 3. 

Trotzig, Peter,^" was bom in Sweden, but he moved to Amsterdam 
and became a merchant there. He was employed by the Swedish govern- 
ment in Amsterdam in 1642 to take the place of Blommaert, and con- 
tinued to serve his country for a great many years, being made a com- 
missary in 1 66 1. He hired Dutch sailors, officers and skilled laborers for 
Swedish service, he bought ships and caused others to be built and he was 
employed in various commercial transactions. He was the factor of the 
New Sweden Company in Holland and purchased many of the cargoes 
sent to the Delaware. About 1666 he returned to his native land and 
was employed in the city government at Stockholm. He was knighted 
and changed his name to Trotzenfelt. (The author lost most of his 
notes on Trotzig with those of Papegoja, making it impossible to give 
further details.) 

^His two brothers Anthoni and Johan Trotzig were engaged in cannon 
manufacture in Sweden at this time. See Am. Reg., 1650; 1651, June 18; 1652; 
June? (F. A.). 

698 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Printed Sources. Wrangel, Sv. lit. f'orb. med. Holland. Manuscripts 
in Am. Reg., 1643 ff. (Fl. Ar.) ; Kam. Kol. Reg., 1642 ff. (K.A.) ; 
R.R. (R.A.) ; N. S., I. (R.A.) ; letters to A. Oxenstierna {Ox. Saml.) 
and to De la Gardie (R.A.). See index below. 

Usselinx, Willem, the founder of the Dutch West India Company 
and of the Swedish South Company, was born at Antwerp in June, 1567. 
After receiving a business education in his native town he spent several 
years abroad, in Spain, Portugal and the Azores, and returned to Hol- 
land a wealthy man, about 1 59 1. He soon formed the idea of foimding 
trading companies and from 1600 until his death (about 1647), he was 
engaged in the promotion of great projects and plans of colonization and 

Source. A good biography by J. F. Jameson, Pap. of the Am. Hist. 
Ass., n., p. 161 11. 

Whitelocke, Bulstrode, was born in 1605. He was educated at 
Oxford, which he left without a degree, and was called to the bar at the 
Middle Temple in 1626. He became a member of Parliament and 
served the government in various capacities. In 1653 the Council of 
State nominated him as ambassador to Sweden and he was pressed by 
Cromwell to" accept the post. His mission was successful and after his 
return to England he was appointed to other important offices. He died 
in 1675. Whitelocke was a voluminous writer, even writing plays, and 
he was a great copyist, several "original manuscripts" being preserved 
of some of his writings. His Swedish Embassy, being a journal of the 
embassy, is a work of much value. 

Sources. Dictionary of National Biography, LXL, p. 110 ff. and the 
references there ; Schelling, The Eliz. Drama. 


Lists of Officers, Soldiers, Servants and Settlers in 
New Sweden, 1638-1656. 



Officers . 

Mans Nilsson Kling, commander. 

William Laury, provost ( provost-marshal ).'■ 

Hendrick Huygen, commiss. 

Soldiers and Servants. 

Clas (Klas) Jansson and twenty other soldiers. 
The negro slave Anthony. 




Peter Hollender Ridder, commander. 

Mans Nilsson JCling, lieutenant. 

Joost van Langdonk,^ commissary. 

The Rev. Reorus Torkillus. 

The Rev. Christopher. 

Gregorius van Dyck,* assistant commiss. 

Joran (Goran) Olsson* (from Osmo?)," provost (profoss). 

Per Anders [s] on, guard and skipper on the yacht. 

' It is not possible to determine with certainty whether Laury came here on the 
first expedition in 1638 or on the second in 1640. He returned to Sweden on the 
Kalmar Nyckel in 1642. He was probably an Englishman. Journal, no. 146. 

' He returned to Europe in 1643 upon the arrival of Hendrick Huygen. 

'Returned to Europe in 1642. 

* Joran also written Jurgen. 

' Osmo, a socken or district in Stockholms Ian. 


700 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Soldiers, Servants and Freemen. 

Clas Classon. Anders Nilsson Nagel. 

Ambrosius Ericksson. Pafvel Nilsson. 

Per Gunnarsson. Mats Olofsson. 

Johan Hindricksson, constaple. Steffan Olofsson. 

Martin Guttersson.' Anders Olsson Brandt. 

Clas (Klas) Jans [s] on (Jansen). Mats Sifversson.' 

Anders Joransson, constaple. Anders Svensson.* 

Anders Larsson Dalbo. Nils Svensson.' 

Mickel Larsson, from Osmo. Olof Svensson. 

Johan Matsson, constaple. Bengt Thomasson. 

For other freemen in the colony at this time see above. Chap. XVIII., 
pp. 151—53; appendix B, IV. 

The following returned to Europe in 1643: Lieutenant Peter Hollen- 
der Ridder, The Rev. Christopher, Per Andersson, Bengt Thomasson, 
Johan Hindrickson, Olof Svensson, Clas Classon (the carpenter), Joran 
Olsson (the provost-marshal), Johan Matsson and Johan Papegoja. 


I 643-1 644. 

(Adapted from the list of Gov. Printz, 1644.) 

I. At Fort Christina.^" 

Officers : 

Lieutenant Johan Papegoja i 

Commissary Hendrick Huygen I 

The Rev. Mr. Johan Campanius I 

' Martin Gottersson. 

' Also written Mats Siwersen. 

* Andreas Swenson. 

° Nils Swenson. 

oppa altt deedt Folck, sasom vthi Nye Swerigie ahro, huru thee pa alle platzer 
och plantatier fordelte ahro, som vnder specificeres pro Anno 1644. 

widh Cihrstina Skantz: 

Johann Paapegaia i 

Commissen Hindrich Hugenn i 

Pastoren M :r Johann Corapanius i 

Lists of Officers, Soldiers, Servants, etc. 701 

Barber-surgeon Hans Janelce i 

Trumpeter Erick Andersson i 

The gunner Mats Hansson i 

The blacksmith Mr. Hans Rosback i 

The provost-marshal Johan Olofsson i 

Balbererenn M :r Hannss 

Trumbetarenn Erich Andersonn 

Constapel Matz Hansonn 

Smedenn M :r Hanns 

Proposenn Jahan Oluflfzonn 

Effterschreffne aflE Compagnitz Folckett plantera Tooback vp5 plantatien weedh 

Knut MSrthensonn 

Peer Gunnersonn Rambo 

MSrthenn Gottersson 

Lars Andersonn Vlff 

MSnns Andersonn 

Lars Kackin 

Svann Gunnersonn 

Marthenn Glaasere 

Joenn Torsonn 

Oluff Torsonn 

Anders Timbermann 

Effternembde ahro Timberman pi HSlmenn: 

Class Claasonn 

Tommas Timbermann 

Effterskrefne ahro forordnade att waara continve pa Slupenn: 

Skepperen Andress 

Lars Tommesonn 

Bengt Torsonn 

Vndertecknade arbeeta Tobakz faat och annat kyperj : 

Lauriss Kyper 

Lukass Personn 

Swine Wachterenn: 

Anders Minck medh sin sonn ) 

Claas Andersonn f 

Foickenn som wachtar boskapen : 

Swenn Swensonn i 

Molnaren som ahr continue hoos quarnen : 

Anders Dreijer i 

Comis: Hindrick Hugens drengh: 

GSatfreedh Hermansonn i 

Sildater weedh Cihrstina : 

Erich Taat i 

MSrthen Hansonn i 

Lars Jacobsonn _i_ 


702 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

The following people of the company plant tobacco on the plantation at 

Knut Martensson Vasa 

Per (Peter) Gunnarsson Rambo 

Marten Gottersson 

Lars Andersson Ulf 

Mans Andersson 

Lars Kackin (Kock?) 

Sven Gunnarsson 

Marten Martensson Glasare (also Glasbiten) 

Jon Thorsson 

Olof Thorsson 

Anders Mats( ?) Persson (Person), the carpenter 

The following are carpenters on the island: 

Claas Claason 

Thomas Goransson (also Jurgensson) the carpenter 

The following are appointed to be on the sloop continually : 

The skipper Andries Lucas [sen] (he returned to Holland in 

Lars Thomasson 

Bengt Thorsson 

The laborers listed below make tobacco casks and other cooper's articles: 

Lauris the Cooper , 

Lukas Persson 

The swineherd : 

Anders Classon Mink with his son 

Clas (Klas) Andersson 

The boy who herds the cattle: 

Sven Svensson 

The miller who is continually at the mill: 

Anders Kristiansson Dreijer 

The servant of Com. Hendrick Huygen: 

Gotfried Harmer , 

Soldiers at Christina: 


Erick Akesson Tatt 

Martin (Marten) Hansson 

Lars Jacobsson 

Total at Fort Christina 34 ^ 

Lists of Officers, Soldiers, Servants, etc. 703 

II. At Fort Elfsborg.^^ 
Officers : 

Lieutenant Sven Skute 

Head guard (wachtmaster) Gregorius van Dyck 

Gunner Johan Matsson 

Drummer Sven Andersson 

Rev. Israel Holg Fluviander 

Common Soldiers: 

Nicklas Bock 

Johan Gustafsson 

Peter Meyer 

Isack van Eissen (or von Eysen) 

Coastantinus Gronberg (Griinenburg) 

Peter Jochim (Jochem, Joachim) 

Anders Jonsson 

Bengt Hindricksson (also Hindersson) 

Anders Andersson 

Jacob Svensson (Swenson) 

Walle Looer (also Lohe and Loo) 

Jon (Joen) Nilsson the tailor 

Knut Liljehok 

Total at Fort Elfsborg i8 ^ 

" Officererne 
widh Skantzenn Elssborgh: 

Leutenampten Swann Skuuta 

Wachmesteren Gregorius van Dicke 

Constap : Jahaan Matzonn 

Trumbeslageren Swann Andersonn 

Giemene SSldater: 

Nicklaus Bock 

Jahann Gustaffzonn 

Fetter Meijer 

Isack vann Eissenn 

Constantinos Gronebergh 

Fetter Jochira 

Anders Joensonn 

Bengt Hindrichsonn 

Anders Andersonn 

Jacob Swensonn ". 

Walle Looer 

Joenn Skreddere 

Knut Liliehock 


704 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

III. At the Schuylkill Plantation.^^ 

Lieutenant Mans Kling i 

The working-people, who plant tobacco on the plantation in the 
Pafvel Jonsson. (Probably the same as "Jons Pafvelsson, 
servant of the Company " who died here in the summer 

of 1645.) 

Sven Larsson 

Hindrick Matsson 

Mats Pipare( ?) 

Ambrosius Ericksson 

Anders Larsson Dalbo 

Peder (Peter) Larsson Kock (Cock) 

Total at the Schuylkill 8 \/ 

IV. At the Upland Plantation.^* 
Officers : 

Per Liljehok i 

Elias the tobacco-planter i 

Mickel Nilsson, the blacksmith i 

" Ojjicererne 
widh Skyllerkill: 

Leute : Manns Klingh i 

Arbetz Folcket som planta Tooback pa plantatien weedh Skyllerkill: 

Pafvell Jonsonn 

Swenn Larsonn 

Hindrich Matronn 

Matz Pipere 

Ambrosius Erichsonn 

Anders Daalbo 

Pader Kack 

" Offlcererne 
widh Vplanndh: 

Pader Liliehock 

Elias Toobakzplantere 

Smeden Mickell Nilsonn 

EflFterskrefne Arbeetare planta Tooback weed plantatien Vplandh: 

Hindrich Matzonn 

Matz Hansonn 

IfiFwer Hindersson 

Jahann Andersonn 

Hanns Mansonn 

Lists of Officers, Soldiers, Servants, etc. 70s 

The following laborers plant tobacco on the plantation at Upland: 

Hindrick Matsson 

Mats Hansson 

Ifvar (Ivar) Hindersson 

Johan Andersson Stalkofta , 

Hans Mansson 

Esklll Larsson 

Lars Bj6r[n]sson , 

Bertil Eskilsson 

Johan Ericksson , 

Jacob Spaniel (the Spaniard?) 

Clemet (Klement) Joransson 

Total at Upland 14 ^ 

V. At Fort Tinicum.^* 
Officers : 

Governor Johan Printz i 

Gustaf Printz, son of Governor Printz i 

Hindrick Olsson, servant of Governor Printz i 

Eskill Larsonn i 

Lars Biorsonn i 

Beitill Eskilsonn i 

Johann Erichson i 

Jacob Spaniol ( ? ) i 

Clemet Jorensonn i 

" Ojjicererne 

widh Tennakungh: 

Governeuren Jahann Printz i 

Satt offuer proffwiantet och rechningerne : 

Carll Jahansonn i 

Skriffwaren : 

Knut Personn i 

Bosse Smedenn: 

Mester Niklaus i 

Constapelz Maat hooss dhee 4 smi kopperstyckenn pi Tennakungh: 

Swenn Waass i 

SSldaterne, som dageligen folia, foresa och achta pS Governeuren: 

Elias Gyllenngrenn r 

Hanns Luneburger i 

Jorann Snohuitt i 

Lars Andersonn i 

Anders Andersonn i 

Nils Anderssonn i 


7o6 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Placed over the provisions and accounts: 

Carl (Karl) Johansson i 

The secretary Knut Persson i 

The gun-smith Master Nicklas i 

The gunner [u!ho'\ is in charge of the small copper cannon on 

Tinicum : 

Sven Vass i 

The soldiers who daily follow and serve the governor: 

Elias Gyllengren i 

Hans Liineburger i 

Joran (Goran) Kyn Snohvit {Snow-white, probably so 

called on account of his complexion. Goran, same as 

George) I 

Lars Andersson i 

Anders Andersson i 

Nils Andersson i 

Johan Andersson i 

Mans Nilsson, " from Trammegiald "^** i 

The laboring people, who are appointed to cut hay for the cattle 

and also in the meantime to follow the governor on the 

little sloop: 

Anders Svensson Bonde i 

Per Andersson i 

Anthoni, the negro (" the black ") i 

Olof Ericksson i 

Total at Fort Tinicum 19 i> 

Jahann Andersonn i 

Manns Nilsonn i 

Arbetz Folcket, som ahr forordnadt till att slaa hoo for booskapenn, sasom 
och dess emellann folia Governeuren pa denn lilla Jachtenn: 

Anders Bonde [ 

Perr Andersonn i 

Antoni Swart i 

Oloff Erichsonn i 

"*Tranegarde(?), Elfsborgs Ian, southwestern Sweden. 

Lists of Officers, Soldiers, Servants, etc. 707 

The following have died in New Sweden in 1643 and 164.4.:^^ 

Officers : 

On September 7, 1643, the preacher Reorus Torkillus at 

Christina i 

On July 18, 1643, the corporal Karl Halcansson at Elfsborg. i 
Soldiers : 

On June 10, 1643, Mickel Kyrsner at Christina i 

On July 3, 1643, Mans Larsson, from Bratta, at Elfsborg. . i 
On July 5, 1643, Erick Hindersson, from Sodertelje, at 
Christina i 

" Effterskrefne ahro Anno 1643, 1644 vthi Nye Swerigie medh doddh affgSngne: 

Den 7 Septemb. 1643, Predikanten herr Regardh vthi Kirstina. . . . 
Den 1% Juli 1643, Corporal Carll Hickensonn vthi Elfzborg 


Den lo Junij 1643, Mickell Kyrssner wid Kirstina 

Den 3 Julij 1643, M5ns Larsonn widh Elfzborgh 

Den 5 dito 1643, Erich Hindersonn widh Kirstina 

Den 3 Augustij 1643, Rutkiert Tysk widh Kirstina 

Den (?) Novemb: 1643, Johenn Hartman weed Tennakungh 

Den 4 Martij 1644, Bleff vtafF dhe wille i hielslagne emellan 
Kirstina och Elfzborgh effterskrefne Sildater: 

MSrthenn Bagge 

MSrthen Finne 

VtaflF Compag: Arbetz Folck ahro dode blefne: 

Den 9 Julij, 1643, Friman Jonns PSfvelsonn widh Vplandh 

Den 10 dito 1643, Carll Marckusonn widh Elfzborgh 

Den 12 dito 1643, Marthenn Biorsonn weedh Vplandh 

Den 29 dito 1643, Matz Jorensonn widh Kirstina 

Den 30 dito 1643, Joen Isacksonn wid Elfzborgh 

Den 31 Juli, 1643, Bonden Per Mickellsonn weed Elfzborgh.... 
Den 31 dito 1643, Bonden Larss Andersonn ifrSn Alandh weed 


Den 13 August!, 1643, PSfuel PSfuelson weed Elfzborgh 

Den 14 dito 1643, Jacob Tommeson weed Kirstina 

Den 30 dito 1643, Peder Oloffzon ifran Giefle wed Elfzborgh 

Den 31 dito 1643, Joenn Jerpe widh Elfsborgh 

Den 10 Decemb:, 1643, Zachriss Andersonn weedh Kirstina.... 

Den II dito 1643, PSfwell Personn weed Skyllerkill 

Den : Marti, 1644, Frimann Jahann Finne benembd, drungknadh 

weedh Vplandh i 

Den 7 dito 1644, Een angelssman, huilkenn hafiEuer taaget sigh een 

swensk hustru, mordade och i hiellslegne afiF dhee wille .... 2 
Den 4 dito 1644, Giert Elekenn i hielslagenn aff dhee wille emellan 

Kirstina Skantz och Elfzborgh i 

7o8 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

On August [3], 1643, Rutkiert Tysk (also Rother Tijck) 
from Hamburg, at Christina 

On November (?), 1643, Johan Hartman, from Hamburg, 
at Tinicum 

On March 4, 1643, the following soldiers were killed by the 
savages between Christina and Elfsborg: 

Martin Bagge, from Roslagen, Sweden 

Martin Thomasson, the Finn, from Osterbotten 

The following laborers of the company have died: 

On July 9, 1643, the freeman Jons Pavelsson at Upland. . . 

On July 10, 1643, the freeman Karl Markusson at Elfsborg. 

On July 12, 1643, the freeman Martin Bj6r[n]sson at Up- 

On July 29, 1643, the freeman Mats Jorensson at Christina. 

On July 30, 1643, the freeman Jon Isacksson at Elfsborg. . 

On July 31, 1643, the peasant Per Mickelsson at Elfsborg. . 

On July 31, 1643, the peasant Lars Andersson, from Aland, 
at Elfsborg 

On August 13, 1643, [the peasant?] Pafvel Pafvelsson at 

On August 14, 1643, Jacob Thommasson at Christina 

On August 30, 1643, Peter Olofsson, from Gefle, at Elfs- 

On August 31, 1643, Jon Jarpe at Elfsborg 

On December 10, 1643, Sakris Andersson at Christina. . . . 

On December 11, 1643, Pafvel Persson at the Schuylkill. . 

On March i, 1644, the freeman called Johan the Finn, 
drowned at Upland i 

On March 7, 1644, John Johnson, an Englishman, who took 
a Swedish wife, was murdered and killed [with his wife] 
by the savages 2 

On March 4, 1644, Giert Elcken, [was] killed by the sav- 
ages between Fort Christina and Elfsborg i 

Lists of Officers, Soldiers, Servants, etc. 709 

The Following Returned Home to Sweden in 1644:^° 

Officers : 

Captain Christer Boije (Boje)"» i 

The barber-surgeon Timon Stidden i 

Soldiers : 

Esbjorn Martensson from Stockholm i 

Pafvel Smal from Stockholm. Came here in 1643 i 

Total 123 

Deceased 26 

Departed for Europe 4 30 

Living male inhabitants 93 

English Planters at Varkens Kill near Elfsborg 
UNDER Swedish Jurisdiction.^' 

Elias Baily 

William Braunvell (?) 

Robert Coxwell 

John Erie 

Thomas Marod 

Mr. Spinning (?) 

John Wall ( ?) (John Wallin or Woollen?) 

The male Swedish inhabitants of the colony as given above 
including five others not given by Printz" 98 

" Effterskrefne forrese heer iiiin till gamble Swerigie: 


Christer Boije t 

Fredikanten herr Israeli i 

Balberen Mester Zim i 


Esbiornn MJrthensonn i 

Pafuell Smaal i 

Summal 121 

Datvm Kihrstina denn 20 Junij 1644 

JOHEN Printz 
manu propria. Odhner, N. S., 37-39; N. S., I. (R.A.). 
^" Boije belonged to a Swedish-Finnish noble family. There were several by 
that name in Sweden and Finland at this time. Cf. Ox. Saml. (R.A.). 
"From Ace. B., 1643-8. 

"Mickel Johansson, who came here in 1641 is not mentioned in the above list. 
He returned to Sweden before 1648. M5ns Svensson Lom, Olof Stille, Axel Stille 
and Eskil Larsson are also not given in Printz's list. 

71 o The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Total number of male inhabitants of New Sweden in 
1644 105 



Governor Johan Printz. 

Lieutenant Gustaf Printz. (Not given in Kramer's list of March, 
1648. He returned to Sweden in 1652.) 

Lieutenant Johan Papegoja. ^ 

Lieutenant Schwenn Schuute (Sven Skute), came here with Gov. 
Printz in 1643. 

The preacher Lars Carlsson Loock (Lock), who went to New Sweden 
with the ship Swan from Gothenburg on the twenty-fifth of Septem- 
ber, 1647. 

The barber-surgeon, Hans Janeke, " from Konigsbergh, who went to 
New Sweden on the ship Fama in 1643 and settled there on the 
thirty-first of March, i6'5(.4, in the service of the Crown." 

The head guard (watch-master) Gregorius van Dyck, who returned to 
"New Sweden with Governor Printz in 1642." 

Soldiers, Freemen and Servants: 

Clas (Klas) Jansson, freeman, "who went over to New Sweden with 
Commander Pieter Minuit in 1637.'' 

Anthony, a Morian or Angoler,^" who was a purchased slave, brought 
here on the Grip in 1639. 
The following arrived here on the Kalmar Nyckel in 1640 : 

Peer (Per) Gummersson {Per Gunnarsson) Rambo, freeman. (Prob- 
ably from Rambo, Degersfors socken, Vdsterbotten, Northeastern 

Peer (Per) Andersson, skipper on the Speel-ydidit. 

Anders Svensson Bonde, served as constaple (gunner) at New Gothen- 
borg from May i, 1643, until September i, 1653, and returned to 
Sweden with Printz in 1653. He returned to the colony. 

Mans Andersson, freeman. 

Joen Toorsson (Jon Thorsson), freeman. 

"Based on a list in Kramer's handwriting (probably a copy from a list sent 
to Sweden by Printz in 1648), N. S., L (R.A.). 

""Morian [negro] or Angoler" indicates that he came from Angola, the 
Portuguese Colony in West Africa near the river Kunene. 

Lists of Officers, Soldiers, Servants, etc. 711 

Anders Larsson Daalbo (Dalbo) provost-marshal. (Probably from 
Dalbo on the island of Gothland, or he may have come from Dalarna.) 
He was a tobacco planter in 1644. On November i, 1647, "he was 
hired by Printz to serve among the soldiers as provost-marshal " at the 
rate of 6 R.D. a month. He served until November 15, 1648, when 
he left. He entered the service again about December 15, 1650. 

Swenn (Sven) Larsson Maarbo, laborer. 

Swenn (Sven) Gunnarsson, freeman. (Probably a brother of Per.) 

Larss Swensson (Lars Svensson), freeman. 

Marten (also Martin) Guttersson (or Gottersson), laborer. Returned 
to Sweden on the Orn in 1654. Died in Sweden in the autumn of 
The following arrived here in 1641:^^ 

Claess Claesson, a Dutch carpenter. He returned to Sweden in 1653. 

Laurens Andriesson, the barman, a Hollander, who came here on the 
ship Kalmar Nyckel. He returned to Sweden with Claesson in 1653. 

Matz (Mats) Hansson, appointed gunner in 1641, in which capacity he 
served until December i, 1646, when he was made a freeman, came 
over on the Kalmar Nyckel. 

Gottfriedt Hermer (Gotfried Harmer, also Hermansson), who went 
over on the ship Charitas in 1641 as a cabin guard, later became an 
assistant to Commiss. Huygen. 

Iflwer (Ifvar) Hindricksson (Cf. above, p. 151), laborer, was hired by 
Mans Kling in 1641 and came over as a farm hand. 

Johan Ericksson from Angermanland (Northeastern Sweden, bordering 
on the Gulf of Bothnia), was hired by Mans Kling in 1641 as a 
laborer. Became soldier on October i, 1646. Deserted in 1651, 
leaving a debt of 1,017 florins behind. 

Anders Hansson, freeman, was hired by Mans Kling as a farm hand in 
1641 and was later made a freeman. 

Jacob Sprint from Nyland (northern Sweden) was hired by Kling in 
1 641 as a farm hand, was later appointed a soldier. 

Powell Joensson (Pafvel Jonsson or Jonsson), from Jamtland, was 
hired by Kling in 1641 as a farm hand. On October i, 1646, Gov- 
ernor Printz hired him as a soldier for 4 R.D. a month. He returned 
to Sweden with Printz. 

Axel Stille,-^" was hired by Kling in 1641 as a farm hand and was later 

made a freeman. 

^ Cf. above, p. 151 ff. 

"■Probably from Lanna socken, Roslagen, Stockholms Ian. 

712 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Hindrick Matzon (Matsson), was hired by Kling in 1641 as a farm 

hand and was later made a soldier. 
Johan(n) Andersson, from Strangnas, was hired by Kling in 1641 for a 

farm hand. On October i, 1646, he was hired by Printz to serve as 

soldier. He seems to have left with Printz. 
Olof (f) Ericks[s]on, was hired by Kling in 1641 for a farm hand. 
Mat(t)s Hansson from Borga (Finland), the servant of the late Mr. 

Klas Fleming, was sent here in 1641 to serve the company and was 

later made a freeman. 
Peer (Per, Peter) Larsson Kock (Cock), freeman, was sent here in 

1641 to serve the company and was later made a freeman. 
Eskell (Eskil) Larsson, laborer, was sent here in 1641 by the College 

of War, to serve as a punishment, because he deserted from the army ; 

later he was made a free laborer. 
Hanss Mansson, from Skara, was sent here from Gothenburg as a 

laborer in 1641 and was later made a freeman. 
Lars Andersson from Gothenburg, the cook on the sloop here. 
RofE Toorsson (Olof Thorsson), laborer, who came here as a midship- 
man on the Kalmar Nyckel in 1 64 1. 
Lars Biorsson (Bjornsson), laborer, who came here as a midshipman 

from Gothenburg in 164 1. 
Lucas Persson, sailor on the sloop here who went over as a sailor in 1641 

on the ship Charitas. 
Knut Martensson Wasa (Knut Martinsson Vasa), probably from Vasa 

in Finland, freeman, went over as a sailor on the ship Charitas in 

1 641, later made a freeman. 
Lars Thomsson (also Thomasson), from Weddinge, sailor on the sloop 

here, came over on the ship Charitas as a sailor in 1641. 
Matz Olufsson (Mats Olofsson), wood sawyer here, came over as a 

sailor on the Kalmar Nyckel in 1641. 
Mans Swensson Loom (Svensson Lom), freeman, had been a lieutenant 

before and came over on the Charitas in 1641. 
Olof (f) Stille,^^*" freeman, a mill-wright, with his family consisting of a 

wife and two children. 
Siwirt or Ii(i)weit Siewertsson (Ifvar Sifversson), came over on the 

Charitas as a freeman in 1641. 
Anders Christiaensson (Kristiansson), the miller, came to New Sweden 

from Gothenburg. 

"" " From Roslagen, Lanna socken and Penningsby gdrd." 

Lists of Officers, Soldiers, Servants, etc. 713 

Mans Jurrensson the Finn, freeman, was sent here on the ship Kalmar 
Nyckel in 1641 as a laborer, later he became a freeman. 

Clement Jurgensson (Goransson) the freeman, was sent here as a serv- 
ant of the company and was later made a freeman. 

Hinrich Matzon (Matsson), the Finn, was hired as a soldier by Printz 
on October i, 1646, served until March i, 1648, when he was made 
a freeman. 

Eskiell (Eskil) Larsson, or Lars Eskiellson, was sent here in 1641 and 
was later made a freeman. 

Bartell Eskielsson (Eskilsson), came here with his father Elskiel Lars- 
son and was later made a freeman. 
The following arrived here in 1643: 

Knuut Peersson (Knut Persson), secretary. Died before the autumn of 

Swen(n) Andersson, drummer, served here until 1655. 
Nicholaes Borck (Nicklas or Nickolaus Bock), corporal. 
Hans Liineburger (Lynberger), soldier from Stralsund (at that time 

belonging to Sweden). Came on the /^ama. He died in New Sweden 

about the middle of June, 1650. 
Lars Andersson, soldier, " fran Saltuna socken.""" He served here until 

September i, 1653, and returned to Sweden with Governor Printz. 
Joen Nielsson (Jon Nilsson), "soldier from Skdnings harad," Skara- 

borgs Ian. 
Lars Jacobsson, soldier. 
Elias Gyllengren (Gyllengren), constaple at Ft. Korsholm. Served as 

soldier until March i, 1648. Served as constaple from March i, 

1648, until July 31, 1 65 1, when he returned to Sweden. He came 

here again in 1654. 
Anders Andersson Homman, " from Saltuna socken." Came here on the 

Swan in 1643, served as soldier until March i, 1648, from which 

time until 1653 he served as trumpeter. Zettersten, Sv. fl. hist., IL 

Jurgen Schneeweiss (Goran Kyn Snohvit), soldier. 
Peter Meyer (Meyer), soldier from Gothenburg. 
Constantinus Griinenborgh (also Konstantin Gronberg), "soldier from 

Mark Brandenborg." 
Johann Olufsson (Johan Olofsson), was hired to serve as provost- 
marshal in 1642. Came here on the Fama. Returned with Printz 

in 1653. 

°° Sollentuna socken, Stockholms Ian. 

714 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Peter Jochimson (Peter Jochum or Jochim), soldier from Slesvik- 

Isack von Eyssen (van Eisen or Eissen), from Stockholm. Served as 
soldier until August, 1643, when he was made a corporal at a wage 
of 6 R.D. a month. 

Jacob Swensson, " from Sarestad in Askerad,"^^* constaple at Christina. 

Michell Nielsson (Mickel Nilsson), blacksmith. 

Thomas Jurgensson (Goransson), carpenter, returned to Sweden with 
Printz in 1653. 

Marten Martensson (Martin Martinson) Glassbijten, freeman. 

Johan Gustaffsson (also Johan Gostasson), from Kinekulle, Sweden. 
Came here on the Swan in 1643. Served as soldier until 1653, when 
he probably became a freeman. 

Niels (Nils) Andersson, "from Mallpa(?) in Kinna^^' hundred." 
He served here as a soldier until the middle of March, 1649, when he 
died, owing the company 35 142 R.D. 

Anders Andersson, the Finn, was sent here from the Castle of Elfsborg 
as a punishment. Returned to Sweden in 1653. 
The following arrived here in 1644 on the Fama: 

Jan Matzon (Johan Matsson), constaple (gunner) at Fort Elfsborg. 
Engaged as constaple on April i, 1644, at 6 R.D. a month. On 
December I, 1646, his wage was raised to 8 R.D. a month. He 
served as constaple until September I, 1 650, when he was engaged as 
skipper on the sloop at 25 florins a month. From August 15, 1651, 
until September I, 1653, he served again as constaple. He returned 
to Sweden with Governor Printz. 

Anders Joensson''^ (Jonsson), soldier, was engaged on the first of Decem- 
ber, 1643, by the nobleman Johan Papegoja. Served as soldier until 
August, 1653. He was executed on August i. 1653. 

Wolle Lohe (Walle Looer), soldier, was engaged by the nobleman 
Papegoja on December i, 1643. Seems to have left the service in 
1653 and returned to Sweden. 

Swen Swensson (Sven Svensson), a youth, went to New Sweden with 
Papegoja in 1643. 

^^ Askeryd socken, north Vedbo harad, Jonkopings Ian. 

^°Kinda(?) hundred in Ostergotlands Ian. 

^He is probably the same as Anders Jonsson, from Nykoping, who was here 
in 1642. In that case he returned to Sweden in 1643 and came here a second time 
in 1644. 

Lists of Officers, Soldiers, Servants, etc. 715 

Skipper Dirck (Diedrick) Jacobsson, skipper on the sloop in the river, 
was taken into the company's service in New Sweden on August 10, 
1646. He died here about 1650 (before 1652). 

Hindrick Olufsson (Olofsson), the Finn, was taken into the govern- 
ment's service in New Sweden as a soldier on September i, 1646. 
(The list has December i, 1646.) He owed the company 28:32 R.D. 
in September, 1653. 
The following are not found in Kramer's list: 

Acke Israelsson (also Israel Ackesson) came here in 1641 accordmg to 
Journal, N. S., HI. (K.A.), and returned to Sweden in 1654 on the 
Orn{l). Cf. Monatg. B., 1642-56, but he is not mentioned in 
Printz's list of 1644 nor in the list of 1648 unless he is given under a 
different name. In the list of 1644 is an Erich Taat (Erick Akesson 
Tatt), however. 

Peter Bock (not given in list of 1648 nor in list of 1644), probably a 
son of Nicklas Bock, who came here in 1643. Signed the Indian 
certificates of July 13, and July 16, 1651. 

Anders Mats( ?) Persson (Person), the carpenter, was here in 1644 and 
is mentioned as being in New Sweden in 1649, but he is not given in 
the list of 1648. 

Total number of male inhabitants in 1648: 83. 
Thames of the fortified places in New Sweden in 1648: 

1. Fort Christina. 

2. Fort Elfsborg. 

3. Fort New Gothenborg. 

4. Fort New Korsholm on the Schuylkill. 

5. Molndal. 

6. Tarne (Torne). (Probably erected about 1647 after Vasa had 

been abandoned. Called after Tarne (Torne), at the 
northern point of Bay of Bothnia.) 
The following returned to Sweden in 1648: 

Erick (Eric) Andersson, the trumpeter, came here in 1643, served the 
Crown until July i, 1645, when he became a freeman. On February 
i, 1647, he again entered the service of the Crown and remained in 
the service until April i, 1648. He came here again in 1654. 

Mans Nilsson Kling, Rev. Johan Campanius, the blacksmith Hans Ros- 
back, Anders Classon Mink, Knut Liljehok, Mans Nilsson, Eric 
Akesson Tatt (who served as a soldier from 1643 until April i, 1648), 

7i6 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Johan Andersson (soldier), Friedrich Hans Koch (barber-surgeon), 
and Bengt Hindricksson (Hindersson).^' 

COLONY, 1654-1655." 


Rising, Johan, director. 

Papegoja, Johan, lieutenant.^' 

Elswick, Hendrick von, commis- 
sary (1654). 

Svensson, Jacob, assistant com- 

Skute, Sven, captain. 

Hook, Sven, lieutenant (1654). 

Gyllengren, Elias, lieutenant. 

Lindestrom, Peter, engineer 

Stake, Mans,^° provost-marshal 

Kampe, Anders, rustmastaren 

(armorer) (1654). 
Julius, Carl (Karl), schreiber 

(secretary)^' (1654). 
Junge, Jacob, packhausechreiber 

(1654), from Gothenburg. 
Hjort, Peder (Peter) Larsson, 

Rev. (1654). 

Lock, Lars Karlsson, Rev. 
Nertunius, Matthias, Rev. (1654). 
Olofsson, Anders (also Anders 

Olsson), corporal (1654). 
Peters [s] on, Peter, trumpeter 

Peters[s]on, Peter, drummer^" 

Schalbrick(?)^* Johan, drummer 

(1654), from Reval. 
Lars[s]on, Anders, sergeant 

Lars [s] on. Nils, Gewaldiger^*' 

Stidden, Timon,^' barber-surgeon. 

Anderson, Lars, munsterschreiber 
( muster-clerk ) ( 1 654 ? ) . 

Andersson, Sven, trumschlager 

Dyck, Gregorius van, wachtmas- 
ter (head guard). 

^ He was a brother of Christiernus Alsinius, Rector Scholae of Stockholm. 

"The names have been gathered from N. S., I.-II. (R.A.) ; N. S., I.-III. 
(K.A.) ; Rising's Journal; Doc, XII., and private. .letters. 1654 after the names 
indicates that the persons came here in 1654 on the Orn. It is the intention of the 
writer to publish a more complete list in a following volume, which will com- 
prise names of Swedish, Dutch, Danish and Norwegian settlers from 1656 to 1700, 
also indicating the localities where the colonists lived. For some names not 
given here Cf. Chap. XXXVIII. note 45 and p. 726 below. 

"Returned to Sweden on the Orn. 

" Probably the same as Mans Person Stake. 

" Came on the Haj, 1654. Arrived in New Sweden November 30, 1654. 

"' He is probably same as Peter Peters[s]on, trumpeter. 

" Mss. have Schialbrich, Schialbrick and Schallbrucher. 

^^ One Ms. has Gevaliar. Gavaldiger was the old Swedish name for a 
constable, also a prisonkeeper. 

^"Frora Hammel," Hammal{?), north of Sundsvall, Sweden. His mother 
lived at Stockholm in 1641. 

Lists of Officers, Soldiers, Servants, etc. 717 

Soldiers^ Servants and Free- 
Akerman, Hakan Persson (or 
simply Hakan Persson), soldier 

Anders i Salungen(?), freeman 

Anders, the Finn, freeman (1654). 
Andersson, Anders, freeman. 
Anders [son], Benjamin, free- 

man(?) (1654). 
Anders[s]on, Eric, soldier (1654). 
(Erick) Anders [s]on's widow.'" 
Anders [s] on, Hindrick, freeman'^ 


Anders[s]on Sta(h)lkof (f)ta,»2 
Johan, gunner. 

Anders [s] on, Jons, Smidt (black- 
smith) (1654). 

Anders [s] on, Lars, the Finn, sol- 

Anders [s] on. Mans (also Moens 

Nils Anders [s]on's" widow 

Anders [s] on. Nils, miiller (the 

Anders [s] on Husgalen (House- 

Andriasson, Mans, freeman 

Backare(?) (the baker), Isack 

Olof Bagge's widow,*' freeman 


Bankson (Bengtsson), Andrew 
(Andreas), b. 1640. 

Benckson (Bengtsson), Erick, sol- 
dier (1654). 

Bengts[s]on, Israel, soldier 

Bengts[s]on, Mathias, free- 

man(?)'» (1654). 
Bengts[s]on, Mats" (1654). 
Bertils[s]on Likagod (just as 

good), Olof, soldier (1654). 
Bickert (Bicker), Gerrit. 
Boijs (Boyer), Alexander, Dutch 

Brun (Brown), Thomas, an Eng- 
lish freeman. 
Braueversche, Hustro Agneta'* 

Burke(?), Cornelius (1654?). 
Bus(?), Lars (1654?). 
Carson (Karsson), Nils, Junge 

oder pojke^" (1654). 
Clasen, Abbe, skipper (1654). 

crazy), Olof (1654). 

"Andersson died on the journey or in New Sweden before June 9 

" III June 9, 1654. 

° Later changed to Stalcop (Cf. Acrelius (trans.), p. 192, 265.). Stdlkofta 
means steel-coat or jacket. 

" There are two or three with same name. 

" Nils Andersson, freeman, died on the Orn or before June 9, 1654. 

""Bagge died on the journey or in the colony before June 9, 1654. 

" He lived at Kingsessing. 

"Probably the same as Mathias Bengt[s]son. 

"It is difficult to see what the name is. Hustro Agneta, Frau (fru) Agneta? 
But Braueversche may mean that she brewed ale in the colony. 


71 8 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Clemen tsson (Clemetson), An- 
ders, soldier (1654). 
Collinns(?), Lars Andersson 


Dalbo, Anders Larsson, freeman. 

Daniels[s]on, Gosta (Josta), sol- 
dier*" (1654). 

Daniels[s]on, Gustaf (1654). 

Danielsson, Johan, Arklimastare 
(gunner) (1654). 

Eckhoff, Jan, freeman (1654?). 

Ericksson, Abraham (1654). 

Lars Ericks[sJon's wido w*^ 

Ericksson, Olof, freeman. 
Esbjorsson Skraddare (tailor), *' 

Lars (1654). 
Esbj6rnsson,Lars, soldier*' ( 1654) • 
Eskelsdotter, Margareta** (1654). 
Eskils[s]on(?), Bertil (Bartill), 

the Finn.*° 
Eskelsson, Abraham, soldier 

Eskelsson, Mats (1654). 
Esselse ( ? ) , Mathias, freeman 

Evers, Peter (1654). 

Forsman, Gabriel Samuels [s] on, 
soldier (1654). 

Fransson,*^ Olof, freeman. 

Friland, Samuel Pers[s]on, free- 
man (1654). 

From,*^ Hindrick Lars [s] on, sol- 
dier (1654). 

Grimm, Otto (1654). 

Gronberg ( Gronenbergh, Gryne- 
berg, Griineburg) , Constanti- 
nus, freeman. 

Gunnarsson, Sven, freeman.** 

Gustafs[s]on (Gostasen), Anies 
(?), freeman(?)*» (1654). 

G6stas[s]on, Johan (Jon), gun- 
ner=» (1654?). 

Gustafs[s]on, Johan (?). 

The widow of Rolof de Haes 

Hakans[s]on, Nils, freeman(?) 

H ans[s] on, Klas, freeman (1654). 
Hans [s] on, Mats.^^ 
Hans [s] on Friskebonde, 1 o f °^ 

Hermers(?), Peter (1654). 

"Hired at Stockholm in 1653 for 4 R.A. a month. Josta or Gosta. 

" Ericksson, freeman, died in the colony before June 9, 1654. His widow took 
oath of allegiance to the Swedish Crown. 

"Hired in Stockholm in 1653 for 4 R.D. a month. 

"Probably same as the foregoing. 

"Margareta Elskelsdotter, Margarete the daughter of Elskel (Elskil). 

" He lived at the Schuylkill. 

" Doc, Xn. 107, has Olof Franien. He was ill on June 9, 1654. 

" From = good, pious. 

" Lived at Kingsessing. 

"Doc, xn. 107, has Gostaffsen Anies instead of Anies (?) Gostaffsen ( Gus- 
taf sson). 

" Mss. has Giostason, may be the same as Johan Gustafs[s]on. 

"Probably same as Mats Hans[s]on, who was hired in 1641 at Gothenburg to 
serve as gunner at Christina. Cf. above. 

^ Fiskebonde, " fish-peasant." 

Lists of Officers, Soldiers, Servants, etc. 719 

Hijden (Hiden?), Anders 

Hindricks[s]on, Anders, freeman 

Hindricks[s]on, Hindrick, soldier 

Hindricks[s]on, Ifvert (Juert, 

Ivert, etc.), freeman."* 
Hindricks[s]on, Johan, freeman'* 

Isgra (Icegrey), Olof, soldier 

Jacobs[s]on, Hindrick, soldier 

Jacobs [s] on, Johan,''* freeman (?) 

Jacobs [s] on, Johan, sagemiilsmeis- 

ter (mill-wright) (1654). 
Jacobs [s] on, Johan, freeman 


Jacobs[s]on, Pader (Peter), free- 
man (1654). 

Jans[s]on, Anders,'" freeman(?) 

Jans [s] on, Bernt (Baernt Jan- 
sen)" (1654). 

Jans[s]on, Hans, the Finn (1654). 
Jockum (Jochim), Peter, freeman. 
Johans[s]on, Girret (1654). 
Johans[s]on, Herman (Harman 

Janz[on]), freeman (1654). 
Johans[s]on, Henrick, freeman" 

Johans[s]on, Hindrick'" (1654). 
Johansdotter,'" Karin (1654). 
Johans[s]on, Philip (1654). 
Johansson, Simon, soldier (1654). 
Tomas (Thomas) Johans[s]on's" 

widow (1654). 
Jons[s]on, Anders, soldier (1654). 
Jons[s]on, Bengt, freeman (1654). 
j6ns[s]on, Joran (Goran, 

George), freeman (1654). 
Jons[s]on, Hans, soldier"^ (1654). 
Jons[s]on, Olof (1654). 
Jons[s]on, Paul, freeman'* 

J6rans[s]on, Nils, soldier (1654). 
Justen(?), Jan,°* freeman(?) 

Klemels[s]on,'" Anders (1654). 

°' He lived at the Schuylkill. 

" He was ill in June, 1654. 

'"' May be same as Johan Jacobs[s]on Sagenmiilsmeister. 

'"Doc. XII. 107 has Andries Jansen. 

"'May be the same as Bengt Jons[s]on. 

"This can hardly be the same H. Johans[s]on who escaped from Ft. Tre- 
faldighet, for he joined Elswick on his own accord on August 31. Elswick's Rela- 
tion, see also N. S., II. (R.A.). He lived at the Schuylkill. 

"Escaped from Ft. Trefaldighet in 1655. 

""The daughter of Johan (Jon). 

"Thomas Johans[s]on, freeman, died during journey on Orn or in colony 
before June 9, 1654. 

"May be same as Hans Jans[s]on Finne. 

"Lived at the Schuylkill. 

"Doc. XII. 107. Possibly the same as Johan Gustafsson(?). 

"Probably Kleraentsson. 

720 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Kock (Cock), Peter Lars [s] on, 

Lasse Kock (Cock, Cocke), b. 

Koskel(?), Johan. 
Krum, Marten (Martin), soldier 

Kyn, Gjorgen (Gorgen or Goran, 

Kypere,"" Lukas (1654). 
Larsdotter (the daughter of 

Lars)," Karin (1654). 
Larsdotter,®' Karin (1654) 
Lars[s]on, Anders, freeman"' 

Bartil Lars [sj en's widow''" 


Larsson, Hindrick, the Finn, sol- 
dier (1654). 

Lars [s] on, Jons (1654). 

Lars [s] on, Lars, Freiiwerbo- 
ther(?) (1654). 

Lars [s] on, Markus (1654). 

Mats Lars[s]on's widow" (1654). 

Lars[s]on, Pafvel (Pawel) 


Lars [s] on, Peder (or Per), sol- 
dier (1654). 

Lane, Simon, an Englishman. 

Lom, Mans, the widow of. 
Lorans (Lorensen or Lorensson), 

Frans" (1654). 
Lukas Kriiger, Sigesmundus,^* 


Mans [s] on, Hans.'* 

Mansson Klockare (parish- 
clerk)," Lars (1654). 

Mans [s] on, Peder (Peter), free- 
man (1654). 

Matzdochter, Carin (Karin Mats- 
dotter) (1654). 

Mats [s] on Kjaring (Woman), 
Anders (1654). 

Mats [s] on, Hindrick, the Finn, 
freeman (1654). 

Mats[s]on, Hindrick, freeman. 

Mats [s] on Skrika, Johan, soldier 

Mats [s] on, Martin (Martin), 

freeman (1654). 
Matsson, Mats (Matz Matzon), 

the blacksmith (1654). 
Mats [s] on, Mathias (Mats)'' 

Mats [s] on. 

Mats [s] on. 

Morten (Martin, 

(1654). ^ 

Nils, sagkvarnsmas- 
tare," from Torshalla (1654). 

" Kypare := barman. 

" The small maid-servant of the company. 

"' The large maid-servant of the company. 

°° 111 June 9, 1654. 

"Bartil Lars[s]on, freeman, died on voyage or before June 9, 1654, Oath. 

"M. Larsson, freeman, died on voyage or in colony before June 9, 1654. 

"Probably a Dutchman. 

" " Cordewanbereiter," Preparer of Cordowan leather. 

" Lived at Kingsessing. 

" Klockare, a sacristan, a parish-clerk, one who leads or aids in singing. 

"Lived at the Schuylkill, probably on Province Island. 

"Millvfright from Torshalla, Siidermanland, Sweden. 

Lists of Officers, Soldiers, Servants, etc. 721 

Mickelsson, Clement (?), freeman 

Mickels[s]on Fischer, David 

Mickels[s]on, Erick, soldier 

Mickels[s]on, Jacob (1654). 
Mickels[s]on, Lambert, freeman 

Mjolnare (the miller). Nils 

Morris, William, freeman (?), 

probably an Englishman. 
Mort, Peter, Proviant-screiber 


Martinsson (Martensson) Glas- 
are (glasbiten, the piece of 
glass), Martin (Morten), free- 

Mortens [s] on Vasa, Knut, free- 

Mortens [s] on, Morten (Martin 
Martinsson), freeman (1654). 

Nils Snickare (carpenter (1654). 

Nils[s]on Jute (Dane?), 
B6rge(?) (1654)- 

N . . . , David, soldier." 

Nils [s] on Skraddare (tailor), 
John (Jon, Joan, Johan), free- 

Nils [s] on, Peder (Per), soldier 


Nils[s]on, Torgel (Torkil?) 

Olof in Slobijen (1654). 
Olofs[s]on, Bjorn, freeman 


Olofs[s]on, Johan (1654). 

Olofs[s]on (Oloffson), Lars, sol- 
dier (1654). 

Olofs[s]on, Mats, soldier. '" 

01ofs[s]on, Mathias (1654). 

Olofs[s]on Raf, Nils (Nilsz 
Raaif) (1654)- 

Pafvels[s]on (Pawelson), Mans 

Pafvels[s]on Peder (Peter, Per), 

soldier (1654). 
Pers[s]on, Jon (1654). 
Pers[s]on, Johan, soldier*" (1654). 
Pers[s]on i Bogen (at the Bog), 

Samuel (1654). 
Peters [s] on (Persson), Lucas, 

freeman ( ?). 
Peters [s]on,*^ Samuel, freeman 

Preutz (Pryss also Prentz), Hans, 

Stenhuggare (stone cutter), sol- 

dier'^ (1654). 
Quist, Pahrel Nils[s]on, soldier'* 

Rambo, Peter'* (Per) Gunnarson. 

Rase(?), Olof, soldier (1654). 

" Came here on the Haj in 1654. 

"Probably same as Mathias 01ofs[s]on. Lived at the Schuylkill. 

"Probably same as Jon Pers[s]on. 

" Pieterson. 

"Hired at Stockholm in 1654. 

"Hired at Stockholm in 1653. 

" Lived at Kingsessing. 


722 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Rosenmann(?), Marten (Martin) 

Rudenius, Lars Jons [s] on, sol- 

dier*^ (1654). 
Samuel i (at) Frijandan (1654). 
Schaggen, Johan (1654). 
Schal (Skall), Peter, the tanner 


Skate i (at the) Slobyen(?), free- 
man (1654). 

Schoffel, Jan (Johan Skofvel), 
freeman (1654). 

Skog, Jonas, soldier (1654). 

Skog, Jan Mans [s] on (1654). 

Scott, Richard (an Englishman?). 

Skute, Johan (John), son of Capt. 
Skute, b. Sept. 4, 1654. 

Smed (the blacksmith), Nicholas 

(1654). _ 
Sprint (Sprinck), Jacob. 
Stake, Mans Persson (1654). 
Stille, Axel, freeman. 
Stille, Olof, freeman. 
Swartz (Black), Antoni (Anthony 

the negro), the slave.*" 

Swartz (Black), Lars" (1654). 
Swens[s]on, Anders, sailor 

Thomasson, Klas (Claes Tommas- 

sen), freeman (1654). 
Thomasdochter (Thomasdotter, 

daughter of Thomas), Elin, the 

company's maid-servant (1654). 
Thomas [s] on ( Thomson ) , Lars, 

Thomas [s] on Thomas, freeman. 
Thorsson, Anton (Anthony Thor- 

son) (1654). 
Thorsson, Olof. 
Thors[s]on Svardfejare,** Sander 

(Alexander) (1654). 
Utter, Nils Mats [s] on, soldier*' 

Hans[s]on Wendel, Peder 

(Peter), ensign (1654). 
Zakariasson (Zachariezon and 

Zacharieszon), Anders, soldier 


"Hired at Stockholm in 1653. 

"He made several purchases from the company in 1654. He may have been a 
freeman at this time. 

"He may have been a negro or called Black (Svart) on account of his 

" Hired in 1653. Sword-cutler, bladesmith, furbisher. 

"Hired at Stockholm in 1653. 

Lists of Officers, Soldiers, Servants, etc. 723 
soldiers and colonists hired to go to new sweden, whose 


For other sailors on the Haj, besides those given below, see above Chap. 

XXXIX., note 44. 

Andersson Snickare (cabinet- dier.^"^ 

maker), Nils,°^ soldier. Norman Ostens[s]on, Nils, sol- 
Eric [k]s[s] on, Bengt, upper boat- dier.^"' 

swain."^ Olofs[s]on, Sigfrid, boatswain.^"* 

Ericks[s]on, Eric, from Orebro."' Olofsson Skinnare (skinner), 

Erics [s] on, Johan, boatswain.** Nils.^°° 

Hakans[s]on Brodd, Sven.*° Olofsson, Johan, common sailor.^"" 

Hansson, Anders, gunner."' Petersson, Johan, from Stock- 

Johansson, Gustaf.*^ holm.^"' 

Johans[s]on, Jacob, boatswain.'* Stegsson, Hans. 

j6rans[s]on, Eric, boatswain.*" Swens[s]on, Anders, boatswain.^"^ 

Jostsen, Berent, " sailmaker."^""* Stake, Lars Ericks[sJon, sol- 

Stijrman, Matheus, the ship-car- dier(?).^°" 

penter.^"^ • TorkeIs[s]on, Olof, boatswain.^^" 
Mat [s] on Menlos, Mickel, sol- 

"" Most of these were on the Haj and stayed in New Holland. It is probable, 
however, that many of them went to New Sweden after 1655. 

''Hired at Stockholm in 1653 for 4 R.D. a month. 

" On the Haj, 1654. Stayed in New Amsterdam. 

°' Hired at Stockholm in 1653, for 4 R.D. a month; he probably left on the Haj. 

°* On the Haj, 1654. 

" Hired at Stockholm in 1653 to serve in New Sweden for a wage of 4 R.D. 
a month. He probably went on the Haj and stayed in New Amsterdam. 

" On the drn, 1654. Probably same as Anders Hansson who was paid 15:18 D. 
in 1641 by the Admiralty. He perhaps died on the journey. 

"' Hired at Stockholm in 1653. 

°' On the Haj, 1654, remained in New Amsterdam. 

" On the Haj, 1654, remained in New Amsterdam. 

"" On the Haj in 1654. 

"' On the Haj 1654, stayed in New Amsterdam. 

""Hired in Stockholm in 1653. 

""'Hired in Stockholm in 1653. 

'" On the Haj, 1654- 

""Hired at Stockholm in 1653 for 4 R.D. a month. 

""■On the Haj, 1654- 

""Hired in Stockholm in 1653 for 4 R.D. a month. 

'"On the Haj, 1654. 

"° Hired in Stockholm in 1653. 

"•On the Ha;, 1654. 

724 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 


Roll List of the officers and soldiers, who return to the fatherland, and 
undoubtedly are to receive each a month's wage from Peter Trotzig in 
Amsterdam, according to this inventory : 


Lieutenant Sven Hook 16 

Engineer Peter Lindhestrom I2 

Ensign Petter Wendhell (Vendel) 12 

Rev. Matthias Nertunius 10 

Rev. Petrus (Peter) Hiort 6 

Armorer Andhers Kiampe 6 

Corporal Andhers Olufsson 5 

The commissary of stores Petter Mort 8 

Drummer Swen Andhersson 6 

Grefrijderen (freeman) Biorn Olufsson 5 

The tailor, Lars Essbiornsson 4 

The soldier Marten Cnmi (Krum) 4 

The soldier Hans Preutz (also Pryss) 4 

The soldier Lars lonsson 4 

The soldier ( ?) Carl Julius 4 

The soldier Andhers Kiampe 4 

The soldier Hakan Akerman 4 

The soldier Hans likorn (also Ekor, squirrel) 4 

The soldier Pafwel Quist (Kvist) 4 

The soldier Erich Bengtsson 4 

Total 20 TsS"^' 


From Frijsdalen :^'^^ 

Johan Grels[s]on with wife and three children 5 

Martin Pafvelsson with wife only 2 

NQs Nilsson (also Niels Nielsson) with wife and four 
children 6 


'The list contains all but 17 names of the people who returned to Sweden. 
""Original list signed by Rising, N. S., I. (R.A.), a draft (varies, the amount 
given is 148:15 R.D.) in Soderk. 1637-59 (R.A.). 


Probably Fryisdal in Karlstads stift, Varmland, Sweden. 

Lists of Officers, Soldiers, Servants, etc. 725 

Anders Larsson with wife and five children 7 

Mats Matsson (also Matz Matzon) with wife and one 

child 3 

Olof Olofsson (also Oluf Olufsson), a servant i 

Gertrud (Gertrudh) a [maid] servant i 

Joen StafEes[s]on ( ?) , the blacksmith i 

Karin Andersdotter (Karin the daughter of Anders), a 

widow with one child 2 

Marcus Sigfriedhsson, a servant i 

Joran Joransson, a servant i 

Nils Simonsson with wife and three children 5 

Joran Sigfridsson with wife 2 

Hindrick Jacobsson with four almost grown sons 5 

Grels Grelsson (also Greels Greelsson), a servant i 

Eric Matsson (Erich Matzon), a servant i 

Lars Larsson, a servant 1 

Olof Clemetsson, a servant i 

Jonss Hindricksson, a servant i 

[E]lissabeth Esekelsdotter (daughter of Esekiel?), a 

servant i 

Olof Olofsson (Oluf Olufsson), a servant i 

From Lijtestegen .•^^* 

Thomas (also Thomes) Jacobsson with wife, maid-servant 

and three children 6 

Pafvell Persson with wife, maid-servant and three children. 6 

Olof (Oluf) Philips [s] on with wife and five children 7 

Pavel (Pafvel?) Nils [s] on with wife and two children. . 4 

Olof Nils [s] on (also Oluf Nilsen), with wife only 2 

Lars Bengtsson with wife, man-servant and four children . . 7 

Jons Jons [s] on with wife and six children 8 

Carol (Carl) Jons [s] on with wife, maid-servant and three 

children " 

Eric Martensson (also Erick Martenson), with wife and 

two children 4- 

Johan Simonsson (Simonsen) with wife and three children. 5 

"* Cf. above, Chap. XLIX. 

"•Brunskog, north of lake Varmelen in Varmland, Sweden. 

726 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

From Brunskogh Slocke'\n:^" 

Anders Jacobsson with wife, maid-servant and three 

children 6 

Total .7io"» 


Botsman, Anders. Matsson, Anders. 

Ekor, Anders. Persson, Hakan. 

Larsson, Alexander (Sander). Persson, Mans. 

Larsson, Olof. Ref (Raf), Nils. 

Mansson, Jon (Johan). Sakrisson, Anders. 

The above were all soldiers except Botsman and they were paid 
various sums by Rising. Rising's Process (R.A.). 

™The list was made by Admiral Anckarhjelm on October 17, 1655, and sent 
with a letter of the same date to Kramer. It is now preserved in N. S., I. LR.A.). 
In all probability all of these no colonists remained here. 


Documents and Translations of Documents. 


Instruction J 

Hwarefter Generale Commercie Collegium will opa Sodre Compag- 
nictz wagnar, att Commissarien uthi bemte. Gen. Comm. Collegio, 
Edle och Walb. Johan Rissing, uthi Nya Swerige och annorstades i 
America a bemte. Compagnietz tianst, sassom een Assistentz Radh sigh 
skall hafva att forhalla. 


Skall han efter alia formago dar ban trachta, att ban utbi denne 
tianst Hens. Kongl. Maijttz. war allernadigste drottningb sampt Fader- 
neslandzens ahro och Reputation dar soker at uthwidga och stabiliera, 
och till den anda medh flijt efEterfoUier alt dett, som kan tiana till 
Kongl. Maijttz. Intention medh Sodre Compagniet dar i warket att stalla, 
all hinder och skada efter sitt basta weth och macht att afwaria eller i 
tidh tillkanna gifwa ; hwar till Gouverneuren medh alle dhem, som dar pa 
Kongl. Maijttz. och Compagnietz wagnar bora giora och latha, till- 
warkia och handen rackia skola. 


Skall han iampte Gouverneuren omvardnat draga, att een flitigh 
Gudztianst dar hallas matte, och at alia sigh under den Augustaniske 
bekennelssen undergifwa, och at alia fafanga disputer till Sinnes for- 
hittzningar fortagas och afwarias, Sa at alt till Eenigheet i dett stycket 
och Gudz nampne till ahro sckickas och stallas matte. 


I synnerheet schal bans bestallningh wara, att han medh Gouver- 
neurens Radh skall tillseer at landet mate uthi godt schick stallas, Sa 
wall medh Politike Regiringen och Justitie wasendet, Sassom och medh 
Commercierne och till coloniens ratta innrattningh och formehringh 
goda Ordinancier forfatta och att dhe sampteligen draga omsorgh att 


728 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

uthi godh defension emoth alia fienttliga anfall, matte pa alia gorlige satt 
stalt och schickatt warda. 

Skall han iampte Gouverneuren medh dhe om liggande Engell-och 
Hollendske Colonier sassom och medh dhe wilde Americaner sokia all 
tillborlig wanskap att halla, och hwar Kongl. Maij :tt och Compagnietz 
Interest i nagon matto nagot fomahr befinnes att skee, ta gripa till dhe 
medell, som dar till ef ter lagenheterna beqwamligast kunna befinnas, doch 
icke latteligen till nagon af dhem omliggiende uthbrista, uthan sa wida 
som Coloniens nodige forswar fordra kan, in till dess att frambdeles af 
Compagniet derom ordres forfattes kunna. 

Alle dhe Personer, af dhe omliggiandc Nationer, som till landzens 
bruuck, Faatackt, Fiskerijer eller annat nyttigt tianliga finnes kunna, 
skall han med Gouverneurens godtfinnande sokia under Colonien att 
draga; Man afwaria och borttskynda dhem som nagon schada eller 
intrangh skulle tyckias tillskynda och medh sigh bringa; Uthi hwilket 
alt han een serdeles forsichtigheet anwanda och bruka skall uthi synnerheet 
nu medh Gouverneuren ofver och anlaggia, huruledes man kunde medh 
det forsta dhe Hollendske, som sigh icke lange sedan hafwar oppa landet 
dar een Skantz Upkastatt och dar indhsatt, uthur och ifran dhen ortten 
qwitt warda, doch medh all gorligh forsichtigheett. 


Dherhooss schall han brede widh Gouverneuren nooga tillsee, att 
landetz Grantzer forwidgade wrarda matte, och sielfwa landet ath Colo- 
nierne tillborligen uthdeelas, sa att hvirar och een sa mycket jordh 
bekommer, som han markias kan viral hafda kunna, till dess ordres af 
Compagniet derom giorde w^arda ; lamviral och att hv^ar sitt landh pa till- 
borligett satt och medh flijtt brukar och bebygger, och till dhen anda i 
hwar district vi^ysse uppsichtesman stalla, hwilka darom beskeed inlef- 
werera skola. 


Skall och det sa lagas, att alt det, som Colonierne af landetz Cultur 
och bruck ofwer deras egit hwshaldz behof winna och forofwa kunna, 
maga pa wrissa ortter for billigheet foryttra kunna, och altssa sigh nagon 
fordeel daraf foskafEa, hwarigenom dhe deste mehra till flytt upwrackias 

Documents and Translations of Documents. 729 

matte, sa att dhe och frambdeles kunna nagot hafwa till Landzens 
styrckio och forswar att gifwa och wederwaga; Hwarast alt sadant sa 
forhandlas och stallas skall, att icke fremmande uthan Compagniet och 
Colonien daraf matte nytto och fordeel hafva, eller athminstonne ingen 

Fordenskulldh skall Commissarien bredewidh Gouverneuren uthsee 
beqwanliga ortter, hwarast bijar och landflackier, sa wall som och 
Stader och handels platzer anlaggias och inrattas kunna. 


Efter att Lagh och Ratt itt af dhe fornambste Stycken iblandh alia 
Folck till roligheet och wal Lefnadh halles och achtas; Ty skall han 
tillijka medh Gouverneuren darom draga forsorgh, att dhar stalla dhe 
Personer, som efter Sweriges Lagh och lofliga sedwana wetha att domma, 
pa dett att Ratt och rattfardigheet i Landet sin gangh hafva matte. 


Han schall ocksa Jampte Gouverneuren medh flytt tillsee, huruledes 
Fiskerierne sa wall i Revieren och des kylar, som uthe i Sioen effter andre 
Nationers satt och bruck i werkett stallas kunne, alt till Landzens och 
Compagnietz gagn och fordeel. 


Deslykest schall der och eftersokias, om dar i Landet nager Minera- 
lier opfinnas kunna, Iblandh hwilka Jarn och koppar till Landzens eller 
Coloniens nodtorfft allenest brukas skola, och alldeles inthet uthforas 
maga; Men wal Guldh och Solwer, hwar Gudh lyckan gofwo, att dhe 
Upstackias matte. 


Bredewidh att pa akerbrwket och Landzens Uproyande, hwar uthaf 
Sadh, Ortter, Rotter, Hampa, Lyn, Fruchter sampt pa allehanda Faa- 
tacht, daraf Kostwahrurne dar tillwarkias matte, skall godh insicht 
hafvas; Sa schall dar och Tabaksplantagen medh all flytt fortsattias, 
Jamwal och tillsees, om dar icke Ingifahr, Suckerrohr och annat sadant 
nyttigt kunde sta till att planta; Om hwilket alt och sadant mehra han, 
Commissarien, brede widh Gouverneuren een flytigh forsorg draga skall. 

Efter att i Landet wilde wynrancker af atskillige slagh finnes, ty skall 
Commissarien efter moyeligheeten sa laga, att dhe dar matte Cultiveras 

730 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

till Landzens gagn och basta och dartill een snell wynarbetare af nagon 
ortt sigh forsee, sa och wynstockar uhr ander ortter tytt frambdeles for- 
skrifwa och forskaffa. 

Efter att och ingen ringa nytta af barande traan och dheras fruchter 
undfangas plagar; Ty skall han sin flytt och therom gora och folcket 
dartill halla, att dhe sadanne fruchtbarande Traan, som landet efter des 
ortt draga kan, medh flijtt plantera och underhalla. 

Dhesforuthan schall han pa alle noble skogar, som dar ahro i Landet 
een nooga Upsicht taga latha, sa att dhe icke onodigt uthhuggas matte, 
uthan sparsambligen till nytto och i rattan tydh matte; Jamwal och 
Trawerket i ratt proportion tillagas eftersom dedh till eett eller annat pa 
sine ortter sigh kan schickas och begaras. 

Sedan hwadh nytta man sigh dar i landet af Jacht pa Wildh diur och 
Foglefangie gora kan, Skall han och sa desslykest medh flyt tillsee och 
efter som sigh bast giora lather gode Ordres darofwer stalla. Thesslykest 
och tillsee, om Climaten medhgifwa kan, och dar Silkels matkar sattias 
kunde, efter dar nogh Muhlbars Traan waxa, hwaruthaf sedan Silke 
till stoor fordeel framdeles matte bekommas. 

Emadan som Uthaf Commercierne (genom Gudz wallsignelsse) for- 
wanttas dhen fornambste fordeel, som Kongl. Maij :tt och Compagniet 
emot the anwande stora kastningar af denne Colonic, skall hafva att 
niuta; Ty gifvas har medh mehrbem:te Commissarien fullmacht, dett 
Stycket uthi sin Upsicht och Direction at taga, medh alt dett der widh 
och der uthaf dependerar och medh hogsta flytt darhan medh Gouver- 
neurens tillhielp trachta, att han heela Suid-Rivierens handell uthur de 
fremmandes och uthi ware Swenskes hander kan bringa och stalla. 

Fordenschuldh schall han widh sitt affreesande tillsee att han Man af 
godhe Capital uthi wagen, serdeles uthi Goteborgh, der han kan dispo- 
nera att dhe tillkommande Wahr och Sommar tytt till Nya Swerige for 

Documents and Translations of Documents. 731 

sanda Skepp till att trafiquera, halst ef ter han dhem kan forsakra. Hen :s. 
Kongl. May:ttz: nadigste wilia wara, att alle dhe Swanske Undersa- 
thare, sum nu wele medh egne Skeep dar i Suid Riveren handel drifwa, 
skola dett fritt sa wall medh dhe wilde som medh dhe angrantzande 
Christne, Jamwall och medh sielfwe Compagniet obehindrade giora 
maga, och icke mehra an 2 pro cento dar i Recognition till compagniet 
gifwa efter den Taxa, sum pa godzet dar stalles kan, och sedan ta the 
sadanne wahrur, som dhe i Suid Riviren dar uphandlat hafwa, och medh 
Swenske Skep i nagon Swansk hampn inbringandes warda, skola dhe 
dhem dar TuUfryt uthlasta och foryttra maga, allenast dhe een Certifi- 
cation ifran Gouverneuren och Commissarien darpa wysa, att samma 
wahrur dar i Suid Riviren och icke annorstades uphandlade ahro. Thes- 
foruthan dhem dar till mehra att animera, skall han hwar och een for- 
sahra maga, att dhem skall frijtt wara, dar i Landet Colonierer att 
indsattia, Landhet darmedh Tabakz plantager och annat sigh till nytto 
att bruka och ewerdeligen emot billigh recognition behalla pa dhe ortter, 
dar Compagniet icke till seerschiltz egendomb dhet intagit hafwer for 
sigh att bruka. 

Fordenskuldh skall han, nar Gudh will han medh detta folcket lyckeli- 
gen i Landet ankommer, medh Gouverneuren uthsee for Compagnietz 
serskillte egendomb ett Stycke walbelagit gott Landh, Huilket med 
Colonierer skall besattias och saledes bestallas, att dhe wahrur, som af 
dett Landzens Cultur falla, och ofwer des torff tillwarkas kunna, matte 
sa wall pa dhe omliggiande Custer och Oyer, sasom och ath Africa och 
Europa forsandes och foryttras; Nembl. Sadh, Ohl, Brodh och Bran- 
newyn ath dhe Spanske och Caribeske Oyerne, Jamwall ath Fiskeryerne 
widh Terra Neufor^ och Rio Grande de Canada och annorstades, 
Trawerckie och Wynfaat ath Canarierne, Portugall, Algerbo, Spanien 
och Franckerijke; Till hwilke foresagde ortter han skall maga forreesa 
till att trafiqvera, nodigt folck till Coloniens formehringh att forskaffa, 
och elliest beqwemligheterne af ortterne vthsee, alt till Compangnietz 
och Coloniens nytto, nar lagenheeterne dedh medhgifwa kunna. 

Skall han sin flytt giora, att alt hwadh som af dhe raa Wahrarne, 
som dar falla uthi Manufacturer, nu effter handen skall kunna dar 

' Terra Nova = Newfoundland. 

732 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

tillreedas och upwarkias, Till Exempel Braden och allahanda Trakarell, 
hwilke warda dyrtt for salde mangestades i America och pa Carybis 
Oyerne, Samskede Skinn och hudar, Cordwan, Larefft, Toghwerk, 
Tiaru och annatt, matte medh flytt tillwarkas och bearbetas. 


Alle dhe wahrur, som particuliere Colonierer, ehwilke dhe och wara 
mage, dar i Landet tillwarkat hafwa och dhem willia uth till handels 
forsanda, skola dett frijtt giora maga, allinast dhe derfore een Recogni- 
tion till 2 pro C" uthi Uthgaende gifwa. 


Sedan skall han, Commissarien, i synnerheet brede widh Gouverneuren 
hafwa FuUmacht att emottaga och i forwahringh stalla dhen Cargasoen, 
peningar och Medell, som uhr Faderneslandet tijtt till Nya Swerige af 
Compagniet forsanda warda, dhem sammaledes och quittera och sedan 
efEter dhe medhgifne Ordres dhen Cargasoen ath dhe Wildhe eller 
andra omliggiande folck till Compagnietz fordeel igenom een Com- 
pagnietz dar till bestallte Factor foryttra och nooga Rachningar dar 
ofwer halla latha, och dhem efter richtigheetz befinnande tillijka medh 
Gouverneuren underteckna. Sammaledes skall dett och skee medh dhe 
wahrur, som dar ifran till Fadernes Landet till retour forsandas af 
hwilka bagge sydor Rachningh itt Exemplar dar i Landet till Acterne 
fohras och forwahras skall, och itt hijtt ofwersandas. 


Iblandh dhe fornambste Styckier, som han uthi denna sin bestallningh 
hafwer till att achta, skall detta wahra, att han tillijka medh Gouver- 
neuren skall sokia alia dhe wagar, hwar medh han dar medell kan up- 
bringa till att belohna dhe betiantte och understodia andre beswar, dari- 
genom ta Compag*. nagon lindringh och forkoflringh for store Expenser, 
hwar icke nagon winst, athniuta kunde. Thett wari sigh ta igenom een 
ratt bestallningh och direction i handelen eller af Landzens Cultur och 
des Inkombster eller af Fiskerijerne eller af Manufacturer eller af 
publike Krogar eller af sma Accijser opa fortahringen eller af hwadh 
maneerligit och lampeligit salt dett halst wara kan daraf folcket dhe sigh 
minst markia kunna att beswarade warda. 

Documents and Translations of Documents. 733 


Thesse och andre fleere nodige Stychior, som till Landzens forswar, 
Upkotnpst och forkoffringh Jamwall och Commerciernes fortsattiande 
landa kunna, Skall mehrbem'". Commissarien tillijka medh Gouverneu- 
ren dar efter sitt basta forstandh och macht sassom een Ehrligh Patriot 
bor, i nooga acht taga och i werket stalla, sa att alt till Compagnietz 
forded, Landzens ahro och wallstandh, matte medh Troo, Forsichtig- 
heett och flijtt dirigerat warda. Hwarfore han af Kongl. Maij :tt medh 
all Nade till befordringh skall ansedd och af Compagniet pa alia gorliga 
satt belohnt warda. Actum, Ubsala, d. 15 Decemb., A. 1653. 

Pa dragande Kails och Embetes wagnar, 

Christer Bonde. 

Erich Oxenstierna Axellsson. 

Martin Augustini Sohn Leyonskoldh. 


Bestdllningsbreff for Capitenen Swan Skuthe uthi Nya Swerige. 

Dett Kongl. Generale Commercie Collegium Gior harmedh wetter- 
ligit att hafwa antagit BrefEwyssere Ehrligh och Manhafftigh Swan 
Skuthe oppa Sodre Compagnietz wagnar for een Capitain ofwer dett 
Landh- och Warfningz-folck, som till Coloniens forstarckningh a Nya 
Swerige nu medh Cronones Skepp Ornen (dar till Gudh lyckan for- 
lahna) arnas at ofwersandas. Och sassom bans plickt daruthinnan 
fornambligast skall besta, att han denna sin tianst uthi alle dhe Styckier, 
som een Capitain agnar och bor, fliteligen och troligen forestar Hen:s 
Kongl: Maij:ttz tianst och Sodre Compagnietz gagn och basta, i alia 
matte soker att framnia och befordra, skadha och forhinder i tijdh till- 
kanna gifwa och afwaria. Alltssa skall han efter sin ankompst till Nya 
Swerige (dar Gudh lyckan tillgifwe) medh flijt och troheet sigh darom 
winlaggia, att han alt, hwadh som af bans Embetes plicht fordras, i 
werket staller, och dar uthinnen Gouverneurens ordres sa i dett eena som 
i dett andra tillborligen folgier och efEterlefwer. Hwarfore skall han 
deremot hafwa Ahrligen att niuta dhen lohn, som honom for Capitains 
platz uthi dhen giorde Staten af bem'«. Compagniet pafordh ar, iamwall 
och frambdeles af Kongl. Maij:tt een Nadigh wedergallningh och avance- 
ment formedelst Compagnietz Promotion till een hogre Charge otuif- 
wellachtigt formoda. Wy wele fordenskulldh att Gouverneuren sampt 

" Com. Col. Reg., 1654. 

734 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

andre Compagnietz betiantte daruthe wille honom Swan Skuthe for een 
Capitain erkanna och uthi denne tillfortrodde Charge tillborligen main- 
tenera, och sassom hans godha forhallande och lagenheeterna af sakernes 
forlopp medgifwandes warda, honom avancera och befordra, hwareffter 
alle the, som thetta angar skole hafwa sigh att ratta. Detta till wisso 
hafwa wij medh egna banders underskrifft och General Commercie- 
CoUegij wanlige Secret bekraffte lathit. Datum, Ubsala, den 13 
Decemb., A. 1653. 

Pa dragande kails och Embetes wagnar, 

Christer Bonde. 

Erich Oxenstierna Axellsson. 

Morten Augustini Sohn Leyonskoldh. 


Hwarefter Generale Commercie Collegium oppa Sodre Compagniets 
wagnar will att Ehrligh och Manhafftigh Hans Amundson oppa Reesan 
till Porto Rico och sedan till Nya Swerige sassom och dar i landet sigh 
skall hafwa at forhalla och efterratta. 

Forst skall han medh all flijtt uppa dryfwa, att Gallioten Gyllende 
Haije medh alt sitt tillbehor medh dedh forsta har if ran matte aflardigat 
warda, hwaropa han skall hafwa Commendo och bestallningh af een 
Skepz-Capitain uthi Sodra Compagnietz tianst, och sigh nu straxts ther 
medh bar ifran ath Goteborgh begifwa. 


Skall han uthi Oresundh widh Helsingoor sattia latha och daraf 
Kongl: Maij:ttz war Allemadigste Drottningz Resident begara een 
Styreman, som bem'«. Galliot till Porto Rico och Nya Swerige styra kan, 
e£Eter som till Walb**. H*-. Residenten allereeda ahr aviserat wordit, 
att han der forskaffa wille. 


Efter the ordres, som honom bar allareeda gifne ahro, skall han bar 
det folck, som till Galliotens ofwerforssell och Compagnietz tianst 
nodigt befinnes, antaga, medh onodigt folck sigh inthet for denna gangen 

" Com. Col. Reg., 1653. 

Documents and Translations of Documents. 735 

belada, warandes honom allenast forundt 4 personer, som till Landzens 
arbete och forded dar i Nya Swerige brukas mage. 

I synnerhet skall ban, Hans Amundsson, ther hafwa bestallningh af 
een Capiten till Sioes, och af Compagniet hwar Manadh niuta till 
underhaldh Tiugu Fyra Richzdaler. Hwarfore ban skall serdeles wara 
forplichtadt till att taga alt dedb i acbt, som ther i landet till Skepz 
bygningen kan landa och bora, och dhen pa alia giorliga salt sokia till 
att beframia, seandes till att Materialierne i rattan tijd falte och tilla- 
gade, sa och allahanda Sorter af Fahrkostar, deals tianlige pa dhen 
Custen, deels hijt ath att segla, bebygda warda. 

Actum, Ubsala den 13. Decemb. A". 1653. 
Pa dragande kails och Embetes wagnar, 

Erich Oxenstierna Axellson. 
Marten Augustini Sohn Leyonskoldh. 

Christer Bonde. 


Till Leuten: Swan Hook,* om den forordningh vthi den Commission, 
Capiten Hanss Amundsson war gifwen sa till Porto Rico, som sedan till 
Nya Swerige; Och at Hindrich Elsswich i des stalle ar numehra for- 
ordnat, etc. 

Emadan sassom Wij, Swan Hook, af serdeles orsaker hafwe foran- 
drat den Commission, Capiten Hans Amundsson war gifwen, sa till 
Porto Rico som sedan vthi Nya Swerige, och i det stallet forordnatt 
Ehrligh och Forstandigh Hinrich Elsswich, hwilken fuller heela Direc- 
tionen till reesans befordringh fohra skall, men hwadh Commendo pa 
Skepzfolket angar iampte dhen Vpsicht, som sielfwa Skeppet medh all 
dess Reedskap och tillbehor tarffwer, dett hafwe Wy edher harmedh 
welat tilltroo, Vthi dhen forhopningh at i drage sorgh fohre, huru alt 
ma schickeligen och wall tillga, och goodh ordre iblandh Skepzfolcket 
vnderhallas medh inbordes godh samia och eenigheet. Vthi detta och alt 
annat maste i eflterlefwa, Hwadh Admiralen Ankerhielm wijdare effter 
ware Ordres eder forehallandes warder, och sasom i pa behorigh ortt 
wela och skola kunna Rackenskap gohra, och till swarsstanda. Nar i nu 

* Com. Col. Reg., 1654. 

736 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

saledes denne edher ombetrodde tianst troligen och wall hafwa forestadt, 
och medh Gallioten Gyllenheij, folliandes Factorens Elsswich inradande 
och Disposition, anlanda till Nya Swerige, Sa hafwe Wij skrifwit Com- 
miss. Johan Risingh till, at han eder darsammastedes Vpdrager Leute- 
nampt Charge till Sioss, och at i vnder hans Direction ma hafwa opsicht pa 
Sodre Compagnietz Skeep och des reedskap med alt det till Seglations 
vthreedningh Sodre Compagniet tillkommer taga i godh forwahringh 
och wetha at giora darfore godh reeda och rackenskap, stallandes eder 
vthi alt detta, som i welen forhoppas at wij vthaf sadan eder flijt och 
troheet ma blifwa fororsakade i basta matton edher at ihugkomma och 
Promovera. Befahle eder har medh Gudh Alsmechtigh. Ubsala, d. 4 
Martij, A". 1654. 

Pa dragande kails och Embetes wagnar, 

Erich Oxenstierna Axellson. 
Israel Lagerfeldt. 

Christer Bonde. 
P. DuREEL^ Secret. 


Hwarefter General Commercie Collegium will att a Sodre-Compag- 
nietz wagnar des tillforordnade Factor i Nya Swerige, Hindrich 
Elswich, sa i sin ombetrodde Tianst dar sammastadz som i sin Com- 
mission till Porto Rico skall wetha att efter ratta. 


Eftersom Kongl. Maij". war Allernadigste Drottningh hafwer 
nadigst behagat att tilltroo Generale Commercie Collegiumet direc- 
tionen afE Sodre Compagniet, och Gouverneuren i Nya Swerige, Johan 
Printz, tillijka med Commissen Huygen nu ahre reeste darifran och 
Vnder wagen hijtt ath, den Commission, och sassom Capitain Hanss 
Amundsson icke allenast i Nya Swerige Vthan och till Porto Rico war 
betrodd, for serdeles schaal och orsaker skulldh, ahr blefwen forandratt; 
Hwarfore hafwer General Commercie Collegium for een nodtorilt 
erachtat, at nu straxt och oforsummeligen, efter Commissarien Johan 
Rising, som for nagot kortt till Nya Swerige ahr affardigatt, och dhen 
dar till wij dare ordre och sa lange een wiss Gouverneur ater kan 
blifwa forordnat, Directorium darsammastades fohra skall, Vthij Sodr^ 

'Com. Col. Reg., 1654, fol. 34 ff. Only the first and tenth paragraphs are 

Documents and Translations of Documents. 737 

Compagnietz tiiinst antaga och till een Factor forordna och ofwerschicka 
dytt uth, Hindrich Elsswich, at han bade vthj Nya Swerige Commissens 
Huygens stalle fortrada, och i Porto Rico Sodre Compagnietz A°. 1649 
lijdne skada afEordra skall, vthi hwilka bagge Ahrenders och Tiansters 
forrattningar General Commercie Collegium honom, Elsswigh, denne 
Ordre och rattelse hafwer welat medgifwa. 


Nar nu Elsswich denne sin Commission till Porto Rico, salunda som 
for bemalt ahr, hafwer forattat, skall han dirigera sin Cours medh 
Gallioten ath Soder Revieren i Nya Sverige, och sa snart han tijtt 
anlander gifwe sigh an hoos Commissarien lohan Rising, ofierera honom sa 
Kongl. Maijttz. war allernadigste Drottningz som General Comm. Colegy 
breff, och dar iampte latha honom wetha, hwadh han [i] Porto Rico 
vthrattat hafwer, sasom och det han, Elsswich, wore pa Sodre Compag- 
nietz wagnar for een Factor in Nya Swerige antagen, och derfore ofwer- 
kommen. Och sassom Elsswich fuller weth, dett Directionen af wercket 
dar vthe, halst nu emadhan ingen Gouverneur ahr, ware Commissario 
Risingh tillbetrodd ; Sa skall han och wetha honom at ga tillhanda vthi 
alia the saker, som han kan tanckia landa Kongl. Maijtt. och Sodre Com- 
pagniet till behagh, nytta och tianst. Enkannerligen skall bans ahoga 
och Embete daruthinnan besta, at then Cargasoen, Penningar och medell, 
som Sodre Compagniet i Nya Swerige hafwer, ma efter Commiss. Risings 
ordre icke allenast blifwa hallen i godh forwahringh, vthan och fohras 
till bok och richtigh Rachningh, och at alt hwadh som Vthgifwes eller 
inkommer, det angar anten wahra egne Swanske eller handelen medh 
dhe wildhe eller andre, at det flijtigt och noga annoteras. Effter som 
han skall wara omtancht richtige Bocker och Rackenskaph halla ofwer 
all Compagnietz Cargasoen, Medell, Peningar och hwadh eliest Com- 
pagniet dar uthe hafwe, anten det ahr hiirifran kommit eller dar i Nya 
Swerige waxt eller acqvirerat eller af dhe wildhe eller andra forwaxlat 
eller elliest Vpnegotierat. Han skall och icke mindre Vpteckna alt, 
hwadh dar vthifran gar och sandes hijt hem, sa att bade Vthgaende och 
inkommande halles i richtighet, och sa iust som han dett in for Gudh, 
Hens. Kongl. Maijtt., Gen. Comm. Coll. och Sodre Compagniet, ia hwar 
ahrligh man will och skall kunna answara. Dett ar sa hwadh Generate 
Commercie Collegium hafwer godtfunnit Factoren Hinrich Elsswich 
bade i Porto Rico och i Nya Swerige a Compagnietz wegnar at forratta, 


738 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

tilltroer sa det, som hwadh mehra kan infalla hanss flijt och dexteritet, 
at han ma sigh wist forsakra at blifwa darfore medh alt gott ihugkomnet 
och recompencerat. Actum, Ubsala, d. 4 Martij, A". 1654. 
Pa dragande kails och Embetets wagnar, 

Erich Oxenstierna Axelson. 
Israel Lagerfeldt. 

Christer Bonde. 




Aussgegeben Vom General Commercie Collegio wegen der Lobl. Slider 
Compagnie, Darnach sich der Capitain Johan J. Bockhorn auff dem 
Konigl. SchifEe Ornen, auf seiner Reise nacher New Schweden zurichten 


Anfanglichen soil er dafiir serge tragen, das weder am Schiff nach 
aller gerethschafft, so zu dieser Reise erfordert wirdt, nichtes ermangle, 
Sondern alles dergestallt angeschaffet undt bestellet werden moge, damit 
Er sich, nechst Gottlicher Hiilffe, diese Reise hin undt wieder zu ver- 
richten sicherlich getrawn konne. 


Von alien in Schiff geladenen Guthern undt wahren sollen zweij 
Special verzeichnussen oder Inventaria verfertiget werden, welcher 
bemelter Capitain Johan Bockhorn nebenst den Capitain Swen Schutte 
unterschreiben soil, undt soil von solchen verzeichnussen eines in Gothen- 
burg an H. Admiral Anckerhielm geliefert undt zuruck gelassen, das 
andere aber mittgenommen werden. 


Darnach soil Er, im Gottes Nahmen, ohne alien fernern Zeit Verlust, 
wan der bestimbte Termin zu seinem Ausslauf herbey nahet, auch wetter 
undt wind dasselbe zulasset, nebenst einen der Lobl. Suder Compagnie 
zugehorigen Galliot, Gylldehayn genandt, zu Segel gehen, undt seinen 
Cours den geradesten undt beqwamsten weg nach Nova Svecia oder der 
Slider Rivier zunehmen, auch unterwegen gute undt fleissige vorsorge 
tragen, damit dass bem:'« Galliot nicht etwas zuruck, Sondern dass 
solches allezeit biss an den orth, wo sich die bequamste gelegenheit 

° Com. Col. Reg., 1654. 

Documents and Translations of Documents. 739 

praesentiren wirdt, das es seinen Cours nacher Porto Rico nehmen kan, 
unter seinen defension undt beschutzung bleiben mogte. Nichts weniger 
soil Er, Capitain Bockhorn, auch verpflichtet sein auf sein unterhabendes 
SchifE zunehmen die einigen Coloniers, so der Capitain Hans Amunds- 
sohn bey seiner ablaufEung nacher Porto Rico, auf dem Golliot unnotig 
mit zugehen ernehtet, undt selbige gleichfals als die Seinige nacher Nova 
Svecia bringen. 

Auch soil Er guth Regiment unter dem Schiffsfolck halten, Sie zu 
aller frommigkeit undt erbahren Leben ehrmahnen, Die Bethstunden 
nicht vernehten, sondern fleissig abwarten lassen, undt insonderheit 
darauf sehen, dass alles friedlich unter dem SchiffsfoUk undt Coloniers 
zugehen moge. 

Fur die geladene Giither soil Er fleisige sorge tragen, damit nichtes 
darvon verkommen oder einigen Schaden nehmen, Sondern alles (wie as 
nahmen haben mag) der gebiihr nach wohl in acht genommen werden 

Alldieweiln der Boutiellier oder SchafEer auf dem Schiffe Ornen nicht 
allein zu unterhalltung der Cronen, Sondern auch der Compagnie vivres 
gesetzet ist, alss soil dem Capitain Bockhorn obliegen mit Capitain Swen 
Schuten, ernstlich dariiber zuhalten, damit der Schaffer die Coloniers so 
wohl alss das Schiffs folk, doch einen ieden von den seinigen in Essen 
undt trincken accommodire, undt gleichwohl auch so, damit die vivres 
nicht unnotig Consummiret oder gemissbreuchet werden mogten, auch 
mehr gemelten Boutiellier dahin halten, dass Er Ihme, wie auch Capitain 
Schuten, einen ieden von den seinigen eine richtige Rechnung einliefre. 

So oft etwas wichtiges fiirfallet, soil Er mitt dem Capitain Swen 
Schuten undt andern bei sich habenden Officieren iiberlegen undt berath- 
schlagen, was am besten dar in gethan zu werden dienet, allerzeit mit ein 
ander guthe einigkeith undt Correspondence halten, einen den andern, so 
oft es die Noth erfordert, in seinen dingen mit Rath undt That zu hiilfle 
erscheinen, undt Ihr augenmerk in allem auf den gemeinen Nutz undt 
dienst der lobl. Siider Compagnie richten. 

74° The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 


Er soil auch nicht unterlassen ein Tagk Register oder Journal zu 
halten, undt darinen alias was etwa denckwiirdiges passiret, so wohl auf 
der hinn- alss auf der Ruckreise, fleissig anzeichnen, undt solches bey 
seiner (Beliebts Gott) wieder anhero kunfft dem General Commercio- 
Collegio einliefern. 


Wan Er nun (Gott gebe zu gliich) dortt im lande wirdt eingelanget 
sein, soil Er alles Gutt gebiihrlich von sich liefern, den Commiss aldar 
von alien wass vom SchlfEe auf das landt dort geliefert wirdt, es habe 
nahmen wie es wolle, ein perfect verzeichnuss machen, dass selbe nicht 
allein von bem*^. Commiss, sondern auch zugleich von H. Gouverneuren 
Johnn Printzen aldar unterschreiben lassen, undt also mit sich zuriick 


Folgendts soil Er was dasselbst an Giithern in Vorath ist, oder in der 
eyl erhandelt undt Ihme geliefert werden mogte, wiederumb einnehmen, 
dariiber den abermahls eigentliche verzeichnusse machen, undt solche 
nebenst den Commiss sampt Gouverneuren Johan Printzen aldar unter- 
schreiben, eines mit anhero bringen, das ander aber dortt im Lande ver- 
bleiben lassen ; undt wirdt Er alss den die einhabende Giither auf der 
Reise wiederumb fiir alien unfall wohl zu verwahren wissen. 


Anstatt des Ballasts soil Er aldar Eichen oder, wo Ess so baldt zu- 
haben, Nussbawmen holtz einnehmen, doch aber wo von diesen beiden 
stucken keines so geschwind an die hand gebracht werden kondte. Soil 
er sonsten von anderen Materie, die Niitzen bringen mochte, an statt des 
Ballasts laden, undt dess wegen keine zeit unniittzlich verliehren. 


Wan Er nun, geliebts Gott, zu Gothenburgk wieder angelanget sein 
wirdt, soil Er daselbst ordre, was weiter zu thuen oder zu lassen, vor 
sich finden, darnach Er sich in allem zurichten. Das iibrige alles, was 
in die feder in Eyll nicht hatt konnen gef asset werden, wirdt Er seinen 
besten verstande nach anzustellen, undt sich also, wie einen getrewen 
undt Beliebenden Man eignet undt wohl anstehet, zuverhalten wissen. 
Datum, Ubsala den 13 Decemb., A. 1653. Christer Bonde. 

Erich Oxenstierna Axellsson. 

Marten Augustini Sohn Leyonskoldh. 

Documents and Translations of Documents. 741 


according to which the General Commercial College on behalf of the 
South Company desires that the commissary in the said General Com- 
mercial College, noble and well born Johan Rissing, shall act in New 
Sweden and elsewhere in America, in the service of the said company, as 
an assistant councillor. 


He is, according to all [his] ability while in this service, to try to ex- 
tend and to strengthen the honor and reputation of Her Royal Majesty, 
our most gracious Queen, and of the fatherland and for this purpose to 
seek out all that which may serve the intention of Her Royal Majesty 
with the South Company and to turn off all hindrance and harm accord- 
ing to his best knowledge and power or to make it known in time, for which 
the governor with all those who are there ought, on behalf of Her 
Royal Majesty and the Company, to work and act and lend their 


[He] shall together with the governor see to it that diligent religious 
service may be conducted there and that all may submit themselves to 
the Augsburg Confession and that all useless disputes for the excitement 
of the minds may be avoided and removed, so that everything in this 
regard might be ordered and regulated for harmony and the honor of the 
name of God. 


His commission shall especially be that he, with the council of the 
governor, is to see that the land may be placed in good condition, as well 
in the political government and matters of justice as in commercial 
[affairs] and to draw up good ordinances for the proper management and 
increase of the colony, and that they jointly shall take care that the land, 
in all possible ways, may be placed in a [state of] good defence against 
all hostile attacks. 


Together with the governor he shall seek to keep on all proper terms 
of friendship with the surrounding English and Dutch colonies as well as 
with the savage Americans, and, whenever it is found that the interests of 
Her Royal Majesty and the company are in any way harmed, they shall 
then make use of those means which might best be found according to 

742 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

the circumstances, yet not begin hostilities easily with any of the sur- 
rounding [peoples], except so far as the necessary defence of the colony 
demands, until orders concerning it may be drawn up by the company 
in the future. 

All those persons of the surrounding nations who might be found use- 
ful for cattle raising, fisheries or anything else, he shall with the gover- 
nor's pleasure try to bring into the colony, but avoid and send away 
those who would seem to cause or bring with them harm or trouble; 
in all of which [things] he is to exercise and use due care [andj 
especially now to consult and plan with the governor about how it would 
be possible, at the first [opportunity], yet with all possible care, to get 
rid of the Hollanders who have erected a fort on the land and settled 

Moreover, he shall, together with the governor, strive to extend the 
limits of the country and properly parcel out the land itself to the 
colonists so that each one may receive as much ground as it is seen he is 
able to use and care for until orders concerning the same have been 
made by the company; also that each one uses and settles his land in a 
proper manner and with all diligence, and for this purpose he shall 
appoint overseers in each district who are to make reports concerning it. 

He is also so to arrange things that the colonists may for the best 
price be able to sell in certain places the produce which they may get 
above their own need so that they may gain some profit by it through 
which they may be the more incited to diligence, in order that they in the 
future may have something to give and contribute to the power and 
defence of the country; wherefore all such things are so to be managed 
and ordained that not strangers but the company and colony may have 
use and profit by it or at least suffer no harm. 

Therefore the commissary together with the governor is to select suit- 
able places, where villages and hamlets as well as cities and trading 
places may be founded and located. 

Documents and Translations of Documents. 743 


Since law and right is considered and held to be one of the principal 
things among all people for [the preservation of] peace and good order, 
therefore he shall, together with the governor, appoint such persons 
there, who will know how to judge according to the Swedish law and 
licit custom, in order that right and righteousness may have their course 
in the land. 


He is also in connection with the governor with diligence to see to it, 
how fisheries may be established in the river and its tributaries as well 
as in the sea, according to the manner and custom of other nations, all 
for the good and benefit of the country and the company. 


Likewise he shall also seek for minerals in the country, among which 
iron and copper may be used only for the needs of the country or the 
colony and absolutely nothing may be exported, except indeed gold and 
silver, if God should give luck, that these be discovered. 

In addition to that he is to supervise the agriculture and the clearing 
of the land from which grain, herbs, roots, hemp, flax and fruit [are 
raised] , as well as all kinds of cattle raising of which food-stufEs rnay be 
made there, he shall also continue tobacco planting with all diligence; 
also see if ginger, sugar cane and other such useful [plants] may not be 
cultivated ; concerning all which and more of the same kind the commis- 
sary together with the governor is to have diligent care. 

Since there are several species of wild grapes in the country, the com- 
missary shall, according to possibilities, so arrange it, that they may be 
cultivated for the service and good of the country, and for this [purpose] 
procure from some place a good vine gardener as well as order and 
import vines in the future from other places. 

Since it is customary that no small good is obtained from fruit bear- 
ing trees, therefore he shall diligently keep the people to this, that they 

744 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

may plant and cultivate such fruit bearing trees, as the land can produce 
according to its climate. 

Besides he shall pay particular attention to all noble forests which are 
in the country, that they might not unnecessarily be cut down but might 
be sparingly felled for usefulness and in proper time, also that the wood 
material may be prepared in proper proportion and according to the 
manner in which it is requested and desired for one thing and another at 
different places. 

1 6. 
Then he shall also diligently see, what use one can make there in the 
land of hunting wild animals and the catching of birds and draw up good 
rules concerning it in the best manner that is possible. Furthermore he 
is to observe whether or not the climate will allow that silk worms can 
be reared, since enough mulberry trees grow there, from which silk to 
great advantage may in the future be obtained. 

Since it is expected that the principal advantage, which Her Royal 
Majesty and the company is to receive for the great expenses outlaid on 
this colony, will be derived from commerce (through the Grace of 
God) ; therefore authority is herewith given to said commissary to have 
oversight and directions over these things and in all that which depends 
upon it and with the greatest diligence with the help of the governor to 
strive that the trade of the whole South River might be brought out of 
the hands of foreigners and placed in the hands of our Swedes. 

Therefore he is at his departure on the way and especially in Gothen- 
burg to try to prevail upon men of good capital that they in the coming 
spring will send ships to New Sweden for traffic, especially since he can 
assure them that it is the gracious will of Her Royal Majesty, that all 
her Swedish subjects who now wish to conduct trade with their own 
ships there in the South River may do so freely as well with the savages 
as with the neighboring Christians, also with the company itself and do 
not need to give more than 2 per cent, in duty to the company, according 
to the estimate which is placed upon the goods there ; and then [as to] 
such goods as they have bought in the South River and shall bring into 

Documents and Translations of Documents. 745 

a Swedish port or Swedish ships [it is ordered that] they may duty free 
unload them and sell them, if only they show a certificate from the 
governor and the commissary to the effect that such goods are purchased 
in the South River and nowhere else. Besides, in order to animate them 
all the more, he is to assure each and everyone that they shall have the 
liberty to plant colonies in the land and to use the land to their benefit 
for tobacco plantations and other things and to retain it for ever by 
paying a small recognition in those places, where the company has not 
selected ground to be used for itself as a special property. 

Therefore he shall, when he, God willing, arrives with this people 
happily in the land, in connection with the governor, select a piece of 
well situated, good land for a special property of the company, which 
is to be colonized with settlers and thus be arranged that the produce, 
which comes from the cultivation of the land and which can be manu- 
factured above the needs of the same, might be sent and sold as well on 
the surrounding coasts and islands as in Africa and Europe, namely: 
grain, oil, bread and brandy for the Spanish and the Caribbean Islands, 
also to the fisheries at Terra Nova and Rio Grande de Canada and else- 
where, wood material and wine barrels to the Canaries, Portugal and 
Algerbo,' Spain and France, to which places he may travel to obtain 
necessary people for the increase of the colony and otherwise to seek out 
the advantages from the places, all for the use of the company and the 
colony, whenever opportunities may allow. 

He is also diligently to see that the raw material, which can be used 
for manufacturing purposes, may as time goes on be made and manu- 
factured, for example boards and all sorts of wooden utensils, which are 
sold for a high price in many places in America and on the Caribbean 
Islands [also that] prepared skins and hides, cordovan [leather], linen- 
cloth, ropes, tar and other suchlike [materials] might be made and 
manufactured with diligence. 


All the merchandise which individual colonists, whosoever they may 
be, have made in the country and which they wish to export for trade, 
may freely [be sold], if only they pay an export duty of 2 per cent. 

' Algeria ? 

746 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 


Then the commissary is especially in connection with the governor to 
have power to receive and keep in preservation the cargo, the money and 
the means which are sent out of the fatherland to New Sweden by the 
company, to receipt the same and then according to the transmitted orders 
sell the cargo to the savages or other surrounding people for the good of 
the company, through a factor of the company appointed for that pur- 
pose, and cause accurate accounts thereof to be kept, and sign them in 
connection with the governor when they have been found correct. The 
same is to be done with the goods which are sent in return to the father- 
land of which bills one copy is to be placed with the documents in the 
country and one to be sent over here. 

Among the principal things which he is to observe in his commission 
shall be this: that he, together with the governor, shall seek out all the 
ways by which he can raise means for the reward of the servants and for 
the support of other service' through which the company then may have 
some abatement [of expenses] and protection against larger outlays, if 
no profit might be made. This may be obtained either through a proper 
organization and management of the trade or from the cultivation of 
the land and its income, or of the fisheries or of the manufactories or of 
public inns, or of small excises on the consumption, or in whatever proper 
and suitable way it can be done, from which the people may least observe 
it and be least troubled. 


These and many other necessary points which may conduce to the 
defence, increase and prosperity of the land, as well as for the continuation 
of the commerce, the often mentioned commissary shall, together with 
the governor, according to his best knowledge and power as an honorable 
patriot, take into careful consideration and put into operation that every- 
thing might be directed with faithfulness, prudence and diligence for the 
advantage of the company and the honor and well being of the land; 
wherefore he shall be looked upon with all grace by Her Royal Majesty 
[as worthy] of advancement and shall in all possible manners be 
rewarded by the company. Actum, Ubsala, December 15, 1653. 

In virtue of our ofHce, etc. 

'Besiuar {besvar), means "service," "burdens," "expenses," etc., when refer- 
ring to kameralvUsen ("matters of the exchequer"). 

Documents and Translat ions of Documents. 747 


Commission for Captain Swan Skuthe in New Sweden. 

The Royal General Commercial College makes it herewith known 
that it has engaged the bearer, noble and brave Swan Skuthe, on behalf 
of the South Company, as a captain over the settlers and enlisted people, 
who are about to be sent over for the reinforcement of the colony in New 
Sweden with a Crown's ship Ornen (may God grant luck to it). And 
his duty** shall especially consist in this, that he shall conduct himself 
in Her Royal Majesty's service faithfully in all those things which 
become" a captain and try to promote and advance in all manner the good 
of the South Company and in time ward off and make known all damage 
and hindrance. Thus he shall after his arrival in New Sweden (if God 
grant luck thereto) strive with diligence and faithfulness to do all which 
the duty of his post requires and in this follow and live up to the orders 
of the governor in the one thing as well as in the other. Wherefore he is 
annually to receive the salary which has been granted to him for a 
captain's position in the established budget of the company, in addition 
to which he is to expect a gracious reward and advancement by Her 
Royal Majesty through the promotion of the company to a higher charge. 
Therefore we desire that the governor and other servants out there shall 
acknowledge him. Swan Skuthe, as a captain and maintain him prop- 
erly in this appointed charge and advance him according to his good be- 
havior and as the course of the affairs may allow. According to which 
all whom it may concern shall be required to act. In faith whereof 
we have signed this with our own hands and caused [it] to be confirmed 
with the stamp of the General Commercial College. Dated at Ubsala, 
December 13, 1653. 

In virtue of our office, etc. 



according to which the General Commercial College on behalf of the 

South Company desires that noble and brave Hans Amundson is to act 

and regulate himself on the journey to Porto Rico and then to New 

Sweden as well as there in the country. 

" Sdssom, as, must be omitted in the translation. 
' Agnar och bar, " becomes and ought." 

748 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 


In the first place he shall diligently strive for this that the galiot 
Gyllende Haije, upon which he is to have the command and position of a 
captain in the service of the South Company, may be despatched from 
here at the earliest [opportunity] and [he is] to set out immediately with 
it for Gothenburg. 


In^Oresund at Helsingoor he shall land and there request from the 
Resident on behalf of Her Royal Majesty, our most gracious Queen, a 
mate who can steer the said galiot to Porto Rico and to New Sweden, as 
the honorable Resident has already been advised to provide [one] there. 


According to the orders which have already been given to him, he is to 
take on board the people here which are found necessary for the sailing 
of the galiot and the service of the company, [but] he is not to be con- 
cerned at this time with unnecessary people, only four persons being 
granted to him, who may be used for the work and benefit of the land 
there in New Sweden. 


Especially he, Hans Amundsson, is to have the office of a captain at 
sea and is to be paid twenty-four Riksdaler a month. Wherefore he is 
especially required to take all that into consideration which there in the 
country concerns and belongs to the shipbuilding and to seek in all possi- 
ble ways to promote it, seeing that all material may be felled and pre- 
pared in right time, so also that all sorts of vessels may be built partly 
for use on that coast and partly to sail hither. 


Given at Ubsala, December 13, 1653, etc. 


To Lieutenant Swan Hook concerning the ordinance in the commis- 
sion which was given to Captain Hanss Amundsson on his way to Porto 
Rico as well as to New Sweden and that Henrich Elsswich is appointed 
in his stead, etc. 

Since we for particular reasons. Swan Hook, have changed the com- 

Documents and Translations of Documents. 749 

mission which was given to Hans Amundsson as well to Porto Rico as 
later in New Sweden and in his place appointed honorable and wise 
Henrich Elsswich, who indeed is to have the entire direction during the 
journey, but what concerns the command of the crew together with that 
supervision of the ship itself with all its implements and belongings which 
is necessary, we have herewith desired to entrust to you in the hope that 
you may look after it that everything may pass off properly and well and 
that good order may be preserved among the sailors with mutual good 
understanding and harmony. In this and in everything else you must 
observe what Admiral Ankerhielm will further, according to our orders, 
require of you, in such a manner that you may and will be able to give 
an account and be responsible at the proper place. When you thus have 
performed this your entrusted service faithfully and well, following the 
advice and disposition of factor Elsswich, and [when] you arrive in New 
Sweden, we have written to the Commissioner Johan Rising that he may 
there give you a charge at sea as a lieutenant, and that you under his 
direction may have supervision over the ships of the South Company and 
its implements with all that belongs to the South Company for the 
preparation of commercial voyages, making good accounts and perform- 
ing your duties in such a manner that you will have reason to hope that 
we, on account of your diligence and faithfulness, may have occasion in 
the best manner to remember and to promote you. Commending you here- 
with to God Almighty. 

Ubsala, March 4, 1654, etc. 

according to which the General Commercial College on behalf of 
the South Company desires that the appointed factor in New Sweden 
Hendrich Elswich is to act in his entrusted post there as well as in his 
commission to Porto Rico. 

As [Her] Royal Majesty, our most gracious Queen, has graciously 
pleased to intrust the management of the South Company to the General 
Commercial College and [since] the Governor of New Sweden, lohan 
Printz, together with the Commissary Huygen have departed from there 
and are on the way hither and, as the commission with which Hannss 
Amundsson was intrusted has been changed for the sake of special rea- 
sons, wherefore the General Commercial College has thought it neces- 

7 so The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

sary now immediately and without delay (since the commissary Johan 
Rising, who a short time ago was sent to New Sweden and who is to 
have the direction [of affairs] there until further orders and until a 
certain governor can again be appointed) to accept as a factor and 
appoint and send thither Hinrich Elsswich in the service of the South 
Company that he may both take the place of Commissary Huygen 
in New Sweden and demand damages which the company suffered in 
Porto Rico in 1649, for the execution of both of which objects and 
services the General Commercial College has desired to give unto him, 
Elsswigh, this order and guidance. 

When Elsswich now has completed this commission in Porto Rico as 
has been stated, he shall direct his course with the galiot to the South 
River in New Sweden and as soon as he arrives there he shall make him- 
self known to the Commissary lohan Rising and deliver to him Her 
Royal Majesty's, our most gracious Queen's, letter as well as that of the 
General Commercial College and in addition let him know what he has 
accomplished in Porto Rico as well as that he, Elsswich, has been 
engaged on behalf of the South Company as a factor in New Sweden and 
has come over for that purpose. And as Elsswich fully knows that the 
direction of the work out there, especially now since there is no governor, 
has been entrusted to Commissary Risingh, he is to assist him in all those 
things which he may suppose will be for the pleasure, use and service of 
Her Royal Majesty and the South Company. His duties are especially 
to consist in this [that he shall see] that according to the orders of Com- 
missary Rising, the cargoes, money and means which the South Company 
has in New Sweden are not only kept in good preservation, but also 
entered in the books and that proper accounts are kept and that every- 
thing, which is given out or which comes in, whether it concerns our own 
Swedes or the trade with savages or others, may be diligently recorded. 
In like manner as^° he is to keep proper books and accounts of the com- 
pany's cargoes, means and money and whatever else the company may 
have out there, whether it has come from here or it has been grown in 
New Sweden or acquired there or exchanged with the savages or others 
or otherwise obtained, so he shall no less make lists of all that which 

^° Efter som which generally means because, since, seems here to mean in like 

Documents and Translations of Documents. 751 

goes from there and is sent home here so that [records of] both the out- 
going and incoming goods may be kept with accuracy in such a manner 
that he can give account before God and Her Royal Majesty, the Gen- 
eral Commercial College and the South Company, yes [before] every 
honest man. This is then what the General Commercial College has 
found good for the factor Hinrich Elsswich to do in Porto Rico and in 
New Sweden on behalf of the Company, — this as well as what else may 
fall to his diligence and dexterity to do that he may truly assure himseff 
to be remembered and recompensed for it with all good things. 
Ubsala, March 4, 1654, etc. 



issued by the General Commercial College on behalf of the Honorable 

South Company, according to which Captain Johan J. Bockhorn is to 

conduct himself on his journey to New Sweden on the royal ship Orn. 

In the first place he shall see that nothing is wanting on the ship of all 
the supplies which will be needed for this journey, but that everything 
shall be provided, procured and ordered, so that he can with certainty 
assure himself that he will be able to perform the journey thither and 
back again with the help of God. 


Two special lists or inventories shall be made of all the goods and 
merchandise loaded upon the ship, which are to be signed by said Captain 
Johan Bockhorn together with Captain Swen Schutte, and of such lists 
one shall be delivered to and left with Admiral Anckerhielm in Gothen- 
burg, the other one, however, shall be taken along with him. 

After that he shall, in God's name, without all further loss ot time 
when the appointed period of his departure draws near, weather and 
wind allowing, go to sea together with a galiot belonging to the Honor- 
able South Company called the Gyllden Hat] and take his course by the 
straightest and best way to Nova Svecia or the South River and during 
the way pay good and diligent attention to this, that the said galiot is 
not left behind but that it may remain under his defence and protection 
"This is a typical instruction given to the captains who were sent to New 
Sweden. Com. Col. Reg. 

753 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

and at all times follow him on to the place, where the best opportunity 
presents itself to it for taking its course towards Porto Rico. In lite 
manner Captain Bockhorn shall also be obliged to receive into the ship 
under his command those few colonists whom Captain Hans Amunds- 
sohn at his departure towards Porto Rico finds unnecessary to take on 
the galiot and to bring the same in like manner as his own to Nova 

He shall also keep good order among the people on the ship, require 
them to live a good and honorable life, not to be away from the hours of 
prayer but diligently to observe these, and [he is] especially to see that 
everything passes peacefully between the crew and the colonists. 


He shall diligently take care of the cargo so that nothing of it shall be 
ruined or in any way damaged, but that everything (whatever name it 
might have) might, according to his duty, be taken into [his] con- 


Since the bouteillier or steward on the ship the Orn is appointed to 
look after not only the provisions of the Crown but also those of the 
company, therefore Captain Bockhorn is, together with Captain Swen 
Schute, earnestly to take care that the steward shall accommodate the 
colonists and the crew with food and drink from the supply of each and 
in such a manner that the provisions will not be unnecessarily consumed 
or wasted, also to require the said steward to deliver a correct bill to 
him as well as to Captain Schute. 


As often as anything of importance occurs he shall take counsel with 
Captain Swen Schute and other oflEcers he has with him and decide what 
is best to do and at al'l times to keep good harmony and correspondence 
with one another, and as often as need requires it one is to appear with 
counsel and assistance to the other and [all are to] make it their duty to 
work for the common good and the service of the Honorable South 


Furthermore he is not to neglect to keep a daily register or a journal 
and write down diligently everything noteworthy that takes place as well 

Documents and Translations of Documents. 753 

on the journey thither as on the journey back and deliver such at his 
(God granting) return to the Commercial College. 

When he then (God grant luck) arrives in the country, he shall 
deliver all the goods from the ship unto the commiss and make a perfect 
list of everything which is delivered from the ship wrhatever name it may 
have which is to be signed not only by the said commiss but also by Gov- 
ernor Johan Printz and [he] is to bring it back with him. 

Then he shall load again into the ship the goods which are in store 
there or that might be bought in a hurry and delivered to him of which 
he shall again make a list to be signed by the commiss and Governor 
Johan Printz, one of which is to be brought here the other to be left in 
the country, and he is to preserve the goods well against all mishap on 
the return voyage. 

Instead of the ballast he is to take in oak or walnut trees, if it is possi- 
ble to obtain them so soon, yet, however, if none of these things can be 
secured so quickly he shall in their stead [procure] other material which 
might bring some gain and load [it upon the ship] instead of the ballast, 
losing no time on this account, however. 


When he (if it pleases God) arrives at Gothenburgk again, he will 
find orders there, what is further to be done and to be let, according to 
which he is to act in everything. All the rest, which it has not been 
possible to draw up in a hurry, he will, according to his best knowledge, 
know how to accomplish, acting as a faithful and trusted man. 

Dated at Ubsala, December 13, 1653, etc. 


Treaty between Sweden and England Concerning the Swedish 

Colonies in Africa and America. 

I, Bulstrode Whitelocke, signed below, keeper of the castle of Windsor 

and one of the costodians of the Great Seal of the Commonwealth of 

England, Commissioner, Procurator, Deputy and Extraordinary Ambas- 


754 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

sador of the most serene and most high Lord Oliver, Lord Protector of 
the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland and the dominions 
thereof and of the said Commonwealth do make known and testify, that 
whereas by the treaty of alliance^^ between the said my most serene and 
most high Oliver Lord Protector and the most serene and most potent 
Princess and Lady, the Lady Chistina, by the grace of God, Queen of 
the Swedes, Goths and Vandals, etc., great Princess of Finland, Duchess 
of Esthonia, Carelia, Bremen, Verden, Stettin, Pomerania, Cassubia and 
Vandalia, Princess of Rugen and ruler of Ingria and Wismar, etc., a 
firm peace and friendship is established; and I have judged it chiefly 
consonent thereto to find out means to remove certain grievances of the 
people and citizens of either state, and to take away all grounds and occa- 
sions of their arising in time to come. Therefore, concerning certain 
mooted questions, I have made an agreement with the most illustrious and 
most excellent Lords Plenipotentiary Senators and Commissioners of the 
said Royal Majesty and of the kingdom of Sweden, the Lord Axel Oxen- 
stierna. Chancellor of the kingdom and Provincial Judge of East Norr- 
land, Lappland, Herjedalen and Jamtland, Count of Sodre More, Free 
Baron in Kimitho, Lord of Fiholm and Tidon, Golden Knight, and the 
Lord Eric Oxenstierna, son of Axel, President of the General Com- 
mercial College, Count of Sodre More, Free Baron in Kimitho, Lord in 
Tidon, Vi[s]by and Gorweden, as is expressed and explained in the 
following : 

In the first place, whereas a certain English company trading in 
Guinea has made complaint of one Henry Carelove,^^* who in the 
capacity of governor of the Swedish Company has in their name de- 
prived the English of some places on the said coasts inhabited by the 
latter, and treated them with other injuries, while the said Swedish 
company has undertaken not only that the guilt of the said governor 
and of themselves cannot be proved, but has also retorted their charges 
against the servants of the said English company, and whereas these 
individual quarrels of merchants it has been impossible on this occasion 

"^Treaty of Alliance between Sweden and England, April n, 1654. 

" § 16. Concerning other advantages to be enjoyed, and rules according to 
which the ships of war shall demean themselves which shall come into the ports 
or stations of the other confederate, of the trade to be had in America, also of 
the commodities of fishing for herrings and other fish whatsoever, of the staples 
and marts to be appointed for trade, and of other matters and conditions which 
may be required for the greater evidence of the former articles, as by a particu- 
lar treaty and mutual contract shall be hereafter agreed." Cf. Whitelocke, 
Embassy, II. 102 ff., 160 ff. 

"""Hendrik Carloff, first governor of the Swedish settlement in Africa. 

Documents and Translations of Documents. 755 

for certain reasons altogether to remove, it has been thought most advis- 
able on both sides that they should be settled as soon as possible in a most 
friendly and straightforw^ard viray before certain commissioners from both 
sides. In the meantime, however, it is agreed that this delay shall not be 
prejudicial to either party, so that the partners and servants of the 
aforesaid companies and the subjects and citizens of both States shall 
not either in Guinea, and that in the freest traffic there, or on the 
voyage cause injury or annoyance to each other, but referring the 
decision of their quarrels to the chief men of each side, as is above indi- 
cated, they shall live among themselves in friendly fashion and treat 
each other with such good will as is agreeable to the treaty concluded on 
both sides. The same rule shall also be observed in America between 
the colonies of New Sweden and of the English so that they may culti- 
vate true friendship and refrain on both sides from all injuries and 
annoyances. And in the first place let them take care for their mutual 
preservation until the question of the boundaries of the colonies and any 
other laws of friendship together with the remaining business of indi- 
viduals can be duly settled before commissioners appointed from both 
sides, which things by virtue of my commission on me [conferred] by 
these presents I wholly accept to be enjoined upon all and singular the 
subjects and citizens of both States whom it concerns, and to be by 
them observed, and by the subscription of my hand and by my seal I 

Done at Upsala, May 8, 1654. 



Indian Confirmation on the Sandhook and Surrounding 


A. D. 1654, on July 8 ... the two(?) sachems, . . . [Ahopam]eck 
and Peminacka, came to Fort Christina and got into conversation about 
the [Sandh]ock and that land which is located around there all [the 
way] to Christina [Kill]. Herewith they acknowledged that the 
purchase which the Swedes before this( ?)^' had contracted with Metat- 
simint was firm and legal, so that no one else hereafter could rightfully 
pretend to it, and that Peminacka had never sold the Sandhock or its^* 
surrounding lands to Stuvesand, Gou[verno]r at Manathes, but had 

"* Ms. defective, see facsimile. The reading might be " for detta " before 
this, or "pa detta "(?), upon this. 

'■*thess, its (Sandhook's) or his (Peminack's). 

7S6 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

received some presents from him, for which he promised him [per- 
mission] to place a house there, no deeds concerning it having been made 
or given. Wherefore Peminacca desired to confirm herewith the said 
purchase, which the Swedes had closed with him, as the rightful owner 
of the said land, which Metatsimint had presented to him before the 
purchase and before his death, so that none hereafter may find cause to 
object to^° or censure this. This they certify with their marks. Done at 
Fort Christina, the day and date given above. 

Peminacka, as rightful owner, Ahopameck, as witness, Sinques(?) as 
witness, Pinnar(?) [as w]itness. Johan Risingh, Jan Ja[nss]on Bock- 
horn, Gregorius [va]n Dijck, Johan (?) [Papegoja?] 


Indian Deed of Land. 

A. D. 1654, on July 8, the Sachems Peminacka and Ahopameck came 
to Fort Christina, where they began to talk about their lands, which 
belong to them. Thus Peminacka, the sachem, presented to the Swedes 
all the right and pretention which he, as rightful owner, had to these 
lands, namely : Tamakonck or the Sandhock with the surrounding lands, 
so also all the land all the way from Fort Christina up the river which 
has not yet been bought, especially Naamans Point to Marikens point in- 
clusive with all its pretentions. Ahopameck, as the rightful owner, also 
presented to the Swedes all the land, which is located, all the way from 
Marikis Hook, all the way to half of the Skulkijll, Tennakonck and 
other [lands] unmentloned, which has been sold of other rightful owners, 
together with Kinsassingh, Arunameck, Mockorhuttingh, Kokarakungh, 
with all the lands and waters, which are subject to it, Passaijungh 
excepted. [They] testify and declare that these lands have been their 
own and are not bought by any one in particular before.^° Where- 
fore they and their descendants herewith sell all these aforesaid lands 
. . ." For futher surety they confirmed this with their marks and 
witnesses who were present, placing their signatures below. Made at 
Christina as above. 

Peminacka as the rightful owner 
Ahopameck as the rightful owner. 

Johan Risingh Gregorius van Dijck 

"Seija(?), say, speak against(?). 

"The idea is that this district as a whole had been bought by the Swedes 
before, but the particular districts had not been pointed out and bought before. 
"Ms. defective. 

Documents and Translations of Documents. 757 


Testimony of the Heirs of Mitatsimint. 

We the undersigned hiers of the deceased Sachem Mitatsimint give 
by this our writing the testimony that the land lying below Appachai- 
hackingh unto Mettocksinowousingh, belongs to no one else than to us, 
Peminacka being allowed to hunt upon Quinamkot but not as the owner 
to sell the same. We also know that the late Sachem Mitatsimint 
bargained about the said land with the Swedes, wherefore, for a con- 
firmation, we have desired, as the true heirs and owners, by this our 
drawn up contract to testify that no one else, be [it] what nation it 
may, has a right or pretention to dwell upon the aforesaid lands or to 
incorporate [them] than the Swedes alone, for which [lands] we also 
have been contended by them, like our deceased sachem and father. 
Besides [we] will show (prove) by the savages in the entire river that 
the aforesaid land has been the property not of Pemenacka but of Mitat- 
simint, and [this] we as his heirs herewith maintain for a testimony of 
the truth, subscribing [to it] with the marks of our own hands. 

Dated, Elsborgh, July 3, 1651. 

The mark of Kiapes the son of Mitatsimint. 

The mark of Notike the widow of Mitatsimint. 

The mark of the two children of Mitatsimint. 

As witnesses: 

Peter Johimson. 



I. The Expeditions Prepared for New Sweden, 

I. The First Expedition, 1637-1639. 
The ship Kalmar NyckeV- {Key of Kalmar)." 
Commander, Peter Minuit. 
Skipper, Jan Hindricksen^ van de Waeter. 
First mate, Michel Symonszen.* 
Second mate, Jacob Everts Sandelin.° 
Upper boatswain, Peter Johanss. from the Bemster vi^ho succeeded 

Andres Lucassen. 
Gunner, Johan Joachimss. 

Sailors, Herman Andersson, Johan Svensson, Sander Clerck.* 
The ship Fogel Grip or Gripen'' (the Bird Griffin). 
Skipper, Andrian Joransen.' 
The cost of the expedition was about 36,000 florins. 

"^ Kalmar Nyckel was purchased by the Kalmar (Calmar) division of the 
South-Ship Company in 1632 for 27,098 D. (and not "by Peter Minuit at Gothen- 
burg in 1637" as stated by Zettersten in Si), flat, hist., II. 573). It was taken 
over by the government and sold to Cornelius Rolofsson in 1651 (estimated value 
was then 5,000 R.D.). Cf. above, Chap. XLVIII., note 32. A ship called Calmare 
Barcken (the Calmar Bark) is mentioned in the fleet of King Erick XIV., Cf. Ett 
bidr. till flat, hist., Hist. Tid., XIII. 69-71. 

' Calmar, Kalmar a city on the south-eastern coast of Sweden. 
° Johan (Jehan, Jon) Hendricksen (Hendrixsz). 
* Michel (Michell) Simons (Simonsz). 
^ Jacob Evertsen and Jacob Evertsz Sandelyn. 

" It has been said that there were no Swedish sailors along on the first voyage, 
but Andersson and Swensson were Swedes and probably Clerk also. They were 
dead in 1640 and their widows, who lived in Stockholm, were paid a small 
amount of money by the company. Journal, No. 28. 

''Fogel Grip also belonged to the South-Ship Company and was not purchased 
by Minuit as stated by Zettersten, Sv. fiot. hist., II. 

During a storm in August, 1639, the ship, lying in the harbor at Gothenburg, 
after its return from New Sweden, " although secured by two anchors . . - was 
driven upon sandshoals i54 fathoms deep." The ballast and cannon were re- 
moved, but it would not float and it seems that the ship foundered there, for it is 
mentioned no more. Cf. Ndgra Clas Fleming papfer (R.A.) . A ship called Stora 
Gripen (the Large Griffin) and another called Lilla Gripen (the Small Griffin) 
are mentioned in 1564. Cf. Hist. Tid., XIII. 69-71. 
^Andriean Janesen. 


Expeditions Prepared for New Sweden. 759 

2. The Second Expedition, 163Q-1640. 

The ship Kalmar Nyckel (its second voyage to New Sweden). 
Captain, Cornelis van Vliet" as far as Holland. 
The cost of the expedition was 15,840:25 D. 

Commander, Pauwel Jansen, who was appointed in Holland on the 

outward journey of the ship. 
Mate, Herman Willemsen. 

3. The Third Expedition, 1640-1641 (from Holland). 
The ship Freedenburgh. 

Commander, Joost van Bogaert. 

4. The Fourth Expedition, 1641-1642. 
The ship Kalmar Nyckel (its third voyage to America). 

Skipper, Andrian Jansen^" from Saardam. 

Mate, Lambert Pietersen. 
The ship Charitas.^^ 

Skipper, Jan Jochimsen. 

Mate, Jacob Everts Sandelin. 

5. The Fifth Expedition, 1642-1643. 
The ship Sivan.^^ 

Skipper, Lambert Pietersen.^* 
Boatswain, Johan Andersson. 

' Cornelis Van Fliet. 

"Andriaen Jansz. 

^Flojten Charitas belonged to (Norrk6ping-division( ?) of) the South-Ship 
Company (not to the ViUterviks skeppskompani as Zettersten has it in Sv. flat, 
hist., II. 56^). Zettersten states that it is mentioned for the last time in 1646, but 
it is mentioned in 1650-1653 as being among the ships captured by the English 
from Swedish merchants. (See State Pap. For., Sweden, Tr. and A dm. Pap., 
1650-59, Pub. Rec. Office.) In 1653 the " galiot the Charitie" of Norrkoping, 
coming from France loaded with Aqua vitae was taken by the English. Entry 
Books, Sweden, 1653, Pub. Rec. Office. 

"The Swan belonged to the South-Ship Company. It was of 165 lasts burden 
and carried 36 cannon {Am. Reg., July 21, 1657). It took part in the naval 
expeditions against the Danes, 1644.-1645, and was in the battle of Fehmarn in 
October. It was used on picket duty in the sound in the spring of 1653 and it 
seems that it was captured by the Danes in 1659. A Swan was also found in the 
Swedish navy in 1560. (There was also a Swan in the Danish fleet.) Cf. above, 
XXV., p. 251; Palmsk. Saml. (Up. B.), 322, fol. 333; Am. Reg., April i, 1652; 
August 23, October 25, 1656; July 21, 1657; Zettersten, Sv. flat, hist., II. 

"Lambert Pietersson. 

760 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

The ship Fama.^*' 

Skipper, Thering Hindricksen. 
Boatswain, Nils Svensson. 

6. The Sixth Expedition, 1643-1644. 
The ship Fama (second voyage to New Sweden). 
Skipper, Peter Pawelsson Kabeliaw.^^ 
Mate, Jacob Cornelisen. 
The cost of the cargo was 13,563:10 D. (12,214:16 D. for the Indian 
trade, 1,348:26 D. for the needs of the colony). 

The ship Kalmar Nyckel (sailed to the West Indian Island, of. above). 
Captain, Berendt Hermansson Hopp. 
Skipper, Vinsent Beckman. 

7. The Seventh Expedition, 1646-1647. 
The ship GylleneHaP^ (the Golden Shark). 

Captain, Jan Jochimsen^' from Cappel. 
Mate, Jacob Albrechtsen. 
The cost of the cargo was 10,075 D. 

8. The Eighth Expedition, 1647-1648. 
The ship Swan (second voyage to New Sweden). 

Captain, Steffen Willemsen.^* 
Skipper, Nils Sifvertson.^* 

" It was called Engelen or Fama and Tellige skeppet Fama or Tellige skeppet 

The Fama belonged to the South-Ship Company (and was not bought by 
Vasterviks skepskompani in 1641 as stated by Zettersten, Sv. flat, hist., II. 567). 
It was rerlgged in 1641, and later taken into the service of the Crown. In 1653 
it was repaired, made journeys to Narva (Capt. Peter Petersson) in 1653-4, and 
to London in 1654 (Richard StafiFort, Commander). It was lost during a fog in 
1659 according to Zettersten. Cf. above, Chap. XL VIII., note 32; Beier to 
Fleming, 1638, Nagra Clas Fleming papper (R.A.) ; Gen. Hand, och Skepsk., 
II., 11533-52 (K.A.) ; Zettersten, Sv. ftot. hist., II. 567. 

" Cabeliau. 

" The Haj is not mentioned by Zettersten in Sv. ftot. hist. It belonged to the 
South-Ship Company and was commanded by Skipper Peter Michelsson (Michel- 
sen) in 1631-1633 who made several journeys with the ship. It was captured by 
Stuyvesant in 1654 and used by the Dutch in the West Indian trade. Cf. above. 
Chap. XL.; Gen. Hand, och Skepsk., III. i63o-i636[7] (K.A.). 

" Johan Jochimsson. 

" Stephen Williamsson. 

"Nels Siwersen (Siversson). 

Expeditions Prepared for New Sweden. 761 

Lieutenant, Anders Jonsson.'" 
Mate, Jan Jansson Bockhorn."^ 
Cost of cargo was 11,964 D. 

9. The Ninth Expedition, 1649. 

The ship ^fl«" (the Cat). 

Commander, Hans Amundsson. 
Captain, Cornelius Lucifer. 
Skipper, Mans Bengtsson. 
Mate, Jan Jansson Bockhorn. 
Cost of cargo exclusive of ammunition and cannon was 5i2i5 D. 

10. The Tenth Expedition, 1654- 
The ship Orn (the Eagle). ^^ 
Commander, Johan Rising. 
Captain, Jan Jansson Bockhorn. 

11. The Eleventh Expedition, 1654. 
The ship Gyllene Haj (did not reach New Sweden). 

Commander, Hendrick Elswick. 

Mate, Anders Matheus(?) from Amsterdam. 

Second mate, Bengt Olsson. 

Lieutenant, Sven Hook. 

12. Twelfth Expedition, 1655-1656. 
The ship Mercurius.^'^ 

"Andreas Joranson (Jonson). 

^ Johan Janson Bockhorn. 

°^The Cat belonged to the government. It carried from 18 to 22 cannon and 
had a crew of about 50 sailors. It took part in the naval expeditions against the 
Danes, 1644-1645. Was wrecked near Porto Rico in 1649 and then burnt by the 
Spaniards. Cf. above, and Rddspr., IX. 333, etc. 

^The Orn was taken from the Danes in June, 1644, and was rerigged the 
following year at Wismar. It was 1295^ (Swedish) feet long and 30 (Swedish) 
feet broad, carried 34 to 40 cannon and had a crew of about 80 men. It was 
repaired in the autumn of 1654, was ordered to bring Secretary Coijet to Eng- 
land in October, 1654 (Am. Reg., October 4, 1654). According to Zettersten it 
was sunk at Karlskrona in 1680. 

^ Mercurius was bought in 1655 by Trotzig in Holland and was entirely 
rebuilt. It carried 14 cannon and was of about loo lasts burden. It made 
journeys for some time after 1656 for the American Company. There were also 
two or three other ships by this name at the time. Cf. above. Chap. XLIX. ; Am. 
Reg. (Fl. Ar.), May 22, 1644, October 8, 1653, January 14, 24, 1654, June 23, 
July 21, 1657, etc.; Zettersten, Sv. flat, hist., II. 576-7. (The Mercurius belonging 
to the American Company is not mentioned by Zettersten.) 

762 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Commander, Johan Papegoja. 

Second Commander or Captain {?), Hendrick Huygen. 
sapper, Jan Hindrickson Lang. 
Mate, Jacob Jansson. 
Barber-surgeon, Heindrich Mundt. 
The total cost of the expedition including the ship was 13,414 R.D. 
according to one bill. 

II. Ships Belonging to the South-Ship Company, that 
DID not make Journeys to New Sweden. 

1. Christina, belonged to the Nykoping division of the South-Ship 
Company. She made several long voyages for the company, carrying 
salt and other merchandise. She was sold to De Geer, after which she 
made journeys to Africa for the Swedish African Company. She was 
captured by the English, but was later released. 

There was a ship called Queen Christina in 1665 for which Leijonberg 
applied for permission in that year to sail to Barbadoes. 

Gen. Hand, och Skepsk., III., 1630-1636 [7] (K.A.). "Forhand. 
ang. Hoi. ersattn.," etc., and other documents in Afrik. komp., I.-II. 
(R.A.) ; cf. also Granlund, En sv. koL, etc.. State Pap., For., Sweden, 
No. 5, 1639-65, Pub. Rec. Office. 

2. Fdrgylda Lejonet {The Gilded Lion), probably belonged to the 
Stockholm division of the South-Ship Company. Was sent to Spain 
with a cargo of masts and spars in 1 63 1, where it was captured by order 
of King Philip in 1632. Cf. above, p. 73. 

3. Gefleskeppet. (The ship of the Gefle-division of the South-Ship 
Company. Cf. above, p. 69 ft.) She was probably built by Welshuisen 
(cf. above, p. 70). She made several commercial journeys for the 
South-Ship Company and was sent to Spain in 1631-32, where she was 
captured. Cf. above, p. 73 &.; Gen. Hand, och Skepsk., IH., 1630- 
1636(7) (K.A.). 

4. Konung David {King DavidY^ also called Gamle Konung David 
{ Old King David) , belonged to the South-Ship Company. It was com- 
manded by Skipper Clas Hindersson Boender, who made a great number 
of commercial journeys with the ship. It was sold in 1641 by Peter 
Trotzig for 8,100 florins, which (less 148:12 florins expenses) were 
turned over to the New Sweden Company. This vessel is not mentioned 
by Zettersten in Sv. flot. hist. Cf. Gen. Hand, och Skepsk., II., 1623-52 

^ The ship on which De Vries sailed to the West Indies in the summer of 
1634 was called King David. Cf. Col. of N. Y. Hist. So., 2d S., III. 49. 

Expeditions Prepared for New Sweden. 763 

(K.A.) ; Kompanier and Atskilliga komp. (K.A.) ; Am. Reg., October 
26, 1641. 

5. "Nye Konung David (also called Der Newe Konig David, the New 
King David)^^ was built (or rebuilt) in Holland (1641) for the South- 
Ship Company for the sum of 9,900 D. to replace the Old King David. 
It was commanded by Skipper Clas Hindersson Boender, who owned one- 
sixteenth of the ship. The ship made 1,125 D. on freight which was 
carried to Stockholm on the first journey and fifteen-sixteenths of the ship 
were insured in Amsterdam for 6,000 florins at a premium of 135 florins 
for the journey. The ship earned several thousand D. for the company 
until it was sold by the government in 1645 to Louis De Geer for 9,000 
D. (of which Boender received his share, or 375 R.D., the other 5,625 
R.D. being placed to the credit of the South-Ship Company in the books 
of the New Sweden Company). Cf. Journal, no. 71 ff.; "Rach. med 
Sod. Comp.," Soderk., 1637-59 (R.A.) ; above; Zettersten, Sv. flot. 
hist., II. 

6. Nepiunis. Sold by Le Thor and Blommaert in 1640. 

7. Norrlandskeppet. (The ship of the Norrland-division of the 
South-Ship Company.) Made commercial journeys for the South-Ship 
Company before the autumn of 163 1. It was captured in Spain in 1632. 
Cf. above, p. 73. 

8. Stockholms Kronan (the Crown of Stockholm). It belonged to 
the Stockholm division of the South-Ship Company and was undoubtedly 
built by Christian Welshuisen. It was captured in Spain in 1632. Cf. 
above, p. 73 fE. This ship is not mentioned by Zettersten in Sv. flot. 

9. The ship Svarte Hunden, (the Black Dog), of 120 lasts burden, 
was sold by the government in October, 1640, to Daniel Schlegel in 
Stettin for 9,000 R.D. The sails and rigging valued at 3,000 R.D. 
belonged to the government and the remainder were credited to the New 
Sweden Company. Cf. " Hen. Kongl. Maj. och Cron. Rachn. med. 
Sod. Comp.," Soderk., 1637-59 (R.A.) ; Journal, no. 88, etc. 

10. Turturdufvan {Turtell Taube, the Turtle Dov.) was sold in 
1640 by Le Thor and Blommaert in Holland and the money was used 
by the New Sweden Company for paying the wages of its servants and 
for buying the merchandise for the Indian trade. Journal, nos. 19, 

35. etc. 

™On November 3, 1666, a pass was granted by the Lord High Admiral of 
England to the Swedish resident at London for a ship called King David, which 
was to sail from Rochelle to Lemerick with salt, thence to the Barbadoes. Acts 
of the Privy Council, p. 413. 


A. Secondary Works. 


I. General European History. 
I. Bibliographies. 

Bibliography of Bibliographies : A Register of National Bibliographies, etc. 

I-II. (London, 1905.) For other lists cf. ibid., 62 ff. 
Bragge, William, Bibliotheca Nicotiana. A catalogue of books about 

tobacco. (Birmingham, 1880.) 
Catalogus der Bibliotheek van de Maatschappij der Nederl. Letterk. te 

Leiden. I-III. (Leyden, 1887-1889.) 
Cheyney, Edward P., European Background of American History, 1300- 

1600. (New York and London, 1904.) Bibliography, Chap. XVII, 

316 ff. A good critical essay on authorities. 
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Jahresberichte der Geschichtswissenschaft im Auftrage der Historischen 

Gesellschaft zu Berlin. Jahrgang I (Berlin, 1880-igoo.) 
Langlois, Ch. v., Manuel de bibliographie historique, I-II. (Paris, 

Morris, Henry C, Bibliography of works on the History of Colonization 

in Vol. II, 325, of the History of Colonization by H. C. Morris. 
Ward, A. W., Prothero, G. A., Leathes, Stanley^ Cambridge Modern 

History, IV, V. Contain good select bibliographies. 
Watts de Peyster, J., The Literature of the Thirty Years' War, The 

Army and Navy Quarterly. (1885.) Vol. I, 422 ff. 

2. Historical Accounts. 

Aitzema, Lieuwe van, Saien van Staet en Oorlogh, etc., 1621-1669. 

(The Hague, 1 669-1 671 [2].) 
Arend, J. P., Alge. geschied. des vaderlands, etc. Ill, 4-6. (Amsterdam, 

1868 ff.) 
Barfod, F., Danmarks Historic fra 1536 til j6yo. (Copenhagen, 1891- 



768 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Blok, p. J., History of the People of the Netherlands, III-IV. Trans- 
lated by R. Putnam. 

Cheyney, Edward Potts, European Background of American History, 
1300-1600. In The American Nation. A History, Vol. I. (New 
York and London, 1904.) 

DuRUY, Victor, History of Modern Times. Translated by E. A. Grosve- 
nor. (New York, 1894.) 

Fridericia, J. A., Danmarks Riges Historic. (A splendid book.) 

Gardiner, Samuel Rawson, History of England from the Accession of 
James I to the Outbreak of the Civil War, 1603-1642. Vols. I-X. 
(London, 1896.) 

Gardiner, Samuel Rawson, The Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648. (New 
York, 1887.) 

Gardiner, Samuel Rawson, History of the Great Civil War, 1642-1649. 
I-IV. (London, 1894, 1897, 1898.) 

Gardiner, Samuel Rawson, A History of England under the Duke of 
Buckingham and Charles I, 1624-1628. I-IL (London, 1875.) 

Gardiner, Samuel Rawson, The Personal Government of Charles I. A 
history of England from the Assassination of the Duke of Bucking- 
ham to the Declaration of the Judges on Ship-money, 1628-1637. 
I-IL (London, 1877.) (The last two are virtually reprinted in 
Hist, of Eng. fr. the Acces. of James I, etc., 1603-1642. Vol. V, 
Chap. XLVII, p. 172 if.) 

Gardiner, Samuel Rawson, History of The Commonwealth and Protec- 
torate, 164.9-1660. I-IL (London, New York and Bombay, 1897.) 
The two volumes cover the period 1 649-1 654 only. 

Grattan, Thomas Colley, The History of the Netherlands. (New 
York, 1855-) 

Green, John Richard, A Short History of the English People. (New 
York, Cincinnati, Chicago, No date.) 

Laspeyres, £tienne, Geschichte der volkswirthschaftlichen Anschauungen 
der Niederldnder und ihrer Litteratur zur Zeit der Republik. 
(Leipzig, 1863.) 

LiNGARD, JoHN^ A History of England from the First Invasion by the 
Romans. Vols. IX-X. (London, 1825.) 

Motley, John Lothrop, History of the United Netherlands from the 
Death of William the Silent to the Twelve Years' Truce l6og. 
Vol IV, 1600-9. (New York, 1868.) 

PuFENDORF, Samuel von. Seeks und Zwantzig Bilcher der Schwedisch- 
und Deutschen Kriegs-Geschichte von Konig Gustav Adolfs Feld- 
zuge in Deutschland an Biss zur Abdanckung Der Konigin Christina, 
etc. (Franckfurt am Mayn und Leipzig, 1688.) 

Ranke, L., a History of England, etc. I-VI. (Oxford, 1875.) 

Bibliography. 769 

ScHMOLLER, G., The Mercantile System, etc. (In Economic Classics, ed. 

by Ashley, New York and London, 1896.) 
ScHMOLLER, G., Grundrtss der Allge. Volkswirtschaftslehre, Vol. I. (3d ed., 

Leipzig, 1900.) 
Ward, A. W., Prothero, G. W., Leathes, Stanley, The Cambridge 

Modern History. IV-V. (Cambridge, 1906, 1908.) 

IL Swedish History. 
I. Bibliographies. 

Arskatalog for svenska bokhandeln. (1900-1906.) 

Collection de volumes scandinaves provenant de la Biblioteque Nationale. 
(Bulletin mensuel des publications etrangeres, 1896, pp. 59-72, 138- 

Hierta (Aktiebolaget Hiertas bokforlag), Forlagskatalog, i82g-igo3. 
(Stockholm, n. d.) 

LUNDSTEDT, B., Sveriges periodiska litteratur (Bibliografi), 3 delar. 

MONTELIUS, OsCAR^ and others, Sveriges historia frdn dldsta tid till vara 
dagar. (Stockholm, 1881. Bibliography in Vol. IV.) 

NoRSTEDT & SoNER, P. A., Forlagskatalog, I-III, 1823-1906. (Stock- 
holm, 1 895-1907.) Well systematized and helpful catalogues. 

ScHUCK, H., Skrift. i Svensk Literaturhistoria, Samlaren, 1887, p. ill ff. 

Settervall, Kristian, Svensk historisk bibliografi, 1875-1900. (Skrifter 
utgifna af Sv. hist, foreningen II. Stockholin, 1907.) Aside from a 
few omissions such as Krauske, Die Entweckl. der stdndigen Dipl., 
«tc., J. Paludan, Det hoiere skolevaesen i Danmark, Norge och 
Sverig, etc., Fiske, Dutch and Quaker Colonies, and many other 
American works of much greater importance than those given in 
the list, it is a very satisfactory bibliography and an invaluable help 
to students of Swedish and Finnish history, especially to those who 
approach this history as strangers. 

Svensk Gustaf Adolf s litteratur. Historisk Tidskrift, XIV, 114. 

Svensk Bok-katalog for aren 1866-igoo. I-IV. (Stockholm, 1878-1904.) 

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Watson, P. B., The Swedish Revolution under Gustavus Vasa. (Boston, 
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2. Political History. 

Bain^ R. Nisbet, Scandinavia. A Political History of Denmark, Norway 
and Sweden, 1513-1900. With maps and a select Bibliography. 
(Cambridge, 1905.) A well written volume. It is based on the 


770 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

standard histories of the three countries, and the material is pre- 
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Augusti 1658. {Nord. Univ. Tidskr., 1855.) 
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holm, 1876.) 
Goldscheider, F., Uber die Einf. des neuen Kalenders in Ddnemark und 

Schweden. (Berlin, 1898.) 
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krona, 1 840.) 
Heeren, a. H. L., a Manual of the History of the Political Systems of 
Europe and its Colonies, etc. (Transl. from the German. London, 
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(Stockholm, 1903-1906.) This is really a new edition of Sveriges 
hist, frdn dldsta tid till vara dagar, Stockholm, 1875-81, but it is 
entirely rewritten and brought up to date. The different volumes 
of the new edition do not, however, contain a bibliography. 
HoGSTROM, E. O. E., S. Barthelemy under svenskt vdlde. (Upsala, 1888.) 
Reviewed in Hist. Zeitschr. LXIV, 564. Not a very satisfactory 
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van de Republiek in den Deensch-Zweedschen oorlog van 1644-1645. 
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MUNTHE, Arnold, Svenska sjohjdltar. V. Treats extensively of the 
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Yeats, J., The Natural History of the Raw Materials of Commerce. 

(London, no date, but dedication of the second ed. is dated 1871.) 

3. Swedish Relations to Other Countries. 

Carlbom, J[ohan] Levin, Sveriges fSrhdllande till Osterrike under 
Ferdinand HI, etc. (1655-1657). (Gothenburg, 1898.) 

Carlbom, J[ohan] Levin, Sverige och England, 1655-1657, etc. (Gothen- 
burg, 1900.) 

Carlbom, J[ohan] Levin, Magnus Dureels negotiation i Kopenhamn, 
1655- 1657. (Gothenburg, 1901.) 

Evelyn, J., J Diary. (A new ed. edited by Wheatley. London, 1879.) 

Forbind. mellan Sverige och araherna. (In K. Vitterh., Hist, och Antiq. 
A hade, manadsbl., 1890.) 

Fries, Ellen, Bidrag till kdnnedom om Sveriges och Nederldndernas 
diplomatisia forhindelser under Karl X Gustafs regering. (Upsala, 

Gardiner, Samuel Rawson, Letters Relating to the Mission of Sir 
Thomas Roe to Gustavus Adolphus, 1629-30. (The Camden Mis- 
cellany, VII, 1875.) Reviewed in Hist. Zeitschr., XXXIV, 464. 

Hammarstrom, p. A., Om tullforh. mellan de skand. rikena fran aldsta 
tider till freden i Bromsehro 1645, etc. (In Lunds Universitets 
arskrift, 1875-76.) 

Heimer, August, De diplomatiska forbindelserna mellan Sverige och 
England, 1633-1654. (Lund, 1892.) 

Bibliography. 775 

Heimer, August, Grefve Magnus Gabriel de la Cardies ambassad till 

Frankrike, 1646. (Jonkoping, 1901.) 
Johan III och Filip II. Depescher fran det spanska sdndebudet till Sverige, 

hapten Francisco de Eraso 1578-1579. (In Hist. Tid. (1886), VI, 

Jones, Guernsey, The Diplomatic Relations Between Cromwell and 

Charles X Gustavus of Sweden. (Lincoln, Neb., 1897.) 
Klemming, G. E. (editor), Samtida skrifter rorande Sveriges forhdllande 

till fremmande magter 1483-1874. (In Kongl. Bibliotekets hand- 

lingar, 1881-83; 1892, h. 3-5; 14.) 
Krauske, Otto, Die Entw. der standigen Diplomatic, etc. (Leipzig, 

1885.) The work is not very satisfactory as far as the Swedish 

diplomatic history is concerned. It does not give very many of the 

Swedish sources. It is not mentioned by Settervall. Reviewed in 

Hist. Tid., V, Ofvers. och granskn., p. 75-77. 
Odhner, C. T., Sveriges forbindelser med den Venitianska republiken under 

I7de arhundradet. (In Nordisk tidskrift for politik, ekonomi och 

litteratur, 1867.) 
Pepy, Samuel, The Diary of. (Ed. by Wheatley. London, 1899.) 
Rydfors, a., De diplomatiska forbindelserna mellan Sverige och England 

i824-mai 1630. (Upsala, 1890.) Reviewed in Hist. Zeitschr., 1892, 

Bd. 70, p. no ff.. Hist. Tid., 1891, p. 36 fit. 
ScHYBERGSON, M. G., Sveriges och Hollands diplomatiska forbindelser, 

162J-1630. (Helsingfors, 1 881.) 
SiLLEN, Sve. hand, och ndr. hist. (Stockholm, 1865.) Various scattered 

Sprinchorn, Carl, Om Sveriges forbindelser med Nederldnderna fran 

aldsta tider till dr 1614. {Hist. Tid., 1885, p. 105 fE.) 
Sprinchorn, Carl, Om Sveriges politiska forbindelser med Frankrike fore 

Gustaf II Adolf s tid. (In Hist. Bibl, VII, 3 ff.) 
Stewart, A. F., Scottish Officers in Sweden [1573-1627}. (In the Scottish 

Hist. Review, January, 1904.) 
Vreede, Georg Willem, Nederland en Sweden, etc. (Utrecht, 1841-1844.) 
WiESE, E., Die Politik der Niederldnder wdhrend des Kalmarkrieges 1611- 

1613, etc. (Cf. Hist. Tid., XXIII, 294.) 
Wrangel, E., Sveriges litterdra forbindelser med Holland sardeles under 

1600-talet. (Lunds Univ. arskr., XXIII, 1897.) Also in Dutch 

Wrangel, E., Ett blad ur hist, om Sveriges lit. forb. med Frankrike. Sam- 

laren 1898, pp. 54-80. (It begins with the tenth century and goes 

down to the eighteenth.) 
Wrangel, E., Sverige i Frankrike. (Lund, 1890.) 

Tj(> The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

III. Biographies. 

I. General Biographical Works. 

Aa, a. J., VAN DER, Biog. Woordenboek der Nederlanden. (Haarl., 1852- 

Akrep, G., Svenska Adelns Attar-taflor. I-IV. (Stockholm, 1858-64.) 
Biogafiskt lexicon ofver namnkunnige svenske man. I-XXIII. (Upsala 

och Orebro, 1835 ff.) 
Carpelan, Tor [Havjo.d'], Finsk biografisk handbok. I-II. ( Helsingf ors, 

Dansk Biografisk Lexikon, etc. I-XIX. (Copenhagen, 1887-1905.) 
Dictionary of National Biography. (New York and London, 1885-1900.) 

Supplement, I-III. (1901). Index and Epitome (1903). 
Eliot, John, Biographical Dictionary of New England. 
Frederiks, [Johannes] G[odefridus], en Branden, F[ranz] J[osef] 

[Peter] van den, Biographisch Woordenboek der Noord- en Zuid- 

nederlandsche Leiterk. 
MuNTHE, Arnold^ Svenska sjohjaltar. V. (Stockholm, 1905.) 
Stiernman, a. a. von, Swea och Gotha Hofdinga-Minne. I-II. (Stock- 
holm, 1745.) 
Svenskt biografiskt lexikon, ny fSljd. I-X. (Orebro och Stockholm, 

The National Cyclopedia of American Biography, Vols. V, VI, XII. (A 

complete index to the volumes, 1906.) 
Westrin, Teodor. Nordisk familjebok. (First edition, 1876-99, second 

edition, 1900 ff. not yet complete.) 

2. Special Biographies. 
Gustavus Adolphus {Great Captains), by Th. Ay. Dodge. (Boston and 

Nevir York, 1895.) Reviewed in the Am. Hist. Review, 1896, p. 

331 ff. 
History of Gustavus Adolphus by J. L. Stevens. (New York and London, 

Minnewit, Peter, aus Wesel. In Sybels Historiscke Zeitschrift, XV, p. 225 ff. 
Ofverstelojtnant Johlan'] Printz med vestgota ryttare vid Chemnitz' kapitu- 

lation dr 1640. (In Hist. Tid., 1887, p. 342 ff.) 
Oxenstierna, Eric, Ellen Fries. 

Stuyvesant, Peter, Life, by J. S. C. Abbott. (New York, 1873.) 
Usselinx, Willem, by J. F. Jameson. (New York and London, 1887. In 

Pap. of the Am. Hist. Ass., Vol. II, no. 3.) Reviewed in Hist. 

Zeitschr., LXII, 125. 

Bibliography. "jjj 



I. General American History. 
I. Bibliography. 

The Connecticut Historical Society and Associated Institutions.. (Hart- 
ford, 1889.) Bibliography of the Society, p. 80 fl. 

Channing, Edward, and Hart, Albert Bushnell, Guide to the Study 
of American History. (Boston and London, 1896.) A good bib- 

Green, S. A., Bibliography of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 
(Boston, 1871.) 

Holmes, A., Annals of America. A large list of books on American history 
published before 1829 given in I, p. IX ff. 

Kohl, J. G., A Descriptive Catalogue of those maps, charts and surveys 
relating to America, which are mentioned in Vol. Ill of Hakluyt's 
great w^ork. (Washington, 1857.) 

Laet, Joannis de, Novvs Orbis, etc. (Leyden, 1633.) In the introduc- 
tion is given a list of books on America. 

Larned, J[osephus] N[elson], The Literature of American History. 
A Bibliographical Guide. (Boston, 1902.) 

WiNSOR, Justin, Narrative and Critical History of America. Gives good 

2. General Accounts. 

Arber, E., First Three English Books on America, {.iSnfl-iSSS- Edited 
by E. Arber. (Birmingham, 1885.) 

Channing, Edward, History of the United States. I-II. (1000-1760.) 
(New York, 1 907-1 908.) 

D[apper], 0[liver], Die Unbekante Newe Welt, etc. (Amsterdam, 

Doyle, J[ohn] A[ndrew], English Colonies in America. Vols. I-IV. 

(New York, 1889-1907.) 
Fisher, George Park, The Colonial Era. (In the American Hisjory 

Series, New York, 1892.) 
Hart, Albert Bushnell (Editor), The American Nation. A History 

from Original Sources by Associated Scholars. Vols. I-V. (New 

York and London, 1904.) 
Laet, Joannis de, Nieuwe Wereldt, ofte Beschrijvinghe van West^Indien, 

etc. (Leyden, 1630.) 
Lodge, Henry Cabot, A Short History of the English Colonies in America. 

(New York, 1881.) 
MontanuS, De Nieuwe en Onbekende Weereld; of Beschrijving van 

7^i The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

America en 't Zuyd-Land, etc. (Amsterdam, 1671.) Gives map of 

New Netherland and New Sweden; picture of New Amsterdam, 

p. 124. 
Morris, Henry C, The History of Colonization. I-II. (New York, 

WiNSOR, Justin, Narrative and Critical History of America. I-IV. 

(Boston and New York, 1889.) 

II. The Neighboring Colonies. 
I. New England. 

Atwater, Edward Elias, History of the Colony of New Haven, etc. 
(Meriden, Conn., 1902.) 

Belknap, Jeremy, The History of New Hampshire, etc. Vol. I. (Phila- 
delphia, 1784.) 

Bryington, Ezra Hayt, The Puritan as a Colonist and Reformer. (Bos- 
ton, 1899.) 

Hollister, Gideon Hiram, The History of Connecticut, etc. I-II. (New 
Haven, 1855.) 

Hutchinson, Thomas, The History of the Colony of Massachusetts 
Bay. etc. Vol. I. (London, MDCCLXV.) 

Johnson, Alexander, Connecticut, etc. (Boston, 1887. In the American 
Commonwealths series.) Contains good bibliography, 397-400. 

Palfrey, John Gorham, A Compendious History of New England, etc. 
I-IV. (Boston and New York, 1883.) 

Trumbull, Benjamin, A Complete History of Connecticut, etc. Vol. I. 
(Hartford, 1797.) 

Weeden, William B., Economic and Social History of New England, etc. 
I-II. (Boston, 1890.) 

2. Maryland. 

Bozman, John Leeds, The History of Maryland {1632-1660). I-II. 
(Baltimore, 1837.) 

BozMAN, John Leeds, A Sketch of the History of Maryland, During the 
Three First Years After Its Settlement, to which ts Prefixed a 
Copious Introduction. 

Browne, William Hand, Maryland, The History of a Palatinate. (Bos- 
ton, 1897-) 

Latane, John H., The Early Relations Between Maryland and Virginia. 
(Johns Hopkins University Studies, Baltimore, 1895.) 

LiPPENCOTT, Constance, Maryland as a Palatinate. (Philadelphia, 1902.) 

Neill, Rev. Edward Duffield, Light thrown by the Jesuits upon Hitherto 
Obscure Points of Early Maryland History. {Penn. Mag. (1881), 
V, p. 51 ff.) 

Bibliography. 779 

Neill, Rev. Edward Duffield, Sir Edmund Plowden. {Penn. Mag., V, 
206 ff.) 

Neill, Rev. Edward Duffield, The Founders of Maryland as Portrayed 
in Manuscripts, Provincial Records and Early Documents. (Albany, 

Randall, Daniel R., A Puritan Colony in Maryland. (Johns Hopkins 
University Studies, Baltimore, 1886.) 

Steiner, Bernard C, Beginnings of Maryland, 1631-1639. (Johns Hop- 
kins University Studies, Baltimore, 1903.) 

3. Virginia. 
Bruce, Philip Alexander,' Economic History of Virginia, etc. I-II. 

(New York, 1896.) 
Cooke, John Esten, Virginia: A History of the People. (Boston, 1889.) 
Standard, The Colonial Virginia Register. A list of Governors, council- 
lors, etc. (Albany, 1902.) 

4. New Netherland. (New York.) 
Brodhead, John Romeyn, History of the State of New York. I. 

(1853.) A good account. 
DuNLAP, William, History of the New Netherlands, etc. I-II. (New 

York, 1839.) 
FiSKE, John, The Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America. I-II. (Bos- 
ton and New York, 1899.) 
Goodwin, [Mrs.] Maud Wilder, (and others) Editor. Historic New 

York. The Half Moon Papers. Vol. II. (New York and London, 

Griffis, William Elliot, The Story of New Netherland. The Dutch in 

America. (Boston and New York, 1909.) 
Innes, J. H., New Amsterdam and Its People. Studies, Social and Topo- 
graphical, of the Town under Dutch and Early English Rule. (New 

York, 1902.) 
O'Callaghan, Edmund Bailey, History of New Netherland or New 

York under the Dutch. I-II. (New York, 1846-1848.) 
O'Callaghan, E. B., The Documentary History of the State of New 

York. I-IV. (New York, 1849-1851.) 
Rensselaer, Mrs. [Mariana G.] Schuyler van. History of the City of 

New York in the Seventeenth Century. I-II. ( New York, 1909.) 

The best work on the subject. 
Roosevelt, Theodore, New York. (New York and London, 1895.) Pp. 

1-37 treats of the Dutch colony and mentions the Swedes. 
Smith, William, The History of the late Province of New York from its 

78o The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Discovery to 7762. Vol. I. (New York, 1829. In Col. of N. Y. 

His*. So., First Se., IV.) The history is fairly accurate for the 

time it was written, but many of the names are very distorted, thus 

he calls Elswick " Deswyck," etc. The meager account of the 

Swedish colony is of no value. 
Wagenaar, Jan, Beschryving van Amsterdam. (Amsterdam, 1760-68.) 

Three volumes folio, another edition in thirteen volumes octavo. Vol. 

I, 594 (fol.) ; V, 224 (oct.). Extract in Col. of N. Y. Hist. So., 2d 

Se., Ill, 285 fi. 
Wassenaer, Nicolaes van, Historisch Verhael, etc. Extract published 

(in translation) in Jameson, Nar. of New Neth., 67 ff. 
Wilson, James Grant (editor). The Memorial History of the City of 

New York. Vol. I. (New York, 1892.) 

III. The Colony of New Sweden, the Delaware Indians and 
OTHER Subjects. 

I. Bibliographies. 

Americana, livres et cartes provenant en partie de la collection d'un ancien 
ministre aux Etats-unis. (Amsterdam, 1896.) (Book catalogue by 
F. Muller & Co. Portraits of Usselinx listed on p. 87.) 

AsHER, G. M., A Bibliographical and Historical Essay on the Dutch Books 
and Pamphlets relating to New Netherland, etc. (Amsterdam, 

Baker, Ernest A., A Descriptive Guide to the Best Fiction, etc. (Lfondon, 

Bibliotheca Americana. Karl W. Hiersemann's Catalogues. (Leipzig.) 
Bibliotheca Americana, or A Chronological Catalogue, etc. (London, 

Bibliographia Sveco Americana. In Norton's Literary Gazette, III, 216 

and IV, 160. (New York, 1853-4.) Gives a few critical remarks 

and historical references. 
Branch, West, Histories of Pennsylvania. {Daily Gazette and Bulletin, 

Williamsport, Pa., Jan. 12, 1871.) Attempts to give critical esti- 
mates of the histories of Pennsylvania, written up to 1871. 
Brandberg, C. F. E., Svensk topografisk litteratur i Trolleholms bibliotek. 

(Trolleholm, printed at Lund, 1905?) 
Catalogue of Printed Books in The Library of the New York Historical 

Society. {Col. of the N. Y. Hist. So., 2d Se., IV. New York, 1859.) 
Channing and Hart, Guide to the Study of American History. (Cf. 

Check-List of Pennsylvania County, Town and Township Histories, 1794- 

1892. (Harrisburg, 1892.) 

Bibliography. 781 

Ford, Paul Leicester, Check List of Bibliographies, Catalogues, Refer- 
ence-Lists, etc. (Brooklyn, New York, 1889.) 
•Griffin, Appleton Prentiss Clark, Bibliography of American Historical 
Societies (The United States and Canada). (Washington, 1896. 
Second edition, revised and enlarged, 1907.) 

Historisk Tidskrift, V, 183. A short list of works and translations on New 
Sweden, published by the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

Keen, Gregory B., /i good Bibliography of New Sweden in Winsor, Nar- 
rative and Critical History, IV, 488 fl. 

Kelly, R. H., The New York Historical Society, 1804-1904. (New York, 
1905.) A history of the society; also contains a bibliography, pp. 

Lane, W. C, and Browne, N. E., A. L. A. Portrait Index. (Washing- 
ton, 1906.) A very useful work in hunting for portraits. 

Larned, J[osephus] N[elson], The Lit. of Am. Hist., etc. Cf. above. 

Mitchell, Samuel L., A Concise and Comprehensive Account of the 
Writings which Illustrate the Botanical History of North and South 
America. A discourse delivered before the New York Historical 
Society, December, 1813. (In Col. of the N. Y. Hist. So., ist Se. 
(1814), II, 149 ff.) Gives a list of books published in America in 
the seventeenth cent, treating of botany, II, 165 if. 

Nelson, William, Fifty Years of Historical Work in New Jersey. (In 
Pro. of N. J. Hist. So., 2d Se. (1894-5), XIII, p. 201 if.) 

NiELD, Jonathan, A Guide to the Best Historical Novels and Tales. 
(New York and London, 1904.) 

Sabin, Joseph, A Dictionary of Books relating to America, etc. (New 
York, 1868 ff.) A great work. Gives an almost complete list of 
books on American subjects. 

SuPAN, A., Die Territo. Entwecklung der Eur op. Kol. Contains a number 
of maps (something about New Sweden), also a bibliography. 

Thwaites, Reuben Gold, The Colonies, 1492-1750. (In Epochs of 
American History. New York, 1902.) Bibliography of the middle 
colonies (1609-1700), p. 195. 

2. Historical Accounts. 

AcRELlus, Israel, Beskrifning Om De Swenska Forsamlingars Forna och 
Ndrwarande Tilstdnd Uti Det sd kallade Nya Swerige, Sedan Nya 
Nederland, etc. (Stockholm, 1759.) 

ACRELIUS, Israel, New Sweden or the Swedish Settlements on the Dela- 
ware. Translated by Nils Collin. (In Col. of the N. Y. Hist. So., 
2d Se. (1841), I, 401 ff. Extracts only.) 

Acrelius, Israel, A History of New Sweden or The Settlements on the 

782 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

River Delaware. Translated by William M. Reynolds. Memoirs of 
the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. (Philadelphia, 1874.) Re- 
viewed in New Eng. Hist, and Geneal. Reg., XXIX, p. 208 ff. The 
translation is not always accurate. 
AcRELius, Israel, The Founding of New Sweden. From his Beskrifning, 

etc. In Old South Leaflets, Gen. Se., IV, no. 96. Boston, 1898.) 
Adams, John Quincy, The New England Confederacy of MDCXLHI. 
A discourse. (In Col. of the Mass. Hist. So., 3d Se., IX, 189 ff.) 
Mentions the Swedish colony, p. 192. 
An Historical Account of the First Settlement of the Swedes in America. 
(In the Columbian Magazine, 1788. Reprinted in Hazard's Reg., 
IV, 75-6.) 
Arfwedson, Carolus David, De Colonia Nova Svecia in Americam Bore- 
alem Deducta Historiola. (Upsala, 1825.) A translation into Eng- 
lish (with illustrations) appears in Proc. of Penn. German So., 
Armor, W. C, Lives of the Governors of Pennsylvania, etc., 1609— 1872. 
(Philadelphia, 1872.) History of the Early Settlements on the 
Delaware, 17 ff.; biographies of Ridder, 31-2; Minuit, 30-1; Printz, 
32-4; Papegoja, 35-6; Rising, 36-42. 
Armstrokg, E., The History and Location of Fort Nassau on the Dela- 
ware. (A paper read before the N. J. Hist. So., January 20, 1853. 
In Pro. of N. J. Hist. So., VI, 185 ff. See also p. 102 ff. Also 
reprinted, Newark, N. J., 1853.) Valuable paper, gives " a descrip- 
tion of all(?) old maps." 
Armstrong, Ed., An Address, etc. Before the Historical Society of Penn- 
sylvania. (Philadelphia, 1852.) Gives an account of the Swedish 
settlements, pp. 8 ff. Bound in Vol. I, Mis. Publications of the 
Hist. So. 
Ashmead, Henry Graham, Historical Sketch of Chester, on Delaware. 
etc. (Chester, Penn., 1883.) Pp. 1-15 give an account of the 
Swedish Colony at Chester and contain two historical maps, show- 
ing the old land grants of the Swedish government, etc. The third 
map is from 1765 (ca.). 
Ashmead, Henry Graham, History of Delaware County, Pennsylvania. 

(Illustrated.) (Philadelphia, 1884.) 
Backman, D. a., Om nyttan, som kunnat tilfalla wart kjdra fadernesland 
af des nybygge i ^merica, fordom Nya Swerige kalladt, etc. (Dis., 
Praes. P. Kalm.= Abo, 1754?) Gives a short sketch of the South 
Company and of the colony, p. 3 ff. 
Bancroft, History of the United States. I. (New York, 1887.) 
' A number of dissertations were written under Kalm's direction. 

Bibliography. 783 

Barber, J. W. and Howe, H., Historical Collections of the State of New 
Jersey, etc. (New York, 1844.) Of little value. 

Barker, James N., Sketches of the Primitive Settlements on the River 
Delaware. (Philadelphia, 1827.) Commemorating the landing of 
Penn. Gives an account of the Sw^edes. (Extracts in Hazard's 
Reg., I, 179 ff.) 

Beekman, J. W., Early European Colonies on the Delaware. (In Pro- 
ceedings of the N. Y. Hist. So., June, 1847, pp. 86-108.) 

Benson, Memoirs [of Indian, Dutch, Spanish and English names of places, 
etc., in America]. (1835?) 

Bergstrom, R., Svenska bilder. (Stockholm, 1882.) Nya Sverige, pp. 

Beronius, Olof, America noviter detecta. (Stockholm, 1691.) 

Biorck, Tobias Eric, Dissertatio Gradualis, de Plantatione Ecclesiae 
Svecanae in America, etc. (Upsala, MDCCXXXI.) 

Bolles, a. S., Pennsylvania Province and State, l6oo-jygo. I-II. (Phila- 
delphia and New York, 1899.) I, 42 ff. account of New Sweden 
based on other accounts. 

Boyd, Stephen G., Indian Local Names with Their Interpretation. 
(York, Pa., 1885. Noted in Penn. Mag., IX, 361.) 

Brinton, D. G., a Lenape-English Dictionary. (Philadelphia, 1888.) 

Brinton, D. G., The Lenape and their Legends. (Philadelphia, 1885.) 

Brodhead, John Romeyn, An Address before the New York Historical 
Society, November 20, 1844. (I" Proceedings of the N. Y. Hist. 
So., 1843-1844.) 

Buck, W. J., History of the Indian Walk, etc. (Privately printed. No 
place, 1886.) On the right of the Indians to the soil, see pp. 20 S. 

BuRK, John, The History of Virginia, etc. I-II. (Petersburg, Va., 
1804 6.) 

[BuRKE, Edmund], An Account of the European Settlements in America. 
Vols. I-II. (London, 1757.) Short statement about New Sweden, 
II, 178. Inaccurate. 

Burr, Horace, The Records of Holy Trinity (Old Swedes) Church, etc. 
Translated by Burr. (In Papers of the Hist. So. of Del., IX. [Wil- 
mington], 1890.) 

^UTLER, Benjamin Franklin, Outline of the Const. History of New 
York. (In Col. of N. Y. Hist. So., 2d Se., II, 9 ff.) 

Chambers, George, Political Annals of the Present United Colonies, from 
their Settlements to the Peace of 1763. I. (London, 1780.) 

Chronological sketch of Events [in Pennsylvania'] Prior to 1682. (In 
Hazard's Reg. (1828), I, 24.) Gives a short account of the Swedish 
colony. Inaccurate. 

784 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Clay, Jehu Curtis, Annals of the Swedes on the Delaware. (Phila- 
delphia, 1835; new ed., 1858, corrected and enlarged.) 

Clement, John, Swedish Settlers in Gloucester County previous to 1684. 
(In New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, April, 1893.) 

Conrad, H. C, History of the State of Delaware. I. (Wilmington, 

Cooper, Alexander B., Fort Casimir. Its Location and History, 1651- 
1671. {Papers of the Hist. So. of Del, XLIII.) 

Cornell, William Mason, The History of Pennsylvania. (Philadelphia, 
[1876].) Of no value. 

CoRT AND Murray, Memorial Services in honor of Peter Minuit, etc.. 
Held Tuesday, April 23, 1895. (Dover, 1895.) Some account of 
New Sweden, 25 ff., 36 fE. 

CoRWiN, Edward Tanjore, Manual of the Reformed Dutch Church' 

Craig, N. [Editor], The Olden Time, etc. I-II. (Pittsburgh, 1846-7.) 

Cronau, R., Drei Jahrh. d. Lebens in Amerika. (Berlin, 1909.) Die 
d. Gouver. von Neu-Nederland und Neu-Schweden, pp. ii-ag. 

Day, Sherman, Historical Collections of the State of Pennsylvania. (Phil- 
adelphia, no date but entered in the clerk's office, 1843.) Page 10, 
a short account of Swedish colony; p. 291, also an account, some 
details. Not accurate. 

De Costa, Benjamin F., Cabo de Baxos, etc. (New York, 1881.) 

DupONCEAU (Du Ponceau), Peter Stephen, An Historical Discourse 
delivered before the Society for the Commemoration of the Landing 
of William Penn, 24 October, 1832. (Philadelphia, 1832.) 

Eaton, R., A Geography of Pennsylvania. (Philadelphia, 1835, 2d Ed., 


Ebeling, Christoph Daniel, Erdbeschreibung und Geschichte von 
America, etc. Ill, V. (Hamburg, 1796, 1799.) Cf. Vol. Ill, 27 
(especially), 558-69; V, 126 (account of the Swed. In. Comp. and 
Colony). Gives a list of sources. One of the best of the early 
accounts. (Partly translated by Du Ponceau, of which typewritten 
copies are preserved in the Penn. Hist. So. and Del. Hist. So. 
Printed in Hazard, Reg., I, 340 ff., 352 ff., 369 ff., 385 fE., 391 ff.) 

Egle, William Henry, Illustrated History of the Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania. I. (I-II, also in one volume. Harrisburg, 1876.) 
Early history of the Delaware, I, 28 fE. Nothing new, inaccurate. 
On p. 818 are represented some Indian relics; an iron helmet, an 
iron axe, hoe and part of another instrument of iron. Dr. Keen 

'Claims that there was a Dutch Reformed Church at New Castle in 1642! 
{see p. 307). 

Bibliography. 785 

suggests in Winsor, IV, 499, that the helmet might be of Swedish 

Ferris, Benjamin, A History of the Original Settlements on the Dela- 
ware, etc. (Wilmington, Del., 1846.) Good account for this early 

Fisher, Sydney G., The Making of Pennsylvania. (Philadelphia, 1898.) 
FjELLSTEDT, Peter, De forsta svenska nybyggena i Amerika efter ett for- 

edrag af doktor Fjellstedt. {F'orr och Nu, II, 1 19-122.) 
Gordon, Thomas F., The History of Pennsylvania, etc. (Philadelphia, 

1829.) An account of the early history of the Delaware and the 

Swedish settlements, pp. 2 S. The best account of the Delaware 

settlements before Penn in English up to this time (1829). Gordon 

had the advantage of assistance from such men as Collin and a few 

of his statements are based on manuscript materials. He quotes 

from Lindestrom's Geogr. (Ms. copy in Am. Phil. So.) See pp. 

Grabner, a. L., Geschichte der Luthe. Kirche in America. I. (St. Louis, 

Mo., 1892.) 
Grahame, James, The History of the Rise and Progress of the United 

States of North America, etc. I-II. (London, 1827.) 
Griffis, W. E., The Romance of Discovery, etc. (Chicago, no date but 

copyrighted 1897.) Popular but fairly accurate. 
Gyllengranat, C. a., Sveriges sjokrigs-historia i sammandrag. (Carls- 

krona, 1840.) South Company and the New Sweden colony, pp. 

185-6. Inaccurate. 
Harrison, P. D., The Stars and Stripes, etc. (Boston, 1906.) Cf. p. 14. 
Hazard, Samuel, Annals of Pennsylvania, etc., 1609-1682. (Philadelphia, 

1850.) Valuable for its source material, but uncritical, ill digested 

and lacks method. Quoted: Hazard. 
Hesselius, Andreas, Kort Berettelse om then Svenska Kyrkios ndrvarande 

Tilstand i America, eta (Norrkoping, 1725.) 
Hodge, Frederick Webb (Editor), Handbook of the American Indians 

north of Mexico. In two parts. Part I. (Washington, 1907.) 

Smithsonian Inst. Bureau of Am. Ethnology, Bulletin 30. 
Holm, Thomas Campanius, Kort Beskrifning Om Provincien Nya 

Swerige, etc. (Stockholm, 1702.) 
Holm, Thomas Campanius, A Short Description of the Province of New 

Sweden, etc. Translated by Du Ponceau. (Memoirs of the Hist. 

So. of Penn., Vol. III. Philadelphia, 1834.) The translation is not 

Holmes, Abiel, American Annals, etc. I-II. (Cambridge, 1805.) New 

Sweden, I, 242; 259. Inaccurate. 


786 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Holmes, Abiel, Annals of America, etc. I-II. (Cambridge, 1829.) 
Gives brief notices about the Swedish colony in I, 250, 267, 273, etc. 
A much better book than the American Annals. 

Hubbard, William, A General History of New England from the Dis- 
covery to 1680. I-II. (Cambridge, Mass., 1815- Reprinted, 1848, 
in Col. of the Mass. Hist. So., 2d Se., V-VI.) 

Janney, Samuel Macpherson, Peace Principles Exemplified in the Early 
History of Pennsylvania. (Philadelphia, 1876.) A brief account 
of the settlements before Penn, p. 12 ff. Based on Hazard and 

Jenkins, Howard M. (editor), Pennsylvania Colonial and Federal, A 
History, 1608-1903. I. (Philadelphia, 1903.) A good account 
of the Swedes and Dutch in Chaps. Ill, 67 fi., IV, ill £E. 

Johnson, Amandus, Svenskarne vid Delaware. (In Varia, Stockholm, 

Kalm, Pehr, En Resa Til Norra America, etc. I-II. (Stockholm, 1753- 
1761.) Found in English, German and French translations. 

Keen, Gregory B., New Sweden, or the Swedes on the Delaware. (Win- 
sor, Nar. and Crit. Hist., IV, 443 ff.) A good account with a 

Keen, Gregory B., The Descendants of Joran Kyn. Penn. Mag., II, 325 
S., etc. 

Keen, Gregory B., Note on New Albion. (Winsor, Nar. and Crit. Hist., 
Ill, 457 ff.) Mentions relations of Sir Edmund Plowden with Gov. 

Keen, Gregory B., The Dutch and Swedish Colonies on the Delaware. 
{Proceedings of the Delaware Co. Hist. So., I, 137 ff.) 

Kidder^ Fr., The Swedes on the Delaware and their Intercourse with New 
England. (Boston, 1874. Reprinted from The New Eng. Hist, and 
Geneol. Reg., XXVIII, 42-50.) 

KiRBiN, J. L. J., Catholicity in Philadelphia. (Philadelphia, 1909.) Pp. 
1-5, short account of the early settlements in Pennsylvania. 

KoNKLE, B. A., History of the Medical Profession in Philadelphia. (Ms. 
copy in the Lib. of College of Physicians, Philadelphia.) 

Lagerbring, Sven, Sammandrag af Swea Rikes Hist. (Stockholm, 1790.) 
New Sweden, p. 93. Inaccurate. 

Lambrechtsen, N. C, Korte Beschrijving van de Ontdekking en der ver- 
dere Lotgevallen van Nieuw-Nederland, etc. (Middelburg, 1818.) 
A translation in Col. of the N. Y. Hist. So., 2d Se., I, 79 ff. In- 
accurate. Rev. of, in N. Am. Rev., IX (1819), 77. 

Levick, J. J., The Early Physicians of Philadelphia and its Vicinity. (Phil- 
adelphia, 1886.) Noted in Penn. Mag., X, 237. 

Bibliography. 7^7 

LoccENius, JoHAN, Historia Svecana. (Upsala, 1654.) Swedes on the 

Delaware, p. 556. 
Martin, J. H., Chester. Delaware County, etc. (Philadelphia, 1877.) A 

fairly accurate account of the early settlements, pp. 3 ff. He also 

quotes at length from some documents and prints others in full. 

See pp. 6, 7, 8, 9, etc. Noted in Penn. Mag.. I, 232. Good for 

local history. 
Mease, J., Picture of Philadelphia. (First edition, 181 1; 2d edition, 1828; 

3d edition, 1831; increased and continued by T. Porter.) The 

account of the Swedish settlement follows Holm and is inaccurate. 
Mease, J., A Reply to the Criticisms by J. N. Barker on the Hist. Facts 

in the Picture of Philadelphia. (Philadelphia, 1828.) Gives a 

number of facts about New Sweden and points out some errors of 

Barker but also makes a number of mistakes. 
MiCKLEY, Joseph J., Some Account of William Usselinx and Peter Minuit. 

etc. (Wilmington, Del., 1881. Papers of the Hist. So. of Del.. III.) 

Of no value. 
Mitchell, D. G., American Lands and Letters. I. Richly illustrated. 

(New York, 1898.) 
Morley, Henry, English Writers. XI. (London, 1895.) 
Moulton, Joseph W., History of New York. (New York, 1824.) The 

Swedish Settlements. 406 ff. Inaccurate. 
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early Dutch poets of New York, etc. (Bradford Club, New York, 

Nelson, William, The Indians of New Jersey. Their Origin, etc. 

(Paterson, 1894.) 
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X, 214-16.) 
Norberg, Otto, Svensia kyrkans mission vid Delaware, etc. (Stockholm, 

1893.) Ms. translation of half of it by J. Lindahl in Hist. So. of 

NoRDMANN, Petrus, Finname i mellersta Sverige. (Helsingfors, 1888.) 

Contains an account of New Sweden, pp. 144-156. Reviewed in 

Hist. Tid.. IX, p. 9 ff. 
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materials, gives an account of New Sweden and the relations of the 

Dutch and Swedes. Not accurate. 
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1637-1642. {Hist. Bihl.. Ny foljd, I, 197 fE. Stockholm, 1876. 

Also separately printed.) A good account. 
Odhner, C[las] T[heodor], The Founding of New Sweden. 1637-1642. 

788 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

A translation of the above by G. B. Keen, in Penn. Mag., Ill, 269- 
84, 395-411, 462 fi. For corrections to the translation see Penn. 
Mag., IV, 125. 

Odhner, C[las] T[heodor], Sveriges inre historia under drottning Chris- 
tinas formyndare. (Stockholm, 1865.) (Pp. 299 ff. concerning Wil- 
lem Usselinx translated by Keen in Penn. Mag., VII, 268 ff.) 

[Oldmixon, J.], The British Empire in America, etc. I-II. (London, 
1708, 2d Ed., 1741.) (The first edition has the name of the author 
affixed to the dedication p. VI, but not the second edition.) Vol. I 
(2d edition), p. 282, 299 ff., gives a short account of New Sweden. 

Palfry, J. G., History of New England, etc I-II. (Boston, 1892.) 
Swedish connections with the English, II, 142-3. 

Pennsylvania a Lutheran Colony. (In Luth. Church Review, 1901.) 

Ponceau, Peter Stephen Du, Notes and Observations on Eliot's Indian 
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313 ff. Contains some remarks on Holm's Luther's Catechism. 

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Prince, J. D., A Modern Delaware Tale. {Am. Philo. Society, XLI, no. 

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PuFENDORF, Samuel, Commentarii de Rebus Svecicis. (Utrecht, 1686.) 

PuFENDORF, Samuel, De Rebus A Carolo Gustavo, etc (Norimbergoe, 
MDCXVI. Also a French edition, 1697.) Makes but a slight 
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PuFENDORF, Samuel, Sechs und Zwantzig BUcher der Schwedisch- und 
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Raijnal, Abbe, A Philo. and poll. hist, of the settlementt and trade of 
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Reynolds, William M., The Swedish Church in America. Discourse, 
May 18, 1848. (Gettysburg, 1849.) 

Rupp, I. D., History of the Counties of Berks and Lebanon. (Lancaster, 
Pa., 1844.) On the Swedes, p. 80 ff. ; Religious hist. p. 420. Quotes 
from Kalm and others. 

Bibliography. 789 

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ScHAEFFER, C. W., Early History of the Lutheran Church in America, 
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79° The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

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Vincent, Francis, A History of the State of Delaware, etc. (Philadel- 
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Wahlstedt, J., Iter in America, etc. (Upsala, 1725.) 

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Watson, John F., Annals of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania, etc. I. (Phil- 
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WiCKERSHAM, J. P., A History of Education in Pennsylvania, etc. (Lan- 
caster, Pa., 1886.) A brief account of the Swedish settlements on 
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792 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

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794 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

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79^ The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

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Records of the Colony of New Plymouth in New England. Jets of the 
Commissioners of the United Colonies of New England, 1643-16^9. 
I-II. (Boston, 1859.) Quoted: Plym. Col. Rec, Acts. 
Records of the Colony of New Plymouth in New England. Court Orders. 

Records of the Colony and Plantation of New Haven, from 1638 to the 
Union (1665). I, 1638-1649; II, 1633-1665. (Hartford, 1857- 
1858.) Quoted: N.H. Col. Rec, I, II. 
Rikskansleren. Axel Oxenstiernas skrifter och hrefvexling. Afd. 2. Vol. 

I fi. (Edited by Per Sonden and C. G. Styffe.) 
Rydberg, O. S., Sveriges traktater med frdmmande makter jemte andra 

dithorande handlingar. I-V. (822-1630.) (Stockholm.) 
Smith, J. W., Laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, etc. I-IV. 

Philadelphia, 1810.) 
Stiernman, A[nders] A[nton] von, Alia Riksdagars och Motens Besluth, 

etc., 1633-1680. I-II. (Stockholm, 1729.) 
Stiernman, A[nders] A[nton] von, Samling utaf kongliga href, stadgar 
och forordningar, etc. I-III. (Stockholm, 1747-1753.) Quoted: 
Stiernman, Konl. href, etc., or simply Stiernman. 
The New England Historical and Genealogical Register. XXI, XXVIII, 

XXIX. Vols. I-L indexed in three volumes. 
Thom and Taube (Editors), Sveriges Ridderskaps och A dels Riksdags- 

protokoll. I-IV. 
Tidningar utgifna af et Sdllskap i Abo. No. 30, d. 25 juli, 1782. 
Usselinx, Willem, Argonautica Gustaviana. (Frankfort a/M., 1633; 

reprinted 1662 in Marqvardus, De Jure Mercatorum.) 
Whitelocke, Bulstrode, A Journal of the Swedish Embassy in the Years 
1653 and 1654. I-II. New Ed. revised by Henry Reeve. (Lon- 
don, 1855.) 
WlESELGRiN, Per (Editor), De la Gardiska Archivet, eller Handlingar ur 
Grefl. Dela-Gardiska Bibliotheket pa LoberSd. (Lund, 1831-1844.) 
Quoted: De la Gar. Arch. 


I. Sweden. 

I. General Catalogues and Bibliographies. 

Kernkamp, G. W., Over Zweedsche, Noorsche en Deensche archieven.. 

(Nederl. Archievenblad, 1900-1901.) 

Bibliography. 797 

Kernkamp, G. W., Verslag van een onderzoek in Zweden, Noorwegen en 
Denemarken naar Archivalia, etc. (The Hague, 1903.) 

The Forty-third Annual Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public 
Records. Appendix, II, 35-52. (London, 1882.) 

I. Riksarkivet' (the Royal Archives). 

(a) Printed Catalogues and Indices: 

Meddelanden frdn svenska Riksarkivet. I-V. After volume V the cata- 
logues or lists are published in separate collections. 

SoNDEN, Per, Rikskansleren Axel Oxenstiernas hrefvexling, etc. (Stock- 
holm, 1907.) (In Med. frdn sv. Riksar., II, 2.) 

Taube, B. and Bergh, S. (Editors), Forteckning ofver samlingen af 
originaltraktater i svenska Riksarkivet. (Stockholm, 1895.) Re- 
print from Med. fran sv. Riksar., XVII-XIX.) 

(b) Manuscript Catalogues and Indices: 

Acta Historica 1633-1654 och Karl X Gustafs tid. Register ofver. 

Brahesamlingen (in the R. A. not the Skokl. Saml.), Catalog ofver. 

Dahlbergska Samlingen, Forteckning ofver. 

Diarium ofver Riks Registraturet for aren, 1632-1670. 

" E. L. Register upd Riksarchivi acter. Gammal orient. Katalog." 

Fort, ofver de i kongl. Riksarkivet befintliga frdn Ldns-styrelserna tUlj 

Kongl. Maj:t, Kansli Colleg. och kansl. chefer inkomma skrifvelser, 

M. G. de la Gardies i Riksarkivet befintliga brefvexling och ofriga hand- 

lingar, Forteckning ofver rikskansleren grefve. Uprarttad af E. W. 

Kommersk. arkiv med dithorande samlingar. I-II. Fortecknade af dr 

Orlogsfiottan och Armeens flotta, Forteckning ofver handlingar angaende. 

Af Agathon Hammarskjold, 1900. 
Oxenstiernska Samlingen. II. 

1. Johan Axelsson Oxenstiernas efterlemnade arkiv. A. G. Oxen- 


2. Eric Oxenstiernas efterlemnade arkiv, Forteckning ofver. 
PalmskiSldska samlingen in quarto, Forteckning ofver. 
Skoklostersamlingen. Catalog ofver Manuscripterna m. m. i Bibliotheket 

pa Sko-Kloster. (1824) Skokloster Samlingen is now in the Riks- 
arkiv (Royal Archives). 

°Cf. Bidrag till Riksarkivets aldre historia. (In Meddelanden fran Svenska 
Riksarkivet, 1877-90.) 

79^ The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 


1. Pfalzgrefven Johan Casimirs arkiv, Forteckning ofver. Upprattad 

af Per Sonden. 

2. Arfprinsen Carl Gustafs arkiv, Forteckning ofver. Upprattad af 

Per Sonden. 

3. Hertig Adolf Johans arkiv, Forteckning ofver. Upprattad af Per 

Titular Register ofver riksregistraturet, 1636 ff. 
Ake Totts samling, Forteckning ofver. Upprattad af Per Sonden. 

(f) Collections of Letters and Documents: 
Handel och sjofart. Handelskompanier. 

1. Nya Sverige, I-II. (Quoted: N. S., I., II. (R.A.).) 

2. Soderkompaniet, 1624-30. One volume. (Quoted: Soderk. 1624- 

30 (R.A.).) 

3. Soderkompaniet, 1637-59. One volume. (Quoted: Soderk., 1637- 

59 (R.A.).) 

4. General-handelskompaniet. Usselinx' memorial, 1624-1645. One 

volume. Quoted: Gen. handelsk., 1624-45 (R.A.). 

5. Skeppskompaniet, 1629-1650. One volume. Quoted: Skepsk. 

1629-50 (R.A.). 

6. Westindiska Kompanier (no date). One volume. 

7. Handlingar angaende Tobakshandlen, 1643-59. One volume. 

Quoted: Tobaksk., 1643-59 (R-A.). 

8. Risings Process. One volume. 

Handel och Sjofart. Utrikes handeln. Holland. II. 

Hispania. Palbitskys bref till Konl. Maj :t, 1651-1652. 

Hispania strodda handlingar^ 1608-1813. Palbitskys beskickning. 

Hispanica. I. (Cp. Med. fr. sv. Riksark., Ill, 243 ff.) 

Kommers Kollegie protokoll for aren 1654-1655. I-II. 

Kommers Kollegie registratur' for aren 1651-1659. Hufvudserien, Vols. 

Kommers Kollegie skrifvelser till Kungliga Majestat, 1650-1666. 
Kopiebok af Kungl. bref. I555-I7I5- I- (The volume contains an Index.) 
Kungl. bref och forordningar, 1523-1654. (Afskrifter.) 
Riks Registraturet, 1626-80. (Svenska och Latinska.) (Quoted: R. R.) 

'In the autumn of 1906 a gentleman who was then listing and arranging the 
old documents belonging to the Commercial College brought to me at the Riks- 
arkiv a Journal of the Schwedische Compagni (September, 1630-spring, 1637) 
and a bundle of documents concerning the Swedish African Company. As I was 
leaving the next day I had time to take only a hurried look at the new material 
found in these records, having in mind to examine them thoroughly the following 
year. But these materials could not be found when I returned, although Dr. 
Sonden and Dr. Westrin both searched for them. 

Bibliography. 799 

Radsprotokollerij 1647-1670. In manuscript. Up to 1647 they are printed, 

see bibliography above. 
Sjoexpeditioner, 1656-1660, 1664-1677. Two volumes. 
Bref till Kongl. Maj:t. Letters from: 

Johan Beier to K. M:t. (Carl X Gustafs tid.) 
Johan Printz. (Cp. Med. fr. sv. Riksark.) 
Peter Ridder. (Carl X.) 
Dahlhergska Samlingen. Letters from Johan Beier. 
De la Gardiska Samlingen. Letters from Johan Printz, Johan Rising and 

Peter Trotzig to De la Gardie. 
Landsh. skrifvelser till Kongl. Maj:t, 1637-1656. 
Orebro Ian, 1637-1656. 
Elfsborgs Ian, 1645-55. 
Jonkopings Ian. (From Johan Printz.) 
Nigra Clas Fleming papper, 1630- och 1640-talen. 
Letters from Weijss and others to Fleming. 
Axel Oxenstiernsia Samlingin.' 
I. Letters from: 

Hans Amundsson. 

Harald Appelbom. 

Johan Beier. 

Jacob Blome. 

Samuel Blommaert. 

Benjamin Bonnell. 

Gregorius van Dyck. 

Conrad von Falkenberg. (His letters are published up to 1634, see 

above. ) 
Klas Fleming. (The collection of Fleming's letters also contains 
Extract Schreibens von d. Herr Admiral Fleming an H. Residen- 
ten Spiering. . . , 8 Junij, 1639; Memorial fiir Martin Augustinson. 
Datum Stockholm den 28 Februarii, Anno 1639.) 
Hans Kramer. (The Kramer collection contains Copia aff kambnare 
Domen angaende H. Jacob Blome. . . den 10 Decemb., Anno 1653.) 
Isak Niepeisen. (H. Peter Spierings abgefertigte diener.) 
Johan Papegoja. 
Johan Printz. 

Peter Hollender Ridder. (The collection contains a copy of an In- 
struction for Leut. Peter Hollender. . . Stockholm d. i Julij, 1639.) 
Johan Jonsson Rud[berus]. (There is also in this collection a copy of 
a letter from him in Kramer's handvirriting, dated Anno 1651 den 
13 Apprillis. The author is inclined to believe that the letter viras 

'Quoted: Ox. Saml. (R.A.). 

3oo The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

not written to Oxenstierna but to Kramer. Cf. his journal in 
bibliography below.) 

Robert Smythe. 

Peter Spiring. (Letters written in German and in Dutch, generally 
by a copyist, and some few in French. A number of letters are 
written in Spiring's handwriting, often the Dutch ones. The last 
letter is written December 8, 1651. There are six volumes of letters 
in the collection.) 

Timon Stidden. 

Joachim Stumpff. Six letters, two memorials and a copy of a letter 
from Oxenstierna. 

Peter Trotzig. 

Willem Usselinx. 

2. Axel Oxenstiernas Concepter, 1635-1647. Quoted: Ox. SamL, Con- 
Eric Oxenstiernska Samlingen. (Quoted: Ox. Saml. (R.A.).) Letters to 
Eric Oxenstierna from: 

Gustaf Printz. 

Johan Rising. 10 letters relating to the journal of the Orn, one from 
New Sweden. The collection also contains a " Memorial," " Under- 
danig Postulata," etc. 

J. J. Ahrman. (Supplik. No date, no place, only a copy.) 
Johan Oxenstiernska Samlingen. Letters from: 

Johan Beier, 1642-1649(5). 

Klas Fleming. 

Gustaf Printz. (One letter dated Elbing d. 22 April, 1657. It is 
addressed to M. Gottfrid Allbinus, the secretary of Johan Oxen- 

Johan Classon Rising. (From Stettin, July, 1642, May, 1643.) 
Skokloster Samlingen. 

1. Letters to P. Brahe from: 
Johan Papegoja. 

Gustaf Printz. 

Johan Printz. (The first letter is dated April 18, 1638 and last is 

dated April 30, 1663. Cf. Catalogue II, 52, Skokl. Saml. Printz' 

Report, 1647, is also in this collection.) 

2. Per Brahes Concepter. 
Stegeborg Samlingen. 

1. Johan Casimir. Letters from: 

Samuel Blommaert. 
Klas Fleming. 

2. Adolf Johans arkiv. Letters from: 

Johan Rising. 

Bibliography. 8oi 

II. Kammararkivet" (the Archives of the Exchequer). 

(a) Catalogues and Indices: 

Forteckning ofver de i Kammararkivet forvarade handlingar. Af dr Rosman. 

General catalogue of the various collections. 
Diarier ofver Kammararkiveis registratur, 1630 ff. 
Register ofver Sandbergska Samlingen. 

(b) Collections of Letters and Documents: 
Handel och sjofart. Kolonier. 

1. Nya Sverige, I. (Quoted: N. S., I. (K. A.).) 

2. Nya Sverige, II. (Quoted: N. S., II. (K. A.).) 

3. Nya Sverige, III. (Quoted: Journal, no. i, 2, etc., or Journal, N. S., 

III. (K. A.).) 

4. Kompanier, I. 

5. Kompanier, II. 

6. Kompanier, III. {Gen. Hand, och Skepsk., i630-6[7].) 

7. Atskilliga kolonier. (1650-1808.) 

8. Enskilda rakningar, I, VII, VIII, IX, XI. 

9. Strodda handlingar, I. 

10. Strodda handlingar, II. 

11. Strodda handlingar. III. 

Inkomna sirifvelser till Kammarradet. 1637 ff- Quoted: Skr. till Kam- 

mar. (K.A.). 
Ka?nmar Kollegie Protokoll. Quoted: Kam. Kol. Prot. (K.A.). 
Kammar Kollegie Registratur, 1637 if. Quoted: Kam. Reg. (K.A.). 
Kam. Journal. 

Kommers Kollegie Acta, 1653-9. Quoted: Kom. Kol. Ac. (K.A.). 
Kommers Kollegie sirifvelser till Kongl. Maj:t., 1650 fE. Quoted: Kom. 

Kol. sir. till Kongl. Maj. (K.A.). 
Kongliga bref i Kammar Kollegium, 1635-54. Quoted: Kongl. br. i Kam. 

Kol. (K.A.). 
Landsbocker, Elfsborgs Idn. 

Sandbergska Samlingen, Volume Q. Quoted: Sandb. Saml. (K.A.). 
III. Flottans arkiv.^' (the Archives of the Navy). 
(a) Catalogues and Indices: 

General Catalogue of the collections by Zettersten. 
Register till Ameralitetets Registratur. (An index at the end of most 


° Cf . E. Hildebrand, Ett par ord om kammararkivet. (In Hist. Tid., XVI, 

" Cf. Gustav Kleen, Anteck. om svenska krigsarkivei. {Krigsv. akad. tid. 
1880, p. 225 ff.) 

" Cf. Zettersten, Flottans arkiv pa Skeppsholmen (in Hist. Tid., VI, 227-234). 


8o2 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

(b) Collections of Letters and Documents: 

Ameralitetets registratur, 1630-60. Quoted: Am. Reg. (Fl. Ar.). 

Ankomna handlingar, 1636 ff. 

IV. Krigsarkivet (the Archives of War). A General catalogue in the Archives. 
Vdstgota regemente. 

V. KUNGLIGA BiBLiOTEKET (Royal Library), 
(a) Catalogues and Indices: 

Kongl. Bib:s Saml. af Sv. Erefvexl., af E. Tegner. (Stockholm, 1880.) 
{b) Collections of Letters and Documents: 
Rdlambska Samlingen. 


I. Universitetsbiblioteket (the University Library). 
(a) Catalogues and Indices: 

Handskriftkatalog E., Sveriges historia till l6gj. 
Handskriftkatalog L., Sveriges statskunsk., etc. 
Nordinska Samlingen, I-III. 

Palmskioldska Samlingen, Register ofver. Tom. I-II. (I also made use of 
the special " Register " in the different volumes of Palmsk. Saml., 
Vols. 81, 82, 230, etc.) 
Wiestinska handskriftsamlingen. (Cf. Samlaren, 1882, pp. 5-16.) 
(i) Collections of Letters and Documents: 

Copiebok af Kongl. bref till landshofd. Olof Stake, 1639-43, PP- 8-9. 
Handlingar om sv. handeln. L. 131. 
Handel och ndringar. N. 386. 

Palmskioldska {Palmschohka) Samlingen. Vols. 81, 82, 104, 322. Quoted: 
Palmsk. Saml. (Up. B.). Vol. 322 contains copies of Rising's 
beratteher and other documents concerning New Sweden. 
Oxenstiernska brefvexlingen. Letters from: 
Klas Fleming. 
Gustaf Printz. 
Johan Printz. 
Risings Journal. E. 433. En kort berdttehe, etc. Cf. below. Quot»d: 
Rising's Journal. (Up. B.). 

II. DoMKAPiTLETS ARKiv (the Archives of the Chapter or Consistory of the Arch- 

bishop of Upsala). 

(a) Catalogues and Indices: 
General catalogue of the collections. 

(b) Collections of Letters and Documents: 
Nya Sverige, I. 

Nya Sverige, II. Quoted: N. S., I. (D. A.). 
Proto. Consist. Ecclesia Stici Ubsaliensis, 1636 ff. 

Bibliography. 803 

III. Landsarkivet. (The District Archives.) A General catalogue. Church 

Universitetsbiblioteket (University Library). 
General Catalogue. 
De la Gardiska arkivet. Letters from Johan Printz. 


(a) Catalogues and Indices: 

Forteckning pa hands kriftsamlingen a Espelunda, by V. Koersner. (Stock- 
holm, 1882. Bound at the end of Hist. Tid., Vol. II.) 

Forteckning pa handskriftsamlingen a Bergshammar, by J. A. Lagermark. 
(Suppl. to Hist. Tid., Vol. V.) 

Handskrifter i Linkopings bibliotek, Forteckning ofver. 

Forteckning ofver autogr. samlingen pa Sjoholm (1889). In Riksarkivet. 

II. England. 


I. British Museum. 

Class Catalogue of Manuscripts, Single State Papers, Vol. XI. Foreign 
Series, 1625-1873. Gives list of Manuscripts in chronological order. 

Class Catalogue of Manuscripts, Single State Papers, Vol. XIV. Foreign 
Series, 160O-1873. 

II. Public Record Office. 

(a) Catalogues, Calendars, and Indices: 

List of Volumes of State Papers, Foreign, Preserved in the Public Record 
Office. (Lists and Indexes, No. XIX. Public Record Office, Lon- 
don, 1904.) 

Irf Guide to the Various Classes of Documents Preserved in the Public 
Record Office. By S. R. Scargill-Bird. (Third edition, London, 

Calendars and Indexes, No. 488. Patent Rolls. (1626-1636.) 

(b) Collections of Letters and Documents: 

Signet Office Bills, Warrants or King's Bills, Docquet Books. Vols. IX 
and X. 1627-1633. For a description cf. Guide to Documents, 
pp. 80-85. 

State Papers, Foreign. Archives, Poland [and Sweden], No. 88. Contains 
copies of letters from. King of Sw^eden, etc. 

State Papers, Foreign. Entry Books, Sweden, Nos. 151, 152, 163, 166. 

State Papers, Foreign. Trade and Admiralty Papers (Sweden), Nos. 1-9. 

State Papers, Foreign. Treaty Papers (Sweden), Nos. 69, 516, 520. 

8o4 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Bodleian Library. General Card Catalogue of Manuscripts. 
Letters from: 

Benjamin Bonnell. 

Queen Christina. 

Israel Lagerfelt. 

Axel Oxenstierna. 
Svecia. News Letters from Svecia, 1653-1658, 1655-1657. 

III. Holland. 

I. Het Rijksarchief (the Royal Archives). 

Resolutien, etc. Index opt' Register van Haer Ho. Mo. Resolutien, etc. 

found in the beginning of each volume. These indices are not aWays 

reliable. Index for 1640 refers to fol. 136 instead of 137, etc. 
Secrete Kas. L. A. Loketkas M. No. g. The copies of Indian signatures 

found here are not accurately reproduced in Doc, I, 593, 596, 597. 

The mark of Ackehoorn is changed and that of Van Borsura is 

inverted {Doc, I, 600). 
West Indische Compagnie. Loketkas of the States General, Litt L. No. 

4Q. A small volume bound in parchment, v>rell preserved. 
Reg. van Resolutien concerning the Dutch West India Company. 1638 if. 

I-II. An index in the beginning of each volume. Vol. I (Oct. 25, 

1638), fol. II, concerning a paper from Spiring about Kalmar 

Nyckel; fol. 16; (December 31, 1638), fol. 17; Suydercomp., Nov. 

16, 1639; 1644, fol- 129; 1645, fol. 148-149, 151, 15s; concerning S. 

Blommaert, 1648, Sept. 20, Nov. 20, fol. 434, December, fol. 436; 

1649, April, fol. 458, June I, fol. 462, July, fol. 469; 1650, March 10, 

fol. 592; June, fol. 568, 569. 

IV. America. 

I. Library of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 
An Alphabetical Card Catalogue. 
Copies of Documents from the Royal Archives in Stockholm. These copies 

are very good, containing but few mistakes. 
Archivum Americanum. Upsal Documents relating to the Swedish 

Churches on the Delaware. Translated copies. I-II. 
Willem Usselinx and the South Company. Manuscript copies in Penn. 

Hist. So. from the Archives at Stockholm, done by Sjoberg for J. F. 

Jameson. Quoted: Jameson Mss., Penn. Hist. So. 

Bibliography. 805 

II. American Philosophical Society. 
An Alphabetical Card Catalogue. 

Records of the Colony of New Sweden. One Volume of copies from the 
Royal Archives at Stockholm. (Also a French translation in the 
collection.) Poorly translated in Hazard's Reg. Cf. bibliography 

An Extract (translated into French) of Lindestrom's Geogr. Presented 
by W. Jones in 1822. 

III. The Library Company of Philadelphia. 
An Alphabetical Card Catalogue. 

Du Simitiere Manuscript Copies. Contain lists of Indian tribes, extracts 
of the Beschr. van Nieuw-Ned., Korte Historiael, etc. 

IV. Archives of Gloria Dei. 

Kyrkio-handlinglar'] wijd Forsamlingen Wicaco Ifran de Sveskes forste 
ofvi^erkomst till America och des deel Nya Swerige Sedan Niew 


Library of Congress. 

Col. and Rev. Doc. of the State of Delaware, III— IV. Cf. Penn. Evening 
Post, July 4, 1778. 

Library of the New York Historical Society. 
Translation of Notes to C. D. Arfwedson's Nova Svecia. 
Copies of Manuscripts Relating to the Swedes on the Delaware. Copied 

for B. Fernow. Also translations into English. 
Manuscript Translation from Acrelius (printed in Col. of N. Y. Hist. So., 

2d Se., I) and of Hesselius' Swedish Churches in America, 1725. 

(See above.) 


A. Published. 

A Perfect Description of Virginia, etc. (London, Printed for R. Wodenoth, 

at the Star under Peter's Church in Cornhill, 1649.) Reprinted in 

Col. Mass. Hist. So., 2d S., IX, 105 ff. 
BoGAERT, Johannes, Letters to Hans Bontemantel, August 28, October 

31, 1655. (First printed in 1858 in the Navorscher. Translated 

by Henry C. Murphy and published in The Hist. Mag., II, 257 ff. 

Revised translation of the letter of October 31 published in Jameson, 

Nar. of New Neth., 383-386.) Bontemantel was director of the 

Dutch West India Company at Amsterdam. 

8o6 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Breeden-Raedt, etc. (Antwerp, 1649.) Translated by H. C. Murphy 
(New York, 1854) i° ^ volume also containing Vertoogh van Nieu 
Nederland, p. 125 ff. Also in Col. of N. Y. Hist. So., 2d Se. (1857), 

III, 237 ff. 

Bressani, Father Francesco Giuseppe, Breve Relatione D'Alcune 
Missioni De' PP. della Compagnia di Geiii nella Nuova Francia. 
(Macerata, 1653.) An Italian Relation mentioning the Swedes. 
Reprinted and translated in Thwaites, Jesuit Relations, XXXVIII, 
203 ff., XXXIX, 12 ff. 

Campanius [Holm], Johan, De itinera Mag. Johan Campanii, etc., 
1643-1648. Rdlambska Samlingen, fol. 201. (Kongl. Bib.) Printed 
in Holm (transL), p. 70 ff. The manuscript copy is partly in Latin 
and partly in Swedish. Kernkamp, Skand. Archivalia, p. 151, gives 
the title is Swedish as found in an older catalogue. 

Concerning New Netherland or Manhattan. Unsigned but written by one 
who was well acquainted with the history of the settlements on the 
Delaware. It is found in the Clarendon Papers, preserved in the 
Bodleian Library at Oxford. (Published 1869 in Col. of N. Y. Hist. 
So., Fund Se., II, 1-14.) 

J Description of the Province of New Albion, etc. by " Beauchamp Plant- 
agenet." (1648.) Reprinted by Peter Force, if wf. Tracif. (1838.) 
II. For the full title and a criticism see Winsor, Nar. and Crit. 
Hist., Ill, 460 ff., IV, 427, 428, 437. See Sabin's Dictionary, V, 
no. 19, 724. " One Bagot under the Swedes name," etc. p. 10. 
" Some Swedish soldiers with the Indians marched into Virginia and 
carried thence the King of Pawtomeck prisoner," etc. 

DoNCK, Andriaen van der (author?), i. Petition, etc., to the States 
General; 2, Additional observances on the preceding Petititn, July 
26, 164Q. Translated and printed in (1856) Doc, I, 259-270. 

DoNCK, Andriaen van der (author?), Vertoogh van Nieu-Neder-Land 
Weghens de Ghelegentheydt, Vruchtbaerheydt, en Soberen Staet 
desselfs. (The Hague, 1650.) The document was perhaps drawn 
up by Van der Donck and signed by him, Augustin Herrman and sev- 
eral others on July 28, 1649. Transcribed from the authenticated 
manuscript copy in the Royal Archives at the Hague and translated 
and printed (1856) in Documents Relative to the Colonial History of 
New York, I, 271-318. A translation by Murphy of the printed 
tract was published in 1849 in Col. of N. Y. Hist. So., 2d Se., II, 
251-329 (also in a reprint, 1854). 

Donck, Andriaen van der, Beschryvinge van Nieuvv-N ederlant^ etc 

'^ He relates that an expedition sailed from Norway and Sweden which was 
never heard of again. Some think, he says, that the Indians are the descendants 
of these Scandinavians. 

Bibliography. 807 

(Amsterdam, 1655, 2d ed., 1656.) Translated in Col. of N. Y. Hist. 
So., 2d Se., I, 125-242. (New York, 1841.) Extract in Old South 
Leaflets, No. 69. 

Hammon, J., Leah and Rachel: or the Two Fruitful Sisters Virginia and 
Maryland, etc. (London, 1656.) Reprinted by Force, Hist. Tracts, 
III. " Much land there next the Swead," etc., p. 21. 

Jaque, Father Isaac, Novum Belgium (1646). A translation was pub- 
lished in 1851 by O'Callaghan in his Doc. Hist, of the State of New 
York, IV, 21 ff. Another translation printed in Col. of N. Y. Hist. 
So., 2d Se. (1857), III, 215-219; a levised translation published in 
Jameson's Nar. of New Neth. (1909), 259-263. In Thwaites, 
Jesuit Relations, XXVIII, 105 ff., appears the text with a trans- 

Letters of the Dutch Ministers to the Classis of Amsterdam, 1655-1664. 
Translated and edited in Jameson's Nar. of New Neth., pp. 391-415. 

Megapolensis, Johannes, Jr., Een korte Ontwerp vande Mahakvase 
Indiaenen, etc. (1644). (Alkmar, 1644.) Reprinted in Beschr. van 
Virginia, Nieuw Nederlant, etc. Amsterdam, 165 1. Translation 
published in Col. of N. Y. Hist. So., 2d Se., Ill, 137 ff.; revised 
translation in Jameson, Nar. of New Neth., 168 ff. 

Plockhoy, p. C, Kort en klaer ontwerp, etc. (Amsterdam, 1662.) Con- 
cerning the planting of a colony on the South River. Sabin, Dic- 
tionary, Pts. LXXXVII-LXXXVIII, no. 63425. 

Printz, Johan, Relation till datt hoglof. West Indische Compagn. . . den 
II Junij anno 1644. [Ft. Christina, June 20, 1644.J Published by 
Odhner, Kol. N. S., p. 27 (223) ff. Paragraphs 2, 3, 14, 15, 17 are 
omitted by Odhner. Quoted: Report, 1644. A translation by the 
author occurs in Albert Cook Myers, Nar. of Early Penn. 

Printz, Johan, Relation till datt hoghloffl. Westindiske Compagn. . . den 
20 februari 1647. Translated by Keen in Penn Mag., VII, 271 ff. 
A revised translation by the author occurs in Myers, Nar. of Early 

Relation De Ce Qui s'est passe de Plusremarquable es Missions des Peres 
de la Compagnie de lesus, en la Novvelle France, es annees 1647- 
1648. (Part Second by Paul Ragueneau.) (Paris, MDCXLIX.) 
Reprinted and translated in Thwaites, Jesuit Relations, XXXII, 

Rising, Johan, Relation concerning the conditions in New Sweden in 
1654.^' Dated Christina in New Sweden, July 13, 1654. Printed 
by Sprinchorn, in Kol. Nya Sv. hist., pp. 92-102. {Hist. Bibl., pp. 
256-266.) Translated by the author for Albert Cook Myers, Nar. 
of Early Penn. 

'^ Copy preserved in N. S., I. (R.A.) . 

8o8 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Rising, Johan, Relation ofwer thet ahnfall, etc. Printed in Arfwedson's 
De Colonia Nova Svecia (1825), p. 23 ff. Translated and published 
in Col. of N. Y. Hist. So., 2d Se., I, 443 ff. Quoted at large by 
Hazard, p. 190 ff. ; reprinted in the Penn. Arch. The translation 
revised by the author will be printed in Albert Cook Myers, Nar. 
of Early Penn. 

SWEERINGEN, Gerrit (Garrett) VAN, Relation. . . concerning his knowl- 
edge of the seating of Delaware Bay and River. . . by the Dutch 
and Swedes. (May 12, 1684.) Printed in Doc, III, 342; Md. 
Arch., V, 411 ff. 

Vries, David Petersz. de, Korte Historiael, ende Journaels, etc. (Alk- 
maer, 1655.) Translated by Henry C. Murphy" and printed by 
James Lenox (New York, 1853), reprinted in Col. of N. Y. Hist. 
So., 2d Se., Ill, 1-129. A revised translation of part of the 
Historiael, in Jameson's Nar. of New Neth., p. 186 ff. 

WiNTHROP, John, " The History of New England " from 1630 to 1649. 
Edited by James Savage. I-II. (Boston, 1825, 1826.) Reedited 
by James Kendall Hosmer {Winthrop's Journal, "History of New 
England," 1630-164$) in Jameson's Orig. Nar. of Early Am. Hist. 

B. In Manuscript. 
Elswick, Hendrick von. Relation, August, 1655-February, 1656. A 

journal of events in New Sweden during the siege of the Dutch and 

occurrences up to February, 1654. Moulded and partly unreadable. 

Preserved in N. S., I. (R. A.). 
Elswick, Hendrick von, Fragment of a Journal during a commercial 

journey to New Amsterdam in the spring of 1655. Preserved in 

N. S., I. (K. A.). 
Lindestrom, Peter, Een kort relation och beskrifning ofwer Nye Swerige, 

etc., 1654-5. Manuscript copy in N. S., II. (R. A.). Copy in Penn. 

Hist. So. 
Lindestrom, Peter, Een kort relation och beskrifning ofwer Nya Sweriges 

situation, etc., 1654-5. Fourteen pages. Ralambska Saml., fol. 

201. (Kongl. Bib.) 
Lindestrom, Peter, Geographia Americae, etc. Quoted: Geogr. Cf. 

above. Chap. XLIV. Copy of Chaps. II, IV, XXIX in Swedish, 

with translations and translations of other chapters (without copies 

in Swedish) are found in Penn. Hist. So. 

"Murphy has made some changes in the translation. Page 120 {Col. N. Y. 
Hist. So., 2d Se., IIL) he has Rotterdam. The original reads: "Den 28 Septem- 
ber arriveerden alhier een Haring Gainckjen ofte Buysjen dat 'van Amsterdam 
•was," De Vries, p. 182. In the margin of the copy of the N. Y. Hist. Library 
some one has written Rotterdam and crossed out Amsterdam The translation 
as a whole is quite accurate. 

Bibliography. 809 

Relation of the First Coming of the Swedes. Sworn statement of four 
men from the Kalmar Nyckel. Cf. facsimile reproduction. Original 
preserved in Kammararkivet (Archives of the Exchequer) ; dis- 
covered by the author in 1906. Translated by the author for Albert 
Cook Myers, Orig. Nar. of Early Penn. 

Rising, Johan: 

1. Een berattelse om Nova Svecia, etc. Elbing, 1656. Copy in Palmsk. 

Saml., LXXIV, 322, p. 263 ff. (Up. Bib.) Copy in Penn. Hist. 

2. Een berattelse, etc. No date. Manuscript copy in Palmsk. Saml., 

LXXIV, 322, p. 145 ff. (Up. Bib.) 

3. Een beskrifningh om Nova Svecia, etc. Elbing, 1658. Manuscript 

copy in N. S., II. (R. A.). 

4. Een beskrifningh om Nova Svecia, etc. No date, manuscript copy in 

N. S., II. (R. A.). 

5. Relation om Nya Sverige, 1655. N. S., I. (K. A.). Quoted: 

Report, 1655. Lately published by the author in German American 
Annals, N. S., VIII, 87 ff., 288. Has been translated by the 
author for publication in Albert Cook Myers, Orig. Nar. of Early 

6. Berattelse ofwer thet, som sigh tilldragit hafwer i Nova Svecia 

widh thet Ahnfall thermed the Hollenske. . . then Svenska Colo- 
nien i Nova Svecia med fiendligheet. . . hafwa ofwerfallit. No 
date. At end of Rising's Journal in Upsala Bibliotek. 

7. Een Kort Berattelse om Reesan till Nye Swerige, 1654-1655. No 

date. (Up. Bib.) Rising's Journal to New Sweden and in the 
Colony. Gives much new material. It is well preserved. The 
author hopes to publish it together with a translation in the near 

8. A Report in the form of a Journal, dated July 6, 1654, in N. S., I. 

(R. A.). Moulded and partly unreadable. Begins January 27, 
ends June 6; contains eight leaves, 14^ pages, the top and bot- 
tom of each page being moulded. 

9. Een Kort Berattelse om Thet Anfall, etc. Manuscript copv in N. S., 

I. (R. A.) 
Rudb[erus], Johan Jonsson, Relation of min reesas olyckelige afgdngh, 
etc. 1649-51. Concerning the Kattan Expedition. Now preserved 
in K. A. Discovered by the author in 1906. 

8io The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 
C. Literary Works. 




Arfwedson, C. D., Forenta Staterna och Canada Aren 1632, 1833 och 

1834. (Stockholm, 1835.) ?• 120 fE. treats of the Swedish Colony. 

(Also in English translation.) 
[Arfwedson, C. D.], Scener i Nord-Amerika. Ur en svenk resandes min- 

nes-bok. (Stockholm, 1836.) Svensken i Amerika. A story from 

New Sweden. 
(Belden, J. Van Zile, Antonia. Novel: Dutch Colonists in Hudson River 

Districts, 1640-50.) 
{Bennet, J., Barnaby Lee. Novel: Founding of New York and Maryland, 

Buck, W. J., Local Sketches and Legends, etc. (Printed for the author, 

1887.) The Tree and the Vine, p. 33 ff., refers to Campanius Holm. 

and the Swedish settlers. (Also printed in Bucks County Intelli- 
gencer and Hatboro Public Spirit, May 6, 1882.) 
Foster, C. F., The Bi-Centennial Hymn. Refers to the Swedes. (In 

Hist. Sketch of Chester, pp. 284-5.) 
Frame, R., A Short Description of Philadelphia, etc. (Philadelphia, 1692. 

Reprinted 1867.) Poem refers to the Swedes and Finns, p. 5. 
(Goodwin, Maud Winder, Sir Christopher. Novel: Maryland, 1644.) 
Holme, John, A True Relation of the Flourishing State of Pennsylvania. 

The poem is printed in Proceed, of the Hist. So. of Penn., I, no. 12, 

161-80.) It was perhaps written in 1689. He refers to the Swedish 

and Finnish settlers, p. 167. 
Hylten-Cavallius, G. O., Sveriges Hist, och Polit. Visor. (Forsta 

delen, Orebro, 1853.) On p. 305 (strophe 12) is a verse about the 

companies founded by King Gustavus Adolphus. 
Irving, Washington, Knickerbocker's History of New York. (New 

York, 1851.) Book IV, Chap. IX (pp. 227-41), treats of the found- 
ing of New Sweden and the English settlements on the Schuylkill. 

For other Chapters on the Swedish settlements see Books V and VI. 
LiNDBLAD, E., Till Minneapolis. (In 2S0th Anniversary, etc.) Pp. 40-I 

refers to New Sweden on the Delaware. 
LiNDHOLM, A. T., Gamla och Nya Sverige. (In zsoth Anniversary, etc.) 

Pp- 32-3. 
Longfellow, H. W., Evangeline. Works, II, 19-106. P. loi refers to 

the Swedish Church at Wicacoa of a later period than the one 

treated in this volume. 

"The author has made no special efforts to furnish a complete list. 

Bibliography. 8ii 

Nyvall, D., An "Ode" on the Swedish Colony. (In 2S0th Anniversary, 
etc.) Pp. 36-7. 

Mattson, Hans, 2S0th Anniversary of the First Swedish Settlement in 
America, etc. (Minneapolis, no date but copyright, 1889.) Con- 
tains speeches, orations, etc., of historic character about the colony. 

(Motley, J. L., Merry-Mount. Novel: Plymouth Colony, Boston, 1849.) 

[Paulding, James Kirke], Konigsmarke [Long Finn] or Old Times in 
the New World, I-II." 

Peterson, Arthur, Collected Poems. (Philadelphia, 1900.) II. Songs of 
New Sweden, pp. 57-148. 

1. Dedication. 

2. Prologue. 

3. The Coming of Printz. 

4. Printz's Hall. 

5. The Settlement. 

6. The Lady Armagot (in four parts). 

7. Brita (in five parts). 

8. Eric the Archer (in four parts). 

9. The Fall of Fort Christina (in three parts). 

10. The Blackbeard (in two parts). (It concerns the pirate Ed. 

11. Epilogue. The Dream of Isaac the Quaker, Kelpius's Hymn and 
Indian Rock do not really belong to the collections although they 
are included in Songs of New Sweden. See p. 59. 

Printz Hall. A Record of New Sweden. By the author of " Blackbeard." 
Rydberg, Victor, Fribytaren pa Ostersjon. (Stockholm, 4de, up.) Pp. 

445-6, 480-8, 498 contain references to New Sweden. 
Steendam, Jacob, P rick el-Vaer sen. Refers to the South River, the Colony 

at the Swanendael, etc. Printed and also translated by Murphy in 

Antology, etc. 
St. John, M., Lettres, etc. I-III. (Paris, 1787.) Tome II, p. 230, 

refers to the Swedish settlements. 
Stockenstrom, H., An " Ode " on the Swedish Colony on the Delaware. 

(In 250th Anniversary, etc., pp. 28-9.) 
Strindberg, August, De lycksaligas bar. (In Samlade romaner och berSt- 

telser af Aug. Strindberg. Stockholm, 1900. Pp. 197-199.) 
ToWNSEND, G. A., Poems of Men and Events. (New York, 1899.) See 

pp. 224-5, 229, 268, 309 ff. 
Two Hundred Years Ago; or Life in New Sweden. (By the author of 

" Over the Hedge." Philadelphia, 1876. American Sunday School 

"Life in New Sweden. 

8i2 The Swedish Settlements on the Delaware. 

Union.) Purports to be a diary of a young Swedish girl who came 

over in the Swan in 1647. The Journal is continued down to 1682. 
Unonius, G., Minnen frdn en sjuttonarig vistehe i Nordvestra Amerika" 
Yaconta, A Legend of West Jersey, in Miss Leslie's Magazine. Treats 

of an incident related in De Vries Journal. See Barber, Historical 

Collections of New Jersey, p. 204. 


A Contribution to Pennsylvania Historical Bibliography. Pub. of the Penn. 

Hist. Club. Vol. I. [Albert Cook Myers, editor.] (Philadelphia, 

Byskomakaren Jonas Stolts minnen frdn 1820-talet. Bidr. till vdr odl:f 

hdfder, 5. (Stockholm, 1892.) 
Charter to William Penn, etc. {Duke of Yorke's Book of Laws, i6y6- 

1682). Compiled and edited by S. George, B. M. Nead and T. 

McCamant. (Harrisburg, 1879.) New Sweden, p. 420 S. Not 

Hall, Clayton Colman, Narratives of Early Maryland, 1633-1684. 

(New York, 19 10.) 
Jameson, John Franklin, Narratives of New Netherland, 1609-1664. 

(New York, 1909.) 
Retzius, Gustaf, Finland i Nordiska Museet, etc. Bidr. till vdr odl:s 

hafder, I. (Stockholm, 1881.) 

" Almost every book of travel on America written by Swedes contains reference 
to New Sweden and many books of a literary character by Americans or Swedish- 
Americans about Sweden likewise refer to the colony. 



N. B. The Swedish letters a, a and o are treated like a and o and do not 
follow the Swedish order. In some cases information not to be found in the text 
about men and places is given in the index and in most instances various spell- 
ings of the proper names found in the documents are given in parenthesis. All 
the abbreviations used in the text are either printed in full in the index or referred 
to the proper place in the bibliography. The names of the settlers are given 
under the heading colonists, and the various expeditions, forts and ships are 
given together under the headings expeditions, forts and ships, respectively. 


A. B. C. Book, published in 1611, 23 

Abo (Turko), education in, 31; Royal 
Court at, 239; salt sent to the mayor 
of, 2gg 

A cc\_ount'i Blook], 1 643-1 648, quoted, 
192, 242, 24s, 256, 261, 304, 305, 308- 
318, 320-321. 323-333. 335. 347. 376. 
399. 409. 455. 548 

/1cc[ount] Book of Beier, quoted, 242, 
247; see also Beier 

Acerbi, Joseph, quoted, 359-361 

Ackehorn (Ackehoorn), sells lands to 
the Dutch, 440-441 

Acrelius, Israel, quoted, 49, 57, 175- 
176, 190, 238, 304, 338, 350, 367, 380, 
411-412, 412, 423, 429, 430, 465-466, 
541. 554, 605, 609, 634, 655, 660- 
662, £70 

Adams, Thomas, of Maryland, endeav- 
ors to establish trade with the Swedes, 

Admiralty, 692-693; see also expedi- 
tions, and the New Sweden Company 
Adzes, sent to New Sweden, 255 
Africa, proposals of Swedish trade to, 
92, 133; trade from New Sweden to, 


African Company, Swedish, 676, 683 ; 
to trade with slaves in America, 10; 
founded, 49 ; capital stock of, _ 49, 
624; endeavors to increase its capital, 
624; claims of, to be_ settled, 654 

Agriculture, important industry in Swe- 
den, government favors, 36-37; im- 
plements of, on first expedition, 112, 
on second expedition, 128 ; used by 
Indians, 193 ; placed on a prosperous 
footing in New Sweden, 319; col- 

onists could sell 100 barrels of grain, 
338 ; rain damages grain in 1652, 
341 ; by burning, 147, 527 ff. ; see 
also Printz, Ridder, Rising and New 

Ahopameck, witness, signs papers, 566 

Aillon, Lucas Vasquez de, makes land- 
ings at New York, 165 

Aitzema, L. van, quoted, 14, 141-142 

Akilles (A chillis), see ships 

Aland, elks shot at, 239 

Albany, 166 

Albany Rec\_ordj], quoted, 382, 411, 

Albion, New, see New Albion 
Albrechtsen, Jacob, 761 
Ale-house, erected on Tinicum Island, 


Alexander the Great, 556 

Alexander, quoted, 42 

Alfs visbok, quoted, 550 

Algonkin, meaning of, 187 

Algonquian tribes, largest family in 
North America, 187 ff. 

AlingsSs, tobacco sold in, 644 

Allen, Isaac, 638 

Allerton, Isaac, trades in the colony, 
316-318, 323, 333, 339, 515; friendly 
to the Swedes, 576, 579; factor of, 
638 ; continues trade on the South 
River during the Dutch occupation, 
658 ff.; signs a document for the 
Dutch, 437 

" All's Well that Ends Well," 26 

Almquist, quoted, 147-148 

Aln, length of, etc., 42 

Alrich, Jacob, appointed director of 
New Amstel, 664; dies, 666 

Altena (Altona) (Christina), Fort, 




governor of the company's colony at, 
664; Beeckman appointed commis- 
sary at, 665 ; see also Christina 
Altmark, truce at, in 1629, 5 
Amattehoorn, see Mattahorn 
America, 677, 682, 697, 698 ; see also 
Dutch, English, Swedes, New Swe- 
den, expeditions 

American Company, the, 683, 695 ; third 
reorganization of the New Sweden 
Company, 619 ff. ; claims against the 
government, 620; members of, make 
application for monopoly on tobacco, 
622-623 ; Junge appointed factor in 
place of Bonnell, 623 ; efforts in be- 
half of, by the Commercial College, 
624; proposals made for, 625; name 
given to, capital of, 626 ; officers of, 
627-628 ; budget of, in Stockholm, 
627 ; new budget made by, for the 
colony, 627-628 ; salaries of officers 
of, 627-628 ; abstract of charter for, 
628-629 ; efforts in behalf of, 629- 
630; prepares the twelfth expedition, 
631 ff. ; tobacco trade of the, 637 ff.; 
proposals for aiding, 638 ; tobacco 
imported and sold by the factors of, 
637-639; indemnity demanded for, 
649 1 Appelbom's endeavors on be- 
half of, 650; inventory of the prop- 
erty of, 654; memorials concerning 
the rights of, 655; no indemnity se- 
cured by, 656; reorganization of the, 
640 ff. ; see also American Tobacco 

Am[erican] Phil[osophical] So[ciety], 
quoted, 320; copies in, 500 

American Tobacco Company, The, re- 
organization of the American Com- 
pany, 640; tobacco trade placed in 
the hands of, 640 ff. ; inspectors ap- 
pointed for, 641 ; searchers appointed 
by, 641-642 ; assets and liabilities 
of, 642-643 ; officers of, 643-644 ; 
tobacco imported by, 644; dissolu- 
tion of, 644, 646; figures in claims 
and lawsuits as late as 1736, 646- 
649; Rising presents claims against, 
646-647; Gov. Printz's claims 
against, 647 ; see also New or Fourth 
Tobacco Company 

Amira, quoted, 456 

Amisackan Falls, 569 

Ammunition, brought over on first ex- 
pedition, 105 ; see also expeditions 

Am. Reg[istratur], quoted, 121, 124, 
HI, 240-241, 243-244, 251, zn-zss, 
258, 267, 277-279, 470-472, 489> 492 

Amsterdam, no, 118, 122, etc., 675, 
677, 685, 687, 694, 698 ; ships arrested 
at, 78 ; Oxenstierna at, 91 ; see also 
Amundsson, Hans, 762; sent to the 
colony on the ninth expedition in the 
capacity of a Commander, 268 ; com- 
plains to the governor of Porto Rico 
about the ill treatment of the Swedes, 
271 ; receives aid from the Spaniards, 
271 ; is permitted to leave the island, 
272 ; differs in some details in his 
account from Rudberus, 275 ; arrives 
in Sweden, 276 ; appointed to de- 
mand damages for the ninth expedi- 
tion, 278, 291, 480; removed from 
his commission, 279, 492; greatly to 
blame for the delay of the Haj, 474; 
on the Haj from Stockholm to Goth- 
enburg, 480; Hook and Elswick ap- 
pointed in place of, 491 ; documents 
taken from, 492; allowed to go with 
his family on the Haj, 494; dies at 
Porto Rico, 495 ; quoted, 275, 490 

Amundsson, Jon, desires to go to New 
Sweden, 478 

Anckarhjelm, Martin Tijssen (Ancker- 
hielm, Anckerhelm), works without 
pay for the company, 226 ; instructed 
to make the Fama ready, 255 ; takes 
an active part in the ninth expedi- 
tion, 266 ; secures provisions for the 
ninth expedition, 268 ; buys provisions 
for the tenth expedition, 470; advises 
Rising not to think of Florida as a 
suitable place for a colony, 479 ; sup- 
plies additional money for the tenth 
expedition, 482 ; aids in preparing the 
eleventh expedition, 490 ff. ; removes 
Amundsson from his commission, 492 ; 
endeavors to find a mate for the 
eleventh expedition, 493 ; reports con- 
cerning a ship for sale by Macklier, 
631; aids in preparing the twelfth 
expedition, 632 ff. ; reports concern- 
ing colonists, 633 ; quoted, 480-482, 
490, 495. 632-635. biography, 673 

Andastoes, supposed to be the Susque- 
hannas, 334; a Christian Indian 
visits New Sweden on his way to, 

Andersson, Dr. Aksel, quoted, 59 

Andersson, Anders, rents tobacco trade, 

Andersson, Herman, sailor, 758 

Andersson, Jesper, subscribed to the 
South Company, 60 

Andersson, Johan, 759 



Andersson, Lucas, sells cargoes coming 
from New Sweden and the Carib- 
bean Islands, 248-249 

Andersson, MSns, contributes on behalf 
of Fleming to the sixth expedition, 

Andersson, Mats, bailiff, furnishes 
money for second expedition, 125 

Andersson, Nils, Governor, requested 
to aid in securing colonists, 259 

Andersson, Peter (Per), appointed 
director of South Company, 58 ; sub- 
scribes for the Company, 63 ; re- 
quested to hurry completion of the 
ropewalk, 64-65 ; made burggraf at 
Norrkoping, 65 ; consults with the 
Council about the journeys to the 
West Indies, 67 

Andersson, Steffan, 642 

Andriesen, Laurens Cornelius, permis- 
sion to sail to American ports given 

to. 341. 343 

Andriessen, Marion, Huygen buys 
sew ant from, 310 

Andriessen, Peter, witnessed against 
Lamberton, 386 

Andriesson, Jan (Jan Andriesen), 
granted land, 411 ; did not settle the 
land, 412; signs the land deed, 429 

Andriesson, Jan, of Beren-Bach, 433 

An. Eng. Descrip. of America, 553 

Anp-ermannus, [Abrahamus], works for 
interest of Swedish education, 27 

Anjou, quoted, 22, 29 

Ankare, size of, 42, 342 

Anrep, quoted, 59, 650 

Anstruther, sent to Oxenstierna, 91 

Antigua, island of, the Swedes at, 240, 

Antiquities, Swedish, money from the 
tobacco excise to be used for the 
publication of, 645 

Antwerp, 676, 698 

Anzoov (Anzooan( ?) ), 649 

Appelbom, Harald, to be appointed in 
place of Blomraaert, 156; presents 
memorials to the States-General, 648, 
652 ff. ; reports to the government, 
651 ; biography, 674 

Aquilera, Jacobus de, governor of 
Porto Rico, receives Elswick, 280, 
495 ; refuses to pay the sura de- 
manded by Elswick, 280 

Arber, quoted, 11 

Arch. Ame., quoted, 372 

Archangel, 72; see also South-Ship 

Archbishop, Campanius writes to, 372- 


Arend, quoted, 135, 142 

Arfwedson, quoted, 596, 600, 6io 

Argall, Samuel, anchors in Delaware, 
167; quoted, 167 

Argonautica Gustaviana, published, 81- 
82; quoted, 57, 81-82 

Arken, see ships 

Arlington, Lord, 51 

Armada, the, destroyed by England, 3 

Armenverius, district at the Schuylkill 
sold to Corsen, 422; title renewed, 

Armewamese Indians, tried to overrun 
the Dutch, 415 

Armstrong, quoted, 456 

Arnheim, Hiiygens von, shares in com- 
pany, 106 

Arnhem, Gerrit van, 106 

Arregahaga (Black Minquas), the fur 
trade comes from, 342 

Artisans, Hindricksson requested to ob- 
tain, 125-126; to be sent to Long 
Island, 174 

Arunameck (Aronameck), 527, 566 

Aschbach, referred to, 165 

Asher, quoted, 166 

Asia, a short route sought for, 166 

Asinpinck (Trenton) Falls, corn fields 
at, 193 

Aspinwall (Aspenwall), William, in 
command of the expedition to dis- 
cover the Great Lakes, 395 ; member 
of the company, 395 ; delivers letters 
of recommendation, 396; not allowed 
to pass the Dutch fort, 396-397 ; 
compelled to stop by the Swedish 
fort and pay for the shot fired at 
him, 305, 397; returns with his ship 
to Boston, sued, 397 

Assanpink (Assinpinck, Asinpinck) 
Kill, 113 

Atskilliga kolonier (K.A.), quoted, 16% 

Augsburg Confession, to be maintained 
in the colony, 609, 629 

Augustinsson Leijonskold, MSrten 
(Martin), assessor in the First Com- 
mercial College of Sweden, 16; in- 
structed to look for colonists, memo- 
rial for, 125 ; ordered to let salt for 
the Company in duty-free, 229 ; vice- 
director of Commercial College, i8; 
memorial for, 123 

Austria, makes war on Carl X., 8 

Avalon, colony of Lord Baltimore, 172 

Axelsson, Ake, subscribed to the South 
Company, 60 


Axes, sent to New Sweden, 255; see 

also expeditions 
Azores, 495, 698 


Baat, Seved, kammarrdd, proposed to 
send prisoner to New Sweden, 356 

Baconian theory, referred to, 165 

Baelter, Sven, quoted, 368-370 

Bain, quoted, 7-8, 20 

Balch, T. W., quoted, 573 

Baltic, the, to be made a Swedish in- 
land sea, 5 

Baltic ports, vessels forbidden to sail 
to, 142 

Baltic provinces, see Lithuania, Cour- 
land, Livonia, Ingria (Ingerman- 

Baltimore, Lord, colony of Avalon, ap- 
plies to King James for a charter, 
172; charter to Cecil, second Lord 
Baltimore, 172 ff. ; makes settlement 
on grant, becoming nearest neighbor 
to New Sweden, 174 

Bancroft, George, quoted, ^tj 

Baner, Axel, governor, subscribed to 
the South Company, 60; letter to, 651 

Baner, Johan, 689, victory of, at Witt- 
stock, 7 

Baner, Per, subscribed to the South 
Company, 60 

Baner, Svante, subscribed to the South 
Company, 60 

Bang, quoted, 23, 29 

Barbadoes (Barbados), Swedish ships 
sailed to, 40; Swedish merchants to 
trade at, 621 

Barben, Jacob, commander on the Grip, 

Barber-masters, see barber-surgeons 

Barber-surgeons, in Sweden, 29; hired 
to go to New Sweden, 243, 260; see 
also expeditions, life in the colony, 
New Sweden 

Barclay, 674 

Barfod, quoted, 17, 33, 44, 251 

Barley, Ridder requests, 198 ; see also 
expeditions, life in the colony. New 

Barns, built for the shelter of the cattle, 
315; see also life in the colony. New 

Basque, probable visits of, to the Dela- 
ware, 165 

Bastu (badstu), see bath-houses 

Bath-houses, erected by the Swedes and 
Finns, 357 ff. 

Batt, to go to New Albion, 401 

Bavaria, 398 

Baxter, quoted, 392 

Baxter, from Gravesend, New England, 

Bay of Virginia, see Virginia Bay 

Beans, Ridder requests, 198 ; see also 
life in colony. New Sweden 

Bewuer, the; see ships 

Beavers, trade of, in Holland, 119; 
trade of in Sweden, 159 if.; not 
satisfactory in Sweden, 223 ; sold by 
Bonnell in Stockholm, 288-289 i see 
also life in colony, New Sweden 

Beckman, quoted, 25 

Beckman, Vinsent, 760 

Beeckman, Willem, appointed commis- 
sary at Fort Altena, 665 ; proposes to 
tax the Swedes, 665; quoted, 350 

Beer, different kinds of, 35; shipped to 
New Sweden, 128 ; made in the col- 
ony, 354 ff. ; see also life in the col- 
ony. New Sweden and the expeditions 

Bees, not found in New Sweden, 536 
n. 16 

Behm, Daniel, prepares instructions for 
the officers of the Commercial Col- 
lege, 17 

Beier, Johan, identified with the com- 
pany, 107; appointed treasurer, 132; 
appointed to negotiate with Blom- 
maert and Reede, 136-137; ammu- 
nition and other supplies procured 
by, 151; secretary of the first Com- 
mercial College in Sweden, 16 ; to 
be appointed secretary of the reor- 
ganized Company, 222 ; paid a sal- 
ary by the government, 225 ; con- 
tinues to act as treasurer, 230; en- 
gages a blacksmith for the sixth ex- 
pedition, 238; furnishes money to 
Printz, 240; pays returning servants 
on the fifth expedition, 241 ; assists 
in preparing the sixth expedition, 
242 ; buys goods for the sixth expedi- 
tion, 243 ; pays returning colonists, 
248 ; writes to the Queen on behalf 
of returning sailors, 249 ; papers 
from New Sweden sent to, 252; helps 
prepare the seventh expedition, 253 ; 
busy in Stockholm to prepare the 
eighth expedition, 258 ; complains 
about the Company, 259 ; money paid 
by Secretary Ericksson to, 263 ; re- 
quested to report about the ninth 
expedition, 278 ; called into the Coun- 
cil to give a report about New Swe- 
den, 283 ; buys copper for the Com- 
pany, 288 ; present at conferences 



with the Tobacco Company, 291 ; 
quoted, 120, 153, 240, 242, 257-259, 
300, 371-372, 620; biography, 674 

Belgium, 32 

Belknap, quoted, 394 

Bell, church, 366 

Bengtsson, MSns, 761 

Bengtsson, Per, contributes on behalf 
of Fleming to the sixth expedition, 

Bennet, Gov., letters sent to, 572 

Bennigen (Beuningen), Peter von, sub- 
scribed to South Company, 60 

Berg, quoted, 29, 328 

Berg, Lars, 641 

Bergen, 493 

Bergkvarna, glass factory at, 34 

Bergslagen, Kling to go to, 149 

Berkeley, William, Governor, proposes 
that the Swedes should apply for 
privileges of trade to the King of 
England, 185; sends protest to the 
Swedes, 216; complains about the 
Dutch, 340 

Berlin, 357, 674 

Berndes, Johan, general director of the 
Commercial College, 18 ; governor, 

Bernhard, Duke, of Saxe-Weimar, de- 
feat of, 6, 82, 91 

Besckr. van Virginia, etc., quoted, 171, 

Bessels, Adam, shares in New Sweden 
Company, 106 

Beuningen, Koenraad van, Dutch resi- 
dent at Stockholm questioned about 
the invasion of New Sweden, 286 

Bible, of Gustavus Adolphus, 22 

Bicker, Commander, 522, 583-584; 
quoted, 583 

Bijdr. en Mededeel., quoted, 17 

Bill, typical, showing articles used by 
a settler, 356 

Biographica (R.A.), quoted, 476 

Biog. Woordenb., quoted, 135 

Bjeike, Sten, 693 

Bjelke, Ture, 688 

Bjorkman, quoted, 42, 351 

Black Dog (Svarte Hunden), see ships 

Black Eagle, see Svarte Arent 

Black Minquas (Arregahaga), why so 
named, 188; difficult to identify, 189; 
location of, 190-191 ; Huygen sent 
into the country of, 332; beaver trade 
renewed with, 333; killing of the 
River Indians would give an un- 
molested trade to, 377; said to have 

attacked Fort Christina, 387; see also 

Blacksmith, Hindricksson requested to 
obtain, 126; Beier engages, 238; see 
also New Sweden 

Blacksmith shop, in Christina, 307 ; 
bellows of, mended, 307 

Blackstone, quoted, 456-457, 459 

Blanck (Planck) Jurrian, sent to Fort 
Nassau, 409 ; ordered to depart, 409- 
410; leaves the Schuylkill, 410 

Blanck, Abraham, see Planck 

Blasbjerg, 357 

Blekinge, tobacco trade in, 641, 642 

Block, Adriaen, voyage by, 167; returns 
to Holland, 168 

Block, Hans, builds a grist-mill, 666 

Block-houses, built by English at Var- 
kens Kill, 210; on the Schuylkill, 
213 ; see also New Sweden and rela- 
tion with the Dutch, the English 

Blome (Blume), Jacob, member of the 
Tobacco Company, 291 ; treasurer 
of the company, 292 ; complains about 
the tobacco trade, 294; refuses to pay 
the full amount claimed by Kramer, 
296; instructed by the Commercial 
College to pay 10,000 D., 297; quoted, 
289, 293-294, 297 

Blommaert, Bugeslac (?), shares in a 
brass factory at Nacka, 89 

Blommaert, Samuel, 674, 684, 697; 
writes to Falkenberg, 88-89 ; >" the 
East Indies, 89 ; Erik Larsson's factor, 
89 ; erected brass factory at Nacka, 
89; refers to West Indian trade, 90; 
interviews with, 90; interest in Swe- 
dish commerce, 90; Oxenstierna calls 
on, 91 ; presents plan for West Indian 
trade, 92 ; meets Peter Minuit, 93 ; 
sends letters to Spiring, 94; com- 
mercial plans of, 94, 98 ; engaged as 
an agent of the Swedish Crown, 99 ; 
interviews with Spiring, 95, 99-100, 
102 ; manager of the company in 
Holland, 103 ; reports to Oxenstierna, 
103-104; informed of the progress in 
Sweden, 105 ; contributes to the com- 
pany, io6 ; receives orders for the 
buying of goods, 107 ; ships goods to 
Sweden for the company, 109 ; drafts 
charters and other papers for the 
company, 103, 105-106, 107-109, 112, 
114; requested to go to Sweden, no; 
gives details of the expedition to 
Oxenstierna, 116; repairs Kalmar 
Nvckel, 117, 119; Fleming to corre- 
spond with, 120; money delivered to. 



122; buys new cargo for the second 
expedition, 122; mentioned, 129; 
peltries sold by, 131 ; continues to aid 
expeditions, 132; visits Spiring, 136; 
requested to write to Sweden, 136; 
Beier to correspond with, 137; not to 
be informed about Utrecht colony, 
143 ; requested to aid returning ships 
in 1642, 155; connections with com- 
pany severed, 156; buys land on the 
Delaware, 170-171 ; said to have sold 
land to the Swedes, 176; said to own 
the upper part of the Delaware, 179 ; 
quoted, 92-97, 99-107, 109-114, 116- 
119, 122-129, 136-137. 193-195; 
biography, 675 

Blommaert, Thomas, buys tobacco, 159 

Blommaerfs Burg, 676 

Blommaerfs Islands, 676 

Blommaerfs Kill, 676 

Blommaerfs Riiier, 676 

Blon, Michel le, 676 ; conferences with 
Blommaert, reports to Spiring, 90 

Bluntschli, quoted, 572 

Blyde Bootschap, see ships 

Bock, Elizabeth, 689 

Bockhorn, Jan Janson (Jansen), mate 
on the ninth expedition, 268 ; dam- 
ages sustained at Porto Rico, 278 ; 
appointed captain on the Orn, 470; 
refuses aid from the English, 484; 
buys supplies at Firth, 489 ; instructed 
to take timber to Lisbon as ballast, 
519; biography, 470 n. 4 

Boender, Capt. Clas Hindersson, 762- 
763 ; sails the New King David, 227 

Boer, Cornelius de, lands of, con- 
fiscated, 585 

Bogaert, Johannes, quoted, 600-601, 603, 

Bogaert, Joost van den, 759; sent to 
Sweden, 137; engaged as agent in 
New Sweden, 141 ; returns to Hol- 
land, 141— 142; has in mind to leave 
for America, 144; arrives in New 
Sweden, 200; "disappears from His- 
tory," 203 ; quoted, 143-144 

Bogardus, Rev., 327 

Bohm, Peter, rents tobacco trade, 645 

Bohus Ian, 493 ; tobacco trade in, 641 

Boije, Christer, comes here on the fifth 
expedition, 238; given command of 
the blockhouse at Upland, 307 ; ap- 
pointed lieutenant in April, 451 ; 
judge at the court in July, 1643, 
460; member of court of January, 
1644, 461; sent to New Holland to 

buy provisions and bring back some 
deserters, 310; letter of introduction 
for, 407 ; expenses on his journey, 
452 ; returns to Sweden, 452 

Bomkin's Hook, 303, see Bomten's Hook 

Bomten's (Bontiens) Hook, land situ- 
ated between, and the Schuylkill, 
184, 440; called Canaresse by the 
Indians, 440 

Bonde, Carl, subscribed to the South 
Company, 60; governor, 239 

Bonde, Christer, ambassador to Eng- 
land, 12, 636; president of the Com- 
mercial College, 636; report made to, 

Bonnel, Abraham, Joseph, John, etc., 

Bonnell (Bonnel), Benjamin, to found 
a glass factory at Gothenburg, 63-64; 
appointed factor of New Sweden 
Company, 132, 157; tobacco placed 
in the care of, 157; sells tobacco, 
159 ff. ; buys tobacco from Holland, 
159 S. ; continues to act as salesman 
of the reorganized Company, 232 ; 
pays for the bringing of tobacco from 
the ship to the storehouse, 257 ; sells 
skins for the company, 288, 289 ; 
present at conferences with the To- 
bacco Company, 291 ; sells tobacco 
for the company, 293 ff. ; imports 
tobacco for the company, 295 ; over- 
charges the Tobacco Company, 297 ; 
services for the company come to an 
end, sent to England, 12, 299-300; 
quoted, 12, 300; biography, 675 

Bontekoe, see ships 

Bontekoe, W. Y., quoted, 558 

Bookkeepers, see Kramer and Gall 

Books of the company, 231; see also 
New Sweden Company 

Boompjes Hook, 440; see Bomten's 
(Bomtiens) and Bomkin's Hook 

Borga, salt sent to, by the company, 
288 ; Usselinx visits, 62 

Boston, complaints about the Swedes 
presented to the court at, 388 ff. ; 
citizens of, attempt to reach the Great 
Lake, 394-395 ; expedition leaves, 
395; returns to, 397; bark with seven 
men sent out from, murderers sent 
to, 398 ; a company for the discovery 
of the " Great Lake " formed at, 
members of company, 395 

Botello (Botelho) Rodrigo, Portuguese 
ambassador to Sweden, n 

Bothnia, Gulf of, 62; see also Usselinx 

Bottnaryd, 688 



Boxes, musical, sent to New Sweden, 

Boxes, tobacco, sent to New Sweden, 

Boyart (bojert), meaning of, 595 
Boyer, Alexander (Sander), brings pro- 
test to Printz, 414; placed in com- 
mand of Fort Nassau, 424; in dis- 
pute with Skute, 425 ; was interpreter 
for the Dutch, 436; declared to be 
an illreputed man, 585; quoted, 425 

Bozman, quoted, 173, 214 

Bradford, William, governor, quoted, 

Braganza, John of. King of Portugal, 
no longer recognized by Queen Chris- 
tina, 10 

Brahe, Per, 686, 688 ; interested in 
Swedish education, 27 ; quoted, ao6, 
313, 315. 366> 375, 378-379. 452, 543, 
546; biography, 677 

Brand-pylens Island, 676 

Brandenburg, coalition of, against Swe- 
den, 9 

Brandy, carried over on the expedi- 
tions and made in the colony, 355; 
Ridder requests, 198 ; see also expe- 

Brandywine Creek, 520 

Breitenfeld, victories at, 302 

Brechin heights, 483 

Brewing, industry in Sweden, 35; in 
the colony, 354 ff. 

Bricks, made in Sweden, 35; brought 
to the Delaware by Heyes, 170; 
brought by Minuit, 193 ; fireplaces 
built of, 193 ; New Sweden Company 
trade in, 242 ; 6,000 sent to New Swe- 
den, 242 ; good clay for, in New 
Sweden, 198 ; Printz makes requests 
for 20,000, 321 ; made in the colony, 

Bricicmakers, Hindricksson to obtain, 
126; requests for, in New Sweden, 
198, 321 

Brickyards, 35 

" Brief van den Koop," quoted, 247 

Briggs, Henry, quoted, 560 

Brinton, quoted, 187, 190, 531 

British Museum, 621 

Briton, probable visits of, to the Dela- 
ware, 165 

Broadsides, quoted, 54 

Brodhead, confuses Laconia and Ly- 
gonia, quoted, 93, 166, 169-172, 377, 

384, 392, 593 
Brodinus, Aug., consul general, aids 
Looff, 76 

Broecke, quoted, 192 

Brokerage, 40 

Broman, President of Gothenburg, 472 

Brosater, 683 

Brown, Anthony, see Bruyn 

Briigee, Gillies von, shares in company, 

Brugraan, quoted, 17 
Brushes, gilded, sent to New Sweden, 

Bruyn, Anthony, beaver skins sold to, 

Buckingham, George Villiers, Duke of, 

makes treaty with Gustavus Adol- 

phus, 177 
Budget, of the colony, 451, 503, 627; 

of the American Company, 627, 628 
Biihring, J., quoted, 9 
Bullo, quoted, 9 

Bureus, Andreas, studies the old lan- 
guage, etc., 25; quoted, 31 
Bureus, Jonas, 21 
Burgesses, the, one of the estates of 

Sweden, 20 
Burlington, 429 

Burman, Gerhard, appointed fiscal, 645 
Burson, Nils, subscribed to the South 

Company, 6i 


Cabbage, Ridder requests, 198 

Cabeliau, Abraham, becomes general 
director of the trading company, 45 ; 
appointed general director of the 
South-Ship Company, 71 ; factor of, 
74; proposes trade with Spain, 73— 
74; blamed by Nilsson, 77; heirs of, 
released from responsibility, 227-228 

Cabot, Sebastian, 165-166 

Caesar, quoted, 361 

Calais, Swedes cast anchor in, 483 

Cal. of State Papers, quoted, 185, 670 

Calfood(?), Joachim, sells goods to the 
Swedes, 323 ; paid, 324 

Calisch, quoted, 658 

Camecongh, see Tamecongh 

Camerarius, ambassador of Sweden to 
Holland, 6, 95 

Campanius Holm., 697 ; Rev. Johan, 
mentioned, 164; engaged to go to 
America, 238, 372; entertained by the 
English Governor at Antigua, 240; 
journal of, quoted, 240-241 ; service 
in New Sweden, 372 ff. ; farmed land 
on the Delaware, 372-373 ; desirous 
to return home, 373 ; labored for the 
conversion of the Indians, 372 ; re- 
turns home, 261, 374; probably sent 



to order the Dutch to leave the 
Schuylkill without delay, 409; most 
noted of the early clergymen, 372, 
560: his catechism, 560-561; quoted, 
241, 261, 372-373, 560-561; biog- 
raphy, 678 

Canada, 394 

Canals, extensive system of, in Svreden 
and Finland proposed, 39 

Canaresse, see Bomten's Hook 

Canary birds, brought to New Sweden, 

Canary Islands, Swedish ships sailed 
to, 4.0; Swedes at, 485; wood mate- 
rials from the colony to be sent to, 

Candles, how made, 352 
Candlesticks, 352 
Cannon, see firearms 
Cape Cot, 427 

Cape Henry, Swedes arrive at, 488 
Cape Malabare, 427 
Caps, English, sent to New Sweden, 

255; used in the colony, 353; cost of, 


Cargo, on first expedition, 111-112; see 
also expeditions, New Sweden 

Caribbean (Caribbees) Islands, Minuit 
to sail by way of, 113, 114; trade 
from New Sweden could be carried 
on to, 28i.: the Swedes at, 487 

Carl IX., see Charles IX. 

Carlberg, J. O., quoted, 30 

Carl, Prince, see Charles IX. 

Carl (Charles) X., King of Sweden, 
assumes the Government, 7, 620; 
takes interest in the American Com- 
pany, issues privileges for the Ameri- 
can Co., 622 ; issues a charter for the 
American Co., 628-629; publishes a 
placard concerning tobacco, 640, de- 
cides to abolish the Tobacco Co., 644; 
serious intentions of regaining New 
Sweden, 648; makes war on Poland, 
7-8 ; war with Denmark, 8 ; char- 
acter of, dies, 8 

Carloff, Hendrik, 754 

Carlson, quoted, 8, 15, 29, 31, 35-36, 
38-39, 48, 267, 649 

Carlsson, Admiral, 153, 249 

Carolstadius, Salomon Petrij, quoted, 

Carpenters, on first expedition, 112; 
Governor Hindricksson to obtain, 
126; Jacob Cornelisson prepares to 
go to America, 243 ; see also Ridder 
and Printz 

Carvel's House, see Churchill 

Casimir, see forts 

Casimir, Johan, contributes to South- 
Shin Company, 71, 74; quoted, 89 

Casimir, John, King of Poland, refuses 
to recognize King Clar X., 7 

Castle Island, 166 

Cat, see Katt 

Catholic League, combat with the 
Evangelical Union, 5 

Cattle, to be captured at Isle de Sable 
and brought to South River, 113; to 
be bought at Spaniola, 114; to be 
sent to New Albion, 174; see also 
New Sweden 

Caucasus, 361 

Celsius, 360 

Century Dictionary, The, quoted, 531 

Certificate, quoted, 201, 209, 210, 213, 


Chains, copper, sent to New Sweden, 
255 ; see also expeditions and New 

Chains, plated, sent to New Sweden, 
255; see also New Sweden and ex- 

Chains, silvered, sent to New Sweden, 
255; see also expeditions 

Chakakitque Falls, 569 

Champlain, map of, 112; mentioned, 
164; knowledge of lakes and inland 
seas in America due to the labors of, 


Chancery, old, 674 

Charitas (Charitie), see ships 

Charles I., King of England, sends am- 
bassador to Oxenstierna, 91 ; said to 
have transferred rights of the Dela- 
ware to the Swedes, 175, 177; grant 
from, probably existed, 178 

Charles (Carl) IX., Swedish law pub- 
lished by, 21 ; encourages Finnish 
migration to Sweden, 147 

Charles River (Delaware), named in 
honor of King Charles, 179 ; English 
settlers on, 216; see also the South 

Charter, of the South Company pub- 
lished, 54; resume of, 54-57; of the 
New South Company, 81 ff. ; of the 
New Sweden Company, 107 ; no new 
charter for the reorganized New 
Sweden Company, 228 ; of the 
American Company, 628-629 

Chemnitz (City), 688 

Chemnitz, quoted, 91 

Chesapeake Bay, Lord Baltimore's grant 
extended to, 172 fiF. 

Chesumquesett Kill, Creek or River, 209 



Cheverell, Capt, Commander of the 
Pearl, 484; brother of the Comman- 
der of Dover castle, 484 n. 58 

Chickens, kept in a cage in the house, 


Christiaenzen, Hendrick, voyage made 
by, 167 

Christian IV., King of Denmark, takes 
part in the Thirty Years War, 5-6; 
offends Sweden by his jurisdiction in 
the Sound, 250 

Christina Creek, see Christina Kill 

Christina Fort, see forts 

Christina Harbor, see Christina Fort 
and Christinehamn 

Christina, Isle de Sable to be called, 

Christina, Queen of Sweden, 693 ; gives 
Royal Assurance, 20; splendor of her 
Court, 20; neglects matters of State, 
236; present in the Royal Council, 
discusses New Sweden, 283 fl. ; in- 
structs Printz to remain, 329 ; learns 
English from Whitelocke, 621 ; re- 
signs her crown, 7, 20; biography, 

Christina (Minquas, Elbe, Sittoensaene) 
Kill, River or Creek, Minuit to sail 
up to, 113; land on west side of, to 
be bought, 113; Minuit to build 
house on, 114; Hendricksen at (Min- 
quas Kill), 168; Minuit arrives at, 
182; sails up, 182-183; bought by 
the Swedes, 183 ; lands on both sides 
sold by savages, 184; given the name 
of Elbe, 184; path of Minquas In- 
dians, 188 ; fort built 2 miles from the 
mouth of, 292; land bought at, 437, 
440, 443; Orn glides down, 519; 
dams to be constructed at the falls 
of, 420; land cleared at, 523-524; a 
sachem came to, 565; district below 
to be controlled by the Dutch, 603 ; 
the Dutch to be allowed to dwell 
below, 611; 681, 684 

Christina Rock, 165 

Christina (ship), see ships 

Christinehamn, meaning of, 522; see 
also Christina Fort and New Sweden 

Christinehamn in Sweden, 522 n. 27, 

633. 644 
Christmas, 315, 368 
Christmas tree, 544 
Chiton, Indian chief, sells land to 

Minuit, 183 
•Christopher, Island, see St. Christopher 

Christopher, Rev., goes to New Sweden, 
153; remained in the colony, 205 

Christoffer's laws, quoted, 458 

Churches, one built by Ridder, 205- 
206 ; see also religious worship 

Churchill, Carvel's House, quoted, 347 

Chynaeischen, trade, 95 ; see also the 
Guinean trade 

Cinquack, at the mouth of the Potomac, 

Cities, favored by the Government, new 
towns founded, 37 ; to be founded in 
New Sweden, see New Sweden, Ri- 

Clarendon Papers, quoted, 177 

Clark, Capt., sent to treat with Gover- 
nor Printz, 399 

Clark, Thomas, member of the com- 
pany formed at Boston, 395 

Classon, Anders, Captain, from Amster- 
dam, trading at St. Cruz, 274; aids 
in releasing the Swedes, 274-275 

Classon, Johan, Captain, from Rotter- 
dam, aids in releasing the imprisoned 
Swedes at St. Cruz and brings Rud- 
berus to Holland, 274, 275 

Classon, William, to sell tobacco for 
the company, 292 

Clay, quoted, 117 

Clayborne (Claiborne), William, set- 
tlements on the island of Kent by, 


Clergy, the, one of the estates of Swe- 
den, 20; well educated in Sweden, 22 

Clerk, Jeremiah, brings new cargoes to 
the settlement, 325 

Clerk (Clerck), Richard, Major, biog- 
raphy of, 107 ; commission to buy 
goods for fourth expedition, 145 ; 
transactions with the company, 642 ; 
see also expeditions and trade of the 

Clerck, Sander, sailor, 758 

Cleves, 684 

Cleyn, E., member of the council on 
the South River, 657 

Club-war, in Finnland, 147 

Cobb's Creek, a mill erected on, 328 

Cock, see ships 

Cock, Jan Cornelissen, ship of, 109 

College of Admiralty, 15; see also 

College of Antiquity, founded, 27 

College of the Exchequer, see Kammar- 

College of Mines, 15 

College of War, 15, 683, 688 



Col[lections] of Maine Hist. So[^ciety}, 

quoted, 393 
Col[lections\ of Mass. Hist. So., quoted, 

i66, 315, 384, 388, 392-394. 396-398 
Col. of N. Y. Hist. So., quoted, 167, 
169, 172, 174-175, 207, 306, 326, 340, 
343. 401, 417. 445. 608 
Collicott, Richard, agent of " Lyconnia 
Company," 395; complaints of, 399 
Colonists :' 

Ackesson, Israel, see Israelsson 
Akerman, Hakan Persson, 724 
Andersson, Anders, 706; hired by 

Papegoja, 243 
Andersson, Anders, 703, 714; com- 
plains against Printz, 463 
Andersson, Eric, Trumpeter, 261, 

307, 701. 715 
Andersson, Johan, 706, 712, 716 
Andersson Stilkofta (Stalcap), see 

Andersson, Jons, paid by Beier, 248 
Andersson, Clas (Klas), 702 
Andersdotter, Karin, 725 
Andersson, Lars, salary of, 706, 713 
Andersson, Lars, cook on the sloop, 

Andersson, Lars, 503, 716 
Andersson, Lars, from Aland, 708 
Andriesson, Laurens, 711 
Andersson, Mans, 702, 710; com- 
plains against Printz, 463 
Andersson, Nils, 706, 714 
Anders[s]on, Per, 699-700, 706, 

Andersson, Peter, salary of, 503 
Andersson, Sakris, 708 
Andersson, Sven, drummer, 305, 

451, 703, 713, 716. 724 
Anthony, slave, 699, 706, 710 
Bagge, Martin, 708 
Baily, Elias, 709 ; English at Var- 

kens Kill, 323 
Bengtsson, Erich, 724 
Bengtsson, Lars, 725 
Bengtsson, Mats, 513, 602 
Bj6r[n]sson, Lars, 705, 712 
Bj6r(n)sson, Marten, 708 
Bock (Borclc), Nicklas, 703, 713 
Bock, Peter, 715 ; report signed by, 

Boije (Boje), Christer, 709; see 

Boije above 
Bonde, Anders Swensson, appointed 

gunner, 306, 451, 706, 710 
Bonde, Lasse (Lars), witnessed 

against Lamberton, 386 
Borck, see Bock 

' Officers, as Rising, etc., are not 

Botsman, Anders, 532 

Brandt, Anders Olsson, 700 

Braunvell, William, 709; English 
at Varkens Kill, 323 

Broen (Brown) Thomas, an Eng- 
lishman, prepares to erect a 
dwelling, 423 ; requests the aid 
of Printz, 428; illreputed, 585 

Bross, Lars Thomasson, complains 
against Printz, 463 

Carapanius, Rev. Mr. Johan, 700, 
715; see Campanius above 

Christopher (Christoffer), Rev., 
153. 699-700; see also Christo- 
pher above 

Christiaensson (Kristiansson), An- 
ders, 712 

Claason, Claas (Claes Claeson, 
Clas Claasonn), 702, 711; at 
work on new habitations, 308 ; 
builds a vessel, 340-341 

Classon, Clas, " the carpenter," 700 

Clements [s] on, Andrew (An- 
dreas), goes to Maryland, 668 

Clemetsson, Olof, 724 

Cock, see Kock 

Cornelisen ( ? ) , Ma[t]thias, goes to 
Maryland, 668 

Coxwell, Robert, 709 ; English at 
Varkens Kill, 323 ; see also Cox- 
well below 

Crum (Krum), Marten, 724 

Dalbo, Anders Larsson, 599, 70;, 
704, 711 ; appointed marshal in- 
stead of Olofsson, 453 ; magis- 
trate, 664 

Danielsson, Johan, salary of, 503 ; 
ensign, 612; delivers store-house 
keys to Stuyvesant's servants, 613 

Dreijer, Anders Kristiansson, 702; 
miller, 321 

Dyck, Gregorius van, see Greg, 
van Dyck below 

Eissen (Eysen), Isack van, 703, 

Elias, the tobacco planter, 704 
Elcken, Giert, 708 
Elswick, Hendrick von, 716; see 

also Elswick below 
Ericksson, Ambrosius, 700, 704 
Ericksson, Bengt, 480 
Ericksson, Johan, 152, 705, 711 
Ericksson, Olof, 152, 706, 712; 

complains against Printz, 463 
Erie, John, 709 
Esekelsdotter, Elissabeth, 725 
Eskelsson, Bertil (Bartell), colo- 

given among the colonists. 



nist, requests to go to America, 

149, 705, 713 
Eskelsson, M., paid by Beier, 248 
Essbiornsson, Lars, 724 
Eysen, Isack von, 703 
Fluviander, Rev. Israel Holg, 703 ; 

see also Fluviander below 
Forsman, Gabriel, fugitive, dies, 


Fransson, Johan, colonist from Vi- 
borg, 239 

Fysk (Fisk), Johan, complains 
against Printz, 463 

Gertrud, 725 

Glasare, Marten M3rtensson, see 

Glasbiten, see M4rten Martensson 

Goransson, Thomas (Thomas Tim- 
merman, Thomas the carpenter), 
308, 702, 714 

Gottersson, Marten, 702 

Grelsson, Grels, 725 

GreIs[s]on, Johan, 724 

Gronberg, Constantin[us], 572, 

703. 713 
Gunnarsson, Per, see Rambo 
Gunnarsson, Sven, 602, 702, 711; 

complains against Printz, 463 
Gustafsson (Gostasson), Johan, 

703, 714 
Guttersson (Gottersson), MSrten, 

700, 711 

Gyllengren, Elias, 706, 713, 716; 

see also Gyllengren below 
Hakansson, Carl (Karl), corporal, 

45i> 707 

Hansson, Anders, 152, 711; com- 
plains against Printz, 463 

Hansson, Johan, returned to Swe- 
den, 241 

Hansson, MSrten (Martin), 702 

Hansson, Mats, gunner, 153, 602, 

701, 711; in charge of the can- 
non at Ft. Christina, 307; com- 
plains against Printz, 463 

Hansson, Mats, 152, 705, 712 _ 

Harmer, Gotfried, 702, 711; brings 
report that Lamberton had bribed 
the Indians, 383 ; testifies against 
Lamberton, 390; signs an Indian 
document, 439; assistant to Huy- 
gen, 453; deserted, 503; letter 
from, prejudicial to the Swedes, 
512; goes to Maryland, 668 

Hartman, Johan, 708 

Hendricksfslon, Bartolimeus, goes 
to Maryland, 668 

Hindersson (Hindricksson), Bengt, 

703, 716; hired by Papegoja, 

Hindersson, Erick, 707 
Hindrickson, Evert, accused and 

banished, 667 
Hindricks[s]on, Hindrick, goes to 

Maryland, 668 
Hindricksson, Ifvar (Ivar, Iffwer, 

Ifvar), 151, 705, 711; complains 

against Printz, 463 
Hindricksson, Johan, 700 
Hindricksson, Jonas, 725 
Hjort, Rev. Peder (Peter) Larson, 

716, 721 ; see Hjort below 
Homman, Anders Andersson, 713 
Hook, Sven, 480, 716, 721, 761 ; see 

also Hook below 
Huygen, Hendrick, 699, 700; see 

also Huygen below 
Hwiler, Johan, see John Wheeler 
likorn (Ekor), Hans, 721 
lonsson, Lars, 724 
Isacksson, Jon, 708 
Israelsson, Acke (Israel Akesson), 


Jacobsson, Anders, 723 

Jacobsson, Dirck (Diedrick), 715 

Jacobsson, Hindrick, 725 

Jacobsson, Lars, 702, 713 

Jacobs[s]on, Peter, goes to Mary- 
land, 667, 714 

Jacobsson, Thomas, 722 

Janeke, Hans, 701, 710; see also 
Janeke below 

Jansson, Karl (Carl), bookkeeper, 
goes to America, 150, 152; sent 
to the Dutch, 409; member of 
court, 460-461, 706 

Jans[s]on (Jansen), Clas (Klas), 
700, 710 

Jarpe, Jon, 708 

Jochim, Peter, 703, 714; breaks into 
Fort Beversreede, 425 ; signs 
Indian document, 439; dies at 
New Amsterdam, 439, 587, 588 

Joensson (Jonsson, Jonsson), 
Powell (Pafvel), 711 

Johan, a boy, 152 

Johan the Finn, 708 

Johansson, Effwert, 481 

Johansson, Jacob, 480 

Johansson, Karl, see Karl Jansson 

Johansson, Klas, complains against 
Printz, 463 

Johansson, Michel, 709 

Joh[a]n[s]son, Paul, goes to Mary- 
land, 668 

Johansson, (?), Per, 152 



Johnson, John, 708 

Jonsson (Jonsson), Anders, 703, 
714; hired by Papegoja, 243; 
accused of rebellion and exe- 
cuted, 463 

J6ns[s]on, Carol (Carl), 725 

Jons[s]on, Jons, 725 

Jonsson, Mickel (Bolm), 153 

Jonsson, Pafvel, see J. Pafvelsson 

Joransson, Anders, 700 

Joransson, Erich, 480 

Joransson, Joran, 725 

Joransson (Jurgensson), Klement 
(Clemet), colonist, requests to go 
to America, 149, 705 

Joransson, Paul, 152; see also Paul 

Jorensson, Mats, 708 

Julius, Karl (Carl), 480, 599, 716, 

Junge, Jacob, 503, 716; cf. also 
Jacob Junge, 642 

Jurgensson, Clemet, see Joransson 

Jurgensson, Thomas, see Thomas 

Jurrensson, Mans, 713 

Kackin (Keck?), Lars, 702 

Kampe (Kiampe), Anders, ar- 
morer, 716, 724; salary of, 50^; 
acts as messenger, 598-599 

Kampe (Kiampe), Anders, soldier, 

Karsson (Carson), Alexander 
(Sander), 512 

Kling, Mans Nilsson, 153; see 
Kling below 

Kock, Friederick Hans, 716; en- 
gaged to go to New Sweden, 260 

Kock, Per (Peter) Larsson (Per 
Cock), IC2, 704, 712; brought to 
court, 461 ; magistrate, 664; com- 
plains against Printz, 463 

Krackfoot, Gustaf Johansson, 480 

Kyn Snohvit, Joran, 706, 713 ; 
badly treated by Hindrickson, 

Kyper, Lauris, see Lauris 

Kyrsner, Mickel, 707 

Lane, Simon, 585 

Langdonk, Joost van, 699 ; see 
Langdonk below 

Laom, see Lom 

Larsson, Anders, 725 

Larsson, Anders, salary of, 503, 

Larsson, Eskil, colonist, requests 
to go to America, 149, 705, 713 

Larsson, Eskil (Eskell), 153, 712 

Larsson, Lars, 725 

Larsson, Mans, 707 

Larsson, Mickel, 700 

Lars[s]on, Nils, 716 

Larsson, Sven, 704, 711 

Lasse the Finn, settled the planta- 
tion at Upland, 350 

Lauris the Cooper, 320, 702 

Laury, William, 699 

Liljehofc (Lilliehook), Knut, 703, 
715 ; colonist to New Sweden, 
243 ; arrives in New Sweden, 
317; engaged as a simple soldier, 
453 ; returns to Sweden, 261, 453 

Liljehok, Per, 704; colonist to New 
Sweden, 243 ; arrives in New 
Sweden, 317; appointed Com- 
mander at IJpland, 453 ; served 
for 21 ^months, 453 

Lindestrom, Peter, 716, 724; see 
also Lindestrom below 

Lock, Rev. Lars Carlsson, 716; 
see also Lock below 

Lom (Laom), Mans Swensson, 709, 
712; a tailor, comes on the 4th 
expedition, meaning of the name, 
152; sent with a protest to the 
Dutch, 413 

Loo (Lohe, Looer), Valerius 
(Walle, Wolle), 703, 714; com- 
plains against Printz, 463 

Loock, see Lock 

Lucas[sen], Andries, 702 

Luneburger, Hans, 706, 713 

Maarbo, Swenn (Sven) Larsson, 
see Sven Larsson 

Mansson, Hans, 596, 602, 705, 712; 
complains against Printz, 463 

Mansson, Mans, 517 

Markusson, Karl, 708 

Markusson, Lars, 153 

Marod, Thomas, 709 ; see also 
Marod below 

Martensson, Eric, 725 

Martensson, Esbjorn, 709 

Martensson Glasare, Marten, 702, 
714; complains against Printz, 

Mathias[s]on, Hendrick, goes to 
Maryland, 668 

Matsson, Eric, 725 

Matsson, Hendrick, 152, 704, 712 

Matsson, Hindrick, 705, 713, com- 
plains of Printz, 463 

Matsson, Johan, gunner, 305, 700, 
703, 714; colonist to New Swe- 
den, 243 

Matsson, Margareta, said to be a 
witch, 667 



Matsson, Mats, 725 
Meyer, Pet«r, 703, 713; accused of 
disturbance, 667; granted per- 
mission to reside in Maryland, 
Mickelsson, Clement, house of, 
plundered, 605; goes to Mary- 
land, 667 
Michellsson, David, 480 
Michelsson, Per, 708 
Mink, Andreas Classon, 702, 715; 
engaged to look after the cattle, 
Montson (MSnsson), Peter, goes 

to Maryland, 668 
Mort, Peter, 724; appointed to keep 

the accounts, 503 
Mortensson, E., paid by Beier, 248 
Mortensson, J., paid by Beier, 248 
Nagel, Andreas Nilsson, 700 
Nertunius, Rev. Matthias, 716 

724; see also Rev. Nertunius 
Nicklas, Master, 706 
Nilsson, Jon (Joen) (Joen Skrad- 

dare), 703, 713; a tailor, 352 
Nilsson, jonss, 481 
Nilsson, Mans, 706 
Nilsson, Mickel, 704, 714; engaged 
as blacksmith to go to New Swe- 
den, 238 ; sent to Varraland to 
collect laborers, 238 
Nilsson, Nils, 724 
Nilsson, Pafvel, 724; probably the 
same as PSfvel Nilsson who was 
here in 1640-1643 
Nilsson, Pafvel, 700 
Olofsson (Olsson, Olufsson), An- 
ders, 716, 724 
Olofsson, Johan, 480 
Olofsson, Johan, marshal, 307, 451, 

701, 713 
Olofsson, Jonss, 480 
Olofsson, Mats, 700, 712 
Olofsson, Olof, 725 
Olofsson, Peer (Peter), 708; pris- 
oner at Smedjegarden, to be sent 
to New Sweden, 256 
Olofsson, Steffan, 700 
Olsson, Hendrick, interpreter, 634 
Olsson, Hindrick, 705 
Olsson, Joran (Goran), 699^00 
Olufsson (Olofsson), Hindrick, 715 
Olufsson (Olofsson), Biorn, 724 
Papegoja, Lieut. Johan, 700, 710, 

716; see also Papegoja below 
PSvelsson, Jons, 708 
pafvelsson, Jons, colonist, requests 
to go to America, 149, 704 

Pafvelsson, MSrten, 724 
PSfvelsson, Olof, 151 
PIfvelsson, PSfvel, 708 
Pederson, Israel, to be sent to 

America, 267 
Persson, 481 
Persson (Person), Anders 

Mats( ?), 702, 715 
Persson, Knut, 706, 713; sent to 

New England to buy sewant and 

oxen, 333; leaves a gun with 

Kock, 462; dead, 462 
Persson, Lukas, 702, 712; makes 

casks, etc., 320 
Persson, Pafvel, 708 
Persson, PSfvel, 725 
Petersson, L., builds a grist mill, 

Peters (s) on, Peter, 716 
Peterssen, Roelof, skipper in New 

Sweden, 200 
Philips[s]on, Olof, 725 
Pipare(?), Mats, 704 
Poulsson, Peter, paid by Beier, 248 
Preutz (Pryss), Hans, 724 
Printz, Gustaf, 705, 710; see also 

Gustaf Printz below 
Printz, Governor Johan, 705, 710; 

see also Johan Printz below 
Quist (Kvist), Pafwel (Pai), 512, 

Rambo, Per (Peter) Gunnarsson 

(Gummarsson), 700, 702, 710, 

602, 605, 612; summoned to 

Court, 462; complains against 

Printz, 463 ; magistrate, 664 
Rambo, Peter, Jr., 344 
Raf, 614 
Rasmunsson, returned to Sweden, 

Ridder, Peter Hoi lender, 699-700; 

see also Peter Ridder below 
Rising, Johan, 716; see also Rising 

Rosbach, Hans, blacksmith, 701, 

715; returns to Sweden, 261 
Schal, Pafvel, 153 
Schall, Peter, tanner, 532 
Schalbrick, Johan, salary of, 503, 

Sievesson (Sipherson, Sifversson), 

Ifvar, 386, 712 
Sifversson, Mats, 700 
Sigfridsson, Joran, 725 
Sigfriedhsson, Marcus, 725; goes 

to Maryland, 667 
Simonsson, Johan, 725 



Simonsson, Nils, 725 

Sipherson (Sifversson), Marcus, 
see Sigfriedhsson 

Skute, Lieut. Sven, 703, 710, 716; 
see also Sven Skute below 

Slom, Moens, see Lom 

Smal, Pafvel, 709 

Snohvit, Joran (Goran), see Kyn 

Spaniel, Jacob, 705 

Spinning(?), Mr., 709 

Sprint, Jacob, 152, 596, 711 

StaflFes[s]on, Joen, 725 

Stake, Mans, 503, 716 

Stalcop, see Stalkofta 

Stalkofta (Stalcop), Johan Anders- 
son, 503, 523, 614, 666, 70s, 717 

Steghson, Hanss, 480 

Stidden, Timon (Zira), paid by 
Trotzig in Holland, 248 ; on the 
ninth expedition, 268 ; brings re- 
port about Lamberton, 383 ; tes- 
tifies against Lamberton, 390; 
wages of, 502; remains in the 
colony, 667; 709, 716 

Stille, Axel, 152, 711; complains 
against Printz, 463 ; goes to 
Maryland, 667 

Stille, Olof, 712 ; came on the fourth 
expedition, 152; Campanius sells 
a calf to, 372; delivers a protest 
to the Dutch, 413 ; protests 
against Printz, 463 ; officer, 664 

Strahl, Gustaf, 153 

Svensson, Anders, 700 

Svensson (Swenson, Swensson), 
Jacob, S15, 568, 703, 714, 716; 
storehouse of Christina placed in 
the care of, 343 ; sent to New 
England in 1653, 343 ; goes down 
to meet Rising, 498 ; carried let- 
ters to Hartford, 573 ; looked 
upon as an undesirable citizen by 
the Dutch, 660; appointed 
magistrate, 664 

Swensson, Larss (Lars Svensson), 

Svensson, Nils, 700 
Svensson, Olof, 700 
Svensson, Sven, 702, 714; cattle 

herded by, 319 
Tatt (Tott), Erick Akesson, 702, 

Thomasson, Bengt, 700 
Thommasson, Jacob, 708 
Thomasson, Lars, 702, 712 
Thomasson, Marten, 708 
Thorsson, Bengt, 702 

Thorsson, Jon, 702, 710 
Thorsson, Olof (Rolof), 702, 712 
Tijck, Rother (Rutkiert Tysk), 708 
Toreson, Andrew (Andreas Thors- 
son), goes to Maryland, 668 
Torkillus, Rev. Reorus, 699, 707; 

see also Torkillus below 
Ulf, Lars Andersson, 702 
Urinsson, Cornelius, 668 
Urin[s]son, Joh[a]n, goes to 

Maryland, 668 
Utter, 614 

Vasa, Knut Martensson, 701, 712. 
Vass (Wass, Waass), Sven, 706; 
gunner, 306; falls asleep and 
allows the Fort to catch fire, 326 ; 
examined at a Court in 1646, re- 
examined in 1647 and sent to 
Sweden, 461-462 
Wall (?), John, 709 
Wallin, Jan (John), killed by the 

Indians, 376; see Woollen 
Wendell, Peter Hansson, 503, 612, 

61S, 721 
Wheeler (Hwiler), Joh[a]n, com- 
plains against Printz, 463 ; goes 
to Maryland, 668 
Woollen (Woolen, Wallin, Wol- 
len), John (probably the same as 
John ffallin and John Wall), 
211; confessed that HoUender 
bought land, 386; testimony re- 
quired, 387 ; confesses he has 
not been prevailed upon to tes- 
tify falsely, 390 
WulfiF, Johan Pedhersson, 480 
Colonization, Swedish, 49 
Columbia, District of. Lord Baltimore's 

grant, including parts of, 173 
Columbus, 165 

Combs, horn, sent to New Sweden, 255; 
see also expedition, trade with the 
Coraenius, Amos (Komensky), labors 

in Sweden, 27 
Commercial College, the, 674, 685, 686, 
693 ; first plans for, 15-16; officers of, 
16; other plans for the erection of, 
16-17; final establishment of, 17-18; 
budget and officers of, 18-19; assumes 
the management of the New Sweden 
Company, 19, 469; manages the 
preparations for the tenth expedi- 
tion, 470 flF. ; manages the prepara- 
tions of the eleventh expedition, 490 
ff. ; continues to manage the Com- 
pany, 619 fl. ; activities in behalf of 
the Company, 620 ff. ; manages the 



preparations for the twelfth expedi- 
tion, 621 S., 631; complains to the 
King, 638 ; ordered to dissolve the 
American Tobacco Company, 644; 
makes an inventory of the property 
of the American Company, 654; let- 
ter written to, about the American 
Company, 655 

Com{mersJ Col\_legie\ Prot[_okoir\, 
quoted, 489, 622-624 

Com[mers\ Colllegie] Reg[istratur], 
quoted, 278, 279, 344, 472-479. 489. 
491-493, 500, 504. 516, 620, 627-631, 
633, 636-639 

Commercial companies, in Sweden, 
1 607-1 664, 44 ff. 

Commercial House at Seville, com- 
manded by the King of Spain to 
release the Katt and the prisoners, 

Commerce and trade, in Sweden, 1600- 
1664, 38 fiF. ; see also Sweden 

Concerning Drunkards and Their De- 
struction, 26 

" Confirmation," quoted, 566 

Confiscation, see tobacco 

Coninck (Coningh, Koningh), Capt. 
Frederick de, 593, 594, 607 

Consonants (Swedish), change of, 24- 

25 . . 

Constitution of Sweden, written by A. 
Oxenstierna, 19 

Converts, Swedes made, to the Catholic 
religion, 272; Campanius converts 
the Indians, 379; see also Indians 

Cooper, John, 576-577 

Copenhagen, battle of Kalmar Nyckel 
and St. Peer, near, 251; see also ex- 

Copper Company, not a success, 45, 87 

Copper raining, reaches its highest de- 
velopment in Sweden, 34; importance 
of, in Sweden, 87 

Copper money (Swedish k.m.), value 
of, 41 

Copper trade, to the West Indies, 88- 
102; of the New Sweden Company, 

Corals, sent to New Sweden, 255 ; see 
also expeditions 

Cornelisen, Evert, sells goods to the 
Swedes, 342; see also New Sweden 

Cornelisen, Jacob, 760 

Cornelissen, Peter, prepares to build, 

Cornelius, quoted, 22 
Cornelius, . . . , settler, 433 
Corsen, Arent, commissioner at Fort 

Nassau, 178; buys land on the 
Schuylkill, 179, 422, 426 
Costa, B. F. de, quoted, 165-166 
Council of State, 689, 698 ; becomes 
important in Sweden, 20; number 
of members and public function of, 
21 ; see also expeditions 
Council of State, English, quoted, 621 
Courland, Usselinx goes through, 62 
Courts of New Sweden, 459 ff., 497 ff. 
Court Records (July 10, 1643, January 
16, 1644), quoted, 209, 210, 2H, 371, 
384-388, 462 
Coutinho, De Sousa, Portuguese ambas- 
sador to Sweden, 11 
Coventry, H., 12, 51 
Cows, Ridder requests the Company to 
send over some, 198 ; eight landed 
alive in 1641, 202; bought from New 
Amsterdam, 313; from the English, 


Cox, William, sells a large cargo m 
the colony, 311 

Coxwell, Robert, touches at New Am- 
sterdam, 213; sails to Varkens Kill 
and the Schuylkill, 214 

Coyet (Coijet, Cojet), Peter Julius 
sent to London, 12, 621 ; assessor in 
the Commercial College, 621 

Coynet (Coijet, Cojet) Gilius (Julius), 
father of Peter Julius Coyet, sub- 
scribed to the South Company, 60 

Cregier (Cruijer, Crygier, Kryger, 
Krigier, etc.), Marten (Merten), 437 

Criminals, sent to New Sweden, 152- 
153, 239; see also expeditions, New 
Sweden and Appendix B 

Cromeguwge, 113 

Cromwell, Oliver, 8, 686, 696 

Cronholm, quoted, 3-5, 52, 57, 61, 177 

Crosswick's Creek, 548 

Crown, the Swedish, stockholder in 
the New Sweden Company, 24 ff. ; 
see also expeditions 

Crusius, Benedictus Olaus, first Pro- 
fessor of law in Sweden, 21 

Cuba, Minuit to sail near, 113 

Curasao, 649 

Curtains, belonging to Printz, 349 


Dahlman, Sven, quoted, 49 

Dal, see map; Stake, governor of, 126; 
tobacco trade in, 641 

Dalarne, see map ; province of Swe- 
den, 28 ; location of, 149-150, 541 ; 
see expeditions 



Daler (D.), value of, 41 

Dalgren, quoted, 263 

Dalin, quoted, 457 

Danby, to go to New Albion, 401 

Dane(?), John, member of the Dela- 
ware Company, 208 

Danes, 682, 687; see also Denmark ex- 

Danish language, influences the Swe- 
dish, 23 

Danker, quoted, 354 

Dansk Biog. Lex., quoted, 44 

Danzig, Sweden collects duty at, 6; 
English company at, 46 

Darby Creek, Cobb's Creek, a tributary 
of, 328 

Dartmouth, 167 

Davenport, Jr., 575 

Davioff, Stephen, skins sold to, 288- 

Davis, William, member of Hartford 
Convention, 575 

Deal, the Orn blown back to, 484 

Dean, quoted, 392-393 

De Hollandsche Tuyn, see ships 

De Jure Sveonum et Goihorum Ves- 
tuto., quoted, 457 ff. 

Delaware Bay, Hudson visits, 166; 
named by the English, 167; Lord 
Baltimore's grant extending to, 172- 
173; Swedes first arrive in, 182; see 
also South River, New Sweden Bay 

Delaware (De La Ware), Cane, named 
by Argall, 167 

Delaware Company, formed by the 
English of New Haven, 208 ; did 
not relinquish its claims on the Dela- 
ware, 401 ff. 

Delaware, Lord, said to have touched 
the bay, 167 

Delaware Reg., quoted, 411 

Delaware River, 93-94, 102-103 ! 684, 
686, 696, 697; see the South River 

Delawares, see Lenape 

Delaware Watergap, 175 

Delvendahl( ?), Gabriel, member of the 
Tobacco Company, 291 ; not men- 
tioned as a member of the company 
in 1647, 294 

Demetriowitz, Maxim, skins sold to, 

Denmark, mentioned, 122, 673, 680, 682; 
in war with Sweden, 7-8, 250 ff. ; 
takes part in the Thirty Years' War, 
5-6; see also seventh expedition 

" Depery, Mr.," governor of Wey- 
mouth, 485 

Diarium, quoted, 49 

Dictionary, Swedish, antiquarian to 
collect words for, 23 

Didricksen, Didrick, a Dutch Captain, 
arrives at Porto Rico with his ship 
which is made a prize, 271, 272 

Diedricksson, Gierdt, subscribed to the 
South Company, 60 

Dtemen, see ships 

Diet, the, of Sweden, favors the estab- 
lishment of the Commercial College, 
17 ; made up of the four estates, 20 

Dincklage (Dincklagen) Lubbert van, 
Vice-Director, accuses Hudde, 417; 
sent to the South River, 421 ; departs 
from New Amsterdam, 422; buys 
land from the Indians, 422; visits 
Printz, 422 

Diplomacy of Sweden, 1625-1660, 9 ff. 

Directors of the South Company, de- 
cide to found a ropewalk, 64; re- 
quest advice from the council, 65 ; plan 
ship building, are accused by Usse- 
linx of neglect of the company, 65 ; 
director appointed by the Bishops, 
65 ; directors all dead, 228 ; see also- 
the South Company, the South-Ship 
Company, New Sweden Company 

Directors of the Dutch West India 
Company, quoted, 427, 432, 592; see 
also Stuyvesant, relation with the 
Dutch, expeditions 

Dirschau, Usselinx leaves, 62 

Disalago, Gov. Don Philipo, receives 
the Swedes kindly, 486 

Djursholm, 331 

Doc\uments relative to the Colonial 
History of the State of New York], 
quoted, 112, 117-118, 143, 168-171, 
179, 181-182, 186, 188, 190, 192, 194- 
196, 213-214, 215, 245-248, 286, 304- 
306, 311, 326, 327-328, 332, 338-339, 
343. 376-3781 400-401. 403, 408, 410, 
415. 417-420, 422-437, 441-443. 445- 
449. 466. 496-497, 500, 571-572. 583- 
584, 586-587, 589-590, 592-595 ; 599- 
604, 606-611, 614-615, 648, 650, 653, 
658-667, 669-670 

Dodsley-Hazlitt, quoted, 550 

Dolphijn, the, see the Spiegel 

Domestic trade, see Home trade 

Donck, van der, quoted, 188, 192, 355 

Douwes, Capt. Anne, in readiness to 
embark, 594 

Dove, the, see Dufvan 

Dover Castle, brother of Cheverelh, 
commander of, 484 



Dover, Straits of, 483 ; Swedes anchor 
at, 484 

Drafts, extensively used, 40; see also 

DrottningAo/m, 331 

Droysen, J. G., quoted, 61 

Druveeijland, see Province Island 

Drystreet, Henry, quoted, 667 

Dublin, sailor boy from, 154 

Duck Creek, land lying south of, bought 
by Ridder, 201 

Dufva, Joran, on the ninth expedition, 
buys a bark together vpith Rudberus 
and leaves Porto Rico, 273 ; ill- 
treated by the French, 274 

Dufvan, see ships 

Diinamiinde, captured by the Swedish 
fleet, 4 

Dunkirkers, captures Dutch ship, 170 

Durell, Peter, 642 

Dutch, the, 68i ; allowed to settle in New 
Sweden, 123 ; early visits to the Dela- 
ware, 166; employ Hudson to go on a 
voyage of discovery, 166-167; visit 
the Delaware, 168 ff. ; plant a colony 
on the Delaware, 170 ff. ; said to 
transfer their rights of the Delaware 
to the Swedes, 176 ff. ; buy land 
from the Indians, 178-179, 411-412, 
419-420, 422, 436 ff. ; protest against 
Minuit, 185 ff. ; too weak to oppose 
the Swedes on the Delaware, 195 ; 
merchants have trade on the Dela- 
ware, 198; settlers of, arrive at Fort 
Christina, 200; Ridder's troubles 
with, 200, 201, 207; protest against 
the English, 213 ff. ; expel the Eng- 
lish on the Schuylkill, 215, 380; on 
good terms with the Swedes, 405 ff., 
460; allowed to trade in the Dela- 
ware, 407 ; Printz asks for more 
definite instructions concerning, 408 ; 
a new era in the Swedish-Dutch re- 
lations in America begins, 408 ff. ; 
Printz's troubles with, 409 ff.; seek 
to discover a gold mine, 410-41 1; 
messengers of, complain against 
Printz, 414 ; diligence of Printz gives 
the Swedes an advantage over, 415; 
Printz complains against, 416; re- 
main at Fort Nassau without caus- 
ing further trouble for the Swedes, 
416; busy improving Fort Nassau, 
418 ; prepare to build on the Schuyl- 
kill, 419; erect Fort Beversreede, 
420; freemen assigned places for 
settlement beside the Schuylkill, 
422; Printz prevents the building of. 

423 ; informed by Skute that they 
are not to build on the Schuylkill, 
425 ; basis for the Dutch rights to the 
Schuylkill, 426 ff. ; rights of the 
Swedes and the Dutch compared, 
426-427 ; gap in the history of the 
Swedish-Dutch relations, 427; en- 
deavor to prevent Printz from 
buying land above Fort Nassau, 428, 
430; distrust and enmity between the 
Dutch and the Swedes reaches its high- 
est point, 430-431; erect new houses 
on the South River, 431; planned 
concerted action with the Swedes 
against the English, 432; no data 
concerning the settlements of, at Fort 
Nassau during the winter of 1649- 
1650, 432; abandoned Fort Bevers- 
reede, 433 ; last phase of Swedish- 
Dutch relations during the adminis- 
tration of Printz, 434 ff. ; Printz 
ignorant of the approach of, 435 ff.; 
said by the Indians to be the first to 
come into the River, 436-437; pay 
no attention to Printz's protests, 439; 
Printz draws up a formal protest 
against, 439-440; Indian chief ap- 
pears at the camp of, 443; validity 
of the Dutch rights examined, 443 ff. ; 
Fort Caslmir erected by, 445; all 
traders in the South River compelled 
to pay duty to, 446; masters on the 
Delaware, 446 ff. ; Fort Beversreede 
abandoned by, 447; building at Fort 
Casimir erected by, 448; compelled 
to abandon their settlements, except 
that of Fort Casimir on account of 
the Indians, 448; Rising instructed 
to keep peace with, 499; colonists 
cause Rising a great deal of trouble, 
511; fort of, not to be attacked by 
Rising, 581 ; Rising had no knowl- 
edge of the strength of, 582 ; plunder- 
ing New Sweden, 605 ; Fort Christina 
surrendered to, 608 ff.; Rising could 
not agree to waive the right of com- 
plaint against the injuries of, 612- 
613; arrangements made by, to carry 
out the articles of surrender, 613; 
protests presented to the States-Gen- 
eral against the occupation of the 
Delaware by, 648 ; have no intention 
of returning the colony to the New 
Sweden Company, 649; first period 
of the Swedes under Dutch jurisdic- 
tion, 657 ff. ; last period of the 
Swedes under Dutch jurisdiction, 



663 ff. ; rule of, on the Delaware and 
in America comes to a close, 670 

Dutch language, influences the Swed- 
ish, 33 

Dutch members, contribute to the New 
Sweden Company, 106; dissatisfied, 
116; proceeds of first expedition 
divided among, 119; refuse to con- 
tribute to second expedition, 124; 
withdraw from company, 131 fiF. 

Dutch soldiers, employed in New Swe- 
den, 199; see also Christina, New 
Sweden, expeditions 

Dyck, Gregorius van, 699, 703, 710, 
716; goes on second expedition, 127; 
given written instruction, 204; com- 
plains of Van Langdonk, 129; letters 
from, read in the council, 146; sent 
to protest against Capt. Turner, 210; 
returns to the colony, 238; stationed 
at Fort Elfsborg, 305 ; examines the 
English, 384; sent to make inquiries 
concerning the English land-pur- 
chase, 385; sent to prevent the Dutch 
from building, 423 ; brings forth 
grave charges against Tienhoven 
and De Boer, 585 ; sent 230 miles into 
the Minquas country, 329; elected 
officer in the colony during the Dutch 
administration, 663-664; report of, 
666; quoted, 127, 129-130, 146, 196, 
199-200, 204-205, 6l2 

Dyck, Jacob van, in the diplomatic 
service of Sweden, 9 


Eagle, the, see the Orn 

East India Company, Dutch, Hudson 

in the employ of, 166; 676 
Eastern passage, Swedes pass through, 

269, 487 
Eaton, Theophilus, member of the 
Delaware Company, 208 ; complains 
about the Swedes, 388; applies for 
commission from court of Massa- 
chusetts, 391 ; writes to London, 402- 
403; writes to Rising, 574; interests 
himself in the Delaware, 575 ff. 
Ecoccyn, see Wicaco (Wicacoa) 
Edmundson, G., quoted, 49 
Egg Island, see Vogele Sant 
Eighth Expedition, see expeditions 
Eindracht (Endrdkt), see ships 
Ekehoff, Hindrick, member of the To- 
bacco Company, 291 
Ekenas, tobacco trade in, 641 
Eksjo, tobacco to be sold at, 292 

Ekstrand, quoted, 15 
Elbe, Minquas Kill called, 184 
Elbing, 688, 693, 694; privileges for 
the English Company renewed at, 46 
Eleventh Expedition, see expeditions 
Elfsborg, see forts 

Elfsborgs Ian, Hindricksson governor 
of, 125; tobacco trade in, 641; see 
also map of Sweden 
Eliot, Rev. John, prepares to print a 
catechism in the Indian language, 
Elizabeth, Queen, quoted, 572 
Elk River (The English River), 518, 

Elsingburg Fort Point, 304-305 
Elswick, Hendrick von, 762; commis- 
sion of Amundsson transferred to, 
279, 492; arrives at Porto Rico and 
presents damages for the Katt, 280; 
appointed commissioner to New Swe- 
den, 491, 492; endeavors to rush the 
preparations for the eleventh expe- 
dition, 493 ff. ; leaves New Nether- 
land, 496; begins his duties in New 
Sweden, 503-504, 525-526; activities 
during the siege, 602 ff. ; arrives 
in Sweden, 616; quoted, 280, 481, 
492-496, 504, 529, 531-533, 535. 542. 
576, 579. 590. 592. 596. 602, 604-608, 
610-616, 631, 639; biography, 680; 
see also Rising and New Sweden 
Elswick, Herrman, probably a relative 
of Hendrick von Elswick, bookkeeper 
of the Tobacco Company, 292 
Elupacken, sells lands to Minuit, 183 
Encyclopaedia Brittanica, quoted, 29 
Endicott, Governor John, letters sent 

to, 573 

Endrdkt {Eindracht, Harmony), see 

Engel Gabriel, see ships 

England, 674, 676, 693, 698 ; Johan 
Oxenstierna sent to, 91 ; policy of, 
generally one of friendship towards 
Sweden, 11; alliance of, with Swe- 
den, 12 ; ambassadors from Sweden 
sent to, 12 ; treaties of, with Sweden, 
621 ; see also Sweden 

English caps, see caps 

English Channel, ships go through, 
129, 483 ; Lindestrom states that 
there were 90 warships in, 484; see 
also tenth expedition 

English Company at Gothenburg, 46- 

English Company, North (New), 



Printz proposes to invest 20,000 R.D. 

in, 341 
English Eastland Company at Danzig, 

English house, built in Fort Elfsborg, 

English-Swedish Trading Company of 
1665, 50-51 

English, The, 696 ; apply for privileges 
for a Company at Gothenburg, 45- 
46, 50-51; at the Delaware, 167; 
trade in beavers at the Delaware, 
169; planting colonies in America, 
173; land granted to, at the Dela- 
ware, 172 ff. ; rights of, transferred 
to the Swedes, 175-178; visit the 
Delaware, killed by Indians at the 
Delaware, 179; take possession of 
Fort Nassau, 180; relation of, to the 
Swedes, 208 ff., 380 ff., 572 ff. ; buy 
land on the Delaware, 208-212; 
trade with the Swedes on the Dela- 
ware, 198 ff., 309 ff., 515 ff. ; in- 
struction of Printz concerning, 380 
ff. ; accusations of, against Printz, 
388 ff. ; Printz endeavors to appease, 
390 ff. ; attempts of, to reach the 
Great Lake, 391 ff. ; sends an expedi- 
tion to the Delaware, 395 ff. ; Printz 
reports to his Government concern- 
ing, 397; English in New Haven do 
not give up hopes of settling the 
South River, 400; trouble Printz no 
more, 401 ; send another expedition 
to the Delaware, 404; Printz reports 
that he isn't sure of the North Eng- 
lish, 403 ; Printz seeks the friendship 
of the Dutch against, 406 ; the Dutch 
anxious to join with the Swedes 
against, 431-432; English arrive at 
Christina in 1654, 572 ff.; present 
claims of the Delaware to Director 
Rising, 573, 576; capture New 
Netherland, 670 

Enkhuizen, 118; see also expedition 

Enkoping, tobacco trade, 641 

Eracoise, Lake of, location of, 391 

Eraso, sent to Sweden to make a treaty, 

Eric the Red, quoted, 165 

Ericksson, Johan, secretary, pays 1000 
D. to Beier, 263 

Ericksson, Jonas, 480-481 

Ericksson, Lars, 481 

Ericksson, Mats, writes to the Govern- 
ment on behalf of Finns, 267 

Erissmansson (Erissman), Per, 641 

Ersson(?), Per, 642 

Erupacken, see Elupacken 

Evangelical Union, Gustavus Adolphus 
chosen to be the leader of, 5 

Evelin, makes a draft of Delaware Bay, 

Everet, Gov., treats the Swedes kindly, 


First expedition, plans proposed 
for, 96; proposed cost of, 97; 
further preparations for, 104 ff. ; 
money furnished for, 106 ; desti- 
nation of, 107 ff. ; goods pro- 
cured for, 109; ships prepared 
for, iii; cost of cargo for, in; 
instructions concerning, 112 ff. ; 
ready to sail, 115; leaves Hol- 
land, n6; ships arrive in the 
Delaware, 117; vessels return 
to Europe, 117-118; skins from 
the expedition sold, 119; see also 
Kalmar Nyckel, the Grip and 
Second expedition, preparations for, 
120; commander appointed for, 
121 ; cargo bought for, 122 ; 
ships to be prepared for, 123 ; 
money supplied for, 124-125; 
colonists collected for, 125, 128; 
domestic animals sent on, 128 ; 
misfortunes of, in Holland, 128 ; 
leaves Europe, 129 ; cost of, 129 ; 
journey of, across the ocean, 129— 
130; return of, to Europe, 130; 
see also Kalmar Nyckel, Van 
Vliet, Van Dyck, Ridder 
Third expedition, preparations in 
Holland for, 135-137; Bogaert 
sent to Sweden concerning, 137; 
changes in the proposed charter 
of, 137-138; delay of, 142-143; 
about to leave, 144; return of 
ship, 144; see also Bogaert 
Fourth expedition, activities begun 
for, 145 ; government urges 
Fleming to prepare ships for, 
145-146 ; return of Kalmar 
Nyckel increases interest in, 146 ; 
efforts to secure colonists for, 
147 ; Finns collected for, 
148-149 ; Kling to solicit col- 
onists for, 149-150; Printz en- 
gaged to look for colonists for, 
150; captured Finns to be sent 
on, 150-151; ships of, 151; list 
of settlers leaving on, 151-153 ; 
cost of, 154; leaves Europe, 155; 
arrival at New Sweden and re- 



turn of, 155-156; see also Kal- 
mar Nyckel and Charkas 

Fifth expedition, preparations for, 
237; efforts to obtain colonists 
for, 238; ships selected for, 240; 
leaves Gothenburg, 24x3; arrival 
at Fort Christina and return to 
Europe, 241 ; see also Swan and 

Sixth expedition, preparations for, 
242 ff. ; Papegoja hires colonists 
for, 243 ; goods secured for, 243- 
244; Fama returns from Ame- 
rica, seized in Holland, 245-248 ; 
cargo sold, 248 ; ships arrive in 
Gothenburg, 249 ; see also Fama, 
Swan and Johan Printz 

Seventh expedition, delayed by the 
Danish War, 250-252; report of 
Printz gives impetus to prepara- 
tions of, 253 ; a cargo for, bought 
by Trotzig, 253-255 ; articles 
sent on, 255-256 ; arrives in New 
Sweden, 256 ; return voyage 256- 
257 ; see also the Gyllene Haj 

Eighth expedition, cloth made for, 
258; vessel selected for, 258; 
goods sent on, 259; government 
to pay for preparation of ship, 
259; colonists on, 260; return of 
the ship, 261 ; see also the Swan 

Ninth expedition, letters from New 
Sweden give impetus to the 
preparations of, 266 ; great num- 
ber of colonists on, 267-268 ; 
supplies sent on, 268 ; voyage of, 
269 ff. ; ship wrecked at Porto 
Rico, 270; taken by the Span- 
iards, 270-271 ; colonists re- 
tained on the island, 271-272; 
small remnant of the colonists 
of, leave the island, 273 ; col- 
onists tortured by the French, 
274; Rudberus leaves the island, 
275 ; surviving colonists of, re- 
turn to Sweden, 275-276; efforts 
to secure damages for, 277 ff. ; 
Elswick sent to collect damages 
for, 279; Elswick presents bills 
of damages to the Governor of 
the Island, 279-280; see also the 
Katt, eleventh expedition 

Tenth expedition, preliminary prep- 
arations for, 469 ff. ; vessels ap- 
pointed for, 470; Bockhorn cap- 
tain on, 470; a great number 
of colonists to be collected for, 
471-472, 482; Skute appointed 

to hire soldiers and laborers for, 
471 ff. ; officers sent to the col- 
ony on, 475 ff. ; goods sent on, 
473 ; expedition delayed, 478 ; 
people on, reviewed, 479-482; 
expenses on account of the delay, 
482 ; leaves harbor, 483 ; en- 
counters storms, 483 ; arrives at 
Dover, 484; leaves the shores of 
Europe, 485 ; arrives at the 
Canary Islands, 485-486; casts 
anchor in the harbor of St. 
Christopher, 487; anchors in the 
Bay of Virginia, 488 ; passes the 
Bay of New Sweden, 488 ; 
anchors in the harbor of Chris- 
tina, 489 ; returns to Europe, 

499i 519; J^^ '^'•fo the Orn 
Eleventh expedition, soldiers, col- 
onists and sailors on, 480-481 ; 
final preparations for, 490; one 
of its objects to collect damages 
for the Katt, 277 ff., 492 ff. ; 
officers appointed for, 277 ff., 
491 ff. ; delay of, 493-494; sets 
sail, 495 ; arrives at St. Michael, 
495; arrives at Porto Rico, 495; 
arrives in America, 496 ; see also 
the Gyllene Haj 
Twelfth expedition, activities on 
behalf of, 625 ff., 629, 631; a 
new ship bought for, 631-632; 
sailors hired to take part in, 632 ; 
efforts to gather colonists for, 
633; delay of, 634; classified list 
of colonists on, 634; cost of, 635; 
arrival at the South River of, 
635) 659; landing of the people 
of, 661; return of, 635, 662; see 
also Mercurius, Papegoja and 


Factories, in Sweden, cloth, shoe, glove, 
34; see also Sweden 

Faden, Dutch and German, see famn 

Fahlcrantz, quoted, 457-459 

Falk, the, see ships 

Falkenberg (Falckenberck), Conrad 
von, 676; writes to the chancellor 
about the copper trade, 88 ; Blom- 
maert corresponds with, 88-89; com- 
municates with Blommaert, 90; col- 
lects money for second expedition, 
124; quoted, 88-90 

Falkman, quoted, 42, 471 

Falun, tobacco to be sold at, 292 

Famn, length of, 42 



Famn (cubic), cord, size of, 627 n. 36 

Fat, size of, 42 

Fc^reus (Fegraeus) Stromfelt, Johan, 
subscribed to the South Company, 60 

Fehmarn, ships taking part in the bat- 
tle of, 251 

Feif, Jacob, lawsuit against, 292; 
quoted, 292 

Ferdinand, defeats Horn and Bernhard, 
6, 82, 91 

Ferkenskil, see Varkens Kill 

Fernow, B., mistaken in thinking the 
land near Egg Harbor was settled, 
412; quoted, 165, 168, 409, 412 

Ferris, Benjamin, quoted, 182, 305, 328, 

Field, Darby, an Irishman, 394 

Fijrborn, Johan, member of the first 
Tobacco Company, 161 ; of second 
Tobacco Company, 291 

Findley, quoted, 456-457 

Finland, 691, 692 ; conditions in, simi- 
lar to those in Sweden, 31; people 
in, desirous to migrate, 31; popula- 
tion of, 31—32; history of, 31; com- 
pany organized for the benefit of the 
trade of, 45 ; Usselinx collects money 
in, 62; letters to be written to gov- 
ernors in, 68 ; cities in, gradually 
join the company, 71-72; club war 
in, 147 ; vagrants commanded to 
return to, 148 ; reasons for the migra- 
tion of Finns from, 148 ; emigrants 
from, on fifth expedition, 239; col- 
onists from, on sixth expedition, 243 ; 
articles furnished for the Caribbean 
tobacco trade, 244; colonists from, 
on the ninth expedition, 267 ; salt 
sent to, in 1642, 288 ; large quantities 
of tobacco smuggled into, tobacco 
sent to, 292 ; houses in, in olden 
times, 345-365 ; author purchases a 
pair of shoes in, 357; author ob- 
serves bath-houses in, 361 ; belfry 
commonly built away from the 
church, in, 366; burning of the 
forests common in, 528 ; customs ob- 
served in, 543 ff.; Viborg, a city in, 
joins the American Company, 624; 
business of the American Company 
in, 641 ff. ; families from, land in 
Holland, 650 

Finnish houses, see dwellings and cus- 
toms, 345 ff. 

"Finn-Jan," 544-545 

Finns, the Swedish language among, 
31; desire to migrate, 31; migrate to 
northern and central Sweden, 147 ff. ; 

break mandates of the Crown, 148 ; 
apply for permission to go to Amer- 
ica, 149; Lejonhufvud to capture, 
150; on the sixth expedition, 243; 
200 desire to go to New Sweden, 
267; two from Finnland on the ninth 
expedition, 267 ; proposals that a lot 
of Finns be sent to the colony, 322; 
dwellings erected by, 345 ff. ; beer 
brewed by, 354; skilled in making 
articles from birch-bark, understood 
the value of bathing, 357; bath- 
houses erected by, 358; peculiar cus- 
tom among, 359 ff. ; supposed to have 
borrowed their method of bathing 
from their neighbors, 361 ; store- 
houses built by, 363 ff. ; mill bought 
from, in New Sweden, 464; rent a 
farm at Upland, 524; tanners, 535; 
homesteads at Christina, 543 ; sup- 
posed to possess particular power of 
performing supernatural things, 544; 
witchcraft among, 545 ; go on the 
last expedition, 634; sent to the col- 
ony in 1664, 650-651 ; about to de- 
part to the South River, 652 ; grad- 
ually gain the confidence of the 
Dutch, 664-665 ; proposals to tax, 
number of, 665-666; the Swedish 
language not understood by, 666; 
said to be good farmers, 666 ; prop- 
erty of, 667 ; continue to have their 
own officers together with the Swedes, 
667; absolved from their former 
oaths, granted land by the Dutch, 

Finsk bastu {badstu), 358 ff. ; descrip- 
tion of, in Swedish towns, 361-362; 
see also bath-houses 

Firearms, Swedish, famous in England, 

". 34 
Fireplaces, probably built in Christina, 

193; description of, 204, 346-347> 358> 

Fischbeck (Vischbeek, Wisbeck), 

Johan, member of the new Tobacco 

Company, 298 
Fish Company, 50 
Fishing, means of subsistence in New 

Sweden, 203 ; implements for, 203 ; 

see also New Sweden 
Fiske, John, quoted, 377 
Five Nations, White Minquas at war 

with, 188-189 
Flags, cloth for, brought to New Swe- 
den, 317; see also New Sweden, the 

Dutch and forts 
Flanders, 609, 695 



Fleetwood, George, sent to England, I3 

Fleming, Herman, 19 

Fleming, Klas, president of the first 
Commercial College in Sweden, 16 ; 
favors English Company at Gothen- 
burg, 46 ; makes proposition about 
South-Ship Company, 73 ; advises 
that ships be sent to Spain, 74; ap- 
points men to re-establish the com- 
pany, meets a committee of the 
estates, 79; appointed to meet the 
directors, 80 ; appointed to correspond 
with Spiring about the company, 
loi ; letters sent to, 104-105 ; con- 
tributes to the company, 106 ; ap- 
pointed director, 107 ; requests Blom- 
maert to hire seamen, 109-110; jour- 
nals and sketches of Minuit sent to, 
118; orders skins to be sold in Hol- 
land, 119; makes preparations for 
second voyage, 120-121 ; appoints 
Van Vliet to lead second expedition, 
121 ; continues his preparations for 
second voyage, 122-123 ; confers with 
Van Vliet, 124; furnishes money for 
the expedition, 125; gives instruc- 
tion to Ridder, 127 ; decides to send 
a small number of domestic animals 
to the colony, 128; gives memorial 
to Beier, 132; memorial for Bonnell 
drawn up by, 132-133 ; commercial 
plans presented to, by Smythe, 133 ; 
interest in the Utrecht settlement, 
135; writes to Oxenstierna about 
Utrecht settlement, 136; urged to 
make ready two ships for a new 
expedition, 145; procures articles for 
the fourth expedition, 151; one of 
his servants sent to America, 152; 
complaints made to the council 
through, 159; consults the magis- 
trates at Stockholm concerning the 
South-Ship Company, 22r ; makes 
proposals for the increase of capital 
of the New Sweden Company, 223 ; 
proposes that the Crown should par- 
ticipate in the company, 224; sub- 
scribes to the company, 228; con- 
tinues as director of the compan'% 
229; reorganizer of the Swedish 
Navy, 229-230; death of, 230, 251; 
heirs of, written to, 623 ; quoted, 43, 
121, 123-126, 128, 136, 227, 290; 
biography, 680 
Florida, Minuit to take possession of 
land in, 114; Rising has plans to 
sail to, 479 

Florida Company, see New Sweden 

Florijn, see Florin 

Florin (fl.)> value of, 41 

Fl[ottans] Ar[kiv], 801 

Fluviander, Rev. Israel Holg, 304; goes 
to New Sweden with Printz, 371; no 
commission from the government, de- 
cides to return home, 371 ; service in 
the colony, 371-372; difficulties con- 
cerning his salary, 372; returns 
home, 330, 371-372; biography, 681 

Flygge, Chrispinus, appointed general 
director, 641-642 

Flying Deer, see Het Vliegende Hert 

Focke, Johan, member of the New To- 
bacco Company, 298 

" Forklaring," quoted, 358, 364-365, 
372. 4S4> 462, 464 

Foenix, see ships 

Folkestone, 485 

Foot, Swedish, see fot 

Forbes, Alexander, sent to Stockholm, 

Foreign Entry Books {Sweden), Pub. 

Rec. Office, quoted, 12, 621 
Foreign laborers, engaged in Sweden, 

Forestry, Rising draws up ordinances 

concerning, 499, 508-509 
" Forhoor," quoted, 598-599, 601 
Forks, not found in the colony, 355 
Forts : 

Aliena {Altona), name of Fort 
Christina changed to, 664; see 
also Fort Christina 
Beversreede, meaning of the 
name, 420; built by the Dutch 
to control the beaver trade in 
the Schuylkill, 420; corn planted 
in the neighborhood of, by the 
Swedes, 335; Printz builds a 
log-house near, 424; house be- 
gun within the walls of, 425; 
abandoned in 1650, 433; reoccu- 
pied in 1651, 434; finally aban- 
doned, 447 
Casimir, erection begun, 439; loca- 
tion of, armament of, 445 ; events 
at, in the summer of 1652 un- 
known, 447; dwellings erected 
at, tenth expedition arrives at, 
489 ; council decided to take 
possession of, 582; Swedes take 
possession of, 583 ; name changed 
to Fort Trefaldighet, 584; see 
also Fort Trefaldighet 
Christina, 681, 690; built by Min- 



uit, 192-193, sketch of, 117-118; 
second expedition arrives at, 
Ridder commander of, 127, 197; 
poor condition of, 197 ; Dutch to 
be located above, 138-139; 
Dutch arrive at, 200; fourth ex- 
pedition arrives at, Z02 ; to be 
garrisoned by Swedish soldiers, 
238 ; fifth expedition arrives at, 
241 ; Printz takes over the com- 
mand of, 302; repaired by 
Printz, 307 ; English and Dutch 
visit during the time of Printz, 
304, 311 ff. ; Spanish wine sup- 
plied to the sick in, 315; Gyllene 
Haj casts anchor before, 328 ; 
Swan anchors in the harbor of, 
334; Swan leaves the harbor of, 
337; the Cock anchored above, 
383 ; court of inquiry held in, 
384-387, 459 ff. ; black Minquas 
act as if they wished to scale the 
walls of, 387; Papegoja com- 
mander at, 452; principal prison 
located in, 454; government 
transferred from, to Fort New 
Gothenborg, 455; government of 
New Sweden again removed to, 
466, 497 ff. ; principal storehouse 
during Rising's time, kept at, 
503 ff. ; commission to draft 
ordinance for New Sweden meets 
at, 504; courts held at, during 
the time of Rising, 510 ff. ; re- 
paired by Rising, 522-523 ; lands 
in the neighborhood of, cleared, 
523-524; Indians arrive at, dur- 
ing the time of Rising, 563 ff.; 
English from Maryland arrive 
at, 572 ; fortifications improved 
at, 603 ; Dutch lay seige to, 603- 
604; the Dutch inclose on every 
side, 604; surrendered to Stuy- 
vesant, 608-610; Stuyvesant 
offers to return the fort to the 
Swedes, 611, value of, in 1654- 
165S1 527; seat of power at, 
transferred to Fort Casimir, 657; 
name of, changed to Altena, 664; 
allowed to go to ruin, 663 ; center 
of power of the company's col- 
ony located at, 664; see also 
Altena (Altona) 
Elfsborg, location of, 304-305; 
built by Printz in 1643, 304- 
305 ; Sven Skute in command of, 
305 ; armament and garrison of, 
305 ; key to the river, 305 ; com- 

pells Aspinwall to cast anchor, 
396; abandoned by Printz, 339; 
in ruins as Rising arrives, 582; 
Stujrvesant casts anchor before 
and makes his camp over night 
at, 597 

Nassau, Dutch must pass, 138; 
erected by May, 170; deserted 
by the Dutch, 178-179; English 
capture, 180; garrison at, main- 
tained, 181; Jan Jansen com- 
missioner at, 181; Minuit sails 
above, 185 ; Minuit is prevented 
from passing, 186; garrisoned 
by about 20 men, 207; Utrecht 
colony to be located above, 138 ; 
fires at Ridder's vessel, 207; in- 
structions given to the commis- 
sary of, to remove the English, 
215; Gov. Printz sends secretly 
to the commissary at, reouesting 
him not to let the English pass, 
396 ; Aspinwall prevented from 
passing, 396; Printz ordered to 
be on friendly terms with Hol- 
landers at, 405 ; Dutch trade at, 
407 ; friendly relations continue 
while Jansen is in command at, 
408 ; Printz's instructions con- 
cerning, 409; Blanck sent to, 
409; Dutch commissary at, lost 
no time in reporting to New 
Amsterdam, 410; traders resid- 
ing at, 412; Dutch remain at, 
416; Hudde's return to, 417; 
Dutch busy improving, 418 ; 
Swedish bark passes, 418 ; In- 
dians appear at, 419; Dutch 
magistrates arrive at, 422; 
Hudde leaves, in want of pro- 
visions, 424; Hudde returns to, 
425 ; Stuyvesant did not go to, 
427; Printz endeavors to buy 
land above, 428, 430; permission 
given to the Dutch to settle be- 
low, 428 ; Dutch buy land south 
of 431; Stuyvesant arrives at, 
436; Indian chiefs come to, 
436 ff. ; abandoned, and cannon 
of, brought to Fort Casimir, 445 ; 
directors are not sure that the 
demolition of, was a prudent 
act, 447 

New Gothenborg, location of, 305 ; 
built by Printz, 306; armament 
of, 305-306; gunners at, 306; 
destroyed by fire, 326; rebuilt, 



Nya Korsholm (New Korsholm), 
built on Manaiping, 213 ; located 
a gun-shot in the Schuylkill, 331 ; 
Mans Kling commander of, 
331-332, 453; abandoned, 339; 
burnt by the Indians, 497-498 
Orange, feared that Printz would 
destroy the trade at, 431 

Fot (foot), length of, etc., 42 

Foxes, black, to be captured at Isle de 
Sable, 113 

France, trade with, 73 ; ships go to, 
154; relation of, to Sweden, n; 
document " of the King of," 217 ; 
see also expedition and Oxenstierna 

Franck, Joh., quoted, 158 

Frankfort-on-Main, 82 

Fredricksson, David, skipper, 63Z 

Freedenburgh (ship), see ships 

Freeman, quoted, 456 

" Frelsebonder," explained, 517 

French Company, 46 

Frenchman, probable visits of, to the 
Delaware, 165 ; captures the remnant 
of the Swedes from the ninth expe- 
dition, 273 ; ill-treats the Swedes, 
273 flf. 

Fresh River, 676 

Fridericia, quoted, 8-9, 33, 250, 251 

Friedell, Peter, to aid in the prepara- 
tion of the tenth expedition, 470, 642 

Fries, Ellen, quoted, 6, 17, 19, 469, 475 

Fries, Jon Hansson, 641 

Friesland, 696 

Frieze, price of, 352 

Frishe and Company, Jacob, beaver 
skins sold to, 157 

Frosthult, 679 

Fruit trees, 531; see also New Sweden, 
Printz, Rising and agriculture 

Fryxell, quoted, 30, 551 

Fuerborn, Johan, see Johan Fijrborn 

Gall, Hans, bookkeeper of South-Ship 

Company, 71 
Gallas, defeats Horn and Bernhard, 6, 

82, 91 
Gangunkel, Paul, builds a factory at 

Bergkvarna, 34 
Garden, George, buys tobacco, 159 
Gard[iska] Archlivet'], De la, quoted, 

21, 23, 25-26, 29-30, 39, 43, 289 
Gardie, Jacob de la, 693, 694; conducts 

the Russian campaign, 4; in Poland, 

Gardie, De la, letter sent to, 656 

Gardie, Countess Marie de la, con- 
tributes to the American Company, 
Gardiner, quoted, 5, 7, 12, 91, 177-178 
Gdsen, see ships 
Geer, Laurence de, 478 
Geer, Louis de, 673 ; relations with 
Comenius, 27 ; enters into an agree- 
ment with the South-Ship Company 
about the founding of a ropewalk, 
64; to insure the Achilles, 133; buys 
King David; quoted, 12, 48 

Gefle, Usselinx visits, 62 

Geijer, Eric Gustaf, quoted, 4, 7, 52- 
53. 59, 61, 79, 9?> 25i> 252, 554 

General Commercial Company, 83 

Gen[_erar\ Handiels'] och Skep^pls- 
klompaniert^, quoted, 65, 71-73, 78, 
80, 163 

Genezereth (Gennesareth), Lake of, 

Geogr[aphia Americael, 683 ; written 
by Lindestrom, account of, 555-560; 
quoted, 188, 190-191, 193, 274; see 
also Lindestrom 

Geraet (Gerardy), Jan, trades in the 
South River, 417-418 

German correspondence, to be con- 
ducted by Beier, 225 

German language, influences the Swed- 
ish, 23 

Germany, 682, 688 ; Swedish arms in, 
90-91 ; Swedes in danger of being 
driven out of, 91 ; Usselinx detained 
in, 120; Gustavus Adolphus sails 
for, 7 

g.g., see guldgullen 

Gilbert, Matthew, member of the Dela- 
ware Company, 208 

Gilded Lion, see Forgylda Lejonet 

Ginea, see Guinea 

Glass, factory, in Sweden, 34 

Glass windows, see window-panes 

Glogau, victories at, 302 

Gloria Dei, 366; see Old Swedes Church 

Goa, 650 

Goats, two landed alive in 1641, 202; 
see also New Sweden 

Goblets, horn, sent to New Sweden, 255 

Godyn, Samuel, 676; applies for 
privileges to found a colony on the 
South River, 170; proprietor of the 
Swanendael, 171 

Goldscheider, quoted, 43 

Gomes, Estevan, said to have visited 
the country, 165 

Goodyear, Stephen (a London mer- 
chant, died 1658), vice-governor, 



member of the Delaware Company, 
208 ; sent to treat with the Swedes, 
578 fif. 

Gorges, Sir Ferdinando, given a patent 
for the discovery of the Great Lake, 
392; sends Capt. Neal to America, 
393-394. quoted, 391-394 

Goteborgs Hist., quoted, 478 

Gothenburg, no, in, 122, 124, 125, 
130, 683, 695, 697; manufacture of 
glass at, 63 ; factor at, 123 ; goods 
bought at, 105, 125 ; tobacco sold at, 
233; tobacco trade at, 641; see also 

Gothland, 692 

Goths, Christina, Queen of, 184 

Gothus, bishop, quoted, 28 

Gotland (ship), see ships 

Government, departments of, in Swe- 
den, 15; constitutional, 19; handed 
over to Christina in 1644, 20; self- 
government in Sweden dates to an- 
tiquity, 20; system of, 21; a stock- 
holder in the New Sweden Com- 
pany, 245 ff. ; In New Sweden during 
the time of Printz, 450 ff. ; of Rising, 

497 ff- 

Granaries, 364 

Granberg, quoted, 30 

Grange, De la, 690 

Granlund, quoted, 49 

Grantvagan, 540 

Graphaeus, Anthon, appointed to raise 
subscriptions in Sweden, 66 

Grasraeer, Wllhelmus, 437 

Gravesend (Gravesand), in New Eng- 
land, 510 

Great Lake, to be discovered by Young, 
179; English try to discover, 392 ff. 

Gregson (Grigson), Thomas, member 
of the Delaware Company, 208 ; com- 
plains about the Swedes, 388 

Greifswald, 688 

Grensmohlen, 682 

Grimm's Law, foreshadowed by Georg 
Stiernhjelm, 25 

Grip, see ships 

Gripskolm, 331 

Groote Christoffel, see ships 

Grotenfelt, quoted, 528 

Grotlus, In the diplomatic service of 
Sweden, 9 

Grubbe, Lars, assessor in the Com- 
mercial College, 16 

Guilder (gulden), value of, 41 

Guilds, in Sweden, 43 

Guinea, copper sent to, 89; navigation 
to, 92 ; see also copper trade 

Guinean Company, see New Sweden 

Guinean trade, 95 ; see also the West 
Indian trade 

Guiney, 621 ; see also Guinea 

Gulden, see guilder 

GuldgUllen, same as gold guilder (gul- 
den), 88 

Gummere, quoted, 361 

Gustaf L, King of Sweden, treaty with 
England, 11 ; founds the city of Vasa 
in Finland, 328 

Gustavus Adolphus, 679, 686, 688 ; as- 
cends the Swedish throne, 3 ; con- 
ducts the Russian campaign in per- 
son, 4; called upon to become the 
leader of the Protestants, 5 ; engages 
in the Thirty Years War, 6; gives 
a royal assurance, 19; the Bible of, 
22; charters trading companies, 45 
ff. ; grants audience to Usselinx, 53; 
gives commission to Usselinx to 
found a general trading company, 
53-54; grants charter to the South 
Company, 54; appoints two directors 
for the South Company, 58 ; con- 
tributes to the company, 59 ; Usselinx' 
visit to, 61 ; gives privileges to Bon- 
nell, 63-64; greatly interested in the 
ropewalks of the South Company, 
64; assigns a small vessel to the 
South Company, 66; Usselinx ob- 
tains his rel^ease from, 68 ; proposes 
the founding of a ship company, 69; 
presents the needs of the ship com- 
pany to the diet, 70; contributions to 
the South-Ship Company, 71 ; takes 
Interest in the New South Company, 
81 ; well disposed towards Finnish 
migration to Sweden, 147; makes 
treaty with Buckingham, 177; biog- 
raphy, 681 

Gylle(?), de, 76 

Gyllene Haj, see ships 

Gyllengren, Ellas, buys goods at New 
Amsterdam, 339; returns to the col- 
ony in the capacity of a Lieutenant, 
477; complains to the governor, 486; 
sent ashore by Rising to demand the 
surrender of Fort Casimir, 583 ; con- 
ferences with Dutch, 598, 614; wife 
of, killed, 663 ; remains in the col- 
ony, 663 ; see also Fort Trefaldighet 

Gyllenpatron, Major, 691 

Gymnasier, secondary schools in Swe- 
den, 27 




Haafcansson, Haakan, 493 
Haarlem, 675 

Hachaman, Indian chief, 564 
Hague, 118, 674, 675, 695; Oxenstierna's 
visit at, 91; see also Spiring, Blora- 
maert, Minuit and Trotzig 
Haj, see Gyllene Haj 
Hakluyt, quoted, 550 
Half Moon, see sliips 
Hall, Printz, see Printz Hall 
Halland, tobacco trade in, 641 
Hamburg, mentioned, 105, 675, see also 

Hamel, 676 

Hammel (Hammal), 716 
Hand, och Ndringar, Nord. Saml., 

quoted, 622, 644, 646 
Hand. ror. Skan. Hist., quoted, 45, 58, 

95, 126, 149, 151 
Hanneman, B., 641 
Hansa League, 44 
Hansson, Hans, to sell tobacco for the 

Company, 292 
Hansson, Isak, to sell tobacco for the 

Company, 292 
Hansson, Krister, 641 
Hards-cloth, price of, 352 
Harkhofen, brings 40 families into the 

South River, 447 
Harlingen, Svpedish ships at, 245; see 

also expeditions 
Harmensen, Pieter, granted land, 411 ; 

did not settle the land, 412 
Harmony, see Endrdkt 
Harommuny, Island of, Dutch prepare 

to build at, 434 
Harrington, quoted, 190 
Hart, Albert Bushnell, quoted, 573 
Hartford, New England, 515 ; see also 

Jacob Svensson and the English 
Hartford Convention, 574-575 
Hartung, quoted, 361 
Harvey, Sir John, Governor, quoted, 

Hasser, H., quoted, 29 
Hastenas, 495 
Hattowens, Indian chief, sold land to 

the Dutch, 429 
Hazard, Ebenezer, (State Papers), 

quoted, 173, 175, 213-215, 402 
Hazard, Samuel, quoted, 57, 117, 139, 
141, 143, 169-170, 172, 179, 185-186, 
192, 194, 196, 304-305, 320, 326, 328, 
334, 338, 343, 350, 382, 410-411, 413, 
417-418, 451-452, 466, 529, 578, 587, 

589-590, 592, 595, 598-599, 601, 648, 
658-659, 665, 670 
Heckemak, 381 
Hedderly, 366 
Hedemora, tobacco to be sold at, 292, 

Heffner, Jacob, mayor of Borga, salt 

assigned to, 288 
Heikel, quoted, 346 
Heilbronn, 81; League of, practically 

dissolved, 91 
Heimer, quoted, 177 
Heinsius, Nicolaas, demands presented 

to, 649 
Helsingor, mentioned, 105, 493 ; ships 
arrive at, 261, 472; see also expedi- 
Hemming, Clas, suit against, 233 
Hemp, Ridder requests, 198 
Hemp Company at Riga, 47-48 
Henlopen, Cape, 384; Bogaert proposes 
to build a fort at, 143 ; Cabot prob- 
ably passed, 165; Godyn and Blom- 
maert buy land at, 170; Printz to 
build a stronghold at, 303 
Hennepin, quoted, 560 
Henrietta Maria, Queen, Maryland 

called in honor of, 173 
Henry VIII., treaty with Sweden, 11 
Henry, Prince, letter of recommenda- 
tion for Usselinx to, 68 
Hercules, see ships 
Hernevi, 678 
Hernlund, quoted, 23 
Herrman, Augustin, authorizes to col- 
lect debts, 339; brings news about 
the shipwreck of the Katt, 433 ; signs 
Indian deed, 422; map of, 189; 
quoted, 188-190 
Hessen, Landtgrefven af, 98 
Hewes, Josua, member of the Company 

formed at Boston, 395 
Heyde, de, 652 

Heyes, Capt. Peter, sails to the Dela- 
ware, 170; founds Swanendael at the 
Horn (Hoere) Kill, 171 
Hielmare Canal, constructed, 39 
Hildebrand, quoted 3-8, 10-12, 15, 20- 
21, 49, 57, 251, 252, 282, 356, 456- 
459, 641 
Hill, Valentine, member of the Com- 
pany formed at Boston, 395 
Hindricksson, Jon, skipper, 632 
Hindricksson, Johan, governor, con- 
tributes to second expedition, 125 ; 
secures colonists, 126-127; successful, 
127 ; letters to be sent to, 146 ; to 



consult Roloffson, 147; supplies pro- 
visions, 224; see also expeditions 

Hindrickson (Hindrixsz., Henderickse), 
van der Water (de Waeter, Waet- 
ter), Jan (Jehan, Johan), skipper on 
Kalmar Nyckel, 112 ff. 

Hindricksen, Thering, 760 

Hinoyossa, Alexander d', made Direc- 
tor, 666 ; arrives at South River, 667 ; 
made commander of the colonies, 669 

Hisingen, 493 

Hist. Arkisto, quoted, 37 

Hist. Bibl., quoted, 48, 244 

Hist. Col. of Mass., quoted, 208, 213 

Hist. Mag., quoted, 188, 190, 259, 595, 
597-598, 600-601, 603, 608 

Hist, of iVyoming, quoted, 208 

Hist[orisk'\ Tid\_skrift], quoted, 9, 30, 
34. 36. 37. 40, 378. 475. 552. 555, 646 

Hjarne, quoted, 457 

Hjarta, quoted, 456 

Hjort, Rev. Peter, on tenth expedition, 
478; stationed at Fort Trefaldighet, 

"■ 546-547. 614 

Hodge, quoted, 188 

HoeufiFt, Mattheus, shares in a brass 
factory at Nacka, 89 

HoeSnaegell, Jaris, shares in Company, 

Hoere Kill, see Horn Kill 

Hof, Printz, see Printz Hall 

Hofberg, quoted, 29 

Hogstrom, quoted, 49 

Holidays, observed in the colony, 369 
£F.; special, 370, 34^-347 

Holland, 327, 641, 674, 675, 682, 684, 
693, 695, 696, 698; defeats Spain, 3; 
friend of Sweden, 12-13 ; controls 
the shipping of the Baltic, 13; turns 
against Sweden, 8, 13-14; skilled 
workmen imported from, 64; mate- 
rials secured in, 64; merchants of, 
91; sailors hired in, 109— in ; tobacco 
sent from, i6i ff. ; mentioned, 327, 
641 ; see also expeditions. Spiring, 
Trotzig, Oxenstierna, Blommaert 

Hollander, quoted, 27, 29 

Hollandica, quoted, 649 

Hoi. Doc, quoted, 410 

Holm., Rev., see Campanius 

Holm, Thomas Campanius, repeats 
statement of Rising, 175 ; quoted, 176, 
190-191, 240-241, 261, 347, 367, 374, 

376, 379. 482. 535. 554. 559-56° 
Holm, Theodor, quoted, i6, 39 
Holm{e), meaning of, 331 
Holmberg, quoted, 30 

Holstein, trade from, 46 ; harbors in> 

Holmes, George, sails up to Fort Nas- 
sau, 180 

Home-trade, in Sweden, 40 

Hooghkamer, Hendrik, takes place of 
Van Reede, 138 

Hook, Erick Ericksson, petition of, 249 

Hooks, fish, sent to New Sweden, 255; 
see also expeditions and New Sweden 

Hook, Lieut. Sven, on the Haj from 
Stockholm to Gothenburg, 480; ap- 
pointed in the place of Amundsson in 
New Sweden, 491 ; papers of 
Amundsson given to, 492; salary of, 
503 ; arrived at Christina, 525 ; re- 
fused to sign inventory, 589; sent to 
look for the Dutch, 596 ff. ; released, 
612; reports to Trotzig, 616 

Hoorn, see ships 

Hopp, Capt Berendt Hermansson, 760; 
makes a trading journey to the Carib- 
bean Islands, 244 ff. ; owes the com- 
pany, 247, 642 

Horn, Clas, subscribed to the South 
Company, 60 

Horn, Evert, conducts the Russian 
Campaign, 4 

Horn, Gustaf, Field Marshal, takes 
part in Russian campaign, 5; army 
of, defeated, 6, 82, 91 

Horn, Paridon von, subscribed to the 
South Company, 60 

Horn (Hoorn) Kill, colonists to be 
settled at, 143 ; colony at, 170-171 ; 
name discussed, 171 ; goods sent to, 
563 ; see also Swanendael 

Horses, sent to New Sweden, 128; five 
landed alive in 1641 in New Swe- 
den, 202; bought from New Amster- 
dam, 331; sold to the English, 523 

Horst, van der, see Godard van Reede 

Houses, built by Minuit in Fort Chris- 
tina, ii8, 193; built at Fort Nassau, 
178 ; description of, in New Sweden, 
204, 345 ff., 537 ff. 

Howkeshocken, English lands extend 
from, 211 

Hubbard, see Col. of Mass. Hist. So. 

Hudde, Andries (Anders), appointed 
the successor of Jansen, 408 ; more 
active and aggressive than Jansen, 
409 ; orders Blanck to proceed to the 
Schuylkill, 409 ; advises Governor 
Kieft of the troubles with the 
Swedes, 410; attempts to ascend the 
Delaware in search of gold, 411; 
buys land from the Indians, 412 S.; 



protests against the Swedes, 413- 
414; complains that the Swedes 
stirred up the Indians against the 
Dutch, 415 ; personal relations with 
Printz seem to have been cordial, 
416; goes to New Amsterdam to re- 
port, 417; ordered to erect a house at 
Fort Nassau, 418 ; in dispute with 
the Swedes, 418-419; receives a grant 
of land from the Indians, 419-420; 
erects fort Beversreede, 420; Stuy- 
vesant writes to, 420-421 ; ordered 
to send Indians to New Amster- 
dam, 420-421 ; instructed to inform 
the commissioners about the situa- 
tion of the River, 421-422; Printz 
complains about the actions of, 423 ; 
goes again to New Amsterdam, 
434 ; accused of fraud, 424-425 ; 
about to report, 426 ; buys new land 
from the Indians, 428 fi. ; instructed 
to join hands with Printz against 
the English, 432; signs the deed, 
4.37 ; aids in making a map for Ri- 
sing of the South River, 517; prom- 
ised to serve Rising as faithfully as 
he had served his former master, 585 ; 
examined at court because he was 
accused of desertion, 512; member 
of the council in the South River 
under the Dutch, 657; sent to New 
Amsterdam, 661 ; quoted, 323, 410, 
418-419, 432, 425-426, 429 

Hudson, Henry, an Englishman of Lon- 
don, i66; Spaniards, visit New York 
a century before, 165 ; enters service 
of the Dutch East India Company, 
166; in the Delaware Bay, 166; re- 
turns to Europe, 167 

Hudson River, Printz to be on good 
terms with the Dutch on, 405; Stuy- 
vesant supposes that Printz intends 
to build a fort at the source of, 430- 
431; feared that the English would 
try to get possession of, 432 

Hunting, in New Sweden, 202-203 ; see 
also New Sweden 

Huygen, Hendrick (Hendrik Huygen, 
Huyghen, Hughen, Hugen), appointed 
commissioner for the colony, 112; re- 
turns to Sweden, 130; sent to Holland 
to buy goods, 145 ; sells tobacco, i6i- 
162; signs the deeds of the first land 
bought by the Swedes, 184; mer- 
chandise left in the charge of, 194; 
tried to obtain a cargo for the re- 
turning ships of the fourth expedi- 
tion, 155; protest addressed to, 216; 

sent to New Amsterdam to buy sup- 
plies and bring back deserters, 310- 
311; sent to New Amsterdam on the 
second expedition to buy oxen, 
313; sent into the Minquas country 
with merchandise, 329; sent into the 
Minquas country in 1647, 332; states 
that the Hollanders conducted a 
harmful inland trade, 335; letter of 
introduction for, 407 ; sent to remove 
the Dutch arms from the limits of 
the land, 413; Hudde complains 
about, 414; sent to deliver a protest 
to the Dutch, 420 ; estimate of, 453 ; 
secretary or clerk at the court, 459- 
461 ; returns to Sweden, 466 ; arrives 
in Sweden, 619; stock-holder in the 
American Company, 626 ; returns to 
the colony as head commissary and 
in charge of the ship, 634; lands at 
Fort Casimir, 659 ; arrested as an 
enemy of the state, 659 ; goes to New 
Amsterdam to present his case before 
the council, 660; differences with 
Papegoja, remains in the colony and 
enters Dutch service, 662 ; 684, 762 ; 
quoted, 154-155, 201, 204, 210, 659 
Hvittis Socken, colonists from, 243 

Illiteracy, in Sweden, among the Dela- 
ware Swedes, 28 
Imports, into Sweden, 34 ; see also Swe- 
den and New Sweden 
Inch, Swedish, length of, 42 
Indeanischen Estata Rathen, 277 
Indians, destroy the Swanendael col- 
ony, 171 ; Young trades with, 179 ; 
kill English in Delaware, 179; in- 
form the Dutch of the presence of 
the English in the Delaware, 179- 
180; Minuit buys land from, 183- 
184; Ridder buys land from, 200 ff. ; 
trade with Minuit, 187-191 ; gifts 
presented to, 192; trade with the 
Swedes, 185, 187, 191 ff., 199, 309 ff., 
568 ff. ; Printz buys land from, 332, 
335) 337; Rising buys land from, 
564 ff., 567 ff., 569 ff.; English buy 
land from, 208 ff. ; Dutch buy land 
from, 170 ff., 178-179, 412 ff., 422, 
428 ff., 436 ff. ; relation of, with the 
Swedes, 199, 375 ff., 563 ff. ; stirred 
up by ihe Dutch against the Swedes, 
276. 41S. 420 
Industries, see Sweden and New Swe- 



Ingermanland (Ingria), ceded by 
Russia to Sweden in 1617, 4; efforts 
to raise subscriptions in, 67 

Inkomna skrifvelser (K.A.), quoted, 

Innsbruck, 679 

Instructions, quoted, 210, 214, 303, 309, 
312, 404, 408, 4SO, 498-500 

Insurance, 40, 145 

Ireland, Lord Justice of, issues grant 
to Plowden, 174 

Irish, probable visits of, to the Dela- 
ware, 165 

Iron works, Swedish, famous in Eng- 
land, II, 34 

Iroquois, meaning of, 187; Lakes and 
Rivers of, 191-192; see also Black 
and White Minquas, Indians and 
New Sweden 

Iroquoian tribes, location of, 187 

Isin-glass, Swedes said to have made 
windows of, 348 

Isle de Sable, to be occupied by Swedes, 
112; to trade at, 114; to be called 
Christina, 113; black foxes to be 
hunted on, 113; cattle to be captured 
on, 113; maps of, to be made, 112 

Italy, 688 ; relation with Sweden, 9 


Jacie, Henry, quoted, 398 

Jacobs O., see Jacque's Island 

Jacobsson, Jacob, subscribed to the 
South Company, 60 

Jacobstad, tobacco trade in, 641 

Jacque's Island (Jacobs O), Printz to 
build a stronghold on, 303 

Jacquet, Jean Paul (Paulus), ap- 
pointed Vice-Director, 657; assumes 
his office, 658; petition to, 659; re- 
ports to Stuyvesant, 659-661 ; com- 
plaints against, 664 

Jamaica, 177 

James I., King of England, vanity of, 
4; gives privileges to Lord Balti- 
more, 172 

James City, see Jamestown 

Jameson, Dr. F., quoted, 38, 45, 52-54, 
57-58, 62-65, 68, 77. 81-83. 102. 120. 
167, 169, 172, 466, 573, 595. 600. 603. 

Jamestown, 174, 382; Charles I. sends 
a document to, 216 

Jamtland, 682 

Janeke, Hans, barber-surgeon, hired to 
go to New Sweden, 243 ; arrives in 
the colony, 317, 634 

Jannson, Johan, cartographer, quoted, 

Jansen, Andrian, 759 

Jansen, Jan, skipper, trading on the 
South River, 343 

Jansen, Jan, commissioner of Fort Nas- 
sau, i8i; arrives on the South River, 
186 ; shoots at the Swedish sloop, 
207 ; reports the presence of the 
English to New Amsterdam, 214; 
expels the English from the Schuyl- 
kill, 215 ; testifies against Lamberton, 
384-385 ; ordered not to let Aspin- 
wall pass Fort Nassau, 396 ; on good 
terms with the Swedes, 407-408 ; ac- 
cused of fraud, Hudde appointed his 
successor, 408 ; Hudde more aggres- 
sive than, 409; member of the court 
in 1643, 460 

Jansen, Peter, sells goods to the Swedes, 

Jansen, Pouwel, commander of Kalmar 
Nyckel, 129, 759 

Jansen, Peter, witness, 382 

Janssen, Jan, Capt., 258 

Jansson, Anders, 474 

Jansson, Bartolomeus, rope-maker, 65 

Jansson, Jacob, 762 

Jansson, Thomas, see Thomas Johan- 

Jansson, W., quoted, 75 

Jeffery, Thomas, member of the Hart- 
ford Convention, 575; to go to the 
Delaware, 578 

Jena, 686, 688 

Jesuit Relations, quoted, 334 

Jews, exempt from military service, 
594; trade at the South River, 658- 

Joachimss, Johan, 758 

Jochimsen, Jan, 760 

Jochimson, see colonists 

Johanss., Peter, 758 

Johansson, M., secretary on Kalmar 
Nyckel, 245; badly wounded, 251 

Johansson, Thomas, member of the 
tobacco company, 161, 291 

Johnson, Col. R. G., quoted, 305 

Jol, admiral, 195 

Jonkoping, difficulty in raising shares, 
70; 689 

Jonfcopings Ian, 689 

Jonsson, Anders, 761 

Jonsson, Jon, 642 

Jonsson, Pafvel, account of, 352 

Joransen, Andrian, skipper, 112, 758 

Joransson, Ambrosius, petition of, 249 

Joransson, Eric, letter sent to, 67 



Joransson, Johan, to sell tobacco for 

the company, 292 
Josselyn, John, quoted, 175 
Journal (K.A.), quoted, 163 
Journal (N.S., III. (K.A.) ), quoted, 40- 

41, 105-108, III, 122, 124-125, 130- 

133, 144-145. 149-150, 154, 157. 161. 
194, 205, 225-328, 231-234, 240-244, 
247-248, 253, 255, 261, 263-266, 268, 
276, 282-283, 287-289, 293-300, 303- 
305, 310, 317, 327, 336, 342-343. 348. 
357, 366. 371-372. 451-452, 454. 471- 
474, 478, 494, 502, 527, 616, 626, 633, 
637-638, 641, 643 

Journal of Rising, see Rising 

Juet, Robert, second mate(?) on the 
Half Moon, i66, quoted, 166-167 

Julian Calendar, used in Sweden and 
New Sweden, 42 

Jung (Junge), Melchior, establishes 
glassworks at Stockholm, 34 

Junge (Jung), Daniel, to establish a 
fish company, 50; member of new 
Tobacco Company, 298; appointed 
factor in place of Bonnell, 623 ; offers 
to pay for the right of selling to- 
bacco, 637; sent to organize the to- 
bacco trade, 638 ; advanced money 
for the company, sells tobacco, 639; 
manages the company, 641 ; quoted, 

639 . .,. 

Junge, Jacob, sells tobacco in Alingsas, 

Jury, Swedish, origin of, 456-457; de- 
scription of, 457-458 ; in New Swe- 
den, 459 ff. 

Jutland, ships pass, 261 ; see also ex- 


K.A. (Kammar Arkiv), 802 
Kabbeljouw, Abraham, see Cabeliau 
Kabeliaw, Peter P5welsson, 760 
Kadiz, 75 

Kagg, Lars, writes to Oxenstierna con- 
cerning colonists for New Sweden, 
268 ; instructed to keep Gothenburg 
in a state of defense, 276; quoted, 
259, 268 
Kahre, Truls, member of the New 

Russian Company, 50 
Kalevala, quoted, 351, 354, 527 
Kallmeter (Kalmater, Kohlmather), 
Jacob, 289; member of the first To- 
bacco Company, 161 ; member of the 
Tobacco Company, 291 ; remains 
member of the Company in 1647, 
294; direction of the company in 

the hands of, 292; buys large quan- 
tities of tobacco from Bonnell, 296 
Kalm, Peter, quoted, 204, 348-349, 358, 

Kalmar, Tobacco Company has agents 

at, 292 
Kalmar Ian, tobacco trade in, 641 
Kalmar Nyckel, see ships 
Kalmater, see Kallmeter 
Kammarkollegium (College of the 

Exchequer), 15, 476 
Kam\_mar'] Kol[legie'] Keg\istratur'], 

quoted, 49, 89, 131, 476 
Kampen, 109; town in Holland near 

the Zuyder Zee, 258 ; see also expedi- 
Kanna (Swedish), capacity of, 42 
Katt {Kattan), see ships 
Keel-boat, made at Fort Elfsborg, 315; 

see also shipbuilding 
Keen, G. B., quoted, 175, 400, 629 
Kent, island, settled by Clayborne, 173 
Kernfcamp, quoted, 48, 92-97, 104, 106, 

117, 120, 137-138, 185, 193-195, 250- 

Kettles, sent to New Sweden, 255; see 

also expeditions 
Kexholm, Karl Johansson from, 152- 

153 ; ceded to Sweden, 4 
Kexholms Ian, ceded by Russia to 

Sweden, 4 
Key, quoted, 27 
Keyser, Andrian, to report on Hudde's 

accounts, 424 
Kiapes, son of Mitatsimint, testifies 

against Peminacka, 438 ff. 
Kickeesickenom, sold land to the Dutch, 

Kidder, is mistaken in supposing that 

the letter of Mar. 21, 1644, was sent 

with Aspinwall, 391 ; quoted, 389- 

391, 397, 461 

Kikitan, 381 

Kieft, Willem, governor, makes agree- 
ment with the Swedes, 143 ; protests 
against Minuit, 186; no orders to 
oppose the Swedes by force, 195 ; 
protests against Coxwell, 213 ; recom- 
mends Coxwell to the favor of his 
commissary at the Delaware, 214; 
Printz writes to, 310; sell merchan- 
dise to Huygen, 310-311; paid by 
Huygen for lodging, sloop of, brings 
cattle to New Sweden, 313; orders 
Jansen not to let the English pass 
the fort, 396; protests against the 
Swedes, writes friendly letters to 
the Swedes, 407 ; complaints made 



against the leniency of, towards the 
Swedes, 408 ; shows more concern 
about the trading post in the South 
River, 409; Hudde writes to, 410; 
orders his comnaissary to buy land 
on the South River, 412; Stuyvesant 
appointed in place of, 416 ; biog- 
rap/iy, 68 1 

King David, see ships 

Kingsassingh, see Kingsessing 

Kingsessing (Kingsassingh), 464, 527, 
566 ; see also New Sweden, the 
Dutch, Rising and the Indians 

King, William, skipper, 530 

Kintakosy, sold land to the Dutch, 429 

Kippaka, 531 

Kirby, Francis, quoted, 398 

Kirke, success of, in 1629, 393 

Kirsfoot(?), paid by the Swedes, 333 

Klimpert, quoted, 42 

Kling, Mans Nilsson, 699, 704, 715; 
goes on first expedition, 112; accom- 
panies Minuit up Minquas Kill, 184; 
left in command of the fort, 194; 
returns to Europe, 130; collects col- 
onists, 149-150; goes again to the 
colony, 153, 202; placed in command 
of the block-house in the Schuylkill, 
318-319; does business with the sav- 
ages, 324; commander of Fort Kors- 
holm, 331-332; returns to Sweden, 
261, 336 

Kluge. quoted, 351 

Knapla, 683 

Knives, sent to New Sweden, 255 ; 
brought over in large quantities, 355 

Keck, referred to, 25 

Kohlmalher, see Jacob Kallmeter 

Kokarakungh, 566 

Kom[mers'] Koll[egium], see Com- 
biners'] Coll[egium']. 

Kompanier, (K.A), quoted, 163 

Kongelf, 493 

Konigsmark, Count Otto Wilhelm, 654 

Koninck Salomon, see ship 

Konung David, see King David 

Konung Carl, see ships 

Koping, 137; Bogaert goes to, 137 

Kopparberget, 239; Kling goes to, 150; 
Tobacco Company to have its own 
representatives at, 291 

Koskinen, Yrjo, quoted, 31, 147 

Kota (kdta), meaning of, 345 

Kramer, Hans, 680; buys goods for 
fourth expedition, 151; copies ac- 
counts from New Sweden into the 
official books of the company, 231; 
bookkeeper of the African Company, 

49; present at discussions of the 
company, 221-222; remains book- 
keeper of the Company, 231; the 
office of the Company in the house 
of, 232; helps to prepare the sixth 
expedition, 242; buys goods for the 
Fama, 243 ; documents sent to, 252 ; 
busy in preparing eighth expedition, 
258 ; helps to prepare the ninth ex- 
pedition, 266 ; instructed to report 
concerning the ninth expedition, 278 ; 
probably writes to the chancellor 
and the Queen, 283 ; ordered to re- 
pair Gyllene Haj, 287 ; pays money 
to returning people on the ninth ex- 
pedition, 275-276; makes inventory 
of the goods of the company, 287 ; 
brings suit against the Tobacco 
Company, 297 ; aids in preparing the 
tenth expedition, 470; purchases sup- 
plies for the tenth expedition, 471, 
474; aids in preparing the eleventh 
expedition, 490; recommends Els- 
wick to the Commercial College, 492 ; 
appointed treasurer of the American 
Company, 623 ; draws up proposals 
for the Company, 625 ; retains his 
position as bookkeeper in the com- 
pany, 627 ; reports concerning the 
condition of New Sweden, 629 ; 
writes to Trotzig, 631; manages the 
preparations for the twelfth expedi- 
tion, 632; warns against sending too 
many colonists on the twelfth expe- 
dition, 633 ; new proposals for the 
American Company, made by, 638 ; 
to remain as manager of the Amer- 
ican Tobacco Company, 641 ; bal- 
ances the books of the New Sweden 
(the American) Company, 642-643; 
secretary engaged as aid to, 643 ; 
biography, 682; quoted, 153, 252, 
297. 48Z, 490, 623. 632 

Krober, Anders Nilsson, captain on 
Kalmar Nyckel, iii 

Kroger, Pal, 641 

Kudrun, 361 

Kungliga Biblioteket, see Royal Library 
at Stockholm 

Kruse, Peter, governor, 239 

Kullin, referred to, 25 

Kurk, Countess Brita, contributes to the 
American Company, 624 

Kvarn Kill, 526 

Kykesycken, 437 

Kyperj (kuiperij), explained, 320 and 
n. 67a. 



Laconia, grant of, 392; why so named, 

Laconia Company, sends Capt. Neal to 

America, 393 ; see also Lyconnia 

Ladoga, 152 
Laer, Arnold J. F. van, quoted, 172; 

see also Appendix A 
Laet, Johan de, 676; map of, 112, 394; 

quoted, 167, 169-170, 191-192 
Lagerfelt, Israel, at London, 12, 620- 


Lamberton, George, member of the Del- 
aware Company, sent to purchase 
part of the Delaware, 208 ; purchases 
land on the Delaware, 209-212; 
builds a block-house at Varkens Kill, 
2IO-2II; builds block-house at the 
Schuylkill, 213-214; escapes with his 
vessel, 215; continues his trade at 
the Delaware, 382 ff. ; anchored with 
the ship, the Cock, above Fort Chris- 
tina, 383; arrested by Printz, 384; 
brought into court and examined, 
306, 384-387, 459-460; decision 
against, 387, 460; pays duty, 388; 
complains against Printz, 388; given 
commission to go and treat with the 
Swedish Governor, 389; Woollen con- 
fesses that he had not been prevailed 
upon to testify falsely against, 390 

Land-grants in New Sweden, made to 
Printz, 317; to Amundsson and 
Skute, 500, 517; to Rising, 524; see 
also New Sweden, Printz, Amunds- 
son, Gyllengren, Skute 

Lang, Jan Hindrickson, 762 

Langdonk, Joost van, factor in New 
Sweden, 127; Van Dyck complains 
against, 129; goes to Spiring at the 
Hague, 155, lacks the qualities of a 
commissary, 199 ; quarrels with the 
commander, 199-200; makes inven- 
tory of the goods at Christina, 202 ; 
his return to Europe, 205 

Language, Swedish, of seventeenth cen- 
tury, passing through a transition, 
23 ; foreign influence on, 23-24 ; 
special characteristics of, 24; change 
of consonants of, 24; vowels of, 25 

Lanterns, 352 

Larsen, quoted, 457 

Larsmas (August 10), rye to be sown 
a*, 313 

Larsson, Bengt, customs collector at 
Gothenburg, 109 

Larsson, Erik (Erik Larsson von der 
Linde), 33, 78, 88-89, 221, 675 

Larsson, J., sells tobacco, 643-644 

Larsson, Jan (Johan), bailiff at Gothen- 
burg furnishes cash and provisions 
for second expedition, 125 

Larsson, Johan, secretary of South- 
Ship Company, 71 

Larsson, Jurgen, skipper, brings goods 
to Gothenburg, 283 

Larsson, Lars, commander of Elfsborg, 

Larsson, Per, colonist on the ninth ex- 
pedition, returns to Sweden, 276 

Latin, influences the Swedish language, 

Laurenssen, Laurens, 327 

Laurents, Peter, former owner of the 
bark, 382 

Laws, printed in Sweden, 21 ; of 
Moses, 21 

Leach, presents a description of the 
Delaware, 400 

Lecko, 687 

Leendertsen, Alexander (Sander), pre- 
pares to build, 434 

Leendertsen, Cornells, sells goods in 
New Sweden, 312 

Lehigh River, Munsees extending to, 

Leijonberg (Leyonberg, Leionberg, Lei- 
jonbargh), Johan Barkman, in- 
structed to present the claims of the 
American Company, 650; 655-656; 
quoted, 12, 51 

Leijonskold, see Marten Augustinsson 

Leipzig, 688 

Lejonhufvud, Gustaf, governor, va- 
grant Finns in his district, 148 ; gov- 
ernment writes to, 150 

Leksand, district in Dalarne, Sweden, 
education in, 28 

Lemerick, 763 

Lenape, inhabited New Sweden, 187; 
location of, 187-188 

Leni-Lenape, see Lenape 

Letstigen, see Lytestegen(?) 

Lewes, quoted, 483 

Lex Mercatoria, quoted, 43 

Leyden, 109, 686, 693 

Libau, Sweden collects duty at, 6 

Libraries, see Royal Library, University" 
Library of Upsala 

Library, belonging to Printz, 349 

Lidkoping, 642, 687 

Liefde, see ships 

Lifland, see Livonia 

Linde, von der, see Erik Larsson 



Lindestrora, Peter MSrtensson, recom- 
mendation issued for, 477 ; at the 
University of Upsala, 477 ; decides 
to go to New Sweden, 477 ; goes 
ashore at Calais, 483 ; complains to 
the Governor, 486 ; visits the French 
Governor-General, 488; salary of, 
503 ; ordinance preserved in his 
Geographia, 504 ff. ; brought into 
court, 511; commissioned to divide 
the fields into lots, makes a plan for 
a new town, 518-519; writes the 
first Geography of the Delaware Re- 
gion, 554; map of, published, Geog- 
raphia ready, 555; account of his 
Geographia, 556 ff. ; quoted, 164, 
17s, 190-191. 274, 347> 353-355. 429, 
445. 472. 477. 482-489, 493, 511, 514- 
515. 519. 523. 530. 542, 554-560, 563- 
565, 571, 583-585. 595. 597. 599-601. 
603-604, 610, 612-614, 616; biog- 
raphy, 682 

Linen cloth, price of, 352 

Lingard, quoted, 177 

Linkoping, 693 ; ropewalk at, 64 

Linnestau, Maria von, 689 

Lisbon, 519; Swedish resident at, 11 

Lispund, weight of, 42, 518 

Lithuania, 62 

Litschoe, Sergeant Daniel, 588 

Little Imatra, 357 

Livonia, subscriptions for the South 
Company in, 62, 67 ; trade in, 45 ; 
duty on tobacco at, 290 

Lloyd, Commander, Edward, sent to 
confer with Rising, 572; presents 
English rights to the Delaware, 572- 

573 , . . 

Loccenius, Johannes, teacher of Rismg, 


Lock (Look, Look, Lockenius), Rev. 
Lars Karlsson (Carlson, Carlsson), 
engaged to serve in the colony, 260, 
373. 374; arrives, 334, 374; conducts 
services on Tini^-jm after the depar- 
ture of Campanius, 374; involved in 
disturbance, 463 ; alone in the col- 
ony from 1648 to 1654, 546; charges 
against, about to be sent back to 
Sweden, 510; remains in the country, 
668 ; wife of, elopes, 668 ; trouble with 
Meyer, 668 ; objects to Setskorn, 668- 
669; remains alone among the 
Swedes and Finns north of New 
Amstel, 669 

Lorn, explained, 152 

Lomma, 152 

London, 166, 674, 675, 693, 696; Swed- 

ish ambassadors go to, 11-12; Bon- 
nell arrives at, 677 
Longfellow, quoted, 544 
Long Island (Long Isle, Isle of Plow- 
den), granted to Sir Edmund Plow- 
den, 174 
Loockermans, Govert, trading on the 
South River, 407 

Looff, Thomas, 677 ; commander of ex- 
pedition to Spain, 74; endeavors to 
sell his cargo, 75 ; seeks the release 
of his ships, 75-76; accused by the 
sailors and skippers, brought into 
court, 77 

Looff' s Journal, quoted, 74-77 

Loos, C. C, Capt., 258 

Lord, Richard, sells goods in New Swe- 
den, 311-312, 515, 524 ff. 

Louis XIV., French government during 
the infancy of, organized along the 
lines of the Swedish government, 33 

Lovgren, Nils, quoted, 22 

Liibeck, 680 

Lucassen, Andres, on the Kalmar 
Nyckel, 182, 184 

Lucifer, Cornelius, 661 ; Captain on the 
Katt, 268 ; refuses to comply with the 
requests of the other officers, 269-270 

Luckassen (Lucassen), Peter, brings 
colonists to the South River, 667 

Lumber, manufactured in Sweden, 36; 
Ridder proposes the sawing of, 198 ; 
oak planks bought for use in Fort 
Elfsborg, 314, 323 

Lundell, referred to, 25 

Lund, 369 

Lundin, quoted, 30 

Lundstrora, Herman, quoted, 22 

Luther, catechism of, translated into 
Swedish, 22 

Lutheran Church, Swedish, service of, 
367 ff. 

Lutheran Church Review, quoted, 205 

Liitzen, 681 ; battle of, 6 

Lutzow, Francis, quoted, 27 

Lycke, Joachimus, 685; bookkeeper on 
ninth expedition, 268 ; sent to Stock- 
holm to report about the ship-wreck, 
271 ; reaches Sweden, 276 

Lyell (Leyel), Jacob, buys tobacco, 159 

Lyconnia Company at Boston, formed 
in 1644, members of, 395; see also 
Boston and Aspinwall 

Lygonia, often confused with Laconia, 

Lytestegen( ?), location of, 632 




Macklier, Hans, factor of the New 
Sweden Company, 233; ordered to 
prepare the Gyllene Haj for the 
seventh expedition, 255 ; buys goods 
in Gothenburg for the eighth expedi- 
tion, 25S ; helps to prepare the ninth 
expedition, 266 S. ; commission to 
sell tobacco in Gothenburg, 292; 
probably writes to the chancellor and 
the Queen, 283 ; pays Fluviander, 
371 ; Ankarhjelm negotiates with, for 
the sale of a ship, 631; biography, 

Madagascar, 649 

Madrid, Pallibsky sent to, 10, Looff 
goes to, 76 

Magni, Jonas, 21 

Magnus, Olaus, quoted, 34, 351 

Mahomen, Indian chief, sells land to 
Minuit, 183 

Mail-service, see post office 

Maine, province of, 392 

Maitland, quoted, 456 

Maize (Indian corn), explained, 333; 
planted in the colony, 308-309; plan- 
tations of, put into tobacco in 1644, 
319; bought at New Amsterdam, 
333; planted by Rising, 524; see also 
Fort Korsholm and New Sweden 

Malaga, 72 

Malbon, Richard, member of the Dela- 
ware Company, 208 ; sells tobacco in 
the colony, 318 ; sells goods in New 
Sweden, 324 

Malmo, battle fought near, 251 

Malmsten, Dr., 599 

Manaiping (Province Island), English 
build block-house on, 213 ; see also 
Province Island, Druveeijland 

Manatans (Manathans, Manhattan, 
Manite, Manatan, Manattans), see 
New Amsterdam 

Mankell, J., quoted, 30 

Mansson, Marten, 682 

Mantas (Minquas?), Printz buys land 
from, 332 

Mantas Creek, Printz buys land at, 337 

Mantas (Mantaes) Hook, Printz buys 
land at, 428 

Maps, figurative, of the Delaware, 168- 
169; map and plan of Fort Chris- 
tina, drawn by Lindestrom, 518; map 
made of the South River by Andries 
Hudde, 516-517; Lindestrom's, 555 
"March, George, Rising hires two horses 
from, sells an ox to the Swedes, 488 

March (probably John Marshall) sent 
to confer with Rising, 572 

Mariestad, tobacco sold in, 642 

Marie, see ships 

Mariken's (Marikis, Marikes, Marit- 
ties, Marietiens, Marquess, Markus, 
Marcus) Point (Hock, Huuk, Hook), 

Maritime Court, 694 

Marstrand, 493 

Marod, Thomas, sells goods to the 
Swedes, 323 

Martin, E., quoted, 361 

Maryland, Baltimore's grant including 
parts of, 173 ; name given to, 173 ; 
people in, offer to sell cattle to the 
Swedes on the South River, 198; 
grant of, presented as giving the 
English a right to the Delaware, 572 ; 
messenger sent to, from New Sweden, 
511, 515; called Upper Virginia or 
Severn, 572 

Maryland Hist. Mag., quoted, 170 

Mason, Capt. John, given a patent for 
the discovery of the Great Lake, 392 

Mason, J. A., quoted, 209 

Massachusetts, 389-391 

Mass. Archi'ves, quoted, 392 

Massachusetts Bay, 391 

Massklader, 367 

Mathias, Rev., 634 

Mastmaker's Hook, Root ordered to 
build on, 412, 425 ; Hudde complains 
against the damages of the Swedes 
at, 426 

Mathaeus, Andreas, 481, 761 

Matienzo, makes landings at New 
York, 165 

Matsson, Hindrick, 480 

Matsson, Nils, 641 

Mattahorn (Mattehooren, Mattehoorn, 
Mathehoorn, Amattehoorn), Indian 
chief, sells lands to Minuit, 183, 438 ; 
sells lands to Lamberton and Turner 
at the Schuylkill, 211; sells land to 
the Dutch, 420, 440-441 ; quoted, 

332> 437. 440 ff-. ^ J 

Maurisen, Cornells, refused payment 

by the Swedes, 439 
May, Cornells Jacobsen, skipper, later 
director, sent to New Holland, 167; 
sails up the Delaware, 169; explores 
the country, erects Fort Nassau, 170 
McMaster, quoted, 457 
Md. Archives, quoted, 343, 668 
Mechanics, Swedish, study abroad, 34 
Mechechason (Mekekanckan) (Tren- 
ton Falls), Printz buys land to, 332 



Mechekyralames, chief, sells land to 
Printz, 332 

Meckpott ( ?), Claes Cornelisson, con- 
tract made with, 161 

Medelpad, settlers from, 651 

Medemblik, 115, 117-118; repairs made 
at, I2g; see also expeditions 

Medicine, sent to New Sweden, 260; 
see also expeditions and barber- 

Medina, Duca de, 74 

Mediterranean Sea, trade from New 
Sweden to, 139 

Meekrat, Indian chief, meaning of 
name, 411 

Meil (mile), common German, length 
of, 42 

Mein, Thomas, 480 

Mekekanckon, Island of, near Trenton 
Falls, bought by Printz, 335; good 
location for a fort, 533; title to, 571 

Mekopemus, Indian chief, reports to 
the Swedes, 201 

Melanchthon, prophecy of, 28 

Memel, Sweden collects duty at, 6 

" Memorie voor Willem Usselinx,'' 
quoted, 62 

Mem. of Long Isl. Hist. So., quoted, 

305,. 354 
Memoires pour servir, etc., quoted, 165 
"Memorial," quoted, 581 
Memorial Hist, of New York, quoted, 

Menius of Dorpat, quoted, 28 
Mennonites, said to have settled at the 

Horn Kill, 170 
Mercu. Ger., see Usselinx 
Mercurius, see ships 
Messenius, Johannes, appointed pro- 
fessor of law, 1609, 21 
Meteren, Emanuel van, quoted, 166 
Mey, Peter, assistant commissioner of 

Fort Nassau, 181 ; sails down to meet 

Minuit, 185; protests against the 

Swedes, 186 
Mithobius, Hector, 8i 
Michaelivitsch, Czar Alexis, practiced 

fraud in transaction of the Russian 

Company, 50 
Middle Temple, 698 
Mijne, Jacque de la, skins sold by, 144; 

vessel insured by, 145 
Mil (mile), Swedish, length of, 42 
Mill Creek, 304 
Mill-maker, see mill-wright 
Mill stones, 324 
Mills, windmill made in New Sweden, 

203 ; water-mill erected on Cobb's 


Creek, windmill discarded, 328 ; 
grist-mill built in 1662, 666; see also 

Mills, hand, 464; see also New Sweden 

Mill-wright, 152 

Miner, C, quoted, 208 

Minerals, 139; see also New Sweden 

Minnesota, 357 

Minquas Kill, see Christina Kill 

Minquas (Minguee, Mingo, Minquass, 
Minque, Minquas, Minquesser, Myn- 
kussar, etc.), meaning of name, 188; 
name given to, by the Dutch, 188 ; 
trade with the Swedes, 191 ; gifts 
given to, 309; trade with the Swedes 
during the administration of Printz, 
309 ff. ; to be brought to Christina, 
312; Huygen and Dyck sent to the 
country of, 329 ; Printz in communi- 
cation with, 332; Blanck to wait for, 
409 ; Swedes go to sell ammunition to, 
376 ; remain friendly, call them- 
selves the special protectors of the 
Swedes, 569; tribes of, 570; see also 
Black and White Minquas 

Minquas country, situation of, 191-192; 
Swedes sent into the, 329, 332; 
bounds of, 440 

Minsi, see Munsee 

Minuit (Munuyt, Minnewit, Munuit, 
Miniet, Minuict, Minuiet, Munut), 
Peter, meets Blommaert, 93 ; gover- 
nor of New Netherland, 93, 170; has 
cause for complaint against the XIX., 
94; expresses desire to present his 
views to the chancellor, presents proj- 
ect of New Sweden, 96-97; promises 
to contribute to the company, 97, 
103 ; commercial plans of, presented 
in Stockholm, 98 ; called to Amster- 
dam to meet Spiring, requested to go 
to Sweden, 100; visits the Hague to 
confer with Spiring, 102; presents 
charts and maps of the Delaware, 
102-103 ; appointed leader of expe- 
dition, 103; leaves for Sweden, 104; 
arrives in Stockholm, 105 ; ill, 105 ; 
begins work anew, 105-106 ; makes 
final preparations in Holland, 110; 
prepares the ships in Gothenburg, 
iii; secret instruction to, 112-115; 
rules of conduct for, 115; comman- 
der of Kalmar Nyckel, requested to 
transport goods and people from Hol- 
land to New Amsterdam, 116; ar- 
rives at the Delaware, 117; leaves 
New Sweden, is drowned off the 
Island of St Christopher, 177; jour- 



nal of, sent to Fleming, 117; sails up 
the Minquis Kill, 182; buys lands 
from the Indians, 183-184; sends the 
Grip to Jamestown, 185; in dispute 
with the Dutch, 185-186; trades with 
the savages, 191-192; builds a fort, 
191 ; prepares provisions for the men, 
194; quoted, 96-97; biography, 681; 
684. 685, 758 

Minutes of the Provincial Council, 
quoted, 191, 670 

Miod, Hans, 481 

Mirrors, frame, sent to New Sweden, 

Mirrors, tin, sent to New Sweden, 255 
Mirrors, gilded, sent to New Sweden, 

Mister, Indian chief, 567 

Mitatsimint ( Metotscheming) , sells land 
to Minuit, 183 ; dead in 1651, said 
to have given his land to Peminaka, 

Mitchell, Donald G., quoted, 550 
Mitot Schemingh, see Mitatsimint 
Mockorhuttingh, 566 
Mohawks, i68 
Molineaux, map of, 112 
Mollnaer, Peter Cornelisson, contract 

made with, 161, 293, 295 
Molndal, 697; name given to, and 

mill built at, 328 ; abandoned, 339 
Montelius, quoted, 356 
Montrose, Marquis of, 683 
Monumenta polit., quoted, 654 
Moore, Mr. Edward, 382 
Moore, Virginia merchant, sells goods 

to the Swedes, 310 
Momma, Abraham, presents proposal 

to the Commercial College, 289 
Momma, Jacob, presents proposal to 

the Commercial College, 289 
Momma, Willem, skins sold to, 289 
Monatg\_elder'] B{uch'], the, quoted, 231, 

243-244, 276, 283, 306, 307, 312, 336, 

353-354. 356-357, 374, 451-453. 4^3 
Money, English £, etc., 530; Swedish 

and Dutch, 41 ; Indian, 192 
Monroe County, 175 
Montagne, Dr. Jean (Johannes) de la, 

goes to the South River, 421-422; 

buys land from the Indians, 422 
Morley, Henry, quoted, 550 
Morris, Henry C, quoted, 44 
Morton, Thomas, quoted, 391, 394 
Moses, laws of, 21 ; laws of, used in 

the colony, 459 
Motley, J. L., quoted, 169 
Mugs, tin, sent to New Sweden, 255 

Munck, quoted, 205, 549 
Mundt, Heinrich, 762 
Munsee, tribe of the Lenape, 187; lo- 
cation of, 187-188 
Munson, Thomas, member of Hart- 
ford Convention, 575-576 
Munthe, A., quoted, 251 
Murner, Thomas, quoted, 361 
Murphy, Henry C, quoted, 166, 550 
Myers, Albert Cook, quoted, 179, 536 


Naaman's Kill, 525 

Nacka, brass factory at, 89 

Ndmd (nembda) origin of, 456 ff. ; ex- 
plained, 457 

Narraticons (Narratacus, Narraticonse, 
Narratica) Kill, 201, 209, 423, 428, 
430; see also Racoon Kill 

Narva, trade from, 46; Tobacco Com- 
pany have agents at, 292 

Nassau, see forts 

Nautila By, colonists from, 243 

Neal, Capt. Walter, goes to America 
to discover the " Great Lake," 393- 

Neckatoensing (Neckatoensingh, Necka- 
toesing) Kill, 443 

Nederhorst, Lord of, see Godard van 

Neeyeck, a kill, land bought near, 429 

Neptunis, see ships 

Nerike, 148 ; tobacco trade in, 641 

Nertunius Rosenbeckius, Rev. Matthias, 
goes on ninth expedition, 268 ; treated 
well by the Spaniards, 271 ; sent to 
Stockholm to report the shipwreck, 
271 ; reaches Sweden, 276 ; among 
the passengers on the tenth expedi- 
tion, 478 ; salary of, 502 ; assigned to 
serve at Upland, 546; considered to 
be the best preacher in the colony, 
546; acted too independently, 547; 
leaves New Sweden, 614, 668; biog- 
raphy, 685 

Netherlands, the, see Holland 

New Albion, Plowden's grant called, 
174; extent of, 174-175; Plowden be- 
gins preparations to go to, 215; 
people residing in, written to, 216- 
217 ; description concerning, pub- 
lished, 400; petition of the Earl of, 
401 ; quoted, 179, 400 

New Amstel, name of Fort Casimir 
changed to, 664; see also Fort Casi- 

Neia Amsterdam, the, see ships 



New Amsterdam (Manhattan, Mana- 
tans, etc.), 114, 167, 169, 180; 
Minuit to deliver goods at, ii6; 
Jan Jansen at, 186; Coxwell touches 
at, 213; goods bought at, 311; oxen 
and rye bought at, 313; De Vries 
leaves, 315; journeys to, 316; sewant 
bought from, 322 ; Dutch at, capture 
Spanish prizes, 322; a nevy journey 
to, in the summer of 1645, 324; oxen 
bought at, 324; Printz sends sloop 
to, 327; sloops sent to, twice, 330; 
another journey made to, 333 ; Eng- 
lish arrive at, 396; Stuyvesant ar- 
rives at, 416; Indian guides to be 
sent to, 421, 588 ff. ; see also, Dutch, 
Stuyvesant, Jan Jansen, Hudde, 
Printz, New Sweden 
New Castle, Dutch fort near, 445 
New England (North England), trad- 
ing journey from New Sweden made 
to, 314; Englishmen from, trading 
in the Delaware, 316; Printz pro- 
poses plans for buying sewant from, 
322 ; Persson sent to, for the purposes 
of trade, 333; company of, 341; 
Svensson sent to, for the purposes of 
trade, 343 ; Rivers of Sagadahok and 
Merrimack, in the country of, 392; 
distance of Great Lake from, 392; 
Morton's description of, 395 ; news 
of the victories of Gustavus Adol- 
phus penetrates into the settlements 
of, 398 ; Captain Clark sent from, 
to arrange for the settlement of a 
hundred families at the South River, 
399; planters of, probably foil Plow- 
den's attempt at settlement, 401 ; 
merchants of, write to Winslow, 402 ; 
Swedish sloop sent to, by Rising, 
515; friendly relations with, 573 ff. 
New England Coast, 113 
New English Canaan, quoted, 391, 394 
Neia Eng. Gen. Reg., quoted, 397 
Neitie und warhajfte Relation, quoted, 


Newfoundland {Terra Nova), 102; 
jurisdiction over, to be secured by 
Swedish government, 113; 165, 187 

New Gothenborg, see forts and Tini- 
cum Island 

New Hampshire Provincial Papers, 
quoted, 392 

New Haven, company formed at, 208 ; 
general court at, 212; Coxwell's ves- 
sel leaves, 213 ; people from, buy 
land on the Delaware, 208 ff. ; set- 
tlement of, on the Delaware success- 

ful in trade, 212; settlement of, at 
Varkens Kill, 210-211, at the Schuyl- 
kill, 212-213 ; settlement of, at the 
Schuylkill destroyed by the Dutch, 
probably in connection with the 
Swedes, 214-215; letter from the 
King concerning the settlement at 
the Delaware, 215, 217; Lamberton 
still at, 383 ; Eaton and Gregson, 
commissioners of, present complaints 
against Printz at the General Court 
of Boston, 388; Printz accused of 
reviling the English of, 388; 
prisoners sent to Boston by a bark of, 
398 ; English of, do not give up 
their hopes in the South River, 400; 
the Delaware Company of, urges its 
claim on the South River, 401 ; people 
of, again prepare to settle on the 
South River, 402 ; merchants of (New 
England) present their cause in 
London, 402-403 ; planters of, propose 
to appear in the Delaware in force, 
403 ; letters from, to Director Rising, 
574; new discussions concerning the 
Delaware lands at, 575 ; agents ap- 
pointed for, 576 ; plans formulated 
at, for the founding of a strong set- 
tlement on the South River, 575 ff. ; 
Goodyear sent by the people of, to 
treat with the Swedes, 578 ff. ; trade 
of the Swedes with the merchants 
from, 198, 316 ff., 515 ff., 658 ff. ; 
Jacob Swensson sent to trade at, 515 
Nieiu] H\_aven'\ Col\_oniar\ Rec\^ords'], 
quoted, 208; 211-213, 215, 384, 388, 

399. 404. S74> 576-578 
New Holland, see New Netherland and 

New Amsterdam 
New India Company, see New Sweden 

New International Encyclopedia, the, 

quoted, 29 
New Jersey, New Albion part of, 175; 

New Sweden part of, 571 
New King David, see ships 
Newman, Francis, magistrate, 576 
Newman, Hans, 235, 262, 642 
New Netherland, 97, 113, 116, 681, 684, 
696 ; expedition sent to, by the Swedes, 
310; Huygen in, 311; name of, given 
to New Sweden, 415; concerning the 
limits of, 427; accepted by their 
High Mightinesses, 432; Swedes 
desire to remove to, 448 ; Swedes 
escape to, 454; see also New Amster- 
dam and the Dutch 
New Netherland Company, United, 



formed, charter granted to, 168-169; 
Samuel Godyn, one of the members 
of, 170 

New Russian Company, 50 

New Ship Company, formed, 48 ; Queen 
proposes that it should be united 
with the New Sweden Company, 284 

New South Co., propositions for the 
founding of, memorials concerning, 
81 ; presented during the convention 
of Heilbronn, 81 ; at Frankfurt-on- 
Main, 82 ; comes to an end, 82 ; Us- 
selinx organizing, 177 

New South Company in Holland, 83 

New Stockholm, 114 

New Style (Gregorian Calendar), used 
by the Dutch, 43, 436, 439; see also 
old style 

New Sweden, n8, 120, 674, 678-680, 
682, 684-691, 693, 696-697; name 
proposed, 96-97 ; rights of the Swedes 
to settle in, 572-573 ; plans for popu- 
lating of, 121 ; Dutch to be allowed 
to settle in, 123 ; strongest rights of 
the English to, 173 ; fort built in, 
192; name given to, by Minuit, 184; 
Indians inhabiting, 187 ; grain to be 
planted in, 193-1911: the Grip re- 
turns to, 194; first negro slave 
brought to, 195; horses and cattle 
in, 198, 202; suitable for agriculture, 
198; Dutch colonists arrive in, 200; 
condition of, under Ridder, 197 ff. ; 
sickness in, 203 ; dwellings in, dur- 
ing time of Ridder, 204; religious 
life in, during the time of Ridder. 
205-206; lacks skilled workmen, 198; 
English buy land in, 208 ff. ; Lam- 
berton and Turner arrive, 208 ; 
Plowden makes preparations to go to, 
215 ff. ; English at Varkens Kill un- 
disturbed, 217; fifth expedition ar- 
rives in, 241 ; sixth expedition arrives 
in, 245 ; seventh expedition arrives 
in, 256; eighth expedition arrives at, 
260; winter of 1642-1643 in, 301; 
Printz arrives in, 302; forts built by 
Prlntz in, 304 ff. ; inspection of, by 
Printz, 303 ; relation concerning, by 
Printz, 307 ; land cleared in, 308 ; 
tobacco planted in, 308-309; beaver 
trade in, during the time of Printz, 
309 ff. ; trade of English and Dutch 
in, during time of Printz, 310 ff. ; 
corn planted in, 308-309, 312; grain 
sowed in, 312 ff. ; cattle brought to, 
314 ff. ; manufactures to be estab- 
lished in, by Printz, 320; whale 

fishery to begin in, 320; improve- 
ments in, suggested by Printz, 321 ff. ; 
tobacco crop in 1644, 323 ; oak 
planks sold in, 323 ; fire in, 326 ; 
conditions in, unfavorable, 327; first 
water-mill erected in, 328 ; report 
concerning, in 1647, 330 ff. ; dwel- 
lings erected in, during the time of 
Printz, 308, 332; lands bought in, 
332; Christian Indian from New 
France visited, 334; list of the 
people in, 335; troubles with the 
Dutch in, 338 ff., 408 ff. ; vessels 
built in, 340-341 ; conditions in 1652- 
1653 in, 341-344; dwellings of the 
Finns in, kota, f'oriet, 345-347 ; dwel- 
lings of Swedes in, 347-349; bath- 
houses in, 357-362; store-houses in, 
362-364; granaries in, 364; manu- 
facture of birch bark articles in, 
357; modes of lighting In, 351-352; 
dress of the people in, 352-353; 
food in, 353-354; beer brewed in, 
354; wine made in, 355; brandy in, 
355; dishes and utensils of the 
people in, 355-356; religious wor- 
ship in, during the time of Printz, 
366 ff. ; relations with the Indians 
during the time of Printz, 375 ff. ; 
relations with the English in, 380 ff. ; 
English bark arrives in, 381 ; Lam- 
berton trades in, 383 ; English ar- 
rested in, 384; court concerning the 
English in, 384 ff. ; Aspinwall ar- 
rives in, 396; Capt. Clark sent to, 
399; relations with the Dutch in, 
405 ff. ; the Dutch invade in 1651, 
435 ff-; government of, during die 
time of Printz, 450 ff. ; courts in, dur- 
ing the time of Printz, 454 ff. ; tenth 
expedition arrives in, 489; govern- 
ment and courts in, during the time of 
Rising, 497 ff. ; oEcers in, in 1654, 503 ; 
ordinance relating to the Govern- 
ment of, adopted, 504 ff. ; popula- 
tion in 1654-1655, 514; trade of the 
English and Dutch in, during the 
time of Rising, 514 ff. ; donations of 
land to individuals, 517; a city 
founded in, 518; agriculture and 
cattle rasing in, during the time of 
Rising, 523 ff. ; land cleared in 1654- 
1655, 526-527; peculiar method of 
clearing away forests in, 527-529; 
shoes made in, 534 ff. ; caps made 
for the Indians in, 535; making of 
maize-bread in, 535-536; dwellings 
during the time of Rising in, 537 



fit.; utensils in 540; peculiar customs 
in, 542 £E. ; witclicraft in, 544-545; 
religious services in, during the time 
of Rising, 546 S.; literature in, 549 
ff. ; relations with the Indians in, 
during the time of Rising, 563 ; land 
in, bought from the Indians, 569 ff. ; 
relations with the English in, dur- 
ing the time of Rising, 572 ff. ; Eng- 
lish commissioners arrive in, 572 ; 
relations with the Dutch in, during 
the time of Rising, 581 ff. ; Stuyve- 
sant invades and captures, 597 ff. ; 
Rising with his men leaves, 615; 
twelfth expedition arrives in, 635, 
659 ; Jacquet, vice-director in, 657 ff. ; 
Smith, commander over, 657 ff. ; 
courts in, during the administration 
of the Dutch, 659 ff. ; part of, sur- 
rendered to the Dutch West India 
Company, 663 ; Willem Beeckman, 
vice-director in, 665; Swedish offi- 
cers in, during the administration of 
the Dutch, 664; Alexander d' Hino- 
yossa vice-director in, 666 ff. ; popu- 
lation and extent of settlement in, 
during the administration of the 
Dutch, 667; colonists leave during 
the administration of the Dutch, 667- 
668 ; religious history during the ad- 
ministration of the Dutch, 668-669; 
captured by the English, 670 

New Sweden Bay, see Delaware Bay 
and South River 

New Sweden Company, proposals for 
copper trade leads to the founding 
of, 87 ff. ; Spiring becomes connected 
with plans of, 94; discussions con- 
cerning the founding of, 91;; Minuit 
presents project of, 96-97; plans dis- 
cussed in the council, 98 ; Fleming 
to correspond about, loi ; Minuit's 
suggestion of, 102-103 ; capital of, 
106 ; members of, 106 ; director of, 
agents for, 107; privileges of, 107- 
108 ; Dutch stockholders withdraw 
from, 131-132; new officers appointed 
for, 132, 157; trade of, in Europe 
1640-1643, 157-163; finances of, 
163 ; reorganization of, 221 ff. ; meet- 
ings of the officers of, 221-222; pro- 
posals for the increase of the capital 
of, 222 ; discussions concerning the 
trade of, 223 ; proposals for the re- 
organization of, presented to the 
government, 223-224; Council of 
State considers, 221 ff. ; Crown is a 
stockholder in, 224-225 ; Crown's in- 

terest in, 225-227 ; capital of the 
South-Ship Company used for, 227; 
South-Ship Company permanently 
joined with, 228 ; private stock- 
holders in, 228 ; charter of, 228-229 ; 
officers of the reorganized company, 
229-234; finances of the reorganized 
company, 234-236; preparations for 
the fifth expedition of, 237 ff. ; sixth 
expedition prepared by, 242 ff. ; 
bricks and tiles imported to Sweden 
by, 242 ; seventh expedition pre- 
pared by, 250 ff. ; eighth expedition 
prepared by, 258 ff. ; borrows 1,500 
R.D., 259; finances of, in 1647, 261— 
263 ; income from confiscated tobacco 
of, 264-265 ; preparations of the 
ninth expedition of, 266 ff. ; prepara- 
tions for other expeditions of, 281 ff. ; 
troubles with the Tobacco Company 
of, 281, 297; copper trade of, 288; 
salt trade of, 288; beaver trade of, 
288-289; tobacco trade of, 289 ff. ; 
contract with the Tobacco Company, 
291 ; spinning of tobacco of, 295- 
296; bills of, to collect from the To- 
bacco Company, 297 ; tobacco trade 
of, discontinued, 299 ; Bonnell severs 
his connection with, shares in the 
Ship-Building Company, 299, 300; 
preparations for the tenth expedi- 
tion, 469 ff. ; sends out the eleventh 
expedition, 490 ff. ; third reorganiza- 
tion of the, 619 ff. ; 674, 677, 680, 682, 
683, 686, 695, 697 ; see also American 
New (Fourth) Tobacco Co., formed by 
Andersson and Bohm, privileges 
given to, 645 ; sometimes called the 
American Company as late as 1689, 
New Year, 315 
New York, Spaniards at, 165 
Nicholson, John P., quoted, 420 
Nicolaistad, Vasa changed to, 328 
Niepeisen, Isak (Isaac), Peter Spiring's 
secretary, customs officer, etc., quoted, 
Nieuw Port May, mouth of Delaware 

so called, 169 
Nilsson, quoted, 345-346, 539, 541 
Nilsson, Hans, subscribed to the South 

Company, 60 
Nilsson Tungel, Lars, ambassador of 

Sweden to France, 6 
Nilsson, Nils, member of the New Rus- 
sian Company, 50 
Nilsson, Valentin, incapable as a direc- 



tor, 66 ; warns against sending ships 

to Spain, 73-74; blames Cabeliau, 

77; requests money for the ship 

building plant, 78 
Nobility, the, one of the estates of 

Sweden, 20 
Norberg, Otto, quoted, 669-670 
Nordenskiold, quoted, 560 
Nordisk familjebok, quoted, 9, 41, 147, 

4561 494 
Nordiska handskrifterna (Nord. Saml.) 

quoted, 59, 294, 633, 646 
Nordlingen, battle at, 91 
Nordmann, Petrus, quoted, 147-148, 

345-346. S44-54S> 652 

Nordreelf, 493 

Noreen, Adolf, quoted, 25, 350 

Norfelt, Israel, president of Gothen- 
burg, cargo sent by, to Rising, 643 

Norlin, quoted, 22 

Norrbotten, Usselinx passes through, 62 

Norrkoping, ropewalk at, 64-65 ; ship 
bought by, 123 ; Tobacco Company 
has agents at, 292 

Norrlandskeppet, see ships 

Norrtalje, 678 

Norsemen, probable visits of, to the 
Delaware, 165 

North America, English pretend to, 

177, 389. 572-573 
North England, see New England 
Northern Company, 50 
North River, see Hudson River 
North Sea, 117, 128 
Norton, Frank, member of the " Lycon- 

nia Company " formed at Boston, 

Norway, Dutch vessels forbidden to 

sail to, 142; colonists pass through, 

651; 688 
Notike, widow of Mitatsimint, friendly 

to the Swedes, 438 flf. 
Nova Spania, American Company has 

right to trade in, 628 
Nurnberg, iron articles from, 259 
Nya Goteborg, see New Gothenborg 
N[ya] S[verige], I.-III. (K.A.), 802 
N[ya] S[yerige], I.-II. (R.A.), 799 
Nya Sverige i Sodra Amerika, quoted, 

Nyen, trade from, 46 
Nykoping, Tobacco Company has 

agents at, 292 
Nysund, 633 


O'Callaghan, quoted, 93, 117-118, 139, 
168, i8x, 186, 213, 451, 593 

Od, 681 

Odell, Anders Swensson, first diplomat 

of Sweden, 9 
Odemala (Odemaldt), tobacco trade 

in, 642 
Odhner, Klas Teodor, quoted, 4, 9, 15- 

17, 20-22, 29, 31, 39-40, 43, 45-46. 

57. 77. 83. 87. 98-99. 146. 195-196. 

204-205, 243, 304-307, 312-313, 316, 
.. 331-322, 371, 377, 381, 452-453 
Odkarby, a district in Finland, col- 
onists from, 267 
Office of the Company, location of, 232 
Ogilby, quoted, 488, 495 
Ohlander, C, quoted, 46-47 
Oland, ships to America at, iii 
Old King David, see ships 
Old Style (Julian Calendar), used by 

the Swedes on the Delaware, 42-43 ; 

English way of counting time, 43 ; 

former historians keep the Old Style 

of the Swedes and the New Style of 

the Dutch without comment, 436, 

439; see also New Style 
Old Swedes' Church (Gloria Dei), 

said to be built from Swedish bricks, 

Olofsmas (July 29), rye to be sown at, 

Olofsson, Anders, see Stromskold 
Olofsson von Saar, Michell, 481 
Olofsson, Per, engaged as secretary, 

Olofsson, Peter, 642 
Olofsson (Olossen), Richard, witness, 

Ommeren, van, 653 
Ondaaiondiont, visits New Sweden, 


Onrust, see ships 

Opitz, Martin, quoted, 26 

Orange, Fort, see forts 

Orange, Prince of, 414 

Ordinances, drawn up in New Swe- 
den, 504 ff. 

Orebro, 633 ; governor of, 148 
Oririchime, 442 
Orn, see ships 
Orneklo, Gov., 691 
Orphans' Home, 645, 678 
Osterbotten, rents of, applied to salary 

of Printz, 226 
Otte, quoted, 7 
Oxen, Ridder requests some for work 

in the colony, 198; bought at New 



Amsterdam in 1643, 313, 324; Pers- 
son sent to New England to buy, 333 
Oxenstierna, Axel, complaints sent to, 
65 ; directors desire to know the 
opinion of, 67 ; appoints a collector 
of subscriptions in Sweden, 66 ; sub- 
scribes to the South Company, 60; 
Falkenberg's letters to, 88-90; prom- 
ises of the King of England pre- 
sented to, 91 ; interviews with Blom- 
maert, 91 ; Blommaert corresponds 
with, 92 ff., 116; goes to France, 91; 
visits the Hague, 91-92; Minuit 
willing to make a personal call on, 
94; Spiring corresponds with, con- 
cerning the new trade, 95-96; re- 
turns to Sweden, 97-98; brings the 
commercial plans of Blommaert and 
Minuit into Council of State, 98 ; 
Stumpff proposes commercial plans 
to, loo-ioi ; shareholder in the com- 
pany, io6; Ridder visits, 127; Robert 
Smythe has an interview with, 133; 
plans concerning the Dutch, settle- 
ment presented to, 135; Fleming 
writes to, 135-136, Bogaert lays his 
commission and documents before, 
137; memorials sent to, 138; Ridder 
writes to, 197 fl. ; conferences con- 
cerning the New Sweden Company, 
221 S. ; capital in the Company, 228 ; 
head of the company after Fleming's 
death, 230; had been waiting for a 
chance to attack Denmark, 250; too 
busy to work for the interest of the 
Company, 252; Trotzig writes to, 
254-255, 258; Kagg writes to, 259; 
Printz writes to, 241, 282, 285; pres- 
ent at the discussions concerning the 
colony in the Council, 285 ff. ; con- 
tract with the Tobacco Company re- 
newed by, 294; heirs of, written to, 
623; biography, 686; quoted, 221, 
252-253, 286, 294, 334> 373 ; 675. 684, 
686, 695 ; handwriting of, 

\_Axet] Oxenstiernas Skrifter, quoted, 
39i 45. 87-9O1 14-8, 259 

Oxenstierna, Eric, 693 ; recommends 
founding of the Commercial College, 
17; president of the Commercial Col- 
lege, 19; takes over the management 
of the Commercial College, 469 ; rec- 
ommends Rising for an assistantship 
to Gov. Printz, 475 ; pays up his 
shares in the American Company, 
624; in Prussia, 627; biography, 686; 
handwriting of, 

Oxenstierna, Gabriel Bengtsson, con- 

tributes to company, io6 ; present at 
conferences concerning the Company, 
221 ; capital in the Company, 228, 

Oxenstierna, Gabriel Gustafsson, con- 
tributes to company, 106 ; present at 
conferences concerning the Com- 
pany, 221 ; capital in the Company, 
228, 235, 262 

Oxenstierna, Johan, sent to England, 
91 ; said to obtain rights for Sweden 
on the Delaware, 175 ; sent to Lon- 
don, 177 

Ox\_enstiernska'\ Saml[ingen], see 
Oxenstierna, quoted, and Bibliog- 
raphy, 800 

Oxford, 698 

Oytsesing (Oitsessingh), title to, 571 

Paauw, 676 

Paehahacking, a small tract at, be- 
longs to the Swedes, 420 

Palbitsky, Mathias, goes to Spain, lo, 
277, 620 

Palestina, 391 

Palmsklioldska'] Samtlingeri], quoted, 
163, 651 

Pamark, colonists from, 243 

Papegoja, Madame Armegot, accom- 
panies the Orn to Trefaldighet, 519; 
removes to Tinicura, 520; property 
of, stolen by the Dutch, 605 ; remains 
at New Gothenborg, 663; biography 
of, 690; 686 

Papegoja, Bernt, 687 

Papegoja, Goran, 687 

Papegoja, Gustaf, 687 

Papegoja, Johan, 317, 321, 687, 690, 
762; goes to New Sweden, 686; pre- 
pares to return to America on the 
sixth expedition, 243 ; not put on the 
budget, 257, 451-452; instructed to 
collect colonists for the eighth expe- 
dition, 259; returns to Christina, 260; 
writes to Sweden, 266; dispatched to 
make an oral report, 311; returns to 
Sweden a second time, 330; in love 
with Armegot Printz and is married, 
452 ; Vice-Governor of New Sweden, 
466, 497 ; returns to Sweden on the 
tenth expedition, 519, 620; comman- 
der of the people on the twelfth expe- 
dition, 634; arrives in New Sweden, 
659 ; returns to Europe for the last 
time, 660; quoted, 266, 315, 321, 376, 
452. 465, 546, 626, 634-635, 662; 



biography, 686-687; handwriting of, 

Paper, manufactured in Sweden, 35; 
see also Sweden 

Papers of the AmlericaTt] Hist[_orical\ 
Ass^ociatioTi], quoted, 77 

Papuq ( ... ), riverlet, 209 

Paradise Point {Paradisudden) , Swedes 
first land at, 182 

Paris, 83 

Parkman, Francis, quoted, 164-165 

Parliament, writes to Virginia on be- 
half of Plowden, 216; patents 
granted by, 403 

Parsnip seed, Ridder requests, 198 

Parzival, quoted, 25 

Passyunk (Passayunk), 564, 566, 568; 
sachems of, sell land to the Dutch, 

Patronat, mentioned, 93 

Patrons, 139 

Paul, Herman, quoted, 456 

Paulinus, Laurentius Gothus, works for 
interest of Swedish education, 37 

Paulson, quoted, 29 

Pearl, see ships 

Peas, Ridder requests, 198 

Peasantry, one of the estates of Swe- 
den, 20 

Peminacka, speech of, 436-437; pre- 
sents lands to the Dutch, 437, 440; 
confessed that he had never sold land 
to the Dutch, 441, 566 ; signed papers, 
566; quoted, 441, 566 

Penington, quoted, 400 

Penn, William, quoted, 320, 560 

Pennsylvania, Lord Baltimore's grant 
including parts of, 173 ; New Albion 
part of, 175 
Penn[syl'aania'\ Ar\_chk)es'], quoted, 169, 

215, 648, 653 
Penn. Hist. So[ciety], 83, 115, 259, 343, 

Penn\_sylvania'\ Mag\_azine'], quoted, 
83. 96, 174-175, 259, 320, 326-327, 
343-344, 348, 381-382, 397, 420, 456, 
462, 537, 572, 670 
Pequod, sachem of, 208; war with the 

English, 209 
Pernau, captured by the Swedish fleet, 

4; Usselinx visits, 62 
Persia, relation to Sweden, 9 
Persson, Anders, 642; sells tobacco in 

Skara, 644 
Persson, Hans, 268 

Persson, Henrick, reports concerning 
America before the Council, 284 

Eersson, Jacob, to sell tobacco for the 
company, 292 

Persson, Jon, 642 

Pestocomeco, see Hoivkeshocken 

Petersson, Jurgen, buys tobacco, 159 

Philadelphia, 332; Dutch to locate ten 
miles above, 138 ; land bought some- 
what above West Philadelphia, 325 ; 
see also Wicacoa 

Philip II., King of Spain, sends Eraso 
to Sweden, 10 

Philip III., King of Spain, gives orders 
for the arrest of Swedish ships, 75- 
76; 272 

Phogegus(?), Nils Nilsson, 480 

Physicians, foreign, called into Sweden, 
29 ; see also barber-surgeons 

Pietersen, Lambert, 759 

Pigs, killed in the autumn, 202 ; al- 
lowed to run loose, 365 

Pillau, Sweden collects duty at, 6 

Pimentelli, Don Anthony, ambassador 
to Sweden, writes to the governor of 
Porto Rico, 278, 280 

Pinnan (Pinnar(?), Pennan), witness, 
566, 756 

Pipes, tobacco, duty on, 158 

Pirtti, see port 

Flagman, salt consigned to, 288 

Planck (Blanck), Abraham, granted 
land, 411; did not settle the land, 

Plantagenet, quoted, 203, 400 

Plowden, Sir Edmund, applies for 
grant of Long Island, 174; sole pro- 
prietor of the district, 175 ; begins 
making preparations to go to New 
Albion, 215; requests Parliament to 
write to Virginia on his behalf, 2i6; 
bark of, arrives at Elfsborg, 381 ; 
landed at Smith's Island, 381; res- 
cued by an English bark, 382; seems 
to have visited New Sweden a second 
time in 1648, 399; returns to Eng- 
land, description of New Albion, 
400-401 ; secures colonists for his 
grant, 401 

Plowden, Isle of, see Long Island 

Plymouth, 682, in sight of, 261 
Plym. Col[^ony\ Rec^ords], Acts, quoted, 
208, 2IO, 214-215, 378, 384, 388-389, 
392, 395, 397, 399-400, 402-403, 561, 

Plym. Coll^ony"] Rec^ords"], Court 
Orders, quoted, 169, 402 

Plym. Col[ony'] Rec^ords}, Deeds, 

quoted, 343 
Point Comfort, English from, i8o 



Poland, truce draws to an end with, 
new truce made, 91 ; at war with 
Sweden, 4 ff. 

Pollock, quoted, 456 

Pomerania, 694 

Ponta Delgata, 495 

Pop. Memo. Vol., quoted, 392 

Port (pirtti), meaning of, 345; de- 
scribed, 345-346 

Porto Rico, 680, 685 ; Swedes ship- 
wrecked near, 270; shipwrecked 
Swedes brought to, 271 ; Swedes ill- 
treated at, 271 ff. ; governor of, 271; 
eleventh expedition proceeds to, 
277 ff. ; Elswick arrives at, 280; 
presents damages to Governor of, 
280; Governor of, receives Elswick, 
495 ; Amundsson dies at, 495 ; Els- 
wick leaves, 280, 496 

Portsmouth, 474 

Portugal, 677, 698 ; commercial rela- 
tions with Sweden, 10 ff. ; Embassy 
of, sent to Stockholm, 11; money 
coming from, to be applied to the 
New Sweden Company, 224-225; 
Bockhorn goes to, 470 

Portuguese, probable visits of, to the 
Delaware, 165 

Posse, Knut, 256 

Post office, in Sweden, 39; see also Swe- 

Postmaster General, see Johan Beier 

Postryttaren, see ships 

Potomac River, 394; Baltimore's grant 
bounded by, 173 

Pots, tin, sent to New Sweden, 255 

Potter, Commissioner Joachim, Elswick 
writes to, 616 

Poulson, Am. Daily Advert., quoted, 

Powder, manufactured in Sweden, 35; 
see also Sweden, expeditions and 
New Sweden 

Powelsen, Jacob (skipper), to command 
the ship Freedenburgh, 140 

Prague, peace at, 91 

Prince, J. Dyneley, quoted, 190 

Prince Willem, see ships 

Printz, Andrew, 697 

Printz, Armegot, 689; biography, 690; 
see also Madame Papegoja 

Printz, Catharina, 689, 691 

Printz, Christina, 689, 691 

Printz, Elsa, 689, 691 

Printz, Gunilla, 689, 691 

Printz, Gustav, 705, 689; officer in New 
Sweden, 710; returns to Sweden, 
probably placed in command of 

Scarborough's ship, 342-343, 474- 
475 ; oral report of, 478 ; biography, 
Printz, Johan, 678, 681, 687, 693; re- 
quested to collect colonists, 150; ap- 
pointed governor of New Sweden, 
237; instructions for, issued, 238'; 
arrives in New Sweden, 241, 301 ; 
requests additional colonists and new 
supplies, 250; supplies provisions for 
the return of the seventh expedition, 
256) 330; prepares a list of articles 
needed in the colony, 258 ; additional 
request for colonists and supplies sent 
by, 268 ; letters from, concerning the 
invasion of New Sweden read in the 
council, 285 ; inspects New Sweden, 
303 ; begins the erection of Fort Elfs- 
borg, 304; supplies goods to the 
people, 304; begins the erection of 
Fort New Gothenborg, 305-306; 
erects a dwelling on Tinicum Island, 
306, 347; makes his first relation, 
307 ; assigns ground to new colonists, 
307-308, 334-335; plants corn in 
1643, 308-309; begins trade with the 
Indians, 309; buys goods for an ex- 
pedition to New Holland, 310; de- 
cides to sow grain in 1644, 312-313; 
entertains De Vries, 314-315; re- 
ceives a grant of Tinicum Island, 
317; obtains a cargo for the Stiian, 
317; attempted to establish manu- 
factories, 320; requests new supplies, 
321 ; suggests improvements, 321-322; 
residence of, burned, 326 ; awaits 
new supplies, 326; sends his sloop to 
Manhattan, 327; buys goods for a 
draft, 327; erects a mill, 328; com- 
manded to remain in New Sweden, 
329, 334; makes his third report, 
330 ff. ; builds Fort Korsholm, 331- 
332; buys land from the Indians, 
332, 337; sends his fourth relation, 
336; informed of the shipwreck of 
the Katt, 338 ; reports to Sweden, 
338 ; few colonists on which he could 
rely, 339; had had no news from 
Sweden for 3 years and 9 months, 
340; built ships in New Sweden, 
340-341 ; ill, 341 ; makes provision to 
send tobacco to Sweden, 342; de- 
cides to return to Sweden, 343 ; 
library of, 349 ; Printz accused of 
enriching himself at the expense of 
his subjects, 349-350; acquires Printz 
Torp, 350; bath-house built for the 
use of, 358; instructed to decorate 



the church, 366; instructed to be on 
friendly terms with the Indians, 275 ; 
describes the Indians, 375 ; collects 
his soldiers to avenge murders by 
the Indians, 373; feared the Indians 
as soon as supplies gave out, 376; 
proposes to exterminate the In- 
dians, 377; instructed to convert 
the Indians to Christianity, 378; pro- 
poses to compel the Indians to accept 
Christianity, 379; instructed to keep 
the Swedish title of Varkens Kill 
intact, 380; said to have compelled 
the English at Varkens Kill to re- 
move or swear allegiance to the 
Swedish Crown, 381 ; imprisons the 
servants of Plowden, 381-382; re- 
fuses to let the English pass Fort Elfs- 
borg, 382; Lamberton sends protests 
to, 383 ; imprisons Lamberton and 
his men, 383-384; causes a court to 
be held at which the English are 
tried, 384-388 ; English complain 
against, 388-389; Winthrop writes 
to, 389 ; causes a new court concern- 
ing the English accusations to be 
held, 389-390; writes to Governor 
Winthrop, 390; letters acknowledged 
by Governor Winthrop, 390-391; 
much concerned about the activity of 
the English Puritans, 396; requests 
the Dutch Commissary to refuse them 
to pass the fort, 396; writes again 
to Governor Winthrop, 397; reports 
his troubles with the English to the 
Swedish Government, 397; showed 
his friendship for the English, 398; 
denies the requests of Capt. Clark, 
399; offends Plowden, 399-400; re- 
ports to Sweden that the English 
Puritans trouble him no more, 401 ; 
writes to the chancellor in 1651 that 
"he is not secure from the North Eng- 
lish, 404; instructed to keep peace 
with the Dutch, 405 ; sought the 
friendship of the Dutch against the 
English, 405-406 ; refutes the claim 
of Governor Kieft, 407 ; writes to 
Governor Kieft, 407; asks for more 
definite instructions concerning the 
Dutch, 408-409; informs Blanck that 
lie must leave the Schuylkill, 409- 
410; prevents Hudde through an 
Indian chief from ascending the Del- 
aware, 411; builds a guard-house at 
the Schuylkill, 413 ; protests against 
Hudde, 413 ; accused by Hudde of 
disrespectful treatment of the Dutch, 

414; complains about the Dutch to 
his Government, 415-416; monopo- 
lizes the Indian trade, 416; seizes 
the ship Siraen, 417 ; active collect- 
ing building material at the Schuyl- 
kill, 419 ; sends Huygen to protest 
against the Dutch, 420; complains to 
Governor Stuyvesant about Hudde, 
423 ; gives strict orders not to allow 
the Dutch to build, 424; buys land 
from the Indians to prevent the 
Dutch from obtaining it, 428 ; sup- 
posed by the Dutch to have intentions 
of fortifying the Hudson River, 430- 
431; Hudde instructed to confer with, 
about the English, 432; reports the 
expedition of Stuyvesant, 435 ff. ; 
calls a conference of the Indian 
chiefs to dispute the Dutch land title, 
438 ; sends a orotest to Governor 
Stuyvesant, 439-440; arranges for 
another conference with the Indians, 
441 ff. ; tries to buy land from an 
Indian chief, 443 ; conference with 
Stuyvesant, 446; opposes the Dutch, 
448; given large powers, 450; salary 
of, 451; establishes a court at Chris- 
tina, 454; removes his seat of Gov- 
ernment to New Gothenborg, 455 ; 
administration of justice in New 
Sweden systematized with the ar- 
rival of, 456; judge in most cases in 
the courts among the Swedes durine; 
his administration, 456 ; plaintiff 
against Lamberton, 459-460; judge 
in a court to examine the accusations 
of the English, 461 ; imposes fines on 
settlers, 462; a revolt rises against, 
462-463 ; petitions to, 462-463 ; an- 
swers petition, 463-464; causes exe- 
cution of Anders Jonsson, 463 ; ac- 
cused of ill-treating the colonists, 
464; estimate of, as an official, 465; 
returns to Sweden, 466; arrives in 
Sweden, 619; as an author, 561; 
claims for salary and contributions 
paid to his heirs, 647; biography, 
688-690; quoted, 150, 203, 283, 285, 
287. 307, 309> 3"> 3261 329-330. 338- 
340, 343, 366-367, 370-37i> 3761 379, 
381-382, 390, 397, 401, 404, 407, 434- 
436, 439, 443, 446-448, 455, \S6, 619; 
see also Reports of Printz, New Swe- 
den, Dutch and English. 
Printz Torp (Dorp), see torp 
Printz Hall, location for, 305-306; erec- 
tion of, 308, 347-348 ; said to have 
been built of bricks brought from 



Sweden, erroneous, 347-348 ; built 
out of hewn logs, 348 ; description of, 
347-349.; destroyed by fire, 326, 349; 
rebuilt in 1646, 326, 349 

Prison, in Christina, 454; see also 
Christina, New Sweden 

Prophet Daniel, see ships 

Profoss, explained, 453 

Protest (English), quoted, 211-212, 384 

Proud, quoted, 191, 214 

Province Island (Manaiping, Druiueeij- 
landh), Korsholm located on, 331; 
English at, 213 ; Dutch at, 179 

Prussia, 686, 693, 694 

Psalm-book, several editions in Swe- 
den, 22 

Public Record Office, iz, 172; present 
writer makes search at, 176 

Pufendorf, quoted, 91, 615 

Pund (pound), weight of, 42 

Purchas His Pilgrimes, quoted, 167, 550 

Pusey, quoted, 172 

Putnam, quoted, 170 

Pylfelt, Major, 691 


Quebec, 164 

Quenieck, 442 

Quesne, Abraham de, given privileges 

by the king, 45 
Quistbro, 633 


R.A., see Royal Archives 

Racoon Creek, lands extending to, 201, 
210; Printz buys land at, 337, 428 

Rddspr[otokoir\, quoted, 10-12, 16, zi, 
34, 38, 46, 47, 48> 49, S3, 58, 59, 60, 
61, 65, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72-80, 98- 
99, loi, 107, 120-121, 124, 127, 136, 
146, 156, 205, 222-228, 237-238, 240, 
243, 249, 253, 255-256, 266-267, 276, 
283, 285-286, 290-291, 351, 450, 649, 

Rdlamb. Saml., quoted, 241, 560 

Raleigh, Walter, supposed to have dis- 
covered a rich gold mine, 177 

Ramstorp, 687, 690 

Ranke, L. von, quoted, 33, 652 

Raritan Kill (River), Plowden's grant 
extending to, 175 ; 496, 588 

Hask, Christer Ludwig, subscribed to 
the South Company, 60 

R.D., see Riksdaler 

Real, see ships 

Records of Gloria Dei, quoted, 605 

Rec. of Mass., quoted, 391, 395, 400 

Records of the Virginia Co., quoted, ii 

Red Sea, 649 

Reede, Godard van, seeks to found a 

colony in New Sweden, 135; visits 

Spiring, 136; withdraws name of, 

Reedy Island, see Vogele Sant 
Rees, Van, quoted, 68 
Rees, Jacob de, subscribed to the South 

Company, 61 
Rees, Lagmannen Jacob du, 691 
Relation of Sweden to other Countries, 

see Sweden 
Relation with the neighbors, see Eng- 
lish, Dutch and New Sweden 
Religious liberty, in large cities in 

Sweden, 22; granted to Dutch in 

New Sweden, 139 
Religious worship, during the time of 

Ridder, 205 ff. ; during the time of 

Printz, 366 ff. ; during the time of 

Rising, 546 ; during the Dutch 

Period, 668 
Renappi, see Lenape 
Reyneke Fosz, 26 
Rensselaer, Kiliaen van, sends goods 

with Minuit to New Amsterdam, 

Rensselaer, Mrs. van, quoted, 166, 169 
Rensselaerswyck, 437 
Reorganized New Sweden Company, 

see New Sweden Company 
Reports of Printz, quoted, 231, 245, 

256, 259, 305-307, 309, 312-316, 319- 

322, 326, 328-330, 332, 373, 376-379, 

381-382, 391, 399, 407-408, 416, 433, 

453-454. 462, 465 
Reports of Rising, quoted, 500-502, 

510-511, 513, 518-520, 523, 52s, 527, 

531-533, 546, 567-570, 579 
Retzius, Gustaf, quoted, 361, 345-346, 

351, 357-3.58, 361-362, 364-365, 534 
Reval, Usselinx visits, 62 
Reynier, Domenicus, prepares to build, 


Reynst, Magaretha, 106 

Ribbing, Per, 471 

Richardson, quoted, 550 

Richelieu, 686; Oxenstierna accepts 
" the predominence " of, 91 ; advises 
Gustavus Adolphus to take part in 
the Thirty Years War, 6 

Ridder, Constantin, 692 

Ridder, Peter Hollender, appointed 
commander of Christina, 126-127; 
instruction given to, 127; Bogaert 
recommended to, 141 ; takes com- 
mand of Fort Christina, 197; reports 
to Sweden, 198 ; keeps on friendly 



terms with the Indians, 199; quar- 
rels with the Dutch, 199 ff. ; receives 
commissions and papers from Bo- 
gaert, 200; buys land from the In- 
dians, 20I-202 ; erects place of wor- 
ship, 205-206 ; difficulties with the 
Dutch, 207 ; troubles with the Eng- 
lish, 208-215; protests made to, 216 
ff. ; returns to Sweden, 241 ; biog- 
raphy, 691-692; quoted, 127, 130, 
144, 146, 196-202, 204, 206, 2IO, 303 ; 
handwriting of, 197-198 

Ridder, Peter Peterson, 692 

Ridd. och Adelns Riksdagspr., quoted, 

Riga, 691 ; Swedish fleet sails for, 5 
Riksarkivet, see Royal Archives 
Riksregistraturet, see Royal Copybook 

Rinckes, Harry, skipper, brings goods 

from Holland to Gothenburg, 258 
Riksdaler (R.D.), value of, 41 
Rikshufvudb. (K.A.), quoted, 163 
R[iks] Rad[et], quoted, 70, 72 
Ringold, Thomas, 523 ; advised Rising 

to buy land, 569, 572 
Rising, Johan Classon, brother of 

Director Rising, 634 
Rising, Johan Classon (Klasson), direc- 
tor, 164, 685, 687, 696, 761; states that 
King Charles transferred his rights 
on the Delaware to the Swedes, 1758.; 
states that the Dutch sold their rights 
on the Delaware to the Swedes, 176 ; 
presents report, 178 ; misdirected zeal 
of, 449; appointed as an assistant to 
Printz, 475 ; documents issued for, 
476; arrives at Gothenburg, 478; re- 
quests Oxenstierna to send copy of 
privileges, 478 ; asks about the ad- 
visability of founding a colony in 
Florida, 479 ; engages people to go to 
the colony, 482; intends to sail, 483; 
writes to Oxenstierna from Dover, 
484; visits the French governor-gen- 
eral, 488 ; recommends Elswick to 
Oxenstierna, 491 ; appointed director 
in New Sweden, 492, 498; arrives at 
Fort Christina, 498; takes charge of 
the Government of the colony, 499- 
500; resume of the instruction to, 
499-500; drafts an ordinance in 
October, 1654, 502; salary of, 503; 
drafts a new ordinance, quoted at 
length, 505-509; calls courts in New 
Sweden, 510 ff. ; judge at the courts, 
513; first concern of, 514; directed to 
pay attention to agriculture, 516; 

tour of inspection, 517; endeavors to 
carry out the articles of his instruc- 
tion, 518 ; endeavors to secure a 
cargo for the Orn, 519; repairs the 
forts, 522; land granted to, 524; im- 
proves his land, 524; buys goods from 
the English, 530; reports to Europe, 
531; selects a piece of land for a 
dwelling and erects a house, 542 ; his 
expenses, 542 ; writes to Oxenstierna 
to send him a good wife, 545 ; occu- 
pies a conspicuous place in Swedish 
literature, 551; works of, 551-554; 
conference with the Indians, 563, 
565 ff., 569 ff. ; allows the savages to 
pass freely in and out, 568 ; desirous 
to buy lands from the Indians, 569; 
replies to the arguments of the Eng- 
lish, 573, 577; makes arrangements 
to refute the English claims, 574; 
English rights to America, 573 ; at 
a disadvantage in his disputes with 
the neighbors, 579-580; learns the- 
condition of the colony, 582; relates 
his intentions to the Dutch, 583 ; 
mistakes of, in capturing Fort Casi- 
mir, 584; Dutch promise faithful- 
ness to, 585; writes to Stuyvesant,, 
586 ; visits the Dutch, 586 ; not in- 
clined to go to New Amsterdam, 589 ; 
calls a council, 595 ; sends aid to 
Fort Trefaldighet, 600; makes prep- 
arations to receive the enemy, 602 ; 
sends commission to Stujrvesant, 602— 
603 ; collects his people in the fort, 
605; sends reply to Stuyvesant, 604- 
605 ; refutes the arguments of the 
Dutch, 605-606 ; meets Stu3rvesant,, 
607-608 ; agrees to surrender, 608- 
609 ; signs the articles, 609-610 ; 
Stuyvesant offers to hand over the- 
fort to, 611-612; refuses the offers 
of, 612-615; examines Skute, 613- 
614; arrives at New Amsterdam, 
614; protests against Stuyvesant, 614- 
615; goes to sea, arrives in Europe, 
615-616; relations of, received by 
the Commercial College, 636; com- 
pany takes over the tobacco bought 
by, 636; letters written to, 636; ap- 
plies to the Commercial College for 
his pay, 646 ; was unsuccessful, 647 ; 
biography, 693 ff. ; quoted, 13, 40, 
176, 179, 298, 320, 328, 335, 353-355. 
446-447, 453, 478-487. 489, 491. 494. 
497-498, 500-504, 508, 510-520, 522- 
527, 533, 536, 542, 54«-S47, 553-554. 
564-574. 573-574, 57«. 580, 582, 585- 


86 1 

588, 590, 596, 599-600, 604-605, 609- 

613, 616, 625, 631; handwriting of, 
565-566, 615 

Riva, Governor de la, promises to set 
the prisoners of Porto Rico free, S71 

River Indians, see Lenape 

Rix dollar, see Riksdaler 

Roads, in Sweden, praised by White- 
locke, 38-39; in New Sweden, 
caused to be made by Rising, 533 

Robarch(?) (Roxbury?), Mr. Lamber- 
ton of, 460 

Roberts[on], Robert, Printz buys an 
English bark from, 333 

Robertson, Doctor, subscribed to the 
South Company, 60 

Rochelle, 763; ships at, 155 

Roe, Thomas, ambassador of Gustavus 
Adolphus and of England, 6 

Rohr, von, 691 

Roloffsson, Timon, Hindricksson to con- 
sult, 147 

Roman law, influence of, in Sweden, 21 

Rome, 679 

Roos, Margreta, 683; quoted, 555-55*1 

Root, Simon, granted land, 411; did 
not settle the land, 412; arranged to 
build at Mastmakers Hook, 425 ; 
affidavit of, 425 ; oflfers to buy land 
from the Indians, 428 ; land pur- 
chased by, 431; denied payment by 
the Swedes, 439 

Ropewalk, preparations for the found- 
ing of, begun, 64, ropes made, 65 ; 
first at Stockholm and Vastevik, 36 

Rosell, MJns, 641 

Rosenberg, C. M., quoted, 64, 89, 328 

Rosengren till Grenzholm, Ture Jakobs- 
son, 21 

Rostock, 686, 688 

Roswitha, referred to, 165 

" Rottnbourgh," 604 

Rotterdam, 117, 274 

Royal Archives (Riksarkivet), Sprinc- 
horn makes search in, 176 ; cf. hihh- 

Royal Assurance, given by Gustavus 
Adolphus 19; by Christina, 20 

Royal Copybook (R.R., R.A.), all docu- 
ments not copied into, 629; quoted, 
10-12, 16, 17, 19, 21. 29, 31. 35. 4I1 
45, 47, 48-50, 54. 55. 57, 61-63. 65- 
66, 68-72, 74-75, 78. 80, 137, 141- 
142, 146-147, 149-151. 192, 240, 243- 
245, 249, 254, 256, 265, 267, 289, 299, 
317. 329, 405. 470, 476. 629, 649-652, 

Royal Court at Abo, see Abo 

Royal Library at Stockholm (Kungliga 
Biblteket) founded, 27 

R.R., see Royal Copybook (Riks Regis- 

Rudbeck, Olaus, first great investigator 
in Sweden, 29 

Rudbeckius, Johannes, works for inter- 
est of Swedish education, 27 

Rudberus, Johan Jonsson, went on the 
ninth expedition, 268 ; buys a bark, 
273 ; leaves the island, 273 ; captured 
by the French, 273, 274; illtreated 
by the French, 274; sold as a slave 
for 500 lbs. tobacco, 275 ; leaves St. 
Cruz, 274-275 ; criticisms of his 
journal, 275; journal of, 562; quoted, 
269, 270-276 

Rutla, quoted; 243, 304-307, 309, 315, 
319-321, 335, 352, 452-453 

Russia, 678; in war with Sweden, 4; 
trade with, 63 ; treaty with, 63 

Russian Company, founded, 46 

Russian gloves, worn in colony, cost of, 


Rutgersius, Johan (Janus), in the diplo- 
matic service of Sweden, 9 

Rutherford, Henry, master of the 
Sivallov), brings answer to Rising's 
letter, 574 

Ruttens, Peter, notary m Amsterdam, 

Ruyven, van, 615 

Rydfors, A., quoted, 5-6, 177 

Rye, Ridder requests some for seed, 
198; when sown, 313; bought at 
New Amsterdam, 313; sown in the 
colony, 314; see also New Sweden, 
Printz and Rising 

Rymer, Thomas, quoted, 179 

Ryning, Eric, appointed to meet the 
committee of the estates, 79; dis- 
cusses journey to New Sweden, 253 

St. Christopher, 684; tobacco bought at, 
247; Swedes at, 269, 487 

St. Cruz, French bark captures Swedes 
near, 273 ; governor of, ill-treats the 
Swedes, 273-274; causes a Swedish 
woman to be murdered, 274; Rud- 
berus sold as a slave at, 274-275 ; the 
Swedes released from, 275 

St. Hop, see ships 

St. Klara, 678 

St. Martin, 696; ships to sail by way 



of, 114; Swedes at, 269; take in salt 
at, 269 

St. Martin, see ships 

St. Michael, 495 ; see also expeditions 

St. Peer, see ships 

St. Peter, see ships 

Saardam, various forms of, 632 

Sachem, meaning of, 183 

Sacraments, observed in the Lutheran 
fashion, 370 ff. 

Sailor's Narratives, quoted, 165 

Saltberget, Berndes, Governor of, 239 

Salt Company, founded, 47 

Salt, trade, 63 ; trade of the New 
Sweden Company in, 288 

Salt works, in Sweden, 35; see also 
New Sweden 

Samlaren, quoted, 10, 23, 25-27 

Sanbigor (Sambelan( ?) ), 649 

Sand Bay, at the mouth of Raritan 
River, New Albion extending to, 175 

Sandelin, Jacob Evertssen (Evertsen), 
on the Katmar Nyckel, 182, 184, 759 ; 
sells goods to the Swedes, 327; sells 
French wine, 370; on fourth expe- 
dition, 759 

Sandelyn, see Sandelin 

Sandford, Thomas, 531 

Sandhook, sold to the Dutch, 442 ff. ; 
, sale of, to the Swedes confirmed, 566 

Sankikan, 384, 411; see also New 

Sankikan Kill, 113 

San Lucar, 74-75 

Saw-mill, to be erected by Rising, 525 ; 
saw-crank for, saw-blades of, 473 

Saxony, elector of, makes peace with 
the Emperor, 91 

Scandinavia, trial by jury in, 456 

Scarborough, Edmund, 595 ; made a 
contract with Printz to send 80,000 
lbs. of tobacco to Gothenburg, 342; 
see also Printz and New Sweden 

Scheiding (Skeding, Skeiding), Holger, 
letter sent to, 67 

Scheidinck (Schedingk, Skeiding), 
Philip, promised to subscribe to the 
South Company, 6i 

Schelling, Felix, quoted, 550 

Schinna, sold land to the Dutch, 429 

Schlyter, C. J., quoted, 457-458 

Schmid, Casper, bou^t tobacco, 644 

Schotting (Schottingen), Timon van, 
factor at Gothenburg, 123-124; pre- 
pares Kalmar Nyckel, 124; money 
supplied to, 125 ; buys provisions for 
fourth expedition, 151; tobacco sold 
byi i59> 1^2 ; retained as factor, 232- 

233; helps to prepare the fifth expe- 
dition in Gothenburg, 237; aids in 
preparing the sixth expedition, 242; 
his connection with the company 
severed, 233; quoted, 317; biography, 
695; handwriting of, 133 

Schiick, Henrik, quoted, 21, 22, 25-27, 
29, 456 

Schuldt Boeck (1638-1648), quoted, 
192, 194-195, 204 

Schuldt u[nd\ Carg\ason'\ B[uch'\, 
quoted, 504, 526, 531-534, S37. 547. 

Schultz, quoted, 361 

Schuylkill, Hendricksen ascends the 
Delaware up to, 168; Lord Balti- 
more's grant beginning at, 173 ; 
Plowden's grant extending to, 175; 
lands on, bought by the Dutch, 179; 
corn fields near, 193; region of, 212; 
English at, expelled, 215; Coxwell 
sails to, 214; new ground cleared at, 
318 ; fort built at, 331 ; English at, 
380; Laraberton claims lands on, 
383-384; Kling dwells at, 385; 
Dutch trade at, 407, 409; Printz 
collects building material at, 419; 
Fort Beversreede built at, 420; 
seizure of, 422; see also Printz, New 
Sweden, the Dutch, the English, and 
the Indians 

Schwartwout, Thomas, tobacco spinner 
for the New Sweden Company, 
295 ff- . 

Schweidnitz, victories at, 302 

Scotch, probable visits of, to the Dela- 
ware, 165 

Scotch Dutchman, see ships 

Scotland, tenth expedition sails along 
the coast of, 483 

Scott, quoted, 361 

Sea-horse, see ships 

Sedgwick, Capt. Robert, member of the 
"Laconnia company" formed at 
Boston, 395 

Seed, all kinds to be taken to the Dela- 
ware, 193-194; various kinds brought 
over by Printz, 312; see also expedi- 
tions, New Sweden 

Self-government, dates from antiquity 
in Sweden, 20 

Seeley, Robert, member of Hartford 
Convention, 575 

Settlers, 125-126; lists of, 151-153, 
699 ff. ; alphabetic lists of, 716; see 
also expeditions, Hindricksson, Stake, 
New Sweden, Printz, Rising, Ridder, 
the Dutch, and colonists 



Setskorn, see Zetskorn 

Setubal, Swedes on the way to fetch 

salt from, 485 
Severn, 511, 572 
Seville, 75 

Sewant (siwan, wampum), explained, 
113, 192; bought in New England, 
333; see also the Indians, the Eng- 
lish, New Sweden, the Dutch 
Shakespeare, quoted, 361, 549 
Shea, quoted, 190 
Sheep, five landed alive in 1641, 202; 

number of, in colony in 1663, 667 
Shillington, quoted, n 
Ship-building, 78 ; in Sweden after 
i6n, 35-36; in New Sweden, 320, 
340-341, 735, 736, 748-749; Amunds- 
son especially instructed to prosecute 
in the colony. 504, 735, 748; see also 
ships, vessels and Appendix C 
Ship Company, see South-Ship Com- 
Shipping, in the hands of foreigners 

in Sweden, 40 

A chillis (old ship), to be hired 

from the government, 133 
Arken (old ship), to be rebuilt and 
repaired for a journey to New 
Sweden, 123 
Beaver, the, 594 

Black Dog, the (Svarte Hunden), 
belonging to South-Ship Com- 
pany, sold, 132, 763 
Blyde Bootsdiap, May of Hoorn, 

sails up Delaware in, 169 
Bontekoe, 594 

Charitas (Charitie), being pre- 
pared, 151; arrives at Gothen- 
burg, 153 ; implements loaded 
onto, 154; arrives at Fort Chris- 
tina, 15s; takes part in the battle 
of Fehmarn, 251 ; estimate of, 
626, 759 
Christina, to be repaired for com- 
mercial voyages, 120; to be sent 
to Barbadoes, 40, 762 
Cock, the, 388 ; sails to New Swe- 
den, 382-383 
Diemen, name of Gyllene Haj 
changed to, used by the Dutch 
West India Company for the 
West Indian trade, 590 
Dolphijn {Spiegel?), 595, 604 
Dufvan (The Dove), to be used 
for expedition to New Sweden, 

Eindracht (Endrdkt), bought by 
Printz, 342; stranded at Sandy 
Hook, 659 

Engel Gabriel {Angel Gabriel), 
Van Vliet goes to Holland on, 


Falk, fitted out by Sjohjelm for 
an expedition to Africa, 649 

Fama, repaired for fifth expedi- 
tion, 240; returns to Sweden with 
a cargo of salt from Portugal, 
241 ; prepared for the sixth ex- 
pedition, 242 ff. ; seized in Hol- 
land, 245 S. ; cargo of, sold, 248 ; 
takes part in the battle of Feh- 
marn, 251 ; proposed to make the 
seventh expedition, 255 ; not in 
a condition to make eighth expe- 
dition, 258 ; estimate of, 626, 
760; see also seventh expedition 

Foenix, copper sent to Holland on, 

FSrgylda Lejonet {The Gilded 
Lion), 74, 762 

Freedenburgh (Dutch ship), to 
sail to New Sweden, 140; Hol- 
landers engaged to bring over, 
142; arrives in New Sweden and 
returns, 144, 759 

Gdsen (the Goose), sails from 
Stockholm to Gothenburg with 
passengers for the ninth expedi- 
tion, 268 

Gefleskeppet, 74, 762 

Gotland, belonged to the Trading 
Company, 299 

Grip, pass given for, in; selected 
instead of a government ship, 
in; Joransen skipper on, 112; 
to remain in country, 114; leaves 
New Sweden, 118; cargo on, 
119; drifts upon a sandbank, 
125, 758 

Groote Christoffel, De, 591-592 

Gyllene Haj, bought in Holland^ 
254; prepared for the seventh 
expedition, 255 ; cargo of, 255- 
256; voyage, 256-257; proposed 
to fit out for a new expedition, 
286; repaired, 287; to be pre- 
pared for the tenth expedition, 
470; repaired at Stockholm, 473- 
474; soldiers and people go on, 
480-481 ; arrives at Gothenburg 
leaky and in bad condition, 480- 
481 ; repaired at Gothenburg, 
490; delayed, 493 ff. ; arrives in 
New Amsterdam, 496, 588 ; cap- 



tured by the Dutch, 588; re- 
mained in possession of the 
Dutch West India Company, 
name changed to Diemen, 590; 
681 ; 760-761 ; see also eighth, 
tenth and eleventh expedition 

Half Moon, Hudson sails in, 166 

Hercules, mate from the Haj 
placed in arrest on, 490; car- 
penters on, 4.93 

Hollandsche Tuyn, De, 429 ; land 
title signed on, 428-439 

Hoorn, 675 

Kalmar Nyckel, purchased, 78 ; 
mentioned, 114, 116, 119, 149, 
154. 152. 194, 199. 200. 202; 
arrives at Texel, 115; driven 
out of harbor, 117; officers of, 
118; to be sent again to Amer- 
ica, 121, 124; goods loaded onto, 
122 ; adrift, 125 ; returns to Swe- 
den, 146, 199; repaired, 151; 
deeds signed on board of, 183 ; 
guns taken from, 193 ; fitted out 
for trading expedition to the 
Caribbean Islands, 244; seized 
in Holland, 247; cargo on, sold, 
248 ; fights with the Danish ship, 
251; too old to perform the ninth 
expedition, 266-267; estimate of, 
626; 758-760; see also expedi- 

Katt, selected to make the ninth 
expedition, 267 ; shipwrecked 
near Porto Rico, 270; burnt by 
the Spaniards, 278 ; damages 
claimed for, 277-280; 680, 685, 

Koninck Salomon, 591 

Konung Carl, 40 

Liefde, 595, 601 

Marie, Printz in command of, 
captured, 474-475 

Mercurius, Trotzig ordered to buy, 
631; rebuilt, 632; ready in Sep- 
tember, 633; cost of, 635; ar- 
rives at the South River, 635, 
659; return to Sweden, 635, 662, 
761-762; see also twelfth expe- 

Neptunis, expedition made in by 
Sjohjelm, 649 

Neptunis, belonged to the South- 
Ship Company, 763 

Neil} Amsterdam, the, 594 

New King David, makes numer- 
ous voyages for the Company, 
227, 763 

Norrlandsskeppet, 74, 763 

Old King David, makes numerous 
voyages for the company, 227, 

Orn (Eagle), selected instead of 
ffismar, 470; goods loaded 
upon, 471 ; leaves Stockholm for 
Gothenburg, 472; ready to de- 
part, 479 ; provisions transferred 
to, 482 ; leaves the harbor, 483 ; 
becomes leaky, 483 ; Capt. Chev- 
erell sends his mate on board, 
484; turns her prow towards 
America, 485; sails and rigging 
of, destroyed by the wind, 488; 
mainmast cut, 488; repaired on 
the homeward journey, 489 ; 762 ; 
see also tenth expedition 

Onrust, Hendricksen in command 
of, visits the Delaware, 168 

Pearl, fires at the Orn, 484 

Postryitaren, 681 

Prince Willem, Stuyvesant intends 
to go to the South River with, 

Prophet Daniel, loaded with slaves, 
made a prize by the Spaniards, 

Real, ordered to the South River, 

St. Hop, 40 

St. Martin, ordered to the South 
River, 215 

St. Peer, fights a battle with Kal- 
mar Nyckel, 251 

St. Peter, 40 

Scotch Dutchman, Sandelin arrives 
at the South River with, 327 

Sea Horse, Blanck arrives with, 

Siraen, visited by Printz, 417-418 

Stockholms Kronan, 74, 763 

Svarte Hunden {Black Dog), 763 

Svian, makes the fifth expedition, 
240 ff. ; selected for the eighth 
expedition, 258; cargo of, 259; 
journey, 260-261, 266; took part 
in the Danish War, 251 ; 759- 

Siuarte Arent {Znaarte Arend), 

Turturdufvan {Turtle Dove), sold 
by Le Thor, 13c, 763 

Vliegende Hert, Het {The Flying 
Deer), 117, 684 

Waag, De, chartered, Capt. Frede-* 
rick de Coninck in command of, 



S93i S9S> «oo. 603-604, 606, 614, 
IValvis {Walvisch, the IV hale), 
commanded by Capt. Peter 
Heyes, 170 
JVarviick, Capt. Neal sent to 

America with, 393-394 
IVismar, Admiralty ordered to fit 
out, for a voyage to New Swe- 
den, 470 
Sliirts, 530; cost of, 353 
Shoemaker, Gov. Hindricksson re- 
quested to obtain, 126, 357, 531-532; 
see also New Sweden 
Shoes, cost of, in the colony, 353 ; of 
birch-bark made by Finns, 357; 
made by the Swedes, 534-535; see 
also expeditions and New Sweden 
Sidenius, 21 

Sidoland, meaning of, 523 
Sifvertson, Nils, 760 
Sigismund III., King of Poland, pre- 
tends to the Swedish throne, 5 
Signet Office, 172 

Silfverkrona, Peter Spiring, see Spiring 
Silfvercrona (Silbercron), Johan Philip, 

Silk-worm industry, Printz instructed 
to begin, 320; Rising to begin, 499, 

Sille, Nicasius de, 550, 607, 662, 666 
Sillen, quoted, 9, 22, 30, 32, 34-37> 39- 

40, 45. 47-48. 63, 148 
Silver Fleet, 75, 194, 322 
Silver money (Swedish s.m.), value 

of, 41 
Sinexon family, 540 
Sinques (Sinquees, Sinquessen, Sin- 

quesz), Indian chief, sells land to 

the Dutch, 440 ff. ; witness, 566, 756 
Siraen, see ships 
Siscohoka, chief, sells land to Printz, 

Sittoensaene (Minquas), Christina Kill 

called, 443 ; see also Christina Kill 
Sjohjelm (Zeehelra), Vice-Admiral 

Hendrick Gerritsen, fits out two 

ships for an expedition, 649-650 
Skagen, 483 

Skdlpund, see pund (Swedish) 
Skane, 679, 688; tobacco trade in, 641 
Skansen, 538; dwelling moved to, 346 
Skara, 681, 697; tobacco sold at, 642 
Skaraborgs Ian, tobacco trade in, 641 
Skeppa (skeppor), 42, 524 
Skeppsepp[editioner], quoted, 650 
Skeppsholm, 678 ; see also Bibliography 
Skeppund, weight of, 42 

Skepsk. (Skeppskapaniet), quoted, 65, 

69, 70, 72. 74, 77 
Skr[if<velser'] till K. Maj\_estdt'\, quoted, 

Skunck, Nils, member of the New Rus- 
sian Company, 50 

Skute, Sven, appointed commander of 
Fort Elfsborg, 305 ; goes on board 
the English pinnace, forcing it to 
fall lower down, 396; sent to expel 
the Dutch, 425 ; returns to Sweden, 
282, 338; arrives in Stockholm, 283; 
reports concerning the colony, 283, 
284; appointed to collect soldiers and 
colonists for the tenth and eleventh 
expeditions, 471 ; gathered people in 
VasterSs, 472; returns to the colony 
on the Orn, 477 ; appointed member 
of the council in New Sweden, 498 ; 
commander of Fort Trefaldighet, 
503 ; assistant to Rising, 500 ; com- 
mander of Forts and Military Aflfairs, 
502-503 ; donations of land at Pass- 
yunk and Kingsessing, 500, 517; 
recommends donation of land to Ris- 
ing; 524; sent to demand the sur- 
render of Fort Casimir, 583 ; goes to 
Christina to confer with the director 
and receive instructions, 596 ; allows 
the Dutch to pass the Fort without 
hostility, 597 ; Dutch confer with, 
598 ff. ; surrenders the fort to the 
Dutch, 600-601 ; court-martialed by 
Rising, 613-614; named as an unde- 
sirable citizen by the Dutch, 660; 
elected in the colony, 664; quoted, 
598-599, 614 

Skyffe(?), 642 

Skytte, 300 men of his regiment remain 
at home, 268 

Skytte (Skytt, Schytt, Skittins), Johan, 
interested in Swedish education, 27 

Skytte, Lars, Swedish resident at Lis- 
bon, II 

Slectenhorst, Brant van, not favorably 
disposed toward the Company, 431 

Sleds, used in hauling hay and grain, 
364-365, 464 

Sluyter's Journal, quoted, 305, 348, 354 

Smaland, 688 

Smith, Captain (also lieutenant and 
ensign), Dirck, at the capture of 
New Sweden, 597 ff. ; appointed 
commander at Fort Casimir, 657; 
accusations against, 658 ; sent to 
the Delaware with i6 soldiers, 661 

Smith, George {Hist, of Del. Co.), 
quoted, 182, 350, 669 



Smith, Capt. John, writes to Bacon, 392 
Smith, Robert, buys salt from com- 
pany, 288, 23s, 642; probably the 
same as Smythe, 134; see Robert 
Smith, William, 214 
Smoking habit among the students at 

Upsala, 158 
Smythe, Robert, interviews with Oxen- 
stierna, 133; proposals for an expe- 
dition, 133-134 
Soap works, in Sweden, 35; see also 

Soderby, 674 

Siderk\ompamei\, quoted, 106, 109, 

125, 131, 145, 151, 154, 159, 163. 224- 

226, 228, 233, 242, 247, 259, 281, 282, 

522, 625, 630, 633, 635, 662 

Soldiers, 126 ; see expeditions. New 

Sweden and Appendix B 
Sonden, Per, quoted, 98, loi 
Soop, Mathias, subscriber to the South 

Company, 60 
South Company, 677; names of, 53; 
Usselinx presents views concerning, 
to Gustavus Adolphus, 53; com- 
mission for Usselinx to found, 54; 
charter of, 54-57; brought before the 
diet, 58 ; directors appointed for, 58- 
59; poems concerning, 59; subscrip- 
tions for, 60-61 ; King requested to 
pay his first installment for, 61 ; 
Usselinx sent to the Baltic provinces, 
Finland and Northern Sweden to 
collect subscriptions for, 62; trade 
of, 62-63; ropewalk of, 64; ships of, 
to be sent to the West Indies, 66; 
journey to the West Indies dropped, 
67 ; letters concerning, 68 ; commis- 
sioners to be sent to Germany, 
France and Venice, 68 ; business of 
the company grows bad, 68 ; agents 
to be sent to Finland and Norrland 
to collect money for, 68 ; joined 
with the Ship Company, 70-71 ; see 
also South-Ship Company and New 
Sweden Company 
South-Ship Company, founded, 69; 
plans concerning, 69; raising of 
money for, 69-71 ; ships contracted 
to be built for, 70; King proposes 
plans for the increase of the capital 
of, 70; the estates contribute to, 70- 
71 ; officers of, 71 ; capital of, 71-72 ; 
sixteen ships ready, 72 ; ships sailed 
to Archangel, North Sea, Holland 
and Stralsund, 72; freight made by, 
due from the Crown, 72-73 ; cargo 

sent to France, 73 ; plans for the 
sending of ships to Spain, 73-74; 
ships prepared, 74; New ships pur- 
chased and built, 77-78 ; ships again 
sent to Archangel, 78 ; committee 
appointed to audit the books of, 79 ; 
various propositions for the continua- 
tion of, 79 ; ships carrying freight 
for, 80 ; factors of, 71 ; capital of, to 
be used for the New Sweden Com- 
pany, 121 ; permanently joined with 
the New Sweden Company, 227-228, 
in; see also South Company and 
New Sweden Company 
South River (Delaware), 93, 122, 124; 
called the South River by the Dutch, 
169; cattle to be taken to, 113; lands 
on the west side of, to be bought, 
113; land on, to be called New Swe- 
den, 114; sloop to be stationed in, 
114; Minuit arrives at, 117; map 
made of, 117, 517, 555; forts erected 
on, 117-118, 192; second expedition 
arrives at, 130; Dutch to settle a 
colony on, 139; English granted 
land on, 143 ; early history of, 164 ff. ; 
Henry Hudson in, 166; English and 
Dutch at, 167; discoveries at, 168; 
Cornells May sails up, 169; French 
in, 169; Fort Nassau built on, 170; 
Swanendael colony on, 170-171 ; De 
Vries at, 171, 314; grant to Lord 
Baltimore of, 172-173 ; grant to 
Plowden of, 174-175 ; King Charles I. 
grants to the Swedes, 175, 178; Fort 
Nassau reoccupied, 178-179; English 
visits at, 179-180; garrison at Fort 
Nassau maintained, 181; the arrival 
of the Swedes at, 182; lands bought 
on, 183, 184; the Dutch claim of, 
i86; Indians on, 187-188; New 
Swedish fort proposed to be built on, 
197 ; second expedition sails up, 202 ; 
English buy land at, 208-210; Eng- 
lish built block house on, 210; Eng- 
lish trade successfully in, 212; Eng- 
lish colony to be planted in, 213 ; 
English expelled from, 215; Plow- 
den makes new pretentions to, 216- 
217; fifth expedition receives in- 
juries in the bay of, 240; climate of, 
undecided in, 301 ; a fort to be 
erected which would be the key to, 
303-304; Swedish fort located on the 
east side of, 304-305; Fort New 
Gothenborg commands, 306; busy 
life on the western side of, in 1643, 
308; Virginian merchants trade in. 



310 ff. ; Indians of, poor, 322, 377; 
freezes over, 326; Sandelin arrives 
in, 327 ; Dutch obstruct the free 
traffic on, 338 ; English merchants 
from Barbadoes sail to, 339; Eng- 
lish traders in, harshly treated by 
the Dutch, 339-340; Adams endeav- 
ors to establish trade in the bay of, 
342; Jansen trading on, 343; dwel- 
lings erected by the Finns on, 345 ff. ; 
first dwellings of the Swedes erected 
on, 203-204, 347 ff., 537 ff.; Printz 
Hall erected on the banks of, 347; 
bricks from Sweden brought to, 
347 ff. ; description of the Indians 
on, 187, 188, 375 ; English settle- 
ments on, during the time of Printz, 
380 ff. ; Lamberton, fits out his pin- 
nace for trade on, 282-283 ; Lam- 
berton trades in, 283 ; English trade 
in, 311 ff., 316 ff. ; English claims to 
land at, disputed, 384 ff. ; Lamberton 
forbidden to trade in, 387-388 ; 
Printz promises the English to be 
allowed to go on with their planta- 
tion at, 391; English suppose that 
the source of, is the Great Lake, 
394; English merchants of Boston 
send a pinnace to ascend the, 395 ; 
the English not allowed to pass up, 
396; Boston bark trades in, 398; 
English of New Haven do not give 
up their hopes of settling on, 400; 
Plowden finds settlers willing to go 
to, 400-401 ; Plowden's expedition 
did not reach the Delaware, 401 ; 
trouble with the English on. New 
Haven Delaware Co. does not re- 
linquish its rights at, 401 ; English 
about to improve their "just rights" 
at, 402 ff. ; a witch accused of being 
able to say something about, 404; 
Printz instructed not to disturb the 
Dutch in their possessions on, 405 ; 
intrusion of the English tended to 
obstruct the Dutch territory at, 406; 
Kieft accused of allowing the Swedes 
to usurp the, 408; Kieft shows more 
concern about the trading-post on the, 
409 ; Dutch commissary at, ordered 
to buy land on the west shore, 412; 
Stuyvesant not to allow the Swedes 
to usurp the, without a protest, 416 ; 
Hudde reappointed as a commiss at, 
417; Geraet (Gerardy) in, for the 
purpose of trade, 417, 418 ; a Swed- 
ish bark sails up the, 418-419; Stuy- 
vesant desirous to go to, 420 ff. ; two 

Dutch officers sent to transact busi- 
ness at, 421 ff. ; Hudde departs for 
the, 425 ; Dutch rights to, examined, 
427, 444 ff. ; Stuyvesant unable to 
give proper assistance to his com- 
miss at, 427 ; Dutch buy lands on 
the east side of, 428-429 ; Printz 
suspected of desiring to control the 
entire beaver trade of, 430-431; 
Dutch erect new houses on, 431; 
Dutch and Swedes unite and plan 
to keep the English out of, 432 ; 
hopes of settling the, from Holland, 
432; Dutch freemen unwilling to 
settle on, 433 ; boundaries between 
the colonies at, to be settled by 
treaty, 434; Stuyvesant tired of the 
complaints that came from, 434; 
Stuyvesant sends a vessel to, 435 ; 
large expedition prepared for, 435 ; 
Dutch fleet arrives in, 436; Indians 
present lands to the Dutch on the 
west side of, 437; protest from 
Stuyvesant because of the injuries 
received from the Swedes on, 439; 
acts of Stuyvesant during his stay 
at, 445-446 ; Fort Casimir commands 
the, 446; all traders in, compelled to 
pay duty to the Dutch, 446 ; the 
Dutch now masters in, 446 ff. ; ex- 
pedition of Stuyvesant to the, not ap- 
proved by the directors in Holland, 
447 ; few ships visit the, 448 ; Dutch 
again active at, in 1653, 448; Stuy- 
vesant admonished to be careful in 
his intercourse with the Swedes at, 
448 ; courts upon the shores of, 454 ff., 
509 ff. ; first judge on the shores of, 
455 ; tenth expedition reaches the bay 
of, 489; the eleventh expedition by 
mistake passes the bay of, 496 ; a 
map of, 516; land given to Rising 
at, 524; English merchants trade in, 
during the time of Rising, 525; 
value of improved and unimproved 
lands in 1653, 526-527; peculiar 
methods of clearing employed by the 
Swedes and Finns at, 527-529; 
freezes over in 1655, 5^9; supersti- 
tions among the Swedes and Finns 
at, 545 ; a poet who intended to go to 
New Sweden never arrived at, 550; 
Campanius the most noted of the 
Swedish ministers at, 560; English 
commissioners arrive at, 572 ff. ; 
English present claims to lands at, 
574 ff. ; agent sent to view, 577-578 ; 
reports concerning, presented to the 



English Court, 578 ; rumors about 
the New Haven people were about 
to send 3,400 men to, 578-579 ; Eng- 
lish make new plans at settlements 
on, 581; the Orn sails up, 582; 
directors decide to capture the, 587, 
591 ; Stuyvesant advised to proceed 
to, 592 ; preparations to proceed to, 
593 ff. ; Scarborough gives bail not 
to enter the, 595 ; Hook sent down 
the, to look for the Dutch, 596 ; 
Stuyvesant with his fleet proceeds 
up the, 597; the Dutch land on the 
shores of, 598 ; Swedish freemen go 
down the, to help against the Dutch, 
603 ; proposes that the Swedes should 
remaip along the, north of Chris- 
tina, 611-612; the Mercurius sails 
"P, 635 ; rumors that Sjohjelm was 
to proceed to, 649 ; Finns sent to 
America at the expense of those 
interested in the colony on, 651 ; re- 
ported that the Finns were to pro- 
ceed to, within 14 days, 652 ; Swed- 
ish claims concerning the colony on, 
652-653 ; Jacquet sets out for the, 
658; Jews to trade at, 658-659; de- 
cision to send soldiers to the, 660; 
rumors that difficulties with the In- 
dians had arisen, 660-661; Papegoja 
sails the Mercurius up the, 661 ; the 
Waag arrives at, 662; Stuyvesant 
goes to arrange matters at the, 664; 
colonists brought to, 667 ; entire dis- 
trict of, transferred to the city of 
Amsterdam, 669 ; English capture of, 
670; see also New Sweden, the 
Dutch, the English, Printz, Rising 
and Stuyvesant 
Spain, trade to, 63-74; Swedish ships 
arrested in, 75-76 ; enemy of Swe- 
den, 9, 276 ff. ; trade of, with Swe- 
den, 9-10; Palbitsky sent to, 10, 
276-277 ; Rising to institute trade 
from the colony to, 499, 675, 698, 

731, 745 
Spaniards, 76 ff., 270 ff. ; see also 

Spain, Sweden, Palbitsky and Pi- 

Spanish prizes, to be captured, 116 
Spaniola, Minuit to sail near, 113, 114 
Spanish Sea, Swedes pass through, 269 
Sparre, Johan, subscribed to the South 

Company, 60; agreement with Per 

Andersson, 63 
Speckt, Cornelius, 70 
Spens (Spence), Jacob (James) d. a. 

(Jr.), ambassador of Sweden and of 
England, 6, 11 

Spiegel, the, see Dolphijn 

Spiring (Spierinck, Spiering, Spieringk, 
Spieringh), Peter, 674, 684; instructs 
Blommaert to send letters to him, 94; 
sent to Holland to raise the Dutch 
subsidies, 94-95; confers with Blom- 
maert and writes to the chancellor 
about the proposed trade, 95-96; in- 
terviews with Minuit, 96 ; goes to 
Amsterdam, 99-100; report of, re- 
ceived by the chancellor, 101 ; con- 
fers with Blommaert and Minuit 
about the West Indian trade, 102; 
takes shares in the company, 103- 
106; reports to the chancellor, 103- 
104; visits Sweden, 98; his proposi- 
tions read in the council, 98 ; returns to 
Holland, 99 ; inspects Kalmar Nyckel, 
128 ; removes the captain froin the 
ship, 129; ordered to pay the shares 
of the Dutch members, 132; plan for 
the Utrecht colony presented to, 
136; charter presented to, 137; 
writes to Beier about the proposed 
Dutch settlement, 137; presents Ge- 
genbedencken, 138; written to, about 
the Dutch settlement, 141 ; applies 
to the States General for permission 
to equip a ship in Holland, 142; 
proceeds of the sale of skins turned 
over to, 144; money furnished by, 
14s; reports made to, 155; causes a 
statement to be made concerning the 
first expedition, u8; present in the 
council, 222; proposes that a tobacco 
company should be founded, 223 ; 
thinks that the peltries from New 
Sweden should be sold in Sweden, 
223 ; Spiring turns over money to 
Trotzig, 224-225 ; does much busi- 
ness for the company without pay, 
225-226 ; handles money for the 
members of the Company, 228; 
papers from New Sweden sent to, 
229; looks after the diplomatic busi- 
ness of the company in Holland, 234; 
buys provisions for the fifth expedi- 
tion, 237 ; instruction for Printz made 
along the line suggested by, 238 ; 
assists in preparing the sixth expedi- 
tion, 242 ; sends protests to the States 
General, 245 ff. ; secures release of 
ships, 248 ; to send an expedition 
from Holland to New Sweden, 252; 
letter from, concerning New Sweden 
read in the council, 253 ; to give 



Governor Printz good advice, 254; 
capital in New Sweden Company, 
262, 626; heirs of, retain capital in 
the Company, 626 ; quoted, 45, 95- 
96, 98-100, 103, 122-124, 131, 136, 
156; biography, 695-696; handwrit- 
ing of, 155 

Sprinchorn, Dr. Carl, 681 ; makes search 
in the Royal Archives for evidence 
of the English transfer of the Dela- 
ware, 176; quoted, 238, 260-261, 265, 
304, 338, 381, 384, 436, 440, 466, 
5i8> 523, 559. 563-564. 629. 634, 649, 
654, 656 

Staats, Abraham, 437 

Stake, bricks exported from, 35 

Stake, Olof, governor, instructed to 
collect colonists, 126 ; successful, 127 ; 
ordered to restore property to Finns, 
149; letter sent to, 150, 239 

Stdng, length of, 507 

Starback, C. Georg, quoted, 10, 11, 50 

State Papers (Pub. Rec. Office), quoted, 
12, 14, 40, 46, 51. 474 

Staten Island, 496 _ _ 

States General, no, 695; see Spirmg, 
Appelbom, expeditions 

Steam-bath, see bath-houses 

Steel, Ridder requests, 198; see also 
expeditions and New Sweden 

Steendam, Jacob, quoted, 550 

Steiner, quoted, 173 

Steinkamp, Ulrick, appointed factor m 
Gothenburg, 630 

Stettin, 81 

Stidden. Timon, see colonists 

Stiernhjelm, Georg, 23; foreshadows 
Grimm's law, 25 

Stiernbook, Johannes (Johan) Olai 
Dalecarlus, 21 ; quoted, 456 ff. 

Stiernman, A. A. von, said by Acrehus 
to confirm the purchase from the 
Dutch "out of the documents," 176; 
quoted, 16, 19, 37i 4°. 45. 47-50, 66, 
71, 80, 148, 158, 160, 291, 205-294, 

2q6, 298, 622-623, 64.0, 644-645 
Still, brought to the colony on the tenth 
expedition, 473; see also expeditions 
and New Sweden 
Stockinps, cost of, 353 
Stochholms Stads idnkebok, quoted, 70 
Stockholm, 67-68, 70, 105, 108, 120, 
130, 436, 673-677, 678-682, 683, 688, 
697; see also Bonnell, Kramer, Flem- 
ing and expeditions 
Stockholms Kronan (Crown of Stock- 
holm), see ships 
Stolbova, peace at, 4 

Stolt, Jonas, quoted, 352, 356, 365, 528, 


Stone, quoted, 457 

Stop, size of, 42 

Store-houses, built in New Sweden, 
362; described, 363 ff. 

Strachey, quoted, 167 

Stralsund, 72, 81, 95-96 

Strandviken, 526 

Strangnas, bricks exported from, 35 

Strindberg, August, quoted, 30 

Stromskold, Anders Olofsson, secretary 
of the Commercial College, 18 ; ap- 
pointed to draw up proposals, 625; 
subscribes to the Company, 625-626; 
appointed director, 627 ; works for 
the Company, 629; goes to Prussia, 
638 ; withdraws from the Company, 
643 ; sued by Rising, 646 ; quoted, 
625, 631, 643 

Stroudsburg, 175 

Stubbs, William, quoted, 456 

Stud, tilleg. Schiick, quoted, 25 

Stuiver, value of, 41 

Stumpff, Joachim, presents plans for 
West Indian trade, loo-ioi 

Stuyvesant, Governor Peter, appointed 
director in the place of Kieft, 416; 
character of, 416; letter of congratu- 
lation to, 399; protests against 
Printz, 417; news sent to, 418; 
ordered Hudde to settle down beside 
the Swedes, 419; resolves to go to 
the South River, 420-421 ; journey 
abandoned, 421 ; Printz writes to, 
complaining of Hudde, 423 ; report 
sent to, 424; complains to the direc- 
tors in Holland, 427; gives permis- 
sion to Dutch freemen to live at 
Mantashook, 428 ; date of his letter, 
April 9(19), 1649, determined, 429- 
430; admonishes his commander at 
Fort Nassau to oppose the Swedes, 
431; letter from directors to, 432; 
informs Printz about the disaster of 
the Katt, 433 ; prepares to go to the 
South River with a large expedition, 
43 5 ; marches across the country 
with 120 men, 436; called Indian 
chiefs to a conference, 436; answers 
Printz, 439; buys lands from the In- 
dians, 440-441, 443-444-445 ; builds 
Fort Casimir, 445 ; obstructs the 
trade in the river, 445-446; leaves 
the Delaware, 445-446; said to have 
had conferences with Printz, 442, 
446; hopes to appear in the river 
with greater force, 447; director! 



not pleased with the expedition of, 
447 ; Swedes apply for permission 
from, 448 ; writes to the directors 
in behalf of Printz, 466; everything 
blamed on him, 585 ; Rising writes 
to, writes to Rising, 586; reports the 
capture of Fort Casimir, 587 ; cap- 
tures the Gyllene Haj, 588 ; protests 
of, and to, 588-589, 590; advised to 
capture the South River, 593; in 
Barbadoes, 593 ; reports of the prep- 
arations of, reach the Swedes, 595- 
596 ; arrives in the Bay with his 
fleet, 597; lands his artillery, 598; 
demands the surrender of the strong- 
hold, 599-600; agrees to the capitu- 
lation of Trefaldighet, 600; Elswick 
sent to, 602; remains at Fort Casi- 
mir, 603 ; demands the surrender of 
Fort Christina, 605-606; reply sent 
to, 607 ; meets Rising, 607 ; agrees to 
the articles of surrender, 608-609 ; 
again meets Rising, 609-610; reports 
his success to New Amsterdam, 610; 
council writes to, 611 ; proposes to 
return Fort Christina to the Swedes, 
611-612; Rising visits, 614-615; col- 
ony to be governed under the direc- 
tion of, 657; Papegoja writes to, 659; 
visits the Delaware in 1658, 664; 
biography, 696; quoted, 401, 419, 
429, 43o-43i> 434. 59?, 662; hand- 
writing, 433 

Styffe, quoted, 39 

Suffering and Resurrection of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, The, 26 

Sugar factories, in Sweden, 35 

Sundbarg, Gustav, quoted, 351, 457, 


Sunden, D. A., quoted, 351 

Sundsocken, Finns from, 149 

Suppeckongh (Supeskongh), West 
point of Minquas (Christina) Kill, 

Surveyors, German, employed in Swe- 
den, 15 

5usquehannas, same as White Min- 
quas, 188 

Susquehanoer, see Susquehannas 

Susquehannocks, see Susquehannas 

Svarta, 633 

S<varte Hunden, see Black Dog 

Svecia, see Sweden 

S-v. Hist, och Polit. Visor, quoted, 251 

Svensson, Johan, sailor, 758 

Svensson, Nils, 760 

Swan, see ships 

Swanendael, 676 ; dilapidated fort at. 

143 ; Dutch colony on Horn Kill 
called, 170-171 ; colony not a suc- 
cess, 180; sold to the Dutch West 
India Company, 181 
Swanendael Company, not a success, 
180; differences arise with the Dutch 
West India Company, 181 
Sivarte Areni, see ships 
Swartling, Birger, quoted, 25 
Sweden, 673, 674, 675, 679-681, 684- 
686, 688-691, 693, 695, 697, 698; 
Reformation saved by, 3 ; Gustavus 
Adolphus ascends the throne of, 3 ; 
in war with Russia, 4; Poland, 4-5; 
takes part in the Thirty Years War, 
6; in war with Denmark, 7', 250 ff., 
641 ; comes in contact with the out- 
side world, 9; relation of, to Spain, 
9-10, 270 ff., 276-280; relation of, to 
Portugal, lo-ii; relation of, to 
France, 11; relation of, to England, 
11-12, 299; treaty with England, 11, 
621; relation of, to Holland, 12-14, 
591; government of, 15 ff. ; highly 
organized military system of, 15 ; 
departments of State of, 15; Com- 
mercial College of, 15-19; govern- 
ment of. Constitutional, 19; self- 
government of people in, 20; Coun- 
cil of State of, 20-21 ; judicial sys- 
tem of, 21 ; professor of law in, 21 ; 
Reformation in, 22; religious liberty 
in, language of, in the 17th century, 
23-25 i poets and authors in, 25-26 ; 
literature of, 26 ; education in, 26-28 ; 
natural sciences in, during the first 
half of the 17th century, 29; class 
distinctions, characteristics of the 
Swedish peasants, 29-30; patriotism 
of the people in, 30-31 ; population 
of, 31-32; reasons for migrating 
from, 32; military system of, in ad- 
vance of the age, 33; systems of 
government imitated by other coun- 
tries, 33 ; wealthy Dutchmen settle 
in. 33-34, 52; iron works in, become 
famous, 34; copper mining in, 34; 
textile and clothing industries in, 
34; shoe and glove factories in, 34; 
kettles and utensils manufactured in, 
glass factories in, 34-35; brickyards 
in, 35 ; paper manufactured in, 35 ; 
various industries in, 35-36; agricul- 
ture in, 36-37; cities favored in, 37; 
country roads in, 38-39; canals in, 
39 ; communication of, with foreign 
countries, 39; post office of, 1620- 
1654. 39-40; domestic trade in, 40; 



export trade of, 40 ; money of, 41 ; 
weights and measures of, 41-42 ; 
calendar used in, 43-43 ; societies 
and guilds of, 43 ; Christian II. of 
Denmark proposes to found a trad- 
ing company in, 44; company char- 
tered at Gothenburg, 1607, 45; Gen- 
eral Trading Company, 1615, 
founded in, 45 ; other companies 
founded in, 45-48 ; a New Ship Com- 
pany founded in, 48 ; Swedish Afri- 
can company founded in, 49; minor 
companies, 50; English-Swedish 
Company to be founded in, 50-51 ; 
South Company founded in, 52 ff. ; 
Usselinx goes to, 52-53 ; subscrip- 
tions for the South Company raised 
in, 58-62; United Ships Company 
founded in, 69 ff. ; importance of 
copper trade in, 87, 88 ; trade to the 
West Indies of, proposed, 90; Finns 
in, 147 ff. ; beaver trade in, 157; 
tobacco trade in, 158-163; New Swe- 
den Company reorganized in, 221 ff. ; 
fifth expedition prepared in, 237 ff. ; 
sixth expedition prepared in, 242 ff. ; 
colonists return to, on the sixth ex- 
pedition, 248 ; heavy toll in the Sound 
a heavy burden to, 250; Denmark a 
false friend in the peace negotiations 
of, 250; industries in, badly damaged, 
251; could spare ships for commer- 
cial journeys, 252; preparations for 
the seventh expedition from, 254; 
goods secured in, for seventh expedi- 
tion, 255 ; tobacco shipped to, on the 
Haj, 256; goods shipped to, for the 
eighth expedition, 258 ; books from 
America brought to, colonists return 
to, on the eighth expedition, 261, 
336; Papegoja requests to be allowed 
to return to, 266; colonists on the 
ninth expedition endeavor to return 
to, 273 ; survivors of the ninth expe- 
dition return to, 275-276; plans for 
new expedition from, in 1660, 281 ; 
Skute returns to, 282 ; colonists sup- 
ported the people without aid from, 
283; salt brought to, 288; peltries 
sold in, 289; use of tobacco had 
enormously increased in, 1643, 289; 
large quantities of tobacco illegally 
brought into, 289-290; Tobacco 
Company to be organized in, 290 ff. ; 
sole right of the Tobacco Company 
to sell tobacco in, 291 ; tobacco press 
and other instruments shipped to, 
295 ; ship on her way to, captured. 

299 ; news from, desired by settlers, 
302; Printz instructed to plant to- 
bacco which could be shipped direct 
to, 308 ; colonists adhered to the cus- 
toms in, 312 ff. ; method of sowing 
rye in, 313; 300 skins bought in the 
Schuylkill for the Siaan, shipped to, 
317; draft arrives in, 327; Molndal 
in, 328; Sivan returns to, 335; big 
sums of money paid to the returning 
colonists in, 336 ; neither news nor 
supplies came from, in 1650, 338; 
Printz writes to, in 1652, 341; lack 
of tobacco in, 342 ; Printz decides to 
go to, 343 ; forms of houses in olden 
times in, 345 ff. ; bricks sent to New 
Sweden from, 348; crofters in, 351; 
snuff-boxes of birch-bark common 
among peasants in, peasants in, know 
how to prepare various kinds of 
skins, 357; Finnish form of bathing 
common in Sweden, 361 ; storehouses 
built in, 363 ; chickens in the dwel- 
ling-houses in, 365; style of churches 
in, 366; festivities in, 369; authori- 
ties in, endeavor to supply the re- 
ligious wants, 373 ; Campanius re- 
turns to, 373-374; 2 Indians to be 
sent to, 378 ; English forced to swear 
allegiance to the crown of, 381; 
Lamberton protests against the crown 
of, 385; success of the king of, known 
in New England, 398 ; Kieft informs 
Gov. Printz of news from, 407 ; 
Printz receives no further orders 
from, concerning the Dutch, 409; 
their High Mightinesses are unwil- 
ling to come into conflict with, 413 ; 
Olofsson seems to have returned to, 
453 ; documents sent to, by Printz, 
455; Regner, king of, 456; jury said 
by some to be foreign to, 457 ; prepa- 
rations for the tenth expedition in, 
469 ff. ; regulations concerning col- 
onists from, 506; cargo expected 
from, 530; Rising sends reports to, 
531; buildings of two stories in, 541- 
542 ; times for meals in, 543 ; cus- 
toms at Christmas in, 543-544; Finns 
looked upon as masters of witchcraft 
in, 544; soldiers leave their wives 
behind in, 545 ; early voyages gave 
rise to no literature in, 549 ; popu- 
lar historian of, quoted 551; friend- 
ship between England and, has 
powerful influence upon Rising, 574; 
Printz had carried most of the orig- 
inal documents to, 579; friendly re- 



lations between Holland and, have 
largely disappeared, 591 ; treaty of, 
with England concerning the trade, 
621 ; tobacco sent to, 637 ; tobacco 
trade of, placed in the hands of the 
Company in 1648, 641 ; provinces 
ceded to, 641 ; preparations made in, 
concern the Dutch, 649; Finnish 
families from, to go to America in 
1664, 650; fugitives to be returned 
to, 652; not to be expected that Eng- 
land would turn over the colony to, 
654; British representative in, 655; 
colony forever lost to, 656; further 
orders to be received from, 659; 
Swedes desire not to take sides with 
the Dutch, should trouble arise be- 
tween Holland and, 664; several 
settlers from, arrive in New Sweden, 
1663, 667; see also expeditions. New 
Sweden Company, South Company, 
South-Ship Company, Usselinx 
Swedes, the, 68 1 ; things become 
brighter for, 7; illiteracy of, 28; 
patriotism of, 30; large company to 
consist of Englishmen and, 50; com- 
ing of, 182; two ships of, 182; the 
Indians with whom they came in 
contact, 187; Indians trade with, 
188 ; Minquas country called by, 191 ; 
undersell the Dutch, 195 ; resolve to 
move to Manhattan, 195-196; Eng- 
lish and Dutch begin trade with, 
at an early date, 198 ; Dutch settling 
among, 203 ; Dutch vessels trade 
with, 207 ff., 314 ff. ; English trade 
with, 198, 311 ff.; 525 ff. ; houses of, 
204, 345 ff. ; relation of, with the 
neighbors during the administration 
of Ridder, 207 fl. ; Lamberton sends 
protests to, 209 ; Berkeley protests 
against, 216; shipwreck of, 270; 
Spanish ship sent to, 270; pumping 
done by, 271 ; ill-treated by the 
Spaniards, 271-272; conversion of, to 
Catholicism, 272-273 ; submitted to 
ill-treatment by the French, 273 ; 
understood the value of bathing, 357; 
storehouses of, 362 ff. ; granaries of, 
364; religious worship of, during the 
time of Printz, 366 ff. ; relations of, 
with the Indians, 375 ff., 563 ff. ; 
murdered by Indians, 376 ff. ; relations 
of, with the English during the ad- 
ministration of Printz, 380 ff. ; Lam- 
berton accused of planning to kill, 
383, 386-387; Printz accused of try- 
ing to make Woollen testify falsely. 

388-389-390; Gov. Winthrop has 
high opinions of, 398 ; Collicott com- 
plains against, 399; English sell their 
property to, 399 ; the New Haven 
people to receive aid against, 403 ; 
rights of, to be guarded, 405 ; on 
good terms with the Dutch, 406; 
Jan Jansen on good terms with, 407 ; 
allowed to usurp the Delaware by 
Kieft, 408; Dutch trade of disad- 
vantage to, 409; Swedes had ac- 
quired title to certain territory, 412; 
diligence of Printz gives a decided 
advantage to, prudence of, saves them 
from attack, 415; reports of, not to 
be taken too literally, 416; Stuyve- 
sant to use more power against, 416- 
417; could not expect succor, 418; 
Dutch to settle down by the side of, 
419; Indians accuse, 419-420; In- 
dians ill-disposed towards, 420; 
Hudde is accused of using vile lan- 
guage against, 423 ; Dutch partici- 
pate in the purchase of land, 423 ; 
do whatever they please in the river, 
title acquired by, armaments of, 
forces of, proceedings of, 426; Stuy- 
vesant cautioned to have patience 
with, 427 ; Broen asks the assistance 
of, 428 ; would have gained a foot- 
hold on the eastern bank, but for the 
watchfulness of Hudde, 430; sup- 
posed to have intentions of closing 
up the North River, 431; Dutch plan 
concerted action with, 432 ; attacks 
to be resisted, 432; boundary of the 
Schuylkill to be recovered from, 433 ; 
complications of, with the Dutch ap- 
proaching a crisis, 434; insolence 
of, to be checked, 435; the Dutch 
forces to impress, 436; Indian ref- 
erences to, 436-437; Indians report 
of land-sales to, 438 ff. ; land-par- 
chase of, said to be legal, 441 n. ; 
Mitatsimint said to have sold land 
to, and to no one else, 442; relations 
with Dutch, winter 1651-1652, 447; 
prohibited from trading with the 
Dutch, 462; conceived an unmerited 
hatred of the Governor, made slaves 
by Printz, 465 ; well received by the 
English, at Dover, 484; monks and 
nuns at the Canary Islands visit, 
receive injuries from the inhabitants, 
486; Turks reported to have at- 
tacked, 487; said to have left St. 
Cruz, 488 ; Huygen said to have 
played false to, 497; trade of the 



river to be drawn into the hands of, 
499; reported to be all dead, 510; 
a certain old man promises to lead 
the, to Virginia or Maryland, 513; 
Indians avoid all communication 
with, 514-515; accustomed to a orim- 
itive form of agriculture by burning, 
527 S.; customs, habits and dress of, 
534 ff. ; possess a sort of paddle for 
steering, 534; make their own shoes, 
534; in sore need, 530; dwellings 
ofi 537 i description of the coast occu- 
pied by 555 ; pies made from the 
flesh of human beings sold to, lives 
of, like that of the Indians, 557; in- 
terpreter for the, on the point of 
murdering Lindestrom, 558 ; rela- 
tions of, with the Indians during the 
time of Rising, 563 ff.; disease of, 
spreads to the Indians, 565 ; Indians 
well satisfied with, and to keep peace 
with, 565 ; confirmation of sale of 
land to, 567; Minquas, the protectors 
of, present land to, 1655, 569-571; 
relations of, with the English, 1654- 
1655, 572; a perfect right to occupy 
and settle the Delaware, 572-573 ; 
principles recognized as giving right 
to a territory adhered to by the 
Swedes, 573 ; Goodyear sent to treat 
with, 578 ; Allerton has large bills to 
collect from, 579; power of, too 
weak to attack Fort Casimir, 581 ; 
Fort Casimir in the hands of, 583- 
584; injuries done by the Dutch to 
be forgotten, 584-585; congratula- 
tions on the arrival of, in 1654, 586; 
about to send a sloop to New Eng- 
land, 587; every means taken to pre- 
vent knowledge of the expedition 
from reaching, 595 ; must leave or 
come under the jurisdiction of the 
Dutch, 604; no occasion for action 
to be given by, 605 ; to have_ liberty 
to leave the country or remain, 608- 
609 ; Stuyvesant made lenient de- 
mands of, said to have bribed the 
savages to attack the Dutch, 6io; 
proposal to give the land above Fort 
Christina to, 611; savages friendly 
to, 613; Dutch do their best in per- 
suading the, to remain, 615 ; new 
period of, 657; to be looked well 
after by the Dutch, 658; to prevent 
uprising of, 660; demand that_ the 
Mercurius be brought up the river, 
66i; required to swear new oath of 
allegiance, 664; gradually acquire 

the confidence of the Dutch, 664-665 ; 
tax of, called upon to do military 
duty, 665 ; successful in cultivating 
the land, 666 ; number of, who could 
bear arms, 666 ; property of in 1663, 
667; continue to have their own 
officers, 667 ; religious history of, 
during the Dutch period, 668 ; Rev. 
Lock remains alone among, 669 

Swedish books, burnt by Spaniards, 271 

Swedish Crown, see Crown 

Swedish Finns, Finns living in Sweden, 


Swedish members of New Sweden Com- 
pany, 106, 119; buy out the Dutch, 
131 ff. 

Swedish South Company, 698 ; see South 

Swedland, see Sweden 

Sweeringen, van, quoted, 171 

Swensson, Anders, see Odell 

Sybels Hist. Zeitschrift, quoted, 93 

Symonssen (Symonsz, Simons, Simonsz), 
Michel (Mickel), mate, no, 112, 758 

Tacitus, quoted, 361 

Tailors, go to New Sweden, 152; see 
also expeditions and New Sweden 

Tamecongh (Tamicongh, Cameconck), 
position of, sold by the Indians, situ- 
ation of, 440, 443 

Tar, made by Swedes, ri; see also 
New Sweden and expeditions 

Tar Company, the, 48 

Tar Company in Gothland, 48 

Taru, explained, 333 

Tarvi, see Taru 

Tariue, see Taru 

Taylor, quoted, 550 

Tennekonck, see Tinicum and Tinne- 

Tenth Expedition, see expeditions 

Tentor, Michell, 530 

Terra Nova, see Newfoundland 

Terreau, Pierre, member of the New 
Russian Company, 50 

Terserus, quoted, 28, 31 

Texel, 675 ; Kalmar Nyckel arrives at, 
115, 128, 129; see also expeditions 

Textile factories in Sweden, 34; see 
also Sweden 

Theiussen, Jan, skipper, brings goods 
to Gothenburg, 266 

Thiens, Gerard, shares in a brass fac- 
tory at Nacka, 89 

Thil Ulspegel, 26 



Thimbles, sent to New Sweden, 355 

Thirty Years' War, 689 ; comes to an 
end, 7 ; Finns leave their native 
country during, 148 ; King Christian 
takes part in, 5 ; Gustavus Adol- 
phus enters, 6; see also Sweden 

Thompson, Sieter (Sieton), trading at 
Christina, 315 

Thompson, quoted, 572 

Thor, Johan le, Fleming to correspond 
with, 130 ; draft from, 130; quoted, 
89, 122, 14.5 

Throckmorton, Mr., former owner of 
a bark, 382 

Thurloe, J., quoted, I2, 648 

Thwaites, quoted, 172, 190, 334 

Tidningar, quoted, 243, 267 

Tido (castle), Ridder sent to, 127 

Tienhoven, Andrian (Andrlaen) van, 
requests Skute to desist from using 
violence, 425 ; writes to Stuyvesant, 
426 ; on board the Orn, 582 ; sent on 
board the Orn by Bicker to request 
a delay, 583 ; appears at New Am- 
sterdam, 587; quoted, 425, 583 

Tienhoven, Cornells (Cornelius) van, 
382, 587, 589; to examine Hudde's 
accounts, 424; copies letter from the 
South River, 426; sent to the South 
River, 662 

Tilly, Count, defeats the Danish King, 

Timber Island, 526 

Tinge, Mr. William, member of the 
Company formed at Boston, 395 

Tinicum Island (New Gothenborg), 
690; Printz locates his res^^ence at, 
305-306; description of, 305; New 
Gothenborg built at, 304-306 ; fire at, 
326; church built on, 366; services 
at, 369; Campanius performs services 
at, 372; Rev. Lock conducts services 
on, 374, 668; seat of Government of 
New Sweden removed to, 455 ; courts 
held at, 461 ff., 510 ff.; Printz de- 
parts from, 466; Mme. Papegoja re- 
moves to, 520-521; value of, 527; 
settlers collected at, to defend settle- 
ment against the Dutch, 602; Dutch 
rob property at, 605; Papegoja stays 
at, on the twelfth expedition, 66i ; 
passengers from twelfth expedition 
landed at, 661 ; Mme. Papegoja al- 
lowed to retain, 663 ; fort at, to be 
garrisoned by 8 or 10 soldiers of the 
Dutch, 664 

Tinnekonck (Tenakongh), 501; land 
bought at, 439 

Tobacco, brought over on first expedi- 
tion, 131; storehouse for, rented, 157; 
introduced into Sweden by Dutch 
sailors, 158; first large cargo brought 
into Sweden, 159; ordinance con- 
cerning, published, 159 ff. ; company 
founded, 159; amount sold, 162; 
profits on, 162-163 ) books concern- 
ing, 158 ; discussions concerning the 
trade of, in the council, 223-223 ; trade 
of, in Sweden, 1643-1653, 289 ff. ; spin- 
ning of, 295-396 ; sale and importa- 
tion of, made free, 296, 297, 298 ; 
shipped from New Sweden, 256; to 
be planted in New Sweden, 308 ; 
raised in New Sweden, 313, 322- 
323; bought in New Sweden, 318, 
330, 516; Printz makes arrangement 
for sending 80,000 lbs. to Gothen- 
burg, 342; bought by most of the 
settlers, 356; land cleared in New 
Sweden to be planted with tobacco, 
526; brought to Sweden on the Mer- 
curius, 635, 662; advantages to be 
derived from a monopoly of the 
trade in, 622; sole right of the im- 
portation of, given to the American 
Company, 622-633 j trade of, by the 
American Co., 637 ff. ; brought to 
Holland by Printz, sold at a loss, 
637; importation of, from Hamburg 
and Amsterdam, 637; smuggling of, 
638; amount sold in 1656, 639; 
amount imported from 1655-1658, 
639; placard concerning the im- 
portation of, published, 640; entire 
trade of, in Sweden placed in the 
hands of the American Tobacco Co., 
641 ; inspectors over the trade of, 
641; privileges to sell, granted to 
individuals, 643; distributed at 
Gothenburg, 643 ; placed on the 
excise list, 644; importation of, in 
the year 1 659-1 660, 644; wholesale 
trade of, assigned to Andersson and 
Bohm, 645 ; excise received from the 
duty on, to be used for various pur- 
poses, 645; see also New Sweden, 
Printz, Rising, expeditions, trade of 
the _ company and Tobacco Com- 

Tobacco Company, first formed, i6i 

Tobacco Company, the Second, discus- 
sions concerning the founding of, 
390; founded, 391; members of, 291; 



officers of, 292 ; new contract made 
by Oxenstierna dissolved, 296 

Tobacco Company, Third, organized, 
298 ; owes the New Sweden Com- 
pany, 281 

Tobacco planters, to be taken to the 
Delaware, 193 ; see also expeditions 
and New Sweden 

Tobacco trade, see tobacco 

Tobaksk\_ompaniet], quoted, 162-163, 
289, 290, 637-639, 641-644 

Toraquncke, riverlet, 209 

Torkillus, Reorus (Rev.), goes on sec- 
ond expedition, 127; ill, 129; arrives 
in New Sweden, 205 ; abused by the 
Dutch, 205; ill, dies, 315, 371; biog- 
raphy, 697 

Torp (Printz), 474, 690; meaning of, 
350; taken by Printz, 350 

Torshalla, tobacco to be sold at, 292 

Torstensson, I^nnart, 7 

Torwig, Torsten, 481 

Tott, Count (whose brother was in 
New Sweden), 693 

Trade, in Sweden, 38 ff. ; see also 

Trade, with Indians, 113, 114; see also 
Indians, New Sweden, Minuit, Rid- 
der, Printz, Rising 

Trading Company (Handelscompag- 
niet), Bonnell sent to England by, 

Trading Company at Riga, 45 

Trading voyage to the Caribbean 
Islands, Kalmar Nyckel prepared for, 
244; buys tobacco at St. Christopher, 
247 ; ship seized in Holland, 247 ; 
cargo of ship sold, 248 

Translations, of foreign works into 
Swedish, 23 

A Treatise on Trade, 694 

"Treaty Papers" (Pub. Rec. Office), 
quoted, 12, 51, 653-656; see also 
State Papers 

Trenton, see Asinpinck Falls 

Treyden, Usselinx at, 62 

Tripp & Co., 87 

Troili, G. K., quoted, 11 

Trost (Trosth), Mattias, member of 
the Tobacco Company, 291, 294 

Trotzig, Jacob, 687; member of First 
Tobacco Company, 161 ; member of 
the Tobacco Company, 291 ; made 
director of the Tobacco Company, 
292; denied that he was a director 
of the Company, 292 

Trotzig, Peter, to be employed in place 
of Blommaert, 156; buys tobacco in 

Holland, 161 ; works for the Com- 
pany without pay, 226 ; acts as the 
Company's factor in Holland, 233 ; 
buys goods for the sixth expedition, 
242 ; purchases brandy and wine for 
the tobacco trade, 244; pays return- 
ing colonists and soldiers, 248 ; re- 
ceives money from Andersson, 253 ; 
prepares a ship for New Sweden, 
254; orders cloth to be made in 
Kampen, 258 ; helps to prepare the 
ninth expedition, 266; aids colonists 
returning from the ninth expedition, 
276 ; buys large quantities of goods 
for a new expedition, 283 ; hires 
tobacco spinner, 295 ; Printz writes 
to, 338; report made to, 616; buys a 
ship, 631-632; reports to the Govern- 
ment about Finnish families, 650- 
651; reports that the English have 
captured the colony, 653 ; biography, 
697; quoted, 49, 254, 255, 258, 281, 
285, 290, 338, 399, 651-652; hand- 
writing of, 285-286 

Trumbull, quoted, 215 

Tunna, Swedish (barrel), 42 n. 

Tunna guld (barrel of gold), value 
of, 41 n. 18 

Tunnland, Swedish, land measure, size 

of, 42. 507 

Turko, see Abo 

Turks, the, Lindestrom reports three 
ships of, approach, 487 ; a great scare 
of, at the time, 493 

Tu[rner], J[oh]n(?), member of the 
Delaware Company, 208 

Turner, Captain Nathaniel, member of 
the Delaware Company, sent to pur- 
chase part of the Delaware, 208 ; 
sails up the Delaware, 208; pur- 
chases land from the Indians, 209; 
Van Dyck sent to, 210; builds a 
block-house and makes other arrange- 
ments for settling, 210-211; buys 
land at the Schuylkill, returns to 
New Haven in the late summer of 
1641, again sets sail for the Dela- 
ware in the spring of 1642, 212; 
sells goods at Christina, 316; the 
testimony of, produced by Lamber- 
ton, 385; arrives at Christina, 389; 
member of the Court in January, 
1644, 461 

Turnips, Ridder requests, 198 

Turtle Kill, a grist mill at the falls 
of, 666 

Turturdufva (The Turtle Dove), see 



Tweedie, Mrs., quoted, 358, 361, 362 
Twelfth Expedition, see expeditions 
Twiller, van, 427 
Tyreso, factory at, 34 


Ulfsby Socken, colonists from, 243 
Unalachtigo, a tribe of the Lenape, 187 
Unami, a tribe of the Lenape, 187. 
Ungdomsvannen, quoted, 647 
United New Netherland Company, see 

New Netherland Company 
University of Abo, founded, 27 
University of Upsala, 678, 682, 686, 
693 ; professors at, recommended to 
present the learning of the world in 
Swedish, 23 ; reorganized, 27 ; Li- 
brary of, founded, 27 
University Library at Upsala, founded, 

University of Dorpat, founded, 27 
Upland, 686; colonist from (in Swe- 
den), 24; blockhouse at, 307; name 
given to, 307; Christer Boije given 
command of blockhouse at, 307; im- 
portant plantation at, 319; see also 
New Sweden 
Uppmark, quoted, 263 
Upsala, division of South-Ship Com- 
pany, directors of, 70; tobacco trade 
in, 642; see also expeditions 
Usquata, Sachem of Narratacus, sells 

land to the English, 209 
" Usselinx and the South Company,'' 

quoted, 54 
Usselinx (Usselincx, Uselincxs, Uisse- 
lincx, Urselincx, Ussling, Usling, 
Wsselinx, Wsselincx, Vsselinx), Wil- 
lem, complains to Oxenstierna, 65 ; 
called into council chamber, 66 ; 
presents his views to the council, 67 ; 
not pleased with the management of 
the company, 68 ; recommends An- 
tony Monnier as director at Gothen- 
burg, 68 ; severs his connections with 
the South Company, leaves Sweden, 
68 ; plans for a new South Company, 
81 ; appointed General Director, 8i ; 
publishes Argonautica Gustaviana, 
81-82; distributes his book, 82; goes 
to Paris, 83 ; proposals for the found- 
ing of a new South Company in 
Holland, 83 ; project for a General 
Commercial Company; his Argo- 
nautica quoted, 82; fails in his en- 
deavors, 87 ; Fleming writes to, 120 ; 
requested to suggest a successor for 

Minuit, 123 ; organizer of the Dutch 
West India Company, 169; probably 
made suggestions to Oxenstierna, 177 ; 
biography, 698; quoted, 31, 54, 59, 
60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 68, 78, loi, 
123, 365, 624; handwriting of, 
Usselinx Manuscripts, quoted, 53, 54 
Utrecht, people in, to found a colony, 

Utrecht Colony, plans for the permis- 
sion of, 135 if.; Fleming in favor of, 
136; charter concerning, 137; 
changes in charter, 137-138; loca- 
tion of colony, 138-139; memorials 
concerning, 138-139; charter of, is- 
sued, 139-140; arrival of colonists in 
New Sweden, 144, 200; disappear- 
ance of the colony, 203 


Valkyrian, quoted, 562 

Van Rensselaer B. Mss., quoted, 106, 
116, 135,172 

Varkens Kill, English colony at, 2io ff. ; 
settlement undisturbed at, 217 ; Printz 
ordered to keep the title to the dis- 
trict of, intact, 303 ; English settled 
at, sell tobacco, 312; English settle- 
ments at, swear allegiance to the 
Swedish Crown, 381; English settlers 
had intimated that Indians and Eng- 
lish would kill the Swedes, 386-387; 
settlers at, confess that they had not 
been driven off, or urged to become 
Swedish subjects, 390; a bark from 
Boston remains near the English 
plantation at, 398 ; English at, prob- 
ably remove before 1647, 399 

Varmland (Varmlands Ian), Stake 
governor of, 126; location of, 126; 
tobacco trade in, 641 

Vasa (Wasa), a blockhouse erected at, 
place in Finland, 328 

Vasteras, colonists to be collected at, 
471-472, 553 

Vastergotland, tobacco trade in, 641 

Vasterick, Gerritt, ship of, 418, 430 

Vastervik (Wasterwik), ropewalk at, 
36; ship to be built at, 123; tobacco 
company has agents at, 292; tobacco 
trade at, 641 

Vastmanland, tobacco trade in, 641 

Vattel, quoted, 573 

Fenedig, Gustav Adolf und Rohan, 
quoted, 9 

Venice, relation with Sweden, 9J 



agents to be sent to, concerning the 
South Company, 68 

Verbruggen, Peter (Pieter), spies the 
Silver Fleet, 194 

Verrazzano, sails by the Delaware, 165 

Vertoogh van N. N., quoted, 400, 408 

Vessels, 80; captured by the English, 
II ff., 299-300; captured by Spain, 
75-76; built at New Elfsborg, one 
of about 200 tons burden, built at 
Christina, 340-341 ; sloop built, 340 ; 
boats built, 320; see also shipbuild- 
ing and ships 

Vesterviksskeppskompani, 48 

Viborg, 692 ; Usselinx visits, 62 ; sub- 
scribes to the American Company, 
624-626 ; see also tobacco trade 

Vigfusson, quoted, 351 

Vignois, Cornelius, n8 

Vikings, probable visits of, to the Dela- 
ware, 165 

Villa Franca, 495 

Vinland Coast, Norsemen at, 165 

Virginia, 97; Lord Delaware visits, 
172; eight men from, sent to explore 
the Delaware, 179; Thomas Young 
at, 179-180; prisoners sent to, 180; 
the Grip arrives at, 185; people in, 
offer to sell cattle to the Swedes on 
the South River, 198; name vaguely 
used, 24s ; merchants from, visit the 
South River during the time of 
Printz, 309, 525 ff. ; messengers sent 
from New Sweden to, 515; see also 
New Sweden, the English 

^'Virginien" (New Sweden), see New 

Virginia Bay, Swedes experience acci- 
dent in, 488 

Virginia Britannia, quoted, 167 

Virginia Company, Baltimore's grant 
carved from, 173 

Virginia River, 569; see also Elk River 

Vischer, G., to hire laborers in Sweden, 

Vischer, Michel, supplies money for 
second expedition, 125 

Visnum, 633 

Vlie (in Holland), Kalmar Nyckel at, 


Vliet, Cornells van, captain on Stock- 
holm's Crown, 74; commander of 
second expedition, 121 ff. ; goes to 
Holland, 122; arrives at Stockholm, 
124; Ridder to follow instructions of, 
127 ; did not do his duty, 128 ; re- 
moved from service, 129, 759 

Vlissingen, 673 

Vogele Sant, location of, 411 

Volckmar, S., 642 

Volger, Melcher, member of the To- 
bacco Company, 291 

Voss, contract for ships made with, by 
Nykoping, 70 

Vowels, Swedish, change of, 25 

Vries, Petersen de, arrives at Swanen- 
dael, 171; visits Fort Nassau, 172; 
carries English prisoners to Virginia, 
i8o; compelled to strike his colors be- 
fore Fort Elfsborg, 305 ; visits New 
Sweden and is cordially received by 
Prince, 314-315; quoted, 135, 171- 
172, 180, 207, 304-305, 315 


Waag, de, see ships 

Wachtmeister, quoted, 49 

Wadmal, meaning of, 352; price of, 

Waeter, Isaac von dem, shares in New 

Sweden Company, 106 
Wahlbeck, made proposals about tobacco 

trade from America, 622 
Wales, 681 
Wall, John, sells goods to the Swedes, 

Walpurgis night, Finns must leave 

Sweden before, 148 
Walter, Hans, 482 
Jfalvis, the, see ships 
Wampum, 113; see sewant 
Wankijff, Nicolaum, 553 
Wappanghzewan, sells lands to the 

Dutch, 445 
Warburg, Karl, quoted, 22, 25-26 
Ward, quoted, 5, 7-8 
Warwick, see ships 
Wasa, see Vasa 
Wasteras, see Vasteras 
Wasterwik, see Vastervik 
Water (Waeter), van der (van de), 

758 ; see Hindrickson 
Watermelons, found in the colony, 353 
Watkin's Point, Lord Baltimore's grant 

bounded by, 172-173 
Watson's Annals, quoted, 171 
Wattsesinge, 209, see Wehenset 
Waxholm (Vaxholm), 641 
Wedhijx, 683 
Wehenset, sachem of Wattsesinge, sells 

lands to the English, 209 
Weinhold, quoted, 361 
Weinschenck, Frans, Minuit lodged 

with, 105 



Weis, Hans, engaged to help prepare 

expeditions, 124, quoted, 124—125 ; 

handwriting, 123 
Weizen, see Taru 
Welshuisen (Welshuysen), Christian, 

director of the South Company, 62, 

Wends, Christina, Queen of, 184 
Werner, Mickel, subscribed to the South 

Company, 60 
Wesel, 684, 685 
Westerwik (Wasterwik), see Vaster- 

Westewiks Company, the Large, 48 
Westewiks Company, the Little, 48 
West Indian Company, in Gothenburg, 

West India Co., Dutch, 675-676, 698 ; 
advanced prices of copper, 88, n8 ; 
organized by Usselinx, 169; neces- 
sary that the, is not informed about 
Utrecht colony, 102, 143 ; Minuit and 
Bloramaert dissatisfied with the man- 
agement of, 94; endeavors to frus- 
trate the Utrecht plan, 142 ; rumors 
that the Swedes in the colony were 
to be transported to Europe on the 
ships of, 143 ; register of Blommaert's 
colony by, 170; difficulties with the 
Swanendael Company arise, 181 ; 
Jan Jansen claims the whole river 
for the, 207 ; Printz instructed about 
his relations to the agents and stock- 
holders of, 404-405 ; the private 
traders having commission from, to 
trade in the Delaware, 407; Printz 
jokes with the possessions of, 416; 
Stuyvesant complains to the directors 
of, 427 ; Schlechtenhorst reported to 
be unfavorably inclined toward the 
Company, 431; Stuyvesant inquires 
what hope there is to maintain the 
rights of, 433 ; Dutch colonists re- 
ported by Printz to have no aid from, 
447; Stuyvesant writes to directors 
of, 448-450; Stuyvesant reports the 
capture of Fort Casimir to the direc- 
tors of the, 587; goods on the Haj 
to be sold or placed in the warehouse 
of the, 589; the Haj remains in the 
possession of, 590; the directors of, 
said to have in mind to send 200 
soldiers to the South River, 591 ; the 
directors of, determine to re-capture 
Fort Casimir and the whole South 
River, 591-592 ; directors of, receive 
information of the preparation for 
the twelfth expedition, 593 ; materials 

at Fort Casimir belonging to the, 
6oi ; matter concerning the damages 
demanded by Sweden, referred to 
the, 648, 652 ; compelled to surrender 
part of the South River to the city of 
Amsterdam, 663 ; directors of, do not 
approve of appointing Swedish offi- 
cers, 665 

West India Company, quoted, 214 

West Indies, copper trade to, 87-88 ff. ; 
ships to be sent to, in; trade from 
New Sweden to, 139 

Westling, quoted, 29, 31 

Westman, Herman, subscribed to the 
South Company, 61 

Westrin, Dr. Theodor, quoted, 53, 75 

Westphalian Treaty, 20 

West- und Ost-lndische Lustgart, 
quoted, 549 

Weymouth, Swedes at, 485 

Whale fishery, Printz instructed to be- 
gin, 320 

Whitelocke, embassy of, to Sweden, I2, 
621 ; " Depery," inquiries concerning 
the Embassy of, 485 ; concludes treaty 
of friendship with Sweden, 621 ; 
quoted, II, 12, 30, 32, 34, 39, 40, 107, 
371, 621 ; biography, 698 ; handwrit- 
ing of, 623 

White Minquas, identification of, 188 ; 
name given to, by the Swedes, 188 ; 
fur trade comes from, 342 ; killing of 
the river Indians would give an un- 
molested trade to, 377 

White, Philip, Plowden buys bark 
from, 381 

Whiting, William, sells goods in New 
Sweden, 318; spelling of name of, 
318, 323, 324; sells rye, 327, 333 

Whitschut( ?), Jurian, sells goods in 
New Sweden, 324 

Wicacoa (Wicaco, Wychquahoyngh, 
Wichquacoingh, Wigquakoing) , 
Printz buys land from, 332; Dutch 
buy land at, 412; English buy land 
at, 211 
Wickusi (Wichusi, Wickusy, Wischusi), 
Indian chief, sells lands to the 
Swedes, 201 ; sends messenger to the 
Swedes, 210, 385 

W[ieselgren], H[arald], quoted, 555 

Wighco, River, near the Chesapeake, 

Wieselgren, Per, see De la Gar. Arch. 
Wilcox, John, comes from Virginia 
with a cargo, 309, 310; brings new 
cargo to the settlement, 325, 333 

Willemsen, Herman, mate, 759 



Willemsen, Steffen, 760 

Willemsen, Theunis, " left over from 
the Swanendael," 171 

Willet, 6io 

Willet, David, 118 

Window-panes, made at Bergkvarna, 
34; Ridder requests, 198; sent to New 
Sweden, 259, 348 

Wine, made in the colony from grapes, 
355; Spanish, supplied to the ill 
people, 315; French, brought to the 
colony, 317; see also expeditions and 
New Sweden 

Winslow, E., Eaton writes to, 402-403 ; 
Court of Massachusetts writes to, 403 

Winsor, Justin, quoted, 96, 112, 117, 
135, 139, 165. 174-175. 179, 212, 30s, 
382, 392, 394, 400, 608, 629 

Winthrop, John, governor, writes to 
Gov. Printz, 389; acknowledges re- 
ceipt of, 390; corrections made to 
letters of, 391 ; opinions of the 
Swedes, 397-398; copies of letters 
and documents sent to, 461 ; quoted, 
203, 2o8-2n, 326, 381, 384, 388-391, 
393-401, 573 

Wisbeck, Johan, see Fischbeck 

Wismar, see ships 

Wismar, 75, 682 

Wissemenetto, sells land to the Dutch, 

Wissman, Baltzar, 289; member of the 
Tobacco Company, 291 ; writes to 
Fleming, 290; remains member of 
the company in 1647, buys large 
quantities of tobacco, 296; quoted